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,^) i 



T^vy/^-^'"'-'. ^^ - CHARLES R. LANMAN, 
"tl^r £1^^^^£^^^ — ^ CAMBRIDGE,.-, MASS. 

i ; 

rr/u^' /f^^^c /oirjxC^-^i^^^^ ^^-^^J /^ 

: ^ ^^^i^/A'y a^.t.^y^ -^rK^a- ^^r-i^^y a-^ ^<?/ I /^ 

(I I ' ' ' 



•/2.^ l-^ri..^^ ^iC* /TiC 





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fc>y»*-<^ /Ca-^ie*. ,^^ ^'f>-/' 






Wales Professor of Sanskrit in Harvard University 

Vol. VII 





PaUk'lioa Agcnl ol llamid Uninnilj. 
, .Sah FaANCUco Gins ft Coaipujr. 

9 Si. Miilin'i Sifcci. Imciio Squai*. 
QucrmtiUM 14. 

■a'^'olumn VII. and VI tl. an not ••■li) ■rpaiald]'. A co[i)r of the 1*0 (■•lane*, poiira|[* 
paid, may Iw oUairicd dirccll]' anjahere within ihc limili of the L'nitciul roilil Uniim. bjr 
■ending a I'tnlil (tril«f fui Ihr piicc ai pi'tn below, to T%i PuUKabtm Afft ff lUrx^tJ 
Umafittt, CimittJ/:r, MjifukHHlli. UmltJ Sum ef Ainu*. 

The piite u( ihi« work (lwin|C (he two volumci VII. ami VIII. tA the lluvatd Oiienul 
Scrie*, lake* (os*(hei) ii five doilan (f 5 oo>. According to ibe coniefaion laMn a*cd in the 
United Slain inaii«]r.nrdcr *plem ai ihe ba*i« o{ Inlcritational monrjr order*, live dollin 
(|joo) = io«hillingi and 7 pence = 10 matki and 91 pfennig* t=ij fr ann m lire am) rj cealinca 
= 18 kroner and J9 »ie= tl lloiini and 35 cenli, Nelhcilandith. 




With a Critical and Exegetical Commentary 



Late Professor of Sanskrit in YaU University ^ Knight of the Royal Prussian Order Pour U 
Merite^ Corresponding Member of tlie Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences, of the 
Institute of France, and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, Foreign 
Member of the Royal Academy dei Lincei of Rome, Honorary Member 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, of the Royal Asiatic Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland^ and of the German Oriental 
Society t etc., Editor-in-Chief of The Century 
Dictionary, ah Encyclopedic Lexi- 
con of the English Language 





Introduction. Books I to VII 

Pagdi i-clxii and i''470 



1 90s 



CorY RIGHT, 1904 

By harvard university 

The compotition, elect rotyping. prettwork. and iNmlinK of 
this work were done b)r Mtatrs. Ginn & Company, at 

QTbr fltbrAamm prtff 


The paper for this work was made by Messrs. S. D. 
Warren & Cumpany. of Boston. Mass^ U. S. A-, at 

(E^t CnmbcrliU /Rilli 

First edition, fiitt issue. 1905. One thousand copies 


jAN2 2Wf« 





















Plates, one in each volume of this work 

Portrait of Whitney, facing page xliii 

Facsimile of Kashmirian text, birch-bark leaf 187 a, just before page 471 

Prefatory and biographical and related matter xvii-lxi 

Paragraphs in lieu of a preface by Whitney xvii-xxi 

Announcement of this work ' xvii 

Statement of its plan and scope and design xviii 

The purpose and limitations and method of the translation xix 

Editor's preface xxiii-xlii 

Whitney^s labors on the Atharva-Veda xxiii 

The edition of the text or the ** First volume " xxiii 

Relation of this work to the " First volume " xxiv 

And to this Series xxiv 

External form of this work xxiv 

Its general scope as determined by previous promise and fulfilment . . xxv 

Of the critical notes in particular xxvi 

Scope of the work as transcending previous promise xxvii 

Evolution of the style of the work xxvii 

Partial rewriting and revision by Whitney xxvii 

Picking up the broken threads xxviii 

Relation of the editor's work to that of the author xxviii 

Parts for which the author is not responsible xxviii 

The General Introduction, Part I. : by the editor xxix 

The same, Part II.: elaborated in part from the author's material . . . xxix 

The editor's special introductions to the eighteen books, ii.-xix xxx 

The special introductions to the hymns : additions by the editor . . . xxx 
His bibliography of previous translations and discussions : contained in 

The paragraphs beginning with the word " Translated " xxx 

Added special introductions to the hymns of book xviii. etc xxxi 

Other editorial additions at the beginning and end of hymns .... xxxii 

Other additions of considerable extent xxxii 

The seven tables appended to the latter volume of this work .... xxxii 

Unmarked minor additions and other minor changes xxxiii 

The marked minor additions and other minor changes xxxiv 

The revision of the author's manuscript. Verification xxxiv 

Accentuation of Sanskrit words xxxv 

Cross-references xxxv 

Orthography of Anglicized proper names xxxv 

Editorial short-comings and the chances of error xxxv 


X Contents of Prefatory and Related Matter 


The biographical and related matter xxxvi 

General significance of Whitney's work xxxvii 

Need of a systematic commentary on the Rig- Veda xxx%ni 

The Century Dictionary of the English Language xxxviit 

Acknowledgments xxxviii 

Human personality and the progress of science xl 

The same in English verse and in Sanskrit verse xli-xlii 

Biographical and related natter xliii-lxi 

Brief sketch of \Vhitney*s life : by the editor sliii 

Estimate of Whitney's character and services: by the editor .... xlvii 

Select Ibt of Whitney's writings: by Whitncjr^. Iri 

General Introduction, Part I. : by the editor Ixiii-cvii 

Gtatral PrtmisM ~ UiH-lxiv 

Scope of this Tart of the Introduction Uciii 

Scope of the reports of the variant readings Ixiii 

The term *' manuscripts ** often used loosely for ** authorities** . . . Ixiv 

Which authorities are both manuscripts and oral reciters Uiv 

DifBculty of verifying statements as to authorities Uiv 

I. Readings of Saroptan manoscriptj of the Vvlgate recension Ixiv-lxv 

Reports include mss, collated, some before, and some after publication . Ixtv 

Interpretation of the records of the Collation- IU>ok Ixv 

1. Readings of Indian mannscriptj of Xh» Vnlgate Ixvi 

liy *' Indian mss/' are meant tho;^ used by S. I'. Pandit Ixvi 

His re|>ort.% not exhaustive Ixvi 

3. Readings of Indian oral reciters of the Vnlgate Ix\'i-lxvii 

By ** Indian oral reciters " are meant those employed by S. P. Pandit . Ixvi 

Errors of the eye checked by oral reciters Ixvi 

4. Readings of the Hindu commentator Ixvii-Ixviii 

The critical value and the range of his variant readings Ixvii 

Excarsui: Was he identical with Sly an a of the Rig-Veda? Ixviii 

5. Readings of the Pada-pitha Ixix-lxx 

Reported in Index Verborum, and since published in full Ixix 

Illustrations of its deficiencies Ixix 

In verb-compounds and various other combinations Ixix-lxx 

6. The PrAti^ikhya and its commentary Ixx-lxxi 

Character of Whitney's editions of the Pr&ti^lkhyas Ixx 

Their bearing upon the orthography and criticism of the text .... Ixx 

Utilization of the Atharvan PrAti^lkhya for the present work .... Ixxi 

7. The Anukraraanis: «< Old" and •* Major" Izxi-lxxtv 

More than one Anukramani extant Ixxi 

The raftcapalalikA or " Old Anukr.** or " Quoted Anukr." Ixxi 

Manuscripts thereof Ixxii 

The Hrhatsarvlnukramani or ** Major Anukr.** Ixxii 

Manuscripts thereof Ixxii 

Text-critical value of the Anukramanis Ixxiii 

The author of the Major Anukr. as a critic of meters Ixxiii 

His statements as to the seers of the hymns (quasi -authorship) . . . Ixxiv 



January 23i, lv;:^0 lly doar Llisa 

^^ For jour moat kind isnd valued letter of 
pt mj Eoet hearty thanl^a. I an very sorry t 

a bad knee. ^or many ye«aro I have hfid to 
ctlons. 2ut Tith no, for Iho most part it h 
tea mis^res de l-"- vie, Ahilo with you, I fe 

more than that. I did hav'> 7. or. A vverke 
atica; several years e.'ro, iut happily, no 

l^ut this mornin? I Trrnt you •:nd yoTir ^^1 
hare d;. joy in the reeling of the letter from 
eil3 tiLout th' ir ;hitncy Llub- '.nd.I ?:ncl03 
h I 3ha li>c tc h*i.V': yori rr-turn in du? courb' 
r. I.on.-^ mtOre:: nr^dlT^:.. lurthcr conment Af on 

T 7;i*oh you v.ov'.ll tell .our ^.-istrr r^t Va 
xtrrriaol: sorry I :id not he^ir of ycun*^ *. .T.V 
.ore :.?o uiebrf^*). I r^hoiala h^ve li!:':^ i .olv'-r' 

-III. .. . K: 1 - •_!. 'i»: -U- ^ U i. Fi «jIi» -Uvi -l r.i.O'iJ. 

ris T'-^^jly to ir: invit^ition holot^ ou*^ no pro::] 

rf- > i G u e c.r tur :; o r '.no r d— *r o ■>- v^-h i •• »". x" - r^ 

VtJ^ln^^rSJL: vinit to :;••:. to confer v;ith IlT. J 

n;: ri^to i 3hall not Tail to call ':;.on hlm(^;*' 

Chi 9 recalls, to my mind ffomethinfr of v.h: 
t your father's Veda ?:a3 ouclisht, I har. foui 
i, one for your r.other, one for your nunt Va 
one for your ncphcv .. illian. In this luut 
autifully printed inset vith th" ^ords: ''The 
•or to .'iliiMn ^'ht ..hltney. . .^3on of "dvvard 
•pha IleTTcorat .ihitnoy , . . .for hi*: ti k^^cp .fr:ilnF 
tand the I'i.^nif ic^nce in the iinnalc of Aineric 
• *-h^:t ho bears." 

I an //onderinrr -whether by r.ohir- foT'Tet'lMl 
i£R was then only -ibout «ixL the volumes wer^ 
5e in l]^?j York, r>o th*it hiy parent,^ 'ml youn: 
'h^ tir.e "r;h':n the boy ••ould b" old ^nourh to 1 
•itrfcl:: entirely v;i,TLie, VrA2 rni-rht of course 
'3tlll a^aitinT thnt tir:.o in :vjrie uI' in th-: 
^'hnrch Street, I chouli be rno^'t ^r'iteful if 
•^.0 ~cun.T m:in. 

*t the y.':-r.orial \d"lr^v-ss there verr- (for 
' of Pa^' f.niily) all the children isi:-:) i.nd the 
ay in all, the tvin ^raadoona bcin-r of cour 
dv.uThtor, faith, lirs. I)r. Mine, of 3er>^ley, 
I hor vVol-- f-iHiily fro:n C^illfornia, vni it ha 
*'' ^e hf}Q ell b^':n together, '.nd -ve first met 
ttr -uyrroon, cd not I'^av" the 'i03:)ttal eurll 

/ith all Vindost vlnhes for y'::ur r^^llef 
iful), ond b'^st renerabrrinces to *^11 of your h 


'^ •'^*'->T8-^,C,r 

Contents of Gefteral Introduction^ Part I. 



8. The Kaupika-Sutra and the Yiitina-Sutra . Ixxiv-Ixxix 

The work of Garbe and Bloorafield and Caland Ixxiv 

Bearing of Sutras upon criticism of structure and text of Samhita . . Ixxv 

Grouping of mantra-material in Sutra and in Samhita compared . . Ixxv 

Many difficulties of the Kauqika yet unsolved Ixxvi 

Value of the Sutras for the exegesis of the Samhita Ixxvii 

Kaugika no good warrant for dogmatism in the exegesis of SaihhitzL . Ixxvii 

Integer vitae as a Christian funeral-hymn Ixxviii 

Secondary adaptation of mantras to incongruous ritual uses .... Ixxviii 

g. Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada recension Ixxix-lxxxix 

Its general relations to the Vulgate or ^aunakan recension .... Ixxix 

The unique birch-bark manuscript thereof (perhaps about A. D. 1519) . Ixxx 

Roth's Kashmirian nagari transcript (Nov. 1874) Ixxxi 

Arrival (1876) of the birch-bark original at Tubingen Ixxxi 

Roth's Collation (June, 1884) of the Paippalada text Ixxxi 

Roth's autograph nagari transcript (Dec. 1884) Ixxxii 

The facsimile of the birch-bark original (190 1 ) Ixxxii 

Roth's Collation not exhaustive Ixxxiii 

Faults of the birch-bark manuscript *s ■ . Ixxxiii ^ 

Collation not controlled by constant reference to the birch-bark ms. . Ixxxiv 

Such reference would have ruined the birch-bark ms . Ixxxiv 

Care taken in the use of Roth*s Collation. Word-division .... Ixxxv 

Kashmirian readings not controlled directly from the facsimile . . . Ixxxv 

Provisional means for such control : the Concordance (pages loi 8-1023) Ixxxv 

Excursus: The requirements for an edition of the Paippalada: . . . Ixxxvi 

1 . A rigorously precise transliteration Ixxxvii 

2. Marginal references to the Vulgate parallels Ixxxvii 

3. Index of Vulgate verses thus noted on the margin Ixxxvii 

4. Accessory material : conjectures, notes, translations Ixxxviii 

10. Readings of the parallel texts Ixxxix-xci* 

The texts whose readings are reported Ixxxix 

The method of reporting aims at the utmost accuracy Ixxxix 

Completeness of the reports far from absolute xc 

Reports presented in well-digested form xc 

11. Whitney's Commentary : further discussion of its critical elements . . xci-xciii 

Comprehensiveness of its array of parallels xci 

Criticism of specific readings xci 

Illustrations of classes of text-errors ' 1 1 1 xcirf- 

Auditory errors. Surd and sonant. Twin consonants xcii 

Visual errors. Haplography xciii 

Metrical faults. Hypermetric glosses, and so forth xciii 

Blend-readings xciii 

12. Whitney's Translation and the interpretative elements of the Commentary xciv-xcix 

The translation : gener«il principles governing the method thereof . ' . xciv 

The translation not primarily an interpretation, but a literal version . xciv 

A literal version as against a literary one xciv 

Interpretative elements: captions of the hymns xcv 

f - xc<' 

cf. I^t^u- 

xii ConUnis of Gctural Iniroduciiou, Pari L 


IntcrprctAlions by Whitney xcv 

Exr|;clic."il notes contribtiicd by Koth xcvi 

Thr translAtion Has (or its underlyini; text that of the Ikrlin edition . . xc\i 

Thi« is the (art even in cases o( corrigible corruptions xrvi 

Ca%c« of flrparturc from the text of the Ikrlin edition xcvii 

Whitney's growing skepticism and rorres|>ondin|;ly rigid literalness . xrvii 

poetic elexatiun and humor xcxiii 

13. AbbreTUtions and sifnt explained .... xcix-cvi 

General scope of the li.<it : it includes not only xc ix 

The downright or most arbitrary abbreviations, but also xtix 

The abbreviated designations of lKx>ks and articles xiix 

Explanation of arbitrary signs : 

Parentheses; Mpi.ire brackets c 

Kll-brackets ( L J ) ; hand (IKiy*) c 

Small circle; Italic colon; Clarendon letters, a, b, c, etc c 

Alphal>etic list of abbreviations c 

14. Tabular Tlew of translations and natiTe oorameot cvi-cvii 

Previous tr.inslations. — Native comment cvi 

Chronologic sequence of previous translations and discussions .... cvii 

General iNTRonucrioN, Part II. . rARtLv from WiiirNEv's material cix-clxi 

Gtotral Premises cix 

Contents of this Part cix 

Authorsliip of this Part cix 

I. DMcription of the manaacripts used by Whitney cix-cxvi 

The brief designations of his manuscripts (stgia codicum) cix 

Synoptic table of the manuscripts used by him ex 

Table of the Kerlin manuscripts of the Atharva-Veda ex 

Whitney's critical description of his manuscripts: 

Manuscripts used bifore publication of the text (li P. M. W. E. \ \\.\ Bp. Bp.') rxi 

Manuscripts c(»llated after publication of the text (O. K. T. K. ; Op. D. Kp. ) cxiv 

1. Tho stanta faih do derir abhistajre as opening tianxa cxvi-cxvii 

As initial stanza of the text in the Kashmirian recension cx\i 

As initial st.inza of the N'ulgate text cx\i 

3. Whitney's Collation-Book and hia collations cxvii-cxix 

Description of the two volum'-s that form the Collation- Ik>ok .... cxvii 

Whitney's fundamental transcript of the text cxxii 

Collations made l>efore publication of the text cxviii 

The Berlin collations cxviii 

The Paris and Oxford and London collations cxviii 

Collations m.ide after publication (made in 1875 or later) cxviii 

Haug. Koth. *r.injore. Decern, and Bikaner mss cxviii 

Other contents of the Collation Book cxviii 

4« Repeated reisea in the manutaipts cxix-cxx 

Abbreviated by pratika with addition of ity ek4 etc cxix 

List of repeated verses or verse grouj>s cxix 

Further details concerning the pratika and the addition cxix 

Contents of General Introduction^ Part II. 

• •• 



5. Refrains and the like in the manuscripts cxx-cxxi 

Written out in full only in first and last verse of a sequence .... cxx 

Treated by the AnukramanT as if unabbreviated cxx 

Usage of the editions in respect of such abbreviated passages . . . cxxi 

6. Marks of accentuation in the manuscripts cxxi-cxxiii 

Berlin edition uses the Rig-Veda method of marking accents ... , cxxi 

Dots for lines as accent-marks cxxi 

Marks for the independent svarita cxxii 

Horizontal stroke for svarita cxxii 

Udatta marked by vertical stroke above, as in MaitrayanI .... cxxii 

Accent-marks in the Bombay edition cxxii 

Use of a circle as avagraha-sign cxxii 

7. Orthographic method pursued in the Berlin edition cxxiii-cxxvi 

Founded on the usage of the mss., but controlled by the Prati9akhya . cxxiii 

That treatise an authority only to a certain point cxxiii 

Its failure to discriminate between rules of wholly different value . . cxxiii 

Items of conformity to the Pratiqakhya and of departure therefrom . cxxiv 

Transition-sounds : as in tan-t-sarvan cxxiv 

Final -n before 9- and j- : as in pa^yafl janmani cxxiv 

Final -n before c- : as in yan^ ca cxxiv 

Final -n before t- : as in tans te cxxiv 

Final -t before 9- : as in asmac charavah cxxv 

Abbreviation of consonant groups : as in paiikti cxxv 

Final -m and -n before 1- : as in kan lokam cxxv 

Visarga before st- and the like : as in ripu stenah cxxvi 

The kampa-figures i and 3 cxxvi 

The method of marking the accent cxxvi 

8. Metrical form of the Atharyan Samhitft cxxvi>cxxvii 

Predominance of anustubh stanzas cxxvi 

Extreme irregularity of the metrical form cxxvii 

Apparent wantonness in the alteration of Rig-Veda material . . . cxxvii 

To emend this irregularity into regularity is not licit cxxvii 

9. Divisions of the text cxxvii-cxl 

Summary of the various divisions cxxvii 

The first and second and third ** grand divisions" cxxvii 

1. The (unimportant) division into prapilthakas or 'lectures' . . . cxxviii 

Their number and distribution and extent cxxviii 

Their relation to the anuvaka-divisions cxxviii 

2. The (fundamental) division into kandas or * books * cxxix 

3. The division into anuvakas or * recitations' cxxix 

Their number, and distribution over books and grand divisions . . cxxix 

Their relation to the hymn-divisions in books xiii.-xviii cxxx 

4. The division into suktas or * hymns ' .' cxxxi 

The hymn-divisions not everywhere of equal value cxxxi 

5. The division into rcas or * vfe^s * cxxxi 

6. Subdivisions of f QU^ : avasanas, padas, and so forth .... cxxxii 



xiv Conicnis of Gaural Inirotiuciion^ Part IL 

Numeration of successive verses in the mss. csxxU 

Grotipings of successive verses into units requiring special mention : . . cxxsii 

Dccadsuktas or *decad hymns* cxxxii 

Arthasuktas or * sense-hymns* cxxxiii 

rarydyasiiktas or * period-hymns' cxxxiii 

Differences of the Ikrlin and Ik>mhay numerations in books vii. and xix. . cxxxiv 

Differences of hymn-numeration in the paryAya-books cxxxiv 

Whitney's criticism of the numl>ering of the llombay edition cxxxvi 

Sugj^rstion of a preferable method of numbering and citing cxxxvi 

Differences of verse-numeration cxxxvii 

Summations of hymns and verses at end of divisions cxxxviii 

7'he summations quoted from the PaAcapatahkA cxxxviii 

Indication of extent of divisions by reference to an assumed norm . . . cxxxviii 

Tables of verse-norms aMumcd by the Pancapataliki cxxxix 

The three ** grand divisions *' are recognixed by the raflcapatalik& . . . cxxxix 

10. Extent sod structure of the Athsm-Veds SsihhitA cxl-clxi 

Limits of the original collection cxI 

Ikmks xix. and xx. are later achlitions cxii 

The two broadest principles of arrangement of l>ooks i.-xviii. : .... cxiii 

I. MiscelUneity or unity of subject and 2. length of hymn cxIii 

1 he three grand divisions (1., II., HI.) as based on those principles . . cxIii 
The order of the three gr.iiid divisions cxIii 

Trincipjes of arrangement of lK>oks within the grand division : cxHi 

1. length of the hymns for each of the several books cxiiii 

2. Ttic amount of text in each l>uok. Table cxiiii 

Arrangement of the hymns within any given txx>k cxiiii 

Distfibution of hymns according to length in divisions I. and II. and III. cxivi 

Tables (I and 2 and 3) for those divisions (see pages cxliv-cxlv) . . . cxIvi 

(.Grouping of hymns of tx>ok xix. according to length cxlvi 

Talile (numl)cr 4) for l>ook xix cxivii 

Summary of the four tables. Table number 5 cxivii 

Kxtcnt of AV. SamhitA about one half of that of RV cxivii 

First grsod division (l>ooks i.-vii.): short hymns of miscellaneous subjects cxlvti 

K\i<icncc of fact as to the existence of the verse-norms cxlviii 

Kxprr\s testimony of tx>th Anukramanis as to the verse-norms .... cxlviii 

One vervr is the norm for liook vii cxiix 

Arrangement of books within the division : 

I. With reference to the normal length of the hymns cxlix 

Excurfuf: on hymn xix. 23. Homage to parts of the Atharva-Vcda . . cl 

Kxccptional character of book vii cli 

lkK)k vii. a tMK>k of after gleanings supplementing books i.-vi clii 

2 Arrangement of Uwks with reference to amount of text clii 

R<5^ullM5 of conclusions as to the arrangement of books i.-vit clii 

Dcp.iftiircs from the norms by excess diii 

Criti* .il significance of those departures diii 

Illustrative examples of critical re<lu( tion to the norm diii 

ArT.-ingeincnt of the hymns within any given book of thb division . . div 

Contents of the Main Body of this Work xv 


Second grand division (books viii.-xii.): long hymns of miscellaneous subjects civ 

Their hieratic character : mingled prose passages civ 

Table of verse-totals foi: the hymns of division II clvi 

General make-up of the material of this division clvi 

Order of books within the division : negative or insignificant conclusions . . clvii 

Order of hymns within any given book of this division clvii 

Possil^le reference to this division in hymn xix. 23 clvii 

Third grand division (books xiii.-xviii.): books showing unity of subject . . clviii 

Division III. represented in PaippaLlda by a single book, book xviii. . . . clix 

Names of the books of this division as given by hymn xix. 23 clix 

Order of books within the division clix 

Table of verse-totals for the hymns of division III clix 

Order of hymns within any given book of this division clx 

The hymn-divisions of books xiii.-xviii. and their value clx 

Cross-references to explanation of abbreviations and so forth clxii 

To explanation of abbreviations (pages xcix-cvi) clxii 

To explanation of abbreviated titles (pages xcix-cvi) clxii 

To explanation of arbitrary signs (page c) clxii 

To key to the designations of the manuscripts (pages cix-cx) clxii 

To synoptic tables of the manuscripts (pages cx-cxi) clxii 

To descriptions of the manuscripts (pages cxi-cxvi) clxii 

To table of titles of hymns (volume VII I., pages 1024-1037) clxii 

The Atharva-Veda Samhita: Translation and Notes . . . 1-1009 

I. First Grand Division. — Books I.- VII 1-470 

Seven books of short hymns of miscellaneous subjects 
[For table of the titles of the 433 hymns, see p. 1024] 

[Volume VII. ends here with book vii.] 

[Volume VIII. begins here with book viii.] 

a. Second Grand Division. — Books VIII.-XII 471-707 

Five books of long hymns of miscellaneous subjects 
[For table of the titles of the 45 hymns, see p. 1034] 

3. Third Grand Division. — Books XIII.-XVIII 708-894 

Six books of long hymns, the books showing unity of subject 

[For table of the titles of the 15 hymns, see p. 1035] 

Book xiii. : hymns to the Ruddy Sun or Rohita (seer: Brahman) . . 708-737 

Book xiv. : wedding verses (seer: SavitrT Siirya) 738-768 

Book XV. : the Vratya (seer : — ) 769-79 1 

Book xvi. : Parilta (seer : Prajapati .?) 792-804 

Book xvii.: prayer to the Sun as Indra and as Vishnu (seer: Brahman) 805-812 

Book xviii. : funeral verses (seer: Atharvan) 813-894 

4. Supplement — Book XIX 895-1009 

After-gleanings, chiefly from the traditional sources of division I. 
[For table of the titles of the 72 hymns, see p. 1036] 

Paippalada excerpts concerning book xx 1009 

xvi Conicnis of Appended Auxiliary Maiicr 

Ini»i:\k.s ani> ofiikr Atfxii.iARv MArriiR 1011-1046 

I. The oon-metrioil paiMfet of the AthAfTan Samhitl 

Tatmlar list 

a. Hymns if oored bj the Kiu^iJu-S&tra 101 1- 

Tatmlar li^l 

3. The two methods of dtioK the Klu^ilcs-S&tra 

Tal»ular concordance 

4. The discrepant hjmn-numbers of the Berlin and Bombay editions . . . 

Tabular concordance 

5- Piippalida passafes correspondinf to passafes of the Vulfatt . . . . 1013- 

Trimary use of the tahlc, its genesis and character 

Incidental uses of the tal»le 

Vulgate ^rand division III. and IMippal.lda )>oolc xviit 

Conspectus of the contents of TAippalAda lx>ok xviii 

KxpUnation of the tahl** 

Manner of usiny; the table 

Tabular concordance 1017- 

6. Whitney's Enflish captions to his hymn-translations 1024- 

They form an important element in his interpretation of this Veda 
In tabular form, they j;ive a useful conspectus of its subject-matter 

Tal>lc of hymn titles of Division I., lMH)ks i.-vit I024- 

[ ^^(<^p-K'^|> '- tli<^ division of this woric into two separately bound volumes] 

Table of h\inn-titles of Divisitm 1 1, l>ooks viii.-xii 

Table of h\mn titles of Division III., l>ooks xiii. -xviii 

Table of h\mn-titlcs of the Supplement, bcMik xix 1036- 

7. The names of the seers of the hymns 1038- 

Whitney's exploitation of the Major Anukramani 

Doubtful [>oints 

lintire tKx>ks (>f division III. a.scril)ed each to a single seer .... 

Value of these ascriptions of rpiasiauthorship 

rri»minenre of Atharvan and Brahman as .seers 

Hymns of Atharvan and hymns of Augiras: possible contrast . . . 

Consistency in the as< riptions 

I'alpably f.ibtit .ited ascriptions 

AlphalM'tical imlex of seer-names and of p.ossages ascril>cd to them 1040- 

8. Brief index of names and thincs and words and places 1042 

An elaborate index uncalled for here 

AlphalN'tii al list of namrs and things 

Alphal)etit al list of Sanskrit %iords 

List of AV. passages 

Q. Additions and corrections 1044 

Omissions and errors not easy to rectify in the electrotype plates . . 
















[^Announcement of this work. — The following paragmphs from the pen of Professor 
Whitney, under the title, " Announcement as to a second volume of the Roth-Whitney 
edition of the Atharva-Veda," appeared about two years before Mr. Whitney's death, in 
the Proceedings for April, 1892, appended to the Journal of the American Oriental 
Society^ volume xv., pages clxxi-clxxiii. They show the way in which the labor done 
by Roth and Whitney upon the Atharva-Veda was divided between those two scholars. 
Moreover, tliey state briefly and clearly the main purpose of Whitney's commentary, 
which is, to give for the text of this Veda the various readings of both Hindu and 
European authorities (living or manuscript), and the variants of the Kashmirian or 
Paippalada recension and of the corresponding passages of other Vedic texts, together 
with references to, or excerpts from, the ancillary works on meter, ritual, exegesis, etc. 
They are significant as showing that in Mr. Whitney's mind the translation was entirely 
subordinate to the critical notes. Most significant of all — the last sentence makes a j 
clear disclaimer of finality for this work by speaking of it as " material that is to help J 
toward the study and final comprehension of this Veda." — C. R. L.J • 

When, in i855-6,the text of the Atharva-Veda was published 
by Professor Roth and myself, it was styled a "first volume," 
and a second volume, of notes, indexes, etc., was promised. The 
promise was made in good faith, and with every intention of 
prompt fulfilment; but circumstances have deferred the latter, 
even till now. The bulk of the work was to have fallen to Pro- 
fessor Roth, not only because the bulk of the work on the first 
volume had fallen to me, but also because his superior learning 
and ability pointed him out as the one to undertake it It was 
his absorption in the great labor of the Petersburg Lexicon that 
for a long series of years kept his hands from the Atharva-Veda — 
except so far as his working up of its material, and definition of 
its vocabulary, was a help of the first order toward the understand- 
ing of it, a kind of fragmentary translation. He has also made 
important contributions of other kinds to its elucidation: most of 
all, by his incitement to inquiry after an Atharva-Veda in Cash- 
mere, and the resulting discovery of the so-called Paippalada text, 
now well known to all Vedic scholars as one of the most important 
finds in Sanskrit literature of the last half-century, and of which 


xviii Paragraphs in lieu of a Preface by Whitney 

the credit lx*Iongs in a jxrculiar manner to him. I have also done 
something in the same direction, by publisliing in the Society's 
Journal in 1862 (Journal, vol. vii.) the Atharva-Vcda Pratiijakhya, 
text, translation, notes, etc.; and in 1881 Ljournal, vol. xii.J the 
Index Verborum — which latter afforded me the o|>jx)rtunity to 
give the /^//^n-readings complete, and to re|K)rt in a general way 
the corrections made by us in the text at the time of its first issue. 
There may be mentioned also the index of pratikas, which was 
published by Weber in his ludische Siudien, vol. iv.. in 1857. from 
the slips written by me, although another (Professor Ludwig) had 
the tedious labor of preparing them for the press. 

I have never lost from view the completion of the plan of pub- 
lication as originally formed. In 1875 ' s|)ent the summer in 
Germany, chiefly engaged in further collating, at Munich and at 
Tubingen, the additional manuscript material which had come to 
Euro|)c since our text was printed; and I should probably have 
soon taken up the work seriously save for having been engaged 
while in Gennany to prepare a Sanskrit grammar, which fully 
occupied the leisure of several following years. At last, in 1885-6, 
I had fairly started upon the execution of the plan, when failure 
of health reduced my working capacity to a minimum, and rendered 
ultimate success very c|uestionable. The task, however, has never 
been laid wholly aside, and it is now so far advanced that, barring 
further loss of power, I may hojK' to finish it in a couple of years 
or so; and it is therefore projxrr and desirable that a public 
announce men t be made of my intention. '^^^^^ ' 

[Statement of its plan and scope and design. J — My plan includes, in 
the first placx\ critical notes u|)on the text, gi\ing the x'arious 
readings ol the manuscripts, and not alone of those collated by 
myself in HurojK, but also of the apparatus used by Mr. Shankar 
Pandurang Pandit in the great edition with commentary (except 
certain |Kirts, of which the commentary has not been found) 
which he has Ik'cu for years engaged in printing in India. Of 
this extremely well-edited and valuable work I have, by the kind- 
ness of the editor, long had in my hands the larger half; and doubt- 
less the whole will be issued in season for me to av-ail myself of 
it throughout. Not only his many manuscripts and (rotriyas 
(the living equivalents, and in some respects the superiors, of 

Plan and Scope and Design of this Work xix 

manuscripts) give valuable aid, but the commentary (which, of 
course, claims to be " Sayana's ") also has very numerous various 
readings, all worthy to be reported, though seldom offering anything 
better than the text of the manuscripts. Second^the readings of the 
Paippalada version, in those parts of the Veda (much the larger 
half) for which there is a corresponding Paippalada text; these 
were furnished me, some years ago, by Professor Roth, in whose 
exclusive possession the Paippalada manuscript is held. Further, 
notice of the corresponding passages in all the other Vedic texts, 
whether Samhita, Brahmana, or Sutra, with report of their various 
readings. Further, the data of the Anukramanl respecting author- 
ship, divinity, and meter of each verse. Also, references to the 
ancillary literature, especially to the Kau9ika and Vaitana Sutras 
(both of which have been competently edited, the latter with a 
translation added), with account of the use made in th^m of the 
hymns and parts of hymns, so far as this appears to cast any light 
upon their meaning. Also, extracts from the printed commentary, 
wherever this seems worth while, as either really aiding the under- 
standing of the text, or showing the absence of any helpful tradi- 
tion. Finally, a simple literal translation; this was not originally 
promised for the second volume, but is added especially in order 
to help "float" the rest of the material. An introduction and 
indexes will give such further auxiliary matter as appears to be 
called for. 

The design of the volume will be to put together as much as 
possible of the material that is to help toward the study and final 
comprehension of this Veda. 

LThe purpose and limitations and method of the translation. — In a critique pub- ^^ ?'-^'/ 
lished some six years earlier, in 1886, in the American Journal 0/ Philology, vii. 2-4, ^yw*^<^^»^ ^ 
Whitney discusses several ways of translating the Upanishads. His remarks on the JL^/A^ ^^?»^' 
second "way" leave no doubt that, in making his Veda-translation as he has done, he .^ fp^^-'T^S 
fully recognized its provisional character and felt that to attempt a definitive one would 
be premature. His description of the "third way," mutatis mutandis, is so good a 
statement of the principles which have governed him in this work, that, in default of 
a better one, it is here reprinted. — C. R. L.J 

One way is, to put one's self frankly and fully under the guid- 
ance of a native interpreter. . . . Another way would be, to give 
a conspectus, made as full as possible, of all accessible native inter- 
pretations — in connection with which treatment, one could hardly 

XX Paragraphs in lieu of a Preface by Whihtty 

avoid taking a position of critical suj)criority, approving and con- 
demning, selecting and rejecting, and comparing all with what 
appeared to be the simple meaning of the text itself. This would 
be a very welcome labor, but also an extremely diflicult one; and 
the preparations for it are not yet sufficiently made; it may be 
looked forward to as one of the results of future study. 

A third way, leading in quite another direction, would be this: 
to approach the text only as a philologist, bent uix>n making a 
version of it exactly as it stands, representing just what the words 
and phrases apjxrar to say, without intrusion of anything that is 
not there in recognizable fonn: thus reproducing the scripture 
itself in Western guise, as nearly as the nature of the case admits, 
as a basis whereon could afterward be built such fabric of philo- 
sophic interpretation as should be called for; and also as a touch- 
stone to which could be brought for due testing anything that 
claimed to be an interpretation. The maker of such a version 
would not need to be versed in the subtleties of the later Hindu 
philosophical systems; he should even carefully avoid working in 
the spirit of any of them. Nor need he pretend to penetrate to 
the hidden sense of the dark sayings that pass under his pen. to 
comprehend it and set it forth ; for then there would inevitably 
mingle itself with his version much that was subjective and doubt- 
ful, and that every successor would have to do over again. Work- 
ing conscientiously as Sanskrit scholar only, he might hope to 
bring out something of jKTmanent and authoritative character, 
which should serve both as help and as check to those that came 
after him. He would carefully observe all identities and paral- 
lelisms of phraseology, since in texts like these the word is to no 
small extent more than the thing, the expression dominating the 
thought: the more the (|uahtities are unknown, the less will it 
answer to change their symbols in working out an equation. Of 
all leading and much-used terms, in case the rendering could not 
be made uniform, he would maintain the identity by a liberal 
quotation of the word itself in jxirenthesis after its translation, so 
that the sphere of use of each could be made out in the version 
somewhat as in the original, by the comfxirison of parallel pas- 
sages; and so that the student should not run the risk of having 
a difference of statement which might turn out im|)ortant covered 
from his eyes by an ap|)arent identity of phrase — or the contrar\\ 

Purpose^ Limitations^ and Method of the Translation xxi 

Nothing, as a matter of course, would be omitted, save particles 
whose effect on the shading of a sentence is too faint to show in 
the coarseness of translation into a strange tongue; nor would 
anything be put in without exact indication of the intrusion. The 
notes would be prevailingly linguistic, references to parallel pas- 
sages, with exposition of correspondences and differences. Sen- 
tences grammatically difficult or apparently corrupt would be 
pointed out, and their knotty points discussed, perhaps with 
suggestions of text-amendment. But it is needless to go into 
further detail ; every one knows the methods by which a careful 
scholar, liberal of his time and labor toward the due accomplish- 
ment of a task deemed by him important, will conduct such a 


Whitney's labors on the Atharva-Veda. — As early as March, 185 1, at 
Berlin, during Whitney's first semester as a student in Germany, his teacher 
Weber was so impressed by his scholarly ability as to suggest to him the 
plan of editing an important Vedic text.^ The impression produced upon 
Roth in Tubingen by Whitney during the following summer semester 
was in no wise different, and resulted in the plan for a joint edition of 
the Atharva-Veda.^ Whitney's preliminary labors for the edition began 
accordingly upon his return to Berlin for his second winter semester. 
His fundamental autograph transcript of the Atharva-Veda Samhita is 
contained in his Collation-Book, and appears from the dates of that book^ 
to have been made in the short interval between October, 1851, and 
March, 1852. The second summer in Tubingen (1852) was doubtless 
spent partly in studying the text thus copied, partly in planning with 
Roth the details of the method of editing, partly in helping to make the 
tool, so important for further progress, the index of Rig- Veda pratikas, 
and so on; the concordance of the four principal Samhitas, in which, to 
be sure, Whitney's part was only "a secondary one," was issued under 
the date November, 1852. During the winter of 1852-3 he copied the 
Prati^akhya and its commentary contained in the Berlin codex (Weber, 
No. 361), as is stated in his edition, p. 334. As noted below (pp. xliv, 1), 
the collation of the Paris and Oxford and London manuscripts of the 
Atharvan Samhita followed in the spring and early summer of 1853, just 
before his return (in August) to America. The copy of the text for the 
printer, made with exquisite neatness in nagari letters by Mr. Whitney's 
hand, is still preserved. 

The Edition of the text or «« First volume." — The first part of the work, 
containing books i.-xix. of the text, appeared in Berlin with a provisional 
preface dated February, 1855. The provisional preface announces that 
the text of book xx. will not be given in full, but only the Kuntapa-hymns, 
and, for the rest of it, merely references to the Rig- Veda; and promises, 
as the principal contents of the second part, seven of the eight items of 
accessory material enumerated below. — This plan, however, was changed, 

' See the extract from Weber's letter, below, p. xliv. The text was the Taittiriya Aranyaka. 

* See the extract from Roth's letter, below, p. xliv. 

• See below, p. cxvii. 


xxiv Editor s Preface 

and the second part api>carcd in fact as a thin Heft of about 70 p3|;es, 
giving lK)ok xx. in full, and that only. To it was prefixed a half-sheet 
containing the definitive preface and a new title-page. The definitive 
preface is dated October, iiS56, and adtls an eighth item, exegetical notes, 
to the promises of the provisional preface. The new title-page has the 
woids •• I'-rster Hand. Text," thus implicitly promising a second volume, 
in which, according to the definitive preface, the accessory material was 
to be published. 

Relation of this work to the «« First yolume " and to this Series. — Of 
the implicit promise of that title-page, the present work is intended to 
complete the fulfilment. As most of the In!>or upon the first volume had 
fallen to Whitney, so most of the labor ui>on the projected "second " was 
to have been done by Roth. In fact, however, it turned out that Roth's 
very great services for the criticism and exegesis of this Veda took a 
different form, and are embmlicd on the one hand in his contributions 
to the St. Petersburg Lexicon, and consist on the other in his brilliant 
discovery of the Kashmirian recension of this Vetia and his collation of 
the text thereof with that of the Vulgate. Nevertheless, as is clearly 
apimrent ({Kigc xvii), Whitney thought and spoke of this work ' as a 
"Second volume of the Roth-Whitney edition of the Atharva-Veda," and 
called it "our volume" in writing to Roth (cf. p. Ixxxvi) ; and letters 
exchanged between the two friends in 1894 discuss the question whether 
the •• second volume " ought not to be published by the same house 
(F. Dummler's) that issued the first in 1856. It would appear from 
Whitney's last letter to Roth (written April 10, 1894, shortly before his 
death), that he had determined to have the work published in the 
Harvard Series, and Roth's last letter to Whitney (dated April 23) 
expresses his great satisfaction at this arrangement. This plan had the 
cordial approval of my friend Henry Clarke Warren, and, while still in 
relatively fair health, he generously gave to the University the money to 
pay for the printing. 

External form of this work. — It is on account of the relation just 
explained, and also in deference to Whitney's express wishes, that the 
size of the printed page of this work and the sire of the paper have been 
chosen to match those of the " First volume." The pages have been 
numlKred continuously from I to 1009, as if this work were indeed one 
volume ; but, since it was cx(>edient to separate the work into two halves 
in binding, I have done so, and designated those halves as volumes seven 

* In a letter to the editor, dated March 2%, iSSt, speaking of Roth*« preoccupation «ith 
Avr«tan studies, Whitnry layn : ** I (car 1 thall )rct tie oMiged to do AV. ii. ak>oe. arKl think 
of »cltini; quirtljr atmut it next jrear/* Again, June 17, iSSi. he writes: ** 1 ba%e tjegun wotk 
oa %ol u u( the AV , and am resolved to put it straight through.** 

General Scope of this Work xxv 

and eight of the Harvard Oriental Series.^ The volumes are substan- 
tially bound and properly lettered ; the leaves are open at the front ; and 
the top is cut without spoiling the margin. The purpose of the inexpen- 
sive gilt top is not for ornament, but rather to save the volumes from the 
injury by dirt and discoloration which is so common with ragged hand- 
cut tops. The work has been electrotyped, and will thus, it is hoped, be 
quite free from the blemishes occasioned by the displacement of letters, 
the breaking off of accents, and the like. 

General scope of this work as determined by previous promise and fulfil- 
ment. — Its general scope was determined in large measure by the promise 
of the definitive preface of the "First volume.'* The specifications of 
that promise were given in eight items as follows : 

1. Excerpts from the Prati^akhya; 5. Excerpts from the AnukramanT ; 

2. Excerpts from the Pada-patlia ; 6. General introduction ; 

3. Concordance of the AV. with other Samhitas ; 7. Exegetical notes ; 

4. Excerpts from the ritual (Kauc^ika); 8. Critical notes. 

Of the above-mentioned promise, several items had meantime been 
more than abundantly fulfilled by Whitney. In 1862 he published the 
Prati^akhya (item i), text, translation, notes, indexes, etc. Of this 
treatise only excerpts had been promised. In 188 1 followed the (unprom- 
ised) Index Verborum,^ in which was given a full report of the pada- 
readings (item 2). The Table of Concordances between the several Vedic 
Samhitas (1852) and the Index of pratlkas of the Atharva-Veda (1857), — 
the first in large measure, the second in largest measure, the work of 
Whitney, — went far toward the accomplishment of the next item (item 3). 
Pupils of the two editors, moreover, had had a share in its fulfilment. 
In 1878 Garbe gave us the Vaitana-Sutra in text and translation; and 
that was followed in 1890 by Bloomfield's text of the Kau^ika-Sutra. 
The inherent difficulties of the latter text and the excellence of Bloom- 
field's performance make us regret the more keenly that he did not give 
us a translation also. The material for report upon the ritual uses of the 
verses of this Veda (preparative for item 4) was thus at hand. 

* For conscience sake I register my protest against the practice of issuing works in gratui- 
tously confusing subdivisions, as Bdnde and Hdlften and AbUiluugen and Lieferungen. — In 
this connection, I add that the page-numbers of the main body of this work, which are of use 
chiefly to the pressman and the binder and are of minimal consequence for purposes of cita- 
tion, have been relegated to the inner comer of the page, so that the book and hymn, which are 
of prime importance for purposes of finding and citation, may be conspicuously and conven- 
iently shown in the outer comers. I hope that such regard for the convenience 9f the users of 
technical books may become more and more common with the makers of such books. 

^ The published Index gives only the words and references. It is made from a much fuller 
manuscript Index, written by Whitney on 1721 quarto pages, which quotes the context in which 
the words appear, and which for the present is in my hands. 

XX vi Editor s Preface 

While making his I^ndon collations in 1853 (sec below, p. Ixxii), Uliit- 
ncy made also a transcript of the Major AnukramanI, and subsequently 
he adiled a collation of the Herlin ms. thereof (preparative for item 5). 
— In the course of his lonj; lal>ors u[X)n Atharvan texts, Whitney had 
naturally made many observations suitable for a general introduction 
(item 6). Roth had sent him a considerable mass of exegetical notes 
(item 7). — I''urthcrmore, during the decades in which Whitney had 
concerned himself with this and the related texts, he had noted in his 
Collation-Hook, op|K>site each verse of the Atharvan 5^amhita, the places 
in the other texts where that verse recurs, in identical or in similar form, 
in whole or in part ; thus making a very extensive collection of concord- 
ances, with the Atharvan Sariihita as the point of departure, and providing 
himself with the means for rc|X)rting upon the variations of the parallel 
texts with far greater completeness than was possible by means of the 
Table and Index mentioned al)ove under item 3. 

The critical notes. — Of all the eif;ht promised items, the one of most 
importance, and of most pressing importance, was doubtless the eighth, 
the critical notes, in which were to be given the various readings of the 
manuscripts. In his Introductory Note to the Atharvan PrSti^akhya 
(p. 338 : year 1862), Whitney says : 

The condition of the Atharvan n.5 handed down by the tradition such as to 
impose upon the editors as a duty what in the case of any of the other Vedas would 
have been an almost inexcusable liberty — namely, the emendation of the text- 
readings in many places. In ^o treating such a text, it is not easy to hit the pre- 
cise mean between too much and too little ; and while most of the alterations made 
were palpably and imperatively called for, and while many others would have to 
be made in translattnfir, there are nXsn a few coses in which a closer adherence 
to the manuscript authorities might have been preferable. 

The apparatus for ascertaining in any given passage just what the mss. 
read was not published for more than two decades.* Complaints on this 
score, however, were surely estopped by the diligence and effectiveness 
with which both editors employed that time for the advancement of the 
cause of Indie philology. In his Introduction to the Index Verborum 
(p. 2 : year 1880), Whitney says: 

There will, of course, l)e differences of opinion as to whether this [^course of pro- 
cedure J was well-advised — whether they ^the editors J should not have contented 
themselves with giving just what the manuscripts gave them, keeping suggested 
alterations for their notes ; and, yet more, as to the acceptableness of part of the 
alterations made, and the desirableness of others which might with equal reason 
have l>cen made. ... It is sought [^in the IndrxJ simply to call attention to all 
cases in which a published reading differs from that of the manuscripts, as well 
as to those comparatively infrequent ones where the manuscripts are at variance, 
and to furnish the means ... for determining in any particular case what the 
manuscripts actually read. 

Partial Rewriting and Revision by Whitney xxvii 

Thus the eighth item of the promise also (as well as the second) was ful- 
filled by the Index. — Desirable as such critical notes may be in con- 
nection with the Index, a report of the variants of the European mss. of 
the Vulgate recension in the sequence of^tjh^ gxj; was none the less 
called for. The report is accordingly given in this work, and includes 
not only the mss. of Berlin, Paris, Oxford, and London, collated before 
publishing, but also those of Munich and Tubingen, collated twenty years 
after (see below, p. xliv, note 5, p. Ixiv). 

Scope of this work as transcending previous promise. — The accessory 
material of this work, beyond what was promised by the preface of the 
text-edition, is mentioned in the third paragraph of Whitney's "Announce- 
ment," p. xviii, and includes the reports of the readings of the Kashmirian 
recension and of S. P. Pandit's authorities, extracts from the native com- 
mentary, and a translation. For the first, Roth had performed the long 
and laborious and difficult task of making a careful collation of the 
Paippalada text, and had sent it to Whitney. In his edition published in 
Bombay, S. P. Pandit had given for the Vulgate recension the variants 
of the authorities (Indian : not also European) accessible to him, and 
including not only the variants of manuscripts, but also those of living 
reciters of the text. The advance sheets of his edition he had sent in 
instalments to Whitney, so that all those portions for which Pandit pub- 
lished the comment were in Whitney's hands in time to be utilized by 
him, although the printed date of Pandit's publication (1895-8) is sub- 
sequent to Whitney's death. 

Evolution of the style of the work. — To elaborate all the varied material 
described in the foregoing paragraphs into a running commentary on 
the nineteen books was accordingly Whitney's task, and he was " fairly 
started" upon it in 1885-6. As was natural, his method of treatment 
became somewhat fuller as he proceeded with his work. There is in my 
hands his prior draft of the first four or five books, which is relatively 
meagre in sundry details. It was not until he had advanced well into the 
second grand division (books viii.-xii.) that he settled down into the style 
of treatment to which he then adhered to the end. 

Partial rewriting and revision by Whitney. — Thereupon, in order to carry 
out the early books in the same style as the later ones, it became neces- 
sary to rewrite or to revise the early ones. He accordingly did rewrite 
the first four (cf. p. xcviii below), and to the next three (v., vi., vii.) he 
gave a pretty thorough revision without rewriting ; and at this point, 
apparently, he was interrupted by the illness which proved fatal. The 
discussion of the ritual uses in book viii. (supplied by me) would doubt- 
less have been his next task. Not counting a lot of matter for his General 
Introduction, Whitney's manuscript of his commentary and translation, 

xxviii EdiUyrs Pnjait 

as he left it at his death in 1894, consisted of about 25CX) folios. Had 

Whitney lived to sec it printed, the editor of this Series would probably 

have read one set of proofs, and made suggestions and criticisms freely 

I on the margins, which the author would then have accepted or rejected 

r* m^^ 1 without discussion ; and the whole matter, in that case a very simple one, 
^^^^ I would have been closed by a few lines of kindly acknowledgment from 
y^ I the author in his preface. 

Picking up the broken threads. — It is, on the other hand, no simple 
matter, but rather one of [Hrculiar difTiculty and delicacy, to edit such a 
technical work as this for an author who has {>assed away, especially if he 
has been the editor's teacher and friend. The difficulty is increased by 
the fact that, in the great mass of technical details, there are very many 
which have to be learned anew by the editor for himself, and others still, 
which, through long years of labor, have grown so familiar to the author 
that he has hardly felt any need of making written memoranda of them, 
and which the editor has to find out as best he can. 

Relation of the editor's work to that of the author. — Although Whit- 
ney's manuscript of the main Ixnly of the work was written out to the end, 
it was not systematically complete. Thus he had written for book i. (and 
for that only) a s|>ecial introduction, showing that he meant to do the like 
for the other eighteen. Of the General Introduction as it stands, only a 
very few parts were worked out ; for some parts there were only rough 
sketches ; and for very many not even that. And in unnumbered details, 
major and minor, there was opjwrt unity for long and |)atient toil upon the 
task of systematically verifying all references and statements, of revising 
where need was, and of bringing the whole nearer to an ideal and unat- 
tainable completeness. What these details were, the work itself may 
show. lUit besides all this, there was the task of carrying through the 
press a work the scientific im|H>rtance of which called for the best typo- 
graphical form and for the utmost feasible accuracy in printing. 

Parts for which the author is not responsible. — No two men are alike 
in the various endowments and attainments that make the scholar ; and, in 
particular, the mental attitude of any two towards any given problem is 
wont to differ. It is accordingly not possible that there should not be, 
among the editorial additions to Whitney's manuscript or changes therein, 
many things which he would decidedly have disapproved. They ought 
certainly therefore to be marketl in such a way that the reader may easily 
recognize them as additions for which the editor and not the author is 
res|>onsible ; and for this purjx)se two signs have l>een chosen, L nnd J, 
which are like incomplete brackets or brackets without the upper hori- 
zontal strokes, and which may be called *' ellbrackets '* and suggest the 

Parts for which the Author is not responsible xxix 

initial letter of the editor's name (of. p. c). Besides the marked additions, 
there are others, like the paragraphs beginning with the word "Trans- 
lated," which are not marked. It is therefore proper to give a general 
systematic account of the editorial additions and changes. 
* The General Introduction. — This consists of two parts : the first, by the 
editor ; the second, elaborated in part from material left by the author. — 
Part I. — Besides the topics which unquestionably belong to the General 
Introduction and are treated in Part II., there are a good many which, I 

but for their voluminousness, might properly enough have been put into [.^ — ' j^»tA^ 
the editor's preface. Such are, for example, the discussions of the vari- ' 
ous critical elements which form the bulk of Whitney's Commentary. 
I have printed them as Part I. of the General Introduction. The form 
of presentation is, I trust, such that, with the help of the Table of Con- 
tents, the student will be able to find any desired topic very quickly. 

The General Introduction : Part II. — Certain general statements con- 
cerning the manuscripts and the method of editing, and concerning the 
text of the Atharva-Veda Samhita as a whole, must needs be made, and 
are most suitably presented in the form of a general introduction prefixed 
to the main body of the work. For this Introduction, Whitney left a 
considerable amount of material. Parts of that material were so well 
worked out as to be nearly or quite usable for printing : namely, the brief 
chapter, 8, on the metrical form of the Samhita, and (most fortunately!) 
"nearly all of the veryinuDortjjjJ^h^t^^ the description of 

his manuscripts. ^Tn^ike is true, as will appear from the absence of ell- 
brackets, of considerable p ortions o f chapt er lo. on the extent and struc- 
ture of the Samhita. — Chapters 2 and ,v (concerning the stanza (dm na 
devir abldstaye and the Couation-Book) might have been put in Part I., 
as being from the editor's hand ; but, on the ground of intrinsic fitness, 
they have been put immediately after the description of the mss. 

For chapters 4 and 5 and 6 (o n repeated verses, on refrains, and on 
accent-illUl kSj'liU^ mTapfc^^o n the divisions of the text), Whitney left 
sketches, brief and rough, written with a lead-pencil and written (it would 
seem) in the days of his weakness as he lay on a couch or bed. I have 
made faithful use of these sketches, not only as indicating in detail the 
topics that Whitney most desired to treat, but also as giving, or at least 
suggesting, the language to be used in their treatment. Nevertheless, 
they have been much rewritten in parts, and in such a way that it is hardly 
feasible or even worth while to separate the author's part from the editor's. 
The final result must pass for our joint work. The sketch fo r chapter, 
(on the orthographic method of the Berlin text) was also a lead-pencil 
draft ; but it was one that had evidently been made years before those 
last mentioned, and its substance was such as to need only recasting in 

XXX Editor i Ptejace 

form, and expansion, — a work which I have carried out with free use of 
Ihc pertinent matter in Whitney's IVatii^akhyas (cf. p. cxxiii, note). 

To revert to chapters q and lo (on the divisions of the text , and on its 
exten t and striictiir c)^hey are the longest of ail, and, next after chap- 
ter 1 (on the mss), perhaps the most im|)ortant, and they contain the 
most of what is new. After putting them once into what I thought was 
a fmal form, I found that, from the point of view thus gained, I could, by 
further study, discover a good many new facts and relations, and attain to 
greater certainty on matters already set forth, and, by rewriting freely, 
put very many of the results in a clearer light and state them more con- 
vincingly. The ellbrackets distinguish in general the editor's part from 
the author's. If, in these two chapters, the latter seems relatively small, 
one must not forget its large importance and value as a basis for the 
editor's further studies. 

With the exceptions noted (chapters 2 and 3), it has seemed best, in 
elaborating this part of the General Introduction, to restrict it to the 
topics indicated by Whitney's material, and not (in an attempt at sys- 
tematic completeness) to duplicate the treatise which forms Uloomfield's 
part of the Grutuinss. Hloomfield's plan is quite different ; but since a 
considerable number of the topics are indeed common to both, it seemed 
better that the treatment of them in this work should proceed as far as 
jx)ssil)le inde|>endently of the treatment in the Grutidnss, 

The editor's special introductions to the eighteen books, ii.-xiz. — Since 
Whitney's manu.script contained a brief special introduction to the first 
book, it was probably his intention to write one for each of the remaining 
eighteen. At all events, certain general statements concerning each 
book as a whole are plainly called for, and should pro{xrrly be cast into 
the form of a s|)ecial intrcxluction and be prefixed, one to each of the sev- 
eral books. These eighteen special introductions have accordingly been 
written by the editor, and are, with some trifling exceptions (cf. pages 
471-2, 739, 792. 794, 814) entirely from his hand. The //frydf/n-hymns 
(cf. p. 471) and the divisions of the /Vt/jrlr^i- material (pages 628, 770, 793) 
called for considerable detail of treatment ; similarly the discrepancies 
between the two editions as resp>ects hymn-numeration (pages 389, 610) 
and the /v?r|'<livi-<livisions (pages 771, 793) ; likewise the subject-matter of 
book xviii. (p. 813); while the supplementary book xix., on account of its 
peculiar relations to the rest of the text and to the ancillary treatises, 
called for the most elal>orate treatment of all (p. 895), 

The special introductions to the hymns : editor's bibliography of preTioos 
translations and discussions. — These are contained in the paragraphs begin- 
ning with the word *• Translated." — In the introduction to each hymn, in 
a paragraph immediately following the Anukramanlcxccrpts, and usually 

Parts for which tlu Author is not responsible xxxi 

between a statement as to where the hymn is " Found in Paipp." or in 
other texts, and a statement as to how the hymn is " Used in Kauq.," 
Whitney had given in his manuscript a statement as to where the hymn 
had been previously translated by Ludwig or Grill or some other scholar. 
For Weber's and Henry's translations of whole books, he had apparently 
thought to content himself by referring once and for all at the beginning 
of each book to the volume of the Indische Stiidicn or of the Traduction, 
By a singular coincidence, a very large amount of translation and explana- 
tion of this Veda (by Dcussen, Henry, Griffith, Weber, Bloomficld : see 
the table, p. cvii) appeared within three or four years after Whitney's 
death. The version of Griffith, and that alone, is complete. As for the 
partial translations and discussions, apart from the fact that they are 
scattered through different periodicals and independent volumes, their 
multiplicity is so confusing that it would be very troublesome in the case 
of any given hymn to find for oneself just how many of the translators 
had discussed it and where. I have therefore endeavored to give with 
all desirable completeness, for every single one of the s88 hymns ^ f HnnlfQ 
i.-xix. ( save ii. 20--23), a bibliography of the translations and discussions 
01 mac hymn up to the y ear 1898 or thereabout. F or some hymns the 
ot discussion is large : cf. the references for iv. 16 ; v. 22 ; ix. 9; 
X. 7; xviii. i; xix. 6. At first blush, some may think it "damnable iter- 
ation " that I should, for hymn-translations, make reference to Griffith 
some 588 times, to Bloomfield some 214, to Weber some 179, or to Henry 
some 167 times ; but I am sure that serious students of the work will find 
the references exceedingly convenient. As noted above, they are given 
in the paragraphs beginning with the word ** Translated." Although these 
paragraphs are almost wholly editorial additions, I have not marked them 
as such by enclosing them in ell-brackets. 

I have always endeavored to give these references in the chronological 
sequence of the works concerned (see the table with dates and explana- 
tions at p. cvii). These dates need to be taken into account in judging 
Whitney's statements, as when he says ** all the translators " understand 
a passage thus and so. Finally, it is sure to happen that a careful com- 
parison of the views of the other translators will often reveal a specific 
item of interpretation which is to be preferred to Whitney's. Here and 
there, I have given a reference to such an item ; but to do so systematic- 
ally is a part of the great task which this work leaves unfinished. 

Added special introductions to the hymns of book xviii. and to some others. 
— The relation of the constituent material of the four so-called ** hymns " 
of book xviii. to the Rig-Veda etc. is such that a clear synoptic statement of 
the provenience of the different groups of verses or of single verses is in 
the highest degree desirable ; and I have therefore endeavored to give such 

xxxii lid t tor s Pre/a<e 

a statement for each of them, grouping the verses into " Parts ** according 
to their provenience or their ritual use or both. An analysis of the 
structure of the single hymn of book xvii. also seemed to me to be worth 
giving. Moreover, the peculiar contents of the hymn entitled •• Homage 
to parts of the Atharva-Vcda " (xix. 23) challenged me to try at least to 
identify its intended references; and although I have not succeeded 
entirely, I ho|x; I have stated the questionable matters with clearness. 
I have ventured to disagree with the author's view of the general signifi- 
cance of hymn iii. 26 as expressed in the caption, and have given my 
reasons in a couple of paragraphs. The hymn for use with a pearl-shell 
amulet (iv. 10) and the hymn to the lunar asterisms (xix. 7) also gave 
occasion for additions which I hope may prove not unacceptable. 

Other editorial additions at the beginning and end of hymns. — Whitney's 
last illness put an end to his revision of his work before he reached the 
eighth book, and re|>orts of the ritual uses of the hymns of that book 
from his hand are insufTicient or Licking. I have accordingly supplied 
these rc|)orts for book viii., and further also for x. 5 and xi. 2 and 6, and 
in a form as nearly like that used by Whitney as I could; but for viii. 8 
(•*army rites ") and x. 5 (*• water-thunderbolts "), the conditions warranted 
greater fulness.* Whitney doubtless intended to give, throughout his 
entire work, at the end of antnuikas and books and fra/^}(hakas, certAin 
statements, in part summations of hymns and verses and in part quota- 
tions from the Old Anukramani. In default of his final revision, these 
stop at the end of book vii. (cf. p. 470), and from that point on to the 
end I have supplied them (cf. pages 475, 481, 516, 737, and so on). 

Other additions of considerable extent. — Of the additions in ell-brackets, 
the most numerous are the brief ones ; but the great difficulties of books 
xviii. and xix. have tempted me to give, in the last two hundred pages, 
occasional excursuses, the considerable length of which will, I hope, prove 
warranted by their interest or value. The notes on the following topics 
or words or verses may serve as instances : twin consonants, p. 832 ; 
afljoydtulis, p. 844; sii-^dnstt, p 853 ; Aittit, p. 860; dt*a ciksipan^ P- 875 ; 
the fitnndiulna ("eleven dishes'*), p. 876 ; x^Anyd etc., p. 880; sttmfritya, 
p. 886; on xviii. 4. 86-87 ; xix. 7. 4 ; 8. 4 ; 26. 3 ; 44. 7 ; 45. 2 {suhdr 
etc.); 47. 8; 55. i, 5. 

The seven tables appended to the latter Tolnme of thb work. — The list of 
non-metrical passages is taken from the introduction to Whitney's Index 
Verborum, p. 5. — The list of hymns ignored by K^u<;ika, p. loil, is 
taken from memoranda in Whitney's hand-copy of Kau^ika. — The 

' It may hvr« tie noted that, for the vhnrt h>mn« (l>ookB L-vii), (he ritual u%e9 are given in 
the |»refiirtl introdactiont ; hut that, for the tuhvequent long hjrmn«, they are utoally and inor* 
conveniently given under th« verves concerned. 

Parts for which tlie Author is not responsible xxxiii 

concordance of the citations of Kau^ika by the two methods, I have 
made for those who wish to look up citations as made in the Bombay 
edition of the commentary. The same purpose is better served by writ- 
ing the number of each adhydya, and of each kandikd as numbered 
from the beginning of its own adhydya^ on the upper right-hand corner 
of each odd page of Bloomfield's text. — The concordance of discrepant 
Berlin and Bombay hymn-numbers I have drawn up to meet a regret- 
table need. — The concordance between the Vulgate and Kashmirian 
recensions is made from notes in the Collation-Book, as is explained at 
p. Ixxxv, and will serve provisionally for finding a Vulgate verse in the fac- 
simile of the Kashmirian text. — The table of hymn-titles is of course 
a mere copy of Whitney's captions, but gives an extremely useful con- 
spectus of the subjects in general. — The index of the names of the seers 
is a revised copy of a rough one found among Whitney's papers. To 
it I have prefixed a few paragraphs which contain general or critical 

The unmarked minor additions and other minor changes. — These are of 
two classes. The first includes the numerous isolated minor changes 
about which there was no question, namely the correction of mere slips, 
the supplying of occasional omissions, and the omission of an occasional 
phrase or sentence. Of the mere slips in Whitney's admirable manu- 
script, some (like " thou has " at ii. lo. 6, or the omission of " be brought " 
near the end of the note to ii. 13. 5) are such as the care of a good proof- 
reader would have set right; but there were many which could be recog- 
nized as slips only by constant reference to the original or to the various 
books concerned. Such are "cold" instead of "heat" iox ghrahsd at 
xiii. I. 52 and 53; "hundred" (life-times) for "thousand" at vi. 78. 3; 
"Mercury" for "Mars" at xix. 9. 7 ; "kine" for "bulls" at iii. 9. 2 and 
"cow" for "bull" at i. 22. i; vdqdh for ^vd^dh at xviii. 2. 13. At vi. 
141. 3 his version read "so let the A^vins make," as if the text were 
krnuidm afvind. At the end of the very first hymn, Whitney's statement 
was, "The Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity of the second pada"; 
here I changed "ignores" to "notes." — He had omitted the words 
"the parts of" at iv. 12. 7; "a brother" at xviii. I. 14; "which is very 
propitious" at xviii. 2. 31 ; "the Fathers " at xviii. 2. 46. Such changes 
as those just instanced could well be left unmarked. 

The second class has to do with the paragraphs, few in number, the 
recasting or rewriting of which involved so many minor changes that 
it was hardly feasible to indicate them by cll-brackets. The note to xviii. 
3. 60 is an example. Moreover, many notes in which the changes are 
duly marked contain other changes which seemed hardly worth marking, 
as at xix. 49. 2 or 55. i : cf. p. 806, ^ 5. 

XXX iv Editor s Preface 

The marked minor additions and other minor changes. — In a work like 
this, involving so great a mass of multifarious details, it was inevitable that 
a rigorous revision, such as the author could not give to it, should detect 
many statements requiring more or less modification. Thus at xix. 40. 2, 
the author, in his copy for the printer, says: "We have rectified the 
accent of sttmcMds ; the mss. and STP. have sum/dhds,'* In fact, the 
edition also has sumi'dhiU^ and I have changed the statement thus : 
•*Lin the edition J we [should havej rectified the accent \%o as to read J 
sumedhiisy The changes in the last two books are such that it was 
often best to write out considerable parts of the printer's copy afresh : 
yet it was desirable, on the one hand, to avoid rewriting ; and, on the 
other, to change and add in such a way that the result might not show 
the unclearncss of a clumsily tinkered paragraph. To revise and edit 
between these two limitations is not easy ; and, as is shown by the 
example just given, there is no clear line to be drawn between what 
should and what should not be marked. As noted above, it is evident 
that all these matters would have been very simple if the author could 
^^ have seen the work through the press. 

The revision of the author's manuscript. Verification. — The modifica- 
tions of the author's manuscript thus far discussed are mostly of the 
nature of additions made to carry out the unfinished parts of the author's 
design, and are the modifications referred to on the title-page by the 
words " brought nearer to com^lctjon^ " The work of revision proper 
has indiuTct^^arclu^cnncalion of every statement of every kind in the 
commentary so far as this was possible, and a careful comparison of the 
translation with the original. This means that the citations of the parallel 
texts have been actually looked up and that the readings have been com- 
pared anew in order to make sure that the reports of their variations from 
the Atharvan readings were correct. This task was most time-consuming 
and laborious ; as to some of its difTiculties and perplexities, see below, 
p. Ixiv. Verification means further that the notes of Whitney's Collation- 
lk>ok and of the Ik)mbay edition and of Roth's collation of the Kashmirian 
text were regularly consulted to assure the correctness of the author's 
re|>orts of variants within the Atharvan school ; further, that the text and 
the statements of the Major AnukramanI were carefully studied, and, in 
connection therewith, the scansion and pada-division of the verses of the 
Samhita ; and that the references to the Kau^ika and Vaitana Sutras 
were regularly turnetl up for comparison of the sutras with Whitney's 
statements. Many technical details concerning these matters are given on 
pages Ixiv ff. of the General Introduction. Since the actual appearance of 
Bloomfield and Garbe's magnificent facsimile of the birch-bark manuscript 


Meaning of ^^ Revised and brotight nearer to Completion " xxxv 

of the Kashmirian text antedates that of this work, the reasons why the 
facsimile was not used by me should be consulted at p. Ixxxv. 

Accentuation of Sanskrit words. — In the reports of the readings of 
accented texts, the words are invariably accented. The Kashmirian text is 
reckoned as an unaccented one, although it has occasional accented pas- 
sages. The author frequently introduces Sanskrit words, in parentheses 
or otherwise, into the translation, and usually indicates their accent. 
The editor has gone somewhat farther : he has indicated in the transla- 
tion the accent of the stems of words which happen to occur in the voca- 
tive (so saddnvds^ ii. 14. 5), except in the cases of rare words whose proper 
stem-accent is not known (examples in ii. 24) ; and, in cases where only 
one member of a compound is given, he has indicated what the accent of 
that member would be if used independently (so -ntthd at xviii. 2. 18, as 
part of sa/idsranit/ia ; -ksitra at iii. 3. 4, as part of anyaksetrd ; cf. ii. 8. 2). 

Cross-references. — Apart from the main purpose of this work, to serve 
as the foundation of more nearly definitive ones yet to come, it is likely 
to be used rather as one of consultation and reference than for consecu- 
tive reading. I have therefore not infrequently added cross-references 
from one verse or note to another, doing this even in the case of verses 
which were not far apart : cf., for example, my reference from vii. 80. 3 
to 79. 4 or from vi. 66, 2 to 65. i. 

Orthography of Anglicized proper names. — The translation is the princi- 
pal or only part of this work which may be supposed to interest readers 
who are without technical knowledge of Sanskrit. In order to make the 
proper names therein occurring more easily pronounceable, the author 
has disregarded somewhat the strict rules of transliteration which are fol- 
lowed in the printing of Sanskrit words as Sanskrit, and has written, for 
example, Pushan and Purandhi instead of Pusan and Puramdhi, sometimes 
retaining, however, the strange diacritical marks (as in Angiras or Varuna) 
where they do not embarrass the layman. To follow the rules strictly 
would have been much easier ; but perhaps it was better to do as has been 
done, even at the expense of some inconsistencies (cf. Vritra, Vritra, 
Vrtra; Savitar). 

Editorial short-comings and the chances of error. — Labor and pains have 
been un grudgingly spent upon Whitney's work, to ensure its appearance 
in a form worthy of its great scientific importance ; but the work is exten- 
sive and is crowded with details of such a nature that unremitting care is 
needed to avoid error concerning them. Some striking illustrations of 
this statement may be found in the foot-note below.^ Despite trifling 

^ Thus in the first line of his note on xix. 50. 3, the author wrote tartyus instead of tirtmay 
taking tareyus from the word immediately below tarema in the text. This sense-disturbing 
error was overlooked by the author and by Dr. Ryder, and once by me also, although discovered 

xxxvi Editor s Pre/cue 

inconsistencies of orthography or abbreviation, I trust that a high degree 
of accuracy in the real essentials has been attained. I dare not hope that 
my colleagues will not discover blemishes and deficiencies in the work ; 
but I shall be glad if they do not cavil at them. India has much to teach 
the West : much that is of value not only for its scientific interest, but 
also for the conduct of our thought and life. It is far better to exploit 
the riches of Indian wisdom than to si>end time or strength in belittling 
the achievements of one's fellow-workers or of those that are gone. 

The biographical and related matter. — The First American Congress of 
Thilologists devoted its session of Dec. 28, 1894 to the memory of Whitney. 
The Rc|>ort of that session, entitled "The Whitney Memorial Meeting/' 
and edited by the editor of this work, was issued as the first half of vol- 
ume xix. of the Journal of the American Oriental Society. The edition 
was of fifteen hundred copies, and was distributed to the members of the 
Oriental Society and of the American Fhilological Association and of the 
Modern Language Association of America, to the libraries enrolled on 
their lists, and to some other recipients. Hesides the addresses of the 
occasion, the Report contains bibliographical notes concerning Whitney's 
life and family, and a bibliography of his writings : but since, strictly 
speaking, it contains no biography of Whitney, I have thought it well to 
give in this volume (p. xliii) a brief sketch of his life ; and in preparing it» 
I have made use, not only of the substance, but also, with some freedom* 
of the form of statement of the autobiography which Whitney published 
in 1885 (see p. Ix). Moreover, since the people into whose hands this 
work will come are for the most part not the same as those who received 
the Re|x)rt, it has been thought advisable to reprint therefrom the editor's 
Memorial Address (p. xlvii) as a general estimate of Whitney's character 
and services, and to give, for its intrinsic usefulness, a select list of his 
writings (p. Ivi), which is essentially the list prepared by Whitney for the 
"Yale Bibliographies" (List, 1893). 

at Utt in timr fnr correction. — At xix. 77. 7. I had added sttrpam at the Kashinirian readinf 
for the Vul|;ate sArr^tm, timply l>ecau%e Koth't (rollation gave tmryam ; but on looking it up in 
the facsimile, laat line of folio 1 j6a, I found, after the pUtei mere made, that the l^irch bark 
leaf really hat sdrram and that the tlip was Koth't. — In regard to xix. 34. 6 K, the Fates 
teemed to have deirred that error thould prcvaU. Here the manu^criptt read vdfimAm. ITita 
\% repnrtetl in the foot-note of the Iteilm edition a^ td/inam (itt error). 'I he cditori intended 
to emend the m«. reading to r*ifumtfm, which, hovrever, it misprinted in the text at t^^fJuum 
(;d error). [ The ctmjecture tMfanJm, even if rightly prtnte<l. it admitted to tie an untucce«%ful 
one ] In the third line of hit comment. Whitney wrott« **The v*i^4mdm of our text ** etc. {yA 
error) Thit \ correi'te<l to t\i^,\ttJm^ and addrd. in a note near the end of the paragraph, that 
the conjecture vrat ** Mitprtnled wt^duim." My note about the misprint wat righity printed in 
the tecond proof; but in the foundry proof, by tome mithap, it ttoo<l ** MUprinted vit^drntim.** 
(4th error). The foarth error 1 hope to amend aucceaafuily in the plate. 

General Significance of Whitney s Work xxxvii 

General significance of Whitney's work. — Its design, says Whitney 
(above, p. xix, Announcement), is ** to put together as much as possible of 
the material that is to help toward the study and final comprehension of 
this Veda." Thus expressly did the author disavow any claim to finality for 
his work. As for the translation, on the one hand, the Announcement 
shows that he regarded it as wholly subordinate to his commentary ; and 
I can give no better statement of the principles which have guided him in 
making it, than is found in the extracts from a critical essay by Whitney 
which I have reprinted (above, p. xix), and from which moreover we may 
infer that he fully recognized the purely provisional character of his trans- 
lation. I am sorry that infelicities of expression in the translation, which 
are part and parcel of the author's extreme literalness (see p. xciv) and do 
not really go below the surface of the work, are (as is said below, p. xcviii) 
the very things that are the most striking for the non-technical reader 
who examines the book casually. 

As for the commentary, on the other hand, it is plain that, taking the 
work as a whole, he has done just what he designed to do. Never 

before has the material for the critical study of an extensive Vedic text 
bce^^TTomprenens^^^a sources. The commentary will long niaintain for itselt a place ot 
first-rate importance as an indispensa15Tc working-tool for the purpcfees 
which it is designed to serve. I have put together (below, pages xcii- 
xciii) a few examples to illustrate the ways in which the commentary will 
prove useful. A variety of special investigations, moreover, will readily 
suggest themselves to competent students of the commentary; and the 
subsidiary results that are thus to be won. (the "by-products," so to say), 
are likely, I am convinced, to be abundant and of large interest and value. 
Furthermore, we may confidently believe that Whitney's labors will inci- 1 
dentally put the whole discipline of Vedic criticism upon a broader and * 
firmer basis. 

Need of a systematic commentary on the Rig-Veda. — Finally, Whitney 
seems to me to have made it plain that a similar commentary is the indis- 
pensable preliminary for the final comprehension of the Rig- Veda. That 
commentary should be as much better and as much wider in its scope as it 
can be made by the next generation of scholars; for it will certainly not be 
the work of any one man alone. It is a multifarious work for which many 
elaborate preparations need yet to be made. Thus the parallel passages 
from the Rig- Veda and the other texts must be noted with completeness 
on the margin of the Rik Samhita opposite the padas concerned ; for this 
task Bloomfield's Vedic Concordance is likely to be the most important 
single instrument. Thus, again, Brahmana, ^rauta, Grhya, and other 
texts appurtenant to the Rig-Veda, together with Epic and later texts, 

xxxviii Editors Preface 

should all be systematically read by scholars familiar with Vedic themes 
and diction, and with an eye open to covert allusion and reference, and 
should be completely excerpted with the Kik Samhita in hand and with 
constant references made op|>osite the Rik verses to the ancillary or illus- 
trative passages which bear u|>on them. It is idle folly to pretend that 
this last work would not be immensely facilitated by a large mass of 
translations' of the more difTicult texts, accurately made, and provided 
with all |>ossiblc ingenious contrivances for finding out cjuickly the rela- 
tions between the ancillary texts and the fundamental ones. Thus to 
have demonstrated the necessity for so far-reaching an undertaking, may 
prove to be not the least of Whitney's services to Vedic scholarship. 

The Century Dictionary. — Doubtless much of the best of Whitney's 
strength through nearly ten of his closing years was given to the work 
devolving on him as editor-in-chief of The Century Dietionary^ an F.neydo- 
fedic Lexicon of the lint^iis/t iMuguat^c (see p. Ix, below). Hut for that, 
he might perhaps have brought out this commentary himself. Since I, 
more than any one else, have personal reasons to regret that he did not do 
so, there is perhaps a |>eculiar fitness in my saying that I am glad that he 
did not. Whoever has visited for example the printing-offices which make 
the metrojwiitan district of Boston one of the great centers of book- 
production for America, and has seen the position of authority which is 
by them accorded to that admirable work, and has reflected upon the 
powerful influence which, through the millions of volumes that are affected 
by its authority, it must thus exercise in the shaping of the growth of 
our English language, — such an one cannot fail to sec that Whitney was 
broad-minded and wise in accepting the op|>ortunity of superintending the 
work of its production, even at the risk of not living to see the appear- 
ance of the already long-delayed Athar\'a-Veda. Perhaps his most potent 
influence upon his day and generation is through his labors upon the 
Century Dictionary. 

Acknowledgments. — I desire in the first place to make public acknowl- 
edgment of my gratitude to the late Ifenry Clarke Warren of Cambridge. 
He had been my pupil at lialtimore; and, through almost twenty years 
of intimate acquaintance and friendship, we had been assocLited in our 
Indian studies. To his enlightened appreciation of their value and poten- 
tial usefulness is due the fact that these dignified volumes can now be 
issued ; for during his lifetime he gave to Harvard University in sundry 

1 Roth writes to Whitney. July 2. 1S9J: Ich befreife nicht. wic ein janger Mann, ttitt nach 
wcrtlo«en Dingrn ni grcilen, nicht licbcr tich an die Ueher^tfung nml FrkUrung etne* Stucket 
aut Tiittiflya Hrihinaria odcr .MiitriyanI Saihhitl waft; nicht um die minutiae dc« Ritaab t% 
Cfforschen. londern um den Stuff, der iwtKhen dic«en Dingen tteckt. ftigangUch m roachen 
und xu erUutern Auch in den Medixinlnichetn gab« ei vieU Abachnitte, die veratanden and 
bekannt xii wcrden verdiantcn. 

Acknowledgnunts xxxix 

instalments the funds with which to pay for the printing of Whitney's 
commentary. Whitney was professor at Yale ; the editor is an alumnus 
of Yale and a teacher at Harvard ; and Warren was an alumnus of 
Harvard. That the two Universities should thus join hands is a matter 
which the friends of both may look upon with pleasure, and it furnishes the 
motif for the dedication of this work. But I am glad to say that learning, 
as well as money, was at Mr. Warren's command for the promotion of 
science. Before his death there was issued his collection of translations 
from the Pali which forms the third volume of this Series and is entitled 
" Buddhism in Translations," a useful and much-used book. Moreover, 
he has left, in an advanced state of preparation for press, a carefully made 
edition and a partial translation of the Pali text of Buddhaghosa's famous 
encyclopedic treatise of Buddhism entitled "The Way of Purity" or 
Visuddhi-Magga. It is with gladness and hope that I now address myself 
to the arduous and happy labor of carrying Mr. Warren's edition through 
the press. 

Next I desire to express my hearty thanks to my former pupil, Dr. 
Arthur W. Ryder, now Instructor in Sanskrit at Harvard University, for 
his help in the task of verifying references and statements and of reading 
proofs. He came to assist me not long after the close of his studies 
with Professor Geldner, when I had got through with a little more than 
one third of the main body of Whitney's commentary and translation. 
For books i.-vii., I had revised the manuscript and sent it to press, leav- 
ing the verification to be done with the proof-reading and from the proof- 
sheets. Dr. Ryder's help began with the verification and proof-reading 
of the latter half of book vi. ; but from the beginning of book viii., it 
seemed better that he should forge ahead and do the verification from 
the manuscript itself, and leave me to follow with the revision and the 
supplying of the missing portions and so on. His work proved to be so 
thoroughly conscientious and accurate that I was glad to trust him, except 
of course in cases where a suspicion of error was aroused in one or both 
of us. A few times he has offered a suggestion of his own ; that given 
at p. 739 is so keen and convincing that greater boldness on his part 
would not have been unwelcome. To my thanks I join the hope that 
health and other opportunities may long be his for achieving the results 
of which his literary sense and scholarly ideals give promise. 

Mrs. Whitney, upon turning over to me her husband's manuscript of 
this work, together with his other manuscript material therefor, was so 
kind as to lend me a considerable number of his printed books, some 
of which, in particular his copy of the Kau^ika Sutra, have been a great 
convenience by reason of their manuscript annotations. It is a pleasure 
to be able to make to Mrs. Whitney this public expression of my thanks. 

xl Editor 5 Preface 

To my neighbor, Miss Maria Whitney, I am indebted for the loan of'fjl^'*^ 
the medallion from which the noble portrait of her brother, opposite L^ 
page xliii, has been made. The medallion is a replica of the one in the 
Library of Yale University, and is a truthful likeness. 

Of an occasional friendly turn from Professors Theobald Smith, George 
F. Moore, and Bloomficld, and from Dr. George A. Grierson, I have already 
made note (see pages 242, 756, 983, 243). Professors Bloomfield and 
Garl>c allowed me to reprmluce here a s|>ecimen leaf from their beautiful 
facsimile of the Kashmirian text. Professors Capi)eller and Hopkins and 
Jacobi were so goo<l as to criticize my Sanskrit verse^O ^'^ particular, 
I thank my colleague, Professor Morris II. Morgan, for his kindness in 
putting the dedication into stately I^tin phrase. 

It is with no small satisfaction that I make public mention of the 
admirable work of the Athenaeum Press (situated in Cambridge) of Messrs. 
Ginn and Company of lk)ston. The Hindus sometimes liken human 
effort to one wheel of a cart. Fate, indeed, may be the other ; but our 
destiny, they say, is not accomplished without both elements, just as there 
is no progress without both wheels. It is so with a book : go<xl copy is 
one wheel ; and a good print ing-oflfice is the other. Whitney's long expe- 
rience was guarantee for the prior requisite ; and the other I have not 
found lacking. The way has been a long one, with plenty of places for 
rough jolting and friction ; but the uniform kindness and the alert and 
intelligent helpfulness of all with whom I have had to do at the Press 
have made our progress smooth, and I am sincerely grateful. 

Human personality and the progress of science. — Had Whitney lived to 
see this work in print and to write the preface, his chief tribute of grateful 
acknowledgment would doubtless have been to his illustrious preceptor 
and colleague and friend whose toil had so largely increased its value, to 
Rudolph Roth of Tubingen. Whitney, who was my teacher, and Roth, 
who was my teacher's teacher and my own teacher, both are passeti 
away, and Death has given the work to me to finish, or rather to bring 
nearer to an ideal and so unattainable completeness. They are beyond 
the reach of human thanks, of praise or blame : but I cannot help feeling 
that even in their life-time they understood that Science is concerned 
only with results, not with personalities, or (in Hindu phrase) that the 
Goddess of Learning, Sarasvatf or Vac, cares not to ask even so much 
as the names of her votaries ; and that the unending progress of Science 
is indeed like the endless flow of a river. 

COlhc*r. I tru<tt. inill not Ix wholly tinplea<^tng to my pundit friend* in India, mho, a« thry 
murfind the thouf*ht in part un Indian, mil n<>t. I ho|>r. for|*rt that it «a« primarily and dr*if;n 
rdly Cfmc ri%'rd in < k t iilrntal form. Their i;rral mAMer, Dandin, has a kind ward for men in my 
CAM at the cloM of tb« firat chapter of hb Poeticm. 

Human Personality and tlie Progress of Science xli 

Teacher and teacher's teacher long had wrought 
Upon these tomes of ancient Hindu lore, 

Till Death did give to one whom both had taught 
The task to finish, when they were no more. 

'Tis finished, — yet unfinished, like the flow 

Of water-streams between their banks that glide ; 

For Learning's streams, that down the ages go. 
Flow on for ever with a swelling tide. 

Here plodding labor brings its affluent brook ; 

There genius, like a river, pours amain : 
While Learning — ageless, deathless — scarce will look 

To note which ones have toiled her love to gain. 

Alike to her are river, brook, and rill. 
That in her stately waters so combine. 

If only all who choose may drink their fill. 

And slake the thirst to know, the thirst divine. 

The Glta's lesson had our Whitney learned — 
To do for duty, not for duty's meed. 

And, paid or unpaid be the thanks he earned. 

The thanks he recked not, recked alone the deed. 

Here stands his book, a mighty instrument. 

Which those to come may use for large emprise. 

Use it, O scholar, ere thy day be spent. 
The learner dieth. Learning never dies. 

xlii Editors Preface 

Wnn^iV VifnTm fPWniT: 

Mfk^ wthtPi 5 wry ^i^fH I 
f^wiftW fif f,ni ^ vft 

v^. K. L«. 

CRANrrnRY Isirv Maine, 
Summer. i«/04. 


Delivered by the Editor at the First American Congress of Philologists^ Whitney 

Memorial Meetings December^ ^^94 


Ladies and Gentlemen, — There are some among us who can remember the time 
when " a certain condescension in foreigners " easily gave us pain. There was little 
achievement behind us as a people to awaken us to national self-consciousness and to a 
realizing sense of our own great possibilities. Time is changing all that The men 
have come, and some, alas ! are already gone, of whose achievements we may well be 
proud wherever we are. In the battles for the conquests of truth there are no distinc- 
tions of race. 1 1 needs no international congress to tell us that we belong to one great 
army. But to-night — as the very titles of these gathered societies show — Science has 
marshalled us, her fifties and her hundreds, as Americans. We look for the centurion, 
for the captain of the fifties ; and he is no more I And we call, as did David, lamenting 
for Abner, ** Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in 
Israel," yea, and like Jonathan, "in the midst of the battle?" 

It is in the spirit of generous laudation that we are assembled to do honor to our 
illustrious countryman. And it is well. We may praise him now ; for he is gone. 
But I cannot help thinking of a touching legend of the Buddha. Nigh fifty years he 
has wandered up and down in Ganges-land, teaching and preaching. And now he is 
about to die. flowers fall from the sky and heavenly quires are heard to sing his 
praise. *• But not by all this," he answers, — " but not by all this, O Ananda, is the 
Teacher honored ; but the disciple who shall fulfil all the greater and lesser duties, — 
by him is the Teacher honored." It is fitting, then, that we pause, not merely to praise /• ^ 
the departed, but also to consider the significance of a noble life, and the duties and ^ • ^' ^ 
responsibilities which so great an example urges upon us, — in short, the lesson of a life #»• *^ VWt^ - 
of service. fa^^^i-rji^^^^f 

It would be vain to endeavor, within the narrow limits which the present occasion (IC9»' ^'2199' 
imposes, to rehearse or to characterize with any completeness the achievements that ^ ^ ^ fUj 

make up this remarkable life. Many accounts^ of it have been given of late in the nOo * ^ • ^ 
public prints. Permit me rather to lay before you, by way of selection merely, a few •' ' ^ 

facts concerning Mr. Whitney which may serve to illustrate certain essential features of \i^ J TJ^^fb 
his character and fundamental motives of his life. 

And indubitably first in importance no less than in natural order is the great fact of 
his heredity. William D wight Whitney was born, in 1827, at Northampton, Massachu- 
setts, and in his veins flowed the best blood of a typical New England community, of 
the Dwights and the Hawleys, — heroes of the heroic age of Hampshire. His stock 
was remarkable for sturdy vigor, both of body and of intellect, and wa^ in fact that 
genuine aristocracy which, if it be true to its traditions, will remain — as for generations 

1 Most notable among them is the one by Professor Thomas Day Seymour of Yale, in the 
- American Journal of Philology." vol. . 5. ^^^ QtAA^^-U . ^. fif 2- 1 


xlviii Memorial Address by the Editor 

it hnn Wri\ — one of the prime guarantee* of the permanence of democracy in America. 
Few places in thi^ lami have prcxhircd a prc»j><>rtionateIy greater numlier of diMinguifthed 
|>r<iplr than \\a% Nortltampton. S<x advantages %%ere thus adde<l to those of iMith, 
and to all thev in turn tlic advantages of dMclhng in a region of great natural l>eauty. 

It v%as in W dham Whitney's early infancy that his father movetl into a dwrlhng built 
on the precise site of the Jonathan I.dwaids house. Ihis dwelling y>x% the second in a 
row of six neighUiring houses, all of which couhl boast of more or less notable occu- 
pants. In the first lived Dr. Seeger. who was etlucated at the same school and time as 
S( hiller, at " the Solitude." Heyorwl the Whitneys' was the house in which lived l^wts 
S Hopkins, the father of KtUaid \V. Hopkins, the Sanskrit scholar of lUyn Mawr. 
I'he fourth was the original homestrad of the I imothy Dwtghts, in which the first Yale 
rrcsi<lent of that name, and 'I hctxlore, the Secretary of the Hartford Convention and 
foumlcr of the New York *• Daily Advertiser," were l>orn, both grandsons of Jonathan 
Edwards. 'I he adjoining place was the home of the elder Sylvester Judd, and of his son 
Sylvester, the author of ** Margaret ;" and the sixth house was occupied by the Italian 
political exile, (Wierardi, and later by Dr. William Allen, ex- President of llowdoin College. 

Whitney was a mere boy of fifteen when he entered Williams College as a sopho- 
more. Three years later (in 1845) he had easily outstrtp|)ed all his classmates and 
graduated with the highest honors; and with all that, he found ample time to range the 
wocxletl hills of lierkshire, collecting birds, which \\r himself set up for the Natural 
History Society. The next three or four years were s|>ent by him as clerk In the North- 
ampton Hank, with accounts for his work, (Jerman and Swedish for his studies, orni- 
thology and lK>tany for his recreations, and music for his delight, — unless one should 
rather say that all was his delight. These oft-mentioned studies in natural history I 
should not linger over, save that their deep significance has hardly been adverted uj»on in 
public. 1 hey mean that, even at this early age, Whitney showed the stuff which dis- 
tinguishes the genuine man of science from the joblwrs and peddlers of learning. They 
mean that, with him, the gift of independent and accurate ol>servation was inljom, arul 
that the habit of unprejudiced reflection u|X)n what he himself saw was easily acquired. 

This brings us to a critical period in the determination of his career. In the ency- 
clo|Hrdias, W*hitney is catalogued as a famous Indianist, and so indeed he was. Itut it 
was not l>ecai»e he was an Indianist that he was famous. Had he devoted his life to 
the physical or natural sciences, he would doubtless have attained to equal, if not greater 
eminence. Truly, it is not the what, but the h&w f That he did devote himself to 
Indoh>gy ap|>ears to l)e due to .srveral facts which were in themselves and in their corv 
comitancc accidental. First, his ehlcr brother, Josiah. now the distinguished professor 
of geology in Harvard University, on his return from Kurope in 1847, had brought with 
him iKKiks in and on many lanijuaijes, and among them a copy of the second edition of 
Hopp's Sanskrit (irammar. Second, it chanced that the Kev. George F!. Day, a college- 
mate at Yale of Professor Salisbury, was Whitney's pastor. And third, he met with 
Kduard Desor. 

There is in possession of Professor Whitney of Harvard a well worn volume of his 
father's called the Family Fact-book. It is, I am sure, no breach of confidence if I say, 
in p.issing. that this book, with its varie<1 entries in all varied moods and by divers 
giltetl hands, is the reflex of a most remarkable family Hfc and feeling. In it, among 
^ony other things are brief autobiographic annals of the early life of William Whitney, 
'and in its pro|>er place the following simple entry: ''In the winter of 184^-49 com- 
menced the stufly of Sanskrit, encouraged to it by Kev.(ieorge IC Day. In June, l84<>, 
went out with Josiah to Lake Superior as 'assistant sub-agent* on the GeologicaJ 

An Estimate of Whitney s Character and Services xlix 

Survey." To William Whitney were intrusted the botany, the barometrical observations, 
and the accounts. And although the ornithology was not formally intrusted to him, 
there is abundant evidence that he was habitually on the look-out for the birds, with 
keen eye and with attentive ear. He must, already, in the spring, have made substantial 
progress by himself in Sanskrit; for his article (almost the first that he published) 
entitled " On the Sanskrit Language," a translation and abridgment of von Bohlen, 
appeared in the August number of the " Bibliotheca Sacra" for 1849, and i^ust there- 
fore have been finished before he left home. With him, accordingly, he took his 
brother's copy of Bopp. 

Besides the two brothers, there was a third man-of-power in the little company that 
spent the summer among the swamps and mosquitoes of the great copper region. 
That man was Eduard Desor, already a young naturalist of distinction, and afterward 
famous both in science and in public life in Switzerland. He had come only a short time 
before, with Agassiz, and as his friend and intimate associate in scientific undertakings, 
from Neufch^tel to Cambridge. He was by nature full of the purest love for science ; 
and that love had been quickened to ardent enthusiasm by his own work, and by his 
intercourse with other bright minds and eager workers whom he had known in Paris 
and Neufch&tel and in the Swiss glacier-camps of Agassiz. Small wonder if the intimate 
relations of that summer's camp-life in common gave opportunity for potent influence of 
th e brilliant young Huguenot upon the brilliant young Purita n. It is to Desor, and to 
his words and example, that my Cambridge colleague attributes in large measure his 
brother's determination to devote himself to a life of science rather than to business or 
to one of the learned professions. That the chosen department was Sanskrit may be 
ascril>ed in part to the accident of the books thrown in his way ; in part to the interest 
of the language and antiquities of India, intrinsically and as related to our own ; and in 
part to the undeniable fascination which the cultivation of the virgin soil of an almost 
untrodden field has for a mind of unusual energy, vigor, and originality. 

William Whitney has left a full and interesting journal of this summer. Tuesday, 
July 24, while waiting for the uncertain propeller to come and rescue them from the 
horrible insect pests, he writes from Copper Harbor: " For my part, I intend attacking 
Sanskrit grammar to-morrow." And then, on Wednesday : " I have, after all, managed 
to get thro the day without having recourse to the Sanskrit, but it has been a narrow 
escape." And five weeks later, from Carp River : "Another day of almost inaction, 
most intolerable and diflicult to be borne. How often have I longed for that Sanskrit 
grammar which I so foolishly sent down before me to the Sault I " 

The autumn of 1849, accordingly, found him at New Haven, and in company with 
Professor Hadley, studying und er Edward Elbridge Salisbury, th e Professor of the 
Arabic and Sanskrit Languages and Literature. The^ veteran IndoTogist of Berlin, Pro- 
fessor Weber, has said tliat he and Professor Roth account it as one of their fairest 
honors that they had Whitney as a pupil. To have had b oth a Whitney and a Hadley 
at once is sure ly an honor that no American teacher in thd'^epartments here represented 
this ev enmg can m atch. In a man whose soul was beclouded with tne slightest mist of 
false pretension or q\ selfishness, we may well imagine that the progress of such pupils 
might easily have occasioned a pang of jealousy. But Mr. Salisbury's judgment upon 
them illuminates his own character no less than that of his pupils when he says, *< Their 
quickness of perception and unerring exactness of acquisition soon made It evident that 
the teacher and the taught must change places." 

We have come to the transition period of Whitney's life. He is still a pupil, but 
already also an incipient master. << 1850, Sept. 20. Sailed for Germany in the steamer 


Memorial Address by the Editor 



Washinf^ton. Sp«nt three winters in Ikrlin, studying especially with Dr. Weber, aad 
two summers in Tubingen, Wurtemberg, with Professor Roth.** Thus runs the entry in 
II j(^f»-4*^ ft^' ^^^ Fact booic. A few lines later we read : *' Leaving Berlin in April, 1S53, stayed six 
* weeks in Paris, three in Oxford, and seven in London (collating Sanskrit manuscripts), 

and then returned in the steamer Niagara, arriving in ISoston Aug. 5/* Such is the 
modest record that covers the three momentous years of the beginning of a splendid 
scientific career. For in this brief space he had not only laid broad and deep founda- 
tions, by studies in Persian, Arabic, Kgyptian, and Coptic, but had also done a large 
part of the preliminary work for the edition of the Atharva-Veda, — as witness the 
volumes on the table l>efore you, which contain his Berlin copy of that Veda and his 
Paris, Oxford, and London collations. 

Meantime, however, at Yale, his honored teacher and faithful friend, I*rofessor Salis- 
bury, ** with true and self-forgetting zeal for the prof^ress of Oriental studies '* (these are 
Mr. Whitney *s own words), had l)een diligently preparing the way for him; negotiating 
with the corporation for the establishment of a chair of Sanskrit, surrendering /r^ tmmt0 
his own office, and providing for the endowment of the new cathedra ; leaving, in short, 
no stone unturned to insure the fruitful activity of his young colleague. Nor did hope 
wait long upon fulfilment ; for i n 1856 , only a trifle more than two years from his induc- 
tion, Whitney had, as joint editor with Professor Roth, achieved a most distinguished 
service for science by the issue of the tMtio pritutpt of the Atharva-Veda, and that 
before he was thirty. ^ 

In Septem)>er, 1S69, — that is to say, in the very month in which began the 6rst 
college year of President Mliot*s administration, — Whitney was called to Harvard. It 
reflects no less credit upon Mr. Kliot*s discernment of character and attainments than 
upon Mr. Whitney's surpassing gifts that the youthful president should turn to him, 
among the very first, for aid in helping to begin the great work of transforming the 
provincial college into a national university. The prospect of losing such a man was 
matter of gravest concernment to all Vale College, and in particular to her faithful 
benefactor. Professor Salisbury. Within a week the latter had provided for the endow- 
ment of Mr. Whitney's chair upon the ampler scale made necessary by the change of 
the times ; and the considerations which made against the transplanting of the deeply 
rooted tree had, unhappily for Harvard, their chance to prevail, and Whitney remained 
at New Haven. 

It was during his studies under Mr. Salisbury, in May, 1S50. that he was elected a 
mcml>er of the American Oriental Society. Mr. Salisbury was the life and soul of the 
Society, and, thanks to his learning, his energy, and his munificence, the organiiation 
had already attained to *< standing and credit in the world of scholars.** Like him, 
Mr. Whitney was a steadfast believer in the obligation of which the very existence of 
these aiisembled societies is an acknowledgment, — the obligation of professional men 
to help in ** coo(>erative action in behalf of literary and scientific progress ;** and, more 
than that, to do so at real personal sacrifice. 

The first meeting at which Mr. Whitney was present was held October 26, 1853. 
More than thirty-three years passed, and he wrote from the sick-room : ** It is the first 
time in thirty-two years that I have been absent from a meeting of the American Oriental 
Society, except when out of the country.** His first communication to the Society was 
read by Mr. Salisbury, Octol>er 13, 1852 ; and his last, in March, |8<>4, at the last meet- 
ing l>efore his death. Of the seven volumes, vi.-xii., of the Society's Journal, more 
than half of the contents are from his pen, to say nothing of his numerous and important 
papers in the Proceedings. In 1857, the most onerous office of the Society, that of 

An Estimate of Whititeys Character and Services li 

Corresponding Secretary, which from the beginning carried with it the duty of editing 
the publications, was devolved upon him ; and he bore its burdens for twenty-seven 
years. Add to this eighteen years as Librarian and six as President, and we have an 
aggregate of fifty-one years of official service. The American Philological Association, 
too, is under deep obligation to Whitney. He was one of its founders, and, very fit- 
tingly, its first president. For many years he was one of the most constant attendants 
at its meetings, a valued counsellor, and one of its most faithful helpers and contributors. 

Some might think it a matter of little importance, but it is certainly a significant one, 
that, after paying his Oriental Society assessments for about thirty-five years, at last, 
and when facing mortal illness, he paid over the considerable sum required to make 
himself a life member. A little later, — for the candle still burned, — and with strictest 
injunction of secrecy during his lifetime, he sent to the Treasurer his check for a 
thousand dollars of his modest savings, to help toward defraying the Society's expenses 
of publication, and in the hope that it might serve as a " suggestion and encouragement 
to others to do likewise." 

Added to all this was his service in keeping up the very high scientific standard of 
the Society's publications. The work of judging and selecting required wide knowledge, 
and the making of abstracts much labor ; while the revision or recasting of the papers 
of tyros unskilled in writing demanded endless painstaking, not always met by gratitude 
and docility. All this cost him a lavish bestowal of time, of which hardly any one in 
the Society knew, and that for the reason that he took no steps to have them know. So 
exemplary was his freedom from self-seeking in all his relations with the Society. 

The rehearsal of the titles of Mr. Whitney's books and treatises would give to this 
address too much the character of a bibliographical essay ; and, besides, it would 
merely tend to impress hearers who are accustomed to count volumes rather than to 
weigh them. His distinguishing qualities, as reflected in his work, are everywhere so 
palpable that it is not hard to describe them. Perhaps the most striking and pervading 
one is that which Professor Lounsbury calls his '* thorough intellectual sanity." In read- 
ing his arguments, whether constructive or critical, one can hardly help exclaiming. 
How near to first principles are the criteria of the most advanced theories and high- 
stepping deliverances ! With him, the impulse to prick the bubble of windy hypothesis 
upon the diamond-needle (as the Hindus call it) of hard common-sense was often irre- 
sistible, and sometimes irresistibly funny. Witness this passage from his boyish journal: 
" On entering the river [the St. Mary's], we found ourselves in an archipelago of small 

islands, which stretches from the Sault down to the foot of the Georgian Bay. says 

[that] actually visited thirty-six thousand such islands, ... which in my opinion 

is a whopper. To have done it, he must have stopped upon ten a day, every day for ten 
years." This may seem trivial. In fact, it is typical. It is in essence the same kind 
of treatment that he gave in later life to any loose statement or extravagant theory, 
although printed in the most dignified journal and propounded by the most redoubtable 

Breadth and thoroughness are ever at war with each other in men, for that men are 
finite. The gift of both in large measure and at once, — this marks the man of genius. 
That the gift was Whitney's is clear to any one who considers the versatility of his 
mind, the variousness of his work, and the quality of his results. As professor of 
Sanskrit, technical work in grammar, lexicography, text-criticism, and. the like, lay 
nearest to him ; but with all this, he still found strength to illuminate by his insight 
many questions of general linguistic theory, the origin of language, phonetics, the 
difficult subject of Hindu astronomy and the question of its derivation, the method and 

Hi Memorial Addnss by i/u Editor 

tcchni(}ue of translation, the science of religion, mythology, linguistic elhiiok)gy, alpha* 
betics, ami paleography, and much else. Astonishing is the combination of technical 
knowledge in wi<lcly diverse fields wliich appears in his elalioratrly annotated translation 
of the famous Sanskrit astronomical treatise called SuryasiddhAnta, and which, again^ 
he brought to t>ear \i\yoi\ his criticisms of earlier and later attempts to determine the age 
of the Veda by its references to s<»lar eclipses, and by its alleged implications respecting 
the (»lace of the ef|uinoctial colurcs. 

Hut not only in res|>ec t of ctrntents were Whitney's writings of conspicuous merit ; he 
had also the sense of form and pro)M>rtion, — that sense for lack of which the writings 
of many a scholar of ef|ual learning are almost nugatory. At twentytwo, his English 
style had the charms of simplicity, clearness, and vigor, and they held out to the last. 
And what could be more admirable than his l>eauti(ul essay, — a veritable classic,-* 
**'lhe V'cdic Doctrine of a Future Life**? His subjects, indeed, if treated sertoiisly, 
do not lend themselves to the graces of rhetorical or ornate writing ; and his concise 
and pregnant |)erio<ls sornctinu-s m<Kk the flippant or listless reader, llut his presenta- 
tion, whether of argument or of scientific generalization, is always a mcKlel of lucidity, 
of orderly ex|M>ftition, and of due sulnmlination of the parts. This was a matter oa 
which he felt deeply ; for his patietue was often sorely tried by papers for whose sloven- 
liness in diction, arrangement, and all the externals of which he was a master, the 
authors fondly thought that their crufliti<m was fors(M>th an excuse. 

Indeed, for the matter of printer's manuscript, more than once has lk>ehtltngk, the 
Nestor of Indianists, taxed him home with making it too gcKxl, declaring it a wicked sin 
to put time on such things, though playfully admitting the while that he had killed off 
with his own des|>erate copy I cannot remember how many luckless type-setters In the 
office of the Kassian Academv. 

Where there was so much of the liest, it is not feasible to go into details about alL 
Yet I cannot omit mention of some of his masterpieces. Very notable is his ** Language 
and the .Study of Language,** — a work of wide currency, and one which has done more 
than any other in this country to promote sound and intelligent views u|x>n the subjects 
concerned. It deals with principles, with si>eculative questions, and with broad gener- 
alizations, — the very things in which his mastery of material, self restraint, even balance 
of mirul, and rigorous logic come admirably into play. 

Of a wholly different type, l)ut not one whit inferior withal, are his PrAti^Akhyas. 
These are the phonetico grammatical treatises upon the text of the Vetlas, and are of 
prime im|>ortance for the establishment of the text. Their distinguishing feature it 
minutix, of marvellous exactness, but presented in such a form that no one with aught 
less than a tropical Oriental contempt for the value of time can make anything out of 
them as they stand. Whitney not only out-IIindus the Hindu for minuti;r, but also — 
such is his command of form — actually recasts the whole, so that it liecomes a book of 
easy reference. 

As for the joint edition of the AtharvaA'eda, it is a most noteworthy fact that it has 
held its own now for thirty-eight years as an unsurpassed mo<lel of what a Ve«lic text- 
edition ought to l>e. His ** Index \'erl)orum to the AtharvaA'eda,** a work of wonderful 
completeness and accuracy, is much more than its name implies, and may not pass with- 
out brief mention, inasmuch as its material formed the basis of his contributions to the 
Sanskrit-(*erman lexicon publishe<i by the Imperial Academy of Russia. This great 
seven volumed quarto, whose steady progress through the press took some three and 
twenty years, U the Sanskrit Stephanus. Americans may well be proud of the fact 
that to Whitney belongs the distinguished honor of being one of tlie four ** faithful 

An Estimate of Whitney s Character and Services liii 

collaborators*' who, next to the authors, Boehtlingk and Roth, contributed most to 
this monumental work. 

Of all his technical works, his " Sanskrit Grammar," with its elaborate supplement, 
*' The Roots, Verb-forms, and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language," forms 
the crowning achievement. Here he casts off the bonds of tradition wherever they 
might hamper his free scientific procedure, and approaches the phenomena of language 
in essentially the same spirit and attitude of mind as that in which Darwin or Hclmholtz 
grappled the problems of their sciences. The language is treated historically, and as 
the product of life and growth ; and the work is filled with the results of scores of 
minute and far-reaching special investigations. The amount of material which is here 
subjected to rigorous and original methods of classification and scientific induction is 
enormous ; and none but those who were familiar with his writing-table can well realize 
the self-restraint that he used in order to bring his results into moderate compass. 

In all these technical works there is litde that appeals to the popular imagination, 
and absolutely nothing to catch the applause of the groundlings ; but much, on the 
other hand, to win the confidence of the judicious. It was therefore natural that 
Whitney should be sought as editor-in-chief for what is in every sense by far the 
greatest lexicographical achievement of America, "The Century Dictionary." And 
despite the ability and size of the editorial staff, we may well believe that this office was 
no sinecure ; for the settlement of the principles of procedure demanded the full breadth 
of learning, the largeness of view, and the judicial temper of a master mind. Among 
the great body of his countrymen, this will be Whitney's best-known monument. 

Mr. Whitney was a genuine lover of nature and of the world out of doors no less 
than of his books ; and so, with his keen sense of humor and love of fun, he was a 
charming companion for the woods and hills. Physical courage, too, abounded, often 
with a daring impulse to meet bodily risk and danger, as when he climbed the so-called 
Look-off Pine, about one hundred and thirty feet high, a monarch overtopping the 
primeval forests of the Ontonagon River, and broke off its top as a trophy ; or as when, 
with his brother, he indulged in the youthful escapade of passing the forbidden point of 
the spire of Strasburg Cathedral by clambering out and around the point of obstruction 
on the outside, and of mounting thence toward the summit as far as there was any 
opening within the spire large enough to contain a man's body. He was intensely 
American, in the best sense of the word ; and his patriotism, aside from its loftier mani- 
festations (of which a moment later), showed itself in some lesser ways not unpleasing 
to recall. In describing his passage through the wilds of the Detroit River, he says in 
that youthful journal, "There was little difference in the appearance of the two sides; 
but I endeavored to persuade myself that the American offered evidence of more active 
and successful industry than the British." l^' /hf}f) /' f . 

I venture to quote in part the words and in part the substance of a recent letter from /^ ^ s /;^ 
one of his old pupils. There is no one, said this pupil, whose privilege it was to know 
him more intimately, who could not speak of the deep tenderness underlying his ordinary /'pTz - K '^ 
reserve, of his profound sympathy with difficulty and misfortune, and of his ever-steadfast 
loyalties. Of the last a touching illustration is found in his remembrance of the Schaal 
family, in whose house auf dem Grabcn he lodged during his Tubingen summers of 
1 85 1 and 1852. Nearly forty years later he wrote to this pupil, then in Tubingen, 
asking him to seek out the Schaals, and to be the bearer of kindly messages to them. 
Fraulein Schaal spoke of the delight her mother and herself had felt at the messages 
sent them by the professor who had become so celebrated, but who had not forgotten 
them, and showed the visitor Professor Whitney's room, all unchanged, a typical 

liv Memorial Address by the Editor 

StmiUHtfHtimmer; in the mtcldlc, a long plain tal>le, and by it an uncushioned aim-chair. 
That, ^lid !ihc, was Profcv^uir Whitney *s chair, and in it he used to sit for hours at that 
table, almoftt without movinfr. When he moved the chair more than a little, I knew 
(hat it was time for me to take him his muj; of l>eer, and perchance a bit of bread. Am!, 
a^ a very small ^\\\ then, I wondered at the table, which was covered with little bits of 
pa)>cr, witich he had arranged in a certain order, and was very particular that no one 
shouhl cliMurb. The only adornment which he had in the room was an American fla|^ 
<lra)>ed over the mitror ; and on the Fourth of July he said he would work an hour lets 
than, 7i% it wasi the anniversary of American independence. The flag was the 
symbol of a true passion; and in his toils for truth he felt that be wxs working, first for 
the welfare, and second for the glory of his country. And as for the latter, how many 
an American student in (Germany has l>een proud of the generous recognition of 
Whitney's success ! Years ago, continues the letter, I was exchanging a few words with 
a famous Orientalist. The llcrr Professor kindly aske<l me from what part of Americm 
I came. New Jersey, I told him, and his face grew very blank. 1 know Connecticut, 
said he. Anfl he knew Connecticut, as did his colleagues, largely because he knew 
Whitney. So much for the letter of a loving and l>eloved pupil. 

It sugt^ests withal an inquiry : What was the .secret of Whitney*s great productivity? 
In the first instance, — it is almost needless to say, — his native gifts. Ilttt it is far 
from true that native gifts are always fruitful. Next to them came his power of dis- 
cerning what was the really important thing to do, and his habit — self-imposed, and 
enforced with Spartan rigor — of doing something every working-day upon that really 
important thing, and, above all, of doing that something first. Such was hb regularity 
that even the dire necessity — which arose in 18S2 — of moving from one dwelling- 
house into another did not break it. ** Even moving,** he writes, ** 1 expect to find con- 
sistent with regular doses of TalavakAra, etc.** The ** art of judicious slighting** was a 
household word in his family, a weapon of might ; its importance to the really great It 
equalled only by its perilousness in the hands of the unskilful. His plans were formed 
with circunvspection, with careful counting of the cost, and then adhered to with the 
utmost persistence, so that he left behind him nothing fragmentary. We may change 
Goldsmith's epitaph to suit the case, and say that Whitney put his hand to nothing that 
he did not carry out, — nihil qttod imepit non ptrfecit. 

And what shall I say of the lesser virtues that graced him? As patient as the 
earth, say the Hindus. And endless patience was his where patience was in place. 
And how beautiful was his gentleness, his kindness to those from whom he looked for 
nothing again, his gratitude to those who did him a service! And how especially well 
did the calm dignity which was ever his wont become him when he presided at the 
meetings of learned societies! How notable the brevity with which he presented his 
papers! No lalx>red reading from a manuscript, but rather a simple and facile account 
of results. An example, surely! He who had the most to say usetl in proportion the 
least time in saying it. And this was indeed of a piece with his most exemplary habit, 
as editor of the publications of the Oriental Society, of keeping his own name so far in 
the background. For how genuine was his modesty of bearing, of s)>eech, and of 
soul ! 

And in harmony therewith was his reverence for things hallowed. 

He counted not himself to have attaine<l. 

This doughty toiler on the paths nf truth ; 

Ai»d scorned not them who lower heights had reached. 

An Estimate of Whitney s Character and Services Iv 

As was his attitude toward things sacred, so also was it toward those who went before 
him in science. He did not speak sneeringly of what they, with lesser light, had 
achieved. And to him Aristotle was none the less a giant because some dwarf on a 
giant's shoulders can see farther than the giant himself. 

If I may cite my own words used on a former occasion, Whitney's life-work shows 
three important lines of activity, — the elaboration of strictly technical works, the 
preparation of educational treatises, and the popular exposition of scientific questions. 
The last two methods of public service are direct and immediate, and to be gainsaid of 
none ; yet even here the less immediate results are doubtless the ones by which he 
would have set most store. As for the first, some may incline to think the value of an 
edition of the Veda or of a Sanskrit grammar — to say nothing of a Prati^akhya — 
extremely remote ; they certainly won for him neither money nor popular applause ; and 
yet, again, such are the very works in which we cannot doubt he took the deepest satis- 
faction. He realized their fundamental character, knew that they were to play their 
part in unlocking the treasures of Indian antiquity, and knew that that antiquity has its 
great lessons for us moderns; further, that the history of the languages of India, as it 
has indeed already modified, is also yet to modify, and that profoundly, the whole 
teaching of classical and Germanic philology, both in method and in contents ; and that 
the history of the evolution of religions in India is destined to exert a powerful influence 
for good upon the development of religious thought and life among us and our children. 
He labored, and other men shall enter into his labors. But it is this *' faith, the 
assurance of things hoped for," — irto-ri? iKiriffl^kviav vjroorao-t?, — which is one of the 
most vital attributes of the true scholar. 

In the autumn of 1886 came the beginning of the end, an alarming disorder of 
the heart. Adhering closely to a strictly prescribed physical regimen, he labored on, 
according to his wavering strength, heaping, as it were, the already brimming measure 
of his life-work. His courage, his patient learning of the art of suffering, his calm 
serenity in facing the ever-present possibility of sudden death, — this was heroic. And 
through it all forsook him not the two grand informing motives of his life, — the pure 
love of truth, and an all-absorbing passion for faithful service. 

With this love of truth, this consuming zeal for service, with this public spirit and 
broad humanity, this absolute truthfulness and genuineness of character, is not this life 
an inspiration and an example more potent by far than years of exhortation ? Is not 
this truly one of the lives that make for righteousness? 

And what then ? On the tympanum of the theatre at Harvard are inscribed in the 
Vulgate version those noble words from the book of Daniel : — 





We may say them of him : And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the 
firmament ; and they that turn many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and ever. 


This list is reprinted with unimportant modifications from the one com* 
piled by Whitney and published at New Haven, 1893, as his part of the 
Ihblio^raphies of the Present Ojffuen of )\i/e i'mversity. It consists of 
al)out 150 numbers; a much fuller list (of about 360 numbers) is given 
in thcMcmoria^\)lumcmei^^ The articles (about 

a score) reprinted in his Oneutal and Ltn^uistie Studies (First series, 1873 : 
Second series, 1874) are marked by the note "Reprinted in Studies^** 
with an added i. or ii. 

The abbreviations are for the most part as explained below, pages ci- 
cvi ; but for the non-technical reader, several of the most frequently 
cited serials may here be noted : Journal of the American Oriental 
Society (JAOS); Transactions of the American Philological Association 
(ATA.) ; American Journal of rhilolo*;y (AJT.) ; North American Review 
(N. Amer. Rev.). 

1849 On the Brammaiical Mrurture of the Sanskrit. (Translated and abfidged from von 

Hnhlrn.) BtHn*thf€a Sttt^tt, \i. 471-4S6. 

1850 A comparison nf the (vrerk and I^ttn \crlM. /^f</, vii. 654-66S. 

1851 TAltrllarischr I>arstellunf* drr grf*cnsrtttf;en VerhalinUne der Sanhitis des Rik, Slaun, 

weN*rn Yajus iind Atharvan. /ntt. S/u*t , ii. }2i-yfA. 
185S (>ti the main rrsults f«f the later Vedic researches in Germany. JAOS. iii. 2S9-33S. 
kepnntetl in StuJui^ i. 

1854 On fhr hinlorv <»f the Vctii* Icxtf. /A/./, iv. 245- 761. 

1855 Bripp's Comparative acrentuation of the (jierk arxl Sanskrit lanf^uages. IhtJ„ y. I95>*|S. 
On the Ave^ta. or the sarreil scriptures of the Zoroastrian religion. IhJ., y. 337-^3. 

Krprinte<t in StuJift, i. 

1856 ('«>ntfil>utions from the Atharva-Veda to the theory of Sanskrit verbal acrent. ihd^ 

V- 3*^5 419- I'ranslated into (vcrman in Kuhn and Schlekher't Bntfagte t. vtrgt. 

1855-56 AtharvaVeiU^^anhita. herau«geget)eii von K. Roth ttnd W. D. Whitney. I, 1S55; 
?. |S;C»; rr»y S^ 45.S pp. 

1857 AlphalM-ti«chr% Vrr/eiihntss cl«*r Vrrtanfangr der Atharva-Saifchitl. /W. JiW^/., iv. 9-64. 

1858 Th«* British in Imha. A'nv En-^Under^ ivi. loo-f |i. Reprinted in Stmdiet, iL 

1859 c hina ati'l the Chinese, /hit ^ xvii. 111-14;. Reprinted in Stti,/ui, li. 

(»n the V*r<lic d<M trine of a future life. IitNii*tketa Sa^ra^w'x. 40^-^20, Reprinted in 
StMtiift, i. 

1860>Uti'm of the Surya .^iddhanta. a test lM>ok of I lindo astronomy : «ith m»l<t» And 

an ap|w>fiilii JAOS \i. i|i-4>S. [Il')th tran«I.i*ion ami notes are entirely 1>J Tfo- 
fr^«or Whitney, though in the work itself this fart is acknowledged only in the words 
"a*^i«»lr<l l»v lh»* <*«immiffrr of Pulihcation **] 

1861 t'hinji anil the VVr^t AV»* i- n^tanJ^r^ x\x \-\\. Reprinted in StttJiet, ii. 

.Miillcr'« History of Vedic literature. Ckrtthan lixamtner^\x%. 2y~zS\. Reprinted M 
SfttJift, i. 


For tlu Years 1 849-1 871 Ivii 

1861 On Lepsius*s Standard Alphabet. /A OS. vii. 29^332. 

Review of Soule and Wheeler's Manual of English pronunciation and spelling. Nno 
Ettglander^ xix. 913-929. 

1862 The Atharva-Veda-Prati9akhya, or ^aunakiya CaturidhyiyikS: text, translation, and 

notes. JAOS. vii. 333-616. 

1863 On the views of Biot and Weber respecting the relations of the Hindu and Chinese 

systems of asterisms ; with an addition, on Miiller's views respecting the same subject. 
Ibui.t viii. 1-94. 
1861-1863 The following articles in AppUton*s New American Cyclopadia^ ist ed. : Persia, 
Language and Literature of, xiii. 324-328. — Sanskrit, xiv. 611-616. — Semitic Race 
and Languages, xiv. 760-762. — Syriac Language and Literature, xv. 547-549. — Tura- 
nian Race and Languages, xvi. 42-43. — Turkish Language and Literature, xvi. 63-66. 
— Veda, xvi. 2S0. — Zendavesta, xvi. 810-81 1. — Zoroaster, xvi. 834-835. 

1864 Brief abstract of a series of six lectures on the Principles of Linguistic Science, delivered 

at the Smithsonian Institution in March, 1864. Smithsonian Reportiox 1864, pp. 95-1 16. 

1865 On the jyotisha observation of the place of the colures, and the date derivable from it. 

JRAS. L 316-331. 
On Miiller's second series of lectures on the Science of Language. N, Amer. Rev.^ c. 

565-581. Reprinted in J/W/>j, i. 
Is the study of language a physical science ? Ibid.^ ci. 434-474. 

1866 On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet: a letter of explanations from Prof. Lepsius, with notes 

by W. D. Whitney. JAOS. viii. 335-373. 
Reply to the strictures of Prof. Weber upon an essay respecting the asterismal system 
of the Hindus, Arabs, and Chinese. Ibid.^ viii. 382-398. 

1867 Language and the Study of Language : twelve lectures on the principles of linguistic 

science. New York, 12®, xi + 489 pp. Translated into German by Prof. Julius Jolly, 
1874, Miinchen (Ackermann), 8°, xxix + 713 pp. ; — into Netherlandish by J. Beckering 
Vinckers, 2 vols., 1877-81, Haarlem (Bohn), 8° xvi + 436 pp. and iv + 476 pp. 

The value of linguistic science to ethnology. New Englander^ xxvi. 30-52. 

Languages and dialects. N. Amer. Rev., civ. 30-64. 

On the testimony of language respecting the unity of the human race. Ibid.., cv. 214-241. 

Key and Oppert on Indo-European philology. Ibid., cv. 521-554. Reprinted in Studies, i. 

The aim and object of the Sheffield Scientific School. Annual Statement for 1S67-8, 
pp. 9-21. 

1868 The translation of the Veda. N. Amer. Rev., cvi. 515-542. Reprinted in Studies, i. 
On A. M. Bell's Visible Speech, /bid., cvii. 347-358. Reprinted in Studies, ii. 

1869 On Miiller's Chips from a German Workshop, I., II. /bid., cix. 544-556. Reprinted in 

Studies, ii. 
A Compendious German Grammar, with supplement of exercises. New York, 1 2°, xvi -f- 
252 -f 51 pp. 

1870 A German Reader, in prose and verse, with notes and vocabulary. New York, 12^ 

X + 523 PP- 
Miiller on the Science of Religion. Nation, No. 276, Oct. 13. 

On comparative grammars. N. Amer. Rev., cxi. 199-208. 

1871 On the nature and designation of the accent in Sanskrit. Trans, APA. for 1S69-70, 

pp. 20-45. 
On the present condition of the question as to the origin of language. Ibid., pp. 84-94. 

Reprinted in Studies, i. 
On Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations. N. Amer. Rev.^ cxii. 218-229. Reprinted 

in Studies, ii. 
On Miiller's translation of the Rig- Veda. Ibid., cxiii. 174-187. Reprinted in Studies, i. 
Language and Education. Ibid., cxiii. 343-374. Reprinted in Studies, i. 
On Miiller's lectures on the Science of Language, 6th ed. Ibid., cxiii. 430-441. Reprinted 

in Studies, i. 

Iviii Sc/i'ci List of Whitney s Writings 

1171 I.Kamtnatton of Dr. Ilaug't viewi respecting Sanskrit accentoation. JAOS. i.. pp. Is-ii, 

= yViv. for May. 
The l&ittifiya rr.^tt^ikhya. with \\% rommentary. the Tribhlshyaratna : teit, trmntUtio«« 

and notes. JAOS. ii. 1-4611. 
1I7S Stetnthal on the Origin of Language. X. Amer. ^rt:, ctiv. 272>3oS. Reprinted la 

StttJus, i. 
jacoUiot's Bible in India. /nJe^nJrnt, May t. 

Stticturen on the views r»f August S4 hieicher re^|>ecting the naturt of languag* and kin- 
dred tuhjecls. 7>ri «ti. ATA. for 1A71, pp. 35-64. Reprinted in Studut^ i. 
187) Oriental and linguistic Studies: the Veda; the Avetta; the ScierKt of I^nf«aft. 

New York, 12^ ix + 417 pp- [First series.] 
On material and form in language. Tram, A PA. for 1872. pp. 77-^- 
Notes to ColelMooke's Kstay on the Vedas. Tp. 103-132 of vol. 1 of tht aecond cditioA 

of Colehrooke't Essays, l^ndon, S^ 
Intercollegiate emulation. A'atii*n» No. 397, Feb. 20. 
On the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories. Amer. J^mrmmi 0/ S€um€f to^ Dk^ 

vi. 46]- 466. 
Hall's Recent Kxemplifications of False Philology. TAe AVw V^k Ttmft, Ftb. t^ 
Hall's Mo<lern Knglish. IhJ., Occ 6 
The llayden Expedition (letters from (*olorado). The AV» V^rk TW^mm/, extra No. 14, 

Dec. 30. 
Text lK>oks for the study of Sanskrit. The (Vale) CW///y C^mrmmi, Dec. 13. Reprinted, 

with corrections and additions. June 37« 1874. 
La question de I'anusvira Sanscrit. Mim^tret dt la S^tM iti Ltmguuitfmt d4 i^aru^ 

vol. 2 (1875). pp. i«>4 199- 
1874 On Darwinism and language. X. Amer. A'rt'., cxix. 61-88. 

Oriental atul linguistic Studies. Second series : I'he East and Weat ; Relifiott 9mA 

Mythology; Orthography and Phonology; Hindu Astronomy. New York, 12*, 

xi + 43» PP 
Who shall direct the national surveys.' Nah^m^ No. 464, May 21. 
On Peile's Greek and I^ttn Etymology. Tram. Pktifii. .W. 0/ L^mil^m for l87j>4, 

pp. 297 327 

On the Chinese tin* as constellations. JAOS. x.. pp. Ixxxii-lxxxv, s Prtt. for May. 

On rrcent discussions as to the phonetic character of the Sanskrit ammsvdrs, /M., 
pp Ixxxvi-lxxxviit. 

On the Sanskrit accent and Dr. Haug. /M., pp. ciii-<v (for Oct.). 
1879 The life and Growth of language: an outline of linguistic icience. (Intematiottsl 
Scientific Series, vol. 16) New York, 12'*. ix -f 326 pp. Translated into Germaa by 
Prof. A. I>eskien, 1876, i2\ xv + 350 pp., I^pxig (Hrockhaes); — into Frcocli, 1876^ 
8\ vu + 264 pp. Parts (tlaillicre) ; into Italian by Prof. F. d'Ovidto, 1876, 8^ sxi -«• 
389 pp, Milan (Dumolard); — into Netherlandish by G. Velderman, 1879, 8^, vl 4* 
274 pp.. Arnhem (Ouiiit) ; — into Swedish by G. Stjernstrom, 18S0, tt\ Ttii -f 320 pp., 
Stockholm (Itjorik). 

^Wfi or 0^0u~- natural or conventional ? Trams. ATA. for 1874, pp. 95-116. 

Are languages institutions > C^fHtemf^rary Kev. (I^ndon). xxv. 713-732. 

Strettfragen der heutigen Sprachphilosophie. Deuttehe KHnd$<hau (Rerlin), W. 251^27^ 
1876 On the classification of the forms of the Sanskrit aortst. JAOS. x., pp. ouW-cssv, s 
/V«v for May. 

Z«v = i/r<fM/, and other points relatmg to Sanskrit grammar, as presented ia M. MiiBtt't 
recent volume of ••('hips.'* IhJ.^ pp. cxxvi-<xxix. 

On I>e Rouge's derivation of the Phenician alphabet from the Egyptian cliafactcfs. 
Jhtd , pp. cxxxi cxxxii (for Nov ). 

The study of English grammar. Xr» Englan J Journal aj EJm€mii0m, Mar. l8, Apr. I}, 
May 13 

For the Years 1871-1885 lix 

1876 Muller's Rig- Veda and commentary. New Englandery xxxv. 772-791. 
Language. Article \r\ Johnson's New Universal Cyelopadia^ ii. 1633-1641. 
The system of the Sanskrit verb. Proe. APA.^ pp. 6-8, in Trans, for 1876. 

1877 Essentials of English Grammar, for the use of Schools. Boston, 12°, xi + 260 pp. 
A botanico-philological problem. Trans. APA. for 1876, pp. 73-86. 

On Cockneyisms. Proe. APA., pp. 26-28, in Trans, for 1877. 

On the current explanation of the middle endings in the Indo-European verb. JAOS. 

X., pp. cxliii-cxlv, = Proe. for May. 
Douse on Grimm's Law. Nation^ No. 631, Aug. 2. 

1878 On the relation of surd and sonant. Trans. APA. for 1877, pp. 41-57. 
The principle of economy as a phonetic force. Ibid.f pp. 123-134. 

On the derivative conjugations of the Sanskrit verb. JAOS. x., pp. clxvili-clxx, = Proe. 
for May. 

1879 A Sanskrit Grammar, including both the classical language and the older dialects, of 

Veda and Brahmana. Leipzig (Breitkopf u. Ilartel), 8°, xxiv + 486 pp. Second ed., 
revised and extended, /VJ/V/., 1889, xxvi + 552 pp. Third ed., ibid.^ 1896. Translated 
into German by Prof. IL Zimmer, ibid., 1879, 8®, xxviii + 520 pp. 

1880 Collation of a second manuscript of the Atharva-Veda Prati^akhya. JAOS. x. 156-17 1. 
Ix>gical consistency in views of language. A/P. i. 327-343. 

MUller's Sacred Books of the East. Independent, Nov. 11. 

Sayce on the Science of Language. Nation, No. 774, Apr. 29. 

On the rules of external combination in Sanskrit. JAOS. xi., pp. xxxii-xxxiv, = Proe. 

for May. 
On the transliteration of Sanskrit. Ibid., xi., pp. li-liv, = Proe. for Oct. 

1881 Index Verborum to the published text of the Atharva-Veda. Ibid., xii. 1-383. 
On the so-called Science of Religion. Prineeton Rev., Ivii. 429-452. 

On inconsistency in views of language. Trans. APA. for 1880, pp. 92-112. 

What is articulation? AJP. ii. 345-350. 

On Lepsius's Nubian Grammar. Ibid., ii. 362-372. 

1882 On mixture in language. Trans. APA. for 1881, pp. 5-26. 

General considerations on the Indo-European case-system. Ibid, for 1882, pp. 88-100. 
Eggeling's translation of the (^atapatha-Brahmana. AJP. iii. 391-410. 
The cosmogonic hymn. Rig- Veda x. 129. JAOS. xi., pp. cix-cxi, = Proe. for May. 
Further words as to surds and sonants, and the law of economy as a phonetic force. 

Proe. APA., pp. 1 2-18, in Trans, for 1882. 
Le pr^tendu Henoth^isme du Veda. Revue de VHistoire des Religions (Paris), vi. 1 29-1 43. 
1888 On the Jaiminlya- or Talavakara-Brahmana. JAOS. xi., pp. cxliv-cxlviii, = Proe. for 

Isaac Taylor's The Alphabet. Seienee, Sept. 28. 
The various readings of the Sama-Veda. JAOS. xi.,pp. clxxxiv-clxxxv, = Proe. for Oct. 

1884 The varieties of predication. Trans. APA. for 1883, pp. 36-41. 

The study of Hindu grammar and the study of Sanskrit. AJP. v. 279-297. 

On E. Kuhn's Origin and Language of the Transgangetic Peoples. Ibid., v. 88-93. 

On the classification of certain aorist-forms in Sanskrit. JAOS. xi., pp. ccxviii-ccxx, = 

Proe. for Oct. 
On the etymology of the Sanskrit noun vrata. Ibid., pp. ccxxix-ccxxxi. 

1885 On combination and adaptation as illustrated by the exchanges of primary and secondary 

suffixes. Trans. APA. for 1884, pp. 111-123. 
The roots, verb-forms, and primary derivatives of the Sanskrit language. A supplement 

to his Sanskrit Grammar, by W. D. W. Leipzig (Breitkopf u. Hartel), 8**, xiv + 250 pp. 

Translated into German by Prof. H. Zimmer, ibid., 18S5, 8°, xv -|- 252 pp. 
The sis- and j-/x-aorists (6th and 7th aorist forms) in Sanskrit. AJP. vi. 275-284. 
Numerical results from indexes of Sanskrit tense- and conjugation-stems. JAOS. xiii., 

pp. xxxii-xxxv, = Proe. for May. 

