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8ARAT CHANDRA DAS, Rai Bahadur, CLE., 


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Alex. Csoka db EOfiOs, the pioneer student ot Tibetan, in the 
preface of his Tibetan-EnglisL-IHotionary, pnUiahed in 1884| wrote 
ai follows : — 

''When there shaH be more interest taken for Baddhiam (whidi 
has much in oonunon with the spirit of tme Christianity) and for 
f^fffnaing Christian and Enfopepn knowledge thronghoat the most 
eastern parts of Asia, the Tibetan Dictionary may be much im« 
proredi enlscrged, and illostrated by the addition of Sanskrit terms.*' 

The result of his inrestigationsi to speak in Csoma^s own words, was 
Hiat the literature of Tibet is entirely of Indian origin. The im- 
ueuM Tolnmes on different branches of scienoei etc., being exact 
or faithful translations from Sanskrit works, taken from Bengal, Magadha, 
Gangetic or Central India, Kashmir, and Nepal, commencing from the 
seventh century after Christ. And that many of these works hare been 
translated (mostly from Tibetan) into the Mongol, Manchui and tbe 
Chinese languages ; so that by this means the Tibetan language became 
in Chinese Tartary the language of the learned as the Latin in Europe. 
In the year 1889 I brought these opinions of that original inrestiga* 
tor to the notice of Sir Alfred Croft, K.O.I.S., the then Director of Publio 
Instruction in Bengal, and explained to himthenecessity of compiling 
a Tibetan-E!ngliah Dictionary on the lines indicated by Csoma da KdrOs 
for the use of Tibetan students and particularly to assbt European 
sdiolars in the thorough exploration of the yast literature of Tibetf 
which, besides indigenous works, comprises almost all the Buddhist 
religious works of India, including the great collections of the Edkgffwr 
and the Tan^ur. Shortly before this Sir Alfred Croft had recdved a 
communication from the late Right Hon'ble Professor F. Max Miilier on 
the desirabOity of translating into English a Sanskrit-Tibetan work 
on Buddhist terminology, which was looked for with interest, because 
it was expected to throw light on many obscure points of Buddhist- 
Sanskrit literature. The philosophical terms of that literature, many 


oi whioh were of extremely donbtfnl meaning, had been translated 
with literal accuracy into Tibetan in early times, and it was antiei* 
pated that an analysis of the zneaning of these terms would elucidate 
that of the original Sanskrit words, of which thdy were the equiyalent 
renderings. Being impressed with the importance of the proposed work, 
Sir Alfred Croft, in a memorandum addressed to Qoyernment, wrote 
as follows':— 

'^BabuSarat Chandra Das has brought with him four dictionaries 
of the classical Tibetan; *one of these being a well-known Tibetan- 
Sanskrit Dictionary, compiled from a large nttmber of named Tibetan 
as weU as standard Sanskrit works, and dating from the 13th century 
A,D., and another being a Sanskrit-T ibetan Dictionary, which explains 
the Tantrik portion of the Buddhist Scriptures. The external arrange- 
ment of, the dictionary will be as follows:— The Tibetan words will 
be placed first in alphabetical order; next their accepted Sanskrit 
equiyalents; next the English rendering of the Tibetan terms; then 
will follow what is to ba a special and valuable feature of the new 
dictionary. The meaning of each technical term is to be illustrated 
by extracts, with exact references from Sanskrit-Buddhist and Tibetan 
works. Further, it is proposed that Babu Sarat Chandra Das should 
include in the dictionary words of modem Tibetan which were not 
known to Csoma or Jftschke. The materials which he has amassed 
during his two journeys to and residence in Tibet give him excep- 
tional facilities for making the work complete.'' 

These recommendations having received the sanction of Government 
in June 1889, I was placed on special duty in connection with the 
compilation of the proposed dictionary. In 1899, when the work of 
compilation was brought to a close, the Hon'ble Mr. C. W. Bolton, c.8.i., 
then Chief Secretary to the Government of Bengal, entrusted the revision 
of the work to the Revd. Graham Sandberg and Bevd. William Heyde, 
and deputed Professor Satis Chandra Acharya, m.a«, who had made Buddhist 
Sanskrit and Pali works his special study, to co-operate Mrith me. My 
respectful thanks are, therefore, due to Sir Alfred Croft for the keen 
interest he took in my Tibetan studies and for his kind help at the inception 
of the work, and to Mr. Bolton for securing the services of the two 
Tibetan scholars — ^the Bevd. Graham Sandberg and Revd. William Heyde 
^f or its successful completion. I also record my obligations to Sir John 


Edgar, kx.i.e«, formerly Chief Secretary to the Qo vemment of Bengal ; to 
Dr. Emil Schlagintweit of Bavariai and to the Hon'ble W. W, Bockhillf 
Author of Th$ Zand of LamM for encouragement, ani^taneei and advice 
during the prosecution of my researches. Great is the debt of gratitude 
which I owe to the Revd. G. Sandberg for various acts of kindness. 
Without his scholarly and efficient .aid this work would hardly have assumed 
its present shape, as he has given a scientific finish to the work which 
it was not in my power to do. 


In studying the origin and growth of Tibetan literature and the 
landnuirks in the history of that language, Jaschke, the compiler of the 
second Tibetan-English Dictionary (published in 1883), noticed only two 
periods of literary activity, Qad that critical student of Tibetan be^i 
in possession of works of modem literature, which datee from the 
establishment of the Dalai Lama's sovereignty over whole Tibet in the 
beginning of the 18th century A.D., he would certainly have modified 
his remarks on the subject. Neither he nor Csoma de K5r{5s had any 
means or opportunities of studying either the current literature of every* 
day business or the refined, idiomatic literature of* Tibet itself, which 
is quite distinct from the Indian literature that was translated or 
imported into the language. They do not seem to have ever during 
the course of their study of Tibetan come across works on drama, 
fiction, correspondence, etc. . It is, therefore, no wonder that the compiler 
of file later dictionary should assign only two periods to the history 
of tha literature of Hbet, entirely ignoring the third, which is indeed 
not the least important of the three. 

The first period, to describe it in the language of JSschke, is 
the Period of Translations, which, however, might also be entitled the 
C9assical Period, for the sanctity of the religious message conferred 
a correq[K)nding reputation and tradition of excellence upon the 
form in which it was conveyed. This period begins in the second 
half of the seventh century A.D,, when Thon^mi Scmbhofa (the 
good Bhota or Tibetan), the minister of King Srongtsan Gampo, 
returned to Tibet after studying the Sanskrit language under an 
eminent Brahman teacher of Magadha. ^'His invention of the Tibetan 
alphabet gave two-fold impulse: for several centuries the wisdom of 

w «  


India ami the ingenuity of Tibel laboured in. uniaon and with the 
greatest industry and ei thnaiasm at the work of translation. Tbe 
tribute due to real genius must be accorded to these early pioneers 
of Tibetan, grammar. They had to grapple with infinite wealth and 
refinement of Sanskrit; they had to save the independence of their 
own tongue, while they strore to subject it to the rule of scientific 
principles, and it is most remarkable how they managed to prodnce 
translations at once literal and faithful to the spirit of the original.*^ 

Tbe Classical Period may be divided into three stages. The first 
or the earliest stage terminated with the downfall of the first histor- 
ical monarchy, when King Langdarma fell by the hand of an 
aasassin. The second stage commenced with the introduction of tbe 
system of chronology, called the Vrihaspati cycle of 60 years, in 
Tibet by an Indian Buddhist called Chandra Nath and Chilu Pandit 
of Tibet in 1025 A.D. This was the age of Milaraspa and Atisa, 
whose illustrious disciple, Brom-ton Gyalwai Jungn^, laid the founda- 
tion of the first Buddhist Hierarchy in Tibet and established the 
great monastery of Rwadeng, with a library of Sanskrit works. Jaschke's 
second period evidently corresponds with this stage, when ^^ Tibetan 
authors began to indulge * in composition of their own" and wrote 
on historical and legendary subjects. The third stage began with 
the conquest of Tibet by the Tartar Conqueror, Chingis Khan, in 
1205 A.D., when Pandit S'ak^a S'ri of Kashmir had returned to Tibet 
after witnessing the plunder and destruction of the great Buddhist 
monasteries of Odantapuri and Vikrama S^Ua in Magadha, and the conquest 
of Bengal and Behar by the Mahomedans under Baktyar Ghilji in 
1203 A.D. In this last stage flourished the grand hierarchy of Sakya, 
which obtained supreme influence over Tibet and the country, which was 
then diyided into 13 provinces, called Thikor Chusum, as a gift from 
the immediate successors of Chingis Khan. Among the most noted 
writers of the time were Sakva Pandit Kungah Qyal-tshan, Dogon 
Phag-pa, the spiritual tutor of Emperor Khubli Khan, and Shongton 
Lotsawa, who translated the Eavyadar6a of Dandi and Kshemendra's 
AvudSna Kalpalata in metrical Tibetan. With the opening of the 15th 
century Buton-Riuchen DUb introduced a new era in the literature of 
Tibet, and Buddhism received fresh impulse under the rule of the 
Phagmodu chiefs, ^vhen Tibetan scholars took largely to the study of 


Chinese literature under the auspices of the Ming Emporors of Ghina« 
During this period| called the age of Da-nying (old orthography), the great 
indigenous literature of Tibet arose* A host of leaiued LotsSwas and 
scholars like Tsongkbapai Buton, Gjralwa Ngapa, Lama TarSnatha, 
Desri Bangye Oyatsho, Sumpa Khampo, and others flourished* This 
was the age of the Gelug-pa, or the Yellow Cap School of Buddhism, 
founded by Tsongkhapa with Qahdau as its head*quarters. 

The third period begins with the first quarter of the 1 8th centaryi 
when Chinese suaserainty over Tibet was fully established and the 
last of the Tartar kiugs of the dynasty of Gushi Khan was killed 
by a General of the Jungar Tartars — an incident which transferred 
the soTereigbty of Tibet to the Dalai Lama» who was till then a mere 
bierarch of the Gelug-pa Church. It is within this period that 
Tibet has enjoyed unprecedented peace under the benign sway of 
the holy Bodhisattvasi and .its language has become the linffua 
frmea of Higher Asia. 

Ikasa TXUI9 J>AMnmu9B9 
Jnh 1909, 




When in December 1899 the Chief Seoretaiy to the QoTemment of 
Bengal handed oyer to ns for revision the Tibetan Dioiioncry upon which 
Satat Chandra Das had laboured for some dosen yean, we fooud at our 
diqxxaal a work embracing a maai of new and important collections on 
{he language, the valne of which was marred by two prominent ^diaracter- 
ifltics'— jSrt^y the material had been put together in somewhat heteroge- 
neous fashion, hardly systematic enough for a dictionary ; seamdfyj the 
Tast amount of original matter had been throughout gready interlarded 
with lengthy excerpts from Jiischke's Dictionary, not always separaUe from 
the new infonnation, and this imparted a second-hand appearance to large 
portions of the work, which was, in reality, by no means deserved. 
Moveover, in this way, no atten^pt had been made to improve upon 
JSschke's definitions of many of the commoner Buddhist philosopldca] 
tenns or to incorporate the later results of European scholarship in these 
mstanoes. On the other hand, one was very often gratified to find, in the 
case of the more diflicult philosophical terminology, that the learned 
Bengali had gone to original and Uttle-ezplored sources of native inf orma- 
tioD, snoh as Tsongkhapa's Lam^rim Chhenmo^ and, by extracts from the 
same, furnished valuable and novel particulars under those heads. 

Accordingly, the task which the Kevisort set themselves ww directed 
mainly to counteracting the errors of judgment above indicated. Such a 
task proved one of a more laborious character than might be at first 
imagined ; and the fact that the work of amendment and addition has 
taken them npwards of two years of incessant toil sufficiently evidences 
its difficulty. 

Fir$i^ has come the business of selection and excision. The religion 
and philosophy of Tibetan books are properly confined to the Bon cult 
and to Buddhism. There had been, however, a tendency here to draw 
in all manner of Hindu thought and mythology, because one or two works 
tpttislatfld into Tibetan from the Sanskrit dealt with tiiese matters. Tliis 


tendency it seemed right to curb except in those instances, not at all 
infrequent, where the Vedic and Puranic Hinduism, in some measure, was 
bound np with, or bore upon, or explained, Buddhist belief or popular practice. 


repehfaon of other«ru» properly-mtrodaced hrfonnation. 8ec<mdh,, oi 
taA has been one of gubrtitution. Many articles have had to be freshly 
^tt^ « at least reHJompiled. In place <rf the innumerable exoerpte 
from Jaschke, already referred to, we have had to examine and to treat A 
novo the grammar and general usage of a large nnmber of the commoner 
noun, adjectives and verbs, notably the verbs. To iUustrate these 
new artides, we have had to substitute for Jilschke's examples a fe«e 
number of original quotations from Tibetan authors as well as a oert4 
number of made-up sentences put together to exhibit . various phrases 
of ordinary employment. In othw articles, also, where Sarat Chandra Das 
had not thought It necessary to do more than repeat Csoma's or JSschke's 
lUustnitive sentences, we have looked oat fresh example, to replace them. 
Of stiU greater importance was it in the case of certain doctrinal terms 
and phrases of Buddhism to undertake re-definition and to connote and 
assimilate modem discussion and research on the subject. Among those 

^J^'T' r^' r*!^""'' ^'^'^^'''^ *4.*^iW«. BuT while 
r^emng to these substitations and others o< a like nature, we do 

^tltf .rT- T. T'^ ^"^ ^^"^^ ^^^ "P««* that, in the 

TT- L ^^T^ ^"^^"^ *^' ^« ^^^ ^^ fr«q«e»«y -"Prised 
and mstructed by the descriptions and explanations^ reconditVidea. 

and terms which Sarat Chandra Da. has himself succeeded in collecting 
W vmous nahve authorities. Such information would have sufficed tf 
^fj^°*~f'«'^«» confused it by the sudden and inconsequent linking 
on of Jdschke's remarks without curteihnent and without any connotetion 
of them to that which he had himself just set out. Thirdly, in the way of 
direct addition to the original work, there have been certain moderate sup. 
plementary contributions. Jaschke had dealt very fully with the Westeni 
colloquial, and we have sought to introduce a number of the colloquial 
words and phiases belonging to the Cential and Eastern speech. Other 
addons have been short paragraphs on the mythological pantheon of 
Tibet and Mongolia, together with an attempt to give exact information 
on soological and geographical pointe. 

It may be considered by some that there is a certain lack of reierence 
to known authorities in support of many of the statemento set forth in 



language so little explored as the Tibetan (or which, indeed, in one narrow 
groove — ^that of the Kahgyur translations from Sanskrit — ^has, in some sense, 
been over-explored), the diffioolty is to find adequate authorities for the 
real and more current uses of words and phrases. The stilted verbiage 
of the Kahgyur is often mere Sanskrit idiom literally reudered into 
Tibetan, but it gives no idea of the elastic style to be found In the innumer* 
able indigenous productions of native Tibetan writers. Sarat Chandra 
Das has held familiar intercourse with modem men of learning in Tibet 
itaelf — ^the professors at Tashi-lhunpo, Daipung, Samyo, Mindolliogi and 
other important monastic institutions. Much, therefore, has been gleaned 
by him which, though absolutely reliable, cannot be given on any stated 
authority, but must be accepted as information obtained at first hand and 
now presented for the first time. This frank acceptance should also be 
extended to much with which the Revisers have been able to supplement 
the Auihor'fr original work. Both of them have been located for lengthy 
periods where Tibetan is the language of the people of the place, and have 
been in constant communication with men from Lhasa and all parts 
of Tibet. Under such circumstances, '^ authorities " cannof of course 
be quoted. 

In dealing with philosophical terms, and in general with the forms to 
be met with both in the old classical works and in modern treatises, it 
will certainly b^ found, however, that our examples are constantly 
supported by exact references. These have been takeo from writings 
of cJl kinds. Hitherto European scholars seem to have thought of .the 
literature of Tibet as one consisting wholly of Sanskritic translation and as 
limited to the contents of the Kahgyur and Tangyur. The Author and 
the Revisofs have endeavoured, by widening the sources of their quota- 
tions, to show how extensive a field is covered by medissval and modem 
Tibetan writers. Geography, history, biography, political government, 
accounts, astrc^gy, are aU represented It may be remarked, for example 
that the official biographies of the successive Dalai Lamas alone fill some 
32 volumes. Nevertheless, although these scarce memoirs are included 
in Sarat Chandra Das's library, we are sorry to point out . that none of 
his examples appear to have been taken therefrom. 

Knowing, however, how scanty u the range of Tibetan works avail- 
able to the majority of students, we have not failed to quote largely in 
our examples from the Kahgyur and Tangyur collections. We may 



note on tint point that a suggestion hu been forwarded to ns that, in 
qnoting from the former, special le&rmces should be givOT to Mcma. 
Fecr^s TaU$ tiri$ dm lDmdf9wr. But we are afraid that the scope for 
quotation would be narrowed if our references to the Katgymr were con- 
fined to Uons. Peer's VBry Hmited extracts poblished in lithograph form oyer 
30 yean ago. As to the Index dm Kamijnr^ which was issaed in the pub- 
iieations of the Musde Guimet 20 yearp back, it is yident io orerj- 
Tibetan stodent that this Index was only a reeiamf4 of Csoma Ko Imi's 
mudi clearer and fullw analyns of the Kahggmr printed 68 years 
ago in the pages of the AsiaUe Seeeareies. We fear, indeed, that rd- 
aaee on such works as these would raih» expose as to diarges of n<m- 
acq n ai nt a nc p wiHi more recent results of European investigation in the 
present field. Althoi^ woridng in India, we may observe, however, 
that we have done our best to keqp pace with what European Orien- 
talists have written on our subject ; but assistance has been mainly derived 
from the many memoirs compiled by Russian and German scholars, 
and we would specially recommend to notice the collectious in ibis 
field made by Prince Ukhtomski and the very recent publications of 
Dr. Albert Griinwedel, Dr* A. Conrady, and Professor Hutiu The 
analyses of the TangyuTy issued by Professor Huth during the last 
three or four years, are particularly noteworthy. To return, however, 
to the above-mentioned su^eetion, we may say that not only would 
the scope be too restricted, but also there is no necessity, under 
present conditions, to refer to any mere collection of extracts. Nearly 
every capital city in Europe now has obtained possession of com- 
plete copies of the Kahgyur volumes, and in two or three libraries 
the 220 volumes of the Tangymr may be also consulted. In St. 
Petersburg are three full sets of the Kahgyur and two sets of the 
Tangymr; in Paris is a set of the Kahgyur ; in one ox other of the 
great German libraries both the Tibetan encyclopoedia may be seen; 
in England, while curiously enough the British Museum library 
owns only a small drawer-f ul of loose Tibetan book-leaves, the 
India Office Lilmtry can boast a perfect series of both Kahgyur and 
Tangyur; and, lastly, in the Vatican Propaganda Library is preserved 
Oratio della Pcnna's incomplete collection of Kahgyur volumes. 

A word as to the Sanskrit equivalents following each Tibetan term. 
Sanskrit scholars will perhaps consider these equivalents rather 


unBjsfiematioally enumerated. They havei neyerUieleii) with regard to 
the majority of them, thi« particular Talue:— they were selected 
l^ natire Iikdian Hcholars of medi»yai and later days in collaboration 
with Tibetan lotsawM or translators, as the apjpropriate Sanskrit 
^nonyms of the respeotive Tibetan words. They have been taken 
chiefly from one celebrated Sanskrit-Tibetan Dictionary, and supple- 
mented by a well-known Calcutta pandit and professor, Satis 
CSiandra Acharya Vidgabkmam^ who has also considerable acquain- 
tance with literary Tibetan. The same learned professor has also, 
in nnmerooB instances, appended a literal English rendering of the Sanskrit 
terms. These renderings hare been placed within square brackets with 
the initial S outside the brackets, and he alone is responsible for such 

The system of transliteration followed is that adopted finally at the 
Vienna Congress of Orientalists ; and this system ib obsenred in the case 
of an Tibetan and Sanskrit words intended to be literally transliterated 
and printed in italics. Howeyer, when a Tibetan or Sanskrit proper 
name occurs in Roman characters, not as a transliteration, but in the 
English explanation of a word, or in any English sentence as an integml 
part of such explanation or sentence, the name is spelled according to the 
conyentional English fashion and, in the case of Sanskrit terms or names, 
as in Sir Monier Williams's Dictionary. 

A considemble number of Tibetan \yords at the head of paragraphs 
will be found in larger type. This indicates either that the word is the 
root of all related terms, or that it is the most common word of the series 
and thus ostensibly that from which the others haye been deriyed. Two 
different arbitrary signs will be found prefixed to mapy words. The Author, 
it seems, has marked such words as he considers archaic or gone out of 
present use with a 9wa$iika (if )| and those words deemed by him to haye 
been imported into Tibetan from the Sanskrit, whether directly or by 
deriyation, he has distinguished by a double-headed dagger {^). 

In conclusion, the Reyisors would point out that although they haye 
been giyen, and haye generaUy taken, the greatest freedom in correcting 
or rejecting the matter set forth in this work, and for that reason 
cannot jusUy shift responsibility for the accuracy or non-accuracy of 
that which is herein written, neyertheless they haye generally not reyersed 


the Tiewi and stAtemeoiti of the Author wherever these have aeem'ed 
to them reaaonaUe or ftirlj tenabloi and to be the result of deliberately- 
formed opinion. They ha^e felt| eren when differing personally from 
the AuthoTi that this Diotionary was Sarat Chandra Dai^s— not their 

We must not omit to mention that, by the agency of the Chief 
Secretary to OoTemmenti certain brief comments on yarious portions of 
the Diotionary were receiTed from Professor Bendall^ and we hare to thank 
him for his kind suggestions. 


n$U$ Mmat$09. i 


^FOi (ya»^ nga). 

The five vowels: 

The four vowel aigiis tliat are attached to the haaio letter *< are called gi^ 

i, dentin and iMfrp : 


The thirty ooafH)uantB : 

«l'«l'q«| ^'i'^-qii «^'1•^^^| 

pa, phoj Ad, ma. isa^ isha, dm^ wa. ^ m^ ka, ga. 

ra^ laj fa, aa, ha, a. 

Tlie Dktionaiy order of the Tihttan letten, 
with iheir Indo-Bomanio e^valents and their pronoiiciatkm 

ezemplifled by EngUah words : 

1| k inkill^seek. S«(»eA)in poith. 

P U „ ink-horn. ScA(acAA)„ ohnreh-hilL 

^ y »f r^f go> dog * > H jetf jwap. 

C<(=fiy)„ sing, king. ^ « (=«) „ singe. 

« « w 




in inter (in Ireland). 



in fihone or a in leisure 



99 niit*hpokt 



,1 aiore or ^ in as. 



II dice (more like th in 

thtt). 'J. 


91 hour, honour. 



^ nci^ nut. 



„ yard, year. 



If pAl«««- 



f> ray, rope. , 



91 uphill. 



„ last, large. 


, or 19 „ Itadli bo7i bard. 



1 „ sharp. 



ly mani map. 



,1 same, soon. 



,1 partB. 



„ half, happy. 



91 (^« aspirated). 



„ far. 



^ gnaxda. 

QJ ir „ waft, wave. 

In all the aboye twenty nine letters the last letter ^ is inherent, therefore the 
Tibetan Ghnonmazians have included it as a basis both for yowels and consonants. The 
letter ^ (i) called {^V^') the little a is generally joined to the basio-yowel of a letter to 
make its pronunciation long. Wben it is subjoined to the letter m the compound so 
formed becomes equivalent to the Sanskrit ^ d and is pronounced as a in tar, &qri or 
father. When it is subjoined to the vowel d the compound bo formed resembles the 
Sanskrit % and is pronounced like i in police and so on. 

The Sanskrit Alphabet and their Tibetan equivalents: 

The vowels: 

w^icii ^^wwi ^^^^i ^'ift'^^i 

wi^:^'%( ^•'^'^'Cl ^'f'^'^ a^'W'Wwj 

a, i, t, I. w, ft, r, ri. f, fi, e, e. o, ou, am, alt. 

The ooDflouMitB : 

^'^ir^vi ^«w«^i zz^^^s ?fw^^Ti 

ni'P'qi'^'K'l i-^'^'^'^l ^'P'^'^^I 5'5'i^'^;«j 
ha^ khay ga^ gha^ Ha. Ua^ tska, ifea, dska. na . ^a, tha, 4^^ dha, na, ta^ tha^ da^ dha^ tut. 

^ T« 1 iii in ^ i[ w wi ir^^^i ^i 

pa, fka, ba, bka, ma. fa, ra, la^ wa. fa, fd, ta, ha. if*. 

The oonsopant aigni repnaentmg tbs latten *■, tnd ^: 
% ("r^9"Pi y^^^ff) and (^'*IT< f-a-Uig). 

^'^'^ (kf-fV fax). 
Tha aiz inyairted TiboUn latten ropmtnting fli* Saiukrit lettcn. 

w^^fc r^^^^ft ^^^^^ «^^^^ ^^^^J ^^^P^w* 

Th« ax Mpintei, m., letten haviog ^ tabjoinad to fhen, 

W W H «i V 91 

The oompoiindi formed with (he four vowel signs of s t», e and called fr»-|fti — ^the 

angle ', «Aa6f-ikyif — ^Oiehook , t^ll-ic» the ^standing' stroke ^and 
puMv *the hams over the nose'^, which are joined to the 

oonsonants indnifing the basio Yowel % 

^'^'^''fl *; *»^» *»» *»• P'B'^^'Fl **S **^» ***t **<>• 

%'^^%^t\ ri, <m, oe, CO. 2^*|*2*I| oM, «»w, ch^, cko. 


|*^*d*2f| «, H it, Jo. ^'^'IJ'^l «», »w, <*». »» 

^'^'Wl •*** •**^ •*** •** ^T^'^f «■' ««.««.»*• 
V^'V^I K M K K ^n^^i *s If", »«, f 

H-^'^l-ifl ^ p^ ,., fo. ^^'^n^J^ % «H -. -• 

\\\^\ *H *«H *•» *•• 42l^^3JI| ., «,«,•. 

tiia tow risplA kMn «» ^ «> 9: 

dif««dt iraft tkiil cl a^f of tiM 

The «i|^ ooM p o ua di d irhUtk Am prommciitum tcmbiUm that of the Seodcrt 
earebnii «^ v, v g e p we ut e i in Tihetui Ij the iarvted letten ^ ', ^, : — 

^ kra(fa). ^ Ire (j^). ^ J>r»(fa) ^ kkrm (f»»). 

•rOWr^"! (to-«*y six). 
The ax hiae eoaeoneati to whu^^ the letter ■> / ia eabioi 

VOf gh^ ihf r<>i I<S| nk (da). 

In the OQmpoandb flie H'^ i.«., liado are aiknt ezoept in | wUolLis 
pranonnoed as if ; the letten not pronoanoed are underlined. 

The mm» with n subjoined 

t^s pAs ^N, rA(, ^ s/« (<Ai). 

«i'|^'c|^sr4i^^ (nmnnt tt/^ sizteen). 

The azteea letten irith («15) U. ^ wbUb. ie • eomar of the letter n w 

•objoiaed to them : 

j '•< I ^ k i 4 A A \ A A A \ * \^ 

mWOr^ MiMf f^iM| MfO| lll0e| flMly CNP0| rUMi tiet ftl y MIMi Mfftfi nP0| MMly f'^^ MMf AlM* 

Vi^'q^-^lvSl {n^sc twelve). 
The twelve heeio oonaonenti with ^ r on their heed, i$^ ^ eamoaiiting then : 

rfcfy ryo, t^o, c^i r&i, r^e, rib^ riM, rfo, rmis tiM, rAa. 

(the sapenoiibed letter being generally silent ii rep teee nt ed by an nsd«liaed r) 


«r«ilfqi'l| {lth9o tea). | 

The t«Di bMio eoiuonaatt with Ota letter *■ / aann<nmtiiig tiiem : 

the sapenoribed IM&t where oilent is refffeeenied by an undetlmed /. 

VJI^f-qj-^J^rl (w-S^^ eleven). 

The elewn boaio ooofloiUKaiB with the letter « « rarmonntiiig fhem : 

9ka, §ga^ §ta^ §lia, §ta, fda^ pia^ ipa, ^ ima^ tisa. 
the sapexBGiibed letter whibh is not pronoimoed ib repreeented by an underlined ^ 

f9^Q^^f {figan-ySg five). 

The five letten which, whw prefixed to initial or boao letters to form a word, are 
seldom in Tibet Proper pronoimced and are represented by xinderlined italios: 

09 A fit 9s )• 


The ten letten which when affixed to initial letten to form a 
word are yery Bofily pronoimoed : — 

^^Sq|*q3*q|^^ {diog^Uhig eleven). 

The eleven letters which are reduplicated (to form the preterite) when joined 

with a terminal o : 

go^ ^0, (A>| nOi io, ffM), io^ ro^ A>» ^t to. 

• •• 


The mnaoL pnitpnatiaM ng&iijruig to or «t, 
««, ni| r«| iIk, Ml All in. 

c^^orrr^ (^^ fite). 

The fot/bpomAyB pwtioles to dgmty poMtiium: 
Tlie iaatnuMBtai pwtid«: — 

irifA%^'flrq'|ir«i^''»r^(te-^l|) I 

&e bano (1^'^^) ^ and its compoaad* widi the letter h ^. preflzedt 

JOfffK] **«*• BFff\ ¥^ mn] **^- «WPI| **^- 

cnj^ll ikug. trijfm\ ft*««^- «|[^| •••w*. q^j ww. 

qjtl »***• qui **«• qipil »^' tnpm] Vir0bt. 

q>!)sm| »*«•»»• q^l^l »ra^ q^l **"' ''Jl **^* 

qin^fj timi. q^i ftkrm. q^ffj ftir»i. q^«| **«»<#. 

^I'^l Jitpj. q)^| hito. q«| jf*tt. q«:9l) Sf»J«<^ 





1 « and its oompoands mth the letter ^ prefixed, 



^^^] ioagi' qSR«l| 

fr»^». qs^^i 




qs^l J^«r. qsQii 

i«rf. qs«(| 




q^^l J«vi«. qlK'i 

M. q^i 




q^«| icum. q^i 

}«. qT<PW| 




q^Qlj 6<?o/. c^i^i 


tho baaio 9 and its comporuldB irith the letter ^ prefixed, 

qsajl fa^tm. qsai{ ktui. ei^qpi( ^^f- qwi| ^«^ 





































the basio ^ and its oomponnds with the letter ^ prefixed, 



q^Jjl itxm. 

q^l ^«i*. 





qf^l iMr. 

q^qpij it"*0S' 





tig9m\ itsumt. 

qlaWf *<*»»». 





q^C| itio*- 

q^Sl' *^- 





^i^\ if^' 

q|-| ^«. 





q^Tajl iittoH. 

q^JW) ^«HNf- 


the bttio ^ and its omapoundi mih the letter * pceAzed, /' 

q|| W- t^^\ iniH- tj^] iM^* cqfC'i ft^^- 
qgpfll Jr^«. q^^i «»»«#• q^«( »«»*». c^i ftyra. 

qa^i hviwtf. w| ftr^yim- q^| hyjw- q^| Itmnm. 
qj'3|| ifMw/. qA^i kn^. sfi^| h0f^- qKI iw^' 
q|^| »«i«#. 1^1 ftcM. qu| tiyriM. qK<l| iw^^i. 

qMlj iignm. Z^| }vr*4. q^| ttyret*. q|^pf| ftlT^. 
WW( ftfV'w'l- 

•4EK pnmoanoed JuA in Imiiak and Amdo hut in Ttuig lad CmMl ISbet ii 

fNuaaaetAi Slldy 
^tf^*'^ or "^"^ nigle ptorptadiaaliritNlEe I m ^ Oommft. 
)V'<t^ dooUe ibrake H « (.) fnU itop. 
'W'^ fofONfold t/bttlkB P need at fhe end ot » ehaptevor Motion. 
S^l point, dot eepiiinting ^jOnblee. 
iS^f "^ stroke \rftk dote on its top j or f ootnasMntid itop. 



A Ati^a^tnmUhar^^'^m'^'^Vf^y 

A. K. Avadinn Kalpdati* 

A. JR. Aaiatio Besearohes. 

A. S. Afta Siliaaiki B. T. Society. 

A. g. Anoraddha-QatakA B. T. Society. 

Abki. Abhidha mmattha-sapgaho. 

Ar, Arabic 

B. grub Baninn fmb^kai «^'tfT*«^l 

B, Ifam Bon Nam shag. 

B.T.8. Buddhist Text Society. 

Bai. Baltiatan. 

Bebu Beku4mm $tofhpo 9%'9N*i'^'Q| 

Beng Bengali language. 

Bkar. Bharata, dialogae, ed. by Dr. A. Schiefner. 

Bk&t Bhotan, proTinoe. 

Bcdki. Bodhioharya^tara, B. T. Society. 

Bxh B(m^hoi9^^^\ 

Budk. Bnddhiam. 

Bum M'^QN-«e.' ^biMM-liiifii «A«<. 

Bum. I. Bnznoof, Introdaotion aa Baddhism Indian. 

Bum. II. Bumoof, LotuB de la bonne loi. 

(7. Central Tibet. 

Cd9 Cdnakya {TtA-na-ka) t^-^l 

CkO'WaH Lama Choi-izaH g9u4'bbtim. 

Ckoi^ Choi-rgyal iftoO'pa Tf^y^ffK^l 

Oi Gsoma de Korosi's Tibetan English Dictionaiy 

Ouum. Cunningham General, Ladak and tlie sorroanding country. 

ge or g. dai geH'ob ido^-bu ^flr^vf^'i] 

g.gya. ^^^-roft Jr^ya-^ •^^r^jti f 

g. lam gam-bha-hbi latn-yig -^fm^mA^ | 

g^ ger-gyime-M ^ifrfe'l 

ga. giia^^\ 

Dw.A .IMTy&Yadftna. 

2). fel. DwaHt-fel me^hH Y^w^ktf^] 

D. jB Dul-wa Rmpo'Chef a Bon religious work. 

Dran Dtan^pa fer ^#J«jr^S<iK^MI 

Bag Bag-byei gMUiodbi me^oi "\«l*9V<pw*Wa' | 

• • • 


Deb DA4/ier iHm-po ^'^MJl^^^l 

Dag ...DesgodinB, LaMission du Tibet de 1855-1870. 

Dh. DharmaBangnha (Max Muller). 

Dham. DhammapadOy B, Text Society's edition. 

Do or Dam Mdihmai ^'9^' ] 

Dwm SdsanhgM f jfyflf-Jfflrf ^«'8^ J^ '^ISI 

Dufife Du^ikhar^gyi ye^ykyi feftw also Duf-bgrel ye-k. 

DuiMo. ^^^^-xDH^khor ti^A. 

D^g Qdug9-4kar ^^S'^i 

Ds/. Vdo idsaH'ftltm an ancient ooUeotion of Legends of Baddka. 

Eo. -S-wmftwi 

(?. Ban ]^yal^ab9 hm-g^ ibyuH-gnas yi'^w^'^^i%'^i^''^9^^ I 

O. kab l^gyaUpo ftJkflJ^Aail j^ 5 «j'T^^«^- I 

O, 8ndg Bevd. Graham Sandberg, b.a., i^.b. 

Qyal, Sgyal ifMian tttemobi g»u^9. 

Oyal. 8. SgyO-rabt g$al-wabi me-M fai '^w^wq? »> S5*; | 

Qly ....Rgyal'rabif a history of the kings of Tibet quoted by Jaschke. 

Oram Ghranunar or native gframmatical works. 

Cfrub. Orub^hab fel^gyi frs-M |qw<^-?|^-8'^fc- f 

g^^ ffmifA-f^Vf^t^kfiOi^hin^^rgy^*^' ' 

Oya^eher Oya-eher y^oUpa^ Tib. version of the LalUvidara Ed. by Foucaux. 

Qfy^ l^yaUwa Tshai^-iby<i^9 rgya-mtshohi mgul-glu, 

hmr^hreH j^i'j'^'lRl^v^-^'iF'HIS'iI^^g^^' by Nagaijuna. 

Qshon QshoMWihi fitful n^yur ^^^'4^'*^^ ^^"^ ! 

Qpf^ Qythihog-pabi rnam^thar -R^^^^-^^t^ I 

jj^y Bevd. A. W. Heyde of the Moravian Mission. 

Hind. Hindi language. 

jffook* Sir Joseph Hooker's Himalayan journals. 

jii^ Abbe Hue and Gabet's Tibet. 

jgbronk Bhrom^^on^^ rnam^tJiar «^§»f|^^ yi w^^jK^nj^na^w^^i 

glntm. Yunh4fhen-mo V^^^'^\ 

/. Zai. Dpag-^m Ijan^wfi s^qw f«i w i 

j5 Jaohke's Tibetan-English Dictionary. 

ji^^..Z. Sjig^ften lugt-kyi isian^icoi ^^T^aiOT^i *>««>*•' I 

2r. d. fika^gyur iguto «»'p'^l'^'*'^l 

jf! rfif Ska^^gyurhdui-tca'V^'^y^'^V^'^l 

X. dm 9ka^J>db§ idun^ldan^gyi tnam^thar qT^wq^^^S^a^^^! 

K.g P*aJ-i[/yMrr^yurfqT'^|«^'JSI 

y, to ^M-*Jfywr#fem^w^#«iT'^l»^A^^*l*l 9kai-^yur myai^idas 'Vfjp:^%'^^i^''<Sm 

K. phal §kah tgyur phul-p(hche 'rr^^^V^'^'^'h 


•SIP. Earan*-paBduik«, B. T. Socuty. 

K. tkmi. «r KtHML PmUm AM tML 

Kikt. T. KtiMhakn of TMBitiM. 

Xh. KhaiB, aMUm pMt ol Tibet 

JOa. «F'4i-WN^« 4fM«A iyro-maiU Mb^ 

Xhrit. imh^Am wtkrii^ Km*H%ft*^l*^^i 

■SSfy. Koppca, di« religifln des Bnddh*. 

JRm Koiunrar, fvovqw* oader Brituh proteotion. 

^Ifrim. Mjigt-bfi kth«i-nm »3i^iK^S^\ 

L. r. LiOiteTiitmL 

LmbL JjuftSmOn-BittiLt B. T. Society. 

Idmhrm. Bf «^ timb Ltm-gpi rim-f gR%^ *iw}- Wq t 

Lam.ii. X«iiMlMM«**<^i<'?'^l 

IM. Litm. 

U. Ok. XedU Qfti-nift, % hirtoiy of TOiet, Ed. by Dr. R Soblagiaiimt. 

Lmm Xcwr. .Lexicoa or Lanoom, mtiTe TOwtaui dkitionMiw. 

Uk. Umm. 

X*. ter. Z*«-«4*' ikw-ekag ffAy^'9^\ 

lM.i»^ £*«44« ftt«MAa« f^\«r<r'«^' I 

£if .Xi^' fwvkiM %'^'PK- a TibeUa ^oMftry. 

£«. ItiofHWiti |l»-|fty«4| IN-aA'I'l^vi (XmmVm). 

JM. fJMHldb/ fMt4«|6iMi K'^«r^fl^-^V^-»r]^-l(ir^B-tt-^R«5irTq Ijtk 

£. Im^ ^Imi^ ftfti4-<iM |3(t[-«^^| 

iiMl. ynHm-gitigrtitir^^T'*^ 

M. V. jr«M VfutptMt. 

jr. ffM. MUMpmrnkM Vritti B. T. Sooiefy. 

Jr. WOh. Sir. Mooier T^Diam'a SradEtit-Englidi Diotioguiy. 

JGi. Ma-tott bd-iitam «r<Mr«(-«fi| Tibetan Apooalypae. 

M.p^. J&ryyM#*<'t5t 

jr«A«. ^ .lCahipariaabiba.8atU, Pali Text Sodety. 

JTciy. ». MahiTadm. 

Jr— I. .trM'^k^ Xmnt tdhMl ^. 

J&dL JMioal iraria of Tibet 

JCl ,..Jn9fvMtM-«yM««iiyi 

JO. ^IQanqpa'a •QMi" tviw I^im* boadred tbouaaad aoogs. 

MO, id, m-h mt-ftiki v»»m4kmr ^evnttc^'m^ Mila't aatdUograpby. 

Wt^tia JfiHI-AMi iH4Hpr»# *^'^'^'^*'|S {^'P*9) 

Momg Mongolian. 

JUg. ....JIm^^^Mf^tntl4''|'i*^%i^^ra»^cll•m<nk. 

Jggrin Jfgrm-sion ikhteabi rtog%^£jo4 ^'l^K'^X^^^ f 

tgur .....JB^Ia rohpaki ilMl^'ilmm S)'«r^«*qt'«3^'^ii 

MtoH Jjfian^aoil wl^Oi-P^ tna-rgtm ^'^fSf^' ^ Vy( I 9k Lhasa 

Uook-print work in 80 lesTea compiled by ^ag Wajig Jigten 
WaagdiAg Tagpai Dorje (^TS«^^-^t^S«»^-8T5^*^*) fcom 
Sakya PaQflUieii'a Tehig-gter, Tibetan trandation of Amazkon 
and otber lezioons. 

Mi9han 4r««A»i-«ii#*«*V^I 

mro Na-ro oAoMnv ^:"FS'**nff 1'*SM V*^'^'^* S*'^ I 

JTor NarJhaii gm$4l§^^'^''n^\ 

tag D«W-yt>«a^wronST^^ftr«^l 

Org ...Original texts. 

Oi^g, m Original manuaoriptB. 

Pag ««osfi4!^ *KV-wm *»Ari^'« ^^ 

Pth Pai-ma ihaH-^yig ^^^M\ 

Pur Porrang. 

^ idthriH ^m^agit^^'V^V^} 

JUo-phrei -JWhC^ phre^-tca. 

Rd9a Bgom-ehen daH rdsa^sig^gi rnam4har I'i'Hvrl^'rV'^^f 

Rgifan fyjfan^pi iatan ico9 f^'S'«'W*9*« I 

ije^nam. SJe rin^ eheH rnam^thar It^^^l^'^ifr^} 

^am Snam-ifai ^i-rgym ^«Mis^J^I 

SiM^ Jg^w^jrywrf^yi 

Risa. ti Pftn-wa fim hgreUpa gUyka, ^n^'^f^'^^'^^^ I 

Btsa^shuH Man-iag tgy^-l^ rUio^abi 08Ati« »^'^|SiT«j5^aF- f 

nui. ^sH^y%i9tai^fi09t'^Wi^^'^\ 

Bisii. Btsk'gfhiphyogf'isgrigft'^^'^f^^V^: 

8 Sanakrit terms from Tibetaa-Sanskrit Lexioonsof Tibet expisined 

by Satis Chandra Aoharya, m.a. 

S.del Otum^grel 'W^'^^] 

8,g flf*arf-jryw#, a medical work. 

S. Lex Sanskrit lexicon. 

8.pkreil Lig§4fa4 fser-iphrei *^^^^*3^ f 

S.kar. ^iom-yoi ikar-ohag ^fi»r^^ST^'^\ 

8.bfn Sambhalai lam-yig. 

S.leg Sa^a hgt^i ^I'^V^l 

8.0 Qser^io^ dam-pa ^'^SS^'^) 

8,p Snvarva-prablift, B. T. Society. 

Sama Samftdhiraya-sutra, B. T. Sodety. 

Siim,^ 8dmkhya4aitva Kaunmdi. 

8an9 Sanskrit or Sanskii. 



Sck Prof. li. J* Sehmidt, Tibetiaoh-Detttiohes Worterbaoh. tad 

Tibetisohe gramnmtik. 

8ekr Dr. A. Sohiefner. 

SM. Dr. E. SoUagintwttt, Boddhism in Tibet. 

SeUr Sebioter, editor of tlie flnt Tibetan Diotioii«y. 

&r. Omr^fiMeM,^^*^'} 

8k0i. i^n^ ita4^gfu4 mi^^\S\ 

SM. "Fi ShaUes. 

SikL Sikkim. 

SUu. 8i4uti$im'tiagi^^'n^9^(!*S%mV^^^^^ 

9mim.g Smtm^g^ or fK'V^'lS^i 

^mm fider'iif$9mm^49dit§(fhen'mo^'S^t^^M*\ 

atag. P<tf W ^M I^T^ * yooabnltfy of mTstic Sanakft terms. 

SSam. &mn tag m$M ^"^^^1 

gSM. ghi-ekin tSMUkig'^tkeg^hog i|iiWlKKV^H8|H*t«ir»*if 

Skd. Sbk Rer. O. Swidberg's Head-book of Tibetan. 

8og flbf-j<«ii ^*^ V I 

Sorig. 990^ ckoh^gui ^^[*vn^K ^ 

8pgo4. Spfoi-P^amfsV^l 

»go 9pg^44M IVH^! 

g^g^ ^ftan-hggur ^'*|^' ooUeetion of oonunentaries. 

&M. SokliintI.T7uluL 

Amrf BmaAgama SWam f •«T*'1*I 

T0m.d. 99hm4ggur^iifdo 'm^V^'^'^l 

rm.fAv ^9tan tggur §iay$. 

2Ji Tiri N&tha's fyga-gmr ek0§4h^^ hiftory of Che riie of Baddhisni. 

Tkeg. I»*^-ik?*o^ fMtoarf H'^T^^SI 

j%g^^ Ifcwwto ^Aei-pro/ «A«i-me ^'^•^Wf*r^'*| 

Thgy, Thaxgyaai sdentiflo treatiaee. 

Tib For Tibetan. 

2V^, Tziglot a ooUeotion of Buddhist termi bj.Pfof. ICiaajreff. 

n. or TrnH QUtd ^' Tmaig fromte. 

T$.tak. 9tmm^mQiai4Ml^V*^f^'^'\ 

IMg. TMg^ggM^'hF'V^^ 

ft The pronnoe of W Ofmh Central Tibet. 

F. O. Vajn-^kedikA. 

rm.kar FflW«rya rffew-po^i-^-^*^*! 

r0L^ .'''I'^'ft'*' or (ri»#-rf«ry lAm^). 

VAudUku ViBuddhimaggo B. T. Society. 

W. or W. Tib Wertem Tibet: 

• • 

Wm. ftoL W. W«Mi]]«v, Bar Buddlaniiii. 

Wih. Wikon's Qimm m u t , 

Wh. :..Wa&4Mig1bMlii; a dmriptimioE Tibet, EdL bj EliqprotL 

Ym^t$l. r«M«ir»fwrf«ri'«-^^-tel 

r«<4i: .wi^\ Oi miiMm oa. 

Tit. THJsgimm ml^^^fV^i 

Tig. 8w»*rfW'<*rt«S''^^*» 

Tig. h. Tig-igBmr rm m g O ng ^TVVr^^i 

Tm. Tm-gUm 9^bo4^f^^^^[^\ 

Z. -ZrfrtBtar «^WV^I 

Zam. 9tdat^ ttiam-4fio§ 2k'ma4og «V^«fS-^*^'*^flf {Dog.yig). 

9§, aad *** prefixed to aome words indioate them as (^^ ttt^ tn^ belonging to tbe 

older orihogTftpby. 

f tad t pcefized to some words indioate their Indian or Sanskrit origin. 

* woids nUBked with asterisks were sent bj Dr. Albert Ghrfinwedel for being inoor- 
poortated in this Dietionairy. Thej were ooDeeted hj Dr. A. Sohiefner. 



abbicvkiedi abbreviaiioBS. 


gemtiTa caaei 


abatneticMi; tbttract. 






ibidcoit in tiie aame place. 


aeenaatiTe aaaei 


idem* the aamdw 


aoiiT9» aetirel J. 


id eat» tbal ia. * 




impatatire mood. 


airavb* adTtxbially. 


inperaonalt imperaonally. 




inooRc^ inacReotiy. 




infiniiiTe mood. 


oui» witb« 


initio^ at the beginning of a longer 


oonatrsiter earn, eonainad witL 


inalead. [articla. 


conatmed witb die aceuiatiTev ate. 


JnatrwmantatJTe caae^ 


ooofer* oompara* 






intenogatiTo, intenegatiTe^. 


eogiiate» related in origou 




. eoUoquial, eoOoquially* 




eollectiret aoUaatiTelx. 


irragnlariy, inegnlar. 






eompoiudf oompoimda. 


UtefaDy, alao Uteialnre. 








maacnliae gender. 


correaty ooneetlj* 


medical worka. [imget artiale . 


conalatiTor eoirelatirely. 


medao^ abont Ibe middle cC a 




metqphoneal, metapbotioally. 



met. or metoa. aMtonjrmicaly matonymiaally. 




myatieal or myaticaily. 










exempli gratia, lor iDataaoe. 


neater gender. 


elegant, elegantly. 


ni fallor, it I am not miataken» 




noon proper. 


emphaiicaly empbaileaJly. 



erroDCdUf erroncoiiialy. 












eapbomiatioa], eupbemlitieally. 


for orig'mal work. 






explain* ezplainatUma. 




extrinMH towarda tiia end of a 




fonlnine gender. [loDger article. 




flguntiTe, fignratirely. 


paaaire^ paniTely. 






fatnre tenac. 




goacTal, generally. 


peraooi peraonaL 





prafect tMto^ 
plural xMuabov. 
pleonaatfti plooaittiotlly. 

p. n. 

proper HMM. 
popalir lingoift* 

pott. p. 

prtt* ptotf 

pottoftire pvoaoniu 



pretent tente^ protoritt* 







proTineialitiii, proTiaeiaL 
qood Tide» wbioh too. 


retpeotful, reepeottiilly. 




tunilas in maaningi nmiltrij. 


aingnUr nnmbor. 


f or w or |K 

tjfjub* nuitt. 

qrmbolieal nnatiiaL 

.Sya. or qrnon. tjaonyBunit. 


teminatiTo oaae. 






Tide, aee. 



rb. ft. 

Terb aotiya. 


Ycrb nentar. 


Tii1gar» low axpreatioo. 


in common lifob 




without ezplaaattcn. 


1) Jr« iho fbii Irttar of tha Tibetta 
alphiibety e o CTiipm d in f in loaiid to the 
Btmkzit « or fb§ Bnglith K Of tibia 
btter wo xood: ^1)*rv^<i^f^ kthnt 

ihi it oallod tho root'' At ilio flxrt letter 
it hM Uio Moie of ** the iMgiiming " : 
^W^flt^h^midof^ jmie from the begin- 
ning. Again, it oaa ngnify **poirer'': 

Ae-flM^ though nnpleoaent to hear, I haTe 
no power not to laj it; frif^-^A^ ma 
0iMtf lM-me4 powexleM not to give; "r^V* 
Y^ Mi Ifre te-eMtf poweilMi not to go, 
u$^ eannot avoid going. ^ ha hai.almoet 
the tame iNDie in ^Vnr^^hm^'wn ha rii 
jfcjf«tf mUphtm ^aMmm ta (£o. 8S)^ no re- 
fonroe amala at death. This letter teems 
to hftTO other metephoffioal meanings; thnt 
we read : >T^ W^^^'<r^ ha $k$§ hya-^oa 
hdoi-pa pm (JT g. r 179) ''ka, to to be 
called, is detixe/' 

1| I: L when nted in 
nnmben ha ngniflet one or flrtt 2. in 
modtn ISbetan asan affix to msny words 
it denotes: the, all the, the. yerj. ^^^ 
§hab^ha has the same meaning as fWf 
fMHff, on 4 otrtain oooasion ; \^ de^ia 

that tesy ; ^Vnf'tiHbi the two. 8. in a 

large nnmber of words we tilnd ^ oooQRing 
as the seoond ^QaUe. Li some of these it 
has been added apparentlj as adiflerenti- 
atiye partiole; and in ilie ooUoq. we often 
find it annexed to the older monoqrllabio 
iorm without explainable reason. 

^ It: indeed; siUEely: i^'^'iTVT*' 
litr yistf i^rsM-cfo ihr toil (Pag* JIfi) later 
rigain he indeed xeooUeoted (the separa- 

^ ka foor; T^ fta-v<i a pillar. 

ifP haJfha I. the A-B-0, or alphabet. 
2. • feather: T^lS«rtrF^-|¥ ^Mi^kai 
la ha^hka ni %gnhho (JT. g. ^ 916) in 
ihe seoret language ha^hha signifies a 

^r^ haMa^ a beginner of the 
alphabet ; a child. 

■^y ha4ko, also "Tr^V ha-kkah% tho, an 
alphabetioal register ; an index. 

trVf Ka-ihog lit. *'cn the top of "^ ''; n. of 
a celebrated Buddhist monastery in Eliam 
belonging to the f^lUA^ma School, the Head 
Lama of which it beUeyed always to be an 
incarnation of hit predecettor and hddt 
the title of T^^TdH-lfUl The hiU on 



whuih tbu atoiiMtery wm bailt is Mid to 
have rMMttbled the Irtterlihr. «|-4^«i|m- 

f 0) Oa the bank of the Di-ohn (^li-j-Mii), 
ncMur Pom-pOy is tbe monastery called 

«if^s| jir».i/a(^ =5 "T^-ypi ka-nai dog^pa 
pure from the beginning. According to 
the S'Mlrma School of Buddhism it means 
f^'^^ iM-pa-Hiff ifiknf^a) emptiness, or 
the Toid ; that which is pore from the 
beginning: iF9T^T««»H|S'S'|^*'^*^ 
•«*) I ( Yig. H) that which is not com- 
pounded, being eyolved of itself, is piure 
from the beginning. 

^"^ ka^ide m^n 1. the four letters in 
the first group of the Tibetan alphabet, 
namely, TF^'^'f 2. in astronomy eon- 
aeoutive numbers: « t^VT^^^'^^'l 
(FdMtf/. Ji6) the order of flguxes in the 
(spdiao sign of the) crocodile is con- 

^ ka^pa the first Tolume of a work or 
a series of works ; a Tolume or anything 
else marked with the letter ^ ka. 

^^ kth^pej also expressed TP*'^* ^ 
kha^ 4pe^ an A-B-0 book ; a primer. 

<n*K ka^phre^ {ka4htng)^\^ kdti the 
series of consonants in the Tibetan 

sr^ kchmei helpless, powerless. 

1 mV'* Att-ffmotf sum*^ Ut. ^Hhe thirty 
(letters of the Tibetan alphabet) below the 
letter %*' 

s^|^N ifca-r^sem an acrostic; a inetrioal 
eompodtion in which the initial letters 
of eaah line form a continuous word or 

2 'TTr f 

^t ihi-/t ordinarily written for the 
Tibetan Sanskrt word \% C«| + « *). 

X t^ kA^U^^^!^' ka-phrei the series of 
letters gen. beginning with ^ fai, !>., the 
consonants of the Tibetan language : ^'^ 
Ot»J^S d^li kd'li pin ** letters are of 
the i^ series, i.^., rowels, and of the **! 
series, t.e., consonants'' {Situ. 3). 

\ H'fJ I : ka^ka wm 1. the crow. 2. 
the cry of the crow : T'T'^'''5'X^'|V'*f«r J 
( Vai. kar.) "if a crow caws, wealth will be 

^*1| II: excrement (nursery word); 
in W, <«|'>^'9^'l kthka to4*ctf«i French fmrt 
C0ea (Ji.). 

^ np)*^ ka^kan^i frrfM^ 1. a small 
coin of Andent India ((7«.) : TT^Wt^'^' 
^ I *' ka^ka^ni of the value of twenty shells 
(^iTfvVs)." 2. m^v the fourth part of a 
jvof^r. 3. the quarter of a mdna. 4. the 
seed of Abru% preca^onu%^ used as a weight 
in medicine. 6. the shell of C$prma 
fnoneta^ used as money. 

ij* ^'HfV kthkm^0iil the euoumber is 
so called in Kunawa? (Ji.)* 

X ^^ ^nnrf^ n. at a fabulous snoivy 
mountain situated to the north of a xiTer 
called PaA*t», where a medicinal plant 
called TVawtfya grows (A Lmn. 86). 

^ Tj'^'lj Jra-*MM' 1. n. of a 
literary work« 2. n. of a female Buddhist 
deity: fr»riwt-*'ir^''irt''P'l^l (D. 9C) 
" (taught) the rites condoning the goddess 
JSTakim to the saint ICal-bye TduiA^pa." 

1 1|*^|f Ku'ku^^ n« of a riTir 




of a flaiit Vied in medioio*, T$rmntdia 

gi^H-^mr the •<£rait of the tree ol litUo 
poifon'* (i^tf^.)* 

t 'T^^'^ Jra-ilw-r/-»« «#ft» n. of 
a tree which grew on Ordhiakftta, or 
the Ynltnie-pjak HiU of Magadha 

f ipi| ibi-Jto applied in fiikkisn for ^ 
^-m kthhoJa. 

;^ 'TpV]*^ hhko-la miftm 1. oaxdamom, 
the fruit of (7a00NA«« Indieut; a plant with 
a berry, the inner part of which oonebti 
of eeeds with a wax-like aromatic rob- 
etanoe. 2. ^ifla^Vi W^ Saocharum mu^fOf 
bat is varionaly described as a fmit need 
in medicine; a poisonous tree-drng; also 
8s^l^« the castor-oil plant. 

Syn. fc'va^' tuhaA tnaH ; I'a-sl^n s/n-f^n 
g^hot^fiu ; I'A'S'vi nla^tva^i bge^ma ( M^on,) . 

W^ faHm(al80 ^'^k€H:ha) «w articles^ 
goods, eflects, propertj, fumitroe: 
>i|'«t'KV^9^'^^'S^'^ I the king who follows 
after properly; 'iw ^«i^§Vii property 
oanses satisfaction. 

Syn. Wi^ 9py<f4'^\ ^'•^ yo^^i 

1)*5^ Korean n. of a place in Tibet 
{Deb. n US). 

11*^ ifc0-et colloq. ^t kortfi 1. a kind 
of coarse white cotton doth largely im- 
ported into Tibet from Nepal and nsed 
for making prayer-flags. A piece of kcHii 
is genecally four to six yards long and a 
foot and-»>half broad. 2. akindof mndin; 
a Tery fine cotton oloth imported from 
Benares : T^^^'^^'^'P^'^M for each piece 
ef ka-d eight boshels of barley. 

yI'|wmi Jk«-M ikyem^roi fine cotton 
cloth* or mudin, so called from its roaem 
blance to the ropeiior quality of Tibetan 
paper called ikpemi ; |^'Ml'|'X^wlf l-liTMii 
(A kar. 179) different sorts of cotton 
cloth, muslin, Ac., brought from Upper 

Tibet; fV |««i an inferior kind of hhd 

J n\'%'^ kd^U ^(^ n, of a flower 
(^tO). «f^ is idmtieal wifli «f 
and w^, a plant with an esculent root 
(Arum cdocoiia) cultiTated for food. 

tI kthki lometimes used for ^%. 

'T|*f^| Ka-loog an abbr. of the names 

of two cdebrated translators of the Kah- 

gyur: ^•^"VW^t^ £mm ih^l^rt^en 

and fT^'l^r*^ ^ii»^ rt^^o^Qi^iAaa of 

^*a kthehnio^^'* kthca. 

'TI'S*^ kthpha-ta a habitation, a hut 

^*$^ koF^kug so, like that, accord- 
ingly; TW^'^ ka^hug fMfao/ means 
^'V^'8^ dn-l^ar-iytftf, do like that, do accord- 
ingly: w*^«>'|-S:»»VVTtT**^l "if -Aim 
is disinclined let (him) not do like that*' 
(A. H). 

'Vf^ ka4a in mystic language a term 
for mother (JT. g* ^ 916). 

X T^^n **-<<'-*<* !• »• of a tree. ^^ 

^1 if an eye-medicine be made from 
kiUakansA honey^all e je-disesses may be 
remoTcd (8* l4m. SS). 9. «Mr the 

dealing nut-plant, ^yaftiietjM<a<eniifi. A 
seed of this plant when rubbed on the 
inside of a water jsr produces a predpiti^ 
tion of the earthy paxtides of water. 

^^*XnT[ ia4tHna*ka n. of a kind of 
biid (K. ko. ^ $). 

t ^^^ -C»-«a-»Wf also T5 Ka-tpa n. 
of a plaoo in Andeiit India, probably the 
ooantiy of the Qcdae; aoooiding to O: 
Boythia; n. of a distriot in Tibet; 

X "Tf '«r^'l(Y4^ Zo-to-ya-fM mg^n lit 
K&tyftjana with a hnmp on hie ahonldere ; 
one of tlie eiz heretioal teMhen who 
dii^pnted with Buddha. 

ermmm the ton of E&ty&yanI; n. of a 
Bhikfu (Buddhist monk) (J^i^r. 5). 

X <T^'8'< Ka44bi btMHo «mnmVt wht 
the goddett Umi ; aiao the mother of the 
Bhikfu K&tyftjana. • 

; TS^'Q Ka-tyaii iu «mnnr lit the 
ion of E&tya. It it said that the flunily 
name of E&ty4yana was given beoause 
the patriaioh of the tribe took the 
TOWS of an asoetio from the sage Nada 
(jr. d. S ItY). 

t 'T?'^ **'^^^ ^* ^* * ftower 

^•^ Jfc«4*^ir=H«H retu miff a table 
of figures made of lines orossing eaoh 
other and forming squares. 

^*9^ ii^«-/«MsW rat ootton doth 
{fiag. f). 

t T^9 ibr^om-ftAa deambed as |t 
a^« ^»^- {jr. d. * i6S), n. of an inseot 

+ If J*^ *a-to.rfl=Hc g^kaH a bssm, 
bowl; mwtKT (also T?^ kthfo^a) the 
Tibetan form of the Hindi word kafard* 

+ ^'^'t| Kd^^^ki ^mit a generic 
name for mountain; n. of a mountaixi 

\ 'ff^^fll J&-f«-W-/a emftw n. of a 
dty in Anoient Bind (8. Lam. 8S); lit. a 
piUar of grass. 

1|*^*2f ^ JEo^ Bo^ Indian n. for 
the town of Paro in Bhutan (Ikam.). 

1 'If ^^ JBS^iu-ka n. of a fabulous oity 

which IS desoribed to have been fifty 
pojana in ciroumf erenoe. 

^9^ ka^kthfti in Eunawar a sort of 
peach (Ji.). 

^^^ Ka^thi^t Chinese minister 
who founded the monastery of Hi kwan- 
99$ {Tig.i6). 

T^ ka^the v. T^ ka^wa. 

1 ^'S'^'^ ka-^khru-ka m^ic^ (prob. 
Vf^lV a bird nestling on khad^ra trees) 
n. of a kind of bird (K.ko. ^ i). 

':\,^P[S^'^ ka-dam-pa Vfsv, fii^ir 1. n. 
of a tree; ^^w**?^ in(^ jn the Aw- 
i^fivnia flower ; the tree Naueha ladamba^ 
a tree with orange-coloured fragrant 
blossoms. 2. »»«UVi v^KIP^tVr^*^' f 
(J0a^.) n. of a species of bird of a deep 
blue colour and also that or a tree. 8. a 
kind of grass* 

^^q-e^ ha^whpa em$ cloud, t. |r<> 
lprfi»-fM (JMofi.). 

t 'T^^ ka-dthka^n^ also T^e ka^ 
dd'pa 1. n. of a fruit. 2. n. of a bud 
(JT. d. '^ *0). 

J If /^ ka^dO'lM iwmi n. of a fruit 
(r: <f. n tog) ; pr^b. «flii flie fruit of Ihe 
tree JFfons rsUgiam. 

tT^^'l *«-««•*«»• 'W* gold; a 
pedantic qmonym for ^ fair (Mttm.). 



t T^'T W vm^ n. of an Iiidiui 
paodit who Tinted Tibet (</. JSM.)- 

+ '!|'afi ibi-9«-<«a (pfob. W^) lit. 
sprouting; generic mane for a tree; tlie 
pUnt Ahrm preeahrim ; ^-^T^^fTV^ I 
the flowers of the ka'na4ia tree (JT. g* 

1 11'^'*'^ ktunU'fuMM WW^ n. of 
a tiee (JT. A « 4««) ; «^ «» pl»t 
CaMmeliiia Bengatenm. 

^^ ka-na^ya n. of a kind of 
weapon; a short lanee attached by astring 
to the arm* by which it osn be drawn back 
after having been thrown at an object ; 
^irsi«H-a-^Uq- V«ir T* V*^ «•* V' \ in 
flie hands, a sword, a lance and a large 
snow {K. g. ^ JlS). 

fr^ ;&-«Wfai also T^«^ '•f^ 
n. of a celebrated JWwffte (Tartar) king 
who ruled over PalhaTa, Kashmir and 
Jalaodham (the proTinces of the Fanjab 
sttdEabal) inandenttimesi he embraced 
Buddhism and is said to haye hdd the 
last great Bnddhist Oouncil for the com- 
pilation of the Mah&yftna Tripitaka in 
the first oentory B.C. 

1f4|3^ Xthgium n. of a prorinee ol 
Tibet north-east of Kong-po; ^Sl^^i te 
Ifk Mm ' p a a natiTe of K^-gnam. 

y« a kind of qwar or lance. WV and 
w>i^ vnr are synonymous terms. 

t IfCrOl ka-pdJa mmm the skoll; the 
f oidiead. In lib. Bndh. k^ta or 
tapmli signifies either Ihe dmll or a 
drinking cap made of the hnman skull. 

1 Hf^ I : JTopi n. of the langnageihai 
was anciently spoken in the coimtry of 

KapisUn; n. of a coimtry.^ The Bon 
Btgal*rMi§ (a history of the kings of 
Tibet), according to the Bon historians, 
was asierted to have been written in Kapi, 
the language of the gods, in which the 
ancient Bon scriptores were mostly 
written* It is also stated that the Bon 
books were translated into the language 
of the Persians or T^^'ik people, from 
which again the Tibetans translated them 
into the language of Shafi Sh4fi in 
Norihem Tibet. 

J^5n:l urftw gum, resm {Ji.)i 
the redn eztraoted from a medicinal 
plant called fi^JM (/tmijMf commmmi). 
The root is gathered in autumn cr 
spring and being thoronghly cleansed, is 
cut into i^eoes and beaten into pulp. The 
juice is squeexed out with a dean cotton 
rag, and bdng poured into a clean 
dry earthen pot is subjected to a gentle 
heat As soon as it begins to thidken it 
is stirred with a spoon till it gains the 
condsteni^ of resin. 2. the hog-plum, 
Sp^tMM magmiferm ; a tree; PiniqMfm 
iomeni^9mi the mane-fig tm; Bimi 
inpseiarui. Also a wood^apple tree. 
8. n« of a yellow cipiment. 

4 l||'ch||'^ U-fi kthiihm n. of a medi« 
dnal plant (JT g. « 61) ; «A«^ the plant 
Mu0um prurUui. 

t »T* S *»:i»-rf««B^* »a-jrf. 

4 1[!^^ Etfpi^M flf^ n. of a king 
of Southern India who Ured in Buddha's 
time and considered, himself the greatest 
monardi of the worid. His ranity was 
exposed by the Great Teaoher, who eon- 
Turted him to Buddhism and ultimatdy 
raided him to the pcdtion of an ArM 

it fj'^l-ai-^-^ «]^ ^ n. of a 
Br&hmanioal sage whose hermitage was 
at the mouth of the Ghmges {8, Lam.). 

-^ 'H'Scq ka^piA^ia irfii^ n. of a 
Yery delioioiw fruit (JT. rf. «« »0). 

i ^'^'S ka-J^n-da-ka irPw^ n. of 
a kind of bird. 

1]*^'^ Ka-pti'ta n. of a plaoe in 
Anoient India where, in aooordanoe with 
the oone of a holy sage, adnltery and 
incest were punished with the burning of 
the houto in wbioh such crimes were 
committed {D^am.). • 

'fj^H^ k(4'pe4 a gourd; a sort of 
medicinal fruit (Lejt.). 

nf^ ka-pha a tree. 

^f^ I : JTa-tra n* of the mother of 
Bromton, the founder of the Buddhist 
hierarchy of Tibet {fihrom. r S7). 

^'^ II:=s*^«' g^ugjpa ^, mm a 
pillar, oolumni stake, support ; also tri- 
dent ; Til ht^'tke the neck of a pillar or 
column; nf^ka-ikei the shaft; ^^^ 
ka-fffiig^ma a small house or temple hay- 
ing but one piDfr ; ^^^ kdhchen the prin- 
cipal pillar, ayerylarge pUlar ; Tf^ ka-rten 
the base of a pillar ; ^^^ ka-^Ug^ the 
pedestal of a pillar; T^^ kagdan the 
base or pedestal on which a pillar stands ; 
^ii;« Ami-v>*^€ * colonnade, a number 
of^ pillars ; T^^"'^*^ a grooved pillar ; 
iirq-^I^T^'i^'^ 'HIT: (lit. the town 
of houses built with pillars and king-posts) 
one of the thirty-siz holy places of the 
Buddhists; ^^'Qprcr^ ka^wa bum^pa^ean 
one ol the pillaxs of the great Jokhang 
temple at Lhasa, with the npper part of 


its capital in the shape of a water-pot; 
T^l^irst^f ^^ ka^wa ^n^^<hcan the pillar 
that had a serpent-shaped capital^ T^ 
^^'V'«| ka-tca fik-lo-ean the pillar which 
had designs of leayes of trees round its 
capital; 'T*''^'*'f'<^ *«-wi •eH-^o-^ean 
the pillar with a lion's head on its capital. 
These were the names given to the four 
principal pillars of the Jokhang temple 
of Buddha at Lhasa, built by King Sron- 
htsan figam-po about 640 A.D., after 
the model of the pillars in the palace of 
the Emperor T'ai-tsung, called Eyfi lun 
tin, the palace of the golden dragon. 
wIt^ gnam'-gyi ka-wa ^ \m\nm m the 
pillar of heaven; ^'^^ Ba^yi ka-wa 
fjiwr the pillar of earth ; A"*!*^*! m«-j^t- 
ka-wa ^ff^r^nr the pillar of fire; V^ 
T^ chu^pt ka^ioa wnm the pillar 
of water, — these are the fabulous and 
metaphorical pillars mentioned' in the 
astrological works of Tibet. ^'"^^ 
gyu'hi kO'Wa a pillar of turquoise, or 
one that is studded with turquoises 
(Lha.knr. IS). 

^j^'M Ka khoUma n. of a hiatorioal 
pillar in the grand temple of Buddha 
at Lhasa, inside of which the earliest 
known HS. of Tibet, called q^*l«iii*>i|- 
|^'*<l, and said to be the will of King 
Srofi-btsan ggam-po, was alleged to have 
been found in the middle of the eleventh 
century A D. 

^'*<^ ka-i^go the capital of a pillar. 

'H'^ ia-owssT^**^ Aw-iTd-can lit. with 
a pillar or pillars ; a house. Li the sense 
of being the supports or upholders of tho 
school of Marpa, the Ta$i!trik sage of 
Tibet, his four disciples were called T^ 
^ ka-can bshi *'the four pillars of his 

school." They reoeiTed lus ika^^ oommia- 
sioB, regarding Bttddhiim, *nd were also 
called 4«p'qqvq^ «< the four oommianoned 
onee." The following were the four 
dieoiples: ¥t<«*1('^ Ckoi-^rdor of J^og; 

*rJ-iHf^^-l(i MMttr^icdH f<fo-o> of 
Ihi; and ft-iTMi-a Jft-Ai ra^pa. 

T^l^"!^^^ ka-ifeiy tgo-Qfiig 1. n Bjnall 
hoQfle with but one pillar and one door, 
gen. a email prison-honee. 2. A mode of 
capital puniBbment 10 laid to be called io 
when the eolprit ie fattened to a pillar in 
a dungeon until he diea of hunger ^/d,) • 

'T^ ku*^fhm the ornamental ailk 
fringea and embroidered banginge made 
in Tariona myihioel dealgna for deooratiog 
the oapitala of pillara. 

^cqaa-n fipfm a atoong well-flniahed 

l^'f^'^fS >«HM^* ibpar^M a eor- 
aioe; the ornamental projeottona, Ac., 
whioh aurmount a pillar i the deooratiTe 
pieoaa whioh are attabhed to a pillar. 

^mm h i i M tH w H i a bouae with manj 

^^ hiHuit ttie iquare apaoe (of about 
twelre feet) eoeloied bj four pillaxe i« 
eallad a Immlgi the area or endloeure 
of a colonnade ia meaauied hj the hhmig. 

Tl* Aa-c*i# the top of a pillar* 

^t JuHi^ CT^I* kthp0t^9$) the 
upper part or capital d a pillar. 

^ni iii-f«Aii miliiv capital of a 
wooden pUars a piece of timber in the 
ahape of a bow tied on a piller to hold 
up the aeain beam (Xee.). 

Y*«*^ the extremity of a pillar which 
projecta oyer the oapital (orchitraTe) 

the coyer of a pillar, perhapa the ahacua. 

^Tf^ ni : a partioular faculty acquired 
by a myatio prooeea in which the appetitea 
— hunger y thirati Ac.«— are anppxeaaed. 
Thia ia one of the aiz praoticae of the 
Buddhiat Tantrik$ who practice ifogM 
(meditatifo concentration). 

^f^ IT : ^^imi a large Tcin or artery 
in the abdomen ; a Teaael in the aide of 
the breaat containing rital air (miPIT^, 
auppoaed to be brought into action in 
aboTc myatic prooeaa. 

t ^^'^ ^^^^^ ^"^^ n. of a tree, 
the elephant or wood-apple, JbraaM 
Xkfktintum {8. Lmn. 88). • 

J ff^'yAI i^H'ta^h 1. n. of a tree 

(JT. d. « JIfHj. 2. probaUy vRrdvbcBflom, 

^^3| JCi-6ti-fo,deaoribedaeVA-|r» 
H%^'» a* of a Qandk^na BAja^-Mnee 
of the ceUatial muaidaDa (JT, tpy. ^ U99). 

If ^ ha^i$4 or «'a ki^m^ gourd. In 
the dictriot of Pf4-ma ^*otf in Tibeti Juat 
north of Aaaam, the gourd ia called rriii 
e-iiwi : «? J^-^^lv^^ipf^w^f^ | the gourd 
fruit enrce fever and diarrhcda : ^T^'^^' 

burnt or baked gourd eaten with nudaaaea 
eoree Uoody dianrhcaa (JT, g. « UT). 

I ^^Kihhd n. of aeily in Ancient 
T7dyi]iai<.#«i in VJ^IP 17*rpyan yul jra* 
bably the modem Kabul. 

;|; ^^f^ Ku-ifhha n. of a F^nce of 
Ancient Kabul {fi. Lm^ 17). 




;^'Vf^S Kohmm^cha or ^W* JCmnn* 
Uha VTiraT n. of aBMved place in AiMua 
where there is a itono-eat Bymbol of Kili» 
the Hindu goddeat. 

IfTlj^ ibr.iiki4a the lotne (J^ojf.)* 

:j; If cN*^ bhma4ii mt^ a kind of 
medieinal plant: T«*r^|*^«w^^- 
^•^^ I ** if the root of ka-mm-td be plaeed 
on the top of the head, ileep ariMe" 
(K. g. « 50). 

[^IfW^ kama-ru 1. Eiaarupa in 
Anem. 2. elabaeter {Beh.) ; ICT»^«» frfo 
kd^ma^ruifa marUe. 

tlfV^ ihMM-Af im«l* the water- 
lily, lotna K^hmlmm, 3. a rirer. 8.s 
Vii*4iWjfroff MMtf aoonaiilting or reflect- 
ing mind {fiag.). The woid Kamala is 
Taxioody naed hj the Tibetana, and the 
f oUowing fynonyma of it (both i^mbolio 
and metaphoxic) are enumerated in the 
work {fiag) : — 

Byn. if'^^^Virahi fi^ata aoft tones; 
lir^i^r S^ a branching tree ; |F«f ^a*' 
gM-poki mgoi'bum the teata of an ele* 
phant ; t<r«r^'^*^ vwtll^ n. of a Buddha ; 
a^l'Q (tden-mra^wa one who apealoi the 
truth; 9fr9f^ nam^igAhak the §kji X^*« 
#ior.6f# a gem ; f«'§^*«^'«' §nai^bi^ 0<if- 
;hi the aecond luminary, the moon ; v^' 
6<i-gM a bull; ^•jMwi 4ar-(fjfii|rf«*flmf 
the middle aone or boundary : S'^'O ijfa 
i^ai^pa swan ; f^'aK.* |frr0ii-cAa4 beer made 
cf honey; v^«A«<*« iwai-poki gaal a 
lamp, that which deara the eight ; ^% ma-^ 
he a buffalo ; A'M*^ m^mo^ gh$ a woman's 
iong; '^^'^ i^n^paH rto a riding 
horte ; fl^W yul^pkran a small country ; 
^yif^ ri^dkag§ a deer ; vMP«'«i /«< i9hag§' 
pu a collected mind; ^** f-^/i-p^ «A« 

predoua thing; ^'M|'^*yi rumh^k^i 
ri-pkrw$ a smaller peak of the mountain 
Sumeni;^^lftVI-rfo a chariot ;4|I^F^ 
ga^-ggi kka^og flie colour of gold. 

:|; If Xror^QI anivAv a celebrated 
Buddhist pUlosopher of the ancient 
moDcatery of Tikrafnayfla in Magadlia, 
who intaroduoed the Togaedrga If ahiyina 
School of Buddhism into Tibet, aftw 
defeating in co n trov e rsy a Chineee 
hoshang who wished to- conTert ibe 
Tibetans to the doctrine of the *'do- 
nothing^ school during the reign el King 
|^a-|('q<i| Kkrufotl kMm t^n about 
the middle of the 8th century A.D. 

^*1*^ ka-ma-li a Tery sharp sword 

(D. R.) graaping in his nine hands nine 

Hj-^'Ql'ir'M ka-mu^ tdo.tgyo4 n. 
of a sortof alabaster or steatite found in 
Oentml Tibet {J&.). 

T^^S'^ ihi^ia tki4-€ag msty and 
crooked : i^ VT<^'W^'^¥W I ** the 
steel ribs of the coat of mail which are 
rusty and bent '' (Jiii^.). 

X ^^^^ 'nw^Wr tt. d a kind of 
bird (K. ko. ^ «.). 

f l^^^l'^ ka^tM'litMK (prob. wftt- 
ftrfHar)sf*ff^')'^ dress made of a 
hea? enly stuff, m., the finest kind of silk 
which is used for presentation at an 
interview, or when making sn application 
for any favour, Ac. ; n. of a very fine 
doth or linen made of KAcilindi (Lem.). 

1 Iffc'lf^ KihUaH-ka-h n. of m 
Bhikfwfi (Buddhiat nun) (JT. d. i i«). 

j^ If ^^^ KBhUi-li-bati the Kachili 

^1 on tke Boitbera bank of tbo riT« 
Bohite thore is the Kaohili loiMt and a 
l4€pal6M stsonghdld (JDmim. 91). 

IfS^^ te-r<Mhfo*Ai the lee 

'VftTf te-fteni a ^eoiea cl irild oeii; 
it difien from pH^t^ or ISbetm oats 
and is eonaideied npcrior to buokwheat, 
but iufarior to iribeat. 

If ^"^ KthUhat n. of a plaee attnated 
to the eMt of Lhaaa; VrfvmihT^rf 
PK*| the moaaetery hnowA ae Ka-tahal 
Lha-khaA of ICalFgio in Upper (Oen- 
tral Tib>^.). 

If X«^l^*f A^tM^ «Am^ the 
tLda of a Buddhiat work on the geoealogy 
of the SjsgB of Tibet ( Q^. & t8) . 

:( n|*^*^*^ inmA^ deMibed as 

(Dmm.) "^n. of an Indian Oibtfy/intoated 
on Oie high hiU (of Gayi Oanri)." 

'IP^ I: te-M idk sugar: T^'V 

^iH'^i^^'dS'^ I haTingtaken sngar and 
anenio in equal parts, if beer nude firom 
thevootof (^hht^tMa be drank, the grayel 
of file bladder will be qeeted; <T^*VT^' 
^ hnrm 4 k m^ §m ug blown sogsr^ ^' 
VfJ^VlFT^^'*'! • kind of brown 
erjrtsOiaed tnade and honey; ^*9t 
9<f* As-m iog4of loaf sogar, soger in 
Inmpa; IF'H^ A^el-sio bhra sngar 
from Sg^fal^mo Batj situated on the oon- 
fines of Tibet and Ohina; |^'i<1'^ bge-ma 
Ao-ns powdered sugar, or granulated sugar; 
^f^H^fel-JuM^jwky oandy (JT. gf. s ^). 

9 "fl^-ft^l 

Hf^ II: tent-pole; 'T^'Vt'S *«-»» 
t^UfhP^ ^ tent-pole with a groored bulb 
on top used in some countries; ^|t 
*S'« I or -T^ -^-^Asw I ft tent-pole without 
a grooTed bulb on top. 

^if?hv a medieinal fruit or beny ; n. of 
the tree Pcmgnmia jgUAra and Verkenna 
Bcatudem. 'T^**A<^•|^ \ kara§im pro- 
duoes natural* warmth (in the stomach). 

Syn- V^'|« ruU9e4 gkftv, «^S^- 
mar^gyi gai ; fSiS'^^ ritoi bf^i^ma ; ^spr 

t$kigi dfug-pa ; ^quiw f « lu§^lcib§ 

1 'JpV^ ka*ta-da n. of a bird, the ory 
of whidi is like the sound of a drum. 
It is described in Buddhist books as like 
fire in colour, snd as located in the abodes 
of the Auura {E d. ^ IS). 

'H'^'^^l kthra-na-jui a kind of fine 
Chineee satin {Jig). ^^'Tl^'V^ww-l^sr 
«v^Vi iR-^^luv^srgsr*! the kinds of 
. satin (called) tefweofsf and dssf/sf, de., 
are distinguished by their odour and the 
shape of <he figures on thenoL' 

Chinese satin: ^•^wwn*^-sr^-ir%'r^TV' 
^^*iwtn aprons are mostly madeof iisfa. 

ff^i^ kth^nHitHl in the mystic 
language of the ^dkim of Tibetathe food 
of pigs (£ g. P it). 

'j^^f^H^ ka-rcM^n or T^'^T*^ te-iw 
tri^ra n^^ 1. a fragrant oleander, 
Nertwn adorum ; a species of tesie; a 

pftrtioolftr magical formula or spell for 
reoovering a missile of mystio properties 
alter its discharge. [The name karawa is 
also applied to the daphne plant, from the 
bark of which Tibetan paper is made. The 
creeper called the white karatira mbbed 
with the blood of the rook-lisard and the 
medicine mtitha rubbed with BhriHgirdja^ 
when oonbined, make an ointment which 
cures venereal eruptions on the skin of the 
penis (JT. g. « Ji9) .] 2. a sword or scimitar. 

Syn. ^^'Jis Bo-sor rga4\ ^*^'^^ <o-«or 

lag-pa \ ^^S'Wi'd'^^^ g^ ^iag$ tne-tog 
ean\ ^iJV^'i bvgyo4 gjfe§; ^U^Q gtum^o 

kind of bird {K.ko.^9). 

sugar {Sman. 991). 

$ '^'^^'S'^ Jbi-ran da-wa vrmv. 

X T^^V I ' ka-ran^ Vf^^orv I. a 
sort of wild duck; T^'ff^S'fT*'' Vrt'*'*^* I 
karanda is the name of a sweet-voiced 
bird. 2. ^KV* also ft^v, in Sans, a 
basket or covered box of bamboo wicker* 
work used for keeping books in ; a basket 
for flowers; »iV*»»'9T«'^V«> ^KM< i^ ^ qi 
n. of tk Buddhist work (K. d. ^i7B)^ 

t ^^'^ U: €ii, TOir white. 

X 'fJAI An-f aj, abhr. of KofOsabi w|, 
the Benares muslin which used to be in 
great demand in Tibet. In the sacred 
books of Tibet the gods are generally 
dressed in fine Benares muslin. ^T^ir^v 
nvfr^'^'I'^l for imitation Benares 
muslin the price per piece is two^rtf of 

10 'T^m 

the daughter of Xatyayaaa ; TTm&. 

^If^ Aw-ni 1. a wedge (Jd.). 2. white 
{l^ag. S). 

'ff^ ka-re, probably ^K ga^e. The use 
of the latter is very common in Eastom 
Tibet. In Sikkim they say "l*^ ia-^^, what P 
which P V<r^'T§VT^S'T* Upfisaka, in 
what do you delight ? {A. 94). 

nfl'^ Ka'la4a in mysticism T"IT3|* 
^^^^-J^-a* I Ka-la^ta is described as a 
man of lovely appearance {K. g. <( 816), 

X ^^^^a ^.^ a 
sparrow ; a singing bird with a sweet voice. 
According to Lex. the Indian cuckoo. 

Syn S^^i^-^«p| rgyal gmH yaf^iag; 
I'T^^SW rjef hgro mkhan ; f ^r***?***! ^an. 
paki f^^can; ^^^IK r«a.fcra*i J««rf; f-O: 
%v^'W\lfiV^' fgo-Haii duf naf ^kad pnrak^ 
iftPoSi (Vdon.). 

X 'T^g JE».&.4fi vvrpv u. of a king. 
^5TiryiHr-«i|qa-^^.Sqt^-^5«-q at that 
time (there Uved) a king named Kalaputra, 
fierce and wrathful {IT. my. n{ gog^^ 

the black lord of death who eats the dead; 
n. of a Mga. 

X 'T^'i fHW pitcher, jar; a large 

If^ ka-iag in W. mud; earth and 
water used instead of mortar; also other 
similar compounds (Jd.). 

a species of bird, probably the JBAUU. 

1. ft iomi. 2. aa indiTidual : T*^'V^^* V>^* 
^'l^'¥i I haTing arrived at the town of 
TTalandata : ^'^'T'^'V1^'S'''^'f'('<i* 
«»*1^8^'W f then appeared ZaA-jin the 
long-lived, son of TTalandaTra (JT. rf. «. 

ft« 1. a flowering plant; also the flower 
Tiaed in ya>Sa-.«icrifioial fire (Z: g.SSS). 

2. baloiiging to ^Pnr, an animal stmok 
with a poisoned arrow; tobaooo. 

1 Ij'^JI'^fj ka^lafn4ca, described as V^ 
^T^', n. of a plaoe in Ancient India 
{Iham. Uh 

J ^a»m Jte-Aim^ iwit the pot-herb 
Oamohoiua rep$mj Mewupemmm eahmba ; 
a mediflinal plant: ^«W4ft'>f'irM|-i(7«nr 
^^9| the leaf of Ealamha when eaten 
improves health* (IT. g. « ^). 

X ^^ ka-ld-pa nvnr 1. an aggie- 
gate of many aooomplishnfents; an 
aooomolation of excellent and wonderful 
properties in one place or thing (£«rv.). 
2. the Buddhist Utopia; the capital of 
fabolons kingdom of S'ambhala. 

io^t an abbreviation of flie word 
ka-pa^ a sknll {Lexx.). 

J^lj'^'^n haJiJca L described as 
d-l^*r«riij5-ngrt5«^- 1 the fruit of the 
MiyiMai flower-plant; a bod of that flower 
(4fAMi.). 2. prob. ^ifnnrCy a plant bearing 
a nut which is used as a f ebrifuge, grey 

+ If ^Jr«l| Ka4i*^a or T*"^-^ JTo^iVI. 
ka wf^ 1. one of the thirty-siz Buddhist 
sacred places said to be situated at a 
distance of 60 yo^fana S. E. of Oayi^-ako 


ir^^'n^ I 


the birOi-place of Yiswantaxa {Dit^^. 
S9). 2. a bird, a native of an idaad or 
maritime province of India boidering on 
the Indian Ocean (JT. d. ^ IS). 

1f^ *a-fe or T** kM> saddle 
doth {Ja.). 

a species of grass (JT. d. % 92); y« 
Baceharum tpaufaneum. 

i^^'^I: k0-fi4sa the finest Benaies 
muslin; cotton doth of the finest teitoie 
formerly manufsotoxed in Benaraa ; ^% 
^'"S* ^nrf^vtw Benarai muslin whieh 
in ancient times was of great rapnie. It 
ifi said that even the gods longed to wear 
clothes made of this material. Acoocding 
to O: ka-fi4Ba means a kind of flax as 
weU as linen doth; T^^ilpMi^t^^fll white 
Benares linen; «r^'»|5-^g-fii the oO cf 
htfOM grain, pfob. linseed oiL 

t T^'^ H: of Kidii (Benares) ; an 
inhabitant of Benares. 

Tn^* ka-fi ka phra-mo fine flax; 
Benares muslin. 

'T^ ka-fi^, abfar. of T^'^'i, cotton 

1^ Tn^ iTo^pi-ni n. of a plaoe or 
idand in the Indian ocean (JT. dL \S19) : 
li^^ one of the nine divisions of Jambu- 

'TpH' ka^M the oolloq. form of the 
expression ^f^y^^ ikak gtt^, a deflnite 
order or dear message. Accoiding tp 
Id. kata and koBo are mutilated forms 
of «^'Mpi ika^ ifisai^ meaning in Ld. 
"yes, sir ; very well, sir ; at your service/' 

&^' W%*^ ** n. of a city of Ancient India*' 
(Dtatn. tS). 

/si Q. (^ an Indian Pandit (Yig, 30). 


^^mi'?'*^ JTo*.*!* fi-pa n. of an 
mdian Buddhist sage (JT. dun. 59). 

^lflj''?I Kffk<hla witm a secret 
abode of the Ddkinl (K. g. '^ SST). 

IN kag or ^^ kag^ma mischief, haim, 
danger {Lex.) ; Tl or ^1 or m implies some 
accident or injury; Tl'l^'"'^''^^'*'''*'^^ 
ha4-ky%9 laUt fleeing from harm; TT^' 
«n^«'a(<r^9'q f going from a place which has 
not Kuited one owing to bad Inck or^any 
accident ; also to ran away from a place 
from fear, adv. ^^ suddenly {8oh.). 


|1p|'T|'q kag-ka^a WTW n. of 
species of bird living on the Yulture-peak 
Hill near Qayft {K. ko. 1 «). 

X ^^^ kaiiJc%^ ^1^9 iillM 1. crane. 
2. in Tibet a bird that feeds on dead 
bodies and is therefore called ^'t dmr^bya 
the bird of the cemetery. 

+ '!p'f|'^ kaA-ka^a M!W^ 1. n. of a 
flower described as growing on the Yul- 
tufe-peak Hill of Qaya (K. kb. <i| 4). 
2. prob* liV^^ the plant Alangium hexa^ 


Hp'^CTJK' EdiUdaH-kiH prop. n. of a 
terrific deity, a Pdimi. When the monas- 
tery of Sam-ye was built, the image of 
KfUi-^dai^kik was placed on the first floor 
of the principal temple (O^al. 8. 87). 

^ TjC'S^^K^ Kai'tsha-railga a place 
in Ancient Bengal, called Gaur in the 
Indian language and Gha^broA in the 
ooUoq. of Tibet {8. Lam). 

12 W^'V^\ 

n|^ ka4 in Ld. sometimes used infdaad 
of the affix ^ ka^ e.g.^ '^^ giihka^^ 
fc'^ im1Uka4; also ^^^ fifiam-kad (/flu). 

Tj^ I : kan (see F^ k/uMia) the side or 
bank: l45'«i^-V^^'A-^iflr^sir«i | on the 
further bank of the river 8rirehu there 
being a country of brigands {A.H). 

1|3j 11: also spelt ^^ tkan^ to csase 
absolutely from :V^»^n'f^SS'^»W "now 
give up anger and passion" ; ^^'^ cease 
to tell anybody. Here the word ^ 
kan is an emphatical prohibition (Bon.). 

1|^ ni: 1. m^ the palate; III pad' 
kan phlegm ; lit the plywer of the palate. 
2. ^lTi:« that seises or takes away 
by force. 3. Wi a thorn; an illness; a 
disease (Lex.). 4. n. of the pulse felt 
with the middle finger called kan-ma. 

i^^^an^m4M wfim district in 
the east of India (JT. d. ^ S67). 

t ''R'S'^y ^ Oi*- ^ daughter of 
the hunchback) viiVfns, also written 
^'5*V Kar-nyaki yul^ a city in Ancient 
India, the capital of which was Kinya- 
kubja, the modem Kanouj {K. du. S 

1[^*1 kan^ma the middle finger. 

f 1|^*^ Kim^writ n. of a province, 
and also that of a city of Buddhist fame 
in Southern India (2)ii9-y». S9). 

wild Eubus ; n. of a plant, 8olamtmjafui' 
m; also the fruit of this plant; a drug 
useful in stoppiug fever ; a tlioniy stick. 




iibmi l^wvi tOer-ma mw; fvll-%^ 
■m; I^ fte/ iy«tf (Jf^M.). 


'ip'*^ iai^ ahoe ; lealiMr Aicm ol 

Hindu ittdum uaed by die irMUliier 
Tibetuis (c/a.). 

la ia^ma mm^m orane. 

^ ^'^*Q| kamhi.ta% kind of tree 
growing on iLe Ynltnre-peak Hill near 
Gaya (JT. i^. ^ 5} ; prob. the plant 
Grnmm AnmryUacee. 

\^yH. Kam^ho^d%a «if|ii 1. a 
country in the north-weet of India ( VaL 
M.)> written Kampo-rtBt (Jd.) ; n. of a 
faboloos city Mid to bave eontained an 
area of a bundled pofana {8. Ltm.). 
2. modem Cambodia, anciently called 

^9'V^ Kam^bO'dsi^ka n. of the oonn- 
try, also of the people, as well aa of 
artudea that oome from it {K. dm. ^ l^S). 

1)^ katu water-melon (JSok.). 

^'7* Katu^ n. of a Chinese 
ministfir {Yig. 2Ji). 

1|^ iar, also kar^kar, great pain; sof- 
fering (Led.); •l^'^'fT^'^ I Hiing pain 

^f:^mMn tar Mf-jMrsfSl^'^v'^ iwrf tug 
igti-pa {^ag.)f irritation or pain in siek- 
neis; ezaoerbalion. 

t 't^*^ or HY «#*, the eon* 
stellation of ''Oanoer." It is xepnsested 
Vy the frog («r«) in Tibet 

^^^M ri bed as 'JM'^I'WI, a yellow gem or 
preekras stone (JST. d. m ggS). 

'IP^*}^ kar^^^sym loan ; in polite Ian* 
gQ«ge T. If ^ym \ja.). 

1f^*4S '^^ ^n^ msmbers of the 
line of the Kttrma^pa hiemoliy; also an 
abbreyiation of the expression JTarMi- 

^'W| kar^iAag (also written VF^^) 
a register ; list ; index. 

1 'TfV^'^ kaT'^m^'ka ^rf^lVf ifl^hw n. 
of aAower of the shape of an ear-ring (K. 
g. ^ i); the flower of the tree Pierotper^ 
mum aoeti/oUum and of Coma /Uuh. 

borax {§man. iSi). 

t ^^ karmJta in mystio langoage^t 
Va drUrbu, a bell {K. g. T «7). 

«4i commission, senriee; action; work; 
that which is produced from action; 
^'9fn Kmrma-pa (in Nepal called «NN() 
n. of a Tdntrik school of Bnddhism. 
The bead of that school in Tibet holds 
the title of igya^oa Karma-pa. The 
f oUoweiB of the school are generally 
designated by the name of J Tsra i s pa . 

^'MV^ JTanaa-^MHMi the second head 
of this sect, named Pakfi or Bakfi, 


WM iiiTiisd to Obina by tbe Emperor 
KubUdEhaa. Theih]zdohi«f,oaUedJEar- 
MM J2«4-ftyiitf nforA^^<« invitad to Pekiiig 
by fhe Emperor Temnr Toakwanu The 
tottrtb Karma Sol paH tdcrje was a 
friend of ilie last monaxoh of thQ Mongol 
dynasty. The fifth Karma De iMn 
gf$g§-pa was invitod to Ohina in the reign 
of the IBng Emperor Tunglo (IM. •* 10). 

vpr^l'^' Karma iftan ikyail the last 
of the 9de*ba QUalUpa or mlers of Tsang 
and whom the Mongol Chief Chi-shi 
Khan orertiirew (Xo4. ^ 16). 

^'H^Kar-^na ha-dttra wi^^m n. of an 
Indian pandit who worked in Tibet for 
Buddhism {J. ZoL). 

^^ tar^tmug or 1^|^«i ka^a- 
imug-pa brown sogar or treade (Jig-). 

^•^^ kar^U^ (also written ST^^% 
meaning white ware) pon)elain; ohina- 
woare ; a bhina oup. 

Ifj^^r^TI kar-lail'Wa to stand up ; 
to rise suddenly (/a.)- 

1 'fl\'*f^^ kar-fa'pa-ni Wl^i^m 1. 
a coin in Ancient India, or a weight 
of varying value; a tola or one rupee 
weight of gold ;ihe value of two Tibet eho : 
^iT^^VM I «»<MMi Ifia eogf md-^aJcay 
^9pfa:PiJir^V^f^ de-rnam§ ieu-drug kar^ 
ioifa-^y ^•^^1'^V* \ de iM ni gaer- 
ttaH-io (liag.) five manu make a mOfaka^ 
sixteen mdfoka make a kar-fO'fka^ and 
four of these make a gold ^wn (i.e^ half a 
tola ot gold). 2. ^«W»^1(T«^-^ the 
♦• value of 1,600 (WiwiM." 3. mfqwaooin 
or weight of different valuesssiorsa : if 
of gold, weighing sixteen mosa^ which are 
variously oahnodated; if of silver, in value 
equal to 16 jHUfa of comriee^ f>., 1,280 

cowrioi^ commonly termed a itfAan ; if of 
copper, it weighs 80 raktika^ or tlio same 
as of gold, about 176 grains. 

Ij^'-^qtl *tfr-ftt6| (abbr. ox ^T^-^rl* 
•Q^v dkar-yoUgyi fub^) tiie cover of a 
ohina toa-cup, generally made of iron, 
brass or silver: T^'^W^i'l'^ kar-fub^-la 
bre-ieu {Sieii.) *'for the cover of a tea-cap 
made of silver (the price is) 10 bre" 

fK'W kar-sa n. of a kind of brick- 
tea ; also called f ^'t Ifan-jc (g^.-een tea) or 
(c.*t*Q'^ IjaH'ja pa-ri; also the tea that 
comes from the Chinese district of Jai : 

K^'^iil by the Jang route (come) both 
Kana and Bod-thing (teas), now well 
known as J«ng-ja {Jig. iS). 

Tps'^'^l jBTar-Sb^, an abbr. of JKir-«a- 
pa and Sog^po^ followers of the Karma- 
pa sect and the Mongolians. 

n|^*i|p KarU tga^ n. of a place in 


1 1|3 kaipa for «JS|'^«i hikal-pa ^m, an 
age ; a mythical period of time. 

+ ^Tpij kd'ka ^FT^ a crow. 

Hj'P^ kd^kki'la (mystic) door; en- 
trance {K. g. P i8). 

nrO.t ka^^i^'^i kwa-tei a shirt; a 
Chinese jacket (<8(8A.). In Chinese 

t T]§ i*^ Ka4ga bu-mo described 
as ^F^^'Sl^'^'^'i'''' V* I the goddess Uma, 
wife of Dwafi dphyug (4filoi*.). 

'Ij'^'lj JUl-te-te fish {SeUr.). 

f 1f«r^ kd^pa^K nmm Knman ikuB; 
eup made of akull : %4*4*^'p'«^*|«'9'i* 
^'^'Wl {A. 181) hmng made the 
■Over piecee greeut (ho) pat tkem hi the 

i^^^^ Ei^be^ri in%^ the river 

GauTery in Mysore, a river Boid to be half 
a pifana faroad and 300 yojaiw long. On 
ilie hanks of thiariver are flower gaxdena 

J ^^ hd^m^ka 1. «TfwT, alBO as 

ff^piT, a qpeoies of bamboo which when 
bent by the wind is said to emit fire 
(iT. d. ^ 287)» 2. 9f^irr a plant bearing 
aredandUack seed used as a weight, 
Af^nu preeatwiuB ; or anoflier plant bear- 
ing a pungent seed, Nigella Indiea. 

X ^^^ fal-n-itf 'BTft^T aphorism; 
pnrely Sonskrt yet largely need in 
Tibetan works (<'*T^'1 7) ;=*^*^^*8«^ 
a S&ira or Udana in veriie. 

J ^^"^ Kd-^la^ko a country beyond 

the sea into which the Indus flows and 
where the finest coral grows (probably 
a marine province or island in the Persian 
QnH) (K. d. * 980). 

;^frrq|*^CmC ^^la §iU>^tm» deep 
bfaie-black colonr (5M.)- 

^'^ JTd-fa mm 1. a city in Ancient 

India which was twenty ffojana in ana 
(& Lam). 2. a sort of grass, Sataharum 

^.H] ktea or ^ kpe Oh! 'S^IH*^ 
kmaki grog^^ Oh friend I 

15 %q| 

np^ kta^pe an eielamatton need in 
ealling some one, generally a snbordiBate. 

fP itJla this word in ito agfitfe signifl- 
cation is qmbolioof the sonroe of all 
Dhmrmm (matter and phenomena), and 
demonslfatee that they are sabjeot to 
eternal ekeage. 

t jl'«l •! kH'ira pd-^fa %wm (Sckr.) 
ft daify proteoting the fields; in Bndk a 
goaidaaa of the province of a Boddha^s 

fff ^* nnmeral for thirty-one. 

a hortative utterance In 
the invocation of spirits : ^^ W^'^\si^ | 
** Hafl, 0, ye gods! to-day is warm ! " 

^i^ ki^ka* 1. wild leek (&A.). 2- 
described as v^S^^lk- n. of a demi-god, 
a Ndga, It is inaiupioions to do any 
work of merit when Eikafi comes near. 

T| ^ ki^tu a hook; the vowel sign •; 
which resembles a hook in shape. 

^^ ^rffruA a mystical invocation 
signifying "Lord": ^J"^'^"J{irwHjr^5 1 
*^ Lord, be appeased by this prostrate 
(devotee)/' It is a mystic charm to poro- 
pitiatethejBofi^fie deity, called (^gg^m 
Mi-mgon rggal-iH> {D.S.). 

J ^^''''I J^^ta^ta fkn 1. aiUtassa 
or eaanibsl demon (K. d. c 199). 2. a 
worm or insect {0$.). 

nfH^ U4fiir a shrill shont ; a savage 

'Ipl ki^ a volnme, &o., marked with 
the letter K 



fffn Aj-flM attmding to Bchr. m cor- 
nqpttmet {he OhiaMe ivoord iUJii» a lyre 

Willi Mf«ll ifanilgB. (JPJ^TMMVi <tf ^<s- 

mm. OdeMm, 18Ji8,p. 906.) 

|Mi to ikUe (i/a.). 

t^l^1^ ij-f«-«a (myitie) s flower 

t %^^ U-rUhw mm, ««K ft kmd 
ol popper, P^ tMm ; ^^"•^YT***'^ 

loots of white tfrfai tne and xoots of white 
UriJum (an vaed in medioiM). 

1 ^['^^''ir^ MUsan ft«C ft iemmt 

1^-^ Mlfii-i» l^tanr ft kind of 
flowor; the tiee BitUa Frtmdom ; ft tree 
hearing pnity flowers. 

t %rQ UM-tlMi ft pretty bat hitter 
fruit, enaneoiuly for %>rq-^ kwhpaJsa. 

t %rtni| kim-paJM ^mm ft fruit, Ca- 
emrbOaoemn plant, TrMouMrfAet paknata; 

^•frf^l Ri^s-«r«i^-ft-V«i'«^! (2r. rf. ^ 
StS^ men entertain deaiee whioh are 
trannent and deoeptiTe like the Kimpaka 
fruit and Uke flah that eftt bait on a 

^ ^|jnT^ km-pa-h or ^^m kim-ba^ 
la ftmv ft mnaieal instnimant; a oymbal 

^1^ ki-ku tewm a spedes of small 
red garlio ; aoo. to some oaixot. 

^ «/ slowly =*T^^fe: -i-iH^' 
Mi-^'l^ilqi fsrossing a mountain pass (he) 
slowly (D.E.). 

J ^QJ'^^ JRfaJrfto ftrafm 1. an 
epithet of B'iTft. 2. a town in Anoient 
India. 8. a BdkfaM King {K. g. •( 625). 
4. an onomatopoetio for sounds or ones 

Jll'^'lJTH JB-ri ia-ka ftsrnrw the 
eoontry of fiie Sapto Eosi in Nepal inha- 
hated by the Eirftt tribes and called 
Eirante ; n. of a diatriot in S^'Vl' Sub- 
Himilftyft (Dm-yv. 59). 

3|^-OT'cr«ir<**) the leaf of the tree Aehyran^ 
ihm a9p&ra used in inoantetionsy in medi- 
oine^ in washing linen, and in saorifioes 

^ I: ihi 1. for the numeral 61. 
2. (mystio) a fairy or ddkiM (K. g. r, 
179) ; S'4 kihpa, the Gist (volume). 

'H n : a cry, moan ; S'| ku-^gra 
clamour, noise ; S*l'^'^'9^*4 a general ory ; 
the Yooif orations of many people together ; 
31'^^'^' I the noise of general oonversation : 

then, when they anrived at the bank of 
Sog chu, there was ihe sound of chattering 
in a house {A. 8i), 

Ida^u an enigma^ a riddle, a punling 

S'S'i^ ku-ku tgrogi lit that cries 
kukui^^'^n bpa-gag a grey species of 
duck (JMoti.). 

teacher or trainer of dogs; n. of an 
Indian Buddhist sage who was also called 
Kukuripa (W^**) (JS^. *<«. *«)• 


5'^'5'i'^ Jr»i-»iir4« jMNM fin- 
^f^s^'Vif^'rwi n. ol • bill in Ifagadha 
(Ommn. 1Y). 

1JT| jrii-fe/enonecniily for 5*^ Oi»-j^, 
part of the province of Ng^ri in Tibet 

Tr« ku'Co ^tWTwm, mwi, m^ noite, 
dMnonr; 5-*T«*^^T«r^ |»i^«^ci^-^^- 
^T%^I when an old dog barka, go elae- 
where witiiont explanation (& kg.). ^ 
%'9H noisy, olamoroua; iTwrf^rffl to 
ipeahin aloud Toioe (nueaning nothing) ; 
to bawl out; jt'^^f*! to Kawl, to cry 
out, to make a loud noiae; I'Tl** a 
greet noiae or tumult^ an uproar. 

ir^ Ku-^or, alio 1'^, n. of a plaoe 
ia Tibet. 

%'^'tiu''deA'te: See ante 9 iw. 

theheavenly hreeie {M*oh.). 

tm^*^ JTiHHi-fo fWlW 1. the aMMIf 
or Himilaytoi fheaaant; alao, a bird with 
beautiful eyea whioh liTea in the fabu- 
loua mount Sumem, 2. the oldeet eon 

of Aa'oka. 


^ra iu-wa or |'4 fibMM (in Objneee. 
kua) ^Wl, jpn a gourd; the bottle 
pmi^ I^ffenarid vulgarii. In thePema^ 
koi difltriot this £ruit ia oalled P'Vi a-bum^ 
ijB.^ nature'a bottle. A bottle made of a 
dried gourd is alio oalled %^ kvMoa. 

Syn. V^-^^fi manhpar tgyal\ tfe'E'^ 
fdM-ftu nH; V*r*^ *tf.f«w-«m; r|w§s 

fcft'A^ Jhf-tMii< fxiifff a float made of 
long-dried gourde. 

17 ve\\ 

aleo wnw, the wateiwlily ; alw^ the jujube 
plant, JRfKPAiM J^fuh^^ and tiie fruit of 
that plant. 

f 7^ A-iira vH ^Kurera, the 
god Of riohes, the chief of the Noijin 
known also aa Naga Kuw^rm and i^v'Vrll 
^mm4ko § Ayt-te, the son of F e ^ jpiweef e . 
According to iome Tibetea writerii JTnami 
ia one of the eight keepers of the horsss 
of Vaifrawnfg, [JTakro, or in later 
Sanskrit Kuoera^ originally the name of 
the chief of the eril beinge of darkneiB 
bearing the epithet Feiifrweiva ; aftsnrards 
the god of inches and treesures, and is 
regent of the northsn quarter of the 
world, which ia henoe celled JTalsfw* 
gi^fta^ik. Euberaiathe son of Fiffrate 
by UanfOj the chief of the TUkfe end a 
frienc* of Budra.] (JT. With.). 

Tjg:«C^ Ku^bfi m0M$ a Bon 
deity who resembles the HcKMAettte 
Jampal; the god of learning and wisdom 
among the Northern Buddhists (J9 Jt.). 

wwv^ leaf-gold (from Ohina brought 
1^ way of Oqrion); it ia described in 
{]tU^)x ««T¥r»|*^»«^ gold es- 
ported from Lsnki (Andent Oeylon). 

X "JPiS *««»«^ fW <*» waterwmy 
which opens at the appearance of the 
moon; said to be JVyeipAMi $9cuknta; 
l'«S'*>sTVS*^ffr*i a bush or cluster 
of water-lilies. 

Syn. VW^T«irff«-fa#»»r^5 r*% 
Oa-waHiri; ^*« m-moi; vV(^ ^Mipwi; 

ikat^\ W^"^^^ 9kMea§ iga^i t^ miax 
^ll iO'^grog; ^'^ 9a^9tob§i m^M^m^. 
9ishan4no fttW (4Mr4.). 


t a WtlT« ktMnud grogi as ArK iril^ner 
or 1'^ zhhM moonbeBSiiB (M^on.). 

BUD (JplDn.). 

^«Aii/ (JVifiofi.). 

tke friend of the watei^lily ;.ihe moon. 


4f>i I a medicinal plant of the lilj tpedee 

t %%S*^ hm-mui-Uhal a cluster of water- 

;j; 1J^. A^tf-tf^M fn 1. a tree; lit that 
which grows on the earth. 2. the planet 

^Hh Kuii a devil or demon in 
Chinese demonology. In Chinese Kuei. 

T1^^^^ hu^i^n a class of evil spirits 
{Grub.), In Chinese Kuepshen^ ^'devils 
and godfl.^' 

^^^^* kuii^tsa^ a Chineoe work on 
divination {Qrub. ^ 6). 

^p^ Icurya sediment of nrine from 
which Tibetan physioians diagnose 
disease {Med.). 

t '51^'^ ifcw-rfl-ra f^ = BT*^-^ n. of a 
bad; an oeprej (If^on.), 

t ir^'*'^ *t«.ra.*fl-*a fraw or f^iRT 
the crimson amaranth; a pmrple or jellow 
Barkria; the Uossom of the amaranth or 

+ TJ^K'^ hu^a^-ga f^lP the deer; 

also fl^Mpi 9i[og^hagt an insect (f . d. m 


18 Tj;^\ 

X ^^ -Sfi-rti f^ a city in Ancient 
India near Delhi one y^aiM in area; also 
a province {8. Zam. tO). 

female Bnddhist deity Msodated with 
Envera, the god of wealth; is goddev 
of might and power; she is also o:iIled 
U[^^ {JTidifd). The flnt sovereign 
Dalai Lama is said to have ncqnired great 
power by propitiating this deity. 

1. |K^fV^ lead. 2. a fragrant grasSy 
Of/perm nifh(ndm%\ the bad of a flower. 
3. a ruby; cinnabar. 

num^lugf the breed of sheep in the sob- 
Himilayan conntries (Jffon.). 

TJ^ ku^rs or 5'^' *« w^, whiT, 
iNfT^ TT^ sport, diversion, jest, horse- 
play; %'^'iS^ to jest; 5l'^5^ for the 
purpose of amnsement or fun ; ^'^^'Rwcn* 
^'ST'^I %fwiir^ ^rfir: not liking, die- 
gosted with, amnsements. 

(goblin) that lived only on lotus flowers 
and lotns-honey, and redded in the 
fabnlons island of Batnamo {K. d. ^ 980). 

1 ^^^'5 *^***-^ ^^^^ *^® country 
inhabited by an aboriginal race' of people 


t^?^ irii.Ai-/a f or S1>^ JTtf-nii-ii. 

'tr^? Ku'lu4a a place situated in 
the south-east of Kashmir, now called 
Ny<in-ti by Tibetans, by Hindus Xuln 
(9. Lam. 19). 

t ^^ ^^ ^' ^^' ** ^ bscrad 
grass used in certain religious eeremonies 
both by Brahmans and Buddhists^ 



Pot offnomiroidei, » gtMS with long ttalki 
and mmmona pointed lMV«e: ^"•1"«'»'|'"' 
firyurjvq^tSI the gnu* ^f* ensoxM 
laogenty and inoteMM tbe ifatengtli of 
fliebo^. 9: n. of a city (XI du. P IM). 

K5r^i« i<M idul g^i *«sVjS «i«W 

(Itewro) 1. Ktu'iaJMgM*. one of the 
thirtj-dz MoredplMet of tbfl BnddUsts, 
nbere Qantama Buddha ii aaid to hare 
breaihed his laat. 2. n. of CbakraTartt 
Bija (Soprama Bnlar of the TJnivenw) ; 
^•4|iifa Ku-fa 9hm-fo Wfcpi n. of a 
OhakxsTarti Bija. 

W-fC9k tH-fOHM n. of a flower; also 

ipr^ 1 whence did 70a Iring that ftin-po'* 
dan^ter oalled Knaaoa flower (JTiroM. 

gari wluflh i« wiA to poseeaa the property 
of enrnog infeotiooB ^aeaMt and flagoe. 

^y, boluMBi. 

U f««t„ a Btiddhitt sage; the tide 
of a BnfldhiBt mfflak or prieet who 
has aoqniized spiritod knowledge and is 
more dwrouithan learned: V"«^TV5' 

^%.)^^l {Yig). Generally there are 
„nong l)oth Br«hni«ns and Buddhists 
fboae called PanOita and KnjaU. The 


title of Pan^ia is applied to one who is 
versed in iatelleotaal Boienoe. Thow who 
are called JTv-fo-A' have attained a high 
spiritoaldeTolopiinent hy ahetraction from 
material or intelleotiial enjoyments. In 
eome irorks it is called Ki^^^K. 

'IT'^ ku*fu a kind of lime ; a kind of 
fruit; an apple (/d.); a<l'^' *w^ fT* an 
apple tree; a-«-H^^*<T^e^^' 
w(wim\ the fruit of A-fv cures griping 
and acute pains in the intestines. 

t IT^InI ^^^^^ ^ * corrupt form of 

kind of l^e floweri t. "A^ tkit. 

Syn. \v%'^V^ dut'kyinW'iog; 80^'^ 
bya^khtftti fflfa; ^IPfi^lH «M-tey !»»> 
finafi; »-fT> itie-<oy s*; V^'^^ g^Van 

t IT-^*^ hhf^-^ya vtn a kind 
of lotus flower (JT. d. ^ 5W); a gene- 
ric name for water-lily or lotos. 

l^r"'^ XiMo-fw fn an Indian 
pandnh who t«wohed Buddhism in Tibet 

n. of an Indian Buddhist sage (JT. dm. 

ikt«m saffron. 2. a flower (^jwa#i. ^**). 

t U^^ £«-««-'« A Buddhist exorcist; 
a Naljor or Buddhist, fogi who carries 
a s m^n hand-drum (called daniaru which 
is generally made of a human skull) and a 
ihig^.bone trumpet in his handstand pro- 
fesses power of exorcising evil spiriti; 

%W^1S^ Eu^tit^luki fpuoi'pa the praotioe 
of the Shaman or Baddhist ezoroistB ; S'T 
«t*r^-«^-^'X| {A. 90) wbm praotinng 
the rites of a JTti-Mf-Af escorart. 

1' VV^ kfi'iU'lU'pa is a word of TatUrik 
mysticinii, its proper Tibetan equivalent 
being ^ts^ g^^o^-P^ the art of esmsiffln. 
The myvtio Ta/nitrik ritee of the JhadhauU^ 
called ApodhMpa in Tibet, exist in 

IT^fC* Ku^ie-fchoi n. of a fort and 
also that of a distriot in P^ Kham§ 
{8. kar.). 

ITQ^ ku t^wo the shrill ejaonlation 
8W0j J190, &o., made at the time of sacsrifloe 
to the earthly gods, demi-gods and spirits 
by priests, 4o., in Tibet: f^'W*^' 
^iw8<r*Tjq-cwrflir^^'y#i the celestial 
troops in inoonoeiTable nnmberp surround- 
ing fiiem gave yent to (nro-frnrc. 

flT^ ku-^ TfTf the ory of the Indian 

cudcoo ; I'^'^WIf^ VT^^ ^^^^ cuckoo, 
t.0.,^the bird that cries ^kookoo'; aco. to 
Os, a kind of ring dove. 



If ^* kU'hraH sheep and goats : ^^ 

elk-irV^I (flr. S0n.) amoi^ the 
followers of 0|ienrab the Bon-po of the 
ifyu and jBira|-|M) sects sacrifice sheep and 
goats, bufEaloes, dso, mules, camels, Ac. 

Tpl hug crooked; a hook; %nn gri- 
kug (the kukri)^ a curved knife ; short sabre ; ' 
f^'On haghkug an iron hook; 9'Si ia- 
kug a fish-hook. 

3l^^'S\*> kug-kug bp^-pa to bend, 
curve, clinch (a nail) (Jd,), 

Vn^ kug-kug altogether crooked ; %^ 
ff^ kug-pa-Hii t(tiKkeijiWB (C«.). 

ipf ^ kug-rt9e cuekoo in W {Ja.). 

^^^ JCW4-te-fNi possibly tiie pro* 
vince of Konkan in Western India. (& 
Lam. SS). 

t^F^^ ibtf<-*»wa f^ safiron. 
Tibetan ^"^ is evidently a corruption 
of the Sanskrt word. 

;|;T]^'6'^ Kui^ta-^a ^ITT a fabulous 
silver mountain situated beyond the great 
sea and at a distance of 2,000 ynffana to 
the south of tfima lefam, where the sun 
never sets. It is full of precious stones, 
such as lapis lasuU, sapphire, &c., and on 
the sides of this mountain there grows a 
species of tree producing a race of men 
who live only one day; they ire bom 
at dawn, they begin to walk after day- 
break, in the morning they are youths, 
towards evening they grow old, and at 
sunset they die {K. d. ^ 976.). 

1J^ han qft, ^, fifftnr, wt all, 
entire, the whole; |'^A^'9'!W^I from 
all pores of the hair; \^^n^ all those; 
^I^S^ all the others; 9^'siiw«^ all, eveiy 
one included ; S^'S'Viiw^ in the heering of 
all; A-ffH^IT^ir^l aU these flowers 
should be strewn about; l^^^^seeh 
by everybody; V^I^'^'W or ^rq^i^ time 
without interruption; at all times; colloq. 
S^'^ kun-la means *^ everywhere." , 

Syn. «m-«s ihamt-eai all; f^^ im- 
tAog^ various Idnds; sr^^ rnWuf without 
leaving anything behind; ^Vk jsai-par 
exhaustively; 9^^^ ihag-mef/ without 
remainder: %v^ iui^mei/ nothing left 

%9{^ kun^kyUy same as Vi^ kun- 
gyi dkyilf in the midst of all; in the middle 

of all ; at the centre. 

mat$ lit diit iriiioh bindb all ; wkerjf 
wonl oofxupho&y gen6rai 0QRU|ifaiMB| un* 

Sm" luii-ftArMwi (faffi^^) or 1^'^V 
kw m im tbnm nf^itk dttvmi about^ qporead 


IVl inM-ftyv, mno M VQ^ ten-Ill ikff$ 
or If^ iiwi49-|ft|i« wqfv, ^«m, «M, 
^iidv, glows emrpAy&t% : ^(■^'V'^'rr 
Sff'Qff ilow0n glow ttfvf jrivher6 in 11111111107 

honti mind (fUhm.)* 

Vf'^ ten-fijifo-iMi or mf^ ten-lii 
lijKMMi Mil, Hfiw, ^it^t to beoome 
p€iutant;to thoioligU j regiet : l^^^'Vi' 
«<^ir«f I hiB mind wm filled with Ngret 

V!fh teM.itfo# HpMM, mored'; 

irl^l^- Kut^gob gM iL of a 
monaatory in Tibet. 

