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Caubriimk, Mass., U-S.A Pabtication Agent of Harvard Univerutj. 

Boston, New York, Chicago, San Fbancisco Ginn & Company. 

London: Ginn k Company 9 St. Martin's Street, Leicester Squaii 

Leipzig: Otto Harbassowitz Queratrasse i. 

%• Volumes Vtt. and VIII. are not sold separately. A copy of the two volumes, postage 
paid, may be obtained directly anthers within the limits of the Universal Postal Union, by 
sending a Postal Order for the price as given below, to Tkt Publicatian Agtnt of Harvard 
Univiriily, Cambridgi, Maiiaehuietls, Uniud Slatti of America, 

The price of this work (being the two volumes VII. and VIII. of the Harvard Oriental 
Series, taken together) is five dollars (S$.oo). According to the convenion-iabtes used in the 
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= tS kroner and 59 dre = lz florins and 35 cents, Netherlandish. 






Wales Professor of Sanskrit in Harvard University 

Vol. VII 




With a Critical and Exegetical Commentary 



Latt Proftssor of Sanskrit in Yalt University^ Knight of the Royal Prussian Order Pour U 
Merite^ Corresponding Af ember of the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences, of the 
Institute of Prance, and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, Foreign 
Member of the Royal Academy dei Lincei of Rome, Honorary Member 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, of the Royal Asiatic Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and of the German Oriental 
Society, ett., Editor-in-Chief of The Century 
Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexi- 
con of the English Language 





Introduction. Books I to VII 

Pages i-clxii and 1-470 



1 90s 

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• •• "• ♦ 


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Copyright, 1904 
By harvard UNIVERSITY 

The composition, electrotyping, presswork, and binding of 
this work were done by Messrs. Ginn & Company, at 

(2nS)e 9[tS)eitarttiii |)re«« 


The paper for this work was made by Messrs. S. D. 
Warren & Company, of Boston, Mass., U. S. A., at 

€it CttmberUn)! iSilU 

First edition, first issue, 1905. One thousand copies 






















Plates, one in each volume of this work 

Portrait of Whitney, facing page xliii 

Facsimile of Kashmirian text, birch-bark leaf 187 a, just before page 471 

Prefatory and biographical and related matter xvii-lxi 

Paragraphs in Ilea of a preface by Whitney xvii-xxi 

Announcement of this work xvii 

Statement of its plan and scope and design xviii 

The purpose and limitations and method of the translation xix 

Editor's preface xxiil-xlii 

Whitney's labors on the Atharva-Veda xxiii 

The edition of the text or the ** First volume " xxiii 

Relation of this work to the ** First volume ** xxiv 

And to this Series xxiv 

External form of this work xxiv 

Its general scope as determined by previous promise and fulfilment . . xxv 

Of the critical notes in particular xxvi 

Scope of the work as transcending previous promise xxvii 

Evolution of the style of the work xxvii 

Partial rewriting and revision by Whitney xxvii 

Picking up the broken threads xxviii 

Relation of the editor's work to that of the author xxviii 

Parts for which the author is not responsible xxviii 

The General Introduction, Part I. : by the editor xxix 

The same. Part II. : elaborated in part from the author's material . . . xxix 

The editor's special introductions to the eighteen books, ii.-xix xxx 

The special introductions to the hymns : additions by the editor . . . xxx 
His bibliography of previous translations and discussions : contained in 

The paragraphs beginning with the word ** Translated " xxx 

Added special introductions to the hymns of book xviii. etc xxxi 

Other editorial additions at the beginning and end of hymns .... xxxii 

Other additions of considerable extent xxxii 

The seven tables appended to the latter volume of this work .... xxxii 

Unmarked minor additions and other minor changes xxxiii 

The marked minor additions and other minor changes xxxiv 

The revision of the author's manuscript. Verification xxxiv 

Accentuation of Sanskrit words xxxv 

Cross-references xxxv 

Orthography of Anglicized proper names xxxv 

Editorial short-comings and the chances of error xxxv 


X Contents of Prefatory and Related Matter 


The biographical and related matter xxxvi 

General significance of Whitney*s work xxxvii 

Need of a systematic commentary on the Rig-Veda xxxvii 

The Century Dictionary of the English Language xxxviii 

Acknowledgments xxxviii 

Human personality and the progress of science xl 

The same in English verse and in Sanskrit verse xli-xlii 

Biographical and related matter xliii-lxi 

Brief sketch of Whitney's life : by the editor xliii 

Estimate of Whitney's character and services : by the editor .... xlvii 

Select list of Whitney's writings: by Whitney Ivi 

General Introduction, Part I. : by the editor Ixiii-cvii 

General Premises Ixiii-lxiv 

Scope of this Part of the Introduction Ixiii 

Scope of the reports of the variant readings Ixiii 

The term "manuscripts" often used loosely for " authorities" . . Ixiv 

Which authorities are both manuscripts and oral reciters Ixiv 

Difficulty of verifying statements as to authorities Ixiv 

z. Readings of Snropean manuscripts of the Vulgate recension Ixiv-lxv 

Reports include mss. collated, some before, and some after publication . Ixiv 

Interpretation of the records of the Collation-Book Ixv 

a. Readings of Indian manuscripts of the Vulgate Ixvi 

By ** Indian mss." are meant those used by S. P. Pandit Ixvi 

His reports not exhaustive Ixvi 

3. Readings of Indian oral reciters of the Vulgate Ixvi-lxvii 

By "Indian oral reciters" are meant those employed by S. P. Pandit . Ixvi 

Errors of the eye checked by oral feciters Ixvi 

4. Readings of the Hindu commentator Ixvii-lxviii 

The critical value and the range of his variant readings Ixvii 

Excorsas : Was he identical with Sayana of the Rig-Veda ? Ixviii 

5. Readings of the Pada-patha Ixix-lxx 

Reported in Index Verborum, and since published in full Ixix 

Illustrations of its deficiencies Ixix 

In verb-compounds and various other combinations Ixix-lxx 

6. The Pr&tipakhya and its commentary Ixx-lxxi 

Character of Whitney's editions of the Prati^akhyas Ixx 

Their bearing upon the orthography and criticism of the text .... Ixx 

Utilization of the Atharvan Pratigakhya for the present work .... Ixxi 

7. The Anukramams: « Old '' and *< Major " Ixxi-lxxiv 

More than one Anukramani extant Ixxi 

The Paficapatalika or " Old Anukr." or « Quoted Anukr." Ixxi 

Manuscripts thereof Ixxii 

The Brhatsarvanukramani or «* Major Anukr." Ixxii 

Manuscripts thereof Ixxii 

Text-critical value of the Anukramanis Ixxiii 

The author of the Major Anukr. as a critic of meters Ixxiii 

His statements as to the seers of the hymns (quasi-authorship) . . . Ixxiv 

Contents of Getural Introduction^ Part I. 



8. The Uapika-Sfktra and the ViitJLiiA-S&tra Ixxiv-lxxix 

The work of Garbe and Bloomfield and Caland Ixxiv 

Bearing of Sutras upon criticism of structure and text of SamhitH . . Ixxv 

Grouping of mantra-material in Sutra and in SamhitH compared . . Ixxv 

Many difficulties of the Kau^ika yet unsolved Ixxvi 

Value of the Sutras for the exegesis of the SamhitH Ixxvii 

K&u^ika no good warrant for dogmatism in the exegesis of SaihhitH . Ixxvii 

Integer vitae as a Christian funeral-hymn Ixxviii 

Secondary adaptation of mantras to incongruous ritual uses .... Ixxviii 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or P&ippalida recension Ixxix-lxxxix 

Its general relations to the Vulgate or ^aunakan recension .... Ixxix 

The unique birch-bark manuscript thereof (perhaps about a.d. 15 19) . Ixxx 

Roth's Kashmirian nagari transcript (Nov. 1874) Ixxxi 

Arrival (1876) of the birch-bark original at Tubingen Ixxxi 

Roth*s Collation (June, 1884) of the P&ippalada text Ixxxi 

Roth's autograph nagari transcript (Dec. 1884) Ixxxii 

The facsimile of the birch-bark original (1 901) Ixxxii 

Roth's Collation not exhaustive Ixxxiii 

Faults of the birch-bark manuscript Ixxxiii 

Collation not controlled by constant reference to the birch-bark ms. . Ixxxiv 

Such reference would have ruined the birch-bark ms Ixxxiv 

Care taken in the use of Roth's Collation. Word-division .... Ixxxv 

Kashmirian readings not controlled directly from the facsimile . . . Ixxxv 

Provisional means for such control : the Concordance (pages 1018-1023) Ixxxv 

Excursus : The requirements for an edition of the P&ippaUda : . . . Ixxxvi 

1 . A rigorously precise transliteration Ixxxvii 

2. Marginal references to the Vulgate parallels Ixxxvii 

3. Index of Vulgate verses thus noted on the margin Ixxxvii 

4. Accessory material : conjectures, notes, translations Ixxxviii 

10. Readings of the parallel texts Ixxxix-xci 

The texts whose readings are reported Ixxxix 

The method of reporting aims at the utmost accuracy Ixxxix 

Completeness of the reports far from absolute xc 

Reports presented in well-digested form xc 

11. Whitney's Commentary : further discussion of its critical elements . . xci-xciii 

Comprehensiveness of its array of parallels xci 

Criticism of specific readings xci 

Illustrations of classes of text-errors xcii 

Auditory errors. Surd and sonant. Twin consonants xcii 

Visual errors. Haplography xciii 

Metrical faults. Hypermetric glosses, and so forth xciii 

Blend-readings xciii 

la. Whitney's Translation and the interpretative elements of the Commentary xciv-xcix 

The translation : general principles governing the method thereof . . xciv 

The translation not primarily an interpretation, but a literal version xciv 

A literal version as against a literary one xciv 

Interpretative elements : captions of the hymns xcv 

xii Contents of General Introduction^ Part I. 


Interpretations by Whitney xcv 

Exegetical notes contributed by Roth xcvi 

The translation has for its underlying text that of the Berlin edition . . xcvi 

This is the fact even in cases of corrigible corruptions xcvi 

Cases of departure from the text of the Berlin edition xcvii 

Whitney's growing skepticism and correspondingly rigid literalness . . xcvii 

Poetic elevation and humor xcvii i 

13. Abbreyiations and signs explained xcix-cvi 

General scope of the list : it includes not only xcix 

The downright or most arbitrary abbr-eviations, but also xcix 

The abbreviated designations of books and articles xcix 

Explanation of arbitrary signs : 

Parentheses; square brackets c 

Ell-brackets ( L J ) ; hand (JJ®*) c 

Small circle ; Italic colon ; Clarendon letters, a, b, c, etc c 

Alphabetic list of abbreviations c 

14. Tabular yiew of translations and natiye comment cvi-cvii 

Previous translations. — Native comment cvi 

Chronologic sequence of previous translations and discussions .... cvii 

General Introduction, Part II. : partly from Whitney's material cix-clxi 

General Premises cix 

Contents of this Part cix 

Authorship of this Part cix 

X. Description of the manoscripts used by Whitney cix-cxvi 

The brief designations of his manuscripts (sigla codicum) cix 

Synoptic table of the manuscripts used by him ex 

Table of the Berlin manuscripts of the Atharva-Veda ex 

Whitney's critical description of his manuscripts : 

Manuscripts used before publication of the text (B. P. M. W. E. I. H. ; Bp. Bp.*) cxi 

Manuscripts collated after publication of the text (O. R. T. K. ; Op. D. Kp.) cxiv 

a. The stanza (am no deyir abhistaye as opeidng stanza cxvi-cxvii 

As initial stanza of the text in the Kashmirian recension cxvi 

As initial stanza of the Vulgate text cxvi 

3. Whitney's CoUation-Book and his collations cxvii-cxix 

Description of the two volumes that form the Collation-Book .... cxvii 

Whitney's fundamental transcript of the text cxvii 

Collations made before publication of the text cxviii 

The Berlin collations cxviii 

The Paris and Oxford and London collations cxviii 

Collations made after publication (made in 1875 or later) cxviii 

Haug, Roth, Tanjore, Deccan, and Bikaner mss cxviii 

Other contents of the Collation-Book cxviii 

4. Repeated yerses in the manuscripts cxix-cxx 

Abbreviated by pratika with addition of ity eka etc cxix 

List of repeated verses or verse-groups cxix 

Further details concerning the pratika and the addition cxix 

Contents of General Introduction^ Part II. xiii 

5. Refrains and the like in the nuuinacripts cxx-cxxi 

Written out in full only in first and last verse of a sequence .... cxx 

Treated by the AnukramanI as if unabbreviated cxx 

Usage of the editions in respect of such abbreviated passages . . . cxxi 

6. Karks of accentuation in the manuscripts cxxi-cxxiii 

Berlin edition uses the Rig-Veda method of marking accents . . . cxxi 

Dots for lines as accent-marks cxxi 

Marks for the independent svarita cxxii 

Horizontal stroke for svarita cxxii 

Udlitta marked by vertical stroke above, as in Mliitr^yanl .... cxxii 

Accent-marks in the Bombay edition cxxii 

Use of a circle as avagraha-sign cxxii 

7. Orthographic method pursued in the Berlin edition cxxiii-cxxvi 

Founded on the usage of the mss., but controlled by the Prati^&khya . cxxiii 

That treatise an authority only to a certain point cxxiii 

Its failure to discriminate between rules of wholly different value . . cxxiii 

Items of conformity to the Pr&ti^&khya and of departure therefrom . cxxiv 

Transition-sounds : as in t&n-t-sarvSn cxxiv 

Final -n before 9- and j- : as in pa^yafi janm&ni cxxiv 

Final -n before c- : as in y&n^ ca cxxiv 

Final -n before t- : as in t&ns te cxxiv 

Final -t before 9- : as in asmac charavah cxxv 

Abbreviation of consonant groups : as in pankti cxxv 

Final -m and -n before 1- : as in kafk lokam cxxv 

Visarga before st- and the like : as in ripu stenah cxxvi 

The kampa-figures i and 3 cxxvi 

The method of marking the accent cxxvi 

8. Metrical form of the Atharran Saifahiti cxxvi-cxxvii 

Predominance of anustubh stanzas cxxvi 

Extreme irregularity of the metrical form cxxvii 

Apparent wantonness in the alteration of Rig-Veda material . . . cxxvii 

To emend this irregularity into regularity is not licit cxxvii 

9. Dirisions of the text cxxvii-cxl 

Summary of the various divisions cxxvii 

The first and second and third ** grand divisions** cxxvii 

1. The (unimportant) division into prapSthakas or * lectures* . . . cxxviii 

Their number and distribution and extent cxxviii 

Their relation to the anuvlka-divisions cxxviii 

2. The (fundamental) division into kandas or * books * cxxix 

3. The division into anuvSkas or * recitations * cxxix 

Their number, and distribution over books and grand divisions . . cxxix 

Their relation to the hymn-divisions in books xiii.-xviii cxxx 

4. The division into suktas or * hymns * cxxxi 

The h)'mn-divisions not everywhere of equal value cxxxi 

5. The division into rcas or * verses * cxxxi 

6. Subdivisions of verses : avasdnas, pidas, and so forth .... cxxxii 

xiv Contents of General Introduction^ Part II. 


Numeration of successive verses in the mss cxxxil 

Groupings of successive verses into units requiring special mention : . . cxxxii 

Decad-suktas or * decad-hymns * cxxxii 

Artha-suktas or * sense-hymns ' cxxxiii 

Paryaya-suktas or * period-hymns * cxxxiii 

Differences of the Berlin and Bombay numerations in books vii. and xix. . cxxxiv 

Differences of hymn-numeration in the paryaya-books cxxxiv 

Whitney's criticism of the numbering of the Bombay edition cxxxvi 

Suggestion of a preferable method of numbering and citing cxxxvi 

Differences of verse-numeration cxxxvii 

Summations of hymns and verses at end of divisions cxxxviii 

The summations quoted from the Paftcapatalika cxxxviii 

Indication of extent of divisions by reference to an assumed norm . . . cxxxviii 

Tables of verse-norms assumed by the Paficapatalikcl cxxxix 

The three ** grand divisions '* are recognized by the Paficapatalika . . . cxxxix 

zo. Extent and structure of the Atharva-Veda Samhita cxl-clxi 

Limits of the original collection cxl 

Books xix. and xx. are later additions cxii 

The two broadest principles of arrangement of books i.-xviii. : . . . . cxlii 

I. Miscellaneity or unity of subject and 2. length of hymn cxlii 

The three grand divisions (I., II., III.) as based on those principles . . cxlii 

The order of the three grand divisions cxlii 

Principles of arrangement of books within the grand division : cxlii 

1 . Normal length of the hymns for each of the several books cxliii 

2. The amount of text in each book. Table cxliii 

Arrangement of the hymns within any given book cxliii 

Distribution of hymns according to length in divisions I. and II. and III. cxivi 

Tables ( i and 2 and 3) for those divisions (see pages cxliv-cxlv) . . . cxlvi 

Grouping of hynms of book xix. according to length cxlvi 

Table (number 4) for book xix cxlvii 

Summary of the four tables. Table number 5 cxlvii 

Extent of AV. Samhita about one half of that of RV cxlvii 

First grand division (books i.-vii.): short hymns of miscellaneous subjects cxlvii 

Evidjence of fact as to the existence of the verse-norms cxlviii 

Express testimony of both Anukramanis as to the verse-norms .... cxlviii 

One verse is the norm for book vii cxlix 

Arrangement of books within the division : 

1. With reference to the normal length of the hymns cxlix 

Excursus : on hymn xix. 23, Homage to parts of the Atharva-Veda . . cl 

Exceptional character of book vii cli 

Book vii. a book of after-gleanings supplementing books i.-vi. .... clii 

2. Arrangement of books with reference to amount of text clii 

Rdsum^ of conclusions as to the arrangement of books i.-vii clii 

Departures from the norms by excess cliii 

Critical significance of those departures cliii 

Illustrative examples of critical reduction to the norm cliii 

Arrangement of the hymns within any given book of this division . . . cliv 

Contents of the Alain Body of this Work xv 



Second grand diyision (books viii.-xii.) : long hymns of miscellaneous subjects civ 

Their hieratic character : mingled prose passages civ 

Table of verse-totals for the hymns of division II clvi 

General make-up of the material of this division clvi 

Order of books within the division : negative or insignificant conclusions . . civil 

Order of hymns within any given book of this division civil 

Possible reference to this division in hymn xix. 23 clvii 

Third grand diriaion (books xiii.-xviii.) : books showing unity of subject . . clviii 

Division III. represented in Paippalada by a single book, book xviii. . . . clix 

Names of the books of this division as given by hymn xix. 23 clix 

Order of books within the division clix 

Table of verse-totals for the hymns of division III clix 

Order of hymns within any given book of this division clx 

The hymn-divisions of books xiii.-xviii. and their value clx 

Cross-references to explanation of abbreyiationa and so forth clxii 

To explanation of abbreviations (pages xcix-cvi) clxii 

To explanation of abbreviated titles (pages xcix-cvi) clxii 

To explanation of arbitrary signs (page c) clxii 

To key to the designations of the manuscripts (pages cix-cx) clxii 

To synoptic tables of the manuscripts (pages cx-cxi) clxii 

To descriptions of the manuscripts (pages cxi-cxvi) clxii 

To table of titles of hymns (volume VIII., pages 1 024-1037) clxii 

The Atharva-Veda Samhita: Translation and Notes . . . 1-1009 

z. First Grand Diriaion. — Booka I.-VII 1-470 

Seven books of short hymns of miscellaneous subjects 
[For table of the titles of the 433 hymns, see p. 1024] 

[Volume VII. ends here with book vii.] 

[Volume VIII. begins here with book viii.] 

a. Second Grand Diriaion. — Booka Vm.-Xn 471-707 

Five books of long hymns of miscellaneous subjects 
[For table of the titles of the 45 hymns, see p. 1034] 

3. Third Grand Diriaion. — Books XIII. -XVm 708-894 

Six books of long hymns, the books showing unity of subject 

[For table of the titles of the 15 hymns, see p. 1035] 

Book xiii. : hymns to the Ruddy Sun or Rohita (seer: Brahman) . . 708-737 

Book xiv. : wedding verses (seer : Savitrl Surya) 738-768 

Book XV. : the Vratya (seer : — ) 769-791 

Book xvi. : Paritta (seer : Prajipati ?) 792-804 

Book xvii.: prayer to the Sun as Indra and as Vishnu (seer: Brahman) 805-812 

Book xviii. : funeral verses (seer : Atharvan) 813-894 

4. Supplement — Book XIX 895-1009 

After-gleanings, chiefly from the traditional sources of division I. 
[For table of the titles of the 72 hymns, see p. 1036] 

Paippal&da excerpts concerning book xx 1009 

xvi Contents of Appended Auxiliary Matter 

Indexes and other auxiliary matter loii- 

z. The Doo-^netrical pisaages of the AthArran Samhita 

Tabular list 

a. ^miia ignored by the Kangika-Sfttra loi i- 

Tabular list 

3. The two methods of dting the Kanfika-SStta 

Tabular concordance 

4. The disaepant hymn-iiiimbers of the Berlin and Bombay editiona . . . 

Tabular concordance 

5. PSxppalida passages corresponding to passages of the Vallate .... 1013- 

Primary use of the table, its genesis and character 

Incidental uses of the table 

Vulgate grand division III. and Psuppalada book xviii 

Conspectus of the contents of Paippalada book xviii 

Explanation of the table 

Manner of using the table 

Tabular concordance 1017- 

6. Whitney's ICnglish captions to his hymn-translations 1024- 

They form an important element in hb interpretation of this Veda 
In tabular form, they give a useful conspectus of its subject-matter 

Table of hymn-titles of Division I., books i.-vii 1024- 

[Stop-gap : the division of this work into two separately bound volumes] 

Table of hymn-titles of Division II., books viiL-xiL 

Table of hjrmn-titles of Division III., books xiii.-xviiL 

Table of hynm-titles of the Supplement, book xix. 1036- 

7. The names of the seen of the hymns 1038- 

Whitncy's exploitation of the Major Anukramani 

Doubtful points 

Entire books of divbion III. ascribed each to a single seer .... 

Value of these ascriptions of quasi-authorship 

Prominence of Atharvan and Brahman as seers 

Hjrmns of Atharvan and hymns of Angiras : possible contrast . . . 

Consbtency in the ascriptions 

Palpably fabricated ascriptions 

Alphabetical index of seer-names and of passages ascribed to them 1040- 

8. Brief index of names and things and words and places 1042- 

An elalxM^te index uncalled for here 

Alphabetical Ibt of names and things 

Alphabetical Ibt of Sanskrit words 

List of AV. passages 

9. Additions and corrections 1044- 

Omissions and errors not easy to rectify in the electrotype plates . . 












































[^Aniumiioemeiit of this work. — The following paragraphs from the pen of Professor 
Whitney, under the title, " Announcement as to a second volume of the Roth- Whitney 
edition of the Atharva-Veda,'* appeared about two years before Mr. Whitney's death, in 
the Proceedings for April, 1892, appended to the Journal of the American Oriental 
Society y volume xv., pages clxxi-clxxiii. They show the way in which the labor done 
by Roth and Whitney upon the Atharva-Veda was divided between those two scholars. 
Moreover, they state briefly and clearly the main purpose of Whitney's commentary, 
which is, to give for the text of this Veda the various readings of both Hindu and 
European authorities (living or manuscript), and the variants of the Kashmirian or 
Paippalada recension and of the corresponding passages of other Vedic texts, together 
with references to, or excerpts from, the ancillary' works on meter, ritual, exegesis, etc. 
They are significant as showing that in Mr. Whitney's mind the translation was entirely 
subordinate to the critical notes. Most significant of all — the last sentence makes a 
clear disclaimer of finality for this work by speaking of it as ** material that is to help 
toward the study and final comprehension of this Veda." — C. R. L.J 

When, in 1855-6, the text of the Atharva-Veda was published 
by Professor Roth and myself, it was styled a "first volume," 
and a second volume, of notes, indexes, etc., was promised. The 
promise was made in good faith, and with every intention of 
prompt fulfilment; but circumstances have deferred the latter, 
even till now. The bulk of the work was to have fallen to Pro- 
fessor Roth, not only because the bulk of the work on the first 
volume had fallen to me, but also because his superior learning 
and ability pointed him out as the one to undertake it. It was 
his absorption in the great labor of the Petersburg Lexicon that 
for a long series of years kept his hands from the Atharva-Veda — 
except so far as his working up of its material, and definition of 
its vocabulary, was a help of the first order toward the understand- 
ing of it, a kind of fragmentary translation. He has also made 
important contributions of other kinds to its elucidation : most of 
all, by his incitement to inquiry after an Atharva-Veda in Cash- 
mere, and the resulting discovery of the so-called Paippalada text, 
now well known to all Vedic scholars as one of the most important 
finds in Sanskrit literature of the last half-century, and of which 


xviii Paragraphs in lieu of a Preface by Whitney 

the credit belongs in a peculiar manner to him. I have also done 
something in the same direction, by publishing in the Society's 
Journal in 1862 (Journal, vol. vii.) the Atharva-Veda Prati9akhya, 
text, translation, notes, etc.; and in 188 1 [Journal, vol. xii.J the 
Index Verborum — which latter afforded me the opportunity to 
give the /^^^-readings complete, and to report in a general way 
the corrections made by us in the text at the time of its first issue. 
There may be mentioned also the index of pratikas, which was 
published by Weber in his Indisc/ie Studieny vol. iv., in 1857, from 
the slips written by me, although another (Professor Ludwig) had 
the tedious labor of preparing them for the press. 

I have never lost from view the completion of the plan of pub- 
lication as originally formed. In 1875 I spent the summer in 
Germany, chiefly engaged in further collating, at Munich and at 
Tubingen, the additional manuscript material which had come to 
Europe since our text was printed; and I should probably have 
soon taken up the work seriously save for having been engaged 
while in Germany to prepare a Sanskrit grammar, which fully 
occupied the leisure of several following years. At last, in 1885-6, 
I had fairly started upon the execution of the plan, when failure 
of health reduced my working capacity to a minimum, and rendered 
ultimate success very questionable. The task, however, has never 
been laid wholly aside, and it is now so far advanced that, barring 
further loss of power, I may hope to finish it in a couple of years 
or so; and it is therefore proper and desirable that a public 
announcement be made of my intention. 

LStatement of its plan and scope and design. J — My plan includes, in 
the first place, critical notes upon the text, giving the various 
readings of the manuscripts, and not alone of those collated by 
myself in Europe, but also of the apparatus used by Mr. Shankar 
Pandurang Pandit in the great edition with commentary (except 
certain parts, of which the commentary has not been found) 
which he has been for years engaged in printing in India. Of 
this extremely well-edited and valuable work I have, by the kind- 
ness of the editor, long had in my hands the larger half ; and doubt- 
less the whole will be issued in season for me to avail myself of 
it throughout. Not only his many manuscripts and frotriyas 
(the living equivalents, and in some respects the superiors, of 

Plan and Scope and Design of this Work xix 

manuscripts) give valuable aid, but the commentary (which, of 
course, claims to be " Sayana's ") also his very numerous various 
readings, all worthy to be reported, though seldom offering anything 
better than the text of the manuscripts. Second, the readings of the 
Paippalada version, in those parts of the Veda (much the larger 
half) for which there is a corresponding Paippalada text; these 
were furnished me, some years ago, by Professor Roth, in whose 
exclusive possession the Paippalada manuscript is held. Further, 
notice of the corresponding passages in all the other Vedic texts, 
whether Samhita, Brahmana, or Sutra, with report of their various 
readings. Further, the data of the Anukramani respecting author- 
ship, divinity, and meter of each verse. Also, references to the 
ancillary literature, especially to the Kau9ika and Vaitana Sutras 
(both of which have been competently edited, the latter with a 
translation added), with account of the use made in them of the 
hymns and parts of hymns, so far as this appears to cast any light 
upon their meaning. Also, extracts from the printed commentary, 
wherever this seems worth while, as either really aiding the under- 
standing of the text, or showing the absence of any helpful tradi- 
tion. Finally, a simple literal translation ; this was not originally 
promised for the second volume, but is added especially in order 
to help "float" the rest of the material. An introduction and 
indexes will give such further auxiliary matter as appears to be 
called for. 

The design of the volume will be to put together as much as 
possible of the material that is to help toward the study and final 
comprehension of this Veda. 

[^The porpoae and limitations and method of the translation. — In a critique pub- 
lished some six years earlier, in 1886, in the American Journal of Philology y vii. 2-4, 
Whitney discusses several ways of translating the Upanishads. His remarks on the 
second " way ** leave no doubt that, in making his Veda-translation as he has done, he 
fully recognized its provisional character and felt that to attempt a definitive one would 
be premature. His description of the "third way/' mutatis mutandis, is so good a 
statement of the principles which have governed him in this work, that, in default of 
a better one, it is here reprinted. — C. R. L.J 

One way is, to put one's self frankly and fully under the guid- 
ance of a native interpreter. . . . Another way would be, to give 
a conspectus, made as full as possible, of all accessible native inter- 
pretations — in connection with which treatment, one could hardly 

XX Paragraphs in lieu of a Preface by Whitney 

avoid taking a position of critical superiority, approving and con- 
demning, selecting and Rejecting, and comparing all with what 
appeared to be the simple meaning of the text itself. This would 
be a very welcome labor, but also an extremely difficult one ; and 
the preparations for it are not yet sufficiently made; it may be 
looked forward to as one of the results of future study. 

A third way, leading in quite another direction, would be this : 
to approach the text only as a philologist, bent upon making a 
version of it exactly as it stands, representing just what the words 
and phrases appear to say, without intrusion of anything that is 
not there in recognizable form: thus reproducing the scripture 
itself in Western guise, as nearly as the nature of the case admits, 
as a basis whereon could afterward be built such fabric of philo- 
sophic interpretation as should be called for ; and also as a touch- 
stone to which could be brought for due testing anything that 
claimed to be an interpretation. The maker of such a version 
would not need to be versed in the subtleties of the later Hindu 
philosophical systems ; he should even carefully avoid working in 
the spirit of any of them. Nor need he pretend to penetrate to 
the hidden sense of the dark sayings that pass under his pen, to 
comprehend it and set it forth; for then there would inevitably 
mingle itself with his version much that was subjective and doubt- 
ful, and that every successor would have to do over again. Work- 
ing conscientiously as Sanskrit scholar only, he might hope to 
bring out something of permanent and authoritative character, 
which should serve both as help and as check to those that came 
after him. He would carefully observe all identities and paral- 
lelisms of phraseology, since in texts like these the word is to no 
small extent more than the thing, the expression dominating the 
thought: the more the quantities are unknown, the less will it 
answer to change their symbols in working out an equation. Of 
all leading and much-used terms, in case the rendering could not 
be made uniform, he would maintain the identity by a liberal 
quotation of the word itself in parenthesis after its translation, so 
that the sphere of use of each could be made out in the version 
somewhat as in the original, by the comparison of parallel pas- 
sages ; and so that the student should not run the risk of having 
a difference of statement which might turn out important covered 
from his eyes by an apparent identity of phrase — or the contrary. 

Purpose^ Limitations^ and Method of t/ie Translation xxi 

Nothing, as a matter of course, would be omitted, save particles 
whose effect on the shading of a sentence is too faint to show in 
the coarseness of translation into a strange tongue; nor would 
anything be put in without exact indication of the intrusion. The 
notes would be prevailingly linguistic, references to parallel pas- 
sages, with exposition of correspondences and differences. Sen- 
tences grammatically difficult or apparently corrupt would be 
pointed out, and their knotty points discussed, perhaps with 
suggestions of text-amendment. But it is needless to go into 
further detail ; every one knows the methods by which a careful 
scholar, liberal of his time and labor toward the due accomplish- 
ment of a task deemed by him important, will conduct such a 


Whitney's labors on the Atharva-Veda. — As early as March, 185 1, at 
Berlin, during Whitney's first semester as a student in Germany, his teacher 
Weber was so impressed by his scholarly ability as to suggest to him the 
plan of editing an important Vedic text.^ The impression produced upon 
Roth in Tubingen by Whitney during the following summer semester 
was in no wise different, and resulted in the plan for a joint edition of 
the Atharva-Veda.* Whitney's preliminary labors for the edition began 
accordingly upon his return to Berlin for his second winter semester. 
His fundamental autograph transcript of the Atharva-Veda Saihhita is 
contained in his Collation-Book, and appears from the dates of that book^ 
to have been made in the short interval between October, 185 1, and 
March, 1852. The second summer in Tubingen (1852) was doubtless 
spent partly in studying the text thus copied, partly in planning with 
Roth the details of the method of editing, partly in helping to make the 
tool, so important for further progress, the index of Rig- Veda pratikas, 
and so on ; the concordance of the four principal Samhitas, in which, to 
be sure, Whitney's part' was only **a secondary one," was issued under 
the date November, 1852. During the winter of 1852-3 he copied the 
Prati^akhya and its commentary contained in the Berlin codex (Weber, 
No. 361), as is stated in his edition, p. 334. As noted below (pp. xliv, 1), 
the collation of the Paris and Oxford and London manuscripts of the 
Atharvan Samhita followed in the spring and early summer of 1853, just 
before his return (in August) to America. The copy of the text for the 
printer, made with exquisite neatness in nagarl letters by Mr. Whitney's 
hand, is still preserved. 

The Edition of the text or «< First volume.'' — The first part of the work, 
containing books i.-xix. of the text, appeared in Berlin with a provisional 
preface dated February, 1855. The provisional preface announces that 
the text of book xx. will not be given in full, but only the Kuntapa-hymns, 
and, for the rest of it, merely references to the Rig- Veda ; and promises, 
as the principal contents of the second part, seven of the eight items of 
accessory material enumerated below. — This plan, however, was changed, 

^ See the extract from Weber's letter, below, p. xliv. The text was the Tiittirfya Aranyaka. 
' See the extract from Roth's letter, below, p. xliv. 
* See below, p. cxvii. 

• •• 


xxiv Editor s Preface 

and the second part appeared in fact as a thin Heft of about 70 pages, 
giving book xx. in full, and that only. To it was prefixed a half-sheet 
containing the definitive preface and a new title-page. The definitive 
preface is dated October, 1856, and adds an eighth item, exegetical notes, 


to the promises of the provisional preface. The new title-page has the 
words "Erster Band. Text," thus implicitly promising a second volume, 
in which, according to the definitive preface, the accessory material was 
to be published. 

Relation of this work to the « First volume'' and to this Series. — Of 
the implicit promise of that title-page, the present work is intended to 
complete the fulfilment. As most of the labor upon the first volume had 
fallen to Whitney, so most of the labor upon the projected ** second " was 
to have been done by Roth. In fact, however, it turned out that Roth's 
very great services for the criticism and exegesis of this Veda took a 
different form, and are embodied on the one hand in his contributions 
to the St. Petersburg Lexicon, and consist on the other in his brilliant 
discovery of the Kashmirian recension of this Veda and his collation of 
the text thereof with that of the Vulgate. Nevertheless, as is clearly 
apparent (page xvii), Whitney thought and spoke of this work^ as a 
" Second volume of the Roth- Whitney edition of the Atharva-Veda,*' and 
called it "our volume" in writing to Roth (cf. p. Ixxxvi) ; and letters 
exchanged between the two friends in 1894 discuss the question whether 
the "second volume" ought not to be published by the same house 
(F. Diimmler's) that issued the first in 1856. It would appear from 
Whitney's last letter to Roth (written April 10, 1894, shortly before his 
death), that he had determined to have the work published in the 
Harvard Series, and Roth's last letter to Whitney (dated April 23) 
expresses his great satisfaction at this arrangement. This plan had the 
cordial approval of my friend Henry Clarke Warren, and, while still in 
relatively fair health, he generously gave to the University the money to 
pay for the printing. 

External form of this work. — It is on account of the relation just 
explained, and also in deference to Whitney's express wishes, that the 
size of the printed page of this work and the size of the paper have been 
chosen to match those of the " First volume." The pages have been 
numbered continuously from i to 1009, as if this work were indeed one 
volume ; but, since it was expedient to separate the work into two halves 
in binding, I have done so, and designated those halves as volumes seven 

1 In a letter to the editor, dated March 28, 1881, speaking of Roth's preoccupation with 
Avestan studies, Whitney says : " I fear I shall yet be obliged to do AV. ii. alone, and think 
of setting quietly about it next year." Again, June 17, 1881, he writes: "I have begun work 
on vol. ii. of the AV., and am resolved to put it straight through." 

General Scope of this Work xxv 

and eight of the Harvard Oriental Series.^ The volumes are substan- 
tially bound and properly lettered ; the leaves are open at the front ; and 
the top is cut without spoiling the margin. The purpose of the inexpen- 
sive gilt top is not for ornament, but rather to save the volumes from the 
injury by dirt and discoloration which is so common with ragged hand- 
cut tops. The work has been electrotyped, and will thus, it is hoped, be 
quite free from the blemishes occasioned by the displacement of letters, 
the breaking off of accents, and the like. 

General scope of this work as determined by previous promise and fulfil- 
ment. — Its general scope was determined in large measure by the promise 
of the definitive preface of the *« First volume." The specifications of 
that promise were given in eight items as follows : 

1. Excerpts from the Pr^ti^^khya ; 5. Excerpts from the Anukramani ; 

2. Excerpts from the Pada-patha ; 6. General introduction ; 

3. Concordance of the AV. with other SamhitSs ; 7. Exegetical notes ; 

4. Excerpts from the ritual (Kiu^ika); 8. Critical notes. 

Of the above-mentioned promise, several items had meantime been 
more than abundantly fulfilled by Whitney. In 1862 he published the 
Prati^akhya (item i), text, translation, notes, indexes, etc. Of this 
treatise only excerpts had been promised. In 1881 followed the (unprom- 
ised) Index Verborum,^ in which was given a full report of the pada- 
readings (item 2). The Table of Concordances between the several Vedic 
Samhitas (1852) and the Index of pratikas of the Atharva-Veda (1857), — 
the first in large measure, the second in largest measure, the work of 
Whitney, — went far toward the accomplishment of the next item (item 3). 
Pupils of the two editors, moreover, had had a share in its fulfilment. 
In 1878 Garbe gave us the Vaitana-Siitra in text and translation; and 
that was followed in 1890 by Bloomfield's text of the Kau^ika-Sutra. 
The inherent difficulties of the latter text and the excellence of Bloom- 
field's performance make us regret the more keenly that he did not give 
us a translation also. The material for report upon the ritual uses of the 
verses of this Veda (preparative for item 4) was thus at hand. 

^ F^r conscience sake I register my protest against the practice of issuing works in gratui- 
tously confusing subdivisions, as Bdnde and Hal/ten and Abteilungen and Lieferungen, — In 
this connection, I add that the page-numbers of the main body of this work, which are of use 
chiefly to the pressman and the binder and are of minimal consequence for purposes of cita- 
tion, have been relegated to the inner comer of the page, so that the book and hymn, which are 
of prime importance for purposes of finding and citation, may be conspicuously and conven- 
iently shown in the outer comers. I hope that such regard for the convenience of the users of 
technical books may become more and more common with the makers of such books. 

^ The published Index gives only the words and references. It is made from a much fuller 
manuscript Index, written by Whitney on 1721 quarto pages, which quotes the context in which 
the words appear, and which for the present is in my hands. 

xxvi Editors Preface 

While making his London collations in 1853 (see below, p. Ixxii), Whit- 
ney made also a transcript of the Major Anukramani, and subsequently 
he added a collation of the Berlin ms. thereof (preparative for item 5). 
— In the course of his long labors upon Atharvan texts, Whitney had 
naturally made many observations suitable for a general introduction 
(item 6). Roth had sent him a considerable mass of exegetical notes 
(item 7). — Furthermore, during the decades in which Whitney had 
concerned himself with this and the related texts, he had noted in his 
Collation-Book, opposite each verse of the Atharvan Samhita, the places 
in the other texts where that verse recurs, in identical or in similar form, 
in whole or in part ; thus making a very extensive collection of concord- 
ances, with the Atharvan Samhita as the point of departure, and providing 
himself with the means for reporting upon the variations of the parallel 
texts with far greater completeness than was possible by means of the 
Table and Index mentioned above under item 3. 

The critical notes. — Of all the eight promised items, the one of most 
importance, and of most pressing importance, was doubtless the eighth, 
the critical notes, in which were to be given the various readings of the 
manuscripts. In his Introductory Note to the Atharvan Pratigakhya 
(p. 338 : year 1862), Whitney says : 

The condition of the Atharvan as handed down by the tradition was such as to 
impose upon the editors as a duty what in the case of any of the other Vedas would 
have been an almost inexcusable liberty — namely, the emendation of the text- 
readings in many places. In so treating such a text, it is not easy to hit the pre- 
cise mean between too much and too little ; and while most of the alterations made 
were palpably and imperatively called for, and while many others would have to 
be made in translating, there are also a few cases in which a closer adherence 
to the manuscript authorities might have been preferable. 

The apparatus for ascertaining in any given passage just what the mss. 
read was not published for more than two decades. Complaints on this 
score, however, were surely estopped by the diligence and effectiveness 
with which both editors employed that time for the advancement of the 
cause of Indie philology. In his Introduction to the Index Verborum 
(p. 2 : year 1880), Whitney says : 

There will, of course, be differences of opinion as to whether this Lcourse of pro- 
cedure J was well-advised — whether they |_the editors J should not have contented 
themselves with giving just what the manuscripts gave them, keeping suggested 
alterations for their notes ; and, yet more, as to the acceptableness of part of the 
alterations made, and the desirableness of others which might with equal reason 
have been made. ... It is sought |_in the Index J simply to call attention to all 
cases in which a published reading differs from that of the manuscripts, as well 
as to those comparatively infrequent ones where the manuscripts are at variance, 
and to furnish the means ... for determining in any particular case what the 
manuscripts actually read. 

Partial Rewriting and Revisioji by Whitney xxvii 

Thus the eighth item of the promise also (as well as the second) was ful- 
filled by the Index. — Desirable as such critical notes may be in con- 
nection with the Index, a report of the variants of the European mss. of 
the Vulgate recension in the sequence of the text was none the less 
called for. The report is accordingly given in this work, and includes 
not only the mss. of Berlin, Paris, Oxford, and London, collated before 
publishing, but also those of Munich and Tubingen, collated twenty years 
after (see below, p. xliv, note 5, p. Ixiv). 

Scope of this work as transcending previous promise. — The accessory 
material of this work, beyond what was promised by the preface of the 
text-edition, is mentioned in the third paragraph of Whitney's "Announce- 
ment," p. xviii, and includes the reports of the readings of the Kashmirian 
recension and of S. P. Pandit's authorities, extracts from the native com- 
mentary, and a translation. For the first. Roth had performed the long 
and laborious and difficult task of making a careful collation of the 
Paippalada text, and had sent it to Whitney. In his edition published in 
Bombay, S. P. Pandit had given for the Vulgate recension the variants 
of the authorities (Indian : not also European) accessible to him, and 
including not only the variants of manuscripts, but also those of living 
reciters of the text. The advance sheets of his edition he had sent in 
instalments to Whitney, so that all those portions for which Pandit pub- 
lished the comment were in Whitney's hands in time to be utilized by 
him, although the printed date of Pandit's publication (1895-8) is sub- 
sequent to Whitney's death. 

Evolution of the style of the work. — To elaborate all the varied material 
described in the foregoing paragraphs into a running commentary on 
the nineteen books was accordingly Whitney's task, and he was " fairly 
started" upon it in 1885-6. As was natural, his method of treatment 
became somewhat fuller as he proceeded with his work. There is in my 
hands his prior draft of the first four or five books, which is relatively 
meagre in sundry details. It was not until he had advanced well into the 
second grand division (books viii.-xii.) that he settled down into the style 
of treatment to which he then adhered to the end. 

Partial rewriting and revision by Whitney. — Thereupon, in order to carry 
out the early books in the same style as the later ones, it became neces- 
sary to rewrite or to revise the early ones. He accordingly did rewrite 
the first four (cf. p. xcviii below), and to the next three (v., vi., vii.) he 
gave a pretty thorough revision without rewriting ; and at this point, 
apparently, he was interrupted by the illness which proved fatal. The 
discussion of the ritual uses in book viii. (supplied by me) would doubt- 
less have been his next task. Not counting a lot of matter for his General 
Introduction, Whitney's manuscript of his commentary and translation, 

xxviii Editor s Preface 

as he left it at his death in 1894, consisted of about 2500 folios. Had 
Whitney lived to see it printed, the editor of this Series would probably 
have read one set of proofs, and made suggestions and criticisms freely 
on the margins, which the author would then have accepted or rejected 
without discussion ; and the whole matter, in that case a very simple one, 
would have been closed by a few lines of kindly acknowledgment from 
the author in his preface. 

Picking up the broken threads. — It is, on the other hand, no simple 
matter, but rather one of peculiar difficulty and delicacy, to edit such a 
technical work as this for an author who has passed away, especially if he 
has been the editor's teacher and friend. The difficulty is increased by 
the fact that, in the great mass of technical details, there are very many 
which have to be learned anew by the editor for himself, and others still, 
which, through long years of labor, have grown so familiar to the author 
that he has hardly felt any need of making written memoranda of them, 
and which the editor has to find out as best he can. 

Relation of the editor's work to that of the author. — Although Whit- 
ney's manuscript of the main body of the work was written out to the end, 
it was not systematically complete. Thus he had written for book i. (and 
for that only) a special introduction, showing that he meant to do the like 
for the other eighteen. Of the General Introduction as it stands, only a 
very few parts were worked out; for some parts there were only rough 
sketches ; and for very many not even that. And in unnumbered details, 
major and minor, there was opportunity for long and patient toil upon the 
task of systematically verifying all references and statements, of revising 
where need was, and of bringing the whole nearer to an ideal and unat- 
tainable completeness. What these details were, the work itself may 
show. But besides all this, there was the task of carrying through the 
press a work the scientific importance of which called for the best typo- 
graphical form and for the utmost feasible accuracy in printing. 

Parts for which the author is not responsible. — No two men are alike 
in the various endowments and attainments that make the scholar ; and, in 
particular, the mental attitude of any two towards any given problem is 
wont to differ. It is accordingly not possible that there should not be, 
among the editorial additions to Whitney's manuscript or changes therein, 
many things which he would decidedly have disapproved. They ought 
certainly therefore to be marked in such a way that the reader may easily 
recognize them as additions for which the editor and not the author is 
responsible ; and for this purpose two signs have been chosen, [ and J, 
which are like incomplete brackets or brackets without the upper hori- 
zontal strokes, and which may be called " ell-brackets " and suggest the 

Parts for which tfie Author is not responsible xxix 

initial letter of the editor's name (cf. p. c). Besides the marked additions, 
there are others, like the paragraphs beginning with the word "Trans- 
lated," which are not marked. It is therefore proper to give a general 
systematic account of the editorial additions and changes. 

The General Introduction. — This consists of two parts : the first, by the 
editor ; the second, elaborated in part from material left by the author. — 
Part I. — Besides the topics which unquestionably belong to the General 
Introduction and are treated in Part II., there are a good many which, 
but for their voluminousness, might properly enough have been put into 
the editor's preface. Such are, for example, the discussions of the vari- 
ous critical elements which form the bulk of Whitney's Commentary. 
I have printed them as Part I. of the General Introduction. The form 
of presentation is, I trust, such that, with the help of the Table of Con- 
tents, the student will be able to find any desired topic very quickly. 

The General Introduction: Part II. — Certain general statements con- 
cerning the manuscripts and the method of editing, and concerning the 
text of the Atharva-Veda Samhita as a whole, must needs be made, and 
are most suitably presented in the form of a general introduction prefixed 
to the main body of the work. For this Introduction, Whitney left a 
considerable amount of material. Parts of that material were so well 
worked out as to be nearly or quite usable for printing : namely, the brief 
chapter, 8, on the metrical form of the Samhita, and (most fortunately!) 
nearly all of the very important chapter, i, containing the description of 
his manuscripts. The like is true, as will appear from the absence of ell- 
brackets, of considerable portions of chapter lo, on the extent and struc- 
ture of the Samhita. — Chapters 2 and 3 (concerning the stanza fdin no 
devir abMsfaye and the Collation-Book) might have been put in Part I., 
as being from the editor's hand ; but, on the ground of intrinsic fitness, 
they have been put immediately after the description of the mss. 

For chapters 4 and 5 and 6 (on repeated verses, on refrains, and on 
accent-marks) and chapter 9 (on the divisions of the text), Whitney left 
sketches, brief and rough, written with a lead-pencil and written (it would 
seem) in the days of his weakness as he lay on a couch or bed. I have 
made faithful use of these sketches, not only as indicating in detail the 
topics that Whitney most desired to treat, but also as giving, or at least 
suggesting, the language to be used in their treatment. Nevertheless, 
they have been much rewritten in parts, and in such a way that it is hardly 
feasible or even worth while to separate the author's part from the editor's. 
The final result must pass for our joint work. The sketch for chapter 7 
(on the orthographic method of the Berlin text) was also a lead-pencil 
draft ; but it was one that had evidently been made years before those 
last mentioned, and its substance was such as to need only recasting in 

XXX Editor s Preface 

form, and expansion, — a work which I have carried out with free use of 
the pertinent matter in Whitney's Prati^akhyas (cf. p. cxxiii, note). 

To revert to chapters 9 and 10 (on the divisions of the text, and on its 
extent and structure), they are the longest of all, and, next after chap- 
ter I (on the mss.), perhaps the most important, and they contain the 
most of what is new. After putting them once into what I thought was 
a final form, I found that, from the point of view thus gained, I could, by 
further study, discover a good many new facts and relations, and attain to 
greater certainty on matters already set forth, and, by rewriting freely, 
put very many of the results in a clearer light and state them more con- 
vincingly. The ell-brackets distinguish in general the editor's part from 
the author's. If, in these two chapters, the latter seems relatively small, 
one must not forget its large importance and value as a basis for the 
editor's further studies. 

With the exceptions noted (chapters 2 and 3), it has seemed best, in 
elaborating this part of the General Introduction, to restrict it to the 
topics indicated by Whitney's material, and not (in an attempt at sys- 
tematic completeness) to duplicate the treatise which forms Bloomfield's 
part of the Grundriss, Bloomfield's plan is quite different ; but since a 
considerable number of the topics are indeed common to both, it seemed 
better that the treatment of them in this work should proceed as far as 
possible independently of the treatment in the Grundriss, 

The editor's special introductions to the eighteen books, ii.-zix. — Since 
Whitney's manuscript contained a brief special introduction to the first 
book, it was probably his intention to write one for each of the remaining 
eighteen. At all events, certain general statements concerning each 
book as a whole are plainly called for, and should properly be cast into 
the form of a special introduction and be prefixed, one to each of the sev- 
eral books. These eighteen special introductions have accordingly been 
written by the editor, and are, with some trifling exceptions (cf. pages 
471-2, 739, 792, 794, 814) entirely from his hand. The parydya-hyvans 
(cf. p. 471) and the divisions of the /^r^^ya-material (pages 628, 770, 793) 
called for considerable detail of treatment ; similarly the discrepancies 
between the two editions as respects hymn-numeration (pages 389, 610) 
and the /^rj'dr^^-divisions (pages 771, 793) ; likewise the subject-matter of 
book xviii. (p. 813); while the supplementary book xix., on account of its 
peculiar relations to the rest of the text and to the ancillary treatises, 
called for the most elaborate treatment of all (p. 895). 

The special introductions to the hymns : editor's bibliography of previous 
translations and discussions. — These are contained in the paragraphs begin- 
ning with the word " Translated." — In the introduction to each hymn, in 
a paragraph immediately following the Anukramanl-excerpts, and usually 

Parts for which the Author is not responsible xxxi 

between a statement as to where the hymn is " Found in Paipp." or in 
other texts, and a statement as to how the hymn is ** Used in Kau^./' 
Whitney had given in his manuscript a statement as to where the hymn 
had been previously translated by Ludwig or Grill or some other scholar. 
For Weber's and Henry's translations of whole books, he had apparently 
thought to content himself by referring once and for all at the beginning 
of each book to the volume of the Indische Studien or of the Traduction, 
By a singular coincidence, a very large amount of translation and explana- 
tion of this Veda (by Deussen, Henry, Griffith, Weber, Bloomfield : see 
the table, p. cvii) appeared within three or four years after Whitney's 
death. The version of Griffith, and that alone, is complete. As for the 
partial translations and discussions, apart from the fact that they are 
scattered through different periodicals and independent volumes, their 
multiplicity is so confusing that it would be very troublesome in the case 
of any given hymn to find for oneself just how many of the translators 
had discussed it and where. I have therefore endeavored to give with 
all desirable completeness, for every single one of the 588 hymns of books 
i.-xix. (save ii. 20-23), a bibliography of the translations and discussions 
of that hymn up to the year 1898 or thereabout. For some hymns the 
amount of discussion is large: cf. the references for iv. 16; v. 22 ; ix. 9; 
X. 7; xviii. i; xix. 6. At first blush, some may think it "damnable iter- 
ation '* that I should, for hymn-translations, make reference to Griffith 
some 588 times, to Bloomfield some 214, to Weber some 179, or to Henry 
some 167 times ; but I am sure that serious students of the work will find 
the references exceedingly convenient. As noted above, they are given 
in the paragraphs beginning with the word " Translated." Although these 
paragraphs are almost wholly editorial additions, I have not marked them 
as such by enclosing them in ell-brackets. 

I have always endeavored to give these references in the chronological 
sequence of the works concerned (see the table with dates and explana- 
tions at p. cvii). These dates need to be taken into account in judging 
Whitney's statements, as when he says ** all the translators " understand 
a passage thus and so. Finally, it is sure to happen that a careful com- 
parison of the views of the other translators will often reveal a specific 
item of interpretation which is to be preferred to Whitney's. Here and 
there, I have given a reference to such an item ; but to do so systematic- 
ally is a part of the great task which this work leaves unfinished. 

Added special introductions to the hymns of book xviii. and to some others. 
— The relation of the constituent material of the four so-called " hymns " 
of book xviii. to the Rig- Veda etc. is such that a clear synoptic statement of 
the provenience of the different groups of verses or of single verses is in 
the highest degree desirable ; and I have therefore endeavored to give such 

xxxii Editor s Preface 

a statement for each of them, grouping the verses into " Parts " according 
to their provenience or their ritual use or both. An analysis of the 
structure of the single hymn of book xviL also seemed to me to be worth 
giving. Moreover, the peculiar contents of the hymn entitled " Homage 
to parts of the Atharva-Veda " (xix. 23) challenged me to try at least to 
identify its intended references ; and although I have not succeeded 
entirely, I hope I have stated the questionable matters with clearness. 
I have ventured to disagree with the author's view of the general signifi- 
cance of hymn iii. 26 as expressed in the caption, and have given my 
reasons in a couple of paragraphs. The hymn for use with a pearl-shell 
amulet (iv. 10) and the hymn to the lunar asterisms (xix. 7) also gave 
occasion for additions which I hope may prove not unacceptable. 

Other editorial additions at the beginning and end of hymns. — Whitney's 
last illness put an end to his revision of his work before he reached the 
eighth book, and reports of the ritual uses of the hymns of that book 
from his hand are insufficient or lacking. I have accordingly supplied 
these reports for book viii., and further also for x. 5 and xi. 2 and 6, and 
in a form as nearly like that used by Whitney as I could; but for viii. 8 
("army rites *') and x. 5 ("water-thunderbolts '*), the conditions warranted 
greater fulness.^ Whitney doubtless intended to give, throughout his 
entire work, at the end of anuvdkas and books and prapdthakas^ certain 
statements, in part summations of hymns and verses and in part quota- 
tions from the Old Anukramanl. In default of his final revision, these 
stop at the end of book vii. (cf. p. 470), and from that point on to the 
end I have supplied them (cf. pages 475, 481, 516, 737, and so on). 

Other additions of considerable extent. — Of the additions in ell-brackets, 
the most numerous are the brief ones ; but the great difficulties of books 
xviii. and xix. have tempted me to give, in the last two hundred pages, 
occasional excursuses, the considerable length of which will, I hope, prove 
warranted by their interest or value. The notes on the following topics 
or words or verses may serve as instances : twin consonants', p. 832 ; 
afljoydndiSj p. 844; su-fdhsa^ P- 853 ; ditat, p. 860 ; dva ciksipan^ p. 875 ; 
the pitpiidhdna (" eleven dishes "), p. 876 ; vdnyd etc., p. 880 ; santfriiya, 
p. 886; on xviii. 4. 86-87 > xix. 7. 4 ; 8. 4 ; 26. 3 ; 44. 7 ; 45. 2 (suhdr 
etc.); 47. 8; 55. I, 5. 

The seven tables appended to the latter volume of this work. — The list of 
non-metrical passages is taken from the introduction to Whitney's Index 
Verborum, p. 5. — The list of hymns ignored by Kau^ika, p. loii, is 
taken . from memoranda in Whitney's hand-copy of Kaugika. — The 

^ It may here be noted that, for the short hymns (books i.-vii.), the ritual uses are given in 
the prefixed introductions ; but that, for the subsequent long hymns, they are usually and more 
conveniently given under the verses concerned. 

Parts for which the Author is not responsible xxxiii 

concordance of the citations of Kaugika by the two methods, I have 
made for those who wish to look up citations as made in the Bombay 
edition of the commentary. The same purpose is better served by writ- 
ing the number of each adhydya, and of each kandikd as numbered 
from the beginning of its own adhydya^ on the upper right-hand corner 
of each odd page of Bloomfield's text. — The concordance of discrepant 
Berlin and Bombay hymn-numbers I have drawn up to meet a regret- 
table need. — The concordance between the Vulgate and Kashmirian 
recensions is made from notes in the Collation-Book, as is explained at 
p. Ixxxv, and will serve provisionally for finding a Vulgate verse in the fac- 
simile of the Kashmirian text. — The table of hymn-titles is of course 
a mere copy of Whitney's captions, but gives an extremely useful con- 
spectus of the subjects in general. — The index of the names of the seers 
is a revised copy of a rough one found among Whitney's papers. To 
it I have prefixed a few paragraphs which contain general or critical 

The unmarked minor additions and other minor changes. — These are of 
two classes. The first includes the numerous isolated minor changes 
about which there was no question, namely the correction of mere slips, 
the supplying of occasional omissions, and the omission of an occasional 
phrase or sentence. Of the mere slips in Whitney's admirable manu- 
script, some (like ** thou has " at ii. lo. 6, or the omission of ** be brought " 
near the end of the note to ii. 13. 5) are such as the care of a good proof- 
reader would have set right ; but there were many which could be recog- 
nized as slips only by constant reference to the original or to the various 
books concerned. Such are "cold" instead of "heat" iox ghraksd at 
xiii. I. 52 and 53; "hundred" (life-times) for "thousand" at vi. 78. 3; 
" Mercury " for " Mars " at xix. 9. 7 ; " kine " for " bulls " at iii. 9. 2 and 
"cow" for "bull" at i. 22. i; vdqdh for *vdqdh at xviii. 2. 13. At vi. 
141. 3 his version read "so let the A^vins make," as if the text were 
krnuidm afvind. At the end of the very first hymn, Whitney's statement 
was, "The Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity of the second pada"; 
here I changed "ignores" to "notes." — He had omitted the words 
"the parts of" at iv. 12. 7; "a brother" at xviii. i. 14; "which is very 
propitious" at xviii. 2. 31 ; "the Fathers" at xviii. 2. 46. Such changes 
as those just instanced could well be left unmarked. 

The second class has to do with the paragraphs, few in number, the 
recasting or rewriting of which involved so many minor changes that 
it was hardly feasible to indicate them by ell-brackets. The note to xviii. 
3. 60 is an example. Moreover, many notes in which the changes are 
duly marked contain other changes which seemed hardly worth marking, 
as at xix. 49. 2 or 55. i : cf. p. 806, ^ 5. 

xxxiv Editor s Preface 

The marked minor additions and other minor changes. — In a work like 
this, involving so great a mass of multifarious details, it was inevitable that 
a rigorous revision, such as the author could not give to it, should detect 
many statements requiring more or less modification. Thus at xix. 40. 2» 
the author, in his copy for the printer, says : " We have rectified the 
accent of sumedhds ; the mss. and SPP. have sum^dkds,*' In fact, the 
edition also has stim^dlids^ and I have changed the statement thus : 
" \y[i the editionj we [should havej rectified the accent [so as to readj 
sumedhds^ The changes in the last two books are such that it was 
often best to write out considerable parts of the printer's copy afresh : 
yet it was desirable, on the one hand, to avoid rewriting ; and, on the 
other, to change and add in such a way that the result might not show 
the unclearness of a clumsily tinkered paragraph. To revise and edit 
between these two limitations is not easy ; and, as is shown by the 
example just given, there is no clear line to be drawn between what 
should and what should not be marked. As noted above, it is evident 
that all these matters would have been very simple if the author could 
have seen the work through the press. 

The revision of the author's manuscript. Verification. — The modifica- 
tions of the author's manuscript thus far discussed are mostly of the 
nature of additions made to carry out the unfinished parts of the author's 
design, and are the modifications referred to on the title-page by the 
words "brought nearer to completion." The work of revision proper, 
has included a careful verification of every statement of every kind in the 
commentary so far as this was possible, and a careful comparison of the 
translation with the original. This means that the citations of the parallel 
texts have been actually 'looked up and that the readings have been com- 
pared anew in order to make sure that the reports of their variations from 
the Atharvan readings were correct. This task was most time-consuming- 
and laborious ; as to some of its difficulties and perplexities, see below, 
p. Ixiv. Verification means further that the notes of Whitney's Collation- 
Book and of the Bombay edition and of Roth's collation of the Kashmirian 
text were regularly consulted to assure the correctness of the author's 
reports of variants within the Atharvan school ; further, that the text and 
Jthe statements of the Major AnukramanI were carefully studied, and, in 
connection therewith, the scansion and pada-division of the verses of the 
Samhita ; and that the references to the Kaugika and Vaitana Sutras 
were regularly turned up for comparison of the sutras with Whitney's 
statements. Many technical details concerning these matters are given on 
pages Ixiv fF. of the General Introduction. Since the actual appearance of 
Bloomfield and Garbe's magnificent facsimile of the birch-bark manuscript 

Meaning of ^"^ Revised and brought nearer to Completion " xxxv 

of the Kashmirian text antedates that of this work, the reasons why the 
facsimile was not used by me should be consulted at p. Ixxxv. 

Accentuation of Sanskrit words. — In the reports of the readings of 
accented texts, the words are invariably accented. The Kashmirian text is 
reckoned as an unaccented one, although it has occasional accented pas- 
sages. The author frequently introduces Sanskrit words, in parentheses 
or otherwise, into the translation, and usually indicates their accent. 
The editor has gone somewhat farther : he has indicated in the transla- 
tion the accent of the stems of words which happen to occur in the voca- 
tive (so saddnvds, ii. 14. 5), except in the cases of rare words whose proper 
stem-accent is not known (examples in ii. 24) ; and, in cases where only 
one member of a compound is given, he has indicated what the accent pf 
that member would be if used independently (so -nithd at xviii. 2. 18, as 
part of sahdsranitha ; -ksitra at iii. 3. 4, as part of anyaksetrd ; cf. ii. 8. 2). 

Cross-references. — Apart from the main purpose of* this work, to serve 
as the foundation of more nearly definitive ones yet to come, it is likely 
to be used rather as one of consultation and reference than for consecu- 
tive reading. I have therefore not infrequently added cross-references 
from one verse or note to another, doing this even in the case of verses 
which were not far apart : cf., for example, my reference from vii. 80. 3 
to 79. 4 or from vi. 66. 2 to 65. i. 

Orthography of Anglicized proper names. — The translation is the princi- 
pal or only part of this work which may be supposed to interest readers 
who are without technical knowledge of Sanskrit. In order to make the 
proper names therein occurring more easily pronounceable, the author 
has disregarded somewhat the strict rules of transliteration which are fol- 
lowed in the printing of Sanskrit words as Sanskrit, and has written, for 
example, Pushan and Purandhi instead of Pu$an and Puraihdhi, sometimes 
retaining, however, the strange diacritical marks (as in Afigiras or Varuna) 
where they do not embarrass the layman. To follow the rules strictly 
would have been much easier ; but perhaps it was better to do as has been 
done, even at the expense of some inconsistencies (cf. Vritra, Vfitra, 
Vrtra; Savitar). 

Editorial short-comings and the chances of error. — Labor and pains have 
been ungrudgingly spent upon Whitney's work, to ensure its appearance 
in a form worthy of its great scientific importance ; but the work is exten- 
sive and is crowded with details of such a nature that unremitting care is 
needed to avoid error concerning them. Some striking illustrations of 
this statement may be found in the foot-note below.^ Despite trifling 

^ Thus in the first line of his note on xix. 50. 3, the author wrote tareyus instead of tarema^ 
taking tareyus from the word immediately below tarema in the text. This sense-disturbing 
error was overlooked by the author and by Dr. Ryder, and once by me also, although discovered 

xxxvi Editor s Preface 

inconsistencies of orthography or abbreviation, I trust that a high degree 
of accuracy in the real essentials has been attained. I dare not hope that 
my colleagues will not discover blemishes and deficiencies in the work ; 
but I shall be glad if they do not cavil at them. India has much to teach 
the West : much that is of value not only for its scientific interest, but 
also for the conduct of our thought and life. It is far better to exploit 
the riches of Indian wisdom than to spend time or strength in belittling 
the achievements of one's fellow-workers or of those that are gone. 

The biographical and related matter. — The First American Congress of 
Philologists devoted its session of Dec. 28, 1894 to the memory of Whitney. 
The Report of that session, entitled "The Whitney Memorial Meeting," 
and edited by the editor of this work, was issued as the first half of vol- 
ume xix. of the Journal of the American Oriental Society. The edition 
was of fifteen hundred copies, and was distributed to the members of the 
Oriental Society and of the American Philological Association and of the 
Modern Language Association of America, to the libraries enrolled on 
their lists, and to some other recipients. Besides the addresses of the 
occasion, the Report contains bibliographical notes concerning Whitney's 
life and family, and a bibliography of his writings : but since, strictly 
speaking, it contains no biography of Whitney, I have thought it well to 
give in this volume (p. xliii) a brief sketch of his life ; and in preparing it, 
I have made use, not only of the substance, but also, with some freedom, 
of the form of statement of the autobiography which Whitney published 
in 1885 (see p. Ix). Moreover, since the people into whose hands this 
work will come are for the most part not the same as those who received 
the Report, it has been thought advisable to reprint therefrom the editor's 
Memorial Address (p. xlvii) as a general estimate of Whitney's character 
and services, and to give, for its intrinsic usefulness, a select list of his 
writings (p. Ivi), which is essentially the list prepared by Whitney for the 
"Yale Bibliographies" (List, 1893). 

at last in time for correction. — At xix. 27. 7, I had added suryam as the Kashmirian reading 
for the Vulgate suryam^ simply because Roth's Collation gave suryam ; but on looking it up in 
the facsimile, last line of folio 136 a, I found, after the plates were made, that the birch-bark 
leaf really has suryam and that the slip was Roth's. — In regard to xix. 24. 6 b, the Fates 
seemed to have decreed that error should prevail. Here the manuscripts read vdpinam. This 
is reported in the foot-note of the Berlin edition as vdphtam (ist error). The editors intended 
to emend the ms. reading to va^andm^ which, however, is misprinted in the text as vafdnam 
(2d error). [The conjecture vafandm, even if rightly printed, is admitted to be an unsuccessful 
one.] In the third line of his comment, Whitney wrote, " The vdfdndm of our text " etc. (3d 
error). This I corrected to zKifandm^ and added, in a note near the end of the paragraph, that 
the conjecture was ** Misprinted vafdnam.** My note about the misprint was rightly printed in 
the second proof; but in the foundry proof, by some mishap, it stood "Misprinted vafdnam.** 
(4th error). The fourth error I hope to amend successfully in the plate. 

General Significance of Whitney s Work xxxvii 

General significance of Whitney's work. — Its design, says Whitney 
(above, p. xix, Announcement)^ is " to put together as much as possible of 
the material that is to help toward the study and final comprehension of 
this Veda." Thus expressly did the author disavow any claim to finality for 
his work. As for the translation, on the one hand, the Announcement 
shows that he regarded it as wholly subordinate to his commentary ; and 
I can give no better statement of the principles which have guided him in 
making it, than is found in the extracts from a critical essay by Whitney 
which I have reprinted (above, p. xix), and from which moreover we may 
infer that he fully recognized the purely provisional character of his trans- 
lation. I am sorry that infelicities of expression in the translation, which 
are part and parcel of the author's extreme literalness (see p. xciv) and do 
not really go below the surface of the work, are (as is said below, p. xcviii) 
the very things that are the most striking for the non-technical reader 
who examines the book casually. 

As for the commentary, on the other hand, it is plain that, taking the 
work as a whole, he has done just what he designed to do. Never 
before has the material for the critical study of an extensive Vedic text 
been so comprehensively and systematically gathered from so multifa- 
rious sources. The commentary will long maintain for itself a place of 
first-rate importance as an indispensable working-tool for the purposes 
which it is designed to serve. I have put together (below, pages xcii- 
xciii) a few examples to illustrate the ways in which the commentary will 
prove useful. A variety of special investigations, moreover, will readily 
suggest themselves to competent students of the commentary; and the 
subsidiary results that are thus to be won (the «* by-products," so to say), 
are likely, I am convinced, to be abundant and of large interest and value. 
Furthermore, we may confidently believe that Whitney's labors will inci- 
dentally put the whole discipline of Vedic criticism upon a broader and 
firmer basis. 

Need of a systematic commentary on the Rig-Veda. — Finally, Whitney 
seems to me to have made it plain that a similar commentary is the indis- 
pensable preliminary for the final comprehension of the Rig- Veda. That 
commentary should be as much better and as much wider in its scope as it 
can be made by the next generation of scholars; for it will certainly not be 
the work of any one man alone. It is a multifarious work for which many 
elaborate preparations need yet to be made. Thus the parallel passages 
from the Rig- Veda and the other texts must be noted with completeness 
on the margin of the Rik Samhita opposite the padas concerned ; for this 
task Bloomfield's Vedic Concordance is likely to be the most important 
single instrument. Thus, again, Brahmana, ^rauta, Grhya, and other 
texts appurtenant to the Rig- Veda, together with Epic and later texts. 

xxxviii Editors Preface 

should all be systematically read by scholars familiar with Vedic themes 
and diction, and with an eye open to covert allusion and reference, and 
should be completely excerpted with the Rik Samhita in hand and with 
constant references made opposite the Rik verses to the ancillary or illus- 
trative passages which bear upon them. It is idle folly to pretend that 
this last work would not be immensely facilitated by a large mass of 
translations^ of the more difficult texts, accurately made, and provided 
with all possible ingenious contrivances for finding out quickly the rela- 
tions between the ancillary texts and the fundamental ones. Thus to 
have demonstrated the necessity for so far-reaching an undertaking, may 
prove to be not the least of Whitney's services to Vedic scholarship. 

The Century Dictionary. — Doubtless much of the best of Whitney's 
strength through nearly ten of his closing years was given to the work 
devolving on him as editor-in-chief of The Century Dictionaryy an Encyclo- 
pedic Lexicon of the English Language (see p. Ix, below). But for that, 
he might perhaps have brought out this commentary himself. Since I, 
more than any one else, have personal reasons to regret that he did not do 
so, there is perhaps a peculiar fitness in my saying that I am glad that he 
did not. Whoever has visited for example the printing-offices which make 
the metropolitan district of Boston one of the great centers of book- 
production for America, and has seen the position of authority which is 
by them accorded to that admirable work, and has reflected upon the 
powerful influence which, through the millions of volumes that are affected 
by its authority, it must thus exercise in the shaping of the growth of 
our English language, — such an one cannot fail to see that Whitney was 
broad-minded and wise in accepting the opportunity of superintending the 
work of its production, even at the risk of not living to see the appear- 
ance of the already long-delayed Atharva-Veda. Perhaps his most potent 
influence upon his day and generation is through his labors upon the 
Century Dictionary. 

Acknowledgments. — I desire in the first place to make public acknowl- 
edgment of my gratitude to the late Henry Clarke Warren of Cambridge. 
He had been my pupil at Baltimore ; and, through almost twenty years 
of intimate acquaintance and friendship, we had been associated in our 
Indian studies. To his enlightened appreciation of their value and poten- 
tial usefulness is due the fact that these dignified volumes can now be 
issued ; for during his lifetime he gave to Harvard University in sundry 

^ Roth writes to Whitney, July 2, 1893 : Ich begreife nicht, wie ein junger Mann, statt nach 
wertlosen Dingen zu greifen, nicht lieber sich an die Uebersetzungund Erklarung eines Stiickes 
aus Taittirlya Brahmana oder Maitrayani Samhita wagt ; nicht um die minutiae des Rituals zu 
erforschen, sondern um den Stoff, der zwischen diesen Dingen steckt, zuganglich zu machen 
und zu erlautem. Auch in den Medizinbiichem gabe es viele Abschnitte, die veistanden und 
bekannt zu werden verdienten. 

Acknowledgments xxxix 

instalments the funds with which to pay for the printing of Whitney's 
commentary. Whitney was professor at Yale ; the editor is an alumnus 
of Yale and a teacher at Harvard; and Warren was an alumnus of 
Harvard. That the two Universities should thus join hands is a matter 
which the friends of both may look upon with pleasure, and it furnishes the 
motif for the dedication of this work. But I am glad to say that learning, 
as well as money, was at Mr. Warren's command for the promotion of 
science. Before his death there was issued his collection of translations 
from the Pali which forms the third volume of this Series and is entitled 
<' Buddhism in Translations/' a useful and much-used book. Moreover, 
he has left, in an advanced state of preparation for press, a carefully made 
edition and a partial translation of the Pali text of Buddhaghosa's famous 
encyclopedic treatise of Buddhism entitled "The Way of Pur^Jty" or 
Visuddhi-Magga. It is with gladness and hope that I now address myself 
to the arduous and happy labor of carrying Mr. Warren's edition through 
the press. 

Next I desire to express my hearty thanks to my former pupil, Dr. 
Arthur W. Ryder, now Instructor in Sanskrit at Harvard University, for 
his help in the task of verifying references and statements and of reading 
proofs. He came to assist me not long after the close of his studies 
with Professor Geldner, when I had got through with a little more than 
one third of the main body of Whitney's commentary and translation. 
For books i.-vii., I had revised the manuscript and sent it to press, leav- 
ing the verification to be done with the proof-reading and from the proof- 
sheets. Dr. Ryder's help began with the verification and proof-reading 
of the latter half of book vi. ; but from the beginning of book viii., it 
seemed better that he should forge ahead and do the verification from 
the manuscript itself, and leave me to follow with the revision and the 
supplying of the missing portions and so on. His work proved to be so 
thoroughly conscientious and accurate that I was glad to trust him, except 
of course in cases where a suspicion of error was aroused in one or both 
of us. A few times he has offered a suggestion of his own ; that given 
at p. 739 is so keen and convincing that greater boldness on his part 
would not have been unwelcome. To my thanks I join the hope that 
health and other opportunities may long be his for achieving the results 
of which his literary sense and scholarly ideals give promise. 

Mrs. Whitney, upon turning over to me her husband's manuscript of 
this work, together with his other manuscript material therefor, was so 
kind as to lend me a considerable number of his printed books, some 
of which, in particular his copy of the Kau^ika Sutra, have been a great 
convenience by reason of their manuscript annotations. It is a pleasure 
to be able to make to Mrs. Whitney this public expression of my thanks. 

xl Editors Preface 

To my neighbor, Miss Maria Whitney, I am indebted for the loan of 
the medallion from which the noble portrait of her brother, opposite 
page xliii, has been made. The medallion is a replica of the one in the 
Library of Yale University, and is a truthful likeness. 

Of an occasional friendly turn from Professors Theobald Smith, George 
F. Moore, and Bloomfield, and from Dr. George A. Grierson, I have already 
made note (see pages 242, 756, 983, 243). Professors Bloomfield and 
Garbe allowed me to reproduce here a specimen leaf from their beautiful 
facsimile of the Kashmirian text. Professors Cappeller and Hopkins and 
Jacobi were so good as to criticize my Sanskrit verses.^ In particular, 
I thank my colleague. Professor Morris H. Morgan, for his kindness in 
putting the dedication into stately Latin phrase. 

It is with no small satisfaction that I make public mention of the 
admirable work of the Athenaeum Press (situated in Cambridge) of Messrs. 
Ginn and Company of Boston. The Hindus sometimes liken human 
effort to one wheel of a cart. Fate, indeed, may be the other ; but our 
destiny, they say, is not accomplished without both elements, just as there 
is no progress without both wheels. It is so with a book : good copy is 
one wheel ; and a good printing-office is the other. Whitney's long expe- 
rience was guarantee for the prior requisite ; and the other I have not 
found lacking. The way has been a long one, with plenty of places for 
rough jolting and friction ; but the uniform kindness and the alert and 
intelligent helpfulness of all with whom I have had to do at the Press 
have made our progress smooth, and I am sincerely grateful. 

Human personality and the progress of science. — Had Whitney lived to 
see this work in print and to write the preface, his chief tribute of grateful 
acknowledgment would doubtless have been to his illustrious preceptor 
and colleague and friend whose toil had so largely increased its value, to 
Rudolph Roth of Tubingen. Whitney, who was my teacher, and Roth, 
who was my teacher's teacher and my own teacher, both are passed 
away, and Death has given the work to me to finish, or rather to. bring 
nearer to an ideal and so unattainable completeness. They are beyond 
the reach of human thanks, of praise or blame : but I cannot help feeling 
that even in their life-time they understood that Science is concerned 
only with results, not with personalities, or (in Hindu phrase) that the 
Goddess of Learning, Sarasvati or Vac, cares not to ask even so much 
as the names of her votaries ; and that the unending progress of Science 
is indeed like the endless flow of a river. 

^ These, I trust, will not be wholly unpleasing to my pundit-friends in India, who, as they 
will find the thought in part un-Indian, will not, I hope, forget that it was primarily and design- 
edly conceived in Occidental form. Their great master, Dandin, has a kind word for men in my 
case at the close of the first chapter of his Poetics. 

Human Personality and t/ie Progress of Science xli 

Teacher and teacher's teacher long had wrought 
Upon these tomes of ancient Hindu lore, 

Till Death did give to one whom both had taught 
The task to finish, when they were no more. 

*Tis finished, — yet unfinished, like the flow 

Of water-streams between their banks that glide ; 

For Learning's streams, that down the ages go. 
Flow on for ever with a swelling tide. 

Here plodding labor brings its affluent brook ; 

There genius, like a river, pours amain : 
While Learning — ageless, deathless — scarce will look 

To note which ones have toiled her love to gain. 

Alike to her are river, brook, and rill. 
That in her stately waters so combine. 

If only all who choose may drink their fill. 

And slake the thirst to know, the thirst divine. 

The Gita's lesson had our Whitney learned — 
To do for duty, not for duty's meed. 

And, paid or unpaid be the thanks he earned. 
The thanks he recked not, recked alone the deed. 

Here stands his book, a mighty instrument, 

Which those to come may use for large emprise. 

Use it, O scholar, ere thy day be spent. 
The learner dieth. Learning never dies. 

xlii Editors Prefa4^e 


▼Rt^fM ifl^lRfll Q|«l^««U 

U. Xv.. 1^. 

Cranberry Isles, Maine, 
Summer, 1904. 

^^ILilAlfs! :l^-■:V:;'!?iM|■b" wVl!:! 



William Dwight Whitney was born at Northampton, Massachusetts, 
February 9, 1827, and died at New Haven, Connecticut, on Thursday, 
June 7, 1894, aged sixty-seven years and nearly four months. He 
was son of Josiah Dwight and Sarah (Williston) Whitney. The father, 
Josiah Dwight Whitney (1786- 1869), was born in Westfield, oldest son 
of Abel Whitney (Harvard, 1773) and of Clarissa Dwight, daughter of 
Josiah Dwight. The mother was daughter of the Rev. Payson Williston 
(Yale, 1783) of Easthampton, and sister of the Hon. Samuel Williston, 
the founder of Williston Seminary. The father was a business man in 
Northampton, and later manager, first as cashier and then as president, 
of the Northampton Bank, and was widely and honorably known for his 
ability and integrity. William was one of a goodly family of children, 
of whom may be named, as devoted to scientific and literary pursuits, the 
eldest, Josiah Dwight Whitney (Yale, 1839), for a long time the head of 
the Geological Survey of California and from 1865 to 1896 Professor of 
Geology in Harvard University; Miss Maria Whitney, the first incumbent 
of the chair of Modern Languages in Smith College; James Lyman 
Whitney (Yale, 1856), since 1869 a member of the Administrative Staff 
of the Boston Public Library and its head from 1899 ^^ 1903; and Henry 
Mitchell Whitney (Yale, 1864), from 1871 to 1899 Professor of English 
in Beloit College. 

Whitney made his preparation for college entirely in the free public 
schools of his native town, entered the Sophomore class of Williams Col- 
lege in 1842, and was graduated in 1845. He then spent three full years 
in service in the bank, under his father. Early in 1848 he took up the 
study of Sanskrit. In the spring of 1849 he left the bank; spent the 
summer as assistant in the Geological Survey of the Lake Superior 
region, and in the autumn went for a year to New Haven, to continue 
his Sanskrit studies under Professor Edward E. Salisbury and in com- 
pany with James Hadley, and to prepare for a visit to Germany, already 
planned. On May 22, 1850, he was elected a corporate member of the 
American Oriental Society. He sailed (for Bremen) September 20, 1850. 
The next three winters were passed by him in Berlin and the summers 
of 185 1 and 1852 in Tubingen, chiefly under the instruction of Professors 


xli V Brief Sketch of Whitney s Life 

Albrecht Weber ^ and Rudolph Roth respectively, but also of Professor 
Lepsius and others. Already during his first summer with Roth, the 
edition of the Atharva-Veda was planned.^ In October, 185 1, he began 
copying the Berlin manuscripts of the text, and finished that work in 
March, 1852. Leaving Berlin ^ in March, 1853, he stayed seven weeks in 
Paris, three in Oxford, and seven in London (collating Sanskrit manu- 
scripts), and then returned to America, arriving in Boston August 5. 

Before quitting Germany, he received an invitation to return to Yale 
College as Professor of Sanskrit, but not until August, 1854, did he go 
there to remain. His election was dated May 10, 1854, so that his term 
of service exceeded forty years. The events of such a life as his are, so 
far as they concern the outside world, little else than the succession of 
classes instructed and of literary labors brought to a conclusion. It may 
be noted, however, that very soon after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Whitney went, partly for health and partly for study,* to spend somewhat 
less than a year in France and Italy (November, 1856 to July, 1857), 
passing several months at Rome. In 1873 he took part in the summer 
campaign of the Hayden exploring expedition in Colorado, passing two 
full months on horseback and under canvas, coursing over regions which 
in good part had been till then untrodden by the feet of white men, and 
seeing Nature in her naked grandeur — mounting some nine times up to 
or beyond the altitude of 14,000 feet. In the summer of 1875 Mr. Whit- 
ney visited England and Germany,^ mainly for the collection of further 

1 In a letter to Salisbury from Weber (see JAGS. iii. 215), dated Berlin, March 29, 1851, 
Weber writes : " I have already had the pleasure of instructing two of your countrymen in 
Sanskrit, Mr. Wales and Mr. Whitney. Mr. Whitney certainly entitles us to great hopes, as he 
combines earnestness and diligence with a sound and critical judgment. I hope to induce him 
to undertake an edition of the Taittiriya-Aranyaka, one of the most interesting Vedic Scrip- 
tures." Whitney's fellow-student was Dr. Henry Ware Wales (Harvard, 1838), who had 
already, nearly two years before, by a will dated April 24, 1849, provided for the endowment of 
the Wales Professorship of Sanskrit in Harvard University, which was established in due course 
January 26, 1903, and to which the editor of these volumes was elected March 23, 1903. 

3 This appears from the following portion (see JAGS. iii. 216: cf. also p. 501) of an interest- 
ing letter from Roth, dated Tiibingen, August 2, 1851 : '*I have had for a scholar, through this 
summer, one of your countrymen, Mr. Whitney of Northampton. Through the winter, he will 
reside in Berlin, in order to collect there whatever can be found for the Atharvaveda, and then 
return here with what is brought together. We shall then together see what can be done for 
this Veda, hitherto without a claimant, which I consider as the most important next to the 
Rigveda." Cf. Roth's letter of November 18, 1894, JAGS. xix. 100. 

• The date given on p. 1 is not quite correct : see p. cxviii. 

* The A v. Pratika-index (Ind. Stud., vol. iv. : see p. 62) is dated Paris, May, 1857. 

' In particular, Munich and Tubingen (cf. JAGS, x., p. cxviii, = PAGS. for Nov. 1875). At 
that time, the editor of these volumes was residing at Tubingen as a pupil of Roth and as one 
of the little group to which belonged Garbe, Geldner, Kaegi, and Lindner. Whitney's arrival 
(July 6) was a great event and was hailed with delight. It may be added that it was the privi- 
lege of Whitney and myself to take part in the memorable feast given at Jena by Bohtlingk on 
his sixtieth birthday, June 11, 1875, in celebration of the completion of the great Sanskrit Lexicon. 

Brief Sketch of Whitney s Life xlv 

material for the Atharva-Veda. In 1878 he went to Europe with his 
wife and daughters, to write out his Sanskrit Grammar and carry it 
through the press, and spent there fifteen months, chiefly at Berlin and 

Of Whitney's scientific writings, the most important ones ^ (since they 
are scattered among many other bibliographical items : pages Ivi to Ixi) 
may here be briefly enumerated in several groups of related works. 
— I. The edition of the Atharva-Veda ; the Alphabetisches Verzeichniss 
der Versanfange der Atharva-Samhita ; the Atharva-Veda Prati^akhya ; the 
Index Verborum ; to which must now be added the two present volumes 
of critical commentary and translation. In the same general category 
belongs his Taittirlya Prati^akhya. As a part of the fruit of his Sanskrit 
studies must be mentioned also the Surya-Siddhanta ; and, finally, his 
Sanskrit Grammar, with its Supplement, The Roots, Verb-forms, and 
Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language. — a. His chief contribu- 
tions to general linguistics are comprised in his Language and the Study 
of Language and in the two series of Oriental and Linguistic Studies 
and in his Life and Growth of Language. Here may be mentioned his 
article on «« Language " in Johnson's Cyclopaedia (vol. ii., 1876) and that on 
** Philology " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (vol. xviii., 1885). — 3. His 
principal text-books are his German Grammars (a larger and a smaller) 
and Reader and Dictionary, his Essentials of English Grammar, and his 
French Grammar. Important as an influence upon the conservation and 
growth of the English language is his part in the making of The Century 
Dictionary (see p. xxxviii). 

Of Whitney's minor writings, those which he included in the Yale 
Bibliographies (p. Ivi, below) extending to 1892, with a few others, are 
enumerated in the List below. A much fuller list, comprising 360 
numbers, was published in the Memorial Volume, pages 1 21-150. One 
reason for putting some of the lesser papers into the last-mentioned list 
was to show the versatility of Mr. Whitney's mind and the wide range of 
his interests. 

Mr. Whitney's services to science were recognized by scholars and 
learned corporations. Thus he received the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy from the University of Breslau in 1861 ; that of Doctor of 
Laws from Williams College in 1868, from the College of William and 
Mary (Virginia) in 1869, from the University of St. Andrews (Scotland) 
in 1874, from Harvard in 1876, and from the University of Edinburgh in 
1889. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society (Phila- 
delphia) and of the National Academy of Sciences (Washington). He 
was an honorary member of the Oriental or Asiatic societies of Great 

^ Some estimate of their general significance is given below, pages li to liii. 

xlvi Brief Sketch of Whitney s Life 

Britain and Ireland, of Japan, of Germany, of Bengal, of Peking, and of 
Italy; and of the Philological Society of London. He was a member 
or correspondent of the Royal Academy of Berlin, of the Royal Irish 
Academy, of the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, of the Institute of 
France, of the Royal Academy in Turin, of the Lincei in Rome, of the 
Royal Danish Academy, and so on. He was a Fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. In 1881 he was made a Foreign Knight of the 
Prussian Order pour le mdrite, being elected to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the death of Thomas Carlyle. 

On the 27th of August, 1856, Mr. Whitney married Miss Elizabeth 
Wooster Baldwin, daughter of Roger Sherman and Emily (Perkins) 
Baldwin of New Haven. Mr. Baldwin, a lawyer of the highest rank, 
had been Governor of Connecticut and Senator in Congress, and inherited 
his name from his grandfather, Roger Sherman, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and one of the committee charged with drawing 
it up. Miss Baldwin was a great-great-granddaughter of Thomas Clap, 
President of Yale from 1740 to 1766. Mr. and Mrs. Whitney had six 
children, three sons and three daughters. The daughters, Marian Parker 
and Emily Henrietta and Margaret Dwight, with their mother, survive 
their father; as does also one son, Edward Baldwin, a lawyer of New 
York City, Assistant Attorney-General of the United States from 1893 
to 1897. He married Josepha, daughter of Simon Newcomb, the astron- 
omer, and one of their children, born August 26^ 1899, bears the name 
of his grandfather, William Dwight Whitney. 


Delivered by the Editor at the First American Congress of Philologists^ Whitney 

Memorial Meetings December ^ i8q4 


Ladies and Gentlemen, — There are some among us who can remember the timls 
when *< a certain condescension in foreigners *' easily gave us pain. There was little 
achievement behind us as a people to awaken us to national self-consciousness and to a 
realizing sense of our own great possibilities. Time is changing all that The men 
have come, and some, alas ! are already gone, of whose achievements we may well be 
proud wherever we are. In the battles for the conquests of truth there are no distinc- 
tions of race. It needs no international congress to tell us that we belong to one great 
army. But to-night — as the very titles of these gathered societies show — Science has 
marshalled us, her fifties and her hundreds, as Americans. We look for the centurion, 
for the captain of the fifties ; and he is no more ! And we call, as did David, lamenting 
for Abner, *< Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in 
Israel,** yea, and like Jonathan, *< in the midst of the battle ? ** 

It is in the spirit of generous laudation that we are assembled to do honor to our 
illustrious countryman. And it is well. We may praise him now ; for be is gone. 
But I cannot help thinking of a touching legend of the Buddha. Nigh fifty years he 
has wandered up and down in Ganges-land, teaching and preaching. And now he is 
about to die. Flowers fall from the sky and heavenly quires are heard to sing his 
praise. " But not by all this,** he answers, — " but not by all this, O Ananda, is the 
Teacher honored ; but the disciple who shall fulfil all the greater and lesser duties, — 
by him is the Teacher honored.** It is fitting, then, that we pause, not merely to praise 
the departed, but also to consider the significance of a noble life, and the duties and 
responsibilities which so great an example urges upon us, — in short, the lesson of a life 
of service. 

It would be vain to endeavor, within the narrow limits which the present occasion 
imposes, to rehearse or to characterize with any completeness the achievements that 
make up this remarkable life. Many accounts^ of it have been given of late in the 
public prints. Permit me rather to lay before you, by way of selection merely, a few 
facts concerning Mr. Whitney which may serve to illustrate certain essential features of 
his character and fundamental motives of his life. 

And indubitably first in importance no less than in natural order is the great fact of 
his heredity. William Dwight Whitney was born, in 1827, at Northampton, Massachu- 
setts, and in his veins flowed the best blood of a typical New England community, of 
the D wights and the Hawleys, — heroes of the heroic age of Hampshire. His stock 
was remarkable for sturdy vigor, both of body and of intellect, and was in fact that 
genuine aristocracy which, if it be true to its traditions, will remain — as for generations 

1 Most notable among them is the one by Professor Thomas Day Seymour of Yale, in the 
" American Joamal of Philology,** vol. 15. 


xlviii Memorial Address by tfie Editor 

it has been — one of the prime guarantees of the permanence of democracy in America. 
Few places in this land have produced a proportionately greater number of distinguished 
people than has Northampton. Social advantages were thus added to those of birth, 
and to all these in turn the advantages of dwelling in a region of great natural beauty. 

It was in William Whitney*s early infancy that his father moved into a dwelling built 
on the precise site of the Jonathan Edwards house. This dwelling was the second in a 
row of six neighboring houses, all of which could boast of more or less notable occu- 
pants. In the first lived Dr. Seeger, who was educated at the same school and time as 
Schiller, at " the Solitude." Beyond the Whitneys' was the house in which lived Lewis 
S. Hopkins, the father of Edward W. Hopkins, the Sanskrit scholar of Bryn Mawr. 
The fourth was the original homestead of the Timothy Dwights, in which the first Yale 
President of that name, and Theodore, the Secretary of the Hartford Convention and 
founder of the New York ** Daily Advertiser," were born, both grandsons of Jonathan 
Edwards. The adjoining place was the home of the elder Sylvester Judd, and of his son 
Sylvester, the author of ** Margaret ; " and the sixth house was occupied by the Italian 
political exile, Gherardi, and later by Dr. William Allen, ex-President of Bowdoin College. 

Whitney was a mere boy of fifteen when he entered Williams College as a sopho- 
more. Three years later (in 1845) he had easily outstripped all his classmates and 
graduated with the highest honors ; and with all that, he found ample time to range the 
wooded hills of Berkshire, collecting birds, which he himself set up for the Natural 
History Society. The next three or four years were spent by him as clerk in the North- 
ampton Bank, with accounts for his work, German and Swedish for his studies, orni- 
thology and botany for his recreations, and music for his delight, — unless one should 
rather say that all was his delight. These oft-mentioned studies in natural history I 
should not linger over, save that their deep significance has hardly been adverted upon in 
public. They mean that, even at this early age, Whitney showed the stuff which dis- 
tinguishes the genuine man of science from the jobbers and peddlers of learning. They 
mean that, with him, the gift of independent and accurate observation was inborn, and 
that the habit of unprejudiced reflection upon what he himself saw was easily acquired. 

This brings us to a critical period in the determination of his career. In the ency- 
clopedias, Whitney is catalogued as a famous Indianist, and so indeed he was. But it 
was not because he was an Indianist that he was famous. Had he devoted his life to 
the physical or natural sciences, he would doubtless have attained to equal, if not greater 
eminence. Truly, it is not the what, but the how I That he did devote himself to 
Indology appears to be due to several facts which were in themselves and in their con- 
comitance accidental. First, his elder brother, Josiah, now the distinguished professor 
of geology in Harvard University, on his return from Europe in 1847, had brought with 
him books in and on many languages, and among them a copy of the second edition of 
Bopp's Sanskrit Grammar. Second, it chanced that the Rev. George E. Day, a college- 
mate at Yale of Professor Salisbury, was Whitney's pastor. And third, he met with 
Eduard Desor. 

There is in possession of Professor Whitney of Harvard a well-worn volume of his 
father's called the Family Fact-book. It isj I am sure, no breach of confidence if I say, 
in passing, that this book, with its varied entries in all varied moods and by divers 
gifted hands, is the reflex of a most remarkable family life and feeling. In it> among 
many other things, are brief autobiographic annals of the early life of William Whitney, 
and in its proper place the following simple entry: ** In the winter of 1848-49 com- 
menced the study of Sanskrit, encouraged to it by Rev. George E. Day. In June, 1849, 
went out with Josiah to Lake Superior as * assistant sub-agent ' on the Geological 

An Estimate of Whit^ieys Character and Services xlix 

Survey." To William Whitney were intrusted the botany, the barometrical observations, 
and the accounts. And although the ornithology was not formally intrusted to him, 
there is abundant evidence that he was habitually on the look-out for the birds, with 
keen eye and with attentive ear. He must, already, in the spring, have made substantial 
progress by himself in Sanskrit; for his article (almost the first that be published) 
entitled ** On the Sanskrit Language,*' a translation and abridgment of ypn Bohlen, 
appeared in the August number of the "Bibliotheca Sacra*' for 1849, and must there- 
fore have been finished before he left home. With him, accordingly, he took his 
brother's copy of Bopp. 

Besides the two brothers, there was a third man-of-power in the little company that 
spent the summer among the swamps and mosquitoes of the great copper region. 
That man was Eduard Desor, already a young naturalist of distinction, and afterward 
famous both in science and in public life in Switzerland. He had come only a short time 
before, with Agassiz, and as his friend and intimate associate in scientific undertakings, 
from Neufchdtel to Cambridge. He was by nature full of the purest love for science ; 
and that love had been quickened to ardent enthusiasm by his own work, and by his 
intercourse with other bright minds and eager workers whom he had known in Paris 
and Neufchdtel and in the Swiss glacier-camps of Agassiz. Small wonder if the jntimate 
relations of that summer's camp-life in common gave opportunity for potent influence of 
the brilliant young Huguenot upon the brilliant young Puritan. It is to Desor, and to 
his words and example, that my Cambridge colleague attributes in large measure his 
brother*s determination to devote himself to a life of science rather than to business or 
to one of the learned professions. That the chosen department was Sanskrit may be 
ascribed in part to the accident of the books thrown in his way ; in part to the interest 
of the language and antiquities of India, intrinsically and as related to our own ; and in 
part to the undeniable fascination which the cultivation of the virgin soil of an almost 
untrodden field has for a mind of unusual energy, vigor, and originality. 

William Whitney has left a full and interesting journal of this summer. Tuesday, 
July 24, while waiting for the uncertain propeller to come and rescue them from the 
horrible insect pests, he writes from Copper Harbor : «* For my part, I intend attacking 
Sanskrit grammar to-morrow." And then, on Wednesday : ** I have, after all, managed 
to get thro the day without having recourse to the Sanskrit, but it has been a narrow 
escape." And five weeks later, from Carp River : '^Another day of almost inaction, 
most intolerable and difiScult to be borne. How often have I longed for that Sanskrit 
grammar which I so foolishly sent down before me to the Sault ! ** 

The autumn of 1849, siccordingly, found him at New Haven, and in company with 
Professor Hadley, studying under Edward Elbridge Salisbury, the Professor of the 
Arabic and Sanskrit Languages and Literature. The veteran Indologist of Berlin, Pro- 
fessor Weber, has said that he and Professor Roth account it as one of their fairest 
honors that they had Whitney as a pupil. To have had both a Whitney and a Hadley 
at once is surely an honor that no American teacher in the departments here represented 
this evening can match. In a man whose so«d was beclouded with the slightest mist of 
false pretension or of selfishness, we may well imagine that the progress of such pupils 
might easily have occasioned a pang of jealousy. But Mr. Salisbury's judgment upon 
them illuminates his own character no less than that of his pupils when he says, ** Their 
quickness of perception and unerring exactness of acquisition soon made it evident that 
the teacher and the taught must change places." 

We have come to the transition period of Whitney's life. He is still a pupil, but 
already also an incipient master. <* 1850, Sept. 20. Sailed for Germany in the steamer 

1 Memorial Address by the Editor 

Washington. Spent three winters in Berlin, studying especially with Dr. Weber, and 
two summers in Tiibingen, Wiirtemberg, with Professor Roth." Thus runs the entry in 
the Fact-book. A few lines later we read: ** Leaving Berlin in April, 1853, stayed six 
weeks in Paris, three in Oxford, and seven in London (collating Sanskrit manuscripts), 
and then returned in the steamer Niagara, arriving in Boston Aug. 5." Such is the 
modest record that covers the three momentous years of the beginning of a splendid 
scientific career. For in this brief space he had not only laid broad and deep founda- 
tions, by studies in Persian, Arabic, Egyptian, and Coptic, but had also done a large 
part of the preliminary work for the edition of the Atharva-Veda, — as witness the 
volumes on the table before you, which contain his Berlin copy of that Veda and his 
Paris, Oxford, and London collations. 

Meantime, however, at Yale, his honored teacher, and faithful friend. Professor Salis- 
bury, " with true and self-forgetting zeal for the progress of Oriental studies " (these are 
Mr. Whitney's own words), had been diligently preparing the way for him ; negotiating 
with the corporation for the establishment of a chair of Sanskrit, surrendering /r^ tanto 
his own office, and providing for the endowment of the new cathedra ; leaving, in short, 
no stone unturned to insure the fruitful activity of his young colleague. Nor did hope 
wait long upon fulfilment ; for in 1856, only a trifle more than two years from his induc- 
tion, Whitney had, as joint editor with Professor Roth, achieved a most distinguished 
service for science by the issue of the editio princeps of the Atharva-Veda, and that 
before he was thirty. 

In September, 1869, — that is to say, in the very month in which began the first 
college year of President Eliot's administration, — Whitney was called to Harvard. It 
reflects no less credit upon Mr. Eliot's discernment of character and attainments than 
upon Mr. Whitney's surpassing gifts that the youthful president should turn to him, 
among the very first, for aid in helping to begin the great work of transforming the 
provincial college into a national university. The prospect of losing such a man was 
matter of gravest concernment to all Yale College, and in particular to her faithful 
benefactor. Professor Salisbury. Within a week the latter had provided for the endow- 
ment of Mr. Whitney's chair upon the ampler scale made necessary by the change of 
the times ; and the considerations which made against the transplanting of the deeply 
rooted tree had, unhappily for Harvard, their chance to prevail, and Whitney remained 
at New Haven. 

It was during his studies under Mr. Salisbury, in May, 1850, that he was elected a 
member of the American Oriental Society. Mr. Salisbury was the life and soul of the 
Society, and, thanks to his learning, his energy, and his munificence, the organization 
had already attained to <* standing and credit in the world of scholars." Like him, 
Mr. Whitney was a steadfast believer in the obligation of which the very existence of 
these assembled societies is an acknowledgment, — the obligation of professional men 
to help in ** co-operative action in behalf of literary and scientific progress ; " and, more 
than that, to do so at real personal sacrifice. 

The first meeting at which Mr. Whitney was present was held October 26, 1853. 
More than thirty -three years passed, and he wrote from the sick-room : " It is the first 
time in thirty-two years that I have been absent from a meeting of the American Oriental 
Society, except when out of the country." His first communication to the Society was 
read by Mr. Salisbury, October 13, 1852 ; and his last, in March, 1894, at the last meet- 
ing before his death. Of the seven volumes, vi.-xii., of the Society's Journal, more 
than half of the contents are from his pen, to say nothing of his numerous and important 
papers in the Proceedings. In 1857, the most onerous office of the Society, that of 

An Estimate of Whitney s Character and Services li 

Corresponding Secretary, which from the beginning carried with it the duty of editing 
the publications, was devolved upon him ; and he bore its burdens for twenty-seven 
years. Add to this eighteen years as Librarian and six as President, and we have an 
aggregate of fifty-one years of official service. The American Philological Association, 
too, is under deep obligation to Whitney. He was one of its founders, and, very fit- 
tingly, its first president For many years he was one of the most constant attendants 
at its meetings, a valued counsellor, and one of its most faithful helpers and contributors. 

Some might think it a matter of little importance, but it is certainly a significant one, 
that, after pa3dng his Oriental Society assessments for about thirty-five years, at last, 
and when facing mortal illness, he paid over the considerable sum required to make 
himself a life member. A little later, — for the candle still burned, — and with strictest 
injunction of secrecy during his lifetime, he sent to the Treasurer his check for a 
thousand dollars of his modest savings, to help toward defraying the Society^s expenses 
of publication, and in the hope that it might serve as a *' suggestion and encouragement 
to others to do likewise.** 

Added to all this was his service in keeping up the very high scientific standard of 
the Society's publications. The work of judging and selecting required wide knowledge, 
and the making of abstracts much labor ; while the revision or recasting of the papers 
of tyros unskilled in writing demanded endless painstaking, not always met by gratitude 
and docility. All this cost him a lavish bestowal of time, of which hardly any one in 
the Society knew, and that for the reason that he took no steps to have them know. So 
exemplary was his freedom from self-seeking in all his relations with the Society. 

The rehearsal of the titles of Mr. Whitney's books and treatises would give to this 
address too much the character of a bibliographical essay; and, besides, it would 
merely tend to impress hearers who are accustomed to count volumes rather than to 
weigh them. His distinguishing qualities, as reflected in his work, are everywhere so 
palpable that it is not hard to describe them. Perhaps the most striking and pervading 
one is that which Professor Lounsbury calls his *' thorough intellectual sanity.*' In read- 
ing his arguments, whether constructive or critical, one can hardly help exclaiming. 
How near to first principles are the criteria of the most advanced theories and high- 
stepping deliverances ! With him, the impulse to prick the bubble of windy hypothesis 
upon the diamond-needle (as the Hindus call it) of hard common-sense was often irre- 
sistible, and sometimes irresistibly funny. Witness this passage from his boyish journal: 
** On entering the river [the St. Mary's], we found ourselves in an archipelago of small 

islands, which stretches from the Sault down to the foot of the Georgian Bay. says 

[that] actually visited thirty-six thousand such islands, . . . which in my opinion 

is a whopper. To have done it, he must have stopped upon ten a day, every day for ten 
years.** This may seem trivial. In fact, it is typical. It is in essence the same kind 
of treatment that he gave in later life to any loose statement or extravagant theory, 
although printed in the most dignified journal and propounded by the most redoubtable 

Breadth and thoroughness are ever at war with each other in men, for that men are 
finite. The gift of both in large measure and at once, — this marks the man of genius. 
That the gift was Whitney's is clear to any one who considers the versatility of his 
mind, the variousness of his work, and the quality of his results. As professor of 
Sanskrit, technical work in grammar, lexicography, text-criticism, and the like, lay 
nearest to him ; but with all this, he still found strength to illuminate by his insight 
many questions of general linguistic theory, the origin of language, phonetics, the 
difficult subject of Hindu astronomy and the question of its derivation, the method and 

lii Memorial Address by the Editor 

technique of translation, the science of religion, m3rthology, linguistic ethnology, alpha- 
betics, and paleography, and much else. Astonishing is the combination of technical 
knowledge in widely diverse fields which appears in his elaborately annotated translation 
of the famous Sanskrit astronomical treatise called Suryasiddhlnta, and which, again, 
he brought to bear upon his criticisms of earlier and later attempts to determine the age 
of the Veda by its references to solar eclipses, and by its alleged implications respecting 
the place of the equinoctial colures. 

But not only in respect of contents were Whitney's writings of conspicuous merit ; he 
had also the sense of form and proportion, — that sense for lack of which the writings 
of many a scholar of equal learning are almost nugatory. At twenty-two, his English 
style had the charms of simplicity,, clearness, and vigor, and they held out to the last. 
And what could be more admirable than his beautiful essay, — a veritable classic, — 
" The Vedic Doctrine of a Future Life " ? His subjects, indeed, if treated seriously, 
do not lend themselves to the graces of rhetorical or ornate writing ; and his concise 
and pregnant periods sometimes mock the flippant or listless reader. But his presenta- 
tion, whether of argument or of scientific generalization, is always a model of lucidity, 
of orderly exposition, and of due subordination of the parts. This was a matter on 
which he felt deeply ; for his patience was often sorely tried by papers for whose sloven- 
liness in diction, arrangement, and all the externals of which he was a master, the 
authors fondly thought that their erudition was forsooth an excuse. 

Indeed, for the matter of printer's manuscript, more than once has Boehtlingk, the 
Nestor of Indianists, taxed him home with making it too good, declaring it a wicked sin 
to put time on such things, though playfully admitting the while that he had killed off 
with his own desperate copy I cannot remember how many luckless type-setters in the 
ofBce of the Russian Academy. 

Where there was so much of the best, it is not feasible to go into details about all. 
Yet I cannot omit mention of some of his masterpieces. Very notable is his ** Language 
and the Study of Language," — a work of wide currency, and one which has done more 
than any other in this country to promote sound and intelligent views upon the subjects 
concerned. It deals with principles, with speculative questions, and with broad gener- 
alizations, — the very things in which his mastery of material, self-restraint, even balance 
of mind, and rigorous logic come admirably into play. 

Of a wholly different type, but not one whit inferior withal, are his Prati^akhyas. 
These are the phonetico-grammatical treatises upon the text of the Vedas, and are of 
prime importance for the establishment of the text. Their distinguishing feature is 
minutiae, of marvellous exactness, but presented in such a form that no one with aught 
less than a tropical Oriental contempt for the value of time can make anything out of 
them as they stand. Whitney not only out-Hindus the Hindu for minutiae, but also — 
such is his command of form — actually recasts the whole, so that it becomes a book of 
easy reference. 

As for the joint edition of the Atharva-Veda, it is a most noteworthy fact that it has 
held its own now for thirty-eight years as an unsurpassed model of what a Vedic text- 
edition ought to be. His ** Index Verborum to the Atharva-Veda," a work of wonderful 
completeness and accuracy, is much more than its name implies, and may not pass with- 
out brief mention, inasmuch as its material formed the basis of his contributions to the 
Sanskrit-German lexicon published by the Imperial Academy of Russia. This great 
seven-volumed quarto, whose steady progress through the press took some three and 
twenty years, is the Sanskrit Stephanus. Americans may well be proud of the fact 
that to Whitney belongs the distinguished honor of being one of the four "faithful 

An Estimate of Whitney s Character and Services liii 

collaborators** who, next to the authors, Boehtlingk and Roth, contributed most to 
this monumental work. 

Of all his technical works, his ** Sanskrit Grammar," with its elaborate supplement, 
" The Roots, Verb-forms, and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language," forms 
the crowning achievement Here he casts off the bonds of tradition wherever they 
might hamper his free scientific procedure, and approaches the phenomena of language 
in essentially the same spirit and attitude of mind as that in which Darwin or Helmholtz 
grappled the problems of their sciences. The language is treated historically, and as 
the product of life and growth ; and the work is filled with the results of scores of 
minute and far-reaching special investigations. The amount of material which is here 
subjected to rigorous and original methods of classification and scientific induction is 
enormous ; and none but those who were familiar with his writing-table can well realize 
the self-restraint that he used in order to bring his results into moderate compass. 

In all these technical works there is little that appeals to the popular imagination, 
and absolutely nothing to catch the applause of the groundlings ; but much, on the 
other hand, to win the confidence of the judicious. It was therefore natural that 
Whitney should be sought as editor-in-chief for what is in every sense by far the 
greatest lexicographical achievement of America, "The Century Dictionary." And 
despite the ability and size of the editorial staff, we may well believe that this office was 
no sinecure ; for the settlement of the principles of procedure demanded the full breadth 
of learning, the largeness of view, and the judicial temper of a master mind. Among 
the great body of his countrymen, this will be Whitney's best-known monument. 

Mr. Whitney was a genuine lover of nature and of the world out of doors no less 
than of his books ; and so, with his keen sense of humor and love of fun, he was a 
charming companion for the woods and hills. Physical courage, too, abounded, often 
with a daring impulse to meet bodily risk and danger, as when he climbed the so-called 
Look-off Pine, about one hundred and thirty feet high, a monarch overtopping the 
primeval forests of the Ontonagon River, and broke off its top as a trophy ; or as when, 
with his brother, he indulged in the youthful escapade of passing the forbidden point of 
the spire of Strasburg Cathedral by clambering out and around the point of obstruction 
on the outside, and of mounting thence toward the summit as far as there was any 
opening within the spire large enough to contain a man's body. He was intensely 
American, in the best sense of the word ; and his patriotism, aside from its loftier mani- 
festations (of which a moment later), showed itself in some lesser ways not unpleasing 
to recall. In describing his passage through the wilds of the Detroit River, he says in 
that youthful journal, "There was little difference in the appearance of the two sides; 
but I endeavored to persuade myself that the American offered evidence of more active 
and successful industry than the British." 

I venture to quote in part the words and in part the substance of a recent letter from 
one of his old pupils. There is no one, said this pupil, whose privilege it was to know 
him more intimately, who could not speak of the deep tenderness underlying his ordinary 
reserve, of his profound sympathy with difficulty and misfortune, and of his ever-steadfast 
loyalties. Of the last a touching illustration is found in his remembrance of the Schaal 
family, in whose house auf d^m Grab^n he lodged during his Tubingen summers of 
1851 and' 1852. Nearly forty years later he wrote to this pupil, then in Tubingen, 
asking him to seek out the Schaals, and to be the bearer of kindly messages to them. 
Fraulein Schaal spoke of the delight her mother and herself had felt at the messages 
sent them by the professor who had become so celebrated, but who had not forgotten 
them, and showed the visitor Professor Whitney's room, all unchanged, a typical 

liv Memorial Address by the Editor 


Studentenzimmerj in the middle, a long plain table, and by it an uncushioned arm-chair. 
That, said she, was Professor Whitney's chair, and in it he used to sit for hours at that 
table, almost without moving. When he moved the chair more than a little, I knew 
that it was time for me to take him his mug of beer, and perchance a bit of bread. And, 
as a very small girl then, I wondered at the table, which was covered with little bits of 
paper, which he had arranged in a certain order, and was very particular that no one 
should disturb. The only adornment which he had in the room was an American flag 
draped over the mirror ; and on the Fourth of July he said he would work an hour less 
than usual, as it was the anniversary of American independence. The flag was the 
symbol of a true passion ; and in his toils for truth he felt that he was working, first for 
the welfare, and second for the glory of his country. And as for the latter, how many 
an American student in Germany has been proud of the generous recognition of 
Whitney's success ! Years ago, continues the letter, I was exchanging a few words with 
a famous Orientalist. The Herr Professor kindly asked me from what part of America 
I came. New Jersey, I told him, and his face grew very blank. I know Connecticut, 
said he. And he knew Connecticut, as did his colleagues, largely because he knew 
Whitney. So much for the letter of a loving and beloved pupil. 

It suggests withal an inquiry : What was the secret of Whitney's great productivity? 
In the first instance, — it is almost needless to say, — his native gifts. But it is far 
from true that native gifts are always fruitful. Next to them came his power of dis- 
cerning what was the really important thing to do, and his habit — self-imposed, and 
enforced with Spartan rigor — of doing something every working-day upon that really 
important thing, and, above all, of doing that something first. Such was his regularity 
that even the dire necessity — which arose in 1882 — of moving from one dwelling- 
house into another did not break it. ^* Even moving," he writes, " I expect to find con- 
sistent with regular doses of Talavakara, etc." The ** art of judicious slighting " was a 
household word in his family, a weapon of might ; its importance to the really great is 
equalled only by its perilousness in the hands of the unskilful. His plans were formed 
with circumspection, with careful counting of the cost, and then adhered to with the 
utmost persistence, so that he left behind him nothing fragmentary. We may change 
Goldsmith's epitaph to suit the case, and say that Whitney put his hand to nothing that 
he did not carry out, — nihil quod incepit non perfecit* 

And what shall I say of the lesser virtues that graced him? As patient as the 
earth, say the Hindus. And endless patience was his where patience was in place. 
And how beautiful was his gentieness, his kindness to those from whom he looked for 
nothing again, his gratitude to those who did him a service ! And how especially well 
did the calm dignity which was ever his wont become him when he presided at the 
meetings of learned societies ! How notable the brevity with which he presented his 
papers ! No labored reading from a manuscript, but rather a simple and facile account 
of results. An example, surely! He who had the most to say used in proportion the 
least time in saying it. And this was indeed of a piece with his most exemplary habit, 
as editor of the publications of the Oriental Society, of keeping his own name so far in 
the background. For how genuine was his modesty of bearing, of speech, and of 
soul ! 

And in harmony therewith was his reverence for things hallowed. 

He counted not himself to have attained, 

This doughty toiler on the paths of truth ; 

And scorned not them who lower heights had reached. 

An Estimate of Whitney s Character and Services Iv 

As was his attitude toward things sacred, so also was it toward those who went before 
him in science. He did not speak sneeringly of what they, with lesser light, had 
achieved. And to him Aristotle was none the less a giant because some dwarf on a 
giant^s shoulders can see farther than the giant himself. 

If I may cite my own words used on a former occasion, Whitney's life-work shows 
three important lines of activity, — the elaboration of strictly technical works, the 
preparation of educational treatises, and the popular exposition of scientific questions. 
The last two methods of public service are direct and immediate, and to be gainsaid of 
none ; yet even here the less immediate results are doubtless the ones by which he 
would have set most store. As for the first, some may incline to think the value of an 
edition of the Veda or of a Sanskrit grammar — to say nothing of a Prati^ikhya — 
extremely remote ; they certainly won for him neither money nor popular applause ; and 
yet, again, such are the very works in which we cannot doubt he took the deepest satis- 
faction. He realized their fundamental character, knew that they were to play their 
part in unlocking the treasures of Indian antiquity, and knew that that antiquity has its 
great lessons for us moderns ; further, that the history of the languages of India, as it 
has indeed already modified, is also yet to modify, and that profoundly, the whole 
teaching of classical and Germanic philology, both in method and in contents ; and that 
the history of the evolution of religions in India is destined to exert a powerful influence 
for good upon the development of religious thought and life among us and our children. 
He labored, and other men shall enter into his labors. But it is this <* faith, the 
assurance of things hoped for," — irurrcs ^irt^ofio^oiv virocrTtiots, — which is one of the 
most vital attributes of the true scholar. 

In the autumn of 1886 came the beginning of the end, an alarming disorder of 
the heart Adhering closely to a strictly prescribed physical regimen, he labored on, 
according to his wavering strength, heaping, as it were, the already brimming measure 
of his life-work« His courage, his patient learning of the art of suffering, his calm 
serenity in facing the ever-present possibility of sudden death, — this was heroic. And 
through it all forsook him not the two grand informing motives of his life, — the pure 
love of truth, and an all-absorbing passion for faithful service. 

With this love of truth, this consuming zeal for service, with this public spirit and 
broad humanity, this absolute truthfulness and genuineness of character, is not this life 
an inspiration and an example more potent by far than years of exhortation ? Is not 
this truly one of the lives that make for righteousness? 

And what then ? On the tympanum of the theatre at Harvard are inscribed in the 
Vulgate version those noble words from the book of Daniel : — 





We may say them of him : And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the 
firmament ; and they that turn many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and ever. 


This list is reprinted with unimportant modifications from the one com- 
piled by Whitney and published at New Haven, 1893, as his part of the 
Bibliographies of the Present Officers of Yale University. It consists of 
about 1 50 numbers ; a much fuller list (of about 360 numbers) is given 
in the Memorial Volume mentioned above, p. xxxvi. The articles (about 
a score) reprinted in his Oriental and Linguistic Studies (First series, 1873 ^ 
Second series, 1874) are marked by the note "Reprinted in Studies,'' 
with an added i. or ii. 

The abbreviations are for the most part as explained below, pages ci- 
cvi; but for the non-technical reader, several of the most frequently 
cited serials may here be noted : Journal of the American Oriental 
Society (JAOS.) ; Transactions of the American Philological Association 
(APA.) ; American Journal of Philology (AJP.) ; North American Review 
(N. Amer. Rev.). 

1849 On the grammatical structure of the Sanskrit. (Translated and abridged from von 

Bohlen.) Bibliotheca Sacra^ vi. 471-486. 

1850 A comparison of the Greek and Latin verbs. Ibid.^ vii. 654-668. 

1862 Tabellarische Darstellung der gegenseitigen Verhaltnisse der Sanhitas des Rik, Saman» 

weissen Yajus und Atharvan. Ind. Stud.y ii. 321-368. 
1858 On the main results of the later Vedic researches in Germany. JAOS. iii. 289-328. 

Reprinted in Studies^ i. 

1854 On the history of the Vedic texts. Ibid.^ iv. 245-261. 

1855 Bopp's Comparative accentuation of the Greek and Sanskrit languages. Ibid,^ v. 195-218. 
On the Avesta, or the sacred scriptures of the Zoroastrian religion. Ibid.^ v. 337-383. 

Reprinted in Studies^ i. 

1856 Contributions from the Atharva-Veda to the theory of Sanskrit verbal accent. Ibid.^ 

v.* 38 5-4 1 9. Translated into German in Kuhn and Schleicher's Beiirage x. vergL 
Sprachforschung^ i. 187-222. 
1855-56 Atharva-Veda-Sanhita, herausgegeben von R. Roth und W. D. Whitney, i, 1855; 
2, 1856 ; roy. 8**, 458 pp. 

1857 Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der Versanfange der Atharva-Saifahita. Ind. Stud.^ iv. 9-64. 

1858 The British in India. New Englander^ xvi. 100-141. Reprinted in Studies, ii. 

1859 China and the Chinese. Ibid., xvii. 111-143. Reprinted in Studies, ii. 

On the Vedic doctrine of a future life. Bibliotheca Sacra, xvi. 404-420. Reprinted in 
Studies, i. 

1860 Translation of the Surya-Siddhanta, a text-book of Hindu astronomy: "with notes, and 

an appendix. JAOS. vi. 141-498. [Both translation and notes are entirely by Pro- 
fessor Whitney, though in the work itself this fact is acknowledged only in the words 
** assisted by the Committee of Publication."] 

1861 China and the West. New Englander, xix. 1-31. Reprinted in Studies, ii. 

Miiller's History of Vedic literature. Christian Examiner, Ixx. 251-281. Reprinted in 
Studies, i. 


For the Years 1 849-1 871 Ivii 

1861 On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. /A OS. vii. 299-332. 

Review of Soule and Wheeler*8 Manual of English pronunciation and spelling. AVw 
EnglandiTy xiz. 913-929. 

1868 The Atharva-Veda-Prilti9ikhya, or (^iunaklyi Caturidhyi3rik& : text, translation, and 
notes. /A OS, viL 333-616. 

1868 On the views of Biot and Weber respecting the relations of the Hindu and Chinese 
systems of asterisms ; with an addition, on Miiller's views respecting the same subiect. 
Ibid.f viiL 1-94. 

1861-1863 The following articles in AppletotCs New American Cyclopeedia^ ist ed. : Persia, 
Language and literature of , sdii. 324-328. — Sanskrit, xiv. 611-616. — Semitic Race 
and Languages,'ziv. 760-762. — Syriac Language and Literature, xv. 547-549. — Tura- 
nian Race and Languages, xvi. 42-43. — Turkish Language and Literature, xvi. 63-66. 
— Veda, xvi. 280. — Zendavesta, xvi. 810-81 1. — Zoroaster, xvi. 834-835. 

1864 Brief abstract of a series of six lectures on the Principles of Linguistic Science, delivered 
at the Smithsonian Institution in March, 1864. Smithsonian Reportiox 1864, pp. 95-1 16. 

1868 On the Jyotisha observation of the place of the colures, and the date derivable from it. 
JRAS. L 316-331. 
On Miiller's second series of lectures on the Science of Language. N. Amer, Rev.^ c. 

565-581. Reprinted in Studies^ L 
Is the study of language a physical science ? Ibid.t ci. 434-474. 

1866 On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet : a letter of explanations from Prof. Lepsius, with notes 

by W. D. Whitney. /AOS. viii. 335-373. 
Reply to the strictures of Prof. Weber upon an essay respecting the asterismal system 
of the Hindus, Arabs, and Chinese. Ibid.y viii. 382-398. 

1867 Language and the Study of Language: twelve lectures on the principles of linguistic 

science. New York, 12°, xi -f 489 pp. Translated into German by Prof. Julius Jolly, 
1874, Miinchen (Ackermann), 8^ xxix + 713 pp- ; — into Netherlandish by J. Beckering 
Vinckers, 2 vols., 1877-81, Haarlem (Bohn), 8^, xvi -f 436 pp. and iv -f 476 pp. 

The value of linguistic science to ethnology. New Englander, xxvi. 30-52. 

Languages and dialects. N. Amer. Rev., civ. 30-64. 

On the testimony of language respecting the unity of the human race. Ibid.^ cv. 214-241. 

Key and Oppert on Indo-European philology. Ibid.^ cv. 521-554. Reprinted in Studies^ i. 

The aim and object of the Sheffield Scientific School. Annual Statement for 1867-8, 
pp. 9-21. 