Ix SeUct List of Whitucys Writings 

1889 On rrofem%or Ludwig't vietn rctpcctinj; total ecliptea of the tun ms noticed in tbc Rlf* 
Veda. IhJ^ itii . pp. Ui \x\\ (for Oct.). 
Philology, pt I. — Science ol language in general. Article in the Emffii. Br%t x\vL 

Lr<liie<l : Forty yean' rerord of the clatt of 18^5, Williamt College. New Haven. 8*. 
xvti 4- If/) pp. Pages 175 i8j contain an autobiographical aketch. Although brief, 
it i« of importance l>ecauBc it is trustworthy J 

1886 Hindu eschalology and the Kafha Upanishad. JAOS. xiii^ pp. ciii-cviii, rs /V«r. for 

A Practical French (Wammar, with exercises and illustrative sentences from Frenck 

authors. New York, 12'', xiii 4- 443 pp. 
The roots of the Sanskrit languagr. Trams. APA. for §885, pp. 5-19^ 
The Upanishads and their latest translation. A/P. vit 1-26. 
The following articks in A^^Utt*tt't \ew A merit am Cyth^dta^ id ed. ; Alphabet. 1. J«S- 

351. — Africa, Languages of, i. 171. — Aryan Kace and language, i. 799-801. 

1887 The method of phonetic change in language. /V«r. APA.^ pp. 3J-3$tin TVams. for 1886. 
The Vetlx Crnfitry Afaj;>iztnf^ xxxiii. 912-922. 

Notes on part IV. of Schrtnier's edition of the MiitrlyafilSaihhitl. JAOS. xiii. pp. 
ccxxvi-ccxxviii. = /V«v. for Oct. 

1888 On the second volume of Kggeling's translation of the (^atapathaBrlhmmna. IktJ. ziv., 

pp. vi-xi (for Oct ). 

1889 On the r and dr forms of Sanskrit roots. IhtJ. xiv., pp. czlviti-<l (for Oct.). 

1890 Hohllingk's Tpanishads. A/P xi 407-439 

1891 Translation of the Kaiha I'panishad. T'dnt. APA. for 1890, pp. 88-112. 

Open letter to the memtiers of the American Oriental Society. Privately printed. New 
Haven, 8^, 8 pp. 
1^1889 91 The Century Dictionary. An Encyrlope<lic I^exicon of the Knglish Language. 
Preparetl under the sufwrinlendence of William Owight Whitney, Fh. I)., U..I)., 
l*rofessor of Comparative Philology and Sanskrit in Vale University. Publbhed by 
The Century Co. New York. In six volumes, royal quarto. Pages xviti -f 7046 
( ~ 21,138 columns) ♦ 30 J 

[^llie preface to the first volume is dated May ist, 18.S9. The tupplementary note to 
preface is dated Ortolirr 1st. 1891. The actual work began, of course, long before 
the prior date. The "superintendence " of the lexicon naturally involved very far- 
reaching thought and planning (p liii, at>ove) ; but. in addition to this, the proofs ol 
every one of the 21.13S columns were read by Mr. Whitney himself. See T%e Cemiury 
Afaj^tttme^ xxxix. 31 5 J 
1891 On IMbruck's Vedic Syntax. A/P. xiii. 271-306- 

Max Muller and the science of language : a criticism. New York, 12**, iii 4- 79 pp. 

|_ J/r. ll'Mttme/t Utt (Utet ken. The feil awing titlet are aJJed hy the /i/i/^r. J 

Announcement as to a second volume of the Roth* Whitney edition of the Atharra^Veda. 

JAOS. XV., pp. clxxi-clxiiii. = /V<»r. for April. 
On the narrative use of imperfect and perfect in the Brihmanas. Trams. APA. for 189a, 

m> 5 34 

Review of F. Max Muller's Vedic Hymns, Translated. (Sacred Books of the East. vol. }2.) 
The Xew IIW/J (ot June, pp. 349-351. 
1898 Select list of Whitrtey's writings. (Kssentially the same as that just given: see above, 
P Ki) 
The native commentary to the Atharva-Veda Peitgruti am P^k (Stuttgart, Koblh; 

tH^f). pp- 89-96. 
The Veda in PininL Gtern,tle delU So%tet*i Att.itua itMtama^ vii. 243-254. 

For i/i€ Years 1885-1894 Ixi 

1893 Simplified spelling. A symposium on the question " Is simplified spelling feasible as 

proposed by the English and American I^hilological Societies ? " XI. The Afnerican 

A nth ropologisty A pril . 
On recent studies in Hindu grammar. AJP. xiv. 171-197. 
On recent studies in Hindu grammar. JAOS. xvi., pp. xii-xix, = Proc. for April. 

1894 Examples of sporadic and partial phonetic change in English. Brugmann und Streit- 

berg's Indogermanische Forschungetty iv. 32-36. 
On a recent attempt, by Jacobi and Tilak, to determine on astronomical evidence the 

date of the earliest Vedic period as 4000 B.C. JAOS. xvi., pp. Ixxxii-xciv, = Proc. for 

On the third volume of Eggeling's translation of the (^atapatha-Brahmana, with remarks 

on " soma = the moon." Ibid.^ xvi., pp. xcv-ci. 

\_J*osthumously published. \ 

1905 Atharva-Veda Samhita: translated, with a critical and exegetical commentary. Revised 
and brought nearer to completion and edited by C. R. L. Cambridge, Mass., roy. 8°, 
clxii + iv + 1046 pp. (Vol's vii. and viii. of the Harvard Oriental Series.) 



General Premises 

Scope of this Part of the Introduction. — As stated above, p. xxix, this 
Part contains much that might, but for its voluminousness, have been put 
into a preface. The main body of the present work consists of transla- 
tion and commentary. Of the latter, the constituent elements are mainly 
text-critical, and their sources may be put under ten headings, as follows : 

1 . Vulgate. European mss. 6. Vulgate. Prati^sLkhya and its comm. 

2. Vulgate. Indian mss. 7. Vulgate. The Anukramanls. 

3. Vulgate. Indian reciters. 8. Vulgate. Kau^ika and V§itana. 

4. Vulgate. Commentator's readings. 9. Kashmirian recension. Paippalada ms. 

5. Vulgate. Pada-readings. 10. Parallel texts. 

Of these sources, nine concern the Atharva-Veda, and the tenth concerns 
the parallel texts. Of the nine concerning the Atharva-Veda, eight con- 
cern the Vulgate or Caunakan recension, and the ninth concerns the 
Kashmirian or Paippalada recension. Of the eight concerning the Vul- 
gate, the first four concern both the samhitd- and the pada-pafhas} and 
the second four concern the ancillary texts. 

Partly by way of indicating what may fairly be expected in the case of 
each of these elements, and partly by way of forestalling adverse criti- 
cism, it will be well to make certain observations upon them seriatim, 
under the ten headings. Under an eleventh, I desire to add something 
to what was said in the preface, p. xxxvii, about the commentary as a 
whole; and, under a twelfth, to add a few necessary remarks concerning 
the translation. Under a thirteenth, the explanation of abbreviations etc. 
may be put ; and finally, under a fourteenth, a tabular view of previous 
translations and comments. 

Scope of the reports of variant readings. — By " variant readings** are here 
meant departures from the printed Berlin text.^ Absence of report means 

^ poubtless the paJa-pStha also is an ancillary text, and these headings are therefore not 
quite logical ; but they will serve. 

' Here it is to be noted that, by reason of breakage of type, the last part of the "run '* (as 
the printers say) is not always like the first ; in other words, that not every copy of the Berlin 
edition is like every other (cf. note to i. 18. 4). 


Ixiv Gcm-nxl Intrixiuction, Part /. ; by t/u Editor 

in pcnrral that the mss. present no true variants, albeit Whitney docs 
not rohcMrsc rvery*stu|)i«l blunder of every ignorant scribe. There is of 
course no dear line to be drawn between such blunders and true variants ; 
and in this matt<T we must to a certain degtee trust the discrimination 
of the Irarnrd editors. 

The term •« manuscripts'* often used loosely for ''authorities,** that is, 
manuscripts and oral reciters. — S. I*. Pandit, in establishing; his text, 
relied not only upon the testimony of written books, but also u|>on that 
of livin;; reciters of the Veda. Accordinj;ly, it should once for all here 
be premised that Whitney in the secpiel has often used the word "manu- 
scripts" (or •* mss.*') whfn he meant to include lM>th mss. and reciters and 
shouhl have used the less specific word ** authorities." I have often, but 
not always,* chan;;rd "mss." to ** authorities," when precise conformity 
to the facts required it. 

The difficulty of verifying; statements as to the weight of authority for a 
given reading may be illustrated by the following case. At iii. lo. I2c 
Whitney's first draft says, *• The s of tt tuui/utnta is demanded by IVit. 
ii. ()2, but SPP. gives in his text vy tisti/ttvtftt, with the comm., but against 
the decided majority of his mss., and the minority of ours (II.O., and per- 
haps others : record incomplete)." The second draft reads, "SPP. gives 
in his text ij as-t against the decided majority of all the mss." Scruti- 
nizing the authorities, written and oral, for the samhttA (since for this vari- 
ant /<i</«r mss. do not count), I find that Whitney records II.O., and that 
SI*r. records Hh.K.A.Sm.V . as giving /, in all, seven authorities; and 
that Whitney records T.M W.K.I.K . and that SPP. records K.D.R., as 
giving J, in all, nine authorities. Whitney's record is silent as to R.T. ; 
antl SPP's reiM)rt of K. is wrong either one way or else the other. The 
peiple.xities of the situation are palpable. I hedged by altering in the 
proof the words of the second draft so as to read "against a majority of 
the mss. rejK)rted by him." 

I. Readings of European Mss. of the Vulgate Recension 

The reports include mss. collated, some before publication of the text, and 
some thereafter. — To the prior group behmg Hp. H.P.M. W.K.I. H. ; to 

the latter, coll.ited some twenty years after publication,' belong O.R.T.K. 
Op. I) Kp. Whitney's description of the mss. is given in Part II. of the 
Intro<lnetion (p. cxi), and to it are prefi.xed (pp ex- cxi) convenient tabular 

' I hii« in the note to iii. 7. ;. *' a couple of .S|*r*t mt« '* meant two men. not l>ook<. Cf. fotct 
t«« in ; • *^ . W t 

* In .li*« u*%iin; itt • } (y, VVhitttr) »ars in the Prit. (p. 44?). ** Kirrry codex presents JtSmk*'; 
f»hilc in till* w"fk (lirlnw, p 1 jS) Iif rr|M>rt% O at r'^AilinR Jnlttt Since ••every codei" 

r*«rfv (i>i1.-t f.llitf'l ticfutc pul>li< attoii. tla* 1% n> contradiction. 

I . Readings of European Mss. of the Vulgate Ixv 

views of the mss. The immediate source of these reports is his Collation- 
Book : see pages cxvii to cxix. In the Collation-Book, the Berlin and 
Paris readings (B.P.) are in black ink; the Bodleian readings (M.W.) are 
in red; the London or " E.I.H." readings are in blue; and, excepting the 
variants of K.Kp. (which are also in blue), those of the mss. collated after 
publication (O.R.T.Op.D.) are in violet. The writing is a clear but small 
hand. The indications of agreement with the fundamental transcript are 
cither implicit (the absence of any recorded variant), or else made explicit 
by the use of very small exclamation-points. The differences of method 
in recording are duly explained at the beginning of the Collation-Book, as 
are also the meanings of the various colored inks : and Whitney's procedure 
throughout the Book conforms rigorously to his prefatory explanations. 

The interpretation of a record so highly condensed and not always complete 
was sometimes an occasion of error, even for Whitney who made the 
record and knew the circumstances of its making ; and, as may well be 
imagined, such interpretation was positively difficult and embarrassing for 
the editor (who had not this knowledge), especially in cases where, after 
the lapse of years, the colo rs of the inks w ere somewhat faded . — Thus 
Whitney misinterprets his notes of collation at vi. 36. 2, where it is P.I.K. ♦— ^ 

(and not Bp.M.K., as he wrote it in his copy for the printer) that read ^ 

vi^odh, — Again, at vi. 83. 3, it is W.O.D. (and not H.O.R., as he wrote / 

it for the printer) that read galantds. — Again, in writing out his com- / c^ 

mentary for the printer so many years after making his collation, he 
frequently forgot that there was no Op. for books v.-xvii., and has 
accordingly often reported a reading in violet ink as a rea ding of Op. 
when he should have reported it as a reading of D. This slip happened 
occasionally throug h several hundred type-pages and remained unnoticed 
even u ntil the el ec troplates were mad e ; but I believe I have had all the 
in stances of this error rectified in the plates. — Likewise, in writing 
out tor the printer, the fact seems to have slipped from his mind that 
he had made his fundamental transcript of book v. from codex Chambers 
109 (= Bp.*) and not, like all the rest of the first nine books, from Cham- 
bers 8 (= Bp.). I have accordingly had to change " Bp." into " Bp.',** 
or vice versa, some ten times in book v. (at 6. 8 ; 7. 3 ; 8. 3 ; 24. 3, 14 ; 
27. 10; 30. 11). — I may add that in (the often critically desperate) 
book xix., Whitney seems to use such an expression as "half the mss.** 
loosely in the sense of "a considerable part of the mss.** : so at xix. 29. i, 
where the record is presumably not complete for Whitney*s authorities, 
and where "half** is not true for SPP's. — For my own part, in con- 
sulting the Collation-Book for manuscript readings, I have exercised all 
reasonable care, using a magnifying glass regularly and referring fre- 
quently to the prefatory explanations. 

Ixvi General Iniroduciion, Pari /. ; by the Editor 

2. Readings of Indian Manuscripts of the Vulgate 

By «« Indian mss." are meant those used by S. P. Pandit. — No other 
Indian authorities arc intended, in this section and the next, than those 
given in S. V. Pandit's edition ; they inchide, as is fully and most inter- 
estingly explained in his preface, not merely manuscripts, but also oral 
reciters. Whitney had only the advance sheets of the parts with comment 
(hooks i.-iv., vi.-viii. 6, xi., and xvii.-xx. 37) ; but, although the remain- 
ing parts were accessible to me, I did not attempt for those remaining 
IKirts to incor|>orate S. P. Pandit's apparatus criticus into Whitney's work. 
I refrained with good reason, for such an attempt would have involved far 
too much rewriting of Whitney's copy for the printer. 

S. P. Pandit's reports not exhaustive. — It is far from being the case that 
S. P. Pandit always rejMKts upon all his authorities. Kor books i.-xvli. 
he had 12 sam/tttd and G pada authorities, besides the incomplete comm.; 
but at ii. 36.4, note 2. for instance, he reports only 6 out of 13 authori- 
ties. ' In summarizing SPP's reports, Whitney often says "all of SPFs 
mss," "all but one," "the majority," "half," and so on; and it must 
therefore here be noted that these expressions refer not to the totality of 
SPP's authorities concerned, but rather to the totality of those concerned 
and re|K)rtetl u|)on by SPP. in any given instance. Compare Whitney's 
notes to iii.4. 5 (line 2 of the note) ; iv. 7. 3 (line 6); iv. 26. 5 and iii. 30. 3; 
ii. 36. 4 (line 9), with SPP's critical notes on the same verses. 

3. Readings of Indian Oral Reciters of the Vulgate 

By «« Indian oral reciters " are meant those employed by S. P. Pandit. — It 
'was froni the lips of three living authorities that the Ik>mbay editor took 
much of the testimony which he used in the establishment of his text. 
II is Vaidikas were Hapuji Jivanriim (cited as Bp), Ke^ava Bha{ bin D2jl 
Hhat (K.), and Venkan Hhatjl (\'.), "the most celebrated Athar\'a Viidika 
in the Deccan." The last two were authorities for the whole text in 
both pachas, samhita and fada. The remarks made in the preface to 
the Bombay edition by S. P. Pandit concerning his reciters arc extremely 
interesting and suggestive. 

Errors of the eye checked by oral reciters. — The student should bear in 
mind the esjKrcial weight of the oral testimony in cases where errors of 
the eye, as distinguished from errors of the ear, arc probable. Thus the 
testimony of the reciters, at ix. 8(13). 20, establishes the reading visalfa*^ 
as against visalya- of the Berlin text. Save in AV\, the word is otherwise 

I At iv. ?d 5. SPP. rep^irtt 8 out of 1 3 sam^t/J aathontiet, Sm. and V being gtrcn <m Iwtli 
fttdet, and of coar«e wrongly on one or the other. 

3. Readings of tlie Indian Oral Reciters Ixvii 

unknown, and, as the ms.-distinction between lya and Ipa in such a case 
is worthless, the instance is a typical one to show the value of the 
reciters* reading: see W's note to vi. 127. i. The case is somewhat 
similar at iii. 12. 3, dsyand-^ as against dspand- (see the note and my addi- 
tion) ; so also at viii. 6. 17, spandand, as against syandaiid^ where, although 
only V. is cited, his testimony is abundantly confirmed by the sense (see 
note). At xix. 66. i (see note), as between those mss. which give paid 
and the Vaidikas K. and V., who recited ydhi^ there can be no question 
that we ought to follow the latter, although SPP. strangely rejects their 
evidence. Cf. the notes on fdyaya, at iv. i8. 4, and samuspald, at vi. 139. 3. 
One of the clearest errors of visual or graphical origin is ** Sayana's " 
idam, at vi. 37. 2, for hradain or hrdavi of the authorities, including K. 
and V. (cf. W's and SPP's notes). If this comm. was the real Sayana, 
the blunder does him no credit. At viii. 2. i, gnusti is established (as 
against frus(i) by the testimony of all the reciters ; although the case is 
less clear at iii. 17. 2 and 30. 7 (sec the notes). Upon their testimony, at 
X. 7. 16 (see notes), we ought to accept as the true Atharvan reading, 
prapyasds, albeit awa^ X€y6fjL€P0P and of questionable meaning. 

4. Readings of the Hindu Commentator 

The critical value and the range of his variant readings. — Whitney has 
given full and well-reasoned expression to his low opinion of the cxcgeti- 
cal value of the commentary and of the range and critical value of its 
variant readings, in an article in the Festgruss an Rothy pages 89-96. 
To that article, with its abundant lists and details, I call, as in duty bound, 
the especial attention of the reader. The commentator does indeed cor- 
rect a good many surface-blunders, part of which the Berlin editors had 
also corrected ; and his readings are occasionally supported (as against 
the two editions) by a parallel text : ^ but his variants " consist almost 
exclusively of single words or forms,'* and of real critical insight he 
exhibits almost none. 

Thusjie fails to recognize the fact that the ordinary usage of the mss. 
makes no distinction between double consonants in groups where the 
duplication is phonetic, and those in groups where the duplication is ety- 
mological (cf. W's Grammar, § 232); and is accordingly so obtuse as to 
misunde rstand and explai n tddydmcti, at iv. 19. 6, as tdd ydm cti, although 
the slightest heed for the rules of accent would have shown him that it is 
impossible for the combination to mean anything but tdddydm cti. Simi- 
larly at iv. 28. 3, again with utter disregard of accent, he makes out of 

* Thus at xix. 20. 4 b, vdrmhhar vdrma stiryahy the comm. reads aptir for ahixr^ and is 
supported therein by A^S. and A p. 

Ixviii Crtural lutrotiHction^ Pari /. : by (he Editor 

stui'iinunni (that is stuvtUt nni : cf. Feslgruss^ p. 90-91) an untranslatable 
stuviin ftrffti : here, it is true, one of the wildest blunders of the pada- 
kara was before him ; but even a modicum of insight should have kept 
him out of that pitfall. A^ain, he seems never to have observed that 
past passive participles with a pre|H>sition accent the pre|N>sition (cf. 
(»rtt9H9Nar, § 1085 a), and accordingly takes saim^as at xviii. 3. 30 as if 
it were sdinvrlas. Despite accent and pada-kara, he takes rajasd, p. -sdkp 
at xi. 2. 25, as instr. of rdjas ! And so on. 

The text uschI by the commentator is nevertheless notably different 
from that given by the mss. used for the Ikriin edition, and from that 
given by S. \\ Pandit's authorities. In l>ooks i.-iv. Whitney counts over 
three hundred peculiarities of the commentator's text, and in the Fest- 
gniss he gives several lists of them. He has intended in the present 
work to report all variants of the commentator's text throughout, and I 
trust that those which may have escaped his notice (or his and mine) will 
prove to be few indeed. 

Was the commentator of the Atharva-Veda identical with the Sijaya of 
the Rig- Veda? — I suggest that it might prove to be an interesting and bjr 
no means fruitless task to institute a systematic and critical comparison of 
the Mri(lhavlyavedartha-praka<;a (or K\ .-b/hUya) with the bhdsya on the 
AV., with special reference to the treatment of the accent in the two 
works, and to the bearings of these com|xirisons upon the question of 
the identity of the Sayana of the RV. with the "Sayana** of the AV. 
The latter ^ does indeed sometimes heed his accents; but the occasions 
on which he takes notice of them expressly are of utmost rarity (see W*t 
note to xix. 13. 9 and mine to verse 4). 

If, by way of comparing the two comments, we take the accusative plural 
yamdnijfliis, we find that at RV. x. 16. 9 S«1yana explains it quite rightly 
as a possessive compound, yamo rdjd yrsdin, (dn ; while at AV. xviii. 2. 46^ 
on the other hand, in the half-verse addressed to the dead man, 'by a 
safe(?) road, go thou to the Fathers who have Yama as their king/ 
dpanpiircna falhd ytxmdrdjfiah pttitt gacha^ " Sayana " makes of the very 
same form a gen. sing, and renders 'by a safe road belonging to king 
Yama (tasya sx^abhutcna mdrgcna) go thou to the Fathers * ! Evidently* 
so simple a matter as the famous distinction between {ndra-^atni and the 
blas|)hemous tftiim-^ntni (cf. Whitney on TPr. xxiv. 5 ; Weber, Ind, Stmd. 
iv. 368) was quite beyond his ken. Such bungling can hardly be the work 
of a man who knew his Rig- Veda as the real Siiyana did. 

» A rrmark in hit comment on ti 4 1 (Romfujr ed , I. no**), to the effect that the /ri/i^ Is 
a kind of tree familiarly known in Itenares, toggetts the tarmite that hU kkdna may haw 
written in that city. 

^i^, V^ii^ /^J;^ . T, v^ f^^ <^ Ja^U}^^ J.f^ ^. 

^ ' 5. Keadings of the Pada-patha Ixix 

5. Readings of the Pada-patha 

These were reported in the Index, and have since been published in full. — 
As elsewhere noted, these have been reported in the Index Vcrborum in 
such wise (see Index, p. 4) as to enable us to determine the fada-loxm of 
every item of the Atharvan vocabulary. An index, however, is an incon- 
venient vehicle for such information, and the complete pada-pailia^ as 
published by S. P. Pandit, is accordingly most welcome. Some of his 
occasional errors of judgment in the establishment of that text are pointed 
out by Whitney in the places concerned ; but the pada-patha has deeper- 
seated faults, faults which are doubtless original with its author and not 
simple errors of transmission.^ Here again I may make a suggestion, 
namely, that a critical and systematic study of the palpable blunders of 
tht pada-pat/ia would be an interesting and fruitful task. Even \\\q pada- 
text of books i.-xviii. stands on a very different plane from that of the 
RV. (cf. Geldner, Ved. Stud., iii. 144). A critical discussion of its char- 
acter is not called for here ; but several illustrative examples may be given. 

Illustrations of the defects of the Pada-patha. — Verb-compounds give 
occasion for several varieties of errors. Thus, first, as respects accentua- 
tion, we find, on the one hand, incorrect attribution of accent to the verbal 
clement (cf. v. 22. 1 1) ; and, on the other, denials of accent which are quite 
intolerable, as at xiv. 2. 73 (j/.- d: agavian instead of aodgaman) and xiv. 
I. 9 {ydt : saviid : adaddt : where f akalya resolves aright savitd : ddadat)} 

Secondly, as respects details of division, we find gross violation of the 
rule. The rule (a very natural one) for compounds with finite verb-forms 
is that the prepositio n, if accente d, is treated as an independen t word 
and has the vertical mark of interpunction (here represented by a colon) 
after it; but that, if accentle ss (proclitic), it is treated, not as an inde- 
pen dent word, but as making a word-unit with the verb-form, and is 
accordingly separated therefrom only by the minor mark of separation 
or avagraJia (here represented by a circle). Thus in AV. i. i, we have 
ni : raviaya ^r\A parhydnti. Such a division as ni^raviaya ox pari : ydnti 
would be wholly erroneous ; and yet we find errors of the first type at 
vi. 74. 2 {sdjnojnapaydini), 114. 2 (jipao^ckima), xiii. 3. 17 {vUb/idti), xviii. 
2.58 {pdriolfik/taydtdi), 4-53 (viodadhat) } 

* The /^ai/rt-text of book xix., which swarms with blunders (cf. p. 895, end, 896, top), is 
clearly very different both in character and origin from the pada-iexi of books i.-xviii. 

* If Whitney is right in supposing that vi. 1.3 is a spoiled gdyatri the first pada of which 
ends with savita^ then I believe that the accenllessness of sdTistit is to be regarded as pointing 
to a false resolution and that the /fl</!fi-text should be amended to aosdvisai; but cf. vii. 73. 7 c 
and (^akalya*s resolution of its RV. parallel. 

'In some of these cases, the rationale of the error is dbcernible: cf. the notes, especially 
the note to xiii. 3. 1 7. 

el •."nM-**"^.''.'^^*' • 

.•,.•. **- : fy ^ ^"J/.'r"5^ / '^ ^^ ^'^^^ '•">':'• 


(ttUiftt/ luiroduiiiou^ l\i9'i /.: dv the liditor 

VariiMis comhinntions. - TIk* rnmMn.ititm of c rtx o (final or initial) with 
iitlni \.»vvils ^ivrs !!«;«• to rrrois. Thus at viii. 2.21 cd — i. 35.4 ed, 
/I'/'j I /. .I'/'/) is icsolvfl l)y lh»! p:iil:i k.'ira as // *i;///, and the comm. 
ti'll'»\\s liiin III hnih insi.uu'-s. In mattcis cnncernin;; the combination 
«»! .ii,«Mits 1h* is I'sprcially wcik, as when ho resolves 5/1/ Af<r«//i/ into j<j/*/rfi 
./.i ;■:; .it iv ;<) ii>(scc n<>tri. I tie eimrs in ({uestion are of considerable 
i.iM:;.-. li.Mii thi' venial one of nt>t recc»;;nizin^;, at xiv. I. 56, that dnvar- 
::mi' nil. IMS ,in;t : :.f;//.Mi,* tn the (juile inexcusable ones of tellin*; us that 
1 I >t.m Is i »! ? /' in the vfise x. 10. 32, ui titiin ridiisr tiiuins^ //etc., or »';./j.f st.iiiils foi /';,/ii/'*; as subject iy{ jajfic in viii. 9. 5. Perhaps his 
:.\: !.r';.i/; (iv tii <»» .iii»l s:uiah : m-mi (iv. 28. 3), already noticed (p. Ixvii) 
111 anolhn ci»iiiu clii»n. in.iy be deemed to bear the palm. Kesidc the 
li'Timi we IV. IV |".!t his icsolutii»n- of scmatvam ( = sihntif ivdm)^ at 

6. The PrAti<;akhya and its Commentary 

Character of Whitnc y*s editions of the Prati^&khyas. — In the preface 

!.» i ^ ». ":■.'". : :;:l* lAittiuva S.uiihita. \Vcl»er «ipeaks with satisfaction 

.L:el h:i:^ in the t.i'ik i>f editing that Samhita by 

I ::: »!i I'l t!ie .ippui I'lAti'^akhya. Whitney's 

-e j-i \\\y\\:'j \ \ iTi«v!c! , but even his earlier edition of 

.sir. .1 u.ix buttress-.* .1 by such eiaK>ratc studies of 

.'*. : rrn trv.» t 'pics i«t the ri."itit,."ikhva, and bv such 

• . :•-::"..• :::tL:c::t c!,is<cs A those facts, that he could 

V . • • . •• -! :.::::::•. in c::tici<in of the wav in which the 

v.- : : * : I ,: .n •■ \ ••: t: -.' c/rnnient therei^n. has done his work, 

. . .■ -A \:^\\\\ : 1^'v.cnt c^ncernin^ the iK'aring of the 

' ^. ■■*.:■.• c »-'.n: :t-.;ti T if tiie Atharvan text. . 

B<i- -:.£ :: :h-f Arhdrvan Praticakhya upon the orthography and critidsm 

i*- :t.i: -■ > : ■ : - : ":!. ^: i:::v. a lii^cussii^n of the importance 

: ." ^ ■.:-:-• I'lri^NO is s'perrbaous for anv student 

^ • -; ••■• .'.• : !:*.e tre.itt^e ; V\\\ the ortho-graphic method 

■ • • -::-.» r"-:!"*. tv\t .t:': \ the rc!iti«»n of that method 

•'-•'■'• r- I*.: . i'vi'v I are mi:e the subject of a 

• - .••%•' \x •: >,s; w^ the treatise d«-'»es bear upon 

, • - " -:•• : ■ ". -• : ;\* I'^a: :: i^rv.vcs the nineteenth book is 

■. . ' J : '• '.'•.-.vs -^t c';r:v:l it've evi ienoe respecting the 

' •^ ■ . : • ; : •-.: ;" : \\\: >:■*•! :T::er.t.irv character of that 

. » « 


\ x 


* ■ • X 


\ .•-•-: •?.•.■! / .' 'it : •••* :••*"::. •■lit. o><'ibcirss OicaaHlf nt^ /^Mm 

• ■ I. * '•"•■•■•M 1.* t 

: f 

'. 'tj 

6. Tlu Prdiifdkliya and its Commentary Ixxi 

book : see p. 896, line 6. In matters of detail also, the treatise or its 
comment is sometimes of critical value : thus the non-inclusion of i4as 
pade among the examples of the comment on APr. ii. 72 (sec note) 
arouses the suspicion that vi. 63. 4 (see note) was not contained in the 
commentator's AV. text. 

Utilization of the Atharvan Praticakhya for the present work. — Whit- 
ney's edition is provided with three easily usable indexes (not blind 
indexes) : one of Atharvan passages, one of Sanskrit words, and a general 
index. The first gives in ohdcr some eight or nine hundred Atharvan 
passages, and gives nearly twelve hundred references to places in the 
Praticakhya or the comment or Whitney's notes, in which those passages 
are discussed. Whitney has transferred the rcfefemces of the first index 
with very great fulness, if not with absolute completeness, to the pages 
of his Collation-Book, entering each one opposite the text of the verse 
concerned. Very many or most of them, after they have once been util- 
ized in the constitution of the text of the Samhita, are of so little further 
moment as hardly to be worth quoting in the present work ; the rest will 
be found duly cited in the course of Whitney's commentary, and their 
value is obvious. 

7. The Anukramanis : <* Old *' and <* Major '* 

More than one Anukramani extant. — At the date of the preface to the 
Berlin edition, it was probably not clearly understood that there was 
more than one such treatise. The well-known one was the Major Anu- 
kramani, the text of which was copied by Whitney from the ms. in the 
British Museum in 1853, as noticed below, p. Ixxii. In making his fun- 
damental transcript of the Atharvan text, certain scraps, looking like 
extracts from a similar treatise, were found by Whitney in the colophons 
of the several divisions of the mss. which he was transcribing, and were 
copied by him in his Collation-Book, probably without recognizing their 
source more precisely than is implied in speaking of them as "bits of 
extract from an Old Anukramani, as we may call it" (see p. cxxxviii). 

The Pancapatalika. — The Critical Notice in the first volume of the 
Bombay edition made it clear that the source of those scraps is indeed 
an old Anukramani, and that it is still extant, not merely as scattered 
fragments, but as an independent treatise, and that its name is Paiica- 
patalika. That name is used by " Sayana " when he refers to the treatise 
in his comm. to iii. 10. 7. In the main body of this work the treatise is 
usually styled the *! quoted Anukr." or the "old Anukr." The word 
"old" means old with reference to the Major Anukramani; and since 

Ixxii General Introduction^ Part L: by the Editor 

the clc|>cndcncc of the latter upon the former is now evident (see p. 770, 
^4, end. p. 793, ^ I, end) it ap|)cars that the word ••old" was rightly 
used. The excerpts from the treatise, scattered through Whitney's 
Collationliook, have been gatheretl together on six sheets by him. I was 
templed to print them off together here for convenience; but several 
considerations dissuaded me: they are after all only fragments; they are 
all given in their pro|)er places in the main boily of this work; and, finally^ 
the lk)mbay editor (see his Critical Notice, pages 17-24) gives |>erhaps 
more copious extracts from the original treatise than do the colophons 
of Whitney's mss. For some of the excerpts In their proper sequence 
and connection, see below, pages 770-1, 792-3, and cf. ixiges 632, 707, 

711^ 814- 

Manuscripts of the PaScapatalikA. — Doubtless S. P. Pandit had a com- 
plete ms. of the treatise in his hands; and, if its critical value was not 
exhausted by his use of it, it may yet be worth while to make a criti- 
cal edition of this ancient tract. It is not unlikely that the ms. which 
S. P. Pandit used was one of those referred to by Aufrecht, Catahgns 
cafaii\i;^iynifn, p. 315, namely, Nos. 178-9 (on p. 61) of Kielhorn's Rcfntrt 
on the search for Sanskrit mss. in the Bombay Presidency durinf^ the year 
iSSo-Sf. Hoth are now listed in the Catalogue of the collections of mss. 
deposited in the Deccan Collet^e (Poona), p. 179. According to Garbe's 
Verzeichmss iter Indischen Handschrtften (Tubingen, 1899), p. 90, Roth 
made a copy of the treatise from a Uikaner ms., which copy is now in 
the Tubingen Library. 

The BrhatsarvAnukramanl. — This treatise is usually styled in the 
sequel simply ••the Anukr.,** but sometimes ''the Major Anukr." The 
excerpts from the treatise which are given at the beginning of the intro- 
ductions to the several hymns in this work are taken from Whitney's 
nAf^art transcript which he made in London in 1853 on the occasion of 
his visit there to make his I^ndon collations (p. xliv). The transcrifH 
is bound in a separate volume; and the edited excerpts arc so nearly 
exhaustive that relatively little work remains for an editor of the treatise 
to do. 

Manuscripts of the Brhatsarvftnukramanl. — Whitney made his tran- 
script from the Polier ms. in the British Museum which is now numbered 
548 by Bcndall in his Catalof^ue of the Sanskrit mss. in the British 
Museum of 1902. The ms. forms |>art of Polier's second volume descril>ed 
brlow, p. c.xiii, under Co<lex I ; and it is the one from which was made 
the ms. transcril>ed for Col. Martin and numbered 235 by Kggcling (sec 
again p. cxiii). Whitney afterwards, presumably in 1875. collated his 
London transcript with the Berlin ms. described by Weber, Verzeichniss^ 
vol. ii., p. 79, No. 1487, and added the Berlin readings in violet ink. The 

7- Tlie Anukramatiis : ''Old'' and ''Major'' Ixxiii 

Berlin ms. bears the copied date sainvat 1767 (a.d. 171 i) : it is characterized 
by Weber, Ind, Stud, xvii. 178, as "pretty incorrect"; but my impres- 
sion is that it is better than the ms. of the British Museum. 

Text-critical value of the Anukramanis. — The most important ancillary 
treatise that an editor needs to use in establishing the text of the samhitd^ 
is the Prati^akhya; but the Anukramanis are also of some importance, 
especially for the settlement of questions concerning the subdivisions of 
the text (cf., for example, pages 611, 628: or note to iv. 11. 7), as has 
been practically shown by S. P. Pandit in his edition, and in his Critical 
Notice, pages 16-24. — The pronouncements of the Anukramanis con- 
cerning the verse-norms of the earlier books (see p. cxlviii) are also of value 
in discussing general questions as to the structure of the samhitd. In 
particular questions, also, the statements of the Major Anukr. are some- 
times of critical weight. Thus iii. 29, as it stands in our text, is a hymn 
of 8 verses ; but our treatise expressly calls it a sadrca^ thus supporting 
most acceptably the critical reduction (already sufficiently certain : see 
note to vs. 7) of the hymn to one of 6 verses, the norm of the book. 
— Here and there are indications that suggest the surmise that the order 
of verses (cf. p. 739) or the extent of a hymn (cf. p. 7^^)^ as contemplated 
by the Anukr., may be different from that of our text. — Its statements 
as to the "deity" of a given hymn are sometimes worth considering in 
determining the general drift of that hymn ; and its dicta regarding the 
"seers" of the hymns are of interest in certain aspects which are briefly 
noticed below, pp. 1038 ff. — Then too, the manuscripts of the Anukr. ^/// // 7 - 
may sometimes be taken as testimony for the readings of the cited pratUas ■ 
(cf. note to iv. 3. 3). And it happens even that the authority of the 
Major Anukr. may be pressed into service at x. 5.49 (see the notes) to 
determine which pair of verses (whether viii. 3. 12-13 or vii. 61. 1-2) is 
meant by the ^dd agfta iti dvi oi the mss. (see below, p. cxx : and cf. the 
case at xix. 37. 4). 

The author of the Major Anukramani as a critic of meters. — The author 
shows no sense for rhythm. His equipment as a critic of meters hardly 
goes beyond the rudimentary capacity for counting syllables. Thus he 
calls ii. 12. 2 jagati ; but although pada a has 12 syllables, its cadence has 
nojagatt character whatever. To illustrate the woo denness of his methods, 
we may take ii. 13. i : this he evidently scans as 1 1 4- 1 1 : 10 -f 12 = 44, 
and accordingly makes it a simple tristnbh, as if the "extra" syllable in 
d could offset the deficiency in c ! For the spoiled c of the Vulgate, the 
Ppp. reading pibann amriam (which is supported by MS.) .suggests the 
remedy, and if we accept that as the true Atharvan form of the verse, it 
is then an example of the mingling (common in one and the same verse) 
of acatalecticyVz^^/f padas with catalcctic forms thereof. So far, indeed. 

Ixxiv General Introduction, Part /.; by tlu Editor 

is he from discerning matters of this sort, that his terminology is quite 
lacking in words adequate for their expression.* 

If the author of the Major Anukr. showed some real insight into Vedic 
meters, his statements might, as can easily be seen, often be of value in 
affecting our critical judgment of a reading of the sainhitd or in deter- 
mining our choice as between alternative readings. The contrary, rather» 
is wont to be the case. Thus at iv. 15. 4, his definition, vihUffurasidd* 
br/tatl. implies the division (given also by the /<7</<f-mss.) io + 8:8-f 8* 
thus leaving the accentless /i7/7V7///^ stranded at the beginning of a p^dal 
An excellent illustration of the way in which he might help us, if we 
could trust him, is offered by iv. 32. 3 b, which reads tdpasd yujd vi jahi 
^dtruH, Here Tpp. makes an unexceptionable tris{ubh by readingyViAMit, 
and the author of the Anukr. says the verse is irisfttbh. His silence 
respecting the metrical deficiency in the Vulgate text would be an addi* 
tional weighty argument for judging the Tpp. reading to be the true 
Atharvan one, if only we could trust him — as we cannot. Cf. end of 
\V*s note to iv. 36. 4. 

Such as it is, his treatment of the meters is neither even nor equably 
careful. Thus he notes the irregularity of vii. 112. 1, while in treating 
the repetition of the very same verse at xiv. 2. 45 (see note), he passes 
over the bhurtktvam in silence. Throughout most of the present work, 
Whitney has devoted considerable space to critical comment upon the 
treatment of the meters by the Anukr. Considering the fact, however, 
that the principles which underlie the procedure of the Hindu are so 
radically different from those of his Occidental critic, no one will be 
likely to find fault if the criticisms of the latter prove to be not entirely 

His statements as to the seers of the hymns. — The ascriptions of quasi- 
authorship, made by the author of the Major Anukr. and given in the 
Kxccrpts, are set forth in tabular form at p. 1040 and are critically dis- 
cussed at p. 1038, which see. 

8. The Kaufika-Sutra and the Vaitana-Stitra 

The work of Garbe and Bloomfield and Caland — As elsewhere mentioned 
(p. xxv), the Vaitana has been published in text and translation by Garbe, 
and the text of the Kau<,-ika (in 1890) by Bloomfield. Since 1890, a 
good deal of further critical work u|>on the Kau<fika has been done by 

* For the rvacJcr't convenience it may be noted that verses de6cient by one or two syllsbUs, 
rr»pecti\rly. are called by htm n«<r/ and ri^if/ ; and that verses redundant by one or two %tn 
called Hmrtj and rt\srj/. 

8. Tlu Kdjifika-Suira and t/ie Vditana'Sutra Ixxv 

Bloomfield^ and by Caland.^ — The value of these Sutras is primarily as a 
help to the understanding of the ritual setting and general purpose of 
a given hymn, and so, mediately, to its exegesis. From that aspect they 
will be discussed below (p. Ixxvii). Meantime a few words may be said 
about their value for the criticism of the structure of the Samhita. 

Bearing of the ritual Sutras upon the criticism of the structure and text 
of the Sadihit^. — Bloomfield himself discusses this matter in the intro- 
duction to his edition of Kau^ika, p. xli. He there points out instances 
in which briefer independent hymns have been fused into one longer 
composite hymn by the redactors of the Samhita, and shows that the 
Sutras recognize the composite character of the whole by prescribing 
the employment of the component parts separately. Thus (as is pointed 
out also by Whitney), iv. 38 is made up of two independent parts, a 
gambling-charm (verses 1-4) and a cattle-charm (verses 5-7). The Sutra 
prescribes them separately for these wholly different uses, the former 
with other gambling-charms ; and to the latter it gives a special name. 
Bloomfield's next illustrations, which concern vii. 74 and 76, have in the 
meantime given rise to the critical question whether vii. 74. 1-2 and 
76. 1-2 did not form one hymn for Ke^ava.^ 

The mss. of the Sutras may sometimes be taken as testimony for the 
readings of the cited pratikas. The like was said (p. Ixxiii) of the mss. of 
the Anukramanls. The mss. of the Kau^ika (cf. Bloomfield*s Introduction, 
p. xxxix) are wont to agree with those of the Vulgate, even in obvious 

Grouping of mantra-material in Sutra and in Saihhita compared. — Many 
instances might be adduced from the Kau^ika which may well have a 
direct bearing upon our judgment concerning the unitary character of 
hymns that appear as units in our text. To cite or discuss them here 
would take us too far afield, and I must content myself once more with a 
suggestion , namely, that a systematic study of the grouping of the mantra- 
material ni the ritual, as compared with its grouping in the Samhita, ought 
to be undertaken. At Kau^. 29. 1-14 the verses of AV. v. 13 arc brought 
in for use, all of them and in their Vulgate order. The like is true 
AV. ix. 5. 1-6 at Kau^. 64. 6-16. Whether it would lead to clear-cut 

* See his seven Cofttributions to the interpretation of the Veda (below, p. ci), his Hynuu of 
the A V. (SBE. xlii.), and his review of Caland's Zatcbcrritual (Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 
1902, no. 7). 

* See his Altindisches Zauberritnaly and his eight papers Zur Exegese und Kritik der ritueUcn 
Siitras (ZDMG. li.-lvii.). Of the papers, those most important for the Kaa9i|ca are the ones 
contained in vol. liii. See also VVZKM. viii. 367. 

' See Bloomfield's note, SBE. xlii. 558 ; Whitney's introduction to vii. 74, and the note added 
by me at p. 440, top; and Caland's note 5 to page 105 of his Zaubcrritual. Hymn 76 of the 
Berlin ed. is in no wise a unity : see the introduction thereto. 



Ixxvi iiaural Jniroiiuction, Part I. : by the Editor 

results is doubtful ; but the relation of the two groupings is a matter no 
less ini|M)rtant than it is obscure. The obscuiity is es[Kcially striking in 
IxMik xviii., where the natural order of the comi>onent rites of the long 
funeial ceremony is wholly disregar<led by the diaskeuasts in the actual 
arranj;ement of the verses of the Samhita. Thus xviii. 4. 44, which accom- 
panies the taking of the corpse on a cart to the pyre, ought of course to 
precede xviii. 2. 4, which accompanies the act of setting fire to the pile. 
See my rcmaik, below, page X70, lines 7-9, and my discussion, pages 
870 I. of ••Pait III." and •• Pait V.** of xviii. 4. As is noted at xviii. 
I. 49 and 2 I, the ritud group of verses that accompany the oblations to 
Yam.i in thr cremation-ceremony wholly disregards even so imp<irtant a 
division as that between two successive ^i////r#i/vi-hymns. It is [>ointcd 
out on p. 848 that verse 60 of xviii. 3 is widely separated from what 
appears (most manifestly and from various criteria) to be its fellow, to wit, 
verse 6. 

Many diflUculties of the KAu<;ika yet unsolved. — It will very likely 
appear that Whitney has misunderstocHl the Kau<^ika here and there; as 
also, on the other hand, he has in fact here and there corrected! the text 
or the interptetation of (larbe or of Hloomfield. At the time of Whit- 
ney's death, HloomfiehTs chief contributions (SHK. xlii.) to the interpre- 
tation of Kau<;ika had not yet ap|>eared, nor yet those of Calami. As I 
have more than once said , no one ought to be so well able to give a trust- 
worthy translation ofadimcult text as the man who has made a goo u 
[ on ot it ; and for this reason one must regret that l^loomfield did not 
give us -in the natural sequence of the sutras — as good a version as 
he was at the time able to make, instead of the detached bits of inter- 
pretation which are scattered through the notes of SBK. xlii. Caland 
observes, in the introiluction to his Zauberritua!^ p. IV, that in using the 
Kau<;ika he sm^n found that, in order to comprehend even a single 
passage, it is necessary to work through the whole book. The like is, 
of course, equally true of the Prati<jakhya. A commentator upon the 
Samhita who wishes (as di<l Whitney) to combine in his comment the 
best of all that the subsidiary treatises have to offer, cannot of course 
stop to settle, en passant, a multitude of questions any one of which may 
re<|uire the investigation of a specialist. Thus Whitney, in his note to 
X. 56. said in his ms. for the printer, "The Kau<,'. quotes the common 
fratlka of the six verses at 49. 3. in a witchcraft-ceremony, in connection 
with the releasing of a bull." If Caland is right (Zanb^rttttial, p. 171), 
the hocus |KKUs with the ••water-thunderbolt*;" does not begin until 
40 3. and the s:uir<ifn is to be joined to the preceding siitra (ZDMG. 
Iiii. 2r I). an<l the letting loose of the bull (49. l) has nothing to do with 
the uses of x. 5. This is just the kind of error which we cannot fairly 

8. Tlu Kaufika-Sutra and tlie Vdilana-Sutra Ixxvii 

blame Whitney for making. Special difficulties of this sort should have 
been settled for him by the sutra-specialists, just as he had settled the 
special difficulties of the Prati^akhya when he edited that text. 

Value of the ritual Sutras for the exegesis of the Sadihita. — Estimates 
of the value of these Sutras as casting light upon the original meaning 
of the mantras have differed and will perhaps continue to differ. The 
opinion has even been held by a most eminent scholar that there is, on 
the whole, very little in the Kau^ika which really elucidates the Sariihita, 
and that the Kau^ika is in the main a fabrication rather than a collection 
of genuine popular practices. The principal question here is, not whether 
this opinion is right or wrong, but rather, to what extent is it right or 
wrong. It is, for example, hard to suppose that, upon the occasion con- 
templated in kandika 79 of the Kau^ika, a young Hindu, still in the hey- 
day of the blood, would, at such an approach of a climax of feeling as is 
implied in the acts from the ialpdrohana to the actual nidluivana (79. 9) 
inclusive, tolerate — whether patiently or impatiently — such an accom- l 
paniment of mantras as is prescribed in sutras 4 to 9. Whatever philo- 
logical pertinence may be made out for them (cf. Whitney's note to xiv. 
2. 64), their natural impertinence to the business in hand seems almost 

To this it may be answered that the Sutra often represents an ideal 
prescription or ideale Vorsc/trift} compliance with which was not expected 
by any one, save on certain ceremonial occasions, the extreme formality 
of which was duly ensured by elaborate preparation and the presence of 

The data of the Kauqika no sufficient warrant for dogmatism in the 
exegesis of the Samhitft. — There is every reason to suppose that the 
actual text of the sarhhitas is often a fragmentary and faulty record of 
the antecedent (I will not say original) oral tradition ; and that the 
stanzas as we find them have often been dislocated and their natural 
sequence faulted by the action of the diaskeuasts. It is moreover 
palpable that questions of original sequence, so far from being cleared up, 
are often complicated all the more by the comparison of the sequences of 
the ritual texts (see p. Ixxv). In these days of rapid travel and communi- 
cation, it is hard to realize the isolation of the Indian villages {gnhnas) 
and country districts {janapadas) in antiquity. That isolation tended to 

* I owe this suggestion to Professor DelbrUck of Jena, who was my gtiest while I had this 
chapter in hand and was so kind as to criticize it. As a curious parallel to the case above 
cited, he told me of the verses prescribed for use in the Briidergemeine of CouQt Zinzendorf : 

Mein mir von Gott verliehencs WeibI 
Anitzt bcsteig' ich deinen Leib. 
Empfange nieinen Samcn 
In Gottes Namen. A men. 

Ixxviii General Introductton^ Part /. : by tlu Editor 

conserve the individuality of the several l(Kalitics in respect of the details, 
for example, of their nuptial and funeral customs; so that the local 
diversities are sometimes expressly mentioned (tucdvacd jatMf^dadharmJk 
g;n\mi%dhanni\^ ca : ACiS. i. 7'). Astonishingly conservative as Indui is 
(SCO my icmarks in KarpuramartjarJ, p. 206, ^j 2, p. 231, note 2), it can 
nevertheless not be doubtful that her customs have chanj;ed in the time 
from the date of the hymns to that of the ritual books. Evidently, there 
are divers general considerations which militate strongly against much 
dogmatism in the treatment of these matters.' 

Integer vitae as a Christian funeral-hymn. — During the last twenty-four 
years. I have often been called to the University Cha|>el to pay the last 
tribute of respect to one or another departed colleague or friend. On 
such occasions, it fre(|ueiitly happens that the chapel choir sings the first 
two stanzas of the lioratian oile (i. 22)^ iutet^er vtiar scelc risque furus, to 
the solemn and stately music of Fricdrich Ferdinand Flemming. Indeed, 
so frequent is the employment of these words and this music, that one 
might almost call it a part of the •• Funeral Oflfice after the Harvard Use/' 
The original occasion of the ode, and the relation of Horace to Aristius 
Fuscus to whom it is addressed, are fairly well known. The lofty moral 
sentiment of the first two stanzas, however seriously Horace may have 
entertained it, is doubtless uttered in this connection in a tone of mock- 
solemnity. Kven this fact nectl not mar for us the tender associations 
iS*-^ (Vt • made |K>ssible by the intrinsic appropriateness of these two pre-Christian 

stanzas for their employment in a Christian liturgy of the twentieth cen- 
tury. Hut suppose for a moment that the choir were to continue singing 
on to the end, even to Lalaf:;€H amaho^ duke hquentem ! what palpable, 
what monstrous ineptitude! If only the first two stanzas were extant, 
and not the remaining four also, we might never even suspect Horace of 
any arriere-i>ensee in writing them ; and if we were to interpret them 
simply in the light of their mmlern ritual use, how far we should be from 
apprehending their original connection ami motive! 

Secondary adaptation of mantras to incongruous ritual uses. — Let no 
one say that this case is no fair parallel to what may have happened in 
India. On the contrary : instances — in no wise doubtful and not a whit 
less striking — of secondary adaptation of a mantra to similarly incongru- 
ous uses in the ritual may there be found in plenty. This secondary 
association of a given mantra with a given practice has often been 

* (*aLiml'!i ftkctch of the funeral ritet U a most praiseworthy and intere^ttog one, and kit 
d-*crn>tion of ihr practices whiih he there *rt* forth in onlerljr and lotid *e'j«ence tt well wottli 
thr while Imt hit dev ri|>tt«)n4 are taken from many source* differing widely in place and time; 
and It \% on many groumU improKiMe that the ritual at he there depicts it was ciret carried o«t 
in any given place at any gi%cn time. 

8. Tlie Kdufika-Sutra and the Vditana'Sutra Ixxix 

determined by some most superficial semblance of verbal pertinence in the 
mantra, when in fact the mantra had no intrinsic and essential pertinence 
to the practice whatsoever. For example, CGS. prescribes the verse 
dksan for use when the bride greases the axle of the wedding-car ; here, 
I think, there can be no doubt * that the prescription has been suggested 
by the surface resemblance of dksan 'they have eaten' to dksatn 'axle.* 
Or, again, to take an example which has been interestingly treated by 
Bloomfield, the verses xiv. 2. 59-62 doubtless referred originally to the 
mourning women, who, with dishevelled hair, wailed and danced at a 
funeral ; and they were presumably used originally as an expiation for 
such noisy proceedings. Secondarily, they have been adapted for use in 
connection with the wedding ceremonies, " in case a wailing arises,** and 
doubtless for no better reason than that they contained the word for 
"wailing**; and they have accordingly been placed by the diaskeuasts 
among the wedding verses, where we now find them. See Bloomfield, 
AJP. xi. 341, 338 : and cf. vii. 466. 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension of the 

Atharva-Veda Saihhita 

General relations of this recension to the Vulgate or ^^unakan recension.^ 
— Just as, on the one hand, the minute differences between two closely 
related manuscripts of the same recension (for example, between Whit- 
ney's P. and M.) represent upon a very small scale the results of human 
fallibility, so, upon the other hand, do the multitudinous and pervading 
differences between the general readings of the manuscripts of the Vul- 
gate and those of the birch-bark manuscript of the Kashmirian recension 
truly represent in like manner the fallibility of human tradition, but on a 
very large scale. The ^aunakan or Vulgate recension represents one 
result of the selective process by which the Indian diaskeuasts took from 
the great mass of mantra-material belonging to the oral tradition of 
their school a certain amount, arranging it in a certain order; the Kash- 
mirian recension represents another and very different result of a similar 

Since the birch-bark manuscript has thus far maintained its character 
as a unique, wc shall perhaps never know how truly it represents the best 
Kashmirian tradition of this Veda; it is quite possible that that tradition 
was vastly superior to the written reflex thereof which we possess in the 

^ I had hesitatingly advanced this view, below, in my note to xviii. 4. 61 ; and I am pleased 
to see now that Bloomfield had unhesitatingly given it as his own opinion long before, at AJP. 
xi. 341. 

' Further reference is made to these general relations below, at p. 1013. 

Ixxx Getural Introdtution^ Part /. : by iJu Editor 

birch-bark manuscript, and which, although excellent in many places, is 
extremely incorrect in very many. Systematic search will doubtless 
reveal the fact that the Taippalada recension, even in the defective form 
in which it has come down to us, often presents as its variant a reading 
which is wholly difTcrent, but which, as a sense-equivalent, yields nothing 
to the Vulgate in its claim (or genuineness and originality : thus for the 
. Vulgate readings itiias (x. 3. 8). iydja (x. 7. 31), yd at (x. 8. 10), ksiprdtm 

If) •"/w'^— ^'^"* '• ^5^* ^"^^ ^" ^•^"* ^' ^^^' respectively, the IViipp. presents the sense- 
* ^ ^ ^^ ^ equivalen ts titsmt\t, ja^ihtut, yota^ outm^ ^x\k\ ^rlu $u. Ju ^4^^<^'«^*^a^^ 

14.1 ''1 

j ^^ The material selected by the makers of the two recensions is by no 

ft^^ ^ ■" means coincident. The Kashmirian text is mofe rich in Urahmana tias- 

"' . ^^ J sages and in charms and incantations than is the Vulgate.* The coinci- 

^ * ' ^^ dent material, moreover, is arranged in a very different order in the two 

^^ jr.*r recensions (cf. p. 1015); and it will appear in the sequel that even the 

•j^^.— coincident material, as between the Kashmirian and the Vulgate forms 
iV^^[[/ -^ /]^^r^ thereof, exhibits manifold differences of reading, and that the Kashmirian 

readings are much oftcncr pcjorations than survivals of a more intelligent 

This, however, is not always the case : thus, of the two recensions, the 
Kashmirian has the preferable reading at xii. 2. 30 d. Or again, at v. 2. 8 
and xiv. t. 22, the Kashmirian recension agrees with the Rig-Veda, as 
against the Vulgate, and, at xi. 2. 7, with the Katha reading. In this 
connection it is interesting to note that the conjectures of Roth and 
Whitney for the des|>erate nineteenth book are often confirmed in fact 
by the Kashmirian readings : instances may be found at xix. 27. 8 ; 32. 4, 
5, 8 ; 44. 2 ; 46. 3 (two) ; 53. 5 ; 56. 4. 

The unique birch-bark manuscript of the PAippalftda text. — This is 
described by (larbe in his Wrzcichmss as No. 14. It consisted of nearly 
three hundred leaves, of which two are lost and eight or more arc defec- 
tive. They vary in height from 14 to 21 centimeters; and in wi<lth, 
from II to 16; and contain from 13 to 23 lines on a page. The ms. is 
dated samvat 95, without .statement of the century. If the year 4595 of 
the Kashmirian loka kdla is meant, the date would ap|)ear to be not far 
from A.u. IS'O- A description of the ms., with a brief characterizatiofi 
of some of its peculiarities, was given by Roth at Florence in Sep. 1878, 
and is published in the Atii del I \'' Cottf^rcsso intcmazi0nal€ dcgli Onen- 
ta/isii, ii. S9 96. Now that the facsimile is published, further details arc 
uncalled for. A specimen of the plates of the facsimile is given in the 
latter volume of this work. The plate chosen is No. 341 and gives the 
obverse of folio 187, a page from which have been taken several of 
the illustrative examples in the paragraphs which follow. 

> So Koth in the Aitt (p. 95), m cited on thb pag«. 

Cf. JfJJ^^f ^^' '^^' ^/^^^^^^"^//^'^y 

-y-K^Khrv i i' C^V>- Ja 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Pdippalada Recension Ixxxi 

Roth's Kashmirian nagarl transcript (Nov. 1874). — A nagari copy of 
the original birch-bark manuscript was made at ^rinagara in 1873. This 
copy is No. 16 of Garbe's Verzeichniss, and we may call it Roth's Kash- 
mirian nagari transcript. It came into Roth's hands at the end of 
November, 1874. The year of its making appears from Roth's essay, 
Der Atharvaveda in Kaschmir, pages 13-14; and the date of its arrival 
in Tubingen, from p. 1 1 of the same essay. With great promptness, 
Roth gave an account of it in his essay, just mentioned, which was pub- 
lished as an appendix to an invitation to the academic celebration of the 
birthday (March 6, 1875) of the king.^ — It would appear that Roth's 
Kashmirian transcript was not the only one made from the birch-bark 
original in India : S. P. Pandit seems also to have had one ; for he cites 
the Paippalada in his edition, vol. iv., p. 369. The copy used by him is 
doubtless the nagari copy procured by Biihler, and listed as VIII. i of 
the collection of 1875-76, on p. 73 of the Catalogue of the Deccan Col- 
lege manuscripts. See also Garbe's Verzeicliniss^ under No. 17, for the 
■description of another copy (incomplete). 

Arrival of the birch-bark original in 1876 at Tiibingen. — The original 
seems to have come into Roth's hands in the early summer of 1876. 
The approximate date of its arrival appears from Whitney's note to 
p. xiii of the pamphlet containing the Proceedings of the Am. Oriental 
Society at the meetings of May and Nov., 1875, and May, 1876 (= JAOS. 
X., p. cxix) : "As these Proceedings [that is, the pamphlet just mentioned] 
are going through the press, it is learned from Professor Roth that the 
original of the Devanagarl copy, an old and somewhat damaged ms. in 
the Kashmir alphabet, on highly fragile leaves of birch-bark, has reached 
him, being loaned by the Government of India, which had obtained 
possession of it. It corrects its copy in a host of places, but also has 
innumerable errors of its own. It is accented only here and there, in 

Roth's Collation (ended, June, 1884) of the Paippalada text. — This is 
written on four-page sheets of note-paper numbered from i to 44 (but 
sheet 6 has only two pages) ; the pages measure about 5>^ X 8J^ inches, 
and there arc some 9 supplementary pages (see p. Ixxxii, top), sent in 
answer to specific inquiries of Whitney. As appears from the colo- 
phon added by Roth (see below, p. 1009), this Collation was finished 
June 25, 1884. Since Roth's autograph transcript described in the next 
paragraph was not made until some months later, I see little chance of 
error in my assuming that Roth made his Collation for Whitney from his 
Kashmirian nagari transcript, and that he used the birch-bark original to 

^ My copy of Roth's essay was given me by my teacher, the author, Feb. 26, 1875. 

Ixxxii Getural Introdmtion^ Part I. : by the Editor 

some extent to control the errors of the copy.^ Occasional suspicions 

of error in the Collation were not unnatural, and they led Whitney to 

ask Koth to reexamine the manuscript upon certain doubtful points. 

Whitney's questions extend over books i. to v., and others were noted, 

but never sent. Roth's answers form a valuable supplement to his 

Collation, and end in April, 1894. 

Roth's autograph nftgarl transcript (Dec. 1884). — The end of the Colla- 
tion which Roth made for Whitney was reached, as just stated, June 25, 
1884. After the following summer vacation. Roth made a new transcript 
from the birch-bark, as appears from his letter to Whitney, dated Jan. 1 1, 
1893: "Von IViippaKida habe ich dcvaniigari Abschrift, aber nicht voll- 
standig. Uie mit Vulgata glcichlautenden Verse, die nur durch Fehlcr 
Eckel erregen, habe ich bios citicrt, z.W. die vielen aus RV., nehme mir 
aber doch viellcicht noch die Muhc, sic nachzutragen. Ich habe an der 
Abschrift unernuidlich vom 19. Sept. bis 28. Dez. 1884 geschrieben und 
diese Lcistung als cine ungewohnliche betrachtet." This transcript is 
doubtless far more accurate than the one used for the Collation. The 
badness of the latter and the fragility of the birch-bark original were 
doubtless the reasons that determined Roth to make his autograph nagari 
transcript : see p. Ixxxv, top. \tf^ Sec p. 1045.J 

The facsimile of the Tiibingen birch-bark manuscript (1901). — A mag- 
nificent facsimile of the birch-bark manuscript has now been published by 
the care and enterprise of Hloomfield and Garbc.' The technical perfection 
of the work is such as to show with marvellous clearness not only every 
stroke of the writing and every correction, but even the most delicate 
veinings of the bark itself, with its injuries and patches. Hven if othe r 
thi n«;s were equal, the facsimile is much better than the original, inas- 
much as a copy of each one of 544 exquisitely clear and beautiful chromo- 
photographic plates, all conveniently bound and easy to handle and not 
easily injured and accessible in many public and private libraries through- 
out the world, is much more serviceable than the unique original^ 

I In tome t%%t%, fragmentt of the birch t>ark original teem to hare t>ecome lost after Roth's 
Ka^hmirtan nlf^rl trantcript wat made, to that the Utter, iik] the two other Indian co|i««* 
mentionrd on p. lixxi. have thus become now oor only reliance. Thut for mrrvrtlkmi d the Vvl- 
gate at i. ?<> 3 b. Koth repr>rtfl at I'iipp. variant aifkikkr^at, and adds ** nor in der Abschrift 
vorhandrn ** Tht^ mutt have ttood on the prior half of line 12 of folio jb of the birch>bark 
mt. ;. but a piece of it is there brokm out. 

* The Kathmirian Atharva-Ve<la (School of the Piippalidas). Reproduced by ckrooM- 
photography from the manutcript in the University library at Tubingen. F.dited vndcr tlM 
au«picrt nf the Johns Hopkins I'nivertity in lialtimore and of the Royal Kberhard Karlt- 
l'nivci*ity in TubinRrn, \Vuittcml»erj;, by Maurice lUoomfickl, Professor in the Johns Hopkins 
Tniveisity. and Richard Garlie, rrofrtsor in the University of Tubingen. Haltimore. Tli« 
Johns Hopkins frets. 1901. 1 he technical work by the firm of Martin Romoftel & Co, 

9. Readings of tlu Kashmirian or Pdippaldda Recension Ixxxiii 

written on leaves of birch-bark, fragile with age, easily injured, requiring 
the utmost caution in handling, and accordingly practically inaccessible 
except to a very few persons : but other things are not equal ; for the 
transitory advantage of the brilliantly heightened contrast of color which 
is gained by wetting the birch-bark original, and which passes away as 
soon as the leaf is dry, is converted into a permanent advantage by the 
chromophotographic process, in which the plates are made from the 
freshly wetted original. Moreover, the owner of a facsimile is at liberty 
to use it at home or wherever he pleases, and to mark it (with pen or 
pencil) as much as he pleases. The facsimile may therefore truly be said 
to be in many respects preferable to the original. 

Roth's Collation not exhaustive. — Now that the superb facsimile is 
published, it is possible for a competent critic to test Roth's Collation in 
respect i. of its completeness, and 2. of its accuracy. As, first, for its 
completeness, it is sufficiently apparent from several expressions used by 
Roth,^ that he saw plainly that it would be the height of unwisdom to 
give with completeness the Kashmirian variants as incidental to a work 
like this one of Whitney's, whose main scope is very much broader. Roth 
was a man who had a clear sense of the relative value of things — a sense 
of intellectual perspective; and he was right. ^h^XC^fl 

Faults of the birch-bark manuscript. — The birch-bark manuscript js'"^ "" 

indeed what we may call in Hindu phrase a veritable 'mine of the jewels ^v7-> r 

of false readings and blunders,' an apapdth(vskhalita)ratndkara^ a book in ''^^ ^ . ' 

which the student may find richly-abounding; and most instructive illus- ^ * * '""^ 
trations of perhaps every class of error discussed by the formal treatises 
on text-criticism. Thus it fairly swarms with cases of haplography (the 
letters assumed, on the evidence of the Vulgate, to be omitted, are given 
in brackets) : tdm tvd fdle sarvavtrds suvtrd [an's/avtrd] abhi sail carcma : 
ihdiva dhnivd prati \ti\siha ^dlc, folio 54 b''^ = iii. 12. I c, d, 2 a ; vasa(kdre 
yathd ya^ah: [yat/id yafas] somaptthc^ folio i87a'5-»^ = x. 3. 22 b, 21 a; 
dditye ca \firca\ksasi^ folio i87a'7 = x. 3. 18 b; apa stedain^ vdsama- 
tham gotham uta [ta]skaram, folio 158 b' = xix. 50. 5 a, b. Confusions as 
between surd and sonan t (cf. p. 749, p. 57) and between aspirate and non- 
aspirate and between long and short vowels are so common as hardly to 
'^/ be worth reporting : cT. usase nas pari dhchi sarvdn rdtri andkasah, which u ^ 
' is found at folio 158 b** = xix. 50. 7 a, b, and exemplifies all three cases ' 

* Such arc : " Verse, die nur durch Fchler Eckel erregen," p. Ixxxii ; *• On y trouve, il est vrai, 
de tr^s-bonnes parties, mais d'autres sont tellement d^figurees, qu'on a besoin de conjectures 


sans nombre pour arriver k un texte lisible/' Ai/i, p. 96; "das Kauderwelsch,** "ganze Zeilen 
so unsicher dass man nicht einmal die Worter trennen kann," p. Ixxxvi. 

* To judge from stedam for stenam^ we might suppose that the ms. at this point was written 
down by a scribe at the dictation of a reciter with a bad cold in his head. 

Ixxxiv General Introiiuction^ Part L : by tlu Kditar 

(ti/i for //, / for i, / for /:). — Of variety in the character of the Kash* 
mirian valiants there is no lack. Thus we see the omission of a needed 
twin consonant (cf. p. 832) in ytut [<t]nfuiena, foho 91 b 5 = v. $. 4a ; inter- 
esting phonetic S{)cllings in mahlyam of folio 264 b ^ for mahyam ot 
iii. 15. I d, and in r tr riitriy aniuhii/uts of folio I $8 a "7 for ye te rdtry 
anadviVtas of xix. 50. 2 • ; inversion in the order of words in sa me ksattam 
ca rtU(/intm ca of folio 187 a 4 = x. 3. 12 c. Not one of these examples was 
rci>ortcd, though probably all were noticed, by Roth. In his Collation 
for V. 6, he notes for verses 1 1-14 •* unwcsentliche Differenzen/* without 
s|>ecifying them. We may regret his failure to report such an interesting^ 
reading as yathAltain fatrti/uUany, folio 3 b M, where fatmhd is a correct 
equivalent of the ^atruhas of the Vulgate, i. 29. 5 c ; but with such a blun* 
der as asi\ni in the very next word, and such grammar as ayaik vacah in 
the preceding |)ada, we cannot blame him. In an incomplete collation, 
there is no hard and fast line to be drawn between what shall be reported 
and what shall not. 

Collation not controlled by constant reference to the birch-bark ms. — 
Secondly, as for the accuracy of Roth's Collation in the variants which 
he does give, — I do not suppose that Roth attempted to control his 
Kashmirian mij^iiri transcript (No. 16, Garbe) on which he based his 
Collation, by constant reference to the original. Thus far, I have hardly 
come U|K>n inaccuracies myself ; but it is not improbable that occasional 
slips * on his part may yet come to light. It is proper here, therefore, 
partly by way of anticipating ill-considered criticism, to explain the 

Such reference would have ruined the birch-t>ark ms. — As any one can 
see from the table, pages 1018 to 1023, the Kashmirian correspondents 
of the Vulgate verses are to be found in the birch-bark manuscript in an 
entirely different order. Thus, if we take for example the six Vulgate 
vervrs iii. 12. 1,6, 8; 13. I ; 14. I ; 15. i, we shall find their Kashmirian 
corresiwndents at the following places (leaf, side, line) respectively : 
54 b -. 276 b 7, 225 a »^ 50 a «. 32 b *, 264 b 5. From this it is evident that 
the mechanical process of referring, as one proceetis verse by verse through 
the Vulgate, to the parallel verses of the birch-bark original, for the pur> 
posqof checking step by step the transcript used for the Collation, would 
have involved an amount of handling of the fragile birch-bark leaves 
(nearly yyo in numl>er) which would have ruined them. The leaves are 
now alMuit 400 years old, and some idea of their fragility may be gained 
from the remarks in the preface to the facsimile, page II. It was doubt- 
less this (lifTiculty that impressed u|X)n Roth the necessity of making a 
copy which should be at once accurate , and also strong enough to endure 

* Such as turymm at p iiivi. foot-note. 

9. Readings of the Kashmir ian or Paippaldda Recension Ixxxv 

handling without injury . To copy the birch-bark leaves in their proper 
order is a process by which they need suffer no harm ; and this is pre- 
cisely what Roth did (see p. Ixxxii) as soon as possible after finishing the 
pressing task of making the Collation for Whitney. L^"^^ ^^^ P- *°45j 

Care taken in the use of Roth's Collation. Word-division. — In carrying 
this work through the press, I have constantly and with the most scrupu- 
lous pains utilized Roth's original Collation and his supplementary notes 
thereto, endeavoring thus to check any errors concerning the Kashmirian 
readings that might have crept into Whitney's copy for the printer. Since 
Roth's system of transliteration differs considerably from Whitney's, the 
chances for mistakes arising through confusion of the two systems were 
numerous ; and I have taken due care to avoid them. It may here be 
noted that Whitney's system transliterates anusvara before a labial by vt 
and not by in\^ but that in printing the Kashmirian readings, I have 
followed the Collation in rendering final anusvara by m (or «), save before 
vowels. Furthermore, in making use of Roth's Collation, Whitney has 
habitually attempted to effect a satisfactory word-division. In many 
cases this is hardly practicable ; and in such cases it was probably a 
mistake to attempt it. For examples, one may consult the readings at 
v. 29. 2, 'syatamo ; vi. 44. 2, saroganain ; 109. lyjivdtavd yati ; 129. 3, vrkse 
sdrpitah intending vrkscsv dr-; vii. 70. i, drstd rdjyo^ intending drstad dj-. 

The Kashmirian readings have not been verified directly from the fac- 
simile by the editor. — As the facsimile appeared in 1901, it is proper for 
me to give a reason for my procedure in this matter. In fact, both my 
editorial work and the printing were very far advanced^ in 1901, so that 
a change of method would in itself have been questionable; but an 
entirely sufficient and indeed a compelling reason is to be found in the 
fact that it would have been and still is a task requiring very much labor 
and time to find the precise place of the Kashmirian parallel of any given 
verse of the Vulgate, a task which can no more be done en passant than 
can the task of editing a Prati^akhya, — all this apart from the difficulties 
of the Carada alphabet. 

Provisional means for finding Vulgate verses in the facsimile. — Whitney 
noted in pencil in his Collation-Book, opposite each Vulgate passage hav- 
ing a Kashmirian parallel, the number of the leaf of the Kashmirian text 
on which that parallel is found, adding a or b to indicate the obverse or 
the reverse of the leaf. These numbers undoubtedly refer to the leaves 
of Roth's Kashmirian nagari transcript (No. 16, Garbe) from which Roth 

' I am sorry to observe that the third (posthumous) edition of his Grammar (see pages 51S-9) 
misrepresents him upon this point. 

* The main part of this book was in type as far as page 614 (xi. I. 12) in Dec. 1901. The 
remainder (as far as p. 1009, the end) was in type Dec. 13, 1902. 

Ixxxvi General Introduetiou^ Part L : by the Eeliior 

made his Collation ; but as there was no prospect of their being of any 
use, Whitney has not given them in this work. 

One of Koth*s first tasks, after the arrival of the birch-bark original, 
was doubtless to find the place therein corres|>onding to the beginning of 
each leaf of his Kashmirian nagarl transcript. These places he has indi- 
cated by writing over against them on the side margin of the bark leaf 
the number of the leaf (with a or b) of that transcript. 

This was most fortunate; for the added numbers, in Roth*s familiar 
handwriting, although sometimes faint or covered up by a patch used in 
re|)airing the edges of the bark leaf, are for the most part entirely legible 
in the facsimile : and it has given me much pleasure during the last few 
days (today is April 21, 1904) to assure myself of the fact which I had 
previously surmised, that these pencilled numbers afford us an exceed- 
ingly useful, albeit roundabout, means of finding the place of any Kash- 
mirian |>arallel in the facsimile, — useful at least until they are superseded 
by the hoped-for edition of an accurate transliteration of the facsimile 
with marginal references to the Vulgate. Whitney's pencilletl reference- 
numbers were arranged by Dr. Ryder in the form of a table, which I 
have recast and given below : see pages 1013 ff. 

What ought an <* edition " of the Kashmirian text to be? — This question 
was privately discussed by Whitney and Roth in the letters* exchanged 
between them in 1893. Whitney hoped that all that was peculiar to the 
Kashmirian text might be printed in transliteration in the Kashmirian 
order and interspersed with references to the Vulgate parallels of the 
remainder, also in the Kashmirian order, the whole to form an appendix 

J^jf/|^ ' I'ncler dale of Feb. 14. Whitney stjpgr^i* to Rofh ! ••Why not give \ I'lipp. text, as an 

jvX^^ aplicndix to our volume ("our vc»lome " meant the present work], notinf^ in their order the 
«*«*^^ parallt I pa%\agcs by reference only, and viriting out in full, inteisperaed with the forroer, the 

remainder *'* — Ruth makes answer. March 14: ** Ich will nur wunichen. da»i Ihre Gesond- 
hfit to lange St.iml halte. um Werk ru F.nde fu fuhren. Weil dat alter alt ein gluiklkher 
Fall t\\ betrarhten i«t, nicht aU ein<* «irheie Voraussicht, to viiintchte ich alle F.rtchw«>ningen, 
alto auch cite Frage von einer I'ubhkatton der Taippeil. Kec. gantlich beseittgt to leben.** 
— Whitne), June \(\ cxpremtes the h«>|>c that Rolh may reronnider the matter, I. because *•* 
text of tu( h primary im|M>rtance mill and mu^t W publt^heil. in »pite of it^ textual condition,** 
and 2 because "there t«ill, to far x% I can tee. no other opportunity prrtent ittelf of prodocinf 
it %i^ modestly ami unpretendmgly. or in a method adaptetl to its imfictfect ttale : the nccation is 
an id«*al one" — Roth answers July s : ** .Mcin liel>er Freund, dat it! keio erfreuUcher Ueiicht, 
welchcn Ihr hiirf vom 16. Juni ulwr Ihre Frlebni^te ei^tattet. I'nd i*.h tehe namentlkh 
darau«. da^t Sic die C*e<luld tich erwr>r1»en hal>en, die dur<h Vel>ung im Ixidcn kommt. . . . 
In einer Au^galie der Tlipp. muttte da« gan/e gedruckt werdcn, von A \n% Z. . . . Wie wird 
ti(h dat KaiiderwrUch getlmckt au^nchnicn ^ ganre Zetlen to unticher, data man nicht cimiuU 
die Wf*rter trennen kann . . . Daran U^ttern, wat ja dat eintige Verdien^t ware, durfte man 
nicht . . . Fur Sie wtrd die ein/ige angemr«tene Sorge in die«em Augcnblick lein, wseder 
gerund ru trerden. aUdann die rnrite, dm Atharvan ant I jcht m bringcn.** — Whitney 
writer. Aug. 25 ** I gi%e up with reluctance the hope of the further irnlaston of I'iipp^ in oer 
edition; but I mill not l>other you further viith remonttrances or suggestions.** 

9- Readings of the Kaskmirian or Paippalaxla Recension Ixxxvii 

to the present work. Roth's hope was that Whitney's strength might 
hold out long enough for him to finish this work without such a burden- 
some addition. Neither hope was fulfilled ; and at that time, doubtless, 
even the thought of a facsimile reproduction was not seriously enter- 
tained. Bloomfield's difficult task of securing the needed funds once 
accomplished, the next step, unquestionably, was to issue the facsimile 
without any accessory matter. That too is now an accomplished fact; 
but the facsimile, apart from its large paleographic interest, is still, in 
default of certain accessories, a work of extremely limited usefulness. 
As to what should next be done, I have no doubt. 

1. A rigorously precise transliteration. — First, the whole text, from A 
to izzard (as Roth says), should be printed in a rigorously precise trans- 
literation. Conventional marks (other than those of the original), to indi- 
cate divisions between verses and padas and words, need not be excluded 
from the transliteration, if only the marks are easily recognizable as 
insertions of the editor. 

As to minor details, I am in doubt. In the prose parts, the translit- 
eration might correspond page for page and line for line with the birch- 
bark original : the metrical parts might either be made to correspond in 
like manner line for line with the original ; or else they might be broken 
up so as to show fully the metrical structure (and at the same time, with 
a little ingenuity, the Kashmirian vowel-fusions), in which case the begin- 
ning of every page and line of the bark leaves should be duly indicated 
by a bracketed number in its proper place. In case the transliteration 
corresponds with the original line for line throughout, then the obverse 
and reverse of each bark leaf might well be given together in pairs, the 
obverse above, and the reverse below it, on each page of the translitera- 
tion, since this would be especially convenient and would yield a page of 
good proportion for an Occidental book. 

2. Marginal references to the Vulgate parallels. — Secondly, on the mar- 
gin throughout, and opposite every Kashmirian verse that corresponds to 
a verse of the Vulgate, should be given the reference to the place in the 
Vulgate where the corresponding Vulgate verse is found. 

3. Index of Vulgate verses thus noted on the margin. — Thirdly, in an 
appendix should be given, in the order of the Vulgate text, an index of 
all the Vulgate verses thus noted on the margin, with a reference to the 
birch-bark leaf and side (obverse or reverse — a or b) and line where its 
Kashmirian correspondent may be found. 

These I conceive to be the essential features of a usahJle edition of 
the Kashmirian text, and I hold them to be absolutely indispensable. 
The text is often so corrupt that one cannot emend it into intel- 
ligibility without sacrificing too greatly its distinctive character. All 

Ixxxviii Geiural Introduction, Part L : by tlu Editor 

conjectures, accordingly, should be relegated to a second and separately 
l>ound volume. 

4. Accessory material : conjectures, notes, traoslations. — The accessory 
material of the second volume should be arranges! in the form of a single 
serioH of notes and in the secpicnce of the Kashmirian original, and it 
should have such numbers and letters at the outside upper corners in the 
headlines, that reference from the original to the notes and from the 
notes to the original may be made with the very utmost ease and celerity. 
This accessory material should comprehend all conjectures as to the more 
original Kashmirian form of manifestly corrupt words or passages, in so 
far as they |>oint to readings not identical (compare the next paragraph) 
with those of the Vulgate; indications of word-division, especially the 
word-division of corrupt phrases and the resolution of the very frequent 
double sandhi ; a running comment, proceeding verse by verse, givini^ 
any needed eluciditory matter, and explaining the rationale of the blun- 
ders of the Kashmirian version where feasible (as is often the case), point- 
ing out in particular its excellences, and the many items in which it 
serves as a useful corrective of the Vulgate or confirms the conjectural 
emendations of the latter made in the edition of Roth and Whitney; — 
and all this in the light of the digested report of the variants of the 
parallel texts given by Whitney in the present work and in the light of 
the other parallels soon to l>e made accessible by Bloomfield's Vcdic Con- 
cordance. An occasional bit of translation might be added in cases where 
the Kashmirian text contains something peculiar to itself or not hitherto 
satisfactorily treated. 

For the cases (hinted at in the preceding paragraph) where corrupt 
Kashmirian readings (K>int simply to readings identical with those of the 
Vulgate, a simple reference to the latter will sometimes suffice to show 
the tfue rending and sense of what the Kashmirian reciters or scribes 
have corrupted into gibl>erish. Thus the Kashmirian form of xii. 3. 36 b, 
found at folio 2j6b»3, '\% ydVitntt%h kdmdpi samitAn pnrasthAt. Apart from 
the aspiration (overlcwked by Roth) of the prior dental o{ furasttM, each of 
these four wouJs by ilsrlf is a gcxnl and intelligible Vedic word ; but taken 
together, they yield far less meaning than do the famous Jabberwock 
verses of Throuf^li the L 00k nii^-f^ lass} Their presence in the Kashmirian 
text is explained by their su|)erficial phonetic resemblance to the Vulgate 
pada jtii'tiNfti/i ItUfni/i sdm atlttfas hin, of which they arc a palpable and 
wholly unintelligent corrupt ion. It is evident that, with the Vulgate 
before us, conjectural emendation of the Kashmirian text in such cases 

' For the *.ikc nl fathrr^ to nhom Kn(»li*h h nol vernacular, it may Iw a*!<letl that this 
cl4«%tr of Kr^c'i^h and Amrrican nur%crirt U the «<>rk of Charles I.utWHige I>odg%on (** IwC«is 
C arroll ") and b a pcnilanl lo AttttU Advtntmrtt tm W^m^ltrUmJ. 

9. Readings of tlu Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension Ixxxix 

is an entirely gratuitous procedure. And as for such grammar as kcne- 
dam bhumir nihatah (a feminine noun, with neuter adjective pronoun and 
masculine predicate participle: folio i86a'5 = x. 2. 24*), — to mend that 
would be to rob the Kashmirian text of its piquancy ; and why should 
we stop with the genders, and not emend also the senseless niha- to the 
intelligible vihi- ? Let all this be done, and we have the Vulgate text 
pure and simple. 

10. Readings of the Parallel Texts 

The texts whose readings are reported. — The principal texts included in 
these reports are : of the Samhitas, the Rig-Veda, Taittiriya, MaitrayanT, 
Vajasaneyi-, Sama-Veda, and Atharva-Veda ; of the Brahmanas, the 
Aitareya, Kausltaki, Taittiriya, Catapatha, Paftcavih^a, and Gopatha; of 
the Aranyakas, the Aitareya and Taittiriya ; of the Upanishads, the 
Kausltaki, Katha, Brhadaranyaka, and Chandogya ; of the ^rauta-Sutras, 
the A^valayana, Caiikhayana, Apastamba, Katyayana, and Latyayana ; 
of the Grhya-Sutras, the A^valayana, ^aiikhayana, Apastamba, Hiran- 
yake^i-, Paraskara, and Gobhila. Other texts are occasionally cited : 
so the Kathaka and the Kapisthala Sariihita, and the Jaiminiya Brah- 
mana ; and the names of some others may be seen from the List of 
Abbreviations, pages ci ff. I have added references to some recently 
edited parallel texts, without attempting to incorporate their readings 
into the digested report of the variants : such are the Mantra-patha, von 
Schroeder's **Kathahandschriften," and Knauer's Manava-Grhya-Sutra. 
Von Schroedcr's edition of Kathaka i. came too late. The information 
accessible to Whitney concerning the then unpublished Black Yajus texts 
was very fragmentary and inadequate; this fact must be borne in mind 
in connection with implied references to the Kathaka and Kapisthala (cf. 
his notes to iii. 17; 19 ; 20 ; 2 1 ; v. 27 ; vii. 89). 

The method of reporting the readings aims at the utmost possible accu- 
racy. — Whitney has constantly striven for three things : that his reports 
should be characterized, i. and 2., by the utmost attainable accuracy and 
completeness ; and, 3., that they should be presented in a thoroughly 
well-digested form. First, as to the accuracy, little need be said. It 
may be well to remind the reader, however, that Whitney has used the 
most methodical precision in this matter, and that, accordingly, if, under 
a given AV. verse, he cites a parallel text without mention of variant, his 
silence is to be rigorously construed as meaning positively that the 
parallel text reads as does the AV. verse in question. As a matter of 
fact, I believe that it will be found possible in nearly every case to recon- 
struct the parallel texts with precision from the data of Whitney's reports. 


xc Gtiural InlrodHctwn^ Pari L : by Uu Editor 

It needs here to be noted that Whitney, in re|X)rting variants from the 
Maitrayani, has disregarded what are (as explained by von Schroeder in 
his introduction, |)ages xxviii-xxix) mere orthographical |>eculiarities of 
that text. Accordingly, at iii. 14. 3, he treats the nA {=: mu) d ^ata of 
MS. as if it were fia d gata. Again, the MS. correspondent of iii. 19. 3 
has, in samhita, svdiu and in pada, svdn ; Whitney re|>orts ixvf#i, and quite 
projKily, although it is neither the one thing nor the other. So at ii. 34. 3, 
he reports ^#//i, although MS. has, in s., /<///, and in p., tdn. 

The completeness of the reports far from absolute. — Secondly, as for its 
completeness, it may be asked whether Hloomfield's great work, the Vedic 
Concordance, will not show Whitney's |Kirallcls to be far from exhaustive. 
To this I reply that the primary pur|>ose of lUoomfield's Concordance is 
to give the concordances, and to do so with as near an approach to com* 
pleteness as possible, even for the less important texts, a task of which 
the preliminaries have retjuircd the assiduous labor of years. In Whit- 
ney's work, on the other hand, the giving of concordances is only one of 
many related tasks involved in his general plan, and is, moreover, only 
incidental to the discussion of the variants. I have tested the two works 
by comparison of random verses in the proof-sheets, and find (as I 
expected) that Hloomficld tloes indeed give very many references which 
are not given by Whitney; but that these references (apart from the 
Kajhaka) are concerned prevailingly with the numerous subsidiary or 
less important texts which fall within the purview of the Concordance. 
Whitney had excerpted all the texts, so far as published (see the list, 
above), which were of primary im|>ortance for his pur|>ose. The parallels 
to which Bloomfield's additional references guide us will have to be 
reckoned with in due course by Whitney's successors ; but I surmise that 
they are not likely u|X)n the whole greatly to affect the sum of our critical 
judgments respecting the Alharvan text.* 

The reports are presented in well-digested form. — Thirdly, as to the form 
of the rc|>orts. It is one thing to give numerical references to the places 
where the pidas and their variants are to be found.' It is another to 
rehearse, in full for each text concerned, the readings containing variants ; 
and the result of this process is in a high degree space-consuming and 
repetitious for the author, and time-consuming and confusing for the user. 
It is yet another and a very different thing to compare these readings 
carefully, to note the points of agreement, and to state briefly and clearly 
the points on which they differ.' The result of this last procedure is a 

1 In tpite of \\\ intrinsic importance, ftorh \\ the ca««, I believe, with the (j['B., to wlikii 
Whitney makes \ think, rather meagre reference. 

* And it is a large achievement to do it on tuch a scale a^ doet the Concordance. 

* Whoever doubct it. let him take «o very iimple a ca«e at AV. ii. 19. 3 or iv. 14. 1, wHtt 
out the AV. text in fall and then the three parallel Vajutteats lieneath it, compart tliem. 

lo. Readings of tlu Parallel Texts xci 

well-digested report of the variants which is easily and quickly usable for 
the purpose of critical study. I call especial attention to this valuable 
feature of Whitney's work, partly because of its practical importance, and 
partly because it shows the author's power of masterly condensation and 
of self-restraint. 

II. Whitney *s Commentary: Further Discussion of its Critical 


Comprehensiveness of its array of parallels. — I have already called 
attention (p. xxxvii) to the fact that the Commentary expressly disavows 
any claim to finality; and have spoken briefly of its importance as a tool, 
and of its comprehensiveness. In respect of the comprehensiveness of 
its array of parallels, it answers very perfectly one of the requirements 
set by Pischel and Geldner in the Introduction (p. xxx) to the Vedische 
Studien : ** Das gcsamte indische Altertum kann und muss der vedischcn 
Exegesc dicnstbar gemacht werdcn. In vorderster Linie wollcn auch 
wir den Veda aus sich selbst erklaren durch umfassenderes Aufsuchen 
der Parallelstellen und Combinieren zusammengehoriger aber in vcrschie- 
denen Teilcn des Veda zerstreuter Gedanken." That Whitney's work will 
prove to be an instrument of great effectiveness in the future criticism 
and exegesis of the Veda I think no one can doubt. It will easily be seen 
that often, in the cases where the older attempts have failed, the fault is 
to be laid not so much to the learning and ingenuity of the scholars con- 
cerned, as to the lack of powerful tools. Such a powerful tool is this ; 
such is Bloomfield's Concordance ; and other such helpful tools are sure 
to be invented and made in the next few decades. The/m///t^-indexes of 
Pertsch, Whitney, Weber, Aufrecht, and von Schroedcr are admirable; 
and without them Whitney's work could not have been made. Their 
main use is to make feasible the systematic comparison of the texts one 
with another. This is what Whitney has done here, with the Atharvan 
text as starting-point, and the results of his comparison lie before us in 
the conveniently digested reports of the variants. 

Criticism of specific readings. — Examples abound showing how the 
reports may be used for this purpose. They enable us to recognize the 
corruptness of a reading, which, although corrupt, is nevertheless to be 
deemed the genuine Atharvan reading, as in the case of ydq cdrati at 

underscore in red ink the points of difference, and then state them with brevity and clearness. 
Then let him examine Whitney's reports, and I think he will freely admit that- they are indeed 
well-digested and are models of masterly condensation. More difficult cases are ii. i. 3; 13. i ; 
iii. 10. 4 ; 1 2. 7 ; 19. 8 ; vii. 83. 2 ; 97. i ; xiv. 2. 71. The amount and intricacy of possible varia- 
tion is well exemplified by vi. 117. i. Perhaps Whitney has erred in the direction of over- 
condensation in his note to vii. 29. 2. 

xcii Gmcral Inirodmlioti^ Part /.: by the liditar 

iv. 5. 5 over against the yd^ ca cdraii of RV. vii. 55. 6; or, again, to dis- 
cover with certainty the true intention (cf. TB. ii. 4. /••) of a lot of waver- 
ing variants, as in the case of those tiiat disguise the rtdntt'o mitdh of 
xix. 42. I. They show us that the vastly su{>erior tradition of the RV. 
con eels that of the AV. in many places (cf. the accentlcss asahanta of 
xi. I. 2); but that the AV. occasionally scores a point even against the 
RV., as in the case of mttt^hdstt at xiv. i. 13 (RV\ ag/idsu), or as in the 
case of fuhi . . . mf// at xviii. i 4 (RV. no . . . fidti). What a pu7zle is 
the phrase (xiv. 2. 72) jtiNivdnti tidv tij^rava/j, "The unmarried [plural] of 
us two [dual] seek a wife,* by itself, involving, as it does, a breach of the 
mathematical axiom that the whole is greater than any of its parts! but 
the comparison of RV. vii. 96. 4, with its uii for ndu, teaches us that the 
error lies in the ndii, even if it does not show us with certainty how that 
error is to be emended. Kven with all the array of variants, we arc (as 
Whitney notes at iv. 8. i ; vi. 22. 3 ; 31. 3) at times forced to the conclu- 
sion that certain verses were hojK'lessly s{>oiled before ever any of the 
,.• various text-makers took them in hand. 
i)iJH^^L Illustrations of classes of text errors. — I have already hinted at the 

variety of s{>ecial investigations to which the mass of critical material here 
assembled invites. The various occasions of probable error in the trans- 
mission of Indie texts have not yet Ixren made the object of a systematic 
and formal treatise. Mere we have, conveniently presented, the very 
material needed for such an advance in the progress of Vedic criticism. 
\\y grouping suspected readings into clearly defined classes, it will become 
pi>ssible to recognize suspected readings as real errors with a far greater 
degree of certainty than ever before. Illustrations of this matter are so 
abundant as easily to lead us far afield ; but several may be given. ^ 

Auditory errors. — A most striking example of a variation occasioned 
by the almost complete similarity of sound of two different readings is 
presented by the fratUya of AGS. iii. 10. 1 1, as compared with the 
pratUali of AV^ vi. 32. 3. Compare dydm of IIGS. i. 15. 3, ^\\\\jyAm of 
AV. vi. 42. I. — Confusion of surd and sonant is exemplified in the variant 
version of part of the f.uniliar RV. hymn, x. 154, given at AV. xviii. 
2. 14, where we have yebhyo mdiilm fradhdv ddhi, 'for whom honey (is J 
on the felly.* This may or may not be the genuine Atharvan reading; 
but it is certainly an unintelligent corruption of the pradhdvati of the 
RV. : and it is very likely that we have the same blunder at vi. 70. 3, 
where the occasion for the corruption is palpable.' The simplification of 
twin consonants is exemplified at xviii. 3. 3, where the editors of the Ikrrlin 

wmmmm^^mi^ » ( >th«*n. taken from the Ka^hminan ir«t. an* given atyove. p l«i«tii. « 

• (*onfii*ion* of nurcl ami vmant are tli-^u^^^rd l»y Roth, ZUMCf. x\\\\V toy: cf iK>le to 

ii 13 3. l»cW>w. The Ka»hmirian tc&l swarm* with tbem. 

II. Whitney s Commentary xciii 

text gave, with the support of all the mss. then accessible, the reading 
jivdm rt^bhyas : that this is an error for inrt^bhyas is shown beyond all 
doubt by the TA. variant virtdya jivdm (cf. the note on p. 832). 

Visual errors. — Several classes of errors are chargeable to "mistakes 
of the eye." Confusions such as that between pdhi and ydhi are simple 
enough, and are sometimes to be controlled by the evidence of oral 
reciters (cf. p. Ixvi); but, considering the fragmentariness of our knowl- 
edge of Indie paleography, who may guess all the more remote occasions 
for error of this kind } — Of errors by haplography, yd dste yd( cdrati 
(just mentioned) is a good type : this is undoubtedly the true Atharvan 
reading, and it is undoubtedly wrong, as is shown by the meter, and the 
comparison of RV., which hdiS ydg ca cdrati: cf. notes to iv. 5. 5 ; vi. 71. i ; 
vii. 81. I ; xix. 42. 3; 55. 3. For a most modern case, see note to 
xiii. 2. 35. 

Metrical faults. Hypermetric glosses and so forth. — Our suspicions of 
hypermetric words as glosses are often confirmed by the downright 
absence of those words in the parallel texts. Instances are : hdstdbhydm 
at AV. iv. 13. 7 (cf. RV. x. 137. 7) ; devS at RV. x. 150. 4^ (cf. RV. iii. 
2. 8); asmdbhyam at TS. ii. 6. 122 (cf. nah at RV. x. 15. 4); ividm at 
AV. xiv. 2. 40 (cf. RV. X. 85. 43). — On the other hand, the damaged 
meter of our text often suggests a suspicion that some brief word has 
fallen out or that some briefer or longer or otherwise unsuitable form 
has been substituted for an equivalent suitable one ; and the suspicion is 
borne out by the reading of the parallel texts. Thus in div6 [7vf] visna 
utd vd prthivyd^ mahS \yd\ visna urdr antdriksdt^ the brack etec> va%y miss- 
ing at AV. vii. 26. 8, are found in their proper places in the TS. and VS. 
parallels. The/^/w and iytis of AV. xviii. 2. 55 quite spoil the cadences 
of a and c, which cadences are perfect in their RV. original at x. 17. 4. 

Blend-readings. — The blend-readings, as I have called them, stand in 
yet another group. A good example is found, at AV. xiv. 2. 18 (see 
note), in prajdvati vlrashr dc^trkdmd syond ; its genesis is clear, as is 
also the intrusive character of syond, when we compare the Kashmirian 
reading prajdvaf I virasftr devrkdmd with that of the RV., vlrashr dcvdkdvid 
syond (i I syllables). The like is true of asyd at VS. xii. 73, dganma 
tdmasas pdrdm asyd : cf. the oft-recurring dtdrisvia tdinasas pa ram asyd 
with the aganma tamasas pdram of the Kathaka, xvi. 12, p. 235\ — The 
above-given examples suffice to show how rich is the material gathered 
in this work for an illuminating study of the fallibilities of human tradition 
in India. 

1 Here BoUensen long ago proposed {Oritnt und Occidcnty ii. 485) to athetize abhavat. 

xciv General Introduction, Part /. ; by tlu Editor 

12. Whitney's Translation and the Interpretative Elements of the 


The Translation : general principles governing the method thereof. — The 
statements concerning the principles involved in the translating of the 
Upanishads, as propounded by Whitney in his review of a translation of 
those texts, apply — mutatis mutandis — so well to the translation of this 
V^cila, that I have reprinted them (above, p. xix : cf. p. xxxvii) ; and to 
them I refer the reader. 

The translation not primarily an interpretation, but a literal version. — 
Whitney expressly states (above, p. xix) that the design of this work is 
••to put together as much as possible of the material that is to help 
toward the study and final comprehension of this Veda"; accordingly, 
wc can hardly deny the legitimacy of his procedure, on the one hand, in 
making his version a rigorously literal one, and, on the other, in restrict- 
ing the interpretative constituents of the work to narrow limits. He 
recognized how large a part the subjective element plays in the business 
of interpretation ; and if, as he intimates, his main purpose was to clear 
the ground for the interpreters yet to come, his restriction was well 
motived. It is, moreover, quite in accord with his scientific skepticism 
that he should prefer to err on the side of telling less than he knew, and 
not on the side of telling more than he knew : a fact which is well illus- 
trated by his remark at viii. 9. 18, where he says, ••The version is as lit- 

jIX^ . ^cral as possible; to modify it would imply an understanding of it." 

1^^^ A literal version as against a literary one. — Let no one think that 

Whitney was not well aware of the differences between such a version as 
he has given here, and a version which (like that of Griffith) makes con- 
cessions to the demands of literary style and |>opular interest. Whitney's 
version of xviii. i. 50, as given below, reads: • Yama first found for us a 
track ; that is not a pasture to be borne away; where our former Fathers 
went forth, there [go] those l>orn [of them], along their own roads.' 
With this compare his version of 1859 (O. and L. S., i., p. $8): 

VamA hath found for ns the firM a luifttaxe; 

that's no |K>%fic«»ton to l>« taken from ot; 
Whither our father^ of old time, departed. 

thither their offspring, each his proper pathvray. 

ICach version has its own quality; each method has its justification: to 
make a complete translation after the second method, one must inevitably 
waive the consideration of philological difficulties, a thing by no means licit 
for Whitney in such a work as this. The admirable version of Griffith 


12. Whitney s Translation xcv 

illustrates the advantages of the second method, and also its inherent 

Interpretative elements: captions of the hymns. — The preponderating 
elements of the commentary are of a critical nature, and these have been 
discussed by me at length in chapters i to ii of this Part I. of the Gen- 
eral Introduction (above, pages Ixiv to xciii).; of the interpretative elements 
a few words need yet to be said. And first, it should be expressly stated 
that the English titles of the hymns (the captions or headings printed 
in Clarendon type throughout, just before the Anukramanl-excerpts) con- 
stitute, for the books of short hymns at least, a most important part of 
the interpretative element of this work. They have evidently been formu- 
lated by Whitney with much care and deliberation, and are intended by 
him to give briefly his view of the general purport of each hymn. In a 
few cases these captions were lacking, and have been supplied by me 
from his first draft (so at i. 35) or otherwise (so at ii. 12; v. 6 ; vii. 109: 
cf. books XV., xvi., and xviii., and p. TT2^ end). These captions are given 
in tabular form near the end of the work : see volume viii., p. 1024. 

Interpretations by Whitney. — Where the text is not in disorder, a rigor- 
ously literal version is in many (if not in most) cases fairly intelligible 
without added interpretation. The need of such additions Whitney has 
occasionally, but perhaps not often, recognized. Thus after rendering the 
padas i. 2. 3 ab by the words 'when the kine, embracing the tree, sing the 
quivering dexterous reed,' he adds, "that is, apparently, 'when the gut- 
string on the wooden bow makes the reed-arrow whistle.' " Similarly at 
vi. 125. I. The text speaks at xviii. i. 52 of an offense done purusdtd : 
Whitney renders * through humanity,' and adds *' that is, through'-* human 
frailty." Cf. note to vii. 33. i. 

It may be noted in this place (for lack of a better one) that Whitney, 
in reporting the conjectures or interpretations of his predecessors, passes 
over some in silence. Sometimes this appears to have been done inten- 
tionally and because he disapproved them. Thus at iv. 37. 3, he notes in 
his first draft the suggestions of BR. and OB. concerning avacvasdm ; 

* It would be idle presumption in me to praise the work of a man whose knowledge of the 
literature and customs and spirit of India is so incomparably greater than my own ; but I may 
be allowed to repeat the judgment of my revered and beloved friend, M. Auguste liarth, con- 
cerning Griflfith's Veda-translations : Elle [the RV. translation] se presente ainsi sans aucun 
appareil savant, ce qui, du reste, ne veut pas dire qu*elle n'est pas savante. L*autcur, qui a 
longtemps dirige le Benares CoUegCy a une profonde connaissance des langues, des usages, dc 
Tesprit dc I'lnde, et, pour maint passage, on aurait tort de ne pas tenir grandement conipte 

de cette version en apparencc sans pretentions (Revue de I'histoire des religions, year 1S93, -^^ _^- 

xxvii. iSi). Elle [the AV. translation] . . . merite les memes eloges (Ibidfem, year 1899, ^^^^^^^^"^ i*"-^^^ 
xxxix. 25). ' 

' l>y a curious coincidence, *' through human frailty " b precisely the rendering given by 

xcvi General Iniroduciiou, Pari /. ; by tlu Editor 

but ij^norcs them in his second. Similarly, at ii. 14. 3, he omits mention 
of a tianslation of the verse given hy Zimmcr at p. 420. 

Ezegetical notes contributed by Roth. — It appears from the letters 
between Roth and Whitney that the former had written out a German 
version of this Veda, and that, although it was complete, its author did 
not by any means consider it .is ready for publication. In order to give 
Whitney the benefit of his opinion on doubtful |>oints, Roth made a brief 
commentary u|)on such selected words or phrases (in their pro|)er sequence) 
as seemed to him most likely to present difTiculties to Whitney. Ihc 
result is a parcel of notes, consisting of 250 pages in Roth's handwriting, 
which is now in my keeping. I'lom these notes Whitney has incorpo- 
rated a considerable amount of exegctical matter into his commentary. 
It is yet to be considered whether the notes contain enough material 
unused by Whitney to warrant their publication, if this should appear 
upon other grounds to l>e advisable. 

The translation has for its underlying text that of the Berlin edition. — 
With certain exceptions, to l>e noted later, the translation is a literal ver- 
sion of the Vulgate Atharvan text as given in the Berlin edition. For 
the great mass of the text, this is, to be sure, a matter of course. It is 
also a matter of course in cases where, in default of helpful variants to 
suggest an emendation of a desperate line, we are forced to a purely 
mechanical version, as at xii. i. 37 a, 'she who, cleansing one, trembling 
I away the serpent,* or at vi. 70. 2 «b. Kvcn in the not infrequent cases 
where (in spite of the lack of parallel texts) an emendation is most obvious, 
j Whitney sticks to the corrupted text in his translation, and reser^•es the 
;, emendation for the notes. Thus, at iv. 12. 4, dsrk te dsthi rohatu mdhsdm 

miJhs/ftti ro/uitu, he renders Met thy blood, bone grow,' although the 
f , ^ ' change of dsrk to astlnui would make all in order. 

'"' l^^ The translation follows the Berlin text even in cases of corrigible cormp- 

' tions. — On the other hand, it may seem to some to be not a matter of 

course that Whitney should give a bald and mechanically literal version 
of the true Atharvan text as presented in the Berlin edition in those very 
numerous cases where the parallel texts offer the wholly intelligible read- 
ings of which the Atharvan ones are palpable distortions. Granting, 
however, that they are, although corrupt, to be accepted as the Atharvan 
readings, and considering that this work is primarily a technical one, his 
procedure in faithfully reproducing the corruption in Mnglish is entirely 

A few examples may Ik* given. Whitney renders tdin /I'd bltaf^a sdn^a 
(i jofttH'hHi (iii. 16. 5) by 'on thee here, Bhaga. do I call entire,' although 
RV VS. have y<'//*ii77/, 'on thee does every one call.* At v. 2. 8, thntf 
€id :'t(tuttfi anuivat td/^tisvdfi is rendered • may he, quick, rich in fervor. 

12. Whitney s Translation xcvii 

send(?) all/ although it is a corruption (and a most interesting one) of 
the very clear line diiraf ca vifvd avniod dpa svdh. So piiruddmdso 
(vii. 73. I), *of many houses,' although the (^rauta-Sutras oiler puruta- 
mdso. At RV. vi. 28. 7 the cows are spoken of as 'drinking clear water 
and cropping good pasture/ suydvasain r^dnith: the AV. text-makers, at 
iv. 21. 7, corrupt the phrase to -se ru^dntihy but only in half-way fashion, 
for they leave the RV. accent to betray the character of their work. 
Even here Whitney renders by ' shining {ni^anti/i) in good pasture.' The 
AV., at xviii. 4. 40, describes the Fathers as dstftdm flrjain upa yd sdcanic ; 
Whitney is right in rendering the line by * they who attach themselves unto 
a sitting refreshment,' although its original intent is amusingly revealed 
by HGS., which has {jusantdvt) vidsi ^mdm^ ftrjam tita yc bhajantCy 'and 
they who partake of this nourishment every month.' For other instances, 
see the notes to iv. 21. 2a; iii. 3. i ; iv. 16.6 (rn<^anias for ritsdn(as), 8 
{vdritno) ; 27. 7 (yiditdm) ; vi. 92. 3 (dhdvatn) ; ii. 35. 4 ; iii. 18. 3 ; iv. 2. 6 ; 
15. 5 ; vii. 21. I ; and so on. 

Cases of departure from the text of the Berlin edition. — These are always 
expressly stated by Whitney. They include, first, cases in which the 
Berlin edition does not present the true Atharvan text. An example 
may be found at xix. 64. i, where the editors had emended wrongly to 
dgre^x\i\. the version implies dgnc. At xix. 6. 13, the editors, following the 
suggestion of the parallel texts, had emended to chdnddhsi the ungram- 
matical corruption of the AV. chdndo ha {jajflire tdsvidt) ; but since 
Whitney held that the latter reading "has the best right to figure as 
Atharvan text," his intentionally ungrammatical English 'meter were 
born from that' is meant to imply that reading. 

Here are included, secondly, cases in which the Berlin reading, although /loZf,5' 
it has to be recognized as the true Atharvan reading, is so unmanageable 
that Whitney has in despair translated the reading of some parallel text 
or an emended reading. Thus at vii. 57. 2 c it is assumed that rMd id 
asyo *bhif asya rdjalah is, although corrupt, the true Atharvan reading. 
The corruption is indeed phonetically an extremely slight distortion, for 
the RV. has nbhd id asyo *bhdyasya rdjatah; and from this the translation 
is made. — Other categories might be set up to suit the slightly varying 
relations of mss. and edition and version: cf. xix. 30. i ; xviii. 4. Zt\ and 
so on. 

Whitney's growing skepticism and correspondingly rigid literalness. — 
At xiii. 4. 54, Whitney says : *' Our rendering has at least concinnity — '— 
unless, indeed, in a text of this character, that be an argument against 
its acceptance." The remark is just; but one does not wonder tliat its 
author has been called dcr gross e Skcptiker dcr Spraclnvissenschaft, That 

^ Perhaps the corruption is yet deeper seated, and covers an original masi-rndsy urjaut. 



xcviii General lutroduciion^ Pari I. : by the lidUor 

his skepticism grew with the progress of his work is clear from a com- 
parison of the unreviscil with the revised forms (cf. p. xxvii) of the early 
books. Thus at vi. 57. 2, as a rendering o(jd/tisii, his manuscript at first 
read 'heaKr*; but on the revision he has crossed this out and put the 
Vedic word untranslated in its stead. With his skepticism, hb desire for 
rigid literahiess seems to have increased. At ii. 33. 5, the first draft trans- 
lates ptdf^ada very suitably by 'fore parts of the feet*; but the second 
ff^ic^y I renders it by 'front feet.* Similarly, at vi. 42. 3, there is no reasonable 

*^/, >>^«^ . doubt thai fdrsnyd prdfHtdcna ca means (I trample] 'with heel and with 
h^ 0i'^ toe* (cf. viii. 6. 15 ; vi. 24. 2) ; but again he renders by 'front foot.* At 
A'^^f^ iii- 15 7. his prior draft reads 'watch over our life*: 'life* is an unim- 

^\ peachabic equivalent of 'vital spirits* or fnhtds; but the author has 

changed it to 'breaths* in the second draft. 

1 1 is presumable motive, a wish to leave all in the least degree doubtful 
interpretation to his successors, we can understand ; but we cannot deny 
that he sometimes goes out of his way to make his version wooden. Thus 
he renders /'//r, when used of skins or amulets (viii. 6. 1 1 ; 5. 13) by * bear * 
instead of 'wear.' At iv. 21. i, he sfHraks of cows as 'milking for Indra 
many dawns,* although ' full many a morning yielding milk for Indra ' 
can hardly be called too free. Cf. his apt version of uitardm-Htiaitlw 
sdifidtn at xii. 1. 33, • from one year to another,* with that given at iii. 10. I ; 
17.4, 'each further summer.* In a charm to rid the grain of danger, 
vi. 50. I d, ' make fearlessness for the grain * is needlessly inept. It is 
easy for Sanskritists, but not for others, to sec that 'heroism * (virjd), as 
used of an herb at xix. 34. 8, means its 'virtue' (and so he renders it at 
xii. 1.2); that 'l>odies* of Agni at xix. 3. 2 are his 'forms* (fitvlj or 
j^/iords)\ and so on; but to others, such versions will hardly convey the 
intended meaning. The fact that svastibhts^ in the familiar refrain of the 
Vasisfhas, is a plural, hardly justifies the infelicity of using such a plural 
as 'well-beings* to render it at iii. 16. 7; and some will say the like of 
• wcalfulnesses * (iv. 13. 5), 'wealths,* and 'marrows.* 

It lies entirely beyond the province of the editor to make alterations 
in matters of this kind. It is |>erhaps to be regretted that these infelici- 
ties, which do not really go below the surface of the work, are the very 
things that are the most striking for |)ersons who examine the book casu- 
ally and without technical knowledge; but the book is after all primarily 
for technical study. 
^ ,. , Poetic elevation and humor. — The places in which the A V. rises to any 

/• ^ x-^*"*""""^ elevation of |X)etic thought or diction arc few indeed. Some of the 

funeral verses come as near it as any (among them, notably, xviii. 2. 50) ; 
and .some of the philosophic verses (especially of x. 8 under Deusscn*s 
sympathetic treatment) have an interest which is not mean. The motive 

12. Whitney s Translation 


of xix. 47 is an exceptionally coherent and pleasing one. I presume 
that the idea of sending the fever as a choice present to one's neighbors 
1 1 (v. 22. 14) is intended to be jocose. Witchcraft and healing are serious 
businesses. If there is anything else of jocular tone in this extensive /wtt/^-'^ 
text, I do not remember that any one has recognized and noted it. The ^ f^^^ '' 

gravity of Whitney's long labor is hardly relieved by a gleam of humor 
save in his introduction to ii. 30 and his notes to vi. 16. 4 and 67. 2 and 
x. 8. 27, and the two cited at p. xcvii, line 4 from end, and p. xciv, 1. 23. 


13. Abbreviations and Signs explained 

General scope of the list. — The following list is intended not only to 
explain all the downright or most arbitrary abbreviations used in this 
work, but also to explain in the shortest feasible way all such abbreviated 
designations of books and articles as are more or less arbitrary. The 
former generally consist of a single initial letter or group of such letters ; 
the latter, of an author's name or of the abbreviated title of a work. 

The downright abbreviations. — These are for the most part identical 
with those used by Whitney in his C/vr;;/;//^?;- and given and explained by 
him on p. xxvi of that work: thus AA. = Aitareya-Aranyaka. — Whit- 
ney's omission of the macron proper to the A in AA., AB., A^S., AGS., 
13AU., and TA. was doubtless motived by a purely mechanical considera- 
tion, the extreme fragility of the macron over a capital A; that he has not 
omitted it in Apast. or Ap. is a pardonable inconsistency. — The sigla codi- 
cum are explained at p. cix, and only such of them are included here as have 
more than one meaning : thus, W. = Wilson codex and also = Whitney. 

Abbreviated designations of books and articles. — For these the list is 
intended to give amply sufficient and clear explanations, without follow- 
ing strictly any set of rules of bibliographers. In the choice of the des- 
ignations, brevity and unambiguousness have been had chiefly in mind. — 
An author's name, without further indication of title, is often used arbi- 
trarily to mean his most frequently cited work. Thus ** Weber " means 
Weber's Indische Studien, With like arbitrariness are used the names 
of Bloomfield, Caland, Florenz, Griffith, Grill, Henry, Ludwig, Muir, 
Winternitz, and Zimmer : cf. the list. — Where two coordinate reference- 
numbers, separated by a comma, are given (as in the case of Bloomfield, 
Grill, and Henry), the first refers to the page of the translation, and the 
second to the page of the commentary. Of similar numbers, separated 
by "or" (as on p. 286), the first refers to the original pagination, and 
the second to the pagination of the reprint.^ 

^ Here let mc protest against the much worse than useless custom of giving a new pagina- 
tion or a double pagination to separate reprints. If an author in citing a reprinted article does 

C General Inlroduciion^ Pari L : by iht Editor 

Explanation of arbitrary signs. — The followinp^ sif;ns (and letters) arc 
used in the hcxiy of this work more or less arbitrarily. 

Parentheses are usctl in the translation to enclose the 5>anskrit original 
of any given Mnglish word (see above, p. xx), such indications bein;^ 
often most acceptable to the profcs«;ional student. For numerous 
instances, see xii. i, where the added bhRmi ox prthivi (both are added in 
vs. 7) shows which of these words is meant by the Knglish earth. They 
are also used to enclose an indication of the gender (m. f. n.) or number 
(du. pi.) of a V'edic word whose gender or number cannot otherwise be 
shown by the version. 

Square brackets are employed to enclose some of the words inserted 
in the translation for which there is no express equivalent in the 

Ell-brackets, or square brackets minus the upper horizontal stroke 
(thus : L J )» were devised by the editor to mark as portions of this work 
for which Whitney is not res|>onsible such additions or changes as were 
made by the editor (cf. p. xxviii, end). These types were devi.sed partly the usual parentheses and brackets were already employed for 
other pur|)oses, and jKirtly because they readily suggest the letter ell, the 
initial of the editor's name. 

Hand. — In order to avoiti the expense of alter.itions in the electro- 
plates, all considerable additions and corrections have been put together 
on pages 1045-46, and reference is made to them in the proper places by 
means of a hand i>ointing to the page concerned (thus, at p. 327, line 1 1 : 
IH'^'Sce p. 1045). 

The small circle (thus : o ) represents the avnf^m/ta or division-mark 
of the /fr</<i-tcxts. This use of the circle is common in the mss. (as 
explained at p. cxxii) and has been followed in the Iptitex I'erbomm 
(see p. 4). 

The Italic colon (.*) is employeil as equivalent of the vertical stroke 
used in pu't^^^itti to se{>aratc individual words or fadas, lk)th circle and 
colon are used in the note to vi. 131. 3. I regard both the circle and the 
colon as extremely ill adapted for the uses here explained. 

The letters «, b, c, d, e, f, etc., when set, as here, in Clarendon tjpe, are 
intended to designate the successive p.ulas of a Vedic stanza or verse. 

Alphal>etic list of abbreviations. — The downright abbreviations and the 
abbreviated designations of books and articles follow here, all in a single 
alphabetically arranged list. 

not |>i«>«» (rach rrferenr«* thereto in (luplicate, or if \\\\ rea«lrr dort n«»t hate at hand lx>th th« 
original arul the reprint (ami cither of the^c ca«r« \\ rt< rptional>. the meeker of a citation it 
•uie til l»e taiHeil in a lar|;;e proportion of the in^tanr^^ concerned. It is amaiing thai anj 
author or etlttor can be to hecdleta at to tolerate this c«il |tractKC. 

13. Abbreviations and Signs explained 


AA. = Aitarcya-Aranyaka- Ed. IJibl. Ind. 


AB. = Aitareya-Brahmana. Ed. Th. Auf- 
rccht Bonn. 1879. 

Abh.»= Abhandlungen. 
AQS. = A^valayana-^rauta- Sutra. Ed. 
Bibl. Ind. 1874. 

In the cd., the 1 2 adhydyas of the work 
are divided into two liexads (saflas), a 
Trior and a Latter, and the numbering of 
those of the letter begins anew with i. 
In Whitney*s citations, the numbers run 
from i. to xii. : thus (in his note to iv. 39.9) 
A(^S. I[. ii. 14. 4 is cited as viii. 14.4. 

AGS. = A^valayana-Grhya-Sutra. Ed. A. 

F. Stenzler in Sanskrit and German. 

Leipzig. 1864-5. E^- ^^so in Bibl. 

Ind. 1869. 
AJP. = American Journal of Philology. 

Ed. B. L. Gildersleeve. Baltimore. 

1 880-. 
Ak. = Akademie. 
Amer. = American. 
Anukr. = Anukramanl or. sometimes the 

author of it. 
Ap(;S. or Ap. = Apastamba-C^rauta-Sutra. 

Ed. R. Garbe in Bibl. Ind. 1882- 

1902. 3 vol's. 
ApGS. = Apastambiya-Grhya-Sutra. Ed. 

M. Winternitz. Vienna. 1887. 
Apr. = Atharva-Veda Prati^akhya. Ed. 

W. D. Whitney in JAOS. (vii. 333- 

615). 1862. Text, translation, and 

elaborate notes. 
Aufrecht Das XV. Buch des AV. Text, 

translation, and notes. Ind. Stud. i. 

1 21-140. 1849. See below, p. 769. 
AV. = Atharva-Veda. AV. = also Athar- 

va-Veda-Samhita. Ed. by R. Roth and 

W.D.Whitney. Berlin. 1855-6. Ed. 

also by Shankar Pandurang Pandit. 

Bombay. 1895-8. 4 vol's, 
-av. = -avasana : see explanation following. 

In the excerpts from the Anukr., the 
Sanskrit eka-^ dvi-^ tri-^ etc., constantly 
recurring in composition with avasana and 
fkida^ are abbreviated by the Arabic nu- 
merals I, 2, 3, etc. Thus, at p. 727, the 
excerpt jav. 6p. atyasti may be read as 
try-avasdnd saipadd Uyastih. 

B. = Brahmana. 

BAU. = Brhad-Aranyaka-Upanisad. Ed. 
Otto Bohtlingk. Leipzig. 1SS9. Other 
ed's : Calc, Bo., Poona. 

Baudhayana = B5udhayana-Dharma-Qas- 
tra. Ed. E. Hultzsch. Leipzig. 1S84. 

Bergaigne : see Rel. V<5d. 

Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel = Manuel pour 
dtudier le Sanscrit vddique. By A. 
Bergaigne and V. Henry. Paris. 1S90. 

Bibl. Ind. = Bibliotheca Indica, as desig- 
nation of the collection of texts and 
translations published by the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal in Calcutta. 

Bl. = Bloomfield. 

Bloomficld (without further designation of 
title) = Hymns of the AV., together 
with extracts from the ritual books and 
the commentaries, translated by Mau- 
rice Bloomfield. Oxford. 1S97. This 
book is vol. xlii. of SBE. 

In this work Bl. sums up a very large 
part, if not all, of his former " Contribu- 
tions " to the exegesis of this Veda, which 
he had published in AJP. (vii., xi., xii., 
xvii.), JAOS. (xiii., xv., xvi. — PAOS. 
included), ZDMG. (xlviii.). The " Contri- 
butions" are cited by the abbreviated des- 
ignations (just given) of the periodicals 

Bloomfield, Atharvavcda = his part, so en- 
titled, of the Grundriss. 1899. 

Bo. = Bomb.ny. 

BR. = Bohtlingk and Roth's Sanskrit- 
Worterbuch. Published by the Impe- 
rial Russian Academy of Sciences. St. 
Petersburg. 1 852-1 875. Seven vol's. 
Often called the (Major) (St.) Peters- 
burg Lexicon. Cf. OB. 

Caland (without further indication of title) 
= Altindisches Zaubcrritual. Probe 
einer Uebersetzung dcr wichtigsten 
Theile des Kau^ika-Sutra (kandikas 7- 
52). By W. Caland. Amsterdam. 
1900. From the Verhandelingcn der 
Koninklijke Ak. van Wetenschappen 
te Amsterdam. Dcel III. No. 2. 

Caland, Todtcngebrauche = Die Altindi- 
schen Todten- und Bestattungsgebrau- 
che. Amsterdam. 1896. Seep. 813. 


Gatcral Iniroduciion^ Pari L : by the Editor 

Calami, TotcnvTrchning = Uclxrr Tolcn- 
vcrchrunj; bci cinigcn cicr Imlo-Gcr- 
mantsclicn Volkcr. Amsterdam. 1JIS8. 

Calami, Pitrmc<llia Sutrajt ~ The I'itrmc- 
(Ilia SiJtraH of llAudliayana, lliranyakc- 
^iii, («.iti(Ama. Ixipji;*. i8<X>. 

Calc. = Cal< ulta or CalcuKa edition. 

i^W. - (,'at.ipatlia • Hiahmana. Kd. A. 
Weber. Iletlin. 1S55. 

tV^- - <,'^i"»kl»Ayana- (,'rAuta Sutra. Kd. 
A. Ilillrl)r.mdt. Hibl. 1ml. 1888. 

^J'CiS. ~ (,'Afikhi\yana-<iihya-.Sulr.i. Ed. H. 
01dcnl>crg in Ind. Stud. (xv. i-i6^>). 
1878. Ski. and («erman. 

ChU. ~ Chi\ndogya • U|iani!ja<l. Ed. (). 
Uolitlingk. Lcipfi^. 1S.S9. Skt and 
German. Kd. also in Hild. Ind., Uo., 
and Toona^ 

Collation- llook =- manuscript volumes con- 
taining; Whitney's fundamental tran- 
script of the AV. text and his collations, 
etc. For details, sec p. cxvii. 

comm. ~ the commentary on AV. (as- 
cribed to .Sdyaiia and published in the 
llombay e<l.) ; ot ^ the author thereof. 

Da^. Kar. =r l>a^a Karm.lni, a paddhati to 
certain parts of the KSuq. See Ill's 
intrcMluction. p. xi\'. 

Dclbruck. Altindi^che .Synt.ix. llalle. 

Denkschr. — Denksrhriften. 

Deussen, <^esc!iirhte ~ Alljjemcine Ge- 
schichtedcr Thilosophie niit l>esonderer 
Ilermksichtigunf; dcr Reliqionen. Hy 
Paul Deu.^cn. Leipzig;. The first vol. 
(p.irt I, l8<>4: part 2, 18*79) treats of 
the philosophy of the Veda and of the 

Deuvien, Tpanishads = Sech/ijj Tpani- 
shad's des Veda aus dcm Sanskrit 
ijl>ersetxt und mit Einlcitungcn und 
Anmerkungen versehen. Leipzig. 


Dhanvantart ~- Dhanvantariya • Nighantu. 
Some references are to the Poona eti.; 
Roth's references are, I presume, to 
his transcript dcscril)ed by Garl)e, 
Verfcit Imiss der (Tuliinger) Indischen 
llandschriften, ^o, 230. 

du. » dual. 

etI. -: criition (of) or editor or edited by 
or in. 

et al. — et alibi. 

f. or fern. = feminine. 

Festgruss an Itohtlingk = Festgntis an 
Otto von lUihilingk xum Uoktor-JulM- 
laum, 3. Februar 1888, von seinen 
Freunden. Stuttgart. 188S. 

Festgruss an Roth = Fcstgruss«an Rudolf 
von Roth 2um DoktnrJuUbum, 24. 
August 1893, von seinen Freunden und 
Schulem. Stuttgart. 1^73. 

Florenz = his German translation of AV. 
vi. i-$o, with comment, in vol. xii. of 
Kezzenberger's Ueitiage. Gottingen. 
1887. Sec below, p. 281. 

GH. •=• (*opatha-nrAhmana. Kd. Dibl. Ind. 

GeUlner : tee Subemtig Ueddr and V'tJ. 

Ges. ~ (fcsellschaft. 

(i(iA. = (iottingische Gelehrtc Anzeigen. 

GGS. = (fobhilaCirhya-Sutra. Kd. Fried- 
rich Knauer. I^eip/ig. 1885. Text, 
transl., and comment : in 2 parts. 

(Wammar or (.Skt.) C«ram. or (ir. = Whit- 
ney's Sanskrit (irammar, 2d cd. Lei|>- 
zig and Boston. 1889. There is a 3d 
rd. (189^)), which is essentially a re- 
print of the 3d. 

(*rassmann = Rig- Veda. Ucbcraetzt etc. 
Leipzig. 1876-7. 2 vol's. 

Griffith = The hymns of the AV., trans- 
lated, with a |>opular commentary. \\y 
Ralph T. II. (Wiffith. Benares niul Lon- 
don. 1895-6. 2 vol's. Cf. p. xcv, above. 

(*rill - Hundert Lieder des AV. By Julius 
(;rill. 2ded. Stuttgart 1888. Trans- 
lation and comment. 

Grohmann = Medic inisches aus dcm AV., 
mit besonderem Bezug auf den Takman. 
In Ind. Stud. (ix. 3>^i-423). 1865. 

Grundriss = Grundriss der Indo-Arischen 
Philologie und Altertumskundc. Be- 
griindet %on ( jeorg Buhlcr. Fortgesetzt 
von F. Kiel horn. Stnuwburg. i8<)6-. 

Gurupuj.1kaumu<U ^>c rum funf- 
zigjahiigen Doctorjubitaum, Albrecht 


where it, witli i. 19-21 and sundry other hymns, is called s&mgr&mika or * battle-hymn,* 
used in rites for putting an enemy to flight; and it (or vs. i) is apparently designated 
hy prathamasya (as first of the sdrngrilmika hymns) in 14.12, where the avoidance of 
wounds by arrows is aimed at; it is also reckoned (14.7, note) as belonging to the 
aparHjita gana ; further, it is used, with ii. 3, in a healing ceremony (25. 6) for assuag- 
ing wounds, etc. ; and, after hymn i has been employed in the npukarman^ it and the 
other remaining hymns of the anuvdka are to be muttered (139. 11). The comm. 
Lp. 16, top J, once more, quotes it from Naksatra |_error, for ^anti, says liloomfieldj 
Kalpa 17, 18, as applied in a mahH^Hnti called apardjita. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 394 ; Griffith, i. 3 ; Bloomfield, 8, 233. — Discussed : Bloom- 
field, AJP. vii. 467 ff. or JAOS. xiii. p. cxiii ; Florenz, Dezzenberger' s Beitrdge^ xiv. 1 78 ff. 

1. We know the reed's father, Parjanya the much-nourishing; and 

we know well its mother, the earth of many aspects. 

Vidmd is quoted in Prat. iii. 16 as the example first occurring in the text of a 
lengthened final a. 

2. O bow-string, bend about us ; make thyself a stone ; being hard, 

put very far away niggards [and] haters. 

A bow-string is, by Kau^. 14. 13, one of the articles used in the rite. With b com- 
pare ii. 13. 4 b. Pada d is RV. iii. 16. 5 d. * Niggard ' is taken as conventional render- 
ing of Ardti, The comm. reads vflus^ RV.-wise. 

3. When the kine, embracing the tree, sing the quivering dexterous 

(? rbhti) reed, keep away from us, O Indra, the shaft, the missile. 

That is, apparently (a, b), * when the gut-string on the wooden bow makes the reed- 
arrow whistle * : cf. R V. vi. 67. 1 1 c, d. The comm. explains rbhum as uru bhdsamdnam ( !), 
and didyum as dyotamdnam^ which is probably its etymological sense. [^Discussed, 
Bergaigne, Rel, v^d, i. 278 n., ii. 182. J 

4. As between both heaven and earth stands the bamboo (? t^jana)^ so 

let the reed-stalk (imiflja) stand between both the disease and the flux 


The verse seems unconnected with the rest of the hymn, but to belong rather with 
hjTnn 3. The comm. glosses tejana with venu. For dsrdva^ cf. ii. 3 ; vi. 44. 2 ; the 
comm. explains it here by tnutrdtfsdra 'difficulty (?) of urinating' or * painful urina- 
tion* |_* diabetes,' rather ?J. Bloomfield understands it to mean " diarrhoea," and bases 
up6n this questionable interpretation his view of the meaning of the whole hymn, which 
he entitles ** formula against diarrhoea." 

3. Against obstruction of urine: with a reed. 

\^Atharvan, — tmvarcam. parjanyamitrddibahudcvatyam. dmistubham : i-j. pathydpaftktiJ] 

Of this hymn, only vss. y-Z are found in Paipp. (in xix.), without the refrain. It is 
doubtless intended at Kau^. 25. 10, as used in a rite for regulating the flow of urine ; 
vss. 8-9 are specified in 25. 12. The "reed" implies some primitive form of a fistula 
urinaria^ the vastiyantra (one of the nddlyantrdni) of the later physicians — who, 
however, do not appear to have made frequent use of it. 

Translated: Weber, iv. 395 ; Griffith, 1.4; Bloomfield, 10, 235. — Cf. Bergaigne- 
Henry, Manuel^ p. 130. 


i. 3 BOOK I. THE ATHy\kV/\-VEDA-SAMHrrA. 4 

1. \VV knf»w the rcc<rs father, I*arjanya of hundredfold virility; with 
that will I make weal {(tim) for thy body; on the earth [Ik:] thine out- 
pouring;, out of thee, with a splash ! 

The UsX pAcU i!i found also at 'IS. iii. 3. lo* ; M/ ///, af;ain at xviit. 3. 22. 

2. We know the reed's father, Mitraof hundredfold virility; with that 
will etc. etc. 

3. We know the reed's father, Varuna of etc. etc. 

4. We know the reed*s father, the moon of etc. etc. 

5. We know the reed's father, the sun of etc. etc. 

6. What in thine entrails, thy (two) (;roins (? j^^vfni), what in thy 
bladder has flowed together — so be thy urine released, out of thcc, with 
a splash ! all of it. 

The comm. rcadu in b (with iwo or llircr of SrP'ji m*«., which follow him) iam^n- 
tarn. He explains the ^tivlnytlu as **t«%o vessels {n*hil) located in the two Mdes, 
affording access lo the retepLn Ics of uiinr." 

7. I split up thy urinator, like the weir of a tank — so be thy etc. etc. 

1 he comm. (with tlie same mss. as aU>ve) has in b variam. Ppp. reads vrfram 
X'f^antytl : yantyah. \j \ pierce or <»pen up thy urethra* — with a metallic catheter, 
says the comm.J 

8. Unfastened [be] thy bladder-orifice, like [that] of a water-holding 
sea — so he thy etc. etc. 

Ppp. gives, for b, samNtiratyo *t*uihir tva. 

9. As the arr(»w flew foith, let loose from the Iww — so be thy etc. etc. 

Instead of parAMipatai in a, we should expect parA^piiiai, the equi%*alent of a 
I present. 

£/|iy It is easy to re<luce this hymn to the sulntance of four verses, the norm of the book, 

r* ^' * by striking;; out vss. 2-5, as pLiinly secondary variations of vs. 1, and combining vss. 7->S 

(is in I'pp.) into one ver»e, with omission of the sense disturbing refrain* 

4. To the waters: for blessings. 

[SimifkmJrif<a. — afetMftfitdm, sfimJAJJit>t/Jmi. j^Jyttrdrnt : 4. fmrattd^ihrhsit.'] 

The hymn is not found in I'.^ipp. It and the two that next follow are reckoned by 
K&u^. (()■ 1.4) to iKith {tinii j(,M//iif, majt>r (hrhai) and minor (iaji^hm) ; also (7. 14) to 
the apAfk saktAni or water hymns applied in various ceremonies ; and by some (18. 2$, 
note) to the s^iila jC'"f4t, which K.'iu<;. l>e|;ins with hymns 5 and 6. The same three are 
joined viith others (19. 1 ) in a he.iling rite for sick kine, and (41. 14) in a ceremony for 
i;ood fortune. Af;ain (25. 20), this h)mn is used (with vi. 51) in a remedial rite, and 
(37. I) in the interpretation of sif^ns. Hymns 4>6 further appear in VAit. (16. lo) as 
used in the 4f/<*if «i//r /m lite f>f the it^nisioma sacrifice, and 4. 2 alone with the setting 
down of the ittiti/hutpl water in the same sacrifice. The four verses are RV. i.23. |6>I9 ; 
for other corres|>ondrn<es, see under the verses. 