V^ kun^kkeb§ ^arwviw, <hi«| any 
aorer ; die aU-enoompaaaing oover, tbe aky . 

m^i: iiMi-JUyai s^*r^ nam 4iMa# 
^vwilj <ita^ that whiok enoempaam ill 
thinga ; die Toil apaoa, tiie aky, tbe ioar 
qoaztemof beaten. 

fTB^nzsHfTdS Sphtog4^e4 ^ft be 
tiiat takea away miaeiy; tbe all-penradbig 
eneioy; tbe anatober; tbe lord of deatL 

ffl[^ kui^ikhor V. %s^m.'^'n tun- 
taa^ ikkarJo^ a ohann in the name of the 
Dbyani Bnddba oalled Samanta Bbadnu 

yryrvxrX kun^kkyab ^l-m^^'f^ 
nam^'iiikhai tbe sky ; n. of a goddeaa 
{Tig. k. 16). 

V^^ hm^tkhfomi iit^:wniw a wan* 
derer; a beggart a mendioant wbo goea 
to erery door for aUia. 



caiiglAgm-pawim^hi tbeAll-faiowing; 
tbe Fhyaknan; an epithet of Bnddba and 
alio of tbe bigbeat order of JMSkMoMMi. 

IT'^Vr^^ him-fBkhffm him-pig§ 
omniaoient and all-aeeing, relaning to the 
attribotea of a Bnddba or BoikimMm. 

31'rHl^i'^'*^ JSTm-iiUfwi V(A-Am a 
religiona teaoher of the .{UMI-ma School 
wbo founded a aeot. of bia own oalled 
Kun iffcib lugi. 

M-mr tbe Tibetan bieraroh of 8th§kfa^ 
wbo, at tbe reqneat of Khu^hgf^ the Ohiet 
of Horoben, ftrat abaped tbe Mongolian 

gSen w«kw mt^n an epithet of Oantama 
Bnddba { 

1^'^^Sdr ^ Am-fiiUywi ikfig-gf^ 
n. of a lama who waa given the religioob 
title of Kun-ffkhifmiiy tbe all-knowing. 

agitated; anzions: 1*'^ Ai^'Vr^§T* ' 
tbe waTea of tbe aea were agitated: 

W^P* AwM-MAfM/irf^wr Uander; ittu- 
aion ; Jao adj. all^deluaiTe ; all-wandering. 

Vi*iw Jmn-gyi fiMot the end or ter- 
mination of all (merite) : ^w^ryi'S'fm' 
m;V: \ l|^*4K'im'^^|i|-q^*^ I the end of 
aooomnlation is expenditnre ; tbe end of 
rising ia fall (JT. d. n 8SQ). 

V!%'^^ kuf^gyi-gnoi the baaia or abode 
of all (miseriea) : ^'li"'*>'>ipi'|T VI'IVS' 
W«l tbe gtonnda of nuiery aie diaeaae, 
old age, and death (Ey d. 1 555). 

5<iT ^ kim-gj/i, rUa^^a^ the root of 
eveiylbing; wiadom, diTine knowledge. 

Thi« aeen or uaaeen talent hu.^ jPrq^na 



(absolute knowledge) for ita basiB, i^., fhe 
root of all things is wisdom (prqfU) 
(g. no.). 

Vi^^'^^'^ kuti^gpii ikuT'UHi he who is 
respected by all ; a Learned man, v. 'fm'^ 
^hafhjM (Ififaii.). 

l^'S^'S^'B^ kun-gyis phyag-hya^ to 
whom all paid homage: ^•f'<'W8''OTg^' 
^^' I ^g-tten kun-gyif phyag-byas pi^, to 
whoifi the world has bowed (JT. d. ^ IIS). 

Vi'V^ kun-grub^tl^'^^ »bhwa dgt/hpa 
or«fT|'^C^' §kni'nla tha-enuH the month of 
Ootober {S^.). 

Z^^K Kufi-gMy same as 1^*^*1^' JTun- 
}ids giiHy the place or grove of aU happi- 
ness; one of the four royal monasteries 
of Lhasa, this one being situated in the 
western suburbs. 

Vs^^ hin-4gah ^fl^^t ^Ht^ amuse- 
ment; great merriment or joy. 

Wiakan'ipai'ifM^po mmm^^ the name of 
Saskya Pandita («'|'<9'')- 

fif^'^-q Eu9^4goh ^i'po n. of a 
celebrated lama of Tibet {L(A. ^ It). 

^9f^^'^M, Kuf^gab Nor a lake in 
Mongolia (LoH. ' 91) \ probably the 
Gonga*nor (l^lake). In Mongol nor 
asa lake. 

Vk rin-ptheke n. of a precious article or 
gem (JT. d. ^ tH). 

■' l*rW* Kun-igai-io ni^m the per- 
sonal atteitdant and cousin of Buddha. 

qif^i^*^/^ Kun'4gt»h'kbar n. of the 
Bon ol Kuf^igai ^UH^po^ one of the 
chiefs of Sa-fkya who visited India to 
study Buddhism <£o4. ^). 

%^S^%^^ Kun^iga^ hdmn-pa a 
mountain in TJttara Kuru, the fabulous 
continent of the nortb (JT. d. ^ 318). 

ku-^u coriander (^an. JSfiS). 

4goib ^Ttm a grove; any pleasore-grove 
containing groups of trees, flower beds, 
artificial lakes, garden houses, shady vealks, 
&c., often surrounded by a wall or fenoe. 

yi'^^'^'X JtutHigaii 4wan-^no an 
address of courtesy for f |"'S'^1P> ladies 
of the class of Lhacham — her graoe or 
ladyship: ^•'^^•W'*fl*¥»^*«*|«tf^'^l 
" at the (feet) of her charming ladyship " 

W9^^ JtuM-Qiyyo^ ^ntir speed ; also 
as adv. speedily, at fuU speed. 

^^A^ kun^hg^bi^^^f^ nam-'^Mat 
irftWTir the sky; that which coven all; 
the all-covering. 

9^*^^ kun-bgog that which hinders 
physical or moral growth. 

V^V i: Jhm-|frro,v. ^^T^ tum-w^kkai, 
the sky (Jf^m.). 

%^'^% n ; snake, v. ^ fbrul a serpent 

^if^lf'MS kun^kgro tha4 ^vriitw to be 
assiduous: iw»w?i*r"iw^'^f ■''■''^ assi- 
duous in the manner of performance. 

S<ii'<^!f^'i'«i kuf^bgroki «ro/s:W Aim a 
road, passage (Ji^on.). 

yf ^H Kur^cit^ I'^nftm 1. that pains, 
ties or entangles all at all times. 2. ^^^ 
the God of Love; also for IW^^^ ihfii-^ 
ctili: l^fe^i'^^VW^-V^lWi^*! bv 
the fetters of misery the mind ii ahrays 
fastened down. 




quifibed; suppreiMd, fully put down. 2 
the Ttt&qutther or killer of all; the lord 
of death. 3. xu of a squ of a Brahxnai;! of 
njjayaai (A kg.). 

ITf *¥!•-€*•* ^'^ fehrab all-perfeo- 
tion; wisdom; divine knowledge {E. d. % 
'0) ; Vl¥^ ^if^ni he that has oompre- 
hended OTerything. 

«^s^v|-4^'< {U*Mi'), "^immm^ the 

r#frfrft doctrine of Eilaohakra. 

*rH^ hkn^g f or ^TVQf «i^^^ I 
vctf, <ViC bringing together; putting in 
hazmoo^ with all. 

tTH^V'9 ten- ViH7 jpAa-Sa the messen- 
ger of harmony, that which harmonises or 
Tfirf fM erexything agreeable, henoe»T^ 
Jbi-ra. sugar. 

1. Indra, the subduer of all; that by 
irhioh everything oan be subdued or 
controlled. 2. Yoga or the oontemplatiTe 
oonoentration of the mind. 

fi(<iMr«l^ kun^kfom w^kog the ohiet 
aU-subduing (elixir) ; W^fV^lS^^'^^f 
^ir4t«Mrsih|l ii «i excellent preparation 
of merouzyy which subdues all evil spirits 
and diseases. 

^^^r Kuf^iUA^TOrandtha. {Td.t8.) 

^*ni leun-tu unto all;in all; everywhere ; 
in every direction: »fTt^-<Ti^tt'^1«l 
flowers were strewn everywhere, above 
and bdow: fc.fc%-^-lW^ll^' articles 
of merchandise were spread in every place, 
insi^ and outside (the house). When 
used in idferenoe to time, V( kun4u 
ngnifles : continually or pfurpetually ; du§ 
kim4u same flis V^J^*^ *l tgtf^t^u or 
yrw«, at all times, always. 

IW^^ ibf n-^ ftiftytf^ producing evexy 
where, all-producing, m., imagination : 
^^v«'f^4si*^^*Q-^|M imagination is all- 
productife (JT. d. P 36). 

l^-Q^^sai kun-tu MAyonif wandering 
everywhere: t^^ Vr^^l^'V^flW I in the 
fearful world, m., in the unhappy states 
of existence, he wanders abo^t (JT. tf. ' 

%^'V^^ kun^ ikArugi signifies ^' 
^4r^1^|k*^ convulsed ; also convulsive, 
subject to agitation and shaking {M^ion.). 

rggon m^iog or f^'S'^l^ (autumn flower), 
lit the fully developed or blown ; n. of 
a species of daiqr which blossoms in 
autumn (jKHcii.). 

WS"^*' hin-tu go^woi frjir well- 
known ; well-understood ; celebrated. 

gffHt'Walfi g,M a fabulous continent situa- 
ted 5,000 yijfmM beyond the Western 
Ocean of ( JamftiMlp|pa) India, where there 
are lions that fly in space : seine of the 
wild i^ni^*^* of that continent are said to 
live a thousand years (JT. d. ^ 980). 

^Ji'Q*^^sra kuf^tu-hg^^P^ ft^«tc he 
that provides lor the world, the All- 
Provider ; Pifoyidence. 

VrQ*^^'^ kun^tu kgye4'pa irfififiifii 
to be diffused ; that which goes in every 
direction: |CQ'V^*V'^ spiritual emana- 
tions; envop: 'C^Kl^Ta^^ rays of 
light went in every direction. 

^jnrfv L lit. going everywhera 2. 
as met. wind j a bird.« 3. n. of a 


!!R-y 5^1-q^t^^ I 


fr8'S*>*"i^'9^*'> kun-tu TffVdS-por hyed-pa 
gf^mcvfir to fully f iread ; to make plen- 
tiful eyerywhere ; to inake eopionB. 

l^'Q*^!^^ kun-tuiigribf ''clipeed; dark- 
iMflB:>v^cfq5<\l^1!l^Qqiiwiq>(| the lays 

of the 0im and moon nvere eolipsed. 

a^'ff^T** kun-tu-ioug-pa or Sf^W*' 
kun-icuff^ to pat in ; to employ, engage : 
{^'^^'^^Q'^n I put this Teasel (or pot) to all 

fnv anxiety; yearning, clinging to: 
"^^S*^^"'*»«'aW*1'> I the mind remains 
attached to its orooked desires. 

iiHal'ioa misery, sofEerings. * 

ITC^T*''!' kun-tu Hug-pa |^ofc=«i»r 
^9;^ lam-'iden-pa the truth about the way 
to Nirvdi^ %^.j out of misery. 

m'H'fdS kun-tu tjug byei^'^'i^^^'t^ 
kun ibyui-dca sin. 

l^'HTS"* kun^tu ijug-bral fiiftn free- 
dom from stti, or ^^^ Inog^pa, entire 
stoppage of suffering. 

Note. — ^The above four expressions are 
used in the higher spiritual terminology 
relating to B(4hi8atha (JT. ko. 1 SS6). 

gu9 (Ml Idan-pa faith and reverenoe ; also 
possessed of faith, respect, etc. 

Syn. 5^^ guhpa; %^^ gu^ldan; %m' 

IdaH; ^l^'5'*»w ge%g4u mw; *iq mo^ 
pa; *^'^ mo^-Idan; SSn^ dai-ldan; SS' 
MW«^ dad^hagi'Can ; ^V*r«^ dai-pa^ean; 
W9S'*' phpag-byei-pa; ^'<i'8S she-sa byei 

V8'^^^ kun-tu Idhor ^^^^A strewn 
OTer, scattered, diffused^ dispersed: ^^' 

%'V^V\fi^ I flowers were scattered over 
cTery place. 

^^'Q*^^ kun-tu dor fim perfect aban- 
donment: V''''^'''?lT5'Vl all faults 
should be entirely thrown out. 

S^'S'*^'^ kun^tu ider^vfa ^Mm%M 
general happiness, prosperity; beatitndi^ 

5l^'5'^^'Q Kun-tu hdref-pa n. of a river 
in the fabulous continent of GodAniya 
(JSr. d. ^ SSI). 

kun-^ gna^ f^irfw, iwfir 
stability; the all-abiding residence, that 
which remains at all times or everywliere. 

S^'y^^"^ kun^tu trdui-tcu the burning 
rays of the sun; extremely painful; all- 

5l^'8''!^\*^*l'^'*' kun-tu gnod^par gy^r- 
pa 4i«i'fM^ to do mischief everywhere. 

S^'S'K^'^ kun^tu tnoA'Wa %Hm\Hm 
1. the sun ; n. of a Buddha. 2. all- 
illumined, all-enlightened. 

9^1^ kun^tu fpyad , an usual duty, 
habitual work; as«a vb. to practise : ^^ 
V^^S'IM psMise righteousness or reli- 
giotls acts at all times. 

3^*Q'iS'^ ifctff>-^tf fpyod-pa free or 
unbridled behaviour: described as S***)^' 
%Si^ the Brldmia^ical conduct (4fXo».). 

S^'Q*q« kun^tu (prfff ^n^rfiRr dressed 
i|i every way; adorning the body with 
precious ornaments. 

;iai'5'|k«i kun4u |6yor-ica=^»wi«Sa^vq 
giving up everything {^ffon.). 

^^'Q'^'f^ kun^tu mig-ldan (b't with 
eyes everywhere), described as ^^'8^'f^'^', 
n. of a fabulous tree on which grow glit- 
tering gems ; also a plant or tree in full 
bloom ; '^^•««i«^y'S^y»i'%S*V'-^^-9^'r *^ 

!KT^"« I 


f^ 9'V<'<t^'<i^'K I thk (land of tvee) it 
generally to be f oand in the laoade of godi, 
demi-godBi and in the oontment of Uttaia 
Knm {K. A ^ 16). 

yrQ'iTMi kut^u tfMfti the aUnitnnning, 
all-olnoiiiing ; darlmeiw of mind ; igno- 

ranoe: 1T8*«"* «ar*»w»*^*'^, »'*'• 
Mi|-K^ 1^ lA 9^«*S'«tf^ I O, best of friends 

wbo guidetti me in precepts, morals, ze- 
BcmroeB^ the weapons f or yanqnishing the 
all-obaoaiing enemy I 

ifdak miTW the all-stupefying fasoina- 
ticn ; n. of oiie of the anows of Oupid. 

yi^Qi^lS^ai Kum4u tdmrn-^^ ^VVtWV 
Vf^ling to aU or eveocything; n. of a 

lit. good to all imd everywhere and at all 
tJTMMMi ; iL of the first DAjriti i BodhUattta^ 
the equivalent of Bamanta Bhadra; the 
Kkammga^Aitm of the Montis. 2« in the 
BSit^ma sect, n. of the first or Adi Buddha. 

yrQ'qu^'lf Kun4u butHnrnQ wv^nnfr 
1« is a female figured in oonn ection with 
the ioiegcing BodhUativti. 2. a kind of 
flower growing on the Sxmiera Moimtain 
{K. my. 1 90). 

Vifi^'^ jLkf»4ii gwigz he who sees 
aU things and everywhere by his divine 
eye d knowledge; n. of a Bnddha, also 
that of ihe BoikkaUta Avalokitesvara. 

1^%^*%^ hun4u k^r-tmr «K1W a great 
BOiae or uproar heard everywhere; the 
rattling of ihnnder ; also the noise of wind 
or rain. 

(JKKoii.) n. of a tree with min^ sap. 

yn'^S kun4u M vnvism folly en- 
li^itened; 'r^'^*' w km-yeig-pa the 
elefwth stage of Bodhimfttva perfection. 

lI'QWQ'^Ti kun^tu rab-iu ikkru^ 
lit. very muoh agitated ; n. of the six des* 
oriptions of earthquake (JT. d. •> SB9). 

VfV^V^^ kun-tu ralhtu tgul lit, 
moving slid Bhaking very greatly ; n. of 
a form of earthquake. 

t^'Q'WQ-lirlsi kun4u rab4u sAMt-eA^m 
1 41 Mn lit roaring aU about; n. of a 
kind of earthquake. 

ITV^A'Q'%^'%'^ kun^iu ralhiu kur-^r 
loud and fearful rattling or roaring; n. 
of one of the six forms of earthquake in 
whioh sound oomes out-of the sea and the 

9^'Q'WQm« kun^u rab-tu gyof lit. 
everywhere all shaken very mnoh ; i^. of 
nnivenal earthquake in which tho moon- 
tains and the ooeans are moved prof omidly. 

WV^^ i: kut^4u rig WT^^Vf^^^V 
^^ all-knowing ; omniscient; n. of a 

S'tCM ii:sJ|«'W fn^rdb wisdom 

V^V^F^ kun-tu g$al %lft^m, ^inn, 
^VTHTV, the sky ; dear inside and otttside ; 
very dear, ludd, illnminated. 

STQ'^fF' kut^u gsui a flower mention- 
ed in the Kohgynr {K. ntg. *i| 90). 

1^&*^ kun4H gso to heal everyone or 
repair everything; the healer of aU. 

^^'^tO" kun^gtum W91^ lit. very fierce; 
^NMi'^4|« ima^i-rigi n. of lowest caste in 

95^^ kun^Vui M^^M n. of a religions 
work which is fnll of extracts taken from 
different sacred books (4f^on.). 

^IT^l kun-tiogj same as Vrf^ tfktm* 
rtog ftiw, ♦iPW, n'^iTt, fancy, illusory 

^l^'^^ kun-ir^B tvft<«vw ideas and 

nii ^Irvf winrmni one of the three aigns, 
chaiaoteristica or lakfai^^ y. *i*(^ f^hhan 

3IS«|1 kufh-irtan 'n^^ 1. aapport. 2. 

31T^ kun^iten ^rnram relianoe; r^ 
signation ; serrioe or adoration. 

fabulong fresh- water lake in the land of 
the Lha-tiM-ffin or Awra, situated at the 
eentre of their chief city Bhnbhra Mdlik&. 
It is said to be five yojana on each side. 
When the Lha fight with the Lha^ma-yin 
the signs of victory or defeat are said to 
be reflected on its surface. 

'^^''^''^'^ kun-daH J*Aoii^po quarrelling 
with all ; W^5'««'«^'5l^'S^'«^i«^'««-5^ | a 
person whose lips are black quarrels 
with everybody {Tan. d. 917). 

SC«3^'q harmoniousy concordant; agreeing 
or in harmony with all. 

?l^X^ kun^n m^fw* the puWicweal, 
general interest^ cause of all. 

iidoTn^a all taken together. 

511^^ kun^gduH ^rf^, "^Wff that 
afflicts all ; the all-burning one; Cupid. 

31^^^ Kuf^idag finmfir, ft^pp the 
Iiord of All. «^H?^'5iTqv«l the Soul of the 
World ; the Supreme Lord of the World. 

%^^' kun-irdud 1. an oppressor ; a 

tyrant : H^' J^v8*«|W«' j'^q'm'V!'*»'31*^'S' 
% In astronomical calculations the six- 
teenth conjunction is called Kun^duA. 


Vi^^ kuf^hdar ^iffj^ the pulse that 
always beats = f^ffw r^«i iv^wut n. of 
the central artery. 

Sr^ V Kun-idrin the Supreme Leader ; 
he who leauA all into the way of dsliver- 
anoe ; epithet of Bnddha. 

%^'^ kun^noi, same as %^K^m kun-lat 
iRm or iPFmii from every place or direc- 
tion ; round about ; wholly, thorooghly : 
Jp|iiMw5i^^yqvui|k I in every direction 
it was surrounded by railings; ST'pr^^S'q? 
to wish from the bottom of the heart. 

Vi^'^^'^ kun~na9 ikng^-pa entirely 
darkened :«^%«hV5i^-^v^|^ rain^ouds 
have darkened all quarters. 

produced or grown everywhere (like grass). 

S^'^^'Wi^ kun^nai kkkum inp;= 
^^'%^ gur-ffum nA&Km {V^on.). 

a residence that is closed on every side, a 
sanctum ; residence of a queen ; a convent 


Syn. <^f^*'|»i ikhar-tpahi khyim ; I'lv 

can; ^T****^*^ dag-pabt ndha^-^n\ mfr: 
^m (^fl-gnas. 

'HfS'^^'^^ kun-naf hgro ^yfV commu- 

to laugh out {M^on,). 

the '* 8&tra on the door or entrance from 
all quarters," i.e,^ of free entrance 
(JT. ko. p 887). 

5l^'^i^|qq^'9'5 kun-naB Bgrilhfar bye4 
^l^K^fii to over-shadow all round, to 
put into shade in all directions. 

^SfmM made very miseirable ; pained, dia- 
UMsed; 5Pi'ipr^'&vrtK«i| entirely free 
frommiflerjr {Sbum, "^ 839). 

Yery hauglity ; arrogant. 

^^^-q^^iQ kun-na% kiagi-pa 'TOfvf, 
4«il fastened or tied up on all sides. 

oollected from everywhere ; extracted or 
taken from every work. 

venerated by everybody or everywhere : 
^11 c.^^*^«r^ii'HiiA^\H| to reverence in 
every manner with body, speech, and 

^jf4(«r|n^-q kuH^nat idaH-ica Jf^^fmrm, 
n^ivm raised from every place; set up 
well; got-np: Jl^^^Wf^'^^^ the 
enemies rose np in all directions. 

VT^I^S'^ kun^uai fdui-pa IRfTVn: col- 
leoted from every place ; brought together 
from every place. 

* af ^**^^'^ tun-no^ §na^'tca = J«r q xgyai- 
wa the aU-illnminator {8chr.). 

Bpmng from everywhere. 

peifeotly painted, described, delineated, 
referred to. 

^af^Q^n kunf4M9 ilaUt taken from 
every place. 

^9^9fiir^m, kun-nof ibar ^n«inm, vmrfini 
inflamed ; ablaae : frf^pr^^^'M^^ fire 
broke ont in every direction. 

tr^l^-q kun-nai ^hyor-wa «d«m to 
combine; combination ; IH'OT'^^'I^'^ to 
componnd or mix np meuidnes. 

27 'IHl^ I 

built tq[» everywhere ; piled up; erected. 

•j^'^wlhf Jbin-ffOf i^9et illuminated ; 
very beautiful: |'**»wM'^S-5lir¥''»*« f the 
signs or charms of the moon are exquisitely 
fine ; A'^'t|'y4p|-)«-^4|'d)4i'sir«' jjc^'^fw- 

ST^'^ I (the garden) from it» collection of 
flowerawos lovely and pleasant (If^ofi.). 

=SCM-|*»i 4paJ^gtfi lo-nui n. of a tree the 
leaves of which are sweet. 

Syn. *«w^^fo-»ki iiiiHar\ *«Qk h-ma 

W^irqli^q kun-nas bnod-pa all-forgiv- 
ing ; very patient {K. d. ^ 68) . 

wn entirely besieged, shut up entirely, 
smrounded on all sides. 

5^ Vr^^« kun^mi gye^^ wsm^ irinii- 
irfrf^ thoroughly ; very exoited : •»«• 
^jf-^v-^^trq t the mmd agitated (not 
being fixed on any subject). 

5^'f^Aq^'q kim^^nafl *fclr^fffl=\»A-?C^U 
ni^mabi bod-ttfr all-iUpniaiflia^ niys; the 
rays of the sun (JjfUoH.). 

itafi aU-abstracted : ^R^; ^i'^l^'S'S'^^^' 
B^^q f one who has left off all the concerns 
of this world ; he who has renounced all 
worldly matters, ' acts and concerns ; an 
epithet of Buddha. 

a^iMi^ei kun-ipaH^ ehet^po ssjflr^ 
the all-renouncer ; an ascetic ; a hermit : 

before the feet of the Arch Benouncer who 
in one life has attained tc Buddhahood. 

that which is to be practised at all times. 
2. customary or habitual work ; habit. 




ablaok or fallen Br&hman; bad habits, 
yicious ifiotB or profeBsioiiB. 

If^X grog f ma a sweetheart, mistreeB 

^a^|N>sJ|'4 %la^a the moon {Tig. 

t. 16). 

^^^ kunJH}r all-xenonnoer : ^^^^'X^' 
rmg^r^'yi'V^ I he cart off relation^ 
wealth, properties, realm and all (JT d. 
•• 8SS). 

Vi^'f^ i^n-h^ rgy^t-po l. fW 

1^*^ iilo^nan ^paH-fM a medioinal vege- 
table growing in the grass in Tibet. 2. in 
the terminology of the Nying-ma seot, 
the %»<« (mind) is called hun-byei rgyalpo^ 
the ohief agent, the prinoe of all 

H"^' ti»n-**yw<f=f^'S^' «iic^ all- 
growing; misery; sin. 

%^1^ kun-fbpor libertinism (see ^'fj[% 

^ifH^-'m''^^'^^ hm-mot dti-itaH 
i8hofhpa'Can=\^^ dri-^htm-po sweet 
perfume. ^ 

Syn. ^is'^^ bdod-paa-dri ; f'^iS ina^ 
tMnp4>g€d; ^^^ Had-ina^ ; ^'%W riH-du 
kkpab; ^T^'^'t^ leg^-par ihul (4f4on.). 

%9(S^m kun-tfnoiii ^S^ error ; the aU- 
blundering {A. K. 7£). 

^^^ kun-bdwn IRIK, ^PHT the all-oon- 
taining; thatwhioh holds everyihing in 

iiaeU. ^ 

^i^-lfq-^^ar^ kun-rdiob iden-pa *lfif«W 

conditional or dependent truth ; aeo ' to 

Wa9. subjectiYe truth. 

bftBis ; the mind (4rft>n.) ; W^^'S«-*«-'^'»-«» 

i fj . i.'ki Eiir 


self; literally the primary cause of all 
things, the basis of all; the soul, ^rit: 

(fi-^^ ^^gsM is a pfailosophioal term for 
9(f%ffKi, soul, which is considered to be the 
basis of virtue, sin, worldly or spiritoal 
existence, &c." 

flower of the plant called ^^-«Aiir, which 
gives blue tint to water (JfHan.). 

^^'if)qp« kun-gwigi =5T«rfl|f s^p^ who sees 
all; the All-seeing One ; that is oogniaant 
of all (LolL^ie). 

^ijmnc.- f tfn-^sa^ liH^nini (heaU-good; 
epithet of Buddha; a Bon sage and 

^iCqbi^*^i^-l( Kun-k^aA hkhor-h a metri- 
cal arrangement in several squares 
resembling a chess-board and sometimes 
forming an acrostic* 

\^' Kun-Jiuail gUfl n. of a place of 
pilgrimage in Tibet (Deb. ^ JtS)' 

^j^qK'i;9r4^ Kun-i^A rnam^gum the 
three good ones ; the Suj^reme Deity of 
the Bon religion in Tibet who is explain- 
ed as having three manifestations: (1) 
^T*^'W*^' ftrenrtr ^n»rti4nf the imper- 
sonal Gk)d or Supreme Being, * IK*'*^''' 
j^'ctf, who from etemityhas been free and 
all-perfect; (2) ^^'^TIT^^' I the personal 
God 4N«i V^'S'^^'4^* I as manifest in 
the form of a sentient being (like Shenrab) ; 
(3) f ir^'^r^cA'^'rw^ I the deity represented 
in symbol, #.#., form; ^ii«'|irsii'^«^'V'^* 
Vi^'fT^^'^l representations in painting, 
flg^ures in relief oi casts. 

the all-endiuing ; ft figurative name for 
the earth. 

dhist sect with a fofw monarteriee boider- 
ing cmTiumin. 

1^^ Kim^ii^^Afkr ali-knowing; n. 
Off a god ; a leartied man. 

VA^^^^ iungpi ikur-wa (JMoii.)- 

^n^ kun-la m^ to every one^ to all ; 
to ercsywhere* 

Idan-^mt she who giTW Ueeiizigt to all: 
^^'9^%^'*'fr«A'^' a name of the god- 
dan TTmi, the wife of Mahee^wam ( Jf^on.). 

Wt^HpiTs^'W fAi-Mwil {$man, 107) a 
blight yellow pigment prepared from the 
urine or hile of a oow, or vomited in the 
ahape of MndisIiB by that animal ; hesoar 

V"rH^ AttH-Ai iiug efficient; able to 
enter into anything: ^T*''i^*^f«'«ni^"«' 
H^f the intelleot being onltored becomes 
efficient in oompoong. 

VT'i''^ ibttWa ^ happiness to all. 

V^'^i^ kun-la phan useful or good to 

S^^^lfS hun-la l^kro4 beneficial ; agr ee 
able to all : ^w»«^S*flK^^^w^lSf "oow 
Gutter being the best of butter is agreoable 
to aU/' 

^troYii'a JbtiM-fa (^<.^i-jmi injuring all, 
all-hurting, hurtful, obnoxious. 

l^M kmn-la reg wirant meddling, 
moddleeome, touching everything. 

from every place or thing ; from all ; than 

5W^wr^lj^i< kun-^ itu9^ wmm, w%m^ 

aeleoted or compiled from every book ; n. 
of a book. 

29 Tj^\^ I 

V^^ k%in ffffjMi vAw all-knoinng ; 
knowing all, omniaoieni. 

a religious man who, being under moral 
discipline, has reduced his desires and 
requirements ; lit. ** an all-knowing tax* 

^4*4^-4 kun kfa4'pa wi^asm well 
explained; preaching all the religions, 
one that preaches everywhere. 

^i^'HiMi kun-^mm^ tfw^ to be conscious 
or cognijutnt of all things ; to think at all 

1^9^' kun-iM «9«fT^, Hfmw a gene* 
ral rising; rising from every direction or 
place ; = ••«r^^ $etn9^i9kgei Witm^ 
conception ; idea ; the notion of athing ; a 
thought; S^frs^*l|^«**« flie nrind 
which gives rise to thoughts of sins or 
merits, virtue or vice. 

^^jflf c^'l^^Q Jhin-f/M eAefi-jM> Qomprises the 
three •^^-gkm ekag$'9daH'frmo^ lust, 
anger and ignorance. 

^^i^ftFy kun^9o4 ^n^^ alUHUing, that 
which kills everybody or thing; the lord 
of death. 

the sky ; that Is fully dear, illuminated. 
2. s\m fic-ma, the sun, thrall-clearer. 

1 1P\^ kun-ia fH : from where ? one 
from an unknown place ; also interroga- 
tively, come frt>m where P It is used in 
myetie language (JT. g. T t9). 

>P'5'>^ *tiii-^ii-ri# the union of the 
two sexes, copulation (used only in mystic 
language) {k. g. ^ 216). 

X ^^^^ Attn-/Ailra ^ffi^ n. of a 
Dird: 5l^-»«^'<«w'5«-* w5'^*Va"^'*'««T*l'V'' 

•^^^•^A<m§\T^ {K. g. « ssy 




1W^ ihm-<b ««f 1. nuBtake; Uunder, 
ilkwion (£«p.). 3, ftwftVT^ f^ the 
Uue jnnminiiin, Joifninum muUiflorum or 

ifhil^hu quiokfiilYer {Stnan. 79). 

TR'^'^ kun-du'ra ^n^> 1^ sweets 
smelling troe ; a kind of inoense ; the resin 
of Bo%UfcUia thur\f^a ; gum olibanum (Jf. 

Syn. jfe'SS'*' tkya^byei-pa; H'Vi'S mu- 
Tjaj'^'*?! *M«.rf«-fa=V9«A*w-6aa oat 

^TK'^C Awnwfo^ ^TVT^ onion. 

TOTP hum-pa orooked ; shriyelled ; V^ 
<i^ hum-pa-iiii oontraotion ; ^^ ;i«( Ac^m- 
A'^iiffi very oontraoted. 

^«rQ Jtui9t-po eringing; one io a oon- 
traoted posture; 5l»rtl^ kum-por cring- 
ingly; oontraotedly. 

g3n. an earthen jar ; a veesel for water. 

iprS^ tfim-W-ra fwi?K n. of a 
nn-po (demi-god or demon). 

^^ kur-U to hasten; l^t«*^< 
kwr-U bUti'blf^ to start or go off on any 
business; (in oolloq. langaage) to start on 
an enrand or mission early in the morning 
witliont baTing even a cup of tea. 

TWIp^ JRrfJkar^ also l•r^T *wWA»r, 
n. of a plaoe in Tsang; a kind of shield 
mannlaotared in Ku^kar: %m^W¥^' 


«*B^-^«wispi the shield mannfaotured at 
KuUkar is of superior quality (on acoount 
of its superior metal) ; l^'"i''l^'8^"'l'^ff«rtJTf 
as to the Kut4kar shield it oostsflve 9A0 
for the best. 

n\ he nameral for 01 ; he^pa the 9hA 

^^ he-ha in the dialect of Sphan^yul 
for 1'*^ %hya^hay a magpie. 

'^^f^^''^ Ke'hd^p%-no%w^m a coun- 
try west of Jambudvipa of romantic 
Boenery, said to be filled with gardena, 
dales, fountains, cascades, eto.^ and inter- 
sected with streams, and inhabited by a 
race of Tcry handsome men who eat red 
rice (JT. d. ^ 179). 

he-hib^-igra the cry of the 
peacock {8ehtr.). 

t^ M*^ fe-*«-rw 4WR or inlfR a 
wliite precious stone. 

^*4C he-rgyuH a charm of the Bon 
deity called (^eft-^ai mi fp^on tgyai^\ 

ko-ta-ha from %ir« 1. a gem 
which has the property of purifying water; 
its Tibetan name is |F^'I^ or |'^'i% the 
purifier. 2. a great mountain situated 
norih of the great forest plain beyond the 
north bank of the riyer Sita. Its peaks 
are described as Tery grand in appearance. 
It contains mines of gold and silyer, and 
round its peaks are lour fabulous lakes 
which at all seasons remain filled with 
lotuses and lilies. T&e ruler of this 
country in ancient times was Vaifrmmna^ 
whose army consisted of amaaons of 
great beauty and yalour {B. Lam). 




Eedaia (i^K) ; part of the Himalaya 

t ^5 ^^^ ^* * fabtdous pUmet in 
Bnhmaineal as well w in Tibetan astro- 
logj. In Tibet the name K^4u is gene- 
raUy applied to oometSi oalled also ^'^r«%^^^ 
(lit. the long smoke-tailed). 2. a fiery 
meteor ; a shooting star; the descending 
node. 3. n. of a demon. 

if^*^ JTe-fM^j-iu n. of a sage of 
the time of Gbutama the Buddha (JT. 
^. ^ 64). 

^^^ Ke-hyei Eftrtika, the god of 
war {Sehtr). 

n|*^*Q Ke-Tt^e^tM n. of a Bon teaoher: 
a^tj-^-^l-q-^^-^w ij)eh. ^ 6) the B&mpo 
priests invited Ke^fise. 

^dS^pi Ke-tsheffi^Ifdga; the qnar- 
ter where it resides dnring a certain astro- 
l<^:ioal period is considered inanspioious. 

^j| Keiu 1. a tribe in Tibet ( Fat. kar. 
160). 2. i2^V*r« in olaseioal Tibetan a 
kind of garlic. 3. a oavemy deo, h6llow 
place (Os.). 

^^'^ -Ke4«-r^w, also ^'t Aj^-r^w, a 
jacket made in the Ghinese fashion ; in 
Ohineee kwa-tw. 

^^*a&:* Keiu4$hafl (in Chinese £* V 
if^ang^ ^a teeasory; a store-house ^^ n. 
of a sacred rock-cavern. 

^f^^ Eetu^ n. of a female deity of 
fearful mien. 

^^'^ SHu^^ Tilwtaa and Hon- 
golitaname ior Ookm. In CBnneae KaoE 

^^*^ k^^b ^'^'% customary 'seal 


^^''^ kehu^'Pi (from i«|i^) 
celestial robes; robes worn by the gods 
(jr. my. ^ 7). 

'Tp'l ke^ya wickedness: m'^JI''*' 
^^Q^T^'^Vt^ the root of wickednMs 
of a bad heart (t.^., envy) having sprang 
forth (/. ZaU.). 

X ^t^''! -Si-y^-rtf-ihi %|5« 1. a 
kind of grass used in ancient tones in 
making garments for a Bkikfi$ {K. dm. 
1 S88). 2. n. of a Qandkarva. 

n]*^ Kb'TU 1. n. of a place and 
monastery in the district of Son in 
Yar-lung (Jl^M. »7). 2. Wfm $tm^ 
ma a species of peas : t'^^'^^^'^fta'^l^ 
^Wf^»r^**V»r«v^VI after casting 
water in oblation^ he conducted (him) 
inside the house and served him with a 
cupful of pea-soup {Deh. ^ 86). 

^•^ Ke-re, Y. Ji'^ kye^ri. 

^'«J Zi-fa ^i«-5irH%*^' f n, of a 
tribal dan {Tig.). 

^11 ke^la4sa=:^'% iga-^kya ginger 
(Sman. i67). 

yrCi'^r %wns the king of mountains 
i.e.f Kailasa in the Himalayas. 

^1 ^ Ee4any prob. corruption of '^^^|^^ 
follower of Tsongkhapa (Hue^ vol. II). 

^9) Ke4e n. of a fabulous place or 
country : ^♦fr-T*^ V the country of 
cannibals, Ee-le (2). £.)• 

^•^ Jb-fa %w hair; mane; •^'^^-T 
^ letters which are surmounted with 




doobk e sign oalled tprtfrt-te or Bign 
called naro. BigBS for long aooentaatioii 
are alio called ifca-fa. 

*^ -l*^ ki-ftM^ %W maae (flcAr.). 

+ '?|''^*'H Ke-fU'ka a plant, perlinpa 
Aru>n eokcaria^ with edible roots; also 

:|: ^'P^ JT^-w-rn %^^ 1. the hair ; 
the mane of the lion. 2. the hairy fila- 
ment of the lotos ; a celestial flower ; 

^vP\ to^sawas lar-chai danger; 
aoddent, t. ^ kag. 

^^^ Keg-ma^"^^ kag-^na {Lex.). 

^JK'^i" -Sr<?<.rtt| nrwiw skeleton. 

i T^'9^ JBRwf-ftt-ifca an evergreen 
tree, i.e., of the «olonr of the parrot 
i^ag. 3). This is evidently a corruptiou 
of T%liV. 

^^'n] Ker-ko a cymbal; a musical 

instrument : «HS«^*^'i'^''\«^fi«^'5 ^^ 
(carrying with him) a hand-dram, a 
cymbal, a pipe (flute) (JT. g. ^2). 

^I^'S^ ik^r-^ytj suddenly (&'A.)- 

^I^Tq jffer-irato raise ; to liffeup;-W«' 
ifM^li'^'Q I to point the fingers towards 


^'m^m ker-Ja^i ^^fmf sudden fy stood 
up: ^^*aic.«^«| *^ suddenly standing erect 
and still (like a tree ") (iVa^. 5). 

^|^*^7V^ ker hh 9gur metaph. for 
horse, shbep and yak: ^|'^*r|^-^»i- 
Jaj^'Ufril^'j^* J'^nq | the tax (in kind, t.^., 
one in a hundred) on horse and yak 
from among the three kinds of cattle 


Ket'fnag poesiUy indicates 
the Ealmuk Tartaxs. 

^ff^'^'I Eoi-ta^ka n. of a mytholo- 
gical demon. 

^^*^ Kai ne-pa %$ir a rishi or sage ; 
alsopatronymicof B&vana (K.d.p-lSd). 

JRi^o gaUt'Can the huge snowy mountain 
on the north shore of the Manaaarowara 
hvke called Gang Ti-se by the Tibetans 
and Kailftsa by the Indians. 

n] I: ko num. 121; ^'^ ko-pa the 
volume marked with the letter 'If Ao, or the 
121st volume. 

n] II: ^ an expletive meaning: 
same, the same, very^ as in ^^ kdi^ko^ 
the same ; as ^^'^ ^'-nt, this very: V^^' 
^^•^'Xii'q^I 'iliese same cla8S7fication8 " ; 
\^ de4:ozs\'% dc^ni that very. 

'<| III: aU, whole; quite, entirely, 
altogether {8chir.). 

nj'^ ko'tca 1. hide, leather — that 
derived from yaks, buffaloes and horses as 
distinguished from pag^-^pa the skins of 
sheep, goats, foxes, &c. 2. colloq. for 
ko-gru a hide-boat. 

^W ko-khug a leather purse ; a little 
leathern money-bag. 

^%^ ko-khrol (ko^hof) a sieve made of 
hide-stripe or strings to dean peas, barley 
grain, Ac., of gravel, &c. : ^^'fi'iwii^-^*!' 
*^'Q^ ( (S^m.) for a hide-sieve for sift- 
ing peas and barley (1.0., price for). 

^'9 ko^gru (ko-du) a hide-boat a boat 
made of the entire hide of a pak ; a skin 

^''^ ko-itum hide-packing. This is 
said to be a criminal punishment in 

Central Tibet, Tarymg in severity, e.jr., 
••^'''^'^•' wKen the oulprifB handi are 
cut ofEy the stumps sewed up in leather 
and the poor wretch thrown as a beggar 
upon public charity, &o. (/a.). 

Y^ ho^hag strap ; thong. 

^'9^ ho4hu4 a kind of tea, probably so 
oall^ on account of being sold packed 
in hide cases ; an inferior tea : )k'%'t"^*^' 
«**^5V«*I (»»V. 7U) "to the cost of 
pressed brick-tea.'' 

YS*ni ibo-ZAuMi packed up in hide; 
^•^K.-^j- Hs*-4l*«'^ a leather 
package containing 80 ounces of gold: 

^•S'^'5*w'^^B(l^'^l' having sto- 
len a bag containing gold, (we) concealed it 
in a mamiot's (%'4 a marmot) hole. 

^^M^ kth-tthagi a small instrument of 
leather to weave lace with ((7«.)* 

Y^W ko^gdan^ pronouncrfl kom-gdati, 
tkin-rug or seat; a piece of leather put 
UDder the saddle {Seh.): |'^v^'^vr^|ciw 
^V^^ for each tanned skin-rug or 
leather folding used for cushions (three 
fa^ka) (^tV.)- 

^'mfi. Ao-ipiAi^ an arrow bound with 
hide : fl^'^^'iS^, the hide arrow used in 
the north (of Tibet). 

Hf^'-io-jiM a vessel or basin made of 
hide to keep or cleanse oil or lime-wash : 
si>-Hlr*V|^^'^ (5««.) for each 
hide vessel for holding ta^ti (such and 
such a price) 

^'V^ kO'fpagf hide ; also tanned skin ; 
^'H^^'^^ w4kn| hide or leather mate- 
rial or stuff included in the fourteen 
materials prescribed for dothiog to be 
used by Buddhist monks. 

^hPF*n ko-^gi iftkkansifl^f^ 
Iham^kkan w4Nk worker in hide and 
Isatlkw; a shoe-maker. 

83 f r«'^« I 

^1^ k(hv^ (h(hpm) glue: YI^KT^ 
^^ for each stick or cake of glue 

^ Mkm' ko'pkotf guitar (gen. made of 
thin beliy-skin of a cow) (JLd.); it is 
tuned in three-fourths (/a.), 

^^^ ko-phor a cup made oif leMher 
and pamted to look like a wooden cup ; 
^^^ ko^g%koi a basin made of hide. 

^''t'sr^ hh'fcm fijlJWifi a tanner; the 
steersman of a hide boat 

^wtiK^r^ kihwa itmei^ifikktm a tanner. 

^'vgn JTo-fftf irag fS'f^'l VH^^*' 
n. of a district in Upper Tibet: %'Wf^' 
%^'^'vgn'^ then he visited JTo-m brag 
in ^toi^lui (Lka. Jbi». *S). 

If'SW ko-iuh9 an entire ddn : ^Qi^i'^* 
ii>VW »r»i?^s|f|.i-^ ^ entire skin of 
a sheep holds three %kar*Sag measure of 
good butter ( jUfiV. 7Jt). 

^*^^ ko-tiugi an awl; a threc'^ded 
needle for sewing leather {8eh.). 

^•^« *a-*Jo itch scab ; <f«-W«l ioabby. 
In Sikkim a measure for rice or barley 
made of hide. 

^'n« k(Hirag§ a hide aUed with 
butter ; the whole package is so oalled« 

1j^ ko-Ukal pieces of leather or hide : 
'lf-*i^i^Hi^s«l^-5'^-i5-^«^ for €«ch skin 
of butter and honey, &o., with hide 
wrapping (Rtstu), 

fw ko-rhn fftum§ packed in a 
fresh skin: *'^'f^'8«'^3W*»^V'*'^'^ 

like a man packed in a fresh skin, or any* 
thing packed or fastened with raw hide 
which becomes shrivelled iHlien the <tkfii 
dries and illness is induced. 





H[*V> hhntl • rotten bide. 

4|'«f kihla a grab wbioh breeds in bides ; 
akmdof bide-inoih; ^••r«iT»^it-^'^»-^ 
S|ifi('^«|irf^ I the Kola motb, someUung 
lilre a speoies of yermin in flesh {S^mi.). 

^'-^^ ko-ftmrpa (X«r.) one dressed in 
skin or having a skin for his nnder- 
olothing/y* ^'^ kom-po 

^fj^l] Kihka a place in Bengal where 
in ancient times many TanMk adepts 
lived {S. Lcm.). 

1 "Ij'lf Si 1^ KthkOfKJM ^ftmfkm a 
Bhikm of the Buddha's time who sided 
Deradatta {K. d. i «^7). 

SMciA wildmonntainons country 
Bengal in the Ohakma and Hamsa- 
Tati countries which are east and south* 
east of Haribbadra (Manipar) {8. Lam.)n 

J'fj'^fll KihlMa fftftwr the Indian 
enckoo, in books described as a bird that 
sings sweetly (JBT. du. P 99). 

-j: '(j^^^BI *a-*i lakfa n. of a tree 

'(f'f] Ko'ko (variously spelt ^'% kon 
•to, ^^ koi'ko ^^^kohiko) 1. *▼ the 
bhin;al8o occasionally the throat or the 
neck: l|'ip^MF'««»^'^*^^''' *<> «^ 

the chin iM) [«» ^''^- ^^^*^'« 
chinless, or one with a small chin: ^ifr' 
a« iwttf with a slighfly perceptible 

chin; 1-ir«<1''l'f9 W^^*? * ^^^ **^ 
that of a pig; pig-faced (no chin) **be. 

neath the chin/' ^«'^<T« 1^ or 
f^pr the lower part of the chin. 2. a 
Tibetan of mixed breedi ue.^ born of ^ 
Ohioese father and a Tibetan mother. 

9^[^9p9i KoJco iha^^ma a country 
in or near Oeylon (/a.). 

'fj'nj Kokya r^m pure {Lescx.). 

^'Vs Ko'krai {k<hteh) 1. f^'S'^'HS 
Iham^yi akra4 the worn out leather of old 
shoes and boots; 2. also a leather- 
shoe (t/a.). 

^if io-^kt^^ toJko»^h'*».neok: ^'^' 
'^^'^ ko-iko ikbjF|=s*i|^«r^^^ • wnit-iw 
bdeg9 raise the neck (Jfag. ^). 

n. of a place in Tibet {Tig.). 

fj' J3f If ko^nan-iie, also ^1^* ic^SW. 
<s0 or ^'^'Y* ko-ht^tm^ the kernel of 
the pine-apple ((7«.) ; more particularly the 
edible seed of the i^TaoM-pine growing in 
the valley of the Sutlej ; it is also called 
Vr9^'< §kan^mm^ti$ in Kunawar {Ja.). 

^*^3j hhtansstn f^krag blood in 
mystic language (JT. g. ^ 916). 

^'^'^ k(htam^ ^H^*^' n- of 
mountain (JT. dun^ 17). 

one of the 41 materials of dothing permia- 
sible to Buddhist men d icants ; a kind of 
grass formerly used in making dothea 

1f'9*rfs| ko-tam-bkag same as above. 

M'9'^ *c-^fvi.|><i €rtPf, W^f in vnlg. 
Nepalese JSTocAf, a kind of millet largely 
used in Sil^kim for making ffUfi^abeer; it 
is mentioned ii^ K. d.^ SS3. A species 
of grain eaten by the poor; PaaptOum 

krog applied to a thoughtless, childish 
man {K. d. ^369). 

ff'^ ko'iha %1i^ fw A kM of leprosy 



^^S9Pi kthihal cinden, ashes; ^-mr^ 
9^'^ ko4kal'du hyu% jm to be reduced to 

gywr-fa soattGirod about aahos. 

tree growing in the mountain called 
R^^ Eoldla Parvata (if. d. ^ »U). 

fl'^O ko^paH'Uc a sort of tea 
(SdUr.) ; uBually called (7<r|niM6 (JSeldr.). 

^tf^ Kthbi-^ihra tftftwK the 
tree of paradiite on which grows the Pdri^' 

jdta flower; aleo atree the flower of which 
is pretty and of sweet soent| probably 
BatMma varugaia (JT. my. ^i(fi\ ^'' 
^^S^ «m^K« an abode of the gods 

^*2f JTo-io prop. n. of a country 
{Vai. kar.). 

^Sn^ Ko-brag-pa prop, a sect of Tan- 
Mk Buddhists; also its founder: ^'9T^ 

'P^'S^yfS'^'^Sn'S'fr^ (J- ZaU) 

^^oi-nmm tgy^^^^ of K<hbrag 
brought Yibhuti Ohandra from Bal-po 
(Nepal) to Ding-ri and later on founded 
the monastery of Eo-brag in Upper Ifyafl. 

n^*Sl ko-ma a bird (Fflt. |il.). 

^*lf ko-Ue r^'Q ja irggt^pa the 
Chinese name for the bribk-tea used by 
the common people of Tibet. It is called 
Ja ktgyo4-iP^ the eighth or the inferior 
q[aality of tea (^9. kar. 80). 

nl^t^fj^ kihiffagt is meant to express 
the Toice of a raren (/a.). 

jlj'^^jr Kihra^ *lTW prop, a 
oouniryy said to be in the fabulous 

33 ^1% ( 

Western Continent of Oodlaiya (JT. d. ^ 

^ Ij'^'fl MTiM^la ifKf ibe desoen- 
dants of Kuru; their party; n. of a 
country in the east (JT. d. ^ 967). 

m] A Jto-r# or ^'^ ko^ru cup for drink* 
uig; ^"^ fAMwr wooden cap which 
every Tibetan carries with him in the 
pocket of his great coat next to his bosom; 
<^'^ fit'kar a drinking glass. 

fH'nt'Ufi ko-laki kdab^W^'^'^*^ gkH- 
po^iphpi M plantain leaf {Jlkm.). 

n)*2^* I: k(hMi annoyance; dissatis* 
faction ; the jealousy of demi-gods or cl 
mga, &c. : ^'feV'^'W^T^IV^ f "pray 
do not out of dissatisfaction be jealous of 
me." In saying grace at meal time the 
Gh>ds are exhorted by the lamas not to be 
spiteful^ jealous or angry, Ac.: I'V*r^ 
|H^*l|-«s;R'fiM'^'lii^^^1i^pr^s|i^'«i^'iNi\ii^ I the 

Lord (Atis a) not being ac t uated by any 
spite did not express any dissatisfaction, 
&c. {A. 68). 

'Vi'QiC* n: is a dubious word (Bcktr.) ; 
^*fc*4 hhM'^M to hate, envy; but in a 
passage in Jfil., where the connection 
admits of no doubt, io-M igdmi^ must 
be taken vdisdain {Ja.). In Amdo ^'iia' 
Jiro-iMs dispute, fight. 

t '^^'^^ Xa-(a-Ai<ti|«T myfldoal riter 
east of JanJradylpa (JT. d. ^t67). 

i^^^Ko^lA 4t(ll« a certain king 
of birds (^18). 

X^y^ JToi^iiys WH%W the son 
of XJpiyamatI; in Tib. wrffn n. of a 
Kuni or sage; n. of a grammarian; a 
patronymic of the poet Jayadera. 

f-^ftl 86 

«^« JTolif-fMfi-M ^«W"?^9 the oity of 
flowers; n. of an aaoient oitj eitua^ 
on the Gangee in 'the lower part of the 
Doaby in the Tioinitj of Slurrah; aoo. to 
iO!f|f. S Yateapattana. 

J fj'^ K(hfi4ui, also written ^4'Vl 
Kihtu^ka ^ifkw. 1 an epithet of 
ladra ; n. of a drag. 2. n. of the FaH^ 
Bobtt^; n. of a teacher; an owl; a 
patronymio of Via T&niitra, who was the 
grandflon of Kua ika ; n, of a riv^ir, riyer 
Koai (jr. rf. "^ M7). 

Syn. ^T* nthg^h ; rrp» ^ V« §brul 

mm^[km n. of a Qrdvaka attendant of 
the Buddha (K. my. *q ffiS). 

+ '(^'Vfll JTo-ao-Ai *rtW, *»wr n. of 
a part of Anoient Oudh which in the Biui- 
dha's time was ruled by King Fraeenajit. 

'(j^pi I: hog-pa 1. a cover; ^T^ 
kog-fog the paper-oorer of a letter ; an 
envelope {Tig. k. t): ^^^•r^TFJ^' 
^^the cover or envelope (of a letter) 
should be neat and dean. K'^i ja^kog a 
hidecaae in which tea is packed is usually 
called ja-ho ; ^^^ mar-hog a skin of 
butter: «^1^T^^«K*'*'V'^ • {8. leg.) 
''like a stone in water or package of 
butter.'* ^I'f^ fanr4cog shell, rind; \^^^ 
phyi-yi-hog exterior shell ; bark. 2. the 
name ^^'^ hog-pa is applied to an old 
man after the age of 85 (jUsa «Ati4.). 

fJQI 4 n : 1. vb., tp splinter off, vo 
ohip; ^^^^'^ ^^ ™^ suddenly and run 

away (/a.). 2. ^^'^^^ hog-pa ga^a to 
peel, pare ofl. 

^^1*? ibjh^ mm a net: aoc to 
(Itag) wV^n^-^^*8V|Mit« 1 "a net 
or snaace to catch birds or wild animals.** 

fjC* I: ioif, also ^^^t: hot-hot, etmoKwrn; 
excavated ; crooked ; bent; warped, ^^t^' 
^^* sa hoi^hoU undulating ground ; ^^'^'^ 
hoU-pa^Hii concavity. 

^IC' II : ^^'B JBhI:|w, also frt $M- 
tuinKtil !• cop; crucible. 2. the country 
of ravines, n. of a province of Tibet 
lying to the south-east of libasa and 
east of Tse-thang. ^^*^«i JBM-^ym 
fkini the three divisions of fM-yw/; also 
n. of a kingdom in Anoient India which 
was ruled by King BusarmA. ^^%S Kv€* 
9ke4 a kind of sash or waist-band of fine 
wool manufactured in Kotl^poi •If^'^V 
hot-^uH a kind of spear manufactured 
iuKbi'po {Jig. St) ; ^^'V^' ho^-paH planks 
brought from KoH-po {S. har. 179) ; ^^V 
hoU-v^l an ape from KoH'-po ; the name 
of an individual who made a donation to 
aid in repairingthe monastery of Samjo. 
ilf^dT jfeofi.{^s# a kit^d of armour or weapon 
manufactured in jBTo^-pc* 

♦If^'W hotrkun ijfl^ n. p. {Qohr.). 

'ffc^ k^kktu (M^) . kind of 

yellow Mtin : ^f^-^^-g-^^A^i"^ (& kar. 
180) a piece or xoU of yollow satin for a 


^njt Eoi-jo, in OhineM Eimg-okih « 
prinoeH; ihe Tibetan name of the daog^ 
ter of Emperor Tai-teong, who wae manied 
to King ^roi'itOH Sif«m-po, JWV^iS' 
«w->lfs.-I JToihfo, from Ohina ; the OiineN 

^*^ JM»te a tmall oap-thaped 
htum or eopp«r oil-lmTner ; '^'^^ iff^M- 
tot ma oSBring bowl, a oup lor offering 
puM waitr to «bj divinity ; ^^•^«^' inajr- 
koi ink-fltend, genorally for bkok ink; 
«i*i*^ i0Mal*koil iok-itand for red ink 
or ▼ermilion; jT*"^ ilugi^ka* oarting 
moidd, oraoiUe ; ^^ g^er-ko^ a gold 
oup or oil-bumer plaoed before Tibetan 
deities ; 9*^^' b^e-koA bowl of sand. 

^rM iM-MO iHk a oaye ; a ditok. 

1|^ Eb4 boiled: a^%V»1vgN*f 
)i|-q«*I'V'^4i ja 4e ko^nai ka-ra bram^po 
tta tyM-jMi JO'WO igifti {A. 95) tbe tea 
baying been boiled (prepared) and giren 
witk ftvo lompe pf eagar, the Jo^wo was 

^Vja^TI k<m-pa^ elflo oalled ^^i^l* 
hm^lM ^^f^^9 ihe^name of a plant that 
grows in solitary plaoeS| generally in the 
olefts of roeks. This medioine, kan^pm 
fefr-ftjTtff* is used in Tibet for stopping 

'VprffS) k^kob, same as ^F^t kab^kob, 
the noise or soond prodaoed from thp 
stretohing of hides. 

IfSTQ kfHh^pa io Ian (skin). 

^'^ k^m^fdM a seat made of tan* 

^Q kom'po skin whieh has been made 
soft and jpliable by tanning ; leatker. 

ifjar^'JtjK'f K^m^i ko^'jo the 
p r inoo s s Eom, the youngest daughter of 
Wen Okong, the fifth Emperor of the 
Tang dynasty. Ske was married to King 
Me Agtshom {J. 2M.). 


nJT ko9\ same as €^ ikar. L is used 
ss a ^Ki^ or auxiliary partiole used in 
the manner of an sflfix, as in fS*^*^ 
ito(/^karf whioh signifies a doth that 
surrounds or ooTors the upper part of one's 
body; 'henoe MS'^ tici-U a kind of kalf 
jaoket worn by ckildren and also by lama 
danoers; |S'^^ Vai^kor the ciroular dot 
put over tke kead of certain letters to 
signify the letter « Mtf. 3. anything that 
hss been eut out by tke hand or a latke, 
such as ^'^^ fiH^kor a wooden eup ; r^^ 
ftbo-ibor an earthen eup or vesiel turned 
out S. n. of a plaee ; ^'^^ V*" JBr-a^-rw- 
|M n. of a graat lama who was a native 
of the plaoe oalled Kor. (Drft. ^ 11). 

 ^^ kor also ooours in ^'^ tkmn4cor^ 
Vr^^ fcn-itor, ^S^^bo4-kar,^^^pa44car, 
^'^^ gdub-kar^ Ao. 

^^•^f*^ ikor-iof coiled: s^T^-^Wii-^f^fll^' 
g«1 '*a string was wound round tke 
(exorcist's) dagger ( Fat. Mi. 89). 

q]^*Q9^ jbor-^so lit. of round make ; a 
kind of shield of round skape {9^iL). 

^ a oolloq. form of ^^ 

pa^ a bad road {Jfion.). 

^^"^ kol^, V. ^^1 bgol-M « ^'^ 

^V^ ko^ko ^ tke okin. This 
word is also applied to tke throat and 
even to the wind- pipe. 

^*Q| JT^fa (also oalled f«0 petty; 
n. of a petty state in Tibet, the chief town 
of whioh is %^^'^^' (lit the lion-faoe)» 
where tke Tsang-po, it is said, enters a 
rocky chasm in the mountains. 


a 39 



^^WS^ KyoHM n. of a large fort in 
Tibet {^Dsatn. SS). 

3*"! *yay or 3^'OT kyag-kyag 1. 
throwing olsBtaoleB in the way of another's 
work out e. q>ite. 2. thiok; run into 
clots ; a^l'^t^VS jfog-pa m4 thickness (C«.)» 

hyog -^m .KPaxy^d.] crooked; not straight. 

^C' I : kffaH, also 9^'V^ kyaik-kyaH or 
3^'Q kyaH'po^ L straight; right; yery. 
straight {Os,). 2. slender as a stick 


^^ U: ^^rf^ ^ 1. and; and also; 
though; although; too; yet more; used 
instead of A^' da4 enclitioally after the 
letters T^**''^. In composition the word 
9^' is placed between the subject and 
the j^edicate, fop example : — »*nucs*i- 
«r%iii|TSi;'qK- he was beautiful and his 
ndnd was also good. In the sense of 
'^ though " 3^' follows the first or contrast- 
ed verb :— ^V*»»ifti-3K^'^^'«S'5l "though 
his face was handsome yet his body was 
crooked/* R^-l[»ifti'^cKv3^-^1} | this being 
handsome also sheds lustre. 2. since^ 
since that ; then, therefore ; likewise ; 

Wi'^K hyaH-kyoU indolent, lajsy, idle 

5^'^ kyar-poy also 8^'3^ kyav'kyar^ 
flat, not globular {d.), 

S^'S^ *yar-*yor still feeble as a 
oonvalescent after disease (Jd.). 

^^ I: kyai, resp. «^«i'3«< s/iahkyat, a 
joke ,* also a comic or jocular look : ^^^ 
•,m'9^'\9ds^\ {A, 173) once having a 
jocular smile on his face. 

^ U:9lMor 9^ kyal'kyal.wmatimn 
written as ^'^ tkyal^rkyal^ long and flat 
not globular. Described in {^ag.) '^^'t' 
f<«»'MnH|^»;*'^^l like straw, hollow 
and devoid of meaning; worthless. 

3^ kyal^ka %ftr, nww joke, jest, 
tricks : 3^'<«|^'^ hyal-kabi iihig %1%^^, 
I^^M^'lUii f:t%e4'moti Uhig pk;^ word. 

8^'^ kyj^pa vain, idle talk, nonsense. 

^^}^^^ kyahkyaf poor; ilUoondi- 
tioned. j 

3 ^ X* This syllable is primarily an 
inflecting affix attached ito nouns^ adj., 
participles, 8fo.^ indicanujig the genitiTe 
case. This affix talces ftne form S only 
after the final letters ^ ^, or *, and is 
varied to S where the word to which it 
is attached ends in either ^ x, ^, or \ and 
to ^ where the preceding final is ^ oar 
^', or simply to ^ if the final happens to 
be a vowel. Ex. : ^VS of Tibet, TilJ^etan; 
W8 of the way ; V^'% of the north ; '^H^'SK 
at the time of goi][ig. Sometimee, more- 
over, it is elided altogether, as in ^VtlS 
Tibetan language. 2. It is annexed to 
verbal roots (with» the same variations of 
form) after the manner of a continuative 
particle and imparting the genmdisl sense, 
but by some modem writers used as a 
finite verb. Gerundially it generally im- 
plies an antithesis which may be ex- 
pressed in English by ** though " followed 
by "yet : Q*v?ffl|'9^r8-**fw'q'*s'«pr5«.- 
<MP'^ though the girl called to him, yet 
he went on the straight way without tam- 
ing his head. As affix to a finite verb it 
is frequent in the writings of Padma 
Jungnas and Milaraspa, and is also uaed 
in the O. colloquiaL Attached to the 
verbal root it may also carry the sense of 

5**l 39 

S'qiK*%^H|*fc* M fv M he resMmbered 
this roftd^ h* followed the oz, 8. I oon- 
neotang tlie Mxiliaxy ymh with fhe mhtl 
root f oniift a muehFiiMd premit teuM : 
1«^^ I am lying down. Bat h«o flio 
final Yowd doee not often take the nmple 
* (^> ^*9t fl^^ i* teeing; still we haTO 
inbodkaf^^^^ le eating food. [Jf.^.-- 
The nee with the inttnmental f onp )« 
will oome nndar that artide.] 

^j^k^M the elbow. 

JjJ J^pHiM n. of a medidnal plant, 
OemHmm i ^mmbe m . The white speoiee of 
thia plant called If S'l^'Q i^-h^ ikar^fQ 
k in xepnte for Ulionaneoe. The Une 
eaUed i%*|<rX kfi^lfi^ ithn^^o heals swell- 
ing in the throat or glands (Med.). 

^^aj i^j.ftira a chill; a feeling of 
cold (8ch.). 

^yrt 4ihiUkm qnicksilTer (fidnda. 118). 

3^ kfi-»9i4^wn,%w,tJ m% ^m 

L iateij., the soond of weeping, lanenta* 
tionjanezpressionof grietisoirow or loss; 
Alaal Ahl t'VS'*^''* h^kmiwtfMtm vffT 
^n espressing deep sorrow or lamenta- 
lioB. 3.0110 of die eight cold hallsof the 
Snddhist pnrgatcrj. 

3^o^ kifig-ti9$ nnbomt hriok 

^p KyU n. of a people Inring in the 
eaetcfAsU {Tig. 8). 

^riKV* ifc^'4 tsr-rlaH a tiolent 

wind Witt hail: aee. to /<. also fviyw-sir, 
onomafcnpoetie word ; a blowing wind. 

3^ kyin a Terbal termination used 
alternatively with |^ ^yi^and ^H 9*^ *nd 
after a vowel; ^ yia denoting a partie. 
pres. like the English 'tii^': r^^'l^'«> 
proceed on your way singing ! With ^ 
yo4 or ^ ^^fwy it forms a periphrastieal 
present tense: ifr*t»f^^^'fc*^ ^vMn-lam 
^debi-kyin yo4 he is praying (jnst now) 
(Ja.). Most probably the common present 
form in kyi^ gi^ Ac., is an excised form ef 
this nse, e.g.^ ^^^^\^ is condng ; f S ^ is 

3^ ikyt>,also 1^')^ kyir'kyiTf round; 
droular; a disk ; a ronnd thing; 1^'^ 
kyir^wih'iUd roundness. 

$9 kyii by, with; the sign of the 
instmmentsl case, used after the letters 
\ ^ or <i, and generally indicating the 
personal sabjeet of the aotion. It is called 
the l^'^^t'l byti^ poU §gra (the term of 
the doer). Gerundially ky%i is annexed 
to a verbal root to render danses which in 
l^gl^*^ would be introduced with ^by,'' 
"from," Ac., e.^., w|^i»iHcrH^iJvaiis-i^ 
from the sword having pierced the liver, 
he was slain. Of course the prep. ^* from 
mightbe omitted here. Again our ^Ibecause 
is often an appropriate opening to danses 
terminated in |« ; S^ d;o. : ^>^'V4r|«f «" 
f<na the demon coming, he turned aside ; 
or, because the demon came, he, &c. 

^ kyu ^n|W a hook; |^*g tcagi-^ 

kyu iron hook; an angle; a fishing hook; 
ipsi*9 ikabhkyu (m,, the foot-hook), a 
mark fixed at the foot of a letter to 
signii^ the vowel 'u^ and written as 

^^^^ kyurJ^yur twittering; the ccj* 

of a small bird : W^Ta^f^f ^ (yf*a 
coga kywr4fyur §grog the swallow twitters. 




^ Ay9 %» ^: the vocative sign; 0! 
Holla \^ kue i^ oalled '^^'<A-| hoi-pa^ 
^gtHi or interjection — the word oi invoca- 
tion or calling : 3' j"'^'^*^ I great Kiug ! 
3'H'^'9<iS'»i O lotua-gem (Chenraisi). 

^'5 -^y^-*y^> *^ written S for 
abbreviation ; conveys the same meaning 
aa ^. 

• B'^'l Kye-^tdo-rje % ^ii n. of a texrifio 
TaiUrik deity. 

^*^ kye^ga n. for the magpie. 

^*&|C*Q Kyt'phai-^ n. of an idol of 
the Njing-ma sect, consistisg, like most 
of the popular idols in Tibet, of an 
enchanted stick or log decked with rags, 
but much dreaded and said to be identical 
with Pe^kar Oyalpo («7a.). 

^9\ kye-ma ^ wir (interj.) Alas! An 
expression of surprise with sorrow, also of 
xoiaery; %'^^'^ kye'-ma-ma-la ^rrt^<r but 
oh I an interjection expressive of desire 
for compassion or fatigue: )«i«i'ii'Bc^'Q' 
^^ kye-ma tna^la gjafirpo bdi alas this 
elephant! (A. K. 1-36). 

^A kye^ra or ^'^ *e-r^, also 3"^ kyer^ 
upright, erect; 5'^*^ kye^e-tca or S"^*^ 
kyt-re-iii the act of standi'ig erect. 

^L^kye-hu4 (interj.) ^,TT ^ Alas ! 
Woe! Ah! What misery! An expression 
of grief or pain ; i'Y kye-ho What oh ! 
Holla! iT'!|'^'S\«»^'*^l *y6-^o and *tca-ytf 
are exclamatory words. 

W^ ky(hwa ^^ a pointed iron-hook ; 
a large pin to pierce with. 

i^'a^C kyo-raH, v. 5'^ kyo^^fca 

*0 TSI 

\^ kyog, also J^Ji ^«, arookad, 
bent, winding, curved: *^'*J^'5^VI 
having turned his head (sideways), ^w't^ 
lam-kyog a winding or surpentine road; a 

5T*5 Kyog-po ^n crooked; 5^tK 
kyog-por crookedly, not straight: ^■^^' 
8^«; ^««»^qJipi-?-5iifc (J>ag, ISS) the 
wild animals (hat conceal themsdves 
bending their necks ran away. 

^C 1: kyoHorJSF-'i^ kyoH-^kyalL 1. fcv 
hoUow ; cavity; the hollow of a dish or 
tray; cognate to ^^' koH. 2. obstinate; 
unmanageable {Jd,). 8. hard, as in 
«'$^*Q, hard water; evidentiy a oolloq. 
form of C^c^'Q. 

^^^11: or $^'S Ji^o^itt a small shovel, 
scraper; $^'P kyoA-kha quarrel {Bch.). 

n|<3Q kyom flexible but without elas- 
ticity ; flabby, loose, lax. 

S«i'<i kyom-pa soft and tough ; Sn'i'Vi 
kyom-^pa'-nii pliaocy ; toughness. 

^T^l ^kymn-kyom of irregular 
shape^ not rectilinear {Jd.). 

^^ kyor or J^' J^ kyav'^tyar weak, 
feeble, unfortified (Os.). 

^^ kyol or 1^%^ *yo«ya/s=i^ kyor. 

IJ Kra {fa) for vfl, ff «*S* kra^bUugi 
established a Dharmas'&l& {A. 61). 

T]'*I'-^^'P- kra^ma far^ n. of a kind 
of precious stone : "^rs-w-^'^r^**^^'^' 

«(Vqi|'«i-^1^^'^'<l ($^«tV. ^1) ^ l^ovwo 
built of ruby made lofty with a dome of 

krama farsa. 

Tpl krag tfa^)=9i *rfl^, ngnUying 






^jtr^ krai't0 ifang^) standing ; V^ 
^n or IF'^'^^ an upright postore ; IF' 
f^ kraH^doi-pa to stand. 

l|C*ap* jSrtill-iNi« (imjP-NaMp) a gallery 
xonnd a home; a oOTwed passage; eri* 
dmtly an inoorreot fonn of f^'^'. 

r^^ krU-wa ifang-wi)^ prob. wiongly 
ivrittan for ^'^'9\'^, to make straight. 

11^'ap^ kroi-ikhor (^-tAor) /a ring 
used in the exAise of ardhery as a butt 
for arrows; a maik ; a target. 

long nanow laatber to mend shoes with ; 
see. to (%. a long nanow pieoe of leather 
to fssten the sole to the npper leather of a 
shoe or boot. 

ing for the feet of the lower dasses 
of people; a leathern half-boot ; HS'f^ 
hvi-lkoH a patch for shoe. 

TJ3J'J| krafh-ma (fan-ma), oolloq. for W»« 
sran^maj peas. 

Tjq^ krab-krab r^a6.^a*)='^(pe 

danoing or stamping of the feet : ^'^W 
jgo-gq-^'^gq-q (his) legs and arms moved as 
in danoiiig. Aooordiiir to Jfag. ip'ip 
is equivalent to ^'^y flat. 

ipi kram ijfam) cabbage ; Hf's^"; sweet 
or fresh cabbage; 1F|^ f^f'om §kyt»f cab- 
bage-piotkle ; cabbage soaked in vinegar. 

\ ^'^\^\ ^*^*-*«-"«-*« wrw a- of a 
monastery in ancient Behar which was also 
kaown by the names of Samudra G-opta 
and Koanmapori (A. 60). 

l^'^'Orp* kri^M to-ffi WPtW h 
small lisaid.^ There is an aeoonnt of this 

animal being once offered as a bnmt sacri- 
fice to the gods (JT. d. ^ »«). 

:{ tJ*5 Kri.kri ftrfis, w^ n. of a Bud- 
dhist king of Benares who is said to have 
pationiied Buddha Eis'yapa. In the 
Chinese vwsion of tiie Yimala-klrti-nir- 
des'a sfttra, he is called Krpin, the kind 
and meroifol. 

^*P kri-kAa {fi'-^kha) the magpie; the 
white>bieasted magpie ; coUoq. called Jbyo- 
fa in Tibet. 

I'q-^t-^^ Kri-wa BkaH^gtM n. of a 
phce in Tibet (J. Za4.). 

^Ain-ini {ii-^Cj^V^b^gag 1. the 
grey dock (JKlfeii.). 2. vflr a worm. 

%^ kriya fiiv; Il^r^'^l^ the 
ritualistic part of Sambhawa mysticism: - 
^•|sAiiH-^^-9S|W>i§V«'Ml (A. U) 
the kryd man-tra having been performed 
by the six-armed deity. 

^•3^ tP\ fri'fcii'ba»ro n. of an indi- 
'vidual who did some service to Atis^a 
during his journey to Tibet through Nepal 
{A. U»). 

^^ krig-krig {fig4ig)^^'^ to 
beat or press with the hand or feet ; to 
make the sound tig'4^g» 

ipf^ krig-gi (fHMn) straight : W 
)'«!\^'^*|if'i|'QK'i^ii| the iron arrow when 
quite straight being good (D Jt.)- 

Iif-asprl^q krig-^gi nmi-pa t^'^w 
%^ |fiiJKq'MrT^fW*Sa I not customary 
or purposelessly ; for nothing : JT^'i** 
^<rf|sra^sr*S'*8r^V| Mongol tribes 
without adb^w^ng to custom would always 
be making prayers (D. feLlO). 


%^''V\ 42 

^*^' brMrkaH (fiU'ta^) a weapon 
like the apear; a forked spear: 't^^'^' 

|o^-^V«***"'«*^^ 1 (to the ooet of) a 
spear and lanoe with saw-like teeth 

glne or paste made of floor. 

^^^ kriH^^iai (fvi-ne') the oolio. 

^'f Kmna ^m n. of soulptor ;^ an 
image-maker daring Atis'a's time aboat 
1000 AJ). (A. Itl). 

^p-IB*^^ jrrif-9«-<^'^a wmmK the 
spotted antelope ( Ja.) ; a Idnd of blabk 
aatdope wliioh is said to possess the heart 
ol a IMkitahfM, Theskin of this animal 
is nsed by Hindus and Buddhists alike 
to sit upon; the Tibetan lamas attach 
much sanetitj to this antelope and its 

Wm hr^kru (fu^u) (JF.) wind-pipe 

f^l^ir a kind of yellow ohints resembling 
satin of great Talue, formerly highly 
prised in India and Tibet. It is called 

rig§ the mlgar, or the lowest dass of peo- 
ple in the mystical language (K. g. P t8). 

/ti^l^h^can) n. of a country (filled with the 
ory of storks or oranes) said to hare been 
Tisited by the Buddha {K. du. r 308). 

C*9V KruH4haA the chief Chinese 

his class {Tig. k. S8). Probably an error 
for Chtmg fang^ a title borne by certain 
high officials in China. 

^*l'^ kn^m^pa (iwn-pa) broken in the 

edge or side or nibbled, but not entirely 
broken to pieces. 

']nn^ EruniB (fum) meat: in polito 
language it is called ^9ai*|iMi (sof^um)^ 
the meat that is offered to a respected 
person. ^ 

^'y^ Kre^nag (fe-iiag) n.. of a place 
in XQuim. 



minister who was resident in Tibet when 
Abb^ Hue visited Lhasa ; an ottoial of 

IJ'Sj^lj krag-nag (fe^nag) the spout of a 
kettle {8ch.). 

^^ krt'pa ife-pa) the forehead ; also 
a oolloq. spelling for SP^'^i ^pral^pa^ the 

'S M Kre-io {f&-o) n. of a place in 

a fierce woman ; an amazon {M^on,). 

^S'T^ ^og-kiog {fog^og) a kind of 
sound produced by the grindlDg of hard or 
brittle objects together : fslft'^TMS "loy- 
^0^ is a sound " (i^^fl^.) ; iog4og is an ono- 
matopoetic word meaning a grating sound. 

n^K' h^ (M) erect ; standing : «w#s' 
}«.' I the body erectly stood. 

n^C^^R krati-kroU {t<mg4ang) stand- 
ing; posing still and erect: t^^^ 

«« while the two pupils were looking on, the 
deity was able to appear erect as if in 
life.'' When used of persons, it means 
also standing on one's knees; knseling 
in an upright position (J3.}. 

^t* krat^rt^ {Miff4u) D. of a kind 
of round writixig anoiently UMd in Ohina : 
^•^*- J-Ji-^^ Jiri^<i«r'iffe-<*<r^i5q«i I the 

dbaiacteni of that time were oixenlar letters 
called To4g^t%e. The word ^'l* h^-rt^n 
seems to be a ooiraptiaii of the Ohineee 
Umg^^ien^wpp&t cash. Tibetans say f^'V' 
qjaw^q *'a hmidied cash." 

^^ krwhkrtm {fon-pm) in IT. hang- 
iDg; dangling. 

31'^ Va-rUt mnsl?: ir^ this is an 
iooorreot spelling of the woi^ Wt' tla4iti. 

SRT **•**> *% im. '^"i ^^ 
1. abarbiiiaD: l'|^Tf 9'^W'f I i(|r^*i«tf 
0fe-0/o du4 kgro Vu (Zdm. g) ''Alas, the 
Mleoohai fhe beasts, and the Ndga I" 2. 
any Kusalman ef India, a Hwi-hwi or 
Hwi'tse in Gh|m.^8. a nation without 
laws ; a barbaxopi), nnci?iliied race. 

rfP V<^liMcha'^»m ^^i copper 

«MiMs w V! ihe bar- 
baxianB {8ehr). ' 

iT^r Va^Vobikfia ^^m a IfnsaU 
man's moiMih; as r^ibAo-eA^ ^'awidenurath- 
man/' f>., a Mnsalman of Kashmir. 

*rl^'^ ftfa->«>»« cAoi Win4 iJSckr.) 
''religion on the lips." 

Ti^'H? Va^Voii tig^tm several bitter 
roots growing in the snb-Him&layan 
regions; one Is also oalled Mrl'^'9 Chf^ 
tkma ekeretta (JTiMr*). 

WWP^ Va^klobi voi^ffn"^ garUc 

VfwHk n. of a Tmrufka (Tartar) Bang; 
lit growth of ihe Tamna or the MIecehai 

43 ^^\ 

Wi^'t^ ila^kloU hje^brog irc« flftv a 
tribe of Turufka ; a Tartar. 

- SPr^ ihft^ot' wVirnr, iPr 
clamour, noise: n'Y'^'t^'^ less noisy: 
^^^'•^•^•J^«* S^ I "having made a row 

UPfQ ihff-pa 1. ^twiw study, reading; 
f^'q$*j|VV^ I mai^irf a teaching profes- 
sor, a teacher : n'<A'D|«i'9^'^s.ii'rspi'q t 
"has completed his vow of study " {A. K. 
SO)^ ▼. f'^'Q Iflog-pa to read, peruse; 
n« Uag8 i9fnr, is pret. of f^'o. 2. 
^mvit to incarnate : |^*f *^ ^^aiOHl^l 
waiting for or expectant of one's advent 
or incarnation; in A^\/^. ^nirv*l^«l "one 
who finds fault virith"; JPPi*7l^=Sn*' 
i^lS not incarnated or obtained an incar- 
nated state : f^-«»^V^f^«»'^S«f W*^^'^ f 
"there cannot be transmigration from one 
to another state of emptiness." (This is 
in reference to the eighteen states of 

1^ Vaff9y V. ft bloff. 

1. "the word Va4 means above or up- 
ward" (Jfti^.) ; ■S«i'^|''i*^ revolving 
ronnd oveAead(^. 166). 2. irf%Y,«r«w 
head; brain ; it is also written as t^'^ 
i^'^ same as ^'X, a dot or <^her placed 
on the top or head of a letter to denote 
the abbreviation of the letter •! ma, which 
is commonly used in writing and occa- 
sionally in printing. 8. first; fS'^pi from 
the first : ^»TV^*^'^' JC5*^f ^••T^swi' 
^VS'V*'^^'^ as to lion's cubs, thefar daws 
axe prominent from the first. 

I^'l IM f9f^ m€mbrane covering the 
brain ; pia maUr ; l^fi'f 4 the bloody 
marrowiu the bones {8ohr.) ; ^'ftlaf §go 
the fontanel in the infant ccaniam (Sehr.). 

T\V^' Va4 ekiOL the oerebellmn ; T\^ifl^ 
Vai ffshwH the fspoAl marrow; |^''■|^• 
tM gffer painfal priokiiig sensation in the 
; fS'-^^v or ms the thin ooTerin|( 

of the 


1^'V ih4'tho the top leogth of a 
Tihetan tent, t .«., the distanoe between 
it« two poles. 

VS ^^ Vai'don lit. sigaifies the meaning 
of the text or the original work, but is 
gen. nsed as a term for the Sanskrit 
names or expressions whioh head almost 
all the religioin hooks of Tibet. The 
work 4f Am. makes |^ synonymous with 
y^'fv the amplifioation of the ooriginal 

|^*Q ilaif^pa nt[fk what is uppermost; 
VS'** Vinhma ^nf% priority, begisning, 

tS'^^^N«'«i ila4^ hgw^pa lit. whose 
fanuna haye beoome eonfounded ; to stun; 
to surprise; to eonlound; to OYerthrow 
in argument. 

IS'^tf JF^#-ftso the making of the outer 
side of anything: fS'*yi'^f|«W'V*^^' 
'^'ftl Vtt4 h^ flmg iker tkabi daA i'tun^bar 
bpa this outer ooyering and the flannel 
within must be made to fit in their sLse 

jgSj'lf Van^ka wmim oensure, blame , 
yi'^'ft'^ltai'q Jflan^M mi iishol-wa one not 
seeking brawls: <W«ifV*^*^«»'«J«WT 
^Iffli'q*!^ easting imputations against 
another is oalled ilan^ka i^BhoUvoa ; f^ 
u^S^^'^^Vi^^ al^ fomenting a dis- 
pute is oalled Van-ka ; J^-^'^^hf^j-j^- 
^qiiii q ; w^TWivf^ one who seeks brawls; 
V(^^'^ or aHTK** or WT^^'W**' or 8^'W 
to censure, blame. 


3P^ Jflan-pa, 1. revenge ; wrong aveng- 
ed ; to wreak veDgeanoe for : S'^^*%v'^Y 
q«l -Ulii q-^i^qm-^^qS^^ (io. 9) the orow 
revenges itself upon the owl by what is 
oalled flesh-revenge. 


3|V9 Jp^ft^iya part to be mended 
or to be patched. 

3|Sr^ ilam-pa wmmm a thick blanket ; 
also Apagri or turban used by Tibetans 
when travelling: lw^«»«i'si^«is5|5"N^|-^- 
^'f^' (K. cfa. ^lil) Vam the term for a 
long piece of doth which is tied round the 

gj'Tq J^ki^wa^^^M'^ itgyiH^'pa or 
9'q|i^ii*q bya (fffiatff-jia flr^pnr, yawning; 
to yawn. 

31^ Va9 V^, ^n copious, abundant; 
an equivalent of ""< ya«, beyond, apart, 
as in ^9wri, «i^;jF V^kak Va% or «w 
^^ (^m^). In this case W^ may be taken 
to mean ^' without,' and is an equivalent 
of the Sanskrit ^. 

^9\ JclM^ma or t^^'vi t^, ibe 
margin of a river or lake. 

31 I : V^ 'rnr n. of a kind of flower 
{K. my. "H 90)- 

jH EC: Tnr, ii^rtr, Tfl^i fi^^l !• the 

Indian Naga^ that is, a demi-god having the 
human head and the body of a serpent, 
which is generally supposed to live in 
fountains, rivers, and lakes. The Lu are 
also believed to be the guardian of great 
treasures under-ground ; they are able to 
cause rain and certain' maladies, and 
beoome dangerous when angiy. ^. a 
serpent or any snake in general. 

waii uiohgar the drama of NAginanda; 

diimfttio tnitiM by Hiodew 

I'F^' Vu^kkaH the nsidonoe of the Zi4 
or Mrpent gods. A« imaginaTy palace 
mppoeed to exist at the bottom of the lea 
or of some lake where the Ndga reside: 

iT^tV^l^I'^"^!^^? (•/*>.) iaw 
the palace of the Lh and their gio?e with 

fF'^n^Q^'^ ihhgfaA nag-po ba^ru 
emxsfrt^ the cmb which is called by 
Ghe Tihetuis '^bQU-homed black Im'* 
{tglmtm. IJUi) 

* ff^ tbhttp^l mnm {8ekr.). 

fftfoH imra»i|«MiV-^m n. of a certain 
m§g SiffM or a serpent demi-god called 
file WUto Brotector el Conch iShelis : ryr 
^t^*y^-^-^*ie«i^sis.lnn • the Im 
nder caUed white S'anUiapAla and 8'an« 
Uiadhaxm Bahu Pivi, the deity with many 
and others {Rim. U). 

inftute ; the king of the snakes described 
in Hindti mythology (4Mcii.) ; one of the 
eight r^^ tkt-ckem^ great Lu. 

I*fr^flprf Va-rg^l rig§4ta the five 
daases among the Naga S^d or Lh kings 
restdingin the fabulous worldof thesnakss. 

I'l^ gh-^grub (LihM) mrn^ the 
expounder of the Madhyamika school of 
Buddhist philosophy. 

f K^ Vu^^en icgu^ the eight chiefs 
ci the La orNaga are sM'^ni ^nm 

^^'fS 9^t^9 irt^- 

ira^B ic/M A^iv-JH> vwv tli« oIm of 
Lu ot Ndga called Takfako. 

1'^ Vu-^thebt the coming forth of the 
Jtif in smmner from their retreats. This 
time is fixed in Tibetan ahnanacs for wor- 
shipping them: M^« ti^-^r<«^*^«fl'>^' 

net the coming upwards of the Lu isom 
their retreats in summer is called |')q« 

rf^ hlit-idog-ik^ retiring of the Lu 
to their abodes in the nether regions 
is called f |^ Vu4(iog, which time is 
generally calcukted by the Tibetan aitro- 
logecs to fall in December. 

r««^*iS ilu mikar bge4 tw«rnr the 
chief patriarch of the Ifdga; also mwrens, 
which is a name of the Garu4a bird. 

tM^^'^^fht. 1. n. of an indolent poison. 
2. n. of H Tcry venomous snake (^eidi. 

W'\^^ ilu dug^ean poisonous snakes. 

^'tn^ rgg^^H^ fUN^^^M lit. that which 
destroys poison or kills 2^ demonss|*^ 
musk {ffman. 3SS). 

r«VX'l V^idu4 rdor-je n. of a medici. 
nal plant which is believed to have the 
property of healing all sorts of diseases 
caused by Xa or malignant ^irits. 

r«^^ Vu^u4 prob. Coda99€pm$ ^vaU 
(jI) also l^^^^a J^t gnc^pa cures all 
kinds of arthritis and rheumatism (TT,). 

|'|asi J^§did§ wnnmi the peaks or 
flanks of a mountain where snakes reside. 

1'^ ilu-nai mvrftir, fvftir the disease 
caused by the Xa or leprosy. 



f 'W |Ai-94tfl wnnpr tihft abode of 

*|'V^ V»^od «mnir« one of the 
diicqples of Nigiijtma {Sohr.). 

*f V^ i/n-iyel iwnrftf% ea epitiiet of 
Nigixjtum a&d alio that of one of his 

|'^-^|i|*V i^fl^/!«-0rJ r^j^AfX) .a 
Buddha ruling over the Lu^ nsoallj depict- 
ed irith 4 attendant JMkumUra {QriA. 

|'S*> JpN-^tiw n. of a section of the 
ffgiwM diyision of the monastery of YW 
ff^V^I"^ llpal-bla»i Sbroi^Hii (Dai- 
pong nettr Lhasa): Vf^-^8FJF'r|'*^*" 
pMi*4i|fy^*sfi^i^-«iii*ip|*^««l theOomang 

sections of Daipnng Monastery are the 
Hordongi Sam-lo and Lnbnm ; n. of a 
treatise on a hundred thousand Ndga. 

|*ii9Si'||*V t/tf-^ftttift Mro-to 1. n. of a 
religious work among the Bw^po, 2. B'Q 
iktfhio means '^ mottled.'* There ^re also 
|n|(si-i7i|^« t/M-titim ikmr^^ %^V^'^'^ 
Vu'bl^m naff-po. 4^«-^m, originally a 
hooded snake, eobm di capelh ; Ihe mytiio- 
logical sense, however, is only understood 
in Tibet, where every child knows and 
believes in £11 or Nigas, Ac, cobras being 

of a lama of Tibet 

I'M tbhmo a female serpent; also a 
serpent demoneso* 

|H'l *|^-|*l(*ei| JflH'4no mthiig m^shO' 
can n. of medicinal plant used for wounds 
or sores. Its flowers are of garnet colour; 
when they are plucked there ooaes out a 
milkish sap which is said to possess 
heaUng power \Smn.960). 

%fS V^immn n* of a medicioe. 

f*!!^ Vti-fputgi the body or likeness 
of a snake; also a £m in the body of a 
snake; anything with the body or in 
the g^uise of a snake* 

ft'HS Vu^ diai the langusge of (he 
Ndga; according to some Tibetan authors 
this is the Nftgari Isnguage of India which 
they identify with the Prftkrit. Aooord- 
iug to the earliest hietorians of Tibet jfi' 
US VuH %ka4i t>., the Ndga bhdfd^ was 
the knguage af the Chinese: J'W^^fW 
«S*« Sgga-'fMg'pn iUi-Ia^ cha4-pai^ t'T^T 
l^'^'^l^ the Chinese having originated 
from the serpent demi-gods, speak the 
Ndga krtOj the language of the 1m. X'W 
f '9 fUlga kfta is distinguished from the 
Sanskrit language which is called J>eva 
bhdsa^ the lang^ge of the gods. I(dga- 
hjrta means corrupt language and San^- 
kria meaus refined language. 

^^^^'^VuhigroHi'khger^^X^t^^^ iftif- 
imV the mythological city of the Ndga 
in the nether world ruled by King S'esa. 

j^'^^t«i JFA44' kjig-tten sfpvwtv the 
nether world or region inhabited by the 
Im or Ndga. 

I^'V^'^" fh^bi ditg-ieatn n. of a fabu* 
lous sea which lies beyond a great sandy 
desert. The Zu chieftain Stobt'llan {Bala* 
tin) resides there and excites dissensions 
among living bAngs (JT. d. ^ SSS). 

^^viC^ itnti gOett^ka the hood or 
neck of m^Ndganx of a serpent. 

•fir\ fMi^de «inrt«r {8ehr.) n. of the 
eelebrated Buddhist sage who answered 
the interrogations of King Menander 
(of Milinda Fannha) ; one of the eij 
Buddhist saints of the northern school. 

l^'sptVe jpAi^i gnod-jm or ftTl V^ 
ikgofif plague ; a disease of unknown 

. • 

maladiet saiqpoted to be originated from 
the malignity of the serpent demi-gode. 

S**j*' */«** §itrul -aiw a olaflfl of yery 
Tenomona eziakee. 

3*^*^ V^ki yi-ge mw ^rtr aoo. to Cs. 
the Chinese oharaoter ; aco. to some authors 
the *Nagari oharaoter. 

•i*'»^^ Vui ifH^gien HTWflnr 
(&*r.) n. of a Baddhist saint 

f^fS V^tfi ffkad ^mm^f the language 
of the Ndga: *5*'i^liS'V«*Jl«i-fSV 
^fF«'^^«^«l itis said «hat (he)nnder. 
stood (it) when related in thefianskrit or 
in the langoage of the Ifdftr. 

A. of a leafy oieepng plant (MUon.). 

^\ hh^tfi tce^m\wt,^ lit the snake's 
tongue; n. of a plant used in medicine. 

Syn. fmm^^ §ii(h$a4§ »kri^»; 

!h'5'* me-tog pAra-ffk) (4(Mcm.). 

r^^^ Vi^yi ^trsw-si^ the earth 

r^^ tlH^ nmvt lit the snake- 
tree ; vHnf the tree of golden barL 

Syn. Vi's^ Imn^'Han; |«i'a'«tf §kye$4m 

Img^a; *^'^jft $ei'ge §kroi; |^*1^ 
tiiti me4og; ^wfirmKn ge-wrmar^; r|i 

The names of some spedes of trees 
ealled ndga vjrk^ are the following: — 
*SfT^^**« Uha4-iian ^dalh ma; *''9^'t 
me-iog rtte; ^'^ «i-«nf<; I^'smM Jp/u^t 
fUMm; ^^|q iog-le igrib; H^^^X^^ 



^■''S'l mH ds^^n^bu^ka ^gj^mmm, liie plant 

Pbcamiia $padia (4Wwi.)^ *" 

I'^'^fP Vu fff$4 gf$Hm the names of 
tl«e medicines, via., Hli| iiNg^n, 
¥rfliAa/-#wvandi^-^ byail^tiog iSmm. 

J^' Vui a valley ; rlrer ; tf^' M«4<s« 
1^ a river in general ; W|^' mffi^thd 
a river passing through wooded traets; the 
name f: Vui is seldom applied to small 
streams or rivulets. 

f^*|1 iht^rgyuu a stream, dbrrent; 
1^- J^-r liks the flow of a river. 

|^'¥l tM igog a kind of garlic 
growing wild on the margins of rivers iir 
Tibet : |^T^'«iirS)'ai'^l*f(sr%'|w | wild 
garlic cures leprous sores and dries up the 
fluids in swelL'ngs (Med.). 

V^n Vii^-rta (in ^'fm mg^rim the 
art of divination) sy;^ tM^tta. 

1^4"^ Vuiiiphyugi cattle living in the 
lower table-Unds oi Tibet. This term is 
also applied to the yaks which are kept 
in the lower i^ains of Tibet: I'^'J^'il* 
H^'^t^f^M^ VuH^pkyugi so.0«tf yan^ 
gyi ko-wa rer ''ior (f\e., the price of) each 
hide of cattle of two t^eth," (i^., above 
two years old) {^siL). 

I^'^nq 4 Vui hbab-pa the rushing of a 
hill torrent; the flowing of a river. 

I^'*i t/N4*iiMi a river. 

{^'^ VH*-t9kag a yak of the vaUey ; 
^'^ ri4$hag a hill yak— a yak belonging 
to the higher elevations and hill-tops of 
Tibet iSim.). 

1^'^ JfM-fod n. of a place in the 
uplands of ^9l^ {JXgiO) situated to the 
north-east of Lhasa (Xo4. » 1»). 



■1^*^ iluH^i a kind of plant growing 
on^the margin* of rivers in Tibet, and 
iftid to be efiBoadouB when applied to Borea : 

|«^m VuH-igog garlio of the yalley. 

nC4| I: tMi tliifl term is applied 

to we astrobgioal restlts arrived at by 
oomputing one's age in referenoe to that 
of one's parents by consulting their 
lioroeoopes. It oooors in the Vaidurya 
Xarpo in expressions such as ^'Wy^, ••y I 

nCV n: cultivated lands; a field: 
I w^l Jfail|.«» S*y^ grow on cultivated 

^/tfUl t8kat^4na aU fields belong^ to 

+ 80^^ giuthpa, p*-  «•«» *^«*i-iw» 

1. to cover the body with omamente {Jd.) ; 
to put on lujrariously (Ob.) : ^'^^'Sl^- 

^mr M fta fM dag^hi hgt grub-pabi «««- 
khsbn rob ibrHL iha-ma gfium-du ibsbi (/ig.) . 

2. to set up (a tenant). 3. n. of a tribe 
in Tibet {Vai. kHr. 160). 

one of the 28 Buddhist sages mentioned 
in the !£• v. 

l«i'y;'4P ^Af| bgai^hub mnwtfw, Ndga 
Sodhi^ one of the chief disoples of N&g&r- 
juna. His essence is supposed to have 
been embodied in the late Eusho Seng- 
ohen of Tashi-lhiinpc. 

^M ihi a rack for clothes, clothes- 

"Jftip htog-jHi to read, imp. Jh*^^^ 
|S|sr4 V^gi-P^ 0^ "^f^ iil^9j fnt. m t^ 

or «IW 6>foi)^, «W««^* Wag^par-hya ^^' 
%\ ilog-par-byei is reading; J^'«i^9V«« 
tlog-iXir hyei^pa the act of reading, the 
causing to be read; ¥tS hlog-bya any- 
thing to be read; ^h'ft'HT'' V^^ -«* ^^' 
pa to begin or cause one to read; Ji'Q'Q 
thg-pa po Gt 1^'*^ Vog-iBikhan a reader : 
^'% Vog-grta a reading school, a school 
for reading; ^2l*«^^iih«i ^-cha aoffs 
ilog-pa reading books, &c. ^'^^^ i%- 
bdon to read aloud ; ih V Vog-bytiii m- 
fimx well-read, accomplished in reading, 
a scholar ; ft O'^^'ft "Jfo^-f^ ^«« S%-iw 
to read again. 

ft'V^ J^hg'thob n.fof a BodJimiiiwi 
{K. ho. « 5^) 


*§K' V<^ I: or itq t/(><.^« ^m^ 
extent ; mass, bulk, bodj ; depth, abyss. 
Also a wave or any imdulating thing : |^' 
^cq««'q irTWW with opening or revertiug 
folds or coils as in a conch shell. 

^C II: this word either alone or 
in oombination with ^^^ yadf is generally 
used to express the idea of vastness, in- 
finitude or immensity. It also signifies 
*^ space" as a definite expanse, being in 
a measure synonymous with ^S^i dbyi^tt : 
Ifi'^'l'c.'uic^ the immensity or profound- 
ness of Dharma; ^^'^^ W^wru the 
expanse of matter ^r infinitude of pheno- 
mena; ••w^'S'J*'' the depth or ampli- 
tude o^^ the mind : l(l'^« sq^<^i|(|W 

Bf^T^K^'ya I this spiritual being of 
Dorje chang developes in the wide bound- 
less sphere of the jgpods into that jewel of 
the heavens which comprises the five illu- 
sive bodies of Dorje Naljor {Ifiro. 1). 

aJC in centre or middle ;a£<s« 
dbu9 or S5^ ifkyil as in V^If *a» jFtoH or 

ir¥^ rba-tMl the eddy or whirlpool caused 
by * fia or ^ tfte^ the wavee ; V^'^^' 
4fmk^tH or V^' rba-tM is also naed to 
signify rfta-r/a(|, a wave, billow. 

^'^ AM-Uor a whirlpool or eddy 

+ ^C' IV : it'^l^«» >M-if» gtfur^jpa 
has the meaning of V^'!j;i^'<i, under 
one's subjeotion or power ; is equivalent 
to ^?9lw fully comprehended; over* 
powered. It is also used to signify per- 
feotion in mystio arts, as Jasdtke renders 
it ^a soaring into mystio perfeotion.'' 
The work ^T^ explains it in the fol- 
lowing manner : ^Tfrv^wr^n-q-awa.- 
n^l «4t is also applied (to mean) what- 
ever has azriTsd at complete perfection or 
become concentrated into one/' 

IfM tMUken n. of a celebrated 
lama of Tibet who was also called ¥^^' 

M >foH<'0 a division of the Buddhist 
writings of the •ifM V^^ class, the 
introduotion of which is attribqted to 
Lo49ar0 Yaira-tMna. <K')'Vr^^'«iirK^' 

'^ ''in this country of Tibet (in boob) 
known is the great JTaa-^ ^bv^ 
jM, there are the 8$m§ section, the 
£o4 section, and the Man-dag section" 

fe^w^ Ip/M-ffMi 4h^l h of great capa- 
mty. 2. f[fr the cavity of the abdomen. 

f^9 IfMtim iftsr, same as ^1[^«'«i 

ff^^*^EM%rag n. of a place in Tibet; 
^^^'I'P the ferry at f^hH-rag 

^*Q V<m^ to mend, to paidi shoee, 
Ac ; Sho'Q acobUer, mender of dioea. 

P ibfs in mystic language Che tenn 
signifies an evil spirit. 

||l*^ ifayo, pronounced in Tibetan U 
i**«, wi ptihtm pulmantiiti ; but aeoovdU 
ing to the Tibetan patiiology JT^Wt^ 
denotes a biliout di s s ae e, piob. black Jana- 
dice (Jd.). The symptoms ol the dissaee 
ife-y«, as deseribid in the medical woriks 
of Tibet, are as foDows: m^'^rfv^rl^* 

*^i•r^%»WH«|W^a• ''iheUekaT. 
ing permeated the body, itehing is set 
up, the skin becomsa greenidipblaok in 
cobur, the hair and the e y ebrow s fiJH oA , 
loM of sfarength, shrivelled fleshy and bbsk 
spots on the naOs, will be produced ^ 

P'lg*^ tta-^^hfu a kind of predous 
stone resembling crystal; it is very revs 
in Tibet: pc^^Vvr^^^'^W-^lir 
iirH^-^-^'ft-^i^ as to K|Bsiua» that 
crystal and the genuine itaA^dl stone do 
not occur in Tibet etospt singly (!%.)• 

^'Tfll^Q Jfai^HMi comtipation ; cbs- 
tmoted bowels. 

4*^^ Oktm I: m% ace. to JUg. 
the paiato, the root ol the mouUi; «r^ 
the upper part d the palate ,v«r^l^ 
tiie lower part of the paiato ; ^fW'^ deft 
paiato ; ^<W'S*^'^ vimi^ the palatal 
letters; ^'W'^ ^mp^itm an absceei 
in the paiato; ^m^ n7 dieeaee of the 

^fj^II: is sometimes used in the place 
of 5S gg^^i stoep or iq» hill; W^>^'* 


4kan gnar-po a steep deditity ; preoipiee 
(jfiag. 6). \ 

^^i^ J)kah, ^l^n 4ka^tea or 'W^ 
ifkai^oWf^mitK h hard, dl£aoiilt; used 
as adj, ^'ST'«' hard to understand ; wy 
^T'4 Texy hard or JUffioolt. 2. pains, 
exertions, snfferisgs ; ST'^ ^'Q^'V^'Q 
^«^9m gain without pain or exertion ; 
i^i^'qA^'q without hardship or difBoulty', 
^VV^I^^ diffloult of aooess ; f^^S^'^ vruh 
ikai'iea hard to aooomplish or to petf eot ; 
fig. to propitiate; ^^'ST'^ hard to ex- 
press or describe ;!|V^n^'* diflkult to find ; 
SWA hard work, or hard to do ; ^fl^'A^s 
fS^ difioultj; VT'd^'^ flt«K« one 
who aooompliBhes a diffionlt or havd task. 

S'^'^ ihd^hgrel irf^NT lit. difficul- 
ties explained; a oonunentary; explana- 
tion of difficulties ( Ja.) : H^Tf WA'^h' 
<n9'qjpi'<i meaiiings of terms which are 
diffi<mlt to understand are explained in a 
commentary (j^ojr. 6). 

^T'AS ika^^ mnm ten asoetioa} 
hardships; a Buddhist scholar who has 
acquired such great proficiency in sacred 
literature as to he aUe to interpret the 
meanings of a term in ten different ways. 

^n^'JA i: ikak-thuh n^m; also tnvw, 
irfiC) fWy mrfwr, asceticism, also penance ; 
an ascetic, one who is able to stand hard- 
ships or priTations: ^T'5^ V>I'*"A-^' h 
iiArsrs|Vf*S^'yq'q'^* I ^^Qn'siiii'AS'q'l I 
A^sf5»i'^V*'*^**'|l "that an ascetic's 
body should be &t, that a pretty woman 
should sleep by herself, and that a hero 
should be without woundHMazs — ^these 
three are thinirs the ndnd does not credif 


^n^'SA n: a name for the first month of 
the Tibetan calendar (Sinu). 

the residence^of an ascetic; a hermitage. 

^P^'%^ I (lit. the ascetie's enemy) a name 
of the god of lore (4f*wi.). 

moi§^ *iniq{V, H^w one who undergoes 
asceticism; a hermit; one who haying 
renounced the worldly life has retired to 
solitude ; an epithet of the Hindu deity 
Mahes Tara. 

fiyn. V^lf^ ipaA-fpof \ 5<S«piMwii;\l- 

S^'V^JS'^ ikat-tkuh tpyoi'pa the 
practices of an ascetic or hermit; V^'f^ 
drai^titoi a rishi (4f4on.) ; VP'SA'^'^S'a to 
embrace the life of an anchorite; VP'fA* 
*^-«=5^;|»i BaflFron {§man. 861) ; VT 
JA'^pw im:ii?iii| one whose asceticism or 
penitence is either Tisible or exemplary. 

ST1t«'>i Cka^slog ila-^m n. of a 
snowy mountain; it is generally applied 
to **^w«^ Bi^io ffoHi^n (4Mni.). 

Snp:%^'m Jfka^hg^nia n. of the God- 
dess K'^ Gknt^ (Mthm.). 

S^^ml'^4ka^§itk$^MjBry difficult; 
^•iwr*S'q free from difficnliy; easy. 

^1|^ I: 4kar in compounds sVT^'« 
4kar^ white ; grey. 

^'TP^ n: sincere; ^1^'*V not con- 
fessing one's guilt; not exonerated; not 
making a dean breast of anything. 

^!^'% ikar^^ya V[f^ light grey: 
^TT'rt^ pale; white. 

^^*r^ ikar-khaA a lighted house ; alsi> 
a store room (5. kur. 66^ 178). 




^n^TI^' ikarMui^MP^nf^ window, « 

sky-light; a hole in the wallof A'hoQie 
for the entrance of light 

^n^'B^ iar-kkyuff anything- ttreaked 
or omamented with diyene ooloan. 

VP^a^ 4km^kkrig§ (kar4hig) white; 
eliining; bright; glittering ; brilliant. 

S^'^ ikar-goU 1. a kind b£ white olay; 
porcelain olay. 2. laqie as ^\ m^-rdb 

ilint: ^T^^IT^XT^^^'W^"^ • white- 
olay is naefol to expel wonns and for the 
poiaon of evil spirita. 

^^'1 ikar-tgya roee^)oloared ; pale 

^n^'yi ikoT'tg^n white ornament ; the 
butter njMd in painting offerings made of 
barley flonr or rioe to the gods: ^Mr^<^' 
ST "^ cakes that are painted white and red 
with (oolonred) bntter (jS<««.)* 

Sl^'^'^lfN tf2»r-im#.0Mfm the triple 
wnite eiiziry i.^., tne ooneam izom tne miijc 
of the female yak, ewe, and cow : ^|'9T^ 
'WrlXai-^^ircA'p^*^ ** JDkPWb is the mix- 
ed milk of the female yak, ewe and cow." 

W^'^HMT^^iagwfiiM^ 1« AH iadez; 
rei^ster. 3. whitish; grqr. 8. moiaUy 
good; standing on the side of TirtM; 
ainoerQ; csndid. 

iC^-K^^'teft glittering white says. 

^fT^V^'f ^ pjtor-ckMll Mo-Moil n. of a 
monastery in Tibet (J. ZaA.). 

^^^ #Iwr-&»^flP'^*l'^ • tme friend; 
one who baa come oTsr to one's side out 
of sinoere good will; a friendly relation. 

^f«f^*(K'a*aiii 0Jhir-f^iX«Ao-4om n. of a 
place in Kham nesr JBmchmA^. (Xon. t 

^T's^ ik9r4lmg the string of a bow: 

^T^ ikar-dto milk and onrd: ^'^ 
^'^••V«'*"ST^X SI it will make milk and 
curd of. equal Talue with the abofo 
{Jig. SO). 

SVn^ J)kar4iar iftt^ lit tiie bir 
one ; the Goddess Ganri, the wife of Blva. 

^Tf^'^l ikar^fo, also «n^'M fTtewNe 
ul^, mr, WW, WVf «iHi ^Pj^f 1W| 
yfwrw L white ; pnre ; fsir ; aqnaKRcatioB, 
talent, enlightenment | (somotimiis) wise. 
2. ^, sOtir; Aiigrass;a leaned man; 

pnriiy: ^i^^*iF^*flrc*« I Wr tM^ 
ijwi ** complete enlightenment is a stage 
of insight.'' It is one of the stages e( 
perfection of the Aifoydiio SchocL 

^s|i(a*Sr|q #bir-jw oA^MiiM a kind 
of medicinal plant; also, its root, wbish is 
used to kill woims ; %Y|S*^M'|^*Ani | 
it draws out poisonous m^fct^ and anb- 
dues worms wluoh infest one. 

bchar^pa «^^ (Sckr.). 

•^f^^ftnm ikmr^ Ator Mfir (Mr.) 
white lustre. 

%^ n. of a medicinal stone (called*^ white 
frog's back ") (4IU0II.). 

Vr^qt-qr^ ikmr^poki ftsM^ ^nm 
tiie enlightened age or JEUjpo* 

^^*t^ ihar-phin ^omA. in colloq. for 

^^'tan ikmr^pkibi a tower or dome 
buih on pillars or on the roof of a boose 
for commanding a Tiew, generally in the 

Chinese style: ^••wH*^'T^*^'*'P 
in the great domed tower is the tall pUla r 
with a lion's mouth. 




W^'if^ ikar-phffogi um^ the light 
half of a month; the |>eriod from the new 
to the fpU moon ; the Innooctit aide in two 
eontending parties ; ^'<l^'9^*9 the gods 
who belong to the side of Tirtue ; ^T^'3^' 
Har^phreH n. of the mythical capital of 
the Mura (Pag> SO). 

S^*^ iffkar^fca jjm white, t. S^P'ST^' 
^ mm whitenew: »«'•« Aip'q'^V«w I 
<<ih2ongh flinoerity in the dootrine*'; ^*hj 
pMy " {Pag. SO). 

V^^^s'* iffsar^mi by^i^ to plead 
innocence. Aag. explains it as '^-r^K'*' 
*S'«fl|«r^'*W^'|*' ■wi',to Bhow by signs or by 
oath that he is not guilty. 

^fT^'^S ikar^min ^ftw, WHW not 
white; blaok; dark; chaos; bent; crooked. 

7!^ %9 JPkar-nHn^ the son of 
Pibir-mtfi;iheofkpring of chaos: ^ an 
epithet of the son of BrahmA. 

V^'^ ikar-^^^'^^ eho$ me sacred fire ; 
especially lamps lighted before deities, 
i^nr^d-^^x^v-i^^i -^^ I the kind (of cioth) fit 
for wicks of lamps (lighted before the 
images of (taints and deities) (Biiiu). 

{ffdM.) a nameof the qneen of the Takfa. 
V^'S 4kar'4no 1. mutton ; a sheep when 

danghtei^d; ^•n^*■wr1^•^T*•-1•■^T'^'^^ 
a ahonlder of mntton from the right side 
of a alanghtered sheep (fi^ii.) ; wT^T^' 
lf*fli^-A-ii|Y^ mutton of sheep slanghtered 
by the hand (as distinguished from the 
meat of a dead sheep) (Jig. 9). 2. ^nrcr- 
fttniT, ffc i <<H^41 an epithet of the goddess 
Ihirg&. 3. white rice. 

S^'V^ ikar-dfmar light red or whitish 

S^'f ikar-iUiy also spelt S"*!^*^ 4kar4u 
1. lime ; white-wash ; white gaini 2. a 

kind of coarse ootton obth; lint : ^^'^' 
^^4<flr^'^-^«^§<S lint arrests decay- 
ing disease in the fledi and bone {S. 
har. 3). 3. ^fv, Mi'^tr^S^ white musl5n. 

S»^>^i ikar-imi or ^'^^ astrology : 
j-^-^<ilJi^-^'iS^-*|^n-viii^'>'Wi^ the sys- 
tem of reckoning introduced in Tibet 
from India is called tftor-fMi (2>. fel. 8). 

S^'fK^ ikar ftier-wii yery white or 
fair: r««'HTi»«'vr-Kv^ | a youngr 
maiden of yeiy fair complexion on hotse- 
back {A. ISS). 

" ^fV^'^*^ ikar-idtin the female breast ; 

^t^'vM{M la^Uhohi fiMbiMPia; ^'^^^i 
tKhfna idiin; ^*|« logH^ye^ {JHHtm,). 
^T^'«|^ 4kar^d$o4 a dispensary. 


VP'^«i 4kar-ypl prooelain (^ag. 5). 

S^'^p^' ikar-gyeii IB explained as B>m* 
^'•'dS*^ a trial or investigation undar 

^^'^■w (^Sbrr^wO^ff pure white ; also V1^' 
%^*-q or W«'^1^V very white. 

Mm=Y^'^ alabaster (§mam. S5S)^. 

'ff^'V^ ikar-gtal fair; while; light 

* ^T'iiP ikar-fium the three white 
things, vis.', curd, milk and butter 
{A. IJtS). 

+^ *w fP'; ««''4T*'^ (Im.) the 
side of one's body: W'(<i'»*f *'►•*'• 

is towards the small ribs just aboye the 




Up, whether <m the light or left of 
the body^ M^ or M'^'H« to oany 
a tUng tt one*8 ude (JSmi.) ; Si'^*^ to 
open the nde; S^'l a hevry feeling in 
the tide, ae a symptom ol^pregnonoy; 
M'^ ikti^nai apparently a diseaee of the 
kidneys (/a.) ; Ml** ^sn^-^hm round and 
plnnip hnttooka; tlie cavity of the abdo- 
men (/a.); VKsVe\5"^-^*»^f for 
example a bell resting on its side (H^ttg). 

SS"*^#kiHP«e ^Hirw a rug to sit upon; 

S^f tf'^M-l^ oontrivanoet stratagem; 
eraft; triok, especially if nnder some pie« 
text one person induces another to do a 
thing that proves hurtful to him (/d.) ; 
^'f IV^ using a stratagem. 

S^^H^ih^W^^ df lemainiBg; 
in excess. 

•f^^*Q tffaMra stench; pttfaridsmsU: 

Sj^V^* Vi <i« J)ku^m signiftae any- 
thing that is not of agreeaUe smell; V^ 
Q-srVw'^'l^ the smell of that* which* is 
putrid is called tfKMHM. "^'^ipi'crf the Ave 
kinds of tftuHss, j^., objects with bad 
strong smell, are the following:—!^ 
garUo ; ^^ onion ; %^ Chineee gairiio ; ^' 
1^ the hill or Tibetan garlic ; wA %'9^ 
asafffitida The use of these ftve are for- 
bidden to the Buddhist BkA^t (K. d. n 

^^ ikon ^^'fl ^ 1. adj. rare, 
soaroe; hard to acquire: >i'^^'ira^'e*^' 
s|-^l this year rain and grftin are 
■carce; ^••^•■S'*%V^«i'^^^J just now 
Tibetan tea is very rare ; ^^'frrV>h'Y 
exceedingly rare in the world; ^^f^'^ 
^w^*« I it is of a quality rarely to be 
last widi in the world; 8vn'^''4^'VS'V|^' 

^'^ I to see a person like you is nothing 
particularly rare; )'^'X*«i'9'<r^ii with 
a prattler religion is scarce (Jd.). ^ffV^^ 
rarity; ^^^'^^ valuable property; riches; 
rare things. 2 sbsi, a rarity. There are 
said to Ih seven 4ion or rarities. 

^^stf^ ikon^-Kgiehog vn any precious 
object ; anything very excellent or best of 
its kind. The oldest forms of this word 
•re— ^^t^ or ^H ^'•f^'**^ means 
^^q^'sdUi, ^ ehief o£ rarities^ the rarest 
being or object, the Supreme Being : t v 

^1 ^•<r^:w«|^%8-^T^T^iA-s«^| 
''in genersl in this world a precious jewel 
4iffioQlt to prooure is a rarity ; that which is 
much rarer still than any rarity is #tc#- 
ekoy.'' A precious gem of the rarsat kind is 
usafol onty for worldly purposes; bat 
Buddha, his church, and ereedisxe of use 
to aU living beings, both here and here- 
after, for incr e a si ng and ensuring their 
happiness. Apart from Buddhism, the 
Tibetans appear to have possessed the 
conception of the Supreme Deity in the 
term J^hm-i^ichog. This term, ^•d(q, is 
used in Tibetan writings for each member 
of the Buddhist triad*-Bnddha, DWma, 
uid Sa^gh*— separately, es also for the 
throe collectively; in the latter ease often 
with 0ftim annexed. Mr. W. W. Bookhill 
has condemned the use of this word 
by Christian missionaries to signify 
''God.'' But Jischke has elaborated 
on the subject as foUows:—" Buddhism 
has always sought the highest good 
not in anything material, but in the 
moral sphere, looking wit4 Indiffscw 
ence, and indeed with contempt, on 
everything merely relating to matter. 
It is not, however, moral perfection, or 




the happinefls attained thereby, which 
iB understood by the ^most precious 
thing,' but the mediator ^ ; mediators who 
procure that happiness foi mb^^kind, vis., 
Buddha (the originator of the doctrine), 
the doctrinal aoriptiires and the corporate 
body of priests, called f^TKW, ikot^fiichog 
fButn. Now, although this triad cannot, 
by any means^ be placed on a level with the 
Christian doctrine of a triune Qod, yet it 
will be easily understood how the innate 
desire of man to adore and worship some- 
thing supematuxal, together with the 
hierazebibal tendency of the teaching clsss, 
have afterwards contributed to conyert 
ih» acknowledgment of human activity 
for the benefit of others (for such it was 
undoubtedly on the part of the founder 
himself and lus earlier followers) into a 
devout, and by degrees idolatrous, adora- 
tion of these three agents, especially as 
Buddha's religious doctrine did not at 
all satisfy the deeper wants of the human 
mind, and its author himself did not 
know anything of a Gh)d standing apart 
and above this world. For, whatever in 
Buddhism is found of beings to whom 
divine attributes are assigned, has either 
been traotfeDred from the Indian and 
other mythologies, and had, accordingly, 
been current among the people before the 
introduction of Buddhism, or is the result 
of ]^osophical speculation that has re- 
mained more or less foreign to the people 
at large. As, then, the original and 
etymological signification of the word is no 
longer current, and as to every Tibetan 
* fihm'igakog^ suggests the idea of some 
supernatural power, the existence of which 
he feels in his^heart, and the nature and 
properties of which he attributes more or 

less to the three agents xpentioned above, 
we are fully entitled to assign to the word 
l^hon-fiichog also the signification of God, 
thoiigii the sublime conception which the 
Bible connects with the word, vis., that of 
a personal absolute Omnipotent Being, 
will only with the spread of tibe Christian 
religion be gradually introduced and 

^^^•sa^^i|*R^« ikm-ifichog kuf^idm§ the 
three gems, #«»., Buddha^ JDkarma and 
Sagffha collectively: lsrJ|-^<r^nFrsMi-jv 
twi«^R^vqR-qs<^ hma is the essence 
of all the Buddhss of the ihree ages massed 
together; l'S^'^y^5^^*r*ra^''»^'«'3«^ 
2*'|'^^^**TW^r the image represents 
the church; the scriptures represent the 
heart, m., the Dkm'ma ; and the holy relies 
(symbolical of the spirit of Buddha) com- 
plete the three gems. 

^^'stf^il-iiX^'q the service or worship 
of the Ok(m-ifiohog. 