1868 The translation of the Veda. N. Amer. Rev.^ cvi. 515-542. Reprinted in Studies^ i. 
On A. M. Beirs Visible Speech. Ibid.^ cvii. 347-358. Reprinted in Studies^ ii. 

1869 On Miiller*s Chips from a German Workshop, I., II. Ibid.^ cix. 544-556. Reprinted in 

Studies^ iL 
A Compendious German Grammar, with supplement of exercises. New York, 1 2°, xvi + 
252 + 51 pp. 

1870 A German Reader, in prose and verse, with notes and vocabulary. New York, 12^ 

X + 523 PP- 
Miiller on the Science of Religion. Nation^ No. 276, Oct. 13. 

On comparative grammars. N. Amer. Rev.^ cxi. 199-208. 

1871 On the nature and designation of the accent in Sanskrit. TVans, APA, for 1869-70, 

pp. 20-45. 
On the present condition of the question as to the origin of language. Ibid.^ pp. 84-94. 

Reprinted in Studies^ L 
On Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations. N. Amer. Rev., cxii. 218-229. Reprinted 

in Studies, ii. 
On Miiller's translation of the Rig- Veda. Ibid., cxiii. 174-187. Reprinted in Studies, L 
Language and Education. Ibid., cxiii. 343-374' Reprinted in Studies, i. 
On Miiller*s lectures on the Science of Language, 6th ed. /bid., cxiii. 430-441. Reprinted 

in Studies, L 

Iviii Select List of Whitney s Writings 

1871 Examination of Dr. Haug's uiews respecting Sanskrit accentuation. /A OS. x., pp. iz-xi, 
= Free, for May. 
The Taittiriya-Prati9akhya, with its commentary, the Tribhashyaratna : text, translation, 
and notes. /A OS. ix. 1-469. 
1878 Steinthal on the Origin of Language. N. Amer. Rev.^ cxiv. 272-308. Reprinted in 
Studiesy i. 
JacoUiot's Bible in India. Independent^ May 2. 

Strictures on the views of August Schleicher respecting the nature of language and kin- 
dred subjects. Trans. A PA. for 1871, pp. 35-64. Reprinted in Studies, L 

1873 Oriental and Linguistic Studies: the Veda; the Avesta; the Science of Language. 

New York, 12°, ix+ 417 pp> [First series.] 
On material and form in language. Trans. APA. for 1872, pp. 77-9^. 
Notes to Colebrooke's E^ay on the Vedas. Pp. 103-132 of vol. i of the second edition 

of Colebrooke*8 Essays, London, 8°. 
Intercollegiate emulation. Nation, No. 399, Feb. 20. 
On the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories. Amer. Journal of Science iox Dec, 

vi. 463-466. 
Hall's Recent Exemplifications of False Philology. The New York Times, Feb. 26. 
Hall's Modem English. Ibid., Dec. 6. 
The Hayden Expedition (letters from Colorado). The New York Tribune, extra No. 14, 

Dec. 30. 
Text-books for the study of Sanskrit. The (Yale) College Courant, Dec. 13. Reprinted, 

with corrections and additions, June 27, 1874. 
La question de Tanusvara Sanscrit Mimoires de la Sociiti de Linguistique de- Paris, 

vol. 2 (1875), pp. 194-199. 

1874 On Darwinism and language. N Amer. Rev., cxix. 61-88. 

Oriental and Linguistic Studies. Second series : The East and West ; Religion and 
Mythology ; Orthography and Phonology ; Hindu Astronomy. New York, 1 2°, 
xi + 432 pp. 

Who shall direct the national surveys? Nation, No. 464, May 21. 

On Peile's Greek and Latin Etymology. Trans. Philol. Soc. of London for 1873-4, 

PP- 299-327- 
On the Chinese sieu as constellations. JAOS. x., pp. Ixxxii-lxxxv, = Proc. for May. 

On recent discussions as to the phonetic character of the Sanskrit anusvdra. Ibid., 
pp. Ixxxvi-lxxxviii. 

On the Sanskrit accent and Dr. Haag. Ibid., pp. ciii-cv (for Oct.). 
1878 The life and Growth of Language: an outline of linguistic science. (International 
Scientific Series, vol. 16.) New York, 12°, ix + 326 pp. Translated into German by 
Prof. A. Leskien, 1876, 12**, xv + 350 pp., Leipzig (Brockhaus); — into French, 1876, 
8°, vii -f 264 pp., Paris (Bailli^re) ; into Italian by Prof. F. d'Ovidio, 1876, 8®, xxi + 
389 pp., Milan (Dumolard) ; — into Netherlandish by G. Velderman, 1879, ^^> ^ + 
274 pp., Arnhem (Quint) ; — into Swedish by G. Stjemstrbm, 1880, 12^, viii + 320 pp., 
Stockholm (Bjorck). 

4i^ei or Bivti — natural or conventional } Trans. APA. for 1874, pp. 95-116. 

Are languages institutions ? Contemporary Rev. (London), xxv. 713-732. 

Streitfragen der heutigen Sprachphilosophie. Deutsche Rundschau (Berlin), iv. 259-279. 
1876 On the classification of the forms of the Sanskrit aorist. JAOS. x., pp. cxxiv-cxxv, = 
Proc. for May. 

ZeO = dydhs, and other points relating to Sanskrit grammar, as presented in M. Miiller's 
recent volume of " Chips." Ibid., pp. cxxvi-cxxix. 

On De Rough's derivation of the Phenician alphabet from the Egyptian characters. 
Ibid., pp. cxxxi-cxxxii (for Nov.). 

The study of English grammar. New England Journal of Education, Mar. 18, Apr. 15, 
May 13. 

For the Years 1 871-188 5 lix 

1876 Miiller's Rig- Veda and commentary. New Englander^ xzxv. 772-791. 
Language. Article hn Johnson's New Universal Cyclopetdia^ ii. 1633-164 1. 
The system of the Sanskrit verb. Proc. APA.y pp. 6-8, in Trans, for 1876. 

1877 Essentials of English Grammar, for the use of Schools. Boston, 12°, xi + 260 pp. 
A botanico-philologiCal problem. Trans. APA. for 1876, pp. 73-86. 

On Cockneyisms. Proc, APA.^ pp. 26-28, in Trans, for 1877. 

On the current explanation of the middle endings in the Indo-European verb. JA OS, 

X., pp. cxliii-cxlv, = Proc. for May. 
Douse on Grimm's Law. Nation, No. 631, Aug. 2. 

1878 On the relation of surd and sonant. Trans. APA. for 1877, pp. 41-57. 
The principle of economy as a phonetic force. /^V., pp. 123-134. 

On the derivative conjugations of the Sanskrit verb. /A OS. x., pp. clxviii-clxx, = Proc. 
for May. 

1879 A Sanskrit Grammar, including both the classical language and the older dialects, of 

Veda and Br&hmana. Leipzig (Breitkopf u. Hartel), 8^, xxiv + 486 pp. Second ed., 
revised and extended, iM., 1889, xxvi + 552 pp. Third ed., iM., 1896. Translated 
into German by Prof. H. Zimmer, iM., 1879, 8^, xxviii -f 520 pp. 

1880 Collation of a second manuscript of the Atharva-Veda Pr&ti9&khya. JAOS. x. 156-171. 
Logical consistency in views of language. AJP. L 327-343. 

Miiller's Sacred Books of the East. Independent, Nov. 1 1. 

Sayce on the Science of Language. Nation, No. 774, Apr. 29. 

On the rules of external combination in Sanskrit. JAOS. xi., pp. xxxii-xxxiv, = Proc, 

for May. 
On the transliteration of Sanskrit. Ibid., xi., pp. li-liv, = Proc. for Oct. 

1881 Index Verborum to the published text of the Atharva-Veda. Ihid., xii. 1-383. 
On the so-called Science of Religion. Princeton Rev., Ivii. 429-452. 

On inconsistency in views of language. Ttans. APA. for 1880, pp. 92-112. 
What is articulation ? AJP. ii. 345-350. 
On Lepsius's Nubian Grammar. Ibid., it 362-372. 
1888 On mixture in language. Trans. APA. for 188 1, pp. 5-26. 

General considerations on the Indo-European case-system. Ibid, for 1882, pp. 88-100. 
Eggeling's translation of the (^atapatha-Brihmana. AJP. iii. 391-410. 
The cosmogonic hymn. Rig- Veda x. 129. JAOS. xi., pp. cix-cxi, = Proc. for May. 
Further words as to surds and sonants, and the law of economy as a phonetic force. 

Proc. APA., pp. 12-18, in Trans, for 1882. 
Le pr^tendu H^noth^isme du V^da. Revue de VHistoire des Religions (Paris), vi. 1 29-1 43. 

1883 On the Jiiminlya- or Talavakira-BrShmana. JAOS. xi., pp. cxliv-cxlviii, = Proc. for 

Isaac Taylor's The Alphabet. Science, Sept. 28. 
The various readings of the Sima- Veda. J A OS. xi., pp. clxxxiv-dxxxv, = Proc. for Oct. 

1884 The varieties of predication. Trans. APA. for 1883, pp. 36-41. 

The study of Hindu grammar and the study of Sanskrit. AJP, v. 279-297. 

On E. Kuhn's Origin and Language of the Transgangetic Peoples. Ibid., v. 88-93. 

On the classification of certain aorist-forms in Sanskrit. JAOS, xi, pp. ccxviii-ccxx, = 

Proc. for Oct. 
On the etymology of the Sanskrit noun vrata. Ibid., pp. ccxxix-ccxxxi. 
1886 On combination and adaptation as illustrated by the exchanges of primary and secondary 

suffixes. Trans. APA. for 1884, pp. 111-123. 
The roots, verb-forms, and primary derivatives of the Sanskrit language. A supplement 

to his Sanskrit Grammar, by W. D. W. Leipzig (Breitkopf u. Hartel), 8^ xiv + 250 pp. 

Translated into German by Prof. H. Zimmer, ibid., 1885, 8°, xv -f 252 pp. 
The sis- and x^-aorists (6th and 7th aorist forms) in Sanskrit. AJP. vi. 275-284. 
Numerical results from indexes of Sanskrit tense- and conjugation-stems. JAOS. xiii., 

pp. xxxii-xxxv, = Proc. for May. 

Ix Select List of Whitney s Writings 

1885 On Professor Ludwig's views respecting total eclipses of the sun as noticed in the Rig- 

Veda. Ibid.y xiiL, pp. Ixi-lxvi (for Oct.). 
Philology, pt. I. — Science of Language in general. Article in the EncycL Brit, xviii. 

LEdited: Forty years* record of the class of 1845, Williams College. New Haven, 8°, 

xvii + 196 pp. Pages 175-1S2 contain an autobiographical sketch. Although brief, 

it is of importance because it is trustworthy. J 

1886 Hindu eschatology and the Katha Upanishad. /A OS. xiii., pp. ciii-cviii, = Proc. for 

A Practical French Grammar, with exercises and illustrative sentences from French 

authors. New York, 12°, xiii + 442 pp. 
The roots of the Sanskrit language. Trans. A PA. for 1885, pp. 5-29. 
The Upanishads and their latest translation. A/P. vii. 1-26. 
The following articles in AppUtotCs New American Cychpadia, 2d ed. : Alphabet, i. 348— 

351. — Africa, Languages of, i. 171. — Aryan Race and Language, i. 799-802. 

1887 The method of phonetic change in language. Proc. APA.j pp. 33-35, in Trans, for 1886. 
The Veda. Century Magazine^ xxxiii. 912-922. 

Notes on part IV. of Schroder's edition of the Maitrayanl-Samhita. /A OS. xiii., pp. 
ccxxvi-ccxxviii, = Proc. for Oct. 

1888 On the second volume of £ggeling*s translation of the ^atapatha-Brahmana. Ibid, xiv., 

pp. vi-xi (for Oct.). 

1889 On the r and ar-forms of Sanskrit roots. Ibid, xiv., pp. cxlviii-cl (for Oct.). 

1890 Bohtlingk's Upanishads. A/P. xi. 407-439. 

1891 Translation of the Katha Upanishad. Trans. A PA. for 1890, pp. 88-112. 

Open letter to the members of the American Oriental Society. Privately printed. New 

. Haven, 8°, 8 pp. 
|_1889-91 The Century Dictionary. An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language. 
Prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney, Ph. D., LL.D., 
Professor of Comparative Philology and Sanskrit in Yale University. Published by 
The Century Co., New York. In six volumes, royal quarto. Pages xviii -f 7046 
(=21,138 columns) + 30. J 

|_The preface to the first volume is dated May ist, 1889. The supplementary note to 
preface is dated October ist, 1891. The actual work began, of course, long before 
the prior date. The *' superintendence " of the Lexicon .naturally involved very far- 
reaching thought and planning (p. liii, above) ; but, in addition to this, the proofs of 
every one of the 21,138 columns were read by Mr. Whitney himself. See The Century 
Magazine, xxxix. 31 5. J 

1892 On Delbriick's Vedic Syntax. A/P. xiii. 271-306. 

Max Miiller and the science of language : a criticism. New York, 1 2°, iii + 79 pp. 

\_Mr. Whitney's list closes here. The /oil owing titles are added by the editor. \ 

Announcement as to a second volume of the Roth-Whitney edition of the Atharva-Veda. 

/AOS. XV., pp. clxxi-clxxiii, = Proc. for April. 
On the narrative use of imperfect and perfect in the Brahmanas. Trans. A PA. for 1892, 

PP- 5-34. 
Review of F. Max Miiller's Vedic Hymns, Translated. (Sacred Books of the East, vol. 32.) 

The New World for June, pp. 349-351. 

1893 Select list of Whitney's writings. (Essentially the same as that just given: see above, 

p. Ivi.) 
The native commentary to the Atharva-Veda. Festgruss an Roth (Stuttgart, Kohlham- 

mer), pp. 89-96. 
The Veda m PaninL Giornale delta Society Asiatica Italiana, vii. 243-254. 

For tlie Years 1 885-1894 Ixi 

189S Simplified spelling. A symposium on the question '<Is simplified spelling feasible as 

proposed by the English and American Philological Societies?*' XI. Tht American 

Anthropologist^ April. 
On recent studies in Hindu grammar. AJP, xiv. 171-197. 

On recent studies in Hindu grammar. /A OS, xvi., pp. xii-xix, = Proc, for April. 
1894 Examples of sporadic and partial phonetic change in English. Brugmann und Streit- 

berg's Indogermaniscke Forschungen^ iv. 32-36. 
On a recent attempt, by Jacobi and Tilak, to determine on astronomical evidence the 

date of the earliest Vedic period as 4000 B.C. J A OS, xvL, pp. Ixxxii-xciv, = Proc. for 

On the third volume of Eggeling's translation of the (^atapatha-Br&hmana, with remarks 

on " soma = the moon." Ibid.^ xvi., pp. xcv-ci. 

\_Posthumously published. \ 

1906 Atharva-Veda Samhiti : translated, with a critical and exegetical commentary. Revised 
and brought nearer to completion and edited by C. R. L. Cambridge, Mass., roy. 8^ 
cbdi + iv + 1046 pp. (Vol's vii. and viil of the Harvard Oriental Series.) 



General Premises 

Scope of this Part of the Introduction. — As stated above, p. xxix, this 
Part contains much that might, but for its voluminousness, have been put 
into a preface. The main body of the present work consists of transla- 
tion and commentary. Of the latter, the constituent elements are mainly 
text-critical, and their sources may be put under ten headings, as follows : 

1 . Vulgate. European mss. 6. Vulgate. Pr&ti^Hkhya and its comm. 

2. Vulgate. Indian mss. 7. Vulgate. The Anukramanis. 

3. Vulgate. Indian reciters. 8. Vulgate. Kau^ika and V^it&na. 

4. Vulgate. Commentator^s readings. 9. Kashmirian recension. Paippal&da ms. 

5. Vulgate. Pada-readings. 10. Parallel texts. 

Of these sources, nine concern the Atharva-Veda, and the tenth concerns 
the parallel texts. Of the nine concerning the Atharva-Veda, eight con- 
cern the Vulgate or Caunakan recension, and the ninth concerns the 
Kashmirian or Paippalada recension. Of the eight concerning the Vul- 
gate, the first four concern both the samhitd- and the pada-pdfhas} and 
the second four concern the ancillary texts. 

Partly by way of indicating what may fairly be expected in the case of 
each of these elements, and partly by way of forestalling adverse criti- 
cism, it will be well to make certain observations upon them seriatim, 
under the ten headings. Under an eleventh, I desire to add something 
to what was said in the preface, p. xxxvii, about the commentary as a 
whole ; and, under a twelfth, to add a few necessary remarks concerning 
the translation. Under a thirteenth, the explanation of abbreviations etc. 
may be put ; and finally, under a fourteenth, a tabular view of previous 
translations and comments. 

Scope of the reports of variant readings. — By " variant readings ** are here 
meant departures from the printed Berlin text.^ Absence of report means 

^ Doubtless the pada-pdtha also is an ancillary text, and these headings are therefore not 
quite logical ; but they will serve. 

' Here it is to be noted that, by reason of breakage of type, the last part of the '* run ** (as 
the printers say) is not always like the first ; in other words, that not every copy of the Berlin 
edition is like every other (cf. note to i. 18. 4). 


Ixiv General Introduction^ Part L : by the Editor 

in general that the mss. present no true variants, albeit Whitney does 
not rehearse every stupid blunder of every ignorant scribe. There is of 
course no clear line to be drawn between such blunders and true variants ; 
and in this matter we must to a certain degree trust the discrimination 
of the learned editors. 

The term << manuscripts" often used loosely for << authoritiesi" that is, 
manuscripts and oral reciters. — S. P. Pandit, in establishing his text, 
relied not only upon the testimony of written books, but also upon that 
of living reciters of the Veda. Accordingly, it should once for all here 
be premised that Whitney in the sequel has often used the word " manu- 
scripts" (or "mss.") when he meant to include both mss. and reciters and 
should have used the less specific word " authorities." I have often, but 
not always,^ changed "mss." to "authorities," when precise conformity 
to the facts required it. 

The difficulty of verifying statements as to the weight of authority for a 
given reading may be illustrated by the following case. At iii. lo. 12 c, 
Whitney's first draft says, " The 5 of vy dsakanta is demanded by Prat, 
ii. 92, but SPP. gives in his text vy dsahanta, with the comm., but against 
the decided majority of his mss., and the minority of ours (H.O., and per- 
haps others : record incomplete)." The second draft reads, " SPP. gives 
in his text vy ds-, against the decided majority of all the mss." Scruti- 
nizing the authorities, written and oral, for the samhitd (since for this vari- 
ant /^^^j-mss. do not count), I find that Whitney records H.O., and that 
SPP. records Bh.K.A.Sm.V., as giving f, in all, seven authorities; and 
that Whitney records P.M.W.E.I.K., and that SPP. records K.D.R., as 
giving J, in all, nine authorities. Whitney's record is silent as to R.T. ; 
and SPFs report of K. is wrong either one way or else the other. The 
perplexities of the situation are palpable. I hedged by altering in the 
proof the words of the second draft so as to read " against a majority of 
the mss. reported by him." 

I. Readings of European Mss. of the Vulgate Recension 

The reports include mss. coUatedi some before publication of the text, and 
some thereafter. — To the prior group belong Bp.B.P.M.W.E.I.H. ; to 
the latter, collated some twenty years after publication,^ belong O.R.T.K. 
Op.D.Kp. Whitney's description of the mss. is given in Part II. of the 
Introduction (p. cxi), and to it are prefixed (pp. cx-cxi) convenient tabular 

^ Thus in the note to iii. 7. 2, ** a couple of SPP's mss.'* means two men, not books. Cf. notes 
to xix. 32.8; 33. I. 

^ In discussing iii. 23. 6, Whitney says in the Prit. (p. 442), *' Every codex presents dyduk **; 
while in this work (below, p. 1 28) he reports O. as reading dydus. Since " every codex " means 
every codex collated before publication, this is no contradiction. 

I . Readings of European Mss. of the Vulgate Ixv 

views of the mss. The immediate source of these reports is his Collation- 
Book : see pages cxvii to cxix. In the Collation-Book, the Berlin and 
Paris readings (B.P.) are in black ink; the Bodleian readings (M.W.) are 
in red; the London or " E.I.H.** readings are in blue; and, excepting the 
variants of K.Kp. (which are also in blue), those of the mss. collated after 
publication (O.R.T.Op.D.) are in violet. The writing is a clear but small 
hand. The indications of agreement with the fundamental transcript are 
either implicit (the absence of any recorded variant), or else made explicit 
by the use of very small exclamation-points. The diflferences of method 
in recording are duly explained at the beginning of the Collation-Book, as 
are also the meanings of the various colored inks : and Whitney's procedure 
throughout the Book conforms rigorously to his prefatory explanations. 

The interpretation of a record so highly condensed and not always complete 
was sometimes an occasion of error, even for Whitney who made the 
record and knew the circumstances of its making ; and, as may well be 
imagined, such interpretation was positively difficult and embarrassing for 
the editor (who had not this knowledge), especially in cases where, after 
the lapse of years, the colors of the inks were somewhat faded. — Thus 
Whitney misinterprets his notes of collation at vi. 36. 2, where it is P.I.K. 
(and not Bp.'I.K., as he wrote it in his copy for the printer) that read 
viqvdh, — Again, at vi. 83. 3, it is W.O.D. (and not H.O.R., as he wrote 
it for the printer) that read galantds, — Again, in writing out his com- 
mentary for the printer so many years after making his collation, he 
frequently forgot that there was no Op. for books v.-xvii., and has 
accordingly often reported a reading in violet ink as a reading of Op. 
when he should have reported it is a reading of D. This slip happened 
occasionally through several hundred type-pages and remained unnoticed 
even until the electroplates were made ; but I believe I have had all the 
instances of this error rectified in the plates. — Likewise, in writing 
out for the printer, the fact seems to have slipped from his mind that 
he had made his fundamental transcript of book v. from codex Chambers 
109 (= Bp.*) and not, like all the rest of the first nine books, from Cham- 
bers 8 (= Bp.). I have accordingly had to change " Bp." into " Bp.*," 
or vice versa, some ten times in book v. (at 6. 8 ; 7. 3 ; 8. 3 ; 24. 3, 14; 
27. 10; 30. II). — I may add that in (the often critically desperate) 
book xix., Whitney seems to use such an expression as ** half the mss." 
loosely in the sense of ** a considerable part of the mss." : so at xix. 29. i, 
where the record is presumably not complete for Whitney's authorities, 
and where "half" is not true for SPP's. — For my own part, in con- 
sulting the Collation-Book for manuscript readings, I have exercised all 
reasonable care, using a magnifying glass regularly and referring fre- 
quently to the prefatory explanations. 

Ixvi General Introduction^ Part /. ; by the Editor 

2. Readings of Indian Manuscripts of the Vulgate 

By << Indian mss." are meant those used by S. P. Pandit. — No other 
Indian authorities are intended, in this section and the next, than those 
given in S. P. Pandit's edition ; they include, as is fully and most inter- 
estingly explained in his preface, not merely manuscripts, but also oral 
reciters. Whitney had only the advance sheets of the parts with comment 
(books i.-iv., vi.-viii. 6, xi., and xvii.-xx. 37) ; but, although the remain- 
ing parts were accessible to me, I did not attempt for those remaining 
parts to incorporate S. P. Pandit's apparatus criticus into Whitney's work. 
I refrained with good reason, for such an -attempt would have involved far 
too much rewriting of Whitney's copy for the printer. 

S. P. Pandit's reports not exhaustive. — It is far from being the case that 
S. P. Pandit always reports upon all his authorities. For books i.-xvii. 
he had 12 samhitd and 6 pada authorities, besides the incomplete comm.; 
but at ii. 36.4, note 2, for instance, he reports only 6 out of 13 authori- 
ties.^ In summarizing SPP's reports, Whitney often says "all of SPP's 
mss.," "all but one," "the majority," "half," and so on; and it must 
therefore here be noted that these expressions refer not to the totality of 
SPP's authorities concerned, but rather to the totality of those concerned 
and reported upon by SPP. in any given instance. Compare Whitney's 
notes to iii. 4. 5 (line 2 of the note) ; iv. 7. 3 (line 6); iv. 26. 5 and iii. 30. 3; 
ii. 36. 4 (line 9), with SPP's critical notes on the same verses. 

3. Readings of Indian Oral Reciters of the Vulgate 


By « Indian oral reciters " are meant those employed by S. P. Pandit. — It 

was from the lips of three living authorities that the Bombay editor took 
much of the testimony which he used in the establishment of his text. 
His Vaidikas were BapujI Jivanram (cited as Bp.), Ke^ava Bhat bin Daji 
Bhat (K.), and Venkan Bhatji (V.), " the most celebrated Atharva Vaidika 
in the Deccan." The last two were authorities for the whole text in 
both pathas, samhitd and pada. The remarks made in the preface to 
the Bombay edition by S. P. Pandit concerning his reciters are extremely 
interesting and suggestive. 

Errors of the eye checked by oral reciters. — The student should bear in 
mind the especial weight of the oral testimony in cases where errors of 
the eye, as distinguished from errors of the ear, are probable. Thus the 
testimony of the reciters, at ix. 8(13). 20, establishes the reading visalpa-^ 
as against visalya- of the Berlin text. Save in AV., the word is otherwise 

^ At iv. 26. 5, SPP. reports 8 out of 13 samhitd authorities, Sm. and V. being given on both, 
sides, and of course wrongly on one or the other. 

3. Readings of the Indian Oral Reciters Ixvii 

unknown, and, as the ms.-distinction between fya and Ipa in such a case 
is worthless, the instance is a typical one to show the value of the 
reciters' reading: see W's note to vi. 127. i. The case is somewhat 
similar at iii. I2. 3, dsyattd-^ as against dspand- (see the note and my addi- 
tion) ; so also at viii. 6. 17, spandand, as against syandand, where, although 
only V. is cited, his testimony is abundantly confirmed by the sense (see 
note). At xix. 66, i (see note), as between those mss. which give pdhi 
and the VSidikas K. and V., who recited ydhi^ there can be no question 
that we ought to follow the latter, although SPP. strangely rejects their 
evidence. Cf. the notes on gdyaya, at iv. 18. 4, and samuspaldy at vi. 139. 3. 
One of the clearest errors of visual or graphical origin is " Sayana's *' 
idam^ at vi. 37. 2, for hradant or krdani of the authorities, including K. 
and V. (cf. W's and SPP*s notes). If this comm. was the real Sayana, 
the blunder does him no credit. At viii. 2. i, gnusfi is established (as 
against (rus(i) by the testimony of all the reciters ; although the case is 
less clear at iii. 17. 2 and 30. 7 (see the notes). Upon their testimony, at 
X. 7. 16 (see notes), we ought to accept as the true Atharvan reading, 
prapyasds, albeit aira^ XeySfievov and of questionable meaning. 

4. Readings of the Hindu Commentator 

The critical value and the range of his variant readings. — Whitney has 
given full and well-reasoned expression to his low opinion of the exegeti- 
cal value of the commentary and of the range and critical value of its 
variant readings, in an article in the Festgruss an Rothy pages 89-96. 
To that article, with its abundant lists and details, I call, as in duty bound, 
the especial attention of the reader. The commentator does indeed cor- 
rect a good many surface-blunders, part of which the Berlin editors had 
also corrected ; and his readings are occasionally supported (as against 
the two editions) by a parallel text : ^ but his variants " consist almost 
exclusively of single words or forms," and of real critical insight he 
exhibits almost none. 

Thus he fails to recognize the fact that the ordinary usage of the mss. 
makes no distinction between double consonants in groups where the 
duplication is phonetic, and those in groups where the duplication is ety- 
mological (cf. W*s Grammar^ § 232); and is accordingly so obtuse as to 
misunderstand and explain tddydmetiy at iv. 19. 6, as tddydm eti, although 
the slightest heed for the rules of accent would have shown him that it is 
impossible for the combination to mean anything but tdddydm eti. Simi- 
larly at iv. 28. 3, again with utter disregard of accent, he makes out of 

1 Thus at xix. 20. 4 b, vdrmhhar vdrma suryah, the comm. reads agnir for ahar^ and is 
supported therein by A(^S. and A p. 

Ixviii General Introduction^ Part /. ; by the Editor 

stuvdnnemi (that is stuvdn emi : cf. FesigrusSy p. 90-91) an untranslatable 
stuvan nemi: here, it is true, one of the wildest blunders of the pada- 
kara was before him ; but even a modicum of insight should have kept 
him out of that pitfall. Again, he seems never to have observed that 
past passive participles with a preposition accent the preposition (cf. 
Grammar^ § 1085 a), and accordingly takes sainvrtas at xviii. 3. 30 as if 
it were sdmvrtas. Despite accent and pada-kara, he takes rajasd, p. -sdh^ 
at xi. 2. 25, as instr. of rdjas ! And so on. 

The text used by the commentator is nevertheless notably different 
from that given by the mss. used for the Berlin edition, and from that 
given by S. P. Pandit's authorities. In books i.-iv. Whitney counts over 
three hundred peculiarities of the commentator's text, and in the Fest- 
gruss he gives several lists of them. He has intended in the present 
work to report all variants of the commentator's text throughout, and I 
trust that those which may have escaped his notice (or his and mine) will 
prove to be few indeed. 

Was the commentator of the Atharva-Veda Identical with the Sflyana of 
the Rig- Veda? — I suggest that it might prove to be an interesting and by 
no means fruitless task to institute a systematic and critical comparison of 
the Madhavlya-vedartha-praka^a (or ^Y .-b/idsya) with the bhdsya on the 
A v., with special reference to the treatment of the accent in the two- 
works, and to the bearings of these comparisons upon the question of 
the identity of the Sayana of the RV. with the "Sayana" of the AV, 
The latter ^ does indeed sometimes heed his accents ; but the occasions 
on which he takes notice of them expressly are of utmost rarity (see W's 
note to xix. 13. 9 and mine to verse 4). 

If, by way of comparing the two comments, we take the accusative plural 
yamdrajHas, we find that at RV. x. 16. 9 Sayana explains it quite rightly 
as a possessive compound, yamo rdjd yesdm, tan ; while at AV. xviii. 2. 46,. 
on the other hand, in the half-verse addressed to the dead man, 'by a 
safe(.?) road, go thou to the Fathers who have Yama as their king,' 
dpariparena pathd yamdrdjfiah pitrn gachuy " Sayana " makes of the very 
same form a gen. sing, and renders 'by a safe road belonging to king^ 
Yama (tasya svabhutena mdrgena) go thou to the Fathers ' ! Evidently, 
so simple a matter as the famous distinction between indra-qatru and the 
blasphemous indra-qatru (cf. Whitney on TPr. xxiv. 5 ; Weber, Ind, Stud, 
iv. 368) was quite beyond his ken. Such bungling can hardly be the work 
of a man who knew his Rig- Veda as the real Sayana did. 

1 A remark in his comment on ii. 4. i (Bombay ed., i. 210"), to the effect that the jangida is 
a kind of tree familiarly known in Benares, suggests the surmise that his bhdsya may have beeiv 
written in that city. 

5- Readings of t/u Padorpatlia Ixix 

5. Readings of the Pada-pa^ 

These were reported in the Index, and have since been published in full. — 
As elsewhere noted, these have been reported in the Index Verbomm in 
such wise (see Index^ p. 4) as to enable us to determine the pada-ioxxti of 
every item of the Atharvan vocabulary. An index, however, is an incon- 
venient vehicle for such information, and the complete pada-pdtha^ as 
published by S. P. Pandit, is accordingly most welcome. Some of his 
occasional errors of judgment in the establishment of that text are pointed 
out by Whitney in the places concerned ; but the pada-pdfha has deeper- 
seated faults, faults wtiich are doubtless original with its author and not 
simple errors of transmission.^ Here again I may make a suggestion, 
namely, that a critical and systematic study of the palpable blunders of 
t\iQ pada-pdtha would be an interesting and fruitful task. Even ih^ pada- 
text of books i.-xviii. stands on a very diflferent plane from that of the 
RV. (cf. Geldner, Ved. Stud., iii. 144). A critical discussion of its char- 
acter is not called for here ; but several illustrative examples may be given. 

Illustrations of the defects of the Pada-pfltha. — Verb-compounds give 
occasion for several varieties of errors. Thus, first, as respects accentua- 
tion, we find, on the one hand, incorrect attribution of accent to the verbal 
element (cf. v. 22. 1 1) ; and, on the other, 'denials of accent which are quite 
intolerable, as at xiv. 2. 73 {y^ : d: agaman instead of dodgaman) and xiv. 

1 . 9 {ydi : savitd : adaddt : where ^akalya resolves aright savitd : ddaddt)!^ 
Secondly, as respects details of division, we find gross violation of the 

rule. The rule (a very natural one) for compounds with finite verb-forms 
is that the preposition, if accented, is treated as an independent word 
and has the vertical mark of interpunction (here represented by a colon) 
after it ; but that, if accentless (proclitic), it is treated, not as an inde- 
pendent word, but as making a word-unit with the verb-form, and is 
accordingly separated therefrom only by the minor mark of separation 
or avagralia (here represented by a circle). Thus in AV. i. i, we have 
ni : ramaya 2indi parioydnti. Such a division as ni^ramaya or pari : ydnti 
would be wholly erroneous ; and yet we find errors of the first type at 
vi. 74.2 (sdmojnapaydmt), 114. 2 (upaoqekimd)^ xiii. 3. 17 {vMfidti), xviii. 

2. 58 {pdrioihkhaydtdt), 4. 53 (vi^dadhat)} 

^ The pada-KtTLX, of book xix., which swarms with blunders (cf. p. 895, end, 896, top), is 
clearly very different both in character and origin from the pada-itxi of books i.-xviii. 

^ If Whitney is right in supposing that vi. i. 3 is a spoiled gdyatrt the first pada of which 
ends with savita^ then I believe that the accentlessness of sdvisat is to be regarded as pointing 
to a false resolution and that the/a^/^-text should be amended to hosdvisai; but cf. vii. 73. 7 c 
and (^ikalya's resolution of its RV. parallel. 

' In some of these cases, the rationale of the error is discernible: cf. the notes, especially 
the note to xiiL 3. 1 7. 

Ixx General Introdtution^ Part I. : by the Editor 

Various combinations. — The combination ot e or o (final or initial) with 
other vowels gives rise to errors. Thus at viii. 2.21 cd = i. 35.4 cd, 
t/nu (= te dnu) is resolved by the pada-kara as // dnu^ and the comm. 
follows him in both instances. In matters concerning the combination 
of accents he is especially weak, as when he resolves saptdsydni into saptd 
dsydni at iv. 39. 10 (see note). The errors in question are of considerable 
range, from the venial one of not recognizing, at xiv. i. 56, that dnvar- 
tisye means dmi : vartisye} to the quite inexcusable ones of telling us that 
yd stands ior ydh in the verse x. 10. ^2^ yd evdm vidise daduSj //etc., or 
that mdyd stands for ntdydh as subject oi jajfie in viii. 9. 5. Perhaps his 
tdt : ydm : eti (iv. 19. 6) and stiivdn : nenti (iv. 28. 3), already noticed (p. Ixvii) 
in another connection, may be deemed to bear the palm. Beside the 
former we may put his resolution ^ of sdmdtvdm (^z=^s6mdt fvdm), at 
iv. 10. 6, into sSmd : tvdm, 

6. The Pratigakhya and its Commentary 

Character of Whitney's editions of the Prati^&khyas. — In the preface 
to his edition of the Taittirlya SamhitS, Weber speaks with satisfaction 
of the service rendered him in the task of editing that Samhita by 
Whitney's critical edition of the appurtenant Prati9akhya. Whitney's 
edition of that treatise is indeed a model ; but even his earlier edition of 
the Atharvan Pratigakhya was buttressed by such elaborate studies of 
those actual facts which form the topics of the Prati5akhya, and by such 
complete collections of the different classes of those facts, that he could 
speak with the utmost authority in criticism of the way in which the 
maker of the Prati^akhya, or of the comment thereon, has done his work, 
and could pronounce weighty judgment concerning the bearing of the 
treatise in general upon the constitution of the Atharvan text. 

Bearing of the Atharvan Pratiqakhya upon the orthography and criticism 
of the text. — First, as for the orthography, a discussion of the importance 
of the Pratiqakhya for that purpose is superfluous for any student 
acquainted with the nature of the treatise ; but the orthographic method 
pursued by the editors of the Berlin text and the relation of that method 
to the actual prescriptions of the Pratiqakhya are made the subject of a 
special chapter, below, p. cxxiii. — Secondly, the treatise does bear upon 
the general criticism of the text. That it ignores the nineteenth book is 
a weighty fact among the items of cumulative evidence respecting the 
original make-up of the text and the supplementary character of that 

^ Cf. the confusion between /J/z/ rsabhds ^nd pdtu vrsabhds at xix. 27. i, Bombay ed. 
2 Cf. note to xix. 50. i, where nirjahydsUna tdm drupadi jahi» doubtless meaning nir jahi 
and a stendm drupadi jahi^ is resolved as nih : jahydh : Una. 

6. The Pratifakhya and its Commentary Ixxi 

book : see p. 896, line 6. In matters of detail also, the treatise or its 
comment is sometimes of critical value : thus the non-inclusion of i^as 
pade among the examples of the comment on APr. ii. 72 (see note) 
arouses the suspicion that vi. 63. 4 (see note) was not contained in the 
commentator's AV. text. 

Utilization of the Atharvan Praticakhya for the present work. — Whit- 
ney's edition is provided with three easily usable indexes (not blind 
indexes) : one of Atharvan passages, one of Sanskrit words, and a general 
index. The first gives in order some eight or nine hundred Atharvan 
passages, and gives nearly twelve hundred references to places in the 
Prati9akhya or the comment or Whitney's notes, in which those passages 
are discussed. Whitney has transferred the references of the first index 
with very great fulness, if not with absolute completeness, to the pages 
of his Collation-Book, entering each one opposite the text of the verse 
concerned. Very many or most of them, after they have once been util- 
ized in the constitution of the text of the Sarhhita, are of so little further 
moment as hardly to be worth quoting in the present work ; the rest will 
be found duly cited in the course of Whitney's commentary, and their 
value is obvious. 

7. The Anukramanis : " OW and " Major ** 

More than one AnukramanI extant. — At the date of the preface to the 
Berlin edition, it was probably not clearly understood that there was 
more than one such treatise. The well-known one was the Major Anu- 
kramanI, the text of which was copied by Whitney from the ms. in the 
British Museum in 1853, as noticed below, p. Ixxii. In making his fun- 
damental transcript of the Atharvan text, certain scraps, looking like 
extracts from a similar treatise, were found by Whitney in the colophons 
of the several divisions of the mss. which he was transcribing, and were 
copied by him in his Collation-Book, probably without recognizing their 
source more precisely than is implied in speaking of them as "bits of 
extract from an Old AnukramanI, as we may call it" (see p. cxxxviii). 

The PaScapatalikft. — The Critical Notice in the first volume of the 
Bombay edition made it clear that the source of those scraps is indeed 
an old AnukramanI, and that it is still extant, not merely as scattered 
fragments, but as an independent treatise, and that its name is Paftca- 
patalika. That name is used by " Sayana" when he refers to the treatise 
in his comm. to iii. 10. 7. In the main body of this work the treatise is 
usually styled the "quoted Anukr." or the "old Anukr." The word 
"old" means old with reference to the Major AnukramanI; and since 

Ixxii Ge7ieral Introduction^ Part I. : by the Editor 

the dependence of the latter upon the former is now evident (see p. 770, 
^4, end, p. 793, ^ I, end) it appears that the word "old" was rightly 
used. The excerpts from the treatise, scattered through Whitney's 
Collation-Book, have been gathered together on six sheets by him. I was 
tempted to print them off together here for convenience; but several 
considerations dissuaded me : they are after all only fragments ; they are 
all given in their proper places in the main body of this work ; and, finally, 
the Bombay editor (see his Critical Notice, pages 17-24) gives perhaps 
more copious extracts from the original treatise than do the colophons 
of Whitney's mss. For some of the excerpts in their proper sequence 
and connection, see below, pages 770-1, 792-3, and cf. pages 632, 707, 

737, 814. 

Manuscripts of the PaScapatalikft. — Doubtless S. P. Pandit had a com- 
plete ms. of the treatise^ in his hands; and, if its critical value was not 
exhausted by his use of it, it may yet be worth while to make a criti- 
cal edition of this ancient tract. It is not unlikely that the ms. which 
S. P. Pandit used was one of those referred to by Aufrecht, Catalogus 
catalogorutn^ p. 315, namely, Nos. 178-9 (on p. 61) of Kielhorn's Report 
on the search for Sanskrit mss, in the Bombay Presidency during the year 
1880-81. Both are now listed in the Catalogue of the collections of mss, 
deposited in the Deccan College (Poona), p. 179. According to Garbe's 
Verzeichniss der Indischen Handschriften (Tubingen, 1899), p. 90, Roth 
made a copy of the treatise from a Bikaner ms., which copy is now in 
the Tubingen Library. 

The Brhatsarv&nukramani. — This treatise is usually styled in the 
sequel simply " the Anukr.," but sometimes " the Major Anukr." The 
excerpts from the treatise which are given at the beginning of the intro- 
ductions to the several hymns in this work are taken from Whitney's 
w^f^^rf transcript which he made in London in 1853 on the occasion of 
his visit there to make his London collations (p. xliv). The transcript 
is bound in a separate volume; and the edited excerpts are so nearly 
exhaustive that relatively little work remains for an editor of the treatise 
to do. ^ 

Manuscripts of the Brhatsarvanukramanl. — Whitney made his tran- 
script from the Polier ms. in the British Museum which is now numbered 
548 by Bendall in his Catalogue of the Sanskrit mss, in the British 
Museum of 1902. The ms. forms part of Polier's second volume described 
below, p. cxiii, under Codex I ; and it is the one from which was made 
the ms. transcribed for Col. Martin and numbered 235 by Eggeling (see 
again p. cxiii). Whitney afterwards, presumably in 1875, collated his 
London transcript with the Berlin ms. described by Weber, Verzeichniss^ 
vol. ii., p. 79, No. 1487, and added the Berlin readings in violet ink. The 

7- The Anukramanis : ''OW and ''Major'' Ixxiii 

Berlin ms. bears the copied date samvat 1767 (a.d. 171 i) : it is characterized 
by Weber, Ind, Stud, xvii. 178, as "pretty incorrect"; but my impres- 
sion is that it is better than the ms. of the British Museum. 

Tezt-critlcal value of the Anukramanis. — The most important ancillary 
treatise that an editor needs to use in establishing the text of the samhitd^ 
is the Prati^akhya; but the Anukramanis are also of some importance, 
especially for the settlement of questions concerning the subdivisions of 
the text (cf., for example, pages 611, 628: or note to iv. 11. 7), as has 
been practically shown by S. P. Pandit in his edition, and in his Critical 
Notice, pages 16-24. — The pronouncements of the Anukramanis con- 
cerning the verse-norms of the earlier books (see p. cxlviii) are also of value 
in discussing general questions as to the structure of the samhitd. In 
particular questions, also, the statements of the Major Anukr. are some- 
times of critical weight. Thus iii. 29, as it stands in our text, is a hymn 
of 8 verses ; but our treatise expressly calls it a sadrca^ thus supporting 
most acceptably the critical reduction (already sufficiently certain : see 
note to vs. 7) of the hymn to one of 6 verses, the norm of the book. 
— Here and there are indications that suggest the surmise that the order 
of verses (cf. p. 739) or the extent of a hymn (cf. p. 768), as contemplated 
by the Anukr., may be different from that of our text. — Its statements 
as to the " deity " of a given hymn are sometimes worth considering in 
determining the general drift of that hymn ; and its dicta regarding the 
" seers " of the hymns are of interest in certain aspects which are briefly 
noticed below, pp. 1038 ff. — Then too, the manuscripts of the Anukr. 
may sometimes be taken as testimony for the readings of the oXt^A pratikas 
(cf. note to iv. 3. 3). And it happens even that the authority of the 
Major Anukr. may be pressed into service at x. 5. 49 (see the notes) to 
determine which pair of verses (whether viii. 3. 12-13 or vii. 61. 1-2) is 
meant by the ydd agna Ui dvi of the mss. (see below, p. cxx : and cf . the 
case at xix. 37. 4). 

The author of the Major Anukramanl as a critic of meters. — The author 
shows no sense for rhythm. His equipment as a critic of meters hardly 
goes beyond the rudimentary capacity for counting syllables. Thus he 
calls ii. 12. 2jagatl ; but although pada a has 12 syllables, its cadence has 
no jagatt character whatever. To illustrate the woodenness of his methods, 
we may take ii. 13. i : this he evidently scans as 1 1 -f 1 1 : 10 -f 12 = 44, 
and accordingly makes it a simple tristubh, as if the " extra " syllable in 
d could offset the deficiency in c ! For the spoiled c of the Vulgate, the 
Ppp. reading pibann antrtam (which is supported by MS.) suggests the 
remedy, and if we accept that as the true Atharvan form of the verse, it 
is then an example of the mingling (common in one and the same verse) 
of acditzlectic jagati padas with catalectic forms thereof. So far, indeed. 

Ixxiv General Iniroduction, Pari I. : by the Editor 

is he from discerning matters of this sort, that his terminology is quite 
lacking in words adequate for their expression. ^ 

If the author of the Major Anukr. showed some real insight into Vedic 
meters, his statements might, as can easily be seen, often be of value in 
affecting our critical judgment of a reading of the satnhitd or in deter- 
mining our choice as between alternative readings. The contrary, rather, 
is wont to be the case. Thus at iv. 15. 4, his definition, virafpurastdd- 
brhatt^ implies the division (given also by the /^z^-mss.) 104-8:8 + 8, 
thus leaving the accentless parjanya stranded at the beginning of a pada ! 
An excellent illustration of the way in which he might help us, if we 
could trust him, is offered by i v. 32. 3 b, which reads tdpasd yujd vi jahi 
fdtrun. Here Ppp. makes an unexceptionable trisfubh by readingy^7//f//^j, 
and the author of the Anukr. says the verse is trisfubk. His silence 
respecting the metrical deficiency in the Vulgate text would be an addi- 
tional weighty argument for judging the Ppp. reading to be the true 
Atharvan one, if only we could trust him — as we cannot. CI, end of 
W*s note to iv. 36. 4. 

Such as it is, his treatment of the meters is neither even nor equably 
careful. Thus he notes the irregularity of vii. 112. i, while in treating 
the repetition of the very same verse at xiv. 2. 45 (see note), he passes 
over the bhuriktvani in silence. Throughout most of the present work, 
Whitney has devoted considerable space to critical comment upon the 
treatment of the meters by the Anukr. Considering the fact, however, 
that the principles which underlie the procedure of the Hindu are so 
radically different from those of his Occidental critic, no one will be 
likely to find fault if the criticisms of the latter prove to be not entirely 

His statements as to the seers of the hymns. — The ascriptions of quasi- 
authorship, made by the author of the Major Anukr. and given in the 
Excerpts, are set forth in tabular form at p. 1040 and are critically dis- 
cussed at p. 103?, which see. 

8. The Eaugika-Stitra and the Vaitana-Sutra 

The work of Garbe and Bloomfield and Caland. — As elsewhere mentioned 
(p. xxv), the Vaitana has been published in text and translation by Garbe, 
and the text of the Kau^ika (in 1890) by Bloomfield. Since 1890, a 
good deal of further critical work upon the Kau9ika has been done by 

^ For the reader's convenience it may be noted that verses deficient by one or two syllables, 
respectively, are called by him nicrt and virHj ; and that verses redundant by one or two are 
called bhurij and svardj. 

8. The KdufikaSuira afid tlie Vditana-Sutra Ixxv 

Bloomfield^ and by Caland.^ — The value of these Sutras is primarily as a 
help to the understanding of the ritual setting and general purpose of 
a given hymn, and so, mediately, to its exegesis. From that aspect they 
will be discussed below (p. Ixxvii). Meantime a few words may be said 
about their value for the criticism of the structure of the Samhita. 

Bearing of the ritual SQtras upon the criticism of the structure and text 
of the Sadihitfl. — Bloomfield himself discusses this matter in the intro- 
duction to his edition of Kau9ika, p. xli. He there points out instances 
in which briefer independent hymns have been fused into one longer 
composite hymn by the redactors of the Samhita, and shows that the 
Sutras recognize the composite character of the whole by prescribing 
the employment of the component parts separately. Thus (as is pointed 
out also by Whitney), iv. 38 is made up of two independent parts, a 
gambling-charm (verses 1-4) and a cattle-charm (verses 5-7). The Sutra 
prescribes them separately for these wholly different uses, the former 
with other gambling-charms ; and to the latter it gives a special name. 
Bloomiield's next illustrations, which concern vii. 74 and 76, have in the 
meantime given rise to the critical question whether vii. 74. 1-2 and 
76. 1-2 did not form one hymn for Ke^ava.^ 

The mss. of the Sutras may sometimes be taken as testimony for the 
readings of the cited pratikas. The like was said (p. Ixxiii) of the mss. of 
the AnukramanTs. The mss. of the Kau9ika (cf. Bloomfield's Introduction, 
p. xxxix) are wont to agree with those of the Vulgate, even in obvious 

Grouping of mantra-material in Sdtra and in Saiiihit& compared. — Many 
instances might be adduced from the Kau9ika which may well have a 
direct bearing upon our judgment concerning the unitary character of 
hymns that appear as units in our text. To cite or discuss them here 
would take us too far afield, and I must content myself once more with a 
suggestion, namely, that a systematic study of the grouping of the mantra- 
material in the ritual, as compared with its grouping in the Samhita, ought 
to be undertaken. At Kau^. 29. 1-14 the verses of AV. v. 13 are brought 
in for use, all of them and in their Vulgate order. The like is true of 
AV. ix. 5. 1-6 at Kau^. 64. 6-16. Whether it would lead to clear-cut 

1 See his seven Contributions to the interpretation of the Veda (below, p. ci), his Hymns of 
the A V. (SBE. xlii.)* and his review of Caland*s Zauberritual (Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 
1902, no. 7). 

3 See his Altindisches Zauberritual ^ and his eight papers Zur Exegese und Kritik der rituellen 
Sutras (ZDMG. li.-lvii.). Of the papers, those most important for the K2u9ika are the ones 
contained in vol. liii. See also WZKM. viii. 367. 

* See Bloomfield's note, SBE. xlii. 558 ; Whitney's introduction to vii. 74, and the note added 
by me at p. 440, top ; and Caland*s note 5 to page 105 of his Zauberritual, Hymn 76 of the 
Berlin ed. is in no wise a unity : see the introduction thereto. 

Ixxvi General Introduction^ Part I. : by the Editor 

results is doubtful ; but the relation of the two groupings is a matter no 
less important than it is obscure. The obscurity is especially striking in 
book xviii., where the natural order of the component rites of the long 
funeral ceremony is wholly disregarded by the diaskeuasts in the actual 
arrangement of the verses of the Samhita. Thus xviii. 4. 44, which accom- 
panies the taking of the corpse on a cart to the pyre, ought of course to 
precede xviii. 2. 4, which accompanies the act of setting fire to the pile. 
See my remark, below, page 870, lines 7-9, and my discussion, pages 
870-1, of "Part III." and *' Part V.'' of xviii. 4. As is noted at xviii. 
I. 49 and 2. I, the ritual group of verses that accompany the oblations to 
Yama in the cremation-ceremony wholly disregards even so important a 
division as that between two successive anuvdka'\iyrciXi^, It is pointed 
out on p. 848 that verse 60 of xviii. 3 is widely separated from what 
appears (most manifestly and from various criteria) to be its fellow, to wit, 
verse 6. 

Many difficulties of the Kaufika yet unsolved. — It will very likely 
appear that Whitney has misunderstood the Kau^ika here and there ; as 
also, on the other hand, he has in fact here and there corrected the text 
or the interpretation of Garbe or of Bloomfield. At the time of Whit- 
ney's death, Bloomfield's chief contributions (SBE. xlii.) to the interpre- 
tation of Kau9ika had not yet appeared, nor yet those of Caland. As I 
have more than once said, no one ought to be so well able to give a trust- 
worthy translation of a difficult text as the man who has made a good 
edition of it ; and for this reason one must regret that Bloomfield did not 
give us — in the natural sequence of the sutras — as good a version as 
he was at the time able to make, instead of the detached bits of inter- 
pretation which are scattered through the notes of SBE. xlii. Caland 
observes, in the introduction to his Zauberritualy p. IV, that in using the 
Kauqika he soon found that, in order to comprehend even a single 
passage, it is necessary to work through the whole book. The like is, 
of course, equally true of the Prati^akhya. A commentator upon the 
Sariihita who wishes (as did Whitney) to combine in his comment the 
best of all that the subsidiary treatises have to offer, cannot of course 
stop to settle, en passant, a multitude of questions any one of which may 
require the investigation of a specialist. Thus Whitney, in his note to 
x. 5.6, said in his ms. for the printer, "The Kau9. quotes the common 
pratika of the six verses at 49. 3, in a witchcraft-ceremony, in connection 
with the releasing of a bull." If 'Caland is right (Zauberritiialy p. 171), 
the hocus-pocus with the "water-thunderbolts'* does not begin until 
49. 3, and the svayam is to be joined to the preceding sutra (ZDMG. 
liii. 211), and the letting loose of the bull (49. i) has nothing to do with 
the uses of x. 5. This is just the kind of error which we cannot fairly 

8. The KdufikaSutra afid t/ie Vditana'Sulra Ixxvii 

blame Whitney for making. Special difficulties of this sort should have 
been settled for him by the sutra-specialists, just as he had settled the 
special difficulties of the Prati9akhya when he edited that text. 

Value of the ritual SQtras for the exegesis of the Saiiihita. — Estimates 
of the value of these Sutras as casting light upon the original meaning 
of the mantras have differed and will perhaps continue to differ. The 
opinion has even been held by a most eminent scholar that there is, on 
the whole, very little in the Kau^ika which really elucidates the Sariihita, 
and that the Kau9ika is in the main a fabrication rather than a collection 
of genuine popular practices. The principal question here is, not whether 
this opinion is right or wrong, but rather, to what extent is it right or 
wrong. It is, for example, hard to suppose that, upon the occasion con- 
templated in kandika 79 of the Kau^ika, a young Hindu, still in the hey- 
day of the blood, would, at such an approach of a climax of feeling as is 
implied in the acts from the talpdrohana to the actual nidhiivana (79. 9) 
inclusive, tolerate — whether patiently or impatiently — such an accom- 
paniment of mantras as is prescribed in sutras 4 to 9. Whatever philo- 
logical pertinence may be made out for them (cf. Whitney's note to xiv. 
2. 64), their natural impertinence to the business in hand seems almost 

To this it may be answered that the Sutra often represents an ideal 
prescription or ideale Vorschrift} compliance with which was not expected 
by any one, save on certain ceremonial occasions, the extreme formality 
of which was duly ensured by elaborate preparation and the presence of 

The data of the Kau^ika no sufficient warrant for dogmatism in the 
exegesis of the Saiiihita. — There is every reason to suppose that the 
actual text of the samhitas is often a fragmentary and faulty record of 
the antecedent (I will not say original) oral tradition ; and that the 
stanzas as we find them have often been dislocated and their natural 
sequence faulted by the action of the diaskeuasts. It is moreover 
palpable that questions of original sequence, so far from being cleared up, 
are often complicated all the more by the comparison of the sequences of 
the ritual texts (see p. Ixxv). In these days of rapid travel and communi- 
cation, it is hard to realize the isolation of the Indian villages {gramas) 
and country districts {janapadas) in antiquity. That isolation tended to 

^ I owe this suggestion to Professor Delbriick of Jena, who was my g^est while I had this 
chapter in hand and was so kind as to criticize it. As a curious parallel to the case above 
cited, he told me of the verses prescribed for use in the Briidergemeine of Count Zinzendorf : 

Mein mir von Gott verliehenes WeibI 
Anitzt besteig' ich deinen Leib. 
Empfange meinen Samen 
In Gottes Namen. Amen. 

Ixxviii Goural Introducit07i, Pari I. : by the Editor 

conserve the individuality of the several localities in respect of the details, 
for example, of their nuptial and funeral customs ; so that the local 
diversities are sometimes expressly mentioned (uccdvacd janapadadliarmd 
grdmadhamidq ca : AGS. i. 7'). Astonishingly conservative as India is 
{see my remarks in Karpuramafljarl, p. 206, ^ 2, p. 231, note 2), it can 
nevertheless not be doubtful that her customs have changed in the time 
from the date of the hymns to that of the ritual books. Evidently, there 
are divers general considerations which militate strongly against much 
dogmatism in the treatment of these matters.^ 

Integer vitae as a Christian funeral-hymn. — During the last twenty-four 
years, I have often been called to the University Chapel to pay the last 
tribute of respect to one or another departed colleague or friend. On 
such occasions, it frequently happens that the chapel choir sings the first 
two stanzas of the Horatian ode (i. 22), integer vitae scelerisqiie purnSy to 
the solemn and stately music of Friedrich Ferdinand Flemming. Indeed, 
so frequent is the employment of these words and this music, that one 
might almost call it a part of the " Funeral Office after the Harvard Use." 
The original occasion of the ode, and the relation of Horace to Aristius 
Fuscus to whom it is addressed, are fairly well known. The lofty moral 
sentiment of the first two stanzas, however seriously Horace may have 
entertained it, is doubtless uttered in this connection in a tone of mock- 
solemnity. Even this fact need not mar for us the tender associations 
made possible by the intrinsic appropriateness of these two pre-Christian 
stanzas for their employment in a Christian liturgy of the twentieth cen- 
tury. But suppose for a moment that the choir were to continue singing 
on to the end, even to Lalagen amabo, dulce loquenteni ! what palpable,* 
what monstrous ineptitude ! If only the first two stanzas were extant, 
and not the remaining four also, we might never even suspect Horace of 
any arri^re-pens6e in writing them ; and if we were to interpret them 
simply in the light of their modern ritual use, how far we should be from 
apprehending their original connection and motive ! 

Secondary adaptation of mantras to incongruous ritual uses. — Let no 
one say that this case is no fair parallel to what may have happened in 
India. On the contrary : instances — in no wise doubtful and not a whit 
less striking — of secondary adaptation of a mantra to similarly incongru- 
ous uses in the ritual may there be found in plenty. This secondary 
association of a given mantra with a given practice has often been 

^ Caland's sketch of the funeral rites is a most praiseworthy and interesting one, and his 
description of the practices which he there sets forth in orderly and lucid sequence is well worth 
the while : but his descriptions are taken from many sources differing widely in place and time ; 
and it is on many grounds improbable that the ritual as he there depicts it was ever carried out 
in any given place at any given time. 

8. The Kdufika-Suira and the Vditana-Sutra Ixxix 

determined by some most superficial semblance of verbal pertinence in the 
mantra, when in fact the mantra had no intrinsic and essential pertinence 
to the practice whatsoever. For example, CGS. prescribes the verse 
dksan for use when the bride greases the axle of the wedding-car ; here,. 
I think, there can be no doubt ^ that the prescription has been suggested 
by the surface resemblance of dksan 'they have eaten' to dksam *axle.' 
Or, again, to take an example which has been interestingly treated by 
Bloomfield, the verses xiv. 2. 59-62 doubtless referred originally to the 
mourning women, who, with dishevelled hair, wailed and danced at a 
funeral ; and they were presumably used originally as an expiation for 
such noisy proceedings. Secondarily, they have been adapted for use in 
connection with the wedding ceremonies, "in case a wailing arises," and 
doubtless for no better reason than that they contained the word for 
"wailing"; and they have accordingly been placed by the diaskeuasts 
among the wedding verses, where we now find them. See Bloomfield,. 
AJP. xi. 341, 338 : and cf. vii. 466. 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension of the 

Atharya-Veda Samhita 

General relations of this recension to the Vulgate or (!&unakan recension.^ 
— Just as, on the one hand, the minute differences between two closely 
related manuscripts of the same recension (for example, between Whit- 
ney's P. and M.) represent upon a very small scale the results of human 
fallibility, so, upon the other hand, do the multitudinous and pervading 
differences between the general readings of the manuscripts of the Vul- 
gate and those of the birch-bark manuscript of the Kashmirian recension 
truly represent in like manner the fallibility of human tradition, but on a 
very large scale. The f aunakan or Vulgate recension represents one 
result of the selective process by which the Indian diaskeuasts took from 
the great mass of mantra-material belonging to the oral tradition of 
their school a certain amount, arranging it in a certain order ; the Kash- 
mirian recension represents another and very different result of a similar 

Since the birch-bark manuscript has thus far maintained its character 
as a unique, we shall perhaps never know how truly it represents the best 
Kashmirian tradition of this Veda; it is quite possible that that tradition 
was vastly superior to the written reflex thereof which we possess in the 

1 1 had hesitatingly advanced this view, below, in my note to xviii. 4. 61 ; and I am pleased 
to see now that Bloomfield had unhesitatingly given it as his own opinion long before, at AJP.. 
xi. 341. 

* Further reference is made to these general relations below, at p. 10 13. 

Ixxx General Introduction^ Part /. ; by the Editor 

birch-bark manuscript, and which, although excellent in many places, is 
extremely incorrect in very many. Systematic search will doubtless 
reveal the fact that the Paippalada recension, even in the defective form 
in which it has come down to us, often presents as its variant a reading 
which is wholly different, but which, as a sense-equivalent, yields nothing 
to the Vulgate in its claim for genuineness and originality : thus for the 
Vulgate readings tdtas (x. 3. 8), iydya (x. 7. 31), yd ca (x. 8. 10), ksiprdm 
{xii. I. 35), atnd ca (xii. 4. 38), respectively, the Paipp. presents the sense- 
equivalents tasmdtf jagdma^ yota^ osam^ and grhesu. 

The material selected by the makers of the two recensions is by no 
means coincident. The Kashmirian text is more rich in Brahmana pas- 
sages and in charms and incantations than is the Vulgate.^ The coinci- 
dent material, moreover, is arranged in a very different order in the two 
recensions (cf. p. 1015); and it will appear in the sequel that even the 
coincident material, as between the Kashmirian and the Vulgate forms 
thereof, exhibits manifold differences of reading, and that the Kashmirian 
readings are much oftener pejorations than survivals of a more intelligent 

This, however, is not always the case : thus, of the two recensions, the 
Kashmirian has the preferable reading at xii. 2. 30 d. Or again, at v. 2. 8 
and xiv. i. 22, the Kashmirian recension agrees with the Rig- Veda, as 
against the Vulgate, and, at xi. 2. 7, with the Katha reading. In this 
connection it is interesting to note that the conjectures of Roth and 
Whitney for the desperate nineteenth book are often confirmed in fact 
by the Kashmirian readings : instances may be found at xix. 27. 8 ; 32. 4, 
5, 8 ; 44. 2 ; 46. 3 (two) ; 53. 5 ; 56. 4. 

The unique birch-bark manuscript of the Pftippalftda text. — This is 
described by Garbe in his Verzeichniss as No. 14. It consisted of nearly 
three hundred leaves, of which two are lost and eight or more are defec- 
tive. They vary in height from 14 to 21 centimeters; and in width, 
from II to 16; and contain from 13 to 23 lines on a page. The ms. is 
dated santvat 95, without statement of the century. If the year 4595 of 
the Kashmirian loka-kdla is meant, the date would appear to be not far 
from A.D. 1 519. A description of the ms., with a brief characterization 
of some of its peculiarities, was given by Roth at Florence in Sep. 1878, 
and is published in the Atti del IV Congresso intemazionale degli Orien- 
talistiy ii. 89-96. Now that the facsimile is published, further details are 
uncalled for. A specimen of the plates of the facsimile is given in the 
latter volume of this work. The plate chosen is No. 341 and gives the 
obverse of folio 187, a page from which have been taken several of 
the illustrative examples in the paragraphs which follow. 

^ So Roth in the Atti (p. 95), as cited on this page. 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Pdippaldda Recension Ixxxi 

Roth's Kashmirian n&garl transcript (Nov. 1874). — A nagarl copy of 
the original birch-bark manuscript was made at ^rinagara in 1873. This 
copy is No. 16 of Garbe's Verzeichniss^ and we may call it Roth's Kash- 
mirian nagar! transcript. It came into Roth's hands at the end of 
November, 1874. The year of its making appears from Roth's essay, 
Der Atharvaveda in Kaschmir^ pages 13-14; and the date of its arrival 
in Tubingen, from p. 11 of the same essay. With great promptness, 
Roth gave an account of it in his essay, just mentioned, which was pub- 
lished as an appendix to an invitation to the academic celebration of the 
birthday (March 6, 1875) of the king.^ — It would appear that Roth's 
Kashmirian transcript was not the only one made from the birch-bark 
original in India : S. P. Pandit seems also to have had one ; for he cites 
the Paippalada in his edition, vol. iv., p. 369. The copy used by him is 
doubtless the nagar! copy procured by Biihler, and listed as VIII. i of 
the collection of 1875-76, on p. 73 of the Catalogue of the Deccan Col- 
lege manuscripts. See also Garbe's Verzeuhniss^ under No. 17, for the 
description of another copy (incomplete). 

Arrival of the birch-bark original in 1876 at Tiibingen. — The original 
seems to have come into Roth's hands in the early summer of 1876. 
The approximate date of its arrival appears from Whitney's note to 
p. xiii of the pamphlet containing the Proceedings of the Am. Oriental 
Society at the meetings of May and Nov., 1875, 2tnd May, 1876 (= JAOS. 
X., p. cxix) : "As these Proceedings [that is, the j)amphlet just mentioned] 
arc going through the press, it is learned from Professor Roth that the 
original of the Devanagarl copy, an old and somewhat damaged ms. in 
the Kashmir alphabet, on highly fragile leaves of birch-bark, has reached 
him, being loaned by the Government of India, which had obtained 
possession of it. It corrects its copy in a host of places, but also has 
innumerable errors of its own. It is accented only here and there, in 

Roth's Collation (ended, June, 1884) of the P&ippalflda text This is 

written on four-page sheets of note-paper numbered from i to 44 (but 
sheet 6 has only two pages) ; the pages measure about 5 J4 X 8j4 inches, 
and there are some 9 supplementary pages (see p. Ixxxii, top), sent in 
answer to specific inquiries of Whitney. As appears from the colo- 
phon added by Roth (see below, p. 1009), this Collation was finished 
June 25, 1884. Since Roth's autograph transcript described in the next 
paragraph was not made until some months later, I see little chance of 
error in my assuming that Roth made his Collation for Whitney from his 
Kashmirian nagarl transcript, and that he used the birch-bark original to 

^ My copy of Roth's essay was given me by my teacher, the author, Feb. 26, 1875. 

Ixxxii General Introdtiction, Part L : by the Editor 

some extent to control the errors of the copy.^ Occasional suspicions 
of error in the Collation were not unnatural, and they led Whitney to 
ask Roth to reexamine the manuscript upon certain doubtful .points. 
Whitney's questions extend over books i. to v., and others were noted, 
but never sent. Roth's answers form a valuable supplement to his 
Collation, and end in April, 1894. 

Roth's autograph nflgari transcript (Dec. 1884). — The end of the Colla- 
tion which Roth made for Whitney was reached, as just stated, June 25, 
1884. After the following summer vacation. Roth made a new transcript 
from the birch-bark, as appears from his letter to Whitney, dated Jan. 11, 
1893: "Von Paippalada habe ich devanagarl Abschrift, aber nicht voU- 
standig. Die mit Vulgata gleichlautenden Verse, die nur durch Fehler 
Eckel erregen, habe ich bios citiert, z.B. die vielen aus RV., nehme mir 
aber doch vielleicht noch die Miihe, sie nachzutragen. Ich habe an der 
Abschrift unermiidlich vom 19. Sept. bis 28. Dez. 1884 geschrieben und 
diese Leistung als eine ungewohnliche betrachtet." This transcript is 
doubtless far more accurate than the one used for the Collation. The 
badness of the latter and the fragility of the birch-bark original were 
doubtless the reasons that determined Roth to make his autograph nagarl 
transcript : see p. Ixxxv, top. \JSS^ See p. 1045.J 

The facsimile of the Tiibingen birch-bark manuscript (1901). — A mag- 
nificent facsimile of the birch-bark manuscript has now been published by 
the care and enterprise of Bloomfield and Garbe.^ The technical perfection 
of the work is such as to show with marvellous clearness not only every 
stroke of the writing and every correction, but even the most delicate 
veinings of the bark itself, with its injuries and patches. Even if other 
things were equal, the facsimile is much better than the original, inas- 
much as a copy of each one of 544 exquisitely clear and beautiful chromo- 
photographic plates, all conveniently bound and easy to handle and not 
easily injured and accessible in many public and private libraries through- 
out the world, is much more serviceable than the unique original, 

^ In some cases, fragments of the birch-bark original seem to have become lost after Roth's 
Kashmirian nagar! transcript was made, so that the latter, and the two other Indian copies 
mentioned on p. Ixxxi, have thus become now our only reliance. Thus for avtvrdhat of the Vul- 
gate at i. 29. 3 b, Roth reports as Paipp. variant abhlbhr^at^ and adds " nur in der Abschrift 
vorhanden." This must have stood on the prior half of line 12 of folio 3 b of the birch-bark 
ms. ; but a piece of it is there broken out. 

^ The Kashmirian Atharva-Veda (School of the Paippaladas). Reproduced by chromo- 
photography from the manuscript in the University Library at Tiibingen. Edited under the 
auspices of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and of the Royal Eberhard-Karls- 
University in Tiibingen, "Wiirttemberg, by Maurice Bloomfield, Professor in the Johns Hopkins 
University, and Richard Garbe, Professor in the University of Tiibingen. Baltimore. The 
Johns Hopkins Press. 1901. The technical work by the firm of Martin Rommel & Co., 

9- Readings of the Kashmirian or Pdippalada Recension Ixxxiii 

written on leaves of birch-bark, fragile with age, easily injured, requiring 
the utmost caution in handling, and accordingly practically inaccessible 
except to a very few persons : but other things are not equal ; for the 
transitory advantage of the brilliantly heightened contrast of color which 
is gained by wetting the birch-bark original, and which passes away as 
soon as the leaf is dry, is converted into a permanent advantage by the 
chromophotographic process, in which the plates are made from the 
freshly wetted original. Moreover, the owner of a facsimile is at liberty 
to use it at home or wherever he pleases, and to mark it (with pen or 
pencil) as much as he pleases. The facsimile may therefore truly be said 
to be in many respects preferable to the original. 

Roth's Collation not exhaustive. — Now that the superb facsimile is 
published, it is possible for a competent critic to test Roth's Collation in 
respect i. of its completeness, and 2. of its accuracy. As, first, for its 
completeness, it is sufficiently apparent from several expressions used by 
Roth,^ that he saw plainly that it would be the height of unwisdom to 
give with completeness the Kashmirian variants as incidental to a work 
like this one of Whitney's, whose main scope is very much broader. Roth 
was a man who had a clear sense of the relative value of things — a sense 
of intellectual perspective ; and he was right. 

Faults of the birch-bark manuscript. — The birch-bark manuscript is 
indeed what we may call in Hindu phrase a veritable 'mine of the jewels 
of false readings and blunders,' an apapdfhaskhalitaratndkara, a book in 
which the student may find richly-abounding and most instructive illus- 
trations of perhaps every class of error discussed by the formal treatises 
on text-criticism. Thus it fairly swarms with cases of haplography (the 
letters assumed, on the evidence of the Vulgate, to be omitted, are given 
in brackets) : tdm tvd qdle sarvavirds suvlrd [aris{avtrd] abhi sah carema : 
ihdiva dhruvd prati [ti]s{/ia fd/e, folio 54 b^*^ = iii. 12. i c, d, 2 a; vasafkdre 
yathd yaqah: [yatAd yafos] so^iapitAe, folio i87a'5-'^ = x. 3. 22 b, 21 a; 
dditye ca [nfra]isasi, folio 187 a'7 = x. 3. 18 b ; apa stedain^ vdsama- 
tham gotham uta \ta\skaram^ folio 158 b* = xix. 50. 5 a, b. Confusions as 
between surd and sonant (cf. p. 749, p. 57) and between aspirate and non- 
aspirate and between long and short vowels are so common as hardly to 
be worth reporting : cf. usase nas pari dhehi sarvdn rdtrf andkasah^ which 
is found at folio I58b^ = xix. 50. 7 a, b, and exemplifies all three cases 

1 Such are : " Verse, die nur durch Fehler Eckel erregen," p. Ixxxii ; '* On y trouve, il est vrai, 
de tris-bonnes parties, mais d'autres sont tellement d^figurees, qu*on a besoin de conjectures 
sans nombre pour arriver ^ un texte lisible," AtH^ p. 96; "das Kauderwelsch," **ganze Zeilen 
so unsicher dass man nicht einmal die Worter trennen kann," p. Ixxxvi. 

* To judge from stedam for stenam^ we might suppose that the ms. at this point was written 
down by a scribe at the dictation of a reciter with a bad cold in his head. 

Ixxxiv General Introdtution, Part I. : by the Editor 

(dh for d, i for /, k for g). — Of variety in the character of the Kash* 
mirian variants there is no lack. Thus we see the omission of a needed 
twin consonant (cf. p. 832) in yad [d]andena, folio 91 b5 = v. 5.4a; inter- 
esting phonetic spellings in mahlyam of folio 264 b ^ for mahyam of 
iii. 15. I d, and in e te rdtriy anadvdhas of folio 158 a ^7 for ye te ratry 
anadvdhas of xix. 50. 2 a ; inversion in the order of words in sa me ksatram 
ca r&sthram ca of folio 187 a 4 = x. 3. 12 c. Not one of these examples was 
reported, though probably all were noticed, by Roth. In his Collation 
for V. 6, he notes for verses 11-14 " unwesentliche DifFerenzen," without 
specifying them. We may regret his failure to report such an interesting 
reading as yathdham fatruhdsanyy folio 3 b M, where qatruhd is a correct 
equivalent of the fatruhas of the Vulgate, i. 29. 5 c ; but with such a blun- 
der as as&ni in the very next word, and such grammar as ayam vacah in 
the preceding pada, we cannot blame him. In an incomplete collation, 
there is no hard and fast line to be drawn between what shall be reported 
and what shall not. 

Collation not controlled by constant reference to the birch-bark ms« — 
Secondly, as for the accuracy of Roth's Collation in the variants which 
he does give, — I do not suppose that Roth attempted to control his 
Kashmirian ndgari transcript (No. 16, Garbe) on which he based his 
Collation, by constant reference to the original. Thus far, I have hardly 
come upon inaccuracies myself ; but it is not improbable that occasional 
slips ^ on his part may yet come to light. It is proper here, therefore, 
partly by way of anticipating ill-considered criticism, to explain the 

Such reference would have ruined the birch-bark ms. — As any one can 
see from the table, pages 1018 to 1023, the Kashmirian correspondents 
of the Vulgate verses are to be found in the birch-bark manuscript in an 
entirely different order. Thus, if we take for example the six Vulgate 
verses iii. 12. i, 6, 8; 13. i ; 14. i ; 15. i, we shall find their Kashmirian 
correspondents at the following places (leaf, side, line) respectively : 
54 b 2, 276 b 7, 225 a ^o, 50 a I, 32 b 8, 264 b 5. From this it is evident that 
the mechanical process of referring, as one proceeds verse by verse through 
the Vulgate, to the parallel verses of the birch-bark original, for the pur- 
pose of checking step by step the transcript used for the Collation, would 
have involved an amount of handling of the fragile birch-bark leaves 
(nearly 300 in number) which would have ruined them. The leaves are 
now about 400 years old, and some idea of their fragility may be gained 
from the remarks in the preface to the facsimile, page II. It was doubt- 
less this difficulty that impressed upon Roth the necessity of making a 
copy which should be at once accurate, and also strong enough to endure 

^ Such as suryam at p. xxxvi, foot-note. 

9- Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension Ixxxv 

handling without injury. To copy the birch-bark leaves in their proper 
order is a process by which they need suffer no harm ; and this is pre- 
cisely what Roth did (see p. Ixxxii) as soon as possible after finishing the 
pressing task of making the Collation for Whitney. \JSS^ See p. 1045. J 

Care taken in the use of Roth's Collation. Word-division. — In carrying 
this work through the press, I have constantly and with the most scrupu- 
lous pains utilized Roth's original Collation and his supplementary notes 
thereto, endeavoring thus to check any errors concerning the Kashmirian 
readings that might have crept into Whitney's copy for the printer. Since 
Roth's system of transliteration differs considerably from Whitney's, the 
chances for mistakes arising through confusion of the two systems were 
numerous ; and I have taken due care to avoid them. It may here be 
noted that Whitney's system transliterates anusvara before a labid by m 
and not by w ; ^ but that in printing the Kashmirian readings, I have 
followed the Collation in rendering final anusvara by m (or h\ save before 
vowels. Furthermore, in making use of Roth's Collation, Whitney has 
habitually attempted to effect a satisfactory word-division. In many 
cases this is hardly practicable ; and in such cases it was probably a 
mistake to attempt it. For examples, one may consult the readings at 
V. 29. 2, *syatamo ; vi. 44. 2, saroganam ; 109. \ ^ jivdtavd yati ; 129. 3, vrkse 
sdrpitah intending vrksesv dr-; vii. 70. I, drs^d rdjyOy intending drsfdd dj^. 

The Kashmirian readings have not been verified directly from the fac- 
simile by the editor. — As the facsimile appeared in 1901, it is proper for 
me to give a reason for my procedure in this matter. In fact, both my 
editorial work and the printing were very far advanced^ in 1901, so that 
a change of method would in itself have been questionable; but an 
entirely sufficient and indeed a compelling reason is to be found in the 
fact that it would have been and still is a task requiring very much labor 
and time to find the precise place of the Kashmirian parallel of any given 
verse of the Vulgate, a task which can no more be done en passant than 
can the task of editing a Prati^akhya, — all this apart from the difficulties 
of the Carada alphabet. 

Provisional means for finding Vulgate verses in the facsimile. — Whitney 
noted in pencil in his Collation-Book, opposite each Vulgate passage hav- 
ing a Kashmirian parallel, the number of the leaf of the Kashmirian text 
on which that parallel is found, adding a or ^ to indicate the obverse or 
the reverse of the leaf. These numbers undoubtedly refer to the leaves 
of Roth's Kashmirian nagarl transcript (No. 16, Garbe) from which Roth 

^ I am sorry to observe that the third (posthumous) edition of his Grammar (see pages 518-9) 
misrepresents him upon this point. 

* The main part of this book was in type as far as page 614 (xi. 1. 12) in Dec. 1901. The 
remainder (as far as p. 1009, the end) was in type Dec 13, 1902. 

Ixxxvi General Introduction^ Part L : by the Editor 

made his Collation ; but as there was no prospect of their being of any 
use, Whitney has not given them in this work. 

One of Roth's first tasks, after the arrival of the birch-bark original, 
was doubtless to find the place therein corresponding to the beginning of 
each leaf of his Kashmirian nagari transcript. These places he has indi- 
cated by writing over against them on the side margin of the bark leaf 
the number of the leaf (with a or b) of that transcript. 

This was most fortunate ; for the added numbers, in Roth's familiar 
handwriting, although sometimes faint or covered up by a patch used in 
repairing the edges of the bark leaf, are for the most part entirely legible 
in the facsimile : and it has given me much pleasure during the last few 
days (to-day is April 21, 1904) to assure myself of the fact which I had 
previously surmised, that these pencilled numbers afford us an exceed- 
ingly useful, albeit roundabout, means of finding the place of any Kash- 
mirian parallel in the facsimile, — useful at least until they are superseded 
by the hoped-for edition of an accurate transliteration of the facsimile 
with marginal references to the Vulgate. Whitney's pencilled reference- 
numbers were arranged by Dr. Ryder in the form of a table, which I 
have recast and given below : see pages 10 13 ff. 

What ought an « edition " of the Kashmirian text to be ? — This question 
was privately discussed by Whitney and Roth in the letters ^ exchanged 
between them in 1893. Whitney hoped that all that was peculiar to the 
Kashmirian text might be printed in transliteration in the Kashmirian 
order and interspersed with references to the Vulgate parallels of the 
remainder, also in the Kashmirian order, the whole to form an appendix 

* Under date of Feb. 14, Whitney suggests to Roth : "Why not give a Paipp. text, as an 
appendix to our volume [" our volume " means the present work], noting in their order the 
parallel passages by reference only, and writing out in full, interspersed with the former, the 
remainder?" — Roth makes answer, March 14: " Ich will nur wiinschen, dass Ihre Gesund- 
heit so lange Stand halte, um das Werk zu Ende zu fiihren. Weil das aber als ein gliicklicher 
Fall zu betrachten bt, nicht als eine sichere Voraussicht, so wiinschte ich alle Erschwerungen, 
also auch die Frage von einer Publikation der Paippal. Rec. ganzlich beseitigt zu sehen." 
— Whitney, June 16, expresses the hope that Roth may reconsider the matter, i. because "a 
text of such primary importance will and must be published, in spite of its textual condition," 
and 2. because " there will, so far as I can see, no other opportunity present itself of producing 
it so modestly and unpretendingly, or in a method adapted to its imperfect state : the occasion is 
an ideal one." — Roth answers, July 2 : " Mein lieber Freund, das ist kein erfreulicher Bericht, 
welchen Ihr Brief vom 16. Juni iiber Ihre Erlebnisse erstattet. Und ich sehe namentlich 
daraus, dass Sie die Gtduld sich erworben haben, die durch Uebung im Leiden kommt. . . . 
In einer Ausgabe der Paipp. miisste das ganze gedruckt werden, von A bis Z. . . . Wie wird 
sich das Kauderwelsch gedruckt ausnehmen ? ganze Zeilen so unsicher, dass man nicht einmal 
die Worter trennen kann. . . . Daran bessem, was ja das einzige Verdienst ware, diirfte man 
nicht. . . . Fiir Sie wird die einzige angemessene Sorge in diesem Augenblick seln, wieder 
gesund zu werden, alsdann die zweite, den Atharvan ans Licht zu bringen." — Whitney 
writes, Aug. 25: "I give up with reluctance the hope of the further inclusion of Paipp. in our 
edition ; but I will not bother you further with remonstrances or suggestions.*' 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension Ixxxvii 

to the present work. Roth's hope was that Whitney's strength might 
hold out long enough for him to finish this work without such a burden- 
some addition. Neither hope was fulfilled ; and at that time, doubtless, 
even the thought of a facsimile reproduction was not seriously enter- 
tained. Bloomfield's difficult task of securing the needed funds once 
accomplished, the next step, unquestionably, was to issue the facsimile 
without any accessory matter. That too is now an accomplished fact; 
but the facsimile, apart from its large paleographic interest, is still, in 
default of certain accessories, a work of extremely limited usefulness. 
As to what should next be done, I have no doubt. 

1. A rigorously precise transliteration. — First, the whole text, from A 
to izzard (as Roth says), should be printed in a rigorously precise trans- 
literation. Conventional marks (other than those of the original), to indi- 
cate divisions between verses and padas and words, need not be excluded 
from the transliteration, if only the marks are easily recognizable as 
insertions of the editor. 

As to minor details, I am in doubt. In the prose parts, the translit- 
eration might correspond page for page and line for line with the birch- 
bark original : the metrical parts might either be made to correspond in 
like manner line for line with the original ; or else they might be broken 
up so as to show fully the metrical structure (and at the same time, with 
a little ingenuity, the Kashmirian vowel-fusions), in which case the begin- 
ning of every page and line of the bark leaves should be duly indicated 
by a bracketed number in its proper place. In case the transliteration 
corresponds with the original line for line throughout, then the obverse 
and reverse of each bark leaf might well be given together in pairs, the 
obverse above, and the reverse below it, on each page of the translitera- 
tion, since this would be especially convenient and would yield a page of 
good proportion for an Occidental book. 

2. Marginal references to the Vulgate parallels. — Secondly, on the mar- 
gin throughout, and opposite every Kashmirian verse that corresponds to 
a verse of the Vulgate, should be given the reference to the place in the 
Vulgate where the corresponding Vulgate verse is found. 

3* Index of Vulgate verses thus noted on the margin. — Thirdly, in an 
appendix should be given, in the order of the Vulgate text, an index of 
all the Vulgate verses thus noted on the margin, with a reference to the 
birch-bark leaf and side (obverse or reverse — a ox b) and line where its 
Kashmirian correspondent may be found. 

These I conceive to be the essential features of a usable edition of 
the Kashmirian text, and I hold them to be absolutely indispensable. 
The text is often so corrupt that one cannot emend it into intel- 
ligibility without sacrificing too greatly its distinctive character. All 

Ixxxviii General Introduction^ Part I. : by the Editor 

conjectures, accordingly, should be relegated to a second and separately 
bound volume. 

4. Accessory material : conjectures, notes, translations. — The accessory 
material of the second volume should be arranged in the form of a single 
series of notes and in the sequence of the Kashmirian original, and it 
should have such numbers and letters at the outside upper corners in the 
head-lines, that reference from the original to the notes and from the 
notes to the original may be made with the very utmost ease and celerity. 
This accessory material should comprehend all conjectures as to the more 
original Kashmirian form of manifestly corrupt words or passages, in so 
far as they point to readings not identical (compare the next paragraph) 
with those of the Vulgate ; indications of word-division, especially the 
word-division of corrupt phrases and the resolution of the very frequent 
double sandhi ; a running comment, proceeding verse by verse, giving 
any needed elucidatory matter, and explaining the rationale of the blun- 
ders of the Kashmirian version where feasible (as is often the case), point- 
ing out in particular its excellences, and the many items in which it 
serves as a useful corrective of the Vulgate or confirms the conjectural 
emendations of the latter made in the edition of Roth and Whitney ; — 
and all this in the light of the digested report of the variants of the 
parallel texts given by Whitney in the present work and in the light of 
the other parallels soon to be made accessible by Bloomfield's Vedic Con- 
cordance. An occasional bit of translation might be added in cases where 
the Kashmirian text contains something peculiar to itself or not hitherto 
satisfactorily treated. 

For the cases (hinted at in the preceding paragraph) where corrupt 
Kashmirian readings point simply to readings identical with those of the 
Vulgate, a simple reference to the latter will sometimes suffice to show 
the true reading and sense of what the Kashmirian reciters or scribes 
have corrupted into gibberish. Thus the Kashmirian form of xii. 3. 36 b, 
found at folio 226 b '3, \^ ydvantah kdmdn samitdu purasthdt. Apart from 
the aspiration (overlooked by Roth) of the prior dental oi purastdt, each of 
these four words by itself is a good and intelligible Vedic word ; but taken 
together, they yield far less meaning than do the famous Jabberwock 
verses of Through the Looking-glass} Their presence in the Kashmirian 
text is explained by their superficial phonetic resemblance to the Vulgate 
pada ydvantah kdmdh sdm atitrpas tdrij of which they are a palpable and 
wholly unintelligent corruption. It is evident that, with the Vulgate 
before us, conjectural emendation of the Kashmirian text in such cases 

^ For the sake of fathers to whom English is not vernacular, it may be added that this 
classic of English and American nurseries is the work of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson ("Lewis 
Carroll ") and is a pendant to Alice* s Adventures in Wonderland. 

9. Readings of the Kashmirian or Paippalada Recension Ixxxix 

is an entirely gratuitous procedure. And as for such grammar as kene- 
dam bhUmir nihatah (a feminine noun, with neuter adjective pronoun and 
masculine predicate participle: folio i86a'5 = x. 2. 24*), — to mend that 
would be to rob the Kashmirian text of its piquancy ; and why should 
we stop with the genders, and not emend also the senseless niha- to the 
intelligible vihi-i Let all this be done, and we have the Vulgate text 
pure and simple. 

ID. Readings of the Parallel Texts 

The texts whose readings are reported. — The principal texts included in 
these reports are : of the Samhitas, the Rig-Veda, Taittirlya, Maitrayani, 
Vajasaneyi-, Sama-Veda, and Atharva-Veda ; of the Brahmanas, the 
Aitareya, Kausftaki, Taittirlya, ^atapatha, Paftcavinfa, and Gopatha ; of 
the Aranyakas, the Aitareya and Taittirlya; of the Upanishads, the 
Kausftaki, Katha, Brhadaranyaka, and Chandogya ; of the ^rauta-Sutras, 
the Afvalayana, Caiikhayana, Apastamba, Katyayana, and Latyayana ; 
of the Grhya-Sutras, the A^valayana, ^ankhayana, Apastamba, Hiran- 
yake^i-, Paraskara, and Gobhila. Other texts are occasionally cited : 
so the Kathaka and the Kapisthala Sarhhita, and the Jaiminlya Brah- 
mana ; and the names of some others may be seen from the List of 
Abbreviations, pages ci fF. I have added references to some recently 
edited parallel texts, without attempting to incorporate their readings 
into the digested report of the variants : such are the Mantra-patha, von 
Schroeder's "Kathahandschriften," and Knauer's Manava-Grhya-Sutra. 
Von Schroeder's edition of Kathaka i. came too late. The information 
accessible to Whitney concerning the then unpublished Black Yajus texts 
was very fragmentary and inadequate; this fact must be borne in mind 
in connection with implied references to the Kathaka and Kapisthala (cf. 
his notes to iii. 17 ; 19 ; 20 ; 21 ; v. 27 ; vii. 89). 

The method of reporting the readings aims at the utmost possible accu- 
racy. — Whitney has constantly striven for three things : that his reports 
should be characterized, i. and 2., by the utmost attainable accurac;y and 
completeness ; and, 3., that they should be presented in a thoroughly 
well-digested form. First, as to the accuracy, little need be said. It 
may be well to remind the reader, however, that Whitney has used the 
most methodical precision in this matter, and that, accordingly, if, under 
a given AV. verse, he cites a parallel text without mention of variant, his 
silence is to be rigorously construed as meaning positively that the 
parallel text reads as does the AV. verse in question. As a matter of 
fact, I believe that it will be found possible in nearly every case to recon- 
struct the parallel texts with precision from the data of Whitney's reports. 

xc General Introduction^ Part L : by the Editor 

It needs here to be noted that Whitney, in reporting variants from the 
Maitrayani, has disregarded what are (as explained by von Schroeder in 
his introduction, pages xxviii-xxix) mere orthographical peculiarities of 
that text. Accordingly, at iii. 14. 3, he treats the nd (= nas) d gata of 
MS. as if it were na d gata. Again, the MS. correspondent of iii. 19. 3 
has, in samhita, svd'n^ and in pada, svdn ; Whitney reports svdhy and quite 
properly, although it is neither the one thing nor the other. So at ii. 34. 3, 
he reports tdh^ although MS. has, in s., /^«, and in p., tdn. 

The completeness of the reports far from absolute. — Secondly, as for its 
completeness, it may be asked whether Bloomfield's great work, the Vedic 
Concordance, will not show Whitney's parallels to be far from exhaustive. 
To this I reply that the primary purpose of Bloomfield's Concordance is 
to give the concordances, and to do so with as near an approach to com- 
pleteness as possible, even for the less important texts, a task of which 
the preliminaries have required the assiduous labor of years. In Whit- 
ney's work, on the other hand, the giving of concordances is only one of 
many related tasks involved in his general plan, and is, moreover, only 
incidental to the discussion of the variants. I have tested the two works 
by comparison of random verses in the proof-sheets, and find (as I 
expected) that Bloomfield does indeed give very many references which 
are not given by Whitney; but that these references (apart from the 
Kathaka) are concerned prevailingly with the numerous subsidiary or 
less important texts which fall within the purview of the Concordance. 
Whitney had excerpted all the texts, so far as published (see the list, 
above), which were of primary importance for his purpose. The parallels 
to which Bloomfield's additional references guide us will have to be 
reckoned with in due course by Whitney's successors ; but I surmise that 
they are not likely upon the whole greatly to affect the sum of our critical 
judgments respecting the Atharvan text.^ 

The reports are presented in well-digested form. — Thirdly, as to the form 
of the reports. It is one thing to give numerical references to the places 
where the padas and their variants are to be found.^ It is another to 
rehearse, in full for each text concerned, the readings containing variants ; 
and the result of this process is in a high degree space-consuming and 
repetitious for the author, and time-consuming and confusing for the user. 
It is yet another and a very different thing to compare these readings 
carefully, to note the points of agreement, and to state briefly and clearly 
the points on which they differ.^ The result of this last procedure is a 

^ In spite of its intrinsic importance, such is the case, I believe, with the ^B., to which 
Whitney makes, I think, rather meagre reference. 

^ And it is a large achievement to do it on such a scale as does the Concordance. 

■ Whoever doubts it, let him take so very simple a case as AV. ii. 29. 3 or iv. 14. 1, write 
out the AV. text in full and then the three parallel Yajus-texts beneath it, compare them, 

lo. Readings of the Parallel Texts xci 

well-digested report of the variants which is easily and quickly usable for 
the purpose of critical study. I call especial attention to this valuable 
feature of Whitney's work, partly because of its practical importance, and 
partly because it shows the author's power of masterly condensation and 
of self-restraint. 

II. Whitney's Commentary : Further Discussion of its Critical 


Comprehensiveness of its array of parallels. — I have already called 
attention (p. xxxvii) to the fact that the Commentary expressly disavows 
any claim to finality; and have spoken briefly of its importance as a tool, 
and of its comprehensiveness. In respect of the comprehensiveness of 
its array of parallels, it answers very perfectly one of the requirements 
set by Pischel and Geldner in the Introduction (p. xxx) to the Vedische 
Studien : " Das gesamte indische Altertum kann und muss der vedischen 
Exegese dienstbar gemacht werden. In vorderster Linie wollen auch 
wir den Veda aus sich selbst erklaren durch umfassenderes Aufsuchen 
der Parallelstellen und Combinieren zusammengehoriger aber in verschie- 
denen Teilen des Veda zerstreuter Gedanken." That Whitney's work will 
prove to be an instrument of great effectiveness in the future criticism 
and exegesis of the Veda I think no one can doubt. It will easily be seen 
that often, in the cases where the older attempts have failed, the fault is 
to be laid not so much to the learning and ingenuity of the scholars con- 
cerned, as to the lack of powerful tools. Such a powerful tool is this ; 
such is Bloomfield's Concordance ; and other such helpful tools are sure 
to be invented and made in the next few decades. The /w//>&a-indexes of 
Pertsch, Whitney, Weber, Aufrecht, and von Schroeder are admirable; 
and without them Whitney's work could not have been made. Their 
main use is to make feasible the systematic comparison of the texts one 
with another. This is what Whitney has done here, with the Atharvan 
text as starting-point, and the results of his comparison lie before us in 
the conveniently digested reports of the variants. 

Criticism of specific readings. — Examples abound showing how the 
reports may be used for this purpose. They enable us to recognize the 
corruptness of a reading, which, although corrupt, is nevertheless to be 
deemed the genuine Atharvan reading, as in the case of ydq cdrati at 

underscore in red ink the points of difference, and then state them with brevity and clearness. 
Then let him examine Whitney's reports, and I think he will freely admit that they are indeed 
well-digested and are models of masterly condensation. More difficult cases are ii. i. 3 ; 13. i ; 
iii. 10. 4 ; 12. 7 ; 19. 8 ; vii. 83. 2 ; 97. i ; xiv. 2. 71. The amount and intricacy of possible varia- 
tion is well exemplified by vi. 117. i. Perhaps Whitney has erred in the direction of over- 
condensation in his note to vii. 29. 2. 

xcii General Introduction^ Part /. : by the Editor 

iv. 5. 5 over against the ydq ca cdrati of RV. vii. 55. 6; or, again, to dis- 
cover with certainty the true intention (cf. TB. ii. 4. 7'°) of a lot of waver- 
ing variants, as in the case of those that disguise the svdravo mitdh of 
xix. 42. I. They show us that the vastly superior tradition of the RV. 
corrects that of the AV. in many places (cf. the accentless asahanta of 
xi. I. 2); but that the AV. occasionally scores a point even against the 
RV., as in the case of maghdsu at xiv. i. 13 (RV. aghdsu), or as in the 
case of ndu . . . ndu at xviii. i . 4 (RV. no . , . nan). What a puzzle is 
the phrase (xiv. 2. 72) janiydnti ndv dgravah, * The unmarried [plural] of 
us two [dual] seek a wife,' by itself, involving, as it does, a breach of the 
mathematical axiom that the whole is greater than any of its parts ! but 
the comparison of RV. vii. 96. 4, with its nu for ndu, teaches us that the 
error lies in the ndu, even if it does not show us with certainty how that 
error is to be emended. Even with all the array of variants, we are (as 
Whitney notes at iv. 8. i ; vi. 22. 3 ; 31. 3) at times forced to the conclu- 
sion that certain verses were hopelessly spoiled before ever any of the 
various text-makers took them in hand. 

Illustrations of classes of text errors. — I have already hinted at the 
variety of special investigations to which the mass of critical material here 
assembled invites. The various occasions of probable error in the trans- 
mission of Indie texts have not yet been made the object of a systematic 
and formal treatise. Here we have, conveniently presented, the very 
material needed for such an advance in the progress of Vedic criticism. 
By grouping suspected readings into clearly defined classes, it will become 
possible to recognize suspected readings as real errors with a far greater 
degree of certainty than ever before. Illustrations of this matter are so 
abundant as easily to lead us far afield ; but several may be given.^ 

Auditory errors. — A most striking example of a variation occasioned 
by the almost complete similarity of sound of two different readings is 
presented by the pratitya of AGS. iii. 10. 11, as compared with the 
praticah of AV. vi. 32. 3. Compare dydm of HGS. i. 15. 3, vfith jydm of 
AV. vi. 42. I. — Confusion of surd and sonant is exemplified in the variant 
version of part of the familiar RV. hymn, x. 154, given at AV. xviii. 
2. 14, where we have yibhyo mddhu pradhdv ddhi, 'for whom honey [is] 
on the felly.' This may or may not be the genuine Atharvan reading ; 
but it is certainly an unintelligent corruption of the pradhdvati of the 
RV. : and it is very likely that we have the same blunder at vi. 70. 3, 
where the occasion for the corruption is palpable.^ The simplification of 
twin consonants is exemplified at xviii. 3. 3, where the editors of the Berlin 

^ Others, taken from the Kashmirian text, are given above, p. Ixxxiii. 

2 Confusions of surd and sonant are discussed by Roth, ZDMG. xlviii. 107 : cf. note to 
ii. 1 3. 3, below. The Kashmirian text swarms with them. 

II. Whitney s Commentary xciii 

text gave, with the support of all the mss. then accessible, the reading 
jivdm ^^bhyas : that this is an error for mrt^bhyas is shown beyond all 
doubt by the TA. variant mrtdya jivdm (cf. the note on p. 832). 

Visual errors. — Several classes of errors are chargeable to " mistakes 
of the eye." Confusions such as that between pdhi and ydhi are simple 
enough, and are sometimes to be controlled by the evidence of oral 
reciters (cf. p. Ixvi); but, considering the fragmentariness of our knowl- 
edge of Indie paleography, who may guess all the more remote occasions 
for error of this kind } — Of errors by haplography, yd dste ydq cdrati 
(just mentioned) is a good type : this is undoubtedly the true Atharvan 
reading, and it is undoubtedly wrong, as is shown by the meter, and the 
comparison of RV., which h3,sydf ca cdrati: cf. notes to iv. 5. 5 ; vi. 71. i ; 
vii. 81. I ; xix. 42. 3; 55. 3. For a most modern case, see note to 
xiii. 2. 35. 

Metrical faults. Hypermetric glosses and so forth. — Our suspicions of 
hypermetric words as glosses are often confirmed by the downright 
absence of those words in the parallel texts. Instances are : hdstdbhydm 
at AV. iv. 13. 7 (cf. RV. x. 137. 7) ; dev6 at RV. x. 150. 4^ (cf. RV. iii. 
2. 8); asmdbhyam at TS. ii. 6. 122 (cf. nah at RV. x. 15. 4); imdm at 
AV. xiv. 2. 40 (cf. RV. X. 85. 43). — On the other hand, the damaged 
meter of our text often suggests a suspicion that some brief word has 
fallen out or that some briefer or longer or otherwise unsuitable form 
has been substituted for an equivalent suitable one ; and the suspicion is 
borne out by the reading of the parallel texts. Thus in div6 \yd'\ visna 
utd vd prthivydy mah6 [vd] visna urdr antdriksdtj the bracketed z/^*s, miss- 
ing at AV. vii. 26. 8, are found in their proper places in the TS. and VS. 
parallels. The/a/« and lyus of AV. xviii. 2. 55 quite spoil the cadences 
of A and c, which cadences are perfect in their RV. original at x. 17. 4. 

Blend-readings. — The blend-readings, as I have called them, stand in 
yet another group. A good example is found, at AV. xiv. 2. 18 (see 
note), in prajdvati vlrasilr devrkdmd syond ; its genesis is clear, as is 
also the intrusive character of syondy when we compare the Kashmirian 
ve^iAmg prajdvati virasur devrkdfnd with that of the RV., virasbr devdkdnid 
syond (11 syllables). The like is true of asyd at VS. xii. 73, dgannia 
tdmasas pdrdm asyd : cf. the oft-recurring dtdrisma tdmasas pdrdm asyd 
with the aganma tamasas pdram of the Kathaka, xvi. 12, p. 23S\ — The 
above-given examples suffice to show how rich is the material gathered 
in this work for an illuminating study of the fallibilities of human tradition 
in India. 

^ Here Bollensen long ago proposed (Orient und Occident^ ii. 485) to athetize abhavat. 

xciv General Introduction^ Part I. : by the Editor 

12. Whitney's Translation and the Interpretative Elements of the 


The Translation : general principles governing the method thereof. — The 

statements concerning the principles involved in the translating of the 
Upanishads, as propounded by Whitney in his review of a translation of 
those texts, apply — mutatis mutandis — so well to the translation of this 
Veda, that I have reprinted them (above, p. xix : cf . p. xxxvii) ; and to 
them I refer the reader. 

The translation not primarily an interpretation, but a literal version. — 
Whitney expressly states (above, p. xix) that the design of this work is 
**to put together as much as possible of the material that is to help 
toward the study and final comprehension of this Veda"; accordingly, 
we can hardly deny the legitimacy of his procedure, on the one hand, in 
making his version a rigorously literal one, and, on the other, in restrict- 
ing the interpretative constituents of the work to narrow limits. He 
recognized how large a part the subjective element plays in the business 
of interpretation ; and if, as he intimates, his main purpose was to clear 
the ground for the interpreters yet to come, his restriction was well 
motived. It is, moreover, quite in accord with his scientific skepticism 
that he should prefer to err on the side of telling less than he knew, and 
not on the side of telling more than he knew : a fact which is well illus- 
trated by his remark at viii. 9. 18, where he says, "The version is as lit- 
eral as possible ; to modify it would imply an understanding of it." 

A literal version as against a literary one. — Let no one think that 
Whitney was not well aware of the differences between such a version as 
he has given here, and a version which (like that of Griffith) makes con- 
cessions to the demands of literary style and popular interest. Whitney's 
version of xviii. i. 50, as given below, reads: * Yama first found for us a 
track; that is not a pasture to be borne away; where our former Fathers 
went forth, there [go] those bom [of them], along their own roads.' 
With this compare his version of 1859 (O- ^^^ L. S., i., p. 58): 

Yama hath found for us the first a passage; 

that's no possession to be taken from us; 
Whither our fathers, of old time, departed, 

thither their offspring, each his proper pathway. 

Each version has its own quality ; each method has its justification : to 
make a complete translation after the second method, one must inevitably 
waive the consideration of philological difficulties, a thing by no means licit 
for Whitney in such a work as this. The admirable version of Griffith 

12. Whitney s Translation xcv 

illustrates the advantages of the second method, and also its inherent 

Interpretative elements : captions of the hymns. — The preponderating 
elements of the commentary are of a critical nature, and these have been 
discussed by me at length in chapters i to ii of this Part I. of the Gen- 
eral Introduction (above, pages Ixiv to xciii); of the interpretative elements 
a few words need yet to be said. And first, it should be expressly stated 
that the English titles of the hymns (the captions or headings printed 
in Clarendon t3rpe throughout, just before the Anukramanl-excerpts) con- 
stitute, for the books of short hymns at least, a most important part of 
the interpretative element of this work. They have evidently been formu- 
lated by Whitney with much care and deliberation, and are intended by 
him to give briefly his view of the general purport of each hymn. In a 
few cases these captions were lacking, and have been supplied by me 
from his first draft (so at i. 35) or otherwise (so at ii. 12 ; v. 6 ; vii. 109 : 
cf. books XV., xvi., and xviii., and p. 772, end). These captions are given 
in tabular form near the end of the work : see volume viii., p. 1024. 

Interpretations by Whitney. — Where the text is not in disorder, a rigor- 
ously literal version is in many (if not in most) cases fairly intelligible 
without added interpretation. The need of such additions Whitney has 
occasionally, but perhaps not often, recognized. Thus after rendering the 
padas i. 2. 3 ab by the words * when the kine, embracing the tree, sing the 
quivering dexterous reed,' he adds, ** that is, apparently, * when the gut- 
string on the wooden bow makes the reed-arrow whistle.' " Similarly at 
vi. 125. I. The text speaks at xviii. i. 52 of an offense done purusdtd: 
Whitney renders 'through humanity,' and adds "that is, through^ human 
frailty." Cf. note to vii. 33. i. 

It may be noted in this place (for lack of a better one) that Whitney, 
in reporting the conjectures or interpretations of his predecessors, passes 
over some in silence. Sometimes this appears to have been done inten- 
tionally and because he disapproved them. Thus at iv. 37. 3, he notes in 
his first draft the suggestions of BR. and OB. concerning avagvasdm; 

^ It would be idla presumption in me to praise the work of a man whose knowledge of the 
literature and customs and spirit of India is so incomparably greater than my own ; but I may 
be allowed to repeat the judgment of my revered and beloved friend, M. Auguste Barth, con- 
cerning Griffith's Veda-translations : Elle [the RV. translation] se pr^sente ainsi sans aucun 
appareil savant, ce qui, du reste, ne veut pas dire qu'elle n'est pas savante. L'auteur, qui a 
longtemps dirige le Benares College, a une profonde connaissance des langues, des usages, de 
Tesprit de Tlnde, et, pour maint passage, on aurait tort de ne pas tenir grandement compte 
de cette version en apparence sans pretentions (Revue de Thistoire des religions, year 1893, 
xxvii. 181). Elle [the AV. translation] . . . m^rite les m6mes ^loges (Ibidem, year 1899, 
xxxix. 25). 

s By a curious coincidence, *' through human frailty " is precisely the rendering given by 

xcvi General Introduction^ Part L : by the Editor 

but ignores them in his second. Similarly, at ii. 14. 3, he omits mention 
of a translation of the verse given by Zimmer at p. 420. 

Ezegetical notes contributed by Roth. — It appears from the letters 
between Roth and Whitney that the former had written out a German 
version of this Veda, and that, although it was complete, its author did 
not by any means consider it as ready for publication. In order to give 
Whitney the benefit of his opinion on doubtful points. Roth made a brief 
commentary upon such selected words or phrases (in their proper sequence) 
as seemed to him most likely to present difficulties to Whitney. The 
result is a parcel of notes, consisting of 250 pages in Roth's handwriting, 
which is now in my keeping. From these notes Whitney has incorpo- 
rated a considerable amount of exegetical matter into his commentary. 
It is yet to be considered whether the notes contain enough material 
unused by Whitney to warrant their publication, if this should appear 
upon other grounds to be advisable. 

The translation has for its underlying text that of the Berlin edition. — 
With certain exceptions, to be noted later, the translation is a literal ver- 
sion of the Vulgate Atharvan text as given in the Berlin edition. For 
the great mass of the text, this is, to be sure, a matter of course. It is 
also a matter of course in cases where, in default of helpful variants to 
suggest an emendation of a desperate line, we are forced to a purely 
mechanical version, as at xii. i. 37 a, *she who, cleansing one, trembling 
away the serpent,' or at vi. 70. 2 ab. Even in the not infrequent cases 
where (in spite of the lack of parallel texts) an emendation is most obvious, 
Whitney sticks to the corrupted text in his translation, and reserves the 
emendation for the notes. Thus, at iv. 12. 4, dsrk te dsthi rohatu mdhsdtn 
mdhs^na rohatu^ he renders *let thy blood, bone grow,' although the 
change of dsrk to asthnd would make all in order. 

The translation follows the Berlin text even in cases of corrigible corrup- 
tions. — On the other hand, it may seem to some to be not a matter of 
course that Whitney should give a bald and mechanically literal version 
of the true Atharvan text as presented in the Berlin edition in those very 
numerous cases where the parallel texts offer the wholly intelligible read- 
ings of which the Atharvan ones are palpable distortions. Granting, 
however, that they are, although corrupt, to be accepted as the Atharvan 
readings, and considering that this work is primarily a technical one, his 
procedure in faithfully reproducing the corruption in English is entirely 

A few examples may be given. Whitney renders tdm tvd bhaga sdma 
ij johavimi (iii. 16. 5) by *on thee here, Bhaga, do I call entire,' although 
RV.VS. have jofmvUi, * on thee does every one call.' At v. 2. 8, turag 
cid v{fvam arnavat tdpasvdn is rendered * may he, quick, rich in fervor. 

12. Whitney s Translation xcvii 

send(?) all,' although it is a corruption (and a most interesting one) of 
the very clear line durag ca vigva avrnod dpa svdh. So puruddmdso 
(vii. 73. I), 'of many houses,' although the ^rauta-Sutras oS.^v puruta- 
mdso. At RV. vi. 28. 7 the cows are spoken of as 'drinking clear water 
and cropping good pasture,' suydvasant rigdntik: the AV. text-makers, at 
iv. 21. 7, corrupt the phrase to -se mgdntih, but only in half-way fashion, 
for they leave the RV. accent to betray the character of their work. 
Even here Whitney renders by ' shining {rugantth) in good pasture.' The 
AV., at xviii. 4. 40, describes the Fathers as dsindm drjam ipa yi sdcante ; 
Whitney is right in rendering the line by ' they who attach themselves unto 
a sitting refreshment,' although its original intent is amusingly revealed 
by HGS., which has {jusantdm) mdsi *mdm ^ Urjam uta ye bhajante^ ' and 
they who partake of this nourishment every month.' For other instances, 
see the notes to iv. 21. 2 a; iii. 3. i ; iv. 16. 6 (rugantas for rusdntas)^ 8 
{vdruno) ; 27. 7 {viditdm) ; vi. 92. 3 (dhdvatu) ; ii. 35. 4 ; iii. 18. 3 ; iv. 2. 6 ; 
15* 5 ; vii. 21. I ; and so on. 

Cases of departure from the text of the Berlin edition. — These are always 
expressly stated by Whitney. They include, first, cases in which the 
Berlin edition does not present the true Atharvan text. An example 
may be found at xix. 64. i, where the editors had emended wrongly to 
dgre and the version implies dgne. At xix. 6. 13, the editors, following the 
suggestion of the parallel texts, had emended to chdndahsi the ungram- 
matical corruption of the AV. chdndo fia {Jajfiire idsmdt) ; but since 
Whitney held that the latter reading "has the best right to figure as 
Atharvan text," his intentionally ungrammatical English 'meter were 
born from that ' is meant to imply that reading. 

Here are included, secondly, cases in which the Berlin reading, although 
it has to be recognized as the true Atharvan reading, is so unmanageable 
that Whitney has in despair translated the reading of some parallel text 
or an emended reading. Thus at vii. 57. 2 c it is assumed that ubM id 
asyo *bM asya rdjatah is, although corrupt, the true Atharvan reading. 
The corruption is indeed phonetically an extremely slight distortion, for 
the RV. has ubhi id asyo ^bhdyasya rdjatah; and from this the translation 
is made. — Other categories might be set up to suit the slightly varying 
relations of mss. and edition and version: cf. xix. 30. i ; xviii. 4. Zy\ and 
so on. 

Whitney's growing skepticism and correspondingly rigid literalness. — 
At xiii. 4. 54, Whitney says : " Our rendering has at least concinnity — 
unless, indeed, in a text of this character, that be an argument against 
its acceptance." The remark is just; but one does not wonder that its 
author has been called der grosse Skeptiker der Sprachwissenschaft. That 

1 Perhaps the corruption is yet deeper seated, and covers an original mdsi-mdsy urjam. 

xcviii General Introduction^ Part I. : by tlie Editor 

his skepticism grew with the progress of his work is clear from a com- 
parison of the unrevised with the revised forms (cf. p. xxvii) of the early 
books. Thus at vi. 57. 2, as a rendering oijdldsd^ his manuscript at first 
read * healer ' ; but on the revision he has crossed this out and put the 
Vedic word untranslated in its stead. With his skepticism, his desire for 
rigid literalness seems to have increased. At ii. 33. 5, the first draft trans- 
lates prdpada very suitably by ' fore parts of the feet ' ; but the second 
renders it by * front feet.' Similarly, at vi. 42. 3, there is no reasonable 
doubt that pdrsnyd prdpadena ca means [I trample] * with heel and with 
toe' (cf. viii. 6. 15 ; vi. 24. 2) ; but again he renders by 'front foot.' At 
iii. 15. 7, his prior draft reads 'watch over our life' : 'life' is an unim- 
peachable equivalent of 'vital spirits' ox prdnds; but the author has 
changed it to 'breaths* in the second draft. 

His presumable motive, a wish to leave all in the least degree doubtful 
interpretation to his successors, we can understand ; but we cannot deny 
that he sometimes goes out of his way to make his version wooden. Thus 
he renders bhr^ when used of skins or amulets (viii. 6. 1 1 ; 5. 13) by ' bear ' 
instead of 'wear.' At iv. 21. i, he speaks of cows as 'milking for Indra 
many dawns,' although 'full many a morning yielding milk for Indra' 
can hardly be called too free. Cf. his apt version of uttardm^ittardnt 
sdtndtn at xii. i. 33, 'from one year to another,* with that given at iii. 10. i ; 
17.4, 'each further summer.' In a charm to rid the grain of danger, 
vi. 50. I d, * make fearlessness for the grain ' is needlessly inept. It is 
easy for Sanskritists, but not for others, to see that ' heroism ' (vityd), as 
used of an herb at xix. 34. 8, means its 'virtue' (and so he renders it at 
xii. 1.2); that 'bodies' of Agni at xix. 3. 2 are his 'forms' (fivds or 
ghords) ; and so on ; but to others, such versions will hardly convey the 
intended meaning. The fact that svastibhis^ in the familiar refrain of the 
Vasisthas, is a plural, hardly justifies the infelicity of using such a plural 
as 'well-beings' to render it at iii. 16. 7; and some will say the like of 
' wealfulnesses * (iv. 13. 5), 'wealths,' and 'marrows.' 

It lies entirely beyond the province of the editor to make alterations 
in matters of this kind. It is perhaps to be regretted that these infelici- 
ties, which do not really go below the surface of the work, are the very 
things that are the most striking for persons who examine the book casu- 
ally and without technical knowledge ; but the book is after all primarily 
for technical study. 

Poetic elevation and humor. — The places in which the A V. rises to any 
elevation of poetic thought or diction are few indeed. Some of the 
funeral verses come as near it as any (among them, notably, xviii. 2. 50) ; 
and some of the philosophic verses (especially of x. 8 under Deussen's 
sympathetic treatment) have an interest which is not mean. The motive 

12. Whitney s Translation xcix 

of xix. 47 is an exceptionally coherent and pleasing one. I presume 
that the idea of sending the fever as a choice present to one's neighbors 
(v. 22. 14) is intended to be jocose. Witchcraft and healing are serious 
businesses. If there is anything else of jocular tone in this extensive 
text, I do not remember that any one has recognized and noted it. The 
gravity of Whitney's long labor is hardly relieved by a gleam of humor 
save in his introduction to ii. 30 and his notes to vi. 16. 4 and 67. 2 and 
X. 8. 27, and the two cited at p. xcvii, line 4 from end, and p. xciv, 1. 23. 

13. Abbreviations and Signs explained 

General scope of the list. — The following list is intended not only to 
explain all the downright or most arbitrary abbreviations used in this 
work, but also to explain in the shortest feasible way all such abbreviated 
designations of books and articles as are more or less arbitrary. The 
former generally consist of a single initial letter or group of such letters ; 
the latter, of an author's name or of the abbreviated title of a work. 

The downright abbreviations. — These are for the most part identical 
with those used by Whitney in his Grammar and given and explained by 
him on p. xxvi of that work: thus AA. = Aitareya-Aranyaka. — Whit- 
ney's omission of the macron proper to the A in AA., AB., A^S., AGS., 
BAU., and TA. was doubtless motived by a purely mechanical considera- 
tion, the extreme fragility of the macron over a capital A ; that he has not 
omitted it in Apast. or Ap. is a pardonable inconsistency. — The sigla codi- 
cum are explained at p. cix, and only such of them are included here as have 
more than one meaning : thus, W. = Wilson codex and also = Whitney. 

Abbreviated designations of books and articles. — For these the list is 
intended to give amply sufficient and clear explanations, without follow- 
ing strictly any set of rules of bibliographers. In the choice of the des- 
ignations, brevity and unambiguousness have been had chiefly in mind. — 
An author's name, without further indication of title, is often used arbi- 
trarily to mean his most frequently cited work. Thus "Weber" means 
Weber's Indische Studien. With like arbitrariness are used the names 
of Bloomfield, Caland, Florenz, Griffith, Grill, Henry, Ludwig, Muir, 
Winternitz, and Zimmer : cf. the list. — Where two coordinate reference- 
numbers, separated by a comma, are given (as in the case of Bloomfield, 
Grill, and Henry), the first refers to the page of the translation, and the 
second to the page of the commentary. Of similar numbers, separated 
by "or" (as on p. 286), the first refers to the original pagination, and 
the second to the pagination of the reprint.^ 

^ Here let me protest against the much worse than useless custom of giving a new pagina- 
tion or a double pagination to separate reprints. If an author in citing a reprinted article does 

c General Introduction^ Part I. : by the Editor 

Explanation of arbitrary signs. — The following signs (and letters) are 
used in the body of this work more or less arbitrarily. 

Parentheses are used in the translation to enclose the Sanskrit original 
of any given English word (see above, p. xx), such indications being 
often most acceptable to the professional student. For numerous 
instances, see xii. i, where the added bhumi ox prthivi (both are added in 
vs. 7) shows which of these words is meant by the English earth. They 
are also used to enclose an indication of the gender (m. f. n.) or number 
(du. pi.) of a Vedic word whose gender or number cannot otherwise be 
shown by the version. 

Square brackets are employed to enclose some of the words inserted 
in the translation for which there is no express equivalent in the 

Ell-bracketS| or square brackets minus the upper horizontal stroke 
(thus : L J )» were devised by the editor to mark as portions of this work 
for which Whitney is not responsible such additions or changes as were 
made by the editor (cf . p. xxviii, end). These types were devised partly 
because the usual parentheses and brackets were already employed for 
other purposes, and partly because they readily suggest the letter ell, the 
initial of the editor's name. 

Hand. — In order to avoid the expense of alterations in the electro- 
plates, all considerable additions and corrections have been put together 
on pages 1045-46, and reference is made to them in the proper places by 
means of a hand pointing to the page concerned (thus, at p. 327, line 1 1 : 
a®* See p. 1045). 

The small circle (thus : o ) represents the avagratia or division-mark 
of the pada-X.txX,^, This use of the circle is common in the mss. (as 
explained at p. cxxii) and has been followed in the Index Verborunt 
(see p. 4). 

The Italic colon ( .* ) is employed as equivalent of the vertical stroke 
used in ndgari to separate individual words or padas. Both circle and 
colon are used in the note to vi. 1 3 1 . 3. I regard both the circle and the 
colon as extremely ill adapted for the uses here explained. 

The letters a, b, c, d, e, f , etc., when set, as here, in Clarendon type, are 
intended to designate the successive padas of a Vedic stanza or verse. 

Alphabetic list of abbreviations. — The downright abbreviations and the 
abbreviated designations of books and articles follow here, all in a single 
alphabetically arranged list. 

not give each reference thereto m duplicate, or if his reader does not have at hand both the 
original and the reprint (and 'either of these cases is exceptional), the seeker of a citation is 
sure to be baffled in a large proportion of the instances concerned. It is amazing that an/ 
author or editor can be so heedless as to tolerate this evil practice. 

13. Abbreviations and Signs explained 


A A. = Aitareya-Aranyaka. Ed. Bibl. Ind. 

AB. = Aitareya-Brahmana. Ed. Th. Auf- 

recht Bonn. 1879. 
Abh. = Abhandlungen. 
A?S. = Aqvalayana- ^rSuta- Sutra. Ed. 

Bibl. Ind. 1874. 

In the ed., the 1 2 adhydyas of the work 
are divided into two Hexads (satkas)^ a 
Prior and a Latter, and the numbering of 
those of the Latter begins anew with i. 
In Whitney's ciutions, the numbers run 
from i. to xiL : thus (in his note to iv. 39. 9) 
A^S. II. ii. 14. 4 is cited as viii. 14. 4. 

AGS. = A^valayana-Grhya-Sutra. Ed. A. 

F. Stenzler in Sanskrit and German. 

Leipzig. 1864-5. Ed. also in Bibl. 

Ind. 1869. 
AJP. = American Journal of Philology. 

Ed. B. L. Gildersleeve. Baltimore. 

Ak. = Akademie. 
Amer. = American. 
Anukr. = Anukramani or^ sometimes the 

author of it. 
ApC^S. or Ap. = Apastamba-C^rauta-Sutra. 

Ed. R. Garbe in Bibl. Ind. 1882- 

1902. 3 vol's. 
ApGS. = Apastambiya-Grhya-Sutra. Ed. 

M. Wintemitz. Vienna. 1887. 
APr. = Atharva-Veda Pratiqakhya. Ed. 

W. D. Whitney in JAOS. (vii. 333- 

615). 1862. Text, translation, and 

elaborate notes. 
Aufrecht Das XV. Buch des AV. Text, 

translation, and notes. Ind. Stud. i. 

1 21-140. 1849. See below, p. 769. 
AV. = Atharva-Veda. AV. = also Athar- 

va-Veda-Samhita. Ed. by R. Roth and 

W.D.Whitney. Berlin. 1855-6. Ed. 

also by Shankar Pandurang Pandit. 

Bombay. 1895-8. 4 vol's, 
•av. = -avasftna : see explanation following. 

In the excerpts from the Anukr., the 
Sanskrit eka-^ dvi-^ tri-^ etc., constantly 
recurring in composition with avasdna and 
/J///X, are abbreviated by the Arabic nu- 
merals I, 2, 3, etc. Thus, at p. 727, the 
excerpt j-av. 6-p. atyasti may be read as 
try-avasdnd sat-padd ^tyastih. 

B. = Brahmana. 

BAU. = Brhad-Aranyaka-Upanisad. Ed. 
Otto Bohtlingk. Leipzig. 1889. Other 
ed's : Gale, Bo., Poona. 

Baudhayana = Baudhayana-Dharma-C^as- 
tra. Ed. E. Hultzsch. Leipzig. 1884. 

Bergaigne : see Rel. V^d. 

Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel = Manuel pour 
^tudier le Sanscrit v^ique. By A. 
Bergaigne and V. Henry. Paris. 1890. 

Bibl. Ind. = Bibliotheca Indica, as desig- 
nation of the collection of texts and 
translations published by the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal in Galcutta. 

Bl. = Bloom field. 

Bloomfield (without further designation of 
title) = Hymns of the AV., together 
with extracts from the ritual books and 
the commentaries, translated by Mau- 
rice Bloomfield. Oxford. 1897. This 
book is vol. xlii. of SBE. 