Translated : Wcbcr. iv. y/O ; GritTith, i. 6. 



1. The mothers go on their ways, sisters of them that make sacrifice, 
mixing milk with honey. 

2. They who are yonder at the sun, or together with whom is the sun 
— let them further our sacrifice. 

The verse is found further, without variant, in VS. (vi. 24 e). 

3. The heavenly waters I call on, where our kine drink ; to the rivers 
(sindhu) is to be made oblation. 

LCf. note to X. 9. 27, below. J 

4. Within the waters is ambrosia (ainrta)^ in the waters is remedy; 
and by the praises {prdgasti) of the waters ye become vigorous (vajin) 
horses, ye become vigorous kine. 

The second half-verse is here rendered strictly according to the accent, which for- 
bids taking the nouns as vocatives; SPP. reads in c, with all his mss. and the great 
majority of ours bhdvatha (our two Bp. give bhav-) ; the accent is to be regarded as 
antithetical. RV. gives prdgastaye at end of b, and ends the verse with c, reading dhfd 
bhdvata vHjinah, Other texts have tlie verse: VS. (ix. 6 a), TS. (i. 7. 70» ^"d MS. 
(i. 1 1. 1) ; all lack a fourth pada, and have at end of \) prd^astisu ; for c, VS. has d^vd 
bhdvata vdjinah^ TS. d(ivd bhavatha vdjinah^ and MS. dqvd bhavata vdjinah. 

5. To the waters: for blessings. 

\Sindhudvipa. — (etc, as 4).] 

The first three verses occur, without variants, in Paipp. xix. The whole hymn, with 
the first three verses of the one next following, are, also without variants, RV. x. 9. 1-7 
(vs. 5 is here put before 4 ; 6, 7 are also RV. i. 23. 20 a, b, c, 21) ; and they likewise 
occur in other texts: thus, 5. 1-3 in SV. (ii. 11S7-1189), VS. (xi. 50-52 et al.), TS. 
(iv. I. 5» ct al.), MS. (ii. 7. 5 et al.), and TA. (iv. 42. 4ct al.), everywhere with the same 
text Lfor other references, see MGS., p. 147 J ; as to 5. 4 and the verses of 6, see under 
the verses. Hymns 5 and 6 together are called ^ambhumayob/nl^ Kc^uq. 9. i ; for their 
uses in connection with the preceding hymn, see under that hymn. Both appear also in 
the house-building ceremony (43. 12), and this one alone in \\\t dar^apftrnamdsa- or 
/rtrr/aw-sacrifices (6. 17) ; while the schol. add it (42. 13, note) to the ceremony on the 
home-coming of the Vedic student. For the use in Vait. with hymns 4 and 6, see under 4 ; 
with 6 (also under the name ^ambhumayobhti) it accompanies in \\it paqubandha (10. 19) 
the washing of articles employed ; and with it alone, in the agnicayana (28. 11), is the 
lump of earth sprinkled. The comm., finally, quotes the hymn from Naks. Kalpa 1 7, 
1 8, as used in a mahd^dnti called ddityd. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 397 ; Griffith, i. 7. 

1. Since ye are kindly waters, do ye set us unto refreshment (ftrj), 
unto sight of great joy. 

2. What is your most propitious savor (rdsa), of that make us share 
here, like zealous mothers. 

3. We would satisfy you in order to that to the possession of which 
ye quicken, O waters, and generate us. 

i. 5- nooK I. Tin: athakva viida-samiiita. 6 

[May not f*tn*h'*tthi}^ like Miiglii^h pri*4fme, here mean •brinp/ ami %o Mgnify aUiut 
the »ainr lliini; as ;iit:'*tikti 'J 

4. Of the waters, having masti-ry of desirable things, ruling over 
human hein;;s (tttrstiNt), I ask a lemedy. 

'Ihr vrrsc fnilou<« in KV. our f*, I. It \% found, without variants, in TH. (11.5. A*) 
and TA. (iv. 42. 4 ) ; hut MS. (iv. 9. 27) has a corrupt third pikda, with much diftcordaiKC 
amoit^ the ms%., and adds a fourtli. 

6. To the waters: for blessings. 

[SiHjkMMi/''9 {At'ijtxJlfti) — (cU., 4* 4). 4, fatktdf^mktt] 

The hymn is not found in Taipp . luit |)rrhaps stoo<l at the lieginnini; of itt teit« on 
the lost fimt leaf : see [lUoomticld'H in(ro<l. to the K\\i<^ . p. xxxvii and ref*s, rsp. \Vel>er, 
V. 78 anfl xiii. 431 J. Vrises I 3 on ur in KV., as noted under the prece«Iing h)mn. and 
1-2 in othrr text% a^ |H)intcd out under the %'i'iM:s. For the use of the h)nm, with its 
pretlecessor or it^ two prcdrce*v>r5. in K.iu^. and VAit , see alnwe, under those hymns. 
Ver»e I i* aUo (K.iu<;.(). 7) diri<tr<| in |»r it'iK-atrd (tilth the ji^Ayatfl or fjfi/r/ verse) 
at the lM-t;innin^ and end of c^/i// rites, and to )>e recited part by part sii times, with 
rinsing of the mouth, in the tHiffttmit/totsa-iui ceremony (140.5). 

Translated : \Vel»er, iv. 3<>7 ; (irittith, i. 8. 

1. He the divine waters weal for us in order to assistance, to drink ; 
weal [and] health flow they unto us. 

The ver^e occurs further, without variants, in \'S. (xxxvi. I 2), TI*. (i. 2. I ' et al. ). TA. 
(iv. 42. 4). and Ap. (v. 4.1); in .SV. (i. 33) is rt'|>eated f<f/Ar Mai (instead of ipas) at 
beginning; of b. The lomm. explains tthhi)ti l>y ahhiytijana ! 

As to the prefixion of this \'erse to the whole text in a part of our mss., see p. cxvL 

2. Within the waters. Soma told me, are all remedies, and Agni (fire) 
wealful for all. 

Found aUo in TH. (ii. 5.8'), without variants, and in MS. (iv. 10. 4), with, for c, 

3. () waters, bestow a remaly, protection {itiru/Aa) for my body, and 
lonj; to sec the sim. 

Onlv KV. has this vrrse. 

4. Weal for us the wateis of the plains, and weal be those of the 
marshes, weal for us the waters won by di^^ing, and weal what are 
brought in a vessel ; propitious to us be of the rain. 

PAdas a d are nearly re|)eali*d in xix. 2. 2. 

The ms\ sum up this ttMNjillit [i.J or chapter .is of f> hymns, 29 %'erscs ; and their 
quoted Anukr. say* thivaf*fttth*intit rm mtva syur vitiytt : i.e. the verses exceed by 9 
the assumed norm of the chapters, whii h is 20. [^Kr^ardin^; viihtlt, see end of notes 
to i. I I.J 


7. ToAgni: for the discovery of sorcerers. 

l^Cdtana. — saptarcam. dnustubham : j. tristubh.'] 

This hymn and the following occur in Paipp. iv., where the length of this one is 
more in place than here among the hymns of four verses. Both, with eight other hymns 
(mostly attributed by the Anukr. to Ciitana as author), are called by Kaug. (8. 25) 
cdiandni * expellers,' and are used in a few places for exorcism and such purposes. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 398 ; Ludwig, p. 523 ; Griffith, i. 9 ; Bloomfield, 64, 237. — 
Cf. Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel^ p. 131 ; also Whitney, Festgruss an Roth^ p. 94 f. 

1. Bring hither, O Agni, the sorcerer {ydtudhana), the kimidin, speak- 
ing out {sin) ; for thou, O god, being revered, hast become slayer of the 
barbarian (ddsyii). 

Stu is shown by its use also in 8. 1,2 to have here the virtual meaning 'confess' 
L' naming, i.e. confessing himself; cf. laudare * praise,' but also * name,* * mention 'J. 
The comm. does not see this, but stolidly renders it 'praise,* making the first line mean 
"bring the god who praises my oblation or else who is praised by us, and make the 
yHtudhana etc. go away ** ! He is never weary, when kimldtn occurs, of repeating 
Yaska*s (6. 1 1 ) silly etymology from kim iddnfm * what now ? * Ppp. reads for a stu- 
vdnastHnaya^ and, for c, d, tvath hi devdm stu to hantd tasyo *ta babhuvyatha, 

2. O most exalted one {parames(/nfi), Jatavedas, self-controller, Agni, 
partake of {pra-ag) the sacrificial butter, of the sesame oil (.^) ; make the 

sorcerers cry out. J/^^^^^- ^r^ ^^* 

The translation * sesame oil* follows our i^xi^ tdi/dsya; but the reading of all the j^y^^Jt- ^^A?-^' 
mss., which SPP. follows, is tduldsya^ and Ppp. has tfilasya. The comm. explains 
the word as meaning " situated in the sacrificial ladle,'* from tula * balance,* used for 
•spoon,* because by the latter the butter is measured out — or, he adds, it si«(nifics /r /a'-V ^ 
simply avadlyaffiana * cut off * (in the technical sense), since the root //// means uufnane 
L* mete out *J. Ppp. further reads in c, d prd^Anath yatudhdnad vildpayah. The 
comm. first takes vi Idpaya from root //, and makes it equal vind^aya! but he adds 
further a derivation from vi lap L* make 'cm squeal,* as we should say J. At end of a, 
the samhitd-mss.^ as usual, are divided between -st/titt and -sthinj S1*P. chooses the 
former |_cf. Prat. ii. 1 1 J. Ppp. has va^iin in b. 

3. Let the sorcerers cry out {vi-lap), let the devouring kimtdins; then 

do you, O Agni together with Indra, welcome this our oblation. 

Ppp. combines, as often, -dhdnd Uri-^ in a-b ; and it reads yathd for atha in c, and 
at the end haryatdm. SPP. reads everywhere attrin^ the theoretically correct form, 
but never found in the mss. 

4. Let Agni first take hold ; let Indra, having arms, push forth ; let 
everyone that has a demon, coming, say "here am L" 

Ydtumant * having a familiar demon {ydtu) ' is the equivalent of ydtudhdna * sor- 
cerer,' lit'ly • holding a demon.' Ppp. has for a, b agnis purastdd d yachatn pratha 
indro nudadas vdhumd ; and for d, ay am asmdi tcdyd. 

5. We would fain see thy heroism (iv/jr?), O Jatavedas ; proclaim to 

/ir/^ . -^'^ 



us ihc sorcerers, O men-watcher ; let them all, burnt .'i)K>ut by thee in 

front. r(»mc to this place, proclaiming themselves. 

rpp. rr.i<U in a ://i«J. in c. A///*/;; in d, jif't/u. The change of mctrr makes 
(he vct^r suspif iou% us ori^innl p.iit of the hymn ; but the prcMnce of all the verses in 
rpp , in the same order. put% tlx* intrusion, if it t>e one, far hack. 

6. Take hoM, () Jatavedas ; thou wast lK)rn for our pur|K)se; becoming 
our messenger, () Agni, make the sorcerers cry out. 

'I he (omm. thi5 time, utterly rejjanlless of the ohviou^ connection %»ith f/ ittf**tmim 
in 2d. and of the general .%cn.\e of tlie hymn, glosses vi lAfaya only with vimt\aya. 
I'pp. has a totally different text : il f*thhaiva h9^hmatti\ ji\tttve*io hrdi kAmAym 
fttntihttxa : tiuto na ticfttr tit it\th,t %i}/ntf/tt}Mt1n tA*t **ftttya, 

J, Do thou, () Agni, l)ring hither the sorcerers boimcl ; then let Incira 
with his thunder lM)lt crush in (#///• :n/fr) their heads. 

Af*i ffti^r (useil almost always of the head) is prrha|>s more ncaily 'cut open*; 
l*pp. reads «r/<i (/r i«t 7-/p<r/i#. In b. /«/<f hatlJhAn would l>c a more acceptable reading. 
The PrAt. (ii. 27) (piotes upithttttihAh as the first instance in the text of such treatment 
of final An. Our text, by an error of the printer, reads hdjffna for Vxkj- in c. 

8. To Agni and other gods: for the discovery of sorcerers. 

The hymn, except vs. 4. is found in P.iipp. iv. also next after our hymn 7, tmt in the 
veise-ordcr 1. 3, 2. Kor its u>c by K.'iu«;. with 7. see undi*r the latter. 

Tran-slatcd : Weber, iv. 401 ; Ludwig. p. 523 ; («rirTith, i. 1 1 ; Itloomfield, ^15, 239. — 
Cf. nergaigne-llenry. Manutt^ p. 132 ; Whitney, Fest^fua an /ioth, p. 04 f. 

1. I'his oblation shall bring the sorcerers, as a stream does the foam ; 
whoever, wcmian [or] man, hath done this, here let that person SfKak out. 

rpp. has for c. d nLiam siri pup9tikn kar ya^am b/tnx'a(tlm janah, [^For //*r. tee 
i. 7. I, n«»te.J 

2. This man hath come, sfKaking out ; this man do ye welcome ; O 
Kiihaspati, taking [himj into thy control — O Agni and Soma, do yc (two) 
pierce [him) through. 

Tpp. has in s, b stutAnA ji^itw,! tram smo *Ai ptati ; in c, d, f<f(/ kriA * ^nU<*mtJtx* 
id dhatam. The comm. makes nonsense every time l»y insisting on rendering itm liy 
"praise" ; here it \% ynxm^n stuvan. 

3. Of the sorcerer, () somadrinker, slay the progeny and conduct 

[him hither) ; of him, speaking out, make fall out (nisfnt) the upper eye 

and the lower. 

The (omm. fills out the ellipsis in b by making it mean "conduct our progeny 
to otKain desired result**! and iluvAmttva is hhltvtl tvadx'iinr^m %tulim kurvaUtk, 
rpp. ie.ids wi'iii///: .lwiir|-«i. SlT's text as well as ouis gives ni ti^ (p. n(k: sf-) ; the 
sawkt/tl mss., as evervwhere, are divided Inrlween that and if//i //• / the latter is author- 

# ■ 

iied by the silence of the Tr^kti*, ikhya [^see p. 4 26 J concerning the combination. 


4. Wherever, O Agni, thou knowest the births of them, of the 
devourers that are in secret, O Jatavedas, them do thou, increasing 
through worship (brdhman) — slay of them, O Agni, with hundredfold 

The irregular meter and broken connection of the second half-verse suggest possible 
corruption of the text : cf. dsuranilm ^ataiarhatty TS. i. 5. 7*. The meter (11 + 1 1 : 
9 -f 9 = 40) is well enough described by the Anukr. if we may take btlrhatagarbha as 
meaning dvibHrh- * containing two padas of nine syllables.' LFor -tdrham^ cf. Gram, 

5 99S.J 

9. For some one's advancement and success. 

\^Atharvan. — vasvddindndmantroktadrvatyam, traistubham^ 

Found also in Paipp. i. Reckoned to the varcasya gana (Kau^. 13. i, note), and 
further used in various ceremonies,: by itself, in that of the restoration of a king (16. 27) ; 
with i. 35 and v. 28, in two ceremonies for fortune and for power (i 1. 19 ; 52. 20) ; with 
seven others, employed by a teacher at the reception of a Vedic student (55. 17). In 
Vait. (3. i), vs. 3 accompanies an oblation to Agni in the /<zr7/<z«-sacrificcs. And the 
comm. quotes its use in the Naks. Kalpa 17-19, in two mahli^dnti ceremonies called 
dirdvati and bdrhaspatl; and in Pari^ista 5. 3, in the pusfidb/iiseka rite. 

Translated: Weber, iv. 401 ; Ludwig, p. 456; Zimmer, p. 163; Griffith, i. 12; 
Bloomfield, 116,239. 

1. In this man let the Vasus maintain good things (vdsu) — Indra, 
Pushan, Varuna, Mitra, Agni ; him let the Adityas and also the All-gods 
maintain in superior light. 

Ppp. substitutes t7fasid for ptlsd in b, and uta me devd for uttarasmin in d. The 
Anukr. appcirs to sanction the metrical combination ddityo *ta in c. 

2. At his direction {pradif), O gods, be there light, sun, fire, or also 
gold ; be his rivals {safdtna) inferior to him ; to the highest firmament 
{naka) make this man ascend. 

The translation implies in c the obviously called-for emendation of asmdt to asmdi ; 
the comm. first explains it as asmadlydt pnrusdt, and then, alternatively, as used for 
asmdt by Vcdic shortening of the vowel. Ppp. begins with asmin devdh pradi\d; and 
its second half-verse is quite different : uttaretta brahmatid vi bhdhi krnvdno anydn 
adhardn sapaindn (d = ii. 29. 3 d). 

3. With what highest worship {brd/ivtan), O Jatavedas, thou didst 
bring together draughts {pdyas) for Indra, therewith, O Agni, do thou 
increase this man here ; set him in supremacy (^rdisthya) over his fellows 

Ppp. reads uttaretta in b, and its d is rnyas posam ^rdisthyam d dhehy asmdi. 
The verse is found also in TS. (iii. 5.4*), MS. (i.4. 3), and K. (v. 6). • Both TS. and 
MS. read havtsd for brdhmand in b, and agne tvAm utd (for tvdm agna t'/td) in c; 
and MS. has -b/taran in a, vardhayd mam in c, and md for enapn at the end ; and it 
inserts mddhye before ^rdtsthye in d. 


i. 9 nOOK I. THK atharva-vkda-samhita. io 

4. I take to mysrlf their sacrifice and splcmior {itintts), their abun- 
dance of wealth ami their intents (cittd), O Agni ; l)e his rivals inferior to 
him ; to the hi|;hest firmament make this man ascend. 

'I hr nrcoiul half vt-r!«r 15 the ft.ime with 2 c. d .lUivr. and the translation makes the 
tame emendation .1.% thrre. I>outitlr»s vtttiint * ai ()ui»itionji * should l>e read for aitimi 
in b ; the romm. ^lo5«rji with huMihun. The text \s defated in rp|>- ; hut in d can l)C 
read uttame Jrvi} jyotisi tihatutttma {J) |_ meaning, presumably, da^fAd/amaj. 

ID. For some one's release from Varuna*s wrath. 

Found in Tnipp. i. I'.ned in KAu^. (25. 37) to accompany lavation of the head in a 
hcalinf; ceremony (for dropsy, comm. and schol.). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 403 ; Ludwif;, p. 445 ; (#rifRth, i. 13 ; Hloomfield, 11.241 ; 
\Vel)er, Sb. 1897, p. 599, cf. 594 ff. — Cf. Hergaigne- Henry, Manuel^ p. 133. 

1. This Asura bears rule over the go<ls ; for the wills (iv/fif) of king 
Varuna (come) true ; from him, prevailing by my worship {brtihman)^ 
from the fury of the formidable one {ugni) do I lead up this man. 

* Come true/ i.e. are reali/etl or carried out : the more et)mological tense of smtyd, 
Ppp. reads vi^tlya (or vtt^i} Mi. The comm. explains ^il^tit/Jna a* ** exceedingly tharp ; 
havini; attained strength by favor of V.iruna, gratified t)y praise etc.** Tatas pmri in C» 
as the first example of its kind of combination, is quoted in Vt\X. ii. 66. The Anukr. 
ignores the first |)ida as a jiif^ati. 

2. Homage be to thy fury. () king Varuna ; for, O formidable one, 
thou dost note (tiici) every malice (iirugdiui). A thousand others I impel 
(prasft) together; a hundred autumns of thee shall this man live. 

The obs<ure third p.'ida is understood by the comm., perhaps correctly, to mean •• I 
buy of! this man by furnishing Varuna a thousand othert as sultftitutes.** Two of our 
mss. ((). Op.) read ttj^rAm (or ui^ratn) in b; Tpp. is defaced in a, b ; at second half- 
verse it reails : f«fAiw sithittrtim ffa stnulmy anyi^t aytim no jlX'Am {arad^ %yap4y€. 
Here, to<), pada a is an un.icknoulc«lgr<ly«i|^M//. [_roinm. cites, for c, AH. %*ii. 15. J 

3. In that thou hast siM)ken with the tongue untruth* much wrong — 

from the king of true ordinances {ti/tdnnan), from Varuna, I release thee. 

l^Kead yAt i^iftn H',uUtha tinrtam f \ The comm. has in a the atxiurd readiof 
itvaJtfa, treating it as for uiutkt/ttt, ^%hich all the mss. give. 

4. I release thee out of the universal, the great flooil {arnavd)\ speak, 
O formidable one, unto [thy] fellows here, and reverence our incantation 

• rniversul' (:•.!/( r«l/Mf if ). i e.. |>erhaps, dangerous to all men; and the dropsy, 
Varuna's spct iai inllittion, is probably .s|M)kcn of as • flood '^cf. K\'. vii. 89.J4J. The 
(doubtful) lendering of the second half verse takes it as addressied, like the first, to the 
patient ; the comm. regards it as said to Varuria, which is not im|Nissil>ie. [^See Oeki- 
ner. /|)M(«.lii. 733- J I'pp- reads <iwjv»i<i//f at the beginning, and has a Imtunm in place 
of c, d. L Render aftt-ti by • reg.»rd * ?J 


II. For successful childbirth. 

[AiAarvan, — sadrcam. pdusnum. pdfiktam : 2. anustubh ; j. ^-/. umiggarbhd kahimmaty 

anustubh ; ^-6. pathydpankti.\ 

Verses 2-4 occur together in Paipp. i., 5 and 6 in xx., but at difTerent points. In 
Kau^. (33. 1) it is quoted at the beginning of a long and intricate ceremony (filling the 
whole section) for safe delivery, the first of the strlkarmdni or * women's rites * ; its 
details have nothing to do with the text of the hymn, and cast no light upon the latter's 
difficulties. The Anukr. add to the author's name : anena mantroktdn aryamddidevdn 
ndrfsttkhaprasavdyd ^bhistftye *sfafh ca sarvdbhir aprdrthayat. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 404 ; Ludwig, p. 478 ; Griffith, i. 14 and 473 ; Bloomfield, 
99,242. — Discussed : Roth, Ueber den Aiharva-veda^ p. 15. 

1. At this birth, O Pushan, let Aryaman [as] efficient {vedhds) invoker 

utter vdsat for thee ; let the woman, rightly engendered, be relaxed ; let 

her joints go apart in order to birth. 

The translation of c implies emendation of the text to vl sisrtdm. Roth formerly 
preferred slsrtdih nary rtdprajdtah * let a timely child come forth, O woman ' ; Weber 
leaves slsratdtn as pi. with indefinite subject, and understands the two following words 
as a parenthesis : ** be the woman properly constructed " ; Ludwig renders as if sisrtdm; 
Roth now (as in BR.) would emend only sisrtdm^ and understand it of the •flow' of 
water preceding birth ; but that would be rather sru^ and sr without a prefix in such a 
sense seems very unlikely Lcf., however, sdrann apah, RV. iv. 17. 3J. Rtdprajdtd 
might also be possessive, * rightly engendering.' The comm. takes sntdu as from suti 
|_not J////, fem., nor j/////, fem. : note accent and gender !J, and meaning the ceremony 
at birth; vedhas as = Dhatar * the creator'; rtaprajdtd 7i^ — jlvad-apatyd ; and 
sisratdm (to tiie plural form of which he finds no objection) as "may she be relieved 
i^tiuihsrtd) of the pangs of birth." The metrically irregular verse (9 + 10 : 10 + 11 = 
40) is ?i pankti solely in virtue of the LaggregateJ number of its syllables. 

2. Four [are] the directions of the sky, four also of the earth : the 

gods sent together the foetus ; let them unclose her in order to birth. 

Or * unclose it,' idm^ which SPP. reads in text and comm. (the latter omits the 
word itself in the paraphrase) with the minority of his mss., but against all of ours ; 
Weber and Roth prefer tdm. The word and its predecessor are quoted in the Prat, 
(ii. 30), as the earliest example in tlie text of a combination of n and / without inserted s ; 
but the form of the quotation {samdirayaniddlndm) prevents our seeing whether its 
authors read iam or idm ; the comm. gives idm. In d, the comm. gives the false form 
Urnavantn. The text in Ppp. is confused, but does not appear to intend any variants 
from our reading. 

3. Let Pushan {}) unclose [her or it] ; we make W\^ ySni go apart ; do 
thou, sfisaud, loosen ; do thou, biskald, let go. 

The translation implies a very venturesome emendation in a, pusd for susd (all the 
authorities have the latter) : Pushan, referred to in vs. i as principal officiating deity, 
might well be called on to do in particular what all the gods were begged to do in vs. 2 
c, d. LBut see Bloomfield's comment. J The comm. gives three different etymologies 
for siisd: root sfi + suffix -sd; root su 4- root san: and su-nsas. Susand and biskald 
are possibly names of organs ; for the latter, Ppp. has puskaUy probably an alteration 



to a niorr worrl ; (he comm. unflrrsUncU sAtami and biikali (of course, equally 
|)0!i5iMc) ; the (ormrr, from \xmA.s sti and saft, i% name of an accourhtnf; gocldesi ; the 
latter (for which are ^iven three diverse but er|ually alMurd e(\molo|;ies) it another 
deity. 1 he Antikr. apparently intends the verse to l)e read a% 6 f 8 : 7 + 8 r- 29, 
instead of admittinf; the obvious resolution tM4m in c. The supply in^ of f^Arhkmm as 
omitte<l at the l>eginninf; would make a f^ocxl anm^fmbk, 

4. Not as it were stuck (a/tata) in the flesh, not in the fat, not as it 
were in the marrows, let the s|x>tted slimy (?) afterbirth come down, for 
the cloj^ to cat ; let the afterbirth descend. 

SPI*. reads in a plvasi, with the comm. and a small minority of his mst. ; three of 
ours (II.O. Op.) have//A#if/. Ppp. has a very different text (preserved in the nAj^art 
copy, thouj^li lost in the or if^inal ti-xt) : niii *7'<i sutkvaiu tta fntrfaiu na kithesn (Jtr^rin) 
fta nalhtiu ta ; then our c,d, without variant ; then //<!/ *7'<i pause (mtUtsif) ma fivasi 
fiili 'i'«i Jt4ts/%'if( vaftil yutam : then our e; and with this ends the hymn as given In 
lKH»k i. The comm. rc.icU in a ///<f//f///i/ for rutins/ ft *i, and resorts to various devices 
to get fid of the difficulty thus caused ; two of our mss. (O. Hp.), and one or two of 
Sl'PX give the same. Some of our ins». arc %*cry awkward alxMJt combining y'tfrifir 
and «f//«iir, in part omitting the r, or (1.) reading -yitt-. PCS. (i. 16. 2) has the verse, 
but in different order : first our c, d. without variant ; then our •« b, in the form nMi 'f^ 
tnAnsena pivari na ktiswin^ lanA **\atitm ; then our e. Hut for its sup}>ort of ^H*almm^ 
we might l>e tempted to emend to Lt^vaUtm ; the comm. has the viorthless explanatkMi 
jahisyo * ptiristhita^tUviiitivttt t\ntaf ilvayavA sambadtiham. Further may be compared 
1I(«S. ii. 3. I. I^MP., at ii. 11. 19. 20, has the verse with variants. J 

5. I .split apart thy urinator. apart the /<>///, apart the [two] groins, 

a|)art l><>th the mother and the child, a|)art the boy from the afterbirth ; 

let the afterbirth descend. 

Ppp. (xx ) has for a, b vi te < rt^mt ttij^arim v yoni I't /^avrnyily ; for d, vi f^arbkatk 
€a jari\yujah ; and T.S. (iii. 3. lo') presents a version nearly accordant with this, but 
with titkatim, i^avlnyAu^ and (.it the i^wA) jariyu at: neither has our refrain. 

6. As the wind, as the mind, as fly the bird.s, so do thou, O ten months' 
[chihl], fly alon^ with the afterbirth ; let the afterbirth descend. 

Ppp. has tlie version riiM'V vtli0 ytitltil t/ti^Aa yafAJ sttsaiitoyajanta : rfJ U garbAs 
ejatu nir tlitu t/tt^timtUyo haktr jafilytttttl saAtt. For • do thou fly ' might be given 'do 
thou fall.* the verli having Uith mc.inini:s. LTen (lunar) months : cf. Weber's second 
*f4i/-i<i///i essay, p. 313, .1b/t tier IWthner AkaJ„ 1861. J [^Cf. RV. v. 78. 8. J 

This ttHuv*yka |^a.J has 5 hymn.s, 25 verses ; and the old Anukramani, as quoted, 
sa)s fafiitt ftiff tu (apparently the vttiyHi quoted at the end of am. 1 l)ek>ngs rather 
here than there). 

12. Against Tarious ailments (as results of lightninc?). 

[/*ircx*tN£iras. — jraktmamJfattaJna/Jiam, jd^niam : 4. mnHUmbk-\ 

Found also in P.iipp. i. It is retkoned ( KAu^. 36. 1, note) as belonging, wHh many 
other hymns, to a lakmamA^anti or /<fi'mr<iif-<lestroying gama^ and is used (26.1) to 
accompany the drinking of various things in a healing ceremony (comm. sayt, against 


disease arising from hurtful changes of wind, bile, or phlegm), and also (38. i) in one 
against bad weather (dttrdina)^ or (Ke^.) for the prevention of rain. The third verse 
further is added to the Mrgara hymns in connection with lavation in another healing 
rile (27. 34). 

Translated: Weber, iv. 405 ; Griffith, 1.15; Bloomfield, JAOS. xiii. p. cxiii ff. 
(= PAOS. May 1886) ; AJP. vii.469ff. ; SBE. xlii. 7, 246. — Bloomfield regards it 
as addressed to "lightning, conceived as the cause of fever, headache, and cough." 
See his elaborate comment. Weber made it relate to fever, puerperal or infantile (on 
account oi jardyujd, i a). 

1. First born of the afterbirth, the ruddy (tisriya) bull, born of wind 

and cloud (.?), goes thundering with rain; may he be merciful to our 

body, going straight on, breaking ; he who, one force, hath stridden out 


The translation implies emendation in b to vdtdbhrajds or -jas^ as suggested by 3 c ; 
it is proposed by Weber, and adopted by Bloomfield, being a fairly plausible way of 
getting out of a decided difficulty. Weber renders, however, "with glowing wind- 
breath " ; R., " with scorching wind " (emending to -bhrajjds). The comm. reads 
vHtavrajiis (a couple of SPP's mss., which usually follow him, do the same), and 
explains it as " going swiftly like the wind," or, alternatively, " having a collection of 
winds." The * bull * is to him the sun, and he forces this interpretation through the 
whole hymn. Neither he nor Kau^. nor the latter's scholia see anywhere any intima- 
tion of lightning ; yet this is perhaps most plausibly to be suspected in the obscurities 
of the expression (so R. also). The first words in a are viewed as signifying 'just 
escaped from its foetal envelop (in the cloud).* Ppp. is wholly defaced in the second 
half-verse ; in the first it offers no variants, merely combining -jas prath- in a, and read- 
ing -bhraja st- in b. Emendation in d to ydsyaC kam would improve both meter and 
sense. Tredha in d must be read as three syllables (as in RV.) to make the verse a 
full jftgatl. LAt OB. vi. 59 b, vata-dhrajds is suggested — by R. ?J 

2. Thee, lurking (fn) in each limb with burning {^ocis)^ we, paying 
homage, would worship (yidh) with oblation ; we would worship with 
oblation the hooks, the grapples, [him] who, a seizer, hath seized this 
man's joints. 

Ox yds y at beginning of d, is abbreviation for * when he' or *with which he.' LRen- 
der, rather, * hath seized his (accentless) joints.' The patient is in plain sight of the 
exorcist. Emphatic pronoun is therefore needless; so ^«tfwvs.3.J Some of our 
mss., by a frequent blunder, read in a f'f.O'-' The prolongation of the final of asya in 
d is noted by the comment to Prat. iv. 79. Ppp. has a very different (and corrupt) 
text : . . . ^i^riydno yo grhUa fiarasya grbhlti : atiko tarn anko havisd yajdmi hrdi 
^rito manasd yo jajdna. The definition of this verse and the next 2& tristubh seems 
to have been lost from the Anukr., which reads simply dvitlyd before antyd ^niistubh. 

3. Release thou him from headache and from cough — whoever hath 

entered each joint of him ; the blast (.? fustua) that is cloud-born and that 

is wind-born, let it attach itself to forest-trees {vdnasfdti) and nriountains. 

Ppp. has srjatdm for sacatdtn in d. The comm. takes kdsds in a as nomtn., explain- 
ing it as hrtkanthamadhyavaril prasiddhah qlesmarogaviqesah ; v&tajas to him is 


JtAMtthvtltf vtlvor utptinnnk. [^For ^friait/t\ fkct Knaucr, /miit\i^frmttmi$tki Fi^ruhnm- 
j^fM, An:nji^fr, vii. 225 ; lUixmifirM. AJT. xvii. 416 ; ltohtlinj*k, lUftihte tier latkiinkem 
Oft., l.Hf;7, xlix. 50, who takcJi it .i» 'a MifT nr< k with head awry.' J 

4. Weal [he] to my upjKT mcnil)cr (;f<//nf), weal be to my lower, weal 
to my four limbs ; weal Ik* to my bo<ly. 

rp|>. ha!i a (jiiitc fliffcrriii text : in a, t, U Imth times for w/, ami fat Ay a (or av^- 
f*}ytt , for c ^itfh te pr%tthh%o mttjjtthhyah nt ; in d. /ifi'<i (or mat/ia : the aildrest to n 
fti< oimI prison is clc( iilctlly to l>c preferred. This ia (ouml al>o in the corre«|M>ndinK 
vrr!ie in VS. (xxiii. 44) and TS. (v. 2. I2>), with rcadin|;!i in part agreeing further with 
thov* o( Tpp. : f/(/« // p*\rfbh\o ^alftbhyah ^Am aitv Avarthkyak : fdm msikdbky0 
$najj%\bkyak ^Aifi v astu tativiU (thut : hut TS. has for d {dm a te tanux*4 bkmx*aL 

13. Deterrent homage to lightning. 

[iiMrf^stng^iras. — t^iJytttam. AnmttHbham : j. 4f. virdJ japaii ; 4. trtstuffmrM krk*Hgmr^k4 


The hymn occuni in Taipp. xix., and vs. 1 also in xv. It b used by K3u^. XS^-^.O) 
in a charm against lightninf^, with vii. 11 ; and it also appears (139. A), with i. 26 and 
vii. 1 1 and several other hymns, in the ceremony o( introduction to Vedic study. 

Translated : Weher, iv. 406 ; (friffith, i. 16. 

1. Homage be to thy lightning, homage to thy thunder; homage be 
to thy bolt (r/fw/f//), with which thou hurlest at the impious one {dAddf). 

The version o( this verse in Tpp. xix. is like ours ; in xv., d reads j^/iiJ dArMt prmdi^ 
jassasi (ppulyaiyasif). The first half-verse is (ound also in VS. (xxxvi. 21 a, b). 
The irregular combination diitii^e (p. tftikodtl^e) is noted by Prit. ii. 60. The comm. 
re/i^anls Tarjanya as addressed, hut then proceeds to f;ive another interpretation of the 
verse, based on the absurd assumption that mamas -= annam, which appears also in 
numerous other places. To him, also, d^man is a fnet^handmam. In our edition, an 
accentm.irk is omitted over the {ma- of d^mane. 

2. Homage to thee, child of the height {pravdt), whence thou gather- 
est {safft'fth) heat (tdptis) ; be merciful to ourselves ; do kindness {mdyas) 
to our offspring {ioid), 

Ppp, has f<fw mas for mAyas in d- The fir^t half -verse forms in VS. (xxxvi. 21 c, d) 
one verse with our 1 a, b ; but \'S. has \^iox a mtlwas le hkaj^avamm astm ; and J for b 
ytifak j7't\k samtikase * from whence thou strivest after the sky,' which indicates that 
our reading is roirupt. (^rischel discusses praxuit (= 'stream*) at length, Ved, Stmd, 
ii. 63 -76, see 6S.J 

3. ChiM of the height, Ik* homage to thee; homage we pay to thy 
missile {Juti) anil heat (ttipus)\ we know thy highest abode (dhdman) 
that is in secret ; thou art set as navel within the [cloud-Jocean. 

[1he tr in b is su|>erfhious J Tpp. rectifies the meter of a I )y omitting n*m ; its 
other pAd.ns are more or less conupl : mamas te kete tipntydi in b (which ends there) ; 
l^amdkafvo mAma par- in c ; miktttlta nAhktk at the end. The comm. takes tApms as 
adjective. The verse is scanned by the Anukr. as 1 2 4- 1 2 : 11 4- 1 1 = 46 syllables. 


4. Thou whom all the gods did create, the bold one, LP'^^ gods]J 
making an arrow for hurling — do thou, bcsung in the council {viddt/ia)^ 
be merciful to us ; to thee as such be homage, O goddess. 

Dhrsnum in b might qualify isum directly. The comm. supplies he aqane * O thun- 
derbolt* as addressed. He reads fnrla in c. Ppp. reads for a, \iyam tvd deva ajana- 
yanta vi^ves&ih krnvdna a^andya trisvdi; and for d mitrasya varunasya prasrsftlu. 
The Anukr. seems to scan as 10 + 11 : 10 + 9 = 40 syllables. [^Read in c tiirdaya 
and in d utd tdsydif — For viddtha^ see discussions of Bloomfield, JAOS. xix.^ 17, and 
Geldner, ZDMG. lii. 757 ; and the literature cited by Foy, KZ. xxxiv. 226.J 

14. Imprecation of spinsterhood on a woman. 

\Bhrgvangiras. — vdritnani vo *ia ydmyam vd. anustub/tam : /. kakummatl ; j. 4-p. vtrdj.] 

Found in Paipp. i. Used by Kau^. (36. 15-18) in an incantation against a woman ; 
the details of it cast no light on those of the hymn ; and the comm. defines its purpose 
simply as striydh purusasya vd ddurbhdgyakaranam. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 408 ; Ludwig, p. 459 ; Zimmer, p. 314 (these misapprehend 
its character) ; Griflith, i. 17 ; Bloomfield, JAOS. xiii. p. cxv = PAOS. May, 1886; or 
AJP. vii. 473 ff . ; or SBE. xlii. 107, 252. 

1. Ilcr portion (bhdgd)^ splendor have I taken to myself, as from off 

a tree a garland ; like a mountain with great base, let her sit long with 

the Fathers. 

Ppp. has for a ahath te bhagatn d dade; its b is defaced ; in c it gives fnahdvtftldi 
^va. The comm. renders bhagam by bhdgyam, here and in the other verse, recognizing 
no sexual meaning. Pitrsu he renders " in the later [2 c, d] to be specified houses of 
father, mother, etc.," and all the translators understand it in the same way ; but it is 
questionable wliether the plural of pitar would ever be used in this sense ; and the 
repeated mention of Yama later indicates that there was at least a double meaning in 
the expression. Perhaps a girl remaining unmarried was called "bride of Yama," 
i.e. as good as dead, and her stay at home compared to that in the other world. ^Cf. 
Antigone, 816, "1 shall be the bride of Acheron," *Ax^/>o»n-i ri;ft0€iJ<rw.J The Anukr. 
appears to ratify the abbreviated reading -budhne *va in c ; it counts six syllables in d. 

2. Let this girl, O king, be shaken down to thee [as] bride, O Yama ; 

be she bound in her mother's house, also in her brother's, also in her 


Ppp. has yat for esd at the beginning. The comm. foolishly interprets rdjan as 
indicating Soma, because Soma is first husband of a bride (he quotes RV. x. 85.40 : 
cf. AV. xiv. 2. 3 ff.), and takes yama as his epithet, as being her constrainer {niyd- 
maJta), For ni-dhil compare iii. 11. 7 ; at TS. v. 2. 53 it is used with pitrsu. [^Does 
not ni'dhii covertly suggest nidhuvana^ which, in its obscene sense, may be as old as 
the Veda ? J 

3. She is thy housekeeper, O king ; we commit her to thee ; she 
shall sit long with the Fathers, until the covering in of her head. 

The translation of d implies the obvious emendation to samopydi^ which SPP. even 
admits into his text, on the authority of the comm., but against every known ms. ; Ppp., 


however, civcs tam^pytl. The comm. explains it by samx*apamAi bkikmHu sam^aiam^i^ 
anti a^ e(|titv.ilctit to inttfutnapafyanitim * till death * ; that this last is the virtual sense 
is ettri mcly pioliahle. That v*tp has not the sense * shave * in the comfKiuml (rl. A(, S. 
vi. 1*^ 2) in fthown l>y the inappropriatcnc^s of the prefixes utm 4 J to that sense, and 
the (rrt|urncy of the combination in the other sense. [^See IMoomfield, 255, i {tftnAk 
li\tt//i fy^/J/, * till she shed the hair from her head.* J I'pp. has further iwJm tt fart 
tf€tifAtftttft in b. The romni. j;ivcH kttlapA (for •/»!#; our /(i</«i- text kuUvfik) in a. The 
resolution {tr sn-ith in d would make the verse a full amtistubh ; the Anukr. counts only 
14 syllables in the second half. 

4. With the incantation {hnilnuati) of Asita, of Ka^yapa, and of Gaya, 
I shut up (iif^i-nalt) thy portion (vulva f), as sisters do what is within a 

|_For the names, see Hloomtichl, 255, and AJT. xvii. 403.J lihaj^a perhaps has 
here a double meaning;. Throe c»f our mss. (K.I. 1 1.) with one or two of SPI**s, read 
in c itntasl'0{thfi, against ii.62, which expressly prrscrilies il. The comm. treats 
au/ttA and lit\ttf/i as two indr|)endent words; anitth kt\e would be a not unacceptable 
emendation. The Anukr. ap|>ears to sanction the abbreviation tt^am *va. 

15. With an oblation: for confluence of wealth. 

Found in Paipp. i. (in the verse-otder 1,4,3, 2). Used by K4u^. only in a general 
rite for pro»)>erity (19.4), to accompany a douche for |>ersons bringing water from two 
navigable streams and partaking of a dish of mixed grain; It is also reckoned (1^ 1, 
note) to the pnitika mantras, or hymns bringing pros|>erity. 

Translated : \Vel>er. iv. 40*^ ; Ludwig, p. 371 ; (JrifTith, i. 19. 

1. Together, together let the rivers flow, together the winds, together 
the birds (fatatriu) ; this my sacrifice let them enjoy of old ; I offer with 
a confluent {samsmvyih) oblation. 

The verse is nearly identical with xix. 1. 1, and in less degree with ii. 26. 3. From 
xix. 1.3 c it may be conjectured that we should read pradi^at in c [^ If we do read 
fradivat^ why not render it by * continually * ?J Ppp. has not the second half-verse, 
but instead of it vs. 3 c, d. For b Tpp. gives saik itl/J divyA »/<i. The comm. accenti 
sAfit itim in a. There is |M*rhaps some technical meaning in samirikvy^ * confluent* or 
* for conflueix e * whit h we do not .ippreciate, but it is also unknown to the comm., who 
explains the word only etyrnologirally. The verse is an Ji/J^it/<fi7/'/i (strictly rfrJ/'.* 
8 f 8 : 1 1 4 II =38), and its definition as such is perhaps drop|)ed out of the Anukr. 
text (i^hiih read* «l./>iJ dvtlly%\ hhutik etc.). 

2. Come straight hither to my call, hither ye confluents also ; increase 
this, yo songs ; let every beast (fa^tt) there is come hither; let what 
wealth {niyi) there is stay (j///«/) with him. 

1 he /«7y<f mss. all give ytik in e. Ppp. has in a, b nfaw AtivyJ upttane *dam, and, 
for c tffiit vanih^tyato ray tin. The last p.\da is nearly RV. x. 19.3 d. [^Render 
•with this man let * etc. J The omission of rt'd in a would make the verse regular. 


3. What fountains of the streams flow together, ever unexhausted, 
with all those confluences we make riches (dhdna) flow together for me. 

Ppp. has in a, b ye nadfbhyas samsravanty ucchUmas saram akstkd. The comm. 
gives the verse twice, each time with a separate explanation. 

4. What [fountains] of butter (sarpis) flow together, and of milk, and 
of water, with all those confluences we make riches flow together for me. 

Ppp. reads samsrdvas for sarpisas in a. The comm. supplies first avayavUs as 
omitted subject in the verse, but afterwards utsdsas from vs. 3, which is of course right. 

1 6. Against demons : with an amulet of lead. 

\Ciitana, — aginndramyVSrunam^ dadhatyam, dmistubham : 4. kakummatl.^ 

Found in Paipp. i. Kaug. does not include the hymn among the cdtandtti (8. 25), 
but a Pari^. (ib., note) reckons it to them (in accordance with the Anukr.). K^u^. 
(47. 23) uses it once in a rite of sorcery (for the death of one's enemies : comm.), and 
its commentator (47. 13, note) in another. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 409 ; Grill, i, 75 ; Griffith, i. 20 ; Bloomfield, 65, 256. 

1. What devourers, on the night of new moon, have arisen troop- 
wise Q) — the fourth Agni is the demon-slayer ; he shall bless us. 

Vrdjam in b is obscure ; *troopwise' is the conjecture of BR. ; the comm. reads 
instead bhrdjamy and absurdly explains it as bhrdjamdndm or -nam * shining,* and 
qualifying either the night or the "hearty" man whom the demons have risen to injure 1 
Ppp. has turyas for turlyas in c ; what is meant by it is not clear ; the comm. gives 
three different explanations : fourth after the death of his three brothers and predeces- 
sors (quoting for these TS. ii. 6. 6') ; as the house-fire apart from the three sacrificial ; 
or as the dngirasa fire, as distinguished from the sacrificial, the household, and that of 
battle — thus teaching us nothing but his own ignorance and perplexity. Grill follows 
Weber in understanding the word to mean " powerful." For d, Ppp. has san nah pdtu 

2. The lead Varuna blesses; the lead Agni favors; Indra bestowed 
on me the lead ; it, surely, is a dispeller of familiar demons. 

Ppp. combines indi *ndra p- in c, and has for d amlvdyas tn cdtam (for cdtattam). 
The comm. ascribes the mention of Varuna to the fact that river-foam is one of the 
articles declared (Kau^. 8. 18) equivalent to lead, and here intended by that name. 
[Cf. Bloomfield, JAOS. xv. 158. J 

3. This overpowers the viskandha ; this drives off (bddii) the devour- 
ers ; with this I overpower all the races {jdid) that are the pifdcf*s. 

The first half-verse is nearly repeated below, as ii. 4. 3 a, b. The short a in the 
reduplication of sasahe in c, though against the meter and in part against usage, is read 
by all the mss., and in the comment to Prat. iii. 13. Ppp. has in a %fisj:audatn (but 
compare ii. 4.3, where -dham). The comm. explains the (more or less fully personified) 
disorder as a disturbance caused by raksas or pi^dca and obstructing motion (gati- 
pratibandhakd) : cf. below ii. 4 and iii. 9. 



4. If our cow thou slaycst, if [our] hoi^c, if [our] man (fiimsa), wc 
pierce thee there with lra<l, that thou be no slayer of our heroes. 

I*pi». haft Un c shfMtt vuihvJimttt tvtl, 

*I he 5 hymnii of tliiii anuftltit |_3 J, as of the next, have juM the norm, 20 vertex, 
and the <|iiotation fiom the ohi Atuikr. (civcn at the cntl of h)mn 21) ii vtfi^aJttlv ai0 
*myAH, At the cn<l of the prcAcnt hymn is read viii^aijd Jturn, which is |Krhaps the 
statement as to the asftinnption of a norm. 

The first p9ap%\thaka ends here. 

I 17. To stop the vessels of the body. 

Found in I'aipp. xix. (in the vcr%c order 3,4, 1, 2). ITscd once by KAu^. (26. 10 : 
the cpiotntion np|M-ars to U-lon^ to vihat follows it, not to what precedes), in a remediad 
rite, apparently f(»r stopping; the (low (»f bloo<I (the comm. says, as result of a knife 
woumi and the like, and also of diftordrrrd menses). 

'I'ransl.ited : \Vel>er, iv. 41 1 ; l.iHUt^. p. 508 ; (Jrill, 16, 76; CtrifTith, i. 21 ; Illoom- 
fieltl. 22, 2^7. - Cf. Hillehr.indt. I'tJ^t ( Arts/,*mtt/Air, p. 46. 

1. Von women {yosit) tliat j;o, veins with red garments, like brother- 
less sisters (Jdmi) — let them st(»p (s//m), with their splendor smitten. 

rpp. makes /fsi/ns and jtlmttyas chanf^e places, and has sartuU (l>etter) for kirMs 
in b. 'I he comm. takes yosiini as gen. »ing., and hence naturally understands rnjexHt- 
hananAtiyat to l>e in the verse ; he renders hifAs hy shds/ and he explains that 
hrotherless sisters pttrkule sttthtAntiktU tntine piHtiatiAmAya nt tisikamii. I'he Anukr. 
refuses to sanction the contraction tatf *v*t in c 

2. Slop, lower one! stop, upper one! do thou too stop, midmost oncf 
if the smallest stops, shall stop forsooth the great tube (ti/iatmiHt), 

'1 he aecent of ththtttt seems to show <ii to !»e the ei|uivalent of «r/ here. 

3. Of the hundred tulK*s, of the thousand veins, have stop|>ed forsooth 
these midtn<»st ones; the entls have rested (/viw) together. 

In d, emendation to <lif /r«)r 'the eml ones* would lie an impro%'ement ; but l*|»p. 
also has ant*}% : sttkttw <rw/<l *mf»ui/ti ; its c is corrupt (astka mik4tJ4iA^mJkx'4) ; and it 
inseits // after ^tttasya in a. 

4. About you hath gone (Invn) a great gravelly sandl)ank (J/mnA); 

stop [andj be (|uiet, I pray {sti Itiw), 

The ( omm. sees in tOtanu only the meaning ** liow.** and interprets it ** bent like s 
liow ** : n.imrly, a vessel containing the urine ; in stktthlt he sees an allusion to the 
menses, or to gravel in the bladder. K.1ti^. (26. 10) S|>eaks of sprinkling on dust SAd 
gravel as a means of stanching the flow of bl(HKl ; more prohably, as Welder first tu|;* 
gested, a lug tilled vtith sand was used : in neither case can the menses l)e had in view, 
rpp. reads iittAmayl hMttt} stkhtt^ The third pilda is identical with 
KV. i. K^i.fid : the comm. (as S.\yana to the latter) fails to recognize the root «/; and 
he renders it fterayala^ as if root Ir were in question. 


1 8. Against unlucky marks. 

[^Dravinodas, — vdindyakam, dnusiubham : /. uparistddvirddbrhatl ; 2, nicrjjagati ; 

J. virdddstdrapahktitristubh.^ 

Verses 1-3 are found in Paipp. xx. (but vs. 2 not with the others). Used by Kau^. 
(42. 19) in a charm against unlucky signs in a woman. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 411 ; Ludwig, p. 498 ; Gcldner, Ved. Stud. i. 314 ; Griffith, 
i. 22 ; Bloomfield, 109, 260. — It may be mentioned that Geldner takes the whole hymn 
as relating to a domestic cat. 

1. Out we drive {iiir-su) the pallid sign, out the niggard; then, what- 
ever things are excellent {bhadrd)^ those we lead together {}) for our 

The translation implies in d the very venturesome emendation of drdtim to sdm ; 
the former appears wholly impracticable, and has perhaps stumbled into d from b ; 
Geldner conjectures instead tvd, Ppp. is defaced, and gives no help. The comm. 
reads laksmam^ and explains laidmyam as accus. sing. masc. : laldme bhavam tila- 
kasthdnagaiam ; to ^J/ti in c he supplies r/7/;/^/// |_making c a separate sentence and 
supplying bhavantu\. It would also be possible to make the cesura Tiii^v prajdydiy and 
read nd^aydmasi (so R.). In our edition, dele the accent-mark under td- of tani in c. 

2. Savitar has driven out the trouble (.^ drani) in her feet; out have 

Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman [driven] [that] in her hands; out hath Anumati, 

bestowing (m) upon us ; the gods have driven this woman forward unto 

good fortune. 

All the mss. give in a sdvisak^ which SPP. very properly retains, though the comm. 
and Ppp. have -sat (see my Skt. Gr.», § 151 a) ; *sdvisak (p. as-) would be an improve- 
ment, and may be understood. For c, d, Ppp. \\^s yad dditydfnavatl rardnd prnasuvd 
savitd sdtibhagdya. The comm. gives two etymological guesses at aranltn (which is 
his reading, instead of -fjim), both worthless, and describes rardfid as accented on the 
final. The separation of this verse from the others in Ppp. indicates that it probably 
has nothing to do with " marks." It is rather unusual for the Anukr. to take notice of 
the occurrence of a tristubh pada in ?ijagatl verse, ^d, no less than c, is tristubh^ pro- 
nounce devdsdvi5uh,\ 

3. Whatever in thy self, in thy body, is frightful, or what in hair or 
in mien — all that do we smite away with [our] words ; let god Savitar 
advance (snd) thee. 

• God Savitar ' or * the heavenly impeller,' everywhere equivalent. Ppp. begins yat 
td *^tffian tanvd ghoram^ and has for c, d tat te vidvdn upabddhayesdm pra tvd suvd 
saintd sdubhagdya. The metrical description of the verse (ii + u:io+io = 42) 
by the Anukr. is unusual and questionable. 

4. The antelope-footed, the bull-toothed, the kine-repelling, the out- 
blowing, the licked-out, the pallid — these we make disappear from us. 

Designations either of the unlucky signs or of the women marked with them — 
probably the former. The comm. prefers the latter, except for the two last, which he 
blunderingly takes from the stems -d/iya and -////rt, and makes them qualify laksma 

i. l8- nOOK I. Tin:- ATHARVA-VEDA-SAMHITA. 20 

undcrMoocl. lie fiplains f^^sttihii (\y. ^c^sedhim) as "Roing like a cow/' ami viiUka 
as a IcM k •• on llic edge of the forehead, licked as it were the wronjj way " — or what '\% 
called a ** cowlick '* |^Skt. ktlkttpaksa \. Iloth editions give at the beginning ri!(^tf/i, 
instead of the true reading f^yttp-* which the comm. (with three of Sl'T's mss.) has ; 
the mns. I)tingle all the occurrences of this word. In part of our edition the m is broken 
off from vfuttiatlm. 

19. Against enemies. 

The hymn is found also in iMipp. i. With the two that follow it (and others), it is 
reckonctl by KAu<;. (147) among the samj^ramiiami or battle-hymns, or likewise (il>., 
note) to the a/^anljifa (' unconquered ') X''^"*' without them, but with vi. 13, it is used 
in several of the charms to ward off the effects of |>ortents (104. 3 ; 105.1; I13.3). In 
VAit. (9. 21), vs. 3 ap)>ears alone in the iHiHrmAsya or seasonal sacrifice, accompanying 
the release of the two puroiiA^a baskets. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 413 ; (iriffith, i. 23 ; liloomfield, 1 20, 262. — Cf. Ilergaigne- 
Henry, Afamuel^ p. 134. 

1. Let not the piercers find tis, nor let the pcnetraters find [us]; far 
from us make the volleys (^nntv)^) fly, dispersing, O Indra. 

rpp. combines mo 'bhi- in b. The rendering of ^aratyd follows the comm., here 
and to vs. 3 {j^arasawhati). 

2. Dispersing from us let the shafts fly, those that are hurled and 
that are to be hurled ; ye divine arrows of men (mantis/^), pierce my 

The comm. inserts an ** and *' in c : ** divine and human arrows ** ; this is possible, 
but opposed by the accent. Tpp. has f or c, d : dfvd mammsyH T^^y^ 'miirMm ma vi 
x»iddha(H ; the comm. also reads vuikyatm. 

3. Whether one of our own or whether a stranger, fellow or outsider^ 
whoso assails (iibhi-diis) us — let Kudra with a volley pierce those my 

I'pp's version is somewhat different : yas samUno yo 'samdtto'miira ma jighJtikjaii : 
rmdm^ (tti'nl t*\m amitrAn vi viddkata. With a, b compare KV. vi. 75. 19 a, b: y^ 
mak svti *intMo yd^ la mistyo ji^hAnsaii ( = SV. ii. 1 222 «, t, which combines sx*4 'rama) ; 
the latter half of this verse is our 4 c, <L Two or three of our mss. (T.M.O.p.m.) fo|. 
low KV. in omitting y«f after si'tf. Ap. iv. t6. 1 has yo mah sapatmo yo *rama mtmfia 
*bkitiAit%ti dfvAh^ with a wholly ditfcrent second half. The comm. al)surdly explains 
mistyiti as Htrgafavlryo nikrstabalah {atruk, 

4. Whatever rival {sapdttui), whatever non-rival, and whatever hater 
shall curse us, him let all the go<ls damage (dhUn*) \ incantation (brdkmmn) 
is my inner defense. Jj.if. 1- - 

rpp. has as first half-verse stthandkn^ (A *JdbamdkNf ca yo ma imdrA *tkidJsaii. 
The second half-xerv is found, without variant, in KV. (and SV. : see under irs. 3). 
Ihe comm. explains sapatna well as ;fiA(irtipak ^atruk. SPI*. follows th« very bad 
example of a part of his mss. by reading diisam ik- (instead of -afi or -aik) in b [^cf. 133.2, 
it 4. 6, and see TrikL ii. 10, 1 7, and especially 11. — The /a4/4f-text reads dx*isdm^ 


20. Against enemies and their weapons. 

\^A(/iarvaH. — saumyam. dnustubham : i, tristubh.'] 

The first three verses are found in Paipp. xix., and vs. 4 in ii. : see below. For the 
use of the hymn by Kau^. with 19 and 21, see under 19. And vs. i is used alone (so 
the comm.) in the /ari//iw-sacrifices (Kaug. 2.39), on viewing the cooked oblation. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 413 ; Griffith, i. 24. 

1 . Let there be the dddrasrt, O god Soma ; at this sacrifice, O Maruts, 
be gracious to us ; let not a portent find us, nor an imprecation ; let not 
the wrong that is hateful find us. 

The first pada is rendered on the assumption that the siiman of this name, as 
described in PB. xv. 3. 7, is intended ; it might be used of the person intended to be 
benefited : Met him be one not getting into a split (i.e. hole, or difficulty) * : this is the 
sense distinctly taught in PB. ; the comm. says na kaddcid apt svasjlrlsamJpatn prd- 
pnotu {madlyah i^atruk) I The verse occurs in TB. (iii. 7. 5»* : and repeated without 
change in Ap. ii. 20. 6), with bhavata in a, mrdaia (without the anomalous accent) in b, 
and vrjdnd in d. Ppp. begins with addrasur bh-y adds ayam after soma in a, and has 
in d the easier reading prd **pad duchund for vidad vrjind. The second half-verse 
occurs again as v. 3. 6 c, d. Though connected with vss, 2, 3 in Paipp. also, this verse 
does not appear to have anything originally to do with them. 

2. What missile {s^nya) weapon of the malignant (aghdyti) shall go up 
today, do ye, Mitra-and-Varuna, keep that off from us. 

The first half-verse in Ppp. v^yo *dya sdinyo vadho jighdsatn nam updyatfj which is 
nearly our vi. 99. 2 a, b. The half-verse occurs also in PB. (1.3. 3 a, b) and A(^S. 
(v. 3. 22 A, b), both of which have sdumyas ; PB. elides ^<7 *dya; AQS. gives at the 
end -Irati. Aghdyilnam would be the proper accent (and this the comm. has), unless 
the word were understood as feminine. 

3. Both what [is] from here and what from yonder — keep off, O 
Varuna, the deadly weapon ; extend great protection {qdnnan) ; keep very 
far off the deadly weapon. 

The pada text marks the pada-division in the first half-verse before instead of after 
the second ydt, Ppp. reads in b ydvayah. The second half-verse is found again at 
the end of the next hymn — which is perhaps an additional indication that this hymn 
properly ends here. The Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity of the verse (9 + 8 : 
7 -f 8 = 32). LRead in a itd ydd^ and in cyacha na/t.j 

4. Verily a great ruler (fdsd) art thou, ovcrpowerer of enemies, unsub- 
dued, whose companion {sdk/ti) is not slain, is not scathed {jyd) at any 

This verse is the first in RV. x. 152, of which the remaining verses constitute the 
next hymn here ; in I*pp. it occurs with them in ii., far separated from the matter which 
in our text precedes it. RV. and Ppp. both read for b amitrakhddd ddbhutah; and 
RV. accents in d jtyate kddd. The comm. paraphrases ^dsds by ^dsako niyantdj he 
takes y/y<^/^ J^s from rooty/, which is of course equally possible. 


21. Against enemies. 

As juM |H>iiitrf| out (umirr 20.4). tlii^ hymn and the la^t venu* of the prece<iin|( 
make one hymn in KV. (x. 152) and in TAipp. (ii): the latter has a different ver^e- 
Older (3, 2, I, 4). hut no v.iridun readings. For other correspondence*. »ee under the 
several vrrsev For the ritual u*e of the hymn with the two jvrecedinj;. see under ig; 
it is further rrckonnl (KAu«;. i^. 8. note) to the ahhtiya ('free from fear or dani^rr*) 
f^antt. It is the first hymn applied (with vil. 55) in the %vaityt\yan*t or * f or welM>ein|; ' 
ceremonies (50. I ). and is, act ordinjj to the comm., referred to as sm h in 25. 36. Verse 2 
is aUo used, with others, hy V'Ait. (2*). <;). in the af^nuayana or buildini; of the fire-altar. 

Translated : \Vel>er, iv. 414 ; («riH'ith, i. 25. 

1. (fiver of wcll-hcinj;, lord of the people (:'/f), Vrtra-sKiycr, remover 
of seorners, contruUinf;, let the bull Indra go before us, soma-drinker» 
pro<hicinj; fearlessness. 

The comm. renders 'i*itnt,ihA% l»y vi^eietut tn*%rtihaytU\ ^atrUHdm^ aJthou|(h he 
explains fttitiha% in v«is. 2. 3 I)y safhi^pAitttln ; the \%ord is plainly a |»ossessive com- 
pound |_.i((ent! no f^enitivej. expressing in form of epithet the action of 2 a and 3 s. 
KV. reads in a ;'/(fff /if//f. 'I he verse mcurs further in Til. (iii.7. 1 1*) and TA.(x. t.9); 
both have 7'i(ifs, and, in d. ifiHtititis for somapis. 

2. Smile away, () Indra, our scorners {9nrdh)\ put {j'aw) ilown them 
that rij;hl (prtitur) [us] ; make go to lowest darkness whoso vexes us. 

KV. reverses the oidrr of c an«l d, and reads Atiharttm ; and witli it aqree preciselv 
SV. (ii. 121.H) and VS. (viii 44 • ••t al ) ; while T.S. (i. 0. 124) and M.S. (iv. 12.3) have 
for c at{ha%pa*iAth U\m Im kttihi. \}A. M<iS. ii. 15.6 h ami p. 1 55. J 

3. Smite away the demon, away the scorners; break apart Vrtra*s 
(two) jaws; away, (> India, Vrtra-slayer, the fury of the vexing enemy. 

KV. and SV. (ii. 1217) have the same text ; IS. (i.6. I 21) reads {titrun for rdlsas^ 
ttHt/ti ioT jtthi, and bhdimti^ for '.tttahan, 

4. ( )ff, O Indra, the mind of the hater, off the deadly weapon of him that 
would scathe; e.\tend great protection; keep very far off the deadly weapon. 

KV. reads mttnyot for mahAl in c, ^\\i\ yttvttyH for i«l7'- in d. TS. (iii. 5.A, only a, b) 
supplies in the first half-verse the mivsini; verb, )ahi, putting; it in of va*ikAm. 
Vu\rss we revdve {>hfftii into three syllables, the afttti/N^k is defective by as)nable. 
LAdd HaA after |'«i«/m 'J 

The 5 hymns of this ttftajuU-it (^4. J attain have 20 verses, the norm : tee at the coo* 
elusion of the precedinf; ann'i'tfJttt (after hymn t(>). 

22. Against yellowness (jaundice). 

Fouml in IWipp. i. Tsed by Kau<;. (26. 14) in a remedial rite (ag^ainst heart dtteate 
and jaundice [Itimtt/u, Ke^. ; Jtdwt/a^ the comm. J). 


Translated: Weber, iv. 415; A. Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 113; Griffith, 1.26; Bloomfielcl, 
7, 263. — Cf. also Zimmer, p. 388 ;t Bloomfield, A J P. xii. 437 ; Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel^ 
p. 134. Kuhn adduces analogous old Germanic charms. 

1 . Let them (both) go up toward the sun, thy heart -burn {-dyota) and 
yellowness ; with the color of the red bull, with that we enclose {pari-d/td) 

Ppp. reads in a udetatnj its c is ^^ rohitasya gor varnas^ which construes better 
with d. The abbreviated writing hrdyot- for hrddyot- (see my Skt. Gr. §2328 ^and 
Roth, ZDMG. xlviii. 102J) betrays the padaA^xK into dividing hrodyoidh (cf. idd yam^ 
iv. 19. 6; so even the RV. pada-Xz-xX. has jaratovisam irom jaraddvfsam at v. 8. 2). 
SPP. has properly in his text the unabbreviated form hrddyo-. U'doayatam in the 
AV. Index Verborum is an erratum for ud ayatam: the comm. takes the form, doubt- 
less wrongly, as 3d sing. mid. instead of 3d du. active. Kau^. follows the indication of 
c, d, and of 3 a, b, by prescribing the use of products of a red cow, hair and skin etc., in 
the healing rite. 

2. With red colors we enclose thee, in order to length of life ; that this 
man may be free from complaints {-rdpas)^ also may become not yellow. 

Ppp. has a different second half-verse : yathd tvatn arapd *so aiho 'hdrito bhava. 
The third pada is iv. 13. 4 d (or RV. x. 137. 5 d). The comm. explains rapas as —papa, 

3. They that have the red one for divinity, and the kine that are red 
— form after form, vigor {ifdyas) after vigor, with them we enclose thee. 

The translation implies the easy emendation in a to rdhinldevatyas^ in accordance 
with the universal use of devatya elsewhere. The. * red one ' is perhaps the red star (or 
lunar astcrism) Rohini, our Aldebaran. Ppp. reads rohinlr devatya^ and in b rohinlr 
Ilia; in d it has ieua tvd. 

4. In the parrots, in the ropandkds^ we put thy yellowness ; likewise 
in the hdridravas we deposit thy yellowness. / ' 

Not one of our mss. gives at the beginning the true reading fw/v/w, as found in RV. 
i. 50. 12 Land Ppp. J (and TB. iii. 7.6»»), but it is presented by the comm., and by three 
of SPP*s authorities. RV. and TB. have me for te both times, and accent hdridra- 
vi'sH. The names are understood by the comm. as those of birds : ropanSkH — kdstha- 
^uka^ apparently a kind of parrot, and hliridrava — gopltanaka^ apparently a yellow 
water- wagtail. LPpp. has in h prapafidka^a,\ 

23. Against leprosy : with a healing herb. 

[Atharvan (fvetalaksmavindfandyd ^nettd ^sikmm osadhim astdu/). — vdnaspatyam . 


Found in Pfiipp. i., but defaced, so that for the most part comparison is impossible. 
Also, with vs. 3 of the next hymn, in TB. (ii.4. 4»-»). Used by Kau^. (26. 22-24), in 
company with the next following hymn, in a remedial rite (against white leprosy, 
^vetakustha^ schol. and comm.). 

Tran.slatcd : Weber, iv. 416 ; Ludwig, p. 506 ; Grill, 19,77 ; Griffith, i. 27 ; Bloom- 
field, 16, 266 ; furthermore, vss. i , 2 by Bloomfield, A J P. xi. 325. — Cf. Bergaigne-Henry, 
Manuel^ p. 135. 


1. Ni^hl-born art thou, O herb. O dark, black, [•'^nclj dusky one; 
O colorer (mjafii), do thou color this leprous sjwt and what is pale (f^litd), 

Arcf>rclinj; to the comin., the herb .i»!<!rf%^€fl i^ thr hattUtH (Cttriftwa /i^nj^tt). 
K. writer : ** The rttptnl \s known to the lexirographem, and has later as (vrincipal name 
parpatl [an Olclenlanclia clyrin^ red, OH.]. Ma<lana 4^». 47, Dhanvantari (mn.) \. 27. In 
HhAvapr. i. l<^ (where, acrordinj* to my «>hl and f;oo<i m^., rafljant \% to he read instead 
of Ni}), it i» noted that this remedy \% (ra|;;rant, and comes out of the north. It has a 
daik n%{>r(:t. The s|>ecies not to l>e determined, because the later identifications are 
entirely untrustworthy.** j^See Dhanvantari, Ananda-fl^rama ed., p. 17 J The causative 
stem rajtt/a (the meter calls for raj-) is found only here. 

2. The leprous s|>ot, what is pale, do thou cause to disappear from 
hence, the speckled; let thine own color enter thee; make white things 
{(id' /it) fly away. 

^/ /■ "^1^* h*is fi/t (ftaA f) for /tvI and ^^nntAttt for vi^atAm in c, and in d (Vfidmi (or 

^ ' ^nklAui. The comm. ^i\ es prthak for piuit in b. and has the usual support of a small 
Xl •^> "minority of STH's mss, 

3. Dusky is thy hiding-place, dusky thy station (Asthdna)\ dusky art 
thou, O herb ; make the s|>cckled disappear from hence. 

TH. has the easier reading uiiAyanam in a. The comm. a^ain gives prikak in d; 
he holds that the plant here addressed is the indigo {nt/l). 

4. Of the bone-lwrn leprous six)t, and of the body-born that is in the 

skin, of that made by the sfwiler {^fiisi) — by incantation have I made 

the white (pr/d) mark disappear. 

Ppp. has in c ifAf}tytK TH. reads instead krtyAytl ; the comm. explaiiu dUn as 
{atrutpAtiitii krtytt. Ppp. lias at llic end anena^am. 

24. Against leprosy. 

[ffrahman. — Jlt»irh'aMiHf*iiidn\ityam. dn»istuhA*tm : j. MtcrtpmlMy4pmmki».'\ 

Found in IMipp. i., but not in connection with the preceding hymn. For the use of 
23 and 24 tof*ethcr by KAu<;., see under liymn 23. 

Translated : Welier, iv. 417 ; Ludwi^, p. 509 ; Cirill. 19, 77 ; Griffith, L 28 ; Illoom- 
field. 16. zfvS. 

1. The eagle {sttftinni) was l>orn first ; of it thou the gall ; then 
the Asura-woman. conquered by fight (rudh)^ took shai>e as forest-trees. 

Ppp. reads at the end vanaip*Uth^ whi« h is more in accordance with the usual con- 
strue tion of ropithi kr (mid.) and the like. I'pp- :i\%o jit; A*} fist /«1 iot ymikd jtti in C 
K. sui:::e5»ts the emendation : tiid t^ittfl {\\\%{r.) jit^hatsitatit rth, * that, attempted to be 
eaten l»y the AniirJ, t<»ok on ve|;et.iljlc form ' : i.e. I>ecame a healing plant The comm. 
still rr^Ards the indigo as acUlresseil. lie coolly explains ///«! by its opposite, ///ift'tf/f. 
All our m&s. have in d the al>surd accent cAirt (emended in the editkm to €atri)\ 
SPP. rr|>c)rts the same only of two p^niaxxxsi. 

2. The Asura- woman first made this remedy for leprous S|K)t, this 


effacer of leprous spot ; it has made the leprous spot disappear, has made 
the skin uniform (sdrupa). 

Ppp. has again (as in 23. 4) anena^at in c ; in d it reads surtipam. 

3. Uniform by name is thy mother; uniform by name is thy father; 
uniform-making art thou, O herb ; [soj do thou make this uniform. 

Found also, as noted above, in TB. (ii. 4. 4»), which has for c sarfipd *sy osadhe, 
Ppp. reads throughout surup-. It inserts between this verse and the next : yat tanu- 
jam yad agnijam citra kildsa jajhise : tad as in sukrlas tanvo yatas tvd *pi naydmasi, 

4. The swarthy, uniform-making one [is] brought up off the earth ; 
do thou accomplish this, we pray ; make the forms right again. 

All our mss. have at the beginning (dmd, and also very nearly all SPP's ; but the 
latter very properly admits fyd- into his text, it being read by the comm. with a couple 
of mss. that follow him, and being found in Ppp. also. Ppp. once more has surtlp-j 
it corrupts b into prthivydbhyarbhavam^ and gives sddaya at end of c. The phrase 
tddm a su is quoted in Prat. iii. 4 and iv. 98, which prescribe the protraction and linguali- 
zation, and words of tlie verse are repeatedly cited in the commentary to other rules. 

25. Against fever (jakmdn). 

[B/irgvangtras. — yaksmafidfandgniddivatam. trdistubham : 2yj. virddgarbhd ; 

4, puro 'ftusfttbA,] 

Found in Paipp. i. Used by Kau^. in a remedial rite (26. 25) against fever, in con- 
nection with heating an ax and dipping it in hot water to make a lotion ; and reckoned 
(26. I , note) to the takmand^ana gana. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 419 ; Grohmann, Ind, Stud. ix. 384-6, 403, 406 ; Ludwig, 
p. 511 ; Zimmer, p. 384 and 381 ; Griffith, i. 29 ; Bloomfield, 3, 270 ; Wtnxy, Journal 
Asiatique, 9. x. 512. — Cf. Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel, p. 136. 

1. As Agni, entering, burned the waters, where the maintainers of 

duty {dhdnna-) paid acts of homage, there they declare to be thy highest 

birth-place ; then do thou, O fever (tahndn), complaisant, avoid us. 

The comm. explains pada a in accordance with the ceremonial act founded on its 
mechanical interpretation ; c Lcf. RV. i. 163. 4 dj shows that it is part of the heavenly 
waters that is intended. Samvidvdn (occurring nowhere else) he renders ** fully know- 
ing thy cause, the fire (or Agni) " : the translation takes it as equivalent to the not 
\xviZovcivc\OTv samviddna. Adahat he quietly turns into a future: "shall burn thee, O 
fever " ! Ppp. reads aduhat instead, and in c combines to td **huh. \Qi, Grohmann's 
interpretation, I.e., 403, 404. J 

2. If thou art flame (arcis) or if heat {(oc/s)y or if thy birth-place seeks 
the shavings {?), hriidu by name art thou, O god of the yellow one ; then 
do thou, O fever, complaisant, avoid us. 

The /^////-reading qakalyaoesi in b is assured by Prat. iii. 52, but the meaning is 
extremely obscure. Ppp. has the better reading ^dkalyesu * among the shavings * ; 
janitram rather requires a locative. The comm. guesses it as loc. of ^akalyes^ from 
^akalya explained as a ** heap of shavings," and root is *seek,' and so an epithet of fire ; 



HK. fonjcctiirc " follow in|; thr »havinf;, i.e. ^limmerini;.** Ppp. rcadx in a tiktimat for 
((N /r. 'I he namr at the lir^iiininK of c in of (juitc uncertain form ; the mi. re adinf « are 
httiiitt, /ttutOu, htNifit, hutitt^ ftitiu^ hfUtihhu^ hfm*iu^ ptiMtu [^A/««Mi#J ; SPI*. acloptii 
in \\\% text the name ((»rm an we, ami, it \s to \ye ho|>ed, on the authority of his oral 
reciters, which in such a case must l>e tietter than mss. ; Tpp. has (in l)oth vcrvs) 
huiiu^ wht( h is a word (h i urrtn^ also elseuhcre, ami meaning; ** ram ** ; the comm. reads 
fthihu, explaining it as fohaka or /*ttf nut^afhf utp*^ti*iLa * prmlucing in the human 

[^IIfMu>. /<»//rMii/ .f i/<y/iy;//', 9. X. 513, suf^^ests that the problematic word may he 
I ^ connected with the Assyrian hura^u and the Hebrew karii{, and so ^o back to a proto- 

X^olj ^%^ Semitii- ^AttniJu, '^olfl.* J. llalc^vy, however. I.e., 9. xi. 320 ff., suj^gests that it may l»e 

rather a Sanskritt7ation of x^*'^* * j^reenish yellow,' and compares the relations of 
T'il/#///r r.f, PrAkrit Tr/«rK*i {rffultya) /)iy^XXi«r. Cf. further, Uarth, Kevtn <// i^htitotre 
ties ff/ii^ioM%, xxxix. 2<).J 

3. If hcalinj; {\ol'ti) or if scorching {abhi^okd), or If ihou art %ot\ of 
kinjj Varutia, hnUiu by name etc. etc. 

l*pp. has for b the more sensible version ffttitasytt ptAiio yadi vJtruno{^vJk ^runofyii. 

4. Homage to the c(d<l fovc-r, !i<)ma;;c I pay to the fierce (fftni) heat 
(C<v/V) ; to the one that befalls on every other day. on both days, to the 
third-clay fever be homage. 

Ppp. reads in b#////#Jr«i i"/:«> iiiniw //, and in c uhhaytbhya^ la htiias. 1 he cnm- 
|KMmd ubhayaiiyut is noticed in PrAt. iv. 21. [^As for rh)thmical fevers — tertian, 
c|uartan, etc.. sec Orohmanu. I.e., 3.S7, 38S.J 

26. For protection from the wrath of the gods. 

Found in Paipp. xix., I>ut vss. 3 4 rl.sewherc than 1-2. The hymn appears to ht 
called (so schol. and the conim.) apttnotianiini * thrusters away* in Kftu^. (14. 14). and 
quoted and used as such in 25.22 and (with tv. 33) in 42.22 ; it » further applied 
^ (with 27 and vi. 3. 76) at the l)eKinning of the svastytiyttna rites, on fifoini; to l>ed and 

getting up again (50.4), and (with i. 13 and other hymns) in the rite of entrance oo 
Vedic study (139. S). 

translated : \Vel>er, iv. 420 ; t'.rilhth. i. 31. 

1. Far l>e that from us -may [your] missile (///•//) be, O gods; far 
the bolt {tinman) which ye hurl. 

The pada is identical with KV. i. 172. 2 c ; the other two |>.1das (for which I'pp. 
has no variants) sound in part like a misunderstcxxl echo of the KV. text : Hr/ si vak 
SHt/tUiitr'i* fnilfMtd ffij*it1 {thiih. For c Ppp. has Are mamtAttt (or mafiAm; for marm* 
iAm ') tt^in/i/i I he comm. foolishly suppliers an *M) our enemies** in c; 4f^mS he 
explains A%\tintfAtiii'tMi9tnttlttth pAtAftttA. I'he Anukr. Ignores the defectiveness of bi 

2. He yon Rati (• lilK'rality *) a companion (stilhi) for us; a companion 
[be] Intira, Khaga, Savitar of womlious favors. 


^J// seems to be made a personification here, as in iii. 8. 2 and vii. 17. 4 below ; the 
comm. makes it equal to Mitra or Surya. Ppp. has a very different text : sakhe *va no 
r&tir astu sakhe *ftdras sakhd savitd : sakha bhagas satyadharmd, no *stn ; which is 
better as regards both sense and meter. The tripadA of the Anukr. is probably a mis- 
reading for dvipaddj the mss. agree with it in using no avasdna-^xgn in the verse, and 
SPP. very properly follows them ; the pada-m^. mark a cesura after rdtiti. The 
comm. makes citrardd/tds = bahuvidham dhanam yasya. 

3. May ye, issue {ftdpdt) of the height, sun-skinned Maruts, yield us 
breadthful protection. 

The mss. all read at the end saprdthds^ and SPP. retains it in his text ; the comm. has 
saprathaSy in accordance with our emendation. |_Cf. Lanman, Noun-Inflection ^ p. 560. J 
The comm. further has yacchdta in c. 

4. Do ye advance [us], be gracious ; be thou gracious to our selves 
(tann), show kindness {mdyas) to our offspring {tokd). 

Ppp. fills up the deficiency of a, reading stt ntrdatd susudald mrdd no aghdbhyah 
siokdya ianve dd (perhaps defective at the end). The mss., supported by the Anukr., 
make no division of the verse before mdyas^ and SPP. follows them ; the meter, how- 
ever, is plainly ^<JKrt/rf. The name given by the Anukr. is not used by it elsewhere ; 
it doubtless signifies, as in the VS. Anukr., 7 + 7 4- 7 = 21 syllables, the resolution 
•^hi-as being refused in b and c. 

27. Against various evils. 

\Atharvan (svastyayatiakdmah). — cdndramasam uU * ndrdittddivatam. dmtstubham : 

I, pathydpankti.'\ 

Found in Paipp. xix. For the use of the hymn with its predecessor by Kriu<;., see 
under 26 ; it is also reckoned to the svastyayana gana (25. 36, note) ; and vs. 4 appears 
by itself near the beginning of the svastyayana ceremonies, in the same rite as hymns 
26 and 27. 

Translated: Weber, iv. 421 ; Ludwig, p. 517; Griflith, i. 32. — Griffith says the 
sloughs are to make the travellers invisible to highway robbers, and cites an old English 

1. Yonder on the further shore are she-adders, thrice seven, out of 
their sloughs {-jardyn) ; with the sloughs of them do we wrap up {dpi vyd) 
the (two) eyes of the malignant waylayer. 

Jarayu in the sense * cast-off skin of a snake * appears to be quotable only here ; 
the comm. regards the word as so applied by a figure : jardyuvat (artrasya vestakds 
tvacah. Ppp. reads imds pare in a, and jarjardyuvah in b *, the comm. has instead 
nirjard iva^ explaining ?isjardrahita devd iva. 

2. Let the cutting one {krt) go asunder, she who bears as it were a 
club {pindkd) ; asunder [go] the mind of her that returns to life {ptmar- 
6/i/i); unsuccessful [are] the malignant ones. 

Ppp. has no variants to cast light on this very obscure verse ; it adds at the end 
afie *tas paripanthino *po *ghdynr arsatti. The comm. reads punarbhavd in c ; he 


I. 27 nOOK I. THE atiiarva-vkda-samhitA. 28 

supplirn "the army (irml) at our enemies** a^ the mi<iftin|( noun in the veme, aiifl 
explains the epithet as ** reaMembUn^ after clis{x*tsal ** lie paraphrases trmtaii with 
€ki9uitttl. LSrr's /.i*/#i read inj^ is punak<J»huv^h, i^ainst /ttJrr Vfrh^rnm, p. 184 
(corrctlecl p. 3?^3). »"<! against Stt. Or. J 352 a, which should lie corrected by p. 411 
of l.anman's tX^uni nflei tion.^ 

3. The many have not been able together ; the few have not ventured 
on [it] ; like the sprouts (} iitit^a) of a bamboo (»r//w) round about, unstic- 
eessful (are) the malignant ones. 

The first half-verse in Ppp. is clrfaced, but apparently its text agreed with ours^ 
except that at the end stands tibhi Jhruiuvam. As the second half ts wanting, these 
two pAdas probably form one verse with the two reported above, under vs. 2. The 
comm. reads tiittir^tit at end of b. and has hi{^^t^ iva f^tirittu in C, explaining ti*^^*' ^'X' 
molof^ically as - (<f/^l. The coninient to Trilt. iii. 13 rpjotcs ti*ktikrsMs^ and that to 
ii. 38 gives *tt(i;ils among its examples ; neither atf^a nor Ntft^a appears to be quotable 
from elsewhere. 

4. Go forward, ye (two) feet ; kick (s/^/mr) forward ; carry to the 
houses of the bestower (/^/); let Indratil go first, unscathed, unrobbed, 
in front. 

Tpp. has jffA^iiw and vahtintu (yet /*<I//J//) in b, and» for d, jihiivA mMktx*d fatkJi. 
The comm. reads ajitA in d; he ingeniously quotes from TS. (ii. 2. 8«) *' IndrAni is 
deity of the army ** in explanation of her introduction here. |^Cf. liergaigne. Religion 
V^dique^ iii. 155 n. J 

28. Against sorcerers and witches. 

The hymn is not found in PAipp. Though not mentioned as one of the cAtamAmi 
by the text of KAu^., it is added to them by the schol. (S. 25, note). It is once used 
by itself in a vtitthcraft ceremony {tld/tuArtJtit) for the relief of one frightened, accom- 
panying the tying on of an amulet ( 26. 26). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 423 ; (friffith, i. 33. 

1. Hither hath come forth god Agni, demon-slayer, disease-cxpellcr, 
burning away deceivers, sorcerers, limUiins, 

In our text. uf»ti is a misprint for I'tf^ti (an accent sign slipped out of place to the 
left). The conunrnl i>n Ti.'it. iv. 3 r|iiotes the first three words as exemplifying the dis- 
connection of prefixes from a verb. 

2. Hum against the sorcerers, against the kimldins^ O god; burn up 
the sorceresses that meet thee, () black-tracked one. 

In c the ccmim.. %\ith two or three of Sl'T's authorities that follow htm, readt 
krtnavttrtmattf (treating it as a vot alive). 

3. She that bath cursed with cursing, that hath taken malignity as 
her r<H>t {^ m/tnt), that hath seized on [our] young to take its sap — let 
her eat (her own] offspring. 


The merse is rqxated belov as hr. 1 7. 3« and has there a panJM wi 1 Y|v The 
comm. fiist Ukcs mrir^m as for miimm (as rendered aboYe>» bm add& aft aheffiMtn^ 
explanatioo as mmrckJLt^rjtm^ adjective to ^^k*Mm : he has «hiU«iir in |4ac« v^l >«^< 
Jiidm is metricaDv ao iotnxsioii, but completes the sense. 

4. Let the sorceress eat [her own] son, sister, and daughter \^ im//^); 
then let the horrid-haired sorceresses mutually destroy (t'l^Jt) one 
another ; let the hags (arajri) be shattered asunder. 

The comm- explains napti as maptri or f^utrasya (/ar/ntjrr«t *) ^p^ttit»Tiftl jw*^ 
ia/g. He T^zds jrd/udAdnl (for -Mis) in a, and ^iJka in c 

The 7 hymns of this antri'dJta L5.J have 2S verses, as determmeil by the ti\h>teil 
Anukr. : paHcame *stdM. 

29. For a chief's success: with an amulet. 

\Vasistha. — sadrcam. aMhvrtamam'siiJtiam. dMmstmS^AmmA 

Found (except vs. 4) in Paipp. i., and (with the same exception, in RV., chiefly x» 1 74 
|_: namely, AV. verses i, 2, 3, 6 correspond respectively with RV. verses 1, 2» 3. 5. Sec 
Oldenberg, Die Hymnen des RV,^ i. 243 J. Kau^. uses the hymn in the ceremony of 
restoration of a king, with preparing and binding on an amulet made of the rim of a 
chariot-wheel (16. 29: the comm. says, vss. 1-4); the last two verses arc specitkally 
prescribed for the binding on. The comm. quotes the hymn as employed by the 
Naksatra Kalpa (19) in a mahdqdnti called mdhendrf. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 423 ; Griffith, i. 33. 

1. With an over-rolling amulet (jnani), wherewith Indra increased — 
therewith, O Brahmanaspati, make us increase unto royalty {nls(ni), 

Ad/tt\ literally * on to,' so as to overwhelm. Our version spoils the consistency of 
the verse by reading -vAvrdhi and vardhaya in b and d for RV. (x. 174. 1) -X'lU'fU 
and vartaya^ which Ppp. also gives (Ppp. vartayak), Ppp. further has imaffi for 
asmdn in c. RV, reads havisd for tnanliid in a. Tlie long I of abhlvarta (p. ahhUx^) 
is noted by Prat. iii. 1 2. 

2. Rolling over our rivals, over them that are niggards to us, do thou 
trample on him who fights — on whoever abuses {durasy-) us. 

RV. (x. 174.2) has in d irasydti; Ppp., by a not infrequent blunder, reads durat' 
yatu. Pada a lacks a syllable, unless we resolve -patndn into three syllables. 

3. Thee hath god Savitar, hath Soma made to increase, thee have all 
existences {bhutd) [made to increase], that thou mayest be over-rolling. 

The connection is again spoiled in our text by the substitution of avfvrdhnt in b for 
avhfriai (which is read by RV. x. 174.3); with the former it Is imposftiblc to render 
the prefix abhi. This time Ppp, gives abhlbhr^at instead, doubtless a mere corruption. 

4. The over-rolling, overcoming, rival-destroying amulet! be bound 
upon me unto royalty, unto the perishing {pardbhu)'ol rivals. 

The verse is wanting in both RV. and Ppp. Its excision, with the following verse 


(which, however, Ppp. ha*), would leave the hymn of noimal length, and competed of 
four out of the five venes of KV. x. 174 |^, of the fourth of which the excision is called 

5. Up hath gone yon sun, up this s|>cll (viinis)ol mine, that I may be 

slayer of foes, without rivals, rival-slayer. 

KV. X. 159. I a, b is to l>e comparcfl (b reading Ui/ nydm mAmak6 bhAf^ak) ; Ppp. 
ap)>ears to mix the versions of b, giving, ungrammatically, ay am with vacat, [^Cf. also 
MP. i. 16. I.J 

6. A rival-destroying bull, conquering royalty, overpowering — that I 
may bear rule over these heroes and the people {jdna), 

KV. (i. 174. 5) has instead of a our 5 d (found also as x. 6. 30 c, and xix.46. 7 b) ; 
in c it reads M//Almfw. [Cf. Ml*, i. \U. 5. J 

30. For protection: to all the gods. 

\Atkarvttn {t§rt0tlt§mak). — lAiftHtJrtttm. trdi$tMhkam : j. fi§Jtt*araj^rMd Vird^/aj^ii.] 

Found in PAipp. i., but damaged and only in part legible. The hymn beloogs« 
according to the comm.. to the dyusya ('for length of life *) j^n/rtf, although not found 
among those mentioned (KAu<;. 54. 11. note) as com|x>sing iU^X j^tina ; it b used in 
ceremonies for long life by 52. 18 and 59. 1 ; also, with i. 9 and other hymns, in the 
reception of a Vedir student (55 17), and in dismissal from Vedic study (139.1$). 
And vss. 3, 4 appear In V.'\it. (4. 4. 15) in connection with different parts of the /art'tf « • 
sacrifues. The comm. further quotes it from Naks. Kalpa 17 and 18 in two $nakd^dmii 
rites, styled i}tn}vail and i'*}t^vdtii'il, ami from Part<;tsta 5.4, In the pu$f*dbkis(ka 

Translated: Weber, iv. 424 ; Ludwig, p. 430 ; Griffith, i. 34. 

1. O all ye gotls, ye Vasus, protect this man; likewise ye Adityas, 
watch yc over him ; him let not one related {sdnAbhi) nor one unrelated 
— him Irt not any deadly wea|>on of men (pdunistyai) reach. 

Ppp. has in b the false form jtlt^fttta. The comm. paraphrases -ndbki in c by 
garbhtl^aya. |_For the syntax, cf. Caland, KZ. xxxiv. 456.J 

2. Whoso of you, O goils, are fathers and who sons, do ye, accordant 
{sticf(as), hear this utterance of mine ; to you all I commit this man ; 
happily unto old age shall ye carry him. 

Ppp. has at the end nttnl/Ait. The comm. reads in b u/jham, 

3. Ve, O gods, that are in the heaven, that are on earth, that arc in 
the atmosphere, in the herbs, in the cattle, within the waters — do yc 
make old age the length of life for this man ; let him avoid the hundred 
other deaths. ^/"yir^vV-^/J/v^r/f* J^^a^*^^ f^ ^/ ^ r , 

The intrusion of f*,i{tisH and a/isii in b spoils the meter |^or we may tt^i^y/^midriksm 
6saiihl$v itpiii an/dA j ; Ppp., omitting pa^usit and antdr^ makes it good. The Anukr. 
re<|uire?i us to scan the p.1da as of 14 s)llables. Pr5t. ii. lot notes the lingualixatk>n ia 
forms of tii after tUvi^ and the comment cites this passage (a) as example. The comm. 
has in d vrnakta^ and renders it as causative. [^As to tot deaths, see Zimmcr, p. 400. J 


4. Whose are the fore-offerings and whose the after-offerings ; the 
gods that share the oblation and that eat what is not made oblation of ; 
you among whom the five directions are shared out — you do I make 
sitters at the session (sattrd^ of this man. 

Ppp. reads in d idn no *smdi satrasadhah k-. The comm. explains ahutadas as 
baliharanddidevds ; in sattra he sees nothing more than simple sadana. Both editions 
read satra-^ in accordance with universal manuscript usage. 

31. To the divine guardians of the quarters. 

\^Brahman. — dfdpdiiyam^ vdstospatyam, dttusiubham : j. virdttristubh ; 

4. pardmtstuptristubhl\ 

Found in Paipp. i. The hymn is called in Kaug. (38. 1 1) dqdpdllyavi^ and is also 
reckoned by the schol. (8. 23, note) to the vdsiospatlydni or vdstu gana. It is used 
with xii. I in the ceremony (38. 16) for establishing a house, and again, except vs. 3, as 
drhhandni < establishers ' in a like rite (38. 11); it appears in one of the j<zT/<7-sacrifices 
(64. 1 ) with an offering of four dishes (catuhqar&va)^ and in the portent ceremony 
(127.6) against obscuration of the "Seven Sages" (the Dipper, or Charles's Wain) by 
a comet. Verse 2 (32. 27, note ; but the comm. says instead vs. i, quoting its pratika) 
is reckoned among the anholiiigds^ and applied in rites for healing, security, long life, 
etc.; and vs. 4 (50. 11) in one for good fortune in the night. In Vait. (36.20) the 
hymn (as d^dpdllyd) accompanies in the a^vamedha the turning loose of the sacrificial 
horse. And the comm. quotes it as used in Naks. Kalpa 14 in the adbhuta mahd^Snti, 

Translated : Weber, iv. 425 ; Ludwig, p. 372 ; Griffith, i. 35. 

1. To the four immortal region-guardians of the regions {dfd), to the 
overseers of existence (bhutd), would we now pay worship {vidh) with 

The verse occurs also in TB. (ii. 5. 33) and A^S. (ii. 10. 18) : in the latter, without 
variants ; TB. inserts (vd after a^dndm in a. The comm. paraphrases d^ds by prdcy- 
ddidi^as^ which is plainly its meaning here. 

2. Ye, O gods, who are the four region -guardians of the regions — do 
ye release us from the fetters (pdfa) of perdition (nirrtt), from every dis- 
tress (dhhas). 

The comm. reads stana for sihaua in b. The Anukr. does not note b as metrically 
deficient, doubtless making the harsh resolution ca-tu-a-ro, 

3. Unlamed I sacrifice to thee with oblation ; unmaimed I make obla- 
tion to thee with ghee ; the god that is fourth region-guardian of the 
regions, he shall bring hither to us welfare (subhuid). 

At the beginning, dqrdmas is read by half the mss. (including our E. I.O. Op. K. Kp.) 
and by the comm.; SIM\ gives dsr- in his text, as we in ours. A^lonas in b in our 
edition is an erratum for d^/ofias. Ppp. has for a, b a^ronas te havisd vidhema via^rd- 
mas te ghrt-; the comm. also reads a^ronas. Ppp. gives turyas in c : the word perhaps 
means simply * [any] one of the four.' The Anukr. appears not to sanction the resolu- 
tions to tn-d which would fill out a and b. The pada-mss. mark the division between 
C and d after devas^ as the sense, but not the meter, demands. 


4. Well-being (sviisii) be to our mother and father, well-being to kine, 
to creatures {j*ij^*^t), to men (f>iinisa)\ all welfare [and] beneficence 
(? stit'it/iifnt) be ours ; long may we see the sun. 

Vtyr jttX'tff in b Ppp. has n/a, with manifest advanta|^ to both meter and tenae ; 
and it reads p&fHsebhyas (with our ll.s. m.), and in d d9{r%*a. Many of the samMttS- 
mss. (including our II. K.) g\\c ho after /i/r/ in a. 1 he comm. gives three different 
interpretations (taking it always, however, from vtti and not from </J) for the ambigu- 
ous sMviiftitrn. The Anukr. apiKrars to read tto'sfn in c, and jtt^x *"d si-ri-am in d 
^rather, y/^j^' and iiryam, so as to make 1 1 + 1 1 : 1 1 + 8 ? J. (^At \o jagat^ tec Zimmer, 
p. 1 50. J 

32. Cosmogonic. 

\Brakman. — tiydxtlfrthtfiyam. dumstHhham : m. kakmmmmAJ\ 

Found in TAipp. i., next after our hymn 31. Used by Kfto^. in a women's rite 
(34- O* •'^gainst t>arrennesft, and again (59. 3) in a ceremony for prosperity, to hearen 
and earth ; and the first verse (so the comm.) further (6. 17), as alternate to x. 5. 33. 
with conducting water into the joined hands of the sacHficer*s wife, in the /art'tfit- 

Translated : \Vel)er, iv. 426 ; Ludwig. p. 533 ; (Griffith, i. 36. 

1. Now, ye jKoplc, take knowledge; he will speak a great mystery 
(? btri/iman) ; that is not on earth nor in the sky whereby the plants 

With a, b is to l>e compared the very simiLir line xx. 127. 1 a, b : id^tk jamS tif^a 
^rnta fulrA^afisH t/tti'tsra/f ; which makes it probable that the ungrammatkal vtdAikm 
means vidata or veifafha (accent is unmotived). and suggests also vadisyaie^ passive ; 
the former seems confounded with the noun vulAtha^ of which viitAthe^ or, as Ppp. 
re.ids. vitiAtham, would make f.iirly good srnse : 'will now l^e spoken at {yx to) the 
council.* I*pp. reads /rt/*j for//*r<f in d- ^ For /rJfi<f j»/i, see frit Iv. 57. J 

2. In the atmosphere is the station of th^m, as of those sitting 
wearied; the station of this that exists {bhUtd) : that the pious know — 
or they do not. 

* Of them * {AsAm, fem.) in a the comm. explains to mean "of the plants,** and then, 
alternatively, ** of the waters ** ; doulitless the latter is correct, the waters being that 
•* whereby the plants live** (1 d). Ppp. reads in a an/anJt*am, which means virtitally 
the same as our text : the reservoir of the waters is the atmosphere or b In It (doC in 
heaven nor earth, 1 c). The analogy of vii. 95. 2 suggests g4x*Jlm as wanting at the 
beginning of b : the waters are ordinarily as rpiiet as cows that lie resting : a coropmri- 
son from the usual Vedtc source. \Vel>er suggeste<l that stkimm be read twice ; and 
this R. favors. The Anukr. ignores the deficiency in the pAda. For 4, Ppp. has indm$ 
krd bhesatoiianak. 

3. What the (two) quaking firmaments {r6dasl) — and the earth — 
fashioned out, that at present is always wet, like the streams of the 

In b the translation implies emendation to ti/aJtja/dm, as favored by the Ppf*. r«ail> 
tng marit'HtJtstt/tlm; there remains the anomaly of letting the verb agree with r4dmi 


(Ppp. has rodhasi) ; perhaps we ought to read bhiimes * out of the earth.* The comni., 
with a disregard of the accent which is habitual with him, takes rddasl and its epithet 
as vocatives, and then supplies dyduSy vocative LJAOS. xi. 66J, in b to help make a 
dual subject for the verb 1 For d Ppp. has vidtirassevavartasl. \Yox c, cf. (J)B. vi. 6. 3 3. J 

4. The one hath covered all ; this rests upon the other ; both to the 
heaven and to the all-possessing earth have I paid homage. 

The first pada is translated according to the Ppp. version : vi^vatn a/tyd *bhi 
vavdra ; which is quite satisfactory ; Weber had suggested abh\ *vd **ra. The pada- 
reading is abhiovara^ and the word is quoted under Prat. iii. 12 as an example of a 
compound showing protraction of the final vowel of the first member. TB. (iii. 7. io3) 
and Ap. (ix. 14. 2) have the verse, and both have anya ^bhivdvrdhd. The comm. gives 
abhivdras^ and explains it in three ways, as abhito varanam chddanam^ as abfiivrtam^ 
and as abhitah sambhajanayuktam. For b, Ppp. has vi^vam anyasydm adhi ^ratam. 
For vi^vdvedase in c (Ppp. vii^vavedhase ; TB. Ap. vit^vdkarmane) the comm. also 
gives two interpretations, from vid * acquire * and from vid * know.' 

33. To the waters : for blessings. 

\^Qamtdti. — cdndramasam dpyam tita. trdisiubkafu.'\ 

Found in Paipp. i., and also in TS. (v. 6. i), MS. (ii. 13. i), and the Mantrapatha 
Li. 2. 2-5 J (VVinternitz in Denksch. d, Wicfier Akad, xl. 44). [_See also MGS. i. 2. 1 1 
and p. 1 58. J Reckoned by Kaui;. to the apdth suktdni * hymns of the waters' (121. i , and 
7. 14, note), also to both the ^d9iii ganas (9. 1,4) ; appears further, with several other 
hymns, in a rite for good-fortune (41. 14) ; and in the goddua ceremony to accompany 
bathing after the shaving (54. 5), also in the feet-washing of a guest (90. 9), against 
the portent of the appearance of water in a waterless place (121. i), and against that of 
the causeless breaking of water-jars etc. (136. 8). And the comm. quotes it as employed 
by Pariqista v. 2 in the puspdbhiseka rite. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 428 ; Winternitz, Hochzeitsrituell^ Wiener Denkschr. xl. 44 ; 
CrifTith, i. 37. 

1. Of golden color, clean (ffki), purifying, in whom [was] born Savitar, 
in whom Agni ; who, of beauteous color, assumed Agni as embryo — let 
those waters be weal, pleasant to us. 

Lin c, for dad/tir/, better, * conceived * ?J TS. and MS. read in b jd/d/t ka^ydpo 
yasv indrah ; and Ppp. agrees with them ; MP. has (igitih instead of indrah. In c 
TS. MS. give virupds for suvarnds ; and TS. omits yas^ and hence has dad/tire (un- 
accented) ; MS. puts jrtJ" after agnim, MP. offers te for nas in d. LAs to savitr — 
ka^apa^ cf. Bloomfield, AJP. xvii. 403.J 

2. In the midst of whom goes king Varuna, looking down at the \y^ 
truth-and-falschood of men ; who, of beauteous color, etc. etc. 

The first half-verse is found also in RV. (vii. 49. 3 a, b), without difference of read- 
ing ; MP. agrees through the whole verse Lexcept in d, ie for nas\ ; TS. MS. have a 
wholly different c. The comment to Prat. ii. 11 gives avapaqyah jandudftf as example 
of the general requirement that final // be assimilated to a following initial palatal, and 
half or more of our mss. so read ; but SPP., as elsewhere, gives -an j- Lcf. note to 
i. 19. 4J. 


3. They of whom the gods in heaven make [their] draught {bhaksd) ; 
they that come to be abundantly in the atmosphere ; who, of beauteous 
color, etc. etc. 

A|;ain TS. MS. have a difTcrent c {yi^ prtktvim fdyasc *mddmti {ukrik). Our (). 
has at end of c vhiipAk (as TS. M.S. in 1 c). Ml*, substitutes mMsfJIs lor kkavmnti 
in b. The comm. renders hkaksAm liy ttpahkof^yam. 

4. With propitious eye behold me, O waters; with propitious bo<Iy 
touch my skin ; they that are ghccdripping, clean, |)urifying — let those 
waters be weal, pleasant to us. 

The first half-verse ap|)ears aj^ain l>elow as zvi. 1.12. It aJone b found in TS. and 
M.S. ; hut our c is KV. vii. 49. 3 c. and the two other texts have it after our 2 A, b 
\jl\\ readiiif; matiku' tor j^kr/a- j. MP. reads ^h'/na it*^ (AkstisA pa^ynnix* i^k^ and 
in b ipr{antH and //. AH. (viii. 6. 10) quotes the whole verse in its TS. and MS. ver- 
sion. Our Hp. K. read -^lytttat in c ; Ppp. has -^taias. The Anukr. ignores the redun- 
dancy of one syllable (or mure) in b. /^^') rriif fy J^0^/»^^ ^A '^ vy 

34. A love-spell : with a sweet herb. 

Verses 1, 2, 5 are found in PAipp. ii., vs. 3 in vi., and vs. 4 in part in viii. It is 
use<i by Kiku^. in a ceremony for superiority in disputation (38. 17) : the ambitious dis- 
putant is to come into the a.%scml)ly from the north-east, chewing the sweet plant ; 
again, twice in the nuptial ceremonies, once with tying a wai^uxka amulet on the finger 
(76. 8), and once (79. 10) on crushing the amulet at the consummation of the marria|*e. 
The comm. further declares it u.5ed at the disputation in the a^vamnika sacrifice ; Init 
he quotes no authority for it. All these applications are evidently imposed ufioa the 
hymn, not contained in it. 

Translated: Welnrr, iv. 429 ; CJrill, 52, 78 ; Griffith, i. 38 ; Hloom field, 99, 274. — 
Cf. Ilillebrandt, l'fJa<krestt*mtttktf^ p. 46. 

1. This plant is h<)ncy-(///#/</////-)born ; with honey we dig thee ; forth 

from honey art thou engendered ; [soj do thou make us possessed of 


The comm. calls the plant madkiika^ and uses that form of the name also in the 
quotations from Kilu^. (instead of madugka^ madkngka, etc ; the mss. vary greatly in 
their readings). 

2. At the tip of my tongue honey, at the root of my tongue honeyed- 

ness; maycst thou be altogether in my power (knitn)t mayest thou come 

unto my intent (ciiUi), 

The second half verse agrees nearly with that of iii. 25. 5 and ¥{.9. 2, in both of 
which the yAtkt\^ here unexpressed, hel)>s the construction (though the accent of iIm/ 
does not altsolutely need it. being capable of l>eing viewed as antithetical). Ppp. has 
for 9ijikvilyi\ *^fe me mittikn^ and for c, A yafkA mAm tAminy as0 (our 5 c) yitm t*JlcM 
mttim ttm'tulrttsf. The comm. explains Madkti/akam by madkmrarmsakmkmiam /mimmm' 
dkikUtavrksapHspAm yatkA ; he understands the plant to be addressed in c, d — wbicli 
is plainly wron^. 


3. Honeyed {mddhumant) [is] my in-stepping, honeyed my forth-going ; 
with my voice I speak what is honeyed ; may I be of honey-aspect. 

Vaddni might be a better reading in c. The first half-verse resembles RV. x. 24.6 a, b 
{m. m. parayanam ntddhumat punar ayanatn), Ppp. has for second half-verse vacii 
madhumad ubhydma akso me madhusamdr^U The comm. takes madhu and samdr^as 
in d as two independent words. 

4. Than honey am I sweeter {inddhu), than the honey-plant more 
honeyed ; of me verily shalt thou be' fond (? van)^ as of a honeyed branch. 

The majority of our mss. (not Bp. I. £. D.) read here madhugh^t in b, as do also 
the Prat mss. in both places (ii. 5c; iv. 16 c) where the verse is quoted ; but at vi. 102. 3 
all read -du-^ SPP. reads -du- (as does our text), and makes no report of discordance 
among his authorities ; the comm. has -////-, and derives the word from madhudttgha. 
All the mss., and both texts, give the unmotived accent vdttds in c ; the comm. explains 
the word by sambhajes. He again regards the plant as addressed in the second 
half-verse. Ppp* (in viii.) has a and b, with \jiham for asmi andj madhumdn for 

5. About thee with an encompassing {paritatnn) sugar-cane have I 
gone, in order to absence of mutual hatred ; that thou mayest be one lov- 
ing me, that thou mayest be one not going away from me. 

The second half-verse is found repeatedly later, as ii. 3p. i d, e and vi. 8. 1-3 d, e. 
The //7^<z-reading in d is dpaogd^ and the word is quoted under Prat iii. 34 as one of 
the cases of irregular hiatus to which the rule refers. Disregarding this, SPP. alters the 
pada-texi to dpaogdh, against all our pada-mss, and most of his, for no better reason 
than that the comm. seems to read so. Our Bp. (both copies) accents here apaogd^ as 
also at vi. 8. i, 3, but not at ii. 30. i. The comm. allows this time that the address is to 
a woman. LPpp. has for h-6. yaksanaJtdm avidvise yathd na vidvdvadvi na vibhava 
kadd cana. As for the rite, cf. Paraskara's Grhya-sutra, iii. 7», and Stenzler*s note. J 

35. For long life etc. : with a gold amulet. 

\^Atharvan. — hdiranyam ; dindrdgnam uta vdifvadrvam. jdgatam : 4. anustubgarbhd 

4'P. tristubh.^ 

Not found in Paipp. LOf vss. i and 2, Schroeder gives the Katha version, with 
variants, Tiibinger Kat/ia-hss.^ p. 36. J Used by Kau9., with i. 9 and v. 28, in two cere- 
monies for fortune and for power (i 1. 19 ; 52. 20) ; and the comm. considers it involved 
also at 57.31, in the upanayana. The comm. further quotes it from the ddityd mahd- 
^dnti in Naks. Kalpa 19 ; also from Pari9ista 4. i and 13. i. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 430 ; Ludwig, p. 457 ; Griffith, i. 39. 

I. What gold the descendants of Daksa, well-willing, bound on for 
Catanlka, that I bind for thee, in order to life {dyns)y splendor, strength, 
to length of life for a hundred autumns. 

It would rectify the meter and improve the sense (considering that dfrghdyutvd 
follows) to omit ay use in c ; the Anukr. notes the redundancy of the pada (14 syllables). 
VS. (xxxiv. 52) has the first half-verse, with a different second half ; and so has a RV. 


khila to RV. x. 128 (<>, Aufrecht, p. 685). The KAu^. tpcakt oi ymgmmkrfmmU as xht 
amulet : protul'ly a pair of t»cacU of gold like krsnaia berries. The comm. quotes 
AD. viii. 21.5 for <,at.inika. 

2. Not (lemons, not f^i^iUns overcome him, (or this is the first-born 

force of the g<Hls ; whoso bears the gold of the descendants of Daksa, 

he makes for himself Ion;; life amoti^; the livinj;. 

VS. (xxxiv. 51) has the verse, reading ttUi for fn*tM ami iaranli for sakamU in a. 
accenting f*if*hthtt in c, and giving tifv^su iorjti/sit in d ; and it re)>eats d with maHus- 
y}sH instead ; and the KV. khila (S, as alM>ve) follows tt very nearly (hut tatamtt in a, 
and tfiikttlvtttttl Air- in c). The Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularities of a and b 

3. The waters' brilliancy, light, force, and strength, also the heroic 
powers (rityti) of the forest trees, do we maintain in him, as in Indra 
Indra*s f>owers (iftdfiyd) ; this gold shall he, being capable, bear. 

The comm. explains t/tlJtsitmtlfttt in d hy v4tftiMamJl9t»t. Omission of the superfluous 
imfriyilfii in c would rectify tlie meter ; t lie /fr^/a text marks the division wrongly t)efore 
astttin instead of after it ; [\\\t Anukr. likewise reckons asmim to d and describes tlie 
pada as one of 14 MllaldeslJ. 

4. With seasons of summers (? stimtl), of months, we [fill] thee, with 
the milk of the year I fill [thee]; let Indra-and-Agni, let all the gods, 
approve thee, not bearing enmity. 

Emendation to hJI *ham at the end of a would rectify both meter and constnKtion. 
Iletween c and d the //f#/«f-text wrongly resolves U 'nm into //.* <l/vi# (as again at viii. 3. :i ). 
and the /<ff/iimss. put the sign of pAda divbion before instead of after /// apparently 
the Anukr. makes the true division |^after //, accentlessj. The comm., too, understands 
//. The combination -M/j /ivI is cjuoted as an example under Tdlt. ii. 84. 

The concluding anuvAka {t \ has again 7 hymns, with 31 verses ; and the quoted 
Anukr. of the mss. sa\s //<h/«/f<r lO *tti:r€ ptifA lyuh. 

Some of the mss. sum the whole l)Ook up correctly as 35 hymns, 153 verses. 
Here ends also the second /r<// J Mif/"*!. 

Book II. 

LThe second book is made up mostly of hymns of 5 verses each. 
It contains 22 such hymns, but also five hymns (namely, 3, 4, 14, 
15, and 32) of 6 verses each, five hymns (namely, 5, 17, 27, 29, and 
33) of 7 verses each, and four hymns (namely, 10, 12, 24, and 36) 
of 8 verses each. Compare page i. The possibilities of critical 
reduction to the norm are well illustrated by hymns 10, 12, 14, 
27; see, for example, the critical notes to ii. 10. 2. 

The whole book has been translated by Weber in the Mounts- 
bcrichtc dcr Kon, Akad. der Wiss. zu Berlin^ June, 1870, pages 
462-524. This translation was reprinted, with only slight 
changes, in IndiscJie Studicn, vol. xiii. (1873), pages 129-216. 
The following references to Weber have to do with the reprint J 

I. Mystic. 

[ Vena, — brahmdtmaddivatam. trdistubham : j. Jagati,'] 

Found in Paipp. iL, and parts of it in other texts, as pointed out under the several 
verses. LVon Schroeder gives wliat may be called a Katha-recension of nearly all of it 
in his Tiibinger Katha-hss.^ pp. ^Z^ 89. J Used by Kau9. (37. 3) in addressing various 
articles out of whose behavior afterward signs of success or the contrary, and the like 
oracular responses, are to be drawn (the comm. gives them in a more expanded detail). 
And Vait. (29. 14) apphes vs. 3 in the upavasaiha rite of the agnicayana. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 1 29 ; Ludwig, p. 393 ; Schcrman, Philosophische Hymnen^ 
p. 82 ; Deussen, Geschichtey i.» 253 ; Griffith, i. 41. 

I. Vena (the longing one }) saw that which is highest in secret, where 
everything becomes of one form ; this the spotted one (Prfni) milked 
[when] born ; the hcaven-(jz/rfr-)knowing troops {vrd) have shouted at it. 

A bit of labored obscurity, h'ke the verses that follow ; books iv. and v. begin simi- 
larly ; no attempt will be made here to solve the riddles. The comm. explains at great 
length (nine 4to pages), but evidently without any traditional or other understanding ; 
he guesses and etymologizes this way and that, giving in part wholly discordant alter- 
native interpretations. In this verse he first takes v^na as = Aditya; and then, after a 
complete exposition on this basis, he says : yadva : venah parjattydtmd madhyama- 
sthdno devahy and gives another ; profit to him is ** the common name of sky and sun." 

The translation given implies emendation in c oi jayamdnds to -nd; but the epithet 
might belong to vras (so Ludwig and the comm.), or be the second object of aduhat 
(so Weber). The variants of the parallel versions of other texts make the impression 
(as often in other cases) of rather aimless stumbling over matters not understood. 


VS. (xxjtii R) And TA. (jc. 1.3) have the firM half vcr»e : VS. read* in a ^a{YdH ttihitath 
f^uhik j«l#/, aiul TA. pS{y*tn vl\vt\ hhuvam\mt x*u1vin ; l>oth \%Avr /Jtantt/am at end oC b. 
The pratika \% f|tioti*d in <,<,S. xv 3.8, ^iih the addition t/i pu/ltit, apparently referring 
to thi!% h)mn. I'pp. lia.n /<f</<f//i iot ji^u/itl in a, e/tamat/am in b, (f/unttr for f^f^ma in c 
(with nt}s at the end), and, for d, svttfvuio'hhYamMktir I'ifilf, The phrase aMjr Jftu- 
saia vniJk occurs al?»o in RV. iv. 1. 16 d; I*i»chcl (/>#/. .S/W. ii. 121 ^and 321 J) takes 
vris to mean "women**; the comm. etymologi/e.n it as dvrft\tm*\naM ppajtlM. [^CT. 
RV. X.I 23. 2. J lt/n\^, ^X f^,^($2, Ha^sjUOa. 

2. May the Gandharva, knowing of the immortal, proclaim that high- 
est alwHlc that is in secret ; three quarters (paM) of it (arcj deposited in 
secret ; whoso knowcth them, he shall be the father's father. 

Ppp. l>eKin.5 with f' tiun^ (for put A///), and for atnrtasya has -taik 114, probAldy 
intending the ttmittim nii of VS. (xxxii.9) and TA. (x i. 3-4 : TA. reads also vwt"). 
In !>, TA. ^\\t% fuima (for tf/nlmtt); and for parawtim TA. has niktimm, and VS. 
vihhritim^ while V.S. ends with .^'/M#J sAt and TA. with guMdsm. In c, I*pp. and TA. 
f^\\e patfti, and Ppp. ui/ntfil ; and TA., thin time with the concurrence of Ppp, ewls the 
pAda a^ain with i^ithtliu. In d. TA. has /if#/ for /if/r/, and stu-tftif for i«f pitns^ while 
Ppp. j;ives vat for yas at the iK^jjinniiip. PrAt. ii. 73 prescril)es the comt>ination 
ptttis p- (in d), and l)oth editions read it, though nearly all our samMiiS'm%%^ and part 
of SPP's, read -tiih p- in.stead. To make a good tfisthbh p.ida, we must resolve Pf-Ji 
at the l)ej;inninR. [^llillcbrandt, /Vi/. Mytho!. i. 433, discusses the verse. J 

3. lie, of US the father, the generator, and he the connection (bdmd/iu). 
knowcth the al)odes, the beings all ; who of the gods is the sole nomen- 
clator, of him all beings come to inquire. 

Here, as usual elsewhere |^if. IJR. iv. 1088, citations from TH., TS., AH. J, -pra^mnm 
is of infmitival value. Ppp. begins (piite differently: sa ntf hiimiikur jaHttJ s^ t'i«M«f//J 
tihArmaiti vetfa etc. ; its c, d are our 5 C, d, with variants for which see under vs. 5. 
VS. (xxxii. 10) and TA. (x 1.4) have a verse m.nde up like that of Ppp., differing 
from the latter in the first half only hy having; x't\/AJ/J and iiMim*ini. A corres()onding 
verse in RV. (x. 82. 3) reads in a ytis for sA and again for sti titti, accents of course 
Wt/a in b, and has nt}nttitih,it in c and attyti for stirvJI in d ; and with it agrees in all 
points VS xvii. 27 ; while TS. (iv.6. 2) and MS. (ii 10.3) also follow il closely in A, 
C d (MS. vtt/fiaffd in a) hut have a different b: y^ mah sa/A abky i s*IJ jajinm. Our 
O. has the RV. readings. v/*ia in b and Ntlmatihis in c : and the latter is given hy the 
comm. and by nearly half of SPP's authorities; the lattrr's text, however, agrees with 
ours. 1 he verse is no jti^tt/l at all. but, if we make the frequent (RV ) comhinatM>n 
i«< Vif in c a |>erfectly regular tuitubh. 

4. About hcavcnandcarth at once I went ; I approached {upa-sihJ) 
the firstborn of righteousness (rAf), abiding in beings as speech in the 
s|KMkcr ; eager (}) is he ; is he not Agni (fire) } 

of this verse, only the first p.'^da is found in VS. (xxxii 12 A) and TA. (x. I. 4), VS. 
reading //:-.f for Jmw, and TA. having at the end yanti ituiyAh. Ppp. has for first 
half pnti vi\v*\ bkHvanttny Ayttm upt\(ttite pfathamaj^ rlaiya^ and for d dkJksra9m 
nesatta fvfu* tti^nth The accus. vitam in c suggests emendation to -t/AJm, in apftosi- 
tion ^\X\\ p^athamajdm ; but then the comm. agrees with Ppp. in reading instead yJi, 


and emendation without any traceable sense to guide us is of no avail. The combina- 
tion bhuvanestha (p. -ne^stha) is noted under Prat. ii. 94. In the fadaitxi of b is 
noted from our mss. no other reading than lipa : atisthe j but S PP. gives upa: tiotisthe^ 
and reports no various readings ; as dotisfhc (witiiout any accent) is an impossible form 
\_Skt. Gr. § 1083 aj this is perhaps simply a blunder in his text; the comm., with a 
minority of SPP's mss., has -tisthet, 

5. Around all beings I went, the web (tdntii) of righteousness stretched 

out for beholding, where the gods, having attained immortality (amrta) 

bestirred themselves Q iraya-) upon the same place of union {ySni). 

The proper rendering of d is especially doubtful, but ddhi^ by its independent accent 
(which is established by Prat. iv. 5), is clearly only a strengthener of the locative sense 
of ydnHu, In b, perhaps better * to behold the web* etc. (the comm. absurdly explains 
the particle kAm as sukhHtmakavt brahma). The second half-verse is, as noted above, 
found in VS., TA., and Ppp., combined into one verse with our 3 a, b; Ppp. has in it 
Una^ana samdne dhdmann addhl **rayantaj VS. reads trdye dhaman for our samdni 
ydnilH ; TA., trtiye dhamany abhy dirayania, Ppp. has as vs. 5 something quite 
different : for a, pari dydvdprthivl sadyd ^^yam (exchanging 4 a and 5 a : see under 4) ; 
for b, our own b ; for c, d devo devatvam abhiraksamdnas sam&nam bandhufii vipa- 
ricchad ekah. The first pada requires the harsh resolution vi-^u-d to make it full L^/f- 
vdni would be easier J. 

2. To Gandharvas and Apsarases. 

[Mdtrndman. — gandharvdpsarodnmtyam. trdistubham : /. virddjagati ; 4. j-/>. virdfitidma- 

gdyatri ; j. b/iuriganustubhJ] 

Found in Paipp. i. (only in the nd^arf copy). Called by KSuq. (8.24), with vi. 11 1 
and viii. 6 (and the schol. add iv. 20 : see ib., note), tndtrudmdni * mother-names * (per- 
haps from the alleged author) ; they are employed in a remedial rite (26. 29 : ** against 
seizure by Gandharvas, Apsarases, demons etc." comm.), and several times (94. 15; 
95. 4 ; 96. 4 ; loi. 3 ; 114. 3 ; 136. 9) in charms against various portents (adbhutdni). 
And verse i is allowed by Vait. (36. 28) to be used in the a^vamed/ta sacrifice as alter- 
native for one given in its text (27). Further, the comm. quotes the mdtrndman hymns 
from the Qanti Kalpa (16) as accompanying an offering in the sacrifice to the planets 
i^grahayajnd) ; and from the Naks. Kalpa (23) in the tantrabhutd vtahd^dnti. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 133; Griffith, i. 42; verses 3-5 also by Weber, Abh, Btr- 
liner Akad.\%^%^ p. 35o(= Omina und Portentd). — Cf. Hillebrandt, Ved, MythoL i.433. 

1. The heavenly Gandharva, who is lord of being (bhnvmia), the only 

one to receive homage, to be praised {Id) among the clans {yiq) — thee 

being such I ban {yu) with incantation, O heavenly god ; homage be to 

thee ; in the heaven is thy station. 

Ppp. reads in c deva divya. The comm. understands ydumi in c as "join" (sam- 
yojtiydmi) LBR. vi. 138, *festhalten ' J : RV. i. 24. 11 a, tdt tvd ydmi brdhmandy sug- 
gests emendation. The combination ^^j/- in a is by Prat. ii. 70. 

2. Touching the sky, worshipful, sun-skinned, dcprecator of the seizure 
{hdras) of the gods — gracious shall be the Gandharva, who is lord of 
being, the only one to receive homage, very propitious. 


Ppp. Iicf^int with tiiz'a sfrito^ and inverts the order of c and d. 1 he comm. explains 
sifyaivac by MwrYttsamAntiX'arna, and karat by Jtnh/Att. The Anukr. does not heed 
that c b skjaj^itfi |>Ada 

3. lie hath unitcil himself (sam-gam) with those irreproachable 
ones (f.) ; in ('///) among the Apsarases was the Gandhai^'a ; in the ocean 
is, they tell mc, their seat, whence at once they both come and go. 

I*pp. combines ytfjC**'' **AAM in a, and has in b ap%ar*\bhis for rJtsH ; its second half- 
verse rea«ls thus: samudtA sam sadanam Ahm talas tadyA upAiaryantt. Weber 
takes ia9H ja^me in a as ist sin^. The comm. gives two diverse explanations of the 
verse, the first taking the («andliarva as the sun and the Apsarases as his rays. 

4. O cloudy one, pleamer {iiidyut), starry one — ye that accompany 
{sac) the Gandharva Vi^vavasu, to you there. O divine ones, homage do 
I pay. 

All those addresse<l are in the feminine c^')<l<^''« i-<^- Apsarases. I*pP- ^^ namMitu 
for mama tt in c. The Anukr. |^if we assume that itn name for the meter (as at i. 2. 3 ; 
W. 16. 9) means 11 fit -^ 1 > J passes without notice the deficiency of two syllables in a. 

5. They that are noisy, dusky, dice-loving, mind confusing — to those 
Apsarases, that have the Gandharvas for Sjwuses, have I paid homage. 

Ppp. rcafis in a /<}///ij-. antl tuo of our xx\\\ (P .Nf ) give the .same. Ppp. has also 
aJtsthfmiis in b Our W.I. rom!»in«* -bAyo aJtitfittft in d The versr is not hMnfij (as 
the Anukr. calls it). l»ut a regular anuituhh. On account of the «*pilhet "dice loving '* 
in b, Weber calls the whole hymn " Wurfctsegen" (*a blessing for dice*). 


3. For relief from flux: with a certain remedy. 

[/Hfttas. — uti/ftitM. hkJif*tjYdfnrJk*tHZ*tnt*tPtJAn^it,im. dnttjtmhkam : 6jf.tvar44uparti' 

iJumakdh'kati ] 

This hymn in PAipp. also follows the one that prece<les it here ; but in PSipp. vss. 3 
and 6 are wanting, and 4 and 5 are made to change places; and vs. t is defaced KAu^. 
employs it only ome (25 6), in a healing rite for various disorders and wounds (/i'tf' 
rSiUSrdttmtitramhflxtraHeMM, comm ). with i 2. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 13.S ; Ludwig, p 507 ; (irill. 17. 79 ; Griffith, I 43 ; Bloom- 
field, 9. 277. 

I. What runs down yonder, aiding (?), off the mountain, that do I 
make for thee a remedy, that thou mayest be a good reme<Iy. 

At the end, tisati would l>e a very acceptable emendation : • that there may be.' 
Avaitd (p. avat-k*im : cpiotrd in the c*»mment to I*r.\t 1103; ii. 3S ; Iv. 25) is 
o)>scure. t>ut is here translated as fnim the present participle of root av (like tjaikd^ 
V. 23. 7 \ji\. af>himAdvatkA, (,'11., vikstfiatkti, VS.J) ; this the comm. favors {xySJkt* 
parihArena taksakam^ ; Ppp. has in another passage twice avatakam (but evidently 
meant for ax'atk%tm : arafakam mttma hAfutjam avaiakatk pativAcanam), Id A, our 
P.M. read uiMivasi. 


2. Now then, forsooth ! how then, forsooth ? what hundred remedies 
are thine, of them art thou the chief {uttamd), free from flux, free from 
disease {drogana). 

In b, me * are mine * is an almost necessary emefldation. Yet Ppp. also has ie : adang^q 
^aiam yad bhesajani te sahasram vd ca y&ni te; and, in d, arohanam ; cf. also vi. 44. 2. 
The obscure first pada is here translated as if uttered exclamatorily, perhaps accompanying 
some act or manipulation. AsrUva is rendered by the indefinite term *flux,* its specific 
meaning being uncertain ; it is associated with roga also in i. 2. 4 ; the comm. explains 
it as atisdrdtimutranddlvranddi. \QL Zimmer, p. 392. J 

3. The Asuras dig low down this great wound-healer; that is the 
remedy of flux ; that has made the disease {roga) disappear. 

The pada-i^xi in b is aruhosranam, and the word is quoted under Pr5t. ii. 40 as an 
example of the assimilation of a final h to an initial sibilant ; there can be no question, 
therefore, that the proper reading is arussratia or aruhsrana; yet the abbreviated 
equivalent (see my Skt. Gram. § 232 a) arusrdna is found in nearly all the mss., 
both here and in vs. 5, and SPP. adopts it in his text. The comm. gives two discord- 
ant explanations of the word : vranasya pdkasthdnam vranatnukham L* place where 
it gets ripe or comes to a head '?J, and aruh srayati pakvam bhavaty anena. At the 
end, the comm. has a^l^amat (as our text in 4 d). 

4. The ants {upajtkd) bring up the remedy from out the ocean ; that 
is the remedy of flux ; that has quieted (f^w) the disease. 

The comm. explains upajikds as valmfkanispddikd vamryah ; Ppp. has instead 
upaclkds; elsewhere is found upadikd (see Bloomfield in A J P. vii. 482 ff., where the 
word is ably discussed) ; Lcf. also Pali upacikd\. The Ppp. form, upaclkd^ indicates 
a possible etymology, from upa + ci ; Ppp. says in book vi. : yasyd bhttmyd upacfkd 
(ms. -kdd) gr/iam krftvaid**tmane: tasyds te vi^vadhdyaso visadtlsanam ud bhare. 
The earth which ants make their high nests of, and which contains their moisture, has 
always been used as having remedial properties. The "ocean" here (cf. udaka in vi. 
100. 2), if not merely a big name for the reservoir of water beneath the surface, is a 
tank or pool. Ppp. has an independent second half-verse : aruspdnam asy dtharvano 
rogasthdnam asy dfharvattam. 

5. This is a great wound-healer, brought up from out the earth; that 
is the remedy of the flux ; that has made the disease disappear. 

Ppp. reads aruspdnam (or -syd-) in a, and in h prthivyd *bhy. 

6. Weal be to us the waters, propitious the herbs ; let Indra*s thun- 
derbolt smite away the demoniacs {raksds) ; far away let the discharged 
arrows of the demoniacs fly. 

In a all the mss. read apds, which SPP. rightly retains in his text ; other examples 
of the use of this accusative form as nominative occur in the text (see the Index Verbo- 
rum) ; the comm. has <f/<ij, as our edition by emendation. We may safely regard this 
unmetrical " verse ** as a later addition to the hymn ; so far as regards the number of 
syllables (12 : 12 -f 14 = 38), it is correctly described by the Anukr., as the name mahd- 
brhatl is elsewhere used in the latter, but apparently by no other similar treatise. 


4. Against yarloos eyils: with a JaiEgidi amulet. 

Fouml al»o (cxt rpt vn 6 ami pnrU of 1 ami 2) in PAipp. ii. Arrompantrt in Kiu^. 
(42 23) tlif l>imlifi|* on of an amulet ** an clciicril>cd in the text ** (i/i W4tmir0kijm), 
ai^ain^t vaiious rviln (the romm. tavs, "for thwarting witchcraft, for |>rotecting one'i 
telf, for putting; down hindrance"). 

TranMatcd : WcIht. xiii. 140 ; («rifrith, i. 45; HloomfifW, 37. 2R0; in part aliio by 
(«rohni.inn, /////. Stmi. ijc. 41 7 418. — As to the jaUj^itia^ »ee Zimmer, p. 65 ; alio \Vrl>rr 
and («rohmann, II. cr. 

1. In order to Icnjjth of life, to great joy, wc, taking no harm, all the 
time cajKiblc (daks)^ bear \}\^ jaftii^tdii, the i7/>{M«<////fS|K)iling amulet. 

Ppp. has I a, b with 2 c, d as its fust verse; very |x>ssibly the two half-verves 
between have fallen out in the ms ; it has in b rsyamhko fJtsamdmJ (for rmMs-) /•. 1 he 
comm. has raksttMt}n,ls alv) ; it is the l>etter reading. The comm. gives no further 
identification of jafi^iJa than that it is ** a kind of tree ** (adding vJr4nasjram ^rssiJ- 
dkak^ * familiarly known at Henares*!); he defines vtjJtamdAa in the same manner as 
above, to i. 16. 3. 

2. From jambhd^ from vi(ard, from vtstnnd/ia, from scorching {abki- 

ficana), let the jafij^tdd, the amulet of thousandfold valiance (-x^iryd), 

protect us about on every side. 

Jambhd is perhaps 'convulsion/ or lockjaw; at Ppp. xi. 2 10 it is mentioned with 
hmnngraha : l>elow, at viii. 1. 16. it is called samhanu * jaw-closing * ; the comm. gives 
two discordant and worthlessly indefinite explanations. I'i^ard should signify some- 
thing crushing or tearing to pieces; Ppp. xi. 2. 3 names it with x*ijrmbha ; the comm. 
says {arlfax»i{art\nAt. Ppp. has of this verse (see under vs. t) only the second half, 
and combines m*tnis uthasfavtryas fari Mas fi-. 

3. This one overpowers the viskandha ; this drives off the devourcrs ; 
let this jafi/i'iddt possessing all remedies, protect us from distress. 

The first half verse we had al)ove as i. 16. 3 a. b, with I'tfJm for mydm. Ppp. begins 
this time also with iiiam^ has sAtt {mtffff) for sakate^ and for b reads aymm nUks0 '/« 
hitdkatt; it gives viskandkam with our text. 

4. With the amulet given by the go<ls, the kindly jaftgidd, we over- 
power in the struggle (vythdtnd) the visknndha [and] all demons. 

Ppp. reatis f*>r d iMiJmi/ sAmakf. The comm. explains xyAydmf first !>y samia- 
rane^ and then !)y samiituiuttprndf^t. 

5. Let lH)th the hemp an<l Xhcjahi^hfd defend me from the viskamdha: 

the one brought from the forest, the other from the juices {rdsa) of 


Ihat IS. from cultivated ground. I he ** hemp ** is doubtless, as the comm. defines 
it, that of the string by which the amulet is )M>und on. Ppp. has at the beginning kkm- 
muf Of h'd jtt , and Its second half- verse is corrupted into aranydd abky Abkrtms krsyM 
*«/«» fusrbkyak. 


6. Witchcraft-spoiling is this amulet, likewise niggard-spoiling ; like- 
wise shall the powerful jau^zdd prolong our life-times. 