^^^''W^ Dhtm-fffehog ibguih 
gnoi Kmntx a name of the first of the nine 
stages of Samddhi or ^'t^V^ the meditar 
tions of a BodhkaUva. 

i^^Y^*^>^*« tUfv a Sanskrit work 
on the names and attributes of Buddha, 
in one hundred chapters, out of whidi 
forty-nine chapters were translated into 
Tibetan ; of these forty-nine only six are 
now extant in Tibet. The entire work 
was translated into Chinese by Jfi&na 
Gupta, AJ). 689-618. 

i^iO^^ii iihofhiiiehog ffnm f^rai 
the three Batna or Pteoious Ones. The 
Buddhist triad are— (1) Sal^tn^ 4ion* 
ipchog Buddha most rare; (2) Dhaima, 
called Dam-udio^ihrn-fBiohog^ the holy Doc- 
trine most rare; (3) J)g€'kfhn ikaniifekog 




body of prieiU most xase. Colloq. the 
jhnae is frequently uaecLas an exdama- 
tioB quite in the sense of our '^Ghxl 
knows r 

90 V>^ ftm^m (iSsAi*.) lit. a smrvaat of 
the three gems, i^*^ a deTout Buddhist ; 
n. of an individual. 

^^4kim^r^^ a priest who 
is in charge of a Buddhist ohapel or 
temple and performs the daily ssrrioes 
to the deities contained in it The ^ilai 
gfier is also csUed AnnAoi: ■wrsdl^'^ffT 
^•^^F*»'Jfrtip»-W^|h«-«^j the priests 

and image-etewaanl and others iriio eon- 
thiually officiate get the customary allow- 
ances (j^M*.). 

^fl ikon^ or ^* rare, scares; 
dear, pvemoos. 

* SM^'3 **>»-** • wreath; ^^ 
^MKl ft flower wreath 

*^^ *tor««r« Ifm, 4kar is rssp. 
toft'^^f substance, wealth, riohesi property: 
^'^S*^?f^ the property of the church or 
that of a monastic c on gregation ; *^^ 
foundation, endowment cf a monastery ; 
««^Vf^ additional or occasional gifts for 
the support cl a religious institution; 
sr^ff^ landed endowments of a monastery 
or religious institution. 

^Pf^'W^ ik^-i^g lit. the owner of 
p roper ly . It generally signifies the spirit 
or demi-god who is supposed to be the 
custodian of the images of all Buddhist 
deities, s c r iptu res, symbob; in short, of all 
cfaoreh and sacerdotal properties. In this 
sense the demon called Pihar tn^l-po of 
Samrye is a pkar-idag or custodian ef 
lefigious property. 

^f^'K^ jfkor'nor chnrob property or 
general wealth: |Tf*<^'r|'^*<\^^1f^-5^'«r 
*'^l (D. JSL) you possess accumulated 
wealth and church-property. 

^^'« ikar-pa a treasurer id.) ; one in 
charge of the endowments and properties 
of a temple or monastery. 

^^^'^ ikf^-V^ or ^;ll a Uma who 
appropriates sacred property to himself 
(Jf. F. 66). 

^^*srs«^ Jhar^mO'V^ffi not misappro- 
priating the treasoxes, stores, etc, of the 

church: l«r^*^¥'^S^^WS^''''^*P' f do 
not take wine for drink nor embessle the 
property of the priesthood (BMhai. US). 

\^'^ 4kcr'ilui$o4 is a genersl name 
for wealth or property sjid hence is 
frequently used to siffnity a^'stf^*^ 
treasury; treasure-chest (fft^. S). 

^^'1P^ Jfk^'ftboffi n* of a monastery 
in Southern Ladak, situated 16,000 feet 
aboYc the ssa lereL 

♦^vs« 4kor-9a$m%^'mii spendthrift 
(ifcrjr. «)• 

^•Vpi ikor-rig^ ffw, wsr dilhrent 
properties beUmgjing to a monastery. 

^fj^'SI ihohpa ^ struck by cala- 
mity; afflicted; one in suflering. 

•f S^V^ ika§4hag^ym'^ I. 
^9!W suflering, affliction. 2. WfTTPl 
exciting diq;ust. 

SS^ i/^yar any appliance for crossing 
snow or glaciers. Stocking boots .(&?A.). 
The 4kjfar used by the Tibetans and the 
fiharpa Bhutias of Nepal in crossing 
glaciers is a light circular disk of wood 
about a foot in diameter, with four holes 
through which strings axe passed to fasten 




it to the knee. In olimbing up and wallc- 
ing do Mm the snowy sideg of mountains, 
these hoards are attached to the soles of 
the felt hoots and are of great assistance to 
the traveller, preyenting the feet from sink- 
ing in the soft snow. 

^^ 4kyil ««<i or «*^ mir the mid- 
die, centre; irw hottom, hase; ^'^ 
tffil-na9 from the middle or centre ; from 
amidst; from the hottom; ^'*i the mid- 
dle one ; the central one ; ^•>i*«b«pfe'«- 
^^Wf^ If, ^rfinr with wide hase; spadous 
interior; oomprehensiTe understanding; 
also quick comprehension. 

xifkMK a cross-legged posture: Sfri^SJ^* 
^9^ M«QfWi||iil sitting in a cross-legged 
posture for mystic meditation. 

MN'^ 4kya4kAor iWW, nfttw, i^fir 
1. circle; circumference; glohe; disk: 
^9*^'^ the disk of the face {^pi- 
mn); the full or whole face. 2. espe- 
cially used as flie equiTalent of the 
Sanskrit Mtm^^ahf the magic diagrams or 
figures formed of grain or other materials 
which axe ^* oflered '' to deities in Tantrik 
Buddhist rites. In ITaii^ril rites diagrams 
repreMinting supposed mansions of cer- 
taia celestial Bodhmttva and called ^ ^ 
are traced on the ground or on paper. 
The respectiTe places assigned to the 
different minor deities are painted in 
difbrent colours in the design, and the 
central place in the diagram is occupied 
by tiie tutelary deity himself, to whom the 
rest axe subordinate. 8. region, sphere ; 
tuzxoundings; suburb. According to the 
Buddhist oosmogOAy there are «'^^)pr 
^ the sphere of earth, «'<^«>f'^f^ the 
sphere of water^ the ocean^ ft^'%s9"i'^ 

rhi^gi^yS-ikhar the atmosphere, »^^ 
«S8flr%p^ the sphere of fire ; each forming a 
stratum over the other. The upper stratum^ 
ue.j that which is beyond the atmosphere, 
is called the sphere of fire or light. 

^JpiAj^^-j-q^q 4kyiUhkhor gru^Jt^hi-pa 
a quadrangle ; square ; a certain mysti- 
cal figure ; diagram or model. The ex- 
pression f*l' V^Jf^ «A '^5a^ ^qwa means 

the gods who constitute the 1^^ assemblj 
in the Vtmdna or ^^''''Tp^, •>., superb 
mansion represented. 

^^'iK^'q^'A'9(^ is a description of the 
eight mansions of eight imaginary Bud- 
dhas (JT. d. * 79). Whoever utters the 
names of the^s Buddhas or hears the 
aphorisms about them is ^berated from 
dangers caused by evil spirits, snakes, 4c 
By remembering and repeating them^ even 
brigands, not to speak of kings, are said 
to be able to make the weapons of their 
enemies ineffectual against themselves. 

S9^'^'^ ikpil'ikhor.ean 9mmw% any- 
thing that has a circular and mystical 
figure on it; also any Ttmirik deity 
placed to be worshipped on the plane of 
his fancied celestial mansion traced pn the ' 

^I^'^ff^'l^ J)kyiUikhaf^liim n. of the 
grand central temple of Buddha at Lhasa, 
popularly known as Kinkhording. 

S)^'^'^" 4kyil-ikhar gmm f^iwwv 
three cycles (of offerings) : (1) ^«V*^*r J- 
i^ii*ip91i()'jqcr^^ the oyde of offerings 
for the Bon gods sprung out naturally 
in course of time; (2) ^fr^*!'^^- 
•i^*^^')ii*<ii'a-^i the celestial mansion 
for contemplation ' f orftied in the sky (to 
imagine an aerial castle) ; (3) ^^« V^^^ 
^ «'ir|«'§«'|^'qV I the mansions of gods 

desigiied on the ground for piaoiug the 
offeringB to them {B. Ifam.). 


^^*^ ikfu-pa in Ladak : to loae 
oolonx hj washing ; perhape more eorrectl j 

+ ^^'q ^yiMras^'Q 1. to nm a 

raoe ; S*''^' W* 4hyur9ar tfAynf « |T «' 
j^ running a raoe ; *' J^ galloping : 
S^-^f wtrtr «^d I ( Aag. S) ^* for example 
rmmingaraoeonhoraehack.'' 2. to wring 
out; to filter {8eh.), 3. to oaper about 
(Jo.) ; M*9^*9 ikyuzhyati tia araoe-horae. 

^'^ ikyu-M a raoe-oonrae; the raoe 
gronnd (Or). 

q^qirft' wq('^^'^ I an afleotionate 
letter to prevent one being forgotten or a 
letter whioh love will not forget {Tig. 


Sl^ ^*y^ ^'^"''^ ^' ^^^^tS^ 5 length- 
wise. 2. untiTith; also adj. nntrue; 
sporions (/«.)• 2* ^1^» insolont (ScA.). 
In lexioonB it is synonymous with the terra 
^W?.- gnhuilf meaning "lengthwise.'* In 
weaying, the threads that are stretched 
lengthwise are called ^•''^ ikyui-thag 
(the woof) and those that pass them 
crooswiae are called H'^ tpun4hag: 

^fii^*M«*^^«i*<ni"'^l {S.har.lSU) npon 
that stood the throne oonatmoted of stone* 
having a lotos ooshion, in breadth two 
cufaita and a span, in length three nmning 


^ir^fij^ ^kyuhibtr a porcelain cap of 

inferior quality; a oommon porcelain cup. 

^*<'K 4kyui'ja common or inferior tea. 
Tea served to the public or to the oongre* 
gation of monks in a monastery or in a 
religious service. 

SS^'** ifkyu9-ma unn common, vulgar, 
inferior ; A'SS^'si mntkyus ma an ordi- 
nary man ; one who is neitJier an official 
nor a religious man (jf^ag 6) : ^<i^^w 
W^-^3 iSMi.) "indigo, of inferior 
quality is valued at so much per 9*^ 
or lb." ^J^'V1'' 4kyufhbtag9 a scarf of 
ordinary quality ; S^'9"^ 4kyu94mr treacle 
of inferior quality: ^Wt^'f^<i<pi'^«^ 
4kyu%'hur igar tskug§ rer " coarse treade 
for each thick lump " (RUii.). 

^!S?W *< 4kyuM9iosz9ijffrti tf^yog^-pa 
quickly, swiftly. 

^3^'^ 4kyu§4sha4 the dimensions of 
anything when measured lengthwise. 

'^^'^^ 4kyuhrM=:^'{^ ^tnnr, iflw 
spacious ; large ; long. 

+ ^3^ 4kyel^^ tJo4 the compass. 
extent, bulk of anything: ^»^5'^« 
the oompatis of tha heavens : J'»OT'^fli 
the Stretch of sea : s5fli'i^=r^«l'iq 
spaciouB; of wide capacity {^ag, 5). 

\3,^Zi^ 4kyei'P0"Che aoo. fo 8ch, is the 
Univeree; defined as p*;<«4i'<i the wide 
houso( Lex,)' 

capable of 
being thrown down ; impelled or driven 
on ; also capable of being felled down. 

^T[J«''fl'Q.|^*q 4kram4co Hhug^ 

transgressi 2. adj. very impudent: 

{Tashi jong)f n. of a distriot under Lhufh- 


grub ^dBoA in Tibet. 


*ri (^t) iw anything to wrap 
with $ a tie ; FS!) a oloth to tie round 
the face or cover the mouth ; muffler ; ^^ 
rb., wrapping or winding up with paper ; 
paper- wrapping; an envelope {Yig. k. 9). 

+ ^^'J^ I: ikri-ipa {fi-toa) in old 
Tibetan, to conduct one's pupil from one 
stage of learning to another stage ; pf. 
SS« vb. a. (cf. ^'^) in modem Tibetan, 
to wind ; to wrap round about ; s3'^' rf*'''^ 
wa-|»=s^8•^•9V•f^ one who wraps up; 
^*9^'^) q^*9^;q to fold up dothesy etc. 

^^'qn: s8'«»'1'S^*»*ira 4kr% ^neg^-pa 
Ita^ a snare, anything to entangle with ; 
yb., to ensnare. 

^^ ikrig {fig) personally : -vSt"*^' 
a'Jcww^^Hi;- is same as ^w'^^i^'^^-a'^aiw 

K^'S^ not having come personally, can- 
not reply or say decidedly. 

^U*!!^ I : ikrigt fti^, ^TfTT a term 
for a thousand billions. The term Sfi^^' 
q^'l^'Q or ^I'^'^S'*' wift^ii or irrnwiK 
is used for a still larger number. 

^^f\^ II:=^*« dense; thickly- 
gathered : l^^'* wrin^krigs {ifag. 5) : = 
qi^'^tarq gathering or condensing of clouds ; 
alsovb. darkened, obscured, dim, diffused: 
««»KvKii^«rs5^'*w {A. K. a. U7) the 
flashing, of his teeth bewildered them ; 
^^'VK'^K'^4krig%'ipar igyur-^par grown 
dim; ^J^f'TCR'Sv^ ikrigi-par iye4'pa to 

^1^1^^ ikrii-g^r {fi-^gyur) «w »nr- 
Tounded, encircled, encompassed : ^i*' 

68 ^^^^\ 

^"'1^ ipol-gyii ik^H^gj^tr ^Slc^ en- 
circled with glory. 

^T^f^q 4kri%^ trf^Hr 1. to sur- 
round, enoirole, ensnare* 2. =^S^*'*i 
^ii:^ to lie round ; to wind up (M^&n.) : 
^1^'Vi^^'^^9er^mikun'na§4km qmte 
ensnared in avarice (/d.). 

'\!l^'9^ 4JMhP^rag n. of a large 
number {ifag. 6). 

^^^ 4kru^a {fU'W)^\^ dti-ma ^, 
mr abominatioD, pollution ; also dirt, filth 


*>g*l|'q 4krug'pa{fug'pa)^f^''if Mi- 
tea m to disturb, to put in motion ; the 
act of troubling, agitating, churning ; to 
turn ; to turn a lathe. 

SSn^'^ Cpfcrw^l-iw =«>««■«« i^rubi-pa 
firtfri^, Hfvr, ^ifinr stirred up, agitated, 
troubled, ruffled, disttirbed, confused; 
churned ; turned (as in a lathe) ; confound- 
ed: ^^*'Sif^'4p^'Cha4krugi the leave© of 
abook are confused or mixed up together; 
WMni'3^'i^3nirq'(%Mm bag'Chag§'kyi§4kntgi 
pa^i setiH a mind troubled with passion; 
|i;'5|iiS5^q5« rluH-gii 4kntg§'pa^ eku 
water agitated by the wind. 

^JI^^iq'H} 4krugtipihpo a confounder : •i^' 
<i5Slppi«p^§S»<wS'ft-^«fMI'T««r8JK the 

man who causes confusion afar off and 
nigh is called fug-pa^. 

*^1I^«'«^ 4krug9^y%g ^S'S^^t^^ 
Ac.' a kind of character used in Tibet 
which is pujuling 

^'flJI'q 4krum'pa (tum^pa) brittle; 

defined in ieaw. as ST^-^'rrl^**T«i, 
breaking in the manner a pcmelain veesel 




+ ^^ ikre (k) %'9^%'^ fwf^ the 

S^'^*»«i/-i^ {H-p^) =^w«» rf*'-"^- 

jMi 1. to chum ; to agitate, mingle, trouble, 
&o. : ^*^i^Q tAo ikrog-pa ohuming onrdbi 
(for batter), 2. to rouse, soare up; to 
wag*, e.g,y the tail (/£.)• Al8o» ^f^'o 
rftro^^, ^^ 'SaH'i'^t ^ma ikrogi-pa to 
chura milk ; ace. to jfa^. ii equiTalent to 

^^\^ 4krogt^fsfe9 (lit. anything pco- 
duoed from churning) butter (4^4^*)* 

4krog§^r byei-^ii^han one who dhums. 

the dbnxning rod; also said to^swhey 

^ C^* i ^ of instantaneous birth; instanta- 
neous peroeption. Aeo. to Lea. in 
meditating on a oertain deity, the act 
of peroeiTing him to be a reality instan- 
taneously is ealled ^¥^'^^ 4inA iikyei. 

y^^ *fcro/^n^; pf. and tut. of ^ff«i 
M»W: ^3^'^'^ ikroUwa^po is defined as 
^ one who oauaes musio to sound or be 

l?lp| I: V^g in ^n"«w khag M§ 
the ]}d or eover of a trunk; the sides of a 
Tibetan leather-trunk. Defined in SMi. 

as •V^^^tI'^'^^^^V*** both the 
flat iaeees|if leather which axe at the back 
and front on the right and left of a tronk. 

•<f|H| n : irft^iv, fiffiri ; pf . of ^wn, 
obafarawted, opposed r also prohibition, 
obalnetkm, hindranoe. 

^"9 without delay, as in sending any- 
thing; also without let or hinderanee; 

«i^«i^-m R^w not permissible and per- 
missible, not fit and fit, unbecoming and 

^II^-JV*' ikag-^ha hye4-pa to forbid ; 
to put a binderance (/S^i.). 

^^•|« kkog idofn prohibition; pro- 
hibiting one from passing by a road or 
from entering any garden or place. 

^F^'H-^^-q ikag^mo kkeg§-^ not to be 
observant ; to transgress, te trespass^ 

2W|K' ikai ace. to Rdo. 46, pf. of 
^^•n 4gafi'tca ijftir , filled to the brim ; full 
to the brim as in the case of a water pot ; 
^qFij^q Unoi'ftkaH'^a a vessel filled up ; 
^•qfls^-q a bow with an aztow ready to 
shoot; HT^v«rqpi|cq wish fulfilled. Aco. 
to Jd. pf . of ^^va, to fill, make full ; and 
used iu W. instead of ^^vq. 

^S ika^i 1. set or placed in order ; 
arrangement: *^'^|^*Q^ same as *<^'^S 

||n- ^^ • ^^-^v***' *^cai «s;t^- %' qnf^- ^ I 
n^go-^puii rim-paiam graUMai^^ tkagi-^ 
kgi pmt^ma phar igrohi dui-kpi ipun bgro- 
tfia de da^j itagt iskar wait inam^buhi 
ipun^ tji tfmr-hbur yoi-pahi tni^ la 
ya4 tkagt-kyt ikad ser (Aag,) the order or 
row (of plaits) in the hair of the head, 
theorosswise thread in the web of a cloth, 
also the ridge in the cross-wise texture of 
a blanket, are called the ftiotf of weaving. 

4^¥* feio^-iiai having described; 
represented i^ any manner. 

Plf^*^ ika4^, fm-f^^m {Hag) 
1. the plaee where barley, com, Ac., an 
parched; a bake-house, Idtchen, cook's 
shop {0$.). 2. ace to Aag. ^ «^*ii')*w 
|^*« one's own home or residence. 




3. open hall or shed erected on festkive 
ocoaaiona {fa.). 

BP!|V^ ^kan^pa 1. to iip-root or turn 
up anything by applying a %tick at its 
foot or root, 2. to bend: ««"^^'^^^ 
{^ag.) the body bent backwards: ^'^^ 
<i"H( to stretch the arm bending it up- 
wards to pulL anything. 3. '^'9^'''l*l' 
5qJ^jRq«i«ii^'^''Hi'^^ counting up and then 
backwards is called yang-bkan {8. del). It 
is also applied to counting from right to left 
{Vat. kar.). 4. to put; to press; to apply 
(Ja.) : »ii^«i>'*^«i'"«'^^'«i to press one*s foot 
agaiust a wall. 5. to hold fast ; to extend 

q^P'q ikab'-pa, pf . of ^^w«i=ws«i 
^O, ^1^11, to cover; to spread over. 

q^q ikab a cover ; a shelter. 

Syn. ?w kAebi ; ^^ fyogi ; Iwi b^tbi 

^^flXJ^fl (A:ai»)-|>ff pincers or nippers: 
q*f|9i'q'^qd to hold or cut with pincers. 

^Vfp^ ikab I : ( Vai. kar. 60) n. of a 
tribe in Tibet. 

^^. II : vjm^ {A. K. XXri). ^mrr, 
^%^ : primarily means simply " word " or 
"speech" ; but being the honorific form it 
usually implies an order or command. 
When used of a sacred perponage it means 
his advice or precepts as well as his autho- 
ritative words, e.g., S|«5a»f|^ the lama's 
injunction; f»<55^T the king's com- 
mand ; s5aiJ55q»«p the order of the chief. 

^fVps III : ftko signifies, especially, the 
enunciations and pronouncements which 
have issued from the Buddha. They aie 
gaid to be of three kinds ; so ^i^^'j^i^'in^ 
has three divisions : — 

(1) «\ii'^«'^^'^V'4 BhaUnat gmi^i-pa pre- 
cepte dehvered by the Buddha personally. 

(2) U^ S«'«vi«'«i those conveyed Qmnigh 
the attendant BodhUaitm and ffrivaka^ 
such as Subhuti, S'&riputra, &c., under 
inspiration from Buddha or by his 
sanction expressed or implied or re- 
vealed in such works as ij^'i^'^ ffta^i 
lioH'^i^ the celestial tree; C'5X-«X Ha- 
bo che igido the great drum Mra. 
The precepts under this Head are sub- 
divided into— (1) 5*l^'^w the personal 
blessings (of the Buddha), also the bless- 
ings received from his enchanted image; 
(2) ^<^'%%<r^^*theblessings derived from 
his teachings ; (8) l^i-%^«*« the Mess- 
ings of the spirit. This last again is sub- 
divided into the following:— (1) 4^>ft* 
<^^'S«V'H'^'^ the blessings of a contem- 
plative heart as in the work called ^'^*c 
|^« fe^rab iHM-po; (2) S-^^t^l^W'S*' 
q^cm-q the grace of the spirit, as in ^V 
^j^qrl^vq^g^r^S'eqf^, the Maniras uttered 
by Noijin and other goblins ; (3) 5^^^^^' 
q^fq^'S^ Vi'^t^^'^ the blessings inherent 
in a truthful spirit or mind. 

(3) l^'^'^l^*^ tfei'Bu, fffutU'Wa anything 
reproduced from memory by the socoessors 
of the Buddha under inspiration from 
him at the Buddhist oonvooation 
{J. ZaU.). 

Byn. V^ lu^ ; i^^q^ Aj^q ^^-par itfan^ 
pa; Vfl^qW*" ne-war frl^fi-jMi; ^^f^'^ 
gidam-pa\ t^'V^^"^ V^h^u, iitan-pa; 1^ 
fl'^'K'^'^ f7tf|-««* gnaH-^a; Va^*^^'^ «s-««r 
g.ita^'pa ; ^T* V W«*-//i< (4f4ofi.). 

qiq^qNfv^ kkalhhko4 pa to publish, pro- 
claim ; also publication, proclamation. 

q^'q$^ ^kah^^ikyon according to fiag. 
implies blaming; a verbal blow, repri- 
mand, rebuke (given by a superior) (/du). 

q«v|^ q^4i ikali ikrdl {ka-fol) leave of 

^V«v^ irithout deby. 

«il^ 1* tfciMM; <rtl«*'^ wy im- 
portant ordeor (rt>. i) : ^y^ ^ wf ^fNw tho 
mort importftiit will of King SroA-btasn 
sgam-po. This dooanMot having been di»- 
ooyered within one of the great pillaxv of 
Kinkhoiding temple in Lhasa is generally 
known by the name t^'^^ff^rm, 

«n^*^ Hai-^Uar, divided into naU^ 
khnr domeetio servants; hrmtt'f^og ser- 
vants, menials; pkfi-Ukar attendants; 
^^^'^'9K^f^ those who wait for orders, 
attendants; ^'^ offioial deziu; also 
private secretaries and personal assistants 
of a higb offioial; attendants in generaL 

^^V Vsak4shjfab a deoree, manifesto, 
edict ; a general order. 

^l^'B*"* Mo^ kkrim$ a law, command- 
ment; «^'^'q^'Q strict justice; severe 
ponishment: S*r4t'<9fij|Mr^9irq« i^y the 
ornel order of the king (Ja.). 

^T'fi*"*"' Jiw# khrimi-^pa a lawyer ; a 


^T^'W* tkah gro9 {ka-4ai) a conference, 
consoltation ; ^^•fv9^ ^rat^wt w^ 
makes consoltation ; giveeadvice or conn- 
sel; gives instructions; ^1^' V^'SS'^ to 
give adrice (/d.). 

^f^'^^*^ ika gra^^ {ka-4oi'pa) aooun- 
sellor; senator. 

^^'41*^ (M ft^rc-cM «ynr debating; 
conaidering; taking measures lor: ^'fw 
V^'^'MV'ft^'^^ deUbeiating care- 
fuUy with the ten confidential ministers. 

4T'^9«i*Q ikai ^grol-um to dismiss; 
dissolve a meeting or a conference. 

^ ^^'-^ Vui^-fog a letter; an autograph: 

t^ wtW^aPipV^ I «« great many thanks 
for the gracious lettsr with enclosures sent 
by the JDoafcr acoording to the good 
customs ''(Fv.*.2«). 

^1^'^ tka^^^wr is generaUy taken 
as a synonjm fcur ''the instrucdons and 
precepts of Buddha," and meaiis literally 
^that which has become a command." 
This term is in laot the title of tibe great 
collaotion of the leHgious Ttm^^tii^ 
^rritings (mosfly, but not all, translaied 
from Sanskrit into Tibetan) known as the 
Kahgyur. The Eahgyur is divided 
into seven series of books containing 
several hundred treatisea, and consists pro- 
perly of 108 volumes, thougb editions in 
100, 102, and 104 volumes are also eutrent 

Sl^'S'^W Vtat-rg^ i^^^ff^ imuing 
of an official order; abo the aoounralatioB 
of gold, silver, and grain in a Government 

^^'1* **»* tgift^^ma ^rmw, ^^mfftofq 
in Hind. Pors-iMMa 1. puUio order, 
permit, missive, communication, Ac. 2. 
^TS*«'^'^T'i«'^<^ (X«r.) in mystioini 
a secret precept; occult commTmioation 
which is made only to the trusted few. 

^f^'\S i: ika^rir^ suooession or 
descent of the dcgmatio principles of 
Buddha. The principal aolkool of TatUHk 

Lamaism originating from Nfro PaiiKchen 
of Magadha and alleged by IClaraspa to 
have keen introduced by Ifar^pa Lo-tsava 
in Tibet in the beginning of the llUi cen- 
tury A.D. Its different sects or branches 
are the following :—W^T 4S Kanm 

^1^ a^'j\ J^hritgwIL §ka^m^4, ^^ 

*1^ |S MiruM» bh^rgyf^^ ^f^'^^fT'V^ 

the line or thread oltba word, i\$.| the 
oral tradition of the word of Bnddha 
whioh ie sappoaed to haye been deliTeved 
throngha oontinned chain of teaohen and 
diaoipleB apart from the written loriptavea. 

^T^'IW'^'^'W'IS (Kt the illuminator 
of the dootrine of Kahgyui Sohodi) a 
general d^mgnation of the obief lamaa of 
the fikai^rgp^^pa aeot {Tig. k. 07). 

«I»|^'JV«I»'*J^ ^kathtn^ tntm-tgyal 
the ^hai r^yutf, Ghief Lama whom the 
Mongol Chief Ghiahi Ehan dethroned 
after overthrowing the power of Sde^ 
OtsaH-pa the ruler of Tseng and in 
1643 A.D. (Xo«. 15). 

''I^'l^ hhai^9gyur admonition and 
reprehennon ; ^T'f^'^H*^'^ to issue an 
order ; to admonish ; pv|H'|^'^ to translate 
the words of Buddha, &^. 

q^'l^ojuq ikai'igf/ur itaH-wa to in- 
struot a subordinate in a rough pointed 
manner, cautioning him against his faults ; 
to counsel against wrong practices. 

*Tlf'l"*' W«* tgrog-pa to publish an 
order ; to proclaim or read an order or 

'^'^ }*»* Jwo ^TWT 1 exhorta- 
tion to the deity. When any one falls ill 
either naturally or from ibe supposed 
malignity of an evil spirit, he goes to 
a lama or a Tanirik priest and begs of 
him for a kka^ i$go — permission to invoke 
the deity. The lama touches the patient's 
head with the. consecni ted sceptre called 
Jhfie (pnjra)j with the sacred dagger 
called the phwrbu^ a string of beads, 
an image of a Buddha or a deity or a 
holy book, and repeating some charms 


exhorts the deity to be propitxeuB to 
the patient. Those who do not actually 
suffer £rom any kind of iUnen also ask 
for suoh protective religions measores. 
S. oommandment ; precept (/a.). 

^••'iP' 6*0* i9goi is pf. of «i^'*^fr*a4 
ftl^, a sentence passed. 

to send verbal message; to give a reply.* 

^^'H ika^iofif also ^T'V*' &*«* ben* 
pa. one who has observed the ten command- 
ments of Buddha. The title of Uka^^cH 
is given to a Buddhist monk-scholar who 
has passed all preliminary examinations 
for a religious degree. There are two 
classes of "T*^— those of gM-im^ and 
gsaH'.phu : a «IT«» of Tashilhuiipo monas- 
tery is called fika^Aen on account of 
his superior prestige in religious study 
and practice. 

•T'^^To 6*aA gcog-pa to act against 
an order ; to disregard an express order 
or command : «fl- J'qT'q«1'5*^ the order 
of (one's father must not be disregarded) 

^^•^t«i ika^icof an abbreviation of 
'^'^i^S^'H^'^'i^ or the two great collec- 
tions of Buddhist writings. 

CTipiwn ika^^emt^^'lmu resp. for 
r^^^ a great man's last will; a royal 
testament or will : 'V'l^'lsw^ffc'srK'lhpr 
^m I in the work called fikai-^hetni ka^ 
k/wt-maj etc. («/. 2M.). 

+ q«i|^»ft^ bkat iiu}MisiV^'9^ or ^*' 
' 9^ a command in reply xe^., but also 
word or speech of a superior person. 
The term likewise signifies a conference, 
debate, &c. : ^T'^^V'^f 8'**^ iHkat 
conversation did he lioldP ^^'eA^'^e* 
^'S^^^^-^i'Nf "pray, let the necter of 
pious conversation be uttered I" 

^^•*S ika^^nan 1. oVedient; dutifaT; 
BohmiBaTB; obaerraat of oommMid. 2. 
one's tutelaiy deity is alfo oftUed Ub ib^^ 
nan^ beoause he oamet out hift firoUgi\ 
bebeet ; «JTwV^«9<^i eorvioo; doing 
aerviee (JVXoa.). 

*^*W*» 4*«4 nat^pa to obey; be 
obedient ; ^Fi^ftW^ to disobey; ^T^H««' 
9'*^'*r^ an observer of orders or precepts. 

^T'^M ika^ giktn the crael oonunander ; 
800. to Lex, iUan-^ii m idag^ *Hhe 
mighty lord of the soil,'' is said to be a 
pre-Buddhist deity (/d.). 

*'1^"^W*5 ika^ ffian-pa 1, severe retri- 
bution from goBidian deities for defects in 
wonhippiog them ; also the injury they 
do thflir dsTotees for impropriety in their 
oondnot or Inngnage. 2. damnation into 
whioh both a teacher and his pupil fall 
for diiolosure of secrets of their doctrine 
without anthority. 

*1^'^IW^ ika^giian iUHf a weighty 
onnmand or injunction. 

'^"m^'fS^ ikai-Hoffi^zfUfm-Pfi^Q 1. a 
proclaimed order : B'^^'^IT*'*' is also 
oolloq. called ^^'^W ikar-itaffi. 2. 
»ffinifr^ one Yorsed in drawing omens; 
an astrologer (^^'^l^*!) (Jf. V. 61). 

^1^' W ika^-r^gi mark seal ; precept ; 

maxim (Cs.) : ^^l^^J^^w (Tig, k. S7). 

^^•fS bka^-^oi a subaltern; agent 

^•^JfaiMA<r«=^«V6ifai*./ii« order; 
edict (/a.) ; written order ; command ; 
commandment; precept (Of.). 

or^jp dam^hrug, seal; chief seal : ^r^' 
•rV*-^l^|^'^^»^SV^^ received the 
letter containing the chief seal of the 
6rand lama and enclosing a scarf 
ehaimed knots {Yig. k. 7S). 


T'^^^w^ tk^i drag^pa pkathpm to 
command sharply, haatfly or severely 
(fiM.) ; to issue an ultimatum. 

' ^V ika^tin, resp. for V dfir^ 
wwTf, a favour, kindness, grace, boon: 

f-»A*(ii VS« through the kindness of the 

hyan^pm doA kind; gzadous; 
benevolent (Jfsoii.). 

*PV'^ ika^tit^ke rery graeioas; 
(you are) very kind; the usual phrase for 
our «' thank yon,'' in acknowledgment of 
a kindness or fiaytf or— oommoii in letters, 

*1^V*'8«*' ikai^rin,.ek6 Mhmtpm to 
■ay it is an act of great kindness; to 
acknowledge kindness ; to thank. 

pa to remember a benefit or kindness 

UT VI^^SMi ika^dtin HiM^p$^$ to 
bear in mind or remember the kindness 
obtained of another person. 

«^V»i<S«i bkak^rin md$ to 
bestow a favour; to show kindness. 

^rV'^VTf ^ ikak^rtn ^um^ldan pos. 
sessed of or making use of the three graces 
or courtesies, via. : (1) H^rm^q teaching 
of the sciences; (2) «»^y^-a explaining 
the aphofiams and the Iktdra; (3) ^- 
'^^'•4'«M^'<| blessing and oidajning. 

^T Vl^^ ika^tin gioUwa to thank ; 
to be grateful for favours. 

^T V ikah-^rti^ a secretary of state. 


^^'^^f^ ikut^gdami an advice ; coun- 

iel ; instruction from a high oiBciaL 

*1^'W^'^ 9kab^am§^pa I. an 
adviser (&A.). 2. the reformed Bnddhist 



Mhod of TflMt fomdid hj «IKV^ «r|r A* 
^'^n% ihiB ohiflf dimple of Atidia. It 
WM divided into two stagot: ^^'iV^^*' 
or mi^*^ipfm:^'m the earlier Mhool from 
Bromitoii to TMDgUi*-pa, a&d ^n^T^pw 
^m*e or the niDdaru idhool, Mid to be 
ide&tieil witti that now oelled Qelug-pa, 
dating from Tiongkha-pa downwards. 
The earlier 9l:a^-0d0inf:pa were diitin- 
goidied for their elaborate ritnal and for 
their power of propitiatmg dritiee. The 
members of the ktor fika^if/iam^pa hate 
been reparkaUe for icholarahip and 
linguiitiio erudition* 

palaoe where the Qrand Luna of Taifai- 
Ifann-po reddee. 

t^'9^ ^biil-fMbA a oontraotion for 

minister and general ( Tig. k. 69). 

tsffj^'^Y^'UifftH ikai^idu§ eho^kffi 
rgj^W^sho a hind of ritualistio obter* 
tanoe of the S^ffhehsn seot of the 
^liM-ma Buddhist Sohool in which a parti- 
oolar deity with his followers is depicted. 

'V^*^^^'^ V»i tdog$'pa'to make into 
law; to proolaim ; a proclamation (/a.). 

9/^'<^9m ika^ido)n$:=zVfk'fli\'^ or «H|S<i 
instruction; order. 

q^'^ ik€h§doi^ also written as <n^ ^ 
one waiting for orders; an attendant 
on a superior; an aide-de*oamp ; one's 
guardian deity is also called by this 
epithet : «v|^-^t irtS-4|ira-«| {A. 13) 
^he who has propitiated the lord of 
death to serve him as his attendant 

q^l^-qj-q ^ka^ iidU'Wa collection of the 

doctrine (c/a.) ; synopsis of the scriptures 
at the grand Buddhist conTocations; also 

the oouTOoatiotts where the preoejts of 
Buddha were promulged. 

9p^'^^*n j^j^i 0iMril-fr0, vb., to order, 
oommandy granti permit; an order; fer- 
mission: ftv'KIS^^-^n* "rqiir-^^ ^8 
I beg you will give her as a consort to 
oar King of Tibet {Ja.). 

mp:^^ jpioi-^naMss^^^a district in 
the east of Kong-bu ; also n* of a district 
of Ngari Ehorsum in Western Tibet. 

vij^'t^n ilsa^^pkeb§ a great man's order. 

9^*%^ ikak-pkrin {ka-iin) a meaiage. 

ffT^^ikak'tphrinlMfftot command: 
^T'^H*^**! to write or issue a letter 
containing instrufitioos* 

^BP^'^fm IX ft tot-iei f an injunction; a 

f^'^Pm ii: fttti^-teSf the fulfilment of 
acommiasion ; ulso the lama or saint who is 
commissioned with some high duty . When 
a Isma at the command of his spiritual 
instructor fulfils what was entrusted to 
him, he is said to be a ikak-babi. 

9^qM*qy itaU-baU idm n. of a his- 
torical work on later Indian Buddhiam 
by Lama TSrinatha. 

qpif^-qm-ql^ ^koh bobi-^^i the four 
oommissioneO. ones (see ^fT^^f^. 

4^'^N (JtoA-iams^n^''^ order; dip- 
loma: ^AwrqjvS^^t^lri^^j the object 
of sending the autograph letter ( jtfott.).^ 

^T^l* ika^rit, reap, ^f^'^ Vu^og, 

a letter; a written authority, generally in 

autograph: MI^^V^ *riT«Tl^^^fS'«w 
|jntqfi'Hiif %ii- J-^-^-» I it is yery gracious 

of you to favour me with your autograph 

and endosore presented by the hand of 

the Don nyer ( Tig. k. H). 




«<|^'^mr«i ifai^lio^M the going lorih 
of an oid«r or ediot (flUr.). 

^^"^^ iM4iif M tho Inmdml thou- 
amd p t e c upto ; n. of a veBgiont wurk« 

M-tfe 00-Mi »Vrrw^ {A0g.) I. at- 
tmtiTe ; axemiting an itufariMtion or order 
with attention; one wko ie eheerfol at 
hMit owing to Ids attention to W^'frlNv. 
3. one irbo eaeily nndanlande wlnit he ie 
oidered to do; one who appnoiatee hie 
ei^vior'e inetniotion.^ 8. V^^ epeaking 
well; eloqnent; «fip|'*f^^ ftie^^ 
m i hk w a f4w^ one whoee expeenon 
or defiiwy ie not good. 

^^T^ tfaHAm or ipq%-^*|«r« AteH» 
ife»-|M, the naniegxfen tothe fonr OaUnet 
IGnietefa who aeset the Gyal^tdiab or 
Begent in the a dmini e l r utionof flie CKnrem- 
meat of ISbet daring the minority d the 
Grand Lena of Lhaea. The lonr SUotaL 
Btnet he lajmen and ar^ often milittty 
oflkere. fdpolaily they are etyled fflki]rf 

^t^fF^thtMlfm «»44U9r the 
offlcial eieil of a KftlSn. 

^fT^if!f'i^»a^km4M (pttttoalady) the 
four miniebera whom, the 4Qi Kanehn 
Bmperor K'ien-hmg (in Tibetan eaUed 
XAe-ftfoil Proteeted of HeaTm) appointed 
toeondaottheitetoefiNnofTibet Thqr 
wm yrW^^ Kn m igak tM No^fon, 
l*U-^yi 2Ue-f«ll ^MikM«| of 99^ 

of iV4e4i. Theee focjr goremed the 
eonntiy fov tweuly*eeve i yeexe from the 
jeer of the ir9m tke$ p (Lai. 10). 

^T^*«« VMk^VoH^imm the three 
minietere who conduoted the Ootemment 
of Tibet from the year of the>ff«-Aofti to 
the middle of the year of the eerli^p0. 
Their namee were :— ^ft't^'^ra V^ 
Van Lumrpa^-wa, w^|V^Wv« ifaH^ 
l^a-pkoi^ of fo«.H uA ^'|irp*^'« 
4taMfa» ffty er .f w wn. 

*^»i »h*4afl»^t^«^ epiritual or 
intelleotoal heirwloom. Thii ie a philo* 
eophioal term of iha Wim flohool, 
meaning the deeoent of the Me| (Bod- 
dha'e word) in an nnbraken enooee* 
eion or withont being kept eonoealed 
for a period. One who hae reoeited euoh 
a nooeetf on, or any eariptue that hai 
oome down to him in eooh a manner. 

«T'K««re l ft i |ga i < tkim^ to eon- 
tain many preeepte or eonunandi; one on 
whom there are inetmetiona or oommia- 
lions to perform. 

uwnla an pare; on* irlio hag pwt M iw l 

to mj tmbtmtM hewmnd tmmm k (]m 
QiokMaMk) ; Mooriiiig tQ QiroynttaaoM, 
to eoBuncad, iMk, bag, nktt, •unw, 
A«^ Mpeoiallj in nflimt Utniibu*, la 
^Adflh it in alffloit inwciaUj und of 
Bnddhft and of kinga ipoaUng. 

fV*^ Vrnk-Ukogt^frr^yig^Jm or 
^K'*!^ a laply in tiie waj of inainiotioii : 

" Fnj hiftm ma wift Nflita on intanial 
affaira (uuntamptadly) lika tha iowtol 
tha xrrar of gold " (71^. A. 15.) 

«<r-^ tfaM<M» latter of anthociiy 

or oommianioafirain QoTvnuMBi (iamad to 
one who is on tha mota or wlra ia to 




azeioise flbme kind of jpower over the 
paople) to afford facilities for traTelling or 
fart»*rying out a misrion : ftivqV|«w j^' 

oosnmiBsion was issued to despatch hither 
a m ^T^ who would frame settled kws and 
shew energy. 

^T'Q^'S^'^ ika^hin byei-pa -to do 
Aooording to order ; doing; ordered: ^T' 
^^9^*1 to be obedient; a faithful servant, 
flpif^'^q'^giwi'q ikab rab-tbjfatnS'pa a doc- 
tor of divinity among the monastic 
Bdholars of Tibet ; one who has acquired 
tike highest proficiency in the Buddhist 
saored literature and is of pure morals. 

qj^'UW'q (iMi^-ramf.^ one who has 
potiiofl the highest examination in Bud« 
dhist metaphysics ; one who has reached 
the highest of the 13 classes in the 
^han^Sii grva4%kaH^ the metaphysical 
sohool in the great monastic establish* 
ments of Tibet. 

q^ifi'ir^'Q j^Jfcoft-Ai {M-ica to give heed 
to or attend to an instruction or precept; 
to listen to any advice. 

QT'9^ ikak-l^i an order ; a precept : 
ifip'^Cifip'q to command or give orders; 
to ivoe an injunction. 

qT'*| ft*aj.%=^'*^ grha-hff {fa-tog) 
one who has given up his religious vows; 
% Buddhist monk turned out of his 
monastery for misconduct. In Eham 
he is called bka^fog; in ICddle Tibet 

^T'i^ V^'^^ag the court or council- 
house of the four kHon or ministers of 
Lhasa: qTl«''^r« ^•^ ii'^^-f»-^'^«J' 
|'VfW^'F'¥i*«^'^^''^IVi'« I wt«n the 
warrant officer registers the document at 
the court of kdlon he should also verify it 
at the Account Office ( jUtn.). 


' ^'^ Vsai^g any writing of autho- 
rity fiom a superior; decree; diploma ; 
passport; official paper or letter; ''1^''^ 
n**< ikak'fog tdmn-ma a fabricated autho- 
rity ; spurious writing or deed ; q^^" Jf^^ 
1^ ika^og rim ^kyel to circulate a pass- 
port or an official order ; serial letters sent 
one after another. 

q^^-^^ bka^-gml^ qT*« order ; official 
megsage: qFip«(wUr^ii|^q to send a 
message or express order one after 

q^'e'fl*^ (toii-rtfa-tro-(rA« proclamation 
by the beat of drum ( Tig. k. 18). 

q^'YV^ ikaii eoi^pan an instruction 
or precept to be received with perfect 
obedience; to value or honour an order; 
a comxnand carried out with the same 
respect as that with which a man oairies 
his own head-dress. 

^'^^'9^ ikaii mdim-ilM resp. f^Q 
ilon^ minister: ^''V'^^lrt*^' 

my humble self bearing the title of 
state minister together with the oirde of 
attendants, both lay and derioal offloials, 
are in good health ( Tig. L 6). 

Pffj^ ikar or v^'^ according to 
tiie law; to legaliae; to make it into law 
((7a.); to proclaim, puUish (J^bL); <^' 
<ilP^^'^ ftPf^Jw to publish ; publication : 
q^ for '^'\> 

^ ^Vp^'R 1. Jiiir-i«ipf.of vb. ^i^« 
^'Kv^'q^'^^ to separate, put aside,, select, 
banish: '^^'^^'^l^'^i ^banished from his 
place. 2. to ask any question captiously ; 
to make a peevish enquiry. 

q'ipi'fl ikahoa, pf . of ^^^ but in 
W. is the primary form of the verb 
xneaning 1. .to load; tobordon; put aload 
on (Ci.) : W^^rq to load wod: Pi*^^^ 

to load a loaat o( brndan, fto.: |<i«v<pt'« 
to Uffj a tax. 2. ]^ of Y"r4 to epin; 
1^4 tpm; twiated (i^iy. 5). 

*WpH|Mfl< ikal4kat§ a Uod of 
atdl made ol ooaane goat-hair about nine 
inohea in width; y| WI^'^^l^ <^y yr 

07«7 fire poimda of goat'i hair to 
%yB one blaalcat (.SM*.). 

fripi {ik«f, ooaitraofcion ^'^^ instr. 
ox ''l^ 

SWpi'P thohpam^T 1. oraok, IpUt, 
deft 2« pf. of ^^'«i. 

ITTQ (AiMM 1. alixir, (piinteaieiioe 
(A.); W^ nedifliiial ezfaraot. 2. with 
pf . ^V^** to make eztraot of a drug by 
drawing out the jnioe (Xm.); *A'^ 
melted batter; ^'^"^1^ to extract the 
apirit of ; ^1'^* (ttu pkpUl spirit extraoted 
(P$.); m'n^f^'^'^ to exfaraot mediome 
by mfiinoii* 

qipi'q ikug-pa pf. of ^T^n ^tw, 
'^^''QT^ drawn or palled forward; 
^W*^ somskoiui {Tig. 7). 

PTJJI'fl Vtmhpa, pf. of ^9r% bat 
prea. in TT. and according to Lex, fat. 
^1^ (iiMii pf. ^V^% to kiD| to deatroy ; 
MiMr^«'<A*q|V to eat off the edge ; fix a 

^^f ifofr-ffe* nftl, «^[«n; %fT, lift* 
^mf honoory reepecty homage; mark of 
honoor; reapeotfal reception (by aaking 
one to ait on a seat of honoor) ; ^i^l'siS^'q 
(ibfr-fM «mAo^jki to diatingai^h (a per- 
son) by marks of respect (2!flwi.) ; ^*ai'm^' 
1'^*^ ra4-Ai iA;iir-|<i ibguMui when 
honoor is shewn to (one's seU) yoorself 
(/d*) ; ^^'1^^^ ftjhir-ffts rff^^i sense of 
honoor; self-respect: *i^*iisnrrmv|n- 

"^^rV^ i mi ckeihpo rmmhk^ Vnusj U i 
dr€t§^ yoi great man hare the sense 
of dignity. 

Syn. ^^ 9cko4^\ Vrf rim'gro\ 
^^V^ WHnJIthiir ; ^*i« H^mor h^H ; 
ff^^ ihabiUofn MV*^^^' iAoif-Airtf; 
^-^^ ftifcur-Ms; V^-^«pi itf-iMT ^Mf; 
V^T^ fitf-MT ipyetf; IS'<i o^^ffw («Mm.). 

qT^'*! I : bhur^waw^'^ 1. to pay 
homage or rsfezenoa; toestsnou K'Sr 
^l^'ql'l^q nvrmm tiht literally ''Oie 
king honoored of many '' waa the name 
of the first king of the world ioooiding 
to the Boddhist Isgendaary aoooont. 2. to 
carry; to letch; to con^vy in IT. bsjag also 
pf. of W^; ^•^•^^•^ to carry iqpwaid. 

^4 ^ififqM to slander; to Uaabpheme ; 
not to aotept is troe or correct {Lif. P Ji). 

a^va^SS'q feibr-iMr tystf^pa the act of 
respectmg; to do honoor; frq. to make 
reverence, to salote. 

Uhig words or expressions of honoar» 
some of whioh are>-4fl«'^v fti^Mpf- 
|ci; ^«v«raft MsmM ttfod] fS'| 
i<M(.fiii^; i«^*«^ fMM-feAiV; 9ifm:% 
fpihthwar^a; fS'(r| ftefiifNi ffura; ^'^S 
osA^-tc^; v^YI^ fi^Ao^jryir; Vr§^jiAtfA 

*^lb«fM«ra; ^J^'*^*! jsrtWiforf-iHi; 
%yqK fin4wi»ai {Jlffiim.). 

'fpc'Km ikur hoi worthy of respect; 

^Nf^^ ikog-fiOf pf . of ^^<». 

'j'lfK'OI ikoii'wa, pf. of ^'►'^ When 
a^B^ (JM is joined with I to form the 
oompoond word l*'^^ it means iw^ 
throaty menace. 




^ ^hoi^^^ M^i te ftpjpoint; to 
iftiae to the tknme. 

•mil. sbst 9*^^*0/ or irQaxTsngenieiit; 
^'t^ order or antagediieiit ; metliod Of 
gmoging; applied to aund, as in ^>"ri* 
<^ the meaning ii meditation^ ihitPIi 
imrf^. 9. Th. s to build, anange, plan, 

eNfi(*r«m*iNi i umi of hofondleeB or 
infinite design ; thenniTeree; n-ofagieat 

^'iA*)i'a the prinee of learning; eeienbe. 
•^h'^^'w We#-*^oii««*|SH-* We#. 

^••^ »*e«|hi (ooUoq. uNf^f »ifca».|te) 
the plan of an nndertaking; deiign ; plot. 

irnhfrig^ or WI'^I^K igm-Mla kbritr 
jio the doTenth month of the Tibetan year, 
aometimee corresponding with January 

P^lf^'P ftten-jMi, pL of ^'<'i90ii-jNk 

q'tK'^^llk^^^CViMins tobeakind 

^ of goblin (/il.)« 

'^l^ ftteMpjfoif n. of a tconent; 
tortoxe from being boiled in water or oil: 
^•^•l^•*|r^^•i•^T^ Jfe<.iei tkohpfod^ 
ibyt>fiv-ifia/the soileringeofihedttDUied 
throng the torture ol being boiled. 

iEp(]Q)*q tiof4MOOQasifltta]lypf.of ^ii 
|£Urf-ioai to boil; usually indicates ^*«i to 
bind to senrioe ; to employ ; |pifS'*f^'^ 
•flie^-|pf«tf ftkeJ^iM a boiling tessel ; ^f^ 
Q*an|«n( g,yog4f$ kkol-wa to take into eer- 
tiees ^V^^^ to set aside ; to keep out 

q^TQ ftftys^M 1. to talk nonsense 
(Jt). % ^Mi*atoraveinipe6oh;totaIk 
nonsense: ^j^aR*^ w% iPernsm , t. 

^3^*Q (iyf^jM 19 the ooUoq of 
tsangs^T^ VAyig-pa to tie (by a 
rope); al^as^vu bound, tied, 
fastened (4IMo».), 

Q^^Q Vk^^-^Dt^ pf. and fut of «i^'<l, 
but in IT. is used as the only form of 
tbe TerbxBto esnd, despatdi; to cense to 
come forth: V*V*3 pMia ftAye despatch- 
ed an entoy: Vv«i) hot \k^ eent forth 
rays: |^'<r^ tprul^ ik^ caused a form 
to emanate: V^f '^ ghihmo iky$ made 


^S^ ikyei^pa, pf. to bend back; 
recline (yb. ni). 

ci^^*Q fti^n-jNisJ^'^ nAi*4Mito beat 
(Jd.) ; ^1^'^r^ reap, to chastise with 
words, to scold {Ja,). ScUr. mentions 
ajji^qg^^ chiding. 

Zqi'q (im-iMi {ffMDa) cog. to IfV 
f^, ftfff Tariqgated; beautiful, 
blooming (of oomplerion) ; glosqr» well- 
fed (of aninuds); ^M WWJfn a great 
painting; ^^'^^ fwviK a painter: 
^f aft*^'lf'ei| with variegated flgurea ; paint- 
ings : <V^*^^' ViT^ ^liiNraiT a radiant 
or illuminated Bone or ha}o : ^T^f^ifk, 
f^nw Tariegated; with shades of colour. 

q^'fS*^ (fer«-iM4» §kad4^ n. of 
the biid called (3byiM««fo ; V^'I^TJ^' 

a painter {Mto$^). 

fff^'S^V^fUlimmr parti-cokmed; 
on a red groundt 



^iput^ ikra4am^^mkr^W'9r^ glaring; 
bk glue ; '^^'P'^fr9l*^'^'9l^'^r^'^''lm'^. 
^^i'i^ the Iwratf or effect produced by 
Tuiegited ocdonn as inapuntmg; the 
illiiTninntioa of ooloimas let&rth in a 
rainbow ; hanoe qilendour. 

proeperity; Uettbg;goodluck: 
r^Fm'ii'^-^itJh good fortune to my 
people! may fliey proeper! q*^*!'* 
holy-mtor; oonaeoratod irater or eon* 
eeoiatbig irater; ^|'^'|*««i* anqpuaona 
bed; nuptial bed (Ck,); m>i*iH words 
of UeflJng; benedidaon; V^*1'¥>'IP^' 
tkrm'^Mfjfi g$o ffiyai iHPi 41^ni anspi* 
oiooafMting; ^l|'^l[^'4'Y«fttni-fif trwi- 
foaii g o el s insfamments lued for insuring 
hiok; sacrifhnal oeremony by wbioh 
blesringsaxe to be drawn down {Jo.); 
^^•■i propitioos; Inbky; «B'3|^*'m 
good omens; husky signs; ^'^^*W 
itrth^ii-pa^i rtag§ hieky oonflgnrations or 
semblaiioee ; bappy omens ; ^'^*«i ^W^' 
n. of a goddasi; the goddess of glory 
{JiL)l m*ft^' mistortone; calamity; 
^r'^^'i^ cskmity; adj. wretched; 

V^l^^BktthfH fttln.of apbioein 
JDmi (ZpC ' tSf. 

«db n. of a short satra in f . dL ' 78 
whioh eontaina the names of eight Bndp 
dhaa. Whoeror redtss it and meditates 
on the pttleelions aoqnned by the 
Boddhaa escapes from the dangers of eril 
spbila aiid'4«mons. Such a ds?otee can 
easily h«fe sdmissinn into the courts of 
kings and address the highest authorities 
withoot let or hindstance* Bemembnnce 
cf tUa eflurion is belisved to be a sufe- 
gaaid against bad dreams and also 

mishaps or accidents in war, and in 
repelling oflensiipe weapons. 

qr^-jf'K ftAra-ftf i^aitfil n. 4it a 
monastery in Amdo. 

sgi'^s^ (jfers-ftf-caa Wl^-n. of an 
incense (ifiiom.). 

9n3^m'tm't^* fikra^ii dbof-rdM the 
summer seat of *the QoTemment of Bhutan 
where the Dharma Baja resides. It is 
ordinarily called Tassisudon on EngliA 

VV**^ tkr^H kJoi-pa ^ritfm 
auspicious aipr ec si on ; a ben e diction* 

eight auspicious signs or emblemsi ris. : — 
(1) VH^^ vwv the precious or 
jewelled umbreUa ; (2) ^'S*9 Vfi n^tg 
the golden Hdi; ^) ^^Irift'Q^e im- 
fer the pot of treasures; (4) o^w^"^** 
^ tiie excellent lotus; (6) ^'W^'T^'^ 
^f^wii^ iqr the white conch-shell with 
trhcrls turning to the right; (6) ^/m' 
S'H 4Nv the auspiwms mark repre- 
sented hj a curled noose emblematical d 
loie; (7) id(^-^'fi*««^ f« the chief 
standard of tictoryt ••^n ^ emUem of 
«Vilfr; (8) ^^'i^'** wrhw the 
gdden wheeL 

^*^«*yf<'^Miw-fii f<lV^caapqsiosisd 
of auspioious merks : •'S'^'fll'^' W H'f"f 
«r^| a'^l('^-V^*f«'IS«^l a glosiy hand 

P0M6Minff MUpuioill lilk68 irill OUM OM 

to ohtain both % mm ud wedth {K, i, 

dMll witii iti iHiodi tonuag to th« rigbt 
inatMMl of to tlM l«ft (IfiM.)- 




^^'^^ ft*| idan nftwr, w^fwm 
auspioioTis ; luok j. 

3pVy vf^ mrcY^ frf^^qv lucky articles. 

Q]|'^^*4S^'^ Bkra'^pdbi yi^'ge n. of a 
kind of (mystic) writing which i& consi- 
dered anspiflioos. 

^W^ HWU may you enjoy prosperity. 

]L of a goddess {K. g. S H^Y 

wfs;^m'j^m: fiknhfi§ ilama 1. Tashi 
Lama, the name by which the Panchhen 
Luna of Taahilhun-po is known in India 
and Europe. 2« a lama priest who 
ofBciates at a marriage ceremony in 
Sikkim : ^•^^'iJ'»wia]|-S|n*|'^5i^'iiiU|<^'iA' 
»*f'i|-|i|«<i;- 1 the Tashi lama will touch 
with the auspicious offerings (for the gods) 
the head of the bride. 

flj|'3|^'l" gkra-fii^tUe {Tashi^tae) n. of a 
village in the district of J§toi'lui in Tibet. 

q]|'3|«i'q^4|«i fikra-fii^fiaegi (Tashi aeg- 
pa) n. of a brother of King ^kpi^lde 
Sitna^i ^an^ who settled down in jVMai- 
ri9 in Western Tibet (ZaU. « 8). 

ffMfon. of a work the reading of which 
produced auspicious oocuzrences. 

iqr3|^i'|rn*qj^ the eight lucky, articles 
are — (1) *'*^ mirror; (2) 1'* medicinal 
concretion from the brains of elephant; 
(8)^ourd;(4)r^'^«J2)MJ.gra8s; (5)V!^ 
•i|'«i the wood-apple; (6) V^'^'»p'1««w^i| 
aright-whorled conch-shell; (7) ^'S/t-Mn 
Vermillion ; (8) Q^^'^^ white mustard. 

m-3|irlf^'«i ikra^fii pisogi-pa ^ffW' 
jK!^ completion of an auspioionB work 
or event. 

qi|"^fiHB' ffkra^ »un^ (Taahi- 
Ihunpo) the seat of the Pa^ohhen Bin-po- 
che, the second Lama in Tibet, ordinarily 
called Tashi Lama, ranking next to the 
Dalai Lama of Lhasa. The grand monas- 
tery of this name adjoining the town of 
Bhiga-tse in Tsang harbours 4,880 monks, 
presided over by the Tashi Lama. 

q^I^ ikrag {fag) ^S^^^m^wns'* M 
Ihad^lhoA fi^H§ ^oi-pa 1. danling 
brightness; lustie; «SW qida^i also 
*W*V«, e.g., gutter (of jewels). 2. i'nin 
beautiful appearance ; high oobur (of the 
face, skin) ; ^•qiflwsF;^ pure gloss of the 
skin; *«J-q» very bright (Ja.). 

^iPI'fl ikrag-paszae^^^K^^ twr or 
fine complexion. 

Syn. siSMi^aj fndaHi^ean ; ^fcq ii$Aer^ 
wa (4IMon.). 

P^S^'i^ ikrag'niedss9e(^'^'K9^ or ws^i'ds 
dull appearance; bad complexion (ff^an.). 

^^JP^ bkrab-pa (falhpa) pf. qi|«wq 
to choose or select from among many; 
*tf^S'Q1|q fpahog^u if^rab exquisite choice 


^IJJI'fl ikran^pa {tanhpa),^^fKW^ 
a form of '^^ vftn^ WTK, ^WlM to 
spread over, scatter. 

Syn. SV^^ igran^pai ^v^ irdal-pa 
also ^?^«i gtor-wa ; <t^S^ htAar^-pa ftift* ; 
'U^'*^ gkugf'pa {]l(Hon.). 

V!p^"^ bkral-tca (fal^a) 1. pf. of 

elucidation (of the meanings of the terms 
in the SiUra and the Tanira). 2. to 
appoint : «i9'ii'q]pray to engage in businesa. 

^^ ikrai in the paange V^i^-^ 
q<^*q]pi'|«rq ; Pf^ here means rolled or 
varnished in variegated ccdours. 




Q]|<rq ikroi-pa {fe-pa) an abbreTlation 
of mi'^^^9 aoQordijig to So/t. also l^. of 
the iwb ^••i: «J1|««9¥« for fll'^I^F^'W 
an ttoi^ioiouB soarf for preMntation on the 
oooanon of a visit or some ceremony or 

QSF^v ikruhluA (Te^btng) n. of a valley 
in Tibet {Deb, U). 

^IV^ 9kra9^lhun (Tei-lhun) flfm^ a 
contrafOtion of q'^«'|^'Q (Taahi-lhun-so) ; 
alao a heap or mountain of glory or auBpi- 

>f q^*C| ikri^a (fi^a) 1. pf. of ^'«i 
to oondnct aooording to order, e.g^f one 
after another. 2. ion ^'^ t«w, to wrap. 
3. to draw; to try; to acquire; to searoh 


^''n'Q the Uack diaoipliner of the unsub- 
dued; the black and horrible (aaramed) 
appearance bf Miafiju Qho^a BodhUMva to 
lead the sinner into the path of righteous- 
nefls and virtue : 5'*^'"flilS'i'^'W the 
dreaded (Bon) deity who leads or drags 
the subdued straight onward (2>. £.). 

<4|« ikri§ an abbreviation of m'^ 

^« J*rii-|W (^Hw), pt of ^A ^• 
^-c^^v'Q thar^pa-la tMi-pa conducted to 

emancipation or Nirvdi^, 

era }tkru {fu), fut.of 1^ **rtf|,v. ^^ 

ikm^sin SS9WV. ^T^T^'ilK ikru JfaA 
gpi9nc4^t^ ^nw washing bowl; to wash 
a vessel, plate, Ac. : V% ftArw-Jfaf, ^'h^' 
^'wgsi'l^ dothes, etc., to be washed. 

OT^'Q ikrug-pa {fug^) probably an 

inooneot reading of W*^* 

m^rq tkruh^^ pf. of B« khrui. 

Q^I J?^^** (^^) A* o^ ^ P^oe in JTAamf , 
which is also called VW^ 9kr$'my 

4'^ ^kre^hor {fe'/tor) n. of a section of 
the §g(hni(tii department of the monastic 
school of Dapung. 

^ ^3|*Q ikrefi-pa (tcn-pa), iftw 1. 
poor, indigent, hungry ; X^'^^^arfJ^ 
^ .a country where resources are 
scanty (Lex.). 2. H^T^ miserly, stingy. 

^W5 Jir«i-j)o= W' a beggar; desti- 
tute person. 

Syn, X^'*^ nor^nwd; ^lf««'<i tpkoHi-pa 

q)«-i(si (ibvf-ifom, contraction of |^«r 
^ilF% hungry and thirsty : rwp-^^-^-qj|sr 
i(ir^-ir«»-iH I this tobacco does not allay 
in any way eilher hunger or thirst : 'i^ 
ifii«rw«^ii^'4Tf I leading from hunger 
and thirst to satiety (Jd.) : t^t'VWI'^m^ 
M-^^-^iMN I the cow'smilk removes 
hunger and thirst and hard breathing.*' 

4^'^.(£r«Miii| wflWT being hungry. 

+ q|lI'K| ikrei^pa (fet^pa) to be 
hungry; also hunger. In C. resp. for 
" hunger'*; •ilcw^ to have ravenous 
appetite {8eh.); |;«>«'<i the appetite 
or feeling of hunger; honorific term: 

on arriving at the top of a baoen 
mountain, he felt hungry and was sap- 
pUed with food {Deb. % 7). 

+ q$^9|*S| (ilroKi-jNirev. term for 
killed; dead. 

tfpV^ ^krol'W (jfct) pf . of igrol^w untie, to loosen; also in TT. is the 
only form in use : «i^V4'4)f^'q m^ud^pa 
ikrol'ioa the knot untied, ^wmgur^ 




tfUt^P^ iktol-^oa Mtineiram boDdftge; 
'|prq|<i'9 U^ ihr^l4oa lemitted wramie 
or xwt ; s^vrqyrq ^«Ii-|mi ftiroJ-«Mi 

^m tkroi (foi)a^^<i to bhooM; to 
aeleot; imp. ^ifv-^ (iiVHV (fiKf«.i(M;). 

^nvq itJIlVirlNI pf . of fr*l to hftTO 

iMd; doM xoidmg: ^^^^S iridiM to 

ff\ fteorl^il etetJ^rte or C^»^«« ft 
gutter; a nntU ohftimol oa ibe roof of 
a home or at ^ edge of the roof 
for cazxTing off the rain tp*^''li mall 
fmow oonnjing mter from a oondiut 
to troei or pbata; foxrow between the 
beds of a gaxden; henca oftt flower-bed. 

Y^i^^f ^ 9ka chuH jte iMl n. of a 
monartery neer Sam-ye. 

TjC* fihiil I: I. marroWy pith. 3. 
deeoent, extraction, origin:, ^'il'f A* 
»w^X»'«i«i|F'^BF¥r«r^l *to ezampk, 
the mnle on which the Qoddeie Piddan 
Lhamo rides is oaUed fJkiil ffh$m^ on 
aootxant of a so*oalled thzee-fold origiii " 
(its lather is an ass, mother a mare 
but in itself it is neither of themt but 
a mule t). 

^ n: 1. staff: V^wf*^^^ it is of 
goodetaS: ^^"^Vfr^it isnotofgood 
stuff. 2. bmdle ; a ooUeotion : T^'^^ 
a bundle of grass :r^'^^ a tuft of hair: 
fp;ff9^'^ a skein of yam. 

fffi'^ rMf-jw r09p. ^W ^, W9 
1. foot, leg, lund leg of a quadruped: V^* 
vfr^K htMww in^: not throwing the 
foot (iHMoa.). 2. lower part, lower end, 
0.^., of a letter: ^T«^ hawig a foot, so 
the nine letters are oaUed that extend 

below the line ^r% etc. (/L). 3. a 
metrioal line, Terse. 4. base founda- 
tion: r^|vJ'^'"^rrfMF*«i^r*««- 

jw ftiAJ^i^qi^ the four f^et (stages) of 
pecfinming mirades. 

ttr^t-h^ (4IMoa.). 

i^*^ A0«-i^ bandy-legged. (Jo.) 

^') tfytM (tonf-H) a pieoe of eloth 
to wrap round the legs {Sok). 

^'anf^ thai^hoi ^FPfHI the manner 
of waUdng; it^irayeft-si rM^|Nl tftm* 
«mAi s0 mim^hPiVI ttbs plaoe for washing 

^'^'« £Jbi^ftAfa.|ftasH*|si bom of 
the hiElHrati a name of Agaisfya ICuni 

^*|« fia^-fiyrf Ui for the Sudra oaste 
(of India) whioh originatsd from the foot 
(otBrahml) (JTHofi.). 

Jl^l 9M Mm (JTM^Aa) n. of aking 
of Anoient India : S'^*S'S*rq-J|f^-M-^'w 
f^'hn^1*«V«wV«r|^'VI <« like the 
Indian Eings,^M JOra, and JM inatf 
and others, their lineage on the motiiar's 
side was also from apes, etc." {J. AC). 

4IF1P r te4 Mn* (tefv*M«») inm ahoes 
worn along with the ooat of mail; that 
part of armour worn like boots from the 
foot to the knees; greaTss. 

4F'ft thai^hhri {hamrihi^V^'^) loot- 
stool (4^M*)* 

i^*^«t ThBiHkkim (probaUy) having 
a foot oontraoted by diaeaae (Z««.). 

i|F'^ rM-liUor bandy-legged (atk.). 

Tibetan boots made of felt or of 
coarse serge. 

4F*^ rfai<HPf0 ^W tlM fert part 

w tllS foot. 

^'•^h* r*"<-«» WW «wift.footed: •n* 

invited (hoiight) ono who was swift- 
looted Hke the wind and po o s o aa e d of 
minMmloiu powen : ^'*fST>*l^^**f^ the 
aeont blewbg of Bwift-footedneas: ^* 
a^rrt-^STfU^rqn I (jr. dm. 73) having 
aoqiDzed the gnoe of 8wift-footedne«. 

i<F'^V tht^hgro (fanfudb) qipr one 
who faavals en foot; a vannl or anlqeot 

paying his dntj by wrving aa a menenger 
or pcnter (0!i.). . 

^'^9«rfa<l-«0*t« alao ^'^ timMro§ 
1. walking on foot. 2. domeatlo oattle ; 
breeding oattle. 

^'1^ rkdk-gm a trumpet made of the 
hnman tfaig^bone naed in tenq^ ; also in 
travelling to keep oil evil-qiixits. 

^\ rI M ry jf e V'^l a foot-aoUier, v. 
^"^n: infanby aoo. to (7«. 

V"^ risMrpytt or««F-^q a oenti- 
pede: ^•H^-^iiT^'^S'**^! ''the name 
of the wonn whioh haa n hundred feet 
and anna " (J^Idii.). 

^^^^ tMHtnt^-f* a fabdona lion 
having eight feet An imaginary lion 
of Bnddhiit deeign vdth eight kga, 
generally lonnd in aonlptore and in 
Tibetan mythologioal piotorea. 

9fi't^ ria<-<ar the leg (JKfofi.). 

9^'^(t^9 rtai^g-pa vnnft one- 
footed, met. a tree ; the fabuioua oonntriea 
of the ^flfiYiil and Aa-toy the peq^ of 
whidi axe aaid to walk on one foot 




Vl« rtai-tjui ^wor, fin footatep, 
foot-matk; a dog; ** foot-follower.'* 

^'^'^rka*gii9^pa mankind; ^F^^n' 
^'9 the ohief ol bipeds; an epithet of 
Buddha or at*^-^* (M^an.) : if^'i^ 
Vwt«»H«W jn I Sa^i^rfffoi (Buddha) is 
the chief of the human kind. 

'¥^*W tb^ IftiA 1ST a loot ornament; 
a foot*bangle. 

^•fS f *a*-rfei» M^lH ia i^ a foot-stool ; 
trestle; a raised ground or stone step ou 
which, at the time of aliarhtinjr from any 
eonveyanoe, the foot is plaoed. 

^*|T» rtai^gi or ^qa^ne 

Syn. 4|Ft^ ribUl-tfMi; j^'fi tka^khrii 

§iel4 (M^OH.). 

^Fl^a f*<f«-|la<Was^p««(»^V the 
atar of the golden flight or W^, a name 
of a fixed star (4fifM.). 

^*'H9r'^««-ife^*«-^^»r|SVihe sUr 
of higher flight (4f%>M.). 

ajF^SK. rtaH-ikaH 1. on foiyt S.»<Vk' 
y«^ iHcrflrv a foot soUier (jKifoii.). 

4jF'e^'ci tka44kai''pa a pedestrian; ^* 
^'Q'^9*rq one trav0llinga>n foot ; to walk ; 
to go on foot. 

aF'*tN riM-^hH infui the 8(^ of 
the foot; foot-aole. 

^'^^ rta^^ihui vJKVt meUfh. for a 
tree, i.d.| that which drinka or draws 
nourishment through its feet, or roots: 
4|F'^'^'4 ram^, VilVW the red iiee ; 
the devil's tree. 

^'Vr«i rhii dtug-pa or ^VTV^'^ the 
six-footed, met for the bee. 


^r^n|-fcl I 

¥'Vr*<' f*««-rffvp-^#Vf='^lK the 
mango tree. 

^'^^ tlM^dub iffC foot-ring; 
bongle^like ornament worn on the foot. 

^'<^^ rkai-^dren also «ff^^H ^-^-^ 
drawn bj the foot; ahame; diigraoe. 

4|^'|f^ tht/tL-lSan flhoee ; that contains or 
holds the feet; ako metaph. for a road, 
way, paesage; ^(fS'Wzrr^H-^Sin^*! 
the lion's-tail tree {ffion.). 

^'IP^ rbi^inam coaTse woollen leg^ 
ginga mannfaotored in Tibet. 

n/irqrmg^m rki-pa irhf^^9 the legs 
afcretohed; 9f:v^^fm oontraoted legs; ^' 
ng^^^r^^'^ to ioyo, wander; to disperse, 
separate: %V^'s^''^mm*^fl^'ipcnF9fp:^'lS^; 
V^'%^nn I banished from their oonntrj, by 
foroe of Karma they wandered forth and 
came to the ooontry of Tibet. 

n/scqr'^'n thaA-pa ttlMl^po m^ w: 

W^ (^MK^i^ he who is possessed of 
three legs or three regions; Yishigm; an 
epithet of Yais^ravana. 

Syn. S^'S^'^S^Q ByaH'phifogi idag^ 

'V^'^^ ipat-i/hr gM^-idag; ^'%'^^ 
gter-gyi idagi W'ltrf^ miH du^^ldan^ 

i$ha-io; «•*•^^ -&*!*• 4f^; T{^'%V 
^^ nor-fffgm tdfien-pa; ^'(^^^'J"! pwi^ 
^fHrggal; X^S'^^ nar-g^ idag\ ^ 
W^Aw iiffig-gi okai-^bebt; B^'f^Jf^ 
bpail^hjfogMipaH {M^on.). 

tlfr^'fWfl^rkaH-paii fiabf-fgyur dtin^ 
cing at the cadence of a song (JUMan.). 

«|^rt-^^'8^ rkai'pahi hdu^yed ^^CTVT 
the moTements of the feet which are 

74 'fic-ftq ( 

described as ^'^%h daUhgro9\ S^^^f* 
*t*W^roi; ♦*-^W^ h'loHbgro9; *^8^*^f« 
bgyii-bgrm iK^lf'i Weg^roi ; X-io^Af^t 
roipabi hgrot ; «t V<A'^««i brJO-pabi igm ; 
^^'V* ^om-ffijrf ; ^f^g<M^§Mb9; ^t^ 
gtmh-tidbi^ ^ivtrmm gam-pa yai§ ; ^v«i5^ 
gam-pa Vchffar\ w^i^'^f baH ii^choU igra ; 
5^'^< myur-bgro; «5^-^f WWogi-^ffro; 
w^< rab^igra ; M'*' rgpug^pa (4f4ofi.^. 

ttiHrpa the heel (jK^on.). 

eon s3^«f'9 poultry; a fowl (of which the 
weapon is in its feet). 

V^'lfi tkaiF'pkgin felt for oofetiag the 

s^'Vof rf^-bol upper part of the foot 


spgif fJte4 (raj fttm footless; help- 
less; involTed. 

^'^w rJbin bbam iJW^'a disease in 
the foot; swelling in the foot; also 

nf^'<im rlM-ibrai or ^^m^ r. 4F^V^- 

nf^Vf^ rkai4ba§ (lit. hidden leet)s|q 
a snake (tfMan.). 

ni^^m'iif:t^ ^kaiUnm rkaiMig n. of the 
part of the nether world where the Ifdga 
demi-gods reside. 

sp'W rteH-Mor pith; marrow: ^' 

by nibbing in any kind of manow, 
contracted limbs may be amoothened 
(ijf.f straightened). 

Syn. «K^ fBdati; K'T^ U«Mra4|r# 

^'R^ RkaHrmig • ^1wVTl[ (^Will^ n. 
of the founder of Nydya philosophical 
sect in ancient India. 

^'^P^ rAsMwMV ialuitry; » loot- 

^•r riM-cfitf, iwp. ^^mrt $kab§ rt$a^ 
genenl naaiA foir Acm in Tnng. In 
ISbet |li0 woUb of ft dioe it gonenUy mMi> 

oi a >iBd of durable gnuy hflnoe flie nazns 
Vf rAfli r«M, loot-gTMi, ngniiftes a 

^'^ rAM rte vnv the fcm part of 
On foot. 

^HPf> ri«i-Mivis4fnh<i or r^' 
#1^4 to lii,To ft firm footing ; to tftke 

^•i* rkai tMbfr iron mill or ipikM 
iutonad to 4ko booUolo ioor cUmbing. 

ul/ftfai i(oo« «r0Mite «Ml« Bozbrngh 

^•^^ rfoMtitt ^'^^'^ fora-f ooted ; 
quftdraped;ft beft8t;ft]i0ft ohair or ftny. 
thing tliai stftnds on lour legs; ^* 

^V'K^ W«^T<» Ut. poiNMd of oftttla ; 
ft hercbmftn (jKfen.). 

MFW^ * i <j w M ftgile; qxdok in guing 

4|F'VjM|.rM i: hmgdurnkt. 

^•^ n: T. «^r^ flie orano; soa 
to mne tl» graj qmnes of dnok ( JWon.). 

^'^■^ fta^rkun foot-pftth; ft pftAMge 
where ft mttn am only peas but not ride. 

^"-f^'i r*a«.far^s^Vi^ i^ foot. 
nUier (jSMoji.)* 

«'% rl»il ^Vl treftdle of ft loom. 

76 ^-qi 

^'^Aneii^ii footHMMre. 

^'4^ rArotf-fiffti Books ; stoeking« 
^'1^ Jhi4-i0r toe* 

^ fitfii 1. soaettmes used in the pUoe 
of W. 2. VI VTl the pftIfttes^>W, which 
is ftn obsolete fonn: ^W^i^ rJfcan- 
iMoli fitf end of the pftUte or ''gams 
ftt the end of the pftkte" : V^s TVir%^ 
%rWfis«V»-ii «the siz letters t, th, d, n, 
r, I, arise from the tip of the tongne end 
the front pftlftie.'' 

WH^ r*a»i»Ai«9ihe oftnty of the pftiftte : 
snr^a^^q^, WW%H«W|i^l these 
four letters eome out from pertly the 
oftTity of the pftlftte end pertfy thef^pof 
the tongne. w«A« the itxKf or oenize 
of thepelftte: •r^rftry-ii, 4^rQ%^'VI* 

^«f^' I these seren letters ere pronomieed 
from the oenfre of the tongue end the 
middle of the pehite, 

yi^ t hi n mar the butter whieh k 
miased with barley^our to mske ft peste 
for the food of ohildren and in&nts; bar^ 
ley paste made with water or milk is apt 
to ohdke infants, so the Tibetan mothsis 
mix in batter {Deb. • lifj. 

 ^'fl tkam^pa oi mf€^ of paasion. 
ate desire. The latter form mfcn is 
g«iMnUy used; it signifies ^t^M 
lotting; •T»'4^wtW greed ;pasBumftte: 

fa ftfieei^jNi ft longing for honours sad 
gain: r>v^mfr^n^ beeomea eager for 

f^^ tku-wm ^9Mf^, pf. ^, fat ^ 

or ^*<i^'B» imp. ^, to stsal, rob; prea. 
3'^'IS steals, robs; ^g ttM^ an 
artiole to be stolen; ^*i^T« irku-iyaki 
rAai things thftt may be stolen; also stolen 

property. The six kiiids of theft aoo. to 
Buddhitm are— (1) ub^^J'^ hfob-^ui 
rku-ufa to «teal or take away qmetly 
another's property; (2) J^'J'^ fW««-r*«- 
wa to rob a thing knowing aQ abo|it it 
befo^hand; (3) •H^J*^ tpihui-rhhiM to 
rob iriolently one's property ; (4) %"« 1^'^'- 
^v'^'^q to rob a thing promising to 
return it; (5) df^'^'J^ to steal by con- 
cealment; (6) ^^'fli'^'VS'^ to rob a 
thing by skndeiing another person 
(JT. rf, Q 5). 

^-q^-qgi^'q f^-tMir igrali^wa mM4Wi \ ^ 
to oonnt as stealing. 

^*^sni fifctf-MMf ^?lf^ a mind to steal, 
or thievish mind. 

wrflnr:, the tein kinds of stealing according 
to Tibetan anthers, m. :— ^^^'^ ^kui 
rhu^wa to rob by means of iocantations; 
I'lwi*)^^*^ igyu thabht^'i rJbMra to rob 
by producing magical iUusions; ^^*<ni*^'Q 
ibrii^pa% fitMra to rob one by using 
threats ; ^pv^'^W'^'^ gfam-poi ribMMi to rob 

by speech (by lying); i«^isi^'¥«'3«' to 
rob one by soft words ; ^^'^wKififJ-^ to 
rob by saying that he will return the thing 
afterwards; WSS^^y"" to steal by 
conjuring; V^'-^I^S'^ stealing by 
misappropnetion or breach of trust; 
^iPrQir^'>i cheating by gentle persnasioii; 
tm'^^ff stealing by (imposing upon 
another in the name of) religion {Lot. 

3'S rku^by^ same as T^ to keep 
seoret, hide. 

Jfi^ tkun^yig thiePs pouch ; a sort 
of small wallet. 

Y^Vs rhnn-can a thief. 

J^<)t«« fjhffi-i^tfofii plunder; highway 

^'^mvi^'Q rkun^kabM^ (iM-tra to 
take away by thievish means. 

^^^ riim-fior stolen goods. 
3^B fJbim^^, fem. jT* rhiM-mo ^, 
^, a thief, a robber. 

8yn. wr** >V-JP«; '^''^ g^fof-^na-, 
^^^ ganJag Han ; e^'^ ar-pa ; ^vr^Q 
tl/alhlm'pa; ^^^ tfAofft-ri«m; ^^F^^ 
(fshan^duH; 9i^mr%'9s^ irfsAonif^jri 

bge4'po\^^V\iog4u'rggf^;^^^ (*om^ 


tS'q ribm-pof nan bgei-fa the harm done 
by athieL 

9^^ rh^n^pon the head of a gang 
of wandering marauders. 

^«t fJhHMMa one who steab; a thief; 
also applies oceasionally to theft. 

^r^ thM^td^aa stolen goods or things. 

Syn. ^^^ fihm-iHr; f^^^ »og-nor, 
stolen property (4|Mofi.). 

^'^B f ifiiKfrtffi a guard; a watchman; 
io watch for thieres: a-l'^ri^J^-H-^B' 

feeding dogs to guard against tSueves. 

*fl rkub ^^l vulgar wwrd Iwr the 
anus, baekside, pod«rior; coUoq. *^ or 

Jqfs*^ thOHJkgai'pair to move or 
shake one's hinder parts, a mode of 
nauftch girl's dance in India. 

^1^ fihiMtfPf a sitting bench; s 
portable rest used by coolies. 
ytm fiulhUhH buttocks (Oi.). 




^'^ rfe.u?fl=Hq nV-jMi (a£.Vrq ijbm. 
p«) lean ; meagie ((?#.) : "i'w^|V« rto- 
war A^ywr-iMir to grow lean, thin. 

^'^ rtorf-iw, also 1|S<i irft, irw, the 
waist, more partioolarly that part where 
the girdle is worn; also the loins; also 
defined as ^^ ^o^-qi^- the ends or notches 
of the bow which hold the string or to 
whidi the string is attached. 

Sjn. ■i|*^«P''^«t ike-ragi yul\ ««« 

^*|^ thei'^tgy^^ an ornament (ohain) 
hanging from waist. 

^x'^ rke4-bcku firiRf the buttocks. 

^^'*J^ rke4-mdu4 anything twisted 
at the middle; knotted-waist ; n. «f a 
bi^uit {Jig*)* 

If^^-s^'M rk^4~na4 ean-tna^ v, 5\^|»«^' 
S^'C^'S a woman who has her monthly 
coursos (4f4ofi.)* 

4|^-q*l|^q j^kei-pa gyo^^pa stiff, unyield- 
ing waist: ^sdJ^q-J'S ^Sq^ «\j«; the 
husband of the woman with a stiff waist 
willdie(jr. rf.«f«i7.). 

"^•q- j^q tkei^pa^ tgpur-toa (metaph.) to 
become a sUve (female) : '^o t'^'*^'^'^^' 
^^'IkRj^ f a woman whose waist has 
become bent like a bow becomes a maid 
servant {K. d ^ 217). 

^'^•i tkei-pa chng (lit. broken waist) 
to fail in a great undertaking : ti^'^'sOk' 
vcqr»ife-T>^'^a^ if a fox (tries to) leap 
over a place where lions jtmip, he breaks 
his waist, t^., dies in the attempt. 

^^% fib#-/a phra a slender waist. 

SiV'HPi fiW-*6ni|=<«*i? n. of a fruit 
used in feyer (Jf/iofi.). 

^'|h tk^iHbim one with a laige or 
broad waist; a oorpulsiit person. 

Syn. f'q-k-4 Mmm «Amm; ^srQ-> 

giuhrdsei can; f^'^^F'^ Ho-^oatpJ^paH^iM; 
^'^ M'^ groirpa chen^; K^'l^'Q^ro^ 
pa §bo0hpo (M^Um.), 

>S'*S'*« fAe^me^-mn a pretty woman ; 
-=8V*S'**^, a woman with slender 
waist (4fihn*). 

 "Vi* r*crf^=s>iq f*6rf:.jw the waist : 

*u ina^ma^poi iiuH rkcf^ tiAor-wa (J. 
133) many litUe keys of different kinds 
surrounded his waist. 

^'^ r*a-iiw, pf. 0^ irko§, imp. ffr 
^^ tkoifig 1. to dig, dig out; to hoe 
2. to engrave; turn up ; till. 

^'iStko-iU^ i: l.sq^ a hog; also 
that which digs; a mattock, shovel. 
2. fM)(9 an arrow. 

'^'^ n: V. %q i^Mmthat burrows; a 
rat (4fMoff.). 

^*w rko^ma a kind of small hoe for 
digging earth; n. of a faird called Y'it 
ko-ma ( Vai. H.). 

^•W thot-i^han or ^sT"! or ^^ 
w^M a digger ; one who hoes. 

^^'*l rkog^ma inoorrecily for f^'fH 

ringworm; itch (C!i.). 

l^i^n-Rgir^ tka^'PO Wrof eken n. of a 
skin disease with laige eruptions ; also 
eruptions (Fo-m/. 98). 

^^^ rko^pa engraving; ae^f-q ffo- 
tra, to dig or to engrave (&«•). 

<fi ^"^ fiton-jMi net; a towkr's net: 

(jfiag.) ta Mt up A nuoe to oatoh bbds is 
cillid thm-pa hfh^tghff^ 

Byn. t'S af«*cyy«; V^ iu^tbm 


< y^ hrAMn-aJhvi vv pMrionate; 

to abiiidon or throw §m§,j * thing after 

^'|H ftrAo tpfotf a gouge; an instra* 
aentto looop out (Beh.) ; an inetnunent to 
mgcate; 4('i^*« ftrio-^y«^' m plooglied 
land; 4(^«i ftfAoi-jMi ^em dug out; 
ttfli'^ trAof^^ A motdd for maldng 
elaj iffliigee ; f •W*^* W^'lU-iifiifc 

*«*l'^ '•'IM I in iStm time of the Lhatho- 
tfaori djnaitj th«e fell on the top of the 
palaoe a book oalled fipeH %Mi pkj/ag^tn^ 
and a mould for day miniature images 
and brought the oommenoement of the 
holy doetrine 

^Vii ftfiof-nNi soulpture; anything 
Uiat has been engrated upon. 

jpi'fl rilys^iM, also fT« J^W-iHi, 
dung; ordure; eaurement: (^'d'qy^'^ 
rlyif-jM ftMI-«Mi to cause purging, v. |^ 

or the wild ass of Tibet and Higher Asia. 
It is found Ofttywhere in Tibet in laige 
diOfi% and is diilinot from Htm wild ass 
ol GHuMflband Fteria. V'|a, a male i^yenf ; 
Ify^ a female hgmigi |F*^'i an adult 
4y«iv; IF'W iu old i^yvsv (Cli-)- 

4|e H: or |^'«i thgtd^ipa, also |«^'|^ 
rtyei-ri^ ^<9lftPli ^ra^ ^^ eaeh.; 



single ; simple ; alone *. ^'j^'W A'SQ I alone 
oumot: ^^l^'Ci dressed only in cotton 
cloth t fi^|-^t-|j^»w will Tour 
Honour go thus alone P *J^"4^™ '•link- 
ing water only. V^^' naked body ; ^^" 
only one ; ^J^', same as *^f^*«5, i>., a free, 
unemployed man, generally one that 
carries no burden ; ^•^' J^'^ yi^ tkyaH- 
fa a letter that forms by itself a syllable^ 
or one that is not it^g^pa (mounted) and 
without any other consonant or any Towel 
sign superscribed; ^^'^'^^ said to be 
1, 10, 100, and the further multiples of 
10; ft^'j^^q a word that has no affiz 
denoting case, &o., also a name without 
any titles added to it. 

Syn. ^'^ re^re; ^Wfi ffoig-bu; fpr^ 
iralhpa ; *i|)^'3 gcer-^. 

S^'4 S^yoA chu n. of a lake in the south 
of Ladak, in the neighbourhood of which 
there are many wild asses. 

s^'qjc'q) a rope that is lowered from the 
top of a mountain or from the roof of a 
lofty house {Tig.). 

J^'«i 1. rkyaH'pa W9 prose ; writing. 

extended ; spread. 

)^'<%^ tiya^hphye^ wwi^n an im- 
mensely large nimiber. 

^^*ii thyiA4na n. of an artery often 
referred to in mystic meditation. It is 
one of the three arteries danonriuated 
Brog-fUa rH^^ and is asserted to hm 
towards the left side. 

t^'SH thya^-pkym salutation by proa- 
trating one's self on the ground with the 
hands and feet sfcretdied out {A. iS). 


^^ rityiiil. a fanuM tmmI like * tM- 
pot» wiOi a qpoot; in IF. ''o*iyaPis'* a mOk- 
pot 2. poUbeDy ; paimeh (&».) ; «r j^, 
a TeMl far wiiar 5 «'H a T6«el for wine 

a hud of ymmI made of barMs or mlm 
or gold of tlie ihape d a wine gkii. 

y^^ rh^^^V^ Tain talk; rh^l^ 
katjfei-pa to play a practical joke on ; to 
make game of . 

XQ th^P^ ^*mit a lack c» 
bag, fiq. is poetical term lor the 
bo^ or tbe ft?e aggregatee, U^ v^'Q'A' 
^T^^V^ "tlie body it a bag of 
imdean things " (JiL). 

^Orq ri^raf^Mi V^rct to swim; yi* 
t^'^ t/^ff^t^Ui-pa to amnie one's self 
by swimming («/a.)y ^Uot* ** ihifal^pab 
MsN a swuumet* 

^^"9 fi^NiUa small bag; pooch; 
ooQoq. k^hu* ^'Jfi a bag of goat akin ; 
S'yi ; a bag far flour C^!"! water bag or 
Hindi wmkmk ; wyi butter bag. 

yr9ps-q flya/ iye^/Ni ^mrrew the- act 
of Bwimmiilg or bathing. In the m jstio 
language ol the Brai$nakdyika deva yr 
Is f ifcys^&y»# or yr« ngnifles |T V^ 
miwry; V^'^'r^tS or VQiFS^ OMani 
yr^*Q sins; yrcr«^'ls denotes yr^ 
the sodiaiislagn of misetjy fl.s*, the ocssation 
of misoj or its ^K^ fJifN; ^F«''*'•*^ 
signilies yr^S'lh-fli, i*^., io meditate on the 
erhansthm cf misery signiflss «ia cr the 
way to J fa a i i M . These a^ the tcims 
belieted to be need in the Language of the 
sehwKal beings who dwell in the heaven 
called ^'^nr IHil^raRI (JT. ko. «| 93$). 

7» 5^1 

^ flfMi I: la Bnddyst soienoe this 
important tenn exps esses any co-op«r* 
ating influence which aenrea to diape and 
bring about an erent as distinguished 
^Evom ^ rnnh its direct and obvious cause. 
L> plain language, ryya is the primary 
cause of anything, but tfpu is frequently 
controlled and modifled by a co-ordinate 
influence known as rly^a. As a medical 
term, according to jAachke, t^ifen is 
diiSarentiated from r^yv in that it indi- 
cates the patibdogioal or seoondaiy cause 
of diseesei while the latter word denotes its 
primaiy or sathrcpologiosl cause. How- 
ever, while assigning to tkg$n the piimaxy 
meaning of *'cause** and '^occasion" in 
the qualified sensa of being contaribaiaiy 
only to that which comes to pass, we have 
to note the appsrently contradictoiy 
B^ gnifln a ti o n e£ hot» oocorwnce^ imsdcnti 
event. So we meet with '^''^^ ri^ea- 
ihm^pa unfortunate scQident; VtM'^^ 
^^ he has perished by an ^fvil incident; 
1-^ W^'jV^JTVw tfte adversities arising 
in this life ; ^'fr^XVcA')^ an event dis* 
agreeable to one^s own self; iTt^'ltt'^ 
iar fi^m a sodden accident ; ^V^^^T'fT 
^ ri^a dit-ls ftr^a-aof owing to (hat 
eiieumstaace ; A^'^'^V^'^f^ nrnt^paH 

r*yfa-fe Mfat-<s or ^9^*9 ftr^Mi-fo consider- 
ing the case of not being, not having ; 

thus ^'1')^^'^^'^ stands also for a 
cause of dinase and cf death; <#r|i| 
wfol rayew any eiwnimstawee or event 
adverse to the soooess cf an action, aiqr 
obstacle, anything opposed or hoetila to 
the mdstence of another thmg : 'Wl^ 
frfAaa-rib^ea a happy, fsTourabk ciromoa- 
stanee ; furtherance ; assistsnce ; supply; 
•Wri^iS^ fiMaa-rJI^a ^fe^^fw tp assist 
in; to help to ; ^V!^^^^^ m^hm^thg9m 
lAsei-jM aUogetfasr suooessfuL 

5^1 so 

Ijfi II! WW, WW In Buddhist 
metaphyiios there aie lour kindfl of |^ 

rkyen, tie-, (I) %*SS WJ^»* f*^^ ^5^^ 
leUtion of causality ; (2) ^ 'yn*^^ *- 
mo-^fcij pn^i then W^mx TOW lelation 
of portwriority ; (8) i^'i«l J*V-f*J^n ^f^- 
^f)nn«9 xelation of Babardioation or 
oonditioiiaUty ; (4) -^^'1^ 4mgi^rkym 
^ i nnnaM^ relation of dependdnoe (as for 
iiigtanoe the relation of parts to the whole 
ftttd tice i^rsd) : M'«-^^'«^i-K«^''' 

nM'te'^. Berides the aboTe four there are 
two other subdivisions of \^ ttyen, vis., 
^'S^ M^jmm wn and fP'^^^BS w^w^k 

mn (Lo^ 16)' 

^a^ in : misfortune ; ill-luck ; cahunity : 
^jf^q fiytf « j/o^-jKi to avert a misfortune : 
•J«l ^^i-q tiy^n thegi-pa to endure misfor- 
tune: }fi^9F'^ thyen thub-pa to be equal to 
the oocassion, cope with calamity. 

%^'^^ rkpen^gyifj postp. with gen. by 
reason of ; on account of ; by ; ^*1^'8'« 
therefore j accordingly. 

J^^'^^TT'S'' tken'9^9 riog9^^'^^^' 
^ an epthet for a Fratpeka Buddha 


1aj-as|^'<^^'i^ fhyen^hagn bbyud'wa to 
die or to be abolished (D. fel 11). 

y^'Tf^ rhyen-ffm 'i^Wll elso tbe 
contemplation of a Pratyeka Buddha 
and ordinary saint; a class of Buddhist 
devotees who meditate on f*y«», the 
oo-operative cause. 

'ViV^ r*y^i»-M«4a«*S'*' patience; for- 
nearance (JIfilfofi.)- 

fnian WfifNflr a medicine that is 
administered for determining the co- 
operative cause of a disease. 

JK'q f*»oll-t«i, pf. «^«, fuL ^'^ 
0r 4}i^'<^'t» to stretch, extend, stretch 
forth (one's hand to a person) ; put out 
(the tongue) r spread : distend (flie wings, 
a curtain) :. i%ws(^>iiqjkq|w $hab§^H 
irkyoU iikum one leg stretched out, the 
other drawn in. 

Syn. ■^ff^'*' irky^^M ; '^^^'^ brkyaHi 

K'^ rkyoA4M in W. Ismp; oandle 

\^'^ rkyen-pa iTT barley. 

^^'^^ irkyafl-fUl 1. Utendly "the 
extanding-wood,'* an instrument of torture 
in Tibet; a wooden frame on which the 
extended arms and legs of the delinquent 
are fastened down, whilst burning pitch 
or sealing wax is dropped on hia naked 
breast, which procedure is called ^^•^' 
(S*«i or qjK^-Slcfli'qjq'*! or ^J^'S placing or 
fitretohing one on a cross ( Ja.) . 2. in New 
Testament translation adopted to signify 
** cross." 

'^^^ irkya^f fk^am prostrated (by 
fatigue) ; stretched out ; «'J*''*'^^'«^ ^^rw- 
iTTi^ for the purpose of stretching. 

fl|*H tkug Jn a wager: ^'T' 8"f? **to 
gain a wager in dice-playing, 4o.** 

aqpi*C| ffeughpa 1. dimb; mute; 
f'm^^V\^ kha ffmet-jxtr byei^ to put 
to silence; |^'*'« a dumb woman (CSi.). 
2. fcA, wf dull, stupid (&*.)• Tbefolp 
lowing examples may belong to either 
1. or 2. :— j^'««^l^ lkug§^r §kye§ bom 
idiotic or mute : |^4|- v^l'ras^^^'^wc'' 

^•qvfcilSV^Ffci if one is bom adeaf. 
mate» one's oonadoiisiiew (ionl) not being 
railed to woik, one ounot act religiooily. 

Syn. M^^imra'ica4; «^>«^8^ Ay-^ 

§(^ jft^ I:=s«r^ pka-gi yonder. In 
the paengo |i'%'^T^^'^'''^'*'^'l^'**f 
he aud ^from here look to yonder hill- 
aide": t^%-V| ftof-^fri fna-r^-^v the 
ol tha hiU there. 



llj^ H: leGreoy ; ^'^i^'*! a wile kept 
aeereily in Tibet Whera polyandry pre- 
Taila a^r of the hrottiars who ienot latia- 
fled with tha eommon aponaa takaa to 
himaelf a wife oalled Kok-gi pkung^ ma a 
oononbine (C!i.)* 

1. gallei. ceeophagua. 2. wind-pipe. 8. 
tha throat; I'^^f^^ Vtog^mabi iha^o€ 
the larynx {Seh.); also written Ci "Af^^ 

I'^^n^ IfsoQ'iluir tha fenat-badger 
{SehttU montkoU). 

(Jftfim.); C'll^'S^ U^off-gpa bgtt§ made 

m*! B^og^fti a eecret hTmuDed 8ong : 
^i^|-i?lwii^E«Vi' |*^*rcipT|i«^ a long 

Mittg 80 that others may not hear it is 
called Kog-b$ (J^ag.). 


4'Y*S Ikog-ahai secret pnnishiaent. 

l^fta'Bs'a gtog^choi h^ei-pa to apply 
one's neU to religions studies secretly. 

^'^'Vi jlt^-rM* ft reward giren secretly ; 
a bribe. 

¥TQ V^^^ oonftdentially, secretly; 
li'l^ or I^Q't^'^ ^^^V secret ; hidden ; 

ont of sight (Ji.)i %8*|iri« |tfa-<fi <l«f. 
pjfir TBiy seoret; moat oontdaaliaL 

V^V^^»og4u ftrtef stolon; MBored 
secretly; |i^'Q*Kii to oonTirse seeratly; 
ff'Q'ta a syctat dootrina; to woaship 
^»<aMj ; 4Yft'W«i to apeak aonfldantiaUy. 

I^«9S lhg'mAi4mUrm^ tha laryaz. 

f^V ^g-hdm ia dfisodnbad aa maaa^ 

ing V«lf^««|s*a, secret conTanatio& or 

dalibarajHng, so thai others may not undsr- 

m^^ •• »0g^MhmM that whiah ia not 

•aai fm'mjM (IfHaa.). 

I*!-^'^ 0a^aor«9^T« rte^fcfai, li^ 
secret articles; stolen proparty dfHoMw), 

f^ MoF-l>*'^-I^M«r|S«ior ^^a|a- 
|S'«| ikrug^i ir^fjMiiniiQ&dmlanding ; 
diilarence (between two parties). 

f^^^'^ftV •cm^m^w^ to take tsnrions 
interest in secret (AM.) ; I^WfS'^'fii to 
watch ; to witness from a lurking-plaiQe. 

^mrm lk0g.m§ saHM to take food 

V'^ ^ Wifrpwi Hog^ tra« ^^^ 
«y«* r^y«i/ kham§ tha nama of a kingdom 
of the Ajmrm (damons) whera paopla hate 
no neck, their china being joinad to tha 

IfV-r^ Hfog-fol mm daw-lap (of onn) ; 
|^'-r>'«^ ^og-t^a^oMmiVtf^ oxan in 
genera] (If^oii.). 

1|T^ »og^g craw (of birdi) (0$.). 
9|Q Ikob fat, haaty, plump (8M.). 
|*« n^ *bt.«MW»*r»iV krynx. 
j|| ika ; this word is thus azplained 


ihowB tlx« oomplete knowledge of the 
aggregation of all dharma cat phenomena'' 
(JT. d. H lU). This explanation alao 
oQcnra in the aphoriffloi on the interroga^ 
tion of the NAga-rftja Samodxa {K. d. «f 
178), alflo in {Mbum, % 988) : *^a ^»^'C 
lli^cft|v<«iHW«v5|^ *•#*« istheaym- 
bol of the law of Biiddha (Buddhifim) as 
it explains mystioally that all things are 
(finciWW) not dependant; they are sap- 
portlesF, •'.«., havo no real existence." 

1I(^ %ka^g for 1S*1 a moment. 

^(^^ ika-cog or "^'^^ ka^lcog the 
names of two grammarians jointly written 
for abbreviation, S*a standing for %^' 
•?«qMi« and Oog for tiXr^f^'*'*^ 
Cog^ro Vu-yi rgyairW!f^^han. 

^Z\ «to.«^a thick (of fluids, of. 
fla-Vfo)) ika-^JaJ oonsistenoe; density 

j{j'a;^|§l ska-rag^ ^IW^W, irf^W^, %WWT, 

ifR'K;=^1'''a also '^'"^'S^» i» "»?• ^^' 
guage; S'^*!'' a girdle : l'^'«''«^-«' to put 
on a girdle. fl!'>^'S^'«>«'^*J jS ch.) a girdle 
Teith a clasp ; H'^i''* 3«^ w^WTK, mm^ 
%TK ornamental chain worn by Tibetan 
women on the waist. 

|j^*lA'4|?^9S('Ai; jx. of i prinoeas of the 
Nbijin demi-gods (**w.). 

aqi 9kag^^^kag or ^^W ^^ J- 
n of one of the 27 constellations, -4ffaf*; 
anevU star. 2. mischief; bad luck; evil ; 
the name of the goddess Bhogavati; a 
fox <'f^ khikag an unlucky or bad 
year K^ nla^kag an evil or unlucky 
month •f^'V^ Bhag-ikag a bad day ; V '^^ 
dui-^g evtt hour; inauspicious time. 

Byn. ^I^HW* gfihtMM Ikhmo; 
w0 (Baa. and JfHeii.)* 

Wf^ ikV-l^'l asbrology wbieh treats 
of the planets and of ba4 omena, Ac. 

^' a comet ; born under the cc m sl aB a tio p 
of Afkia, 

Byn. Hm^^'^n^Jug^hoi^n; ^<StS' 

iftfoh^ii^^ (JMon.). 

4p*q ffJhB4-iMs4^'«, q^*^ 1. aatiafao. 
tion (&A.)- 2. a kind a! expiatory 
aacriflce to make amends for a duty not 
performed {Jd,). 

^'-^ ikaHrfa sods out out (Boh.). 

Iji^ §ka4li (*•*) nm, wnrf 1. voice, 
cry, sound. Though ^S and | are gene- 
rally used as synonymous words, yet the 
majority of the gr amm a ri ans of Tibet 
apply the former to all manner of sounds 
and the latter to the aounda uttered by 
animate thinga only . 2. ^^ is eqpiivalent 
of 1^ in some expressions suoh as ^'1% 
R^HS, which mean "ttms he said,'' •*»peak- 
ing theae words," *o., and in ^n^ %f% 
fto., may ber teaced similar signifioations: 
^^*V^ip^'^^<^ what is your pleasure P what 
did you say, airP K-i-^ViS-^ (lis 
(words) spoken what speech aie ihejf 
what do they meanP (J3.) ^V^S*^ "ib 
theae vnada" ia uaed before a literally 
quoted apeech and ^HS'^ after it. *lSal»o 
often occors after statementa meaning '.'it 
is said" or "it is rumoured." Ofliw 
phrases are : Kn^tS don't do that «r lo; 
USf^ to give an aooount, to relate. 8. 
language: WVfS the Tibetan language; 
a*an*K the Indian language; tl«(*Vi^ 


in tbe prcmninAl dkleot ; ^fS't speaking 
hanrnxi knfoage ; ^|T^^*^'^ kbrug^kai 
Vbur JUT the toioe of thunder rattlee; 

ai;*9-tt*fST8^1 * ▼oi^^ 1^^ the C17 of an 
elephant; |^V^*«K*«v«i^*<i to utter 

pttbifol or lamenteble eries ; KI*'«S'^^^'<| 
to send forth eriea for pity^ V^'lsi^^ 
^IQ the root of a word. 

^^ 11: kdderal^'**! litof-ia (Jd.). 

^S-^?n ifaKW^aV or IV^^a ika4lid9^ 
po hoaiaeneM of the Toiee (0$.). 

MSf^ iM-tty^ metaph* a donkey 

fS'V ikai-itgw'pa^MK^'^f^ one 
who has ohanged his language. 

HS'ff^ fMf-igr^ ^^ (^' ebi-^Atf ) the yoI- 
garezprenion for '<lame'': ft^'W'VST 
M'V^^ he IB jott now Tory funone. 

nPi'^^ ffta44ar rough language : VS*^^' 
3K-an'tpi^*''^*««^'^'^'V^51''l onaooount 
of their speaking rough speech flie name 
of tiiat plaoe was called j/^a-ra iAai 
{Tig. «*). 

^fS*^ fjbi^-Mii haTing a Toioe; sound- 

Wi^ %ha4^ ^w, ^iu«> miw one 
moment; an instant. fS'^'^^'^'WaB 
MPM^ i» described as *'%'^!iT«'^H^' 
ft'*, *'one fifth part of the time required 
for the sound of the sniqpping (rf the 

lAnr a pigeon (40oi»*)* 

t«'H«" lik04^^i§-pa or fSH" ^^iflWi 
^iffraTf tiftfr instsntsneous; also epbe- 
flisnly momentajcy; also lightning. 

i|S'H^flT< ifci ^^s ff -rft wf i Ut that takes 
hreath only to a moneQtaalpi, aaa ottsr 

VS'W^^^ fte#^ tel0# ^mi« sudden 
flash ; flash of lightning. 

lightning (jKIoii.). 

newsy report} disooursSf oonTsnationy topiCi 
i|^'a*wq to conrerse; to haTS achat 

w:^'^ l i h irfg g/ fjwiUi that has twp 
kinds of ToioeSi <.#•» apanci 

Syn. \i^'i bi-9fitfa\ ^|i'rt'**'«S 
bkhgog-poH m^lkhom; «^*W*9^ UMf' 

iitm (Jlfihn.). 

fS-^f *V^« I*0#^<| tmt^Mt^ 
#M4-pd CM learned in sdtecs; one who 
has mastsced (at leaik) two languages 
(Tig. k. AS). 

ns^'^ 9^04 iwiin j M i m^pft^ of a 

gentle toice ; soft toioed* 

(returned by a rock) (JMsm.). 

q^-fr^'4 IJhi#^ii ftiyyiir-iMi to sing 
or whistle in a quaTsring, ivarbllng maa^ 
ner, of birds, flute*playen, Ac {M.) : ^* 
VS a singing cv playing of this Jdnd. 

m'lr^ iW ^fkn-pa ift^n^ mnK one 
with a sweet Toioei spoken of the 


to • penon {Sektr.). 



l|^•W^ §ka4 9ihun-par with one 
voioe ; witli one aooord. 

I|^'^^ iito#-dbtf«in*^ an equivalent 
term in another language; the original 
from which another ia translated : MS%S* 
^'^ whether there are any original 
teste : VS*''^^^ it ia without the original 
text {SUu. 110). 

ml'^S^^ §ka4^ffi gdaili the oharaoter 
or tone of the voice: ««i-^3^1l|V*qSW 

itfiBkan,) when the tone of one'f voioe 
is that of a goose or dragon it betokens 
the possession of wealth. ▲ voioe like 
that of an ass, or ox indicates great 

^m^ low sLoking voioe ; poor voioe. 

VS'^X^ §M*bdon 4tm bawling out; 
loud voice. 

called ; named {A, 190). 

||V«iu:l.vb. to say, telly relate: V*' 
pi«irSK^\fS'«r^*V^ that a land (of bliss) 
exists I heard people say. 3. interpreter^ 
language master ; teacher {J&.) 

fS'<ri liotf^jMMils or VS*Q'^ ikai-po-^ 
oelebrated; famed. 

I|%*fl*1^ §ka4^ chs ifVfwr rumour. 

VS'4^ iMhVbffin f^ffwv singing of a 

m^-gi^si'^^ %ka4 libyait^g cultivate your 
voice ; improve the voice by exeroise. 

I|[^'|l|-iipm ^ka4 mi-g9al ^ one whose 
language is not intelligible ; a barbarian. 

HS'^^ ikai-rHi <^fY a voice heard 
at a distance ; a high pitched voice. 

«V^)^q'q1| lfc44.rig% hm^ iM the 
four great divisions of lauguage — (1) ^f 
fl^'n^ Sanskrit, the language of the gods; 
(2) V'i'^t i'^flS Ptf^i, the language of 
the meat-eating people ; (8) 'M^'<q^'^cr«') ) 
ra^-t$hin 9hB%-pa pr^t-kr^ta the Prdkfia or 
the natural language of the people; (4) 
srg-jir^-l^aTI Jpa bkram^ corrupt 
lanj^uage (J. JBT.). 


%\^ ikai-log damour ; screaming. 

a celestial courtenn (Jlfi^on.). 

^^*^ liaii-^^ W.f instead of 4*4 Jfea-M. 

IP ftafts^^fl tffor^po delay: •^fT'* 
«<i'«i'^^VV^' W^'K^^* I (^sa. *8) liie 
swift not hurrying, the lingereni not 

Jipil ikttbt ^m^ WT^ 1. time, oppor- 
tunity, occasion, ciroumstance: sflfe'rf* 
^pm opportimity of seeing : f^^S'' ffA«if 
rM'pa to find an opportunity: Wf^'% 
or liWHQii'll now and then; sometimes. 
I|Q«'9 or Mfl^ with genit.sat tho time of, 
on the occasion of, during, while, when: 
^'1*1^4*9 in a moment ; instantly : ^^^^ 
§kab$ der w^mt thereafter: ip^'^V 
now ; here; in this case; in this place: 
H^si'^ once for a time ; each time ; *^'l|^ 
interval; inter-lapse of time. 2. sphere, 
state, situation: vnr^'P'i fit for; 
adapted ; suited to the occasion. 3. ip< 
idso means ^ hb^f chapter, and is 
synonymous with "^ e«#ews ^fif^ ^, 
signifying section : HW*^ §kai§ icu, the 
ten sections of the doctarine ; also he thst 
has observed them (Jd), 4, mode, 

ijw^V'' I 



methody way, manner, ao the word seems 
to be ufied in Va$9ih : {«'9*HWMT V j*" 
t^^i^V^I Idum-lmii §kab$ la^phug dai 
9kpe4 htgi hdra^war the manner (nature) 
of the plants being similar to that of 
a raddish as to growth («/a.). 

fpv^Vrq |JUi6f ffii^-pa fwni the 
aeocnd chapter. 

VW^^ ikabi-^ian %^w^^ for the take 
of leisure ; also eiroiunstaiioe. 

mn-^^'ii §lua§ kdi-la ^rf%ni nni at 
this opportunity; at this time ; on this 

^IF^\^ 9kab$ pkye-m ^wwnf fmrft to 
make opportunity. 

^P«'^ «> iUbi tbyei-pa ^RiF leisure. 

tpv-trqncq fjhrif-fa Mhw w^ri when 
the time came ; opportunity arriyed. 

^V^ the drink of the gods ; ambrosia : 

^»^««'H5^I pray send kind letten 
like the flow of the drink of the gods oyer 
the heeds of the good {Tig. k. 78). 

^^ the residenoe of the' gods ; the heaven. 

H^r^ipi q ikab§ gBum^pai: fkfkM, ftmr 
a god; a common name for gods possessed 
of the knowledge of their past and future 
births and also of those of others. 

Ijw^iprq II : a name of the 
mumciaa ; |^|*«r^ Ihati gbh^khan (4flfei».). 

^f^^lV^V^ ikabf-ffium'^umH a name of 
Indra; «»jll firgpa-byin or f^A^H 

^^^w«i3f^'a $kmh'lfium fg^thot^^a 
ft^WffW thunderbolt of Indra 

4|SI 9ff^»^ I: Vi'*> n- of a tribe in Tibet 
( Vau kar. 160). 

M^ 11' a peir of tongs; pineers ; an 
instrument for soiling anything. 

Syn. ^V\ id$in'igeii ^^'l^ is»4- 
h^4 (Jlfifofi.). 

Ji|S|*C| ikam-pa m dry; ipi|^ §lum 
rhn lit. dry and wet ; all articles (furni- 
ture, chattels, clothes, utensils, Ac.) and 
foodfilrink, etc., being included in jhe tenn. 
^ ii often used as equindent to l|*i'4, the 
dry land, hence a plain or s^||si'<i'|4W<i 
§kam-Ja gMhpti to get ashore ; ffrmm jour- 
ney by land, HT**^ dry food, «*«'i dry 
meat, m^'^^ §ka$t^ibm the dry or stuffed 
carcass of an animal; ^W'T^'^'IV*'^' 
w^'^'l«*i I** I the dried carcasses of 
beasts and game and of all (others) 

i**'!^ ikam^hg. a flash of summer 
lightning : l«-K^^-i5|^Vii'«Jn-^ -^^swu' 

«^'S^'%('|S|| ««on a great Hash of light- 
ning coming forth, all his attendants 
became very much frightened" (A. 

ipv'*>t gkam^chag all goods except liye- 

ilfs"! |taiii-Ma/as|^w orS^S*«.eom or 
barley flour to make gruel. 

IFt^ iteiMAiff gruel made of barley- 
flour, dry meat and raddish. 

Ip\« §kam^ra§ neat and clean 
{Jig. soy 

i|si'«^ ikam-pag dry, flour of barley. 

^M'Q ikam^po u%, litftv dxy dried. 

^•i'V«pi ikam-phcgg allowances or wages 
of an officer or inferior servant in 
barley-flour, tea or coin, etc.^ but not 




cooked lood ; ^8^'t|-^XT«««^aooording 
to Qovemment order ; dry i llowanoe 

(/. Zdi.) . 

^N'fliii'l'q ^kam-hH ikye^toa mwn prop 
duoed or bom on land. 

nfKM^ gkam-ifoi dry or meaningleee 
words; hollow ezpresBions meaning 
nothing: r%^f5'i|«'*nS»W« "one 
yersed in talking nooflenBe, as ii only 
for his mouth's sake'' (or '^as if on 
aooount of his mouth'') {Ev.). 

ipm^ fito/m-iMis^'l^ bleak and barren 
plaoe (JfAon.). 

jfj^'fl ikar^wa I : pf . ^^ , imp. %\ to 
hang up; to weigh ^ 1% ^'% M^T 
weight ; ^^'^ measure ; soale ; K^'^i thar^wa 
for 4|^*% H^'^ and ^'^ points on a steel- 
yard- for weight or measure : if^*|! five 
points on the steel-yard weighing two 
annaB of silver : %^'^ (one ffair) is equal 
to ten M hon^ whioh is a little less than 
an Indian anna. 

^^ ikar-ma ^frfW:, t«ll^» HTTT, 
wnn a star ; a fixed star ; oonstellation : 
!«••% ^^IS, J*«JP'«'^'ft'»J^ {VaLkar.) 
the stars that are liberated and that soar 
on high and roam are twenty-eight in 
number: V^'^r^ ikar-ma-can with stars or 
figures of stars on anything, a shawl, fto. 

a hole or mnall opening for the admission 
of, light in i^ house; a window; same as 
r4^ V. SI^V; H'^WlT^ a plank or 
board for a window; shutters ; flf^'ll^'V 
1'^ rnmiw^^ lattice window; a grated 

q^'ft^^ ikar'khaHi the sphere of a 
lunar mansion; a oonstellation together 
with the minor stars whioh are included 
within its sphere. 

%^'T^ ikar^fgAhan nwir an astrologer. 

i|^'(^ ^kar-icag a rigorous enquiry ; a 
flogging (Ja.). 

V^*« ikar^ehu i : literally star-water ; 
bathing when the star Agastya {Rubyi^ 
appears in October, when, according to 
Tibetan astrologers, water becomes pure 
and wholesome. 

f^'^ n: generally applied to dew 
which is said to come from the stars : 
§kar4ag tai eh$ (JH) to enquire rigorously ; 
to restrict ; to bind down ; to Aog. 

||^*«^ I j^rHiufti^ a shooting star; ft'** 
igran^ma a lamp; $*"t'*i wviT a meteor: 
f^'si^q'l^'q or 1^'^ wiivnnir the falling or 
shooting of a meteor. 

%K9¥^'^^'W^ tkar-iifdaii ggaH^lam 
§na w^wi^ or w^nwni one having either 
his face or nose glowing as a meteor ; a 
demon; a meteor-mouthed arrow ; n. ofa 
fire-arm anciently used in India* One of 
the ancestors of Gautama Buddha, directly 
descended from Mahasammata, the first 
elected king of the world. 

fip'W tkar-^pffoi^ff^fm fitor-fMi 
Mfcrology; ^^'^js'cisil^^*! an astrologer 

«P'W ikar^pkran or ipt^ a litUe 

q^*^^ Skar^l^^d h n. of a fabulous 
city situated at the foot of lUrab (Sumeru) 
mountain said to be the residence of the 
wdlMira King, Eantha-M&ll. 2. the squares 
in a chart of the constellations in 
which the figiures represendng the stars 
are written. 8. the angular distanot 
between two stars or planets (Ce,). 

^^'^ H: (Os.) 1. a penning of 
cattle; assortment; separation; to pen; 
to fold ; to separate, v. ^^'^ 




■apposed to be L»onU. Thie itar ii 
believed to be the moft eteedy among the 
■tan sad ia therefore called the eure-Btar 
or flzed-etar ; alflo called the crown-atar. 

Syn. ^■•t kt^f^pa\ ^l^a tka^ite^- 

Im ; ^|iK'^^ g^er-^phur (Mian.). 

W^'9^t^f^ iiar-ma tUag^tMQf alao ^^••^ 
p'WUi, a twinkling ■tar ; painting on a 
canopy or on a ceiling in starry design ; 
\ff^ thoflc oonstellationa throngh which 
the moon paBfles in her reyolution round 
the heaven ; <rf^i^ the constellation nnder 
which one ie bom ; ^^*%^ a propitiona 
eonitellation ; the constellation nnder 
ivhiflh one piospers or which bringn 
^)rtane and good Inek to one. 

ip'sr^I ^kar-mm kUke ni'iq^f^ the 
injury caused by a malignant star. 

q^-sA'^ |t4r-iM|t ipyo4 sAfin an 
examination or obaerration of the stars. 

flf^'f^% Shor-mig^ "son of Btar-eye 
or 9JbrHii^/' the eagle. A certain hermit 
called #fcar-Mi|f found three eggs. These 
he gaw to a woman in di str ess, saying 
that if she broke them after seven days 
they would bring her happiness. Out of 
impatient onriosity she broke two on the 
third and the nxOi day. These turned 
into lightning and the dawn. The third 
Ae broke on the serenth day, when there 
gpnmg forth a full-fledged eagle which 
torniAc round asked what she wanted of 
him. In reply she wished him to kill the 
Im dem<ms; and -this' he accordingly 
Theneef orth the eagle came to be kn 
as die son of gkar-mig (Jf^on.), 

Mi^'^ ikm^idiin star-catching ; making 
sure of a propitious const#llation9 e.g.^ 
for an intended journey (/a.). 