In this work HI. sums up a very large 
part, if not all, of his former " Contribu- 
tions " to the exegesis of this Veda, which 
he had published in AJP. (vii., xi., xii., 
xvii.), JAOS. (xiii., xv., xvi. — PAOS. 
included), ZDMG. (xlviii.). The " Contri- 
butions " are cited by the abbreviated des- 
ignations (just given) of the periodicals 

Bloomfield, Atharvaveda = his part, so en- 
titled, of the Grundriss. 1899. 

Bo. = Bombay. 

BR. = BShriingk and Roth's Sanskrit- 
Worterbuch. Published by the Impe- 
rial Russian Academy of Sciences. St 
Petersburg. 1 852-1 875. Seven vol's. 
Often called the (Major) (St.) Peters- 
burg Lexicon. Cf. OB. 

Caland (without further indication of title) 
= Altindisches Zauberritual. Probe 
einer Uebersetzung der wichtigsten 
Theile des K&uqika-Sutra (kandikSs 7- 
52). By W. Caland. Amsterdam. 
1900. From the Verhandelingen der 
Koninklijke Ak. van Wetenschappen 
te Amsterdam. Deel III. No. 2. 

Caland, Todtengebrauche = Die Altindi- 
schen Todten- und Bestattungsgebrau- 
che. Amsterdam. 1896. Seep. 813. 


Getteral Introduction^ Part I. : by the Editor 

Caland, Totenverehrung = Ueber Toten- 
verehrung bei einigen der Indo-Ger- 
manischen Volker. Amsterdam. 1 888. 

Caland, PitrrAedha-Sutras = The Pitrme- 
dha-Sutras of Baudhayana, Hiranyake- 
gin, Gautama. Leipzig. 1896. 

Gale. = Calcutta or Calcutta edition. 

^B. = ^atapatha • Brahmana. Ed. A. 
Weber. Berlin. 1855. 

CQS. = ^ankhayana- Qrauta-Sutra. Ed. 
A. HiUebrandt. Bibl. Ind. 1888. 

^GS. = Qankhayana-Grhya-Sutra. Ed. H. 
Oldenberg in Ind. Stud. (xv. 1-166). 
1878. Skt. and German. 

ChU. = Chandogya - Upanisad. Ed. O. 
Bohtlingk. Leipzig. 1889. Skt and 
German. Ed. also in Bibl. Ind., Bo., 
and Poona. 

Collation- Book = manuscript volumes con- 
taining Whitney's fundamental tran- 
script of the AV. text and his collations, 
etc. For details, see p. cxvii. 

comm. = the commentary on AV. (as- 
cribed to Sayana and published in the 
Bombay ed.) ; or^ the author thereof. 

Da^. Kar. = Da^a Karmani, a paddhati to 
certain parts of the Kau^. See BFs 
introduction, p. xiv. 

Delbriick. Altindische Syntax. Halle. 

Denkschr. ='Denkschriften. 

Deussen, Geschichte = Allgemeine Ge- 
schichte der Philosophie mit besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung der Religionen. By 
Paul Deussen. Leipzig. The first vol. 
(part I, 1894: part 2, 1899) treats of 
the philosophy of the Veda and of the 

Deussen, Upanishads = Sechzig Upani- 
shad^s des Veda aus dem Sanskrit 
iibersetzt und mit Einleitungen und 
Anmerkungen versehen. Leipzig. 

Dhanvantari = Dhanvantarlya - Nighantu. 
Some references are to the Poona ed.; 
Roth's references are, I presume, to 
his transcript described by Garbe, 
Verzeichniss der (Tiibinger) Indischen 
Handschriften, No. 230. 

du. = dual. 

ed. = edition (of) or editor or edited by 
or in. 

et al. = et alibi. 

f. or fem. = feminine. 

Festgruss an Bdhtlingk = Festgruss an 
Otto von Bdhtlingk zum Doktor-Jubi- 
laum, 3. Februar 1888, von seinen 
Freunden. Stuttgart 1888. 

Festgruss an Roth = Festgruss an Rudolf 
von Roth zum Doktor-Jubilaum, 24. 
August 1893, von seinen Freunden und 
Schiilem. Stuttgart. 1893. 

Florenz = his German translation of AV. 
vi. 1-50, with comment, in vol. xii. of 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage. GSttingen. 
1887. See below, p. 281. 

GB. = Gopatha-Brahmana. Ed. Bibl. Ind. 

Geldner : see Siebenxig Lieder and Ved. 

Ges. = Gesellschaft. 

GGA. = Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. 

GGS. = Gobhila-Grhya-Sutra. Ed. Fried- 
rich Knauer. Leipzig. 1885. Text, 
transL, and comment : in 2 parts. 

Grammar or (Skt) Gram, or Gr. = Whit- 
ney's Sanskrit Grammar, 2d ed. Leip- 
zig and Boston. 1889. There is a 3d 
ed. (1896), which is essentially a re- 
print of the 2d. 

Grassmann = Rig-Veda. Uebersetzt etc. 
Leipzig. 1876-7. 2 vol's. 

Griffith = The hymns of the AV., trans- 
lated, with a popular commentary. By 
Ralph T. H. Griffith. Benares and Lon- 
don, 1895-6. 2 vol's. Cf. p. xcv, above. 

Grill = Hundert Lieder des AV. By Julius 
Grill. 2ded. Stuttgart 1888. Trans- 
lation and comment. 

Grohmann = Medicinisches aus dem AV., 
mit besonderem Bezug auf den Takman. 
In Ind. Stud. (ix. 381-423). 1865. 

Grundriss = Grundriss der Indo-Arischen 
Philologie und Alter tumskunde. Be- 
griindet von Georg Biihler. Fortgesetzt 
von F. Kielhom. Strassburg. 1896-. 

GurupujakaumudI = Festgabe zum fiinf- 
zigjahrigen Doctorjubilaum, Albrecht 

13. Abbreviations and Signs explained 


Weber dargebracht von seinen Freun- 
den und Schiilem. Leipzig. 1896. 

h. = hymn or hymns. 

H§ia*s Saptaqataka : reference is made to 
A. Weber's treatise thereon (Leipzig. 
1870) and to his edition thereof (Leip- 
zig. 1 88 1). 

Hardy = Die Vedisch - brahmanische Pe- 
riode der Religion des alten Indiens. 
By Edmund Hardy. Miinster in West- 
phalia. 1893. 
•Henry (without further indication of title) 
= Victor Henry's French translation 
of books vii.-xiii. of the AV., with com- 
mentary. It appeared in 4 vol's (Paris, 
Maisonneuve) as follows: book xiii., 
1 891; book vii., 1892; books viii.-ix., 
1894; books x.-xii., 1896. For pre- 
cise titles, see below, pages 388, 471, 
562, 708. 

HGS. = Hiranyakeqi-Grh3ra-Sutra. Ed. J. 
Kirste. Vienna. 1 889. 

Hillebrandt, Veda-Chrestomathie. Berlin. 

Hillebrandt, Ved. Myth. = his Vedische 
Mythologie, Breslau. 1891-1902. 

Hillebrandt, Ritual-litteratur = his part of 
the Grundriss. 1897. 

IF. = Indogermanische Forschungen. Ed. 
by Brugmann and Streitberg. S trass- 
burg. 1 892-. 

I FA. = Anzeiger fiir Indogermanische 
Sprach- und Altertumskunde. ** Bei- 
blatt " to I F. 

Index Verborum = Whitney's Index Ver- 
borum to the published Text of the 
AV. Issued as JAOS., vol. xii. New 
Haven, Conn. 1881. 

Ind. Streifen = A. Weber's Indische 
Streifen. Berlin and Leipzig. 1868. 
1869. 1879. 3 vol's. 

Ind. Stud. = Indische Studien. Ed. Al- 
brecht Weber. Volume i. (Berlin. 1849- 
50) to volume xviii. (Leipzig. 1898). 

JA. = Journal Asiatique. Publid par la 
Socidt^ Asiatique. Paris. 1822-. 
Cited by series, vol., and page. 

JAOS. = Journal of the American Oriental 
Society. New Haven, Conn. 1843-. 

JB. = Jaiminlya-BrShmana. Cited from 

Whitney's transcript, described by him 

at JAOS. xi., p. cxliv, = PAOS. for 

May, 1883. 
JRAS. = Journal of the Royal Asiatic 

Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

London. 1 834-. 
JUB. = Jaiminiya- Upanisad - Bcahmana. 

Ed. H. Oertel in JAOS. (xvi. 79-260). 

1896 (presented, 1893). Text, transl., 

K. = Kathaka ; ^r, sometimes the codex 

K. Von Schroeder's ed. of book i. of 

the Ktthaka appeared in Leipzig, 1900. 
Kap. = Kapisthala-S ambits. 
KathaB. = Katha-Brahmana : see below, 

• • • ' 

P- 903* IT 2- 
Katha-hss. = Die Tiibinger Katha-Hand- 

schriften und ihre Beziehimg zum TA. 

By L. von Schroeder. Sb. der k. Ak. der 

Wiss. in Wien. Vol. 137. Vienna. 1898. 
Kauq. = The Kiuqika-Sutra of the AV. 

With extracts from the commentaries 

of DSrila and Keqava. Ed. Maurice 

Bloomfield. Issued as vol. xiv. of JAOS. 

1 890. For concordance of two methods 

of citing this text, see p. 1012. 
KB. = KausTtaki-Brahmana. Ed. B. Lind- 

ner. Jena. 1887. 
KBU. = Kausitaki - Brahmana- Upanisad. 

Ed. E. B. Cowell. Bibi. Ind. 1861. 

Text and translation. 
KQS. = Katyayana-QrSuta-Sutra. Ed. A. 

Weber. Beriin. 1859. 
Ke^. = Keqava or his scholia on Kiluq. 

See BPs introd., p. xvi. 
Kuhn's Pali-gram. = Beitrage zur Pali- 

grammatik von Ernst W. A. Kuhn. 

Beriin. 1875. 
KZ. = Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprach- 

forschung .... begriindet von Th. 

Aufrecht und A. Kuhn. Berlin. (Now 

Giitersloh.) 1851-. 
Lanman, Noun- Inflection = Noun - Inflec- 
tion in the Veda. By C. R. Lanman. 

In JAOS. (x. 325-601). 1880. 
Lanman, (Skt.) Reader = Sanskrit Reader, 

with Vocabulary and Notes. By C. R. 

Lanman. Boston. 1888. 


General Introduction^ Part /. ; by the Editor 

L^S. = Latyayana- Qrauta- Sutra. Ed. 

Bibl. Ind. 1872. 
Ludwig (without further indication of title) 

= vol. iii. of his Der Rigveda in 6 vol's. 

Prag. 1876-88. 

Vors i.-ii. contain the translation of the 
RV., and iv.-v. contain the comment. 
Vol. iii. (1878) contains many translations 
from AV. and is entitled Die Mantra-lit- 
teratur und das alte Indienals Einleitung 
2ur Ueb. des RV. — Where reference to 
the transl. of the RV. equivalent (in vol. i. 
or ii.) of an AV. passage is intended, that 
fact is made clear (as at p. 118 top, 113, 
248, etc.). 

Ludwig, Kritik des RV.-textes : see p. 860. 

m. = masculine. 

Macdonell, Ved. Mythol. = his Vedic My- 
thology in the Grundriss. 1897. 

MB. = Mantra- Brahmana (of the SV.). 
Cited from ed. in periodical called 
Usha. Calcutta. 1891. 

MBh. = Maha-Bharata. Citations refer to 
Bo. ed. (or ed's), or to both Bo. and 
Calc. ed*s. 

M^m. Soc. Ling. = M^moires de la Soci^t^ 
de linguistique de Paris. 

MGS. = MSnava-Grhya- Sutra. Ed. F. 
Knauer. St. Petersburg. 1897. 

MP.= Mantra-Patha : or, the Prayer Book 
of the Apastambins. Ed. M. Winter- 
nitz. Oxford. 1897. Part of the ma- 
terial of MP. had already been given 
in the work cited below under Winter- 
nits^ Hochzeitsrituelly as explained 
also below, p. 738. 

MS. = Maitrayani-Samhita. Ed. L. von 
Schroeder. Leipzig. 188 1-6. 

Muir (without further indication of title) = 
OST., which see. 

Muir, Metrical Translations from Sanskrit 
Writers. London. 1879. 

N. = North. 

n. = note ; or, sometimes neuter. 

Naigeya-kanda of SV. : see below, under 

Naks. or Naks. K. = Naksatra-Kalpa. See 
BFs introd. to Kau^., p. xix. 

Noun-Inflection : see above, under Lan- 

O. and L. S. = Oriental and Linguistic 
Studies. By W. D. Whitney. New 
York. 1873. 1874. 2 vol's. 

OB. = Otto B6htlingk's Sanskrit- W6rter- 
buch in kiirzerer Fassung. St. Peters- 
burg. 1879-89. Seven vol's. Often 
called the Minor (St) Petersburg 
Lexicon. Cf. BR. 

Oldenberg, Die Hymnen des RV. Band L 
Metrische imd textgeschichtliche Pro- 
legomena. Berlin. 1888. 

Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda. Ber- 
lin. 1894. 

Omina und Portenta : see under Weber. 

OST. = Original Sanskrit Texts. Trans- 
lated by John Muir. London. 1868- 

73. 5 vol's, 
p. = pada-patha. 

-p. (as in 3-p., 4-p.) = p&da (in the sense 
of subdivision of a stanza) : see expla- 
nation above, under -av. 

Paipp. = Paippalada or Kashmirian AV. 
For details concerning the collation 
and its sources and the birch-bark 
original and the facsimile, see above, 
pages Ixxx £E. 

Pan. = Panini's Grammar. 

Pandit, Shankar Pandurang : see below, 
under SPP. 

PAOS. = Proceedings of the American 
Oriental Society. 

They were formerly issued (with pagina- 
tion in Roman numerals to distinguish 
them from the Journal proper) as appen- 
dixes to be bound up with the volumes of 
the Journal ; but they were also issued in 
separate pamphlets as Proceedings for 
such and such a month and year. The 
citations below are so given that they can 
readily be found in either issue. 

Pari^. = AV. Pari^ista : cf. Bl's introd. to 

Kaug., p. xix. 
PB. = Paficavih^a-Brahmana or Tandy a- 

Maha-brahmana. Ed. Bibl. Ind. 1870- 

74. 2 vol's. 

Peterson, Hymns from the RV. Ed. with 
Sayana's comm., notes, and a transl. by 
Peter Peterson. Bombay. 1888. 

Pet. Lex. = the Major St. Petersburg Lexi- 
con. See BR. 

13- Abbreviations and Signs explained 


Pet Lexx. = the two St. Petersburg Lexi- 
cons, Major and Minor. See BR. and 

PGS. = Paraskara-Grhya-Sutra. Ed. A. 
F. Stenzler. Leipzig. 1876. 1878. 
Skt. and German. 

Pischel, Gram, der Pr&krit-sprachen = his 
part, so entitled, of the Grundriss. 

Pischel, Ved. Stud. : see below, under Ved. 

p. m. = prima manu. 

Poona ed. = ed. of the Ananda-A^rama 

Ppp. = Piippalada AV. : see above, under 

Prat or Pr. = Prati^akhya of the AV. : see 
above, under APr. 

Proc. = Proceedings. 

R. = Roth ; or^ sometimes the codex R. 

Rajan. = Rajanighantu. Cited no doubt 
from Roth's own ms., now Tubingen 
ms. 176. There is a Poona ed. 

Rel. V^d. = Abel Bergaigne's La Religion 
v^dique d'apr^s les hymnes du RV. 
Paris. 1878-83. 3 vol's. Bloomfield 
made an Index of RV. passages there- 
in treated. Paris. 1897. 

Rev. = Review. 

Roth, Zur Litteratur und Geschichte des 
Weda. Stuttgart 1846. 

Roth, Uebcr den Atharva Veda. Tubin- 
gen. 1856. 

Roth, Der Atharvaveda in Kaschmir. 
Tubingen. 1875. 

Roth, Ueber gewisse Kiirzungen des 
Wortendes im Veda. Verhandlungen 
des VII. Internationalen Orientalisten- 
Congresses. Vienna. 1887. 

Roxburgh, Flora Indica: the citations by 
vol. and page refer to Carey's ed. of 
1832 ; but these can easily be found in 
the margin of the Calc. reprint of 1874. 

RPr. or RV. Pr§t = RV. PrSti^akhya. 
£d. Max Mill ler. Leipzig. 1869. Also 
by A. Regnier in J A. 

RV. = Rig- Veda or Rig-Veda- Samhita. 
Ed. Th. Aufrecht Also by Max 

RW. = Roth and Whitney. 

s. = sarnhiti-patha. 

Sachsische Ber. = Berichte der konigl. 
Sachsischen Ges. der Wiss. 

SB. = Sadvihqa-Br^mana. Cited pre- 
sumably from ed. of JibSnanda Vidya- 
sUgara. Calc. 1881. Ed. of part by 
K. Klemm. Giitersloh. 1894. 

Sb. = Sitzungsberichte. Those of the Ber- 
lin Ak. are usually meant. 

SBE. = Sacred Books of the East. Transl. 
by various Oriental Scholars and ed. 
by F. Max Miiller. Oxford. 1879- 
1904. 49 vol's. 

Scherman, Philosophische Hymnen = Phil. 
Hymnen aus der RV.- und AV.-Sam- 
hita verglichen mit den Philosophemen 
der alteren Upanishad's. Strassburg. 

schol. = scholia of D&rila or of Keqava or 
of both, on K&U9. : .see Bl's introd., p. 
xi and p. xvi. 

von Schroeder : see above, Katha-hss., 
and below, Zwei Hss. 

Siebenzig Lieder des RV. Uebersetzt 
von Karl Geldner und Adolf Kaegi. 
Mit Beitragen von R. Roth. Tiibingen. 

s.m. = secunda manu. 

Speyer, Vedische Syntax = his part of the 
Grundriss, entitled Vedische und San- 
skrit Syntax. 1896. 

SPP. = Shankar Pandurang Pandit as 
editor of the Bombay edition of the A V. 
It is entitled: Atharvavedasamhit^ 
with the Commentary of SSyanacarya. 
1895-8. 4 vol'.s. 

Surya - Siddhanta = Translation of the 
Surya-Siddhanta, a Text-book of Hindu 
Astronomy; with Notes; etc. InJAOS. 
(vi. 141-498). i860. 

SV. = Die Hymnen des Sama-Veda. Ed. 
Th. Benfey. Leipzig. 1848. Text, 
transl., glossary. 

The verses of the Prior drcika are cited, 
by the numbers in natural sequence, as i. 
I to i. 585 ; similarly, those of the Latter 
drcika^ as ii. I to ii. 1225. — The verses of 
theNaigeya supplement to the Prior drcika 


General Introduction^ Part /. : by the Editor 

are cited as SV. i. 586 to i. 641, and as 
edited by S. Goldschmidt in the Monats- 
• bericht der k. Ak. der Wiss. zu Berlin, 
session of Apr. 23, 1868. Cf. note to AV. 
iv. 26. 1 and to xiiL 2. 23. 

TA. = Taittiriya- Aranyaka. Ed. Bibl. 

Ind. 1872. There is also a Podna ed. 
TB. = Taittiriya - Brahmana. Ed. Bibl. 

Ind. 1859-? There is also a Poona ed. 
TPr. = Taittiriya-Prati^akhya. Ed. W. D. 

Whitney. InJAOS. (ix. 1-469). 

187 1. 
Trans. = Transactions. 
TS. = Taittiriya-Samhita. Ed. A. Weber. 

In Ind. Stud., voFs xi. and xii. Leipzig. 

1 87 1 -2. There is also a Poona ed. 
Vait. = Vai tana-Sutra. Ed. R. Garbe. 

London. 1878. German transl. by 

him. Strassburg. 1878. 
Ved. Stud. = Vedische Studien. Von R. 

Pischel und K. F. Geldner. Stuttgart. 

3 vol's. 1889. 1897. 1901. 
VPr. = Vajasaneyi-Prati^akhya. Ed. A. 

Weber. In Ind. Stud. (iv.). 1857-8. 

Skt. and German. 
VS. = Vajasaneyi-Samhita. Ed. A. Weber. 

Berlin. 1852. 
vs. (never v., which is used as meaning 5) 

= verse : vss. = verses : cf., for exam- 
ple, line 2 of note to iv. 12. i. 
W. = Whitney; or^ sometimes the codex 


Weber (without further indication of title) 

= Weber's Indische Studien: see 

above, Ind. Stud. 
Weber, Omina und Portenta : in Abh. der 

k. Ak. der Wiss. for 1858. Berlin. 

Weber, Rajasuya = Ueber die Konigs- 

weihe, den Rajasuya: in Abh. der k. 

Ak. der Wiss. for 1893. Berlin. 1893. 
Weber, Sb. : for the meaning in book 

xviii., see below, p. 813. 

Weber, Vajapeya = Ueber den Vajapeya : 
in Sb. der k. Ak. der Wiss. for 1892, 
pages 765-813. Berlin. 1892. 

Weber, Vedische Beitrage. 

Under this title was issued a series of 9 
articles in Sb. der k. Ak. der Wiss. zu 
Berlin, from 1894 to 1901. They are 
usually cited by ^S*^. and the date. For the 
AY., the most important is no. 4 (1895, 
concluded 1896), treating book xviii., as 
explained below, p. 813. 

Weber's Translations of books i.-v. and 
xiv. and xviii. : for these, see p. cvii. 

Wh. or Whitney, Grammar: see above, 
under Grammar. 

Whitney, Index Verborum : see above, 
under Index. 

Whitney, O. and L. S. : see above, under 
O. and L. S. 

Whitney, Roots = The Roots, Verb-forms, 
and primary Derivatives of the San- 
skrit Language. Leipzig. 1885. 

Whitney's other contributions relating to 
the AV. : for some of these, see Preface, 
pages xxiii, xxv, xxvi. 

Winternitz or (in book xiv. : cf. below, p. 
738) simply Wint. = his Hochzeits- 
rituell in the Denkschriften der k. Ak. 
der Wiss., vol. xl. Vienna. 1892. 

Wiss. = Wissenschaften. 

WZKM. = Wiener Zeitschrift fur die 
Kunde des Morgenlandes. Vienna. 
1 887-. 

ZDMG. = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Mor- 
genlandischen Gesellschaft. Leipzig. 
1 847-. 

Zimmer (without further indication of title) 
= his Altindisches Leben. Berlin. 1 879. 

Zwei Hss. = Zwei Handschriften der k. k. 
Hofbibliothek in Wien mit Fragmen- 
ten des Kathaka. By von Schroeder. 
In Sb. der k. Ak. der Wiss. for 1895 
(38 pages). Vol. cxxxiii. Vienna. 1896. 

14. Tabtilar View of Translations and Native Comment 

Previous translations. — Native commentary. — It may prove useful to 
have, in convenient tabular form, a list of the most important or compre- 
hensive previous translations, with dates ; and also a list of those parts of 

14. Tabular View of Translations and Native Comment cvii 

the text upon which the native commentary has been published in the Bom- 
bay edition. The dates are taken from the title-pages of the volumes con- 
cerned ; the dates of the prefaces, or of the parts of the volumes concerned, 
are sometimes considerably earlier. For bibliographical details, see the 
List, pages ci-cvi. The braces at the right show which of SPFs four 
volumes contains the text, or the text with comment, of any given book. 

I. Translation of the whole text. 

Griffith, 1895, 1896: see p. cii. 

n. Translations of a mass of selected h]^na. 

Bloomfield, 1897: see p. ci. Ludwig, 1878 : see p. civ. Grill, 1888: see p. ciL 

Translations of single books. in. b. Books with comment of '^ Siya^a." 

L Weber, Indische Studien, iv. 1858. Book i., entire. 

ii. " " " xiii. 1873. Book ii., entire. 

iiL *' ** " xvii. 1885. Book iii., entire, 

iv. " " " xviii. 1898. Book iv., entire. 

m. a 








* SPP'8 vol. L 







vi. 1-50. Florenz (see p. 281). 1887. 

vii. Henry, Le livre vii. 1892. 

viii. ** Les livres viii et ix. 1894. 

ix. " *' *' " 

X. " Les Ii vies X, xietxii. 1896. 



xiii. '* LeshymnesRohitas. 1891. 
xiv. Weber, Indische Studien, v. 1862. 

XV. Aufrecht, Indische Studien, i. 1850. 

xviiL Weber, Sitzungsberichte. 1895-6. 




Book vi., entire. 
Book vii., entire. 
Book viii., 1-6. 

. SPP's vol. iL 

Book xi., entire. ' 

> SPP's vol. iu. 

Book xvii., entire. 
Book xviii., entire. 
Book xix., entire. 
Book XX., 1-37. 

> SPFs vol. iv. 

Chronologic sequence of previous translations and discussions. — In judg- 
ing between the translations or opinions of different exegetes, it is 
desirable to know their chronological sequence. In giving the detailed 
bibliographical minutiae below, at the beginning of each hymn, I have 
always endeavored to arrange them chronologically ; but the following 
brief table in addition will not be superfluous. The difference in time 
of the printing of the translations of Griffith and Bloomfield and Henry 
(x.-xii.) was so small that they must have been each independent of the 
others. For the places of publication etc., see the List, pages ci-cvi. 

1850. Aufrecht, book xv. 
1858. Weber, book i. 
1862. Weber, book xiv. 

1872. Muir, select, OST. v. 

1873. Weber, 2d ed., book ii. 

1878. Ludwig, selections. 

1879. Zimmer, selections. 
1885. Weber, book iii. 

1887. Scherman, selections. 

1887. Florenz, book vi. 1-50. 

1888. Grill,2ded., 100 hymns. 

1891. Henry, book xiii. 

1892. Henry, book vii. 

1894. Deussen,Geschichte,i. I. 
Henry, books viii.-ix. 

1895. SPP*s text, vol's i.-ii. 

1895. Griffith, books i.-ix. 
Weber, book xviii. 1-2. 

1896. Weber, book xviii. 3-4. 
Griffith, books x.-xx. 
Henry, books x.-xii. 

1897. Bloomfield, selections. 

1898. Weber, books iv.-v. 
SPP's text, vol's iii.-iv. 




General Premises 

[Contents of this Part. — While Part I. contains much that might be pre- 
sented in a preface, the contents of Part II. are more strictly appropriate 
for an introduction. The contents of Part I. are briefly rehearsed at 
p. Ixiii; and the contents of both Parts, I. and XL, are given with more 
detail and in synoptic form at pages x-xv, which see. As was the case 
with the ten text-critical elements of the commentary in Part I., the 
subject-matter of Part II. also may be put under ten headings as follows: 

1. Description of the manuscripts. 6. Accentuation-marks in the mss. 

2. Their opening stanza. 7. Orthographic method of Berlin text 

3. Whitney's Collation-Book. 8. Metrical form of the Atharvan samhitA. 

4. Repeated verses in the mss. 9. Divisions of the text 

5. Refrains and the like in the mss. 10. Its extent and structure. J 

LAuthorshlp of this Part. — While Part I. is wholly from the hand of 
the editor, Part II. is elaborated in large measure from material left by 
Whitney. Chapters 2 and 3, however, although written by the editor^ 
are incorporated into this Part, because the most fit place for them is 
here, just after chapter i. In the rewritten portions of the other chap- 
ters, it has not been attempted thoroughly to separate the author's part 
from the editor's; but paragraphs which are entirely by the editor are 
enclosed in ell-brackets, L J. The whole matter has been carefully stated 
by me in the preface, at pages xxix-xxx, and these the reader is requested 
to consult.J ' 

z. Description of the Manuscripts used by Whitney 

[The brief designations of his manuscripts (sigla codicum). — The sigla 
O. and L. seem to be arbitrary. It is helpful to note that Whitney appar- 
ently intended that all the rest should be suggestive. Thus B., P., R., T., 
and D. are the initials respectively of Berlin, Paris, Roth, Tanjore, and 
Deccan ; small p. of course means /^^-text ; and small s. means samhitd- 
text ; and K. was the first letter of Bikaner not previously employed as 


ex General Introductiotiy Part II, : in part by Whitney 

siglum. M. and W., which designate the mss. of the Mill collection and 
Wilson collection of the Bodleian, were chosen as being initials of Mill 
and Wilson. The letters E. I. H., as designating the mss. of the Library 
of the India Office in London, were plainly meant to suggest the name 
East India House, the designation of the London establishment of the 
Hon. East India Company previous to 1858. Observe that Whitney's 
**I." was first used by him to designate E.I.H. ms. No. 2142 (Eggeling's 
No. 234), but only until he discovered that that ms. was a mere copy of 
the Polier ms. in the British Museum ; after that time Whitney collated 
the Polier original, retaining for it, however, the designation ** I." The 
sigla of the mss. used by Whitney before publication are essentially the 
same as those given by him at the end of his Introductory Note to the 
AV.Pr., p. 338, which see.J 

[Synoptic table of the manuscripts used by Whitney. — It will be conven- 
ient to have, in addition to Whitney's description of his mss., a synoptic 
table of them, cast in such a form that the reader may easily see just 
what ones were available for any given book. The following table is 
essentially the same as one which Whitney made for his own use. J 










* Dec- 


Berlin Pari 

s Oxford 


India House " 
















— ., -^ 

















• • 















• ■ • 















































. H. 









■ • 



" M." 











• V ■ 



♦« M." 













" M." 













" M." 























• • 














t • • 










































































































[Berlin manuscripts of the Atharva-Veda. — A tabular view of the vari- 
ous numberings and designations of the nine Berlin mss., Weber, Nos. 
331-339, will be found useful and is given here. The left-hand column 

I. DescripHofi of t/te Manuscripts used by Whitney cxi 

gives the sigla used by Whitney, but with some marks (a, b, c, ', ") added 
for convenience of reference to or from the preceding table. The second 
column shows which books any given ms. contains. The third gives the 
numbers of the mss. as they stand in Weber's Catalogue ; and the fourth 
gives the old numbers assigned to those mss. when they formed a part of 
the collection of Sir Robert Chambers. The right-hand column shows what 
book or group of books was transcribed by Whitney from the original ms. 
named in the same line. 




Copied by Whitney 


• • 



Books i.-iv. and vi.-iz. 





Books z.-zviiL 





Book zz. 









Book V. 



















LManuscripts used by Whitney before publication of the text. — The fol- 
lowing descriptions were written out by Whitney in such form as to 
require almost no changes. J 

Bp. Under this designation are, for convenience's sake, grouped two 
Berlin /^^-manuscripts, making together a complete /^^-text to books 
i.-xviii. The first manuscript, Bp.* (Chambers, No. 8 ; Weber, No. 332), is 
described on pp. 82-83 of Weber's Catalogue of the Berlin Sanskrit mss. 
It contains books i.-ix., written in a clear but rather rude hand, quite 
fairly correctly, and accented throughout in a uniform manner. At the 
end of book ii. is a colophon (given in full by Weber), stating the date as 
A.D. 1 593-4 ; but this is probably copied from the scribe's original. At 
the end of the fourth book was perhaps another colophon ; but, if so, it 
is lost, with the last word of the last verse in the book, by the omission 
of a leaf (leaf 125). The second manuscript, Bp.^ (Chambers, No. 108; 
Weber, No. 335 : see Weber's Catalogue, pp. 83-84), containing books 
x.-xviii., is defective at the end, lacking the last two verses of xviii. 
(except the first word of 4. %%)y and of course also the colophon. It is 
written in three different hands, with fair correctness (Weber's note, 
<< by the same hand as 334," is a mistake). It is accented in the same 
manner as No. 332. 

Bp.' This designation also applies to more than one manuscript : the 
first manuscript, Bp.**, contains only book i. (Chambers, No. 117; Weber, 
No. 331 : Cat., p. 82), is handsomely and very accurately written, and is 
quite independent of Bp. It is dated a.d. 1632. Its mode of accentua- 
tion changes soon after the beginning (see below, p. cxxi). The second 

cxii Gefieral Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

manuscript, Bp.'^ contains books v.-ix. This manuscript, though one in 
paper, size, and hand, has by some means become separated into two 
parts, the one (Chambers, 109; Weber, 333) containing only book v., and 
the other (Chambers, 107 ; Weber, 334 : both p. 83 of Cat.) containing 
books vi.-ix. They are less independent than Bp/", representing the 
same proximate original as Bp. (though they are not copied from Bp., nor 
are they its original) ; but they are decidedly more accurate than Bp., and 
also more carefully corrected since copying. There is no colophon to 
either part, but they are as old, apparently, as Bp.**, or as Bp. ; their 
mode of accentuation agrees throughout with that of the latter. 

B. or Bs. This is the Berlin manuscript (Chambers, 115; Weber, 338 : 
pp. 84-85 of Cat.) of books xi.-xx. in samhitd't^xt. It is rather incorrect 
and somewhat worm-eaten. It bears the date a.d. 161 i. In the Berlin 
Library is (Chambers, 120; Weber, 339: p. 85 of Cat.) a modem copy 
LB."J of it, having value only as having been made before its original was 
so much worm-eaten as at present. 

P. and M. These are virtually one manuscript, being two copies of the 
same original, by the same hand, and agreeing precisely in form and 
style. P. is in the Paris Library, and is in two volumes, marked D 204 
and D 205. M., also in two volumes, belongs to the Mill collection in 
the Bodleian Library at Oxford.^ By some curious and unexplained blun- 
der, the copy of books vii.-x. that belonged to M. was sent by mistake to 
Paris with P., so that P*s first volume contains books i.-x., and its 
second vii.-xx., while of M. the first volume contains i.-vi., and the 
second xi.--xx. In the references made in the notes below, the copy of 
vii.-x. included in the first ^ volume of P. is accounted as M. The differ- 
ences of the two are not altogether such as are due only to the last copy- 
ist ; since P. has been collated and corrected (winning thereby some false 
readings). P. is also more carefully copied than M., but both are rather 
inaccurate reproductions of a faulty original. A colophon copied in both 
at the end of book xi. gives samvat 18 12 (a.d. 1756) as the date, doubtless 
of the original ; the copies are recent, probably since the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. Their mode of accentuation is by strokes, not dots ; 
that of P. is defective from xiii. i to xix. 10. 

W. This also, like M., belongs to the Bodleian Library at Oxford,® and 
is a samhitd-m^xiMscn^i of the whole Atharvan, excepting only book 

1 l,M. is the ms. listed by Aufrecht, in his Catalogue of the Bodleian Sanskrit Manuscripts, 
p. 392 b, as No. 80 of the Codices Milliani. J 

* LThe printer's copy of this paragraph in Whitney's handwriting says clearly " second vol- 
ume"; but the original description of the mss. (made by him probably in 1853) says clearly 
** first volume**: I feel sure that the original is right and have altered the proof to correspond 
therewith. J 

* LListed by Aufrecht, p. 385 b, as Nos. 499 and 500 of the Codices Wilsoniani. J 

I. Description of the Manuscripts used by Whitney cxiii 

xviii. It has no colophon at the end, but is a modern copy, on European 
paper, and in part made from the same original as P. and M., as is shown 
both by accordances in minute peculiarities and errors of reading, and 
by containing at the end of book xi. the same colophon as they. In 
certain of the books, namely i., ii., vi.-x., xvi., xvii., it shows signs of 
greater independence. It is by far the most faulty and least valuable of 
all the manuscripts collated. Only the first book is accentuated, nearly 
in the familiar RV. method. 

E. This is a sathhitd-vcidJiyiszxx^X, of all the twenty books (except the 
latter half of xviii., from 3. 6 on), belonging to the India Office Library in 
London. It is described in Eggeling's Catalogue on p. 37 (now numbered 
229 and 230; formerly 682 and 760 or 113). It has no date; Eggeling 
reckons it as of the 17th century. It is written on coarse rough paper, 
in a large and irregular hand, apparently by a scholar for his own use, 
and is fairly correct. The text is here and there a little mutilated at the 
edges by the reprehensible carelessness of the binder ; otherwise it is in 
good preservation. Its method of accentuation is very various : see 
below, p. cxxii. 

I. This is a complete copy of the samhiid'X.^xit in large form (14 Ji 
X 6% in.), being one of the set of Vedic manuscripts brought to Europe 
by Col. Polier, and now belonging to the British Museum in London. 
The Atharvan material is contained in two volumes : vol. i. gives first 
book xix., then xx., then i.-x. ; vol. ii. gives the AnukramanT, then the 
Gopatha Brahmana, then books xi.-xvii., then xviii. — each division, in 
both volumes, being separately paged. There is no colophon ; but the 
whole is evidently a modern copy, made for Col. Polier himself. It is on 
smooth paper, well written, and not especially inaccurate. It contains 
the verse fdm no devir etc. prefixed at the beginning, like some of the 
manuscripts compared later (see p. cxvi). 

Of all this Atharvan material of Polier's, a copy was made for Col. 
Martin while it remained in the latter's keeping (as Prof. H. H. Wilson 
informed me that he personally knew it to have been for a time) ; and this 
copy now constitutes Nos. 233-236 of the India Office collection, being 
credited as presented by R. Johnson (No. 234, containing Books xi.- 
xviii., has W. D. W.'s note to this effect reported in the Catalogue ; but 
Prof. Eggeling fails to notice that the other volumes are of the same 
character). The collation of No. 234 was begun, but abandoned on the 
discovery of its origin. Doubtless No. 232 (old number 901) is another 
copy of the Polier first volume, made at the same time for Colebrooke, 
or else [made for Martin andj later given [to ColebrookeJ by Martin, as 
it is stamped "Claud Martin " ; [at all events, the one who gave it to the 
Library was ColebrookeJ. 

cxiv General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

H. This manuscript, again, belongs to the India Office Library (No. 23 1 ; 
old No. 1 137; Catalogue, p. 37). It contains only the first six books, 
and is handsomely but rather incorrectly written. It has no date, but its 
accentuation was added in a.d. 1708. Its mode of marking the accent 
varies : see below. 

[Manuscripts collated after publication of the text. — The following 
descriptions also were written out by Whitney, except those of mss. R. 
and T., which have been supplied by the editor.J 

The above are all the manuscripts known to have been in Europe in 
1853 ; and upon them alone, accordingly, the printed text was founded. 
Those that follow have been since collated, and their readings are reported 
in the notes to the translation. 

0. In the possession at present of the Munich Library, but formerly of 
Prof. M. Haug (to whom they belonged at the time of their collation), are 
a parcel of Atharvan manuscripts containing a complete sanikitd-X.^xX.f 
with a pada-lQxt of six books, variously divided and bound together, 
and in part mixed with other texts. The samhitd'X.txt is designated as 
above : it is in five parts : i. books i.-v., on European paper, 8^ X 3 in., 
each book separately paged. The date at the end, gake 1737 (= a.d. 181 5) 
may be that of the original from which this copy is made. It is written 
in a small but neat and clear hand. 2. Books vi.-xvii., 8^ x 3^ in., writ- 
ten in a good sizeable hand, by a Mamnaji ; dated samvat 1690 (a.d. 1634) ; 
the paper is in parts badly damaged, so as hardly to hold together, and 
of two leaves in book xii. only fragments remain. It makes great use of 
the virdma^ and of ^ as anusvdra-^x^n. It numbers the verses only in 
vargaSf making no account of the hymns (silktas) ; nor does it notice the 
prapdthaka division. 3. Book xviii., 9)^ X 5 in. ; in a large regular hand; 
dated qake 1735 (a.d. 181 3). When collated, it was bound in one volume 
with pada-ms, of i.-iii. before it, and satnhitd of xx. after it. 4. Book xix., 
bound up with i. (samhitd i.-v.), and in all respects agreeing with it, save 
that the (copied }) date is two years later ; both are works of the same 
copyist. 5. Book xx., bound in (as above noted) after 3. The size is 
8^ X 4J4 in., and it is dated qake 1735 (a.d. 1813). 

Op. This designates the pada-ltxl of the Haug or Munich manuscripts, 
as above described. They include books i.-iv., xviii., and xx., in three 
divisions : i. books i.-iii., bound up (as noted above) with the samhitd- 
text of xviii. and xx. The books are paged separately, but all written by 
one hand ; the date at the end is qake 1733 (a.d. 181 i) ; size 9 x 4^ in. 
The hand is large and clear, and the text (corrected by the accentuator) 
very correct. 3. Book iv. : size 8x4 in.; date qake 1736 (a.d. 18 14). 
3. Books xviii. and xx., bound with the preceding, and of same size; 

I. Description of i/ie Manuscripts used by Whitney cxv 

separately paged ; date qake 1762 (a.d. 1840). From xx. are omitted the 
peculiar Atharvan parts, except hymn 2. 

O. and Op. were not collated word by word throughout, because use of 
them was allowed only for the time of a limited stay in Munich. Books 
xv.-xix., and the peculiar parts of xx., also \}ci^ parydya hymns in the pre- 
ceding books, and the /^^-text, were collated thoroughly ; in the met- 
rical parts of vi.-xiv. the comparison was made by looking through the 
transliterated copy and noting readings on all doubtful points. 

LThese mss. are described in the Verzeichniss der orientalischen Hand- 
schriften aus dent Nachlasse des Professor Dr, Martin Haug in Mtinchen, 
Miinchen, T. Ackermann, 1876. By the siglum O. are designated the 
mss. there numbered 12, 13, and 14; by Op., those numbered 15 and 17. 
The dimensions there given differ in part a little from those given by 
Whitney. It is worth while to report from JAOS. x., p. cxviii, W's criti- 
cal remark about this material : '' all in good and correct manuscripts, 
made by and for Hindu scholars (not copies by professional scribes for 
the use of Europeans)."J 

R. LThis is a complete samhitd-nts., belonging at the time of its collation 
(187s) to Roth, and now in the Tubingen University Library. It is 
described by Roth, Der Atharvaveda in Kaschtnir^ p. 6, and by Garbe, in 
his Verzeichniss^ as No. 12, p. ii. It is bound in two volumes, the one 
containing books i.~x., and the other, books xi.~xx. In the colophons to 
a number of the books (so viii., ix., x., xiv., xix.) is the date qake 1746 
(a.d. 1824); but at the end of xx. is the date samvat 1926 (a.d. 1870). 
It was bought for Roth from a Brahman in Benares by Dr. Hoernle, and 
Roth judged from the name of the scribe, Patuvardhana Vithala, that it 
originated in the Deccan. Whitney says (JAOS. x., p. cxviii, = PAOS. 
Nov. 1875) that it has special kindred with the Haug mss. Roth adds 
that it is written and corrected throughout with the most extreme care- 
fulness and is far more correct than the AV. mss. are wont to be.J 

T. LThis also is a complete samhitd-vas.^ a transcript made from the 
Tanjore-mss. described on p. 12 of A. C. Burnell's Classified index to the 
Sanskrit mss, in the palace at Tanjore and numbered 2526 and 2527. 
The transcript was sent to Roth by Dr. Burnell and is described by Roth 
and by Garbe in the places just cited under codex R. Books i.-iv. of the 
transcript are unaccented ; the rest are accented. According to Burnell, 
No. 2526 contains books i.-xx., is unaccented, and was written about 
A.D. 1800; and No. 2527 contains books v.-xx., is accented, and was writ- 
ten A.D. 1827 at Benares. I find no note stating the relation of Roth's 
transcript to its Tanjore originals : presumably the transcript of the unac- 
cented books, i.-iv., was taken from the unaccented No. 2526; and that 
of the accented books, v.-xx., from No. 2527. J 

cxvi General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

D. This is a /a^aSi-inanuscript belonging to the Deccan College at 
Poena, collated while in Roth's possession at Tubingen. It is unac- 
cented in book xviii. It is very incorrectly written, and its obvious 
errors were left unnoted. It gives a pada-lQxX even for book xix., but 
not for the peculiar parts of xx. [The Index to the Catalogue of 1888 
of the Deccan College mss. gives only two complete /^/fo-mss. of the AV., 
to wit, the ms. listed as III. 5 on p. 13, and the one listed as XII. 82 on 
p. 174. The Catalogue gives as date of the latter samvat 1720; and as 
date of the former, samvat 1 741. In the Collation-Book, Whitney gives 
at the end of book xx. the colophon of his D. with the dates samvat 1 741, 
fake 1606. This agreement in date seems to identify his D. with the 
ms. III. 5. That ms. is a part of the collection of 1870-71, made by 
Buhler; it is booked as consisting of 435 pages and as coming from 
Broach or Bharuch.J 

L. A /tf^fe-manuscript of xix. in the Berlin Library was apparently 
copied from D. while it was still in India (this copy is denoted by L.). 
Lit is described by Weber, Verzeichnissy vol. ii., p. 79, under No. i486, 
with details confirmatory of the above.J 

K. By this sign is meant a manuscript from Bikaner containing the 
complete samhitd'\,^\\.\ it was for some time in the hands of Roth at 
Tubingen, and was consulted by means of a list of some 1200 doubtful 
readings sent to Tubingen and reported upon. These concerned books 
i.-xviii. alone ; xix. and the peculiar parts of xx., not admitting of treatment 
in that way, did not get the benefit of the collation. The manuscript 
claims to be written in samvat 1735, qake 1600 (a.d. 1678-9), by Emmva- 
ganeqa^ under king Anupasinha, at Pattana-nagara. 

Accompanying this is a /^^&-manuscript written by the same scribe, 
but without accents. Where there is occasion for it, this is distinguished 
by the designation Kp. 

2. The Stanza 9dm no devir abhistaye as Opening Stanza 

[It was doubtless the initial stanza of the text in the Kashmirian recen- 
sion. — This stanza, which appears as i. 6. i of the Vulgate, doubtless 
stood at the beginning of the Paippalada text. In 1875, Roth, in his 
A V, in Kaschmir^ p. 16, remarks upon the general agreement in the tra- 
dition according to which qdtn no etc. was the initial stanza of Paipp., 
and not 7/ trisaptdh as in the Vulgate ; and regrets all the more on that 
account that the first leaf of the Paipp. ms. is lost. J 

[Q&ih no as initial stanza of the Vulgate text. — Whitney notes that this 
stanza is also found prefixed to the text of the Vulgate in four of the mss. 
used by him, to wit, I. and R. and O. and Op. Thus at the beginning of I. 
we have the stanza qdm no devir abhistaye entire, and then y/ tnsaptdA.j 

2. 714^ Stanza (am no devlr as Opening Stanza cxvii 

|_In 1 87 1, Haug had noted, p. 45 of his Brahma und die Brahntanen^ 
that the Mahabha§ya» in rehearsing the beginnings of the four Vedas, 
gives fwiff etc. as the beginning of the AV.,^ and that both of his mss. 
(our O. and Op., as just stated) prefix the stanza. In 1873, Ind, St, xiii. 
431-3, Weber again called attention to the fact concerning the Maha- 
bhasya, and to a similar one concerning the Gopatha Brahmana. In 1874, 
Indian Antiquary^ iii. 132, Bhandarkar speaks of our stanza as representa- 
tive pratika of the AV. in the Brahmayajfta or daily devotional recitation 
of the Hindus. For further discussion of the matter, see Bloomfield, 
Kaugika, Introduction, pages xxxvii and xxxviii, and the references there 
given, and his note to 9. 7, and his §§ 13-14 in the Grundriss, p. 14. 
We may add that in 1879 Bumell observed, on p. 37 b of his Tanjore 
Catalogue^ that the real South Indian mss. of the Mahabhasya ignore the 
AV. and omit the qdm no devir,\ 

3. Whitney's Collation-Book and his Collations 

[Description of the two volumes that form the Collation-Book. — The 

Collation-Book is the immediate source of the statements of this work 
concerning the variants of the European mss. of the Atharva-Veda. It 
contains, in Whitney's handwriting, the fundamental transcript (in Roman 
transliteration) of the text, and the memoranda of the subsequent colla- 
tions. It is bound in two volumes : of these, the second, comprehending 
books x.-xx., appears to have been written first, since it is dated " Berlin. 
Oct i8si-Jan 1852"; while the first, comprehending books i.-ix., is 
dated "Berlin. Jan-March 1852," and thus appears to have been written 
last. The volumes are of good writing-paper (leaves about 8 by 10 inches 
in size), the first containing 334 leaves, and the second, 372. J 

[Whitney's fundamental transcript of the text. — In copying book x. 
(the first book copied), Whitney has written the text on both sides of the 
leaf ; but for the books subsequently copied, books xi.-xx. and i.-ix., he 
has written the text on the verso only and used the recto of the next leaf 
for various memoranda. For all the first eighteen books except book v., 
this fundamental copy is a transcript of the pada-K^^X. contained in the 
two Berlin pada-va^^, (see the table on page cxi), called Chambers, 8 
and 108, and designated above as Bp. For book v., he copied from one 
of the four mss. to which the designation Bp.* is applied, to wit from 
Chambers, 109. J 

^ [^ While reading proof, I see that Weber had made the same observation in 1S62, Ind, Stud, 
V. 78. Moreover, the fact that ^dm no figures as opening stanza of AV. in the GB. at i. 29 is 
now used (1904) by Caland, WZKM. xviii. 193, to support his view that the GB. attaches itself 
to the Piipp. recension. J 

cxviii General Introduction^ Part IL : in part by Whitney 

LThe fundamental copy of book xix. was made by Whitney from the 
samhitd'VCis. Chambers, 1 15 = B. He appears to have copied the text first 
on the recto, without word-division, and using Roman letters, although 
applying to them the vertical and horizontal accent strokes as if to 
ndgari ; and afterwards to have written out the text on the opposite page, 
the verso of the preceding leaf, with word-division, and with accents 
marked in the usual European way. At xix. 27. 6 Whitney makes the 
note, "ace. from Paris ms. to the end of the book." — For book xx., the 
transcript was made from Chambers, 114 = Bp.*^.J 

[Collations made before publication of the text. The Berlin collations 
(first collations). — In this paragraph, only books i.-xix. are had in view, 
and codex B.", as being a mere copy of B.', is disregarded. From the 
table on p. ex, it appears that for books ii.-iv., x., and xix. there was 
only one ms. at Berlin, and so none available for collation. The first col- 
lation of book V. (since this was copied from Bp.* = Chambers, 109) was 
made of course (see the table) from Bp. = Ch. 8. The first collation of 
the books copied from Bp. was made (also of course) from Bp.*: that 
is, the first collation of book i. was made with Ch. 117, and that of books 
vi.-ix. with Ch. 107, For books xi.-xviii. the collation was made of 
course with B. = Ch. 115. J 

[The Paris and Oxford and London collations. — These, made in the 
months of March to July, 1853, were the last collations before the printing 
of the text. They were made in the order as named, and their sequence 
appears from the biographical sketch ^ above, p. xliv. J 

[Collations made after publication (that is, made in 1875 or later.) — 
Twenty years or more after the issue, in Feb. 1855, of the printed text 
of books i.-xix., were made the collations of the mss. enumerated below. 
See above, page xliv, and JAOS. x., p. cxviii.J 

[Collation of the Haug, Roth, Tanjore, and Deccan mss. — The collation 
with the Haug mss., O. and Op., was made at Munich, in June and July, 
1875. Then followed, at Tubingen, the collations with the mss. D. and 
T. and R.J 

[The collation with the Bikaner ms., K. — This, as stated above, p. cxvi, 
was made by means of a list of doubtful readings sent by Whitney to Roth 
and reported upon. J 

[Other contents of the Collation-Book. ^ The various memoranda (men- 
tioned above, p. cxvii, ^ 3) are usually written on the blank page opposite 
the hymn or verse concerned. They include the excerpts from the 
Major Anukramani, the citations of concordant passages gathered from 
an exceedingly comprehensive study of the other Vedic texts, very full 

1 [The date quoted at top of page 1 is not quite correct. Whitney spent from March 19 to 
May 10 (1853) ^^ Pairis, May 12 to June i at Oxford, and June i to July 22 at London. J 

3- Whitney s Collation-Book and his Collations cxix 

references to the AV. Prati^akhya and to the Kau^ika and Vaitana 
Sutras, references to the writings of Occidental Vedic scholars in which 
a given verse or hymn has been treated by way of translation or comment, 
schemes of the meters and criticism thereof, and finally miscellaneous 
notes. — I may add here that Whitney left a Supplement to his Collation- 
Book. It consists of 19 loose leaves containing statements of the variants 
of B.P.M.W.E.I.H. in tabular form. With it are about a dozen more 
leaves of variants and doubtful readings etc.J 

4. Repeated Verses in the Manuscripts ^ 

Abbreviated by prattka with addition of ity eka etc. — There are 41 
cases of a repeated verse or a repeated group of verses occurring a second 
time in the text and agreeing throughout without variant with the text 
of the former occurrence. These in the mss. generally, both samhitd and 
pada^ are given the second time hy pratika only, with ity ikd (sc. rk) or 
iti dv^ or iti tisrdh added and always accented like the quoted text-words 
themselves. Thus ix. 10. 4 (= vii. 73. 7) appears in the mss. as upa hvaya 
ity /kd. On the other hand, the very next verse, although it differs from 
vii. 73. 8 only by having *bhydgdt for nydgan, is written out in full. So 
xiii. 2. 38 (=x. 8. 18) appears as sahasrdhnydm ity ^kd; while xiii. 3. 14, 
which is a second repetition of x. 8. 18 but contains further the added 
refrain tdsya etc., is written out in full as far as tdsya. The like holds 
good of xiii. 3. 18. See note to xiii. 3. 14. 

List of repeated verses or verse-groups. — The 41 cases of repetition 
involve 52 verses. The list of them is given on p. 3 of the Index Verba- 
rum (where xix. 23. 20 is a misprint) and is given with the places of first 
occurrence. The list is repeated here, but without the places of first 
occurrence, which may always be ascertained from the commentary 
below. It is: iv. 17. 3 ; v. 6. i and 2 ; 23. 10-12 ; vi. 58. 3 ; 84.4; 94. 1-2; 
95. 1-2; 101.3 ; vii. 23. I ; 75. I ; 112. 2 ; viii. 3. 18, 22 ; 9. 1 1 ; ix. i. 15 ; 
3.23; 10.4, 20, 22; X. 1.4; 3.5; 5.46-47, 48-49; xi. 10. 17; xiii. I. 41 ; 
2.38; xiv. 1.23-24; 2.4s ; xviii. I. 27-28; 3.57; 4.25,43,45-47,69; 
xix. 13.6; 23.30; 24.4; 27.14-15; 37.4; 58.5. 

Further details concerning the pratika and the addition. — The pratika 
embraces the first word, or the first two, [or even the first three, when 
one or two of them are enclitics : so vi. 94. i ; loi. 3 ; viii. 3. 22 ; ix. i. 15J; 
but at xix. 58. 5 the whole first pada is given with ity ^kd added. Occa- 
sionally, in one or another ms., the repeated verse or group is given in 
full : thus by O.R. in the cases of repetitions in book xviii. Both edi- 
tions give all the repeated verses in full. 

^ l^On this topic, Whitney left only rough notes, a dozen lines or so : cf . p. xzix. J 

cxx General Introduction^ Part II, : in part by Whitney 

The addition is lacking at v. 6. i and v. 6. 2 ; although these are consecu- 
tive verses, it is clear from the separate giving of two pratikas that here 
repetitions of non-consecutive verses are intended, and that the addition 
in each case would be ity^kd. The addition is also lacking at xiv. i. 23-24 ; 
where, however, the repetition of consecutive verses, vii. 81. 1-2, is intended. 
Here again the mss. give tvfo pratikas SQpaT2i.tGly, purvapardm (= vii. 81. i 
and xiii. 2. 11) and ndvonavah (= vii. 81.2); and they do this instead of 
giving purvdpardm iti dv/, because the latter procedure would have been 
ambiguous as meaning perhaps also xiii. 2. 1 1-12. 

The addition ///' pilrvd is made where the pratlka alone might have 
indicated two verses with the same beginning. This happens at xiii. i. 41 
(where avdh pdrena might mean either ix. 9. 17 or 18 : see note, p. 716) 
and at xviii. 4. 43 (but as to this there is disagreement : see note). — By 
lack of further addition, the intended repetition is doubtful at x. 5. 48-49, 
where ydd agna iti dv^ might mean either viii. 3. 12-13 or vii. 61. 1-2 
(see note, p. 585) ; there is doubt also at xix. 37. 4 (the case is discussed 
fully at p. 957). 

5. Refrains and the like in the Manuscripts 

Written out in full only in first and last verse of a sequence. — For the 
relief of the copyists, there is practised on a large scale in both the satn- 
hitd- and the pada-x^s^, the omission of words and padas repeated in suc- 
cessive verses. In general, if anywhere a few words or a pada or a line 
or more are found in more than two successive verses, they are written 
out in full only in the first and last verses and are understood in the 
others [cf. p. 793, end J. For example, in vi. 17, a hymn of four verses, 
the refrain, being c, d of each of the four, is written out only in i and 4. 
Then, for verse 2 is written only mahi dddlidre ^mdn vdnaspdttn^ because 
ydtlte *ydm prthivi at the beginning is repeated. [That is, the scribe 
begins with the last one of the words which the verse has in common 
with its predecessor.J Then, because dddhdra also is repeated in 2-4, in 
verse 3 mahi also is left out and the verse reads in the mss. simply 
dddhdra pdrvatdn girtn — and this without any intimation of omission by 
the ordinary sign of omission. — Sometimes the case is a little more 
intricate. Thus, in viii. 10, the initial words s6 *d akrdmat are written 
only in verses 2 and 29, although they are really wanting in verses 9-17, 
parydya II. (verses 8-17) being in this respect treated as if all one verse 
with subdivisions [cf. p. $12 top J. 

Such abbreviated passages treated by the AnukramanI as if unabbreviated. 
— The AnukramanI generally treats the omitted matter as if present, 
that is, it recognizes the true full form of any verse so abbreviated. In 

5. Refrains and tJu like in tlie Manuscripts cxxi 

a few instances, however, it does not do so : such instances may be found 
at XV. 2, where the Anukr. counts 28 instead of 32 or 4 x 8 ; at xv. 5 (16 
instead of 7 x 3) ; at xvi. S (10 instead of 6 x 3) ; at xvi. 8 (33 instead of 
108 or 27 X 4) : cf. the discussions at p. 774, ^ 2, p. 772, ^ 3, p. 793 end, 
p. 794 top. Such treatment shows that the text has (as we may express 
it) become mutilated in consequence of the abbreviations, and it shows 
how old and how general they have been. — One and another ms., how- 
ever, occasionally fills out some of the omissions — especially R., which, 
for example, in viii. 10 writes s6 *d akrdmat every time when it is a real 
part of the verse. 

Usage of the editions in respect of such abbreviated passages. — Very 
often SPP. prints in full the abbreviated passages in both samhitd and 
pada form, thus presenting a great quantity of useless and burdensome 
repetitions. Our edition takes advantage of the usage of the mss. to 
abbreviate extensively ; but it departs from their usage in so far as always 
to give full intimation of the omitted portions by initial words and by 
signs of omission. In all cases where the mss. show anything peculiar, 
it is specially pointed out in the notes on the verses. 

6. Marks of Accentuation in the Manuscripts 

Berlin edition uses the Rig-Veda method of marking accents. — The 
modes of marking the accent followed in the different mss. and parts of 
mss. of the AV. are so diverse, that we were fully justified in adopting 
for our edition the familiar and sufficient method of the RV. That 
method is followed strictly throughout in books i.-v. and xix. of the Haug 
ms. material described above at p. cxiv under O. i and 4, but only there, 
and there possibly only by the last and modern copyist. [Whitney notes 
in the margin that it is followed also in book xviii. of O., and in books 
i.-iii. and iv. of Op., and in part of Bp.*". In this last ms., which is 
Chambers, 1 17, of book i., thej method of accentuation is at the beginning 
that of the Rik, but soon passes over to another fashion, precisely like 
that of Bp. Lsee next ^J saving that horizontal lines arc made use of 
instead of dots. The method continues so to the end. 

Dots for lines as accent-marks. — The use of round dots instead of lines 
as accent-marks is a method that has considerable vogue. It is applied 
uniformly in the /^z/jfe-mss. at Berlin (except in Bp.** as just stated) : a 
dot below the line is the aniiddttatara-sAgn^ in its usual place ; then the 
sign of the enclitic svarita is a dot, usually not above, but within the 
aksara ; and the independent svarita is marked either by the latter 
method or else by a line drawn transversely upward to the right through 
the syllable. The dots, however, are unknown elsewhere, save in a 

cxxii General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

large part of E. (from near the end of vL 27 to the end of xix.) and also 
in large parts of H. 

Harks for the independent svarita. — It was perhaps in connection with 
the use of the dots that the peculiar ways of marking the independent 
svarita arose. The simplest way, used only in parts of the mss., is by a 
line below, somewhat convexed downwards. Or, again, we find just such 
a line, but run up into and more or less through the aksara, either below 
or through the middle. [From this method was probably developed the 
method of J starting with a horizontal bit below and carrying it completely 
through the aksara upwards and with some slant to the right and ending 
with a bit of horizontal above. [Cf. SPP's Critical Notice, p. 9. J This 
fully elaborated form is very unusual, and found only in three or four 
mss. (in part of Bp.** = Ch. 117, in D. and L., and occasionally in Kp.) ; 
[its shape is approximately that of the "long /" : cf. SPP's text of ii. 14 
and my note to iii. 1 1 . 2 J. 

Horizontal stroke for svarita. — A frequent method is the use of the 
anuddttatara line below, just as in the RV., but coupled with the denota- 
tion of the enclitic svarita by a horizontal stroke across the body of the 
syllable, and of the independent svarita by one of the signs just noted. 
But even the independent svarita is sometimes denoted by the same sign 
as the enclitic svarita^ to wit, by a dot or a horizontal line in the syllable 
itself. The last method (independent svarita by horizontal) is seen in 
the old ms. of book xx., Bp.^ dated a.d. 1477, and in B'. 

The udatta marked by vertical stroke above, as in the Haitrayani. — 
It is a feature peculiar to E. among our AV. mss. that, from the begin- 
ning of book vi. on, it marks the uddtta syllable by a perpendicular stroke 
above,* while the enclitic svarita^ as in other mss., has the horizontal 
stroke in the aksara; but just before the end of vi. 27, both these strokes 
are changed to dots, as is also the anuddttatara-^XxoVit ; while in xx. the 
accentuator goes back to strokes again for all three. *LNote that in 
SPP's mss. A. and E. the uddtta is marked by a red ink dot over the 
proper syllable. J 

Accent-marks in the Bombay edition. — SPP., in his edition, adopts the 
RV. method, with the sole exception that he uses the fully elaborated 
peculiar /-sign, given by the small minority of the mss.,* for the inde- 
pendent svarita. No ms., I believe, of those used by us, makes this 
combination of methods ; and it may safely be claimed that our procedure 
is truer to the mss., and on that as well as on other accounts, the preferable 
one. *LSee, for example, his Critical Notice, p. 14, description of Cp.J 

Use of a circle as avagraha-sign. — As a matter of kindred character, 
we may mention that for the sign of avagraha or division of a vocable 
into its component parts, a small circle is used in all our /a^-texts, even 

6. Marks of Accentuation in the Manuscripts cxxiii 

of book XX., excepting in the Munich text of xviii. and xx., as stated on 
p. 4 of the Index Verborum, \\t is used also in SPP's pada-ms^, : see his 
Critical Notice, pages 11-14J This special AV. sign has been imitated 
in our transliteration in the Index and in the main body of this work 
[cf. page cj ; but it may be noted that SPP. employs in his pada-text the 
sign usual in the RV. 

7. Orthographic Method pursued in the Berlin Edition^ 

Founded on the manuscripts and the Prati^flkhya. — Our method is of 
course founded primarily upon the usage of the manuscripts; but that 
usage we have, within certain limits, controlled and corrected by the 
teachings of the AV. Prati(jakhya. 

That treatise an authority only to a certain point. — The rules of that 
treatise we have regarded as authority up to a certain point ; but only up 
to a certain point, and for the reason that in the AVPr., as in the other 
corresponding treatises, no proper distinction is made between those 
orthographic rules on the one hand which are universally accepted and 
observed, and those on the other hand which seem to be wholly the out- 
come of arbitrary and artificial theorizing, in particular, the rules of the 
varna-krama^ or dirglia-pd{ha, \Qi, Whitney's notes to AVPr. iii. 26 
and 32 and TPr. xiv. i.J 

Its failure to discriminate between rules of wholly different value. — 
Thus, on the one hand, we have the rule [AVPr. iii. 27 : see W's notej 
that after a short vowel a final n or ;/ or ;/ is doubled before any initial 
vowel, a rule familiar and obligatory^ not only in the language of the 
Vedas but in the classical dialect as well ; while, on the other hand, we 
have, put quite upon the same plane and in no way marked as being of a 
wholly different character and value, such a rule as the following: 

The rule [iii. 31 J that after r or h an immediately following consonant 
is doubled ; [as to these duplications, the Praticjakhyas are not in entire 
accord, Panini is permissive, not mandatory, and usage differs greatly, and 
the // stands by no means on the same footing as the r : cf. W's Gratumar^ 
§ 228; his note to Pr. iii. 31 ; and Panini's record, at viii. 4. 50-51, of the 
difference of opinion between (^iikatayana and C^ikalya.J 

Another such rule is the prescription that the consonant at the end of 
a word is doubled, as in tristupp^ vidyutt, godhukk ; this is directly con- 
travened by RPr., VPr., TPr. — Yet another is the prescription that the 

*LFor this chapter, pages cxxiii to cxxvi, the draft left by Whitney was too meagre and unfin- 
ished to be printed. I have rewritten and elaborated it, using freely his own statements and 
language as given in his notes to the Praii«;akhyas.J 

« Cf. p. 832, t 4, below. 

' Nearly all the mss. and SPP. violate it at xi. i. 22. 

cxxi V General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

first consonant of a group is doubled, as in aggniky vrkksah^ etc. LSee 
W's notes to these rules, at iii. 26 and 28. J L** The manuscripts of the 
AV., so far as known to me, do not, save in very infrequent and entirely 
sporadic cases, follow any of the rules of the varnakrama proper, except- 
ing the one which directs duplication after a r\ and even in this case, 
their practice is as irregular as that of the manuscripts of the later litera- 
ture." So Whitney, note to iii. 32. J 

Items of conformity to the Prati(&khyai and of departure therefrom. — 
Without including those general euphonic rules the observance of which 
was a matter of course, we may here state some of the particulars in 
which the authority of the Prati^akhya has served as our norm. 

Transition-sounds : as in tdn-t'Sarvdn, — Pr. ii. 9 ordains that between 
«, n^ n and f, /, s respectively, k, (, t be in all cases introduced : the first 
two thirds of the rule never have an opportunity to make themselves 
good, as the text offers no instance of a conjunction of n with f or of 11 
with s ; that of final n with initial j, however, is very frequent, and the / 
has always been introduced by us (save [by inadvertencej in viii. 5. 16 
and xi. 2. 25). — The usage of the mss. is slightly varying ["exceedingly 
irregular," says W. in his note to ii. 9, p. 406, which seej : there is not a 
case perhaps where some one of them does not make the insertion, and 
perhaps hardly one in which they all do so without variation. 

Final -n before 5- and j-: as m paqyah janmdni, — Pr. ii. 10 and 1 1 pre- 
scribe the assimilation of -« before a following palatal (i.e. its conversion- 
into -^), namely, before f- (which is then converted by ii. 17 into ^A-), and 
before a sonant, i.e. before 7- (since yA- does not occur). In such cases 
we have written for the converted -n an anusvara ; there can hardly arise 
an ambiguity f in any of the instances. [^ ' ^w instances may be given : 
for -II y-, i. 33. 2 * ; ii. 25. 4i S J iv. 9. 9* ; 36. 9* ; v. 8. 7 ; 22. 14* ; vi. 50. 3 ; 
viii. 2. 9* ; xii. $. 44 ; for -« f-, i. 19. 4* ; iii. 1 1. 5 ; iv. 8. 3 ; 22. 6, 7 ; xviii. 
4. 59. The reader may consult the notes to those marked with a star. 
— SPP. seems to allow himself to be governed by his mss.; this is a 
wrong procedure: see notes to viii. 2. 9; i. 19.4; iv. 9. 9.J fL^ut see 
xiii. I. 22. J 

Final -n before c-: as in ydhq ca. — Rule ii. 26 virtually ordains the 
insertion of f. Owing to the frequency of the particle ca^ the cases are 
numerous, and the rule is strictly followed in all the Atharvan mss. and 
so of course in our edition. This is not, however, the universal usage of 
the Rik : cf. for example ii. i. 16, asmdh ca tdiiq ca, and see RPr. iv. 32. 

Final -n before t-: as in tdhs te. — The same rule, ii. 26, ordains the 
insertion of s. As in the other Vedas, so in the AV., a j is sometimes 
inserted and sometimes not ; its Pr. (cf. ii. 30) allows and the mss. show 
a variety of usage. Of course, then, each case has been determined on 

7. Orthographic Method pursued in the Berlin Edition cxxv 

the authority of the tnss., nor do there occur any instances in which this 
is wavering and uncertain. |_The matter is fully discussed in W's note 
to ii. 269 and the 6j cases of insertion and the 28 cases of non-insertion 
are given on p. 417. Cf. also note to AV. i. 1 1. 2. J 

Final -t before 5- : as in asmac charavas, — By the strict letter of rules 
iL 13 and 17, the f- is converted into ch- and the preceding final -/ is then 
assimilated, making <ch'. In such cases, however, we have always fol- 
lowed rather the correct theory of the change, since the -/ and f- by their 
union form the compound -r/^-, and have written simply -^//-, as being a 
truer representation of the actual phonetic result. The mss., with hardly 
an exception, do the same. |_Thc procedure of the edition and of the mss. 
is, I believe, uniformly similar also in cases like rcli&t^ gaclia^ yacha^ etc. J 

Abbreviation of consonant-groups : as in pahkti and the like. — By ii. 20 
a non-nasal mute coming in the course of word-formation between a 
nasal and a non-nasal is dropped: so fahti; chintam and rundhi instead 
of chinttam and runddhi ; etc. The mss. observe this rule quite consist- 
ently, although not without exceptions ; and it has been uniformly fol- 
lowed in the edition. At xii. 1.40, anuprayuhktdm is an accidental 
exception ; and here, for once, the mss. happen to agree in retaining 
the k. [Cf. the Hibernicisms strenth^ Icnth^ etc. J 

Final -m and -n before 1-: as in kah lokant and sarvdh lokdn, — Rule 
ii. 35 prescribes the conversion of -m and of -n alike into nasalized -/. In 
either case, the resultant combination is therefore, according to the pre- 
scription of the Pr., nasalized -/-h/-, or two /'s of which the first is na.sal- 
ized. Thus kam lokam becomes >trtr 4- nasalized l-Vlokam^ a combination 
which we may write as kdl lokam or as kahl lokam or as kah lokam, 

|_It is merely the lack of suitable Roman type that makes the discussion 
of this matter troublesome. In ndgarf, the nasalized / should properly 
be written by a / with a nasal sign over it. In Roman, it might well be 
rendered by an / with a dot as nearly over it as may be (thus 7) ; in prac- 
tice, a ^ is made to take the place of the dot alone or else of the dot -f- /, 
so that for the sound of " nasalized /" we find either hi or simply «.J 

For the combination resultant from -m /-, the mss. are almost unani- 
mous in writing [not what the Pr. ordains, but ratherj a single / with 
nasal sigjn over the preceding vowel, as in kah lokam at xi. 8. 11 ; this 
usage is followed by the Berlin text. 

For the resultant from -;/ A, the mss. follow the Pr., not without excep- 
tions, and write doubled / with nasal sign over the preceding vowel, as in 
sarvdh lokdn, x. 6. 16, etc., asmih lokc, ix. $. 7, etc. ; this usage also has 
been followed in the Berlin text (but not with absolute uniformity). — It 
would probably have been better to observe strictly the rule of the Pr. 
and to write both results with double / and preceding nasal sign. 

cxxvi General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

Visarga before st- and the like: as in ripu stena steyakrt, viii. 4. 10 = 
RV. vii. 104. 10. Our Pr. [see note to ii. 40J contains no rule prescribing 
the rejection of a final visarga before an initial sibilant that is followed 
by a surd mute. The mss. in general, although with very numerous and 
irregularly occurring exceptions, practice the rejection of the A, and so 
does the Rik [cf. RPr. iv. 12 ; TPr. ix. i ; VPr. iii. 12J; and the general 
usage of the mss, has been followed by us. [For examples, see x. 5. 1-14 : 
cf. also notes to iv. 16. i (ya stdyat : ^YY, yas tdyat)^ i. 8. 3, etc. J 

The kampa-figures i and 3. — Respecting the introduction of these 
figures between an independent circumflex and an immediately following 
acute accent in the satnhitd^ our Pr. is likewise silent. The usage of the 
mss. is exceedingly uncertain and conflicting : there is hardly an instance 
in which there is not disagreement between them in respect to the use of 
the one or of the other ; nor can any signs of a tendency towards a rule 
respecting the matter be discovered. There are a few instances, pointed 
out each at its proper place in the notes, in which a short vowel occurring 
in the circumflexed syllable is protracted before the figure by all the 
samAitd-mss,* Such cases seemed mere casual irregularities, however, 
and we could not hesitate to adopt the usage of the Rik, setting i after 
the vowel if it were short in quantity, and 3 if it were long. [This matter 
is discussed with much detail by W. in his notes to APr. iii. 6$, pages 
494-9, and TPr. xix. 3, p. 362. J *LSee APr., p. 499, near end, and notes 
to AV. vi. 109. 1 and x. i. 9. J 

The method of marking the accent. -^ With respect to this important 
matter, we have adapted the form of our text to the rules of the Rik 
rather than to the authority of the mss. As to the ways of marking the 
accent, a wide diversity of usage prevails among the Atharvan mss., nor 
is there perhaps a single one of them which remains quite true to the 
same method throughout. Their methods are, however, all of them in 
the main identical with that of the Rik, varying only in unimportant 
particulars. [The details have been discussed above (see p. cxxi), and 
with as much fulness as seemed worth while.J 

8. Metrical Form of the Atharvan Saihhita 

Predominance of anustubh. — The two striking features of the Atharva- 
Veda as regards its metrical form are the extreme irregularity and the 
predominance of anusfubh stanzas. The stanzas in gdyatri and trisfubh 
are correspondingly rare, the AV. in this point presenting a sharp con- 
trast with the Rig- Veda. The brief bits of prose interspersed among 
metrical passages are given below, at p. loii, as are also the longer pas- 
sages in Brahmana-like prose. [In the Kashmirian recension, the latter 
are even more extensive than in the Vulgate : see p. Ixxx. J 

8. Metrical Fortn of the Atharvan Samhitd cxxvii 

Extreme metrical irregularity. — This is more or less a characteristic of 
all the metrical parts of the Vedic texts outside of the Rig- Veda (and 
Sama-Veda). In the sainhitds of the Yajur-Veda, in the Brahmanas, and 
in the Sutras, the violations of meter are so common and so pervading 
that one can only say that meter seemed to be of next to no account in 
the eyes of the text-makers. It is probable that in the Atharvan samhita 
the irregular verses outnumber the regular. 

Apparent wantonness in the alteration of RV. material. — The corrup- 
tions and alterations of Rig-Veda verses recurring in the AV. are often 
such as to seem downright wanton in their metrical irregularity. The 
smallest infusion of care as to the metrical form of these verses would 
have sufficed to prevent their distortion to so inordinate a degree. 

To emend this irregularity into regularity is not licit. — In very many 
cases, one can hardly refrain from suggesting that this or that slight and 
obvious emendation, especially the omission of an intruded word or the 
insertion of some brief particle or pronoun, would rectify the meter. It 
would be a great mistake, however, to carry this process too far, and by 
changes of order, insertions, and various other changes, to mend irregu- 
larity into regularity. The text, as Atharvan, never was metrically regu- 
lar, nor did its constructors care to have it such ; and to make it so would 
be to distort it. 

9. The Divisions of the Text 

[Summary of the various divisions. — These, in the order of their extent, 
2lxq\ pra-paf/takas or * Vor-lcsungen ' or 'lectures,' to which there is no 
corresponding division in the RV. ; kdndtxs or * books,' answering to the 
mandalas of the RV. ; and then, as in the RV., anu-vdkas or * re-cita- 
tions,' and sfiktas or * hymns,' and rcas or * verses.' The verses of the 
long hymns are also grouped into * vcrse-decads,' corresponding to the 
Vargas of the RV. Besides these divisions, there are recognized also 
the divisions called artha-suktas or * sense-hymns ' and parydya-sukias or 
'period-hymns'; and the subdivisions of the latter are called /^r^'^j'^j. 
In the pafydya-hymns, the division into ganas (or sometimes dandakas : 
p. 628) is recognized, and the verses are distinguished as avasdnarcas and 
gandvasdtiarcas (see p. 472). A great deal of detail concerning the divi- 
sions of the books (the later books especially) may be found in the special 
introductions to the several books.J 

[The first and second and third grand divisions of books i.-zviii. — A 
critical study of the text reveals the fact that the first eighteen books are 
divided (see p. xv) into three grand divisions : the first (books i.-vii.) 
contains the short hymns of miscellaneous subjects ; the second (books 
viii.-xii.) contains the long hymns of miscellaneous subjects; and the 

cxxviii General Introductio7i^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

third consists of the books (xiii.-xviii.) characterized each by unity of 
subject. These divisions, although not clearly recognized in name (but 
cf. page clvii, below) by the text-makers, are nevertheless clearly recog- 
nized in fact, as is shown by the general arrangement of the text as a 
whole and as is set forth in detail in the next chapter, pages cxl-clxi. 
Concerning their recognition by the Old Anukr., see the paragraphs 
below, pages cxxxix f. In this chapter will be treated the divisions 
commonly recognized by the native tradition.J 

The division into prap&thakas. — The literal meaning of fra-pdfhaka is 
*Vor-lesung' or * lesson' or 'lecture.* This division, though noticed in 
all the mss., is probably a recent, and certainly a very secondary and 
unimportant one. It is not recognized by the commentary, and it does 
not appear in the Bombay edition. No ms. gives more than the simple 
statement, "such and such 2l prapdfhaka finished"; no enumeration of 
hymns or verses is anywhere added. There are 34 prapdfhakas, and they 
are numbered consecutively for the whole text so far as they go, that is, 
from book i. to book xviii. inclusive. The prapathaka-dWision is not 
extended into books xix. and xx. 

Prapathakas : their number and distribution and extent. — First grand 
division (books i.-vii.) : in each of the books i.-iii. there are 2 prapdtjiakas ; 
in each of the books iv.-vi^ there are 3 ; and in book vii. there are 2 : in 
all, (6 -h 9 4- 2 =) 17. — Second grand division (books viii.-xii.) : in each 
of the five books viii.-xii. there are 2 prapdthakas : in all, 10. — Third 
grand division (books xiii.-xviii.) : each of the first five books, xiii.-xvii., 
forms I prapdfhakut while the sixth and last, book xviii., forms 2 : in all, 7. 
— Sum for the three divisions, (17 4- 10 4- 7 =) 34. — In book iv. the 
division is very uneven, the first of the 3 prapdfhakas containing 169 
verses or over half the book ; while in xii., on the other hand, in order to 
make an even division of the 304 verses as between the 2 prapdfhakas, 
the end of the first is allowed to fall in the middle of a hymn (just after 
3. 30), thus giving 148 verses to the first and 156 to the second. [On 
comparing the verse-totals of the books of the first grand division with 
the number of prapdfhakas in each book, an attempt towards a rough 
approximation to equality of length among them will appear. The like 
is true in the second grand division ; and also in the third (note espe- 
cially book xviii.), so far as is feasible without making a prapdthaka run 
over more than one book.J 

Their relation to the anuv&ka-divisions. — The prapdihaka-^wx^xon^ 
mostly coincide with the anuvdka-^wx^xoxi^. Exceptions are as. follows : 
prapd(haka 1 1 begins with v. 8, in the middle of the second anuvdka of 
book v.; 19 begins with viii. 6, in the middle of the third anuvdka of 
book viii.; 21 begins with ix. 6, in the middle of the third anuvdka 

9. The Divisions of tfie Text cxxix 

of book ix. ; 23 begins with x. 6, in the third anuvdka of book x. ; 25 
begins with xi. 6, in the third anuvdka of book xi. ; and 27, as already 
noted, begins in the middle of the third hymn (and conterminous antwdka) 
of book xii. 

The division into kfln^s or < books.' — [The word kdptda means literally 
* division ' or ' piece/ especially the ' division of a plant-stalk from one 
joint to the next/ and is applied to the main divisions of other Vedic 
texts (TS., MS., ^B., etc.). The best and prevailing rendering of the 
word is ' book/ As to the length of the kdndas and their arrangement 
within their respective grand divisions, see p. cxliii, below. J The division 
into kdndas is of course universal, and evidently fundamental. 

The division into anuv&kas. — The anu-vdkas^ literally ' re-citations/ are 
subdivisions of the individual book, and are numbered continuously 
through the book concerned. They are acknowledged by the mss. in 
very different manner and degree. There is usually added to the anu- 
vdka a statement of the number of hymns and verses contained in it, 
[and those statements are reproduced in this work in connection with 
the comment.J [From these it appears that the anuvdka-iAvx^xGti^ are 
sometimes very unequal : thus the last anuvdka of book vi., where the 
average is 35 verses, has 64. J [In the course of the special introductions 
to the books, there is given for each of the books vii.-xix. (except xiv. 
and xvii.) a table showing the number of hymns and the number of 
verses in each anuvdka: see pages 388 and so on. For xiv. and xvii. 
also the facts are duly stated, but not in tabular form, which was need- 
less.J The enumeration of verses is often made continuously through 
the anuvdka (cf. p. 388, end). 

[Their number, and distribution over books and grand divisions. — The 
pertinent facts may be shown by a table with added statements. In the 
table, the first couple of lines refers to the first grand division ; the second, 
to the second ; and the last, to the third. 



• • 
















































Thus the first grand division has 55 anuvakas; the second has 25 ; and 
the third has 15 : sum, 95. Moreover, book xix. contains 7, and xx. con- 
tains 9. In the colophon to book xvii., neither printed edition has the 
ViQlift pratlianio ^nuvdkah; but it is found (cf. p. 812) in the mss. Each 
of the books viii.-xi. has ten hymns (p. 472), and so each anuvdka there 
consists of just two hymns. In book xii., of five hymns, the anuvdka is 

cxxx General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitfiey 

coincident with the hymn. The like is true in books xiii., xiv., xvii., and 
xviii. (p. 814). In the table, these five books are marked with a star. 
But furthermore : if, as seems likely (see \). cxxx, below), books xv. and 
xvL are to be reckoned each as a book of two hymns (and not as of 18 
and 9 respectively), then all the books from xii. on, to xviii., are to be 
starred, and regarded as having \\i€\x anuvdkas 2iX\^ hymns conterminous. J 

[It is noted at p. 898, ^ 2, that in book xix. there appears an attempt 
to make the anuvdka'6!\\\%\on% coincide with the sense-divisions or divi- 
sions between the subject-groups. I do not know whether the same is 
true in books i.-xviii., not having examined them with regard to this 
point ; it is true in the case of the last anuvdka of book ix. (= RV. i. 164 
= AV. ix. 9 and 10), where, as the RV. shows, the true unit is the 
anuvdka and not the AV. hymn. On the other hand, Whitney observes 
(at p. 194) that an anuvdka-dx^x^xon falls in the middle of the Mrgara- 
group, and (at p. 247) that another falls between v. 15 and 16 with entire 
disregard of the close connection of the two hymns. J 

[Their relation to the hymn-divisions in books xiii.-xviii. — In these books 
and in xii., the anuvdka is, as noted above, admittedly conterminous with 
the hymn everywhere except in the two /^ryaja-books, xv. and xvi. In 
the colophon to xiv. i, a ms. of Whitney's speaks of the hymn as an 
anuvdka-sukta ; and it is possible that, for book xiv., at least, the author 
of the Anukr. did not recognize the hymn-divisions (see p. 739). That 
they signify very much less in books xiii.-xviii. than they do in the earlier 
books is very clear (see the third paragraph of p. cxxxi, and the third of 
p. clx) ; so clear, that it is not unlikely that they are of entirely second- 
ary origin. J 

[It is at the beginning of book xii. that the anuvdha-^wisAon^ begin to 
coincide with the hymn-divisions ; and it is precisely at the corresponding 
point in the Anukr. (the beginning of patala viii.) that the author of that 
treatise apparently intends to say athd *nuvdkd ucyante. From book xii. 
on, therefore, it would seem that the samhita was thought of by him as a 
collection of anuvdkas, or that the subordinate division below the kdnda 
which was alone worth)* of practical recognition, was in his opinion the 
anuvdka and not the sukta.] 

\ll this be right, then it would seem as if, in the series of books 
xii.-xviii., the books xv. and xvi. ought not to be exceptions. In them, 
also, the groups of individual parydyas or parydya-groM^^ should be con- 
terminous with the anuvdkas. Book xv. will fall, accordingly, into two 
groups of 7 and 1 1 parydyas respectively ; and book xvi. into two groups 
of 4 and 5. This method of grouping the parydyas receives some 
support from the fact that hymn xix. 23 refers to book xv. as "two 
anuvdkas " (see note to xix. 23. 25), and from the fact that the Paficapatalika 

9. Tfie Divisions of the Text cxxxi 

makes similar reference to book xvi. (see p. 792, ^ 4, to p. 793), and 
speaks of our xvi. 5 as ddyay that is, ' the first ' of the second group 
(p. 793). Moreover, the treatment of books xv. and xvi. by the makers 
of the Paipp. text (see p. 1016, line 12) would indicate that the anuvdka 
is here the practically recognized unit subordinate to the kdnda. As for 
the bearing of this grouping upon the citation of the text concerned and 
upon the summations, cf. p. cxxxvii, top, and p. cxlv, table 3, both forms.J 

|,The division into sfiktas or < hymns.' — The hymn may well be called 
the first considerable natural unit in the rising scale of divisions. Of the 
hymn, then, verses and padas are the natural subdivisions, although single 
verses or even stock-padas may also be regarded as natural units. Book 
and hymn * and verse are all divisions of so obviously and equally funda- 
mental character, that it is quite right that citations should be made by 
them and not otherwise. However diverse in subject-matter two succes- 
sive sUktas may be, we rightly expect unity of subject within the limits 
of what is truly one and the same sukta. It is this inherent unity of 
subject which justifies the use of the term artha-sukta (below, p. cxxxiii) 
with reference to any true metrical hymn ; and our critical suspicions are 
naturally aroused against a hymn that (like vii. 35) fails to meet this 
expectation. The hymn, moreover, is the natural nucleus for the second- 
ary accretions which are discussed below, at p. cliii.J 

[The hymn-divisions not everywhere of equal value. — It is matter of 
considerable critical interest that the hymn-divisions of different parts of 
our text are by no means of equal value (cf. p. clx). Thus it is far from 
certain whether there is any good ground at all for the division of the 
material of book xiv. into hymns (the question is carefully examined at 
pages 738-9). And again, the material of book xviii. is of such sort as 
to make it clear that the hymn-divisions in that book are decidedly 
mechanical and that they have almost no intrinsic significance (see p. 814, 
^6, p. 827, ^2, p. 848, ^8). The familiar Dirghatamas-hymn of the 
Rig- Veda has been divided by the Atharvan text-makers into two (ix. 9 
and 10), and doubtless for no other reason than to bring it into an 
approximate uniformity in respect of length with the hymns of books 
viii.-xi. (p. clvi). As Whitney notes, hymns xix. 53 and 54 are only two 
divided parts of one hymn : so 10 and 1 1 ; 28 and 29. J 

[The division into rcas or* verses.* — This division is, of course, like the 
division into books and hymns, of fundamental significance. It is main- 
tained even in the non-metrical passages ; but the name is then usually 
modified by the prefixion of the determinative avasdna^ so that the prose 
verses in \\i^ parydya'\i)'x^Xi^ are called avasdnarcas (p. 472). J 

^ [This part of the statement is subject, for books xiii.-xviii., to the modification implied in 
the preceding paragraph. J 

cxxxii General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

[Subdivisions of verses : avas&nasi p&daS| etc. — Concerning these a few 
words may be said. Avasdna means ' stop/ and so * the verse-division 
marked by a stop.' The verse usually has an avasdna or * stop ' in the 
middle and of course one at the end. Occasionally, however, there are, 
besides the stop at the end, two others : and the verse is then called try- 
avasdna. Moreover, we have verses with more than three stops, and 
sometimes a verse with only one {ekdvasdna). — The next subordinate 
division is the/^^& or 'quarter.' As the name implies, this is commonly 
the quarter of a four-lined verse or verse with two avasdnas; but some- 
times, as in a verse with an odd number of pddas (like the gdyatn)^ a 
pada may be identical with an avasdna. The division into padas is recog- 
nized by the ritual, which sometimes prescribes the doing of a sequence 
of ceremonial acts to the accompaniment of a verse recited pada by pada 
{pacckas) in a corresponding sequence. — Even the pada is not the final 
possible subdivision, as appears from KB. xxvi. 5, ream vdrdharcam vd 
pddam vd padam vd varnam vd, where the verse and all its subdivisions 
receive mention. J 

Numeration of successive verses in the mss. — In this matter, the mss. 
differ very much among themselves, and the same ms. differs in different 
books, and even in different parts of the same book ; so that to give all 
details would be a long, tedious, and useless operation. A few may be 
given by way of specimen. In books iii. and v. the enumeration in our 
mss. is by hymns only. [Sometimes it runs continuously thr-ough the 
anuvdka: above, p. cxxix.J In vi. it is very various : in great part, 2 
hymns are counted together; sometimes 4 ; also 10 verses together, or 9, 
or 8. In book vii., some mss. (so P. and I.) number by decads within 
the anuvdka^ with total neglect of real suktas; and the numbering is in 
all so confused and obscure that our edition was misled in several cases 
so as to count 5 hymns less in the book than does the Anukr., or than 
SPP's edition. The discordance is described at p. 389 and the two num- 
berings are given side by side in the translation. 

[Groupings of successive verses into units requiring special mention. — 
The grouping of verses into units of a higher degree is by no means so 
simple and uniform in the mss. as we might expect. It is desirable, 
accordingly, to discriminate between AtQ.2LA'Suktas and artha-suktas and 
parydya-suktas. The differences of grouping are chargeable partly to the 
differences of form in the text (now verse, now prose) and partly to the 
differences in length in the metrical hymns.J 

Decad-stiktas or « decad-hymns.' — With the second grand division 
begins (at book viii.) a new element in the subdividing of the text: the 
metrical hymns, being much longer than most of those in the first division, 
are themselves divided into verse-decads or groups of ten verses, five or 

9. Tfu Divisions of the Text 


more odd verses at the end of a hymn counting as an added decad. The 
numbers in the final group thus run from five to fourteen : cf. pages 388, 
end, and 472, ^ 5. Book xvii. divides precisely into 3 decads : p. 805. 
The average length of the A^c^A-suktas is exactly ten verses in book x. 
(35 decads and 350 verses: p. 562), and almost exactly ten in book xviii. 
(28 decads and 283 verses: p. 814). In the summations, these decads 
are usually called suktas and never by any other name (as daqatayas)^ 
while the true hymns are called artha-suktas, 

[Although known to the comm. and to some mss. in book vii. (p. 388), 
the decad-division really begins with book viii. ; and it runs on through 
book xviii. (not into xix. : p. 898, line 6), and continuously except for the 
breaks occasioned by the parydya'\iymx\% (p. 471, end) and parydya^ooV'^ 
(XV. and xvi. : pages 770, 793). In book vii., this grouping is carried out 
* so mechanically as to cut in two some nine of the short sense-hymns of 
the Berlin edition. The nine are enumerated at p. 389, line 8 ; but in 
the case of five of them (45, 54, 68, 72, y6), the fault lies with the Berlin 
edition, which has wrongly combined the parts thus separated. J 

[In the summations, as just noted, the decads are usually called sfiktas; 
and they and the parydya-suktas are added together, like apples and pears, 
to form totals of "hymns of both kinds" (p. 561, line 8). The summa- 
tions of the A^csA'Suktas and parydya-stlktas for books viii.-xviii. are duly 
given below in the special introduction to each book concerned, and these 
should be consulted ; but for convenience they may here be summarized. 

Book viiL 




• • 








Decads 34 









ParySyas 6 








Artha-sfiktas or < sense-hymns.' — [This technical term might be ren- 
dered, more awkwardly, but perhaps more suitably, by 'subject-matter 
hymns.' It is these that are usually meant when we speak of "hymns" 
without any determinative. The comm. very properly notes that hymns 
xix. 47 and 48 form a single artha-sukta, and that the next two form 
another. The determinative artha- is prefixed in particular to distinguish 
the sense-hymns from the /^ r^'^i^a-hymns (p. 61 1, ^ 5), and there is little 
occasion for using it of the short hymns of the first grand division. J The 
verses of the artha-sukta are sometimes numbered through each separate 
component decad or sukta^ and sometimes through the whole artha-sukta^ 
the two methods being variously mingled. In books xii.-xiv. and xvii. and 
xviii, as already noted, the artha-suktas and aniivdkas are coincident, the 
mss. specifying their identity. 

LPary&ya-sfiktas or * period-hymns.* — In the second and third grand 
divisions are certain extended prose-compositions calledj parydya-siiktas. 

cxxxi V General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

They are divided into what are called parydyas^ or also parydya-suktas^ 
but never into decads. [The term parydya-sukta is thus somewhat 
ambiguous, and has a wider and a narrower meaning as designating, for 
example, on the one hand, the whole group of six parydyas that compose 
our ix. 6, or, on the other, a single one of those six (e.g. our ix. 6. 1-17). 
To avoid this ambiguity, it is well to use parydya only for the narrower 
meaning and parydya-sukta only for the wider. The hymn ix. 7 is a 
parydya-sukta consisting of only one parydya. For the word pary-dya 
(root i: literally Um-gang^ circuit, ir^piohoi) it is indeed hard to find an 
English equivalent : it might, with mental reservations, be rendered by 
* strophe ' ; perhaps * period ' is better ; and to leave it (as usual) untrans- 
lated may be best. J 

[The parydya'\iymn^ number eight in all, five in the second grand 
division (with 23 parydyas)^ and three in the third grand division (with 
33 parydyas). They are, in the second division, viii. 10 (with 6 parydyas) ; 
ix. 6 (with 6) an4 7 (with i) ; xi. 3 (with 3) ; and xii. 5 (with 7) ; and, in 
the third division, xiii. 4 (with 6) ; book xv. (18 parydyas) ; and book xvi. 
(^parydyas). The parydya-suktas are marked with a p in tables 2 and 3. 
For further details, see p. 472. J 

[It will be noticed that two books of the third division, xv. and xvi., 
consist wholly of parydyas; and, furthef, that each book of the second 
division has at least one of these hymns (ix. has two such, and contigu- 
ous), except book x. Even book x. has a long hymn, hymn 5, consisting 
mostly of prose, but with mingled metrical portions ; but despite the fact 
that the Anukr. divides the hymn into four parts, which parts are even 
ascribed to different authors (p. 579), it is yet true that those parts are 
not acknowledged as parydyas. Moreover, the hymn is expressly called 
an art/ia-sukta by at least one of Whitney's mss.J 

[Differences of the Berlin and Bombay numerations in books vii. and xiz. 
— As against the Berlin edition, the Bombay edition exhibits certain 
differences in respect of the numeration of hymns and verses. These 
are rehearsed by SPP. in his Critical Notice, vol. i., pages 16-24. Those 
which affect book vii. are described by me at p. 389, and the double 
numberings for book vii. are given by Whitney from vii. 6. 3 to the end 
of vii. The Bombay numberings are the correct ones (cf. p. 392, line 4 
from end). Other discrepancies, which affect book xix., are referred to 
at p. 898.J 

[Differences of hymn-numeration in the pary&ya-books. — These are the 
most important differences that concern hymns. They affect all parts of 
a given book after the first parydya of that book. They have been carefully 
explained by me at pages 610-11, but the differences will be more easily 
apprehended and discussed if put in tabular form. The table harmonizes 

9- The Divisions of tfu Text 


the hymn-numbers, without going into the detail of the difference of verse- 
numberingSy which latter, however, are not seriously confusing. 

HyflEOttof dM 

parts of hymns of the Berlin edition 


Hymns of the 

Bombay ed. 

to the hymns of the Bombey edition as 

numbered in either 1 


Bombay ed. 























































4-46-5 « 










10. 1-7 




























[Since the two editions differ, the question arises, Which is right ? The 
fourth paragraph of p. 6 1 1 (which see) leaves it undecided, but states the 
real point at issue plainly. I now believe that the methods of both 
editions are at fault and would suggest a better method. To make the 
matter clear, I take as an example the paryaya-sukta xi. 3, which consists 
of a group of X\ix^^ parydyas. 

Suggested method 
xi. 3. I «-3« 
xi. 3. 2 «-»8 
xi. 3. 3 1-7 

Berlin method 

xi- 3- '-3' 
xi- 3- 32-49 
x»- 3- 50-56 

Bombay method 
xi. 3. I-31 
xi. 4. 1-18 
xi. 5. 1-7 

The four sets of numbers in the first column relate to the four text- 
divisions : the first set (xi.) to the book ; the second (3) to the parydya- 
sukta or group oi parydyas ; the third (1,2, 3) to the individual /^r^^aj/^i- of 
that group ; and the fourth (''3«» «-«8. «-7) to the verses of th^ parydyas. \ 

Lin the Berlin text, on the one hand, we must admit that each of the 
three component parydyas of xi. 3 is duly indicated as such by typograph- 
ical separation and that the pafydya-numhers (i and 2 and 3) are duly 
given in parenthesis. That text, however, practically ignores the parydyas, 
at least for the purposes of citation, by numbering the verses of all three 
continuously (as verses 1-56) from the beginning ol parydya i to the end 
of 3. Thus only the group oi parydyas is recognized ; and it is numbered 
as if coordinate with the artha-suktas of the book.J 

Lin the Bombay text, on the other hand, each parydya is numbered as 
if coordinate with an artha-sukta, and the verses are numbered (of course, 
in this case) beginning anew with i for each parydya. This method 

cxxxvi Gefieral Introduction^ Part IL : in part by Whitney 

ignores the unity of the group of individual parydyas and throws previous 
citations into confusion. J 

[Books XV. and xvi. consist wholly of parydyas. Here, therefore, the 
case is not complicated by the mingling of parydyas and artha-suktas, 
and the Berlin text ignores the grouping^ of \}[i^ parydyas^ and treats and 
numbers each parydya as if coordinate with ariha-suktaSy and numbers 
the verses beginning anew with i for Q2ic\i parydya (cf. p. 770, line 30). J 

Whitney's criticism of the numbering of the Bombay edition. — [^Whitney 
condemned, at p. 625, the procedure of the Bombay edition. In his 
material for this Introduction, I now find a few additional words on the 
matter, which may well be given. J 

Each parydya is reckoned, in the summations, as on the same plane as 
a real hymn or artlia-sukta. Hence SPP. is externally justified in count- 
ing, for example, the nine artlia-suktas and three parydyas of book xi. as 
twelve hymns, numbering the verses of each separately ; at the same 
time, such a deviation from the method pursued in our edition, throwing 
into confusion all older references to book xi. after 3.31, was very much to 
be deprecated, and has no real and internal justification, since each body 
or group of parydyas is obviously and undeniably a unitary one (see, for 
example, our viii. 10, and note the relation especially of its third and fourth 
and fifth subdivisions ox parydyas). In such matters we are not to allow the 
mss. to guide us in a manner clearly opposed to the rights of the case. 

[Suggestion of a preferable method of numbering and citing. — It is 
plain, I think, that both editions are at fault : the Berlin edition, in ignor- 
ing the \Xi^\v\'dM2X parydyas in books viii.-xiii. and in ignoring \\i^ parydya- 
groups in xv.-xvi. ; and the Bombay edition, in ignoring \.)\^ pa^ydya-gxow^^ 
everywhere. Moreover, the procedure of the Berlin text is inconsistent 
(p. 770, line 27) as between books viii.-xiii. and books xv.-xvi., the unity 
of the groups in xv.-xvi. being no less " obvious and undeniable " than in 
the example just cited by Whitney. J 

[The purpose underlying the procedure of the Berlin edition was that 
all references should be homogeneous for all parts of the Atharvan text, 
not only for the metrical parts but also for the prose parydyas^ and con- 
sist of three numbers only. But, as between the parydyas and the rest, 
it is precisely this homogeneity that we do not want ; for the lack of it 
serves the useful purpose of showing at a glance whether any given cita- 
tion refers to a passage in prose or in verse. J 

[For a future edition, I recommend that all /arK4^^^-passages be so 
numbered as to make it natural to cite them by book, parydya-^xow^ 
parydya, and verse. The verse-number would then be written as an 
exponent or superior; and, for example, instead of the now usual ix. 6. 31, 

^ As to what this grouping should be, see the discussion at p. cxxx, near end. 

9. Tfie Divisions of t/ie Text 


45 ; 7. 26 ; xi. 3. 50, we should have ix. 6. 3", 5' ; 7. 1*6; xi. 3. 3'. In books 
XV. and xvL I should reckon the anuvdka as determining the limits of each 
group of pary&yas (p. cxxx) ; and thus, for example, instead of the now 
usual XV. 7. I ; 8. I ; 17. i ; xvi. 5. i, we should havexv. 1.7*; 2. i» ; 2. 10^; 
xvi. 2.1^. The tables on pages 771 and 793 may serve for conversion- 
tables as between the proposed method and the Berlin-Bombay method. J 

LThe merits of this method are clear from what has been said : it avoids 
igpfioring \\i^ paryayas of viiL-xiii. and the groups of xv.-xvi., and avoids 
the inconsistency of the Berlin method ; it maintains the recognition of 
the uniformity of books viii.-xi. as books of ten hymns each (p. 611, 
line 25) ; and it assimilates all references to parydya-i^xt in a manner 
accordant with the facts, and shows at a glance that they refer to parydya- 
passages.^ Moreover, it avoids the necessity of recognizing hymns of 
less than 20 verses for division III. (p. cxlv) ; and by it one is not incon- 
venienced in finding passages as cited by the older method. J 

[Differences of verse-numeration. — The differences of hymn-numeration, 
as is clear from the foregoing, involve certain differences of verse-numer- 
ation also ; but besides these latter, there are certain other differences of 
verse-numeration occasioned by the adherence of the Bombay editor to 
the prescriptions of the Anukramanis. They have been fully treated in the 
introductions to the books concerned ; but require mention here because 
they affect the verse-totals of the tables considered in the discussion 
(pages clvii, clix) of the structure of the text. The five parydya-hymns 
affected are given in the first line of the subjoined table, and in the sec- 
ond are set references to the pages of this work where the Bombay totals 
are given. The third line gives the totals of avasdnarcas for the Bombay 
edition, and the fourth those for the Berlin edition, and the fifth the dif- 
ferences. It may be well to remind the reader, that, in its proper place 
in the text, the second parydya of xi. 3 is printed, both by RW. and by 
SPP. (at vol. iii., pages 66-83), as 18 numbered subdivisions; but that 
the Bombay editor prints it again (just after p. 356 of the same vol.), this 
time as 72 avasdnarcas^ as required by the Anukr. The matter is fully 
explained by me, pages 628-9. The totals for xi. 3 in the one ed. are 
31 + 18 + 7 = 56, and in the other 31 + 72 + 7 = no, a difference of 54. 
The sum of the plus items is 188. 

[See pages 

Bombay totals 
Berlin totals 

Plus items 

viii. 10 

ix. 6 














book XV. 



book xvi. 




1 LI beg the reader to compare my remarks on the Method of Citation in the preface to the 
Karpuramafijarl, pages xv-xvi. For citations of the Maharastrl or verse passages, the expo- 
nent is a letter ; for ^aurasenl or prose, it is a figure. J 

cxxxviii General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

Summations of hymns and verses at end of divisions. — These are made 
in the mss. at the end of the division summed up, and constitute as it 
were brief colophons ; and the details concerning them are given in the 
notes at the points where they occur. [For examples, see the ends of the 
several anuvdkas and books : thus, pages 6, 12, 18, 22, 29, 36, and so on. 
The summations become somewhat more elaborate and less harmonious 
in the later books : see, for example, pages 516, 561, '659, 707, 737.J 

The summations quoted from the PaScapatalika. — A peculiar matter to 
be noted in connection with the summations just mentioned is the con- 
stant occurrence with them, through books i.-xviii., of bits of extract 
from an Old AnukramanI, as we may call it : catch-words intimating the 
number of verses in the divisions summed up. [For details respecting 
this treatise, see above, p. Ixxi.J These citations are found accordantly 
in all the mss. — by no means in all at every point ; they are more or less 
fragmentary in different mss. ; but they are wholly wanting in none of 
ours (except K. L and perhaps L.J). The phrases which concern the end 
of a book are the ones apt to be found in the largest number of mss. In 
book vii. there is a double set, the extra one giving the number of hymns 
in the anuvdka, 

[Indication of the extent of the divisions by reference to an assumed norm. 
— In giving the summations of verses, it is by no means always the case 
that the Paficapatalika expresses itself in a direct and simple way. Some- 
times indeed it does so where its prevailing method would lead us to 
expect it to do otherwise : thus in book vi., where the normal number of 
verses to the anuvdka is 30, it says simply and expressly that anuvdkas 
3 and 4 have 33 verses each {trayastritiqakdu : p. 311) and that 5 and 6 
have 30 each (tririqakdu: p. 1045). Very often, however, the extent of 
a division is intimated by stating its overplus or shortage with reference 
to an assumed norm. One hardly knows how much critical value to 
assign to the norms (the last anuvdka of book vi., with 64 verses, exceeds 
the norm of 30 by more than the norm itself) ; but the method is a devia- 
tion from straightforwardness of expression, and that deviation is increased, 
as is so often the case, by the gratuitous exigencies of the metrical form 
into which the Paficapatalika is cast. Thus for book v. it says (pages 
230, 236), 'the first \anuvdka\ falls short of sixty by twice six and the 
next after the first by eleven.' So forty-two is in one place (p. 61) *half- 
a-hundred less eight,* and in another (p. 439) it is 'twice twenty-one.' 
For anuvdka 3 of book vii. the total is 31 (norm 20) ; but here (p. 413) 
not even the overplus is stated simply as ' eleven,' but rather as ' eight 
and three.' This method of reference to a norm is used even where the 
departure from it is very large, as in the case of anuvdka 3 of book iv., 
which is described (p. 176) as having 21 verses over the norm of 30. J 

9. Tfu Divisions of i/ie Text cxxxix 

LTables of verse-norms assumed by the PaScapatalikfl. — For the first 
grand division (books i.-vii.), on the one hand, this treatise assumes a 
norm for the verse-totals of the anuvSkas of each book.^ These may be 
shown in tabular statement as follows : 

For book 



• •• 





• • 


































The norm is.spoken of (p. 92) as a nimitta, literally, perhaps, * fundamental 
determinant.' Frequent reference has already been made to these norms 
in the main body of this work, either expressly (as at pages 220 and 388 : 
cf. also pages 6, 18, 22, 152), or implicitly at the ends of the annvdkas,] 

[By combining (as in lines 2 and 3 of the table) a part of table i of 
p. cxliv with a part of the table on p. cxxix, the actual average of the 
verse-totals of the anuvdkas may be found for each book (as in line 4). 
It is perhaps a fact of critical significance that for each book this average 
is greater than the norm assumed by our treatise.J 

[For the second grand division (books viii.-xii.), on the other hand, 
our treatise assumes a norm which concerns the verse-totals of the hymns, 
and not (as in the first division) those of the anuvdkas. They are, in 
tabular statement, as follows : 

For book 

• « • 





• • 


























The lengths of the hymns arc often (not always) described by stating the 
overplus or shortage with reference to these norms. This is oftenest 
the case in book x. (so with seven hymns out of ten : see p. 562) ; it is 
the case with all the artha-suktas of book xii. (four out of five : p. 660) ; 
with hymns i, 3, and 5 of book ix., and 6 and 8 of book xi. ; and least 
often and clearly the case with book viii. (cf. the unclear citation, p. 502, 
\ 2). — Here again the actual averages are greater than the norms. J 

[The three << grand divisions" are recognized by the PaScapatalikfl. — 
Partly by way of example, and partly with ulterior purpose, we may 
instance the citations from the Paftcapatalika which give the verse-totals 
of the six anuvdkas of boolc iii. These totals are respectively 33, 40, 38, 
40, 35, and 44. The citations are indeed to be found below, scattered 
over pages 92, 103, 113, 123, 131, and 141 ; but it will be better to combine 

* LAnother and wholly different matter is the norm assumed for the verse-totals of the indi- 
vidual hymns of each book (see p. cxiviii) : thus book i. b the book of four-versed hymns.J 

cxl General Introductio7i^ Part II. : ifi part by Whitney 

them here (with addition of the "obscure" clause of p. 141, ^ 8) into 
what appears to be their proper metrical form, with attempted emendation 
at the points ^ in which the verse was obscure to Whitney : 

trihqannitnittdh sadrcesu kdryds 

tisro daqd *s(du daqa pafica ca rcah : 
caturdafd *ntyd; anuvdkafaf ca 

sainkhydht vidadhydd adhikdm nimittdt, 

'Among the six-versed [hymns] (i.e. in book iii.), the verses are to be 
(made : i.e.) accounted [respectively] as three, ten, eight, ten, and five, 
with thirty as their fundamental determinant ; and the last as fourteen : 
and one is to treat the number (anuvdka by anuvdka: i.e.) for each 
anuvdka as an overplus over the norm. 'J 

[In the section headed "Tables of verse-norms" etc., it was shown 
that, while the Paficapatalika's norms for books i.-vii. concern the ami- 
vdkaSy its norms for books viii.-xii. concern the hymns. This distinction is 
observed also by the comm. in making his decad-divisions (see p. 472 : 1. 28). 
These facts are in entire accord with the explicit statements of the Paftca- 
patalika : to wit, on the one hand, with that of the verse just translated ; 
and, on the other, with the remark cited at the end of viii. i (p. 475, end), 
suktaqaq ca ganand pravartate^ * and the numbering proceeds hymn by 
hymn.' Here suktagas is in clear contrast with the anuvdkaqas of our 
verse, and the remark evidently applies to the remaining books of the 
text that come within the purview of the Paficapatalika, that is (since it 
ignores books xix.-xx.), to books viii.-xviii. or to the second and third 
grand divisions.J 

[Thus, between the first grand division on the one hand and the second 
and third on the other, our treatise makes a clear distinction, not only by 
actual procedure but also by express statement. But this is not all. 
As between the second and the third, also, it makes a distinction in fact : 
for, while a norm that concerns the verse-totals of artha-suktas (and not 
of anuvdkas) is assumed for the second, no norm is assumed for the third 
(cf. p. 708, line 12) and the verse-totals for each arthasukta or parydya- 
sukta are stated simply hymn by hymn.J 

10. Extent and Structure of the Athanra-Veda Samhita 

Limits of the original collection. — It is in ^le first place clearly appar- 
ent that of the twenty books composing the present text of the Atharva- 
Veda, the first eighteen, or not more than that, were originally combined 

^ The mss. read: *ntydnu-y with doable sandhi; -saf for -f^fi ^^^ confusion of sibilants; 
samkhyd (but one has indeed -ydm) ; and adhikdnim-^ with omission of a needed twin conso- 
nant (cf. p. 832). As to the use of kr^ cf. below, p. 52 end, and p. 186, ^ 3. 

xo. Extent af id Structure of t/ie A t/iarva-Veda Samhita cxli 

together to form a collection. There appears to be no definite reason to 
suppose that the text ever contained less than the books i.-xviii. It is 
easy to conjecture a collection including books i.-xiv. and book xviii., 
leaving out the two prose fary'dya-hooks xv. and xvi. and the odd little 
book xvii. with the queer refrain running nearly through it ; but there is 
no sound reason for suspecting the genuineness of these prose books 
more than of the prose hymns scattered (see below, p. loii) through 
nearly all the preceding books ; and in the Paippalada recension it is 
Vulgate book xviii. that is wanting altogether, books xv.-xvii. [or rather, 
books xv.-xviii. : cf. p. 1015 J being not unrepresented. 

Books xix. and zx. are later additions. — That these are later additions 
is in the first place strongly suggested by their character and composi- 
tion. As for book xx., that is in the main a pure mass of excerpts from 
the Rig- Veda; it stands in no conceivable relation to the rest of the 
Atharva-Veda ; and when and why it was added thereto is a matter for 
conjecture. As for book xix., that has distinctly the aspect of being an 
after-gleaning ; if its hymns had been an accepted part of the main col- 
lection when that was formed, we should have expected them to be dis- 
tributed among the other books ; and the text is prevailingly of a degree 
of badness that sets it quite apart from the rest ; while its pada-ttxX. must 
be a most modern production. \¥ox the cumulative evidence in detail 
respecting book xix., see my introduction, pages 895-8. J 

Other evidences of the former existence of an Atharva-Veda which 
was limited to books i.-xviii. are not rare. That the /m/^^/z^^^-division 
is not extended beyond book xviii. may be of some consequence, but 
probably not much. The Old AnukramanI stops at the same point. 
More significant is it that the Kau^ika-sutra [does not, by its citations,^ 
imply recognition of the text of book xix. as an integral part of the sant- 
hitdy and that itj ignores book xx. completely. It is yet more impor- 
tant that the Prati^akhya and its commentary limit themselves to books 

In the Paippalada text, the material of book xix. appears in great part, 
as we are bound to note, and quite on an equality with the rest. Of 
book XX., nothing Lor practically nothing : see p. 1009J so appears. It is 
also noteworthy that Paipp. (as mentioned above) omits book xviii. ; but 
from this need be drawn no suspicion as to the appurtenance of xviii. to 
the original AV. — The question of the possible extension of individual 
hymns anywhere does not concern us here, [but is discussed on page cliii. J 

1 LThere are five verses which, although occurring in our xix., are yet cited by Kau9. in full, 
as if they did not belong to the Atharvan text recognized by Kau^. Moreover, there are cited 
by Kau9. six pratlkas which, although answering to six hymns (between 51 and 68) of our xix., 
may yet for the most part be regarded as kalpajd mantrds. For a detailed discussion of the 
matter, see pages 896-7. J 

cxlii General Introduction^ Part II, : in part by Whitney 

[The two broadest principles of arrangement of books i.-xviii. — Leaving 
book XX. out of account, and disregarding also for the present book xix. 
as being a palpable supplement (see pages 895-8), it is not difficult to 
trace the two principles that underlie the general arrangement of the 
material of books i.-xviii. These principles are :J 

[I. Miscellaneity or unity of subject and 2. length of hymn. — The books 
i.-xviii. fall accordingly into two general classes: i. books of which the 
hymns are characterized by miscellaneity of subject and in which the 
length of the hymns is regarded ; and 2. books of which the distinguish- 
ing characteristic is a general unity of subject and in which the precise 
length of the hymns is not primarily regarded, although they are prevail- 
ingly long.^ The first class again falls into two divisions: i. the short 
hymns ; and 2. the long hymns.J 

[The three grand divisions (I. and II. and III.) as based on those princi- 
ples. — We thus have, for books i.-xviii., three grand divisions, as follows : 
I. the first grand division, consisting of the seven books, i.-vii., and com- 
prehending the short hymns of miscellaneous subjects, more specifically, 
all the hymns (not parydyas: p. cxxxiv) of a less number of verses than 
twenty 1; II. the second grand division, consisting of the next five books, 
viii.-xii., and comprehending the long hymns of miscellaneous subjects, 
more specifically, all the hymns (save those belonging to the third division) 
of more than twenty verses ; and HI. the third grand division, consisting, 
as aforesaid, of those books of which the distinguishing characteristic is 
a general unity of subject, to wit, the six books, xiii.-xviii. — There are 
other features, not a few, which differentiate these divisions one from 
another; they will be mentioned below, under the several divisions. J 

[The order of the three grand divisions. — It is clear that the text ought 
to begin with division I., since that is the most characteristic part of it 
all, and since books i.-vi. are very likely the original nucleus of the whole 
collection. Since division I. is made up of hymns of miscellaneous sub- 
jects (the short ones), it is natural that the other hymns of miscellaneous 
subjects (the long ones) should follow next. Thus the last place is natu- 
rally left for the books characterized by unity of subject. This order 
agrees with that of the hymn-totals of the divisions, which form (cf. tables 
I, 2, 3) a descending scale of 433 and 45 and is.J 

[Principles of arrangement of books within the grand division. — If we 

have rightly determined the first rough grouping of the material of books 
i.-xviii. into three grand divisions, the question next in logical order is, 

^ [This statement is true without modification, if we treat books xv. and xvi. each as two 
hymns ox parydya-^oxii^^ in the manner explained and reasoned at p. cxxx, and implied in the 
second form of table 3, p. cxlv : cf. p. cxxxvii, line 13. J 

lo. Extent and Structure of tlu AtfiarvorVeda Samhita cxliii 

What governs the arrangement of the books within each division ? This 
question will be discussed in detail under each of the three divisions 
(cf. pages cxlix flf., clvii, clix) ; here, accordingly, only more general state- 
ments are called for. Those statements concern the verse-norms of the 
hymns for each book, and the amount of text.J 

(.The normal length of the hymns for each of the several books. — For 
the first grand division these norms play an important part in determin- 
ing the arrangement of the books within that division, as appears later, 
p. cxlix. For the second grand division it is true that the Paficapatalika 
assumes a normal hymn-length for each book (p. cxxxix) ; but that seems 
to have no traceable connection with the arrangement of the books within 
that division (p. civ). For the third, no such norm is even assumed (p. cxlj 
near end). J 

[The amount of text in each book. — Table. — This matter, in its relation 
to the order of the books, I must consider briefly here for the three grand 
divisions together, although it will be necessary to revert to it later (pages 
clii, clvii, clix). Since our samhitd is of mingled verse and prose, it is 
not easy (except with a Hindu ms., which I have not at hand) to esti- 
mate the precise amount of text to be apportioned to each separate book. 
If we take as a basis, however, the printed page of the Berlin text, and 
count blank fractions of pages, the 352 pages are apportioned among the 
18 books as follows : 

Book L has 13 pages 

• • 



• •• 









• • 



Division I. 


Book viii. has 22 pages 

Ix. 21 

X. 27 

xi. 25 

xil 22 

Division II. 117 

Book xiiL has 13 pages 

xiv. 12 

XV. 10 

xvL 5 

xvii. 3 

xviiL 2 1 

Division III. 64 

From this it appears that, for division I., the amount of text is a continu- 
ously ascending one for each of the books except the last (book vii.) ; and 
that, for division III., it is a continuously descending one for each of the 
books except (in like manner) the last (book xviii.) ; and that, although 
the verse-totals of the Bombay edition for the books of division II. form 
a series (see p. clvii, line 11) which ascends continuously (like that of I.) 
for all books except (once again) the last, the books of division II. are, on 
the whole, most remarkable for their approximate equality of length. J 

Arrangement of the hymns within any given book. — While the general 
guiding principles of arrangement of the books within the division are 
thus in large measure and evidently the external ones of verse-norms and 
amount of text, it is not easy to see what has directed the ordering of the 

cxiiv General Introduction, Part II, : in part by Whitftey 

Table x. First g^rand division, books i.-vii., seven books 


Verse- ) « « 
norms ) * ' 



B 8 

. Book 






Book Book 
iy. V. 

7 8 


Sum of 

Sum of 










2 vss. 






8 vss. 








4 vss. 









6 vss. 









6 vss. 










7 vss. 







2 hs. 


8 vss. 







4 hs. 


9 vss. 





2 hs. 

of 10 vss. 





6 hs. 

of 11 vss. 




6 hs. 

of 12 vss. 




3 hs. 
3 hs. 
3 hs. 

of 18 vss. 
of 14 vss. 
of 16 vss. 





2 hs. 
1 h. 

of 16 vss. 
of 17 vss. 
of 18 vss. 










31 hymns 








376 verses 



a. Second grand division, 1 

tx)0ks viii.- 


., five books 









Sum of 

Sum of 


h. of 21 vss. 






hs. of 22 vss. 

h. of2Svss. 






hs. of 24 rss. 






hs. of 26 VSS-. 








hs. of 26 vss. 
hs. of 27 vss. 







hs. of 28 vss. 
hs. of SI vss. 
h. ofSSvss. 









hs. of S8 vss. 
hs. of S4 vss. 
h. of S6 vss. 
h. of 87 vss. 
h. of 88 vss. 
hs. of 44 vss. 
h. of 60 vss. 
h. of 68 vss. 



h. of 66 vss. 



h. of 66 vss. 
h. of 60 vss. 




h. of 62 vss. 
h. of 6S vss. 
h. of 78 vss. 

















la Extent and Structure of the AtharvaVeda Samhita cxlv 

TiUe 3. Third grand dlTiaion, books ziii.-xTiii., six books 













Sum of 

Sum of 







coo tains 

ht. of 6 TM. 




ht.of 4vM. 



ha.of im. 




ht. ol 6 VM. 




ht. of 7 vtt. 



h. of 8 m. 



ht. of 6 vBt. 



h. ollOvtt. 




ht. of 11 m. 








h. of 16 m. 
ht. of 16 vtt. 

h. ol 66 Tit. 
h. of 67 Ttt. 
h. of 66 m. 






h. of 46 m. 




h. of 66 vtt. 





ht. ol 60 vtt. 
h. olOlvtt. 
h. ol64m. 
h. of 76 vtt. 
h. ol7ivat. 
h. of 86 vtt. 








18 p 












1,Such is Whitney's table ; and it is well to let it stand, as it furnishes the 

best argument against treating \}ci^parydyas of books xv. and xvi. each as 

a single hymn (cf. p. cxxxvi, top). Treating them as explained at p. clx, it 

will appear as follows. 

Table 3, second form 













Sum of 

Sum of 












of 66 vtt. 





of 66 vtt. 





of 66 vtt. 





of 46 m. 










of 66 vtt. 





. of 60 vtt. 





. of 61 m. 





of 64 vtt. 
of 76 vtt. 






of 76 vtt. 
of 80 vtt. 





of 01 vtt. 

















874 J 

cxl vi General Introduction^ Part II. : in part by Whitney 

several hymns within any given book. It is clear that the subject has 
not been at all considered ; nor is it at all probable that any regard has 
been had to the authorship, real or claimed (we have no tradition of any 
value whatever respecting the " rishis "). Probably only chance or arbi- 
trary choice of the arranger dictated the internal ordering of each book. 
[On this subject there is indeed little that is positive to be said ; but (in 
order to avoid repetition) I think it best to say that little for each grand 
division in its proper place under that division : see pages cliv, clvii, 
and clx.J 

[Distribution of hymns according to length in the three grand divisions. — 
Tables i and 2 and 3. — The distribution of the hymns according to their 
length throughout the books of the three grand divisions is shown by 
Whitney's tables i, 2, and 3, preceding. The numbers rest on the numera- 
tions of the Berlin edition, and due reference to the differences of numera- 
tion of the Bombay edition is made below at p. cxlvii. A vertical column 
is devoted to each book and in that column is shown how many hymns of 
I verse, of 2 or 3 or 4 and so on up to 89 verses, there are in that book, 
by the number horizontally opposite the number of verses indicated in 
the column headed by the word "contains." To facilitate the summation 
of the number of hymns and verses in the Atharva-Veda, the last column 
but one on the right gives the number of hymns of i vs., of 2 vss. and so 
on, in the division concerned, and the last column on the right gives the 
total number of verses contained in the hymns of i vs., of 2 vss. and so 
on (the total in each line being, of course, an exact multiple of the num- 
ber preceding in the same line). Accordingly we may read, for example, 
the sixth line of table i as follows : " Book vii. contains 10 hymns of 3 
verses and book vi. contains 122. The sum of hymns of 3 verses in the 
division is 132, and the sum of verses in those hymns is 396." J 

[Tables i' and 2 and 3 for divisions I. and 11. and III. — These ought 
properly to come in at this point; but as their form and contents are 
such that it is desirable to have them stand on two pages that face 
each other, they have been put (out of their proper place) on pages cxliv 
and cxlv.J 

[Grouping of the hymns of book xiz. according to length. — Table 4. — 
Apart from the two hymns, 22 (of 21 verses) and 23 (of 30), which are in 
divers ways of very exceptional character, it appears that every hymn of 
this book, if judged simply by its verse-total length, would fall into the 
first grand division, as being of less than 20 verses.^ This fact is of crit- 
ical interest, and is in keeping with the character of book xix. as an after- 
gleaning, and in particular an after-gleaning of such material as would 
properly fall into the first grand division (cf. p. 895, ^ 2). The table : 

^ [And so would hymns 22 and 23, if judged by their actual length. J 

lO, Extent atid Structure of tlu Atharva-Veda Samhita cxlvii 

Table 4. The sttpplement, book xiz., one book 

In book six. there are 15 4 2 9 6 8 4 
Containing respectively 1234567 

In book xix. there are 2 i i i i hymns, 

Containing respectively 14 15 16 21 30 verses. 