The absence of this verse in Ppp. indicates that the hymn originally consisted of 
five verses, in accordance with the norm of the book. The verse is very nearly xix. 
34.4. Emendation to ardtidiisanas (as in xix.) in b would rectify the meter; the 
Anukr. takes no notice of its irregularity. At the end, two of our mss. (E.I.) and 
three of SPP*s read tdrsat. LFor his sd/iasvdn, see note to i. 19. 4. J 

5. Praise and prayer to Indra. 

\^B/irgH Athamaiia. — saptarcam. diudram. trdistubham: 1^2. uparistdd brhati (i. tiicrt ; 

2. Z'i'rdj); J. virdtpathydbr/iaii ; 4.jagatl pur<rvirdj.'\ 

Verses i, 3, and 4 are found in Paipp. ii., and 5-7 elsewhere in its text (xiii.). 
Verses 1-3 occur also in SV. (ii. 302-4) and ^^^> (ix. 5.2); and the first four verses 
form part of a longer hymn in AQS. (vi. 3. i). KB. (xvii. i) quotes by way of pratlka 
vs. I a, b (in their SV. and ^^"^^ form), and speaks of the peculiar structure of the 
verses, as composed of twenty-five syllables, with nine syllables interpolated (three at 
the end of each of the first three five-syllabled padas) : cf. Roth, Ueb, d, A V., 1856, 
p. II ff., and Weber, notes to his translation. At TB. ii. 4. 3»o may be found RV. x. • 

96. I treated in a somewhat similar way (four syllables prefixed to each y^^^^/Z-pada) ; HClV^t /^^ 
the first five verses of RV. x. 77 itself are another example; |_yet others are AV. vii. C^lj^^/>/ /H^t ^ 
14 (1 5). I, 2 ; V. 6. 4 a, c ; RV. i. 70. 1 1 as it appears at A^S. vi. 3. i ; cf. further RV. 
X. 21, 24, 25 J. |_I suspect that these interpolations were used as antiphonal responses. J 

The hymn is used once in Kauq. (59. 5), among the kdmya rites, or those intended 
to secure the attainment of various desires; it is addressed to Indra, by one desiring 
strength (baiakdma). In Vait. (16. 11), it (not vs. i only, according to the comni.) 
accompanies an oblation to Soma in the agttistotna sacrifice, and again (25. 14) a soda- 
^igra/ia. And the comm. quotes it from Naks. Kalpa 17 and 18, in a fna/td^dnti to 
Indra. None of these uses has about it anything special or characteristic. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 143; Griffith, i.46. — Verses 5-7 discussed, Lanman*s 
Reader^ p. 360-1. 

I. O India, enjoy thou — drive on ; — come, O hero — with thy two 
bays ; — drink of the pressed [soma] — intoxicated here — loving the 
sweet [draught], fair one, unto intoxication. 

Ppp. omits the three interpolations (as Weber reports certain Sutra-works to assert 
of the Atharvan texts in general), and reads iudra jusasva ydhi fiira pibd stita^ ^a 
madho^ cakdua cdrum vtadathah. The second interpolation in A^S. is hail iha^ 
apparently to be read as harl ^ha^ for which then SV. and (^(^S. give the senseless 
hdriha. The third, in all the three other texts, is tnatir nd (*like a wise one'?) ; the 
translation above implies the heroic (or desperate) emendation of mai^r ihd to matt A 
ihd (to be read tnattd */id) ; Weber conjectures vtdder ha. AQS. and ^'(^^S. have the 
older madhvas for inadhos. The comm. has no notion of the peculiar structure of 
these verses : as, indeed, he has no phraseology in his vocabulary to suit such a case ; 
he explains mates first as inananfyasya^ then as medhdvinas ; and cakdnas as either 
tarpayan or stuyamdnas. The Anukr. implies that the second half-verse scans as 
8 + 1 1 syllables, instead of 9 -f i o. 


2. O Incira, [thy] belly — like one to be praised — fill thou with the 
sweet [(lraii(;hi] — like the heavens — with this soma — like the sky 
{suit) — ; unto thee have gone the wellvoiccd intoxications. 

1 he omission of this verse in l*pp. is perhaps only an accidental one, due to the 
tcril>e. The first interpolation in the other texts is nHiyaw nti ; to get a lense, Weber 
botflly ememls to n*Uyam ua * like [the hold] of a vessel*; the comm. explaini by 
ntlttttttu {ttnen*\ *\itttt1ti^aya ukiah /), t.ikin^ no heed of the accent — which, however, 
requires to l)c changed to ntfiytis, whichever sense l>e given it ; perhaps nadj^ md * like 
streams* would l>e most acceptable. In the third inter|>olation« SV. combines rf^r hJ 
and A(,"S. WS. ji'J/ »*! ; and the mss. vary between the two; our edition reads the 
former, with the majority of our ; SVV. has the latter, with the majority of his; one 
or t\\o of ours corrupt to svt\r ntd *pa. The three other texts have at the end astkms. 
The comin. takes tf/iuh .is i;cn , supplying a mr ft nit to govern it ; and he takes svdr as 
of locative value. The Anukr. scans the verse as 84 8:8+ 10 = 34 syllables. 

3. Indra, a swiftly-overcoming friend, who slew Vritra — like moving 
[streams] — , [who] split Vala — like Hhrgu — , who overpowered his foes 
in the intoxication of soma. 

The translation follows closely our text, though this, as the other versions show, ts 
badly corrupted in a, b, even to the partial effacement of the first interpolation. The 
others read accordantly : intiras /NnUiin Mt/rJ mi jag/iina vrtnint ydttr md ; owi ymtir 
may possibly l>e meant (or yd ft h 'as he did the Yatis.* The comm. explains /«/// first 
as dstifj-itA prajdh^ then as parii'tiljakdh. Ppp. agrees with the other texts, only 
omitting the interpolations: tHtitits fttrAuhi jat^hAna vrfram; it then omits the third 
pAda, and goes on thus: sasA/id (ttfrtift mamu^ ca : vajrlr matU somasym. AU the 
AV. mss. read sasnhf^ unaccented, and .SIT. admits this into his text; our cditkm 
makes the necessary emendation to stisa/i/\\v\ some copies (and so the /if«^j I'ft^ 
rmm) ; in others the accent-mark has slipped to the right J ; the other texts rectify the meter 
by reading sasAk/ (our C). agrees with them as regards the <f ). Words of verses 2 and 
3 are quoted in the PrAt. comment, but not in a way to cast any light upon the 
readings. |_SPP., with most of his authorities and our Op., reads faldm.^ The metrical 
definition of the Anukr. is of course senseless; it apparently implies the divtsioo 
9-f7:8+ 10:= 34 syllables. 

4. Let the pressed [somas] enter thee, O Indra ; fill thy (two) paunches ; 
help, O mighty one ! for our prayer (tihi) come to us ; hear [my] call, 
enjoy my songs; hither, O Indra, with self-harnessed [steeds] ; revel 
here unto great joy. 

This veise is really, as AC^^S. plainly shows, made up of two like the preceding three« 
of five five syllabled piidas each, but without interpolations. The first hall-verse is 
vs. 5 in A(,'S., where it reads thus: d fvtl vt^anfn Jtavir fta sufdsa indrtt txmsfJI mm: 
prnmiXHt luksl som0 mJ *r*i*ihifMi ^Ara dhtyd kiydnak. Of the two versions of the last 
pSda, that of A^S. is doubtless the original, though ours (the pmda has dhiyi i iki i 
mak) is ingenious enough to give a fair sense ; the reading dkiyihi is authenticated by the 
PrAt comment, which quotes it more than once (to iii. 38 ; iv. 113-115). The 
lation implies the restoration of ax'uUhi^ as the only true reading (^namely, an 
imperati\e from av — see Skf urjw.' § 908 J ; the mss. all read vidAdA/, which SPP't 


edition as well as ours properly emends to viddhL ^My copy of the printed text reads 
viffhdhi; but Whitney's Index Verborum and his Roots^ Verb-forms, etc. have viddhi, 
under vis.\ The comm. reads vrddhi, explaining it by vardhaya! The second half- 
verse is rather more altered in its AV. version ; in A(^S. (as vs. 4), with the interpo- 
lations, it runs thus : qrudhl havatii na indro na giro jusasva vajrl na : indra sayttg- 
bhir didyun na maisvd tnaddya make randya. Ppp. has only this half-verse (without 
the interpolations), reading thus : (ru/i hava me kiro jusasya indrasya gubhir maisa 
maddya make raiidya. The Anukr. would doubtless have us divide 10 + 13 : 10 + 13 
= 46 syllables. LAs to vidhdhi, see notes to Prat. i. 94. Accent of mdtsva. Gram, 

We may conjecture that the hymn originally ended here, as one of five verses ; the 
appended three verses that follow are of a wholly other character. A^S. adds one 
more verse, which is RV. i. 70. 11, with similar interpolations after each of its four 
five-syllabled padas. 

5. Now will I proclaim the heroisms of Indra, which first he of the 

thunderbolt {vajrin) did ; he slew the dragon {dhi) ; he penetrated to 

the waters; he split [forthj the bellies {vaksdnd) of the mountains. 

Verses 5-7 are RV. i. 32. 1-3; and found also in TB. (ii. 5.4'*); vss. 5 and 6 
further in MS. iv. 14. 13, and vs. 5 in SV. (i. 613) : in these texts without any variant 
from the RV. reading ; they all have in 5 a prd^ and put vfryhni before it. Ppp. also 
offers no variants from our text. SPP. reads fira in a, with all the mss. Lexcept our O.J, 
and our text should have done the same. The comm. renders dntt in c by tadanan- 
tar am, and tatarda by jihiiisa / also vaksdnds in d by nadyas, 

6. He slew the dragon that had resorted (pV) to the mountain ; Tvash- 
tar fashioned for him the whizzing (.^) thunderbolt ; like lowing kine, 
flowing (syand), at once the waters went down to the ocean. 

The text is precisely the same as in the other passages. The comm. explains svaryA 
as susthu preranlya (from su + root f ), and tataksa as tlksnam cakdra / 

7. Acting like a bull, he chose the soma ; he drank of the pressed 
[draught] in the trikadrukas ; the bounteous one {viaghdvan) took his 
missile thunderbolt ; he slew that first-born of dragons. 

RV. (and TB.) combines in a -no 'vrnfia^ and some of the mss. (including our O.) 
do the same. The comm. understands the trikadrukas as the three abhiplava days. 
[For d, rather, * smote him, the first-born of dragons.' The difference is, to be sure, 
only a rhetorical one. J 

In the first anuifdka, ending here, are included 5 hymns, of 29 verses; the old 
Anukr. says : pailcarcddye (i.e. * in the first division of the 5-versc book ') viii^atch syur 
navo **rd/ivam, 

6. Praise and prayer to Agni. 

[(dunaka {sam/atkdmak). — dgneyam. trdistubham : 4. ^-p. drsi pajikti ; 

J. virdtprastdrapankii.'\ 

Found in Paipp. iii.; also in VS. (xxvii. i, 2, 3, 5, 6), TS. (iv. i. 7), and MS.(ii. 12. 5). 
Used by Kaug., with vii. 82, in a kdmya rite for success {sampad, 59. 1 5) ; and also, in 


the rh.iptcr of |)ortrnt^, .nlonr, in one ai^ainM bad ycam (lawtlt). VAit has tt in the 
agnuavittttt (crrmony (2H. 4), at the l>r|^nnin^, and a little later (3A. 10) vt. 3 alone, on 
dr|M»5itiiis the lump of earth on a lotii^-leaf. The coinm. quotes it from the Nak«. K. 
(17 ami |H), in a fntthA^Antt cilled tlt^iryt ; and, from Pari^iMa 7. 3, vs. $ (with vii. 3^). 
in a nightly rite. [^Ohscrve (nf>te to vs. 3) that I'pp. agrees with the Y a jut texts and 
Kiku<; in As%4HiatinK our vii. 82 with this hymn. J 
IransUtcd: Welier, xiii. 146 ; (•riflfith, i. 48. 

1. Let the summers (j/iwJ), O Agni» the seasons increase Ihcc, the 
years, the srers, what things arc true; shine thou with the heavenly 
bright space (tvi'ti9ui)\ illuminate (t^b/u}) all the four directions. 

TS. rr.-ifU at the end prthtvyis (for aitaspas). Tpp- has for h tdtrnvattara rtayi* 
yA HH sttk/iy*}, .iml in c f;ives i/inwtirtitt for i/ivv/n^t. The comm. glosses samds liy 
sawi'tt/Siiftit. I^If the translation implies that rtuattnta is an instr. of accompaniment, 
it is Irss .ip|>osite than Nfr. Whitney*s earlier version, * shine together with heavenly 
brightness* — which I take to l>e Agni's own (cf. KV. x. 4. 2). His brightness is nil 
by day-time. The ••together" were l)elter left out. J 

2. Itoth do thou t>ecome kindled, Agni, and do thou increase this 
man, and arise unto great good fortune ; let not thine attendants (ufa- 
sattdf) be harmed, U Agni ; be thy worshipers (brahmdn) glorious, not 

The other texts are in accordance in reading htuihaya (for x'anikaya) in a, and Ppp. 
nearly agrees with them, having /f<i/i hodhayt *Ham; for c the others give mi <s risaJ 

3. Thee. C) Agni, do these Ikahmans choose ; be propitious to us, O 
Agni, in the [f^acrificial] enclosure (? j^wtv/r#r/i<i) ; rival-slayer, Agni« 
conqueror of ho.stile plotters, he thou ; watch unremitting over thine own 

NfS. has the same text; the two others give a slightly different c: saf^ainaki m^ 
ahhimAtijii nt. Tpp- has for b f/;v» ^n/ pfdbhrm0 unithi^ and for d tve k%a iihiiky 
apuiyuJiitn: it then inserts, l>cfore vs. 4, our vii. 82. 3 ; and it is very noteworthy that 
the tliree Yajus texts do the same. I'he comm. renders samvafani bkat*m by viJjrsmA- 
fiasyil *// pntw*}*/iity*i sitththAifttnf vttthtsvtt * hide any oversight of ours.* The 
Anukr. pa%%rA uithout notice the t^oyif^M// pAd as in the verse. 

4. Take hold of thine own dominion (Isa/ni), Agni; with [thy] friend, 
Agni, strive (jvr/) in friendly wise; [as one] of midmost station among 
(his) fellows (Sit/tt/ti), [as one] to be severally invoked of kings, Agni, 
shine thou here. 

\'S. IS. rrad i:,Utts for it/mr in a, anfl all the three parallel texts have mitra^kir€ 
(for •<///./) in t), while Ppp. gives mttfaMteyttw^ and the comm. -HhAt, In c VS. TS. 
fill out tiie meter l»y addini; tiihi after -sthA ; MS. has instead sth^yAya^ I*IV« ^ftktks 
«r«fi|«). rpp. -dv) has ;<r««rr;«r at end of b. The three other texts accent vikavyJki in 4. 
The comm. joins fAjfktkm to what precedes, and sagely points out that UrAhmam art 


Agni's * fellows * because, like him, born from the mouth of Brahman, and hence that 
sajdia here means Brahmans. The metrical definition of the verse (ii + ii:8+ii 
= 41) is wholly artificial and bad. 

5. Over enviers, over delinquents, over the thoughtless, over haters, — 
verily all difficult things, O Agni, do thou cross ; then mayest thou give 
us wealth accompanied with heroes. 

The translation implies emendation of the impossible nihds to niddsj the comm. 
shows his usual perverse ingenuity by giving two different etymologies of nihasy from 
ni + han and from ni + hd; neither of them is worse than the other. The three 
parallel texts all have nfhas, Ppp. nuhas. Both editions read sfdhasy but it is only a 
common error of the mss., putting r for ri\ nearly half of SPP's mss. (though none of 
ours) have the true reading sridhaSy which is that also of VS. and TS. (MS. sfdhas). 
In c, all the fiada-mss. present the absurd reading vt^vdh; and nearly all the mss. 
leave tara unaccented, in spite of hty and both printed texts leave it so, although three 
of SPP's mss. have correctly iAra^ as also MS.; VS. and TS. give sdhasva for tara 
tvatfty and Ppp. has cara tvam. For a, b, Ppp. has ati nuho 'ti ninrtlr aty ariitfr 
ati dvisah; for b, VS. TS. *ty dcittim dty drdtim agne^ and MS. dty dcittim dti nirrtim 
adyd. The comm. explains sridhas by deha^osakdn rogdn. In the metrical definition 
of the verse, firastdra- must be a bad reading for dsidra-, 

7. Against curses and cursers: with a plant. 

[Atharvaft. — bhdisajydyttrvanaspatidclivatyam. dnustitbham : r. bhurij ; ^.virdii- 

uparistndbrhaiJ. ] 

Not found in Paipp. Used with other hymns (ii. 25 ; vi. 85, etc.) in a healing rite 
• (Kaug. 26.33-35) ^o** various evils, and accompanying especially (ib. 35) the binding 
on of an amulet. And the comm. reports the hymn as employed by Naks. Kalpa (17, 19) 
in a mahdi^dnti called bhdrgavl. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 148; Ludwig, p. 508; Grill, 24,81 ; Griffith, i. 49; Bloom- 
field, 91, 2S5. 

1. Hated by mischief, god-born, the curse-efFacing plant hath washed 
away from me all curses, as waters do filth. 

A p. (vi. 20. 2) has a verse much like this : atharvyustd devajntd vfdu ^apathajam- 
hhatifh : dpo malam iva fird *nijann astnat su (^apathdh adhu The comm. explains 
-yopanl in c Ldiscussed by Bloom field, A J P. xii.42ij as vimohanl nivdrayitrl. The 
comm. states dftrvd (^panicum dactylon) to be the plant intended, and the Anukr. also 
says durvdm astdnt. In our edition read in d mdchapd- (an accent-sign slipped out of 
place). The Anukr. refuses this time to sanction the not infrequent contraction mdlam 
*va in c. 

2. Both the curse that is a rival's, and the curse that is a sister's, what 
a priest {} brahvidn) from fury may curse — all that [be] underneath 
our feet. 

Sdpatnd perhaps here * of a fellow wife,' ^nd jdmyas perhaps * of a near female rela- 
tive ' ; the comm. explains yj///i as "sister, but connoting one's fellows (sa/tajd/a)." 


3. From the sky [is] the root stretched down, from ofF the earth 
stretched up; with this, thousand-jointed (kdnda), do thou protect us 
about on all sides. 

Compare xix. 32. 3, where tiarbhagx^ta^ is the pUnt timtlarly described mud used. 

4. Protect me about, my progeny, [and] what riches are ours ; let not 
the niggard get the belter (tr) of us; let not hostile plotters get the better 
of us. 

Our text reads at the beginning ^Irt *mim^ with the majority of our mss. (only P.p.m. 
W.K.Kp. are noted as not doing so) ; but pdri mdm, which SFP. gives, and which all 
his autliorities, as reported by him, sup(>ort, is doubtless better, and the translation 
follows it. Two of our mss. (U.K.), with one of SPP's, give anllir tta m- in c The 
irregular meter of the verse (8 + 8 : 7 + 10 = 33) is very ill described by the Anulcr. 
I^The avasilna of c is put after tiirtt ; but the accent of Idristis marlis that as the initial 
of d. KV. ix. 114. 4 suggests that our c is in disorder. J 

5. Let the curse go to the curser ; our [|>art] is along with him that is 

friendly (su/ttirj) ; of the eye-conjurer {mdntra), the unfriendly, we crush 

in the ribs {frs(i). 

Nearly all our mss. (except P.M.K.), and part of SPT's, read in b SMkii ; many 
also have in d f^rsfhis^ l)ut the distinction of st and sth is not clearly made in any of 
the mss. The comm. takes ittlsHs and manlrasya in c as two independent words. 
LSee (iriflith's note, and mine to xix, 45. 2. J 

8. Against the disease ksetriyi: with a plant. 

4. t'trdj ; J. nnrtf^thyA/^aHktt,\ 

Verse 1 occurs in PAipp. i. It is reckoned (Kftu^. 26. 1, note) to the iakmanS^nHa 
gftnttf Afid is used in a healing ceremony (against kHli}j;atakMSfkakjaya^aksnjrdJir0gJlj, 
comm.), accompanying various practices u|)on the diseased person, which aie evidently 
rather adapted to the words of the text than represented by them (26.41-27.4), and, 
according to the comm., are rather alternative than to be ))erformed successively. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 149; Ludwig, p. 513; Grinfilh, i. 50 ; Bloomfiekl, 13,386. 

1. Arisen arc the (two) blessed stars called the Unfasteners {vurt) ; let 
them unfasten {rifn/tc) of the ksctriyd the lowest, the highest fetter. 

The disease Jtsr/riyi (lit*l> , • c>f the field *) is treated elsewhere, especially in iiL 7 
(mentioned also in ii. 10 ; 14. 5 ; iv. 18. 7). The comm. defines it here as kseln farm- 
ksetre putrttfH\MtrAdi{arfre likitsyah (quoting for this interpretation rAn. v. 2. 92) 
ksti\tittisthAt/itii*uttit}sititpitrtni}tf i}tft\ttrlp i)- tiyavfbhyit At^ntitk ksayakHsfhikpasm^rA- 
iiitoi^ith — .ipp.irently an infectious disorder, of various forms, ap|)caring in a whole 
family, or fKrrhaps endemic. The name vurtAu • the two unfasteners * is given later to 
the two stars in the sting of the Scorpion (X and » Scorpionis: %c^ St^rya-SidUkSmia^ 
note to viii. o>. and there seems no good reason to doubt that they are the ones here 
intended ; the selection of tuo so inconspicuous is not any more strange than the appeal 
to st.irs at all; the comm. identifies tliem with Mula, which is the astertsm composed 
of the Scorpion's tail. The verse is nearly identical with iii. 7. 4, and its first half Is vt. 


121. 3 a, b. Ppp. has for c, d suksetriyasya muhcatim samgranthya hrdayasya ca, 
L" Their [the two stars'] healing virtue would doubtless be connected with the meteoro- 
logical conditions of the time at which their heliacal rising takes place." — Surya- 
siddhdnta^ I.e., p. 337- J 

2. Let this night fade away {apa-vas); let the bewitchers (f., abhikft- 
van) fade away ; let the ksetriyd-^^2.QAiig (-fid(ana) plant fade the ksetriyd 

The night at time of dawn is meant, says the comm. (doubUess correctly). He 
gives two renderings of abhikrtvarls : one, from root kr^ abhito roga^dniith kut-vdnah^ 
the other from kri * cut,' kartana^Udh piqdcyah. According to Kaug. the hymn accom- 
panies a dousing with prepared water outside the house (J bahis) ; with this verse it is 
to be done at the end of the night. • 

3. With the straw of the brown, whitish-jointed barley for thee, with 

the sesame-stalk {} -pif\ji) of sesame, let the ksetriyd-cRdicing etc. etc. 

The comm. understands arjuna- in a as a tree so named: "with a splinter of if ; 
tilapifijSis to him tilasahitaviahjarl. With this verse " what is mentioned in the text" 
is directed by Kau^. (26. 43) to be bound on, and also (so the comm. understands the 
connection) a clod of earth and stuff from an ant-hill etc. 

4. Homage to thy ploughs (Idhgald)^ homage to thy poles-and-yokes : 
let the ksetriyd'^ii^zxng etc. etc. 

Comm. makes Idngala = vrsabhayuktaslra : " homage to the specified parts of the 
plough or to the divinities of them." With this verse, he says, the sick person is put 
underneath an ox-harnessed plough for his dousing (Kau^. ** with his head under a 
plough-yoke "). Some allusion to the name of the disease as coming from ** field " is 
perhaps intended. The Anukr. strangely forbids the resolution -bhi-as in a and b. 

5. Homage to them of constantly falling eyes, homage to them of the 
same region ( ? samdcqyd)^ homage to the lord of the field : let the ksctriyd- 
effacing etc. etc. 

With this verse, according to Kaug. (27. 2-4) the patient is put in an empty house 
{^iinya^dld)^ and further in an old hole {jaratkhdtd) that has housegrass {^dldtrnd) in 
it, and is there doused and mouth-rinsed. In accordance with this, the comm. declares 
sanisrasdksas to signify " empty houses," as having their round windows (gavdksa) 
and other openings in a state of dilapidation. He reads in b samde^ebhyas^ making it 
mean " old holes " i^jaradgartd)^ because samdiqyante tyajyante tadgatamrddddnena 
— which is hardly intelligible ; and both words are of obscure meaning. In a charm 
against all sorts of hurtful beings, Ppp. (vi.3.4) reads as follows: abhihastath sari- 
srpam bhrastdksam virdvangulim^ and ddsagranihyam sdnisrasam ud ranye dait^d- 
rusyath tdm. In this verse again, -bhyas in b is read as one syllable by the Anukr. 
LSPP. divides the verse after samde^y^bhyah with most of his mss. ; but three of them 
make avasdna after pdtaye. Comm. and all five translators take sani- as a p>ossessive 
compound {sanisrasd -f aksdti) : accent, Gram.^ § 1298. b, end. J 


9. Against possession by demons: with an amulet. 

Found in I'iktpp. ii. (in the verse order I, 5, 4, 2, 3). Reckoned, like the neit pre- 
ceding and the nrxt following; hymn, to the /aJtmand^ana gafta (K4u^. 26.1, note), 
and made (27. 5,6) to accompany the binding on of an amulet com|K>ief1 of splinters 
(from ten different trees: the comm.), being muttered by ten friends who lay hands on 
the patient. 

Translated : \Ve)>er, xiii. 153; Ludwig, p. 506 ; Grill, 8, 82 ; Griffith, 1. 51 ; Illoofn- 
field, 34, 290. — Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Mattuil, p. 137. 

1. O thou of ten trees, this man from the demon, from the 
seizure (grd/ti) that hath scizeil him in the joints ; then, O forest tree, eon- 
duct him up to the world of the livinfj. 

The first half-verse is quite different in Tpp. : tfa^avrkso jam cf 'mam akinsr^ grM- 
A/iff fa. The comm. takes pafvan in b as either the /oints of the body or those of 
the month, new and full moon. 1 he Anukr. scans the verse as to -f 12 : 8 -f 8 ts 38, 
making the first pAdadivision after ratuttas (and the /tf/Zn-mss. so mark it); but it is 
rather a regular f^afikti, with the easy resolution muflca imam in a. 

2. This man hath come, hath arisen, hath gone unto the troop (vr^/tt) 
of the livinj; ; he hath become of sons the father and of men (nr) the 
most fortunate. 

rpp. has in c abhttftt (for ith/itiJ m)^ and in d MfMtif/t. |_rronounre <f aj^dt/.j 

3. lie hath attained (nti/tij^ti) attainments; he hath attained {fldhi- 
gaw) the strongholds (ftini) of the living; for a hundred healers arc his, 
also a thousand plants. 

The * attainments * (at/hfti ), according to the comm^ are the Ve<las aiMl objects 
formerly learne<l {aMlia), and now, by restored health, recovere<l to memory. I*pp. 
reads instead aiihltttm in •, an<l put A *^*lt in b ; and its c, 4 are {ttiam // *ijra virta^Aa 
sakasram Mia bhesajah, Kmendation to bhfsajA in our c would improve both sense and 
meter. The comm. here, as in sundry otiirr places, derives x^lrttJk from X'i + rmdk^ 00 
the ground that they virHHtikanti vinA{ayanti po^An, 

y^^^* 4. The go<ls have found thy gathering (} cUi), the priests {bmhmdm) 

)H^^' ^^ '^^^anTTthe plants; all the gmis have found thy gathering upon the earth. 

-^ ^7 In a, our Up. has rittm, and Op. <UAm (l>oth tUim in c) ; Tpp. reads lAlam in both 

/f / A and c ; either word is elsewhere unknown. 1 he comm. derives €lti either from the 


. ^ false root ilv * take, cover,' or from < // • ol>serve.* and falnicates his alternative explaiia- 

I ^^ t tions accordingly. If it comes from n\ there is hardly another example of a like forma- 

^"^ tion. rpp. has for a (J/am tt <irt*Jt 'x'ltfam ; and, in c, d, tdiam Ubkjra /» m4m mvidsm 

5. Whoso made, he shall unmake; he verily is best of healers; he 
himself, clean, shall make for thee remedies, with the healer. 

The application of the pronouns here is more or less questionable. Ppp. reads sm 


for sa in a, and has a more intelligible second half-verse : sa eva lubhyam bhcsajam 
cakdra bhisajdti ca ; our bhisdjd in d is probably to be emended to -jdm \j the clean one 
of the healers * ?J. The comm. understands sa at the beginning either as " the great 
sage Atharvan " or as the creator of the universe ; and niskarat as grahavikdrasya 
^amanam or niskrtim karotu, Weber renders the latter " shall put it to rights." 

10. For release from evils, and for welfare. 

[Bhrgvafijs^iras. — astarcam, nirrtidydvdprthivyddindnddevatyam. r. iristubh ; 2. 7P'(tsti; 
3~S* 7» ^' 7'P' d^Z^^ i ^' 7'P' <»(y«//' {fvd 'ham tvdm iti dvdv dusnihdu pdddu).] 

Found in Paipp. ii. (with vs. 8 preceding 6 and 7, and the refrain added only to vs. 8). 
The hymn occurs further in TB. (ii. 5.6 '*), and parts of it in HGS. (ii. 3. 10; 4. i). 
LAnd its original structure is doubtless clearly reflected by the MP. at ii. 12.6,7,8,9, 
10. Cf. note to our verse 2. J It is, like the two next preceding, reckoned (Kau^. 26. i, 
note) to the takmand^ana gana^ and it is employed (27. 7) in a healing ceremony, per- 
formed at a cross-roads, while chips of kdmpila are bound on the joints of the patient, 
and they or he are wetted with bunches of grass. According to the comm., the rite is 
intended against kseiriya simply. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 156 ; Ludwig, p. 513 ; Griffith, i. 52 ; Bloomfield, 14, 292. 

1. From ksetriydf from perdition, from imprecation of sisters {Jdmi')y 
from hatred (dnih) do I release thee, from Varuna's fetter; free from 
guilt {'dgas) I make thee by [my] incantation ; be heaven-and-earth both 
propitious to thee. 

TB. HGS. have for a only ksetriydi tvd nintydi ivdy in c brdhtnane and karomi^ 
and in d imi instead of stdm, Ppp. has at the end -thivl *ha bhiitdm, 

2, Weal to thee be Agni, together with the waters ; weal [be] 

Soma, together with the herbs : so from ksetriydi from perdition, 

etc. etc. 

The repetition (with €vd *ham prefixed) of the whole first verse as refrain for the 
following verses is not made by TB. and HGS. except after our vs. 8, and there only to 
pa^dt; and in Ppp. it forms (complete) a part only of the same verse 8 (though this 
stands before our vs. 6). Its omission from vss. 2-7, and their combination into three 
whole 4-pada verses [^and the omission of padas e and f from vs. 8J, would reduce the 
hymn to the norm of the second book, and is recommended not only by that circum- 
stance, but by the Lwording in vss. 2-3, the construction in vss. 4-5, the concurrent 
testimony of TB. and MP., and also of HGS. so far as it goes, and by the J plain 
requirements of the sense also. LCf. the analogous state of things in iii. 31 and the 
note to iii. 31. i i.J For a, b TB. HGS. substitute ^dm te agnih sahi ^dbhir astu ^dm 
dyavdprihivi sahdu ^sadhlbhih ; and Ppp. differs from them by having dhfbhis instead 
of adb/iis^ and gdvas for dy . , . vl (also saho ^sa-). The comm. reads tvd for tvdm 
in vss. 2-7 at the beginning of the refrain. This refrain is scanned by the Anukr. as 
7 + 7 + 11:11 4- II =47; and the addition in vs. 2 of 9 + 8 makes 64 syllables, a true 
(tsfi; but the other verses it is not possible to make agree precisely, in an)' natural way, 
with the metrical definitions given ; 3-7 are of 69 syllables, 8 of 7 1 . LBy beginning padas 
a and b with ^dfh tubhyam^ and pronouncing both sa/td's with hiatus, and combining 
2 ab with 3 ab, we get a perfectly regular tris/ub/i.] 

ii. lO- nooK II. THE ATHARVA-Vi:i)A-SAMHITA. 52 

3. Weal to thcc may the wind In the atmosphere bestow (dhd) vig:or ; 
weal to thee be the four directions : so from ksctriyd, etc. etc. 

TH. H(iS. liAvc for a {*\m ttfitAnkuim sahA vitfua // ; Ppp. <liffcrii by rcAflinj; 
sakitvt^tttm tts/M It : the t%vo form<*r, in b, put hhttiutniu List. The comm. has in a |^ff)r 
xuiyo ii/u}t\X\\c l>ettrr rcidinj;; vttytuilttls, but he makes it mean ** sustainer of birds**? 
1^* Weal tf» thcr [l>r] the wind in the atmosphere, the vis»or-l)rstower.*J 

4. These four heavenly (dcvd) directions, having the wind as lord, 
upon which the sun looks out — so from kutriyd^ etc. etc. 

TH. H<iS. (4. I) have for « »#f liMvf^ dUaxrah frmif^ak; Ppp- «l»o omitt itnit, 
and combines iirvls pta., coml)inin;;; the pAda immediately with our 3 b. HGS. makes 
one verse uf our 4 a, b and $ a, b. and puts it in 4, alter all the rest 

5. Within them I set thcc in old a;;c ; let the j'rf/'/wtf, let perdition 
go forth far away : so from ksttriya^ etc. etc. 

I*pp. hns at the Ivef^innini; tt^%v f \i*tth ptrasa J/ TB. IIC#S. ^ive idiJtm ix*4 jmrdsa 
4 ; l>oth the latter read in b nhfimt. 

6. Thou hast been released from ydlsm,!, from diflficulty (tiitritti), from 
reproach (/i;vi*/iv/) ; from the feller of halted and from seizure hast thou 
been released : so from Isiiriyd, etc. etc. 

Ppp. has IxUh times ttntoii for amukthAs, TB. likewise, and also, in a. b «f ivf rjTi fl/ 
drnhAk pA^Am ntrrtyM (6 \i am-. IU*.S. has neither this verse nor the oeit; that 
Ppp. puts our vs. 8 l>e(ore it noticed al)ove. I'he comm. explains aviufyMi by 
jAmyAdyitbhi^ansanaftipiiH nintianAt. |_T1V, in comm. to Calc. cd., ami in I'oona etl-. 
has in*<ff/rili J 

7. Thou hast left niggardy, hast found what is pleasant ; thou hast 
come to be in the excellent world of what is well done : .so from Jtsr/nui, 
etc. etc. 

Neatly all the stiw/it/Jmss, omit the final visarga of tirn/ttA before syonAm. The 
comm. reads ahhui in b; TB. does the same, and, correspondin/^ly, Aviiiat in a. with 
dvmrtiM (l»etter \j.i, iv. 34. 3 ; x. 2. 10 J) for ArMim, The comment to Trlt. ii. 46 quotes 
mkAs in this verse as not «r^}r, i.e. as from ^1, not hr. 

8. The f^rnls, releasing from the seizure of darkness the sun whom it 
had befallen, let him loose from sin (Mas) : so from kscinyd, etc. etc. 

It was noticed al>ove that the other texts add the refrain (TH. II(*S. I.MP.J otUy to 
/«ff«l/) only to this verse, where ah>ne it is in place. Tpp.«l for aifki at end 
of a, and the other texts i<//,- b in I'pp. is thvA mMliiam/m atrjttn partlatak ; in the 
other texts thvA timttfiainn Aifjan vylnttiah, 

I^Kor f/.iw. cf. ftvi, iv.40. 1. Most of .srp*s mss. and our M.I. II. O.K. read 
Hir /nattth. For /i»iif, W's first dr.i(t has 'evil,* which is Ixrtter. See I^nman. /ViA 
gruts an A*.'M, pp. 187-100. — If, with the other texts, we drop e, f and omit nirttrA$ 
from c. ^^e get a perfect meter. 12 f 12 : 1 1 4 11. The other texts spoil Che refrain by 
l>eginninK ex- Am it A Am imAm.j 

The itnrt: Alit \^2 J a|;ain $ hymns, with 2S verses; the quotation is as/a JtttryJj 


II. To counteract witchcraft: with an amulet. 

[(^tikra. — krtydpratiharanasuktam ; kriyddusamidevatyam, i. 4'p.virddgdyatri ; 

2-j. J-/, parosnih (4. pipllikamadhyd fticrf).] 

LThe hymn is not metrical.J Not found in Paipp., nor elsewhere. Reckoned as 
first of the krtyiipratiharana (* counteraction of witchcraft ') ^<i///i (Kauq. 39. 7 and 
note) ; used in a charm for protection against witchcraft (39. i), with binding-on of a 
sraktya amulet; and again later (39. 13 ; the comm. says, only vs. i), in a similar rite. 
The comm. quotes it further from Naks. K. (17, 19), in a mahd^dnii called bdrhaspail. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 163 ; Griffith, i. 54. — Discussed by Bloomfield, AJP. vii. 
477 ff., or JAOS. xiii., p. cxxxii (= PAOS. Oct. 1886). 

1. Spoiler's spoiler {dusi) art thou; missile's missile (lieti) art thou; 

weapon's weapon {ineni) art thou : attain (ap) the better one, step beyond 

the equal (samd). 

The body of the verse is addressed to the amulet ; the refrain more probably to its 
wearer (so, too, Weber) ; but the comm. assigns the latter also to the amulet, and 
quotes to show it TS. ii. 4. i*, which rather supports the contrary opinion. He calls 
w<r;// a vajrandman^ deriving it from root vil * damage.* LSee Geldner's discussion of 
tneniQ hurt done to another in vengeful anger *), Festgruss an Bohilingk, p. 31, 3 2. J 

2. Sraktyct art thou ; re-entrant {pratisard) art thou ; count er-conjur- nulyhf V^. 
ing art thou : attain the etc. etc. *- ol/yiCiA/OsT^ • f)^l ^^ ' 

The comm. says that srakti is the tiiaka-ivtQ^ and sraktya means made from it; 
pratisara is something by which sorceries are turned back (upon their performer); it 
seems to mean virtually a circular amulet — Lsuch as a bracelet? Y ox re-entrant^ Whit- ^ 

ney has interlined revertcnt (jic)^ better, perhaps, reverting^ trans, or intrans.J. //^ff* ^ ^''*'^^^*'^ ^**7A^ 

3. Conjure (abhi-car) against him who hates us, whom we hate : attain 
the etc. etc. 

4. Patron {suH) art thou ; splendor-bestowing art thou; body-protect- 
ing art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

The comm., without explaining why, glosses suri with abhijha ♦ knowing.* 

5. Bright {fukrd) art thou; shining (b/irdjd) Turt thou; heaven {svAr) 
art thou ; light art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

The comm. thinks svdr to be jvarddirogotpddanena tdpakah^ or else " the common 
name of sky and sun.*' 

The Anukr. scans vs. i as 6 + 6 + 6 : 1 2 = 30, and the other verses as 8 + 8 : 1 2 =28, 
excepting vs. 4, which is 9 -♦- 6 : 12 = 27 (restoring the a of asi in b). 

12. [Against such as would thwart my incantations. J 

[B/iaradvdja. — astarcam, ndnddewityam , traistubham : 2. jagatl ; y^ S. anustubh.^ 

Found in Paipp. ii., but in the verse-order 1,3,2,4-6,8,7. The hymn is called by 
Kaug. (47. 12) bharadvdjapravraskatn * Dharadvnja's hewer-off * L or * cleaver * J (from 
expressions in the verses), and is to accompany the cutting of a staff for use in rites of 

ii. 12- BOOK II. Tin: ATHARVA-VKDA-SAttlllTA. 54 

witrhrraft (an at 47. 14, 16, 18 ; 48. 22) ; and its ftcvcral vernct are applied throuith an 
extrnttrd incantation (47. 25 57) af^ainst an enemy; the details of it throw no li^ht 
U|Nm thrir intrtprrtatiim. 

'I ran%latr<l : F. Srhla^^intweit, tite ilotteturthetit <irr Indier (Miinchrn. l86/», Ahh 
dfr bayef . /{tad. tier tl'ht ), p. 13 ff.; \Vcl>er, xiii. 164 ; Ludwif^, p. 44$; Zimmer, 
p. 1S3; <;rill, 47. 85; (irifTith. i. 55 ; Hloomficld, JAOS. xiii., p. ccxxi f. (s= I'AOS. 
(Vt 1S87) or Ajr. xi. 334 5; Snr. xUi. 8f>, 2rM- — The first four intrrprete«i it a% 
attompanyini* a firr-orcleal ; but (•rill and lUooinfield have, with Koml reason, taken a 
dtffrrcnt view. 'I he native interpreters know nothin|^ of any connection with an ofdeal, 
nor in this to l>e read into the text without considerable violence. 

1. llcavcn-andcarlh, the wide atmosphere, the mistress of the fiehl, 
the wonderful wide-Roinj; one, and the wide windgtiarded atmosphere -- 
let these be inflamed (A»/.|vi) here while I am inflamed. 

All the /<i//«i niss. rca<l at the en<l tapyAmt^nt itt\ as if the word were a dual fern, or 
neut. : a nu><it gratuitous blunder ; SlT's /«rf/4iitext emends to -me. Ppp. reads in d 
ifSH for iti thti (which is, as in not inftetpient other cases, to \yt contracted to // *A«f / 
the Anukr. at least takes no notit r of the irreculaiity here ; hut it also if^norei the j^g^H 
value of b). The comm. natut.illy explains the ** wide-f^oer ** as Vbhnu; he does not 
attempt to act ount for the mention of **tlie wide atmosphere ** twice in the verse, thouich 
sometimes ^ivin^ himself mu< h tioubic to excuse su< h a re|>etiti<>n. The last pilda he 
paraphrases by **ju^t as I am endeavoring; to <lestroy the hateful one, so may they also 
be injuri-rs of [my] enemy, by not ^i^'i^K '*^'" place and the like**: which is doubtWss 
the general meaning. 

2. Hear this, C) ye pods that are worshipful (}'(ijfli}'ti) \ Hharadvaja 
sings (^niis) hymns {ulf/ni) for me ; let him, lM)und in a feller, be plunged 
(fii'j'ttj) in difTicully who injures this our mind. 

That is, probably, our design or Intent ; the romm. sa\'S (inappropriately) idam ftir- 
Vitr» sattfntUji^,if>ni'rf tf.ttn fn,}ndstiift : i.e. setlufis us tt) evil courses. All the mss. 
chance to a^iee tiiis time in omitlini; the visar;;a of yttjIiiyAk liefore J/4«l in a. Hut 
Tpp. reads th instead (»f r////r. an<I in b ultytlni {atisttttt^ as it often changes -it to •/»/ 
but here the im|>erative (or \Ve!»er*s su;»i;ested ^ttttsnt) would improve the sense. [^Tro- 
nounce tffi'itt}h and reject sthti; the meter is then in order — I2fi2:i2fiij 

3. Hear this, () Indra, soma-drinkcr, as I call loudly to thee with a 
burning (f//r) heart ; I hew (rn/fr) him (down], as a tree with an ax, who 
injures this our mind. 

Or (in b) 'call re|>eate<lly * ; the cimun. sa)'s pumth punak. Ppp. has in c Xf^t^si. 
The ci>mm. paraphrases l'N/t(rn*t with vajrasadr^rna pttra^y/til. |^An orderly trufm^k 
is Rot by addinf^ tvthn after sont*tp*t.\ 

4. With thiice eighty j</w/i/i-singers, with the Adityas, the Vasus, the 
Angirases — let what is sacrificed-and-bcstowed of the Fathers aid us — 
I take yon man with seizure (/idnts) of the gods. 

lit^piittAm in c has probably alrraily the later meanin|( of merit obtained by turh 
sacred atts; the comm. says t*tdubhayaj*tnttam inkflam. Hatat he calls a kr^ks- 
nJImttm. lie understands the * three eighties* of a to be the triplets {iria) tn j^yafri. 


usnih, and brhatly eighty of each, spoken of in AA. i. 4. 3 — simply because they are 
the only such groups that he finds mentioned elsewhere ; the number is probably taken 
indefinitely, as an imposing one. 

5. O heaven-and-earth, attend {a-didhl) ye after me ; O all ye gods, take 
ye hold (a-rabli) after me ; O Angirases, Fathers, soma-feasting (somj'd), 
let the doer of abhorrence (apakdmd) meet with (a-r) evil. 

Ppp. reads in a dfdhyatdm ^cf. Bloomfield, AJP. xvii. 417J, and in ^ fiUfiasdrtccheiv 
afh. The comm. does not recognize dldhl as different from dldJ^ rendering ddjpte 
bhavatatn, \\Ti a, the accent-mark under -vl is missing. J 

6. Whoso, O Maruts, thinks himself above us, or whoso shall revile 
our incantation (brdhman) that is being performed — for him let his wrong- 
doings be burnings (idpns) \ the sky shall concentrate its heat (savt-tap) 
upon the brdhinan-Yi^X^x , 

The verse is RV. vi. 52. 2, with sundry variants. At the beginning, RV. has the 
better reading dti vdj in b, kriydmdnam ninitsdt ; for d, brahmadidsam abhi tdm 
^ocatu dydtih. Fpp. follows RV. in d (but with ^oca for ^ocatu) ; in c it reads vrajandni. 
The comm. renders vrjinani falsely by varjakdni bddhakdni, 

7. Seven breaths, eight marrows : them I hew [off] for thee with [my] 
incantation ; thou shalt go to Yama*s seat, messengered by Agni, made 

The last pada is xviii. 2. i (RV.x. 14. 13) d. All our mss. and about half of SPP's 
have in a majfids (for majjflds) ; yet SPP. adopts in his text the reading manyds^ 
because given by the comm., which explains it artificially as for dhamanyas^ and signi- 
fying *• a sort of vessels situated in the throat " ; no such word appears to be known 
elsewhere in the language, and some of the mss. have in other passages of the text 
manyas for majfids. Our Dp. gives dyd at beginning of c; the word is translated 
above as L^V'^^J* subjunctive of i with doubled subjunctive-sign (sec my Skt. Gram. 
§ 560 e), or of its secondary root-form ay ; the comm. takes it from yd^ which makes 
him no difficulty, since in his view imperfect and imperative are equivalent, and he 
declares it used iox ydhi, Ppp. reads for z yamasya gacha sddanam, \\xi many parts 
of India today y/J and ny are phonetically equivalent. Cf. SPP*s mss. for ix. 5. 23. J 

8. I set thy track in kindled Jatavcdas ; let Agni dispose of Q vis) the 
body ; let speech go unto breath Q dsu). 

The verse is in part obscure ; the comm. sets it in connection with one of the details 
of the Kaug. ceremony : '* I set or throw in the fire the dust from thy track combined 
with chopped leaves : i.e. I roast it in the roaster ; let Agni, through this dust entering 
thy foot, pervade or burn thy whole body " ; he takes dsu as simply equivalent to prdtia^ 
and explains : sarvendriyavyavahdra^unyo bhavaiUy become incapable of acting for 
the senses: i.e. become mere undifferentiated breath — which is perhaps the true mean- 
ing. LQuite otherwise A. Kacgi — citation in Bloomfield, p. 294.J The Anukr. appar- 
ently expects us to resolve a at the beginning into a-a, Ppp. has in a ^ daddmiy and 
for d imam gachatu te vasu. 

The last two verses are so discordant in style and content, as well as in meter, with 


the re«t of the hymn that we can hardly consider them as properly belonf^ng to it 
Their omission, with that o( the l)orrowed RV. verse (our 6), would reduce the hymn to 
the norm of this l>ook. 

13. For welfare and long life of an infant. 

Ver.^e^ 1,4, 5 arc found in TAipp. xv. Though (as \Vcl>er |K>ints out) plainly having 
nothing to do with the goiitlna or tonsure ceremony, its verses are applied by KAu^. to 
parts of that rite. Thus, it accompanies the preparations for it (53. 1) and the wetting 
of the youth's head (53. 13); vm. 2 and 3, the putting of a new garment on him (54. 7); 
\'S. 4, making him stand on .1 stone ($4«^); vs. 5. taking away his old garment (54-9) 
And the comm. quotes vss. 2 and 3 from Tari^i^ta 4. 1 as utteretl by a purohita on handing 
to a king in the morning the garment he is to put on, and vs. 4 from Ibid. 4, as the same 
throws four |)ebbles toward the four directions, and makes the king step upon a fifth. 

Translated : WclMrr, xiii. 171 ; Zimmcr, p. 322 ; IfrifTith. i. 57. 

1. Giving lifc-tiinc, O A^ni, choosing old age; ghcc-frontcd, ghcc- 
backed, O Agni — having drunk the sweet pleasant (olm) ghee of the 
cow, do thou afterward defend (ntls) this [lx>y] as a father his sons. 

The verse occurs also in various VajurA'etIa texts, as VS. (xxxv. 17). TS. (1.3. 14* 
et al). Tl>. (i. 2. 1"), TA. (ii. 5. 1). MS. (iv. 12.4) L*^'** »• 2. 1 J, and in several Sutras, 
as A^S. (ii. 10.4), (,*(«.S. (i. 25), and II(«S. (i. 3. 5), with considerable variations. TS. 
(with which the tcxt5 of *I H.. TA . and A(,\S- agree throughout) has in ti havisa jmsJI- 
frrfj, which is dccide<lly preferable to jatAsitth frmlnAs L, which is apparently a mis- 
placed reminiscence of KV. x. 1S.6 or AV. xii. 2. 24 J; at end of h, gkridremir aikt ; 
and, in d, /«r/r«lw for pntrin. VS. has for a Ayu$mAn ^f^nt kax'isA tnrHkAmdt^ and 
agrees with TS. etc. in b, and also in d. save that it further su)>stitutes imin for imAm. 
MS. reads dtvtt for a^ne in a, and pihaint amham for fttvA fnA^ikn of c j^thus making 
a good Irislttbk patlaj, and ends d with putrdm jarA%t ma e *mAm, Ppp. agrees through- 
out with M.S., except as it emends the lattcr's corrupt reading at the end to jaratt maye 
*mam ; and HGS. correspoiuls with Tpp. save by having i^rml;y<f/ in a. \MV. follows 
IKiS.J (,'(iS. gives in a havisA vrdhAnas, In b agrees with T.S. etc., and has in d 
piii *t'<f putram iha r-. The last p.lda is ja^atf. 

I^The Anukr. counts ii + ii:io-fi2=:44: as if io-fi2 were metrically the same 
as 1 1 -f 1 1 ! or as if the ** extra ** syllaUe in d could offset the de6ctency In c f The 
impossible cadence of c is curable by no less radical means than the adoption of the 
Ppp. reading. All this illustrates so well the wondenness of the methods of the Anukr. 
and its utter lark of sense of rhythm, attention may well l>e calleti to it J 

2. Envelop, put ye him for us with splendor; make ye him one to die 
of old age ; [make] long life ; Hrihaspati furnished {prayam) this garment 
unto king Soma for enveloping [himself]. 

The verse is re|>eated l>elow, as xix. 24 4. It is found also in IKfS. (i. 4. 2) |^Mf*. 
ii. 2.6J, and a, b in MB. (i. 1.6). IKtS. in a omits imr, and reads x*Msasdi*Hmm for 
varcasf *t*t,ifft, and in b it has ^tttAvMutm for jatAmrlynm ; MB. agrees with this, only 
making the verse apply to a girl by giving tnAm ami {alAyuslm. There appears to be 
a mixture of constructions in a : pAft dhattn vAftasA is right. but<Mtf//«l reqairet rather 
vdrfaMf. Emending to krnmtA would enable jdfimriyum to t>c construed wHh im$mm 


in a L; but cf. ii. 28. 2 J. Verses 2 and 3 are .ipparently lost out of Ppp., not originally 

3. Thou hast put about thee this garment in order to well-being ; 
thou hast become protector of the people (?) against imprecation; both 
do thou live a hundred numerous autumns, and do thou gather about 
thee abundance of wealth. 

The translation implies emendation of grstftiam in b to krsUndw, as given by 
Ppp. and by PCS. (i. 4. 12) and HGS. (i. 4. 2) irPa corresponding expression to xix. 
24.5 below. LMP., ii.2.8, reads dpfnam.] Such blundering exchanges of surd and y »^W^^tf>» 
sonant are found here and there ; another is found below, in 14. 6 b Lso our ii. 5. 4, Ppp. J. — ' r 

All the mss., and both editions, read here^^rj-, and the comm. explains it by (^rttvlw, and, 
with absurd ingenuity, makes it apply to the asserted fear of kine, on seeing a naked 
man, that he is going to take from them the skin which formerly belonged to him, but was 
given to them instead by the gods ; the legend is first given in the words of the comm. 
himself, and then quoted from ^B. iii. 1.2. 13-17. For comparison of the Sutra-texts 
in detail, see under xix. 24. 5,6. In c, our O. Op. read y/t/^w. LCf. MGS. i. 9. 27 a 
and p. 152, s.\. ffarid/tdsye. With c, d cf. PCS. ii. 6. 20.J The first pada is properly 
ja^ail {su-astdye), LB@* See p. 1045. J 

4. Come, stand on the stone ; let thy body become a stone ; let all 

the gods make thy life-time a hundred autumns. 

The second pada is nearly identical with RV\ vi. 75.12 b; with a, b compare also 
AGS. i. 7. 7 and MB. i. 2. i, similar lines used in the nuptial ceremonies. ^With a, c, d 
compare MGS. i. 22. 12 and p. 149. J Ppp. has for a, b imam aqmUnam d tistha \me 
^va tvam sthiro bhava: pra mrnlhi durasyatah sahasva prtanayaiah; which differs 
but little from the AGS. verse. The Anukr. apparently expects us to resolve vi-qu-e in c. 

5. Thee here, of whom we take the garment to be first worn, let all 
the gods favor ; thee here, growing with good growth, let many brothers 
be born after, [[after thee,] J as one well born. 

This verse makes it pretty evident that in vs. 3 also the garment is the first that is 
put on the child after birth. But the comm., ignoring the gerundive -vdsyam, thinks 
it a •* formerly worn " garment that is " taken away *' ; and Kau^. misuses it correspond- 
ingly. HGS. (i. 7. 17) has a corresponding verse, omitting vdsas in a, combining 
T'/f?'^ av- in b, and reading suhrdas for suvrdhd in c. [_ Nearly so, MP. ii. 6. 15. J In 
Ppp. the text is defective ; but saviid is read instead of suvrdhd. Some of our sam- 
/ii/d-mss. (P.M.W.I.H.) lengthen to -itasyhm before hdrdmas in a. The verse is very 
irregular in the first three padas, though it can by violence be brought into tristubh 
dimensions ; it has no jagatl quality whatever. 

14. Against sadinv&s. 

\^Cdtana. — satfrcam. ^dldgnidcvatyam uUi mautroktadcvatdkam. dnustubhatn : 2. hhnrij ; 

4. uparistddvirdtfl'r/iati.'] 


All the verses are found in Paipp., vs. 4 in v., the rest (in the verse-order i, 5, 6, 2, 3) 
in ii. It is reckoned by Kauq. to the cdtandni (8. 25), and also among the hymns of 
the brhachdnti gana (9. i) ; it is used in the women's rites {strlkarmdni) to prevent 


abortion (34.3); alM> in the rite for eiptation o( barrenness in rattle {%*m{S^smamm ; 
44.11): and in the eAtnl>lishmrnt of the bouncer e (72.4), with spnnkHnf of the 
entrance, and finally in the funeral cercmonicji (82. 14). with the same action. The 
comm. further refers to the use of the i^tana and mAtrtttlmam hymns in Naks. K. 23 
and (,i\nti K. 1$. All these uses imply simply the value of the hymn as eiorctsin|( e^il 
influeiu es or the lieings that represent them, and do not help us to see agadnst what it 
was orif'inally directed: Weber su^gesU rats and worms and such like pests; perhaps, 
rather, troublesome inserts: as usual, the indications are so iruleBnite that wide room 
(or ronjecluie is left open. 

Translated : \Ve))er, xiii. 175 ; I.udwig, p. 522 ; Grill, 1,89; Griffith, i. 58; Dloom- 
field, 66, 298. \Jfir See p. 1045. J 

1. The cxpcllcr, the bold, the container, the one-toned, the voracious 
— all the daughters (#w///) of the wrathful one. the saddnx^s^ we make 
to disappear. 

Itv the connection, the ol)scure words in the first half- verse should be names of indi- 
vidual i<f//rf#fr<li, but dhisAnam (tlie translation implies emendation to -ttAm) is mascu- 
line (or neuter), and dhrsnufn (for which Tpp. reacU dhhmyam) not dtstinc timely 
feminine. Aiss^ii (STT's text reads, with the saMMit*} n\%%. generally, ff#i(j4- ; p. mtk- 
^sAltini) is taken by the letter of the text, as if from nih-sAiay = nthsAfajr; the comm. 
gives first this derivation, but spoils it by adding; as alteniati%'e ** orif(inatin|( from the 
i<f Ar. a kind of tree." K. sujtgests HihstUnm *' out of the liouse,** adverb. The comm. 
shamelessly derives iihisauam from dhrs^ and explains it as ** a setxer with evil, so 
named**; he also takes -T'«l«/)'rf as ~ vacana. All our /W^t-mss. commit the f^ross 
blunder of dividing Jij^hatcjvt\m, as if the word were a com|x>und ; SIT. lets the 
division stand in his//f</<itext. Tpp. reads in c napatiyas. 

2. Out of the cow-stall we drive you, out of the axle, out of the 
wagon-l>ody (.^) ; out of the houses we expel you, ye daughters (dukitf) of 

The comm. understands itp^nasil (for which two of our mss., P.M., read mpmm^n^- 

,\jf^ sii) to mean " a granary ** — or else ** a wagon full of grain ** ; and Aksm ** a gambling 

*V) house.** lie does not venture to clymologixe ma^unJl^ but calls it simply the name of 

^mk/*^^ y * certain //fil<-/. The /<i</<f mss. re.vl ma^undy/k^ which SI* I*, properly emends to -dySk, 

.^ t^t"^ ^PP- ^^^ ^<*'^ ^ ^^ corrupt Hir yoninnrpAnaca^ |_in c maj^Hndyii^^ and at end of d «il/a- 

^•^^ / ydmast. The Anukr. takes notice of the metrical irregularity of c. 

3. Yon house that is below — there let the hags be ; there let debility 
(sedi) make its home (tii uc), and all the sorceresses. 

I*pp. has a different version of ttie first three |>iVdas : atnusminm mdkare grkt $drvJt 
iX'AHta 9i\yak : tat fa ptipmi} ni yan/iatn. The comm. renders srdi by mi'rr/i. 

LOur arcentnotatitm <l«es not hrre distinguish a ksJIipta c\Mc\xmi\tx (myHcymmtm) 
from an enclitic circumflex {trdfr nyuiyantH — as if it were the im|K>ssd>le mi Bt^yantm, 
accentless) ; nor do the mss. of STT. : but in his text, he here emplo)'S the stroke, bke 
**long y** or the sign of integration, which does distinguish them. J 

4. Let the lord of bcinj;s drive out, also Indra, from here the saddm- 
xhU, sitting on the bottom of the house ; let Indra subdue them with the 


The omission of this verse, as being not found with the rest in Ppp. ii., would reduce 
the hymn to the norm of the second book. Ppp. (in v.) rectifies the meter of dby 
omitting indras. The metrical definition of the Anukr. is mechanically correct. The 
comm. understands bhutapati to designate Rudra. 

5. If ye are of the endemic (} ksetriyd) ones, or if sent by men ; if ye 

are born from the barbarians (ddsyn) — disappear from here, O saddnvds. 

All the mss., both here and in the next verse, accent at the end sadanvdSy though the 
word is plainly a vocative, and is so understood by the comm. (who says nothing of the 
accent, and indeed in general pays no heed to it); SPP. retains the manuscript reading. 
Ppp. has for 9iyd devd gha ksetriyddy and for zyad asiu da^vibho jdtd, 

6. I have gone around the abodes (dhdman) of them as a swift [steed 
about] a race-course ; I have won {ji) all your races (aji) ; disappear from 
here, O saddnvds. 

The translation implies the evidently necessary emendation asaram at end of b ; Ppp. 
has it, and also the comm.; both editions give asaran^ with all the mss. But Ppp. agrees 
with the mss. in giving just before it the false reading ^^jM^w for ka- (our text emends, 
but, by an oversight, gives -f//r instead of -f///i before it); and SPP. retains ga-. The 
comm. has instead gldsth&m^ and explains it as '* the further goal, where one stops {sthd) 
wearied (^gldna)^ 

15. Against fear. 

\Brahman. — sadrcam. prdnapdndyurdevatyam. iripddgdyatram.'\ 

Found also in Paipp. vi., but in a much fuller form, with thirteen verses, of which 
our six are, in their order, vss. 1,4, 3, 7, 12, 13 ; the others deal with wind and atmos- 
phere, cow and ox, Mitra and Varuna, Indra and Indra's might (indriyd)^ hero and 
heroism, breath and expiration, and death and immortality {amrtam) ; after bibher is 
added in vs. i evd me 'pdna md risayd, and, at the end of the hymn, the same, but 
with tisa for risayd. In Kauq. (54. 1 1), the hymn is used, with vi. 41, at the end of the 
goddna ceremony, on giving food to the boy. It is also counted by the schol. (ib., note) 
to the dyusya gana. The comm. makes no reference to the goddna rite, but declares 
the use to be simply by one desiring long life (dyuskdtna). 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 1 79 ; Griflfith, i. 59. 

1. As both the heaven and the earth do not fear, are not harmed, so, 
my brdath, fear not. 

LMGS., at i. 2. 13, has evam me prdna md bibha evam me prdtta md risah.\ 

2. As both the day and the night do not fear etc. etc; 

The comm. here applies for the first time the term parydya to these sentences, corre- 
spondent but with elements in part different. 

3. As both the sun and the moon do not fear etc. etc. 

4. As both sacrament {brd/nnan) and dominion {ksaird) do not fear 

etc. etc. 

That is, the Brahman and Ksatriya castes {brdhmauajdti and ksatriyajdti^ comm.), 
as the words might properly enough be translated. 


5. As both truth and untruth do not fear etc. etc. 

6. As both what is (bhuid) and what is to be (bluiiya) do not fear 
etc. etc. 

The romm. paraphra^s bhtltAm by saiitlm frAptatk vastHJdIam ; the past wouki 
teem to l>c a better example of fixity than the future ; Imt neither it **untnith** (vs. 5) 
to l>e commended as an example. |_ Weber would read la rtAm.\ 

16. For protection. 

\Bfitkman. — frJitJ^dMAyttrgln'^tyam. ek^rstt^Mttm ■ 1 t-p. Jliuti tftttukk ; t.i'f.Msuty 

utMik ; J. I'P.itUfi IrtitHhk I /. f ^/ tftttrlj^thafri] 

[^Not metrical. J Found (exrept vs. 5) in TAipp. ii. (in the verse-order 
The h\mn. with the one next following;, is used by KAu<;. (54.12) immediately aftet 
hymn 1 5 ; and the comm. .idiU, quoting f«>r it the authority of PAithinast, to accompany 
the offering of thirteen different sul>st.')nccs. which he details. Ik>th appear also in 
VAlt (4. 20). in the parvan sacrifices, on approaching the *}hax*anl^a fire ; and vts. 2 
aod 4 further (8. 7,9) in the t}i;rayana and ciiturmA%ya sacrifices. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 179; (friffith, i. 60. 

1. O breath-and-expiration, protect me from death: hail {n*dhiS)\ 

The first extension of the notion of prAtut * breath,* lit. • forth-breathing,* is by addi- 
tion of ttpAtut^ which also is lit. * breathing away,* and so, when distinguished from the 
generali<r(l//«y//ri, seems to mean 'expiration.* The comm. here defines the two thus: 
/f<fj^ tiitfhiutNttikho 'mitt cest*tttt ili prAnak : ap*l *MitY avtlfltfiukhd^ testata ity 4ip^9tak, 
For svtlktl he gives alternative explanations, following YAska. The vene (without 
rfUkA) is found also in Ap. xiv. 19.3. '* Iristubk'^ in the Anulcr. is doubtless a miv 
reading for pafikit, as the verse has 11 syllables, and I and 3 would have been 
defined together if viewed as of the same meter. 

2. C) hcavcn-andcarth. protect me by listening (tipa^ntti) : hail! 

The /«i#/<imss. rend upa^rutyA (not ;r«J^). and. in the ol>scurily of the prayer, it b 
perhaps l>est to follow them |^* by overhearing* the plans of my enemies ?J; otherwise, 
*from l>eing overheard * |^by my enemies? J would seem as suitable; and thb is rather 
suggested by the Ppp. reading, upti^rute (for -Uhf). 

Ppp. after this another verse : ifhanikyik ^yust prajikyAi md p^tatk $x*^kA. 

3. () sun, protect me by sij;ht : hail ! 

Ppp. < iii" J //jA '(protect ni)) two eye.s.' Our O.Op., with some of SI'P's mst., 
read sttryas for -ytt. 

4. () Agni Vai^jvanara, protect mc with all the gods: hail! 

I*pp. makes, a^ it were, one ver^e out of our 4 and 5, by reading #rx«/ vi^vmmhkmrs 
vi^tHtio Mil pilAt frvlAil. The comm. gives several different explanations of fJli^t'Sma^a 
'belonging to all men,* one of them as vi^v^nara ^ jamiAn pravistnk / 

5. O all-bearing one, protect me with all bearing (i/idms): hail! 

The sense is ol>scure ; at xii. i.^» the epithet * all l>earing * is, very properly, applied 
to the earth ; but here the word is masculine. The comm. understands Agni to be 
meant (and this the Ppp. reading favors); but he relies for this solely on DAU. 1. 4. 7 


(which he quotes); and that is certainly not its meaning there. Weber conjectures 
Prajapati. |_The BAU. passage is i. 4. i6 in Bohtlingk's ed. See Whitney's criticism 
upon it at A J P. xi. 432. I think nevertheless that fire may be meant — see Deussen's 
Sechzig Upanishad's, p. 394. J It does not appear why the last two verses should be 
called of two padas. 

17. For various gifts. 

[Brahman. — saptarcam. prSiidpaiiayHrdevatyam. ek^vasHitam : 1-6. ip. dsuri tn'stub/t ; 

7. dsury usnih.'\ 

I^Not metrical. J Paipp. has a similar set of phrases in ii. For the use of the hymn 
by Kauq. and Vait., see under hymn 16. It is also, with 15 and others, reckoned by the 
schol. to Kau9. (54. 11, note) to the Hyusya gaita. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 180 ; Griffith, i. 61. 

1. Force art thou ; force mayest thou give me : hail ! 

The Ppp. has no phrase corresponding to this. Some of our mss., as of SPP*s, read 
(id instead of ddh before svahdy in this hymn and the next, where they do not abbreviate 
the repetition by omitting both words. The comm. regards them both as addressed to 
Agni, or else to the article offered (Jiuyamdnadravyani), \Qi. MGS. i. 2. 3, and p. 149 
and citations.J 

2. Power art thou ; power mayest thou give me : hail ! 

Ppp. has sahodCi agnes saho me dhU svUha, 

3. Strength art thou ; strength mayest thou give me : hail ! 

Ppp. gives baladd agnir balam me svdhd, 

4. Life-time art thou ; life-time mayest thou give me : hail ! 

The corresponding phrase in Ppp. is : tiytir asyd dyur me dhd svdhd, 

5. Hearing art thou ; hearing mayest thou give me : hail ! 

There are no phrases in Ppp. answering to this and the two following verses ; but 
others with varcas and tejas as the gifts sought. 

6. Sight art thou ; sight mayest thou give me : hail ! 

7. Protection {paripdna) art thou ; protection mayest thou give me : 

hail ! 

The anuvaka [^3. J has 7 hymns, with 42 verses ; the Anukr. says : astouath iasmdc 
chatdrdham trtlye. 

Here ends also the \\\\xA prapdthaka, 

18. For relief from demons and foes. 

\Cdtafta {sapatuaksayakdmali). — dgneyam. dvdipadam ; idmnlbdrhatam.'] 

LNot metrical. J Ppp. has some similar phrases in ii. The hymn belongs to the 
cdtandni (Kauq. 8. 25 : the comm. regards only the last three verses as cdiaua, because 
vs. 3 is the one whose pratika is cited in the Kau^. text ; but it is perhaps more likely 
that ardyaksayatiam is an oversight for bhrdirvyaks) ; it is used by itself also in one 
of the witchcraft rites {dbhicdrikdni), while adding fuel of reeds to the fire (48. i). 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 180; Griffith, i.6i. 


1. Adversary-destroying art thou; adversary-expulsion mayest thou 
give me : hail ! 

• Advcr!iary * \% lit, • nephew * or • brothrr'n son * (fiAri^frvra). The Ppp. phrases are 
after this mo<lel: hhrAirtynkslnttm asi hkftltrvYajambhmnam mti it'JAJ, and concern 
sutcrNsivfly thr//(<h«rf, sattynx'At, and bhfAtrvyas. 1 he Anukr. supports the comm. 
in re)*Ardiii(; the hymn ns addresst^d to A^ni, and agrees with KAu^ in regard to the 
ac('}; action, saying: sapalnaktayaHlh sauiiiiha Adhily^^ ^^ntmpfArtkamlyam 
aptAfthityat. {^Instead of •*desiro)ing '* W. has interlined •• deMruclion."J 

2. Kival-<lcstroying art thou; rival-expulsion mayest thou give me: 

3. Wizard- {^. aniya-) <Icstroying art thou ; wizard-expulsion mayest thou 
give me : hail I 

4. /*/ffli-</(lcstroying art thou; //fJr</-cx pulsion mayest thou give me: 
hail ! 

5. .SVi//^///Tvl-dcstroying art thou; j/i/Z^/z/rvl-expulsion mayest thou give 
me : hail ! 

Read in our edition satiAnviUAl . 

19. Against enemies: to Agni (fire). 

[j4tAitn->tn. — Jj^mevttm. 1-4. MitfJvtutmJ^tUatri ; j. AAmrtj^Mm^t] 

[^Not metrical. J This hymn (l>ut not its four successors and counterparts) b found 
in Pdipp. ii. ; also in MS. (1. 5 2 : in verse-order 1.4.3,2,5) and Ap. (vi. 21.1 : in 
verse-order 3. 4, I, 2, 5) ; further, in K. Its first pratika (but regarded by the schol. ami 
by the comtn. as including all the five hymns) is usetl l»y KiVu^. (47. 8^ to accomiuny 
the pnftss/ihi Aoffitts in tlie witchcraft rites. The Anukr. has a common description of 
the five hymns, if> 23, as /«f/>««f silk/tini palliafttini paflttipaiytltti {}ox -^ataptitr ) 
tripAd^Aynit Any ekAvatAHAni. j^The mss. blunder ; but p^lkiApaiyAmi b prolably 
right; see note to KAu^. 47. 8. J 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 181 ; (;riirilh, i. 62. 

1. O Agni! with the heat that is thine, be hot against him who hates 

us, whom wo hate. 

* M.S. leaves (in all the verses) tlie a of asmJm unclided, and both MS. and Ap. insert 
ca before VityAm. 

2. () A^ni ! with the rage {/uints) that is thine, rage against him who 
hates us. whom we hate. 

/V.f// Aiira to l>e strained in rendering, to preserve the parallelism of the ejirpres- 
sion. I^Or, 'with the seizing-force that is thine, force back him' etc. ?J 

3. () Agni! with the gleam (anis) that is thine, gleam against him 
who hates us, whom we hate. 

4. () Agni! with the burning (\i\is) that is thine, burn against him 
who hates us, whom we hale. 


5. O Agni! with the brilliancy if^jas) that is thine, make him unbril- 
liant who hates us, whom we hate. 

Ppp. \\2iSJyotis for tejas, TmA prati daha for atejasam krnu; for the latter, MS. and 
A p. t^tA prati iitigdhi (also K., iityagdhi^. 

The meter is alike in the four hymns 19-22 ; the Anukr. restores the a of asman, and 
in vss. 1-4 scans 6 + 7 + 10 = 23, and, in vs. 5, 6 + 9 + 10 = 25. 

20. The same: to Vayu (wind). 

This and the three following hymns are mechanical variations of the one next preced- 
ing, differing from it only by the name of the deity addressed, and in hymn 23 by the 
pronouns and verbs being adapted to the plural deity. They are wanting in the otlier 
texts. The comm. does not deign to explain them in detail, but prefixes a few intro- 
ductory words to the text of this one. For the Anukr. descriptions of the meter, and for 
the use by Kau^., see under hymn 19. It would be space wasted to write out the trans- 
lation in full. LThey should all be regarded as non-metrical. J They are briefly treated 
(not translated) by Weber, xiii. 182, and Griffith, i. 62. 

I . O Vayu ! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 
2-5. O Vayu ! with etc. etc. 

21. The same: to SQrya (sun). 

I. O Surya! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 
2-5. O Surya! with etc. etc. 

22. The same: to the moon. 

I. O moon ! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 
2-5. O moon ! with etc. etc. 

23. The same: to water. 

I. O waters ! with the heat that is yours etc. etc. 

2-5. O waters! with etc. etc. 

Here the meter, owing to the plural verbs, is different; the Anukr. calls that of 
vss. 1-4 (6 + 8+10 = 24) samavisamd^ tl gdya/rf *ol uneven members,' and vs. 5 
(6+ 10 + 10 = 26) the same, with two syllables in excess \_svardd'Visamd^. 

24. Against kimldfais, male and female. 

[BraAmaH, — astarcam. dyusyam, fdnktam . . . .] 

LNot metrical.J Part of the hymn is found in Paipp. ii., but in a very corrupt con- 
dition : see under the verses below. Kau^. makes no use of it that is characteristic, or 
that casts any light upon its difficulties, but prescribes it simply as to be employed in 
a certain ceremony (19.9-13) for prosperity (according to the comm., for removal of 
a bad sign), called ** of the sea" {sdmudra: the comm. says, offering in a ^dpetastha 
fire, in the midst of the sea) ; it is also reckoned (19. i, note) to the mantras called 
pustika • for prosperity.' The words that precede the refrain in each verse are apparently 


the nAmcs of kimUUns. The Anukr. ta3rs that Hrahmain In each verse praised with 
vemes the deity mentioned in it ; and gives a lonj^ description of the meters that is 
too confused and corrupt to t>e worth quoting in fulL 
Translated: \Vel>er, xiii. 1S2 ; (irifTith, i. 62. 

1. O ^rrabhaka, ^erabha ! back again let your familiar demons go; 
back af;ain your missile, ye kimldins ! whose yc arc, him eat ye ; who 
hath sent you forth, him eat ye ; eat your own flesh. 

I 'pp. reads : ^atithhaka scnt{ah/ta punar bko yUmti yt\d*%vits punar Maiif ktmlMmak 
yaiya siha <iam alta yo vn ffAhl iam utiam mAsJkiksil manyatJI. The comm. in tl»e 
last phrase gives iil instead of sttl, ami has much trouble to fabricate an explanation 
for it (as ^ tatya, or else for /<) hctik), (^erabkaka he takes as either sukkasym ^rM^mka 
or ^ttrahkavai sarveulm ht'Autkit, hut is confident that it designates a •• chief of y^tit- 
ifkAm^sy Of the refrain, the first part seems metrical, and the second prose, in three 
phrases ; and it may l>e counted as84-8:6-f7 + 5(or7)=34 (or 36) : the prefixed 
names add 7 sylLibles (vss. 1, 2), or 5 (vss. 3, 4), or 3 (vss. 6-S), or 2 (vs. 5). [^Bloom- 
field comments on tihiitt and the like, ZDMCV xlviii. 577. J 

2. O ^cvrdhaka, ^t'vrtVux! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

3. O mrokii, anumtoka ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

4. O sttrf*ii, anusarpa ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

5. O Jfinti f back again let your familiar demons go; back again your 
missile, yc shckufih/ins ; whose yc are etc. etc. 

C. O upnbiii ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

7. O drjtml ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

8. O b/tnrfiji ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

To represent all these verses, we find in l*pp. {tt*rka {evrdh^ s^rfkn sar^a mrnkJm 
mro jyitrnyatro jarjftnvtipaprado fuMar vc yanti yAtiaxuik : pumar jiHii kiml^tmak 
yatya stha tLtm alUi yo mi pttkhi (am H/nts sil mJiiksAny aitil. It has not seemed 
worth while to try to translate the names, though most of them contain intelligible ele* 
m«*nts Lsec We!>er, p. 184, 1S6J, and the comm, forces through worthless explanations 
for them all. In \'s. 8 he reads bhartUi^ and makes an al>surd derivation from roots hkr 
and afic (** going to take away the bo<ly*'). |^In the first draft, W. notes that the four 
feminine names of vss. 5-8 might t>e combine<l to one Irislubk piida, which with the 
common refrain would give us the normal five ** verses.*'J 

25. Against kAnvas: with a plant. 

\CAtamti,~-v4ma$ffaiyim. : ^. bkury.] 

Found in I'.'iipp. iv. Ik>th \Vel«r and («rill regard the hymn as directed against 
al>ortion : but no sufficient indications of such value are found in its language, though 
some of the native authorities intimate their discovery of such. KAu^. (8. 25) reckons it 
to the n}/ii»it hymns ; and it is employed, with ii. 7 and other hymns, in a remedial cere- 
mony (2^»-33 3^0 against various evils, S|>ecially accom|)an)ing the smearing of the 
designated pLint ^\\h s.icrifi( dregs (sampj/a) u|K)n the patient 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 187; (irill, 20,92; («riffith, i. 64 ; Uloomfield, 36*302. 

I. Weal for us, woe {ti((tw) for Nirrti ('perdition') hath the divine 


spotted-leaf made ; since it is a formidable grinder-up (-jdmb/iafia) of 

kdnvas, it, the powerful, have I used {bhaj). 

The comm. makes no attempt to identify the fir^nt'parnt as any particular plant, but 
simply paraphrases it with cifrafiarny osadhih, R. discusses the word as follows : ** the 
pr^nipartif is, i. according to tlie commentary to KQS. xxv. 7. 17, the same with viHisa- 
parnfy i.e. Glycine debilis ; 2. according to other schol., the same with laksmauH^ a plant 
having upon its leaves red spots, in which the form of a child is claimed to be seen. 
Dhavapr., i. 20S, calls it also /w/r^yVz;//", and Rajanigh., vii. 1 14, ////;v7^rt;///J, or pit tradd^ 
or pnmkattddy indicating a bulbous plant ; it is credited with the power to cure barren- 
ness of women ; 3. according to Am. Koq. and the other Nighantus, it is a leguminous 
plant, identified by Chund Dutt {AfaL medico) with Uraria lagopodioides Dec, having 
hairy leaves without colored spots. The second of these identifications would suit the 
hymn." Abhaksi might mean * I have partaken of or drunk ' ; but neither Kau^. nor 
the comm. know of such a use of the plant. The strange appearance in this hymn (only) 
of kdnva as name of evil beings is passed by the comm. without a word of notice ; he 
simply paraphrases the word with pupa. [^But see Bergaigne, Rel. v^d. ii. 465, and Hille- 
brandt, Ved. Mythol. i. 207. J Ppp. reads in b nirrtaye karat, and in d ivd Wtarsatn 
for abhaksi, 


2. This spotted-leaf was first born overpowering ; with it do I hew 

[off] the head of the ill-named ones, as of a bird {fakiini). 

[^^akti- is misprinted ^akf-.^ The reading vrfcdmi, without accent (which is given 
in both editions, on the authority of all the mss.) implies that the fourth pada begins 
with f /r«j, the preceding three words being (as is easy) resolved into eight syllables ; 
and the pada-mss. also mark the pada-division before firas. The Anukr., however, 
regards the verse as a simple auustubh, which it plainly is, ^iras belonging to c ; the 
accent should therefore be emended to vr^cami. Ppp. reads saddnvdghftf pr- for a, 
and, in c, d, iayd kanvasydth ^ira( chinadvii (ak-. The comm. explains the *♦ ill-named " 
as dadntvisarpaka^vitrddiknsfharogavi^csds, or varieties of leprosy. 

3. The blood-drinking wizard, and whoso wants to take away fatness, 

the embryo-eating kdnva do thou make disappear, O spotted-leaf, and 


One or two of our mss. (W.I.), and several of SPP*s, read in h jihfrisaii\\. has 
'frfs-\. Ppp. has at the end sahasvatl, 

4. Make them enter the mountain, the life-obstructing {^yopana) kdn- 
vas; do thou, O divine spotted-leaf, go burning after them like fire. 

|_As to kanvdh, cf. i. 19. 4 n. As to -yopana, see Bloomfield, AJP. xii. 423.J This 
verse and the next are too much def.iced in Ppp. to admit comparison in detail ; but its 
text differs somewhat from ours. The Anukr. refuses to sanction the common abbre- 
viation to agnir *va in d. 

5. Thrust them forth to a distance, the life-obstructing /"rf/zt/^j ; where 
the darknesses go, there have I made the flesh-eaters go. 


26. For safety and increase of kine. 

[Satif*tr. — /^fatjram, fr$hiitt/>A*tm. j. m^rittd^'trdJhrkati ; 4, jf ammttmSk {4. Mmrt/) ] 

Found in Tilipp. ii. \*%ct\ !»y K.\u^. (19. 14). with iii. 14, iv. 21. ami ii. 7 |^not %•§. 1 1. 
3 — %te comm. to ix. 7 = 1 2 J. in a ceremony for the proftjierily of cattle. 

Tran%Iated: \Ve!>er, xiii. 188; LmUi^. p- 371 ; (irifllith, i. 65; lUoomfiehl, 142,303; 
VM. I and 2, also by (trill, ^)4. 92. — Cf. Her j;aif;ne- Henry. Afamur/, p. 138. 

1. Hither let the cattle come that went away, whose companionship 
{sa/mctfni) Vilyu (the wind) enjoyed, whose form-givings Tvash^r knows ; 
In this cow-stall let Savitar make them fast (ni-jram). 

Or, * whose forms,* ruptuikeya hciixip^ virtually equivalent to simple r id/ii. Tpp. reads 
in b sahattUttm. The **cow-fttair* does not probably imply anything more than an 
enclosure. The Anukr. passes without notice \\\t ja^ait pAda d. 

2. To this cow-stall lot cattle flow-together [stream togetherj {sam- 
sru)\ let Hrihaspati, foreknowing, lead them hither; let Sinivall lead 
hither the van (dgra) of them; make them fast when they have come» 
O Anumati. 

[In the prior draft of 3, Mr. Whitney has ' stream/J I*pp. has at the end yaitkAt : 
one of Sl'r*s mss., yaahat. The comm. gives amu/;aU ( = A/ amuj^amamaJtJIrimt ) in d. 
The value of //vt in the common epithet prajAndHl (rendered * foreknowing *) ts obscure 
and probably minimal. [As to the deities here named, see Zimmer, p. 352, and llilk- 
brandt, /Vi/. Mylhcl, i. 422.J 

3. Together, together let cattle flow [stream J. together horses, and 
together men, together the fatness that is of grain ; I offer with an obla- 
tion of confluence. 

For the oblation calle<l *of confluence,* to effect the streaming together of good 
things, compare i. t$ and xix. 1. The change of meter in this hymn need not damage 
its unity, in view of its occurrence as one hymn in I'pp. Tpp. reads in b /M^rrariJi, and 
in € s/*kiUthhis (for/d spk-). The metrical definition of the Anukr. seems to reiect the 
obvious resolution -vit-na in d. 

4. I |)Our together the milk (ksird) of kine, together strength, sap, 
with sacrificial butter; poured together are our heroes; fixed arc the 
kine in mc \jrathcr, with mej [as] kine-lord. 

Tpp. reads vafawi in b, comltincs >/«! *swJlaw in c, and has for d majtt /ilt^c ^^ 
/;i7^ir/«fw. The syllable in d (noticed by the Anukr.) would he got rkl of 
by changing wifri to the old IcKative m/[; tiut with l>ctter metrical result, by adopting 
the rpp. reading J. With the second half-verse is to l>e compared A(JS. iii. 1 1.6: ^risfJI 
asnit}kam vlrH mttyi ^tUuth samfm f^ofattlu. The comm. says that gavdm in a means 
j^ritlPtAm 'of heifers (h.nving their first calf).' 

5. I bting {tiJtr) the milk of kine; I have brought the sap of grain; 
brought are our heroes, our wives, to this home (tistala). 


Ppp. has aharsam in b, in c dharisam (for Hhrilis) and vfrdn, and in d ^ patnfm 
e *iiam. Our Bp. gives ahdrisam (and H. ahararisani) in b, and ahfitds in c. 

The annvdka [^4. J has this time 9 hymns, with 48 verses ; the old Anukr. says dvy- 
ilnam [jiaidrdhafh'] turfy ah, 

27. For victory in disputation: with a plant. 

[ KapiTtjala . — sap fa rca m . vdnaspatyam . dnustubham . ] 

Found in Paipp. ii. Kau9. uses the hymn in the rite or charm for overcoming an 
adversary in public dispute: one is to come to the assembly from the north-eastern 
direction (because of its name apardjita * unconquered *), chewing the root of the plant, 
and to have it in his mouth while speaking ; also to bind on an amulet of it, and to wear 
a wreath of seven of its leaves (38. 18-21). Verse 6, again, is reckoned (50. 13, note) 
to the rdudra gana. The comm. further quotes from the Naks. |_error for QantiJ K. 
(17, 19) a prescription of the use of the hymn in a mahd^dnti called apardjitd. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 190; Ludwig, p. 461 ; Grill, ist edition, 18,51 ; Bloomficld, 
JAOS. xiii., p. xlii (PAOS.May, 1885), or AJP. vii. 479 ; Grill, 2d edition, 23,93 ; Griffith, 
i.66; Bloomfield, SBE. xlii. 137,304. — Bloomfield was the first to point out (on the 
authority of Kau^.) the connection of prdq with root prach^ and to give the true inter- 
pretation of the hymn. Grill follows him in the second edition. 

1. May [my] foe by no means win (yV) the dispute; overpowering, 

overcoming art thou ; smite the dispute of [my] counter-disputant ; make 

them sapless, O herb. 

" Dispute " i^pf^O is literally * questioning.* The comm. renders the word in a by 
prastar • questioner,' but in c gives us our choice between that and pra^na * question,* 
and in 7 a acknowledges only the latter meaning. Prdtiprdqas is translated here as 
genitive ; the comm. takes it secondly as such, but first as accus. pi. ; the Ppp. reading 
favors the latter : sd *miin praiiprd^o jaya rasd kr-. With either understanding, the 
accent is anomalous ; we ought to have praiipra^as, Arasan also is in favor of the 
plural. If we could emend pra^am in c to prd^i * in the disputation,* it would make T- 

things much easier. For a Ppp. has ya^ cairiln samjaydi. Nid in a is simply the Cf'/ ^"U '^ 
emphasized negative. 

2. The eagle discovered {ann-vid) thee ; the swine dug thee with his 

snout : smite the dispute etc. etc. 

Pada b shows that the root is the part of the plant employed. If we struck off the 
impertinent refrain from vss. 2-5, and combined the lines into two verses, the hymn 
would conform to the norm of the second book (as in more than one case above 

Lp- 37J). 

3. Indra put {kr) thee on his arm, in order to lay low (sir) the Asuras : 
smite the dispute etc. etc. 

The comm., both here and in the next verse, understands -bhyaQt) stdrftaife as -bhyas 
tiirl-^ though he then explains tarltave by starUum, Pada a is rendered in accordance 
with the comm. and with Weber ; Grill, * took thee into his arm.* 

4. Indra consumed (t'/-^f) the paid^ in order to lay low the Asuras : 
smite the dispute etc. etc. 

ii. 27- noOK II. THE ATllARVA-VEDA-SAttHITA. 68 

The rnmm. rracis in a ptlfhAm, nnd uvs that form in all his explanations ; ^^ftlm 
seems to )»e f;tven in all ttie m«s., and in Ppp-, ami l>oth editions adopt it ; but the mss. 
are very little to l>e trusted (or the distinction of / and M. ** The plant is the Liyft^i 
hernanJtf otitic \%ho%e liitter ro<>t is much u^rd. It gnms all over India, and is said to 
Iht applit<l to ultrrn in the» ami in Sindh (W. DymtKlc, I'f^ittthU mai. mf*i )'* 
(K ). I^ln \\'\s note, Koth f;ivr% p^tAm as Tpp. form; but in his collation, he l^ives as 
rpp. readini; in a. b f^Ayam tndto^ vytiinAn kanlavt as-. The Anukr. apparently eY| et ts 
us to resolve vt A ^n-Ai in a. 

5. With it will I overpower the foes, as Indra did the stJ/tfvrltis : smite 

the dispute etc. etc. 

The translation implies emendation of the inadmissible Silksr to sJIksyt^ than which 
nothing is easier (considering; the frequent loss of r after a lingual or palatal sibilant) or 
more satisfactory, for l)oth sense and meter ; it is favored, tix>, by the Pftp reading. 
sakslye. No other example of lont; <) in a future form of this verb appears to l>e quot- 
able ; but the exchant^e of a and J in its inflection and derivation is so common that this 
makes no appreciable ditAculty. The comm. accepts stlkse^ renderinj^ it by ahki ^Aat'JImt. 
The Anukr. notes no metrical irregularity in the verse. In our text, accent tJlHtxrkdm 
(an accent-mark out of place). ^To \Vel>er's note on sA/tli'rJtil, suid Oertel. J AGS. 
xix.^ 133 f. Tins allusiim adds to the plausibility of \V*s su^^^estion alx>ut the Yatis, 
note to ii. 5. 3. J 

6. () Kudra, thou of healing; (?) remedies, of dark (n//a) crests, deed- 
doer ! smite the dispute etc. etc. 

Tpp. has for cd frsfitm tiuntiyaio jithi y(t smifti abkitiJisati^ which is plainly much 
better than the rr|>etiti(m of tlie refrain, aiwl for which the latter has perhaps been sub- 
stituted in our text The cumm. draws out to j^reat lenf^th a series of derivations for 
rm&ft^ and f«ives two for yi/Aliii, and three different explanations of karmakri. |_liloom- 
field discusses yd/- etc. at Icnj^th, AJP. xii. 425 ff.J 

7. Do thou smite the dispute of him. O Indra, who vexes us; bless us 
with abilities (\'fil/i) ; m.ike me superior in the dispute. 

rpp.^ /v»^<"" f'»r f^t'^.ttft iwim in a, .in«l rnd% b with dAtale. The comm. has 
pril^am iiistcid of /'«'(' in d and is supinuted in it by two of SI'P's authorities. The 
prAt^am in a he explains by vAkyam, an<l that in his d by pfaitHram. 

28. For long life for a certain person (child?). 

FouHfl in r.'iipp. (v^s. 1 4 in i.; v^ 5 in xv.). I'srd by K.iu^. in thr ci^tiAtta cere- 
nxmy ( ; 4. 13). as thr p.irrnts p.ivs tlu* Iniv three timc^ b.ic k and forth lictween tliero and 
make him b.ills of ^hee : nn<l thr same is done in the 4 thfA f>r 4 An/a (hair-cuttinj;) cere- 
mony ( ;4. 1^. note); the schol. also rc< kon it to the Aytttysi t^ana (54. II, note). 

'I ransl.ited \Vel»er, xiii. \*)1 ; Ciidl, 4-^, <>4 ; (frithth, i. O7 ; Uloomtield, 50, 306. 

I. For just ther, O old age, let this one grow; let not the other 
deaths, tliat ate a hun<lrc<l, haim him ; as a forethoughtful mother in her 
lap a son, let Mitra protect him from distress that comes from a friend 



Ppp. has in b tvat for (aiarh ye, and combines in d mitre *nam. The omission of cither 
imdm or /z/i^/ would rectify the meter of b. The comm. most foolishly takes jariman 
first ixomjr *sing,' and explains it as he stuyamdtia agne/ then adding the true ety- 
mology and sense. The ^*jagail^^ is quite irregular: 12 + 13 : 1 1 + 12 = 48. LBloom- 
field cites an admirable parallel from RV. iv. 55. 5; but in his version he has quite 
overlooked the verb-accent. J 

2. Let Mitra or helpful (} ri^adds) Varuna in concord make him one 

that dies of old age ; so Agni the offerer (JtStar), knowing the ways 

(vayiifta), bespeaks all the births of the gods. 

All our /<z//4:j-mss. read in a n\add instead of -iidh ; SPP. properly emends to -ddh. 
This wholly obscure word is found independently only here in AV.; its rendering above 
is intended only to avoid leaving a blank ; the comm. gives the ordinary etymology, as 
hiitsakHnam atti; Grill, emending to ariq&das, brings out an ingenious but uncon- 
vincing parallelism with Gr. /pcrudT^t; and, as noticed by him, Aufrecht also would under- 
stand armadas * very prominent* Ppp. reads for a tnitrag ca ti'd varuuaf ca riulddu, 
and has at the end of d -mdni vakti. 

3. Thou art master (/f) of earthly cattle, that are born, or also that 

are to be born ; let not breath leave this one, nor expiration ; let not 

friends slay (vadh) this one, nor enemies. 

All the mss., and the comm., read at end of hjanUrdSy which SPP. accordingly retains, 
while our text makes the necessary emendation to jdni/vds, which Ppp. also has. Ppp. 
Lomits vd in b ;J elides the initial a of apdno and amitrdh after vio; and it puts the verse 
after our vs. 4. Pada b lacks a syllable, unnoticed by the Anukr. \x^2i^ jdtasas ? \. 

4. Let father heaven, let mother earth, in concord, make thee one that 

dies of old age ; that thou mayest live in the lap of Aditi, guarded by 

breath and expiration, a hundred winters. 

Ppp. reads te for tvd in a, and dlrgham dyuh for sainviddne in b ; also rtyd for adiies 
in c. The Anukr. takes no notice of the irregularity of the meter (9 -f- 1 1 : 10 -f- 12 
= 42: a poor iri5iubh!)\ the insertion of ca tSx^t prthivt in a, and emendation to 
jivdsi in c, would be easy rectifications. Lin order to bring the cesura of a in the right 
place, read dydus and tvd each as one syllable and insert a ca also ^Iter pita. Thus all 
is orderly, 1 1 + 1 1 : 1 1 + 12. The accent-mark over pr- is gone. ] / /a. • 

5. This one, O Agni,^o thou lead for life-time, for splendor, (to^dear 
seed, O Varuna, Mitra, king ! like a mother, O Aditi, yield {yam) him 
refuge ; O all ye gods, that he be one reaching old age. 

All thc/rt^rt-mss. read at end of b mitraordjan, as a compound ; and SPP, so gives 
it ; the comm. understands rdjan correctly as an independent word, but perhaps only as 
he in general is superior to the restraints of the /rt^/<ti-readings. Ppp. (in xv.) has/r/^t? 
for -yam in b. The verse is found also in TS. (ii. 3. io3), TB. (ii. 7. 75), TA. (ii. 5. i), 
and MS. (ii. 3.4). All these give krdhi for nay a at end of a ; TA. MS. have tigmdm 
djas instead oi priydm r^tas in b ; TS. TB. MS. read soma rdjan at end of b, while TA. 
offers instead sdfii gigdd/ii ; all accent jdradastis in d, and MS. leaves asat at the end 
unaccented. In QGS. (i. 27), again, is a version of the verse, omitting naya in a, read- 
ing (with MS.) tigmatn ojas and soma in b, and having aditih garma yam sat in c. 
LVon Schroeder gives the Katha version, TUbinger Katha-hss., p. 7 2-3. J 


il. 29- liOOK If. THE ATHARVA-VKDA-SAttHITA. 7^ 

29. For some one's long life and other biettings. 

Foun«l in I'Aipp., Init in two widely M^paratrd parts: vsa. l-3in xi<., and %*«•. 4-7 
in i. (next following our hymn 2K). V%ct\ in K.iu^. (27.9(1.) in a curious healing; rite 
(or one Mm ted with thirst : the patient and a well person arc set hack to back, wrap|>rd 
in one garment toj;ether, and the latter is made to drink a certain potion apparently 
prepared for the other ; thus the disease will l>e transferred to the well person : a total 
perversicm of the pro(>er meaning of the hymn. Af;ain, it is used (54. %^) \n \\\^ gtniJma 
and ititft} ceremonies, and, according to the schol. (58. 17, note), in that of name-giving ; 
and the schol. (42. 15) further add it in the rite on the return home of a Vedic student. 
And vs. 3 accompanies in Vftit. (22. 16) the pouring of the il^lr milk into the clarified 
soma in the fUtnbhrt at the a^mistoma sacrifice |^cf. comm. and Hillebrandt, Rituai- 
lititfaiHr^ p. I 29 J. 

Transdatcd : \Vel)er, xiii. 194 ; Ludwig, p. 493 ; GrifTith, I. 68; llloomfield, 47. 308. 

1. In the sap of what is earthly, O gcxls, in the strength of Bhaga's 
self (tanh) — length of life to this man may Agni, Surya — splendor may 
Brihaspati impart. 

Or it might l)e * in the s.ip of earthly portion, in strength of liody ' (a, b); 'what is 
earthly * would refer to some characteristic prcwluct of earth applied in the rile ; the 
comm. understands the gtnl Hhaga, but his opinion is of no authority. As Welier sug- 
gests, the exchange of t\yttsyt\m here in c and tiyus in 2 • would rectify the meter of 
both veises: in neither case does the Anukr. note an irregularity. Tpp* ^^^ here Avitr 
asmtU, l>ut follows it with Jiff/u* vitna fM<)/J hrh-. Some of our mss., with two or three 
of SlT's, accent Ayitsyam. The comm. takes titvAs in a for a nominative. 

2. Length of life to him assign thou, O Jatavedas ; progeny, O Tvashtar, 
do thou bestow on him ; abundance of wealth, O Savitar (' im)Krller ')» do 
thou impel to him ; may he live a hundred autumns of thee. 

'I'he ccmstruction of a dative with adhi-ni dht\ in b seems hardly admissible; IlK. 
1^111.917 J, in cjuoting the passage, Tcads asmi^ apparently by an intended emendation, 
which, however, does not suit the connection ; asmin is the only real help. 

3. Our blessing [assign him] refreshment, jMisscssion of excellent 
progeny; do ye (two), accordant, assign (him) dexterity, property {dni- 
vhtit) ; [let] this man [be] concjuering fields with fwwcr, O Indra, putting 
(Xr) othrr rivals beneath him. 

The vir^e is difficult, and, as the parallel texts show, badly corruptetl. A{tr mat 
(for \vhi« h \Vc!»cr ingeniously suggested tl^frttf) vs supported hy Jf/r mas in MS. 
(iv. 123) and *l^ir me in TS. (iii. 2.S*) and K(,*S. (x. 5. 3) ; and all these versions give 
it a \(*rli in b, r/.r«M«)//#, instead of the impracticable flual ifkaiiam^ with which our iilr/* 
/•riil/i is in the same combination. The alteration of this to the sM*areatamt of TS. 
MS., or tlie suittfutsttm of K(,'.S. and Tpp., would indicate that of dkttllam to -t^mt (as 
mid<llr). and allow sense to )>e ma<le of the p.Vla. All the other texts, including l*pp • 
give in a %H/*t,t;i}iixthn in%tr.i«l of the anomalous and bad sAi$pr.. TS. MS. K^'S. 
have i)am for tLkkutm in b. The translation implies emendation ai jAyam \fit\o yJkyam 


in accordance with the samjAyan of the other texts; but Ppp. has sam jayat, which 
would be even more acceptable — only not with ahdm^ as all the four read for ay dm. 
TS. MS., finally, combine anyah ddh- in d; K^S. elides '/ly^/i. In K^S., as in Vail., 
the first word is to be understood as d(ir; the comm. interprets both ways [^as from ^f /> 
« blessing ' or from di^ir * milk *J. He regards the du of sdupra- in a as simply ** Vcdic," 
and heaven and earth as addressed in b. 

4. Given by Indra, instructed by Varuna, sent forth by the Maruts, 
hath the formidable one come to us ; let this man, in your lap, O heavcn- 
and-earth, not hunger, not thirst. 

The ** thirst " of the patient in Kau^. has no more substantial foundation than the 
last two words of this verse. The text in Ppp. is defaced, but shows srstas for ^istas in 
a, and in c, d, after -thivf^ pari daddmi sa md. The Anukr. would have us scan 
1 1 + 1 1 : 8 + 9 = 39, dividing before updsthe ; but the pada-vci'&%, mark the division 
correctly, after that word. 

5. Assign refreshment to him, ye (two) that are rich in refreshment ; 
assign milk to him, ye rich in milk ; refreshment have hcaven-and-earth 
assigned to him, [have] all the gods, the Maruts, refreshment [have] the 

* Refreshment * is the conventional rendering selected for the ambiguous word urj and 
its varieties. Nearly all our mss. (all save P. M.), and all of SPP's, have the false 
accentuation devds in d ; both editions emend to devas^ which the comm. also under- 
stands. So also with dyavdprthivi in c, for which the mss. have either dydvdprthivl (so 
nearly all of ours and one of SPP's) or dydvdprihivi (so, according to SPP., all his save 
one, with our O.D.); only our H. has the true reading, which is given by emendation in 
both editions. The verse (10+ 10: 12+ 11 = 43) is far from being a good trisiubh. 

6. With propitious things (f.) I gratify thy heart ; mayest thou enjoy 
thyself {mud) free from disease, very splendid; let the two that dwell 
together {? savds/n) drink this stir-about {man//id), putting on [as] magic 
the form of the (two) A^vins. 

The second half-verse is said apparently of a married pair, who are by supernatural 
means to become as beautiful as the A9vins. Of course, the comm. follows Kau<;. in 
understanding it of the sick and well man, and taking savdsin as ** dressed in one gar- 
ment." The comm. supplies adbhjs in a, which is plausible (so Weber). Ppp. reads in ^^ J/^^Y *^ 
a tarpayantti^ in b modamdna^ care ^ha, and in d a^vindu. Several of SPP's mss. j « r^ ^a 

give maihdm in c. *^ 

7. Indra in the beginning, being pierced, created this refreshment, 
[this] unaging svadlui ; it is thine here; by it live thou for autumns, very 
splendid ; be there no flux of thee ; the healers have made [it] for thee. 

In d, a susrot is here rendered as if it involved the idea of dsrdva 'flux*; the d 
seems to forbid its being taken to mean " let it not be spilled ** ; the comm., however, 
so understands it: pracyuto tnd bhut. Some of our mss. (M.P.W.) read t^niyd at 
beginning of C. The comm. has iirjam in b. Ppp. gives, in a, b, vidyo agram ilrjam 
svadhdm ajaidtn dam esd. 


30. To secure a woman*! love. 

[/Vif/<f^t/i {Itlminimafiithktmukkikarnnaldmak). — Jfi-imam. Jlmmitu^kmm : 

Found in PAipp. ii. (in llic vrrsc orHrr f, 5, 2.4, 3). l^scd hy Kau^. (35. 21 ff.), with 
vi. 8 and other hvtnns, in a rite (onccrnin>; women, to );ain control over a certain person : 

ind her liody smeared with it — which Is 
)' putting salt on its tail. 
97; Ludwig, p. 517; C«rill, 52, 97 ; Griflith, 
i. 70 ; lUiKmifield, too, 311. 

vi. 8 and other hvtnns, in a rite concerninj; wor 
I a mess of various substances is prepared, ai 
nJ muf h like the provcrl)ial catching of a bird by 
* Translated: Weber, v. 218 and xiii. 197; 

1. As the wind here shakes the grass off the earth, so do I shake thy 
mind, that thou mayest l)e one loving me, that thou mayest be one not 
going away from me. 

The last halTverse is the same with the concluding pAdas of i. 34. 5 and vi. 8. 1-3 ; 
SPI*. again alters the /<f</(i text to ti^a^X'^M (see under i-34. $); Tpp. has here for t 
/T'J fttama /vtlyast, Tpp. reads in a, b bhumyi} ^dhi vattt$ ( ! ) /r-. We shoukl expect 
in a rather hhitnyulm, and this the comin. reads, Inith in his exposition and in hit quota- 
tion of the pratika from K.\u<;. ; but lUoomficld give^ no such variant in his e«lition. 

2. May ye, O A^vins, both lead together and bring [her] together 
with him who loves her. The fortunes (bhdj^a) of you (two) have come 
together, together [your] intents, together [your] courses (vra/tl), 

Notwitlistanding the accent of 'tuikutthas^ it does not seem |>fissible to understand 
r/</in a as *if * ((»rill, however, so takes it; Wel>er as aUive). since the second half- 
verse has no applic ation to the A^vins (we .should like to alter %t}m in C to mJjv). |^IIut 
see lUoomfiehl J The translators take kAftiittt} in a as for ktlmimAu * the (two) lovers^* 
which it might also well l>c ; the comm. says ktlwtful majrd. He also calls fraia simply 
a kartftafuiman, which is very near the truth, as the word certainly comes from root 
vrl (see JAOS. xi., p. ccxxix - TAOS. Oct. 1S84). Ppp. reads nestiai in b for vaJtsa- 
ihas; and, in c, d, Sttrv*l *iij^tintUr tti^mtt/it saw cnkstinsi saw etc. Iloth here and in 
x%. 5 bhtii*a might possibly have its other sense of /^enifalia^ ox imply that by double 
meaning ; but the comm., who would l>e likely to spy out any such hidden sense, 9Ay% 
simply dAt}t;rtiMt. |^In a, <ifT'i«i(i is mi.Hprinted. — W*s implications are that if x^mksaikas 
were toneless it might l>e taken as a case of antithetical constructk>n and that there 
would he no need to join it with </r/.J 

3. What the eagles [are] wanting to say, the free from disease [are] 
wanting to say — there let her come to my call, as the tip to the neck of 
the arrow (lulfnatti). 

The first half-verse is very obscure, and very differently understood by the transla- 
tors; the ren<lering aliove is strictly literal, avoiding the violences which they allow 
themselves : the comm. gives no aid : he supplies strhisayam i*aJtvam to r^/, and explains 
anamit'tis by aft\i^tHO \irf>ttlh {} SIT. understamls ^rptJkk) kAmifamAh, i'|>p. has an 
inde|>endent text : y*is sHfafnA raksAna t'«) na vaksana vA trAiAnpitam mammk : f4t/r# 
*t'd n^mlwaitim yatMA — tiM) corrupt to make much of. The Anukr. declines to sanctkxi 
the contraction {ah/ *va in d. 


4. What [was] within, [be] that without; what [was] without, [be] 

that within ; of the maidens of many forms seize thou the mind, O herb. 

In the obscure formalism of a, b the comm. thinks mind and speech to be intended. 
LVVhy not rctas and (^ipas ?\ * Of all forms/ i.e., as often elsewhere, * of every sort 
and kind.* L^'PP* ^^^^ds abdhyam for bdhyam yad bdhyam.\ 

5. Hither hath this woman come, desiring a husband ; desiring a wife 
have I come ; like a loud-neighing (krand) horse, together with fortune 
have I come. 

That is, perhaps, * I have enjoyed her favors.* None of the mss. fail to accent ^yrfMa 
in c. 

31. Against worms. 

\K(inva. — mahtdcvatyam uta cdndram. dnustubham : 2. uparistddvirddbrhatT ; j. drst 

tristubh ; 4. prdguktd brhati ; j. prdguktd tristubh.'\ 

Found also in Paipp. ii. Used by Kau<;. (27. I4ff.) in an extended healing rite 
against worms ; the detail of the ceremonial has nothing to do with that of the hymn, 
and does not illustrate the latter. 

Translated: Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 135 ff. ; Weber, xiii. 199 ; Ludwig, p. 323 ; Grill, 6,98 ; 
Griflith, i. 71 ; Bloomfield, 22, 313. — Cf. Zimmer, pp.98, 393 ; Mannhardt, Dcr Bauin- 
kultus der Germancn^ p. I2ff.; K. Miillenhoff, DenkmdUr deutscher Poesie aus dan 
8. bis 12. Jahrhundert 3, i. 17, 181 ; and especially the old Germanic analogues adduced 
by Kuhn, I.e. Griflith Q\ies Harper^s Magazine^ June, 1893, p. 106, for modern usages 
in vogue near Quebec. 

1. The great mill-stone that is Indra's, bruiser (tdrhand) of every worm 

— with that I mash {pis) together the worms, as ^//^/z/^-grains with a 


Our mss. and those of SPP., as well as Ppp., vary, in this hymn and elsewhere, quite 
indiscriminately between krimi and krmi^ so that it is not at all worth while to report 
the details; SPP. agrees with us in printing everywhere krimi. Two of our mss. 
(O. Op.), with one of SPP's, read dhrsdt in a. Ppp. gives at the end khalvdn iva. 
The comm. explains krimfn by (^arirdntargatdn sarvdn ksudrajantun, 

2. The seen, the unseen one have I bruised, also the knrflni have I 

bruised ; all the algdndus^ the ^alunaSy the worms we grind up with our 

spell (vdcas). 

The distinction of -/ga- and -/d- in the manuscripts is very imperfect ; I had noted 
only one of our mss. as apparently having algAndun^ here and in the next verse ; but SPP. 
gives this as found in all his authorities, including oral ones ; and the comm. presents 
it, and even also Ppp.; so that it is beyond all question the true reading. The comm. 
explains it here as etanndmnah krimivi^esdn^ but in vs. 3 as ^OfiHamdnsadtisakdn jafiiftn 

— which last is plainly nothing more than a guess. Instead of kururum in b, he reads 
kurlram, with three of SPP's mss., and Ppp.; other mss. differ as to their distribution 
of // and n in the syllables of the word, and two of ours (Op. Kp.) give kurnram. Two 
of SPP's authorities give vdrcasd in d. Ppp. further has adraham for airham both 
times, and ^alftldn in c. The omission of krimln in d would ease both sense and meter. 
[As to sarvdn ch-y cf. iii. 11. 5, iv.8. 3, and Prat. ii. 17, note. J 

il. ji~ nooK II. Tin: atharva-veda-samhita 74 

3. I smite the ttii^dtnius with a Rreal deadly wea|x>n ; burnt [orj 
unburnl. they have become sapless; those left [or] not left I draw down 
by my s|k'1I (vtU), that no one of the worms be left. 

It srcm^ harilly |M>\^il»lr |i» .ivi>ii! ammclin*^ at the end to mMt'tyil/tf/, i»a\%i%'e. I'|>p. 
rr.ifis ill b tiuHtktitiun*}^ and it% \.\sX \\A\i-wc\sc is defaced. 

4. 1 he one alon^ the entrails, the one in the head, likewise the worm 
in the libs, the tivaskaiui, the vyadhvard — the worms we grind up with 

our spell {x'tuas). 

The romm.. ami twi» of SI'P'h mss., read in h pitiiieyam 'in the heel'; and SIM'. 
aflinit^ into his text .Wtrr it kfimni^ at^.iinst the great majority of his \\\\\. and a|*ainst 
the ionun.; none of our^ have it, Imt three (<). Op. K|>.) f;i%'e tfimltn, whiih looks like 
an alwutive attempt at it. I or '•yttJhvtttam in c, I'pp. has yatatk ; all the mss. have 
vyadhvat Am ; unless it in to Ik? emen»le<l to tyndvarAm (t f. vi. 50. 3, note), it must prob. 
al»!y !»c derived fr«»m vyoJh 'pierre*; but the /iii/ifieading vi'^*it1hx'afAm |>oints rather 
to viiiiihvan ; tiie comm. takes it from tlie latter, ami also, alternatively, from xn and 
ittikvatti; avaskitvA is, according to him, avAi^amanawahhAva ; it seems rather to 
tome fif>m v'liw Mear.' The expressif>n /^fAi^Nlta 'as heretofore defined* it not used 
elsewhere in the Anukr. ; it is used !»y al>l)reviation for uparistAdx'irikti (vs. 2); but why 
the two verses were not defmed together, to make re|>etition needless, does not appear. 
I^In d. aj^ain. ktimin is a palpable intrusion. J 

5. The worms that are in the mountains, in the woods, in the herbs, 
in the cattle, within the waters, that have entered our selves (tanu) — that 
whole generation (jdnimnn) <d worms I smite. 

Two of SPP's mss. agree with the comm. in readint; // (or y/ SLi lieginning of €; and 
the comm. has further ianvas for tanvnm. Ppp. inserts// l)efore vam/tM, and //(with 
an tfittsAna U'fore it) also Inrfore ouuihlstt ; for second half-verse it f;ives yf*smAkmm 
/an»i* {'i.e. tani'o) sihAma ntkrir (i.e. (alfur or iakrue) tudftis /Am Mamtm maAatJ x^sdk' 
ftta. rfA^hkiA in the Anukr. apparently re|H'ats this time the superfluous Jkrst of vs. 3. 

The anui'Akti [^5. J has 5 hymns and 29 verses, and the extract from the old Anukr. 
says talo 'parAtAt or *parAHU, 

32. Against worms. 

[A'Amtt. — s.tiffiam. AHtty^iHtvatyam . Amutfit^Aam : i. j f^.hkmrtf^gAyatrt ; 6. 4f. fturJmtmik.\ 

This hymn oi rurs in PAipp. ii. (with vs. 5 put last), next l>cfore the one that here 
precedes it. Kau<;. applies it (27. 21 If.) in a healint; reremimy af^ainst worms in cattle 

l^'I'he materi.d ap|>ears in Ppp. in the order 1. 2 ab. 4 cdab. 5 ab, 6, 3 abc $ d- The 
etpicssion of Kau<;. 27. 22, •* with the words // httlAh (vs. 5 d) at the end of the hymn,** 
suiiqests the reduc tion of the hymn to the norm of the iKxik. 5 vss. (see p. 37). Thit 
is l>orne otit by I*pp-. where the material amounts to 5 vss and ends with our 5 d. 
Put what the intruded portions are it is not easy to say. 1 he parts missing; in Ppp. 
are our 2 cd. 3 d. 5 cj 

Translated: Kuhn, K/. xiii. 13A; \Vel>er. xiii. 201 : Ludwij;. p. 500; (^rill, 7, loo; 
C«rif1'ith, i 72 ; HhMimficld. 23. 317. — C'f. Ilillelvramlt, liiia€kretii*matMtf^\^,^J. 

I. I,rl the sun (dtiihti), rising, smite the worms; setting, let him 
smito [thrm] with his rays — the worms that are within the cow. 


The change of adityAs to suryas in a would rectify the meter. But Ppp. has adityas; 
its b reads sQryo nimrocan raqmibhir hantu; and for c it has ye *nias krimayo 
gavf nah. 

2. The worm of all forms, the four-eyed, the variegated, the whitish 

— I crush (fr) the ribs of it ; I hew at {api-vraqc) what is its head. 

The mss., as usual, vary between prsiis and prsthts in c. Ppp. has a different ver- 
sion of the first half-verse : yo dvi^lrsd caturaksas krimiq ^drgo arjnnahy with our 
4 c, d as second half. The Anukr. expects us to make the unusual resolution a-si-a in c. 

3. Like Atri I slay you, O worms, like Kanva, like Jamadagni ; with 

the incantation of Agastya I mash together the worms. 

Ppp. rectifies the meter of a by reading tvd krtne ; it has agastyam in c, and, for d, 
our 5 d. The Anukr. ignores the redundant syllable in our a. Compare TA. iv. 36 
(which the comm. quotes, though the editor does not tell from whence): dtrind ivd 
krime hanmi kdtivena jamddagnind : vt\vdvasor brdhmand ; also MB. ii. 7. I a, b : 
hatas te atrind krimir hatas te jamadagnitid, SPP. writes in a attrivdd, Vss. 3-5 
are repeated below as v. 23. 10-12. 

4. Slain is the king of the worms, also the chief (sthapdti) of them is 
slain ; slain is the worm, having its mother slain, its brother slain, its 

sister slain. 


Ppp. has in b sthapacis^ and in c, d (its 2 c, d) -trdtd for -tftdidy and -mahaid for 
bhrdtd, TA* (iv. 36) has again a parallel verse : hatdh krimludth rAjd dpy esdm stha- 
pdtir hatdh : dtho mdta ^Ihopitaj cf. also MB. ii. 7. 3 a, b : hatah krimlndth ksudrako 
hatd ntatd hatah pita. The comm. explains sthapati by saciva, 

5. Slain are its neighbors {? vcfds)^ slain its further neighbors {? pdri- 
vc(as)f also those that are petty (ksu/Zakd), as it were — all those worms 

are slain. ^^'/ ^^^/^-^ ^^^^"^^ , ^ 

The translation of d implies the emendation of te to tS; all the mss. have the former, 
but SPP. receives the latter into his text on the authority of the comm., who so under- J^.//- /^/ 
stands the word. Ppp. reads in a, b *sya vcsaso hatdsas p-; our c is wanting in its 
text ; our d it puts in place of our 3 d. Our ksullaka is a kind of Prakritization of '^ 
ksudraka, quoted from MB. under vs. 4 ; TA. (ib.) also has dtho sthura dtho ksudrah. 
The comm. explains vei^dsas as " principal houses,'* and pdrive^asas as " neighboring 
houses." We might suspect -ves-^ from root vis^ and so * attendants, servants.' 

6. I crush up {pra-ft) thy (two) horns, with which thou thrustest ; I 
split thy receptacle (.^), which is thy poison-holder. 

The decided majority, both of our mss. and of SPP's, give in c kustimbham, which 
is accordingly accepted in both editions ; other sporadic readings are kumsiimbham^ 
kusdbham ^ ka^dbham^ kusiibham, knsdmbham ; and two of SPP's mss. give sukum- 
bham^ nearly agreeing with the sukambham of the comm. Our P.M.E. have vinud- 
in b. Ppp's version is as follows : pa te ^^r nd mi ^rnge ydbhydy attain vitaddyasi: atho 
bhinadmi tarn kumbhaiii yasmin te nihataih visath^ which in c is better, than our text, 
and is supported by the MB, (ii. 7. 3) form of c, d : athdi *sdtn bhinnakah kumbho ya 
esdm visadhdnakah. The metrical definition of the verse (7 + 7 *. 7+6=27) given 
by the Anukr. is only mechanically correct. 


33. For expulsion of yiksma from all parts of the body. 

nur,iAuuttuhk ; y. fatkyif^anltt ) 

Fouml in I'Aipp. iv. Corrfn|x>nfl», with im|)ortant variations, to most of RV. x. 163 
((oiiikI also in MT., the tnttntta\^x\ to A|)(«S.: see Winternitz, lc.,p.99). |^Namel)% 
our vsA. I. 2, 4 ab \»ith 3 cd. and 5 correspond to M I*, i. I 7. I, 2, 3. and 4 : the Ml*, vrrsion 
follows mii^t nearl) that of KV.J The hymn is called by Kilu^. (27.27) vihmrkm 
(from \v 7 d). and is ptcs(ril>ed in a hcalini; ceremony ; it is also reckoned (54. II, note) 
tt> thr <li f/Jirf i^tniii : but llie comm. makes up an anholtfij^a j^afta of it and itt. I f ; \\\ 13 ; 
V. 30 ; \x. K, ^hiih is quite different from the one re|)ortcd by lUoomfield from thejftfWtf* 
mAli} in note* to K.\u<;. 32. 27 \ot\ pa;;e 89, but a|*rees with the one re)M)rted In ll'i sup- 
plcnuMit. pa>;e 334. ex( ept that for i. 10. 4 siiould be put iii. 1 1. 1 J. It (or vs. i) it abo 
employed by Vait. (3S. i) in i\\c f>ti9 usawrtihtt. 

Translated: by the KV. translators; and Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 66 ff . ; Weber, xiit. 305 ; 
(ffiffith. i 74; HI<K>mru*ld, 44, 321. — Oldcnberg compares critically the KV. and AV. 
versions, ///«* I/ymtwu Jes Hl'.^ i. p. 243. 

1. Forth from thy (two) eyes, (two) nostrils, (two) cars, chin, brainy 

tonj;ue, I eject (vivrit) for thee X\\ii ydksma of the head. 

'1 hr vciv is KV. x. 163. i, witliout variant. Twi> or three of .SPT's mss., with the 
comm., trad in b tubulat ; Ml*, has itbnl*}t \j\\ the Whish ms.J ; I'pp. substitutes for it 
//J Ml}/ (i.e. iiivtli), has ///<f for il<//i/, and has for d iahltthi vt vayrmasL 

2. Vrmn thy neck (j^rinis), nni>c (usfii/ias), vertebrx (Ulasif), back- 
hone, (two) shoulders, (two) forearms, I eject for thee the pilsma of 
the arms. 

This, aijain, is precisely KV. x. 163.2. Ppp. reads in b antH-yitt, and in d mras/as 
(for ^JA/#M I'll w) and vrAilmitti. The \A. ^riiuls for * neck ' designates, accordini; to 
the ( omnv. tiie 14 small Inmes found there ; and he quotes i^W, xii. 2. 4. to for authority. 
'1 hr ti**f//i,}s he declares to be certain xes^els (/#«!#//); the kikasdt^ to he jaifux*mks0* 
t;it/*U//it*tt\ which is (piite indefinite. 

3. l**orth from thy heart, hmp; (kliwtdn), hdliksm^ (two) sides, (two) 
mdtasnas, spleen, liver, we eject for thee \\\^ ydksma, 

Welnr conjectures ** fjall " fi»r halikiutt ( Ppp. hailksma)^ and •* kidney ** for matmsms. 
The comm. dcrines khmAn as •• a kind of flesh-ma-ss in the neij»hlKKhoo<l of the heart,** 
A>i/UtMit as ittttsttfnjfiakAt ttttutfuKtfuihAn Milfisti^ttti/at't^rstl/, and mtitdsmJkhktMm at 
u *'fttty,ip.}HVit \a mf*tt Hiif'tilhhvilfh vf tyAbhvtlf** iiii$iimlf^asthapiilAiikArapAirikhkrMm imI. 
F Of a. Tpp. has khmniis U /trdaytUAyiy. Of this verse, only the latter half has a paral* 
Irl in K\'., namely x. 1^13. 3 c. d, where d is varied Xo yakuAh ptA^ihkyo X'i vrk4mi U, 
The Anukr. fmdi.shly rejects all resolution in b. 

4. I''orth fiom thine entrails, puts, rectum, belly, (two) paunches, /Aff/^ 
n.ivel, I eject ft)r thee the vdlstna, 

' mm 

The ( funm. explains y^Mttlhhyttt by iintraxtimtpaitkibkyo mttiamiiirapravaktimm* 
mAfi;tbh\,th, and pltl^/s h\ htihh(%httOi\it malapMrM; and he quotes (,'11. xii. 9.1. J^ 
iihere many of the names in the verse occur. KV. (also Ml*.) has the lirtt half-venc. 


as 163. 3 a, b, reading hfdayat for uddrdi. For b, c, [d, J Ppp. substitutes our 6 b, c [d, 
but with panyor in c and vrhdmasi at the end J. The Anukr. again rejects all resolu- 
tions, which would make the verse a fair anustubh^ and counts 7-1-8 : 7 "♦"2= 29. 

5. From thy (two) thighs, knees, heels, front feet, hips, fundament 

(? bhdhsas)^ I eject for thee Xh^ ydksma of the rump. 

In the translation here is omitted bhasaiiam^ the pure equivalent of bhasadyditty 
and hence as superfluous in sense as redundant in meter. [^Is not prdpada *toe'?J 
The verse is nearly RV. x. 163.4, which, however, omits bhasadydm^ and reads, after 
^rdnibhydm^ bhasaddt^ indicating the whole region of anus and pudenda. Ppp. ends 
the verse (like 2 and 4) with vrhdmasi. Several of our mss., with two or three of 
SPP*s, carelessly begin with urn-, MP. has in h janghdbhydm for pdrsnibhydm^ and 
in d dhvansasas. The verse seems to be scanned by the Anukr. as 8 -♦- 7 : 8 + 11 = 34. 

6. From thy bones, marrows, sinews, vessels, (two) hands, fingers, 

nails, I eject for thee the ydksma, 

Pditl is distinctively * palm,' and might properly be so rendered here. Nearly all our 
samhiid-m^s.^ with most of SPP's, omit the visarga before snAvabhyo. Ppp. has a 
different a, c, d : hastebhyas te vtdnsebhyas . . . : yaksmam prstibhyo majjabhyo nddydm 
virvahdmasi. The Anukr. scans as 7 + 7 : 9-1-8 = 31. 

7. What [ydksma is] in thine every limb, every hair, every joint — 

the ydksvia of thy skin do we, with Ka^yapa's ejector {ylbarhd) eject 

away {visvatic). 

The first half-verse corresponds to RV. x. 163.6. a, b, which (as also MP.) reads 
thus : dngdd-angdl Idmno-lomno jdtdm pdrvani-parvani; and Ppp. agrees with it, 
except in having baddham for jdtain; Ppp. also omits d. In d our P. M., with some 
of SPP's mss., read vibar-^ as does also the comm. \juivarhatn ]. In our edition, an 
accent-mark has fallen out under -flcatn in e. 

34. Accompanying the sacrifice of an animal. 

[A/Aarvart. — fd^upatyani ; fafub/uJgakaranam. trdistnbham.'^ 

Found in Paipp. iii.; and also in the Black- Yajus texts, TS. (iii. i.4»-3), and K. 
(xxx. 8, in part). Used by Kau^. (44. 7) in the va^d^atnana ceremony, accompanying 
the anointing of the vaqd ; in the same, vs. 5 accompanies (44. 15) the stoppage of the 
victim's breath; and the same verse appears in the funeral rites (81.33), w*^^^ verses 
from xviii. 2 and 3, in connection with the lighting of the pile. This hymn and the one 
next following are further employed among the kdmydni^ with invocation of Indra and 
Agni, by one who "desires the world" (59.21: "desires over-lordship of all the 
world," comm.). In Vait. (10. 16), the hymn (so the comm.) is said on the release of 
the victim from the sacrificial post in the pa^ubandha. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 207 ; Ludwig, p. 433 ; Griffith, i. 75. — See also Roth, Ucber 
den A y. p. 1 4. 

I. The lord of cattle, who rules over (tf) the cattle, the four-footed, 
and who also over the two-footed — let him, bought off, go to [his] sacri- 
ficial portion ; let abundances of wealth attach themselves to (snc) the 


In the TS. version, this vcisr come* second (the vcncKwdcr t>«inff 5, f , 3,4. 2). Iloth 
TS. and K. have at the lH*;;inninc r/iJ//i, which l*|>p. supports by reading fjJIm, and 
which rrt tiries the meter of a : this ^ives (ptite a dtlTerent application to C, and a differ- 
ent to the mcaniuj; of the vcrsr. IS. alv) nt for r«'' in b, ajdw (*jrJm) for sti 
in c and it ends (liettcr) with vA/AtmAnitiytt santu. K. (Welier) has for b laiutpAtia 
uttt \e *ivif*t\tiah^ and for c itttlrlttlt ie yajtiiyam hhtlx^am yantu ; and Ppp. differs from 
it only kh;;htly. addinf; t'<J after uta in b, and ending c with yajfliyA yAnti hkam. 
Apparently it is the lord of cattle who is to l>e bril>ed to content himself with hit sacri- 
ficial share, in lieu of taking; the whole. The Anukr. does not heed the irrei^ularities of 
meter in a, b. ^ The Ppp. form of b seems to be catmspailAm uta vik ye dx^ipadak /J 

2. Do yc, releasing; (pra-fptuc) the sccti of being, assign progress 

{giUu) to the .sacrificer, O gods; what hath stood brought hither (i//^- 

krta), strenuous (^a^amand), let it go ujxjn the dear path of the gods. 

TS. (and K. ?) rectifies the meter of a (whose irrejjularity the Anukr. ignores) by read- 
ing pramufiitimtlmls ; it also has jtvtim for ffivAm in d. I*pp- Rives ji;**/*! for feUts in •« 
and in b makes dhattti and drt'As change places; in d it reads ///. Pfiydm may qualify 
the subject in d : • let it, dear [to the gmlsj, go * etc. i'pAkrIa and {a^amikmd have their 
usual technical senses, * brought to the sactiftce* and * efficient in the perfonnance of 
religious duty*; the latter is explained by the comm. alternatively, as "being put to 
death *' or •* leaping up *' (root |4i{ ) • l^fi'^^s is, according to him, Arst " the breaths, sight 
etc.,'* then •• the gixls. Agni etc.*' \\\, Sieg discusses pAthas^ GHrupujAkaumrndt^ P- 9^ J 

3. They who, giving attention to (ann-d/ii) the one being bound* 

looked after [him] with mind and with eye — let the divine Agni at first 

(dgrt) release them, he the all-working, in unison with (sam-rd) progeny. 

T.S. and MS. (i. 2. 15) have fi,tdAyiiffit1»Js for tffdkytlnJj, and TS. follows it with 
abkydiks' ; and in c combines ai;nis tan ; M.S. al!»o has (in, lioth read in d prajipaiit 
for vi{vAktttmi\ ; and TS. ends with SAimvidAnAs. Ppp. has in c mumukia dn*As, and, 
for d, //«fyi>/i»//; ptajAbhis sttm: idtlntlnt ; it then achls another \ct%e : yrsdm ppJn^ 
ma badhnantt baddham ^avAm pa^iintlnt uttt pdnrttsilnJIm : t'ndrat film (i.e. tJtt agfe 
pra etc.). The < omm. reads in a vadhyamAnam, which is lietter ; he explains tamra- 
rilMtts by J(M<r {abdAytttntlnits^ as if from the root ftl *bark*! Comparison with the 
next verse seems to show the other animals, comrades of the victim, to l)e aimed at in 
the verse. [^Lf. \Vel)er*s notes, p. 209, and esp. his reference to i^W. iii. 7. 49. — MS. 
has fJn^ p. tin: .see al>ove, page xr.J 

4. The cattle that are of the village, all-formed, being of various 
forms, manifoldly of one form — let the divine Vayu at first release 
them, Trajripati, in uni.son with progeny. 

TS. and K. have tlranyis 'of the forest* in a. (or /^nlwyis, and TS. combines fJ/w/ 
tin in c. niul ends ag.iin with -'idtinah. TA. (iii. ii) has two versions (vss. 29,32), 
of whi( h thr seron«l precisely agrees with TS., while the first has ^ftlmyit^ like our 
text (.ind ttji^Hh tin in c). I'pp- i^ »|uitf' different : y*i tJrnnytls pa^ax'O vi(t'4ir^ps m/a 
r/ kiimpA/t: . . . mutnukta df.ah ptaji\patt% ptajAbhts satkvtdAnAm. 

5. l-tircknowing, let them first ( phna) receive the breath (pnfnd) 
coming to [them] forth from the limbs. Go to heaven; stand firm with 
thy ImhIIcs ; j;o to paradise (s:tirj;^d) by gtnl-traveled roads. 


Ppp. has devds lor piirve in a, idbhydm for divam in c, and at the end -M/f (^ivebhih, 
TS. resids ^/iftan/i in a ; and TS. K. MS. (ii. 5. 10 c, d) invert the order of c and d, and 
give the better reading dsadhlsu for divam gacha Lcf. RV. x. 16. 3J; MS. also has 
hutds for svargam. The comm. makes piirve mean ** the gods previously stationed in 
the atmosphere '* ; perhaps it is * before the demons get hold of it.* 

35. To expiate errors in the sacrifice : to Vi^vakarman. 

\Angiras. — vdifvakarmauam, trdistubham : j. brhatigarbhd ; ^^^.bhurij^ 

Found (except vs. 5, and in the verse-order 2, 3, 1,4) in Paipp. i. The same four verses 
are found in TS. (Hi. 2. 8'-3 : in the order 2, 4, 3, i), and the first three in MS. (ii. 3. 8 ; 
in the order 1,3, 2). The hymn is used by Kau^. (38. 22) in a rite intended, according 
to the comm., to prevent faults of vision (drsltdosanivdrandya j Kc^ava says " to pre- 
vent rain," vrstinivdrandya ; perhaps his text is corrupt), accompanying the eating of 
something in an assembly. Its employment (59.21) with the hymn next preceding was 
noticed under the latter. The comm. (differing in his reading and division of the rules 
from the edited text of Kau^.) declares it to be used in all the sava sacrifices, to accom- 
pany i\\Q purastdd /lomas (59. 23-4 : uttarena savapHrasidddhomdn)\ and vs. 5 is used 
(3.16) with a purastdd homa in the parvan sacrifices. In Vait. the hymn appears 
(9. 7) in the cdturmdsya sacrifice, with two oblations to Mahendra and Vi^vakarman 
respectively ; and again (29. 22) in the agnicayana. In all these applications there is 
nothing that suits the real character of the hymn. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 211 ; Ludwig, p. 302 (vss. 1-4); GrifTith, i. 76. 

1. They who, partaking [of soma] (bhaks)^ did not prosper {rdh) in 
good things, whom the fires of the sacrificial hearth were distressed about 
(ami'tapya-) — what was the expiation (avayd) of their ill-sacrificc, may 
Vi9vakarman ('the all-worker') make that for us a good sacrifice. 

The translation implies emendation of duristis in c to -/^j, and of tan in d to tarn; 
tdtn is read by the comm., as well as by TS. and MS., and SPP. even admits it into 
his text, though nearly all his mss., as well as ours, read tan. Our P. and M. read 
dvrdhus at end of a; TS. has dnrhus^ MS. duaqus. TS. elides the a of anu in b; it 
begins c with iydm for j/rt, and ends it with ditristydi^ thus supporting our emendation. 
Both TS. and MS. give kriwtu in d, and MS. puts it after vi^vdkarfftd. The pada- 
mss. read in c avaoya, but SPP. alters h\s pada-text to ava-yak^ on the authority of the 
comm. ; it is a matter of indifference, as the concluding element, in spite of the native 
grammarians, is doubtless the root/<f. Ppp. gives duristd svistam in c, d. The various 
readings, here and in the following verses, are in good part of the kind which show 
that the text-makers were fumbling over matter which they did not understand. The 
comm. is no better off. Here,* in a, he is uncertain whether to take nd as * as if * or 
* not,' and to make vdsuni object of bhaksdyantas or of dnrdhus ( = vardhttavantas^ 
which is not j^The fires, pada b, are personified in like fashion at AGS. iv. i. 2, 3. J 
The verse (12-f 12 :9-f 1 1 =44) is much more irregular than the definition of the 
Anukr. admits. 