«^'^^ §kar'M litfif :«ir the light emit- 
ted by a star ; name of a kind of flower. 

41^'V ^ar^pum works or treatises on 
the stars ; l|^'««i'^M'9t« aacred works on 
stars and planets. 

IpI^Q tkal-pa ^fu, cw luck, chance, 
fortune— particularly when propitious. 

q«i'M ikai-ian fAiw wretohed; im- 
lucky ; nnfortuate. 

m^'Vfm lifcu^csti-nui, also called IF'f ^'^i 
ifte^^iMfia 1. ini«9«V n. of a goddess ; 
a blessed lady. 2. sf tt^we fpi^la IM- 
IM n. of a diseiase in whioh the hairs are 

nf^'H^ ^coHdan WW, mnm Wpy; 

blessed; also n. of one of the 28 ancient 
sages mentioned in Buddhist works. 

f^'fl'^f ^ibrf-JUSsfi ffV-ffe mwftK^ n. 
of a king of the solar race who is said to 
have brought tlie river Ganges to JambuF 
dvf pa (India) from heaven ; one of the 
ancestors of the Buddha S'akya-muni: 

'<&vour me w4^ letters uninterruptedly 
like the course of the river Bhiglrathi 


I|^-||if J|c*|jl-9*M fftffAidSsn fM-flaiJ bu^tno 
UTifK'ft, V. •♦-1* Gai^g4, the daug&ter of 
Bhaglrathai the river Ganges (MMtm.). 

V*i'<r«i| iktil^pO'^H «iw» nrfir^ the for- 
tunate : ipr^«^'^^ mflH^ ^nH are 
very fortunate. 

very fortunate, lucky; also powerful and 




^qii^q ikal-pa, fgAam^ uniformly 
foxttmate or always luolri iP'«rV^w» 
foiiimate : A V^'||ii*<i'«iHi'^ H* mt dai^ ikal- 
pa ifinam^par §kye9 Ull^lll ^nm^mifjMM* 
bom with fortune eqnal to that of a human 

t ||«i-q'qji;*If ikal'pa iuang^po vn^rm good 
fortune; i||^'<r^^'Q bad luok, unfortunate; 
I;^^t'^y4|ii'l|i| the matrimonial share of 
the present life; the connubial fate for 
which a person is predestined ; <«*d'i||4i'q 
religious good luck ; also the merit of the 
pious ; urt**'^ very lucky ; ip'*S unfortu- 

i|<i'q ^S q ikal-pa ifoi-pa fortunate ; ipi' 
<i'fq| q extra luck. 

I|i|'^^ ikal-bphar enlarged fortune; 
lucky or of increased luck. 

JjjQI'^ tkal'tcass* eha UTirl. portion; 
ihai^; ^i^q^^iq^ Ifq- W the apportioned 
share of hereditary wealth ; inheritance ; 
'«'««i Aharo or portion of food ; ration ; 
«y^ri personal share : i||nq»i»sq^ without 
being deprived of any of his portion. 2. 
the portion of good or bad fortune that 
falls to a man's lot as a consequence of 
his former actions ; lot, fate, destiny* 

ip'qaS'q ikalr^a ehaf-pa suppressed 
fortune ; unhappy. 

M^'^^ ikai^bxai ^^n 1. prosperous; of 
good fortune. 2. a plant — CkryBonihefnum 

^'^ ikal-rin the valuation of one's 
share of property ; the price of one's share 
in any concern (Jig.). 

P^ $ka9 or H^l «A:a|.Ara, also called «|«' 
fW^ : im'%^ f^.-^fw, a stair ; a flight of steps ; 
%m Jr'^'*' order of steps ; f ^V^ the two 
side-pieces of a staircase or ladder (CIs.) ;l|^* 

H'>|o io place a ladder ; H^i'trw^q qnv- 
qrT^fnsiT to come down a ladder; l|«'^' 
<M*qiiOf W to olimb up a ladder. 

l«i*ifvg*si fkaa-tkar khra^ma the lattice, 
rail or fencing by the sides of stairs. 

H^'^^'S ikai'ffdaH-bu, abbr. of W^'^'^^ 
^^'B, a flight of long steps in a ladder: 
|H'^^^-q-«|-ipiq|^^*a- q^H' ^^^^•q• i?v«w I to 

bring him (here) a seven-step ladder was 
necessary (A. 91). 

%^'^ ikoi^ihai signifies a flight of 
steps (Jig.). 

m^'^q ikai'hb the step3 of a ladder or 
stair; the planks of a ladder. 

M iku qrw, wiXWf ifSf, resp. for fP^ luf^ 
body. 1. §ku may be prefixed to the 
names of parts of the body and even of 
anything belonging to a person, thus 
imparting to them the character of res- 
pectful terms. As honorific pariide it can 
also be prefixed to nouns in general : |'4« 
the person or body of a great man ; |'«^ 
goods, stores or property of a man of 
rank ; also the religious robe of a lama. 
1*1* iku'ikpe8 a present (given to or re- 
ceived from a respected personage); |'49s 
virtue, happiness; |'^ image, statue; 
1'^ the wrapper used by a lama or a 
great man ; |*^ the cloak used by the 
lamas when attending a reUgious service ; 
f^'^^ the inner lower garment of a man 
of rank. Even buildings (monasteries, 
jftc.) are honoured by this respectful 
expression: J'S^v^llqq to white-wash 
a house, &c. ; 'ff^H rko^-^ku an engraved 
image ; ^^*| tapestiy ; a figure worked 
upon satin with silk ; ^t«i'| an image of 
clay ; ^'9 a woven image ; 1('| a stone 
image; {^'1 a molten image; |*| a 
painted image; ^^'t a Bomo Rclitpo 

uBftge; 1^1 VutMk^ a oait image; 
^^'|0Mr-iiM a golden image. 2. for 
1^ fte -yi may be also vaed honorifloally as 
a poet, meaning •'biBi" ''her/' ''yonn/' 
fto. 8« It is forfhar employed to e xpre ss 
the leAectite Terb Myetf-^aH ia iku 
bdeg ''why sve you beating yoanelf P" 

|'I|<| iku^ikal portion or shore of a 
respected person. 

I V §ku'§k^m the lean slender body of 
a respectable person* 

HfP'^tkU'khami a great man's person; 
also the state of wealth. 

I'^lPqsK niku'i/am lUhbear a personal 
intenriew; to approach or come before a 
great man personally. 

|'a^^«'«^« 9kt$^gegi cAag§ disease 
caused by eril spirits. 

Wtf^^ «*t^ Ma rffStal-po the five divine 
Buddhas symbolical of the five highest 
moral yirtoes inouloated in Buddhism* 

1"^ sku^yu the matter or substance 
whereof an image is made. 

1'«|^ 9fB^tgyf4 a scion, descendant, of 
a noUe fimuly . 

f '^s^ fitf-(00r personal attendant of a 
gieatman; gen. the attendant monks of 
the Dalai Lsma (& kar. 181); also same as 
m^d as in |-4S^'«r^-a §ku^ioar igtkhan^ 
pa, the domestic prieetof the Dalai Lama 
who is also called |'«V'*n'9 

I'qs^'li ikt^-icar-mo the raiment worn 
next to the skin {Tig.). 

n^n the chattels and other possessions of 
any high dass person. 

|'*i iku^kat^^'^ robes; drees worn 
by great men or by lamas* 

80 1*11 

I «i^ 9ku'niehsd hrotiisn and eistcn. 

••%c«|s«V^I "those who aie bom the 
sons of kings are 'kum-che,' and tiie 
pupils of one lama are 'kom-che' (XeC ' 
S). |*«A^^<pi the three spiritual sons of 
Bromston— (l)Q*y'4'^-Hspi«, (2)|Tr^<^ 
^•^^S (8) ««K.«ria^-t- j>r«^ ; ^V^fpriT 

^5"* S I'' *^|***S'^*4*«^ {Lad * ») ; these 
three were called the spiritual sons of 

|'«i^ |iptf.fi4^s|'Mi Uc^a§ or ^'^ 
handkerchief ( Tig. k. 66). 

1'^ iku-ifHer VTWefW keeper of 
images in a temple or monastery. 

9'^ fAru-^t^kiA i: a reflected image, r. 
1'^ or ^^^<iH likeneas (4r*m.). 

|'«IH ii: »1 -^ the health or desh of a 
respectable psorscn (JK^on.). 

I't^ ^su-ttm an image of Boddha 
or of a saint. It is a contraction of flie 
three words : fih#, gtuM, ihug-ttem the holy 
image, #.«., of a Buddha or saint; the 
sacred books or volumes containing reli- 
gious precepts ; and the vhaitya {wchotien), 
the symbol of the resting of the th$g9 or 

I'^ir* l*a-i/^«w|=l^Mi birth (of 
a great man). 

9'^ iku'thog^i^'^ lifetime; age; 
generation; l*rr««|*T^"« or fl^ 
ir^''« former generation; also ancestor 

or predecessor ; fl^-l^si-illhrHT* sue- 
ceeding generation ; |*l^'ss('Q many gene- 
rations : •KI|«i|H^^|«»r1[-|'«|'sp;.fl-^qii 
^i^t«i I q ^i the three incarnate beings 
of Tibet {U.y the Dalai Lsma, Pancben 
liama and Tarinith Lama) having come 
in many re-births are greatly blessed. 


11^"^ iku dfui-pa a page; an attendant 
ef a great man ; a pritate leoretary to a 

1'^^ iku-^iiui reliot, remains; also 
lineage, desoendants. 

Q'^<( fte-^ra (kunda) nfimT, «Mlm, 
9^ image; etatoe of Buddha or any 
sainted persons. 

Syn. Hf^iku-irfian ; |'TI^ fku-gMugi ; 
flB^qf^ 0stijrff-(rfi0» ; 1^'^^ ihr-g^ugi ; 

^^; ^'^ de-Ua; ^'^^cfe-iifra; ^••^ksi cfe- 

hdrai V^^M pra^phab i$hin; *^sr«P^' 
^c.« legi'-par i^AeUfi ^'^V bier-ino; 
jl^'lt^'w iiar-grib-ma; q^en'sq^ ilar-bga 
fpthun; s^m^'vitm dHoi-po ndshu^g; ^%'^ 
idra^a; rS ^o-fttf ; )^'^ ner4$had; ^^H'^' 

|'V^<ifAw Idem-pa to be nnwell, ill; 

Syn. «1>v«J5*' nad-kpii iiab; ^'W^e 
nffrf phog-pa ; ^'^ twr-tra ; ^'^'^J^'^ na-Uha 
bbyuH'fca] psw«'^'^*A^w#wa-t(fc-tfa; *V 
qg^ii'q idu-wa tkhrugi-pa ; V^'^IV' *^- 
ireir gduH-wa ; 9»W»i*«i^'^ nauyff ma-^cfe-fra ; 
^'%^'^bro it9hal^a\ Y^^tnun-pa {IffAon). 

1'^ ihi^na a respectable person's age. 

%m^ zkm^'b^b a mimkey of the kngur 
class loimd near Bathang. 

I'^si Ski^thum '*a hundred thousand 
images," commonly pronoonoed Knm- 
bum. The name of the birth place of 
Tsongkbapa in Amdo, situated to the east 
of lake Kokonor ; also the name oi huge 
jDonaiitery buili on the spot. YiUage and 
monaststy both deriye their names from 

a poplar tree, the leayes of whieh are said 
to bear miraculous impressioiis of a hun- 
dred thousand images *ol Buddha on them. 
Hue and W. W. Sookhili have giyen 
elaborate accounts of Eumbum monastery: 

(LoH. 17) he (KiiiiMudwalkPhQlaThaiji) 
erected the gilt dome of the monastery 
of Ghambaling above Eum-bum in Amdo. 

I'm i'^U'itnad the part of the body 
below the navel; |'9S'm the upper and 
lower parts of the body. 

1'^ iku48ha a brother's son; a nephew; 
called ^*V Uha^o in coUoquial language. 

^^'^ihhUhab a representative; deputy 

ft^H^ 9ku tske^od-W^'^^ during 
the time of his predecessors. 

j'*»*t iktMfiishaij reap, for ^^^H% the 
blood (of a great man's) body. 

|*^Q« ihMkai§ lit. '^your honour's 
feet," is the correct form of the bolloq. 
expression I'-'H^t meaning your 
honour, your lordship, your worship. It 
is generally pronounced as ku»iko. 

i'W 9ku^g!8ansz^^ gun %hawl wrap- 
per worn by lamas ( Yig. k. 66). 

a'^^«i^#*w-»*«yf ft*««*V« health; 
also healthy. 

Syn. r*^'^ khami Jcfe; ^rt^s fcr- 

^'A'Moi bro fm-Hshal (Jf^on.). 

|*^'<l^ll*^^'^^ ffjtti^' bab§ dai iitun 
according as his health permiti;; according 
to the state of one's health. 

l-^ITsiX^ iku^yi 90-^dog, resp. of V^\ 
r^m lu^^yUkhami health : U'|^'f'«iVr^^' 
g8«Ws|lKiwwr|>^-ns^-HR- 1 just now youn 
health is good like the condition of the 
gold in the Dsam-bu river. 



|*vpi |lw.r«^l a1|'^« fitf-roifl, alao V 
M^ «fai-ra^9 a sadi ( Tig. i. 66.). 

9'^' liw-riX the period of a life— ane*t 
own or •notlieir't. 

1'^ fiti-rifit, xoBp, for ^'f rm^gro^ 
T^fTesrefD/oe^ respeot, aad thence the coioxaon 
word for any set service in a temple and in 
general for a cetemonial act of woTBhip, 
and particalarly in the special sense of a 
solemn saeriflcial ceremony. |'^*rj'f^ 

^l^'frr^"*!!^'^ indicates the allowance 
granted by the Qovemment of Lhasa for 
Kwrim in the different monasteries of 

9*^ sibf-ru a water-wheel without a 
rim; such are the water-wheels of all 
the mills in the Himalaya (c/cl.). 

«|*5[P ^kurfik'kha asterisks; marks 
generally of the figure of a cross, + 
also X . The latter is common in books 
as an abbreviation like ** ditto," to save 
the repeated writing at full length of the 
same sentence or word or expression. 
Some authors spell this word as Q'VP- 

1*^91 fku-bii w^9 resp. for ^«, the 

j^d oorpulent ; also corpulence ; the ori- 
ginal name of jffirom Sffy^tca^t bbyu^ 
gnat (4lMofi.). 

1'1'h'*'* iku-g^gi-pa dying; death. 

9'^^ Shi'gfeniffen Bab the great 
teacher of the Bon: ^\U-V«'^PST%"r'^ 
1^1'^'^^'^R^ *' Soi-ur ipal was my 
father, I 9^ 99^ of Tag g»her am called 
Mbrom** (Bbrom. P ft), 

1*9^^ iku^rai irgya4j the eight 
qtfritoal sons of Bon-po B^en-rab are the 
following :— (1) «'V^ MiUim \ (2) ^'%Y^' 

H S9t4iug ikat'po ; (8) ^rfa'S*^**^ Q4<hiu 
bum-ioii; (4) S3V3'^'^^ Opya44n$ khf%^i ; 

(6) %^'^^ lu^hM:^^i (6) '^V'^W 9rg^4 

idttH ; (7) ^t:4rf^f^% KaH4$ka ikar-po ; 
(8) >lfi^'''^^*E'«^ Ebi-UAa ^jAut-bn chu4. 

t'^^'l^ 2^'^ gsud'thugsy resp. for 
^4i'M|-9^ body, speech, thought, which 
constitute tho ihreo sphere.) of j. ii.fvn' 
doingd or Bufltrir;^^; y>rkL ii.. 'Horajs aud 

1'^^ tku^gsutn t%q[fw, f^rarrv the three 
personal ezBistct:cea of a Buddiia, v:.?., 
^^'S'iJ iniNnw spiritual existence ; ^^'^' 
8\?«jn'«i5"j fnHi?;«T^ celestial eriatonoe, 
and a«i'«A'g f»iHjl'X«l4| bodily exli?ioac3; 
also miraculously emanated ^xistcuco. 

J'^l^ iku-gae/! rest and gontlo exercise 
(of a great man) when oonvalaeoent : ^fw 

|-^t|-^^«i«^*w ' when gout was indica- 
ted in the form of sweUing of the body and 
slight improyement approached, it being 
the time of convalescence, he went out 
(Ja-w/. 11) 

W^^^ tku-isruHf or I'^wia ^n. 
ftsrufit-^ tfmwsi, ^m^nm attendant; 
waiter; body-guard. 

S*ipS| fAw^5= J^ wager; the stake in a 
game received by the winner. J^'^ 
^^•*i signifies |S««^*^^^'»^«««'^T«i, that is, 
anything placed in pawn: l^'^^'^S'M* 
|'«dt*4(«i t (2>. J2.) it the wager is lost he 

will be plunged into an ocean of grief. 

|C*2||A;Kil^a==CTQ'«^'<i to conceal in 
a secret place {fiag.)^ pf . 4|^« i9kiUI§^ fut. 
4|^' itkuH, 1. to hide in the ground ; to 
bury; to inter: «iSTl''i?^'V'?'^<»lw'^M 
I have found hidden treasures and 
concealed wealth (nor.)- 2. iHNiw 
{A. K. 63-66) to fasten dovm ; to tie, to 




tie on all Bides (a corpse in a doubled up 
or twisted position before it is burnt). 

||^^'« 9kuil9^a lurking place; biding 

1. tbready 7am, wire: IV^^V** to cut 
the thread, t.^., the tie of marriage; to 
diroroe. ^<i'^X»<' j5|[V<i the thread to sew 
a dress with ; ^^'fj^ cotton thread, yarn ; 
^'JS woollen thread ; ^^ 5S gold wire ; 
W'J^ silver wire : JS ^^ yellow thread ; 
S^'l^ silk thread ; ^^'%^ coloured thread ; 
f S'^ the frayed ends of a seam ; |V^^' 
f^ an embroiderer ; one that makes up a 
picture with threads of different colours ; 
^V^^= ^5P¥'i5S'«' ^rf^ftni needle- work on 
doth; JJV^«M*'^ spinning thread. 2. 
vb. pf . «Jjl^, ful. m, imp. Jl'^, to smear ; to 
besmear ; to daub : |»»<i|*\«»= J* 8*q^'*» to be 
smeared with oil: ipMj^JV*! to paint a 
door: 1P''S"1S'*' to anoint; to apply an 
ointment; JSo«j1»«i or |S«rq|«^-^ci 
threads twisted together. 

JS**^ ikuihpfthi ^=S^'5 %9 dar- 
gyi ^rin-lm silk-worm (jtfi^fi.}. 

ipun zla 1. wife's brother; brother- 
in-law. 2. ^1;^ father-iu-law (cTa.). 3. 
in Sikkima hvtbbaud's younger brother 
is also called iku4-po. 

^^*9 tkun-bu is described as Vf^vv 
q^^'<A'|^ imyug^ma-la iiag§-pai$ inof a 
wicker-work basket ; but a basket or vessel 
made of bamboo is called ^^'8 or V"'** 

W ikub ^rvr very low (Lex.). 

»*l'^ ikum-pa, pf. ^w^fut. iijw, imp. 
|»Mi, to contract; also to be drawn up; to be 
paralysed: «hI'«iT|'<'^ to draw in the 

^^'0 nh^'pa ^XT^K slander; false 
witness ; blasphemy ; abuse : |j^*^^fl*i*a game 
as l^'^rqjq-q to throw abuse, east aspersion 
and to bear false witness; to speak im- 
piously of holy things : ^^^'W^T^W^*"*"^^' 
g«^ff'^i^|^qH^wq to blaspheme by view, 
ing as untrue the three most precioOB 

^^'^ lifkur^a or 1^8^ g to slander, 
mock, ridicule. 

S^'n II:=g^'q 5nif a bestowing, 
giving, sending ; also vb. a. to bestow, 
give, send; Sq^'qj'%'q ^nfirtqr to furnish 
with power; to empower or instal; ^^ 
5^'«J to send Intelligence ; ^'5^ probably 
decorating one with the peacock's feather 
(as in China). 

j^q-R^q^q ^kur-wa hdehi-pa to hold aa 
not existing what exists; to belittle. 

5'««|^ gkui'fjikkhaii in W, overseer 

J«i'4 ikul'tgy^i to render service; to 
exact service : ••'^••r'^-i^^wjiJvjii^ftjra^-jqii 
the eon-in-law (elect), though he is not a 
slave by birth, must render service for three 
yearn (to the parents of the bride). 

a^'2I ^ul^wa, pL.m«, '^^'f^'^ to 
excite ; to exhort, admonish, enjoin : ^ 
H^fljfijis q^jai q to exhort a man to do a 
thing; to appoint: ftH"«^1'"^H^'y im- 
posed some work on a person: ^^-ln*^- 
q|fli'^^ being induced by his words: ^' 
^'mnn''s^lf^*^^'%^''%^^^\ tie (departed) 
soul urged on by its former deeds and 
sins: S'^^'^Kl'^S^* though I tried to 
bring round the gods and evil spirits 
by sacrifices: 8«^«'«P''^Ta'|*''^^' arousmg 
strongly (the actors) with flutes and other 
instruments. ^9^'^ and more frequently 
q|ai'«i exhortation; admonition. q|<i'ir 

^^ also 1^JT«' «nd |^«T8S' to 
expofltolate with, rebuke ; inoite. 

Jf^'^'ikul-tBhig a woid in the horU* 
tiTO or imperatiTe mood. 

11 fib m^, reep. ^^y neok ; throat : ^i^ 
4'^^ with one throat ; onanimonaly : 'i|' 
^V4=s1|'^^« and 1|'^H«i to cut one's 
throat ; to behead: It^'MM-q to seiae by the 
throat ; to worry (Beh.) : ll^^^'d to tie 
round the neok (an amulet) ; ll"^^ neok- 
laae (Sehr.) ; 11'* ornament for the neok ; a 
neoklaee : PMlAMl'jifc'y-^ the ooral neck, 
laoe of a woman of Kkam§. 

\JI^' tke-iiofi cavity of the throat («/a.), 
defined in Med. as 8l«i«i^|'>Cn-<«'ii'^c^fc- 
if^-q the cavity as &r down as below the 

||'4f 9ke't$e orH'X TTfMiT, it^: Sinapis 
ramoMy black mustard; mustard seeds 
{Ja ) : ^^Tr^«HMiV^-fr^*ii| it removes 
evil spirits and 3nre« swellings and 
carbuncles {Med.). 

1|'^' Ske^ehaH n,of an old monastery 
situated in th«> mountains behind the 
monastery of Sera (Deh. ^ IS). 

a sash; an ornament like a sash worn 
round the waist. 

%f^ ^9 W^ n. of a oonsteUation : 
'^M^ ffe^-fa fi^l ^#ITiff bom in the 
constellation of Aglefd. [The man bom 
in the constellation of Afle|& is unf ortu- 
natai inasmuch as his birih is followed by 
the death of himsrif, his mother or father.] 

Irf^ lft»^-4t|of painty rouge (for the 

1|C*^C4| JSJtei^Juti n. of a place in 
Tib0t (Deb. ^ U). ' 

98 ^V^\ 

Ih^'T^ l*f»#-*tfr same as UMp-s-ip, 
white sash. 

ii;^m n. of a medicinal drug (jtftfon.). 

%S^ jW-it/«=>\'«i wfir the waist: 
lis ffttf lA'W orV^'i^w iked-ikabt f«nn^, 
the hind parts below the waist ; 1^'<A'ST* 
%qrarT waist-band, "ij^'^ tf:e4*9o the waists : 

. "i^S'^'*^ j-^a«'1lV«*l»«|«ra the length of 
hair reaching down even to the waist 
(JSbrom. P SB). 

ilS'M ikei^mOy v. t'^, pomegranata 

V*'^ ikem-^iad consumption. 

||*l'^ ikem-pa^r*^ whw, adj. ^[% 
fpww, wit vb. pf . 'IP Win, fttt. ^nf^ or 
^nfrm:^ imp. iH ifomi , pres. H^fl^ftsa 

1. to make dry, lean meagre ; to dry up. 

2. also as adj. I|X'Q gkam-po dry; dried 
up; meagre. 

V* |ikM»^sVi'H^V^'«i lea% thin 
body (JlfHtm.). 

V*'9^ $kem^e4 n. of a demon that 
causes drought; VSvl^^^ n. ol a 
trouble (in the body of a person) caused 
by an evil spirit. 

It^'dSA'^l^'Q ^m^ei dkar^po the resin 
of the eal tree, which is burnt as an 
incense; same as H^'S^ white iccense 
gum ($Man. 447.) 

V*^'* ^/^emipe d - m a n. d a goddess. 

«^'<rii^*|-ifV*in an epithet of Knmira, 
the younger son of Ifahideva (Jlfik^.). 

V^'*' 9kem§'pa vmnr» ww, v. ^a 
very thin, lean. 

V«-qR |q*a ikemhpa^i fbrebt-jM iStrm 
the bunger of emaciating disease. 

||*^'^*|^ |*#r Mifur pony, aheeis 

y^ 1*04*0 f^nv the ohin. 

y(X tk(H00, pt ^IK fat. ^'or ««f-«i, 
to aoliot ; alio to appointi nominate, oom- 
^f— i/wi^ ohttge; ^m'triT'' to appoint a 
pmmtowdrk: V'^F-V^SM^'**'^*'^ I 
(jr. Ai. ^ Ml) ihonld appoint a ge-kmg 
(Buddhift numk) to arrange for lodg- 
ing) trtl^'^''' re^ to the throne; 
«rQ)pR*l|a' witliottt mandate; nnbidden; 
^«i'ii'4i^'iide0tlned; appointed to the work, 
<.o^ diitiiied (to be a man) in ooneeqnenoe 
^ hit iw»ki I »^•|• w^ appointed by 


Tfr^ |iko4f# a miztnre of the leaTos 

of vtfloiia kinda of leeke ponnded and 

formed into balla and dried; when used, 

ft email portion it broken off , frit ~ 

bntter, and than added to Uie food, 
qloe lormi a Ineratim artiele of oomnieroe 

and ii exported from Ladak to Kashmir 
and from Lhaea to India (J3.). 

Iftpi §kog§m^^9 or ^fT«» a hard cover- 
ing; rind; baik ; a ahell: fl"-*^ §kog§oan 
adj., having a oover or ihell (<?••). 

l(fe'^ floiiHM fn, pf. W^^ W^h 

fat mF favp* ^t to *°^» ^^ *^- 
^•ari|k*, to fdit a hope: F^'^ to fill up 

what fjopen; to make iip a defldenoy: S^' 
*Ftf^4^i'4Mi<M«-l*»<to fulfil perfeotly 
the lawi of virtue. rHkor F^(|F« alio pw 
^ rignifyan appendix; supplement: ^^n* 
VP**f^'^*'^ will be deioribed in the 
tfpendix betow: W^''^'^ to do a 
anteai oormony folly aooording to your 


vow; ^viA*4||^*^ the ceremony to latiifjr 
one's guardian deity by aapplamentiiig 
what was wanting and making amends 
for the same: ^IF*^1^ is ^Ji offering or 
ionna for a defioienqy: 1IF«^^ offering 
of some representation of celestial man- 
sions, made of coloured threads, to one's 
guardian deities ; ^^'"pi offering to tho 
gods and guardian deities. 

i[«r^ f*o«|-fi>=^«riirMr^ may your 
hope be fulfilled. 

Ij^'fl iifcoii-/Nis$r<> 1. sbfit. V. %fl. 
2. vb* pf • and fut. ^Ipi to dress ; to dothe 
another person. 

)JW i*o«s=IF«^, vw««s«», e^*^* 

HM'^W^'^A'^^ (i^<vO signifies the com- 
ing oooaaion of doing some difficult work. 

Ij'l t: 1^0191 f^TWr, «^r thirst; resp. 
M'i|ii 8haU§kom,'fV^''fp^'^''^ tormented 
Vy thirst; Mi'V^'i|«i food and drink: C«r 
^•^vv^-r^-^ tike milk (Ut. "white'') 
and tea for thirst: if^%9g.'^pSn fkonhdu 
ehai-iftol take wine for thirst (EitUhai. 

Ijijfi n: the dry land (Jd.). 

ijsri^ ihom-^kyur sour beer; K)ur 
fermented liquor* 

ipw "iS 9k&m-da4 or iKsV* thinrt ; fr*^' 
ir«rl'ii one who is very thirsty : if^^^V 
•TiT^si lypf ^rwrfiit: (give) drink to the 
thirsty; ^V^'^^^S^k'^SS wishing for 
drink; F^H mouth drying; thirsty: |«' 
«r^-^<«^* V9^«»^ ^^ r the thirsty will be 
freed from their thirst. 

9^1'^ fjtom-M| «f^ thirsty; imp. 
)r«sr^ w)>ifi(^ become thirsty; C'l^V^ 
(iim(wi thirsty, 

IK-1 fibM-f^^ fl<^ of a eaU that 
died or was killed as ioon aa it wai bom. 


¥^f 95 

even befine it oould saok milk from its 
mother's teat (Sm^n.). 

11^4 §i»mhpa firvnF^ thirsty. 

Hjl^ |far L qIms^ order; apperteiii- 
ingto; sabjeot ; drole ; bod J— e term often 
used to signify a retmue, a set of atten- 
dantSy persons of one dass ; '^^ elaas 
of official stait ; also oourt (Tiff. k. ST) ; 
i'^U^ daei of husband; that whioh 
eonoerns a hnsband ; 9^*^*1*1^ olass of 
women, about women ; ^^'If^'^ of that 
order; with rsepect to that; also of that 
snbjeot ; ff^'K^'^ on the fnbjeot of 
Ktagaium ; sAS'st^jf^ the paraphernalia o( 
warddp ; ^1^ oiioiiit^ toor : f S'H^^i Pir 
«ppr|^- V^^t^^r^-ffr^ I <«the Besideiit 

Amban of Tibet (stsrted) from Lhasa on 
a nulitaiy tour, ftc/' 2. anything roond, 
a cirde; ^|K eye-balL In W. V^ 
hoop of bamboo (Sekir.) ; M-y^ ths 
(oireottf ereaoe) of a man's head ; P^'fi*!^ 
the top of a house. 8. soolionf diTision, 
€,ff.^ of a book, similar to ^ chapter. 4. 
repetition ; lp^'f^'«i to repeat {8ekir.). 6. 
reUgious oiroumambulation, t. 4^'^. 

S^jm. \^ tie-iihan^ ^^ rigg^ ^ ffrag^ 
^ dan (4ffM.). 

i^'sn iftor-fiUaii one who goss round ; 
|K*q one who turns a lathe ; one who oir- 
eumambutates or walks round a saorsd 

tar.) classes in astrolf^gy. There are eight 
heads or seclio|is according to Indian 
aslRpIogy; aoooiding to Tibetan astrologj 
there axe flflesn ^'^ heads cf astrology, 
sock as about kings, ministers, priests, 
ngratios, foeens, Aa ; also about 

birlh, growth, maidenwi old psnons, ill- 
ness, husbandry, houses, serrioii, Ac ; ^c 
e|^^-^«v«-^-«l about profit in trade* 
^Tr■^»^•*^♦^^m| ^ptoAt from the com- 
pounding of medicines and drugs ; W* 
*p«'<vani'<K-et- 1 interest accruing 
from the laying out of lilver (money). 

^*Y^ l*^-WJW^I turning the enemy; 
getting into his rear (J8.)* 

K^'s^ §kar4kaff the cord of a lathe. 

H^'^ ti^f'^Ml price or rate; also 
interest on anything in kind ; in grain 
giTsn as loan. 

ii^'H gkar4ktff a pair of compassee; 
If^'Hm • ding. 

I^'«i §kor^ or ^'^'9 or if'^'^W a turner ; 
also one who goes on his rounds. 

ip^a fioTHM, vb., pf., &C., fut. «i|^ 
1. to fill with ; to surround, encircle, 
enclose, besiege ; to come again and again ; 
to^revolTe: p^-<*1F^*<cft^ ^ j (A. X.) 
the town that waa encircled (filled) with 
homes: Ifrs^-e^ i^-«ii^'«^i*^MNJ| the 
three men of those who were surrounding 
them : ^t'frWY^'mnif^ r the Chief cf the 
Ta-rti^ mountains is surrounded by 
rugged rocks: |'rs^a'^ur>'mi( the 
I¥-rfoi {Ti90) mountain ie eurrounded by 
glaoien: S-^'S^rn-aqr^wai^ the Kfura 
Bw^^ mountain is surrounded by water 
(JD.jR). 2. to tiuTene ; ride round a thi^g. 
Also metaphorically in the religions ssnse: 
<«r|*^'V-a|k'a to preach, to pffopound the 
doctrine of Buddhism: 'ri'lh^'V-il^'** 
to make mystic ofisrings (i.^., the lyvbo* 
licsl oflerings v ap^^^n^ n g caitf% aeeuanu 
lated merito) to the TimMk dstties, and 
to obeerre the ceremoniee thereof . 3. 9^'» 
or ^*w'9^ nrf^ the remrentisl eaie* 
mcny of ciroumambnlaticn which eonsisls 
in walking round a holy e^|eet wMi 


«•*• riglit ddd towudi tt. TbisiiilM 
cdbd <«i^ «AoHlte^ WkK^n Bnddhiit 
cJiooanftBibnBLlitioii* Tb6 Bvi&dbiit priMts 
ol Tibok perfom lihk in ocmtndis^ 
to V<l^ or ih« o&nmmj of tba Bot^ vlio 
Mvwvnoei ft laorod object liy walking 
ramd it keoiing it to bis Iflft. The Bon 
ottemony ii alio odled «f<iriK i?alldng 
Tonndft bolj objeot kee^ng it to the left 
ff <>^-4^-«rtV^ M ft ipeoafliofttion of reli- 
gfanis dntiee, to meke Nlutfttioa and oir* 
eomftmbiilatioiiB. ^1^ tbe inner peth- 
wftj for daeamembidftting ft bblj piece 
or dunne ; \^ the outer peaaege for the 
ftbote objeot ; ^1^ the middle pethwaj 
for the iftuie ; ^'§S Vkor-J^ one who 
goes round or makee ft onrale or trayerae. 
Other naagea of thia Torb are : — vt^l^'^ 
or a^l^'SS'^ to befool, delude, deoeire a 
peraon ; rif^'^ ^^ tkar-wa to nuike one 
alter one'a aentanoienta; to divert one from 
aplan^fto. *^^-^ liter in •rqJ^-^qi^Bigmflea 
if all were taken into aoooimt; the dr- 
omnatanoea or thinga tfvailftbkt (A. liS)» 

Syn- '^'^ »**er-«w; "R^R'^^'** y«*- 

il^'I^ ikar-tsker on thia oooaaion : ifH* 
X^' jS'cr^jc I on thia (present) oocafiion 
proeperity arose. 

i^'^^lite-r^sB^wlhrS^'ci in courses; in 
rotation, one ooming after another and 
again going baok. 

i|^*«l>i ikar-km a roundabont waj; 
the way or passage round any saored 
plaoe, temple or town for pilgrims to 
eironmambulate it; the pafliway round 
about ft monasteiy used for holy prooes* 

i^^'tf^ci ikarJog'pa a wrong turn : f^' 
ilar^rMI'q to walk round an object in the 
wrong way, keeping it to his left. 

96 n I 

HP^'V llor-^' ft tuzneor'a lathe or tool 

Kf^"^ flM-4Mia:^*Q pi. and fof. «ilH, 
to boa (rb., aot., of. ^"i) : ^* one who 
boils tea. 

fl iJfeya 1. crop ; the prodooe of 
a year, K^., *fl; If^ pl«nteoue crop: 
^'K'l'l^'Q'jc I this year the crop baa been 
abundant : \*|M«*t«^' I thia year the 
oiop baa been uuBuooesaful (lit. ^^aloMr")* 
2. a pad^ ; alao ladle. 8. wall or parti- 
lion, usually f^'%. 4. plain, wiftont dia- 
^j« gniaiimg Qoloor, but soo l'^^ bslow ; f 
^ a plain unpaintedboz: f^ ft blftnk 
book: 1*^ ft plain hat without ribaaid, 

f^ ikynhbag gxejisHi colour; izon-grey 
colour (Jig*)* 

J'^l |i^aJ»s|'^ magpie; in Ld. 
n. of ft bird (Oa.) . 

Syn. »B-9 ^**ra.w; •«l^|'^*^1' » 

I'l fkffa ihya pale-white ; grey colour. 
■'M'Q ikffa tgyainpa to row ; to ladle. 
S ^ ikya-ehcn a superior kind of plain 
scarf (for presentation) {8. kar. 179). 
g^oi |A;ya-nt7 zinc. 
f^'^ ikya-tha-le oi "piaisk white colour. 

f9S 9kya4hu4 a kind of plain cheese 
made of pounded dried milk with butter 
but not with sugar. 

|'9S'^ ikva^hud-leb a kind of cheese- 
cake made of dried milk and butter. 

I'S^ fiiiya-Mtim a kind of cake orbiaotiit 
made without sugar or treade. 

I'Verft-qiifcya^Aom-me-iMi glaring white: 
|-V«ift*q-e|)e|'Air^4c at all timea one of 




1*^ My»-ii€ir mvRi, tnw 1. n. of a 
floww, Bignoma graveatens. 2. brown; 

r^T* 9hthnar kkra^ also |'ff^'<qrV 
fn ^nWf n. of a flower; |'f^'^^ 
^vrftjir ^rnw another spades of Bigtuh 

nia f r mt e oh m . 

d a city in ancient Indiay PAtallpatrat 
now euppoeed to be Patna« 

f^'fT*! 9hffa-nmr ^ian'$m ^vm^^ 
alpo MiMli^al n. of a riter in Ancient 
India; aoo. to BhaTabhnti'e deioription 
tibe nrw flowed nrf MW^Hi or modem 
Nftrwtr in MUwa mvw (wi^Mt). lliii 
ktt«r name of the river ooenn in Bliava- 
Uraii'e Iffilathnidliava, written early in 
the 8ml oentnry* 

I'Q §kpm^wali 1. Tb. pf. ^m iikgoi, 
fat a| dAyii, to oaixy; oonyey to a plaoe 
(aqneniUy ol etonefl, wood, water, Ac). 
2.a^ii to ebange plaoe. 

|*q fl^«-iMn:alio|'V|j^yiiM0OiimK, 
Im grey <v wbituh grey; palo-wbite; 
i^l a eeenkr peiionage ; one olothed in no 
pertiedar edloiv ; a layman, from the grey 
eoloor oi the ooazee eei^ whioh is gene- 
islly won by the lay people ol Tibet: %' 
^4| wImb^ (he was still) a layman, m., 
hsd not entered iliesaQred order {A.lt6)i 
f^tyyi {A* lt6) from the time I was a 
]a7n8a;f|lie^t bine, f^'lli^t green; 
^*|lig^red; ^'| «f^ tawny; light 
yellow; f'| riee ; barley withoat anything 
to eat it with; insipid miserable food; |' 
^ whiteness ;isantne8s; ^'|tV^'«ftlh 
mittike dtyof Kapila; H|t^^isni^. 
IT^ the lesidenoe of KapiU; %^*|^*^Vi 
«f)rwrar the hermitage of Kapila. 

f l!^'"P*l a rower (Jflleii.). 

I'W #*ysHso«^v•^•i^•*F••^^ pale 
whitish yellow. 

I'V'I fkffo^^oo fpifi Tnlgar people; the 
oommon worldly men. 

!'*> ikga^ma hard and rough soil lor 
oultiTation : mr^r^wrfw^yirmisi (Jig.) 

as to soil, two kinds, thealluvial or soft 
and the hard or graToDy, 

r«rf p ^X|«Hm MkMff n. of a Test 
grasqr plain or oomnum belonging to tibe 
Oovenunent ol Thees in (Oented 

f r SkifthgUa dry gpraes. 

1'^ |ly»f<is a layman at the top (of 
• row) : IfrV^FlT^r**'*^ *• *«» 
left hand row ol seati shonld ha?e alay« 
man heading it (Jig*)* 

V^m ik^a-rii oi^line, sketch, draw- 
ing of the outlines of a piotnre, whidi is 
generally done with charooal in Tibet: 
^*^|'^*^^'f-« ^1^ then ootlinea of this 
kind are neoessary (A. 108.). 

1*^' tfif«MWl, also oalled |*if^ ^m:, 
n. of the lake from which (the Tang^tM 
kiang) the BiTsr of the Goldsn Bands 

%UMgn ikytHT^i Mif-fo ^tW the 
several stages or dlTisIons of the dawn 
which are— |*^Mrv^wi^!ii^ir the oopper- 
red dawn; I'^mi^"^ iftur the white 
dawn (the earth); fUvlK, the golden or 
yellow dawn; |'U.srv^*Q*-^*^ <7l«nra. 
the flrst appearanoe of the dawn ; f^Mr 
q^*sr<^'a ^fhnm the appearanoe of the 
middle or the yeUow dawn; f^Mri-si 
mwi^^ the last (stage ol the) dawn. 

1'^ ikpa-lan also 1 9 in O. morning; 
twilight; dawn. 

1'^ §kgthl$bm%9%^ A rodder. 

|H ^iw-ssil n. of a tiee (JL); 
translation of the name Pi94v. 




1**^*^*4 |jfeya-i#«-;i bu xrxwf the boxis 
oi P&9411; |-*5.-^'8-|«i|Tin«^ift^- the 

21AIII68 of Ear^a, the oldert of the PAp^A^r*-^ 

nA : ^w irv«w**i;' the names of Ftf- 
STi^H **J'8 ^Hks^, ••"1^1 ^nrmiqi 

5TS'«1«^ frrj't: ^^"1**^ the names of 
Bhimft-senar-vil^; |'^'f^'f^ Slt^ 
ifobi-ldan, Tt'^nm'lm TsAogt-lai gkyei V^* 

^' 9rid igrub-kyi mii^ the names of ^^^ 
Arjtma— 8'^sr|, fwqK.'V^', ^V8'*, 

r«K.'9^wii^'Ai^' the names of As'Tinlka* 
mixas Sahadeyar-)^)'!^ $3fey^ r^ liyiM, 

■W Wrtf : |-*i^-^3g4«^«»»v the names 
of the wife of the five P&9(}aTa — i^T^; 
W*T*^ rnmiy vdvit ; ^'l^^ RHikyei-ma^ 

•«sis'^ HSM'' Righyei 9kye§, ?T5'W 

1'^ ikya-^er white and yellow, t.0., 

the laity and the elergj, the latter being 

distingnished from the fonner by their 

yellow dzess. 

1*9*^ ikya-ihmi oooors in the pas- 
Mge «^^c|^srt-|•^^^J•^•n^*^^•*^TAw•l^• 

W* ikyO'lham leather boots put on 
by laymen. 

IPPI ikyag-pa I: same as «^|^ 1. 
human exorement ; also any ki^d of ordure. 
2. bad man, the dreg or soun of sooiety ; 
A^ri^ seoretion from the eyes; IT^'^V^'i 
to ease nature. 

8yn. \U dri^ksn; ^ irun (fun); i|* 

|**|'fl II: L-IT**. 2. pf. ^I^n, fttt. 
^% imp. i^ to spendt lay out, espend : 
l^if ezpenditura oritemsof ezpenditme: 
I ^V ikyag4ho list or aocount of eaq^enses. 
3. in jr. i'T9^*) to slaughter, to murder 

|TV Skyag'po n. of a place in Tibet: 
|«r«'^V^^ the marshy plain of jp[n. 

^ ikyad JvmKi V«'|^T9 »ddi«h 

+|C*^'^ ikyad nulmTf^' or «Ti %9 
plaster; also payement; day-flour ; mud- 
flour; IMMV*'*^^^^' «» to pave; to 
plaster; according to 8oh. to rub, polish. 

tI^^ jkyaij ashamed ; in shame : y st' 
^ ^ being ashamed {A. K.). 

^JP^ ikyabi nt^ proteotion, defence; 
help, assistance: ^^'IPM'I*!^^ proteo- 
tion for the place and for the oooaaion: 
'i^^'Si''V^'l*|^* permanent and 'ever- 
lasting protection which according to 
the Buddhists can only be obtained from 
taking refuge in the three holies:— (I) 
Buddha who is the teacher is called |M' 
H^'ci or the Befuge Master; (2) Dharma 
or the sacred doctrine* called |W*^^ the 
real protection; (8) Sa^gha, the priest- 
hood called l^l^iAVspi, the friend for 
gaming protection. Betoge in tihsse three 
completely libsratcs one from the missries 
of the world and seoores the state of omsis* 
oience for the derotee: fwr^V'^'^f'"*" 
Vs|-s|9*i the three fonnula or ezpressi0ns f or 
seeking refuge in the three holies : (1) i/^ 
t^f^^wit^m^m^fum'^mr^^M] *^l oome 

for lefnge to Buddha who is the chief of 
the two-footed''; (2) ^^V«"«ws^"8"r*^NH 
l«'r|W«'«i>l '*! come lot nhgh to 
Dharma which separates from dasirss"; 
(3) *^»^- J•»•«T^^^•^^•^•|«^«••*<I "I come 

for ningb to the prLeittood, the duel of 

IF^i^ itysAf-iipoii hdper; proteotor; 
ddmnr. The Kf^p-gom is the popular 
tram for the Daki Luna in Lhaia and 
for the Pa^flhen Lama in Shigatse 
and tfaroog^oat Tsang. It is alao applied 
to other inoameta lamas hy oonrtesj. 

IF*' ■*f"*51 9htAMMf^ iff^ original 
or xeal protecftcr; a oomplementaiy title 
ottbe Dalai Lama: |'^«'f<l*|^'^'^^'S^' 
^?^^^^ aoooiding to the spirit of the 
letter of oommand of the Proteotor. 

fiia 1^ I'Jfs li^oif-iveji rttB-^d lit 

flie Broteotor (residiDg cei the) top (of 
Petal* and the cout) helow: |W 

«Vf ''offer, irithoat fail annnally, as 
hflCore, the new year^i homage to the 
GxandLame and his Gout." 

I^^i^i ilfatf-tfrM iJ^pKnm helh pro- 
teotor mnA enliflditener* 



'^ fiyeii ftoo/^e- the ph^e of 
refoge : p«r*f^^^»*T«Wt«wMl ejc 
eept the three preobms ones (here lis no 
'nlaoeoC nftige. 

i^H^ •il*«*#-4w«**f^ ahleeslngj 
fsToor ; taken imder proteotion : ^*i^'^* 
^I'^I^H^I UeasingiKttainediii aMord- 
mee vlfli one's mental prayer {Tig* 

|wrHYC §ktfQb%^kj^ lAtMMi to ask 
henedidaon from the higher olass of 
iMaraate lamas for proteotion against 
disease^ eril spirits, and other enemies, and 
also for ft safs journey to heaTen withovt 
faDing into hell, fto. 

I^Wf^ ^riAi*gna§ the j^Iaoe of 
rafdge, eholter; also of persons, helper. 

^n. yi ■! J ^ iiv|fW9P7pi9Mi ry|s^esfiv^. 

*^*^^ the great ohjeol of irorAI^ or 
adoration (JfKsfi.). 

proteotion ; saTed (JBam). 

yw*t ftyeSf-tye the person who sseha 

l*r|s iif«6t4y«^»^c«, tir pro- 
teotion, defenoe (4IHo«i*)* 

V^t\^§ktaiibr$4^ to proleot, help, 

V^^ iJ^tfAt4o9 imr worOy ol 
proteotion; also V^'^W^ ^mn the ttnae 
proteotors, m., Bnddhfti 2MianB* and 

|e«'V^V'e ik^OM^ ttfo»m m fmr 
^t^ liyed hgro^ioa i^iieiw to saek 
refuge ; a going nnto or repairing to for 
protection, ii^iiiiim or J^^tini|i| hasheeu 
de&|ied in the BodhioharytTattra as fol- 
lows :— i(jnrt %inff|lrflr llpfmiPlil I •* I 
take refuge in the three gwns.'' In the 
saaie work fern has heen snhalttiited lor it 
and it is found in the list of serened 
hi^est modes of worehip, 

the idee of seekiBg refoge* 

I'l'S £>fw^«f « plM« in Tibet 
(D#». AS). 

1^'^ libyar-w naked (in^ ttie 
dialeot of Puxeng). 

11^*08^1 ikftat^ieag to bring, into 
reooUeetion, to bring back into meoMSry 
anything that has been forgotten. 

|R^ iHmr^r^ snipe; wcod-oook 


again and again. 




^'^^ ikyar-rbab (Cs.) fypw ftir a kind 
of dropsy ; a greyish rheumatie swelling. 

I^'X ikpar-mo a kind of n water fowl; 
aooording to Seh. a heron. The flesh of 
this fowl is antidote for a poison adminis- 
tered in Mongolia mixed with horse 
flesh (8man gshuH). «'|^ duok {Cs.j Sch.) ; 
bittern, but the ITC^ of the Lex. is a 
land of goose. 

1^'^ ifcyar-hb the sheldrake. 
V^ l*ya/ j^if swimming. 

t^T fkyal-kha Jfjt^ leaping ; a boat. 

I^'l"'!^ ikyal'gff%% igrol jftir: cross- 
ing oyer by swimming. 

%mM fkpaUhenszV^ Ha-pa fish; a 
fisherman (4f^072.). 

S'l ikt/of a changing of abode or 
residence ; l^M^ death : i^^H^i'^^^-l* 
the great change of place that uplifts, U.^ 
death ; J'i'^^*l^'*« to change one's dwelling 
place; (of. f^) |^'H'^^^''« to die; vb. 
$kya9-pa, pf. «!<', fut. «»| or ^'^'i, to 
transfer, and hence to depart this life. 

««r*l ^kyai-ma 1. v. jiw. 2. fern 

% ikyi 1. interest on loan; |X^ wealth 
accrued from interest, •.«., money-lending; 
ncoording to some borrowed wealth. 2. 
the outward side of a skin or hide (C«.). 

fVT^ ikyi 4kar:=^^'^fT'V^'^ the white 
fatty side of a skin {^ag.) : iwl^t^^i 
aoc. to C«., dressed leather ; tanned leather, 
sometimes hide; l->^'8*^'^ pwoh. 

In^' ^kyi-khuH a place in Tibet 
{Deb. ^ SA). 

I'sfp^'Ufa^ ^yi^har Iha-kkai n. of a 
monastery in Tseng {Deb. ^ IS). 

\V^ ikyt^gam a box, chest or trunk 
lined outside with dressed hide. 

j'P|»ni ikyi^itum anything padbed 
or tied round with dressed hide; a skin or 
hide to pack with: Sip^'l:|-V"'''' rf**^' 

i'^ 9ky%^nag or 11'^^ ikyi-fkyi na-ga 
n. of a pasture land in proTinoe Tsang* 

I'i^ ikyi-lpagi chamois wash-leaiber 

M*Q ikyi-ura I: a medicinal plant 
{Med.) ; aco. to /a. potato. 

)*q n : Tb. pf. ^ii ftlifcyA, fut ii| ftf*yi; 
imp, |v §kyiif to boixow, especially monv 
or goods (of. ^^••i and |^«« ikyin-pa). 

\i^' skyi-buH cloud: ^'^^r^lfrlfr 
Q-v^K'! a^'|w V^'^ I thereupon the phantom 
King Kong-tse departed with the douds 
(D. 2J.)- 

\'Vi §kyt^n piob. an iiohing of the 
skin ( Jd.). 

I'T^ iky^gyta^'^^^F^ fear; dread 
(4f<loii.) : |T«^'^ ikgi gy^vfa to shiyer, 

tremUe with isar (OSi.); to be struck with 



I'^i ekyi fa outward and inwaid side 
of a hide (/d.) ; aooording to Bek. the 

|^'8 fkyig§^ Tulgo. ^^ iMug f^mtf 
^l^^^fm hioough; yex; also a sob: ^* 
irjq-*Hr|^-n^¥Hi«§S«iI "ooaghingby 
those who eat the berry (gyer-ma)" (i^v.) ; 
|^«'9'4Y^ ikyighiu Wteeg-pe^ to keep 
on sobbing. 

|e*pq| 101 

)C*FI thU-UM in Hindi EMM, 
emloaidfiry izdaid with gold and nlk 
SMnniMftmed botli in India and Ohina. 

|i^-^ ikfet Mr eag^ ; Tnltnre (Jo.). 

y^^ 9h^^ oooQXS in the parage 
|w«»^*T^r' (D. B.). 


%^*§^' Skj^ififroU n. of a wall-known 
town in Etoathm Tib.,naar aouroea of the 
Oandok onNepal bqrdar^ownmonly called 
SJiong: |^*•%^•■^•«wa«••r^»r\*•iriW| 
hsfing come to meditait<e en the monntaina 
ol Kixong between Tibet and Nepal 


%sn iM' 0^ "^>« ^ )<^7» * '^'^^ 

ikpH W9 begiiming 

l^t^tytf-tfAn ''the rimr of h 
n. el northen^nbiitaary of the I 
Tnngpo er Brahmapntara Biver 
tabntey Tibaim ia aitnated. 

|S*lii fftyu^ki oomfortab] 
|\1^Q lb#-riMMMff f *ytf «A«|-JM 
been eomfortaUe {JL 199). 

fV^wi iJ^ytf-ttoii eomlortai 
eamfloflaUa liraig: r^*<^*^W 

tteftf Me-fMkli the eon eidj aoug^t to 
oppoBtnnitiea of happineaa and eomiort, 

|^^itytf-4far adkaeaif pieaantedto 
Oe bdde ai the tame of mazriage aa a token 

of pioqpanij* 

of a King of Tibet : |Mf^»r»%^\»«- 
Wfrt^ryrl^'i*^' I thic Eyi-de fiiaia-gon 
imww%0k into Kgari and leiaed the kingdom 

kappineaa and miaery; ooe'a general 

oireomatanoea : l^prViK*!^* wfaaterer 
oiroamatanoee may happen : |^'|i'A|'^ 
pleaauxe and pain internungled. 

%S^ ^hfii^ or §V« lAyfpe abaL 
VV« ifKiV, ^ happineaa; adj. i;fv| 
l>»PPy • |V*^^VTiH*-« ihi^tdo^ 
na gfiig^por §doi if you with to be happy, 
live alone,» be a celibate {Lo. 97). 


alwaya happy ; uninterrupted h appi ne ait 
I^Kl^l^q iftyjtf nVMiil if«tf>i to be 
contintunialy happy. 

\S^ ff^pH^ tiie dialriet indnding 
the traota in the lower Tallqr of die iher 
JTj^'; the central diafariot of H^ or 0, the 
proTinoe of which Lbaaa ia the ikM dty. 

|^'fl ikfi-lkm agniflea |^«^<4r« 
iffgiipoJa tfrO'^iMr^ to be p aoaparan a ; 

happy (Lo.). 

^^ fliyiii the Tibetan ibex, Chiprm 

ffm-gyi rtiifri <Aopf-jMi frig (!>. Jt.) 
a little boy who had the homaof an ibex 
holding a golden awoad. Li Ladak the 
lamale ibex ie diflmntiatad aa f^M. 

* fe'^ ilfia-jwr or |T*f i^iffti- 

flVe a liaard (Xar.); ^^ <»11^ ^^"^ 

and detft (6M.)* 
\^ tkpitt-pa 1. slMt • Ima ; moiMy 

iA-|<r« loMi fcodiuing intanrt ; «-*( ^^'|r 
^•U« lo^ ^ iliyJN-iiif )«iA«l gxant m* 
fhit M • loMi; |T«r|K'«> §ktiin.p» tpro^ 
pa ot ^^'v*m'9 ^k^iihpa yalr*Mt to pajr 
baok or ntuxn » loan ; X*^'!^ N«r-fJlfA» • 



loan of money or gocds ; ^'|< gt u^hyin 
a loan of dothoB ; |^'cr4^'<i $ky%n mi fen- 
pa to take on credit. 2. vb. pt. 4$^ 
(ffftyin to borrow. 

I^'Q $kf^n^po ohiefly ooUoq. resp. ^' 
|i| ibir«|ifcyf » a loan ; a tluug borrowed ; 
money advanoed ^thout inierert {Ja.). 

I^'ft ikpin^mi aoo. to 8chr. a debtor. 

t^^ iijfin^hab a debt; any thing paid 
ae eqxuTalent of thing taken on loan. In 
C. signifiee aame as ^, the pledge for 

%P^ ihf/ibi a place giving shelter 
(either in a rook, under a tree, roof or 

cavern) : W5^-5^''lT*^'5^'^'»'«l«'''*'r>'W 
g^r^v|w<^j«v|qv<i5'''^^ I ^'•rs'i'''' '^ be- 
cause birds dwell in the hollow of an over- 
hanging rook, such rock known as tkyibf 
is termed *< bird-shelter " for the reason 
that it affords protection (J^ag.) : 9^ V^ 
brag-ikf^bi a sheltering place under an 
overhanging rock or a projecting roof : 
^T'S*^ ikai^ikpibi a covered terrace or 
small portico before a house : a^'|^ ehar^ 
ikyib shelter from rain. 

^^ ffifey/m dressed leathair painted 
red or in other colours, japanned or tar- 
nished leather. 

^^C* ikyiUruH {kiUfuH) the poeture 

of sitting cross-legged serenely without 
moving the limbs ; |«rj^'9V«' ikyil-krui 
hyei^pa xAt to take a particular kind of 
posture practised by ascetics in medi- 
tation; |«r*ll*'%^W ihyiUmo kruSrgi 
idug-pa or ^VfV'ci itkuft-pa to sit in a 
csoes-legged posture ; i>isi'^<A'|ir]|r ^em" 
ipdii ikiil-hrun the mental concentration, 
or the posture of sitting perfectly still, of a 

Bodhbattm : K'l'l'^^ r^c-r> %hya4mA 
innnHr the posture of sitting perfectly 
still withoot moving the body ; tlie m- 
changeaUe posture of sitting orosB«legged ; 
frl^q^l^rj^ rd^g^paH. ikytl-kruH the 
posture of perfection, t.e., of a Buddha. 

\^^R ikyif^a, pf . n|^a i^kyiLpa or 
t^n-^ klkyiUto^ixA. ^1%'^'% ifkyil^war bya 
otiikyil 1. to pen up, shut up; todamup 
a river ; V^^ ehu fkyil-wa to bonk up 
water ; «^''^'$>I'Q chu rdM-^lu gkyiUpa 
to collect water in a pond ; <'|^*^'|«r« 
ehu c/«4-tor gkyil^a to collect water for 
a pend. When the water coUeots itself 
into a pool or tank it is called f'^fi^^ 
ehu ikhy^-^ca : *T*S'^"i>*"*V«r^fV 
<)|m wng-mei idu4-tUi^ ^u/t^-wi igMo- 
Uar iikyil the exhaustless drink of 
ambrosia stands collected like a sea. 
[2. to bend, esp. the legs when sitting on 
the ground after Oriental fashion ; also 
to bend in another^s kg by a kick from 
behind ; to bend the bow (cTa.)]. 

|aiK'^' fkyil-^nokruHsi^^fn pcsbm* 
of sitting; it is same as l('l'|«rv^- 1*>^ 
ikyO-kruH {Mlhm.). 

fl^^lp' if^yu-gaH h ace. to 8eh. a 

gulp; draught. 2. dough made of floor 
with tea: |'^'1'*v*'rpi'^i*'^'riipr|r 

(J^agJ) at thetimeof eating papof bixiey 
flour the dough becomes farmed Hke a 
hollow bowl and the name of the io*mded 
buttery lump is kyu^gang : *i»^vi|^ITr 
^V^WB-Vrlr f ^^a-f on a jounisjy 
when eating barley flour mixed with butter 
and boiled tea the dough so made (Xe.). 

^*^*ip* Skyu-ra^^aA one of the six 

districts of pwi Kham^ designated under 
the name of i^'%^. The six 1^9^ are Uie 

fonawukg>-{l)|'V«^-^;^fti-ra ggai^, (2) 
W^B.- iioft-^^aH, (8) T^^Kf^ Spo-ibor 

€EM* (4) V^rwi«^' JOmur^Eham Sga^, 
(5)^^- Tdia^SgaH^ (6) ii^X'i^ Za^vio 

X*^ I : ikifu-ru a kind of medioinal 
frnit oalled %^'il^ ^kyer-^n. 

^^ Hi tkffu-ru in Sikk. and ^'* 

fHqfur-m^ in Lhasa, aignifj a lonr liquid or 
▼inegar («/a.). 

n. of a Kmr froit aaid to onre the 
diiwnww of phlegnit bile and Uood. 2. 
Ja. ia hifl Diot. laja : ^* In later times the 
word seems to hare been nsed also for the 
oUvOyand ^yu-ru fM, the olive treOi which 
in Sikkim is oalled Uia §kyur-poii fii " 

nM {Nag.) 1. n. of a kind ol taUe tsge- 
taUa. 3. oondimsnt ; saooe; pkUe (Ob.). 
Ajooording to otlksrs, at least in W^ only 
the vesp. word for tfpi (potv: («^) |V^ 
1^"^ to pcepare same, Ac; -I'^^IHIF* sanoe 
mad0 of Tinsgar for meat ; ^'vAl'^ 
sanoe made of TegetaUe or pot-hsrbs. 

m'«l ikgufhpa, pf. J^ §krug§ 1. 

vfM to Tomit, ejeot» s.;., blood ; |^'Q' 
H^^ fIfy>V"^ hi^'P^ to cause to Tomit ; 
I'Tq^'^a ^yug-pa dt§n^pa to exoito vomit- 
ing; M*^ iam^^ky^W ^vomit (it is the 
food of certain demons, and being boiled 
in it is one of the ponishments of hdl) 
(Ja.). 3. to lose colour; to stein. 



|T|^'«i ifBifug nehpa ^j^ that can* 
not be taken or eaten. 

|YK^ likpug4ia4 rumination ; chewing 
theoud; aoo. to Bok. eructation: |T«N' 
§^'4ftW^rniK todiew the cod as catUe. 

M'^'fl l/cyng hroAca {kyug4(Moa) or 
j<fl^ar^«^q nausea (4f«on.) ; also what is 
repnlsiTe to taste or sight or smell ; causing 
nausea; |^'lf'^'^ the disease of nausea; 
|^'9'q« from disgust (to eat anything) ; 
|T? tkyug^bro in 0. shameful; impure 
with regard to religion (Jd.). 

Xm i*yiV-t«'MNi"|^9^ an emetic; a 
ine causing to vomit. 

|Y%«| ikyug togpa (8eh.) to fed 
disgust, V. I^YV^ 1^9 bnh^ea. 

^^ipi^H ikyugi-fio =s fm'^ gsal^wa 

L dear; 8. n. of a bird tlie bill of which 
is of coral colour. 

Syn. 9'9^'^'^ byu^uH m^chu^n ; %m' 
wj*^ yuMan iboi; IFM*^ grati-reg 
pho^ta (Jflfoii.). 

MK'fl ^yuH^wa, pf . f^wa i§kyut§^, 

fat <^' iikyuH, imp. |^« |ibtf«lf|, to dimi- 
nish or reduce ; ^|*<*« ftfibfifi«|Ni or also ^1*4 
^MM, H* V^*^ Mttii^u itatUwi ; |Mi 
ftyifllf reduced ; subdueds 4|Mi ftiftyniff 
R|re|«-^H-ir*^a-^ {A. 10) "he was 
seated on his cushion after his pride was 
subdued." Ace. to Ja. in O. ft]M-ir», to 
leave behind ; to lay aside, e.g.^ a tadc. 

if ^^^ ^fpi4-pa to fosget, imp. 

a^^V^'^ tkagi iijei fcr^w lorget- 
fnlness; ace. to J8. to leave oil: ^*i 
i9kyu4-pa (Ztm. 1(f). Ace. to &A. to 
commuaieato; to swallow. 




iK*Ql: itynr-iM, yb. pf. and fut. 

V^ ftfftyMr to tbroWy to cast ; to leave 
ciff; J^V|^ rgfolh-Ui §kyur ^HTf^, 
to oast behind; ^'J'l^'fl r»4-^ ^kyur-wa^ 
to throw at a distanoe: |^-qlS'^«p^«i- 

haying flnng his mendioant's platter 
towaids the sky ; *C|^q ehu^h ikytfr-ica, 
to throw into the water. (^ tkyur also 
impliea^' ita^toimr; throw ;ponr out; 
to throw awaj ; throw down a stone, a 
corpse, 4o.: «iS1«'^^|'|^«i^«r«i^ idag 
akaH tthmit^rsv^ ih^ i^Aoff'pa yin I haye 
left ofi drhddng beer. IV^I'^*^ h4ipa 
Mkpw-Wiio eject a phlegm ; to throw off a 
rider; to giye up, abandon a work; to 
forsake a friend ; to abort {A. 166.). 

I^'ci §kyur-pa ij^f Ueabhed; bleach- 
ing : I'^^f 8 like the moon bleached, or 
white like the moon. |^'Q ikyur-fio ^m 
acid; sour. 

t^'R ikyttrJtku 1. a sour soup ; sour 
juice. 2. ^'1*^ ratt^kyur yinegar (in 
Sikkim ^'^vur^' in Lahoul ''ikyur- 

santo as |^ Ss fkyur-^n. j^ |*yifr signi- 
Hm thrown'! and ^' goi oyer; hence 
one oyer-powered by wine ; a drunkard : 
wl^kVq-iig^ftsr^q one who is oyer- 
powered by wine delights in women : ^ 
n lfs.'si(-^'*^'tr^^ a tipsy man is con- 
temptible: ft•W«•^•|s•|^•'^'^•'^« if a 
lajrman is intoxicated with beer, dnmken 
ncunness arises ( jUsa. 11). 

K'Bi ^kyur^m cat ^''^ tkyur^dai^^^' 
•iK^-4'i^i^'^ necessity (by habit) to dr' * 
passion for drinking. 

I^'s^ fkyar^-can powerful ; spirited. 

|^'H^*l tflff9t9''ifug'pa to leaven to 
turn sour; to take a sour taste; T^^ 
kAa^9kyur''po or F-I'I^'Q kha^ tkymr-^po 
oliye (Jd.), 

i^C §kyur4i$m wvw a oondimeDi; 
sauce ; ^'^'Ak* a sour yegetaUe eany. 

^^*Q II: ^v^, \« adj. sour, acid; 

more frequently ff^'Q iShyur^^po ^lao ^*l" 
|ikytfr-iMO. Also sbst sourness. 

tbrohbu g$um the three sour medicinal 
fruits ; also called Vr^''Vr^'f^'t^*^Vi 
hun daiH i^Mufhpaki §kyur'iye4 g$um ^'the 
three myrcftofan whioh agree with all" and 
are:— (1) tR'« e-m, (2) v% Aa-ni, (8)- p 
fftytf-rn (^Ssitfii. M7). 

|^'« likyur-fM abortion ; in W. t*|^ sAii- 
^kyur^ T^*|^ f^fl^ iiy*^f wptal punish- 
ment in Tibeti when the deliaquenti with 
a weight fastened to his neck, is thrown 
from a rock into a riyer (Jo.). 

I^^'X fJiyi«r-mo leaf cf the iBi plant; 
JBhtiaria eardam omm n^ y. i)'«Aw^ (JfXoii.). 

ika a kind of lemon (J^don.)* 

jprf^F^ rikym^rM stun wiiTV the 
smaller species of orange. 

|>^'|^^-« ^fyur^rM Omhpo wftK n. 
of a kind of lemon. 

Syn. «'l so^ffti; 4^^ fe^t-MU»i 
W^K^'^'V^ rab^gnai me4og ; |^t |ii«-t>» ; 
^^T8^ g»(h4ga^*yed\ Mffrmcwibii mm^ 
jMir-fMbsi (4Fillcii.). 

fiil n. of a plant (jK^*)« 

fl^ f*yff|, aoo. to 8eh. |si'«r^ lipyvf 

^Ac^-^pa aliogeiher: fi'l'!h'^ iAy«i#-Mf 
ihg-pa to pronounce jointly, yis., two 
consonants without a yowel between 
them (/a.). 


% !**», ▼. %S tkyei, and 1'^ liye-tM. 



all beings. Thifl word is sometimfle writ- 
teon m|'4 tiye^tgu. ^ 4g^ '*nine," in 
fhewordl'^fJIryd-tf^aigmflMniAtky: |' 
iq*«rv^-q 9kp0^gu maru^-^pa or |'^9'*tV^' 
rt^HPrqvf IJ^ igu-ma ruti^wahi ftfom-jMi 
MM triflbd and Tioiona animali or Moaaie 
bogs (jr. ill*. ^ A69). 

nkmr mm gmtr-ma frfWNo 1. n. of the 
fomlli ocauteDation (4IHofi.). 3. ^^^ iho 
god BmhniA of the Hindus (JfHoti.)* 

I'W^'W* Sk^e^g^a idag^mo, «nrt. 
OTTWIm the step-mothar and first goTsr- 
ness of Bnddba ; also a name of the 
eoddess Paldan Uiaoio. 

beings or moving beings ; also |'V |ii;^(o 
unman being {fftUm.). 

fKfoy-^sa/sip^^ honey (igman. 75). 

1'^ fiy^rim» oontraotion of |'^^'i|*« 
fi^y»-iMi dM rfr«-iM|» by birth and old age, 
•^.9 death. 

)T f^-l^ !• entranoe to rebirth^ 
▼is., to one of the six regions of birth: 
%'W'^ffS'^iki^go gpoi-pa to prevent birth, 
to look it np a, fsoe: |T^Tr« fity^- 
lys fefi^ a handsome face ; |T^*^«'^- 
§fo 9 k t mp a an ugly faoe ; also FlT'l'^q^* 
'hv'e Mo-no §kf9!4in^ f^thl» is said 
for having a handsome ezterior* 

1*^ tkg^^^an, srrnw lit. '<a bad 
man," but also a dwarf. 

|'^Ss*ys-4N?Wt:s^*Q wnmw the 
sooroee and places of origin of the senses. 

Of these there are four :—(l) ^»r^»m 
«««t'|'«il^ nam i^hai n^ha^ ya% ikpe- 
fgiehci n \ % \ wn m x \ ^9m a world as infi- 
nite as the sky; (3) V^'*^'"^"!'**^ 
rnam-fe§ ipihai ya§ fkye-^iei fanwr^Xf- 
mw a world as formless as oonsoioueeness ; 
(8) ^-^^S'*- jsils ci^yad mei^pd^i ikye- 
ipehei ^faimmiK^ a world as unlimited 

as void; (4) ^!i'i|ii*S-^V^ii*S*^'S'**^**- 
fei^me4 bdu^i-^nei enVf tikye^i^hei ^^- 
VT^^fvrainr a world where there is 
neither oonsdousness nor unoonsoionjBaess. 

\'^S u : the inner and outward organs 
of sense. 

|*sil^'||'q^ ikye-ffichei mu-ishi u said to 
meisn rfs|-^i<r«*J-.ft^-, n. of the world. 

^'•ii'i^^^kye'iehitnei^pa without birth 
or death ; eternal. 

I'W* |iky^-0WV !• birth-plaoe ; station 
or looality of b plant; a]so»li'^^' ^tfk 
the female generative o^an. 3. wrfr the 
state or sphere of birth or rebirth ; 9trfe'l|' 
I'q byoU^oii^gi ikge^^pa the being bom as 
an animal; f'^'^^ %kye'4My («Ator|'^^* 
^ fkye^gna^ b^hi the four states or ways 
of being bom. 

|'^^*Hf^^"<i fkye-gnof iBt8hutl9-pa^^' 
%^' nM^^H brother and sister (M^on.), 

^'^ I : tkye-tca pf . ikye^ to be bom : 
K.arQ'l^'q'^^ i^a-la bu gkyei^pa yin I have 
given birth to a son, or to me a son has 
been bom. viMrlii ipKa/ fity^i or w^«r^' 

I'Q 9itfa/-i»af lAyeHMi UtTfH vivqMurous ; 
bom ol the womb. |k'| 1^4 ^sye$ or I' 
i^^ii'l'q §go Ha-lat ikye-ita ^ivei bom 
out of an egg or oviparous; Xv^^'l'' 
droit^fffer ^ye§ fNT^ir moisture-Bprung; 
bom out of heat and humidify; r^*|« 
^dstii-akyef mum\m apparitional; born 
in a supernatural way like tl^e gods who, 





it U Baidi spring out from lotua flowers; 
also the iBhabitants of the infernal re- 
gions; sonls in that state of existence 
between death and rebirth whioh is called 
<^^ bar^; V'}« pho^gkye^ a male; a 
man; also one who has done a manly 
work; X|9i mo^^yei a woman; female: 

i§^l the e^ils of birth--old age, sickness 
and death. 

^*Q n: ikye^wa wrfir 1. the being 
bom ; the birth ; also re-birth ; )'4'«Ar*q fftye- 
ira ndhihwa high birth; of high birth; 
nobleman ; male ; )*4'Vi^'q ikye^wa if mob' 
tM or 1*7^ iky&'4fMb or I'^pv ^ye-iman 
of low birth; ignoble; also a woman: A' 
««rl^'a^'|l'^N^ mUu9 ihob4cy0A ikye^wa 
(/man bom a human being, it is true, but 
only a female. 9^'S*^ fty^f-tfrnan, in ooUo- 
quiat kyer-menj a vulgar word for wife or 
woman: ^ ^^ §fcyer-men^^ mj woman or 
wife: ft^'J'^^'«i mir skye-wa ^Bheu-pa to 
take or assume rebirth, existence, life. 

S *P ni : 1. to become ; to begin to 
exiirt ; to arise : ^S^^'jl v<«R-«^S*%«s ut 
ne nwrbu9 ulfus nasctUury naius quoque 9edetur 
(ja.), ^^g^^-Wi'l^i'? khe^u khros'pabi 
9em§'tjky€i4e the youth — thoughts of wrath 
axiwig (in him). 2. to grow {mud) : Q^'<r^|* 
1'^ valleys where com grows: V^'^'] 
ru iiHf^>-Ja §kye a horn is growing on 
the head. 8. ss^*rq ^ijir, ww, ifivrs 
growing up, or grow up; thriving. 4. 
to grow (creacere) ; *^ eher or ^'KKj'fl 
cief^-par fkye-u^a to grow up; to grow tall : 
wj|^-^il|-^«5| v« roiJsyaH hi^kyi Uha4^ 
du ^e§'9o the garment also grew to the 
meaeuze in proportion to the growth of 
the body, U.y jrWv^^'l"'^ rtul-phoi^par 
$kye§^Qf he grew up a valiant man ; became 

a valiant man;to bud,genmnate, spnmt; 
in TF. to accelerate the germinating of 
the seed by maceration. 

^'^ rV: 1. V. l'^H« BkyB-gnat in a 
conccete sense the reborn individnal: V 
I'j'q*^^ yum^gyi fkye^wm pin she is tib 
rebirth of the mother. 2. Hie arising, 
etc 8. the growing, etc, 

I'q')^ |iy^-ira fya7ss|wq tkye-pa a 

I'^ft^'^^S fkye-Ku mfun'ilifioiio slop 
the continuance of birth — ^to inteETupt 

Syn. grfl* brag^fproi; ^^' gtA mH 

duU'ikar gya^-bkhyil ^Xk^imiwf a ocnch- 
shell with its coil reverting to the ri^t 
instead of to the left {tfA&n.). 

I'q'E ikye^ita §ia SIHH former 
birth ; anterior birth ; I'^fn^ |ty»-iM 
ida-maii re^kha the lines or marks in 
the hand or head which are supposed to 
represent the qrmbols of one's acts in a 
former life. 

I'q'sq^'q ^kye-^ea n^hun^pa is defined ss 
^flF%s|-^^q^|qw>S-^tT j«i ri^-nif gfiig- 
par^kys toahm9in^-^g ^kyB^wa **the being 
bom of one and the same lineage or the 
being bom on one day.'' 

I'q'V^qt^-q ikye-tca daH tdig-pa Urtb 
and death, or passing away; frequently 
of thoughts, passions, &c. (the person as 
well as the thing in the accusative) 

|'q*V^'q %ky^wa dron-pa nrfirqrci 
remembrance of a former birth 




I'C^' |jfc|f»»t0i0 idun seven pflriodB of 

|-q^^^ fk^^wa idimta in this my 
Heat poiod of lifo. 

1*^ 9kjf$4ditm a plantain (in Zayul) 

phifi^mM fatore Urth or ezifltenoe. 

1'^* ifcya-iwr i)MMitos^-|-lf an 
aauMknIo ; ako a smaU grain (J|Won.). 

|wVrq itj^fHM n>-jw inherited intel- 

wm Hg^pm fliat all the elammti ftom 
whuih ire spring are known to be fire is 
liaredittty knowledge. 

1 4^-«-«^ |i|)0-iMi^' cha^an=i}i a dog. 

8y». ^I^'IT*' tdo^tje¥ ^mg^a\ ^ 
¥^^mtrg^i rig$; fc^*««^^9i| gn^lg-gi 
fMM^g/um {JtXon.) . 

l^*:^^ 9tf0nttwii Um-fier^m ma 
mofhsr (40oi^.)- 

ofliigh bath; man. 

^ *vf^ inheritanoe : heritA^o 

}*Q|t^^^ 1. a general name for all 
living oreatoree : A «rK^'q*|'V mi h^^ogi^ 
pa ikye-io man and other living heinge. 
2. people; mankind; ^jr9M*|-« ^hrul 
icai tkye-io infatuated men | |'V'ifi«i'tr^iyf 
V^ ikge-io i^kat-pa gshan fndmi other 
intelleotual people ; |'V'«ii^'Qt-^'^Ki^-q 
tkye^io ma^-poH gi^-^ M-ufa beloved 
hy many; ^Wl'* frn^nag ^ye-io lay- 
men (on aoooont of the flifnTi«Mt of thrir 
religions knowledge) ; «l- j'S %o^o ^kye^ 
tto ^jw^m^ the lower clergy, oommon 
monks, bnt also simple laymen if they 
are not quite Without religious know- 
ledge; not of saintly origin; not an 
incarnate Lama ; |'V iiwi'^'^'aiai'«|i| tkye^io 
tkamM'eha4 ia phan^ytm W^m[km usefol 
to all ; of public utility. 

Syn. j'^M ikye'iyro. 

|-lf-q2|^iq ^kye^io ikre^-pa hungry 'peat' 
son:|^-^^-^^Q5|»q5Jnq|tytf.{o ikrehpa 
the people residing in that country (or 
continent) are (always) hungry {IT. d. m 

I'V-c^-q sty^-fro 4ian-pa Mm a charla- 
tan; a knave: |*V*M*Si^'^y^'4-^, |-9* 
^<r||Y<l^-|S ikye-^o dan daH bgrogt-pa-y^^ 
iky^-io dam-pa tlag^par iyed by friendship 
with a bad man a holy man is spoiled 

|*V^« ii|^-fte dam-pa ^mr a good 
or holy man; an incarnate being. 

|*W^ ffiya-io giHi9^pa ln^ a 
place of habitation. 

|-9-qra-«n^q ikye^bo phai^pa-^AeH 
phan-pa wift WIWHTRT fipur of good or 
use to the general public. 




I'V-iafQl ikpe-io h/wn-po-che a large 
number of men ; a csrowd ; ^'^ Uhan-po 
implying a large number. 

|'8'4|V'^ ikye^io gmo-thig n. of a 
treatise on ethics by NftgSxjuna (Tan d. 

popular talk ; rumour. 

|'lJ5-*^ ikye-^hi Miog imm assem- 
bly ; a orowd. 

tA'^lk ^moit'btshad modi gtHo-'mo queen of 
the hazlotn (4f^on.). 

j'5i«q|^'»i fkye-ios iskur-may v. ||\^*- 

j-iJif^-q ^kye-iof iwen-pa a solitary 

J'i^V*'^''''^'*' 9kye'tne4 itsan-sa win-pa 
attained to an exalted state of e'xistenoe 
from which there is no rebirth. 

fm^^'pa a stupid man ; one who is sunk 
in pleasures or sordid acts. 

)'l ikye-iahe Xjf^im mustard; $'3($' 
^9 ikye^helii ibru Xlf^fWX H^fir mustard 

I'l tkye^nla (A^ft-c/d) the month or the 
particular phase of the moon in which 
one is bom {Tassel, 11). 

%'^^ ^kp^ragt^ ▼. ll'Mpi for tke^agi^ 
girdle. The tetm in Mil. book, ikye^ 
ragfJcyi ra$ bdi^ seems an inversion of the 
intended order of the words. 

a tree with a huge trunk. 

|*^v5'a|t' ikye-Ber-gyi rluH the cold 
north wind called ikye^^er tMl in Mil.: 

byaH ikye-ser-gyi rlui-po ma^ tgyab-na 
Iho-ru tsati'dan-gyp-nagi mi-igul if the 
north wind does not blow, the sandal 
trees in the south do not more. 

l'§S'««5d^ fhye-arii «a-Jo»="^ fatlier 

§^ fkyeg^keg or kag misfortune. 

9^^ 9kyeg9 1. n. of a bird; **11« 
chu-lkyegi coot ; water-hen {Seh.) ; ^*|T 
ri-fkyegt a large singing bird {Cs.) ; abe 
according to 8ch. grouse ; heath oock. 2. 
S*9^ Zgy(^9kyegi shell-lac (c7a.). 

SC*^ fkyeH-iffa or J^^'Q ^yciis-pa 
WPn to be ashamed ; shame ; bashfuluess: 
r|«^'^ kha skyeH'tca or V j^'^ 9hal skyeH- 
wa to be unable to reply out of shame. 

|«.'^'^c ^ye^-ser rlui^ v. 1*^ i»^ 
tkyeser'gyi rlu^. 

Y-^'^'^ikyetii-pa me4 fttm;=2r*«K 

shameless (4(^09i.). 

a^ 9kye4 and | ^ye 1*. growth; pro- 
gress; increase: 2'}^ ishe-ikyei longe- 
vity or increase of Uf e : V^\\ lu9 9kjfe4 
growth of the body : ^«^•^•lS OwtH-^tha^ 
ikye4 growth of wealth and power: f^ 
|S itob§'ikye(f inorease of strength : i*'^ 
1^ nut'pa ikyeit increaae of effioaoy or 
abiKty : Ivl'^'^l^q ikyeiehe^wur hgfur- 
wa to grow much : ^wSl'lJ^w^^'^TlV^ 
gshan-gyi zla tikyei-pa^ debi ihag-^ffyei 
eke his daily growth was greater than the 
growth of others in a month {Jd.) : tl^'^' 



100 |^*cif 

^f« juii M the wnAn of tbe irrigttieii 
aualft makes growth in the fieldi ; |V 
S^^4 9kye4^y%9 ktAih^9m to nune up; 
1^*^' fikyv^yotf ahell make pro g raw. 3. 
inlemt ; praAt ; gain: Wr|^ i^l4k9$4 
proAt in aQTor or mom^ ; ^'|M4ni-iJP|f0^ 
intefeetof oomloaa ; |W^'^ ih^^ 
gt^wa to 1*7 out or to gite on inteieat 
(O.) : ^'ir|s-*s fMi^^ ffkyatf m^ (this) 
is of no ns6 for thai disease (J3.). 

IsT ^9^^-990, not improbably frC 
f f j fi s/ t f o , prinoipal door (JSi.)- 

iV^ ii^|M#-ass I : yielding interest or 
fflofli (Ck.). 

#sitii itow ilbrmi^fyi ^Ut^^ the sandal irood 
salkd 'snake's heart' («tfoii.). 

|V*^ Mfe^V •^•|V*1 9mr4h^ cig 
let it grow np» thrire. 

|S*^ I' fty^i» Tb. pf. i4^ fti*y0^, 
not. to 1'^ fifc|f«-ts0, to prooreate, gen%- 
xakei and, sometimes, to bring forth ; giro 
birth to : -TBT«'^^'^V*'«r V«» p» k^rag 
la$ kdiy i^fi^pati pha daH ma the 
parents who generated this body of bk>od 
and fleah : si^sr3i|-emre%-<^V«A-««r^*^ 

itt^i-rgg^ iham§r^ Jnikf^P'^ 9^ ^^ 
fum the father and mother who hsTe 

begotten all the Bnddhas : |VlS fiky^ 


a^*Q 11: 1. to prodnoe, form, cause; 
andmetaph. to generate (opposite to ^'e^* 
|^'«i msi'par hgei^ to destsoj, annihi- 
late), e.9^ dissasss, fsar, roots of tirtne, 
msrit: 4Vv^Fmi*)*^^^cV^ the aooomnla- 
tion of merits or the seed or germ of Tirtoe. 
Fig. ^9^9 Vptht^ retribution: f ^^V 

jNif , de^i phthmm-ffM gpra^wa Mf4-setf litj^f- 
iMijoy having arisen (in him), his parents 

also were caused a little joy : sm's^;!** 

^rr^l^'^V^ Maeif-MtfJkyti ftr^see-^prtif 

V^kyei^o they all created seal; took great 

pains : lii'4we*^V¥i s«t hmg^pa ftsfty^ 

nof thus were thoughts generated (Jii). 

2. IV"! ^9^pa or |va 9k9^4^ Vif%l^ 

^**i 1^' yotf-jNH Ms#.fa te-Am §kg$4^kpM 
iJM (the lioh one) who has should give 
loan on intereet to one who has not 
{Kkihai. ^ lit). 

l^¥i 9k9^4-h^ ^PPliM to Islher or 
earth; also to a tree ; |VK«> §kg$4 h^ 
pa blowing : H^y^K»^^>*wVrW. 
Ml fkyi# 1994^ 11^ wimir& as the wind 
blows {A. K. f*7). 

em4V mother; alsovm shadow ; shade. 

l\*i §kgei4iJM fiifw, Wirw, wmw 
the so-called Tibetan park ; artificial gxoFs | 
also |\X^^ liyf^HNOf Ukal. 

IV^ ikpei^m ^mmmm the kind of 
TtfM/rft meditation in which one has to 
imagine himself to be a god with a Tiew 
ultimately to be changed into a god: 
1P^*^ rAo^l-TMie, «^nw» in which 
aooording to the Tanirik pr oe o s s one has 
to pass through Ato stages of derelopment 
before attaining the BoihUtUva rank. 

\^ fftysfi «enr thom. 

{N09.) h quick, swift : jf*ir|r«v kkfJm 
itysfi^ or H^'I^'Q ithH tkyet^-pm swift to 
wrath : tS'l^'q ^s^ ^spm^. 2. rash, 
hasty, precipitate* 8. nimble; dexterous: 
^V^'l^ |ypAo4 fftysa-jNi dexterous in 
shootiog ; a ddUul archer. 

|^*« tkgmJa eoUoq. O. '^upwards** 
(fiM. JSn*. 9i(). 



I veil 

|jffqi^ | iiw ji >fitp>iol)6thirity;|*»^ 

9. drink, bevenge, 
« alio ¥r|M Bkahkifimt or 

M*4^'q IJkyMlf Mr«ii« 

IT atk UioM in honotmd parson 
to drink; |mi'^*« iiky»m| 
ampkoiiti to take it ; |m* 
f i ^lnw l S '^ lf tgm$ b i 0tol^ra§ hy^P^ to 
fco iwiit n ii to drink bear in eompeny; 
M s* *!"* m m i*y""i iOMOUMl on the 
d i |iMUtt e of en hoBOiired person ; drink- 
fffffflfwy to ft kaa en kit depertore {MU. 
r Iti) ; ^1^^^ » w r itfwwf en ofiecing 
of bear erwMto the gode for the good 
of lA entofpriee, a journey, etc., 
from iUneet : l^^l'wa 
Ae ofibrer of golden 
prieet who often the 
; amoBDig the religions 
I prieef who oftn wine 
to Am gods for inTOoaiion is celled Qmr^ 

|pr9^ i>f» w if J te tn^ the Ood- 

' E^^^ iJ^ytfitoF a kind of superior 
paper mannfaotnred in the town of |*w 
in the distrio. of 1>im^«-jx>; this 
ol large sue, generally measoring 
two &44 by six feet in 

)>Ri ^ftfVfNf <i. of a plao)l in ^^1 

ppsr Diefl JM> 
|«r «r ilyteie^dM beer;*^«i*yM 

Irii^Ut water; drinkiDg water, 
ipiwf^* Vv f JtyfMe-l^ fiboi the fort 

W the pkce wh^i« the finest ik^-*i*f paper 
oafled |i>^^wf-fv^ i» manTjfaetiiwd* 

|«»<^ #ib^eiiif4s.Uf cup; dish v«S^-4,}: 
|«ie %i^ ^^my^ti nnall beer-«;p v^^ )• 

liMi^i;' likyemhi^oH pleasant beverage, 
sooh as good wine or sayonry tea. 

|«Ni*e|1h ^i/0tnhffiol reep. bevorage, 
drink : wi'^'^Rl^x'wrlwi ^^ mandaror 
fpaf^i gh ya-rah^ ^ffem ipot (the lady) 
ICandarava sang and offered drink to the 
superior (personagee). 

reddish brown {l^ag.). 

E^'E^ l*y«'-»*y«' solitary ;perftoofly 
soUtary: |«^i«^*W^5'^B i*jw-s*yar 
mi dai igut^gut hhgi lonely without men ; 
where not eTsn a dog stirs about. 

)^*P ikyer^kka akind of dye ; oolour ; 
^fftir, ^ftv yellow dyo; a light yeUow 

)^*$ ^yM^<Mi n. of a river of i'H 
{Pm^ in Bhutan. 

^^TI §kyer'pa the barberry ; applied to 
the plant and its wood from which a yellow 

dye is extracted; the flower of this ]^t is 
said to be euie for diaxrhoaa, its froit draws 

out bilious matters and its yellow bark is 
useful in dropsy, etc ; l^rj ^yer^khai^ 
a oonfectian of |'^«» skyer-pa useful in 



i^m ^^ The fonner is a corruption 
^_ Utter and» sounded tyemieii, is one 
the most familiar twcms in ttie 


for**wife or 


of « ttM, IJmmHm ttUp^Mta. 

1^*^ ^kyeUgyur fntirfir removal of 
artidee, fomitQie, etc. (to another plaoe) : 
i't- i-i 9kyel ehe^a ^rfiw, ^Pwr frequent 
remoYal or changing. 

1^5^' 9kyel tAud to aonompanj or to 
eaoort one from the plaoe of starting to a 
distance on the way: f^A'W^^cQ^* 

9iye{ ihM i9yka4na% Lah tahnn-pa having 
acoompanied the party to a long distanoe 
{A, 129) ; V^^F^fi ihjeUhui h^paot 
^^^- J<r9s Q Kegi^yel byei^pa to aooom- 
pany one to a ahort diatanoe (genenJly 
with some wine for his refreshment). |^ 
^"^ Skyei^dar, aoo. to Lm. also in oolloq., 
pvesentation soarf of the departing person 
to those that had aooompanied him for a 
short distance. 

S^^ I:^#*^^tt:« pf. and fut. i^ 
iikyai, imp. i^§iyol 1. to cairy, take 
away: ^*X|frq fi^wa^i ro 9kyeUica to 
talceaway the body of the dead (Ci.) : 3f^' 
•Tffli -^ do not bring wood : |«i ^h bring I 
rr*- take away I 2. to send, e.g., dothes, 
to somebody. 3. to risk, to stake (one's 
h£^'^'n'^fad.9rog). 4, to use, to employ: 

nse an ox for work ; «iv8iS-q-flrlH|n to de- 
vote one's whole life to work, ♦■l-^'H hi 
idleness ; ^•rj^j^r^ gtor^maglui tkytU 
•«» to oast away as a ransom in the iorma 
saarifice ; F J«r«i hha §kyel^tpa to kiss (Jd.) ; 
4ffVq-}arq gnoi-pa ^yeUvm to do harm; 
to hurt ; inflict an injnry ; to play one a 
trick; 9^'%w^ fg^na^ ikyel^wa to swea?*; 
take an oMi ; f('l^^ h ikyel^ to rely; 
depend upon; repose confidence. 

I'^l-qn: pf. and fat. iftf t^y^ imp. 
f^ $kyol h to conduct ; accompany ; 
wap. ^W'l^'^ gdan-ikyehtd; f^m^^ 
i* y(tf' to fof eoikduct him hither ; ^'^ 



i^^ikyal going to meet and to accom- 
pany; ^^-S«i|vq gfegi tkyal^bye^pit 
roap. to accompany an honoured person on 
departing; to se>e him off. 

§•»••• tkyci^ma ^T«ifiRr an escort; 
convoy: ^^'m:^^ ikytUmar yo4 he ib m 
guide (to me) : |*rsra ^kyel-^na $ku grant 
us safe conduct. SsiTV«^'*|q'ai imag 
^^ ic^ pabi ikyei^ma a military escort; 
jq-X^-J^q 9kyel~rogt byei^pa to escort or 
accompany one to a place. 

I^rft $kyeUmi an escort : f«ripr|q-lhflir 

««l ikye{ mi igoi ng§ i^tfr-rpyim itor mt^ 
^n Mf gtaH-wa teat kgyit the MR^ipan 
should anmnge for the escort («iy«^f9M) of 
those formerly entitled to that privilege 
from Lhasa. 

j*l I: 9kyet 1. v. m ffa. 2. r. j^ 
^ye4. 3. ^n^kye^a. 

5.^ 11: also |Vfc ikyoi-fna or fmr 
•• 9kyo9^fna, jj^isi khyoi^^na, resp. ^f^'%m 
gnaH-fkyet «*q, w^ym, HmK a present; 
news, tidings; "8«l|* ^ycn-fiby^iaB^qv* 
|«iiA«&l-f£y^l a present given to or received* 
from somebody on his arrival or going 
away; |v«' ike^^ha^ a present of beer: 
l'***^ »Aye| Chen a present sent with a letter, 
etc. (^ag.) ; |«»B«^ ^kei^khur present of 
cakes ; |vq^ «itf|-£iii a present made in 
return (C!t.). 

]^ ni: «i> ««, WW Urth «r 
growth ; growing or grown ; v:\m nttl^. 
kyei self-grown ; Vl'' ehM-^kyei bom in. 
a grove; f^|« tha$^kyei Vfw or «ninr 
boom together; *'\^pko4h^ male; »|^i 
»MK4ijr«« female ; i^'|« §fiag§^ye§ of 
enchanted growth ; born out of charms r 



|<l'C|*<^^«*^*C| ) 

OrnhdUgiky^i dai fiag9-%kye%'ky% n^hai- 
Iffott khaghhyif bu-la mo-i^Am-^tf ittse^ 
iNir d^i MOf i^oi-grub kun it9al^hM igegi 
hm XdHMT Bhi-waH ftka^rin QKbotf, as 
ibe MtemUage of khadofM fairies, who 
hare been bom in giovee and bom simul- 
taneoodj and are of magio birth, are medi- 
tating lovingly as a mother towaidfl a son, 
WBj the grace be granted of all manner 
of perfect knowledge being bestowed and 
of fjl dffmffnff being speedily soothed ! 

1^^ §kpeMgr^ cansR^ goat (Jtf4on.). 
|irte 9kge§^^ ^m^ oertain of 
being bom cor reborn. 

I^M iftyif'tfAtffi apresent with or as an 
enolosaxe to a letter, explained in jfiag. 
as 'H'fVf 'E*Y^'^P'^ ^^ which is sent as • 
a npport to a letter. 

l^'Hl^*'!^ tkyn^hen §gn$lhgna$ a 
hsnnitage of holy persons. 

|irlir'^'( ikgn-ehen dam-pa a holy 
incarnate person: q^s ijwi |»««ii^ i'' H 

fidoi-nami tgych^t^nho 9Qg9 ^kye^-ehen dam- 
pa Itrgya^hrag nutH-po la gvs-hdu4 daH dad- 
|ftf«/ tgy^^ker iguhe^do ** So-nam Gja-ts'o 
and otheiB made salutations and offerings 
in full form to many hundred holy incar- 
nate ones'' {Loi.^U). 

|«'i«<<i| §kye§-^hog tixir or irarw s^ ^ 
aa incarnate personage; a MahdtmA: |«* 
9*^^^ ikyef^ohog fttM, f^ ^l^wsfwiq- 
li|-Q*q1^'^N^ the names of four great 
learned lamas of China, the four incarnate 
ones:— (1) ^«^ ffa^phu-fi, (2) 9^'»' 
Wenwatl, (8) W'J^' CiH kyu*, (4) B«^* 
Kkuiiri (Confucius) (Ontb. ^ 7). 

I^'f^ ^kye^-ldan^^^ mi-^yi «|T: 

in Sikkim the banana^ plantain; Lorn 
Hindi i6-fo and ff(M, a phmt: ^> is dropt 
in conversationy hence *«-*» ^i^'' ^"^ 
are abbreviated into ''ke-do»: In the 
distxiots of Upper Tib. and W. he-^iei 
signifies a layman. 

1"'^^ fkyei-nag^^fV^ in C. widower 
(/a.). 1'^ ikye%-nag stands for l«ra¥|fl 
ikyef-bu nag-po (lit. Mack person) a 
layman smt-iMx^: R•W^^I^'^^ i^ the 
country dialect of the lay people 

S^*^ I : ikyet-pa 1 . man ; male 
person. 2.= 'J'¥'| ^''Hl the year-crop; 
produce. 8. -1^^ wmw adult ; full grown. 
Ex. of 1. |ii«i'«\^a«>*»S ikyei'pa daH bud- 
med men and women ; Sii'5-^H51<i «r8»^ 
rgyal-po man; gcig-po ^kge^-pa yin the 
king alone is a man (JS.); j^a"^V* 
8V*S 9lyp-pa ^dtor^aii bud-med^ 
}iVK \ %!9X^ a woman resembling a man, 
t.«., poBsessiug masculine appearance and 

Syn. 8^'9< skf/e^-bupho', |«i'<ryii skyer- 
pa rgyal\ |'<W«i' ^kye^af miko\ B***" 
nSoi'Vs khu-wa^i bdag-Hid; f^^S fkya^ 
bycd; -^W hzan-pho; gj*' l^annyet\ ** 
mi-pho; ft«^'^<^ lin-ga^an (MHon.). 

^^•q II: pf. of 1*1 iJfe.C^.KW^'*!^ 

also WW, ^ftf'Tli growth or grown up. 
^^I'q II]!:=:«^w«i klrtdlhpa ham. 

|«'<r^^'si ikyei-pa dar-ma full ; 

phyuH-ica according to some : an eunuch, 

one who is made so aOrtificially. 

Syn. ^T»^ bog-med; V»^«H«'«» ^kw*- 
po Kami'pa ; 5»rffci khyimkhol ; ^^^ iR'f<*l'i| 

iv«iV|-ii^i 113 

1^ brail wy«^ rai-gu^an; ^^f 
ikkng mi-nui; ^gf^^^'^bbra§ iiyui^uai 

*i***|'^^ •*!»*«•• ttmnf^ "w- 

mn (&V-) tlie ptiiioalar ibur or oonitel- 
latum undor whieh ooe is bom. 

1^1^ ity«HI'0r the mMiim uied by 
evedtton in reoeiring back the loan of 
giain^eto.: frrl^'VfV^«-'^fF^^|«1P^* 
a#-lpor dM ttoMrai 0iiiai fttM |iyeHI'0r 
ate'^ftlaxgeifVijiAor oontema 3 or 4 oonoea 
in meaavre or wai^t." 


Qt ^V a man or male person (JjHoii.). 
i^ri^ iiy^i»ikiii»Y«^ «wfir a damsd, 

)^9 fiy^-te 5^ man, eip. a holy 
man ; penon ; |«'Q'^' |l^-te t«« whoso- 
ever; human {MM.) ; one : |r«'<iTq-a|^'«- 
^'f^ 9kfefrfm hg^pa (fifttlUMi Uam-ggii 
asqoiokasQDB sfcretohea oat his hand (c7!i.); 
|srfV^4 lJfcyf|-te 4anhpa fTO^ * sunt > 
W'VTl^a dt44ian fkgei^ the belieying ; 
the laiUifuL Aooording to soms Tibetan 
granimaiiana I^S liy^l-^ aj^liss both 
to men and women: Ks*^'^^\<r«^ 

imj jwf ff«it J gaA4kig Iha tnam W^oi 

A fri Anlf-r^im-rMMif-iyti W<vf (f • ^'i'* 

p 96) that human being who is faithful, 
and who worships the gods (taints) and 
aota aooording to the oommands of the 
Teabher is pnised by the Buddhas. 

|VY|sriaH tkgetJm ^b fgehog s^ 
nr^ the chief among men. 

the leader of men. 

t^V^ itgehhu can f V-wr«*|«-a fto- 
dot koahpati fty^i-itf a horseman; one 

Syn. r^ ttt^i?a\ r^r^^a ft^h griiM^ 
pa {Jittm.). 

1^9'*^ 9kgu-^lM 9okog Stftnir a 
saperior person; lama; also B^Hi Viffn: 
l^alfQ ^geiJm ckm-po nvrs^ ft gntt 
man or saint; an epilhet of Buddha. 

irj-rtf 9kg9§^ irfib»|-^' ^fc^fM 
n. of a tree supposed to grow in the land 
of the Niga (IfVon.)* 

l^S'^Q §kge§4m nag^po^ same as ^'i^* 
in*Q, n. of a kind of flower (£teMii. UV). 

|sra*V «lfsi-te /itofli^^ if tmp a a 
man or male person. 

|ei3'^|i^* |fey»l-te l&nVls|wa*aK*si 
fjkyes-iii tor-ms or 1^9'^*'* flf»l-te 
tfftif|-ma invus^ ^ seoond person; 
pereonal pronoun in grammar. 

|«i*(t-^^*ci 9ky9tJmti ^krug§^ 
^Diwrn pride, seU-rsqpeot. 

Ir^t Ki ikgt§4m^ «0f |Wf, 4K^ 
man£ness; manly sdf-iespsot or confi* 

|c«i |i;ys|-fM 1. tem. ol tifctp^f e 

female; she that has been bom. 8.M|^*ei 
abride. 8. )^ei liysfHwa fern in SikldnL 

l^ers^ ikgei-^na tkag as soon as bom; 
newly bom. 

\w:mm^a ifqfcfmm ihag^ % new-bom 

Byn. tbrer^e ftte^me ihag^pa; ^* 
^ra Oo ^At«44re; ^^^^' 09*f».^jhftf; 

X'9^9^'r4^t(hmatinMP^n^'Can (Jflbn.), 




I^V^ Ayn^inian in the vulg. Ian* 
gnage a woman ;=*^'»' or 8^'*^ (4Wo«.). 

|«rf»i ^pe^-rdsadi oultiTation; a 

1*'^^^ fkyei-fzugi «rTin|iT gold; 
birth ; form or bom-diape; statnre; figure 

I^^M ikye^^rabi vmPi a series of 
alleged birthfl of im indiTidual, or l^ndaiy 
idtA/oxj of these, and espeoiaUy aooonnts of 
the difbrent births of Buddha. 

jti'ltt| fiy^i-Bo cog ancestors: %^'^' 
^1^'^ 9kye9 tshai thamt-cai; t'^m'^^''\^' 

met^ yaH'mH 1a'^og§^ ikyei-^^og 
kyaH rin^par fi jute da^Jfa ni mM-gi Ihag 
Uaii^^ gyur father, grand&ther, great* 
grandfather, &€., ancestors of the former' 
generations having saooessivelj died, now 
nothing remains but their names. 

g 9kyo or f*! ikyp^ica, ^, ^M$ W, 
^HTVTy V- tn, iit¥ grief; sorrow; grieving; 


i'^ fiyo-igyei weariness dispersed: 

the inhabitants of the land of bliss 
relieved of weariness aooept all your 
preoepts (Z^tfifi*^^*)* 

f^^ tky<hie9ss^fm'f^ Bemi fkyo-wa 
to repent; repentance (4fiffen.). 

+ |'a|H iky(hHog9 quarrel; ^^fe* 
^rug-M {Lex.), esp. p-8T^<r|p«Kf i^'H 
reviving of old feuds and dissensions. 

^^ ihyiHca 1. rlf^-fl itMr-gyir^ioi^ 
jm old quarrels and leuds. 2, repentmoe; 
sorrow: %wi- Jv^V-rRgiS-^Slii j sem^yih 
fM iikyei'h ri-kbro bgrm he wanders on 

mountain ranges to induoe repentanoe 


f'q^ tky<hbran servant; slave: ^^'C' 
q-i^^»-^i|-^^Q a dave for life. 

W^ I: 9ky<hfna 1. quarrel; litigation. 
2. thin gruel, gruel of riee and tea, thin 
paste of wheat or oatmeal: f'«'fl^«S* 
jvia^-^q-q-aii; ip^'S-l^'R^ir^'^ ikyMna-fca 
she^pdii rgya-nUhso nub Ba-laH-tpyod" 
kyi gM bdoi naf yoi the ocean called 
gkyoma-wa lies beyond the continent of 
God&nlya {K. d. ^ tSi). 

^*M n: V. I^ia kkriohpa 1. one 
convicted. 2. Htrir, wcm^ penitence; 
smaller transgression: If'i'B^ ikyo-ma 

one who was once convicted before on the 
occasion of a former dispute. 

f^r^ iky(hfna can adj. slanderous ((%.) ; 
{''srS^q fkyorma byed-pa a slandering 

J As «tya-fw«rf««*^'^'8'*Wi frfAo^r* kyi 
ffUH the heaven, wheire there is no penir 

Syn. v*^'^n*«» dal^kimn gna^wA^ 

^k(hri9 rgyof^tHf <F''^V^I'» §kab§'^mm 
gnai, Kir^Hf^ iMl-gi Wy^ftm, «^*^ip 
grub-paiS gne§f aS'*S iehi^mei^ W^'^^ 
noin^ffkkaii kkyim^ Vt^ Stfin-f^Mft, f%9^' 
Mo-yi grofi, %^^^ lAa-yi Wg^m, f 
^'V^ Ua*yi yul, ftin a senu-divine being 
possessed of supernatural powen (M^hn.). 

f*^'J3F9kyome4rUyab V^|T^^-ftR- 
n. of Vifinu^i bow (4ftfon.). 

f'^ Sl^yo^kag a %ht both made 
of barley*flour with the addition of a little 
butter (A. 166) : I'-^^ii'^Vfrf'^T*^'* 
(|^) ^fn ih0^rai§4syi Aff^ filya^dky 
(#0r-ifta (tlui) mi ||yMc« early in tbs 

mcnii^ (m^ at dawn) by taking barlej 
gmel, wind i§ not aogenderfd {A. 156). 

1^^^^^^ ^^roi iJ¥hUhog§ n. of a 
land of ohinti (8. har. 179). 

f^f^ 9k^o-^i>gi a ooB0ol«r; one who 
ooniiolee a person during grief: 9'3i^'|'' 
X^*vr«ni*A*^^ the mother cannot be the 
oanaokor of her danghter't grief , m., one 
eaanot be of lenioe to another an onrtain 
oaeea of borow. 

C*^ fityp^fiai to be aid; sorrowful: 

ib^ (^M fifc^o^dl wi^wi li^t he felt 
(slight) repentance and sorrow. 

f'«iM §lkfo..$tat to console in his grief 
ijt scnxiw Of repentanee* 

f-msi^^ %kyo^^aH% 104 freedom from 

I'uM'iil^ iftfo-esHf g0H a pleaiare 

^I|^^ ^k^og-Hog iron spoon or sooop» 

vlf9 |iy0^ 1* a spoon orladIs;also 

ahoreL Wooden spoons for wine measue 
used in Tibet axe called fi« ftyopi. Thsn 
axe three kinds of spoons used in Tibet 
lor measuring liquids, sali> ftc--tho«e 
wfakh aaos mounted with copper are the 
jbxgesi; those lined with silTer are of 
iffiimifc sias; those of the smallest sise 
axe tipped with gold and called g^er-^kyogi, 
golden ^oons. ^1[^ me-tkifogi coal 
shovel J ^•|«"«^'^w*««f^ the copper 
spoon with whkh to measure the allowance 
in salt ssid (nl f or senrantsi eta ; I' f 'T* «*tf- 
§kgogi melting qpoon or cmoible. S. 
drinking cap 5 bowl ; goblet ; ^•|T« gwr- 
9k9ogi W^IPr* iM-^ogt, etc., goldotq^s 
siher onp^ and wooden cup are now called 



^1 pmr^i mff^ ihti^tkgofi B^Mp; 
rssp. eating or drinUng-eop { tF^lff^ the 
rein of a bridle ; also name of tribe in 
Tibet (Foi. far.). 

^f^ l*y<Vt iM^ ft nail in W". 

$ipi ^ *9og^pa h to turn: «^^ 
|''^'«i V^HiMiNi ikpoffi^ to turn the 
neck, M., look round, baok; also to tun 
away, aride. 2. one who ussa or maim* 
fsetuies the coal^shorel or stone sooop^ eta 

jw; <^5Wiwfa to And fault wltL 

i^^ llkgogtrm$d IMv not eurted; 
without any oumature or crookedness. 

%^'^^^ |lyo4 jeisit-Ma n. of a goddess \ 
she who protects. 

^'P ifsyoi-ica VJf X^% WOT, pf. ^pM 
i9k»a(ftf fat. ^ t|ikya«, imp. 4^ M^atU 
or ^MT^^ ftfiyofrf^i to guard; to keep; 
to defend; to sa^e; pr osor r e (the liis, the 
body); to support; to take oaxe of (poor 
people) : \f^>^tisr|k-4 dfin ^mtUpot |i^r«^ 
wa to support by beneflts, laTonii : Mr 
|«'|'«>*^ tktAfJ^ ikifpi^^9M to proteot by 
Tarious means; to attend to: 9^*^^* 
i^*4 Ihughdmi-ghyi ift|fc4-«Mi to prolsot 
by the moral foorae of meditation: *n|' 
4^'S lag-Jm-ggi by exercise; Sfi*|^*|^*«4 

r^yo/fftf |lfcyo^lHMitoruIe;go?em a king* 
dom: Kii a1K«:^*^ ekoi t9hiH4u Myeil. 
iMi to protect by justice or justly : V«*|k.' 
oho§^gi4 Winur protector, delender of 
religion, is used lor a oortsin individual 
deity or lor a class of soDoroists in some of 
the monasteries of Tibet. Under this 
head there are oertsan powerful deities 
who haye taken on themselTss the duty 
of defending Buddhism against its 



enemiet. When oo-eroed they oaa even 
moke their appeaxaaoe in the penon €i the 
invoker. The ^«V*ijt- Qnohckui 
ehoi-ikjfoi living near Lhtw ia a deity of 
this olaee who is generally ooniulted both 
by the Btate and the people of Tibet aean 
oracle t ^Ht^'l^' *>t>*r^ ikyai ifmmm 
goazdian of the world. There axe lonr of 
theee, identioal with the ^M^^ Sg^al- 
eken ^9hi^ the four great spirit Idnge: — 
WTO} (V^T^* TuUikhar ^kytO) the 
protector of the country or kingdom; 

Vtri|« ^iiiim tAcf-frtu). j'^'Mi tkpad^al 
aaoetanoe (in the colbquial of W.) ; f^' 
Vi'SV^ fiyo^at iy^tf^ to help; )c^'« 
ikyf^^ma^ same as ^$^*« (fftiii-iiia, the God* 
dese of the Earth; f^%S%^' tn^l^ri4 
ikyati ^mom a defender of the realm; 
Bame as ^ff^«'|>^' mrnv a defender or 
protector of the subject or of people : l*^' 
S^ lkyoMpye4 QTmr one who sapports or 


. ^"« 9kyof-pa pf • and fat. ^S il*yerf 
iwpt, wwn, ^fww; ^'^ ^yo-^M or ^5<ra 
igul-^ca to move (trans, rb.); also to 
go, pass on: |^'^*«^'Ti'V^ if the wind 
mores the branches. ^fS'^ Mi^kyoi^pa or 
^•e(?^'«i mi'gyO'Wa ^w\m the nnmoTcd; 
he whose mind is not agitated ; n. of the 
second Dhydni Buddha. In TT. tkyoi-pa 
is the general respectful term for: to go; 
to walk. ^V^^S i§kyo4-bdo4 is same as 
^9'^^S i^ra-^dotf desirous to go or about to 
go: ^'\iS ''nai'du skyod'' $^ in (if 
you please) ; *' tap^^ kyoi ** tread firmly I 
ql^Mil^'*! i§kyoi ikabi-k at the time of 
going or coming. 

(If 4011.). 

^rrrt^j MwtSy ^ff€^> ^w^if ^ift*, 

also T^'Q rfidg-pa 1. a fault, deieoi: 
I'li'^-wAiS §kon gati^yiA fmi it has no 
fault whatcTer. The two words |^ ikytm 
and V^'*! fi^l'A we sometimes used together 
as V"'|pl 'S^Miyon, but defects in iuauiTniiie 
things are expressed by the woid f'i fiyon 
and nerer by the words Vi ib| or V<'|^ ief- 
fffcycM I slight defects in honoured persons 
are expressed by the words ^^*ii| tfipw- 
ftyoa, which also signifies faults or sms 
in holy persons, that is, {H 9kyan (fault) 
in ^^ 4g^ or ^^'^V ig^4dun (deigy): 
|i|'mv^i(*4*<l §ky(m ei yo4 kkkr^pa fa, 
what harm is there in ecringP i^'j^ im* 
ikyon no harm; i^'^ §kyoihm$4 no 
harm, no matter; J^^^^'^'eR-ft^ $kyM 

yon gaU yaH min he is wiliiout anv 
imperfection or perfection; {H*^'«4^'^ 
tfsyim^u igiho^Hwa to consider as a kasc 
also to find fault with. 2. bodily defect, 
fault, as lameneai, derangement, disorder 
in the mixture of the humours* 8. 
spiritual defect, sin, yicious quality; n* 
Vl^ |H rdiUH'^u %mra^wdkiiyon the idn 
of lying; fl'S^^*^ i^ysfi-fyi tM-pei not 
defiled by sin : v:}p(\ Jar ^m 9k$ but 
that is very bad (of you). ii(*K«i ityea 
byei^M to commit a fault; jpTI^'^iiywi 
ipa^'-^a to leave off a &ult or quit it; 
ft i| jf^^awq rT^^ q mi'h iJkycfi listf^ 
h'iogi'pa to charge one with a crime; to 
criminate; ^^'Sl^'K«iVs «i g$k€m^ 
§kyon gM bv'o^pa to name the faults 
of others, to speak ill of them; to slander; 
to blame, criticise ; i^'|^'r'^'*S'«i ^syo§^ 
tpatl kha %ke meitiM to do any work with 
application and at the same time witiioat 

say fault or miiohirf to any body ; Cr 
ft-iiSrQs|H^wlf 9^ not perceive a fault or 


dactTe nf nn ; aiii-produoiiig. 

C'f'^^ ttlfon4lag ^nm thorny; mit- 


<ViV faulty, dsfeotm, inooneot, aiafol; 

fr^'^ iifoii }0o-ftf fwtf the eighteen 

dflfeota axe tiie following :-'(l) A-I^^l m^ 

^dug-pa Qgliaeei; (2) •^TH'^i t^ itra 

»tm^ bad or biirtling hair ; (8) V<r«^'^ 

j| ii ft »/ iw fd tw < m a iHiall ornarrow forehead ; 

(4) *'P^'| fiMlo mMkpa brown hair ; (5) 

•^rlK'^ nMjr air-iMi yellow ^yee ; (6) |T»i*i«r 

ii'^IP^'^ nmn-frfiAaiNf aM-^^yxrrHM the 

eye-farowa diqoined ; (7) f^^ fiui M-jm 

flat nose ; (8) ^f^^ 90 Ito-wa bottle-teeth; 

(9) M"^ <iV:pa Btammeiing ; (10) ^IN**! 

migMiu mpa round eyes ; (11) 'K'H'a mig 

e k nHma amaU eyea ; (12) |^'^ i^iuhm 

otoofced or bent body ; (18) f^*n fto^ 

«Aa-fMi large or pot-belly ; (14) ^^'<r|*w 

S^'^ ipi4 j p a fy$ Htff ikntwM amall 

ahooUm ; (16) W^ f fi hc a m hairy body; 

(18) iiT«r^' V^fiira the armi and lege 

wiOi the feet not proportionate; (17) M^* 

|h a (iiU;^ lioMi^ large or BWoUenjointB; 

(18) r^F*«\*>r«^« bad foetid imeU 

ooming oat of the body and the moatL 

patiUkig to dander or apeak ill of others; 
alao dander (Jfiim.). 

J^^^n tkfon-dii kgrut^M ^n^ 
to reckon aa or into nn or defect 

|V¥«1'* ftyoH-fiaf fnira-iMr mur^: 
to aecribe a fanlt. 



|iriff^**^*q iftyoa 0fui# m^tf^pa without 
the leaat fault or 

l^S^q gkg<m^pa, pt ^^' Mkyoa, to paJ 
aatride upon a thing (oansatiTe form of 
l|H-« tAcHi^fNi) ; •'Hr^l^'^ m^Mg fia^la 
^fgan^pa to canee a man to momit ; to 
ride on honebaok; to fix aomethingona 
aUok ; ft-lh-^iicai^-irlH-ii to impale a man 
(/a.) : V^'8"V'i>(t M-ftar li^r^a^* haying 
oanaed him to ride a doi^Eay {Peg. $1). 

JPt'^T'l ityMHiM^ rtog fk^m free 
fromdiieaae; thinUng or taking aa fanll- 

remainfng, Uving, or dwelling, in a state of 
innocence or fanltlessness ; |^**S'^*^^'<i 
aitftf-f i^a jHir k^ug^ifa wnx redding 
without fault. 

}pi^ ^yim-Mig dander; also seandaL 

1^*^ lilfoa-AdSim i>i'|'<^v^'«' to find 
fault witL 

i'T'^ fifyoa-ft^sBi^'a a learned man; 
a critic. 

Syn. W^^ina-rv; ^T^Aira-fai; 4^ 

jPl'-'K*' i*foa ftff^KlTii 9mmhpa WW 
a phyddan (Jfifofi.). 

f^'N'a fiyofi le/Hca to remore a dn ; 
amend or correct a fault. 

yT^ ikycb^ wiw, mfii, ^ww, pf. 
4|OT, iut V, imp. fw or' |^'^, to 
protect; to defend, pr e e eive , save; fre* 
qutatly ^^*4*ir|aa ifig^M la §kgob^ 
poj to protect from fear or danger or 
destruotion : a|av'a the protecting power; 
the* {reeerring cause : ^'^^ ^i^*^* 
9^n\ |W-|^'a'^*^fa-Q'Mr|wa'« he that 
giTea protection to another is called I'^a 


l/tgob-pax fpf^\^^ liyoif ^n^ the 
giver of xefage or tbdter. 

or ^<)^*ci ikyobi-iM mj9\ a protector. 

ȴW lAryoif help, Mustanoe; seldom 
for |« fityoif ; fmvt ^yobi-ma and ^Y 
fw ^roff'ikjfobi in oolloq., preeervation of 
life ; eaoape; also lie that saves anoth^s 
life ; a helper (Jd.) ; imp. of j«r<i tkyob-pa 
aSt^ltn'Hm'^'mik'^iwSn protect from all 
the dai^n. 

one who protects ; a name of Balabhadra. 

Wl"^ l/cyom-pay pf . ^jiw iikycm^y fnt. 
^«« teityom, imp. |w «X:yom2 to ponr; 
to pour out, agitate, stir up; according to 
Leic. to give ; defined as «fv«tr^'8^' 
l|i^«*^*jH;i|-fl(c.'^-94|«'<r||f*3 ehu snod chu- 

ikyogf'kyif ilait^'U aaHi'tiaU'du ilugf-pa 
tta^bu^ taking from water-pots and water- 
howls and pouring into kettles (JVa^.). 
Seldom used in coUoqnial language ; V 
^'^ to stir the water ; l|^*|*i*9 to shake a 

£^ ikyof% same as S^ khyoTy the 
hollow of the hand filled : ^'i*^ chthikyor 
a handful of water {J&.). 

j^ l^cyar, ^T^J^'^K* V^yoff-faiam 
gfier^wa bent, contracted or crooked : i^^' 
jf^ faHi^Bkyarssfna^hyof-'pa (his) kiose 
was bent {A. 106). 

again ; repeatedly. 