Total : 72 hymns. 
Total: 456 verses. J 

LSummary of the four tables. — Table 5 Extent of AV. Saiiihita about 

one half of that of RV. — The totals of hymns and verses of tables 1-4 
are summed up in table 5. From this it appears that the number of 
hymns of the three grand divisions of the Atharva-Veda Samhiti is 516 
or about one half of that of the Rig- Veda, and that the number of verses 
is 4,432 or considerably less than one half. If the summation be made to 
include also the supplement and the parts of book xx. which are peculiar 
to the AV., the number of hymns amounts to 598 or about three fifths of 
that of the RV., and the number of verses amounts to 5,038 or about one 
half of that of the RV. Table 5 follows : 

Table 5. Sttmmary of Atharvan hymns and veraes 































verses. J 

Grand division I., books i.-vii., 
Grand division II., books viii.-xii., 
Grand division III., books xiii.-xviii., 

Totals for the three grand divisions : 
The supplement, book xix., 

Totals for books i.-xix. : 
The Kuntapa-khila of book xx. 

Totals for books i.-xiz. and khila: 

LThe numbers of tables 1-5 rest on the Berlin edition. The differ- 
ences between that and the Bombay edition do not affect the amount of 
text, but only the verse-totals. Even the verse-totals are not affected, 
but only the hymn-totals (p. 389, 1. 10), by the differences in book vii. 
For the parydya'\iymxi%, the verse-totals of the Bombay edition amount 
to 188 more (see p. cxxxvii) than those of the Berlin edition. For the 
Bombay edition, accordingly, the grand total must be raised (by 188) 
from 5,038 to S,226.J 

[First grand division (books i.-vii.) : short hymns of miscellaneous sub- 
jects. — While the general considerations of length and subject are indeed 
sufficient for the separation of books i.-xviii. into three grand divisions 
as defined above, the first division shows yet other signs of being a minor 
collection apart from the other two. In the first place, the hymns that 
compose it are mostly genuine charms and imprecations, and wear on the 

cxl viii General Introductiotty Part II. : in part by Whitney 

whole a general aspect decidedly different from that of books viii.-xviii., as 
is indeed apparent enough from the table of hymn-titles, pages 1024-37; 
they are, in fact, by all odds the most characteristic part of the Atharva- 
Veda, and this is tacitly admitted by the translators of selected hymns 
(see p. cvii), their selections being taken in largest measure (cf. p. 281) 
from this division. In the second place, the books of this division are 
sharply distinguished from those of the others by the basis of their inter- . 
nal arrangement, which basis is in part that of a clearly demonstrable 
verse-norm, a norm, that is to say, which, for each separate book, governs 
the number of verses in the hymns of that book.^J 

[Evidence of fact as to the existence of the verse-norms. — A most per- 
vading implicit distinction is made by the Major Anukramani between 
this division and the next in its actual method of giving or intimating 
the length of the hymns. In division II., on the one hand, the number 
of verses is stated expressly and separately for every hymn. In division 
I., on the other hand, the treatise merely intimates by its silence that the 
number for any given hymn conforms to the norm assumed for that book, 
and the number is expressly stated only when it constitutes a departure 
from that norm. Thus for the 142 hymns of book vi., an express state- 
ment as to the length is made only for the 20 hymns (given at p. 281, 
lines 17-18) which exceed the norm of three.^ — For convenience of 
reference, the norms may here be tabulated : 

Books vii. vi. 

Norms i 3 

V ■ « ■ ■ « 

u. m. IV. V. 

5 6 7 8J 

[Express testimony of both Anukramanis as to the verse-norms. — The 
Major Anukr. (at the beginning of its treatment of book ii. : see p. 142) 
expressly states that the normal number of verses for a hymn of book i. 
is four, and that the norm increases by one for each successive book of 
the first five books : putvakdndasya caturrcaprakrtir ity evam uttarottara- 
kdndesu sasfkatn yavad ekdikddhikd etc. Than this, nothing could be 
more clear or explicit. Again, at the beginning of its treatment of book 
iii., it says that in this book it is to be understood that six verses are 
the norm, and that any other number is a departure therefrom : atra 

^ [That books i.-vii. are distinctly recognized as a separate unity by the Major Anukr. appears 
also from the fact that for the right or wrong study of its first five patalas (in which books i.-vii. 
are treated), special blessings or curses are promised in a passage at the beginning of the sixth* 
The fact was noted by Weber, Verteichniss, vol. ii., p. 79; and the passage was printed by him 
on p. 81. J 

^ [_At i. I, and also at v. 9 and 10 (these two are prose pieces), the treatise states the number 
when it is normal. Thb is not unnatural at i. i, the beginning; and considering the prevailing 
departure from the norm in book v., it is not surprising there. On the other hand, the omis> 
sions at iv. 36 and vi. 121 are probably by inadvertence. J 

I a Extent and Structure of the Atharva-Veda Samhitd cxlix 

sadrcaprakrtir anyd vikfiir iti vijdnlydt. At the beginning of book iv. 
it has a remark of like purport : brahnta jajMnam iti kdnde saptarcasakta- 
prakrtir (so London ms. : cf. p. 142 below) anyd vikrtir ity avagachet. 
Moreover, it defines book vi. as the trcasuktakdndam (cf. pages 281, 388), 
and adds to the definition the words tatra trcaprakrtir itard vikrtir iti, 
Cf. Weber's Verzeichniss der Berliner Sanskrit-hss,^ vol. ii., p. 79. J 

l^ln the recognition of the verse-norms, as in much else (p. Ixxii, top), 
the Paftcapa^alika serves as source and guide for the author of the Major 
Anukr. Thus the older treatise calls book ii. ' the five-versed * (see the 
citation at p. 45)> and book iii. in like manner 'the six-versed' (seep. cxl). 
Cf. also the statements of the next paragraph as to book vii.J 

LOne verse is the norm for book vil. — The absence of any book in which 
two-versed hymns are the norm, and the frequency of two-versed hymns 
in book vii., might lead us to think that both one-versed and two-versed 
hymns are to be regarded as normal for book vii. (cf. p. 388, line 13); 
but this is not the case (cf. line 24 of the same page). The Major Anukr. 
speaks of book vii. as < the book of one-versed hymns/ ekarcasuktakdndam ; 
and its testimony is confirmed by the Old Anukr., as cited by SPP. on 
p. 18 of his Critical Notice, which says, 'among the one-versed hymns 
[i.e. in book vii.], [the anuvdkas are or consist] of hymns made of one verse,' 
rk'S&ktd ekarcesu. Further confirmation of the view that one (not one or two) 
is the true norm for book vii. is found in the fact that the Anukr. is silent 
as to the lengfth of the hymns of one verse (cf. p. cxlviii), but makes the 
express statement dvyrcam for each of the thirty ^ hymns of two verses. J 

LArrangement of books i.-vil. with reference to verse-norms. — If we 
examine table i (p. cxliv), in which these books are set in the ascending 
numerical order of their verse-norms, several facts become clear. It is 
apparent, in the first place, that this division is made up of those seven 
books in which the number — normal or prevalent — of verses to a hymn 
runs from one to eight ; secondly, that the samhitd itself begins with the 
norm of four; and, thirdly, that the number two as a norm is missing 
from the series. Fourthly, it is indeed apparent that every book shows 
departures from its norm ; but also — what is more important in this con- 
nection — that these departures are all on one side, that of excess, and 
never on that of deficiency. J 

^ [_This b the true number. The number 26, given at p. cxliv in table i, rests on the actual 
hymn-divisions of the Berlin text. On account of the discordance, the 30 hymns may here be 
named: I, 6. 1-2, 6.3-4, 13. 18, 22, 25, 29, 40-42, 47-49» 52» 54- 2 with 55. i, 57-58, 61. 64, 
68. 1-2, 72. 1-2, 75, 76.5-6, 78, 108, 1 12-114, "6. (They are very conveniently shown in the 
table, p. 1021.) Note on the other hand the silence of the Anukr. as to our 45, 54. i, 68.3, 
and 72.3. Its silence means that our 45. i (seer, Praskanva) and 45. 2 (Atharvan) and 54. i 
(Brahman) form three one-versed hymns, a fact which is borne out by the ascriptions of quasi- 
authorship ; and that 68. 3 and 72. 3 form two more. J 

cl General Introduction^ Part IL : in part by Whitney 

LWe may here digress to add that, if we compare table i with those 
following, it appears, fifthly, that in book vii. are put all the hymns of 
the three grand divisions that contain only i or 2 verses; sixthly, that 
neither in this division, nor yet in the other two, nor even in book xix., 
is there a hymn of 19 verses, nor yet one of 20.^ From table i, again, it 
appears, seventhly, that this division contains a hymn or hymns of every 
number of verses from 4 verses to 18 verses (mostly in books i.-v.) and 
from I verse to 3 verses (exclusively in books vi. and vii.). J 

LEzcursus on hymn xix. 23, Homage to parts of the Atharva-Veda. — 
It is worth while at this point to recall to the reader's mind this remark- 
able hymn in its bearing upon some of the questions as to the structure 
of our text : see pages 931-4, and especially ^ 6 of p. 931. As our satn- 
hitd begins with four-versed hymns, so does xix. 23 begin with homage 
"to them of four verses " (p. 931, line 29), and not with homage " to them 
of one verse." Again, grouping all hymns of four verses or more in this 
division according to length, there are 15 groups (not in the least con- 
terminous with books) each containing a hymn or hymns of every num- 
ber of verses from 4 to 18, and to these 1 5 groups the first 1 5 verses of 
xix. 23 correspond (p. 931, line 27). Again, of the fact that books i.-xviii. 
contain not one hymn of 19 verses nor yet one of 20, account seems to 
be taken in that the form of verses 16 and 17 differs from that of the 
15 preceding (p. 931, line 37). Again, as in our series the norm two is 
lacking, so also is lacking in xix. 23 a dvyrcebhyah svdhd (but cf. p. 931, 
line 28, with p. 933, line 2). Finally the verses of homage "to them of 
three verses" and " to them of one verse" (xix. 23. 19-20) stand in the 
same order relative to each other and to the verses of homage to the 1 5 
groups as do books vi. and vii. to each other and to the books containing 
the hymns of more than three verses, namely books i.-v, — Cf. further 
pages clvii and clix.J 

[We now return to the arrangement of the books within the division by 
norms. — The norms of books i.-vii. respectively, as the books stand in 
our text, are 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 3, i. From this point of view, the books fall 
into two groups : group X contains books i.-v., and its norms make a sim- 
ple continuous ascending numerical scale beginning with four (4, 5, 6, 7, 8) ; 
group Y contains books vi. and vii., and its norms make a broken descend- 
ing numerical scale beginning with three (3, i). Here several questions 
arise as to group Y : first, why is its scale inverted, that is, why does not 
book vii. precede book vi. } second, why does not group Y (and in the 
reversed order, vii., vi.) precede group X, so as to make the whole series 
begin, as is natural, with one instead of four, and run on in the text as 
it does in the table at p. cxliv } and, third, why is the scale broken, that 

^ [_In the Kuntapakhila there are two hymns of 20. J 

lo. Extent and Structure of the Atharva-Veda Samhitd cli 

is, why have not the diaskeuasts made eight books of the first division, 
including not only one for the one-versed hymns, but also another for 
the two-versed ?J 

[With reference to the last question, it is clear that the amount of 
materia] composing the two-versed hymns (30 hymns with only 60 verses : 
seep, cxlix, note) is much too small to make a book reasonably commensurate 
with the books of the first division ; it is therefore natural that the 
orig^al groupings of the text-makers should include no book with the 
norm of two. J 

LExceptional character of book vil. — The first two questions, concern- 
ing group Y or books vi. and vii., are closely related, inasmuch as they 
both ask or involve the question why book vii. does not precede book vi. 
By way of partial and provisional answer to the second, it is natural to 
suggest that perhaps the scrappy character of the one-versed ancj two- 
versed hymns militated against beginning the Vedic text with book vii. 
And indeed this view is not without indirect support from Hindu tradition : 
for according to the Brliad-Devatd^ viiL 99, the ritualists hold that a hymn, 
in order to be rated as a genuine hymn, must have at least three verses, 
trcddhamam ydjhikdh sUktam dhuh} It may well be, therefore, that the 
diaskeuasts did not regard these bits of one or two verses as real hymns, 
as in fact they have excluded them rigorously from all the books i.-vi. 
From this point of view our groups X and Y have no significance except 
for the momentary convenience of the discussion, and the true grouping 
of books i.-vii. should be into the two groups, A, containing books i.-vi., 
and B, containing book vii. J 

LThe exceptional character of book vii. is borne out by several other 
considerations to which reference is made below. Its place in the sam- 
hitd is not that which we should expect, whether we judge by the fact 
that its norm is one verse or by the amount of its text (p. cxliii). If 
we consider the number of its hymns that are ignored by Kau5ika 
(see pp. 1011-2), again we find that it holds a very exceptional place in 
division I. Many of its hymns have a put-together look, as is stated at 
p. cliv ; and this statement is confirmed by their treatment in the Paip- 
palada recension (p. 1014, 1. 15). Just as its hymns stand at the end of 
its g^and division in the Vulgate, so they appear for the most part in the 
very last book of the Paippalada (cf. p. 1013, end). As compared with the 
great mass of books i.-vi., some of its hymns (vii. 73, for instance) are 
quite out of place among their fellows. J 

* LFor the productions of modern hymnology, one hardly errs in regarding three verses as 
the standard minimum length, a length convenient for use, whether in reading or singing, and 
for remembering. A two-versed hymn is too short for a dignified unity. Possibly similar con- 
siderations may have had validity with the ancient text-makers.J 

clii General Introduction^ Part II, : in part by Whitney 

[Book vii. a book of after-gleanings supplementing books i.-vi. — It is 
very easy to imagine group A, or books i.-vi., as constituting the original 
nucleus ^ of the satnhitd (p. cxlviii, top), and group B, or book vii., as being 
an ancient supplement to that nucleus, just as book xix. is unquestionably 
a later supplement to the larger collection of the three grand divisions 
(cf. p. 895). This view does not imply that the verses of book vii. are 
one whit less ancient or less genuinely popular than those of books i.-vi., 
but merely that, as they appear in their collected form, they have the 
aspect of being after-gleanings, relatively to books i.-vi. This view 
accords well with the exceptional character of book vii. as otherwise 
established and as just set forth (p. cli).J 

[Arrangement of books with reference to amount of text. — If these con- 
siderations may be deemed a sufficient answer to the first two questions 
so fa|^ as they relate to book vii., there remains only that part of the 
second question which relates to book vi. One does not readily see why 
the satnhitd might not have opened with book vi., the book of the varied 
and interesting three-versed hymns, so that the norms would have run in 
the order 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (i) ; and, since this is not the case, it may be 
that some other principle is to be sought as a co-determinant of the 
order of arrangement. J 

[If we consult the table on p. cxliii, wtf see that, in division I., the 
scale of numbers of printed pages of text in each book (13, 16, 20, 27, 28, 
40, 27) is a continuously ascending one for each book except the last 
(book vii.). The like is true if we base our comparison on the more pre- 
cise scale of verse-totals for each book (153, 207, 230, 324, 376, 454, 286), 
as given at the foot of table i, p. cxliv.J 

[These facts, in the first place, strongly corroborate our view as to the 
exceptional character of book vii. By the principle of norms, it should 
stand at the beginning of the division ; by the principle of amount (judged 
by verse-totals), it should stand between books iii. and iv. That it does 
neither is hard to explain save on the assumption of its posteriority as a 
collection. In the second place, these facts suggest at the same time the 
reason for the position of book vi. in the division, namely, that it is placed 
after books i.-v. because it is longer than any of those books. J 

[Rfeum^ of conclusions as to the arrangement of books i.-vii. — Book vii., 
as a supplement of after-gleanings, is placed at the end of the grand 
division, without regard to amount of text or to verse-norm. Books i.-vi. 
are arranged primarily according to the amount of text,* in an ascending 
scale. For them the element of verse-norms, also in an ascending scale, 

^ [If asked to discriminate between the books of that nucleus, I should put books vi. and i. 
and ii. first (cf. p. cliii, I3) ; at all events, book v. stands in marked contrast with those three. J 
^ l_ Whether this amount is judged by verse-totals or by pages, the order is the same.J 

la Extent atid Structure of tlu Atharva-Veda Samhitd cliii 

' appears as a secondary determinant. It conflicts with the primary deter- 
minant in only one case,^ that of book vi., and is accordingly there 
subordinated to the primary one, so that book vi. (norm : 3) is placed after 
books i.-v. (norms : 4-8). J 

LDepartures from the norms by excess. — The cases of excess are most 
numerous in book v. (see p. 220), and concern over \\ of all the hymns. 
On the other hand, the cases of conformity to the norm are most numer- 
ous in books vi. and i. and concern about f of the hymns in each book. 
For books ii., iv., vii., and iii. respectively, the approximate vulgar fraction 
of cases of conformity is |, \, \^ and |. For each of the seven books, in the 
order of closeness of conformity to the verse-norm, the more precise frac- 
tion is as follows : for book vi., it is .859 ; for i., it is .857 ; for ii., it is .61 ; 
for iv., it is .52 ; for vii., it is .47 ; for iii., it is .42 ; and for v., it is .06. J 

[Critical significance of those departures. — From the foregoing para- 
graph it appears that the order of books arranged by their degree of 
conformity (vi., i., ii.), agrees with their order as arranged by their 
verse-norms (3, 4, 5), for the books of shorter hymns. This is as it 
should be ; for if the distinction of popular and hieratic hymns is to be 
made for this division, the briefest would doubtless fall into the prior 
class, the class less liable to expansion by secondary addition.J 

We are not without important indications ^ that the hymns may have 
been more or less tampered with since their collection and arrangement, 
so as now to show a greater number of verses than originally belonged to 
them. Thus some hymns have been expanded by formulized variations 
of some of their verses ; and others by the separation of a single verse 
into more than one, with the addition of a refrain. [Yet others have 
suffered expansion by downright interpolations or by additions at the 
end ; while some of abnormal length may represent the juxtaposition of 
two unrelated pieces. J 

lUttstrative examples of critical reduction to the norm. — [The instances 
that follow should be taken merely as illustrations. To discuss the cases 
systematically and thoroughly would require a careful study of every 
case of excess with reference to the structure of the hymn concerned 
and to its form and extent in the parallel texts, — in short, a special 

1 [That the two orders, based on the one and the other determinant, should agree throughout 
books i.-v. is no doubt partly fortuitous ; but it is not very strange. The variation in the num- 
ber of hymns for each book (35, 36, 31, 40, 31) is confined to narrow limits ; and if, as is prob- 
able, the departures from the norm were originally fewer and smaller than now, the verse-totals 
for each book would come nearer to being precise multiples of those ascending norms.J 

« [Cf. p. 281, t 2.J 

* [_A very great part of the data necessary for the conduct of such an inquiry may be 
found already conveniently assembled in this work in Whitney's critical notes; for, although 

cliv General Introduction^ Part II: in part by Whitney 

Thus in i. 3 (see p. 4), verses 2-5 are merely repetitions of verse i (and 
senseless repetitions, because only Parjanya, of the deities named, could 
with any propriety be called the father of the reed: cf. i. 2. i); while 
verses 7 & 8 have nothing to do with the refrain and are to be combined 
into one verse : we have then four verses, the norm of the book. 

Once more, in ii. 10 (see p. 51), no less evidently, the verse-couples 
2 & 3, 4 & 5, and 6 & 7 are to be severally combined into three single 
verses, with omission of the refrain, which belongs only to verses i and 8 : 
so that here we have five verses, again the normal number. 

So, further, in iii. 31 (see p. 141), as it seems clear, 2 & 3, without the 
refrain, make verse 2 ; 4 with the refrain is verse 3 ; and 5 is a senseless 
intrusion ; then, omitting all further repetitions of the refrain, 6 & 7 make 
verse 4 ; 8 & 9 make verse 5 ; and 10 & 1 1 make verse 6, six being here 
the verse-norm. 

In book vi., a number of hymns which exceed the regular norm are 
formular and would bear reduction to hymns of three verses : instances 
are hymns 17, 34, 38, 107, 132. [The cases are quite numerous in which 
the added verse is lacking in one of the parallel texts. Thus in book vi., 
hymns 16, 17, 34, 63, 83, 108, 121, and 128 (see the critical notes on 
those hymns and cf. p. 1014, 1. 16) appear in the Paippalada text as hymns 
of three verses each.J 

Besides these cases, there are not a few others where we may with 
much plausibility assume that the verses in excess are later appendixes 
or interpolations : such are i. 29. 4-5 ; ii. 3. 6 ; 32. 6 ; 33. 3 «b4cd, 6 ; iii. 
15. 7-8 ; 21.6, 8-10 (see note under vs. 7) ; 29. 7-8 ; iv. 2. 8 ; 16. 8-9 ; 
17-3 ; 39- 9-10; vi. 16. 4; 63.4; 83.4; 122.3,5; 123.3-4. In book 
vii., moreover, the put-together character of many of the longer hymns is 
readily apparent (cf. hymns 17, 38, 50, 53, 76, 79, and 82 as they appear 
in the table on p. 102 1). 

But such analyses, even if pushed to an extreme, will not dispose of all 
the cases of an excess in the number of verses of a hymn above the norm 
of the book : thus iii. 16 corresponds to a Rig- Veda hymn of seven verses ; 
iv. 30 and 33 each to one of eight ; and v. 3 to one of nine. It will be 
necessary to allow that the general principle of arrangement [by verse- 
normsj was not adhered to absolutely without exception. 

LArrangement of the hymns within any given book of this division. — In 
continuation of what was said in general on this topic at p. cxliii, we may 
add the following. The " first " hymn {purvani)^ ** For the retention of 
sacred learning," is of so distinctly prefatory character as to stand of 

scattered through those notes, they may yet be said to be " assembled " in one work, and 
more " conveniently " than ever before. The investigation is likely to yield results of interest 
and value.J 

lO. Extent and Structure of the Atharva-Veda Samhita civ 

right at the very beginning of the text, or removed therefrom only by the 
prefixion of the auspicious ^m no devir abkisfaye (p. cxvi). It is note- 
worthy that books ii., iv., v., and vii. begin each with a " Mystic " hymn ; 
that the five kindred hymns " Against enemies " are grouped together at 
ii. 19-23, as are the seven Mrgara-hymns at iv. 23-29. Hymns iii. 26-27 
are grouped in place and by name, as digyukte ; and so are the «two 
Brahman-cow" hymns, v. 18 and 19, and the vdifvdnartya couple, vi. 35 
and 36. The hymns "To fury" make a group in the AV. (iv. 31-32) as 
they do in the RV., from which they are taken.J 

LSecond grand division (books viii.-xii.) : long hymns of miscellaneous sub- 
jects. — As was said of the first division (p. cxlvii), there are other things 
besides length and subject which mark this division as a minor collection 
apart from the other two : the verse-norms do not serve here, as in division 
I., to help determine the arrangement, the norms assumed by the Pafica- 
patalika (p. cxxxix) being for another purpose and of small significance ; 
and the reader may be reminded of the fact (p. cxxxii) that the grouping 
of verses into decads runs through this grand division. It is a note- 
worthy fact, moreover, that the material of division II. appears distinctly 
to form a collection by itself in the Paippalada recension, being massed 
in books xvi and xvii. The Vulgate books viii.-xi. are mostly in Paipp. 
xvi. and the Vulgate book xii. is mostly in Paipp. xvii. This is readily 
seen from the table on p. 1022. J 

[Their hieratic character: mingled prose passages. — More important 
differential features are the following. In the first place, if it be admitted 
that the first division is in very large measure of popular origin (p. cxlvii), 
the second, as contrasted therewith, is palpably of hieratic origin : witness 
the hymns that accompany, with tedious prolixity, the offering of a goat 
and five rice-dishes (ix. 5) or of a cow and a hundred rice-dishes (x. 9) ; 
the extollation of the virdj (viii. 9), of the cow (x. 10), of the rice-dish and 
the prdnd and the Vedic student (xi. 3-5) and the ucchisfa (xi. 7); the 
hymn about the cow as belonging exclusively to the Brahmans (xii. 4) ; 
the prevalence of " mystic " hymns (cf. viii. 9 ; ix. 9-10 ; x. 7-8 ; xi. 8) ; the 
priestly riddles or brahmodyas (cf. x. 2, especially verses 20-25) ; and the 
taking over of long continuous passages from the Rig- Veda, as at ix. 9-10. 
In no less striking contrast with division I., in the second place, is the 
presence, in every book of division II., of an extensive passage of prose 
(viii. 10; ix. 6, T \ x. 5 ; xi. 3 ; xii. 5). This prose is in style and content 
much like that of the Hrahmanas, and is made up of what are called (save 
in the case of x. 5) 'periods ' ox parydyas: see pages cxxxiii and 472. It is 
evident that we are here in a sphere of thought decidedly different from 
that of division I.J 

cl vi General Introduction^ Part IL : in part by Whitney 

[Table of verse-totals for the hymns of division IL — The following 
table may be worth the space it takes, as giving perhaps a better idea. of 
the make-up of the division than does the table on p. cxliv. Opposite 
each of the five prose /^r^^ya-hymns is put a p, and opposite the hymn 
X. 5 (partly prose) is put a p. Disregarding the hymns thus marked, the 
verse-numbers are confined, for books viii.-xi., within the range of varia- 
tion from 21 to 44, and from 53 to 63 for book xii. 




I has 

















62 P 



26 P 












in xii. 








56 P 




















General make-up of the material of this division. — Whereas division I. 
contains a hymn or hymns of every number of verses from one to eighteen 
and none of more, division II. consists wholly of hymns of more than 
twenty verses, and contains all the hymns of that length occurring in 
books i.-xviii. except such as belong of right (that is, by virtue of their 
subject) to the third division.^ The forty-five hymns of this division have 
been grouped into books with very evident reference to length and num- 
ber, as shown by the table just given : the five longest have been put 
together to form the last or twelfth book, while each of the four preced- 
ing books contains an even quarter of the preceding forty or just ten 
hymns. Disregarding ix. 6 and xi. 3 {^parydya\iyxcin^\ books viii.-xi. con- 
tain all the hymns of from 21-50 verses to be found in the first two grand 
divisions, and book xii. contains all of more than 50 in the same divisions. 
Anything more definite than this can hardly be said respecting the arrange- 
ment of the several books within the second division. From the tables 
it appears that no such reference to the length of the hymns has been 
had in division II. as was had in division I. None of the books viii.-xii. 
is without one of the longer, formular, and mainly non-metrical pieces 
(marked with p or p in the table above) ; and this fact may point to an 
inclination on the part of the text-makers to scatter those prose portions 
as much as possible among the poetical ones. 

^ l^See the tables, pages cxliv-cxlv. — Book xix. contains two hymns, mostly prose, of which 
the subdivisions number 21 and 30 (cf. p. cxlvii) ; and among the Kuntlpa-hymns are three of 
20 or more verses. J 

lO. Extent and Structure of the A tharva-Veda Samhita clvii 

LOrder of books within the division : negative or insignificant conclusions. 
— If we consider, first, the amount of text in pages ^ for each book, 
namely 22, 21, 27, 25, 22, the series appears to have no connection with 
the order of the books ; on the contrary, the books are, on the whole, 
remarkable for their approximate equality of length. The case is similar, 
secondly, with the hymn-totals of the Bombay edition, 15, 15, 10, 12, and 
1 1. Thirdly, the verse-totals for each of the five books, according to the 
numeration of the Berlin edition, are 259, 302, 350, 313, and 304 (see 
above, p. cxliv), a sequence in which we can trace no orderly progression. 
On the other hand, fourthly, if we take the verse-totals of the Bombay 
edition, to wit, 293, 313, 350, 367, and 304,^ we see that the first four 
books, viii.-xi., are indeed arranged, like books i.-vi. (p. clii), on a con- 
tinuously ascending arithmetical scale. Furthermore and fifthly, if, for 
the verse-totals of each of the five books, we make the (very easy) substi- 
tution of the average verse-totals of the hymns of each book, we obtain 
again a series, to wit, 29.3, 31.3, 35.0, 36.7, and 60.8, which progresses con- 
stantly in one direction, namely upward, and through all the five books. J 

Arrangement of the hymns within any given book of this division. — 
[From the table on p. clvi it would appear that the individual hymns are 
not disposed within the book with any reference to length. It may, how- 
ever, be by design rather than accident that the only hymn with the small- 
est number of verses in this division is put at the beginning, and that the 
longest is put last.J The arrangement in this division, like that in the 
first, shows no signs of a systematic reference to the subjects treated of, 
although (as in division I. : p. civ, top), in more than one instance, two 
hymns of kindred character are placed together : thus viii. i & 2 ; 3 & 4 ; 
9 & 10 ; ix. 4 & 5 ; 9 & 10 ; x. 7 & 8 ; 9 & 10 ; xi. 9 & 10 ; xii. 4 & 5. 

[Possible reference to this division in hynm xix. 23. — Such reference, 
I suspect, must be sought in verse 18, if anywhere, and in the two words 
mahat'kdnddya svd/id, * to the division of great [hymns], hail ! ' See^ 
p. 931, ^ 7, and the note to vs. 18. J 

LPostscript. — Such was my view when writing the introduction to 
xix. 23. Even then, however, I stated (p. 932, line 12) that verses 21 and 
22 were not accounted for. Meantime, a new observation bears upon 
vs. 2 1. J 

[Immediately after the passage referred to at p. cxlviii, foot-note, the 
Major Anukr., at the beginning of its treatment of book viii., proceeds : 
'Now are set forth the seers and divinities and meters of the mantras of 

^ |_As printed in the Berlin edition (see above, p. cxliii). From a ndgari ms. written in a hand 
of uniform size, I might obtain different and interpretable data. J 

' [_This series differs from the Berlin sequence by a plus of 34 and 11 and 54 in the first and 
second and fourth members respectively: see p. cxxxvii, and cf. pages 516, 546, 633. J 

cl viii General Introductiofty Part II, : in part by Wkitfiey 

the sense-hymns of the ksudra-kdndas (? or -kdnda ?). To the end of the 
eleventh kdnda, the sense-hymn is the norm.' etc. atha ksudra-kdndd- 
Wthasukta-mantrditdtn rsi'ddivata-chanddhsy ucyante, tato ydvad ekddaqa- 
kdndd-ntam arihasukta-prakrtis tdvad vihdya parydydn virdd vd (viii. lo) 
prabhrtin iti etc. What pertinence the word ksudra may have as applied 
to books viii.-xi. I cannot divine ; but it can hardly be an accident that 
the very same word is used in the phrase of homage to parts of the AV. 
at xix. 22. 6 and 23. 21, ksudr^bhyah svdhd^ and that this phrase is followed 
in h. 22 and in the comm's text of h. 23, by the words parydyik^bhyah 
svdhdy that is, by an allusion to the parydyas^ just as in the text of the 
Anukr. Apart from vss. 16-18 of xix. 23, vss. 1-20 refer most clearly to 
the first grand division ; and vss. 23-28 refer just as clearly to the third. 
The allusion to the second ought therefore certainly to come in between 
vs. 20 and vs. 23, that is it ought to be found in vss. 21 and 22. We have 
just given reason for supposing that vs. 2 1 contains the expected allusion. 
The meaning of ekdnrc/bkyah of vs. 22 is as obscure as is the pertinence 
of ksudr/bhyak; probably ekdnrc/bhyah is a corrupt reading. If I am 
right as to vs. 21, the mystery of vs. 18 becomes only deeper. J 

Third grand division (books xiii.-zyiii.) : books characterized by unity of 
subject. — The remaining six books constitute each a whole by itself and 
appear to have been on that account kept undivided by the arrangers 
and placed in a body together at the end of the collection. The books 
in which the unity of subject is most clearly apparent are xiv. (the wed- 
ding verses), xviii. (the funeral verses), and xv. (extollation of the Vratya). 
[The unity of books xiiL and xvii., although less striking, is yet sufficiently 
evident, the one consisting of hymns to the Sun as The Ruddy One or 
Rohita, and the other being a prayer to the Sun as identified with Indra 
and with Vishnu. In book xvi., the unity of subject is not apparent,^ 
although it seems to consist in large measure (see p. 792) of " Prayers * 
against the terror by night."J Book xvi. is not so long that we might 
not have thought it possible that it should be included as 2l parydya-sukta 
in one of the books of the second division ; and book xvii., too, is so 
brief that it might well enough have been a hymn in a book. 

[Hindu tradition assigns at least four of the books of this division each 
to a single seer; the whole matter is more fully set forth at p. 1038. 
However much or little value we may attach to these ascriptions of 

^ [_In one of the old drafts of a part of his introductory matter, Whitney says : Until we 
understand the character of the ceremonies in connection with which book xvi. was used, it 
may not be easy to discover a particular concinnity in it. With reference to that remark, I 
have said, at p. 792 : The study of the ritual applications of the book distinctly fails, in my 
opinion, to reveal any pervading concinnity of purpose or of use. J 

^ [_ Perhaps, using a Pali term, we may designate book xvi. as a Paritta.J 

la Extent and Structure of the A tharva-Veda Samhita clix 

quasi-authorship, they are certainly of some significance as a clear mark 
of differentiation between this division and the other two.J 

LDiyidon III. represented in P&lppal&da by a single book, book xviii. — 
An item of evidence important in its relation to the Vulgate division III. 
as a separate unity is afforded by the treatment of that division in the 
Kashmirian recension : the Vulgate books xiii.-xviii., namely, are all grouped 
by the makers of the Paippalada text into a single book, book xviii., and 
appear there either in cxtenso or else by representative citations. The 
relations of the Vulgate division to the Paipp. book are set forth in detail 
at p. 1 014, which see. J 

LNames of these books as given by hymn ziz. 23. — It is a most signifi- 
cant fact, and one entirely in harmony with the classification of books 
xiii.-xviii. on the basis of unity of subject, that they should be mentioned 
in hymn xix. 23 by what appear to be their recognized names. It is 
therefore here proper to rehearse those names as given in verses 23-28 
of the hymn (see pages 931, \ 5, and 933). They are: for book xiii., 
'the ruddy ones,' rdhitebhyas, plural; for xiv., 'the two Suryas,* suryd- 
bhydm^ or the two \anuvdkas\ of the book beginning with the hymn of 
Surya's wedding; for xv., *the two \anuvdkas\ about the vrdtya^ vrdtyd- 
bhydm (accent !) ; for xvi., * the two \anuvdkas\ of Prajapati,* prdjdpatyd- 
bhydm ; for xvii., 'the Visasahi,' singular; and for xviii., 'the auspicious 
ones,' mangalikShyaSf euphemism for the inauspicious funeral verses.J 

LOrder of books within the division. — The verse-totals for the books 
are, by the Berlin numeration, 188, 139, 141, 93, 30, and 283, and, by the 
Bombay numeration, 188, 139, 220, 103, 30, and 283 (above, p. cxxxvii). 
But for the disturbing influence of the numerous brief parydya-v^rsts of 
book XV. upon the third member of these series, they would both coincide 
in their general aspect with the series based on the amount of text in 
pages of the Berlin edition, namely, 13, 12, 10, 5, 3, and 21 (as given 
above, p. cxliii). From the last series, it appears that these books, except 
the last, are arranged in a descending scale of length, therein differing 
from divisions I. and II. in which the scale was an ascending one. In 
all three divisions, the final book is an exceptional one : in the first, it is 
a scanty lot of after-gleanings ; in the second, it contains the five longest 
hymns, each about twice as long as the average of the four books preced- 
ing; and in the third, again, it contains very long hymns, which are, 
moreover, an extensive and peculiar collection of verses, unified indeed 
(like those of book xiv.) in large measure by the ritual uses to which they 
are put, but on the whole quite different in origin and character from 
most of the rest (see the introductions to the hymns of book xviii.). J 

LTable of verse-totals for the hymns of division III. — The following 
table is made like that on p. clvi, and may give a better idea of the 

clx General Introduction, Part II. : in part by Whitney 

make-up of the division than does the one on p. cxiv. That seems to me 
wrong, because it follows the Berlin edition in treating the i8 individual 
parydyas of book xv. and the 9 of book xvi. each as one hymn (see 
p. cxxxvi), and in having to recognize accordingly hymns of 3 verses, of 
4 and 5 and so on, in this division. We certainly must recognize some 
larger unity than the parydya in books xv. and xvi. ; and, whether that 
unity be the book or the anuvdka, in either case we avoid the necessity 
of recognizing any hymns with a verse-total of less than 20 in this division 
(see table 3, second form, p. cxlv). Assuming that xv. and xvi make 
each two hymns, the table is as follows : 


in xiii. 

in xiv. 

in XV. 

in xvi. 

in xvii. 


I has 



50 P 

32 P 






91 P 

61 P 






56 p 



The scale of hymn-totals for each book is thus 4, 2, 2, 2, i, and 4 ; and it 
then appears that all the books of the division except the last are arranged 
on a descending scale, the three books of two hymns each being arranged 
among themselves on a descending scale of amount of text.J 

|_Order of hymns within any given book of this division. — As to this, 
questions can hardly be raised ; or, if raised, they resolve themselves into 
questions in general concerning the hymn-divisions of books xiii.-xviii. 
and their value.J 

LThe hymn-divisions of books ziii.-xviii. and their value. — In these 
books the whole matter of hymn-division seems to be secondary and of 
little critical value or significance (cf . p. cxxxi). — First, as to the metri- 
cal books (xiv., xviii., xiii., xvii. : that is, all but the X.'wo parydya-hoof^.^ xv. 
and xvi.). In them, the hymn-division is, as in book xii. of division II., 
coincident with the anuvdka-dXvvsXon. Book ziv. is divided into two hymns 
by both editions, not without the support of the mss. ; but the Major 
Anukr. seems rather to indicate that the book should not be divided (for 
details, see pages 738-9) : the hymn-division is here at any rate question- 
able. Book zviii., properly speaking, is not a book of hymns at all, but 
rather a book of verses. The PafLcapatalika says that these verses are 
* disposed* {vihitds) in four anuvdkas (see p. 814, ^ 5, and note the word 
parahi masculine) : from which we may infer that the anuvdka'AW\s\on is 
of considerable antiquity; but the significance of the coincident hymn- 
division is minimized by the facts that a ritual sequence runs over the 
division-line between hymns i and 2 (see p. 814, ^ 6, and p. 827, ^ 2) 
and that the division between hymns 3 and 4 ought to come just before 
3. 73 (and not just after : see p. 848, ^ 8). Even with book xiii. the 
case is essentially not very different : see the discussions in Deussen's 

lo. Extent and Structure of t/ie Atltarva-Veda Samhita clxi 

Geschichte^ i. i. 215-230. Book xviL consists of a single anuvdka (it is 
the only book of whkh this is true : p. 805); and although in the colo- 
phons the mss. apply both designations, anuvdka and art/ia-sukta, to its 
30 verses (which the mss. divide into decads), it is truly only one hymn.J 
I^The parydya-hooXiSt books xv. and xvi. remain. These, as appears from 
the tables on pages 771 and 793, consist each of two anuvdkas with 7 and 
1 1 and with 4 and 5 parydyas respectively. When writing the introduc- 
tions to those books, I had not seriously considered the proper grouping 
of the parydyas (cf. p. 770, lines 29-30). The discussion at p. cxxx, 
above, seems now to make it probable that the parydya-^xoyxp^ should be 
assumed, as everywhere else from book xii.-xviii., to be conterminous 
with the anuvdkas. The bearing of this assumption on the method of 
citation is treated at p. cxxxvi, above. The effect of this assumption 
upon the summations is shown in table 3, second form, p. cxlv, and in 
the table on p. clx.J 

Cross-references to Explanation of Abbreviations and so forth 

|_As such explanations are often sought at the end of the matter paged 
with Roman numerals (or just before page i of the pages numbered with 
Arabic), it will be well to give here cross-references to certain matters 
most frequently sought for, as follows : 


For explanation of abbreviations, see xcix-cvi 

For explanation of abbreviated titles, see xcix-cvi 

For explanation of arbitrary signs, see c 

For key to the designations of the manuscripts, see .... cix-cx 

For synoptic tables of the manuscripts, see cx-cxi 

For description of the manuscripts, see cxi-cxvi 

For table of titles of hymns, see volume VIII., 1024-1 037 J 





Book I. 

The first book is made up mostly of hymns of 4 verses each, 
and no other ground of its existence as a book needs to be 
sought. It contains 30 such hymns, but also one (34) of 5 verses, 
two (11 and 29) of 6 verses, one (7) of 7, and one (3) of 9. There 
are conjectural reasons to be given in more than one of these 
cases for the exceptional length. Hymns of 4 verses are also 
found in books vi. and vii. (12 in vi., and 1 1 in vii.), also 9 in xix. 
The whole book has been translated by Weber, Indische Studien^ 
vol. iv. (1858), pages 393-430- 

I. For the retention of sacred learning. 

\Atharvan. — vicaspatyam. caturrcam. dnustttbham: 4. 4'p. virdd urohrhati^ 

The hymn is found also near the beginning of P§ipp. i. MS. (iv. 12. i end) has the 
first two verses. It is called in Kau9. (7. 8 ; 139. 10) irisaptlya, from its second word ; 
but it is further styled (as prescribed in 7. 8) briefly purva * first,* and generally quoted 
by that name. It is used in the ceremony for " production of wisdom " {medhdjanana : 
10. I), and in those for the welfare of a Vedic student (11. i) ; further, with various 
other passages, in that of entrance upon Vedic study (139. 10) ; and it is also referred 
to, in an obscure way (probably as representing the whole Veda of which it is the 
beginning), in a number of other rites with which it has no apparent connection (12. 10 ; 
14. I ; 18. 19; 25. 4; 32. 28) ; finally (13. i, note), it is reckoned as belonging to the 
varcasya gana. And the comm. |_p. 5, endj quotes it as used by a pariqista (5. 3) in 
the puspubhiseka of a king. The Vait. takes no notice of it. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 393 ; Griffith, i. i . 

I. The thrice seven that go about, bearing all forms — let the lord of 
speech assign to me today their powers, [their] selves {tani), 

Ppp. reads paryanti in a, and tanvam adhyddadhdtu me for d. MS. combines 
trisaptis in a, and tanvb 'dyd in d. The s of our trisapta is prescribed in Prat. ii. 98 ; 
vdcas p- is quoted under Prat. ii. 71. 

Trisaptis is plainly used as the designation of an indefinite number, = * dozens * or 
• scores.* Supposing qrutd to signify one's acquired sacred knowledge, portion of f r«///, 



it perhaps refers to the sounds or syllables of which this is made up. If, on the other 
hand, ^ruia (as in vi. 41. i) means * sense of hearing,* the trisaptds may be the healthy 
hearers, old and young (so R.). R. prefers to regard ianvds as gen. sing. : tanvd me 
= * to me * ; the comm. does the same ; Weber understands accus. pi. Read in our 
edition bdia (an accent-sign dropped out under -/J). 

As an example of the wisdom of the comm., it may be mentioned that he spends 
a full quarto page and more on the explanation of trisaptds. First, he conjectures 
that it may mean * three or seven * ; as the three worlds, the three gunas^ the three 
highest gods ; or, the seven seers, the seven planets, the seven troops of Maruts, the 
seven worlds, the seven meters, or the like. Secondly, it may mean * three sevens,' as 
seven suns (for which is quoted TA. i. 7. i) and seven priests and seven Adityas 
(TA. i. 13. 3; RV. ix. 114. 3), or seven rivers and seven worlds and seven quarters 
(TB. ii. 8. 38), or seven planets and seven seers and seven Marut-troops. Thirdly, it 
may signify simply thrice seven or twenty-one, as twelve months 4- five seasons + three 
worlds -I- one sun (TS. vii. 3. los), or five mahdbhutas -I- five breaths + five jhanen- 
driyas + five karmendriyas -f one antahkarana. At any rate, they are gods, who are 
to render aid. |_Discussed by Whitney, Festgruss an Roth, p. 94. J 

2. Come again, lord of speech, together with divine mind ; lord of 
good, make [it] stay {ni-rant) ; in me, in myself be what is heard. 

Two of our mss. (H. O.) have rdmaya in c. Ppp. begins with upa neha^ and has 
asospate in c, which R. prefers. But MS. rather favors our text, reading, for c, d, 
vdsupate vi ramaya mdyy evd tanvdm mdma; and it begins a with upaprihi. The 
comm. explains qrutam as upddhySydd vidhito *dh{tam vedaqdstrddikam ; and adds 
** because, though well learned, it is often forgotten.*' 

3. Just here stretch thou on, as it were the two tips of the bow with 
the bow-string ; let the lord of speech make fast {nuyam) ; in me, in my- 
self, be what is heard. 

Ppp. reads, in a, b, tanU ubhey aratnl. With the verse is to be compared RV. x. 
166. 3. Prat i. 82 prescribes the /dc^^-reading of artnloiva, and iv. 3 quotes abhi vi 
tanu. |_That is, apparently (a), * Do [for me] some stretching [or fastening],* namely, 
of my sacred learning, as also in c.J 

4. Called on is the lord of speech ; on us let the lord of speech call ; 
may we be united with (sam-gam) what is heard ; let me not be parted 
with what is heard. 

Ppp. has, for b ff., upahUto *hafn vdcaspaiyu sofksrtena rddhasi sSmrtena vi 
rddhasi — badly corrupt. For similar antitheses with upahii^ see AB. ii. 27 ; VS. ii. 10 b, 
II a. In A A. (ii. 7. i) is a somewhat analogous formula for the retention of what is 
heard or studied {adhltd) : qrutam me md pra hdsir anend *dhltend ^hordtrdnt sam 
dadhdmi. The Anukr. notes the metrical irregularity of the second pada. 

2. Against injury and disease: with a reed. 

\Atharvan. — cdndramasam ; pdrjanyam, dnustubham : j. j-/. virdnndma gdyatrt."] 

The hymn is not found in the Paipp. ms., but may have been among the contents o 
the missing first leaf. In the quotations of the KSug. it is not distinguishable from tb 
following hymn; but the comm. is doubtless right in regarding it as intended at 14. 


where it, with i. 19-21 and sundry other hymns, is called sdrngrdmika oy * battle-hymn,' 
used in rites for putting an enemy to flight; and it (or vs. i) is apparently designated 
hy prathamasya (as first of the sdmgrdmika hymns) in 14.12, where the avoidance of 
wounds by arrows is aimed at; it is also reckoned (14.7, note) as belonging to the 
apardjita gana ; further, it is used, with ii. 3, in a healing ceremony (25. 6) for assuag- 
ing wounds, etc. ; and, after hymn i has been employed in the updkarman^ it and the 
other remaining hymns of the anuvdka are to be muttered (139. 11). The comm. 
I^p. 16, top J, once more, quotes it from Naksatra |_error, for Qanti, says BloomfieldJ 
Kalpa 17, 18, as applied in a mahdqdnti called apardjitd. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 394 ; Griffith, i. 3 ; Bloomfield, 8, 233. — Discussed : Bloom- 
field, AJP. vii. 467 £E. or J AOS. xiii. p. cxiii ; Florenz, Bezzenberger" s Beitrdge^ xiv. 1 78 ff. 

1. We know the reed's father, Parjanya the much-nourishing; and 
we know well its mother, the earth of many aspects. 

Vidmd is quoted in Pr^t iii. 16 as the example first occurring in the text of a 
lengthened final a, 

2. O bow-String, bend about us ; make thyself a stone ; being hard, 

put very far away niggards [and] haters. 

A bow-string is, by KHug. 14. 13, one of the articles used in the rite. With b com- 
pare ii. 13. 4 b. PUda d is RV. iii. 16. 5 d. * Niggard ' is taken as conventional render- 
ing of drdtu The comm. reads vUus^ RV.-wise. 

3. When the kine, embracing the tree, sing the quivering dexterous 

(f rbhu) reed, keep away from us, O Indra, the shaft, the missile. 

That is, apparently (a, b), * when the gut-string on the wooden bow makes the reed- 
arrow whistle ' : cf. R V. vi. 67. 1 1 c, d. The comm. explains rbhum as uru bhdsamdnam ( !), 
and didyum as dyotamdnam^ which is probably its etymological sense. [^Discussed, 
Bergaigne, ReL vid i. 278 n., ii. 182. J 

4. As between both heaven and earth stands the bamboo (? t/jana)^ so 

let the reed-stalk {muHja) stand between both the disease and the flux 


The verse seems unconnected with the rest of the hymn, but to belong rather with 
hymn 3. The comm. glosses tejana with venu. For dsrdva^ cf. ii. 3 ; vi. 44. 2 ; the 
comm. explains it here by mQtrdtlsdra * difficulty (?) of urinating ' or * painful urina- 
tion* |_* diabetes,* rather ?J. Bloomfield understands it to mean ** diarrhoea,** and bases 
upon this questionable interpretation his view of the meaning of the whole hymn, which 
he entitles ** formula against diarrhcea.** 

3. Against obstruction of urine: with a reed. 

\Aiharvan, — navarcam. parjanyamitrddibahudevatyam. dnustuhkam : i-^. pathydpankti.'\ 

Of this hymn, only vss. 7-8 are found in Paipp. (in xix.), without the refrain. It is 
doubtless intended at Kauq. 25. 10, as used in a rite for regulating the flow of urine ; 
vss. 8-9 are specified in 25. 12. The " reed *' implies some primitive form of a fistula 
urinaria^ the vastiyantra (one of the nddfyantrdni) of the later physicians — who, 
however, do not appear to have made frequent use of it. 

Translated: Weber, iv. 395 ; Griffith, i. 4 ; Bloomfield, 10, 235. — Cf. Bergaigne- 
Hcnry, Manuel, p. 130. ^ 


1. We know the reed's father, Parjanya of hundredfold virility; with 
that will I make weal {(dm) for thy body ; on the earth [be] thine out- 
pouring, out of thee, with a splash ! 

The last p^da is found also at TS. iii. 3. io> ; dd/ ///, again at xviii. 2. 22. 

2. We know the reed's father, Mitra of hundredfold virility ; with that 
will etc. etc. 

3. We know the reed's father, Varuna of etc. etc. 

4. We know the reed's father, the moon of etc. etc. 

5. We know the reed's father, the sun of etc. etg. 

6. What in thine entrails, thy (two) groins Q gavtni)^ what in thy 

bladder has flowed together — so be thy urine released, out of thee, with 

a splash ! all of it. 

The comm. reads in b (with two or three of SPP*s mss., which follow hun) samqri- 
tarn. He explains the gavfnydu as ** two vessels {nddl) located in the two sides, 
affording access to the receptacles of urine.'* 

7. I split up thy urinator, like the weir of a tank — so be thy etc. etc. 

The comm. (with the same mss. as above) has in b vartam, Ppp. reads vrtram 
veqantyd : yantyah, \J I pierce or open up thy urethra * — with a metallic catheter, 
says the comm.J 

8. Unfastened [be] thy bladder-orifice, like [that] of a water-holding 
sea — so be thy etc. etc. 

Ppp. gives, for b, samudrasyo *tadhir eva, 

9. As the arrow flew forth, let loose from the bow — so be thy etc. etc. 

Instead of pardodpatat in a, we should expect pardopdiai, the equivalent of a 

It is easy to reduce this hymn to the substance of four verses, the norm of the book, 
by striking out vss. 2-5, as plainly secondary variations of vs. i, and combining vss. 7-8 
(as in Ppp.) into one verse, with omission of the sense-disturbing refrain. 

4. To the waters : for blessings. 

[Sindhudvtpa, — aponaptriydni, somdbddivatdni. gdyatrdni: 4. purastddbrhatt.'] 


The hymn is not found in Paipp. It and the two that next follow are reckoned by 
K^ug. (9. 1,4) to both ^dnti ganas, major (brhat) and minor (Jaghu) ; also (7. 14) to 
the apdm suktdni or water-hymns, applied in various ceremonies ; and by some (18. 25, 
note) to the salila gana, which Kaug. begins with hymns 5 and 6. The same three are 
joined with others (19. i) in a healing rite for sick kine, and (41. 14) in a ceremony for 
good fortune. Again (25. 20), this h)rmn is used (with vi. 51) in a remedial rite, and 
(37. i) in the interpretation of sig^s. Hymns 4-6 further appear in Vait. (16. 10) as 
used in the aponaptrfya rite of the agnistoma sacrifice, and 4. 2 alone with the setting 
down of the vasatlvari water in the same sacrifice. The four verses are RV. i. 23. 16-19 ; 
for other correspondences, see under the verses. 

Translated ; Weber, iv. 396 ; Griffith, i. 6. 


1. The mothers go on their ways, sisters of them that make sacrifice, 
mixing milk with honey. 

2. They who are yonder at the sun, or together with whom is the sun 
— let them further our sacrifice. 

The verse is found further, without variant, in VS. (vi. 24 e). 

3. The heavenly waters I call on, where our kine drink ; to the rivers 
(sindhu) is to be made oblation. 

LCf. note to X. 9. 27, below. J 

4. Within the waters is ambrosia (amrtd)^ in the waters is remedy; 
and by the praises (prdfasti) of the waters ye become vigorous (vdjiri) 
horses, ye become vigorous kine. 

The second half-verse is here rendered stricdy according to the accent, which for- 
bids taking the nouns as vocatives ; SPP. reads in c, with all his mss. and the great 
majority of ours bhdvatha (our two Bp. give bhav-) ; the accent is to be regarded as 
antithetical. RV. gives prdqastaye at end of b, and ends the verse with c, reading dh;A 
bhdvata vdjinah. Other texts have the verse : VS. (ix. 6 a), TS. (1.7. 7')* ^^^ MS. 
(i. 1 1. 1) ; all lack a fourth p§da, and have at end of h prd^astisu; for c, VS. has dqvd 
bhdvata vdjinah, TS. d^vd bhavatha vdjinah, and MS. d^vd bhavata vdjinah, 

5. To the waters: for blessings. 

\Sindhudvtpa. — (etc, as 4).] 

The first three verses occur, without variants, in Paipp. xix. The whole hymn, with 
the first three verses of the one next following, are, also without variants, RV. x. 9. 1-7 
(vs. 5 is here put before 4 ; 6, 7 are also KV\ i. 23. 20 a, b, c, 21) ; and they likewise 
occur in other texts : thus, 5. 1-3 in SV. (ii. 1187-1189), VS. (xi. 50-52 et al.), TS. 
(iv. I. 5« et al.), MS. (ii. 7. 5 et al.), and TA. (iv. 42. 4 et al.), everywhere with the same 
text Lfor other references, see MGS., p. 147 J ; as to 5. 4 and the verses of 6, see under 
the verses. Hymns 5 and 6 together are called qapnbhumayobhQ, Kauq. 9. i ; for their 
uses in connection with the preceding hymn, see under that hymn. Both appear also in 
the house-building ceremony (43. 12), and this one alone in the dan^apurnarndsa- or 
/dcrT/dfif-sacrifices (6. 17) ; while the schol. add it (42. 13, note) to the ceremony on the 
home-coming of the Vedic student. For the use in Vait. with hymns 4 and 6, see under 4 ; 
with 6 (also under the name qambhumayobhfi) it accompanies in \,\\t pa^ubandha (10. 19) 
the washing of articles employed ; and with it alone, in the agnicayana (28. 11), is the 
lump of earth sprinkled. The comm., finally, quotes the hymn from Naks. Kalpa 1 7, 
1 8, as used in a mahdqdnti called ddityd. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 397 ; Griffith, i. 7. 

1. Since ye are kindly waters, do ye set us unto refreshment (urj), 
unto sight of great joy. 

2. What is your most propitious savor (rdsa), of that make us share 
here, like zealous mothers. 

3. We would satisfy you in order to that to the possession of which 
ye quicken. O waters, and generate us. 


LMay noX jandyathdy like 'Eii^xsh produce, here mean * bring,' and so signify about 
the same thing ^sjinvatha f\ 

4. Of the waters, having mastery of desirable things, ruling over 
human beings (carsani), I ask a remedy. 

The verse follows in RV. our 6. i. It is found, without variants, in TB. (ii. 5. 8^) 
and TA. (iv. 42. 4) ; but MS. (iv. 9. 27) has a corrupt third pada, with much discordance 
among the mss., and adds a fourth. 

6. To the waters: for blessings. 

[Sindhudvipa (Atharvdkrtt), — (etc., as 4). 4. pathydpankti^ 

The hymn is not found in Paipp., but perhaps stood at the beginning of its text, on 
the lost first leaf : see LBloomfield*s introd. to the Kauq., p. xxxvii and ref 's, esp. Weber, 
V. 78 and xiii. 431 J. Verses 1-3 occur in RV., as noted under the preceding hymn, and 
1-2 in other texts, as pointed out under the verses. For the use of the hymn, with its 
predecessor or its two predecessors, in Kaug. and Vait., see above, under those hymns. 
Verse i is also (Kaug. 9. 7) directed to be repeated (with the gdyatri or sdvitrf-vtise:) 
at the beginning and end of qdnti rites, and to be recited part by part six times, with 
rinsing of the mouth, in the indramahotsava ceremony (140. 5). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 397 ; Griffith, i. 8. 

1. Be the divine waters weal for us in order to assistance, to drink; 
weal [and] health flow they unto us. 

The verse occurs further, without variants, in VS. (xxxvi. 1 2), TB. (i. 2. i * et al.), TA. 
(iv. 42. 4), and Ap. (v. 4.1); in SV. (i. 33) is repeated qdfk nas (instead of ipas) at 
beginning of b. The comm.. explains abhisti by abhiyajana / 

As to the prefixion of this verse to the whole text in a part of our mss., see p. cxvi. 

2. Within the waters, Soma told me, are all remedies, and Agni (fire) 
wealf ul for all. 

Found also in TB. (ii. 5. 8^), without variants, and in MS. (iv. 10.4), with, for c, 
ipa^ ca viqvdqambhuvah, 

3. O waters, bestow a remedy, protection {vdrutha) for my body, and 
long to see the sun. 

Only RV. has this verse. 

4. Weal for us the waters of the plains, and weal be those of the 
marshes, weal for us the. waters won by digging, and weal what are 
brought in a vessel ; propitious to us be those of the rain. 

Padas a-d are nearly repeated in xix. 2. 2. 

The mss. sum up this anuvdka Li.J or chapter as of 6 h)rmns, 29 verses ; and their 
quoted Anukr. says ddyaprathatna rco nava syur vidydt : i.e. the verses exceed by 9 
the assumed norm of the chapters, which is 20. [^Regarding vidydt, see end of notes 
to i. 1 1 .J 


7. To Agni : for the discovery of sorcerers. 

[Cd/ana. — saptarcam, dnustubham : j. tristuhh."] 

This hymn and the following occur in Paipp. iv., where the length of this one is 
more in place than here among the hymns of four verses. Both, with eight other hymns 
(mostly attributed by the Anukr. to Catana as author), are called by K^uq. (8. 25) 
cdtandni * expellers,' and are used in a few places for exorcism and such purposes. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 398 ; Ludwig, p. 523 ; Griffith, i.9 ; Bloomfield, 64, 237. — 
Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel, p. 131 ; also Whitney, Festgruss an Roth, p. 94 f. 

1. Bring hither, O Agni, the sorcerer {ydtudhana), the kimidin^ speak- 
ing out (stu) ; for thou, O god, being revered, hast become slayer of the 
barbarian {ddsyti), 

Stu is shown by its use also in 8. i , 2 to have here the virtual meaning * confess * 
1^* naming, i.e. confessing himself; cf. laudare 'praise,' but also 'name,' * mention 'J. 
The comm. does not see this, but stolidly renders it upraise,* making the first line mean 
** bring the god who praises my oblation or else who is praised by us, and make the 
ydiudhina etc. go away " ! He is never weary, when kimfdin occurs, of repeating 
Yaska's (6. 1 1 ) silly etymology from kipn iddnfm * what now ? ' Ppp. reads for a stu- 
vdnastdnaya, and, for c, d, tvatn hi devdfk stuto hantd tasyo *ta babhQvyathd, 

2. O most exalted one (paramesfhin), Jatavcdas, self-controller, Agni, 

partake of (pra-ag) the sacrificial butter, of the sesame oil Q) ; make the 

sorcerers cry out. 

The translation * sesame oiP follows our text, tdildsya; but the reading of all the 
mss., which SPP. follows, is tduldsya, and Ppp. has tulasya. The comm. explains 
the word as meaning ** situated in the sacrificial ladle,** from tuld * balance,* used for 
« spoon,' because by the latter the butter is measured out — or, he adds, it signifies 
simply avadtyamdna * cut off ' (in the technical sense), since the root //// means unmdne 
|_*mete out*J. Ppp. further reads in c, d prd^dnam ydtudhdndd vildpayah. The 
comm. first takes vi Idpaya from root If, and makes it equal vindqaya! but he adds 
further a derivation from vi lap \^ make *em squeal,' as we should say J. At end of a, 
the samhitd-mss., as usual, are divided between -sthin and -sthih; SPP. chooses the 
former Lcf . Prat. ii. 1 1 J. Ppp. has vai^ipn in b. 

3. Let the sorcerers cry out {vi-lap), let the devouring kimidins; then 

do you, O Agni together with Indra, welcome this our oblation. 

Ppp. combines, as often, -dhdnd *tri-, in a-b ; and it reads yathd for at ha in c, and 
at the end haryatdm. SPP. reads everywhere attrin, the theoretically correct form, 
but never found in the mss. 

4. Let Agni first take hold ; let Indra, having arms, push forth ; let 
everyone that has a demon, coming, say **here am L" 

Ydtumant * having a familiar demon (ydtu)' is the equivalent of ydttidhdna 'sor- 
cerer,* lit'ly * holding a demon.' Ppp. has for a, b agptis purastdd d yachatu pratha 
indro nudadas vdhumd; and for d, ay am as mat tcdyd. 

5. We would fain sec thy heroism (virya), O Jatavedas ; proclaim to 


US the sorcerers, O men-watcher ; let them all, burnt about by thee in 

front, come to this place, proclaiming themselves. 

Ppp. reads in a vlryd; in c, -taptasj in d, ydntu. The change of meter makes 
the verse suspicious as original part of the hymn ; but the presence of all the verses in 
Ppp., in the same order, puts the intrusion, if it be one, far back. 

6. Take hold, O Jatavedas ; thou wast born for our purpose ; becoming 
our messenger, O Agni, make the sorcerers cry out. 

The comm. this time, utterly regardless of the obvious connection with vi lapantu 
in 2 d, and of the general sense of the hymn, glosses vi lupaya only with vind^aya, 
Ppp. has a totally different text : d rabhasva brdhmand jdtavedo hrdi kdmdya 
randhaya : duto na agnir ut tistha ydtudhdndn ihd **naya, 

7. Do thou, O Agni, bring hither the sorcerers bound ; then let Indra 

with his thunderbolt crush in (api-vraqc) their heads. 

Api vraqc (used almost always of the head) is perhaps more neariy * cut open * ; 
Ppp. reads apa ffrsd vr^catu. In b, iipa baddhan would be a more acceptable reading. 
The Prat. (ii. 27) quotes upabaddhdh as the first instance in the text of such treatment 
of final 'dn. Our text, by an error of the printer, reads bdjrena for vdj- in c. 

8. To Agni and other gods: for the discovery of sorcerers. 

\Cdtana, — dnustubham : 4, bdrhatagarbhd tristubh.'] 

The hymn, except vs. 4, is found in Paipp. iv. also next after our hymn 7, but in the 
verse-order i, 3, 2. For its use by Kaug. with 7, see under the latter. 

Translated : Weber, iv.401 ; Ludwig, p. 523 ; Griffith, i. 1 1 ; Bloomfield, 65, 239. — 
Cf. Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel, p. 132 ; Whitney, Festgruss an Roth, p. 94 f. 

1. This oblation shall bring the sorcerers, as a stream does the foam ; 
whoever, woman [or] man, hath done this, here let that person speak out. 

Ppp. has for c, d nidam strl putndn kar yaqam bhuvatdm janah, \Yox stu, see 
i. 7. 1, note. J 

2. This man hath come, speaking out ; this man do ye welcome ; O 
Brihaspati, taking [him] into thy control — O Agni and Soma, do ye (two) 
pierce [him] through. 

Ppp. has in a, b stuvdnd gatna tvam smo *ta pratij in c, d, vaqe krtd *gnfsomdv 
id dhatam. The comm. makes nonsense every time by insisting on rendering stu by 
"praise" ; here it is yusmdn stuvan, 

3. Of the sorcerer, O soma-drinker, slay the progeny and conduct 
[him hither] ; of him, speaking out, make fall out {nis-pat) the upper eye 
and the lower. * 

The comm. fills out the ellipsis in b by making it mean " conduct our progeny 
to obtain desired result " ! and stuvdnasya is bhityd tvadvisaydm stutim kurvatah, 
Ppp. reads nyastuvdnasya, SPP*s text as well as "ours gives ni st- (p. nih: s(-) ; the 
samhitd-mss,, as ever)rwhere, are divided between that and nih st-j the latter is author- 
ized by the silence of the Pratigakhya |_see p. 426J concerning the combination. 


4. Wherever, O Agni, thou knowest the births of them, of the 
devourers that are in secret, O Jatavedas, them do thou, increasing 
through worship (brdhtnan) — slay of them, O Agni, with hundredfold 

The irregular meter and broken connection of the second half-verse suggest possible 

corruption of the text : cf. dsurdndm ^atatarhin^ TS. i. 5. 7^ The meter (11 +11 : 

.9 -f 9 = 40) is well enough described by the Anukr. if we may take bdrhatagarbha as 

meaning dvibdrh- * containing two padas of nine syllables.* |_For -tdrham^ cf. Gram, 


9. For some one's advancement and success. 

[Atharvan. — vasvddindndmantroktadevatyam. trdistubham^ 

Found also in PHipp. i. Reckoned to the varcasya gana (K^uq. 13. i, note), and 
further used in various ceremonies : by itself, in that of the restoration of a king (16. 27) ; 
with i. 35 and v. 28, in two ceremonies for fortune and for power (11. 19 ; 52. 20) ; with 
seven others, employed by a teacher at the reception of a Vedic student (55. 17). In 
Vait. (3. 1), vs. 3 accompanies an oblation to Agni in the /<ir7/^i/f-sacrifices. And the 
comm. quotes its use in the Naks. Kalpa 17-19, in two mahdi^dnti ceremonies called 
dirdvatl and bdrhaspatl; and in Pariqista 5. 3, in the puspdbhiseka rite. 

Translated: Weber, iv. 401 ; Ludwig, p. 456; Zimmer, p. 163; Griffith, i. 12; 
Bloomfield, 116, 239. 

1. In this man let the Vasus maintain good things i^odsti) — Indra, 
Pushan, Varuna, Mitra, Agni ; him let the Adityas and also the All-gods 
maintain in superior light. 

Ppp. substitutes tvastd for pusd in b, and uta me devd for uttarasmin in d. The 
Anukr. appears to sanction the metrical combination ddityo *(a in c. 

2. At his direction {pradif), O gods, be there light, sun, fire, or also 
gold ; be his rivals {sapdtnd) inferior to him ; to the highest firmament 
(ftaka) make this man ascend. 

The translation implies in c the obviously callcd-for emendation of asmdt to asmdt; 
the comm. first explains it as asmadfydi purusdt^ and then, alternatively, as used for 
asmdt by Vedic shortening of the vowel. Ppp. begins with asmin de^fdh pradiqd; and 
its second half-verse is quite different : uttarena brahmand vi bhdhi krnvdno anydn 
adhardn sapatndn (d = ii. 29. 3 d). 

3. With what highest worship (brdhman), O Jatavedas, thou didst 
bring together draughts {pdyas) for Indra, therewith, O Agni, do thou 
increase this man here ; set him in supremacy {frdis(hyd) over his fellows 

Ppp. reads uttarena in b, and its d is rdyas posam ^rdisthyam d dhehy asmdt. 
The verse is found also in TS. (iii. 5.4'), MS. (i. 4. 3), and K. (v. 6). Both TS. and 
MS. read havisd ior bni/tmaftd in b, and ag»e huim u/ii (for t7uim agna i/ui) in c; 
and MS. has -bharan in a, vardhayd mam in c, and ma fot enapn at the end ; and it 
inserts mddhye before ^rdtsthye in d. 


4. I take to myself their sacrifice and splendor {vdrcas), their abun- 
dance of wealth and their intents (cittd), O Agfli ; be his rivals inferior to 
him ; to the highest firmament make this man ascend. 

The second half- verse is the same with 2 c, d above, and the translation makes the 
same emendation as there. Doubtless vittini * acquisitions * should be read for cittani 
in b ; the comm. glosses with buddhim. The text is defaced in Ppp. ; but in d can be 
read uttame dev&jyotisi dhatutama (?) |_meaning, presumably, dadhdtana], 

10. For some one's release from Varuna's wrath. 

[Atharvan. — dsurantf vdrunam. trdistubham : j^ 4. anustubh (j. kakummatt).'] 

Found in Paipp. i. Used in Kaug. (25. 37) to accompany lavation of the head in a 
healing ceremony (for dropsy, comm. and schoL). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 403 ; Ludwig, p. 445 ; Griffith, i. 13 ; Bloomfield, 11,241 ; 
Weber, Sb. 1897, p. 599, cf. 594 ff. — Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel, p. 133. 

1. This Asura bears rule over the gods; for the wills {vd(a) of king 
Varuna [come] true ; from him, prevailing by my worship {brdhntan), 
from the fury of the formidable one {ugrd) do I lead up this man. 

* Come true,' i.e. are realized or carried out : the more etymological sense of satyd. 
Ppp. reads viqdya for vaqd hi. The comm. explains qdqaddna as ** exceedingly sharp ; 
having attained strength by favor of Varuna, gratified by praise etc." Tatas pari in c, 
as the first example of its kind of combination, is quoted in Prat. ii. 66. The Anukr. 
ignores the first pada as a jagatU 

2. Homage be to thy fury, O king Varuna ; for, O formidable one, 
thou dost note (tii-ci) every malice {drugdhd), A thousand others I impel 
{pra-sQ) together ; a hundred autumns of thee shall this man live. 

The obscure third pada is understood by the comm., perhaps correctly, to mean " I 
buy off this man by furnishing Varuna a thousand others as substitutes." Two of our 
mss. (O. Op.) read ugrdm (or ugram) in b ; Ppp. is defaced in a, b ; as second half- 
verse it reads : qatam sahasram pra suvdmy anydn ayam no jfvdm qarado vyapdye. 
Here, too, pada a is an unacknowledged ^Vz^a/f. |_Comm. cites, for c, AB. vii. 15. J 

3. In that thou hast spoken with the tongue untruth, much wrong — 

from the king of true ordinances {'dhdrman)^ from Varuna, I release thee. 

LRead ydt tvdm uvdktha dnrtamf\ The comm. has in a the absurd reading 
uvakta, treating it as for uvaktha, which all the mss. give. 

4. I release thee out of the universal, the great flood {arnavd) ; speak, 
O formidable one, unto [thy] fellows here, and reverence our incantation 

* Universal ' (vdifvdnara), i.e., perhaps, dangerous to all men ; and the dropsy, 
Varuna's special infliction, is probably spoken of as * flood ' Lcf. RV. vii. 89. 4 J. The 
(doubtful) rendering of the second half-verse takes it as addressed, like the first, to the 
patient ; the comm. regards it as said to Varuna, which is not impossible. |_See Geld- 
ner, ZDMG. Hi. 733. J Ppp. reads amuHcam at the beginning, and has a lacuna in place 
of c, d. LRender apa-ci by * regard ' ? J 


II. For successful childbirth. 

[AtAarvoM, — sadrcam, pdumam. pdnkiam : 2. anustubh ; j. ^p. usniggarbhd kakummaty 

anustubh ; 4-6. pathydpahkti.'\ 

Verses 2-4 occur together in Paipp. i., 5 and 6 in xx., but at different points. In 
Kiuq. (33. 1) it is quoted at the beginning of a long and intricate ceremony (filling the 
whole section) for safe delivery, the first of the strlkarmAni or * women^s rites ' ; its 
details have nothing to do with the text of the hymn, and cast no light upon the latter*s 
difficulties. The Anukr. add to the author*s name : anena mantroktdn aryamddidevdn 
HdrUukhaprasavdyd ^bhistuye *stam ca santdbhir aprdrthayat. 

Translated: Weber, iv. 404 ; Ludwig, p. 478 ; Griffith, i. 14 and 473 ; Bloomfield, 
99,242. — Discussed : Roth, Ueber den Athanta-veda^ p. 15. 

1. At this birth, O Pushan, let Aryaman [as] efficient {ved/tds) invoker 
utter vdsaf for thee ; let the woman, rightly engendered, be relaxed ; let 
her joints go apart in order to birth. 

The translation of c implies emendation of the text to vi sisrtdm. Roth formerly 
preferred sisrtdm ndry rtdprajdtah ♦ let a timely child come forth, O woman ' ; Weber 
leaves sisratdm as pi. with indefinite subject, and understands the two following words 
as a parenthesis : ** be the woman properly constructed " ; Ludwig renders as if sisrtdm; 
Roth now (as in BR.) would emend only sisrtdm^ and understand it of the *flow* of 
water preceding birth ; but that would be rather sru^ and sr without a prefix in such a 
sense seems very unlikely Lcf., however, sArann ipahy RV. iv. 17.3J. Rtdprajdtd 
might also be possessive, ' rightly engendering.* The comm. takes sutdu as from siti 
|_not ji?//, fem., nor sutu^ fern. : note accent and gender !J, and meaning the ceremony 
at \i\x^\ .vedh&s as = Dhatar *the creator*; rtaprajdtd 2A=jfvad'apatyd; and 
sisratdm (to the plural form of which he finds no objection) as " may she be relieved 
{yinihsrtd) of the pangs of birth.** The metrically irregular verse (9+10:10 + 11 = 
40) is 2iPankti solely in virtue of the |_ aggregate J number of its syllables. 

2. Four [are] the directions of the sky, four also of the earth : the 

gods sent together the foetus ; let them unclose her in order to birth. 

Or * unclose it,* //fw, which SPP. reads in text and comm. (the latter omits the 
word itself in the paraphrase) with the minority of his mss., but against all of ours ; 
Weber and Roth prefer tdm. The word and its predecessor are quoted in the Prat. 
(ii. 30), as the earliest example in the text of a combination of // and / without inserted s ; 
but the form of the quotation {samdirayantddlndpn) prevents our seeing whether its 
authors read tim or tdm ; the comm. gives tdm. In d, the comm. gives the false form 
Urnavantu, The text in Ppp. is confused, but does not appear to intend any variants 
from our reading. 

3. Let Pushan {}) unclose [her or it] ; we make the^J;// go apart ; do 

thou, sfisandt loosen ; do thou, biskala^ let go. 

The translation implies a very venturesome emendation in a, pttsA for susa (all the 
authorities have the latter) : Pushan, referred to in vs. i as principal officiating deity, 
might well be called on to do in particular what all the gods were begged to do in vs. 2 
C d. LBut see Bloomfield's comment. J The comm. gives three diflerent etymologies 
for susd: root sil + suffix -sd : root sit + root san ; and su-usas, Stlsand and biskald 
are possibly names of organs ; for the latter, Ppp. has pus kale, probably an alteration 


to a more familiar word ; the comm. understands siisani and biskali (of course, equally 
possible) ; the former, from roots sU and sarty is name of an accouching goddess ; the 
latter (for which are given three diverse but equally absurd etymologies) is another 
deity. The Anukr. apparently intends the verse to be read as 6 + 8 : 7 + 8 = 29, 
instead of admitting the obvious resolution tu-dm in c. The supplying of gdrbham as 
omitted at the beginning would make a good anustubh, 

4. Not as it were stuck (ahata) in the flesh, not in the fat, not as it 

were in the marrows, let the spotted slimy (?) afterbirth come down, for 

the dog to eat ; let the afterbirth descend. 

SPP. reads in a plvasi^ with the comm. and a small minority of his mss. ; three of 
ours (H. O. Op.) have pibasi, Ppp. has a very different text (preserved in the ndgari 
copy, though lost in the original text) : ndi *va sndvasu na parvasu na kethesu {keqesu) 
na nakhesu caj then our c, d, without variant ; then ndi *va pause {mdnse f) na pivasi 
ndi *va kastyoq vand yutam; then our e ; and with this ends the hymn as given in 
book i. The comm. reads in a mdhsina for mdhsi nd^ and resorts to various devices 
to get rid of the difficulty thus caused ; two of our mss. (O. Op.), and one or two of 
SPP*s, give the same. Some of our mss. are very awkward about combining jarayu 
and dttave^ in part omitting the z/, or (I.) reading -yiti-. PCS. (i. 16. 2) has the verse, 
but in different order : first our c, d, without variant ; then our a, b, in the form ndi *va 
ntdnsena pivari na kasminq cand "yatamj then our e. But for its support of gevalam, 
we might be tempted to emend to kivalamj the comm. has the worthless explanation 
jalasyo ^paristhita^divdlavat dntardvayavdsambaddham. Further may be compared 
HGS. ii. 3. 1. LMP., at ii. 1 1. 19, 20, has the verse with variants. J 

5. I split apart thy urinator, apart the y6ni, apart the [two] groins, 
apart both the mother and the child, apart the boy from the afterbirth ; 
let the afterbirth descend. 

Ppp. (xx.) has for a, b vi te crtdmi tagarim v* yoni vi gavenydu ; for d, vi garbham 
ca jardyujah ; and TS. (iii. 3. io») presents a version nearly accordant with this, but 
with iakarinty gavfnydi^y and (at the tnA) jarayu ca: neither has our refrain. 

6. As the wind, as the mind, as fly the birds, so do thou, O ten months' 
[child], fly along with the afterbirth ; let the afterbirth descend. 

Ppp. has the yti^ion yathd vdto yathd dagha yathd sasadroyajanta : evd te garbha 
ejatu nir ditu daqamdsyo bahir jardyund saha. For • do thou fly ' might be given * do 

* - 

thou fall,' the verb having both meanings. LTen (lunar) months : cf. Weber's second 
naJtsatra-essdiYf p. 313, AbA, der Berliner Akad.^ 1861.J |_Cf. RV. v. 78. 8. J 

This anuvdka l^2.J has 5 hymns, 25 verses ; and the old AnukramanT, as quoted, 
says pafica Pare tu (apparently the vidydt quoted at the end of an, i belongs rather 
here than there). 

12. Against various ailments (as results of lightning?). 

\Bhrgvangiras. — yaksmandfanadevatdkam, jdgatam : 4. anustubh^ 

Found also in Paipp. i. It is reckoned (Kaug. 26. i, note) as belonging, with many 
other hymns, to a takmandqana or /^i>&;»<zff-destroying gana, and is used (26. i ) to 
accompany the drinking of various things in a healing ceremony (comm. says, against 


disease arising from hurtful changes of wind, bile, or phlegm), and also (38. i) in one 
against bad weather {durdina\ or (Ke^.) for the prevention of rain. The third verse 
further is added to the Mrg^a hymns in connection with lavation in another healing 
rite (27. 34). 

Translated: Weber, iv. 405 ; Griffith, i. 15; Bloomfield, JAOS. xiii. p. cxiii if. 
(= PAOS. May 1886) ; AJP. vii.469if. ; SHE. xlii. 7, 246. — Bloomfield regards it 
as addressed to "lightning, conceived as the cause of fever, headache, and cough/* 
See his elaborate comment Weber made it relate to fever, puerperal or infantile (on 
account oljardyujd^ i a). 

1. First born of the afterbirth, the ruddy (tisriyd) bull, born of wind 
and cloud (?), goes thundering with rain; may he be merciful to our 
body, going straight on, breaking ; he who, one force, hath stridden out 

The translation implies emendation in b to vdtdbhrajds or -jis^ as suggested by 3 c ; 
it is proposed by Weber, and adopted by Bloomfield, being a fairly plausible way of 
getting out of a decided difficulty. Weber renders, however, " with glowing wind- 
breath " ; R., " with scorching wind " (emending to -bhrajjds). The comm. reads 
vdtavrajds (a couple of SPP's mss., which usually follow him, do the same), and 
explains it as " going swiftly like the wind," or, alternatively, " having a collection of 
winds." The *buir is to him the sun, and he forces this interpretation through the 
whole hymn. Neither he nor Kau^. nor the latter's scholia see anywhere any intima- 
tion of lightning ; yet this is perhaps most plausibly to be suspected in the obscurities 
of the expression (so R. also). The first words in a are viewed as signifying » just 
escaped from its fcetal envelop (in the cloud).' Ppp. is wholly defaced in the second 
half-verse ; in the first it offers no variants, merely combining -jas prath- in a, and read- 
ing -bhraja si- in b. Emendation in d to ydsyaC kam would improve both meter and 
sense. Tredhi in d must be read as three syllables (as in RV.) to make the verse a 
full jagatl, \hX OB. vi. 59 b, vata-dhrajds is suggested — by R. ?J 

2. Thee, lurking {qri) in each limb with burning {(ocis)^ we, paying 
homage, would worship {vidh) with oblation ; we would worship with 
oblation the hooks, the grapples, [him] who, a seizer, hath seized this 
man's joints. 

Or yds ^ at beginning of d, is abbreviation for * when he ' or * with which he.' [ Ren- 
der, rather, * hath seized his (accentless) joints.' The patient is in plain sight of the 
exorcist. Emphatic pronoun is therefore needless; so eftamvs.i.\ Some of our 
mss., by a frequent blunder, read in a (t(rj^-- The prolongation of the final of asya in 
d is noted by the comment to Prat. iv. 79. Ppp. has a very different (and corrupt) 
text : . . . (ifriydno yo grhfta parasya grbhUi : anko tarn anko havisd yajdmi- hrdi 
<^rito manasd yo jajdna. The definition of this verse and the next diS tristub/i seems 
to have been lost from the Anukr., which reads simply dvitfyd before antyd ^nustubh, 

3. Release thou him from headache and from cough — whoever hath 

entered each joint of him ; the blast (? ^usma) that is cloud-born and that 

is wind-born, let it attach itself to forest-trees {vdnaspdti) and mountains. 

Ppp. has srjatdm for sacatdm in d. The comm. takes kdsds in a as nomin., explain- 
ing it as hrtkanthamadhyavartl prasiddhah (^lesmarogaviqesah j vdtajas to him is 


kdusthydd vdyor utpannah, \Yqt ^frsaktiy see Knauer, Indogermanische Forschun- 
gen^ Ameiger^ vii. 225 ; Bloomfield, A J P. xvii. 416 ; Bohtlingk, Berichte der sdchsischen 
Ges.y 1897, xlix. 50, who takes it as * a stifE neck with head awry.' J 

4. Weal [be] to my upper member {gdtra)y weal be to my lower, weal 
to my four limbs ; weal be to my body. 

Ppp. has a quite different text : in a, b, te both times for mey and par&ya iot ava- 
rdya; for c, qath te prstibhyo majjabhyah ca; in d, tava for mama: the address to a 
second person is decidedly to be preferred. This is found also in the corresponding 
verse in VS. (xxiii. 44) and TS. (v. 2. I2»), with readings in part agreeing further with 
those of Ppp. : (^dm te pdrebhyo gatrebhyah qdm astv dvarebhyah : fdm asthdbhyo 
majjdbhyah qdm v asiu tanvd\ tdva: but TS. has for d qdm u te tanuve bhuvat. 

13. Deterrent homage to lightning. 

[Bhrgvangiras, — vdidyutam, dnustubham : ^, 4p. virdd jagati ; 4, tristuppard brhatigarbhd 


The hymn occurs in Paipp. xix., and vs. i also in xv. It is used by K^u^. (38. 8, 9) 
in a charm against lightning, with vii. 11 ; and it also appears (139.8), with i. 26 and 
vii. 1 1 and several other hymns, in the ceremony of introduction to Vedic study. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 406 ; Griffith, i. 16. 

1. Homage be to thy lightning, homage to thy thunder; homage be 
to thy bolt (d(man), with which thou hurlest at the impious one (duddf). 

The version of this verse in Ppp. xix. is like ours ; in xv., d rtsids y end dUrdt pradi- 
jassasi (^pratyasyasi f). The first half-verse is foimd also in VS. (xxxvi. 21a, b). 
The irreg^ar combination dudiqe (p. duh^daqe) is noted by Pr^t ii. 60. The comm. 
regards Parjanya as addressed, but then proceeds to give another interpretation of the 
verse, based on the absurd assumption that namas = annam, which appears also in 
numerous other places. To him, also, dqman is a meghandman. In our edition, an 
accent-mark is omitted over the -qma- of dqmane, 

2. Homage to thee, child of the height {pravdt)^ whence thou gather- 
est {sam-uh) heat (tdpas) ; be merciful to ourselves ; do kindness {mdyas) 
to our offspring (iokd). 

Ppp. has qam nas for mdyas in d. The first half-verse forms in VS. (xxxvi. 21 c, d) 
one verse with our i a, b ; but VS. has |_for a ndmas te bhagavann astuj and J for b 
ydtah svdh samihase * from whence thou strivest after the sky,* which indicates that 
our reading is corrupt. LPischel discusses pravdt (= * stream*) at length, Ved, Stud, 
ii. 63-76, see 68.J 

3. Child of the height, be homage to thee; homage we pay to thy 
missile {heti) and heat (tdpus) \ we know thy highest abode {dhdman) 
that is in secret ; thou art set as navel within the [cloud-]ocean. 

LThc /^ in b is superfluous. J Ppp. rectifies the meter of a by omitting eva; its 
other pUdas are more or less corrupt : namas te hete tipusydi in b (which ends there) ; 
gandharvo ndma par- in c ; nihitdsa ndbhih at the end. The comm. takes tdpus as 
adjective. The verse is scanned by the Anukr. as 12-1-12:11 H-ii =46 syllables. 


4. Thou whom all the gods did create, the bold one, [[the gods]J 
making an arrow for hurling — do thou, besung in the council {viddtha), 
be merciful to us ; to thee as such be homage, O goddess. 

Dhrsnum in b might qualify Uum directly. The comm. supplies he aqane * O thun- 
derbolt' as addressed. He reads mrla, in c. Ppp. reads for a, \iyam tvd devd ajana- 
yanta viqvesdfn krnvdnd aqandya trisvdij and for d mitrasya varunasya prasrstdu. 
The Anukr. seems to scan asio + ii:io-f9 = 40 syllables. [Read in c mrdaya 
and in d utd idsydif — For viddtha^ see discussions of Bloomfield, JAOS. xix.* 17, and 
Geldner, ZDMG. lii. 757 ; and the literature cited by Foy, KZ. xxxiv. 226.J 

14. Imprecation of splnsterhood on a woman. 

[Bkrgvangiras. — vdrunafh vo *ta ySmyam vd. dnustubham : i. kakummati ; j. 4-p. virdj.] 

Found in Piipp. i. Used by Kau^. (36. 15-18) in an incantation against a woman ; 
the details of it cast no light on those of the hymn ; and the comm. defines its purpose 
simply as striydh purusasya vd ddurbhdgyakaranam. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 408 ; Ludwig, p. 459 ; Zimmer, p. 314 (these misapprehend 
its character) ; Griffith, i. 17 ; Bloomfield, JAOS. xiii. p. cxv = PAOS. May, 1886 ; or 
AJP. vii.473 ff- ; or SBE. xlii. 107, 252. 

1. Her portion (bhdga), splendor have I taken to myself, as from off 
a tree a garland ; like a mountain with great base, let her sit long with 
the Fathers. 

Ppp. has for a ahath te bhagam d dadej its b is defaced ; in c it gives mahdmUldi 
*va. The comm. renders bhagam by bhdgyam^ here and in the other verse, recognizing 
no sexual meaning. Pitrsu he renders ** in the later [2 c, d] to be specified houses of 
father, mother, etc.,*' and all the translators understand it in the same way ; but it is 
questionable whether the plural of pitar would ever be used in this sense ; and the 
repeated mention of Yama later indicates that there was at least a double meaning in 
the expression. Perhaps a girl remaining unmarried was called ** bride of Yama," 
i.e. as good as dead, and her stay at home compared to that in the other world. |_Cf. 
Antigone, 816, "I shall be the bride of Acheron," 'Ax^poKrt rvft^et^w.J The Anukr. 
appears to ratify the abbreviated reading -budhne *va in c ; it counts six syllables in d. 

2. Let this girl, O king, be shaken down to thee [as] bride, O Yama ; 
be she bound in her mother's house, also in her brother's, also in her 

Ppp. has yat for esd at the beginning. The comm. foolishly interprets rdjan as 
indicating Soma, because Soma is first husband of a bride (he quotes RV. x. 85.40 : 
cf. AV. xiv. 2. 3 if.), and takes yama as his epithet, as being her constrainer (niyd- 
maha). For ni-dhH compare iii. 1 1. 7 ; at TS. v. 2. 53 it is used with pitrsu. [Does 
not ni-dhU covertly suggest fiidhuvana, which, in its obscene sense, may be as old as 
the Veda ? J 

3. She is thy housekeeper, O king ; we commit her to thee ; she 

shall sit long with the Fathers, until the covering in of her head. 

The translation of d implies the obvious emendation to samopydt, which SPP. even 
admits into his text, on the authority of the comm., but against every known ms. ; Ppp., 


however, gives samofyd* The comm. explains it by samvafandt bhUmdu sampatandt^ 
and as equivalent to maranaparyantdm * till death ' ; that this last is the virtual sense 
is extremely probable. That vap has not the sense * shave ' in the compound (c£. A^S. 
vi. 10. 2) is shown by the inappropriateness of the prefixes sam -f ^ to that sense, and 
the frequency of the combination in the other sense. LSee Bloomfield, 255, a qlrsndh 
kS^am dpidt^ * till she shed the hair from her head.' J Ppp. has further imam u pari 
dadhmasi in b. The comm. gives kulapd (for -pas : our pada-iext kulaopik) in a. The 
resolution qtr-sn-ah in d would make the verse a full anustubhj the Anukr. counts only 
14 syllables in the second half. 

4. With the incantation (brahman) of Asita, of Ka^yapa, and of Gaya, 
I shut up (api-nah) thy portion {vulva f), as sisters do what is within a 
box ('k<f(a). 

|_For the names, see Bloomfield, 255, and AJP. xvii. 403.J Bhaga perhaps has 
here a double meaning. Three of our mss. (E.I.H.) with one or two of SPP's, read 
in c antaskoqdm^ against Prat ii. 62, which expressly prescribes h. The comm. treats 
antah and koqam as two independent words ; antdh kdqe would be Si not imacceptable 
emendation. The Anukr. appears to sanction the abbreviation -koqath *va, 

15. With an oblation: for confluence of wealth. 

\Atharvan. — sdindhavam* dnustubham : 2. bhurikpatkydpankti.'] 

Found in Paipp. i. (in the verse-order i, 4, 3, 2). Used by Kau^. only in a general 
rite for prosperity (19.4), to' accompany a douche for persons bringing water from two 
navigable streams and partaking of a dish of mixed grain; it is also reckoned (19. i, 
note) to ih^ pustika mantras, or hymns bringing' prosperity. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 409 ; Ludwig, p. 371 ; Griffith, i. 19. 

1 . Together, together let the rivers flow, together the winds, together 
the birds {patatrin) ; this my sacrifice let them enjoy of old ; I offer with 
a confluent (sathsravyct) oblation. 

The verse is nearly identical with xix. 1. 1, and in less degree with ii. 26. 3. From 
xix. 1.3 c it may be conjectured that we should read pradiqeu in c. |_If we do read 
pradivas^ why not render it by * continually ' ?J Ppp. has not the second half- verse, 
but instead of it vs. 3 c, d. For b Ppp. gives sam vdtd divyd uta. The comm. accents 
sdfh'sam in a. There is perhaps some technical meaning in samsrdvyd * confluent ' or 

* for confluence ' which we do not appreciate, but it is also unknown to the comm., who 
explains the word only etymologically. The verse is an dstdrapankti (strictly virdj : 
8 + 8 : 1 1 + 1 1 = 38), and its definition as such is perhaps dropped out of the Anukr. 
text (which reads ddyd dviilyd bhurik etc.). 

2. Come straight hither to my call, hither ye confluents also ; increase 
this man, ye songs ; let every beast {paqi) there is come hither ; let what 
wealth {rayi) there is stay {sthd) with him. 

1\i^ Pada-msi^, all give yah in e. Ppp. has in a, b idam havyd upetane *dam^ and, 
for c asya vardkayato rayim. The last pada is nearly RV. x. 19. 3 d. L Render 

* with this man let * etc. J The omission of evd in a would make the verse regular. 


3. What fountains of the streams flow together, ever unexhausted, 
with all those confluences we make riches (dhdnd) flow together for me. 

Ppp. has in a, b >^^ nadlbhyas sathsravanty ucchdmas saram aksikd. The comm. 
gives the verse twice, each time with a separate explanation. 

4. What [fountains] of butter (sarpis) flow together, and of milk, and 
of water, with all those confluences we make riches flow together for me. 

Ppp. reads samsrdv&s for sarpisas in a. The comm. supplies first avayavds as 
omitted subject in the verse, but afterwards utsdsas from vs. 3, which is of course right 

i6. Against demons : with an amulet of lead. 

\Cdiana, — agnindram, vdrunam^ dadhatyam. dnustubham : 4. kakummad^ 

Foimd in P&ipp. i. KSlu^. does not include the hymn among the cdtandni (8. 25), 
but a Pari^. (ib., note) reckons it to them (in accordance with the Anukr.). K2IU9. 
(47. 23) uses it once in a rite of sorcery (for the death of one*s enemies : comm.), and 
its commentator (47. 13, note) in another. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 409 ; Grill, i, 75 ; Griffith, i. 20 ; Bloomfield, 65, 256. 

1. What devourers, on the night of new moon, have arisen troop- 
wise Q) — the fourth Agni is the demon-slayer ; he shall bless us. 

Vrdjam in b is obscure ; * troopwise * is the conjecture of BR. ; the comm. reads 
instead bhrdjam^ and absurdly explains it as bhrdjamdndm or -nam * shining,* and 
qualifying either the night or the " hearty " man whom the demons have risen to injure I 
Ppp. has iuryas for iurfyas in c ; what is meant by it is not clear ; the comm. gives 
three different explanations : fourth after the death of his three brothers and predeces- 
sors (quoting for these TS. ii. 6. 6') ; as the house-fire apart from the three sacrificial ; 
or as the dngirasa fire, as distinguished from the sacrificial, the household, and that of 
battle — thus teaching us nothing but his own ignorance and perplexity. Grill follows 
Weber in understanding the word to mean " powerful." For d, Ppp. has san nah pdtu 

2. The lead Varuna blesses; the lead Agni favors; Indra bestowed 
on me the lead ; it, surely, is a dispcller of familiar demons. 

Ppp. combines mdi *ndra /- in c, and has for d amlvdyas tu cdtam (for cdtanatn). 
The comm. ascribes the mention of Varuna to the fact that river-foam is one of the 
articles declared (Kauq. 8. 18) equivalent to lead, and here intended by that name. 
[Cf. Bloomfield, JAOS. xv. 158. J 

3. This overpowers the vlskandha ; this drives off (bddh) the devour- 
ers ; with this I overpower all the races (Jdtd) that are \\iQ pii^dci's. 

The first half-verse is nearly repeated below, as ii. 4. 3 a, b. The short a in the 
reduplication of sasahe in c, though against the meter and in part against usage, is read 
by all the mss., and in the comment to Prat. iii. 13. Ppp. has in a viskamiam (but 
compare ii. 4. 3, where -dham). The comm. explains the (more or less fully personified) 
disorder as a disturbance caused by raksas or pi^dca and obstructing motion (gati- 
pratibandhaka) : cf. below ii. 4 and iii. 9. 


4. If our cow thou slayest, if [our] horse, if [our] man {pHrusa), we 
pierce thee there with lead, that thou be no slayer of our heroes. 

Ppp. has for c sisena vidhy&mas tvd. 

The 5 hymns of this anuvdka L3.J, as of the next, have just the norm, 20 verses, 
and the quotation from the old Anukr. (given at the end of hymn 2 1 ) is vin^akdv ato 
*nySu, At the end of the present hymn is read vihqatyd kuru, which is perhaps the 
statement as to the assumption of a norm. 

The first prapdthaka ends here. 

17. To stop the vessels of the body. 

\Brahman. — yopddevatyam. dnustubkam : 1. bhurij ; 4. j-p. drst gdyatrt.l 

Found in P^ipp. xix. (in the verse-order 3,4,1, 2). Used once by Kaug. (26. i o : 
the quotation appears to belong to what follows it, not to what precedes), in a remedial 
rite, apparently for stopping the flow of blood (the comm. says, as result of a knife 
wound and the like, and also of disordered menses). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 41 1 ; Ludwig, p. 508 ; Grill, 16, 76 ; Griffith, i. 21 ; Bloom- 
field, 22, 257. — Cf. Hillebrandt, Veda-Chrestomathie^ p. 46. 

1. Yon women {yosit) that go, veins with red garments, like brother- 


less sisters (Jdmi) — let them stop (stha), with their splendor smitten. 

Ppp. makes yositas and jdmayas change places, and has sarvds (better) for hirds 
in b. The comm. takes yositas as gen. sing., and hence naturaUy understands rajova- 
hananddyas to be meant in the verse ; he renders hirds by sirds ; and he explains that 
brotherless sisters pitrkule sathtdnakarmane pindaddndya ca tisthanti. The Anukr. 
refuses to sanction the contraction -tare *va in c. 

2. Stop, lower one ! stop, upper one ! do thou too stop, midmost one ! 
if the smallest stops, shall stop forsooth the great tube (dhamdni). 

The accent of tisthati seems to show ca to be the equivalent of cet here. 

3. Of the hundred tubes, of the thousand veins, have stopped forsooth 

these midmost ones ; the ends have rested (ram) together. 

In d, emendation to dntyds * the end ones * would be an improvement ; but Ppp. 
also has antds : sakam antd *ramsataj its c is corrupt {asthii nibaddhdmdvd) ; and it 
inserts te after qatasya in a. 

4. About you hath gone (kram) a great gravelly sandbank (dhanu)\ 

stop [and] be quiet, I pray (si kam). 

The comm. sees in dhani only the meaning " bow," and interprets it " bent like a 
bow " : namely, a vessel containing the urine ; in sikatds he sees an allusion to the 
menses, or to gravel in the bladder. Kau^. (26. 10) speaks of sprinkling on dust and 
gravel as a means of stanching the flow of blood ; more probably, as Weber first sug- 
gested, a bag filled with sand was used : in neither case can the menses be had in view. 
Ppp. reads siktdmayl bunU sthiraq carasthidam. The third pada is identical with 
RV. i. I9i.6d ; the comm. (as Sayana to the latter) fails to recognize the root il\ and 
he renders it prerayata^ as if root ir were in question. 


i8. Against unlucky marks. 

l^Dravinadiu, — vdittdyakam, dnnstubham: /. uparistddvirdifbrhati ; 2. nicrjjagati ; 

J. virdddstdrapahktitristubh . ] 

Verses 1-3 are found in P^lipp. xx. (but vs. 2 not with the others). Used by K^u^. 
(42. 19) in a charm against unlucky signs in a woman. 

Translated : Weber, iv.411 ; Ludwig, p. 49S ; Geldner, Ved, Stud. i. 314 ; Griffith, 
L 22 ; Bloomfield, 109, 260. — It may be mentioned that Geldner takes the whole hymn 
as relating to a domestic cat. 

1. Out we drive {nir-su) the pallid sign, out the niggard; then, what- 
ever things are excellent (bhadrd)^ those we lead together (}) for our 

The translation implies in d the very venturesome emendation of drdtim to sdm ; 
the former appears wholly impracticable, and has perhaps stumbled into d from b ; 
Geldner conjectures instead tvd, Ppp. is defaced, and gives no help. The comm. 
reads laksmam^ and explains laldmyam as accus. sing. masc. : laldme bhavam tila- 
kasthdnagatam ; to ydni in c he supplies cihndni |_making c a separate sentence and 
supplying bhavaniu\. It would also be possible to make the cesura 2X\tx prajdydi^ and 
read ndqaydmasi (so R.). In our edition, dele the accent-mark under /J- of tint in c. 

2. Savitar has driven out the trouble (? drani) in her feet ; out have 
Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman [driven] [that] in her hands ; out hath Anumati, 
bestowing {rd) upon us ; the gods have driven this woman forward unto 
good fortune. 

All the mss. give in a sdvisak, which SPP. verj' properly retains, though the comm. 
and Ppp. have -sat (see my Skt. Gr.>, § 151 a) ; *sd7'isak (p. as-) would be an improve- 
ment, and may be understood. For c, d, Ppp. has yad dditydmavatl rardttd prnasuvd 
savitd sdubhagdya. The comm. gives two etymological guesses at aranlm (which is 
his reading, instead of -nim)^ both worthless, and describes rardttd as accented on the 
final. The separation of this verse from the others in Ppp. indicates that it probably 
has nothing to do with " marks.** It is rather unusual for the Anukr. to take notice of 
the occurrence of a tristubh pada in ^jagatl verse. Ld, no less than c, is tristubhy pro- 
nounce devdsdvisuh. \ 

3. Whatever in thy self, in thy body, is frightful, or what in hair or 
in mien — all that do we smite away with [our] words ; let god Savitar 
advance {sfid) thee. 

* God Savitar ' or * the heavenly impeller/ everywhere equivalent. Ppp. begins yat 
id **iman tanvd ghoram^ and has for c, ^ tat te vidvdn upahddhayesdth pra tvd suvd 
savitd sdubhagdya. The metrical description of the verse (ii4-ii:io4-io = 42) 
by the Anukr. is unusual and questionable. 

4. The antelopc-footed, the bull-toothed, the kine-rcpclling, the out- 
blowing, the licked-out, the pallid — these we make disappear from us. 

Designations either of the unlucky signs or of the women marked with them — 
probably the former. The comm. prefers the latter, except for the two last, which he 
blunderingly takes from the stems -dhya and -tnya, and makes them qualify laksma 


understood. He explains gosedh& (^. goosedhim) as "going like a cow," and vilidha 
as a lock ♦* on the edge of* the forehead, licked as it were the wrong way " — or what is 
called a " cowlick " ^Skt kdkapaksa]. Both editions give at the beginning ri^yap-, 
instead of the true reading f^yap-, which the comm. (with three of SPP*s mss.) has ; 
the mss. bungle all the occurrences of this word. In part of our edition the m is broken 
ofE from vi^sadatlm, 

19. Against enemies. 

[Brahman. — difvaryam. dnustubkam : 2, purastddbrhatt ; j. patkydpankti.'] 

The hymn is found also in Paipp. i. With the two that follow it (and others), it is 
reckoned by Kaug. (14. 7) among the sdmgrdmik&ni or battle-hynms, or likewise (ib., 
note) to the apardjita (*unconquered*)^tf«a/ without them, but with vi. 13, it is used 
in several of the charms to ward off the effects of portents (104. 3 ; 105. i ; 113. 3). In 
Vait. (9. 21), vs. 3 appears alone in the cdturmdsya or seasonal sacrifice, accompanying 
the release of the two puroddqa baskets. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 413 ; Griffith, L 23 ; Bloomfield, 120, 262. — Cf. Bergaigne- 
Henry, Manuel^ p. 134. 

1. Let not the piercers find us, nor let the penetraters find [us] ; far 

from us make the volleys {qaravyh) fly, dispersing, O Indra. 

Ppp. combines mo *bhi' in b. The rendering of qaravyd follows the comm., here 
and to vs. 3 (j^arasamhati). 

2. Dispersing from us let the shafts fly, those that are hurled and 
that are to be hurled; ye divine arrows of men (manusjfd-), pierce my 

The comm. inserts an ** and " in c : ** divine and human arrows " ; this is possible, 
but opposed by the accent. Ppp. has for c, d : devd manusyd rsayo *mitrdn no vi 
viddhatu; the comm. also reads vidhyatu, 

3. Whether one of our own or whether a stranger, fellow or outsider, 
whoso assails {abhi-dds) us — let Rudra with a volley pierce those my 

Ppp's version is somewhat different : yas samdno yo *samdno*mitro no jighdhsati : 
rudraq qavyd idn amiirdn vi viddhata. With a, b compare 75. 19 a, b : ^^ 
nah sv6 drano ydq ca nistyo jighdhsati (= SV. ii. 1222 a, b, which combines svd *rano) ; 
the latter half of this verse is our 4 c, d. Two or three of our mss. (P.M.O.p.m.) fol- 
low RV. in omitting j^<^ after svd, Ap. iv. 16. i has j^^ nah sapatno yo *rano mar to 
*bhiddsati devdh, with a wholly different second half. The comm. absurdly explains 
nistyas as nirgatavlryo nikrstabalah qatruh, 

4. Whatever rival (sapdtnd)y whatever non-rival, and whatever hater 

shall curse us, him let all the gods damage (dhurv) ; incantation (brdhman) 

is my inner defense. 

Ppp. has as first half-verse sabandhuq ca *sabandhuq ca yo na indrd *bhiddsati. 
The second half-verse is found, without variant, in RV. (and SV. : see under vs. 3). 
The comm. explains sapatna well as jHdtirapah qatruh, SPP. follows the very bad 
example of a part of his mss. by reading dvisan ch- (instead of -ah or -an) in b [cf. i. 33. 2, 
ii. 4. 6, and see Prat ii. 10, 1 7, and especially 11. — The pada-itxt reads dvisdn]. 


20. Against enemies and their weapons. 

[Atkarvan, — sdumyam. dnustubham : i. tristubh.^ 

The first three verses are found in PSlipp. xix., and vs. 4 in ii. : see below. For the 
use of the hymn by K&u^. with 19 and 21, see under 19. And vs. i is used alone (so 
the comm.) in the /arz/aif-sacrifices (K&U9. 2. 39), on viewing the cooked oblation. 

Translated : Weber, iv.413 ; Griffith, i. 24. 

1. Let there be the dddrasrt, O god Soma; at this sacrifice, O Maruts, 
be gracious to us ; let not a portent find us, nor an imprecation ; let not 
the wrong that is hateful find us. 

The first p&da is rendered on the assumption that the s&man of this name, as 
described in PB. xv. 3. 7, is intended ; it might be used of the person intended to be 
benefited : * let him be one not getting into a split (i.e. hole, or difficulty) * : this is the 
sense distinctly taught in PB. ; the comm. says na kaddcid api svastrUamlpam pr&- 
pnotu {madlyah qatruK) \ The verse occurs in TB. (iii. 7. 5'* : and repeated without 
change in Ap. ii. 20. 6), with bhavata in a, mrdatd (without the anomalous accent) in b, 
and vrjdnd in d. Ppp. begins with addrasur bh-^ adds ayam after soma in a, and has 
in d the easier reading prd **pad duchund for vidad vrjind. The second half-verse 
occurs again as v. 3. 6 c, d. Though connected with vss. 2, 3 in Piipp. also, this verse 
does not appear to have anything originally to do with them. 

2. What missile (sinyd) weapon of the malignant (aghdyu) shall go up 
today, do ye, Mitra-and-Varuna, keep that off from us. 

The first half-verse in Ppp. is yo *dya sdinyo vadho jighdsatn nam updyatly which is 
nearly our vi.99. 2a,b. The half-verse occurs also in PB. (i. 3. 3a,b) and A^S. 
(v. 3.22 a, b), both of which have sdumyas ; PB. elides yo *dya; A^S. gives at the 
end 'trati. AghdyUnim would be the proper accent (and this the comm. has), unless 
the word were imderstood as feminine. 

3. Both what [is] from here and what from yonder — keep off, O 
Varuna, the deadly weapon ; extend great protection {(dnnan) \ keep very 
far off the deadly weapon. 

The pada text marks the pada-division in the first half-verse before instead of after 
the second ydt, Ppp- reads in b ydvayah. The second half-verse is found again at 
the end of the next hymn — which is perhaps an additional indication that this hymn 
properly ends here. The Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity of the verse (9 + 8 : 
7 -f 8 = 32). LRead in a itd ydd^ and in cyac/ta ftah.\ 

4. Verily a great ruler (^dsd) art thou, ovcrpowercr of enemies, unsub- 
dued, whose companion {sdkhi) is not slain, is not scathed {jyd) at any 

This verse is the first in K\- . x. 152, of which the remaining verses constitute the 
next hymn here ; in Ppp. it occurs with them in ii., far separated from the matter which 
in our text precedes it. RV. and Ppp. both read for b amitrakhddd ddbhutah ; and 
RV. accents in d jiyate kdJa, The comm. paraphrases qdsAs by ^dsako niyantdj he 
\2^t,'& jlydte as from root ji, which is of course equally possible. 


21. Against enemies. 

[Atkarvan. — dindram, dnustubham."] 

As just pointed out (under 20. 4), this hymn and the last verse of the preceding 
make one hymn in RV. (x. 1 52) and in Paipp. (ii.) ; the latter has a different verse- 
order (3, 2, I, 4), but no various readings. For other correspondences, see under the 
several verses. For the ritual use of the hymn with the two preceding, see under 19; 
it is further reckoned (Kau^. 16.8, note) to the abhaya (*free from fear or danger') 
gana. It is the first hymn applied (with vii. 55) in the svastyayana or * for well-being * 
ceremonies (50. i), and is, according to the comm., referred to as such in 25. 36. Verse 2 
is also used, with others, by Vait (29. 5), in the agnicayana or building of the fire-altar. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 414 ; Griffith, i. 25. 

1. Giver of well-being, lord of the people {viq)^ Vrtra-slayer, remover 
of scorners, controlling, let the bull Indra go before us, soma-drinker, 
producing fearlessness. 

The comm. renders vimrdhds by vi^esena mardhayitd qatrHndm^ although he 
explains tnfdhas in vss. 2, 3 by samgrdmdn; the word is plainly a possessive com- 
pound l^accent ! no genitive J, expressing in form of epithet the action of 2 a and 3 a. 
RV. reads in a vtqds pdtis. The verse occurs further in TB. (iii. 7. 1 1 -♦) and T A. (x. 1.9); 
both have viqds^ and, in d, svastidis for somapis, 

2. Smite away, O Indra, our scorners {mrdh) ; put {yam) down them 

that fight {prtany) [us] ; make go to lowest darkness whoso vexes us. 

RV. reverses the order of c and d, and reads ddharamj and with it agree precisely 
SV. (ii. 1218) and VS. (viii.44 a et al.) ; while TS. (i.6. 124) and MS. (iv. 12.3) have 
for c adhaspaddth tdm Im krdhu \JZi. MGS. ii. 15. 6 h and p. 15 5. J 

3. Smite away the demon, away the scorners ; break apart Vrtra's 

(two) jaws ; away, O Indra, Vrtra-slayer, the fury of the vexing enemy. 

RV. and SV. (ii. 121 7) have the same text ; TS. (i.6. I25) reads qdiriin for rdksas, 
nuda iorjahi^ and bhdmitd for vrtrahan. 

4. Off, O Indra, the mind of the hater, off the deadly weapon of him that 
would scathe ; extend great protection ; keep very far off the deadly weapon. 

RV. reads manyds for mahdt in c, 2lxA yavayd iox ydv- in d. TS. (iii. 5. 8, only a, b) 
supplies in the first half- verse the missing verb, jahi^ putting it in place of vadkdm. 
Unless we resolve qdrma into three syllables, the anustubh is defective by a syllable. 
LAdd nah ^iXtx yacha f\ 

The 5 hymns of this anuvdka L4. J again have 20 verses, the norm : see at the con- 
clusion of the preceding anuvdka (after hymn 16). 

22. Against yellowness (jaundice). 

\Brahman. — sduryam uta maniroktaharimadevatyam, dnustubham^ 

Found in Paipp. i. Used by K^u^. (26. 14) in a remedial rite (against heart disease 
and jaundice \kdmalay Ke^. ; kdmila^ the comm.]). 


Translated: Weber, iv. 415; A. Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 113; Griffith, i. 26 ; Bloomfield, 
7, 263. — Cf. also Zimmer, p. 388 ; Bloomfield, A J P. xii. 437 ; Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel^ 
p. 134. Kuhn adduces analogous old Germanic charms. 

1 . Let them (both) go up toward the sun, thy heart-bum {-dyoia) and 
yellowness ; with the color of the red bull, with that we enclose {pari-dhd) 

Ppp. reads in a udetdm; its c is yo rohitasya gor varnaSy which construes better 
with d. The abbreviated writing hrdyot- for hrddyot- (see my Skt Gr. § 232 a ^and 
Roth, ZDMG. xlviiL 102J) betrays the pada-KtyiX into dividing hrodyotdh (cf. tddyim, 
iv. 19. 6; so even the RV. pada-Xtxi has jaratovisam Irom jaraddvisam at v. 8. 2). 
SPP. has properly in his text the unabbreviated form hrddyo-, U'doayatdm in the 
AV. Index Verborum is an erratum for ikd ayatdm : the comm. takes the form, doubt- 
less wrongly, as 3d sing. mid. instead of 3d du. active. K&u^. follows the indication of 
C d, and of 3 a, b, by prescribing the use of products of a red cow, hair and skin etc., in 
the healing rite. 

2. With red colors we enclose thee, in order to length of life ; that this 
man may be free from complaints {'rdfas)^ also may become not yellow. 

Ppp. has a different second half-verse : yathd tvam araps *so atho *hdrito bhava. 
The third pida is iv. 13. 4 d (or RV. x. 137. 5 d). The comm. explains rapas as = pdpa, 

3. They that have the red one for divinity, and the kine that are red 
— form after form, vigor {vdyas) after vigor, with them we enclose thee. 

The translation implies the easy emendation in a to rdhinldevatydSy in accordance 
with the universal use of dri'atya elsewhere. The * red one ' is perhaps the red star (or 
lunar asterism) RohinT, our Aldcbaran. Ppp. reads rohinfr devatyd^ and in b rohintr 
uta; in d it has tena tvd. 

4. In the parrots, in the ropandkas^ we put thy yellowness ; likewise 
in the hdridravas we deposit thy yellowness. 

Not one of our mss. gives at the beginning the true reading ^ukfsuy as found in RV. 
i. 50. 12 Land Ppp. J (and Tli. iii. 7. 6»^), but it is presented by the comm., and by three 
of SPP's authorities. RV. and TB. have me for U both times, and accent hdridra- 
vhu. The names are understood by the comm. as those of birds : ropandkd = kdstha- 
^ukdy apparently a kind of parrot, and hdridrava = gopltanaka^ apparently a yellow 
water-wagtail. LPpp. has in b prapandJkd(a.^ 

23. Against leprosy: with a healing herb. 

[AtJkarvan (fvetalaksmavindfandyd *ttrnd ^sikuim osadhim astdnt). — vdnaspatyam. 


Found in PSipp. i., but defaced, so that for the most part comparison is impossible. 
Also, with vs. 3 of the next hymn, in TB. (ii.4. 4'->). Used by Kaug. (26. 22-24), >i^ 
company with the next following hymn, in a remedial rite (against white leprosy, 
qvetakustha^ schol. and comm.). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 416 ; Ludwig, p. 506 ; Grill, 19, 77 ; Griffith, i. 27 ; Bloom- 
field, 16, 266 ; furthermore, vss. 1,2 by Bloomfield, AJP. xi. 325. — Cf. Bergaigne-Henry, 
Manuely p. 135. 


1. Night-born art thou, O herb, O dark, black, Land J dusky one; 
O colorer (rajant)^ do thou color this leprous spot and what is pale {palitd). 

According to the comm., the herb addressed is the haridrd {Curcuma longd). 
R. writes : " The rajanl is known to the lexicographers, and has later as principal name 
parpatl\2Ji Oldenlandia dyeing red, OB.], Madana 46. 47, Dhanvantari (ms.) i. 27. In 
Bhavapr. i. 194 (where, according to my old and good ms., rahjanl is to be read instead 
of -na)^ it is noted that this remedy is fragrant, and comes out of the north. It has a 
dark aspect. The species not to be determined, because the later identifications are 
entirely untrustworthy." [See Dhanvantari, Ananda-a^rama ed., p. 17.J The causative 
stem rajaya (the meter calls for r&j-) is found only here. 

2. The leprous spot, what is pale, do thou cause to disappear from 

hence, the speckled ; let thine own color enter thee ; make white things 

{gukld) fly away. 

TB. has na (nah f) for tvd and a^nutdm for viqatdm in c, and in d qvetani for 
qukldni. The comm. ^\ts pfthak lot pf sat in b, and has the usual support of a small 
minority of SPP*s mss. 

3. Dusky is thy hiding-place, dusky thy station (asthdnd)\ dusky art 

thou, O herb ; make the speckled disappear from hence. 

TB. has the easier reading nildyanam in a. The comm. again gives prthak in d ; 
he holds that the plant here addressed is the indigo (niU). 

4. Of the bone-born leprous spot, and of the body-born that is in the 

skin, of that made by the spoiler (dust) — by incantation have I made 

the white {fvetd) mark disappear. 

Ppp. has in c dhusyd; TB. reads instead kriydyd; the comm. explains dUsi as 
qatrutpdditd krtyd, Ppp. has at the end anenaqam, 

24. Against leprosy. 

\Brahman, — dsurtvanaspatidevatyam, dnustubham : 2, nicrtpathydpankti^ 

Found in Paipp. i., but not in connection with the preceding hymn. For the use of 
23 and 24 together by Kau^., see under hymn 23. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 417 ; Ludwig, p. 509 ; Grill, 19, 77 ; Griffith, i. 28 ; Bloom- 
field, 16, 268. 

1. The eagle (suparnd) was bom first ; of it thou wast the gall ; then 
the Asura-woman, conquered by fight {ytidh)^ took shape as forest-trees. 

Ppp. reads at the end vanaspatih^ which is more in accordance with the usual con- 
struction of rupam kr (mid.) and the like. Ppp. has i\so jighdnsitd iox yudhd jitd in c. 
R. suggests the emendation: tad dsuri {msXx.) jighatsitam rii-, *that, attempted to be 
eaten by the AsurT, took on vegetable form * : i.e. became a healing plant. The comm. 
still regards the indigo as addressed. He coolly explains jitd by its opposite, //V^iz/^i//'. 
All our mss. have in d the absurd accent cdkre (emended in the edition to cakre) ; 
SPP. reports the same only of two pada-mss. 

2. The Asura-woman first made this remedy for leprous spot, this 


e£Facer of leprous spot ; it has made the leprous spot disappear, has made 
the skin uniform {sdrfipct). 

Ppp. has again (as in 23. 4) anena^at in c ; in d it reads surnpam, 

3. Uniform by name is thy mother; uniform by name is thy father; 
uniform-making art thou, O herb ; [so J do thou make this uniform. 

Found also, as noted above, in TB. (ii. 4. 4'), which has for c sarGpd *sy osadke. 
Ppp. reads throughout surup-. It inserts between this verse and the next : yat tantl- 
jafk yad agnijam citra kildsa jajhise : 'tadasiu sukrtas tanvo yatas tvH *pi naydmasi, 

4. The swarthy, uniform-making one [is] brought up off the earth ; 
do thou accomplish this, we pray; make the forms right again. 

All our mss. have at the beginning ^Smi, and also very nearly all SPP*s ; but the 
latter very properly admits ^yd- into his text, it being read by the comm. with a couple 
of mss. that follow him, and being found in Ppp. also. Ppp. once more has surup-; 
it corrupts b into prthivydbhyarbhavam^ and gives sddaya at end of c. The phrase 
iddm a s^ is quoted in Prit. iii. 4 and iv. 98, which prescribe the protraction and linguali- 
zatioD, and words of the verse are repeatedly cited in the commentary to other rules. 

25. Against fever {takmdn). 

[Bkrgvangiras. — yakfmand^andgniddivatam, trdistubham : 2^j. virddgarbhd ; 

4, puro *nustubh.'\ 

Found in PSlipp. i. Used by Kau^. in a remedial rite (26. 25) against fever, in con- 
nection with heating an ax and dipping it in hot water to make a lotion ; and reckoned 
(26. 1 , note) to the iakman&qana gana. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 419 ; Grohmann, Ind, Stud. ix. 384-6, 403, 406 ; Ludwig, 
p. 511 ; Zimmer, p. 384 and 381 ; Griffith, i. 29 ; Bloomfield, 3, 270 ; Henry ^ /ourna/ 
Asiatique, 9.x. 512. — Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel^ p. 136. 

1. As Agni, entering, burned the waters, where the maintainers of 

duty {dhdrma-) paid acts of homage, there they declare to be thy highest 

birth-place ; then do thou, O fever (takntdn\ complaisant, avoid us. 

The comm. explains p^da a in accordance with the ceremonial act founded on its 
mechanical interpretation ; c [cf. RV. i. 163. 4 dj shows that it is part of the heavenly 
waters that is intended. Safhvidvdn (occurring nowhere else) he renders ** fully know- 
ing thy cause, the fire (or Agni) *^ : the translation takes it as equivalent to the not 
yjjicOTCimoTi safkviddna, Adahat he quietly turns into a future : ** shall burn thee, O 
fever " 1 Ppp. reads aduhat instead, and in c combines to td **huh, \CL Grohmann^s 
intefpretation. I.e., 403, 404.J 

2. If thou art flame (ards) or if heat {(ods), or if thy birth-place seeks 
the shavings (?), hrudu by name art thou, O god of the yellow one ; then 
do thou, O fever, complaisant, avoid us. 

The pada-rtzdmg ^akalyaoesi in b is assured by Pr^t. iii. 52, but the meaning is 
extremely obscure. Ppp. has the better reading ^dkalycsu * among the shavings * ; 
janitram rather requires a locative. The comm. guesses it as loc. of ^akalyes^ from 
^akalya explained as a ** heap of shavings,'' and root ix *seck,' and so an epithet of fire ; 


BR. conjecture " following the shaving, i.e. glimmering." Ppp. reads in a dhiimas for 
qocis. The name at the beginning of c is of quite uncertain form ; the ms. readings are 
hrudu^ hriidru^ hrudu^ hadu^ rUdu^ hrudbhuy hrudu^ rUdhu \Jirildhu^ ; SPP. adopts 
in his text the same form as we, and, it is to be hoped, on the authority of his oral 
reciters, which in such a case must be better than mss. ; Ppp. has (in both verses) 
hudu, which is a word occurring also elsewhere, and meaning " ram " ; the comm. reads 
rudhu, explaining it as = rohaka or purusaqarlre utpddaka * producing in the human 

LHeAry, Journal Asiatique^ 9.x. 513, suggests that the problematic word may be 
connected with the Assyrian huraqu and the Hebrew hariiq^ and so go back to a proto- 
Semitic ^hariidu, *gold.' J. Hal^vy, however. I.e., 9. xi. 320 if., suggests that it may be 
rather a Sanskritization of x^"P^» * greenish-yellow,* and compares the relations of 
vdidHrya^ Prakrit velurya {yeruliyd) firipdWiov, Cf. further, Barth, Revue de Vhistoire 
des religions^ xxxix. 26. J 

3. If heating (^okd) or if scorching {abhifokd)^ or if thou art son of 
king Varuna, hrudu by name etc. etc. 

Ppp. has for b the more sensible version rudrasya prdnoyadi vdruno (vd *runo?) 'si. 