2. The seers declare the master {-pdti) of the sacrifice by reason of 
sin disportioned, distressed about [his] offspring. What honeyed drops 
he offended in {} apa-rddli)^ with them let Vi^vakarman unite (sam-srj) us. 


his. hat in t tlie equivalent yAjamilmnm ; its b reads vikiya frnjim mnit^fym- 
mAnAh ; while IS. has prajAyh) nirbhaktAi^h) anuUtftAmAnAk^ and Tpp. mirkkJk^atA 
hkA^Ad ttHHtapyttmAnA. 'IS. and MS. make the lost drops only two: mmdkaxyAu 
stftJtAti . . . iihhyAm^ witli tAti instead of yim^ and hence rarAdka, The translation 
implies lorrection to madkavy'^ as read hy lioth the parallel texts and the comm. ; 
SI'T's text agrees with nurn in reading tlie matkavy- of all the msA. (except three ol 
SPr^s, which follow the comm). All the iamkttA\xi%%. make the alisurd combinatinn 
nas Uhhth in d, seemtnj; to have in mind the participle nastd; ST I*, retains nasUkktt 
in his text, while ours emends to nas tdbkis^ as f^iven in the comment to l^&L it. }t. 
Tpp. our second half-vctse as its 3 cd ; it reads madkavyAm Mti*tAm uf^m yd rmwAdk^ 
snm tnA tarAis srjad ': t^raJtitPmA. The comm. takes aMM and /«i//* in b as two inde- 
pendent words ; he explains tj/^it rarAdha in c l>y antttrttAn krtavAn, which is doabtless 
its meaning. ^W's prior draft reads: "what honeyed drops he failed of" — 
that is, * missed. 'J 

3. Thinking the soma-drinkcrs to be unworthy of gifts (} adJmjrd)^ 
[though] knowing of the sacrifice, [he is] not wise (d/ttra) in the conjunc- 
ture {snmttyd)\ in that this man is biiund having committed a sin, do 
thou, O Vi<;vakarman, release him for his well-being. 

The offense here had in view is far from clear. Instead of adAnyd (which occurs 
only h(-rr), TS. has the apparently unintellif^ent ananyAm ; MS. reads aymjiktyim yajfli- 
yAn wArty- * thinking the unfit for c»ffrrinjj to l>c fit for offering' (or r/*/ vfpsa): both 
have ill b />rAftAsytt Un vit/ftAiyti, and i«i ///«!// for -y/, I'pp. gi%'es the second hall-verie 
as 2 c. d. and ends it with /f«i mumu^dky enam. TS. M.S. have nojil/ at beginning of 
C ; TS. gives ///«i( iakrvim mAhi^ and MS. //i<» mahAi otkrvdn ^, antl TS. rsAm for riJ. 
The comm. explains adAttyAn as ajfiiitvApt^pftia dAnAnarkAft^ takes i»<f in b as particle of 
comparison, and makes Siimttya e(|ual safht^rAma : ** as if one by confidence in the 
stren;:th of his own arm should think the opposing soldiers despicable**! The verse 
(I I -i- 1 1 : 10 f 12 =44) has marked irref^ularities which the Anukr. ignores. 

4. Terrible [are] the seers ; homage be to them ! what sight [is] theirs, 
ami the actuality {stUyd) of their mind. For lUihasfKiti, O bull (fnahtsd), 
[\yc] bright (dytitpuint) homage; O Vi<;vakarman, homage to thee! protect 
thou w^. 

The tr.inslation follows our text, though this is plainly corrupted. TS. makes b less 
unintelligiMe by reading iAJtsttstt$ for cAksttr yAi, and samdkAii for satyAm ; Tpp. has 
in the h.ilfver\e only minor variants: bktma for f^k^fAs^ *sIh for if»/i», tamdrk for 
Sti/ytim. In c, TS. has m,tki sAt for the senseless maktsn^ and the comm. presents the 
same : I'pp reads hhtt\f>ate maki%Aya dtif : tutwo vi^:*-. TS. gives for d mfm^ r/'fT^f- 
k*t9m»iiu j'f // /il/:' itifntln. In d all the /<r«/<t-mss. ha%^ the strange blunder /^lA«, for 
f^Ahi x% re(]uirrd t)y the sense and liy the sit>ttkiiA\tx\\ and STI*. adopts the blunder, 
thus gi\ing a /<i4/4i rc.iding tliat is inconvertible into his own samhttA. The comm. 
takes f jjKrr in a as *• the breaths, sight etc..** and saiyam in b :k% yatkJrtkadar^i ; and 
he founds on this intrrpret.ition the use in K.iu^. 38. 22, " against faults of vision.** 

5. The sacrifice's eye. commencement, and face: with voice, hearing, 
miml I make oblation. To this sacrifice, extended by Vi^vakarman, let 
the g<Hls come, well-willing. 


The verse is found in no other text, and is perhaps not a proper part of the hymn ; it 
is repeated below as xix. 58. 5. A few of the saMAi/d-mss. (including our O.) ignore 
the a at beginning of d. The comm. is not certain whether the three nominatives in a 
designate Agni or sacrificial butter ; but he has no scruple about making them objects 

36. To get a husband for a woman. 

[Pativedatta. — astarcam, dg^isomiyam, trdistitbham : i, bhurij ; 2^ j-^, OMUsfudA ; 

8. nicrtpurausnih,^ 

Found (except vss. 6,8) in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order 1,3, 2, 4, 5, 7). Used by 
Kau9. (34. I3ff.) among the women's rites, in a ceremony for obtaining a husband; 
vss. 5 and 7 are specially referred to or quoted, with rites adapted to the text. It is 
further regarded by the schol. and the comm. as sigmfi^A hy pattvedana (75. 7), at the 
beginning of the chapters on nuptial rites, accompanying the sending out of a wooer 
or paranymph. 

Translated : Weber, v. 219 ; xiii. 214 ; Ludwig, p. 476; Grill, 55, 102 ; Griffith, i. 78 ; 
Bloomfield, 94, 322. — Cf. Zimmer, p. 306. 

1 . Unto our favor, O Agni, may a wooer come, to this girl, along with 
our fortune (bhdga). Enjoyable {jus(d) [is she] to suitors (vard), agree- 
able at festivals (sdmana) ; be there quickly good-fortune for her with a 

The text is not improbably corrupt. Ppp. reads in a, b sumatitn skandaloke idam 
am kumdrydmdno bAagena; but it combines c and d much better into one sentence by 
reading for d osath patyd bAavati {-in f) sub A age yam. The comm. explains sambAa- 
las as sambAdsakaA samdddtd vd; or else, he says, it means AihsakaA pftrvam abAild- 
savigAdtl kanydm aniccAan purusaA, He quotes ApGS. i. 4 to show that vard also 
means paranymph. Justa he quotes Panini to prove accented yV/j/^f. In d he reads 
usam^ and declares it to signify sukAakaram, ^Bcrgaigne, 7?^/. t//</. i, 1 59, takes 
sdmana as = * marriage.* J 

2. Fortune enjoyed by Soma, enjoyed by Brahman, brought together 
by Aryaman; with the truth of divine Dhatar, the husband-finder I 
perform (kf), 

Ppp. has a mutilated first half -verse: somajusto aryamnd sambArio bAaga; and at 
the end patirvedanam. The comm. understands in a braAma- to mean the (iandharva, 
who and Soma are the first husbands of a bride (xiv. 2. 3, 4). He does not sec in bAaga 
anything but kanydrfipam bAdgadAeyamj but the meaning " favors " is not impossible. 

LBoth bAagam (" fortune " or " favors ") and pativedanam (the ceremony called 
"husband-finder") are objects of krnomi ; which, accordingly, needs to f^e rendered 
by *make' or • procure* for the one combination and by 'perform* for the other. It 
is hardly a case of zeugma. — Bloomfield notes that sarhbArta contains a conscious 
allusion to sambAaia, vs. i.J 

3. May this woman, O Agni, find a husband ; for king Soma makcth 
her of good-fortune ; giving birth to sons, she shall become chief consort 
{mdhisi) ; having gone to a husband, let her, having good-fortune, bear 
rule (vi-rdj). 

ii. 36- BOOK II. THi: ATHARVA-Vi:i)A-SAttHITA. Si 

'llirre ms%. (including our P.O.) read mJri in A. |^For vtWrsfa in A (Crmmmmr* 
§ 850 a). J I 'pp. has viiirstM ; at end of b it rcadu /fi«w krnotH ; ami it chanj(t« the 
tccond li.ilf-vrr<(c into an addnss by reading hhax'Asi^ and stthhaf^e x*i rAjA. The 
comm. explains tnahtfl a.n mahatiiYi} {testhA bhAryA. The f(»urth |)ada is bett •canned 
Atjtt^t^ittl, with resolution j^M /wm/ \jn insert si l>efore x*M#i^'«lJ. 

4. As, bounteous one (mtii^/tdvaft), this pleasant covert hath been 
dear to the well-settled (sNsdti) wild lK*asts, so let this woman be enjoyed 
of Hha«;a, mutually dear, not disagreeing with her husband. 

The translation here involves emendation of the unmanageable susddA in b to smtd' 
dAm, as suggested by iii. 22. 6. SPP. has in his /W<f-text sttuAdAM (as if nom. of 
smuidat), and makes no note \x\yot\ the word — probably by an oversight, as of oiw fadm^ 
mss. only Op. has such a reading ; the comm. understands sttsAdAs, and explains it by 
SMkhfna sthAtHfh yoi^Ydh 'comfortable to d\%cll in*; which is not unacceptable. The 
comm. aUo has in a fHiii;/t,t:-AH, and in d iibhttAtihayantl ( - abhivaf dkayamit^ or else 
puirtipa{vAtiibhih satnrddhA bba'.'ttntl). Ppp- has at the l)eginning yatkd kkatkrmm 
mttj^hax'ttfi tArnr rut, and, in c, d. i'<f//> vttyitfh jttstA bAaj^asyA *stn smmpr-. All our 
tamftitA mss. .save one (11), and half of SPP*s. give euth /r* in a -b; but the comment 
to Prat. ii. 57 (|uotes this passage as illustration of the loss of its final visapj^a by ruis, 
KAuq. (34. 14) evidently intends an allusi(m to this verse in one of its direitions: mrj^- 
kkttpAd vtdyAm manlfoklAm * the articles mentioned in the text on the tacrtficial 
hearth from a wild l>*s covert,* but the comm. does not explain the meaning. The 
Anukr. ignores the redundancy f»f a sv liable in c [^Pronounce jujiA iyam and reject 
mltlf — The use of sAtttpriya in dual and plural is natural: its extension to the 
singular is rather illogical (<f. TS. iv. 2. 4), unless we assign intensive value to $Mm 
(* very dear ').J 

5. Ascend thou the boat of Hha^a, full, unfailinp; ; with that eause to 
cross over hither a suitor who is according to thy wish. 

Or pfiifilAtnyA may i>erhaps • rcs|>onsive to thy love.' Ppp. has in a J rnkit. 
In b aitupaftis-, and for C, d tntyo pfisA httitm y^is pittis paiikAmyith. The comm. 
understands upa- in c as an iiulependent word. With this verse, according to the 
comm., the giil is made to ascend a properly prepared boat. 

6. Shout to [him], C) lord of riches; make a suitor hither-minded; 
turn the ri^ht side to every one who is a suitor according to thy wish. 

CircumambuLition with the right side toward one is a sign of reverence. A krmmdaya 
in a is perhaps a real causative, * m.ike liim call out to us *; the comm. takes it so. Hit 
explanation Li>aj»e 3Wj of the ac(\ing rite is: "offering rite in the night, one 
should ni.ike the girl step forward to the right.** 

7. Here (is] gold, b<lellium ; here [\s] duksd, likewise fortune; these 
have given thee unto husbands, in order to find one according to thy 

AmI-\A {k f. AMlutt^itftd/it\ iv. 37. 3) seems to l>e some fragrant pro«luct of the ox ; or 
it may perhaps come from w/'x 'sprinkle,* but not through mksam. The mss. vary here, 
as e%'erywhrre else, in an indiscriminate manner 1>etween jC*'.C.C*'*' *"d f^ntfimlu ; here 
the majority of ours have -l^^ and tiie majority of SPP's have XC' • but -p^' ^ 


accepted (as elsewhere) in our edition, and -Ig- in the other ; Ppp. reads -Ig,, the comm. 
'S.^'' ^'PP* ^^^^ further vayam nkso at ho bhaga ; and, in c-d, adhuhpatik-. The comm. 
defines guggu/u as "a well-known kind of article for incense," and for auksa he quotes 
from Ke9ava {kHu^ikasiltrabhdsyakaras) the couplet given in Bloomfield's Kau^ika on 
p. 335 (but reading surabhln gandh&n kslram). The comm., p. 332, explains that with 
this verse is to be performed a binding on and fumigation and anointing of the girl with 
ornaments, bdellium, and dttksa respectively. LBR., iv. 947, suggest pratikdntyaya. \ 

8. Hither let Savitar conduct for thee, conduct a husband that is 
according to thy wish ; do thou assign [him] to her, O herb. 

The second nayatu is a detriment equally to sense and to meter ; the Anukr. counts 
it to a, and \\\e pada-v^ss, mark the division accordingly. Emendation of tvdm in c to 
tdm is strongly suggested. The verse hardly belongs to the hymn as originally made 
up; there has been no reference elsewhere to an "herb"; nor does Kau^. introduce 
such an element. 

In the concluding anuvdka L6.J are 5 hymns, 31 verses: the Anukr. says accord- 
ingly trin^adekddhiko *fttyah. 

This is the end also of the ioMxih prapdt/iaka. 

[_One or two mss. sum up the book as 36 hymns and 207 verses.J 

Book III. 

LThc third lx>ok is made up largely of hymns of 6 verses each. 
It contains 13 such hymns, but .ilso six hymns (namely 4« 7, 
13, 16, 24, 30) of 7 verses each, six hymns (namely 5, 6, 11, 15. 
19, 29) of 8 verses each, two hymns (namely 12, 17) of 9 verses 
each, two hymns (namely 20. 21) of 10 verses each, one hymn 
(namely 31) of 1 1 verses, and one hymn (namely 10) of 13 verses. 
See Weber s introduction to his translation, p. 178. The possi- 
bility of critical reduction to the norm is well illustrated by hymn 
31 — compare pages i and 37. The whole book has been trans- 
lated by Weber, Indisclu SttuiUu, vol. xvii. (1885), pages 1 77-3 14.J 

I. Against enemies. 

\Athti9^^t*t. — tfnJSm^hanam. h^ihudnatyam. tfJisttthkam : ». viwiJgawkkd kkmrij ; 

J, 6. aHMStubh ; J. vird//Mr*tujMik.] 

Found in P.Vipp. tii.. next after the one which here follows it. In KAu^. (14.17), 
this liytnn and the next are called mohantlni * confounders.* and are used in a rite 
(14. I 7- 21 ) fur confounding an enemy's army ; its detaiU have nothing; to do with those 
of the hvmns. 

Translated: Ludwif^, p. 518; \Vel>er, xvii. iRo; Oifftth. i. 81 ; nioomfteld. 111, 325. 

1. Let A^ni, knowing, ^o against our foes, burning against the imprc- 
cator, the niggard ; let him confound (mo/ui/a-) the army of our adver- 
saries (ftim) ; and may Jalavcdas make them handlcss. 

Ppp. makes (it/nht and vti/:,}ft in a chanf^c places. Sl*l*. reports that the text used 
by the conmi. reads fftt/i after tii^ntr l><)tli here and in 2. I A. The comm. fignaJifes 
the lH*Kinnint; of the IkkjIc hy jjivinij aliMird etymologies of agtti Ai the length of nearly 
a page. I'Ada c lacks a syllable, unless we allow ourselves to resolve s/'tta-im, 

2, Vc, () Maruts, are formidable for such a plight; go forward upon 
[them], kill, overcome! The Vasus have killed [them]; suppliant [arc] 
these ; for let Agni, their messenger, go against [their foes], knowing. 

'I he srinn.l half-vcfso is rendered literally as it stands. hxiK is certainly badly comipL 
Ppp. has aininifjtim vaiavo luMhttchhyo a^nir hy eu\m vitivt\n f^ratjrttm {atrtim, which 
is much nunc atte|»tal>le : w.lM wouM l>c 'for [us] who supplicate.' Dtiias seems to 
have Mundere<l in here out of 2. t a. !.u<lwi{; emends mXthitis to -iim^ which would 
improve c. Imu leave it unconnected with d. In our edition f^niiy ttu is an erratum for 
pftityitH, wIikIi all the mss. reail. The comm., with his customary neglect of accent, 




takes ugras in a as vocative. He takes fdfi^e as a locative (= apradhrsye samgrdma- 
laksane karmani)^ against the testimony of the other passages where the word occurs, 
and supplies matsahSyds. In b, he reads (with a couple of SPP's mss. that follow him) 
fftrndtas^ and takes it (again against tlie accent) as accus. pi. Amlmrttan in c he renders 
as an imperative. The meter of the vers'* (i i -f 1 1 : 12 + 13 = 47) is capable of being 
fitted to the description of the Anukr. Lri-fio:i2-fi2=45j by duly managing the 
resolutions. ^Aufrecht, KZ. xxvii. 219 (1885), reconstructs the vs., putting vtrddyaia 
for titrndta in b and reading c, d thus: dmimrdan vdsavo ndthitaso agnir hi ^atrun 
praty^ti vidhyan. Cf. Bloomfield, 326. — Roth gives (in his notes) mrdaia for 
mrnata and (in his collation) yesdin for hy esdvt^ as Ppp. readings. J 

3. The army of enemies, O bounteous one, playing the foe against 
us — do ye (two), O Vrtra-slaying Indra, Agni also, burn against them. 

The verse is found also as SV. ii. 121 5, which reads chairuyatim in b, and begins c 
with ubhdti tain {Jam is read by the comm., and is called for as an emendation in our 
verse); it also has the correct .accent amitrasenam^ which is found in only two of our 
mss. (O.Op.) and three of SPP's; both editions read -sindm. In our text, dgnlq in d 
is a misprint for agnig. LSPP. combines asman ch-^ badly: cf. i. 19.4, note. J 

4. Impelled, O Indra, forwards Q pravdtd) by thy (two) bays — let thy 

thunderbolt go forth, slaughtering {pra-inr) the foes ; smite the on-coming, 

the following, the fleeing {pdjdnc) ; scatter their actual intent. 

The verse is RV. iii. 30. 6 ; which, however, reads at the beginning /;vf sii te (as does 
also the comm.), accents in t, pratlcS anucdh (and the comm. claims the same for our 
text), and has for d vf^vath satydm krnuhi visiAm astu^ which is even more unintelli- 
gible than our text. Weber proposes visvaksatydm as a compound, " turning itself in 
every direction " ; this, however, makes nothing out of -satyam, Ludwig translates 
** fulfil their design in all [both] directions," which is not very clear. Ppp. reads viqvam 
vistam krtiuhi satyam esdm ; also quite obscure. The comm. takes satyam as 
*' established, settled," and visvak krnuhi as " scatter, unsettle, make uncertain." One 
would like to take visvak- as something like * contrariwise,' with the general sense " turn 
their plans against themselves." Ppp. has further nuah for anucas in c. 

5. O Indra, confound the army of our enemies; with the blast of fire, 
of wind, make them disappear, scattering. 

The defective first half-verse is completed by Ppp. in this form : manomohanaiit 
krnva (i.e. krnavas f) indrd *mitrebhyas tvam. The second half-verse is also 2. 3 c, d. 
The comm. explains dhrdjyd hy dahanavisaye yd vegitd gatis tathdvidhayd vegagatyd 
tayor eva vd gatyd, 

6. Let Indra confound the army; let the Maruts slay with force; let 
Agni take away its eyes ; let it go back conquered. 

All the mss. read indra, vocative, at the beginning of the verse ; but SPP's text, as 
well as ours, emends to indrah 5-; and this the comm. also has. The comm. further in 
c dhattdm instead of dattdm. 

iii. 2- BOOK III. Tin: ATHARVA-VEDA-SAttHlTA. 86 

2. Against enemies* 

[A/Aart'an. — i/nJmpAttftitm. hakuiifftityutm. trtltstuhham: 2^4. mmusitthk.'] 

Found in iWipp. iii., next )>i*f(>rc the hymn here preceding. Used in KAu^. only with 
the latter, as there explained. 

Translated : Wel>er, xvii. 183 ; (Griffith, i. 82 ; lUoomfield, 121, 327. — ill, Beq^aigne- 
Henry, Afanufl, p. 139. 

1. Let Af^ni our messenger, knowinf;, go against [thcm]» burning 
against the imprecator, the niggard ; let him confound the intents of our 
adversaries; and may Jatavedas make them handless. 

All the mM. have in a the false accent praty /tu (ficemingly tmitatrd from 1.2 d, 
where A/ requires it), and SIT. retains it ; our edition makes the necessary emendattoa 
to firdi/ etu, Tpp. appears to have {atfQn instead of vidvAm at end of a. 

2. Agni here hath confounded the intents that arc in your heart; let 
him blow {lihatpt) you away from [our] home ; let him blow you forth in 
every direction. 

rpp. has dhiimMu for -nitttu hoth times. The comm. renders amUmnkat by mokm* 
vatu^ in accordance with his diKtrinc that one vcrt>al form is e(|ui%'alent to another. 

3. C) Indra! confounding [thcirj intents, move hitherward with [their] 
design (ilit't/i); with the blast of fire, of wind, make them disappear, 

The second halfvrrsc is identical with 1.5 b, C Pada b apparently means *takc 
away their desif^n, make them purposeless * ; the comm., distorting the sense of tfrr-JiV, 
makes it si^jnify *'ko a^^ainst [ihcir army], with the dcsif^n [of overwhelming it].'* 
i'pp. reads Aktitvi} *<//// (i.e. -/rdr tuiht f). In our edition, restore the lost accent-mark 
over the •«//<! of itttita \\\ a. 

4. Go asunder, vf designs of them ; also, ye intents, be confoundcti ; 
also what is today in their heart, that smite thou out fiom them. 

All the m^s. h.ive in b uttani^ as if nnt vmative, and SIT. retains the accent, while 
our text emends to it/t*lfn; the (omin. un<lerstands a vocative. The comm. further 
takes tytH't't/ttvAtf .is one wntil. expLiinin^ it as cither vh uii,f/ulh %amkatpAh or else 
(r|ualif\iM^ tfeiilt understoo*!) as ^.ttmitAw vtvidhAktityttip^dakAh. (^Kor (L fatlier, 
*lhat of them smite thou out from [themJ.'J 

5. C<»nft)unding the intents of those yonder, seizing their limbs, O 
Apv.'i, go away; g«> foith against [them] ; consume [them] in their hearts 
with jungs (^i'7«i); pierce the enemies with seizure (^fti/tt)^ the foes 
with darkness. 

*I he verse is KV. x I'^j. 12. wliich re.ids in t uttAm praiitohhAyamU^ and, for C 
aniihrtti} \nitfAs /iiffi,tu} Sit,*tft/,hN ; and SV. (ii. I 21 1) and VS. (xvii. 44) agree with 
KV. lloih /tti/<i texts ^ive in b,i;'^>"<f. .is impv. ; but the word is translated al>ove (in 
accordaiue with (ir.issmann's suj^Kestion) as aor. pple. fem. jff A«lif*/, l>ecause this coa»- 
hines so mti< h better with the follow inj; pJrr *At. A number of the jtfMAi/J-msju 


(including our P.s.m.E.s.m.I.H.p.m.) make the curious blunder of accenting apvl in b: 

the comm. explains it as a pupadevatd^ adding the precious etymology apav^yayati 

apagamayati sukham prdnditq ca. |_ Weber, ix. 482, thinks apvd has reference to 

impurity (root pit) and to diarrhoea as caused by fear. To Weber*s citation (xvii. 184) C y 1/ * 

from the Purana, add the line near the beginning of the Bhlsma book, MBh. vi. i. 18, J^ A^ '' '' ^ 

fru/vd iu ninadath yodhah ^akrn-mHtram prasusruvuh.\ The Anukr. ignores the j *Aaa^z^^ 

redundancy in a ; emendation to citta would remove it , / 

6. Yonder army of our adversaries, O Maruts, that comes contending / ... 
against us with force — pierce ye it with baffling darkness, that one of * ' 

them may not know another. / 

The verse is an addition (as vs. 14) to RV. x. 103 LAufrecht, 2d ed'n, vol. ii. p. 682J, 
but forms a proper part of SV. (ii. 1210) and VS. (xvii. 47). RV.VS. read in habhydUi 
nas (for asmdn &ity abhi) ; SV. has abhyiti; all have in c giihata for vidhyata; 
and with the latter Ppp. intends to agree, but has guhata. For esiim in d, RV. gives 
amisdMy SV. eUsdm^ and VS. ami and accordingly at the end j'dndn. It takes violence 
to compress our b into a tristubh pada. 

3. For the restoration of a king. 

\Atharvan. — ndttddevatyam uid ** gueyam. trdistubham : j. ^-/. bhurik patikti ; j, 6. anustubh^ 

Found in Paipp. ii. (our vs. 5 coming last). Used by Kau^. (16. 30), with the hymn 
next following, in a ceremony for the restoration of a king to his former kingdom. In 
Vait. (9. 2), vs. I accompanies a morning oblation to Agni anlkavant in the sdkamedha 
rite of the cdturmdsya sacrifice ; and again (30. 27), vs. 2 is used at the end of the 
sdutrdmant ceremony. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 441 ; Weber, xvii. 1J55 ; Griffith, i. 83 ; Bloomfield, 112, 327. 
— Cf. Bcrgaigne- Henry, Manuel^ p. 140. 

I. He hath shouted Q kraud) ; may he be protector of his own here; 
O Agni, bend apart the two widened firmaments (rodasi) ; let the all- 
possessing Maruts harness (yuj) thee ; lead thou hither with homage yon 
man of bestowed oblation. 

This is a very literal translation of the obscure verse, which is plainly an .adaptation 
or corruption, or both, of a RV. verse in a hymn to Agni (vi. 1 1.4 : it is repeated, with- 
out variant, in MS. iv. 14. 15) : ddidyutat sv dpdko vibhava *gne ydjasva rddasl urftci: 
dyum ltd ydiii ndmasd rdtdhavyd atljdnti sitpraydsam pdfica jdndh; and, what is very 
noteworthy, the latter half-verse of RV. is decidedly more closely reflected in the Ppp. 
version: amuih naya namasd rdtahavyo ynjanti suprajasam paflcajandh; Ppp. has 
also bhavat at end of a. It could not be expected to find concinnity and sense in a 
verse so originated ; the address seems to be changed from Agni to Indra, and some 
sort of comparison aimed at between the latter and the reinstated king. The /^rt'Iu-text 
divides in a svaopSh^ and, as the word may be a part of the adaptation |_of the original 
to the purpose of this hymnj, the translation so treats it, instead of substituting, as 
Weber and Ludwig do, suoapah; the comm. explains it both ways : n'/tkfydfidm pra- 
jdndm pdlakah sukarmd vd. The comm. makes the king subject of dcikradat in a, 
apparently takes vy^casita in b as one word (= vydpnuhi)^ ivd in c as designating 
Agni (^yuhjantu — prdpnuvantUy tvatsahdyd bhavaniit)^ and avium in d as the king. 


The Anukr. ignore* thr ptn^ittl pA«U (c) \jnf IcUi It offset A counted as io!J. |_The 
usual com|w)uiirI \% jvtl/^iis; hut j:'-«i/«/i, thou;*h not {|Uotablr, is c|uite possible. J 

2. India, the inspired one, however far away, let the ruddy ones set 
in motion hither (fl-nvftviivi) in order to friendship, when the gods ven- 
ture (?) for him a i^tiyatfl, a hrhati, a sonj; (arkd)^ with the sdutrdmani 

This vrrsc is nrarly as ohst ure as the prcccdin;;, and probably as hopelessly corrupt 
The ••rutldy ones'* in A an*, according; to the comm., priests (f^^'V); Weber under- 
stands *'h()isrs/* Ludwi^ '* somas.** The comm. takes iiAdhrtanta in d first from r(x>t 
iihr ( ! - atihAfiiyapt)^ then apparently from tihr $ {/ftin'am vistttstt^VttYttvam indram 
puHtih itip Vitwtyiti'of^ettifft alurvan^ citing TS. %•. 6. 3«); TpP- ^** dadr^ania ; perha|« 
dadfhauttt mi;;ht l)e made to yield the l>est sense; restoration of the augment would fill 
out the dc*lkient meter, which tlie Anukr. fails to remark. K. conjectures ** made firm 
for him the mighty ^^'ilKii/f/ as l><>lt.** Alniut half the mss. (including our llp.E.l.ll.K.) 
accent in b sakhyhya ; the same uncertainty as to this word ap|)eart elsewhere. 

3. Vox the waters let kinj; Vaiuna call thee; let Soma call thcc for 
the mountains; let Indra call thee for these subjects (vi()\ becoming; a 
falcon, fly tmto these subjects. 

•• For** may of course l>e ** from '* in a ami b, as prrfrfrefl by (^the four J translators 
and comm. l*pp. roads, in a, b varuno juki^va somas lv*k *yitm kxuiyaU ; and again tn 
c, tndias ivd *yam hvayati. With the proper resolutions, this %'erse is a decent tftsinhk; 
the Anukr. scans it as 11 -f* 10: 10+10 = 41. Ibe verses in our text are wrongly 
numl>ered from this one on. 

4. Let the falcon lead hither from far (/nifa) the one to be called, 
living exiled in others' territory (IsiUra) ; let the (two) A<;vins make the 
road for thee easy to ^o ; settle together about this man, ye his fellows. 

The translation (allows both prcvinus translators, and the comm. (~ kvAtaxyam)^ in 
implyin*; htUyam in a instead of Mtt'ytim * oblation ' ; \rt I'pp. reads Aa7-is, which fu|>- 
ports katytifft. The comm., \%ith several of .Sl*l'*t mss., has avarntidkam in h; for 
l^the tcchni(alJ«i/<i^i/«/«M</f ntfttu (and txra ji;am, 6 d) compare es|>eci4lly 1*11. xii. 12.6. 

5. Let thine op|)onents call thee ; thy friends have chosen [thee] against 
[them] (} frdti)\ Indraand-Agni, all the goils, have maintained for thee 
security (Is/ma) in the people C'/f). 

The comm , and a few of SPP's mss. that follow it, have at the l>eginning vdyamtm 
(= st)fft/,t/yffta sfVttnttl'n), Several MwAiAlniss. (including our I'.M.OOp.) read 
pfattji\ti*\h : I'pp. has the easier ri-.idini» p*iri%a jauAh^ with hvayamti for -«/*, and, in 
b. v%x9uttA for ai9 utia ; also it ends ^%ith tidtdk*t9«tt. As in more than one other rase, 
all the mss. act rtit t*' in the set on«I haU-vers<*. and the ^ada Xtxi puts its «loul>le stroke 
of |»Aila division l»r(ore the wonl -. am! lM>th eihtions read i/ , but it should plainly l>e U^ 
as our translation rendets. an>l as the lomm. also esplams it. The comm. combines tn 
\i pr»tttfnttfAi, m.ikini; it mean " opiiosini; fiiemls**; the combination of vr 'choose* 
with ffatx is sttan^e and obscure 

6. Whatever fellow disputes thy call, and whatever outsider — making 


him go away (dpdflc), O Indra, then do thou reinstate {ava-gamaya) this 
man here. 

The comm. explains sajdtd and nUtya as samabala and nikrstabala (!) Las at i. 19. 3 J, 
and ava gamaya as bodhaya. The Anukr. takes no notice of the metrical deficiency 
in a; emendation to -vddati would fairly rectify it. LFor ava-gam^ see note to vs. 4. J 

4. To establish a king. 

\^Atharvan, — saptakam. dindram. trdisUtbham: i.jagatt; 4^ ^.bhurij^ 

Found in Paipp. iii. Used in Kauq. only with the next preceding hymn (as there 
explained), although the two are of essentially different application, this one referring 
to a king who has been called or chosen, and has to be inaugurated as such. In 
Vait. (13.2), in the agnistoma sacrifice, vs. 7 accompanies, with vii. 28, oblations to 
pathyd svasti and other divinities. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 252 ; Zimmer, p. 164 ; Weber, xvii. 190 ; Griffith, i. 84 ; Bloom- 
field, 113, 330. — Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel^ p. 141. 

1. Unto thee hath come the kingdom ; with splendor rise forward ; [as] 
lord of the people (yiqas)^ sole king, bear thou rule {yi'rdj)\ let all the direc- 
tions call thee, O king ; become thou here one for waiting on, for homage. 

The translation implies in a agan^ which is very probably the true reading, though 
the /rtrtVi-mss. divide tvd :gan. The metrical redundancy in a, b is best removed by 
omitting praii (for which Ppp. and the corhm. read prdk)^ which seems (as meaning 
also * in the east *) to have been added in order to make yet more distinct the compari- 
son with the sun implied in ud ihi; the padaAzxK reckons the word wrongly to b, and 
the comm. renders it pftrvam * formerly ' ; he takes vi rdja as ** be resplendent,** which 
is of course possible. The verse has but one reaiy^j-^tf/f pada (a). ^With d (= vi. 98. t d), 
cf. ndmasopasddyas, used twice in RV.J 

2. Thee let the people (v/fas) choose unto kingship (rdjyd), thee 
these five divine directions ; rest (fri) at the summit of royalty, at the 
pinnacle (kakiid) ; from thence, formidable, share out good things to us. 

The verse is found also in TS. (iii. 3-9*) and MS. (ii. 5. 10), with nearly accordant 
differences of reading: gaito *vrnata rdjyaya in a; ivam havanta (MS. vard/tntiti) 
marutah svarkah forb; ksatrdsya kaktibhi {^A^. kakiibbhik) qiqriydnds inc. TB., 
moreover, has the second half-verse (in ii. 4. 77; the first half is our iv. 22. 2 a, b), 
agreeing with AV. except by giving ksatrdsya kakubhis, Ppp. further varies the 
word by reading kakudhi; it also has in a vritnidm^ and for d ato vasuni vi bhajdsy 
ugrah. A number of the mss. (including our O.Op.) read in a rajydya, as, indeed, they 
generally disagree Lin threefold wisej as to the accent of this word. P.M.W. have in a 
vrsatdm. The comm. rendors vdrsman by (arfre^ grayasva by dssva. 

3. Unto thee let thy fellows come, calling [thee] ; Agni shall go along 
as speedy messenger; let the wives, the sons, be well-willing; thou, for- 
midable, shalt see arrive {prati-pa^) much tribute. 

Ppp. has in a, \i yantu bhuvatiasya jdid ^guir dftto *va jarase dadhdti\ and combines 
in cjdydsp-. The comm. finds in b an incomplete simile: "thy messenger, unassail- 
able like fire, shall ** etc. 


4. Let the (two) A^vins thcc first, — let Mitra-and-Varuna both, let all 

the gcKis, the Maruts, call thcc ; then put (Jtr) thy mind unto the giving 

of good things ; from thence, formidable, share out good things to us. 

With c compare RV". i. 54. 9 d, which rcctifiet the meter by readinj( krri*m. The 
second h.ilf- verse is quite different in l*pp. : sajAtHmAm mailhyamestki *ka masyd (cf. 
it. 6. 4 c ; iii. 8. 2 d) sn kittn savite vi rAja, I'hc third pikda is made bhurij by the 
chance of krsva to kmusva. 

5. Run forth hither from the furthest distance; propitious to thee be 
hcavcn-and-carth l)oth ; king Varuna here saith this thus; he here hath 
called thee ; [therefore {sd)\ do thou come to this place. 

Tpp. has babhtitdm for ubht stAm at end of b. and ahvat sxtnam eki at end of d. 
SIM*, reports all his/<f</<f-mss. as reading; aha of ilka in c; no such blunder has 
been noted in ours. His ms. of the comm. also api>ears to have dkvat in d, trat doubt- 
less only by an oversight of the copyist (under the next verse it gives akvai in an iden. 
tical phrase of cx|K>sition). M.S. (ii. 2. 1 1 ; p. 24. 3) f;:tves a fratlka reading i friki 
paramdsyAk parAvAuih^ while no corresiK>nding verse is found in its text — or else- 
where, so far as is known, unless here. 

6. Like a human Indra, go thou away ; for thou hast concurred {sam- 
jM) in concord with the castes (?) ; he here hath called thee in his own 
station ; he shall sacrifice to the gods, and he shall arrange the people 

The translation of this obi^ure and difficult verse implies much and venturesome 
emendation in the fuNt half: namely, in t, indra iva manusyAk^ and in b \*ArnAtt. 
Weber also takes mamu^yas ta meant for a nom. sing., and renders it ** menschenge- 
staltet '* ; the other transLitors understand manuiytk v/^as, as does the Pet. Lex. The 
l*pp. ver>ion, httint it/am manu^ya pre *ki, suggests -fyak, and is decidedly better In 
prehi (to be resolved into pr e hi^ whence perhaps the corruption to pareki)\ the 
repeated vocative indra^ndra (^> the /#///#i-text) is not to l)e tolerated. For b^ l*PP- 
has sam hi yajfliyAs iv<l vartiNena Sttmi'idAmah, which is tiK> corrupt to give us aid ; 
the emendation to nirnAts is a des{>erate and purely tentative one. as there is no evi- 
dence that vArna had assumc<l so early the sense of * caste.* Weber suggests that 
varmna hrre is equal to vttran$i * elector * ; Zimmcr takes it as virtually for dn*Ats : Iwth 
entirely unsatisfactory. Tpp. ends the verse with so ka/payAd di^ah. To the comm. 
there is no difTiculty ; the rej>eatc<l vocative is out of reverence (AdarAriham) ; mamm- 
fyAs is a Vedic irregularity for -riilw, or else c|ualifics ptajAs understood ; the plural 
vart/ftAts is p/nr. M4t;rsfaftit/s for Zitmnena ; ka/payAt, fmally, is rfasvsvydpSrrjm 
miyyfiktAfn. The Anukr. passes without notice the yii^^i// |>ida d, it being easy to read 
the verse into 44 syllaMcs. 

7. The wc.illhy roads, of manifoldly various form, all, a.ssembling, 
have made wide room for thcc; let them all in concord call thee; to the 
tenth (decade of life] abide hcie formidable, well-willing. 

PathyA frxttttt, divinitirs of gi>od roads and welfare, arc explained by the comm. as 
paiho *mipetA mAfj^ahtUikAt tnya etatiamjfiA dfvaiAh ; or else paihyAs im p^tki sddk- 
avah, and rf tails is Apas, Hoth editions in d %'a^e *hA, l>ut the comm., with 
Sl'r*» {potrixas V. and K., read v*ttf *hA, and the translation implies this. Ppp. offers 


no variants for the verse. Many of our samMd-mss, (P.M. W.E.I. H.) retain the final 
visarga of samviddndh before hif- in c; SPP. does not report any of his as guilty of 
such a blunder. [V, and K. recognize va^thd as a variant. J 

Ppp. appends another verse : yadi jarena havisd datvd gamaydmasi: atrd ta 
ittdras kcvallr vt\o balihrtas karat (cf. RV. x. 1 73. 6 c, d). 

5. For prosperity: with a parni-amulet. 

\^Atharvan, — astakam. sdumyam. dnustubham : i. puronustup tristubh ; 8.virddurobrhati.\ 

Found (except vs. 8) in Paipp. iii. Used by Kau9. (19.22), with viii. 5 and x. 3, 6, 
to accompany the binding on of an amulet for general prosperity {Jejobaldynrdhanddi- 
pustaye^ comm.). And the comm. quotes it from Naks. K. [_comm. should say (,'anti K. 

— BloomfieldJ as employed in a mahd^dnti named dfigirasl, \\x\ the prior draft, W. 
writes •* For success of a king: with" etc. as title of this hymn. Its place in the 
collection, next after iii. 3 and 4, and its second vs., seem to justify that title. J 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 194 ; Griffith, i. 86; Bloomfield, 114,331. — Vss. 6 and 7, 
Zimmer, p. 184, with comment. 

1. Hither hath come this/rzrw^-amulet, strong, by strength slaughter- 
ing our rivals ; force of the gods, milk of the herbs, let it quicken me 
with splendor unremittingly. 

Ppp. has for d mayi rdstram jinvaiv aprayucchan. Apraydvan in d, which is read 
by all the mss. (hence by both editions) and the comm., is unquestionably to be emended 
(as suggested by BR., v. 1015) to -ydvam \jSkt. Grains § 995 b, root^w ; cf.^i/i://J ; the 
word is quoted in the Prat, text (iv. 56), but not in a way to determine its form {apra- 
ydvddi'). As the later verses s\\ovi^ parna is to be understood here as the tree of that 
name {^Bntea frondosa : comm. pald^avrksa). The comm. raises no objection to tipra- 
ydvan^ and explains it as either fudm vihdyd *napaganid san (with irregular exchange 
of case-forms), or else apraydtar^ i.e. sarvadd dhdryamdna, 

2. In me [maintain] dominion, O /rzm^-amulet, in me maintain wealth; 

may I in the sphere of royalty be familiar Q nijd)^ supreme. 

Compare the nearly corresponding vi. 54. 2, which suggests emendation of nijds to 
yujds L* may I be supreme above [any] ally or fellow-king ' {yuj'ds as abl.) J. Ppp. has 
rdstram for ksatram in a, and its d reads yajd bhuydsam uttard, supporting the emen- 
dation. Our I5p. reads in c -vargr^^ as some of the mss. do in the other occurrences of 
this obscure word : the comm. explains it by dvarjane svddhlnl-karafu * appropriation/ 
and nija by ananyasahdya. \\\K. give *bestandig* for nija.\ 

3. The dear amulet which the gods deposited hidden in the forcst-trce 

— that let the gods give to us to wear, together with length of life (dyus). 

Ppp. has for b vdjim devdh priyam uidhimy and its second half-verse is tarn ma 
indras sahd **yusd tnanith daddtn bhartave. 

4. The pantd, Soma's formidable power, hath come, given by Indra, 

governed {(ds) by Varuna ; may I, shining greatly, wear it in order to 

length of life for a hundred autumns. 

The translation implies emendation in c of the unmanageable priydsam to b/tn'ydsam, 
an obvious improvement, adopted also by Weber, and supported by the reading of Ppp., 




iam ahitm hihkarnti : tlic comm., loo, thouj^h rending friy^ g!o»c» it wilh hhriyAMm 
ti/t.lftivfYam. Ill b, I'pp. has sakhyas (or ^hfas. The cumm. fincU in s^masjra fmr^ 
nAt ill a allusion tf> the origin of thr f>*t9 naWe^ from a leaf (p*trna) of soma, and 
<|Ut>tr!i fi>r it TS. iii. 5. 7*. AAttrnthhts in c he u^es as -iftfi///, qualifying /t§m. The 
mrtriial drhnition of thr vrrse is wantini; in the Anukr. mss. ; wc may call it a muri 
ifntuh'i. I^Sre \Vel>er*s note on/<i/«il.J 

5. The /fi/7///-amiilct hath nscciulcd me, in order to f;reat unharmed- 
iR'ss. so that I may be siipeiior to patron (tirvtittttin) and to ally {sawx'iJ). 

.Vi///>:7i/ is Iktv taken as rorrcs|>«)n<ling noun to the common mIjccUv e samvidimd 
(thr Pel. I.ex., •• |M)<m " ; Wclwr. "favor"); the comm. makes it samSmajMmSi 
or iittft,t/ut/i1/; ami tiryttrttttn, accordini; to him, comes fr(»m aflHyatnayaii, and mcaaa 
itifhiktiha/tih put M/ffaJAfi} m. I'pp. comliines Ma/iyJ ^fist- in b, and has for d mammsjrS 
atf/ii siifh^ittah (nr Stiwf/ttiftt/i). All tlie mss., ami SI'P's text, read uiiards in c; 
our utttiftts is a necessary eniemlation. [_As to arydMJn, cf. Weber's note. J 

6. They that are clever chariot-makers, that arc skilful smiths — sub- 
jects to me do thou, O /#////</, make all people (jdfia) round about. 

I'pp* iKT^ins Iff/ Afi'.Cf} /f ft /<////-, and its second half-verse xssarvdns ivtl * mrma ramtiMsy^ 
*/iir////> /-/'/;/ meJitiam. The loniin. rcnd<-rs ti/dvtiuds Uy tfAfvatd mJ/jiJtJJk 'fisher- 
inrn,' and ^ives the technical ddinition of the caste of rathakAras, Weber (p. 1961!.) 
treats with much fulness of these and other caste matters. I'pastln the comm. explainii 
nearly enough correctly, by levAftham sum f pi viifyawilnJn ttpJslHJn v*l. 

7. They that are kings, king-makers, that arc charioteers and troop- 
leailers — subjects to me do thou, O fanui, make all people round about. 

Our Up. reails in b c'llw^ivn-J/i. emended to ^nyt\h ; Kp. \\^% ^ramaHyi\k ; Op. and 
I>. (and, so far as appears, all SVV\ p.ti/a-mss.) i^ulin^ttiyah ; the word is divided by 
the KV. /iii/if text (^*'il ///</-»/ A), as in all reason it should t>e ; and its division seemt 
favored, if not requited, by our Prat. iii. 76. Ppp. a quite different text: upatiir 
astu T'll/f nf utit (ut/ftM u/tt **'ytih for a. b. with c. d as in its version of vs. 6 (Imt nith 
/J// 9 Hit [^intending /J// patn»i 'J instead of /rJ *firtid). Wel>er, on authority o£ 
{,\\. iii. 4. t.7, pro|>«ises to emend a t(» iV 'ftljtJno; the romm. explains the rijAmss 
by iinMtiff^tliihipAh ; ami filjtilrtas by ft};Yf*l*/nstfinintt *ii sti^h'tlh. ^In Sl*l**f C"#r- 
ff^itotts (to p. 3<>4)» h** J -I*- ^^^ rcjMirted as dividing^'/iI//i.i.'«V4l/i.J 

8. Piifttii art thou, bnily protecting ; a hero, from the same womb 
{yotit) with me a hero; with the year's i)rilliancy — therewith I bind 
thee on, O amulet. 

Watitin;; in I'pp- I l>e mm imd p.'Lda is dani.iged. in meter and in sense, by the 
ap{t.i!rnt!y intruded :7f.ff 

I he iiuu:,}l,t [i J rnils here, ha\inj; 5 hymns and 33 verses; the old Anukr. says: 
i* i*:t^,inn:fHtitAh ii/./Vi*-*:/ (111%%, -i/<ir..) k,}i\i}s ttitah, 

6. Against enemies: with afvatthil. 

I ound (e\ii|>i \s (1) in I'aipp. in. I'scil by KAii«;. (4^. 3 ff ) in a rite of snrccfy 
ai:ain«t ciu inies ; \ss. 7.8 are specially qut>tcd (4S '•. 5), with actions adapted to the 


text The comm. also describes it as employed by the Naks. Lcomm. again errs; 
should be ^anti — BloomfieldJ K. (17, 19) in a mahd^dnti called Angirasl, 

Translated: A. Kuhn, Herabkunft des Feuers etc., 1859, p. 224, or 2d ed., p. 198; 
Weber, xvii. 204 ; Grill, 21, 104; Griffith, i. 87; Bloomfield, 91, 334. ^ 

1. The male {ptimdns) [is] born oiit of the male — the afvatt/id forth 

from the khadird; let it smite my foes, whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

A very acceptable emendation would be p&ri jdtds^ since pdri is plainly accessory 
to the ablative pumsds^ as Adhi to khadirat in b (cf. dsaias pdri jajhiri^ x. 7. 25). 
Ppp. retains the initial a of a^vatthas^ and begins d with j^^/zf cd *hath. The a^vattha 
begins as a parasite, usually on the qaml (fem.), this time from the hard khadira (masc). 

2. Crush them out, O agvatthd, our violent foes, O expelling one, allied 
with Vrtra-slaying Indra, with Mitra, and with Varuna. 

The translation implies the reading of vdibddha in b as an independent word ; it is 
so regarded by BR., Weber, the later translators, and the comm. ; all the pada-mss. 
make it into a compound with dddhatas^ and both editions so write it. Ppp. reads 
instead, for b, qatrfin mayi bddha todhata. Some of our mss. (P.M.W.E.) read in a 
nl ff- ; one of SPP's has srtilhi. The comm. explains dddhatas as bhrqam kampayitfn; 
[but see Ved. Stud. ii. i o J. 

Ppp. adds a verse of its own : yathd \vattha nisndmi pQrvdn jdtdn utd *pardn 
(cf. X. 3. 13-15) : evd prdanyatas tvam abhi tistha sahasvatd, 

3. As thou, O afvaii/idy didst break out [the khadird^ within the great 

sea, so do thou break out all these, whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

" The sea," doubtless the atmosphere, as explained by the comm. (and Weber). The 
comm. reads dbhinas in a, and two or three of SPP's mss. so far agree with him as to 
give the (blundering) nirdbhinnas ; this reading exhibits a much less startling and 
anomalous crowding-out of the root-final by the personal ending than does -abhanas (see 
my Skt. Gr. §555), and so is more acceptable. Some of SPP*s mss. similarly mix up 
bhindhi and bhandhi in c ; the comm., of course, has the former. A part of the mss. 
(including our Bp.P.M.E.H.) leave mahati in b unaccented (as again at xi. 8. 2, 6). 
Ppp. yathd *^vattha vibhinaccham tahaty arttave : evd me fatro cittdni visvag bhidhi 
sahasvatd (cf. our vs. 6 c, d). 

4. Thou that gocst about overpowering, like a bull that has over- 
powered — with thee here, O afvatt/tdt may we overpower our rivals. 

Ppp. reads in a carat i^ as does also the comm., followed by two or three of SPP's 
mss. Ppp. further combines in b sdsahdndi *va rs-y and ends d with samvislvaht, [_The 
saf/i/u'td-mss. all combine tva rs- in b ; see note to Prat iii. 46. J 

5. Let perdition bind them, with unreleasable fetters of death — my 
foes, O tifvatt/id, whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

Ppp. has avimokydis in b, and (as in vs. i) begins d with ydn^ cd *ham. Several of 
our mss. (P.M.W.E.) have at the beginning the senseless reading simdtu, 

6. As, O a^vatt/idy ascending them of the forest-trees, thou dost put 
them beneath thee {dd/tard)^ so the head of my foe do thou split apart 
and overcome. 

iii. 6- HOOK III. Tin: A THARVA-VKDA-SAttHITA. 94 

Ppp. (AS we saw .iIhivc) has tlic scroml half of this %'ersc, with variants, as Its 3 c d. 
What the 't'tlHtttftttYti is, as distinj'uishccl from viinas^tUi^ is as otvscure as the similar 
rcUtioti of rtu and t}HavA \\\\. 10.9 note J; possibly * they of that sort, they and their 
kind*; (»ur translation marks, rather merhanically, the distinction. The comm. saym 
that hrrc T'<i//i/t/«i// mrans "the place whrre trees (* row/* and vAnatpatya the treem 
thrmsrivrs -- whith is an rxplanatic»n quite aftrr hin kind. 

7. I.ct them float forth downward, like a boat severed from its moot • 
in<; {biituihana) ; of them, thrust forth by the ex|>eUing one, there is no 
returning again. 

rpp. reads in c nuthAdha ; our Op. has vtMhiitIhA : pra'^nuttAHiim. Astu in d, for 
a\ti^ would be an improvement. The comm. ^ivcs a double explanation of httmJkana^ as 
either place or instrument of fastening. |^The vs. recurs at ix. 2. 13, with jtljraJta- for 
\u}tb%}*ihti-. — - W's collation of Op. );ivcs//«i\ n«)t//4/j!j 

8. I thrust them forth with mind, forth with intent and ineantation ; 

forth with branch of tree, of rtftvi//////, we thrust them. 

Tpp. has in a //#li *ntln ttutlAmi (which makes the meter easier), and at the end cor- 
respon<lin|;ly the active nutfAtn%tsi ; fi>r b it pives pfii {t tvfna hAkmtinA, The tin|;uali- 
jation of the first n of enAn is nnte<l in PrAt. iii. 80, and the comment on that rule quotem 
the instance in c, but not that in a. A( cording to KAuq. the thinf^ ** mentioned in the text ** 
(|H*rhaps an effigy of the i>crs(m aimed at, in the ** vitals ** of which something; has Iteen 
buried by the preceding rule) [^having been put u|Mm a t>oatJ is with this verse and 
ix. 2.4 pushed forth with a branch, and v%ith vs. 7 made to float away. 

7. Against the disease \%tXiVjk. 

Found in iViipp. iii., with few variants, but with vs. 5 at the end. Use<l by KAq^. 
(37. 2()) in a healing ceremony (its text does not s|>ecify the disease): and reckoned 
(2f>. I, note) to tlie fakmimA^afta i;;aua. And the comm. quotes it as employed by the 
Naks. [(,anli.^J K. (17. 19) in the ///ii//<lcifM/# called kilumArt, 

Translated: Welnr. xvii 20S ; (^rill, 8, 105 ; Oriffith, i.8g; lUoomfield, 15, 33^*. 

1. On the head of the swift-running gazelle (/taring) is a rcmetly ; he 
by his horn hath made the Isrinyti disap|)ear, dis|)ersing. 

I'iuititl is divi<led {vhuin*}) in the /.f#/«i text, as if from vi 4 sA 'unfasten* — which 
IS, indeffl. in all probability its true deiivation . as design.! tinj; primarily a deciduous 
horn, one that is diopprd olf or she<l ; ami in this |>eculiarity. as distinguishe«1 from the 
permanent hf»rns of the domestii animals, perhaps lies the reason of its application to 
ma;:ical remedial usrs. The verse <H<urs also in Ap<,*S. xiii. 7. 16 I where moat mss. 
have fti(^h94\\tttt*\ Kor the l}rffiyti, sec al>ove. ii. 8. Itf^iT* ^^^ p. 104 5- J 

2. After thee hath the bull-gazelle stridden with his four feet ; O horn, 
d«> thuu unfaslon C'ist}} the ksrtnyti that is compacted {}) in his heart. 

I*l»l» \\.\s, a dilferrnt d: ♦./«// liftiit k^et^iviim hfJi. The wor<! play in C l»etmeeil 
r/iif".! an«l :•/ «il. is nbvimis; that any intrnderl with vi\ttxin*i in 1 d is verr quca- 
tionablc. 'I his vt'ise, aj^ain, is found in .\p<,'S. iti., but with cor\siderable variants : anm 



ivd harino mrgah padbhi^ caturbhir akramlt : vis&ne vi sydi *iam granthim yad asya 
gnlphitam hrdi; here it is a •* knot " tliat is to be untied by means of the horn. One 
of our mss. (O.) has in c padbhls^ like Ap^S. The comm., followed by a couple of 
SPP's mss., further agrees with ApQS. by reading guiphitam in c, and explains it as 
guiphavad grathitatn. The occurrence of the rare and obscure guspita Lmisprinted 
gustitam\ in ^B. iii. 2. 2. 20 is also in connection with the use of a deer's horn. 

3. What shines down yonder, like a four-sided roof {chadis)^ therewith 

we make all the ksetriyd disappear from thy limbs. 

In our edition, tdna in c should be tind^ as read by nearly all the safh/u'td-mss, 
(all save our P.M.), and by SPP. The sense of a, b is obscure to the comm., as to us ; 
he guesses first that it is " the deer-shaped thing extended in the moon's disk," or else , ^ 

«* a deer's skin stretched on the ground " ; chadis is " the mat of grass with which a f4ti/^^^^ 

house is covered." Weber takes it as a constellation ; Grill (mistranslating paksa by 
«* post "), as the gazelle himself set up on his four legs, with his horns for ro of ! If a 
constellation, it might be the Arab •• manzil " 7, f, 7;, ir Aquarii, which its shape and name 
connect with a tent: see Surya-Siddhdnta^ note to viii. 9 (under 25th asterism); this is 
not very far from the stars mentioned in the next verse \\ and v ScorpionisJ. 

4. The two blessed stars named Unfasteners (vicri), that are yonder 
in the sky — let them unfasten of the ksetriyd the lowest, the highest 

The verse is nearly identical with ii. 8. i above, which see [^b recurs at vi. 121. 3 b; 
v. Schroeder gives the Katha version of a, b, Zwei hss.y p. 1 5, and Tiibinger Katha-hss.^ 
p. 75 J. Ppp. makes it in part yet more nearly so, by beginning with ud agdtdm bhaga- 
vatf^ but reads in c vi ksetriyatii tvd *bhy dna^€ |_cf. our 6 bj ; and its end and part of 
vs. 6 (which next follows) are defaced. 

5. The waters verily [are] remedial, the waters disease-expelling, the 

waters remedial of everything; let them release thee from ksetriyd. 

The first three padas are RV. x. 137.6 a, b, 0, save that RV. has sdrvasya in c; but 
vi. 91. 3 below represents the same^erse yet more closely. 

6. If from the drink (J dsnti) that was being made the ksetriyd hath 
come upon (vi-af) thee, I know the remedy of it ; I make the ksetriyd 
disappear from thee. 

The word dsuti is of doubtful and disputed sense ; Weber says " infusio scminis " 
Las immediate cause of tlie ** Erb-iibel," which is Weber's version of ksetriyd \ ; Grill, 
"gekochter Zaubertrank " ; the comm., dravfbhutatn annatn * liquidized food.' 

7. In the fading-out of the asterisms, in the fading-out of the dawns 

also, from us [fade] out all that is of evil nature, fade out {apa-vas) the 


Ppp. has tato *sasdm at end of b, and in c dmayat for durbhiitam. Emendation of 
asmdt in c to asmdt (as suggested by Weber) would notably improve the sense. The 
second pada has a syllable too many, unless we make the double combination vdsd 

iii.8- HOOK 111. Tin: ATHARVA-VEDA-SAttHITA. 96 

8. For authority. 

VrrsrA 1-4 found in Taipp. i., but (icfaicfl. The hymn ts used by KXvtq. (55. 17-lS; 
aUo 55. 1 1 note), with i. 9. 30. etc., in the ceremony of reception of a Ve<Iic student, aiul, 
according to the schol. (10. 19. note), in that for the generation of wisdom (the romm. 
nays, as brlon^in^ to the iJyuiyit j^atta). Verses 5 and 6 are the same with vi. 94. I, 2, 
and it is vi «)4. rather than these verses here, that is used in KAu^. 13.5 (the comm. 
bhmdcriuf^ly prrM ri)>es the use under lK>th passages). Verse 4 has tlie same pratika 
xs xiv. I. 32 and one or the other of the two verses is taught in VAiL (23. I) at used 
'* by K.iu<;ika ** in the ai;ntitopna: but our KAu^. has no such use, and it b doubtless 
xiv. 1.32.33 tliat he prescrilKrs (79. I7ff.) in the nuptial ceremonies; but the comm. 
reports tiic u>c here, as if it referred to vss. 4 and 5. The comm. further rej^ards the 
hymn as imph>yed by the Naks. K. (i-*^), in the Jtnlvaii rite, and by Tari^ista 5.3; 
in.lH>th ( ascs .is an fli'//fi'fi hymn. 

Translated: Welier, xvii. 21 2 ; (irilfith. i. 90. 

1. Let Mitra come, arran^^ing with the seasons, uniting (} sam-vr^ajra-) 
the earth with the ruddy ones (fisnytl) ; then to us let Varuna, Viyu, 
Apni. assign j;reat royally of union (? Stim:r(r(}). 

Tiie verse is very ob.scurc, and probatdy cornipt, thoui;h found almost without vari- 
ant (only /#!/ for <i///<i in c) in Tpp. also. The epithet safhx'e{yA (found only here) 
srcms fashioned to (orre>|N)nd to the pattiiiple sttrnvt^tlyan in b; but Weber renders 
the ppl. by •• uml.ijcei nd " and the epithet by '•ruhs.un"; the comm.. l>y "pervading** 
{i'\t)ftnuvan) and "suitable ft»r abidini; in" {tiimv^^tlr/tttm ttvasthi}9tayt\t^Yam). The 
conun. t.ik<-s mtfytls as rJ^un, i.e. JLhttfttlt • ravs.' R. ventures heroic emendations: 
** Let Mitra conic after ordriin^ of the time, enlivening; {utfh/itl/*ayan or something 
ecpiivalent, sinie ' puttini: to test* is no result of the a( tion of .Mitra's ra\s) the earth 
with his r.i\s; but let Varuna make wind and fire {•riU'i'tM itt^'n/m), make our great 
realm f;f) to rest.** I he first p.ida is redundant, unless we make the double combinatioa 
//////if ///#/•/////. Ll'.K. t.ikc itt//^- a.s 'sirh richtend nath.'J 

2. Let Dhalar, Rati, Savitar enjoy here {it/tifn); let Indra, Tvashjar, 
welcome my words (:v;V<7j) ; I call the divine Aditi, mother of heroes 
i^fint), that I may he mi<Un<>^t man of my fellows. 

The first pAda is also vii 17. 4 a. and VS. viii. 17 a. The plural verb in b seems to 
imply all the dciti*'s mentioned in the line are to l>e regarded as its subjects. 
.l/if«//M#y///ri///«f (like ///«i<//ir.»///i/|/, iv.i). 4), probably the one whom the others gather 
aUnit as cliirf ; the <oinm. has nothin;; valuable {sttmftitihttktlfnah stin svasamditJIik 
sn'itt/i). The comm. takes /.J// ins as ~ Aryaman. l*pp. \\^% ^rhttttntM for karramim 
in b. I hr inelrr of d wouhl l»e rcitifu-d by reading JVif//i (or tfs*tm, .is is pcrhapa 
asMiin:iMe in this st.i^e of the lanijua^r) for iUJhi. *I he verse as it stands (li -f is: 
II ♦12 • 4'») IS ill desiril>ed as ,\ jiij^ut/f. 

3. I call, with acts of homa«;e. Soma, Savitar, all the Adityas, in the 
contest for preeminence ; m.iy this fire shine for very long, kindled by 

[my] fellows who gainsay not. 


The translation implies in b emendation Lcf. iii. 18.4 J to ahamuttaratv^ (against all 
the mss. and both editions), as proposed by BR., i. 891 ; the comm. also takes it as 
two words, and renders uttaratvi by yajamdnasya ^rdisthye, Ppp. reads devHn for 
dditydn in b. The comm. has dJdayai in samhitd; our /rtr/(t?-text has it, and Prat. iii. 22 
and iv. 89 deal with its conversion to dlddyai in sathhitd. 

4. May yc be just here ; may ye not go away {pards) ; may an active 
herdsman {gof>d), lord of prosperity, drive you hither ; do ye, with [your] 
desires, [attend] upon (J) his desire ; let all the gods conduct you together 

The translation implies emendation in d of -yaniu to -nayantit^ as called for by both 
meter and sense, and also the addition of a verb, sta or //a, at end of c, for a like reason. 
If, as seems very probable, the verse is originally addressed to kine, kd minis in c is quite 
natural ; if not, we may regard t//frtj as understood : the sense is * be your desires sub- 
ject to his.* Ppp. has a different reading: asmdi vas kdmd ufia kdminlr viqve devd 
upasatydm iha. The comm. regards kdmitifs as addressed throughout, and explains 
it finally as meaning siriyah gdvah (perhaps the text is defective or incorrect ; the 
general explanation of the verse implies siriyah). The comm. reads ///rrtj iox paras 
in a, and in b divides iryas^ deriving it from root fr, and rendering it mdrgaprerakas 
\_pada has iryas]. The Anukr. calls for 1 1 + 1 1 : 9 + 1 1 = 42 syllables, and strictly 
requires at the end -i-antu ; but no inference as to a difference of reading is to be 
drawn from this. LPpp. combines in b vdjai. — Weber says: *^ asmdi diesem, dem 
Hausherrn, kdmdya zu Liebe ; oder gehort asmdi zu kdmdya selbst? *'J 

5. We bend together your minds, together your courses (7'raid), 
together your designs ; yc yonder who are of discordant courses, we 
make you bend [them] together here. 

This and the following verse, not found with the others in Ppp., occur again below 
as vi. 94. 1, 2 |_cf. also ii. 30. 2 J, and vs. i occurs in Ppp. xix., with the other material of 
our sixth book ; they are so far discordant in subject with the preceding verses that we 
may fairly call them out of place here. This one exists in MS. (ii. 2. 6), with anamsata 
for namdmasiy and sthA for sihdfta. A RV. khiia to x. 191 \i2LS jdnatdm in a for sam 
vraidy dkiiiis in b, and, for c, d, asdu yo vimand janas iam samdvartaydmasi. The 
first half-verse, further, nearly accords with VS. xii. 58 a, b, TS. iv. 2. 5* a, b, MS. ii. 7. 
1 1 a, b (they have vdm for vas^ and, for b, sdm u ciit&ny a *karam). Nearly all our 
sam/ti/d-mss. read -id/i before si/idna^ nor is there anything in the Prat, to prescribe 
the omission of the visarga in such a situation, while the comment to ii. 40 expressly 
quotes the passage as an example of the assimilation of it to a following initial sibilant. 
The comm. reads siana instead of sihana. Three of our mss. (P.M.E.) read at the 
end -naydmasi, 

6. I seize [your] minds with [my] mind ; come ye after my intent 
with [your] intents ; I put your hearts in my control ; come with [your] 
tracks following my motion (ydid). 

The comm. reads ^//// J//// in a, and three or four of SPP*s mss. follow him ; he also 
makes in b a compound of anucitiebhis. Quite a number of mss. (including our 
P.M.W.H.s.m.I.) very strangely combine at the end -mdnar ita. MB. has a somewhat 
similar verse at i. 2. 21. How heedless the Anukr. is of metrical irregularity is well 



illiistratrd by c, where the (lesiral)le alteration of v^^rsm to riff/, ami the abbreviation 
of kp'tittyii'ti to the Cf|uiv.ilft)t -ivl (Inith sut^f^ested hy Wetier) would leave a i^ood 
tftstubh p.'ida ; there is \\*\ jtt\;%itk c-har.u-ter to any part of the verae. [^The combtnatitm 
'f9u\naffitt lo(»ks as if it had hlundcrcd in from the end of b.J 

9. Against viskandha and other eyils. 

\\'AmaJfX'^. — Jyiix't\f'rtktviy\tm m/j vJit^vadimm , AmHttmbkttm : 4. 4-f.nieriikrksrt; 

Found in Taipp. iii. (with V5. 6 at tlie beginning;). Used by Kftu^. (43. 1) in a charm 
against <lrm<>ns and the lun<lranccs caused by them. 

Translated: \Vel>er, xvit. 215 ; (WiOith, i 91 ; lUoomficld, 67, 339. 

1. Of the kar^dpha, of the vi^aphd, heaven [is] father, earth mother: 
as, C) Kods, ye have inflicted {ab/tikr), so do ye remove (apa-kr) again. 

The whole hymn contains much that is obscure and difficult, and the comm. gives 
no real help anywhere, Inking as mu( h reduced to guessing as we are. 1*PP- t>^Kin* 
with litfSitfiAtityit visahMvtisYti, which rather favors \Vel)er'a opinion, that the afika of 
the two names is a suHix, related with tthka ; probably two varieties of vtsJtamMa are 
intende<l, though none such are mentioned in the later medicine. I'he comm. fiiicU 
(ti/^/iii • hcM»f ' in Imih : one = /•rf#i(i///i<fn'#i {7'yi}ji;AfihM), the other either vi^a/a- 
^aphitsY*t or vtsptt%ta{tiphtisyti. .SIT. reads in h ^iy^\uh /•, which is doubtless prefer- 
able to our i/yilih /• ; it is read by the majority of his mss. ami by part of ours (II.l.K.) ; 
rpp. aUo ha.s it. I'pp. further omits a/fAt in c, and reads api for <i/<i in d. 

2. Without clas|>crs ihcy held fast {ti/ttiniYa)\ that was so done by 

Manu ; I make the viskamiha imi>otent, like a castrater of bulls. 

I'pp. begins with a{l(uinii\tto \i/i- ; some of the mss. (including our O.) also give 
a^Usffhlntts, and it is the reading of the comm.; he gives two different and ef|ually arti- 
ficial explanations ; and, what is surprising even in him, three diverse ones of \*d4lkri^ 
without the reg.ird to the connection ; one of the three is the right one. Ppp. adds 
€a after vadhfi in c Weber pl.iusibly conjectures a method of tight tying to be the 
subject of the verse ; castration is somctuncs effected in that way. 

3. On a reddish string a /'^r^^Ai — that the pious (:r</A^j) bind on; 
let the binders (.') make im|K>fcfit the flowing (?), puffing (}) kdbax*d. 

All obscure and c}uestionable. I*pp*s versicm is : for a, sAire pi{Miikk€ kkhj^ilatk ; in 
b..r<f</for iad; fore, {ravasyam ^uspna ktlhtihttfn (the nAgarf copyist writes kA%*arMsm). 
The comm. also has in c ff.fT'iinvi///. and three or four of SPI*'s mss. follow him ; the 
translation assumes it to l>e for sttii*-. The comm. explains kkft^aiam by tammtr^mam 
•armor,* fpioting KV. ii.39. 4 as authority; ^ravatyam hy thlUrtipam ammam arkati 
(sinte f^jfTMr is an ttnntiHtlmttft .' )\ ^uimatn by ^osakam ^sec Hloomfield, ZDMG. 
xlviii. ^74 J; kAKiva as a hindrance related with a ktibn, which is a si^eckled {karhira- 
vttftta) cruel animal; and />*indAt/ntt is either the amulet lx>und u|M)n us, or it is for 
•f .li, " the amulet, staff, etc.. hehl by us." 

4. Wherewith, O flowing ones, ye go atioiit (r/?r), like gods with 
Asura-inaj;ic (wJ/i/), like the ajK', siK)iler of dogs, and with the binder {?) 
of the kdbitui. 


Or (ravasyti is • quick, lively ' (Pet. Lexx.) ; the comm., " seeking either food or 
glory." Ppp- reads in c, d dtlsapiam vandhara kabhavasyatn ca. The comm. explains 
bandhurd by sambaddhd dhrtd khadgddirfipd hetih. The verse is scanned by the 
Anukr. as 9 4- 9 : 9 + 8.= 35 ; the usual abbreviation of iva to V/z would make b and c 
good anustubh padas. [^Read ^ravasyd^^ voc, in a?J 

5. Since I shall bind thee [on] for spoiling, I shall spoil the kdbavd ; 
ye shall go up with curses, like swift chariots. 

The translation implies emendation of bhartsyami (our edition) or b/taisyami {SWs 
and the comm.) to bhantsyami^ from root bamihy which seems plainly indicated as 
called for ; the comm. explains bhats- first as badhtidmi^ and then as dlfinydmi; the 
great majority of mss. give bharts-. Ppp. is quite corrupt here : justl tvd kdmcchd *bhi 
josayitvd bhavath. The comm. has at the end carisyaiha (two or three of SPP's mss. 
agreeing with him), and he combines in c nddqavas into one word, ** harnessed with 
speedy horses that have their mouths raised for going." 

6. A hundred and one viskandhas [are] distributed over the earth; 

thee have they first taken up, of them the viskandha'%^(yCi\v\g amulet. 

That is, *an amulet that spoils those viskandhas^ (Weber otherwise). In c, for the 
jaharus of all the mss. and of both editions, we ought of course to have jahrus; this 
the comm. reads : such expansions of r with preceding or following consonant to a 
syllable are not rare in the manuscripts. Ppp. has a different second half-verse : tesdtn 
ca sarvesdm idam asti viskandhadusauam. The second pSda is found, in a different 
connection, as MH. ii.8. 4b. The comment on Prat. ii. 104, in quoting this verse, 
appears to derive viskandha from root skand. The verse is made bhurij only by the 
false ioxTCi jaharus. |_For " loi," see note to iii. 1 1. 5.J 

10. To the ek^stakt (day of moon's last quarter). 

[A/harvan. — trnyodafarcnm. dxtakyam. dmistubham: 4, Jt ^» ^^' tristubh ; y. j-av. 6 p. 


Found, except vss. 9 and 13, in Paipp. i., but with a very different order of verses 
(1-4,6, 1 1, 10,8, 5, 12, 7). Used by Kau^. in connection with tlie asiakd ceremony, or 
celebration of the festival of the moon's last quarter (19. 28, and again, with more ful- 
ness, 138. 1 -1 6), or of a particular last quarter, regarded as of special importance. 
The details of the Kau9. are expanded and explained by the comm. ; they are not of a 
nature to cast light upon the interpretation of the verses. Weber (pp. 219 ff.) discusses 
at considerable length the questions connected with the festival. Vait., which does not 
concern itself with the astakd^ yet employs vs. 6 (13.6) at the agnistoma sacrifice, in 
connection with the somakrayanf cow ; and also vs. 7 c-f (9. 4) in the sdkamcdha rite of 
the cdtitrmdsya s.icrifice. The comm. quotes vss. 2, 3, 7 as employed by Pari9ista 6. i. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 189 ; Weber, xvii. 218 ; Griffith, i. 93. 

I. She first shone out; she became a milch-cow at Yama's; let her, 
rich in milk, yield {dnh) to us each further summer (.? sdmd). 

The verse occurs also in several other texts: in TS. (iv. 3.115), MS. (ii. 13. 10), 
K. (xxxix. 10), PGS. (iii. 3. 5), and MB. (ii.2. 1 ; 8. i); and its second half is RV. iv. 
57. 7 c, d, and MB. i. 8. 8 c, d; ii. 2. 17 c, d, and also found below as 17.4 c, d. The 
version of K. agrees (Weber) throughout with ours; TS. has, for Sl, ya ppaihami 


vytft'uAtt/, witli «fhutsvtt at cml of c, and PCS. aprcrs with it ; MS. ha« dmke at end of 
c; MH. (in all four <K*iurrciicc») ha* «/w//«I w//-, an<l in 8. i also a^Aitfitf /^u/ra Xt\$m ft* 
a The comm. takes sAm*}m in d a» an adverhtal accus. (- sarvfsn va/$ttrrstt), as 
d.H-s \\V»>rr. let. Ilillchrandt, />*/. Mythol. \ 500.J 

2. riu* ni^ht which the ^chIs rejoice to meet, [as] .a milchcow coming 

imlo [them], which is the spouse (/ii7/i/) of the year --let her be very 

auspicious to us. 

The %rr!ie is found also in TtiS. (iii. 2. 2), IKfS. (ii. 17. 2) \}\W (ii. 20 27) and 
M<tS. (ii.8.4<')J, and \\% ftC(on<l half in MIt. (ii. 2. t6 c, d) ; the first four have the 
!>ettcr rradin);^ jtt*tA\ in a ami /rJ "v*tiim in b ^and M(iS. ha» riU^itnj. Tpp. has in 
b ii'unu filtfim ///•, and at the end .oi/*!. lor s*tmvttisttfdsytt P%UhI (cf. vs. 8a«b) 
the comiii. (|uote!i TS. vii. 4. 8'. 

3. Thou. () nij^ht, whom we worship (upa-tU) as model (pratitttd) of 
the year — do thou unite our lonj;Iived pro|;cny with abundance of 

Or, peihaps better (so the mmm. and \Vi'!>er), 'do thou [Rive] us long lived 
progeny ; unite [usj with abundance of wealth.* Tpp. has for b// /;'J rtUrim upjtsaie^ 
and in c testim for sA ««if. |_M(iS. has the- vs. at ii. 8.4*' (cf. p. 15^). agreeing nearly 
with I'pp.J The first half veise is read also in I S. (v. 7. 2'), K. (tl. 2), Im;s. (iii. 2. 2), 
and MH. (ii. 2. 18) : T.S gives at end f>f b upiitite, y\\\. yajAmahf ; TCS. h^n fra/imtt 
I'd Alw ftitrhft uPi\smtihe. In our edition, restore a lost accent-mark over the $r ol 
sr)a in d. 

4. This same is she that first shone out ; amonj; these other ones (f.) 
she ^<u's about («>//), having entered; ^reat j;reatnesses [arc] within her; 
the l>ii<le (vadhu), the new-^oin;; j^eneratri.v, hath concjucrcd. 

'1 liis \ciM* is rc]u-.itc(| bvlow as \iii. 9. 11. It occurs, with considerable variants, 
in a whole vrics of t»thrr texts: IS. (iv. 3, 1 1 • ). .MS. (ii. 13.10). K. (xxiix. 10). 
(,('fS. (iii 12.3). .\\v\ Mli. (ii J 15). I «>r .Ji;- UatAui, TS. and <,<iS. have aniJr 
titvilfft; MS. also Ppp • '*^ */^'' •'"/-''. MH., sf \},ttft apsv attttti. All of them, with 
rpp . invert thr nrdt-r of c .Hid d; and they have a diffeirnt version of our C: ir*ha 
(but l*pp. tfftii) fnAttt tfiit/itm.1ft.t/i Stint ftU (C^'CiS. -w/J///), but Mil. I'lfiy My asttkm 
Htit/tiMtlno tiftf.t'i . wliiK'. for jit^\hti in d, TS. and (,'(>s. ^\\c jitj,}tta, and MS. ami 
l*pp mt>ti,}\,i, (/<.S. following it with itit'.tttrj ; and MH. reads f*f%ithttm*\ foe *>ur 
nav*t\^^t. <,<iS . moitover. Ins in a '.yiiihttt. Tliesr v.iriants st>rak ill for the tradi- 
tion. Ihr < rtnim '^'nt-s Imir di\'isr rxpl.uiatioiis of utiVtij^iU: K<>ing in company with 
each new or (l.idy risiti'^ sun; perv.vlini; the new oiiv^inating kind of living creatures; 
gciini; to a d oK ori'^in.itinij nrw form ; or. tin.illy, j;«»ing to the nine fold divisions of 
the d.iy : am! tliv < omnu nt to 'IS. [_re|H»rtcd by Weln-rJ adils a fifth, •* newly married": 
if till- l.)st is t'.if iiMMinrig, /,t;,}ft.t is bottrr with it than Jfx*h'ti: ** as sotm as we<ldcd to nrw \fMr. slic* i><.irs tlu* d.ivs follow.** The meter is really redundant by a 
s\II.i!.|c in a |_/j.?.'..f J |_Kurtlifr. MIL has in a ritlt *:ui jJ y*l //i/T'«f vy-; and I*pp. 
ends d Willi ;,triffl'-: - liK . v. I 538, ^ivr • erst geb.irrmi ' for fUtVttjj^iii J 

5. 1 he foicst tree i)iessin;;-st<>ncs have made their sound, making the 
ohiatioii <»f the complete year {fttnvtttsafiiia)\ O sole dsf^hJ, may 
having ^<muI pio^cny and j;ood heroes, be lords of wealths. 



"Stones": i.e. probably, blocks of wood used instead of stones |^sce Hillebrandt, 
Ved, MythoL i. 162, i6i J ; or the wooden mortar and pestle (so the comm.). Ppp. reads 
for c ekastakayi (= -kdydi) havisd vidhema. Some of the mss. combine havih kr- in 
b ; the comment to Prat. ii. 63 requires havis k-^ which both editions accept. Some of 
our mss. (P.M.W.Op.) give in c suprajdsas, HGS. (ii. 14. 4) and MB. (ii. 2. 13) have 
a corresponding verse: HGS. begins with ulilkhalds, combines havih k- and reads 
-rPidm in b, and has suprajd vfravantas in c; MB. gives for a dulukhaldh sampra- 
vadatiti grdvdnas^ ends b with -rlndm^ and has for d jyog jlvema balihrio vayam te. 
Lit recurs also at MP. ii. 20. 34 and MGS. ii. 8.4b.J The first pada is jagatl^ unnoted 
in the Anukr. [^As to astakdy cf. Zimmer, p. 365.J 

6. The track {padd) of Ida [is] full of ghee, greatly trickling ; O Jata- 

vedas, accept thou the oblations. The cattle of the village that are of all 

forms — of those seven let the willing stay {rdntti) be with me. 

Versions. are found in AQS. (ii. 2. 17), ApQS. (vi. 5. 7), HGS. (ii. 17. 2), and MB. 
(ii. 2. 14), and of the latter half in TA. (iii. 11. 12, vs. 31 a, C). MB. agrees with our 
text throughout ; the three others have cardcaram at end of a, and all three havir idaf'n 
jusasva (for prati etc.) in b; HGS. begins with iddydi srptam^ and ApQS. combines 
iiidydh P'\ then, in d, ApQS., HGS., and TA. read ihd instead of tndyi; and A^S. 
pHstis for ramtis; HGS. ends with rathiir astu pustih. The comm. reads ildyds in 
a ; he renders sarlsrpam by atyartham sarpat^ ramtis by prliis^ and specifies the 
seven village (i.e. domestic) animals as cow, horse, goat, sheep, man, ass, camel ; but 
the number seven is doubtless used only as an indefinite sacred one. Pada a is again 
jat^atly as in vs. 5. |_Pada c is our ii. 34.4 a; between vi^varupds and tcsdm Ap^S. 
inserts virupds (a fragment of our ii. 34. 4 b!). — Prat. ii. 72 requires itfdyds p-.^ 

7. [Set] thou me in both prosperity and abundance; O night, may we 
be in the favor of the gods. 

O spoon, fly away full ; fly back hither well-filled ; jointly enjoying all 

sacrifices, bring to us food (//), refreshment {flty). 

The first two padas, which seem to have nothing to do with the rest of the verse, are 
wanting in Ppp. What follows them is a complete anuslnbh, and quoted by its pratika 
in Vail, (see above); its first half is found in several other texts: VS. (iii. 49), TS. 
(i.8. 4»), MS. (i. 10. 2), K. (ix. 5), AQS. (ii. 18. 13) ; of these, VS. TS. AQS. read darvi 
for darvCy as does also the comm., with a few of SPP's mss. Ppp. has sathprficatl 
isam in the last half-verse. The comm. understands d sthdpaya in a, as in the transla- 
tion ; bhaja would answer an equally good purpose. He explains that the spoon is to 
go forth with oblation and to return with the answering blessings. Sambhufijaif he 
renders by liavisd samyak pdlayantl prlnayantl. Finally, he points out that, as c is 

quoted as a pratika, a and b have a right to the character of a separate verse ; but that T 

in the paflc apatalikd t he whole is made a verse, with three avasdnas ; the statement, *^ ^ ^^ c ' 
TunioniT^iUeJappcars to fit our Anukr.; this scans as 8+10:8 + 8:8 + 8 = 50, 
needlessly counting only 10 syllables in b. In our ed., read md for m€, [^Cf. iv. 15. 12 n.J 

8. Hither hath come the year, thy spouse, O sole dstakd; do thou 

unite our long-lived progeny with abundance of wealth. 

Instead of repeating the second half-verse of vs. 3, Ppp. gives for c, d tasmdi 
juhomi: havisd ghrtena (du ftaf ^arma yacchatn. Against his usual habit, the comm. 
explains c, d anew, but quite in accordance with his former explanation. 


9. I sncrificc to the seasons, the lords of the seasons, them of the 

seasons (drinvd), and the winters (/tdyand), to the summers {sdntd), the 

years, the months; for the lord of existence I sacrifice. 

The chanf^e of case, from accusative to dative, in d, doubtless intends no change of 
construction. I'he verse, as noted alxwe, is wantini; in Tpp. ; it is in part repeated 
below, as xi. 6. 1 7. According to the comm., the ** lords of the seasons ** are the ((ods, 
Agni etc. ; the ilr/ams |^cf. iii. 6. 6noteJ are ''parts of seasons; other unspecified di\i- 
stons of time, sixteenths, ktlsthUs^ etc.** ; and although samA^ samvmisara^ and k4yamm 
are synonymous, yet htlyana here signifies ** days and nights,** and samd *' half-months.** 

ID. To thee for the seasons, them of the seasons, the months, the 
years, the Creator (ti/ttUdr), the Disposer (tfsd/td/dr), the Prospcrcr 
(} stttftnih), tiie lord of existence, do I sacrifice. 

All the stttithittl'm%%, combine in a -hhyas /7'<l, and SIM*, accepts the reading in his 
text ; ours emends to hh\as ivtl ; such treatment of final as is common in Ppp., and 
sporadic rx.implcs of it arc found among the AV. mss., but it is hardly to be tolerated 
in a text like ours ; and the comment to Triit. iv. 107 quotes the passage as Mjras ffJ. 
The comm. |^at xix. 37. 4J deems this verse |^and not v. 28. 13 J to be the one repeated as 
xix. 37. 4 ; see under that verse. Tpp. has, for a, b, yajur rti'if^bhya Artax*€bky0 mMbkyas 
utmx'atuitt\Ya r«r, which at any rate rids the text of the embaaassing tx^. Here the 
comm. declares the iirtavas to be **days and nights, etc.'*; samfdk he explains as 
samardhayitre etanndmni dtViiya. 

11. We, making oblation with idd — I sacrifice to the gods with what 

is rich in ghee; unto houses not disorderly (hilub/tyant), rich in kine, 

may we enter together. 

Or, it mi^ht l>e, ' may we lie down, go to rest * ; the translation would imply more 
naturally sttm upa vi^etna [^the /ftdrx Irr^rtiW lakes f#/<t as an independent ** case- 
governing ** prc|>osition J ; the comm. says nfir */ya sam vi^emm sukktma mi fasema; he 
comfortably removes the anacoluthon in a, b by declaring yaj€ = yajdmake^ and takes 
alubhyatits as either nom. {j^Ardhyam akHrx'An^s) or accus. {j^drdkyarahiidm), Ppp* 
reads for d drsadesvpa^omata. 

12. The sole ds(akd, paining herself (tapyd) with penance, generated 

an embryo, a greatness, Indra; by him the gods overcame their foes; 

slayer of the barbarians became the lord of might ({del-). 

The verse is found also in TS. (iv. 3. lu). K. (xxxix. 10), I'C^S. (iii. 3. 5), and 
MH. (ii. 3. 21); and a is identical with IIGS. ii. 15.9a |^and MP. ii. 30.35 aj: 1*^* 
accents tdpya- in a (the comm. does the same), and its c, d read: Una dAtylkm ty 
dsakanta dn*i kattiti ^surilndm ahhavac €hd(ibkik^ arul K. PCS. have the same ver- 
sion ; l*pp. agrees with them in reading asurAnAm for dihytlmdm^ aiMi MB. has their 4« 
but our c except asaA^t/t/a for vy asah-. 1 he / of vy As- is distinctly required by 
TrSt. ii. t)2 ; but .SIM*, gives in his text iv fix-, against a majority of the mss. reported by 
him. Our l*.M.W. are corrupt at the end, but P.M. show distinctly -/M/A, indicating 
the rcadinj; of TS. etc. The comm. gives three different explanations of f^drbkam in bi, 
achling j^amnhtttft or j/tt/yaw (from /^r *sing*), and then farbkatikax*ad adr{ymm 
(from t;r * sw.ill(>w ' ), to the true meaning. The fktlsiakA he defines to be " eighth day 
of the dark h.ilf of MAgha.*' The concluding p4da is jaj^ait. 


13. Thou whose son is Indra, whose son is Soma, daughter art thou 
of Prajapati ; fulfil thou our desires ; accept our oblation. 

Wanting in Ppp., as above noted. 

The second anuvaka contains 5 hymns, 40 verses ; and the quotation from the old 
Anukr. is simply <ia(^a, 

II. For relief from disease, and for long life. 

[Brahman and Bhrgvangiras. — astarcam. dindrdgndyusyam^ yaksmand^anadevatyam. 
trdistubham: 4. fakvarlgarbhd jagatt ; /, 6. anustuhh ; 7. usnigbrhatigarbhd 
pathydpahkti ; 8. j-av, 6-p. br hat tgarbhd jagatt. '\ 

The first four verses are found in Paipp. i., with the bulk of the 4-vcrse hymns ; they 
are also RV. x. 161. 1-4 (RV. adds a fifth verse, which occurs below as viii. 1.20). 
The hymn is used by KauQ. (27. 32, 33) in a general healing ceremony (without specifi- 
cation of person or occasion ; the schol. and comm. assume to add such), and, in com- 
pany with many others (iv. 13. i etc. etc.), in a rite for length of life (58. 11); and it is 
reckoned to the takmand^ana gana (26. i, note) and to the dyusya gana (54. 11, note; 
but the comm., ignoring these, counts it as one of the aitholifiga ga/ia). In Vait. 
(36. 19), vs. 8 accompanies the setting free of the horse at the a^vamedha sacrifice ; and 
the hymn (the edition says, i. 10.4; the pratlkas are the same) is employed, with ii. 33 
etc., in i\\^ purttsamedha (38. i). — |_See also W's introduction to ii. 33. J 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 231 ; Griffith, i. 95 ; Bloomfield, 49, 341. — In p.irt also by 
Roth, Zur Litieratur and Geschichte des IVeda^ p. 42. 

1. I release thee by oblation, in order to living, from unknown j'^/y;;/rr 
and from xo^tA ydksina ; if now seizure {grd/ii) hath seized him, from it, 
O Indra-and-Agni, do ye release him. 

RV. inserts vn ^iier yddi in c. Ppp. has, in the second hzM-vtrsCj grd/tyd grhUo 
yady esa yatas tata ind-. The comm. explains rdjayaksma as either *• king oi yaks mas *' 
or else ••the^'. that seized king Soma first," quoting for the latter TS. ii. 5.65 ^see ref- 
erences in Bloomfield's comment J. The first pada isjagatl, 

2. If of exhausted life-time, or if deceased, if gone down even to the 

presence (antikd) of death, him I take from the lap of perdition ; I have 

won (spy) him for [life] of a hundred autumns. 

The translation implies in d dspdrsam^ which is the reading of our edition, supported 
by RV., and also by the comm. (^— prabalarh karoini!^^ and two of SPP's mss. that 
follow the latter ; the dspdr^atn of nearly all the mss. (hence read by SPP.), and of Ppp., 
can be nothing but a long-established blunder. Ppp. has at the beginning^tf^ ///r///irJ- 
yttr y-, |_At ii. 14. 3 SPP. used the '* longy"" to denote the ksdipra circumflex ; with 
equal reason he might use it here for ih^ pra^lisfa of nita = n/-i/a.^ 

3. With an oblation having a thousand eyes, a hundred heroism.s, a 

hundred life-times, have I taken him, in order that Indra may lead him 

unto autumns, across to the further shore of all difficulty {dnritd), 

RV. has in a qatdqdradena for i^atAvlryetia^ and makes much better sense of c, d by 
reading i^atdtn for indras^ and indras for dti (it also has imdm for enam). 

4. Live thou increasing a hundred autumns, a hundred winters, and a 


lnni(lrc<l springs; a hundred to thcc [may] Indra, Ap^ni, Savitar, Brihas- 
pati [give] ; with an oblation of a hundred life-times have I taken him. 

Our text, in llie srrc»ncl liAlf-vrrv, inf;rnit)iisly <lrfarrs the l>cttrr meter and sense 
given by RV'., which icvis //i*// #!;,'«/ for Ai tntfro ttt^nfh in c, an»! emU with Mavhe 
*MiU» /nirttir ifuh. The virse is l.iiily ron et tly fiefinefl l»y the Anukr.. its c having 14 
s\>U-s (pr/'i'fff/), and makin;; the whole numher 47 S)nal»lcs {J*iji;*iff lens 1). 

5. Mnler in, C) brcath-and-cxpiralion, as two draft -o.xcn a pen (vrajd); 
let the other deaths go away (vi), which they call the remaining hundred. 

In this verse, as in the prcc rilini^ and in \s, 7 and elsewhere, SPIV makes tlie inde- 
fensible combination ft ch, inMcad of /> (4, as the result of mutual assimilation of m and f 
Lcf. note to i. 19. 4 J. 

LAs to the "one hundred and one <lraths,'* cf. viii. 2. 27 ; xi. 6.16; i. 30. 3 ; 
//'«rf#i/<i in Index; and the numln-rs in the not.ih]c passage, xix. 47. 3ff. ; Kuhn'i most 
interesting (Germanic parallels, K/. xiii. 128I1. ; Wuttkc, /Vn/irA/r I'piksahtrgiaMl*^*, 
3*^** 335 J Hopkins. Orifntat StuJus . . . pa)H.*rs read l>cfore the OitentaJ Club of 
Philadelphia, i8SS-t.S(^4. p. 152; Zimmcr, p. 400. Cf. also the woids of the ftt4tute, 
iSKdward I., $4. conrcrning the "line of I^nd.s," ** unless they put in their ciaim 
within a year and a <lay.**J 

6. He ye just here, () brealh-and-e.xpiration ; go yc not away from 
here ; carry his body, his limbs, unto old age again. 

At tlie end of b. the < omm. rr.nlsy.i: .r/// (- j/^'^/iiw, akt^U) instead of ynx-Aim^ and 
two or three of STT 1 mss., as often, follow him. 

7. Unto old age (h) I commit thee ; unto old age do I shake thee down 
(///•//////); may old age, excellent, conduct thee; let the other deaths go 
away, which they call the remaining "hundred. 

The Anukr. .scans the verse as 9 4 S : 7 4 tS + S ='40, not admitting any resolution in C 

8. Old age bath curbed {tthhidlui) thee, as it were a cow, an ox, with 
a ro|K'; the death that curbed thee, when born, with easy fetter — that 
Krihaspati released for thee, with the (two) hands of truth. 

The vcrl>-fi>rms represent the noun abhuihinl ' halter, or bridle, or roj>e for confiiiing 
and guiding* |_.\ case of ** reflected meaning**: discussed. Lanman, Tf antat: items 0/ 
ihe Aw. /*At/if/. AsstHtation. vol. xxvi, p. xiii (i?^04)- Cf. note to iv. |S. i.J As in many 
other cases, the comm. remlers the aorist <i//</<f (for tttfhtta) as an im|>erative, ba*Mkam 
karotu. On account of jAyamAnam in d (virtually * at thy birth*) \Vcl>cr entitles the 
hymn "on occision of ditVicult p.irturition,'* which is plainly wrong. Perhaps it is f<ir 
the same reason that the comm. regards it as relating to a child, or to a person diseased 
from impro|>er copulation. In our text, at the beginning, read ahht (an accent-sign 
lost under a ). There is no brhatl element in the verse. 

12. Accompanying the building of a house. 

[ /**f if 4 Mi.t n ' - ft.tx\%f f J/.f f t'l ittt mt . i .hf^'/f^tft^ *f/,f i/iUt > . if ^tstfthkam ' I. rirS^/ag^it ; 
J f'fkati; 6- ^tilt^fii^afhktljj^iitt ; 7 ti* sr onuttuhk ; 8. hkuftj ; 9. ammttmhk.\ 

The fust ri^ht %'erRes are found in r.\ipp . hut only i -<;, 7 tr>grther. in iii.. vs. 6 ))eing 
in XX., an<l vs. 8 in xvii. |^Morc or less corresftondent \'ss. recur at MP. ii. 15. 3 ff. and 


at MGS. ii. ii.i2fr. (cf. p. 148 i/uiiva),\ The hymn is reckoned by Kauq. (8.23) to 
the vHstospatlya hymns, and is used with them in a house-building ceremony (43. 4 ff. ; 
the " two ii/iriivas,'' mentioned in 43. 1 1 |_are doubtless the same as the " two dhruvas " 
mentioned in J 136. 7 ; |_and the latter J are, according to the comm. to vi. 87, not vss. 
I and 2, but hymns vi. 87 and 88) ; vss. 6 and 8 are specially quoted (43.9, 10). Vait. 
(16. 1, in the agnisioma sacrifice) gives a* pratika which is nearly that of vs. 8, but 
with adhtfaryo for ndri. |_Vs. 9, q. v., occurs in Ppp. with others of our ix. 3. J 

Translated: Ludwig, p-463; Zimmer, p. 1 50 ; Weber, xvii. 234 ; Grill, 59,108; 
Griffith, i.97; Bloomfield, 140, 343. — Cf. Hillebrandt, Veda-chrestomathie^ p. 44; ^'^d 
Bloomficld's references ; also M. Winternitz, Miitheilungen der Anthropohgischen 
Gesellschaft in WieUy vol. xvii, p. [38]. 

1. Just here I fix {ni-ini) [my] dwelling {qdla) firm; may it stand in 

security, sprinkling ghee ; unto thee here, O dwelling, may we resort 

(sani'Car) with all our heroes, with good heroes, with unharmed heroes. 

Ppp. reads abhi instead of upa in d. Padas a, b are found in PGS. iii. 4. 4, with 
tisthatu for -J// ; and b in QGS. iii. 3, with tistha for the same ; HGS. (i. 27. 2) has the 
whole verse, with tisthati in a, anu (for upa) in d, and suvlras before sarvav- in c. 

2. Just here stand thou firm, O dwelling, rich in horses, in kine, in 

pleasantness, in refreshment, in ghee, in milk ; erect thyself (itt-qri) in 

order to great good-fortune. 

Ppp. leaves the a of a^vdvatl in b unelided. PGS. (ibid.) has padas b and d, mak- 
ing one verse of them with 3 c, d; padas a, b are also found in ^GS. (ibid.), with con- 
siderable variants : sthune for dhruvd^ dhruvd for {CiUy and sUamdvatl for sunr- ; and 
HGS. (ibid.) has again the whole verse, with firjasvatl payasd pitivamdna for c. 
The comm., with the usual queer perversion of the sense of sunrtd^ renders sunr (Avail 
hy ba/iub/n'h priyasatvavdgbhir bdlddlnam vdnlbhir yuktd. Padas b and c ^x^jagatf. 

3. A garner {^. dhantui) art thou, O dwelling, of great roof, of cleansed 
grain ; to thee may the calf come, may the boy, may the kine, streaming 
in at evening. 

This translation of the difficult and doubtless corrupt first half-verse implies emenda- 
tion of 'Chandas io-chadisy and oi putt- iopftfd which latter is, in f.ict, the Ppp. read- 
ing. In d, .SPP. adopts the bad reading dspdndanidnds, claiming to find it in the 
majority of his mss. ; but the scribes are so wholly untrustworthy in their distinction of 
sy and sp that the requirement of the sense is sufficient to show that they intend sy 
here ; the comm. reads -syand-^ and so does (JGS. (iii. 2) in the parallel passage : endtk 
^t\uh krandaiy d kumdra d syandantdth dhcnavo niiyavatsdh ; PGS. (ibid.) has d 
tvd ^t\ur d krandaiv d gdvo dhenavo vdqyamdndh. [_MGS. ii. ii.i2^ reflects our 
vs. 7. J The comm. lets us understand by dharuni either bhogajdtasya dhdrayitrl or 
pra^asidi stambhdir upcid; and by brhachandds ft\i\i^v prabhutdchddand or mahadbhi^ 
chandobhir vcddir upetd; puiidhdnya is *• having corn malodorous from age" — a 
sign of stores unexhausted. The Anukr. apparently scans as 7 -f- 8 : 10+ 11 =36: a 
very poor sort of brhatl. [Note that of SPP's authorities for dsyand-^ K and V were 
men, not mss. ; none of his living authorities gave dspand-. The bluncier is easy for 
the eye, not for the ear. J 

4. This dwelling let Savitar, Vayu, Indra, Brihaspati fix, foreknowing; 


let the Maruts sprinkle it with water, with ghee; let king Bhaga deepen 
(ni/afi) our ploughing. 

Ppp. reads in a, b lulyttr a/^nis tvaUil hotA ttt, and has somas (which tuiu fJtjJt 
better) for bhtiji^,ts in d. In c it t>egins with the true reading uksantm; this is to natu- 
rally !(ui;Kcstcd as emendation of the uihAnlH of the mss. that all the translators assume 
it (\Vel)er, strangely mistaking the plain statement of the Indrx Vifbcrmm^ accuses us 
of having wrongly altered ukuitttu in our edition to tnAAti/H/) ; ttksdttim is also read 
hy the comm., and by two or three of SI*P*s mss. that follow him; and SI'l*. very 
pro|>erly admits it into his text. SPP. also reads after it mimd^ with the comm^ but 
against all his mss. [^except the ^rotriya K J ; there is no instance where mtimi and mdmAs 
arc correctly read in any of tliem (here, our Hp.O.Op. have itlni^ T.M. «r/v^, the 
rest • tiMMil : our edition gives i/////*f, and Weber has failed to sec that it was ctwrectetl 
in the /»*frr I'erbotuM [^under W//J//J). Tlie comm. makes d refer to the pk>ughinf( 
of the site of the house : {tllAhhtlmeh kttrsanum mtatCtth karoiti, |^*K.H.D.K.Kp. and 
Tpp. have unni; I. has uuA ; VV. has -/// lvti.\ \Yox mhantu^ sec ju 9. 13 n.J 

5. O mistress of the buikiing (? vidna)^ as sheltering, pleasant, hast 
thcui, a gocliless. !>ecn fixeti by the gods in the beginning; clothing thy- 
self in gras.s, maycst thou be well-willing; then mayest thou give us 
wealth together with heroes. 

I 'pp. has, for c, d, linttam vasanA sumanA ya{as tram rayim no dki suhka^t smvlram, 
** (;rass *' in c refers probably to a thatched roof. MAna the comm. gives two explana- 
tions for: either "of t)ie reverend (mtJnaMfya) lord of the site (t'llj/iir/tf/f )/* or else 
" of the spoiling ( ? mfyamtlna) grain etc." {palui in this case signifying pjklayitri). In 
b the comm. reads nirmitA. IK^S. (i. 27.8) has A, b, c (with a wholly different d) in 
a c<»fTupt form : mA nah sapattuih {aranah sr<fnA drt'O dn*€bkir vimitA *sy a^e: irnam 
vasAnAk sumanA asi tram ; but our d (with X'lnlm r) occurred just before (i. 27. 7). 

6. With due order, O beam (vaii^d), ascend the post ; formidable, 
bearing rule, force away {(^ptivrj) the foes; let not the attendants (nfa- 
saiidt) of thy houses be harmed, () dwelling; may we live a hundred 
autumns with all our heroes. 

Ppp. reads s/kuuA \/Ai in a, and in c, d has -/J/^y ' ira virAjAm jl\*Am ^arada^ 
(a/Afti. Hoth meter and sense indicate that /^rhinAm is an intrusion in c; and suvifAs 
at the end would rectify the meter of d The first pdda is the beginning of a verse in 
AOS. ii.9 ; and ll(*S. (i. 27. 7) has the first halfvcrse, with sthAnAu in a, and Urdkvms 
and apa ifdka in b |^rf. MP. ii. i5-^s M(;S. ii. 11. 14 is corrupt J. The comm. reads 
afsan for risan in c ; he expl.iins fttna by abAdhytna t Apena saka, and mpasatlMtas by 
ttpaiadanakartAt as . The vcr!ve (ii f ii: 14+12 =48) is defined by tlie Anukr. witb 
mechanical correctness. 

7. To it the tender boy, to it the calf, with moving creatures (jdgat), 

to it the jar ot purisntf, with mugs of curd, have come. 

rpp /; A for tmAm in a and c, anfl in c paft\rias ; and it ends d with kaia^m^ fs 
yA I he mss vary iK-tween /«f//if/#Ajj and -frw/- (our Bp.ll.O.OpKp. have () ; the 
comm \\As f, and renders the word by parnfai^na^liasya madkmnak * foaming over 
sweet ' The word is quoted in the comment to ii. 106 as an example of / after f 
protccte<l from lingualization by a following r. The comm. reads in c kmmkkMs^ and 


in d kala^fs; half the mss. (including our Bp.E.I.H.K.) accent kala0{s. The comm. 
explains yVf^/i/J lis gamatta^Una gavddindy which is doubtless its true sense. The verse 
is found also in AGS. (ii.8. i6), PGS. (iii.4.4)» CGS. (iii.2.9), and HGS. (i. 27. 4) : 
the first two and the last have (like Ppp.) tvd, and ^GS. reads etia/n (for i*mam)\ for 
jdgatd, PGS. has jagatfdis and AGS. jdyaidm; ^GS. gives bhttvattas, with pari for 
sahA; all differ again as to the last word, presenting upa (PGS.), ayan (AGS.), ayann 
iva (HGS.) or gaman (^GS.); and (^GS. has further kumbhyds in c, while for pari- 
srutas AGS. has pariqritas and HGS. hiranmayas Lsee also MP. ii. 15.4 and MGS. 
ii. 1 1. 1 2b J. The epithet drsf, added by the Anukr. to the metrical definition of the 
verse, is without meaning as aistinguishing it from vs. 9 ^cf. iii. 14.6, note J. 

8. Bring forward, O woman, this full jar, a stream of ghee combined 
{sam-b/tr) with ambrosia {amr/a); anoint these drinkers {?) with ambro- 
sia; let what is offered-and-bestowed defend it (f. : the dwelling.^). 

The well-nigh universal reading of the mss. in c is imam pdtfn^ which SPP. accord- 
ingly presents in his text, in spite of its grammatical impossibility (of our mss., E. gives 
pdtrin^ -tren being a misreading of -tfn found also more than once elsewhere ; P. has 
pdddHy and \^ . pdtrait)\ we emended imam to iman; but perhaps imam pdirfm *this 
drinking-vessci,' which the comm. has, would be preferable, as better suited to sdm 
ahdhi; and aidm at the end would then refer to it. The comm. has sam indhi instead 
of sdm andhi ; he makes endm imply ^didm. The corresponding verse in Ppp. (xvii.) 
is quite different, and corrupt; purndth ndbhiri pra hard *bhi kumb/tam apdm ramant 
osadhlndn ghrtasya : imdm pdtrer amrtdir a sam agdhi sthird vlrds sumanaso 
bhaifantu : this suggests imam patrdir amftasya in c * anoint this [dwelling] with ves- 
sels of ambrosia*; but also its separation from the preceding verses makes uncertain its 
belonging to the same ceremony with them. In the ceremonial use, it accompanies the 
entrance into the new dwelling, the wife first, carrying a water-jar. 

9. These waters I bring forward, free from ydksvtay ydksviacHsicing ; I 
set forth Q pra-sad) unto {upa) the houses, along with immortal (avirta) fire. 

The verse, as already noted, is wanting [^in this connectionj in Ppp., and neither 
Kaug. nor the comm. specify anything as to its use. It appears again below as ix. 3. 23 
Lwith Ppp. version J. The comm. gives no explanation nor paraphrase of prd slddmi. 
L** Prepositions " discussed, Prat. iv. 3, note.J 

13. To the waters. 

[Bhrgit. — saptarcam. vdrunam uta sindhuddivatam. dmutubham : i. nicrt ; 

J. virddjagati ; 6. nicrt tristubh.'\ 

The first six verses occur in Paipp. iii., and also in TS. (v. 6. i), MS. (ii. 13. i), and 
K. (xxxix. 2). The hymn is used by Kaug. in a ceremony for directing water into a 
certain course (40. i ff.); the padas of vs. 7 are severally employed in it (see under that 
verse); it also appears, with other hymns (i. 4-6, 33, etc. etc.), in a rite for good-fortune 
(41. 14). And the comm. describes it as used by one who desires rain. Verse 7 is 
further employed, with a number of other verses, by Vait. (29. 13), in the agnicayana^ 
accompanying the conducting of water, reeds, and a frog over the altar-sile. — LBerlin 
ms. of Anukr. reads sindhvabddivatam.\ 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 240 ; Griffith, i. 99; Bloomfield, 146, 348. — Cf. Bergaigne- 
Henry, Manuel^ p. 143. 


1. Since formerly (? m/ds), going forth together, yc resounded (tiai/) 
when the dragon was slain, thenceforth ye are streams (Nrtf/f) by name : 
these are your names, () rivers. 

The /•!</<? 111^^. all ( ommit tlir vrry f;rntuitouft blunder of writing iJA instead of iJ at 
- the lH*f*infiin); of d, 35 if it Inrlon^ctl to itnJhat^tis in!(tc.ul of to hJhuImi ; SI'P. emends 
to /if. Ami thr f otnm. m> uiulcrHt.infls the word. The lomm. takrA ttt/tis as Ve<lic substi- 
tute for ttff/ut//tin, r|u.inf\inL; <f^l/#. None of the other texts f;ives any various reading 
for this vrrse. I'Aila d ^cXn fftrth, as it were, the oftke of the Atst four verses, in finding 
puniiin;; rtymoh);:ies for sundry of the names of water. 

2. When, sent forth by Varin^a, ye thereuiM>n {t1/) quickly skip|)ed 
{Vii/j^) together, then Indra obtained (///) you as ye went ; therefore arc 
ye waters (ti/*) afterward. 

IS. .ind MS. havr in d ///i/r (noniin.). and this is obviously the true reading, and 
assumed in tlio translation: Uith rrlitions follow the mss. (rxrept our Op.) in giving 
#!/<?/. M.S. brains the verse with fi/w/'.f. i//AIf , for #// in b MS. has I'll/ and TS. /Jj. 
In d, rpP- elides the it of ttntd , TS leaves sthatta unlingualized. The comm. reads 
instead s fit tut. 

3. As ye were flowing perversely (af'tikafndtfi)^ since Indra verily hin- 
dered i'uu) you by his powers, you, ye divine ones, therefore the name 
water (:•<//) is assigned you. 

Pp|>. has for c htiho tmj iaktttbhtr tUxuUs. TS. combines in d vir nima. The 
comm. apparently takes hikam as a sint;le word (the TS. /fi</rr-lext so rrj^ards it), quot- 
ing as his authority XiUj^hantukti iii 12 : ami again in d, if the manuscript does not do 
him injustii 0, he re.ids htkam for lutam. 

>MA^t i^- '^Z 4- ^^^^ ^*"^ *^'*^^ Stood up to you, flowing at [your] will; ••the great 

ones have breathed up (W-i///)," said he; therefore water (ttdakd) is [so] 

The name here really had in miml must be, it would seem, udan^ but utiitkAm has to 
l>e substituti-d for it in the nominative ; none of the other texts olfer a difFerenC form. 
IS. improM-s tlie mrtrr of a by omittint^ 7'<i/, and TS. and MS. leave the a of aft 
uneliilrd Tpp- differs more seriousl\ : eko tut dnut tif^Attsthai syamiamAnA tiff hah 
}'itf/ti}:'>r^iiffi m b miuht l»e * at his wdl,' (»p|)osed to apakAmAm in %'s. 3. The sense of 
C is ratlur obsMire ; the (omm un<lerstands : "saying * by this res|)ect on the part of 
Indra we ha\e l»e« ome great,' they brratheil freely (or heaved a sigh of relief: ttiikx^' 
jtfit:itf\.tt) *' • whi« h is senseless K sui;t:ests '* Indra put himself in their way with 
thr |H>iite adflress and inquiry: * their worships have given themselves an airing*; aiul 
conducted them on their way ai:ain ** ; VVe)>rr understands them to ligh under the 
burden of tlie ginl standing ** upon *' («'/#) them. The comm. declares aft to ha%e tbe 
sense of ttJ/ii. 

5. The waters [are] excellent; the waters verily were ghee; these 
waters verily bear Apni-and-Soma ; may the stronjij (fivni) satisfying 
sav«T </.M./) «»f the honey-mixed (-/n ) come to me along with breath, 
with splendtir. 


TS. reads dsus for dsan at end of a, and both TS. and MS., as also the comm., have 
gan at the end (MS.p. agan), MS. combines differently the material of our vss. 5 
and 6 : first our 6 a, b with 5 c, d, then our 5 a, b with 6 c, d ; and for our 5 a it reads 
apo devir ghrtaminva u apas. This last seems also to be intended by Ppp., with its 
dpo devlr ghrtam itapahus ; and it has ityd instead of it tds at end of b, and combines 
'gamd mil in c-d. The comm. renders madhnprcdm by madhnnd rascna samprktd- 
nam; the description in pada c almost makes us fancy some kind of mineral water to 
be had in view. 

6. Then indeed I see, or also hear ; unto me comes the noise, to me 
the voice of them ; I think myself then to have partaken ambrosia 
(ainrtd) when, ye gold-colored ones, I have enjoyed (trp) you. 

TS. has the inferior readings nas for md at end of b and ydd iox yada in d. MS. is 
corrupt in b ; its pada-\&x\ reads vak : nn : dsdm^ but the editor gives in sam/titd-text 
var nv dsdm. The comm. combines vag md. Ppp. has at the beginning j'/i^ for dd. 
The comm. takes the opportunity of the occurrence of hiranya- in d to bring forward an 
etymology of it which he here and there repeats ; it is hita-ramanlya / The verse is 
improperly reckoned as nicri. |_In the edition amrtastha is a misprint for 'Sya.\ 

7. This, O waters, [is] your heart, this your young (vatsd), ye righteous 
ones ; come thus hither, ye mighty ones, where I now make you enter. 

The preceding verses have been simple laudation of the waters ; this appended one 
(which is found neither in Ppp. nor in the other texts) adds a practical application, and 
is the sole foundation of the employment of the hymn by Kaug. With the first pada a 
piece of gold is buried in the desired channel ; with b a prepared frog is fastened there ; 
with c the frog is covered with a water-plant; with d water is conducted in. 

14. A blessing on the kine. 

[Bra/tman. — ttdnddrvatyam uta gosthadevatdkam, dnustubhani : 6. drsi tristitbh.^ 

The hymn (except vs. 5) is found in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order 2, 4, 6, i, 3). It 
is used by Kfiu^., with other hymns (ii. 26 etc.), in a ceremony for the prosperity of 
cattle (19.14). In V^lit. (21.26), vs. 2 accompanies the driving of kine in the agnt- 
stoma. The Vait. use does not appear to be mentioned by the comm., and his report of 
the Kau<j. use is mostly lost from the manuscript (but filled in by the editor). 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 469 ; Weber, xvii. 244 ; Grill, 64, 112; Griffith, i. loi ; Bloom- 
field, I43» 351- 

1. With a comfortable {snsdd) stall, with wealth, with well-being, with 
that which is the name of the day-born one, do we unite you. 

Ppp. reads in b sapustyd for subhutyd. The obscure third pada is found again below 
as V. 2S. I2C; it is altogether diversely rendered (conjecturally) by the translators 
(Weber, "with the blessing of favorable birth"; Ludwig, "with [all] that which one 
calls day-born "; Grill, " with whatever a day of luck brings forth **); R. suggests •* with 
all (of good things) that the day brings, or that is under the heaven": none of these 
suits the other occurrence. 

2. Let Aryaman unite you, let Pushan, let Brihaspati, let Indra, who 
is conqueror of riches ; in my possession gain ye what is good. 

iu. 14- BOOK III. THi: ATIIARVA Vi:i)A-SAttHITA. I lO 

* In my po!i2irft5ton/ lit. • with mc' (bci mir, chci moi). The comm. takes fmsyain 
at - /<u<f»<i/if / ami iu> do the transUtoni. unneccMarily and thrrefore inadmiMihly : 
or, uc in.iy emend Ko pMsyttlH^ with 't\iiu as subject. •• Unite'* calls for the eipreMion 
of with what ; this is not ^iven, hut the verse may l>e ref;arde<l as (eicept d) a continua- 
tion of vs. I. The three jK^das a-c are found as a ;fiJr<f/^/verse in MS. (iv. 2 10 : mtth 
fou\ for piiii in b). Tpp. iha puiyttti at t>eginning of d. 

3. Ilavin^^ come toj;(*thcr, unaffri|;htc(l, rich in manure, in this stall, 
boarin;^ the .sweet of soma, come yc hither, free from di.sease. 

'I hrre of the pAd.!^ (a. b, d) again form, with considerable valiants, a j^«lr<i/'/ in MS. 
(ihid ) immcdiatrly following the one noted al>ove : MS. has Avihfulikt for dhibkymits^ 
pHti\inii f«ir kttr-^ and, in place of our d, svttvf^i na li gitta. Tpp gives, as not sel- 
dom, in part the MS. readings, corrupted: it begins jttmjatstfMJm vthrtAwt^ has Ait r#f 
for m*xtihu in c, and, for d, svtXvt^Aia etana. '1 he combination of p. hpa-^iam^i into a. 
upHaua is one of those aimed at by VxW. iii. 52, according to the comment on that rule ; 
but it wouhl ec|ually well fall under the general rule (iii. 38) as to the order of combina- 
tion when «l comes l>etween two vowels {^mpaJ Uama like im^ifd-JtMi etc.). |^Cf. alio 
Lanman, JAOS. x. 425. J <;/ ,*/// ^ 

4. Come ye just here, C) kinc, and flourish here \\\iic ^dkd; also mul- 
tiply (praja) just here; let your complaisance be toward mc. 

i^Ake *i'ti (p. (.Uil /;*<») in b is very ol)SCure : VVel>er renders ** like dung** (as If 
{ilJtJ- ^tUrf); Lutiwig, "with the dung** (as if fdJttt - ^aJbrnt ); CtiM, *• hke plants*' 
(implying ^t}kttm izui or ^tlktl /."<i); the comm. says *' multiply innumerably, like flies** 
{{aktl -■ fftttJtuJtt})\ this last is, so as can l>e seen, the purest guesswork, nor is any- 
thing brought up in its supfxirt ; and the "dung '* comparisons are as unsuitable as they 
arc unsavory. The explanation of the comm. accords with one among those offered by 
the commentators on VS. xxiv 32 ( MS. iii. 14 13) and TS. v. 5. |.S«, where f«fiJ also 
occurs. I'pp. re.vis stih} ii'it. SPIV re{M)rts his p,it/tt msv as accenting ^^^T'lfil in a, but 
emends in his /<i</ii- text io xtyiut/i ; the latter is read by all ours, so far as noted. 

5. I. ft your stall be propitious ; flourish ye like ^an^tikil; also mul- 
tiply just here; with me we unite you. 

There is no Tpp. trxt of this verse to help cast light on the obscure and difficult 
(<l/fpK'iJ (}t (<l//'f</i^J7;-•r). *l he comm. (implying -ItU) expLiins the word as meaning 
*' kinds of creatures that increase by thousands in a moment,** but offers no etymology or 
other support ; the tr.mst.itois supply a variety of ingenious and unsatisfactory conjee* 
tures (\Vel»rr. "like \Ar t dung." <J// perhaps a kind of bird; C#rill "[fatten yt>urach-es] 
like thr (<Im/<I '* or hootlrd rrf)w ; l.udwig simply puts a question-mark in place of a 
transl.itioii). K. offers thr conjecture (<'''^ ( - f<'/'/') f«r/'<f ii'*' * like rice in manure.* 
Our IV M I' I. .ncient ^,1m*1Jtf *;a. 

|^ItKH>mfirl(| rmrnds to j J// |//^r;vi ( - ttls tvti), * thrive ye like starlings and par- 
rots.* Tiu<*. tlicM* birds are habitual companions in literature as in life (sec my trans- 
lation of A'<r '////. I ///<f/>/<r//, p. 22(;. note). liH|uacity l>eing their salient characteristic; 
but uhat is the tfttium KOtnpatiiHonn between the thriving of cowi and of starliags?J 

6. Atlarh y«»nrsflves. O kine, to me ns lord of kine ; this your stall 
here [1»«*1 llourisliin;; ; to ytui, becominpj numerous with abundance of 
wealth, to you living, may we living; be near {upa-uui). 


Bkdvanias in c would be a desirable emendation. Upa^nd may be rather * wait 
upon * (so Grill), only then we should expect rather sadAma (comm., N/«t|^?4rA/j«r<i), 
|_W's implied difference between sadema and sadiima is not clear to me. J Ppp, reads 
in a gopatya^ and its b is mayi vo gostka ihn posayUti, [^The epithet drsi seems to be 
as meaningless here as at iii. 12. 7 — see note, end. J 

15. For success in trade. ' 

[Atharvan (panyakdmah), — asfarcam, vdifvadfvam tt/di "tidr^g^iff*. trdtffMMam : 
7. bhurij ; 4. j-av. 6-p. brhattgarbhd xnrddntyn^ti ; j, vird^JngmH ; 

7. anttstubk ; 8. niq^t,] 

Four of the verses are found in Paipp. xix. (1, 4, 6, 2, in this order). The hymn Is 
used by K§U9. in a rite for good-fortune in trading (50. 12), and again (59. 6) for a simi- 
lar purpose ; also (or vs. i) in the indramahotsava ceremony (140. iC); also vss. 7 and 
3 in the appeasing of the flesh-eating fire (70. 13, 14). In Vait. (6. 9), vs. 7 is employed 
in the ceremony of establishing the sacrificial fire. The usual statement of thc^c various 
uses appears to be lacking in the manuscript of the comm., and is supplied, only in part, 
by its editor. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 215; Zimmer, p. 258 (except vss. 7, 8); Weber, xvii. 247 ; 
Grill (vss. 1-6), 69, 113; Griffith, i. 102; Bloomfield, 148, 352. — Cf. Ilillcbrandt, 
Veda-chresiomathie^ P- 3^- 


I. I stir up (ftid -) the trader Indra; let him come to us, be our fore- 
L^^^ \ runner; thrusting KawayV the niggard, the waylaying wild animal, let 
him, having the power (if), be giver ol riches to nie. 

Or paripanthinam and mrgdvi in c may be independent of one another (so comm., *^ ^ ^t/^^^ 
and translators except Weber and Zimmer). Ppp. has, for a, b, indram vayam vanijaih 
havdmahe sa nas trdtd pura etn prajdnan. The Anukr. notices c as jngatt pAda. 
{_" Indra, the trader": cf. Bergaigne, Rel. vid.^ ii. 480. — Many J&taka talcs (e.g. no's 
I, 2) give vivid pictures of the life of the trading caravans. J 

l^^ 2. The many roads, travelled by the gods, that go about {f/rm-car) \ 

between heaven-and-earth — let them enjoy me with milk, with ghcc/^ | U'*^^^ l^^'f^f'*^. 

that dealing { Ar f^ I may get (^-Af) riches. 

Ppp's version is very different : i/tdi *vas panihd bahavo devaydndm ana dydvd- 
prthivl supranltih : tesdm ahndm varcasy d dadhdmi yathd klUvd dhanam dvahdiii. 
The comm. allows us alternatively to understand deva- in a as " by traders*'; he renders 
jusantdm in c by sevantdm, as if it were causative. His text has at the beginning yi 
te panth-. The emendation, suggested by Weber, of md in'c to tne would help the 
sense. The first half-verse is found again below as vi. 55. 1 a, b. To make a regular 
tristubh, we must contract to -prthvi in b, and expand to krl-tu-i in d ; the Anukr. per- 
haps regards the two irregularities as balancing one another. 

3. With fuel, O Agni, with ghee, I, desiring, offer the oblation, in 
order to energy^ (/t^r^j), to strength; — revering with worship (brd/iman), 
so far as I am able — this divine prayer (^//</), in order to hundred-fold 

The verse is RV. iii. 18. 3, without variant — save that RV. accents of coMxvt juhdmi^ 
as does our edition by necessary emendation, while SPP. follows all the mss. in giving 


Hi. 15- HOOK in. THE ATHARVA-VEDA-SAttlllTA. 112 

juhomi (thc/<f</if-tfxt puts a %\^f\ o( pAcU-<li\'iston after tlie word, but also before it). 
The vciir ii not at all likrly to have l»een an original part nf our hymn; the word 
{atauyAya tn d has lauvd Ws adtlition. The comm. renders lAra$e by vtf^Aya f'c^'tf* 
£tiwttnihii, and applies ki/. "if </ /(/ in two ways, to the winning or to the worship|>iDg. 

' 4. This offense ^^frrfTfm) of ours maycst thou. O Agni, bear with^ 

'[ (i4u^ what distant road we have gone. Successful (Y*w*^for tis be bar- 

^*^ gain and sale; let return-dealing make me fruitful ; do ye two enjoy nils' 

oblation iiTconcord ; successful for us be our going about and rising. 

'I ho Arst two pAdtis arc wanting in the Taipp. version of the hymn (though they 
occur, in another connection, in I'pp. i-). and they are plainly an intrusion here, due to 
the mention of distant travel in b; they form the first half of KV\ i. 31. 16 (but KV. 
reads for b i///<f/// titihvtltutm yiffn ti^tlma tituit : I.^-^t in its rc|>rtition of tlie K\'. 
verse at iii. 2. 7, .igrees with AV. in preferring tittfttm). The insertion dislocates the 
comm's division of the h\mn; he reckons only the first 4 pAdas as vs. 4, then the last 
two \%ith the fust two of our ; as vs. 5, and the latter half of our 5 with the focmer half 
of our (> as vs, (1, ni.iking a vs. 7 nf only tlie two concluding of tmr (\ aiMl numlicr- 
ing the two remaining verses as S and «). Some of our mss. (P.M.W.F. I.) divide and 
num1»er in the .s.ini«' way to the middle of our \s. 6. then making vs. 7 consist of 6 (lAdas 
and end where our vs. 7 ends. Ppp. h;is for \\\ verse a different version of our C f : 
ftino for \unttm at the l)eginninu (with '.»/// after no), ji^iu/fittni ft'is for f>Jutlin,tm w.I, 
and, for our c, sttm^artlntl htivir itLim jitutntAm. The Anukr. seems to sran the verse 
as 1 1 f (> : 1 2 + 1 1 : 1 1 4 1 2 - Ui, though c and f are pro|>erly to lie made regulatly 
Ittituhh liy elision to *j//#. The lomm. renders ^4tfJnt in a by *' injury ** (iiwj4), and 
explains it as either tli.U arising (to Agni) from the intermission of sacred rites in con- 
sef|uence of the liousehoUler*s absence from home, or else that to the alysentee from his 
long journey as expressed in b — //////// V' l>eing in the first c:i%e ^ tsttmttira, and in 
the sccoml = m.trsitr^t or fi/iJtutyit • < .luso us to etulure ' : perhaps the src<md is. after all, 
the t>etter. |^For d. rather, * ni.iy barter make me almunding in fruit,* i.e. * may barter 

fbiing me its rcvi.ud/J 
5. With what riches I practise .(iitfc) bargaining , seeking riches with 
'^ • ^* ^ * riches, ye gods — let that become more Tor me, not less ; O Agni, put 
\ down (Tr fj f i/ <<F > with the oblation the gain-slaying gotis. 

t>r, p(»SNil>ly, * the gfxls of the gain-slayer * {stltat^hnAs as gen. sing. ; the comm. takes 
it as ace us. pi., and Ximmer and Ludwig so translate). The omission of tfn*t1n would 
rectify the meter and txtter the sense, and Welter and drill |^and IlillelirandtJ leave 
it out. The Anukr. gives a met h.uiic. illy correct definition of the verse as it stands. 

J 6. With what riches I practise bargaining, seeking riches with riches, 

ye goils -therein let Iiulta assign me pleasure (-^-xu^i), let Prajapati, 

Savitai, Soma, Ai;ni. 

rpp a U'ttcr veision of a: »vi/ panena fntti/**tnttm atft^uti; and it arranges C 
ditieientty : itiMo me t,nmtn f <</.•// iJ ; and reads hr/utt/>atts for ftttjAp- in d. H(«S. 
(i. 15. 1) a kindred \er^\ ntth second p.lda nearly identicd i»ith ours, and fmi^tm 
\\\ C- [See also .MP. ii. 22 4. J A'//. /. lit. •brightness,* is variously understood by the 
tr.inslators /imni«-r. " .ittr:iitive |Miwer"; I.uduig. "pleasure"; \Vel)er, •• understand- 
ing "; (trill. " consideration **; the comm. explains it by stirvajanaptltttk dkAmaprmdA- 
ntnJt '\iAnfKihAm, [I'pp- seems to omit dhancna in b.J 


7. ' Unto thee with homage do we, O priest Vai^vanara ('for all men *), 

give praise ; do thou watch over our progeny, our selves, our kine, our 

Two of our pada-mss, (Bp.Kp. ; also D.p.m. ?) divide vdt^vdnarah : tumah in b ; 
P.M.W. give sdm for sd at beginning of c. Tliis verse and the next seem to be addi- 
tions to the original hymn. L Under siu^ BR. and Index Verborum join upa with stu; 
correct Index under vpa accordingly. J 

y 8. Every day may we bring constantly for thee as for a standing 
/ horse, O Jatavedas ; rejoicing together with abundance of wealth, with ' 
food, may we thy neighbors, O Agni, take no harm. ^\ t vy^ 

The verse nearly accords with xix. 55. i, below; the second half is the same as 
there; the first half here is more unlike the parallel verse in other texts (VS. xi. 75 ; 
^B. vi. 6. 4. I ; TS. iv. i. io» ; K. xvi. 7 ; MS. ii. 7. 7) than is xix. 55. i ab — see under 
xix. 55. 1 ; in the second half they vary only by putting dgne at the beginning of d; 
they make a more manageable sentence by furnishing an object, ghdsdm * fodder,' for 
bharema. The comm. renders tisthate by svagrhe vartamdndya. 

Here, at the end of the third anuvdka^ of 5 hymns and 38 verses, the old Anukr. 
says simply astdu (but O.R. give astatrinqat). 

The fifth prapdthaka also ends with this hymn. 

16. Morning invocation to various gods, especially Bhaga. 

\^Atharvan. — sap tar cam. prdtahsiiktam, bdrhaspatyam uta bahudevatyam. trdistubham : 

I. drsi j'agati ; 4. bhurikpankti.^ 

Found in Paipp. iv., with very few variants. It is a RV. hymn (vii. 41), repeated 
also in VS. (xxxiv. 34-40) and TB. (ii.8. 979) [^and MP. i. 14. 1-7, in the same order 
as here J. It is used by Kau9. Lwith hymns vi. 69 and ix. ij, in the rite for generation 
of wisdom (10. 24), to accompany washing the face on arising from sleep ; also in certain 
ceremonies for "splendor" {yarcas : 12. 15 ; 13.6), with hymns vi. 69 and ix. i ; and it 
is reckoned to the varcasya ganas (12. 10, note; 13. i, note). In V5it. (5. 17), vs. 6 
accompanies, in the agnyddheya^ the horse's setting his foot on the boundary ; and its 
latter half, an oblation in the cdturmdsya sacrifice LVait. 8. 14 J. 

Translated: as RV. hymn, by Grassmann, i. 336, and by Ludwig, no. 92; as AV. 
hymn, by Weber, xvii. 251 ; Griffith, i. 104. — Cf. Winternitz, Hochzeiisriitiell^ P- 97» 
and notes. 

1. Early {frdtdr) do we call Agni, early Indra, early Mitra-and-Varuna, 
early the (two) A^vins, early Bhaga, Pushan, Brahmanaspati, early Soma 
and Rudra do we call. 

The other texts, and Ppp. with them, read at the end of d huvema. 

2. The early-conquering formidable Bhaga do we call, the son of Aditi 

who is disposer {indhartdr)^ to whom every one that thinks himself weak 

[or] strong, [to whom even the kingj says: "apportion [me] a portion." 

Bhaksim d might also be ist sing. mid. of the x-aorist, *may I obtain.' (so Weber, 
etc.) ; the comm. explains it both ways. Again all the other texts, including Ppp., 
have huvema for havdmahe in a; the Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity caused 
by our reading. LNote the play on the god's name : 'portion' is bhdga.\ 

iii. l6- BOOK III. Tin: ATHARVA-VEDA-SAttlflTA. II4 

3. O Kh.i|!^a, conductor, Kh.if^a, thou of true bestowal, Rhaga, help 
upward this prayer (/////). ^ivinf; to us ; O Kha{;a, cause us to multiply 
with kinc, with horses, O liha^^a, with men, — rich In men may we be. 

In Xh\% vcr^c A\'. and HV. af^rrc throughout; TH. reads atui with unlengtheiKd 
final in b, and VS. no witli unlinf;uali/cd nasal in c. 

4. lU)th now may wc he fortunate {b/uij^avani). and in the advance 

{} pfaftti'd) and in the middle of the days ; and, O bounteous one» at the 

up'goin^; of the sun, may we be in the favor of the gods. 

A» to the dinficult word //«i///:'il, sec nioomfield, J ADS. xvi. 24 ff. ; •• up^oinf^ " is 
prol>ahly heir Mmt jjoinij, disapiKrai.incc * ; the comm. renders /rri/i/:V by sd^Jtkme; 
his understanding; of uifiitlti is lost out of the manuscript. The other texts read uJiitk* 
\Jrox this vs., s*'c esiK'cially p. 35 en«l, 36 top, of Ill's p.iper.J 

5. Let the god lUiaga himself be forttmate ; through him may we be 

fortunate ; on thee here, Hhaga, do I call entire ; do thou, O Hhaga, be 

our forerunner here. 

KV. (with VS. and Til.) leaves the final of i/na unlengthened at Ijefcinnin^ of b; 
and KV. and VS. m.ike the sense* f>f c Inrtter hy t e^iWtig j^havUi; all the three have 
at the end of a the vck. t/rTifs. LComin. to Til. mAkt%ji»AaviMt=JAt'ayaii/j 

6. The dawns submit themselves (? s a 991 91am) to the sacrifice (aMzani), 
as Dadhikravan to the bright place; hitherward let them convey for me 
Hhaga, actjuirer of gmnl things, as vigorous (jvl/V//) horses a chariot. 

All the other texts. in(]u<lin<; I'pp., read iv^rr instead of mf at end of c. 1 he comm. 
renders Sifw tiamanttt hy sttm j^a^i/utftf^m, calls d^uihikft^van a horse *s name, and 
explains the action of the ohscure p.ida b l>y sa yalhii {iniJ/ulva j^amanil/a saiknaddko 
bhavati. The Anukr. ap|>ears to sant tion the abbreviation fdtham *7-if in d. 

7. Let excellent dawns, rich in horses, rich in kinc, rich in heroes, 

always shine for us, yielding (//////) ghee, on ail sides drunk of: do ye 

protect us ever with well-beings. 

'\\\. \v:ii\ firAp(nt\s at end of c; Tpp. has instead fravlnds ; the comm. eiplaini by 
il^ytlytftls * fillfd up, m.ide tcitnin;;,* %%hith is very possibly to l>e preferred. |^l3ciele 
the accent mark under j^;i*///ii/// J 

17. For successful agricoltore. 

[t'tfiilniif'.i - n-tz>it%,tm n/J./rrifrtft it* ■ / drjt ^4fa/ri; ^, K, ^ frtsfmM ; 

J. p*%tky*\^AiHlU ; 7. vtfdi^ur^mtHtk ; S. luri] 

Tour \rr%rs of this hymn are found toi;ether in IViipp. ii , in the order 2, I, 5,4 ; vs 5 
occurs in I'.'iipp. xix , and there ate verses in I'aipp. xit. and six. resembling our %■%. 6. 
Mu( h of it^ material ap|>ears als«) in KV. x. 101, iv. $7, and parts in VS ,TS.,TA., and 
MS.: see untlrr the several verse.s. The hymn is used by Kilu^. (20. I f!.) in an extended 
cerrmony for su< t ess in plowing* the details of which, however, do not help the inter- 
prrt.ition f>f the versrs ; vs. 8 (ib. 10) is s|>ecially (|uoted as accompanying; an oblalioa 
to Indra at the further end of a furrow, or of e.ich one of three furrows ; the comm. also 
regards it as intended by fMndsirJMi at loO. 8, in the book of portents, in a charm against 


the portent of mixed-up plows (whatever that may be *) ; vs. 4, again, accompanies the 
marking out of the sacrificial hearth at 137. 19, In Vait. (28. 30-32), vss. i, 3, and 2 b 
appear in the agnicayana^ in the ceremony of plowing the sacrificial hearth, and vs. 7 
(9. 27) at the end of the c&turmasya sacrifice, with an oblation to the (umlsfrd. 
♦ L" Wcnn zwei Pfliige sich verstricken beim Ackern,** says Weber, Omina^ p. 368. J 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 255; Griffith, i. 106. — Vs. 3 is elaborately discussed by 
Roth, Festgruss an Bbhtlingk^ p. 95 ff. See also Weber, Omina und P or tenia y p. 371. 