IK'^ ^kycr-^wa^ vb. pf . and fut. ^ 
Wipar 1. to hold up» to prop ; to paste. 
2. to repeat; to recite by heart: «5^'5 
<9^ i^yar-te ktai it was repeatedly sent: 

118 «] 

Ibf 1^*4 ishif iky>(yrHea to lepeat a word, 
like the reciiaag of the JKinj, i.«., ittf^'9^ 
d'l am ma^i pai-^m Mm : ^^^^^fs^ 
^^•w|^'qVq-4|i^*]^f^^qVRy<q an old, sick, 

or drunken person waUcs being suppcrted 
by another: W^*•5P^^^•fl•irJ^•q to prop a 
thing that is fidling or tumbling down : C 
If^'Q dm tikyor^M the pouring of water with 
some force as if through a pipe or the 
mouth of a kettle ; the sprinkling of water 
from a pot or vessel or a scoop ; ^%^ 
to back; to help morally or religiously or 
otherwise one who is in difficulty, engaged 
in war or litigation, fto.: 3. enoloear^; 
fence {Jd.). 

j''^'5^^ ikyor-fbya^i repetition from 
memory : sf'ii'*S-^'|5^§c»rsil^ 
retained in his minds, he repeated it. 

j< *^ ikyor-Uhig, v. |^«» (JHUm.). 

"^'^•^C 8kyor^m<>4uH n. ofavil 
with a monastery situated te Hke west of 
Lhasa containing estate of the Shubi^paf 

W^^ ikyol-fffa sometunee for f<r9 

+ ^'^ l*yoMw=s=9i«<-9 wasted ; 
spoiled; degenerated. 

^'»* |ifcyof-ma, v, f* §kyes, j^TH 
fkyoi-^na a present made: to a friend or 
an acquaintance at thd time of his going 
to a distant place, or removal to some place 
of residence. 

9 9kr4i (fa), resp. SflTI the hdr of the 
head : I ^'^'Fi ikra dai Ate-QW the hair 
of the head'^and the beard: ff^K* 
fkra-iigrit^oa plaited hair er curled hsir: 
I'W^^ ikra nag-gifig a single tuft of 



1^-1^^ f 

SS'^ iAroHit tlM^^ t^^ f io^ I'Ars f ii(HN|» 
«^ fidM|-«i«i {i>«f9i lof9 fp^o^fche (he 
whose)- liair is neither Boft nor rough nor 
thick nor fine but oDiform and smooth, 
and yellowiah and gloflsji beoomeB wealthy 
and jirosperona (4fi^Aaii.). 1'*^'^^ «Jtm 
do-ker the hair dressed and pkited 
together on the crown of the head ; |*^' 
^'^ 9kra docker can HP^ni-fiir. one with 
long flowing locks; I'^'V^'^Y'a f*^ 
gjfen-du UgretL^wa fta-in whose haira stand 
upwards as farisOes; |'1h «rir^%i?^ with 
loose or earelesBly worn hair; H'l'^ 
luAil a skein of silk or cotton attached 
to the flowing looks of Tibetan women ; 
I'^r^'^'f^^'^ §kra la^M-Qi fpt$ ^ra-wa 
httr like that of a bull; |'«n^=9S^^')'l 
looks of hair of women ; |'^' thin hair 
(SeUr.) ; wm\'^ to oomb hair ; VT^'^ the 
sfaaTing of one's hair ; |'^ jl^nim ^ l a 
barber; also napkin; l^'^a vf^ well 
braided hair ; also a braid or fillet of hair* 

Syn. ff *^ fkra4$kog9 ; 8 V J ^lar-^kye ; 
¥\^^ bye4^^€€Hian ; ^t^^m ^^go-^ya ; •*(• 
 WO-«w; |*|« ipirj^ liyiif ; ^jf^s 

^ii«9f ; ^^^ m$4off^n\ ^^ myil- 
«»; ••ff* lipa-fa/; ^^ do-ker; Mf* 
^rtO^paki gM§\ l^«««r^urf; »^X<! 
Of^-^og ; W* i¥m^h ; f^'9 JM-fo (J|r<Ofi.). 

fiUoii a barber (Jlflbfi.). 

r«^ itro^ii ^ftiifiiii, %iiK the 
asoe (aa of a lion) ; hairy. 

r«TW itwHwn gnoi ^pn lady's 

r^* libra asM-auva kind of hairy 
^nm ; also as VS**S woman (JUon*) . 

1*^1^ 9kr€Hfan g$ai 9Mt a nama 
of Harii who killed the demon EsfL 

I ^V««i ftra 8«*:P«= V^^T^^* or «|T 
*V«^ a comet (4Mmi.)- 

r'^^ lAM-fM^u^ hair knot; ace. to Jii. 
the bow of ribands at the end of the long 
plaits of hair of the women in Ladak. 

a celestial courtesan (4M^-)* 

f*^ ikra-gnai wfir n. of a species of 
sensitive plant. 

I^w^ ffXra-^/msffr^v ikra ftog^ 
pa or 1*9^4 tkra tog-pa %<t |i in (shaving 
the head clean); to pull out the hair: 
rr^-^aTq5-i;X'^T^T«rii ^-fwi gome sent 
forth cries of anguish, some pulled out the 
hair of their head {Mirom. US). 

■*S'»*f|*ra.iii^i|ijro"ahead without 
hair " ; O d9&4i nrfir nutmeg ; also e/br- 
niinum grandiflarum {Smm. JiO^.). 

ff^' ikra-Ual false hair ; a peruke. 

Vi ikra-rtM wm clotted haur. 

W*^ fkra-Uhogij v. | 9kra (fffon.). 

|'«i<Mi fJrrff-fitf Aamf ^fhnu the 
anangament of the hair. 

 fl^* l*ra.s|-«l«^frlq vanity, 
pride; adj. vain, very proud. 

I'qsc* §kraJbmtl a seoret or mystic word 
{Mi*, i). 

n. of a Tak9a goddess (JKfoM.). 
h^H^ ^^^^ ^19^ hair parting. 

tw^m a grove; a gaxden; n. cl a 




^^^ wiwmitfir the hair-end. 

f Jl*^ ikra U-fca or |* ^-»1^ i*ra*t 
rnam^j^yta* irw^ ourlyhair; to dLoes the 

woman's hair (<V^.)* 

f[nf\ 9kra-8ka4 vmv^ hair separator ; 
a oomh. 

Syn. *9m. mhmai, ^%^ tkraii byu 
dor hair okaner (Iflioii.). 

CI ifo^wa hard. 

Il^l*^ ikroff^pa (fag-po) to be terrified, 
fri^tenedy afraid of something. This 
word 18 neaiiy always oomhined with ^^^ 
4 ififfi^ as in ^^'l^d tj'igi fkrag-pa, to 
he panio-stmok. 

mo^ fr^MMiHiio the wife of the sun {M^on,). 

i|C*l1 ikrai-u^a (fai-wa) v^T^, 9V ; pf • 
fpM §krai§ to swell ; 1^'^' f ikr<i^f-«<Hl it is 

swoUen: Ji^-s*T^t(«^MT«r'»^H^' 
|K.«i swollen from being suddenly struck 
with a stiok or a stone or a sword. 

p*^ §fsratt:lfbur an absoess not yet 
open {8ch.); fprn^v^'^m itrs^^r 
lffam§9 ▼• ^W^' bthfpru fM, n. of a 
medioinal tree whioh removes tumours or 
absoess {MIkm.). 

|w|Tpi ikrqiH4cyi ipyai^ki, gK^% 
iman'thar-'nu n. of a medioine (^^ntm. 


|urQ §kraii-po a swelling; tumour 

f|^ 9kran (fen) |1W IhatHk}^^ I. l« 
tumour or any fleshy exoresoenoe in the 
abdomen ; a^uoncretion under the skin or 
in the bowels, womb, ftc. ((%•) ; a s 

of the glands {8ch.). {r^ ^tram^ai im 
desoribed as a oonsequenoe of suppveseed 
wind (c/o.) ; ^%^ rio-tkfvn ^S'l't two sorts 
of steatite. 

I^'P fkrab^ ifalhpa) to beat the 
ground with one's feet; to stamp, tread; to 
danoe ; also bro tkrab^ps : F^^'^S'B^^^ 
Q'^* yesterday's dancing was ezoeUant 

i^^^'lj ^u^'ka a ladder, t. W^^ fftof- 

1^'^ {fe^ka) ladder, which generally 
consistsof the notched trunk of a tree {Jd.) ; 
jc.'|ii a single ladder, i.^., a ladder wifh 
one pole; 1('|^ rdb §kra§ {do4e) a flight 
of stone steps ; )'|^ tgifo-ikra^ a regular 
staircase, as in European houses ; |'f « 
probably a flight of steps at the comer 

•f ^*^ 9kri^a (fi'tca) to oondoet; to 
send (Cs.) : )*Vl 9krufig^'^'^ iktm^Mf 
let him send: lV*S-S-^«ri-9^-8vprw I 
asked to send him to Tibet (A. 101), 

•f I'QI likni-tra, pf . «i|« ftlinff, foL ^ 

ilikru, to wait(Aft.) ; to out ; ^^^ asfJi 
§kru to out meat ; | lim, ^'pr^ fU 
krui-pa to cut wood or atm: V^ 
if Jtrtf-ira, )^'VM^'^|'^^ always being 
smitten by pleasures (Pug. l-SS). 

Ssi*^*q to make another ran away hj 

93j*q «iraa-pa tfifii-fMi)s|S'<i |i»e#> 

to poduoe ; W«> 6l*n»ii-i», ^V«i Wr* 
pa amr, ftl^y iffiw grown up: ^^iF* 
1^ growing crop. 

fSI fifcrvm (turn) meat; applied to 
the food of the respected; generally 
^*|«> ffMO^krum is used in coUoquisl 

flHm\ ikrcg {fesi) to beat (ihe drvaa). 
^9r^-o^^''fi't^^ iama-ru bkhroUtcahi don 
signifies the beatirg of a skull-drum 

|pi|*Q fkrog-pa to chum; stir {vnth a 
rod): X»r|T*' io-wfl ^rog-pa to chum 
milk {:^ag). I 

wrfinr to expel, drive out, eject: ^^*^''* 
fS ^09 na%^i/cro4 to expel from a place : 
V^'f\ phyir^tkroi to drive out : •^^''is 
hgeg9'ikra4 to eject an evil spirit. 

CH|'2J (ijfca-tra s^l^'S unrw astringent ; 

also thick. 

mg|^'«i^« ft^kaH ifidoi a slight fiame- 
work made of sticks and coloured threads 
as an offering to the gods in cases of sick- 
ness: iSifiii«qil^»|T^^S«^«JS«^''^«^«t^/Aa. 
gupfiyogi-su iitaH-^fdoi daH isrud hkhor 
h$hag place B9kafl''ffido9 and amulets on 
ihe south side {Jig-)- 

QSK*f ^ ^aii-fcfeai a sacrificial cere- 
mony (iSehl, 360), 

m^Q^^^'^ to make copious religious ser- 
Tioes to the tutelar deities, angels, and the 
guardian i^irits of the ten quarters 
(giL 9). 

mp^ (ffasjif 1. r'^n^ ^^ fuU to the 
brim. 2. iV^'^'^^^f ^«q«i|H^'q fiatnt- 
pa giOhpt^ fill to the brim {Situ. 7i). 


qjfjim Mamff past, dried, burnt: Q^r 
tm'tii'mfm by the fire (at the end of the 
age) the lakes dried up {ifag. 9). 

QJIpl^Q l^^al-pa m^ a fabulous period 
of time; Ibe various ages of the worlds 

121 ^3^1 

each of which has been presided over by 
its own human Buddha respectively : ^ipiT 
^'25 (>$kai^pa chen^po the great Kalpa ; ^' 
<)4|'^ Oar-iikul the intervening or middle 
Kalpa; iW|^«J»vB ifkal^pa bga^-po mifmm 
the happy or glorious period in which the 
Buddhas appear ; «l|>r«iK^a Malpa ^m- 
pa the evil Kalpa^ in which no Buddhas 
appear (Jd), 

virtuous; also virtue (4firton.). 

q||ai*q J|9i ^^kaUpa f€9^f^^ rtri^-pa p*n 

accountant {^Hon.). 

mf^'^ (fto/.m^smpt'cA*'^ the fire which 

will destroy the world at the end of the 

present Kalpa {iS^ag. 9). 

q^q-QBi^ tffai^Jsail ^^'Hl*"^ n. of a 

religious work. 

q^ (fitf s9<i|*(| hyug-pa, fut. ^ i^u9 
M^ rubbed {^ag, 9). 

war fboi-pa concealed ; hidden {Nag. 10.). 

Q^JJ ifkutn, pf. of |«\ 

Qttfi'MQ^ ^skufn-fi^khyii the distance or 
measure between the thumb and tJie top 
of the forefinger drawn in ; about one- 
half of the measure of a span : ^*^'''^'^' 

breadth was one finger (i.«., one inch), 
and length eight spans and one i^uffi- 

'^I'l'B ^^ikum-khru about a cubit 
measure with the fingers drawn in a fist 

Q|x*^V* ^i^m-MMi a measure of dis- 
tance by stretching apart the two arms 
(with *' fisted hands *') ; a little less than a 
fathom's measure. 

OS^ J}*wr, sbst. sending, granting; 
^QK.-q|^ to bless ; to grant benediction ; 
-^^^•uj^ {iSlag. 9). 





■V ▼• 1^^, «»8*'*«^^ iskul'irm signal 
to call one to his business ; signal to call 
workmen to their respectiye duties. 

one who gets Government works exouted : 

^^^ ttfku^, pf. of q| ifku ftiir 
anointed ; stained or poisoned (Ifaj. 9). 

^^ ifkon, pf. ^fw^aiy go9 bskon^to 
to be dressed {Situ. 6i). 

^m^ ft5*af surrounded: ^l^'^lf^ 
surrounded by followers, admirers and 

. ^X^ J«*otf='^S iko4, pf. |«rEK-n?rti 
(Situ. 7Jt). 

numberless ; immeasurable {Zam. 10). 

q|K.^ iskyam mftrir protected ; cherish- 
ed ; nursed. 

^^v l^^ffobf Tf%«f protected; f'il'^J^^ 
^vog-k^yabi protected, saved life {Situ. 

fni-i9kyam$ the vessel has not dried. 
««q|*w water dried up {Situ. 7i). 

^J^ ifkyar^^^'^' or '^'^' again; 

again and again {Zam. 10). 

^•^y iff^yar^bsso repairing; mend- 
ing of. 

^y^ blikyur cast out ; ezbiled ; driven 

^5^^* Wl**> iihyur-du heug-pa to cause 
any one to oast or fling anything away. 

^IV^^^ iikyei-idoi H^: growth or 
growing ; wish to grow. 

^3^'^ t«*W./Hi, ^mftv, aww, U5fw 

1. a production, generation, fonnatioa 

2. «?VTft^, W?qK?r. *wq|s<i sem$ i^yed^ 
pa ^^mj^ to form one's mind; to have 
a conception of ; also technically means 
purification of the heart as in iitfi(^ ' ftj i iK » 

«HVqq5X fiskyed^pa bgyi-^o W^V^ 
to have a conception of. 

^V^*» iikye^-t'tm ^mf^ir the gra- 
dual development of ideas ; powua of an 
occult nature. 

moved, agitated; •r^l'v^ ma ifkyoi^ 
^ni)^ unagitated. 

qj^qwRfi bfkyoi-pa yati-ma ;rpiT«f«T 
moving again and again, at paroxys m . 

qJfV^'*' iikyo4 med^pa^ ll^m giai§ 
^Mflfta n. of an immensely gieat 

Q|S ifkrai and |5'^ phyir^i^trai^ 
^'^q^ phyir-iton turn out, ei^l {Situ. 
7Ii) : q^l^pf- qj^ turn out a ghost or devil. 

^JS*^ J**r«/tf, pf. of %^ wqj^i food cut 
up {Situ. 9). 

A|^ iikrun^^S itkyei 1. «VV^ 
niA^-t/u i^a^-ira to multiply. 2. ^^"^'^'^ 
paT'du iko4^ to print, set up in print 
{Jfag. 9.) : ^'^^'^JT*! igenta i^^runa, i" 
9<l'<^|^'^ Mog iffib*iMi-pa. 

- J 

P Ate I: the aeoond letter of the 
ISbabii aljllabet, bemg the aspinte of 
^i«L Li ■Qviid H xeiMiiibles % ibe leoond 
eoneoiMmt of the Senakzit alphabet. 1. 
On n f juAmn it indioatee thefleoond, or 
nvmlMr iim. It is at t aohedy often option- 
ally, as an additjonal qrllahle to many 
iravdfly Mjpfwially in the colloquial: ^'P 
^^otf-Mathe price; ^T cha-kha a thing. 
2. It impliea n Ua9» a part: r^'fl 
Ma- ^ Bl •aaBrr^V'll khag-gU^^u into 
two parts (dirisionB): ^iF iAo-^iHl one 
pnt The ncOipazt of a toii-ia (Tib. coin) 
11 oaHed icJkk 8. Origin, gonroe, ftc. : ^jt^'P 

kMi the aooroe of gold, gold-mine : ^T 
hkwMitm aalt-pit: \T tmcuhkha paa« 
tawvland, m place where pastures ahonnd. 
4. Time: ^wr^V^V ntbeAar-kha^m 
isffiisS (fijte. tl) calculate time from the 
^noDsnt of sonrise; 4|*P^ igroMar at 
Uie time of going ; at the time when he was 
zsai^ to start : X-^'^'I^'^ ^^f q mo iehi- 
kktir dk0f4s tdun-pa ahe at the time of 
djing became idigioas, Ac {Pag. S7) : 
§^ k grn khot when he came; at the 
flMMaent of arriral: ^'P goMMa at the 
tfane of coming; ar^*4'Vrp'ai m dtiA^po 
Oob k k M nm^ ^ryB ^^^ m daiipo thob^ 
mt4kag as soon as he attained to the flrst 
rtage, lU., one moment before the attain- 
laait: VT^'^F^i gun riH^gi kka na§sm 
Vr^'%f VI gun rm^gi igo tun by little 
and Hiile; gradoaUy (/d.) ; ^*^7^ in the 

hope of; ^^'dT^ just on the oppo^ 
tmiity ; *^ in the nick of time." 

P 11: 1. the front side: v« face, 
mouth; also tiie surface or upper aide. T 
is the ordinary word for ** month," while 
^c is the commoner term for *^face." 
Again, to express the sorfaoeas weUas the 
front of any inanimate thing, r ia the 
usual form: ^P*^^^)^ ioiGlea on the 
face of the diff; |«rj^'««S«Pi'«T^'8^ 
$kgtUknUl ii^dsaj^nai chuMar hgtm {Pag. 
117) sitting in a oroea-legged posture he 
moved on the surface of the water; ^'n* 
p-iia(YK| ^H-iifr ko4hug kha^la M-ur- 

gyi ri-fM ifithoA saw reflection of rays on 
the sur&oe of milk-broth {Pag. US). 2. 
iTT^ language; conversation; V9«r weed: 
forei Q^I^-ar^-^q^-^U'jpi the king having 

become powerless at (hia) wife's word 
{Pag. Si). 

Byn. f^'ir imra^a^i igo; s'|% so- 
bg^l ^^'^'8% g^uH-war-ige^ i ¥l $kal; 
V^'i'^^'^K^ gtam^gi ibguM-gnoii I^IS 

tMki rten\ VS litotf ; ^^ gshm {M^km.). 
P m : a breadth or a square of cloth, 

In its several inflected forms P is 
often used aa if it were a postposition 
goTeming the aoousatiTe case. These 
forms are P'^ kha-na^ P'% AAo-iw, and P^ 
kkar^ and take the meaning of ^'cn,** *' at)" 




"bwide," &0-: **P^' on the fire; B'M on 
the ohait; fs^rq^r^ all round. 

rS'*' kha kyel^oa^im^ to kiw. 

V'V^ kha krab-pa (kha ialhpa) to smaok 

or oluck with the mouth. 

fr^fip« kha rfiter.|»=f^'^«(W BnaH' 

ufogsaih bright :^'V«> Wa-^pa. 2. 
auspiciouB; of happy omen; agreeable; 
pleaaatit looking; FVP'^'fl kha-Jkar 
0ti4nag outeide white, inside blaok, i^.^ 

rsfi kha^kri (kka4i) neok-doth, some- 
times worn as a protection against oold ; a 
kind of raw silk stuff of narrow breadth 
manufaetuzed in Assam ahd largely im- 
ported into Tibet, where it is used as neok^ 
ti« and handkerdiief: r^^|•w^•'^V«'•r^^• 
^ kha-ikn icai hdra-tca kha-rer ibru 
(««i.) for each breadth (of cloth), which 
is equal to a kha-iij price iu barley grain. 

pepi kha-lftug dumb; also of indis- 
tinct speech: ^^'9»^'^\^'AtI^^S the 
spleen of a goat removes the dumbness of 


ffffs kha-ika4 ^HH^w oral account; 
tradition ; narrative ; colloquial language. 

rif*' kha-ikaH ^tm^, fW a mouthful; 
completion ; appendix of a book : P'iT^*^ 
kha-ikari'wa 1. to fill up a void ; to make 
np a deficiency. 2. to fill up the mouth 
with water, to rinse it. 

P'i^'q kha ikor-wa = S '^ ihi-wa or 
frqj(k q Wa {«*or-fi?a to speak cunningly; 
to circumvent by speech. 

frwZiii klia ikyur^pon 1. sour; of an 
add taste. "2. olive ; olive tree (in Sikkim) 


fr\^^ kha'^kyeH$ shame-f acedness : fr^^' 
M*f«'fr|c.«i-S'ftQ%V'^l 1^ A 1^^^^^ ^ about 

to give his gaitnent to another man^ and 
that other man having held out his hand, 
it is not given to him, he is ashamed — 
that is termed kha^^kyeii. 

pp kha-kha I : apart, separately : rr 
•J^S'^f «***S if (you) sit apart there will 
be no quarrel. 

PP II: or rr* kha-kha^mo bitter 
mouth; bitter taste. 

rpw kha'kheh% «tt| a veil; a cover: 
n«q-^i^f9*ffeq«'^«rp*^ gr^a-pa rer kha- 
khebi roi kha-re (at every offering) there is 
a square of oloth apiece as a face covw - 
ing to each monk. 

ri*^ *//<f-Wor=^«^=^ tha-bkhor border, 
edge ; also th^ circumference. 

prQ«1| kha^hyag^r^^'^ kha4heg 
byed-pa contradiction; denying one's 


P|5^«i kha-khyag-pay same as r^'^'" 
hha-theg by^4-pa, to deny having under- 
taken to do a thing; denying one's 


rfi^ kha^khyer 1. ^'^lan^kan ; ^^'i 
tteg^-Jm any shelf or box on which birds 
perch; also %ft%T an altar; a raised seat. 
2. »mq3r^p iptha^fkar-kha the surround- 
ing line or circumference of anything; 
the sunounding edge of a doth, Ac. 

fT^Kha-khra {kha-4ha),Y. fm 9kMa^ 
khra or ^TVi I^ kha-brag; also n. tar 
certain wild tribes of the border land cl 
Tibet, namely the Aka and Mishmi tribes 
of eastern Tibet and Asfam {Ya-seL S8). 

PB« kha-khram {kha4ham) defined ss 
n*5)'^^«'«'^*' cunning talk, deceitful 


PB««i kha-khram-pa = ^^'^-IS^W 
gyorgyt4 ifoi-mkhan one who apeato 
cunningly so as to cheat. 

rK«t| 125 

FIP I : kkaMk^ (kkm^U) ^^r^ res- 
peel, ngaid s lit. inbate i& Imgnage or 
in woras. 

FV* II : oapitetion tax or poll tax. 

F^f^ kka»ikkot the airoumlnenoe of 
the mooih (d.) ; r^*'^ Ua kkkor-wa to 

f4Y^ M« UshiM^ to bmd an ani- 
mal's xnootk ; to gag ; to ebrang^. 

F^M kki^tkhy^m to be agitated 
oatwazdly: JRlT*»'^<i'J***tK"^?*« f/a« 
dbfi-jpe dlf£ tfift^vMoti kim ikkfcmi the 
^ar&ee of the sea was troubled by that 
great wind {A. 16). 

F^Q khQ^ffa-po difficult (&«.). 

F^* kka'^§a'4ma or F*l^'* Mo-^U-iNa 
the square mg that is spread over a great 
man's ooshion or seat. 

Fi^ hha-ffaidk quadrate, square; one 
sixth of the Tibetan ooin ealled ^ellita, 
whiok is eqnrfaleat to one anfM in India: 
Fi^'^ kha gai-^wa adj. sqnore. 

F^'^'i'^ Ma-ga^^f^^imt'O'fea to 
talk at random; to qpesk at pleasure 

F*T« Ua-gab ooTer, lid. (&?*.). 

FI^SI^ **« ffpen-.pkfOffi «^ with 
the looe upwards (in expectation) ; expec- 
tantly, eagerly. 

P'^^ kka^traH$ {kha-iaH) enumeration. 

Ft kha-gru (Jtha-iu) or •Mf ffiihaihgru 
the comer limit or spLere of a place, also 
of the month. The width of the mouth of 
a Tessel or p6t, also Ae opening of tiie 
month. Ff ^MrV^-*rr»Ss*! **«- 
fm |Mi4f-fM ikar-ibol rtuMne^ mekog that 
being broad in space, of white and soft 
apitoaran ee, and without grass, u best 

fI^ Kka^gM, m^'^'%n^[^ fgdhah 
iihcb ful-gi mUi n. of a border country. 

fI^'I kka gm^gra is defined as ^^'^' 
w^-rt'Sf fs«i tiie noise of the foe which 
arises in a battle-field (Ififfoii.). 

F^^*» kha^gog^fm mute; one who can- 
not or does not speak; gagged (iftafi.). 

F^l^'^ kha kgyut'tca to change One's 
woids or promises. 

F^)T« kkm hgrig-pa {kha-4ig)^rrnjmn 
kka kekatn-pa of the same opinion or 

r^n khm-^hgril {Ha^^il) the selredge or 
loose ttifts of thread on either edge of a 
cloth : 5v8F^V«*«ift »'«V^'^*«i the 
fringes of the tent being made widi blue 

r^S kka-zgoi ill or rough language; 
also a slanderer (Sek.). 

F^ kka-rgan pririlege of old age (Jd.). 

P J3^ kka-rgyan m^jm tbe betel-leaf 
which the Indians ohew; literally the 
beautifier of the month. 

Fy^ kha-tgyal-wa to win a di pute : 

can kka-rgyai the animate beings of the 
demon kind won the oontroTorsy. 

FJ^ kka-rgyug idle talk ; unfounded 
assertion (c73.). 

F|S kha-rggui, re^p. ^'^^ fhal-rggtij, 
same as^^w'JS gtam-rgy^, oral tradition; 
also certain mystical doctrine not allowed 
to be written down. 

Fi^ kka-^gor the shoulder bone. 

Ff^-' kka tggwr^a F»|^«i kka^h 
igguT'Wa to got«m ; to rein the mouth 
(of a horse) ; to lead, guid^ influence other 

FIs kka-igrog (kka^g) r*9rf^*«r4i* 
*• V ^•K''S«». In this passage Ff* Wo- 



l^vvf mMtti ihnitiiig or bmding up the 
sfarapi .of lb teank or leaihar box. 

r^* Mn-ftf 001 adTioe. 

rf<>*M0 |ll0i^flB%iL'^ 49<.ptf the lion 


rr^ Ma ftfo-iM or FFr« Ma liTai:^ 
to antioipAlo or aay Mmething bebve- 
hAnd; to ipeak out inoonaiderately. 

r^ Ma-€iV or ri^ kha^^rig 1. •! •! 
ImJm^ lrf%^ a oertain penon ; Fi^ Mrfflrf 

2. Home {J. ZM.) ; p-M'0'*Vfs Ma cig. 
tu pkitr^grar vf^nnm ^^or as some oall 
it a flying word'* ; rM^^ hha^g na^re 

rt"i kha-eut at f'^ hha-^mr SUwlmixr ; 

F^vi kka^aH dever taUdng, of. rf^ Q 
kkm ffiyaH^ eloquent; dexterous in 

FW Mo-ft^tf^S'^' cfi-^aii n. of a 
medioinal subfltanoe {§man. Ii9). 

r'^S hhu^gfioi coyer ; in Xrf. cork. 

F^toi Mo- ^^/ idle talk, prattle {8ek.). 

F^ I : khU'CAag defect in the blade 
(of a knife or an axe), but r*^^'^ kha- 
chaff |fMi-ra/=sto get the mouth damaged 
and noee torn ; FS'T'''^ kha thug-po %qH the 
edge (of a knife, Ac.) has become blunt ; 
F^^ hka hg^tiH the blade has become 
turned, U^ bad ; F^^'^^ hha nU^iduf the 
sharpness is wanting; %^T gril^kha or 
31^* V griii so (in Kham9) the blade of a 

F^ n : abuse ; ill language (Jd.). 

F*S khihehai^ ^'•S 4ha<ha4 agree- 
ment, covenant ; a truce ; r'*S kha-chmi^^ 
•S'^^ ckaii'don special object or reason 

FM ibWMAor ssabbreriation of F^ 
snow and a^'<i, rain. 

fr%KM kha^hUt the •taming or appeas- 
ing of wild beasts, ftc.| by witohonlt. 

r% kka-ehu (^aq diul^hab) wm, 
m^ spittle; also used ooUoq. &r F^'t 
kha^tcahi cA« snow-water. 

F<*9^ kha ehu^pkug n. of a place on 
the uplands of Kha-diu {Lan. ^ Sit). 

P*£ KhoHihe a native of Sjishmir; 
a Mahomedan; a person that has the 
command oyer much; principal or impor- 
tant things (F^'<(*<1'<^ khthche-wa fftaw); 
n. of a mask in the religious plays of Tibet 

f^\^ khthche ikyei^ F^*'^ khorthe 
i^hog^ V. 3^*1" gur-gum {Mf*on^^ iNTHn or 
9^ saflron, the produce of Kashmir. 

piRf^pi^ kha-^he igron4eha^ ft-i'sf^ 
kha^he tehkhoA an um kept by a Kussal- 
man at Lhasa or in Peking; F^'^^^Ws- 
che fBchog v:kj{ iniR^Kil the chief artiele, t>., 
sadfron, which the Tibetans obtain from 
Kashmir; F^iF*^ kh0hch$ fthkkm-ma a 
kind of yellow flower resembling safiron 
which imported from Kashmir is largely 
grown in Tibet; F^'IF'^f'^'^'^g **«*« 
fa-kha-ma tpor rer bbru the cost of a fpar 
of Kashmir fa-khdhfna flower is a dm Gt 
barley flour ($Mt.). 

prlSW AAo-cMitf, resp. »^'^9m gAal- 

ehem§, kst will, testament ; P'}«ni'4(^-q Ma- 
chem ijog-pa to make a will; P'^mt 
|i^*flrq|^ kka-^hemi rtuH-fa i^Bur cent (hiB) 
last will to the winds (Beku.). 

F^ kka^ckoi hypcoiisj- ; religion in 
talk only. 

F^M kha-ichtil mmmr idle talk, prattle; 
talk as in a delirium: F^<*"('d^ (he) 



r9«ii I 

pa or FW^ Ma ihmg^pa to agree i^n; 

^^«i iwuliiig to^iher as husband and 
wife; to live hanaomoualj (^FAmi.). 

r^-^ AAa MMm, B^meas r*t'^ *Aa 
tkal-way to poraouBe ; speaking sweet words 
Tiieaning nothing or evil. 

^'^ kha^l^am gsM^nag r^TfJ ^K^q 
•■•'I'MP' soft and polite in language but 

F^w^q kAO'iifai'wa to measure. 

FHT* Ma kfuff-pa to interfere; to 
meddle with ; meddlesome, 

P't kha-rje ^, 5^ the chief of the 
douds ; doud-god. Aoo. to C9. great lord, 
mighty personage; good luok, good for- 
tune; aco. to Jd, fortune, good, wealth. 

i9o4'^nam9 "^m merit, moral virtue {ff^on.). 

cm possessed of moral merit; virtuous 

rt'^ kha-rje ehe rery powerful ; also 
hig^ moral merit: Y'if4i'Sk'j|^*fsiii'dY<|-^' 
^^•^R'f I'Vp^ if we brother and sister were 
not here, would you haye been powerful 
to-day P iA.lsrj. 

F?T^ kka San^pa or r^W<i kha^la San- 
fa to obey ; r^n kka nan^po obedient. 

r"*^ hkaSuA sparing of words; laoonio 
(flfe*.) iriF^'^' kho'-iiuAtag^w^ r^%' 
••■»«r»rTV3^«rir jsfq i^ one who does not 
speak many words and who does not act 
the thief. 

rf^ kkt^magjy. F^H kka-nog. 

F9^ ^Aa-«lfiamsf|^•«i)•l |fei^«MMnN 
of equal, i>., same words or opinion : 
f ••9>rw^irr«i9^«m if (you) eat together 
(you) should agree in speech. 

r^^ kha-TfM old or seoond-hand articles. 

Bem^-la n^d-pa^ kha-hh if^dae^po bad at 
heart, but very polite in ea^xiesnon 

{l^ag. 10). 

Ff'** kka-^m% of same height; ako 
of level surface : •*^»iiiF^V'^5'|^'«i they 
were equal in height; ^'^rl'w'Aj'kw 
1^'^ {wAn kka^amtpa^ khoHf-^kyib^-na 
in a sheltered comer or cleft of cool moun- 
tains of level surface {Ta-^el 35.). 

f 5 kka4a or Fljf Ma-|te good advice ; 
lesson ; F»'9V<i kha4a byei-pa or a^a 
biog-pa to give advice ; *>'"y5«ifliF'(|*>*9^*<i 
not to give advice to a bad man {Jig.). 

P5*''*'! **^ tam-gay F^ kha4ica, v. p" 
^•r^ kha^tbatn-gaj a club or staflf with a ekull 
at the top, the weapon of S'iva, also carried 
by ascetics; a trident ; F5'^ kha tam^ga a 
Tantrik club or staff with a skull at the 
*op, V. F5*r^ kha^wam ga^ trident ; the 
Tanirik stajff irtth three skulls piled one 
above another at the top, the lovirest one 
resting on a pot. This was originally 
introduced into Tibet by Padma Sambhava, 

P'^ kka-tig bitter ; bitter taste, v. F^ i : 


» • 

FV^^ kha-to fid is said to be same 
as *!Vi*4^^ ^Mi^-fMi a pointed stake used 
for the execution of criminals (Jd.). 

Fl^ kha-im Cft F^^^ kha^idan fmfiw, 
^Ifqv a reading or reciting from memory 
with a loud voice; Jt^wfKV'P' reading 
or flaying by heart; FK^-^«i*^a ton^du 

r w« I 


tH^pa to know by hoart ; r'9^ 8^'^ kha^ 
ion iya^tra i^w trftftwrr (irtWin) a 
dmat redtstion of -prayer or hynmft. Also 
•zpUined a« ^af ••rsl^wf trv* «*' 
^^^'*^'SV^ to rMLte religious traot* from 
memoryi without having recourse tc 
booke: ^(^ '^'^'V^T^^f^'f "by looking 
at scientiflo works to oommit to memory'' 

rW^ iAtf gtai'pa^ same as^|^'<l ^*^< 
sjBfotf-jxi or ^'|^**i rO'iprai'pa 1. to bring 
together personally; to oonfront: ^ll'«('^^' 
iR'|**M^r*^*^T^^'«w ^ffro im^nut-par tta raH 
kha-gtai bdon pai ( Tig.) not being able 
to gO| (he) let the horse go towards you. 
2. to turn one's face. 

r V* kha^gtan^ resp. ^' V Bhal-gtam, 
oral tradition. 

ta ho gtughpa or r««< ^•«t hha-la ho hy^ 

Fi^4 kha 0ot»wa to injure ; to abuse; 
to oall names. 

p-q^spi kha-iiagi anything that is pui on 
the faoe» ^ue.^ presented or placed before 
a person {or his acceptance; hence that 
ubiquitous article of Tibetan social inter- 
course, the presentation or salutation scarf. 
These soarves are of various descriptions. 
Thelongestand the best ones are presented 
to the great lamas, high officials, and to 
other personages; they cany respect ao- 
oording to their quality, colour and length. 
There are difCerent sorts of P^^^ kha- 
iiagi (silk presentation scarves) — p'^^^ 
«r|i*K-nj^s*^'y; q^ SI kha-iiagi'la phpi- 

isoi-itafi, X'^H tshe-l/io-mo or vi'i|{-i|^«- 

ktgy^'i^h icu'ibagi^ 8og§ ifuht$/iogi 

Ffi kluHtan a soft thin rug that is 
spread on a cushion ; a cover for a oushioo 
or couch. 

W%^'% kha sien-iiu above ; besidee ; on ; 
upon ; at ; towards : ^^Tf|^•\''Vf^d9^tha' 
iieiMu ih»g9 he sat upon it (P<v* ^^0 

P'fp^ kha-stcA not yet having eaten aoy- 
thing ; lit. empty mouth. 

p*|iNii*jq*q kha^ami tgyab-pa is de- 
fined as S|Jsr?N-q|%4ra|-T^«^'qs^iJi^n^'p-»r^- 
ci'^^ to revile one another f o^ no purpose. 

fTW^ kha fiam^a, ^-^ 'JT*^ iha^ 
phyag ^shan^ v. P'?«'^ khaHam-ga. 

r^ **«-««/= OT*^ ihug4hal or ^ 
Z^ ihug rtMfn rice or barley particles. 

p WQ kha thal^a:sifpi'n kha kche-^ca to 
promise (Cii.). 

P*^ it^Ao-^Ai akindofsatin in variega- 
ted colours. 

POT kha-thug to the brims ^tfi:^ ^^M- 
thug : m ir^'^ kha-thug 9*o4-4rato fill to 
the b^im ; P*^^ kha-naH the inside brim 
nsf q kha ihug-pa to meet in a oonteirt, 
in conceit with 

p-y^ kha-ihog top or surface; upon a 
thing =yYP thdg-kha on the roof, on the 
upper flat. 

P'V^ kha4hor pustules in the mouth 


f'9^^ iMoHiiMtifi, V. P'M0i kha-^dkam. 

P'sq^'ci kha^huf^pa^fW^ kha-thug- 
pa agreeing upon, unanimooa ; also 
together with: Wg* I||*VWF«1T«WV'. 
in concert with the men of the palace 
they petitioned {Pag. S76). 

p'^sq kha-bihab !• regulating of stores 
by equalising their quantities : I'gVl^ 
•iii'ti^ Af^'RVdS'^ "> po-hgH 9og§ nmH Ml M:« 
kdra bgeti^a fa, |^•q«••^•^•^W^S••rw 

p-oaai-qjc-q ( 



h^-pm (Rim.). 2. P'^WQ kka ttkab^p/^ 
^9^^S^ gpyl fprorf f or ^ff^^mft 4mag 
Ma^ipa to fight; to give battle (M*onX 

hn ifo4-tM to aend a reply, to xeply ; P* 
^<i Ua kiken^pa (cc pull the moutli) to 
•top ^beest of dzmught. 

Mfw^ira, '^«'<i jirjfcfl^ to Boatter, to aepa- 
xate one from another; alao diaordered, 
eonfiuedf eonfanon: ^'•'P'^'Q a book, 
the leaves of whioh have beeome mixed 
up together; ^«'rr4h*la«'H*Ai< at the 
plaoe there ivere a few aoattered onei 
only {A. JSJ); V'^|-ir|Mr^^ii-^-p-a^q' 
^Vr^ among the beasts theie axe tivo 
elaeBse: those that liye secluded and those 
that axe soattered (in abodes of men 
and gods). 

P^ khthdag swepi olean, dearell up, 
sotixely gone: K^ J^•<w«^'p•W'^ nor 
Phn^99 'thf^mt^Mi hiMhdag ie4 Us ivealth 
and oattle haTe all disappeaxed. 

r\^ kka^ig or P^ kkthWg to staxn- 
mar; P'H«T«f kh^Wg-^§hh^n a slaai- 

F^^e^ kha dug-^fom fHl«i ft^TW 
poisonoas month ; hating poison in the 


fr^trn kka dum-^ being in eonosrt 
with; having agxeed. 

p^«i'Q kha-dut-po (soft mouth) manags* 
able; txaotable 

FM »to.cfe^orr»i^^.t*tf-qidb^sr«SUi 
fMMf colour : r»«^«^^-^FX^'81^y the 
hair beoame blue-blaok ; P'^T^^^AAtf- 
dag^gi gMugi w4^; FXY*W4 kha^og 
^fikmrn-pa of one uniform colour : ^^*9^' 
ta-Hsi-^lwp-i^T«lTe^-i*ie #^|M ekoh 
ga% gmm kha^g ifdhmn^fmr gitd-pa he 

wesxs the three garments of a monk of 
uniform ootonr. F^^'|^'^ kkm-dog gggmt 
fM to change colour; F^^l^ the colour 
changss (/d.). 

r\^\W^* kka^dog tflwi^fw^Wl^ dsf. 
if ^ar f'l'i rfs^ Jkai-fs thedsaasv, purlp 
fler ; also a name for the ifudgiiss (IfMaa.). 

FX^'M*«i kho^og Htm^fa pM of di^ 

agreeable or bed color. 

fX^HB kkt^^kmif mel^^sB^ 
fsir gold (IML). 

F^r « kha^HMm or fM^'^ iMf- 
dog MrtMss d^ JMs-fci in eolrar ; like iff 

FX^f *^ kh^^dog «fM-Meyi teristy 
of colours ; of dJflsrsut hues; FX^|**^ 
vH^M khhJkg §9itht9k$g mu4^§ nk 
yja-iie an excellent pearlis of a varieliy of 
colours {LoH ^ 9). 

F^T^ Uu-di^f^a small hols or nairow 

wmn4 variegated colours. 

r^^VP^^kka^dog gtiriM-jNieD^binedaf 
%e-|a«T*fta* ^M hofhUfmigiftikl mM 
a name for the tree called the oai4\ool 

F^ khthdtH W mightyi henghtyi 
PAV*i loquacious, talkative. 

PA^' Me.rfra^Justbefm;stniighton. 

fX kkthdro in Ekam§ and Amdo signi* 
fles >qr^« bkra^ auspicious, of good 
omen or appearance. 

pT«Mtfifro-Ao«F^|V«M« kpb^^ot^ 

agresabls, amiaH», of pleassnt compaiigr. 

yawning; opening the mouth; gaping; 
widening the mouth : F^F^^'^ kka-^gdaHi 
na§ having opened the mouth widely. 


^^'Vt^ I 


p*^^ iuU-^Air one who speiks too fart 
<ir too load. 

f^^ khO'hdig cork, bung;, stopple. 

<t« ifdkim'pa agreeing in an aooonnt. 

r^M kJUhldoHy Y. r9^ kha-tm. 

F'^V^\^kha'bdofk^bpe4'f0U>Tedie or 
mutter a oharm or mtmira. 

r^ iUa-nftf muttering, whiepering: F 
q^*qK*q-§^ to mutter or speak autpioiouBly. 

F^ kha-ir^ oouTerBation, talk, pro- 
plieoj, pKedioti(NQi; it alsoogniflea ^IS*^' 
^¥k:V kfa4^ bMaH-j>o good ezplanation or 
uttmnoe: qua^vn^Af^X-g^f'^w^-B 
** may the dootrine (ol Buddka) proepor ** 
iodi wa» hia righteous utterance {jL. 


F^^ kkait^^f^^ ikai-^Aa rerbal 
ntteianoe: 8«%**«^»i •ifvufViH' 
jtv-f-qp^^-ft'l^ although he had beheld the 
girl's eyes, he acted as if he had not seen 
hsor and ga^e no spoken sign. 

f'1(m kia-idami^Fi kha4a or ^TVWF 
gdami'kha advice. 

FI**'^ kka letom-iiasspm^Q kha t^nan* 
fa to sQenoe ; to gag or stop the speech. 

f p^^*4| kka-da-ga mfjf the soimitar 
or sabre of the Hindus. 

pjf *r^ kha-na fna4ha*way lit. F¥W 
Vr^ kha nos md ^Aon-iNi, not oonlessedi i.^ ., 
not oome out of the mouth; ^i|^ also f^, 
% metaphysical term defined as ^'«>'^'|«' 
^AS a name forsin and moral corruption. 
There are two kinds, to., (1) ^'^i^i F 
V^'V'Q roll k^kin*gyi kkthna ma4A<Mea sins 
which axe committed naturally and semi« 
ecsisaiously; (2) wf^^F^^'V'^ ft«n^pa*«' 
kha na ma tho-wt sins of overt violation 

of law or leUgion. ftfi^qs^-^irgft-wU- 

q'i^'q>( Householders and monksingeneralt 
in keeping these sins and fialings oonoeal- 
ed, because they do not issue forth from 
the mouth, such are styled kka^na-ma^io' 
wa. F^'9^^V^'^'^ kh^na ma iho-wa mi 
ffia^wa ^KKjn the sinless; FT«*^*S«' 
kha na m(t tho^a mei^ ^S^iV without 
sin or moral corruption ; F^'*'"'^' V Ika- 

sinful or Uasphemous speecL 

FW* kka nag-pa^W^V^^ mum-jpa 
nag^po darkness ; also of gloomy appear- 
ance ; morose; wicked (JfXofi.). 

F'F' kha-noA jm^ndAj morning. But 
r'¥^'\^ Ma-nolMtf U^ ^"w jisiic ii , to 
lookinwaidly: F*F'^l'^«i"^%'**«' 

qi;*8^'cK the knowledge gained by intro- 
spection, which is carefully to eimxnine 
how much of good or evil and virtoe or 
vice ezirts in one's own heart, causes rejeo- 
tion (of evil) and acceptance (of good). 

F^ kha na4 month djbease. 
P'ap^'s^ Ma nar-can oblong. 

r ^ kha-nat orally ; by word of mouth ; 
F¥>'R'|^ a cuckoo ; also to cry or call libs 
the cubkoo; F'F*^'^ UUhmat ssfHsa to 
speak colloquially. 

FP^ Mo-fiM last year. 

of cotton cloth, etc.; that having two 
colonxs (Stsii.). 

F'^^kha-^togotF^khO'Sog damoaroas ; 
asking often and often for » thing, etc. : 

the three may bedassedtogether, (namely) 
defilement, importunity, and being strick- 
en by lightning {Bi^U.). 

r^*- f 



F^*^ iA«-fior m4 Im kai «md in 

jw to obotmottlie sp6Mh; also to ooeroe, 
to mkttOB. 

I^a kkm^pm tlie tdiuM mMrkad with 
Uie letter pU«,M«,tlio 2nd Tolumo. Any* 
thing (book or wtiQle) mariEod with the 

r^ kka^po ■omntiniiwp JiAa qpeeoh, 

^•#*f P^"^' miU i po ec h imd pdiihed 

F'^'VMi mmC^ talkmg much: ^*MY 

J^ Kqft*FV'* fM-jW irvtfu^ MT-M^' kkm 

ph^^hB a daew oalled ii»i*g€ trv^-fpr, 
irho waa Tery talkatiTe (#cba. 51). 

FflT< U«-|p«0f spinTv khaUpag% Up. 

FiiUa-ipN hair of the faoa ; whiakanu 

fV kkthpho hoaating^ F^'^ kka-pko-' 
eke one who boaata mach; alao boaating 

P'V^ kka-pkog Terbal xopeoof • 

F^^ kkthpkar wcm; irnff a cap; a 

F% kkthpkpi the ootar edge. 

iMMi^ unanimity in a oonferenoe; 
tmaaimoiia Toto. 

rol-iu kka phfog^rpa examining by appear^ 
anoee ; also to look ontaide (4f ^on.) : f)^' 
^iprl''^*' kka-phyir Uloi kyi f^f-jw know- 
ing or jndging thinga by their external 

F|* ikika-pilyiii napkin. 

F%'« Ua pkye-'Wa^Wff^'^ kka rgtmtpm 
9f«^» view 1. to bloom or bloapom; alao 

weU devabped, ML blown. S.»F^ 
kkm tifei-pa iprr to yawn. 

*Mi^' I^AyW tl^o dlreotion of one'a eight 

FM>^'4 *Aa l i i*e<'t w ^F^yrMtT*' 
divdge ; qpead ill ramoora (/<•). 

FY >* tf t| ri t y ir wniA 
aore for grain lib 9 ifv fN; or ^ #te. 

r^t^kkMkpkrcfpo,y.r\^kk0 4t94o. 

P'Q I:»Aa.Mftv Utter; F^ U«- 
^^ firam F^ and Hf bitt«, <.#.« of 
my bitter teate: ^F^ ra Umw bttttr 
taate; r'^^ khM^tmr liik^e wd aweel} 
F» Ue-aia bitter: •^T^ aiM *JUMaa 
beer thai is iFery atrang or of bitter taate. 

P'Q H: «>«F« «wl| 1%«f snow: F 
n'y l^'TM kkm-wa dnH Ifmr gmt the snow 
(waa) nnaollied as aheUa; FM kkm^wm 
ftya f^ra, iftir, t|in anow^bom er ooeaa- 
god; r^kkth^mr*^'^ snow ball J 
F«^ Ma-oibr sAow and rain; F^^'^ Ma- 
im ekmr sleet; F^'^ JRa-iM-eaa f^wm. 
Tibet, the snowy conntiy: F^i^S'Vithe 
ooontiy of snow^ or snowy ooontry ; ^"^ 
^^it*»f|Trv*rS^i-¥i 100yae»(aftsr) 
my time the nowy lakes of Tibtt beooming 
dry; F^'^'^ * swallow, pvob. snoww 
swallow. F*r **a.««»< rM ^m, 
ff^r^ Inmpa of snow: F^%*« Me- 
fMkipk9$-ma f%W\%m snowdntt; flakaa 
of snow; also camphor, w^; F^w **«• 
kM or F^^w kkaHPa kM snow-fall, 
avalanche ; F^'*^'^ having the name of 
anew; r'^'^S 1%«n^fv gbm from Ihe 
anow, snowy Inatice. 

frvsT^'n jnUHM ikmr^ n. of an imr 
portent religiooa inatztntion in Ektmt. 

Frt-« kktHca rupam^^pm-ti QmH^ 

ifoiiiM a Tibetani one residing in tbo 
snowy moontaina 




P*^ I: kka-bai the architeotitna 
onuunmt <^ a Tibetan house f onned by 
ibe projootmg ends of ibe beaiDs wbibh 
anpjport the toof • 

P*q^ n: tBe hmtddity of the air 
eaased by mow (/£.). 

of soft or pleaeaiit tonoh (M^on.). 

ra kkd-bu'Cft ra«^«i **« 4i#J-/hi 'being 
tnniedilownwaida: *wH**^^''''''9'''5' 
||(« I have fallen headlong into the abyis 
of jdn (Pag. 18S). 

rv^ kha-byafk ^rr*vn^% lE^W with 
the faoe downwarde ; learned, wise. 

rt'^ kha iy^tra IWivv in bloom. 

rgm khm^irag (Jcha4tm) forked .rocks ; 
any forked object ; aUo as adj. ^T'S^ Zo- 
ftAo-ira^y. -the mounta'noas wild oountry 
N. E. of Bhutan inhabited by wild tribes. 

f^ kha^brul' {kha^at^ fkmt diToroe, 
eeparation, especially of loyeis or husband 
and wiie. 

rv^' kluHfwad eloquent : P'^^'X^ kha^ 
iwaH'Ohog able to speak powerfully, elo- 
quent (if in^. 11). 

P'^an kha-^broff Ijitecally the mouth- 
split : •T^9^ cku khfh4hr$tg a riTw which 
is diTided ar branched out; W'F^9^ a 
road branolied into serteal paths; 
^ jl| ^'9*rS3^ the branch of a tree which 
diTidos into several )parte; ii^'^'P^M vntg- 
pa- kha-dbrag a hoof whidC ia bilaroated 
or split. 

p-^A^-si Kha- h^^ma arrvT^ecV n. of 
a goddeas (i^^sii.). lb. the Hindu pan- 
thoon JvftUmukhl (she with a burning or 
glowing mouth) ia worshipped as the 
goddess of cholera. 

FS*^ iAn-l&iMMi, the opening of the 
buds of flowers. 

FS'i'^t^Q kha^Mhiu talwa to lie 
with one's face downwards. 

P'^«'« Ma-ibui-pa «t^«, f^^vir-m 
unblown flower, buds. 

F^*^ kha ibged^a^r^^ kkw-phge^ 
ira to open a Qorer cr pasted Mtsr or pa4sked 
article ; is also used of books. 

F'^f ^ kha kiri^wa (kha-ttt-ma) to maks 
less, to diminish; to dstraot from (b 

F|^ kha-tlbgaA eloquence ;*F|^''^ kk$ 
iivai^po eloquent 

F|^ klM^byat or Pf^'Q kka ibpar-ma 
the mouth of a Tessel or box closed or skut 
up: ?^«>HF|^-VH^siiias|^- s74^dlMl 
kha-fbgar rifi-chen BiUma^ (Aa4 a oovered 
copper vessel filled with preens ihings, 
ets. {G kab. 77). 

« fH^ ^^ khor^hgor ^ihig^ «S^-ftOT 
n pr. {8eh\ T&. «, 875). 

pj^ kka ibgor ^H^^tf^m* mm any- 
thing that is left after eating or haa been 
touched by the mouth but not eaten 
fI^'^ to kiss. 

Ma- ^do-fje Sckail^ the TanMk Budffiu 

Yajradhara (4f^ra.). 

p-fTMM Ua ma4chamw^r^^ kka mi- 
ffiikm discordant; F*^msi tka m^tokam 
does not agtee or live inharmofny. 

p'si^a kha moipkye^^ca ^mjm aa 
opening bud ; one of the twenty-one hsUs 
in which sinners are punished, being booad 
with ropes. 

Far§ M«-fiMi ig$ 4tt% % store cr 
repository {L$9). 


fr^^mk^mi- f$i-pm not kncmiiig the 

F^ kis^nmr Ut (o( a bridle). 
F^ig* a w u rf ffloit ; Oiimot raply : ^^^ 

lyyv iN«tf if aalcftd tiMM k no reply ; if xaii* 
eaekedy nothing, to prodoeo (from one'e 
poeket); r^'fT'^,)*^*^^^ (thei oommon 
■ejnng is) ''the dnmb doet not speek^ 
ilie tongaelesB ■tanmien.'' 

FX Me-ew enchantment ; irreeistible 

fr^^kkth4mar lifted month ''; a 
dqpion or pnta ; a. ghofUj q^arition. 
This* wnd is nsed in eeiatdogj and the 
msdioil works ol IShet to signify an afflrm- 
atiTe prediotionY good or had* When 
snoh a prediotioQ is xealiied it is oaiQed 
f^f^'^^Muhimctr pkog^ when otherwise it 
is oalled FV«^'¥'Y kka'4mar tog. 

P*$ C JUe-rtoe^sFV^ Ue sed jestor- 
day forenoon : F^'^%«*^ the hoy that 
was here yesterday forenoon (A.) ; also 

the day before yesterday; p^n^'s|s^\«i 
iRsr-Mi 090^ fi(-«iMi last Sunday {/&^) 

FrS UUhrt9a4 fiqpntaftion. 

F^ kh&4$ka Uttflr and acrid; hot in 
the month; pungent like pepper; aoa to 
Ji. (a) a Tery acrid sort of radish; {b) 
sphtiue thrush, a disease of the mouth 
inddent to horssSf cows, sheep, fto. ; (e) F 
j-U^e kka4$ha rM-He^iea daily warm 

prs^ kh04$har 1. fringes, suoh aethe 
threads at the end ef a web or doth or 
rug, scarf or sash. S. minor ingredients 
in a medicinal mixture : M'^tr^^W'tw 

133 rrcjftj-5v«l| 

having made one drqg the principel 
ingredient, on adding thento another drug 
in less quantify, it is called adding the 

FH^ khm4akitb snow-storm. 
F'A«e4tAe boastiog: F'%«'k:4 v^ 
hko fin-iu et^-iM a great swagg er er (J&.). 

F^ kha-Ukod the weighing: F^'Y 
^^ S^ %<^ inq kkaMho4, Wa^phyir Mig^ 
gi Ian mtoi-pa {A* H) considering one's 
expression witb a view to reply to it. 
(H^n'W«k»ST^<dl^pa^Wf e lalhg^ 
hid iHB4ta.) 

r*^ Me4t«eit—F4^ kku-hgng, P'^w 
kluh^eham or Fll khthi^kim unanimous, 
of one voice or o|nnion. Generally used 
with^S*«i, meening 1. as in t>ni*e^'«QV 
e^V» q^F*S ^ {A. J), aU unanimously 
and firmly agreed upon ; lit. F^*^iUe-leA^ 
colour; hence to be all of one colour in the 
face, i«tf.f to be of the same opinion. 2. 
BS^'^Yva iVi$g gpo4i^ a final decision or 
resolntion : S^ S«"f |^l|t^•F*^ ws (A. 
IS) the^ all roBolved to forsake tibeir 
kingdoms ; •w^'^HftP*! *S*^N^ vMa» 
grig ta kha49hpn aW 4km^ it is difBeuh 
to arrive at a final decision. 8. suz&ce 



F*i|N kka^4fkkmt jgm mnade^ mouth ;< 
the lower part of the humaii face. 

to dander; to curse (Jffea.). 

ff^mtka-kUkag abuse : Fd^^Q Me- 
tiUkogcken'^ a |;reat abuser, a reviler. 

F^ iAe-IAm ehftiv the euokoo. 

r^'¥i^ kka^Bdrin tgei^ to reorive 
in a friendly spirit; to boHnd; to assist 
(ja.); also to gorem; frO^mrwmMfn 

rw I 184 

mt or oommiinoiiad for goyeming 
{Osam. 95). (p 

P'^C^*^I|N kha-hdain ff$um are the fol- 
lowing three : V^'|"( suff-sniel f^rsv small 
oardamom, CohvoIvhIhb turpetthum; ^^'^^ 
gur-gum saffron ; and S'^'^k. pUpi-UA long 
pepper (^man. U60). 

P'^^'i hha luhun^pa to shut the mouth. 

f^ kha^han of inferior quality 
or of low position : P«\^«i5'j^qg«? the mis- 
fortune of being of low birth («7a.). 

rs^ klM-ilmr water-hen {Seh.). 

M kha^lie mouth and mind: M'*^ 
•«tfK,«'4 kha-^hB m fgiekuAfp^ hypocrisy; 
hypocrite ; P'^'*S'*t kha^he tne^-pa un- 
feigned ; sinoero. 

p*^ k/io^heH breadth, expttnse, e.g.^ of 

the heavens. 

p*^ kha^shensskAa-lifb alutn^pa modest 
m speech ; also not able to speak well. 

P'^^ kha-sliet food, victuals {Cs.). 

ffVi kha zam^ P'*'^ kha-che zatn 
a kind of chintz from £&shmir ; also a 
kind of cloth or silk stuff in variegated 
colours : Q^'w lal cam cbinte from Nepal. 

p*Mi kha-zgf food, either in general or 
some particular article of food : f^'W^' 
9^'m:^ kha-zoi la f^rkam-par gyur 
he longed for food; r'^^''« kha-za^ 
gtahc^Fma clean food, or dean in (taking 
food). In Sikk. hhalm sweet cakes, etc. 

p'l«i'ci kha zum^pa to dose the mouth 
or any opening. 

J r»^ kha-zur or r^^*Aa-«wr ^k the 
date fruit. 

f'^'n kha zer^fia ij^R loquacious. 

r^«^ kfta-gizar spoon or ladle. 

f'^ kha-gzi or f^ kha-gfie in JF. 
rake in gardening ; in Bpiti a carrier^s 
load ; kha ze-pa a coolie (Ja.). 


gtoA-rag good speedi; one who speaks 
pleasantly (4iUai>.). 

f^'Y khabi-iiin f>li^ the day before 

r^T kha-bog lit. face downward ; down- 
cast ; f -^^TJ-qw Q kha bog4u icug^pa or 
W<* ehui'pa to subjugate one, or to 
enforce obedience upon; F^'fi'^^'^^'Q 
kha bog-tu iUoi-te fi^a to die falling dcwn 
head-long, ».e., with the &ee downward. 

p*^ kha ya lit. being onels partner 
or match as to speaking, but in genenl 
partner, assistant; r'<«'9^'^ kha-ffa hgei^ 
pa to assist : f^'^m^K'^^n I am not his 
match, not able to compete with him; 
with regard to things, I am not equal to 
the task (J3.). 

P^H kha-yig ^^fmxK the letter p, a 
label ; a letter or writing on 4he cover 
of any parcel or letter ; an inscription* 

P*^ k/ui-yel the spout (of a kettle or 
any other vessel): ftH-cft-pl'^-^ji^-q-p'^ii-ir 

««-«iX«'«» drawing with his Upa at the 
spout which hanga down outside the vessd 

{A. IBS). 

P*^^ kha-yog a false charge (Jo) : i"^- 
^T'^'^'^niaiie-^paiik/ia^yog byuA{C.) ha 
was unjustly accused (Jo.) ; «r|«'4^* js^* 

unfounded accusations arise such as those 
coming by word of mouth and by impli- 
cation, though one is guiltless. 

•p*^^ kha^gyel wide mouth : m'q'^^<<- 
|f^-^fimifVP'n*»i«ijj^ the shape of 
Sumcru resembled that of a vessel placed 
with its wide mouth upwards {U.^ like a 
pyramid on a pomt) (Fo-m/. S5). 

r^^ kha^yog9^r^^ ika-Msl^ 
cover of a vessel or basket {O. kat^^ 77). 




F^ M«-m in W. for ^'^ A0-fa» ingar 
(JaJ) ; trough ; maoger {8ek.). 

P*^^ Kka-rag d. of a plaoe in Tibet. 
F'^^|ir^ n. of a celebrated lama of the 
Kadampa Sohool of BuddhisuL 

r^^M kka-roi neok-doth ; a towel. 

r^ iU«-W or r% kka^rii, ▼. P^'^ kAat-ri. 

r%'^ kh^ru MkMsf^PrQ black salt 
used mediomally {M^IUm) : i^iv, ft^, ft^- 
«9W a kind of Bait (procozed by boiling 
earth imfvegnated with saline parttdee) ; 
a pariioalar kind of oalt of fetid odour 
(need medicinally as a tonio aperient). 
It 18 black in oolour and it prepared by 
fitting iioMl lalt with a nnall proportion 
of ^mbUe mfrobabMj the prodnot being 
mnriate of lodawith small quantities of 
nmriate of lime, solphnr and oxide of 
iron (Jf. WUh.). Khm^nt M«M-|ft| dfoi 
sfcjftftf §bot-pa daH §gff datk ^pH khrog ha4 
tMk yom&'par hyr$i flatalanoe, aooom« 
psnied with belohingy ramUings, phlegm, 
and wind, is OTeroome by the medininal 

Syn. ¥<^ ru4%a ka ; %K\ imin-tshia ; 

fifoll-jNi or if ^^ llo fsAcTHM tobeashamed. 

r^Q Ma f»9-jNi to tonoh anything by 
tbelipa; to pot one's monih to a thing in 
order to eat or drink it« 

F^ iUa-re taste in the month. 

r^ kka^g^afr^ kka4i$um silent, 
withoat reply : ^qir^^rsn^p-^Tl^ there- 
fore remain dlnit with wtifa'nglitiy ear ! 
P^TV)^ ikthrof 9doi^h9 silent; do 
not speak. F^T^ is also freq. F^^f^'o 
to remain silent. 

rMr^ Ma rog-pa jpcnt a kind of 
dni|^ prob. solphafo of oopper. 

Fi^* Mtf-fiMi wm Tspoor from the 

F^i'A'^w khthla fM-t/bar n. of the King 
of the Yi-dsg or Pr0$a. 

F^rMfQ Mo.^ rtf^.jMism0tapL '^ asi 
to eat ; do eat {K. g. p 98). 

easily spoken but difEUmlt in meaning. 

r*^^ kha-lam mouth requital; thanks- 
giving ; reply, espedEJly angry reply; 
also requital for food reoeiTBd (^) : ^VM" 
rr^^'qw^«^^ idien akNxidersd with etil 
thoughts, the food of faith is aiy reply ^ 

F««'9^ Ma-faf bguH spmng forth from 
the mouth. 

P'S^*q EJ^Kn-jm n. of a plaoe in 

F^ kha^b^ T. B'* kkga-k. 
F^ kha-hb ooTer, lid. 

fr^ khthh 1. sF9^ khoifkgcgf 

towards the mouth. 2. prow of the sh^ 

{8ehr.)i aooording to others the hdm 

I'^ta, 8. aeo. to 0#. and J8. the ghma- 


p*V*p'9 kkaJo iggur^pa or s^ywrHMi 
SW, ^Bin; iw, siT^ft, ^W; F''§^'*W 
khthh §ggur*ifkian one who steers ; also 
a goyemor, a driver, a chaiiotesr. Bee 
espeoially in narratiTe of early life of the 
Buddha in Dulwa. 

prn-M kka Icpa^r'i^'ff kka fikgogi-pa 
wnfir, ¥T1T; Fj^'P**W kk^ pkgogi 
9ggwr^ftkkmn one who leads or guides; 
also a shadow. 

F^*i kho'hg'pa to reply; to oontva- 
diot: lir^f^<^F«H-«i phgi^U kgro^ 
Mmr kka hg^pa walking out he rsfazmed 




fV^ kha^a iha spotted deer (/a.) ; elk 
{Sch^. In Bikk. the oommon deer of the 
Dium is ooUed M- Pi ^'^OT kha^a-yi 
jaJflmg 9b ioBk bag made of deer-skin. 

F-1^ kka^fagi jest ; joke in Jr. 

Fi* AAa-fOf (sounded ''ikAa-aV) some; 
oolloq. in O. 

m^'^ kha^fugi^n or F^K^ kha 
ihe^'Can eloquent ; T'Q^^ ^'^ kha^ugt 
mtf^^pa one who has nothing much to say, 
sume as q^'«'W|^'A^'q ikai^ha lab-tgyu 

F^ kia^fdb in oolloq. liss ; ohsoene 
talk; idle talk. 

F^^ kha^or bxeaoh of promise : r^' 
M^ kka-for $a(l the mouth has run awav, 
denoting inoonsiderate talk (c7a.). 

P'^''^ kAd'fol'U:a ^nmA rinsing the 
mcuth ; sipping water and ejecting it. 

ip'*^ Kha-^ya n. of a mountaiaous 

oountrj in the north-east of India {Td.) ; 
the Ehasya Hills in Assam. 

r^^^^khthg^g^n^rtSkha'ttnoi using 
rough language; oontrorersj; disonssion, 
dispute ; with tgyag-pa to dispute : ^%pc 
frqjMi-^ r^^n- j^'5'^!f pointiiihisfingers 
he goes to dispute {S'dsa. 17). 

P'#^ kha-tfoff talk, gossip. 

frW] Kha-utg •m'^'J'vrHI'*''^' n. 
of a wild oountiy on the horder of Tibet 

. p*9|C Mo-M/f, Y. rr^ kh0^f[tsaH. 

f'mKif kha^aif§ explained as tvw'si*^' 
4f^-q*^Ml'y;-q'q^ to speak one's mind ; to 
tell honestly what has ooouned in the 

rr<P khMub a bribe : F'fl<r|^'<i iUo-mft 
h$i9^^ to offer a bribe. 

P*^ Ekm^ n. of a wild hin tribe of 
India (of the Khasja Hills) (Qaam.). 

P*^ AAo^sM 1. the day before yester- 
day. 2. alsosseyeral weeks ago; some- 
time back. 

r^ kha-^ur, t. rV^ ki^mtr. 

pr^ khih€o 1. abbroTiaticm of P kka^ 
mouthy and V no, teeth. 2. the edge, bofder 
of a tbing : pV-Qr^M^iT JUo-so ia hphoA^^ 
sspg-^qvi^ff flung to the boiler (Pag. 
187) : l^wS'P B^-flW-^W^-gn tdMi-kyi 
kha^khyer hi hjobK ij^a|s ||Mi^'fm*ar 
-^'S^ grU'tMfii-Jcyi i^iiai h fon-tgv^ 
lined the border of the ship wiUi iron 
plates (A. 18). 

FV^'V^'^ kha-sral efm^'Hu WW deaf. 

P'V^ kha-ihbssp''^^ kka-ton lAJtmiTig \j 
heart ; primer used by children in W. 

P'^^ kha-gzar new, fresh. 

r^"> kha-gsat or ^^«i'P ^ofMa a 
message; clear language; intelligible 
language: P'ft*^«rq Uia hm-^soAm 
obscure; not in dear terms or language. 

P'^VAAa-09omade full'by adding some* 
thing more to it : VC^'f^SfT^ filling 
with the best thing and nectar in oblation 

P'mq kha tsagmf^m^ kka g^g mrnm 

F4*^ kka («re-ira to aasociato with 
one anotheTi viz., in drinking and smok- 
ing together. 

P'oai^'*^ kka-i^H-du turned upwards: 
P'ogB^o kha iilaH-pa to lie with the &oe 

P'^^ kha^iiki to tempt by fake hopes 
and promises; to deoeivt> ^y sweet wards. 

P ^ kka^hrag forked mouth*or point ; 
the bifurcated mouth or end of anything 




made of iion or ^rood: l^'^ V^Hr»r 
f^'^ fmb^a fUk^pig tU$^nio kkthkrag dot 
in the wwt a tree with forked top, Ac. 
r'9^ khaJhag Yemneat of a meal. 

^u4 c^f^Mt* Wmw ICMMWV the Bcaenoe 
of dcainnx omeiis from the oaw of a raTen. 

IjfSt'T' kk^iikri4nu§^^Vf^V^'^ 
bfa kkm d$4 ih^b-pa *l*(lwf«liw^ ^^^ 
to Boarea raToa—Qfled as attribute of Bud- 
dha; belong as a boy cannot drive away a 
megpie he is not considered ready (I7 hiB 
age) to get religions instructions. 

(y» Jk»aHi-te the Tibetan magpie: (f5»' 

Mta4a»i §gro^i9griH» h^ ^ ^^ 
of ths magpie remorea diseases caused Vy 
ml sprite; iho feather of the magpie 
preTents ihe patient seeing apparitions, 
gho8t«, Ac; spotted magpie or lyJM 
UtfofoMnMra fuller name for the magpie. 

P'q MvflMW-^'' ^ya-i«»r«nt or tax 
in kind: tm^if^^Vf^^'^^ ^^ t^kin^du 

aooording to religions law. 

p^l I: kikv 1- tt«a»» mouroe; 
PT^ khag^nm4^^^'^ wittout means. 

pn| n: a task, charge, businees, duty, 
ngooamtiiitTi of importanoe : WP **^ 
kkm^^mn^ I^M-Mifr to take charge of 
a ihing or peonon, to be voqponsible for 
layihxng, to besnrety for anyone; FT 
ifprn Uhv tUnr-M to assume charge of; 
PT^'* **^ »^«-<«i to place in charge; 
P^lsT' ik*a^**#nP« <» W|^*» kkugtmfmg^ 
pa to guarantee; become responsible: 

^iUf I wawant you will got somsflung to 
eat ihew. FT*S kkag-theg or P^ W **<»• 

Myiv in a ace to ird.sbail; n ^ AA^v- 
aAsM important* 

P^|III: that which is dirided oil; a 
dass, part, diTision, secticsi (of abook or 
place); Vn hm^khag the tenth part; 
tithe: rT'l^'^M'*^ kkaggfU^pMog-^oA 
I have hurt myself in two places. If^m 
guUtkag a province, distrioft ; |"rPl fW*** 
khag kingdom; ^n ^poihkkag piindU 
pality; S%n igon-khag monastie estate 
or authority. ^•^TT»»¥«»^^*«V 
^9*^^^*^ the diflerent divisional cUeAi 
should make rsligious oflerlngs (servioe) 
for one night (Xo«. ^ If) ; I^MI •««• 

kyi kkag kko-mo cag^tMmi we who belong 
to the dass in whom the inclination (for 
religion) and to seek refuge has arisen 
(A. 19). 

pi|*2r kkag^ difflknlt, hard; coUoq. 
« * **iV*o.'' WT^V^-^-Wii-^ this 
work is very hard; iW'MB'^V *•» ^y 
is difficult; W'gy ' diffienlties arose ; PT 
Q'l'q kkag-po cke*w0 to suffer from want. 
2. ace. to Va. bad, foiled, rotten : WPT 
W^ the butter has become rancid (Jo.). 

nfi^, ^, wim, fftfw, www, ^imrw 

house^ residence, home; abuilding; f^T^ 
§MMMt <Tf* bog-khai, f^T^bwrM^ 
upper story, lower stoiy or ground floor, 
middle stoiy; ^JF'P^ t$hmt4fhM means 
else the principal or centrsl room. A 
Ma^*^ isthe opposite to nw^ l*iHhP^ a 
oavem. ^f^i^irnhkhat workshop; ^W 
bailMaii store-house, store-room ; IH f ^»- 
khdk entrance, vestibule ; K^T^ ftor^Ma* 
or more properly ip^'*'* ikor^hm, paseage 
running roimd a building or temple ; ^ 
pa fog^oA paper house or a house where 





paper is kqpt or manufaoiured. In W. 
the scooping form or mould tsed in the 
Tnaanfaetnre of paper is so oalled* ^' 
r^ t9ha§ khaH flower bed (garden) (Jd.). In 
Buddhism r^ kAai signifies ^' naU^ inside^ 
•.*., the heart: p^OTir^^l^-a^a khaH 
myag^-^i^ phyir idsag^pa ^^:^[prcii^irT 
inwardly being oomipt, the pns issoes or 
drops from him; S'^')'P^mya-4an-^;ytAA<iil 
moioming house ; also the body ; r^'| kha^ 
f fa house rent ; f^'V^' ii)f« a small honse ; 
a house or room reserved for decrepit 
parents ; r^'C^'Q khai chu^'pa an occupant 
of Boxix ; "K'p^'^'ci ifoi^kkall ehui^ such 
a person of the second degree (if, during 
his lifsy Hs son enters into the same right) 
(fa.); r^'^ khoA ehen a large house; 
P^'^'Q khaH chen-pa iTfm: one taJdng 
his abode in a great house or mansion 
{Budh.) ; old, weak persons belonging to 
Ghtntama's family. 

Syn. ^Tf^ gnas^khaH; V^'^'^ gnai' 
g9hi; •*^«*-^'« hi^g-pabi gna%\ 'ff^^m 
^dug-sa; ^%^'^F^ idug-gnai; E*> khyim; 
r« khab; |^*^^ rten^ifthi; |^'^n« r^en- 
gnai ; W^^ J^ gadhean ; •^vX^ phibi- 
hog (JK^on.). S 

p^'^ kha^gSer mtmr, ^[^mv the 
steward of a house; the house-keeper; the 
person in whose charge a house is kept. 

p^'t^ kha^'iteH wirt^fr the upper 
roof or terrace of a house. 

r^m khalUhog or f^'^'^ khaH^ii 
ihog wnCt ^T<v the roof or coter of a 
house ; the top fiat of a house. 

fm:v9fgn khaH-pa W^^ ftfftwr is« 
a painted house. 

pirq-ql^'a ArAaH^ft^M-jM a consecrated 
house where theives or robbers oaxmoi 
have access. 

a masonry building ; also astoreyed house. 

P^«i'^ khai'pa gyo w^ the roof of a 
house : p^«r^q to cover a house, to loof 
it ; f^'trvir^K'^ti khali^ roMkUt prvm- 
pa or ^fm-Q Mimni^M ww^m a delapi- 
dated house; a ruined edifice. 

r^'<A*^ khatUpahi noA ^m^, «V 
the inside of a house; a room ; an apart- 

P^'8 KhaMn n. of a fabulous country ; 
a little house, cottage. 

P^'*N khat'^g a room; a celL . 

r^T kka^rtm the foundaticik of a 

P^'^H' kkmi^it^gi wmuK upper 
house or a storied room, v. r^'r ut ^ n -q 
khat-pa itisegB-pm. 

p^'^^ khaH-^kabi floor ; flooring of a 

f^-^ kha^m^f^'v^'y:^ kha§^ 
da^ $hiH4fha house and the cultivated fields 
attached to it. 

r^w kkaM^tmi nTVi^ residence; 
mansion. In JBudk. ir#r (iHNv), Afi, 
vi'ft^iMii monument. 

P^'*«i Ma«.frK>.ipa niWhr mason; 

pC^'^l kktOtpa^^Mmr^ r^i^^ 1. 
delay. 2. distance, 

pi^ khai^l. t^ thag or *^ takar near. 
2. litter banow. 3. a(^ j^«r like, as PS 
V^ khad-tXamf v. ^fwi hkkof |iam|, 
equal, even; \^T^de^nMkhad^\'m:^d$' 
ma ihog not distantly; instantly; aa aoon 
as ; without delay : ^^"•S'^PS"^ An^ 
ehai'ma kka4^4u as soon aa the breathing 
ceases; «|«'««m>| ba tkyefmm kka4<ig 




a cbadbom jiut now; ^t^'^'PS JipAnr-Ai 
AAotf alxmi to flj; ^'irps Apro-Ai khii 
•l»at to go; l^wp^ thidUa kka4 nMar to 
<^;9«<^miMf^iM4itf «• WKmas (he) 
arrived; ^-ii7«S ieki4a iUotf whan abottt 
to die: %Vii*rS'<AlE n^takkat^^i Uke 
^hen the eyening drew near; M^'«S'^ 
PS'^A ' V* tf^ «M^fo khgi^paii An when 
theeeeangof thebreatti appvoeflhee; M* 
«t7*S'^'<riiMii^iUki#yoffMi Aim we were 
just about to leiie him; FS'^ kkai-dm as 
&ar as: I^Tf^**^ r<M.iM khai-du as far as 
the heel (/&). 

FS*|n UaflMy<k«i^'9^ daUu§ or Vr|« 
rtm^gyii ^^ slowly, Igr degrees ; rS"^ 
r\>iMatf^^ k»M4Jf9Hwk\ lAi byds- 
gxees ; in alow motion. 

P^*Q khai-pa the same as ^'ci 
bkhd-pa to stick iaat; to be geised, 
stopped, impeded, t. ^PS'Q tkhai^pa. 

rS'^'l^'** kha/i-par gyur-pa to be stop- 
ped or hindered; n'«K'tS'Q khag^par hye4^ 
pa to stop, hinder. 

P^ IkXm wnfn bit ; small pieoe (Oil.). 

i P^^S **«*•-*» '■^ confection; a 
medioinal syrap; treacle or molasses 
partially dried; ^vrrr^m'i delaklm^ 
tcoi-pa the oaady made of it (Ji.). 

P^'P kkan-pa also K** khen-pa^ worm- 
wood (&«r.) ; to add (aritb.) (FoiMmt.). 
PTsi^ Mm-MOfi modest in Lk (J(bL). 

fR I: iUbp&sV'fl^ pk^4frafl 9^, 99 
resp. of P^*B*i Me<^A)fiifi, a great man's 
residanoe; aeasfle; coort: residence of a 
prince; yr^f^ igy^ftfobi khab Tin^ 
metropolis; the capital of llagadha in 
Buddha's time; the modem town of Baj- 
gir in Behar: j^iiU'P^'^naw ^gya^^ 

poki kk0b4tyi mi'tnami the oonrtisrs; the 
people of Bi|agvha. 2. wile, spouse ; pr 
M^m kkab eh$n^^mt the first wife (who is 
highinraak) : ^P^*ririi|\ii« di^kkab 
^of^fw AM r<0^M| aa thflie was not fonnd 
a wife worthy of him ; ^^•<^r«^**pv8'f^' 
^-fi^-l kdtftii tatikkabUu byui^^ rMtf- 
•0 I dreamt that these two would becottie 
my wiTes {J&.); 1^V^9 kkalh4H iOeppa 
to take for a wife (Sehtr.) ; V^'m'fvti ehu^. 
mar khab-pa to many; to takeone for his 

r^H^9^ kkab tUm^ma a maniedlady ; 
r^^ei kkab IdSiMMiissfterq^-lf kkgm 

tdag^mo wwmit hoosewile; tfaeladyof the 

fn n: v9t a needle : p^rg kkab^^n$ 
a bristle; a needle like hair rv% kkab- 
pkra a small, fine needle ; r^'P^ khab-^am 
a la^ needle; po*^ kkab-mig the eye 
of a needle; P^HsfS^THTq khab-^g^u 
ikui-pa kjag-pa to thread a needle ; f^t 
kka-'fiie v^» ^Vtnr the point of a 

r^^ khab^al also f^rfi^-Mi rissHw 
kkab^al wc4^^v4 needle-ease. 

rv^ kkab-h in. JT. diffioolt (Ji.). 

pat^J^ khab-hn-rdo ^pn load-stone; 
the metal that attracts a^eedle : P^^ 
l(-^-s^-4TlS-5*rTi«^ the load-stone 
draws oat arrow-heads and remoTea 
diseases of the brains, bones and Teins. 

r^^ Ma&-M ^vqwiiv the magnet; 

fnn kkabi n. of a dieease (/&). 

PW kham 1. oolonr. 2. a bit; a small 
piece of anything. 8. the point of a 
reed pea. 4. appetite (/d.). 




fWfW klUmMamj ^T^rfm ger-IAam 
kkam or pale jMow: ^i^'f^'f^f^fS^ 

ma^i Widog the colour was pale-ydlow, 
f ^., the colour of s dry bamboo. 

)4S|*QX| JMtfmJrAifmimeTen, explained, 
as ^A^-qg^-Mr^rK^^fS ''in ridgeis Hke a 
puckered ekin/' 

r^^ kham-gaH or T^^^ kham-gfiig 
a bit; Mi'f«r^t^ a mouthful of food: 
jr^-^iTj^ms^pc vr*'^ the measure 
of food in eaoh piece that cml be put in the 
mouth at once when eating ; f^^ khain^ 
«Atf4 a morsel. 

fff^ kham-itar abbreviation of r>*'C 
^'ff^'^ khanh^m-daiik ifar-ga^ U^^ peach and 

ferfAi knam-ihg faded colour, same 
f^^ kkamJog^ want of appetite; 
aTersion, dislike (Jd.). 

pSI'Q khanhpa 1. fox coloured; sorrel; 
brownish; f^W khanhnag dark brown: 
mm'Vfm^f^ ral-pa kham-^Mg dark blown 
locks or mane. 2. porcehiin-day ; china 
day. 8. Tenaoeium iomentowm^ a rexy 
aromatic plant growing on the high moun- 
tains of Tibet. 4. a native of Kham in 
Eastern Tibet. 

«|« pSI^iq^ khan^phor imw, HTW a cup 
or sancer made of (burnt) day ; a cup made 
of dough, used in sacrifloe as lamps (t72.). 

fm^'^m^^ kkambphromi'ieai'pa wtr 
\^^K% •IMV)4<I* refers to Buddha hav- 
ing enjoined that a monk must not eat a 
frvdt or cake, etc., leaving any of it. He 
should not take more than what he can or 
should eat. 

. pA*9Miri9H(ti apricot; peaoh; in £^tU. 
pw^t ^9 kham-buii iftt-^ the stone of an 
apricot (t/a.) : •m-^rrwrq M^kb-rit kkam^ 
bu dried aprioot imported from Ngari: 
pwjiTf «^-r|«'«*4^-|si th9 peadi dries 
the ydlow humour of the body and popo- 
motes the growth of luur on the head 
(Med.) ; F^*^ kham4%h%g the stone of an 
apricot or peadi ; j' vr*«'*T***' the cost of a 
coral of the siae of the stone of a large 

per^ssf kham^ag 1. lit. the JBm priM- 
m»n$ or yoib-bull of P"ni Kkam^ which is 
of a brown colour : rr**'Vr'l^f»'5s *rc 
psr^^^S^ f/mJchaki i^dog ierJskam po4^ 
la khanhf^ag aer the colourof the hair (of 
an animal) i^ien pale ydlow is called ff 
^n kham-fgag. 2. oheiries, morels (Ja.). 

r'T^a kham ran^pa tiftiiiiwnmftmf 
a horse's bit that fits well. 

r"**^ kham^a day for making pottery. 

gpin-pOf etc., reap, evacuation ; purging ; 
making water. 

f^^khanh9er of a slightly pale-yellow ; 
colour i-eeembling the colour of dried bam- 
boo, V. r^rpsi kham-kham. 

fW^ I: MaiMts^w*^ daii-ga appe- 

psm n: HIQ the health, ^condition, 
physical constitution of the body ; also root; 
a constituent or essential part ; thatwhidi 
constitutes the nature of a tlung. Used 
colloq. as in kaaho^ kkfe^^ikkam§i<Mam f 
**Sir, how are you P^* {EM. JBB*.) : P^-^*' 

fpyir ra/H-^hin nam 4a-fto la i/ag-paki don- 
can pinkie fM-gi kham§ nhe^-paki kkami 
de ni [M rafL^gi Ho-bo fin. 




f9n ni: the weleiiMnts, earth, air, 
flrs^ waiw, (he heavmily ethar, tad imin- 
«Aei or tibe phjidoal sobataiioe of the niod. 
For tlM last two, arterial blood and aemi* 
nai fluid are aometamee sabatitiiied. Alio 
fhere ase the eighteen ekmenti aoo. to 
the Buddhists, namelj, the tm orgdos of 
sense, together with smvimh (mind) ; the six 
facnltJBs or senses dependent on these and 
alaa the six ideas froduo^d by these 
six laoolties. Any one of the flTO (Coper- 
ties or qualities of the elemenu observed 
by the organs of seme, via., sound, tangi- 
Ulxty, oDlour, llayaar and smellt ia also so 

kkam it(htrgffa4^pi mig S9g§ fim 4waiU 
po^ kkam§ dfug dM nUg^gi tnawk'par fn-pm 
9»g§ tt^n-pa puun-par fehpabi khafm dot 
gfMg9'kham§ 9og§ imigi'pa yul^gi khmm^ 
dtug dati tfithbtgyad^do may be xendexed. 

The eighteen Fm khami or DhOtk 
aoo. to the Buddhists are: — 

I. — ^The oiguuk themselTes: ^ ndg 
eye; ^'4 tna-^ca ear; f'^ ina-wa nose; 
*) jM tongue; «^ Aff body; and ^^ the 

n. V^* Ipt^Vi bodily form; %§gra 
ioand;\ dti smell; ^ ro taste; M reg 
touch ; ^ «Aof, iH^ atfaributes. 

UL^— The ^FT^'ij^r^r xnampar fei-pa 
Vifidma or oonsoionsness produoed by the 
organs of sense, fto. The VySdna of ^ 

SM^, of r^ riMMMI, of f*4 f IMMMI, of f l^f 

oi%^ /«« and of *K jr lii^ t.^., eye, ear, nose, 
tongue, body, and mind. 

fWK lY: empire; xealm; tenitoxy; 
domain: ^'PMV gulMamt politioal teni- 
toiy ; empire, in a geographioal sense (Jd*);. 

|«rpM tgyMshami kingdom: fr^'pM 
tgyat'Ji^ahi kkami the prorinoe or sphere 
of the BuddLas, also of their spiritual in* 
fluenoe: J^Fmi'^t^ r^yn^Moaii ^grim^ 
/M to roam oyer the kingdoms, the unmtries 
(/d.) : pwrl^ empire; also the earth. 

P*W V: Aw world: pw^viMeM- 
g»um dtfNVf duig the sensual worlds 
▼ia:— (1) tnniTB or wintflw (^XV*P«w 
Bdoi-pa^ kkam§) the phenomenal world; 
(2) ^T^ni ; ^^''IT^ gMugiJsgi kkamt 
the world of astral forms; (8) ^%miia ; 
t^H^^ftm g/mgHMikkam the spiritual 
world, M., the world of fonnless spirits. 

pVW YI : n. of the easternmost din- 
triots of Tibet, embraeing some doaen 
semi-independent petty states, about half 
of whioh own allegiAuoe to Uiasa, and the 
rest give joint allegianee to both China 
and Lhasa, r^m Kkam and i« SgtttL are 
the two lower r^ons of Tibet ; these 
eon^kitute what is oalled «S')<I Iio4-A$n or 
Greater Tibet. 

kkami-ictai bged-pa one who draws 
omens: H^^n^if^V^tS'i ikeg^pa 
g^um-ggi khamhirta§ bge^-pa (J. JZM.). 

meroory ; quioksilver (Iflfofi.). 

pw^^^q kAam§ dbatti-paasf m r ^ '^ 
Meeifiditf-iMigood health. Whenglaasis 
pore ^\w A^e fei dri-ma mei^pm and clean 
it is called i ^pwiy yq fel^kham i wi ikpa. 
A clear doudless sky <Fn<^*^^^'« ie said 
to be Nam-kkam duntHi-pa; Hwlq-q-J^e 
mm§ $grib'pa nted^pa the mind when it is 
free from d filemeut or sin 



Bya. |««V«^ i*M-pwj« ft* ; r'^**p 

pi««»^tl^ tA«w|-6*i dri-imei, f «S«^' 

to inqiiire o! mw's health il he w weU or 
happy (a oomplementary expre»ion used 
oa the oooaaoa of ineeting) (-JMo».). 

tde^0 good heaMh; healthy oonrtitation; 
the hapoy etato both of the body and the 
mind: * l'i*rSr««^'*^''^ BJe^i^itm 
gffi ik»am|-6* lagMom is your reverence 
irellP f^f^'^'^ **y^ khtmi We-Jflw 
are you well P ( J2.) 

toj^^Hi want of appetite; aversion, didike; 
fmmm kham^-tmya nausea ; falling rick 

mkhj/m-pabi ifobi ^l«HMH|«i«ti the 
^wer of knowing the constitution of 
all sorts of bodies. 

fimra-)*! Khamt mp-Saff n. of one of the 
petty principalities in Khamf. 

diffeient or disBifflilar worlds. 

fww-Al Uam^hM this term is 
applied to the quarters in a monastery 
reserved for the accommodation of the 
monks of a portioular section of people or 
of some special community or those coming 

from one particular locality. 

pmMii Mam«-«ii« rest; health; comfort 
(&*.); recreation; recovery; restoration 
of health. 

143 f^l 

^tfin indiided in the constitution. 

§la4b$ a cooking pan made in Kk0m* 

PMTI JUoMf-ffc better kind of coane 
serge of the pattern coroxug fEom Yar- 
kand; blanket itaanufaotured in Kkam: 
liflfMrf QM-iF^^ §tmg §k kham ib 
teoi rnamiM re each piece of blanket 
costs, Ac. 

pmi'^** khamt^gmim fk^ttm the three 
woilda— heaven, earth and the neUier 

lo§ iigifur-wa 41»lti^* a name of the 
Eilaohakra system {M^fon.). 

kha^gM n. of the temple in the grand 
monastery of Samrye (fiMmifaf) built by 
one of the qneens of King Kkri 9ra^ Idm 
it9an {LoH. <^ 8). 

pMi'^srai'srMpi'q kham^g»ufn§-U iw*- 
ehagt-^ ftwifl^w w i is not passionary 
fond of or attache* to the three worlda. 

fR»wfl|«<iq^ kham gwt-p^ to repair 
broken health. 

P^ Khar n. of a city in W. {S. 


•fUKwfjn khar-Jtkrol WTf {8Ar.\ 

Zeben$h. 9S). 

r^'l'^' khar-tkya*, ▼. FV^kha r^o^. 

p^lfii- khar-goU steatite; soap stone; 
probably ST^'^ ikar-goA {8ch.). 

f9t:%g;VK Khar ehen-bwab the Princesi 
of B3iar.ohen, one of the queens of King 
Khri-^roU jd&u itsan {La^. ^ 8). 

fip^yj Khar Ta4a n. of a city or seaport 
on the mouth of the Indus, Tata {8. Lam). 




f^'^ Khar-pa ttm 1. &. of a demon of 
Pftranie India who was killed by Erisluuu 
2. a oompoond of oopper and ano; bell 

^'■Tipp khar-wa fg^ar %*fnrTt a maker 
of bell-metal. 

^'t^ k/tar-rUaH^f^*^^ kkar-^aH coL 
ye<fterday forenoon. 

i ^brapiu the date fruit. 

t r^'w^^ kkm^-^ pa^i or F^^^^ kha- 
unrpa-na wwStm he that moTss inthe Aji 
gliding through the air ; a name of A^al- 
okites'Taia JSodAwaftoa ; Yiah^^ 

^'^^ khar-QBe! fknv the trident 
carried by mendioanta of the 2!^'$'^<i 
Tantnk School. 

pni khml 1. primarily a load or burden 
in general : r^^^'^^khal khffer^wa to carry 
a buxdan ; prSf^'fli khaUgjfi iied^la on the 
top of the baggage; pt'^^^l khal bgel^a, 
to load; T^'^^^^'^kkalibogi'pa to take off 
the bluden, to unload; flTP"i a sheep 
load; ^v<A^ & coolie load* 2. a set 
weight or measurey said to equal 30Ib, 
oaed for dry goods com, salt, tea, Ac. 
In Tibet 1 khal^2 hbo:sz20 bre; hence 
iirSikkim and JT.r^^l^ '"khe-ekik" hsm 
.come to mean 20 or a score of anything ; 
^^^F* bdeg§4thdl a weighing score; 
the weight of 20 points on the eteel-y aid 
oaDed tinf^^-^^^' 3- a caravan. 

pn^P EhaUtka the native name of 
Mongolia Proper, the country of Jenghis- 
khan, the Tartar Oonqueror Vrrr^^'i' 
SF KIMMa kku^ai ila^aHy Ut. ''the 
■acred enoloauze of Ehal-kha"; the name 
applied to TJxga in Northern Mongolia, 

where the incarnation of the Taraaath 
Lama resides. The latter is sometimes 
styled ri'Fi'^V^ EkaUsha JBifB^ttmn 
dam-poj the venerable holy one of Ehal-klia. 

Ft'P^ khaUtkot stunned; insensible 


f^'^ khal-eag the beet sort of wool im 
manufacturing shawls ooming from the 
northern solitudes of Tibet. 

% kkal-ma f/o, a^'«i«'ll« glaH togfJiyi tfei 
those who oonduet a caravan or follow tiia 
train of packed animals^ such as pony, yaks 
oxen, Ac. ; relay of packed animals : P>W 
M^^^U,'tA't^w^rm'^ kkami 9ogi ih^lh 
riH-pa^i do^rgya ikkal-tjet the relay cC 
beasts of burden when proceeding on a 
long journey to JOaitif, 8fe. 

r^'^khalpa 1. wether; oastrated ram. 
2. 80W*thistle, Sanekua. 

P^'^ kkaUnin jug or pitcher to hold 
wine for 20 persons or a quantity measur- 
ing 20 | bre: ^Mra^Twq^-^-^ jugs 
of ale each sufficient for 20 of the vidgar 
folk of whatever class. 

r^'^ kkal^ma any drauj^t animal or 
beast of burden: pr»i^wiqi^'tr|iiq to 
drive beasts of burden to the pasture; oftso^ 
contracted into kkal: ^Fi'^^lfl the 
wages of both caziiers and beasts of 

FT^ iUaArispr^ kkal-ru or r^ kka- 
ri or m kka-ru a measured of about 20 

pil kka$ tor F^m kka^i§ instr. of P 

r^fXV^ kha^-kkfogi^F'^'^ kkofikeffi 
or m"^^ kkag-ikigi to be witness; to give 



iniM. 5 

rm-Vn khat oh^^wa iWW to pcomiBe; 

#,Mtol iflnrtHtj , BwUhW monk who 
hM tikra til* Towi. 

iMi: «**-«W i^o^ •««•? ^*^''^ «^ 
hot-pot \ VfW <tom-ft«i»} P***^ Wfll-fe«» 

gang; iingii>8 (4^m*>)* 

waVHWft 1-to proiniae;toitanai«l 
or •eoaiity. 8. to prewone; to airogate; 
to Moopt, adopt with the moirfh; to oo- 
Imowlodge, admit (^)> 

j^ Jthi axauaaoil flgow 32. 

fh'hi'i^ JBOMi «btt-la i^^^mm n. of 
ft oity in the odghbonzhood of the faboloiu 

B'ambhik. ^ 

A nnia ootting-lmife* 

B jthu nniBflrioal figwe 62; also forR'« 
AAtMM (hnmoor or juioe or wp), aa in 
l|-||if HIV Mn ittr*^ a^i ^MtWlft, hianonr, 

Uood, 4e. 

nm **i«-»*r«^ *iN the mixtine of 
the semen with the uterine blood ly whi«Ji 
fcooea^ aooording to Indiaa phynology, 
the fwtns is fomed {Med.). 

Ki khutu a hut, cottage, oonatnioted 
of branohea of treee {Ja.). 

Bil EkU'thu-eki the title of a ICongo- 

Uaiioobleinaa : iTf'^'B'***'^'*''**' ^Q-f^ 
Mw^A»^M»' that thSb obtained the robe of 

a Mongolian Chief. 

^•^khu-ftM^n'tffhu-rM water-aptay: 
|K'Uf|-M'aM<r«S'^'*i^'^ the water in aU 
ita partUlea iaraed fieah fwan the bloods 

{A. U9) : ¥«T*r« ^^'^'9^'^!^'^' 
M«^ nam-ipkhabi khamt mi4ati-P«r 
hyei-pa unug-pa da* rd»l togt the finna- 
loent of the aly waa obaonxed by misto 
and fogs. In medioal works the aeminal 
auidof the male is called B **« and of 
females ^ td»l' 

w% £%M-MU the dietiicta of Kunawsr 
and Bissahar on the Upper SuOej, bardar- 
ing Tibet and inhabited in the nOTthero 
part by Tibetans :«*f^-^ grapeafrom 

B-^ kh».tna,y. B-5«« **«-r*«'- 
B'Q Rhtt-po n. of a pjaoe and also of a 
I^ama of that place {Mt.). 

«,«, 9«ra, *if:, Vm, r* 1. llnid, li<iaid: 

wa theliquid (water) which ha« waih*i 
a mendioanfa bowl; g^B kkrHM* 
diahwaah; swill (J3.); ^WH »r0tk^ 
rice-soup (Ct.) ; rice-water (fisWr.) ; ^1 
uH-khu the sap of treea; TB £*•'**» *•» 
«ap of plants (Cs.); -TB t^^tku both; 
grary; •«'B mar-kkm molted hatt«r. 8. 
semen Tirila. 


V0f-tfbr fiK the 8il tree, the dried sap of 
trhieh ia need as inoense. 

Byn. 1-^Mit- •ia-fe^i 0Vi, t^ V «ra. 

B'^IS Mn-iM J|wrfs=^'w nittrow; to 
make a soap cl; akoto make an mfoaion 
ardeoootaon of: W'^'T^T^' R'^*9\^r 

^^^4 to emit aemen. 

of a plaat from wluob a kind of yellow 
dye is made in Tibet (4f4oi>.). 

9kjfe%ipa sw meton. for a male person. 

B'<A'^V MiMca^i JtpAo vtir fir the die- 
cliflsge of the semen. 

im a kind of meroiirial medicine. 

f ar^^ Ihthma-^ ^Vt the olass of demi- 
gods on Mount Snmera who fight with 
the Lhm (Mion.). 

)!| w Khu^be n. of a place to the west 
of Iihasa. 

|!J*2| leAu^tM ^ anole on the father's 
nde^ t>.f '■'(^ j»Aa»|piiii, father's brother, 
nnde ; K^^ Mu-Aon also B'^ kku^ikan^ 
naele and nephew: •*M»rB*'^^*<fB''* 
fatber'a bcotfaer isealled A4cku or Kku^. 


B-?\fl» I 

19*9^ A^if-^7 4tf%fr, ff^iw onekoo. 
Syn. ^^-JW* 4pyitt*pi pho^^i wr- 

ma^i thig^pa ; ^'^'^¥> fuMsAetf p«ia| ; Asp 
IMan ; ^«'fi| tfn^^m ; ^W-<i*«iNi gsjhm. 

sjo-i^ei (sAf^ the fourth month d fhe 
Tibetan year corresponding with the 
month of May (SMi.). 

B i^ (H I : khf^^f^mtf eyes like fhose 
of the oudkoo; red eyes. 

VTW D. of a tree (4f4ofi.), 

B'8^'< Mn^^-r^ n. of a medicinal 

B'*i^ kku-mag pnne, mon^.bag ; coUoq. 
lor B"r*i kkug-ma (^.). 

B<^ *AM4iAtir ffk-vflv the elenbhed 
hands; flit. 

Bt^*|«'^« iAn-Mer n(§ ^«Ae«^* 
iV^ (TMr ftso^'iMi a goldnaiih ; one who 
makes his liTelihood b7 the nse of his flet| 
/.#., handicraft (4filfofi.)« 

B'<K-q|Mi*q Mn^iAur M^ to defich 
the fist; also ^ hold with the fiet 

•n'^'iiUmkku49lUtr ieUlmfirm flat; 
closed hand (fiMr. ; Kalao. J. ISl). 

B'<^'fY«i khu^Bkur |fii«ii^«B*<^*S^^ 
AAo^fAur tgyaihpa to ftrike with the flat 
or the half-dosed fist {8eh.). 

B'^V^*^ Klm^b^ ftiat n. of the mother 
of Bromfiton^ the founder of the Lamaie 
hierarchy of Tibet, 





B'^ khu-yu hornleee ; having no horns ; 
al80 a ooiTuption of the word khu^iy^g in 
eoUoq. Tibetan. 

!1'^ k/M-ra^ %^a^ tnum-kkur oakes or 
pastry fried in oil or butter (K. du. S&7). 

R*9 khu-lu 1. the short soft hair of 
the yak, aLso pashm wool in general. 2* 
In Lh. venereal disease ; syphilis (J2»). 

fl'^ Ehti^h 1. n. of a place in Tibet: 
B'^ilT jq Kku-h tnam^tgyal the Lama 
Namgyal of Khu-le; |l'««v9--«|W^ 
Habo Gang-rit a part of Ehnle. 2. In the 
Daang4un the word is nsed to denote 
the pan in an ordinary pair of scales on 
which the weights are placed. 

^ khug or B^^ khugt 1. a comer or 
nook; a creek, bay, gulf, inlet; *W <>*<»- 
khug crook in a river : B*1'5 khug^tu^ in the 
inner recess of a cavity. 2. imp. of ^3<1'*» 
bgug-pa ^Ww, drawn or attracted by; 
^'i'^'R^ gy^n-du khug called upward, i.e., 
to good luck or fortune ; B^'S^ khug^thub 
earned, acquired. 

BTS*^ khugJchyog solitude; solitary 
place ; a place with few men. 

J3^'5 khug-rta, BT5 khug4a or ■^•^'BT 
fdMehug-td fw^» wnwr, wciF the swal- 
low, Cueulus mehnoleueusj a kind of swallow 
{0$.): BT1^'8'«'J^'^*^tke lungs of BTI 
kkug-ti^ suppress pulmonary diseases 

Syn. ^'9S ehar't^oi; 4^1^' ehuA-HuH) 
|j|«i' Jt iprin4a ^M ; l^'*^^^^ Bprin-bdeg^ ; 

§gra^g^gi ; "^ ^*1^ char^gab (JH^on). 

H'^F^ kftug-sna or BT^ *At«jr,rna, fifTR, 
«rf%«r fog, mist, basse (during a calm, 
especially in spring time) ; mentioned also 
as ««ii'«i^*^^ ^^'<)yS')'*>l^ *'one of the 
eight varieties of causal, concatenation." 

B^'^ I : khiig-pa ttiming like a zig-zag ; 
Also bending like a thread that is tzinmied; 
«|9|'B^'^ lam khug-pa the twist of a road; 
j^B^**' l*Mrf khug-pa entwining of a 
thread; ^'''BT*' du9 khug-pa returning 
to mundane existence at the eiqpiration of 
each tenn. of life. 

B^'*" II : to find, get, earn, draw: K^' 
B^'ci'^i^*t^ «or khugi-pa haH 9r%4 it is even 
poscdble that cash may be replenished; M^* 
B^'«» gnid khugi-pa to get asleep : 5p'««' 
B*i|^ sroA gium khugi it drew, i.e., weighed 
three ounces (/a.)i B^'*'*''^**^ khug^ 
bco-itgy^ ^the eighteen turns," >.«., 
returns to life in the present kalpa. 

• B^'^'f^'S' Khug-pa Iha^rtsi^'^'^' 
4'i*4 Si^nag Sg<4 I/hidA-^/oa {8chr.). 

B^'« khug-ma ifNl^ also vivfl' pouch 

little bag; small sack; J'B^ rgya-khug 

Chinese bags made of leather; \W 

tke-khug nebk-bag; a bag with charmed 

objects or important letters hanging 

at the neck; a courier bag; fW 

gloJchug bag carried at one's side ; %^B^ 

dfiuUkhug pouch for silver, a purse; VHSI 

huUkhug a pouch containing soda ; ^Vf^ 

B^'*^ me^lfiagf khug^tna tander-poudi with 

flint; i'B^ nuJshug socking bag for 

babies ; T*<11^ ttMfnMug a bag of barley 

flour; fB^ Uwa^Omg a' salt bag; VrI 

shibJchug little bag for flour; T<^m 

gyaH'khug pouch containing auspicious 

articles to draw good luck. 

{^4|^*C| KhugS'pa n. of a dynasty 
originated at a place called Khugi-pa: 

S^ is the n. of a historical work containing 
accounts of the succession, dynasty, etc, of 
kings narrated by Ehugs-pa . Tfaugs-ije 
chenpo {Tig. 9). 




ly^ £M I : hole, pit, hollow, oaTitj, 
originall J used, onl j of dirk holes and 
oaTitiea: HFV^ UktMial fWN« that 
aleepa ia a lair or hole ; a snako; f*||^ mo- 

RF iftekanJAiti armpit : armhole ; ^^'R^ 
gUr4dk§i 9k Onk; a gviiiar; •^'n^ wOa^ 
Mtitf loop-hole: aholeinade by an arrow; 
fH^ hy^ikhmH monae-hole ; ^R^ ira;- 
UmiL a deft in a rook; ««'R^ (mkAAu^ 
peep-hole; ^^ tiJOwiti or AiTR^ ifN>-Mii4, 
91^ MA^ are need of any hole in 
walla, dothei^ fto., oaiued by natural or 
artificial oavses. 

OF* n:sr^r<MMMi root: ^^'R^'^' 

Ayt iffon-^ from that root the liring be- 
ings of Tibet and the religion of Buddha 
spgoftd out, fto. {A. Its). 

flF%^ khtA'dton soot of an oren or 
ohinmey (^9^.)' 

RJ^d khui^ or R«>*Q khuHnw a laige 

fpTM kMUw^V^klM a small hole 
(Ck.) ; |^'R^'« vi«-^' kkmH^bu the passage 
of penpinitien; hair-hole or oaTity. 

ly^'Q'Vi Mi4-(m Mil full of oatitaes oar 

QC'S" £%«44m or R^n^ Khutl phu^u 
M Conf uoius, the first law-giyer of China 
and founder of Conf udanism* 

I^C^K khuili origin, sonroe : RMr|«( 
kku^i-^ff^l the act of making over the 
oharge of any offioe or stove in a faithful 
manner witho\it anything missing, making 
use in full of that bought tfver as a loan, 
Ac : ^'R'^^^i'^n^ ekoikhnti dag-poi pure and 
unintarpolatod religious work ; also pure 

raligioii : )^*^^"r^nti rgyt4ip» kkutt dag- 
pa of pure origin or lineage. The word 
RMi ^^4 khuti dag^pa is also applied to 
artioles of the best make and quality from 
well-known centres of trade: ^^v^' 
sTMrA-ilsni'ipi'RMi'lii'a^cA'f^'^-^ii kdir yo4 

tnwH'mi^PMmg na§ khu^i^fkfel ikub-^pa^ 
^Um^'$ku ifttf/thebenightedpeopleof that 
plaoe petitioned stating the real state (of 
ailairs). R^^S*^ khu^t-tAub pure and real, 
original; nF^*^ khuthm^d or Rwa^Q 
kkuti^lan^ haying no good origin, j.s., 
mean, inferior : ^I'l'R^ gtamMu^ histori- 
oal or traditional souroe; reoord;doouni»t: 
^jWRMT^^ gtam khui g^cangin the souroe 
of that speech is divine. a|«w<nrHrfT«' 
^-^qwtn^^wqRRwt'i^-i^-ii If aaked 
what is the nature of meditation, it is the 
secret souroe of being able to abandon 
imaginatiye thoughts {tnam-tiog) together 
with their seed (Lam. fi.^ JiS). 

goi-pa original and really existing or I «' 
^'4 (pff dag-po^ of excellent quality, same 

ag dK.irs|fe-si'<wp'H"^^^'R^''^^'"'V**|* 
Mii some of puxe descent had reasons 
arising firom genuine grounds. 


fpM*^ kkiti§^9un well-founded; 
genuine; of undefiled origin: V^^QF'i^' 
V^'R'^'^'F'^'^ M described in what- 
eyer Bon texts that haye a genuine origin. 

JQ^Mtitf coat-lap or any makeshift 

doth; wrapper: ^Jw^VrR"^ go§Jf»i 
kkud-du drU U khur carried wrapped in the 
flap of his coat; tJS\kku4-du aside, apart; 
secretly ; RS V*^" kkud-du hjog-pa to 
put; lay aside: RVVi^*» **«*-<'«« ^«-*« 
to have shown one^s authority oyer a 
thing which belongs to many* 




B\«i kku4^a pocket, pouch (8eh) : r'' 

rA«# or |«i'lPw ^pel-rdaa^i ^ftjj^ any- 
thing sent ; a dowry ; an article presented. 

R'S'i khtti'fna side ; edge {C$.). 

BVl Mir/-M for llV«i' VS khit^-h g^ai 
hold forth the lap of your coat! 

^p khun-ti or ft^^ khpen-U is stated 
to be used in Pur. for he or she (/a.)* 

l^^'Ci khun-iM ^pm the uttering of 
any inarticulate sound; cooing; moaning; 
the rattling of wheels; rumbling of the 
bowels ; to grant (Jd.) ; to groan {8eh.). 

1^^*^ Khum^ n. of a place in the 
oonflnes of Tibet and Nepal {8. kar. 77). 

Qaq(«) khum{9) crooked (/a.). 

W'A^ rfon kiguwr-yin diminished; 
dianged: ftS'S'W^'BW-ii-^ if your faith 
be diminished {A, 86). 

15^ khur or B«^« khur-^ in^ burden ; 
load for men : B^^i^b^Wt*" the father's 
burden having fallen on the sou {Pag. SS) : 
||Vgv«m'^^'4' Vl one that lives by carrying 
loads {Ja.)i R^'^ khur^fiH wooden pole 
over the neck from the ends of which loads 
aie carried; a milkmaid's yoke-pole is 
called «^'^ kkur-'^diin: R^'R^'Q khur^ 
kkm^ he who carries the bodily existence 
is PuH-gala ; a corporeal being ; R'^S'''^^ <» 
khur^gyii dulhpa mrpwi one worn out by 
carrying loads; R^"8*'^^'*' khur-gpii turn* 
pa one drooping under a burden or load, also 
pressed down by responsibilities and suffer- 
ings: jsr«i|^siRn5B«^-8n-H^q^-^|«^ were 
pressed down by the weight of many 
miseries; R^R khwr^la HTCVIV the wage 
for carrying a load : R^'fi^ kAur-r^an, id. 

R^'1'4 khur Ici-iffa heavy load or xespcn- 
sibility: <pi'?«^»«r^i^W|-WMi being old, 
heavy burdens and death wore them out 
(Zom-rim. Ti). 

nm (from mfK) to borrow; to takeloan of. 

R^s^ **«r.tta^»R^'«5ws(^^a^ User- 
yo^f hdttn4hag or H^'^ bphyatUhag the 
rope used in suspending loads from the 
ends of a yoke-Uke pole; rope to carry 

^'^^%\khur hdegt'byei fpmi% over 
a charge or responsibility' or load. 

B^'<^^*Q khur bdren-pa wif^V one who 
carries or draws a load; one who takes 
charge of. 

R^d' khur-pa and R^*& khur-m a 
load-carrier ; a coolie. 

B^'A^^a khur hphrog-pa irn:vR the 
depriving of one's charge; the robbing of 
one's load. 

R^'^ khur'U:a, v. KS^^ kkur-^shcf. 

K^'^^'^ khur^bor-ioa ^MnaUK he who 
has laid dovm the burden, oharge or res- 
ponsibility. In Buddhism R^'^'Q Mur- 
bor-tca or R^'Q'Q^'^ khar^po bor^wa^ one who 
has laid down the five aggregates (fiaii- 
dha)^ M., he who will not have again to 
take corporeal existence ; one of the perfeo- 
tions of a ffrdvdka. 

Bvq^^q khur ihtlrpa to take om 
charge: ^9«l«H|S'5W V'«w **tv/ ftforf *yi 
khur ilaH^-poi having undertaken the 
task of expounding (SUu. S). 

R^w(^) *A«r.wa^(tf) or RVsPi'«i kkur^ 
maH'pa^ R^*^ k/iur-Uhoff flifw^, Vlim 
dandelion, or the (^'R^*! ba^laH In) ox- 
tongue (as it is called in Tibet), used as a 
pot-herb and medicinal plant, a kind of 




edible herb: B^'«*^fT'^«r^"^ dandelion 
IB luefol in femr and brofwn phlegm. 

RvAi khufUnoi or •n^'*« fiMifr«^Ao| 
1^; v^ltv the bheekt the raddypart of 
the &oe helow the ejee. 

Sjn. ir^'9 kkwr^fca, 

fl^'^*q kkmr-hoi^ HTK^n one who 
is able to carry a load, who haa patience 
to oorry a burden or zeeponiibili^. 

gM the earth (M^on.). 

K^M kki$r4en the charge of : V^*K^ 
R^rt|*ri^-^1<l»rfi; ^ri|^%|FS*e the red* 

dent o£Boer in the Jong about this date 
of the month and jeai* took orer charge 
of the Jong (district) . 

D^qnirl'q kk^tr-^am chi'ica one haying 
a senae of reeponaibiliiy : 9sT' Vl^H^' 
qnsrl-q-i^li^'iA-qnfS general inetraction for 
the neoeesitj of a sense of responsibilitiea 
in an o£9oe. 

^^ khui h jurisdiction ; proyince ; 
domain; distriot: i^'t'W^ QMi'rt90Jchul 
within the jnrisdiotion or proyince of Shi- 
ga-tse: ff^i^'R^ XAo-sa^tJirAii/aa the places 
belonging to or within the town jmrisdiction 
of Lhafea: ^^19*<*^*^^'1 deki kkml h iduf 
is sabject to him (JS.). 2. also manner, 
Btatoior oboiimstance : ^••^•ll^'^'^VBq-iW 
if yon do not know, act the manner of 
knowing : *S'^'^«A'B«riH if (yon) haye 
(it not), act as if yon had: ^Uf^^^^^'l^' 
iY^nFiS%'^ I haye been doing a little 
business in baying and reselling from 
one party to another. 3. a rayine (in 
KunawtMr). 4u the soft down of fars(/8t^A.). 
0. B^'w kkul-nml small basket for wooL 

6. Tery aofi wool of Tibetan goat which 
grows nest to skin, and also called R'B 
kMhtu or W^iN bal'Uam : W^f* khui 
f fyiHfio made of the softest goat-hair or 
yak-hair : Rpr|i( khmt^h^M felt made of 
the softest wool of goat or yak. 

tog (J|f4ofi.). 

RFTii kkut'matbB bottom or the side of 
A thing (Ck.). 

R^l- kM-rt^^^^ ka-caU or %Q ftn- 
<ii to a great measure, iit. from the bot- 
tom to the top; hence entirely, greatly 

fP^'tS khul-tMi an abbreyiation of the 
words R'B IfhuJu and |^ tUi4* 

p kh€ numeral ninety-two (02). 

^*|3 khe-khy^ or ^'« khs-nn^ 1. proBt, 
gain; ^T^^l^ khs^fpogi ditto; ^'^'SS'^ 
kke tihaH bg^i-pa to trade ; to traffic ; to 
bargain ; -^^'^'^ft gain ; adyan- 
tage obtained by experience. 2. tetter; 
herpes ; ringworm (eruption on the skin) 

^^ Kho-if^i tt. of a place, the bhrth- 
place of »<a-^-»fi|wq L(ht9a^wa ^JkAcr- 
lo frag§^ (ZeA. ' 80). 

p'^t I^ ffim-t^ssn. of a monastery 
in China ersoted hj the Chinese Minister 
fa-thi-ehee ( Tig.). 

^fpr^ khe igmb^p^ to make profit, to 
gain : P'^^ kke ktgg^Uhpa to make a 
goodbaxgain {8oh). 

^'^ khe-itam with profit; profitable* 

P'M kk$4kn profit and loss ; risk; also 
good and eyil, ».«., ^ gag and ^ ibf . 

^e khe^pa in Amdo m^^Q tah<4^4 
tradesman ; dealer ; one who makes profit 




t^^ flolling or in boBinm ; fc*^^«*^'«i t$h(^ 

bdu§ khe^-pa tmdar; nuddlemazu 

frtjf^wi^ Khebtag^ni^o n. oi a place in 

Eong-pa where the eighth in c arna te Kat" 

fiMpa Laina was bom. 

^'AS khe-mei nnprofltaUe. ' 
^*V^9'^ AA^-Ttf hgro-ica to fall in price. 

^'4*1^ ii^X^fe mon n, of a place in 
Mongolia {Yig.). 

^'gwi^'a khe-fkbi ehefi^ very profltar 
ble yielding good income. 

^^ni JSIe-g9f«m n. of a place in Tibet 
{8. tar.). 

rh*<'^ I'- khegs-pa to obBtmct ; doae: *m' 
f-it«"ci^*ji)^q^-^vX (the *medidne) will 
certainly obstruct the panage of the womb. 

jN|4i*9 ii:s«^'cr| munipa ^yi a general 
name for darknessy gloom or obsouriiy 

f)Mi-ii|$ii khefi^gtam boastfol woids or 

Syn. ^^'^^ dregi^tig; ^'< ttMV 

flurf<{i kheAt-ldan mas^f ^^'i 6tt-mc 
dSfr-ma a youthful maiden (4fiffon.). 

^C^*q khe(l9-pa wlmVK^ VK 1. pride, 
LaughtineB0y arrogance. 2. pf. of .^^wq 
ikhe/ii'pa to fill; become replete wiilu 
8. nt^ pufled up, haughty, arrogant: 
pui'cr«^ kheA^-pa^an irt^ one who 
boasts ; braggadacio. 

Syn. ^^W'q reHt-pa; W^'^f dregi-pa; 
i;- Jfli Ha-rgyal (M^on.). 

d3j*Q.^ khen^bdta a kind of cotton 

j^yfl khen-pa 1. wormwood (/8teA<r.). 
2. to lean; to repose on (erroneously for 
qr^q (AAan-^ii) {8ch.). 

ffffK kh«lb§ n^, |M a oorar, lid, 
coirarlet: fim an endosuie round the saori- 
ftdal ground ] ^'tV^ kheb§4Q^ ^tHM 
HTV a net (generally of iron) to cover any- 
thing ; q^'^ paHMAi a coner for the 
lap ; apron ; napkin ; C^ igoMebi a 
cover for the saddle ; t'ft'fvm eog-ttm 
khebi a table doth ; «^'^ eharJOOi a 
rainoloak:*\'P^ ^Ac^-AMfa cap; hood; 
4|^i;'f^ gdu^hebi a certain beam or 
board above fho capital of a pillar ; ^' 
f^Pm gdai-khebif veil ; doth to cover the 
face; "^^r^ ii^duihkheii m W 

jM'^/^4 khOi'tgab-pa to place a oorow 
ing (over a thing) ; to cover. 

^qcn^'q khebi ao^t-ira to take the cover- 
ing off. 

p^m'fi khekhpa^^p^^*^ gyoghpa cover- 
ed, veiled ; ^q«*«i kheb^-^na covering (C!i.). 

p'l irAMii, V. ^^ khyem, 

P^'^K kh&r'tkpoA alooe ; aditaiy : •* 
^'IF'iW^VI there was only one man, a 
solitary maiL 

P^^A^I*^ kher tgyag-pa to defraud; 
to usurp {8oh.). 