4. Homage to the cold fever, homage I pay to the fierce (rurd) heat 
(foc/s) ; to the one that befalls on every other day, on both days, to the 
third-day fever be homage. 

Ppp. reads in b durdya krnvd vayath te, and in c ubhayebhyaq ca hatas. The com- 
pound ubhayadyus is noticed in Prat. iv. 21. ^As for rhythmical fevers — tertian, 
quartan, etc., see Grohmann, l.c., 387, 388.J 

26. For protection from the wrath of the gods. 

\Brahman, — indrddibahudevatyam, gdyatrami 2, J-p. sdmni tristubh ; 4. pddanicrt 

(^, 4, eidvasdna)]. 

Found in Paipp. xix., but vss. 3-4 elsewhere than 1-2. The hymn appears to be 
called (so schol. and the comm.) apanodandni *thrusters away* in Kaug. (14. 14), and 
quoted and used as such in 25. 22 and (with iv. 33) in 42. 22 ; it is further applied 
(with 27 and vi. 3, 76) at the beginning of the svastyayana rites, on going to bed and 
getting up again (50.4), and (with i. 13 and other hymns) in the rite of entrance on 
Vedic study (139.8). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 420 ; Griffith, i. 31. 

1. Far be that from us — may [your] missile (heti) be, O gods; far 
the bolt {dpnan) which ye hurl. 

The last pada is identical with RV, i. 172. 2 c ; the other two padas (for which Ppp. 
has no variants) sound in part like a misunderstood echo of the RV. text : drd sa vah 
suddnavo mdruta rfijati qdruh. For c Ppp. has dre mantdm (or martdm; for maru- 
tdm ?) a^astih. The comm. foolishly supplies an " O our enemies " in c ; agmd he 
explains 2l& yantrddivinirmuktah pdsdnah. The Anukr. ignores the defectiveness of b. 

2. Be yon Rati (* liberality ') a companion {sdkhi) for us ; a companion 
[be] Indra, Bhaga, Savitar of wondrous favors. 


RM seems to be made a personification here, as in iii. 8. 2 and vii. 1 7. 4 below ; the 
comm. makes it equal to Mitra or Sdrya. Ppp. has a very different text : sakhe *va no 
rAiir astu sakkt *ndras sakhA savitd : sakkA bhagas satyadharmd no *stu ; which is 
better as r^^ards both sense and meter. The tripadd of the Anukr. is probably a mis- 
reading for dvipadd; the mss. agree with it in using no avasdna-sign in the verse, and 
SPP. very properly follows them ; the pada-mss. mark a cesura after rdiiA, The 
comm. makes citrar&dh&s = bahuvidhafk dhanam yasya, 

3. May ye» issue (ttdpdt) of the height, sun-skinned Maruts, yield us 
breadthful protection. 

The mss. all read at the end saprdth&s^ and SPP. retains it in his text ; the comm. has 
saprathas^ in accordance with our emendation. \Q,L Lanman, Noun-Inflection^ p. 560.J 
The comm. further has yacchdta in c. 

4. Do ye advance [us], be gracious ; be thou gracious to our selves 
(tanii), show kindness {mdyas) to our offspring (tokd), 

Ppp. fills up the deficiency of a, reading su mrdaid susHdatd mrdd no aghdbhyah 
siokdya tanve dd (perhaps defective at the end). The mss., supported by the Anukr., 
make no division of the verse before mdyas^ and SPP. follows them ; the meter, how- 
ever, is plainly ^4y<i/rf. The name given by the Anukr. is not used by it elsewhere ; 
it doubdess signifies, as in the VS. Anukr., 7 + 7 + 7 = 21 syllables, the resolution 
-bhi-as being refused in b and c. 

27. Against various evils. 

\^Aikarvan (svastyayanakdmah). — cdtidramasam uie * ndrdniddivatam. dnustubham : 

/. pathydpankti.'\ 

Found in P^ipp. xix. For the use of the hymn with its predecessor by Kiluq., see 
under 26 ; it is also reckoned to the svastyayana gana (25. 36, note) ; and vs. 4 appears 
by itself near the beginning of the svastyayana ceremonies, in the same rite as hymns 
26 and 27. 

Translated: Weber, iv. 421 ; Ludwig, p. 517; Griffith, i. 32. — Griffith says the 
sloughs are to make the travellers invisible to highway robbers, and cites an old English 

1. Yonder on the further shore are she-adders, thrice seven, out of 
their sloughs (Jardyu) ; with the sloughs of them do we wrap up (dpi vyd) 
the (two) eyes of the malignant waylayer. 

Jariyu in the sense * cast-off skin of a snake ' appears to be quotable only here ; 
the comm. regards the word as so applied by a figure : jardyuvat ^arlrasya vestakds 
tvacak, Ppp. reads imds pdre in a, and jarjardyuvak in b ; the comm. has instead 
nirjard iva^ explaining 2& jardrakita devd iva, 

2. Let the cutting one {krt) go asunder, she who bears as it were a 
club {pindka) ; asunder [go] the mind of her that returns to life {punar- 
bhii ) ; unsuccessful [are] the malignant ones. 

Ppp. has no variants to c^ist light on this ver)' obscure verse ; it adds at the end 
ape *tas panpantkino *po *gkdyur arsatu. The comm. reads punarbkavd in c ; he 


supplies " the army {send) of our enemies " as the missing noun in the verse, and 
explains the epithet as "reassembling after dispersal." He paraphrases krtttad with 
chindatl, LSPP*s pada-resLding is punahobhuvdh^ against Index Verborum^ p. 184 
(corrected p. 383), and against SkL Gr, § 352 a, which should be corrected by p. 41 1 
of Lanman*s Noun-InJlection,\ 

3. The many have not been able together ; the few have not ventured 
on [it] ; like the sprouts (? ddga) of a bamboo {venu) round about, unsuc- 
cessful [are] the malignant ones. 

The first half-verse in Ppp. is defaced, but apparently its text agreed with ours, 
except that at the end stands abhi dhrsnuvam. As the second half is wanting, these 
two padas probably form one verse with the two reported above, under vs. 2. The 
comm. reads dddrqus at end of b, and has udgd iva paritas in c, explaining udga ety- 
mologically as = qdkhd. The comment to Prat. iii. 13 quotes dddhrsus, and that to 
ii. 38 gives adg&s among its examples ; neither adga nor udga appears to be quotable 
from elsewhere. 

4. Go forward, ye (two) feet ; kick (sphur) forward ; carry to the 
houses of the bestower (/r) ; let IndranI go first, unscathed, unrobbed, 
in front. 

Ppp. \i2&grham and vahantu (yetpdddu) in b, and, for d, jihitvd muktvd pathd. 
The comm. reads ajitd in d ; he ingeniously quotes from TS. (ii. 2. S') ** IndranI is 
deity of the army " in explanation of her introduction here. LCf. Bergaigne, Religion 
V^digue^ iii. 155 n.J 

28. Against sorcerers and witches. 

[Cdtana. — szKutyayanam, dnustubham : j. virdtpathydbrhatl ; 4, pathydpankti.'] 

The hymn is not found in Paipp. Though not mentioned as one of the cdtandni 
by the text of Kau^., it is added to them by the schol. (8. 25, note). It is once used 
by itself in a witchcraft ceremony (dbhicdrikd) for the relief of one frightened, accom- 
panying the tying on of an amulet (26. 26). 

Translated : Weber, iv. 423 ; Griffith, i. 33. 

1. Hither hath come forth god Agni, demon-slayer, disease-expeller, 
burning away deceivers, sorcerers, kimidlns. 

In our text, upd is a misprint for iipa (an accent-sign slipped out of place to the 
left). The comment on Prat. iv. 3 quotes the first three words as exemplifying the dis- 
connection of prefixes from a verb. 

2. Burn against the sorcerers, against the kimidlns^ O god ; burn up 
the sorceresses that meet thee, O black-tracked one. 

In c the comm., with two or three of SPP's authorities that follow him, reads 
krsnavartmane (treating it as a vocative). 

3. She that hath cursed with cursing, that hath taken malignity as 
her root Qmurd), that hath seized on [our] young to take its sap — let 
her eat [her own] offspring. 


The verse is repeated below as iv. 1 7. 3, and has there a parallel in Ppp. The 
comm. first takes miram as for milam (as rendered above), but adds an alternative 
explanation as mUrchdkaram^ adjective to agham; he has ddadi in place of -dke, 
Jstdm is metrically an intrusion, but completes the sense. 

4. Let the sorceress eat [her own] son, sister, and daughter (? napti) ; 
then let the horrid-haired sorceresses mutually destroy {vi-han) one 
another; let the hags (ardyi) be shattered asunder. 

The comm. explains ftafi/f as naptri or pHutrasya {putrasya f) apatyarnpd sam- 
tati. He xt.^A& ydtudhdnl (for -nls) in a, and atha in c 

The 7 hymns of this anuvdka |_5.J have 28 verses, as determined by the quoted 
Anukr. : pahcame *stdu. 

29. For a chief's success: with an amulet. 

[ Vasistha, — sadrcam» abhwartamanisuktam. dnustudAamA 

Found (except vs. 4) in P§ipp. i., and (with the same exception, in RV., chiefly x. 1 74 
|_: namely, AV. verses i, 2, 3, 6 correspond respectively with RV. verses i, 2, 3, 5. See 
Oldenberg, Die Hymnen des RV,^ i. 243 J. Kau^. uses the hymn in the ceremony of 
restoration of a king, with preparing and binding on an amulet made of the rim of a 
chariot-wheel (16. 29 : the comm. says, vss. 1-4) ; the last two verses are specifically 
prescribed for the binding on. The comm. quotes the hymn as employed by the 
Naksatra Kalpa (19) in a mahdqdnti called mdkendrf. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 423 ; Griffith, i. 33. * 

1. With an over-rolling amulet (man/), wherewith Indra increased — 
therewith, O Brahmanaspati, make us increase unto royalty (rds(rd). 

Abkiy literally * on to,* so as to overwhelm. Our version spoils the consistency of 
the verse by reading -vdvrdkd and vardkaya in b and d for RV. (x. 1 74. i ) -vdvrte 
and vartaya^ which Ppp. also gives (Ppp. vartayak). Ppp. further has imam for 
asmdn in c. RV. reads kavisd for manind in a. The long f of abkfvarta (p. abkiov-) 
is noted by Pr§t. iii. 1 2. 

2. Rolling over our rivals, over them that are niggards to us, do thou 
trample on him who fights — on whoever abuses {durasy-) us. 

RV. (x. 174.2) has in d irasydti ; Ppp., by a not infrequent blunder, reads duras- 
yatu. P§da a lacks a syllable, unless we resolve -patndn into three syllables. 

3. Thee hath god Savitar, hath Soma made to increase, thee have all 
existences (bhutd) [made to increase], that thou mayest be over-rolling. 

The connection is again spoiled in our text by the substitution of avlvrdhat in b for 
avfvrtat (which is read by RV. x. 174. 3) ; with the former it is impossible to render 
the prefix abki. This time Ppp. gives abhfbhrqat instead, doubtless a mere corruption. 

4. The over-rolling, overcoming, rival-destroying amulet be bound 
upon me unto royalty, unto the perishing (pardbhu) of rivals. 

The verse is wanting in both RV. and Ppp. Its excision, with the following verse 


(which, however,. Ppp. has), would leave the hymn of normal length, and composed of 
four out of the five verses of RV. x. 1 74 !_, of the fourth of which the excision is called 
for J. 

5. Up hath gone yon sun, up this spell (vdcas) of mine, that I may be 
slayer of foes, without rivals, rival-slayer. 

RV. X. 1 59. 1 a, b is to be compared (b reading ud ay dm tn&makd bhdgak) ; Ppp. 
appears to mix the versions of b, giving, ungrammatically, ay am with vacas. |_Cf. also 
MP. i. 16. I.J 

6. A rival-destroying bull, conquering royalty, overpowering — that I 

may bear rule over these heroes and the people {jdna), 

RV. (i. 174. 5) has instead of a our 5 d (found also as x. 6. 30 c, and xix. 46. 7 b) ; 
in c it reads bhutdndm. |_Cf. MP. i. 16. 5. J 

30. For protection: to all the gods. 

\Atharvan {dyuskdmaK). — vdi^adevam, trdistubkam : j, ^dkvaragarbhd virddjagati,'] 

Found in Paipp. i., but damaged and only in part legible. The hymn belongs, 
according to the comm., to the dyusya (* for length of life ') gana^ although not found 
among those mentioned (Kau^. 54. 11, note) as composing that gana; it is used in 
ceremonies for long life by 52. 18 and 59. i ; also, with i. 9 and other hymns, in the 
reception of a Vedic student (55.17), and in dismissal from Vedic study (139.15). 
And vss. 3, 4 appear in Vait. (4. 4, 15) in connection with different parts of iht fiarvan- 
sacrifices. The comm. further quotes it from Naks. Kalpa 17 and 18 in two mahdqdnti 
rites, styled dirdvatl and vdiqvadevl^ and from Pari9ista 5. 4, in the puspdbhiseka 

Translated : Weber, iv. 424 ; Ludwig, p. 430 ; Griffith, i. 34. 

1. O all ye gods, ye Vasus, protect this man; likewise ye Adityas, 

watch ye over him ; him let not one related (sdndbhi) nor one unrelated 

— him let not any deadly weapon of men {pduruseya) reach. 

Ppp. has in b the false form jdgrata. The comm. paraphrases -ndbhi in c by 
garbhdqaya, |_For the syntax, cf. Caland, KZ. xxxiv. 456.J 

2. Whoso of you, O gods, are fathers and who sons, do ye, accordant 
{sdcetas), hear this utterance of mine ; to you all I commit this man ; 
happily unto old age shall ye carry him. 

Ppp. has at the end naydtha. The comm. reads in b uLiham. 

3. Ye, O gods, that are in the heaven, that are on earth, that are in 

the atmosphere, in the herbs, in the cattle, within the waters — do ye 

make old age the length of life for this man ; let him avoid the hundred 

other deaths. 

The intrusion oipa^iisu and apsii in b spoils the meter Lor we may rt2i^yi'ntdnksa 
dsadhfsv apsii antdh\ ; Ppp., omitting pagtisu and anidr^ makes it good. The Anukr. 
requires us to scan the pada as of 14 syllables. Prat. ii. 101 notes the lingualization in 
forms of as after divi^ and the comment cites this passage (a) as example. The comm. 
has in d vrnakta^ and renders it as causative. |_As to loi deaths, see Zimmer, p. 400. J 


4. Whose are the fore-offerings and whose the after-offerings ; the 

gods that share the oblation and that eat what is not made oblation of ; 

you among whom the five directions are shared out — you do I make 

sitters at the session (saUrd-) of this man. 

Ppp. reads in d /dn no *smdi satrasadhah k-. The comm. explains ahutidas as 
baliharanddidevds ; in sattra he sees nothing more than simple sadana. Both editions 
read satra-^ in accordance with universal manuscript usage. 

31. To the divine guardians of the quarters. 

[Brahman. — dfdpdliyam, vdstospatyam, dnustubham : j. virdttristubk ; 

4. pardnustuptristubh.l 

Found in Pfiipp. i. The hymn is called in KSu^. (38. 1 1 ) dqdpdlfyam^ and is also 
reckoned by the schol. (8. 23, note) to the vd^tospatfydni or vdstu gana. It is used 
with xii. I in the ceremony (38. 16) for establishing a house, and again, except vs. 3, as 
dr^handni * establishers ' in a like rite (38. 11); it appears in one of the j^T/o-sacrifices 
(64. 1 ) with an offering of four dishes (catuh^ardvd), and in the portent ceremony 
(127. 6) against obscuration of the " Seven Sages" (the Dipper, or Charles's Wain) by 
a comet Verse 2 (32. 27, note ; but the comm. says instead vs. i, quoting its pratika) 
is reckoned among the ahholingds^ and applied in rites for healing, security, long life, 
etc.; and vs. 4 (50. 11) in one for good fortune in the night In VSit (36.20) the 
hymn (as dqdpdlfyd) accompanies in the aqvamedha the turning loose of the sacrificial 
horse. And the comm. quotes it as used in Naks. Kalpa 14 in the adbhuta mahdqdnti. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 425 ; Ludwig, p. 372 ; Griffith, i. 35. 

1. To the four immortal region-guardians of the regions (dqa)^ to the 
overseers of existence {bhutd), would we now pay worship {vidh) with 

The verse occurs also in TB. (ii. 5. 33) and A^S. (ii. 10. 18) : in the latter, without 
variants ; TB. inserts tvd after dqSndm in a. The comm. paraphrases d^ds by prdcy- 
ddidiqas^ which is plainly its meaning here. 

2. Ye, O gods, who are the four region-guardians of the regions — do 
ye release us from the fetters {pdfd) of perdition {nlrrti), from every dis- 
tress (dhhas). 

The comm. reads stana for sthana in b. The Anukr. does not note b as metrically 
deficient, doubtless making the harsh resolution ca-iu-i-ro, 

3. Unlamed I sacrifice to thee with oblation ; unmaimed I make obla- 
tion to thee with ghee ; the god that is fourth region-guardian of the 
regions, he shall bring hither to us welfare (subhntd). 

At the beginning, dqrdmas is read by half the mss. (including our E. I. O. Op. K. Kp.) 
and by the comm. ; SPP. gives dsr- in his text, as we in ours. Aqlonas in b in our 
edition is an erratum for dqlonas, Ppp. has for a, b a^ronas te havisd vidhema ma^rd- 
mas te ghrt-; the comm. also reads a^ronas. Ppp. gives turyas in c : the word perhaps 
means simply * [any] one of the four.' The Anukr. appears not to sanction the resolu- 
tions to tu-d which would fill out a and b. The pada-m^'&. mark the division between 
€ and d after devas^ as the sense, but not the meter, demands. 


4. Well-being (svasH) be to our mother and father, well-being to kine, 

to creatures {jdgat), to men {purusa) ; all welfare [and] beneficence 

(? suviddtrd) be ours ; long may we see the sun. 

For jagate in b Ppp. has uta^ with manifest advantage to both meter and sense ; 
and it reads purusebhyas (with our H.s.m.), and in d drqeva. Many of the samhitd- 
mss. (including our H. K.) give no after pitrd in a. The comm. gives three different 
interpretations (taking it always, however, from vid and not from da) for the ambigu- 
ous suwddtra. The Anukr. appears to read no *stu in c, and ji-dg and su-ri-am in d 
|_rather, j(74f ^^^ siryam^ so as to make 1 1 -I- 1 1 : 1 1 -I- 8 ?J. LAs iojagat, see Zimmer, 
p. 1 50. J 

32. Cosmogonic. 

[^Brahman. — dydvdprthiviyam, dnustubham : 2. kakummatt.] 

Found in Paipp. i., next after our hymn 31. Used by Kau^. in a women's rite 
(34. i), against barrenness, and again (59.3) 1^ ^ ceremony for prosperity, to heaven 
and earth ; and the first verse (so the comm.) further (6. 17), as alternate to x. 5. 23, 
with conducting water into the joined hands of the sacrificer's wife, in the parvan- 

Translated : Weber, iv. 426 ; Ludwig, p. 533 ; Griflfith, i. 36. 

1. Now, ye people, take knowledge; he will speak a great mystery 
(? brdhman) ; that is not on earth nor in the sky whereby the plants 

With a, b is to be compared the very similar line xx. 127. i a, b : tddtn jand upa 
qruta ndrdqahsd stavisyate; which makes it probable that the ungrammatical viddtha 
means vidata or vedaiha (accent is unmotived), and suggests also vadisyate^ passive ; 
the former seems confounded with the noun viddtha^ of which viddthe^ or, as Ppp. 
reads, viddtham^ would make fairly good sense : ' will now be spoken at (or to) the 
council.' Ppp. xt2A'&yatas ioryena in d. [For pr3ndn/t\ see Prat. iv. 5 7. J 

2. In the atmosphere is the station of them, as of those sitting 

wearied ; the station of this that exists {bh&td) : that the pious know — 

or they do not. 

* Of them ' (dsdmj fem.) in a the comm. explains to mean ** of the plants,'* and then^ 
alternatively, ** of the waters " ; doubtless the latter is correct, the waters being that 
"whereby the plants live" (i d). Ppp. reads in ti antariksanty which means virtually 
the same as our text : the reservoir of the waters is the atmosphere or is in it (not in 
heaven nor earth, i c). The analogy of vii. 95. 2 suggests gdvdm as wanting at the 
beginning of b : the waters are ordinarily as quiet as cows that lie resting : a compari- 
son from the usual Vedic source. Weber suggested that sthima be read twice ; and 
this R. favors. The Anukr. ignores the deficiency in the pada. For d, Ppp. has vidus 
krd bhesatodanah, 

• • • 

3. What the (two) qudking firmaments (rSdast) — and the earth — 
fashioned out, that at present is always wet, like the streams of the 

In b the translation implies emendation to dtaksatdm^ as favored by the Ppp. read- 
ing nara-caksatdm J there remains the anomaly of letting the verb agree with rddast 


(Ppp. has rodhasf) ; perhaps we ought to read bhimes * out of the earth.' The comm., 
with a disregard of the accent which is habitual with him, takes rddasl and its epithet 
as vocatives, and then supplies dydus, vocative LJ AOS. xi. 66 J, in b to help make a 
dual subject for the verb ! For d Ppp. has vidurassevavartasl, \Yox c, cf. ^B* vi. 6. 33.J 

4. The one hath covered all ; this rests upon the other ; both to the 
heaven and to the all-possessing earth have I paid homage. 

The first pada is translated according to the Ppp. version : inqvatn anyd *bhi 
vavdra ; which is quite satisfactory ; Weber had suggested abhi *vd **ra. The pada- 
reading is abkiovira^ and the word is quoted under Pr^t iii. 1 2 as an example of a 
compound showing protraction of the final vowel of the first member. TB. (iii. 7. io3) 
and Ap. (ix. 14. 2) have the verse, and both have anyd ^bhivdvrdhi. The comm. gives 
abkivdraSf and explains it in three ways, as abhito varanam chddanam^ as abhivrtam^ 
and as abhitah sambhajanayuktam. For b, Ppp. has viqvam anyasydm adki ^ratam. 
For viqvdvedase in c (Ppp. vi^vavedkase ; TB. Ap. in^vdkarmane) the comm. also 
gives two interpretations, from vid * acquire ' and from vid * know.* 

33. To the waters: for blessings. 

[^Qatktdti. — cdndramasam dpyam uta. trdistubkam!\ 

Found in P§ipp. i., and also in TS. (v. 6. i), MS. (ii. 13. i), and the Mantrap§tha 
|_i. 2. 2-5 J (Winternitz in Denksck, d, Wiener Akad, xl. 44). LSee also MGS. i. 2. 1 1 
and p. 1 58. J Reckoned by K§u9. to the apdm siiktdni * hymns of the waters * ( 1 2 1 . i , and 
7. 14, note), also to both the qdnti ganas (9. 1,4) ; appears further, with several other 
hymns, in a rite for good-fortune (41. 14) ; and in the goddna ceremony to accompany 
bathing after the shaving (54. 5), also in the feet-washing of a guest (90. 9), against 
the portent of the appearance of water in a waterless place (121. i), and against that of 
the causeless breaking of water-jars etc. (136. 8). And the comm. quotes it as employed 
by Pari9ista v. 2 in the puspdbkiseka rite. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 428 ; Winternitz, Hockzeitsrituelly Wiener Denksckr, xl. 44 ; 
Griffith, i. 37. 

1 . Of golden color, clean (ftici), purifying, in whom [was] born Savitar, 
in whom Agni ; who, of beauteous color, assumed Agni as embryo — let 
those waters be weal, pleasant to us. 

Lin c, for dadkir/y better, * conceived ' ?J TS. and MS. read in b jdtdk kaQfdpo 
yisv indrak ; and Ppp. agrees with them ; MP. has agnik instead of indrak. In c 
TS. MS. give virUpds for suvarnds ; and TS. omits yAs^ and hence has dadkire (un- 
accented) ; MS. puts^rfj after agnim, MP. offers te for nas in d. LAs to savitr = 
ka^apa^ cf. Bloomfield, AJP. xvii. 403.J 

2. In the midst of whom goes king Varuna, looking down at the 
truth-and-falsehood of men ; who, of beauteous color, etc. etc. 

The first half-verse is found also in RV. (vii. 49. 3 a, b), without difference of read- 
ing ; MP. agrees through the whole verse |_except in d, te for nas^ ; TS. MS. have a 
wholly different c. The comment to Prat. ii. 11 gives avapa^yafl jandndm as example 
of the general requirement that final n be assimilated to a following initial palatal, and 
half or more of our mss. so read ; but SPP., as elsewhere, gives -an j- |_cf. note to 
i. 19. 4 J. 


3. They of whom the gods in heaven make [their] draught (bhaksd) ; 

they that come to be abundantly in the atmosphere ; who, of beauteous 

color, etc. etc. 

Again TS. MS. have a different c (^yah prthivim pdyaso *nddnti qukrak). Our O. 
has at end of c vlrupah (as TS. MS. in i c). MP. substitutes nivist&s for bhavanti 
in b. The comm. renders bhaksdm by upabhogyam, 

4. With propitious eye behold me, O waters; with propitious body 
touch my skin ; they that are ghee-dripping, clean, purifying — let those 
waters be weal, pleasant to us. 

The first half-verse appears again below as xvi. 1. 12. It alone is found in TS. and 
MS. ; but our c is RV. vii. 49. 3 c, and the two other texts have it after our 2 a, b 
Lall reading madhu- ior ghrta-\, MP. reads qivMa i%'d cdksusd paqyantv ipah^ and 
in b sprqantu and te, AB. (viii. 6. 10) quotes the whole verse in its TS. and MS. ver- 
sion. Our Bp. K. read -qcyutas in c ; Ppp. has -qcatas. The Anukr. ignores the redun- 
dancy of one syllable (or more) in b. 

34. A love-spell: with a sweet herb. 

\Atharvan, — pancarcam, madughamanisuktam, vdnaspatyam, dnustubham.'] 

Verses i, 2, 5 are found in Paipp. ii., vs. 3 in vi., and vs. 4 in part in viii. It is 
used by Kau9. in a ceremony for superiority in disputation (38. 1 7) : the ambitious dis- 
putant is to come into the assembly from the north-east, chewing the sweet plant ; 
again, twice in the nuptial ceremonies, once with tying a madugha amulet on the finger 
(76. 8), and once (79. 10) on crushing the amulet at the consummation of the marriage. 
The comm. further declares it used at the disputation in the aqvamedha sacrifice ; but 
he quotes no authority for it. All these applications are evidently imposed upon the 
hymn, not contained in it. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 429 ; Grill, 52, 78 ; Griffith, i. 38 ; Bloomfield, 99, 274. — 
Cf. Hillebrandt, Veda<hrestomathie^ p. 46. 

1 . This plant is honey-(w^^A«-)born ; with honey we dig thee ; forth 

from honey art thou engendered ; [soj do thou make us possessed of 


The comm. calls the plant madhuka^ and uses that form of the name also in the 
quotations from Kau^. (instead of madugha^ madhugha, etc. ; the mss. vary gready in 
their readings). 

2. At the tip of my tongue honey, at the root of my tongue honeyed- 

ness ; mayest thou be altogether in my power {krdtu), mayest thou come 

unto my intent {cittd). 

The second half-verse agrees nearly with that of iii. 25. 5 and vi. 9. 2, in both of 
which the ydthd^ here unexpressed, helps the construction (though the accent of dsas 
does not absolutely need it, being capable of being viewed as antithetical). Ppp. has 
for tijihvdyd *gre me madhu^ and for c, ^yathd mdm k&miny aso (our 5 c) yam vdca 
mdm anvdyasL The comm. explains madhulakam by madhurarasabahulam jalama- 
dhulakavrksapuspam yathd ; he understands the plant to be addressed in c, d — which 
is plainly wrong. 


3. Honeyed {mddhumant) [is] my in-stepping, honeyed my forth-going ; 
with my voice I speak what is honeyed ; may I be of honey-aspect. 

Vaddni might be a better reading in c. The first half -verse resembles RV. x. 24.6 a, b 
(m. m. pariyanam mddhumat piinar iyanam). Ppp. has for second half-verse vdcd 
madhumad ubhydma akso me madhusafndrql. The comm. takes madhu and samdrqas 
in d as two independent words. 

4. Than honey am I sweeter {mddhn), than the honey-plant more 
honeyed ; of me verily shalt thou be fond (? van), as of a honeyed branch. 

The majority of our mss. (not Bp. I. £. D.) read here tnadhughdt in b, as do also 
the Pr2t mss. in both places (ii. 5c; iv. 16 c) where the verse is quoted ; but at vi. 102. 3 
all read -^«-; SPP. reads -du- (as does our text), and makes no report of discordance 
among his authorities ; the comm. has -du-^ and derives the word from madhudugha. 
All the mss., and both texts, give the unmotived accent vdnds in c ; the comm. explains 
the word by sambhajes. He again regards the plant as addressed in the second 
half-verse. Ppp. (in viii.) has a and b, with \aham for asmi andj madhumdh for 

5. About thee with an encompassing {paritatnu) sugar-cane have I 
gone, in order to absence of mutual hatred ; that thou mayest be one lov- 
ing me, that thou mayest be one not going away from me. 

The second half-verse is found repeatedly later, as ii. 30. i d, e and vi. 8. 1-3 d, e. 
The pada-rezding in d is dpaogd, and the word is quoted under Pr§t iii. 34 as one of 
the cases of irregular hiatus to which the rule refers. Disregarding this, SPP. alters the 
Pada-iext to dpaogdh^ against all our /^7^-mss. and most of his, for no better reason 
than that the comm. seems to read so. Our Bp. (both copies) accents here apaogi^ as 
also at vi. 8. 1, 3, but not at ii. 30. i. The comm. allows this time that the address is to 
a woman. |_Ppp* has for h-A yaJksandJddm avidvise yathd na vidvdvadvi na vibhdva 
kadd cana. As for the rite, cf. Piraskara's Grhya-sutra, iii. 7S and Stenzler*s note. J 

35. For long life etc. : with a gold amulet. 

[AtAarvan. — hdiranyam ; dindrdgnam uta vdifvadrvam. jdgatam : 4. anustubgarbhd 

4-p, tristubh.'\ 

Not found in P&ipp. |_0f vss. i and 2, Schroeder gives the Katha version, with 
variants, Tubinger Katha-hss.^ p. 36. J Used by Kiu^., with i. 9 and v. 28, in two cere- 
monies for fortune and for power (i 1. 19 ; 52. 20) ; and the comm. considers it involved 
also at 57.31, in the upanayana. The comm. further quotes it from the ddityd pnahd- 
(dn/i in Naks. Kalpa 19 ; also from Pari^ista 4. i and 13. i. 

Translated : Weber, iv. 430 ; Ludwig, p. 457 ; Griflfith, i. 39. 

I. What gold the descendants of Daksa, well-willing, bound on for 
Catanlka, that I bind for thee, in order to life (dyns), splendor, strength, 
to length of life for a hundred autumns. 

It would rectify the meter and improve the sense (considering that dlrghdyutvd 
follows) to omit iyuse in c ; the Anukr. notes the redundancy of the pada (14 syllables). 
VS. (xxxiv. 52) has the first half-verse, with a different second half ; and so has a RV. 


khila to RV. x. 128 (9, Aufrecht, p. 685). The Kau^. speaks oi yugmakrsnala as the 
amulet : probably a pair of beads of gold like krsnala berries. The comm. quotes 
AB. viii. 21.5 for (^atanika. 

2. Not demons, not pigdcds overcome him, for this is the first-born 

force of the gods ; whoso bears the gold of the descendants of Daksa, 

he makes for himself long life among the living. 

VS. (xxxiv. 51) has the verse, reading tdd for enam and taranti for sahante in a, 
accenting bibhdrti in c, and giving devisu iox jlvisu in d ; and it repeats d with manus- 
yhu instead ; and the RV. khila (8, as above) follows it very nearly (but caranti in a, 
and ddksdyand hir- in c). The Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularities of a and b. 

3. The waters* brilliancy, light, force, and strength, also the heroic 
powers (viryd) of the forest trees, do we maintain in him, as in Indra 
Indra's powers {indriyd) ; this gold shall he, being capable, bear. 

The comm. explains ddksamdna in d by vardhamdna. Omission of the superfluous 
indriyini in c would rectify the meter ; the pada-XtxX marks the division wrongly before 
asm in instead of after it ; |_the Anukr. likewise reckons asmin to d and describes the 
pada as one of 14 syllables !J. 

4. With seasons of summers {) sdma)y of months, we [fill] thee, with 
the milk of the year I fill [thee] ; let Indra-and-Agni, let all the gods, 
approve thee, not bearing enmity. 

Emendation to tvd *ham at the end of a would rectify both meter and construction. 
Between c and d the pada-XtxX. wrongly resolves // *nu into //: dnu (as again at viii. 2.21), 
and the /^^-mss. put the sign of p2da division before instead of after te; apparently 
the Anukr. makes the true division |_after te^ accentlessj. The comm., too, understands 
//. The combination -this tvd is quoted as an example under Prat. ii. 84. 

The concluding anuvdka L6.J has again 7 hymns, with 31 verses ; and the quoted 
Anukr. of the mss. says ekddaqa co 'ttare pard syuh. 

Some of the mss. sum the whole book up correctly as 35 hymns, 153 verses. 
Here ends also the second prapdthaka. 

Book 11. 

[The second book is made up mostly of hymns of 5 verses each. 
It contains 22 such hymns, but also five hymns (namely, 3, 4, 14, 
15, and 32) of 6 verses each, five hymns (namely, 5, 17, 27, 29, and 
33) of 7 verses each, and four hymns (namely, 10, 12, 24, and 36) 
of 8 verses each. Compare page i. The possibilities of critical 
reduction to the norm are well illustrated by hymns 10, 12, 14, 
27; see, for example, the critical notes to ii. 10. 2. 

The whole book has been translated by Weber in the Monats- 
berichte der K'dn. Akad, der Wiss. zu Berlin^ June, 1870, pages 
462-524. This translation was reprinted, with only slight 
changes, in Indisclu Siudien, vol. xiii. (1873), pages 129-216. 
The following references to Weber have to do with the reprint.J 

I. Mystic. 

[ V^na. — brahmStmaddivatam. trdistubham : j. jagati.'\ 

Found in Paipp. ii., and parts of it in other texts, as pointed out under the several 
verses. LVon Schroeder gives what may be called a Katha-recension of nearly all of it 
in his TUbinger Katha-hss,, pp. 88, 89. J Used by Kau^. (37.3) in addressing various 
articles out of whose behavior afterward signs of success or the contrary, and the like 
oracular responses, are to be drawn (the comm. gives them in a more expanded detail). 
And Vait. (29. 14) applies vs. 3 in the upavasatha rite of the agnicayana. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 1 29 ; Ludwig, p. 393 ; Scherman, Philosophische Hymnen^ 
p. 82 ; Deussen, Geschichte^ i.» 253 ; Griffith, i. 41. 

I. Vena (the longing one }) saw that which is highest in secret, where 
everything becomes of one form ; this the spotted one {prfni) milked 
[when] born ; the heaven-(jt'^r-)knowing troops {vrd) have shouted at it. 

A bit of labored obscurity, like the verses that follow ; books iv. and v. begin simi- 
larly ; no attempt will be made here to solve the riddles. The comm. explains at great 
length (nine 4to pages), but evidently without any traditional or other understanding ; 
he guesses and etymologizes this way and that, giving in part wholly discordant alter- 
native interpretations. In this verse he first takes vt'na as = Aditya; and then, after a 
complete exposition on this basis, he says : yadvii : veftah parjanyHtmd madhyama- 
sth&no devah^ and gives another ; pr^ni to him is " the common name of sky and sun." 

The translation given implies emendation in c oijiyapftdnds to -nd ; but the epithet 
might belong to vris (so Ludwig and the comm.), or be the second object of aduhat 
(so Weber). The variants of the parallel versions of other texts make the impression 
(as often in other cases) of rather aimless stumbling over matters not understood. 


VS. (xxxii. 8) and TA. (x. 1.3) have the first half-verse : VS. reads in a paqyan nihitafh 
gHhd sddy and T K, pdqyan viqvd. bhiivandni vidvin; both have ^kanldam at end of b. 
The pratika is quoted in C^S. xv. 3.8, with the addition iti pafica^ apparently referring 
to this hymn. Ppp. has fadam ior guhd in a, ekanadam in b, dhenur for prqnis in c 
(with -nds at the end), and, for d, svarvido *bhyanuktir virdt. The phrase abhy dnil- 
sata vrah occurs also in RV. iv. i. i6d; Pischel {Ved, Stud. ii. 121 Land 321 J) takes 
vris to mean " women " ; the comm. etymologizes it as dvrtdttndnah prajdh. \Ql. 
RV. X. 123. 2. J 

2. May the Gandharva, knowing of the immortal, proclaim that high- 
est abode that is in secret ; three quarters {padd) of it [are] deposited in 
secret ; whoso knoweth them, he shall be the father's father. 

Ppp. begins with prthag (for pra tad)y and for amrtasya has -tafk na, probably 
intending the amftam nu of VS. (xxxii. 9) and TA. (x. i. 3-4 : TA. reads also voce). 
In b, TA. gives nama (for dhamd) ; and for paramdm TA. has nihitam^ and VS. 
vibhrtam^ while VS. ends with guhd sdt and TA. with guhdsu. In c, Ppp. and TA. 
givtpadi^ and Ppp. nihatd; and TA., this time with the concurrence of Ppp., ends the 
pada again with guhdsu. In d, TA. has tdd for tini^ and savMs for sd pitus^ while 
Ppp. gives vas for yas at the beginning. Prat. ii. 73 prescribes the combination 
pitus p- (in d), and both editions read it, though nearly all our samhitd-mss.f and part 
of SPP*s, read -tiih p- instead. To make a good tristubh pada, we must resolve pr-d 
at the beginning. |_Hillebrandt, Ved, Mythol. i. 433, discusses the verse. J 

3. He, of us the father, the generator, and he the connection {pdndhu)^ 
knoweth the abodes, the beings all ; who of the gods is the sole nomen- 
clator, of him all beings come to inquire. 

Here, as usual elsewhere |_cf. BR. iv. 1088, citations from TB., TS., AB.J, -praqnam 
is of infinitival value. Ppp. begins quite differently: sa no bandhur janitd sa vidhartd 
dhdrmani veda etc. ; its c, d are our 5 c, d, with variants for which see under vs. 5. 
VS. (xxxii. 10) and TA. (x. 1.4) have a verse made up like that of Ppp., differing 
from the latter in the first half only by having vidhdta and dhamdni. A corresponding 
verse in RV. (x. 82. 3) reads in a yds for sd and again for sd utd, accents of course 
v^da in b, and has ndmadhis in c and anya for sdrvd in d ; and with it agrees in all 
points VS. xvii. 27; while TS. (iv. 6. 2) and MS. (ii. 10.3) also follow it closely in a, 
C, d (MS. vidharta in a) but have a different b: yd nah said abhy a sdj jajana. Our 
O. has the RV. readings, vida in b and ndmadhis in c ; and the latter is given by the 
comm. and by nearly half of SPP's authorities; the latter's text, however, agrees with 
ours. The verse is no jagatl at all, but, if we make the frequent (RV.) combination 
s6 *td in c a perfectly regular tristubh. 

4. About heaven-and-earth at once I went; I approached (upa-stha) 
the first-born of righteousness (rtd)y abiding in beings as speech in the 
speaker ; eager (?) is he ; is he not Agni (fire) } 

Of this verse, only the first pada is found in VS. (xxxii. 12 a) and TA. (x. i. 4), VS. 
reading itva for dyam^ and TA. having at the end yanti sadydh. Ppp. has for first 
half pari viqvd bhuvandny dyam updcaste prathamajd rtasya^ and for d dhdsram 
nesana iveso agnih. The accus. vacant in c suggests emendation to -stham^ in apposi- 
tion yfit\i prathamajim ; but then the comm. agrees with Ppp. in reading instead -jds^ 


and emendation without any traceable sense to guide us is of no avail. The combina- 
tion bhuvanesthi (p. -ne^sthi) is noted under Prat. ii. 94. In the fiada-Xtxi of b is 
noted from our mss. no other reading than tipa: at is the; but S PP. gives lipa: dotisthe^ 
and reports no various readings ; as dotisthe (without any accent) is an impossible form 
\Skt. Gr, § 1083 ^J ^^^s is perhaps simply a blunder in his text; the comm., with a 
minority of SPP's mss., has -tisthet, 

5. Around all beings I went, the web (tdntu) of righteousness stretched 

out for beholding, where the gods, having attained immortality (amrta) 

bestirred themselves Qiraya-) upon the same place of union {ydni). 

The proper rendering of d is especially doubtful, but ddhi^ by its independent accent 
(which is established by Prat. iv. 5), is clearly only a strengthener of the locative sense 
of ydndu. In b, perhaps better * to behold the web ' etc. (the coram, absurdly explains 
the particle kdfn as sukhdtmakam brahmd). The second half-verse is, as noted above, 
found in VS., TA., and Ppp., combined into one verse with our 3 a, b; Ppp. has in it 
dnagdnd samdne dhdmann addhl ^^rayanta; VS. reads trfiye dhiman for our samdni 
ydndu; TA., trtiye dhimdny abhy dirayanta, Ppp. has as vs. 5 something quite 
different : for a, pari dydvdprthivl sadyd *yam (exchanging 4 a and 5 a : see under 4) ; 
for b, our own b ; for c, d devo devatvam abhiraksamdnas samdnam bandhum vipa^ 
ricchad ekah. The first pada requires the harsh resolution vi-qu-d to make it full \yiq' 
vdni would be easier J. 

2. To Gandharvas and Apsarases. 

\Mdtrndman. — gandharvSpsarodevatyam. trdistubham : i. virddjagatt ; 4, j-p. virdnndma- 

gdyatri ; j. bhuriganustubhJ\ 

Found in Paipp. i. (only in the ndj^arf copy). Called by K§U9. (8.24), with vi. in 
and viii. 6 (and the schol. add iv. 20 : see ib., note), md/r»dMdni * mother-names * (per- 
haps from the alleged author) ; they are employed in a remedial rite (26. 29 : ** against 
seizure by Gandharvas, Apsarases, demons etc.'* coram.), and several times (94. 15; 
95. 4; 96. 4 ; loi. 3 ; 114. 3 ; 136. 9) in charms against various portents {adbhuidni). 
And verse i is allowed by Vait. (36. 28) to be used in the aqvamedha sacrifice as alter- 
native for one given in its text (27). Further, the coram, quotes the mdtrndman hymns 
from the Qanti Kalpa (16) as accompanying an offering in the sacrifice to the planets 
{grahayajBd) ; and from the Naks. Kalpa (23) in the tantrabhutd mahdgdnti. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 133; Griffith, i. 42; verses 3-5 also by Weber, Abh, Ber- 
/inerAkad.iSsSy p. 350 (= Omina undPortentd). — Cf. Hillebrandt, Ved, MythoL i. 433. 

1 . The heavenly Gandharva, who is lord of being (bhuvand)^ the only 
one to receive homage, to be praised (id) among the clans (viq) — thee 
being such I ban i^yu) with incantation, O heavenly god ; homage be to 
thee ; in the heaven is thy station. 

Ppp. reads in c deva divya. The comra. understands ydumi in c as "join'* {sam- 
yojaydmi) LBR. vi. 138, *festhalten ' J : RV. i. 24. 11 a, tdt tvd ydmi brdhmand^ sug- 
gests eraendation. The combination /rtj /- in a is by Prat. ii. 70. 

2. Touching the sky, worshipful, sun-skinned, dcprecator of the seizure 
(Jidras) of the gods — gracious shall be the Gandharva*, who is lord of 
being, the only one to receive homage, very propitious. 


Ppp. begins with diva sprsto, and inverts the order of c and d. The comm. explains 
suryatvac by siiryasamdnavarna^ and haras by krodha. The Anukr. does not heed 
that c is ^jagatl pada. 

3. He hath united himself (sam-gam) with those irreproachable 
ones (f.) ; in (dpi) among the Apsarases was the Gandharva ; in the ocean 
is, they tell me, their seat, whence at once they both come and go. 

Ppp. combines yVi^/!v J **bhih in a, and has in b apsardbhis for -rdsu; its second half- 
verse reads thus: samudrd sam sadanam &hus tatas sadyd updcaryanti. Weber 
takes sam jagme in a as ist sing. The comm. gives two diverse explanations of the 
verse, the first taking the Gandharva as the sun and the Apsarases as his rays. 

4. O cloudy one, gleamer (didyit)^ starry one — ye that accompany 
(sac) the Gandharva Vi^vavasu, to you there, O divine ones, homage do 
I pay. 

All those addressed are in the feminine gender, i.e. Apsarases. Ppp. has namditu 
for natna it in c. The Anukr. |_if we assume that its name for the meter (as at i. 2. 3 ; 
iv. 16. 9) means ii + ii + iij passes without notice the deficiency of two syllables in a. 

5. They that are noisy, dusky, dice-loving, mind-confusing — to those 
Apsarases, that have the Gandharvas for spouses, have I paid homage. 

Ppp. reads in a tdmis-, and two of our mss. (P.M.) give the same. Ppp. has also 
aksikdmds in b. Our W.I. combine -bhyo akaram in d. The verse is not bhurij (as 
the Anukr. calls it), but a regular anustubh. On account of the epithet " dice-loving " 
in b, Weber calls thewhole hymn " Wiirfelsegen " (* a blessing for dice '). 

3. For relief from flux: with a certain remedy. 

\Angiras. — sadrcam, bhdisajydyurdhanvantariddivatam, dnustubham : 6. j-p. svardduparis- 

tdnmahdbrhatl, 1 

This hymn in Piipp. also follows the one that precedes it here ; but in Paipp. vss. 3 
and 6 are wanting, and 4 and 5 are made to change places ; and vs. i is defaced. Kaug. 
employs it only once (25.6), in a healing rite for various disorders and wounds (jva- 
rdtlsdrdtimHtranddfvranesUy comm.), with i. 2. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 1 38 ; Ludwig, p. 507 ; Grill, 1 7, 79 ; Griffith, i. 43 ; Bloom- 
field, 9, 277. 

I. What runs down yonder, aiding (.^), off the mountain, that do I 
make for thee a remedy, that thou mayest be a good remedy. 

At the end, dsati would be a very acceptable emendation : * that there may be.' 
Avatkd (p. avatokdm : quoted in the comment to Prat. i. 103; ii. 38; iv. 25) is 
obscure, but is here translated as from the present participle of root av (like ejatkd^ 
V. 23. 7 Lcf. abhimddyatkd, <^B., viksinatkd, VS.J) ; this the comm. favors (vyddhi- 
Parihdrena raksakam) ; Ppp. has in another passage twice avatakam (but evidently 
meant for avatkam : avatakam mama bhesajam avatakam parivdcanam). In a, our 
P.M. read -dhavasi. 


2. Now then, forsooth ! how then, forsooth } what hundred remedies 
are thine, of them art thou the chief (uUamd), free from flux, free from 
disease {drogana), 

\Ti\^me^ are mine * is an almost necessary emendation. Yet Ppp. also has te : ddangdq 
qatatk yad bhe^ajdni te sahasram vd ca ydni te; and, in d, arohanam; cf. also vi. 44. 2. 
The obscure first pada is here translated as if uttered exclamatorily, perhaps accompanying 
some act or manipulation. Asrdva is rendered by the indefinite term * flux,* its specific 
meaning being uncertain ; it is associated with roga also in i. 2. 4 ; the comm. explains 
it as atls&r&timutran&dlvran&dL |_Cf. Zimmer, p. 392. J 

3. The Asuras dig low down this great wound-healer; that is the 
remedy of flux ; that has made the disease (rdgd) disappear. 

The pada-KtxX in b is aruhosrinam^ and the word is quoted under Pr§t ii. 40 as an 
example of the assimilation of a final h to an initial sibilant ; there can be no question, 
therefore, that the proper reading is arussrina or aruhsrina; yet the abbreviated 
equivalent (see my Skt, Gram, § 232 a) arusrdna is found in nearly all the mss., 
both here and in vs. 5, and SPP. adopts it in his text. The comm. gives two discord- 
ant explanations of the word : vranasya pdkasthdnam vranamukham |_* place where 
it gets ripe or comes to a head * ?J, and aruh srdyati fiakvam bhavaty anena. At the 
end, the comm. has a^lqamat (as our text in 4 d). 

4. The ants {upaftkd) bring up the remedy from out the ocean ; that 
is the remedy of flux ; that has quieted (^am) the disease. 

The comm. explains upajtkds as valmlkanispddikd vamryaK; Ppp. has instead 
upacfkds; elsewhere is found upadikd (see Bloomfield in A J P. vii. 482 ff., where the 
word is ably discussed) ; Lcf. also Pali upacikd\. The Ppp. form, upacfkd^ indicates 
a possible etymology, from upa + ci ; Ppp. says in book vi. : yasyd bhQmyd upaclkd 
(m%. -kdd) grham krHvatd^^tmane: tasyds te vi^vadhdyaso visadQsanam ud bhare. 
The earth which ants make their high nests of, and which contains their moisture, has 
always been used as having remedial properties. The ** ocean '* here (cf. udaka in vi. 
100. 2), if not merely a big name for the reservoir of water beneath the surface, is a 
tank or pool. Ppp. has an independent second half-verse : aruspdnam asy dtharvano 
rogasthdnam asy dtharvanam, 

5. This is a great wound-healer, brought up from out the earth; that 
is the remedy of the flux ; that has made the disease disappear. 

Ppp. reads aruspdnam (or -syd-) in a, and in b prthivyd *bky, 

6. Weal be to us the waters, propitious the herbs ; let Indra's thun- 
derbolt smite away the demoniacs {raksds) ; far away let the discharged 
arrows of the demoniacs fly. 

In a all the mss. read apds^ which SPP. rightly retains in his text ; other examples 
of the use of this accusative form as nominative occur in the text (see the Index Verba- 
rum) ; the comm. has dpas, as our edition by emendation. We may safely regard this 
unmetrical ** verse " as a later addition to the hymn ; so far as regards the number of 
syllables (12 : 12 + 14 = 38), it is correctly described by the Anukr., as the name mahd- 
brhatl is elsewhere used in the latter, but apparently by no other similar treatise. 


4. Against various evils: with a jangidi amulet. 

[AtAarvaM. — sadrcam, cdndramasam uta jangidadevatdkam. dntistubham : i.virdt 

proitdrapahkH, ] 

Found also (except vs. 6 and parts of i and 2) in Paipp. ii. Accompanies in Kau^. 
(42.23) the binding on of an amulet "as described in the \axV^ (Jtimantroktam)^ 
against various evils (the comm. says, " for thwarting witchcraft, for protecting one's 
self, for putting down hindrances "). 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 140; Griffith, i. 45; Bloomfield, 37, 280; in part also by 
Grohmann, Ind. Stud. ix. 417-418. — As to th^ jangida^ see Zimmer, p. 65 ; also Weber 
and Grohmann, 11. cc. 

1. In order to length of life, to great joy, we, taking no harm, all the 
time capable {daks), bear Xh^jangidd, the viskand/ui'SipoWmg amulet. 

Ppp. has I a, b with 2 c, d as its first verse ; very possibly the two half-verses 
between have fallen out in the ms. ; it has in b rsyambho rksamdnd (for raks-) s-. The 
comm. has raksamdnds also; it is the better reading. The comm. gives no further 
identification of jangida than that it is " a kind of tree '* (adding vdrdnasj^dm prasid- 
dhah, * familiarly known at Benares M) ; he defines viskandha in the same manner as 
above, to i. 16. 3. 

2. From jambhdy from vifard, from v/sJtandAa, from scorching (adAi- 
(Scand), let the jahgidd^ the amulet of thousand-fold valiance {•■vtryd)^ 
protect us about on every side. 

Jambhd is perhaps * convulsion,* or lockjaw; at Ppp. xi. 2. 10 it is mentioned with 
hanugraha; below, at viii. 1. 16, it is called satnhanu ^jaw-closing*; the comm. gives 
two discordant and worthlessly indefinite explanations. Viqard should signify some- 
thing crushing or tearing to pieces ; Ppp. xi. 2. 3 names it with vijrmbha; the comm. 
says qarlraviqarandt, Ppp. has of this verse (see under vs. i) only the second half, 
and combines manis sahasravlryas pari nas p-. 

3. This one overpowers the viskandha ; this drives off the devourers ; 

let \ki\% jahgidd, possessing all remedies, protect us from distress. 

The first half -verse we had above as i. 16. 3 a, b, with iddm for ay dm, Ppp. begins 
this time also with idam, has sdte {mdte f) for sahaie, and for b reads ay am rakso *pa 
bddhate; it gives viskandham with our text. 

4. With the amulet given by the gods, the kindly jangidd^ we over- 
power in the struggle (vydydmd) the viskandha [and] all demons. 

Ppp. reads for d dhydyase sdmahe. The comm. explains vydydme first by samca- 
rane, and then by satkcaranapradeqe. 

5. Let both the hemp and they*^^^'^ defend me from the viskandha: 

the one brought from the forest, the other from the juices (rdsd) of 


That is, from cultivated ground. The " hemp " is doubtless, as the comm. defines 
it, that of the string by which the amulet is bound on. Ppp. has at the beginning kha- 
naq ca tvdja-; and its second half -verse is corrupted into aranydd abhy dbhrtas krsyd 
*nyo rasebhyah. 


6. Witchcraft-spoiling is this amulet, likewise niggard-spoiling ; like- 
wise shall the powerful ytfw^iVjW prolong our life-times. 

The absence of this verse in Ppp. indicates that the hymn originally consisted of 
five verses, in accordance with the norm of the book. The verse is very nearly xix. 
34.4. Emendation to ardtidusanas (as in xix.) in b would rectify the meter; the 
Anukr. takes no notice of its irregularity. At the end, two of our mss. (E.I.) and 
three of SPP's read idrsat, [¥ot his sdhasvdn, see note to i. 19. 4. J 

5. Praise and prayer to India. 

[BkrgM Atkarvana. — sapiarcam, dindram, trdistubham: t^a.uparistdd brhatt (i. nicrt ; 

2. virdj) ; j. virdtpaikydbrkati ; 4. jagati purcvirdj.'] 

Verses i, 3, and 4 are found in P&ipp. ii., and 5-7 elsewhere in its text (xiii.). 
Verses 1-3 occur also in SV. (ii. 302-4) and CCS. (ix. 5.2); and the first four verses 
form part of a longer hymn in A^S. (vi. 3. i). KB. (xvii. i) quotes by way of pratika 
vs. I a, b (in their SV. and CQS. form), and speaks of the peculiar structure of the 
verses, as composed of twenty-five syllables, with nine syllables interpolated (three at 
the end of each of the first three five-syllabled padas) : cf. Roth, Ueb. d, AV., 1856, 
p. II if., and Weber, notes to his translation. At TB. ii. 4. 3*0 may be found RV. x. 
96. I treated in a somewhat similar way (four syllables prefixed to each j'a^a/hpsidz) ; 
the first five verses of RV. x.77 itself are another example ; Lyet others are AV. vii. 
14(15). 1,2; V.6. 4a,c; RV. i. 70. 11 as it appears at AQS. vi.3. i; cf. further RV. 
X. 21, 24, 25 J. |_I suspect that these interpolations were used as antiphonal responses. J 

The hymn is used once in Kkuq, (59. 5), among the kdmya rites, or those intended 
to secure the attainment of various desires; it is addressed to Indra, by one desiring 
strength {balakdmd). In V&it. (16. 11), it (not vs. i only, according to the comm.) 
accompanies an oblation to Soma in the agnistoma sacrifice, and again (25. 14) a soiia- 
^igraha. And the comm. quotes it from Naks. Kalpa 17 and 18, in a mahdqdnti to 
Indra. None of these uses has about it anything special or characteristic. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 143; Griffith, i. 46. — Verses 5-7 discussed, Lanman*s 
Reader^ p. 360-1. 

I. O Indra, enjoy thou — drive on ; — come, O hero — with thy two 
bays ; — drink of the pressed [soma] — intoxicated here — loving the 
sweet [draught], fair one, unto intoxication. 

Ppp. omits the three interpolations (as Weber reports certain Sutra-works to assert 
of the Atharvan texts in general), and reads indra jusasva ydhi qiira pibd sutaq (a 
madhoq cakdna cdrum madathah. The second interpolation in AQS. is harl iha^ 
apparently to be read as harl *ha, for which then SV. and QQS. give the senseless 
hdriha. The third, in all the three other texts, is matir nd ('like a wise one'?) ;-the 
translation above implies the heroic (or desperate) emendation of maU'r ihd to mattd 
ihd (to be read matti */id) ; Weber conjectures fttdder ha, A(^'S. and Q'^S. have the 
older madhvas for madhos. The comm. has no notion of the peculiar structure of 
these verses : as, indeed, he has no phraseology in his vocabulary to suit such a case ; 
he explains mates first as manattfyasya^ then as medhdvinas ; and cakdnas as either 
iarpayan or stiiyamdnas. The Anukr. implies that the second half-verse scans as 
84-11 syllables, instead of 9 -f 10. 


2. O Indra, [thy] belly — like one to be praised — fill thou with the 
sweet [draught] — like the heavens — with this soma — like the sky 
(svdr) — ; unto thee have gone the well-voiced intoxications. 

The omission of this verse in Ppp. is perhaps only an accidental one, due to the 
scribe. The first interpolation in the other texts is ndvyam nd; to get a sense, Weber 
boldly emends to ndvyam na * like [the hold] of a vessel * ; the comm. explains by 
niltanas (anend ^^dardtiqaya uktah ! ), taking no heed of the accent — which, however, 
requires to be changed to ndvyas^ whichever sense be given it ; perhaps nadyb nd * like 
streams,' would be most acceptable. In the third interpolation, SV. combines svdr nd 
and AQ!S. CQS. svdr nd; and the mss. vary between the two; our edition reads the 
former, with the majority of our mss.; SPP. has the latter, with the majority of his ; one 


or two of ours corrupt to svdr md *pa. The three other texts have at the end asthus. 
The comm. takes divds as gen., supplying amrtena to govern it ; and he takes svdr as 
of locative value. The Anukr. scans the verse as8 + 8:8-f 10 = 34 syllables. 

3. Indra, a swiftly-overcoming friend, who slew Vritra — like moving 
[streams] — , [who] split Vala — like Bhrgu — , who overpowered his foes 
in the intoxication of soma. 

The translation follows closely our text, though this, as the other versions show, is 
badly corrupted in a, b, even to the partial effaCement of the first interpolation. The 
others read accordantly : indras turdsan mitrd nd jaghana vrtrdtk ydtir nd; omx yatir 
may possibly be meant iox ydtln *as he did the Yatis.' The comm. explains ^^/ir first 
as dsuryah prajdh, then as parivrdjakdh. Ppp. agrees with the other texts, only 
omitting the interpolations: indras turdsdd jaghdna vrtram; it then omits the third 
pada, and goes on thus : sasdhd qatrUn mamuq ca : vajrir made somasya. All the 
AV. mss. read sasahe, unaccented, and SPP. admits this into his text; our edition 
makes the necessary emendation to sasahd |_in some copies (and so the Index Verba- 
rum) ; in others the accent-mark has slipped to th^ right J ; the other texts rectify the meter 
by reading sasdhd (our O. agrees with them as regards the d). Words of verses 2 and 
3 are quoted in the Prat, comment, but not in a way to cast any light upon the 
readings. LSPP., with most of his authorities and our Op., reads valdm.] The metrical 
definition of the Anukr. is of course senseless ; it apparently implies the division 
9 + 7 ; 8 4- 10 = 34 syllables. 

4. Let the pressed [somas] enter thee, O Indra ; fill thy (two) paunches ; 
help, O mighty one ! for our prayer {dki) come to us ; hear [my] call, 
enjoy my songs ; hither, O Indra, with self-harnessed [steeds] ; revel 
here unto great joy. 

This verse is really, as AQ!S. plainly shows, made up of two like the preceding three, 
of five five-syllabled padas each, but without interpolations. The first half-verse is 
vs. 5 in AQS., where it reads thus: d tvd viqantu kavir na sutdsa indra tvastd na : 
prnasva kuksl soma nd ^vidhdhi qilra dhiyd hiydnah. Of the two versions of the last 
pada, that of A^S. is doubtless the original, though ours (the pada has dhiyi i ihi a 
nah) is ingenious enough to give a fair sense ; the reading dhiyihi is authenticated by the 
Prat, comment, which quotes it more than once (to iii. 38; iv. 11 3-1 15). The trans- 
lation implies the restoration of aviddhi^ as the only true reading |_namely, an aorist 
imperative from av — see Ski, Gram,* § 908 J ; the mss. all read vidhdhiy which SPP's 


edition as well as ours properly emends to viddhL |_My copy of the printed text reads 
vidhdhi; but Whitney's Index Verborum and his Roots^ Verb-forms^ etc. have viddhi^ 
under v/'/.J The comm. reads xtrddhi^ explaining it by vardhaya! The second half- 
verse is rather more altered in its AV. version ; in AQS. (as vs. 4), with the interpo- 
lations, it runs thus : qrudhl havam na indro na giro jusasva vajrl na : indra sayug- 
bhir didyun na matsvd maddya make randya. Ppp. has only this half-verse (without 
the interpolations), reading thus : gruti hava me kiro jusasya indrasya gtibhir matsa 
maddya make randya. The Anukr. would doubtless have us divide 10 -f 13 : 10 4- 13 
= 46 syllables. |_As to vidhdhi^ see notes to Pr&t i. 94. Accent of mdtsva^ Gram. 
§628.J / * 

We may conjecture that the hymn originally ended here, as one of five verses ; the 
appended three verses that follow are of a wholly other character. A^S. adds one 
more verse, which is RV. i. 70. 11, with similar interpolations after each of its four 
five-syllabled p&das. 

5. Now will I proclaim the heroisms of Indra, which first he of the 
thunderbolt {vajrin) did ; he slew the dragon {dhi) ; he penetrated to 
the waters ; he split [forthj the bellies {vaksdnd) of the mountains. 

Verses 5-7 are RV. i. 32. 1-3; and found also in TB. (ii. 5.4**'); vss. 5 and 6 
further in MS. iv. 14. 13, and vs. 5 in SV. (i. 613) : in these texts without any variant 
from the RV. reading ; they all have in 5 a prd^ and put vfryhni before it Ppp. also 
offers no variants from our text SPP. reads pri in a, with all the mss. Lexcept our O.J, 
and our text should have done the same. The comm. renders dnu in c by iadanan* 
taramy and tatarda by jihihsa / also vaksdnds in d by nadyas* 

6. He slew the dragon that had resorted {(ri) to the mountain ; Tvash- 
tar fashioned for him the whizzing {}) thunderbolt ; like lowing kine, 
flowing {syaud), at once the waters went down to the ocean. 

The text is precisely the same as in the other passages. The comm. explains svaryd 
as susthu preranlya (from su + root r), and iataksa as tlksnam cakdra! 

7. Acting like a bull, he chose the soma ; he drank of the pressed 
[draught] in the trikadrukas ; the bounteous one (maghdvan) took his 
missile thunderbolt ; he slew that first-born of dragons. 

RV. (and TB.) combines in a -no ^vrnlta^ and some of the mss. (including our O.) 
do the same. The comm. understands the trikadrukas as the three abhiplava days. 
|_For d, rather, < smote him, the first-bom of dragons.' The difference is, to be sure, 
only a rhetorical one.J 

• In the first anuvdka^ ending here, are included 5 hymns, of 29 verses; the old 
Anukr. says : pahcarcddye (i.e. ♦ in the first division of the s-verse book ') vihqatch syur 
navo **rdhvam, 

6. Praise and prayer to Agni. 

[(^dunaka (sampatkdmah). — dgntyam. trdistubham : 4. 4-p. drsl pankti ; 

J. vitdtprastdra/>anktiJ] 

Found in Paipp. iii. ; also in VS. (xxvii. i , 2, 3, 5, 6), TS. (iv. i . 7), and MS.(ii. 1 2. 5). 
Used by K&uq., with vii. 82, in a kdmya rite for success (sampad^ 59. 15) ; and also, in 


the chapter of portents, alone, in one against bad years (samds), Vait. has it in the 
agnicayana ceremony (28. 4), at the beginning, and a little later (28. 10) vs. 3 alone, on 
depositing the lump of earth on a lotus-leaf. The comm. quotes it from the Naks. K. 
(17 and 18), in a mah&qUnti called dgneyt; and, from Pari^ista 7.2, vs. 5 (with vii. 35), 
in a nightly rite. LObserve (note to vs. 3) that Ppp. agrees with the Yajus-texts and 
Kauq. in associating our vii. 82 with this hymn. J 
Translated: Weber, xiii. 146; Griffith, i.48. 

1. Let the summers (sdmd), O Agni, the seasons, increase thee, the 
years, the seers, what things are true; shine thgu with the heavenly 
bright space {rocand) ; illuminate (a-bha) all the four directions. 

TS. reads at the end prthivyis (for cdtasras), Ppp. has for b samvatsara rsayo 
yd nu sakhyd, and in c gives dyumnena for divyina. The comm. glosses satnas by 
samvatsards, \\i the translation implies that rocandna is an instr. of accompaniment, 
it is less apposite than Mr. Whitney^s earlier version, * shine together with heavenly 
brightness * — which I take to be Agni's own (cf. RV. x. 4. 2). His brightness is nil 
by day-time. The " together " were better left out. J 

2. Both do thou become kindled, Agni, and do thou increase this 
man, and arise unto great good fortune ; let not thine attendants {upa- 
sattdr) be harmed, O Agni ; be thy worshipers (brahmdri) glorious, not 

The other texts are in accordance in reading bodhaya (for vardhayd) in a, and Ppp. 
nearly agrees with them, having prati bodhaye *nam; for c the others give ma ca risad 
upasatti te agne. 

3. Thee, O Agni, do these Brahmans choose ; be propitious to us, O 
Agni, in the [sacrificial] enclosure {} samvdrana) ; rival-slayer, Agni, 
conqueror of hostile plotters, be thou ; watch unremitting over thine own 

MS. has the same text ; the two others give a slightly different c : sapatnaha no 
abhimdtijic ca, Ppp. has for b qivo *gne prabhrno nedihi^ and for d sve ksa dldihy 
aprayuchanj it then inserts, before vs. 4, our vii. 82. 3 ; and it is very noteworthy that 
the three Yajus-texts do the same. The comm. renders samvarane bhava by vidyamd- 
nasyd *pi pramddasya satkchddane vartasva *hide any oversight of ours.* The 
Anukr. passes without notice the two/^^^/^padas in the verse. 

4. Take hold of thine own dominion (ksatrd)^ Agni ; with [thy] friend, 
Agni, strive {yaf) in friendly wise ; [as one] of midmost station among 
[his] fellows {sajdtd), [as one] to be severally invoked of kings, Agni, 
shine thou here. 

VS. TS. read sviyus for svdna in a, and all the three parallel texts have mitradhiye 
(for -dha) in b, while Ppp. gives miiradheyam, and the comm. -dhds. In c, VS. TS. 
fill out the meter by adding edhi after -sthd; MS. has instead -sthiydya^ Ppp. -stheha 
masyd, Ppp. also has vacasva at end of b. The three other texts accent vihavyds in d. 
The comm. joins rdjHdm to what precedes, and sagely points out that Brahmans are 


Ag^i*s < fellows * because, like him, born from the mouth of Brahman, and hence that 
sajdta here means Br&hmans. The metrical definition of the verse (ii + ii :8 + ii 
= 41) is wholly artificial and bad. 

5. Over enviers, over delinquents, over the thoughtless, over haters, — 
verily all difficult things, O Agni, do thou cross ; then mayest thou g^ve 
us wealth accompanied with heroes. 

The translation implies emendation of the impossible nihds to niddsj the comm. 
shows his usual perverse ingenuity by giving two different etymologies of nihas^ from 
ni + han and from ni + hd; neither of them is worse than the other. The three 
parallel texts all have nihas^ Ppp. nuhas. Both editions read sfdhas^ but it is only a 
common error of the mss., putting r for n' ; nearly half of SPP^s mss. (though none of 
ours) have the true reading sridhas^ which is that also of VS. and TS. (MS. sfdhas). 
In c all the pada-mss, present the absurd reading viqvdh; and nearly all the mss. 
leave tar a unaccented, in spite of hi^ and both printed texts leave it so, although three 
of SPP's mss. have correctly tdra^ as also MS.; VS. and TS. give sdhasva for tara 
tvam^ and Ppp. has cara tvam. For a, b, Ppp. has ati nuho *ti ninrtlr aty ardtlr 
ati dvisahj for b, VS. TS. *ty dcittim dty drdtim agne^ and MS. dty dcittim dti nirrtim 
adyd. The comm. explains sridhas by dehaqosakdn rogdn. In the metrical definition 
of the verse, prastdra- must be a bad reading for dsidra-, 

7. Against curses and cursers: with a plant. 

[Atharvan. — bhdisajydyurvanaspatiddivatyam, dnustubham : t. bhurij ; 4.virdd- 

uparistddbrhaH. ] 

Not found in P&ipp. Used with other hymns (ii. 25 ; vi. 85, etc.) in a healing rite 
(KSuq. 26. 33-35) for various evils, and accompanying especially (ib. 35) the binding 
on of an amulet And the comm. reports the hymn as employed by Naks. Kalpa (17, 19) 
in a mahd^dnti called bhdrgavl. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 148; Ludwig, p. 508; Grill, 24,81 ; Griffith, i.49; Bloom- 
field, 91, 285. 

1. Hated by mischief, god-bom, the curse-eflfacing plant hath washed 
away from me all curses, as waters do filth. 

Ap. (vi. 20. 2) has a verse much like this : atharvyustd devajQtd vtdu ^apathajam- 
bhanlh : dpo malam iva prd *nijann asmat su qapathdh adBi, The comm. explains 
-yopant in c Ldiscussed by Bloomfield, AJP. xii. 421J as vimohanl nivdrayiirl. The 
comm. states dUrvd (^panicum dactylon) to be the plant intended, and the Anukr. also 
says dUrvdm astdut. In our edition read in d mdchapd- (an accent-sign slipped out of 
place). The Anukr. refuses this time to sanction the not infrequent contraction mdlam 
*va in c. 

2. Both the curse that is a rival's, and the curse that is a sister's, what 
a priest {? ira/imdn) from fury may curse — all that [be] underneath 
our feet. 

Sdpatnd perhaps here ♦ of a fellow wife,' zr\6.jdmyas perhaps * of a near female rela- 
tive* ; the comm. explains yVfxw/ as "sister, but connoting one's fellows {sahajdta).^^ 


3. From the sky [is] the root stretched down, from off the earth 
stretched up; with this, thousand-jointed {-kdnda), do thou protect us 
about on all sides. 

Compare xix. 32.3, where dardAa-grsLSS is the plant similarly described and used. 

4. Protect me about, my progeny, [and] what riches are ours ; let not 

the niggard get the better (/r) of us ; let not hostile plotters get the better 

of us. 

Our text reads at the beginning /Jr/" *mim, with the majority of our mss. (only P.p.m. 
W.K.Kp. are noted as not doing so) ; hyxi pdri mam, which SPP. gives, and which all 
his authorities, as reported by him, support, is doubdess better, and the translation 
follows it. Two of our mss. (H.K.), with one of SPP's, give ardtir no m- in c. The 
irregular meter of the verse (8 + 8: 7 + 10 = 33) is very ill described by the Anukr. 
LThe avasdna of c is put after tdrlt; but the accent of tdrisus marks that as the initial 
of d. RV. ix. 1 14. 4 suggests that our c is in disorder. J 

5. Let the curse go to the curser ; our [part] is along with him that is 

friendly (suhdrd) ; of the eye-conjurer {-mdntra)^ the unfriendly, we crush 

in the ribs {prsfi). 

Nearly all our mss. (except P.M.K.), and part of SPP*s, read in b suhit; many 
also have in d prsthts, but the distinction of // and sth is not clearly made in any of 
the mss. The comm. takes caksus and mantrasya in c as two independent words. 
LSee Griffith's note, and mine to xix. 45. 2.J 

8. Against the disease ksetriyi: with a plant. 

\Bhrgvangiras, — vdnaspatyam ; yaksmandfanaddtvatam. dnustubham : j. pathydpankti ; 

4. virdj ; J. nicrtpathydpahkti.'\ 

Verse i occurs in Paipp. i. It is reckoned (Kauq. 26. i, note) to the takmandqana 
gana, and is used in a healing ceremony (against kuldgatakusthaksayagrahanyddirogdSy 
comm.), accompanying various practices upon the diseased person, which are evidently 
rather adapted to the words of the text than represented by them (26.41-27.4), and, 
according to the comm., are rather alternative than to be performed successively. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 149; Ludwig, p. 513 ; Griffith, i. 50; Bloomfield, 13, 286. 

I. Arisen are the (two) blessed stars called the Unfasteners (vicrt) ; let 
them unfasten {vi-muc) of the ksetriyd the lowest, the highest fetter. 

The disease ksetriyd (lit*ly, * of the field ') is treated elsewhere, especially in iii. 7 
(mentioned also in ii. 10 ; 14. 5 ; iv. 18. 7). The comm. defines it here as ksetre fara- 
ksetre putrapdutrddiqarlre cikitsyah (quoting for this interpretation Pan. v. 2. 92) 
ksayakusthddidosadusitapitrmdtrddiqarlrdvayavebhya dgatah ksayakusthdpasmdrd- 
dirogah — apparently an infectious disorder, of various forms, appearing in a whole 
family, or perhaps endemic. The name vicrtdu * the two unfasteners ' is given later to 
the two stars in the sting of the Scorpion (X and v Scorpionis : see Siirya-Siddhdnta, 
note to viii. 9), and there seems no good reason to doubt that the^^ are the ones here 
intended ; the selection of two so inconspicuous is not any more strange than the appeal 
to stars at all ; the comm. identifies them with Mula, which is the asterism composed 
of the Scorpion's tail. The verse is nearly identical with iii. 7. 4, and its first half is vi. 


121. 3 a, b. Ppp. has for c, d suksetriyasya muHcat&fh samgranthya hrdayasya ca. 
|_** Their [the two stars'] healing virtue would doubtless be connected with the meteoro- 
logical conditions of the time at which their heliacal rbing takes place." — SHrya- 
siddhdnta^ l.c., p. 33 7. J 

2. Let this night fade away (apa'Vas)\ let the bewitchers (f., abhikrt- 
van) fade away ; let the isetriyd-QS^cing {-ndfana) plant fade the ksetriyd 

The night at time of dawn is meant, says the comm. (doubtless correctly). He 
gives two renderings of abhikrtvarU 7 one, from root kr, abhito roga^dntim kurvdndk, 
the other from krt * cut,' kartana^lldh piqdcyah. According to K&U9. the hymn accom- 
panies a dousing with prepared water outside the house {Ibahis) ; with this verse it is 
to be done at the end of the night 

3. With the straw of the brown, whitish-jointed barley for thee, with 

the sesame-stalk () -pifijl) of sesame, let the ifetriyd'eSsicing etc. etc. 

The comm. understands arjuna- ip a as a tree so named : <* with a splinter of it " ; 
tilapihjlysk to him tilasahitamahjarL With this verse " what is mentioned in the text'* 
is directed by K&U9. (26. 43) to be bound on, and also (so the comm. understands the 
connection) a clod of earth and stuff from an ant-hill etc. 

4. Homage to thy ploughs (ldhgala\ homage to thy poles-and-yokes : 
let the ksetriyd'tSdicing etc. etc. 

Comm. makes IdRgala = vrsabhayuktaslra : " homage to the specified parts of the 
plough or to the divinities of them." With this verse, he says, the sick person is put 
underneath an ox-harnessed plough for his dousing (KSu^. <* with his head under a 
plough-yoke "). Some allusion to the name of the disease as coming from ** field " is 
perhaps intended. The Anukr. strangely forbids the resolution -bhi-as in a and b. 

5. Homage to them of constantly falling eyes, homage to them of the 
same region ( ? samdegyd), homage to the lord of the field : let the ksetriyd- 
effacing etc. etc. 

With this verse, according to K&uq. (27. 2-4) the patient is put in an empty house 
((anyafd/d), and further in an old hole (Jaratkhdtd) that has housegrass (j^dldtrna) in 
it, and is there doused and mouth-rinsed. In accordance with this, the comm. declares 
janisrasdksis to signify " empty houses," as having their round windows (gavdksa) 
and other openings in a state of dilapidation. He reads in b samdeqebhyas, making it 
mean «« old holes " {jaradgarid)^ because samdiqyante tyajyante tadgatamrddddnena 
— which is hardly intelligible ; and both words are of obscure meaning. In a charm 
against all sorts of hurtful beings, Ppp. (vi.3.4) reads as follows: abhihastam sarl- 
srpam bhrastdksam mrdvangulim, and ddsagranthyam sdnisrasam ud ranye dangd- 
rusyam tdm. In this verse again, -bhyas in b is read as one syllable by the Anukr. 
LSPP. divides the verse after samdtqyibhyah with most of his mss. ; but three of them 
make avasdna after pdtaye, Comm. and all five translators take sani- as a possessive 
compound (sanisrasd + aksdn) : accent, Gram,* § 1298. b, end. J 


9. Against possession by demons: with an amulet. 

[Bhrgvangiras. — vdnaspatyam ; yaksmandfanaddivatam, dnustubham : /. virdtpra- 


Found in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order i, 5, 4, 2, 3). Reckoned, like the next pre-^ 
ceding and the next following hymn, to the takmand^ana gana (Kauq. 26.1, note), 
and made (27. 5, 6) to accompany the binding on of an amulet composed of splinters 
(from ten different trees : the comm.), being muttered by ten friends who lay hands on 
the patient. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 153 ; Ludwig, p. 506 ; Grill, 8, 82 ; Griffith, i. 51 ; Bloom^ 
field, 34, 290. — Cf. Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel^ p. 137. 

1. O thou of ten trees, release this man from the demon, from the 
seizure {grdhi) that hath seized him in the joints ; then, O forest tree, con- 
duct him up to the world of the living. 

The first half-verse is quite different in Ppp. : daqavrkso satk ce *mam akinsro grd- 
hydq ca. The comm. takes parvan in b as either the joints of the body or those of 
the month, new and full moon. The Anukr. scans the verse as io-fi2: 8-1-8 = 38, 
making the first pada-division after raksasas (and the pada-mss, so mark it) ; but it is 
rather a TtgvXas pankti^ with the easy resolution muHca imam in a. 

2. This man hath come, hath arisen, hath gone unto the troop {vrdta) 
of the living ; he hath become of sons the father and of men {nr) the 
most fortunate. 

Ppp. has in c abhUta (for abhUd »), and in d nfndm, |_Pronounce a agdd,\ 

3. He hath attained {adhi-gd) attainments; he hath attained (adhu 

gam) the strongholds {-purd) of the living; for a hundred healers are his, 

also a thousand plants. 

The 'attainments* (adhtti), according to the comm., are the Vedas and objects 
formerly learned (adhud)^ and now, by restored health, recovered to memory. Ppp. 
reads instead adhltam in a, and purd *gdt in b ; and its c, d are qatam te ^sya vlrudha 
sahasram uta bhesajah. Emendation to bhesaja in our c would improve both sense and 
meter. The comm. here, as in sundry other places, derives vfrudh from vi + rudh, on 
the ground that they virundhanti vindqayanti rogdn, 

4. The gods have found thy gathering (} clH)^ the priests {brahmdri) 
and the plants ; all the gods have found thy gathering upon the earth. 

In a, our Bp. has citim^ and Op. cUdm (both cUim in c) ; Ppp. reads cdtam in both 
a and c ; either word is elsewhere unknown. The comm. derives clti either from the 
false root civ *take, cover,* or from cit * observe,* and fabricates his alternative explana- 
tions accordingly. If it comes from ci^ there is hardly another example of a like forma- 
tion. Ppp. has for a cdtam te devd ^vidathj and, in c, d, cdtatk tebhyo tu mdm avidarh 

5. Whoso made, he shall unmake; he verily is best of healers; he 
himself, clean, shall make for thee remedies, with the healer. 

The application of the pronouns here is more or less questionable. Ppp. reads su 


for sa in a, and has a more intelligible second half-verse : sa eva iubhyam bhesajam 
cak&r'a bhisajAti ca ; our bhisdjd in d is probably to be emended to -jdm \j the clean one 
of the healers ' ? J. The comm. understands sa at the beginning either as ** the great 
sage Atharvan *' or as the creator of the universe ; and niskarai as grahavikdrasya 
famanam or niskrtim karotu, Weber renders the latter ** shall put it to rights.*' 

zo. For release from evils, and for welfare. 

[Bhrgjfan^ras. — attaream. nirrtidydvdprthivyddindnddexf<Uyam. i. tristubh ; a.y-p.asti; 
3^5* 7* ^' 7'P' dhrti; 6. y-p, atyasti {evd *Aam tvdm iti dvdv dusnihdu fdddu).'] 

Found in P&ipp. ii. (with vs. 8 preceding 6 and 7, and the refrain added only to vs. 8). 
The hymn occurs further in TB. (ii. 5.6 '"*), and parts of it in HGS. (ii. 3. 10; 4. i). 
I^And iti original structure is doubdess clearly reflected by the MP. at ii. 12.6, 7, 8,9, 
10. Cf. note to our verse 2. J It is, like the two next preceding, reckoned (Kau^. 26. i, 
note) to the takmand^ana gana^ and it is employed (27. 7) in a healing ceremony, per- 
formed at a cross-roads, while chips of kdmplla are bound on the' joints of the patient, 
and they or he are wetted with bunches of grass. * According to the comm., the rite is 
intended against ksetriya simply. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 156 ; Ludwig, p. 513 ; Griffith, i. 52 ; Bloomfield, 14, 292. 

1. From ksetriydy from perdition, from imprecation of sisters {jdmi')^ 

from hatred (druh) do I release thee, from Varuna's fetter; free from 

guilt {-dgas) I make thee by [my] incantation ; be heaven-and-earth both 

propitious to thee. 

TB. HGS. have for a only kseiriydi tvd nirrtydi tvd, in c brdhmane and karomi^ 
and in d imi instead of stdm. Ppp. has at the end -thivi *ha bhutdm, 

2. Weal to thee be Agni, together with the waters ; weal [be] 

Soma, together with the herbs : so from ksetriydy from perdition, 

etc. etc. 

The repetition (with evd *ham prefixed) of the whole first verse as refrain for the 
following verses is not made by TB. and HGS. except after our vs. 8, and there only to 
pi^dtj- and in Ppp. it forms (complete) a part only of the same verse 8 (though this 
stands before our vs. 6). Its omission from vss. 2-7, and their combination into three 
whole 4-p&da verses |_and the omission of pidas e and f from vs. 8 J, would reduce the 
hymn to the norm of the second book, and is recommended not only by that circum- 
stance, but by the |_ wording in vss. 2-3, the construction in vss. 4-5, the concurrent 
testimony of TB. and MP., and also of HGS. so far as it goes, and by thej plain 
requirements of the sense also. |_Cf . the analogous state of things in iii. 3 1 and the 
note to iii. 31. i i.J For a, b TB. HGS. substitute ^dm te agnih sahi *dbhir astu qdtn 
dyavdprthivl sahdu ^sadhlbhih ; and Ppp. differs from them by having dhlbhis instead 
of adbhis^ and gdvas iox dy , , ,vl (also saho 'sa-). The comm. reads tvd for tvdm 
in vss. 2-7 at the beginning of the refrain. This refrain is scanned by the Anukr. as 
7 + 7 + 11:11 + 11 =47; and the addition in vs. 2 of 9 + 8 makes 64 syllables, a true 
as/iy but the other verses it is not possible to make agree precisely, in any natural way, 
with the metrical definitions given ; 3-7 are of 69 syllables, 8 of 7 1 . LBy beginning padas 
a and b with (dfk tubhyam^ and pronouncing both saAd's with hiatus, and combining 
2 ab with 3 ab, we get a perfectly regular tristubh. \ 


3. Weal to thee may the wind in the atmosphere bestow (dhcL) vigor ; 

weal to thee be the four directions : so from ksetriyd^ etc. etc. 

TB. HGS. have for a qdm antdriksam sahd vitena te; Ppp. differs by reading 
sahavdiam astu te; the two former, in b, put bhavantu last The comm. has in a |_for 
vdyo dh&t\ the better reading vayodhds^ but he makes it mean '* sustainer of birds *' I 
L* Weal, to thee [be] the wind in the atmosphere, the vigor-bestower.*J 

4. These four heavenly (devd) directions, having the wind as lord, 

upon which the sun looks out — so from ksetriydy etc. etc. 

TB. HGS. (4. 1) have for a ya d&ivfq cdtasrah pradlqah ; Ppp. also omits imis^ 
and combines devis pra-^ combining the pada immediately with our 3 b. HGS. makes 
one verse of our 4 a, b and 5 a, b, and puts it in 4, after all the rest 

5. Within them I set thee in old age; let the ydksma, let perdition 

go forth far away : so from ksetriydy etc. etc. 

Ppp. has at the beginning tdsv e ^datk jarasa dj TB. HGS. give tisdm tv&jardsa 
i; both the latter read in b nirrtim, 

6. Thou hast been released from ydksma^ from difficulty {duritd)^ from 

reproach {avadyd) \ from the fetter of hatred and from seizure hast thou 

been released : so from ksetriyd^ etc. etc. 

Ppp. has both times amoci for amukthds, TB. likewise, and also, in a, b dvartydi 
druhdh piqdm nirrtydi c6 *d am-, HGS. has neither this verse nor the next; that 
Ppp. puts our vs. 8 before it was noticed above. The comm. explains avadydt by 
jdmyddyabhi^ansanarupdn nindandt. |_TB., in comm. to Calc. ed., and in Poona ed., 
has avartydi.^ 

7. Thou hast left niggardy, hast found what is pleasant ; thou hast 
come to be in the excellent world of what is well done : so from ksetriydy 
etc. etc. \ 

Nearly all the samAitd-mss, omit the final visarga of dvidah before syondm. The 
comm. reads abhut in b ; TB. does the same, and, correspondingly, dvidat in a, with 
dvariim (better Lcf. iv. 34. 3 ; x. 2. 10 J) for drdiim. The comment to Prat ii. 46 quotes 
ahds in this verse as not ahdr^ i.e. as from hd^ not hr, 

8. The gods, releasing from the seizure of darkness the sun whom it 
had befallen, let him loose from sin (^nas) : so from ksetriydy etc. etc. 

It was noticed above that the other texts add the refrain (TB. HGS. LMP.J only to 
pigdt) only to this verse, where alone it is in place. Ppp. \i2isyathd for adhi at end 
of a, and the other XsxX&ydt; b in Ppp. is devd muhcantu asrjan paretasah; in the 
other texts deva dmutlcann dsrjan vy^nasah, 

LFor rtdtfty cf. rtvi^ iv. 40. i. Most of SPP*s mss. and our M.I.H.O.K. read 
nir dnasah. For dnaSy W's first draft has * evil,' which is better. See Lanman, Fest- 
gruss an Rothy pp. 187-190. — If, with the other texts, we drop c, f and omit nirrtyds 
from c we get a perfect meter, 12 + 12:11 + 11. The other texts spoil the refrain by 
beginning evdm ahdm imdm.\ 

The anuvdka \2,\ has again 5 hymns, with 28 verses ; the quotation is asta kurydd 


zz. To counteract witchcraft: with an amulet. 

[Qukra, — krtydpratiharanamktam ; krtyddusanadevatyam, i. 4-p,virddgdyatri ; 

^~S' 3'P' P^^osnih (4, pipilikamadhyd nicrt).^ 

I^The hymn is not metricalj Not found in P&ipp., nor elsewhere. Reckoned as 
first of the krtydpratiharana (* counteraction of witchcraft ') gana (K&uq. 39. 7 and 
note) ; used in a charm for protection against witchcraft (39. i ), with binding-on of a 
sraktya amulet; and again later (39. 13 ; the comm. says, only vs. i), in a similar rite. 
The comm. quotes it -further from Naks. K. (17, 19), in a wa^^J;i// called bdrhaspatl. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 163; C/iffith, i. 54. — Discussed by Bloomfield, AJP. vii. 
477 ff., or JAOS. xiii., p. cxxxii (= PAOS. Oct. 1886). 

1. Spoiler's spoiler (dusi) art thou; missile's missile (JuH) art thou; 

weapon's weapon {meni) art thou : attain {dp) the better one, step beyond 

the equal (samd). 

The body of the verse is addressed to the amulet ; the refrain more probably to its 
wearer (so, too, Weber) ; but the comm. assigns the latter also to the amulet, and 
quotes to show it TS. ii. 4. i ^, which rather supports the contrary opinion. He calls 
m€n{ a va/randman, deriving it from root ml * damage.* |_See Geldner*s discussion of 
meni(^ hurt done to another in vengeful anger *), Festgruss an Bohtlingk^ P- S'l 32.J 

2. Sraktyd art thou ; re-entrant {pratisard) art thou ; counter-conjur- 
ing art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

The comm. says that srakti is the tilaka-txtt^ and sraktya means made from it ; 
pr:atisara is something by which sorceries are turned back (upon their performer) ; it 
seems to mean virtually a circular amulet — |^such as a bracelet ? For re-entrant^ Whit- 
ney has interlined revertent (j/V), better, perhaps, reverting, trans, or intrans. J. 

3. Conjure (abhi-car) against him who hates us, whom we hate : attain 
the etc. etc. 

4. Patron {:iiiri) art thou ; splendor-bestowing art thou ; body-protect- 
ing art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

The comm., without explaining why, glosses sQri with abhijha * knowing.* 

5. Bright {(ukrd) art thou; shining (bhrdjd) art thou; heaven (.rz/^r) 
art thou ; light art thou : attain the etc. etc. 

The comm. thinks svhr to be jvarddirogotpddanena tdpakah, or else *' the common 
name of sky and sun.** 

The Anukr. scans vs. i as 6 + 6 -f 6 : 1 2 = 30, and the other verses as 8 + 8 : 1 2 = 28, 
excepting vs. 4, which is 9 -f 6 : 12 = 27 (restoring the a of asi in b). 

12. [Against such as would thwart my incantations. J 

[Bkaradvdja. — a star cam. ndnddevatyam. trdistubkam: 2. jagati ; ^t 8. anustubk.] 

Found in Paipp. ii., but in the verse-order 1,3,2,4-6,8,7. The hymn is called by 
Kauq. (47. 12) bharadvdjapravraskam » Bharadvaja's hewer-off * [_ or * cleaver * J (from 
expressions in the verses), and is to accompany the cutting of a staff for use in rites of 


witchcraft (as at 47. 14, 16, 18 ; 48. 22) ; and its several verses are applied through an 
extended incantation (47. 25-57) against an enemy ; the details of it throw no light 
upon their interpretation. 

Translated: E. Schlagintweit, die GottesurtheiU der Indier (Miinchen, 1866, Abh. 
der bayer, Akad. der IViss.), p. 13 ff.; Weber, xiii. 1 64 ; Ludwig, p. 445; Zimmer, 
p. 183; Grill, 47,85; Griffith, i. 55 ; Bloomfield, JAOS. xiii., p. ccxxi f. (= PAOS. 
Oct. 1887) or AJP. xi. 334-5 ; SEE. xiii. 89, 294. — The first four interpreted it as 
accompanying a fire-ordeal ; but Grill and Bloomfield have, with good reason, taken a 
different view. The native interpreters know nothing of any connection with an ordeal, 
nor is this to be read into the text without considerable violence. 

1. Heaven-and-earth, the wide atmosphere, the mistress of the field, 

the wonderful wide-going one, and the wide wind-guarded atmosphere — 

let these be inflamed (tapya-) here while I am inflamed. 

All the pada-mss, read at the end tapydmdne itiy as if the word were a dual f em. or 
neut : a most gratuitous blunder ; SPP^s pada-Xtxi emends to -ne, Ppp. reads in d 
tesu for td ihd (which is, as in not infrequent other cases, to be contracted to ii *hd ; 
the Anukr. at least takes no notice of the irregularity here ; but it also ignores Xhtjagatl 
value of b). The comm. naturally explains the " wide-goer " as Vishnu ; he does not 
attempt to account for the mention of ** the wide atmosphere " twice in the verse, though 
sometimes giving himself much trouble to excuse such a repetition. The last pada he 
paraphrases by ** just as I am endeavoring to destroy the hateful one, so may they also 
be injurers of [my] enemy, by not giving him place and the like " : which is doubtless 
the general meaning. 

2. Hear this, O ye gods that are worshipful {yajft{ya) ; Bharadvaja 
sings (fans) hymns (ukthd) for me ; let him, bound in a fetter, be plunged 
{ni-yuj) in difficulty who injures this our mind. 

That is, probably, our design or intent ; the comm. says (inappropriately) idam pur- 
vath sanmdrgapravrttam mdnasam: i.e. seduces us to evil courses. All the mss. 
chance to agree this time in omitting the visarga of yajhiydh before sthd in a. But 
Ppp. reads tu instead of stha^ and in b ukty&ni ^ansaiu, as it often changes -// to -iu; 
but here the imperative (or Weber*s suggested ^ahsat) would improve the sense. LPro- 
nounce deva&h and reject sthdj the meter is then in order — 12 + 12: 12 + 11.J 

3. Hear this, O Indra, soma-drinker, as I call loudly to thee with a 

burning {que) heart ; I hew (vraqc) him [down], as a tree with an ax, who 

injures this our mind. 

Or (in b) * call repeatedly ' ; the comm. says punah punah, Ppp. has in c vrqcdsi. 
The comm. paraphrases kuliqena with vajrasadrqena paraqund. LAn orderly tristubh 
is got by adding tvdm after somapa,\ 

4. With thrice eighty .r^w^^-singers, with the Adityas, the Vasus, the 
Angirases — let what is sacrificed-and-bestowed of the Fathers aid us — 
I take yon man with seizure (hdras) of the gods. 

Istdpilrtdm in c has probably already the later meaning of merit obtained by such 
sacred acts ; the comm. says tadubhayajanitam sukrtam. Haras he calls a krod/ia- 
ndman. He understands the ' three eighties ' of a to be the triplets (jtrca) in gdyatrl^ 


usHth^ and brhatt^ eighty of each, spoken of in AA. 1.4. 3 — simply because they are 
the only such groups that he finds mentioned elsewhere ; the number is probably taken 
indefinitely, as an imposing one. 

5. O heaven-and-earth, attend {d-dtdhl) ye after me ; O all ye gods, take 
ye hold (a-rabh) after me ; O Angirases, Fathers, soma-feasting (somyd)^ 
let the doer of abhorrence (apakdmd) meet with (a-r) evil. 

Ppp. reads in a dldhyatdm \q,L Bloomfield, A J P. xvii.4i7j, and in t pdpasdricchetv 
ap-. The comm. does not recognize didhl as different from dldl^ rendering ddlpU 
bhavatam, |^In a, the accent-mark under -vl is missing. J 

6. Whoso, O Maruts, thinks himself above us, or whoso shall revile 
our incantation {brdhman) that is being performed — for him let his wrong- 
doings be burnings (tdpus) ; the sky shall concentrate its heat (satn-tap) 
upon the brdhman'\i2Xt,x, 

The verse is RV. vi. 52.2, with sundry variants. At the beginning, RV. has the 
better reading dti vdj in b, kriydmdnam niniisdt; for d, brahmadvisam abhi tdm 
focaiu dydtih, Ppp. follows RV. in d (but with ^oca for foca/u) ; in c it reads vrajandni. 
The comm. renders vrjinini falsely by varjakdni bddhakdni, 

7. Seven breaths, eight marrows : them I hew [off] for thee with [my] 
incantation ; thou shalt go to Yama's seat, messengered by Agni, made 

The last p&da is xviii. 2. i (RV.x. 14. 13) d. All our mss. and about half of SPP's 
have in a majhds (for majjhds) ; yet SPP. adopts in his text the reading manyds, 
because given by the comm., which explains it artificially as for dhamanyasy and signi- 
fying ** a sort of vessels situated in the throat '' ; no such word appears to be known 
elsewhere in the language, and some of the mss. have in other passages of the text 
manyas for majHds. Our Bp. gives dyd at beginning of c; the word is translated 
above as L^y^-^J* subjunctive of 1 with doubled subjunctive-sign (see my Ski, Gram. 
§ 560 e), or of its secondary root-form ay ; the comm. takes it from yd^ which makes 
him no difficulty, since in his view imperfect and imperative are equivalent, and he 
declares it used iorydki, Ppp. reads for z yamasya gacha sddanam. \\n many parts 
of India today y« and ny are phonetically equivalent. Cf. SPP*s mss. for ix. 5. 23. J 

8. I set thy track in kindled Jatavedas ; let Agni dispose of Q vis) the 
body ; let speech go unto breath Q dsu). 

The verse is in part obscure ; the comm. sets it in connection with qpe of the details 
of the Kau^. ceremony : ♦* I set or throw in the fire the dust from thy track combined 
with chopped leaves : i.e. I roast it in the roaster ; let Agni, through this dust entering 
thy foot, pervade or burn thy whole body " ; he takes dsu as simply equivalent to prdna, 
and explains: sarvendriyavyavahdraqQnyo bhavatu, become incapable of acting for 
the senses : i.e. become mere undifferentiated breath — '■ which is perhaps the true mean- 
ing. LQuite otherwise A. Kaegi — citation in Bloomfield, p. 294.J The Anukr. appar- 
ently expects us to resolve i at the beginning into a-i, Ppp. has in a J daddmi^ and 
for d imam gachatu te vasu. 

The last two verses are so discordant in style and content, as well as in meter, with 


the rest of the hymn that we can hardly consider them as properly belonging to it 
Their omission, with that of the borrowed RV. verse (our 6), would reduce the hymn to 
the norm of this book. 

13. For welfare and long life of an infant. 

[A/karvan. — bakudevatyam utd **gneyam, trdistubham : 4. anustubh ; j. virddjagati.'] 

Verses 1,4, 5 are found in Paipp. xv. Though (as Weber points out) plainly having 
nothing to do with the goddna or tonsure ceremony, its verses are applied by Kauq. to 
parts of that rite. Thus, it accompanies the preparations for it (53. i ) and the wetting 
of the youth's head (53. 13); vss. 2 and 3, the putting of a new garment on him (54. 7); 
vs. 4, making him stand on a stone (54.8); vs. 5, taking away his old garment (54.9). 
And the comm. quotes vss. 2 and 3 from Pari^ista 4. i as uttered by a purohita on handing 
to a king in the morning the garment he is to put on, and vs. 4 from ibid. 4, as the same 
throws four pebbles toward the four directions, and makes the king step upon a fifth. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 171 ; Zimmer, p. 322 ; Griffith, i. 57. 

1. Giving life-time, O Agni, choosing old age; ghee-fronted, ghee- 
backed, O Agni — having drunk the sweet pleasant {cdru) ghee of the 
cow, do thou afterward defend {raks) this [boy] as a father his sons. 

The verse occurs also in various Yajur-Veda texts, as VS. (xxxv. 17), TS. (i. 3. 144 
et al.), TB. (i. 2. i"), TA. (ii. 5. i), MS. (iv. 12.4) LMP.ii. 2. i J, and in several Sutras, 
as A(JS. (ii. 10.4), QGS. (i. 25), and HGS. (i. 3. 5), with considerable variations. TS. 
(with which the texts of TB., TA., and AQ!S. agree throughout) has in a havUo jusd- 
ndSf which is decidedly preferable to jardsath vrndnds [_, which is apparently a mis- 
placed reminiscence of RV. x. 18. 6 or AV. xii. 2. 24 J; at end of \iy ghridyonir edhi; 
and, in d, putrdm for putrin, VS. has for a iyusmdn agne havisd vrdhdnds^ and 
agrees with TS. etc. in b, and also in d, save that it further substitutes iman for imdm, 
MS. reads deva for agne in a, zxApibann amftam ior pftva mddhu of c |_thus making 
a good tristubh p&daj, and ends d with putrdm jar dse ma e *mdm, Ppp. agrees through- 
out with MS., except as it emends the latter*s corrupt reading at the end to jarase naye 
*mam; and HGS. corresponds with Ppp. save by \i'xv\\x% grndnas in a. LMP. follows 
HGS.J ^GS. gives in a havisd vrdhdnaSy in b agrees with TS. etc., and has in d 
pile *va putram iha r-. The last pada is jagatL 

LThe Anukr. counts 11 + 11:10 + 12 = 44: as if 10 + 12 were metrically the same 
asii + ii! or as if the " extra " syllable in d could offset the deficiency in c ! The 
impossible cadence of c is curable by no less radical means than the adoption of the 
Ppp. reading. All this illustrates so well the woodenness of the methods of the Anukr. 
and its utter lack of sense of rhythm, that attention may well be called to it. J 

2. Envelop, put ye him for us with splendor; make ye him one to die 

of old age ; [make] long life ; Brihaspati furnished {pra-yam) this garment 

unto king Soma for enveloping [himself]. 

The verse is repeated below, as xix. 24.4. It is found also in HGS. (i. 4. 2) |_MP. 
ii. 2.6J, and a, b in MB. (i. 1.6). HGS. in a omits nas,^ and reads vdsasdi*nam for 
varcase ^mam^ and in b it has qatdyusam for jardmrtyum ; MB. agrees with this, only 
making the verse apply to a girl by giving endm and qatdyusfm. There appears to be 
a mixture of constructions in a : pdri dhatta vdrcasd is right, but dhatid requires rather 
vdrcase. Emending to krnutd would enable jarimrtyum to be construed with imam 


in a |_; but cf. ii. 28. 2 J. Verses 2 and 3 are apparently lost out of Ppp., not originally 

3. Thou hast put about thee this garment in order to well-being ; 
thou hast become protector of the people (}) against imprecation; both 
do thou live a hundred numerous autumns, and do thou gather about 
thee abundance of wealth. 

The translation implies emendation of grsifnim in b to Jtrsffndm, as given by 
Ppp. and by PCS. (i. 4. 12) and HGS. (i. 4. 2) in a corresponding expression to xix. 
24. 5 below. |_MP., ii. 2. 8, reads J/f/iix«.J Such blundering exchanges of surd and 
sonant are found here and there ; another is found below, in 14. 6 b |_so our ii. 5. 4, Ppp* J. 
All the mss., and both editions, read here^/-, and the comm. explains it hy gavdniy and, 
with absurd ingenuity, makes it apply to the asserted fear of kine, on seeing a naked 
man, that he is going to take from them the skin which formerly belonged to him, but was 
given to them instead by the gods ; the legend is first given in the words of the comm. 
himself, and then quoted from ^B. iii. 1.2. 13-17. For comparison of the Sutra-texts 
in detail, see under xix. 24. 5,6. In c, our O. Op. rt2Ld jivas. \JZL MGS. 1.9.27^1 
and p. 152, s.y, part dJidsye, With c, d cf. PCS. ii. 6. 20.J The first pada b properly 
jagatl {su-astdye), \JSS^ See p. 1045. J 

4. Come, stand on the stone ; let thy body become a stone ; let all 

the gods make thy life-time a hundred autumns. 

The second p&da is nearly identical with RV. vi. 75.12 b; with a, b compare also 
AGS. i. 7. 7 and MB. i. 2. i, similar lines used in the nuptial ceremonies. |^With a, c, d 
compare MGS. i. 22. 12 and p. 149. J Ppp. has for a, b imam aqm&nam d tisthd *qme 
*va tvam sthiro bhava : pra mrnlhi durasyatah sahasva prtanSyatah; which differs 
but little from the AGS. verse. The Anukr. apparently expects us to resolve vi-^u-e in c. 

5. Thee here, of whom we take the garment to be first worn, let all 

the gods favor ; thee here, growing with good growth, let many brothers 

be born after, L[after thee,]J as one well born. 

This verse makes it pretty evident that in vs. 3 also the garment is the first that is 
put on the child after birth. But the comm., ignoring the gerundive -vdsyam, thinks 
it a ** formerly worn " garment that is *♦ taken away ** ; and K^uq. misuses it correspond- 
ingly. HGS. (i. 7. 17) has a corresponding verse, omitting vdsas in a, combining 
vi^ve aih in b, and reading suhrdas for suvrdhd in c. LNearly so, MP. ii. 6. 15. J In 
Ppp. the text is defective ; but savitH is read instead of suvrdhS. Some of our sam- 
Aita-mss. (P.M.W.I.H.) lengthen to -^fasyhm before hdrHmas in a. The verse is very 
irregular in the first three padas, though it can by violence be brought into tristubh 
dimensions ; it has no Jagatl quality whatever. 

14. Against sadinvAs. 

[Cdtana. — sadrcam. fdldgnidevatyam uta mantroktadnuitdkam. dftustubham : i, bhurij ; 

4. uparistddvirddbrhath'] 

All the verses are found in Paipp., vs. 4 in v., the rest (in the verse-order i, 5, 6, 2, 3) 
in ii. It is reckoned by Kauq. to the cdtandni (8. 25), and also among the hymns of 
the brhachdnti gana (9- 1) ; it is used in the women's rites {strlkarmdni) to prevent 


abortion (34.3); also in the rite for expiation of barrenness in cattle (vaga^amana ; 
44.11); and in the establishment of the house-fire (72.4), with sprinkling of the 
entrance, and finally in the funeral ceremonies (82. 14), with the same action. The 
comm. further refers to the use of the cdtana and mdtrndman hymns in Naks. K. 23 
and Qanti K. 15. All these uses imply simply the value of the hymn as exorcising evil 
influences or the beings that represent them, and do not help us to see against what it 
was originally directed : Weber suggests rats and worms and such like pests ; perhaps, 
rather, troublesome insects : as usual, the indications are so indefinite that wide room 
for conjecture is left open. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 175 ; Ludwig, p. 522 ; Grill, i, 89 ; Griffith, i. 58 ; Bloom- 
field, 66, 298. \JS&^ See p. 1045. J 

1. The expeller, the bold, the container, the one-toned, the voracious 

— all the daughters {napti) of the wrathful one, the saddnvds, we make 

to disappear. 

By the connection, the obscure words in the first half-verse should be names of indi- 
vidual saddnvasy but dhisdnam (the translation implies emendation to -ndm) is mascu- 
line (or neuter), and dhrsnum (for which Ppp. reads dhisnyam) not distinctively 
feminine. Nissdli (SPP's text reads, with the samhitd-mss. generally, nihsd-: p. nih- 
osdlim) is taken by the letter of the text, as if from nih-sdlay = nih-sdray; the comm. 
gives first this derivation, but spoils it by adding as alternative ** originating from the 
sdla^ a kind of tree." R. suggests niksdlam " out of the house,'* adverb. The comm. 
shamelessly derives dhisanam from dhrs^ and explains it as **a seizer with evil, so 
named"; he also takes -vddya as = vacana. All our pada'm!&^. commit the gross 
blunder of dividing jighatosviim, as if the word were a compound ; SPP. lets the 
division stand in \)\s pada-itxi. Ppp. reads in c napatiyas, 

2. Out of the cow-stall we drive you, out of the axle, out of the 

wagon-body (.^) ; out of the houses we expel you, ye daughters (duhitr) of 


The comm. understands updnasit (for which two of our mss., P.M., read upamdna- 
sat) to mean " a granary " — or else " a wagon full of grain " ; and dksa ** a gambling 
house." He does not venture to etymologize magundl^ but calls it simply the name of 
a certain //f^^f. The/^^-mss. read magundyd^ which SPP. properly emends to -dydh. 
Ppp. has for b the corrupt nir yoninnrpdnaca^ \\vl c magundyd^\ and at end of d cdta- 
ydmasu The Anukr. takes notice of the metrical irregularity of c. 

3. Yon house that is below — there let the hags be ; there let debility 
(sedi) make its home {ni-uc), and all the sorceresses. 

Ppp. has a different version of the first three padas : amusminn adkare grhe sarvd 
svanta rdyah : tatra pdpmd ni yacchatu. The comm. renders sedi by nirrti. 

LOur accent-notation does not here distinguish a ksdipra circumflex {ny-ticyantu) 
from an enclitic circumflex {sedir nyiicyantu — as if it were the impossible ni-ucyantu^ 
accentless) ; nor do the mss. of SPP. : but in his text, he here employs the stroke, like 
" long /*" or the sign of integration, which does distinguish them. J 

4. Let the lord of beings drive out, also Indra, from here the saddn- 
vds, sitting on the bottom of the house ; let Indra subdue them with the 


The omission of this verse, as being not found with the rest in Ppp. ii., would reduce 
the hymn to the norm of the second book. Ppp. (in v.) rectifies the meter of d by 
omitting indras. The metrical definition of the Anukr. is mechanically correct The 
comm. understands bhatafati to designate Rudra. 

5. If ye are of the endemic {} ksetriyd) ones, or if sent by men ; if ye 
are bom from the barbarians (ddsyu) — disappear from here, O saddnvds. 

All the mss., both here and in the next verse, accent at the end saddnvds, though the 
word is plainly a vocative, and is so understood by the comm. (who says nothing of the 
accent, and indeed in general pays no heed to it); SPP. retains the manuscript reading. 
Ppp. has for a yd devd gha ksetriydd, and for cyad astu daqvibho j&td» 

6. I have gone around the abodes {dhdman) of them as a swift [steed 

about] a race-course ; I have won (Ji) all your races {dji) ; disappear from 

here, O saddnvds. 

The translation implies the evidently necessary emendation asaram at end of b ; Ppp. 
has it, and also the comm. ; both editions give asaran, with all the mss. But Ppp. agrees 
with the mss. in giving just before it the false reading gisthdm for ki- (our text emends, 
but, by an oversight, gives -fiir instead of -qtih before it); and SPP. retains gi-. The 
comm. has instead ^/^M^m, and explains it as " the further goal, where one stops (sthS) 
wearied (^IdHa)^ 

15. Against fear. 

[Brahman. — sadrcam . prdndpdndyurdevatyam . tripddgdyatram.l 

Found also in Paipp. vi., but in a much fuller form, with thirteen verses, of which 
our six are, in their order, vss. i, 4, 3, 7, 12, 13 ; the others deal with wind and atmos- 
phere, cow and ox, Mitra and Varuna, Indra and Indra^s might (Jndriyd), hero and 
heroism, breath and expiration, and death and immortality (amrtam) ; after bibher is 
added in vs. i evd me *pdna md risayd, and, at the end of the hymn, the same, but 
with risa for risayd. In Kau^. (54. 11), the hymn is used, with vi. 41, at the end of the 
goddna ceremony,. on giving food to the boy. It is also counted by the schol. (ib., note) 
to the dyusya gana. The comm. makes no reference to the goddna rite, but declares 
the use to be simply by one desiring long life (dyuskdma). 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 1 79 ; Griffith, i. 59. 

1. As both the heaven and the earth do not fear, are not harmed, so, 
my breath, fear not. 

|_MGS., at i. 2. 13, has evam me prdna md bibha evam me prdna md risah,\ 

2. As both the day and the night do not fear etc. etc. 

The comm. here applies for the first time the term parydya to these sentences, corre- 
spondent but with elements in part different. 

3. As both the sun and the moon do not fear etc. etc. 

4. As both sacrament {brdhman) and dominion (ksatrd) do not fear 
etc. etc. 

That is, the Br&hman and Ksatriya castes {brdhmanajdti and ksatriyajdti, comm.), 
as the words might properly enough be translated. 


5. As both truth and untruth do not fear etc. etc. 

6. As both what is (bhutd) and what is to be (bhdvya) do not fear 
etc. etc. 

The comm. paraphrases bhutdm by sattdm pruptam vastujdtam ; the past would 
seem to be a better example of fixity than the future ; but neither is ^* untruth " (vs. 5) 
to be commended as an example. |_Weber would read ca rtdm.\ 

16. For protection. 

[Brahman. — prdndpdndyurdevatyam, ekdvasdnam : /. i-p. dsurt tristubh ; 2. i-p. dsury 

usnih ; j. i-p. dsuri tristubh ; ^, j*. 2'p. dsuri gdyatrt.'] 

LNot metrical. J Found (except vs. 5) in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order 2» 1,3,4). 
The hymn, with the one next following, is used by Kau^. (54. 1 2) immediately after 
hymn 1 5 ; and the comm. adds, quoting for it the authority of Paithinasi, to accompany 
the offering of thirteen different substances, which he details. Both appear also in 
Vait. (4. 20), in the parvan sacrifices, on approaching the dhavanlya fire ; and vss. 2 
and 4 further (8. 7, 9) in the dgrayana and cdturmdsya sacrifices. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 1 79 ; Griffith, i. 60. 

1. O breath-and-expiration, protect me from death: hail {svdAd)l 

The first extension of the notion of prdna * breath,' lit. * forth-breathing,* is by addi- 
tion of apdna, which also is lit. * breathing away,* and so, when distinguished from the 
generalized /r^/itf, seems to mean * expiration.' The comm. here defines the two thus : 
prdg urdhvamukho *niti cestata iti prdnahj apd *nity avdnmukhaq cestata ity apdnah. 
For svdhd he gives alternative explanations, following Yaska. The verse (without 
svdhd) is found also in Ap. xiv. 19.3. ^^ Tristubh ^^ in the Anukr. is doubtless a mis- 
reading for pankti, as the verse has 11 syllables, and i and 3 would have been 
defined together if viewed as of the same meter. 

2. O heaven-and-earth, protect me by listening (ipaqrtiti) : hail ! 

The /a^-mss. read Upa^^rutyd (not -ydk), and, in the obscurity of the prayer, it is 
perhaps best to follow them L* by overhearing ' the plans of my enemies ? J ; otherwise, 

* from being overheard ' |_by my enemies ? J would seem as suitable ; and this is rather 
suggested by the Ppp. reading, upaqrute (for -tehf), 

Ppp. has after this another verse : dhandyd *yuse prajdydi md pdtam svdhd, 

3. O sun, protect me by sight : hail ! 

Ppp. has ^tf^f «jf * (protect my) two eyes.' Our O.Op., with some of SPP's mss., 
read suryas for -ya, 

4. O Agni Vai^vanara, protect me with all the gods : hail ! 

Ppp. makes, as it were, one verse out of our 4 and 5, by reading agne viqvambhara 
viqvato md pdhi svdhd. The comm. gives several different explanations of vdiqvdnara 

* belonging to all men,* one of them as viqvdn-ara = jantUn pravistah / 

5. O all-bearing one, protect me with all bearing {plidras)\ hail! 

The sense is obscure ; at xii. r. 6 the epithet * all-bearing ' is, very properly, applied 
to the earth ; but here the word is masculine. The comm. understands Agni to be 
meant (and this the Ppp. reading favors); but he relies for this solely on BAU. i. 4. 7 


(which he quotes); and that is certainly not its meaning there. Weber conjectures 
Praj&pati. [^The BAU. passage is i. 4. i6 in B6htlingk*s ed. See Whitney's criticism 
upon it at AJP. xi. 432. I think nevertheless that fire may be meant — see Deussen^s 
Sechzig l/panishad^s^ ?• 394*J ^^ <loes not appear why the last two verses should be 
called of two p&das. 

17. For various gifts. 

[Brahman, — saptarcam, prSndpSndyurdevatyam. ekdvasdnam : 1-6. i-p. dsuri tristubh ; 

7. dsury umih^ 

|_Not metrical. J Paipp. has a similar set of phrases in ii. For the use of the h3rmn 
by Kau9. and V&it, see under hymn 16. It is also, with 15 and others, reckoned by the 
schol. to KSlu^. (54. 1 1, note) to the dyusya gana. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 180; Griffith, i. 61. 

1. Force art thou ; force mayest thou give me : hail ! 

The Ppp. has no phrase corresponding to this. Some of our mss., as of SPP's, read 
dd instead of ddh before svikd, in this hymn and the next, where they do not abbreviate 
the repetition by omitting both words. The comm. regards them both as addressed to 
Agni, or else to the article offered (JiHyamdnadravyam), \QL MGS. i. 2. 3, and p. 149 
and citations. J 

2. Power art thou ; power mayest thou give me : hail ! 

Ppp. has sahodd agues saho me dhd svdhd, 

3. Strength art thou ; strength mayest thou give me : hail I 

Ppp. gives baladd agnir balam me svdhd, 

4. Life-time art thou ; life-time mayest thou give me : hail ! 

The corresponding phrase in Ppp. is : dyur asyd dyur me dhd svdhd, 

5. Hearing art thou ; hearing mayest thou give me : hail ! 

There are no phrases in Ppp. answering to this and the two following verses ; but 
others with varcas and tejas as the gifts sought. 

6. Sight art thou ; sight mayest thou give me : hail ! 

7. Protection {paripdnd) art thou ; protection mayest thou give me : 
hail ! 

The anuvaka L3. J has 7 hymns, with 42 verses ; the Anukr. says : astonam tasmdc 
chatdrdham trtlye. 

Here ends also the third prapdthaka. 

18. For relief from demons and foes. 

\Cdtana {sapatnaksayakdmah). — dgneyam. dvdipadam ; sdmnibdrhatam.'] 

LNot metrical.J Ppp. has some similar phrases in ii. The hymn belongs to the 
cdtandni (K^u^. 8. 25 : the comm. regards only the last three verses as cdtana^ because 
vs. 3 is the one whose pratlka is cited in the K^u^. text ; but it is perhaps more likely 
that ardyaksayanam is an oversight for bhrdtrvyaks-) ; it is used by itself also in one 
of the witchcraft rites (dbhicdrikdni)^ while adding fuel of reeds to the fire (48. i). 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 180; Griffith, i. 61. 


1. Adversary-destroying art thou; adversary-expulsion mayest thou 

give me : hail ! 

* Adversary ' is lit. * nephew ' or * brother's son ' {bhratrvyd). The Ppp. phrases are 
after this model : bhrdLtrvyakslnam asi bhrdtrvyajambhanam asi svShd, and concern 
successively the piqdcas^ saddnvSs, and bhrdtrvyas. The Anukr. supports the comm. 
in regarding the hymn as addressed to Agni, and agrees with Kau^. in regard to the 
accompanying action, saying : sapatnaksayanlh samidha ddhdyd *gnim prdrthanlyam 
aprdrthayat, L Instead of "destroying" W. has interlined " destruction. "J 

2. Rival-destroying art thou ; rival-expulsion mayest thou give me : 

3. Wizard- Q ardya-) destroying art thou ; wizard-expulsion mayest thou 
give me : hail ! 

4. /*if^^-destroying art thou ; //fo^^-expulsion mayest thou give me : 

5. Saddnvd'Atsiroying art thou; saddnvd'txpnlsxon mayest thou give 
me : hail ! • 

Read in our edition saddnvdcat-, 

19. Against enemies: to Agni (fire). 

\Atharvan, — dgneyam, 1-4. nicrdvisamdgSyatrt ; j, bhurigvisamd.l 

[^Not metricaLJ This hymn (but not its four successors and counterparts) is foimd 
in Paipp. ii. ; also in MS. (i. 5.2: in verse-order 1,4, 3, 2, 5) and Ap. (vi. 21.1: in 
verse-order 3, 4, i, 2, 5) ; further, in K. Its first pratika (but regarded by the schol. and 
by the comm. as including all the five hymns) is used by Kaug. (47. 8) to accompany 
t\it purastdd homas in the witchcraft rites. The Anukr. has a common description of 
the five hymns, 19-23, 2iS paHca suktdni paHcarcdni paHcdpatydni (?or -catapdty-) 
tripddgdyatrdny ekdvasdndni, LThe mss. blunder ; but pahcdpatydni is probably 
right ; see note to Kaug. 47. 8. J 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 181 ; Griffith, i. 62. 

1 . O Agni ! with the- heat that is thine, be hot against him who hates 

us, whom we hate. 

MS. leaves (in all the verses) the a of asman unelided, and both MS. and Ap. insert 
. ca befort vaydm, 

2. O Agni ! with the rage (Jidras) that is thine, rage against him who 
hates us, whom we hate. 

Prdti hara has to be strained in rendering, to preserve the parallelism of the expres- 
sion. [_Or, * with the seizing-force that is thine, force back him ' etc. ?J 

3. O Agni ! with the gleam (arcis) that is thine, gleam against him 
who hates us, whom we hate. 

4. O Agni ! with the burning {qocis) that is thine, burn against him 
who hates us, whom we hate. 


5. O Agni! with the brilliancy {t/jas) that is thine, make him unbril- 
liant who hates us, whom we hate. 

Ppp. has jry^/iV for tejas, 2xAprati daha for atejasam krnu; for the latter, MS. and 
Ap. xt^A prati titigdhi (also K., tityagdhi). 

The meter is alike in the four hymns 19-22 ; the Anukr. restores the a of asmSfty and 
in vss. 1-4 scans 6 + 7 + 10 = 23, and, in vs. 5, 6 + 9 + 10 = 25. 

20. The same: to Vftyu (wind). 

This and the three following hymns are mechanical variations of the one next preced- 
ing, differing from it only by the name of the deity addressed, and in hymn 23 by the 
pronouns and verbs being adapted to the plural deity. They are wanting in the other 
texts. The comm. does not deign to explain them in detail, but prefixes a few intro- 
ductory words to the text of this on<^ For the Anukr. descriptions of the meter, and for 
the use by K&U9., see under h)rmn 19. It would be space wasted to write out the trans- 
lation in full. |_They should all be regarded as non-metrical. J They are briefly treated 
(not translated) by Weber, xiii. 182, and Griffith, i. 62. 

I. O Vayu ! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 
2-5. O Vayu ! with etc. etc. 

21. The same: to Siirya (sun). 

I. O Surya! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 
2-5. O Surya! with etc. etc. 

22. The same: to the moon. 

I. O moon ! with the heat that is thine etc. etc. 
2-5. O moon ! with etc. etc. 

23. The same: to water. 

I. O waters ! with the heat that is yours etc. etc. 
2-5. O waters ! with etc. etc. 

Here the meter, owing to the plural verbs, is different; the Anukr. calls that of 
vss. 1-4 (6 + 8 + 10 = 24) samavisamd^ ?i gdyatrl ^oi uneven members,' and vs. 5 
(6 + 10 + 10 = 26) the same, with two syllables in excess [svardd-visamd \, 

24. Against klmldins, male and female. 

[Brahman. — astarcam. dyusyam, pdnktam . . . .] 

LNot metrical. J Part of the hymn is found in Piipp. ii., but in a very corrupt con- 
dition : see under the verses below. Kau^. makes no use of it that is characteristic, or 
that casts any light upon its difficulties, but prescribes it simply as to be employed in 
a certain ceremony (19. 9-13) for prosperity (according to the comm., for removal of 
a bad sign), called "of the sea" (sdmudra: the comm. says, offering in a ^dpetastha 
fire, in the midst of the sea) ; it is also reckoned (19. i, note) to the mantras called 
pustika * for prosperity.* The words that precede the refrain in each verse are apparently 


the names of kimldins. The Anukr. says that Brahman in each verse praised with 
verses the deity mentioned in it; and gives a long description of the meters that is. 
too confused and corrupt to be worth quoting in fulL 
Translated : Weber, xiii. 1 82 ; Griffith, i. 62. 