1. The poets (kavi) harness the plows (sira), they extend severally 

the yokes — they the wise ones (Mira), with desire of favor (?) toward 

the gods. 

The verse seems to imply a hidden comparison of the poet's work with the plow- 
man's. The other texts (RV. x. 101.4; VS. xii. 67 ; TS. iv. 2. 55; MS. ii. 7. 12; 
K. xvi. 1 1 ; Kap. xxv. 3) read suffinayA (but K. has -yuh : Kap. not noted), which the 
translation adopts, -y&A seeming an unintelligent corruption of it ; but the comm. gives 
a double explanation of -yliu^ one as " desiring a happy-making sacrifice " and qualify- 
ing yaja/ndne understood, the other as from sumna-ya {-ya for rooKyd) and qualifying 
baifvarddn understood I He makes sir a equivalent with liltlgala^ and takes vi tanvate 
as = " put on the oxen's shoulders '* ; vitan as here applied seems imitated from its 
use of stringing a bow ; in TB. ii. 5. 8»» we have even vl ianoti siram, 

2. Harness ye the plows, extend the yokes ; scatter (vaf) the seed 

here in the prepared womb ; may the bunch (?) of virdj be burdened for 

us ; may the sickles draw in (a-yn) the ripe [grain] yet closer. 

In the first half-vcrsc, RV. (ib. 3) and VS. (ib. 68) have ianndhvam for tanota, the 
rest (ibid.) agreeing with our text (but K. krto yonir) ; Ppp. x^^A& ksetre instead of 
yonait; ydnctu^ of course, involves a hidden comparison of sowing with impregnation. 
In the difficult and obscure second half, the other texts (not Ppp.) give gt'rd ca for the 
unintelligible virajas^ and dsai (with accent apparently meant as antithetic) for asat^ 
which is read in all the mss., but in our edition (not in SPP*s) emended to Asat; the 
same texts accent ^rttstis (and our edition was emended to agree with them; SPP. 
accents the first syllable, with all the mss.). SPP. reads qnustis^ with the majority of 
his authorities (including oral reciters), and with the comm. ; among his mss. are found 
also fr//j//j, f///-, jr//-, j////-, and ^niislls. Part of our mss. also (E.I.H.Op.) arc noted 
as seeming to intend f«//-, and, as Ppp. supports it by reading sunts/ts sabh-^ the read- 
ing f;///j///t is adopted in the translation [^as also atviii. 2. ij. The manuscripts are 
not at all to be relied on for distinguishing f;/// and fr// Lcf. iii. 30. 7 and note J. The 
comm. explains it hy a^uprdpakah stambah^ Jn\d sifb/tards ?^ phalabhdrasahitas * heavy 
with fruit' ; of viraj he makes easy work by identifying it with anna^ on the authority 
of TB. iii. 8. io4 : dnnath vdi viraif In d, finally, the chief discordance of the versions 
is at the end, where, for a yavan (Ppp. iiyuvafh)^ RV.VS.Kap. read / ^^f/, .and 
TS.MS.K. a yat. But TS. has srnya (instead of -/<ij), and some of our mss. (P.M.W.), 
with the majority of SPP's, combine ichrnyds or icchrnydsy implying (rnyds. The 
Anukr. does not heed that pada d is, as it stands, jagatt, LW., in his own copy and 
in Indexy seems to approve the accentless asai. — Comm. has dyavam in d.J 

3. Let the plow (Idhgala)^ lance-pointed, well-lying, ' with well- 
smoothed handle, turn up [ud-vap) cow, sheep, an on-going chariot- 
frame, and a plump wench. 

iti. 17- BOOK III. Tin: ATIIARVA-VEDA-SAIfillllTA. 1 16 

That iv npparciitly, let all thcuc f^ood things come as the reward o( succcttful a|Cfi- 
culturc. 1 ho vcriir, not fouml in KV., t)ut cKcurrini; in \'S. (ib. 71 ; and thence quoted 
in the VasiNth;i I)hartna5utra ii. 34 am! explained in ii. 35), as well as in TS.MS.K. (as 
a)N)ve), ha^ m.iny (Ittfii ult and fpirxtioiiahlc |)oints. Vox parlrdvai (Tpp. puts it befofe 
iMli^ttittm) VS. :ncc\\\% f^tivlntiai, and TS.MS.K. sul>stitutc /<li//r«ii'tfiw/ (or stt^lmam 
all have su^fiatn * very propitious*; tlie Tct. Lex. suggests iuxfmam 'having a good 
parting* i.r. of furrows, or * cvcn-furrowcd *; and K. refers to MU. i. 5. :, jtmdnam 
n,tyi}ffti. rpp. rc.i«I^ jwrr^/iw, whiih prohahly means stt^rvam. The impraiticahle 
sowantf sttrM {%<} in /«i//«i -text) is sowapit-sttru in VS., MS.. K.. and Vaststha, and somA^ 
piiialam in Tpp. ; Vas. rnvlers it " provided with a handle for the drinker of soma/* 
inipl\iii«4 the division sotnafti tstttu ; Wclnrr conjectures a noun ttmam 'strap/ and 
emrn<U to j(»//'#r ( - ittuma) satsam^ " with strap and handle.** Hut TS. reads smmaif- 
f'/Sitm, and thin is adopted in the translation, fttaii l>eini; t.ikcn not as from iwitii iMit 
as the woid found in mttitlr and it!i derivatives, and related with malya etc. (Welder 
also refcts to this mcanint* and connection.) The comm. explains sM{imitm b)' kartO' 
I'itsya sftJt/iiilrttfttfft, without telling how he arrives at such a sense; and s^masats^rm 
(disrcg.irdin^ the /</</</ division) as from tsaru^ cither *« a concealed going in the ground** 
(r(N)t /iif/', expl.iined l>y Khatima^at^u')^ or else ** a kind of part to be held by tlie plow- 
man's hand'*; in either case "a producer of the soma-sacrificc '* (i.e. Jifmasa). For 
fitthavihtttta * the frame that ciriies a ciiariot when not in use,* and prmtkAvai^ 
here virtu.illy * with the ciiatiot on it/ sc».» K. in the Fest^tust an Hi^hilinj^k^ p. 95 fl.; 
tlie comm. interprets as tt^vahttllvttf tfthhkam m/AtfrJAitntUttrrtar/Attm. VS. reads at 
the lH';;inninij of c Af// tii/ Vti^ti/i, and TS. thf U krutti; Tpp. has thufata trsMiii ; 
VS.TS.MS.Ppp. give for t p>tif»hdnyt\M (l*pp. 'jJm) ca fivaftm (^and VS. TS. invert 
the order of d ami ej ; the comm. also \\:is firarim ( = sthulAm)\ f*fiiphan't he explains 
as pratfuimiiwtyt'ih Jtanyth The first p.\<la is defective unless we resolve Ar-J/}-. 
LZimmer, p. 23^*, refers to Sir H. M. Klliot*s ^Memoirs, ii. 341, for a description of the 
IVnjab plow. J 

4. Let Indra hold down the furrow; let Tushan defend it ; let it, rich 
in milk, yield to us each further summer. 

This verse is found <tnly in KV. (iv. 57. 7), which reads <f/rjir /ffi-^^/M Un ahki faksatu ; 
rpp. has ftuihyath instead of abhi. We had the second half-verse above, as iil 10. I c d. 

5. Successfully (fnmint) let the good plowshares thrust apart the 

earth ; successfully let the plowmen follow the beasts of <lraft ; O C^una- 

slra, do ye (two), dripping {?) with oblation, make the herbs rich in 

berries for this man. 

VS. (xViJ**)) and MS. (ii. 7. 12) have the whole of this verse; RV. (iv. 57.S) and 
TS. (iv. 2. 5'), only the first two p^Vlas. For suph,}iAs in a, VS. (also our 1.) has sti 
/>/i,1/Jf^ and KV.TS. naA philAs^ l>oth preferable readings; RV.VS. have krsamtm for 
ttuinHtu. In b, TS. gives ahhl for Ann (our T.M. have Abklmm)\ MS. has ktstJl{^ 
ahhy Um vAhAih ; KV.VS., -fJ ahhi yaHtti t'AhAih, In c, the comm. gives tosamJtmJI^ 
explaining it by iNsyttft/Att, In d, the mss. vary (as everywhere where the word occors) 
Inrtwien pippaiis and piipalAs ; al>out half are lor each ; VS. MS. end the |iAda with 
htrtitnA *sfn/. Ppp. has a |>eculiar version: ^Mn*im kfuAi^o am%» dm x*Akam ^ummm 
phAh ; tn,ttittttn ayatti bhtlnttm : (MnAsIrA havisA yo yajAlrdi sttpipp«tiA ^s^dk^t^t 
tantM tiixtnM. The comm. Lcpioting VAskaJ ilcclares l^unAtlrAm to l>c VAyu and Aditya 
(wind and sun); or else, he sa\s, i^una is god of happiness and Slra of the plow. 


6. Successfully let the draft-animals, succi2ssfully the men, success- 
fully let the plow (Idngala) plow ; successfully let the straps be bound ; 
successfully do thou brandish the goad. 

This is RV. iv. 57.4, without variation; it is also found, with the two following 
verses, in TA. (vi. 6. 2, vss. 6-8), which reads naras instead of ndras at end of a. Part 
of our mss. (P.M.W.E.) have lisirdm in d. The comm. declares ^una to be addressed 
in the last pada. Ppp. has in xii. ^unam vriram ayaccha qunam astrdm ud ingayah 
^unam tu iapyatdm phdla^ qnnaj'n vahatu Idngalamj and in xix. the same a, b [^end- 
ing 'ya\^ but, for c, d, ^unam vahasya ^uklasyd ^strayd jahi daksinam, 

7. O Cunasira, do ye (two) enjoy me here ; what milk ye have made 
in heaven, therewith pour ye upon this [furrow]. 

* Milk,* i.e. nourishing fluid. Weber implies at the end "earth" (instead of "fur- 
row"), which is perhaps to be preferred. RV. (iv. 57. 5) reads for a ^lindslrdv imam 
vacam JU'\ TA. (as above) the same, except that it strangely omits the verb, and thus 
reduces the irisitibh pada to a gdyatrlj both texts mark the principal pada-division 
after b. The comm. changes all the three verbs to 3d dual. The Anukr. forbids in a 
the resolution -slrd ihd. In our edition the verse is numbered 6, instead of 7. 

8. O furrow, we reverence thee; be [turned] hitherward, O fortunate 
one, that thou mayest be well-willing to us, that thou mayest become of 
good fruit for us. 

RV. (iv. 57.6) inverts the order of a and b, and both it and TA. (as above) end 
c and d respectively with subhdga *sasi and suphdla *sast. All tlie pada-mss. have the 
blundering reading suophalah in d. The Anukr. perversely refuses to make the reso- 
lution iU'd in a. 

9. With ghee, with honey (inddhu) [is] the furrow all anointed, 
approved {amt-inan) by all the gods, by the Maruts ; do thou, O furrow, 
turn hither unto us with milk, rich in refreshment, swelling with fulness 
of ghee. 

The verse is found also in VS. (xii. 70), TS. (iv. 2. 5^), and MS. (ii. 7. 12). VS. MS. 
read -ajyatdm for -aktd in a ; all make c and d exchange places, and at the beginning 
of c read asmait for sa nas; and VS.TS. put pAyasd in place of ghrtdvat in d, while 
MS. gives urjd bhagdm viddhumat pinv-, 

18. Against a rival wife : with a plant. 

[A//tarv(tft. — vdnaspatyam. Snustubham : 4, ^-/. auustubgarbhS usnih ; 

6. usniggarbhd pathyHpankti^ 

This peculiarly Atharvan hymn has found its way also into the tenth book of the 
Rig-Veda (as x. 145, with exchange of place between vss. 3 and 4 ; it is repeated in RV. 
order at MP. i. 15. 1-6). Only three verses (our 4, 2, i, in this order) are found in 
Paipp. (vii.). Kilu9. uses it, among the women's rites, in a charm (36. 19-21) for getting 
the better of a rival ; vs. 6 a and b accompany the putting of leaves under and upon 
the (rival's) bed. And the comm. (doubtless wrongly) regards vss. 5 and 6 to be 
intended by the pratlka quoted in 38.30, instead of xii. 1.54, which has the same 


Translntcd : as RV. hymn, I.uclwi^, ii- $$4* f^- 032 ^ C*rasiimann, ti 415; as AV. 
hymn, Wchrr, v. 222 ; /immcr, p- 307 ; \\'cl>rr, xvii. 2^14 ; Grtflith, i. 108; llloonifieifl, 
• ^7* 354 ; furthrr, by Winlcrnitz, Hinhztitifiluell^ p. «;8. 

1. I cli^ this herb, of plants the strongest, with which one drives off 

ipihih) her rival ; with which one wins completely {sam-X'td) her husband. 

KV. te.uU in b the atrii^ vltutiham. For d, I'pp. j^ivrn krijaU krt'aiam patim. 
The comm. (with our Op ) has ouuihUn in a; hr understands throughout the herb in 
qurfttinn to l>e the f*i\thA (rf ii. 27. 4), thou|;h KAu^. and the Anukr. speak only of bAnA- 
pttrni 'arrow leaf (not identified). 

2. () thou of outstretched leaves, fortunate, go<l-<piickened» |>owcrfuU 
do thou thrust away my rival, make my husband wholly mine. 

* ()utxtrctche<!/ lit. supine; horizontal, with ttie fAce of the leaf upward. KV. has 
iihamtt for irWii in c, and the mo<lrrn kufu for krdhi at the end. Tpp- offers only the 
first h.-ilf- verse, in this form : utttlntipafitHm iubho^Ath stthamAnAm sahasvatlm ; MI*, 
also has stiAa»it}»r instead of tieviijtite. 

3. Since he has not named {f^rah) thy name, thou also stayest {rani) 

not with him as husband ; unto distant distance make wc my rival go. 

This translation of the first half verse follows closely our text. KV. has a very dif* 
fercnt version: nahy i\\ytl ttattut ^thhnAmi rtti iitinfn fitwate jtine 'since I name not 
her (its 1) name, she (it .') also d<M*s not st.iy uitli (t'lrxl pleasure in) this |>ers(m (|>eo|>le ?).* 
Winternitf applauds and accepts his commentator's explanation of b: "nor (tnds sV.c 
pleasure in me*' (takin;^ ttyitm Jitttttr in the mm h later sense of ** I "). hut it seems 
wholly unsatisfactory. The meter calls for emendation in a Xoj*ti^ni/ta * I have named/ 
etpiivalfMit to tlic KV. leadini;; and K. makes the ememlation, and retains the jJur o( 
KV., ren^leiin^ (as adilrrsscd l>y the wnman usirij; the charm to the plant) ** I have not 
named [to hci] thy name ; ami thou stayest ( not with the |M-rson (bci der 
Person) " The comm. neaids the rival as addressed, and conveniently makes fitmatf 
" ittrttitt'.'tt : "Stay thou not uith this my hushaml." \Vel>er renders fafnaft by 
*' kosest." thou tl.dliest not. .No s.itisf.u tory s<ilution of the difficulty is yet foutKl. 

4. Su|H:ri<)r [am] I, () superior one; suj>erior, indeed, to them (f.) that 
are superior ; below [is] she that is my rival ; lower [isj she than they (f.) 
that aie lower. 

KV. has tlie Utter rradini; .//'/.I for ttJhAi in c. allowinf; c and d to l>e combined into 
one .senti-ni e ; and the comm. ^ives corres|M)ndinf;ly atika, I'pp- is more discordant 
And c«>rrupt ' HttatA 'httn t//f,tf,t.*'/ir<* nf/tt^t* fi/ i},/At7nt6/iraA : adhtth sapttttil $Jlm^rthy 
0tiha9(t{ atih.\tithh\txh. K. cofijt < tures in a uttaf Ahxyhamullare^ for liitattk *h*\m 4kam' 
»//•!/«' \j f. iii. S. ^J I he versr. even if st .mned .ns 7 f 7: ?5 f 7-29, ought to l»e called 

5. I am overpower in;; ; likewise art thou very |)owerf ul ; wc both» 
iK'comin;; full of |>ower, will overjwwer my rival. 

Ihe vrrse xit. 3*. q is a variation on this. KV. reads diMa for Jik^ in bi, and the 
older f'hut'^i f«»r bhutvA in c. 

6. I have put on {ttb/ti) for thee the overfxiwcring one (f.) ; I have put 


to {tipa) for thee the very powerful one ; after me let thy mind run forth 

as a cow after her calf, run as water on its track. 

R V. reads upa for abhi in a, and has for b abhi tvd *dhdth sdhtyasd. The applica- 
tion of a and b as made by Kau^. (see above) would suit the prepositions as found in 
RV. decidedly better than as in our text; but much more appropriate is the use made 
by MP., elements of the root being secretly bound on the arms of the wife, with which 
she embraces the husband below and above Lso that one arm is under him and the 
other over him J; then in abhy adhdm is further implied (as elsewhere Le.g. iii. 11.8J) 
the value of abhidhdnl, the halter or bridle with which a horse is controlled. The 
Anukr. does not sanction the resolution ma-am in c. 

19. To help friends against enemies. 

[Vasist/ia. — astarcam. vdicvadevam uia cdndramasam utdi **n(iram. dnustubham : 
I. pathydbrhatl ; j. bhurigbrhati ; 6. jav. 6-p.iristupkakummatigarbhd 
^tijagatl ; y. virdddstdrapankti ; 8. pathydpankti.'\ 

The verses are found in Paipp. iii. (in the verse-order i, 2, 4, 3, 5, 7, 6, 8). The 
hymn is applied by Kau^. (14. 22-24) »" a rite for gaining victory over a hostile army, 
and reckoned (14. 7» note) to the apardjita gana. The Vait. uses vs. i in the agni- 
cayana (28.15) ^" connection with lifting the nkhya fire, and vss. 6-8 in a sattra 
sacrifice (34. 16, 17), with mounting a chariot and discharging an arrow. 

Translated: John Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts^ i.* 283; Ludwig, p. 234; Weber, 
xvii. 269; Griffith, i. 109. 

1. Sharpened up is this incantation {} brdhmmi) of mine ; sharpened up 

[my] heroism, strength ; sharpened up, victorious, be the unwasting 

authority (ksatrd) [of them] of whom I am the household priest {purdhita). 

Or brdJunan and ksatrdni may signify respectively the Brahman and Ksatriya quality 
or dignity of \\\q purd/iita and his constituency. The verse is found also in VS. (xi. 81), 
TS. (iv. I. I03), TA. (ii. 5. 2, vs. 15), MS. (ii. 7. 7), and K. (xvi. 7, Weber). The first 
two of these agree in all their readings, omitting iddm in a and ajdram astn in c, and 
reading in c, ^jisnti ydsyd *hdm dsmij and TA.MS. differ from them only by adding 
me before jisnii; Ppp. ksatram me jisntt^ but agrees with our text in d. The 
comm. moreover \\7isjisntty and the translation implies it; jisntis can only be regarded 
as a blunder. Ppp. further gives may I *dam for ma idam in a, and mama for balam 
in b. Our original c has apparently got itself mixed up with vs. 5 c. 

2. Up I sharpen the royalty of them, up their force, heroism, strength ; 

I hew [off] the arms of the foes with this oblation. 

The translation implies emendation of the sydmi of all the mss. and of both editions 
to ^ydmi; it is obviously called for (suggested first by the Pet. Lex.), and the comm. 
reads ^ydmi; Ppp. probably intends it by pa^ydmi. The latter half-verse is found 
again below as vi.65. 2 c, d ; its text is confused here in Ppp. (vrfcdmi (a/nlndm bdhil 
sam aqvdm a^vdn aham). The Anukr. ignores the redundant syllable in a. 

3. Downward let them fall, let them become inferior, who shall fight 
against (prinny-) our bounteous patron (sun) ; I destroy the enemies by 
my incantation ; I lead up our own men. 

Ppp. reads adhas pad- at the beginning, and indram for st'irim in b. The second 

iii. 19- BOOK III. THK A rHAKVA-Vt.DA-SAMHl TA. I20 

halfvrrnr \% fouml in VS. (xi. S2C.d), TS. (iv. i.ioi). and MS. (ii. 7.7). with the 
%'ariou^ rcadinf;^ ksinthni and sxuin ; the comm. alv> gives kntuymt. The cnmm. rrnderi 
siirim l»y h}ryJh}iytii'i/>/t*}jCtt;fiam. The Anukr. should call tlic verse vtfJf ffai/Jra- 
ftinkft, since it properly scans as 1 1 ♦ 1 1 :S ♦ 8-38. 

4. Sharper than an ax, also sharper than fire, sharper than Indra's 
thunderbolt — [th<'vj of whom I am the household priest. 

Kmend.itinn to tnJrazutJnit would rectify the meter of c; hut the Anukr. apparently 
accepts the redunflancy there as balancin|; the deficiency in a. 

5. The \veajK)ns of them I sharpen up; their royalty having good 
herors. I increase; be their authority unwasiin;;, victorious; their intent 
let all the gods aid. 

I'he tr.inslatton aj^.iin (as in vs. 2) implies emendation of i|'«lwi in A to fftlfni, which 
is read hy Tpp. am! t>y the comm. Mi>^t of our mss. (all save O.Op.), as of SPf's, 
accent in b j/«;7/</f/f. and Ixith r.titi'ins have adopt m1 the reading;; but it ought, of 
course, to l)e ///t'/^iIw/. as always eUewhcrc (atid as the comm. hrre des< ril>es the 
word), rpp- has Vitri/Zhiytssvit at end of b. and its d is tij^ram esAm ctliam hahMdhA 
t'/(TMr/?/«l. The <lefinition of the verse as trt%tuhh is wanting in the Anukr. (^Lon- 
don ms.J. doubtless hy an error of the manuscripts, which are confused at this |x>int 
LThe Berlin ms. <h)cs j;ive it. J 

6. Let their energies (viijifux) be excited, O bounteous one (mt%i^hiiva9i)\ 
let the noise of the coiujuering heroes arise ; let the noises, the clear 
{ketunuifil) halloos, go up severally ; let the divine Maruts, with Indra as 
their chief, go with the army. 

With the first two p.Vlas compare KV. x. 103. log, d: tui dhaftaya Mttj^A4t7-attm 
ilyudhtlni . . , ud ttitht'tfttlt/t /liyaft^m yttntit i^hAulh. Some of our mss.( P.M.W.t ).< *p.Kp.), 
as of Sri**s, reail in c Ni:il,iy,it^ hut InuIi cditi<ms give iul- ; the comm. has uilt$i%tYa%^ 
and decl.irrs it an imitative word. 1 lit* omission cither of ulnlAyttt or of ktttiwAmtat 
would make a Ji't^ttfl p.ida of c. ami (d dti^is wduM do the same for d; ai the 
verse stanils. the Anukr. scans it 1 1 f 1 1 :S vS :6 f 8 =: 52. P.ut of our mss. (I.O t>p > 
a;;ree witli the comm. in endin*^ this verse with ud Irattlm, and thr«ming the two 
remaining p.'idas into vs. 7, to the great detriment of tlic sense, as w *11 as against the 
piiiluhle railter form of tlic veise. I'pp. re.uls : ttddiuiruinttim Vt\fiiu\m X'^/tnAhhy ad 
i\}it,}n,lfit ;.tr.t/}ni t/u j^/u'fih't: frf/t.t^^j^hoi,} k/tt/ijyttf kftumantit udttattlm , with 
t and i as in our text. 

7. (io forth. ci>n(|u<T. () men ; formidable be your arms (ha/in) ; having 
sharp arrows, slay them of weak bows; having formidable weaiKins, hav- 
ing f<»T!i' '!»lf aims (/'«/////), [*il.iy] the weak ones. 

1 ' • ♦ half v«*rse is K\'. x. 103. 13 a.c (fouml also in SV. ii. 1212; VS. xvit. 46), 

withiHit v.ifMtion; T.S. (iv. (». 4*) has the sani* two p.'i' together, but re.ids iv/^ fr/ 
*itt tM,it>},t ithni z'.t/t rl**. TpP- ^*'^'* *^*- *""** h**'' verse (with fta yttt»l and I'rff), 
ailding as %eronil half i'/«/m» Ti/^ {.t f ntit ytinA.t/y itn,}d/tr t\,f y,j//it} *s,i/tl. The verse 
is not T 1/ J/ [_7 4 S : 1 1 ♦ 1 2 J. if the obviously proper resnbitions are made. 

8 H- in;; let loose, fly thou aw.iy, O volley, thou that art shar|>cncd up 


by incantation ; conquer the enemies ; go forth ; slay of them each best 
one ; let no one soever of them yonder be released. 

Padas a-c and e are RV. vi. 75. 16, a verse found also in a number of other texts : 
SV. ii. 1213; VS. xvii.45; TS. iv.6.44; TI3. iii.7.6^3; Ap^S. iii. 14.3. RV.SV.VS. 
agree throughout, ha,v\ng gdc/ia iorjdya at beginning of c, and, for d, md *mistim kAt'n 
cand V chisah; the others have this d, except that they put esdm in place of amisdm; 
they also give T'/frz for padyasva at end of c, and TS. has the nom. -f/A?, which is 
better, at end of b, while TI3. and Ap(JS. alter to dvasrsfah fidrd fata ^ard (for fdro?) 
brdhmasatfK^itah. Our d is found again as xi. 10. 21 b ; our e, as viii. 8. 19 d ; xi. 9. 20 d ; 
10. I9d. The presence of -sam^ite in this verse gives it a kind of right to stand as 
part of the hymn, of which sam-fd is the unifying word ; vss. 6 and 7 are probably 
later additions. In Ppp., vss. 6-8, with RV. x. 103. 10, form a piece by themselves; 
vs. 8 ends with fira padyasva sii mdisdm kaiii cano V chisah (nearly as RV.). Correct 
the accent-mark in d so as to read vdram-varam. 

20. To Agni and other gods: for various blessings. 

\^Vasistha, — dafarcam. dgneyam uta mantroktadevaiyam, dnustubham: 6, pathydpankti ; 

8. virddjagati.'\ 

Excepting the last verse, the hymn is found in Paipp. iii. (in the verse-order 
i-3» 7» 4. 6» 5» ^>9)' It includes (vss. 2-7) a whole RV. hymn (x. 141), with a single 
RV. verse (iii. 29. 10) prefixed, and only the last two verses occur nowhere else. It 
is used in Kaug. (18. 13) in the nirrtikarman^ with an offering of rice mixed with 
pebbles; again (40. 11), in the rite of the removal of the sacrificial fire, with transfer of 
it to the fire-sticks or to one's self; again (41.8), with v. 7 ^nd vii. i, in a rite for suc- 
cess in winning wealth ; and the comm. directs vs. 4 to be used in the sava sacrifices 
{ity anayd bhrgifaui^irovidaq catura drseydn dhvayet). In Vait., vs. I appears in the 
agnistoma sacrifice (24. 14), and again in the san^amedha (38. 14) with the same use 
as in Kauq. 40. 1 1 ; and also in the agnicayana (28. 25), with the laying of the gdrha- 
patya bricks; further, verses 2-4 and 7 and 8 in the agnicayana (29.19); vs. 4a, b 
in the agnisioma (15.16), as the adhvaryu follows the fire and soma; vs. 5 in the 
same (23.20), with certain offerings; and vs. 6 in the same (19.2), with a graha to 
Indra and Vavu. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 272; Griffith, i. in. — See Weber, Berliner Sb.^ 1892, 

P- 797. 

1. This is thy seasonable womb (j^oni), whence born thou didst shine; 
knowing it, O Agni, ascend thou ; then increase our wealth. 

The verse is found in numerous other texts: besides RV. (iii. 29. 10), in VS. 
(iii.i4etal.), TS. (i. 5. 5* et al.), TB. (i. 2. I'^et al.), MS. (i. 5. i et al.), K. (vi.9etal.), 
Kap. (i. i6etal.), JB. (i. 61) : in nearly all occurring repeatedly. VS.TS.TB.JB. differ 
from our version only by reading dfhd for ddhd at beginning of d ; Ppp. and the comm. 
have aiha; MS.K. substitute idtas; but RV. gives further slda for roha in c, and 
gtras for rayiin in d. The comm., in accordance with the ritual uses of the verse, 
declares aydm at the beginning to signify either the fire-stick or the sacrificer himself. 

2. O Agni, speak unto us here ; be turned toward us with good-will ; 
bestow upon us, O lord of the people (f /f) ; giver of riches art thou to us. 

RV. X. 141 begins with this verse, and it is found also in VS. (ix. 28), TS. (i. 7. io»). 


MS. (i. 11.4), and K. (xiv.2). RV.VS.MS.K. have prd n^ y- in c, and« for vi{Mm 
fate, RV.MS.K. read vi^as fate, TS. bhux*as /•. and VS. saJkasrajii; VS. j^oet oa 
with ivthn hi dhanatiA Asi for d; V^S.TS. further have prAti for frai/dM in h. I'pp. 
combines in d dkanaJti *si. 

3. Let Aryaman bestow upon us, let Bhaf^a, let Brihaspati, let the god- 
desses ; let the divine Sunrta also assign wealth to me. 

Found also in the other texts (KV. x. 141.2; VS. ix. 29; the rest as above; and 
Kap. 29. 2). All of these, excepting TS., leave no in a again unlingualixed ; VS.K. sub- 
stitute p^si for bhAgas in b, and omit c ; the others have dex»is instead of dn^s; tor d, 
KV. gives rdrA devi dadAtu mth, while the others vary from this only by frd vJjt for 
rAyAs. By SunrtA (lit 'pleasantness, jollity*) the comm. understands Sarasvati to be 

4. King Soma [and] Agni we call to aid with [our] songs (^r) ; [also] 
Aditya, Vishnu, Surya, and the priest (bra/swdps) Krihaspatt. 

Found in KV. (x. 141. 3). SV. (i.91), VS. (ix. 26). and TS.MS.K. (as alx>ve). The 
only variant in KV. is the prcferal^lc Adiiytim in c ; it is read also by the other texts 
except .SV.K. ; hut SV.TS.M.S.K. pive vArunam for Ax'asi in a; and they and VS. 
have iiHXf i rabhAmahe fur ^Itbhir havAmahi in b. The comm. takes braAmUlmsm in 
d as ** I'rajApati, creator of the gods." 

5. Do thou, O Agni, with the fires (agni), increase our worship (brdh- 
$nan) and sacrifice ; do thou, O go<l, stir us up to give, unto giving wealth. 

The second halfvcrse is of doubtful meaning — perhaps * imfiel to us wealth for giv* 
ing* etc. — l>eing evidently corrupted from the better text of KV. (x. 141.6: also SV. 
ii.855), which reads in c dtvAiAtaye for deva dAuive^ and in d rAyAs for raytm ; eves 
Ppp. devtitAttxyf' The comm. has dAnavi (rendering it ** to the satrificer who has 
given oblations **) fur d*Uavf^ also nodaya for (odaya. 

6. Indra-and-Vayu, both of them here, we call here with good call, that 
to us even every man may be well- willing in intercourse, and may become 
desirous of giving to us. 

Found also (except the last |>Ada, which even Ppp. repudiates) in KV. (x. 141.4), 
VS. (xxxiii. 86), and MS.K. (as al>ovr). For ubhAx* ihA in a. KV. i^^^% brkatfAtim^ 
and the other texts $uuiMdp\A. For d, VS. has anamix*Ak sam^Amt (or sAtkgmiyAm, 
and MS. the same without iifitimlvAt ; TS. has (in iv. 5. 1 *) a nearly corresponding 
\\a\{\'cxsc '. vAthA Htxh sArxutm ij jAi^ixd ayttksmAm sumAnA Atat. Ppp. omits a, per- 
haps by an ovcrsifi^ht. 'I'he comm. takes smAAx'A in b as for sttAAvAttt which b perhaps 
l>ettcr. In our edition^ the word b misprinted susAv-, 

7. Do thou stir up Aryaman, Brihaspati, Indra, unto giving; [also] 
Vata (wind), Vishnu, Sarasvati. and the vigorous (ivf/'/zf) Savitar. 

Found also in KV. (x. 141 5), VS. (ix. 27), and TS.MS.K. (as above). All sare 
KV. read tiiiam instead of xul/ttm in c, and so does the comm.; K. puts fJUsm alter 
X'hfium l^and for a it has our vs. 4 a J. 

8. In the impulse (fpasaui) of vigor (} vAja) now have we come Into 
being, and all these beings within. Uoth let him, foreknowing, cause him 


to give who is unwilling to give, and do thou confirm to us wealth having 

all heroes. 

The verse seems to have no real connection with what precedes and follows, nor do 
its two halves belong togetlier. They are in other texts, VS. (ix. 25 and 24) and TS. 
(in i. 7. lo'), parts of two different verses, in a group of three, all beginning with 
vajasya followed by prasavd, and all alike of obscure and questionable interpretation, 
and belonging to the so-called vdjaprasavlydni^ which form a principal element in the 
vdjapeya sacrifice (see Weber's note on tliis verse |_also his essay Ueber tUn V'djap€yay 
Berliner Sb.^ 1S92, p. 797 J). Instead of nu in a, TS. and MS.K. (as above), as also 
Ppp., have the nearly equivalent iddtn; and all (save Ppp.) read a babhuva instead of 
sdfk babhuvima at end of a, and sarvdtas instead of antdr at end of b, omitting the 
meter-disturbing utd at beginning of c; VS.K. read in c ddpayati for -tu ; and all save 
K. give the preferable ^tf^A^/w at the end (the comm. \i7& yacchdt)\ then VS. gives sd no 
raylm in d, and K. has a peculiar d : somo rayim sahavfrafk ni yathsat, Ppp* is defec- 
tive in parts of this verse and the next ; it reads at the end of c prajdndm, Pada a is 
the only one that has a yVi^<z/f character. ^TS. has sdrvavlrdm.^ 

9. Let the five directions yield {dnh) to mc, let the wide ones yield 
according to their strength ; may I obtain all my designs, with mind and 

All the /W/i-mss. divide and accent /r<f.* dpeyam^ but SPP. emends to prd : dpeyam 
Lsee Sansk. Gram. § 8 50 J ; the comm. reads dpeyam. The comm. declares uriffs to 
designate heaven and earth, day and night, and waters and herbs. 

10. A kine-winning voice may I speak ; with splendor do thou arise 
upon me ; let Vayu (wind) enclose {d-rnd/i) on all sides ; let Tvashtar assign 
to me abundance. 

Several of our mss. (P.M.W.O.Kp.) read rudhdm in c. The comm. explains A 
rundhdm by prdtidtmand **vrHOiu, 

This fourth anuvdka contains 5 hymns, with 40 verses, and the quotation from the 
old Anukr. is simply dai^a. 

21. With oblation to the various forms of fire or Agni. 

\^Vasistha, — dafarcam. dgneyam. trdistubham : r, puro^nustubh ; 2y^^8. bhurij ; ^. jogafi ; 
6. uparistddvirddhrhati ; 7. virddgarbhd ; g^io. anustubk (9. nicr().'\ 

The whole of the hymn is found in Paipp., vss. 1-9 in iii., vs. 10 in vii. The material is 
used by Kau^. in a number of rites : it is reckoned (9. i ; the comm. says, only vss. 
1-7) to the brhachduti gatta; it appears in the charm against the evil influence of the 
flesh-eating fire (43. 16-21 ; according to the comm., vss. 1-7 are quoted in 16, and the 
whole hymn in 20); again, in the establishment of the house-fire (72.13; vss. 1-7, 
comm.); again, in the funeral rites (82. 25), on the third day after cremation, with obla- 
tion to the relics; once more, in the expiatory ceremony (123. i), when birds or other 
creatures have meddled with sacrificial objects. Moreover, vs. 8 (the comm. says, 
vss. 8-10), with other passages from xii. 2, in a rite of appeasement in the house-fire 
ceremony {^x,^). In Vait, vss. 1-7 are used in the agttistoma (r6. \(\) on occasion 
of the soma becoming spilt; and vs. 7 in the sdkamedha part of the cdturmdsya 
sacrifice L9. 17 J. 

Translated : Weber, xvii. 277 ; Griffith, i. 1 13 ; vss. 1-7 also by Ludwig, p. 325. 


1. The fires that arc within the waters, that arc in Vrtra, that arc in 
man, that arc in stones, the one that hath entered the herbs, the forcst- 
trecs— - to those fires be this oblation made. 

VcTArn I 4 arr found al^to in MS. (ii. 13. 13) and in K. (xl. 3); Imth texts read yAs 
for t'/ tlunti^h the first half-vcrsr, ami A^tnami for ti^matu ; MS. bef(ins jrd mfiMX* dmidr 
#i^'«//, am! K. fr* *f/*f T' \t;'tir anttir ; K. further \\si% bhuvamtlui vi^rti for ^sadklr jr4 
VtlMat/^if/ifit. I'pp. reatla yo <f/iT' an/ttr yiP vripe ttntar yak pufttu yo *\HutHt: y0 
viv^{tt flfit', and rombineft in d tthhyo ^^ni-. I*art of t!»e m»v (im luding our P.M. W.I.) 
comliiiic f'/T'/f* t^stuih- in c, and ImuIi editions h.ive adopted that reading — doubtless 
wron;»ly. .nime thr PrAt. prescribes no such irregularity, nor \s it elsewhere found to 
occur with oiadhi. The rumm. explains what diffrrent ** fires** are intende<l : the 
r«f//«f7'if etc. in the waters; that in the rioud (by Nir. ii. i^>) or else in the l>ody of the 
Asura Vrtra; in man, those of di;{estion ; in stones, those in the siiryakJkmta etc. 
(sparkling jewels) ; those that make herl>s etc. ri|H*n their fruits. \Vcl>er regards the 
stones that strike 6re as intendrd, which seems more probable. The division of the by the Anukr., 84 1 1 : 1 1 + 1 1, is not to l>e approved. |_PAdas a and b rather as 
II 4 iS ; padas c and d are in order, 12-f 1 1. — In c, correct to Jvtv/fJusaJJiir, as MS. 
reads. J 

2. [The fire] that is within soma, that is within the kinc, that is 
entered into the birds, into the wild beasts (wr^<i), that entered into 
bi|K*(Is, into quadru|)eds — to those fires be this oblation made. 

M.S. .ind K. l>eKin b with Vtiyilntt yd Jiviv/^a; Ppp. with yo vi%to t*aymsi. The 
comm. takes the kinc in a as repicsenting the domestic animals in general, the lire 
being that which makes their milk cooked instead of raw, as often alluded to. SPP. 
follows the in re.iding in b lufytt/isti ; our alteration to the equivalent i*Jyastm 
was needless. The verse (10^ 11:13-^ 11=45) is bhuttj^ but also irregular enough. 
I^PAdas b ami d are in order, each a trtstubk ; and c, if we throw out the second /«l/, 
is a giMjil /,/^M//; A is bad. J 

3. lie who, a god, pocs in the same chariot with Indra, he that 
belonj;s lo all men {:u}t\:uhtiini) and to all gods (.^), whom, very powerful 
in fights, I call loudly on — to those files be this oblation made. 

.MS. anil K. have for 1 >•/«/ 'tuinitya fdthatk snmlHihhuviir^ and Ppp. partly agrees 
with thrm, rending >y *nJrena santtham sambabkiivtt. In b, the translation ventures 
to follow Ppp's re.Hling li^vaAfrxyas instead of -f/Jt^rdr, liecause of its so ob%*ious 
preferability in the connection; t/Avyas is cpiite in place in vs. 9, and may perha|i« 
have blundered from there into this verse; but M.S. aiul K. have -dtUy*}!: they further 
exchange the pKues of our 3 c and 4 c. I'ada b is a very |>oor trittmbh^ though capable 
of lK*ing into it syllalde^ [ utA vAf\. 

4. He who is the all-eating god, and whom they call Desire {kdma)^ 
whom they call giver, receiving one, who is wise, mighty, encompassing, 
unharinable — to those fires be this oblation made. 

M.S. !»rj;ins the verse with vi\\-itiitm a^uim : K., with kutAiiam a^nim ; of b, both 
si>oil the meter by re.iding ftttiii^f aftuAfdM ; MS. l>e;;ins c with iikiro y6h ; K*s € is 
ccnrupt. Ppp. reads Ah,i for Ahu% in a (not in b also). The comm. simp*y paraphrases 
ffattt^fhuAntam hs ptatij^rahliAftxm ; the reference is probably to the offerings whkh 


Agni receives in order to give them to the various gods. In our edition, an accent- 
mark belonging under d of d/tt/s in a has slipped aside to the left. 

5. Thou on whom as priest {hdtar) agreed with their mind the thirteen 
kinds of beings (bhduvand)^ the five races of men (indnavd) : to the splen- 
dor-bestowing, glorious one, rich in pleasantness — to those fires be this 
oblation made. 

The unusual and obscure number " thirteen " here seduces the comm. into declaring 
first that bhduvand signifies •• month," coming from bhuvana *• year " ; and then the 
vtdnavas are the seasons ! But he further makes the latter to be the four castes, with 
the nisddas as fifth, and the former the thirteen sons, Vi^vakarman etc., of a great sa^c 
named bhnvaua (because of vi^vakarman bhduvana in AB. viii. 21.S-1 1). ''pp. 
reads bhnvand for bhdtnmnas. The Anukr. docs not heed that the last pada is tn'xfub/t. 

6. To him whose food is oxen, whose food is cows, to the .soma-backcd, 

the pious: to those of whom the one for all men {vdifvdnard-) is chief — 

to those fires be this oblation made. 

The first h.ilf-versc is KV. viii.43. 1 1 a, b (also found, without variant, in T.S. i. 3. 147). 
MS. (ii. 13. 13) has the whole verse as padas a, b, d, e, interposing as c the pada 
{stdmair vidhemd ^gndye) which ends the gdyatrl in RV.TS. The meter (8 + 8 :8 f 1 1 ) 
is, as brhati^ rather nicrt than virdj. 

7. They who move on along the sky, the earth, the atmosphere, along 
the lightning ; who are within the quarters, who within the wind — to 
those fires be this oblation made. 

Our P.M.W. read in b vldyutam^ and P.M. W.I. end the pada with -carati. STP. 
regards the exposition of the comm. as implying that the latter takes anu in b as an 
independent word: dnu same-. In the definition of the Anukr., virdj aj^ars to \)t, 
used as meaning * a pada of 10 syllables ' (i I + 10 : 10+ 1 1 =42). \_Rtzdjr/ ca viu?] 

The three remaining verses of the hymn are plainly independent of what precedes, 
concerning themselves directly with the appeasement of an ill-omened fire ; but the 
combination of the two parts is an old one, being found also in f'pp. The t'y:< X'lon of 
the e^ndenlly patched- together vs. 6 would reduce the first part |_vss. i-7j to llie norm 
of this book- 

8- Gold-handed Savitar, Indra, Brihaspati, Varuna, Mitra, Agni, all the 

gods, the Angirascs, do we call ; let them appease (fam) this flesh-eating 


Ppp. inverts the order of a and b- |_MGS. has the vs. at ii. 1. 6. J Tb^ comm, ^ives 
a double explanation of '* gold-handed '" : either *- having go]A m hts haiKl to ^fve t/> hts 
praisers," or " having a hand of gold ^^ ; he also allows its to take dngirauis eitJ»er a* 
accusative or as nominative, " we the Angirascs/' The Amikr, ik4<:s tiiat c iskjagatl. 

9. Appeased is the flesh-eating, appeased the Tnen-injaring fire ; so also 
the one that is of all conflagrations, him, the flesh-eating, ha%-c I sf/j^ravrd, 

Ppp. has atko purusaresinah for b, and tiiis time %'i^vadaxyas in c. The anuttukk 
is rather I'iraj than nicrt. 

10. The mountains that are soma-backed, the waters that Ik sof/me. 

iii. 21- liOOK III. Tin: ATHARVA-VEOA-SAttHITA. IJ6 

the wind, Tarjanya, then also Agni — these have appeased the flesh«eating 

All our m%%. save one (O). and all STT't save two or three that follow the comm., 
rrad a^l^amam (;«pparcntly by infection from the end of v^ 9) at the end ; both editions 
emend to •///<!/#, which is the reading of the comm. |,l'pp. has the vs. in vii. (as noted 
alM)\c). and ronibinrA /rrMJ "/rf in s b and parjanyA *'d in c — For "soma-backcd,** 
see llillcbrandt, /></. MythoL i. (x>f.J 

22. To the gods: for splendor (vircas). 

J- J/. ^itn§NMt/»t/' firJJ.i/tjitj^.tti : 4 J •»• • <^/ yajfif// ) 

Founil aUo (except vs. 6) in I'aipp. iii. Is reckoned to the vanasjra gamm 
(Kau^. 12.10, note), ami uvrd in a tliaim for ^pl^ndor (13.1), with binding on an 
amuirt of ivory. The comm. cpiotcs the hymn alv> as employed by the Naks. K. in a 
Niahtl^Afttt called brAhml^ for attainment of A/<r4^«<f« splendor ; and by l*ari^. iv. I, in 
the d.iily mornini; convt ration of an elephant for a king. 

Translated: l.udwig, p. 4^11 ; \Vel>cr, xvii. 2.S2 ; (fritt'ith, i. 115. 

1. Let elephant-splendor, groat glory, spread itself, which came into 
being from Aditi's Ixnly ; that same have all together given to me — all 
the g<Hls, Atliti, in unison. • ^-^ ^ij 17 5 « | 

A num!»cT of the mss. (inclu<ling our Hp.Op.) read iJityAs [^accent ! J in b, and 
several of ours follow it with K<fw instead of K«f/. Tpp. rectifies the meter of d by read- 
ing di'vAMtt. I'.mcndation in n to h/tJtfytt^iit would Ik* acceptable. (.'H. (iii- I. 3- 4; 
perhaps on the basis of b?) lias a Icgfiul of the pitxluction of the elrphant from some- 
thing lM>rn of Aditi (see K. in ///«/ S/tt,/. xiv.3')2). The comm. explains /rifMa/J/vr in 
n by /irw/li// p9i\thitam ptakhyMiim hhaxtitu 'be ptoi laimed as l)rlonging to us.* In 
our edition, an a< lent mark has dt()pp<*<l out from undrr the ha of hahhuva. An irregular 
verse, scanned by the Anukr. as 12 ♦ io:io* 10-42. but convertible into 45 sxllables 
by resolving tanu ttf, stifts /, T'/^m r (of >%}iich only the first is unobjritionable). |^lf we 
read 4/r:i}t,ts in d, the vs. is in order (12 t 11 : ?4 1 1), except in c (Af</// j«lf :■/ f).j 

2. Let both Mitra and Varuna, Indra and Kudra, [each] take notice; 

the all-noiirishinj:; K<*^1^ — 1^'^ them anoint me with splendor. 

All tlu* mss.* lead tftttius at end of b, and so does Tpp.. and our eilition has it ; but 
Sl*r. follows the comm. and substitutes cetattt : SV. i. 154 has s6mah pAui (a ifiainA; 
the translation implies < <*/<!///. the other being probably a false form, generated under 
stress of the did'u ult tonstiuttion of a singular verb with the preceding ftub)ects. 
\Vcl»er takes it as«*7<i/«f. 3d dud perf of ri>ot r#i/ •• frighten into submission.** The 
Anukr. taki s no noili e of tlie defi» ienry of a syllable in a. • ^.So \V*s txvo drafts ; but his 
collations note T.M.W. as leading iftttt*th (!) and Op. as reading cfttt/H.j 

V With splendor the elephant came into being, with what the 
king amcMi^ men {nttififtsyt}), among waters, with what the gods in the 
beginning went to godhocMl — with that splendor do thou, O Agni, now 
make nie sjilendid. 

.f/>.'i. in b. is MX impertinent intrnsiitn as re^^irds Imth sense and meter; it it wanting 
in rpp. In c all the mss. give tlyitm {saw A., ilyam); uur edition makes the 


emendation to ayan^ and so does SPP. in his//i//<i-text; but in samhitd (perhaps by an 
oversight) he reads dyan^ unaccented ; the comm. has dyan (accent doubtful) : cf. 
iv. 14. I c where the mss. again read dyam for dyan in the same phrase. Ppp. has a 
very different second half- verse : ^'^/m devd jyotisd dydm uddyan tena md *gfte varcasd 
sat'n srje ^ha. The comm. makes apsu in b mean either ** [creatures] in the waters," or 
else •* [Yakshas, Gandharvas, etc.] in the atmosphere." The metrical definition of the 
Anukr. is mechanically correct L52 — 2 = 5oJ if we count 13 syllables in b Land combine 
varca5dgtu\ ! 

4. What great splendor becomes thine, O Jatavedas, from the offering ; 
how great splendor there is of the sun, and of the dsura-V^i^ elephant — 
so great splendor let the (two) A^vins, lotus-wreathed, assign unto me. 

All the mss. read in b bhavati^ and SPP. accordingly adopts it in his edition ; ours 
makes the necessary correction to bhdvati. The comm. reads dhute, vocative, at end 
of b; Ppp. has instead dhutam ; and then adds to it, as second half-verse, our 3 d, e 
(with abhya for adyd, and krdhi for kriut)^ putting also the whole ^i.e. our 4 a, bH- 3 d, 
ej before our vs. 3 ; and then it gives the remainder (C-f ) of our vs. 4 here, with kriiutdm 
for a dhaitdmy and in zyavad varcah stir-, 

5. As far as the four directions, as far as the eye reaches (savi-af), let 
so great force {indriyd) come together, that elephant-splendor, in me. 

The comm. reads sam etu in c. 

6. Since the elephant has become the superior {atisfhdvant) of the com- 
fortable {} S7isdd) wild beasts, with his fortune [and] splendor do I pour 
{sic) upon myself. 

That is, * I shed it upon me, cover myself with it.* The comm. understands the 
somewhat questionable susdd nearly as here translated, " living at their pleasure in the 
forest" ; and atisthdvant as possessing superiority either of strength or of position. 

Weber entitles the hymn, without good reason, ** taming of a wild elephant." 

23. For fecundity. 

\^Brahman. — cdndramasam uta yonidevatyam. dnustubham : j". uparistddbhurigbrhati ; 

6. skand/iogrivibrhatt.^ 

Found in Paipp. iii. Used by Kau^. in the chapters of women's rites, in a charm 
(35- 3) ^o procure the conception of male offspring, with breaking an arrow over the 
mother's head etc. 

Translated: Weber, v. 223; Ludwig, p. 477; Zimmer, p. 319; Weber, xvii. 285 ; 
Griffith, i. 116; Bloomfield, 97, 356. 

1. By what thou hast become barren {vehdt), that we make disappear 
from thee ; that now we set down elsewhere, far away from {dpa) thee. 

Vchdt is perhaps more strictly 'liable to abort'; the comm. gives the word here 
either sense. Ppp- is .defective, giving only the initial words of vss. i and 2. 

2. Unto thy womb let a foetus come, a male one, as an arrow to a 
quiver; let a hero be born unto thee here, a ten-months' son. 

This verse and the two following occur in ^GS. (i. 19. 6), and this one without 


variant. AIm) this one in M V. [\. 1 2. 9J ( Wintrrnitr, p. 94), and in an appendix to A(fS. 
i. I v^ (Strn/lcr. p. 4.H), with vtmim after f^arhkat in a (and ACiS. reads difm)^ and 
omitting it/ftt in c; and further in IKiS. (i. 25. I ), like Ml*, in a, but retainin|i; atrs. 

3. (live birth to a male, a son ; after him lot a male t>c born; mayest 
thou be mother of sons, of those born ami whom thou shait bear. 

All the ms^. save one or two (indmliny; our K.) read at the end^'ifw; lx>th editions 
make* the nrress.iry en)cni!.ifion to v</m, which the coinm. also ^ivrs. At t>ef;innin|; of 
b, rpp. rr.ids /;'<i//f, as do also the comin. and a couple of STT's mss. ; and Tpp. etida 
>»itl) y.f//</i J//// <(i. Mil. (i.4.oC. d) the first half-verse, readinf; vimJasva for 
jttMiiv,t : and Ml*, (as alHivr) [i. 1 3. 2 J also» with pumAms te fntf^ n.\ri for a. And 
(,'(iS. (.IS alnive) has our a. b, \%ith, for c, d, Uu\m mCktd bhavisyast jtliJndtk jammjSmsi 
lit |_the end corrupt, as in TpP-J- 

4. Anil what excellent seeds the bulls generate, with them do thou 

acquire {vitf) a son ; become thou a productive miichcow. 

(,'(«S. (as above) has for h fufuu} ja titty ttnii mt/t ; it rectifies the meter of € by read- 
ing; tfhht% t for /J/j /■ (and it hasy<i'M/if for viMtfiisva)\ in d, it f^ives snprasikM^ which 
is lK'tt«T our Jif //•. Ml*, (as alwivo) \\. 13. 3 J repeats our vrise very closely, onljr 
with n,ix for itt in b, and puttCin in C; an<l it has, just In-fore, the line tAni hhadrdmi 
HjAMy 9 %4thht} jitnttvttftiti utUi. A verse in 11 (iS. (as al)Ove) is quite similar : ydmi prm* 
bhunt ^'tuilny 9 \af>/nl tdnttvanttt tuth • /t}/r /:;i'ft c,iti*/init bhttv*t sa iAyattkm vifatmmak 
sti}tt,}m ; and it offers .1 little later jJ prasur tfheuiiji*it bhavti. Our reading /J/i ivdm 
in c is assuied by Piat. ii. S4 ; the resolution tuAm makes the meter correct 

5. I pfifoiin for thre the [ceremony] of TrajriiKiti ; let a fa:ttis cume to 
thy womb; acquire thou a son, () woman, who shall be weal for thee; 
weal also for him do thou become. 

I he accent of /'/tthii at the end is anomahms. lUiS. (as almve) has the first half- 
vrrsr [.imt .MT., at i. 13. i, ( oncoidantlyj ; it reads Jtarowi at the l>eftinnin||;. and in b 
puts III////// .iftrr ;M//'//«if; this l.itter Tpp. does also. The comm. understands prjjj- 
p.ffvttffi as :ilH)ve translated; other renderings are |H»sMble ("das 7euKunf*s«ierk/* 
Wrber ; •• /euK»nKNfahij;kcit," Zimmer). The metrical definition of the verse 
(S ♦ S :S f 5 ♦ S -3;) is not j;«km1 save mechanically. 

6. Ihe plants of which heaven has been the father, earth the mother, 
ocean thr root — let those herbs of the gods (tftUi'a) favor thcc, in order 

to acquisition of a son. 

I hr first li.tif verse is found a^.iin Liter, as viii. 7. 2 C, d; in both places, part of the 
mss if\,}ui p (here <inly our O, with half of SIMM's) ; and that apfiears to lie 
rt (piin-d by ii. 74. although the ItMtser relation of the two words fa%*ors in a case 
likr tltis tlie riMtiin;^ i/iil/^//, uiiiih Nith editions present. I'pp* has an tiMlependeal 
vc'isi«in : r,}ti}/fi pti,\ p.xfjtUt\o bhumir mAtxl babhtiva: with *ievit in C (this the comm. 
also rt-.tds) .ind (>i.r7///f in d. I he verse is irregular, and capable of being varioualj 
read ; ami Mhat the Anukr. means by its definition is obscure. 


24. For abundance of grain. 

[JShrgti. — saptarcam. vdnaspatyam uta prdjdpatyam. dnustubham : 2. nicrtpaihydpahkti^ 

Found (except vs. 7) in Paipp. v. Used by Kau9. (21. i ff.) in rites for the pros- 
perity of grain-crops, and reckoned (19. i, note) to the pustika mantras. The comm. 
declares it employed also in the piirmedha ceremony (82. 9), but doubdess by an error, 
the verse there quoted being xviii. 3. 56 (which has the same pratika). 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 268 ; Weber, xvii. 286 ; Griffith, i. 1 1 7. 

1. Rich in milk [are] the herbs, rich in milk my utterance i^odcas)\ 
accordingly, of them that are rich in milk I bring by thousands. 

The first half-verse occurs again, a little changed, as xviii. 3. 56 a, b; it is also 
KV. X. 17. 14 a, b, etc. : see under xviii. 3. 56. The comm. reads in d bhareyam for 
bhare *hain; he understands *♦ be " instead of " are " in a, b. For second half- verse 
Ppp. has atho pay asva tarn pay a d hardmi sahasra^ah, 

2. I know him that is rich in milk ; he hath made the grain much ; the 
god that is ** collector" by name, him do we call, whichever is in the 
house of one who sacrifices not. 

That is, away from the service of the impious to that of us, the pious. A god ♦• col- 
lector " {sa/nit/tftvafi) is not known elsewhere. Ppp. reads for a aham vciia yathli 
payaq^ and, in z-^^yo vedas tavam yajdmahe sarvasyd yaq ca no grhe. In our edition, 
an accent-mark has slipped from under -da- to under ve- at the beginning. It is the 
fourth pada that is nicrt |_read tdm-tam f J. 

3. These five directions that there are, the five races {krs({) descended 

from Manu (mauavi) — may they bring fatness (sphdH) together here, as 

streams [bring] drift when it has rained. 

Or nadis might be nom. sing.; the comm. of course takes it as plural; ^dpam he 
understands as •' a kind of animals " (^prdnijdtatn). Our O.Op. have at the end 
'Vahdm. Ppp. reads for b wdnatulih paTica grsiayah (cf. grsti iox krsti'xxi ii. 13.3); 
and, for c, d, sanul^ ^ambhur mayobhuvo vrse ^dpam nadir iva, 

4. As a fountain of a hundred streams, of a thousand streams, unex- 
hausted, so this grain of ours, in a thousand streams, unexhausted. 

The metrical deficiency in a calls for a change of reading, and the usual correlation 
of evd in c suggests jff////7y and, as Ppp. reads jtf///J, the translation ventures to adopt 
it, as ;// instead is hardly better than unmanageable. Weber supplies aca; Ludwig, 
** I open, as it were " ; the comm. s.iys that /// means udbhavati^ and does not trouble 
himself about its construction with an accusative ; we may take the verse as a virtual 
continuation of vs. 3, and the nouns as governed by samdvahdn. Ppp. makes the verse 
easy by reading //?///« rupaq qatadhdras sahasradhdro aksaiah : eva vte astn dhdnyam 
sahasradhdram aksatam, 

5. O hundred-handed one, bring together; O thousand-handed one, pile 
together ; of what is made and of what is to be made do thou convey 
together the fatness here. 

Ppp. has for bsa/tasrdi *va samgirah, iox cyat/te ^ya sph&tir dyasi^ and for d our c. 


The comm. reads .utm«}i'ttAiim at the emi, rcnderinf^ it samprdfio *$mi; to the adjec- 
tivcA in c he supplies dhaHadht\Hyiktitk. \St\fk kira^ * overwhelm/ i.e. * bestow abuii- 

6. Three measures of the (iandharvas, four of the house-mistress; of 
them whichever is richest in fatness, with that one we touch thee. 

rpp. re.ids .It the cml wariAmasi ; the comm. rrf^ards the grain as the object of 
address in d, ami the intent to be " increase thou by the act of touching "; Weber under- 
stands r.ither the m.ister of the house, or |>erhaps the harvest-wagon. The ** measures** 
are doubtless those of grain set apart ; the comm. calls them samrtftikiMfiavak kaUk ; 
and he ^ives as altern.itive of " house-mistress *' the Apsaraset, ft|KHises of 
the (i.indharvas ! 

7. Wringer (upobd) and galheiiT {stimnhd) [are] thy (two) distributors, 
O Trajapati ; let them convoy hither fatness, much unexhausted plenty. 

Two or three of our mss. (P.s.m.M.W.) re.vl in c vahatiim^ as docs the comm., with 
one of Sri' s mss. The comm. explains kuiitirAu by sAraikI abktmatakAfyasmmpM' 

25. To command a woman's love. 

[^'^.rC {/'iyAldmttM). -rndtt^Jxttrttnam ktlmetuJnyatttkam ca. SmMstithkamJ] 

Not found in iTtipp. Used by K.'iu^. (35. 22) in the chapters of women's rites, ia 
a charm for bringing a woman under one's control, by pushing her with a finger, 
pien in^ the heart of an im.igc of her, etc. 

Translated: \Vel»cr, v. 224 ; Muir, OST. v. 407 ; !.u<lwig, p. 516; Zimmcr, p. 307; 
\Vel>er, xvii. 290 ; (irill, 53, 1 1 5 ; ((ritlith, i. 1 19 ; Hloomtield, 102, 35H. — Cf. /immer, 
p. 300; Uergaignc-Ilenry, Manuel^ p. 144. Muir gives only a part. 

1. Let the upthrustcr thrust (/////) thee up; do not abide («///r) in 
thine own lair; the arrow of love (kiima) that is terrible, therewith I 
pierce thee in the heart. 

r.\dA a evidently .^ug^ests ttie fingcrthrust of KAu^. ; what uttmiA really designates 
is matter for guessing, and the translators guess differently; the comm. says **a god 
so named.** The comm. has the bad reading drtkAt in b. 

2. The arrow fe.ithered with longing {ihi/tt), tipped with love, necked 
with resolve (} saiftkiiipd-) — having made that well-straightened, let love 
pierce thee in the heart. 

According to the comm., thfhl means fti,}n,til fUiA : \afyam is htltttlt^fe frciam Jf#- 
sam : knimatam is dArn^iihityoh utthi^Usadravynm |_ thing (like a ferrule ^) to fasten 
the tip to the shaft J. Our r.M.W. read t^ for tim at beginning of c. PAda € requires 
the harsh resolution ta-im. 

3. The well .Mraightencd arrow of love which dries the spleen, forward* 
winged, consuming {vyhsa) — therewith I pierce thee in the heart. 

I he ai rent of w^ut is anom.d(ni\ |^.V/7. iham. $ 1 148 nj. I>eing rather that of a pos> 
se^sive « iimiK^und [$ I 305 a J ; [» f. \v 4 J. The comm. appears to take fflhan as signi- 
fying ' lung *; the obscure ptAKhtapak^a he makes equivalent to rja^HiJk pak$S ymtySk. 


4. Pierced with consuming pain (f//^), dry-mouthed, do thou come 

creeping to me, gentle, with fury allayed, entirely [mine], pleasant-spoken, 


The great majority of mss. (including our Bp. P.M. W.E.I.) accent vydsa in this verse, 
which is preferable ; but both editions give vybsa^ because the mss. are unanimously for 
it in vs. 3 c. The comm. renders it by viddhayukta, \\ cannot make out from W*s 
collations that M.W. read vydsa. \ 

5. I goad thee hither with a goad {djani)^ away from mother, likewise 
from father, that thou mayest be in my power (krd/u), mayest come unto 
my intent. 

The second half-verse is identical with vi. 9. 2 c, d, and nearly so with i. 34. 2 c, d. 

6. Do ye, O Mitra-and-Varuna, cast out the intents from her heart ; 
then, making her powerless, make her [to be] in my own control. 

P. M.W. begin c with yd/Zid. Asydi in a is doubtless to be understood as a genitive 
(cf. iv. 5. 6), though the comm. says " a dative in genitive sense." LCf. Lanman, 
JAOS. X. 359, end.J ^^^.flUu . '}{fV^ 

The fifth anuvdka has 5 hymns and 35 verses. The quoted Anukr. ssiys pa/ica ca 
rcah . 


26. Homage to the gods of the quarters etc. [snake charms? J. 

[Atharvau. — rdudram ; pratyrcam agnyddibahudcvatyam. \jrdistubham .'J i-6. j-/. vi- 
paritapddalaksmyd L?J: /. tristubh ; 2^^^6.jagati ; j, ^. bhurij.'\ 

A prose hymn, found also in Paipp. iii. (except vs. 2, perhaps accidentally omitted, 
and vs. 6). A similar invocation occurs further in TS. v. 5. io3-5, not so closely related 
that the readings need to be compared in detail. Hymns 26 and 27 are called in Kau^. 
digyukte * connected with the quarters/ and are used (14. 25), with vi. 13, in a battle-rite, 
for victory over a hostile army; and also (50.13), with vi. i etc., in a ceremony for 
good-fortune (and the comm. regards them as signified hy yuktayos in 50. 17, in a charm 
against serpents, scorpions, etc.; but this is probably a mistake L? J); yet again, the 
comm. adds them in a ceremony (51.3-5) of tribute to the quarters. 

L" Serpent-incantation *' (Schlangenzauber) is the tide given to this hymn and the 
next by Weber. Roth (in his notes) rejects Weber's view ; but Griflfith accepts it. I 
think the two hymns are snake charms for the following reasons. They are employed 
by Kau^. (50. 1 7) in connection with vi. 56 and xii. i. 46, which latter are clearly directed 
against snakes etc. See also Kegava on Kaug. 50.17,18,19, Bloomfield, p. 354 f, 
Kegava shows, I think, that the comm. is not mistaken TCboxkKyuktayos, Weber, in his 
valuable notes, observes, p. 292, that the schol. to TS. v. 5. 10 reckons that passage as 
belonging to a sarpdhuii. It is likely that the bali-harana (of Kauq. 51.3,4), with 
which this hymn is employed (see Keqava), is a sarpabali, — This hymn and the next 
are reckoned to the rdudragana (note to Kauq. 50.13); cf. Anukr. Webcr\s note, 
p. 297, that these hymns are not used by Kau^., should be deleted. Whitney in his 
note to vi. 56 duly reports the connection of iii. 26 and 27 with that snake charm. That 
he does not do so here and at xii. 1.46 is, I think, an oversight. J 

[With all tills accords Ppp*s colophon, raksamautram. The hymn is virtually 7i partita 
— cf. Jataka, ii. p. 34'6. What seems to be a very old snake /^r/V/rt is found in Culla- 
vagga, v. 6, and Jataka, ii. p. 145, no. 203, and in the Bower Manuscript, ed. Hoernle, 

iii. 26- HOOK III. Tin: ATHARVA-VLDA-SAttim A. 13a 

|).ut vi, p. 234. — Note that the seqtience of the quarters in thb hymn and the nest, as 
al!w> ill the paraUrU thrrrto i itc<l from AV'.TS.TH.MS., is in /r<r«/<fi(iiisf4f'Orfler. J 
TransLitrd : WcIht, xvii. 2*M ; (fritfith, i. 120. 

1. Yc ^(mIs that arc in this eastern quattcr, missiles by name — of you 
there the arrows are fire : i\o ye be «;raclous to us, do yc bless {aMi-brii) 
us ; to you there be hoina«;e, to you there hail ! 

*l he (oiifiponiUnK uttrranre in *I"S. reaiU : '• missilrn hy name are ye; your hnuv* 
there are in fiont (in the rast); fire 15 your arrows, ocean (icr/f/«l)** — and similarly in 
what folh>ws. rpp. prffixes ratut (onte rtikutk) at the l>eginninf( of each verse. The 
romm. appears to take iifvtis thtdu^hont .1^ a vrMMtive {he tfrvttk)\ he defines it as 
nu'aninf; ** < tamlh.irv.i« ** ; the ;uro\%s arc cither fire or rise Af;ni. The Anukr. appar- 
ently restores K//i.fy#fw, ami aUf) makes tlie refrain to l>e of it f 10 - 21 syllables; then 
the initial ** pada^ '* of I, of 3 and 4. of 5. of 2. and of 6 count res|)cctively as 23, 24. 2$, 
2^, ami 27 N)llal)lrs, and tho i ompUtc nuinlKrrs \ary from 44 to 4H syllal>les. |^'l he 
Anukr. ought to rail w 2 ami vs. 5 vir^lj. Kor "f»o<ls'* as an address to the 
ser|>ents, tf. vi. 56. 1, whrre thry are called •• gcxlproplc/'j 

2. Ye potis that are in this stiuthern quarter, iin|H:tuous (^ avis}'u) by 
name — of you there the arrows are love (itima): do yc be cte. etc. 

'I'hr (omm. reads tituttytizai instead of aiiwttTtts. In TS., the name in this quarter 
is "smcarers ** {ni/nnptt), and the arrows are •• the Fathers, sea (stigara).** 

3. Ye j;<hIs thai are in this western quarter, ViWnfjtis by name — of you 

there the arrows are the waters : do ye be etc. etc. 

The name in Ppp. is vini/tis. In TS.. the name is •• thunderlKilt-wielders'* {x»mjrim)^ 
and the arrows are "sleep, thicket {j^Ahxutftt).** 

4. Ye gofls that are in this northern quarter, piercing by name — of 

you there the arrows are wind : do ye be etc. etc. 

In the north, accorcUn^; to IS., the name is ** down-standers (avastAJiutu)/* and the 
arrows ** the waters, cxean {sttMtn/rti)." 

5. Ye g(Hls that are in this fi.xed quarter, sinearers ($iilif$tf<i) by name 
— of you there the airows are the herbs : iXo ye be etc. etc. 

Tpp. reads vilimpt\% for ni/-, and makes the arrows to he food («?«««). TS. calls 
the quarter ** hrrr (i//ff ),** and puts it after the one *« almve ** (our vs. 6); the name b 
*Mteshly, earthly.** and the aiiows (as in Tpp) "food.** The cumm. explains mtiimpSs 
as nitattlm hptAh, 

ft. Ye ROils that are in this upward quarter, helpful (dvasi*ani) by name 

— of yt)u there the arrows are Hiihaspati : do yc be etc. etc. 

In this quart'-r {upAft ) atcordin;; to T.S., the name is "overlords,** and the arrowm 
" rain, the helpful one.** I 'pp. achls at the end tti raksJImaniram^ and our verse vtii. y t 
folhiws. 1'S. adds an imprecation, nearly like that in our hymn 27 : tehhyc x'P mdmmi 
/«*' «4» fnuLivata te ydm dvtsmd yA^ €a no tMsti /Am lUfjdmMr dttifAJmi. 


27. The same : with imprecation on enemies. 

\^Atharvan. — rdudram ; agnyddibahudevatyam. astikam : 1-6. yp, kakummatigarbhd *sti ; 

2. atyasti ; j. bhurij.'\ 

LA prose liymn.J Found (except vs. 3, apparently omitted by accident) in Paipp. iii., 
after h. 26, but at some distance from it. Compare xii. 3. 55-60, where the quarters 
are rehearsed with the same adjuncts. Compare further TS. v. 5. io''» (a passage imme- 
diately preceding that parallel with our h. 26 ; a bit of brdhmana between the two 
explains that these divinities are to protect the fire-altar when constructed) ; and 
MS. ii. 13. 21 : both these omit all mention of arrows. A yet fainter parallelism is to 
be noted with T13. iii. 1 1. 5. For the concluding imprecation, compare also VS. xv. 15. 
For the use in Kaug. with h. 26, see under that hymn. [_For the general significance 
of the hymn, see my addition to the introduction to h. 26.J 

Translated : Weber, xvii. 295 ; Griffith, i. 121. 

1. Eastern quarter; Agni overlord; black serpent defender; the 
Adityas arrows : homage to those overlords ; homage to the defenders ; 
homage to the arrows ; homage be to them ; who hates us, whom we 
hate, him we put in your jaws {jdmbha), 

Ppp. has rsibhyas instead of isubhyas^ and vas instead of ebhyas j and it adds 
further to the imprecation tarn n piano jahatu, which our text has in a similar connec- 
tion at vii. 31. I ; x. 5. 25-35 » ^^i. 7. 13. The " defender " is in each case a kind of ser- 
pent ; and this, which is but an insignificant item in our two hymns, has a more important 
bearing on the application of the corresponding TS. and MS. passages. The TS. 
passage runs thus : " thou art the eastern quarter, convergent by name ; of thee there 
Agni is overlord, the black serpent defender ; both he who is overlord and he who is 
guardian, to them (two) be homage ; let them be gracious to us ; whom we hate and 
who hates us, him I put in the jaws of you (two) "; and the MS. version differs only in 
one or two slight points. The comm. supplies each time to the name of the quarter 
asmadanugrahdrthatk vartatdm or something equivalent There seems to be no natural 
way of dividing these verses into 5 padas ; the refrain is probably counted by the Anukr. 
as 42 syllables, and the addition of the other part brings the number in each verse up 
to from 62 to 66 syllables {asti is properly 64). 

2. Southern quarter; Indra overlord; cross-lined [serpent] defender; 

the Fathers arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

Ppp. makes the Vasus arrows. MS. calls the serpent tira^cinardji ; TS. makes the 
adder {prddkit) defender here. 

3. Western quarter; Varuna overlord; the adder {piddku) defender; 
food the arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

The comm. explains firddkits as kutsitaqabdakdrl : an absurd fancy. TS. and MS. 
give here Soma as overlord, and the constrictor as defender. 

4. Northern quarter ; Soma overlord ; the constrictor (svajd) defender ; 
the thunderbolt {aqdni) arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

The comm. gives for svajd a double explanation, either " self-bom " {sxta-ja) or else 
•♦inclined to embrace" (root svaj). Both the other texts assign Varuna as overlord; 


for clefnulrr, TS. disignatc^ ihr rroM(-lincd Rcrpenl. MS. the PftiAkn (in the corropt 
form sft/tJtu or -''c'' ' ^^^^ editor adopts the latter). I'pp. makes wind (fid/tf) the 

5. I'^ixrd quarter; Vishnu overlord; the serpent with blsTck-spottcd 
(kalffttlyt) neck defender ; the plants arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

rpp. K'.ids iN/tfttlut- : the roinm. explains the word hy Jtrsmai'armii. TS. calls th« 
f|uart(r inhti •this*; in MS. it is ffT-«)r/ 'downward * ; TS. treats of it after the upward 
one. ntid m.ikr!i VAm.i the ovrrU>r<l. In our edition, an accent-mark under the -Jtst' of 
ftttstiti hail slipped to the fi^ht, under -A). 

6. Upward quarter; Hriha.spati overlord ; the white (^-iird) [serpent] 

defender ; rain the arrows : hc)niaj;e to those etc. etc. 

rpp. h.ift hete the thutiilerlKilt {ti^tifii) for arrows. Part of the mss. (including; our 
!-'..( ).K.Kp.) Kivc tittti instead of ^viitti as name of the ser|>ent ; TS. reads (r#/ril, Init 
MS. (piohahly by a misreading) <///«f. TS. calls the quarter hrkafi 'great.* TS. (after 
the manner of the AV. mss.) leaves out the re|>eated part of the imprecation in the 
intermediate vrrsrs (2-5); MS. K'^^'^ '^ *" '^11 every time. (^Reference to this vs. M 
made by Hcr|;aiKiic, AV/. t/i/. iii. 12 (cf. Haunack, K/. xxxv. 527), is hardly apt J 

28. To avert the ill omen of a twioning animal. 

4 ytMXwmaJkyil xndtkakubk ; f. tftttmhh ; 6. vtf^Jj^arhkd frastJfaf^ikJktt ] 

Not found in T.^ipp. I'sed by Kau<; . in the chapter of portents, in the ceremonies of 
expiation fur the birth of twins from kine, nunrcs or asses, and human lK'in;;s (109. 5; 
1 10.4 ; 111$). 

Translated: \Ve1»er, xvii. 297 : (iriirith. i 122; nioomricM, 14$. 35a 

I. She herself came into heinj; hy a one-by-one creation, where the 
being-makers created the kine of all forms; where the twinning [cow] 
gives birth, out of season, she destroys the cattle, snarling, angry. 

The translation implies emendation of fti^ttil at the end to rusjrati or rivitf// [^rather 
futytiti, so as to ^ive a jttn^atl c.idencej — which, considering;^ the not infrequent confu- 
sion of the siliilant.s, especially the palatal and linf^ual, in our test and its mss., and the 
lo%s of I' after a sibil.tnt, is natur.dly su^^c.Med (_cf. iv. 16. 6^ J. The comm. makes a )et 
easier tiling of taking fu^atl from a root f wf * injure,* but we have no such root. Some 
of our mss. (IVM.W.K.) read fuim in a, and two (l*.0) have sfstvtl.^ The comm. 
undeist.inils if i//t with ful in a. and v\\Aa\\\^ ftititavi} hy fkJlik*txyakt\A. Perhaps we 
should ementi to /Iti/'liU*} * one [creature] by one [act of] rrration * |_arMl reject /i^f ?, 
as the meter demands J. See WeU^r's notes for the comparison of popular views as to 
the birtli of twins, more generally re;:arded as of ^r>od omen. The Anukr. apparently 
i ounts 1 1 L I 3 ? J » I 5 : I 2 f I 2 - 50 L 5 2 ? J syllables ; either hhiitakftas or vi^vArifiJtf coukl 
well I noii^h be spared out <if b [l»etter the former; but it is bad meter at licstj. 
•^.Shown by at tent to l»e a blunder for j/»/kiI, not srstvi.X 

2 Sbr (jiiitc destroys the cattle, becoming a flesh-cater, devottrer 
i^ v\ th/ittn); also one should give her to a priest (bnt/imdn); so would 
she be pleasant, propitious. 


The par/a-iQxt divides vt'oddvarf, evidently taking the word from root rt^'cat*; the 
Pet. Lex. suggests emendation to vyAdhvarl^ from vyadh * pierce.* The comni. reads 
vyadhvarl^ but he defines it first as coming from adhvan, and meaning ** possessed of 
bad roads, that cause unhappiness," or, second, as from adhvara^ and signifying " hav- 
ing magical sacrifices, that give obstructed fruit " 1 LSee note to vi. 50. 3, where W. 
corrects the text to vyadvard : accent of masc. and fem., Gram. §1171 a, b.J 

3. Be thou propitious to men {ptirusa), propitious to kine, to horses, 

propitious to all this field (ks^tra) ; be propitious to us here. 

* Field * seems taken here in a general sense, and might be rendered * farm.* The 
Anukr. takes no notice of the irregularities in c and d, probably because they balance 
each other. 

4. Here prosperity, here sap — here be thou best winner of a thou- 
sand ; make the cattle prosper, O twinning one. 

The comni. supplies bhavatu to the first piida. All the mss. agree in giving the false 
accent sa/uisrastltamd in b ; it should be sahasrasatamd — or, to rectify the meter, 
simply -Jrt. Its/rz//<jz-division, sahdsraosdtama is prescribed by the text of Prat. iv. 45. 
Kakubh properly has no need of the adjunct yavamadhyd j it is very seldom used by 
our Anukr. as name of a whole verse L8+12 : 8 J. 

5. Where the good-hearted [and] well-doing revel, quitting disease of 

their own body — into that world hath the twinning one come into 

being; let her not injure our men and cattle. 

The first half-verse is also that of vi. 1 20. 3 (which occurs further in TA.). Some of 
SPP*s mss. write in b tanvhs^ protracting the ^rt////<j-syllable. 

6. Where is the world of the good-hearted, of the well-doing, where 

of them that offer the fire-offering (agnihotrd-) — into that world hath 

the twinning one come into being; let her not injure our men and 


The omission of the superfluous ydtra in b would rectify the meter. The Anukr. 
should say dstdrapahkti instead of prastdra- ; its virdj means here a pada of 10 

29. With the offering of a white-footed sheep. 

\^Udddlaka. — astarcam. ^itipddd* videvatyam : y . kdmadevatyd ; 8, bhdumu dnustubkam : 
It J' pathydpahkti ; y. j-av. 6-p. uparistddddivibrhatt kakummatigarbhd virddjagati ; 

8. uparistddbrhaii.^ 

Like the preceding hymn, not found in Paipp. Used (according to the comm., 
vss. 1-5) by Kauq. (64. 2) in the sava sacrifices, in the four-plate {catuh^ardva) sava, 
with setting a cake on each quarter of the animal offered, and one on its navel ; and vs. 8 
in the va^d sava |_66. 21 J, on acceptance of the cow. Further, vs. 7 (according to 
schol. and comm., vss. 7 and 8) appears in a rite (45. 17) at the end of the va^d^amatta^ 
for expiating any error in acceptance of gifts. In Vait. (3.21), vs. 7 is also used to 
accompany the acceptance of a sacrificial gift in the parvan sacrifices. . 

|_Thc Anukr. says Udddlako* nena sadrcena ^itipddam avim astdui^ thus supporting 
the reduction of the hymn to the norm of six vss. ; see note to vs. 7. From that phrase, 
perhaps, comes the blundering reading of the London ras. ^itipddam avidevatyam: 


iii. 29- HOOK III. Tin: ATllARVA-VEDA-SAttUITA. 136 

f mrncl to ^ ittpadavi ticfalyam or cl»c as above ? — Wcbcr entitles the hymn •• Abfindung 

mil (loin /oil im Jrnscits.**J 

I raii^I.itctl : Ludwi^, p. 37$ ; \Vcl>er. xvii. 302 ; (»rttTith, i. 1 24. 

1. What the kings share amoni; themselves — the sixteenth of what 

is ofTored-and-hestowed -- yon assessors {sahlu\siiJ) of Yama : from that 

the white ftM)leil sheep, j;iven [as] ancestral offering (si'tti/Zitl), releases. 

Ily tliix offrriii^. one is rrlciiHcd ffoin the payment othrrwise due to Yama*s councilors 
on admivsioii into the other world : the idr.iA are not familiar from other parts of the 
mythol«»s:y an<l fitu.1l. j^Hut cf. Ilillehrandt, IV#/. \fvthol. I. 511 ; \Vcl>er, Dn timet Sb.^ 
''^OS. p ^4?- J The comm. expl.iiim thus: uhhavtivitihtiwa karmanah si^t1it{atamkhylk^ 
putttl\tift vit/ pAptim ptifixitft^tt vthhaktAtit kiir vanity as if the sixteenth were the 
share of demciit to l>e subtinctcd fioin tlie merit, and clcanse«l away (pari-^Oiikar) hy 
Vam.i's .isnist.mts, etc. In c he re.ids tniifiKtttii for -it ; ^tttfhhi in 4 he renders fi'/Ztf/M*/. 
The List p.'ul.i 1.11 ks a s\ unlrss we make a hai&h resolution. Our text reads in b 
'Pfi9it*isyii ; |_for consistency, delete one /J. 

2. All desires (liifftn) it fulfds, arising (ab/iu), coming forth (prabftii)^ 
becoming (//////) ; [as] fulfiiier of designs, the white-footed sheep, being 
given, is not exhausted (itpttJits). 

The pretiM; senM: of the tiiree related participles in b is very questionable (\Vel>ef 
renders "da seien<l. tuchti;;, tind kr.iftiK "; Ludwi^;, ** komrncnfl. entstehcm!, lebend**); 
thetomm. says •• |K.-rnie.itini;, < :ipal»lc |_of rc\%ardin;;J. increasing ** 

3. He who gives a white-footed sheep commensurate (Siitftmita) with 
[his] world, he ascends unto the firmament, where a tax is not paid (tr) 
by a weak man for a stronger, 

** Commensiif.ite ": i.e., app.irently, "proportioned in value to the place in the 
heavenly worhl son;;iit by the ^tver ** (so \Vel>cr also); R. su;;i*csts "analogous (as 
rcj^ards the white feet) with the worhl of li|;ht that is aspired to ** ; the lomm., on ht» part, 
y;ives two other .inJ diM expLin.itions : tiist, iokytttnAftffttt ph*ttena samwak' 
pa9tt\hinnitm^ attu^flhaphttlam ; second, ttnfna hhuiokena Sttiir^ttm, bkii/ifkavaf tarvti' 
phiiltiptadam : lN)th very bad. For n^ka he )*ives the derivation fttt-akam * non-un-hap* 
pincss, whit h he repeats here and there in his ex|M>sitions. The translation implies in c 
the re.idint; (w/Zifr. which ( h>n;; ago ctmjectured by Muir, OST. v. 310) is given by 
.SIT on the .luthority of all his mss., and also by the comm., and is undoubtedly the 
true text. Only one of our mss. (Kp.) has l>een noted as pLiirdy reading it; IhiI the 
mss. are so cireless as to the distini tiim of /k and k/ that it may well l>e the intent of 
them all. The lomm. it .is " a kind of t^x (kttnt') that must l)e given to a 
king of sii|M!rior |)ower by another king of defit ient |>ower situated on his frontier." As 
|M)inte<l out by Welier, the itern «»f description is very little in place here, where the tac- 
rifKC is made preetsely in satisf.irtion of such a tax. |_\V's prior draft reacb ** to a 
strtmger.** — .Note that Sri*\s or.d reciters gave ^tt/kils.j 

4. The white-footed sheep, accom|>anied with five cakes, commensurate 
with I his] world, the giver lives u|H>n, [as] unexhausted in the world of 
the Fathers. 

That is |_the giver lives u|M»n t!ie sheep J. .is An inexhaustible supply for his needs. 
The c<imm explains 4 by vaivAdtf ftp^tm pt AptAm\m $>'**'t»tit*kt}kkff sihJkne, 


5. The white-footed sheep, accompanied with five cakes, commensurate 

with [his] world, the giver lives upon, [as] unexhausted in the sun and moon. 

The five cakes are those laid on the victim as prescribed in Kau9. (see above). In 
our edition, suryamdsdyor is a misprint for suryam-, 

6. Like refreshing drink (/^»), it is not exhausted ; like the ocean, a 
great draught {pdyas) ; like the two jointly-dwelling gods, the white- 
footed one is not exhausted. 

The comparison in c is so little apt that what it refers to is hard to see : the comm. 
regards the A^vins as intended, and Weber does the same, understanding savdsin as 
*• dressed alike " (the comm. says samdnaih nivasantdti) ; Ludwig thinks of " heaven 
and earth "; one might also guess sun and moon. R. suggests the sense to be " he has 
gods for neighbors, right and left.'* The Anukr. appears to sanction the contraction 
samtidrd *va in b. 

7. Who hath given this to whom ^ Love hath given unto love ; love 

[is] giver, love acceptor ; love entered into the ocean ; with love I accept 

thee ; love, that for thee ! 

LNot metrical. J This ** verse " and the following appear to have nothing to do with the 
preceding part of the hymn, which has 6 vss.* (according to the norm of this book). 
This ** verse " is found in a whole series of texts, as a formula for expiating or avoiding 
what may be improper in connection with the acceptance of sacrificial gifts. The ver- 
sion of TA. (iii. 10. 1-2, 4 : also found, with interspersed explanation, in TIJ. ii. 2. 55, and 
repeated in ApQS. xiv. 11. 2) is nearly like ours, but omits the second addt, and reads 
kamatii samndrdm a ifi^a ; that of AQ!S. (v. 13. 15) has the latter reading but retains 
the addt. That of PB. (i. 8. 1 7) and K. (ix. 9) differs from ours only by having d *7't\at 
instead of a viv€(a. MS. (i. 9. 4) omits the phrase kamah samndrdm a vive^a^ and reads 
kamdya for the following kamena. And VS. (vii. 48 : with it agree QB.iv. 3.432 and 
QQS. iv. 7. 15) has as follows: /v) *ddt kdsmd addt : kamo *ddt kamdyd *ddf: kamo 
ddta kamah pratigrahTta kamdi *tdt te. LSce also MGS.i. 8. 9, and p. 149. J Of 
course, the comm. cannot refrain from the silliness of taking kds and kdsmdi as signify- 
ing ** Prajfipati," and he is able to fortify himself by quoting TH. ii. 2. 55, as he also 
quotes 5' for tlie general value of the formula; and even 56 for the identity of kama 
with the ocean, although our text, different from that of TB., does not imply any such 
relation between them. The Anukr. scans thus: 7 + 6: 11 +9: 9 + 4=46. *LCf. intro- 
duction to this hymn. J 

8. Let earth accept thee, this great atmosphere ; let me not, having 
accepted, be parted with breath, nor with self, nor with progeny. 

Addressed to the thing accepted (Jie deya dravya^ comm.). The Anukr. regards 
pada c as ending with dimdnd^ and the pada-i^xi divides at the same place. 

30. For concord. 

[Atkarvan. — saptarcam. cdndramasam^ sdnimanasyam, dnustubham : j. virddjagati ; 

6. prastdrapankti ; y. tri5tubh.'\ 

Found in Paipp. v. Reckoned in Kauq. (12. 5), with various other passages, to the 
sdmmanasydniy and used in a rite for concord ; and the comm. regards it as included 
under the d^s\gn2ii\on ganakarmdnt in the updkarman (139. 7). 


Translated: Muir, GST. v. 439 (vs». 1-4); Ludwig, p. 256, and a;;ain p. 516; 
Zimmer, p. 316 (vss. 1-4); Weber, xvii. 306; Grill, 30, 116; («riffith, i. 125 ; Uloonv 
field, 134,361. — Cf. Ilillebrandt, X'eda (hrestomatkie^ P- 45 » Muir, Mtlrual Trams- 
lalions from Sanskrit Writers^ p. 139. 

1. Likc-hcartcdncss, likc-mindcdncss, non-hostility do I make (or you ; 
do yc show affection {hary) the one toward the other, as the inviolable 
[cow] toward her calf ^Chen born. 

l*pp. has sikmnasyatn in a, and in c anyo *nyam^ as demanded by the meter. The 
comm. also reads the latter, and for the former sdmmanusyam ; and he ends the verse 
with a^hnyiU, 

2. He the son submissive to the father, like-minded with the mother; 
let the wife to the husband speak words {luii) full of honey, wealful. 

The translation implies at the end ^afnitvim |_BK. vii. 60J, which SPP. admits 
as emendation into his text, it being plainly called for by the sense, and read by the 
comm. (and by SPP's oral reciter K, who follows the comm.); this ^not fdfittvdm j is 
given also by Ppp. (cf. xii. 1 . 59, where the word occurs again). The comm. further 
has in b fad/d (two of SPP*s reciters agreeing with him). 

3. Let not brother hate brother, nor sister sister ; becoming accor- 
dant (samydflc), of like courses, speak yc words auspiciously (bhadrdyd). 

The comm. reads dvisyHt in a. The m.ijority of SPI*'s /^//iimss. give Sihvra/d 
(instead of -/d/i) in c The comm. further reads vadaiu in d, explaining it to mean 

4. That incantation in virtue of which the gods do not go apart, nor 
hate one another mutually, we perform in your house, concord (or [your] 
men {piintsa). 

\Vcl>er suggests that ''gods" here perhaps means •• IlrShmans,** but there is no 
authority nor occasion for such an understanding; the comm. also says *' Indra etc.** 

5. Having superiors {jydyasvant)^ intentful, be yc not divided, accom- 
plishing together, moving on with joint labor (sdd/iura) ; come hither 
speaking what is agreeable one to another ; I make you united (sad/tri- 
ciftn)^ like-minded. 

I*pp. reads sudhinls in b, combines anyo *nyasmtii (as does the comm., and as the 
meter re<|uires) in c, and inserts samaffrHstha before sadhrUlnUn in d ; the comm. 
further J//<i for tta in c (as have our P.E.). JyAyasvani was acutely conjectured 
by the Pet. Lex. to signify virtually "duly subordinate,*' and this is supported by the 
comm. : JYfsthakanisthabhdvenit para^param anusarantah ; Ludwig renders •* uber- 
Icgcn.** SAdhura^ lit. * having the same wagon-pole,' would l)e well represented by our 
collo<iui.-il " pulling together.** Cittlnas in a is perhaps rather an adjunct of xd ydmsta 
= 'with, i.e. in your intents or plans.* The verse (11 +11 : I2-M2 = 46) is ill defined 
by the Anukr., as even the redundant s) in d gives no proper ynj^a// character to 
the p.^da. ^ Reject vah or else rend sad/triiof thus we get an orderly /ru/udA.j 

6. Your drinking (prapd) [be] the same, in common your share of 


food; in the same harness {ydktra) do I join \_yuj\ you together; wor- 
ship ye Agni united, like spokes about a nave. 

The comm. explains prapS, as " drinking saloon " {pdutya^did). Two of our mss. 
(P.M.) read at the beginning samdnim. [To reproduce (as W. usually does) the 
radical connection (here between ydktra and yuj)^ we may render *do I harness you.' 
The Anukr. seems to scan 12 + 1 1 : 9 + 8=40 ; the vs. is of course 1 1 + 1 1 : 8 + 8. J 

7. United, like-minded I make you, of one bunch, all of you, by [my] 
conciliation ; [be] like the gods defending immortality {amrta) ; late and 
early be well-willing yours. 

We had the first pada above as vs. 5 d ; emendation to sadhricas would rectify the 
meter; the Anukr. takes no note of the metrical irregularity; it is only by bad scanning 
that he makes out any difference between vss. 5 and 7. The translation implies in b 
-f«//j//>i, which is read by SPP., with the majority of his mss., and supported by the 
comm's eka^nustim (explained by him as ekmndhath vydpanavt ekavidhasyd ^nnasya 
bhuktim vd)\ part of our mss. also (Bp.E.H.Op.) read clearly -pi-, while others are ^/ /,,/xv 

corrupt, and some have plainly -fr- : cf. the note to 17.2 above.'^ Ppp. has at the end I 

susamitir vo *stu. 

31. For welfare and long life. 

[^Brahman. — ekdda^arcam. fdpmahddevatyam. dinistubham: 4. bhurij ; 

J. virdtprastdrapankti.'\ 

Not found in Paipp. Reckoned, with iv. 33 and vi. 26, to the pdpma {^pdpmahd?) 
gana (Kau^. 30. 17, note), and used by Kau^. (58.3), with several others, in a cere- 
mony for long life following initiation as a Vedic scholar; and vs. 10 (vss. 10 and 11, 
comm.) also in the dgrahdyanl sacrifice (24. 31). In Vait. (13. 10), vs. 10 is uttered 
in the agitistoma sacrifice by the sacrificer (the comm. says, by the ^/vi/////<z //-priest) 
as he rises to mutter the apratiratha hymn. And the comm. (without quoting any 
authority) declares the hymn to be repeated by the brahman-'^x\t.sX. near water in the 
pitrmedha rite, after the cremation. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 310; Griffith, i. 127 ; Bloomfield, 51, 364. 

1. The gods have turned away from old age; thou, O Agni, away 
from the niggard ; I away from all evil [have turned], away from ydksma^ 
to union (sdm) with life-time. 

The acrtan of our text is an error for avrtafi^ which all the mss. (and, of course, SPP.) 
read ; vi-vrt is common in the sense * part from.' The comm. gives instead avrtam^ 
which he takes as 2d dual, rendering it by viyojayatatHy and understanding deva 
(p. d^vah) as devdu^ vocative, namely the two Aqvins I and he supplies a yojaydmi 
also in the second half-verse, with an imam Lreferring to the Vedic scholarj for it to 

2. The cleansing one [has turned] away from mishap (drti)^ the 
mighty one ((^akrd) away from evil-doing; I away from etc. etc. 

Pdvamdna in a might signify either soma or the wind ; the comm. understands here 
the latter. 

3. The animals (pafti) of the village [have turned] away from those 



of the forest ; the waters have gone (sr) away from thirst ; I away from 
etc. etc. 

All the mss. loavc J/hj in b unaccrntc«l. a.n if vocative ; our text makes the neces- 
sary correclioii lo rf/«i/, aiul so doci SPT. in his f>tti/a-irxU while in samAif4 he 
stran^rly (porhaps by an oversiglil?) retains <l/fij. The comm. paraphrases r/ . • . 
astifttft with vii^ttiA bkiwanti^ not venturing; to turn it into a causative as he did xy 
ar^fttM. The Anukr. takes no notice of the redundant syllal>le in a. 

4. Apart [from one another] go heavcnand-earth here (iw/), away the 
roads, to one and another quarter ; I away from etc. etc. 

Ittis in a is here undcrsttMnl .is 3d ( of 1. with Welter and with the comm. (= vij^* 
i^/nt/it%), since the nicaninfr is thus dccicU*dly more acceptable ; its accent is easdy enough 
exphiined as of the vrrb in tlic foinicr of two successive clauses invo]vin|( It 
(thou;;h avrftin not accented in vs. 1 a). The redundancy in a is easily corrected 
by contiactin;; to •f>nhvl\ the Anukr., however, does not sanction this. 

5. Tvashtar (yttj) for his dau;;hter a wedding-car (vaAa/ti); 

at the news, all this creation (Mtiiuifui) goes away; I away from 

etc. etc. 

Ll)isiusse<l at hni;th by lUoomficld. JAOS. xv. |S| ff.J An <kM alteration of RV. 
X. I 7. I a, b (our xviii. I. 53, which .see), which reads Irttoti (or y it mi Jt:/i\ and Sitm eti for 
t7 xAti : .in<l it is vrrv oddiv thrust in here, where it seems wlioUv out of place; v( \Ati 
must be rendered ns al>ovc (differently from its KV. value), to make any connection with 
the refrain an<l uitli the precedinj;; veises. \Vel>er*s su^i^estion that it is TvashLir's intent 
to marry his own dau;;htcr makes sucii a stir is refuted by the cir< umstance that the 
verb used is active. According to the comm., vahatu is the wedding; outfit {iinkitrS 
safiii /^rltyil prasihilf^ttntytim vit\inl/itthki}nliit iit(iv\ut>n)^ :ini\ yttnair/t is simply /rtf- 
stht^payati. The /<if/<i-tnss., in accordance with the later use of ///, reckon it here to 
pilda a. 

6. A«;ni puts together the breaths; the moon is put together with 
breath : I away from etc. etc. 

In this verse and those that follow, the refrain has hardly an ima^^inable relation with 
what precedes it ; thouf^h here one may conjecture that analogies are souy;ht for its last 
item, j<f/// iiyitstl. According to the comm., A^ni in a is the fire of di|;estion, and the 
breatlis arc the .senses, whicli he Tits foi their work by supplying them nourishment; and 
thi* moon Is som.i |^( onsidered as food ; for which he quotes a passage quite like to 
(,"!». xi. I r,">J. 

7. Uy breath did the gorls set in motion {sam-lray) the sun, of uni* 
vcrsal heroism : I away from etc. etc. 

The (t>mm. tre.its ':i^'r,if,n and Ttryiiw in a as inde|>endent words, and renders 
Jitmiiintuin in b by sttp-^uitfa ffPtlX'iiftityitn. 

S. Hy the breath of the lonj^-lived, of the life-makers {Hyustrt)^ do 
thon live ; do not die : I awav from etc. etc. 

In this .iMf! tlie followinjj verse, the <omm. rej;ar«ls the young Vcdic scholar (mJtmm' 
valtt) as addressed. 


9. With the breath of the breathing do thou breathe ; be just here ; 

do not die : I away from etc. etc. 

Our Bp., with two of SPP's//z^<rz-mss. [_s.m. I J, accents dna at end of a. Thecomm. 
allows the first part of b to be addressed alternatively to breath. 

ID. Up with life-time; together with life-time; up with the sap of the 

herbs : I away from etc. etc. 

The first half-verse, with the first half of our vs. 11, makes a verse occurring in sev- 
eral texts: TS. (i. 2. 8'), TA. (iv. 42, vs. 31 : agrees precisely with TS.), VS. (Kanv. 
ii. VII.5), AQS. (i. 3.23), PGS. (Hi. 2. 14). All these read svdyusd instead of sdm 
ayusH in a ; and VS. and PGS. lack the second pada. The comm. points out that 
asthHtna is to be understood from vs. 11. 

II. Hither with Parjanya's rain have we stood up immortal: I away 
from etc. etc. 

The other texts (see under the preceding verse) all begin with /// instead of a ; for 
vrsfya, TS.TA. have ^thmf/ta, VS.A(^S. dhamabhis^ PGS. drstyd; for b, PGS. gives 
prthivyHh saptadhdmabhihy all the others nd asthAm amftdit dnu. ^Here the comm., 
in citing the refrain, reads vydham^ which, as implying vy-d-vrf, is equally good. J 

As in several cases above, it is obvious that this hymn has been expanded to a length 
considerably greater than properly belongs to it by breaking up its verses into two each, 
pieced out with a refrain. It would be easy to reduce the whole material to six verses, 
the norm of this book, by adding the refrain in vs. i only (or possibly also in vs. 4, with 
ejection of the senseless and apparently intruded vs. 5), and then combining the lines 
by pairs — as the parallel texts prove that vss. 10 and 11 are rightly to be combined. 
LThe critical status of ii. 10 is analogous; see the note to ii. 10. 2. J 

The sixth and last anuvdka has 6 hymns, with 44 verses; and the old Anukr. reads: 
caturda^il ^ntyah (but further 'fttydnuvdkasa^ L"f^f ^J ^^ sathkhyd vidadhydd adhikdiii- 
mittdt^ which is obscure). LB®^ ^^^ P- ^'^^» ^°P*J 

Here ends also the s\\i\\ prapdfhaka. 

Not one of our mss. adds a summary of hymns and verses for the whole book. 

Book IV. 

LThc fourth book is made u|) of forty hymns, divided into 
ciglit artuva/ra-ir roups of five hymns each. The normal length 
of each hymn, as assumed by the AnukramanT, is 7 verses; but 
this is in only partial accord with the actual facts. There are 
twenty-one hymns of 7 verses each, as against nineteen of more 
than 7 verses each. Of these nineteen, ten are of 8 verses each; 
three are of 9 and three are of 10; two are of 12 ; and one is of 
16 verses. The seven hymns which make the Mrgara group 
(hymns 23-29) have 7 verses each. And they are followed by a 
group of four Rigveda hymns (30-33). The last two hymns of 
the book (39-40) have a decided Hrahmana-tinge. The entire 
book has been translated by Weber, Indisclu Siudien^ vol. xviii. 
(1898), pages 1-153.J 

[^Wcbcr*s statement, that there are twenty-two hymns of 7 verses each and two of 9» 
rests on the misprinted numl)er (7, for 9) at the end of hymn 20. J 

[^The Anukr. states (at the l>e|;innin;; of its treatment of book ti.) that the normal 
numl>cr of verses is 4 for a hymn of book i., and increases by one for each luccesshre 
book of the first five lx>oks. That gives us, for 

Rf>ok i. ii. iii. W. v.. as normal number d 

Verges: 45 678, respectively. 

In accord therewith is the statement of the Anukr. (prefixed to its treatment of book iv.) 
that the seven-versed hymn is tlie norm for this book : brakma jajhAnam iii k^md^tm^ 
saptarcam stiiktam prakrtir^ any A vikriir ity avaj^at.het.\ 

I. Mystic. 

[IVffii. — htlthaspaty%im ut%% **JityitJ*Ux'iitam. tttlistithkam : ^,j.Mmnj.^ 

Found in Taipp. v. (in the vt-rsc orclrr 2. 1. 3, 4 cd 5 ab, 6, 4 ab 5 cd. 7). Reckoned by 
Kiiuc;. (9. I ) as one of the hymn^ of the hrhacfiAnti ^ana, and used in varioui ccre- 
monies: with i. 4 6 and other hyinn%, for the health and welfare of kine (19. i); for 
sucress in slu<!y and victory over opponents in disputation (^S. 23 f.) ; at the consum- 
nLition of mariiaKe (7g. 11 ; the cnmm. says, only vs. i); and vs. I on enterin[( apoo 
\'e(lic study (139. to). These are all the applications in Kau<;. that our comm. rccof- 
ni/en : ill other rases where the pratika of vs. I is quoted, the vs. v. 6. I, which is a 
rc|M>titit>n of it. is app.ircntly intciul«>d : see under hymn v. 6. The editor of KAuq. 
resj.irils the rest of the anuv^ka, fnun vs. 2 to the end of h. 5, to l>e prescril>ed for 
rrcit.ition in I3«). II : Imt this s:'t.-ms in itself hi;;ldy improbable, and the comm. doc* 
not sanitii»n it. In V.'iit. (14. 1 ), vss. 1 and 2 arc added to the j^Act r/Mii -hymn given for 



iht firavargya rite of the agnisionia; and vs. i appears again in the agnicayana (28. 33) 
accompanying the deposition of a plate of gold. And the comm. further quotes 
the hymn as employed by the Naks. K. (18) in the brahml mahdqdntiy and by 
Pari<j. 1 1 . I in the titlapurusa ceremony. There is nothing at all characteristic or 
explanatory in any of these uses. The hymn is quite out of the usual Atharvan style, 
and is, as it was doubtless intended to be, very enigmatical ; the comm. does not really 
understand it or illuminate its obscurities, but is obliged at numerous points to give 
alternative guesses at its meaning ; and the translation offered makes no pretense of 
putting sense and connection into its dark sayings. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 393; Deussen, Geschichie, i. 1.255; Griffith, i. 129; 
Weber, xviii. 2. 

1. The brdhman that was first born of old i^piirdstdt ; in the east .^) 
Vena hath unclosed from the well-shining edge (slmatds ; horizon.^); he 
unclosed the fundamental nearest shapes (yisthd) of it, the womb {y6ni) 
of the existent and of the non-existent. 

The verse occurs in a large number of other texts: SV. (i. 321), VS. (xiii. 3), TS. 
(iv. 2.8'), TH. (ii.8.88), TA. (x. i, vs. 42), MS. (ii. 7. 15), K. (xvi. 1 5 et al.). Kap. 
(25. 5 et al.), (^QS. (v. 9. 5), A(^S. (iv. 6. 3); and its pratika in AB. (i. 19), GB. 
(ii. 2. 6) — and, what is very remarkable, everywhere without a variant ; it is also repeated 
below as v. 6. i . Vena is, even in the exposition of the verse given by QB. (vii. 4. i. 14), 
explained as the sun, and so the comm. regards it, but very implausibly; the moon 
would better suit the occurrences of the word. The comm. gives both renderings to 
piinistdt in a, and three different explanations of the pada. In b, the translation takes 
surucas as qualifying the virtual ablative slmatds Lwhich Weber takes as sfm dias / see 
also Whitney's note to Prat. iii. 43 J ; the comm. views it as accus. pi., and so does QB. ; 
the latter makes it mean " these worlds," the former either that or " its own shining 
brightnesses." Pada c is the most obscure of all ; Q!B. simply declares it to designate 
the quarters (di^as) ; the comm. gives alternative interpretations, of no value ; upamas 
(p. upaof/tah, as if from root md with upa) he paraphrases with upamlyamdndh pari- 

2. Let this queen of the Fathers (} pitrya) go in the beginning (dgre) 
for the first birth {janus ; race .^), standing in the creation ; for it (him }) 
have I sent (///) this well-shining sinuous one (}hvdrd)\ let them mix 
(fr/; boil }) the hot drink for the first thirsty one {} dhdsyii). 

The connection of the padas is here yet more obscure than their separate interpreta- 
tion ; the third pada may perhaps signify the lightning. The verse, with variants, is 
found in QQS. (v. 9.6) and A^S. (iv. 6. 3), and its pratika in AB. (i. 19) and GB. 
(ii. 2. 6) ; the first three read in a pitre for pitryd and eti for etu^ and AB. inserts vdi 
after iyam; and Ppp. also has piire. In b the two Sutra-texts give bhiimanesthdhy 
which is perhaps intended by the bhuminastdn of Ppp. ; in d, the same two have 
^rUtanti prathamasya dhdseh, and Ppp. -ntu prathatnas svadhdsyuh. The comm. 
takes ///;^<l to mean " come from Prajapati "; "the queen " is the divinity of speech — 
or else " this earth," pitryd relating to its father Ka^yapa ; dhdsyu is the god desiring 
food in the form of oblation, and sttrticam hvdram is susthu rocamdnam kit f Ham 
vartatndnam^ qualifying ^//^ir/zm/z/y ahyam is an adjective, tithtr gatt/a7'y am ^ from the 
root a/t * go,* or " daily," from a/tan * day *1 and fr/" is either " mix " or ** boil." 


3. lie who was born forth the knowing relative of it speaks all the 
births (jtinhfiafi) of the gods ; he bore up the brd/iwan from the midst 
of the brdJnnan; downward, upward, he set forth unto the svadhds, 

Tlii.s t.s foiiiul cUcwlirrc only in 'IS. (ii. 3. 14''), which, in A, b, has the leis unman- 
af^cahlc ttsyti b^ndhum vi{Vt\ni tifvtS jAm- \ and, in d, nuiti ucci svatihdyA 'M/. Tpp. 
sccmA to aim at nearly the name readinf;^ with its bandhum xn^x*Afk drifd jam-^ and 
pthtld Uiiil svadhayd *ti. Most of the mss. (includtnf^ our T.M. W.E.I. K.Kp.) read 
yajiit' for jitjii/ \\\ a; our O. omits the h of uccAih^ and Op. omits that of svadkik. 
The comm. j*ivrx alternative explanations of various of the parts of the verse, trying 
//if jti;i>^ lM>th from J*tn ami from jM (the translation takes it from jaa^ as no middle 
form from prtt-jfiA occurs elsewhere in the text) ; and svadhis as eitlicr object or subject 
q{ pra litsthAu (in the latter case taslhAu l>ein^ for tasthire by the usual equivalence of 
all verbal forms), and at any rate si;;nifyin;; some kind of sacrificial food. 

4. lM>r ho of the heaven, he of the earth the right-stander, fixed 
(sktilf/i) [as his] al)ode (Isnna) the (two) great firmaments (nfJasf) ; the 
great one, when born, fixed apart the (two) great ones, the heaven [as] 
seat (sdiiman) and the earthly space (nijas). 

I'pp., after our vs. 3, makes a verse out of our 4 c, 4 and 5 «, b; and then, after 
vs. 6, another verse out of our .| a, b and 5 C, d ; and T.S. (ii. 3. 14'') and A(,*S. (iv. 6. 3) 
combine our 4 c, d and 5 0, b in the same way (omittinf; the rest), whde All. (t. 19. 3) 
virtually sup|K)rts them, by giving; our c as a pratika. All the three read in c asiahkAyai 
(TS. without accent), and A(,\S. intrudes pitA after dyAm in d. In our text we ouyshl 
to have not only (with TS.) mkabhAyat in c, but Ask- in b; the accents seem to 
have been exchanged by a blunder. The comm. makes the sun the **he** of a: be 
renders kshnam in b by avinA^o yathA bhavali ; and vi in c apparently by xyAfya 
vartatnAHith. The Anukr. p.is5es unnoticed the deficiency of a syllable (unless we 
re.solvc piiArt/i-) \\\ d. |_ln a supplementary note, K. reports Tpp. as reading in a, b #« 
Mi V9lhti' (.^) rttsthA nuiyi ksAmam bhrajasi viskabhAyati^ and as giving /f/«r^ for 
5 Ad ma in d.J 

5. lie from the fundamental birth {Janus) hath attained (^f) unto 
(ablii) the summit ; Hrihaspati, the universal ruler, [is] the divinity of 
him ; since the bright (ftd-rd) day was born of light, then let the shining 
{iiyNfUiint) seers (vipra) fade out (> xn-vas) [shine out .^J. 

[Whitney's prior diaft reads "dwell apart." This he has changes! (I»y aslip? cf. 
ii. «S. 2) to *' f.nde out," from r-fir * shine.* In this case vi vajantu would lie trref^ular, 
for vi ui/taniii ; sec Webtr's note. p. 7. J The other two texts (sec preceding note) 
read our a thus : sA bttdhnAd A^ta jiinuiA *bhy At^ram, and TS. has yAsya instead of 
tAsya in the next pad.i ; no variants are re|M)rted from Ppp. Some of the AV. msa^ also 
(including our T.M.W.l.K.Kp.) give budhnAd ; but all have after it the impossible form 
Astra^ which .ST P. ai rordin^ly retains in his text, thoui;h the comm. too gi%'es Ast^ ; 
this is read by ememlalion in our text. I'asttntM, of course, might come from ist/ 
•dwell' or vtts ♦ clothe * [for I'ltstt/Afft f / ]i the comm. apparently takes it from the 
former, p.nraphrasinjir the p.ida by d/p/ttnitri/tt rivijah svatzutwApArrsu vivtdkam 
ViJi tttntAtn, or, alti'rnativrly. havitbhir dev^ln ptif uaraHlH. There is no reason for 
calling the veisc bhurij, [A(,'S. re.ids u^nitm (mis|»rtnt .^) for tf^'/i/jw.J 


6. Verily doth the kdvyd further (///) that of him — the abode (? dlid- 
man) of the great god of old {punyd) ; he was born together with many 
thus, sleeping now in the loosened (vi-si) eastern half. 

No other text has this verse — save Ppp., which has for ^ piirvddardd avidura^ ca 
sahruh. The comm. reads in b pnrvasya^ and two or three mss. (including our P.) 
agree with him. Some mss. (including our O.Op.) have at the end sasdth nit ; and the 
comm. also so reads, explaining sasa as an annanaman ; the true reading is possibly 
sasdnn u (but the //z^a-text divides sasdn : ftu). The comm. explains k&vya ^& yajfla 
(from kavi — rivij)y dhdman as tejoriipam mandaidtmakam sthdnam^ esa in c as the 
sun, and the " many '* his thousand rays, and visita as viqesena sambaddha. The last 
pada lacks a syllable, unless we resolve pu-ru-e, 

7. Whoso shall approach (? ava-gam) with homage father Atharvan, 
relative of the gods, Brihaspati — in order that thou mayest be generator 
of all, poet, god, not to be harmed, self-ruling (? svadhdvant). 

The translation implies in d emendation of ddbhdyat to ddbhdya; both editions have 
the former, with all the mss. and the comm. (who comfortably explains it by dabhnoii or 
hinasti). The comm. also reads in b brhaspaiis ; and this is supported by the Ppp. 
version : yathd vd *tharvd pitarath viqvadevam brhaspatir manasd vo datsva : and 
so on (c, d defaced). The comm. takes ava gachdt as =jdnlydi^ and svadhdvdn as 
'joined with food in the form of oblation." 

2. To the unknown god. 

\^Ve9m. — astarcam. dtmaddivatam, trdistubham : 6. puro^nustubk ; 8. uparistdjjyotis,'\ 

Found in Paipp. iv. (in the verse-order 1,2,4,3,5,6,8,7). The hymn is mostly a 
version, with considerable variants, of the noted RV. x. 121, found also in other texts, as 
TS. (iv. 1.8), MS. (ii. 13.23), and VS. (in sundry places), and K. xl. i. It is used by 
Kfiu^. in the va<^d<^amana ceremony (44. i ff.), at the beginning, with the preparation 
of consecrated water for it, and (45. i) with the sacrifice of the foetus of the I'/ifJ-cow, 
if she be found to be pregnant. In Vait. (8.22), vs. i (or the hymn.^) accompanies an 
offering to Prajapati in the cdturmdsya sacrifice ; vs. 7 (28. 34), the setting of a gold 
man on the plate of gold deposited with accompaniment of vs. i of the preceding hymn 
(in the agnicayand) ; and the whole hymn goes with the avaddna offerings in the same 
ceremony (28. 5). 

Translated : as a RV. hymn, by Max Muller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature (1859), 
p. 569 (cf. p. 433); Muir, OST. iv.'i6; Ludwig, no. 948; Grassmann, ii. 398 ; Max 
Muller, Hibbert Lectures (1882), p. 301 ; Henry W. Wallis, Cosmology of the A*K, 
p. 50 ; Peter Peterson, Hymns from the RV., no. 32, p. 291, notes, p. 244 ; Max Miiller, 
Vedic Hymns y SBE. xxxii. i, with elaborate notes; Deussen, Geschichte, 1. i, 132 ; as 
an AV. hymn, by Griffith, i. 131 ; Weber, xviii.8. — See Deussen's elaborate discussion, 
I.e., p. 128 ff. ; von Schroeder, Der Rigveda bet den KatJias^ WZKM. xii. 285 ; Oldcnberg, 
Die Hymnen des RV., i. 3i4f. ; Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, p. 391-3; and Bloomfield, 
JAOS. XV. 184. 

I. He who is soul-giving, strength-giving ; of whom all, of whom [even] 
the gods, wait upon the instruction ; who is lord (ff ) of these bipeds, who 
of quadrupeds — to what god may we pay worship {vidh) with oblation? 

iv. 2- BOOK IV. Tin: ATlIARVA-VEDA-SAlClHrrA. I46 

In the parAllcl tcxtx. our v!i. 7 stands at the beginning of the hymn. They also com- 
l)inc (lilfcr<*ntly the nintcrinl of our vss. 1 ami 2, making one verse of our 1 a, b and 
2 c. d, anil anntlirr of our 2 a. b and I C, d ; and in this Tpp. agrees with them. RV. 
and VS. (\xiii.3) road in c /<«' asnf. The comm. renders AtmaJJs "who gives their 
soul (or srit) to all animals**; of course, with the native authorities everywhere, lie 
expl.iinn ktismAi in d as ** to l*r.ijapati.** The Anukr. ignores the ydr^M/Zcharacter of c 
LKV.TS.MS.VS. omit the second /ifj of our c. MS. has 1{t yi^ asyi; TS. has /«! 1\t 
atyii at iv. r.K, but axyJ at vii. 5. 16. I*itdas a-€ recur at xiii. 3. 24. - In view of the 
history of this hymn in Hindu ritual and speculation (cf. SHK. xxxii. 12 ; AU. iii. 21 )» 
it might l>e hettcr to phrase the refrain thus : * Who is the god that we are to worship 
with oblation? *J 

2. lie who by his j^rcatncss became sole king of the breathing, wink- 
ing animal creation (j*{i;ttf) ; of whom immortality {tunrtam)^ of whom 
death [is] the shadow — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

KV.VS. (xxiii. 3) TS. rectify the meter of b by adding U after /kits; VS. has the 
bad reading /I /////'.r<//iff. MS. gives a different version: nimisa/ii( ca 9ijA pdiir tYf- 
vasYti ji^y^ato b-'y and I'pp. agrees with it, except as sul»stituting vitihartd tor <a rJ/J. 
** His shadow^* (in c), the comm. says, as )>eing dc|>endcnt u|)on him, or under his 
control. The Anukr. passrs without imtice tlie deficiency in b. 

3. lie whom the (two) spheres (krtipuiasf) favor when fixed; whom 
the terrified firmaments {nuinst) called upon ; whose is yon road, traverser 
of the welkin (rdjas) — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.' 

Tlie translation implies in b AhvayetAm^ as read by the comm., and by one of SPP's 
mss. that follows him ; all the other mss., and l>oth editions, have ^ethtlm. The first half> 
verse is a damagetl rctlex of KV. 6 a, b, with which VS. (xxxii. 7 a, b) and TS. agree : 
I'lf/// Jtrifni/ttsf th'itsti (asttihhilft/ tthhy*}il'sfiAfn wthttuti f/j€tt9tAfu; MS. and l*pp. have 
yrt another ve^^ioIl : yii imi dyiv*\prihivi tastabhAm/ (TpP* '^^) ddhArayad (Ppp. 
dhAred) r*^dti\l (I'pp. avasA) r/jamAnf. Fore, Tpp. gives ^*ijiw/>r« adhi x*itata eii 
surah, and MS. the same (save s/im i'/i) ; our c agrees most nearly with RV. 5 c (TS. 
and VS. xxxii. 6 the same): yt^ iifttAnl-se pAjaso x'lminah, Ihe comm. apparently 
takes At'ttttts as avaiAs - antftAt " by his assistance fixed **; he offen no conjecture as to 
what ** road** may be meant in c, but calls it simply dyulokasthah. 

4. [Hy the greatness] of whom the wide heaven and the great carth« 
[by the greatness] of whom yon wide atmosphere, by the greatness of 
whom yon sim [is] extended — to what god may wc pay worship with 


1 he translation follows the construction as understood by the comm. ; it might be 
also "whose [is] the wiile heaven etc. etc., extended by his greatness." ** Kx tended ** 
applies l>ettrr to earth etc. (a and b) than to sun ; comm. sa)-s vistirtiA jAtA etc. The 
verse resembles only distantly KV. 5, with which, on the other hand, Ppp. nearly agrees, 
rcidin^ ycna dyAur u\^9A prthi',l nt dr^it (KV.VS. MS. dn/Ad, TS. dfd/i/) yema Sfm 
stahhitath ycfut nAkam (the rest -Xi//!) : yo antariksam vimame vaftyah (so MS.; the 
others as reported aUn-e, under vs. 3). Our third pada most resembles KV. 6c: ydiri 
*dhi sira ndito vihhiti (so also VS. xxxii. 7 ; TS. nditAu vyfii), |^C'f. M(iS. i. li. 14 
and p. 154, r/'Ttf dyAur u^'^.j The Anukr. ignores the marked irregularity of b. 


5. Whose [are] all the snowy mountains by [his] greatness; whose, 
verily, they call Rasa in the ocean ; and of whom these directions are 
the (two) arms — to what god may we pay worship with oblation? 

The comm. extends his construction of vs. 4 through a, b here, and is perhaps right 
in so doing ; the translation assimilates them to c. The verse corresponds to RV. 4 
(with which VS. xxv. 12 precisely agrees) ; in a, RV.VS.TS. have imi for viqve, and 
MS. imi vlqve girdyo m-; for b, all of them rend }^dsya samttdrdfn rasdyd sa/ta ^^hus 
(save that MS. puts/^fj/^z after samudrdm ; and Ppp. has the same b as MS.) ; in c, 
RV.VS.TS. begin ydsye *mah /r-, while MS., with Ppp., reads d(^o ydsya pradi^ah 
(Ppp. -f<ij) pdnca devih. The "ocean" is of course the atmospheric one ; and Rasa, 
the heavenly river, can hardly help having been originally the Milky Way; but the 
comm. takes it here as simply a river, representative of rivers in general. Padas b and 
C are irregular, being defective unless we make harsh and difficult resolutions. 

6. The waters in the beginning favored {av) the all, assuming an 
embryo, they the immortal, order-knowing ones, over whom, divine ones, 
the god was — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

Here a, b correspond to RV. 7 a, b, and c to RV. 8 c, all with important variants, 
which are in part unintelligent corruptions : RV. reads apo ha ydd brhatir vf^vam 
ayan g- d-jandyantfr agnlm; and yd devisv ddhi devd ika asft; VS. (xxvii. 25 a, b, 26 c) 
agrees throughout; TS. has mahatir in a, and ddksam (for gdrbham) in b; MS. also 
has mahatir y and it lacks c. Ppp- has a text all its own: dpo ha yasya vt\vam dynr 
dadhand garbhaiit janayanta mdtard: tatra devditam adhi deva dstha ckasihiine 
vimate drdhe ngre. And TA. (i.23.8), with an entirely different second half, nearly 
afjrees in a, b with RV., but has gdrbham for v(^7'am* and svayambhnm for agnlm. 
All the mss. (except, doubtless by accident, our I.) give in c dslt^ which SPP. accord- 
ingly adopts in his text; ours makes the necessary emendation to aslt. The comm. 
reads in c devesu^ as a Vedic irregularity for -vlsw, he renders dvan in a by araksan 
or npacitam aknrvan; perhaps we should emend to rt vran 'covered.* *L Further, 
TA. has ddksam ior gdrbham of RV.J 

7. The golden embryo was evolved (sam-vf/t) in the beginning ; it 

was, when born, the sole lord of existence (bhutd) ; it maintained earth 

and heaven — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

As noted above, this is the first verse in the other continuous versions of the hymn 
(it is VS. xiii. 4). The others agree in reading at the end of c prihivim dyam ute 
*mdm ; and, in addition, PH. (ix. 9. 12) gives bhutandm in b; some of the texts contain 
the verse more than once. JJut Ppp. is more original, reading hiranya ulvd **sUiyo 
'grc vatso ajdyata: tvam yo dyontrbhra (?) vamiyospa vy apa^yad ftdtir mahlh. 
The comm. understands hiranyagarbha as "the embryo of the golden e%%>''^ ^MCS., 
i. 10. 10, cites the hymn as one of 8 vss. and as beginning with hiranyagarbha ; sec 
p. 158, s.v. — Kirstc, VVZKM. ix. 164, reviewing Deussen, suggests that the golden 
embryo is the yolk of the mundane egg. J The Anukr. makes no account of the 
deficiency of a syllable in c. 


8. The waters, generating a young {vatsd)^ set in motion {sam-ifoy) 
in the beginning an embryo; and of that, when born, the foetal envelop 
(ulba) was of gold — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 


Tpp. mnkcA vtitsam and /^arbham chan|;c places, and reads trayan ; it also omits 
the refrain, as it has done in vss. 6 and 7. Gil. (i. 1.30) ap|>ears to quote the pratika 
with ji^athhtttn^ or in its Tpp. form |^as conjectured by lUoomfield, J AGS. xix.' 1 1 J. The 
cotnm. paraphrases ^^«j/M*i//> satn Ahtivttn by f^vtimttt vhrstam vlryam j^arbhJ^ayam 
firdptiyaft. The verse (8f 8 : 8 + 84-11 =43) is ill deHned by the Anukr. 

3. Against wild beasts and thieves. 

[Athanttn. — rjm/nt/n uta vytixkradrfaiyam, dHusiuhkam : t . patkydpamkti ; ^, g4ymiri ; 

y. Ltlummati^arbk0 '/aristdJhrkati.\ 

Found in I'Aipp. ii. (except vs. 5, and in the verse-order 1-3, 7,6, 4). Used by KAu^. 
(51. t) in a rite for the prosperity of kine ami their safety from tigers, robliers, and the 
like ; also reckoned (50. 13, note) to the rAntira j^'ifrt. 

Translated: Ludwi^, p. 4«/; ; (^riU, 33, 118; Griffith, i. 133; Hloomfiekl, 147, 366; 
Weber, xviii. 13. 

I. Up from here have stritlcicn three — tiger, man (///rwjtf), wolf; 
since hey! go the rivers, hey! the divine (orcst-trec, hey! let the foes 

Tpp. reads for a ud tty akt amahs trayo ; in c-d it gives Mrk each time for M&mk^ 
and for c has hr/^ dfva si'iryat. The conim. understands htrttk to mean ** in secret, out 
of sif;lit,** and hlrun tuimantn as aniarhittih santah prahvA hhavantm or antmritSm 
kun'afttu. The forcsttrce is doubtless some implement of wckkI used in the rite* 
perhaps thrown in to float away with the liver-current; it can hardly l)e the "stake of 
khadita** which Kau^;. (51.1) mentions, which is to l>e taken up and buried as one 
follows the kine. 

/^/OlA. 2. Hy a distant (pdra) road let the wolf go, by a most distant also 

the thief ; by a distant one the toothed rope, by a distant one let the 

malignant hasten (rs). 

The latter half-verse is found a^.iin as xix. 47. 8 a, b. Tpp's version \m f^aramrma 
pathit vrkah paretta stcno raruttu : tato vyili^hras paramli. The comm. naturally 
explains the ** t(x>thed rope ** as a seq>cnt ; aruttn he simply glosses with giuchaiu. 

3. Both thy (two) eyes and thy mouth, O tiger, we grind tip; then 
all thy twenty claws (iiiik/iti). 

The M< ijofity of mss. (iniluding our Hp.I.O.Op.K.D.) read at the 1>rginning aks^ik^ 
as do also Ppp. and the comm , but only (as the accent alone suffices to show) by the 
oidinarv omission of v after c f>r r; l>oth editions give aksv*tik. Alt the mss. leave 
lytl^hta unaccented at the l)eginnin;^ of b, and S1*P. retains this inadmissible reading; 
our text rmrnds to vyiij^hnt^ but should have given instead 7yh/^kra (that is, viSgJkrm : 
see Whitney's .Skt. Gr. § 314 b). I*pp. reads hanik instead of mukham in a. j^Anukr^ 
Londtm ms.. has akiyilu.^ 

4. The tiger first of (creatures] with teeth do wc grind up, tipon that 

also the thief, then the snake, the sorcerer, then the wolf. 

Tlie roiivt'fsi(»n of sirnAm to ite- after // is an isolated case. The vcne in Tpp. ia 
defaced, but appaiently has no valiants. 

5. What thief shall come today, he shall go away smashed ; let him 



go by the falling-ofF (apadhvahsd) of roads ; let Indra smite him with 

the thunderbolt. 

The first half-verse is identical with xix. 49.9 a, 10 d. The comm. separates apa 
from d/ivansenay and construes it with etu ; dhvaiisa he renders "bad road" (^kasUna 

6. Ruined (tnfirnd) [are] the teeth of the beast (fnrgd) ; crushed in 

also [are its] ribs ; disappearing be for thee the godhd; downward go 

{ayat) the lurking (} fa(ayn) beast. 

The comm. takes miirnds from milrch^ and renders it miidhds ; in b he reads api 
0rsnasy the latter being horns and the like, that grow "on the head." The second 
half-verse is extremely obscure and doubtful : Ludwig translates " into the depth shall 
the crocodile, the game go springing deep down " ; Grill, " with lame sinew go to ruin 
the hare-hunting animal.*' Ni-mrnc is used elsewhere only of the * setting * of the sun 
etc. ; the comm. renders it here " disappearing from sight '* ; and he takes (a(ayu from 
ff * lie * ; godhd is, without further explanation, " the animal of that name." The trans- U> kli ^ xf 

lation given follows the comm. ; it does not seem that a " hare-hunting " animal would ^W^t / • ' 't 
be worth guarding against. R. conjectures a figure of a bird of prey, struck in flight : 
" the sinew be thy destruction ; down fall the hare-hunting bird." Pada a lacks a 
syllable. LW. takes murnd from vir * crush'; cf. xii. 5.61 and ///rArr. — In a and b, 
supply " be " rather than " are "?J 

7. What thou contractest {sam-yam) mayest thou not protract (vi-yam) ; 
niayest thou protract what thou dost not contract ; Indra-born, soma-born 
art thou, an Atharvan tiger-crusher {-jdmb/iana). 

The sense of a, b is obscure ; the comm. takes viyamas and samyamas as two nouns. 
I'pp. makes one verse of our 7 a, b and 6 a, b (omitting the other half-verses), and puts 
it next after our vs. 3 ; its version of 7 a, b is yat sat'n naso vi yan naso na sam nasa. 
The verse is scanned by tiie Anukr. as 8-1-8:6+12 = 34 syllables. |_Read indraji 
asi? — For a, b, see Griflith.J 

4. For recovery of virility: with a plant. 

\Atharx*an, — a star cam. vdnaspatyam, dnustubham: 4. purausnih ; 6, /, dAurij.] 

Found in Paipp, iv. (except vs. 7, and in the verse-order 1-3, 5, 8, 4, 6). Used by 
Kau^. (40. 14) in a rite for sexual vigor. 

Translated : GriOith, i. 134 and 473 ; Bloomfield, 31, 369 ; Weber, xviii. 16. 

I. Thee that the Gandharva dug for Varuna whose virility (} -bhrdj) \ 

was dead, thee here do we dig, a penis-erecting herb. | 

The meaning: of bhrdj \cL vii. 90. 2 J has to be inferred from the connection ; the 
comm. paraphrases by nastdvlrya. The plant intended he declares to be "that called 
kapitthaka " {Feroftia elephant uni). The //ir/<rr-reading of the last word is ^epahohdr- 
sanf//ty and Prat. ii. 56 prescril>es the loss of the visarga of ^epah in samhitd ; the com- 
ment to Prat. iv. 75 gives the reading thus : qepoharsattfm iti qepahoharsanfm ; and one 
of our /rt</<n-mss. presents it in the same form, addinjj kr<t>fnakdle * this is the kftttna- 
reading*; and the comm. has ^epoha- '<! but Ppp., ^epaharsinl. As f <^a is as genuine 
and old a form as qtpas^ there seems to be no good reason for the peculiar treatment of 
the compound. 


2. Up, the (lawn; up, too, the sun; up, these words {tkicas) of mine; 
up 1)0 Prajapati stirring, the bull, with vigorous {vdjin) energy (fiisma). 

I*p|>. has a different b, m{' ihuimJ outiihlntlm (compare our vs. 4 a) ; and tt hai at 
the end of d vAjiniim; it aUo inMrts l>etween our 1 and 2 this verse : frtias it kkama- 
ttlro vrstl iVfl pi%CY ostuihe 7'rstl *si vrsn\ulvtttl I'rsnne ivti khandmasi; and this Is a 
verse Kiven in full by Kau^. (40. 14) after the pratika of vs. 1 of our hymn (with the 
cofrectioiui vrsitnas and khttni- in a and vrsA tvam asy in b, and the vocative -va/iint). 
The e<lit(>r of Kau<;. fails to understand and divide rightly the material, and to does not 
rec<>;;nize the quotation of this liymn. Tlie first two pAdas of the added veric are as 
it were the reverse of our iv. 6. 8 a. b, which see. 

3. As forsooth of thee growing up {? vi-m/i) it breathes as if heated 
(> abhittif*) — more full of energy than that let this herb make for Ihcc. 

Alto|;cther obscure, and proliahly corrupt. No variant is reported from Ppp^ which, 
however, inserts urdhvasrAnim uiath krdhi at the bc);inninf;, before ^<rMJ. The comm. 
is unusually curt, attempting no real explanation of the verse : he reads virokii^s instead 
of -hat-^ an<l paraphrases by pHtrapAutriktiirupeHa virokanasya nimiiiam prntrnxym- 
fkjanam ; ahhtlapiain he glosses by phanyaii^atn^ an<l anati by en fate ; he makes 
iitttts mean ** so,** as correlative to yaihik^ supplies pnthvyahjana as object of krn0tm^ 
and ref;ards the vlryaktlma |>erson as addressed tlirouf^hout. [^liloomfield disciisacs 
(tismtt, Z1)M(*. xlviii. 573, and cites it fromTH. i. 6. 2* as refcrrinfi^ to l*rajApati*s sextial 
force. — For Tinikit/iis, see HK. vi. 418, and Bloomfield's note. — With d/ta/i, cf. fvasiki^ 
vi. 101. I.J 

4. Up, the energies (^nsffta) of herbs, the essences {sdra) of bulls ; 
the virility (vrsftya) of men {ptnhs) do thou put together in him, O Indra, 

The corruption of a, b is evidenced by lK>th meter and sense ; prohahly we should 
read tic chitsfnA (i.e. -mtls ; Tpp. has this reading; in 2 b) 6uttiklnt\m ui ttlrJ rsahkimdm 
(rea<l -fut t}m) ; l)oth editions follow the mss. (p. ^tUmtl and Stlnl), The Prtt. takes no 
notice of the passa;;e. The comm. has at heginnini^ of c the unmana|;eal>le reachni; 
sampttulm (lU-iiving it from root ///i **ptis/dn**), and at the end fa/tMiHi(am ; and in 
each case he is sup|)ortecl hy one or more of Sri'*s mss. lie takes fiismd and sird as 
adjectives frm., <pialifyin^ /V<f/// '''utMiis of 3 d. In our text, the accent-mark under the 
'Sa- in b has sltppe<l out of pl.icc to the left. The Anukr. scans 12 : 8 f 8 = 28 syllables. 