^Py^ Khel-igo n. of a district, aho 
thai of a mountain : ^y^'"r|«r|Ss Ekel- 
9go ri-la idog r^yti-Myctf . 

^*Q| khel'U:nl. to load upon ;s^<i 
bkhel-tca {fJii,). 2. rely upon; depend on; 
iSf'^^q ih khyel-ica^ ^t^A ^lo ene§-M to 
have confidence in ; ^^^^'^ it^en khe^ 
wa to be sure ; to be certain ; to be certain 
of anything; absolutely certain : ^'^* 
^k:vi^'^^^ de-ra yoi irtanJckel-ym (hU) 
coming to^y is absolutely certain. 




P^I'jJa^ k/iet-nin the day before yes- 
terday (Seh,). 

p?l'q kke^^ 1. to hit (the right 
thing) : ^FK*^^'^ ffna^f-la khei-pa to 
Rtiike the yital parts ; to hit mortally. 
2. one who xnakea profit or bargain by 
selling; a petty dealer, trader. 

p kho I : nuxneral 122. 

^ i^Ae n : the uaoal word for the pert. 

peon., 3rd pers., meaning ho, Ae, or it. 
Atthongh not an honoiiflo term, it ooours 
in many anthoiB in ref eiring to both com- 
mon peraonagea and respected persons, es* 
peoially in IGlaKapa and even in much 
eniierworka where Mo often refers to kings 

and lamas. However f^' khoA is the 
proper honorifio term of the 3rd pers. pron. 
In eettain distrieta and in some popular 
mitings ^ Moisnsed instead of iAofor 
** she," but it ia considered a ynlgar and 
illitente nsage. The plural takes «i or <, 
••^f ^^ kkihcag^ ihej^ them; also P* 
kkhMoj oomm0nerin W. In C. j*^^' 
Mo^MV isihe popular form for ''he" or 

^*^ kl»4i tearketfle, prob. Chinese 

p*9q|*q|T^*C| kho4hag gooi^ to 
aeqmeaoe in ; hope for ; be resigned to : 

aX<s {Pag. US) hearing the aoooimt of her 
ton having nsmrped the kingdom, Jj^phret/* 
am acqnieeoed in it. The werd ^''^ »mw 
often preoedes this phrase. 

ff9»Krffr^ KluhVfihilL IhoMoA n. of a 
monastery in Lhobrag, South Tibet. 

p'aj kho-na 1. only, solely, exdnrire*- 
ly. 2. jnst> exactly, the very: H«rfr-^ 

idigpa k/uhna tan only ; S^'^F^^g^nm hk4h 
na piety alone : f|\)^?^^ ikai-cig khiHUi 
only for a moment ; ^^\Ff'^ft«r^ Mtf hka- 
naf brei-tca to be separated even from daaixe : 
%w«^'ff-^iiNq^-qi^RT^^«i| as he intended 

only the welfare of beings: W'tS'«AT^1^ 
f^'^^ (Pag. ISU) it will be Uie lanlt only 
of one's own doing: J^'*i'^^V«rff^-«^ that 
is jubt what has been wished for by the 
kii4: iJa.)i W^^^^M\ JIM* as before : ^KF 
i^^^cr^eqi the very same (man) : tVQ'ff'T 
^V just like a worm : ir^ f^s*« by ibe 
very same prooess : VP^^ deJshihna '^m the 
state of being that ; tme state ; real state; 
tmth ; realiiy; opposed to what is iUoaorj 
or falladons; essential natnre; the real 
natmre of the hmnan sonl as being one and 
the same with the siqirame qnrit psrrading 
thenniverse; (in philosophy) troth, realify, 
a true principle. 


^*C| kho-pa^}^^ kho-eag or f^'* khai 
Uho they. 

^*^ JS:%a:pa a tribal name inTibetrfT 
i|-« pQ-^ff i^^ JStag^te h kkthfo da khQ 

ibra gfUi, the 9^^ Ifag4$ tribe is divided 

into two— ff^X Kh4hpo and ff^ Kho4^' 

j6'if khfhipo ^ I ; myself ; ff W«i 
khihwo oag^^* we : i^^-trffffwrsit^f^ 
(rfj-fa kho-woi io-mt^hwr ggmr this jio- 
dttced admiration in me : OT^'^V'F"*" 
l^'q'^M for this system my enthnsiaam 
increased. In i^'^tA-ipr^ the term 
JUkMfw would seem to mean *«himself''— 
the soul of man himself. 

f^Vii f^^tem the eariy Tibetan name 
for Ehatmandn, the capital of Nepal. In 
East Tibet EJiaimandu is stall called 




f^i Mtf-iiMisffc khom knapsack ; wallet 

^S kho'-mo I; we (feminine). 

f^^ kho^u the thrawhing prooets, 
wbieh is done by driying a number of 
ojmx fastened together ronnd a pole that 
stands in the middle of the thraahing 

1^ i: Ato-ra is endentlj a oormption 
of ff V khthrai, frff ^w^ll mi kho-ra raUr 
yi of the man himself (jUag.). 

f^^ n : (C!i.) also ^'^ kh&r-%a oircmn- 
ferenoe; oiroomjaoent spaoe. 

f^'^f^'W kho-ra Jshor-yug 1. spaoe; 
also fence; any aarronnding wall (c7a.); 
alflo aditoh filled with water or moat round 
a cdty or a fort. 2. 9^'^ kun-na^ vinmr: 
from everywhere, from all direotions ; 
f^^'^' W8 kho^ra khcr yug-tu in a circle ; 
in ciroumteenee (frequently in measuring) 
also roundabout, all Mund, «.^., to en- 
oompasB : f^'OT^^'Q in the whole circuit, 
Tomidabout (/d,) : f^t^'*T5'VT*S8V* 
esfonding oyer half ^iycjana or two miles 
all round. 

}^\ kb(hf€ 1« in Kham an ezpraBsion of 
dibpleasore or anger towards a man : ^ 
^(^ d-ro^jc Oh friendl is the opporite of 
}^ kho^re, 2 one of the idarly kings of 
Tibeti son of King l/dd'Cug i^gon. 

ff<rl*4 kho^ ehenca 1. a large space 
(Seh.), 2. dough made of S^'^r^am-pa 
(barley flour) and beer. 

fS^OWj khO'iag^^'V^ tku-hf Umbs, the 

entire body : |^«i^««iq kho-lag yafi^^pa 

fully developed body or prominent limbs ; 
|l^4i^tt«^ii'^^kq'^^^;f^*^c s|1*q{^Aq>^'q-^ Ilia 

person being well-developedf waslaige and 
glowed with grace and brightness ; t'i' 
« 41 p«i^»q.K anything that is large all 

over is called kho-lag eke^wi: Also a gens- 
rally well-developed shape is called kko- 
lag ehe-wa. 

tnho doT'^a youthfnlness ; full youth 

p^ kkog, freq. for pfc'<i kIM-fa 1. the 
interior, inside. 2. in ^^^ kkogt or '^^ 
ikhogi. 3. also for ^^^Q tg^i-pa; 
'^f^ foJchog the oaiea» of an animal for 

meat : PK^FH«»^^'^f V^«"'T« *% 
^u4 khog-pa pkgef daH Ikn-gmgi 9og^ 
{Jtg.) the entire body imd one half of the 
carcass and the parts of tfie animal (slaia). 

ffr^X^' kkog-gcoi chnmio disease in 
the stomach or internal parta ol the body. 

PH*«S kkog-ekua for ^"^VS kkotrA^ 


P ^*^ khog-pa 1. inside ; the stomach : 
ff«1'«r«rf I q the digestion of food in ths 
stomach. 2 the trunk of the body, cea- 
taining the hearty lungs, livery Ac. : 9^ 
t^S'l^ ruiibal ggikkog tike interior of 
the body of a tortoise. 

p^^*1 kkog^ma also rfH t^kaJUtof 
pot ; earthen yessel generally used in Tibet 
for cooking rice, meat, broth, Ac ; ^'f^ 
td(hkhog a stone ves-«l or pot used in 
Kham tor cooking purposes; PK'^ khoff- 
chen large earthen or stone vessek for 
cooking the food of a laige number. 

|*"|'"«^ khog-ya^ or ?*T*"*^^ kk^gpa 
ehe^wa capacious or Isrge interior ( Ta^- 
i8) : f^'V khog^ tho core of a tree; 
heart- wood. 

P^pi'^ ir.i*;^'$./6 imp* of ^^' 

bgg^pa, ^^A'H* •^•^'''^'fh''"'^ »top 




thftt goat from Mkiiig tbe Bowwb. 2. to 
ooagh {J&*)m 

fK I: khod an honorifie equiTalant d 
F Mo, he^ ahe: f^'^S'^F^ khaH-gi ihugi- 
Ai in hk thonghta; P^'^'|*«V^ *Aa4- 
^ Mw-ipifc^fMJcf in Ilia proaoneo ; S^'Vffc' 
«^K-%sl^^ n^yoffio khoA-rail yin igaii- 
fiof the long aappoaing thai he himaelf 
waa meant. Plnial ^'^ kkoH48ko they, 

^K'^ kkai-pa the interior ol anything ; 
the inside; alao aa adr. in the foorma Mo^ 
As kkotF^uif inside, within; alao poaip. 
kMlF4ut^ into, within ; Moi-iNV oat ol 
Oertain phxaaea oooor : f^' V^'^ to be 
anzioaa, to bear in mind, be impwarod; 
f^'^^^ to repeat from memory ; f^'^'^f^ 
to oollect in the mind; to impreea on the 
memory ; to learn (by heart) ; f^* V^CS'^ 
not to appreciate {tfim^ 9S9ioii9) ; f^' 
^'ar^'4-^-q not that it waa not nndentood 
or appreciated {Siym. tS9 to 2Jt9) : f^ ^pr 
^'ft^'^f^ khotk-noiiSiH pMlnea fUir aa if 
their hearta had burst out; f^'^ 
^'Q khot-noi idaH^usa ViPKr to be angxy 
or indignant; f^'^'j|K' khoik-4M9 ppyui^ 
^'^y^ fut^HUfi phyut waa taken out; 
ffcq« ?rSt|-iH kkaH^^Mki dro4-ia phan it 
helpa the internal heat, •>., digestion. 

^'^^khoirkhkrt»g nneasiness; sorrow; 

ffc-ff kkcMOro {koH^ko) or Ffc'ff'n kkoH 
khriMpa nfHw the state of becoming 
angiy ; paasfam; also inward wrath, malice; 
1S^% ^ kkotJ^kro-ean «fw bitter ; angxy ; 
malicioas : ^'ffS'^'^M'^'VS^ ffc* 
l^*T^*^«»^ * even all the good that 
waa done, by one angry oatburst may be 
destroyed ; f^ jtl^'ci khoHJ^hro fpoH^-^ to 
pot away or sobdne anger; f^^'rm/^^ 

kkro MiM90 to ixmenm anger, take didike; 
to be indignant; f^ H*' Vr^'«^-« Msi- 
khro^i tnam igyut fmd-pa free from the 
atate of passion or anger (Pag. 180.). 

fi^'^ Ma«.ffa« fall inside ; solid. 

8yn. ^'^ isho^yoi; F*^'«S khog^iik^ 

!^Y' kMl^§m 1. the secret heart; the 
intention or design. 2. pith ; core ; ^<^*l|'piB: 
^ the pith or inner wood of a tree (Jfilfofi.). 

pa of even temper. 

F^'*^ khoA^mar batter need in making 
cake-like offeringa to the gods. 

f^W^'V kkai-iman ter-po the yellow 
medicine from the intestinea, i>., bile or 
gall {^man. 66). 

f^'fm khail'4€il suet. 

anger ; vindictiTeness (40(<mi.). 

ffc'^ khid-ieA secret holes in rooks. 

1^'^ kha^ff»eb the hollow (of a tree) ; 
the inner recess : if^^if i^'^'$'sA'«^'«rq^ilY 

F*^^*^Vi'» in ancient times the wife of 
Gautama the sage, ffliol-med-ma by name, 
being very pretty and fascinating, waa 
concealed in the hollow of a ttw (Mi^an.). 

^C9| kho4i the middle ; the innermoat; 
J^m'% or fM'4 in the midat: UMh*u 
kUhui-pa to go into the midst; to onder^ 
■tand ; hy$4'igo eke phra M&ft^tu^ mef-paii 
kkai§ kgroi yt^wa the more and less imp 
portent works, not leayinar oat the simpler 
ones, shoald be well studied. Sgro-wa rig^ 
4wg •^^^ paki f Jtofti-SM khhni dmi-kgrobi 
kkaiirm$ kdoi when reckoning the,six kinds 
of animated beings, inclode tiie Ifdga 
among the beasts; ^'|a^'V^^si^'|v«i^•y;* 
Oil- j^-UpM-f^fipi Ser-ling, Zang-ling, 





ete., are iuoladed in the continent of 
Dzam-ling: ^"^S'Sf^fl^W?* (thifl) ia 
contained, ix., included in, that («/a.): 
<iq»iii'^^r|^1't«'iw^ Jw'tn kba ifiom§* 
vabi khofiMlffib$ na in the protected 
oleft of the cool mountain where the snow 
is levelled (Ya-sel. 35), 

pK^q khofiypa in*n 1- highly 
injurious; violent ; cruel ; rough. 2. 
adv. crooked: f^«'*'^^<f khoili cha-Mug 
it IB bent, curved, warped. 

j«kii^«i khaiii-ril crippled. {Jd.). 

j)?^ k/io4^<^ Ho§ h the external 
appearance ; outward look ; surface : |*ni' 
wf^' sa khoi-inoms-ixi land of even sur- 
face ; plains . 9'&i'^d even and regular 
teeth: wnflrf^fwaj^ la^ka la khoi- 
tnomi'po gyii in doing a work (business) 
be of even temper: Mq«>^«^fl5^jii?5s- 
^^»rQ'§9i shal-'tca daii tdhon itaH'tgi/ti'la 
. khoi^iSofni-po gyn in plastering aud in 
pointing make the surface even: htt^'f^' 
v^'f^m'^l^^'^im mi mdHrpoH izai 
ituii'la kho4 ^nomf-po gy%i in giving 
food and drink to many people make the 
distribution uniform : V^ ''^V^f^'ffr^'^ srab 
iihugkhoif-inomi'po fine and thicklevelled 
into one. 2, v. ^?^'<i bkhog-pa and '^^'^ 

ffS'PS'SF'' Mi average number (Ki- 
9sl 85). 

P^ I: khon w^ifT sbst. anger; 
grudge ; resentment ; enmity : }^^^khan 
tdsin-pa or f^'V^'^ khon^du ttkin-pa 
m^mrt to feel rancour, hatred ; |^'tfv<i 
khan iuoi^a iorbear, endure, forgive; 
f^'^'if'^'iSS'a khon gug-te gdai-pa lit. to sit 
waiting out of vindiotiveness to take 
fevenge upon ; f^'^w ^khon-kbar in W. 
sting ; the burning of anger or hatred in 

the soul (Jd.) ; j*^«i«wr)ft|'«- j^-^- getting 
more and more spitefuL 

j^ II: a technical term in Tibet 
and Chinese astrology applyizig to one of 
the eight mystical signs or parkha of 
divination ; f^d one whose lot is cast in 
this division. 

PW khob fat ; heavy ; clumsy {8ch.), 

I^'B^ khob^khrob the sound caused by 
the tapping of one thing upon another. 

|n^ kJwm wallet; leather trunk; felt or 
hide bag : ^^^ffiwi g^i-klkom^ a great 
man's trunk: p>i'a9^ k/tom-hbog a bag 
usually made of leather for carryisg 
apparel and other articles on a journey. 

pW'q kJiom-pa 1. to have leisiu^, 
time to do a thing. 2. to be enabled 
to do a thing by the absence of ex- 
ternal impediments (Schir.)i [*»r«rft^ khonh- 
pa mil I have no time ; I cannot do it now; 
If^-ft' jfei fto4 mi kJiom no leisure to stay ; 
^•f^w i{a khom I am versed in ; •**[*» m 
kliom not practised ; ftpH*q*qj^ mi khorn^ 
brgt/ai ^nVf^P^ni the eight obstacles to 
happiness caused by the rebirth in places or 
situations unfavourable to one's conversion 
to Buddhism, ^uoh re-births are: — ^^^ 
«T^»jfl|'q semi-can i/mpai^a ^K^mxth as 
hell beings ; ^\^V dui-hgro tiri^ as beasts, 
reptiles, flies, etc.'; ^\^ Ifi^^i^gi w 
ghoEta ; f X'U'Q Iha ishe-rtt-po i^hWH^ 
the gods who enjoy very long life ; ««^' 
^jfe'A it^Aai bkhob-^ni ^imm^l^VK the bor- 
der (wild) people ; S^'^'^'^'^ iwaH-po tna- 
tsha^-^fl ffHiRT^M those who are defeotiTe 
in the faculties of the mind or of the body; 
^^'^'f^log-par t^a^ica OmK^si foUowing 
false or heretical doctrirfeB or theorieB; 
^q1^i<|i)4|«i'q'l|iwi'«*9K*q de^^thin gfeg-pa 

fnams ma byuti^a vWTiRITwni^qvuc the 




place where the Taih&gata hae not (yet) 
made hie appeannoe. 

pV9*^ khar-mopug inoeeeautly; 
oontixmally i^k.)^ ▼. f^'%^ khor-yug^ 

F^'^^'IK'o kkof'^wcr fpp(Hh>a continual 
and unintermpted Boflering (in the hell) : 

SS'^'frph when bom in hdl, being aub- 
jeoted to tormenta in the miaeriea of heat 
and ooldf the perf onnanoe of religion ia 

f^'n kkor-mig on obaolete lonn of 
^'W kkar^ug, alao V^ lie^kar ivft- 

pVg^ khar'tn*g 1. f^ He^bkar; 
V^V^ kim^na§ inmr: ^irwTV the hoiuon ; 
the ontmoat limit; the outer line or oir- 
cumference ; ^'^'^^'Q at all timea, day 
and night. 2. V*»*^"f^'?l^*M^'*S'^'«*« 
kept them without sleep at all tunea, day 
and night {Yig) : f^mM^ khat-^yug 
ohen-po iiTrPIWTW aoo. to the Buddhista, 
the outer wall of the world ; the greater 
horiaon from the top of Sumeru. 

P^ khol or jfc'S khol^ abridgment; 
epitome ; f^^'^'Q khoydu phyud'Wa 
abridged (Gb.). 

p^'fi$ khoi^lfejm the mouth of a 

^$91*^ khol-4i$ssiK\ aifr-€fo in a cor- 
ner; ma^pmally. 

^^QI^Q hholrpa boiled {Cb) ; boiling ; 
bubbling ifioh.). 

JI5q|'2J kholfo^'^^^ nog-fio i^m a 

Ber?«nt ; f^W^ khol4fran a Bla\9 ; fN'O^'l^ 
^^F^'^kkol-por c;#|-M» bmtHwa totake; to 
biie f or a aenrant : ^tTt\*'f*i b/ig-ttem 

Brif-paH kkoi the world is la servant 
of the evolving principle, f^^ khoUmc 
amaid-aervant; a female slave; p^Q'I^' 
^H^'Q*^ khot-po igog^ikffaii khuT'-jHhcan 
nameof kind of vegetable naadidne applied 
to wounda and aoreay Ao. (gman. S60). 

pPVf^ kkol4m a bit ; a small piece. 

^'1 kkohna^M^n^^r-khui mrw 
1. a window; a hole in the waller roof of 
a house to aerve the purpoae of a vrindow 
or aky-light ; » aco. to Sek. an outlet 
for the amoke in a roof. 2. anything 
boiled : a-V^l^^ilVriAfftrw Ja <M eku 
•ogi i^sat-paH kiohna tea or water 
that haa been boiled ; MPr^'Ivi^i ^mpal- 
iMuM* kkfxhchu khol-fna the boiling or mol- 
ten matter of hell: ^'9^'p^« ho^kngr 
khot-^na boiling gruel. 

fh*: khoi-mo 1. ^^H gyog-mo ^wft 
maid aervant. 2. a coarse sort of blanket 
usually given to alaves in O. (Sehtr). 3. 
mowed com; a swath {Ja,)» 4. among 
the herdsmen called Dog-pa^ a bellowB 
made of an entire goat akin. 

}^^'^ kAohtgyuf^ mia-spelt for f^t^» 
% slave family or mean extraction: «i<fq'V' 
^HF?^JV^V|«rjS"^^ mag-pa h-gmm 
khoi tgyu4 mH^kycA^uUrgy^ gin though 
the son-in-kw (elect) is not a slave (ty 

birth) yet he shoidd be made to serve (the 
bride's parents) for three years. 

P*I^ kho9 imp. of «(we ga^^pa to split: 
STW»*fP^'^ *T«-fto*i qipo khoi fig 
split the head of the enemy. 

19 ^^ khga^i49e the running hand- 
writing of the Chinese. 

15^^ kkga^k or r'^kka4$ aa much aa 
fllla the hollow of the hand; handful, e.f^ 
of water (&«.). 




15^'fl I: khyag-pa, seldom nV^ 
hhyitgt'pa 1. frozen. 2. the froet ; ioe ; 
[y^qf r^ hhyag thog-khar on the ke ; HIV 
<A'>^*V^ hkhyag-pahi Boi^pulj Tibet, the 
country • of froet ; W'^'l^'*^ khyag-la 
^ar 90(1 J it has stook faft by freeing ; 
S^'8'Y'^ khyag»8ku koJco aco. to Ja. in 
Tsangy mud oaiued by a thaw; snow- 
water ; BY W^ khyag sran^ean hardened 
by frost ; WV^ khyag^-um or |S^X*< khyag* 
ram ice ; pieoes of ioe ; floating blooks of 

^Sf^ n: to undertake ; to be surety 
for: "^W R^ BT1»'* OT ** kkyod^khur 
khyag^gam mi kkyag can you undertake 
to do this or not : 8'%«^«iT' BT 9S'«» to 
stand as security for a loan, etc. 

^^ khyoif 1. difference, distinction: 
.jf^'^«5-BS»K gaU itaH-na khyei-fne^it is 
no matter which you give me; «S^'5S«i* 
V^'fllS'^ 4a dai phrai-pa dafi khyai-mei 
it is quite the same as if they came to 
myself; ••w'^'BS'S^ wiwi-to khyei-byut 
a difference of opinion arose (Jd.). 2. 
Bomethingexcellent ; superior ; BS*^''''^««^«« 
greatly exalted ; *B^ iM'khya4 an excel- 
lent work of art; i^|w*BV^^ bsgnibS' 
pab% khyai'-yoU there will be some ad- 
vantage in accomplishing it ; B^'^^ khyai- 
nor the principal or chief wealth ; B^'Xl 
khya4'don the principal sense or reason ; 
advantage. 3. is added to an adj. to 
express the notion derivable from any 
quality: W«i'Q thick; 1|«<'B^' thickness; 
«w.«'«i wide; '"»^'^B^ width; ^^'^i accus- 
tomed ; ^vi^BS A hsAAii or custom. 

BS'B^ khya4-khyu4j said to be SF'^'i' 
^\ uT of a number ( Ya-sel 67). 

ffitm khyai^hoi superior or excellent 
doctrine ; a good religious discourse, hence 
those who possess special qualification for 

miracles ai» called ^W«WBS'«i^'^'^«^ *» 
** in sublimity superior to othen." 

f3S\ khyad-Susilfst^'^ khyai^par-du 
or ft'S^'i bye-brag-iu especially, particular- 
ly ; also superior and excellent ; BV^'^1*^'^ 
khyai-du gsa4-pa to contradict ; also to do 
the contrary (out of pride or vanity) ; to 
despise: i^J«i'S«iiii|«S»<^«iW^-^w^ ^a^rgyal 
4wa/H-gi§ i^^^i^^ khyai^n g!sa4 from 
pride he speaks ironically to the lowly. 

BV^ khyad-par^khy ad-da 1. difference, 

distinction: ^'S^'SS'^V\'^^ ^« <^ 
khyo4 4iiii khyad-par ehe between you 
and I there is a great difforance; ^*^' 
|3YCF'9r9i%«'cA*^^ de daft khya4-^r ma 

tpchii-^bi r^^ ttn image not differing 
from this ; *ci|BfS«R^^ mifi-gi khyaS-par 
yin it is (only) a difference of name. 
2. sort, kind : -^g^'i^issci^-^^ khrai-buhi 

khyai^ar kun all sorts of fruit ; ^'^^'i' 
U^crU^ ri^agi-kyi kbyai^ar shig a par- 
ticular kind of game ; ^■J'SbV*'^ y^^ffP 
khyei-par a particular place or province. 

(j^«RqNf^q khya4-par iko^ipa^ J^*^' 
H'gfi' fgyal^hi .ph4hbr€^ an edifice of 
special design ; palace of superb niiake. 

BV'^8'^*"^''' khyai-par-gyi hehm-ica 
fir^ that which binds partioolarly, t.^., 

I3^'q^'«^ khyai^ar-can special ; specially 

good ; superior, excellent, capital : BS'^'^ 
|'«il<^'crsfyi khyai^ar ean^gyi wdBoi-pQ fiit 
the two special achievements or exploits 
(Tig.): W^'OS^'^^ ila-ma khyai-par- 
can eig an excellent spiritual teacher. 

BV^'^ khyai-par^Uj adv. particular^, 
chiefly, especially : BV*^'^'^*^'** **y«^ 
par-du iphag^-pa particularly eminent, 
noble ; B^'«'^'^'*S*««^*"S khyai^r-du tof 
par hye4 he scorns, despises, ridicules, 

BW| 167 

^ BMi or P^/ tne (if<loM.). n 

knif ; f^m n. of an individul (A. K.), 


mnderfDl; onriooa; stzwage. 

PS'ii^M|Ni##tilt tiMBopcriorlMns. A 
bMu is akme possessed of 
kkgrn t e k o t t *■»•* Tirtaes wbkl^ oMinot be 
foond dseiHiBre. ^Rie god Bnhmi is 
odkd BS'^turq Khfa4-giM fkatt-pa, 
the god oi saBselhnt basis, for Brahmi 

of soperior monl msrils, 
and Imgetify. 

I , »  . I ' i 

^n, ^cv 1. io IIII9 penetrate; also i 
embnoBy estirnvteiy oompriee: n^mwm: 
^B^<| MnM»^ m aH p c§ kkjfMlhpa full 
o^ or qoite oovoed irifh, puitalet; «ifi«' 
ivon-Q iaR«r4.«wt Uyofr^w filled, impn^- 

nated with Ule; pT^V^'^'^iy^ TF ^^S' 
Yi^^-qm S« • §irq*irXir5 umumbered 
imineesiirmUe kalpoB ago; beyond what 
file miiidtt able toeatfanate. In grammar: 
Mpable of being jouQied to any word, mdn- 
nre of all; B^^'Q AJt y gt dk^^w a oomfraben- 
nye; eTBrywhare and nowhere; to be met 
everywhete; need alao in the way of 
oenmre (JS.). iFr«f*'*«^'B^^1'''W f ••!• 
adfiA-^^ ili0 inadom of Buddha 
auxnapaam the bomds of heaTen; 
^^'^9fm^9ff9f^'wm:^'m^tii'^^ the 

domain of knowledge b oommenmuate 
with the wry eodranity of the heavena. 
2. B^l^'«iUyafra0«HAiallHniiBeing; all- 

khyah^ha Hot me^^ igai^ am *HMM«f g|ig 
"Without relaxation the general dntiea of 
both parte of life (i*^., the eptritiial and 
♦waponJ) {Tig. U.). 

B^^^ ^yeM^f fk^ the AU-per- 
wading One, i^^ Yiahan. Hie eetaial 

#Mtf-^ WHW the Lord of Pleaeoiei^ 
Qwinda; H*W«r^f*f^ TkipJB druf^ 
pa tgro^wati tog; r5t-jfeTK*S« Tkth 
guH Uo^n $t^ e ie #^ ; ^**^*V^*lTH'* 
^ Qgo^mt4 0fM-fdW ^tru-eam g»o4 flie 
immovable (3^Ai— the killer of Kea'i{ 

ggi b&iui w^kan w »fO<i i «i«fir the 

sign S^rlvataa on the breaat of Yifhna; 
as •« |q K^ViRjn Pa#Ma»i lU-wa tog 
iuat f Ay<f ; S^f^f^nFV*^ Jh^hlfi 
tag-pa gifui dru^ eon ; ^T^f'^1^*V'|« 
Jfigig-gi tfo^a nabi-w §kgei; ffrror^'W 
V^S'*W Sbgor^^ta ktgya-pa ^pat-i^ idag ; 
nT«rq|e-«4i^ S/ug^a teu-pa nrih^ #JM 
wrm the dwarf ; he of the ten inoaq^ 
tions; ^•^•r^^S^'H^f^'^ Ghm gmm 
gnan dai §tob§'ldan ftiAi; ^'^j^'frmiif 
^'V'Sn MkhatldM rggoi^ipUhan tkJkor4o 
phgag ; |'*|^ WVP^ Ba^wa^ ffM^ 
pa4'4kar ndg svuVTW the lotna-eyed; 
Viahiju; •rMTSMy W«S Ma tdsag dM aj 
rtca 0tAiM»a; r'^'WV^TI'^rl'fltaa- 
t$kog§ gm$g§ can khgu^^fUhog Ifo. V^'Ot^* 
«re«T«f Ogah-^ hrgga^^ Wition^poki 
f^l I'rl^W^t*^*^ ^Byia-ityeff igra^ 
ko goh^er^n; *"lPrf^*^-*^ JTe-le^ 
Ito^a w^kar^^caV igra ; ^^^'^BfTHIW^ 
MHfi 9^^ Ehgab Iffmg^ mf^, f^ 
Yidmn or Nriaiiiiha. 

B^« Malhoka^W^ Jf«-aw duty, gene- B^H^<F^ Aya«4^ riM^»iiv«r 

nJ hmaneee (ol a man) ; work; l»g§»aH^ Oangoe. 

the fragxmnt Bandftl wood tree. Snakee 
generallj ooil romid f ti branohes ; imagee 
made of it f etoh very high prioae. 

B^H^'S^*** EhyalhtJ^g 4gah-ma^V^' 
Yishvu^B loTer or wife. 

f^ Vinu^B wife. Her diflerent names 
are:— ^••r*» Padfna-^an^ trwTWiiV; n'^iS 

B^*H*rt'"F'*'*lV khtfab^bjug dt^g%-pahi 
0ciMs|K'^ vmn-^hen aoonite {^hmn. 97). 

BT^l^'i^ Khyab-ttjug gnoQ f^«^ a 
plaoe of pilgrimage in Gaya> the temple 
where there is a footprint of Yishpu. 

WH^'S^S'*' khyalhtj^g gnon-^pa^MF^^^ 
fpoA-gyan lit. the ornament of gnun or |<^' 
%'^^tto^9y^ fM^iog^ an autumnal flower 
(Jifirton.) . 

gq'H?'^^'^ Khyah-tjag i$hafhpa the 
golden eagle on which Vishnu rides : B^' 
^iq-^'^j^q S'Qi^'9|'lk' the different names 
ol Gharuda, the conveyor of Vishnu — 1'^«' 
i'9 Sky€hrefi9 nu-ho the younger brother 
of the dawn; ^S'^^^'l'' So4 srvHt ikyet 

phyug^ t'9W^'9S S^tt-ft^^ar hye4 TRfWW; 
4^*|'RSq^ Qser-gyi bdab can tC'l^'** JfiJfo- 
rjebi mchu^ ^^q'«pi%^'^ Mdab-ehagi eeH-ge 
f -^f ' Mo bgro-za, Y^'^'% Hfe-^ia* f «- 

nng-bu, ^T*»w'f ^ JDug-l^'ofnB idan, «^|* 
bdul-ikyei, QSfl'»^'f^'li Mdaihohag^ tgyaU 

B^'HTI*^ Khyalhbfug g!»er or B'^'HT^ 
k?iyalhbjug na4y also ^'S'**'^ Ra-hu te ne^ 

168 BWI| 

epilepsy^ which is siq^posed to be nut or 
caused by the planets or the Hindu 
dsify Y ifSipu. 

B^^<| khyalhgM spread out slowly 
and uniformly in all directions ; to absorb 
all, asdoes gAnyatd ; voidity : B^'^l'^'^f*^'^' 

B^*^^ khydlhidag fk% the all-per- 
vading lord. 

1^'^^khyalhidoivnaiung everything. 

jgrmf^ iUfcyoi-ftrda/sB^'^l^ khyah-ifdal 
all abeorbxBg; all-encompaasing: f^'v 
iii|i^H^'|yq'«,«i'^'g«iSfkiii-tMi ikar-poVkhyaih 
itdal du-fpel widely diffused like the 

B^'*^''^^''^ khy^ihpar igrO'^ca to move, 
covering everything in the way. 

B^'^'i^'^IBii'q khydlhpar kdiin-pa f^rvfr. 
to envelope. 

fV^'iS khyab'byi4^^^ ru-t^ 1. n. of 
a vegetable drag. 2. met. the eye. 
3. met. the sun. 

PJI^ khyatni 1. yard, oourtyaid; 
gallery (C«.);=i(^'^ snUi-ga the hall of a 
house ; impluvium ; {khyam is tenned f ^ 
ra in a poor house). 2. open ; uncovered 
plaoe in the upper stories of a house where 
people sit for airing or to enjoy light, air 
and sun. ^l«i'^-^^r|«a*1V^'«r'»«<S' 
'^'S'B**^V^^^*^^ y^l-bhor tdt-naikyei- 
bu jv^i yoi-pa thanht-cai tikkar^gi kkyam 
9u ddui-fig bring to the courtyard a}l ihB 
people as many as there are in this oountiy 
to be my followers (K. i. HO to H4)^ 

B'^'fS kkyamirito4 upper courfyaid; 
Vf^'fPs kkyamMtnad the lower oourtyaid. 




0^'^ kkffami-ra open spftoe before 
a houBe or on the roof of a house uaed for 
ainjig, walking, or Bitting; alao play- 

Q khyi^ in Tsang pronounced as kyi 
or kihy V^:, ^T^, 'firi, ftwm hound, 
dog; h'^ khyi-nio a biteh ; S^i*^^ 
the dcig will bite; 8*'* ^^ ••^*^ ^*Ay» 
60t-iMiV 0ia-(|>/ii4 *' after oalling a dog^ 
do not beat him" is a Tibetan oouunon 
saying to explain that it is not proper 
to beat or insult an invited person even 
if he be a bad person. Aoo. to 8eh. 
B'«^;^« khyi^kai gnti a bastard dog, a 
cor; prob. an .'nferior breed is meant. B' 

rnami ^ti^i-par byei the tongue of the 
dog causes wounds to heal; B'^'^^'cmaX- 

^^ kh^-yi tiig-IP^^i ^ fo A6y»Vi the testes 
of a dog draw out thedead child (from the 
womb) ; 8-8»lS<W'|'^|«r%i|iH| khyi^pi 
Vai-poi hgrib mg-ia phan thf^ brains of a 
dog are useful for the cataract of the eye; 
?.""**BT^'**'^'*"' dog's bloo^ removes 
\&po«j : S^'-1'*>*'*'^*V''*^*\ a dog's 
flesh dries up water, §.«., heals dropsy; 
%*i-^^«r|ST|« "l^^^ khyi^i u^ (fahob 
Ihog fifcraiti gnon the burnt hair of a 
dog absorba swollen ulcers ; E'^'^^S^ 
^'tfsripwq-^ kfijfi-yi dtun-gyi^ gfhti 
^om ^arati-pa Bhi the exorement of the 
dog subdues evil spirits in one's ' body 
and soothes swellings; B'SY^^^T^Vr 
f^tr^VS ishyi4hug chu»yi§ kha-yi rui-rdoi 
gpoi the urine of a dog is a cure for ulcers 
in the gums (igman.) ; fi'^l^'^ khyi-yi 
ippo4^a the habits of the dog des- 
cribed by Mamirakta areas follows: *^' 
V^*<ima4-<fos0tf:|MVoraoiousne8ay V^'S'Vi 

€u1i'm4 chog contentment with a small 
quantity, ♦^ncK'^f^V*^ legi-par gfUi-hg 
always sleeping, ^vo^'n^ myur^war 9a4 
easily wakeful, ^w^ ipahla intrepidity, 
V'^ «fit^.jb faithfuhiess, ^K^ kttan^f 
firmness. h'W^^^ fihyi4M rgyt^g-lkai la 
a common saying, to cause a sleeping dug 
to get up by poking him with a stick, f .e., 
to rouse to action one who is silent. 

Syn. I^PhT* rd(htjeii taf^g^ntai 
"^^'i^ 89o4>ye4 ; ^^V^*^^ Moi^aH; ^'^^ 
^^^ ae^gebi r$g§; |-*««s ikye-^aki 
eha-^an ; I'^^q r*» f^aH-wa ; ^k'9[^^' 
V^ grot-gi gcan-^mn ; i*5 fehkkyi{^ion.). 

^*3F ^yi-V^ n. of a place and 
valley in Tibet. 

dufi-gi tkag^pa^an n. of a vegetable pos- 
sessing medicinal properties for healing 
wounds and sores ($fnan. 350). 

h^S khyi^tkai the barking of a dog. 

8'r^ khyi'khaH dog kennel. 

B'9 I : khyi-gu in TT., bud (of leaves 
and branches, not of blossoms) ; the eye 
(of a plant) . 

B'5 " •• ft pttppy ; a dog. 

1^*^ Kyukyon. of a place, also of a 
fabulous country to the east of Asia, prob. 
Kamschatka (/. ZaA,). 

^^tA Khyi-^anjo^ye n. of a Buddhist 
teacher of Tibet. 

S A9 khyi^m lit. dog's seal ; a mark 
burnt in ; stigma. 

h'%'^ khyi-drng the poison of hydro- 
phobia (&A.). 

8'>^V<| khyi n^du^a patrizig of dogs. 

8*qii'I^ kyi-pal jar in W.^ BUtum 




B'B'^ kkifi-pul a dog keimel ; dog-hooM 

&'V^ kk^iPfoH (kkib^fuHg) a jabkal. 

ji*^ kkfi-iru a Tioioati Uiiag dog 

Vl^y inr 1. a hmtiman; one who kills 
wild animals by ohasiiig them with dogs^ 
fto. 2. tv» IDrdia ^xm a tribe in 
Nepal who live by hunting. 

8'f^ khifi'ibraH a flea ; Ut. dog's fly. 

*ft'X khyp^no bitoh or female dog: 
«*S"^'B*V«*H8*'^'« "the woman 
having transmigrated into a red bitoh" 

fi'^^ khyumifoA a rabid dog ; also 
eanine madness ; hydrophobift. 

jl'* khffi^ahoA a dog-house. 


khyp-ht$he4 ^mm the baker 
or seller of parohed ricoi millet, fto. 

•f ^*1| khyifnihka the remainder 
of anything out or chopped ofl. 

1%^^ khyibubi-khyibu, fi'|S| khyu 
phrug or S'5 y-M^i*, puppy ; pup : S^'iSy 
M^'cA'C^'^ khyi-bu-a-khyibu ibyuH'tcabt 
tshuMu %PiiwiipiPnK41it^ in the man* 
ner of a puppy being brought forth. 

1^'^ khyi^a ohasing, hunting, espe- 
cially of a single huntsman, not of a 
party ; in W. khyi-ra la ea-fe^ to go hunt- 
ing: ^'^'•^MP''*^ khyUra la ohagt-^an one 
who is fond of huntiog ; sportsman. 

^•f5I'(JJ'^ *Ayi-to ifcr-ri=H?a| set Van 
«f^ the tree Acacia caiechu; also Terra 

^'^khyi^iffmtmii!t9 a flea. 

H^'^C khyufM a tree-drug which cum 
diseases of the lungs and the eye. It 
also expeotoratiye {Med.). 

j^'Ufq-q kkyi^O'tifyab'pa the bite of a 
dog : E'^'^^'^l khyieo ialhfe the dog will 
bite— Ladak dialect. 

%^ khyig, V. ^'^^ ikhyig-pa. 

13^ AAyi^bieadth of the hand with 
the thumb extended to form a span. 

J^9\ khyim 1. resp. r^ khab iJV, WlWK 
a home, residence, dwelling-plisoe: ^^ 
khyim^a at home ; ^^^tAyim-^ at home, 
in the house ; B«i'4S^-XrQ'^ khytm^idag riu- 
pthohe mv'ffkKm the ideal householder (of 
the B'dddhists). 3. x\fk the signs of 
aodiac; E*rQj-^ Mycm-ftcM-^i^ n^vrfii 
the twelye signs of the sodiao; TffilfPf or 
E*'S ^'^ khyim-gyi bkhor-h the aodiac ; 
^y9n lag the ram; «^, |^ glaH the bull; 
f'HPff ^^'^ bkhrig-pa (husbandL and wife 
in union) the twins; n^^, T'1'9 karJca- 
ia the crab ; f%T, ^'^ eeH^ge the lion ; 
n^rr, V^ ha-mo the virgin ; gwT, W^ etati 
the balance ; ^rf%W, (T'i edtg-pa the scor- 
pion ; W^ ^ 09Atf (or bow) the ardier; 
^^WKj 4't^ chu^etin the sea-monster (oapri- 
com) ; fm, S'^'^i hum-pa water-pot ; water- 
bearer ; and 4V^, 9 m fish. Besides these 
there are mentioned twenly-four minor 
signs of the sodiac such as WTHW, ^f^^V^ 
mibu thoA the dwarf ; wvim, I'lA'Qirq &- 
icdbi tum-pa, ^^^ bbrin-^gar^ fto., wMoh 
raise the Ust of the signs to thirfy'Siz 
(jBT. g. S 199)' Ace to Ja. there is rnors- 
^over a division into twenty-seven lower 
mansions much in use, t. €'i||^ jtyys- 
§kar. 8. double hours ; the time of two 
hours ; the time of the passing of a sign 
of the sodiac through the meridian (itt.). 

4 balo or curale xoimd the inn or moon 
(Ob.). 6. i^ymbolio nuBMnd 21 (/i.)- 

B^|« ki^ytm-fii^l uwm don^BBldofttad; 

|n^*4 kk^m ikyotfHMi to kaTe a 
booBohoId; to gain a liToUliood (J3.) ; to 
gkiisk to home and look after it. 

jNi |infH^Ayi4-iM an eonnoh; alaofffMt 
a domeatie alaTB ; one belonging or related 

ia0ac|V*i 9kg0i49hal a groYO or garden 
attaohed to a house (4filoii.). 

«*«!• iye-fV * ff^ speoiea of dook 

ra imv^ yard, oonrtyard. The ^^ 
Ay-m of a temple or tomb is oaUed ^'« 
tkkor^ or Vf^ is^bkkor. 

BfI'^^'B thyim-gfi mr^Jm (lit. the gem 
of the hoii8e)s=i^'* Mgnm-fmi or ii^Xtf^' 
9S frfdiflii eio»' fiMf ftfi# and <vi^ ^K' wa 
li«rHMiJ rulfa a lamp, light (Jfifoii.)- 

dah or porboo. 

j^l^erH kkfim^ M Mi hooiehold ; 
honae-lDBeping ; iirming. 

BF9 khgwhSa a whale; a fish of the 
liae of a house ; a mjthologioal fish {8eh.). 

iiiivm the perfeet ideal of alay aabjeel 
of a king and second only to flie ^^'^ 
^'0*% kkpim^idag rithpo ck$. 

I^aq khpim4M or E«r^«i kj^fn. 
ilMf hnshand; frequently also wife ; ft*** 
«ii|'9cii kkfimthama §M^a to give in 



marriage ; to gi^e away a woman for a 
wife; ^mU kkyim ihtA-mo wife; hoose- 
wife (Ot.); *E«raa-«wiir^a nf^nmr a 

deroted wife : ^^'Sv^'E^^'^^'B^ lot yon 
and me be married. 

Syn. E'*4^ ^yo^g; '^'^ imtMhi 
wfc* ftso^toiM {Mian.). 

hf^^'h^'i khytm doM Uytm-na honse 
to honse; eaoh in his honse. 

pa the swallow {Mtlan.). 

h^'^ kkpim-^g nvdk a house- 
holder ; a master of the honse; hnshand ; 
owner of a honse ; a dtiaen. Yeryfreq/in 
the older writings E''''W%^'' Vf^^'K 
^'fi I UlMPiniiiliai fV the house-holder 
dass is like a great Bdla tree. 

E»i'4S^'^^''9ir«^ khgim^dag drag^l am 
a rough nnonltoxed householder. 

E*ras^' W|^ kkpim^iitag ipal^bgln^ ^ 

4N[ii n. of a householder who was dev<^ 
ted to Buddha (JT. ko. « SSS). 

t^^^'^ kkgim-idagHno n^m^ a 
house-wife; also a female householder^ 

Syn. ^H«*«i h*^/ 9kmghmai E^^Df'si 
kkpimtdiin^ma; pa'^l^ei kkab^drin-mi ; 
^T^« rtg§ |ty(Hl-im; ^isi n>|.*yi. 
ffia; E«'«M'« **yiVw-Way-«a (Mian.). 

lisard (JVilioii.). 

|sr^-^-a iAyiVft-noi bguH^wa^^hi 
V^'V^h'^'^^'^tAeg^eken igaiMM Inm^ 
fM-f^i khma a leaf of the Bodhi*tree 

fiw^i^n kkgim-^nai, B««-^-a1|«^^^- 
trE^i'^^ irasi-S0^' righb^hugi goig fa. 
Myjsi (Eaaf ii^w^n aoo. to Brfthnumdoal 
religion, the worldly life, a house-holder's 


B***^ khffim^ laymaa ; muTried man : 
S«i*q^-Sii|«'t|*|^'q kkyim^paii phyog^-su 
tbyin^a to give away to a layinaii : S^'ft** 
q2t'4^'«i|'§'l|fli*R5^-q phpii khyinhpa^i tshul 
can^gyi tnal^hbyoT'pa a devout man or yogi 
who lives outwardly in the manner of a 

j|«rq5'|'^'«r«< kfiytin^aii fpoi^ can he 
who betakes to the life of yogi ; ^^'i'^^^ 
^ gihof^nu gduH^drug an epithet of 
Eumfira Sha4&nana (Jfrton.) : |«-ci$'«wq- 
•ry^'^ do not revert to the life of a 
layman (4f^on.). 

g«rq*f4|*iA-^3S khyim^a fiag-paii 4pya4 
m^{km{ the Bdenoe of discerning the fit 
pUee for the residence (of a householder). 

|^«i*q^'^wq kkytm-par gnoi-pa WT^t 
Wf^ one that abides in his house ; one 
living in his house ; a worldly man ; he who 
lives as a laymaai. 

S«r|iq khyinhphub living in divided 
families {K. d. m 7S). 

^^i khyim-bya (khyttn^ha) 9^, 9^ 
domestic fowl ; cook ; hen ; poultoy . 

Syn. '^m^'^^'Vi MiOhkyi gUug-phui) 
5'^'*^ mythHan-mei ; l^'^fVfh^ %ui-gi 
ragi urogi\ V*^^^'I|S tho-fxUli %ka4\ »i*^H' 
ff\ fgtBhan'^no ikafi f^*^^'^ ide-hgichn ; 
^^r|srA^ yoUf-sliim mig; ^^'S^ flf^oft- 

iy€4;^^^ipheliye4f ^^a^'HJf^S nor- 
itfii'V^ffiMMin; X\l'| b<Hhkyiide; fq^r 

m^ inthwar igra-igrogi ; ««')'«^ sait^-si- 
cmni «pr<A*^rt'9S pagt-pabi gtsugphuf; 
••*J*^ ipUhan-mo rig; ^Q^Miia-^ 
rkai^paii i^han^ha can (JHHofi.). 

|«rg-wtar« khyim-bya igthhal-lu a yeiy 
large species of fowl which is also called 
ll^V'fKiirq. The bile of this bird is believed 
to be a cure for poison. 

B^i^'lS'Q khyim^yaii n^yo^-pa the 
four habits of the oodc aoc. to Mantrakfi 

162 51 

aie the following :—*•«« ^^^'^ tho-raii 
UtA dad crowing before dawn ; mq <r^f^ 
ithalhpa daU'ldan always fighting; ^fH""^ 
r'W*|««*<r^'9^ gnen-la Mo-soi tw>m§'par 
bye4 dividing food equally with his friend; 
ljfliw^1[^'Vq^|^ niela rab-gnon iie-«rar 
ipyod always keeping the hen under 
control and chucking her. 

^^^ khyim'tshai a family ; a house- 

^<rsi2ii khyinh-ipihei a neighbour ; B*r 
MXil'^^qc^'^l^ khyim^Uhei duhpa ^toA- 
ibrel nearness of residence; neighbour- 
hood so near that the smoke from the fire- 
place of one bouse xmxes up with that of 
another; ^Tsilviq khyim'^hehpa t^male 
neighbour; B'^'Sifci**! khyim^i^Mtet'^na a 
female neighbour. 

||*r^^ khyim^hag a sodiacal day. 

^si'l khyirn'Mfa a zodiacal month. 

ira to get married, to be given in mar- 
riage on the female part (/d.). 

gsroi'^^q khyim-la shen-pa a lover of 
home ; one attached to his home ; home- 

g«iqi('^ro khyifiMun V>yiM^ 
fjiqr vituperating or blaming the se 
state or a domestic abode. 

B*i'« kkyim^ ^Wlffiw homedo 

gsrli*9^*q|'*q khyim 90^or b^iMni 
nftnO^qi one who creates disssnsions in 
a family* 

^•i'4|i(^'w khyim'gBar'nia^'^^^ hag^ma 
^^^[^:9^ lag-bd^in-ma, also f^HlV* 
Ihan^ig fpyod^ma a bride ; wife (JGIoii.)- 

g kyu flock ; herd: 1T^{( %*?» kkpu 

a flock of sheep; %^'^ tto¥ khyu a herd 
of horses; ^W'tg gnag-gi khyu a herd of 
cattle; t^B byabi khyu or *V tMhogt % 

5***^ I 

fiook of birds. S'^wpi'ci Myn giogi^^ to 
ooUeot or gatW in flocks {Soh.) ; §'|^'4 
kkgu ftyoiffHra to keep; tsnd a flock 
or herd; oompanj; band; gang; troop: 
*B miMfu a company of mm (Ot.); 
9*5 ii#-«io-*Ayu a bevy of girls ; ^•iTB 
^isMir-My« a troop of soldiers. B*<l^^'4 
khyu^oi ibu^-pa to exdude from tbe flock 
oar company ; Bf *^^^«i kh^ §na kdt^n-pa 
togo before; to take tbe lead of a troop or 
of a flock; Bya wr^ft^ iUyiMV hgrogi 
ma^Ffo yellow birds; many oompaniolis 
in eaeb flock {A. SJi). 

B'sdl^ Mytf-fMAo^ Sff, wm, fjft, 
«m, fv«^ 1. chief ; king; tbe bull ; Yishnu. 
2. fn'^vrq sfoHM 0ftfm^ the third 
month of the Tibetan year generally 
corresponding with ApriL 

Syn. ^S^^ ^ptn4'tha0Ml Mm, ^; 
W^ nag-pa; ^i #*nri|.sfe; ^w^ mpoh 

inugt; ^Tl ^rug-uh; fv^vm nbhwa 
gsum^pa, the third month of the Tib. year 

jsrt^-^q khyu-fiufkog igroi-pa^W 
•i^TQ hya^wi^P^ nm^m a kind of swal- 
bw (JKVofi.). 

=V^'|T*T*' iwaai^hyag ehM^po vn«r 
n. of Mahideva (jKfloM.). 

foa trgyai-p^^ or f^f ^|c;-q ftan^ula UrUlrpo 
ibe eighth month of the Tibetan year 
coneeponding with November (SMu). 

Q-fObi-ii^'q khffu-n^g ipUhan-pa 1. 
VTIV OBA with the marks or signs of a 
bnll or one who canies the bull ensign. 
2. n. of a drag called imr (the plant 
Joitioa genderu99a)j which is nsed for 
pori^ring the blood. 

163 5PM 

Bf « Myii lt<H00 Mft^ with a beUy 
rasembling that of a boll. 

B'^V*'« khyu bAtHm w^ coUeoted in 
a bstd or flock; also heap, multitude; an 

B*f^ kkyn^Han, v. ^^^ iiktHoa ten 
ftlT'* ^ tamarisk {Mton.). 

IS 9^ ^h^hf^t •rrooeously used for 
K^^khu^ug, n. of a laigebird of sweet 
note, which, according to the Tibetans, 
migrates in summer to cooler regions and 
in cold weathar vstonu to the warmer 
Bones. In Jd. BlTll probably signiflea 
the note of the £iack Indian cw^. 

S^ kkyug, T. ^B^'o bkhyug-pa. 

B^I^^I khgug-k/^g ftl'^^B^'^^-fiS 
ghg^gi bo4 kkgitg-khgug bge^ a lig-ng 
flash of 

5T<« khgyg tHmm^'im ttg-tiam ot%v 
*^ or ^nim mlhUam a little; a Uttle 

fiC I : kkgtd herd, multitude*. 

JIC n: {Sch. alw khy^^mo) the ^enw^ 
, mythical chief of the featiured race; 
the golden Mgle: B^'|^ khffui'tkyug a 
kind of gem said to haye been brought 
from the Bumeru mountain by Garuda 
and Tomited by him: jJ^'f^r'Nu-^'V 
asmcA'stf^ khyuH-tkfjug dug$og§na4km 
tifom^-pabi fMojT, the khy^t^ffcyug (the 
eagle's Tomit) is the chief remedy against 
the effects of poisonous drugs: B^*^^ 
Ihir^asm khyui-gi Mfi-mo| ih notf 
tgomi the too of an eagle is used as an 
antidote for leprosy. B^1Y|T^^'I^* 
•^'A'r « khynHphrug fkgug^i idu^ tM- 
chag pahi kha-^hu the watery substance 
Tomited by locusts ; a mystical ecqoeesion 
(JTM. i). 


gc|ir|«l i: kkpui tHor^ikyet \. 
infTmi tiie ftnt-bom of heayeii; the one 
that was bom before garu^ai an epithet 
of Arona, the charioteer of the stin. 2. s 
1'^* ikya-rei dAWi. 8. IS'^-^'«i( khyui 
fOff'Can the early morning which advanoee 
with the wings of an eagle ; a name of 
TajrapiQi BodhiatUtva, 

the oharioteer of the sun (4fiKot».)- 

B^*9^*^ khffuH'thur can^^* gthcha or 
^W^ go-khrab ooat of mail (Jfiton,)* 

^'^''^ khyuii^der daws of an eagle 
{Ibd.; (k.); (Garada-olaw) the n. of amedi- 
dnal root: B^'^^'WH kkyuH^der ikat- 
mo the white speoies of this yegetable drug, 
•0 oalled on account of its resemblance to 
the daw of an eagle : B^'I'^'I^Q khf^td" 
^thrimuff^ the dark brown spedes of the 
xooty in appearance like the daws of an 
eagle. Both these roots are nsed to 
neutralise snake poison, &c. 

S^'Q khptUl-po manj collected or assem- 
bled together. 

BK^^3S ^y^^'ipy^ ^ vaam round 
basket of reed (0!9.)« 

^j^^JT^^^J^U^ttHigonpa monas- 
tery in the vaUey of Ftoam in Tsang. 

BK.'^<i MyulUrtf is said to be a large 
cylindrical basket, the same as hm^m 

K'fl khyu4^ ^ftiti^ to worship, 

IJ^'lf kkyai-mo 1. 9'^ tta^ha$ the 
equ^ents of a horse. 2. rim of Tessd 

164 ^1 

igaH-po entire ; full. 

gV^*Q khyur mH^pa to swallow; 

to eat the food without diewing, in the 
manner of birds, snakes and fish : B^'^ 
^*li^'t khffur miif^u iod-iie solbrisg 
himseU to be swallowed. 

g^ khyu9 wall side (in Tsang) f (Jd.). 

|^*Q khyt'pa n^ wide. 

^*2f, 8*' lm4%ha diildren. 

Q*^ khye^ma n. of a disease {Med.; 

H^ I- khye4 n. of a tribe in Tibet 

^^ 11: pers. pron. thoa,you; is the 
ordinary resp. form of 8^: ^^kkyei^ag, 
plur. of i^ khyti^ is generally used in 
addressing lamas, but sddom in addresBiiig 
superiors, sudi as parents, undes, and 
brothers ; is used to those senior in age, and 
sometimes contemptuoudy. ^^^khjfeh^ 
is common cdloquially for hhjfe4\ ftS'^ 
ftV«t»w, %S* you or you all: S^fr 
%S^^ ig^'Uh^l kkyei gnii you two 
noYice monks; ft\**T*«' f^'^-^it wifl 
be as you (all) think. 

f^^ khyen^e in Parang he; ahs 

* S^ My^fs^ kk0bi cover. 

^^khyems:^ khem a shovd; 8<^' 
i^i^ to shovel away ; to oast out with a 
diOTel; ^9f%'^^9^ kkym^gyi tda(-mathe 
blade of adiovel (Ja.): ft^lv^ khgtm- 
gyi-yu^wa the handle of a shovd {0$.)\ 
f ^ gru-kkpem^ «'l" ekihkhfem o«r; in 
TT. S^ftw i^a^l iAyem iron q^e; *9" 




Moop; d^9 kkyemJm a spoon (C7«.)* 

O^ kkye^m fRV, also wmiv, fins 1- a 
boy; an infant chfld. 2. a youth, esp. 
in ]kang4^n. 

f^fe0Mr-A»Ma^»tf#^ iha tender shoots 
of kaTBs (4rA>a.). 

bf^wa the deliTery of a oliild; ohild-birth. 
In Kahgywr and Tanfyir fti«lfarq A*y«iii 
9(M»Ni:=9*|«*qii« iiysf^thebiifhof a 
male ohikL 

S^'JF ^^y^Mf^jf^A one who is 
spaoiaUy aathoriasd or lesponBible to make 
payment or reoeire deposits in money or 
in kind in a Jong ordisfaict : ^^T^'|^*^^ 
J^TV^rvr^n r4t^m ehephmH rigi 
Si90^9do4 kkyer^rkyai na§ W%^a all 
prooeeds (ooQeotions) large or small should 
be ooQeoted by the offioer resident in the 
Jong («««•.)• 

^^VF^khy^l i^hughpaiL of apostm^e 
in ymtt\ a mode of sitting: ^^^|Mr|'ik' 
t duf ^ Mi iyi mi or f^f^V^'^^'^ rtmf^ 
t^ogfmr td^f^ (4f«ofi.). 

^tkjfo orB'VMy^)^ a hnsband; j|* 
iS'Q Mjfo ftfif|M» to aot as ahnsband; also 
to take airifs: MfofSaki kkyo ndhy^d^ 
mm if yon do not many me (t/S). 

9'^ Uyo-ya hnsband; also emphatioally 
man, as K«-^>^v|-^ |fty#f^ Ai 
Otr-fa kkpihga y «a, I, a Tartar, am a man 
(as distingnished from *^^^rninatft people). 

B'^Q kkyo-if^hfo a hero. 

S'>f khpo^pko hushaDd : Sv)'S*lf'^')*H 
ITS khyoi'kffi khyo^pho de ehe-Oig fUhlm 
what like is your hnsband (ana.). 

B*^«^ kkp<htm4^, ^^WT, fwwi a 

8'^ kkjfo^re to stand ereot, upright 
{Tig. 61). 

S'4^ kkyo^g fP!irV hnsband and 
wife; a married ooiq[»le; same as aM'V 
t^k^ko or w« Asol^Ni (Z;if . r 4). 

8*4^^^ kkffo-^g 0M| 9i|[^ the plaoe 
"vHiere a manned wmjle pass their honey- 

B^«l|'?rK kky^4kci (abbr. of 8'i »*f a- 
(« and It tkat) in ^. a yonng man; 
a youth (Ja.). 

BT^ f^lhpo crooked; ourted; bent 
(0!i.) ; also ounning (J8.). 

8^ »*yoyi, *wm pkeki^m ^, 
ftWf 1* a mdtm bhair, palankeen; also a 
soailold (C$.). 2. litter, bier (J8.). 

•8^ **jww tWW a swing (8ekr.; 
Kdlao. T. lJi6). 

MV* ikyogtpam^fi tkeg^pa a vehicle 
or oonTeyanoe. 

B^Myot-jk iftlKHf, or fk'^ *ikH|.i«i, 
in ooOoq. V8^ fita-Myoll, one day's 

BS **J^ P«*- P«»a> and pars., thou, 
you — ^is the ordinary form of addiess 
to inferiors or to equals: 8vl kkgo^Jfgi 
your, thine: Bv^^ Myo^ (w^.91 your, of 
you all: BV* kkfoi49ko at isv^ kkgof^ 
mami you, ye: 8^"^ kkyo^raH thou, 
you, yourself^Teiy common in the ooUoq. 
of C in place of the simple Mye^f, 

BV4^ khyc^ugi f^fir a pair; pair- 
ing, V. jr«^ kkyo^fug. 


g8j khytm, ^troif, if, vtif the meosnro 
or dimensionB, axea, extent, size; width; 
cirounif erenoe ; height : this • term can be 
applied to things material or immaterial ; 
-^'B^'S^'S^ fe^-byaii khj^cn-kun the whole 
extent of learning or knowledge ; ^•f 5' 
8^'S^ the extent of the void space or sky. 

S^'l^ ftAyon-f ^7 altogether; all taken 
together: ^cw5^-J«iWfc|PW $(M-ra« 
kkyad-'igril go9 inamt cotton doth for wicks 
all together {Bisiu). 

f «S*'^ *Ayo«-cA^-«ra firvW, ^fnm broad; 
very widely spread. 

S^'^*< khffon-fdom all together; sum 
total ; contents ; aoc. to Os. narrow extent. 

il«i'^^ kkyan-noi thoroughly; gl'^^^ 
^«I«^ an out-and-out sinner; i5^''S«'»>S'^ 
not at all (e/a.). 

QcH'g*! kyom-khyom oblique; awry; 
irregularly shaped. 

g^'25 I : to move totteiingly ; tostum- 
ble ; be dizzy : defined in a natire author as 
i|i^ds-q;^^<r|i^vai«n^f-^-«if 'a-^|[«i " mov- 
ing as if one went with a hungry belly and 
withoiit ijtrength"; *Aq»i8»i'lii(-^'«ifv'' 
^ci'S^ to walk as an old or drunken 
person; ^'W^'lvrS'^ Uhai^i na-nof 
kha khyor speaking irregularly as in a 
feverish delirium ; Vl'?\'5'^'*' (i^gi inoi 
khyor^wa bobbing as a wooden vessel. 

g^*Q n: as much as fills the hollow 
of the hand; 5"^'^'^ khyor-wo gaU a 
handful (of anything) ; 5'^***'X khyar-wa 
do two handsf ul. 

gW'P khyohca, v. '^■i«» bkkyohoa, to 
be brought or earned or S^'i khyoi-ma. 

^ I : kkra {fhd) ww« 1. a cheat. 2. a 
kind of hawk or falcon ; sparrow-hawk used 

166 SI 

for hunting ; fjl^ ftM'wV^'^irv^s. khra- 
pi 9g<hna9 sa-ion hckag-pa isrnH the egg 
of the hawk is curative of the disease of 
involuntary discharge of the semen ; B*^ 
«(4|'f^'3i'^'iN the feathers from a hawk's 
tail remove femje diseases ; H'^ w8«'|«* 
*''Wy^*'P' khra-yi brun-gyii dctuiit'fa 
rnag'tu igitgs the excrement of the hawk 
prevents accumulation of puB in a boil; 
|g&4ra(i^*^*49^'ZiS'4|i^^'^^']q a hawk's eye 
overcomes 'all demons that produce 

Syn. ^S« M|«iS«i« 'WiriWAayi dM-«M; 
^'9k.ji rt-Jofl-sa; B'B bya-khra; '^'^ gyo- 
tea {Mnofi.). 

^ n: m of a tribe in Tibet (Vai, 
kar. 160). 

^ ni: WNt 1. a lie, falsehood; also 
a liar. 2. n. of a Ifdga B&ja (snake king). 

P IV : or S't khra^ma {iha-fna) a letter ; 
S^'H ikye^^chra a letter with a present. 

HB khra-khra (tha-tha)^^'^ k/ira-vo 
party-colour (Jviov* ^^)- 

1i%'^ kkra khro-can (jfha^^o-^ 
defined as i*^'S'^ ^^'^'l!^*^'^ a* passionate 
or wrathful individual. 

S'A khra-rgyu variegated colour: f^ 
••*S'^Vf ''•VI^''5H-|-s^-^i; fntMi lag fW 

Ikai la ikar-po khra rgyu 4goi fin. 

g'Q}«i khrO'krgyan variegating an 
ornament (amulet or bracelet, Ac.) with 
precious stones, 

HI^ khra-sgrigi (fhrn^g) ff^^V' 
I^Cd khra-rim i^hin igrigi^ anangiiig 
in variegated colours with rows of ta^ 
quoise, corals, pearls, &o. 

S'f ^*% Ekra'4naJc0'ru n. of a piaoe 
near ^i Sen in Tibet. 



R'2f «rii^ (^Ad^) ^, mw, tp|«, 

fv^v, vf^ 1. siftDj ooloined, with one 
pgedofnJTMtting colour as in ohinti; party* 
ocdoored, m in the case ol oaitle and 
wild a nimals , sooh aa a tiger or leopazd, 
and in Urda. In STl fiutrJchra, the 
white iikar) is supposed to predominate. 
In ^P^'H ^sMT-JpAfffy red piedominates. In 
the comnum saying IT%|irV')'*i'^ ^^'W 

iUr»40 M^-Av yotf, the tiger is party- 
eoloored extemall j, hut man is so inter- 
nallj— the meaning, of oonrse, is that 
it is diffioolt to know a man eyen bj 
tlw traits of his mind. 2. Aoo. to 
JB. a distinetion is to be drawn 
between kira^ito and kkru^a^ the first 
sgnifying only two-ooloored or piebald, 
and the second party or many-coloured. 
We haTe not found this distinction our- 
sehea. The ajgnificatjona ol the rarious 
compounds of B khra haTe all a xefarenoe 
toibe peculiar efbot produced on the eye 
by the blending of two or more colours 
together, especially when seen from a 

distance ;* so rlr* iUfw MUHfw is said of a 
ninbow« tinted meteoTt etc.; W^mH kkra 
Um^me or W^^ kkra Iham-m ot a similar 
phun ommo n ; W^^ kkra ekenHfkem of 
a flight of birds : |rair*-||lsr* kkra ekam^ 

9e kkra ckeBhnm or K^^ kkra ckenhMisL C. 
=**'Pr|^'* ir&Mfi kkra ^frit^ in Ld. 
Suoh compounds haie also assumed the 
character of an adyarb, as in n*^ kkra^ 
nm^, together; altogettiar. 

H'*l kkranm t a register, index. 2. 
a judicial decree. 8. a kind of grain, ^ 
ikru wnw. 4. ace. to Vai. iLm9ljftim' 
^ 9nmr^9^ a kind of barley grain, 

growing and ripening rapidly within 60 
days, ▼. ^IP ffffo-khram. 

Bv^ip kkra^mofiiii fffront in jewel- 
lery or lacquer work whm there is a 
Tari^ating with two colours. 

K^ kkra-mar a kind of biscuit m*^^ 
in twisted cross ribs and painted red, 
These are given <mly to Goyemment 
officials at state dinners in Tibet. 

WtkAra^rti^ a kind of biscuit or pastry 
made in the shape of a grating. 

BV Miv-sir a spodes of eagla (&sA.). 

ri kkra^Mla (tka^)^fv^^ gh^^ 
^Uhpa or 4 VI-^I^B ipyii'tia tffrttirpo the 
second Tibetan month corresponding with 
March (^«tf.). 

B'^ kkra^A a striped long scarf. 
This is also caUed «flr^BU kkra^n 
k/ira^rit^ the auspicious long striped 
scarf which is generally attached to flag 
poles:— M«9-par pkoJfrai ti$$^nai kkra* 
rH dot dar-pkan duU daH rol-mo 9og§ ibro^ 
moreoyer they exhibited from the top of 
the palace long scarrai and pendant silk 
and played on trumpets and cymbals, ftc. 

■'^^1 kkra fig^t in jf^Jj^^ff 
anay {J. JEM.)* 

B'^^m-^n kkra-.^mi m n. of a bird 

H^ kkrag^ag) f M^i lku^^fhkal, resp. 
'f^ ^W^i €rt%B, KW, iH^ blood : 4^'Bi 
ji<i4-Mf«v blood of child-bed. f^Jn»kai^ 
kkrag or vulgarly Uf/^ d$aMskrag 
signifies Uood of the menses; ^|^*B^ 
0iAa4-Mrdf^ healthy and nourishing blood 
(Cb.); TSB^ naiMrag bad or diseased 
blood. In Bikfcim kkrag is prononnoed 
kkgak. BT1*S kkrag^^oi n. of a medi- 
cinal horb which stops bleeding (1M«) : 




BT^*S«' to Btop bleeding; BT*S«» 
oeflntion of bleeding: ^^m'^'^'^^ in 
TT. I feel my blood throbbing, e.g.^ from 
ascending a steep liill. m*^^^ flowing 
of the blood, generally applied to men- 
struation ; RY^Q clotted blood ; gore (Cs.). 

Syn. V^m rmo-iAydi; i^'^^SS far 

1^ ^han-iinun fkyet] B^'W^ khyab' 
gnai; ^^ m^JM; 9*')^ tui-fkyen H' 
<m'^wq fnuhloi ibalhpa (JHMon.). 

W%^ kkrag-^kem^ EF^ spaH^i n. of a 
T^etable medicine very useful in stopping 
bleeding {Qfnan. 86). 

1^*^ MragJchrig {fhag^Mg) fkipf 
also supr 1. one hundred thousand 
million, or an indefinitely large number 
((?«•); this number has twelve figures; 
IWfi^'H' kkrag-khrig eh^hpo inrf^T^ir 
IS thirteen figures, of. S%^'^ ikrigi' 
L in vulgar language m'M khrag- 
is expressed as B'^'fi'^ khra^gi 
kkrugi and means moving and oscillating 
about : ^'^H*'»^HTfiT<«'«*S«*^ de^na^ 
fdMlf ehen^po kkrag-khrig Uam patl me^^ 
par then, (in) a large ship which did not 
even rolL 

IPrfi^l^*^ khrag-ikrig ffiallHPasfi^'| 
P^lhtn^ * mirage; an optical illusion 


la^g^ khrag kkrug {fhag^hug) all in 

disorder; promiscuous state ; like a troop of 
fighting men, or like the loose leaves of a 
book when out of order {Zdm.). 

gfffKf^^ khrag-bkhrugi agitation ; flut- 
ter ; orgasm of the blood (Sch.). 

^*|^ khrag-khrog ifhag^hog)^ y. fPV 
g^ kkrag-khrug. 

in^^^^ khrag-ife khrug^ (fkag^ 
lAi^^-trtf) when two men do not agree 

each oher, fheie is said to be fhag^ 
tkug-ge among them — a&Iling-aati dis- 

HT)^ hhrag^tguun liHInpOT the run- 
ning of the blood in the veins; cixoolation. 

n^A^'!; khrag chag^-tia a blood fared 
horse, 1.0., a real horse, opposed to a 
metaphysical one (Mil). 

W^^ khrag-Hhd 1. a dass of teeri- 
f ying deities of the Bon and Hmtrik 
Sdiools. 2. 1^*^ fi^tf-m-m ^nmV; 
Myrohalmm etMiea {$imm. SOi). 

tn*<^^'<^ khrag bthMH-Vm the worm 
that drinks blood. 

nT^^'l^'S khrag-iihui srut-Ai* a leeoh 


W^ khrag4(M WIW tiger; 3fK:^' 
^9r^ip:3j^' fiH-^mar ram gf$r fsd n. of 
a red tree; the red pine called 1^;a 
species of mahogony (Mt^on.). 

tn'tr«i khrag^ykm ma described as e^' 
ASi'sitf^S^f r«i a woman at her monthly 
period (4IMoii.). 

fn'>^'|*^ kkragnfor fftyMM a botaniosl 
term applied to the leaves of planls 


in*w *AiYr94Ms«*«*%9 chhtoii4a 

a name of the river Sita (4f4M.). 

A^'X ifcAraf-n) clotted blood. 
B^U JUrefh/M a dot of blood. 

f)^^if*%*q khrag-foi ^e-wa pleOiorio 

{Mid. ; c/a.). 

HT^ khrag^for hemorrhage; Uoody- 
fluz {Med. ; Ja.). 

fn'^ khrag-ifal flooding after child- 
birth ; profuse mensturation : 8 If 'f^'A^*iA*«K* 
^^* J1*N HT*1^^*^ itstopsthefloodinf 
and internal spasms in the Uood disdisrgs 
of ahealthy woman: Ml rag^fnhkrag. 




1^* kkraH {fhmng\ t. ''IP^ qdcAitrf. 

|^*q i^mtfiw (^Aa^fMi) •tratohed out: 
BS'l^-i^-« kkra^for %d$i^pM to tit with 
the kgt sferotdied out (Ja.). 

gq Mra» (^Aa») vf^immfi ihield; 
buflUer; ooet of mail. The ooet of mail 
need in Tibet end Bhutan la genorallj made 
of izon rings or thin diaks mamiil>1iiifl the 
aoakeof aflahnettedtogethnr. Two kinds 
of Urei aie known in T3>et ; one is oalled 
*^^*%'IP» which is made of iran rings or 
■oalea; V^'^^'W^ that made of thin plates 
or iron foils. Thaie ave aoooonts of coats 
of mail made cf riher and gold for the use 
of kings. The oommcn quilted cloth 
armour used in Mongolia and China is 
called t^'WfP. In Mongolia it is called 

fprw^ kinMtkrab (fkiUhikab) a 
weeper; one that sheds tears on eveiy 
aon {8eh.). 

R7«n UrfA-fifkhan one who makes or 

Ipra^ Mre6-Mia scaled ; scaly ; wearing 
acoat of mail. 

(F9^'9 <*^«M|ftti ^ scales or iron foils 
used in acoat of mail (Sim.). 

IF&Wr^ UeMym /fif ikibi a coat of 
mail for ooraring the udiolehodj (^Mi.). 

l^ftArffei {fkmm), «**• l»*r»^mi a f alee 
word;^rafk aeunningman. 

^*P khramJtkm {tkamJcka) 1. f <^V 

kkro^wahi Ifha-dog kkrthkhru (fJia^ha) 
^potted and party-coloured appearance of 
the wrathful demi-gods the Lhan-de 
(fiag.). 3. chart used in witdicraft or 
neoromanoy : 9'<l^'^)'^ Iha bdr^ rMf- 

kgi mit, fFF^rm kkratf^kha fa ioii is 
explained : •••r^^wejR«*>n-g«-^i^i;-r 
«wi-ir^«r^H^'ir9s*ffn the sign or mark of 
one'sruin haTing been incident on the chart 
(of fate). 8.. cross marks or lines cut into 
a piece of wood so as to cross one another 
as an ornament : |prp(*^ kkram^khati^ti 
a dub-like implement, carved with lines, 
lep t o s on ting the attributes of a god and 
c o nta i niTig squares with mystic figures in 
them which senre as a means to make 
attempts of witohcraft to injure a person 
ineffectual; f^fpt SagMn^m a notch 

fFg*! kkrom^kkrum fragnlents; baked 
fragments : ^'nv^rq^qyTipiHaiai^cr^- 

PFB*r^«'?'^«i (raw) brick containing 
prints or engnmngs thereon when burnt 
are said to be baked fragments. 

(Ff^ibkrem-lefaM mn a tiger. 

^*C| kkrafthpa (^Aaiii-|Ni) = yrM ^^, 
^nnr, WT«rar,W]I^ !• a liar; a swindler; 
artful person: ^'^'9^*<A-nN «i bye4^pabi 
for seducing or deoeiring: ff^^^^khram 
9e$m^an lying; mendacious (C!».). 2. 
liTsly, brisk, quick, like boys, kids, Ao* 
(the oontrsry of |^'^ gkn-pa^ slow, 
indolent, apathetic) : khram-pa eke in fT. a 
wish of god-speed addressed to one going 
on a journey, such as (}ood success! May 
an go Weill S. modest; attentive to the 
wishes of others (Ja ). Bprcr^^ gcoi lit. 
means to get out of mishaps caused by the 
evil machinations of enemies; to make 
the evilpchtfrms of enemies ineffectual. 

ff^ kkramiFhyeiy v. ^'^ gyihean or |* 
«9*9S l^a-ma bge4\ 1*^*^ ioe gUii-pm 
double-tongued or double-dealer (4flion.). 

Jg^^' kkram^1i(a%m'%'^'^' khnm§. 
kyi kkram-^m a board on which the body 




ol a oulprit is otretohed to flog him on the 
back (Nag.). 

g^ khrai {thai) mfm^y ^^ L tax; 
tribute; duty ; forced eervice. 2. punish- 
ment ; chastisement for sins ; visitations : 
Ifrq^'H khral ikal-tca to levy taxes : %^' 
Jfi 4Aul-khral tax to be paid in money : 
^2 B^ hbrU'kkrdU tribute paid in com : ^^' 
^'^^ iiMmar khral tax to be paid in red 

Syn. SS 4pya\ |S<i idk4'pa; «J««Rii 
ffyar^kJtral \ ^^^ fo^gapn) fl^'^M khral- 
^9i (M^on.). 

fP^'W^ khralrgyug-pa to perform forced 
service (Rtnti^, 

(P Atfli q khral-tjaUvca or B^'fr^ khral 
ikar^ua to pay taxes or customs duty. 

Syn. Hflragn'ii khral WtiZ-ira; ^3'«u«|-n 
ifppa hjal-ica; B"'*^'*' hhral fproif^pa 

gQi'l'q khral tdu-wa to collect taxes ; pf . 
pp-^^ khral'fifdui^ pf. B^'^^ *^ Ihral- 
ivfuf tshar^ fut. B''*^* ^'S khral-ifdu war" 

gfli'fl|*i^ khrffl-gsar levying of a new 

«P^* by levying fresh taxes to oppress the 

B^B'S khral-khrvg (9F''') n. of a very 
large number {Ta'-§el.). 

B^'ia«i khral'khruliB defined as |S'fli'i|'f '9' 
aM|iri|(>aim^U applied to any broken 
things, such as furniture or utensils. 

§ I: khri (fhi), U'm kkriJchrag, fi'SI^ 
khri-gpait for number: ^vqif ten 
thousand; a myriad: ||'6'a khri hye^wa 
Vtfv, 11%^ ten millions. 

^ II: ilTy iPNr seat, chair, throne, 
couch; also frame, sawing jack, trestle; 
)*d an European ohair; ik% khHin 

'ftl9W( L a bedstead or stool; a small 
chair or table; S'^^T'Q khri-la i^wa 
to raise to the throne : to place on 
the chair; fi'aj'^'* khri-la hkho4-pa 
to preside; to occupy the chair; *^'^B 
se^-ge khri throne; a chair borne (in 
relief) by a carved lion fox* rulers iind 
incarnate lamas; ^^'B ffser-khri golden 
seat or chair; seat for royalty; g«*B 
siiai'khri a contrivance to serve the 
purpose of a pillow; ^^'fi ehohkltri a 
professoral chair; pulpit; reading desk; 
table for books ; school table; 9«i'fi nal-khri 
resp. ^^'H'fi gziffis-khri bedstead. 2. 
^'K^^S'*'^'^^ the upper pedestal of a 
chidtya or Buddhist votive tomb. 

Syn. 9^S nal'khri; |^fi rgpun-khri; 
^^*^ fi bd»g-khri, 

fi«pp«^ khri rkafi can Wftw a seat fur- 
nished with legs ; a bedstead. 

S P> khri^kha^ g^T khrihikha or g^ t^' 
khri^ gteH on the chair: i'P'^ khrikhth 
nay on ^e chair or seat (A, 67). 

S'^^ khri-ehen a great chair; a title of 
the abbot of Galdan monastery. 

• §-^-^4|VI«^»«^^^ Khri^hen ^ag- 
4icaH mchog-ldan \^'^'^'^'S^'9^if^ Drin- 
can ^ag-i^a^i mchog-tdan {8chr. 17 A). 

• fi'^^'"^*«r">«>^'f^lW Khrt^ehen fLag^ad 
inan-gragf n. pr. (Sekr.). 

• I -^ J •qs^oj^qR'^-fi Khri-cken ^lo- 
izaH iv^n-pabi nP4na^^''^y9i^'^^ ih- 
iti^H ni-mabi ihcb^ {Sehr.). 

fi'f^ khri-tnan n. of a Buddhist 
physician of Lhasa; BS«-K«-yll-*tT 
«i|'J*qiv the fion of the celebrated physi- 
oian named Dm 4-0 thar^can ( Yu ihog^) 
{Qgu. SS). 

6'f^'«'^ khri tSan so-fe skin of the 
black antelope ; t^«K a devotee sittiiig 




(Ml it Tomembeis the rovm as wall the 
datiM of ^Bodhimttim ; fifT^'M^TT^* 
^"^ qxreftding a akin of Uaek antelope 
faraaeat (-l.ii.)- 

fi'lT^^Q khri fian ehen^ nimR 
a large ooaoh or bed ; (Ik**I'8 **rt^aa 
^thon^ vvi^«r a high oonoh or bed 
(forfaiddeii to the deyoxit). 

fi'^^ khri^diigi the sun. 

fi*3^Vi^ khruphye4 dad gn$i two 
thotiaaad and half ; \ft MiMH twenty 

fi'^W' kkri4phaA the height of a chair ; 
a high ohair (GSi.) ; also the official rank. 

fi^=Q»^f«. i/aoM-ft/kma priBon; jail 
(¥^CM».) ; alBO fi'«^ khri^mm a prison; 

I V **r^**ir gH1«^^* n. of a bird 

fi ^ JUrt AMMifear, in (?. {Jd). 
fi V I : Mr»-fM or %% khri^ a ohair. 
fi"^*-' n: (Mf-tmy) wf% a creeping 
plant ; a creeper. 

B't^lfQ^ Khri-mvH bie^^ii$an the 
celeberated King of Tibet who formally 
introdooed Bnddhiat monaxohion into 
Tibet, erected the great monaatery of 
8am-ye, and caused nunerons Buddhist 
Baered books to be translated into Tibetan. 

jfirn^'prtwn khrHifkaii^ehotfa ht^* 
iani[ir abed furnished with legs or sup- 
ports ; fig. to discipline the mind so thai 
religion may take hold of it. 

^'^'^ khribi tkoM^tUn nfiniTW the 
legs of a chair. 

^^^ khrig^hrig {thig^Mt) 1- 
piyper, suitable; not less nor more : fi^' 

ff Y4i^'^ kkrig^hrig iwiffM^ it has 
suited well ; it fits exactly. 2. qmraring, 
as of the body with cold, or chattering of 
the teeth. 3. v. B^'fiq kArO-khrib. 

JSf^khrigi (fhig) Vr^^'figfalkhrigi^ 
pa 1. arranged in proper order or row with- 
out deviation from the right course or line : 
B^a^'fl^nf^q khrigi chag%^9u ikai-pa 
seated or arranged in proper order where 
men, womeui the old and the young, 
the great and the low, all are put in their 
respective order; 2. also in reference to a 
priest condueting a religums eervioe, his 
demeanour when he does not look this 
side or that side but is intent on his 
duties and ceremonial observances; he is 
then said to be l^asm'qqNp^q j^^igt 
chagp^u ikdi/'pa. 

^^pr% kbmr%g%'^ plentiful* abundant; 
thorough ; f^*-^ kkrigt^ goA quite 
wdl; l^^-JSQ khrigi^ bge^-pa to 
treat; to entertain plentifully {SeA.). 

P^ I:khri4{ih{) instruction, tutelage; 
^^'W'B^*' yo^an khrii-pa instruction, 
teaching; g^^^wa khr%4 idebf-pa to 
give instruction ; to instruct : ^*<m'^ 
kkrid^pof ehog I am willing to give 
instruction ; you may have lessons with 
uie {Ja.). ^9^%khri4 nab-po thorough 
instruction; fjfpi §luJchfi4 iHslruoiloBi 
to an evil purpose; seduction; {K'^IS'*' 
khrii kfoi^pa to give instruction; to 
make admonitoxy qpeedhes. 

PS H: or ^^ %ft row; order; serial 
order or arrangement : ^* |^ T y ^y mi*)' 
^cA'^V*!'^^ in the same manner there 
are four ntages in the way to saintly 
perfection {Laim-rim. U)» 


172 5^*0=' I 

^^ III : pf . of ^9s <i. 

BSgi kh}^'phi*ug (fU'th&g) scholar; 
pupil {jd ), 

H^'^ khrih-kkrib {thib^thib) ^M'%'^^' 
n. of a large number {Ya-wL). 

IqW^ khnmft {thim)^ HTfPi, J^m, ftnnp 
law or right iu general ; the laws of a 
state ; any particular law. There are two 
kinds of laws— S«'''>i'<«SwS^-5'^'8w-n[^%i- 

^S kkrim-la chos-khnmi dafi rgy^^-khfim 
ffnii yo4 state law and spiritual or I'eli- 
giouslaw. The proverb says : J^ilw-n^' 

khritni gjMV^gyi gnai (*4, choi^cknini dor- 
gyi mduif'pa ^a-6ti yin the state law is a 
golden yoke, but the religious law is like a 
silken knot : g*-* SM^Wfi a^ff^lw q^q for 
laws they pass decrees, statutes : 8»w<f 
■w;*''*! kAHmt'la fna^-pa to be subject to 
law : R««pi"^^^S«^|«"9^««iJi»wS»w«i'^^ 
c ^^ holy personages and the incarnate 
race are also subject tp law. 

Syn. for laws of state: — V^^ fc^«; 
*^*^'^*ia*** hjig-rten kh'tms; ^'^'^M pul- 
cho9\ S«« khrim\ %9iM'%^^ khyims-iugi 

gw'P"^ khrimf'kAan oouit or place of 

Syn. ^fe^r^a khrimt-riUtbi kba^^pa; 
V^**^ fgra-ldan eon ; S'^'^S'^a khrimf-kyi 
ra-MW ; V*i ^^ ttrii-tgrog-aa (4fw«.). 

g»wSr*«» khrifi^kyi kha bhpa, ^^% 
Phn^po a minister ; a legal ofiBcer (Ifflon.). 

gM«i'a|4|9('q khrimf iigr^g^-poj v. «rTi. 
>i5^4i ik/th^bifg99 a proclamation or pro* 
claimed order. 

a««-^«^ khrifn§^eo4^^^''r^'(S m-pa 
gcoi to inflict punishment (M^on.), 

khHmi kyi don bshin ace. to the meaning 
or spirit of the law ( 2^0.7. V 

Iwg^ *Art»i|-f6^cw=gw«i|qq kh'im 
k fkyal-wa to deliver up\o justice. 

p<^ peace, v. ^Wi«i hjug^-pa. 

P khru (fM) B" k/iru^tna ^m one- 
si '** 
f oui'th of a <^94 hdom or fathom ; a cubit ; 

It'S rtse-khru or the measure of eighteen 

inehes, from the elbow to the extremity 

of the middle finger: El^***' kkru-gmi 

rtsam tRm\^ about the measure of 15 

inches from the elbow to the fisted middle 

finger is called ^l*''^ b^mJtkru, or cubit 

' measure ; B*^^'^ khru hjal^ca to measure 

with a cubit measure ((7«.). 

^*Q khru'tca (^/itf-tra), sometimes for 

^g'Q hkhru'wa^ to wash. 

g'^^ khru-gzar a kind of stew-psn 

B'f^ kkru'ihg or |i^ kkru-riog 
tilling the ground; aco. to 8eh. a pit 
filled with corn : B'lf^'*> kkru-^log-pa dig- 
ging ; breaking up the soil ; gardening. 

^C*gC* kkruii'khrtia (tkung^hung) 

'mn crane, grus cmerea; also the stoik; 
g^'|C^i9'q«'«*A4n«'iN khrufi'Mirnii rui-poi 
cku'ftgagi ielihehoneB of the crane remove 
the stoppage of urine. When milk mixed 
with water is given to a crane it will drink 
the milk, leaving the water in the basin. 
The reason of this, according to JT. d.S HO, 
is that as soon as the bill of the enine 
touches the milk it turns into curds, which 
are eaten up, leaving the water in the 


«*«^-4a ifihon-nH guM-diug a name of 
Emnira the eeoond son ol ZaVara (4f*M».). 

^^ kkrui pa, VK^fi lu^ kkrui^pa to 
waah; deanae out dirt or filth from the 
body {Hag,). 

H^ khrm (fktin) ^rfW, iif^im height ; 
length ; extension (Ck.) : |<<iMi|«; khrun 
pkaA 9ri4 height and breadth (equal). 

H'TH*' khrum^khrum (fkum^Aum) 
(&A.) : 6»r|sr9v<» *Arw»>-*/irttm bffe^^pa or 
5*^5*'' ^^'^ kkruui-khrum irdui-wa to 
pound in a mortar. 

B"" *Ar«w| VAiiiw) unf-n^ n. of a 

constellation : K»wfS kArufM-fta^ the name 
of the 24th oonstellation, f i^-ntj^.n^. 

Syn. W^ bya-fi^hu; WfU riii iha- 
mo ; mm-m gnaf-ma ; ^B^'^' btt-gM rk4a 


"^-MMHiil the full moon of the month 
of HT^H^, July. 

K»*^IR khruni§-imai the name of the 
25th oonstellation, v^K-^nf-H^; aoe. to 
Hindu astronomy the 26th lunar mansion^ 
figured by a oonch, and oomprehending two 
lUfB, of which one is Amircmeda. 

Syn. H »eku ; |«rRU ^bruU^hifl (4f^o;i.) 
|*«r| khrum-zia (fhtm da), y. | a*nj^q 

*-fro irgya4^fKi fiwuw, T*Tinr, the eighth 

iDonih of the Tibetan year. 

Syn. ^^n bbug^-pa; V^b^a^mehu; 
fr|^ nar-tdan; a'*^^ khgwffichog €nn\ 



merry. 2. 

♦^^l, WW, ^», ndl 

^S^-9 i^Ofi.«/t 44nVI-/H> (JPtoii.). 
^ Wm/ (^AW), gi|*if|k*i| Jbi^,,/ gf^ 

M« to let fall; to drop (serend things at 

intervals); ^'^fp:^ ,^ kkrul 

Med to shed tears : f ^ ula4sArutm W. 

inieroalary month (,73.). 

Bor2T ,. . 

It C. t oheerfttl; 


R^'*l kkrul-ma 1. in IF. orooksd 
ora^, handle (J3). 2. a whoK. 8. H'C 
g^'* A;Af»-tm kkruHia rioe-water or water 
in whioh millet is washed. 

H^ kAnt9 {fku§) 
baft; washing ; ablution. 

«/»=5^^^ draH-9raH mBsi or sage who 
observes the vow of ablution : Ri'Js'* 

^^?^ ^^ ^'"* ^y^P^^ ^^-hed mm- 

•nrftrfww faults committed while bath* 
ing : 5«|-8''-^-^<^>P'9S'«ps|«si ftf im^jng 

bathed put on clean clothes and take 
milk, curds and butter (LoH.^.'ig). 

Syn. l^-ft- J kun^u rggu ; ^T 5^*^ rfta*. 
ihulnmn ; Mfq^smq ^^ i^damhpa ; S^ ••^'If^- 
^ rfi^-trar ffotf-tra ; |^ »k*iafl| jion-wo^ Mi*/; 
^•«S«l rfM-JiW Mff/; |-H«S q fmra-iff ead^ 
pa; ^-^'H^q gMt-^iar gnai-pa; ^m'9K' 
fva tsha*.par tpgof-pa; MKfT«» n>. 

g«Jr *Arwf.*yf f/«a, l-q jfc^i^ the 
grass JTti-fa (4fif(oii.). 

g^'5'1^- khru^kyi rdM J^^'f^mlt^' 
khruf rggalhdaki tdM a bathing t^tnk. 

g«'B khruhkliu water for bathing {Jd.). 

g* r* •♦Ti «» kkriii^khtdi trUeg§^ tfa« 
making of a bath or bathing place. 


grtff iUkrvi-fijkteii ipw one irho 

QTW kkr^dud «4N washing 
m«lMUs» aoda, aospf eto. 

pr« iBimi-aAM bathing water; water 
MDaeonted hj % ddly bang waahed in it. 

|r^ UniHlar soraf or good linen 
towaltetha toilet; aoarfof silk luedin 
wadiing the images of deities {fiUii.)* 

gv|^ UnrM<fer basin ; washing bowL 

|Va kkruirpa {fku%ipa) w?(%«, ^f^WHf 
VW washed; also washing. 

Syn. |Vg JfcArnf-iytf ; ^hkhru4f ^^ 

gii*S«i khrut^m WW washing pot 

or jug. 

ff^'9f^H khru^ma khrui-tna \nabixkgR 
el rioe or any other mfllet ; also the rem- 
nant of w»ter in whioh rioe, Ae., is boiled. 

I^pn Mrtfff-fiterf artieles of washing or 
to wash with saoh as soap, etc. 

Syn. ^^^mIdag^al; |<i> iOrui-rM; 
W9S day-bye4 {V^on ). 

|W4(lf^ khrui-^haH %w« bathing 
tub ; bann used for a bath. 

g^'Mi JMrtff-rai iii«im«« a towel; a 
bathing towel. 

gii*'^ JkArtn-^fer bathing water. Aeo. 
to Jd. this word (in Ladak) relates to a 
certain medical proeedure or method of 

g«'^«ai'q khruhgfot-wa resp. for g^'SV 
khru^^ei-pa^ i>.i when applied to bathing 
places used by diTine beings and great 
men : f frr^o'^^'«v'B«'9V*f Iha-m kkad-pa 
$0(ft ta khru9 hyeq-pa ^^ gods or men taking 
a bath in their abodes and so forth/' to 
administer a bath to another, especially 

174 ^'l 

as a leligioos ceremony, consisting in 
sprinkling with water. 

gMre (^»«) millet: 8 ^|*^'*iJ*«W 

being both hea^y and chilling, cause* 
wounds to swell, but bones which have 
been dislocated or fractured it causes to 
unite! a¥\ khre-rgai wild millet; B'^' 
^B'*'"^^ ^^W'^SS wild % stops diarrhcea 
and remoTCs the poison. 

St khre-Ue Chinese yermicelli (Ja.)- 
8^«i khregi-pa {theg-pa), v. wgT"" 

fisri^ kkrem-gSer, t. «'^^ chu-f^ 

^^'2| Mfv^ shameful. 

^WT^ ik*r«fi|-iMi (?*4Mfi:pa) 1- ir^ 
tion; also to water gardens and cnltiva- 
tions ; to sprinkle water. 2. n. of a book: 

khrenn^yi Mlrin^hen hoi. 4pA«MW 
{8^g. 81). 

§01 khrel {fhel) wsp. S^B^' **»?>- 
JfeAftfU. fWjakindof millet. 2. ^RIV 
shame; diffidence ; bashfulneai ; modsBiy. 
8. piety aca to Jd., eepeoially in W. 
4» in C. disgust; aYersion. 

BiT'^ khret-gai a ecomful laughter. 

||^-«i( khret-can possessed of shsme; 
lii*^ kkfel^fon bashful {(h.) ; also earaeBi, 


B^^ khnl4^ pnsilanimous ; shame- 

^'^^ kkretifoM (lit. a ftuse caps- 

ble of shame) a bashful face. 

^•i'^^^*^ kkrel4do(heM in W. ready 
to shame others. 

pa ^M^ftii modest. 


fi^Q to be ashamed; to ptovoke shame:. 
he has no shaine or modeftty. 

ma ^mm^^ immodest, shamelen. 

B*i'^ khrei'poi ^irmn modaHy ; ohas- 
tity ; decency ; fi«r«l\q kA}\ l-yod^ to be 
chaste; a«l'^V«i^-9VQ k/irri fjoff^par bye^^ 
pa to behave chastely, with modesty. 

B" khre^ or {the) S^f U khroi^po, (fhe-po) 
a load, bunlen: »18v«^«^ mikhrsB ohufi^ 
eon a man with a small load {A. 10). 
g^« <5-^-^^ fcvi./x) <fe|i naX^noi from 
within that paclcage: ^H^'^^*8*P<ii;<|-3)c.- 
|«*8S gnhn^-^hm-gyi isafli fiH khrt% pht4 
half a bimdle ( or load ) of fire- wood for 
the use of government (Rtsii.). 

Syn. fp «i kAur-pa ; S^'^X^^ khur idren^ 
pa; y%whf9 rgyab^kyii theg^pa) fl^' 
r^ kkwr sisa-pa (iKfiow.)- 

H^'H" khrei4chre§ (f/^-fhs) unable 
to dt erect; falling down : ^^)^'|^'B«'i(' 

khrt'i na-tca gtig^ nas imoai-pa In eii phan 
^Di-poi {A. UU) seeing a man very ill 
so as to be unablo to sit erect, he asked the 
physician what would be of usu. 

^ Uro if ho) wk4 a kind of bronze, of 
about same quality and worth as bell- 
metal i^n UAar'tca\ but inferior to 
k. The land of bronce called khro-nag or 
dark bromse is also called Ichagi k/iro on 
aocoont of the predominance of iron in 
the compound. The kind called ^ST 
kh0'^O'4kary white bronse, has more ainc and 
'^•i'f wa^-khro has more of copper in 
it than iron. The dork-bronze is largely 
manufaotored in China; the white-bronze 



is much prized by the Tibetias. Huge 
bronze caldrons used in the gi^ monai^ 
terit)8 of Tibet for boiling tea aie made of 
tho while bronze; ^^'f Mwgi^khro large 
bronze caldrons used in cooking tea, Ao., 
for the use of tho congregation in the mon- 
osterios of Tibet: H WI^1^t<l'V.*^ 
^\^t9m khro-nag fpar^rin dot dug^Md 
Mom9 dark bronxe dissipates wonn-spassu 
and poisonous complaints. 

B'3^ kJiro-^gynn ornaments made of 
bronze. M' B^ 1^ khrohi khug^il bronae 
pot to boil tea. 

f« khriHfhu 1. liquid cr nielied 
bronze ; aoo. to some author melted iron 
before it is cast. 2. n. for W^t iih$Uhm 
quicksilver; (a mystic) term (JfiVf.). 

Br« jTsKi khrihehH idom-pa to fill up 
joints, grooves, Ac, with melted bronze; to 

i'^l^m'Mkhro ti^m^-pa to Suppress anger 
or wrath : ^•^^^»wit*B'**«i'<^ ^ ^t'^^V 
^^'V^ g^fl-Bhig ifgrt'ms-ie khro tjon^^-^^ 
de-ni hdi-dnA 09h(tn-du J<fe {9pvo4.) he 
who con Bubdue hii anger, will be happy 
here and hereafter. 

eaw-rfupi r^ffPh-kngf or JT^-H^ tUm^ktjii 

to hit in an angry mood (JKtfon.). 

& 1^^ khro-gner H^fu, m ffk wrinkles 
on the face and forehead expreaslTe of 
wrath, indignation, anger ; also indignant. 

S'^^^'^khra-^ffier-can m§fk she whose 
face is wrinkled with anger ; also frown- 

*f'^«^'« khro-gfier can^ma (8ekr. 
36 C). 

ff'i^'i^-<i khro^g/isr nte^^pa ^(Wn^fk 
free from frowning or anger. 



Utm-p^ ^''n t^hdag n. of a medioiiial root 

f 4 khfHhpa in W. for S *Aro. 
H^n^fl hhtihgtHtH-po f oriotis with rage. 

m 'iPc^T ibit. aager» wrath; ako 
adj. Mgiyt wrathful: ffeT"* **o<-**»^ 
wa ttttouldftring wrath : y«^*\'«» hhro-wa 
i9o4-pt^ tubdning or abstaiiiing from 

kkrihm ftiotf-i^a Hei toonhpa §ijr-ya^ 
ifeyMMT mi-bgyw^ro anger having been 
iobdued and inwardly supprened, it 
wai not grow again {K.d.^68): ff* 
^•||*mfA^*Q'4K*<i the ohief remedy for 
tiie poison of anger is forbearance {K. d. 
•^ 68) : |'*'*wi-^\^V|rf«-ii, ^^I•^•H^^^•«^• 
XiM'*^'a% if the wrathful mind be cnoe 
oxibdned it is tantamount t^ subduing all 
tha enemies one has. V'^iS^ or ^'<k' 
^n to be or to grow angry (C«.) ; ^[^'9^' 
^K^ ff^*% though angry, to be as if not 
angiy ; jf«Wff=»Tff«wrn angry looks ; 
to look back with anger (4f*an.). 

||*ir« JTAro-K <!-»>« wHim n. of a 

^•2f kh9Uhwo {fho-m) rfWV, ^JM an 
angry spirit; a god or Bf4hkaHwt in his 
assumed wrathful mood or manif estatioit . 

Ulufm-lf^um fiwim-rwtf/ tprul-kfad #TW- 
v*«wewrfirf*imm (SaAr.; Td. «, 976). 

|[*fl-|il'Ef khrihwo ohen^po HTHSbiV an 
appellation of Mahak&la, the Lord of 
Death— the terrifio god or guardian of 

^mt^ (fiMr. n 0.): 

«|[V'y9wB*%ikAt 0-100 9touyp€^h§ ^nt9% 
(Behr. 78 3.). 

MAyiflM iwwi ^ a (&Ar. ; Td. «, lOJ). 

{Schf\ 79 A.). 

♦g'B'Ht^Xsi khnMCO td<htie ui-hog 

• f -S-^srq* piB JbAro-iro ifty^g-pa t^on- 
ro m\m^m {Sckr. ; Td.9,161), 

•'gS'fr^q kkro-ico mUgjf<hpa vmi^lV 
(&»r. M C). 

• ^-9*|'q ql-spi'q kkro^o fffW-ira i^<e^- 

•K-4'^s|-y^'^*i^ kkir<Moo gtsug4or 
ikhar^9ggur ^mft^'^nn^ {8ehr.). 

*}^'}S'9fi^'%wtk'%VQ JtAro-tro ffdum^gyi$ 
mUhuJhpa {8ehr. 71 A). 

wmmitn {Sckr. 71 JB.). 

II 8^ khrthbyrd TtfW, ^» frightful. 

$*dS'«* ikA'^ bgei^ma Wt 1. a name 
of the goddess Paldan Lhamo. 2. 9V«^' 
^5»rll bud-med gtUffMiw iNwi a fearful 
woman (ilf^on.). 

ffw^Hft^yu/ or f^«N ida^mig an expres- 
sion of the eye ; angry eyes (IWcm.). 

H'lf AAfo-itio a female terrifio deity or 

f Ibl Mro-fifon prison (&A.). 

"glj **fv^ (^*oy) in fiT*V*» kkfog 
brggoLpa to drink hastily ; to gulp down: 
f H«i^ <rS)iiB^if^-^t\*s*^ iWftV c*a*f« 
ytf khrag-for-ttoPdifaii'mk^* Tfaog 
ohung is beet for stopping Useding. 




one who speaks irrelevaatly and is not 
steady in his acts or words. Described as 

«ee. to i/a. in* W. the sound oanaed 
bj scmething f alLng heavily on the 

)f^4^* kkrog-chuA an herb with leaTes 
resembling a saw in shape. 

P^ H k/iroff'po botanical term, nsed 
ef leaves standing round the stem soattered 
or alternately. 

q^'fl^ JMroy-fMm the raw unpre- 
pared subttanoe of a medicine {Seh.) i W 
V^ immt^kroff is defined as |^'siy«'<r| 
^^^'^ fiMon-fiMi ftfiftMifi-^ iiM-4skoff9-laf the 
unpuhreriaed ingredients of a medicine. 

^*^ kkroi4l0 ifMg^ie) upright, 
strait, erect (J!i.). 

^*2f kkf^ti^ dose-flited, stingy 

P^* kkroi Qioi) crowd, assemblage, 
mass, multitude ; ^^^ miMrpf a troop; 
crowd of ipoen ; ^'S^ riMroi a range of 
mountain peaks; t%\ th^hkkrod a heap^ 
stack, rick (of hay) ; ¥F'9S nag§4An4 e 
dense f oreet ; WK^S fnunJchro4 thick dark* 
ness ; ^'$S dur4ckro4 a conetery ; Sv^ 
m the crowd; ^'^salso a hennit. 

)}^ khnm ijfkam) daw: 9<i |«')li*«^^ 
UroU ty4 ribMMfti |ife the dass of gaUi- 
naoeoue birds {8.f. ; /d ). 

ntVf^^RTW well; spring: i^'«A* V AAivn- 

jEMi|i cAn well-watar; also called Vt 
doi-^kui )lr« khron40u^ a little woll: 
^^qK'^^q kkron'P44i iiUHlH> mi^; i^ cfW' 
^'^ ^#*on-jHif rif^-ipe «i|iimifq water in a 
well that has been made fit {hy the priest* 
hood) for drink. 

XV9 kkrm^bH 1. a medicinal root ; a 
vegetable purgative. 2 X<8ti*wrft*|k 
|^'V^ I'sifci UtraiUui iifam^per |(yoil-iy«# 
grog%4iffi ficAo; thron-bu aoti as a gentle, 

^\ khropH if him) a market place; % 
banr;c(rowd of people ; multitude of per- 
sons; S*i't^ khrom^km a great crowd; 
V^tA j[si' V«« Ukogi-pahi khronhtnum the 
assembled orowd ; 9%^^ pk<hk/iram mul- 
titude of men; SFW** tn^^^hrom a 
royal gathering : aco. to Cs. |[*rlf fl Mivam- 
chm^pOf chief market«plaoe, also prindpal 
street : )[*^Y^'^ AAiYN9MitorHre to winder 
about the market; to ramble through as if 
in a market ; ^WE^V'ti^'y! ^at-^Mgi 
khrowhdu Vog secret spells (magic 
formulas) are read in the market. 

Vm-IK-si Mree>-|ikof-«mi harlot ; 
strumpet; street woman (Ob.). 

j[ii Kif «^ kHmthikog ahoi a person well 
dressed, wdl equipped, and p ossesse d of 
personal acoompUdiments ; one above the 
crowd ; above his f dlows. 

P^*Q ^knm^pa 1. n. of a province 
in Tibet ; X«rQ*« kkrm^p^^m, an inhabi- 
tant of Khf^am (Thom). 3. a market 

)(•ry^Mf<ol»HgpM• ofBoerwhoisoharged 
with the supervision of a miurket 

r^ kkrow^mi sparkling ; gUttering : 
iNref sr ft st7 p^knniMim sperUing dew 





drop. |C«r^ww^%«i*q khrom imar mg 
JtA^V-w ft mottey crowd ; a throng, black 
and red intenningled. 

HirV^ hkrom4Bkoffi {fhofit-Uho) tlie 
gathering of buyers and tellers, &o., in a 
market : -iS** foJshrom the seqtion of the 
market where meat is sold; meat market; 
S^%9^ 4p$4amm book market ; ^^^ tf^ 
khrom the seotioa where ponies and horses 
are sold. 

!•« kliromii V. ^5|«"«» igrem-pa. 

'^ *Aro/(^/coO,v.«^|S"»««»*A*H>/^«and 
tCl^m'^ bgrol-^ 1- a sound (Jci.). 2. 
nfiHiTl^ii loosening; unfastening; that 
which is unfastened. s^I-t'^iici-W^f 
«^-^ii^-rfhii^si-l'4si-U*'^<'^ by tpijfo- 
hkrol is meant the separating of meat from 
the bones by the sheep's head having 
been boiled weU. ^'S^ina^ *Aro/ the con- 
tents of a slaughtered animal, including 
the stomaohi entrails, lungs, liver, spleen, 
4c. The expression ^^•«|'^'g«i%«ifS«»- 
rai-gi naU^khroi phyi-l^ttw^pa meacs 
*«one's own blunders exposed to outward 
show*' : • S^i* J**"^' khroUgyii soft (the 

ring) slid BOtmding (across the aeure 


ISpy^ kkrol4skPoi {thol^hol)^fmn 
khroh^o bright, shining; %^%'^'9S'^ 
khroUkhrol Jycrf^«»lS«'*S"'*'r*' m 
khroUle khroUh Ita-wn to stare at. 

fffli'^i^ khro/'dM is said to denote a large 

^^*S khrojhcf^a release (as of monks 
from a religioius service or of school-boys 
from class work ; aoc. to Sek. the act of 
forgiving; pardon. 

l^^^Ii khroh>o{tholijH>)l. cheerfal, 
merry; sparkling, glittering, daasling. 
2. fornicator. 

^•2J n: 1. sparkling i^sf!^'^ M 
khrohpo brightness (on water when the 
sun shines upon it). 2. aoc. to Ja. in TT- 
distinct; intelligible. 

gfl|« khroUma, ^*^ na^^hagi a save 
for cleansing and sifting barley, grain, etc. 

^^'8f khrofrmo in W. britUe, fragile; 
opposite to 9l^'^ q»*m-po, tough. 

|[«i«i^ khrol MM>g% a sieve (C!».) ; IT 
«ls(«i Ifiag^ tshagi iron sieve. 

J^iH kkroUhg^f^^^ knrog^ckrog in 
W. cf . '^^^ tkhrol-toa. ; also 1. kettle. 
2. a sound. 

^^I'q khf^i'pa W^a^'^ ikugt kkrat 

pa W, ffPm enraged; wrath-seeming; 

appearance of wrath : ST^^^'l'^^'fi'M'*'* 

^orqfild phyag-iia tdo-fje fin-tu AArof^it 

tshul ifftan-pa Chagna Dorje in a very 

wrathful form manifested himself : S^* 

^ khro9'P<9hi gar dance in wrathful mood. 

giisi khroi-fiui (Moi-Jwo) or Ji khro-ma 

the wrathful female deity or Budrdta; 

snch female divinities as outwardly ahow 

themselves to be of terrifio and frightful 


Jsi*^ khrohUkig angry woids. 

Syn. V(VS^ ritan^phyar or W^ 9im* 
kbyin (4f^»0- 

9^«iMaii an affix which, annsxed to 
substantives and verbal roots, answeri in 
coUoq. very much the same purpoees as the 
Hindustani- appendix nwto; '"'•ff ^ 
ifiAAan one who has to do with thefloil; 
mf9f^ lan^i^khan one who knowi tbe 
war, a guide; ^•W («f-vUss * 




irorkor m irood, oftipenteri jomor, fto. 
Affizj»l to a Yorbal root, aigiiiBM lie who 
peffomii an aotion, whetlier only just 
now or halkitiially ; ^^'«ip^ jfoA-fpftAoii 
oomflr; ^f*^ ^gtHhi/Jthan the goer; 
one who moves; l'«^ bri^^^kun the 
writer, one who has written it; *^'*n ai^ 
^fM4m (in Sikkim) one who Bpeake inlee- 
faoode, a liar; ^*r^ fff-fiMaa he who 
knows; ^fTT^ Uftin^wMm the shower, 
emfbojam ; '^^9T'^ M>9i''9kh4m one who 
is landing, iMrtening; also with an objeo- 
tiye case, *^%*8*X'^^S*«r>( tnH bu^mo idoi- 
fiU«fi, snoh as are desiring my daughter; 
HWVT^ (sa^-fiikAaji the man who is killed 
or who kills; a mnrderer. In ooUoq. kn- 
gnage tpUkm seems to have entirely dis- 
placed the tonnination d^, signifying in 
general the agent: ^^'*r)^'«r^'l>^ 0<ft««* 
eia JUjffr-iiUaii ^jft mi the men oanrying 
the heam. Oontrary to its original signi- 
fieation,it is even used to form the relative: 
«<S'*PrS'4^ the sheep ^rfiioh vras killed. 

JB/i-d&Mi daH ifhhaf^-^hi Tffif^fi the lineal 
spiritoal descendants of ^h-^hen and 
Mkkan^pOf those through whom the vows 
f onnnlated hy them are handed down 


S^P^ I: igkhan^ ferns of two 
^eoies. The one growing m Tibet is 
eaUed «n'V^ ilfkhatHPfor^ or the white 
fevn ; the other species belonging to the 
Cis-Himalaya is oalled T^^ n^Mat^nag^ 
black fam: ^Aan-pa is deemed useful in 
healing fresh oat wounds ; it is also applied 
to swellings. 

ip^*^ 11: incense; frankincense: 
•^«r^v%-Hirsjfti-iA\fTSlP'*f*^ the 
Tarions kmds of incense in which the scent 

of such as Man-jMr, AlAi, eto., parsdcn^- 
nates iffm.). 

JfP^'^j ffikhan^poj vmjnn, wmwi4 a 

prof eesor employed to teach ; the head of a 
monastery. Li Tibet the head of a parti- 
cular college attached to a monastery, 
high priests who give vows to the junior 
or inferior lamas, and professors of saeied 
literature, are called n^Aaa^i also learn- 
ed men, who as such are endowed with the 
*^Tt^ fgkhm^tgy^ or spiritual gifts or 
descended heritage from thsar spiritual 
ancestors, are called whAan^. Aganit 
learned men such as are sent to China as 
representatives of the Grand Hieraroh are 
also styled ifkhan^. Besides these, those 
who serve the Orand Lama as his domeitie 
ohaplainSi teaoherB or advisers, such as |' 
a«^'«r<P) £Ohf-ftMr M^han-po Khan-po, who 
sits iu company of the Grand Lama ; ^Iw 
^T^'Q 0sifn-^ii fpAAofi-jM) the chamber- 
lain khan-po; wSs^^^nB mctwHf^ 
nfkhan^ the domestic chaplain ; ^'^' 
«^'Q g»ol'4p(m*ftkhan'po the steward in 
chai'ge of the Grand Lama's tea snd food; 
T<l*^'ll vAAaa-iefo pAyMke outside khan- 
po— those that enjoy this distinction hut 
partially. Other dedgnatioxu of this kind 
axe ifv^'ii'iFe-e^'l ^h€in-po la tnam-p^ 

fts*f|«#:— (1) •W»«'^l^'^»^'*^V«^*T 
0^'^ ffkhan^ cho§4cpii f ifce#-Ai sei#-sM» 
fft'i mo-ym imiM-^ the professor who 
conveys to his pupil instruction, not wealth ; 
(2) sali^l|srp-ir)hiJsi»rliJiip^c«^ sei-siir- 

gii idui-la cho^kyi% ma-yin pa^ci yo4 the 

professor who gives riches but not religi- 
ous inslruotions; (8) •rsfl'«''>|N*^-» 

(Mso^UM-ffM iciu^iMiyaMyoflr the prof esira 
who giveshoth vrealth and religious instru^' 
tion to his puptt; (4) •f^'fl-*i-Jra^%5S- 



a|«q'R|'^«c-q^'i|« I 

pa iio4 the professor who neither impaito 
instructiou nor wealth. 

«WQ ff^khan-bu pupil, scholar (Jd.). 

p^'Tb fiikh(u\'}no mistress, ininictress 


Milium fj^han-ral^ the succession of 

khan-po or abbots in a great monastery. 

«fw^^« fj^khan-rmf the respeetive 
prospects of being elected abbot as depend- 
ing on the different ranks of the expectant 
candidates; the order of the suooession of 


•r^l^i nAhan'9lob for «|^-B^^'|^«* 
i^kkatk^ daA flob-ma the professor and 
his pupil ^ also (according to some) •WS' 
i^c'^q'^Q^ fgdchan-po daH ^hb-^pon the pro- 
fessor and the teacher: H'^'^Wl^'i^T 
kla^ma ntkhan^ihb-kyi b/^ai the words or 
conunands o£ the lama, abbot and teachers. 

StffK QiArAaft « the hearen ; the sky ; 
generally ^'^f^ nani-ffikhab. 

ihyai^ T^ Sl"^" W^kah'4ky<*9 the whole 
oomposs or extent of the heavens (Cs.). 

•V^|«« fiiMa^JfciW heaTsn-bom; a 
name for the year Fire-tiger *'f'| of the 
Tibetan calendar (J|f^^*}* 

•r^'B^ ^ha^^khyfih ^r^Tf^ll'. that 
which encompasses space or the sky : •T^ 
Ijq^ft'i^Iin ilfkkai'khyab tiA-He bihin wvm* 
X^9 fCiTTPl the all-comprehending (all 
absorbing) meditation ; n. of a Samddhu 

he whose abode is in the sky ; the sun. 

(5Wr; KAlae. T. i6). 

•^'^m'«^ ifJ^hai-go9 can clouds 

«P^^V ij^khalhbgro (kha-ifo) lit. '^tbe 
sky-goer*' ; a god; a bird; arrow. 

Syn f^»«i lluhrnamt ^S^'*^ (f^^ 
ohagt ; » Jya ; •^^ n^dah ; SB*^' bya-khyui ; 
^'1 d^'ki^u; ^^ gt8(hnio (j|fiIof».). 

•^'^V'** ^khalhborO'-fna adaas, mainly 
of female sprites, akin to our witches, but 
not necessarily ugly or deformed. There 
are two lands of khadoma : — ^those still in the 
world and those that have passed out of the 
world or ore about to pass away from it. 
Of the latter or those called *i|«-8'*^^< i 
ye^-ftg kyi f(s^ab ^ginhma^ goddesseos of 
wisdom, they are five kinds, viz., Buddha 
Ddkinl, Yajra ^tfAtiii, Ratna PdAiVti, Pad- 
ma Pdkini^ and Karma ^dibVa. Of these 
SffoT'je Phfig^fttOy 8eH gdoH^ma^ &o^ have 
each a hundred Ihouaand ddkim foUowen. 
They i re said to be possessed of aaperno- 
tural powers and resemble fairies in their 
attributes. Among the worldly pMm 
there are two classes, thoAe belonging to 
the pantheon of the Brthmans and those 
devoted to the cause of Buddhism. In 
Tibet we read of X'^^^^vj Tshe-HH igiehei' 
Ifia, the five long-lived sisters : ^t**"^ 
Pitan-ma bcu-gni^ the twelve nymph 
sisters who undertook to guard Buddhism, 

Byn. ^I[*ij^ i^ bgro-wa^ i^tm-hi^ ; |v 
cA'f^'A Bri(hpobi fgron'mCf the lamp of the 
world, the Ught of the universe (JIfitan.). 

*^'^9)^ m^h»b-bgro ticyes msxm 
born of those that move in the sky. 

s^^Hq^'^^ fpkha^bbro itda-yig ^ 
q|i^fi5-^^>^-^s|«i»r^^la^-^^ a form of 
De va n&gori character used by the ^Ml-iiui 
sect in their mystical writings. 

ytf-f«i n. of a deified lady, who was, inker 



«f ^krq I 

former exifltenoe, the wife of a king called 
(BatDA Diia) S'Vh'tfT^K^* She is adored 
in Tibet aa the goddees of mTttical 

^^'%'V^'VIS^ ffier-gyi hyt^fftBug phui- 
can the golden bird (eagle) with a erest : 

^S'^ the oreet of thiB bird is in colour 
pecplendent as fapw Arsa/*^ and its wings 
are said to be oheqnered all oyer. 

pMffug w^WK, Wft 4t*MTf^ the lord of 
the iky. 

k/ug YiahQU (Jfitofi.). 

^^'9f^ flik^fpnam like the heavens; 
infinite: •r^«»w< qiMtf^ igtnaui'pa a 

name ol Bnddha (4Moii.)- 

MP^*f^ ftJtkm^t^en 4tw« the firmament ; 
sky supporting ; a sort of ornament. 

•r^'^- Wkkai^ldii n^, imtn met. the 
eagle, the bird that soars on high. 

l^'A^' ^iviy» ^ ^ general name for the 
swan speoiee (4Mim.). 

BF> H^ khfab-t^ug W^f^m, Finn {Jgtan.). 
9^^^nffk'n tpkM-bUt ^^ffo^ipo^^^' 
kkfuH the king of birds {Yig. k. <9). 