1 . O qerabhakuy qerabha ! back again let your familiar demons go ^ 
back again your missile, ye kimtdlns I whose ye are, him eat ye ; who 
hath sent you forth, him eat ye ; eat your own flesh. 

Ppp. reads : qarabhaka seraqabha punar bho ydnti yHdavas punar hatis kimldinak 
yasya stha dam atta yo va prdkl tarn uttam mdsdhsS many aid. The comm. in the 
last phrase gives sd instead of svd^ and has much trouble to fabricate an explanation 
for it (as = tasya^ or else for sd hetih)» Qerabkaka he takes as either sukhasya prdpaka 
or qarabhavat sarvesdm hihsaka^ but is confident that it designates a <* chief of ydtu- 
dhdnas.^^ Of the refrain, the first part seems metrical, and the second prose, in three 
phrases ; and it may be counted as8 + 8:6 + 7-f5 (or 7) = 34 (or 36) : the prefixed 
names add 7 syllables (vss. i, 2), or 5 (vss. 3,4), or 3 (vss. (>-^)<t or 2 (vs. 5). LBloom-^ 
field comments on dhdit and the like, ZDMG. xlviii. 577. J 

2. O fevrdhaka, qh)rdha! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

3. O mrokdy anuntroka ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

4. O sarpdf amisarpa ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

5. O jurni I back again let your familiar demons go; back again your 
missile, ye s^xt-kimidins ; whose ye are etc. etc. 

6. O upabdi ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

7. O drjuni ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

8. O bharuji ! back again let your familiar etc. etc. 

To represent all these verses, we find in Ppp. qevrka qevrdha sarpdn sarpa mrokdn 
mro jyarnyatro jarjunvapaprado pufiar vo yanti yddavah : punar jutis kimldinak 
yasya stka dam atta yo na prdkl tam utvas sd mdhsdny attd. It has not seemed 
worth while to try to translate the names, though most of them contain intelligible ele- 
ments |_see Weber, p. 184, 186J, and the comm. forces through worthless explanations 
for them all. In vs. 8 he reads bkarUci^ and makes an absiu-d derivation from roots bhr 
and ahc (" going to take away the body "). [_In the first draft, W. notes that the four 
feminine names of vss. 5-8 might be combined to one tristubk pada, which with the 
common refrain would give us the normal five " verses. "J 

25. Against k&nvas: with a plant. 

\Catana, — vdnaspatyam, dnustubkam : 4. bkurtj!\ 

Found in Paipp. iv. Both Weber and Grill regard the hymn as directed against 
abortion ; but no sufficient indications of such value are found in its language, though 
some of the native authorities intimate their discovery of such. Kau^. (8. 25) reckons it 
to the cdtana hymns ; and it is employed, with ii. 7 and other hymns, in a remedial cere- 
mony (26. 33-36) against various evils, specially accompanying the smearing of the 
designated plant with sacrificial dregs (sampdta) upon the patient. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 187; Grill, 20,92; Griffith, i. 64; Bloomfield, 36,302. 

I. Weal for us, woe (dfam) for Nirrti ('perdition*) hath the divine. 


spotted-leaf made; since it is a formidable grinder-up {-jdmbkatta) of 

kdnvas, it, the powerful, have I used (iAaj), 

The comm. makes no attempt to identify the pf^nifiarnl as any particular plant, but 
simply paraphrases it with citraparny osadhih, R. discusses the word as follows : " the 
frqniparnl is, i. according to the commentary to KQS. xxv. 7. 17, the same with mdsa- 
parnl^ i.e. Glycine debilis; 2. according to other schol., the same with laksmanS, a plant 
having upon its leaves red spots, in which the form of a child is claimed to be seen. 
Bh&vapr., i. 208, calls it tISso putrajanly and R&janigh., vii. 1 14, putrakandd^ or putradd^ 
ox pumkandd^ indicating a bulbous plant; it is credited with the power to cure barren- 
ness of women ; 3. according to Am. K09. and the other Nighantus, it is a leguminous 
plant, identified by Chund Dutt {Mat, medico) with Uraria lagopodioides Dec.^ having 
hairy leaves without colored spots. The second of these identifications would suit the 
hymn.^* Abhaksi might mean < I have partaken of or drunk ' ; but neither KSug. nor 
the comm. know of such a use of the plant The strange appearance in this hymn (only) 
of kdnva as name of evil beings is passed by the comm. without a word of notice ; he 
simply paraphrases the word with pupa. \BmX see Bergaigne, Rel, vid. ii. 465, and Hille- 
brandt, Ved. Mytkol. i. 207. J Ppp. reads in b nirrtaye karate and in d tvd *karsam 
for abhaksi, 


2. This spotted-leaf was first born overpowering; with it do I hew 
[off] the head of the ill-named ones, as of a bird {gakuni), 

\_^akii- is misprinted fakf-,j The reading vr(c3mi, without accent (which is given 
in both editions, on the authority of all the mss.) implies that the fourth pada begins 
with firaSf the preceding three words being (as is easy) resolved into eight syllables ; 
and the pada-mss, also mark the p&da-division before firas. The Anukr., however, 
regards the verse as a simple anustubk, which it plainly is, giras belonging to c ; the 
accent should therefore be emended to vrgdmi, Ppp. reads saddnvdghnf pr- for a, 
and, in c, d, tayd kanvasydm qiraq chinadmi gak-. The comm. explains the *^ ill-named " 
as dadruvisarpakaqvitrddikustharogaviqesds^ or varieties of leprosy. 

3. The blood-drinking wizard, and whoso wants to take away fatness, 

the embryo-eating kdnva do thou make disappear, O spotted-leaf, and 


One or two of our mss. (W.I.), and several of SPP*s, read in b jikfrisa/i [I, has 
-fr/j-J. Ppp. has at the end sahasvati. 

4. Make them enter the mountain, the life-obstructing {-yopana) kdn- 

vas; do thou, O divine spotted-leaf, go burning after them like fire. 

[_As to kanvdh^ cf. i. 19. 4 n. As to -yopana^ see Bloomfield, AJP. xii. 423.J This 
verse and the next are too much defaced in Ppp. to admit comparison in detail ; but its 
text differs somewhat from ours. The Anukr. refuses to sanction the common abbre- 
viation to agnir *va in d. 

5. Thrust them forth to a distance, the Wit'OhsixMCtxng kdnvas ; where 
the darknesses go, there have I made the flesh-eaters go. 


26. For safety and increase of kine. 

[Satntar. — pafovyam. trdistubham. j. uparistddvirddbrkatt ; 4, j. anustubh (4. bhurij).'] 

Found in Plipp. ii. Used by Kau^. (19. 14), with iii. 14, iv. 21, and ix. 7 |_not vi. 1 1. 
3 — see comm. to ix. 7 = 12J, in a ceremony for the prosperity of cattle. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 188; Ludwig, p. 371 ; Griffith, i. 65; Bloomfield, 142,303; 
vss. I and 2, also by Grill, 64,92. — Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel, p. 138. 

1. Hither let the cattle come that went away, whose companionship 
(sahacdrd) Vayu (the wind) enjoyed, whose form-givings Tvashtar knows ; 
in this cow-stall let Savitar make them fast {ni-yam). 

Or, * whose forms,' rupadheya being virtually equivalent to simple rapa, Ppp. reads 
in b sahaidram. The " cow-stall " does not probably imply anything more than an 
enclosure. The Anukr. passes without notice the/^x^^i/fpada d. 

2. To this cow-stall let cattle flow-together [stream togetherj (sam- 
sru)\ let Brihaspati, foreknowing, lead them hither; let Sinivali lead 
hither the van (dgra) of them ; make them fast when they have come, 
O Anumati. 

Lin the prior draft of 3, Mr. Whitney has * stream.' J Ppp. has at the end yacchdt; 
one of SPP*s mss,, yacckaf. The comm. g^ves anugate {= he anugamanakdrini) in d. 
The value of pra in the common epithet prajdndnt (rendered * foreknowing *) is obscure 
and probably minimal. \K% to the deities here named, see Zimmer, p. 352, and Hille- 
brandt, Ved, MythoL i. 422. J 

3. Together, together let cattle flow [stream J, together horses, and 
together men, together the fatness that is of grain ; I offer with an obla- 
tion of confluence. 

For the oblation called *of confluence,' to effect the streaming together of good 
things, compare i. 15 and xix. i. The change of meter in this hymn need not damage 
its unity, in view of its occurrence as one hymn in Ppp. Ppp. reads in b pdurusds, and 
in c sphdtibhis (for yd sph-). The metrical definition of the Anukr. seems to reject the 
obvious resolution -vi-e-na in d. 

4. I pour together the milk (ksird) of kine, together strength, sap, 
with sacrificial butter; poured together are our heroes; fixed are the 
kine in me \rathery with mej [as] kine-lord. 

Ppp. reads valam in b, combines -ktd ^smdkam in c, and has for d mayi gdvag ca 
gopatdu. The redundant syllable in d (noticed by the Anukr.) would be got rid of 
by changing mdyi to the old locative mi\j but with better metrical result, by adopting 
the Ppp. reading J. With the second half-verse is to be compared AQS. iii. 1 1 . 6 : aristn 
asmdkam vlrd mayi gdvah santu gopatdu. The comm. says that gavdm in a means 
grstlndm *of heifers (having their first calf).' 

5. I bring (a-hr) the milk of kine; I have brought the sap of grain; 
brought are our heroes, our wives, to this home (dstakd). 


Ppp. has aharsam in b, in c iharisam (for ahrtds) and vtr&n, and in d J patnlm 
€ *dam. Our Bp. gives ahdrisam (and H. ahardrisam) in b, and ahutas in c. 

The anuvdka [^4. J has this time 9 hymns, with 48 verses ; the old Anukr. says dvy- 
aptam IfatdrdAam'] iurfyah, 

27. For victory in disputation: with a plant. 

\ICapihjala. — saptarcam . vSnaspatyam . dnustubham .] 

Found in P&ipp. ii. KSlu^. uses the hymn in the rite or charm for overcoming an 
adversary in public dispute: one is to come to the assembly from the north-eastern 
direction (because of its name apardjita * unconquered *), chewing the root of the plant, 
and to have it in his mouth while speaking ; also to bind on an amulet of it, and to wear 
a wreath of seven of its leaves (38. 18-21). Verse 6, again, is reckoned (50. 13, note) 
to the rdudra gana. The comm. further quotes from the Naks. |_error for QSntiJ K. 
(17, 19) a prescription of the use of the hymn in a mah&qdnti called apardjita. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 190; Ludwig, p. 461 ; Grill, ist edition, 18,51 ; Bloomfield, 
JAOS. xiii., p. xlii (PAOS. May, 1885), or AJP. vii. 479 ; Grill, 2d edition, 23, 93 ; Griffith, 
i. 66; Bloomfield, SBE. xlii. 137,304. — Bloomfield was the first to point out (on the 
authority of K&U9.) the connection of prd^ with root prach, and to give the true inter- 
pretation of the hymn. Grill follows him in the second edition. 

1. May [my] foe by no means win {ji) the dispute; overpowering, 
overcoming art thou ; smite the dispute of [my] counter-disputant ; make 
them sapless, O herb. 

" Dispute " (Prif) is literally * questioning.' The comm. renders the word in a by 
prastar * questioner,* but in c g^ves us our choice between that and praqna < question,* 
and in 7 a acknowledges only the latter meaning. Prdiiprdqas is translated here as 
genitive ; the comm. takes it secondly as such, but first as accus. pi. ; the Ppp. reading 
favors the latter: sd *miin pratiprdqo jaya rasd kr-. With either understanding, the 
accent is anomalous ; we ought to have pratipriqas, Arasin also is in favor of the 
pluraL If we could emend priqam in c to prdqi * in the disputation,' it would make 
things much easier. For a Ppp. has yaq catrUn samjaydt. Nid in a is simply the 
emphasized negative. 

2. The eagle discovered (anu-vid) thee ; the swine dug thee with his 

snout : smite the dispute etc. etc. 

P&da b shows that the root is the part of the plant employed. If we struck off the 
impertinent refrain from vss. 2-5, and combined the lines into two verses, the hymn 
would conform to the norm of the second book (as in more than one case above 

Lp- 37J). 

3. Indra put (kr) thee on his arm, in order to lay low (sir) the Asuras : 

smite the dispute etc. etc. 

The comm., both here and in the next verse, understands -bhyaQC) stdrltave as -bhyas 
idrl-^ though he then explains tarltave by starltum, Pada a is rendered in accordance 
with the comm. and with Weber ; Grill, * took thee into his arm.' 

4. Indra consumed {vi-af) the pdtd, in order to lay low the Asuras : 
smite the dispute etc. etc. 


The comm. reads in a pdthdmj and uses that form in all his explanations ; pdtdm 
seems to be given in all the mss., and in Ppp., and both editions adopt it ; but the mss. 
are very little to be trusted for the distinction of / and M. " The plant is the Clypea 
hernandifolia, whose bitter root is much used. It grows all over India, and is said to 
be applied to ulcers in the Penjab and in Sindh (W. Dymock, Vegetable mat. med.) " 
(R.). |_In his note. Roth gives pdtdm as Ppp. form ; but in his collation, he gives as 
Ppp. reading in a, b pdyam indro\ vydsndn hantave as-. The Anukr. apparently expects 
us to resolve vi-d-^n-dt in a. 

5. With it will I overpower the foes, as Indra did the sdldvrkds : smite 

the dispute etc. etc. 

The translation implies emendation of the inadmissible sdkse to sdksye, than which 
nothing is easier (considering the frequent loss oiy after a lingual or palatal sibilant) or 
more satisfactory, for both sense and meter ; it is favored, too, by the Ppp. reading, 
saksfye. No other example of long ^ in a future form of this verb appears to be quot- 
able ; but the exchange of a and d in its inflection and derivation is so common that this 
makes no appreciable difficulty. The comm. accepts sdkse ^ rendering it by abhi bhavdmi. 
The Anukr. notes no metrical irregularity in the verse. In our text, accent sdldvrkan 
(an accent-mark out of place). LTo Weber's note on sdldvrkds add Oertel, JAOS. 
xix.2 1 23 f. This allusion adds to the plausibility of W's suggestion about the Yatis, 
note to ii. 5. 3.J 

6. O Rudra, thou of healing {}) remedies, of dark {nila) crests, deed- 
doer ! smite the dispute etc. etc. 

Ppp. has for Cy^prstam durasyato jahi yo smdn abhid&sati^ which is plainly much 
better than the repetition of the refrain, and for which the latter has perhaps been sub- 
stituted in our text The comm. draws out to great length a series of derivations for 
rudra^ and gives two ioxjaldsa^ and three different explanations of karmakrt, |_Bloom- 
field discusses y^/- etc. at length, A J P. xii. 425 ff. J 

7. Do thou smite the dispute of him, O Indra, who vexes us ; bless us 

with abilities {gdkti) ; make me superior in the dispute. 

Ppp. rt2ids prstam for prdqam tvant in a, and ends b with -ddsate. The comm. has 
prdqam instead of prdqi in d and is supported in it by two of SPP's authorities. The 
prdqam in a he explains by vdkyam^ and that in his d by prastdram. 

28. For long life for a certain person (child?). 

\jQambhu. — jarimdyurddivatam, trdistubham: i.jagatt;j.bhurij.'\ 

Found in Paipp. (vss. 1-4 in i.; vs. 5 in xv.). Used by Kau^. in the goddna cere- 
mony (54. 13), as the parents pass the boy three times back and forth between them and 
make him eat balls of ghee ; and the same is done in the cUdd or cdula (hair-cutting) cere- 
mony (54. 16, note); the schol. also reckon it to the dyusya gana (54. 11, note). 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 192; Grill, 48,94; Griffith, i. 67; Bloomfield, 50, 306. 

I. For just thee, O old age, let this one grow; let not the other 
deaths, that are a hundred, harm him ; as a forethoughtful mother in her 
lap a son, let Mitra protect him from distress that comes from a friend 


Ppp. has in b tvat for qatam ye, and combines in d mitre ^nam. The omission of either 
imdm or any^ would rectify the meter of b. The comm. most foolishly takes jariman 
first from jr *sing/ and explains it as Ae stUyamdna agne! then adding the true ety- 
mology and sense. The ^^jagatf^^ is quite irregular: 12 + 13 : 1 1 + 12 = 48. LBloom- 
field cites an admirable parallel from RV. iv. 55. 5 ; but in his version he has quite 
overlooked the verb-accent. J 

2. Let Mitra or helpful {} rigadds) Varuna in concord make him one 

that dies of old age; so Agni the ofiferer {hdtar), knowing the ways 

(vayuna), bespeaks all the births of the gods. 

All ourpada-mss. read in a rz'fddd instead of -ddA ; SPP. properly emends to -ddA, 
This wholly obscure word is found independently only here in AV. ; its rendering above 
is intended only to avoid leaving a blank; the comm. gives the ordinary etymology, as 
hinsakdndm attd; GriU, emending to ariqddas^ brings out an ingenious but uncon- 
vincing parallelism with Gr. ipucvS-^t ; and, as noticed by him, Aufrecht also would under- 
stand dn'fidas * very prominent* Ppp. reads for a mi/rag ca tvd varunaq ca risdddu^ 
and has at the end of d -mdni vakti, 

3. Thou art master (ff) of earthly cattle, that are born, or also that 

are to be bom; let not breath leave this one, nor expiration; let not 

friends slay (vadh) this one, nor enemies. 

All the mss., and the comm., read at end of hjanUrdSy which SPP. accordingly retains, 
while our text makes the necessary emendation iojdnitvds^ which Ppp. also has. Ppp. 
|_omits vd in b ;J elides the initial a of apdno and amitrdh after mo; and it puts the verse 
after our vs. 4. Pada b lacks a syllable, unnoticed by the Anukr. \x^7A jdtasas f \, 

4. Let father heaven, let mother earth, in concord, make thee one that 

dies of old age ; that thou mayest live in the lap of Aditi, guarded by 

breath and expiration, a hundred winters. 

Ppp. reads te for tvd in a, and dlrgham dyuh for sathviddne in b ; also rtyd for adites 
in c The Anukr. takes no notice of the irregularity of the meter (9 + 11 : 10 + 12 
= 42 : a poor tristubh/)\ the insertion of ca 2SXtx prikivi in a, and emendation to 
jivdsi in c would be easy rectifications. [In order to bring the cesura of a in the right 
place, read dydHs and tvd each as one syllable and insert a ca also Tiiitv pitd. Thus all 
is orderly, 11 -h 1 1 : 1 1 + 12. The accent-mark over/r- is gone. J 

5. This one, O Agni, do thou lead for life-time, for splendor, to dear 

seed, O Varuna, Mitra, king ! like a mother, O Aditi, yield {yam) him 

refuge ; O all ye gods, that he be one reaching old age. 

All \.\it pada-ms&. read at end of b mitraordjan^ as a compound ; and SPP. so gives 
it ; the comm. understands rdjan correctly as an independent word, but perhaps only as 
he in general is superior to the restraints of the /^^-readings. Ppp. (in xv.) has priyo 
for -yam in b. The verse is found also in TS. (ii. 3. io3), TB. (ii. 7. 75), TA. (ii. 5. i), 
and MS. (ii. 3.4). All these give krdhi for nay a at end of a ; TA. MS. have tigmdm 
djas instead oipriydm ritas in b ; TS. TB. MS. read soma rdjan at end of b, while TA. 
offers instead sdm q^ddhi; all accent jdradastis in d, and MS. leaves asat at the end 
unaccented. In (JGS. (i. 27), again, is a version of the verse, omitting naya in a, read- 
ing (with MS.) tigmam ojas and soma in b, and having aditih qarma yamsat in c. 
LVon Schroeder gives the Katha version, Tiibinger Katha-hss., p. 72-3.J 


29. For some one's long life and other blessings. 

[AtJkarvan. — saptarcam. bahudevatyam. trdistubham : /. anustubk ; 4. pardbrkafi 


Found in Paipp., but in two widely separated parts : vss. 1-3 in xix., and vss. 4-7 
in i. (next following our hymn 28). Used in Kaug. (27.9ff.) in a curious healing rite 
for one afflicted with thirst : the patient and a well person are set back to back, wrapped 
in one garment together, and the latter is made to drink a certain potion apparently 
prepared for the other ; thus the disease will be transferred to the well person : a total 
perversion of the proper meaning of the hymn. Again, it is used (54. 18) in \kit goddna 
and cUdd ceremonies, and, according to the schol. (58. 17, note), in that of name-giving ; 
and the schol. (42. 15) further add it in the rite on the return home of a Vedic student. 
And vs. 3 accompanies in Vait. (22. 16) the pouring of the dqlr milk into the clarified 
soma in the fUtabhrt at the agnistoma sacrifice |_cf. comm. and Hillebrandt, Ritual- 
litteratur^ p. 129 J. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 194; Ludwig, p. 493 ; Griffith, i. 68; Bloomfield, 47, 308. 

1. In the sap of what is earthly, O gods, in the strength of Bhaga's 
self {tanil) — length of life to this man may Agni, Surya — splendor may 
Brihaspati impart. 

Or it might be *in the sap of earthly portion, in strength of body* (a, b); * what is 
earthly ' would refer to some characteristic product of earth applied in the rite ; the 
comm. understands the god Bhaga, but his opinion is of no authority. As Weber sug- 
gests, the exchange of dyusydm here in c and ayus in 2 a would rectify the meter of 
both verses : in neither case does the Anukr. note an irregularity. Ppp. has here dyur 
asmdt\ but follows it with somo varca dhdid brh-. Some of our mss., with two or three 
of SPP*s, accent dyusyam. The comm. takes devds in a for a nominative. 

2. Length of life to him assign thou, O Jatavedas ; progeny, O Tvashtar, 
do thou bestow on him ; abundance of wealth, O Savitar (* impeller *), do 
thou impel to him ; may he live a hundred autumns of thee. 

The construction of a dative with adhi-ni-dhd in b seems hardly admissible ; BR. 
|_iii. 917J, in quoting the passage, reads asmS, apparently by an intended emendation, 
which, however, does not suit the connection ; asmin is the only real help. 

3. Our blessing [assign him] refreshment, possession of excellent 
progeny; do ye (two), accordant, assign [him] dexterity, property (drd- 
vino) ; [let] this man [be] conquering fields with power, O Indra, putting 
(kr) other rivals beneath him. 

The verse is difficult, and, as the parallel texts show, badly corrupted. A(ir nas 
(for which Weber ingeniously suggested i^frne) is supported by d^ir nas in MS. 
(iv. 12. 3) and 5f/r me in TS. (iii. 2. 85) and K(JS. (x. 5. 3) ; and all these versions give 
it a verb in b, dadhdtu^ instead of the impracticable dual dhattam^ with which our sdce- 
tasdu is in the same combination. The alteration of this to the sdvarcasam of TS. 
MS., or the suvarcasam of KQS. and Ppp., would indicate that of dhattam to -tarn (as 
middle), and allow sense to be made of the pada. All the other texts, including Ppp., 
give in a suprajdstvdm instead of the anomalous and bad sdupr-, TS. MS. KQS. 
have isam for ddksam in b. The translation implies emendation oijdyam in c Xojdyan 


in accordance with the samjdyan of the other texts ; but Ppp. has safk jayaty which 
would be even more acceptable — only not with ahdm^ as all the four read for ay dm, 
TS. MS., finally, combine anyih ddh- in d; K(^S. elides *nydn. In K^S., as in Vtit., 
the first word is to be understood as dqir; the comm. interprets both ways |_as from iqis 
* blessing ' or from Hqir * milk * J. He regards the &u of sdupra- in a as simply " Vedic," 
and heaven and earth as addressed in b. 

4. Given by Indra, instructed by Varuna, sent forth by the Maruts, 
hath the formidable one come to us ; let this man, in your lap, O heaven- 
and-earth, not hunger, not thirst. 

The <* thirst " of the patient in Kau^. has no more substantial foundation than the 
last two words of this verse. The text in Ppp. is defaced, but shows srsfas for ^istas in 
a, and in c, d, after -thivly pari daddmi sa md» The Anukr. would have us scan 
1 1 + 1 1 : 8 + 9 = 39, dividing before updsthe; but the /^^-mss. mark the division 
correctiy, after that word. 

5. Assign refreshment to him, ye (two) that are rich in refreshment ; 
assign milk to him, ye rich in milk ; refreshment have heaven-and-earth 
assigned to him, [have] all the gods, the Maruts, refreshment [have] the 

* Refreshment * is the conventional rendering selected for the ambiguous word ^rj and 
its varieties. Nearly all our mss. (all save P. M.), and all of SPP's, have the false 
accentuation devds in d ; both editions emend to devis^ which the comm. also under- 
stands. So also with dyivdprthivt in c, for which the mss. have either dydvdprthivl (so 
nearly all of ours and one of SPP's) or dydv&prthivi (so, according to SPP., all his save 
one, with our O.D.); only our H. has the true reading, which is given by emendation in 
both editions. The verse (10+ 10: 12 + 11 = 43) is far from being a good tristubh. 

6. With propitious things (f .) I gratify thy heart ; mayest thou enjoy 
thyself (mud) free from disease, very splendid ; let the two that dwell 
together Q savdsin) drink this stir-about {manthd), putting on [as] magic 
the form of the (two) A^vins. 

The second half-verse is said apparently of a married pair, who are by supernatural 
means to become as beautiful as the A^vins. Of course, the comm. follows K&U9. in 
understanding it of the sick and well man, and taking savdsin as ** dressed in one gar- 
ment.*' The comm. supplies adbkis in a, which is plausible (so Weber). Ppp. reads in 
a tarpayaniu, in b modamdnaq care ^ha, and in d afvindu. Several of SPP's mss. 
give malhdm in c. 

7. Indra in the beginning, being pierced, created this refreshment, 
[this] unaging svadhd ; it is thine here ; by it live thou for autumns, very 
splendid ; be there no flux of thee ; the healers have made [it] for thee. 

In d, i susrot is here rendered as if it involved the idea of dsrdva *fiux'; the d 
seems to forbid its being taken to mean " let it not be spilled " ; the comm., however, 
so understands it: pracyuto md bhnt. Some of our mss. (M.P.W.) read tvdyd at 
beginning of c. The comm. has tlrjam in b. Ppp. gives, in a, b, vidyo agram Urjam 
svadhdm ajatdm etam esd. 


30. To secure a woman's love. 

\Prajdpati (kdminimanobhimukhikaranakdmah), — dfvinam. dnustubham : 

I , pathydpaiikti ; j. bhurij.'\ 

Found in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order i, 5, 2, 4, 3). Used by Kau^. (35. 21 ff.), with 
vi, 8 and other hymns, in a rite concerning women, to gain control over a certain person : 
a mess of various substances is prepared, and her body smeared with it — which is 
much like the proverbial catching of a bird by putting salt on its tail. 

Translated: Weber, v. 218 and xiii. 197; Ludwig, p. 517; Grill, 52, 97; Griffith, 
i. 70; Bloomfield, 100, 311. 

1 . As the wind here shakes the grass off the earth, so do I shake thy 
mind, that thou mayest be one loving me, that thou mayest be one not 
going away from me. 

The last half-verse is the same with the concluding padas of i. 34. 5 and vi. 8. 1-3 ; 
SPP. again alters the ^^^^-text to dpaogak (see under i. 34. 5) ; Ppp. has here for e 
evd mama tvdyasL Ppp. reads in a, b bhumya *dhi vatas ( ! ) /r-. We should expect 
in a rather bhimySm^ and this the comm. reads, both in his exposition and in his quota- 
tion of the pratika from Kaug. ; but Bloomfield gives no such variant in his edition. 

2. May ye, O A^vins, both lead together and bring [her] together 
with him who loves her. The fortunes {bhdgd) of you (two) have come 
together, together [your] intents, together [your] courses (yratd). 

Notwithstanding the accent of vdksathas^ it does not seem possible to understand 
cid in a as * if ' (Grill, however, so takes it ; Weber as above), since the second half- 
verse has no application to the Agvins (we should like to alter vam in c to ndti), |_But 
see Bloomfield.J The translators take kdmind in a as for kdmindu *the (two) lovers,' 
which it might also well be ; the comm. says kdmind mayd. He also calls vrata simply 
a karmandman, which is very near the truth, as the word certainly comes from root 
vrt (see JAOS. xi., p. ccxxix = PAOS. Oct. 1884). Ppp. reads nesitas in b for vaksa- 
thas; and, in c, d, sarvd *ngandsy agmata sam caksHnsi sam etc. Both here and in 
vs. 5 bhdga might possibly have its other sense of genitalia, or imply that by double 
meaning ; but the comm., who would be likely to spy out any such hidden sense, says 
simply bhdgydnu |_In a, aqvind is misprinted. — W*s implications are that if vaksathas 
were toneless it might be taken as a case of antithetical construction and that there 
would be no need to join it with cid,\ 

3. What the eagles [are] wanting to say, the free from disease [are] 

wanting to say — there let her come to my call, as the tip to the neck of 

the arrow {kUlmala). 

The first half-verse is very obscure, and very differently understood by the transla- 
tors; the rendering above is strictly literal, avoiding the violences which they allow 
themselves ; the comm. gives no aid ; he supplies strlvisayam vdkyam ioyat, and explains 
anamlvds by arogino *drptdh (? SPP. understands drptdk) kdmijandk, Ppp. has an 
independent text : yas suparnd raksdna vd na vaksana vd trdtdnpitafk manah : ^alye 
*va gulmalUm yathd — too corrupt to make much of. The Anukr. declines to sanction 
the contraction qalyi *va in d. 


4. What [was] within, [be] that without; what [was] without, [be] 

that within ; of the maidens of many forms seize thou the mind, O herb. 

In the obscure formalism of a, b the comm. thinks mind and speech to be intended. 
LWhy not r^/as and (^pas f] ♦ Of all forms,' i.e., as often elsewhere, * of every sort 
and kind.' L^PP' reads abdhyath for bdhyath yad bdhyam,\ 

5. Hither hath this woman come, desiring a husband ; desiring a wife 

have I come ; like a loud-neighing {krand) horse, together with fortune 

have I come. 

That is, perhaps, * I have enjoyed her favors.' None of the mss. fail to accent >^^MJ 
in c. 

31. Against worms. 

\Kdnva. — mahidevatyam uta cdndram, dnustubham : 2. uparistddvirddbrhafi ; j. drfi 

tristubh ; 4. prdguktd brhatl ; j. prdguktd tristubh^ 

Found also in P§lipp. ii. Used by Kaug. (27. I4£E.) in an extended healing rite 
against worms ; the detail of the ceremonial has nothing to do with that of the hymn, 
and does not illustrate the latter. 

Translated: Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 135 ff. ; Weber, xiii. 199 ; Ludwig, p. 323 ; Grill, 6, 98 ; 
Griffith, i. 71 ; Bloomfield, 22, 313. — Cf. Zimmer, pp.98, 393 ; Mannhardt, Der Baum- 
kultus der Gcrmanen^ p. 12 if.; K. Miillenhoff, Denkmdler deutscher Poesie aus dem 
8. bis 12, Jahrhundert 3, i. 17, 181 ; and especially the old Germanic analogues adduced 
by Kuhn, I.e. Griffith exits Harper'' s Magazine^ June, 1893, p. 106, for modem usages 
in vogue near Quebec. 

1. The great mill-stone that is Indra's, bruiser {tdrftana) of every worm 

— with that I mash {pis) together the worms, as k/id/va-gr^iins with a 


Our mss. and those of SPP., as well as Ppp., vary, in this hymn and elsewhere, quite 
indiscriminately between krimi and kfmi^ so that it is not at all worth while to report 
the details; SPP. agrees with us in printing everywhere krimi. Two of our mss. 
(O. Op.), with one of SPP's, read dhrsdt in a. Ppp. gives at the end khalvdH iva. 
The comm. explains krimln by qarlrdntargatdn sarvdn ksudrajantun. 

2. The seen, the unseen one have I bruised, also the kurbm have I 

bruised ; all the algdnduSy the qalunas, the worms we grind up with our 

spell {vdcas). 

The distinction of -Iga- and -Id- in the manuscripts is very imperfect ; I had noted 
only one of our mss. as apparently having algdndtln, here and in the next verse ; but SPP. 
gives this as found in all his authorities, including oral ones ; and the comm. presents 
it, and even also Ppp.; so that it is beyond all question the true reading. The comm. 
explains it here as etanndmnah krimivi^esdn^ but in vs. 3 as qonitamdhsadQsakdh jantiin 

— which last is plainly nothing more than a guess. Instead of kururum in b, he reads 
kurlram, with three of SPP's mss., and Ppp.; other mss. differ as to their distribution 
of u and ;7 in the syllables of the word, and two of ours (Op. Kp.) give kururam. Two 
of SPP*s authorities give vdrcasd in d. Ppp. further has adraham for atrham both 
times, and qalUldn in c. The omission of krimln in d would ease both sense and meter. 
LAs to sarvdn ch-^ cf. iii. 1 1. 5, iv. 8. 3, and Prat. ii. 17, note. J 


3. I smite the algdndiis with a great deadly weapon; burnt [or] 
unburnt, they have become sapless ; those left [or] not left I draw down 
by my spell iydc)^ that no one of the worms be left. 

It seems hardly possible to avoid amending at the end to uckisyat&i^ passive. Ppp. 
reads in b dunaddund, and its last half-verse is defaced. 

4. The one along the entrails, the one in the head, likewise the worm 
in the ribs, the avaskavd, the vyadhvard — the worms we grind up with 
our spell (vdcas). 

The comm., and two of SPP*s mss., read in h fiarsneyam *in the heel*; and SEP. 
admits into his text after it krimtn^ against the great majority of his mss. and against 
the comm.; none of ours have it, but three (O. Op. Kp.) give krimlm^ which looks like 
an abortive attempt at it. For vyadhvaram in c, Ppp. has yaram ; all the mss. have 
vyadkvardm/ unless it is to be emended to lyadvardm (cf. vi. 50. 3, note), it must prob- 
ably be derived from vyadh * pierce'; but the /a<^-reading vioadhvardm points rather 
to vi-adkvanj the comm. takes it from the latter, and also, alternatively, from vi and 
a-dhvara; avaskavd is, according to him, av&ggatnanasvabhdva ; it seems rather to 
come from -yjsku * tear.' The expression pr&gukta * as heretofore defined ' is not used 
elsewhere in the Anukr. ; it is used by abbreviation for uparistddvir&d (vs. 2) ; but why 
the two verses were not defined together, to make repetition needless, does not appear. 
|_In d, again, krimln is a palpable intrusion. J 

5. The worms that are in the mountains, in the woods, in the herbs, 
in the cattle, within the waters, that have entered our selves (tanii) — that 
whole generation (jdniman) of worms I smite. 

Two of SPP's mss. agree with the comm. in reading tiiox yi ?X beginning of c; and 
the comm. has further tanvas for tanvam, Ppp. inserts ^'^ before vanesu, Sindye (with 
an avasdna before it) also before osadhlsuj for second half -verse it gives ye *smdkam 
tanno (i.e. tanvo) sthdma cakrir (i.e. cakrur or cakrire) indras tan hantu mahatd vadh- 
ena, Prdguktd in the Anukr. apparently repeats this time the superfluous drsl of vs. 3. 

The anuvdka |_5. J has 5 hymns and 29 verses, and the extract from the old Anukr. 
says tato *pardtdi or *pardnte, 

32. Against worms. 

\Kdnva, — sadrcam, ddiiyadevatyam. dnustubham: i. j-p,bhurtggdyairi; 6. 4p. nicrd usniA.] 

This hymn occurs in Paipp. ii. (with vs. 3 put last), next before the one that here 
precedes it Kauq. applies it (27. 21 ff.) in a healing ceremony against worms in cattle. 

LThe material appears in Ppp. in the order i, 2 ab, 4 cdab, 5 ab, 6, 3 abc 5 d. The 
expression of Kau9. 27. 22, " with the words /^ Aatd/i (vs. 5 d) at the end of the hymn," 
suggests the reduction of the hymn to the norm of the book, 5 vss. (see p. 37). This 
is borne out by Ppp., where the material amounts to 5 vss. and ends with our 5 d. 
But what the intruded portions are it is not easy to say. The parts missing in Ppp. 
are our 2 cd, 3 d, 5 c.J 

Translated: Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 138; Weber, xiii. 201; Ludwig, p. 500; Grill, 7, 100; 
Griffith, i. 72 ; Bloomfield, 23, 317. — Cf. Hillebrandt, Veda-chrestomathie^ P-47- 

I. Let the sun (adityd\ rising, smite the worms; setting, let him 
smite [them] with his rays — the worms that are within the cow. 


The change of ddityds to siryas in a would rectify the meter. But Ppp. has adityas; 
its b reads sHryo nimrocan raqmibkir kantuj and for c it has ye *ntas krimayo 
gavl nak, 

2. The worm of all forms, the four-eyed, the variegated, the whitish 
— I crush (fr) the ribs of it ; I hew at {api-vragc) what is its head. 

The mss., as usual, vary between prsfis and Pfsthh in c. Ppp. has a different ver- 
sion of the first half-verse : yo dviqlrsd caturaksas krimiq ^drgo arjunak^ with our 
4 C d as second half. The Anukr. expects us to make the unusual resolution a-si-a in c. 

3. Like Atri I slay you, O worms, like Kanva, like Jamadagni ; with 
the incantation of Agastya I mash together the worms. 

Ppp. rectifies the meter of a by reading tvd krme; it has agastyam in c, and, for d, 
our 5 d. The Anukr. ignores the redundant syllable in our a. Compare TA. iv. 36 
(which the comm. quotes, though the editor does not tell from whence): dtrind tvd 
krime hanmi kdnvena jamddagnind : viqvivasor brdhmand; also MB. ii. 7. i a, b : 
hatas te atrind krimir hatas te jamadagnind, SPP. writes in a attrivdd, Vss. 3-5 
are repeated below as v. 23. 10-12. 

4. Slain is the king of the worms, also the chief (sthapdti) of them is 
slain ; slain is the worm, having its mother slain, its brother slain, its 
sister slain. 

Ppp. has in b sthapacis^ and in c, d (its 2 c, d) -trdtd for -mdtd^ and -mahatd for 
bhrdtd, TA. (iv. 36) has again a parallel verse : hatdh krimlndfk rijd dpy esdm stha- 
pdtir hatdh : dtho mdti *tho piti; cf. also MB. ii. 7. 3 a,b : hatah krimln&m ksudrako 
hatd mdtd hatah pitd. The comm. explains sthapati by saciva, 

5. Slain are its neighbors (} vefds), slain its further neighbors (i pdri- 
vefos), also those that are petty (ksu/lakd), as it were — all those worms 
are slain. 

The translation of d implies the emendation of te to //y all the mss. have the former, 
but SPP. receives the latter into his text on the authority of the comm., who so under- 
stands the word. Ppp. reads in a, b 'sya vesaso hatdsas p-j our c is wanting in its 
text ; our d it puts in place of our 3 d. Our ksullaka is a kind of Pr^kritization of 
ksudraka, quoted from MB. under vs. 4 ; TA. (ib.) also has dtho sthUri dtho ksudrih. 
The comm. explains vegdsas as ** principal houses,*' and pdrive^asas as ** neighhoring 
houses.** We might suspect -ves-^ from root vis, and so * attendants, servants.' 

6. I crush up {pra-^r) thy (two) horns, with which thou thrustest; I 

split thy receptacle (i), which is thy poison-holder. 

The decided majority, both of our mss. and of SPP*s, give in c kusiimbham, which 
is accordingly accepted in both editions ; other sporadic readings are kumsumbham, 
kusdbham, kaqdbham, kusubham, kusdmbham; and two of SPP's mss. give sukum- 
bham, nearly agreeing with the sukambham of the comm. Our P.M.E. have vinud- 
in b. Ppp*s version is as follows : pa te qt^rndfni qrnge ydbhydyattam vitaddyasi: atho 
bhinadmi tarn kumbhath yasmin te nihatam visam, which in c is better than our text, 
and is supported by the MB. (ii. 7. 3) form of c, d : athdi *sdm bhinnakah kumbho ya 
esdm visadhdnakah. The metrical definition of the verse (7 + 7:7+6=27) given 
by the Anukr. is only mechanically correct. 


33. For expulsion of jSksma, from all parts of the body. 

[Brahman. — saptarcam, yaksmamharhanam ; cdndramasam ; dyusyam. dnustubham. 
J. kakummati; 4.4-p. bhurig usnih ; ^. uparistddvirddbrhati ; 6. usniggarbhd 

nicrdanustubh ; 7. pathydpahkti.^ 

Found in Paipp. iv. Corresponds, with important variations, to most of R V. x. 1 63 
(found also in MP., the mantra-MtrX to ApGS.: see Winternitz, I.e., p. 99). LNamely, 
our vss. 1, 2, 4 ab with 3 cd, and 5 correspond to MP. i. 1 7. i, 2, 3, and 4 : the MP. version 
follows most nearly that of RV.J The hymn is called by K^u^. (27. 27) vlbarha 
(from vs. 7 d), and is prescribed in a healing ceremony ; it is also reckoned (54. 11, note) 
to the dyusya gana; but the comm. makes up an ahholinga gana of it and iii. 1 1 ; iv. 1 3 ; 
v. 30 ; ix. 8, which is quite different from the one reported by Bloomfield from the gana- 
mSld in note to Kaug. 32. 27 |_on page 89, but agrees with the one reported in B's sup- 
plement, page 334, except that for i. 10. 4 should be put iii. 1 1. 1 J. It (or vs. i) is also 
employed by Vait. (38. i) in Hd^ purusamedha. 

Translated : by the RV. translators ; and Kuhn, KZ. xiii. d^ ff . ; Weber, xiii. 205 ; 
Griffith, i. 74; Bloomfield, 44, 321. — Oldenberg compares critically the RV. and AV. 
versions, die Hymnen des RV,, i. p. 243. 

1. Forth from thy (two) eyes, (two) nostrils, (two) ears, chin, brain, 

tongue, I eject {vi-vrh) for thee i\ie ydksma of the head. 

The verse is RV. x. 163. i, without variant. Two or three of SPP*s mss., with the 
comm., read in b cUbukdt; MP. has cibukdt |_in the Whish ms.J ; Ppp. substitutes for it 
ndsydt (i.e. dsydf), has uta for ddhi, and has for d laldtdd vi vayemasi, 

2. From thy neck (grivds), nape (usn/Ads), vertebrae (ktkasd), back- 
bone, (two) shoulders, (two) fore-arms, I eject for thee the ydksma of 
the arms. 

This, again, is precisely RV. x. 163. 2. Ppp. reads in b anUkyds^ and in d urastas 
(for bdhubhydni) and vrhdmasi. The pi. grlvis for * neck ' designates, according to 
the comm., the 14 small bones found there ; and he quotes QB. xii. 2. 4. 10 for authority. 
The usnihds he declares to be certain vessels {nddt)\ the klkasdSy to h^ jatruvakso- 
gatdsthlni, which is quite indefinite. 

3. Forth from thy heart, lung {klomdn), hdliksna, (two) sides, (two) 
mdtasnasy spleen, liver, we eject for thee Wi^ ydksma, 

Weber conjectures " gall " for hallksna (Ppp. hallksmd), and " kidney " for matasna. 
The comm. defines klomdn as ** a kind of flesh-mass in the neighborhood of the heart,*' 
hallksna as etatsafkjHakdt tatsambandhdn mdnsapindavi^esdt, and matasndbhydm as 
ubhayapdrqvasambandhdbhydtn vrkydbhydrh tatsamlpasthapittddhdrapdtrdbhydm vd. 
For a, Ppp. has klomnas U hrdaydbhyo. Of this verse, only the latter half has a paral- 
lel in RV., namely x. 163. 3 c, d, where d is varied to yakndh pidqibhyo vi vrhdmi te. 
The Anukr. foolishly rejects all resolution in b. 

4. Forth from thine entrails, guts, rectum, belly, (two) paunches, //drf/, 

navel, I eject for thee \!ci^ ydksma. 

The comm. explains gudabhyas by dntrasamipasthebhyo malamUtrapravahana- 
mdrgebhyah, and pidqis by bahucchidrdn malapdtrdt; and he quotes QB. xii. 9. i. 3, 
where many of the names in the verse occur. RV. (also MP.) has the first half-verse. 


as 163. 3 a, b, reading hfdaydt for uddrdt. For b, c, |_d, J Ppp. substitutes our 6 b, c |_d, 
but with p&nyor in c and vrhdmasi at the end J. The Anukr. again rejects all resolu- 
tions, which would make the verse a fair anusfubhy and counts 7+8 : 7 + 7=29. 

5. From thy (two) thighs, knees, heels, front feet, hips, fundament ' 

(? bhdhsas)^ I eject for thee \!ti<t ydksma of the rump. 

In the translation here is omitted bhisadam^ the pure equivalent of bhasadyHmy 
and hence as superfluous in sense as redundant in meter. |_Is noli prdpada *toe'?J 
The verse is nearly RV. x. 163.4, which, however, omits bhasadydm^ and reads, after 
qrdnibhydm^ bhisad&t^ indicating the whole region of anus and pudenda, Ppp. ends 
the verse (like 2 and 4) with vrhdmasL Several of our mss., with two or three of 
SPP's, carelessly begin with uru-, MP. has in \i janghdbhyam for pdrsnibkydm^ and 
in d dhvansasas. The verse seems to be scanned by the Anukr. as 8 + 7 : 8 + 1 1 = 34. 

6. From thy bones, marrows, sinews, vessels, (two) hands, fingers, 

nails, I eject for thee the ydksma, 

Pdni is distinctively * palm/ and might properly be so rendered here. Nearly all our 
samAifd^mss.j with most of SPP*s, omit the visarga before snivabhyo, Ppp. has a 
different a, C, d : hastebhyas ie mdnsebhyas . . . : yaksmam prstibhyo majjabhyo nddydfk 
virvahdmasi. The Anukr. scans as 7 -¥7 :9+8=3i. 

7. What [ydksma is] in thine every limb, every hair, every joint — 

the ydksma of thy skin do we, with Kagyapa's ejector {vibarhd) eject 

away {visvaflc). 

The first half-verse corresponds to RV. x. 163.6. a,b, which (as also MP.) reads 
thus : dHgdd-aHgdl Idmno-lomno jdtdm pdrvani-parvani ; and Ppp. agrees with it, 
except in having baddham for jdtam; Ppp. also omits d. In d our P. M., with some 
of SPP^s mss., read vibar-^ as does also the comm. \yivarham\. In our edition, an 
accent-mark has fallen out under -Heath in e. 

34. Accompanjrlng the sacrifice of an animal. 

\A tharvan, — pdpipatyam ; pafubhdgakaranam . trdistubham .] 

Found in Paipp. iii.; and also in the Black- Yajus texts, TS. (iii. 1.41-3), and K. 
(xxx. 8, in part). Used by Kau^. (44. 7) in the vaqdqamana ceremony, accompanying 
the anointing of the vaqd; in the same, vs. 5 accompanies (44. 1 5) the stoppage of the 
victim's breath; and the same verse appears in the funeral rites (81.33), ^^^^^ verses 
from xviii. 2 and 3, in connection with the lighting of the pile. This hymn and the one 
next following are further employed among the kdmydni, with invocation of Indra and 
Agni, by one who "desires the world" (59.21: "desires over-lordship of all the 
world," comm.). In Vait. (10. 16), the hymn (so the comm.) is said on the release of 
the victim from the sacrificial post in ^^ paqubandha. 

Translated: Weber, xiii. 207 ; Ludwig, p. 433 ; Griffith, i. 75. — See also Roth, Ueber 
den AK p,i4, 

I. The lord of cattle, who rules over (ff) the cattle, the four-footed, 
and who also over the two-footed — let him, bought off, go to [his] sacri- 
ficial portion ; let abundances of wealth attach themselves to (sac) the 



In the TS. version, this verse comes second (the verse-order being 5, i, 3, 4, 2). Both 
TS. and K. have at the beginning ydsdm^ which Ppp. supports by reading es&m, and 
which rectifies the meter of a : this gives quite a different application to c, and a differ- 
ent cast to the meaning of the verse. TS. has also ca iox yds in b, ay dm (^ydni) for sd 
in c, and it ends (better) with ^ydjamdnasya santu, K. (Weber) has for b catuspdda 
uta ye dvipddah^ and for c niskrftds te yajhiyam bhdgam yantu ; and Ppp. differs from 
it only slightly, adding vH. after uta in b, and ending c with yajHiyd yanti lokatn. 
Apparently it is the lord of cattle who is to be bribed to content himself with his sacri- 
ficial share, in lieu of taking the whole. The Anukr. does not heed the irregularities of 
meter in a, b. LThe Ppp. form of b seems to be catuspaddm uta vdye dvipadah /J 

2. Do ye, releasing {pra-muc) the seed of being, assign progress 

{gdtu) to the sacrificer, O gods ; what hath stood brought hither {upd- 

krta), strenuous (fafamdnd), let it go upon the dear path of the gods. 

TS. (and K. ?) rectifies the meter of a (whose irregularity the Anukr. ignores) by read- 
ing pramuHcdmdnds ; it also has jlvdm for priydm in d. Ppp. gives ^opd for retas in a, 
and in b makes dhatta and devds change places; in d it reads eti, Priydm may qualify 
the subject in d : * let it, dear [to the gods], go ' etc. Upikrta and ^a^amdnd have their 
usual technical senses, * brought to the sacrifice ' and * efficient in the performance of 
religious duty^ the latter is explained by the comm. alternatively, as "being put to 
death " or " leaping up " (root f <if ) 1 Devds is, according to him, first " the breaths, sight 
etc.,'* then " the gods, Agni etc." LE. Sieg discusses pithasy GurupUjdkaumudly p. 98. J 

3. They who, giving attention to (anu-dhi) the one being bound, 
looked after [him] with mind and with eye — let the divine Agni at first 
{dgre) release them, he the all-working, in unison with {sam-ra) progeny. 

TS. and MS. (i. 2. 15) have badhydmdnds iox dtdhydnds^ and TS. follows it with 
abkydiks-; and in c combines agnis tan; MS. also has/i/i. Both read in t prajipatis 
for vi^vdkarmd ; and TS. ends with samviddnds. Ppp. has in c mumukta devds, and, 
for d, prajdpatis prajdbhis samviddndm; it then adds another verse : yesdm prdno 
na badhnanti baddham gavdm paqundm uta pdurusdndm-: indras tdm (i.e. tdn agre 
pra etc.). The comm. reads in a vadhyamdnam^ which is better; he explains samra- 
rdnas by saha qabddyamdnas, as if from the root rd * bark ' ! Comparison with the 
next verse seems to show the other animals, comrades of the victim, to be aimed at in 
the verse. LCf. Weber's notes, p. 209, and esp. his reference to QB. iii. 7. 45. — MS. 
has tdn, p. tan: see above, page xc.J 

4. The cattle that are of the village, all-formed, being of various 
forms, manifoldly of one form — let the divine Vayu at first release 
them, Prajapati, in unison with progeny. 

TS. and K. have dranyis *of the forest' in a, for grdmyds, and TS. combines vdyus 
tan in c, and ends again with -viddnah, TA. (iii. 11) has two versions (vss. 29, 32), 
of which the second precisely agrees with TS., while the first has grdmyas, like our 
text (and agnis tan in c). Ppp. is quite different : ya dranyds paqavo viqvarapd uta 
ye kampdh .- . . . mumukta devah prajdpatis prajdbhis samviddndm. 

5. Foreknowing, let them first {ptlntd) receive the breath {prdnd) 
coming to [them] forth from the limbs. Go to heaven; stand firm with 
thy bodies ; go to paradise (svargd) by god-traveled roads. 


Ppp. has devils iox purve in a, tdbkydm for divam in c, and at the end -bhiq ^ivebkih, 
TS. TtzA& grhnanti in a ; and TS. K. MS. (ii. 5. 10 c, d) invert the order of c and d, and 
give the better reading dsadhUu for divam gacha |_cf. RV. x. 16. 3J; MS. also has 
hutds for svargam. The comm. makes purve mean ** the gods previously stationed in 
the atmosphere *' ; perhaps it is * before the demons get hold of it' 

35. To expiate errors in the sacrifice : to Vi9yakarman. 

[Angiras. — vdifvakarmanam. trdistubham : i. brhatigarbhd ; 4,j. bburtj.] 

Found (except vs. 5, and in the verse-order 2, 3, 1,4) in Paipp. i. The same four verses 
are found in TS. (iii. 2. 8*-3 : in the order 2, 4, 3, i), and the first three in MS. (ii. 3. 8 : 
in the order 1,3, 2). The hymn is used by Kiu9. (38. 22) in a rite intended, according 
to the comm., to prevent faults of vision {drstidosanivdrandya ; Kegava says "to pre- 
vent rain," vrsiinivdrandya ; perhaps his text is corrupt), accompanying the eating of 
something in an assembly. Its employment (59. 21) with the hymn next preceding was 
noticed under the latter. The comm. (difiering in his reading and division of the rules 
from the edited text of KSLu^.) declares it to be used in all the sava sacrifices, to accom- 
pany iht purasidd homas (59. 23-4 : uttarena savapurastdddhomdn)\ and vs. 5 is used 
(3.16) with a purastdd homa in the parvan sacrifices. In Vait. the hymn appears 
(9. 7) in the cdiurmdsya sacrifice, with two oblations to Mahendra and Vigvakarman 
respectively; and again (29.22) in the agnicayana. In all these applications there is 
nothing that suits the real character of the hymn. 

Translated : Weber, xiii. 211; Ludwig, p. 302 (vss. 1-4) ; Griffith, i. 76. 

1. They who, partaking [of Soma] (bhaks)^ did not prosper (rdh) in 
good things, whom the fires of the sacrificial hearth were distressed about 
(anu'tapya-) — what was the expiation {avayd) of their ill-sacrifice, may 
Vigvakarman (*the all-worker') make that for us a good sacrifice. 

The translation implies emendation of diirisits in c to -tes, and of tin in d to iim; 
dm is read by the comm., as well as by TS. and MS., and SPP. even admits it into 
his text, though nearly all his mss., as well as ours, read tin. Our P. and M. read 
dvrdhUs at end of a; TS. has dnrhus^ MS. dna^iis, TS. elides the a of anu in b; it 
begins c with iydm ioryi^ and ends it with duristydi\ thus supporting our emendation. 
Both TS. and MS. give krnotu in d, and MS. puts it after vt^vdkarmd. The pada- 
mss. read in c avax^iy but SPP. alters his/^^a-text to ava-yih, on the authority of the 
comm. ; it is a matter of indifference, as the concluding element, in spite of the native 
grammarians, is doubdess the rooX yd, Ppp. gives duristd svistam in c, d. The various 
readings, here and in the following verses, are in good part of the kind which show 
that the text-makers were fumbling over matter which they did not understand. The 
comm. is no better off. Here, in a, he is uncertain whether to take nd as ♦as if * or 
*not,' and to make vdsHni object of bhaksdyantas or of dnrdhiks (= vardhitavantas^ 
which is not bad). |_The fires, pUda b, are personified in like fashion at AGS. iv. 1.2, 3. J 
The verse (12 + 12:9+11=44) is much more irregular than the definition of the 
Anukr. admits. 

2. The seers declare the master {-pdti) of the sacrifice by reason of 
sin disportioned, distressed about [his] offspring. What honeyed drops 
he offended in (i apa-rddh)^ with them let Vi^vakarman unite (sam-srj) us. 


MS. has in a the equivalent ydjam&nam; its b reads vihiya prajam anutdpya- 
ntdndhj while TS. has Praja(h) nirbhakta(h) anutapydmandh^ and Ppp. nirbhdgatd 
bhdgdd anutapyamdnd, TS. and MS. make the lost drops only two: madhavydii 
stokdu . . . tibhydmy with tdu instead of yan^ and hence rarddha. The translation 
implies correction to madhavy-, as read by both the parallel texts and the comm. ; 
SPP*s text agrees with ours in reading the mathavy- of all the mss. (except three of 
SPP's, which follow the comm.). All the sathhitd-mss. make the absurd combination 
nas tibhih in d, seeming to have in mind the participle nastd; SPP. retains nastjbhis 
in his text, while ours emends to nas tibhis^ as given in the comment to Prat. ii. 31. 
Ppp. has our second half-verse as its 3 c, d ; it reads madkavydh stokdn upa yd rarddha 
sam md tardis srjad viqvakarmd. The comm. takes anu and tapy- in b as two inde- 
pendent words ; he explains apa rarddha in c by antaritdn krtavdn, which is doubtless 
its virtual meaning. LW's prior draft reads : ** what honeyed drops he failed of " — 
that is, * missed.* J 

3. Thinking the soma-drinkers to be unworthy of gifts Q addnyd)^ 
[though] knowing of the sacrifice, [he is] not wise (dhira) in the conjunc- 
ture (samayd); in that this man is bound having committed a sin, do 
thou, O Vi^vakarman, release him for his well-being. 

The offense here had in view is far from clear. Instead of addnyd (which occurs 
only here), TS. has the apparently unintelligent ananyinj MS. reads ayajhiyan yajHi- 
ydn mdny- * thinking the unfit for offering to be fit for offering ' (or vice versa) ; both 
have in \i prdndsya ior yajfldsya, and samar^ iox -yd, Ppp. gives the second half-verse 
as 2 c d, and ends it with/r/i mumugdhy enam, TS. MS. have noydt at beginning of 
C ; TS. gives dnaq cakrvin mdhi^ and MS. ino tnahdc cakrvan b-^ and TS. esdm for esd. 
The comm. explains addnydn as ajHatvdropena ddndnarhdn, takes ir/i in b as particle of 
comparison, and makes samaya equal samgrdma : ** as if one by confidence in the 
strength of his own arm should think the opposing soldiers despicable *' ! The verse 
(II + 11 : 10+12=44) has marked irregularities which the Anukr. ignores. 

4. Terrible [are] the seers ; homage be to them ! what sight [is] theirs, 

and the actuality (satyd) of their mind. For Brihaspati, O bull {makisd), 

[be] bright {dyumdnt) homage ; O Vigvakarman, homage to thee ! protect 

thou us. 

The translation follows our text, though this is plainly corrupted. TS. makes b less 
unintelligible by reading cdksusas for cdksur ydt, and samdhdii for satydm; Ppp. has 
in the half-verse only minor variants : bhlma for ghords, *stu for astu^ sathdrk for 
saiyam. In c, TS. has mahi sdt for the senseless mahisa^ and the comm. presents the 
same ; Ppp. reads brhaspate mahisdya dive: namo viqv-, TS. gives for d ndmo viqvd- 
karmane sd u pdtv asman. In d all the pada-mss, have the strange blunder /5///, for 
pdAi as required by the sense and by the satkhitd-itxi^ and SPP. adopts the blunder, 
thus giving a /a^-reading that is inconvertible into his own samhitd. The comm. 
takes r say as in a as "the breaths, sight etc.," and satya?n in b ^& yathdrthadarqi ; and 
he founds on this interpretation the use in Kau^. 38. 22, " against faults of vision." 

5. The sacrifice's eye, commencement, and face : with voice, hearing, 
mind I make oblation. To this sacrifice, extended by Vi9vakarman, let 
the gods come, well-willing. 


The verse is found in no other text, and is perhaps not a proper part of the hymn ; it 
is repeated below as xix. 58. 5. A few of the samki/d-mss. (including our O.) ignore 
the i at beginning of d. The comm. is not certain whether the three nominatives in a 
designate Agni or sacrificial butter ; but he has no scruple about making them objects 
to JuAomi. 

36. To get a husband for a woman. 

[Paiwedana, — astarcam, dgntsomiyam, trdishibkam : i,hhurij; i^ ^-y. anustubh ; 

8. nicrtpuraumik,'\ 

Found (except vss. 6,8) in PHipp. ii. (in the verse-order 1,3,2,4,5,7). Used by 
KSu^. (34. i3£E.) among the women's rites, in a ceremony for obtaining a husband; 
vss. 5 and 7 are specially referred to or quoted, with rites adapted to the text It is 
further regarded by the scbol. and the comm. as signified hy pat ivedana (75. 7), at the 
beginning of the chapters on nuptial rites, accompanjdng the sending out of a wooer 
or paranymph. 

Translated : Weber, v. 219 ; xiii. 214 ; Ludwig, p. 476 ; Grill, 55, 102 ; Grifiith, L 78 ; 
Bloomfield, 94, 322. — Cf. Zimmer, p. 306. 

1 . Unto our favor, O Agpii, may a wooer come, to this girl, along with 
our fortune {bfidga)\ Enjoyable {jus(d) [is she] to suitors (vard), agree- 
able at festivals (sdmana) ; be there quickly good-fortune for her with a 

The text is not improbably corrupt Ppp. reads in a, b sumatim skandaloke idam 
dfk kumdrydmdno bhagena; but it combines c and d much better into one sentence by 
reading for d osarh patyd bhavati (-tu t) subhage *yam. The comm. explains sambha^ 
las as sambhdsakah samdddid vd; or else, he says, it means hihsakah pQrvam abhild- 
savighdtl kanydm anicchan purusak. He quotes ApGS. i. 4 to show that vard also 
mean^ paranymph. Justi he quotes Panini to prove accented jiistd. In d he reads 
Usarn, and declares it to signify sukhakaram. |_Bergaigne, ReL vid, i. 1 59, takes 
sdmana as = * marriage.* J 

2. Fortune enjoyed by Soma, enjoyed by Brahman, brought together 
by Aryaman; with the truth of divine Dhatar, the husband-finder I 
perform (kf), 

Ppp. has a mutilated first half-verse: somajusto aryantnd sambhrto bhaga; and at 
the end patirvedanam. The comm. understands in a brahma- to mean the Gandharva, 
who and Soma are the first husbands of a bride (xiv. 2. 3, 4). He does not see in bhaga 
anything but kanydrnpam bhdgadheyam ; but the meaning " favors " is not impossible. 

LBoth bhagam (** fortune " or " favors ") and pativedanam (the ceremony called 
" husband-finder") are objects of krnomi j which, accordingly, needs to be rendered 
by *make' or 'procure* for the one combination and by * perform* for the other. It 
is hardly a case of zeugma. — Bloomfield notes that sambhrta contains a conscious 
allusion to sambhala, vs. i .J 

3. May this woman, O Agni, find a husband; for king Soma maketh 
her of good-fortune ; giving birth to sons, she shall become chief consort 
{mdhisi) ; having gone to a husband, let her, having good-fortune, bear 
rule (vi-rdj). 


Three mss. (including our P.O.) read ndri in a. LFor videsta in a {Grammar^ 
§ 850 a), J Ppp. has videstuj at end of b it reads -gath krnotu; and it changes the 
second half-verse into an address by reading bhavdsi, and subhage vi r&jd. The 
comm. explains mahisl as mahanlyd ^resfhd bhdryd. The fourth pada is best scanned 
zsjagatf^ with resolution ^a-/«-i Lor insert si before subhdgd\, 

4. As, O bounteous one (maghdvan), this pleasant covert hath been 
dear to the well-settled (susdd) wild beasts, so let this woman be enjoyed 
of Bhaga, mutually dear, not disagreeing with her husband. 

The translation here involves emendation of the unmanageable susddd in b to susd- 
ddm^ as suggested by iii. 22. 6. SPP. has in his pada-Xt.yi\ su^sdddh (as if nom. of 
susddas)y and makes no note upon the word — probably by an oversight, as of our pada- 
mss. only Op. has such a reading ; the comm. understands susddds, and explains it by 
sukhena sthdtum yogyah * comfortable to dwell in * ; which is not unacceptable. The 
comm. also has in a maghavdn^ and in d abhirddhayantf (= abhivardhayanil^ or else 
putrapaqvddibhih samrddhd bhavantt), Ppp. has at the beginning yathd khatkram 
maghavan cdrur esUy and, in c, d, yam vayam justd bhagasyd *stu sampr-. All our 
samhitd'Tass, save one (H.), and half of SPP*s, give esdh pr- in a-b; but the comment 
to Pr^t. ii. 57 quotes this passage as illustration of the loss of its final visarga by esds, 
Kaug. (34. 1 4) evidently intends an allusion to this verse in one of its directions : mrgd- 
khardd vedydm mantroktdni *the articles mentioned in the text on the sacrificial 
hearth from a wild beast^s covert,' but the comm. does not explain the meaning. The 
Anukr. ignores the redundancy of a syllable in c. L Pronounce justd iyam and reject 
ndrlf — The use of sdmpriya in dual and plural is natural: its extension to the 
singular is rather illogical (cf. TS. iv. 2. 4), unless we assign intensive value to sam 
(* very dear'). J 

5. Ascend thou the boat of Bhaga, full, unfailing) with that cause to 
cross over hither a suitor who is according to thy wish. 

Or pratikdmyd may perhaps mean * responsive to thy love.' Ppp. has in a 5 ruha^ 
in b anuparas-^ and for c, d trayo pusd hitam yas patis patikdmyah. The comm. 
understands upa- in c as an independent word. With this verse, according to the 
comm., the girl is made to ascend a properly prepared boat. 

6. Shout to [him], O lord of riches ; make a suitor hither-minded ; 
turn the right side to every one who is a suitor according to thy wish. 

Circumambulation with the right side toward one is a sign of reverence. A krandaya 
in a is perhaps a real causative, * make him call out to us ' ; the comm. takes it so. His 
explanation Lpage 332 J of the accompanying rite is : " offering rice in the night, one 
should make the girl step forward to the right" 

7. Here [is] gold, bdellium ; here [is] duksd, likewise fortune ; these 
have given thee unto husbands, in order to find one according to thy 

Auksd (cf. duksagandhiy iv. 37. 3) seems to be some fragrant product of the ox ; or 
it may perhaps come from uks * sprinkle,' but not through uksan. The mss. vary here, 
as everywhere else, in an indiscriminate manner between gtigguiu and gulgulu ; here 
the majority of ours have -Ig-^ and the great majority of SPP's have 'gg-\ but -gg- is 


accepted (as elsewhere) in our edition, and -Ig- in the other ; Ppp. reads -Ig-^ the comm. 
-gg'n Ppp. has further vayam ukso atho bhaga ; and, in c-d, adhuh patik-. The comm. 
defines ^,^;^/m as " a well-known kind of article for incense," and for duksa he quotes 
from Ke^ava {kduqikasHtrabhdsyakdrds) the couplet given in Bloorofield*s Kaugika on 
p. 335 (but reading surabhln gandh&n kslrani). The comm., p. 332, explains that with 
this verse is to be performed a binding on and fumigation and anointing of the girl with 
ornaments, bdellium, and duksa respectively. |,BR., iv. 947, ^yiggt^X pratik&my}iya.\ 

8. Hither let Savitar conduct for thee, conduct a husband that is 
according to thy wish ; do thou assign [him] to her, O herb. 

The second nayatu is a detriment equally to sense and to meter ; the Anukr. counts 
it to a, and the/^^-mss. mark the division accordingly. Emendation of tvdm in c to 
tdm is strongly suggested. The verse hardly belongs to the hymn as originally made 
up; there has been no reference elsewhere to an **herb"; nor does KIU9. introduce 
such an element. 

In the concluding anuvdka |_6.J are 5 hymns, 31 verses: the Anukr. says accord- 
ingly trih^adekddhiko *ntyah. 

This is the end also of the fourth prapdthaka, 

LOne or two mss. sum up the book as 36 hymns and 207 verses. J 

Book III. 

LThe third book is made up largely of hymns of 6 verses each. 
It contains 13 such hymns, but also six hymns (namely 4, 7, 
13, 16, 24, 30) of 7 verses each, six hymns (namely 5, 6, 11, 15, 
19, 29) of 8 verses each, two hymns (namely 12, 17) of 9 verses 
each, two hymns (namely 20, 21) of 10 verses each, one hymn 
(namely 31) of 11 verses, and one hymn (namely 10) of 13 verses. 
See Weber's introduction to his translation, p. 178. The possi- 
bility of critical reduction to the norm is well illustrated by hymn 
31 — compare pages i and 37. The whole book has been trans- 
lated by Weber, Indisclie Studien, vol. xvii. (1885), pages 177-314.J 

I. Against enemies. 

\Atharvan, — sendmohanam, bahudevatyam. trdistubham : 2. virddgarbhd bhurij ; 

J, 6. anustubh ; j. virdtpurausnih.'] 

Found in Paipp. iii., next after the one which here follows it. In Kau9. (14. 17), 
this hymn and the next are called mohandni * confounders,' and are used in a rite 
(14. 17-21) for confounding an enemy's army ; its details have nothing to do with those 
of the hymns. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 518 ; Weber, xvii. 180 ; Griffith, i. 81 ; Bloomfield, 121, 325. 

1 . Let Agni, knowing, go against our foes, burning against the impre- 
cator, the niggard ; let him confound {mohaya-) the army of our adver- 
saries {pdra) ; and may Jatavedas make them handless. 

Ppp.* makes ^atrUn and vidvdn in a change places. SPP. reports that the text used 
by the comm. reads nah after agnir both here and in 2. i a. The comm. signalizes 
the beginning of the book by giving absiu-d etymologies of agni at the length of nearly 
a page. Pada c lacks a syllable, unless we allow ourselves to resolve si-na-dm, 

2. Ye, O Maruts, are formidable for such a plight ; go forward upon 
[them], kill, overcome ! The Vasus have killed [them] ; suppliant [are] 
these ; for let Agni, their messenger, go against [their foes], knowing. 

The second half-verse is rendered literally as it stands, but is certainly badly corrupt. 
Ppp. has amlmrdath vasavo ndihitebhyo agnir hy esdm vidvdn pratyetu qatrun^ which 
is much more acceptable: ndth- would be *for [us] who supplicate.* Dutas seems to 
have blundered in here out of 2. i a. Ludwig emends ndthitis to -/««, which would 
improve c, but leave it unconnected with d. In our edition prdty etu is an erratum for 
pratyitUy which all the mss. read. The comm., with his customary neglect of accent, 



takes ugris in a as vocative. He takes fdf^e as a locative (= apradhrsye safngrdma- 
laksane karmani)^ against the testimony of the other passages where the word occurs, 
and supplies matsakdy&s. In b, he reads (with a couple of SPP^s mss. that follow him) 
mrndtaSy and takes it (again against the accent) as accus. pi. Afnlmrnan in c he renders 
as an imperative. The meter of the verse (ii + ii : 12 + 13 = 47) is capable of being 
fitted to the description of the Anukr. Lii + io:i2 + i2=45j by duly managing the 
resolutions. |_Aufrecht, KZ. xxvii. 219 (1885), reconstructs the vs., putting mrddyata 
for mrndta in b and reading c, d thus : dmlmrdan vdsavo n&thitiso agnir hi ^atrin 
pratyiti vidhyan, Qi, Bloomfield, 326. — Roth gives (in his notes) mrdata for 
mrnata and (in his collation) yes&m for hy esdm^ as Ppp. readings. J 

3. The army of enemies, O bounteous one, playing the foe against 
us — do ye (two), O Vrtra-slaying Indra, Agni also, burn against them. 

The verse is found also as SV. ii. 121 5, which reads chatruyatim in b, and begins c 
with ubhdu tim (Jam is read by the comm., and is called for as an emendation in our 
verse); it also has the correct accent amiirasenim^ which is found in only two of our 
mss. (O.Op.) and three of SPP's; both editions read sindm. In our text, dgniq in d 
is a misprint for agniq, |_SPP. combines asmin ch-^ badly: cf. i. 19.4, note. J 

4. Impelled, O Indra, forwards Q pravdta) by thy (two) bays — let thy 

thunderbolt go forth, slaughtering {pra-mr) the foes ; smite the on-coming, 

the following, the fleeing {pdrdfic) ; scatter their actual intent. 

The verse is RV. iii. 30. 6 ; which, however, reads at the beginning /r4 si te (as does 
also the comm.), accents in c pratlcd anUcdh (and th6 comm. claims the same for our 
text), and has for d viqvam saiydm krnuhi vistdtn astu, which is even more unintelli- 
gible than our text Weber proposes visvaksaiydm as a compound, " turning itself in 
every direction '* ; this, however, makes nothing out of -satyam, Ludwig translates 
" fulfil their design in all [both] directions," which is not very clear. Ppp. reads viqvam 
vistam krnuhi satyam es&mj also quite obscure. The comm. takes satyam as 
** established, settled,*' and visvak krnuhi as ** scatter, unsettle, make uncertain.*' One 
would like to take visvak- as something like * contrariwise,' with the general sense " turn 
their plans against themselves." Ppp. has further nilah for anHcas in c. 

5. O Indra, confound the army of our enemies ; with the blast of fire, 
of wind, make them disappear, scattering. 

The defective first half-verse is completed by Ppp. in this form : manomohanam 
krnva (i.e. krnavas f) indrd ^miirebhyas tvam. The second half-verse is also 2. 3 c, d. 
The comm. explains dhrdjyd by dahanavisaye yd vegitd gaiis tathdvidhayd vegagatyd 
tayor eva vd gatyd, 

6. Let Indra confound the army ; let the Maruts slay with force ; let 
Agni take away its eyes ; let it go back conquered. 

All the mss. read indra^ vocative, at the beginning of the verse ; but SPP's text, as 
well as ours, emends to indrah s-; and this the comm. also has. The comm. further in 
c dhatidm instead of datidm. 


2. Against enemies. 

[AtAarvan. — sendmohanam. bahudevatyam, trdistubham : 2-4, anustubh.'] 

Found in Paipp. iii., next before the hymn here preceding. Used in Kau9. only with 
the latter, as there explained. 

Translated : Weber, xvii. 183 ; Griffith, i. 82 ; Bloomfield, 121, 327. — Cf. Bergaigne- 
Henry, Manuel, p. 139. 

1. Let Agni our messenger, knowing, go against [them], burning 
against the imprecator, the niggard ; let him confound the intents of our 
adversaries ; and may Jatavedas make them handless. 

All the mss. have in a the false accent praty itu (seemingly imitated from i . 2 d, 
where ^/requires it), and SPP. retains it ; our edition makes the necessary emendation 
to prdty etu, Ppp. appears to have ^atrUn instead of vidv&n at end of a. 

2. Agni here hath confounded the intents that are in your heart; let 
him blow (dham) you away from [our] home ; let him blow you forth in 
every direction. 

Ppp. has dhamdtu for -matu both times. The comm. renders amUmuhat by moha- 
yatu, in accordance with his doctrine that one verbal form is equivalent to another. 

3. O Indra! confounding [their] intents, move hitherward with [their] 
design (dkuti) ; with the blast of fire, of wind, make them disappear, 

The second half-verse is identical with 1.5 b, C. Pada b apparently means *take 
away their design, make them purposeless ' ; the comm., distorting the sense of arvdn, 
makes it signify "go against [their army], with the design [of overwhelming it].'* 
Ppp. reads dkUtyd *dhi (i.e. -tyds adhi?\ In our edition, restore the lost accent-mark 
over the -dra of indra in a. 

4. Go asunder, ye designs of them ; also, ye intents, be confounded ; 
also what is today in their heart, that smite thou out from them. 

All the mss. have in b cittani, as if not vocative, and SPP. retains the accent, while 
our text emends to cittdn^j the comm. understands a vocative. The comm. further 
takes vydkutayas as one word, explaining it as either viruddhdh samkalpdh or else 
(qualifying devds understood) as qatrHndtk vividhdkiityutpddakdh, \Yox d, rather, 
*that of them smite thou out from [them].* J 

5. Confounding the intents of those yonder, seizing their limbs, O 
Apva, go away ; go forth against [them] ; consume [them] in their hearts 
with pangs (fdka) ; pierce the enemies with seizure {grdhi), the foes 
with darkness. 

The verse is RV. x. 103. 12, which reads in a cittdm pratilobhdyantl, and, for d, 
andhind *mitrds tdmasd sacantdm; and SV. (ii. 1211) and VS. (xvii. 44) agree with 
RV. Both padaAituXs give in b grkdnd, as impv. ; but the word is translated above (in 
accordance with Grassmann*s suggestion) as aor. pple. fem. grhdna, because this com- 
bines so much better with the following pdre ^ki, A number of the samAiid-mss. 


(including our P.8.m.E.8.m.I.H.p.m.) make the curious blunder of accenting apvl in b: 
the comm. explains it as a pupadevatdy adding the precious etymology apavdyayati 
apagamayati sukham pr&n&nq ca, |_ Weber, ix. 482, thinks apvd has reference to 
impurity (root pn) and to diarrhoea as caused by fear. To Weber *s citation (xvii. 1 84) 
from the Purana, add the line near the beginning of the BhTsma book, MBh. vi. 1. 18, 
^ruivd tu ninadam yodhdh qakrH-mHtram prasusruvuh, \ The Anukr. ignores the 
redundancy in a ; emendation to citti would remove it 

6. Yonder army of our adversaries, O Maruts, that comes contending 
against us with force — pierce ye it with baffling darkness, that one of 
them may not know another. 

The verse is an addition (as vs. 14) to RV. x. 103 LAufrecht, 2d ed'n, vol. ii. p. 682 J, 
but forms a proper part of SV. (ii. 12 10) and VS. (xvii. 47). RV.VS. read in habkyditi 
nas (for asmi^ dity abki) ; SV. has abhyiti; all have in c gQhaia for vidkyata; 
and with the latter Ppp. intends to agree, but has guhata. For esdm in d, RV. gives 
amtsdmy SV. eUsdm, and VS. ami and accordingly at the end jdndn. It takes violence 
to compress our b into a tristubh pada. 

3. For the restoration of a king. 

[Atkarvan. — ndnddevatyam utd**gneyam. trdistubham : j. 4'p. bhurik pankti ; ^, 6. anusfubA.] 

Found in Paipp. ii. (our vs. 5 coming last). Used by Kau9. (16. 30), with the hymn 
next following, in a ceremony for the restoration of a king to his former kingdom. In 
Viit. (9. 2), vs. I accompanies a morning oblation to Agni anlkavant in the sdkamedha 
rite of the cdiurmdsya sacrifice ; and again (30. 27), vs. 2 is used at the end of the 
sdutrdmanl ceremony. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 441 ; Weber, xvii. 185 ; Griffith, i. 83 ; Bloomfield, 112, 327. 
— Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel^ p. 140. 

I. He hath shouted {} krand) ; may he be protector of his own here; 
O Agni, bend apart the two widened firmaments {rddasi) ; let the all- 
possessing Maruts harness {ynj) thee ; lead thou hither with homage yon 
man of bestowed oblation. 

This is a very literal translation of the obscure verse, which is plainly an adaptation 
or corruption, or both, of a RV. verse in a hymn to Agni (vi. 1 1 . 4 : it is repeated, with- 
out variant, in MS. iv. 14. 15) : ddidyutat sv dpdko vibkivi *gne ydjasva rddasi urUct: 
dyum ndydm ndmasd rdtdhavyd ahjdnti supraydsam pdhca jdndkj and, what is very 
noteworthy, the latter half-verse of RV. is decidedly more closely reflected in the Ppp. 
version: amum naya namasd rdtakavyo yujanti suprajasam pahca jandk; Ppp. has 
2Xso bkavat at end of a. It could not be expected to find concinnity and sense in a 
verse so originated ; the address seems to be changed from Agni to Indra, and some 
sort of comparison aimed at between the latter and the reinstated king. The pada-XtxX 
divides in a svaopik, and, as the word may be a part of the adaptation Lof the original 
to the purpose of this hymn J, the translation so treats it, instead of substituting, as 
Weber and Ludwig do, suoapik; the comm. explains it both ways : svaklydndm pra- 
jdndm pdlakak sukarmd vd. The comm. makes the king subject of dcikradat in a, 
apparently takes vy^casva in b as one word (= vydpnuki)^ tvd in c as designating 
Agni {yuHjantu = prdpnuvantu^ tvaisakdyd bkavantu)^ and antHm in d as the king. 


The Anukr. ignores \\iQ jagatt pada (c) Lor lets it offset a counted as io!J. |_The 
usual compound is sv-dpdsj but sv-apas, though not quotable, is quite possible. J 

2. Indra, the inspired one, however far away, let the ruddy ones set 
in motion hither {d-cydvaya-) in order to friendship, when the gods ven- 
ture (i) for him a gdyatrty a brhati, a song {arkd), with the sdutrdmant 

This verse is nearly as obscure as the preceding, and probably as hopelessly corrupt. 
The "ruddy ones" in a are, according to the comm., priests (rtvij)\ Weber under- 
stands " horses," Ludwig " somas." The comm. takes dddhrsanta in d first from root 
dhr ( ! = adhdrayan), then apparently from dkrs (^purvam visrastdvayavam indram 
punah sarvdvayavopetam afcurvan, citing TS. v. 6. 34); Ppp. has dadrqantaj perhaps 
dadrhanta might be made to yield the best sense ; restoration of the augment would fill 
out the deficient meter, which the Anukr. fails to remark. R. conjectures " made firm 
for him the mighty ^Jy^z/r/ as bolt" About half the mss. (including our Bp.E.I.H.K.) 
accent in b sakhyhyaj the same uncertainty as to this word appears elsewhere. 

3. For the waters let king Varuna call thee; let Soma call thee for 
the mountains ; let Indra call thee for these subjects (t//f) ; becoming a 
falcon, fly unto these subjects. 

" For " may of course be " from " in a and b, as preferred by |_the four J translators 
and comm. Ppp. reads, in a, b varuno juhdva somas tvd *yam hvayatij and again in 
C, indras tvd *yatn hvayati. With the proper resolutions, this verse is a decent tristubh; 
the Anukr. scans it as ii-Hio: 10-^10 = 41. The verses in our text are wrongly 
numbered from this one on. 

4. Let the falcon lead hither from far {pdra) the one to be called, 
living exiled in others' territory (ks^trd) ; let the (two) A^vins make the 
road for thee easy to go ; settle together about this man, ye his fellows. 

The translation follows both previous translators, and the comm. (= hvdtavyani)^ in 
implying hdvyam in a instead of havydm * oblation ' ; yet Ppp. reads havis^ which sup- 
ports havydm. The comm., with several of SPP*s mss., has avaruddham in b; for 
Lthe technicalj aparuddhaq caran (and ava-gam^ 6 d) compare especially PB. xii. 12. 6. 

5. Let thine opponents call thee ; thy friends have chosen [thee] against 
[them] Q prdti) ; Indra-and-Agni, all the gods, have maintained for thee 
security {kshna) in the people {vig). 

The comm., and a few of SPP*s mss. that follow it, have at the beginning vdyantu 
(j^ sdmtatyena sevantdm). Several sam^ti/d-mss. (including our P.M.O.Op.) read 
pratijdnah ; Ppp. has the easier reading pahca jandk, with hvayanti for -///«, and, in 
b, varsata for avrsata; also it ends with adldharas. As in more than one other case, 
all the mss. accent // in the second half-verse, and the padaA&:ii\. puts its double stroke 
of pada-division before the word ; and both editions read U; but it should plainly be te^ 
as our translation renders, and as the comm. also explains it. The comm. combines in 
h prattmitrds, making it mean "opposing frienfis"; the combination of vr * choose' 
with prati is strange and obscure. 

6. Whatever fellow disputes thy call, and whatever outsider — making 


him go away (dpdfU\ O Indra, then do thou reinstate (ava-gamayd) this 
man here. 

The comm. explains sajdtd and nistya as samabala and nikrstabala ( ! ) |_as at i. 1 9. 3 J, 
and ava gamaya as bodhaya. The Anukr. takes no notice of the metrical deficiency 
in a ; emendation to -vddati would fairly rectify it. |_For ava-gam^ see note to vs. 4. J 

4. To establish a king. 

[Atharvan, — saptakam, dindram. trdistubham : i.Jagati; ^tj.bAufy.] 

Found in Paipp. iii. Used in KSiuq. only with the next preceding hymn (as there 
explained), although the two are of essentially different application, this one referring 
to a king who has been called or chosen, and has to be inaugurated as such. In 
V^t. (13.2), in the agnistoma sacrifice, vs. 7 accompanies, with vii. 28, oblations to 
pathyd svasti and other divinities. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 252 ; Zimmer, p. 164 ; Weber, xvii. 190 ; Griffith, i. 84 ; Bloom- 
field, 113, 330. — Cf. Bergaigne- Henry, Manuel^ p. 141. 

1 . Unto thee hath come the kingdom ; with splendor rise forward ; [as] 
lord of the people (viqas)^ sole king, bear thou rule (;vi'rdj)\ let all the direc- 
tions call thee, O king ; become thou here one for waiting on, for homage. 

The translation implies in a agan^ which is very probably the true reading, though 
the /fl^-mss. divide tvd :gan. The metrical redundancy in a, b is best removed by 
omitting prdfi (for which Ppp. and the comm. read prdk)^ which seems (as meaning 
also *in the east*) to have been added in order to make yet more distinct the compari- 
son with the sun implied in tid ihi; the pada-\&xX. reckons the word wrongly to b, and 
the comm. renders it pHrvam * formerly ' ; he takes vl rdja as " be resplendent," which 
is of course possible. The verse has but one reaiy^j^^?//" pada (a). |_With d (= vi. 98. i d), 
cf. ndmasopasddyas^ used twice in RV. J 

2. Thee let the people {vigas) choose unto kingship {rdfyd)^ thee 
these five divine directions ; rest {(ti) at the summit of royalty, at the 
pinnacle (kakiid) ; from thence, formidable, share out good things to us. 

The verse is found also in TS. (iii. 3.9*) and MS. (ii. 5. 10), with nearly accordant 
differences of reading: givo *vrnata rdjyiya in a; tvith havanta (MS. vardhanti) 
marutah svarkih forb; ksatrdsya kakubhi (}/lS, kakiibbhih) (t(rtydnds inc. TB., 
moreover, has the second half-verse (in ii. 4. 77; the first half is our iv. 22. 2afb), 
agreeing with AV. except by giving ksatrdsya kakubhis, Ppp. further varies the 
word by reading kakudhij it also has in a vrnutdm^ and for d ato vasiini vi bhajdsy 
ugrah, A number of the mss. (including our O.Op.) read in a rijydya^ as, indeed, they 
generally disagree |_in threefold wise J as to the accent of this word. P.M.W. have in a 
vrsatdm. The comm. renders vdrsman by qarlre^ qrayasva by dssva, 

3. Unto thee let thy fellows come, calling [thee] ; Agni shall go along 
as speedy messenger; let the wives, the sons, be well-willing; thou, for- 
midable, shalt see arrive {prati-paq) much tribute. 

Ppp. has in a, \iyantu bhuvanasya jdld *gnir duto *va jarase dadhdti^ and combines 
in cjdydsp-. The comm. finds in b an incomplete simile: "thy messenger, unassail- 
able like fire, shall ^' etc. 


4. Let the (two) Agvins thee first, — let Mitra-and-Varuna both, let all 

the gods, the Maruts, call thee ; then put (kr) thy mind unto the giving 

of good things; from thence, formidable, share out good things to us. 

With c compare RV. i. 54. 9 d, which rectifies the meter by reading krsva. The 
second half-verse is quite different in Ppp. : sajdtanam madhyamesthe *ha masya (cf. 
ii. 6. 4 c ; iii. 8. 2 d) sve ksetre savite vi rdja. The third pada is made bhurij by the 
change of krsva to krnusva, 

5. Run forth hither from the furthest distance; propitious to thee be 

heaven-and-earth both ; king Varuna here saith this thus ; he here hath 

called thee ; [therefore (sd)\ do thou come to this place. 

Ppp. has babhatdm for ubhe stdm at end of b, and ahvat svenam ehi at end of d. 
SPP. reports all his/^^^-mss. as reading aha instead of dha in c; no such blunder has 
been noted in ours. His ms. of the comm. also appears to have dhvat in d, but doubt- 
less only by an oversight of the copyist (under the next verse it gives ahvat in an iden- 
tical phrase of exposition). MS. (iL 2. 1 1 ; p. 24. 3) gives a pratika reading a prihi 
paramdsydh pardvdtahy while no corresponding verse is found in its text — or else- 
where, so far as is known, unless here. 

6. Like a human Indra, go thou away ; for thou hast concurred {sam- 
jHd) in concord with the castes (i) ; he here hath called thee in his own 
station ; he shall sacrifice to the gods, and he shall arrange the people 

The translation of this obscure and difficult verse implies much and venturesome 
emendation in the first half: namely, in a, indra iva manusydh, and in b vdrndis, 
Weber also takes manusyas as meant for a nom. sing., and renders it ** menschenge- 
staltet " ; the other translators understand manusyh viqas^ as does the Pet. Lex. The 
Ppp. version, indro idam manusya pre *hi, suggests -syah, and is decidedly better in 
prehi (to be resolved into pr-e-hi^ whence perhaps the corruption to parehi):, the 
repeated vocative indraoindra (so the /a^/tf-text) is not to be tolerated. For b, Ppp. 
has sam hi yajHiyds tvd varunena samviddnah^ which is too corrupt to give us aid ; 
the emendation to vdrndis is a desperate and purely tentative one, as there is no evi- 
dence that vdrna had assumed so early the sense of * caste.' Weber suggests that 
varuna here is equal to varana * elector ' ; Zinmier takes it as virtually for devdis : both 
entirely unsatisfactory. Ppp. ends the verse with so kalpaydd di^ah. To the comm. 
there is no difficulty ; the repeated vocative is out of reverence {ddardrthant) ; manu- 
syds is a Vedic irregularity for -sydn^ or else qualifies prajds understood ; the plural 
varundis is plur, majestaticus for varunena; kalpaydt^ finally, is svasvavydpdresu 
niyunktdm. The Anukr. passes without notice the y/j^a//" pada d, it being easy to read 
the verse into 44 syllables. 

7. The wealthy roads, of manifoldly various form, all, assembling, 
have made wide room for thee ; let them all in concord call thee ; to the 
tenth [decade of life] abide here formidable, well-willing. 

Pathyd revatlSy divinities of good roads and welfare, are explained by the comm. as 
patho *napetd mdrgahitakdrinya etatsamjhd devatdh; or else pathyds is pathi sddh- 
avahy and revatis is dpas. Both editions read in d vaqe *hd, but the comm., with 
SPP*s qrotriyas V. and K., read vase *hd^ and the translation implies this. Ppp. offers 


no variants for the verse. Many of our samAitS-mss, (P.M.W.E.I.H.) retain the final 
visarga of samvidAnAh before hth- in c; SPP. does not report any of his as guilty of 
such a blunder. |_V. and K. recognize vaqehd as a variant J 

Ppp. appends another verse : yadi j arena havisd datvd gamaydmasi: atrd ta 
indras kevallr viqo balihrtas karat (cf. RV. x. 1 73. 6 c, d). 

5. For prosperity: with a parni-amulet. 


\AtharvaH, — astakam, sdumyam. dnustubham : t, puronustup tristubh ; 8. virddurobrkatu] 

Found (except vs. 8) in Paipp. iii. Used by Kau^. (19.22), with viii. 5 and x. 3, 6, 
to accompany the binding on of an amulet for general prosperity {tejobaidyurdkanddi- 
pustaye, comm.). And the comm. quotes it from Naks. K. |_comm. should say Q3.nti K. 

— BloomfieldJ as employed in a mahdqdnti named dngirasU |_ln the prior draft, W. 
writes "For success of a king: with" etc. as title of this hymn. Its place in the 
collection, next after iii. 3 and 4, and its second vs., seem to justify that title. J 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 194; Griffith, 1.86; Bloomfield, 114,331. — Vss. 6 and 7, 
Zimmer, p. 184, with comment 

1. Hither hath come this /^?m^-amulet, strong, by strengfth slaughter- 
ing our rivals ; force of the gods, milk of the herbs, let it quicken me 
with splendor unremittingly. 

Ppp. has for d mayi rdstram jinvatv aprayucchan, Apraydvan in d, which is read 
by all the mss. (hence by both editions) and the comm., is unquestionably to be emended 
(as suggested by BR., v. loi 5) to -ydvam \JSkt, Grants § 995 b, root^« ; zi,yuch\ ; the 
word is quoted in the Pr^t text (iv. 56), but not in a way to determine its form {apra- 
ydvddi'). As the later verses show, parna is to be understood here as the tree of that 
name [Butea frondosa : comm. paldqavrksd)* The comm. raises no objection to dpra- 
ydvan^ and explains it as either mdm vihdyd ^napagantd san (with irregular exchange 
of case-forms), or else apraydtar, i.e. sarvadd dhdryamdna, 

2. In me [maintain] dominion, O /^m^f-amulet, in me maintain wealth; 

may I in the sphere of royalty be familiar Q nijd)y supreme. 

Compare the nearly corresponding vi. 54. 2, which suggests emendation of nijds to 
yujds L* may I be supreme above [any] ally or fellow-king * {yujds as abl.) J. Ppp. has 
rdstram for ksatram in a, and its d reads yajd bhUydsam uttard, supporting the emen- 
dadon. Our Bp. reads in c -vargr/y as some of the mss. do in the other occurrences of 
this obscure word : the comm. explains it by dvarjane svddhinl-karane * appropriation,' 
and nija by ananyasahdya, |_BR. give * bestandig ' for nija.] 

3. The dear amulet which the gods deposited hidden in the forest-tree 

— that let the gods give to us to wear, together with length of life (dyus), 

Ppp. has for b vdjim devdh priyam nidhim^ and its second half-verse is tarn ma 
indras sahd *^yusd manim daddtu bhartave, 

4. The parndy Soma's formidable power, hath come, given by Indra, 

governed {qds) by Varuna ; may I, shining greatly, wear it in order to 

lengfth of life for a hundred autumns. 

The translation implies emendation in c of the unmanageable priydsam to bhriydsam^ 
an obvious improvement, adopted also by Weber, and supported by the reading of Ppp., 


tarn aham bibharmij the comm., too, though reading priy-^ glosses it with bhriy&sam 
dharayeyam. In b, Ppp. has sakhyas for qistas. The comm. finds in sdmasya par- 
nds in a allusion to the origin of the parna-Xx^^ from a leaf (^parnd) of soma, and 
quotes for it TS. iii. 5.7'. Rdcamdnas in c he uses zs-nam, qualifying tdm. The 
metrical definition of the verse is wanting in the Anukr. mss. ; we may call it a nicri 
tristubh, |_See Weber's note oviparnd,\ 

5. The parnd-2scix\^\. hath ascended me, in order to great unharmed- 

ness, so that I may be superior to patron {aryamdn) and to ally {sanivid), 

Sathvid is here taken as corresponding noun to the common adjective samviddnd 
(the Pet. Lex., " possession " ; Weber, " favor ") ; the comm. makes it samanaj^dndt 
or samabaldt; and aryaman^ according to him, comes from arln yamayati, and means 
adhikabalah purupraddtd ca, Ppp. combines mahyd ^rist- in b, and has for d manusyS 
adhi sam^atah (or sammatak). All the mss., and SPP's text, read uttards in c; 
our ^tiaras is a necessary emendation. |_As to aryamdn^ cf. Weber's note. J 

6. They that are clever chariot-makers, that are skilful smiths — sub- 
jects to me do thou, O parnd^ make all people {jdna) round about. 

Ppp. ht^nsyat taksdno rath-y and its second half -verse is sarvdhs tvd *nrna randhayo 
*Pastim fcrnu medinam. The comm. renders dhlvdnas by dhivard mdtsikdh * fisher- 
men,' and gives the technical definition of the caste of rathakdras, Weber (p. 196 ff.) 
treats with much fulness of these and other caste matters. Upastln the comm. explains, 
nearly enough correctly, by sevdrtham samipe vidyamdndn updslndn vd, 

7. They that are kings, king-makers, that are charioteers and troop- 
leaders — subjects to me do thou, O parnd^ make all people round about. 

Our Bp. reads in b grdmaonydh, emended to onydh; Kp. has grdmanydh ; Op. and 
D. (and, so far as appears, all ^W*^ pada-m%'&,) grdmanydh ; the word is divided by 
the RV. pada-\.t.ii\. (^grdma<mih)y as in all reason it should be ; and its division seems 
favored, if not required, by our Prat. iii. 76. Ppp. has a quite different text : upastir 
astu vdiqya uia qudra utd ^*ryah for a, b, with c, d as in its version of vs. 6 (but with 
tdn rna |_intending tdn parna?\ instead of tvd ^nrnd), Weber, on authority of 
QB. iii. 4. 1.7, proposes to emend a to ^/ *rdjdno; the comm. explains the rajdnas 
by anyade^ddhipdh J and rdjakftas by rdjye ^bhisihcantl *ti sacivdh, [In SPP's Cor- 
rections (to p. 364), his J. P. are reported as dWi^vag grdmaonydh. \ 

8. Parnd art thou, body-protecting; a hero, from the same womb 
{ydni) with me a hero ; with the year's brilliancy — therewith I bind 
thee on, O amulet. 

Wanting in Ppp. The second pada is damaged, in meter and in sense, by the 
apparently intruded vfrds. 

The anuvdka |_i. J ends here, having 5 hymns and 33 verses ; the old Anukr. says : 
trihqannimittdh sadrcesu (mss. -dare-) kdryds tisrah. 

6. Against enemies: with a9vatthd. 

[/agadbijampurusa. — astarcam. vdnaspatyd^atthadevatyam. dnusfubAam.] 

Found (except vs. 6) in Paipp. iii. Used by Kau^. (48. 3 ff.) in a rite of sorcery 
against enemies ; vss. 7, 8 are specially quoted (48. 6, 5), with actions adapted to the 


text The comm. also describes it as employed by the Naks. |_comm. again errs; 
should be Q&nti — BloomfieldJ K. (17, 19) in a mahd^dnii called dngirasl. 

Translated: A. Kuhn, Herabkunft des Feuers etc., 1859, P* ^^4* ^^ ^^ ^^m P> 198; 
Weber, xvii. 204; Grill, 21, 104; Griffith, i. 87; Bloomfield, 91, 334. 

1. The male {pUmdns) [is] born out of the male — the afvatthd forth 

from the khadird; let it smite my foes, whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

A very acceptable emendation would be pdri jdtdSy since pdri is plainly accessory 
to the ablative pumsds^ as Adhi to khadirit in b (cf. dsatas pdri jajhiri^ x. 7. 25). 
Ppp. retains the initial a of aqvatthcLs^ and begins d with^J/if cd *ham. The aqvattha 
begins as a parasite, usually on the qaml (fem.), this time from the hard khadira (masc). 

2. Crush them out, O agvatthd, our violent foes, O expelling one, allied 
with Vrtra-slaying Indra, with Mitra, and with Varuna. 

The translation implies the reading of vdibddha in b as an independent word ; it is 
so regarded by BR., Weber, the later translators, and the comm. ; all the pada-msi. 
make it into a compound with dddhatas^ and both editions so write it. Ppp. reads 
instead, for b, ^atrUn mayi bddha todhata. Some of our mss. (F.M.W.E.) read in a 
nl (r- ; one of SPP's has srnlhi. The comm. explains dddhatas as bhrqam kampayitfn; 
|_but see Ved, Stud, ii. 10 J. 

Ppp. adds a verse of its own : yathd ^qvattha nisndmi pUrvdh jdtdn utd ^pardn 
(cf. X. 3. 13-15) : evd prdanyatas tvam abhi tistha sahasvatd, 

3. As thou, O aqvatthdy didst break out [the khadird^ within the great 
sea, so do thou break out all these, whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

" The sea," doubtiess the atmosphere, as explained by the comm. (and Weber). The 
comm. reads dbhinas in a, and two or three of SPP's mss. so far agree with him as to 
give the (blundering) nirdbhinnas ; this reading exhibits a much less startling and 
anomalous crowding-out of the root-final by the personal ending than does -abhanas (see 
my Skt, Gr. §555), and so is more acceptable. Some of SPP*s mss. similarly mix up 
bhindhi and bhandhi in c ; the comm., of course, has the former. A part of the mss. 
(including our Bp.P.M.E.H.) leave mahati in b unaccented (as again at xi. 8. 2, 6). 
Ppp. yathd ^qvattha vibhinaccham tahaty arnave : evd me qatro cittdni visvag bhidhi 
sahasvatd (cf. our vs. 6 c, d). 

4. Thou that goest about overpowering, like a bull that has over- 
powered — with thee here, O agvatihd, may we overpower our rivals. 

Ppp. reads in a carati^ as does also the comm., followed by two or three of SPP's 
mss. Ppp. further combines in b sdsahdndi *va rs-, and ends d with samvisfvahi, |_The 
sam/titd-mss. all combine tva rs- in b ; see note to Prat iii. 46. J 

5. Let perdition bind them, with unreleasable fetters of death — my 

foes, O a^atthdy whom I hate and who [hate] me. 

Ppp. has avimokydis in b, and (as in vs. i) begins d with /5«f cd *ham. Several of 
our mss. (P.M.W.E.) have at the beginning the senseless reading simdtu, 

6. As, O aqvatthdy ascending them of the forest-trees, thou dost put 
them beneath thee {ddliard), so the head of my foe do thou split apart 
and overcome. 


Ppp. (as we saw above) has the second half of this verse, with variants, as its 3 c, d. 
What the v&naspatyd is, as distinguished from vdnaspdtiy is as obscure as the similar 
relation of rtu and drtavd |_iii. 10.9 note J; possibly * they of that sort, they and their 
kind'; our translation marks, rather mechanically, the distinction. The comm. says 
that here vanaspati means " the place where trees grow," and vdnaspatya the trees 
themselves — which is an explanation quite after his kind. 

7. Let them float forth downward, like a boat severed from its moor- 
ing (bdndhana) ; of them, thrust forth by the expelling one, there is no 
returning again. 

Ppp. reads in c nurbddha; our Op. has vdibddhd : pra^nuttdndm. Astu in d, for 
asti^ would be an improvement The comm. gives a double explanation of bandhana^ as 
either place or instrument of fastening. |_The vs. recurs at ix. 2. 1 2, with sayaka- for 
vdib&dhd'. — W's collation of Op. gives /rao, not/r^iolj 

8. I thrust them forth with mind, forth with intent and incantation ; 

forth with branch of tree, of afvatikd, we thrust them. 

Ppp. has in a prdi *nan nuddmi (which makes the meter easier), and at the end cor- 
respondingly the active nud&masi; for b it gives pra qrtyena brdkmand. The linguali- 
zation of the first n of endn is noted in Prat. iii. 80, and the comment on that rule quotes 
the instance in c, but not that in a. According to Kau^. the thing ** mentioned in the text " 
(perhaps an effigy of the person aimed at, in the ^^ vitals " of which something has been 
buried by the preceding rule) |_having been put upon a boatj is with this verse and 
ix. 2. 4 pushed forth with a branch, and with vs. 7 made to float away. 

7. Against the disease k^etriyd. 

[Bhrgvangiras, — saptarcam. yaksmandfanaddivatam uta bahudevatyam. dnustubham: 

6. bhurij.'] 

Found in Paipp. iii., with few variants, but with vs. 5 at the end. Used by Kau^. 
(27. 29) in a healing ceremony (its text does not specify the disease) ; and reckoned 
(26. 1, note) to the takmand^ana gana» And the comm. quotes it as employed by the 
Naks. |_Qanti?J K. (17, 19) in the mahdqdnti called kdumdrl. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 208 ; Grill, 8, 105; Griffith, i.89; Bloomfield, 15, 336. 

1. On the head of the swift-running gazelle (harind) is a remedy; he 

by his horn hath made the ksetriyd disappear, dispersing. 

Visdnd is divided (vmand) in the pada-textj as if from vi + sd * unfasten ' — which 
is, indeed, in all probability its true derivation, as designating primarily a deciduous 
horn, one that is dropped off or shed ; and in this peculiarity, as distinguished from the 
permanent horns of the domestic animals, perhaps lies the reason of its application to 
magical remedial uses. The verse occurs also in Ap^S. xiii. 7. 16 |_ where most mss. 
have raghu5yato\. For the ksetriya^ see above, ii. 8. LB®^ ^^^ P* '°45-J 

2. After thee hath the bull-gazelle stridden with his four feet ; O horn, 
do thou unfasten {visa) the ksetriyd that is compacted {}) in his heart. 

Ppp. has a different d : yadi kimcit ksetriyam hrdi. The word-play in c, between 
vtsdnd and vi-sd^ is obvious; that any was intended with visuclna in i d is very ques- 
tionable. This verse, again, is found in ApQS. ib., but with considerable variants : anu 


tvd hart no mrgah padbhiq caturbhir akratnlt : visdne vi syHi *tam granthim yad asya 
gulphitatn hrdi; here it is a " knot " that is to be untied by means of the horn. One 
of our mss. (O.) has in c padbhis, like ApQS. The comm., followed by a couple of 
SPP's mss., further agrees with ApQS. by reading gulphitam in c, and explains it as 
gulphavad grathitam. The occurrence of the rare and obscure guspita |_misprinted 
gustitam\ in ^B. iii. 2. 2. 20 is also in connection with the use of a deer^s horn. 

3. What shines down yonder, like a four-sided roof (chadis), therewith 
we make all the ksetriyd disappear from thy limbs. 

In our edition, Una in c should be tindy as read by nearly all the samhitd-xMH, 
(all save our P.M.), and by SPP. The sense of a, b is obscure to the comm., as to us ; 
he guesses first that it is ** the deer-shaped thing extended in the moon^s disk,*' or else 
** a deer's skin stretched on the ground " ; chadis is ** the mat of grass with which a 
house is covered." Weber takes it as a constellation ; Grill (mistranslating paksa by 
** post "), as the gazelle himself set up on his four legs, with his horns for roof I If a 
constellation, it might be the Arab ** manzil " 7, ^, ij, w Aquarii, which its shape and name 
connect with a tent: see SUrya-Siddhdnta^ note to viii. 9 (under 25th asterism); this is 
not very far from the stars mentioned in the next verse |_X and v ScorpionisJ. 

4. The two blessed stars named Unfasteners (vich), that are yonder 
in the sky — let them unfasten of the ksetriyd the lowest, the highest 

The verse is nearly identical with ii. 8. i above, which see |_b recurs at vi. 121. 3 b; 
V. Schroeder gives the Katha version of a, b, Zwei Ass., p. 1 5, and TUbinger Katha-hss,^ 
p. 75 J. Ppp. makes it in part yet more nearly so, by beginning with ud agdtdm bhaga- 
vatt, but reads in c vi ksetriyam tvd *bhy dna^e |_cf. our 6 bj ; and its end and part of 
vs. 6 (which next follows) are defaced. 

5. The waters verily [are] remedial, the waters disease-expelling, the 
waters remedial of everything ; let them release thee from ksetriyd. 

The first three padas are RV. x. 137. 6 a, b, c, save that RV. has sdrvasya in c; but 
vi. 91. 3 below represents the same verse yet more closely. 

6. If from the drink {? dsuti) that was being made the ksetriyd hath 

come upon (vi-aq) thee, I know the remedy of it ; I make the ksetriyd 

disappear from thee. 

The word dsuii is of doubtful and disputed sense ; Weber says " infusio seminis " 
Las immediate cause of the " Erb-iibel," which is Weber's version of ksetriyd] ; Grill, 
"gekochter Zaubertrank " ; the comm., dravlbhatam annam * liquidized food.' 

7. In the fading-out of the asterisms, in the fading-out of the dawns 

also, from us [fade] out all that is of evil nature, fade out (apa-vas) the 


Ppp. has tato *sasdm at end of b, and in c dmayat for durbhUtam, Emendation of 
asmdt in c to asmdt (as suggested by Weber) would notably improve the sense. The 
second pada has a syllable too many, unless we make the double combination vdsd 


8. For authority. 

[AfAarvan. — mditram uta vdifvadevam, trdistubkam: 2^6'jagati; 4. 4'p.virddbrhattgarbhd ; 

J. anustubh.'\ 

Verses 1-4 found in Paipp. i., but defaced. The hymn is used by Kkwq, (55. 17-18 'y 
also 55. I, note), with i. 9, 30, etc., in the ceremony of reception of a Vedic student, and, 
according to the schol. (10. 19, note), in that for the generation of wisdom (the comm. 
says, as belonging to the dyusya gand). Verses 5 and 6 are the same with vi. 94. i, 2, 
and it is vi.94, rather than these verses here, that is used in Kau9. 12. 5 (the comm. 
blunderingly prescribes the use under both passages). Verse 4 has the same pratika 
as xiv. 1.32 and one or the other of the two verses is taught in Vait. (22. i) as used 
*^ by Kaugika '* in the agnistomaj but our Kau^. has no such use, and it is doubtless 
xiv. 1.32,33 that he prescribes (79.1711.) in the nuptial ceremonies; but the comm. 
reports the use here, as if it referred to vss. 4 and 5. JThe comm. further regards the 
hymn as employed by the Naks. K. (18), in the dirdvatl rite, and by Parigista 5.3 ;. 
in both cases as an dyusya hymn. 

Translated : Weber, xvii. 212; Griffith, i. 90. 

1. Let Mitra come, arranging with the seasons, uniting (i sam-vegaya-} 
the earth with the ruddy ones {usrfyd); then to us let Varuna,.Vayu, 
Agni, assign great royalty of union {? samveqydt). 

The verse is very obscure, and probably corrupt, though found almost without vari- 
ant (only tat for atha in c) in Ppp. also. The epithet samveqyd. (found only here) 
seems fashioned to correspond to the participle sarhve^dyan in b ; but Weber renders 
the ppl. by "umlagernd" and the epithet by "ruhsam"; the comm., by "pervading" 
(jfydpnuvan) and " suitable for abiding in " (samvegarham avasthdnayogyam). The 
comm. takes usriyds as gdvas, i.e. kirands * rays.' R. ventures heroic emendations : 
" Let Mitra come after ordering of the time, enlivening {samhdpayan or something 
equivalent, since * putting to rest ' is no result of the action of Mitra's rays) the earth 
with his rays ; but let Varuna make wind and fire (vdyum agnim), make our great 
realm go to rest." The first pada is redundant, unless we make the double combination 
mitrd rtubhih, [^BR. take kalp- as *sich richtend nach.'J 

2. Let Dhatar, Rati, Savitar enjoy here (iddm) ; let Indra, Tvashtar, 
welcome my words (vdcas) ; I call the divine Aditi, mother of heroes 
(finz-), that I may be midmost man of my fellows. 

The first pSda is also vii. 17. 4 a, and VS. viii. 17 a. The plural verb in b seems to 
imply that all the deities mentioned in the line are to be regarded as its subjects. 
Madhyamesthi (like madhyamaft, iv. 9. 4), probably the one whom the others gather 
about as chief ; the comm. has nothing valuable (samrddhakdmah san svasamdndih 
sevyah). The comm. takes rdti in a as = Aryaman. Ppp. h^s grhnantu for haryantu 
in b. The meter of d would be rectified by reading syam (or dsam^ as is perhaps 
assumable in this stage of the language) for dsdni. The verse as it stands (11 + 12 : 
II + 12 = 46) is ill described as dijagatl, 

3. I call, with acts of homage. Soma, Savitar, all the Adityas, in the 
contest for preeminence ; may this fire shine for very long, kindled by 
[my] fellows who gainsay not. 


The translation implies in b emendation |_cf . iii. 1 8. 4 J to ahamuttaratvi (against all 
the mss. and both editions), as proposed by BR., i. 891 ; the comm. also takes it as 
two words, and renders uttaratvi by yajamdnasya qrdisthye, Ppp. reads devdn for 
dditydn in b. The comm. has didayat in samhitd; omx pada-X&iKX has it, and Prat. iii. 22 
and iv. 89 deal with its conversion to dlddyat in samhitd. 

4. May ye be just here ; may ye not go away {pards) ; may an active 
herdsman {gopd)^ lord of prosperity, drive you hither ; do ye, with [your] 
desires, [attend] upon {}) his desire ; let all the gods conduct you together 

The translation implies emendation in d of -yantu to -nayantu^ as called for by both 
meter and sense, and also the addition of a verb, sta or ita^ at end of c, for a like reason. 
If, as seems very probable, the verse is originally addressed to kine, kdminis in c is quite 
natural ; if not, we may regard viqas as understood : the sense is * be your desires sub- 
ject to his.' Ppp. has a different reading: asmdi vas kdmd upa kdminlr viqve devd 
upasatydm iha. The comm. regards kdminis as addressed throughout, and explains 
it finally as meaning striyah gdvah (perhaps the text is defective or incorrect ; the 
general explanation of the verse implies striyah). The comm. xfaA&puras ior paras 
in a, and in b divides fry as ^ deriving it from root fr, and rendering it mdrgaprerakas 
\^pada has iryas\. The Anukr. calls for 1 1 + 1 1 : 9 + 1 1 = 42 syllables, and strictly 
requires at the end -i-antu; but no inference as to a difference of reading is to be 
drawn from this. LPpp. combines in b vdjat, — Weber says: *'' asmdi diesem, dem 
Hausherrn, kdmdya zu Liebe ; oder gehSrt asmdi zu kdmdya selbst.? "J 

5. We bend together your minds, together your courses (vratd), 
together your designs ; ye yonder who are of discordant courses, we 
make you bend [them] together here. 

This and the following verse, not found with the others in Ppp., occur again below 
as vi. 94. 1, 2 |_cf. also ii. 30. 2 J, and vs. i occurs in Ppp. xix., with the other material of 
our sixth book ; they are so far discordant in subject with the preceding verses that'we 
may fairly call them out of place here,. This one exists in MS. (ii. 2. 6), with anamsata 
for namdmasiy and sthd for sthdna. A RV. khi/a to x. 191 hsLS jdnatdm in a for sam 
vratdy dkatis in b, and, for c, d, asdu yo vimand janas tarn samdvartaydmasi. The 
first half-verse, further, nearly accords with VS. xii. 58 a, b, TS. iv. 2. 5* a, b, MS. ii. 7. 
II a, b (they have vdm for vas^ and, for b, sdm u cittiny i ^karam). Nearly all our 
samhiid-mss. read -idh before sthdna, nor is there anything in the Pr5t. to prescribe 
the omission of the visarga in such a situation, while the comment to ii. 40 expressly 
quotes the passage as an example of the assimilation of it to a following initial sibilant. 
The comm. reads stana instead of sthana. Three of our mss. (P.M.E.) read at the 
end -naydmasi, 

6. I seize [your] minds with [my] mind ; come ye after my intent 
with [your] intents ; I put your hearts in my control ; come with [your] 
tracks following my motion {ydtd). 

The comm. re^ids grhndmi in a, and three or four of SPP*s mss. follow him ; he also 
makes in b a compound of anucittebhis. Quite a number of mss. (including our 
P.M.W.H.s.m.I.) very strangely combine at the end -mdnar ita. MB. has a somewhat 
similar verse at i. 2.21. How heedless the Anukr. is of metrical irregularity is well 


illustrated by c, where the desirable alteration of vd^esu to vdge^ and the abbreviation 
of hfdaydni to the equivalent -ya (both suggested by Weber) would leave a good 
tristubh pada ; there is no jagatf character to any part of the verse. |_The combination 
'tndnareta looks as if it had blundered in from the end of b. J 

9. Against viskandha and other evils. 

[ Vimadeva, — dydvdprthivtyam uta vdifvadevam. dnustubham : 4, 4'p. nicrd brhatt ; 

6. bhurij.'l 

Found in Paipp. iii. (with vs. 6 at the beginning). Used by Kaug. (43. i) in a charm 
against demons and the hindrances caused by them. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 215 ; Griffith, i.91 ; Bloomfield, 67, 339. 

1. Of the karqdpha^ of the viqaphd, heaven [is] father, earth mother: 

as, O gods, ye have inflicted {abhi-kr), so do ye remove (apa-kr) again. 

The whole hymn contains much that is obscure and difficult, and the comm. gives 
no real help anywhere, being as much reduced to guessing as we are. Ppp. begins 
with karsabhasya visabhyasya^ which rather favors Weber's opinion, that the apha of 
the two names is a suffix, related with abha; probably two varieties of viskandha are 
intended, though none such are mentioned in the later medicine. The comm. finds 
qapha * hoof ' in both : one = krqaqaphasya (vydghrddek)^ the other either vtgata- 
^aphasya or vispasfaqaphasya, SPP. reads in b dyduh /-, which is doubtless prefer- 
able to our dydus P' ; it is read by the majority of his mss. and by part of ours (H.I.K.) ; 
Ppp. also has it. Ppp. further omits abhi in c, and reads api for apa in d. 

2. Without claspers they held fast (dhdrayd)\ that was so done by 
Manu ; I make the viskandha impotent, like a castrater of bulls. 

Ppp. begins with aqlesamdno *dh' ; some of the mss. (including our O.) also give 
aqlesmanas, and it is the reading of the comm. ; he gives two different and equally arti- 
ficial explanations ; and, what is surprising even in him, three diverse ones of vddhri^ 
without the least regard to the Connection ; one of the three is the right one. Ppp. adds 
ca after vadhri in c. Weber plausibly conjectures a method of tight tying to be the 
subject of the verse ; castration is sometimes effected in that way. 

3. On a reddish ^Xxxn^ 2, khfgala — that the pious {vedkds) bind on; 
let the binders {}) make impotent the flowing (?), puffing (i) kdbavd. 

All obscure and questionable. Ppp's version is : for », sUtre piqunkhe khugilam; in 
h, y ad for tad; fore, qravasyam qusma kdbabam (the nagari copyist writes kdvardham). 
The comm. also has in c qravasyam, and three or four of SPP*s mss. follow him ; the 
translation assumes it to be for srav-. The comm. explains khfgalam by tanutrdnam 
* armor,' quoting RV. ii. 39. 4 as authority ; qravasyam by bdlarUpam annam arhati 
(since qravas is an annandman/)\ qHsmatn by qosakam ^see Bloomfield, ZDMG. 
xlviii. 5 74 J; kdbava as a hindrance related with a kabu^ which is a speckled {karbura- 
varna) cruel animal ; and bandhuras is either the amulet bound upon us, or it is for 
-rds^ <*the amulet, staff, etc., held by us.'* 

4. Wherewith, O flowing ones, ye go about {car)^ like gods with 
Asura-magic (^mdyd)^ like the ape, spoiler of dogs, and with the binder (}) 
of the kdbavd. 


Or qravasyik is * quick, lively ' (Pet. Lexx.) ; the comm., " seeking either food or 
glory.*' Ppp. reads in c, d dUsanam vandkard kdbhavasyam ca. The comm. explains 
bandhurd by sambaddhd dhrtd khadgddirupd hetih. The verse is scanned by the 
Anukr. as9 + 9:9 + 8 = 35; the usual abbreviation of iva to *va would make b and c 
good anustubh p&das. |_Read qravasydq^ voc, in a ?J 

5. Since I shall bind thee [on] for spoiling, I shall spoil the kdbavd ; 

ye shall go up with curses, like swift chariots. 

The translation implies emendation of bhartsyimi (our edition) or bhatsyimi (SPP*s 
and the comm.) to bhantsyAmi^ from root bandh^ which seems plainly indicated as 
called for ; the comm. explains bhats- first as badhndmi^ and then as dipaydmi; the 
great majority of mss. give bharts-, Ppp. is quite corrupt here : justl tvd kdmcchd *bki 
josayitvd bhavafk. The comm. has at the end carisyatha (two or three of SPP's mss. 
agreeing with him), and he combines in c uddqavas into one word, ** harnessed with 
speedy horses that have their mouths raised for going.** 

6. A hundred and one viskandhas [are] distributed over the earth; 
thee have they first taken up, of them the viskandha-^'^QXivcig amulet. 

That is, * an amulet that spoils those viskandhas * (Weber otherwise). In c, for the 
jaharus of all the mss. and of both editions, we ought of course to have jakrus; this 
the comm. reads : such expansions of r with preceding or following consonant to a. 
syllable are not rare in the manuscripts. Ppp. has a different second half-verse : tesdfk 
ca sarvesdm idam asti viskandhadiisanam. The second pada is found, in a different 
connection, as MB. ii. 8.4 b. The comment on Pr&t. ii. 104, in quoting this verse, 
appears to derive viskandha from root skand. The verse is made bhurij only by the 
false iorm jaharus. |_For " loi,** see note to iii. 1 1. S.J 

10. To the ekfl8(aki (day of moon's last quarter). 

[Aiharvan, — tray oda far cam, dstakyam, dnustubham : ^, j, 6, li. tristubh ; 7. ^-av. 6-p. 


Found, except vss. 9 and 13, in P^ipp. i., but with a very different order of verses 
(i~4,6, 1 1, 10, 8, 5, 12, 7). Used by Kau^. in connection with the astakd ceremony, or 
celebration of the festival of the moon*s last quarter (19. 28, and again, with more ful- 
ness, 138. 1 -1 6), or of a particular last quarter, regarded as of special importance. 
The details of the Kaug. are expanded and explained by the comm. ; they are not of a 
nature to cast light upon the interpretation of the verses. Weber (pp. 219 ff.) discusses 
at considerable length the questions connected with the festival. Vait., which does not 
concern itself with the astakd^ yet employs vs. 6 (13.6) at the agnistoma sacrifice, in 
connection with the somakrayanl cow ; and also vs. 7 c-f (9. 4) in the sdkamedha rite of 
the cdturmdsya sacrifice. The comm. quotes vss. 2, 3, 7 as employed by Parigista 6. i. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 189 ; Weber, xvii. 218 ; GriflSth, i. 93. 

I. She first shone out; she became a milch-cow at Yama's; let her, 
rich in milk, yield (duh) to us each further summer {} sdmd). 

The verse occurs also in several other texts: in TS. (iv. 3.115), MS. (ii. 13. 10), 
K. (xxxix. 10), PGS. (iii. 3.5), and MB. (ii.2. 1 ; 8. i); and its second half is RV. iv. 
57. 7 c, d, and MB. i. 8. 8 c, d; ii. 2. 17 c, d, and also found below as 17.4 c, d. The 
version of K. agrees (Weber) throughout with ours ; TS. has, for a, yi prathami 


vy&uchat^ with dhuksva at end of c, and PCS. agrees with it ; MS. has duhe at end of 
c; MB. (in all four occurrences) has duhd utt-^ and in 8. i also arhana putra vdsa for 
a. The comm. takes sdmSm in d as an adverbial accus. {=sarvesu vatsaresu)y as 
does Weber. \Qi. Hillebrandt, Ved, MythoL i. 500. J 

2. The night which the gods rejoice to meet, [as] a milch-cow coming 

unto [them], which is the spouse {pdtnt) of the year — let her be very 

auspicious to us. 

The verse is found also in PGS. (iii. 2. 2), HGS. (ii. 17.2) [MP. (ii.20. 27) and 
MGS. (ii. 8. 4c)J, and its second half in MB. (ii. 2.16 c d); the first four have the 
better readings jands in a and ivd ^*yatlm in b |_and MGS. has r&trlm\, Ppp. has in 
b dhenu r&trim up-, and at the end -gald. For samvatsardsya pdtnl (cf. vs. 8 a, b) 
the comm. quotes TS. vii. 4. 8*. 

3. Thou, O night, whom we worship (iipa-ds) as model {praiimd) of 

the year — do thou unite our long-lived progeny with abundance of 


Or, perhaps better (so the comm. and Weber), *do thou [give] us long-lived 
progeny ; unite [us] with abundance of wealth.' Ppp. has for \iye tvd rdtrim updsaU, 
and in c tesdm for sd nas, |_MGS. has the vs. at ii. 8.4^ (cf. p. 156), agreeing nearly 
with Ppp. J The first half -verse is read also in TS. (v. 7. 2»), K. (xl. 2), PGS. (iii. 2. 2), 
and MB. (ii. 2. 18) : TS. gives at end of b upasate^ Mh,yajdmahe; PGS. h2s pratimd 
yd tdfh rdtrim updsmahe. In our edition, restore a lost accent-mark over the sr of 
srja in d. 