5. Of the waters the first-born sap, likewise of the forest-trees ; also 
Soma's brother art thou ; also virility art thou of the stag. 

I*pp. has in a rtistlu *sadhlndtn^ and in d drisyam for drfdm : which should have 
l>een emended in l>oth editions to the evidently true reading dr^ydm ; it is another case 
(as in 7 c) of the h»ss o{ y after f. The connn. evidently reads drsam (the word itself is 
lost out of the text of his exposition), and he explains it as ** belonging to the seersi, 
An^iras etc.** ! 

6. Now, Agni ! now, Savitar ! now, goddess Saras vat I ! now, Brahma- 
naspati, make his member taut like a bow. 

I'pp. reads mt instead of asyit in c. I'he verse is bkurij only if we do not abbreviate 
iva to *7'd in d. t^^"** ^ d is nearly vi. 101.2 C d J 


7. I make thy member taut, like a bowstring on a bow ; mount {i*ram), 

as it were a stag a doe, unrelaxingly always (?). 

The verse is repeated below as vi. 10 1.3. It is wanting (as noted above) in Ppp. 
All our //7^4fz-mss. make in c the absurd division krdma : svdr^aMoiva^ instead of 
krdmasva : r^yah^hfa j but SFP. strangely reports no such blunder from his mss. All 
the mss. agree in r^a instead of r(^ya |_both editions should read r^ya\ ; the comm. has 
again rsa (cf. 5 d), and declares it equivalent to vrsabha ! The Pet. Lex. takes sAtiA at 
the end as instr. of sdd " position in coitus^^ and the connection strongly favors this ; 
but the accent and the gender oppose it so decidedly that the translation does not venture 
to adopt it. The comm. takes sAdd as " always," and reads before it anu valgtiyatd 
(for Anavagldya(d)y supplying manasd for it to agree with. The verse is bhurij only 
if we refuse to make the common contraction -r^ye *va in c 

8. Of the horse, of the mule, of the he-goat and of the ram, also of ! 
the bull what vigors there are — them do thou put in him, O self- 
controller. \ 

The omission of tan would rectify the meter of d, and also make more suitable the 
accentuation asviitt. The great majority of mss. favor in c the reading dtha rs-^ which 
SPP. has accordingly adopted (our edition has dtha rs-). The comm. again (as in 4 d) 
has at the end tanilva^amj understanding it adverbially (j^arfrasya vaqo yathd bhavati 

5. An incantation to put to sleep. 

\Brahman. — svdpanam^vdrsabham. dnu stub ham : 1. bhurij ; y, furastdjjyotis tristubh.^ 

Found in Paipp. iv., next after our hymn 4. Part of the verses are RV. vii. 55. 5-8. 
Used by Kau^. among the women's rites, in a rite (36. i ff.) for putting to sleep a woman 
and her attendants, in order to approach her safely. 

Translated : Aufrecht, Ind, Stud. iv. 340 ; Grill, 51, 119; Griffith, i. 135 ; Bloomfield, 
'05» 37' J VVcbcr, xviii. 20. — Discussed by Pischcl, Ved. Sind. ii. 55 f . ; see also Lan- 
man, Reader^ p. 370, and references; further, the RV. translators; and Zimmer, p. 308. 

1. The thousand-horned bull that came up from the ocean — with him, 
the powerful one, do we put the people to sleep. 

The verse is RV. vii. 55. 7, without variant. Ppp. reads at the beginning hiranya- 
^rngas. The comm. takes the •• bull " to be the sun with his thousand rays — but that 
is nothing to make people sleep ; the moon is more likely, but even that only as typifying 
the night. 

2. The wind bloweth not over the earth ; no one soever secth over 

[it]; both all the women and the dogs do thou make to sleep, going 

with Indra as companion. 

Ppp. has in b the preferable reading suryas for kdq cand. Part of our mss. 
(P.M.W.E.I.H.K.), with apparently all of .SPP's, read svdpdyas* at end of c, but both 
editions accept svdpdya^ which the comm. also has. The comm. understands the wind 
to be meant as Indra^s companion in d. The verse is not bhurij ^ if we read vitd*ti 
in a. • LAnd so Op. J 

3. The women that are lying on a bench, lying on a couch, lying in a 
litter ; the women that are of pure odor — all of them we make to sleep. 


For taJpe^ayis in «, Ppp. \\^% pHsti{-^ and KV. (vii. $5.8) ftfi/zf-; both give tdifa- 
(ii'iifls ( P|)|>. -//) at cud of b. KV. further mars the meter of c by giving -f^aitJkAs, 

4. Whatever stirs have I seized; rye, breath have I seized; all the 
limbs have I seized, in the depth (ati^arx^ard) of the nights. 

Ppp. riMds in d uta ^arvate : the comm. explains <t//f- by iamohkajrisfkt madkym' 

5. Whoso sits, whoso goes about, and whoso standing looks out — of 
them we put together the eyes, just like this habitation (/tittynrd). 

K V. (vii. 55. 6) reitirics the mctrr of « by addin;^ tit l)efure itirati (the Anukr. lakes 
no notice of the dcTii icnry of a sylhible in our version) ; its b is jrA^ ca pd{yaii »# 
jAntth ; an<l in c it has hannui% for litttihmat^ and (as also l*pp-) alstlni. The comm. 
gives no explanation of the obscure comparison in d, nor of the word karmyd^ but 
simply says **as this harfnya that we see is depriveil of the facuhy of tight** |^It not 
the tertiHPn comparationis simply the closing? We close their eyes as we ckxic this 
house. The comm. renders sAth d*uihmtis by nimUitAni kMrmas, — For tlie kMt of rm 
before cArati^ cf. iv. 18. 6 a = v. 31. 1 1 a (j«I t)efore {a^ika f), and vi. 91. 2 a Cvm before 
vAtif). Other cases (vii. fti. 1 c, etc.) cited by Bloomfield, AjP. xvii. 418.J 

6. Let the mother sleep, the father sleep, the dog sleep, the house- 
master (vi^pdd) sleep; let the relatives (jMti) of her sleep; let this 
folk round about sleep. 

For svAptH (5 times) and svApaniu^ KV. (vii. 55. 5) gives sAsiu and sasAtttm ; also, 
in c, sArvr * all * for asyAt * of her * — which latter is to us a welcome indication of the 
reason for all this putting to sleep, and marks the Atharvan application of the hjmn« 
whether that were or were not its original intent. In b, all the mss. have si*d instead of 
fT'i/; l>oth editions emend to the latter, whidi is read aJso by the comm. \^Vor asydi\ 
cf. iii. 25. 6. J 

7. O sleep, with the imposition {tibhikarafia) of sleep do thou put to 
sleep all the folk; till sun-up make the others sleep, till dawning let me 
be awake, like Indra, uninjured, unexhausted. 

Several of SPP's mss. have at the t^e^innin;; svAppias. Ppp. reads svapftddkik-^ 
and so does the romm. (explaining atihik- as adhislkAnam {ayyAdi)\ the latter has in 
d Avyusiim ; and Ppp. gives CtinitAt for jAj^tAi. A kkUa to RV. vii. 55 has a corre- 
spondinj:: verse, re.idim; for a f:'*ipftA/i svitpnddkikAtaHf (thas rectifying the meter), in 
C ii stiryAw^ and for d diyiiulm jAj^t lyAd ahAm. The Anukr. uses the name jy^ii* so 
loosely that it is difricult to s.iy precisely how it would have the verse .scanned ; it is really 
a bhurij pankti. 

The 5 hymns of the first auuvAka contain 37 verses ; and the old Anukr., taking 30 
as noim, says simply saput. 

6. Against the iK)ison of a poisoned arrow. 

f G*irutm*in. — if *f>trtiim. fakMhit/rfatfttm. Aft»ifta$SkamA 

Found (except vs. I ) in Taipp. v. Tsed by K^\^^;. (with, as the schol. and the 
comm s.iy, the next following h)mn also) in a rite (28. I ff.) of healing for {mison, with 
hom.iv:e to laksaka. chief of the ser|>ei)t i;o<l.s ; and the schol. (but not the comm.) 


declare it to be employed elsewhere (29. i ; 32. 20) in similar rites involving Taksaka. 
There is no specific reference in the hymn to serpent poison, but distinctly to vegetable 
poison ; and the comm. regards kanda or kandamfila (* tuber ' and * tuber-root ') as the 
plant intended. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 512; Griffith, i. 136 ; Bloomficld, 25, 373 ; Weber, xviii. 23. 
— Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel^ p. 145. 

1. The Brahman was born first, with ten heads, with ten mouths; he 
first drank the soma ; he made the poison sapless. 

The absence of this verse in Ppp., and the normal length of the hymn without it, 
together with its own senselessness, suggest strongly the suspicion of its unoriginality. 
To put meaning into it, the comm. maintains that the serpents have castes, as men have ; 
and that their primal Brahman was Taksaka. 

2. As great as [are] heaven-and-earth by their width, as much as the 
seven rivers spread out {vi-st/id), [so far] have I spoken out from here 
these words {vdc)^ spoilers of poison. 

Tavailin in d for tarn itAs would be a welcome emendation. The first half-verse 
occurs in VS. (xxxviii. 26 a, b : not quoted in ^B.) and TS. (in iii. 2. 6'): VS. omits 
varimiia; TS. has instead mahitvi j both rectify the meter of b by adding ca after 
yavat (Ppp. adds instead vd) \ and for our rather fantastic vitasthiri (p. vhtasthir^) 
V^S. has -tasthiri TiViiX TS. -tasthus. The comm. also reads -sthire\ the lingualization 
is one of the cases falling under Prat. ii. 93. The comm. glosses in h siniihavas by 
samudrds^ and vitasthire by vydvartante. This irregular prastdra-pankti is over- 
looked by the Anukr. in its treatment of the meter. 

3. The winged {garutmant) eagle consumed {av) thee first, O poison ; 
thou hast not intoxicated {tnad), thou hast not racked (rup) [him] ; and 
thou becamcst drink for him. 

At beginning of b, visa is read only ^by Ppp. andj by the comm. and by one of 
SPP's mss. that follows him ; all the rest have the gross blunder visah (both editions 
emend to vfsa). Ppp. gives ddayat in b, and its second half-verse reads nd Wopayo 
nd ^mddayo tdsmd bhavan pituh^ thus removing the objectionable confusion of tenses 
made by our text. Our arurupas is quoted as counter-example by the comment to 
Prat. iv. 86. The first pada might be rendered also * the well-winged Garutmant,* 
and the comm. so understands it, adding the epithet vdinateya to show that garuU 
//7^/// = GarucIa. He also takes the two aorists and the imperfect in c-d alike as impera- 
tives {jid *rurupas = vimildham md kdrsfh). The Anukr. does not note a as irregular. 

4. He of five fingers that hurled at thee from some crooked bow — 
from the tip {(^alyd) of the apaskambhd have I exorcised {itir-vac) the 

Apaskambhd is very obscure ; the Pet. Lex. suggests " perhaps the fastening of the 
arrow-head to the shaft"; Ludwig guesses ** barb," but that we have in vs. 5 — as we 
also have qalya^ which seems therefore premature here ; and, in fact, Ppp. reads instead 
of it bdhvosj and, as it has elsewhere apaskantasya bdhvoSy we might conjecture apa 
skandhasya etc., * from shoulder and arms * : i.e. from wounds in them. Or, for apa- 
skambha as a part of the body might be compared Su^ntta i. 349. 20 — unless apastambe 


iv. 6- BOOK IV. Tin: ATlIARVA-VEDA-SAIfilHITA. 154 

(which at least one f^oml manu^ript reads) is the true text there (^Calcutta ed. reads 
a/tastambMtlu^. The comm. has no idea what afiaskambkn means, but makes a couple 
of wild cu<^^*'*<^i( •' it is the l>etcl>nut {kramukayxrtt, or it is an arrow (both based on 
scnsrli'ss etyinoloj^ies). Ins, I'pp- leads -/^u/i's. 

g/f . (7t^^ '*' 5. I'Vofii the lip have I exorcised the i>oison, from the anointing and 
yU' from the feather-socket ; from the barb {a/><}s(M), the horn, the neck 
have I exorcised the poison. 

7^^****^ . 4^rMj^'\ I*pp. reads 7'tuttm instead of itvotatn in s and d, and its b is Afkjanikt parmadktr uta, 
J ,jJ^^il^ ' 1*1 At. ii. 95 rvf;ards apttstha as from apasiktl, doubtless correctly ; l>ctween the •• barb '• 

, and the '* horn ** there is probably no important difference. To the comm., the apAsika 
f>j0,fh^i f^ ** •* IKiisonrcceptacle (apakrsttU'asthtld fiatsamjflthi vistppthitlftttty 

L6t^ I ^^ ^' '^•U*l<-'s^» ^^ arrow, is thy tip; likewise thy poison is sapless; also 

t-<^7 • thy bow, of a sapless tree, O sapless one, is sapless. 

Mjk'f^^ I ^^^^ comm. stranf^cly takes ttnifilntsttm at the end (p. arasa: arasdm) as a rrdupli- 

>f^ ' ' j^^t cated word, ••excessively sapless.** 

^ ^j^ - 7- They who mashed, who smearc*<l, who hurled, who let loose — they 

^i-^ b^^^\ "^^ made impotent ; imi)otent is made the iM>ison-mountain. 

y. ^. That is, as the comm. is wise rnoii<;h to see, the mountain from which the poisonous 

plant is brought. •* Let Umsc** {avasfj) probably applies to arrows as distinguished 
from spe.irs; though *• hiirT* mij;ht be used equally of iNith. Ppp. has in C samim of krttix. Acrordinjj to SPIV, the text used by the comm. combines ^^ *pisam; 
apiuiH is an anom.ilous form for apiiisan, with which the comm. f;los.scs it. 

8. Imjwtent [are] thy di^pjers; impotent art thou, () herb; impotent 
[is] that ru<;j;ed (pdrvata) mountain whence was born this [>oison. 

.As was prtinted out alnivc (tuidrr iv. 4.2). the first half-verse is a sort of opposite 
of omr found in Tpp., and c|uoted by Khu(;. (at 40. 14). |^With pjrt'ti/a j^'ri ct. mrj^J 
/ttis/fn, xii. I. 25. J 

7. Against poison. 

[ Ctru/mttu. — vtlnat/ tlttustHhkam : 4. JtvrJ/ ] 

Found in IWipp., but not all to;;i>lher ; vs. 1 occurs in v., vss. 2-6 in ii., and vs. 7 in 
vi. Not U5<'d by Kilu^. uidrss it is properly re^ardeti by the schol. and the comm. (sc« 
under h. 6) as included with h. 6 by the citation (2^. I) of the latter's pratika (the 
comm. puts it on the ground of the /iif7//V«Ij«l rule^rtftA/fff^/yi tl jl^tikanJt^ KAu(. 8. 31 ). 

Iransl.acd: Ludwij;, p. 201; (iiiH, 2S. 121; t^ritVith, i. 138 ; l5loomficid, 26, 376; 
WcIkt, xviii. 26. 

I. This water (itir) shall ward off (ivf/vir-) ujKin the Varanavati ; an 
on i>ouiin'; of ambrosia (ti9nr(ti) is there; with it I ward off thy i)oison. 

Tlu- sii;uilir.ince of the vers** li<'s in its punning;; u|>on r-Jr and var; the name tvrrtf- 
piAviMtl is not found elscwhrrc, but has surfuient analogies elsewhere: it is formed, as 
thr K niuin. |)oints out, fr»mi the tror n.imc vantna [Oatafva fiarhMrghti). Ppp. has in 
ba flilforriit pun: viu HUi}*i Abhft^tm; anil for d it reads iac cakdrJk *rasam tt'smm. 
The first lacks a syllablt*. unless we resolve va-ir. [d, %. 3. I n.J 


2. Sapless is the poison of the east, sapless what is of the north ; also 
this that is of the south is exchangeable with gruel (karambhd). 

That is, is no stronger or more harmful than gruel. Except our Bp., which has 
adharacytim^ all the mss. accent -racyam^ and SFP. follows them; our edition emends 
to -rdcyiifn^ to accord with the two adjectives of like formation in a, b. Ppp. puts 
arasam after visam in a. 

3. Having made gruel of sesame (.^), teeming with fat, steaming (.^), 
thou dost not rack, O ill-bodied one, him that has eaten thee merely from 

The verse is full of difficulties and doubtful points. The translation implies in d 
emendation oi jaksivant sd Ko jaksivatisam^ as suggested by BR., s.v. rup (Grill rejects 
it, but unwisely) ; Ppp. reads jaksivipyasya. The construction of the augmentless 
aorist-fonn rfirupas with nd instead of ma is against all rule and usage ; the easiest 
emendation would be to na *n7rupas; Ppp. gives nu rurtipah, SPP. unaccountably 
reads rilrupah in pada-icxtj both here and in 5 d and 6 d, against all but one of his 
padij-mss. in this verse, and also against Prat. iv. 86, which distinctly requires rurupah ; 
and (in all the three cases alike) the /^^/i-mss. add after the word the sign which they 
arc accustomed to use when a /<z^fi-reading is to be changed to something else in 
samhitd. \\\ c, the //z^^-reading is dustano iti duhotano ; the case is noted under 
Prat. ii. 85. Tit y dm in a is rendered as if tilyiim^ from tila (so the Pet. Lex.) ; the 
comm. derives it from tiras^ and renders it tirobhavam * vanishing,* which is as sense- 
less as it is etymologically absurd ; Ppp. reads instead iurlyam. According to K.ijan. 
xvi. 23, a sort of rice (as ripening in three months) is called tiriya {Jirima ?)^ but the 
word appears to be only a modern one, and is hardly to be looked for here. \\ cannot 
find it in the Poona ed.*J Grill makes the very unsatisfactory conjecture aiiriyam 
"running over." In b, all our mss. (as also the comment on Prat. ii. 62) read ptbas- 
phdkdm (p. pibahophdkdm^ which the comment just quoted ratifies), as our edition 
reads ; SPP., on the other hand, prints plbaspdkdm (comm. pivaspdkam^ explained 
as ** fat-cooking ") and declares this to be the unanimous reading of his authorities : this 
discordance of testimony is quite unexplainable. The translation implies emendation of 
the //i//rt-reading X.o pibah^sphdkdm, Ppp. reads uddhrtam for the problematic uddra- 
t/tfm ; but the latter is supported by RV. i. 187. 10 (of whose first two padas, indeed, 
our a, b seem to be a reminiscence) : karambhd osadhe bhava ptvo vrkkd nddrathik. 
The comm. explains the word as udriktdrtijanakam (Sayana to RV. entirely differently). 
Lin a supplementary note, Roth reports : Ppp. has pivassdkam; R. has, p.m., pibaspd-y 
corrected to pibasphd- \ T. has plvaspd'.\ LCorrect the verse-number : for 6 read 3. J 
•[^Or is nirapa^ at p. 220M, a variant of tiriya f The two are easily confused in 

4. Away we make thine intoxication fly, like an arrow ((urd), O 
intoxicating one (f.) ; we make thee with our spell {vdcas) to stand forth, 
like a boiling pot. 

The comm. (with a pair of SPP's mss.) reads (arum in b*; it also (alone) has 
jesantam {= prayafamdnam) in c; one of our mss. (Op.), with two or tjiree of SPP*s, 
give instead pisantam, Ppp. has a peculiar c : pari tvd varmi ve^antam. The verse 
is regular if we make the ordinary abbreviation of iva to ^va in b and c *[^The 
reciters K and V gave qarikm: comm. renders as if fdrum 'arrow.' UK. render the 


verb in d by * wc{;stcllen.* When you set the pot aside (take it off the fire), it stops 
boiling ; and so the |>otson is to stop worlcing. Uut see also Weber's note. J 

5. With a spell wc cause to stand about [thcc] as it were a collected 

tnmp {i;^n1ffiit) ; stand thou, like a tree in [its] station ; spade-dug one (f.), 

thou rackcst not. 

l*hc comm., here and in 6 d, reads ahhrtstltf {-sHU = -/aMAr), which looks like a 
result of the common confusion of JtA and j. SI* P. reads in ^aifa-icxX rArupak^ and 
this time witiiout any report as to the readings of his/<t«/ei-mss. — doubtless by an o%*er- 
si;;ht, as all but one of them give rur- in l>oth 3 d and 6 d. The true scanning of C is 
probably vrks^ *vti sthi-mn-i. 

6. Tor covers (? paviis(a) they bought thee, also for garments (? dfir^d\ 

for goat-skins; purchasable {} prakri) art thou, O herb; spade-dug one, 

thou rackcst not. 

The cnmm. knows nothing of wliat paxuisUi and dttr^a mean, but etymdogites the 
former out of pava9ta and asta {^pavanAyA ^stikih sammArjanllrnAik)^ and the other 
out of iius and r^ya {tiustai^yasapftbatuihibhih) ! Piakrls he renders by prdkmrsema 

7. Who of you did what first unattained deeds — let them not harm 

our heroes here ; for that purpose I put you forward. 

This verse cKCurs again later, as v. 6. 2, and in Tpp. makes a part of that hymn alone. 
Its sense is very questionable, and its connection casts no light u|>on it, either here or 
there ; and (;rill is justified in omitting it as having apparently nothing to do with the 
rest of this hymn. All tlic /<if/<i-mss. save one of SI*r*s read dnaptA (not -/^A) ; and 
all save our Hp. read praiham,ih (Hp. -mi ) ; SI*P. gives in his pada-Xtxt -idk and 'mik ; 
the translation here given implies -A) and •///</, without intending to imply that the other 
readings may not t>e equally good; the comm. takes dmitptdk { = ammmmkildk 
|_* unkindly *J) as qualifying fa/ravas understood, and praikami as qualifying kdrmdmi, 

8. Accompanying the consecration of a king. 

[Atkttrxtiff^iras. — rd;y*1hhisfkvam, ttinJramasam^ JIfyam. JImmihihkam : 
/, 7. hkunktriMtuhk ; j. trtstubk ; j. vtrdffrasMrafamkit.] 

Found in TAipp. iv. (in the versr-ordcr 1-3, 7, 4-^>). For occurrences in other texts, 
see under the verses. Used by Kriu<;. (17. 1 ff.), and also in Vikit (36. 7) in connection 
with the nljiWiisrka or rdjastiya ceremony; and VAit. (39. 12) further employs vs. 5 hi 
the a/^fiicayana, with |M)uring of water arouml the erected altar. 

TransLitetl : Ludwig, p. 4 58 ; Zimmer, p. 213 ; Wcl)er, Ueber dtn RAjasikyn^ Birtintr 
Abh.^ 1893* p- 139 (^vith full discussion) ; C^ritruh, i. 139; Bloomfield, ill, 378; Weber, 
xviii. 30. 

I. The bcin*; (bhuUi) sets milk in beings; he has become the over- 
lord of beings; Death attends (car) the royal consecration (rAjastkya) of 
him ; let him, as king, approve this royalty. 

The meaning is o)>scure. Very poMibly bhiilA is taken here in more than one of its 
senses, by a kind of play u|>on the word. \VelH*r renders it the first time by ** powerful ** 
{krafti^)^ neatly as the comm., whose gloss is tamrddkak ; the latter gives It the same 


sense the second time, but the third time simply prdnindm. The introduction of 
"death" in the second half-verse suggests the interpretation (R.) that the deceased 
predecessor of the prince now to be consecrated is besought to g^ve his sanction to the 
ceremony from the world of the departed (Mw/<i). The comm. regards death as 
brought in in the character of dharmarUja^ as he who requites good and evil deeds. 
T13. (in ii. 7. 15*) is the only other text that has this verse, reading in « carati prdvistah 
{{ox p Ay a a dadhdti)7ixvA in c mrtydu : the variants are of a character to make us dis- 
trust tiie value of the matter as admitting any consistent interpretation. Ppp. reads in 
C sa te for tdsya, 

2. Go forward unto [it]; do not long (> ven) away, a stern (ugrd) 

corrector {ccttdr)^ rival-slayer ; approach (a-sthd)^ O increascr of friends ; 

may the gods bless (adhi-brn) thee. 

Found, with vs. 3, in TI3. (in ii. 7. 8'), and also, with the remainder of the hymn, in K. 
(xxxvii. 9). Lit seems to be a reminiscence of the Indra-verse, RV. v. 31. 2, applied, like 
vs. 3 of this hymn, to the king. J TB. reads in a (for ma *pa venas) 7'frdytts7'a, and 
Ppp. has vidayasva ; TB. gives, as also the comm., the nom. mitravdrdhanas (a later 
repetition of the verse, in ii. 7. i6s presents vrtrahdniamas instead) ; and it ends with 
bravan* which is better, and might have been read in our text, as near half the mss. 
give it ; but SPP. also accepts bruvan^ with the comm. The comm. takes the ** throne " 
as object of- the first verb, and renders ma *pa venas by apakdmam anicchdm md 
kdrsih [^cf. vivcn in BR. J. (Weber renders ven by "see.") •[^But the Poona ed., 
p. 716, has bruvan.\ 

3. Him approaching all waited upon {pari-bhus) ; clothing himself in 

fortune, he goes about {car)^ having own brightness ; great is that name of 

the virile (vrsan) Asura ; having all forms, he approached immortal things. 

This is a RV. verse (iii. 38. 4 : repeated without variant as VS. xxxiii. 22), transferred 
from Indra to the king; RV. reads, as does Ppp., frfyas in b. TB. (as above) has 
svdrocds at end of b, and asyd for vfsnas in c. At the beginning of c, the comm. has 
mahas (but explains it 2& — maha() iad visno^ and a couple of SPP's mss. support 
him. He renders pdri abhusan either alamkurvantu or sevantdm: that the form is 
imperative is the pK)int he is sure of; and as alternative value of asuriuya he gives 
(^atrutidth nirasiiuh I \\% not dsurasya nama a simple periphrasis of tfj//ry<J//i, * the 
divinity ' that " doth hedge a king," in which gods are said to clothe themselves at 
RV. iii. 38. 7 ? Nama might then be construed with vdsdnas^ or else as above. J 

4. A tiger, upon the tiger's [skin], do thou stride out unto the great 

quarters ; let all the people (i^i^as) want thee, the waters of heaven, rich 

in milk. 

That is, let the rains not de.scrt thee (so the comm. also). This verse and the two 
following arc found, in the same order, in TB. ii. 7. iS^^* ; it puts ddhi after vdiyydghri 
(sf() in a, reads frayasva in b, and has for d ma tvdd rdstrdm ddhi bhra^at (found 
below as vi. 87. i d, and in other texts: see under that verse). Ppp. gives yanti \ox 
ydnii? \ instead of vafichaniu in c. 

5. The waters of heaven that revel with milk, in the atmosphere or 
also on the earth — with the splendor of all those waters do I pour upon 
{ab/ii-sic) thee. 


Tlie vcrnion of the first half-vcrsc given by I'H. is quite different : yd iiitytl i^k 
filytisil sttml*iihhiivuh : yi aniArikse utA piriktvlr yih ; and l*pp. so far agrees as to 
have uttt pArthh'S \tlh ; Tli. also reads fMni for apitn in c. 'I he comm. renders 
tnatitinti as if causative : ptAninas tarpayand. 'I he abkiitka process, instead of an 
anointing with oil, is a pouring of water u|)on the persf>n to be consecrated. The 
verse ( 1 1 + 10 : 8 { S = 37) lai ks three syllables of I)eing complete, rather than two. |^l*ut 
another t'ff J at the beginning of b ami the verse is orderly, 1 1 -f- 1 1 : 8 +8. J 

[^Perhaps ////ir/ here approaclics its physical meaning, * lioil <cf. (^'H. hi. 4. 3 end, and 
my KetuU'f\ p. 211), bubble over, overflow * ; used of the rains that *drip alHindantly 
with * pAytis or life-giving moiNture. \V*s prior draft rendered nuui by ** intoxicate ** ; 
over this he interlined "revel.** — This, says \Vcl>er, is the verse of the act of conse- 
cration pro|>er. 'I'he celebrant transfers to the king the vArtas or glory-giving vigor 
of the waters of all three worlds. J 

6. The heavenly waters, rich in milk, have poured ui)on thcc with 
splendor ; that thou be an increaser of friends, so shall Savitar make thee. 

!nstca<l of our auOnift, SIM', gives, as the re.iding of all his authorities, asuam^ 
which is decidedly preferable, and implied in the transLition (our lip. is doubtful; other 
mss. {Missibly overlooked at this |>oint) : TH. has instead a%uam ; \*\*[*. anrl the comm, 
airjan. Then, for b, Til. and I'pp g'^'*' lifiyfHti pAymA (l'pp-/'*y-) tttkA ; and in C 
Til. has rAs/fii7>Afi/A', which is bettrr, and before it yAthAsA (regarded by itt com- 
mentary as vAf/iA : ilstt). 

7. Thus, emhracinj; the li^t r, they incite (///) the lion unto great 
gootl-f«)rtune ; as the wellbein;; ones (snMn) the ocean that stands, do 
they rub thorouj;hly down the leopard amiil the waters. 

Found also in TH. (ii. 7 i^>') and MS. (ii. i.<) : brsid'^s K.). In b, MS. has mrjamii 
for hinvanii^ and iihAuAya (which rectifies the meter) for sAiihhai^Aytt. For C, MS. has 
a much less unmanageable version, ftttthisAm nnh suhMi'Am, and Ppp. supports it by 
giving mnhistiM nas luhhavas: thus, in each pada the king is compare<i to a different 
|H>werful animal - which is the leading motive of the verse. Hut TH. differs from our 
text only by giving suhAvam • for subhuvti%. SubhvAvn^ with a further slight emendation 
of sttfuutirAm to-«/// would give a greatly improved sense : ** him who stands comfortable 
in the oiean, as it were,*' or Inrars himself well un<ler the water |)oured upon him. The samwOAm fiA mbhrAh (Kcurs also at \K\*. i. 53.4 b (and its occurrence here in 
such form may be a reminiscent e of that); Sityana there understands i»Mt'<}/ of the 
".streams *' that fill the ocean ; nn<l our comm. gives a corres|M)nding interpretation here 
(//#!«/// ///J Apti/t); sitmtiiitAin he allows us alternatively to take as -- varmnam. lie 
also, moNt unqrammaticilly, l.ikrs tni .it the beginning as etiAt •• those [waters].'* Ppp. 
further Ins /.I// mrjyauif for pftiittn- in d. •LPoona ed . p. 750, reads sukuiam,^ 

9. For protection etc. : with a certain ointment. 

Inuiul mostly in I'Aipp. viii. (in the \erM* <uf!i r c), 3, 2, 5, T), S. 10. 4.7). I'sed by KAu^. 
( ;S S) with the tiindiii*; on of an <»inlmrnt amulet, in a ceremony for long life of the 
Vedii ptipil .ifter his initi.ition. Anr' the i omin. r]ui»tes it from the N.iks. K. (19) |_^ 
fur <, .iiili, s.i\s \\\ J. .Ts employed in tli«* ma/iA^Anti ( alh'«l AirAiutff, 


Translated: Ludwig, p. 507; Grill, 35, 123; Griffith, i. 141 ; Bloomfield, 61, 381; 
Weber, xviii.32. — As for ointment and ointment-legends, see Bloomfield, AJP. xvii. 
404 fl. 

1 . Come thou, rescuing the living one ; of the mountain art thou for 
the eyes {?), given by all the gods, an enclosure {paridhi) in order to 

Jlvdm in a might also be coordinate with trayamUnam ; the comm. understands it 
as translated. The meter indicates that the true reading at the end of b is dksyam^ and 
this is read by SPP., with the alleged support of all his authorities save one, which 
follows the comm. in giving dksam ; our Bp. has dksam^ and our edition accepted that 
(our Op. aJtsydf/ij our I. dksydm)\ but aksya is unknown elsewhere, and its meaning 
in this connection is quite obscure ; perhaps allusion is intended to a legend reported in 
MS. iii.6. 3 (p. 62. 8 ; cf. also TS. vi. I.i5 and QB. iii. 1.3. 12): ** Indra verily slew 
Vrtra ; his eye-ball flew away ; it went to Trikakubh ; that ointment of Trikakubh he 
spreads on." The ointment of this mountain is most efficacious for the eyes, and hence 
also for the other purposes here had in view. The comm. gives caksns as the value of 
his aksam. Grill suggests emendation to aksayyam or aksaram. We have to make 
the harsh resolution vi-^u-e- in c or leave the pada defective. 

2. Protection {paripdna) of men (ptinisa), protection of kine art 

thou ; in order to the protection of coursing {drvant) horses hast thou 


The comm. says in c "of horses and of mares (yaifavdndm)^ The resolution 
dr-va-ta-dni fills up c quite unsatisfactorily ; the Anukr. refuses all resolution, and counts 
the pada as of 6 syllables. 

3. Both art thou a protection, grinder-up of familiar demons (yd/ii), 

O ointment, and of what is immortal thou knowest ; likewise art thou 

gratification {^-bhSjana) of the living, likewise remedy of jaundice 


Contrary to rule, the a of asi in d has to be elided after dtho in d ; probably emenda- 
tion to dthd *si is called for ; one of our mss. (O.) reads dtho 'si. Ppp. rectifies the 
meter of a by giving ftU *vd *st/ for c, d it has n/d ^mrtatvesye **^isa utd *sas piirbho- 
janam. The comm. takes amrtasya as the drink of immortality, and -bhojana as 
either attisianivartanena pdlaka or bhogasddhana. The last pada hardly belongs with 
the rest. 

4. Of whomsoever, O ointment, thou creepest over limb after limb, 
joint after joint, from thence thou drivest away \\i^ ydksma^ like a formi- 
dable mid-1 icr {inadhyama^i). 

Found also as RV. x. 97. 12 (repeated, without variant, as VS. xii. 86), which version, 
however, begins ^\\X\ ydsydu *sadhfh prasdrfiaiha^ and has in c correspondingly bddha- 
dhve. The comm. has in c bddhate^ but regards it as for bddhase, Ppp. reads lasmdt 
for tatas. Matihyama^t is of obscure meaning; "arbiter," as conjecturiJd by BR., 
seems very implausible ^BR. express their conjectural meaning by the Latin word 
intercessor ; by which, I suspect, they intend, not * mediator,' but rather * adversary ' or 
* preventer ' of the disease, which would be plausible enoughj ; more probably " mid- 



most man/* like madhyaptifsiki or chief (see under iii. 8. 2), and madky^ma^t med 
especially of the leader al>out whom his men encamp, for hb greater safety, ia the 
ni^hl. )\\. has utadhyama^hutn at ii. 408, but the passage is too corrupt to cast valu- 
able li^ht upon the word. To the comm., it is eitlter Vayu, the wind in mid-air, or else 
^ the king, viewed as surrounrled first by foes, and further by their foes, his friends (on 
ff^yAi ^CSJi^^ |T2> the principle of arir mitram nrer ; mitram^ | miirn-mitram ntah faram etc. I find 

thg_y crse at KAmandaj ^ijjiJ>j iti&.U.-i. viiLi jl . 1 o judge from the l^ter Syriac Venioo 
(Kalilah and T)imnah, Keith-Falconer, p. 114), one would expect to find it in TaAca- 
tantra ii., colloiiuy of mous<? and crow, in Kosegarten*s ed., p. 110 or thereabouts. CI. 
Manu vii. 158 and the comm. J 

5. Curse attains him not, nor witchcraft, nor scorching; x^Ukandha 
reaches him not who bearcth thcc, O ointment. 

I*pp. reads tarn for enam in a. and niskandkam in c |_It inserts just before our 
vs. 7 the vs. given under vi. 76. 4 an<l ending with/rtJ /rJmr btbkarty dfljama.j 

6. From wrong spell, from evil dreaming, from evil deed, from pollu- 
tion also, from the terrible eye of an enemy — therefrom protect us, 


Tpp. has, for b, ksfttiyAc ckapathAd uta. The Pet. Lexx. understand asammanird 
as simply ** untrue s|>eech** (so C^rill, ** Liigenrede**) ; the comm. reads instead -mtryAt^ as 
adjective qualifying dusvapnyAt^ and signifying ** produced by base bewitching spells.** 
Diirktirdas in c niiglit well be adj., • hostile * (so comm.). 

7. Knowing this, O ointment, I shall S|>eak truth, not falsehood; may 

1 win {sati) a horse, a cow, thy soul, O man {fiimsit). 

The latter half-verse is KV. x. 97. 4 c, d (which is also, without variant, VS. xii. 78 c, d), 
where we read vdsas instead of a/uhfi ; Tpp., too, gives t*djas. All the mss. and the 
comm. have at tlie end the absurd lotm purusas (nom., but without accent) ; tlie comm. 
(whose text, as SIM*. |M>iiits out in more than one place, is uuaccentuated) undcrstanda 
*' 1, thy man (retainer).** Koth editions make the necessary emendation to purusa 
\s. purusii\. I*pp- gives pAurusa. Sl*l\ makes a note that jfXiv/^-dMr is so accented by 
all his authoiities — as if anything else were possible |^does he have in mind sdmeyamt 
see Whitney, Roots^ p. 1S3J. The first p^da is defective unless we resolve vi-dm-im \or 
dutfljaniij, — I^K 8 supplementary re|>ort of Tpp. readings ends a with A^janms and baa 
for d Aiijana tamva pAurusak. As noted above, this vs. stands at the end in Fpp. and 
before it is inserted the vs. given under vi. 76. 4. J 

8. Three are the slaves {ddsd) of the ointment — fever {takmdn)^ baldsa^ 
then snake: the highest of mountains, three-peaked (/nkaJtr^d) by name, 
[is] thy father. 

For the obscure balAsa, the comm. gives the worthless etymology balam atyati^ and 
adds iamnipAtAdik 'collision [of humors] or the like*; ** snake** he explains as for 
snake-poisoning ; |H*rhaps, if the reading is genuine, it is rather the name of tone 
(constricting.') disease. 

9. The ointment that is of the three-peaked [mountain], born from 
the snowy one (/limdvant) — may it grind up all the familiar demons and 
all the sorceresses. 


Pada b is repeated below as v. 4. 2 b. The first half-verse is, without variant, TA. 
vi. 10. 2, vs. 9 a, b; and it occurs also in HGS. (i. 11. 5), which reads upari at the end 
ioT pari Land so at MP. ii. 8. 1 1 a, bj. The second half is VS. xvi. 5 c, d, and also found 
in TS. iv. 5. i 2 and MS. ii. 9. 2 ; all these have dhln instead of yainuy and xt,?A jambhd- 
yan (pres. pple.) ; and omx jambhdyat may, of course, be pres. pple. neut. ; some of the 
mss. (including our Bp.M.I.) indeed read -yan here, though no masc. subject is implied ; 
the comm. paraphrases with tta^ayad vartate. SPP., with his customary defiance of 
grammar upon this point, reads sdrvan instead of -an or -dn \Q.i. i. 19.4, note J. 

10. If thou art of the three-peaked [mountain], or if thou art called 
of the Yamuna — both thy names are excellent; by them protect us, O 

Te in c might perhaps be emended with advantage to ti. The Yamuna is not else- 
where mentioned in AV. Namnt is to be read, of course, as of three syllables, and 
there is no reason why the text should not give us uamanu 

10. Against evils : with a pearl-shell amulet. 

\^Atharvan. — faiikhamanisuktam. (adddivatam. dnustubham : 6. pathydpafikti ; 

7' 5~P' Pi^fdnustup faJlrvart.^ 

Found (except vs. 5) in Paipp. iv. Used by Kau^. (58. 9) in the same ceremony with 
the preceding hymn, but with an amulet of mother-of-pearl ; the schol. (not the comm.) add it in an earlier part of the ceremony (56. 17). The comm. quotes it further 
from Naks. K. (19), as employed in a tnahd^dnii named vdruni. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 462 ; Grill, 36, 124 ; Griffith, i. 142 ; Bloomficld, 62, 383 ; 
Weber, xviii.36. — Bloomfield cites an article in ZDMG. (xxxvi. 135) by Pischel, who, 
in turn, cites a lot of interesting literature about pearl. ^ 

LAlthough rain-drops are not expressly mentioned in this hymn nor in xix. 30. 5 Jp///c(^^^^^^^ 
(which see), I think it safe to say that the bit of Hindu folk-lore about the origin of in/i^*^//*' ^^ 
pearls by transformation of rain-drops falling into the sea {Indische Spriiche^ 344) is as 
old as this Vedic text and the one in xix. The references here to sky and sea and 
lightning, and in xix. to Parjanya and thunder and sea, all harmonize perfectly with that 
belief, which is at least ten centuries old (it occurs in Raja^ekhara, 900 A.D.) and has 
lasted till today (Manwaring's Mardihl Proverbs^ no. 1291). See my translation of 
Karpura-vtaujarly p. 264 f., and note 5. Pischel, I.e., reports as follows: "According 
to Aelian {irtpX f<^wi', x. 13), a pearl forms when the lightning flashes into an open sea- 
shell ; according to an Arabic writer, when rain-drops fall into it, or, according to Pliny 
(ix. 107), dew." — The persistency of popular beliefs in India is well illustrated by the 
curious one concerning female snakes : see my note to Karpura-mafijarl^ p. 231. J 

1. Born from the wind out of the atmosphere, out from the light of 

hghtning, let this gold-born shell, of pearl, protect us from distress. 

Of course, all the four nouns in the first half-verse may be coordinate ablatives. 
The beauty and sheen of the material connect it traceably with gold and lightning, but 
how even a Hindu rsi can bring it into relation with wind from (or and) the atmosphere 
is not easy to see. Kf^aua ought to mean the pearl itself, and is perhaps used in the 
hymn apposilively = "which is itself virtually pearl"; the comm. explains it in this 
verse as kar^ayiid ^airundth (annkarld. Ppp. has in c hiranyadds. 

2. Thou that wast born from the top of the shining spaces (locand)^ 


out of the ocean — by the shell having slain the demons, wc overjwwcr 

the (ievoiirers. 

rp|». ifunhiiirs in a yi^ \'ni/fl f -. ('frill t.ikc» ttji^ratas as •• firM "; and the comm. as 
— itj^ff^ and not c|iialif)inf; jtijfine : "at the top or front of sliinin;; tliin;^s. sueh as start.** 

3. Hy the shell [we ovet power] di.sease. misery; by the shell also the 

Sixdiinvtis; let the alMi(*:ilin[; shell, of pearl, protect us from distress. 

|*pp. has in a avatiyam instead of Atntitim. The comm. takes Amatim from root 
man L^ce HK\s note, s.v. 3 Amati \\ •• ii;norance, the root of all mishap (auat/Aa)**; 
ami, foi^ettinf; his explanation of only two verses ago, he this time declares tr^aita a 
"name of K*)ld." 

4. H<irn in the sky. ocean-born, brought hither out of the river, this 

goUl-born shell [is] for us a life-prolon^^ing amulet. 

rpl>- has stimtitfntfits at cn<l of a. and in c a^ain (as in 1 c) hiranyatiAt, Nearly all 
our niss. (cxirpl O.K ), and some of sri*'s, with the comm., read in d Ayuhpr- |_cf. TrAt. 
ii. 62 n.J; hut the point is one in rr^aid to whi( h each ms. is wont to follow its own course* 
reRardli-ss of luk-, and both editions very properly K*^"<^ Ayttspr-, as rec|uired hy the I'rAt- 

5. The amulet born from the ocean, born from Vrtra, making day — 
let it protect us on all sides from the missile of gods and Asuras. 

The comm. makes Vrtra here signify either the demon Vitra or the cloud ; doululess 
the latter is intended; then he explains tiivAkara as the sun, and jAta as "released,** 
and renders "as hiilliant .xs th'* sun freed from the ch>ud.s/* which is extremely artificial ; 
tiivAkara need mean no nxire than * Hashinf^ with li^ht.* The comm. also fiwlishly 
understatuls in d hftyA instead of As (p. hetyah). L/V:'-, ablative l»y attraction, from 
gen. — cf. Skt. Cram. S9*^- •'^ J 1 lie first p.ida is deficient tiy a sellable, unless we 
resolve Sittnudtit tntolour syllables, fl^ft^^ ^^ ^ J^ 

6. One of the gidds art thou; out of soma wast thou l>orn ; thou art 
conspicuous on the chariot, lustrous {racitmi) on the quiver thou. May it 
prolong our lives ! 

The last pada, which occurs in four other places (ii. 4.6 etc.), looks like a late addi- 
tion here; as elsewhere, .some of the mss. (five of SPP's) read tArsai. Kscept ow 
Op., all the /fitf/ blunderingly resolve sAmAlvAm (as it would l>e |>crmissil)ly and 
customarily read by abbreviation: see Whitney, Skt. Gr, {232) into sAmA : it-Am 
instead of nhnAi : t'-Apn ; the comm. understands sAmAf, and l>oth erlitions give the ftdl 
reading. Here one is strongly tempted to transhite j«vvif by "m^mn,** and the comm. 
takes it so {anif tdmayAt somttf/tan,fttlAt) ; but I'pp. discourages it by reading sa k^sJUi 
(for -wi?*/ ') «!#/// 1. The comm. glovses rot ana by faamAna dipyamAna. Kor c, l*pp. 
has fatftfsti da f^ a/aw. 

/. The gods* bone became pearl ; that goes abotit within the waters 
|M)ssessing soul ; that do I bind on thee in order to life-time, splendor, 
stungth. to length of life for a hundred autinnns : let [the amulet] of 
pc.ul (K-fend thee. 

h'ananA% in e, thmigh read bv all our mss. and nearly all of SPI'*s, is hardW to be 
tolerated ; we should have either kf\anas^ as alntve, or kAr^anas, which the comm. 


offers, with two or three mss. that follow him, and which SPP. accordingly adopts 
[^kdr^amisj; our edition gives kar(-\ Ppp. has kdrsinas. Ppp. also has simply ca for 
our whole d (after baldya). The comm. reads asti instead of asthi in a. The verse 
(i I + 1 1 : 14+ 1 1 +8 = 55) lacks a syllable of being a full ^akvarl. LReject either dyuse 
or varcase and the meter is good. — In c, te *for thee* (comm., as gen.), is, I suppose, 
virtually = * on thee.' J • 

The second anuvdkay ending with this hymn, contains 5 hymns and 39 verses ; the 
Anukr. quotation is nava ca, 

II. In praise of the draft-ox. 

\Bhrgvangiras. — dvSda^arcam. dnadnham. trdisiubham : it4.jagait; 1. bhurij ; y. j-av. 
6-p. anustubgarbho ^paristdjjdgatd nicx'cchakvarl ; 8-11, oNUstubA.] 

Found in Piiipp. iii. (in the verse-order 1,4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 11, 12, 9, 8, 10, 7). Used by 
Kau^. (66.12) in a sava sacrifice, with the draft-ox as sava. The hymn offers an 
example of that characteristic Hindu extollation, without any measure or limit, of the 
immediate object of reverence, which, when applied to a divinity, has led to the setting 
up of the biiseless doctrine of ** henotheism.** 

Translated : Muir, OST. v. 399, 361 (about half); Ludwig, pp. 534 and 190 ; Deussen, 
GescAic/i/e^ \. 1 . 2^2 'y Griffith, i. 144; Weber, xviii.39. — Cf. Deussen, I.e., p. 230 f. 
Weber entitles the hymn " Verschenkung eines Pflugstieres zur Feier der Zwolften (i.e. 
nights of the winter solstice — see vs. 1 1)." 

1. The draft-ox sustains earth and sky; the draft-ox sustains the 
wide atmosphere ; the draft-ox sustains the six wide directions ; the 
draft-ox hath entered into all existence. 

That is, the ox in his capacity of draft-animal : the comm. says, ^akafavahanasa- 
vtartho vrsabhah ; later in the hymn he is treated as female, without change of the name 
to a feminine form (the fern, -duht or -dvdhl does not occur before the Brahmana- 
period of the language). But the comm. 4IS0 allows us the alternative of regarding 
dharma^ in ox-form, as subject of the hymn. The " directions " {pradi^) are, accord- 
ing to him, " east etc.*' ; and the " six wide " are *• heaven, earth, day, night, waters, and 
plants," for which AQS. i. 2. i is quoted as authority. With the verse compare x. 7. 35, 
where nearly the same things are said of skambha, Ppp. reads in a -vim dydm utd 
^tntlm. In the second half-verse, two accent-marks have slipped out of place in our 
edition: in c, that under sa should stand under dti; and, in d, that under md should 
stand under na. The verse is ja^atl hy count, but not by rhythm. LIf, with Weber, 
we pronounce ttadvan^ it becomes a regular tristubh.\ 

2. The draft-ox [is] Indra ; he looks out from (for.^) the cattle; triple 

ways the mighty one (fakrd) measures out (traverses.^); yielding (r/////) 

the past (Jbhiltd), the future, existing things (d/itivafia), he goes upon 

(car) all the courses {vratd) of the gods. 

Ppp. reads in a indrasya for indrah sa, and in c it adds sam before bhiitam, and 
has bhuvanai'n instead of -ud. The comm. has in b the curious reading stiydn for 
trayan, and hence we lose his guess as to what may be meant by the V triple ways." 
He takes pa^ubhyas in a first as dative, and then as ablative. He understands bhuvattd 
as virtually '* present " ; more probably it has its usual sense of * existences,' and the two 
preceding adjectives qualify it distributively, or are in apposition with it: *<all existing 


iv. II- BOOK IV. THi: ATHARVA-VKDA-SAttlllTA. 164 

tliiiiKi^, lK)th what t% and what is to Itc.** |^If we pronounce a^n matMlm, the %-s. loict 
its fi/iNfiJ quality. The cadence of b is bad. J 

3. Hum an Indra amon;; human beings (fnanusyd), he goes about (lar) 
shining brightly, a heated hot-drtnk (^/tarfnd)\ hc» being one of good 
offspring, shall not go in mist {htdtini) who, understanding [it], shall 
not partake of {a^) the draft-ox. 

The verse is ol>scuret and the translation in vatious points very doubtful. I'lie 
second pada is apparently a In-ginning of the identification of the ox with \\\t jj^harma^ 
a s.i(riri(ial draught of heated milk, which we find further in vss. 5. 6; he is, since his 
kind yichl warm milk, as it were an incor|K)ration of that sacrifice. And the McomI 
half-vcrsc is then a promise to whoever sh.ill abstain from using the ox as food. I'pp. 
reads esa instead of yVlAu in a, and sam^i^tlHas at end of b. In c, d the comm. reads 
sam for san^ nd Cire as two word.s, and no * ^nlyHt^ and of course makes very bad work 
of its explanation, finding; meteni|>sychosis in sam . . . sarsai (na samsarati pumak 
samsAradharffiAn na pfApnoti). Ghat ma he takes first as ** bl axing sun,** and then. 
alternatively, in its true sense. There Ls no other occurrence of an j-aorist from $r \ 
and it is altogether against rule and usage to employ a subjunctive and an optative 
(a^nlvil/) in two coordinate clauses |^this seems to me to t>c a slip — sec SJbi, Gram, 
S 575 b ; and the clauses are hardly coordinate J ; so that the reading is very tuipickna. 
A few of our mss. (P.M.W.IC.) read ml after Mddf/. [^Ludwig conjectures suprmyis 
for •jis.\ 

4. The draftox yields milk (duh) in the world of the well-done ; the 
purifying one fdls him up from in front ; Parjanya [is] his streams, the 
Maruts his tidder, the sacrifice his milk, the sacrificial gift the milking 
of him. 

Tpp. ap|>ears to have rrad in b pyAyet^ which would rectify the meter ; in c it com- 
bines maruto *\iho. PAvamAna in b might signify the win<l (then purAstAt * f rom the 
east *.^) or soma ; the comm. takes it as the latter (pavitrena {iHikyamAH0* mrtnmayak 
somah) ; and "the sacrifice" in d as "the sa^'a sacrifice now }>erftHmed.** The verse 
is rhythmically a trisiuhh with re<lundant syllables (ii-fi3: I2fii =47). |^On daksimA^ 
sec lUoomfield, A J I*, xvii. 40K f.J 

5. Of whom the h)rd of the sacrifice is not master (If), nor the sacri* 

fice; not the giver is master of him, nor the acceptor; who is all-con* 

qucring, all-bearing, all-working — tell ye us the hot-drink which [is] 


" Which *' in d is vafamA, lit. • which among the many.' The intended answer, of 
course, is that this wondrous .sacrificial drink is the ox. I*pp. begins c with /^ vip^i^x 
vi^vakfd V', The comm. declares the first half-verse to convey the universal master- 
hoot! and not-to)>e-mas(ered-hoo<I of the ox; m ^ j^karma is, according to him, "the 
bla/ing sun, which the four-footed one tells us'* {bruia is read, but declared equivalent 
to hutf.'). 

6. Hy whom the gmls ascended to heaven {svar)^ quitting the body^ 
to the navel of the immortal, by him may we go to the world of the well- 
done, desiring glory, by the vow (vratd) of the hot-drink, by penance. 


Ppp. appears to have read in a su7fd ruhanta; in b it has dhikma instead of uabhiin; 
and it ends d with yaqasd tafiasvyd. The comm. has jesma ( —jayemii) in c [^instead 
oi gesma (Ski. Gram. § 894 c)J; gharma is to him once more "the blazing sun.** 
LAs to the stock-phrase in c, cf. Bloomfield, AJP. xvii. 419.J The verse (lo-f 11 : 
104-13 = 44) is a very poor tristubh. 

7. Indra by form, Agni by carrying {vd/ia), Prajapati, Paranicshthin, 

Viraj ; in Vi^vanara he strode, in Vai^vanara he strode, in the draft-ox 

he strode ; he made firm, he sustained. 

This is the obscurest verse of this obscure hymn, and no attempt will be nLide to 
solve its riddles. Ppp. has a quite different text : indro baUnd *sya paratfwsthf vra- 
tenai *tta gtlus (ena vdi^vadevdh : yo *smdft dvesti yam ca vayam di'tsmas tasya 
ftnlNdn asavahes tasya prdndn vi varhah. The two concluding clauses of our text 
most obviously belong with vs. 7 rather than vs. 8, and both editions so class them ; 
but SP1\ states that all his authorities reckon them to vs. 8, ending vs. 7 with the 
third akraniaia (which some of the mss., including our P.M.W.E.O.Op., mutilate to 
akramal). He adds that the Anukr. does the same ; but this is evidently an oversight, 
our mss. of the Anukr. calling vs. 8 a simple anustubh (madhyam etad anaduha Hi 
fahcd *fius/ubltah) and giving of vs. 7 a lengthy definition (see above), implying the 
division 9+10 : 8 + 8 + 8 -.12 = 55 (restoring both times the elided initial <x in f ) ; perhaps, 
then, SPP. is also mistaken in regard to the unanimity of his "mss. and A'aidikas**; 
at any rate, part of our mss. (Bp.I.H.Op.K.) divide with the editions. The comm., 
however, does not ; as, indeed, he is repeatedly at discordance with the Anukr. on such 
points. He explains vd/ta in a as "the part that carries (vahaii) the yoke; the 
shoulder," and has nothing of any value to say as to the general sense of the verse. 
L'lhc identification of the draft-ox with Agni seems to rest on Agni's chief function of 
"carrying" ; cf. RV. x. 51. 5 d; 52. i d, 3 d, 4 a.J 

8. That is the middle of the draft-ox, where this carrying (vd/ui) is 

set; so much of him is in front {prdcina) as he is put all together on 

the opposite side. 

The virtual meaning of the second half-verse appe.irs plainly to be that the two 
parts of the ox, before and behind the point where the pull comes (i.e. where the yoke 
rests) arc equal ; but it is strangely expressed, and the reason why the point is insisted 
on does not appear. The comm. so understands it : e^'am prdkpratyagbhdgdv ubhdv 
api satndndu; he renders vaha this time by bhdra; Ludwig takes it as " the hump.** 
|_In this verse, b can hardly mean ** where the pull comes,*' but rather * where the burden 
is put,* i.e. the back; cf. Deussen, I.e., p. 231. Nevertheless, see BR. under vaha^ 2 a 
and 2 b.J 

9. Whoso knows the milkings of the draft -ox, seven, unfailing, both 
progeny and world he obtains : so the seven seers know. 

Ppp. reads anapadasyaias both here (b) and at 12 d; it also combines sap/ars- in d, 
as docs the comm., and a couple of SPP's authorities. For consistency, our text ought 
to combine in a-b ddhdnt s- ; SPP. also leaves out here the connecting /. The comm. 
explains the seven milkings or yields of milk alternatively as " the seven cultivated plants, 
rice etc." or "the seven worlds and oceans'* — not happening, apparently, to think of 
any other heptad at the moment. He quotes the names of the seven seers from A^va- 
layana. LThe number of this vs. is misprinted.J 

^^ to 

iv. II- BOOK IV. THK ATllARVA-VKDA-SAttlllTA. l66 

/lO. With his feet treading^ clown debility (snU), with his^-Unghs^ 
{jtiTtg/n}) extracting (ti/-l/tit/) refreshing drink -- with weariness go the 
draft-ox and the plowman unto sweet drink {kildia), 

I Tlie vrisc srcms rather out of place here. As l>otli n and m final are aftiimilated to 

^ an initial palatal, the /tf</<i*tcxt coinntitn the blunder in b of understanding frdtfk to be 

for ht}n ; and, as is usual in such cases, a part of our mss. read htlM j- (so P.M. W.K.I ) ; 
Srr. very properly emends his /<///<r text to inlm. The comni. reads in d klmA^asya 
for -^ii^ t,t (one of sri**s authorities following him : ** with the old accent,** SPI*. remarks, 
as if the change of reading; involved a chanf;e of accent), and n\Aken/^aiAa/us a genitive 
agreeing with it — against the accent ; but this he regularly ignores. ZrJ/M, it may be 
added, he glosses with bhumim ! 

11. Twelve, indeed, they declare those nights of the vow (x^rdtya) of 

Prajapati ; whoso knows the brdhman within them (tdtrd *pa) — that 

verily is the vow of the draft-ox. 

Or, " those twelve nights they declare to l>e for the vow ** etc. : it is uncertain what it 
object and what objective predicate in the sentence. I'pp- reads and combines vrSirM 
** hus pt- in b ; for the unusual phr.Lsc iaito *pit in c it f^ives lad t'«l */f / and in d it has 
bit lam instead of vratam. For Welier's conjectures as to the twelve nif;hts and the 
draft-ox of this hymn, see his Omitta und rorlenia^ p. 388 ; compare also [^Weber's 
other references, /////. Stud, xviii. 45, and J Zimmer, p. 3f»*». The comm. i^losftes vratya 
by x*ratArhtt^ and (|uotes TS. v. 6. 7' as to the twelve nights of consecration. 

12. He milks (//////) at evening, he milks in the morning, he milks 
abotit midday; the milkings of him that come together, those unfailing 
ones we know. 

rpp. has for a, b duhf tv? *9it\ti-,'i\n .\i\\am duhf pnltar dithf divt\^ and at the i-wl 
(as alK)vc noted) atittpadasyata^. The romm. supplies to duhf either anadvAham as 
object (with the wor.shi|>rr as subject), or anaiivHn as subject (with the performer of 
the sara sacrifice as beneficiar)) ; sam yanti he explains h\ phaUna sath^aahante. 

12. To heal serious wounds: with an herb. 

[ Rhk M. x^nasfatyam . tlnuttuhham : t. jf. x^tiitri ; 6. Jf. ytituimatfkyii hkurt/xdyatf i ; 

7. brAa/r] 

Found in l*Aipp. iv. (in the verse order 3-5, I, 2, 7, 6). Used by Klu^. (28. 5) in a 
healinf^ rite: Ke<;ava and the comm. a^rce in sayin<^, for the prevention of flow of 
blocnl caused by a blow from a sword or the like ; lN>iled /i)/r«rwater is to Ite poured on 
the wound etc. The S( hoi. tf> K.iuq. 28. 14 also ref^ard the hymn as included among 

I ii^^ *^*^ /^ll^ll/l/1^^1s piescrilK-d to Ik: used in that rule, 
l/r^l^ * I • '^ Translate<l : Kuhn, KZ. xiij,__^Sa_wjth_Cimiianic parajkla ; 

Ludwig, !>. 508; Grill, 18, 
125; (iriffitli, ri46 ; Hloom field, 10. 3S4 ; Weber, xviii. 46. — Cf. Ilillebrandt, Pledti- 
tAres/offtaf/ttr, p. 4S. 

I. Grower art thou, grower ; grower of severed bone; make this g^ow, 
O ariiNMii/i. 

Atun*f/t,it1, lit • non-obstructing.* appears to lie the name of a climbing plant having 
healing pro|>erties ; it is mentioned more than once elsewhere, and in v. 5 (vss 5 and o) 
along with Dly,} (vs. 7) • l.ic ' : and the comm. to the present hymn re |>eated!y declares 


iilksd to be tlie healing substance referred to in it; probably it is a product of the 
arundhatf. Ppp. has every time rohinl instead of rohanl^ and so the comm. also reads ; 
the manuscripts of Kaug., too, give rohinl in the pratika, as does the schol. under 28. 14. 
There is evident punning upon the name and the causative rohaya- * make grow ' ; perhaps 
the true reading of a is rdhany asi rohini * thou art a grower, O red one,' bringing in the 
color of the lac as part of the word-play ; the comm. assumes rohini^ voc., at end of a 
{he lohiiavarne Idkse). I*pp. further reads 0rnasya instead of chintiAsya ; and has, 
in place of our c, rohinydm arha dtli *si rohinyd *sy osadhe, making the verse an 
anusiubh. The comm. gives asnas for asthnas in b. 

2. What of thee is torn (r/f), what of thee is inflamed (^, dyut)^ is 

crushed (> fi(fs(ra) in thyself — may Dhatar excellently put that together 

again, joint with joint. 

Ppp. reads in a ffrffam for ristam; it reads td ^^tmanah in b ; and in c, d it has tat 
sarvam kalpaydt sam dadat. The comm. (with one of SPP's mss.) reads prestham 
{^■=^ priyatamam) for the obscure pistratn in b (found elsewhere only in vi. 37. 3 below, 
where the comm. has pestatn) ; the conjecture '* bone " of the Pet. Lex. .seems alto- 
gether unsatisfactory ; it is rendered above as if from pis. The comm. paraphrases 
dytittdm by dyotitam^ vedanayd prajvalitam iva^ which seems acceptable. 

/ 3. Let thy marrow come together with marrow, and thy joint together M^^j^^ZlI^ 

with joint ; together let what of thy flesh has fallen apart, together let ^t^*^^^^^ 

thy bone grow over. ^^ f^ 

Ppp. rectifies the meter of a by omitting /^•, and has for d L^^U samstrdvam asu 
parva te, A few of the mss. (including our H.O.Op.) give vi^rastam in c. The comm. 
reads f/i/// instead of sam in every pada. A couple of SPP's mss., by a substitution 
found also elsewhere [see ii. 12.7, note J, have manya for majjiii in a. The Anukr. 
ignores the redundant syllable in the first pada. 

4. Let marrow be put together with marrow ; let skin (cdrwan) grow 
(;-////) with skin; let thy blood, bone grow; let flesh grow with flesh. 

The third pada is translated as it stands |_cf. vs. 5 cj, but we can hardly avoid 
emending dsrk to asthna^ or else dsthi to astiiy to agree with the others ; the comm. 
I^as an altcrnativej fills it out to two parallel expressions, for both blood and bone. 
Ppp. has, for b-d : asthtid *sthi vi rohatu sndva te sam dadhmas sndvnd carmand 
car ma rohatu. 

5. Fit thou together hair with hair; fit together skin (tvdc) with skin; 
let thy blood, bone grow ; put together what is severed, O herb. 

The prolongation of the fmal vowel of a pada is so anomalous that we can hardly 
help regarding kalpayd in a as wrong, perhaps imitated from b; Ppp. avoids the diffi- 
culty by reading in a sam dhfyatdm. \Vox c, compare vs. 4. J Ppp, also has for d 
our 4 d. 

6. Do thou here stand up, go forth, run forth, a chariot well-whcclcd, 
wcll-tircd, wcll-naved ; stand firm upright. 

Ppp. is very different : /// tistha pre *hisamudhd hi te paruh: sam te dJidtd dadhdtu 
tan HO viristam rathasya cakra py upavaryathdir yathdi *ti sukhasya ndbhis prati 
tistha evam. The Anukr. scans the verse as 9+ 1 1 15 = 25 syllables. 

iv. 12- nooK IV. Tin: athakva-vkda-samhitA. i68 

7. If, falling into a pit, he hath been crushed (sttm-fr), or if a stone 
hurled (fra/if) hath smitten [him] — as a Rbhu the parts of a chariot* 
may it put t();;ether joint with joint. 

A niimlxT of tlu* n\%%. (iniluiliiif; our T.M.O.Op.) rend JtHr/um for kart4m \n a; 
the romm. explains kartam as meaning kafUtkam thfdtikam tkymiham^ and makes it 
ftuhjrct of sam\tM{9/ --• utmhinasti : lie Ukes thhus as one of tlie three Khhus (quotini; 
KV. i. 1 1 1 . I ), not ^ivini; the word any general sense. Ppp. a|;ain has an independent 
text : I'ifi// vtijto ^'/i/sftl s//nlmktl jAtu paliltH yatii I'J ta rislam : vfksAd vA yadi tJ 
vibhyasi ^ttsa fhhur iti sa evath lam iihtlmi U pafuh. The verse w a brkatl only l»jr 
numl>rr of .syllal>lcs (10 -I 10 :S t «^' 3^>). [^Ihe comin. makes the **Alharvanic spell'* 
the subject in d.J 

13. For healing. 

Found in Paipp. v. (in the vcrsrcmlcr 1, 5, 2 -4, 6, 7). Vss. 1-5. 7 are in RV. x. 137, 
and vs. 6 occurs elsewhere in KV. x. Only vss. 1 3 have representatives in Vajur- 
Veda texts. The hymn is called {amttinya in K.1u<;. (g. 4), in the list of the laji;hm{Jlmii 
gitna hymns; and our comm. to h4 (ounts it alM> to the hrhathAmti /^ana (readini; in 
Kftu<;. 9. I uia tfmls lox the ttui tra of the edited text), hut he makes no mention of it 
here ; he fuithcr dechircs it to Inrlon^ among the aiihoUrt^^i (for whi« h see KAu^. 32. 27, 
note); the schol., on the other hand, put it in the Hyiixyak^tina (54. 1 1, note). It is 
used (5<^. 3, II) in the cctrmonits for loni: life that follow the initiation of a Vedic 
student. In Vait. (3S. 1) it ap)>ears, with' ii. 33 and iii. ii etc., in a healin|; crretaony 
for a saciificcr [_see comm. J who falls ill. 

Tran.slaled: hy the KV. translators; and Aufiecht. Zl)M(f. xxiv. 203 ; Griffith, 
i. 147 ; Weber, xviii. 48. — Sec Lanman*s Rftuiet\ p. 390. 

1. Hoth, () ye f^ods, him that is put down, O ye gods, yc lead up 
again, and him that hath done evil {Agtxs)^ O ye gods, O ye gods, ye make 
to live again. 

Found without variant as KV. x. 137. 1, and also in MS. (iv. 14.2.) Hut l*pp. reads 
udtihantttl for tUt ftayathtl in b, and its second half- verse is htto manMsyam iafk dn-A 
devAs krtiHttt jlva.^e. The romm. explains avahtiam as dhtirvtafiutye jAvad^A/tam, 
apt'tiftiiittatn^ or alternatively, ara\thApitam ; supplying!: to it kufula^ and making; of b 
an inde|>endent sentence, with double interpretation ; and he says somethinj; in excuse 
of the four-fold repetition of the vocative. 

2. These two winds blow from the river as far as the distance; let 
the one blow hither dexterity for thee; let the other blow away what 
complaint (itipas) [thou hast]. 

Besides KV. (vs. 2). '\\\. (ii.4. i') and TA. (iv. 42. i, vs.^») have this verse. Iloth 
accent in c Ai.lfti, as d(M*s Sl'P's tf\t, and as ours ought to do, since all the mss. so 
read, and tlie a<< rnt is fully ju^tifird as an antithetical one : our text was altered to a|i;ree 
with the ii vAtti of KV.. which is hss observant of the antithetic.1l accent than AV., as 
lH>th alike are far less observant of it than the llr.^hmanas. All the three other tests 
have /il/vl for tY at lie^inninjj of d; and Tli.TA. pivc me instead of // in c. The 
secoml p.'ida is translated in attempted adaptation to the thiid and fourth ; of course* 



-IV. 14 

the two ablatives with a ivnight properly be rendered co6rdinately, and either * hither 
from * or * hence as far'tw ; the comm. takes both in the latter sense. 

3. Hither, O wind, blow healing; away, O wind, blow what complaint 

[there is] ; for thou, all-healing one, goest [as] messenger of the gods. 

Tli.TA. (as above) put this verse before the one that precedes it here and in RV. 
All the three read inc vt'fjM/tcsajaSy and Ppp. intends to agree with them {^bhcjnjo dc-). 
The comm. offers an alternative explanation of devd,ttiim in which it is understood as 
= ittdnyiltidm • the senses.' LVon Schroeder gives a, b, Tiibiiiger Katha-hss.^ p. 1 15. J 

4. Let the gods rescue this man, let the troops of Maruts rescue, let 

all beings rescue, that this man may be free from complaints. 

In RV., this verse and the following one change places. In a, RV. reads ihd for 
imdnty and in b the sing, trayatdm . . . ganAh. Ppp. ends b with maruto ganHihy and 
d with agado *sati. The first pada is defective unless we make a harsh resolution of a 
l9ng a. We had d above as i. 22. 2 c. 

5. I have cpme unto thee with wealfulnesses, likewise with uninjured- 

ncsses; I have brought for thee formidable dexterity; I drive (su) away 

for thee the ydksma. 

The RV. text has in c ie bhadrdm i ^bhdrsam; both editions give the false form 
A ^b/idrisaffty because this time all the mss. (except our E.p.m.) chance to read it ; in 
such cases they are usually divided between the two forms, and we need not have 
scrupled to emend here ; the comm. has -rsam, Ppp. reads in c te bhadram tlrisam^ 
and, for d, pard suvdmy dnuyat. 

6. This is my fortunate hand, this my more fortunate one, this my 
all-healing one; this is of propitious touch. 

This is, without variant, R V. x. 60. 12; it takes in our hymn the place of R V. x. 1 37. 6. 

7. With (two) ten-branched hands — the tongue [is] forerunner of 
voice — with (two) disease-removing hands: with them do we touch 

RV. (vs. 7) has fore, d andmayitnubhydtn ivd tabhydth tv6 ^fa spr^dmasi. The 
Anukr. takes no notice of the redundancy in our c. 

14. With the sacrifice of a goat. 

\Bhrgit. — navarcam, djyam, dgneyam. trdistubham : 2^ 4. anustubh ; j. prastdrapankti ; 

7^9'J^S^^^» S.yp.ati^akimri^ 

Verses 1-6 are found also in Paipp. iii. (in the verse-order i, 2, 5, 4, 6, 3), and in 
various Yajur-Veda texts (vss. i and 6 not in company with the rest) ; vss. 7-9, in 
Paipp. xvi. The hymn is used in Kau^. (64.23(1.) in the sava sacrifices, with goat 
or goat-rice-mcss {ajdudana) as sava: vss. 2-4, at 68.24-27 (and also, the comm. 
says, in recitation in all sava sacrifices) ; vs. 5, at 63. 9 (the comm. says, with oblation 
in all); vs. 6, at 64. 17; vs. 7 (vss. 7 and 8, according to the comm.), at 64. 18-20 
(with setting up the goat); vs. 9, at 64. 22 (with offering the skin having head and feet 
left attichcd to it). In Vait, vs. i is used (29. 3) in the agtticayana, with building in 
a goat's head ; vss. 2-5 (29. 1 7), in the same ceremony as the priests mount the altar ; 





iv. 14- noOK IV. THi; ATllARVA-VEDA-SAttHITA. I70 

\'%. 5 (8. 17), in the f*an*am sncrificcs, with transfer of the fires, and again, in the 
aji^Hixtofna (15. 9), ^hcii the fire \% hroj^j^ht to the uttaravtdi ; and the comm. regards 
vs. 3 a* (|u<>tc(l at 27. ^>, in the vAjttf^na lilr. 

'translated : (•rilTilh. i. 149; \Vel>cr, xviii. 51 (elalxirate comment). 

1. Since the goat ha.s been l>orn from the heat of Agni (the fire), 

it saw [its] generator in the beginning; by it the gcxls in the beginning 

attained (/) [their] godhead; by (with.') it tlie sacrificial ones (m/dhya) 

ascended the ascents (/v7//i). 

Fou'kI alxo in VS. (xiii. 51 ), M.S. (ii. 7. 17 ; like V.S. throughout), ami TS. (iv. 2. lo«). 
VS. ami MS. Iiavc in c, d //itvI/iIw tlj^raffi tlyitf'ts tt'ntt tt^ham Ayiiun lipn M/tih-. TS. has 
at the l>('^ift^inj; ajii^ ami, corrcsptimlin^ly, .f«f (^ith tv!/ addefl) in b. and Air J in c and 
d; it also reverse.^ the order of c and d, agieeinf( otherwise with VS. MS. in d. but having 
4C'^* 1^^^ AV., in c ; it also replaces fff/-<)/ hy j^ilfM<l/ in a. We have a again below as 
ix. 5. 13 a; and c is nearly ei|uivalent to iii. 22. 3 c: moreover the /tf/Z^ctmss.. here as 
there, misinterpret tlyan 1>e(<>rc /<->/<# as tlraw, which STI*. properly corrects to Jlwam 
in his /fii/ii- text ; all our sanihittl mss. read tiyaii. The comm. declares ki in a to be 
intended to intimate tliat the same statement was made in another text also; and he 
quotes TS. ii. 1. M; niha he expl.iins by svargAiiiloka ; t^ma he takes lx>th times as 
designating the means. The Anukr. takes no miiice of the deficiency of a syllabic in bi 
[^As to ajA^ see Weber, Her lint r Sh.^ 1895, p. 847 n.J 

2. Stri<lc ye with the fire to the firmament (mika), bearing in your 

hands vessel-[fires] (iikhya) ; having gone to the back of the sky, to the 

heaven (Jivir), sit ye mingled with the gods. 

The other texts (\'.S. xxii.^)^; T.S. iv. 6. 5'; MS. ii. 10. 6) differ but slif^htly from 
ours: all have the sin^. ukhyam at l)CKinninf^ of b, and T.S.MS, combine JivAk p- 
\\\ c. I*1>P- reads a^iuibhis in a, anrl fku\fh for tikkvAn in b; for the latter, the comm. 
(with one of Srl'*s mss.) f;ives aliAPt, which he defines as ak$avai f^rakd^akSm mmm- 
sIhitAn yajfiAn, As usual, the mss. vary at the end lietweeu the equivalent Adk\*am 
and Addhvam; our text reads the latter, .SPT's tlie former. 

3. From the back of earth I have ascended to the atmosphere ; from 
the atmosphere I have ascended to the sky ; from the back of the sky, 
of the firmament (fuika), I have gone to heaven (Jivi/), to light. 

'I'he other three texts (VS. xvii. 67 ; TS. and MS. as alK>%'e) a^ree in omittini^ 
frsthAl in a and addin;; ud after ahAni before aHiAnksam. In this verse, the comm. 
takes jT'ilr as the sun (in vs. 2. as ll»e si'itrcii hk*t). It is too irrc'f; (1449 :7 + 8 = 3K) 
to l>e so simply defined as it is by the Amikr. [_If we omit the first aMAm, and combine 
tHvifuhtim in b and resolve nAi sitar in cd. we i;et an ordeily /^i#^<ii/J«/Ar^tf//.J 

4. Going to heaven (wvi/) they look not away; they ascend to the 
sky, the two firmaments {nu/<tsi) — they who, well-knowing, have 
extended the everywhere-streaming sacrifice. 

Tlie otlirr l«'xts (VS. xvii. TnS ; 'IS and M.S. as a1>ove) have no variants; but Tpp. 
ends b with tofhivtu »Adhauth. Thrtomm. a)*ain takes svar as siar^a ; am! rf(i'a/#- 
dhApiitti as cither safiaio d/tAfttliim or else Stinttfo 'vukhinnaphaiapfApiyuf^JkyM 


5. O Agni, go forth first of the divinities, eye of gods and of human 

beings {vtdfuisa) — pressing on (? iyaksa-) in unison with the Bhrgus, 

let the sacrificcrs go to heaven (svcir), to well-being. 

The other texts (VS.xvii. 69 ; TS. and MS. as above) all read mdrtydndm at end of 
b; and for devdidndm in a VS.TS. have devayatam^ MS. devdyatim ; and Ppp. also 
reads inartydndtn and devayatdm j in c, MS. has sahd for sajdsds. The comm. para- 
phrases cakstis by caksurindriyavat priyah^ and iyaksatndnds hy y as turn icchantah, 

6. With milk, with ghee, I anoint the goat, the heavenly eagle, milky, 

great ; by it may we go to the world of the well-done, ascending the 

heaven {S7'dr), unto the highest firmament {udka). 

TS. (iv.7. 13) and MS. (ii. 12.3) have a parallel verse, with which Ppp. also corre- 
sponds in the first half: agnim (Ppp. -nfm) yunajmi fdvasd ghrUna dhydm sttfiar- 
ndm (Ppp. samtidram') vdyasd (MS. vayasdm; but Ppp. payasam) brhdittam (Ppp. 
ruhanfam) ; as second half, they read : t^fta vaydm patema bradhndsya vistdpath 
su7fo (MS. svb) ruhdiid ddhi naka utiami^ while Ppp. differs from our text only by 
having at beginning of d saruhdnd adhi. The second half-verse is repeated below as 
xi. I. 37 C, d. The comm. reads in b payasam^ but regards it as vayasam with Vedic 
substitution of p for v ; svdr this time is either svarga or sikrydttnakam paramam 
jyotih. The tristubh is irregular in its last two padas. LPronounce gd-isma in c (? in 
spite of Gram. § 894 c, end). Pada d is simply acatalcctic. Ought we perhaps to read 
siidrdh'y i.e. suar rdh- (root ruh without <I, as at x. 2. 8 ; xii. 3. 42 ; xix. 6. 2)? J 

7. Accompanied by five rice-messes (^odand)^ by the five fingers, with 

the spoon, take thou up five-fold that rice-mess. In the eastern quarter 

set thou the head of the goat ; in the southern (ddksina) quarter set his 

right (ddksina) side. 

Verses 7-9 arc not found in other texts, not even in Ppp.* The comm. (against the 
accent) explains pdflcdudanam as paflcadhd vibhakiam odanam; uddhara as " take 
out of the kettle {sthdll) and .set on the barhis " ; and, both here and in the following 
verse, he substitutes for the actual part of the animal the cooked meat taken from 
such part, with the share of rice-mess that goes with it. The verse is ^ jagatl ovXy by 
number of syllables (11 + 13:11 + 13=48; each pada Lsave bj has trochaic close). 
L Reject di^l in d and scan as 11 + 12:11 + 11. J •LIna supplementary note, Roth says 
that they do occur (as noted above) in Ppp. xvi.J 

8. In the western quarter set his rump {bhasdd) ; in the northern 
{iUtara) quarter set his other (tUfara) side; in the upward quarter set 
the goat's back-bone; in the fixed quarter set his belly {1 pdjasyd) ; mid- 
way in the atmosphere his middle. 

The comm. qx^\^\t\s pdjasydfn thus: pdja iti balandma: taira hiiam udaragatam 
nvadhyam ; and dhehi in connection with it as meaning ni khana — which looks quite 
improbable. It is only by violence that this verse can be extended to 60 syllable.s, as 
the Anukr. requires. [^Reject difi in b and c, as in vs. 7, and combine bhasdddsya^ and 
we get five good tristubh padas. J Our edition inserts after pdjasydtn an avasdna- 
mark which is wanting in the mss. and in SPP's text 

9. Do thou envelop with cooked skin the cooked goat, brought 


t()|;cthcr with all his liinhs, all-formccl. Do thou rise up from here unto 
the highest fiirnaincnt (tttila); with thy four feet stand firm in the 

One would expect in A rAthrr ti^rttivil, as the hide ran hardly have l)een cooke<l ; 
the comin. reads instead {nt/Attyil, explaining: it as Tt\asttnrna vihhaklayA ; Init no 
siif h word as ^ratha appears to l>c found elsewhere, and lN)th it and its interpret at ioa 
are very iniplausihle. To tviuH he athls "having the feet, tail, and head on." 71te 
verses read as if the goat himself, afti-r c<M>king whole, were set up in |M)sition, the head 
to the The Anukr. doi*s not heed that the second and fourth padas are trUiubk, 
LPpp. has ^ruttim ekatn frwAij'irJ 

15. For abundant rain. 

4. x-ifti/fu9ttttihihM,iti; 7, \S.] tj, [/^. ] atHstuhM ; i^.^atkytifankti ; to. hkurtj ; 
12 Ji i*"- ** "" !(" ^.i,''**^^«f f'kn* 1/ ; ij^ fantumatf a HustHhk . ] 

Found (except vss. 2 and 15) in iVtipp. v. (in the veise-order 1, 3, 6, 5, 4, 7, r>, lo, 8, 
11-14, i<>). Tiiis hymn and vii. iS appear to l>e calleil tntltHttlni \n^. (26.24: tee 
note to this rule) ; they are specified as used tor^ither in a rite for procuring rain (41. 1 ff.) ; 
also in expiation of the pftrtent of tt/^it/il/tUilt * inundations* (103. 3); further, vss. 10 
and II, with ohlatioiis res{K*ctively to Agni and Tiajapati, in expiation of the |>oitent of 
ol>s( uration of the st-ven seers (127.S, ij). In Vail. (8.9) vs. 6 ap|>rais in the prepara- 
tions of the ttiturmilivtt sactiiito. And tlie comni. ({uotes vs. 1 1 as emph>yed by the 
Naks. K. (iS) in a ////i//J( J//// called //il/iJ/*!//. 

Translated: Huiiler, (>/iV/;/ unii Onuient^ 1.2 if); (JrifTith, 1.150: \Vel>er, x%'iii. 58. 
— Sec also WelK'r's lefcrences to Ludwig and /immer. Cf. intrcxluction to iiL 13. 

1. Let the directions, full of mist {ndbhasvant)^ fly up together; 
let clouds, wind-hurried, come toj^ethcr ; let the lowini:; [cows] of the 
resoundinj; misty groat l)u]l, the waters, gratify the earth. 

Ppp. comhines in d 't\fii **/'i/// tl»e comm., in c, mahars- \jx% the meter rcquirenj; 
this happens to he a case where all the niss. agree in makars-. The meaning in a 
prohaldy is the confusion of the directions hy reason of the mists ; the comm. renders 
mihhas: atls in a by Piabhtiivattl tulvMPu} yukU\h^ and nahhasvatas in c by vAyupreri- 
/ttu'ti tttti^hiitva ututhtititihinyah. |_ The second half-verse recurs at 5, below ; tee note. J 

2. Let the mighty (tavisa), liberal {smiiinu) ones cause to behold 
together; let the juices (nLui) of the waters attach themselves (sac) to 
the heil)s; let gushes (stirtr,i) of rain gladden (wrf//<ir-) the earth; let 
herbs of all foinis be born here and there (fH/tak). 

The " niigiity ones** in a are doubtless the ^faruts ; Ikuty- is perhaps an error which 
has blundered in from the next verse, for ukuty- (though no causative of uks occurs else- 
where in AV.) ; the comm. supplies fur it ^'rsttni as object; the translation implies 
vmu'thing like •*atti.Kt evrry one*s attrniion." It would l>e easy to rectify the meter 
of d by leading oxitM/ir :'ift'tf*t\h ; a is the (tnly real j*fx*i/i pada ; and even l>y count the 
verse is only «/. f/ ( I 2 M I : 1 1 -t 13=47). 

3. Do thou make the singeis (^^hv///) to behold together the mists; 


let rushes (vi^^a) of waters rush (vij) up here and there ; let gushes of 
rain gladden the earth ; let plants of all forms be born here and there. 

Ppp. has for a samiksad vi^vag vHto napdiisy ; at end of b, fatatttu for TtjatitSm j 
in d, osadhayas (as in 2 d Lof the editions J). The comm. regards a as addressed to 
the Maruts (Jte marudgand)^ and "the singing ones" as ** us who are praising"; and 
vega as ** swift stream." The Anukr. ignores the extra syllable in d |_rectify as in 2 d, 
virupds /J. 

4. Let the troops of Maruts sing unto thee, O Parjanya, noisy here 

and there ; let gushes of raining rain rain along the earth. 

Prthaky lit. * severally, separately,' Is used in these verses rather in the sense of • all 
about, everywhere.* Ppp. has in d srjantu for varsantu. The Anukr. makes the 
pada-division after fnirntdSy and the pada-mss. mark it accordingly, thus leaving 
parjanya without excuse for its accentlessness ; but all the mss. read so, and both 
editions follow them. Doubtless cither tnarutds or parjanya is an intrusion ; so the 
meter indicates. The comm. gives in c varsantas. 

5. Send up, O Maruts, from the ocean; brilliant [is] the song; ye 
make the mist fly up ; let the lowing [cows] of the resounding misty 
great bull, the waters, gratify the earth. 

We had the second half-verse as i c, d ; but Ppp. gives an original half-verse instead : 
pra varsayanti tamisd sudilnavo *pam raslr osadhl sacantdm. The first half is trans- 
lated literally as it stands ; but it is pretty certainly corrupt. Ppp. reads Irayatiia^ tvesil 
*rkii, ptltayantu* ; and the true reading is perhaps tvesa arki ndbha itt pdtayaniu * let 
our brilliant songs make ' etc. The comm. finds no difficulty, since his ideas of grammar 
allow him to make tvesds and arkds qualify ndbhas (Jveso diptitnad arko ^rcanasddha^ 
nam udakath tadyuktaih nabhah), TS. (in ii. 4. 8*) and MS. (in ii.4.7) have a first 
pada nearly agreeing with our a (TS. irayathd^ MS. -yaid), the rest of the verse being 
wholly different. A couple of our mss. (O.Op.), with two or three of SPP*s, read 
samudrajds at end of a. ♦LRoth, in his collation, g\vt% pdiayanfa; in his notes, -/w. J 

6. Roar on, thunder, excite (ard) the water-holder ; anoint the earth, 
O Parjanya, with milk; by thee poured out, let abundant rain come; let 
him of lean kinc, seeking refuge, go home. 

That is, let the herdsman whose animals have been thinned by the drought, now be 
even driven to shelter by the abundance of rain. Ppp. makes srstam and varsam 
change places, and is defaced at the end. The first three words arc those of RV. v. 83. 7. 
The comm. (with two or three of SPP*s mss. that follow him) reads in d dsdrdisf^ and 
renders it •' seeking concurrence of streams " ; our O.Op. have -rdi^t. The comm. 
makes kr^agus signify " the sun, with his rays made slender"! and, of course, he is to 
'* set " {astam / ), or be made invisible by the clouds. The Anukr. makes no account 
of the fact that a is jagatL [For d^dra^ see Lanman, Trans, American Philological 
Association, xv. (1884), P- vii.J 

7. Let the liberal ones favor {sain-av) you, also the fountains, great 
serpents {ajagard)\ let the clouds, started forward by the Maruts, rain 
along the earth. 

Ppp. omits vas in a, and combines suddnavo *tsd ^jagard; and its second half -verse 


is ^'i}/*} vtiPUMsya varsatus pravahantH frthivlm atiu. The comin. renders avamiu hy 
iarpttyaulu ; ttjaj^aftls here by aja^attMrnam^ vitafkyamilnAh^ and under y». 9 by 
ajttjiatttutmAnAktlrAh : i.e. "that l<M>k hkc Rrcat .serpents as they wind sinuously 
along ** ; he t.ikes smiAnavas in a nUernalivily as vocative, notwithstanding its accent 

iS. Let it lij;htcn tt) every region (//jvi) ; let the winds blow to (from ?) 

every cjiiarter; let the eloiids, started forward by the Maruts, come 

together along the earth. 

Ppp. has in d varsaniUy as our text in the preceding verse. The comm. also points 
out the |M)ssil>ility of taking «/i((Ij as cither accus. pi. or aid. sing. The Anukr. some- 
how omits to define the metrical thara(tcr of this verse and of vs. 14. 

9. Waters, lightning, cloml, rain — let the liberal ones favor you, also 

the fotintains, great serpents ; let the clouds, started forward by the 

Mariits, show favor {pra-av) along the earth. 

rpp. lx*gins with 7'fl/ir.r inslfad of «7//rj. and omits (as in 7 a) vas in b; and, for the 
last two p.'idas, it reads //<! pvihtuvtt pra pitrsva sam bhikmim fiayaid srja. The 
comm. again t.ikes staMna:uts as vocative, and makes the elements mentioned in a 
9ul>jects of satn ttraft/M; in d he ic:n\% p/ili'an/tt but regards It as for /r J ^vamim 
|_paralU'l \\\k\\ paUyaU elr. (Ws Gram. § 1087 c), for which he cites Tanini viil. a. 19J. 

10. Agni, who, in unison with the waters' selves (/tifiA), hath become 

overlord of the herbs — let him, Jatavedas, win {vafi) for us rain, breath 

for [our] piogeny, afnria out of the sky. 

'I'he comm. paraphrases atnrtam with amrtatvapriipitkam. The Anukr. duly notes 
the redundant syllable in d. 

1 1. May Prajapali from the sea, the ocean, sending waters, excite the 

water-holder; let the seed of the stallion (rhan dfva) be filled up; come 

hithcrward with that thunder, — 

To this verse really belongs the first pada of our vs. 1 2, as the sense plainly shows, 
as well as its assoiiation in KV. (v. 83. 6 b, c, d) \^ilh the two closing pAdas here. |^C'f. 
Lanman, /iV/r«//'r, p. 370 ; misdivision as iK^tween hymns. J Itut the mss., the Anukr^ 
the comm.. an<I l>oth editions, end vs. 1 1 with / V/i. KV. reads in our t pinvaia for 
pyAyatAm^ and tihitAs for ft'tas, I*pp- cond>ines in b /I/* Ifityann, and l)egins c with 
/^ J /)'- The ctmun. gives vtsnt^s instead of vrsutts in c, and explains both it and 
saliLhiiw a l>y vyApanti^i/ti^ whiili is one of his standing glosses for obscure words ; 
aniityt'tti he paraphrases with f\%\nnbhtr AdAnena piMtvatu^ and Uihuihim simply by 
jtilatihitn. This verse is as mm h hhu*ij as vs. 10, unless we combine Apt *^rAymn ia 
b. [_lor -nuHt-ni^ sec I'rat. iii. 3.S, note. J 

12. routing tlown wateis, our Asura father. 

Let the gurgles of the watrrs f>nff. () Varuna ; let down the descending 
waters; let the speekleil-armetl frogs croak {vad) along the water-courses 

What is left of the vrise after tr.insferring its first tristubh prida to vs. II, where it 
l»eh>ngs. is (l»ut fnr t'le intnnleil word :tipnti,j, which is wanting in Ppp.) a regular 
antts/tt//t, h.uiit^ its «/:./t,}/M di\isii)n after irja ; and this is the division actually made 


in all the mss., and in SPP*s text. Ppp. combines ^argard *pdm. The comm. declares 
gargara an imitative word (Idrgdhvaniyuktdh pravdhdJi)^ and the translation so renders 
it ; as second pada of the anustubh he reads avanlclr {avanim aflcanti^ i.e. bhfitnim 
gacchanti f) apa srja ; his first account of asura is as from as 'throw' {tneghdndm 
kseptd), L Discussed and translated, apropos of irina^ by Pischel, Ved, Stud, ii. 223. J 

13. Having lain for a year, [like] Brahmans performing a vow, the 
frogs have spoken forth a voice quickened by Parjanya. 

The mss. (except one of SPP's, which follows the comm.) absurdly read vitatn at 
beginning of c ; both editions emend to vacant^ which the comm. gives, and which is 
also read in the corresponding RV. verse, vii. 103. i. Ppp. has mdndukd in d. In our 
edition, correct two printer's errors, reading samvatsardm and brdhmana, [^Dloomficld 
discusses this vs. and the following, JAOS. xvii. 174, 179.J 

14. Speak forth unto [it], O she-frog; speak to the rain, O tadurl; 

swim in the midst of the pool, spreading thy four feet. 

Many of our mss. (P. M.E.I. U.K.) accent lipa |_cf. Prat. iv. 3J at the beginning. Ppp. 
reads vtdndiiki in a, and tdmdhuri In b. The comm. defines tddurl as ** she-offspring 
of the tadura^^ but ^'ives no explanation of tadura. The verse is also found in a khila 
to RV. vii. 103, reading in a upapldvada^ and in c plavAsva. \Jtox 14, 15, see Weber, 
Berlitter Sb.y 1896, p. 257. As to metrical definition of 14, sec vs. 8 n.J 

15. O khaitvakhd! O khdimakhd! in the middle, O taduri! win ye 
rain, O Fathers ; seek the favor (vtdnas) of the Maruts. 

The verse (as already noted) is unfortunately wanting in Ppp. The first pada is 
misprinted as regards accentuation in our edition, being marked as if the final syllables 
were kanipa^ instead of mere protractions. LThat is, the horizontal under the first 
syllable kha- should be deleted ; and the signs above and below the two j's should also 
be deleted. They are printed aright, khdnvaka^i khdhnakhiji^ in ndgari^ by Whitney, 
Prat. p. 392, footnote, and on p. 400, and by SPP.J Prat. i. 105 quotes the words 
(with the two that follow) in its list of words showing protraction ; and i. 96 points out 
that the final / in each is grave. The comm. says that the three vocatives (he quotes 
the stems as khattvakhd sdimakhd tadurl) are special names for kinds of she-frogs — 
which seems likely enough ; the two former appear to involve imitations of croaking 
(but in L<^S. iv.3.18 the householder's female slaves are to call out hdimahdj^ as 
they circumambulate the mdrjdlfya^ filling new water-holders). SPP. (p. 598, note) 
asks why, if the words are vocatives, they are not accented simply khdnvakhdji khdl 
f/takhdji — being apparently ignorant of the fact that a protracted final syllable is regu- 
larly and usually accented, without regard to any other accent the word may have (sec 
Whitney, Skt. Gr. § 78 a). Several of our mss. (E.I.H.O.Op.), and a couple of SPP's, 
leave the first syllable of each word unaccented. It would much help both meter and 
sense to supply hraddsya (or else piavasva) after mddhye in b ; the comm. cither sup- 
plies hradasya or reads it in his text. All our mss., and our printed text, have at the 
end ichatah ; SPP. follows the comm. and about a third of his manuscript authorities in 
reading ichata^ which is doubtless the true text, and implied as such in the translation 
above. The comm. explains pitaras 2A pdlayitdro mandiikdh / SPP. regards him as 
reading mdrutam in d, but this appears doubtful. LThe Anukr. scans 8 + 5 : 8 +8. J 

16. The great vessel (Ico^d) do thou draw up {ud-^ic); pour on; let 


there be lightninp^s ; let the wind blow ; let them extend the sacrifice, 
beini; manifoldly let loose; let the herbs become full of delight. 

I'pp. ic.kIs mahanlam at licginning of a, and visrsiUm at end of C The first pftda 
\% nearly RV. v. S3. 8 a, wliich, however, reads fiif aiJ ni siiica. Our P.M.W. read 
/ttn:'thi/i}fn in c The couiin.. douhtle^s correctly, understands the waters as the 
** them ** of c; t'n/ aia he explains .is sttmutfnh/ adakapArnam mdtihara ; he supplies 
antaftksam to savufyutitm ; the expression is better understood as an impersonal one. 
[With b, d. cf. KV. V.S3. 4 A. b.J 

Merc ends the third ttntn'tUii, having 5 hymns and 51 verses; the quoted Anukr. 
says ekaviii^atih, 

16. The power of the gods. 

\lirahmapt. — muutrnim. StiiYilftft*1nfHf,ni.itf$ltttm. v*1rtfn>tm. frtlistukham : t. anHstuhk ; 
J. hhuftj ; J. /tigiiti : S.J/'. mahtihMati ; g. virthiMdmatrt/Jt/j^Jj-n/ri] 

rive vcrscx of this hymn (in the verse-order 3, 2, 5, 8, 7) are found together in 
TAipp. v., and part.^ of vsx. 4 .ind ft elsewhere in the same book. It is used by 
Kau^. (48. 7) in a rite of son cry .igaiiist an enemy who ** comes cursing**; and vs. 3 
also in the portent-ceremony of the seven seers (127. 3), with praise to Varuna. 

Ity reason of the exceptional character of this hymn as expression of the unrestricted 
presence and influence of siiprrhuman |K)wers, it has l>een a favorite sutiject of trans- 
lation and discussion. 'I r.inslatcd : Roth, Vfbtr den A\\^ p. 29; Max Muller, Ckift 
from a C$efmiin \\'otkshop/\. \\ (1867); Muir, OST. v. 63 ; I.udwig, p. 388 ; Muir, 
Me/titdt TtiitiilalionSy p. 163 ; K.-icKi, /Vr Kij^veda^^ p 89 f. (or p. 65 f. of R. Arrow- 
smith's translation of Kae^i), with abundant parallels from the Old Testament; 
Grill, 32, \zU\ (Griffith, i. 1 53 ; Hloomliehl, 88.389; Weber, xviii.66. Some of the 
above do not cover the entire h\mn. — See also Ilillcbrandt, l'eda-<hmtomatku^ 
p. 38; Hergaigne- Henry, Manuft^ p. 146; further, (^rohmann, ind. Stud, ix. 406; 
Hermann Hrunnhofer, Iritn uiui Turan (1889), p. 188-196; Wel>er, litrlimer Sb.^ ■S94* 
p. 782 f. 

L\Vcl>er entitles the hymn •' Helhcuerung der Unschuld, Kidesleistung**; see hi» 
instructive note, /////. Stud, xviii. fi6, note 2. ** Comes cursing** liardly takes account 
of the voice of {ttpyamAnttm as used by Kilu^. 48. 7. J 

I. The great siipcrinlendcnt of them sees, as it were, from close by; 
whoever thinks to be going on in secret, all this the gods know. 

The verse is altr>gether wanting in Tpp. All the mvs. read in s-b -/i ant- (p. -ti : 
ant'), with irregular absence of combination across the cesura ; the case might be one 
of those contemplated by Prat. iii. 34, .ilthough not quoted in the comment on that rule; 
Srr. rends with the mss., and our edition might perhaps liettcr have done the same 
(it is emended to tti 'ttt ). Hut SI'l*. also tckIs in cyJs tthult, instead of /«f (i.e.^ilA) 
sttlviit*, while nearly all his pttd»t mss. (with all of outs) require the latter; his wliolly 
insutVi( ient reason seems to be the comni. .i(h>pts ttlyiit; the comm. also has. as 
part of the same version, tnntt, and views the two words as contrasted, "itaWe" 
{sAfhtat\enit vti9 ftt mil unfit sthhavasftt) and ** transient ** (itfi^^fmif //#f 'at ma(i>aram r^r 
Vtistu), whith is absurd : *• he is >;reat, he knows (nhtfij-tstf=jtiMJti.') all varieties 
of l>cin};.'* The comm. understands ruti/i as mcinin;; "of our evil-minded enemies,** 
and ket ps up the ini]>li( ation throu;;h(tut. slwiwin^ no manner of comprehension of the 
meaning; of the hymn. 'LSee l* ii. 40, note. p. 426 near end. J 


2. Whoso stands, goes about, and whoso goes crookedly (vafic), whoso 
goes about hiddenly, who defiantly (ipratdnkain) — what two, sitting 
down together, talk, king Varuna, as third, knows that. 

Ppp. reads in a manasH instead of carati^ and in b fraldyam instead of pratankain ; 
and for c it has dvHu yad avadatas samnisadya. The pada-va^^, give in b nhlayan^ 
as if the assimilated final nasal before c were n instead of m ; and SPP. unwisely 
leaves this uncorrected in his fiada-iexif although the comm. correctly understands 
-yaf/t. The comm. regards a and b as specifying the "enemies" of vs. i a ; vaficad 
he paraphrases by kdutilyena praidrayatiy and pratankam by prakarseua krcchra- 
jlvauatn pmpya; nilayam * he derives either from nis+t or from «/ + It, The true sense 
of pratankam is very obscure; the translation seeks in it a contrast to nilayam; the 
translators mostly prefer a parallel "gliding, creeping," or the like. The Anukr. 
apparently balances the redundant a with the deficient c. *LNote that W's version 
connects it with ni-llna of vs. 3 ; cf. Gram. § 995 a, and my Reader^ p. 394. J 

3. Both this earth is king Varuna's, and yonder great sky with dis- 
tant margins {-dnta) ; also the two oceans are Varuna's paunches ; also 
in this petty water is he hidden. 

Ppp. has, for a, b, uU yam asya prthivl samfcf dydur brhatlr antariksam ; and, 
at end of d, udakena maktsh. The comm. declares that the epithets in b belong to 
«' earth " as well as to " sky " ; kuksl he paraphrases by daksinoitarapHr^vabhedend 
* vast kite dve udare. 

4. Also whoso should creep far off beyond the sky, he should not 

be released from king Varuna ; from the sky his spies go forth hither ; 

thousand-eyed, they look over the earth. 

Only the second and third padas are found in Ppp. (and, as noted above, not in ^^/'"•*'^ a--*^*^ 
company with the main part of the hymn), which gives iha for divas and i9ne *sya for /V|^^»^'»*^ /*'• ^ 
idam asya (both in c). The samhitd-xxyss.y as usual, vary between divdh and di^'d before 
j/-. The comm. \\2ls purastdi in a. ) f4t4.p*i]Ci/tP*^ ^cs-rt^- ^</**r/^ ft^ t^^pr^*- /^^^r^r- k^ J(c* 

5. All this king Varuna beholds (vt-cais) — what is between the two 
firmaments (rodasi), what beyond ; numbered of him are the winkings 

of people; as a gambler the dice, [so] does he fix (im-mi) these things, /l^t./^-x.o 

Ppp. reads for d aksdn fta jvq ghftl bhnvand mamfte^ which gives a rather more ^-^ J^r^'^I Q i 
manageable sense; our text is prfeSably corrupt (vi cinod f ) ; the comm. explains fti ^ ^ j? -—- 
minoii by ni ksipaii ; and to the obscure idtti (not relating to anything specified in the (£_ CnT^ 
verse) he supplies pdpindm ^iksdkarmdni. He has again (as in 4 ti) purastdt in b; 
and in c he understands samkhydid (not -tdK)^ as '^numerator,** and nimisas as gejn. 
with asya. lie also reads in d svaghnl^ and quotes and expands Yaska^s derivation of 
the word from s7*a + han. The verse is bhurij if we insist on reading iva instead of 
*va in d. LRead 't'/z, or aksah ^vaghniva^ or with Ppp. ?J 

6. What fetters {pdqa) of thine, O Varuna, seven by seven, stand H^Ti/l^A*^* '* 

triply relaxed (vt-st), shining — let them all bind him that speaks /^ CiTt^ ^ *d 

untruth; whoso is truth-speaking, let them let him go. ft.a'^^^' 

Our siftdntti, at beginning of c, is our 'emendation, obviously necessary ; a few mss, 
(including our Bp.E.H.) have fi//rf/////, and the rest chin- (our P.M. dkin-^ doubtless 

iv. 1 6 




rfT if 


meant for (hht), wliich STT. arconlinf:ly retains; the comm. has (hinnttn^ rxplainini^ 

it nx for ihntiiautH. TpP^ VfrAioii of the verse is found with that of the half of vs. 4 ; it 

rencU </////i/</r«f .- it also has saptamptatls \\\ a, ami ntsaid rusantah at end of b; antl 

its d is ytt% nii'hyar*\i; ati tarn itjAmi. '1 he comm. also reads in b tuuintai^ which is, ^y*y 

as at iii. jK.Tfnn arceptahit* sulistitiite for the inept ru{-\ in b he apparently h;is viul^s^ 

and takes it as tatftt ttttta htnUhAs, wliile the true sense ohviously is ** laid o|>en ready for 

u^e " ; the ** triply ** he re;;ards as alluding to the three kinds of fetter s|»ecifird in vii. Sj^ 

7. With ;i hiiiuircd fetters, O Varun.i, do thou bridle {ttbhi-dhd) him ; 
let not the speaker of untruth escajw thee, O men-watcher; let the 
villain sit lettinp^ his belly fall [apart], like a hoopless vessel, being cut 
round about. 

The two editions rend in c ^tan^ayttvA^ with the majority of the mss. ; but nearly half 

(ini hiding our have {tanuiy^ and two of ours (K.Kp.) sran^ay all 

of them misreadin;;s for iraustiy,, which the comm. gi^'es {^ jatodat aro^ena stastam 
Irfvt}) . L'lhe dise.ise called •• water-lwrlly,** to which c and d refer, is dropsy, \ aruna s 
punishment for sin. J In d, .STP. n-ads afuifuihAs with the comm., but against all his 
mss. and the majoritv oLours (1* p m.M.W.CJ.Op. have 'i/Aaj)^ which have -tf/trdsi 
htttuihra (i.e. bamidhta^ fiom baudh \ tta) is so tegular a formation thai we have no 
ri^ht to reject it, even if it dois not occur elsewhere. I'pp. puts vatuna in a before 
afi/ti, omitting enam, thus recti fyin;; the meter (wliich mi^ht also be done by omittinj; 
the su|)erlluous vamna) ; and it omits the n of -vilil \\\ b. There is not ^jagail yAdx 
it) the verse, and d becomes regularly trtstubh by combining kt\i *t'J-. 

8. The Varuna that is lenf;thwise (samamya)^ that is crosswise (tj- 
amyi\)\ the Varinjia that is of the same region {safhi/fp-ii), that is of a 
different region {viJiQ'ti) ; the Varutia that is of the gods, and that is 
of men — 

If the word Tvf/w////f, thiice repeated, were left out, there would remain a regular 
j^'ih'it/ri; and the meaning would he greatly improved also; if we retain it, we must 
either emend to varttna^ vocative, «)r to vtlrmith 'of Vdruna,* i.e. • his fetter,* or else we 
must understand I'Aruftas as heie .strangely used in the sense of VilrnnJs : the comm. 
makes no difTiculty of doing the last. |_l'pp- reads in a, ytts stltnilnyo ; in b,^r<ff {yatk- 
tfr^yo (or nuio'/-) ; in c^yo «it}r*yo 'itfuno ya^ la fHtlnmsassa ; and adds tVilns tv ttAni 
ftati mufikiimy atta.\ For the fii>t two epitliets compare xviii. 4. 70; the next two are 
variouslv undeisttMMl by the ; thev are rendered here in accordance with the 
comm. Though so differently dt tuicil by the Anukr. \j:i. ii. 3.6n.J. the verse as it 
stands is the same with vs. 9, namely 11 x 3~33 .s\llal)les. 

9. With all those fetters I fasten {abhi-sd) thee, (> so-and-so, of such- 
and-such a family, son of .such-aiul-such a mother ; and all of them I 
successively ap[><>int for thee. 

If the verse is iri^nrded as metrical, with three (and it scans very fairly as 
sui h)t wr ouijht to ar ( ent if*J// |_vih-. of /riif/zj at l)rginning c»f b. Thr comm. perha[«« 
undeistamls <f'/;/ in c as inr1ep**n'lent, Anu (SPP. so holds). The last two verses are , as 
it ucfe, the practical appli< ation of vss. 6 And 7, and probatily added later. [^As to the 
naming u{ the names, see WehcTs note, p. 73. J 


17. Against various evils: with a plant. 

[QtAra. — caturviiifarcam tray am suktdndm, apdmdrgavanaspatidevatyam . dnusUtbham^ 

Verses 1-6 are found as a hymn in Paipp. v., and hymns 18 and 19 follow it there, 
with some mixture of the verses. Vs. 8 is found separately in ii. Hymns 17-19 are 
called by the comm. dvafiafttya * of strewing.' They are used together by K^u^. (397), 
with ii. II and iv. 40 and others, in the preparation of consecrated water to counteract 
hostile sorcery ; and vs. 17. 5 is reckoned by the schol. (46.9, note) to the duhsvapna- 
nd^ana gatta. 

Translated: Zimmer, p. 66; Grill, 37, 130; Griffith, i. 155 ; Bloomficld, 69, 393; 
Weber, xviii. 73. 

1. Thee, the mistress of remedies, O conquering one {ujjcsd), we take 

hold of; I have made thee a thing of thousand-fold energy {-vityd) for 

every one, O herb. 

Ppp. reads for b nijesd **grnlmahc. We should expect in c -vlrydm^ and three of 
SPP's mss. (none of ours) so read ; but he has not ventured to admit it into his text; 
the comm. gives -yam^ but explains as if -ydm {aparimitasdmarthyayuktdvt). The 
comm. regards the plant sahadevl (name of various plants, including Sida cordifolia 
and rhombifolia^ OH.) as addressed. He takes ujjese in b as dative, = ujjetutn. 

2. The truly-conquering, the curse-repelling, the overcoming, the 
reverted one {punalisard) — all the herbs have I called together, saying 
" may they (}) save us from this." 

The last p.lda is translated in accordance with the better reading of Ppp. : ato tnd 
pdraydn iti. In b, Ppp. gives puita^card ; Sl'P. presents /«///i^j-, in closer accord- 
ance with the niss. than our pttnass-. The comm. does not recognize the meaning 
* reverted ' (i.e. * having reverted leaves or fruit *) as belonging X.Q punahsardy but renders 
it as •* repeatedly applied " {dbhlksnyena bahuiaravyddhinivrHaye sarati). He reads in 
a {apathayopanlm^ and in c abhi (for ahvi) : and one or two of SPP's mss. support him 
each time ; our O.Op. give addhi^ by a recent copyist's blunder ; the comm. supplies 
gacchanti for his sam-abhi to belong to. The Anukr. takes no notice of the excess of 
two syllables in a. 

3. She that hath cursed with cursing, that hath taken malignity as her 

root, that hath seized on [our] young to take [its] sap — let her eat [her 

own] offspring. 

The verse is a repetition of i. 28. 3, and the comm. again, as there, reads ddade at 
end of b. He notes that a full explanation has been already given, but yet allows him- 
self to repeat it in brief ; this time he gives only mftrchdpradam as the sense of mftram. 
Ppp. (which has no version of i. 28) gives here, for c, d,^<I vd rathasya prdsdre hy ato 
*gham It tvasah. As i. 28. 3, the verse was properly called xnrdtpathydbrhatl, LCor-' 
rect the verse-number from 6 to 3 in the edition.J 

4. What [witchcraft] they have made for thee in the raw vessel 
{pdtra), what they have made in the blue-red one, in raw flesh what 
witchcraft they have made — with that do thou smite the witchcraft- 

fv. 17- 1500K IV. THK ATHARVA-VEDA-SAttHITA. 180 

The vcrsc \s nearly accordant with v. 31. 1 ))elow. Ppp. reads in b r<I s^/rn tti/-. 
A raw vc5!H*l is one of unl)urnt chiy {apakve mrtpAtre^ comm.). The comm. deftnct 
•* the bhie-rcfl one " an fire, blue with smoke, red with flame* ; and the *'raw flesh " as 
that of a c(K*k or other animal used for tlie purposes of the charm. The kriyM appears 
to l>c a concrete olijcct into which an evil inHucnce is conveyed by sorcery, and whkh 
then, by depositing or burying, l>ccomcs a source of harm to those against whom the 
sorcery is directed (mantrSuuuihAdibhih ^atroh puiAkarlm^ comm. to iv. 18. 2). The 
comm. reads tvayd in d, and first pronounces it used by substitution for ivmm, then 
retains it in iL5 proper sense and makes y/f^r mean haniav/i^s: both are examples of 
his ordinary grammatiral principles. The Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity of 
C [^reject j'«f //I /J. * |_IU(>omrirld, on the basis of KAuq., interprets It as a thread of blue 
and red; and this is confirmed by the Ppp. st//ff.j 

5. Kvil-drcaming, cvil-Iiving, demon, monster {ai/nui), hags, all the 
ill-named ( f .), ill-voiced — them we make disappear from us. 

Ppp. has in a ifitssvnpnam t/urjlvatttm^ and, for c, d, JuriUJcas jaivam dmfhkQimm 
iam ito uti^', A couple of our mss. ( I.I 1. p.m.) read abh&tn in b. The comm. gives 
'jlvatyam in a (with two of SPP's mss.), and (with our P.M.W.K.) asmln instead of 
asmAn in d. lie first defines abhvam simply as ** great,** and then as a special kind 
of demon or demoniac (quoting KV. i. 1A5. 2); and the durttflmmis as fi^Jtcts having 
various bad appellations, such as chrdikii and bhrdtkA. The verse is repeated as 
vii. 23. I. 

6. Death by hunger, death by thirst, kinelcssncss, childlessness — 

through thee, O off-wiper (apamargd), we wi|>c off all that. 

The translation implies the obvious emendation of anapadydlAm (p, amapaodytiiam) 
in b to -apaiyA-^ which is read by the comm. and by three of SPP*s mss. which follow 
him; SPP. very properly admit<i apafyA- into his text (but forgets to emend his fada- 
text thoroughly, and leaves in it the a1>surd division a^'^ipti-^tyAtAm.) |^ Weber, however, 
discussing avadya^ Derliner Sb., 1896, p. 272, defends the reading apadya-,\ The 
comm. says nothing of the sudden change here from sahadevf to apAmArga^ which 
ought to lie another plant (Achyranikes asprra: a weed found all over India, having 
very long spikes of retroflccted flowers), but may possibly ht used here as a synonym 
or ap})cll.ition of the other. In his introduction, he speaks of darbka^ apAmAr^a^ and 
sakadfvl as infused in the con.secr.itcd water. 

7. Death by thirst, death by hunger, likewise defeat at dice — through 
thee, O off-wij)er, we wipe off all that. 

Ppp. omits this vari.ition on vs. ^». 

8. The off-wiper is indeed of all herbs the sole controller (ivif/it); 
with it we wipe [off] what has befallen (Asthiia) thee; then do thou go 
about free from disease. 

Ppp. (in l>ook ii.) has for b :'t(7AtA//t rkti it patik^ combines in c mrjmtA **sikitam^ 
and reads at the end otrak. Astkitam (alsovi. 14. 1 aiMl VS. vi. 15) has perhaps a 
more smsc tlinn we arc able to a&sign to it; the comm. paraphrases by kriyMdi- 
bkir Apatitam to^Adikam. 


i8. Against witchcraft: with a plant. 

[^uJkra. — (etc. : see under hymn 17). 6. brhatigarbhd.'] 

Found in Paipp. v. (vs. 6 before 5). Used by Kaug. only in company with h. 17, as 
there explained. 

Translated: Grill, 25, 131 ; Griffith, i. 156; Bloomfield, 70, 396; Weber, xviii. 77. 

1. The same light with the sun — night possesses the same with the 

day; I make what is effective (satyd) for aid; sapless be the makers (f.) 

[of witchcraft], 

Kftvarfs at the end borrows a special sense from its relationship with krtyA |_a case 
of ** reflected meaning " — see note to iii. 1 1 . 8 J. The construction in the first half-verse 
(if here rightly understood) is peculiarly intricate : samdmjydtis is, as it were, coordinate 
with the samd of samavatl^ as if it were samajygtismatl : i.e. <* night has its light as 
good as the sun's or the day's." Or else jydtis (R.) is to be taken outright as "moon- 
light " (= later jr/^/j// J). Ppp. begins with samd bhiimis stl-, and has in c sabhya for 
satyam. One of our pada-TCi%%, (Op.), like one of SPP's, divides in b samoivatlj the 
comm. defines the word by ** of equal length " {samdndydmH) ; and krtvarU by kartana- 
^fltls (taking it from krt *cut*). In our text, the r-sign has dropped out from under 
the >6-sign in this word. 

2. Whoso, O gods, having made witchcraft, shall take it to the house 
of one unknowing — let it, like a sucking (dhdru) calf to its mother, go 
back unto him. 

The comm., with one or two of SPP's mss., reads drdt instead of hdrdt in b ; dhdnis 
he defines by stanapdnath kurvan. There is a redundant syllable in c unless we 
abbreviate iva to *va, 

3. Whoso, having made evil at home, desires to slay another with it — 

numerous stones make a loud crash when it (f.) is burned. 

Ppp. is partly defaced in this verse ; and it gives us no aid in solving the difficulties 
of the second half. The discordance between the masculines yds and pdpminam in 
a, b and the feminine tdsydm is perhaps best removed by supposing krtyd to have 
been mentally substituted lor pdpman (the comm. supplies krtydydm to tasydm) ; Grill 
violently emends ami in a to dmaydm (sc. pdtryam •), and thinks that this raw vessel 
bursts noisily in pieces when burnt ; R. conjectures that thick stones crack when the 
krtyd is burnt, perhaps so as to wake the intended victim. The comm. paraphrases 
amd by anukfda iva saha sthitah^ i.e. an assistant or confederate, and reads in c 
dugdhdydm «* drained " or made ineffective ; the stones are produced by the counter- 
magic, and are called on to do {karikrati = punah-puttah kurvantu: a convenient 
substitution of the imperative !) damage (^phat—hiiisanam') to the krtyd-krt. The trans- 
lation given above implies a threat of the destruction of the krtyd by burning and by 
stones tumbling crash ! {phat iox phasf) upon it. The harsh resolution krtu-i makes 
the verse a full anustubh, LBp. also has dngdhaydm.\ ^^Oxytone, not perispome.J 

4. O thou of a thousand abodes (} 'dhdmmi)^ do thou make them lie {}) 
crestless, neckless ; take back the witchcraft to him that made it, like a 
sweet-heart (priyd) to a lover {priydvant). 

For vi^ikhdn in a, Ppp. reads visdkhdm (our P.M.W.E. have viqfsdn^ our Bp.I.H. 


v/(tstl/t). In b, Srr. reports all h\% authorities as readinfi>: fflrtrJ (p. -/n); no such 
innn has l>ccii noted amon^ our mss. |_hut Ppp. has ftlyd if am; Benares ms. R., tf-Aj- 
yt\\ul; and 'V.^thaYaYtl\\ in most niss. j^ and/ are but im|>erfectly distini^uished, and» 
as some of SPP's authorities arc oral, he is to l>e prrsume<l ri|^ht; and the translation 
implies ^tlyava |_for the tathtihi^ Trdt. ii. 17 J. The comm. reads instead ksAymym^ from 
/.(/ (-r- ksayatn frikpayn). lie rehearses the series of diverse senses given by Yflska to 
tlhAtnan^ and declares them all intended by the word in a. The verse he regards as 
addiesscd to the sahadei't. 

5. I, with this herb, have sfwilcd all witchcrafts — what one they have 
made in the field, what in the kine, or what in thy men (puritsa). 

Tpp. reads in c and d the datives gohhyas and purHsebkyas ; the comm. explains 
purtisesu as ** in a place frrc|uented by them ** ; for vA te he reads vUte * in the wind.* 
A few of our mss. (P.M.W.) have atiaJHsan in b. The Anukr. takes no notice of 
the deficiency of a syllable in d. 

6. He who hath made hath not been able to make; he hath crushed 
(fr) a foot, a fini^er ; he hath made what is excellent for us, but for him- 
self a burning (ttiftifia). 

The verse is re|)catc'd l>clow as v. 31 . 1 1, but with a different last pAda, which reads : 
ad/ta^ti bhAj^tMVtuihhyah. I'pp's version of A-b is yAm cakdra nm ^a^dkkm i^ire 
fthftttn an^ulim ((unittin;; hiftutn) ; ydtn |_»c. krtyim f\ is a preferable readinf^. Jbe 
comm. also has aiij^itlim : our •///// is authenticated by the comment to Pr&L i. 66. 
Ppp*s d reads as docs our v. 31. 1 1 d, but with nblut^A for -^d. The verse is metrically 
defined in the same way as here at v. 31. 1 1 |_the Anukr. seems to scan it as 8-f 9: 8 + S 
(cf., for example, iii. 8. 4) J ; but kArlum is evidently |_as the accent of fffr/ shows J to be 
reckoiiefl to a, and the /i/r///inss. so divide. |_The suspicion is natural that a s4 has 
l>een lost lietween nA and {ti^aka So m has l>ecn lost at iv. 5. 5 a (cf. RV. vii. 55.6 a). 
If we are ri^ht in restoring sA^ and if we pronounce ftt(r/ (as the Tpp. reading; su^ests), 
we shoultl then scin 1 1 +8: 8 fS. — The accent of ^a^ilkti can hardly be more than a 
blunder. — The comment to this verse seems to have failed of thorouj^li revision at 
W's hands. J 

7. Let the off-wiper wipe off the kutriyd and whatever curse [there 
is] ; [wipe] off, forsooth, the sorceresses, off all the hags. 

Tpp. ro.ids ill c -lihAnyas^ rcctifyint; the meter. The comm. here defines ksHriym 
as hereditary disease {^ksrtnttn ptiAtApitr^arlrafk iaisakA^dt). 

8. Having wiped off the .sorcerers, off all the hags, O off-wiper, with 
thee do we wipe off all that. 

Ppp. is defaced in this verse. The comm. first explains apamfjya in a into an 
im|>erativc, apamnfJhi; but then, as an alternative, he allows it its own proper 

19. Against enemies: with a plant. 

[(^uita. -- (etc. : see hymn 17). j. /•ifAyd/^amk/i.] 

Foun<l also, in connection with the two next preceding hymns, in PAipp. v. Used by 
K.1u^. only in company with hymns 17 and 18, as descril>ed under h. 17. |_Ilut vs. 2 it 
reckoned tn the iibbttvit ji^ttftii, employed as battle-charms; see KAu^. 16.8, note. J 

TransLited: Ciiill, 34, 132 ; (^riflith, i. 157; liloomfield, 71, 397; Weber, sviii.Sl. 


1. Both art thou not relative-making, and now art thou kin-making; 

also do thou* cut off {} d-chid) the progeny of the witchcraft-maker, like 

a reed of the rainy season {vdrsika). 

Or, perhaps, *a last year's reed' (but comm., varsHsu bhavam). The first half- 
verse is very obscure, and the translation follows the text as closely as possible (Ppp. 
differs only by beginning ute *va *sy)f understanding a-bandhukrty and not abandhu- 
krt (which would be accented on -kft) ; possibly the sense is •* thou niakest common 
cause with some and not with others." The comm. takes -krt both times from krt 
*cut' (which is not impossible) : = /-^r/tfyt^i or chedaka; and he cites RV. iv. 4. 5 
•• slaughter thou our foes, the related and the unrelated." NadAm he explains as 
etatsamjliam succhedam trnavi^esam. The Anukr. seems to sanction abbreviation 
to Vtf in d. 

2. Thou art bespoken (.?) by a Brahman, by Kanva son of Nrshad ; 

thou goest like a brilliant army (.?) ; there is no fear {phayd) there where 

thou arrivest {pra-dp), O herb. 

Ppp. has in a pariyukto 'si, and this is very probably the true form of the word 
here used ; the difficulty is that neither yuj nor vac Is anywhere else found used with 
pari; prayukta |_* employed 'J is what we should expect. We have ** Kanva's plant" 
mentioned at vi. 52. 3. The imperfect meter of b (which the Anukr. fails to notice, as 
it docs also the like deficiency in d) gives a degree of plausibility to Griirs suggestion 
that the p»ida is intruded on an original anustubh. The pada-mss. waver between 
nilrsad<fna and mlrs- (our Hp. emends / to s \ Op. is altered obscurely; D.K. have j), 
but s is certainly the true reading, as required by Prat iv. 83; SPP. has wrongly 
chosen s for his pada-itxi. The comm., witli a couple of SPP's authorities that 
follow him, reads ttfistmate in c (our P.M.W.E. have tvisimatt.) The mss., without 
any statable reason, accent dsti in d, and our edition follows them; SPP. strangely 
gives dsti in samhitd-, but asii in pada-iQxt, |_Are not pdryuktd and pariyuktd 
alike awkward phonetic renderings oi prd-yuktd f Cf. Ppp. (a(ir^ (= (a^r-/), iv. 18. 6 ; 
and dadhire i^— dadhre. Roth, ZDMG. xlviii. 116). J 

3. Thou gocst to the head (dgrd) of the herbs, causing to shine (dtp) 

upon [us] as it were with light ; also rescuer art thou of the simple 

(pdka), likewise slayer art thou of the demoniac. 

Ppp. puts pdkasya before irdtil in c; the comm. paraphrases it yi'wh paktavya- 
prajfiasya L'one whose wisdom (^prajfid) is yet to be matured 'J durbalasya. 

4. When yonder, in the beginning, the gods by thee removed (fiis-kf) 
the Asuras, from thence, O herb, wast thou born, an off-wiper. 

Ppp. has in b the older form akrnvata, and for c reads tasmdd dhi tvavt osadhe ap-. 
The comm. takes adhi in c as meaning upari vartamdnah or ^resthah san, 

5. Splitting apart {vi-bhid), hundred-branched — "splitting apart*' by 

name is thy father; in return {pratydk)^ do thou split apart him who 

assails us. 

Ppp. has sundry corruptions: vivindatf in a, vibinda in b, tarn tvd at end of c. 
The comm. omits vi in c. Pada c needs some such emendation as to idfii tu-dm, 

6. The non-existent came into leing (sam-bhfi) from the earth ; that 


goes to the sky, the great expanse (vydcas) ; let that, verily, fuming 
abroad, come back thence on the maker. 

'I'lie tr.in5l;iti(>n implies thr obvif)us rmrndation, mafic in our text, of t4d ifydm for 
/,ft/ ytim, wliif h is rcid by all the mss. and by the comm., and retained in SIM'*8 text, 
though in a note he approves our alteration ; it is only another example of mistaking an 
ahhrt'vi.Urd fitr a full rending («/k for its grammatical equivalent iftfy : compare |_i. 22. I. 
and Koth. /I)M(t. xlviii. 104 J). Tpp. reads in b ^r/taf vtuas; and it has (or t mJ tt 
vtico ','Yati/iufniiyai, The comm. gives hhiimyAm for -yAs in a, and tvai for tai at begin- 
ning of b. lie renders asal l>y asalkalpatk krtyAruf*a9n^ or, allernattvely, by tf<#^Aii- 
nam kri\u\rttpam. The accent -dhiipAyat is contrary to all rule, and doubtless false ; 
MS. (i. 10. 20 ; p. i^>o. I) has -/Jj'tf/, which is correct. The general sense of the verse 
is obscure ; but it appears to par.illcl the return of the charm u|>on its producer with the 
action of water in exhaling from the earth and coming back as rain. 

7. Since thou hast come into being reverted (pratydhc)^ having 

reverted fruit, do thou repel 0'//) from me all curses, [repel] very far 

the deadly weapon. 

The verse is nearly repeated as vii. 65. 1 . Ppp. has for c, A pratUkrtyA ammm krtyA- 
krtam jahi. The comm. reads in b -pha/a, vocative ; regarding, of course, the afdm^rgm 
plant as addressed. 

8. Protect me around with a hundred ; defend me with a thousand ; 
may the forceful (ugrd) Indra, O lord of the plants, assign force (ojmdk) 
unto thee. 

rpp. h.'ui for d bhadro *jmt}nam J tfatfhuh. It can hardly be that the writer does 
not use here ttt^rd and tfjMtin as words felt to be related ; but the comm. gives for the 
former his standing and always re|)eatcd uti^tlr nabaia^ and paraphrases the other with 

20. To discover sorcerers: with an herb. 

[A/tifrtttlmtiH. — ninvmtm. mJff MJmat/Jtraiam. JInustubkam : t.n^arAj; ^ bAmrtj.] 

Found in Taipp. viii. (in the verse-order 1-4. 7, 6, K, 9, 5). Reckoned by K&u^. 
(8. 25) to the itl/iintlftt ; and by the schol. (8. 34, note) added to the matrnJImAmi : with 
good reason, if we may trust the Anukr. (which adds to what is given above: amrmm 
Mil/r MtlwtlN *siii//iif/t evtl *sit}ut ) ; but the comm. says nothing about it. The hymn is 
used by itself (28. 7) to accompany the binding on of an amulet of sadampuspM 'ever- 
flowering * (or, ns tlie comm. and .vhol. say, trisandftyJ) in a healing ceremony (the 
comm. .^ays, against brahma^raha and the like). 

Transl.itcd: Ludwig, p. 5::5 ; (iiill, 2, 133; (friflfith, i-i5'>; Hloomfield, 68, 398; 
Weber, x\iii.84.- See also llillebrandt, Veiht-ihrtstotnalhif^ p. 48. 

I. He (.') looks on, he looks toward, he looks away, he looks: the sky, 
the atm<>spbcrc, then the earth — all that, O divine one (f.), he looks at. 

Tpp. h.ts the 2d sin^. pti^yasi all tlie fix-e times, and it is an easier reading (adopted 
bv (if ill in his tr.inslation). especially in d, unh ss we mav emend dfi-t to dtvi ; accord- 
ing t(t the comm., the .stibjett thtou;;hoiit is the wearer of the amulet, and the divine one, 
as is alvi indicated by Kauq., is the j«r//«i //////// J plant, a plant evidently lia%'ing some* 
thing altoiit it resembles or suggests eyes. Tpp. reads «l for tit in c |_Kead ppJi 
lor pp,i/t in a.' Tronouncc diztintap- in cj 


2. Three skies, three earths, and these six directions severally — by 

thee let me see all beings, O divine herb. 

Ppp. has mahl (for -Ik) instead of prthak in b, and in the second half-verse, tathd. 
*ham sarvd yiltfna pa^ydmL Some of our mss. (P.M.) give pdsydnt in d. Pada a 
is redundant by a syllable, unless we pronounce prihvts, |_For the triplicity, comm. 
cites RV. ii. 27.8 and AB. ii. 17 end. J 

3. Of that heavenly eagle art thou the eye-pupil ; thou here hast 
ascended the earth as a wearied bride {vadhtl) a litter. 

Ppp. puts divyasya after suparnasya. The ground of the comparisons made in the 
verse is altogether obscure, and the comm. casts no light upon them. [^Hloomfield 
discusses this vs., AJP. xvii. 402.J 

4. May the thousand-eyed god set it in my right hand ; with it do I 

see every one, both who is Cudra and [who] Aryan. 

Ppp. has hasC Ckdadat at end of b, and, for second half- verse, tato 'ham sarvath 
pa^ydmi adbhutam (sic) yac ca bhavyain. Pa^y&ni would be an acceptable emendation 
in c. The comm. (with one of SPP's mss.) reads ivayd in c ; he regards the "god'* 
in a as Indra. 

5. Make manifest [thy] forms ; do not hide thyself away ; then mayest 
thou, O thousand-eyed one, look upon the kimidins. 

Literally (in d) * meet with thy look.* Ppp. begins c with evd instead of at/io^ and 
ends d \\\i\\ pa^yamy dyata. The abbreviation in c of the stem -caksus to -caksn is 
one of those noted in the Prat, rules ii. 59 and iv. 100. },jTKc^ ^ Y- • ' ^^* ^-^^^ ^*-'/ ^^i M\ ^fo/ni • 

6. Show me the sorcerers ; show the sorceresses ; show all \\i^ pi^acds: 

with this intent I take hold of (a-rabh) thee, O herb. H^l'^i ^P'^Trf^OPf 

For second half- verse, Ppp. has dpasprg eva tisthantam dar^aya mdm kimldinam, V / 2-y 

7. The eye of Kagyapa art thou, and of the four-eyed bitch ; conceal -»/ 
thou not the pifdcdy like the sun gliding {srp) in the clear sky ( vfd/ird ). P*="A f^ ^^ t 

That is, allow him to be no more concealed than the sun etc. Both editions read >^^>*^ 
-^iksyas at end of b, but it is against the authority of the mss., all of which (save two 
of SPP's which follow the comm. in giving the true reading) omit, as in numerous 
other cases, the^' after the sibilant. The comm. regards Saram& as referred to; and, 
in futile attempt at explaining her possession of four eyes, says etend ^pradhrsyatvam C4fUlj^^^^'^^^^ 
uktam. \Qi. Weber, Deri. Sb., 1895, p. 849, n. 3. J He explains the reference to eyes 
by the resemblance of the flowers of the plant in question ; but this looks rather like 
a plausible guess than like a statement on any authority. Ppp. has for first half-verse 
ka^yapasya caiuraksas syahiyd^ caturaksd. The comm. derives vfdhra from vi-idh^ 
and glosses it with aniariksa. The Anukr. appears to approve the abbreviation to 
suryam *va in c. LBloomficld thinks that ka^yapa punningly suggests pa^aka *sccr,' 
and cites TA. i. 8. 8, ka^yapah pa^yako bhavati yat sarvam paripa^yati,\ 

8. I have seized {ud-grabh) out of his shelter {paripdna) the sorcerer, 
\the kimidin; with it do I see every one, both ^udra and Aryan. 

' Ppp. has in a, b -pdnam ydtudhdndt kimidinah. The comm. makes tena refer here 
\.o ydtudhdnam^ and supplies ^<i/m//f to sarvam — evidently without reason. 

.^ ^r 

iv. 20 noOK IV. Tin: ArnARVA-VllDA-SAttHITA. 186 

9. Whichever flics throu|;h the atmosphere, and whichever creeps 
across the sky; whichever thinks the earth a refuge (m\thd) — that 
fii^iUii ^o thou show forth. 