^r^>^'«t3^*<i ifMa^ldiH gfog-pa, v. m* 
^ fnar^gai ^vmVy n. of a green gem 

9nv«(, «riniift^ 1. that which has attained 
to the sky, a gandharva (celestial musi- 
cian). 2. c^leetial enjoyment ; residing in 

P )'V^«r|q fiMa^tl>fo4 du tu§ ma^^Mfypar 
kffroi'pa ii^kkdi'9pyo4 kyi i^ohgmb the 

blessing of entering into a heavenly ezis« 
tence without losing one's p rese nt form : 
•^ T^"^*rt^ gone to the state of beati- 
tude, i.e.f to heaven. 

•fP^isa ifMai tpyoi-pa w^W: n. of 
Avalokites vara BadkiMiiva. 

■f^'IS ^*** W^ha^^jpyod d^twif-im an 
epithet of . the goddess Dorje Phag-mo 
and of the abbess of the Tamdok R^in^ing 
monastery : i;^^ ff^'f\S'^'Vli'9fim'm{%^' 
B'U'I^'^ before the precious lotus feet of 
the venerable one who has attained the 
heavens {Tig. k. SO). 

•r^^i mlfkat^yug mrw Ut sky. 
sticks ; a bedstead. 

• if^lH . ^^i^mig WTW. {Sekr.; 
Kdlic. T. 48). 

fi^«A#fi var the sacred ensign (JMom.). 

^r^XaiQ igMkahrol-pa divine musioisn; 
that plays or moves merrily in the sky. 

•^'^'a 1. ffkhah-la rgyu ^^9(%K that 
moves in the sky. 2. ft bya a bird 
{Vf^m): «p^'<i'J'a fpAAo-Ai tgy^^» to 
wander or move in the slgr : sf^'ti't'q^'^- 

\^ the Preia that moves in the sky: 
«r^'«r|^'a fiAAa^fa |rfAI-fra to soar in the 
air. 8. ether, as the fifth element 4. 
symbolical numbers ; cypher, naught. 

^^gif the female sex (JfAm.). 

•fR'^'i'*^ fiAAo^' goi-ean mm cover 
or dress of the sky ; the night ; •r^'l^i'M^ 
fiiMo^i tgy^fB^9kan nihyfrn the sky- 
ensign; «pft'CK^«'ci mkka^ pag§'pastthB 
space ; ^he void sphere ; the skin or cover 
of the sky, m., darkness, gloom ; ^^'^^'9 
mtkkaii gem of heaven ; the sim, . moon, 

MpK'Wq iiMa^ st7.6ffsfog (JfibNi). 




SJIfP^ fgMar irtfj ftV a oastle, a 
AoUeman'B seat or mansion ; manor house ; 
ireq. a citadel ; fort : «r^'^ rnkhar-^pofi 
governor of a castle; commander of a 

3^(pK*P ItPoAar-k/ia n. of a place 
situated, to the north of G-yan-tse in 
Tsang ; the birthplace of Oriilhchen Otaafl 
§myon He^-rthka, one of the celebrated 
Buddhist Tantrik saints of Tsang. 

f^'S^T^ fslchar rgyahi-khal, contains 
768 jPit«# «Ao=640 ^pur-aho. 

9fKl fnkhar-ria tint, ^J^fw a drum ; 
(according to some) a minstrel. 

»^ai(g^-^ip Hfkhar-chen brag-ikar 8^' 
jqiajM^Jn^aj-J-^-^^^Ik- n. of one of the 
37 sacred places of the Bon ((?. 
Bon. 38). 

•f^'S^'Yc.' Jftkhar-chen rckod n. of a 
fort near Tengri Nor. 

^?5a|-q5-«i5i^'il«pn-8l-«'l^fl|-9|'«<^ one of the 
wives of Padma Sambhava {LoA. ^ 8). 

^f^* W^*F^ Q3i;Aar.Jia;.^' khal on 
the Tibetan Bteel.yard»T^^'W^ mkhar-nag 
goA of gold weights 88 iho of J)kii9 plus 
8 fiar of gold. 

T^')^ QtAAar-Xa/ that sleeps on spaee ; 
a general name lor gods and birds. 

3Wp1^'^ Jffkhar-rta n. of a place on the 
confines of Tibet and Nejpal {8. kar. 77). 

•T^'S*! JKk/iar'ttag an abbreviation of 
*f^'l" V Jfl' J"!^^' Hikar-rtio dan Itag^rtae 
fiBo^y the forts of llfkAar^ttse and Iftag-rtte* 

9f^'f^ Jfkhar'i/iog n. of Tibet. 

9f^'^ mJchar-rdo {9^) ^^WTwV n. of a 
medicine; a metalic substance in large 
grains ; a sort of pjrites. 

wp^'^ m^kkatytder^ ita, iNr a plate or 
dish made of beU-metal. 

^IfPs'H n^khar-wa I : Mm, 4mm bell- 

*lpl^'q II : (also 'V^-fl kkhar^a) in 
B. and C. staff, stick : 9f^'t^ mkhoT' 
g^l a stafE -of the Buddhist mendicant 
priests, the upper part of which is hni^ 
with jingling rings (Ja.) : S^'*r^ phy€^ 
fj^khar resp. for *t^'^ ipkhar^tca. 

•f^•^^•^?| ^ikhar-iaii igra, ¥v^ 
enemy of Ea£fa an epithet of Ftfyu 

•^ > Mkhar-rtae n, of a If^ J^dM, or 
fort in PAan^pui in Tibet. 

wp^-wf f*-f^- Jfkhar^Mm Lka-khdi 
rdsaH n. of a fort and town in Tibet 

a maker of articles of bell-metal. 

9fK^^'^K^ fHikhar-ruii fpar gad (m 
fpin* of Mkhar-ru measure is equal to one 
silver sraA, 

«P^ ^^ mkhar-^ruA vtrmr the guard 
or garrison of a fortress {€$.). 

»r^'^ nitkhar-^ metal cymbal. 

W^'^\^ VStkhal'muhg Hdney-eolouwd; 
dark red (Ca.). 

«P^^ *»tf*-ifarf«ifs|-»A'iR ifik]M4H6ii 
nai disease of the kidneys. 

*ip^'*l n*hal^a I: the kidneys: 
i^hal^ma goA pin Uha-grcA ms j^ 
i^hun daH ^hat-ndg IgaA-ica rkei-pt^ 
nai-la phan the kidney (of cattle, etc' 
taken as food) equalises the temperature, 
and is beneficial in kidney disease and 
also for ailments of the bladder, and groin. 

«P<^*9] n: said to be kind of fiut 
(tf two speciss U£ed in kidney diaease. 




pa Aril grub^ a BuddbiBt adiokr who 
lieuig kanied has attained perfeotion. 

%^*^^qK fptka§^grtd> 1fg€^hg§ ^^(ki4 
one of the chief duoiples of Tsofi^khapa. 

•^rtiXq ^Moi'iftokog tifmr a prof ound 
adioLar ; eminent among the learned. 

«tp^W flRtAai-ifton i?K steady and 
-wise; of xdiaUe knowledge «ipr«r^^'q 

Wn^, ft^WW, PiSl, ftfl'L l41lt^ WW?, 
ftfiw:, ^W, wftn^, Hf, ^!|, vfini wise, 
kaniedy aagaoioiiB: W^V9fmr^ imm^pa 
fiUot^pa ddlfiil physioian: X<r ^*i^ 
cAohAi 9iMa|-jNi Tereed in religion: 
9«r«r|c.'q'flr«f«'«i efficient in managing 


Bjn. tF'^ bp^^wa; ^f^ rig-idan; Vr 
l^Pi tnam-gaali M'**'*^ rig-pa^an; flf^ 
ih4dan ; jpT-^ f ijroii-fef ; ^'IW*^ yi>n- 
t4M^i; !FV^ gra^hcan; 94fM'9 fufeirff- 
pa; fV^*n inafh4big^kan; ^m'^'V^ 

Af igihotk'^ca ; 9^*<rVrQ grag§^ tkdhpa ; 
^W^T gfoldcaii igo ; ^^'^^«^ c^yi;. 

•r«'^«S fpMaf-jMMWfi f^fin wiae; 
learned; Bkilful; experienced; prodent; 

•fw«>*r« l**a|.iw ito^ qv«^, iq^ 
lilce a dndnooa man ; appearing ddlfnl. 

«f«'em'«i vkkoi^ §fnai^ ^|i« of 
inferior attainments. 

i^g aa one akilful, bat not really ao. 

ff*rJ'^aH«|'<l»i?iirJ-^|ii'q n* of a 
commentary on Tibetan grammar called 
af«i'«ft*aiyi'y( ipkhai-pa^i if^gul^ggan by 
Bi4u Choi-kyi hbyu^gn9%. 


n. of a commentary on Tibetan orthogra- 
phy (Sunp-rt^g) by fifo-groi rggalrpo of 

)«S'9«r|^ii. of a grammatical work by 
Karma Salh^gpai of So^kug. 

can iT%iran^hr poaaeeaed of tiie natnie 
of the learned; naturally wiae or akilfnl. 

•P'*'**^*!^ ffkkai-paki rigi ^%mii^^ 
of the learned daaa: «f4i'(A'^«i*ini'|ar 
^fkhoi-paki rig9 tef fkgei bom of the race 
of JDakfa. 

f^kAohrhm) mO^u^m^ wm conceited 
person; a pedant. 

•fnw^^ ifkkahpa% dffigt pedantio: 
if i(*9i|*li|'Q'i|«iirii*«f«i ^n^^ipro'l^s among the 

cnltoied there ia mnch pedantry in lean- 

•f^rfl qiMaf -tpo or •T^'^i fiM^i-^pa a 
learned man; {H'S'T^Q'^'w iiUm^ggi 
Vkhoi'po ffiomt learned men of former 

*r^'l|^ i^sJ^koi^tfun wiae and fooliah; 
wisdom and folly. 

ttlo'ldan nm a noUe, learned woman 




^*i 'a^^ V!tkha$'lit9t0i learned and rigb- 

learned ; ^conscientious and good. 

•'F''^ fgJsftaS'^i ^If^^'-, 'rfNi'l most 
skilful or dexterous. 

*J|3^'^ nikhun-pa {Soh,\ v. nV^ Mtun- 

*l|5^'q f/i*At/r.ic« the cheeks: »fj^«»' 
^r^ta^-^i;^^ Vc^'l^'^-f^ai a little fleshiness in 
the cheeks forebodes wealth (JKTi.): 
*fj^'*»i nikhur4shoiy v. RV** khur4sho9f 
cheeks: wsi»«BV«^i'^-^s-«wpSXs her 

very ruddy cheeks glow like the rising sun. 

^|h*C| fgJchihwa neoessary ; desirable ; 
also vb. to want : c«i»iff^*^ I don't want 
it. »ifJ<j5-25'B^ fgikho-icabi y(hbya4 indis- 
pensable things; necessary articles; Vw 
9^^ Se-^car ip*/*o-tra or ^^^f* Her^fj^kho 
requisites, wants, desiderata ; most neoes- 
sary things: l!'^*^'^V according as was 
wanted before ; as heretofore. 

^i^'SS W^ho^eiy oolloq. khihohe^ 
necessary thingii; what may be needed: 
khyd'la khihohe yo^pe rik di dbr nyo ma 
ehok the kind which you wanted cannot 
be bought here. 

a^ji^fl'Siq ^ko^-phab aoc. to ^ug. 
signiAes a faaqy for a thing; asliking 
for ; also to wishi want something. 

j(||^^*Q|C^ ffkhyi^gai the measure with 
the fist made with thumb extended, about 
six inches: *^awa?l«»fts-^^' (its) length 
when folded is one m^hyii ( Yig. k,). 

91|3^'C| ^kyui-pa, v. NSVQ i: kkkyu4^ 

p0 to keep, to hold, to retain; ^fr^W^Q 
4p^ ipkhyui'pa^ S^'VS*^ fl&» wkkyui^n 
unwillingness to len^ books (C!i.) ; ^^QV 

dS*^ ^'ft^hyu4 hyei-pa to be unwilling to 
lend books. 

*<SV|^ flikkyu4'Spya</ 1. a sort of bag 
or vessel for carrying medicine. 2. soroery, 
witchcraft {8ek.) : ■•••\«'**flVr>r 5 a little 
instraction or various subjeots like the 
alma-bag of the saint Phadaxn-pa (which 
contained difierent medicines). 

'VilS'^W^^yuifpyad'passf^ii ^man-pa 

a medicine man; a physician (M^t^^-)- 

^^ fgikyen, v.*d^'<i fgikhyen^pa. t '^ 
5n'OT^i»d^|-^*^cr«i^'W fye (^twn-gfiii 

tkugi ^kyen^gyi gMigi-pa lagi'9am Has 
your reverence seen by your prophetio 
sight f 41'*^ ffA^fftMy^n form of abjeet 
entreaty : I appeal to your honour's wis- 
dom; W^'*^ to your honour's sacred 
words; OT^'*^ to your honour's heart; 
"d^'*ft V you know full well ; you will 
understand : ir«''dV'^'*<d^ O Lama; thou 
knowest all I «4<V<i^'«dr^ of your wis- 
dom permit to be done I 

'd^'W nikkym-^nMan very learned: 
*'«F'*'**«^|'**Ta«dT'W prrfound lib 
the ocean in every (department of) religioB. 

'd^'S'^ fiA%eii-r^ya-€afi pos soge d of 
muoh understanding ; very learned: ^^ 
y^-QiJMytfnsssiBi'fi^ ^^gon ifJtkym pos- 
sessed of prophetic knowledge; fore-know- 
ledge; l^*m^ ikugi'iifkky9n knowledge 
of a higher kind ; prophetic €ight. 

JlQ^'Q mkhyen-pa resp. for ^*i fet-pc^ 
^T** rig-poy ^'fl gO'ica 1. to know ; also 
knowledge ; ^«W'«S'«d^'<iMffiii|-<^9iii;Ayeii- 
pa «^W all-knowing. 2 V-^ vum^s 
ssi|srfi^^ tnam-flJtkyen ftw, such taws 
though applicable to Buddha are now 
applied to the Grand Lamas of Tibet out 
of courtesy or for the purpose of flattering 

«^'^V'*«*^ I 


tbem *^<r»^^q-llfiR^^ i^hooe know- 
ledge has no bound {Ltm-rim.) ; «d^'<A'^' 
-^ superior wisdom ; •^'A'^TM attain* 
ments ; aooomplialunents of a high order ; 
•dT^^'l^l peroriired, found out, dift- 
ooTered; ^«■rcr^^q^•«^fw perceived the 
flentiments to he pure, 

^wide and critioal knowledge; wide discri- 
nimating wisdom. 

(with) htoad yiews and wisdom; wide 
pErophfltio vision or sight. 

^^IF^ wt^hjfeU'^TUB omnisoient mercy. 

^IIt^H* wJ^kf^n^fi supernatural 
peraeptMm; attributes at a high ineamate 
lama or a BodkuaUva. 

•dV« flfkk^en^r^A the wise; aU> ^'^ 
f0ff-r«6 mrr wisdom* 

mkhfen^nam did yon understand it f 

^ran, or l^^w vm the knowledge of the 
snlqeot; basic kaiowlsdge: ^9f^ hm'^ 
knowledge of the way (to Nirv&va) ; know* 

ing the way. ^*^ HMmi-ldRAyeHsiF^' 
•^ rnam^par esf ftviw ^in9 oognition 
of an things. 

•fF'^ fiMitiil^ {ihang-pa) aoo. to Jo. 
is the fourth stage of the development of 

^VP^'V «Mraffws|i('Q irai^pa or W^ 
^1^*4 srv-fNT A^yir-iMi a robust, hard and 
aound constitution : f|«r|''l|^'I*9'tr«^*a in 

the great sfarengih of his body there is 
aonnd health (ifa^). Thesoundness 0/ one's 
OQUSlilution is ascertained by examining 
the urine deposited in a bottle; when it 
is natural the physician dedaies *V^'^yi 
ifUtroA^hdng^ or colloquially H'^^VI 

hroA-gin hdug, it (the constitution) is 
sound, &e. 

*l^'^ V^hraA-wa {fkai^fca), or »*|^i 
Vkkraii also B^ khrai hard ; solid ; com* 
pMt; l|*«fP^'«<('^|<^*A% sra-spUroilw^ii 
^gpur met firm; hearty; sound; of a 
robust constitution {Jd.). 

Sl|^ 4(*aC| igJchrig^ma {tkig-ma) the wrist 
of the hand (c7d.) ; the part of the hand 
which (in women) is adorned with bangles. 
It is also called X'^'Q^Uq nar-bu cAiK-tra, 
the part where jewds are bound. 

aC|^qpi|*q mkhr%g%^ ifhig-pa) some- 
times for *^^'** iiJkhrig^9ia, 

'^fi^W W^f^hrii-nai bilious disease. 

Mg^*Qfi*Arif-jNi ifhi^ fnr 1. the 
vesideof the gall; the gall*bladder, as part 
of the intestines. 2. generally the bile 
itoelf ; the biUous fluid: •^n<rf«^ aj««i 
*i'^'9f*^'^'*'*^ Wifhrn-pa ina-tshog^ 
iidu^-pa r^na dafl dug yAArif mig-la phan a 
mixture of the biles of difFerent animals is 
useful for sores ; and the b?le of poisonous 
j^ntniAla is usoful f or eye-discase : v^^cA* 
^pi^'SS''^^ the four animal biles that are 
used in medicine : — (1) V^^^ dom^^khrti 
bear's bile; (2) ^Vk^v^^o rt-bofi fp*An>.j^ 
hare's bile; (3) 4'*«fi*«i hphyi^uii 
ifJehrii-pa marmot's bile; (4) yim m- 
iBkkrii fish Hie {9fmn. 175). 

mf^wcvvi fgJckrifipa^ean splenetic; a 
short-tempered person. 

•ifl«l'«i fOpArtf-ifui aoc. to Ja.a4« 

«|«i'^ ilAkri§4JshM4 bilious levw ; ^' 
«S«i graH'ipk/irii a feverish chill. 

wgrUia fiAMf-rtM applied to a fever 
in which the liver is con jested. 




•i^'^fiV. one in who?e constitution the 
biiiouB difieases predominate. 

Jlfl^fr^ mkhi^egi-pa {theg-pa) *«tT, 
irfviT hard; that cannot be broken ; cannot 
be divided ; also fearless; and ace. to Jd. 
••^•^^'^ tp(70 mkhregs-can obstinate, 
stiffnecked, stubborn. 

Syn. fl'«i sra-tca ; ^'^^ mi-qigi ; ^'<^^ 
m-Sifig ; ft|S m-^phyed {^m). 

mi'dgah'tca ffa-lu 1. to hurt at heart or 
offend, also to ixntate. 2. vindictiveness : 
g^QT'^pK.'^^-^HS'^'^T*'^ khyd la hkhaA- 
ishig cig-kyan bdug-pai {Sbrom. 61) you 
use all manner of vindictive words. 3. 
bickering, quarrelling; ^^'9^ many quar- 
rels: SZ^'9<i'V'^c^'<^S^ ^pon ilob re hkltaH* 
ihyuH there arose mutual differences bet- 
ween masters and scholars. ^'^k^Ss^i 
re bkhatk bye^-pa to make miflchiet (MiL). 

^PS'^ ikhai'pay especially in W. 
1. to sit; to sit firm: R'fcar'V'^Q 
to sit on the back of a camel. 2, to 
remain sitting; to stick fast; lobe stopped; 
kept back (t/a); ^fF^'^rv*^''*'!'^'' to get 
entangled with the foot so as to fall: 
ir*fS'^'^^ the door sticks. 

Q,pWfl hkham^pa^^'^ ktgyal^a to 
Bink or fall down senseless; to faint away ; 
to swoon. 2. to take into one's mouth 

Qff^ ^iar=^<i ehen^a or *^« 
chag^pa desire; passion; attachment 

Q^pPs'lp tkhar-igoU white pebbles 
called Vl^*^ dhar ga^ in medical works : 

gni^u ikhar^^goi dai eran-ma on both his 
right and left there were white pebbles and 

<^P^*2q I: 1. bkhar-fca a walking 
stick, staff, clutcheon: «'Vii"^p^-a-i^«r 

^T^^'^9^ he met (a man) who carried a 
stick of chu-fin (water-tree) {A. ISl). 2. 
^, ^wirfti bell-metal: 'V^'rt'^i'nSiirft^- 
^^ the rust (sulphate) of bronie, or of 
gong-metal, removes eye disease. ^r^*Q is 
a compound of bell-metal with copper, Ac. ; 
V^'«j5^ hkhar-toahi ehu moltein, liquid 
bronze ; V^«»ti>-fe JWar-iraJi me^M a 
metallic mirror. 

Ojpt:z\ 11. vb. to adhere to; to stick to. 

^f^'t hkhar-tiia or J'C rgyt^ri^a 1. gong 
used in Tibet and China to call people 
to their work or lamas to religious service. 
2. a drum of bell-metal, I^rge beU-mstal 
disk, producing when struck loud sound 
like thai of a bell. 

V'^1'^'^ hk/iar-gs/ian dish of bell-metal. 

^r^*^« hkhar-zafis a metallic ketUe. 

V^'^ hkhar^l the staff carried by 
mendicant priests having a ehaiUya fixed on 
its top end, from which hang down sixteen 
rings : «wss-a^'^r^-^-«i»n-«R-^j»wq (^, 

»2) they all grasped beautiful mendi- 
cant's staves. 

V^fl|%»|-8'»|T^ ikkar^gfiU^gyi^do (K. d. 
•I. i85) a tractate on the merit aooniing 
from the use of the mendicant's staff. 

^P^ ^hal when spinning the thread 
stretched aoroes is called ikieU^ and that 
lengthwise is called igrim; sometimes 
this word is spelt as ^ ikM (2>0^f-^.). 

Q.p'^l'q kk/iol-ica 1. to spin : WijN'fl 
lal ikhel-fca to spin wool. 2 in )F. to 
send ; to forward things. 


«i|3'^S^ bkhu^ikkrig or ^r^«» 
ffblM-wa denotes Gortain paaeionB that 
disturb the innquility of the mind, buch 
as malignity and covetouBnebs; aoo. to Cs. 
to emulate, oontemn, hate ; also to long 
ter; aoo. to Seh. pride (Ja.)* 

W^j ]^ to vie with, contend ; also wrath- 
folly lebelling : ^•^^•^^••^Ti she fdoA-du^ 
baH ifoij \^n'Y'\^sA'^m''w.'Q don-la 
rgfum-dm gftoif-pa^i 9em§ hehuA-pa the real 
mgnifioation is always to harbour thoughts 
of domg misohief • Aoo. to Ja. to offend, 
insolt, injure; aleo injmry. 

hp-lta [immA^ Ik f &lse creed ; heresy 

^13^'^ ^kkun-pa 1. groan; a deep 
sigh, from suffering or disease. 2. on 
acoount of fullness of the stomach, beasts 
such as cows and buffaloes make this hollow 
sound at the time of chewing the cud : ^f 
fP^w^ii ikhun-^gra khaH-^ khedi he 
filled the house with groanings : ^'^'^ 
■''T'Tlf^'W |A»< ««i>» igra-la gyag gar 
iikun he groans (or grunts) like a yak 
against a fleroe enemy (Ja.). 

<^B»l'q muyn^, pf . B»w khunif (of. 
^Q ^twn^pa)^ lAid thoi-pa to comprehend ; 
to abzink ; '^•HT^'W'^ yan^lag ikhUm- 
pa to he oontraoted of the limbs ; ^'M|* 
Hi^sra rka^Jag bk/mnn-P^ contracted 
hands and feet: TI^'^'^'qV 'W>*9^''^ 
yur^ra rtdi^iskin ikhtHn bfe4 fin the ditch 
will get narrower of itself {Ja.). 

QJffJnr^ 4teffil:f9« 1. shrunk, 
BhriTsled, oontraoted ; fig. rednoed ; 

187 c^V^l 

restricted ; deprired of power : 5'^*<*«i bio 
kkhnmt'pa a contracted mind; an eabUy 
frightened heart ; one wiio is much afraid 
of (Aa^.) : ace. to Sch. to practise ; to 
impress on the mind. 

«m^-^lh^^ ikhur^u tkogt'te taking 
up in order to carry ; taking on one's back ; 
flfflo^H^Jn larj'par khur-hyei in W. 
to hold in one's hand {Jd.) ; %««9i'«i'^^'q 
sen^la hkkuT'ua to bear in mind ; ^a^*ss| 
bkkur^hag girth or ropej strap for 

t^H^'fl ***«r.if a sbst. pastry ; vb. 
to carry, as in RV W'^ khur ikkvr^a- 
|W, one who carries a burden ; ^(^^9^ bkhur* 
*y^rf» ^^'^'V*' hkhvr is/M-^pa carrying: 
Hi^iR-^^-^ nti-theg-par bkhur^ica to carry 
very heavy loads ; to carry what one is not 
able to carry. Ehur-fog, bring it I Khur^ 
iongj take it away I 

^^•*«i ikhur'Uho9, v. R^ *ii khur^takoi. 

bread or pastry baked with or in oil 


^gfll'^ bkhuh^a ace. to tfag. to 
subdue; to subject one by argument and 
language to service ; ace. to Cs. to be 
uneasy about ; ff^'HIF^ kkral ikku^-wa- 
ace. to Ja. perh. to force a tax, a rate, on 
a person. 

Q,p*ipi*q ikhegt^pa, pt of -^^« hg^gi, 
to hinder, stop, shut off, debar : ft'f ^*9i|S|' 
^'•m^-m jV-^ar tkag ruA-ma ikhegs- 
pai although they prohibited, in whatever 
way, he was not stopped : ^i^|«^'^^«iR 
nei-^yon ^M#(7ff-iMr-i'o one who has stopped 
evils and dangers : ^^^'9^ hkheq§-hy€4 
one who stops. 




(^^a^*q ^heUi^, pf. ^i^ii khetl9, to 
be wplote ; to be full : |M Sl'i'^v^^vq was 
filled with blood; ff^w'^^-^ Jfo-jfrof 
ma kh^%^te his mind not being satiated 

<^(^'^ bkhelhpa, pf . ^ *A<?t«, to cover ; 
to spread OTor; '^^^fl'^^'^ f^t^i-su khebi- 
fe being covered all over; rw««^f^^'5 
kha tkamt-ca^ kkeb§4e being covered over 
the whole &oe; to overshadow (Ja.). 

Q^'fl ikhel-wa, ^^'^ hgel-tca, pf . ^ 
khel^ ^^'^ ^ tfikH hkkel-ita^ to put on ; to 
pack on; to load : «irlHf^<) kcu thogkhcl- 
wa when the ten storeys shall have been 
put on (erected). 

<^j?'fl ikho-Ka (cog. to «(*'5 i^kho- 
wa) to wish ; to want ; to think useful, ser« 
vioeable, necessary ; to have occasion for : 
^1*^^ it will be of use; he will be able 
to make use of it : ^^srfrsff will it be 
ufeful or not, or in W. ikhthce meiy 
I do not want it; I do not like it. ^^ 
fit for use; useful {Jd)» 

^P^ipi'fl I: hkhogs-pa very infirm 
from old age ; decrepit ; decayed. G^n. 
signifies ^ t9^^ or J'^'^l*!'' rgpas-hkhogs 
worn out by age : Fj^S ffio-khog^ J'fH ikf, a- 
kkog complexion blue or pale from old age. 

Q^SSqpi'q II : ^rw, w, ftrr^, ww. 

¥mm migration; wandering; fig. worldly 

Q,p$^pi'fl III:=if'^^T«» Iflo bgog-pa 
to cough (JIfiton'.)* 

Q^^e:*q hkhot^^wa (cf . «^'<i tgofl-ipa) to 
draw in one'e limbs ; to sit in a cowering 

position; to squat; to hide one's self; <^' 
"^'^ ^Mii ikkat^a to be disoooiaged, 
disheartened (Ja.). 

Q.j^ tk/i0i, fut. of ^ iko4^f^ kho4 
1. surface; superficies ; «9'^'|sr<i m^' 
ikhoi iUom-pa to remove inequalities of 
the surface ; to level ; to plane ; M^'|M'q 
bkhoitfiomt-pa levelled; made even; plain; 
frequently ^'Sf'sT*"' h^r-g^ khoi-^nmt 
gaps were filled up, i^.^ distinctions of rank, 
wealth, ftc., were done away with. 2. a 
mill stone ; ^'^ pa-^hoi the upper stone ; 
«'^ ma-ikhoi the nether stone {Jd.). 

^S^ hkhoi^pa^fK^ idoi^pa to itt 
down; to sit; also to live, to dwell ; to be 
set down ; to be put : rgyal atH^lm ikhod- 
pa raised to the throne ; ^K«'4*^'<i settled 
at a place ; 9pi %^'^ seated in rank or 
order; t^'^'^|<K<i iteH^iu hkkoi-fa placed 
above ; '^TS'^'*' placed under. 

^p^ I : JBkh&n n. of an ancient fanuly 
in Tibet : il'|'^f^'S'M« $a-9kya bkkon- 

gy^ righ Sa-tkpa (hierarbhs) belonged to 
the race of JOkhon (fiag.). 

Oj(^ 11:=^^ ihe^^/ion malioe; 
dispute; war; spite {^ag.) ; ^'^ ikkatt- 
not from the state of dispute or war; ^ 
^S^ ikhon^nei-par honeetlyi without 
evil intentions ; also without quanel or 
dispute; ^F^*n^*Q ikkan tug^-pa to be 
spiteful or quarrelsome. 

^•«i ikhan-pa, also ^'^V*! *Moa-yof 
pa to bear a grudge or ill-will against a 
person; to be dissatisfied with a thing; also 
to be malicious, spiteful. 

^'Q ikhon-p0 discord; dissenaon 





kkkobf the sphere of one's doing or work 
(Zgm,) ; ebosB^ct khgdb^pm. Aoo. to /d. 
to de startled, sgiteted^ aUnned. 

^fSMMn ikhoU^ag not fitting to a 
plaee ; become larger or smaller : ^^«'i(^' 

cker^eher wtL being f roaon it does not fit, 
it haTing groim lurger {^ag-)* 

+ ^^^ *ik/iofr-ifa=:^^qto»-ji>a bad; 
widced; low; barbaroTis; rough; rude; *<^' 
^^ ^tiAm^ hf^hoh border ; also border ooun« 
try ; *«'^f^ gan^ikkoi distant border land. 

Q^^ I: ikhar an attendant who is 
inferior to a friend in rank and superior to 
a servant : '^'S'^*^ '^^'S 3^ i«^' even if he 
be allowed to be among the attendants. 

QJ6<II: l.for-^^fc^Wr/ior-foawheel; 
^^ff^ fm^kkhor the fiie»wheel ; %'^^ cku- 
kkkor a mill or wheel turned by water ; 
^'^ Rftti^kkhor wheel turned b^ wind ; 
^^^?^ Iag'ikh4)r a wheel turned by the 
hand; a millstone. 2. circle; circumfer- 
enoe ; the persons or objects encircling ; that 
which surrounds (a certuin point or place) : 

rnann the nayel and the circumjacent 
parts ; ^'?^'^ de khor^la theroabouts. 
y^f^ me-hkhor retinue, attendants ; also 
waiters : ^^Qiwm (fkhar daH icai-pa 
(vqfXiK) with the attendants or suite; 
^-^qXMcm ^hor ^a^ftc^Hn-pt^ sur- 
rounded by the retinue of Arhai$: 
^•\^m'l^ kkkor-du ifdns-po gathered 
nmnd as his retinue ; also frequently the 
train of thoughts, TeminiscenctM, &c., 
which the soul, when paasiitg into a new 
body, cannot take along with it (c/a.).. 

•'^ kkkar vifil (Sehr.-; Edbw. T.n), 

^*5V8W^* ikhoT kufhtu gragi, ir*- 
W^nr^^ resounding in every 

da^ $/iag kkkor^wa la return or each rota- 
tion (of a month, day, or year): x^*^' 

rigi la ^khcr-kha^i Ihag ^khyil yoU-gi hdug* 
pa thoee articles which are found in excess 
at the termination of the period should 
be sent round (^^V«). 

*p*^*«M ikhor-igJchan one who turns 
a wheel ; a wheel that is tiumed ; those who 
oo*ne and go with somebody. 

^'IS^'^ hkhar-gyi ikyxi-kkhit 
inf i(iV^W the circle of attendants. 

^*8i^ hkhorgyi ike^m, ^Txmn 

•'^P^'Si'^ bkhar^gyi ^ke-bo irft^^i 
{Schi\ ; Kdlae. T. 21) . 

**?^8'^*«' kkhor-gyt ^khyam court- 
yard ; an open space near a temple or a 
residential house where people assemble 
to witness a spectacle; also the passage 
round a temple or monastery for devotees 
to walk round for religious merit. 

'^t^^ kkkor^gyi gtso-io the chief of 
the attendants or followers. 

^'^^ hkhor-gfiig one attendant; 
^f^'V* kkhor-tnami domestics ; hoiido- 
hold servants ; *^ io^ikhor a cycle of 
years : <'^f^ aj'^n lo-kkhcr icu-gfn^ or 
yi 4{ drug-icu a cycle of twelve or sixty 

N*^' W hkhar-iian firrif the first of the 
seven mubicai notes. 

QjS^^^ ikhar-to n. of a tribe in Tibe* 
(y'ai. kar. 190). 




pawitm itops at tlw tiireahold or at the 
•atnowe of » lioaw. 

N*^'V^ §Mot^ hdn9 to enlist ; to 
rraniit; to tike Mono't followers. 8^*i>i* 

mdiwa takiiig mdouMi beixigs as his fol« 
kfwwn wcAm lot their good; or a JSodhi- 
Mf^etf hating brooght animatied beings into 
his followers, does work for the oanse of 
man : ^'^^''^'^ Utkw^tdui-pm tdug 
all the attendants had odUeoted together. 

^'4 tkhar^iw or ^'9 tklm^ male 


*^*^''^ i**ofMfa I : to turn round; to 
einrnmambcilatey to walk all round; also 
to elapse, to be completed. 2. to be 
formed, perfeoted: B^T^'^'^'^S the frost 
has formed ; Vxr^ dew has arisen. 

^^pV^ n: the world ; rotatory ezis- 
tance; the round of transmigration within 
the six dasses of beings : ^'4'<r|'''^'|9i 
ikhat^a h fiyie-ff | riy^f to repent at 
haying oome into transmigratorj existence. 

Syn. •t^^ mtHPigi •^^i'^'F wMan-^hagi ; 

0img-hg dtU^-fo; Wlk»si thun-^mHl ckoi; 

^•q-^-ff^ **AoiMt« ikhiff-mar to 
transmigrate in the world (Pag. $91). 

the braakar or destroyer of tranan%Datoij 
e xistenoe; the name of a former Tathi- 

€hmiH> ^fno^ (Mr.; JOtlac T. im. 

^*4 V|^ tkhor-wa iaH-vryg^^iv 
sil-eMr«^'«iMr'|«-(^*|fc'i^*4|'«-9-)^ the put- 
ing of all anilnals to be foUowera of the 
thousand past Bnddhas. 

f/Man one who has been liberated from 
transmigratory existenoe; also <me who 
libsrates anoiner £com that state. 

H^' fttiHn-moiiphihhati the residnioe of t 
qneen (4f<o».). 

'^^A'^Bi ikkoTHtati cl^nraiv the 
enemy of the world, JfOiv. 

ocean of worldly existence : 9/Hr%^9r^^ 

B|, AJ»^*§s«^|^qR§^ the FOa^NM 
(the wrong impresaion}; thrown into the 
ocean of worldly business {Ormb. ^ 76). 

tanglements or ties of the world: ^^' 
:^'V\^n I, ^«c«^-^9«iq-5ir5- J the straig 
fastenings to this world are the cause of 
the sofflering in hell of all tt^^m^ 
nature (JT. u lUy 

^•^(^'^q iihor^^ ffAff-iftfs/ the 
miseries of the worldly existence. 

^^m^ bdoi^tha iga^i^h AH-pkrt 
Oufid, the god of Loto {M^lom.). 

i^'i^'9S^% ^MerHMtt i4mm^ the 
prison4icuse of worldly existence. 

^*m kkk^r-ifiaH hmtwwmt the 
path of transmiigKatoiy existence. 

fK-*^-^ MAor*tMr tfjierio comeiB 
and go oat of this world Tuiy often. 

^•^•^•^« *Mir^-lMr tUsfHMfi 
one who trsnsmigratlss. 

1^*^ ^B^ iMAer.4Mir MAfUMi M(^ 
wandering purposdeas]^ in this world. 

N*^'*'*!' ikhor-tm ttAagt without 
ta-dam^t mm the tree Cadrnmba 

Mn^ imiatempted many (Fi^. ^). 

^"^ iikor-tkag the date of loturn; 
**» ♦«■• or period for whioh leave is 
gnatedto monb or soldien atthe ezpira* 
Horn of whieh Hbtty aw bound to ratarn 

*f^"tn Vtkor-ffug, ^nmm the horiwn; 
the wan suioinidiog a mfy or fort; ram- 
part: "f^'tWft Vt^or-yug-iu or^'X'q^'Q 
tiier^-mo fug^u within the limito of the 
horiaon; ereiTiriiere; at all times. 

• ^"«^ ***er-jf jr^ «« («i?Ar.; Kikie. 

iff^r^ m^-fgak latoh. 

attendants and aerraats, companions and 
domarties: "iT^ ftdun^hor waiting 
aerraat; rafc< deehambre; intr^ff^ noH- 
ikAor hftanhold servants ; domestics : ^ 
^ gtm-ikkor master and serraat: ^ 
^■^ ^n ikifir the ehidf and his servant; 
IT^ tUm-Heior the teadier and his 
t^V^i IF"^ t^ti^^AAor a seerattty or 
«*»*; %'y*^ Phri-Vchot aernoits oatside 
flke domedioa. 

65 A). 

*f^*1<«*«i mtr^gt^pa ^ood atten- 

''•n^'s^I: Mi«r-A> and other weapms 
•f wv inetnded in the f (blowing list of 



weapons op •*T« tfUhoH cha :— «Rpi-^-^ -» 
WwWu idtithpai »« <Jlo-tra; 5^-9^ f«Arf. 

f^ w* ItaghieHi i 58^9 Ayi>^ ; -WK- 
•V M«^-ti<A(«; •^•IK. f«f./M; ^«^-«^ 


an orb, oirole, disk; a wheel: ^•JUjj-'H- 

the symbol of entering into the great 
oitde. 2. the round of life; orb or state 
of existenoe; f^xft-^* trnhni^ ^n,^ 
*> »R^W the chart or oyde of edstenee* 
«'S^*V«'8-'«?K»n1| M« dot m tnamt*^ 
kkkor-io lt*hi the foor states of esistenee 
of gods and men:— (1) •W<A'vr^'<Vpr4 
nfthm-paH jful^ gnttifo sft^ti^Mll 
residenoe in a plaoe when there u agree. 
ment or which is agreeable; (2) fTyi^ir^- 
^^■*" ^pet^tu datihpa la ktten^pa «^s«vr. 
'W to take refuge with or shelter under 
good men; (3) «»\fVS- J-««-^T*iSr*i jdky 

vravm perfect determination of one'saelf; 
(4) ft''*^V»«Vr« |«M g<a^m,^4nJ, 
hfot-pa l^wm sm moral merit aoqoired 
in a former existence : *f^-*«| (i) jJk;iofwfc 
can ^^ one who is possessed of a disk; 
(2) |«« tbrul a snake (»on.) ; (8) t. i V« 
h" *ur.wi ynmvt (JIMoM.). 

if*or-lot-§nur <anmf4xm an TTAivwMl 
Emperor. ' 

Syn. •TfiV^^'K ma-ltit tfpatfo ; %'V^' 
** zgyaUuH hdu4\ fTcA-^^-^i^ *»«»*» 
iwi4-^g; sriT^*' M-iNm iwHl; *ST 

frfl ^ai^g rggnh^i M-f a«: 

fi^-Hv j^-jpr^-a^'Xf I 


q^-lfli'iiiaj-Qiqi I 

tgyaUgyi ft^Min-MK) the wife of the 
UniTeraal Emperor. 

Syix. * «^'f « wrf-yi /Ao-wo ; 8^*%' V*^ 
fmi-mei rfn-eken; ^w^fr« gnam ftftof- 
ma; fT«* V^'^T* Lhag-pati iwai-phv^g 
ma; ^*Tt^'^'* Iff^g-ri^^ ft<wn-»». 

^•*ami **A( 4;om|, v. S%^^ 

da-dru kiom IH^»^'<, vegetable medioiiie 

for ringworm. 

1^ «^-|;4(q^*^ Bkhor-iodad IdaHpabi- 

ri ^nra^ii n. of a fabulous mountain 
Bituated beyond the great ocean where the 
horiaon touohee the earth. At itB centre it 
has an impenetrable golden hill called 
Vajra ndbhi parvata. It is filled with fruit 
troes in consequence of which there are 
innumerable species of monkey living 
there (JT. d. ^ «»«). 

<^*i(^-i^K-la|'Zi*^$ A'lf4| hkhor-lo daft 
kkhcr-h chm-po Iha^i mo4og (JT. rf. * S6S) 
n. of a celestial flower; idem«'W<TI' 
y^Ktaa-kra daH Ua-kra chen-po. (JT. d. ^ 


^'H\i^\ ikhor-h dri-me4 ^llBnTW 

n. of flower. 

q|«<-K4|V hkhoi^-lo gdoA^^^ phag-pa, 

^m, wm a pig; one with a circular 

A|«<aiR^q-q} ^hor-h bdab-ityya W»»- 
«l9^^ n. of a flower. 

Syn. 5«i«a^- rgy^hpo^ P*; «^**'\*' 

9or-ma gshi-pa; ««vk. fo-ma iMan 

i^-^'^V*' V^ffor-lo hdra-tca ^mw^y 
wfNnr: like a circle ; resembling a wheel. 

i^[Ci^ K'^Vi'M hkhar-lo tdonia-pa 
n. of Buddhist TantfHk deity. 

^*lf-^*|p ikhor-h 4ican'§ggur >^ S IT 
«'^^ n. of a BoiT teacher {O.Bon. 1). 

^ V'^-q bkhar^lo tbyei^ "flAft^ 
one who can penetrate into the designs or 
machinations ol others. 

^'^>wf^ MAor-fe r^«At^M the 
fabulous wishing wheel which is poeseosed 
of one thousand radiating spokes : yi'tit'*'^ 
HS|iK' J-^«^<>wi|s. i<sq in the presence 
of the king was the golden wheel with one 
thousand radiating ribs; 8-q*iA^«|-«r^ 
^•qi\s|*i(«i<ii\irq-«i on each spoke, where it 
touched the felloe^ there was placed % 
dainty dish; ^'^T^V^r^siy^qy^-^-^^^ 
from the wheel was brought before him 
whatever he wished; ^^\S^^^fi'iv^''f^' 
^V^ci that which he did not like turned 
away from him {A. t). 

t^'H't^ hkhor-h gyo jp^ n. of a 

^jJ^S^SjK.' bkhar-lobi rkaA round foot; 
elephant; VF^9^'P0 (M^m.). 

nfSKH\'9^^bkhor-iobiiltgon'PO the lord 
or chief of aU: •rn-iHf^v^«V«««K*«^ 
««Af4i Q q^^^ii^S^M-di^^^*^^^^* 
i^q«i S^*^ before the feet of Kaiydnaudtra 
who i j the paramoimt lord poBseseing the 
grace of the noble, wise, and good, whow 
kindness is unequalled. 

ii^-A'*^i( ikhor^lohi f^grin as mets 
eXc^' tiUi-moi the camel. (4fXofi.) 

i^-lSk-9mfK bkhar-hbi tidkab i^» ^ 
the circumference of a circle. 

4jC^-;(t j^fi'qsif bkhor^hii v^anhpa Am, 
described as n**^«-^«'»*\r«, • went 
called '"tiger's-dawB." 

q|ik-lA*«Mi*q^ hkbar-hhi yan-iag^'^^ 

|5»^- HaH-pa |pyi*t w*i» ^wnw» ^ a V^^ 
term for the goose species (jtfXoii.). 


fei im amber. 

8yiL wm bfa.sui§ ; »*^«i C«.yi M^or- 
jw ; ^^^^S h§ itm mig (4Plo».)- 

^nv^tn ^kar4o§ tgnhiea, *l«^r|'^^* 
t'Vf ftH-ffo |p|r»-dM bfi'brag wheded; 
iMorkge <nr Tehicla (Jfitoi.)* 

^*r* M*or.<9f »«t*o, T. r •« frfw- 
fiiAoWy a potter; one irlio 1ms Ij tonuag 
(be (potter's) wheal («loii.). 

1^« |Mer-M vcf^^^f^pet the petli 
f or rireoBiambiilsiioix roQnd a aeored b^u^ 
ing or other* objeet ; the positioiis of 
ettendsnt demi-gods of a prinoipal deitj 

^'^V> kkc ttfmm JOMaif horse and 
oow : fc««ni-^r^'^i«*IF'^«S slight^ 
ing from his hocse, he prssented the three 
objectei Til., a serraati a horse, and a oow 
to him (A. 7). 

ils^^ the alms-g^Tor, alms-giTing, and 
tibe reesiTer of alms, when {hose three are 
of pure motiTos. 

(^^^ tfJkifHM, pf. eNh ftUo/, imp. ffa 
UM 1. to meke apsnon a daTS ; to bind 
ss a semnt ; to eaose to ssrre one. WpN 
free-Uol or f^rV kkot^ a daTo; ftitof- 
yi e# *y* fAv-M^ the miseriesof serri- 
tiids ; 9>Am«d!s^^ rf to e< e w #j w Wwfnwi 
to be endaTsd by others, wifl&ont abOitj 
to help oneseli SL aoe. to C«. to sate; to 
•pare; to enjojr with modention. 3. aoo. 



io Sek. to become iniensihle ; to be asleep; 
to get beanmbed in refarenoeto the limbs. 
In Med. 4. to boa (with pf . pN khci) : 
^H^'Q to make one boil; plaoe for 
boiling (tTii.). 

^}*f%vfi moltMUhpa eiplained in rai^ 

ihami<a4 igrulhp&r bjf^i^ %mi kgoA tnur^ 
M>a^fM4 na braA gfog^tu tkkoi4kub^ pin^ 
debitor ma-bifutl^na htM 9ifog4u g^urJfjfM 
tkM mi tM^pm r$4 (jf^ug.) acEtraotmg 
Tolnntary sarnos^ iA.^ if a sarvant 
obodientij gitas eisot to the wishas of 
his master, otharwiie, alihoiigh theaerrant 
maybe in hia aarrieei he haa not rendered 

^'« WMMm a tamale attandant 

^« tkkol^m wfit maid-aarrant. 

Ofn hkho% or ^^ tkkoiJta worth, 
Tdne, inqportanoe; alio neoaadty: ^'Sii 
kkkohcan important; mighty; "of great 
inflnenoe ; ^^^ t k ho§ w m 4 nninflnential ; 
^Vwe moi^ ph^A^ to draw aa a 
blistar or poultioe; ^>i'W*('H*^'V^' 
§9iai4fgi tkkoi4uikam {A. IJO) aUhoogh 
thaxe haTO aodated aome artidea pretty 
oomplete, there waa neoaadty lor a Teaad 
to reodTO (deaerre) them; ^'^V^'^ 
ikho§4M ekni'tM of laaa neoaadty; 

bga-war ehui^ less aotiTe or lass 
energetio (4f<fon.). 

^V^' V dm daH k§tun suited to one's 
intention or objeet; fltnsss; soil 

^P^5n t k hc§4p ^g aeooiding 
measure of one's afaOity. 





^^q hg^^uJt^kag^pa to put in oppofiition. 

vb. intniiui. 1* to freeze eitlier into ioe or 
hard ; to ooagiilate, crTstalifle : «'^^ J'*l^ 
the water will be freezing; Q^f r^B^S^' 
the Bcda has congealed on the salt-lake. 
In Sikkim kkyeh or khek^ii^. 2. to feel 
ooldy become numbed : V^'^9^ ikhyagi- 
tbpuH they felt cold (jtfXon.). 

^^y ikyof^^rum or ^fJ^'^M kkkyagi 
ram an icendip ; also ice in Uocka. 

Vf^h bkhyanhkyi dk BttAj dog. 

<^JWI*Q I: ikhyamhpa fig. to rove, 
wander: ^^\w^Wf|q|V«r^ii, ^t^fH'^' 
*^V' WW being completely deluded by 
deiiire, they rove the world as a wheel 
(JT. d. M S80) : A|»^q<'^w«r«i^ ikhof^^tcar 
tkhyanit*i)a dah or o^'V^B*''''*' bar-dor 
tkhyam9'pa to rove (in the world or in the 
intenral between death and regeneration) 
for no purpose. 

A|B«^^ II: =^^«^'^-^f q dan-mi^ 

du tgro^a wifk^^vrnv^f ym^mf ^, fwwiytf 

ft'Tf; ft^V^'^'^'V^bkhyanii^ar gyur 1. 
to rstmble about; to wander purposelessly; 
to wander in a strange country. At 
certain seasons many monks wander about 
Tibet, Mongolia and China, riifa Hue. 
fwn, ftl^J; V^<^-^W«'«' tnam^r 
tkhyamtpa^ to wander about continually ; 
to moTe about imceasingly: ^*c^%|Sf'q 
Ipchyanhdu bj^g-pa to cause to ramble or 
rove about; to become strayed, lost; 
wandering; vagrant;' erroneous; erring; 
«'«gprci eka kkhymhpa inimdation ; flood. 

^BF^*! tkkyamhpo 1. eo^roneous; a 
vagabond. 2. n. of a disease. 

^B^'^ J*Ayflr-iftf to err, to go 
astray, to deviate from the right path : ^ 
^^ mi'bkhyar erring or blundering man; 
^Vl^ Ifhyi tkhyar a stray dog ; <)- ^^jS^'Q-Q 
yug^ ikhyaf^itO'po one who makes 
mistakes in vnriting (a letter, &c.) ; IfS'a'^' 
^>^'«ra9^ do not err in conTecaation , 
^^'M«'^^ one should be afraid of 
making mistakes, of going astray; ^^^^ff^tl 
^ bkAyar^po a defective simile (Jo.). 

irreleyant: ^^f'^^iQ speaking unconnec- 

^^'^ bkhyal'takig irrelevant speech; 
speaking nonsense: «ff^'i'^'M<i^'ft'9S'*, 
^•il^f <S>w«S^'^^ if one speak mis- 
leading words which cause the youthful 
not to go straight it infringes the law (or 

Q.^^^ hkhyi^a, ace. to 8ok^ ^«'9 

Q^OT^ bkhytg-pa, ww to bind; to 
take prisoner, ii^i^lan, also in C, to 
strangle ; sufFocate ; ^'^^^^^V tkag^pai 
hkhyig-pa-po one who binds with a rope. 

Syn. ^Hi ^AM-ira; fh ^domi '^'^ 


^E^'** iikyigi-pa, pf. ^« 6^>fi 

to draw out; strain; also to roll, x^volve: 
IH'^V«i mig^tkhyii^ to turn orroU one's 
eyes: ^^'^''^^^at'^jW'^^f^'f^'i^^-^' 

Q'^^* Vrn bkhor^war »hy%4i^ rgyuHgt^- 

io m fi-Uar inaH'^icabi 4Ho§^ kM dag k 
the chief of the causes of revolving in the 




worid liM in how cm appatn (ratwaidly 

{Ztm. u, se). 

9^9m ikk p im jm^ ^''^^ CAM MAor- 
•M to whirl (aa of water) (Jfiloii.). 

doaari hed aa i i a ar A4 a/ia-iMi m^v la ^a# 
apar-iforuda ^ iMi f w wi j w, to ba anoirolad 
with a halo, like tha aaa and moon ; ^' 
H^* Aoy-MAywNff ^imV nimbaa; halo: 
aM'^-a^wi AfoMorf iUyiaii a ninhow 
ancinliiig (him) : rit' aa-Mii or ff^ 

AUyMMt lbg» miati or aoioka anTtlopad 

^13^'Q MAyJTHMi to torn round : 5S'*>* 

VAfit^pa (i^tffP.) to turn a paraaol rQimd 
in a oirde OTar tha hr d. 

intnma. to wind; to twist; to whirl round; 
fbw hair (JVXafi.): C«'4^in*H|ca 
ehu-ralL fug^'knii AMy^AiMi water of itaaU 
whirls xoiind» m.| toms into a whirlpool; 

M%ff pjfMi-iMr^ A white shall wound to 
iba right or wound to the left ; |*r^*a 
iffni V^ffO^u to ooil up like a snake; to 
being wonnd hi the manner of a snake: 
«'HQ'4*r^^ ehu eiethpo tkkgil ^Ong 
nmah water haaaooamnlated snmnmding a 
place or inode a place forming itself 
in a whirlpool; Xw^^trV.- ^o^u 
Ikk^i^iMl aa if wreathed with light; f 
'^M'^^^ Ca jew mig myil-^ pd 
iheflshwaarevolTbg its golden ^es: ^ 

^ar gyur4$ tiiere manjr people hating 
crowded together or assembled together: 
*-iragirfT«^j^c^V8-5 alth^agh 

there waa no awirl in the watesra they dog 
deeply into the gromd. 

8yn. af*^-^ IMerbra; hT«" A/tr^Mi 

^I^^^S hkhyO^a tryjfa wmw^ one 
hundred coils: ^trf^ tkkpO'^tkm «vA 
anything that is p o ss e ss ed of coils; wonnd 

^►ra-a^ MiyiAfta «ia»r9^ P^a^gfan 
an aamng. 

8711. r«r«Ar|LriM4« vdnt^^-, i(m: 

<^'1 Vthif^a or ^v-d ikkyui-pam 

T^kjfog^ 1. bant ; not itnigbt (ifiy ). 
2. pf. «s<i MAjwi nin atraj. 

Syn. ^^ |r<Mr«; |«rq irof^ {Mi<m.). 

to nm, laoT* tvilUy ; Mid to iaq^ 9^**'^ 
^ «trMrH0«t^4(9fi, Um iiMMiiiif of rapidity ; 

ikhifug-pa rapid laotion of figtoiof t 
Vrr'«l|r« fhtlfmr IMfNftfM torn or 
mora rapidly liki tha iaah of l%lria>tng. 
^TV^B'v «Mifiv^ IMyii^ to nm vmj 
fwiftljr: «B^lM ikftfuf-tmn in or about 
a moment or in a flaab: I'^B^^tata |i» 
MAjwHmm jiA«if^7oarbonoar bat ooma 
for a rapid vint: es''«('^'^'^^<i|-|qr 
'^T' hhyi^roA dt-r^mtug-itam^Ma rogt 

wai 7011 oonw bate to^ jntt f or a trioa : 
W*r^l^ tkhfuf^ttm gti^ Me lor 

aboolaaiiMluit: ^'^ MNw M;^yi^ (be 
Mind traTda ^oidUy. WO^t kkr^Mg^g. 
JM to gkam; to twinUe witb Ugbt; to 
■bine in varfooa ookm : %1|')trl*Mr<mr 
w^ (Z«M. ft. ts.) tbe Mind i^tm 




(x^l6M) with ftuflering ; ^^Yt« glit- 
tering in yellow Initre; tcT glitter ; to 
shine (of theminbow). 

^^'^^ ikhtfug-^yig running hand^ 
ouirent handimtibg. 

^S'T'^'**! i*Ayt/ jF-f ar-ctf » in IT. hacty: 
hurrying; oaieless. 

una tkaf-^ as soon as bom (4Mon.) . 

M^'ipi*||k'^'ir1|i;' ^yu4 na§ tdoH-^cabi 
fna nM Wvw VflV ^W* one that beoomee 
an hermaphrodite after being embraced* 

IpiT 1. to embrace ; embraced : ^^^V^^S^ 
ifigul-nai tkhyui^ to clasp ronnd the 
neck; to hug; to encompass by spanning. 
2. to glide in or into (as serpents) : 
»ici|-^<^s|-q ^al-du ikhyug-pa entering of 
the soul into new conception. 3. to be 
able : "li^'i*^'* NS^ M-^ar mi kkhyti4 
unable to rise (from bed)- The word is 
alflo illnstrated as l^wf^-^-^fa-fa 
ttrig-pa la t^n na% tgnhwa Ua^ to 
move supporting himself on a wall, &o 

^rrftrrvr sexual embrace (4Woii.). 

of ^ 6l»yt«r, to be separated ; diTorced 
(Off.) : to stop ; to put an end to. Aco. to 
Jd., to be deserted: wasi''«'^-^si'q^ 
being separated, be was, so to speak, 

•1^^ bkhyuf^ V. ^'^ ikhyu^a. 

'^^''^ bkhyeU'Wa to be filled, up, t. 
i^^K.«'<i tgeHi'pa. 

Q^^^CI ^Ay«^j»a L to be sufficieilt, to 
suffice, to be enough ; to bold out ; cblloq. 

'^^'ft^ this is enough : M^ there is net 
enough. 2- in (7. to gain (a law euit); 
to be acquitted {Ja.). 3. Ivfts-a pfiyir 
khyei^a to bow without uncoyering one's 
head, as a less humble way of saluting 

^QVl hkhyer-wa nn to carry 
away, to take away ; sbmetimes, to bring : 
4'^^'^^ chu-yii bkhyer carried away by 
water ; <^i(<i'^'^ fe-fo| bkhyer to be over- 
come, carried away by idleness, ^'^'ft^ 
l^e-mig khyer take the key; ft^'^ 
khyftr-fog bring; %^'^ khyer 90^ C9iry 
ofl, take away; akin to the fe-au and 
h'jao of Hindustani. 

Q^V^ ikhyer-w !. bearing; 
appearance; demeanour; neatness. 2. 
colloq. advantage; superiority; pleasant- 

QJgf^*^ myel-M 2kf . to hit, to 

^B^'^S^ V^hyog-bkhyag bent, 
crooked {Sag.). 

•n^'^t 1 »*Ayo^»^ro«v^i^«i g^h 
tpen-pa the planet Saturn or ^*2^ ^ 
§(l<m ; he in blue robe {M*t^)^ 2. cs<w« 
^b^hu a stream ; waterfall {M^9n.) ; 
l^'^Y^V Mbrul bkhyog^gro the naks 
because it creeps in a bent coarse (M^^-h 

'^H^'^ bkhyog-can or ^^'^ tkkyo^ 
bkhyog tortuous. 

i^4|*|i('q bkhyog iton^ to fly into s 
passion {8ch,). 

Q,j^'q **Ayojr.pfl, pf . JT^ »Aya^, imp. 
0s| khyog 1. to lift; lift up. 2. to 
carry ; tob ring : ^««rrS^ gff>ha '^9 
bring in the tea (C)- 

^^8 ttkfog'fo or ^fl kkyojf'fo 
crooked ; bent : ||^CI%'^*li kk^ag^po^i H^tm 
a crooked flgme; m curve, flouriahf creeoent, 

Ukun^ikAyoff the fish mrithing hither and 

crooked BeedB. 

P^ ^V, *t^i,W*, ^ fM^9 l^^Wi not 
upright ; not Bbw]ght» ., crooked. 

iH|{T« «q'«^ kkhfog-poii w^hu^pon the 
bent-bill ; a toucan. 

«Aa, a^'^ ekaH-rtii a kind of ohum or mixer 
to make wine yith. 

Syn. ^g-*^ goH4m can ; «r*^' J .•W| ^er- 
m ^9; ^OT«'4t^ 4bug9^bbyin fiii; a^' 

^^ Ukig^gi fffaHrrag rough language ; not 
straightforward (jKIoh.). 

^$T^a^ tkkifog^gafl a lath or pole for 
canying burdens (&A.). 

-^TS^ tkhjfag^gral»\^'m^ dtaH^km 
straight road (If^lbfiJ. 

'SS^^w hkkfog^hbar *|«'lk' Uaie 
or flame (4IU<mi.). 

^T*S ***yof.^w«fas\K-« draH^ or fit" 
^ wt)^:iw aiaraight (4f*wi.). 

^▼^IS VAyof^ifai a crooked, ont-of* 
ihe-waj oonatmotion or explanation. 

^6^ J*Ayopi or f^ ikhgogi, x^ 
a p«lanq[niTi ; sedan chair ; lifter. 

Q,^*q »kJ^roi.tra or ^mi l^hfoS§ %^' 
paMi don-^iM QiMtf^ to obeerte : >^*4^« 



n^^r^ igw^^la ^pin^idag^git fH^ma^g^ 
gi iiHef^ikur sktMM 1. to obserre a day's 
religious service in a monastery. 2. aoc. 
to Jd. and Bamsay khgong in Ladak 
signifies to bring. 

^p^'Q kkhponhpa mrm, fluid hence 
fig. giddy or giddiness ; also to reel ; to be 
giddy: ^^'^'f^'ri^i i» ikhyam ikhgam 
rgyug disay with intoxication : «*'3|k.¥«(ii- 
^•r^a*^^ ^'^^ yaH fig %og% V^hyoi daH 
ikhgor^Mi hkhyog the trees being moTed 
(by the wind) were bent (Aug*) ; so the 
words 4*« ikhgom asid ^^ ^hyog are some* 
what similar to each other, ^^}i9^t;^khyom- 
khyom do^a in C to reel, stagger : *^^^ 
^•> (TR^i ehta^gi bkhyom^kt kdAg he is 
staggering under the influence of beer; 
9it'^99 ffii$h<hkkkg&m disainess ; vertigo : 
W«S**f^^i«'«rs|r tug^lai if^go^tkhar 
kkhgotfhpa gto the farabi of a sheep (taken 
as food) cures reeling or diasiness of the 
head (Med.). 

^%^*Q ikhyor^wa ftwv to be un- 
steady ; to miss, fail; not to hit {C$.) ; to 
imI, stagger, from intoxication; to warp 
(of wood or wooden vessels) : ^f f %«r^^ 
in walking his steps reeled (jBAa.)- 

oB'^'q -mvohpa, pf , ^m kkhgol, cf. 
1^*4 ffty^j-tMif to be carried ; to be brought ; 
to arrive at, come to, reach : aww^^ra^' 
%w^ on reaching the end, it uras left 

oi^Vl kkhgot-ma, same as %m'm 
fftyai-ifuSy a present, gift. 



probably NP< V^hrat^ to lean to; to 
indlino towaida {Cs.). 

^'^ hkhra-M a support to lean agamst ; 
a prop; the baok (of a oludr): ^B'^'^* 

pa firm in support (J^ag.). 

Q^gC^ ikhraH^ (fha^) mKi hard ; ^Rvq 
^Mra^l-tra, m^ ^ ^kraH'^a adj. hard. 

^^*^ ^^^'*^'^^ (^Aatf-:|Hi), in ooUoq. 
Tib. to expel ; turn out : ^^''^fS9Sigegs 
tikhrai byei to expel the devil (from 
one's body). 

Q^*C| j^hnOhpa (thalhpa) ^smn^ tnr; 
ft 'fSP ikrab ox tp'^ Skrab-paf 1. tortrike; 
to beat (in regxdar strokes, as in swinmiing 
and rowing); to thrust, stamp, tread 
heavily ; ^'^PF^i h'o bkhralhpa to dance in 
that maimer. 2. to winnow ; to fan. 3. 
to blink, twinUe, wink with the eyes. 4. 
to jest; to joke; to oraok jokes. 6. to 
leap, jump {8ch)i jump for joy {Sehr.), 
6. to sooop out ; to bail out {8ch.). 7. to 
fight ; to combat in C. and W. (Ja.). 

^QI'^P^ ikhral-dkhrut (fhaHhut)^ 

|pr4*^'4 ISkral-h kkrul-h {fha-h fhu^h) 
ooufused; dazed; confounded; also as adv. 

also applied to one who is confused in 
his ideas and speaks unconnectedly and 
ravingly, and being unable to sit moves up 
and down and cannot even preserve his 
own goods. 

chag§ idod^M hopeful ; also attached. 
Q^ diArJ (^Ai) reduction ; discount. 

^]^*^ bkhri-rkai in, said to be^S^ 
"^ tgyaUmithan, the Buddhist Bag of 

^^'1^ bkhri^grub payment of stipulated 
revenue or dues : pprvrj'^^'l^ii JfcAr<rf-iai» 
Im-hn 9og§^ ^'^[9tlf^'p^^'v\^'^ rat-gi 
fj^gihla babi-fia-ni tkhri-tea liabilitiea ou 
account of rent or debt, &c. 

Q^'q bkhrp-tea, pf. ^ ikhrii, et ^J" 
^ ikrMca cognate. 1. to wind ; oomp roo s ; 
entangle ; bpid fast : B*^^'^ft'^B'<^ kAptm 
tkaihkyi tkkri-wa conjugal embrace ; 4^'^ 
bkkri^ or ^1^'^ jiUn^a oceeper ;a 
creeping plant: (pr^'^^^r*^^^ to be 
tiedbytaxjes and entangled in debt 2.s 
A^'Q ohagt-pa mostly as a sbst. thrall ; 
attachment, bat as vb. also : ^'Vl'^v'^ 
rafl dar^gifi tkhm-pa to be atbaohad to 
one's interest or advantage; Q'*S'S i«- 
nmi^kyi to wife and children: '^'^^ 
bkhri^i3HihQ4^^K^^''<^^^ 9km^ 
da^tbreUthag 0A<^ fondness; attachment. 
^^'^|« 9f$en*ikhri§ passionate attaohmeout 

^1^'Q.qq bkkri^bab aasesadoeiit of 
revenue or rfi|«^-^V^^^MH rlM-Ma 
fM gtum-gifi bkhri^tMj levy for iLe 
three-— grass» water, wood (to be sappUel 
to privileged travellen or oflScials) 

irvT, W^} vfiim, ivOl, vnfv a cveepiug 

Syn. «w^^'W«i yai-ja|i f«*iMi. 

qK*q*l|4|'l|*lic. n. of a kind of tree. 

Syn. ^-^'^pri^foUku; 9\*^'^'^hii- 

hyag-bt^it (41M<mi.). 




«^' W^M mrl-fHi Hfghnui |Vs«r' 
^-<ra^ » luune for the S«l tn*. 

 ^S^'P 4*An>^ 1. flupr (&Ar.). 
2. MVi, ^«i mjstio number ngniijrmg 
"two" (SfMi.). 3. Tb. to oohere ; to rtiok 
together; beoome thiok, intermmgled: 
mr'^ tnam-tkkrig the eky is think: 

Vthrig-pa beems of light and ninbow hoes 
intenninglad: ^fi^l^'4 ikhrig gyur-pt, 
|c|^^v^A|^q to beooma adherent 
being intimatel J mixed iq» with the Mfliron 
of meccy. 4. ooitoa; aezdel inteoraomae : 
"^n^T^ to perform sodi. ^|*rin^rt>< 
(ikad='^^^kkrig-UMg amoronsspeeoh; 
obscene laognage; ^^«Wl Vthrig4habt 
vfinr amoroos dalliance; '^fi^^^V** 
tkkng idoi-tita vn^ a Toliqytaoas 
wmaa. 5. ^%mi{k. the twins in the 

Byu. of No. 4. sqR»«(^|V f^tr<f/|.jM> 
0fiiM8yer;Vc-(AV« gnU^pd^i «ho§i Vl^« 

VM i»-r«9; VI* ^^; S^m fwiMff ; f^'« 
•Jkwt-im; Wf^ *MM-«6yor; l*'!'^ «»y«-fc« 

Hl^ iiV-ffrw» (4(i(fM.). 

p^ tmrofwa (ifmHim speaking of 
copnlaikm or of ssocoal onion. 

*fiTo-«^4 mrig-pa tbpm^ to talk 

^fi^«»IS ***n^a|JtfdiX5-^ftii n. for 
iKe orow (J|Moii.). 

^ftT<A<«?S *» khhrig-pabi cJiOi t^en-pa 
to be given up to voluptuousnefls. 

«w» or m*S-^^\f^ « hui-n^ hdo44imn 
fWi a voluptuous Of lioentioim womin 

^|^*X| ^MriV-^na or «|^« tkhrigg- 

ma, ii^«A fa^-iMiat irf^nt ww the wrirt 
((xf the hand). 

^%^^ ikknghpa oolleoted or acMmUed 
together, of |^ ^prm (doucb). 

^ **H* pf. ^ Vsri w^, to lead; to 
oQndu0t;bring toa plaoe ; eepeoially uaed 
in conneotion with ^Tiip<|^ft]ff imd ohildrai, 
also of leading an army: 9*^^Vy(' bu- 
i$ha hkkr%4 bpuH led out their ohildien. 

Os^^ Mrtmi tf Aim), ^t^W^ t^ 
tkrag {fiag.) terror, panic, £ear : ^*«pr 
^%m ibrei^noi ikkrim (Lm.; Jd.). 

ft|«I'«l ikkril^a (fkih^) ^n tkkti. 

ica to innd, ooilroond (of •erpents); 
draw oloee; embraoe oloeely; to daap 
round; «S«r«fi|iMr<^tdUaii an emhraow; 
^ftiTf^ ikkriHdan a jdant fomiaheil wxih 
ttadrili or ojaepen; F^|«r4 kka ikkril^mf 
in TT. to speak imperfectly like children ; 
to lisp, toetammer. 

q^*^ tkhril4im ilg. veiyhand* 

some and young; ^|*i ikkril union. ^ 
jebm waving; moving, 

elimlring plant, aotreeper. 




0^^ bkhrii (fhi) fimnr, ^wh near, 
neighbouriixg bank, Bhore, cOBSt; also 

poBtp. ^« and '^B'^^ do*® *<> ; ^^^7 ^^' » 
against: ibrel zia-tca fnet-jM rnams-kyai 
^ni-ikyoidebt ikhri§-m min-pa da pad ma 
gtog9 rafi-nif gcig-ffor g^AvA-fal mi byed 
one should not singly (venture) to do 
Govenunent work unless assisted by a 
colleague under the king (D. ^l 12). 

Syn. ^gi« b9ram\ X^ rtsar; V"' <^rtt< 

^fiii'^l&i k^hrii Wwn, ^'^ ra-gan^ 
iMHii brass. 

^JlrtiS^jpa irnnw to wash; to bathe: 
'^H^'^l^'fl kkhrur tjug^pa iwr, unrfic 
causing to be washed* 

i^D'q-4|Yvq likhru^tcq gco4^a ^HTW 
fttopx>age of looseness or diarrhoea. 

Q,^'q|1| bkhru-f^fU 1. diarrhcsa. 2. 

^•|m hkhru-ibysM, «^g*^ khru-naf^ ^j^ 
kkhru-ikyug ^irfiwirc diarrhoea with 

T. li^. 

^fi^^tkhrug-goi-^* g(hcha or ^H^ 
^-JAroft war-dress; coat of mail (4f4ofi.). 

RM'g'ci ^hhrug-tHa-pa the drumming to 
battle ; stated {il^n) to mean also 'RF 
§-si^'<(jc.'<qS'|'i|S the clamour which arises 
on the battle-field. 

Q^^*q I : hkhrug-pa {Ihng-pa) tirrw, 

wxmi, 1. vb. pf. '^5'^^'*' hkhrugt^, rf. 
SVr^ ikrug-pa, SVV^ ikrug-pa to be in 
commotion ; commotion ; to be disturbed ; 

to be panio-sfcricken : «i|S i-«»H^ fl 
ikhrug-par nA^hgy^r-^^i^ n ^JNnlr will nr>t 
become angry; get discnrderod: iraiw^' 
^BTQ'H^ t^ thatm-eai ikhrug^u i&ug it 
made all his veins disordered (blood to 
boil). 2. to be angry; also to quanel, 
fight, contend: ^'HV«'^HT^ de-gnis 
bkhrug-noi the two quarrelling. Also as 
sbst. fight, disruption, row: ^gT*>"^ 
ikhrug-pa far disorder arose ; quarrel took 
place. ^0 T^SS'** to show fight ; to take ixf 
arms ; to rebel: ^BT*'iS'*'V9 in times d 
war : V^" W 4nwg'bkhrugzi^^^'^^^kU§b' 
ikhrug war. ft^H^*«i Mi ikhrug-pa s 
name of Buddha, who does not beooms 
agitated or ruffled at heart. «*ia^«AT1^ 

io-gihi or S'^l*'!'*''^^ dinag-gif sa-iphi 
battle-field {M*on.). 

ipan general; commanding in war. 
^BY*"^ AAArfi^Mls|'*0^ ikya^agt 

1. contest, strife. 2. ^fV^'ffS'^ gpul^pr^ 
pa or ^>4^'^^4'(i imag-bthab-pa (41Mm.). 

OJff^ ^hrug9 (thug) defined as «Tr 

^'^9irl«rQ'|>^''^,qnaking, trembling, shak- 
ing (4fif{ofi.) : ^IB V^'^n ikhragi-rnkktm in 
W. having small oraoks, flaws, of 
potter's ware (Jo.) : ^g^'*> bkArug§^^ 
fV4 idaf.'iffa also pk.-^«'9^-q kka^noi 
Idai'^a vftw, wfT, WW, ^fim wa» 
stirred up, agitated, confused, also nge, 
anger ; greatly angry ; passionate. ^BV^ 
bkkrugi'49ha4 fever caused by overwork 
and fatigue. 

^|^*fc kkhrug-M %K«r war, fi^t: 
^B^'*'^ ikhrug-loi work of dispute; 

Q.gK'q tkhruH^a {thuH-wa) or ^« 
ikkruii-pa resp. for 1'^ s*ys-m w^ 

«1^^ 1. to be bom: I'^flc^ tku^kr^ 
wa^f^m^^ikuit^ami^patc bebom;alao 
the birth of a great man, prinoe or lama : 

wnm birth storieb or legends oonneoted 
wifli one's birth. 2. to arise; oome from: 
%S"'*'%5^'^^w**i words as they may 
just arise in the mind of yourself; 

meditation arising : |^ |'»«i'ii'^«d iJiM- 
9J0 ihmfi%^ ^khruMi'pa oompassion arose 
in hiB mind. 3. to oome up, Bh^)ot| 
sproaty grow (of seeds and plants) (Jd.). 

ideb§ nrverenoe shown to a great lama 
or saint by ennmsrating the names of his 
sappoeed suooessive embodiments. 

^HS'^ *»*nirf-/w (thui-JM) WW, pf- 
^w tkAru§j foi. '^ bkm^ to wash; to 
cleanse; to bathe; to wash off: ^«'V^ 
^H V**^*dS 909 dri^rm ikhrtt^-par bye4 the 
dirt of olothes should be washed out: 
i|Sti*4|H|H ^^l^'^BS <^•8^ fH4'^a in ill- 
ness, by giving purgatives, one may be 
oleaased : ^B^*<i^'3S cause to be washed. 

^|iS*<i MArif^i»«i the washings of plates 
and dishes after dinneri which aro given to 
pigs, dogs, Ac- 

^«^^ dm dag thag-ehoi finally decid- 
ing ov determining any matter ( /. ZaA. : 

Ua4m tkag-ekoi to decide upon a war or 
a law suit. 

pktdl ndkoHM of high rank, 
la r«if-iMi lengthwise ; in length. 

201 Q1BF^\ 

^g^ I : ikhrul (fhui) or «B^ <> bkrut^pa 

^W, fvilW, 1. ^ITPifsbst. mistake; frensy; 
madness ; error ; illusion ; also adj. mi^aken ; 
deranged ; deluded : ^•rJsrB^qw'S^mis. 
takes are not profitable ; ^9'a'^|i^*<i ^fjro- 
uHi iMrul-pa .ibe deluded beings (of this 
world) ; ^'^ ^nf^era to be mistaken ; 
to be deceived: «* K^'^^i Q^a^^ raH- 
§nail tkkruUpar ^dug I have mistaken ; it. 
was a deception of the senses; f^'^B^* 
^^'IF 9nai kkkml-kam kkh'Ui^aH 
illusion ; delusion : ^g^' f^*^ ^Aruf-inom 
can delusive ; erring : as a syn. of ^^'^ nor^ 
aw: ^'^^n'^^i'^ff^Q^hyod^gikhrut' 
P^ kjig^iten pa ye deluded children of 
the world! 2. to be iusone, deranged. 
Byn. of i'a*<i^«r'l ^mo^pa tkkmt-^ occa- 
siop for making mistake ; wrong way ; peril. 

Q.^^ n: Hhul) in the words ^'^n 

ndg-^rul is a littlo different from ^«[^ 
hpkrui] it applies to moral or intellootual 
mistakes as distinct from external blun- 
ders. In the same manner it differs 
from the word ^va nor-Kw or ^^'^ nor 
bkhrul. ^^'Q noT'ica applies to external or 
phenomenal blunders: ^•%*wi»i«^6«iJi|- 
S^'g^q-ft'lf^ if the inner heart does not err, 
one's doings in the outside world will also 
not be wrong ; ^^fi^T ignorance : «'^"^«i* 

{ffcai»gf$ ^khor-'UHir likiiywv^ by the influ- 
ence of unrighteous errors (we) wander in 
the cycles of existence. 

^•r^ hkhrul-ikhor ^tm machine: 
contrivance; artifice. Ace. to Cb. tliis is 
same as ^^«i*^ I^hrul4khar. 

♦Rgii-^ ik/irul4khar vm (Schr.; 
KdlM. T. 12d.). 

Rgii'^B*! ikkrUVwr-nskhyim^ v. a*C 
ps. ^tt^on-khaH^ a prison-house (4f^o».). 



302 ftfi^'^ I 


Agn'S^ Mkhrul^gdfi (wrongly iot 

n. of a odfistiaL maxudon. 

ml^pudi'wx^ illnnye yinon or exhibition. 
Syn. W**-^^ ^ruUwa^ Bemi ; ^^«i' 

a vonuui that deooye others. 

«^B"r*S A*Arfi*-m«*, v. '^^^ nar-fned or 
n^i\ iekug-medj nninistakeably ; without 


^•«| stoi-mi rtoghpaii ikhtna iam gai^ 
wag a lama or any person who meditates on 
tiie theoiry of emptines** (i.«.% the voidity of 

W'^l^ bkhrul-iphi eanse or basis of 
error; fundamental mistake. It is usually 
illustzated thus : If one mistakes a fine 
rope for a snake, the rope is the basis or 
oause of mistake, and ^^ ikhrul^i 
is the idea or notion of a snake conveyed to 
the mind by the sight of the rope: ^«r 

^n4€^ &-(tAAMiK Wag-cog nuMig ikhcr- 
wahi semB-can rnomi iw-Wmi^ i^en-por 

issuH^ mi^ag-pa ia r^g-pa ftsif4, tdug-fttiah 
wa la ide-^por (sutf-f^tf bkhruUwai VAor- 
tea hdi pin in the same niaiinfnr we 
animated beings, deluded by Aridgdy 
mislake falsehood for trath^ the tnyuient 
for the permanent, misery for happiness; 
henoe this transmigratory ezistenoe. 

^•««i ikhrul-yat (IF^) a very large 

^V bkhreg^^'W^ 9ra-wa 5ii^ very 
stiff or hard. 

Q,^3j^q bkhren'pa{fhen'^)^¥:^€km' 
pa desire; passion; to wish; to longfor: 
1. Mi'j||«r^'q sfff-fX-om ikhran-pa to wii 
lor food and drink. 2. to look upon wil 
envy; jealousy (/d.). 

^'^ikhro-waji.^^kkrof to be angry 

^^orq ikkrol^a {tkoUwa)^ pf and fut. 
SJf«i ikrolj imp. S^ khn^ 1. to oanse ixi 
sound; to make a noise; play: rol^mo 
^ Aro Atra to play on a musioal instromeat ; 
diriUm hkhrol^a to zing a belL 2. vb. 
intrans. to sound; resound: r^^*^!^ the 
avalanche resounded ; ^*'^^%' rg»a4at 
khrog-fM a rumbling in the bowels 
(Med.); f'^^ ^ikkrog in the belly: 
^^'f'^'f hkhrog-kkrog roaring; rushing; 
bussing (Ja.). 

^'^ hkhrogi dislocated: W^f-q^H 
^S^'9i;A!f*^'<^S the old woman yet 
wishes to walk| though her knee has been 
dislocated (fciw. 17.). 

^ I : ft it flM tfand ktter of the 
Tibetaa ^igbaM WReBpaading with 
Smkzit ir. It ifl pranoimoed m aoft k 
wlien alone or iflMii jdioad without a prefix 
at the hf^nning of a word or qrllaUe. 
When aaad u a final letter it Bonndi 
as * or ie often herdy pronoiuioed. If a 
pefix pteoede ^ or if it oany a rannoiint* 
ing lettfer, it sonnda as a havi g. When 
Hied to xepreant a mmerioal figoie it 
^gniftea the thirds U.^ the oidinal III, 
and aa anch ia genorall j naed in marking 
TohmHa of boob^ Ac. ^ yv ia aometiniea 
Hied aa an afflxed particle of a word to 
eom[ileto it, aa in <«r^ yaf-ft, the hranoh 
of atne. 

^ II: in mjatioal laagoage aignifiea 
hont of a goat ; alao a he-goat : M^*iVS'«i* 
^1«% taaC ^M4m ra^a yin (JT. g. r» 

^ ni: 1. in mTstio Bnddhiam ^ ga 
neaaa thehidden entity or the eawnoo of 
Buddha : T^«r1(^'i^-^rt^-qR-^«'* 
l^'O*! I tMraii*amra^*wa'|a'|'^*a1^' 
WS'I«*«R that whioh ia a^led ga being 
tiie hidden eaanoe of the Tathteata, it 
WKf be aaid (^4) that all mwmiB beinga 
hate the nature of Buddha ( JT. mg. ^ 
«07). 2. T^^'V'^-ftT*! aa to ya it 
mofea and it ia alao motionleaa :'^«*T 
%|^F«'\^ ""the oanae ia fa, the real 
natnve or origin of aonnd" {^rom. 88). 
Againite read deflnitkma of thii iort: Y^ 

^•fr^-i|(«^Ai^q «that which bdcnga 
to no pkee anywhere ia ga '* (A^rem. 88). 

^^^ ga-Mtat Iga-fkal) tax, duly (on 
eattJe, batter, fto.) (Ja.). 

^1*4} ga-ga a title of honoor in W. 

'^^'^^ gaga isha tickling : ^^K 
SS«, to tioUe : ft*5f <rm ^f|-l|a-y«r^lT«'"T 

I^S^'^HV^'^wwS n in ancient time 
aixteen monks tiokled one monk and from 
the exoeeaiTe laogther he inTolnntarily aent 
forth, the myatic windpaaaing npwixda 
inaide him, hia end came*' (JT. du. 
«, ftS). 

■^ 4pH|^l4 Oa-g^fiio 1. n. of a certain 
plaoe in Tibet 2. %'^'X ekeg^-ma^ anoh a 
one; anch a thing; anch and anoh (Ct.)- 

'^'^ Oa-g<m^S^ 1. one of the two 
merchanta whom Buddha met inune- 
aiately after hia aix years' aaoeticiam nnder 
the jBodSki tree. 2. Y^S'S^'^ da-faa-fyi 
rgpdit'PO lIlTW the king of a conntiy in 
Sonthem India. 8. a melon (aca A., 
Lm.j onciimber; othera: barley) (JSu). 

^^0.^ ga-bgrig {ga^ig) a aeddle; 
i*!^ iga-igrig equipment of a riding bene. 

4|*^ ga-^en or Y^ ga<km some 
or a good many; good deal (JS.). 

4|*S^ ga^ad inTolnntarily; without 
canae, #.f ., to weep (Jf0<f., Ja.). • 


^'i^'Q jfa cka4-pa fatigued; very 
tii^; ^•WT*N'«, a'W^**S'«i giving up 
in despair; being quite exhausted (D. R). 

^'?fS 0^*9^^ ^wnpff cummin seed, 
Nigella Indica, 

X ^5 ^^^ '^^ ^' ^^^ '^'^^^'^ y^ 

tah%9d6 tshan a kind of Indian handwriting, 
evidently referring to the OatM or Kaithi 
chaiaoter, in which the original Magadhi 
used to be written. The Tibetan ^ ga h 
ordinarily pronounced as Ky hence "1*5 
ha49ky or kaiihi. 

t ^'^ ga-da ^r^r a dub; a mace. 

^*^^ ^-difT an astringent medicinal 

root : ^•w'S^'S'^ST^v'^ it removes remit- 
lent fever, diseases of the lungs and of the 

^'^^ ^-<for=y^^ gua-dar also ^\^ 
go-dor the tender growthof fresh horn in 
the three animals, rhinoceroe, stag, and 
antelope : gwa^dor gmtiuggis V^ag dafi chu- 
ser fkem the three ga dor diy up pus and 
yellowish discharges: ■^•q5-4|-i^«^ the 
growth of a new branch on a stag's horn 

(coUoq, ''gdnde'') how? of what kind? 
what sottP 

^'^ ga-na {ka^na) •F'^ gaU-na 
where? ^'^'^ ja-na-wa and ^c^ q ga^i-^M- 
toa^ the same as a sbst., the whereabouts of 
a person, his place of residence : jtQ'^'^* 
q«*^i;*tfK.- he went here where the king 

^*'»^ ga-na me4 (in W.) absolutely ; 
at all events: •I'^'^^'^^S'i^ it must be 

204 13 1 

sent by all means: ^•^•*S"<^|«i5«'*^^l I 
shall give it back at all events (Ja*)- 

3f^prq^qr8|aK.- IM-chen Tikog^-idag-gi mii 
the name of the great God, called the 
Lord of the Multitude (Siiag.). 

il4Mf<(4 [9iil44^ small cardamom]. Abo 
the u. of a flower {K. hoti, % 4). 

t ^'l'^^ gchbur I: 1. n. of several 
plants, probably Oentiana cherugki. 
Curcuma, ZerunJbk^ &o. 2. I^'*^"^*^ is 
a kind of stone like WXcfc*^ (JftVI. 4). 

*l|'g^ n : w^j ftf camphor ; -^-^S^ 
^l ga-hwr oxystai-like camphor; '^'^^^ 
maH g€hbwr camphor resembling yak's lard 
in appearance ; ga-bwr tsha^wa rgyas-pa 
thog^hbah gco4 camphor, where the fever 
has increased, cures by lowering its height 
rnM-Hhih shan-pahi inhik-wa rtw-uadf^od ii 
also cuies long-standing fever and di;M2a8e 
of the fundament; ga-^r tula$ glo^rim 
tshad^pa 9el the kiJid of camphor called 
Tilo cures inflamation of flie Inngs and 

Syn, P «55'3'« khonwabi phyt-ma ; ^ST* 
Vs kod^kar^an ; i^'^^ nu$^(dim ; l^iV'^ 
5>D»-py* tniU'po f^'^V^ skh-waii tka/'] 
Ufa ; XS-^w roi^i^^sar; ^'^^^n fii^ 

^a'^'WO ga-bur najr-po defined as "i^ 

pahi tkat-wa. 1. the ashes of the burnt 
dung of pigs. 2. a seoet name (Mii. 4}- 

mebon. | '^ zk^wa the moon. 

^*^ go'bra iffO'taK) n. of a medieine; 
a twig ; also the fresh shoot on a tree. 




ga-brm thA4tht4 rimi'Ha4 teUmw hp«4 
(this l aBdidne) lemovea the «ptd«mio f even 
and the bsit induoed \j tM (nind). 

X ^*Q 9»-Mi from the Sua. WW go; in 
myBtioal laaguage go or go away I 
(Jr. g. P «7). 

^1^3*01 ^eiHNO hyula n. of a Bpeoies 
of wild €at : 4r^%*^'9^'^«'^'^lH the go* 
mo byi-ia catches little birds by lying in 
wait (AdM.). 

^t9\ ga4Htm^^*9^ jUwm how 
modi ; how many ; how long ; interr. and 
ootreL, as nmoh as, €.g.y as much as you 

^'I'fl'O^ ga^-than (in W.) an irruption 
of the skin (Ja.). 

T^ ga49ho4 how much ; coUoq. " rin 
di ka /•?" what is the price ; how much P 
In Sikkim gtmg^M luHko-mo ? {8nd. Hbk.), 

^&\^ gO'duif^a ^mm a precious 
stone nsed in oaring in&ctious fevers and 
other diseases, also to reliere one from the 
influence d malignant spirits. 

^(^ ^»-«Aass«r^^ ga^ha^ or ^'-1 ga^a^ 
more properiy the last word, t^., 'V-^ ga^ 
signifies Q^'^IS k^hai-gai a laughter, jest, 
jAe: T^^K*t' they jest and play: 
^^'T^'^'^^1 he is not in good humour, 
or in good spirits, to-day (/a.) ; also 
''to-day there is no fun." 

^'W 9^*^ (in W.) how, interr. 
sod ooml (Ja.). 

^^5 ga-^ squinting (in W.). 

^ g&im w^ an amulet ; a farooch 
oontsining ohazms (▼. T> ^tfm). 

^rp gatu kluHhar charm box the 
lids of a which are joined edge to edge; 

aw«i*c Mi-wang (O king), thy residence 
is very solitary and so beantiful, as if the 
heaven and the earth kiss each other there, 
like the lids of an amulet {Mhro^n. 89). 

*'|^'^ ^*t«-fe account book ; list (of 
cases, ako of cash and balance) ; also a short 
note kept on the margin: ^^'9 hgi^-iu 
in a separate place that is not in the body 
of a book, but on the foot or margin or 
comer, i.«., t^'^ ssir-^, of a book or note- 
book : |*rgp^ R^<«"1fi;l|u^*r5^q5q^ fT 

^•8W j^a|ik §-ift-*^Rl^q since the date 
of the months etc., of taking over charge 
of the Sd9oH (District office) as many 
criminal cases as may be, and the receipts 
large and small all bound together should 
be kept in the registration book (JSMi.; 
O. 8ndg.). 

ffido a Sutra delivered by the Buddha on 
the mountain of Gay& Gkiuri. 

^'^^ ga-'ffig w^ the letter w g. 

t ''I'VP' W^^^T'^ ga-ra kha. 
tan 4u labi rtsa-tca Wiw^wipr excel- 
lent rice; the root of a kind of plant: 

•HwJJ^SW^Flw-TH^fW'^r-'? by taking 
a confection made of equal quantities 
of the root of Oarka Tandula r^o-^^V 
sesame, barley and treacle, one- becomes 
youthful (JT. g. « iS). 

*l|'^ ^fl-n, for Ml^'^w 4ga^^, ^^ gm- 
iha (in IF.) dejected : ^^'ft'^ I am in 
low spirits (t/a.). 




^'^ gnHTu in oolloqnial "l^"^ gaU^du 
whither ; which way ; to whioh place ; 

t^^^V* ?«•»'**-*» ^^9 ^V' khyu^ 
the fabuloos chief of the feathered race. 

^S. ga-re 1. in Lhasa Tery com. 
QoUoq. form for ^ what," sounded kdre. 2. 
where, whenee: T^A^V«S^'^^W8^ ga- 
te idi-Mta aJQyaH r^H'^tag byu^ whence 
eomes this oppression, over-powering 

^K Ch-ro J«?^'^'?V*'9»i-H1'*^ n. of 
a pkce in India ; the 6aro hills {Qsam. 88). 

^"^po-tol. %ir whither: «»tsr^^^^irT 

nHi with the palms of the hands joined 
he bowed in the direction where the Yic- 
torions One was. 2.3st'«i >t-to for what; 
owing to what : ^^^ to what does this 
serve P of what use is thisP ^•■I''^l5h%** 
where ace (yon or they) goiagP 

n. of an insect whioh subsistB, it is sud, 
by inhaling the air only {K. d. ' idJi). 

*1('^ ga4e WW; wwt slowly, softly, 
genUy. To a departing goest one says : 
^^ta «' ka-h pe'p " go gently. To the host 
yon answer: ^^^8^ *'*a-fc «A«'* stay 
quietly, remain in peace ! T^^ ga-le fog 
come slowly or gently : i5«-^'C^*i-^- 
R^-ii-fejvj-^qK^-ipr^^ it is a common 
saying (in Tibet) that by walking dowly 
and slowly the ass cab travel all round 

^^2^ gchlog (in W.) squinting. 

'^'^ I: po-fa laughter: «TS*^1% ga^^ 

mo igai^ Ti^'VI gM^ ^9 *<> ««» 

^•^'ft g<i^c^grog loud . laughter; 
ga^ tgrog-^ glurgar rol^mo kM loudly 
laughing they danced, sang, and made 
music {A. 11). 

^•-^11: n. of a place in Upper Tibet 
{A. iO). 

^'•^ HE: V. *?^ ga^a wwi^MH a 
raiment used by TaaUrik priests, 

'(|*'^IY: a string of beads ; anecklace; 
a string of human skulls or bone-bits worn 
by Tflnfr* Lamas : r^«HT^*^»^5'3^* 

'^'SV^'^ blood drops from her mouthy a 
string of human heads hangs down from 
her neck, to thee be my praise who hsst 
subdued the intolerable pride and anoganee 
of the host of demons {Choug,). 

'^1^''^ ga-^ar 1. defined in these 
passages; %^'9:^^^'vmphifogtlliDig4fiA' 
pa la; f'^^'^W*^^*!*' phyog^ipig 
mUhan-bog la; W'?ti'*l*TT-1^'^*» ^^ 
gssig go* kar far gytm-pa {Al. 136), Oirth 
or rope hung across the breast and the 
shoulder in order to draw or cany any- 
thing ; also a dog harness ; a shoulder-belt 
worn as a badge of dignity by eonstableB 
and the like officers. 2. jf^'^ %gwn4kag^ 
the cord worn round the shoulder and the 
waist at the time of meditation. Yi^*SF' 
<f^^qw')'sAi'<i ga-^ir daH gfam4ktA§4sffi 
f|uft6ff-|Mi (D. B.) Iiooking nice (on account) 
of (his) gO'far and petticoat, 

^'^^ ga^Msxf-tif^ kkofoi warn; 
part; a few, com. in coUoq. 

uncertain ; not dsBnitely known. 2. sn 
approximate but unoertain direoiioDf 
region or quarter : T^^'^H^rlS it is at i 




certain place; it is aoniBwhere: ^^^ 
^^•««T'^*^W5* without ezplainiog 
niniitelj (m., the pavtionlars), h$ pro- 
oeeded inateatlj aomewhAie {A. ISS). 

^'^ f»f0; g]A88 beads; glass pearls 
^ Oi n. a; a 2>4iNii, a goddess (^ g. 

Q*C| guta^pm the white nmrk or patch 

on the forehead of the kf€A (the wild ass 

<f* ^Pl |a# 1. silTer in bfersy ingots, 
small pieoesy fte^ uncoined (in IT.). 
2. wad; wadding (for loading mnskets) 

«ip|'q ^ay^a^i^Q Ihog-^ or ^'^^ 
gag^thog u a swelling in the throat; a 
qninsj: na4 nd daH du4^igro^ §ke-^H 
ifgrin-pa-la ^brat-noi rnag tAan^e drag* 
go4 is a malady of men and animals in 
whiflli the neck sad throat heocme swollen, 
but matter issuing forth, it is eased; 
^T^^^ dei^ ocous from obstruction. 

^*"<*^'S'9^ ^n/tr gag^l^og-^i nM 90*»r 
ifo^gM Ho-wo gfM'4u4 du'^isig rim§^M4' 
kgi grot though the disease in general is 
difiersntly expressed by the names gag 
and ttogf its real nature is but' one among 
pestilential d i s e ases sad it belongs to the 
class of (ft^vw-^ fatal fevers. 

If^^dS f»H*Asst*^ ifs-pe^ a water 
fowl (Os.). 

gagt vflmi obstructed. 

'Ip'^^* I : gatl-ga^kitH a kind of 
flower which resembles a ohorten (ohaitja) 
in shape, growing in the sandy crerices of 
vooka in Tibet. It is used as an antidote 

against poison and also diarrhcaa, ^' 
^•^^■•^'•^'•rl gga^teb bye^d^ logi-la 
l*fe *»^T V^ V^TV*^g'^^ gaigaelMr 
ga^ga ehui-^ tbtg dot Ma^ikA^u ffDod. 

^% r«^y« ^ 9<*^9^ ^TfT the river 
Ganges ; ^'t$'f*li Oa^-gdhi Lka-mo HITT' 
%lt the goddess of the river Ckijgi. Its 
different names 12x0 :— ^'^xjVf^ Tan* 
bV itffgon^ldan, ^S'*K-aQ BM*me4 chab, 
^«rsf^«if Nam^hahi cka4o, VT>f^'<S 
Ihag-pobi thc4f ^l^K DmhuuH bu^ma 
(Hiw\), ^^•^•w 9ggun*g0unhpaf ^iwiRpr 
^9 ^m*gnm bgro^ W'MT^^ Qhn^cken 
kha^ihab (itl^), ^%^>«i SjigMde ma, 
BffHT^"^ Kkgab-tjug rkai-pa, *%T* 
CkU'byin.^na, wn^'^^'^'^* SkaUldan fiVt- 
ttatibu^mo (imfhoft), f ^'^^ Lha^ ehu-io 

^'X^ I : gai^gd idtin irVTW^ an epi- 
thet of S'iva. He who holds Gaij-gi on 
his head, ., from whose head the Ganges 
flows : »* W J'^nswr<^qfi-qftiNq|^- 

ej|^i|-^«^<rcA'f^'^'iQi;'q«i'9 mifu>*rii*kg$ 
ffM§ thatnhcad iffkal-pa^ me§ inegi-pabi 
9kab§*w Lka-mo OaH-gd Ihm t na§ bguH^wa* 
na nam^kka^ la ral^ ikgait-noi rat-pa^ 
fiei'du iMidUwoMo when all the celes- 
tial regions were burnt by the fire of the 
JTa^a, Ga^ as goddess appeared on 
this earth having fallen from heaven. 
Her looks were spread out in the sly and 
held up aloft by S'iva (for iirfdoh he is 
called GaAgidhara, the hoMei^of Ga^gft) 

^T ^ u : je»H« rgg^ipi$*o cbet^ 
po the great ocean which holds the entire 
discharge of Ga^ ( Vbni.). 

4p* gaU what, whioL 

^'%%« jw^f^An when ; at which time. 




'¥^*^^ g^^t^ni-pk^ wmn^ ^rort for 

which; for the aake or xeaaon of which. 

^^ goMUi ntv whichever; what* 

what (yoa) like; alio what suits yoaP 

|-^-MS-^-^^'^-^«-^l«}%|«"a| eren 
if any aooident happened to life there, 
to Hi no hardship ooouzring, we can do 
whatever suits ns, so one T^o^o c a q yr o ss o d 
himsslf (Vbrmn. 186). 

^'^ gatl'^ *vr some; ^'Wl*!^ 
gtiH e ftip ffi pkffir 9wt ^ for whom or 
what; for the sske of whom or what. 

^*^^ Ifdl-^'Mii i%v whichever. 

those two who are here; all those here; 
whoever present. 

^'^ ^-dis fw, irw where P where. 

«f(*V^' gatl^dutai nf^ at whatever 
time; wherever; seldom; where. 

^\rVr^'^1S*<i pan dran-dtan-^ ifoi- 
IMias^n'^^'Q ttdsun ifa4^ to speak at 
random; to saj what oooozs in the mind; 
to speek falsehood. 

^'^ foU^^dta Hf^ how, like what : 
tfi'^'^ak' i^tdta fMotf what have you 

^*^ pa4-fiawf^ whereP 

^'ipMC^ g^tntim^ ^ of what; 
pertaining to what P 

4|C*^^ poU-fipo (in 0.) howl of 
a tohaooo-pipe ; ^'«>n P^MllNV mouth- 
piece or tip of it. 

4p*Sp^ gal^lMr in a lump, mass, 
to fill; to make foil; filled up; also 

piled up: ^'^^^^^'^ poU-iMtam (rf 4^^ 
pa piled up or made full. 

Syn. ^^ Uhan-ean; P^m k/teSi; 9^'9 

^I|C*Q II : ^iWH, ^ fimshed ; oomple- 
ted; «^'«r^^ Ml^hu9 goA^wa a valley 
flUed with water: V^Y^F'^ **the moon as 
full fish''; in the fullness of the orescent. 

^'9rt\'9 ffoMnwa mei^ ^m^ in 

Td. if 181) completely happy or gentle : 
also n. of a serpent dedon. 

• ^-ift'l'q ga^-waH zh-wa fiwY {Sckr. ; 
Butt. 1848, S98) ; Ut. the fall moon ; n. of' 
a Bodhuattwa. 

4p'9 gaA4m wvf^ imf^ fresh shoots 
of leaves; a pod or sheath; also cluster of 
buds. Aco. to 8eh\ flower hud : ^'^'3 ^ 
Vfru gai-iu^an grains whidi havehuskF 
such as wheat, sesamum, &c : Y\l^'§'^ 
S^'^^ri^ii enveloping himself in a veil of 
rays; wrapping himself in a sheath of 

^'9^ gai'iffed ^ ^vftfvr whatever he 
does, has been doing, is doing. 

^Ip'JW po^-mos imiT 1. various; 
difiarent 'sorts. 2. ^'^^S gai-idoi 
whatever is wished for. 

^*<M gatF4$am a small quantify; not s 
considerable quantity. 

gm or ^'^i^'^T^^ ^-na fdbtf fiUas- 
gin ; SS'^tf^Ti^^l^-'W kkgei gait^^mg- 
gin gar-^gro dti-poi he asked whence sro 
you ; whither are you going (A* ISl). 

^' Vl goi^hig Wu 1^ which. 

^1^1 200 

which hatheen eiplftined^ shewn. 

4|E^*m| I: (i^*^ $hal^uig) toUooo* 
pipe, not the kiMm^ bat a long itimight 
BOfrty ■imilAy to tiw Boxopeen mokhig 
pipe, gnenJly made oi meiaL 

l^vnuni fits' 'Wrtit ^ tft S^^'i* that which 
heoomea full and then nndergoea decay 
(BiiB.) ; an animated being ; a eodrpoieal 
being that ia anbjeot to decay and 
deatrnotifln. 8. man, as an intalleetaal 
being; ap^non: ^•^^Wl^*^V«w fi^ 
sa0 g ^ h m n^ kiim y rw ^j Mi another 
panon dBwribing it to you (oppodte to 
what we know hj cor own pemyption and 
obeerration), heoea a philoaophioal tem 
lor •*eel£'': ^^w:w9fmctk^^9^Mfm 
leaxned or lettered men; men d edenee, 
eepeoiany in relation to religion: ^)' 
^•S'^'^'^'^l^ man who postpone 
idigioa, not troubling themaehes abont 
it: w|rA-i^-MripMrtyiil the prince d 
the vBvennd (band d) perecns, •>•, 
Buddha: VrfHi^'^ inteicr heietical 
people: ^'^m:n g^mfpkttt-pM cor ^•"r^ 
ikthm^tifm, common or Tvlgmr people 

^^-^W^ jgJsef.ftiWtheloqrldnde ct 
hmaa beings or higher beings are— (1) 
wwn: ^cwii ; WlhvriTJh-^-^f -^ mini. 
Uroi nm mmm khft i d^ kgrthwrn that go 
on from, dsTtaieei to darkness; (2) ijrfk: 
^tmr; 1^^'^'W^f^ mmMro4 na§ 
pel aiir tgnhwa tibat go from darkness 
imto light; (8) ^if^WKqfflOT: ; K^'^V^' 

hgro^w€ ihai go again from light into 
daikness; (4) tftfMfflrtV^Ciir^: ; r^'4*¥iY^' 


that adyanoe from light to a greater en- 
lightenment. The term ^'M| gaM^Mog 
has sixteen different synonyms :*-4^ 
tdag; f^ $rog; ^Mre^MNt-Mii; |'« itye* 
ira; «?«*^ ^n^-ira^ 1^8 §kfn-bu ; -^'■'Wparf- 

man; •s«i« if^t-pa^l t\\Hf^'^^ 
hfei-dm kfug-pa^po; ^*rt ^tAor-ir«^; ^ 
^Q fei'pa^ ; MV^^arQ fi^AeilHM^ ; ''rt sok 
tra-:po; V^'^'Q iM-w^^ (M*on.). These 
are all applied to signify an animate 
being. There are two kinds of ^'^, 
ordinarv and estraordinarr : the ccdinarr 
^*^ literally means that which is 
sabjeot to deoay,from^ g^ what, and ^ 
so^, decay. The Bnddlust iweaTifag is as 
follows :-(l) wjv|srq*|^'llw|si-Hi;-V 

ereriA'^j^ rat^ggui gdiffa AoiMNolfi 
JyA tMMl eMf iron-tea dM 4g^-wati rig» g$og 
mi4imb-p0r mg l^re-irei sm^i-mni jiAet iM*' 
gcA^mg one s own nature being filled (^* 
fffiO ^1^ ^ ^ camiotacquire and retain 
'virtae, whioh ^ se^ leake out or decays, 
therefore an ordinary liTing befaig is called 
^f^g^itk^mgi ^ wj^'^cw^'W-*r 

esrsKsr|sr^'s^ r w M^rgg^ tflfPMra dtUl 

§o $ ^ m ot § J tg i tkgom thmnih^ wag tgro-490i 
Mi^rpy^ ye^-say Buddha is ^*^ 
becanse Us nature is loll of all Tirtuee or 
merits and sui has been thrown out of it 
or has altogether been destrojred; (8) 

f ^ V 1*^ '^^V <^ *^''^**' *^ ■•' *▼ **•' ^' *l 
when one's own nature retains wHaterer 

virtae it pos se ss e d rmdetericrated and 

whaterer faulte there was in it haTe been 

thrown out from exertion, one has entered 




eitlMHr the Mahd pind or Slnai/4m path. 
Fenons insuoh astage, whaterer dooitiiie or 
tiieocy they may hold f or ialvatioii, bekmg 
indeedef the JM<fy4iki. ln'^'^gdtFmg 
of the ordinary kind hia Tory natare is ^' 
gad^ ij»^ filled with deeds (^), sin, 
8a£hrixig, and misery; moreoTeryall Txrtne 
and talents having beoome ezhaosted, m., 
M| wg^ hie animated being beoomes whatis 
called Pudgat. In the striot sense of the 
word, a Bnddha is also a Pud^ak^ though 
d the extraordinary kind, he on the con- 
trary being fall of TxrtQCS and talents and all 
defects, sins, fto., being esdianated in him. 
The following are the twenfy «F'^ g(»^' 
mg {PudgtOa) of the QrAvaka School :— (1) 

liM^rai; J^'IT" rggun-^ •kugt^a one 

having entered the regular oonrse performs 
SanOdhi (deep meditation); (2) frvf^ir- 
iW^TOf ; ^•|^t^'^tS«'««^'^*^*-l*«r thogf 
na m4^ hn idun^ after having thus 
gpiritmlly cultured the mind he has to pass 
into seven bxrths in the world ; (3) 
fNffV ; ^^-^'M^Vl'^ righnai righ^u 
fJky^-tMi after the second stagCi his Urth is 
ensured in his own state, i.^ •! if he is a god 
he is reborn as a god, if manheis reborn as 
a man, but he never goes to any lower stage 
of birth; (4) iwnmft; •i^'^^^'U'^'^'^ hn- 
gfdg pkyir ^oHfW (as such) he has only 
once to oome to this world for doing good; 

(6) TW?I^; wa»s'^H9 har^had gfiig-pa 
he has only one interruption before full 
fraition; (6) ^wnrr^; |^*<Wi>*yfr m<- 
^(^wa he will not come again to this 
6ziBten6e ; (7) ^^ro hRPi^IOi^; ^'^rt^' 
^KMlf;^'^'nm'^\^'^ bar-ma^dar g&dMu mpa- 
Han 109 hdab-^ca he will attain to Nirvdf^ 
not from this life but from the interme- 
diatestateor Ba/rdo ; (8) m^r^vrcqf^^- 

VK^ mtiathpar bdu-bg^d^ dad ioatp^^ 

pathiu mya^dan hi idat'wa he escapes 
from misery save that a vestige of the 
SkanMa still remains; (9) ^i|fa<NiK - 

por t'odi-^u mya^dan hi ida^'ioa he attains 
to Nirvdiii^a^ the Skandha being vttedy 
destroyed, m., without the least vestige 
remaining ; (10) in^iitq^ ^-^'^V'q gadrdu 
hphfhwa he will in his spiritual progress 
reach up to the Akaniffka heavens ; (11) 
mwmft; <iw8*«r^»r«^|sa hi^k^ fnfaM 
iufi^du byedfa he will obtain the body of 
supreme inteUigenoe or knowledge ; (12) 

^rui^T^; SS^X'^'V^^^^dai^patitM^ 
tbrad-'tca he will here have coittpletely 

subdued the senses or passions ; (18) ynli^ 

kbrad^a all his intellectual and morsl 
faculties become so as to be directed 
^effectually to all good works; (14) ij[fi- 
^rrr; sifi^qv yqq thadrwai tkoUhpa having 
heretioal views or having insight 
into religion ; (15) wnrf^fv ; yr)sr^ 
ci^'V^'^ dui-kyi t^am^par gral-'^aa getting 
salvation in time ; (16) ^niRrftfwr ; ^V^' 
H- jkqi^'Ssr4i^l[^'<i getting salvaiioii not in 
proper time; (17) ^if^^lwrufw^v; •fV'^*' 
fl| vi|sriK||K90i«l-ibri« eha^hi rnamfwr grot- 
wa getting salvation in time as well ss 
without reference to time; (18) vimftudi 

na9 yod^^BU mya^lan hi kdak-^ga ^iti^wwg 
into the state of Nirvdi^ immediately after 
one's birth; (19) vwifwfW; -^^w-^^ir 
«i^'fri'^ fet-ra6 kyii tnam^^ grolwa fully 
delivered by means of absolute or transe^ 
cendental knowledge; (20) ^Vfftivi 
delivered by means of faitL 

*li(K'^ gadrya a very large flgurs or 
number {Ya-^l fid). 




gai^yaH ^rf%^, ITV whosoever; 
wbateTor ; any one. 
~ ^*^ goitrla fr^ where ; in whom. 

^*^ gaU'h an empty pod, freed 
from the kernels (in W.) (Jd.). 

^'-T^ gad-far ^llwn^ wwp anything 
that oooarB (in the mind) ; what in 
thought ; a thought. 

^*fl'^ goA-su dag % Jrf^ whioherer 
of those. 

^p^^^lffir 1. glacier; glacier-ioe. 
2. 8DOW (nsoally kka). 3. the selerotio 
of the eye {8eh.). 

«fnrK gaU^tgyui a chain of snowy 

^^i"^ gait-can frvm !• one of the 
natiTe namee of Tibet. 2. ahonnding in 
snow ;inowy ; full of glaoiers* GMi-offi»-ii| 
tbgatk foaji eku the water issuing from a 
glaoier : OaUhcan^ ^uh/ the language of 

jN4i0'M4^nyv"*Ao<>uqplementaiyname of 
TMrngUuippa, the great Buddhiit reformer 

of l^bet whoee religiouB name waa f^^'iC 
w^'^T^Q jRyfwrf-ira ^A>-ftttilf gragt-pa ; his 
other names were :— I'^'O'* J^fe rif^po 
dU; t'fcF'jEy»rso«.Wfl:|)a;^r«sa[a» 

O ai^ c a mfiirta ; -^y^'F^i ^ Tm^kkoifa ; 
^vrsA^I'si SjoM fi^on Jthma. 

^sMUiwI^^ QHl^can ff^gan-po or f^w 
^^^ {jpyvfi-rfff 0siyi the patron saint of 
Tlbei^ ATalokites'TaTa, also styled :— A^r 

fT*#l^ Mihht^ fW^^H*^; 5*Cl'Hl 
Tkaff§^ ckmipo; '^t^'9f^'V Sgrthtoabi 

^MTs^* j^Q Oah^n r^oi^ King of 
Tibefc ; and in hooks oooasionally applied 
to the Dalai Xismaa of Tihflftft 

i^*i'«Tf 8*^'^^ Oai§^oan rgg<ih>^ 
kiNrgnat as also <«'^f^'Vi"rSY« ehot^tkhor 

4p^^Vi Lha-m used to designafa Lhasa, 
the capital of Tihet {Tig. k. 81). 

m^wuit9fi gai^'-eati ekef^po sometimes 
applied to moontainous region oovered 
with eternal snow extending from Ladak 
to the Kailas range. Also the name of a 
fabulous mountainous region the chief peak 
of which ii said to be about 1,600 miles 
round and filled with FaJbf a, Baksa and 
other demi-gods. 

^Mi*li( OoH-ehen any great range of 
sttowy mountains or a greet glacier; n. 
of a Tillage at the southpwesten foot of 
the KaAeheojnnga mountain. ^^^H'^'Kl 
(Eanolisnjunga in SikUm) lit. the five 
great repositcries of snow. 

^«'H<«'S<| Qa^Hikm Ohot-tgfot 
the Ghraad Lama of Tibet; also the name 
of a guardian deity of Buddhism in 
Tibet; a name of Yama, the Lord of 
Death, who is worshipped in Tibet under 
the name of Dan^chm ChH'tgg^- 


Syn. ^v«tV gah-eoM sMf; ^^-V^- 

9ki^kkam§ ; ^^M^^l^Wf^^ g^t-^an #«. 
Ikaki iman-lfoti {JIfiUm. §mi Tig. k.). 

iM>*^fl^ gati^M aTilanche; it snows. 

^r«^ gaH-tbal^ also called ^^ 
ikffO^kkar 41mt, the snow liaxd with 
carcukr msrks on its sldn resembling 
the common Lidian lissid {Lea.) ; a frog 
of fabulous origin: the male frog is said 
to live on the top of the snowy mountaios 
and the female frog in the al^yss of the deep 
gorge below the mountain ; when the sun 
passes over the tropic of cancer {karkata or 
crab), the male frog descends to the foot of 
the mountain and the female frog ascends 
there to meet him midway. Before 



meeting each other the male frog remains 
more spwerfol ; bufafter they have united, 
the female beoomas the stronger of the 
two (^^n.). 

^|Mi'^ i: ^otfi-rif^RTf^, f^nftlR snowy 
mountain or 8now«moTmtain>H*a oom- 
mon designation for many of the great 
ranges in Tibet ; V^^'il ga^-^i^u the 
twenty prinoipal mountains of Tibet :— (1) 
^'% Thama, (2) M I«-m (JEaiilffl), (3) 
«i^-»r^ Jfa«.»*A«r, (4) 5'* JJn-fe, (5) r*i 
Siar-igo, (6) Wn Ph(hla, (7) *f^-^ Mkhdfh^ 
ri, (8) I*r^ Jo^mo kha-rag, (9) %;l JR*^- 
rw, (10) ^••i*^- Galt^*, (11) rj^ ^w- 
hm, (12) ml La^hyi, (13) *H- r«Ae-nfl, 
(14) f-¥« £tfMi.Aam, (16) 9'| Jif-fsrro, (16) 

<\^ Vr« Moi^ guH^tgyi^h (17) ■«f i*' 

fl Tar^lkafam^, (18) TW'I Oto^D^* (1^) 
^'V-^MTW^* JSTo^a gai^-^lk, (20) <*^'^' 


^r^\ n : ^•■W ^T^*J fu-^g 4kar^ n, 
of a Tegetable drug (JIfffon.). 

along or across the glacier. 

^^'9^ (fa/lMftf/ an avalanche ; a dip 
in the snowy side of a mountain ; a snow- 

^lUT^ gaUs^ihig n. of a stone or 
mineial substanoe resembling stone; it 
is said to be a cure for fever that is 
produced from the liver. 

aC^*Q**^^ Oai^-pa fe-iu the name 
of a celebrated lama and philosopher of 
the Eadan^ School of Tibet. 

^ft'fc*^ gaU-ji^a lit. posessed of trea- 
sure or »**SV ^oi-lf^^ ; *^ ornamental 
pinnacle on a temple, house or ohorten 

oonstmoted after the presoribed medd 
given in Buddhist books. This is a 
Sanskrt word though somefcinifts Tibelan- 
iiBed, being written as ^^^'^ kgan^fi^* 

^ ^otfasin^'^ (smt-^o^ 1. pura» 
genuine, unalloyed. 2. a rook. 

__ ^ 

place of shelter under the daft or nook of 
a rook: •wrS|^-^^'V«'^|^^T8'««^ 
kept the bam of sUver in the aooik of a 

rooky hill. 

4|^*|n gai-iha im*. wide, broad; 
breadth; with breadth. 

^1^ Sl gai'mOf XXm a 
laughter: ^'•'Mfr g^mo 4goi tifii 
utters a laugh; y»^y ga4'mo^ga4 
kyu* I have laughed ; ^*^^fi^ gai-m 
tgai-^oA he has laughed. ^'f*IK ga4-mo 
rgo4 to laugh ; ^^^'J^' gai-mo f or- 
hyuH laughter sprang forth; ^*^*' 
gai-fM f or-«o« idem; ^Ihi'^^'*! p«#- 
mof i(ifeil-i>a to laugh atapenon; ^Yfr 
q('4|^*li ^g ttethpabi gaf-wiO laughter of 
worldly-minded people : *^«-^^ this 
is to me an object of laughter; it is ridion- 
lous to me («7a.). «TSJ^«'«^ ga^rgy^H^ 
^mrrv. ^^' *^'* iedighptM gai-m 
(^T^ Sa Ha) loud laughter ; |«!'*^'< 
idig-pabi gai-^io (1%f% Juh{) ooquettiflh 
laugh ; ^8^'**'^" igyei-pab^-gai-^ho (H 
he-'he) laugh of merriment or rejoiamg; 
TN-5ms|Ha\ci*'^U xil^gyii gfum-pa^i gyitf 
moiift^ laughter of triumph; S'W*^' 
qqjS khro-mbi It^hoi/^ irgyad the eight 
laughs of indignation and wrath^ Ac. 

ai^'fH gaf-tgyal the walls of ooDglo* 
merate rook through which monntain- 
torrents have cut their way. 




^1^ f«^l<Vf d^; refoaes; fw«pt- 
wiUi a broom the dusti retoaa^ 6to. 

^'^ gai^dar tweepmg, deaxudng; 
Bweepiiig irell ft pkoe ; keeping it dflftii. 

<^'>iS^'^ Gli#-iMfiii-Ai n. of a moon- 
tam; the lofwiuyiB at tiie foot of ft Chif. 

^'^^^^ 9t4 wduf-ia Uhm this lida 
of the nuKmtaia called Ghnhdak. 

a sweeper; a oleanaer; ST^'l^'^fl, ^' 
w%w«^«if^rs^^ the olaaB (of menial 
Morranti) leqnixing wages (saoh as) 
BweepesBi dnsten end water oaniers. 
^'4|fc'si any place or object well dnsted 
or deansed. 

f\^ II : 1. a precipitons difi of 
conglomerate saoh as often walls in the 
moiuitain xmn: 2. wide cvaok in a oon- 
glomerate vook. 

TS*!^ fvtf^An^ ft cayem or deft in a 
songlomerate rook: ^V^'^^'fl^'n^'S'^' 
VrVMrr ^1^ Vh^gk itag^ar-ggt ga4 
phug4u sAo^lda Mmg§ meanwhile they 
halted for flye days in the rocky caTem of 


f\v4 cfe#-4ipof» d$ii gan^ ioA'tt^ dri§^ 
pa going near to the chief of the 
merdiiiiits (camTan), he aaked. ^ gan 
(s^ gam in 0.) signifying neamessi 
prcziiniiy ; is used in saoh connection as 
V^to, towards, ap to: ^*'^*^'-'h come 
Wf to me; yriA'^'^ he went unto the 

king ; f^*«ft*4n' V^* ^ ^^mit towaids the 
house; yi'Qt'^^v')^ he came from the 
king; ^^0*^*^ in W. dose by the 
brook; V^'W\\ ckur gan-du in W. hard 
by the water; ^v^<i rir gan-pa one 
liTing close to a moontain or hill. 

^^ gan4By0l or ^'^ ^M-r*M 
^m supine; lying on the bask with the 
face upward: WSN'V)^^ to lie in thftt 
position: ^WlPVl^^ t(^ fidl on the baok* 

▼nig, V| gam-tgya^ 



* written contract; 

^VS^ poiMfor, a silk handkerohief 
ofbred as a present in exchanging compli- 
ments on nkeeting (JSch,). 

t^\W^ jwn-dKa bha^a irwif, a 
kind of drug used in liver derangement. 

wm a Buddhist mafUra or charm which 
has the power of enabling one to move in 

X ^^^ ga^dho-ki, 
the temple of fragrance; hall of worship 
built after the model of a ahaUga 
with many doors. It is generally attached 
to a great monastery. In Tibetan it is 
called V^'P^ Dti gt^aAJ^kaH, the name 
being applied to the particular chapel 
where the image of Buddha ii placed. 
The great temple of Buddha at Qaya was 
called Mahd gandhola CaUya. Phgi gan* 
dhihla naA*du Iha^khai hya^pa its inside 
was a god's house or chapel and the outside 
a gandhola. 

f *'l'i'^ ?«n^A* icf^a mineral sub* 
stance used as a cure for leprosy. 




par-na a medicinal plant. 