4. This same is she that first shone out ; among these other ones (f.) 

she goes about {car)y having entered ; great greatnesses [are] within her ; 

the bride {vadhu)^ the new-going generatrix, hath conquered. 

This verse is repeated below as viii. 9. 11. It occurs, with considerable variants, 
in a whole series of other texts: TS. (iv. 3. ii»), lyjS. (ii. 13. 10), K. (xxxix. 10), 
QGS. (iii. 12. 3), and MB. (ii. 2. 15). For dsv itardsu^ TS. and QGS. have antdr 
asyam; MS., also Ppp., s& *psv dntds; MB., se *yam apsv antas. All of thim, with 
Ppp., invert the order of c and d ; and they have a different version of our c : trdya 
(but Ppp. trita) endm mahimanah sacante (^GS. -ntdm), but MB. vigve hy asydm 
mahimdno aniah; while, for jigdya in d, TS. and ^GS. give jajdna^ and MS. and 
Ppp. mimdya^ (JGS. following it with navakrj; and MB. reads prathamd for our 
navagdt, QGS., moreover, has in a vyuchat. These variants speak ill for the tradi- 
tion. The comm. gives four diverse explanations of navagdt: going in company with 
each new or daily rising sun ; pervading the new originating kind of living creatures ; 
going to a daily originating new form ; or, finally, going to the nine-fold divisions of 
the day ; and the comment to TS. |_reported by WeberJ adds a fifth, " newly married "; 
if the last is the meaning, jajdna is better with it than jigdya: " as soon as wedded to 
the new year, she bears the days that follow." The meter is really redundant by a 
syllable in a \Jydh'd?\, |_Further, MB. has in a esdi^va sd yd purvd vy-j and Ppp. 
ends d ^ihjanitrlm. — BR., v. 1538, give * erst-gebarend * for navagdt.] 

5. The forest-tree pressing-stones have made their sound, making the 
oblation of the complete year {parivatsartna) ; O sole dstakdy may we, 
having good progeny and good heroes, be lords of wealths. 


** Stones '* : i.e. probably, blocks of wood used instead of stones [stt HiUebrandt, 
Fed. MythoL i. 162, 161 J ; or the wooden mortar and pestle (so the comm.). Ppp. reads 
for c ekdstakayl (= -kdydi) havisd vidhema. Some of the mss. combine havih kr- in 
b ; the comment to Prat. ii. 63 requires havis k-^ which both editions accept. Some of 
our mss. (P.M.W.Op.) give in c suprajdsas, HGS. (ii. 14. 4) and MB. (ii. 2. 13) have 
a corresponding verse: HGS. begins with ulukhalds, combines havih k- and reads 
-rlHdm in b, and has suprajd vlravantas in c ; MB. gives for a duiakhaidh sampra- 
vadanti grdvdnas^ ends b with -rfndm^ and has for d jyog jlvema balihrto vayam te, 
\\\, reciu^ also at MP. ii. 20. 34 and MGS. ii. 8.4l>.J The first pida is jagatl^ unnoted 
in the Anukr. |_As to astakd^ cf. Zimmer, p. 365.J 

6. The track {padd) of Ida [is] full of ghee, greatly trickling ; O Jata- 

vedas, accept thou the oblations. The cattle of the village that are of all 

forms — of those seven let the willing stay {rdtnti) be with me. 

Versions are found in AQS. (ii. 2. 17), ApQS. (vi. 5. 7), HGS. (ii. 17. 2), and MB. 
(ii. 2. 14), and of the latter half in TA. (iii. 11. 12, vs. 31 a, c). MB. agrees with our 
text throughout ; the three others have cardcaram at end of a, and all three havir idam 
jusasva (for prati etc.) in b; HGS. begins with iddydi srptam^ and Ap^S. combines 
iddydh p-\ then, in d, ApQS., HGS., and TA. read ihd instead of mdyi; and A^S. 
pustis for ramtis; HGS. ends with rathtir astu pustih. The comm. reads ildyds in 
a ; he renders sarlsrpam by atyartham sarpai, ramtis by prltisy and specifies the 
seven village (i.e. domestic) animals as cow, horse, goat, sheep, man, ass, camel ; but 
the number seven is doubtless used only as an indefinite sacred one. Pada a is again 
jagatl^ as in vs. 5. |_Pada c is our ii. 34.4a; between viqvarUpds and tesdm ApQS. 
inserts virUpds (a fragment of our ii.34. 4bl). — Prat. ii. 72 requires iddyds P;\ 

7. [Set] thou me in both prosperity and abundance ; O night, may we 
be in the favor of the gods. 

O spoon, fly away full ; fly back hither well-filled ; jointly enjoying all 

sacrifices, bring to us food (is), refreshment (ilrj). 

The first two padas, which seem to have nothing to do with the rest of the verse, arc 
wanting in Ppp. What follows them is a complete anustubh^ and quoted by its pratika 
in Vait. (see above) ; its first half is found in several other texts : VS. (iii. 49), TS. 
(i.8.4'), MS. (i. 10.2), K. (ix.5), AgS. (ii. 18. 13); of these, VS. TS.AgS. read darvi 
for darve, as does also the comm., with a few of SPP*s mss. Ppp. has samprHcatl 
isam in the last half-verse. The comm. understands d sthdpaya in a, as in the transla- 
tion ; bhaja would answer an equally good purpose. He explains that the spoon is to 
go forth with oblation and to return with the answering blessings. SambhuHjatl he 
renders by havisd samyak pdlayanti prlnayantl. Finally, he points out that, as c is 
quoted as a pratika, a and b have a right to the character of a separate verse ; but that 
in the pahcapatalikd the whole is made a verse, with three avasdnas ; the statement, 
but not the title, appears to fit our Anukr.; this scans as 8-f-io:8 + 8:8 + 8 = 50, 
needlessly counting only 10 syllables in b. In our cd., read md for me, |_Cf. iv. 15. 12 n.J 

8. Hither hath come the year, thy spouse, O sole dsfakd; do thou 

unite our long-lived progeny with abundance of wealth. 

Instead of repeating the second half-verse of vs. 3, Ppp. gives for c, d tasmdi 
juhomi: havisd ghrtena qdu na^ qarma yacchatu. Against his usual habit, the comm. 
explains c, d anew, but quite in accordance with his former explanation. 


9. I sacrifice to the seasons, the lords of the seasons, them of the 
seasons {artavd), and the winters (hdyand\ to the summers (sdmd), the 
years, the months ; for the lord of existence I sacrifice. 

The change of case, from accusative to dative, in d, doubtless intends no change of 
construction. The verse, as noted above, is wanting in Ppp. ; it is in part repeated 
below, as xi. 6. 1 7. According to the comm., the ** lords of the seasons *' are the gods, 
Agni etc. ; the Srtavas |_cf . iii. 6. 6 note J are " parts of seasons ; other unspecified divi- 
sions of time, sixteenths, kdsthds, etc.'' ; and although samd^ sathvatsara^ and hay ana 
are S3monymous, yet hilyana here signifies " days and nights,'* and samd ** half-months." 

10. To thee for the seasons, them of the seasons, the months, the 

years, the Creator (dhatdr)^ the Disposer {vidhdidr)^ the Prosperer 

(isamrdh), the lord of existence, do I sacrifice. 

All the safkhiid-mss, combine in a -bhyas ivS^ and SPP. accepts the reading in his 
text ; ours emends to -bhyas tvd ; such treatment of final as is common in Ppp., and 
sporadic examples of it are found among the AV. mss., but it is hardly to be tolerated 
in a text like ours ; and the comment to Prat. iv. 107 quotes the passage as -bhyas tvd. 
The comm. Lat xix. 37. 4J deems this verse |_and not v. 28. 13 J to be the one repeated as 
xix. 37.4; see imder that verse. Ppp. has, for a, b, yajur rtvigbhya drtavebhyo mdbhyas 
samvatsardya ca^ which at any rate rids the text of the embarrassing tvd. Here the 
comm. declares the drtavas to be " days and nights, etc." ; samfdh he explains as 
samardhayitre etanndmne devdya, 

1 1 . We, making oblation with idd — I sacrifice to the gods with what 

is rich in ghee; unto houses not disorderly (^dlubhyant)^ rich in kine, 

may we enter together. 

Or, it might be, * may we lie down, go to rest ' ; the translation would imply more 
naturally satn upa viqema Lthe Index Verborum takes upa as an independent " case- 
governing " preposition J ; the comm. says upe *tya sam vi^etna sukhena ni vasema; he 
comfortably removes the anacoluthon in a, b by declaring yaje — yajdmahe^ and takes 
alubhyatas as either nom. {gdrdhyam akurvdnds) or accus. (gdrdhyarahitdn), Ppp. 
reads for d drsadesvpagomata, 

12. The sole dsfakd^ paining herself {tapyd-) with penance, generated 
an embryo, a greatness, Indra; by him the gods overcame their foes; 
slayer of the barbarians became the lord of might ((dci-). 

The verse is found also in TS. (iv. 3. Ii3), K. (xxxix. 10), PGS. (iii. 3. 5), and 
MB. (ii. 3. 21); and a is identical with HGS. ii. 15.9a |_and MP. ii. 20.35 aj: TS. 
accents tdpya- in a (the comm. does the same), and its c, d read : tina ddsyun vy 
dsahanta devi hanta *surdndm abhavac chdclbhih^ and K. PGS. have the same ver- 
sion ; Ppp. agrees with them in reading asurdndm for ddsyHndmy and MB. has their d, 
but our c, except asahanta for vy asah-. The s oi vy ds- is distinctly required by 
Prat. ii. 92 ; but SPP. gives in his text vy ds-, against a majority of the mss. reported by 
him. Our P.M.W. are corrupt at the end, but P.M. show distinctly -fbhth, indicating 
the reading of TS. etc. The comm. gives three different explanations of gdrbham in b, 
adding garanlyam or stutyam (from gr *sing'), and then garbhasthavad adr^yam 
(iromgr * swallow '), to the true meaning. The ekdstakd he defines to be " eighth day 
of the dark half of Magha." The concluding pada is jagatL 


13. Thou whose son is Indra, whose son is Soma, daughter art thou 
of Prajapati ; fulfil thou our desires ; accept our oblation. 

Wanting in Ppp., as above noted. 

The second anuv&ka contains 5 hymns, 40 verses ; and the quotation from the old 
Anukr. is simply da^a, 

II. For relief from disease, and for long life. 

[Brahman and Bhrgvangiras. — astarcam. dindrdgndyusyam^ yaksmand^anadevatyam. 
trdistubkam : 4. ^akvarigarbkd jagati ; j, 6. anustubh ; y. umigbrhatigarbhd 
pathydpahkti ; 8, j-av. 6-p. brhaiigarbhd jagatiS\ 

The first four verses are found in P^ipp. i., with the bulk of the 4-verse hymns ; they 
are also RV. x. 161. 1-4 (RV. adds a fifth verse, which occurs below as viii. 1.20). 
The hymn is used by K^uq. (27. 32, 33) in a general healing ceremony (without specifi- 
cation of person or occasion ; the schol. and comm. assume to add such), and, in com- 
pany with many others (iv. 13. i etc. etc.), in a rite for length of life {s^. 11); and it is 
reckoned to the takmandgana gana (26. i , note) and to the dyusya gana (54. 1 1 , note ; 
but the comm., ignoring these, counts it as one of the ahhoHHga gana). In V^it. 
(36. 19), vs. 8 accompanies the setting free of the horse at the a^vamedha sacrifice ; and 
the hymn (the edition says, i. 10. 4 ; the pratlkas are the same) is employed, with ii.33 
etc., in tht purusamedha (38. i). — [^See also W's introduction to ii. 33. J 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 231 ; Griffith, i. 95 ; Bloomfield, 49, 341. — In part also by 
Roth, Zur Litteratur und Geschichte des Weda^ p. 42. 

1. I release thee by oblation, in order to living, from MxC^xayvin ydksma 

and from roy^\ ydksma ; if now seizure {grdhi) hath seized him, from it, 

O Indra-and-Agni, do ye release him. 

RV. inserts vd after yddi in c. Ppp. has, in the second half-verse, grdkyd grhlto 
yady esa yatas tata ind-. The comm. explains rdjayaksma as either " king ol yaJtsmas " 
or else "ihey. that seized king Soma first," quoting for the latter TS. ii. 5.65 [^see ref- 
erences in Bloomfield^s comment J. The first pada \sjagati. 

2. If of exhausted life-time, or if deceased, if gone down even to the 
presence {antikd) of death, him I take from the lap of perdition ; I have 
won {spr) him for [life] of a hundred autumns. 

The translation implies in d dspdrsam^ which is the reading of our edition, supported 
by RV., and also by the comm. {= prabaiam karomi!)^ and two of SPP's mss. that 
follow the latter ; the dspdrqam of nearly all the mss. (hence read by SPP.), and of Ppp., 
can be nothing but a long-established blunder. Ppp. has at the beginning j'a^/ ukhard" 
yur y-, ^At ii. 14. 3 SPP. used the " longy*" to denote the ksdipra circumflex ; with 
equal reason he might use it here for iht pra^lista of nUa = n(-Ua.\ 

3. With an oblation having a thousand eyes, a hundred heroisms, a 

hundred life-times, have I taken him, in order that Indra may lead him 

unto autumns, across to the further shore of all difficulty (duritd), 

RV. has in a qatdqdradetta for qatdvlryena^ and makes much better sense of c, d by 
reading qatdm for indrasy and Indras for dti (it also has imdm for enam), 

4. Live thou increasing a hundred autumns, a hundred winters, and a 


hundred springs ; a hundred to thee [may] Indra, Agni, Savitar, Brihas- 

pati [give] ; with an oblation of a hundred life-times have I taken him. 

Our text, in the second half-verse, ingeniously defaces the better meter and sense 
given by RV., which reads indrdgni for ta indro agnih in c, and ends with havise 
*mdm punar duh. The verse is fairly correctly defined by the Anukr., its c having 14 
syllables {(^akvarf)y and making the whole number 47 syllables {jagatl less i ). 

5. Enter in, O breath-and-expiration, as two draft-oxen a pen (vrajd) ; 
let the other deaths go away (vi), which they call the remaining hundred. 

In this verse, as in the preceding and in vs. 7 and elsewhere, SPP. makes the inde- 
fensible combination n chy instead of ft ch^ as the result of mutual assimilation of n and q 
Lcf. note to i. 19. 4 J. 

LAs to the "one hundred and one deaths," cf. viii. 2. 27; xi. 6. 16; i. 30. 3; 
ikaqata in Index ; and the numbers in the notable passage, xix. 47. 3 ff. ; Kuhn's most 
interesting Germanic parallels, KZ. xiii. 1 28 ff. ; ^yxXXkt^ Deutscher Voiksaberglaube^^ 
30 1 » 335 ; Hopkins, Oriental Studies . . . papers read before the Oriental Club of 
Philadelphia, 1888-1894, p. 152; Zimmer, p. 400. Cf. also the words of the statute, 
18 Edward I., §4, concerning the "Fine of Lands," "unless they put in their claim 
within a year and a day."J- 

6. Be ye just here, O breath-and-expiration; go ye not away from 
here ; carry his body, his limbs, unto old age again. 

At the end of b, the comm. xt2A'& javam {^ — (^Tghram^ akdle) instead of yuvdnty and 
two or threfe of SPP's mss., as often, follow him. 

7. Unto old age do I commit thee ; unto old age do I shake thee down 
(tii-dhu) ; may old age, excellent, conduct thee ; let the other deaths go 
away, which they call the remaining hundred. 

The Anukr. scans the verse as9 + 8 :7 + 8+8= 40, not admitting any resolution in c. 

8. Old age hath curbed (abhi-dhd) thee, as it were a cow, an ox, with 

a rope; the death that curbed thee, when born, with easy fetter — that 

Brihaspati released for thee, with the (two) hands of truth. 

The verb-forms represent the noun abhidhanl * halter, or bridle, or rope for confining 
and guiding.' LA case of " reflected meaning " : discussed, Lanman, Transactions of 
the Am, PhiloL AssociatioHy vol. xxvi, p. xiii (1894). Cf. note to iv. 18. i. J As in many 
other cases, the comm. renders the aorist ahita (for adhita) as an imperative, baddham 
karotu. On account of jdyamdnam in d (virtually * at thy birth *) Weber entitles the 
hymn " on occasion of difficult parturition," which is plainly wrong. Perhaps it is for 
the same reason that the comm. regards it as relating to a child, or to a person diseased 
from improper copuladon. In our text, at the beginning, read abhi (an accent-sign 
lost under a-). There is no brhatl element in the versel 

12. Accompanying the building of a house. 

\Brahman, — navarcam, fdldsuktam, vdstospaiifdldddivatam. trdistubham : 2. virddjagatl ; 
J. brkati; 6. fakvarigarbhd jagati ; 7. drsy anustubh ; 8. bhurij ; g. anustubh.'\ 

The first eight verses are found in Paipp., but only 1-5, 7 together, in iii., vs. 6 being 
in XX., and vs. 8 in xvii. ^More or less correspondent vss. recur at MP. ii. 15. 3 ff. and 


at MGS. ii. Ii.l2ff. (cf. p. 148 ihdiva),\ The hymn is reckoned by Kau^. (8.23) to 
the vdstospatlya hymns, and is used with them in a house-building ceremony (43. 4 £E. ; 
the " two dhruvas^''^ mentioned in 43. 1 1 Lare doubtless the same as the " two dhruvas " 
mentioned in J 136. 7 ; |_and the latter J are, according to the comm. to vi. 87, not vss. 
I and 2, but hymns vi. 87 and 88) ; vss. 6 and 8 are specially quoted (43. 9, 10). Viit. 
(16. 1, in the agnistoma sacrifice) gives a pratika which is nearly that of vs. 8, but 
with adhvaryo for ndri, LVs. 9, q. v., occurs in Ppp. with others of our ix. 3. J 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 463; Zimmer, p. 150; Weber, xvii. 234 ; Grill, 59,108; 
Griffith, i. 97; Bloomfield, 140,343. — Cf. Hillebrandt, Veda-chrestomathiey p. 44; and 
Bloomfield's references ; also M. Wintemitz, Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen 
Gesellschaft in Wien^ vol. xvii, p. [38]. 

1. Just here I fix (ni-mi) [my] dwelling (fdld) firm; may it stand in 
security, sprinkling ghee ; unto thee here, O dwelling, may we resort 
(sam-car) with all our heroes, with good heroes, with unharmed heroes. 

Ppp. reads adAi instead of upa in d. Padas a, b are found in PGS. iii. 4. 4, with 
tisikatu for -J//; and b in Q!GS. iii. 3, with iisfha for the same ; HGS. (i. 27. 2) has the 
whole verse, with tisthati in a, anu (for upd) in d, and suvlrds before sarvav- in c. 

2. Just here stand thou firm, O dwelling, rich in horses, in kine, in 
pleasantness, in refreshment, in ghee, in milk; erect thyself (ut-fri) in 
order to great good-fortune. 

Ppp. leaves the a of a^vdvatl in b unelided. PGS. (ibid.) has padas b and d, mak- 
ing one verse of them with 3 c, d; padas a, b are also found in Q!GS. (ibid.), with con- 
siderable variants : sthUne for dkruvd^ dhruvd for qdle^ and sllamdvatt for sUnr- ; and 
HGS. (ibid.) has again the whole verse, with iirjasvati payasd pinvamdnd for c. 
The comm., with the usual queer perversion of the sense of sUnrtd^ renders sUnrtdvatt 
by bahubhih priyasatvavdgbhir bdlddlndfk vdnlbhir yuktd, Padas b and c ?^tjagatl. 

3. A garner {} dfiamni) art thou, O dwelling, of great roof, of cleansed 
grain ; to thee may the calf come, may the boy, may the kine, streaming 
in at evening. 

This translation of the difficult and doubtless corrupt first half-verse implies emenda- 
tion of -chandas Xo-chadis^ and oi piti- to pfi/d which latter is, in fact, the Ppp. read- 
ing. In d, SPP. adopts the bad reading dspdndamdndSy claiming to find it in the 
majority of his mss. ; but the scribes are so wholly untrustworthy in their distinction of 
sy and sp that the requirement of the sense is sufficient to show that they intend sy 
here ; the comm. reads -syand-^ and so does (^GS. (iii. 2) in the parallel passage : endth 
(ii^uh krandaty d kumdra d syandantdm dhenavo nityavatsdh ; PGS. (ibid.) has d 
tvd ^i^ur d krandatv d gdvo dhenavo vdqyamdndh. |_MGS. ii. 11.12b reflects our 
vs. 7. J The comm. lets us understand by dharuni either bhogajdtasya dhdrayitrl or 
Pra^astdi stambhdir tipeid; and by brhachandds ^\\k\^x prabhutdchddand or mahadbhiq 
chandobhir veddir upetd; putidhdnya is "having corn malodorous from age'* — a 
sign of stores unexhausted. The Anukr. apparently scans as 7 + 8: 104-11=36: a 
very poor sort of brhati. ^Note that of SPP's authorities for dsyand-^ K and V were 
men, not mss. ; none of his living authorities gave dspand-. The blunder is easy for 
the eye, not for the ear. J 

4. This dwelling let Savitar, Vayu, Indra, Brihaspati fix, foreknowing; 


let the Maruts sprinkle it with water, with ghee ; let king Bhaga deepen 
{ni'tan) our ploughing. 

Ppp. reads in a, b vdyur agnis tvastS hotd ni^ and has somas (which suits rdjd 
better) for bhagas in d. In c it begins with the true reading uksantu; this is so natu- 
rally suggested as emendation of the uchdntu of the mss. that all the translators assume 
it (Weber, strangely mistaking the plain statement of the Index Verborum, accuses us 
of having wrongly altered uksdntu in our edition to uchdntu!) ; uksdntu is also read 
by the comm., and by two or three of SPP*s mss. that follow him ; and SPP. very 
properly admits it into his text. SPP. also reads after it udna^ with the comm., but 
against all his mss. Lexcept the grotriya KJ ; there is no instance where udna and udnds 
are correctly read in any of them (here, our Bp.O.Op. have utna^ P.M. utva^ the 
rest * unna : our edition gives unna^ and Weber has failed to see that it was corrected 
in the Index Verborum Lunder uddn\). The comm. makes d refer to the ploughing 
of the site of the house : qdldbhiimeh karsanam nitardm karotu. L*E.H.D.K.Kp. and 
Ppp. have unna; I. has utta ; W. has -tu tvd.\ LFor uchantu^ see x. 9. 23 n.J 

5. O mistress of the building Q mdna)^ as sheltering, pleasant, hast 
thou, a goddess, been fixed by the gods in the beginning; clothing thy- 
self in grass, mayest thou be well-willing; then mayest thou give us 
wealth together with heroes. 

Ppp. has, for c, d, unnam vasand sumand ya^as tvam rayith no dhisubhage suvlram, 
" Grass " in c refers probably to a thatched roof. Mana the comm. gives two explana- 
tions for : either " of the reverend (mdnaniya) lord of the site (ydstupati)^^'* or else 
" of the spoiling (J mfyamdnd) grain etc." {patni in this case signifying pdlayitri). In 
b the comm. reads nirmitd. HGS. (i. 27.8) has a, b, c (with a wholly different d) in 
a corrupt form : md nah sapatnah qaranah syond devo devebhir vimitd *sy agre : trnam 
vasdndh sumand asi tvam; but our d (with -virdm r-) occurred just before (i. 27. 7). 

6. With due order, O beam (vah(d)f ascend the post ; formidable, 
bearing rule, force away (apa-vrj) the foes ; let not the attendants (upa- 
sattdr) of thy houses be harmed, O .dwelling ; may we live a hundred 
autumns with all our heroes. 

Ppp. reads sthund *dhi in a, and in c, d has -tdro * tra virdjdm jivdm qaradaq 
qatdni. Both meter and sense indicate that grhindm is an intrusion in c ; and suvtrds 
at the end would rectify the meter of d. The first pada is the beginning of a verse in 
AGS. ii.9 ; and HGS. (i. 27. 7) has the first half-verse, with sihundu in a, and urdhvas 
and apa sedha in b Lcf. MP. ii. 15. 6 ; MGS. ii. 1 1. 14 is corrupt J. The comm. reads 
arsan for risan in c ; he explains rtina by abddhyena rupena saha^ and upasattdras by 
upasadanakartdras. The verse (11 -fii: 14+12 =48) is defined by the Anukr. with 
mechanical correctness. 

7. To it the tender boy, to it the calf, with moving creatures {jdgat), 
to it the jar oi parisruty with mugs of curd, have come. 

Ppp. has tvd for imdm in a and c, and in c parigrtas ; and it ends d with kalagag ca 
yd. The mss. vary between parisrutas and -fr///- (our Bp.H.O.Op.Kp. have f) ; the 
comm. has j, and renders the word by parisravanaqilasya madhunah * foaming over 
sweet* The word is quoted in the comment to Prat. ii. 106 as an example of s after / 
protected from lingualization by a following r. The comm. reads in c kumbhdSy and 


in d kala^ls; half the mss. (including our Bp.E.I.H.K.) accent kalaq&U, The comm. 
explains yVf^^x/d ^& gamanaqlUna gav&dind^ which is doubtless its true sense. The verse 
is found also in AGS. (ii.8. i6), PCS. (iii.4.4)» C^S. (iii. 2. 9), and HGS. (i. 27. 4) : 
the first two and the last have (like Ppp.) tvd^ and QIGS. reads enam (for i*pnam)\ for 
jdgatAy PGS. \iz& jagaddis and AGS. j&yat&mj QGS. gives bhuvanas^ with pari for 
sahd; all differ again as to the last word, presenting upa (PGS.), ayan (AGS.), ayann 
iva (HGS.) or gaman (Q!GS.); and ^GS. has further kumbhyds in c, while for pari- 
srutas AGS. has pariqritas and HGS. hiranmayas [^see also MP. ii. 15.4 and MGS. 
ii. II. 1 2b J. The epithet drsf, added by the Anukr. to the metrical definition of the 
verse, is without meaning as distinguishing it from vs. 9 [_cf. iii. 14.6, note J. 

8. Bring forward, O woman, this full jar, a stream of ghee combined 
(sam-bhr) with ambrosia {am ha); anoint these drinkers (?) with ambro- 
sia; let what is offered-and-bestowed defend it (f. : the dwelling.^). 

The well-nigh universal reading of the mss. in c is imdm pdtfn^ which SPP. accord- 
ingly presents in his text, in spite of its grammatical impossibility (of our mss., E. gives 
pdtrin^ 'tren being a misreading of -tfn found also more than once elsewhere ; P. has 
pdddrty and W. pdtran) ; we emended imam to imin ; but perhaps imim pdtrlm * this 
drinking- vessel,* which the comm. has, would be preferable, as better suited to sdm 
andhi ; and endm at the end would then refer to it The comm. has sam indhi instead 
of sdffi andhi ; he makes endm imply qdldm. The corresponding verse in Ppp. (xvii.) 
is quite different, and corrupt; ptlrndm ndbhiri pra hard *bhi kumbham apdm ramant 
osadhlndn ghrtasya: imdm pdtrer amrtdir d sam agdhi sthird vlrds sumanaso 
bhavantu : this suggests imdm p&trdir amftasya in c * anoint this [dwelling] with ves- 
sels of ambrosia *; but also its separation from the preceding verses makes uncertain its 
belonging to the same ceremony with them. In the ceremonial use, it accompanies the 
entrance into the new dwelling, the wife first, carrying a water-jar. 

9. These waters I bring forward, free from ydksma^ }fdksma-ef[a,cing ; I 
set forth Q pra-sad) unto (upa) the houses, along with immortal (amr/a) fire. 

The verse, as already noted, is wanting Lin this connectionj in Ppp., and neither 
Kauq. nor the comm. specify anything as to its use. It appears again below as ix. 3. 23 
Lwith Ppp. version J. The comm. gives no explanation nor paraphrase of prd sfddmi, 
L" Prepositions " discussed, Prat. iv. 3, note. J 

13. To the waters. 

[Bbrjpi. — saptarcam. vdrunam uta sindhuddivatam. dnustubham : i. nicrt : 

J. virddjagati ; 6. nicrt tristubh^ 

The first six verses occur in Paipp. iii., and also in TS. (v. 6. i), MS. (ii. 13. i), and 
K. (xxxix. 2). The hymn is used by Kauq. in a ceremony for directing water into a 
certain course (40. i ff.); the padas of vs. 7 are severally employed in it (see under that 
verse); it also appears, with other hymns (i. 4-6, 33, etc. etc.), in a rite for good-fortune 
(41. 14). And the comm. describes it as used by one who desires rain. Verse 7 is 
further employed, with a number of other verses, by Vait. (29. 13), in the agnicayana^ 
accompanying the conducting of water, reeds, and a frog over the ahar-site. — L Berlin 
ms. of Anukr. reads sindhvabddivatam , \ 

Translated : Weber, xvii. 240 ; Griffith, i. 99; Bloomfield, 146, 348. — Cf. Bergaigne- 
Henry, Manuel^ P« I43' 


1. Since formerly (? adds), going forth together, ye resounded {nad) 
when the dragon was slain, thenceforth ye are streams {nadi) by name : 
these are your names, O rivers. 

The pada-mss. all commit the very gratuitous blunder of writing tah instead of ti at 
the beginning of d, as if it belonged iosindhavas instead of to nimdni; SPP. emends 
to ta, and the comm. so understands the word. The comm. takes adds as Vedic substi- 
tute for amusmifty qualifying dhdu. None of the other texts gives any various reading 
for this verse. Pada d sets forth, as it were, the office of the first four verses, in finding 
punning etymologies for sundry of the names of water. 

2. When, sent forth by Varuna, ye thereupon {dt) quickly skipped 
{valg) together, then Indra obtained (dp) you as ye went ; therefore are 
ye waters {dp) afterward. 

TS. and MS. have in d ipas (nomin.), and this is obviously the true reading, and 
assumed in the translation ; both editions follow the mss. (except our Op.) in giving 
&pas» MS. begins the verse vf\\\t'samprdcyutds; for it in b MS. \\zsydt and TS. tns. 
In d, Ppp. elides the a of anu; TS. leaves sthana unlingualized. The comm. reads 
instead stana, 

3. As ye were flowing perversely (apakdmdm), since Indra verily hin- 
dered (var) you by his powers, you, ye divine ones, therefore the name 
water (ydr) is assigned you. 

Ppp. has for c indro vas saktabhir devdis. TS. combines in d var nama. The 
comm. apparently takes hikam as a single word (the TS. pada-iext so regards it), quot- 
ing as his authority Ndighantuka iii. 12 ; and again in d, if the manuscript does not do 
him injustice, he reads hikam for hitam. 

4. The one god stood up to you, flowing at [your] will ; '* the great 
ones have breathed up {ud-an),* said he ; therefore water (udakd) is [so] 

The name here really had in mind must be, it would seem, udan^ but udakdm has to 
be substituted for it in the nominative ; none of the other texts offer a different form. 
TS. improves the meter of a by omitting vas^ and TS. and MS. leave the a of api 
unelided. Ppp. differs more seriously : eko na deva updtisthat syandamdnd upetyah. 
Yathdvaqam in b might be *at his will,' opposed to apakdmdtn in vs. 3. The sense of 
C is rather obscure ; the comm. understands : " saying * by this respect on the part of 
Indra we have become great,' they breathed freely (or heaved a sigh of relief : ucchva- 
sitavatyas) " — which is senseless. R. suggests " Indra put himself in their way with 
the polite address and inquiry : * their worships have given themselves an airing ' ; and 
conducted them on their way again"; Weber understands them to sigh under the 
burden of the god standing " upon " {dpi) them. The comm. declares api to have the 
sense of adhi. 

5. The waters [are] excellent; the waters verily were ghee; these 
waters verily bear Agni-and-Soma ; may the strong {tlvrd) satisfying 
savor (rdsa) of the honey-mixed (-pre) come to me along with breath, 
with splendor. 


TS. reads dsus for Ssan at end of a, and both TS. and MS., as also the comm., have 
gan at the end (MS.p. agan), MS. combines differently the material of our vss. 5 
and 6 : first our 6 a, b with 5 c, d, then our 5 a, b with 6 c, d ; and for our 5 a it reads 
ipo devir ghrtaminvi u ipas. This last seems also to. be intended by Ppp., with its 
spo devlr ghftam it&pdhus ; and it has ityd instead of it ids at end of b, and combines 
-gamd md in c-d. The comm. renders madkuprcdm by madhund rasena samprkid- 
ndm; the description in p&da c almost makes us fancy some kind of mineral water to 
be had in view. * 

6. Then indeed I see, or also hear ; unto me comes the noise, to me 
the voice of them ; I think myself then to have partaken ambrosia 
(antfta) when, ye gold-colored ones, I have enjoyed (trp) you. 

TS. has the inferior readings nas for md at end of b and ydd lot y add in d. MS. is 
corrupt in b ; its pada-Xtxt reads vdk : nu : dsdm, but the editor gives in samhiid-Xtxt 
vir nv dsdm. The comm. combines vig md. Ppp. has at the beginning j^^^ for dd. 
The comm. takes the opportunity of the occurrence of hiranya- in d to bring forward an 
etymology of it which he here and there repeats ; it is hita-ramanlya / The verse is 
improperly reckoned as nicrt, [^In the edition amrtastha is a misprint for •sya.\ 

7. This, O waters, [is] your heart, this your young (vafsd), ye righteous 
ones ; come thus hither, ye mighty ones, where I now make you enter. 

The preceding verses have been simple laudation of the waters ; this appended one 
(which is found neither in Ppp. nor in the other texts) adds a practical application, and 
is the sole foundation of the employment of the hymn by K§U9. With the first p^da a 
piece of gold is buried in the desired channel ; with b a prepared frog is fastened there.; 
with c the frog is covered with a water-plant ; with d water is conducted in. 

14. A blessing on the kine. 

[BraAman, — ndnddevatyam uta gosthadevatdkam. dnustubham: 6. drsT trisiubh.^ 

The hymn (except vs. 5) is found in Paipp. ii. (in the verse-order 2, 4, 6, i, 3). It 
is used by K^ug., with other hymns (ii. 26 etc.), in a ceremony for the prosperity of 
cattle (19.14). In Vait. (21.26), vs. 2 accompanies the driving of kine in the agni- 
stoma. The Vait. use does not appear to be mentioned by the comm., and his report of 
the Kau9. use is mostly lost from the manuscript (but filled in by the editor). 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 469 ; Weber, xvii. 244 ; Grill, 64, 112; Griffith, i. loi ; Bloom- 
field, I43» 351. 

1. With a comfortable (susdd) stall, with wealth, with well-being, with 
that which is the name of the day-born one, do we unite you. 

Ppp. reads in b sapustyd for subhntyd. The obscure third pada is found again below 
as V. 28. I2c; it is altogether diversely rendered (conjecturally) by the translators 
(Weber, "with the blessing of favorable birth"; Ludwig, "with [all] that which one 
calls day-born"; Grill, "with whatever a day of luck brings forth"); R. suggests " with 
all (of good things) that the day brings, or that is under the heaven": none of these 
suits the other occurrence. 

2. Let Aryaman unite you, let Pushan, let Brihaspati, let Indra, who 
is conqueror of riches ; in my possession gain ye what is good. 


* In my possession/ lit. * with me' (bei mir, chez moi). The comm. takes pusyaia 
2&—p05ayata; and so do the translators, unnecessarily and therefore inadmissibly ; 
or, we may emend to pusyatu^ with vdsu as subject. " Unite " calls for the expression 
of with what ; this is not given, but the verse may be regarded as (except d) a continua- 
tion of vs. I. The three padas a-c are found as a ^^y/z/rZ-verse in MS. (iv. 2. 10 : with 
posi iox pUsi in b). Ppp. has iha pusyati at beginning of d. 

3. Having come together, unaff righted, rich in manure, in this stall, 
bearing the sweet of soma, come ye hither, free from disease. 

Three of the padas (a, b, d) again form, with considerable variants, 2igayatrl in MS. 
(ibid.) immediately following the one noted above : MS. has dvihrutds for dbibhyusls^ 
purisinis for kar-, and, in place of our d, svdve^a na a gata. Ppp. gives, as not sel- 
dom, in part the MS. readings, corrupted : it begins samjandnam vihridm^ has havis 
for madhu in c, and, for d, svdveqdsa etana. The combination of p. upaoitana into s. 
updtana is one of those aimed at by Prat. iii. 52, according to the comment on that rule ; 
but it would equally well fall under the general rule (iii. 38) as to the order of combina- 
tion when d comes between two vowels (upa-d-itana like indra-d-ihi etc.). \Q,i, also 
Lanman, JAOS. x. 425. J 

4. Come ye just here, O kine, and flourish here like qdkd; also mul- 
tiply {pra-jd) just here ; let your complaisance be toward me. 

Qdke *va (p. (dkdoiva) in b is very obscure : Weber renders " like dung " (as if 
fdkd=fdkrt)] Ludwig, "with the dung" (as if ^dJtd = (akna); Grill, "like plants" 
(implying ^dfcam iva or qdkd ivd)\ the comm. says "multiply innumerably, like flies " 
(^qakd = maksikd) ; this last is, so far as can be seen, the purest guesswork, nor is any- 
thing brought up in its support ; and the " dung " comparisons are as unsuitable as they 
are unsavory. The explanation of the comm. accords with one among those offered by 
the commentators on VS. xxiv. 32 (= MS. iii. 14. 13) and TS. v. 5. 18', where ^dkd also 
occurs. Ppp. reads sakd iva. SPP. reports h\s pada-vc\ss. as accenting ^^^^a^ in a, but 
emends in his /^z^/a- text io gdvah; the latter is read by all ours, so far as noted. 

5. Let your stall be propitious ; flourish ye like ^driqdkd; also mul- 
tiply just here ; with me we unite you. 

There is no Ppp. text of this verse to help cast light on the obscure and difficult 
qdriqdkd (p. qdriqaka^iva). The comm. (implying -kds) explains the word as meaning 
" kinds of creatures that increase by thousands in a moment," but offers no etymology or 
other support ; the translators supply a variety of ingenious and unsatisfactory conjec- 
tures (Weber, "Hke f^r/-dung," far/ perhaps a kind of bird; Grill "[fatten yourselves] 
like the qdrikd " or hooded crow ; Ludwig simply puts a question-mark in place of a 
translation). R. offers the conjecture (^drih (= qdlih) qaka iz'a *like rice in manure.' 
Our P. M.E.I, accent qariqdke *va. 

|_BIoomfield emends io (drt-qukeva (= -kds iva)^ * thrive ye like starlings and par- 
rots.* True, these birds are habitual companions in literature as in life (see my trans- 
lation of Karpura-mahjari^ p. 229, note), loquacity being their salient characteristic ; 
but what is the tertiuvi comparationis between the thriving of cows and of starlings? J 

6. Attach yourselves, O kine, to me as lord of kine ; this your stall 
here [be] flourishing; to you, becoming numerous with abundance of 
wealth, to you living, may we living be near (upa-sad). 


Bhdvantas in e would be a desirable emendation. Upa-sad may be rather * wait 
upon * (so Grill), only then we should expect rather saddma (comm., upagacchema), 
|_W*s implied difference between sadema and saddma is not clear to me.J Ppp. reads 
in a gopatydy and its b is mayi vo gostha iha posaydti. [_The epithet drsf seems to be 
as meaningless here as at iii. 12. 7 — see note, end. J 

15. For success in trade. 

[Athartfan (panyakdmah). — astarcam. vdi^fodtvam utdi **ndrdgnam, trdistubham : 
/. bkurij ; 4.j-av, 6-p* brhaiigarbhd virddatyasti ; 5. virddjagati; 

7. anustubk ; S. nicrt,] 

Four of the verses are found in P&ipp. xix. (i, 4, 6, 2, in this order). The hymn is 
used by KSiuq. in a rite for good-fortune in trading (50. 1 2), and again (59. 6) for a simi- 
lar purpose ; also (or vs. i) in the indramahoisava ceremony (140. 16); also vss. 7 and 
S in the appeasing of the flesh-eating fire (70. 13, 14). In Viit. (6. 9), vs. 7 is employed 
in the ceremony of establishing the sacrificial fire. The usual statement of these various 
uses appears to be lacking in the manuscript of the comm., and is supplied, only in part, 
by its editor. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 215; Zimmer, p. 258 (except vss. 7, 8); Weber, xvii. 247; 
Grill (vss. 1-6), 69, 113; Griffith, i. 102; Bloomfield, 148, 352. — Cf. Hillebrandt, 
Veda-chrestomathiey p. 38. 

1. I Stir up (cud) the trader Indra; let him come to us, be our fore- 
runner; thrusting [away] the niggard, the waylaying wild animal, let 
him, having the power (/f), be giver of riches to me. 

Or paripanthinam and tnrgdm in c may be independent of one another (so comm., 
and translators except Weber and Zimmer). Ppp. has, for a, b, indram vayam vanijatk 
havdmahi sa nas trdtd pura etu prajdnan. The Anukr. notices c as jagatf p^da. 
(^** Indra, the trader**: cf. Bergaigne, Rel, vid,^ ii. 480. — Many J^taka tales (e.g. no*s 
I, 2) give vivid pictures of the life of the trading caravans. J 

2. The many roads, travelled by the gods, that go about (sam-car) 

between heaven-and-earth — let them enjoy me with milk, with ghee, 

that dealing (Jkrt) I may get (d-Ar) riches. 

Ppp*s version is very different : t'Adt *vas panthd bahavo devaydndm anu dydvd- 
prthivl supranltih : tesdm ahndm varcasy d dadhdmi yathd klltvd dhanam dvahdni. 
The comm. allows us alternatively to understand deva- in a as " by traders **; he renders 
jusantdm in c by sevantdm^ as if it were causative. His text has at the beginning ye 
te panthr. The emendation, suggested by Weber, of md in c to me would help the 
sense. The first half-verse is found again below as vi. 55. i a, b. To make a regular 
tristubhy we must contract to -prthvi in b, and expand to krl-tu-A in d ; the Anukr. per- 
haps regards the two irregularities as balancing one another. 

3. With fuel, O Agni, with ghee, I, desiring, offer the oblation, in 
order to energy {idras), to strength ; — revering with worship iprdhnian)^ 
so far as I am able — this divine prayer (dhi)^ in order to hundred-fold 

The verse is RV. iii. 18. 3, without variant — save that RV. accents of coxust juhdmiy 
as does our edition by necessary emendation, while SPP. follows all the mss. in giving 


juhomi (the pada-ttxX puts a sign of p^da-division after the word, but also before it). 
The verse is not at all likely to have been an original part of our hymn ; the word 
qatasiydya in d has caused its addition. The comm. renders idrase by vegdya qlghra- 
gamandyay and applies ^^z/a// iqe in two ways, to the winning or to the worshipping. 

4. This offense (} qardni) of ours mayest thou, O Agni, bear with 
(nirs\ what distant road we have gone. Successful (fund) for us be bar- 
gain and sale ; let return-dealing make me fruitful ; do ye two Tsnjoy this 
oblation in concord ; successful for us be our going about and rising. 

The first two padas are wanting in the Paipp. version of the hymn (though they 
occur, in another connection, in Ppp. i.), and they are plainly an intrusion here, due to 
the mention of distant travel in b; they form the first half of RV. i. 31. 16 (but RV. 
reads for b imdm ddhvdnath ydm dgdma diiratj LQS., in its repetition of the RV. 
verse at iii. 2. 7, agrees with AV. in preferring diiram). The insertion dislocates the 
commas division of the hymn ; he reckons only the first 4 padas as vs. 4, then the last 
two with the first two of our 5 as vs. 5, and the latter half of our 5 with the former half 
of our 6 as vs. 6, making a vs. 7 of only the two concluding padas of our 6, and number- 
ing the two remaining verses as 8 and 9. Some of our mss. (P.M. W.E.I.) divide and 
number in the same way to the middle of our vs. 6, then making vs. 7 consist of 6 padas 
and end where our vs. 7 ends. Ppp. has for its verse a different version of our c-f : 
pano for qunam at the beginning (with *stu after no)^ godhani nas for phalinam mdy 
and, for our e, samrardnd havir idatk jusantdm. The Anukr. seems to scan the verse 
as 11+9: 12 + 11: 11 + 12 = 66, though c and f are properly to be made regularly 
tristubh by elision to *j/«. The comm. renders qardni in a by "injury" (hihsd)^ and 
explains it as either that arising (to Agni) from the intermission of sacred rites in con- 
sequence of the householder's absence from home, or else that to the absentee from his 
long journey as expressed in b — mlmrsas being in the first case = ksamasva^ and in 
the second = marsaya or titiksaya * cause us to endure ' : perhaps the second is, after all, 
the better. ^For d, rather, * may barter make me abounding in fruit,* i.e. * may barter 
bring me its reward.'J 

5. With what riches I practise (car) bargaining, seeking riches with 

riches, ye gods — let that become more for me, not less ; O Agni, put 

down (ni-sidh) with the oblation the gain-sjaying gods. 

Or, possibly, * the gods of the gain-slayer ' {sdtaghnds as gen. sing. ; the comm. takes 
it as accus. pi., and Zimmer and Ludwig so translate). The omission of devan would 
rectify the meter and better the sense, and Weber and Grill Land HillebrandtJ leave 
it out. The Anukr. gives a mechanically correct definition of the verse as it stands. 

6. With what riches I practise bargaining, seeking riches with riches, 
ye gods — therein let Indra assign me pleasure (.^ r««), let Prajapati, 
Savitar, Soma, Agni. 

Ppp. has a better version of a : yat panena pratipanam cardmi; and it arranges c 
differently : indro me tasmin ream d; and reads brhaspatis for prajdp- in d. HGS. 
(i. 15. 1) has a kindred verse, with second pada nearly identical with ours, and rucam 
in c. LSee also MP. ii. 22.4.J Ruci^ lit. * brightness,* is variously understood by the 
translators : Zimmer, " attractive power " ; Ludwig, " pleasure *' ; Weber, " understand- 
ing"; Grill, "consideration**; the comm. explains it hy sarvajanaprUim dhanapradd- 
nend ^^ddnecchdm, LPpp. seems to omit dhanena in b. J 

113 TRANSLATION AND NOTES. BOOK ,111. -iii. l6 

7. Unto thee with homage do we, O priest Vaigvanara (* for all men '), 
give praise ; do thou watch over our progeny, our selves, our kine, our 

Two of our pada-rass. (Bp.Kp. ; also D.p.m. ?) divide vdi^v&narah : tumah in b ; 
P.M.W. give sdm for sd at beginning of c. This verse and the next seem to be addi- 
tions to the original hymn. [_ Under stu^ BR. and Index Verborum join ^pa with stuj 
correct Index under lipa accordingly. J 

8. Every day may we bring constantly for thee as for a standing 
horse, O Jatavedas ; rejoicing together with abundance of wealth, with 
food, may we thy neighbors, O Agni, take no harm. 

The verse nearly accords with xix. 55. i, below; the second half is the same as 
there ; the first half here is more unlike the parallel verse in other texts (VS. xi. 75 ; 
QB. vi. 6.4. 1 ; TS. iv. i. io« ; K. xvi. 7 ; MS. ii. 7. 7) than is xix. 55. i ab — see under 
xix. 55. 1 ; in the second half they vary only by putting dgne at the beginning of d; 
they make a more manageable sentence by furnishing an object, ghdsdm * fodder,* for 
bharema. The comm. renders tisfhate by svagrhe vartamdnAya, 

Here, at the end of the third anuvdkay of 5 hymns and 38 verses, -the old Anukr. 
says simply eutdu (but O.R. give astatrin^ai). 

The fifth prapnthaka also ends with this hymn. 

16. Morning invocation to various gods, especially Bhaga. 

\Atharvan. — saptarcam, prdtahsuktam, bdrhaspatyam uta bakudevatyam, trdistubAam : 

I. drsijagafi ; 4. bhurikpahkti^ 

Found in P&ipp. iv., with very few variants. It is a RV. hymn (vii. 41), repeated 
also in VS. (xxxiv. 34-40) and TB. (ii. 8. 979) [_and MP. i. 14. 1-7, in the same order 
as here J. It is used by Kau^. [_with hymns vi. 69 and ix. i J, in the rite for generation 
of wisdom (10. 24), to accompany washing the face on arising from sleep ; also in certain 
ceremonies for « splendor'* (varcas : 12. 15 ; 13.6), with hymns vi. 69 and ix. i ; and it 
is reckoned to the varcasya ganas (12. 10, note; 13. i, note). In Viit. (5. 17), vs. 6 
accompanies, in the agnyddheya^ the horse's setting his foot on the boundary ; and its 
latter half, an oblation in the cdturmdsya sacrifice [^V§it. 8. 14 J. 

Translated : as RV. hymn, by Grassmann, i. 336, and by Ludwig, no. 92 ; as AV. 
hymn, by Weber, xvii. 251 ; Griffith, i. 104. — Cf. Winternitz, Hochzeitsrituell^ P- 97f 
and notes. 

1. Early {prdidr) do we call Agni, early Indra, early Mitra-and-Varuna, 
early the (two) Agvins, early Bhaga, Pushan, Brahmanaspati, early Soma 
and Rudra do we call. 

The other texts, and Ppp. with them, read at the end of d huvema, 

2. The early-conquering formidable Bhaga do we call, the son of Aditi 

who is disposer (yidhartdr)^ to whom every one that thinks himself weak 

[or] strong, [to whom even the kingj says: "apportion [me] a portion." 

Bhaksi in d might also be ist sing. mid. of the j-aorist, *may I obtain' (so Weber, 
\ etc.) ; the comm. explains it both ways. Again all the other texts, including Ppp., 

have huvema for havdmahe in a ; the Anukr. ignores the metrical irregularity caused 
by our reading. LNote the play on the god*s name : * portion * is bhdga,\ 


3. O Bhaga, conductor, Bhaga, thou of true bestowal, Bhaga, help- 
upward this prayer {dhi)^ giving to us ; O Bhaga, cause us to multiply 
with kine, with horses, O Bhaga, with men, — rich in men may we be. 

In this verse AV. and RV. agree throughout; TB. reads ava with unlengthened 
final in b, and VS. no with unlingualized nasal in c. 

4. Both now may we be fortunate (bhdgavant)^ and in the advance 

(i prapiivd) and in the middle of the days; and, O bounteous one, at the 

up-going of the sun, may we be in the favor of the gods. 

As to the difficult word prapitvd, see Bloomfield, JAOS. xvi. 24 ff. ; " up-going " is 
probably here * out-going, disappearance * ; the comm. renders prapitvd by sdydhne/ 
his understanding of uditdu is lost out of the manuscript. The other texts read uditd, 
LFor this vs., see especially p. 35 end, 36 top, of BPs paper. J 

5. Let the god Bhaga himself be fortunate; through him may we be 
fortunate ; on thee here, Bhaga, do I call eptire ; do thou, O Bhaga, be 
our forerunner here. 

RV. (with VS. and TB.) leaves the final of Una unlengthened at beginning of b ;^ 
and RV. and VS. make the sense of c better by reading johavUi; all the three have 
at the end of a the voc. dev&s. LComm. to TB. rca^t& johavlmi^dhvayati I \ 

6. The dawns submit themselves {} sam-nam) to the sacrifice (adhvard)y 
as Dadhikravan to the bright place ; hitherward let them convey for me 
Bhaga, acquirer of good things, as vigorous {vdjin) horses a chariot. 

All the other texts, including Ppp., read nas instead of me at end of c. The comm. 
renders sdm namanta by sam gacchantdm^ calls dadhikrdvan a horse^s name, and 
explains the action of the obscure pada b by sa yathd quddhdya gamandya sathnaddko^ 
hhavatL The Anukr. appears to sanction the abbreviation rdtham *va in d. 

7. Let excellent dawns, rich in horses, rich in kine, rich in heroes, 
always shine for us, yielding (duk) ghee, on all sides drunk of : do ye 
protect us ever with well-beings. 

TB. x^TAprdpinds at end of c; Ppp. has instead pravlnds ; the comm. explains by 
dpydyitds * filled up, made teeming,' which is very possibly to be preferred. [_ Delete 
the accent-mark under g6matlr.\ 

17. For successful agriculture. 

\Vi^dmUra. — navarcam. sUddevatyatn. dnustubham : i, drsi gdyairi; 2y ^^ g. tristubh ; 

J. pathydpankti ; 7. virdtpurausnih ; 8. nicri."] 


Four verses of this hymn are found together in Paipp. ii., in the order 2, i, 5, 4 ; vs. 3. 
occurs in Paipp. xix., and there are verses in Paipp. xii. and xix. resembling our vs. 6. 
Much of its material appears also in RV. x. loi, iv. 57, and parts in VS.,TS.,TA., and 
MS.: see under the several verses. The h)rmn is used by Ktuq. (20. i ff.) in an extended 
ceremony for success in plowing, the details of which, however, do not help the inter- 
pretation of the verses; vs. 3 (ib. 10) is specially quoted as accompanying an oblation 
to Indra at the further end of a furrow, or of each one of three furrows ; the comm. also 
regards it as intended by gundsirdni at 106. 8, in the book of portents, in a charm against 


the portent of mixed-up plows (whatever that may be *) ; vs. 4, again, accompanies the 
marking out of the sacrificial hearth at 137. 19. In V^it. (28. 30-32), vss. i, 3, and 2 b 
appear in the agnicayanay in the ceremony of plowing the sacrificial hearth, and vs. 7 
(9. 27) at the end of the c&turm&sya sacrifice, with an oblation to the qundslrd, 
• L" Wenn zwei Pfiiige sich verstricken beim Ackern," says Weber, Ominay p. 368. J 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 255; Griffith, i. 106. — Vs. 3 is elaborately discussed by 
Roth, Festgruss an B'dhtlingk^ p. 95 £f. See also Weber, Omina und P or tenia ^ ?• 37*' 

1. The poets (kavi) harness the plows (sira), they extend severally 
the yokes — they the wise ones (d/iira), with desire of favor (}) toward 
the gods. 

The verse seems to imply a hidden comparison of the poet's work with the plow- 
man's. The other texts (RV. x. 101.4; VS. xii. 67; TS. iv. 2. 55; MS. ii. 7. 12; 
K. xvi. 1 1 ; Kap. xxv. 3) read sumnayi (but K. has -yuh : Kap. not noted), which the 
translation adopts, -ydii seeming an unintelligent corruption of it ; but the comm. gives 
a double explanation of -ydUy one as ** desiring a happy-making sacrifice ** and c^xxaWiy- 
mgyajatndne understood, the other as from sumna-ya {-ya for rooXyd) and qualifying 
ballvarddu understood I He makes slra equivalent with IdHgalay and takes vi tanvaU 
as = " put on the oxen's shoulders " ; vi-tan as here applied seems imitated from its 
use of stringing a bow ; in TB. ii. 5. 8«» we have even vl tanoti stram. 

2. Harness ye the plows, extend the yokes ; scatter {vap) the seed 
here in the prepared womb ; may the bunch (i) of virdj be burdened for 
us ; may the sickles draw in {d-yu) the ripe [grain] yet closer. 

In the first half-verse, RV. (ib. 3) and VS. (ib. 68) have tanudhvam for tanota^ the 
rest (ibid.) agreeing with our text (but K. has krto yonir) ; Ppp. reads ^/^/r^ instead of 
yon&u; ydndu^ of course, involves a hidden comparison of sowing with impregnation. 
In the difficult and obscure second half, the other texts (not Ppp.) givegt'rd ca for the 
unintelligible virajas, and dsat (with accent apparently meant as antithetic) for asat, 
which is read in all the mss., but in our edition (not in SPP's) emended to dsat; the 
same texts accent qrustis (and our edition was emended to agree with them; SPP. 
accents the first syllable, with all the mss.). SPP. reads qnustis^ with the majority of 
his authorities (including oral reciters), and with the comm. ; among his mss. are found 
also qrustisy f/i^-, sru-^ snti-, and fmisfts. Part of our mss. also (E.I.H.Op.) are noted 
as seeming to intend fnii-t and, as Ppp. supports it by reading sunistis sabh-, the read- 
ing fnustt'A is adopted in the translation |_as also at viii. 2. i J. The manuscripts are 
not at all to be relied on for distinguishing ^nu and (ru [^cf. iii. 30. 7 and note J. The 
comm. explains it by dquprdpakak stambah^ and sdbhards as phalabhdrasahitas * heavy 
with fruit' ; of virAj he makes easy work by identifying it with anna^ on the authority 
of TB. iii. 8. I04 : dnnam vdi virit! In d, finally, the chief discordance of the versions 
is at the end, where, for i yavan (Ppp. dyuvafh\ RV.VS.Kap. read i *ydt^ and 
TS.MS.K. d *yat. But TS. has srnya (instead of -yds)^ and some of our mss. (P.M.W.), 
with the majority of SPP's, combine ichrnydLs or icchrnyds, implying (rnyds. The 
Anukr. does not heed that pada d is, as it stands, jagatl, |_W., in his own copy and 
in Index^ seems to approve the accentless asat, — Comm. has d yavam in d.J 

3. Let the plow (Idhgald)^ lance-pointed, well-lying, with well- 
smoothed handle, turn up (ud-vap) cow, sheep, an on-going chariot- 
frame, and a plump wench. 


That is, apparently, let all these good things come as the reward of successful agri- 
culture. The- verse, not found in RV., but occurring in VS. (ib. 71 ; and thence quoted 
in the Vasistha Dharmasutra ii. 34 and explained in ii. 35), as well as in TS.MS.K. (as 
above), has many difficult and questionable points. Y or pavfrdvat (Ppp. puts it before 
l&ngalam) VS. 2iZZ^vi\& pdvlravaty and TS.MS.K. substitute /4vfr<jz/<xwy for su^mam 
all have suqevam * very propitious'; the Pet. Lex. suggests suslmam * having a good 
parting' i.e. of furrows, or * even-furrowed'; and R. refers to MB. i. 5. 2, slmdnam 
naydmi, Ppp. reads suvegamy which probably means suqevam. The impracticable 
somasat'Saru (so in/<2^-text) is somapit-saru in VS., MS., K., and Vasistha, and soma- 
pitsalam in Ppp. ; Vas. renders it " provided with a handle for the drinker of soma," 
implying the division somapi-tsaru; Weber conjectures a noun untan * strap,' and 
emends to soma (^sa-uma) satsaru, " with strap and handle." But TS. reads sumati- 
otsaruy and this is adopted in the translation, matt being taken not as from man but 
as the word found in matlkr and its derivatives, and related with matya etc. (Weber 
also refers to this meaning and connection.) The comm. explains suqlmam by karsa- 
kasya sukhafcaram, without telling how he arrives at such a sense ; and somasatsaru 
(disregarding the ^a^/a-division) as from tsaru^ either " a concealed going in the ground " 
(root tsar^ explained by chadmagaidu)^ or else " a kind of part to be held by the plow- 
man's hand " ; in either case " a producer of the soma-sacrifice " (i.e. soma-sd). For 
ratha-vihana *thQ frame that carries a chariot when not in use,' and prasthavat^ 
here virtually * with the chariot on it,' see R. in the Festgruss an Bdhtlingky p. 95 £F. ; 
the comm. interprets as aqvabalfvardddikath rathavdhanasamafftham. VS. reads at 
the beginning of c idd ad vapati^ and TS. iid it krsati; Ppp. has dadata krsata; 
VS.TS.MS.Ppp. give for e prapharvydm (Ppp. -ydm) ca pivarlm Land VS.TS. invert 
the order of d and ej ; the comm. also \i2i& pivarlm (= sthiildm) ; prapharvl he explains 
as prathamavaydh kanyd. The first pada is defective unless we resolve la-dn-, 
LZimmer, p. 236, refers to Sir H. M. Elliot's Memoirs ^ ii'34i| for a description of the 
Pen jab plow. J 

4. Let Indra hold down the furrow ; let Pushan defend it ; let it, rich 
in milk, yield to us each further summer. 

This verse is found only in RV. (iv. 57. 7), which reads dnu yachatu for abhi raksatu ; 
Ppp. has mahyam instead of abhi, Weliad the second half-verse above, as iii. 10. i c, d. 

5. Successfully (fundm) let the good plowshares thrust apart the 

earth ; successfully let the plowmen follow the beasts of draft ; O Cuna- 

slra, do ye (two), dripping (?) with oblation, make the herbs rich in 

berries for this man. 

VS. (xii. 69) and MS. (ii. 7. 12) have the whole of this verse; RV. (iv. 57. 8) and 
TS. (iv. 2. 56), only the first two padas. For suphdlas in a, VS. (also our I.) has su 
phaldSy and RV.TS. nah phalds^ both preferable readings ; RV.VS. have krsantu for 
tudantu. In b, TS. gives abhi for dnu (our P.M. have dbhinu)\ MS. has ktna^o 
abhy itu vdhdih; RV.VS., -^d abhi yantu vdhdih. In c, the comm. gives tosamdndy 
explaining it by tusyantdu. In d, the mss. vary (as everywhere where the word occurs) 
between -pippalAs and -pispalas ; about half are for each ; VS. MS. end the pada with 
kartand ^smi. Ppp. has a peculiar version : qunatn kendqo anv etu vdham qunath 
phdlo vinadann ayatu bhUmim : qundslrd havisd yo yajdtrdi supippald osadhayas 
santu tasmdi. The comm. Lquoting YaskaJ declares (^undslrdu to be Vayu and Aditya 
(wind and sun) ; or else, he says, ^una is god of happiness and Slra of the plow. 


6. Successfully let the draft-animals, successfully the men, success- 
fully let the plow (IdngalcC) plow ; successfully let the straps be bound ; 
successfully do thou brandish the goad. 

This is RV. iv. 57. 4, without variation ; it is also found, with the two following 
verses, in TA. (vi. 6. 2, vss. 6-8), which reads ndris instead of ndras at end of a. Part 
of our mss. (P.M.W.E.) have iisfrdm in d. The comm. declares Quna to be addressed 
in the last p^da. Ppp. has in xii. funam vrtrdm Ayaccha qunam astrdm ud iHgayah 
qunam tu tapyat&m phdlaq qunam vahatu lUngalam; and in xix. the same a, b [^end- 
ing -ya\t but, for c, d, qunam vahasya quklasyS, *sfray& jahi daksinam, 

7. O ^unaslra, do ye (two) enjoy me here ; what milk ye have made 
in heaven, therewith pour ye upon this [furrow]. 

* Milk,' i.e. nourishing fluid. Weber implies at the end " earth " (instead of ** fur- 
row "), which is perhaps to be preferred. RV. (iv. 57. 5) reads for a qun&sirdv imim 
vAcam ju-\ TA. (as above) the same, except that it strangely omits the verb, and thus 
reduces the tristubh p§da to a gdyatrl; both texts mark the principal p^da-division 
after b. The comm. changes all the three verbs to 3d dual The Anukr. forbids in a 
the resolution -slrA ihd. In our edition the verse is numbered 6, instead of 7. 

8. O furrow, we reverence thee; be [turned] hitherward, O fortunate 

one, that thou mayest be well-willing to us, that thou mayest become of 

good fruit for us. 

RV. (iv. 57. 6) inverts the oi'der of a and b, and both it and TA. (as above) end 
C and d respectively with subhdgi *sasi and suphdli *sasi. All the pada-mss. have the 
blundering reading suophalih in d. The Anukr. perversely refuses to make the reso- 
lution tu-d in a. 

9. With ghee, with honey {mddhu) [is] the furrow all anointed, 

approved (anu-man) by all the gods, by the Maruts ; do thou, O furrow, 

turn hither unto us with milk, rich in refreshment, swelling with fulness 

of ghee. 

The verse is found also in VS. (xii. 70), TS. (iv. 2. 56), and MS. (ii. 7. 12). VS.MS. 
read -ajyatdm for -aktd in a ; all make c and d exchange places, and at the .beginning 
of c read asmin for sd nas; and VS.TS. put pdyasd in place of ghrtdvat in d, while 
MS. gives Hrjd bhdgdm mddkumai pinv-, 


18. Against a rival wife : with a plant. 

[A^Aarvan. — vdruispatyam. dnustubham : 4. 4-p. anustubgarbhd umih ; 

6. umiggarbhd pathySpankti. ] 

This peculiarly Atharvan hymn has found its way also into the tenth book of the 
Rig- Veda (as x. 145, with exchange of place between vss. 3 and 4 ; it is repeated in RV. 
order at MP. i. 15. 1-6). Only three verses (our 4, 2, i, in this order) are found in 
Paipp. (vii.). Kauq. uses it, among the women's rites, in a charm (36. 19-21) for getting 
the better of a rival ; vs. 6 a and b accompany the putting of leaves under and upon 
the (rival's) bed. And the comm. (doubtless wrongly) regards vss. 5 and 6 to be 
intended by the pratika quoted in 38.30, instead of xii. 1.54, which has the same 


Translated: as RV. hymn, Ludwig, ii. 554, no. 932; Grassmann, ii.415; as AV. 
h3rmn, Weber, v. 222; Zimmer, p. 307 ; Weber, xvii. 264 ; Griffith, i. 108 ; Bloomfield, 
107, 354; further, by Winternitz, Hochzeitsrituell^ p. 98. 

1. I dig this herb, of plants the strongest, with which one drives ofif 
{bddh) her rival ; with which one wins completely (sam-vid) her husband. 

RV. reads in b the accus. vlrHdham, For d, Ppp. gives krnute kevalam fiatim. 
The comm. (with our Op.) has osadhlm in a ; he understands throughout the herb in 
question to be the puthi (cf . ii. 27. 4), though Kau9. and the Anukr. speak only of bdnd- 
fiarnl * arrow leaf ' (not identified). 

2. O thou of outstretched leaves, fortunate, god-quickened, powerful, 

do thou thrust away my rival, make my husband wholly mine. 

* Outstretched,' lit supine ; horizontal, with the face of the leaf upward. RV. has 
dkama for nuda in c, and the modern kuru for krdhi at the end. Ppp. offers only the 
first half-verse, in this form : uttdnaparndm subhagdm sahamdndth sahasvatlm ; MP. 
also has sahamdne instead of devajute, 

3. Since he has not named {grah) thy name, thou also stayest {ram) 
not with him as husband ; unto distant distance make we my rival go. 

This translation of the first half-verse follows closely our text RV. has a very dif- 
ferent version : nahy dsyd nama grbhnami nd asmin ramate jdne * since I name not 
her (its ?) name, she (it?) also does not stay with (find pleasure in) this person (people ?).' 
Winternitz applauds and accepts his commentator ^s explanation of b : '* nor finds she 
pleasure in me " (taking ayarh janas in the much later sense of " I "), but it seems 
wholly unsatisfactory. The meter calls for emendation in a Xojagrdha * I have named,' 
equivalent to the RV. reading ; and R. makes the emendation, and retains the jdne of 
RV., rendering (as addressed by the woman using the charm to the plant) " I have not 
named [to her] thy name ; and thou stayest (stayedst) not with the person (bei der 
Person)." The comm. regards the rival as addressed, and conveniently makes ramose 
= ramasva : " stay thou not with this my husband." Weber renders ramase by 
" kosest," thou dalliest not. No satisfactory solution of the difficulty is yet found. 

4. Superior [am] I, O superior one ; superior, indeed, to them (f.) that 
are superior ; below [is] she that is my rival ; lower [is] she than they (f.) 
that are lower. 

RV. has the better reading dthd for adhds in c, allowing c and d to be combined into 
one sentence; and the comm. gives correspondingly adha, Ppp. is more discordant 
4nd corrupt : uttard *ham uttarabhyo uttaro ed ddharabhyah : adhah sapatnl sdmarthy 
adhared adhdrabhyah, R. conjectures in a uttardhdhamuttare, for uttard ^hdm aham- 
uttari Lcf. iii. 8. 3 J. The verse, even if scanned as 7 -I- 7: 8-1-7 = 29, ought to be called 

5. I am overpowering; likewise art thou very powerful; we both, 
becoming full of power, will overpower my rival. 

The verse xix. 32. 5 is a variation on this. RV. reads dtha for dtho in b, and the 
older bhUtvi for bhUtvi in c. 

6. I have put on (abhi) for thee the overpowering one (f.) ; I have put 


to (^pd) for thee the very powerful one ; after me let thy mind run forth 
as a cow after her calf, run as water on its track. 

RV. reads iipa for abhi in a, and has for b abhi tvd ^dhdfk sdhlyasd. The applica- 
tion of a and b as made by Kau9. (see above) would suit the prepositions as found in 
RV. decidedly better than as in our text ; but much more appropriate is the use made 
by MP., elements of the root being secretly bound on the arms of the wife, with which 
she embraces the husband below and above [^so that one arm is under him and the 
other over him J; then in abhy adhdm is further implied (as elsewhere [^e.g. iii. ii'SJ) 
the value of abhidhdnl^ the halter or bridle with which a horse is controlled. The 
Anukr. does not sanction the resolution ma-im in c. 

19. To help friends against enemies. 

\Vasistha, — a star cam. vdicvadevam uta cdndramasam utdi **ndram. dnustubkam: 
/. pathydbrhati ; j. bhurigbrhati ; 6. j-av. d-p. tristupkakummattgarbkd 
*(ijagati ; 7. virdddstdrapankti ; 8. pathydpankti.'\ 

The verses are found in P§ipp. iii. (in the verse-order i, 2, 4, 3, 5, 7, 6, 8). The 
hymn is applied by K^U9. (14. 22-24) i" a rite for gaining victory over a hostile army, 
and reckoned (14. 7, note) to the afiardjita gana. The Vait. uses vs. i in the agni- 
cayana (28. 1 5) in connection with lifting the ukhya fire, and vss. 6-8 in a sattra 
sacrifice (34. 16, 17), with mounting a chariot and discharging an arrow. 

Translated : John Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts ^ i.» 283 ; Ludwig, p. 234 ; Weber, 
xvii. 269; Griffith, i. 109. 

1. Sharpened up is this incantation (} brdhman) of mine ; sharpened up 
[my] heroism, strength ; sharpened up, victorious, be the unwasting 
authority (ksatrd) [of them] of whom I am the household priest {purdhita). 

Or brdhman and ksatrdm may signify respectively the Brahman and Ksatriya quality 
or dignity of the purdhita and his constituency. The verse is found also in VS. (xi. 81 ), 
TS. (iv. 1. 103), TA. (ii. 5. 2, vs. 15), MS. (ii. 7. 7), and K. (xvi. 7, Weber). The first 
two of these agree in all their readings, omitting iddm in a and ajdram astu in c, and 
reading in c, Ajisnuydsyd *hdm dsmi; and TA.MS. differ from them only by adding 
me before jisnuj Ppp. has ksatram me jisnu, but agrees with our text in d. The 
comm. moreover hsisjisnuy and the translation implies it; jisnus can only be regarded 
as a blunder. Ppp. further gives mayl *dam for ma idam in a, and mama for balam 
in b. Our original c has apparently got itself mixed up with vs. 5 c. 

2. Up I sharpen the royalty of them, up their force, heroism, strength ; 
I hew [off] the arms of the foes with this oblation. 

The translation implies emendation of the sydmi of all the mss. and of both editions 
to qydmi; it is obviously called for (suggested first by the Pet. Lex.), and the comm. 
reads ^ydmi; Ppp. probably intends it by paqydmi. The latter half-verse is found 
again below as vi. 65. 2 c, d ; its text is confused here in Ppp. (vr^cdmi fatrandm bdha 
sam a(vdm afvdn aham). The Anukr. ignores the redundant syllable in a. 

3. Downward let them fall, let them become inferior, who shall fight 
against {prtany-) our bounteous patron (siiri) ; I destroy the enemies by 
my incantation ; I lead up our own men. 

Ppp. reads adhas pad- at the beginning, and indram for sUrim in b. The second 


half-verse is found in VS. (xi. 82C,d), TS. (iv. i.io3), and MS. (ii. 7.7), with the 
various readings ksindmi and svah; the comm. also gives ksinomu The comm. renders 
sUrim by k&ry&k&ryavibhdgajham. The Anukr. should call the verse virdt prast&ra- 
panfcti, since it properly scans as 1 1 + 1 1 18+8=38. 

4. Sharper than an ax, also sharper than fire, sharper than Indra's 
thunderbolt — [they] of whom I am the household priest. 

Emendation to indravajrat would rectify the meter of c ; but the Anukr. apparently 
accepts the redundancy there as balancing the deficiency in a. 

5. The weapons of them I sharpen up; their royalty having good 
heroes, I increase ; be their authority unwasting, victorious ; their intent 
let all the gods aid. 

The translation again (as in vs. 2) implies emendation of sy&mi in a to qydmi^ which 
is read by Ppp. and by the comm. Most of our mss. (all save O.Op.), as of SPP's, 
accent in b suvlram^ and both editions have adopted the reading ; but it ought, of 
course, to be suviram^ as always elsewhere (and as the comm. here describes the 
word). Ppp. has vardhayasva at end of b, and its d is ugram esdm cittam bahudhd 
viqvarnpd. The definition of the verse as tristubh is wanting in the Anukr. [_ Lon- 
don ms.J, doubtless by an error of the manuscripts, which are confused at this point. 
LThe Berlin ms. does give it. J 

6. Let their energies (vdjina) be excited, O bounteous one (magkdvan) ; 
let the noise of the conquering heroes arise ; let the noises, the clear 
{ketutndnt) halloos, go up severally ; let the divine Maruts, with Indra as 
their chief, go with the army. 

With the first two padas compare RV. x. 103. 10 a, d: ud dharsaya maghavann 
iyudhdni, . . tidrdthdndmjdyatdmyantughds&h. Some of our mss.(P.M.W.O.Op.Kp.), 
as of SPP^s, read in c ulUldyas, but both editions give -lul- ; the comm. has ullulayas, 
and declares it an imitative word. The omission either of ululdyas or of ketumdntas 
would make a jagatl pada of c, and that of devas would do the same for d ; as the 
verse stands, the Anukr. scans it 11 + 11 :8-l-8 :6-l-8 = 52. Part of our mss. (I. O.Op.) 
agree with the comm. in ending this verse with ud fratdm, and throwing the two 
remaining padas into vs. 7, to the great detriment of the sense, as well as against the 
probable earlier form of the verse. Ppp. reads : uddharsantdm vdjindm vdjindbhy ad 
vdirdndfh jayatdm etu ghosdh: firtkag ghosd ulalayas ketumantu udlratdm; with 
e and f as in our text. 

7. Go forth, conquer, O men ; formidable be your arms (bdhu) ; having 
sharp arrows, slay them of weak bows ; having formidable weapons, hav- 
ing formidable arms (pdhu\ [slay] the weak ones. 

The first half-verse is RV. x. 103. 13 a, c (found also in SV. ii. 1212; VS. xvii. 46), 
without variation ; TS. (iv. 6. 44) has the same two padas together, but reads upa pri 
*tajdyatd nara sthira vah etc. Ppp. has the first half-verse (with pra yatd and vas)^ 
adding as second half indro vaq qarma yacchaty anddhrsyd yathd *satd. The verse 
is not virdj L7-I-8 : 1 1 -I- 12J, if the obviously proper resolutions are made. 

8. Being let loose, fly thou away, O volley, thou that art sharpened up 


by incantation ; conquer the enemies ; go forth ; slay of them each best 

one ; let no one soever of them yonder be released. 

P§das a-c and e are RV. vi. 75. 16, a verse found also in a number of other texts : 
SV. ii. 1213; VS. xvii.45; TS. iv.6.44; TB. iii. 7.6*3; ApQS. in. 14.3. RV.SV.VS. 
agree throughout, having gdcha iox jdya at beginning of c, and, for d, mA *mlsdm kdm 
cand V chisah; the others have this d, except that they put esdm in place of amis&m; 
they also give viqa for padyasva at end of c, and TS. has the nom. -fiV^!, which is 
better, at end of b, while TB. and ApQS. alter to dvasrsfah pdrd fiata qard (for ^dro?) 
brdhmasam^itah. Our d is found again as xi. i o. 2 1 b ; our e, as viii. 8. 19 d ; xi. 9. 20 d ; 
10. I9d. The presence of -samqite in this verse gives it a kind of right to stand as 
part of the hymn, of which sam-qd is the unifying word ; vss. 6 and 7 are probably 
later additions. In Ppp., vss. 6-8, with RV. x. 103. 10, form a piece by themselves; 
vs. 8 ends with pra padyasva sd mdisdm katn cano V chisah (nearly as RV.). Correct 
the accent-mark in d so as to read vdram-varam, 

20. To Agni and other gods: for various blessings. 

\yasistha, — dafarcam. dgfuyam uta mantroktadevatyam. dnustubham: 6. pathydpankti ; 

8, virddjagati.'\ 

Excepting the last verse, the hymn is found in Paipp. iii. (in the verse-order 
i-3» 7» 4»6, 5,8, 9). It includes (vss. 2-7) a whole RV. hymn (x. 141), with a single 
RV. verse (iii. 29. 10) prefixed, and only the last two verses occur nowhere else. It 
is used in Kau9. (18. 13) in the nirrtikarman, with an offering of rice mixed with 
pebbles ; again (40. 11), in the rite of the removal of the sacrificial fire, with transfer of 
it to the fire-sticks or to one's self ; again (41. 8), with v. 7 and vii. i, in a rite for suc- 
cess in winning wealth ; and the comm. directs vs. 4 to be used in the sava sacrifices 
{iiy anayd bhrgvangirovidaq catura drseydn dhvayet). In Vait., vs. i appears in ^e 
agnistoma sacrifice (24. 14), and again in the sarvamedha (38. 14) with the same use 
as in Kau^. 40. 1 1 ; and also in the agnicayana (28. 25), with the laying of the gdrha- 
Patya bricks; further, verses 2-4 and 7 and 8 in the agnicayana (29.19); vs. 4a, b 
in the agnistoma (15. 16), as the adhvaryu follows the fire and soma; vs. 5 in the 
same (23.20), with certain offerings; and vs. 6 in the same (19.2), with a graha to 
Indra and Vayu. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 272; Griffith, i. iii. — See Weber, Berliner Sb.j 1892, 

p. 797. 

1. This is thy seasonable womb {ySni), whence bom thou didst shine ; 
knowing it, O Agni, ascend thou ; then increase our wealth. 

The verse is found in numerous other texts: besides J^V. (iii. 29. 10), in VS." 
(iii.14 et al.), TS. (i. 5. 5» et al.), TB. (i. 2. i »6 et al), MS. (i. 5. i et al.), K. (vi. 9 et al.), 
Kap. (i. i6etal.), JB. (i. 61) : in nearly all occurring repeatedly. VS.TS.TB.JB. differ 
from our version only by reading dthd for ddhd at beginning of d ; Ppp. and the comm. 
have atha; MS.K. substitute tdtas; but RV. gives further slda for roha in c, and 
giras for rayim in d. The comm., in accordance with the ritual uses of the verse, 
declares aydm at the beginning to signify either the fire-stick or the sacrificer himself. 

2. O Agni, speak unto us here; be turned toward us with good-will; 
bestow upon us, O lord of the people {viq) ; giver of riches art thou to us. 

RV. X. 141 begins with this verse, and it is found also in VS. (ix. 28), TS. (i. 7. 10*), 


MS. (i. 1 1. 4), and K. (xiv. 2). RV.VS.MS.K. have prd no y- in c, and, for vi^dm 
pate, RV.MS.K. read vi^as pate, TS. bhuvas /-, and VS. sahasrajit; VS. goes on 
with tvdm hi dhanadi dH for d ; VS.TS. further have prdti for pratydh in b. Ppp. 
combines in d dhanadd *st\ 

3. Let Aryaman bestow upon us, let Bhaga, let Brihaspati, let the god- 
desses ; let the divine Sunrta also assign wealth to me. 

Found also in the other texts (RV. x. 141.2; VS. ix. 29; the rest as above; and 
Kap. 29. 2). All of these, excepting TS., leave no in a again unlingualized ; VS.K. sub- 
stitute pusd for bhdgas in b, and omit c ; the others have devis instead of devis; for d, 
RV. gives rdyd devi dadatu nah^ while the others vary from this only by prd vak for 
rdyds. By Sunrta (lit * pleasantness, jollity ') the comm. understands Sarasvati to be 

4. King Soma [and] Agni we call to aid with [our] songs {git) ] [also] 
Aditya, Vishnu, Surya, and the priest (brahmdn) Brihaspati. 

Found in RV. (x. 141. 3), SV. (i. 91), VS. (ix. 26), and TS.MS.K. (as above). The 
only variant in RV. is the preferable ddityan in c ; it is read also by the other texts 
except SV.K. ; but SV.TS.MS.K. give vdrunam for dvase in a ; and they and VS. 
have anv a rabhdmahe for gfrbhir havdmahe in b. The comm. takes brahmanam in 
d as ** Prajapati, creator of the gods." 

5. Do thou, O Agni, with the fires {agni), increase our worship {brdh- 
man) and sacrifice ; do thou, O god, stir us up to give, unto giving wealth. 

The second half-verse is of doubtful meaning — perhaps * impel to us wealth for giv- 
ing' etc. — being evidently corrupted from the better text of RV. (x. 141.6; also SV. 
ii. 855), which reads in c devdtdtaye for d^va datave^ and in d rdyds for rayim; even 
Ppp. has devatdtaye. The comm. has ddnave (rendering it " to the sacrificer who has 
given oblations ") for ddtave, also nodaya for codaya, 

6. Indra-and-Vayu, both of them here, we call here with good call, that 

to us even every man may be well-willing in intercourse, and may become 

desirous of giving to us. 

Foimd also (except the last pada, which even Ppp. repudiates) in RV. (x. 141. 4), 
VS. (xxxiii. 86), and MS.K. (as above). For ubhiv ihd in a, RV. reads bfhaspdtim, 
and the other texts susamdf^d. For d, VS. has anamlvdh samgdme for sdmgatydm, 
and MS. the same without anamivds ; TS. has (in iv. 5. i*) a nearly corresponding 
half-verse : ydthd nah sdrvam ij jdgad ayaksmdm sumdnd dsat, Ppp. omits a, per- 
haps by an oversight. The comm. takes suhdvd in b as for suhdvdu, which is perhaps 
better. In our edition, the word is misprinted susdv-, 

7. Do thou stir up Aryaman, Brihaspati, Indra, unto giving; [also] 
Vata (wind), Vishnu, Sarasvati, and the vigorous (vdjin) Savitar. 

Found also in RV. (x. 141.5), VS. (ix. 27), and TS.MS.K. (as above). All save 
RV. read vacant instead of vatam in c, and so does the comm. ; K. puts vdcam after 
visnum [_and for a it has our vs. 4 aj. 

8. In the impulse {prasavd) of vigor {} vdja) now have we come into 
being, and all these beings within. Both let him, foreknowing, cause him 


to give who is unwilling to give, and do thou confirm to us wealth having 
all heroes. 

The verse seems to have no real connection with what precedes and follows, nor do 
its two halves belong together. They are in other texts, VS. (ix. 25 and 24) and TS. 
(in i. 7. io<), parts of two different verses, in a group of three, all beginning with 
vijasya followed by prasavd^ and all alike of obscure and questionable interpretation, 
and belonging to the so-called vdjaprasavlydni^ which form a principal element in the 
vdjapeya sacrifice (see Weber^s note on this verse [^also his essay Ueber den Vdjapeya^ 
Birliner Sb.^ 1892, p. 797 J). Instead of nil in a, TS. and MS.K. (as above), as also 
Ppp., have the nearly equivalent iddm; and all (save Ppp.) read i babhUva instead of 
sdtk babhUvima at end of a, and sarvdtas instead of antdr at end of b, omitting the 
meter-disturbing utd at beginning of c ; VS.K. read in c ddpayati for -tu ; and all save 
K. give the preferable yachatu at t^e end (the comm. has yacch&t) ; then VS. gives sd no 
rayim in d, and K. has a peculiar d : somo rayitk sahavlram ni yatksat, Ppp. is defec- 
tive in parts of this verse and the next ; it reads at the end of c prajdndm. P&da a is 
the only one that has zjagatt character. [^TS. has sdrvavirdm.j 

9. Let the five directions yield (duA) to me, let the wide ones yield 
according to their strength ; may I obtain all my designs, with mind and 

All thepada-mss, divide and accent /rJ.* dpeyam, but SPP. emends to prd: dpeyam 
Lsee S<\n5k, Gram. §85oJ; the comm. reads dpeyam. The comm. declares urvts to 
designate heaven and earth, day and night, and waters and herbs. 

10. A kine-winning voice may I speak ; with splendor do thou arise 
upon me ; let Vayu (wind) enclose (a-rudh) on all sides ; let Tvashtar assign 
to me abundance. 

Several of our mss. (P.M.W.O.Kp.) read rudhdm in c. The comm. explains i 
rundhdm by prdndtmand **vrnotu. 

This fourth anuvdka contains 5 hymns, with 40 verses, and the quotation from the 
old Anukr. is simply da^a, 

21. With oblation to the various forms of fire or Agni. 

[ Vasistha. — da^arcam, dgneyam. trdistubham : /. puro *nustubh ; ^, j, 8. bhurij ; j. jagaG ; 
6. uparistddvirddbrhati ; 7. virddgarbkd ; g^to. annstubh (9. mcr/).] 

The whole of the h)*mn is found in Paipp., vss. 1-9 in iii., vs. 10 in vii. The material is 
used by K^uq. in a number of rites : it is reckoned (9. i ; the comm. says, only vss. 
1-7) to the brhachdnti gana ; it appears in the charm against the evil influence of the 
flesh-eating fire (43. 16-21 ; according to the comm., vss. 1-7 are quoted in 16, and the 
whole hymn in 20); again, in the establishment of the house^fire (72.13; vss. 1-7, 
comm.); again, in the funeral rites (82. 25), on the third day after cremation, with obla- 
tion to the relics; once more, in the expiatory ceremony (123. 1), when birds or other 
creatures have meddled with sacrificial objects. Moreover, vs. 8 (the comm. says, 
vss. 8-10), with other passages from xii. 2, in a rite of appeasement in the house-fire 
ceremony (71.8). In VSit, vss. r-7 are used in the agnistoma (16.16) on occasion 
of the soma becoming spilt; and vs. 7 in the sdkamedha part of the cdturmdsya 
sacrifice [^9. i 7 J. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 277 ; Griffith, i. 1 13 ; vss. 1-7 also by Ludwig, p. 325. 


1. The fires that are within the waters, that are in Vrtra, that are in 
man, that are in stones, the one that hath entered the herbs, the forest- 
trees — to those fires be this oblation made. 

Verses 1-4 are found also in MS. (ii. 13. 13) and in K. (xl. 3) ; both texts read yds 
iox yi through the first half- verse, and dqmani for dqmasu; MS. begins yd apsv dntdr 
agnir^ and K. yd apsv dgnir antdr; K. further has bhuvan&ni viqvd for dsadhlr yd 
vdnasfidtins, Ppp. reads yo apsv antar yo vrtre antar yah puruse yo *^mani : yo 
viveqa osa-^ and combines in d tebhyo *gni'. Part of the mss. (including our P. M.W.I.) 
combine viviq^ dsadh- in c, and both editions have adopted that reading — doubtless 
wrongly, since the Prat prescribes no such irregularity, nor is it elsewhere found to 
occur with osadhi. The comm. explains what different " fires " are intended : the 
vddava etc. in the waters; that in the cloud (by Nir. ii. 16) or else in the body of the 
Asura Vrtra ; in man, those of digestion ; in stones, those in the sUryakdnta etc. 
(sparkling jewels) ; those that make herbs etc. ripen their fruits. Weber regards the 
stones that strike fire as intended, which seems more probable. The division of the 
verse by the Anukr., 8 + 11 :ii + ii, is not to be approved. LPSdas a and b rather as 
1 1 +8; padas c andd are in order, 12 + 11. — In c, correct to dvivi^dusadhlr^ as MS. 
reads. J 

2. [The fire] that is within soma, that is within the kine, that is 
entered into the birds, into the wild beasts (mrgd), that entered into 
bipeds, into quadrupeds — to those fires be this oblation made. 

MS. and K. begin b with vdydAsi yd dvivi^a; Ppp. with yo visto vayasi. The 
comm. takes the kine in a as representing the domestic animals in general, the fire 
being that which makes their milk cooked instead of raw, as often alluded to. SPP. 
follows the mss. in reading in b vdyahsu; our alteration to the equivalent vdyassu 
was needless. The verse (10+ 11 : 13 + 11 =45) is bhunj\ but also irregular enough. 
(_Padas b and d are in order, each a tristubh; and c, if we throw out the second yds^ 
is a goo6.jagati; a is bad. J 

3. He who, a god, goes in .the same chariot with Indra, he that 
belongs to all men (vdifvdnard) and to all gods {}), whom, very powerful 
in fights, I call loudly on — to those fires be this oblation made. 

MS. and K. have for d^ydni ^ndrasya rdtham sambabhiivur, and Ppp. partly agrees 
with them, reading ^^ *ndrena saratham sambabhui>a. In b, the translation ventures 
to follow Ppp's reading viqvadevyas instead of -ddvyds, because of its so obvious 
preferability in the connection ; -ddvyas is quite in place in vs. 9, and may perhaps 
have blundered from there into this verse ; but MS. and K. have -ddvydsj they further 
exchange the places of our 3 c and 4 c. Pada b is a very poor tristubh^ though capable 
of being read into 1 1 syllables Lread utd vdf], 

4. He who is the all-eating god, and whom they call Desire (kdma), 
whom they call giver, receiving one, who is wise, mighty, encompassing, 
unharmable — to those fires be this oblation made. 

MS. begins the verse with vigvadam agnim; K., with hutddam agnim; of b, both 
spoil the meter by reading pratigrahltaram ; MS. begins c with dhiro ydh; K's c is 
corrupt. Ppp. reads dha for dhus in a (not in b also). The comm. simply paraphrases 
Pratigrhndntam hy pratigrahltaram ; the reference is probably to the offerings which 


Agni receives in order to give them to the various gods. In our edition, an accent- 
mark belonging under d of dhiis in a has slipped aside to the left. 

5. Thou on whom as priest (hStar) agreed with their mind the thirteen 
kinds of beings {bhduvand), the five races of men {mdnavd) : to the splen- 
dor-bestowing, glorious one, rich in pleasantness — to those fires be this 
oblation made. 

The unusual and obscure number " thirteen " here seduces the comm. into declaring 
first that bhduvand signifies '• month," coming from bhuvana '* year " ; and then the 
m&navis are the seasons ! But he further makes the latter to be the four castes, with 
the nisddas as fifth, and the former the thirteen sons, Vigvakarman etc., of a great sage 
named bhuvana (because of viqvakarman bhduvana in AB. viii. 21.8-11). Ppp. 
reads bhuvand for bhduvanis. The Anukr. does not heed that the last pada is tristubh, 

6. To him whose food is oxen, whose food is cows, to the soma-backed, 

the pious : to those of whom the one for all men {vdifvdnard-) is chief — 

to those fires be this oblation made. 

The first half-verse is RV. viii. 43. 1 1 a, b (also found, without variant, in TS. i. 3. 147). 
MS. (ii. 13. 13) has the whole verse as p^das a, b, d, e, interposing as c the pada 
(stdmair vidhemd *gndye) which ends the gdyatrl in RV.TS. The meter (8+8:8 + 11) 
is, as brhatl, rather nicrt than virdj. 

7. They who move on along the sky, the earth, the atmosphere, along 
the lightning; who are within the quarters, who within the wind — to 
those fires be this oblation made. 

Our P.M.W. read in b vldyutam, and P.M.VV.I. end the pSda with -carati, SPP. 
regards the exposition of the comm. as implying that the latter takes anu in b as an 
independent word : dnu same-. In the definition of the Anukr., virdj appears to be 
used as meaning * a pada of 10 syllables * (11 + 10:10 + 11 =42). [^Read^Z ca vitef\ 

The three remaining verses of the hymn are plainly independent of what precedes, 
concerning themselves directly with the appeasement of an ill-omened fire ; but the 
combination of the two parts is an old one, being found also in Ppp. The ejection of 
the evidently patched-together vs. 6 would reduce the first part Lvss. 1-7 J to the norm 
of this book. 

8. Gold-handed Savitar, Indra, Brihaspati, Varuna, Mitra, Agni, all the 

gods, the Angirases, do we call ; let them appease {qanC) this flesh-eating 


Ppp. inverts the order of a and b. LMGS. has the vs. at ii. i. 6.J The comm. gives 
a double explanation of *^ gold-handed " : either *' having gold in his hand to give to his 
praisers," or " having a hand of gold " ; he also allows us to take dngirasas either as 
accusative or as nominative, **we the Angirases." The Anukr. notes that isjagatl. 

9. Appeased is the flesh-eating, appeased the men-injuring fire ; so also 

the one that is of all conflagrations, him, the flesh-eating, have I appeased. 

Ppp. has atho purusaresinah for b, and this time viqvadavyas in c. The anustubh 
is rather virdj than nicrt. 

10. The mountains that are soma-backed, the waters that lie supine. 


the wind, Parjanya, then also Agni — these have appeased the flesh-eating 


All our mss. save one (O.), and all SPP^s save two or three that follow the comm., 
read aqi^amam (apparently by infection from the end of vs. 9) at the end ; both editions 
emend to -man^ which is the reading of the comm. [^Ppp. has the vs. in vii. (as noted 
above), and combines -prsthd **pa in a-b and parjanyd 'V in c. — For " soma-backed,*' 
see Hillebrandt, Ved, AfythoL i. 60 f. J 

22. To the gods: for splendor (vircas). 

\Vasistha, — varcasyam. bdrhaspatyam uta vdifvadrvam. dnustubham : i , virdt tristubh ; 

3' S'P'pardnustub virddatijagati ; 4.j-av. d-p.jagati.'] 

Found also (except vs. 6) in Paipp. iii. Is reckoned to the varcasya gana 
(K&u^. 12.10, note), and used in a charm for splendor (13. i), with binding on an 
amulet of ivory. The comm. quotes the hymn also as employed by the Naks. K. in a 
mahdqdnti called brdhml^ for attainment of ^r^z^^/w^z/f-splendor ; and by Parig. iv. i, in 
the daily morning qonsecration of an elephant for a king. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 461 ; Weber, xvii. 282 ; Griffith, i. 1 15. 

1. Let elephant-splendor, great glory, spread itself, which came into 
being from Aditi*s body; that same have all together given to me — all 
the gods, Aditi, in unison. I^Cf. vii. 17. 3 n.J 

A number . of the mss. (including our Bp.Op.) read idityds [^accent ! J in b, and 
several of ours follow it with^Jw instead oiydt, Ppp. rectifies the meter of d by read- 
ing devdsas. Emendation in a to brhddyaqas would be acceptable. QB. (iii. 1.3.4; 
perhaps on the basis of b?) has a legend of the production of the elephant from some- 
thing born of Aditi (see R. in Ind. Stud. xiv. 392). The comm. explains /r^M^/Jw in 
a by asmdsu prathitam prakhydtam bhavatu * be proclaimed as belonging to us.' In 
our edition, an accent-mark has dropped out from under the ba of -babhuva. An irregular 
verse, scanned by the Anukr. as 12-1-10:10+10=42, but convertible into 45 syllables 
by resolving tanii-as, sdru-e, vi^u-e (pi which only the first is unobjectionable). ^If we 
read devdsas in d, the vs. is in order (12 + 11 : ?+ii), except in c (Jdd it sdrvef),j 

2. Let both Mitra and Varuna, Indra and Rudra, [each] take notice ; 

the all-nourishing gods — let them anoint me with splendor. 

All the mss.* read cetatus at end of b, and so does Ppp., and our edition has it ; but 
SPP. follows the comm. and substitutes cetatu; SV. i. 154 has sdmah pusa ca cetatuh; 
the translation implies cetatu^ the other being probably a false form, generated under 
stress of the difficult construction of a singular verb with the preceding subjects. 
Weber takes it as cetatus y 3d dual perf. of root cat " frighten into submission." The 
Anukr. takes no notice of the deficiency of a syllable in a. * LSo W's two drafts ; but his 
collations note P.M.W. as reading cetutah (!) and Op. as reading cetatu. \ 

3. With what splendor the elephant came into being, with what the 

king among men (manusyd), among waters, with what the gods in the 

beginning went to godhood — with that splendor do thou, O Agni, now 

make me splendid. 

Apsuy in b, is an impertinent intrusion as regards both sense and meter ; it is wanting 
in Ppp. In c all the mss. give dyam (samh.^ ay am)*, our edition makes the necessary 


emendation to iyan^ and so does SPP. in Wvi pada-XKxi; but in satkhitd (perhaps by an 
oversight) he reads dyan^ unaccented ; the comm. has dyan (accent doubtful) : cf. 
iv. 14. 1 c where the mss. again read Ayam for Ay an in the same phrase. Ppp. has a 
very different second half- verse : ^'^iw devd jyotisd dydm uddyan tena md *gne varcasd 
safk srje *ha. The comm. makes apsu in b mean either " [creatures] in the waters," or 
else '* [Yakshas, Gandharvas, etc.] in the atmosphere." The metrical definition of the 
Anukr. is mechanically correct (_52— 2=:5oJ if we count 13 syllables in b (_and combine 
varcasdgKe\ ! 

4. What great splendor becomes thine, O Jatavedas, from the oflfering ; 
how great splendor there is of the sun, and of the dsura-Wkt elephant — 
so great splendor let the (two) A^vins, lotus-wreathed, assign unto me. 

All the mss. read in hbhavati^ and SPP. accordingly adopts it in his edition ; ours 
makes the necessary correction to bhdvatu The comm. reads dhute^ vocative, at end 
of b; Ppp. has instead dhutam; and then adds to it, as second half-verse, our 3 d, e 
(with abhya for adyd^ and krdhi for krnu)^ putting also the whole |_i.e. our 4 a, b + 3 d, 
ej before our vs. 3 ; and then it gives the remainder (C-f ) of our vs. 4 here, with krnutdm 
for i dhattdm^ and in cyavad varcah stir-. 

5. As far as the four directions, as far as the eye reaches (sam-af), let 
so great force {indriyd) come together, that elephant-splendor, in me. 

The comm. reads sam etu in c. 

6. Since the elephant has become the superior {atisfhdvant) of the com- 
fortable {} susdd) wild beasts, with his fortune [and] splendor do I pour 
(sic) upon myself. 

That is, * I shed it upon me, cover myself with it' The comm. understands the 
somewhat questionable susdd nearly as here translated, ** living at their pleasure in the 
forest " ; and atisthdvant as possessing superiority either of strength or of position. 

Weber entitles the hymn, without good reason, ** taming of a wild elephant" 

23. For fecundity. 

{^Brahman, — cdndramasam uta yonidevatyam. dnustubham : j. uparistddbhuri^brhati ; 

6. skandhogrwibrhati.'] 

Found in P§ipp. iii. Used by K^ug. in the chapters of women's rites, in a charm 
(35. 3) to procure the conception of male offspring, with breaking an arrow over the 
mother's head etc. 

Translated: Weber, v. 223; Ludwig, p. 477; Zimmer, p. 319; Weber, xvii. 285 ; 
Griffith, i. 116; Bloomfield, 97, 356. 

1 . By what thou hast become barren {vehdt)^ that we make disappear 
from thee ; that now we set down elsewhere, far away from {dpa) thee. 

Vehdt is perhaps more strictly * liable to abort*; the comm. gives the word here 
either sense. Ppp. is defective, giving only the initial words of vss. i and 2. 

2. Unto thy womb let a foetus come, a male one, as an arrow to a 
quiver; let a hero be born unto thee here, a ten-months* son. 

This verse and the two following occur in QGS. (i. 19. 6), and this one without 


variant Also this one in MP. |_i. 12. 9 J (Winternitz, p. 94), and in an appendix to AGS. 
L 13.6 (Stenzler, p. 48), with yonim 2SXitt garbhas in a (and AGS. reads ditu), and 
omitting atra in c; and further in HGS. (i. 25. i), like MP. in a, but retaining atra. 

3. Give birth to a male, a son ; after him let a male be born ; mayest 

thou be mother of sons, of those born and whom thou shalt bear. 

All the mss. save one or two (including our E.) read at the end yam y both editions 
make the necessary emendation to ydn, which the comm. also gives. At beginning of 
b, Ppp. reads tvatfiy as do also the comm. and a couple of SPP*s mss. ; and Ppp. ends 
with janaydmi ca, MB. (i. 4. 9 c, d) has the first half-verse, reading vindasva for 
janaya; and MP. (as above) \\, 13. 2 J also, with pumdhs te futrd ndri for a. And 
^GS. (as above) has our a, b, with, for c, d, tesdm mdtd bhavisyasi jdtdndm janaydhsi 
ca Lthe end corrupt, as in Ppp. J. 

4. And what excellent seeds the bulls generate, with them do thou 
acquire (yid) a son ; become thou a productive milch-cow. 

^GS. (as above) has for h fiurusd janayanti nah ; it rectifies the meter of c by read- 
ing tebhis t' for tdis t- (and it \i?A janaya for vindasva)\ in d, it gives suprasHs^ which 
is better than our si pr-. MP. (as above) \\, 13. 3 J repeats our verse very closely, only 
with nas for ca in b, and putrdn in c ; and it has, just before, the line tdni bhadrdni 
bljdny rsabhd janayantu ndu. A verse in HGS. (as above) is quite similar : ydnipra- 
bhUnivfrydny rsabhd janayantu nah : tdis tvam garbhinl bhava sajdyatdm vlratamah 
svdndm; and it offers a little later sd prasUr i^unugd bhava. Our reading tdis tvdm 
in c is assured by Prat ii. 84 ; the resolution tu-dm makes the meter correct. 

5. I perform for thee the [ceremony] of Prajapati; let a foetus come to 
thy womb ; acquire thou a son, O woman, who shall be weal for thee ; 
weal also for him do thou become. 

The accent of bhdva at the end is anomalous. HGS. (as above) has the first half- 
verse [^and MP., at i. 13. i, concordantly J ; it reads karomi at the beginning, and in b 
"pMX&yonifn 2A.\jtr garbhas; this latter Ppp. does also. The comm. understands prdjd- 
patyam as above translated; other renderings are possible (**das Zeugungswerk/' 
Weber; ** Zeugimgsfahigkeit," Zimmer). The metrical definition of the verse 
(84-8:84-5-l-8=37) is not good save mechanically. 

6. The plants of which heaven has been the father, earth the mother, 

ocean the root — let those herbs of the gods (ddivd) favor thee, in order 

to acquisition of a son. 

The first half-verse is found again later, as viti. 7. 2 c, d ; in both places, part of the 
mss. read dydus p- (here only our O., with half of SPP*s) ; and that appears to be 
required by Pr§t ii. 74, although the looser relation of the two words favors in a case 
like this the reading dyduh, which both editions present Ppp. has an independent 
version : ydsdm pitd parjanyo bhumir mdtd babhUva : with devls in c (this the comm. 
also reads) and osadhls in d. The verse is irregular, and capable of being variously 
read ; and what the Anukr. means by its definition is obscure. 


24. For abundance of grain. 

[BArg^. — saptarcam, vdnaspcUyam uta prdjdpatyam, dnustubham : 2. nicrtpathydpankti^ 

Found (except vs. 7) in P^ipp. v. Used by Kau^. (21. i £[.) in rites for the pros- 
perity of grain-crops, and reckoned (19. i, note) to the pustika mantras. The comm. 
declares it employed also in the pitrmedha ceremony (82. 9), but doubtless by an error, 
the verse there quoted being xviii. 3. 56 (which has the same pratika). 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 268 ; Weber, xvii. 286 ; Griffith, i. 1 1 7. 

1 . Rich in milk [are] the herbs, rich in milk my utterance (ydcas) \ 
accordingly, of them that are rich in milk I bring by thousands. 

The first half-verse occurs again, a little changed, as xviii. 3. 56 a, b ; it is also 
RV. X. 17. 14 a,b, etc. : see under xviii. 3. 56. The comm. reads in d bhareyam for 
bhare ^ham; he understands "be** instead of "are** in a,b. For second half-verse 
Ppp. has atho payasvat&tk paya d hardmi sahasraqah, 

2. I know him that is rich in milk ; he hath made the grain much ; the 
god that is "collector" by name, him do we call, whichever is in the 
house of one who sacrifices not. 

That is, away from the service of the impious to that of us, the pious. A god " col- 
lector ** (sambhftvan) is not known elsewhere. Ppp. reads for a aham veda yathd 
payaq^ and, in c-e,^^ vedas tavam yajdmahe sarvasyd yaq ca no grhe. In our edition, 
an accent-mark has slipped from under -dd- to under ve- at the beginning. It is the 
fourth pada that is niq^t Lread tdm-tath f\, 

3. These five directions that there are, the five races (krs{i) descended 

from Manu {tndnavi) — may they bring fatness (sphdti) together here, as 

streams [bring] drift when it has rained. 

Or nadis might be nom. sing.; the comm. of course takes it as plural; qdpam he 
understands as "a kind of animals** {prdnijdtam). Our O.Op. have at the end 
'Vahdm. Ppp. reads for b mdnavdih pahca gr stay ah (cf. grsfiiox krsti in ii. 13.3); 
and, for c, d, sarvd^ qambhUr mayobhuvo vrse qdpam nadir iva, 

4. As a fountain of a hundred streams, of a thousand streams, unex- 
hausted, so this grain of ours, in a thousand streams, unexhausted. 

The metrical deficiency in a calls for a change of reading, and the usual correlation 
of evd in c suggests ^/fMJy and, as Ppp. rt.^<dA yathd^ the translation ventures to adopt 
it, as ut instead is hardly better than unmanageable. Weber supplies a^a; Ludwig, 
" I open, as it were ** ; the comm. says that ut means udbhavati^ and does not trouble 
himself about its construction with an accusative ; we may take the verse as a virtual 
continuation of vs. 3, and the nouns as governed by samdvahdn, Ppp. makes the verse 
easy by reading ^^M^ rupaq qatadhdras sahasradhdro aksatah: eva me astu dhdnyam 
sahasradhdram aksatam, 

5. O hundred-handed one, bring together ; O thousand-handed one, pile 
together; of what is made and of what is to be made do thou convey 
together the fatness here. 

Ppp. has for b sahasrdi *va samgirah^ iorcyatAi 'ya sphdtir dyasi, and for d our c 


The comm. reads samdvahdm at the end, rendering it samprnpto *smi; to the adjec- 
tives in c he supplies dhanadhdny&deh, \Sdm kira^ * overwhelm/ i.e. * bestow abun- 

6. Three measures of the Gandharvas, four of the house-mistress ; of 
them whichever is richest in fatness, with that one we touch thee. 

Ppp. reads at the end marsdmasi; the comro. regards the grain as the object of 
address in d, and the intent to be " increase thou by the act of touching "; Weber under- 
stands rather the master of the house, or perhaps the harvest-wagon. The <* measures ** 
are doubtless those of grain set apart ; the comm. caUs them samrddhihetavah kalah ; 
and he gives as alternative explanation of " house-mistress *' the Apsarases, spouses of 
the Gandharvas ! 

7. Bringer (tipohd) and gatherer (samuhd) [are] thy (two) distributors, 
O Prajapati ; let them convey hither fatness, much unexhausted plenty. 

Two or three of our mss. (P.s.m.M.W.) read in c vahatam, as does the comm., with 
one of SPP's mss. The comm. explains ksattar&u by s&rathl abhimatakdryasamps- 

25. To command a woman's love. 

[Bhrgu (Jdydkdmah). — mditrdvarunam kdmemdevatdkam ca, dnustubham.'] 

Not found in Paipp. Used by Kau9. (35. 22) in the chapters of women^s rites, in 
a charm for bringing a woman under one*s control, by pushing her with a finger, 
piercing the heart of an image of her, etc. 

Translated: Weber, v. 224; Muir, OST. v. 407; Ludwig, p. 516; Zimmer, p. 307; 
Weber, xvii. 290 ; Grill, 53, 115 ; Griffith, i. 1 19 ; Bloomfield, 102, 358. — Cf. Zimmer, 
p. 300 ; Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel^ p. 144. Muir gives only a part 

1. Let the up-thruster thrust {tud) thee up; do not abide {dhr) in 
thine own lair; the arrow of love (kdmd) that is terrible, therewith I 
pierce thee in the heart. 

Pada A evidently suggests the finger-thrust of Kau9. ; what uttudd really designates 
is matter for guessing, and the translators guess differently ; the comm. says <* a god 
so named.*' The comm. has the bad reading drthds in b. 

2. The arrow feathered with longing (adhi)y tipped with love, necked 
with resolve (i santkalpd-) — having made that well-straightened, let love 
pierce thee in the heart. 

According to the comm., ddhi means mdnasf pidd; qalyam is bdndgre pro tarn dya- 
sam; kulmalam is ddruqalyayoh samqlesadravyam [_ thing (like a ferrule ?) to fasten 
the tip to the shaft J. Our P.M.W. read ti for tarn at beginning of c. Pada c requires 
the harsh resolution ta-am, 

3. The well-straightened arrow of love which dries the spleen, forward- 
winged, consuming {vybsa) — therewith I pierce thee in the heart. 

The accent of vybsa is anomalous [Skt, Gram, § 1 148 nj, being rather that of a pos- 
sessive compound [_§ 1305 aj; ^cf. vs. 4 J. The comm. appears to ta\it plthan as signi- 
fying * lung *; the obscure prdcfnapaksa he makes equivalent to rjavah paksd yasydh. 


4. Pierced with consuming pain (fuc), dry-mouthed, do thou come 

creeping to me, gentle, with fury allayed, entirely [mine], pleasant-spoken, 


The great majority of mss. (including our Bp.P.M.W.E.I.) accent vydsa in this verse, 
which is preferable ; but both editions give vydsa, because the mss. are unanimously for 
it in vs. 3 c. The comm. renders it by vid&hayukta. \\ cannot make out from W*s 
collations that M.W. read vy65a,\ 

5. I goad thee hither with a goad {djant)^ away from mother, likewise 
from father, that thou mayest be in my power {krdtu), mayest come unto 
my intent. 

The second half-verse is identical with vi. 9. 2 c, d, and nearly so with i. 34. 2 c, d. 

6. Do ye, O Mitra-and-Varuna, cast out the intents from her heart ; 
. then, making her powerless, make her [to be] in my own control. 

P. M.W. begin c mXYiydthd, Asydi in a is doubtless to be understood as a genitive 
(cf. iv. 5. 6), though the comm. says ** a dative in genitive sense." |_Cf. Lanman, 
JAOS. X. 359, end. J 

The fifth anuvdka has 5 hymns and 35 verses. The quoted Anukr. says fiaHca ca 
re ah, 

26. Homage to the gods of the quarters etc. [snake charms? J. 

\Atkarvan, — rdudram ; pratyrcam agnyddibahudrvatyam, \jrdistubham .'J 1-6. /-/. vi- 
parUapddalaksmyd L?J: /. tristubk ; i^S^^'J^i^i 3^4' bAurp'.] 

A prose h3rmn, found also in P^ipp. iii. (except vs. 2, perhaps accidentally omitted, 
and vs. 6). A similar invocation occurs further in TS. v. 5. io3-5, not so closely related 
that the readings need to be compared in detail. Hymns 26 and 27 are called in Kaug. 
digyukte * connected with the quarters/ and are used (14. 25), with vi. 13, in a battle-rite, 
for victory over a hostile army; and also (50.13), with vi. i etc., in a ceremony for 
good-fortune (and the comm. regards them as signified hy yuktayos in 50. 17, in a charm 
against serpents, scorpions, etc.; but this is probably a mistake |_? J) ; yet again, the 
comm. adds them in a ceremony (51.3-5) of tribute to the quarters. 

\J^ Serpent-incantation '* (Schlangenzauber) is the title given to this hymn and the 
next by Weber. Roth (in his notes) rejects Weber's view ; but Griffith accepts it I 
think the two hymns are snake charms for the following reasons. They are employed 
by Kaug. (50. 1 7) in connection with vi. 56 and xii. 1. 46, which latter are clearly directed 
against snakes etc. See also Ke^ava on K&U9. 50.17,18,19, Bloomfield, p. 354 f. 
Keqava shows, I think, that the comm. is not mistaken 2iho\iX yuktayos, Weber, in his 
valuable notes, observes, p. 292, that the schol. to TS. v. 5. 10 reckons that passage as 
belonging to a sarpdhuti. It is likely that the bali-harana (of Kau9. 51.3,4), with 
which this hymn is employed (see Ke^ava), is a sarpabali. — This hymn and the next 
are reckoned to the rdudragana (note to Kauq. 50. 13); cf. Anukr. Weber's note, 
p. 297, that these hymns are not used by Kau^., should be deleted. Whitney in his 
note to vi. 56 duly reports the connection of iii. 26 and 27 with that snake charm. That 
he does not do so here and at xii. 1.46 is, I think, an oversight J 

LWith all this accords Ppp's colophon, raksdmantram. The hymn is virtually zfaritta 
— cf. Jataka, ii. p. 34*6. What seems to be a very old snake pari/ta is found in Culla- 
vagga, V. 6, and Jataka, ii. p. 145, no. 203, and in the Bower Manuscript, ed. Hoernle, 


part vi, p. 234. — Note that the sequence of the quarters in this hymn and the next, as 
also in the parallels thereto cited from AV.TS.TB.MS., is in pradaksifta-order.^ 
Translated: Weber, xvii. 291 ; Griffith, i. 120. 

1 . Ye gods that are in this eastern quarter, missiles by name — of you 

there the arrows are fire : do ye be gracious to us, do ye bless (adhi-bru) 

us ; to you there be homage, to you there hail ! 

The corresponding utterance in TS. reads : " missiles by name are ye ; your houses 
there are in front (in the east); fire is your arrows, ocean {salild) '* — and similarly in 
what follows. Ppp. prefixes raksa (once raksah) at the beginning of each verse. The 
comm. appears to take devis throughout as a vocative (Jie devcLh)\ he defines it as 
meaning " Gandharvas " ; the arrows are either fire or else Agni. The Anukr. appar- 
ently restores^/ asyim, and also makes the refrain to be of 1 1 + 10 = 21 syllables ; then 
the initial "padas^' of i, of 3 and 4, of 5, of 2, and of 6 coimt respectively as 23, 24, 25, 
26, and 27 syllables, and the complete numbers vary from 44 to 48 syllables. [^The 
Anukr. ought to call vs. 2 nicrt and vs. 5 virdj. — For "gods" as an address to the 
serpents, cf. vi. 56. i, where they are called " god-people." J 

2. Ye gods that are in this southern quarter, impetuous (i avisyu) by 
name — of you there the arrows are love (kdmd) : do ye be etc. etc. 

The comm. reads avasyavas instead of avisyavas. In TS., the name in this quarter 
is " smearers " (nilimpa), and the arrows are " the Fathers, sea (sdgara).'^ 

3. Ye gods that are in this western quarter, vdirdjds by name — of you 

there the arrows are the waters : do ye be etc. etc. 

The name in Ppp. is virdjas. In TS., the name is " thimderbolt-wielders " (vajrin), 
and the arrows are " sleep, thicket (gdhvara),^* 

4. Ye gods that are in this northern quarter, piercing by name — of 

you there the arrows are wind : do ye be etc. etc. 

In the north, according to TS., the name is " down-standers (avasthavan)^^* and the 
arrows " the waters, ocean {samudrd)y 

5. Ye gods that are in this fixed quarter, smearers (nilimpd) by name 

— of you there the arrows are the herbs : do ye be etc. etc. 

Ppp. reads vilimpus for /ii7-, and makes the arrows to be food (anna), TS. calls 
the quarter "here {thd)^''^ and puts it after the one " above " (our vs. 6) ; the name is 
"fleshly, earthly," and the arrows (as in Ppp.) "food." The comm. explains nilimpas 
as nitardm liptdh, 

6. Ye gods that are in this upward quarter, helpful {dvasvant) by name 
— of you there the arrows are Brihaspati : do ye be etc. etc. 

In this quarter (updri) according to TS., the name is "overlords," and the arrows 
" rain, the helpful one." Ppp. adds at the end /'// raksdmantram, and our verse viii. 3. i 
follows. TS. adds an imprecation, nearly like that in our hymn 27 : tebhyo vo ndmas 
ti no mrdayata ti ydfh dvismd ydq ca no dvisti tdm vo jdmbke dadhdmi. 


27. The same : with imprecation on enemies. 

[AtAatvan. — raudram ; e^^yidibahudevatyam, dstikam : 1-6. S'P- kakummatigarbkd *sti; 

2, atyasti ; /. bhurij^ 

LA prose hymn. J Found (except vs. 3, apparently omitted by accident) inTaipp. iii., 
after h. 26, but at some distance from it. Compare xii. 3. 55-60, where the quarters 
are rehearsed with the same adjuncts. Compare further TS. v. 5. lo*'* (a passage imme- 
diately preceding that parallel with our h. 26 ; a bit of br&hmana between the two 
explains that these divinities are to protect the fire-altar when constructed) ; and 
MS. ii. 13. 21 : both these omit all mention of arrows. A yet fainter parallelism is to 
be noted with TB. iii. 1 1. 5. For the concluding imprecation, compare also VS. xv. 15. 
For the use in K^uq. with h. 26, see under that hymn. \Yox the general significance 
of the hymn, see my addition to the introduction to h. 26.J 

Translated : Weber, xvii. 295 ; Griffith, i. 121. 

1. Eastern quarter; Agni overlord; black serpent defender; the 
Adityas arrows : homage to those overlords ; homage to the defenders ; 
homage to the arrows ; homage be to them ; who hates us, whom we 
hate, him we put in your jaws (jdmbha), 

Ppp. has rsibhyas instead of isubhyas^ and vas instead of ebhyas ; and it adds 
further to the imprecation tarn u prdno jahdtu^ which our text has in a similar connec- 
tion at vii. 31. 1 ; x. 5. 25-35 » ^vi. 7. 13. The " defender " is in each case a kind of ser- 
pent ; and this, which is but an insignificant item in our two hymns, has a more important 
bearing on the application of the corresponding TS. and MS. passages. The TS. 
passage runs thus : ** thou art the eastern quarter, convergent by name ; of thee there 
Agni is overlord, the black serpent defender ; both he who is overlord and he who is 
guardian, to them (two) be homage ; let them be gracious to us ; whom we hate and 
who hates us, him I put in the jaws of you (two) "; and the MS. version differs only in 
one or two slight points. The comm. supplies each time to the name of the quarter 
asmadanugrahdrtham vartatdm or something equivalent. There seems to be no natural 
way of dividing these verses into 5 padas ; the refrain is probably counted by the Anukr. 
as 42 syllables, and the addition of the other part brings the number in each verse up 
to from 62 to 66 syllables {asti is properly 64). 

2. Southern quarter; Indra overlord; cross-lined [serpent] defender; 
the Fathers arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

Ppp. makes the Vasus arrows. MS. calls the serpent tiraqdnardji ; TS. makes the 
adder {^pfddku) defender here. 

3. Western quarter; Varuna overlord; the adder {prddku) defender; 
food the arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

The comm. explains prddkus as kutsitaqabdakdrl : an absurd fancy. TS. and MS. 
give here Soma as overlord, and the constrictor as defender. 

4. Northern quarter ; Soma overlord ; the constrictor {svajd) defender ; 
the thunderbolt {agdni) arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

The comm. gives for svajd a double explanation, either " self-bom " (sva-ja) or else 
"inclined to embrace" (root svaj). Both the other texts assign Varuna as overlord; 


for defender, TS. designates the cross-lined serpent, MS. the prd&ku (in the corrupt 
form sfddku or -dgu: the editor adopts the latter). Ppp. makes wind (vd/a) the 

5. Fixed quarter; Vishnu overlord; the serpent with black-spotted 
(kalntdsa-) neck defender ; the plants arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

Ppp. reads kulmdsa- ; the comm. explains the word by krsnavarna, TS. calls the 
quarter iydm * this' ; in MS. it is <fz/<l^f * downward ' ; TS. treats of it after the upward 
one, and makes Yama the overlord. In our edition, an accent-mark under the -ksi- of 
raksiti has slipped to the right, under -/J. 

6. Upward quarter; Brihaspati overlord; the white {(viird) [serpent] 
defender ; rain the arrows : homage to those etc. etc. 

Ppp. has here the thunderbolt (afani) for arrows. Part of the mss. (including our 
E.O.K.Kp.) give ciird instead of ^vitrd as name of the serpent ; TS. reads qvitrd^ but 
MS. (probably by a misreading) citrd, TS. calls the quarter brhaft * great' TS. (after 
the manner of the AV. mss.) leaves out the repeated part of the imprecation in the 
intermediate verses (2-5); MS. gives it in full every time. |_ Reference to this vs. as 
made by Bergaigne, ReL vid, iii. 12 (cf. Baunack, KZ. xxxv. 527), is hardly apt J 

28. To avert the ill omen of a twinning animal. 

\Brahman (pafuposandya). — ydminyam. dnustubham : i. atifakuarigarbhd 4-p.atijagatl; 
4. yavamadhyd virdtkakubh ; j, tristubh ; 6. virddgarbhd prastdrapankti."] 

Not found in Paipp. Used by Kau^., in the chapter of portents, in the ceremonies of 
expiation for the birth of twins from kine, mares or asses, 'and human beings (109. 5 ; 
no. 4; HI. 5). 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 297 ; Griffith, i. 122; Bloomfield, 145, 359. 

1. She herself came into being by a one-by-one creation, where the 

being-makers created the kine of all forms ; where the twinning [cow] 

gives birth, out of season, she destroys the cattle, snarling, angry. 

The translation implies emendation of ruga/f at the end to rusyatl or rusaft |_rather 
rAsyatl^ so as to give a yVz^a/f cadence J — which, considering the not infrequent confu- 
sion of the sibilants, especially the palatal and lingual, in our text and its mss., and the 
loss of ^ after a sibilant, is naturally suggested Lcf. iv. 16. 6bJ. The comm. makes a yet 
easier thing of taking ruqatl from a root ruq * injure,' but we have no such root. Some 
of our mss. (P.M.W.E.) read esam in a, and two (P.O.) have sfstvd* The comm. 
understands srstis with esd in a, and tx^\2i\xis ekdtfcayd by ekdikavyaktyd. Perhaps we 
should emend to ikdi^kayd * one [creature] by one [act of] creation ' Land reject esa ?, 
as the meter demands J. See Weber's notes for the comparison of popular views as to 
the birth of twins, more generally regarded as of good omen. The Anukr. apparently 
counts iiL'3?J+i5- 12 + 12= 50 L52?J syllables ; either bhutakftas or viqvdrupds could 
well enough be spared out of b |_better the former; but it is bad meter at best J. 
* |_Shown by accent to be a blunder for sfstyd^ not 5rstva.\ 

2. She quite destroys the cattle, .becoming a flesh-eater, devourer 
(} vy-ddvari)\ also one should give her to a priest {brahmdn)\ so would 
she be pleasant, propitious. 


The pada-XAxi divides vi^^ddvari^ evidently taking the word from root is</*eat*; the 
Pet. Lex. suggests emendation to vyddhvarl^ from vyadh < pierce.' The comm. reads " 
vyadhvariy but he defines it first as coming from adhvan, and meaning ** possessed of 
bad roads, that cause imhappiness,'' or, second, as from adhvara^ and signifying " hav- 
ing magical sacrifices, that give obstructed fruit " ! LSee note to vi. 50. 3, where W. 
corrects the text to vyadvard : accent of masc. and fem.. Gram, §1171 a,b.J 

3. Be thou propitious to men {piirusd)^ propitious to kine, to horses, 
propitious to all this field (ks^tra) ; be propitious to us here. 

< Field ' seems taken here in a general sense, and might be rendered * farm.' The 
Anukr. takes no notice of the irregularities in c and d, probably because they balance 
each other. 