I 'pp. has for b hhoml{ n* */#rj<j//<i//, ami in c tfivam for hhikmim ; and its d is tvatk 
^*^<^^ pi^tUttfit dr^e kuru. The comm. (with a couple of Sl*l**s mss.) has atlki- instead of n/f* 

in b; he f^losses nilthttM with s:u}>fihtaw. The verse is not bkurij if we combine 
yb^ntAr- in a. LCorrcct the misprinted versenuml>er.J 

liens at the rnd of the fourth anuvAka^ with 5 hymns and 42 verses, the okl Anukr. 
says aiha kuryHd dvittia^a. 

Ilcfc ends also the sc\cni\\ pnt^tl/kaka. 

21. Praise of the kine. 

; ,y. /-7 Ih'xfi hymn is not found in IViipp.. hut it occurs in the Rig-Veda (vi. 28. 1-7; vs. 8, 

in a different meter, is perhaps a latrr .iddition), and also in TH. (ii. 8, 8» ••••). It is 
used by Kau<;. (19. 1), with i. 4 Y> and otlirrs in a rite for ailing; kine, and also (21.8 ff.) 
in one for the prosperity of kinr, vs. 7 l>rinf; specific ally mentioned as repeated when 
they f^o forth to p.istuic ; vs. 7 appears further to l>e tpioted at 19. 14, in a rite for the 
cow-stall; but the lomm. declares two verses to l>e intended, and, if so, they must be 
vii. 75. I, 2, since tiiere is here no following; verse. In \'ait. (21. 24), in the agntstoma^ 
the cows intended as sacrifu iai \(\i\s are i^rreted with this h) run. The .vchol. ( KAu^. 1 6. 8) 
reckons vs. 4 to the abhayit i^ttmt. The comiu. |_and Ke<fava*s S(holion to Kau^. 27. 34 J 
dedare h\rnns 21 -30 to Ih.* ;///(,'i7/«r hymns (Kauq. 27.34; 9. 1), but the name would 
seem pro|M'rly to belong only to hymns 23-29, which form a related ^roup, and are by 
the Anukr. a.scril>ed to Mr^^lla as autlior. 

Translated: by KV. tr.inNLiturs ; and (jrifTith, i. 161 ; \Vel>er, xviii. 87* 

I. The kine have come, ami have done what is excellent; let them 
stay (stui) in the stall (j;^i'}fjiii) ; let them take pleasure with us; may they 
be rich in projjcny here, niany-foinied, milking for Indra many dawns. 

The other texts have no v.iriants for this verse. The comm., after his wont, turns 
the two aoiists in A into ini|H:r.itivcs ; he renders r/j/ffir/i'i/fi alternatively by ramayamtm 
and mmttfifilffi ; and he takes ** dawns ** as equivalent to **t\2y%" (i/huisAtt). |_* Full 
^^ many a morning \ioldinf; milk for Indra.* J 


2. To the .sacrificcr and sin[;cr, to the helpful one {?), Indra verily 
gives further, steals not what is his ; increasing more and more the 
wealth of him, he sets the godly man (t/n'itrii) in an undivided domain 

The otlier trxts have in A the decideilly better reading /rz/tf// tii ftkut/i of which ours 
is sinipty a loiiuption; the conun , liecdlcss of the accent, takes our {fksate as a verb 
( (,*.?// />f.fytt. , fitt/t ) In d they have the l»etler accent lihkinnf : and TH. reads 
k*it»\\' : must of <iur niss. coiiM Ik» Intter undrrsl«MMl as kki//>/ than ^%kkify/; the ctmim. 
ih'lini's k*n/it .is ijf*ftihtjt>i»*t .t//i.l'f,tfft, and k/tt/ytj as ititrahhavtt ; R. conjectures "Stone- 
wall *' fnr k/tt/y^t. .All our in^s . and p. lit o( SPT's, read mukhthati in b. 

3. They shall not be lost ; no thief shall harm [them] ; no hostile 


[person] shall dare attack their track (?) ; with whom he both sacrifices 
to the gods and gives, long verily with them does the kine-lord go in 

IJoth the other texts* accent vydthis in b, as docs one of our niss. (O.), and one of 
SPT's. Before this word TB. has w<J/ V/J amitrd. The comm. explains vyathis as 
vyathdjanakam Hyudham, The pada is very obscure as it stands. |_An earlier draft 
of the translator's ms. reads: ^^ Na^anit\ by its association, and its difference from 
tia^yantiy must be meant as subjunctive (aor.), notwithstanding its ending." I am 
tempted to suggest nA ta naqan; ta (ace. pi. fem.) nA dabhdii idskaras. — DR., vi. 1438, 
take vyAthis as * unbemerkt von,' with genitive, dsdtn. But see Geldner's discussion 
of the combinations of vydthis with d-dhrs^ Ved. Stud. ii. 29. — Note that TB's dmitrd 
(both ed's read so in the text and both have d- in the comm.) is neither amitro nor 
dmitrd,] * [^In TB., the pratlkas of vss. 3 and 4 stand in RV. order at ii. 8. 8»« ; but 
the vss. are given in full at ii. 4. 69. J 

4. No dust-raising horseman Qdi-van) reaches them; not unto the 
slaughter-house {}) do they go; those kine of that sacrificing mortal 
roam over wide-going fearlessness. 

RV. differs only by retaining the a of a^nute in a, as do one or two of our mss. 
(O.K.) and half of SPP's; and its pada-iQxi divides samskrtaotra in b, while the AV. 
pada-mss. (except our Op.) leave the word undivided (by an oversight, the AV. Index 
Verborum gives the RV. form). The comm. explains arvd by hihsako ttydghrddih^ 
and -kakdta by udbhedaka; also samskrtatra by mdiisapdcaka (because xnt^asitam 
trdyate pdiayati)^ quoting from an unknown .source the line samskrtah sydd vi^asitah 
samskrtatftt^ ca pdcakah. The comment to Prat. ^iv. 58 J makes the word come from 
the root kr, TB. Lalso retains the a of a^nute and itj has in d mdrtyasya. In our 
printed text, the upper accent-mark in renukakdto is over the wrong k. 

5. The kine [are] Bhaga ; Indra has seemed to me the kine; the kine 
[are] the draught of first soma; these kine — that, O people, [is] Indra; 
with whatever heart [and] mind I seek Indra. 

The translation implies in a the RV. reading achdn^ of which our ichdt seems 
merely an unintelligent and unintelligible corruption ; TB. has instead acchdt, and our 
O.K. give the same. Both the other texts add id after ichami in d. The comm. 
translates in a •' may Indra desire that there be kine for me." LThe latter part of C is 
of course the well-known refrain of RV. ii. 12. J 

6. Ye, O kine, fatten whoever is lean; the unlovely (afnrd) one ye 
make of good aspect ; ye make the house excellent, O ye of excellent 
voice ; great is your vigor (vdyas) called in the assemblies {sabhd). 

The RV. version agrees at all points with ours ; TB. accents kf^am in a and has 
a^lilam in b (its krniithdt is a misprint, as its commentary shows). The comm. reads 
krnuta in c; sab/tdsn in d he paraphrases yi\i\i janasamilhesti. 

7. Rich in progeny, shining in good pasture, drinking clear waters at 
a good watering-place — let not the thief master you, nor the evil- 
plotter; let Rudra's weapon avoid you. 



^ ^ ,1^J ft The translation of a follows our text, though the false accent ry^dntls (TB. has the ./ . 

same reading;) sliows that the word is only a corruption of the KV. reading ri{ttmtU> ' / ., 
•cropping;, gra/in;;.* The comm., tliough reading /Mfa/fZ/i, renders it trnam bhakfa'\ , ' V// 
yatttls, |_'l he TH. comm. in l>oth ed's reads fi{antli.\ Hoth the other texts have in a 
stiyAvasam^ and at tlie end heli riuUAsya vrjyAh (TH. vrfljyJi). With our C, d com- 
pare als<i TS. i. I . I (differing only in the order of words in d [jrmdrdsym ketik pAri 
V0 vrftal/N, which is metrically much Inrtter than our AV. order, allKit the RV. order 
is as poiMl as that of TS. if we pronounce rtnir-Asya \). The comm. supplies to agkm- 
^anxat in c lyJt^'Anh/ir tiustamr^ak, ^For ff<i/tf, see Ski. Cram. { 615. J 

22. For the success and prosperity of a king. 

[ I 'asistha ( ? Atka? fan / ). — JiM4/r*im, triutHhkam. ] 

Found in Paipp. iii. (with vs. 3 before vs. 2), and most of it also in TH. (ii. 4. 7'*'). 
I'sed hy Kau^. (14. 24) in a rite for victory in battle (the e<litor of KAu^. regards the 
next hymn aUo as included, but evidently by an error), and also in the ceremony of 
consecration of a kin;; (17. 28) [^ Weber, Ktljastiya, p. 142J; and the comm. mbtakenlj 
regards it as quoted at 72. 7, Ki^'i'^R ^^^^ pratika as imam indra^ instead of imam 
i/tiirtim^ as K.1u<;. really reads (xii. 2.47, evidently the verse Intended). The Anukr. 
spreads itself at very unusual lenf;th over the cliaracter of the hymn: imam imdra 
vanfhayf *ii vasisiha Aindram trilistubham so 'iharvA ksatriyAya rAj^t €amdramas4 
prathatttAbhih paficahhir niramttflkaraptamukhyeue *ntiram apfiktihayad grAmm* 
gttvU^vtltii sanuit/i rAjyopakaranam ca latah parAbhyiim antyAbhyiim imdrartipimm 
svayatn rtut l.uitfiyath rHjAnam mndfamasatti il^isJ prAtiudad ili, Probably t'mjisfka 
is the intended r/i-name, and si> '//tarvA (one nis. sAttth.) a misreading for soroelhiog else. 

Translated: Ludwi;;, p. 457 ; /inimer, 165 ; Orill, 67, 135; Griffith, L 162; ISloom- 
field, 115, 404 ; Wcl>er, xviii. 91. — Cf. llillebrandt, I'tdachrestomathie^ p. 43. 

1. Increase, () Iiuira, this Kshatriya for mc ; make thou this man sole 

chief of the clans (I'/f) ; unman (ftis-aks) all his enemies ; make them 

subject to him in the contests for preeminence. 

The comm. (with one of .Sl*I'*s mss.) has in b the strange reading \*rsAm for vi^Am; 
and it treats aham and uttaresu in d as two separate words. He takes tfi'/«r«rilf as 
from aks * attain' {^aksa vyAp/AN), and .so explains it {nirgatavyApiikAm kurtt), \Stt 
Delbriick's discussion, GurupujAkAiimudl^ p. 48-9.J TB. combines a of this verae 
(reading kuitriyAnAm for -ynm mt) with b, c, d of our vs. 3. In our edition, aa 
anusi'Ani is substituted for an accent over the syllable -Mra- in d- 

2. Portion thou this man in village, in horses, in kine ; unportion that 
man who is his enemy ; let this king be the summit of authorities (tsatrd) ; 
O Incira, make every foe subject to him. 

Ppp. elides th** <r of atnitras in b. and in c has the lietter readinf* x*arsmam *at the 
summit,* which is also offered by the comm.. and bv three of STT's mss. TB. has 
I'lirsfrntft, but as first word of a very different half-verse, our iii. 4. 2 cd, which It adds 
to our first half verse here to make a complete verse; in a it has itnAm i instead of 
/ *mAin, ami in b nir amuin insteail of /r/r tAm, thus rectifying the meter (the Anukr. 
takes no notice of the metrical itrrt;iil.irity of our b) ; and it leaves asya without accent 
at the end. Nearly half the mss. (iinlmliiv^ our P.M. W.I. K.) have in ^ {Atrikik^ and 
the comm. seems to understand {attun. [TH. combines /^ ^mttro^ against the meter. J 

fo T^^o:sdr:»:iv *jic: >u^rT;?. iccK. :^' ->- ^^ 

TTT7t^:* utni lis ix. 

-*^ lutEL lUHVTi. T3. rmnnms :tie ssfc " .tiri y g .?»<£^ ^v :ttt*^ -"tyT^r Twin jmt * t 

Iki r»': -mitnT iure r:r«ir ]:-j*iJL£ tin^ luc-^-itn^c ^tur^ma^^ . imv tfiis^ v*it^ 

I'm. rnnniims Ritfits '-:*£ it ^ imt ros hhit'th n ; ma a: :iit; *»nt t scris^rs^ ^^in 
TT2. n "^rating 7^ T'^tt 3ir f*a.7lrtiZn. 73. i^irtinsr V*» i2T«« » % ant ^f*^** ^'•r 
£i^:tiiji n 1 nic «55 ?*riLL ..5*1* . xm£ C jryi; mg » jtttm lot tw^Af*Uim, !?*tic*n^v t tt 
III* USE lii :ii;ii: pr^x ir jc feme rcnnr ttiisc casvs m/i»dfm^m :ir -stsaiu a bt fit* ns«Si^ 

■^ — ■^. '^ -.h 

-ry^^ iTicuz-ifir. xr* ••:C ccc'ri^ri'i : '»*rc s^ull 3rai^ tiXx* $eiir onct >^ 

::-:--errf, brtnz tioa in the en;oYi3&C3::s .hh/tj:mji^ ct :St!Coat tij^: ^*iix 

*> ■*■ 

t- L:e cells' 2iil£ ci w'zjch oar irAt his »?t!u3^ vvcrrs^'mifoi^ ; j^ i^ ^N>s^ *\*t^c^ ^ ^»« 
fkM"rii:. Th* cocEi3i_ takes /rx/r irisd I'xrrxriw tat ^ .xs twv* «&i|itf»it>Qikl<«( >iivt\j^; >if 

7. Of lion-aspect, do thou Je\»ur ^.yJ> out the cUns v^^^ ^ ^^ *^^v^«- 
a5::e::, cd thou beat down the foes; sole chief, hxvmc Invtrx xs v\^\ 
panion. ha\-ing conquered, seize thou on {J-^iinO the enK^yo!ient:ii k>([ 
them that play the foe. 

Fpp. has onlj the second half-rrrsc, ami n^avis lor d |%*/>ilra*M«t «*^^ir ^>\*Jvl v/v^iUnAt 
(tjt viL 73. 10 etc. : sec under that verse). The vh<4e retse b waatti^ in Tlv VHe 
corr.Tn., ^.ih one of SPP's mss., reads «f/*f for 4r^ in b. He i^mj^hrjfcses M^i \^>fcKkK 
is a frequent expression for the action of a ruler upon his subjects) xxtv |M\>|X^K by 
thuntria; and a khida^ less acceptably, br JUxkinJAi^ 

iv. 23- nooK IV. Tilt: AT!iARVA-vi:uA-sAWniTA. 190 

23. Praise and prayer to Agni. 

Found,* with the six hymnx that follow, all to);cther (hut in the order 23, 25, 27, 26, 
2S. 20. 2 0, ill I'aipp. iv. The 5cvcii arc kno^n hy K.1u<;. (9. I) as the mrj^JIrm hymni 
(also |iy thi* schol., as by the Atiuki. ; that the cnniin. to h. 21 ^ives the name to 21-30 
was there remarked ; here he s|>eaks of ** a heptad of hymns ** as intended in 9. I) ; tKejr 
are reckoned (9.1) to the hhaihJuti^ana^ and also (32.27. note) to the anhnliNga 
j^itNti ; and thry are emph)yril in a healing rite (27.34). In V.iit. the hymn aicom- 
panjfs the kindlin;; of the fire in the parvan sacrifues (2. II), and vs. 4 is similarly 
used (5.15) in tlw! ai^uyAdheya. It was noted under the preceding hymn that the 
editor of Kaui;. mistaken'^ rr^ards this one as included in Kaui;. 14. 24. The firit and 
last verses ^of each J of the ttir^Ara hymns are piven also l>y TS. (iv. 7. 1 5), MS. 
(iii. ifi. 5), and K. (xxii. 15) ; only the hymn to Hhava and Qarva (our 2K) is omitted, 
and, on the other hand, those texts have similar invocations to the yX^vins and to all 
the Rods. And the comm. to our h. 24 (piotes also TS. vii. 5. 22, where a mrgJIresti 
with ten olil,ition% to the divinities worshi|)ed with the verses in qurstton, is prescribed. 
(_See further, as to this litany, Weber's note, p. 95 f. — The wr^-Jrii-versei occur in 
TS. and M.S. at the very end of the lulfii/as (iv. and iii ) concerned. J •^In the verse- 
order 1,4, 2,3. 5,6. 7. J 

Translated: (fiiHith, i. K>3 ; \Vel)er, xviii.94. 

1. I reverence (mnun) fust the forethoughtful (prdcetas) Agni, him 
of the five peoples, whom men kindle in many places; we pray to him 
who hath entered {pt'^vi^) into clans after clans (i/f ) : let him free us 
from distress. 

Ppp. has in h /»dHcfij- ; the ronun . piifiiaytijnti^yn^ for whirh he gives three different 
interpretations, the last one makin;; -yit/fiiisyti ecpiivatent to -janaxytt. Afdni»e he para- 
phrases by y«};/«l///*. In a, MS. has ttmfU^nAtn (or fiftii f/tt sat ; for b, 'I S.MS. j;^\\t jrdm 
fiiflntjitttyam hahthuih samintihikte : and, fore, vf{va\yt\th 't'i\i ftavtvi^n'Smsam 
imahe. |_The ** absence of reduplication '* (.S77. Of ant. § 803 a) is dout>tless due to 
the oftie|>eatcd syllable 77 or vi\. I he pratika is cited, M(«S. i- 5- 5 — cf. p. I45.J 
The Anukr., at the end of the drsi riptions of the seven hymns, says that all the verses 
contain — i.e. rnd with — an itttu\hihh p.ida. Its definitions of the meters in detail are 
too inaccurate to be worthy of attention tliroughout. 

2. As thou earliest the oblation, (.) Jatavedas ; as, foreknowing, thou 
adaptest the sacrifice - so do th«)u convey to us favor from the gods: 
let him free us from distress. 

I'pp. offers no variants in vss. 2 4, but puts 4 next after I. 1 he comm. takes dnt' 
bhya\ in c first as dative and tiien as ablative. 

3. Put to service at every course (ytlntofi), best carrier, sh.irer {tiHiaga) 

at every lile, Apni I prais<\ demon-sIay<T, sacrifice-increaser, ofTcrctl to 

with ;;hee : let him free us from distress. 

.'Ml tlie m^s. (and .ST P. with them) make the division of the verse, with obvions 
impiopii' (y, l»efore instead of after ai^nittt Uic, Inrin^ apparently led into the IJunder by 


remembering the two words as beginning the Rig- Veda. The comm. gives the right 
division, as does also our edition by emendation. Nearly all the mss. (not our I.K.) 
read bdhisthafn at end of a ; both editions give vdh-, with the comm. The comm. para- 
phrases abhaf^ain by dbhaktavyam Ssevyam evathgunaviqistam. |_Thc vs. scans as 
1 1 4- 1 1 : 1 2 + 8 = 42. Even with the misdi vision (i 1 +7 : 8+8+8), it is no purastajjyo- 
iismail (44). J 

4. The well-born Jatavedas, the mighty (vibhu) Agni belonging to all 

men (I'dififdftard), the carrier of oblations, we call on : let him free us 

from distress. 

The verse, as already noticed, comes second in the Ppp. version of the hymn. The 
comm. explains vibhu as " pervading '* (^vy&pakd). 

5. With whom as ally the seers made [their] strength shine out; with 

whom they repelled the wiles of the Asuras ; with whom, Agni, Indra 

conquered the Panis — let him free us from distress. 

Ppp. makes in a the combination yena rs-^ and reads in b idyotayan j for the latter, 
the comm. (with two or three of SPP's mss.) gives uddyotayan ; a few of the mss. 
(including our Bp.K.) have -tayam. 

6. By whom the gods discovered the immortal ; by whom they made 

the herbs rich in honey ; by whom the gods brought the heaven (svdr) 

— let him free us from distress. 

The comm. takes amrta in a as meaning the drink of immortality ; more probably it 
signifies immortality itself. 

7. In whose direction [is] whatever shines forth {vi-mc) here, what is 
born and to be born, all of it — I praise Agni, [as a] suppliant I call 
loudly on [him] — let him free us from distress. 

TS. and MS. have a quite different first half-verse : yAsye *ddm prdndn nimisdd ydd 
ijati ydsya jdtdm jdnamdnath ca kivalatn. The comm. renders ndthitas first by 
ndihamdnah^ phalath kdmayamdnah^ and then by ndthah svUml sathjdto *sya, 

24. Praise and prayer to Indra. 

[^Afrgdra. — (see h. 23). /. fakvar^^rbhd purahfakvari.^ 

P'ound in P5ipp. iv., with the other tnrgdra hymns, and used by Kau^. only as one 
of the group (see under h. 23) ; its first and last verses occur in the same Black Yajur- 
Vcda texts (do.). 

Translated : Griffith, i. 165 ; Weber, xviii. 100. 

I. We reverence Indra; constantly do we reverence him; these 
praise-hymns {stSma) of the Vrtra-slayer have come unto me; he who 
goes to the call of the worshiper (da^dhs\ of the well-doer — let him 
free us from distress. 

Ppp. has in a ittdrasya manve {a^vad yasya manvire^ which is better, in both sense 
and meter. TS. and MS. (agreeing throughout) read indrasya manve prathamdsya 
prdcetasah in a ; in b, itpa mim upA *guh; and, in c, hdvam upa gdntA, The verse 

iv. 24- nooK IV. THi: ATIIARVA-VEDA-SAMHITA. 192 

is pro|>crly enough ffmrah^akvarl^ hut there is no reason why it should be called in 
addition ^t^kvaffj^afbhil. 

2. He who, having formidable arms, is rcpcllcr (.Vtf/w) of the for- 
midable ones (f.); who battered the strength of the Danavas ; by whom 
are concjuered the rivers, by whom the kine — let him free us from 

I'pp. has in blvo 'j^ntmlm and omiis yaj'tis; and at end of b it reads UsasAtia. I'he 
first p.ida is full of (|uestiunablc points, and probably corrupt ; the comm. explains 
yttyux (though SIM*, says in a note that his text reads i'#i^'wj), and hs yAx^ayitA prthak^ 
karttl ; to u^rlniim h«* supplies \itiritifntl9ulffi. 

3. lie who is fdler of people (carsdPii), bull, heaven-finder (Jiwrj'/r/) ; 

for whom the pressing-stones proclaim [his] manliness ; whose is the 

sacrifice with seven priests, most intoxicating — let him free us from 


Ppp. has cttrstffti instead of vruihkas in s, and, for c, yasyA *iih\*aryus saptakHA 
mutUtyut. The comm. renders carutni- by tnanusya-. 

4. Whose are cows (xv/j</), bulls, oxen ; for whom, the heaven-finder* 
sacrificial posts (svtiru) are set up; for whom the bright ((liJtni) [soma] 
purifies itself, adorned with sacred words (brd/t99ta-) — let him free us 
from distress. 

Tpp. has in cyttstniti ^ukras pravartate. The comm. explains va^A in a as *• bairrn 
cow'* {7'fJMti7tVi} ji^iltt/i)^ and snifu as ytipAi'ataksttntt^akaltt^ used Un ytipa. \Ci. 
RV. vi. 16. 4 7. J 

5. lie whoso enjoyment (jiis(i) the offerers of soma desire; whom* 
pos.sessed of arrows, men call on in the cattle-raid (gdins(t)\ on 
whom depends song (}artii), on whom force — let him free us from 

rpp. reads in b isuTtttt/itrft. Pr.'it. ii. 23 tcaihes the form o[ ^avisti. The comm. 
explains arkas as tmanttuhihatttihhtito manirah siMttt{ttstrihfiIaksitnah. 

6. He who was born first for the doing of deeds ; of whom first the 
heroism was noted ; by whom brandished (nd-yafn) the thunderbolt 
went at Utb/iii) the dragon — let him fiee us from distress. 

As in «)ne or two other,* the mss. have in sj-<///V instead oijajfl/ ; but one or 
two of .Srr*s follow llic (omm.. \\!u) rea»ls jttjfi^^ as does also I'pp. ; and lioth of the 
editi'Uis ^ive this. In b the comm., with three of SIT's authorities, f;ives Jif ftAiV//<M4j«t .■ 
in c he derives tlyitta fnmi r(K>t t#iw, and renders it by ahtnilt ; we mif;ht emend to 
ahhyiiyatii *htm and Kct a form from root, whiih would yield a preferable sense. 
|_For the use of af^hii uith vajnt as subject and with ace, Whitney has noteil the 
excellent p.ualhl, KV. i. So. 12. J '[So x. 10. 18. J 

7. lie who, controlling, leads together hosts (j#iw^r<rlw</) for fighting; 
who mingles (stini-sr/) the possessions (ptis(ti) of the two parties — I 


praise Indra, [as a] suppliant I call loudly on [him] : let him free us from 

Ppp. has in b pustyil nas. TS. and MS. read in a (as does also the comm.) the 
sing. sathgrilmAm, and they \i\x\yudhi after va(t ; at end of b they give trayatti instead 
of dvayani. The comm. thinks dvaydni to be stripumsHtmakdni miihundni, 

25. Praise and prayer to Vflyu and Savitar. 

[Mrgdra. — (see h. 23). j. aii^akvarlgarbhd jagatt ; y,pathydbrhaii.'\ 

Found in Paipp. iv. (in the verse-order 1-3, 6, 5, 4, 7, and after our hymn 23). The 
Black Yajur-Veda texts (see under hymn 23) put their passages corresponding to our 
hymn 29 (to Mitra and Varuna) between corresponding to our 24 and 25. For 
the use of the hymn as one of the tnrgiira hymns in Kau^., see under hymn 23 ; the 
comm. further quotes it as employed by Naks. K. 18, in a ^ilnti ceremony named 
vdyaxyd. The metrical irregularities are not worth the trouble of detailing. 

Translated: Griffith, i. 166; Weber, xviii. 102. 

1. Of Vayu, of Savitar we reverence the counsels {viddtha) : ye who 

enter and who defend what has life (atmauvdnt) ; ye who have become 

cncompassers of the all — do ye free us from distress. 

TS. and MS. read bibhrids (for viqdthas) and rdksatas in b, and TS. babhuvdtus in 
c; and both have agasas in the refrain. MS. further combines ^^ dt- in b, and has ti. 
no m- in the refrain. The comm. is uncertain as to the sense of viddtha. |_Geldner 
renders, '* Wir gedenken dcs Bundes zwischen V. und S.," ZDMG. lii. 746 : cf. Foy, 
KZ. xxxiv. 226. J Doubtless it is a metrical consideration that causes the change from 
3d to 2d person in the refrain of hymns 25, 26, and 28. |_Grammar and meter favor 
restoration of the older and longer form paribhuvd in c — see Lanman, JAOS. x. 413.J 

2. Of whom are numbered the widths of the earth ; by whom the 

welkin (rdjas) is made fast (j///) in the atmosphere ; whose progress no 

one soever has reached (anu-af) -^ do ye free us from distress. 

Ppp. has in a varimdni pdrthivd^ which improves the meter ; also gusthitdm for 
yupitam in b, and pray dm ior prdyam inc. Yupitdm (perhaps 'smoothed out, spread 
uniformly* ^cf. Bloomfield AJP. xii. 418, 419J) the comm. explains by mUrchitam sad 
dhdryaie. The pada-KKTiX, divides in c praodydm^ for which SPP., on the authority of 
only one of his mss., unaccountably substitutes praoaydm (a number of our mss. give 
instead -yd ft) [ci. BR. v. 163 5 J. 

3. In [conformity with] thy course {vratd) people (jdna) go to rest; 

when thou art risen, they go forth, O thou of beauteous luster ; ye, O 

Vayu and Savitar, defend beings — do ye free us from distress. 

Ppp. has yachatas for raksathas at end of c ; the comm., with a couple of SPP's 
mss., reads raksaias; and he paraphrases it, without a word of remark, vixih pdlayathas. 

4. Away from here, O Vayu and Savitar, drive {sidh) ye what is ill- 
done, away the demons and Cimida ; for ye unite (sam-sr/) [men] with 
refreshment {fifjd), with strength — do ye free us from distress. 

Nearly all the mss. read in c srjdtha (instead of -thai). The comm., with two 


or three of SPT^s m%%., rcAcls samiiftim' (lor ^imiddm) in his text in b, but explaint 
samuihAm (by samiiiptAth krtyiim nt)\ itih in a he takeii from root /, and paraphrases 
hy ji^amayttthtis / KmendAlion in a to tiuskitam^ * evildoer/ would l>e acceptable; the 
comm. takes it as accented (-= asfttadlyam pupam). 

5. Let Savitar and Vayu engender {A-su) in my body {tanb) wealthy 
prosperity, very propitious dexterity ; do ye put here freedom from 
ydksma^ greatness; do ye free us from distress. 

Tanfi in b is tranMateil as a locative because so regarded by the PrAt. (under i. 74), 
as it is also by the comm. ( •=■ tanviJm, asntadtye ^arlrt) ; it might be nom. dual ; or, yet 
better, it might l>e emended to tanudaksdm, Tpp. reads avtyaksmatdtk $mkaim4t%m 
dhattam for c The comm. paraphrases i sni'atAm with prerayatAm prmyauMaMm. 

6. O Savitar, Vayu, [give] forth favor in order to aid ; yc cause to 

revel in the intoxicating jovial [soma] ; hitherward from the height 

(pravdt) confirm ye of what is pleasant (nhttd) ; do yc free us from 


The strtmg ellipses in the first half-verse are filled by the comm. in accordance with 
the translation. Tpp. reads in b mAdayeiAm^ anfl in c prnvalA ni yackatas. The 
comm. makes /fvi7'<f/(f J (-= pralarsavatas) coordinate with vdwihya, qualifying dMmma- 
sya understood. [^Tischel, I'ed. S/ud. ii. 74, takes it as ace. pi. with vtlmasya^ 'streams 
of lulf/ia^* and compares nlyJ dAilnl, vAsvo tirnaiul, etc. — Render the subjunctive 
in b by • cause ye ' etc. ?J 

7. The best blessings (d^ts) have come unto us in the domain (Mdman) 
of the two gods ; I praise god Savitar and Vayu : do ye free us from 

Tpp. combines to ml '\iJo in A. MS. reads A^fras for il^has ; for dkAman in b it 
has dhtir/mls, and TS. dhArme; for c, lK)th give sidnmi vAyum saxfitiratk nAikitS 
jokitvttni ; and, as in vs. i, MS. In^gins d with Af, and both end it with i^asa$. 

The fifth anuvAka ends here in the middle of the mrgAra group; it has 5 hymns 
and 35 verses; and the old Anukr. says aparAh pafkca, 

26. Praise and prayer to heaven and earth. 

[^^frgAra. — (*ce h. 2^. t. fttr^^ * stir JapMti ; 7. fAktstrafar^kJ£imadkyf//H9i-] 

Found in Taipp. iv. (in a .vuncwhat different verse-order •), after our hymn 27. The 
other texts (.vre under hymn 23) h.ive but one verse that represents the hymn, made up 
of parts of our vs.s. i and 7. As ti> the use of the f/rr^^lnv hymns by KAu^., see under 
h. 23. In VAit. (1 5. 13), tliis hymn (or vs. 1 ) accompanies the offering to the tidMmkmrm 
twig in the ai^nistomn. •|_()rder, 1, 2, 4, 6. 3, 5, 7. J 

Translated : (tiilfith, i. 167 ; Welnrr, xviii. ioC>. • 

I. I reverence you, O heaven-and-earth, yc well-nourishing ones (sh- 
hho/as), who, like-minded (sdrr/as) did spread out unmeasured intervals 
(j'i^j\ifi4f) ; since ye became foundations (pratistjid) of good things, do yc 
free us from distress. 

rpp. omits the intrusive and mcter-<listurbing sAif/tttAu (which, on account of its 


accent, is reckoned to b in the translation, as it is also by the pada-icxt) ; and, against 
rule, it combines in b j^f 'pra/A-, The comm., with one of SPP's mss., reads aprathe- 
tilni ; and TS.MS. have the same, followed by Amitebhir djobhir yi pratisthi dbhavatiifh 
TiisfinSm : they have of the verse only these two padas, used as part of a closing verse. 
The first half-verse is found also in the Naigeya-/'<I;/(/(fi of SV. (i. 623 a, b) : this reads 
fndnye for manvi^ accents subhdjasdu^ omits (like Ppp.) sdcetasdu^ and ends with 
dmitam abht ydjanam ; its second half-verse is our 2 c, d. 

2. Since ye became foundations of good things, ye much increased, 

divine, fortunate, wide-extended ones, O heaven-and-earth, be pleasant 

to me : do ye free us from distress. 

Ppp. has in a babhftvathus (for dbhavatam). The comm., with a couple of SPP*s 
mss., reads praviddhe (= stliravat sarvajagadanupraviddhe) in b. As noted under vs. 
I, SV. has (omitting me in c) the second half-verse, here carried on as refrain through 
vss. 3-6. Line, scan -prthvl . . . 5ioni.\ 

3. I call upon the not-distressing, of excellent penance, wide, profound, 

to be reverenced by poets : O heaven- etc. etc. 

Possibly an antithesis is intended between the first two (doubtfully translated) epi- 
thets, both founded on tap *■ heat.* Ppp. has the better reading vdm for aham at end 
of a. 

4. Ye who bear the immortal (amrtd), who the oblations ; who bear 
the streams (srotyd), who human beings {vtanusyd) : O heaven- etc. etc. 

Ppp. puts b before a. 

5. Ye who bear the ruddy [kine], who the forest-trees; ye within 
whom [are] all beings : O heaven- etc. etc. 

One or two of our mss. (H.I.), as the majority of SPP's, make at the beginning the 
false combination ^rf usr-. The comm. declares usriya ^ gondman, 

6. Ye who gratify with sweet drink (ktldla)^ who with ghee ; without 

whom [men] can [do] nothing whatever : O heaven- etc. etc. 

All the pada-x^^^. make in b the absurd division ^aknuovdnti, as if the word were a 
neut. pi. from the stem qaknuvdnt. Ppp. has in a klidldis. The comm. interprets 
kfldla simply as anna. 

7. This that scorches {abhi-fuc) me, or by whomsoever done, from 
what is human, not divine — I praise heaven-and-earth, [as] a suppliant 
I call loudly on [them] : do ye free us from distress. 

The verse looks as if broken off in the middle, to allow addition of the regular close. 
Ppp. has at end of b the more manageable residing pdurusey am na ddivyam, TS.MS. 
have the second half-verse added to our i b, c ; but they have also our 7 a, b (in the 
form ydd iddm rnd ^b/ti\dcati pduruseyena ddivyena) as first half of a similar verse to 
" all the ^ods.'* The comm. understands pdpdt as to be supplied in b, and takes na as 
the particle of comparison. 

iv. 27- nooK IV. THE atharva-veda-samhitA. 196 

27. Praise and prayer to the Marots. 

[s^frc^ra. — (we h. 23).] 

Found, with very slight variations in Tnipp. iv. ; and its first and last verses are rep* 
resented in T.S., MS., and K. (%ce under h. 23): they follow a similar passage to the 
A^vins which follows our h. 25. The use by^. is the same with that of the other 
mrt^tlnt hymns (see under h. 23). The first p.^da of vs. 4 nearly ^f^ten with the second 
pAda of a verse (the la^t) given in KAuq. 3. 3 ; and vs. 4 is directed hy Vftit (1 2. 12) to 
be used in the aj^ni stoma when one is rained on ; further, vs. 7 (9. 2), in the cAtmrmAsfS 
sacrifice, with an evening libation to the Nfaruts. And the comm. quotes the hymn as 
used by Naks. K. (18) in a f/7////ritc named tuiirudj^anf. 

Translated: (iriflith, i. i(>$; Wel>er, xviii. 109. 

1. The Marut.s I reverence; let them bless nic ; let them favor this 
steed (? vtijd) in the race (? rdjasata) ; I have called on them for aid^ like 
easily-controlled swift [horses) : let them free us from distress. 

Ppp. combines -jJA7 *vaniu at end of b. Some of our mss. (l*.M.\V.E.O.) read 
silyAiuitH in c The comm. has ait^uit instead of H^iin in c, and explains it as either 
"reins" or "horses." X'Aja and vijaulta he makes either "food" and the "winning 
of footi," or "Strength " ami " combat." The version of the other texts is quite differ- 
ent ; they have tta\ for tne in a; for h^ fir/ 'ttttim xuicath X'i^vtlm ax'attiu vf^ve ; for Ct 
a^iti have suyiimtln iitAye ; and at the end /nasas. 

2. Who always open {I'iar) an unexhausted fountain ; who pour in 

sap into the herbs — I put forward the Maruts, sons of the spotted one: 

let them free us from distress. 

With a compare xviii. 4. 3^1. Some of our mss. (P.M.W.I.O.) read in c -///#l/f/. The 
comm. explains lUsam by mf^hatn^ vyacanti by antankse vistArayauti^ and Pf^ni as 
the mAdhyatfiikA vAk. 

3. Ye, O poets, that send the milk of the kinc, the sap of the herbs, 
the speed of the coursers — let the helpful {} qagmd) Maruts be pleasant 
to us ; let them free us from distress. 

Ppp. reads invan at end of b; the comm. renders invaiha by vyikpayatha ; he also 
takes kavayas as ntmiinativc, and (\iith one of SPP's mss.) reads at beginning of c 
(aJtwils, explaining it as — sarvakAfyttsamaf thAs. All our jaMAi/tl-ms*. save one (K.) 
LR. not noted J combine «<i syon- in c. 

4. Waters from the ocean to the sky they carry up, they who pour 
[them] from the sky u|)on the earth — the Maruts who go about lording 
it with the waters : let them free us from distress. 

The al>sence of accent of vahanii forl)i(Is us to make the l)ctter construction of it 
with J'/ — which, however, the comm. does not scruple to adopt. 

5. They who p;ratify with sweet drink, who with ghee; or who com- 
bine (siVfi'SrJ) vigor (vdyas) with fatness; the Maruts who, lording it 
with the waters, cause to rain : let them free us from distress. 

Ppp. reads in a (as in 26.6*) Jtf/tl/tlis ; and it rectifies the meter of c by 


adbhis. The comm. takes vdyas first as " bird " (paksijdtafn), then as qariraparitt&ma' 


6. If now indeed, O Maruts, by what relates to the Maruts — if, 
O gods, by what relates to the gods, I have fallen into such a plight : 
ye, O Vasus, are masters (/f) of the removal of that : let them free us 
from distress. 

That is (a, b), apparently, ** by reason of what offense " {aparddhena^ comm.) ; per- . 

haps ** if such a [mishap] hath befallen [us] *' (so the comm.) ; but MS. iii. 8. / Idrg u C/ *• 
sd arisyati^ supports the translation as given, and also indicates that ira is he/e d-ira ; ' 

but the padaK^xX. gives ara simply. LSee also Weber*s citation from PB. xiii. 3. 12. J 
Several mss. (including our Op.) have fqadhve inc, as the comm. reads. Manuseiia for 
maruUna in a would be an acceptable emendation. - |.flQj^ See p . 1 45. J — 

7. A sharp front, known [as] powerful, [is] the troop {fdrd/ias) of 
Maruts, formidable in fights ; I praise the Maruts, [as] a suppliant I call 
loudly on [them] : let them free us from distress. 

The other texts have in a vldiidm^ for which our vidiidm is a pretty evident corrup- 
tion ; they also have ayudham for dnlkam^ in b divydtn for miruiam and jisnu for 
ugrdm; and in c they insert devan before vtarutas^ also ending the verse (as well as 
vs. I) with inasas, 

28. Praise and prayer to Bhava and Qarva. 

[Afrgdra. — (see h. 23). /. dvyatijdgatagarbhd bhurij.'\ 

Found in Paipp. iv. (next after our h. 26), but having nothing correspondent to it in 
the Yajur-Veda texts. Having the same beginning {bhavd^arvdu) as xi. 2. i, one can- 
not tell in many cases which of the two hymns is intended by a quotation in Kau^. ; 
but according to the comm. (also to Ke^ava ; Darila appears to think otherwise) this 
one is employed in a healing ceremony at 28. 8 ; it is also reckoned (26. i, note) to the 
iakmand^ana gana. 

Translated: Muir,OST.iv.»332; Griffith, i. 169; Bloomfield, 158,406; Weber, xviii. 1 1 1 . 

1. O Bhava-and-^arva, I reverence you, know ye that ; ye in whose 

direction is all that shines out {^i-riic) here, who lord it over these bipeds 

[and] quadrupeds : do ye free us from distress. 

Ppp. has, ior h^ yayor vdfh yad idam vitisthate; our vdm makes this pada redun- 
dant. Inc, some of the /«///?-mss. (including our Bp.) have asya (but asyd^ correctly, 
in 6 c). The expression in b corresponds with that in 23. 7 and vii. 25. 2. According 
to the comm., the name Bhava signifies bhavaty. astndt sarvath jagad; and <^arva, 
^rtidti hinasti sarvavt antakdU, 

2. Ye whose is whatever is on the way and afar; who are known as 

best shooters among arrow-bearers ; who lord it etc. etc. 

Ppp. has vitaidu for viditdu (perhaps vfditduf) in b, and its c reads bhavd^an>du 
bhavatatpi me syondu^ which then continues to be (as in 26.2-6) part of the refrain 
through vs. 6, taking the place of our c The comm., with a couple of SPP's mss., has 
isubhfidu for -tdm in b. He explains abhyadhve by samfpadece. Perhaps a means 
rather *on whose way [is] even whatever is afar.* 


iv. 28- BOOK IV. THE ATHARVA-VKDA-SAttlllTA. 198 

3. I call on the (two) thoiisand-cycd Vrtra-slaycrs ; I go praising the 
(two) formidable ones, having pastures afar : who lord it etc. etc. 

One oi the oddest /^at/a-icxi blunders of the whole work is made in b: stMX*4mm€mi 
is resolved into siuvtin: nemi instead of stuvAn: €mi; and then one or two of the 
mss. (including our Op.) corrupt further to stux'dt, and the comm. to mtmt (manu- 
facturing; for it two different, but equally absurd, explanations after his manner |^cf. Fesi» 
grujs an Ao/A, p. 91 J). Tpp. has in a, b Aki'f lul tiiireheit sunemf mgrdtt, |^Add 
avasiina-nx^iV after Mj^wIw.J 

4. Vc who have taken hold {ihrab/i) of much together in the beginning, 
if ye have let loose (f*rti-srj) the portent {abhibhd) among the people 
(jdna) : who lord it etc. etc. 

The sense of the verse is very obscure. All the mss. without exception have in b 
the absurd reading dsnUtram, which our edition emends to -iam^ but which SPP. 
retains, though the comm. ;;ives -fitm. Tpp. has the better reading mji^rdM for tf/rr in a. 
The comm. treats daAii stlJttfm, in spite of accents, as one word, ^ janasatkgkam. 

5. I'Vom whose deadly weapon no one Sf)evcr escapes (afa-fad)^ 
among gods and among men {fttdnnsa) ; who lord it etc. etc. 

Ppp. reads in a, b kirn cand *ft/,tr tfevesu uta. 

6. Whoso is witchcraft-maker, root-cutter (.^), sorcerer, down on him 
put [yourj thunderbolt, O formidable ones ; who lord it etc. etc. 

Ppp. is defaced in this vcr.%e, and omits Mtilakrt. The comm. takes 'kfi in a both 
times as from krt *cut,* and mtila- .is ** offsprinf^, the root of increase of a family**; 
the Pet. I.CX. conjectures ** preparing r(K>ts for purposes of witchcraft ** |^see Hloomfield*i 
note, p. 407 J ; one might also guess murakrt |^see \Veber*s comment, p. 1 14 J. Most of 
our mss. (all save 1 1. p.m. K.I).), and the majority of SPP*s, have the false reading 
dkaiiiim in b ; l)Oth editions give -iam. 

7. Hless us in fight.s, O formidable ones ; visit {sam-sfj) with [your] 
thunderbolt whoever is a kimidin: I praise Bhava-and-^ar\'a ; [as] a 
suppliant I call loudly on [them]; do ye free us from distress. 

Ppp. re.ids me for ttas in a, and leaves -su u^rtltt uncombinetl. |_Its closing half- 
verse is as in the \'ulgate (as may be inferred from the note to vs. 2). J 

29. Praise and prayer to Mitra and Varooa. 

[J/r^J/ii. — (m'c h. 2j). 7. (akfarij^ar^AdJaj^/f] 

Found in Taipp. iv. (with vs. 5 put l)eforc vs. 4). The first and last verses also in 
the Yajus texts (sec undci h. 23), In-tween those of our hymns 24 and 25. For the use 
by Kau^. as mr^ilra hymn, see under h. 23. 

Transl.Ued : Koth, /Cur Liitertitur und GtichUhte tfrs ll'et/at 1 846, p. 43; Liid- 
**K« P- *.^r. ^>di an cl.'il>oratc discussion of the j)ro|>rr names; iiriflith, i. 170; 
Welnrr, xviii. 1 14. 

I. I reverence you, O Mitra-an(I-V\iruna, incrcasers of right; who, 
accordant, thrust [away] the malicious (iinWivan)\ [who] favor the truth- 
ful one in conflicts (b/uifa): do ye free us from distress. 


Ppp. has for b satyojaslin drhydnl yo nirete (cf. its version of 2 •) ; in c, yHu for 
fra^ and havesu (belter) for bharesu {^— samgrdmesu, comm.). TS.MS. read in a 
-rutin tiisya vittam (as in our 28. 1 a; and MS. accents -tdtti) ; then, in b, sdtytlujasil 
(MS. safydii-) drnhand (MS. durhrnd) ydtit nudithe; their c is wholly different: ya 
nijdftam (MS. -nd) sardthaih ydthd (MS. -td) ttgrd; and they end the refrain with 
ngasas.* MS. further accents fftitravdruftd in a ; the comm. reads -rund rtd7*rdhd, 
Satydvan in c is perhaps rather a proper name (so the Pet. Lex.) ; the comm. takes 
it as appellative (^— satyayuktam furusam). In our edition, the e of 9nanvi at the 
beginning is broken off. ♦ LBoth reading ta for tdH.\ 

2. Ye who, accordant, thrust [away] the malicious ; [who] favor the 

truthful one in conflicts ; who, men-watching, go unto the brown soma 

— do ye free us from distress. 

The translation implies emendation in c of babhrtnid (our P.M. have babhrund*) 
to babhrttm a; the comm. understands ** with your brown chariot " ; Ludwig takes the 
word as proper name : '• pressed by Babhru.'* Ppp. has for a satyojasdu drhvanl yo 
niredhe [_cf. its version of i bj, and again havesu for bharesu. The comm. (with one 
or two mss., including our Op.) x^tAs gacchatas in c. ♦ LAnd W. has babhrtlftd.\ 

3. Ye who favor Angiras, who Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, O Mitra-and- 
Varuna, who favor Ka^yapa, who Vasishtha — do ye free us from distress. 

The comm. reads in a agasiyam. He amuses himself with worthless etymologies of 
the various names through the hymn. 

4. Ye who favor Qyava^va, Vadhrya^va, Purumldha, Atri, O Mitra- 
and-Varuna, who favor Vimada, Saptavadhri — do ye free us from 

Ppp. substitutes gavisthiram for vadhryaqvam in a. 

5. Ye who favor Bharadvaja, who Gavishthira, Vi^vamitra, Kutsa, O 
Varuna [and] Mitra; who favor Kakshlvant, also Kanva — do ye free us 
from distress. 

This time, Ppp. puts vadhrya^vam in place oi gavisthiram in a. 

6. Ye who favor Medhatithi, who Tri^oka, who U;anas Kavya, O 
M it ra-and- Varuna; who favor Gotama, also Mudgala — do ye free us 
from distress. 

Ppp. reads ufanam in b, and its c is ydu mudgalam avatho gdutamam ca (our 
O.Op. also have gdutamam ^comm. to Prat. iv. 16 cites it zsgdtamaj). 

7. Whose chariot, of true track, of straight reins, goes spoiling against 
him who behaves (car) falsely — I praise M it ra-and- Varuna ; [as] a sup- 
pliant I call loudly on [them] : do ye free us from distress. 

TS.MS. have yd vdm rdtha rjitraqmih satyddharmA mtthn^ cdrantam (MS. 
mithucdr-) upayati dtlsdyan; then TS. reads -rund in c, and MS. ta 'at beginning 
of d; and both end (as in vs. i) with igasas, 

LHcre end the Mrgara hymns. J 


iv. 30- BOOK IV. Tim ATHARVA-VLDA-SAttHITA. 200 

30. Self-laodation of Speech (?). 

Not found in IViipp., but is, with .1 few insignificant variant^ KV. x. 125 (hut in the 
verse-order i* 3. 5, 4, (>* 2, 7, •^)» a hymn ascril>ed by the tradition to VAc Ambhrni, or 
• Speech, dauf^htcr of Amblirna ' ; but thetc is an utter absence in the details of anything 
distinctly pointing; to S|>eech, and we can only believe that the attribution is an old 
conjecture, a suj^^ested solution of a liddle, which "space," or "faith," or "right" 
(rAf) would have etiually satisfied. Hut the explanation is universally accepted among 
Hindu authorities, old and new, and hardly questioned by Kuro|>ean scholars. The 
hymn is used by Kau^. in the ceremony (10. 16-9) for generation of wisdom (medkMja- 
ftaftii), being said over a child 1>eforc taking of the breast, and also at its first use of 
8|>eech ; also in the same ceremony as forming part of the uffanayafta (57-31) |^90 
the comm. and Ke^ava: but the hymn is not included in the t^ytjra ganay^ and again 
in the dismissal [tttsarjamt^ says the comm. J from Vedic study (139. I $). |^\Vith regard 
to the intention of Kau^. 139. 15 the reader may consult Whitney's notes to the passages 
there cited by //vi//^#i. J 

Translated : by Colebrooke, A static k Kfsearches, vol. viii, Calcutta, 1805, or Mistet- 

laneoMS Essays, i.* p. 28 (Whitney, in his notes to this essay. I.e., p. 1 13, gives a "closer 

l/IAt h 1 version," •• in the original metre," and with an intrcKluction) ; translated, further, by 

'-'• ll^ff^ the RV. translators; and also by Webrr, in his article. l\U nnii XA>««. /mti. Simd. ix. 

^, |t- r^ (1865) 473 ; Deussen, GeschichU, i. i. I46f. ; (iriHith, i. 171 ; Weber, xviii. 117. Here 

Wel>er gives references to discu.<Lsions by himself, by (•arl)e, and by Max Muller, of 
\,^^^^ the {wssible connection of the Ne(v Platonic XA>of.idea with Indie thought. 

1. I go about with the Kiidras, the Vasus, I with the Adityas and 
the All-pods; I bear Mitra-and-Varuna both, I Indra-and-Agni, I both 

There is in this verse no variant from the KV. text. The comm. says that " I " is 
the daughter, Speech by name, of the great sage Ambhrna, and that she by her own 
nature knew the supreme brahman. 

2. I am (jueen, gatherer of good things, the first that has unclerstoofl 
the matters of sacrifice ; me here the gods distributed manifoldly, making 
me of many staticms enter into many. 

RV. (v.s. 3) differs only by reading at the end Ave^Ayanifm. The comm. makes 
yajfkiyAnAm in b depend upon f^fathami, cikttusf being a separate epithet: this is, 
of course, ec^ually |>ossible. 

3. I my own self say this, [whieh is] enjoyable of gods and of men; 
whomsoever I desire, him I make formidable, him priest {bra/tmdn), him 
seer, him very wise. 

KV. (vs. 5) has in b the equivalent tirt't'hhis and minustbhis. The comm. al«urdly 
explains hrahtnituim by srastAtam, or the gtni Brahman. 

4. By me doth he eat food who looks abroad, who breathes, who 
indeed hears what is sjwken ; unknowing (} amantu) they dwell upon me; 
hear thou, heardof one ; I sav to thee what is to be credited. 


RV. leaves the a of dnnam in a unelided (making the p&da a regular jat^a/f: our 
Anukr. takes no notice of it as such, but it would be an extremely bad tris(ubh)^ has 
(as has also the comm.) the regular firiniti in b, and reads ^raddhivdm for ^rad- 
dhiyam in d. One of our mss. (Op.) accents ^ruid. The comm. understands a, b to 
mean *• it is by me that any one eats, sees," etc., and takes fm as = idam; amantavas 
as ajSndnd madvisayajfidnarahitdh ; and upa ksiyanti as samsdrena nihftid bhavanti 
— as if ksiyanti came from ksi * destroy ' I 

5. I stretch the bow for Rudra, for his shaft to slay the brdhvian- 

hater ; I make strife (savidd) for the people (jdna) ; into heaven-and- 

earth have I entered. 

RV. (vs. 6) has no variant. The comm. foolishly regards Rudra's affair with 
Tripura as the subject of the first half-verse. 

6. I bear the heady {} dhands) soma, I Tvashtar, also Pushan, Bhaga; 
I assign property to the giver of oblations, to the very zealous (?), the 
sacrificer, the presser of soma. 

RV. (vs. 2) has in c the sing, drdvinam^ and in d the dative suprdvyi (which is 
implied in the translation given) ; in both points the comm. agrees with RV., and one 
of SPP's authorities supports him. But the Prat. (iv. 11) establishes suprdvyh as the 
true Atharvan reading. The comm. gives a double explanation of dhanasam in a : as 
abhisotavyam and as ^atnlftdm dhantdram. The Anukr. docs not heed that the first 

7. I quicken (give birth to.^) the father in its (his.^) head; my womb 
{y6ni) is within the waters, the ocean ; thence I extend myself {vi-sthd) 
to all beings ; even yon sky I touch with my summit. 

RV. reads in c bhtivani *ftu for -ndni. The comm., followed by one of SPP*s 
authorities, has the odd blunder caste for tisthe in c. He further takes asya in a as 
meaning dr^yamdnasya prapaficasya^ and pitaram as prapaficasya janakufn. 

8. I myself blow forth like the wind, taking hold upon all beings ; 
beyond the sky, beyond the earth here — : such have I become by 

RV. has mahina instead of mahimna in d Lcf. Bloomfield, JAOS. xvi.p. clvi = PAOS. 
Dec. 1 894 J. In our edition, divd in c is a misprint for divi, \Efti is hardly for enayd 
(Weber): cf. JAOS. X.333.J 

With this hymn ends the sixth anuvdka^ of 5 hymns and 36 verses ; the Anukr. 
extract, sat^ is given by only one ms. (D.). 

Here, too, by a rather strange division, ends the eighth prapdthaka. 

31. Praise and prayer to fury (manyii). 

\Drahmdskanda. — manyuddivatam, trdistubham: 2^4. bhurij ; J-y- j*igotiJ\ 

This hymn and the one following are RV. hymns (x.84 and 83), with few variants, 
and no change in the order of verses. Both are found also in Plipp. iv., but not 
together. Very few of the verses occur in any other Vedic text. The two are used 
together in Kau^. (14. 26ff.), in the ceremonies for success in battle and for determin- 
ing which of the two opposing armies will conquer ; they are also (14. 7, note) reckoned 

iv. 31- nooK IV. Tin: atiiarva-vkda-samhita. 202 

to the a^atAjiia j^ana. And the comm. quotes them as employed by the ^'ftnti K. (15) 
in i\\c j^pahayttj^tt. 

'l'r.insl.itcd : by the KV. translators; and GriHith, i. 173; Wel>er, xviii. 125. 

1. In alliance (snfdt/uim) with thcc, O fury, battering, feeling excite- 
ment, excited, O companion of the Maruts, having keen arrows, sharpen- 
ing ii|> their wca|X)ns, let [our] men go forward unto [the foe], having 
forms of fire. 

This verse is found further in TH. (in 11.4. 1 •<>). KV. and TB. read for b kArssmd- 
Ntlst* iihrsiiti • nutruivah ; at l)rRinninjij of d, RV. has the decidedly preferable abki for 
upa; '\\\. f;ivi*s in d >'tf////, and this is also the reading; of Ppp. — which moreo%'er 
separates tiksnJI is- in c, and combines -^Aho */<i in c-d. Three of our mst. (O.Op.K.) 
so far afH'ec with KV. as to read dhrsitiisas in b; the comm. has instead rusiidsas. 
The comm. explains tnanyus as krodhAbhifnAnl dri'ak * wrath personified at a god.* 
•[^In Iwth ed*s. TIJ. has the adverb dkrsati,\ 

2. Like fire, O fury, do thou, made brilliant, overpower; invoked, O 

powerful one, do thou be our army-leader ; having slain the foes, share 

out their possession (tMas) ; making (wd) force, thrust away the 

scorners (mhi/i). 

Many of our mss. (P.M.W.K.I.H.p.m.K.), with some of SIM**s, accent sdhssvs in a; 
and in b some mss. (including our P.Nf.W.) read -nir nak. Ppp. has jiivikya for k^- 
ivAya in c The abl>reviation of iva to *va in a would remove the bkurij character of 
the verse. The comm. explains tvisiia in a by pradlfiia, 

3. Overpower for us (?), O fury, the hostile plotter; go forward 
breaking, killing, slaughtering the foes; thy formidable rush (} fdjas) 
surely they have not impeded ; thou, controlling, shalt bring them under 
control, O sole-born one. 

I'he translation given follows in a the KV. reading asm/, which was also received by 
emendation into our text ; all the mss. and the comm. have instead asmAi^ which SPP. 
retains. LI*pp. has abkimAtitn asmake ; our mss. K.T., asmAi.\ Our P.M.W. give 
in c rarudhre (or the equivalent -ddkre, which is assumed under VxhX. i-<>4); and SPP. 
asserts that .ill his authorities have it, and therefore receives it into his text, in spite of 
its evidently blundering character ; the comm. reads rttr-. Several of our mss. 
(P.M.W.K.If.) read in d va^iin ; for ntjy<lstli\ after it, RV. has nayase. The comm. 
explains pijas in c by balam. 

4. Thou art the one praised (}) of many, O fury; sharpen up clan on 
clan (vt\) unto fighting ; with thee as ally (^tij), O thou of undivided 
brightness (?), we make a clear noise unto victory. 

KV. at the end trntnahf, as also I'pp- The translation follows in a the RV. 
readinfi: ////ifr, ^iven also by the comm., and by one of Sn**s authorities that folk>ws 
him ; tditi would have to l>e something; like * inciter, persuader to the conflict* R V. 
further reads vudkiiye for yuddhiya in b, and in a combines manyav //• ; otir mamr^ 
id- is quoted in the romment to Prat. i. Ai as the AV. reading. The obscure dkr/tarmk 
in c is explained by the comm. as aukinnadipti. Ilesides being bkurij^ the verse 
(i24ii:io4i2=45)is quite irregular. 


5. Victory-making, like Indra, not to be talked down, do thou, O fury, 
be our over-lord here ; thy dear name we sing, O powerful one ; we know 
that fount whence thou camest (a-bhti). 

The comm. explains anavabravd as "speaking things — i.e. means of victory — that 
are not new {a-ttava)y The verses 5-7 are not iwWjagatls, 

6. Born together with efficacy ( } db/tfiti), O missile {sdyaka) thunder- 
bolt, thou bearest superior power, O associate ; be thou allied {medin) 
with our energy (krdtu)^ O fury, much-invoked one, in the mingling 
{samsrj) of great riches. 

RV. has in b abhibhfite instead of the difficult sahabhikte ; and Ppp. {ebhibhfita uit-) 
supports RV. The comm. explains kraivd in c by karmand. One is tempted to 
emend in a (also in 32. i a) to vajrasdyaka * whose missile is the thunderbolt* 

7. The mingled riches of both sides, put together, let Varuna and fury 

assign to us ; conceiving fears in their hearts, let the foes, conquered, 

vanish away. 

Instead of dhattdtn^ RV. and the comm. have in b dattdm ; Ppp. reads dattam 
varuna^ ca manyo ; RV. gives bhiyam in c; Ppp. has a peculiar d: pardjitd yantu 
paramdm pardvatam, Certaii> of our mss. (Bp.E.I.) accent at the end Idyantdm, 

32. Praise and prayer to fury (manyti). 

[Brahmdskafida. — manyuddivatam . trdistubham: i.jagati.'] 

This hymn ^which is RV. x. 83 J goes in all respects with hymn 31, which see. 
Translated : by the RV. translators ; and Griffith, i. 174 ; Weber, xviii. 129. 

1. He who hath worshiped thee, O fury, missile thunderbolt, gains 
{pus) power, force, everything, in succession ; may we, with thee as 
ally, that art made of power, overpower the barbarian, the Aryan, with 
powerful power. 

Ppp. has sadyo for manyo in a, and sahlyasd at the end. All the mss. accent ptisy a /i 
in b, and SPP. very properly so reads ; our text was altered to conform with RV., which 
in general is distinctly less apt to give accent to a verb in such a position \^Sk/. Gram, 
§ 597 ^j' RV- aJso omits the redundant and meter-disturbing (the Anukr. takes no 
notice of this) vaydm in c. Several of our mss. (P.M.W.E.) give vidadhat instead of 
*vidhat in a. Sdhyama (p. sahyamd) is expressly prescribed by Pr5t. iii. 1 5, iv. 88 ; 
the comm. appears to read sahy-. The comm. renders dnusak by anusaktam samtatam, 
LFor vajra sdyaka^ see note to iv. 31. 6 ; and iox pusyati^ note to iv. 13, 2. J 

2. Fury [was] Indra, fury indeed was a god ; fury [was] priest {JiStar)^ 
Varuna, Jatavedas ; the clans (z//f) which are descended from Manu 
(mdnusd) praise fury ; protect us, O fury, in accord with fervor (tdpas). 

The translation assumes in c the reading manyihn (instead of -yus)^ which is given 
by RV., the comm. (with one of SPP*s mss.), and TB. (ii. 4. i»») and MS. (iv. 12. 3) j 
the nomin. here appears to be a plain corruption, though Ppp. also has it. TB. gives in 
a bhdgas for indras^ and devaydntls for manuslr yah in c, and ^rdmena ior sajdsds at 


the end ; MS. \\m th'il f<ir /J^/ at iHrginning of d; Imth have vi{v4v€iids at end of b. 
Tpp. rca<ls_iwiJ for pt/' before /<I^/. 

3. Allaek, O fury, bciiiK nuKhticr than a mighty ono; with fervor as 
ally smite apart the foes ; slayer of enemies, slayer of Vrtra, and slayer of 
barbarians, do thou bring to us all [their] good things. 

I'pp. rci'tifies the meter of b (the Anukr. does not notice its deficiency) by intertinK 
///«i In-fore ^tf/fthi. |_See aU>ve, p. Ixxiv. J 

4. Since thou, O fury, art of overcoming force, self-existent, terrible. 

overpowering hostile plotters, belonging to all men {-carsufii), powerful, 

very powerful — do thou put in us force in fights. 

KV. has Siihtli'tlfi for stihiyiln in c MS. (iv. 12.3) Rives svaynmjAs in b, and 
stfAilvtlft in c ; and for d it has Sii ktivtUtnlno amfiiiya f^aihat. 

5. Heing portionless, I am gone far away, by the action {} krdtu) of 
thee that art mighty, C) forethoughtful one; so at thee, O fury, I, action- 
less, was wrathful ; come to us, thine own self (tanik^^ giving strength. 

KV. has at the end haltu/tWilya //// 7// (p. mil : it : iki ). In c it reads jikUiA *kAm^ 
and both the editions foUow it (Ppp- and the comin. have the same), although the AV. 
samhitil readin;; is unciuestionably yM///- ; the samhtM inss. have this almost without 
exception (all ours save <).), the /^i/«/</-mss. put after the word their sii:n which sliows a 
differ<*n( c between f>tt4/a and samhitA reading;, and jfk- is twice distinctly prescrilied liy 
the I'rat. (iii. 14 ; iv. 87). The comm. understands the obscure first p.\da of going away 
from battle; alcfatu he paraphrases by tX'tiUosakaralutfMtn-arjtia. 

6. Here I am for thee; come hitherward unto us, meeting {fraticimi) 
[us], O i>owerfuI, all-giving one ; O thunderbolt-bearing fury, turn hither 
to us ; let us (two) slay the barbarians ; and do thou know thy partner 

KV. keeps better consistency by readini; mJ for nas in a, and mim for mas in c: at 
the end of b it has vi^vadhAyas. In a Tpp. has wJ, like KV. ; in c it reads «/« nas^ 
combining to nil **vav-. The comm. supplies fa/ f tin as object of ^raiUtmas^ and 
paraphrases the end of the verse with a/>i at bandkubkntatn mikm butihyaix*a, 

7. (10 thou forth against [them] ; be on our right hand; then will we 
(two) smite and slay many Vrtras ; I offer to thee the sustaining top of 
the sweet (miidhu)\ let us both drink first the initial draught {} updn^n), 

Ppp has at tiie end pthfvtt. KV. has me instead of nas at end of a, and combines 
ubha w/ in d. "I he romin begins b with atha. Compare also KV. viii. too (J^'i). 2. of 
whi( h the present verse seems a \ariation ; its a, ddiihUmi ti mddkun^^ bkakuim dgte, ii 
mm I) miire intellii;ible than our < orres|M)n<ling c. |_In t), is not vrirAni (neuter !) rather 
• ad\ers.uies,* as in 4 ?— In his prior draft, \V. renders, *• let us l>olh drink first in 
silenie ( .M" *' Initial drau'^ht *' .seems to overlook the gender of nr/Jw^iJ J 


33. To Agni: for release from evil. 

[Brahman. — astarcam, pdpmanyam ; dgneyam. gHyatram!\ 

Found in Paipp. iv. Is RV. i. 97, without a variant except in the last verse ; occurs 
also in TA. (vi. 11. i). Reckoned by Kau^. (9.2) to the brhachUnti gaita^ and also 
(30. 17, note) to i\\t pafima gnna ; used, under the name of apagha^ in a ceremony of 
expiation for seeing ill-omened sights (42. 22), in. a women*s ceremony for preventing 
undesirable love and the like (36. 22), and in the after funeral ceremonies (82. 4). 

Translated: by the RV. translators; and Griffith, i. 175 ; Weber, xviii. 134. — Cf. 
also Lanman, Skt, Reader^ p. 363. 

1. Gleaming (f//r) away our evil {aghd)^ O Agni, gleam thou wealth 

unto [us] : gleaming away our evil. 

This first verse is found a second time in TA. (vi. 10. i). The refrain is a mechanical 
repetition of i a, having no connection of meaning with any of the verses. The comm. 
explains dpa qdi^ucat by na^yaiu^ and A qu^ugdhi by samrddham kuru. LTA. reads 
^uqudhya in both places in both editions.J 

2. With desire of pleasant fields, of welfare, of good things, we sacri- 
fice — gleaming away our evil — 

3. In order that the most excellent of them, and in order that our 
patrons {suri) — gleaming away our evil — 

4. In order that thy patrons, O Agni ; in order [namely] that wc may 
be propagated for thee with progeny — gleaming away our evil — 

5. As of the powerful Agni the lusters (6/idmi) go forth in every 

direction — gleaming away our evil. 

These four verses are (rejecting the intrusive refrain) one connected sentence : the 
prd's in vss. 3 and 4 repeat by anticipation >\\^ jayemahi prd of vs. 4 b; " we" are, in 
fact, Agni's surVs^ since we depute him to sacrifice for us, just as our stlri^s procure us, 
the priests ; and our progeny is to increase and spread like the brightness of the fire. 
TA. spoils the connection by putting vs. 5 before vs. 4 ; and the sense, by reading 
surdyas for bhdndvas in 5 b. Ppp. \i?A jdyemahe in 4 b. One of our/a^-mss. (Op.) 
agrees with the R V. /tf///i-text in dividing j/z^^/r/o;/^ in 2 a (the rest read suogiituya), 

6. For, O thou that facest in every direction, thou art [our] encom- 
passer on all sides : gleaming away our evil. 

7. Our haters, O thou that facest in every direction, do thou make us 
pass over as with a boat : gleaming away our evil. 

8. Do thou pass us over unto well-being, as [over] a river with a boat : 
gleaming away our evil. 

Ppp. agrees with RV. Land TA.J in reading ndvdyd (which implies \ind/ium Vtf) 
instead of ndvd at end of a ; and our O. has the same. 

iv. 34- BOOK IV. THE atharva-veda-saKihitA. 206 

34. Extolling a certain rice-mess offering. 

[AfAitfftin. -ttjfitfotm. hraMm4iyJ»tJ,Mniim. trdtsiuhkam : 4. ^hurtj ; ji;.j-ar. 7-/. krti I f> S t- 

Found in TAipp. vi. Used in Kau^. (66. 6), in tlir sara sacrifices, with the hrskmS' 
syattdana sava^ to accompany the making of |x)ol8 and channels in the rice-mess, filling 
them with juices (rasa)^ and setting on the ground, with surd and water, knob-bearing 
plants as specified in the text. Doubtless it is on account of this treatment that the rice- 
mess in question is called vistdrin * out-strewn, expanded.* 

Translated: Muir, OST. v. 307 (vss. 2-4); Ludwig, p. 437 ; Griffith, i. 1 76 ; Weber, 
xviii. 136. 

1. The hrdhman [is] its head, the brhdt its back, the x^dmadtvyd \\i^ 

belly of the rice-mess ; the meters [are] the (two) sides (wings?), truth its 

mouth; the vis^Arin [is] a sacrifice born out of fervor {tdpas), 

Tpp. reads {iras in s, and its d is X'istik yajfkas iafiaso *dhi jdtak. The comm. 
explains brahman as signifying here the fathaniara sdmaft, and also satyam in C as 
**the stlman so called; or else the highest brahman*'; instdrin he makes to mean 
visitryatndnAvaya va, 

2. Koneless, purified, cleansed with the purifier, bright (frfW), they go 

to a bright world ; J«itavedas burns not away their virile member ; in the 

heavenly {svar^^d) world much women-folk is theirs. 

rpp. makes //7/<lj and {ttddhii^ exchange places in a; and there is confusion in its 
text. I'he comm. explains anasthAs by nn vidyaie asthyupalaksitnm iAtkAu^ik^m 
{nrfram esiktn^ and strAinatn by itrlnlkm samuha bhof^Hrtham ; the " they " are the per- 
formers of the sava sacrifiie. Tlie Anukr. does not notice the redundancy of a 
syllable in c. |^Theie should l>c a space between prd and dahaii. — Regarding sensual 
pleasures in heaven, see Muir's note, I.e.; Zimmer, p. 413; I^nman, Skt, Reader, 
p. 379 end, 3S0 ; and Weber's note ; cf. also AB. i. 22* ♦.J 

3. Whoso cook the visfdrin rice-mess, ruin (tivarti) fastens not on them 

at any time; [such a one] stays {as) with Yama, goes to the gods, revels 

with the soma-drinking (sofnyd) Gandharvas. 

Ppp. has Jtutas for kadtl in b, and sAumydii in d. The pada-X^xX writes dx^artih 
without division, yet the comment to I*rAt. iii. 46 quotes the word as exemplifying the 
combination of final a and initi.1I r ; the comm. understands and explains it as a-variii f 
somya he paraphrases with somHrha. The metrical irregularities (Ii4i2: lo+ll =44) 
are ignored by the Anukr. 

4. Whoso cook the vis(dHu rice-mess, them Yama robs not of their 
seed ; becoming; chariot-owner, [such a one] goes about upon a chariot* 
road ; becoming winged, he goes all across the skies. 

I'pp. in c rathAyiin lyate. [In the metrical defmttion, the Anukr. seems confined 
here; but vs. 4 appears to l)e intended. J 

5. This, extended, is of sacrifices the best carrier; having cooked the 
vis/drif/, one has entered the sky; the bulbl>earing lotus spreads 
(saffi f(tfi), the disa, fd/tiltt, (dp/utln, tftu/dH : let all these streams (dhdrjt) 


come unto thee, swelling honeyedly in the heavenly (svargd) world ; let 
complete (sdmanta) lotus-ponds approach thee. 

The mss. (with the exception, doubtless accidental, of our P.K.) all read bdhisthas at 
end of a, and this SPP. retains, while our text makes the obviously called-for emenda- 
tion to vdh' ; the comm. has vah-. The things mentioned in c, d appear to be edible 
parts of water-lilies : the bulbous roots, leaf-stems, and radical fibres, which in some 
species, as the Nymphaea escuUnta^ are savory, and which are eaten somewhat like aspar- 
agus. That they should be viewed as special gifts to the pious indicates quite primi- 
tive conditions, and suggests a region abounding in standing waters. Either the pools and 
channels of Kau^. are founded on these specifications, or they are original and intended 
to be emblematic of such products. The kumuda is the N, escuUnta (kdirava^ comm.); 
and the comm. explains bisa (he reads visa) as the root-bulb of the fiadma {^Nelum- 
bium speciosum) ^cf. Lanman, JAOS. xix. 2d half, p. 151 f.J, qilluka as that of utpala 
(a Nymphaea), ^aphaka as a hoof(frt////?)-shapcd water-plant, and muldlf as = mrndll, 
(^aphaka occurs also at ApQS. ix. 14. 14, where it seems to signify an edible plant or 
fruit, perhaps a water-nut. Ppp. differs widely from our text: it begins esa yajfio 
vitato bahistJw visidra pakvo div- ; it omits c and d ; for c and f it has our 7 •, b |_with 
variants : sec under 7 J ; then follow our e and f (g, upa . . . samantdh^ is wanting), with 
variants : etas tvd kulyd upa yanti vi^vahd^ and svadhayA for madJiumat, Hut our c 
and d arc found further on as parts of vs. 7, with pundarfkam for dndfkam^ and 
^dlftkham and ^apakhas. It is doubtless by an oversight that SPP. has in b, in both 
samhitd and pada, the false accent divAin (but our O. also gives it). The verse lacks 
one syllable of being a full krti (80 syllables). The comm. ends vs. 5 with muldliy and 
begins vs. 6 with the following refrain. 

6. Having pools of ghee, having slopes of honey, having strong drink 
(j;/m) for water, filled with milk (kstrd), with water, with curds — let all 
these etc. etc. 

Ppp. agrees in a, b with our text (we should expect rather madhukulyds) ; but for 
the refrain it has eids tvdth talpd upa yanti viqvatas svarge loke svad/tayd mdda- 
yantfh (the remaining pilda again wanting, as in vs. 5). The refrain appears much 
more in place with this verse than in vs. 5^ The comm., as already indicated, makes its 
vs. 6 of our 6 a, b, preceded by the refrain of vs. 5 ; the refrain of our vs. 6 it omits 
altogether. The siird seems* most probably to have been a kind of beer or ale \j&o 
Roth : not distilled liquor, as Zimmer, p. 280, suggests J. A full ati^akvarl (60) calls 
for two more syllables. 

7. Four vessels (knmbhd)^ four-fold, I give, filled with milk, with water, 
with curds — let all these etc. etc. 

Ppp. had the first two padas, as noted above, in its vs. 5, reading for a catuskuvibhydm 
caturdhd daiidti ; its vs. 7 is our 5 c, d (with the variants already given) together with 
the last two padas of the refrain, reading svadhayd for madhumat in the former pada, 
and md for tvd in the latter. The comm. (with one or two of SPP*s mss. that follow 
him) has dadhdmi in a. 


8. This rice-mess I deposit in the Brahmans, the visfdHttf world-con- 
quering, heaven-going {svargd) ; let it not be destroyed (ksi) for me, 
swelling with svadhd ; be it a cow of all forms, milking my desire. 


Several of our m%s. (T.Nf .W.K.) combine in d dhtniis kAm-, Ppp. has (or a imam 
cdanam ptuasi mi^radtihadhilno ; in b, hkajiiiyafk svarf^am (the comm. also has the 
better rcaclinf;^ svar^'afn)\ in c, ksexta sadasisyamAnA ; for d, vi^x*artkpj kAmadugkA 
dhenur asiu me. The verse is irregular in meter : 1 2 + 1 1 : 1 2 4 1 3 = 4A. 

35. Extolling a rice-mess offering. 

yPrajAf'ati. — dttmaftyam.* trAistuhkam : j. bkurij ; 4'J4piff.] 

Not found in Tiiipp. Used by Kftu^. (66. 1 1) in the sai'a sacrifices, with a sava for 
escaping death (aiimriyM) ; and, according to the comm., also in the ceremony of expia- 
tion for the birth of twin calves (109. 1 ; he reads yam odanam itt\ instead of yamiim 
jafutyati^ which tlic edition lias). * |^The Herlin Anukr. reads iltimdrcyam.\ 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 438 ; (•riffith, i. 177; Weber, xviii. 139. 

1. The ricc-mcss which Prajapati, first-born of righteousness, cooked 
with fervor (Jdfas) for Brahman ; which, separator of the worlds, shall not 
harm (?) — by that rice-mess let me overpass death. 

Kor the obscure and questionable mi *bhir/sJi in c (no tense-stem r/sa occurs else- 
where in A\'.) the comm. reads tti\bhir fkA; Ludwig, ignoring accent an<l fatia-XitxX. 
{hA: ab/tt'or^sili), understands nAhhirfuV "breach of the navel**; two of our niss. 
((^.Op.) read nihhir^sHm j^and We!)cr conjectured ttibhir esAm ^ The refrain is found 
also as concluding pAda of a verse in Ap.C^S. iv. 1 1. 3. The Anukr. df>es not note that 
b is jat^att. 

2. That by which the being-makers overpassed death ; which they dis- 
covered by fervor, by toil (f//f///*7); whicli the bniliman of old cooked for 
Hrahman — by that rice-mess let me overpass death. 

The comm. explains bhutakftax as prAnittAm kattAro dtvAh^ but rsaygu is alwajrm 
the noun used with it. 

3. That wl)ich sustained the all-nourishing earth ; which filled the 
atmosphere with sap ; which, uplifted, established the sky with might — 
by that rice-mess let me overpass death. 

The romm. explains vi\vtibhiyasatn by krtsnasya prAnijAUtsya bhoj^yabhiiiAm, 

4. That out of which were fashioned the thirty-spoked months; out of 
which was fashioned the tvvclvespoked year ; that which circling days- 
andnights did not attain — by that rice-mess let mc overpass death. 

SIM*, ^ivfs in c the /.;</.f n.uiin;^ iihotAffiifi^ as rec]uire«l by the participle/tfriVil«/ifr/ 
all the padttmss, have hi ; the (omm. paryantas^ but explains it 2M paryAvarim- 
mAftAt, and says nothing .ibout tin* abnormal form. The verse (Ii-l'i3:tt + ll =46) is 
in no nvspcct ayi;;,**;/// the ejection uiyAimAi in b would make it regular. 

5. That which became breath-giving, possessing breath-givingoncs(?) ; 
for which worlds rich in ghee flow ; whose are all the light-filled directions 
— by that rice-mess let me overpass death. 

The /i/#/f/-tcxt does not diviilc pfAitadAh, and it makes the division prAmadA^vAn^ 
which the translation follows \ uur text (either by a misprint or by an unsocccsslol 


attempt at emendation) reads -divSm ; -divdy as Dom. of -divmrn^ mi^t be an tmprctre^ 
ment ; the comm. reads -daifdm, viewing it as gen. pL of fnimm-dii, from <& *" burs.* and 
he explains it as ^moribund'* (mumirsm : primdir ji^^amism^kxM f^itritjpjutmtt)*, 

6. From which, when cooked, the immortal {amrta) came into being ; 
which was the over-lord of Xhc gdjairi ; in which are deposited the Vedas 
of all forms — by that rice-mess let me overpass death. 

Or amrta is to be taken as the drink of inunortalitr ; the comm. ( vho simphr adds 
djulokastham) apparently so understands it 

7. I beat down the hater, the god-insulter ; what rivals arc mine, let 
them be [driven] away ; I cook the all-conquering ^n£A«f4i«-rice-mess ; let 
the gods hear me who am full of faith. 

The comm. reads in a dn*apiyun ; brakmUmdandm he explains as krikmamt^Atif 
deyam odanam. 

The seventh anuvdka, of 5 hymns and 37 verses, ends here; the oki Anukr. says 
sapia cd *pi bodhydh. 

36. Against demons and other enemies. 

\Cdtana. — satydujasam .^ dgntyam, dnuUmbkam : <^ hkmry.\ 

Not found in Paipp. Not used individually by Kau^., but only as one of the cdttt- 
ndni (8. 25). Our mss. of the Anukr. do not contain the expected definition of the 
hymn as one of ten stanzas (da^arcam), ♦LThc Berlin Anukr. reads sdtrdnjasam.^ 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 526; Grill, 3, 136; Griffilh, i. 179; Bloomfield, 35, 407; 
Weber, xviii. 141. 

1. Them let him of real force burn forth — Agni Vai^x'anara. the bull ; 

whoso shall abuse and seek to harm us, likewise whoso shall play the 

niggard toward us. 

The comm. paraphrases durasydt with dustdn tvd ** caret: asmdrv avidyamdnam 
dosam udbhilvayet. The Prat. (iii. 18) allows both 1 and / in denominatives like arJ/zV-, 
and its comment quotes this word as example of the former. 

2. Whoso shall seek to harm us not seeking to harm, and whoso seeks 
to harm us seeking to harm — in the two tusks of Agni Vai^v'anara do I 
set him. 

All the mss. read in a dipsaty which is accordingly retained by SPP. ; our edition 
emends to dipsdt to agree with vs. i c; the comm. also has dipsdt ; and it is favored by 
the ^dpdt of the parallel expression in vi. 37.3. With the second half-verse compare 
xvi. 7.3. 

3. They who hunt in assent Q dgard), in counter-clamor {? fratiJtfVftf), 

on new-moon [clay], the flesh-eating ones, seeking to harm others — all 

those I overpower with power. 

The obscure words dgard and pratikro^d are here translated mechanically, accord- 
ing to their surface etymology. The comm. gets the former from gr or g^ir ♦ swallow,* 
and defines it as yuddharangay because samantdd bhajyate mdnsa^onitddikam atra; 
the latter is pratikiildih ^atrubhih krta dkro^e ; while mr gay ante means ••desire to 


Iftyitf ij«." an'l am4i'Aijrf *' at midnight of a day of new moon " ; he has 00 soBptcioa d 
»t,y /onrtf-r iiori with the doin^^t at an eclipse, as half sugi;estrd by (Jrill. 'I be line is quite 
ijriiiitrili;Mlil' . .iri'l vry ]frrfh.ilf]y of corrupt text. Mo%t of the /'r«/if nisv have the false 
a" f-rit /ffit/t Iff'^/ 'I hr romm. r«:ads in c dipiantt for -/dx. 

4. I ovrrjiowrr \\\ti pi^aaii with jKiwcr ; I take to myself their property ; 

I f.l.iy all tlir ;ihijs'T» ; l';t my <lesi;^n be successful. 

Alt thr* fii\% rrad ifi s b iAhnn\t\Am^ p. lAhasA : rstlm^ instead of the obviously cor- 
trr t f1Aitt4lfitff», p ftl/iiitti li : rttlm \jf[. notc to iii. M- 3J • i^ >* C''^^ ^^ the OMMt stiik* 
hiK lihindrr* rif tli«- traditional trit. 'I he comm. uitdcrstaiuls the true reading, and it is 
rfiilor<-d liy niirndatiori in our edition; ST I*, abides by the mss. In d, the comm. has 
f/im mtt for $am me. '1 he Aniikr . by noting no irregularity of meter, seems to imply 
A etiiw in b. but Wi% dc%( tiptiom are mj httle exact that the evidence is really of no value. 

5. The ^<nh that hasten (/fds) with him — they measure speed with 
the suii with those cattle (//rf//) that arc in the streams, in the moun* 
tains, I am in coihokI. 

Doiibtlrsn ( ortiipi in tr«t, anrl incapable of )irhling sense. Grill regards the verse as 
Intrrpol.itf'd. I An for A^t, see Keigaigne, AV/. /^7r/. i. 200 n.J The comm. guesses two 
wholly dinforrbini ;ind e^pially woithlrsn rxpLinationn ; in the first he takes dtvis as 
((loiii f///' • pl.iy ') ** pi^iltai nnrl the likr,'* and hAtante as for Ail f«n'4r/f/i 'cause to laugh * ; 
in the KIM Olid, hi* iinilerM^iniN tifvt\% as vorntivc, and hiltttnle as for jthAmnte [_|irint«-d 
jihtttyttHte I ' firrk to Iravc.* Onr is teinptcfl to find sUfttiM instead of UhiI \\\ a. The 
di't'h irm y (unnotit rd by the Anukr.) of a syllable in d is an indication of a corrupt text 

Ck I am a vexrr (ttif^ttnn) of the fi^ihds, as a tiper of them that have 
kinc* ; likt* dd^s on seeing a lit>n, they do not find a hidin|;-placc {nydilcana). 
The (onmi. rraiU anu instcid <if na in d. The mi'tcr rcf|uirrs *jw/ in a. 

7. I cannot [beaij with f^t^tUtis, nor with thieves, nor with savages 

(} vnpttui^ii)', the //^i/i ill disappear from that village which I enter. 

Out r.M.W. read r'/rrpf for -I'/f/at the end. The comm. has nti^jraniu in c He 
paiaphiasrs m//) ^.ttnt^mt by uith^tikto 'nupravuto hhavtlntit or by sathgato bkavAmi ; 
antl titu.t't^tt by X'itft*i^%}mtn. 

8. Wb.itever vill.»j;e this foimidable |>ower of mine enters, from that 
the //j,/. .i.v disappear ; (theie] they devise not evil. 

The ht\t p.iil.1 laiks a 5\llablr, unless we resolve gri- into two syllaldes |^or read 
» J«'/ 111"/ I 

1). "Mu'v who anj;er me, making a noise, as flies an elephant — them 
I think ill oil. like mites (') on a man (;<i/m). 

I lie «on\n) ^lollowrd by a couple of SPT's authotitirs) has /f/z/Ji (^ up^M^dk^k ^ >. I i.. '.!•'.) at end id a; the /.r./.r mvv read hftti, whiih STT. in his /tf«/<f test 
enu*iuU 1,1 /,f * . but. as the paitttiple in /.r from sm h a root can hardly have an active 
si'nv\ ,',}*:,• t x^oiiM ilotibtlrxs l>e a Nttor alteration; the redundancy of a syllable, to 
be \nii*. wiHiM siii:i:(-st dee{H*r (han|i;rs. . f ./.r| .1 1 j» t in d, literally * |>etty liers,* is coo- 
iiil(iia!l\ ii*ni!ote(l. in a^ v oiilani e \« :tli tlic i Muin. ( /.r'/wr^T^A* *</j^JiJA |4rrit«rArt«- 
.» ♦.!:.» 4 ..!••/,. J.. I *».!••. .5 1 */.'.} 4 V srr. fiads ,:\f \i:.\n ; ^instead of -/Jit or -/J* ^ 


note to i. i9-4j)i against the great majority of his mss. as well as all of ours ; instead 
of it the comm. has durhatdn. 

10. Let perdition halter him, as a horse with a horse-halter {-ab/n- 

dhdni) \ the fool (ptalvd) that is angry at me, he is not loosed from the 


The comm. (with one of SPP's mss.) has at the end mucyase, but explains it as a 3d 
sing. impv. : mukto na bhavatu ; an imperative would be welcome, if honestly come by. 
Malva he glosses with ^atru. LAs to abhi-dhcl^ cf. iii. 1 1. 8 and note. J 

37. Against various superhuman foes: with an herb. 

[Bddardyatti. — dvddnfarcam. aja^rngyapsarodrvatyam. » dnustubham : j. J-av. 6-f. tn'stubh ; 

^. prastdrapahkti ; y. parosnih ; 1 1 . 6-p . jagatl ; I2,nicrt.\ 

Found (except vs. 9) in Paipp. xiii. (in the verse-order 1-4, 7,6, 5, 12, 8, 10, 1 1), but 
in a much defaced condition. Used by Kau^. with the preceding hymn, as one of the 
cdtandni (8. 25) ; but also independently (28. 9) in a remedial rite against po.ssession 
by evil spirits. And the comm. quotes it from Naks. K. 21 ^error for (^anti K., says 
Bloomficldj, as employed in a mahdqdnti called gdndharvl. |^As to Badarayani, see 
introduction to hymn 40.J 

Translated: Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 118 (interesting Germanic parallels); Ludwig, p. 352 ; 
Griffith, i. 180 ; Bloomfield, 33, 408 ; Weber, xviii. 144. 

1 . By thee of old the Atharvans slew the demons, O herb ; by thee 

did Ka^yapa slay ; by thee Kanva, Agastya. 

The comm. explains that one or other of the specified plants, the sahamdud etc., is 
here addressed. 

2. By thee do we expel {cat) the Apsarases, the Gandharvas ; O goat- 
horned one, drive the demon ; make all disappear by [thy] smell. 

* Drive * {(ijn) in c is a play upon the name goat {ajn-) in * goat-horned.* The comm. 
declares the epithet to be equivalent to visdnin {Odina pinnatd)^ and to be given on 
account of the shape of the fruit. [^Uhanvantari, p. 23, Poona ed., gives fnesa^rngt 
and visdnikd as synonyms of <yVifr/7^. J Ppp. has in b cdtaydmasi instead of -make. 

3. Let the Apsarases go to the stream, to the loud (?) down-blowing of 
the waters : Guggulu, Pila, NaladI, Auksagandhi, Pramandanl : so go 
away, ye Apsarases*; ye have been recognized. 

LSee Weber's note and reference to Rumpelstilzchen.J Tdrd in b is rendered "cross- 
ing''; but as this sense is found nowhere else, it seems safer to take the word as the 
adjective, common later ; the comm. glosses it with tdrayitdram^ a worthless etymo- 
logical guess. After it, instead of aiukvasamy the comm. reads iva svasam {^ — susthn 
ndupreranaku^alam yathd)^ and, strangely enough, Ppp. has the same. As cver)*wherc 
else where the word occurs, the mss. vary between g^ilguiit and g^tggulu^ and SPP. 
reads the former and our edition the latter ; here the decided majority, with Ppp. and 
the comm., give gulg- (our Bp.H.K. havc^;gf-). Padas c and d appear lo be made up 
of names of Apsarases, all formed upon odor-names : guggtdi is fern, to guggulu 
* bdellium,' and naladi to ndlada *nard'; pramandanl is related with pramattda *a 
certain fragrant plant ' ; and duksdgandhi means something like * ox-smell * ; but the 


f nmm. t\vi I.iirs lln-m to 1»c fttnut /lowtiiha-'Vilni * fivr ar(irli'<i df filiLitinn ' : I'pp- r 
pfiifxinJttnii in d. Must of niir iiis*i. a( ( rut ii/r.rrifurr in e. l>iit SI'I*. rp|K»rtx only 
of his :is (IftiiiL; sn : lintli cilitinns riMtl fi/jii'iid/i. 'I lie cdnwn. in.ikfs a tiitlr 
(iivisinn fif till* ni.itf', irtkdiiini: \\v* iffi.iiii (niir e. f ) .1^ ;i vcr%r witli niir 4 a. b. 
iiniittiii:^ tlir rrli.iin in .| (nuich .is it tnMti-'l 34 5 7 aliini*); SIT. fnllnu^ t)u* An 
tiwnii'^hiiut ( sr<' iiiiilri t!n* nrxt vi-is«). 'I hi- 1 oinni. ii'.uls in f ^».; /;.'■.!. /i//-.)! . p\ 
iiitfiitti} i/V;;//,/;/!/ is fixind also as l\\'. i. P;! . 5 d. I'pP- •'^'^'^^ lif*tui-i*n f»iir d ai 
\,i/f*} t'liipfv ii/>\7' tni/,i/i : \tttttjitift /uf utntifl /nr:.i^i f>unifa9lla (ni»l fiiiiowcil !i 
1;: •71.M.'.; sii:n> llii* .Xnuki. di-tinition of llu* vi'isr oiicht to \v\\i\ jitji^ati instcii 
t*i\fn'tt. [ In till- |iiinr di.ift, W. m-l'S tlir snm^i-siions c fwu irninp //rif^Tii liii// j;!\ri 
\\\\. i. .pi I .mil OH. i. \ 2h ami ini|>I\in'^ tn-tt ■■ *a\%ay*: hut iijrits tlicni.J 

4. WhtTt* [air) the rt^itiftuiis^ tht: tiyni^roii/tns, j;rcal Invs, with crc: 

ihithiT |;i» away, y«*;iscs ; yc h.ivc bt-rii irt n^iii/ffj. 

'I'lio ilivision .mil nnnihi lin:^ in oiir '-ilitinn of this Vfr*«tr ami thr two nrxt follow ii 
f.mlty, ow ini; to thr urn lr.iin>-ss of ihi* niss. t'nsi lis* '1 ; the roirfit (li\ i«>ion. aqrr 
with till* Anuki., is ;^iviii lty Nl'I'.. .ir.<l oiii tr.msl.ition folhiwft it [aiifl niaki s dear 1 
it is J: vss. 3 ; ail rnil with tiw i< ti.iin /.f/ f*iit^ */i}- * U ., ami this, with tlir numlM 
fifi'ds to 1»t* aihii ri in our t'-\t altir ^il*i*i»t,itnti/i. In I'l'i^ , thi* pl-i* i* of this \r\ 
t.ikiMi liv thf aiMition ii'iiorti'l .il«>\'-, iimli-r \s. \. 'Ih'*(ornni. t.ik''S ^ilannifii 
inr.inin-^ •■ |ir.ii m ks " ; hf (piotrs IS. iii .!.■**« to tin* rl|ii i <rrt.iin tn rs. inc lu 
ti^z'.t/ttid .luiI //I'l/i. ' I './/'. f, aii* thi' housi s of <iamlharvas ami'S 

5. WiuTi* [ari'l yi>iir swiii^*;, ^rccn ami whitish; wIkti" cynilKils [n 
lull s ^uiiihI tn;;i'iluT lliillicT j;«» aw;iy, y«.* Apsarasfs ; yo have b 


I i"h.ini;i* tlir iiuMilii'i .) t«» 5 .il tMf «-nil of thr hist lim* t^f p. 71 of ihi* nlitinn.] 
ai I i*;it k,it l*it \th as iioni. pliii. is f.ilsr. and must he I'Muiidid to -MiM. as rra« 
SI'P. with lialf of his niss., .uid a part ((.).( ){•. I ).) of f>urs (oin I'.M.W. L;ivr l;ifk*i\ 
Ai:.\in Ml .Illy .dl our niss., with S'mir of Spr'*>. .1 i 1 iit iz/iiz/ifif/r in tin' ifiiain ] 
is <[uit'* lOTMipt" iiJ/'.i Ti*^/;r.7 / :/,n ;uttii i;/i.l/.}f Kti'iiff tt >.t'f'.': ,i, "I he 
h.ilf\rrsi' ( I 3 ? I I : S • S) is iir»i; 

^». llitluT halh come iIun mi^iity (nu* {rh\t)iattt) ot llic l»i.'i)>s. nl 
jdaiils; hi tin* ^'lat-lioi in ij 1//. //</{/, ihc siiarji ln»iiu.'l, piisli out. 

|_rul .1 siniplf .;. .i\.'in.i in i- of t!ir nunihi r 5 J .tt.if.iii \* cms to !>r 
h' If .IS •.!.« I ir'.i ii.nnr nf l!:'- h«r!» in ipH stuMi ; liiit thf • onini t.iki s it .is rpithrt. d 
in-4 it li"i'.i •: ».i ■ iwiii imv i:i; ' with .1 i!fii\ .ili-. r fioni ,Tt ' t;n.' .m-I ni'Miiinij Aint*i 
u. .,i/tn.rf: ' Tpi' -^dds tvM> moK' p nits <i/'^ V** V." '/ii/^./f » ^'./MiZ/iI^ : #/ r.:/»<i :■<* i*» 

7. ( 't ijii" liillni ihiiuiiiL;, rir-^iril Ci.iii' va, A|»*» hip!, I splii 
lt»-liili^. I Miiil I ') tin- iintulnr. 

.MI t!." IMS-. H .1 ! in c ''/'t 1.;".'/. 'aI. *h SI' P. aiioi'hi :;1\ rftains ; mmi cnirndati^ 
1/1 ;••;/ is -.M s.itisi.ii tii:\. 1 ■■''.'! .is !■ u-'.rds tin* si nsi* and Im-i auM* #7'«; is not «'i^c»hcrr 1 
with .;.'■;( -i it'p I is 1 .M . I'i.f Usii^iit .iIm» t:ui *>'» ^7/ •'./ i ./".'i " attai k " ; t!ji- 1 omm rxpl 
It '-v .//;.■.•.';": n:' rt, :'.:':. tf: l.t* ,••'::. w' ■ )i is WMrtlii'-*'^ 'I Ip- 1 onwr K'^'^ " pr.n n 
.In .iM .i!ti *:. ili". • 1 1 j'liv.iM-nt of j ."^ /;..•».• ;';»/ wi!)i an irMplir.l 1 ••■nparisun " dam i"i; h 
pi-.i' •■ h " I'j ;i l'i-.:ii-.s with ri.;"; ; ;» v .'.il\ [If t!ic di I'lnition of t!i»* .\r 
( ^ i *^ I .' 1 i' I !i;!.!. J .i'!a c !ai ks .1 s\ ii.iMr J 


8. Terrible are Indra's missiles {/teti), a hundred spears of iron ; with 
them let him push out the oblation-eating, dvakd-^TiXAWg Gandharvas. 

Half our mss., and the large majority of SPP's, read at the end of this verse rsata; 
both editions give rsatu^ as in the next verse. Avakd is defined as a certain grass-like 
marsh-plant, Dlyxa octandra^ the same with ^divaia or ^divdia; the comm. defines it 
as jaioparisihdh qdivdlavii^esdh^ but attempts no explanation of why the Gandharvas 
should be supposed to eat it. He reads in b {^ataprstU (one feels tempted to emend 
rather to ^aidbhrstls)^ and in c abhihraddn (for haviraddti). The Anukr. takes no 
notice of the redundant syllable in c (also in 9 c). 

9. Terrible are Indra's missiles, a hundred spears of gold ; with them 
let him push out the oblation-eating, ^z/^/'^f -eating Gandharvas. 

This very slightly varied repetition of vs. 8 is wanting in Ppp. All the mss. have 
rsatu at the end here. 

10. The dvakd'^7iX\xi% ones, scorching, making light {}) in the waters 
— all the fifdcds, O herb, do thou slaughter and overpower. 

All our pada-mss. read in b jyotaya^mdmakan as a compound, and it seems very 
strange that SPP. gives in both forms of \^x\. jyotaya mdmakifiy as two independent 
words, and reports nothing different as found in any of his authorities; it is perhaps an 
oversight on his part. Either reading being plainly untranslatable, the rendering given 
implies emendation to jyotayamdnakan^ as the simplest and most probable alteration ; 
several cases of such expansions of a participle in tndna by an added -ka occur \^Skt, 
Gram, § 1222 g, f ; cf. Bloomfield's note J, one of them {pravartatndftakd) even in RV. 
Ppp. reads as follows : avakd^am abht\dco bicchi dydtayamdnakdm : gandharvdn 
sarvdn osadhe krnu tasvapardyanah ; this supports the proposed reading in its most 
essential feature, -mdua- for -mdma-^ and further favors the version of the comm., dyot- 
iox jyot-. R., in the Festgruss an Bbhtlingk (p. 97), had ingeniously conjectured the 
word as a name for the will-o'-the-wisp, deriving it irom j'yotaya mdm *give me light,* 
by an added suffix -aka. The comm. paraphrases by viatsambandhino gandharvdn 
udakestt prakd^aya, [_Cf. Whitney, Festgruss an Roth^ p. 91 ; also note to ii. 3. i.J 

1 1. One as it were a dog, one as it were an ape, a boy all hairy — having 

become as it were dear to see, the Gandharva fastens upon (sac) women ; 

him we make disappear from here by [our] mighty (virydvant) incantation 


In our edition, striyam at the end of d is a misprint for striyas^ which all the mss. 
have, with no avasdua-m^ixV following, though distinctly called for by the sense, and 
therefore supplied by us ; Ppp., however, reads striyam, with sajate before it ; and it 
omits the last pada, f : which omission would furnish an excuse for the absence of inter- 
punction after striyas, 

12. Your wives, verily, are the Apsarascs ; O Gandharvas, ye are 
[their] husbands ; run away, O immortal ones ; fasten not on mortals. 

All the padamss. commit in c the palpable error of dividing dhdvaidmartyd{h) into 
dhdvata: martydh, as if the d which follows dhdvat- were one of the common pro- 
longations of a final vowel in samhitd ; the comm., however, understands amartydh, 
and SPP. admits this by emendation into his pada-\tx\„ Ppp. has for c apakrdmat 
purusdd amartyd, which supports amartyds in our text 



38. For luck in gambling: by aid of an Apsaras. 

[/fJi/^trJy.ini. — dviJnHXtyam. AnustHhham : j. 6-f.jax\ ;aj^gi ; j. bhmrigatyatit ; 6. tnsfaM ; 

7. jiit'-j"-/. auustuh^titbhd puraufarttttljjyoittmatl jagati.\ 

'\\\\% ami tlic two following hymns are not found in T&ipp. Kftu^. uses it (doubtless 
only the first four verses) in a ceremony (41.13) for success in gambling. Verses 5-7 
are called karkiprax'ddtls and used (21. 1 1) in a rite for the prosperity of kine, and siso 
(66. 13) in the uiva sacrifices, with a karkl as sava ; and they are reckoned (19. 1, note) 
to the pustika pnantras. The coinm. attempts no explanation of the mutual relation of 
the two appaicntly unconnected parts of the hymn ; [^but Weber, in his note to verse 7, 
su};i;ests a connection J. [^As to HAdarAyani, see intrr>d. to h. 40. J 

Translated: Muir, OST. v. 430 (vss. 1-4); I.udwif;, p. 454; Grill, 71 (vss. 1-4)* 
140; (Jriffith, i. 183; Hloomfield, 149, 412; Weber, xviii. 147. 

fS ^ " I. The up-shooting, all-conqucrinpj, successfully-playing Apsaras, that 

^ /jfit^//'^7 wins (/•/') the winnings in the pool (?^/rf///i) — that Apsaras I call on here. 

^^"^"^^ The form apsttrd, instead of apsards^ is used throughout this hymn; the comm. 

^,j^ ^ regards it as a specialized name for the A|)saras in this character or office : dyiktakriyM' 
iihititvatAfn apsarojtltfyHm. Uiibhimiatlm is paraphrased hy pamnhamdkena dkanmsym 
\fbhedanam kunutitm, as if it were the causative participle. The technical terms of 
the j;ame arc only doubtfully translated, our knowledge of its method being insufficient; 
glAha is taken as the receptacle, of whatever kind, in which the stakes are deposited ; the 
comm. explains it thus: ^fkyaU panabandhena kalpyata Hi dytitaknydjtyo (mss. 
-jityo) 'rtho ^lahak. 

2. The distributing (vid), on-strewing (i^-kir), successfully-playing 

Apsaras, that seizes (gra/t) the winnings in the pool — that Apsaras I call 

on here. 

The comm. explains the first two epithets respectively by ** collectini; ** (taking tt' as 
intensive) and "scattering.** 

3. She who (lances about with the dice (} dya), taking to herself the 

winning from the pool — let her, trying to gain (}) for us the winnings, 

obtain the stake {^ pra/ui) by magic (fudyd) ; let her come to us rich in 

milk ; let them not conquer from us this riches. 

The wholly anomalous stsati in c is here translated, in accord.inrr with the currcat 
understandin;; of it, as somehow coming; from the root san or sd [^i.e., as if it were for 
the normal s/stls tt/f : consideiin;; that the consonant of the root sd happens to coincide 
with the sibiLint which is c haiac teristic of the desiderative, we might l>e tempted to put 
shdn/ : stl: : sikutui : sah (SI/, Oram. § 1030 a), but for the acxentj; the comm. reads 
instead ^ffitnfl {-- ai'tt^fsiivttfifi). The comm. further has in b ddadhdnas (explained 
as -=. HdadhtinA : so Sl'T's K. rcids), and in d prahdn ('=: prahantavyAn akjdm: a 
f.Usc* etyniolo;;y and worthless interpretation). He explains ayds as tkthfayak pmtUm^ 
samkhyAntd aksavi^eiiih. Me divides our vss. 3-5 into four verses of four pAdas each. 
without any rc^-ird to the connection of sense, thus pvinj; the hymn eight verses; among 
our mss also (SI* P. reftorts nothing of the kind from his) there is more or less discord- 
anc(* in rc|;ard to the verse-division, and some of them agree with the comm. |^Oar 
slSiiii appears in \V*s Index Wrborum^ p. 382, at the very end of the "unclassified 
residuum*' of AV. material. J 


4. She who delights (pra-tnud) in the dice {aksd), bringing {b/tr) pain 
and anger — the rejoicing, the delighting one : that Apsaras I call on here. 

The translation implies retention of bibhratl at end of b, read by all the mss. and by 
the comm., and retained by SPP., and the emendation instead in a io yd * kshu pramd- 
date^ which is metrically better, makes better connection, and has the support of the 
comm., with one \ox twoj of SPP's authorities. SPP's note to bibhratl^ ** so read 
except by K. who follows Sayana," is unintelligible, since the latter has also bibhratl. 
L Delete the accent-mark under huve.\ 

5. They who (f.) go about (j^w-^^r) after the rays of the sun, or who 
go about after [its] beams (mdrlct) ; of whom the mighty {} vdjinivant) 
bull from afar moves around {pari-i) at once all the worlds, defending — 
let him come unto us, enjoying this libation, together with the atmos- 
phere, he the mighty one. 

According to the comm., the " they who '* and " of whom " in a and c are the Apsa- 
rases, this being apparently to him the tie of connection between the two divisions of 
the hymn ; and vdjinl is the dawn, and vdjinlvant the sun : all of which is very ques- 
tionable, at least. SPP. reads in ^paryaitiy with, as he states, the majority of his mss., 
but with only two of ours ; the comm. has paryeti^ and it is also thus quoted by the 
comment to Prat. iv. 81. SPP. further leaves the final n of sdrvdn unassimilated before 
lokatty fcir the wholly insufficient reason that nearly all his mss. so read ; the point is one 
that requires to be regulated by the prescriptions of general grammar and of the Prat., 
without heed to the carelessness of scribes. The passage is even one of those quoted 
under Prat. ii. 35 as an example of assimilation. The metrical definition of the Anukr. 
is inaccurate, and perhaps corrupt; the verse (12 + 11 : 12 + 11 : 11 + 11=68) should be 
specified as of 6 padas and 3 avasdnas^ like vs. 3 ; it is not bhurijj and for atyasti the 
L London, not the Berlin ms.J x^tlAs jagaiyasii. [_One is tempted to suspect the syllable 
sam- in a. VxonoMX\Qt yasarsabhd in C.J 

6. Together with the atmosphere, O mighty one; defend thou here 

the karki calf, O vigorous one {vdj{n) ; here are abundant drops {stokd) 

for thee ; come hitherward ; this is thy karki ; here be thy mind. 

The comm. reads in a vdjinlvdtty as in 5 f ; in b he has karkln vatsdn (and one of 
SPP's mss. gives karkin) ; and, in d, namas instead of manaSy and SPP. i*ports three 
of his four /^ ///z-mss. as also having ndmas. The comm. explains karki as karkavartta 
or fubhra. The minor Pet. Lex. suggests the emendation of vaisim to va(dm in this 
verse and the next. Three of SPP's mss. and one of ours (O.) separate karki ihd in 
samhitd in d. The Anukr. ignores the deficiency of a syllable in b. 

7. Together with the atmosphere, O mighty one ; defend thou here the 

karki calf, O vigorous one ; this is fodder; this is the pen ; here we bind 

(ni'bandh) the calf ; according to name we master you : hail ! 

The comm., with one of SPP*s oral authorities, has again vatsdn in b, and also 
vatsdn in d (this time, with our P.M.W.E.). Kau^. (21. 11) quotes c and d, with the 
direction to do " as directed in the text "; the comm. LKe^avaJ explains that a rope is to be 
prepared with twelve ties (ddman) ; and that with c fodder is to be offered to the kine, 
and with d the calves are to be tied to the rope. If this is correct, the reading would 
seem to be properly vatsdn in all cases, and perhaps karkyh(k) vatsdn in 6 b and 7 b 

iv. 38- HOOK IV. THE ATlIARVA-VKDA-SAttlllTA. 2l6 

(thus fillini; out tlie meter). I'he mss. add (as directed by the Anukr.) a second avasdita- 
sign after hiuihultfuih^ and SIM*, retains it. The verse (11 + 10: 8 + A: 10=47) falls 
short of a full jt'Xti/f Ity the amount of the deficiency in b. [^I tliink JtarJt/hs, 9% a 
genitive sinf^. fern., ou;;ht to l>c oxytone (JAOS. x. 3^5) ; but Jtaffy^s, pronounced 
kttrkio^ mi^ht be better. J 

39. For various blessings. 

[Anjcirai.* — i/,ifarfam. /Jwwii/riiiw . nilmdJef^ttynm. fdnktam : /, j, 5, 7. j-f. mmkdhrk^it ; 

2^ 4, 6^ S. sjmjtJpa/amlii ; 9, /<*. trittmhk.^ 

This prose-hymn (the two conchidinp; verses metrical) is, as already notcfi, wanting 
in TAipp. A similar pnssaf^c is found in TS. (vii. 5.23). The hymn u used by KAuq. 
in the/<ir7'frM sacrifices (5.8) with the samnati offerings, and vss. 9 aiul 10 earlier in 
the same ceremonies with two so-called puraslHiiiiihotnas (3. 16) ; also the hymn again 
in the rites (59. 16) for satisfaction of desires. \'erse 9 appears in Vfttt (8. 11) in the 
cAlurmAsYii rites, with an offering by the adhvaryn. * [^The Anukr. gives Urahman as 
the rsi of 9 and 10. J 

Translated: (frifTith, i. 184; \Vcl>er, xviii. 150. 

1. On the earth they paid reverence (samnam) to Agni ; he throve 
(rtih) \ as on earth ihey paid reverence to Agni, so let the revercncers pay 
reverence to me. 

The TS. version reads thus : as^nAye sdm ana mat prthivyAl sdm anamad ydikd 
*j^nfh prthivyA ( ! ) samAnamad evAm mAhyam bhadrik sAninainytik sAm mammmtm. 
The comm. explains sAm antiman by sttrvAfti bhuttlni sttthmttAni upasammdni bkatHimiu 
and safftnAmas by abhilautaphttiasya sathnatayah satnprAptayah. The metrical 
definitions of the Anukr. for vss. 1 8 are of no value ; the o<ld verses vary from 34 to 37 
syllables, and the even from 38 to 40. [^ We might have expected the epithet tryax*asdma 
{j-av.) to l)c applied to the even. J 

2. ICarth [is] milch-cow; of her Agni [is] calf; let her, with Agni as 
calf, milk for me food {is), refreshment, [my] desire, life-time first, 
progeny, prosjKTity, wealth : hail ! 

There is in TS. nothing to corrcs|)ond to our vss. 2, 4, 6, 8. Our edition combines 
iyits pr„ because required by Trfit ii. 75 ; but the mss., except one of Sl'P's, have 
iytih pr-, which SIM*, retains. 

3. In the atmosphere they paid reverence to Vayii ; he throve; as in 
the atmosphere they paid reverence to Vayu, so let the rcverenccrs pay 
reverence to me. 

TS. has a « curfsponding pnssai^r, in the form as given alN)vc. 

4. The atmosphere is milch-cow; of her N'ayti is calf; let herewith 
Vayu as calf, milk for me etc. etc. 

The romm. has ttiyvtt * of it (i.e. the atmosphere),* instead of iasyAs. 

5. In the sky they paid reverence to Adilya; he thiove; as in the sky 
they paid n-vfience to Atlitya, so let the revercncers pay reverence tome. 

The coires|»«>n<lini; T.S. pas.sai:e surya insti-ad of ildityn. 


6. The sky is milch-cow; of her Aditya is calf; let her, with Aditya 
as calf, milk for mc etc. etc. 

Lin the edition, sd is misprinted for j^.J 

7. In the quarters they paid reverence to the moon (candrd) ; it throve ; 

as in the quarters they paid reverence to the moon, so let the reverencers 

pay reverence to me. 

In TS., the asterisms (ndksa/ra) are here connected with the moon ; and there 
follow similar passages respecting Varuna with the waters, and several other divinities. 

8. The quarters are milch-cows ; of them the moon is calf; let them, 
with the moon as calf, milk for me etc. etc. 

Both editions read duhdtn in this verse, as in vss. 2, 4, 6, following the authority of 
nearly all the mss. ; only our H.D. have the true reading, duhrdm^ which ought to have 
been adopted in our text. 

9. Agni moves (^^r), qntered into the fire, son of the seers, protector 

against imprecation ; with homage-paying,' with homage, I make offering 

to thee ; let us not make falsely the share of the gods. 

That is (a), * Agni is continually to be found in the fire.* Three of SPP's authorities 
read viAtiasd in c, thus ridding the verse of an objectionable repetition ; but both editions 
give ndmasiiy which the comni. also has. In d our edition has karmabhUgdvi^ following 
our /<2<y<n-mss. (which read karmaobhdgdm) ; but SPP. has correctly, with his mss. and 
the comm. (^ = ;/id kdrsma), karma bhdgdm. More or less of the verse is found in 
several other texts: thus, in VS. (v. 4) only a, b, ending b with abhi^asiipAvd ; in MS. 
(i. 2. 7), with adhirdjd esdh at end of b, a wholly different c, and, for d, ma devaudtit 
yuyupdma bhdgadh^yam j in MB. (ii. 2. 12), only a, b, with b ending as in MS.; in TS. 
(*• 3- 7')» t^^c whole verse, b ending like MS., c beginning with svdhdkrtya brdhmand^ 
and d ending with mithuya kar bhdgadh^yam ; in TB. (ii. 7. 15*), the whole, beginning 
with vydghrb 'ydm agndii car-^ and ending b with -fii aydm^ its c and d agreeing 
throughout with ours ; in A^S. (viii. 14.4), tlie whole, but ending b* like MS. and TS., 
and having for c, d tasmdi juhomi havisd ghrtena md dtvdndm momuhad bhdgadhe- 
yam ; \\v\ Ppp., the whole verse, just as in AQS., except that a ends vtxih pravistd and 
that d has yiiyavad for momuhad and (unless mdm is a slip of Roth's pen) mdm for 
md\. LSee Bloomfield*s discussion of mithuyA kr^ ZDMG. xlviii. 556.J The meter 
(lo-fii : i2-fii =44) is irregular, but the Anukr. takes no notice of it. * [^The Calcutta 
ed. has avirdja esahy misprint for adhi-.\ 

10. Purified with the heart, with the mind, O Jatavedas — knowing all 
the ways (vayihia), O god ; seven mpuths are thine, O Jatavedas ; to them 
I make offering — do thou enjoy the oblation. 

Pilidm in a can only qualify havyd9n in d : compare RV. iv. 58. 6 b, anidr hrdA 
mdnasd pCtydmdndh, The /<i//<?-text makes one of its frequent blunders by resolving 
in c saptisydni into sapid: asydni instead of into saptd: dsytini, tlie designation of the 
accent in saf'nhitd being the same in both cases, according to its usual method. SPP. 
accepts the blunder, reading Asydni. 

It is impossible to see why these two concluding verses should have been added to 
the hymn. 


40. Against enemies from the different quarters. 

[QuJkrm, — * krtyd^rmtiAmranam, hahndtvuixam, trAi$tuhk«m : 2,8. jaguti {8. ^r^HfmkrmH 


Not found in I'ilipp. Somewhat similar formulas are met with in TB. (ill 11. 5) 
and Ap(^S. (vi. 18.3). Used in K«^u<;m with ii. 11 etc., in the preparation of holy water 
for the counteraction of witchcraft (39. 7), and reckoned to the krtyApratiharana gana 
(ib., note). * [^The Berlin ms. of titc Anukr. adds the expected astanam. — Weber, in 
a footnote, p. 152, says that the remarks of the Anukr. on vs. 8 su|i:fi^est that the author 
of the Anukr. was a Vedantist. Hence his attribution of hymns 37 and 38 to 

Translated : Griflith, i. 185 ; \Ve1)er, xviii. 152. 

1. They who make ofTcring from in front, O Jalavedas, [who] from 
the eastern quarter vex us — having come upon (r) Agni, let them stagger 
(vyath) away; I smite them back with the reverter (pratisard). 

Praiis^ra, the comm. says, means pratimukham Mtvartata Abhicdrikatk karmd 
*ti€fia ; 2iiiA juhvaii means homend *'smdn abhicatanti. The an.ilugous formula in the 
other texts reads thus : pnlc! di^ ajittfr devdtd : n^ftim sd di^im drt'dm drvdi^9iSm 
rcckaim yd mdi *tdsydi di{b *bhidiisati (so TB. ; ApC^'S. omits di^im dtvdfk dtvdidndm). 

The verses have slight metrical irregularities which are ignored by the Anukr. 

2. They who make offering from the right, O Jatavcdas, [who] from 
the southern quarter vex us — having come uiK)n Yama, let them etc. etc. 

The other texts make Indra the god of the southern quarter. |^Sce Weber*s note, 
P- 1 53. J 

3. They who make offering from behind, O Jatavcdas, [who] from the 
western quarter vex us — having come upon Varuna, let them etc. etc. 

The other texts say Soma instead of Varuna. 

4. They who make offering from above, O Jiitavedas, [who] from the 
northern quarter vex us — having come upon Soma, let them etc. etc. 

Nearly all tl)e mss. (all ours save O.Op. ; ail but three of SPP's) strangely accent 
somdm in this verse; Ix)th editions emend to sdmam. In the other texts, Mitra and 
Varuna are the divinities invoked for the northern quarter. 

5. They who make offering from below, O Jatavcdas, [who] from the 

fixed quarter vex us — having come upon ICarth, let them etc. etc. 

Here, again, p.irt of our m.vs. (K.l.ll.), and nearly all SlT's. gi**e the false accent 
bkHtnlttt ; both editions read bhutnim. 1 he other texts associate Aditi with **thit 
quarter," or •• the (jiiarter here," as they style it. 

6. They who make offering from the atmosphere, O Jatavcdas, [who] 
from the midway {vyadhvd) (|uartcr vex us — having come U[x>n Vayu, 
let them etc. etc. 

The comm. understands vyadhva as ••trackless*' {Tij;ti/d adkvdna yasydm). The 
other texts take no notice of sucli a ({uartcr. 


7. They who make offering from aloft, O Jatavedas, [who] from the 
upward quarter vex us — having come upon Surya, let them etc. etc. 

The other texts associate Brhaspati with this quarter. 

8. They who make offering from the intermediate directions of the 
quarters, O Jatavedas, [who] from all the quarters vex us — having come 
upon the brdhinan^ let them etc. etc. 

Several of our mss. accent digbhyd ^bhidis-. The other texts have nothing that cor- 
responds to this verse. 

This, the eighth and concluding anuvUka of the book, has 5 hymns and 47 verses ; 
the quotation from the old Anukr. is sapiadaqA *ntyah^ to which is added sadarcavac ca. 

Here ends also the xi\}\>\i prapdthaka. 

One of our mss. (I.) sums up the content of the book as 323 verses; the true 
number is 324. LObserve that the last vs. of hymn 20 is numbered 7 when it should 
be 9.J 

Book V. 

LThc fifth book is made up of thirty-one hymns, divided into 
six /7;///iw/'^-groups, with five hymns in each group save the 
fourth, which has six hymns. The Old Anukramani appears 
to take 60 verses as the norm of an auuvaka. The number 
of verses in each hymn ranges from 8 to 18. The Major 
Anukramani assumes 8 verses as the normal length of a hymn 
of this book (see p. 142); but there are only two such hymns 
("hymns" 9 and 10, both prose!). In fact, 

There arc in i\\\% liook, 2 
Containing respectively 8 

The entire book has been translated by Weber, Indische StudUn^ 
vol. xviii. (1898). pages 154-288. This is the first book to which 
the native commentary is missing.J 





















I. Mystic. 

[/7r^i/i/i//?«i /t/Aitnttn. — Mav*ik*im, xdrututm. trthrtnf'httm : j. {*) j^ardhrJkati trighthA : 

7. t**Aj i t). J .jr. /*»/. at\*\}ti.\ 

Found also in iTilpp. vi. Mu<h .md variously usrd by Kau^.. ))Ut in situations that 
have nothing to do with the mc.inini; nf the h\inn, and cast no li^ht upon its diflicultics: 
thus, it is employed with the followini; hymn in a battle -rite (15. I), for victory; and 
the two hymns to^etiuT a^ain in a ceremony (22. I) for welfare, while hymns 1 to 3 
(and V, 1.3 scpar.itrly) are reckoned \\*) I. notrj to the pustika mantfas; vs. I alone 
(with vi. 17 and another) appears in a ceremony (35. 12) against abortion; vss. 2-9. in 
one (35. 13 ff.) f«ir the benefit of a person seized by jttmbha ; vs. 3 is further applied 
in a ch.iim (*i.i2) for ^ood fortune in rr^ard to clothing, vs. 4, in a women's rite 
(34.20) for winning a husb.iml ; vs. 5 (willi iii.30, vi.64, etc.) in a rite (12. 5) for 
harmony; vs. 6. in tlie nuptial < rremonifs (76. 21), on maikinf; seven lines to the north 
of t)»e rtn*. .uid a;;.iin (71). i ). with an otfrrinc ^^ t^^c bej»inninK of the fourth-day ol»erv- 
ancrs : vs. 7, in a rrmrdial litf (2^ 12) for one in misery (#iw/i//), |;ivin); him a portion, 
and ai:ain, in thf «frrmony .tj ilnst f.iKe accusation {\(^, i). with vii.43; vs. 8 in a rite 
for prospnity (21. 15). on on .isi.m of the divisicm of an inheritance ; and vs. 9, later 
(21. 17) in ihr List nicntionrd < rn-monv. 

The h\mn is intiMition.dly and m«>st successfully obscure, and the translation |Ei%'en b 
in K'*"'"** P-*»* mr< h.iiiic.d. not prof.ssini; any rral undrrstandini; of the sense. It is *-ery 
|)rol)abIr tlie ti'xt is c onsidt-r.dily «i>fruplr«l: and onr cannot avoi<l the impression 
also that tlx* hues air mtur or less disi Mnnect<*d, and artlfi* ially combined. 

Translated : I.udwi^. p. 31)4 ; (rriOith, i 1^7 ; Weber, xviii. 157. 



1. He who came to (a-bhu) the womb i^ydni) with a special sacred text 
(> rd/iatlvtanira), of immortal spirit (-dsu), increasing, of good birth, of 
unharmed spirit, shining like the days — Trita the maintainer main- 
tained three (/;/, neuter). 

The Pet. Lexx. render fdhanmanira by *• lacking speech " ; Ludwig, by " of distin- 
guished meditation." Ahe *va (p. dhdoiva) is perhaps rather to be understood as 
Ahahoiva, Ppp. puts sujanmd in b before vardhamUnas , As elsewhere, part of our 
mss. (Hp.p.m.P.M.W.) read trtds in d. The last pada is two syllables short, the Anukr. 
taking no notice of the deficiency. 

2. He who first attained to {a-sad) the ordinances {dhdrtnan) makes 

thence many wondrous forms; eager (} dhdsyu) he first entered the 'T y^^ 

womb {yoni), he who understood (acit) speech unspoken. '' '. '^'' ■ \ ^< ^ 

In b the translation follows Ppp., which reads krnute for -use\ Ppp. also has a differ- 7'^ r^x- ht 

ent Cj/^f ca yonith prathamd **vive^a; and it ends d with anucitHfh jigdya. /-'' /^* ^ 

3. He who left {nc) [his] body to thy heat (fif^a), flows the gold ; his 
[men] are bright (fiict) after; there they (two) assume (d/id) immortal 
names ; let the clans {v/() send garments for us. 

The first pada might equally mean **he who left thy body (self) to the heat" In b, 
ksdrai might equally be pres. pple. qualifying hiranyam. In d the translation assumes 
the reading asmi instead of asmdi ; nearly all the mss. have the former (p. asmi iti ; 
P.M.W. have asmdi^ but doubtless only by the not infrequent error of substituting di 
for ^), and our understanding of the sense is too defective to justify emendations ; Ppp., 
however, has asmi. In c, Ppp. reads atra dadhrse 'mrt-. The Kau^. use of the verse 
appears to be derived only from the occurrence of vdsitdni in d. 

4. When these formerly went further forth, approaching each unfading 

seat — the poet of the dry (? fffsd), the two licking mothers — do ye (two) 

send for the sister (jdmi) a capable (dhiiryd) spouse. 

The translation is, of course, simple nonsense. None of Lour J mss. accent gus in a ; 
P.M. acccnt//7r7jJ/// before it; one (T.) combines -nto 'jurydm in b. 

5. This great homage, verily, to thee, O broad-going one, do I a poet 

make with poesy {kdvyd) ; when the two (m.), going united (saviydflc) 

against the earth {ksd)y [then] increase here the (two) great bank-wheeled 

{} rodhacakrd) ones (f.). 

•* Hank-wheeled," i.e. rolling on between their banks. Tdt in our text (beginning of c) 
is a misprint (or yd/. Prat. iii. 4 determines tl ; ii.97 determines stiy vdvrdhiU (p. vav-) 
is by iii. 13. The Kau9. use of the verse seems suggested simply by samydfkcdu. The 
irregular verse (9+11 : 11 + 12=43) is very imperfectly defined by the Anukr. ^The 
London nis. of the Anukr. is here in disorder : and perhaps we ought to xt?A puro-brhatl 
ior /fard-.j 

6. Seven bourns {viaryddd) did the poets fashion ; unto one of these 
verily went one distressed ; in the nest of the nearest {upatnd) community 
(^ dyji) stood the pillar (skamb/id)^ at the release {visargd) of the roads, in 
the supports (dharund). 


The vcrsr is a RV. one, from a mystic ami olmcure liymn (x. 5.6) ; RV. puts /«/ after 
/6J/// in b, and in c accents upamAsya nUU^ which alone is acceptable; all our mss. 
give upamasyoy which our edition follows; and all save one (I).) read mUU without 
accent, which we emended to ///•//. Tpp. f^ivcs in b tAsAm anekUm^ and omits, probably 
by an ovrr5if;ht, the second half-verse. *' The life of mankiml is comparcfl to a race- 
track, on which the };ods have marked many (seven) stations ; eac h generation {yugm) 
reaches only one such goal, getting as far as the place where the next l>egins; there its 
road terminates.** R. 

7. Also, of immortal spirit, vowed {} vrdta), I go jKrrforming ; spirit, 

soul, of the body then (^^ tdi) with kine (} sufmiii^n) \ and cither the 

mighty one {ftilpti) assigns treasure, or as the oblat ion-giver pursues 

{} sac) with refreshment. 

This verse nnd vs. 5 |_4 .^J are the most utterly ho|>eless of the hymn ; even the conjec- 
tures of the conim. respecting them would be welcome. Ludwig renders SMmdiigm Xvy 
"erfreut gegangrn." Kor b, Ppp. reads asuttlt fiitas svaiihtnyA sammif^H ; in C iJ 
jyestho ratfttl. I'd in c in our text is a misprint for 7'J. I'he verse lacks only one 
syllable of being a full ///V/i/M, and that deficiency mij^ht t>e made up by reading either 
^aJtftfs or rdtnatfi as trisyllabic. |^A barytone vnita is unknown elsewhere. J 

8. Also son prays (} hi) father for dominion ; they called for well-being 
him of the chief bourn (})\ may they see now, O Varuna, those that arc 
thy shapes {iis(/ni) ; mayest thou make wondrous forms of the one much 
rolling hither. 

The translation implies emcn<lation in b to the comj>ound/v^jMifw*iyT^//4jjw,* i.e. 'him 
who has received the best domain.* In d our ilvtirvrtatas is for the 'rvrai- of all the 
m.s.s. ; it can hardly be that the text of this pada is not further corrupt. The vcrlM in 
C d are au!:;nK'ntIt*ss form.s. and may, of course, l>e rendered indicatively. 1*PP* begins 
the verse with putro nJ yaf pit-, and ends b with svasti. The Kau^. use of this verse 
and the next is apparently founded on the occurrence in them of ** Mm *' and " father "• 
and "half.'* The second pada is proper lyy*/^'<i//. •LNo ms. has m/<Iwi,J 

9. Half with half milk thou mi.xest (?//*<*); with half, O Asura (.^), thou 
increasest [thy] vehemence (?). We have increased the helpful (f<'^w//rt) 
companion, Varuna, lively (isini) son of Aditi ; poct-praiscd wondrous 
forms have we si>oken for him — the (two) firmaments {n^dasi) of true 

This translation implies .srver.d emendations (or. at least, alterations) : in b, (usmam^ 
which Tp]). has. instead of tlie vocative (tuffnt, and a sunt, again with Ppp. (|>erhapt 
Inrtler am tint • * not foolish ' ? i f. 1 1 . 5, Ik-Iow) ; in c, lU'h'rJhtiMa, which also Ppp- gives, 
while »»nf or two of our n»ss. offer J : 7 ^r ■///// J //m (D.) and arifttihi^ma (Kp.). In f 
ought to be arcrnifd iir(\tltfia ; the pttiftirwss., as elsewhere in suih cases, mark the 
pAd.vdi vision aft-r tlic word, thus r<*( koninj; it to e, which is obviously wrong. Some of 
our mss. (O.I).K ) accent in a prmiksi, which is the l>etter readini;, the case being one 
of antithi'tical accent Tpp. fuitlirr lias p;7viiJ tor pttyastl in a, vafJkayase *SHrm in K 
a.fitfr in d. and -:<)ii?w at tite end. The verse (11 ♦ II : li \ li : to (<> ?) 4- 1 1 =^»5 ("64 ?]) 
i^ tnnro nearly an d}ti than an u/}itifi. • [_This is given by s<mie of SPP's authorities J 


2. Mystic. 

\^BrhadJiva Athafvan. — navakam, vdruttam. trdistubham : g. bhurik parStijdgatd.^ 

Found also in Paipp. v. It is a RV. hymn (x. i2o) ; and the first three verses occur 
in other texts. For the use of the hymn with its predecessor in Kau^. 15. i and 22. i 
and 19. 1, note, see above, under h. i ; it is further applied, with vii. i, in a kdmya rite 
(59. 17), with worship of Indra and Agni. The various verses appear also as follows: 
vs. 3, in a rite for prosperity (21.21); vs. 4, with vi. 13 in a battle-rite (15.6) ; vs. 5 in 
a similar rite (i 5. 8) ; vs. 6, in another (i 5. 9), and yet again, with vi. 1 25, and vii. 3 etc., 
as the king and his charioteer mount a new chariot (15. 11); vs. 7, next after vs. 3 
(21. 23), with the holding of a light on the summit of an ant-hill; and vs. 8 in a 
women's rite L34. 21J, next after v. 1.4 — all artificial uses, having no relation to the 
texts quoted in them. 

Translated: by the RV. translators; and Griffith, i. 189; Weber, xviii. 164. 

1. That verily was the chief among beings whence was born the 
formidable one, of bright manliness ; as soon as born, he dissolves [his] 
foes, when all [his] aids (flmd) revel after him. 

RV. reads in d dun ydm vl^ve mddattty timdh^ and all the other texts (SV. ii. 833; 
VS. xxxiii. 80 ; AA. i. 3.4) agree with it The Anukr. ignores the considerable metrical 

2. Increasing with might (fdvas), he of much force, a foe, assigns (Md) 
fear to the barbarian, winning (n.) both what breathes not out and what 
breathes out ; brought forward (n.), they resound together for thee in the 

Sense and connection are extremely obscure ; but all the texts (S V. ii. 834 ; A A. as 
above) agree throughout. Ptdb/trid, of course, might be loc. sing, of -//*. Sdsni in c 
is (with Grassmann) rendered as if it were sdsnis, 

3. In thee they mingle skill abundantly, when they twice, thrice 
become [thine] aids ; unite thou with sweet (svddti) what is sweeter than 
sweet ; maycst thou fight against yonder honey with honey (mdd/iu), 

RV. differs only by reading vrfijanti viqve at end of a; and SV. (ii. 835) and AA. 
(as above) agree with it throughout; as does also Ppp. ; TS. (iii. 5.10*) begins d with 
dta f? /;/, and ends it \s\^ yodhi^ which looks like a more original reading. \Qi, Gcldner, 
Ved. Stud. ii. 10. J 

4. If now after thee that conquerest riches in contest after contest 
(rdna) the devout ones {vipra) revel, more forcible, O vehement one, 
extend thou what is stanch; let not the ill-conditioned Ka^okas damage 

RV. begins a with /// cid dhi ivd^ and b with rndde-made ; in c it reads (with Ppp.) 
dhrsfto for {usmin^ and at the end of the verse ydiudhind durivAh ; Ppp. has instead 
durevd ydtudhdndh. ' 

5. By thee do we prevail in the contests, looking forward to many 


things to he foii<;ht [for]; I stir up thy wcaix)ns with s[>clls (I'ii^as); I 
sharj»cn iij) tl)y powers {I'dyas) with incantation (dniAwnN). 

KV. anil I'pp. have no variants. 

6. Thou diilst sot that down in the lower and the higher, in what 
abode (liurond) thou didst aid with aid ; cause ye to stand there the 
moving mother; from it send ye many exploits. 

KV. ami P|)p. put the verse after our 7. Tpp. has no variants; KV. reads in a 
47*anifti pArath ai, and, for c, d, d mAitird sthnpayase ji^atni dia inou JtdrfarJt 
fHruni: a quite different, Init little less obscure version of the text : ** Indra checks the 
revolution of the sky, in order to f;ain time for his deeds.** K. 

7. Praise thou fully, C) summit, the many-tracked, skilful (.^/Mftfw), 
most active {ind) Aptya of the Aptya.s ; may he look on with might, he 
of much force ; may he over|)ower the counterpart of the earth. 

Th<* KV. version is different throuj^hout : sttis/yyam purux'drpa^am fbhvam indimmam 
dptydm €iptytin,ltn : d iiarsaif (tii'ttsd saptd dAnun pt d %t\ksat€ praiimAmdni bkAri ; and 
with this I 'pp. aj^rees. The transl.ition follows our text servilely, as it may ht calird, 
save in the obviously unavoidable emendation of dptdm to dptydm in b ; (). is our only ms. 
that reads Aptydm, The verse is far too irrej;ular to be let pass as merely a irisimh