4. Here prosperity, here sap — here be thou best winner of a thou- 
sand ; make the cattle prosper, O twinning one. 

The comm. supplies bhavatu to the first p^da. All the mss. agree in giving the false 
accent sahdsrasdtamd in b; it should be sahasrasitamd — or, to rectify the meter, 
simply -si. Its pada-dWv&iou^ sahdsraosdtama is prescribed by the text of Prit iv. 45. 
Kakubh properly has no need of the adjunct yavamadhyd; it is very seldom used by 
our Anukr. as name of a whole verse |^8+ 12 : 8 J. 

5. Where the good-hearted [and] well-doing revel, quitting disease of 
their own body — into that world hath the twinning one come into 
being; let her not injure our men and cattle. 

The first half-verse is also that of vi. 1 20. 3 (which occurs further in TA.). Some of 
SPP's mss. write in b tanvhs^ protracting the ^^mr/a-syllable. 

6. Where is the world of the good-hearted, of the well-doing, where 
of them that ofifer the fire-offering {agnikotrd-) — into that world hath 
the twinning one come into being; let her not injure our men and 

The omission of the superfluous ydtra in b would rectify the meter. The Anukr. 
should say dstdrapaHkti instead of prastdra- ; its virdj means here a p^da of 10 

29. With the offering of a white-footed sheep. 

\Udddlaka. — astarcam. fitipddd*videvatyam : "j. kimadewUyi; 8, bhdumi. dnustubham: 
/,j. pathydpahkti ; '^.j-av. 6-p.uparistddddivibrhatl kakummatfgarbkdtnrddjcigati; 

8. uparistddbrhati.'] 

Like the preceding hymn, not found in P^ipp. Used (according to the comm., 
vss. 1-5) by Kauq. (64. 2) in the sava sacrifices, in the four-plate (catuh^ardvd) sava^ 
with setting a cake on each quarter of the animal offered, and one on its navel ; and vs. 8 
in the vagd sava \66. 21 J, on acceptance of the cow. Further, vs. 7 (according to 
schol. and comm., vss. 7 and 8) appears in a rite (45. 17) at the end of the va^d^amana, 
for expiating any error in acceptance of gifts. In Vait. (3.21), vs. 7 is also used to 
accompany the acceptance of a sacrificial gift in the parvan sacrifices. 

LThe Anukr. says Udddlako * nena sadrcena qitipddam avim astdut^ thus supporting 
the reduction of the hymn to the norm of six vss. ; see note to vs. 7. From that phrase, 
perhaps, comes the blundering reading of the London ms. gitipddam avidevatyam : 


emend to qitipad-avi-devatyam or else as above ? — Weber entitles the hymn " Abfindung 
Init dem Zoll im Jenseits."J 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 375 ; Weber, xvii. 302 ; Griffith, i. 124. 

1 . What the kings share among themselves — the sixteenth of what 

is offered-and-bestowed — yon assessors (sabhdsdd) of Yama : from that 

the white-footed sheep, given [as] ancestral offering {svadhd)^ releases. 

By this offering, one is released from the payment otherwise due to Yama's councilors 
on admission into the other world : the ideas are not familiar from other parts of the 
mjrthology and ritual. LBut cf. Hillebrandt, Ved, MythoL i. 511 ; Weber, Berliner Sb,^ 
1895, p. 845. J The comm. explains thus : ubhayavidhasya karmanah sodaqasamkhya' 
p&rakam yat pdpam punyardqer vibhaktam kurvanti^ as if the sixteenth were the 
share of demerit to be subtracted from the merit, and cleansed away (^pari-qodhay-) by 
Yama's assistants, etc. In c he reads muhcatu for -/// qitipdd in d he renders qveiapsd. 
The last pada lacks a syllable, unless we make a harsh resolution. Our text reads in b 
'Purttdsya; \ior consistency, delete one /J. 

2. All desires {kdma) it fulfils, arising {a-bhu)^ coming forth {pra-bhu)^ 
becoming (bhU) ; [as] fulfiller of designs, the white-footed sheep, being 
given, is not exhausted (upa-das). 

The precise sense of the three related participles in b is very questionable (Weber 
renders "da seiend, tiichtig, und kraftig"; Ludwig, "kommend, entstehend, lebend"); 
the comm. says " permeating, capable |_of rewarding J, increasing." 

3. He who gives a white-footed sheep commensurate (sdmmita) with 
[his] world, he ascends unto the firmament, where a tax is not paid (kr) 
by a weak man for a stronger. 

"Commensurate": i.e., apparently, "proportioned in value to the place in the 
heavenly world sought by the giver " (so Weber also) ; R. suggests " analogous (as 
regards the white feet) with the world of light that is aspired to " ; the comm., on his part, 
gives two other and discordant explanations: first, lokyam&nena phalena samyak- 
Paricchinnam^ amoghaphalam ; second, anena bhulokena sadrqam^ bhulokavat sarva- 
phalapradam : both very bad. For ndka he gives the derivation na-a-kam * non-un-hap- 
piness, which he repeats here and there in his expositions. The translation implies in c 
the reading quikds, which (long ago conjectured by Muir, OST. v. 310) is given by 
SPP. on the authority of all his mss., and also by the comm., and is undoubtedly the 
true text Only one of our mss. (Kp.) has been noted as plainly reading it ; but the 
mss. are so careless as to the distinction of Ik and k/ that it may well be the intent of 
them all. The comm. paraphrases it as " a kind of tax (kara-) that must be given to a 
king of superior power by another king of deficient power situated on his frontier." As 
pointed out by Weber, the item of description is very little in place here, where the sac- 
rifice is made precisely in satisfaction of such a tax. LW's prior draft reads " to a 
stronger." — Note that SPP's oral reciters gave qulkds.\ 

4. The white-footed sheep, accompanied with five cakes, commensurate 
with [his] world, the giver lives upon, [as] unexhausted in the world of 
the Fathers. 

That is Lthe giver lives upon the sheep J, as an inexhaustible supply for his needs. 
The comm. explains d by vasvddirnpam prdptdndm somalokdkhye sthdne. 


5. The white-footed sheep, accompanied with five cakes, commensurate 

with [his] world, the giver lives upon, [as] unexhausted in the sun and moon. 

The five cakes are those laid on the victim as prescribed in K^uq. (see above). In 
our edition, sUryamdsdyor is a misprint for sHrydm-, 

6. Like refreshing drink (/nz), it is not exhausted ; like the ocean, a 
great draught {pdyas) ; like the two jointly-dwelling gods, the white- 
footed one is not exhausted. 

The comparison in c is so little apt that what it refers to is hard to see : the comm. 
regards the Aqvins as intended, and Weber does the same, understanding savdsin as 
(« dressed alike " (the comm. says samdnam nivasantdu) ; Ludwig thinks of ** heaven 
and earth *'; one might also guess sun and moon. .R. suggests the sense to be " he has 
gods for neighbors, right and left.*' The Anukr. appears to sanction the contraction 
samudrd *va in b. 

7. Who hath given this to whom ? Love hath given unto love ; love 
[is] giver, love acceptor ; love entered into the ocean ; with love I accept 
thee ; love, that for thee ! 

|_Not metrical. J This ** verse " and the following appear to have nothing to do with the 
preceding part of the hymn, which has 6 vss.* (according to the norm of this book). 
This ** verse " is found in a whole series of texts, as a formula for expiating or avoiding 
what may be improper in connection with the acceptance of sacrificial gifts. The ver- 
sion of TA. (iii. 10. 1-2, 4 : also found, with interspersed explanation, in TB. ii. 2. 55, and 
repeated in ApQS. xiv. 1 1. 2) is nearly like ours, but omits the second addt^ and reads 
kimam samudrdm A viqa ; that of AQ!S. (v. 13. 15) has the latter reading but retains 
the addt* That of PB. (i. 8. 1 7) and K. (ix. 9) differs from ours only by having d *viqat 
instead of i viveqa, MS. (i. 9. 4) omits the phrase kimah samudrdm A viveqa^ and reads 
kimdya for the following kimena. And VS. (vii. 48 : with it agree QB. iv. 3.43* and 
ggS.iv.;. 15) has as follows: kd *ddi kdsmd addt: kimo *ddt kimdyd ^ddt: kimo 
ddti kimah pratigrahui kimdi *tdt te, |_See also MGS.i. 8. 9, and p. 1 49. J Of 
course, the comm. cannot refrain from the silliness of taking kds and kdsmdi as signify- 
ing ** Prajapati,'' and he is able to fortify himself by quoting TB. ii. 2. 55, as he also 
quotes 51 for the general value of the formula; and even 5^ for the identity of kima 
with the ocean, although our text, different from that of TB., does not imply any such 
relation between them. The Anukr. scans thus : 7+6 : 1 1 +9 : 9+4=46. * LCf. intro- 
duction to this hymn.J 

8. Let earth accept thee, this great atmosphere; let me not, having 
accepted, be parted with breath, nor with self, nor with progeny. 

Addressed to the thing accepted {Jte deya dravya, comm.). The Anukr. regards 
p2da c as ending with dtmdnd, and the pada-itxt divides at the same place. 

30. For concord. 

[Atkarvan, — saptarcam. cdndramasatn^ sdmmanasyam. dnustubham : j. virddjagati ; 

6. prastdrapahkti ; 7. tristubh.'\ 

Found in P^ipp. v. Reckoned in Kauq. (12. 5), with various other passages, to the 
sdmmanasydni, and used in a rite for concord ; and the comm. regards it as included 
under the ^tA\gDZ.\xon ganakarmdni in the updkarman (139. 7). 


Translated: Muir, OST. v.439 (vss. 1-4); Ludwig, p. 256, and again p. 516; 
Zimmer, p. 316 (vss. 1-4); Weber, xvii.306; Grill, 30, 116; Griffith, i. 125; Bloom- 
field, 1 34,. 361. — Cf. Hillebrandt, Veda<hrestomathie^ P- 45 » Muir, Metrical Trans- 
lations from Sanskrit Writers^ p. 139. 

1 . Like-heartedness, like-mindedness, non-hostility do I make for you ; 
do ye show affection (fiary) the one toward the other, as the inviolable 
[cow] toward her calf when born. 

Ppp. has s&mnasyam in a, and in c anyo *nyam^ as demanded by the meter. The 
comm. also reads the latter, and for the former sdmmanusyam ; and he ends the verse 
with aghnyds. 

2. Be the son submissive to the father, like-minded with the mother ; 
let the wife to the husband speak words {vdc) full of honey, wealful. 

The translation implies at the end (amtivdm |^BR. vii. 60J, which SPP. admits 
as emendation into his text, it being plainly called for by the sense, and read by the 
comm. (and by SPP's oral reciter K, who follows the comm.); this Lnot gdntivdmj is 
given also by Ppp. (cf. xii. i . 59, where the word occurs again). The comm. further 
has in b mdtd (two of SPP^s reciters agreeing with him). 

3. Let not brother hate brother, nor sister sister; becoming accor- 
dant (samydHc), of like courses, speak ye words auspiciously (b/iadrdyd). 

The comm. reads dvisydt in a. The majority of SPP's /a^^7-mss. give sdovratd 
(instead of -tdh) in c. The comm. further reads vadatu in d, explaining it to mean 

4. That incantation in virtue of which the gods do not go apart, nor 
hate one another mutually, we perform in your house, concord for [your] 
men {purusd), 

Weber suggests that " gods " here perhaps means ** Brahmans," but there is no 
authority nor occasion for such an understanding; the comm. also says " Indra etc." 

5. Having superiors {jydyasvant)^ intentful, be ye not divided, accom- 
plishing together, moving on with joint labor (sddhura) ; come hither 
speaking what is agreeable one to another ; I make you united {sadhri- 
etna), like-minded. 

Ppp. reads sudhirds in b, combines anyo *nyasmdi (as does the comm., and as the 
meter requires) in c, and inserts samagrdstha before sadhrlclndn in d; the comm. 
further has dita for eta in c (as have our P.E.). Jydyasvant was acutely conjectured 
by the Pet. Lex. to signify virtually " duly subordinate," and this is supported by the 
comm. : jyesthakanisthabhdvena parasparam anusarantah; Ludwig renders " iiber- 
legen." Sddhura, lit. * having the same wagon-pole,' would be well represented by our 
colloquial " pulling together." Cittinas in a is perhaps rather an adjunct of viydusta 
= *with, i.e. in your intents or plans.' The verse (11 +11 : 12 + 12=46) is ill defined 
by the Anukr., as even the redundant syllable in d gives no proper jagatf character to 
the pada. LReject valt or else read sadhricof thus we get an orderly tristubh.\ 

6. Your drinking {prapd) [be] the same, in common your share of 


food; in the same harness {ydktra) do I join \^yuj] you together; wor- 
ship ye Agni united, like spokes about a nave. 

The comm. explains prapn as " drinking saloon *' {panfya^dld). Two of our mss. 
(P.M.) read at the beginning samdritm, LTo reproduce (as W. usually does) the 
radical connection (here between ydktra and yuj)^ we may render * do I harness you.' 
The Anukr. seems to scan 12-f 1 1 : 9+8=40 ; the vs. is of course 1 1 + 1 1 : 8 + 8. J 

7. United, like-minded I make you, of one bunch, all of you, by [my] 
conciliation ; [be] like the gods defending immortality {antrta) ; late and 
early be well-willing yours. 

We had the first p§da above as vs. 5 d ; emendation to sadhricas would rectify the 
meter ; the Anukr. takes no note of the metrical irregularity ; it is only by bad scanning 
that he makes out any difference between vss. 5 and 7. The translation implies in b 
-^nustlHy which is read by SPP., with the majority of his mss., and supported by the 
commas ekaqnustim (explained by him as ekavidham vy&panam ekavidhasyd *nnasya 
bhuktim vd) ; part of our mss. also (Bp.E.H.Op.) read clearly -f/i-, while others are 
corrupt, and some have plainly -qr- : cf . the note to 17.2 above. Ppp. has at the end 
susamitir vo *stH, 

31. For welfare and long life. 

[Brahman, — ekddaqarcam, pdpmahddevatyam, dnustubham : 4. bhurij ; 

/. virdtprasidrapankti,"] 

Not found in P§ipp. Reckoned, with iv. 33 and vi. 26, to the pdpma {pdpmahdf) 
gana (K&uq. 30. 17, note), and used by Kau^. (58.3), with several others, in a cere- 
mony for long life following initiation as a Vedic scholar; and vs. 10 (vss. 10 and 11, 
comm.) also in the dgrahdyanl sacrifice (24. 31). In Vait. (13. 10), vs. 10 is uttered 
in the agnistoma sacrifice by the sacrificer (the comm. says, by the brahman-'^x\t%^ 
as he rises to mutter the apratiratha hymn. And the comm. (without quoting any 
authority) declares the hymn to be repeated by the brahman-^Tit^X near water in the 
pUrmedha rite, after the cremation. 

Translated: Weber, xvii. 310; Griffith, i. 127 ; Bloomfield, 51, 364. 

1. The gods have turned away from old age; thou, O Agni, away 
from the niggard ; I away from all evil [have turned], away from ydkstna^ 
to union (sdm) with life-time. 

The acrtan of our text is an error for avrtan^ which all the mss. (and, of course, SPP.) 
read ; vi-vrt is common in the sense < part from.' The comm. gives instead avrtam, 
which he takes as 2d dual, rendering it by viyojayatam^ and understanding devi 
(p. devih) as devdUy vocative, namely the two Aqvins ! and he supplies a yojaydmi 
also in the second half-verse, with an imam Lreferring to the Vedic scholarj for it to 

2. The cleansing one [has turned] away from mishap (drti), the 
mighty one {fakrd) away from evil-doing; I away from etc. etc. 

Pdvamdna in a might signify either soma or the wind ; the comm. understands here 
the latter. 

3. The animals {paqii) of the village [have turned] away from those 


of the forest ; the waters have gone (sr) away from thirst ; I away from 
etc. etc. 

All the mss. leave spas in b unaccented, as if vocative ; our text makes the* neces- 
sary correction to i^as, and so does SPP. in his pada-iext, while in samhiid he 
strangely (perhaps by an oversight?) retains upas. The comm. paraphrases vi , . , 
asaran with vigatd bhavanti^ not venturing to turn it into a causative as he did vy 
avrtan. The Anukr. takes no notice of the redundant syllable in a. 

4. Apart [from one another] go heaven-and-earth here (/w/), away the 
roads, to one and another quarter ; I away from etc. etc. 

Itds in a is here understood as 3d dual of /, with Weber and with the comm. (= vigac- 
chatas)^ since the meaning is thus decidedly more acceptable ; its accent is easily enough 
explained as that of the verb in the former of two successive clauses involving it 
(though avrtan was not accented in vs. i a). The redundancy in a is easily corrected 
by contracting to -prthvl ; the Anukr., however, does not sanction this. 

5. Tvashtar harnesses {yuj) for his daughter a wedding-car {vahatu) ; 

at the news, all this creation (bhuvana) goes away; I away from 

etc. etc. 

LDiscussed at length by Bloomfield, JAOS. xv. 181 ff.J An odd alteration of RV. 
X. 17. 1 a, b (our xviii. i. 53, which see), which reads krnoii ior yunaktiy and sdm eti for 
viydti; and it is very oddly thrust in here, where it seems wholly out of place ; vi ydti 
must be rendered as above (differently from its RV. value), to make any connection with 
the refrain and with the preceding verses. Weber's suggestion that it is Tvashtar's intent 
to marry his own daughter that makes such a stir is refuted by the circumstance that the 
verb used is active. According to the comm., vahatu is the wedding outfit {duhitrd 
saha prityd prasthdpanlyam vastrdlamkdrddt dravyam), zxid yunakti is simply /r^- 
sthdpayati. The pada-ms&.y in accordance with the later use of ///, reckon it here to 
pada a. 

6. Agni puts together the breaths ; the moon is put together with 
breath : I away from etc. etc. 

In this verse and those that follow, the refrain has hardly an imaginable relation with 
what precedes it ; though here one may conjecture that analogies are sought for its last 
item, sdm ayusd. According to the comm., Agni in a is the fire of digestion, and the 
breaths are the senses, which he fits for their work by supplying them nourishment ; and 
the moon is soma [^considered as food ; for which he quotes a passage quite like to 
QB.xi. i.6»9j. 

7. By breath did the gods set in motion {sam-tray) the sun, of uni- 
versal heroism : I away from etc. etc. 

The comm. treats viqvatas and vlryam in a as independent words, and renders 
samdirayan in b by sarvatra prdvartayan, 

8. By the breath of the long-lived, of the life-makers (dyuskrt), do 
thou live ; do not die : I away from etc. etc. 

In this and the following verse, the comm. regards the young Vedic scholar {mdna- 
vaka) as addressed. 


9. With the breath of the breathing do thou breathe; be just here; 
do not die : I away from etc. etc. 

Our Bp., with two of SPP's pada-mss. |_8.m. I J, accents dna at end of a. The comm. 
allows the first part of b to be addressed altemadvely to breath. 

10. Up with life-time; together with life-time; up with the sap of the 
herbs : I away from etc. etc. 

The first half-verse, with the first half of our vs. 11, makes a verse occurring in sev- 
eral texts: TS. (i. 2. 8*), TA. (iv. 42, vs. 31 : agrees precisely with TS.), VS. (KSnv. 
ii. VII. 5), A^S. (1.3. 23), PGS. (iiL2. 14). All these read svdy^sd instead of sdm 
iyusd in a; and VS. and PGS. lack the second p^da. The comm. points out that 
asthdma is to be understood from vs. 11. 

11. Hither with Parjanya's rain have we stood up immortal: I away 
from etc. etc. 

The other texts (see under the preceding verse) all begin with ut instead of i ; for 
vrstyiy TS.TA. have ^iismena, VS.AQS. dhimabhis^ PGS. drstyd; for b, PGS. gives 
prthivydh saptadhdmabhih^ all the others iid asthdm amftdn dnu. |_Here the comm., 
in citing the refrain, reads vydham^ which, as implying vy-d-vrt, is equally good.J 

As in several cases above, it is obvious that this hymn has been expanded to a length 
considerably greater than properly belongs to it by breaking up its verses into two each, 
pieced out with a refrain. It would be easy to reduce the whole material to six verses, 
the norm of this book, by adding the refrain in vs. i only (or possibly also in vs. 4, with 
ejection of the senseless and apparently intruded vs. 5), and then combining the lines 
by pairs — as the parallel texts prove that vss. i o and 1 1 are rightly to be combined. 
I^The critical status of ii. 10 is analogous ; see the note to ii. 10. 2. J 

The sixth and last anuvdka has 6 hymns, with 44 verses ; and the old Anukr. reads: 
caturdaqd *ntyah (but further -ntydnuvdkasaq L-f <if ? J ca samkhyd vidadhydd adhikdni- 
mittdty which is obscure). L^S^ ^^^ P- ^*^ ^OP-J 

Here ends also the sixih prapdthaka. 

Not one of our mss. adds a summary of hymns and verses for the whole book. 

Book IV. 

[The fourth book is made up of forty hymns, divided into 
eight anuvS^a-groups of five hymns each. The normal length 
of each hymn, as assumed by the Anukramani, is 7 verses ; but 
this is in only partial accord with the actual facts. There are 
twenty-one hymns of 7 verses each, as against nineteen of more 
than 7 verses each. Of these nineteen, ten are of 8 verses each ; 
three are of 9 and three are of 10 ; two are of 12 ; and one is of 
16 verses. The seven hymns which make the Mrgara group 
(hymns 23-29) have 7 verses each. And they are followed by a 
group of four Rigveda hymns (30-33). The last two hymns of 
the book (39-40) have a decided Brahmana-tinge. The entire 
book has been translated by Weber, Indische Studien, vol. xviii. 
(1898), pages 1-1530 

LWeber's statement, that there are twenty-two hymns of 7 verses each and two of 9, 
rests on the misprinted number (7, for 9) at the end of hymn 20 J 

|_The Anukr. states (at the beginning of its treatment of book ii.) that the normal 
number of verses is 4 for a hymn of book i., and increases by one for each successive 
book of the first five books. That gives us, for 

Book i. iL iiL iv. v., as normal number of 

Verses: 45 678, respectively. 

In accord therewith is the statement of the Anukr. (prefixed to its treatment of book iv.) 
that the seven-versed hymn is the norm for this book : brahma jajh&nam iti k&ndam^ 
saptarcam suktam prakrtir^ anyd vikrtir ity avagachet,\ 

I. Mystic. 

\yena, — bdrhaspatyamutd^dityaddivatam, trdistubham: 2tj.bhurij.'\ 

Found in Paipp. v. (in the verse-order 2, i, 3, 4 cd 5 ab, 6, 4 ab 5 cd, 7). Reckoned by 
Kauq. (9* I) as one of the hymns of the brhachdnti gana^ and used in various cere- 
monies: with i. 4-6 and other hymns, for the health and welfare of kine (19. i) ; for 
success in study and victory over opponents in disputation (38. 23 f.) ; at the consum- 
mation of marriage (79. 11 ; the comm. says, only vs. i) ; and vs. i on entering upon 
Vedic study (139. 10). These are all the applications in Kau^. that our comm. recog- 
nizes ; in other cases where the pratlka of vs. i is quoted, the vs. v. 6. i , which is a 
repetition of it, is apparently intended : see under hymn v. 6. The editor of Kau^. 
regards the rest of the anuvdka, from vs. 2 to the end of h. 5, to be prescribed for 
recitation in 139. 11 ; but this seems in itself highly improbable, and the comm. does 
not sanction it. In Vait. (14. i), vss. i and 2 are added to i\it gharma-hymn given for 



atitpravargya rite of the agiUstoma; and vs. i appears again in the agnicayana (28. 33) 
accompanying the deposition of a plate of gold. And the comm. further quotes 
the hymn as employed by the Naks. K. (18) in the brdhml mahdqdnti^ and by 
Paric;. 1 1 . 1 in the tuldpurusa ceremony. There is nothing at all characteristic or 
explanatory in any of these uses. The hymn is quite out of the usual Atharvan style, 
and is, as it was doubtless intended to be, very enigmatical ; the comm. does not really 
understand it or illuminate its obsciuities, but is obliged at numerous points to give 
alternative guesses at its meaning ; and the translation offered makes no pretense of 
putting sense and connection into its dark sayings. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 393; Deussen, Geschichte, i. 1.255; Griffith, i. 129; 
Weber, xviii. 2. 

1. The brdhman that was first born of old {purdstdt ; in the east?) 
Vena hath unclosed from the well-shining edge {simatds ; horizon?); he 
unclosed the fundamental nearest shapes (vis(Ad) of it, the womb {y6ni) 
of the existent and of the non-existent. 

The verse occurs in a large number of other texts: SV. (i. 321), VS. (xiii. 3), TS. 
(iv.2.8»), TB. (ii.8.8»), TA. (x. i, vs. 42), MS. (ii.?. 15), K. (xvi. 1 5 et al.), Kap. 
(25. 5etal.), ggs. (v. 9. 5), AQS. (iv.6. 3); and its pratika in AB. (i. 19), GB. 
(ii. 2. 6) — and, what is very remarkable, everywhere without a variant ; it is also repeated 
below as V. 6. 1. Vena is, even in the exposition of the verse given by QB. (vii. 4. 1. 14), 
explained as the sun, and so the comm. regards it, but very implausibly; the moon 
would better suit the occurrences of the word. The comm. gives both renderings to 
purdstdt in a, and three different explanations of the p§da. In b, the translation takes 
surucas as qualif3ring the virtual ablative simatds |_ which Weber takes as slm dtas / see 
also Whitney*s note to Prat. iii. 43 J ; the comm. views it as accus. pi., and so does QB. ; 
the latter makes it mean " these worlds," the former either that or " its own shining 
brightnesses." P^da c is the most obscure of all ; ^B. simply declares it to designate 
the quarters (dtfas) ; the comm. gives alternative interpretations, of no value ; upamis 
(p. upaomih, as if from root md with upa) he paraphrases with upamtyamdndh pari- 

2. Let this queen of the Fathers {}p{trya) go in the beginning {dgre) 
for the first birth (Janus ; race ?), standing in the creation ; for it (him ?) 
have I sent {hi) this well-shining sinuous one {}hvdrd)\ let them mix 
{fri; boil ?) the hot drink for the first thirsty one (i dhdsyii). 

The connection of the p§das is here yet more obscure than their separate interpreta- 
tion ; the third pslda may perhaps signify the lightning. The verse, with variants, is 
found in QQS. (v. 9.6) and AQS. (iv.6. 3), and its pratika in AB. (i. 19) and GB. 
(ii. 2.6); the first three read in a pitre for pitryd and eti for etu^ and AB. inserts vdi 
after iyam; and Ppp. also has pitre. In b the two Sutra-texts give bhUmanesthdhy 
which is perhaps intended by the bhUminastdu of Ppp. ; in d, the same two have 
^rlnanti prathamasya dhdseh^ and Ppp. -ntu prathamas svadhdsyuh. The comm. 
\2\it!& pitryd to mean " come fronf PrajSpati "; "the queen " is the divinity of speech — 
or else " this earth," pitryd relating to its father Kaqyapa ; dhdsyu is the god desiring 
food in the form of oblation, and surucam hvdram is susthu rocamdnam kutilam 
vartamdnam^ qualifying^^^irw^wy ahyam is an adjective, €\^tx gantavyam^ from the 
root ah * go,' or " daily," from ahan * day ' 1 and frf is either " mix " or " boil." 


3. He who was born forth the knowing relative of it speaks all the 
births {jdniman) of the gods ; he bore up the brdhman from the midst 
of the brdhman; downward, upward, he set forth unto the svadhds. 

This is found elsewhere only in TS. (ii. 3. 14^), which, in a, b, has the less unman- 
ageable asyd bdndhum vifvdni devd jdn- ; and, in d, nlcid ucca svadhdyd *bhL Ppp- 
seems to aim at nearly the same readings with its bandhum vi^vdm deva jan-^ and 
nlcdd uccd svadhayd *ti. Most of the mss. (including our P.M. W.E.I. K.Kp.) read 
yajhi for jajhi in a ; our O. omits the h of uccdih, and Op. omits that of svadhah. 
The comm. gives alternative explanations of various of the parts of the verse, trying 
prd jajhi both from jan and from jhd (the translation takes it from jan^ as no middle 
form from pra-jhd occurs elsewhere in the text) ; and svadhas as either object or subject 
of pra tasthdu (in the latter case tasth&u being for tasthire by the usual equivalence of 
all verbal forms), and at any rate signifying some kind of sacrificial food. 

4. For he of the heaven, he of the earth the right-stander, fixed 
(skabh) [as his] abode (kshnd) the (two) great firmaments (rSdasi) ; the 
great one, when born, fixed apart the (two) great ones, the heaven [as] 
seat (sddmati) and the earthly space {rdjas). 

Ppp., after our vs. 3, makes a verse out of our 4 c, d and 5 a, b ; and then, after our 
vs. 6, another verse out of our 4 a, b and 5 C, d ; and TS. (ii. 3. 14^) and AQS. (iv. 6. 3) 
combine our 4 c, d and 5 a, b in the same way (omitting the rest), while AB. (i. 19.3) 
virtually supports them, by giving our c as a pratika. All the three read in c astabhdyat 
(TS. without accent), and AQS. intrudes pitd after dydm in d. In our text we ought 
to have not only (with TS.) askabhdyat in c, but also dsk- in b ; the accents seem to 
have been exchanged by a blunder. The comm. makes the sun the " he " of a ; he 
renders ksimam in b by avindqo yathd bhavati; and vi in c apparently by vydpya 
vartamdnah. The Anukr. passes unnoticed the deficiency of a syllable (unless we 
resolve pa-drt/t-) in d. [^In a supplementary note, R. reports Ppp. as reading in a, b sa 
hi vrtha- (?) rcesthd mayi ksdmam bhrajasl viskabhdyati^ and as giving ji'laA for 
sddma in d.J 

5. He from the fundamental birth (Janus) hath attained {ag) unto 
(abhi) the summit ; Brihaspati, the universal ruler, [is] the divinity of 
him ; since the bright {gukrd) day was bom of light, then let the shining 
(dyumdnt) seers (vlpra) fade out (.^ vi-vas) [shine out .^J. 

[Whitney's prior draft reads " dwell apart." This he has changed (by a slip .»* cf. 
ii. 8. 2) to "fade out," from vas * shine.' In this case vi vasantu would be irregular, 
for vi uchantu; see Weber's note, p. 7. J The other two texts (see preceding note) 
read our a thus : sd budhnid dsta janiisd *bhy dgram, and TS. has ydsya instead of 
tdsya in the next pada ; no variants are reported from Ppp. Some of the A V. mss. also 
(including our P. M.W.I. K.Kp.) give budhnad; but all have after it the impossible form 
dstra, which SPP. accordingly retains in his text, though the comm. too gives dsta; 
this is read by emendation in our text Vasantu, of course, might come from vas 
* dwell' or vas * clothe' [for vas-atdm f I \\ the comm. apparently takes it from the 
former, paraphrasing the pada by dlptimanta rtvijah svasvavydpdresu vividham 
vartantdm, or, alternatively, havirbhir devdn paricarantu. There is no reason for 
calling the verse bhurij, [AQS. reads ugnam (misprint ?) for agrdm.\ 


6. Verily doth the kdvyd further {hi) that of him — the abode ( ? dhd- 
man) of the great god of old {purvyd) ; he was born together with many 
thus, sleeping now in the loosened {vi-si) eastern half. 

No other text has this verse — save Ppp., which has for ^ pUrv&dardd aviduraq ca 
sakruh. The comm. reads in b purvasya, and two or three mss. (including our P.) 
agree with him. Some mss. (including our O.Op.) have at the end sasdm n^; and the 
comm. also so reads, explaining sasa as an annandman ; the true reading is possibly 
sasdnn u (but the pada-XtuX divides sasdn : nu). The comm. explains k&vya zxyaj^a 
(from kavi = rtvij\ dh&man as tejornpam mandalUtmakam sthdnam, esa in c as the 
sun, and the ** many *' his thousand rays, and visita as viqesena sambaddha. The last 
p§da lacks a syllable, unless we resolve /iij-ri/-^. 

7. Whoso shall approach (? ava-gam) with homage father Atharvan, 
relative of the gods, Brihaspati — in order that thou mayest be generator 
of all, poet, god, not to be harmed, self -ruling (? svadlidvant). 

The translation implies in d emendation of ddbhAyat to ddbhAya; both editions have 
the former, with all the mss. and the comm. (who comfortably explains it by dabhnoti or 
kinasti). The comm. also reads in b brhaspatis; and this is supported by the Ppp. 
version : yathd vd ^tharvd pitaram viqvadevafk brhaspatir manasd vo datsva : and 
so on (c d defaced). The comm. takes ava gachdt as —jdnlydt^ and svadhdvdn as 
* joined with food in the form of oblation.'' 

2. To the unknown god. 

[ Vena, — astarcam, dtmaddivatam. trdistubham : d.puro *nustubk ; 8, uparistdjfyoHs,'] 

Found in Piipp. iv. (in the verse-order 1,2,4,3,5,6,8,7). The hymn is mostly a 
version, with considerable variants, of the noted RV. x. 121, found also in other texts, as 
TS. (iv. 1.8), MS. (ii. 13.23), and VS. (in sundry places), and K. xl. i. It is used by 
Kauq. in the vafdfamana ceremony (44. i ff.), at the beginning, with the preparation 
of consecrated water for it, and (45. i) with the sacrifice of the foetus of the z/afJ-cow, 
if she be found to be pregnant. In Vait (8. 22), vs. i (or the hymn?) accompanies an 
offering to Prajipati in the cdturmdsya sacrifice ; vs. 7 (28. 34), the setting of a gold 
man on the plate of gold deposited with accompaniment of vs. i of the preceding hymn 
(in the agnicayand) ; and the whole hymn goes with the avaddna offerings in the same 
ceremony (28. 5). 

Translated : as a RV. hymn, by Max Muller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature (1859), 
p. 569 (cf. p. 433); Muir, OST. iv.^i6; Ludwig, no. 948; Grassmann, ii. 398 ; Max 
Muller, Hibbert Lectures (1882), p. 301 ; Henry W. Wallis, Cosmology of the RV,^ 
p. 50 ; Peter Peterson, Hymns from the RV.^ no. 32, p. 291, notes, p. 244 ; Max Miiller, 
Vedic Hymns ^ SBE. xxxii. i, with elaborate notes; Deussen, Geschichte^ i. i. 132 ; as 
an AV. h3rmn, by Griffith, i. 131 ; Weber, xviii.8. — See Deussen^s elaborate discussion. 
I.e., p. 1 28 ff. ; von Schroeder, DerRigveda bet den Kathas^ WZKM. xii. 285 ; Oldenberg, 
Die Hymnen des J?F., i. 314 f. ; Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, p. 391-3 ; and Bloomfield, 
JAOS. XV. 184. 

I . He who is soul-giving, strength-giving ; of whom all, of whom [even] 
the gods, wait upon the instruction ; who is lord (ff ) of these bipeds, who 
of quadrupeds — to what god may we pay worship {vidk) with oblation? 


In the parallel texts, our vs. 7 stands at the beginning of the hymn. They also com- 
bine differently the material of our vss. i and 2, making one verse of our i a, b and 
2 c d, and another of our 2 a, b and i C, d; and in this Ppp. agrees with them. RV. 
and VS. (xxiii. 3) read in c t^e asyd. The comm. renders dtmadds " who gives their 
soul (or self) to all animals " ; of course, with the native authorities everywhere, he 
explains kdsmdi in d as ** to Prajapati." The Anukr. ignores the y^^^/f-character of c. 
LRV.TS.MS.VS. omit the second ^ix of our c. MS. has ^e yd asyd; TS. has yd iqe 
asya at iv. 1.8, but asyd at vii. 5. 16. Psldas a-c recur at xiii. 3. 24. — In view of the 
history of this hynm in Hindu ritual and speculation (cf. SBE. xxxii. 12 ; AB. iii. 21), 
it might be better to phrase the refrain thus : * Who is the god that we are to worship 
with oblation.** 'J 

2. He who by his greatness became sole king of the breathing, wink- 
ing animal creation {jdgat) ; of whom immortality {antftam), of whom 
death [is] the shadow — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

RV.VS. (xxiii. 3) TS. rectify the meter of b by adding id after ^kas; VS. has the 
bad reading nimesatds, MS. gives a different version : nimisatdq ca rajd pdtir viq- 
vasya jdgato b- ; and Ppp. agrees with it, except as substituting vidhartd for ca rdjd, 
** His shadow " (in c), the comm. says, as being dependent upon him, or under his 
control. The Anukr. passes without notice the deficiency in b. 

3. He whom the (two) spheres (krdndasl) favor when fixed ; whom 
the terrified firmaments {rddast) called upon ; whose is yon road, traverser 
of the welkin (rdjas) — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

The translation implies in b dhvayetdm^ as read by the comm., and by one of SPP's 
mss. that follows him ; all the other mss., and both editions, have -eihdm. The first half> 
verse is a damaged reflex of RV. 6 a, b, with which VS. (xxxii. 7 a, b) and TS. agree : 
ydm krdndasl dvasd tastabhdni abhydiksetdm mdnasd rijamdne ; MS. and Ppp. have 
yet another version: yd imi dyavdprthivl tastabhdni (Ppp. -«5) ddhdrayad (Ppp. 
dhdred) rddasl (Ppp. avasd) rijamdne. For c, Ppp. gives yasminn adhi vitata ett 
sUrah^ and MS. the same (save sura iti) ; our c agrees most nearly with RV. 5 c (TS. 
and VS. xxxii. 6 the same) : yd antdrikse rdjaso vimanah. The comm. apparently 
takes dvatas as ava-tds = avandt *' by his assistance fixed " ; he offers no conjecture as ta 
what *<road" may be meant in c, but calls it simply dyulokasthah, 

4. [By the greatness] of whom the wide heaven and the great earth, 
[by the greatness] of whom yon wide atmosphere, by the greatness of 
whom yon sun [is] extended — to what god may we pay worship with 
oblation } 

The translation follows the construction as understood by the comm. ; it might be 
also " whose [is] the wide heaven etc. etc., extended by his greatness." " Extended " 
applies better to earth etc. (a and b) than to sun ; comm. says vistlrnd jdtd etc. The 
verse resembles only distantly RV. 5, with which, on the other hand, Ppp. nearly agrees, 
reading yena dydur ugrd prthivl ca drqa (RV.VS. MS. drdha, TS. drdhi) yena sva 
stabhitam yena ndkath (the rest -kah) : yo antariksam vimame varlyah (so MS. ; the 
others as reported above, under vs. 3). Our third pada most resembles RV. 6 c : ydtra 
*dhi sura Hdito vibhati (so also VS. xxxii. 7 ; TS. itditdu vyiti), [Qi, MGS. i. 1 1. 14 
and p. 1 54, yena dydur ugrd,\ The Anukr. ignores the marked irregularity of b. 


5. Whose [are] all the snowy mountains by [his] greatness; whose, 
verily, they call Rasa in the ocean ; and of whom these directions are 
the (two) arms — to what god may we pay worship with oblation ? 

The comm. extends his construction of vs. 4 through a, b here, and is perhaps right 
in so doing ; the translation assimilates them to c. The verse corresponds to RV. 4 
(with which VS. xxv. 12 precisely agrees) ; in a, RV.VS.TS. have im^ for vl^ve, and 
MS. imd vi^ve girdyo m-; for b, all of them Tt2i6,ydsya samudrdm rasdyd sahi **hus 
(save that MS. ^Mtsydsya after samudrdm; and Ppp. has the same b as MS.) ; in c, 
RV.VS.TS. begin ydsye *mih pr-^ while MS., with Ppp., reads di^o ydsya pradi^ah 
(Ppp. -^as) pdfUa divth. The '* ocean '* is of course the atmospheric one ; and RasS., 
the heavenly river, can hardly help having been originally the Milky Way ; but the 
comm. takes it here as simply a river, representative of rivers in general. Padas b and 
c are irregular, being defective unless we make harsh and difficult resolutions. 

6. The waters in the beginning favored {av) the all, assuming an 
embryo, they the immortal, order-knowing ones, over whom, divine ones, 
the god was — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

Here a, b correspond to RV. 7 a, b, and c to RV. 8 c, all with important variants, 
which are in part unintelligent corruptions : RV. reads ipo ha ydd brhatir viqvam 
iyang' d-jandyantlr agnimj zxi6.yd tUvisv ddhi devd ika isU; VS. (xxvii. 25 a, b, 26 c) 
agrees throughout; TS. has mahatir in a, and ddksam (for gdrbham) in b; MS. also 
has mahatir, and it lacks c. Ppp. has a text all its own : dpo ha yasya viqvam dyur 
dadhdnd garbham janayanta mdtard: tatra devdndm adhi deva dstha ekasthUne 
vimate drdhe ugre. And TA. (i. 23. 8), with an entirely different second half, nearly 
agrees in a, b with RV., but has gdrbham for vi^vam* and svayambhum for agnim. 
All the mss. (except, doubUess by accident, our I.) give in c dsU, which SPP. accord- 
ingly adopts in his text ; ours makes the necessary emendation to islt. The comm. 
reads in c devesu, as a Vedic irregularity for 'VUu\ he renders dvan in a by araksan 
or upacitam akurvan; perhaps we should emend to i vran * covered.' * LFurther, 
TA. has ddksam for gdrbham of R V. J 

7. The golden embryo was evolved (sam-vrt) in the beginning; it 
was, when born, the sole lord of existence (bhutd) ; it maintained earth 
and heaven — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 

As noted above, this is the first verse in the other continuous versions of the hymn 
(it is VS. xiii. 4). The others agree in reading at the end of c prthivim dyim ute 
*mim; and, in addition, PB. (ix. 9. 12) gives bhUtindm in b; some of the texts contain 
the verse more than once. But Ppp. is more original, reading hiranya ulvd ^^sldyo 
*gre vatso ajdyata: tvam yo dyorvrbhra (?) vamtyospa vy apaqyad Udur mahlh. 
The comm. understands hiranyagarbha as "the embryo of the golden ^%%»'*^ LMGS., 
i. 10. 10, cites the hymn as one of 8 vss. and as beginning with hiranyagarbha ; see 
p. 158, s. v. — Kirste, WZKM. ix. 164, reviewing Deussen, suggests that the golden 
embryo is the yolk of the mundane egg.J The Anukr. makes no account of the 
deficiency of a syllable in c. 

8. The waters, generating a young (vatsd), set in motion (sam-tray) 
in the beginning an embryo ; and of that, when born, the foetal envelop 
(ulba) was of gold — to what god may we pay worship with oblation.^ 


Ppp. makes vatsam and garbham change places, and reads Irayan; it also omits 
the refrain, as it has done in vss. 6 and 7. GB. (i. i. 39) appears to quote the pratika 
with garbham^ or in its Ppp. form Las conjectured by Bloomfield, JAOS. xix.» 1 1 J. The 
comm. paraphrases garbham sam dirayan by l^varena visrstam vlryam garbhaqayam 
prdpayan. The verse (8+8:8+8 + 11 =43) is ill defined by the Anukr. 

3. Against wild beasts and thieves. 

\Atharvan, — rdudram uta vydghradevatyam. dnustubham : i. pathydpankti ; j. gdyatrt; 

7. kakummatigarbho *paristddbrkati^ 

Found in Paipp. ii. (except vs. 5, and in the verse-order 1-3, 7, 6, 4). Used by Kau9. 
(5 1 . 1 ) in a rite for the prosperity of kine and their safety from tigers, robbers, and the 
like ; also reckoned (50. 13, note) to the r&udra gana. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 499 ; Grill, 33, 118; Griffith, i. 133 ; Bloomfield, 147, 366 ; 
Weber, xviii. 13. 

1. Up from here have stridden three — tiger, man {purusa)^ wolf; 
since hey ! go the rivers, hey ! the divine forest-tree, hey ! let the foes 

Ppp. reads for a ud ity akr amahs trayo; in c-d it gives hrk each time for hiruk^ 
and for c has hrg deva sUryas, The comm. understands hiruk to mean ** in secret, out 
of sight," and hirun namantu as antarhitdh santah prahvd bhavantu or antaritdn 
kurvantu. The forest-tree is doubtless some implement of wood used in the rite, 
perhaps thrown in to float away with the river-current ; it can hardly be the ** stake of 
khadira " which Kau9. (5 1 . i ) mentions, which is to be taken up and buried as one 
follows the kine. 

2. By a distant {pdra) road let the wolf go, by a most distant also 
the thief ; by a distant one the toothed rope, by a distant one let the 
malignant hasten (rs). 

The latter half-verse is found again as xix. 47. 8 a, b. Ppp's version is paramena 
paths vrkah parena steno rarsatu : tato vydghras paramd. The comm. naturally 
explains the ** toothed rope " as a serpent ; arsatu he simply glosses with gacchatu. 

3. Both thy (two) eyes and thy mouth, O tiger, we grind up; then 

all thy twenty claws (tiakhd). 

The majority of mss. (including our Bp.I.O.Op.K.D.) read at the beginning aksdil^ 
as do also Ppp. and the comm., but only (as the accent alone suffices to show) by the 
ordinary omission of y after f or / ; both editions give aksydil. All the mss. leave 
vydghra unaccented at the beginning of b, and SPP. retains this inadmissible reading; 
our text emends to vyaghra, but should have given instead vyaghra (that is, vl-dghra : 
see Whitney's Skt, Gr, § 314 b). Ppp. reads hana instead of mukham in a. L Anukr., 
London ms., has aksydu,\ 

4. The tiger first of [creatures] with teeth do we grind up, upon that 

also the thief, then the snake, the sorcerer, then the wolf. 

The conversion of stendm to ste- after u is an isolated case. The verse in Ppp. is 
defaced, but apparently has no variants. 

5. What thief shall come today, he shall go away smashed ; let him 


go by the falling-off (apadhvahsd) of roads ; let Indra smite him with 
the thunderbolt. 

The first half-verse is identical with xix.49.9a, 10 d. The comm. separates apa 
from dhvansena^ and construes it with etu ; dhvansa he renders " bad road " {kastena 

6. Ruined (tnUrnd) [are] the teeth of the beast {mrgd) ; crushed in 
also [are its] ribs ; disappearing be for thee the godhd; downward go 
(ayat) the lurking (? qaqayi) beast. 

The comm. takes mUrnds from mUrck^ and renders it mUdhAs; in b he reads api 
qfrsndSf the latter being horns and the like, that grow «on the head." The second 
half-verse is extremely obscure and doubtful : Ludwig translates ** into the depth shall 
the crocodile, the game go springing deep down " ; Grill, " with lame sinew go to ruin 
the hare-hunting animal." Ni-mruc is used elsewhere only of the * setting ' of the sun 
etc. ; the comm. renders it here " disappearing from sight " ; and he takes qaqayu from 
f f ' lie * ; godhd is, without further explanation, ** the animal of that name.*' The trans- 
lation given follows the comm. ; it does not seem that a *' hare-hunting " animal would 
be worth guarding against. R. conjectures a figure of a bird of prey, struck in flight : 
'< the sinew be thy destruction ; down fall the hare-hunting bird." P&da a lacks a 
syllable. |_W. takes mUrnd from mr < crush ' ; cf. xii. 5. 61 and Index, — In a and b, 
supply " be " rather than " are "?J 

7. What thou contractest (sam-yam) mayest thou not protract (vi-yam) ; 
mayest thou protract what thou dost not contract ; Indra-born, soma-born 
art thou, an Atharvan tiger-crusher {-jdntbhand). 

The sense of a, b is obscure ; the comm. takes viyamas and samyamas as two nouns. 
Ppp. makes one verse of our 7 a, b and 6 a, b (omitting the other half-verses), and puts 
it next after our vs. 3 ; its version of 7 a, b is yat sath naso vi yan naso na safk nasa. 
The verse is scanned by the Anukr. as 8-h8:6-hi2=34 syllables. |_Read indraji 
asif — For a, b, see Griffith. J 

4. For recovery of virility: with a plant. 

[Atharvan, — astarcam. vdnaspatyam. dnustubham: 4. purausnih ; 6,7. bhurij.l 

Found in P&ipp. iv. (except vs. 7, and in the verse^rder 1-3, 5, 8, 4, 6). Used by 
Kau9. (40. 14) in a rite for sexual vigor. 

Translated : Griffith, i. 134 and 473 ; Bloomfield, 31, 369 ; Weber, xviii. 16. 

I. Thee that the Gandharva dug for Varuna whose virility {} -bhrdj) 
was dead, thee here do we dig, a penis-erecting herb. 

The meaning of bhrdj [ci. vii. 90. 2 J has to be inferred from the connection ; the 
comm. paraphrases by nasidvirya. The plant intended he declares to be ** that called 
kapitthaka " {Ferania eUphantum), The pada-r^zAmg of the last word is qepahohdr- 
sanlm^ and Prat. ii. 56 prescribes the loss of the visarga of qepah in samhitd ; the com- 
ment to Prat. iv. 75 gives the reading thus : qepoharsanlm iti qepahoharsanlm j and one 
of our pada-m^^. presents it in the same form, adding kramakdle * this is the krama- 
reading*; and the comm. has qepoha- ; but Ppp., qepaharsinl. As qipa is as genuine 
and old a form as qdpas^ there seems to be no good reason for the peculiar treatment of 
the compound. 


2. Up, the dawn ; up, too, the sun ; up, these words {vdcas) of mine ; 
up be Prajapati stirring, the bull, with vigorous {vdjin) energy (gusma), 

Ppp. has a different b, uc ckusmd osadhlndm (compare our vs. 4 a) ; and it has at 
the end of d vdjin&m; it also inserts between our i and 2 this verse : vrnas te khana- 
tdro vrsd tv& i>acy osadhe vrsd *si vrsnydvatf vrsane tvd khandmasij and this is a 
verse given in full by KSmq. (40. 14) after the pratika of vs. i of our hymn (with the 
corrections vrsanas and khani- in a and vrsd tvam asy in b, and the vocative -vati in c). 
The editor of Kau9. fails to understand and divide rightly the material, and so does not 
recognize the quotation of this hymn. The first two padas of the added verse are as 
it were the reverse of our iv. 6. 8 a, b, which see. 

3. As forsooth of thee growing up Q. vi-ruh) it breathes as if heated 
{} abhi-tap) — more full of energy than that let this herb make for thee. 

Altogether obscure, and probably corrupt. No variant is reported from Ppp., which, 
however, inserts Urdhvasrdnitn idam krdhi at the beginning, before yathd. The comm. 
is unusually curt, attempting no real explanation of the verse : he reads virohitas instead 
of 'hat'^ and paraphrases by putrapdutrddirupena virohanasya nimittam pumvya- 
Hjanam; abhitaptam he glosses by phanyanganty and anati by cestate; he makes 
tatas mean *< so," as correlative to yathd^ supplies pumvyahjana as object of krnotu, 
and regards the viryakdma person as addressed throughout |_BIoomfield discusses 
gusmaf ZDMG. xlviii. 573, and cites it from TB. i. 6. 24 as referring to Prajapati's sexual 
force. — For virdhaiasy see BR. vi. 418, and Bloomfield^s note. — With dnati, cf. qvasihiy 
vi. loi. I.J 

4. Up, the energies (fusma) of herbs, the essences (sdra) of bulls ; 
the virility (vfsnya) of men {punts) do thou put together in him, O Indra, 
self -controller. 

The corruption of a, b is evidenced by both meter and sense ; probably we should 
read ^c ckusmd (i.e. -mds ; Ppp. has this reading in 2 b) dsadhlndm ut sard rsabhandm 
(read -na-dm) ; both editions follow the mss. (p. qusmd and sird). The Prat, takes no 
notice of the passage. The comm. has at beginning of c the unmanageable reading 
safnpusdm (deriving it from root pus ^^pustdu *'), and at the end taniivaqam j and in 
each case he is supported by one or more of SPP's mss. He takes gusmd and sard as 
adjectives fem., qualifying iydm dsadhis of 3 d. In our text, the accent-mark under the 
'sa- in b has slipped out of place to the left. The Anukr. scans 12 : 8+8=28 syllables. 

5. Of the waters the first-born sap, likewise of the forest-trees; also 
Soma's brother art thou ; also virility art thou of the stag. 

Ppp. has in a rasdu ^sadhlndm^ and in d drusyam for drqdm : which should have 
been emended in both editions to the evidently true reading drqydm; it is another case 
(as in 7 c) of the loss oiy after f. The comm. evidently reads drsam (the word itself is 
lost out of the text of his exposition), and he explains it as ** belonging to the seers, 
Angiras etc." 1 

6. Now, Agni ! now, Savitar ! now, goddess SarasvatI ! now, Brahma- 
naspati, make his member taut like a bow. 

Ppp. reads me instead of asya in c The verse is bhurij only if we do not abbreviate 
iva to *va in d. LOur c, d is nearly vi. loi. 2 c, d.J 


7. I make thy member taut, like a bowstring on a bow ; mount (kram), 

as it were a stag a doe, unrelaxingly always (?). 

The verse is repeated below as vL 101.3. It is wanting (as noted above) in Ppp. 
All our pada-mss, make in c the absurd division krdma: svdrqah<^iva^ instead of 
krdmasva : fqyahoiva; but SPP. strangely reports no such blunder from his mss. All 
the mss. agree in r^a instead of rqya |_both editions should read rqya\ ; the comm. has 
again rsa (cf. 5 d), and declares it equivalent to vrsabha / The Pet. Lex. takes iddd at 
the end as instr. of sdd ** position in coitus^'^ and the connection strongly favors this ; 
but the accent and the gender oppose it so decidedly that the translation does not venture 
to adopt it The comm. takes sddd as ** always/' and reads before it anu valgUyatd 
(for dnavagldyatS), supplying manasS for it to agree with. The verse is bhurij only 
if we refuse to make the common contraction -rqye *va in c. 

8. Of the horse, of the mule, of the he-goat and of the ram, also of 
the bull what vigors there are — them do thou put in him, O self- 

The omission of tin would rectify the meter of d, and also make more suitable the 
accentuation asmin. The great majority of mss. favor in c the reading dtha rs-^ which 
SPP. has accordingly adopted (our edition has d^Aa rs-). The comm. again (as in 4 d) 
has at the end tanUvagam^ imderstanding it adverbially (^qarlrasya vaqo yathd bhavati 

5. An incantation to put to sleep. 

[Brakman. — rvdpanam^vdrsabham, dnustubham : 2. bhurij ; y. purastdjjyotis tristubh.'] 

Found in Paipp. iv., next after our hymn 4. Part of the verses are RV. vii. 55. 5-8. 
Used by Kau^. among the women's rites, in a rite (36. i £f.) for putting to sleep a woman 
and her attendants, in order to approach her safely. 

Translated : Aufrecht, Ind. Stud. iv. 340 ; Grill, 51, 119; Griffith, i. 135 ; Bloomfield, 
^o5» 37' » Weber, xviii. 20. — Discussed by Pischel, Ved. Stud, ii. 55 f. ; see also Lan- 
man, Reader, p. 370, and references ; further, the RV. translators ; and Zimmer, p. 308. 

1. The thousand-horned bull that came up from the ocean — with him, 

the powerful one, do we put the people to sleep. 

The verse is RV. vii. 55. 7, without variant Ppp. reads at the beginning hiranya- 
grngas. The comm. takes the "bull" to be the sun with his thousand rays — but that 
is nothing to make people sleep ; the moon is more likely, but even that only as typifying 
the night. 

2. The wind bloweth not over the earth ; no one soever seeth over 

[it]; both all the women and the dogs do thou make to sleep, going 

with Indra as companion. 

Ppp. has in b the preferable reading sUryas for kdg cand. Part of our mss. 
(P.M.W.E.I.H.K.), with apparently all of SPP's, read svdpdyas^ at end of c, but both 
editions accept svupdya^ which the comm. also has. The comm. understands the wind 
to be meant as Indra's companion in d. The verse is not bhurij ^ if we read vitd *ti 
in a. * LAnd so Op. J 

3. The women that are lying on a bench, lying on a couch, lying in a 
litter ; the women that are of pure odor — all of them we make to sleep. 


For taipeqayis in a, Ppp. hz&pustiq-^ and RV. (vii. 55. 8) vahyeq- ; both give talpa- 
qivarls (Ppp. -rf) at end of b. RV. further mars the meter of c by giving -gandhds. 

4. Whatever stirs have I seized ; eye, breath have I seized ; all the 

limbs have I seized, in the depth (atiqarvard) of the nights. 

Ppp. reads in d uta qarvarej the comm. explains atiq- by tamobhUyisthe madhya- 

5. Whoso sits, whoso goes about, and whoso standing looks out — of 

them we put together the eyes, just like this habitation (harmyd), 

RV. (vii. 55. 6) rectifies the meter of a by adding ca before cdrati (the Anukr. takes 
no notice of the deficiency of a syllable in our version) ; its b is ydq ca pdqyati no 
jdnahj and in c it has hanmas for dadhmas, and (as also Ppp.) aksini. The comm. 
gives no explanation of the obscure comparison in d, nor of the word harmyd, but 
simply says "as this harmya that we see is deprived of the faculty of sight'* |_Is not 
the tertium comparationis simply the closing ? We close their eyes as we close this 
house. The comm. renders sdtn dadhmas by nimllitdni kurtnas, — For the loss of ca 
before cdrati^ cf. iv. 1 8. 6 a = v. 3 1 . 1 1 a {sd before qaqaka /), and vi. 91 . 2 a (Va before 
vdtif). Other cases (vii. 81. i c, etc.) cited by Bloomfield, AJP. xvii. 418.J 

6. Let the mother sleep, the father sleep, the dog sleep, the house- 
master iyiqpdti) sleep ; let the relatives (Jfidtt) of her sleep ; let this 
folk round about sleep. 

For svdptu (5 times) and svdpantu^ RV. (vii. 55. 5) gives sdstu and sasdntuj also, 
in c sdrve ' all * for asydi * of her * — which latter is to us a welcome indication of the 
reason for all this putting to sleep, and marks the Atharvan application of the hymn, 
whether that were or were not its original intent In b, all the mss. have svi instead of 
qvi; both editions emend to the latter, which is read also by the comm. LFor asydi^ 
cf. iii. 25. 6. J 

7. O sleep, with the imposition (abhikarana) of sleep do thou put to 
sleep all the folk ; till sun-up make the others sleep, till dawning let me 
be awake, like Indra, uninjured, unexhausted. 

Several of SPP's mss. have at the beginning svdpnas. Ppp. reads svapnddhik-^ 
and so does the comm. (explaining adhik- as adhisthdnam qayyddi) ; the latter has in 
d dvyUsam; and Ppp. gives caratdt for jdgrtdt. A khila to RV. vii. 55 has a corre- 
sponding verse, reading for a svapndh svapnadhikdrane (thus rectifying the meter), in 
c i sHrydm^ and for d dvyi^sdm jdgriydd ahdm. The Anukr. uses the name jyoiis so 
loosely that it is difficult to say precisely how it would have the verse scanned ; it is really 
a bhurij pahkti. 

The 5 hymns of the first anuvdka contain 37 verses ; and the old Anukr., taking 30 
as norm, says simply sapta, 

6. Against the poison of a poisoned arrow. 

\Garutman, — astarcam. taksakadevatyam. dnustubham^ 

Found (except vs. i ) in Paipp. v. Used by Kaug. (with, as the schol. and the 
comm. say, the next following hymn also) in a rite (28. i ff.) of healing for poison, with 
homage to Taksaka, chief of the serpent gods ; and the schol. (but not the comm.) 


declare it to be employed elsewhere (29. i ; 32. 20) in similar rites involving Taksaka. 
There is no specific reference in the hymn to serpent poison, but distinctly to vegetable 
poison ; and the comm. regards kanda or kandamUla (* tuber * and * tuber-root ') as the 
plant intended. 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 512 ; Griffith, i. 136 ; Bloomfield, 25, 373 ; Weber, xviii. 23. 
— Cf. Bergaigne-Henry, Manuel^ p. 145. 

1. The Brahman was born first, with ten heads, with ten mouths; he 
first drank the soma ; he made the poison sapless. 

The absence of this verse in Ppp., and the normal length of the hymn without it, 
together with its own senselessness, suggest strongly the suspicion of its imoriginality. 
To put meaning into it, the comm. maintains that the serpents have castes, as men have ; 
and that their primal Brahman was Taksaka. 

2. As great as [are] heaven-and-earth by their width, as much as the 
seven rivers spread out {vi-st/id), [so far] have I spoken out from here 
these words {vdc)^ spoilers of poison. 

Titvatfm in d for tim itds would be a welcome emendation. The first half-verse 
occurs in VS. (xxxviii. 26 a, b : not quoted in (JB.) and TS. (in iii. 2. 6>) : VS. omits 
varimni; TS. has instead mahitvi; both rectify the meter of b by adding ca after 
yavat (Ppp. adds instead vd) ; and for our rather fantastic vitas third (p. viotasthirif) 
VS. has 'tasthird and TS. -tastkus. The comm. also reads -sthire ; the lingualization 
is one of the cases falling under Prat. ii. 93. The comm. glosses in b sindhavas by 
samudrds, and vitasthire by vydvartante. This irregular prastdra-pankti is over- 
looked by the Anukr. in its treatment of the meter. 

3. The winged {garitmant) eagle consumed (av) thee first, O poison ; 
thou hast not intoxicated {mad), thou hast not racked {nip) [him] ; and 
thou becamest drink for him. 

At beginning of b, visa is read only ^by Ppp. andj by the comm. and by one of 
SPP's mss. that follows him ; all the rest have the gross blunder visah (both editions 
emend to visa). Ppp. gives ddayat in b, and its second half-verse reads nd ^ropayo 
nd *mddayo tdsmd bhavan pituh^ thus removing the objectionable confusion of tenses 
made by our text Our arUrupas is quoted as counter-example by the comment to 
Prat iv. 86. The first pada might be rendered also *the well-winged Garutmant,* 
and the comm. so understands it, adding the epithet vdinateya to show that garut- 
mant =Gz.rxL^2i, He also takes the two aorists and the imperfect in c-4 alike as impera- 
tives {nd *nlrupas = vimiidham md kdrsfh). The Anukr. does not note a as irregular. 

4. He of five fingers that hurled at thee from some crooked bow — 
from the tip {(a/yd) of the apaskatnbhd have I exorcised {nir-vac) the 

Apaskambhd is very obscure ; the Pet. Lex. suggests " perhaps the fastening of the 
arrow-head to the shaft" ; Ludwig guesses ** barb,*' but that we have in vs. 5 — as we 
also have qalya^ which seems therefore premature here ; and, in fact, Ppp. reads instead 
of it bdhvos; and, as it has elsewhere apaskantasya bdhvos^ we might conjecture apa 
skandhasya etc., * from shoulder and arms * : i.e. from wounds in them. Or, for apa- 
skambka as a part of the body might be compared Su^ruta i. 349. 20 — unless apastambe 


(which at least one good manuscript reads) is the true text there [^Calcutta ed. reads 
apastambhdu \, The conun. has no idea what apaskambha means, but makes a couple 
of wild guesses : it is the betel-nut {kramukayxxt^ or it is an arrow (both based on 
senseless etymologies). In a, Ppp. reads -gulis, 

5. From the tip have I exorcised the poison, from the anointing and 
from the feather-socket ; from the barb (apdsthd)^ the horn, the neck 
have I exorcised the poison. 

Ppp. reads vocam instead of avocam in a and d, and its b is dhjanat partuidker uta. 
Prat ii. 95 rq^ds apdstka as from apa-sthdy doubtless correctly ; between the «< barb ** 
and the " horn " there is probably no important difference. To the comm., the apdstka 
is a poison-receptacle {apakrstdvasthdd etatsamjhdd visopdddndf). 

6. Sapless, O arrow, is thy tip ; likewise thy poison is sapless ; also 
thy bow, of a sapless tree, O sapless one, is sapless. 

The comm. strangely takes arasdrasam at the end (p. arasa: arasdm) as a redupli- 
cated word, '* excessively sapless." 

7. They who mashed, who smeared, who hurled, who let loose — they 
[are] all made impotent ; impotent is made the poison-mountain. 

That is, as the comm. is wise enough to see, the mountain from which the poisonous 
plant is brought '* Let loose " (ava-srj) probably applies to arrows as distinguished 
from spears; though <*hurl*' might be used equally of both. Ppp. has in c santu 
instead of krtds. According to SPP., the text used by the comm. combines j^/ *pisan; 
aplsan is an anomalous form for apinsan, with which the comm. glosses it. 

8. Impotent [are] thy diggers ; impotent art thou, O herb ; impotent 
[is] that rugged (^pdrvatd) mountain whence was born this poison. 

As was pointed out above (under iv. 4. 2), the first half-verse is a sort of opposite 
of one found in Ppp., and quoted by Kau^. (at 40. 14). LWith pdrvata giri cf. mrgd 
hast in, xii. i. 25.J 

7. Against poison. 

[Garutman, — vdncLspatyam, dnustubham : 4. svardj^ 

Found in Paipp., but not all together ; vs. i occurs in v., vss. 2-6 in ii., and vs. 7 in 
vi. Not used by Kau^. unless it is properly regarded by the schol. and the comm. (see 
under h. 6) as included with h. 6 by the citation (28. i) of the latter*s pratika (the 
comm. puts it on the ground of t\\^ paribhdsd rule grahanam d grahandt, Kau^. 8. 21). 

Translated: Ludwig, p. 201 ; Grill, 28, 121; Grifl5th, i. 1 38 ; Bloomfield, 26, 376; 
Weber, xviii. 26. 

I. This water {vdr) shall ward off (vdray-) upon the Varanavati; an 
on-pouring of ambrosia (amfta) is there; with it I ward off thy poison. 

The significance of the verse lies in its punning upon vdr and var; the name vara- 
ndvatf is not found elsewhere, but has sufficient analogies elsewhere ; it is formed, as 
the comm. points out, from the tree-name varana (jCraiaeva Roxburghii). Ppp. has in 
b a different pun: varundd dbhrtam; and for d it reads tac cakdrd Wasam visam. 
The first pida lacks a syllable, unless we resolve va-ir, \QL x. 3. i n. J 


2. Sapless is the poison of the east, sapless what is of the north ; also 
this that is of the south is exchangeable with gruel (karambhd). 

That is, is no stronger or more harmful than grueL Except our Bp., which has 
adharicydm, all the mss. accent -ricyam^ and SPP. follows them ; our edition emends 
to -rdcydm^ to accord with the two adjectives of like formation in a, b. Ppp. puts 
arasam after visam in a. 

3. Having made gruel of sesame (?), teeming with fat, steaming (?), 
thou dost not rack, O ill-bodied one, him that has eaten thee merely from 

The verse is full of difficulties and doubtful points. The translation implies in d 
emendation oi jaksivint sd Xo jaksivinsam, as suggested by BR., s.v. rup (Grill rejects 
it, but unwisely) ; Ppp. reads jaksivfpyasya. The construction of the augmentless 
aorist-form rUruptis with nd instead of mi is against all rule and usage ; the easiest 
emendation would be to ni ^rUrupas; Ppp. gives nu rUrnpah, SPP. unaccountably 
reads rUrupah in padaAKxX^ both here and in 5 d and 6 d, against all but one of his 
pada-xas&, in this verse, and also against Pr^t iv. 86, which distinctly requires rurupahj 
and (in all the three cases alike) the pada-xas^, add after the word the sign which they 
are accustomed to use when a /^/^-reading is to be changed to something else in 
samhitd. In c, the pada-re2id\ng is dustano Ui duhoiano; the case is noted under 
Prat ii. 85. Tirydm in a is rendered as if tilydm^ from tila (so the Pet. Lex.) ; the 
comm. derives it from tiras^ and renders it tirobhavam * vanishing,* which is as sense- 
less as it is etymologically absurd ; Ppp. reads instead turlyam. According to R^jan. 
xvi. 23, a sort of rice (as ripening in three months) is called tiriya (tirima?)^ but the 
word appears to be only a modem one, and is hardly to be looked for here. |_I cannot 
find it in the Poona ed.*J Grill makes the very unsatisfactory conjecture atiriyam 
"running over." In b, all our mss. (as also the comment on Prat. ii. 62) read plbas- 
phdkdm (p. pfbahophdkdm^ which the comment just quoted ratifies), as our edition 
reads ; SPP., on the other hand, prints plbaspdkdm (comm. plvaspdkam^ explained 
as " fat-cooking " ) and declares this to be the unanimous reading of his authorities : this 
discordance of testimony is quite unexplainable. The translation implies emendation of 
the pada'Tt2id\ng to pibahosphdkdm, Ppp. reads uddhrtam for the problematic uddra- 
thim; but the latter is supported by RV. i. 187. 10 (of whose first two padas, indeed, 
our a, b seem to be a reminiscence) : karambhd osadhe bhava pivo vrkkd uddrathlh. 
The comm. explains the word as udriktdriijanakam (S^yana to RV. entirely differently). 
Lin a supplementary note. Roth reports : Ppp. has pivassdkam; R. has, p.m., pibaspd-y 
corrected to pibasphd- ; T. has plvaspdr,\ ^Correct the verse-number : for 6 read 3. J 
♦^Or is nirapa^ at p. 220 m, a variant of tiriya f The two are easily confused in 

4. Away we make thine intoxication fly, like an arrow ((ard), O 
intoxicating one (f.) ; we make thee with our spell (vdcas) to stand forth, 
like a boiling pot. 

The comm. (with a pair of SPP*s mss.) reads qarUm in b*; it also (alone) has 
jesantam {= prayatamdnam) in c; one of our mss. (Op.), with two or three of SPP's, 
give instead pisantam. Ppp. has a peculiar c : pari tvd varmi veqantam. The verse 
is regular if we make the ordinary abbreviation of iva to Va in b and c. ^^The 
reciters K and V gave qarum: comm. renders as if qdrum 'arrow.* BR. render the 


verb in d by < wegstellen.' When you set the pot aside (take it off the fire), it stops 
boiling ; and so the poison is to stop working. But see also Weber*s note. J 

5. With a spell we cause to stand about [thee] as it were a collected 

troop {grdma) ; stand thou, like a tree in [its] station ; spade-dug one (f.), 

thou rackest not. 

The comm., here and in 6 d, reads abhrisdte {-sate = 4abdhe)^ which looks like a 
result of the common confusion of kh and /. SPP. reads in pada-ttxX rUrupah^ and 
this time without any report as to the readings of his/a<ib-mss. — doubtless by an over- 
sight, as all but one of them give rur- in both 3 d and 6 d. The true scanning of c is 
probably vrksi *va sthi-mn-u 

6. For covers (? pavdstd) they bought thee, also for garments (? durqd)^ 
for goat-skins; purchasable Q prakrt) art thou, O herb; spade-dug one, 
thou rackest not. 

The comm. knows nothing of what pavasta and dUrqa mean, but etymologizes the 
former out of pavana and asta (^pavandyd *stdih sammdrjanltrn&iK)^ and the other 
out of dus and rqya {dmtarqyasatnbandhibhik) \ Prakrfs he renders by prakarsena 

7. Who of you did what first unattained deeds — let them not harm 

our heroes here ; for that purpose I put you forward. 

This verse occurs again later, as v. 6. 2, and in Ppp. makes a part of that hymn alone. 
Its sense is very questionable, and its connection casts no light upon it, either here or 
there ; and Grill b justified in omitting it as having apparently nothing to do with the 
rest of this hymn. All the pada-ms&, save one of SPP*s read dnaptd (not -tdh) ; and 
all save our Bp. read prathamih (Bp. -mi) ; SPP. gives in his /a^^-text -tdh and -mak ; 
the translation here given implies -td and -mi^ without intending to imply that the other 
reading^ may not be equally good; the comm. takes dndptdh {j=- ananukuldh 
[_' unkindly * J) as qualifying qatravas understood, and prathami as qualifying kdrmdni, 

8. Accompanying the consecration of a king. 

\Atkarvdngiras, — rdjydbhisekyam^ cdndramasam, dpyam. dnustubham : 
If 7. bhuriktristubh ; j. tristubh ; j. virdtprastdrapanktL'\ 

Found in Paipp. iv. (in the verse-order 1-3, 7, 4-6). For occurrences in other texts, 
see under the verses. Used by Kau^. (17. i ff.), and also in Vait. (36. 7) in connection 
with the rdjdbhiseka or rdjasUya ceremony ; and Vait. (29. 1 2) further employs vs. 5 in 
the agnicayana, with pouring of water around the erected altar. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 458 ; Zimmer, p. 213 ; Weber, Ueber den RdjasUya^ Berliner 
Abh.^ 1893* p* 139 (with full discussion) ; Griffith, i. 139; Bloomfield, iii, 378 ; Weber, 
xviii. 30. 

I. The being (bhutd) sets milk in beings; he has become the over- 
lord of beings; Death attends (car) the royal consecration {rdjastlya) of 
him ; let him, as king, approve this royalty. 

The meaning is obscure. Very possibly bhilid is taken here in more than one of its 
senses, by a kind of play upon the word. Weber renders it the first time by " powerful " 
{krdftig)^ nearly as the comm., whose gloss is samrddhah ; the latter gives it the same 


sense the second time, but the third time simply prdnindm. The introduction of 
"death*' in the second half-verse suggests the interpretation (R.) that the deceased 
predecessor of the prince now to be consecrated is besought to give his sanction to the 
ceremony from the world of the departed {bhutd). The comm. regards death as 
brought in in the character of dharmardja^ as he who requites good and evil deeds. 
TB. (in ii. 7. 1 5>) is the only other text that has this verse, reading in a caraii prdvisfak 
{iox pdya A dadhdti)2n^ in c mrtydH: the variants are of a character to make us dis- 
trust the value of the matter as admitting any consistent interpretation. Ppp. reads in 
C sa te for tdsya. 

2. Go forward unto [it]; do not long (.? veti) ?c^2Ly^ a stern {ugrd) 

corrector {cettdr)y rival-slayer ; approach (d'Stlid\ O increaser of friends ; 

may the gods bless {adhi-bru) thee. 

Found, with vs. 3, in TB. (in ii. 7. S^), and also, with the remainder of the hymn, in K. 
(xxxvii. 9). I^It seems to be a reminiscence of the Indra-verse, RV. v. 31. 2, applied, like 
vs. 3 of this hymn, to the king. J TB. reads in a (for mi *pa venas) vfrdyasva^ and 
Ppp. has vfdayasva; TB. gives, as also the comm., the nom. tnitravdrdhanas (a later 
repetition of the verse, in ii. 7. 16', presents vrtrahdntamas instead) ; and it ends with 
bravan* which is better, and might have been read in our text, as near half the mss. 
give it ; but SPP. also accepts bruvan^ with the comm. The comm. takes the " throne " 
as object of the first verb, and renders mi *pa venas by apakdmam anicchdm md 
kdrslh Lcf. vi'Ven in BR. J. (Weber renders ven by "see.") *LBut the Poona ed., 
p. 716, has bruvan.\ 

3. Him approaching all waited upon {pari-bhus) ; clothing himself in 
fortune, he goes about {car)y having own brightness ; great is that name of 
the virile {vrsan) Asura ; having all forms, he approached immortal things. 

This is a RV. verse (iii. 38. 4 : repeated without variant as VS.xxxiii. 22), transferred 
from Indra to the king; RV. reads, as does Ppp., qriyas in b. TB. (as above) has 
svdrocds at end of b, and asyd for vfsnas in c. At the beginning of c, the comm. has 
mahas (but explains it as = mahaf) tad visno^ and a couple of SPP*s mss. support 
him. He renders pdri abhUsan either alamkurvantu or sevantdm : that the form is 
imperative is the point he is sure of; and as alternative value of asurasya he gives 
qatrQndtk nirasituh / \\s not dsurasya nima a simple periphrasis of asurydm^ *the 
divinity * that " doth hedge a king,*' in which gods are said to clothe themselves at 
RV. iii. 38. 7 ? Nima might then be construed with vdsdnas, or else as above. J 

4. A tiger, upon the tiger's [skin], do thou stride out unto the great 

quarters ; let all the people (v/fas) want thee, the waters of heaven, rich 

in milk. 

That is, let the rains not desert thee (so the comm. also). This verse and the two 
following are found, in the same order, in TB. ii. 7. 153-4 ; it puts ddAi after vdiyyAghri 
(sic) in a, reads qrayasva in b, and has for d mi tvdd rdstrdm ddhi bhraqat (found 
below as vi. 87. i d, and in other texts : see under that verse). Ppp. gives yanti \ox 
ydntif\ instead of vdHchantu in c. 

5. The waters of heaven that revel with milk, in the atmosphere or 
also on the earth — with the splendor of all those waters do I pour upon 
(abhi'Sic) thee. 


The version of the first half-verse given by TB. is quite different : yi divyi apak 
pdyasd sambabhUvHh : yi antdrikse utd p&rthivlr yih; and Ppp. so far agrees as to 
have uta fdrthivS y&h; TB. also reads ruca for apim in c The comm. renders 
madanti as if causative : pr&ninas tarpayanti. The abhiseka process, instead of an 
anointing with oil, is a pouring of water upon the person to be consecrated. The 
verse (i i + 10 : 8+8=37) lacks three syllables of being complete, rather than two. LPut 
another j^ij at the beginning of b and the verse is orderly, 1 1 + 1 1 : 8 +8. J 

|_ Perhaps tnadh^x^ approaches its physical meaning, *boil (cf. ^B. iii.4. 3 end, and 
my Reader^ p. 211), bubble over, overflow ' ; used of the rains that ' drip abundantly 
wiiki'* pdyas ox life-giving moisture. W's prior draft rendered mad by "intoxicate"; 
over this he interlined "revel." — This, says Weber, is the verse of the act of conse- 
cration proper. The celebrant transfers to the king the vdrcas or glory-giving vigor 
of the waters of all three worlds. J 

6. The heavenly waters, rich in milk, have poured upon thee with 
splendor ; that thou be an increaser of friends, so shall Savitar make thee. 

Instead of our asihcan^ SPP. gives, as the reading of all his authorities, asican, 
which is decidedly preferable, and implied in the translation (our Bp. is doubtful ; other 
mss. possibly overlooked at this point) ; TB. has instead asicam; Ppp. and the comm., 
asrjan. Then, for b, TB. and Ppp. give divydna pdyasd (Ppp./4y-) sahd; and in c 
TB. has rdstravdrdh', which is better, and before it ydthisd (regarded by its com- 
mentary as ydthd : isa). 

7. Thus, embracing the tiger, they incite {hi) the lion unto great 
good-fortune ; as the well-being ones (subhb) the ocean that stands, do 
they rub thoroughly down the leopard amid the waters. 

Found also in TB. (ii. 7. 16^) and MS. (ii. 1.9: besides K.). In b, MS. has mrjanti 
for hinvanti^ and dhdndya (which rectifies the meter) for sdubhagdya. For c, MS. has 
a much less unmanageable version, tnahisdm nah subhvdm, and Ppp. supports it by 
giving mahisam nas subhavas: thus, in each pada the king is compared to a different 
powerful animal — which is the leading motive of the verse. But TB. differs from our 
text only by giving suhdvam'* for subhiivas, Subhvdm, with a further slight emendation 
of samudrdm to -dri^ would give a greatly improved sense : " him who stands comfortable 
in the ocean, as it were," or bears himself well under the water poured upon him. The 
phrase samudrdm nd subhvdh occurs also at RV. i. 52. 4 b (and its occurrence here in 
such form may be a reminiscence of that) ; Sayana there understands subhvds of the 
" streams " that fill the ocean ; and our comm. gives a corresponding interpretation here 
{nadlrupd dpak) ; samudrdm he allows us alternatively to take as = varunam. He 
also, most ungrammatically, takes ena at the beginning as ends " those [waters]." Ppp. 
further hsLspari mrjyante for marm- in d. *LPoona ed., p. 750, reads suhiivam,] 

9. For protection etc. : with a certain ointment. 

[BAr^. — dofarcam, trdikakuddhjanaddivatam, dnustubham : 2. kakummafi ; 

J. pathydpankH.'\ 

Found mostly in Paipp. viii. (in the verse-order 9, 3, 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 4, 7). Used by Kau^. 
(58. 8) with the binding on of an ointment-amulet, in a ceremony for long life of the 
Vedic pupil after his initiation. And the comm. quotes it from the Naks. K. (19) ^error 
for Qanti, says Bl. J, as employed in the makd^dnti called dirdvaif. 


Translated: Ludwig, p. 507; Grill, 35, 123; Griffith, i. 141 ; Bloomfield, 61, 381 ; 
Weber, xviii. 32. — As for ointment and ointment-legends, see Bloomfield, A J P. xvii. 
404 ft, 

1. Come thou, rescuing the living one; of the mountain art thou for 
the eyes (}), given by all the gods, an enclosure {paridhi) in order to 

Jfvdm in a might also be co6rdinate with triyamdnam ; the comm. understands it 
as translated. The meter indicates that the true reading at the end of b is dksyam, and 
this is read by SPP., with the alleged support of all his authorities save one, which 
follows the comm. in giving dksam j our Bp. has dksam^ and our edition accepted that 
(our Op. has aksydm^ our I. dksydm); but aJtsya is unknown elsewhere, and its meaning 
in this connection is quite obscure ; perhaps allusion b intended to a legend reported in 
MS. iii.6. 3 (p. 62.8 ; cf. also TS. vi. i. is and ^B. iii. 1.3. 12): **Indra verily slew 
Vrtra ; his eye-ball flew away ; it went to Trikakubh ; that ointment of Trikakubh he 
spreads on." The ointment of this mountain is most efficacious for the eyes, and hence 
also for the other purposes here had in view. The comm. gives caksus as the value of 
his aksam. Grill suggests emendation to aksayyam or aksaram. We have to make 
the harsh resolution vZ-fu-e- in c or leave the pllda defective. 

2. Protection {paripdna) of men (ptirusa), protection of kine art 
thou ; in order to the protection of coursing {drvant) horses hast thou 

The comm. says in c "of horses and of mares (yadavdn&m)^ The resolution 
dr-va-ta-dm fills up c quite unsatisfactorily ; the Anukr. refuses all resolution, and counts 
the p&da as of 6 syllables. 

3. Both art thou a protection, grinder-up of familiar demons {ydti), 

O ointment, and of what is immortal thou knowest ; likewise art thou 

gratification {-bhSjana) of the living, likewise remedy of jaundice 


Contrary to rule, the a of asi in d has to be elided after dtho in d ; probably emenda- 
tion to dthd *si is called for ; one of our mss. (O.) reads d^Ao *st\ Ppp. rectifies the 
meter of a by giving u/e *vd *si; for c, d it has utd *mriatvesye "fisa utd *sas pitrbko- 
janam. The comm. takes amrtasya as the drink of immortality, and -bhojana as 
either anistanivarianena pdlaka or bhogasddhana. The last p&da hardly belongs with 
the rest. 

4. Of whomsoever, O ointment, thou creepest over limb after limb, 
joint after joint, from thence thou drivest away the j^dksma, like a formi- 
dable mid-lier (mad/iyamafi). 

Found also as RV. x. 97. 12 (repeated, without variant, as VS. xii. 86), which version, 
however, begins with ydsydu *sadhlh prasdrpatha^ and has in c correspondingly bddha- 
dhve. The comm. has in c bddhate^ but regards it as for bddhase, Ppp. reads tasmdt 
for tatas. Afadhyamaqt is of obscure meaning ; ** arbiter,'* as conjectured by BR., 
seems very implausible LBR. express their conjectural meaning by the Latin word 
intercessor ; by which, I suspect, they intend, not * mediator,* but rather * adversar)' * or 
' preventer * of the disease, which would be plausible enough J ; more probably '* mid- 


most man/' like madhyamesthi or chief (see imder iii.8. 2), and madhyamaql used 
especially of the leader about whom his men encamp, for his greater safety, in the 
night JB. has madhyamaqlvan at ii.408, but the passage is too corrupt to cast valu- 
able light upon the word. To the comm., it is either Vayu, the wind in mid-air, or else 
the king, viewed as surrounded first by foes, and further by their foes, his friends (on 
the principle of arir tnitram arer ; mitram) [mitra-mitram atah par am etc. I find 
the verse at Kamandakiya Nitisara, viii. 16. To judge from the Later Syriac Version 
(Kalllah and Dimnah, Keith-Falconer, p. 114), one would expect to find it in Pafica- 
tantra ii., colloquy of mouse and crow, in Kosegarten*s ed., p. no or thereabouts. Cf. 
Manu vii. 1 58 and the comm. J 

5. Curse attains him not, nor witchcraft, nor scorching; viskandha 

reaches him not who beareth thee, O ointment. 

Ppp. reads tarn for enam in a, and niskandham in c \\\. inserts just before our 
vs. 7 the vs. given under vi. 76. 4 and ending with yas tvdm bibharty dftjana.] 

6. From wrong spell, from evil dreaming, from evil deed, from pollu- 
tion also, from the terrible eye of an enemy — therefrom protect ns, 


Ppp. has, for b, ksetriydc chapathdd uta. The Pet. Lexx. understand asanmanird 
as simply " untrue speech" (so Grill, ** Liigenrede") ; the comm. reads instead -ntrydt, as 
adjective qualifying dusvapnydt^ and signifying " produced by base bewitching spells.'* 
Durhirdas in c might well be adj., * hostile ' (so comm.). 

7. Knowing this, O ointment, I shall speak truth, not falsehood ; may 

1 win (satC) a horse, a cow, thy soul, O man {purusa). 

The latter half-verse is RV. x. 97. 4 c, d (which is also, without variant, VS. xii. 78 c, d), 
where we read visas instead of ahdm ; Ppp., too, gives vdsds. All the mss. and the 
comm. have at the end the absiu'd iorm purusas (nom., but without accent) ; the comm. 
(whose text, as SPP. points out in more than one place, is unaccentuated) understands 
" I, thy man (retainer)." Both editions make the necessary emendation to purusa 
\^,piirusa\. Ppp. gives pdurusa, SPP. makes a note i\i?Xsanfyam is so accented by 
all his authorities — as if anything else were possible |_does he have in mind sdneyam f 
see Whitney, Roots^ p. 183 J. The first pada is defective unless we resolve vi-du-an \j>r 
d-afijana], — |_R*s supplementary report of Ppp. reading^ ends a with dhjanas and has 
for d dfijana tamva pdurusah. As noted above, this vs. stands at the end in Ppp. and 
before it is inserted the vs. given under vi. 76. 4. J 

8. Three are the slaves (ddsd) of the ointment — fever {takmdn), baldsa^ 
then snake: the highest of mountains, three-peaked {trikakud) by name» 
[is] thy father. 

For the obscure baldsa^ the comm. gives the worthless etymology balam asyaii, and 
adds sathnip&tddih * collision [of humors] or the like'; ** snake" he explains as for 
snake-poisoning; perhaps, if the reading is genuine, it is rather the name of some 
(constricting?) disease. 

9. The ointment that is of the three-peaked [mountain], born from 
the snowy one (himdvant) — may it grind up all the familiar demons and 
all the sorceresses. 


P&da b is repeated below as v. 4. 2 b. The first half-verse is, without variant, TA. 
vi. 10. 2, vs. 9 A, b ; and it occurs also in HGS. (i. 1 1. 5), which reads upari at the end 
iox pari |_and so at MP. ii. 8. 1 1 a, bj. The second half is VS. xvi. 5 c, d, and also found 
in TS. iv. 5. i^ and MS. ii. 9. 2 ; all these have dhln instead of yAtin^ and xtsAjatnbhd- 
yan (pres. pple.) ; and OMTJambhdyat may, of course, be pres. pple. neut ; some of the 
mss. (including our Bp.M.I.) indeed read -yan here, though no masc. subject is implied ; 
the comm. paraphrases with ndqayad vartate, SPP., with his customary defiance of 
grammar upon this point, reads sdrvdn instead of -dn or -dft [ci. i. 19. 4, note J. 

10. If thou art of the three-peaked [mountain], or if thou art called 
of the Yamuna — both thy names are excellent ; by them protect us, O 

TV in c might perhaps be emended with advantage to //. The Yamuna is not else- 
where mentioned in AV. Nimnl is to be read, of course, as of three syllables, and 
there is no reason why the text should not give us nimanl, 

10. Against evils: with a pearl-shell amulet. 

\Atharvan. — ^ahkhamanisuktam, tadddivatam, dnustubham : &, pathydpaHkH ; 

7. J"-/, pardnustup faJkvarf.'] 

Found (except vs. 5) in P^ipp. iv. Used by KSug. (58. 9) in the same ceremony with 
the preceding h3rmn, but with an amulet of mother-of-pearl ; the schol. (not the comm.) 
also add it in an earlier part of the ceremony (56. 17). The comm. quotes it further 
from Naks. K. (19), as employed in a mahdqdnti named vdrunl. 

Translated : Ludwig, p. 462 ; Grill, 36, 124 ; Griffith, i. 142 ; Bloomfield, 62, 383 ; 
Weber, xviii.36. — Bloomfield cites an article in ZDMG. (xxxvi. 135) by Pischel, who, 
in turn, cites a lot of interesting literature about pearl. 

|_ Although rain-drops are not expressly mentioned in this h3rmn nor in xix. 30. 5 
(which see), I think it safe to say that the bit of Hindu folk-lore about the origin of 
pearls by transformation of rain-drops falling into the sea (Jndische Spruche, 344) is as 
old as this Vedic text and the one in xix. The references here to sky and sea and 
lightning, and in xix. to Parjanya and thunder and sea, all harmonize perfecdy with that 
belief, which is at least ten centuries old (it occurs in RSja9ekhara, 900 a.d.) and has 
lasted till today (Manwaring's Mardthl Proverbs^ no. 1291). See my translation of 
Karpura-mahjarf, p. 264 f., and note 5. Pischel, I.e., reports as follows : *< According 
to Aelian (rc/»2 ^^^wr, x. 13), a pearl forms when the lightning flashes into an open sea- 
shell ; according to an Arabic writer, when rain-drops fall into it, or, according to Pliny 
(ix. 107), dew." — The persistency of popular beliefs in India is well illustrated by the 
curious one concerning female snakes : see my note to Karpura-mahjarly p. 231. J 

1. Bom from the wind out of the atmosphere, out from the light of 

lightning, let this gold-born shell, of pearl, protect us from distress. 

Of course, all the four nouns in the first half-verse may be codrdinate ablatives. 
The beauty and sheen of the material connect it traceably with gold and lightning, but 
how even a Hindu rsi can bring it into relation with wind from (or and) the atmosphere 
is not easy to see. Krqana ought to mean the pearl itself, and is perhaps used in the 
hymn appositively = "which is itself virtually pearl"; the comm. explains it in this 
verse as karqayitd qatmndm tanQkartd. Ppp. has in c hiranyad&s, 

2. Thou that wast bom from the top of the shining spaces (rvcand). 


out of the ocean — by the shell having slain the demons, we overpower 
the devourers. 

Ppp. combines in 9i yo * grata r-. Grill takes agratas as " first"; and the comm. as 
= agre^ and not qualifying jajfiise: "at the top or front of shining things, such as stars.*' 

3. By the shell [we overpower] disease, misery ; by the shell also the 

saddnvds; let the all-healing shell, of pearl, protect us from distress. 

Ppp. has in a avadyam instead of dmatim. The comm. takes dmatitn from root 
man ^see BR*s note, s.v. 3 dmati \\ "ignorance, the root of all mishap {anarthay\ 
and, forgetting his explanation of only two verses ago, he this time declares krqana a 
"name of gold." 

4. Born in the sky, ocean-born, brought hither out of the river, this 

gold-born shell [is] for us a life-prolonging amulet. 

Ppp. has samudratas at end of a, and in c again (as in i c) hiranyadds. Nearly all 
our mss. (except O.K.), and some of SPP's, with the comm., read in d Syuhpr- [oi. Prat 
ii. 62 n. J; but the point is one in regard to which each ms. is wont to follow its own course, 
regardless of rule, and both editions very properly give dyusfr-^ as required by the Prat. 

5. The amulet born from the ocean, born from Vrtra, making day — 

let it protect us on all sides from the missile of gods and Asuras. 

The comm. makes Vrtra here signify either the demon Vrtra or the cloud ; doubtless 
the latter is intended ; then he explains divdkara as the sun, and j&ta as " released," 
and renders " as brilliant as the sun freed from th.e clouds," which is extremely artificial ; 
divdkara need mean no more than * flashing with light.' The comm. also foolishly 
understands in d hetyd instead of -ds (p. hetyik), \pev'^ ablative by attraction, from 
gen. — cf . Skt, Gram, § 982 a. J The first pada is deficient by a syllable, unless we 
resolve samudrit into four syllables. 

6. One of the golds art thou ; out of soma wast thou bom ; thou art 
conspicuous on the chariot, lustrous {rocand) on the quiver thou. May it 
prolong our lives ! 

The last p^da, which occurs in four other places (ii. 4. 6 etc.), looks like a late addi- 
tion here; as elsewhere, some of the mss. (five of SPP's) read tdrsat Except our 
Op., all the pada-m^'A. blunderingly resolve sdmdtvdm (as it would be permissibly and 
customarily read by abbreviation: see Whitney, Skt. Gr. §232) into sdmd : tvdm 
instead of sdtndt: tvdm; the comm. understands sdmdt^ and both editions give the full 
reading. Here one is strongly tempted to translate soma by " moon," and the comm. 
takes it so (amrtamaydt somamandaldt) ; but Ppp. discourages it by reading sa hosdd 
(for -mddf) adhi. The comm. glosses rocana by rocamdna dfpyamdna. For c, Ppp. 
has rathesu darqatam, 

7. The gods* bone became pearl ; that goes about within the waters, 
possessing soul ; that do I bind on thee in order to life-time, splendor, 
strength, to length of life for a hundred autumns : let [the amulet] of 
pearl defend thee. 

Karqands in e, though read by all our mss. and nearly all of SPP's, is hardly to be 
tolerated; we should have either kfqanas, as above, or kdrqanas, which the comm. 


o£Eers, with two or three mss. that follow him, and which SPP. accordingly adopts 
[kdrfandsj; our edition gives kar^'\ Ppp. has kdrsinas, Ppp. also has simply ca for 
our whole d (after halAyd), The comm. reads asti instead of asthi in a. The verse 
(I I + 1 1 : 14+ 1 1 +8=55) lacks a syllable of being a full qakvarl, |_ Reject either Ayuse 
or varcase and the meter is good. — In c, te *for thee' (comm., as gen.), is, I suppose, 
virtually = * on thee. 'J 

The second anuvdka, ending with this hymn, contains 5 hymns and 39 verses ; the 
Anukr. quotation is nava ca, 

II. In praise of the draft-oz. 

[BhrgXHingiras, — dvddofarcam, dnaduham, trdistubham : /, ^. jagati; 2. bhurij ; 7. jwiv. 
6-/. anustubgarbho ^paristdjjdgatd nicrcchakvari ; 8-12. anustubh,'] 

Found in Piipp. iii. (in the verse-order i, 4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 11, 12, 9, 8, 10, 7). Used by 
Kiu^. (66. 12) in a sava sacrifice, with the draft-ox as sava. The hymn offers an 
example of that characteristic Hindu extoUation, without any measure or limit, of the 
immediate object of reverence, which, when applied to a divinity, has led to the setting 
up of the baseless doctrine of ** henotheism." 

Translated : Muir, OST. v. 399, 361 (about half); Ludwig, pp. 534 and 190 ; Deussen, 
Geschtchte, \. 1,212 \ Griffith, i. 144; Weber, xviii.39. — Cf. Deussen, I.e., p. 230 f. 
Weber entitles the hymn " Verschenkung eines Pfiugstieres zur Feier der Zw5lften (i.e. 
nights of the winter solstice — see vs. 1 1).** 

1. The draft-ox sustains earth and sky; the draft-ox sustains the 

wide atmosphere; the draft-ox sustains the six wide directions; the 

draft-ox hath entered into all existence. 

That is, the ox in his capacity of draft-animal : the comm. says, fakatavahanasa- 
martho vrsabhah; later in the hymn he is treated as female, without change of the name 
to a feminine form (the fem. -duhl or -dvdhf does not occur before the Brilhmana- 
period of the language). But the comm. also allows us the alternative of regarding 
dkarma^ in ox-form, as subject of the hymn. The " directions " {Pradi^) are, accord- 
ing to him, '' east etc.*' ; and the ** six wide " are ** heaven, earth, day, night, waters, and 
plants," for which AQS. i. 2. i is quoted as authority. With the verse compare x. 7. 35, 
where nearly the same things are said of skambha, Ppp. reads in a -vim dydm utd 
*miim. In the second half -verse, two accent-marks have slipped out of place in our 
edition: in c, that under sa should stand under du; and, in d, that under md should 
stand under na. The verse is jagati by count, but not by rhythm. |_If, with Weber, 
we pronounce nadvin^ it becomes a regular tristubh,\ 

2. The draft-ox [is] Indra; he looks out from (for.^) the cattle; triple 

ways the mighty one (gakrd) measures out (traverses?); yielding (^/w//) 

the past (ibhiitd), the future, existing things {bhuvana), he goes upon 

(car) all the courses {vratd) of the gods. 

Ppp. reads in a indrasya for indrah sa^ and in c it adds sam before bhutam^ and 
has bhuvanath instead of -nd. The comm. has in b the curious reading stiydn for 
trayan, and hence we lose his guess as to what may be meant by the " triple ways." 
He takes paqubhyas in a first as dative, and then as ablative. He understands bhuvand 
as virtually " present " ; more probably it has its usual sense of * existences,' and the two 
preceding adjectives qualify it distributively, or are in apposition with it : " all existing 


things, both what is and what is to be.*' [li we pronounce again nadvdn, the vs. loses 
its bhurij quality. The cadence of b is bad. J 

3. Born an Indra among human beings {manusyd), he goes about {car) 

shining brightly, a heated hot-drink {gharmd) ; he, being one of good 

offspring, shall not go in mist (iuddrd) who, understanding [it], shall 

not partake of {ag) the draft-ox. 

The verse is obscure, and the translation in various points very doubtful. The 
second pada is apparently a beginning of the identification of the ox with the gharma, 
a sacrificial draught of heated milk, which we find further in vss. 5, 6 ; he is, since his 
kind yield warm milk, as it were an incorporation of that sacrifice. And the second 
half-verse is then a promise to whoever shall abstain from using the ox as food. Ppp. 
reads esa instead of jdtas in a, and samft'^dnas at end of b. In c, d the comm. reads 
sam for saftf ud Are as two words, and no ' qnlydty and of course makes very bad work 
of its explanation, finding metempsychosis in sam . . . sarsat (na samsarati punah 
samsdradharmdn na prdpnoti), Gharma he takes first as ** blazing sun,*' and then, 
alternatively, in its true sense. There is no other occurrence of an j-aorist from sr ; 
and it is altogether against rule and usage to employ a subjunctive and an optative 
{aqnlydt) in two coordinate clauses |_this seems to me to be a slip — see Skt, Gram, 
§ 575 b ; and the clauses are hardly coordinate J ; so that the reading is very suspicious. 
A few of our mss. (P.M.W.E.) read nd after uddri, ^Ludwig conjectures suprayas 
for •'jas,\ 

4. The draft-ox yields milk (duK) in the world of the well-done ; the 

purifying one fills him up from in front ; Parjanya [is] his streams, the 

Maruts his udder, the sacrifice his milk, the sacrificial gift the milking 

of him. 

Ppp. appears to have read in b Pydyet^ which would rectify the meter ; in c it com- 
bines maruto **dho. Pdvamdna in b might signify the wind (then purdstdt * from the 
east '?) or soma ; the comm. takes it as the latter {pavitrena qodhydmdno ^ mrtamayah 
somah)\ and " the sacrifice " in d as " the sava sacrifice now performed." The verse 
is rhythmically a tristubh with redundant syllables (i i + 1 3 : 1 2+ 1 1 =47). LOn daksindy 
see Bloomfield, A J P. xvii. 408 f. J 

5. Of whom the lord of the sacrifice is not master (ff ), nor the sacri- 
fice ; not the giver is master of him, nor the acceptor ; who is all-con- 
quering, all-bearing, all-working — tell ye us the hot-drink which [is] 

" Which " in d is yatamd, lit. * which among the many.' The intended answer, of 
course, is that this wondrous sacrificial drink is the ox. Ppp. begins c with yo viqvadrg 
viqvakrd v-. The comm. declares the first half-verse to convey the universal master- 
hood and not-to-be-mastered-hood of the ox; in 6, gharma is, according to him, "the 
blazing sun, which the four-footed one tells us '* (brUta is read, but declared equivalent 
to brute f), 

6. By whom the gods ascended to heaven {svdr)^ quitting the body, 
to the navel of the immortal, by him may we go to the world of the well- 
done, desiring glory, by the vow (vratd) of the hot-drink, by penance. 


Ppp. appears to have read in a sut^a ruhanta; in b it has dhdma instead of nibhim; 
and it ends d with ya^asd tapasvyd. The comm. has jesma (^—jayemd) in c |_instead 
oi gesma {Skt, Gram, § 894 c)J; gharma is to him once more "the blazing sun." 
|_As to the stock-phrase in c, cf. Bloomfield, AJP. xvii. 419.J The verse (10+ 11 : 
10 + 13=44) is a very poor tristubh. 

7. Indra by form, Agni by carrying {ydha), Prajapati, Parameshthin, 

Viraj ; in Vi9vanara he strode, in Vai9vanara he strode, in the draft-ox 

he strode ; he made firm, he sustained. 

This is the obscurest verse of this obscure hymn, and no attempt will be made to 
solve its riddles. Ppp. has a quite different text : indro balend *sya paramesthl vra- 
tendi *na gdus tena vdiqvadevdh : yo *smdn dvesti yam ca vayatn dvismas tasya 
prdndn asavahes tasya prdndn vi varhah. The two concluding clauses of our text 
most obviously belong with vs. 7 rather than vs. 8, and both editions so class them ; 
but SPP. states that all his authorities reckon them to vs. 8, ending vs. 7 with the 
third akramata (which some of the mss., including our P.M.W.E.O.Op., mutilate to 
akramat). He adds that the Anukr. does the same ; but this is evidently an oversight, 
our mss. of the Anukr. calling vs. 8 a simple anustubh {madhyam etad anaduha iti 
pahcd *nustubhah) and giving of vs. 7 a lengthy definition (see above), implying the 
division 9+10 : 8+8+8 : 12=55 (restoring both times the elided initial a in f ) ; perhaps, 
then, SPP. is also mistaken in regard to the unanimity of his "mss. and Vaidikas"; 
at any rate, part of our mss. (Bp.I.H.Op.K.) divide with the editions. The comm., 
however, does not ; as, indeed, he is repeatedly at discordance with the Anukr. on such 
points. He explains vdha in a as " the part that carries (j'ahati) the yoke ; the 
shoulder," and has nothing of any value to say as to the general sense of the verse. 
LThe identification of the draft-ox with Agni seems to rest on Agni*s chief function of 
" carrying " ; cf . RV. x. 5 1 . 5 d ; 52. i d, 3 d, 4 a. J 

8. That is the middle of the draft-ox, where this carrying {ydlid) is 

set; so much of him is in front {prdctfta) as he is put all together on 

the opposite side. 

The virtual meaning of the second half-verse appears plainly to be that the two 
parts of the ox, before and behind the point where the pull comes (i.e. where the yoke 
rests) are equal ; but it is strangely expressed, and the reason why the point is insisted 
on does not appear. The comm. so understands it : evam prdkpratyagbhdgdv ubhdv 
api samdndu; he renders vaha this time by bhdra; Ludwig takes it as " the hump." 
Lin this verse, b can hardly mean " where the pull comes," but rather * where the burden 
is put,* i.e. the back; cf. Deussen, I.e., p. 231. Nevertheless, see BR. under vaha^ 2 a 
and 2 b.J 

9. Whoso knows the milkings of the draft -ox, seven, unfailing, both 
progeny and world he obtains : so the seven seers know. 

Ppp. reads anapadasyatas both here (b) and at 12 d ; it also combines saptars- in d, 
as does the cOmm., and a couple of SPP's authorities. For consistency, our text ought 
to combine in a-b ddhdnt s- ; SPP. also leaves out here the connecting /. The comm. 
explains the seven milkings or yields of milk alternatively as ** the seven cultivated plants, 
rice etc." or "the seven worlds and oceans" — not happening, apparently, to think of 
any other heptad at the moment. He quotes the names of the seven seers from A^va- 
layana. |_The number of this vs. is misprinted.J 


ID. With his feet treading down debility (sedi)^ with his thighs 

(Jdnghd) extracting {ut-kkid) refreshing drink — with weariness go the 

draft-ox and the plowman unto sweet drink (ktldld). 

The verse seems rather out of place here. As both n and m final are assimilated to 
an initial palatal, the pada-XKxt commits the blunder in b of understanding irdm to be 
for irdn; and, as is usual in such cases, a part of our mss. read irdnj- (so P.M.W.E.I.) ; 
SPP. very properly emends his pada-XtxX, to ir&m. The comm. reads in d kindqasya 
for-ftff ca (one of SPP's authorities following him : " with the old accent," SPP. remarks, 
as if the change of reading involved a change of accent), and makes gachatas a genitive 
agreeing with it — against the accent ; but this he regularly ignores. Iram^ it may be 
added, he glosses with hhUmim I 

11. Twelve, indeed, they declare those nights of the vow i^vrdtyd) of 
Prajapati ; whoso knows the brdhman within them (tdtrd *pa) — that 
verily is the vow of the draft-ox. 

Or, " those twelve nights they declare to be for the vow " etc. : it is uncertain what is 
object and what objective predicate in the sentence. Ppp. reads and combines vrdtyd 
" hus pr- in b ; for the unusual phrase tatro *pa in c it gives tad vd ^pi; and in d it has 
balam instead of vratam. For Weber's conjectures as to the twelve nights and the 
draft-ox of this hymn, see his Omina und Portenta^ p. 388 ; compare also LWeber's 
other references, Ind. Stud, xviii. 45, andj Zimmer, p. 366. The comm. glosses vratya 
by vratdrha^ and quotes TS. v. 6. 7* as to the twelve nights of consecration. 

12. He milks (duti) at evening, he milks in the morning, he milks 
about midday ; the milkings of him that come together, those unfailing 
ones we know. 

Ppp. has for a, b duhe vd *nadvdn sdyatn duhe prdiar duhe divd^ and at the end 
(as above noted) anapadasyatas. The comm. supplies to duhe either anadvdham as 
object (with the worshiper as subject), or anadvdn as subject (with the performer of 
the sava sacrifice as beneficiary) ; sam yanii he explains by phalena samgacchante. 

12. To heal serious wounds: with an herb. 

\Rbhu. — vdnaspatyam . dnustubham : 1. j-/. gdyairi ; 6, j-p. yavamadhyd bhuriggdyatri ; 

7. brhati.'\ 

Found in Paipp. iv. (in the verse-order 3-5, i, 2, 7, 6). Used by Kau^. (28. 5) in a 
healing rite: Ke^ava and the comm. agree in saying, for the prevention of flow of 
blood caused by a blow from a sword or the like ; boiled /dksd'Vr^ittr is to be poured on 
the wound etc. The schol. to Kau^. 28. 14 also regard the hymn as included among 
the Idksdlingds prescribed to be used in that rule. 

Translated: Kuhn, KZ. xiii. 58, with Germanic parallels; Ludwig, p. 508; Grill, 18, 
125; Griffith, i. 146 ; Bloomfield, 19, 384 ; Weber, xviii. 46. — Cf. Hillebrandt, Veda- 
chrestomathie^ p. 48. 

I. Grower art thou, grower ; grower of severed bone ; make this grow, 

O arundhati. 

Arundhaity lit. ' non-obstructing,^ appears to be the name of a climbing plant having 
healing properties ; it is mentioned more than once elsewhere, and in v. 5 (vss. 5 and 9) 
along .with Idksd (vs. 7) * lac ' ; and the comm. to the present hymn repeatedly declares 


Idksd to be the healing substance referred to in it ; probably it is a product of the 
arundhatl, Ppp. has every time rohinl instead of rohanl^ and so the comm. also reads ; 
the manuscripts of Kiu^., too, give rohinl in the pratika, as does the schol. under 28. 14. 
There is evident punning upon the name and the causative rohaya- * make grow * ; perhaps 
the true reading of a is rdhany asi rohini < thou art a grower, O red one,* bringing in the 
color of the lac as part of the word-play ; the comm. assumes rohini^ voc., at end of a 
{he lohitavarne l&kse), Ppp. further reads qlrnasya instead of chinndsya; and has, 
in place of our c, rohinydm arha did 'si rohinyd *sy osadhe^ making the verse an 
anustubh. The comm. gives asnas for asthnas in b. 

2. What of thee is torn («V)» what of thee is inflamed {? dyut), is 
crushed (? p/s(ra) in thyself — may Dhatar excellently put that together 
again, joint with joint. 

Ppp. reads in a flrnam for ristam; it reads id **tmanah in b ; and in c, d it has tai 
sarvam kalpaydt sam dadat. The comm. (with one of SPP*s mss.) reads prestham 
(^= priyatamam) for the obscure pistram in b (found elsewhere only in vi. 37. 3 below, 
where the comm. has pestam) ; the conjecture " bone " of the Pet. Lex. seems alto- 
gether unsatisfactory ; it is rendered above as if from pis. The comm. paraphrases 
dyutidm by dyotitamy vedanayd prajvalitam iva^ which seems acceptable. 

3. Let thy marrow come together with marrow, and thy joint together 
with joint ; together let what of thy flesh has fallen apart, together let 
thy bone grow over. 

Ppp. rectifies the meter of a by omitting /^, and has for d |_? b ? J samstrdvam asu 
parva te, A few of the mss. (including our H.O.Op.) give vi^rastam in c. The comm. 
reads ^am instead of sam in every pada. A couple of SPP's mss., by a substitution 
found also elsewhere |_see ii. 1 2. 7, note J, have manyi for majjhi in a. The Anukr. 
ignores the redundant syllable in the first pada. 

4. Let marrow be put together with marrow ; let skin (cdrtnan) grow 
(ruK) with skin; let thy blood, bone grow; let flesh grow with flesh. 

The third pada is translated as it stands |_cf. vs. 5 cj, but we can hardly avoid 
emending dsrk to asthni^ or else dsthi to asniy to agree with the others ; the comm. 
|_a8 an alternative J fills it out to two parallel expressions, for both blood and bone. 
Ppp. has, for b-d : asthnd *sthi vi rohaiu sndva te sam dadhmas sndvnd carmand 
carma rohatu, 

5. Fit thou together hair with hair; fit together skin {tvdc) with skin; 

let thy blood, bone grow ; put together what is severed, O herb. 

The prolongation of the final vowel of a pida is so anomalous that we can hardly 
help regarding kalpayd in a as wrong, perhaps imitated from b ; Ppp. avoids the dif!i- 
culty by reading in a sam dhlyatdm. |_For c, compare vs. 4.J Ppp. also has for d 
our 4 d. 

6. Do thou here stand up, go forth, run forth, a chariot well-wheeled, 
well-tired, well-naved ; stand firm upright. 

Ppp. is very different : ut tistha pre 'hi samudhd hi te paruh: sam te dhdtd dadhdtu 
tan no viristam rathasya cakra py upavaryathdir yathdi *ti sukhasya ndbhis prati 
tistha evam. The Anukr. scans the verse as 9+1 1 :5=25 syllables. 


7. If, falling into a pit, he hath been crushed {sam-(r), or if a stone 
hurled {pra-hr) hath smitten [him] — as a Rbhu the parts of a chariot, 
may it put together joint with joint. 

A number of the mss. (including our P.M.O.Op.) read kdrtum for kartdm in a ; 
the comm. explains kartam as meaning kartakam chedakam dyudham^ and makes it 
subject of sathqaqri =^ sathhinasti; he takes rbhus as one of the three Rbhus (quoting 
RV. i. 1 1 1. 1), not giving the word any general sense. Ppp. again has an independent 
text : yddi vajro visrsid sihdrakd jdtu patitrd yadi vd ca ristam : vrksdd vdyadi vd 
vibhyasi (irsa rbhiir iti sa evam sam dhdmi te paruh. The verse is a brhatl only by 
number of syllables (10+10 :8+8=36). LThe comm. makes the "Atharvanic spell" 
the subject in d.J 

13. For healing. 

[ Qamtdti, — cdndramasam uta vdifvadrvam . dnustubham .] 

Found in Paipp. v. (in the verse-order i, 5, 2-4, 6, 7). Vss. 1-5, 7 are in RV. x. 137, 
and vs. 6 occurs elsewhere in RV. x. Only vss. 1-3 have representatives in Yajur- 
Veda texts. The hymn is called qamtdtiya in Kau^. (9. 4), in the list of the laghuqdnti 
gana hymns ; and our comm. to i. 4 counts it also to the brhackdnti gana (reading in 
Kaug. 9. I uta devds for the tad eva of the edited text), but he makes no mention of it 
here ; he further declares it to belong among the ahholingds (for which see Kau^. 32. 27, 
note); the schol., on the other hand, put it in the dyusyagana (54.11, note). It is 
used (58.3,11) in the ceremonies for long life that follow the initiation of a Vedic 
student. In Vait. (38. i) it appears, with ii. 33 and iii. 11 etc., in a healing ceremony 
for a sacrificer Lsee comm. J who falls ill. 

Translated: by the RV. translators; and Aufrecht, . ZDMG. xxiv. 203 ; Griffith, 
i. 147 ; Weber, xviii. 48. — See Lanman's Reader^ p. 390. 

1. Both, O ye gods, him that is put down, O ye gods, ye lead up 
again, and him that hath done evil (dgas)^ O ye gods, O ye gods, ye make 
to live again. 

Found without variant as RV. x. 137. i, and also in MS. (iv. 14. 2.) But Ppp. reads 
uddharatd for un nayathd in b, and its second half- verse is tato manusyath tarn devd 
devds krnuta jlvase. The comm. explains avahitam as dharmavisaye sdvadhanam^ 
apramattam^ or alternatively, avasthdpitam ; supplying to it kuruta^ and making of b 
an independent sentence, with double interpretation ; and he says something in excuse 
of the four-fold repetition of the vocative. 

2. These two winds blow from the river as far as the distance ; let 
the one blow hither dexterity for thee; let the other blow away what 
complaint (rdpas) [thou hast]. 

Besides RV. (vs. 2), TB. (ii. 4. I7) and TA. (iv. 42. i, vs. 6) have this verse. Both 
accent in c dvdtu, as does SPP's text, and as ours ought to do, since all the mss. so 
read, and the accent is fully justified as an antithetical one ; our text was altered to agree 
with the a vdtu of RV., which is less observant of the antithetical accent than AV., as 
both alike are far less observant of it than the Brahmanas. All the three other texts 
have pdrd for vi at beginning of d ; and TB.TA. give me instead of te in c. The 
second pada is translated in attempted adaptation to the third and fourth ; of course, 


the two ablatives with a might properly be rendered coordinately, and either * hither 
from ' or ' hence as far as ' ; the comm. takes both in the latter sense. 

3. Hither, O wind, blow healing; away, O wind, blow what complaint 

[there is] ; for thou, all-healing one, goest [as] messenger of the gods. 

TB.TA. (as above) put this verse before the one that precedes it here and in RV. 
All the three read in c vigvdbhesajas^ and Ppp. intends to agree with them (^-bhejajo de-). 
The comm. offers an alternative explanation of devSndm in which it is understood as 
= indriy&n&m * the senses.' |_Von Schroeder gives a, b, Tiibinger Katha-hss,^ p. 1 15. J 

4. Let the gods rescue this man, let the troops of Maruts rescue, let 

all beings rescue, that this man may be free from complaints. 

In RV., this verse and the following one change places. In a, RV. reads ihd for 
tmdm, and in b the sing, triyatdm . . . gandh, Ppp. ends b with maruto gandihy and 
d with agado *sati. The first pida is defective unless we make a harsh resolution of a 
long d. We had d above as i. 22. 2 c. 

5. I have come unto thee with wealfulnesses, likewise with uninjured- 
nesses ; I have brought for thee formidable dexterity ; I drive (su) away 
for thee the ydksma. 

The RV. text has in c te bhadrdm i *bhdfsams both editions give the false form 
d ^bhdrisanty because this time all the mss. (except our E.p.m.) chance to read it ; in 
such cases they are usually divided between the two forms, and we need not have 
scrupled to emend here ; the comm. has -rsam, Ppp. reads in c te bhadram drisath^ 
and, for d, pard suvdmy dnuyat, 

6. This is my fortunate hand, this my more fortunate one, this my 
all-healing one ; this is of propitious touch. 

This is, without variant, RV. x. 60. 1 2 ; it takes in our hymn the place of RV. x. 137. 6. 

7. With (two) ten-branched hands — the tongue [is] forerunner of 
voice — with (two) disease-removing hands : with them do we touch 

RV. (vs. 7) has for c, d andmayitnubhydth tvd tibhydtk tvd ^pa spr^dmasi. The 
Anukr. takes no notice of the redundancy in our c. 

14. With the sacrifice of a goat. 

\^Bhrgu. — navarcam, djyamy dgneyam. trdistubham : 2^ 4. anustubh ; j. prastdrapankti ; 

Verses 1-6 are found also in Pdipp. iii. (in the verse-order i, 2, 5, 4, 6, 3), and in 
various Yajur-Veda texts (vss. i and 6 not in company with the rest) ; vss. 7-9, in 
Piipp. xvi. The hymn is used in K^u^. (64. 23 ff.) in the sava sacrifices, with goat 
or goat-rice-mess (ajdudana) as sava: vss. 2-4, at 68.24-27 (and also, the comm. 
says, in recitation in all sava sacrifices) ; vs. 5, at 63. 9 (the comm. says, with oblation 
in all) ; vs. 6, at 64. 17; vs. 7 (vss. 7 and 8, according to the comm.), at 64. 18-20 
(with setting up the goat); vs. 9, at 64. 22 (with offering the skin having head and feet 
left attached to it). In V^it, vs. i is used (29. 3) in the agnicayana^ with building in 
a goat's head ; vss. 2-5 (29. 1 7), in the same ceremony as the priests mount the altar ; 


vs. 5 (8. 17), in the parvan sacrifices, with transfer of the fires, and again, in the 
agnistoma (15. 9), when the fire is brought to the uttaravedi; and the comm. regards 
vs. 3 as quoted at 27. 6, in the vdjapeya rite. 

Translated: Griffith, i. 149; Weber, xviii. 51 (elaborate comment). 

1. Since the goat has been born from the heat of Agni (the fire), 

it saw [its] generator in the beginning ; by it the gods in the beginning 

attained (/) [their] godhead; by (with?) it the sacrificial ones {m/dkya) 

ascended the ascents (roha). 

Found also in VS. (xiii. 51), MS. (ii. 7. 17 ; like VS. throughout), and TS. (iv. 2. io4). 
VS. and MS. have in c, d devdt&m dgram Ryans Una rdham Syann up a midh-, TS. has 
at the beginning aja^ and, correspondingly, sA (with v&i added) in b, and tdyd in c and 
d ; it also reverses the order of c and d, agreeing otherwise with VS. MS. in d, but having 
dgre^ like A V., in c ; it also replaces qdMt by gdrbh&t in a. We have a again below as 
ix. 5. 13 a; and c is nearly equivalent to iii. 22.3 c: moreover the /a^-mss., here as 
there, misinterpret &yah before Una as Ayam^ which SPP. properly corrects to &yan 
in his/a^-text ; all our samhitd-vass, read dyan. The comm. declares hi in a to be 
intended to intimate that the same statement was made in another text also ; and he 
quotes TS. ii. 1. 14; rdha he explains by svargddiloka; Una he takes both times as 
designating the means. The Anukr. takes no notice of the deficiency of a syllable in b. 
LAs to ajd^ see Weber, Berliner Sd,, 1895, p. 847 n.J 

2. Stride ye with the fire to the firmament (ndka), bearing in your 
hands vessel-[fires] (tikAya) ; having gone to the back of the sky, to the 
heaven (svdr), sit ye mingled with the gods. 

The other texts (VS. xvii.65; TS. iv.6. 5'; MS. ii. 10.6) difiEer but slightly from 
ours : all have the sing, ukhyam at beginning of b, and TS.MS. combine divdh p- 
in c. Ppp. reads agnibhis in a, and eksdrh for Hkhydn in b ; for the latter, the comm. 
(with one of SPP*s mss.) gives aksdn^ which he defines as aksavat prakdqakdn anu- 
sthiidn yajfidn. As usual, the mss. vary at the end between the equivalent ddhvam 
and dddhvamj our text reads the latter, SPP's the former. 

3. From the back of earth I have ascended to the atmosphere ; from 
the atmosphere I have ascended to the sky ; from the back of the sky, 
of the firmament {ndka), I have gone to heaven {svdr)y to light. 

The other three texts (VS. xvii. 67; TS. and MS. as above) agree in omitting 
prsthat in a and adding ud after ahdm before anidriksam. In this verse, the comm. 
takes svdr^& the sun (in vs. 2, as the svarga lokd). It is too irregular (14+9 17+8 = 38) 
to be so simply defined as it is by the Anukr. |_If we omit the first ahdm, and combine 
dtvaruham in b and resolve -adt suar in cd, we get an or dtr\y pur as tddi>rhatt,\ 

4. Going to heaven (svdr) they look not away ; they ascend to the 
sky, the two firmaments {rddast) — they who, well-knowing, have 
extended the everywhere-streaming sacrifice. 

The other texts (VS. xvii. 68; TS. and MS. as above) have no variants; but Ppp. 
ends b with rohantu rddhasah. The comm. again takes svar as svarga ; and viqvato- 
dhdram as either sarvato dhdrakam or else sarvato ^vicchinnaphalaprdptyupdyd 


5. O Agni, go forth first of the divinities, eye of gods and of human 

beings (mdnusa) — pressing on (? fyaksa-) in unison with the Bhrgus, 

let the sacrificers go to heaven (svdr), to well-being. 

The other texts (VS. xvii. 69 ; TS. and MS. as above) all read mdrty&n&m at end of 
b; and for devdt&n&m in a VS.TS. have de^iayatam^ MS. devAyatim; and Ppp. also 
reads martydndm and devayatdm ; in c, MS. has sahd for sajdsds. The comm. para- 
phrases caksus by caksurindriyavat priyah^ and iyaksamdnds hy yasium icchantah, 

6. With milk, with ghee, I anoint the goat, the heavenly eagle, milky, 

great ; by it may we go to the world of the well-done, ascending the 

heaven {svdr), unto the highest firmament {ndka), 

TS. (iv. 7. 13) and MS. (ii. 12.3) have a parallel verse, with which Ppp. also corre- 
sponds in the first half : agnim (Ppp. -nlm) yunajmi qdvasd ghrtina divydm supar- 
ndm (Ppp. samudratn) vdyasd (MS. vayasdmj but Ppp. payasam) hrhdntam (Ppp. 
ruhaniam) ; as second half, they read : t^na vaydm patema bradhndsya vistdpam 
suvo (MS. svb) rtkhdnd ddhi naka uttami^ while Ppp. differs from our text only by 
having at beginning of d saruhdnd adhi. The second half-verse is repeated below as 
xi. 1. 37 c d. The comm. reads in b payasam^ but regards it as vayasam with Vedic 
substitution of / iox v\ svdr this time is either svarga or sHrydtmakam paramam 
jyotih. The tristubh is irregular in its last two padas. [^Pronounce gd-isma in c (? in 
spite of Gram, § 894 c, end). Pada d is simply acatalectic. Ought we perhaps to read 
sudrdh'^ i.e. suar rdh- (root ruh without J, as at x. 2. 8 ; xii. 3. 42 ; xix. 6. 2)?J 

7. Accompanied by five rice-messes (-odand), by the five fingers, with 

the spoon,