X ^'^ gan^fi- wfti a piece of thick 
plank meaauring about 6 feet by 12 inohes 
either of white sandal wood or of deodar, 
whioh when^ struck with a hammer or 
another piece of thick hard wood, produces 
a kind of rizq^ing sound which is heard 
from a great distance. It in used <m 
special occasions to summon the monks of 
a monastery to attend any special religious 
servicei Ac. 

■W'^^ gan^ggog or VV^ ff«H» '*^* 
bu ^vf^vtvir the rod or hammer with 
which the ghai^fi (wooden gong) is struck 
or beaten. 

t ^P'^'^ gca^-^ it (mystic) ayarice ; 
greed for gain {K. g. r 96), 

1^^ go^i THTS^ in books the 
gong or beU to call monks to monastic 

store-room^ i|tore-house. 

If ^P'|!}C ^oS-iipAti^, defined as avVR' 
I'^I^R'^ jmi-moAt rgy^Mfgi ^yi4*hhu^ 
the oaTities behind the knee bones. 


giihigra a belch (in W.) 

^ip*Q gaUhpa to hide; to conceal one's 

fif v^'^f^'W Jigyal-wahi tbgu^'^pm hdi yon" 
tan thamhca4 gob-no^ nvi ston-par gda^-^ 
uat. This RgyaUcahi hbyuH^gnoi having 
concealed all his talents does not exhibit 
them {Mir^^fn. P 2). 

Syn. 8h'«i gib^pa ; i't a tba^-pa; ^fii^ « 
gyogf-pa; fr»4Bs<«Ba nn ffi*<m^par hya- 
tea (JUTno^.). 

^«l'«jc gab'phgtiH n. of a religious 
treatise on the occult doctrine of Bud- 

^pTo gab'i$essi^^•t gab-rtae ^n or 
Y^V gab4sAe a plan or table of points 
for computing the figures of divination in 
magical computations. In this connec- 
tion, rsi^^'«it«i'^l|'l^<i M-b gna§ paii 
MO-idag^gi r^ refera to calculating the 
identity and 'deeds of mischief done by a 
local *^god of the soil.'' Again ^'jf^*^ 
0f^'tA'wtii^'^'fm refers to astrological 
calculations worked with the gab49e. ^i^ 
<«*|*^'S|q>V is a mystic chart used for 
bodily prognostics ; ^9^'^^*' one for the 
speeoh ; a<^'d'<^*V'Sc.' one for the heart 

&*^'fS'«<^'Q'^^ In the general term g^A4%e 
are included numy particular signiftcatioiiB, 
that for the soil, that for the sky, that for 
the intermediate space, etc. 

4|Q*S^ gab^Uhai slow, insiduoiis 
fever; according to Boh. a hectic, con- 
sumptive fever* 

^P'S^f gdlhtBhig «iwr, ntftranr ziddk; 
also mystical words or eoepressions used in 
magic to stupify one's enemies without 
killing them. Also, the 16 ornamental 
mystical allusions employed to excite 
laughter in a play, etc., and to convey 
hidden meanings in anassembly, etc. The 
names of these axe as follows : — %^fi'^ 
qts|q'«s| kuf^4u tshogi pabi galhMigi 

|ltf bys4Jigirim^ ioA hral-waki g€b4ihig\ 
MT*r»iSsp*n rdb-iam-gyi gab4Mg] W 


ro-M-^H^ rtailHMo^' g9b4Mgi W^w%' 
VM grHt-*^ gtA^Mif; w^w J-n^l^ 
rai ft^«^yt gab'4Mgi ik*V^%«*^*^^ 
inM-Ai tAn-paki gaihUJUgi %Vf^'^'t^ 

jw*/ gA49hig', «fevfnn|-^H 1^ yoili 
phrog§Jqfi gtOhUkif; iUr««i«^«l^ fl«> 

filiate hgrHi-pt^ gab^9hfg; ^n'^wf 

^"^H^-ytF 1* in the mudioinftl works 
of Tibet ihe names of oeirtain drugs and 
medioines «i» written in words whibh srs 
not ordinerily nndentood* having seorst 
miHMwngs assigned to tham. 2. inflgnra* 
tire knguagOi meanings of names and 
wofda wUoli are not ordinarily nndentood. 
Such aie called ^'^ 9a&.iifftft, «'.#., searet 

^* 0«fr-Mi n^m iboi-^ or ^vm 

bidiag^j^aoe ; plaoe of oonoealment : 
^••**H^'<Mr^ir^v^-<if'iil|'*^ we 

ceme hinging nmoh gold with ns, bat we 
wwe without a hidzng-plaoe or a plaoe to 
go to (^ ItO). 

*^ gtim linv neari t. 'W gan. 

Bjn. ^^ gam-^o i ^ druH ; V^ ifo- 

fl^^SI gan^-gum i^ number, ^W'sflii 
graU-^nt^ {TihmL 57). 

'fT^il g^fiHi^i panels or little 
boaids beneath the eoinioe of a roof, often 
filled iqp with paintings (J3.). 

I ^prg^ gawUu^a, mf^ in IT. a 
oitmi:; lemon (Ja«)« 

219 ^1 

^^^9^ fMim-lirotf a daiiy in the 
neighborhood of one's residenoe. 0mm 
^^9 tgtf^H bgrog ftsaH-ira tt^a-yi 4g4 
Near and distant dfizy farms beoome 
thriring thrbngh the abondanoe of pas* 
tores (Jig.). 

^fSn^Uj gaw^idrin abbr. ol ^f^'^ 
gtmrgga dM idMi, a receipt, acknowledg- 
ment ; the letter of transfer^ exchange, &c«i 
for baying and selling or transaotion of 
money bosmess, fto. ; ^^l^lS'«r^X\|*^'|* 

ibgarggi Vsof-pa go^da^ tfhrod *$§ 
oertainly, the zeceipt and the deed of 
agreement ahoold be satisfaotorily ex- 
plained (^t9ii ). 

y^ fb«MAer attendant. 

_ ft 

^1^ g^¥^ 1^ 1* ft little box or case 
when containing a talisman or amoleti it 
ii worn suspended round the neck. 

*1j^ I: gar ot sp-} gar^bro ^, mv, 
«ifV dance; aoting in a dramatio play; 
gestioulation ; ^*«rsif>^ gm^^M$ iHlmr 
sorrounded by danoing girls or actors ; 
^'l^o gar-bt^4if0 to dance; I'T't^'M* 
|^^ gh-gw fMhm kg^iifaio sing; to 
dance and play ; ^''^ gar^mn the food 
giyen to performers; gar ikkrab-^khm ggi 
Ma9*la f or the food of tliose who perform 
danoing; «r'"i'W^'« gar^la igak-wa 
infSftta veiy fond of dandng; T'*r^ 
gar-la W^ nih^ attending a dance; 
witneising a performance. 

*^*i'|S** gar^ggi U^nto wnw dano- 
ing entertainment or amusement. 

i^^jV*^-a gar^ iwai^ m ^l^ 
gndhchin or Vl-^«^«'K«f rfW*-»5*or^ 




ckifhpo fig. a yogi or asoetio engaged in 
meditation : |»«^-^'S-«p^'2l«i5H'i«\&«r 

^* ^n/hiifchog gar^gyi i/wai-po nuim ktp4 
Hoini-fi^ yonr holinesB the lord of the 
dancers (peaoook), eqnal in beauty and 
splendour {Tig. k. iS). 

^S'^S gar^gyi gtwhbo^V'^'^'^T^^ 
gh^gat'^gyi igkha^^po or ^^'4 gtsihl^o 
teabher or director of a dance or danc- 
ing perfonnanoe (M^ion.). 

^P^ ni: or T* ga-ru^ or '^'% goMth 
whither ; where ; i*^'*i^ gar-yad anywhere : 
^'««'|*Q gar-yaH ikye^-wa growing any- 
where : ^••iR'H'^f'q gar^yad tni igro-wa to 
go nowhere. ^'*S gar-mei in W. at 
all events; by all means; ^'^'^ gama-mei 
or ^'^ gar-bob at random ; haphasord 

^'•M gar'ftfkhan or 5'*W >ra-fp*Aan 
n^ dancer 1. a dancer, performer, e.g.^ 
even a Buddha or any saint dances when 
displaying mxrades. 2. name d a god,, 
ace to Boh. S^iva (JS.). 

4f^'«^fi goT'^ikhan'ma ss ^'w gar^ma 
ffAy ^|1(T dancing girl. The thirtaen 
moddations of voice or musical notes: 
(1) V'« gor-ma jifliw ; (2) X«rK« 
roUrti04-4na nrnffKi (8) Vi'« dal-ma fIrwTf ; 
(4) ^'^ mywr^fM ^inn ; (6) ^'^ bar-ma 
^(^\ (6) HM Uhig^tdeg ^W; (7) »rt' 
yi bya^^waH-dui xm^; (8) ft '^^'^ bya-wabi 
Uka4 mm ; (9) $'^ ta-tva (imr) reality ; 
(10) 9(1 o-^^a (^«hr) flow ; (11) f^ ghc-ni 
^n compact; (12) ^'^ la-ya (wv) 
absorptian ; adherence ; (18) 1'9 9d^^ya 
{nml) equalily. 

^'M>i gar^ham the frantic dance of the 
Umas of Tibet which is chiefly observed 

by the RHiH-fna schools of Tibet. It ifi of 
two kinds 5V<A'|r'^*»« phur-paii rka icham 
the dance of the enchanted dub, and ^ 
^a«i ikhrub-bcham the dance of Qie kmsfi 
at the time of offering sacrifice. 

^'1^ gar^ftabt dancing gesture or 

T^'«» gar-pa nm a danc^ ; abo a 

^^I^ 11: the encampment of an anny; 
a camp. 

«P'J^ gar-tgyab encampment; *!^|^^ 
gar-tgydb-pa to encamp; also for ^y 
gcA-tgydby l('«S^***pr^'J^ tda^dai wgt 
gar-tgyob fling at him stone or arrow, eto., 
whatever (you can) {Jibrom. r 6). 

one ; whichever one. 

«lj^'^j^Xri^ Qar gdoA'kUan the 
famous general of King SnAk-iitam %gauh 
pOf who visited the capital of Cfhina and 
induced Emperor Taitsung to give one of 
the princesses imperial in manaige to bis 
sovereign, about 680 A J). 

^'^q gar^rdeb V^flT'^'tpr^'n 
ohui-khyer gar^t^Mhwghla lands, flddi, 
houses, ftc, that have been devastated 
by a river by the oveir-flowing of ils 
banks, &c. ({UmY.). 

^T^*^ ^ar-na^ name of a medicine. 

^P^^q I : gar-po in colloq. langoage 
the word W^'^ fffsar-po is pronouned ai 
^*Q gar^ and also written as sooL 
It is usual to pronounce "VI^'V ikar^fo bb 
^'Q gar-po in the vulgar langruigs 
{Orub. n «). 

^'9 H: ^; alflo ^H gar^mo, tlikk; 
doDae; oondaikaed; not fluid. 

^P*1 1. fPflTHM ^n iituMra wwm 
Mtringnt a. strong; ^*k* gar^haH 
ibong Iwer (Ji.). 

V^^ V M fltar Mmji tphmg§^ name 
of a monasteiy and also of a deity in 

^^Pf far^^ba or ^*V it gar^dta^ ml, 
fliRl n. of a tiee or kind of wood ^* 



*f\^ fpar-cAa the natiTB name of the 
£ata^ called La-hnl or La-liol by the 
Hindiv (JSL). 

^*^ ««ru% aoo. to the Tibetans 
xapaoioiia moontain txibes belonging to 
the tu nortkeaat of libet Q'9r*^'^« ^ 

»VfS;^-T^<T%^*'^'^T*^'^iS'^ those 
itjled in the TCbetan tongue 0mr4ag axe 

dennbed in the Li-e'i Qur-khang aa 
Tnntthka. The ^'H CkKrlog wtte a 
diUBrent people from the ^^ Mgo^tog. 

*|frrts Qmr4og gi rgg^^h^ to ftn-Aif 
(MkMW chmphfir ifogJfgtii (M-iratt 
rn^fh^ tn^ in Atb Va biography it is 
mentimed fliat the King of the Gar-Iog 
in the thst part of the 11th oentury, 
AJ>^ came from the Indian side and made 
the King of Tibet a oaptive when he was 
there on a Tisit to Pniang. Probably 
fhey were the earliest Mohamedan 
invaders of Xashmir. 

^*^ (MT-fn the mnsdes of the thumb 
{Med.) (JSL). 

+fll: gal^^ am pressing; T^'J^ 
g^i-ggii presangly, urgently. 

^ 11: importanoe ^F^Aferq g^M^ 
ddiii^ to consider of importanoe; to 

Syn. Vfs gna4\ ^\ «Mfo {M*on.). 

^pi ni: 1. constraint; oompolsion: 
^a-la gal-fui in O. *'I have been compelled" 
(«/a.). 2 trap ; snare : in ooUoq. ^f«n^J^q 
gal Mug-pa to set a snare {Jd.). 

^ IV: V, ^^ii gai ta^ta. 

^^^ gal^gag^^FK^m important: 
^•^^•*» Teiy important. 

^V< gaUchuH unimportant ; insignifl- 
cant ; undervalued ; slighted. 

^^'^ gaUk$^wa very important: **<^^' 
^i-«-^-iMr|sr^l-q of the two, this 
life and the future, the latter is of gxeaier 
importanoe : V*^• V^^f '^■w^f^^-qfR- 
^^^ it is of greater importance to acquiie 
accomplishments than to go roving about 
without purpose : fl|Tg*lc»q important 
moral precepts. 

Syn. *WS'*'*i gna4^ke'^wa\ r*'^ r^M- 
cAe^a (MMm.). 

^^'^ gal^te conj. ii; in case of: 
implies a conditional possibility. It is 
placed as the first word in a conditional 
sentence while ^ 110, its complement, stands 
after the verb at the end; together they 
signify "if." T^, however, is sometimes 
omitted, ^ stall meaning «if/' Ih oolloq. 
expression ^9 gaUe is seldom used; 
but ^^gaUiki*' is a common substitute: 
^"T^'n^q-lir^i^V^ ni^VTswrss'^^^i-,1^^ 
if you vnsh to enjoy all happiness, you 
must entirely leave off all desire : ^9';sr 





<9'S K<>'^*i*a-B^*«*8 if you ifriah at all 
times to live in friendthip (with tbe three 
Holies)^ jroa should aToid the three 
dangerB> Tis. d looking at your loving 
wife, thinking of profit, and of oonflding 
in an envoy. 

*l|fl|'*I^ pafcfktoa^'^^ gal'igag or 
^FK^m gna^igag 1. really , eesentially of 
importance. 2. u. of a dieeaeo (Med.). 

^orq-tt'OM'^ the important, indispens- 
able master of the house (family). 

^^*C| gat-wa to locoe, to press some 
thing on a penon: ^c^^ indoor oon- 
finement is foreed <m men («^). 

^«^-§S'cf guitar bpsi'pa 4fT^'^ 
hfrUon VaU'^em mts^ VfK to be assiduous. 

^^^ gaf'h^ (lit. got hold of the 
important thing), = W^ renunciation. 

^X gdl'^^ in W. refuse; rubbish. 

^pj g^y ▼. ^V^'^ i^«l-p«- 

N| gi I. numeral for 33, y. aflSz instead 
of ) hyi alter ^ and ^; for signification 
V. % Jsyi. 

h|^^ j'*-^^ the TOirel sign *" for i . 

having a white speck in the eye^ 
wall-eyed (of horses) (&*.). 

q|*|'^ gi'lfUig or ^M ko-Ui^ng 
tanned ddn of a kind of ^fpr obtained 
from Mongolia and China (Jig.). 

4qi*9|'^ Ou^ne^ru n. of an Indian 
ffogini or female ascetic {ST. dun. S8). 

^'qpr gi^uHti and also ^¥^- gi^M 
^tfN^iT, ^t^wi, ^Wi, 1%T^ a yellow 
pigioent, an antbelmintide medioine; 
ftfv n. of a oonoretioii in Am 
entrails of some aninmjfl, need for 
medicine. Ace. to the medical wcriEi 
of Tibet this conaetion is loraied in the 
liver of certain animals and seldom in 
men, and it r ss eml Jes in appearance and 
sise the boiled ydk of a ben's egg. 
There axe also smaller ones. Acctosoms 
lexicographers this concretion is formed in 
two or three dratu or folds. The bait 
quality of gi^wd is that whidh ii 
obtained from an elephant, and tfaois 
obtained from the oz called fforoeani 
are of second qualify. A kind of ^' 
gi'ieafi is also obtained from minendi 
and olay, and is of xeddishpysUow ooloor. 
All these- are supposed to be poa wod 
of wonderful healing power. ^^^^"71^' 

^•a»«i«s'»*'^'^'^''^ (if. g. ^ sot). 
Oi^aH mixed with honeyy if applied to 
both the eyes as a medicine, will give 
one such a clear vision, enabling one to 
see all the treasures which are ta fts 

t^*^*9^'l ffiit ihm^dka n. of a 
mountainoDs countey: OM hktm^dhaii 
pO-gyi W^habi ri kkotMu VihtloU ri§l 

grag§^ it beoig known to tiie IndisBf 
that in the moontains skirting the cooniij 
of Qiribandha there are ten diSorent 
Iia-lo tribes (|^am.). 

^^C" gi4i4 a strong-bodied hons 

^*^dj gi^Kn a fabulous animal. 

*1***^^ Gi-fai rtn/a n. of a tril 



X 1}^* fid ftnr proUUy a Uttle 
dnun^ortlw beatiiigof it m an aooom- 
pnninidt in ^*wi»i ng («/a*), 

grat^Mg n. of a soft musioal tone. 
(JT. iny. <^ f95). 

^'pR'el ^fir-wo, Xrf., the Indian rupee; 
in C it is celled ^*X gar^mo or S^'K 

^ilytf instead of S<« ifcyM after a final 

^ pw 1. nnmorioal for 63s% ^. 2. 
aign of dinmrntiTee, 6.^., E*^ khyi^gu a 
p«ipp7;litUa dog. 3. eztenfiion; extent; 
room ; qpaee ; ^^'^'^'^^ 0im« m (ftMfty, 
^'^V^biA-pagw-dog, ^%^ lamgu^dogy 
^wry^T** awn git-^hg-po naiixow-minded ; 
a nonow place, vallejr or road ; 3'«K«r9 
^v-yiriff'^ apadoiia ; roomy ; wide;9'*«^«r 

'^\^9^ jro^flMi iMt»9 there is mooh room 

^M«iH ffu gat§-po^t,^'9'^'Q dog^fw 
m^l'pa apaoioos; capttooos: «*a*9'<«^ii'Q 
M<ka gu foUiiM aspaoioQSy wide place: 
fS'^j-nR^q idoO^ gu ynff^ a 
oommodioos reaidaoce: ^^Mr^'m^v'q $em9 
^v-ffolf-jM a broad, generous heart 

'^I'^^*'^ 9^9M^ cBiamelled plates, 
caps, fta'; genera&y enamels on copper. 

X ^'«^^ gthgul or IT^ii gug^ul, ^qn, 
%^VW,1>)« a cosilj incense, one kind of 
nUflh ia ufaite, aaotber Uacik. It is need 
in medicine and its smell dxiTes away evil 

' Syn. 9«»fi^ bum^igtkhan ; '^V'^*^ idre^ 
K'^fl ^'fr^^ nal^mo hdta {Mitoii, . 

-A/jyiM galhca the plant from which tho 
incense is obtained. 

^'^ Gii'fje n. of a province in the 
West of Tibet. Also n of a section and 
Echool in the Sera monastery. Thepeople 
of the province of 5'^ Gu-ge are called 
"f'^'^i Oo^ge-fa. 

^'5^ Gfu4an ahK> called 6b4m, the 
older grandson of i^^'nJm-gkii KJkm, 
who invited Sakya Pa^^ta to Mongolia 
in order to introduce Buddhism theie. 

%'9 fi^^«i 

m W. deaf (Ja.). 

Buddhist monk about whom mention is 
made in the Phar-phgin section of the 
sacred books of Tibet. 

^\^ jw-sa/ (for W^lifii rol^gfn ««/. 
fna) hair-pendants of preoioua stones of 
women in Tibet: fr^I'Mt-j-irfS'^pirtBi 
taking off her hair-omaments» she offered 
them {A. >n 109.). 

^'^*P^ ^w-y«r in W. slowly ; gently ; 
without noise {8ch,). 

^^ (f^^V^ ^rr^ quick-silver. 

^'^ Ou^g 1. B^yrB-^ bgoM 
tgyol-po 9Mg n. of a king of birds (JT. mg. 
18). 3. n. of the second son of Jengis 
E3un), who^uled over Eastern Mongolia. 

X ^'^ ifM-^ 1^ spiritual teacher; a 
teacher ; father-confessor ; 9'«) (Ai-ma, |«l' 
^ thth-^lpon. Often in Milarapa. 




TVf^'^' Ou^ru i9iBhan'ktgyo4 the 
eight maailestations of the Great 
Teacher ; also the eight namee of Padxna 

'^^^^ gu'tug 1. in Li. a odt or foal 
of an aw (cTS.). 2. n« of a oelehrated laoia 
who was tator to JZ^ Qe%^rab. 

^^Vfi' gu-kA n. of a deity propitiated 
by mothen (in Tibet) for the well-being 
of their ohUdren. Aooording to some this 
deity blesses mothers with children, 

q|*$^' gu^mi. puie gold idcked out 
from a mine. 2. also spelt 9't«^' tPM-^M, 
gold embroidered doth or silk: 9'|^'^'<«* 
^«'4|Ur9«r^ haviog presented a reli- 
gious garment of embroidered silk (to 

^^ guieinW. for ^^ga-h slowly; 
softly ; gently. 

+ «n'-^ Oti-fTisaid to be a corrupt 
form of the Ohinese title of Kaufiri^ 
which is conferred on Buddhist monks and 
religious men, but it is imdently the 
corruption of the Sanskrit title of gau- 
pri, the lord of religion or guna-fn: 
in Tibetan '^^'WV^ ytm-tan-^Mil, the 
blessed, learned or talented one. In 
Mongolian Eau^ signifies a PandU or a 
learned man. 

^'^'IN|'Q (?u-f ri sog-po Gus'ri the Mon- 
golian, in Tib. called yf-nH'^K^^^J^ 
Ou-m ^af^id9inchoS'tggal,ibB Din^a^ 
rian Chief » who conquered T\bet and esta- 
blished the supremacy of the Dalai Lama 
in 1643 A.D. over all Tibet; ahK) an 
CShuth Mongolian who belonged to Qus'ri's 


^*^ 0^v*Mi occurs in (Vai. farr!) a 
garment, dress (c/8.). 

^OfT^ ''^ 9^9'!^* tf^ ^ oblation 
cup: 5^-TiMW^'^-i'K«-«*S W^ 
ftf»fi-iM Sor^ggi tM bn h4 thia naias 
is now applied to enamelled cups made in 
Ohina (Jig*). 

^^'fl gug^p» 1. W9 dui^pa, «4V« 
9^'^ d^i-poi gug^pa ^tf-^v bent as in 
rareronce, to bend in salutation : 9^^^ 
gug'-icai with humility, humbleusB, 
modesty. 2. In IT. to rub or scratch 
gently ; to tidde. 

Wl^ P^g-t^ff bend low: »^V 

ggHphgag^a% he saluted thrice, bending 
low his head and body. 

4^'^'Q gug^gMoa bent ; bent doim* 
wards (of leaves) (Fai. i^.), v. ?1*» 

q^^l^^C* gug^a* weight of gold 
acoordiug to the standard formerly used 
in the proTince of 9'^ Ou^ge^ a ^rotf or 

ounce of 1^ Ot^ge : ^•^^l^'^W^'f «^^' 
haying presented gold of the weight of 
300 ounces (of Ou^ge) {A. 79). 

q|C' I: GM an imperial tifle^ belong' 
ing to the second daas of nobility in Ghiss ; 
it is second only to the distinctioa of 
JT^ngoi Prince, and is Tery imwh piirtd 
in Tibet. The recipient weern a vobj 
button and three plumea of the peacock. 

^K' n : ftftn ytBOVjUj applifld (1) 
to a species of leqpardpoat found in 




wliifih it amaller tbttiihA HioiAkyaii lao- 
p«d, and (S) to th* looad-lieidBd tiger of 
Ootnl Ama, khitakok ottheM(mgol% 
whkk Imt in Uio loiMti of tho Amor 
nd of Noitb-Weiteii Ohi&a. Tho fleth 
of latter ia vaad m paialyaia, a&d alao aa 
aa aotidola agamat onl aprili. 

^C' ni: tlia miidle; oentnl; alao 
gniaralljr the marMian'; noon; aiddaj; 
aa 'veO aa, Imb frafoaotly, midnight ; ^ 
^ tt i fi midday; noon; *i^T3^ mid- 

9^111 0Um in Aa middlo: VS'H^* 
^^ I fa^tyi <ai< aai #ika» taken jr coma 
oot of fka middla of TTppar !nbet 

IF'^tr^ IfMll^ h^pm to diTide 
tfavongh middlo ; to diaaaot anatomically; 
^*S';prii im f f m *ni g ut l a in tba nuddlo 
of ■"^■*™—  ; ipr|V< n am yyi yull-la at 
^ nddnl^ hour; the middle watek of 

^I^^M flM-riryel n. of one of ike 
enly ki^ga of Tibet (Tif.). 

^1 f wi jii midday tan ; alao the reli- 
gicNia aerfioe oondnated in n Bnddhut 
momaetary at nuddny when tae ia aenred to 
iha eo pgi a gntad monka* 

aF*^ r^g fk tke two middle timea, 
middiay and midnight. 

q[C*9^* Cht^kH U. centnl plain, 
n. of • pert ol Kgiii Ekcnaim ; n. of a 
in In giiL 

^'^-mr diatriel of Qnnglhang in 
wcatign Tnngt the Uith-plaoe of iRry- 
t$ko Xe-<a0HM nkml^khrim tnof-^^tf^ 
who hroofl^ AtaiCa to ISbet 

3^aK.«^mf'^|PM GM-rAn« Sjom^iig^^ 
a. of an inearnate Lama of Amda who 

heeama Oe hjg^ priaat of reiM Omw* 
monaatmy of Amdo and aieoted a lofty 
ohurten-tampleMOfeatkig^; andfoonded 
a monaalery with a Ubraiy oontaining 
20,000 hk)^-pKint tolmnm. 

the Urthpplaoe of JfOtovve the poet and 

9«-« fiatjws^K* ttrtHifo mm Ike 
aaoond of tkiee hrolkaBa; flie middle one. 

r'M^«fii<|>eHNitotakamat atnoon 
on a jooinay; ^"^ yiUMiA^ dinnar 

y^<H ir M < i * a j P Wl ^ ft r alaoyiMiNNe, 
the middle ibgar. 

y-^-^-^ CM-W gui ttm m tiw ion 

and aaeeaamr of King l^k^'^M jCkrJ. 
«rM | ifa»i-»iee who leigned in Tibat 
about 788 AJ>. 

full ^tttOT^lM pht$§ oaixot. 

<|r*«a«-ir^ff'e g^^Mii% Im tgnMca to 
take a walk ahont midday, alao generally 
to take a walk 9^*>M fui'l&m at noon. 

^^ ^ 1. alope; dedinty (d.). 
2. aeparaHon; aoUtode; aednrion (AM«). 

iger-du aaide; apart: aK'I*Vcs^'^v|i|'q'ir 
^-^'^ipre again Jbftoapoke to PAyiv-^far 
tUm^ while alone in a aolitaiy plaoe 
(A. 5). 

tV^'^Mi^-9 ti4^ tiar^wM 1. to pboe 
adant or to one aide ; l^'^'^^^ire ya#^ 
ffV^jNi to aeperaia (Ji.)^ diiparaa. 9. to 
hoy dear, at a loaa ; ■ynonymooa with 
3V^ r ^«9 o i l in Ltd. heaTy or thick of 
hearing ; 1^'^ yetf-fief quite deaf ; deaf aa 
a poat. 8. 9^'%'H'r'> ^^4-*$ kfug^pm^ 
*^C^W^ tojri-tM tikof'pm or «ff^'^W^ 




$kmhdu ^g-pa to htuniliace; deprecate; 
to plioe in a false or inferior position. 

^^^V gui^po dear ; ezpendve, Y. 9^*Q 

^^ tfna loai; damage: ^••rjrtl^ ia-la 
gm^hog in IT. I ha^a (raftered loes 
(prop, damage h oome to me) (t73.). 
5*nn^'^tomakeu a loai t ^>W* WT w«r^- 

oQnor pIaoaa» on the other hand, they ont of 
pride almost daily tried to replenish their 
loaa {Mbrmiu PSS). 

4^^*^ fNM-chfffi a botUe-fihaped or 
oylindzioal baaket for fruit in Ld. (per- 
bapa akin to rl»fhP^) (Ja.). 

yrQ fNM-dN> in Ld* ezpensiTe; dear. 

yrf gmiH^^^ ipi fi^noi or ^t fi^iU 
haTing died or been dead : ^'^^ A-U* w 
V^y^t de'-t^ yMi 1111^4 tear Bran^itB 
pim-f<a then, not long after, theBrihma^ 
having died {MifWH. 169). 

fl|2l^p«f vnZT, ^^^ ^W^ a tent; 
also a booae made of hay or straw argraaa; 
^V tfiMi-ffMr a sleeping tent; ^n«'<S^ 
yhm^-gmr a tent naed by agreat man for 
his leaideiioe ; ^"^ ^tir-yo/ the oeiling of 
a tent; 9^'f^ gwJsM§ the cover or 
canopy ; MT^ rii.0Ftir tent of cotton doth ; 

V^V^ Vn^t-P^ "^ pavilion; ^mV^ 
Onrng-gur a military tent; "ps*^ jwr- 
fidio^f a magnificent tent ; 3^'^ gur-thag 
tent robes J J^**^ gurJfer in TF., or 5v3|a 
^Mr-fM, the tentpdea; 5^'W^ jwr-*4ojr the 
upper covering or outer-fly of a tent; ^Y" 
ihA-gur hearth-tent; that which ia^ used 

aa a kitchen ; 5^*5 ■1'»'9 gur-ggi famJfit 
the outer canopy-like cover of a tent ; tbe 
upper part of a double tent ; 3^*9^ gut' 
phur the pegs or pins used for pitching a 
tent * 3^'^^*i gur^g^hol the walla of a teLt; 
^'VS gur-glad the top or crown of a tent; 
the passage for the smoke out of a teat; 
^^'^^ gur^l^gram lattice in the sidB of a 
tent ; ^^'f* gur-loam atakea supporting 
the roof of a tent (fieh.). 

9^'P>^* gur^hhati the imaginary pavilion 
or mansion of the gods, which is formed 
in the sky, canopied by rain-bowa, walled 
by rays of light, supported by diamond 
posts and carpetted witii variegated cloudy 
for the uae of the gods wnen they 
come to witness religious entertaiumeatB 

or performances of the pious on this 

5^'9**''ft''' Onr-gyi ^g^gan^po a divinity 
of the Sakya-pa SohooL 

9<^'%^ Gur-drag n. of a Buddhist deify 
of the Sakya-pa School. 

9^'¥! gwr-nag thoae of the Uaok tent, 
or the Black-tent Mongols; 9"^*^^^ ^- 
ikar the White-tent tribes of Mongolia; 
"(^SV^ gfioi-gut the tent used by xtiner- 
ant mendicants or SAiHnam. 

Y^'^f{^ gttr^pa gtia^ishmH aBaddhiit 
congregation at S^^ QgaiH'4m. 

^'fl¥* g^MT^ipMgi a perfomted akm; t 
hide full of holea (&rA.). 

^'%^ gwT'-d&r the tribe of the Moaigob 
who used to live in yellow tents. Hie 
Tftran&tha Lama of XJrga (Tah Ehmeh) 
in Mongolia still uaea the yeDow tent 

^^'^'l gur-gum or ?py» gitr-bm 
WK% aiiJiW aafErony cxocuay mazigold. 




alendnki and similar yellow dowm 

q^hitMMt ihM m/ r^M kha §dom aafiron 
oozes lireNdisofden aad ocntnots the 
soilaee of tbe bawek {S^i.). Tbate are 
three kmds of aaflron kaown to the 
TihetaDs; mWY^'^ Bal^ t/ur^gum 
the saSion of Nepal; rM^'t" khthcke 
gtfr^fum the TTafthnn'r saffron, whiohisthe 
btist, and &'<« S or ^-^^ that is brongrht 
from diataat r^ons (Spioe-islaiidB). 

Syn- *r|^^^ iMm bpe4 4mar\ ^V 
^^ kddb irina^wa; i^jp:%m rdM drti4 
9hei; •'H^T^S mt-iog don^oan; H'lpr 
1l»wi iaMMOf tiUiMPif; A-W^w iws4o^ 

kikfi t i p$4 ; 9ii^^n^hog44an; V^B'^n 
ipak-po }ttUm-pa (#ilb».). 

*5^'^^ U^tr^gwr in Ld. a small 
chnm nB&Si for preparing tea. («7S0 

^'^^t'I 9^'*^9 » kind of drug nsed 
for healing or drawing sores, &o. ; il'^«'<' 
*S*'i«'W*^ r»i0 909 rtM Uha4 Wkhrii 
nad-^t it inflames sores, onres bilious 

4|Q|*q|Q|^j.^ a quaking; shaken as 
if bjr A strong wind : f tt'|^'fHi-fifS'M' 

tri w j-jwf pulckethpo f/pig gut-gulbpi^ iM 
It is said that beoause they assumed the 
attitude of a wrathful deity, a great 
country trembled (as if by an earth- 

^^'¥•1 9^f^, lit. the Uaok %%n 
g^gut or 5^'i'W'' gug-gul nag^po^ n. of a 

w, ^Hi^iviy w4, mrfa, ^ nm, sUt. 

imility, reject, reiverenoe, derotion; also 
Ij. respectful, devout; veory common ik 
s phrase ^^mi-^mv pAya^ iiiAaUo, saluted 
reveience ; *r^'Q tna^gui-fia unsub- 
missive, undevout; ^WL'^/s.'^m'^ ff^ff^P^ «M 
icof^pa wAvf respeotfully ; willi dignify 
and honour ; ^ViF^'^j^q gm-par kgyur^a 
to be respectful ; to humble one^sdf {Ck.) 
f|«-^%iVr5ii qn 5T^*r« I offer salu- 
tation reverentially with the three— ^y 
heart, speech and body : 5wli|*infn- 
*»^ ItI'^Iw gn-pa eken-poi ilfen^r 
hyif^gUH-tlob% may the blessing be granted 
to m a int a in the greatest devotion, ^vw 
^u-^ gui^par* t9giim~pa to behave with 
respect; jvw?^ gui^par Han VJWT to 
serve or attend respectfully; to listaiwitk 
"^sp^Jt ; 5^^- Js-q to regard. 

^^^ guhpo in O. and W. expensive, 
costly, dear, v. 5V« gui^po or ^n 

S^* gu§»90 w^ becomes very dear; 
respects ; worships. 

*V g^ num. for 98. 

h|'C| ge^^u^ is an aTudUary partide 
signifying did (emphatically) : «rVi'«ik qsr 

fi0A«-f(rai bra^ kha nm^ mMo^ qmAmmi 
^aUcana ffor^la Ikag ge-ica by theuppsv 
tusk he pressed on his breast, by his lower 
tusk he opened asunder up to the forehead 
(Siram. 139). 

^'^ fl^-rtf n. of a country : ^'* 

pahai byuH'-idug also there was one, caUed 
the Kong of ^ Ge^ra {K. du. % 281). 


%^*f ii O^ra il«-|Mi lUUM oi a T&betan 
41^, Mid to baM deBoandBd from tilie 
xojil UiM of Ungii <^f from fikt^ft^Mn 
ipiwijiOt tnd bdoo«iiig to a flaoe called 
^*f Ot^ M« litiiftted to tho eaat of 
I^Ma on tho Ttza Taang-po b^ond 

^4f «i-fa a kflrohiafi for tho head 
htmg^g down behind from the ehoolden* 

1^*^!^ I: ^e-«w Vftwfii, %w<i 
f^^m» WlfNWt ftW aafton, the 
oofoDa of a flower. There are three 
irJtMi« of ^''^ f^-^^ ▼» ;— TT^*^ *«-*« 
f^^MT unitwf , ^•'•^^ *««» »«-«»^ 
fiA^f, and iiS«r^^ ini#^ »M«r 
^1««C (J«l.)* Aoo. to Ck. ^•^ IB 
a flower; it is aaid to grow in Nepal 
and is odOed «»S**'^''^ J«tf-«wr jw-tar ; aoa 
to ft*, ptoffl, bat like »^ s^-Wra it sig^ 
yi^ H^ imdoabtedly the organs of fmotifl- 
oatlon in generaL 

1 ^IP^ n; 0#-iflr n, o! a powerful 
king mlxQg in Bhensi in Ofalna, who on 
aooonnt of his martaal tbIoot was deified 
gad xaised to the position of the God of 
War. There are Tarions aooonnts of him. 
The people of Eham in Tibet own him 
for their national war^god, while the 
jjfang^By>> My that ^w G^-sor was a 
Ung el Hongolia. Aooordbaig to some 
%na^xih helhed in the 7th century AJ>. 
Avoiding to the eoUeoksoa of heroio flongs 
caDadtbe f^h^^gp^Mt^ Sang CU-t^e 
IhediniheMiceniaiyAJ). Hisorigin 
iS| howefWi lost in myth. 

^ wl"!"^ ge-'mt^ifgi igrutl stories from 
the works called l^-V^V ^9 «* ^^''» 
also exfcraets from the fabulous history of 


224 ^\ 

^m:v^ gMor-cm %n the lotus flower; 
the filament of a lotus. 

Nfiga Yik«a (ITXafi.). 

^'^ g^hffOy s^^i ffMi a secret abode— 

ufled as V^'W^ giMt^tkai (a mystic word) 
in the Tantra {E. «f g. 916). 

hindrance; stoppage; obstacle: ^'•^ 
feg§^hagi^^^'^ bar-ehai interruption 
by an aoddent; danger; \t9r^'^n^^n 
to remove doubts and hindrances {Mil.) ; 
^{^q^ a malignant spirit causing 
miBchief or impediments; <n«ls*a'e- 
^*tS'*> to binder eflEeotually religioiiB 
domgs; sMrfvft-*r*^lw^ four cbiK 
tables to the attainment of Bnddhahood: 
ftqt<sm-^fMr^sprfrR« HM^jmH grogi 
igroiffm gegh*^ hgro wiU you help me or 
hinder me in obtaining; a^a-a^^ 
bgrvlhpabi g^gi impediment to ihe 
attainment of perlaetion. 

if ^|QI*C| 0ieA-|Ni the trunk ofatreewiib 
a spiral top: tr^'-^^Vwr'Tl^^t- 
Jt-f^'u geUwa ni cM pMl ilam rtm»'«a 9^om 
04 rise-mo r<ryaf-i>a ttie term gehca is when 
the stem or thick roots of a tree grow into 
a branching top. 

^«i'^ gel^H wrer a log ; a poet. 

n. of a king of birds. (JT. eiy. % 18) 

^ I: fff( 1. numerioal sign for 1S3. 
2. abbr. for ^'H rfya-Jw in the ninrfw; 
fs|^^ gihgfiiff 91; also ^^ go^ 
92, etc. 

^ n:=in mystic language B**^ 
khr^n^hog arr, mwn, €W the chief rf 
a herd or company (K. g^ Ti W). 




^l| ni: 1. plaoe; room; space (prob.s 
3^); in this sense it isnsedin «iAiNi*^'cA 
li^sAanif wmi-par^ wiflioat intermediate 
space, 1^^ elose together, oontiniicms: ^f 
^^iiifii4im^*qK'|« t/kru ina-Ukcgi go 
iP^sAoim me^par 9kjf$§ gxain cf every kind 
giewdeiDaely, Ivzuiiantiy : <fsis»w*vw^' 
9 fo inf iW wm fm4-pftr gai-^wa oUmAj flll^ 
An impartant oompoand of ^o is found in 
^^po-«Wf the spaoe is oat off, or filled, 
»A, the matter is done with, settled ; satia- 
laotion haa been made ; eolloq. also I hare 
got enoivli ; I am fuU : ^'fi*f » K«» 
dift ffyirf-fMiii go^mi iAo4^ by this the 
Tietooy has not yet been folly deoided: 
IN '^ffN-lh-^qN-l'^*!^ Hof-^m §gam pum- 
gyi go-ckoi there is intermission of hear- 
ing ; tJiintTTig ; meditation : ft^'*'"^*'^' 
^'te khy$4'1a f^mi^koi paV e*of doo- 
trine not satiaEaotoiy to yon : 8'4^^*|T*' 
V%^*^i|-V^ ivhMuA «a ipifUf§ d^hyir gth 
mi'Cko^iAj shoold it not be snffioient that 
I be banidied instead of my son? 2. 
plaoe, position, rank, condition of life: 
9^^ pAa^ gor in the place of his 
father; V^ po-«i^ according to; in 
proportion to (Ja.) : ^^^go tg^^hn^ when 
rank and dignify are grown old and gone; 
when the position inlifehas been lost : ^* 
^'^'^^ihat]smyplace;mybQsiness. 8, 
amy, a space, in the more general sense: 
trl*^^")'^^^ (prin-^yj go-war phge^ 
M« ^# haTsoome parting the cloads: 
■rsA'Kf i{ o-iNoli {TO na at the place of my 
mother; with n^ mother (J8.)« ^^^ 9^ 
Idag-pa to change place, eepeoially to turn 
to tiie contrary (Sah.) ;^'YfMi#-^ the seat 
d disease (&*.). 

^'Hp/H g04kab§ ^nm% mm, wm^ 

Wtm» mm intertal; leisure; space; 
cppoitimify ; in tbe meanwhile: ^'Mim 

occasionally with companion words gO'9k0it 
signifies slowly, at leisnrei or in power ; 
just at the time: a^*^|^'et*lfi|4a*iKi 
ide^war igiai^pal^i go ikabhimi there is 
no diance of my sitting at ease; ^'|5' 
iiS^ irif ^Wfir^y^ de-phgir id^f^h go- 
9kai§ ti^aUu g^ol (A. 16) therefore I 
pray for leaTe to aYail myself of this oppcr- 

Y^^ go^lftal the share or portion due to 
a person in accordance to his rank {n.). 

fr^' go-khaH, lf'at*^'« go-dki^kMl' 
pa arsenal {8ok(r.). 

Yip go-khrab^^tn/^'Wi go^ha iM Arafr 
coat of mail with helxnet; annonr, t. ^^ 

f*r«» go-gpm-p(h t**'*' 9^^ 9P^ 

pa to wear a coat of mail, etc. ; to put on. 

Byn- Y^ go^goi ; «f|^ i«i' Wi«i g^l 
ggi cha% AaghP^l ^^^^ yn^i igoi 

Y9<| go^grat or Yn* f^pnv rank; dig- 
nity {Ci.). 

YeHh'4 go-igoi pa i^sNtt the act of 
equipping or arraying :aiY**1|^*«i ^e-Ma 
ggon^pa to equip with armour; put en 
harness, t. Y* go^ka. 

YefKHM,T. YApo-ela. 

Ops go-Aa ^m, l4, wir, ««Tf, WfW 
IMfv, i(«w; www armour; harness; gear; 
implements ; tods ; 4r^^l*Y« i^r^^-fk-kpi 
go^ka the implement of good luck; an 

Syn. m^ 9^lf4\ •"tI^; trf^Aon- 
•«yo6; VfJ^ t^Mkgai %^mv^ ktMi^i 




^^t^ bag^hyi igo-wa ; IP khrab ; ff^ tmg ; 

khytOrthur cani^'V^ go4chrab {Vion.). 

^f'«'>|^'q gotcha gyon^pa^ v. ^'IjK'*' J«> 
ggim^fd or ^'•flf^'q ^d igoypa. 

KdUUf. T. 139) with a baU. 

{99 B.) {Bohr.) 

{8ehr.) {tiC.) 

* If aA'fiff^ go-cha^i S^^Hfchog. {8ohr.) 
{91 A.) 

(Schr.) {too.) 

*)(»*. {19 B.) 

*M('A'9/H'ff^ gthchdbi JRnanhffKf^' {19 C.) 

(hcai. {8chr.) {90 A.) 

* ^*«S'ir»i'8^^, g(HJhabi Rmoi^yei'im. 
{Bchr) {219 A.) 

•I[f*«t'<| n\ f/iHihabi Tsa'O^i ha, (Schr.) 
{98 A.) 

{8ohr.) {910.) 

{Bohr.) {90 B.) 

^f-»^-fl go^choi-po^^t^ phan-thog^ 

useful ;wrvioeable. w^«i--iF-8s-5^-««^'l*' 
«Mr«t^*|^'ci^'A'fli'lf^^<S'Q')^ hi don gaMye4 
kyaH iigrub-nutpabam m^harphytn^H mi- 
la gfhdid-po ter the tenn go-chod-po is 
applied to a man who is suooeisful or who 
aooomplidxeB any business or duty suo- 
oeesfully: ••^^•^•*SS»< mi-kdi go ehoi^dam 
ynH this man be of serrioe P {A. 197). 

^'|K go^tM ^mnsV cummin seed 
{Zam. 9Ui 
} If'V'^*^ go'^ iMhri the QodaTari rirer. 

ihugi-kyi gna§ trkyai kyi-ufsig^ he^iahiynU 
gyi Iho-ihag He sar-yo^^ <*fr*ftT«^W^ 
a|-f9l^*8a('f)c.' io-^naii ckthmig aog§ gjuthya 
nUshafHMn msdk Gk)daYari, one of tiie holy 
livers of Southern India, a place on its 
ysuxCk near Tidharva where there is iipxrii- 
symbol of Buddha. It oontaans a milkj 
spring (JDaam* Sd). 

4 ^*^S|*q ^dam M n. of a drug 

Syn, «"^«'«|-^ yaii-pa can ; ^*«^ n-sw 
em\ fl'ff^'M ha^M mg\ **t1^" w^kog 

If B kamJfa chen-po (jViton.). 

^*^^*Q go^de-fioa simple; easy; that 
which is easily understood: If'^'ww 
^ir^2K'dl^'<i go-ide-^a la l^an^noi iper-^ 
na he uttered an example with a view to 
make it easily understood {8Uu. 101). 

+ ^^Vi go-hdart, defined as fUf^w^' 
Xoi ina'tshogt-sam ^ gaU mo9-pa what yoa 
like of difEerent kinds. 

Kf-flt^M'ft^"! go-hdrU khyer-iM^S^'^fV^ 
V:9S'Q to be friendly ; intimate {A. U5). 

bpheUyei n. pr. {Bohr) {TM. 9, 89). 

«lfRK4K.- go-bphnH^^V^ rank; i^aoe; 
position: ^wii^«'«JT|-lfw»riF|*rS* 
oym may the blessing be accorded xos 
to gain the rank of an onmiscient Buddha 

^fP ^o-va to understand; to peroeive 

mentally: Si^B'«F?'5W>^"^i^' **** 
pan-ti-ta kun-gyi go uw Jyirf firet ofallit 

was understood by all the 



'If- 1 

^^'^ f^va eam^^^a B, learned, dear- 
beaded penon; ^V«s § ft ^i** wiee men. 

^? 90^ or Vf 4 iya'(f<hio a kind of 
vulture: ^W'jqw -ip-far^*, vrQ-ql'^^pi* 

^ m a § km m aH ng^^rmm kn^car bffe4 
the larynx ol the Tulture caneea indiges- 
tible meat and different kinds of food 
wbioh are not digested, to beoome digested 

^ftS go-iffei mo. to t^a. is a quality of 

^^ yo-ftsftv (^ro-Av)=*fM go-log 
misundecBtand ; misapprehend; to attach 
a wrong meaning {BUu. 110). 

t ^ go-ifu (Bong, fwr) araoa nut: 
^V»rr»«5f\***>"»iH areoa nut is the 
best esDoneo for the tee* hand cures kidney 
disoase {gman.). 

 ^^e>-ras=*|A4<swi-nj jail; prison. 
¥^ go^m order, arrangement : ^^' 

S^*9^«F;is.JSrtfpSqiihave ananged it so 
u to agree with the order of things, eb). 
(8Uu, 101) . 

 ^^ ^wvssf^^a rAo^^jiMiperfeoted; 
finished; completed. 

gfkug^ or ^'^^A^a ni«.#MM« m#/:pa 
qyontaneogsly ; as a matter of oourse; 
without power to exert one's hoU in any 
ourfAer; necessarily (JT. du. r i7£). 

«ia^ (^1 «ra-f^M^' rgyu-u fiH-gi khu-tca 1. a 
kind of gum, pxob. acacia imported to Tibet 
Iran China ; ashes which have burnt with- 
out ignition. 2. Hh'a'di^'q|^'q(-wq lime 
of burnt shell or cowries. 8. the areca nut 
brought from tiie sub-Himalayan district 
or from India is called IH* Y*^ §man go^ia^ U.^ 
ilia globular medicine; S'^^'Y'^ rgpa-gar 

go^yu theLidian areca nut, or *^*Y% areca 
nut from the sub-Himalaya; these two 
are called |H*f «i iman-gthh {ffman.). 

^'t^ the wind which, ace. to Tibetan 
astronomers, keeps the sun and the 
stars moving in space : iwV^y;*|^i|t-u* 

'^'l^'^^S-^-* fkebhtMk4^§ kgai GkhlaH 
tM-^bgro^Uar bgog-^meif^ $hu your lettexs 
should also be without let or bindzanoe, 
like the wind which keeps the heavenly 
bodies always in motion {Tig. k. 87). 

T* po-fc-T* ga^b or ^9 dai^ 

n. of a town in the way to Udyina, prob. 
in Ancient Eabol (8. Lam. 17.). 

^^go-hgHx^ reverse'; oppoaiteto what . 
was ; baok again ; also for f T»i|-q go^ 
hg-pa degraded; position diangedasintha 
case of a superior officer subordinated, or an 
inferior officer promoted to a higher posi- 
tion:— W*^^ ipwi^po gifog master 
made a subordinate or servant, or ^tQ*^Q^ 
gyog-po 4pon, a servant raised to the 
positioii of a master; «r<n*|«'«r'^'iflp^'ir^*lf 
^fQ phanixtr mratfia h gnoi^r giHoa 
tt»iu to fake a useful advice asintended 
for mischief; also j^'^'^'V^ opposed to 
charity or misunderstand charity ; 1(N*^«ai' 
Y'if^ reversing, misinterpreting character 
or morality ;^»\«rtfM^ inoi-pa go^hg^ ^v 
^^•If <s| Itrifon^bgrut go^log to misunder. 
stand one*s forbearance or industry; mm' 
^W'f*^ performance of the wrong 
Dhyana ; Jp«^alf <^ perverse or distorted 
knowledge or wisdom ; ^^l-^-iH s«iii|.g^ 
go-log tired of showing sympathy cr 
compassion; g»«i'«rlf*( hffom^^pa go-log 
tired of loving. 



^m f«HMr|»^<VPi or ^MK.' nak; office; 
dignity : ■•rffTB-j^T^ «^if •'f l"^ 
ikHM wMan^ rgyahj^hn •ogt-hjfi go-^a 
lta-bu*U like unto the podiion of the 
Iaidm, protoson, oflken, «Ao. 

^^Hr^I'lNii 11^ n. of a linuly in 
Anoient India (JT. du. 9l8S) ; n. of Buddha 

^ffogm IT. for ^*Q poiltpo a Inmp. 

^ w gog-ihal aahes ; bnnxt fragmenii. 

^'0 ffog-pa 1. to orawL 2. to oramble 
ofi; to Male off (of the plaster of a wall) 

Iff fiwi^a^'gc.-^ gamh^hag bgtiH-w^ dilapi- 
dated; damaged; in rains; worn out: 
Ifi^Vf^ a temple in rains: *ifT^^*a 
ohoTten in ruins: frH^'*'^^*''^*^^* 
^^ there are some who even die worn 
ont when they orawl about (as little 
ohadxen) {Khrii. 18). 

*^^^'fl^V^ gthi^hg am^§kge§ (Sehr.) 
{80 A.). 

•^ml\n go^la^ ri'^ ih«^«T (Sake. 
I. 6S 68) a oixole; oimilar. 

^^ ^oH l.prioe;Talue;also^'«9oA- 
than ^'^ gati-tihaii ^^'Cl^^-^-^ 
Mor-fAaa kgi rm gdUgi Uhai the prioe 
or TBluation of things or p roperty: ^* 
'^^'^ gafl 4pgai'pa to apprise ; to fix aprioe : 
iftoja-q goH krggiUhpa or ^\^^ gon 
•grig-pa id. lu BiUdm: ''di god ka dud 
m'' what is the prioe of it P {8nd. ffbk,) 
2.s|^ ^en or IH f^Ofi or 1V*« thag^ma 
also an 1M ^i^> ^ the aboiPB: in spaoe 
ss well as in time (in Khamii ^^g^t it is used 
Masbst. signifying ele?ated^ alpme pasture 

grounds). ^*^'«S<I gpi dan i^hun, ^^^ 
avw ^dM M^MMT, ^'^ gai^iOm, 
^'mfkm gatUffUkuMi as above (maa- 
tioned) ; like the abore or aforesaid similir 
to the above. 

^'^ goA4kkoi «tated abovB; ^'% 
^'o g(iMm god'pa existoig abore; ^^ 
^fPi'^^ gail^du gml fMr, set forth or eb- 
eidated above ; ^'i| ^d4-0i ihefomMr;th8 
abore; ^'^^'V* gotUgi de ffUNMi thoie 
pceoeding; ^'^'^l'^*" goi't/i «*•• n»h 
pa the above staiaoaent that ; r^'^'I'frQ 
§Ha gat JBod4fgi fjfya^M the aneaeiit or 
former Tibetan kings; ^^^[^^^'^ go^^ 
gi lffa4rS^ Uat as has been stated above; 
^'^ gaU^ orer it; above; If^-^'^^Q 
gci^du iphof^pa wn taken upwards; 
gone upwards; impcoved; pcogxessed; ^' 
%ffi gotl^du pM plsced in a poeition of 
dignity ; kept on the top; ^"^^'^'^ goMit 
tphe^wa^ n^^^ spixitaally devebped, 
lit. gone upwards; ^'^^^ ga^-dm ikg^ 
fca w^^wr ready; ^'^^^^ goMmmo%^ 
the above mentkmed; ^'^ gotkm a oa 
it; above; ^'^ gaH^nai from above; 
1^'^^*^ ^o^t-fun ^oM-dtf wn^HK mm 
and more ; higher and higher, ^^foi^ 
^vf^ very much (Xmi.); one above; ths 
senior (one):^!^^*^ ^go got-du over ths 
door; •wl^^-^'^V f^AJtgi gtd^ bdai 
died before his father ; ^^^-^ ds » M'< *> 
before that or that time ; •'•*i^^'5 
muht%hog$ gaiUA$ before they aaaemUed or 
oongregated together. 

^*^T^'V^' GM-^Xpor^fdM n. of a fart 
and town on the Tsang-po, where ooa- 
viots are generally sent for prndishment 
It is situated S.-E. of Lhasa, ia ^ 
distriot of ICal-gro. 

«|k*|*«sflr«s*^«^ CM khri^idai, M^ 
n. of a Bon seint beUered to exist in aitnil 



fona in the north-west quarter ((7. 
Bm. 1). 

meeting; enomMj: lune; renown; glo- 

p4iK^^ to lift np ; tc ride up. 

ftAtt^Mf , the inatmotionfl from higher 
anihoritiee ; also thoee arrived orxeoeiYed 

^'«f0tf«M in TT. collar: l|kq-i|W^*»'q 
gt4Hp0 im h di m p a to eeiie by the 

m«r a globular maei, lump, heap; ^' 
9'^ goi'Jm'am ftwW!( dot; clotty; in 
Inmp; in heape; W^'S'H'l ^-ii« m>-«p 
«f«n«i, Yfinini catarrh or cold; ^'9^'8« 
goi^bmtJ^ffot made into globnlar maae or 
lump* 2. agglomeration of atoms ; V^'^ 

^IT***l't'5''l^''^'^^''^'*»'^^ *» ro reg 

fin aoo« totheBnddhist metaphyeioal con- 
oeption that which produces the sensation 
of amell, taste, tonch and sight is formed 
of the following eight atoms:— (1) |Jii*r^ 
rdiapkr^hrab, (2) J«iVr*tp*^», (8) W 
S'' ioag^dul, (4) V%n cku^duly (6) ^fc- 
5^ rUei^rM, (8) W|«< /wi;^M (7) IF 
yi gM-rcfa/, (8) >»«'K>^l5"' «i-iwaW 
M'wer-fflfi rdul {Son'g. 7.) 

fljC'SI po^flw ^ft, wtrft, wwr, miT 
superior ; the fccmar ; the first-named ; ^^* 
«rk fo#-f»ia-cAs or ^*<rl^q fPo4-«ia chen^po 
the most high; S'^^**' ISgya^mg gad^ 
nia tbsBmperar of Ohina; ^'9r9pm goU. 
mth^mmi the gods and superior beings. 
Ifii'sri'l^ g<^^fm ehe dfugj the six superior 

things of tiie 9^*1 Bon^ axe the follow* 
ing :-J(« ^-^^^Q 0Mri|.tM »Ai|.^ niysti- 
cism; t^ ^U-ghar; ^9im'mBf^m m^/tif 
isamfc^«; ^^m^'nyufe9§MH-poi ipi'v 
*^^'^ ffiotf-fra ffidog^can. 

po the Tibetan name of the fourth ICan- 
chu Emperor Eynn-luA is vIT^'SFV ZAo- 
•i^ tgyaUpo^ the king protected by the 
gods. ^^''^l^fiiKl^^q-v^iii^t-ii^-ljj-Ujf 

V'«'^»^*»WI S^t^ H^** He became 
rery powerful, was doTpted to Buddhism, 
inrited the Pan-chen Bin-po-ohe called 
Tashi Lama Pal-dan Ye-s'e (friend of 
the first OoTemor General of India, 
ICr. Warren H|5tingB). He erected 
many temples and chaityas, and his life 
was a record of miracles. He reigned 
upwards of sixty years. 

^'•rfd^'V^^atf^fuVcAo^yon theDaUi 
Lama being the spiritual lord and the 
Emperor of Cfhina being the temporal 
lord : '(^'•i»iK''l'8'i'!'«'l^«^^^«'*pwii' 

itohw^fon^ggi ihugMy^ ' idtr^at A^tAo- 
kkani§ ide-Bkii^ iphrin-loi $Mi^ideg§ ia 
Ihoi^mei^du ifekn by the grace of the 
Grand Lama and the Emperor (of Ohina) 
here too I being in good health haye 
been in the diMharge of public service 
withoat relaxation (Tig. k. 18). 

Ifcfiq^ jFO«.;it« 6sAms=|'^s*n1M tdm-nui 
Itshin i|4^ as before; as the above men- 
tioned ; like the aforesaid; as the previous 

||^'«<$*V|k'si gaU^fnoii goi^ma wwftn^ a 
8uperio]*$ superior; also more and more; 
more in future. 

HJC^ 1. gaU^nto the upper one ; «ifli qS* 
M*^ 35 lag^paH god^nw n^jwj^ tho middle 
finger. 2. the white grouse, but applied 
to yariou^ birds in Tibet of the Tetraofiidos 
family : Ihorbya god-mo is the Cro990pUhn 
Ttbetanuniy and gong-gyag the ItJiaginfs 
geoj^lfoiy etc. {8nd. Sbk. pp. 170-1). 

kyii ffoH-mo ta ^mra^-pa tho two little 
Coka birds said to the grouse (Bdsa.). ^^' 

mobi fa-yif ro-tsa ehu-ser mo-nad sel the 
flesh of the grouse stimulates tho sexual 
desire and also cures disohargc of whites : 
^H'lR «5Ti^*^*ii gofi.fnobi mjug 9ffroii 
vKhnai m/ the feathers of the grouse 
oure female diseases : ^^S^if^^d'^^-ai^a^- 
^'^ gcA'tnohi igo^of me-lhabi gjion-nai 
g.90 the eggs of the grouse oure illness 
oaused by the demons of the Rre-god. 

^K.'U'a^ goU-mo sreg a pheasant, Phasi" 
anus dcoollattts. 

S^*| ^o/J-^Aw=^'i'8 gad-du ahu 1. as 
stated or prayed above. 2. a pnQter lantern 
(«7a.); in ooUoq. Tibetan ^^gafn-shUf" a 

^''^^ giA-^bog = f T^^ Itag-iog f4w^ 
tipper and lower; ^l\M^' gshi-goU folio; 
^^'8'^^ jroil-jfkw gshogt a title of honour, 
signifying his highness, excellence, etc. 

'(^'^"''^ ffi^rol'du^ti^^'^sHu'rol'du or 
&'«! fftofh-iuj before, prior to: *i*w|«'y^*|* 
^^•^«i'^ before the war took plao^, 

^'^ goA'ta above. 

^** goUrUt ^ratv 0110 in supreme autbo^ 
rlty or position; the sovereign. 

^'^ ya-rabf goH'^mcf those superior persons 
gone before ; persons in superior or more 
exalted stations. 


4|«l*xj I 

^ god loss ; damage ; '^'^^p god 
hgyur-wd to suffer loss; ^*^'«r^ lews of 
money and property; ^'P goi-kha, "^ 
JAfn-oi'^i^lf&p,. ji^.^-^.q norphyug^ la nc4 
9na-ishog9 hyud^na^ ^wa loss in property 
or in oattleby disease and other accideata: 
ir« 5q-S-9''*3«''^'^ igom tgrub eUyas kyan 
god-med there was no loss whate\eT 
wliether he performed meditation or 

fear, loss. 

^fP) gon the common gourd; pump- 
kin in TT. (t/S.). 

^'^ gcn-pa (f^<|) to put on clothes, 
shoes, etc.; %1'^V^V^ gon-pa hdra^m 
re-re the cost of a set of anything to wear 
(Sim.) ; »^qy?^5^-q to put a cap on the 
head. 2. coat, clothing (8ch.). 

^'Ifw gon-snam (3*|fw) soige or broad- 
cloth for making robes, etc, (Btm.), 

^%^' gon^yM felt used for wediing. 

^'9f^ gon.aam=:^'%9i gyon^lham shoos 
to put on. 

^'dja^ gob-non (spelling uncertain) in 
JT. to tease ; vex ; irritate (Ja.). 

a pace ; step : ^'^%m fkaH^-iffri^ to make 
a Btefpi^'^'^K'^gom^pa hor-wi to pace: 
i^sf-qq^-a^q yow-jw bdun bor^wa to 
make seven steps (as a oecemony, which 
may also be counted equivalent to a 
religious pilgrimage, the actual perform 
ance of which is not possible). 

^pH-Q5-|iW gom-pabi fiab^ any peculiar 
manner of stepping whether in prooes* 
sion or in dancing. 

^^♦t gom-tgrot walking in step liks 
aoldien or a proo wi on: ^V'T^'^V^^'^^ 
hgro-mi ffom4gro§ tkhf^ in ivalking he 
mifised tlie measare of the paces. 

TTF* gofn-^M^ 'WWr the TiMmtyf of 
pacing; waUdng in measoMl step. 

*' W' pom-fEMtn 1^wn[ three pacef^ ; fig. 
the heaTODs, earth and the nether region. 

%^V*i ffom-gsum-'pa one with three 

4w Wliw; f^Ml^ffWl a name of 
TiahQu when he deoeiyed Bali in his 
JBomana or Dwarf incarnation (Jlfiftm,). 

^pWfl gomi-pa 1. ^nnm one prac- 
tised in anj work; skilled; wont; f^' 
*"'¥"> ^ praotiaing or practised in the art 
of reading ; ^H'''*^ gom^-pa^an %if^ 
one who is skilled or practised in any art, 
^qvj^q gm^par bg$ lanv one 
who is skilled or aconstomed ; <||iwrQV8«'4 
gonn-par iga§^pa ^ni(Wq» one who has 
fvactiaed or studied. 

^ gor or J^vl^ fih»ug§~gar:s:^^*ip 
twr^na4 nrarrain {A. ^ 105). 

^1^ 3 i^-Jn 1. ^gi:«i# qnadxangle. 
2. Mm^i wisdom. 

Ifim-pa a term of respect for stone, or 
a general name for stone {Cs,) ; large and 
small pebUes ; stones ; rabble ; honlder 
fltoaes (Sch.). 

+ ^^''^^9^ gor^machagsa^'trpi^m'Q 

or fcVQ ilsH'^ V» 1«rt4im certain ; sure ; 
mdnUtaUe: ^^'^^'^^^ de-kbyui^wa 
gw^ma ^fchag^go his coming is quite cer- 

^^ ^itA^ati wmhh gaU fyug ^*lf got' 



MO is also applied to signify an irritable 
or angry temper. 

 ^^i gor^fa, sftwW* a kind of 

'TW, <«m, "VTMn^, ^^T> w'U^ *t, ^, ^. 

'^f I ^f^nn:, ^UW coTer ; dress , gannent. 
The common wori for coat or clothing; 
there axe seven kinds of stofEs for priests, 
Ac. : m:^ bal'goi wooUen doth ; -^'^^ 
fo-nabi go9 doth of iBax; ^'sA'lfv gar* 
maiigof linen; ^T«A'^Ai^^ htt ga§ 
silk doth; MtqrS'^^ ra§^iaUggi go§ 
cotton doth; .^fjwq^l^ ko tam-pati 
go9 jnte doth; \V^^1^ Hubog^gi go^ 
Eoropeaa doth, &c. ^^'I't^'^'RMi'qn' 
go§-kgi tgyubi bbgut4fhuH§ itiau^pa 
ennmeration of the materials for doth: — 
lTa«n«-4i* silk-worm; ^'W^'^'^'^^'J' 
g-^q^q|«y^ ra lug dai ri^diag§-*gi 
tpU'tjM pagt'pa ina^iskog^ varioos hairs 
and skins of sheep, goats and wild anini i ftlff 
^^'^«T«» bark or flhies ; ^^^--^^ froits 
'^••r*^ sar-ma $og$ flbreSi etc.; Mriw 
^« rof-ia/ 9ogi wool, cotton, etc. ; \X^ 
^' du^kki^taH mm silk doth, satin, ^ 
^'i*^ go9-g9ar new doth ; V*S dfi-^mi 
dean doth ; ^'V'M ^f-so-mo new or 
fresh doih;\«r«^ dci'^M cdn dirty doth ; 
•^^^•^i ga Hi^/MT old, worn ont 
dothes ; "^'^ nai-pa or j^Q krul^ rags 
or ragged dress ; fS*^ ttoi^goi vn^rav 
upper gannent of Buddhist monks ; 9*^9 
(fa-^oss|si'|^ iMwhibg^ the sacred rai- 
ment containing thirty-two patdies; VS' 
^^ gt^gifog^ vpiMr cover; gpi^f^^ 
tmai^ggogi or fK^m fm4-go% lower gar- 
ment; 49'<'t*^ bai'tM'KJpa an apron of 
five coloura; <^firi\g^ i<toifi|-tfikr4 folds 
round loins like the dhuU of the Hindus; 



m SS^ imai^ikrH the bade folds of dAuti ; 
tK-^ ffmdtf-fom under oloth or garment; 
••^•^ or •nw^ii the pettiooat-like olothee 
worn by the Tibetan monks; fOy^^^Qo^ 
fine dreeaing dothes ; rgyut^got an every- 
day ooat (c73.) ; chot^goi clerical garb or 
garment; f>Ao-^o| male dress; ila^gos an 
upper garment, a kind of toga ; mo-gct a 
woman'9 gown ; fpuxb^go^ holiday or gala 
dothee ; ^'^'<i go^ gyon-pa to put on 
drefls ; if^*^SS'<i got dtu^-jxi to take ofiE 
dresB ; ^*Qt'4 gat ijye'Wa to ohange dresB 
or dothes; ^^t^^ goiifisegf^pa to jmt 
one garment oyer the other ; ^*<9<T^ go§ 
iteg-pa to took up, by drawing the front 
skirts under the girdle ; ^'f ^'d got Idab- 
pa to lay or fold a ooai together. 

^^'S'S** go^-^kyi khyim (iflf) ^iJl" a 
tent ; a diseased man's wardrobe i ^^'9*1^ 
goiJsyi gar VNnc^K a bamboo or bar to 
hang or keep the dress ; ^<i' J'^T*'!'''*' go9^ 
kyii ohog fet-pa ^tfViTCfnQV one who has 
enough of dothes J ^'J'«IV^^ go^-kyi 
ffdaH'fM nx^^^^m a rope or string to hang 

'KS'T^ go§'4kar white dress ; ^^'^'T^'*^ 
goi'ikar can vifWW[f^ one dressed in 
white ; the Gk)dde88 Sarasvati. 

^p goS'Sh^ yarn or silk thread. 

I(irfrqy«irci go^Jsha itgy^'^f^^'H^ ^'^^ 
hundred breadth-measure of blankets. 

H^'dwrq goi khufm^pa %'il'^WJ^-q 
^r]^ a doth folded as to look like waves or 

^3^ goi-gur a tent of doth or satin ; 
|c^^ phym-'gur a tent of felt ; | fira or 
^'^>^ re^gwr tent of yak-hair blanket or 

^^'iS''" .go9 bgyei'pa ^^K^\m% the 
folds in the garment of a monk; one who 
folds dothes. 

^9*^ go^-grum a square rug made of 
Chinese satin. 

^v'fq go^-igab skirt or flap of a ooat or 

ifii'ipi go^igam box ; ohest or press for 
dothes ; wardrobe. 

^pr 2^'^ goMiUm^an ift^lMl 1. one 
dressed in a bine dress ; the sky. 2. ^^ 
^Wnficftfk^P^ Ohag-na Dorje Bodiaatiwh 
fq^'cw iiobi^ixa^ nwinF the brother 
of yrishoa said to bean amtdra ot YiabvxL 
8« ^P^'l^*^ $9ai ^pm-^ the planet Saturn. 

Y«'^ gaH>an ni^^ a kind of sandaL 
"^^'^ gof-ean 1. vlffm {SkAr. ; Lebentb. 
86) a tablet ; apieoe of oloth. 2. ^«r<T 
^T go9'(KmUm'4kar uttanr satin. 

^^^ go9-eAm mJk fabrics; Ohiness 
satin, of which iha difieirant kinds known 
in Tibet are :— ^'^fn *or- jof, *rl ihan^iU, 

rndsoi^goi^ l^'pq skyin-khab {Kincob) atn- 
faroidered satin; %m jug^ yl^^ tgyon 
iski-maj JT%T« tgy^ drug-ma, ^T^^* 
ibrug rii^ma^ ^Vf^*^ tbrug ^pyo-mei. 

^MV goheken-poss^^^tfir^m du^ 
laH ra9 silk-doth (jKKm.). 

^iiiX^ goi'igtekoff the finest satin or 

Syn. ^'n« g<fhi9ati qiT^'J^ *»•• 
igaii god ; 9^^'^*^ ^ruif-ifwtf go§ (Jdfoa.). 

^''fgof'lhmmmm aparQhaaeddreBs;a 
doth fit to be purdiased. 

^^\^ goi't*«l^^'^'^go§ tnigiM « 
^0 bem-po in Ld. dialect, an dd ooat 
or dress. 

Syn. ^n fu4ipo\ J^B hrulipo) ^T*" 
d$$g'-pa {Wan.). 

*KW ^of-Jr^on ^VfKininr a mendi- 
cant who puts on a ragged garment; s 
ragged dress. 




^-«iM goi^tpikai akiit of dress or robe. 

^*^T«i (f09 dng^pa old oloth ; rag^ped 
dotb; torn oloth; ^«\«i'«^ go§ dn^nio* 
can dirty dothes; ^^\^ go^ dri^tnei 
dean cloth. 

^'^^ gohbdyg . or 4'^ chu^got bath- 
ing doth. 

^'1 l! go^-pa ftrn, pf. of ^'^ igo-wa, 
to apply on; to paste or rub. 2. vqtiii a 

^""•"IP^'V go9'phyed' phu-lui sleeveless 
robe or garment (in SOrIc). 

^% gof-phra ^inpf fine-silk ; muslin. 

^'9S gH'hyei ^fimfti -gain; accept- 
ance ; performance ; hononr. 

^'7* goi^al WBf fipTfr naked ; with- 
out drees or cover for the body. 

^tS**" go§ ^ei-pa ^twKr^^m one 
concealing his mendicant's dothes. 

^'^ gof'fmn ivnr a roof ; veil : film 
over the eyes ; multitude. 

a devotee who has cut off worldly ties. 

^V^'^ go9^niar §de imnrrft^ classes 
of Buddhists who are dressed in red. 

^'w goi'iaaM Mttjm satin. 

^i^'UrK^'^ badly-sewn clothes. 

^'^o fO§^ig^pa vflhvT a wave, a 
I^t or fold in a garment. 

^'^'B ffoi tai'po worn-out clothes. 

WTf%«i^ a female mendicant dothed in suit- 
able dress ; one who lives doing nothing 
more than eating and dressing. 

^fjR'l^ go^^tegi worn out dothes ; old 
clothes (^«ct. £). 

^*OT got^yug piece or cloth or satin^ 
enough for making a robe. 

^^'^ gof^hg oolloq. (in Sikk.) 
** ko-lakj *' a coat ; dress ; dothes. 

1|H'H*«^ go^^r ean^ ^tnvK a name 
of Vishvu, one covered with a yellow 

'('^•^•q- goi'lAoi-pa to let go « robe 
which has been grasped : ^<«'i(«c'H^*q^'Vv 

nat tijui-par ihoA m^ fiu^rin ^proi-wr «nitf. 
g.9iim fpra4'd€ go$ lho4 9go^a4 one said : 
" see you are held fast by your clothes ; " 
and he said: fix a price f or the ensnare- 
ment ; " and three trang being allotted^ 
the doth was let go and the door shut. 
((?. Sndg.) 

^1'H ^.^^ ^ ji, jg ^yot-po mux 
father-in-law; ^^'^'^^M^igo^potisrunf^ 
j^ ^I4ufwn protected by one's father-in- 

2^ gya num. used in the abbreviated 
form, in the place of '^i irgya^-cu 80 ; 
y^V| gya^gcig 81 j 5^^^ gya^gnif 82; 
%'^V^ gya^fpum 83 ; y ii^ gya-i%hi 84 ; 3 J| 
^^o-Wa 85; %'\^gya^drug 86; ^^gya 
idun 87 ; 3«JJS gya^icgyad 88 ; S'SJ gya^ 
dgu 89. 

3'3 gy(^gy**^^^*^ gyon-can «Vn 

fini dissimulation ; crookedness ; intrigue ; 
secret machinations: ^>^'5'5ftsq5'vrq% 
q^' d0^4 gya^gyu nysd-pa^i tnam^pa 
yin^ptif he was a person absolutely free 
from deceitful intentions. ^V^wi'^^' 
I'jqi^'S'f'lT* ffnod^m daH ihi-tcabi gya^ 
gyu $og9 malice and beguiling intrigue8> 






cnffy, deoeitfol, fraadnleiit* 

T9'9S'^ 9V^9y^ h^P^ to intarigue ; 

31^'^V ffff^gyur Ugro that wbioh goeB 
not in tbe.direot way; a fcog; smoke ; a 
nialoa; amer: S'l^'^V'Q gy^n^r bgro- 
tra flflipentisd-molaon ; to more oir- 

yvTf gya-^mgyu (xnfandering of ziTeni 
fto.) quiet; oalm; gently flowing along 
(Ja.). Of a man: oantioQa; ■ftliAwnmg bo 
tiiat onedoes not know what to think of 

^7^ n^"^ manreUooa; inea^lioa- 
bby of men, ooomre^oesi fto. 

+ 3'^ 9y<^iho^9:y^ tnt^rgyan an 
ornament for the ear ; an ear-ring. 

3'^ pjfu-A WOOK a hrea<it plate. 

+ S'tT^ ^' 9y^^g fnai ^Bim. heau- 
tifiil ; of nice appeannee. 

^^IpTJ^C^Z) gy€hn<m mo^HM n. of a 
oeileetial mansionf the residence of the 

4, ^*l|^'q gym ftom^Ni, W<F*^ a 

^*^'^ #mMl-.^A<Ml oAa-fM one in abnndanoe ; 
in plenty ; p oBs e sa od of wealth and power, 

3**^ gy^H^ <w V^ gya-^ffasz^m-Q- 
Ham-pn^ ^ qpoiled; degenerated. Aoc. 
to Ok. deformed; disfigmed; havioglost 
his or her former heanty. 

XB^ (to become dryi^) ace. to Ct. haste; 
hurry ; rashnees. 

4i 3'*J|»».<«fcMfi,w«T;*raj«fjcijiitf 
ili^ghP^ mofmentaiy; nnstable; wiliioiit 
deliberaticsi; oonsidention : 3'3br^*^'«n'>' 
i^ gya i$h amiu bgro^war rni^aio dionld 
not go all on a snddeii, wifhoat deliben- 

S'^^ gya49hanhean 1. iftnr a bsid 
of the Ifftgadha tribe. 2. one in dondit. 

destroyed; rained; aoc to CSg.diminiithed, 
▼• ^ST*" bgyag-pa. 

3^^* gy^ ^ S^* 89^ ^7 stamped 
into moulds, and frequently used as build- 
ing material in Spiti, Ladak and other 
parts of Tibet; S^'i|^ gyai-^gtor earthen 
wall round an estate or Tillage; J^'l^ 
gyai'igrofn -piai mould* 

%^'i gyati'49e pis^ terrace ; nail of dry 
earth in Ladak. 

S^'^ ^ya/l-rs cattle-yards conetrocted 
of clay or mud. 

3^' Vi gyai^rim pis^ kyer or one layer 
of pis^ I.e., as much as is staanped in at a 
time, about one ell in height; this fre- 
quently serves for a measure of the depth 
of ihe snow (J8.). 

y:tm gfoA-rii fresco or wall paintii^: 
fo in the frescoes, Ac, of the oaTes (Js- 

3S W^^^9 ^ ^ champion; amaa 
of great physical strengtti; an athMe: V 
^>^'3V)'<^^9i da iM gyai-iyi rte/ tgrim 
let us compete once more in athktio dex- 
terity. 5S5'^*^r^ gyai-kyi id$m 9M0 
<vrrt f «w, *^nw the mode of seising 
in wreefling; iSi^'^V^ gyai-kyi PW*» 
prowess or Btrength of a champion. 

fi'% fP^rdo 1. gia] 
SX n. of a tribe in TOM. 



^ftm (8ekr.; LehenMh. 98) n. of a bar- 
liarQioB tzibe. 

3^ fyaMatbelter; axeoessin a rock, 
large and wide but not deep; WV^ hrag^ 
gyam a dielter under a rook: ^'3«« ga4^ 
n^*9% a grotto beneath a oonglomerate 
rook; a aheltflr in the iteep side of a rock; 
•^•5«» pho^gjfOM or «i*.sw pha-tad gyam 
a abetter nnder a beetling rock (JS.) ; yra 
gy mmb m a little coyer or ahelter \C:). 

3^'3^ 9g^'9go4t probably %sr 
no^kka ^'n goi^pa, loes, damage (c7a.). 

8 «fi foar ^ PS •*« ^, •!, ^, ii, T. % 

3^2QE^ Ggi^H Kvia^ n. d a place. 
§'iP' &r^(^i«n.of a place in Tibet. 

S*^ Og^han n. of a place and also 
of a tribe in B. Tibet: ii^'<i^''^i'^^'^ 
in tlie middle (ooantiy) are the two, Ti&, 
Jfo-4ftf and Bag^i IR'S*W8'^'^ 
|fwr#-M J&4ap (7»4iM p«tf in the lower 
counfay are JGk&v and QgUham (Tig.). 

y^'^^ gguduhwa 1. eoaree; poor; 
Tniwniblnj of food, clothes, fta : S'V^'^ 
a nuMRaUe^ atarring life. 2. nnsteady; 
fldde {Beh.). 

^' 0MM-f«i ignd^goi ggutpho dot, n. oi 
a mmiber inoonceiraU^ large (Ta-^l. 

^Aai-jMi, sUte of inaotiTity, idkneii: *^ 
Xvtwre^ |'^-^*-irii|^ log chot iKani9^a4 
gguna^ggoAta ftfiyar threw all heretical 
doctrines into the abyss of inaction. 
{A. 168.) 

3*^ ggp-M name of a good breed 
of hoTMs from Amdo where iheie are 
twelve diflarent breeds, JH gpuJiH and 

^^^ gnam-^a being the best among them 

/»=56«r« qnickHdlver {9mM. 118). %M: 

*»"^*T^"*I idtin-pa 4kar^^ n. of a mineral 
medieine, probably mercury, (§man. U7.) 

nM^H^oaontchooc; India rubber. 

in'^ ggig-fi* or H^' ggig-§doH 

caoutchonc tree (Sikk.). 

SC OyH n. of a deity, prob. %«t^ 

^'^ggM'-mo in W. gently sloping; 
gradnally descending cr subsiding. 

SWW| ggtm-hag amalgam; §»rH!T 
^'T^^ to gild in the fire. {SeAir.) 

JSih-Mm fputirpa n. of an astrological 

mnsic, cymbal. 

§^ ggi§ 1. instead of In Ayif, after 
the letters ^ na, si mt, ^ m, n fa. 2. 
imp. of ^'«i iggi^ifth "f^oA honestly; 




uehaye well ; do (so) ; ^>^'8^')^ dfraH^pKr* 
gm do it straight : §*'^^ ^y4-ft>, fpi do 
.or let him do. 

+ 2*'' ^yti-frass^^«l (Atir-tra to 
honour; to esteeiu. 

^?^ gyur imp, and pf. of ^l*^*^. 

• I'^'V^ ggur-du wnasjv^'^^ gyur^du 

1^'^ gyur-na ibt^, ^iii1%v^ if it so hap- 
pened; if it became so. 

f^qt'^siq gyur-pabi rnam-pa ^fv€m 
anything changeable ; Bubjeot to change, 

S**^ W^'in* 9* crookedness; curve; 
hunch; hump; crooked back ; "^'Q^'f vq 
gye-gur gyvr-pa f%fm double hump-back ; 
met. a Bactiian camel. 

%^ Gye^gor n. of a Bon-po deity, 

3'^ Oye-re n. of place on the T&ang-po, 
to the south-east of Lhasa: '^'^'^'^ Oye^re 
Lha^pa n. of a very old noble family 
of Tibet. 

SS'**' gy^4-pay V. ^5V«» bgy^i-pa. 

S^*^ gy^'<f^ ^P ; upward ; uphill : '^' 
^^t gyen^u-bgro v^vm, ^i^mrrf going 
or flowing upwards ; ^^'V*^ dimb up ; 5*^' 
%\ gyen^gyi-dri %tt^' fragrance; sweet 
scent; fragrant; 8^''^'T^ gyen^du Uta^ 
tr«='«f'« yar fta-wa WirNw to look 

^^% ^y^^^oy^ W'l^'9'^ gyen^rgyuhi 

^g(i {f'S^'M kha-daH'fna) the mouth and 
the nose through which the wind passes 
npwardB or downwards; "S^flSjq gyen- 
ro 'uhi nuthu n. of a disease (Med.). 


9^'^ gy^t^rgy^ ^^^TW that nms np- 
ward<); fire; names of the fiTe Tital (nv- 
1T9) winds in the human body. 

^')^^ gy^^tgy^g-p^ to gallop uphin ; 

to pass upwards; to. dimb up. 

S^'*^ gyen^hai in W. (opp. to ^ 
•S mat^^had) 1. the upper part of a ooim- 
try; 5•H|^*»^ Pu-rig Oyen-ekad, 4o 
Upper Purig (Ja.) 2 an ascent. 

^V^^^'^'' gy€f^(h$ idegt^pa to lilt 
high ; to praise. 

^'V^^^ gy^f^du bibren %fnR drawing 
upwards ; also marriage. 

1i<-^q|^iq gytn^du ifxhit^pa ^HTf 
to turn up; to cock (a hat or cap). 

9'r^'9^'> gyen^du lui-pato keep above 

^^'ft^ Oyen^mig fiinw, fiiwr the second 
of the seven lower regions under ike 

'^Y^p^'Q gyen gftar^po a steep asceoi 

"^•^■q gyev^Jinhg-pa W^JfTK, to Tomii 

^^Qi'^^-Q gyetvJa drai^po in W. 
perpendicular ; vertieal. 

3^ gyer^ v.^^*^ dgyer-ua. 

S^'^f^ gyer-ifgam the kind of medita- 
tion practised by the Bcn-po. 

gaj;,'^^' gyer^lM ; ^ta frfNr a high 
breed horse, or pony. 

'^'^^ gyes-io^i wvr raised up ; mag- 
nanimous; noble. 

5**1 gye^'pa ft^w: to analysci resolve, 
separate; to split asunder. 

^^^ gyo-dnm^^'^ kn^ra wAk^ ^^ 
1. f agar. 2. potsherd. 3. brick tile (&'* ) 




3*»l gyo^mo wtr^ 1. grftT0l;grIt. 2. 
potaheid* Z.^\'^ gy$^if^ olay vearal. 

^S^^9^9'P^ erookadioarred: ^*^i 
rfaitf-(fyo^ iMDt or orooked leg. 

f^Q ffjfog-po left-banded; awkwud 

S^P^ fyo^ for f^ i9yoff9 oaanoB; a 
large gnu. 

3F* 9¥^* want; need; indjgenoe : S^' 
Vl^'4 9yo« |Mi#r.iMi to be rednced to 

#fai^i0a oorooked; xougb; bard to nndar- 
stand ; P'9^'^ i^ gyaH-po bard-monthed 
(i.e., palling at tho reins) ; ^>nr ^cQ «Mf|| 
ggoi^ banb; lesembling a *bom or 
bide thai oan bazdl j be made aoft ; 
^jf^'Q mi gy<4l'po a crooked man; an 
obetinaie man {A. ISU) ; ^i^% thai 
gfoi^po imperfect Ungaage ; ^^^4 Uhig 
9yo€^ in^lite wot 1b ; Ml $^' 4gra gyi)H 
a baid, cmel, dangerouB enemy. 

che Yery rude; impudent (Ja.). 
jk-yq gyo^ru-'wa «4N rongb. 

film of dirt, formed of dust and otber 
sabstanceei on tbe sorfaoe of water ; Boum. 

3P'^ gyoi^ro dried body ; a mummy 

3S'P 9y^>4'f^ remome ; quarrel ; 

iS^ gg0i't$U-'<^'f*'r9i hkktug^ 
pa^i ^i$thwa ibe basis or grounds of a 

quarrel or flgbt: '••••«I**l»vl|>Js'^^ the 
last is tbe ground of contention between 
lust and passion. 

3^'^ gpon^pa trWww, vW%n, wftw 
to put on ; to dreis; to wear : Jir^V^'*!* 
S^'**'^ ggofi-pa lu^la ggon^pa^ go§ 
putting on tbe garment tbat one wears : 
^') n^^rgyu materials for clothing. 

JS^H gyoii-po^^^mfi gnahi-^ or «r*i«^ 
fia-(sat WW tbe garment or dreas to be 

3^ gyol nww green shoots of lea^ea 
or twigs ? y«rB gyol^ 4Knr« aUue- 
neoked jay. 

+ 3*^'^ I- 9yo9^ mj^ wife's 
father; fatber-in-law : ^^'Bta'^^q ^^fr 
tf^ii proteoted by the father-inJaw. 

Jm-lJ gyo^wo mother-in-law; the 
matron of a fafdily ; also any old lady of a 
family : j*|^ gyo^-tgyi^g parents-in-law. 

% gra {4a) one of the six early tribea 
of Tibet : flv^-^Avcr*-!, f"^!^ ^cyr^ii^,. 

W* boi^m w^kei-pa if^rnm Idod ftoH dot 

gra ^fv-i^ ru^drug ner, the six tribes :— 

Mlru, Qra, ^o4, ^dW, ^nm and 8e (on- 

ginated from) the five Tibetan brothers 

(bearing tbe same names) {J, ZaU.), 

Vf^ gra^gya§ thick and abundant (as 
of the mane on the neck of the lion, borve 

etc.) : 1^•^^'«niil••i^•w•^•.^rJc%• ^j^grof 

ikaMM ^mn-gmm gra^gyat Mr» (the 
land is well-presenred) as cords carried in 
a sheep's paunch or like the thiokfy-grown 
mane of wild animals (youth in good 
circumstance is also so deeoribed) : j^ff 
S^ «iA^*f kko gra^tgya§^po idug he is rery 
bright and eheerfol (Jig.). 

TV! I 



win frtHfrif to nake {copeir jce- 
pintioa or imagemmt or equipomit 
lor mj VudiiflMy fto. 

VH^ fv« Vfrtf-po twyflung pat in 

fl**"|vV g T M^t tpo 1. nioe and 
imoaUi or gloiqr; iwy flue; flk snd oot- 
waidlj qnP^tting niobk 2. appropriate; 
ekganit lookfaig ivail (^ 2M)« 

V^ fre-dMablr. ol tlw twe imudom of 
pkoea palled liho-gm (Ijho-da)aiidNaiig- 
dol {Bt$tt. »S). 

f^w ftth§Mi proper order, airaage- 
moii ; alio AmiF|in ml^miH klkHdeb§ 
toiilorm depo«tion : ^T^'^fiirfjiJK-S' 
9 9^ the anaiigemeiit in the jtroot and 
of the light and left lidw (SUU.). 

W^fft^i^ t n. of e great Lama who 
ii aaid to haTe unearthed numj Buddhiit 
leUgiona and medioal works. 2. a net 
belora the window to pryrent paasera^lgr 
ham looUng into the rcipm* 8. oarnqgi 
in wood; f'Tnr^t'^'W^ gro 90f§ 
tta p^ kpi fM pkmg rig^ filnia and 
hollowed pieoei of wood with oarringa, 

ihe bristles of badej grain andits ohaff : 

*Q'3 Gra-phyi {^^^kft) and T^' ara- 
mi {(fthmiH) are names of two TiUages in 
Uio-kha (&$«.). 

q-l'fc:^ Orarphft tskoH^ithi n* of a 
gxeat mart of trade in Lho-Uba dnxing the 
llthoentaxy AJ>. {A. fHf^. 

WW gra^lmg, also oalled f ^ ^lY* 

rgf^nag gi itug^ckaf a nrasioal instroment 
of Ghinese make, perhaps the ernnbel: 

TV^'e*V^ gnnlbng eAa-fv-rv the ojmbil 
eaoh pair (^Mf.). 

^9\ gta^ma (jojum) ^imm, w^ 
1. awn, beardt bristle, the ears of eereak 
and wild grasses have: ^V^HF 

''when the fruits of wheat and bsilejr 
spring forth, to those which oome in pointi 
like ihe Poa grass, tiie name of beardsd 
gfain is giTen." The term ^^I'^rvi tfirv 
fre-ffM-MWi, bearded, awned planta, is opp. 
to ^*i^'9'«^ Vbru gat te-Ms legominoDS 
plants. 2. trellis-work, lattice. 3. a tree 
or shrub, probably the Tibetan fmm, 
Oaragana Tersioolor. 

Hatm gra-mr mi mai gruil-po ffir m dag mi 
in the' (iiregolar oomered) cell manj 
learned and holy men ^ired {Jig. 36). 

%'^'^Qra^niaehe n. of a king of anoent 

time; ft'inn|K'f^'r>i'l^ ^Mi Ocalidtm 
granm eke among men the Uessed Gi»- 
ma-ohe {Tig.). 

9*1^ gra^mr {4a-9ur) w^ the oomer or 
junction of sideB also oalled ^ grwa. 

S'*^*t gra kgypa {fa Ug-pa) u: 1[^ 
^^*i gra fna-kgt-pa the hairs of wild 
animals such as tiger or leopard, fto., when 
thick and glossy are called gta^bg§^* 



ride f 't'l^^trr'^* <3hMi is quaiteror 
direotion 2. lap; lappet; extremity; ^ 
t\go§4fgi-grwa eoitt4ail : ^f wlUri^l' 
Sffirm^-fH5«iveca^'ers|f; Zo-tenw 

ehoi-goi kgi grw^noi t s ii < gh bfrnrntf^ 
kgaH nrn^gnaH though the Lo-tsa-wa irapt 
seiriiDg the lappet of his garment, 7«t 
he (Atis a) would not bestow it. 

^1 3S9 

9TL: % mihool; }t^^ Vog^gnfia a read- 
ing lohool (<%.) ; 1^9 %fi(m-grwa a Mhool 
for sieditation; BT<'9 tiag^^grwa a ichodl 
for myikicaL Buddliifln (Ob.); «yr^ |rfo2. 
priM a tninisg tohool; Mouiiaiy; ini| 
fw aa - fnw i a madioal sohooli t*^^ fitif* 
grwatk whool where inaflMimaifciflt m taught ; 
^)n ftf^frwa a imting eohool (C«.). 

heuae; a dome. 2. eohooMiooiey flooie- 
tonea ako jnonk'B zeeidenoe. 

n^ grwhifratli (f^hiaff) the nuniber 
of oandidtaa monks In a monaatmy. 

oomer or nook in a plain. 

^'«i gnMhpa(fm-fm) vm 1. a lohool hoy ; 
aicholar; diedple. 2. genoallj a monk- 
pupil or novioe belonging to a monastery. 

9"^ ynwi-flSpoii sohoolmaslar; chief ^o- 

^ or monk. 

T|^ griMhpkrug alittle boy who reads. 

•eiiool where monks are ixistnioted in aaored 
literaiore ; a section in agieat monastery, 
where the monks belonging to one parti- 
oalar sdhool ct studies liTe together. 

!r^^sl grwa49hogi {fa^ihog) a congre- 
gation or oonvention of monks. 

V^ gnf^^-t^kir (fa-ihar) wgift^ in 
the nmr comers: the real meaning accordf> 
ing to TibetaiL authors is ^Qprnf 9^ on the 
f oar sides ci a honse. 

TPjpriM-sifr a oomer room or monk's 

9*^ grfH^-m (^e-se) a monastery; 
^-^^Q grwaw cket^-po {ta^$a ekm^) 
great departmental school attached to 


la^ monastery ; «^>S'^'^ «4iAe»-iitf 
grwa-^ Mg a school where the Bnddhtst 
metaphysios is tangbt. 

>V'$ grufO^i plate; dish in Xif. (JL). 

Vff^' grag-iiaH echo; deecrfoed as9T 
*TS*l^>S'i'l brag-eha iUtJm tUMUf kgi 
§gra^ a name for anylhing of empty soniMl 
as an echo from a rook : lifcye-eietf grag^ 
§tai tMg^gi ia-ro §grogi an eoho withoot 
any real existence proclaims a loud cry of 
words {A. Li) ; h 9he§ iye-ipe grag^iM 
iiian-p^gki^gati a low noiseless refiEaia 
is called h {A. U6) : jlstnf^'^ 1^^ 
*K ftrtf fw^e^isi khg0t*gi gN^g^Ml 
t§gragi^ gii ; Mo-Mt ikhgr9§ gtiMfor 
bga§ theechoes (or reverberations) of (he 
sounds yon sent f orQi have split my senses 

^f^^^ grug-pa or 5^« r'^VH" l.« 

W^^^fs^^grat^gini'pa^^ the tone; pitch 
of a soand or Y<Hce. 2. feme ; imlse ; 
romour; talk. 8. the prindpal or most 
distinguished amongst several persons 
(Ja.). 4. occasionally»^an'«. 

^P^ grag§9n hope; contempt. 

{Q4pi*C| I: gragi^jim 1. ace. to JS. to 
bind or fasten up a load; so also in the 
coUoq. 2. pf. of ^WT^ iprafF-jMi. 

SPP"*^ H: wm,^if)l«T» 4M^, ^v^lHt 
wfv, ^fNr, sniy wim glory; also fsme, 
reputation, oharaoter hy report; V1**<i'M'^ 
notoriety; ill name; bad repute; rumour; 
report: ^T!VcrM«|^* the report of it 
spread, was ciroulsted Qai most caees it 
signifies good name, renown) : f^'^r^-yipi* 
mi'mr^K-mrn'mcgprti iSm^pa dad gragi^g 
$aii ti&i tkamhca4 khgalhfia the whole 
earth wasfilled with bisfftime and renoim ; 
fW^ $d0n»grag§ reputation. 




^^'^ffr^ffi^eoH 1. iamotui ; renomied ; 
beatitifiil; splendid; glorioiu; proud; 
haughty ; SPI't*!^ jfragi chen m%\vm\ ; ol 
great fame ; oelehrated ; reno'vmed ; well 
known. 2. irHNrt a merohant; 9^«'f^' 
^'>|^*^ grag9'$iian ikm^-wa xrf^rm: good 
xuume ; pure fame ; reputation ; Sn^- ^^S'«^ 
gragt^hdod^can amhitious ; detirouB of 
gaining glory, of bemg famoua; VFV^ 
gtaghldan inraV» rnVT^i one who is 
celebrated or poBseeaed of fame: ff^^'SIT^ 
(m'S^*ipnr^^'(*|pq« ^fian-pahi grag§^pa§ 
phgogi'tfuimi kun^tu igrogi (his) fame 
spread in all quarters (everywhere). 

• SPPi'«r jfi*ifl8^ Orag^-pa tgyol-m^^han 
^qtmr (kehr.; Td. 31) , lit. banner of 
glory ; n. of a govemor of Tibet. 

Sn*'*'**^ gragt'pa-^n^sifflm^'^ 9i^^ 
gragi-eau f^flniy ^^^9 ^WV» ^rrftif , •nftir 
illustrious; renowned; Ji^-^^gi*i|^«ri-fl of 
great renown; of celebrity, fame, glory; 
|\iriye.m<i'crai'«4|^'ci greedy of gain and 


Sl^qlh'q gragi'pa ihcb-pa = 9fmi'^ 

fjftkhai'pay a learned man. 

*g|^«'«i'^SU Gragiipa bog-zer n. pr. 


^jihft^ik pr. {Sohr.; Td. «, ^06). 

9|V%^ Oragi-iyin Jfi^^ one of the 
deroted attendants of the Buddha: 4^*1" 

^W9^ gragi-ma Faldan Lhamo, also 
called ^iHl'flli Dpal Iha-mo, e.^., (^ri^Devi, 

SI^'H'B^ Orag9 mu-k^pud vnHitUi n. of 
a legendary king, the sphere or circle of 
whose fame was very wide. 

IH'^'^t^'^ Orags bdain-ma (^ag^dsin-ma) 
^^t%K\ the wife of the Buddha S'&kya- 


^n'om Orag$-f^ai 1. ff^VTH of world- 
wide fame; of boundless celebrity. 2. 
n. of a number.' 8^ n* of a district in 

^j*^'^ grM'ua {tang^xea)^ also 81^''' iJhi, 
ad j cold, cool ; oolloq. partakes of the na 
ture of a verb in such phrases as ^^'^^V' 
graH^gi bdug^ he feels cold ; ^ f' grai^'Ho 
it is eold. In such phrases, however, it is 
common to insert the word ^x namy the 
sky, e.g. (eoUoq.) natn t^mg-mo re, the sk j 
is cold, !>., ''it is cold''; !g<'|<) groA^iA 
H^irT^ protection from cold ; warm woollen 
clothes: SF'fl'^T'''^^ B^'» grafi-ica M 
dro*u:a %hei'byai% bya the bird called 
the ij'twtir cold and warmth; this fabu- 
lous bird is a native of the forest 
called in Tibetan |^-a'|'^q('in« Sgnb-pa 
^ion^pajfi iiagf^ the primeval shady forest ; 
its sight relieves one from the effects of 
cold or heat : 3p-^*1|X*^*|^ the cold will be 
changed into warmth; 5p'^^*^^ frown 

or congealed by cold; ap^W'^^'^V' i* ^'^ 
grow cold. 

aF'^1 gv^t^-^reg ; 3P'«^ graii'^^a4 (JMofi.). 
gi^ql^ grM^wa sel ^wfilK warn:; 

where there is no cold to remove. 

^ qS'^« graik'Uahi du9 fnfkK, «1ir-«T« 
the cold season. 

^gc'cfi^ grari'ttabi^nad ^fni^ the 

cold fit of the ague; {«i'9 grum-fu gout; 
rheumatism ; arthritic pain ; ^'^ grai^dr^ 
cold and warmth, temperature; 9^'<Qfi'dS'^ 
gra^-^m byed-pa to shiver with ooldi 

5giEi'q$'4|^« graH^wabi gnof a cool place. 

cg^g^' graH't^lufl lit. cold valley; n. of 
a large village under Xamba Jong on &e 
other side of the Eangdien JuAgs 

5MI| 241 

^'^Ofrnf, grH'4mgia trn^^B eight 
cold hellfl, T. ^0^^ ifnpml'Wan 

^'^ gruAifiM dftseaae iudooed by cold, 
gen. dupepoia. 

fikyiit^ the jadk-daw ( J»oii.). 

1F*9^ «fra«-rM ^nr a diaeaM allied to 
rheuDatinn, also oold in the stomach. 


^iRfr-^f {datg) *wn number; ^ 
^Mi'^'^K a moltipUed number, many 
times; ^«'^'CP^ innumerable; SF^**^*Asr 
^^reHf mM fffc h ifpar having no number 
or without number ; numberlees ; 9^* 
^^e frai% ^debi-pa or J^'t* e ghii-pa 
to sount; also an aooonntant; SF^*^ 
graiihit^ sTmbdIioel numerals of oertain 
nouns, which in some books aie used 
instead of the usual numerals, for instanoe 
^ wig, the eye for *Hwo" ((7s.) 1. 
Unr sign. 2 cm astrologer. 

SMiJ-^wgiaii gna^kyi fnan^gna§ 
arithmetical enumeration ; euumeration 
of the numbers used in the sacred boohs 
of Tibet as compiled from the work 

oaOcd («'>S'^t*t) vAof^ifff/ axe:— (1) ^ 
gng one; (2) ^Mm 10; (8) ^ itgga 
100; (4)9^* lMllOOO;(fi)|MW 10,000; 
(8) V Hum 100,000; (7) w^ ui^ya 
1,000,000 ; (8) r « h^wa 10,000,000 ; (9) 
¥'}^ dui^hgur 100,000,000 ; (10) H*^ii 
<Aar.»6ifiN 1,000,000,000; (11) ^'^srKQ 
ther-tlmm eken^ 10,000,000,000; (12) 
IPrfi^ khrBgkMg 100,000,000,000 ; 
(13) BYIt^^ khrag^kkrig e/um^po^ 
1,000,000,000,000 ; (14) M'qgsi ralH^kram 
10,000,000,000,000; (10) ^^vrMnrai^ 
Warn cim^fo 100,000,000,000,000 ; 
(18) ^Ifm gtam 1,000,000,000,000,000; 
(17) ^9sisi-t^*Q gtam§ ch^n^po 
10,000,000,000,000,000 ; (18) ^m^ fitrigt 

100,000,000,000,000,000; (19) ^^H« 

ikrig^ ehm^po 1,000,000,000,000,000,000; 

Neict, the following are p gogrc e si TS 

numbers inoreasing by multiples of ten up 

to 60 agures: 20, A*^^ mi^mntgi 21, 

•^TK«5 m.ikhrug^hen^; 22, fK^ 

kkgaHbgini 23, fy;^^M^ kkpaf^Hym 

<iken^poi 34, B^fS fpaH^tien; 26, l^firM 

tpei-rtoii dhen^; 26, ^\«!^ d$4^tdfm; 

27, ^^^'« dii^bdren^km^i 28^ 

^t^ ii^*at-|fia4; 29, sm|a?m «<*«*- 

§n9i ekm^po\ 80, ^tff^ tfy^rigi; 81, r 

^Mn tffVu-rigi ckinio; 82| *SiA 

M-Updtiii 88, ^' •*i*HW boi-md^eg thm^ 

po; 84, ^««« ^oif^; 86, ^**»H» 

*f«^-lH> ehin^] 86, •l^i^l^ fep«.»»y/»; 

87, ^'^HB fcw-Wj^* <>*«i-#o; 88, 

fl*^« ttogg^hgr9\ 89, J^^rMflirH ftayy. 

*^ chm^poi 40, ^rjsi t»yiiii.rAi/| 41, 

^'^M^ V^yi^tM ^k$n^X 42, ff^ 

tgtf^r*ag§; 48, fWi-M t9f^ttag§ ckm^ 

po; 44, >wr^ »«a(|.MA(^,' 46, |fcw'^' 

*^''' l^e*l-4*ilor eMen^i 46, «VJ|^ 

6ttfa»-f#» ; 47, tw^^^^Hfl (rd^^ftff c*dii. 

po ; 48, ^^' rnaj»^|&yt«4 ; 49, i|ir^*li|* 

9 mam-^yurt tfAfM^ ; 60, f^'^^ §M§^ 

migi 61, 1^- H^« i^o»fbM> oAiii^. 

Up to this number there aie Sanskrit 

equivalents; from 68 to 60 tiME« aie 

no Seaskrt equivalents, the TibMans 

having introduced new nansa to replace 

lost originals. 68, giwx tyaan-jMi; 64, 

BWiq»Ta bgamt-pachen^poi 66,)^t|Ci». 

tje; 66, VlHa iiM^tye ehm^; 67, 

S^-^ 4ga^wa; 68, ^T'^^« igab^wa 

ehen-po; 69, ^^'^ (^oA-fioifii; 60, «^' 

|H*HQ ittUUgnomi ehen^. These afacty 

numbers axe used in astronomical and 

astrological calculations. 

qMi'^ grMi'^n vrrnrt 1. acountlesa 
number. 2. ^f^'^n^lAa^-paot^^^^rig* 

g|W|-«|q I 



pa-cm ^f^ an intelligent man ; a learned 
man {If don,). 

q|Mi'«^'q ffraHt'^n-'pa viip the oldest 
of the atheistLe plulosophioal seots of the 
Brahmans, oalled SMkhpa. 

Spi-QM ffrai^^icai 1. mm the dawn, or 
the goddeoe of the dawn. 2. lit. *^ together 
with.the nnmber." 

!|Ml'Rg^4i graHf^ifbydm ^9<WT num* 
berleflB; ooontleae. 

^«'«^*a gra4$ mai-eha [^BBTHW, 
repeated four time8]i8. 

SI^^A^ gradi^tned 1. m^m oonntless; 
nmnberlees. 2. ^i^ a orawling ; ftRiftir 
white leprosy: SJ^^Ti^^'I'B^w graHi'mei 
Jff/i khyai-par the distinction of being 
ooontlessy numberless; ^mi'Av^ gradt- 
m$4^an ^%M supreme. 

SP''*^*^^ graHirfnei gfiig (the num- 
berless one). In the work oalled ifa j|[/itf ;rl- 
fMa Tanira C««rviarr^^) the following 
numbers are said to have been in use 
in Ancient India among the laity for 
worldly purposes :— From 1 to 10, t.«.| 
«|Vl gfftg to U'^»i ther-bbum^ and 
11, ^i^fu-tifog; 12, •*^»^ ipehog-Kal; 
18, 1'^^ fikya*tphy%9 ; 14, !'«« hye-ma ; 15, 
1^(4 nuth^nvb ; 16, «i''«ni qi^aAo-ynff ; 17, 
f <nr|p^ Idabhphyor ; 18^ I" rd9f,--all these 
betog eabh a multiple of another by ten. 
In the work called •«** phalp<hofie the 
numbers vary after the eighth, t.0., d'^ 
bye-wa) such as M*4 kht^-kho^f •S'^ 
thai^gu, BtI^ khrig-khrig, iWHWi 
thamhiham and so on up to 128 places, 
increasing by multiples of one hundred. 
In the 2kr jtf a FM^ara there are thirty-two 
numbsrs, also increasing in multiples of a 

Sl^ii'^^ ^nrff.^^ to enumeonte ; ooont 
the number one by one. 

51^'fr^W gradf-su hgro ^mt ^wrfir goeb 
into numb^s; is countod: !|F^C^n'^ 
gradi-iu ieug^pa^ put into numbers ; coont- 
ed: ^Mr^-wR gradf^nt yad ^iqqpnritr eren 
in number. 

5P'5^ grah'igyab pride; boastiBg 

g[W I : grabj ^'ftS gfomJ^; f |l 
grchigrig 1. prepipation; arrangement; 
measures; oontriYonoe; SP^SS'Q to msb 
preparation for ; ^^'rt'SlwSs^i to prepare 
to go : sj^vajw^^'*'*'^ just as prepaia- 
lions were being made for slaughtering 
them(Jfi7). 2. defined as ^•r^iifl^'^j^' 
^'%l\ ** signifies the certainty about tiie 
time of immediate action": ^^*9W^1 
yod'grabi idug was on the point of tx)ming, 
or am just coming; ^&'3|^ii'S«i'9^' ir(M- 
grabi bya^byuH was about to beat or 
strike; ^'Sp^'svi*. fi-grabi ty«?-iys^ 
was almost dying or dead; ^^'SQC^v'}^' 
giai^grabi lya^hyud^ was about to kill: 
lii'^qN'o^^ wa3 about to get or gain; •^' 
gp^'^i^ is about to slip or run away; ^' 
V^'^S is about to finish; ^P^'^'^l^' 
^V!\ on mutual agreement. 3. delibetft- 
tion : tvS"i'9P«9v9S'^VI they were deli- 
berating about me (in 7F.). 

^SP^ n. t^^T^W place or object of 
reflection, thought, etc. : 5«W VT9 9^" 
yulUa bu, ipm'^m grabf-gyif^ f^^Ji f^<^ 
wo Ita^bu. 

g}*l gram {4am) 1, •'^'^X chu iwM 
tdo a kind of stone found in water {Sag)- 
2. 3PN'4 gratn-pa swamp; nuush; lea 
{Lex.). 3. '<|««> igrem-pa (J«l.), 




yrefirQ Ormthf khtum tn one of the 
places of pflgxauige of the Bon (O. 
Bm. S8). 

yrn gram-ta m^Ak nUmj. 

?pi fnrf (*rf) •Jcq J^ArdtiM 4f^ 
row, range Monai; also a rope, oord; 
^mnr, ^fftr, daBt, Bbratnm. 

V^'*^ grttt-mto or ir^'I'l^'ii fraJL^yi 
Mo^aai the upper end of a row; the 
uppermoat plaee ; the seat at the head of 
atable; T"**!)"* fyei-fra/ the right hand 
row; ^ri"! gjfot^gnU the left hand row; 
'^^pi Me^pf ffo/ 1. the Older or file of 
monks in a xeligioiu oongregation ; Hj^vwm: 
tr^'^'m^lnw^^frf:^ manj novioee 
fitting in rows without being awry; ^n«* 
^ }tAug§^grdl the order of eeatit alio the 
order cr row in whidh lamae and ehieb, 
high and low, ait aooording to their posi- 
tion cr lankin anypoblio or social gather- 
11%; ^*^ row of religions qnnbob; *^' 
f<i row of offerings for the gods or oller- 
ings placed in one or more rows ; f*y the 
olderor row in which the images are placed 
in a temj^e; I^Vii row or order in which 
nibsn are ssated; If^^f^ house-talk (/£.) ; 
^'!|*v the row of sapplicants waiting lor 
benedicikxn: •«^.*!**«^^*Tr««^T«, 
when joa are sitting with your hrethren 
(f dlow-helioTem) in one row. 

3ff%^ gral-sgrig or S^'IT** gral-du 
igrig-pa to arrange in order, dispose in 


date; a oonsecntiTe date. 

9^^ i: graUrimxCfm line; row; flOie in 
which monks sit in a&y religions serrioe 
or congregation : ^Hi^^'S^'^ tf^'^^ffhon 

gral^rimihf^ order in which the yoong and 
old sit; the right of senjorify ; fO'lk^'i'V' 
f^-^fi'a^ the religions serrices at the per- 
fected saints aooording to the order of 
seniority (2beff.). 

Syn. IF^)<^'Q ffraUk iffrigtf^ ; ^-^^ 
^^ *•-»•» t9r»4\ l^«Ti*h kkrit dk^ 

V<|'^«« n: (4aJ-rim) aoc to iKL claim; 

9«*fv««re/ ritgoiUmwmt aebedow. 

^*Q gnOrpa a beer^honse enstomer 

^^^1 gral'^im a small beam; rafter 
(C«) ; «« airt yi graliu fnifpAyMM roof- 
laths : sticks which are laid clois tottether 
•ad ooTtnd wifli Mrth («/3.). 

^ipR grvi dui, (sd«r, Mriai; nak, 
dignity: trilw (0!i.). 

<||^'Q l««f:fM 1. to libd, lor \«'« dnih 
pa. 2. (Bengali) Viwft iroodm bMans 
or nils. 

^ pn* (^0 ^m, ««, «ft • knift, 
pon; «l(5 Mtbte. Diflnvnt kinds of 
wMpons :— «'| chu-tri, %'V' fr*'*^*^* ^' 

|t« r8i.^j»< ill, li^ fff^ftv, l''4l*r« 

Kelt's c/«M« gfioii iirl^ lag-ih^ i I** 

tS tgroUg44; ^wi1*fl *aAyjfi* |«^-jm; 
^t^'Ss 99(4-h«4i i***'*^ f»4fM-*a (#4011.). 

Itr* gri-Jeha the edge of a knife. 




^'^ ifr^ffV^W^ thug-dg niohe; 
wmat(A.67): «iC^(l'Tff8'lT^'5V*S> 
|ra<jB<fo-t;/0 ffihiugifi gri-gu na bui-mei cig 
•gftin a woman in a nidhe of the temple, 
fto.» at TajrAaana. 

%'%'V^ gri^gu ohuti n^fr small knife. 
§'3^ gn^gug %iHk a ihott orooked 


§*||ii'q<^'a Ori gun^iUan^po one of the 
aaMient kings of Tibet, son of ^rib-khri^ 
tUan^ who was assassinated with a knife. 

!|*K^ gri-non ^n n. of a disease. 

il«n'^-^«>'f a gri ha gag^gi gfog^ 
pa Ifo-iii^^irt fr^s-^wii^f a knife of 
(lie shape of the wings of a oooL 

!r»*^Tl*** 'gri bya rcg-gi ficAtf Hfir- 
vnr-^VlV a knife of the diape of the 

%*^ grumag^ y, 5^*« grib^ma. 

%'^f^ gri'imar (lit. the red knife) knife 
of snperior quality manufactured in Tibet. 

f^* V griii-to sharp edge of a knife. 

1% Yf gnU t9e^mo ^Ahi the point of 
a scimitar or swoxd. 

IK 8^f^ 9» small knife. 

I'-l 9^9^ explained as |«'a'^^'sr|'ii' 
S|*fift'-5 |A|f«f-i»0 doT'^ma gruta fi^waH ga, 
flesh of an adult man who has been killed 
with a sword (this flesh being used in 

^ ft»i*«i grir ft^am-^ or ^'^ll^'P grlr 
ffooi-jj or 5h'^»rq gnr ^gum-^pa to kill 
(or being killed) with a knife, 

51 V^ grin^pa (^if^'pa) prob. J^'Q §griiu 
po skilful ; clever (/d.). 

^Q grib (dib) shade ; defilement; stain 
or spot; flUh; contamination, mostly in 

a religious sense: %v^t. grib^yc^ con- 
tainination, pollution will arise : X !^ re- 
gtib defilement by or from a corpse; §<3r%^ 
^riifr-M/ the removal of defilement; alsocne 
in whom there is no defilement; n. of a 
Buddha. w%^ MOi-grib unclean food 
or pollution of food; ^«*^ dirty dotkei, 
or defilement in clothes; fi^'^'i gugf- 
grib or pollution of widowhood; ^ 
^ or the defilement that is brought by 
different people assembled in a marriage ; 
V^'^ dnwr^grib or pollution of blood or 
anything slain red-handed ; ^'^ pollution 
by the breach of a vow ; unchastity ; ^ 
1^ defilement by quarrel or flght ; '^'Iq 
defilement in slaughter pertaining to 
butchery, or defilement frum murder ; **^' 
^ defilement caused by oath or by the 
barbarous custom of killing MitmAlw md 
swearing over their Uood (prcTailing 
among the Eham-pa tribes) : ^'^ defile- 
ment from incest. 

$q*S*9 grib'kgiphu shady valley, gene- 
rally on the north side ol a mountain 
range (cf. I W trftf) ; IK^H^ grib^kgogi 
the shady side of a hill or mountainy ths 
side not e]qK)sed to the sun. 

|q'^« grib-kkrfHl the washing of defile- 

IF'^ grib^^au stubborn; ttbuktaj 

l^'s^X^ jn^-fpdbf offerings made to Bon 
deities for removing some defllemeni 

^•^^ grOhgKon 1. ^rnm, mun shs- 

dow, or 2. qS^'iA-^ iUog^paii grib dafile- 
ment from unclean things, filth, night-aoil, 
Ac.: •''ll^-l'i'a^il^J'^^^J^ii^ cko§^gnm 
grul'bum grib^gnon ftsftf^f in a religioni 
school tiiere should be proteotion agsiiut 
defilement from harpies (Zam. 9.). 

^iPt^i'^^^ pni-pwi jyi j*ji a demon 
that defil«8 aad poiBOiit food; a harpy. 

^« ^^ipw dtiade; shadow; l|^'^^'|p' 
•A'«<| gri^doM ffrA-maH gral {Zdm. ») 
(T^r; ^'i|'|R'«i fM^9i grib^im the shadow 
of a tree. 

farest of the daik-bliie shade in the fabu- 
loos nocthem oontlnent of TJttara Knra. 

qq«A-iW grU^^ma^i lam WTYT^W the 
milky-way ; also a path by the shady side 
of a mountain or in the TsUey. 

||9'«A'«« grU^tMH bti !IT^» the 
shadowy body, t.^., body of defilements. 

I^*^ jfri&-«/ihe removingof pollation 
or defllement of any symbol, image, saored 
books, or oflssings by religions rites. 

^'9 grib'^o the qnioUy yanishing, at 
fonset, of the shadows of trees, Ao.; ^*9* 
•a^-^Wft'^wq ^HiM^i q ^ hanging down, 
slso lengthening of shadows before they 
Tsnish in the shade of night ; Iq-^'K^qsi'q 
^jqfUWl long projeetion of shadows. 

^'1^ 9rUh^%A gnaiding against defile- 

I^rq^^^ yn'i-iwMi cleansed or purified 
of deilamfint ; piuifloati0n of defilement. 

Ih'f^ ffrOwliafi ocol shade (&*.). 

^TP grim^ to hasten; to htuny 


^fy^ grim-tHf aoo. to «/a. a pair of 
Boissors (in SiUim soonded ««*yfMM '0- 

5|*Wfl grimhpa^ Wfl^ ^ derer; 
skilful; deztesons; also carefol; on tiiie 
alert; ^^'ti'l'W*! rig-pa grim^pa to be 
osiefal;on the alert :^'«*f*Mi'^^tPrtra-sa 
grimhfig be attentiTe in the monastio 
school: ^'9^'^*^^ on a hill range tak» 

345 5'»(W I 

^01 grU (^V) (of* ^lh'<i bgrO-tM) a. roll ; 
^'^ fog^gril xoQed paper ; a paper idl : 
^ Qii'llfli'^'qiin'S^ kept rolled np in paper : 
^*^ gohgril a roU of satin or oloth; a 
garment folded up (Ck.). 

^T'iS'^ gril^iki* bg$4^ to make np a 
paroel. {Seh.) 

^1'- gru 1. a figoiOi^ oomer, tip, any- 
thing with length and breadth; f'^^ gm-* 
iihi a fignre with four oomers, gen. a 
square; %^'% yuUgru a eountry with 
oertain dimensions. •'.#•• the divinon of a 
oonntry in psxmnoes or distrietik S. 
lustre; %^f^ gru'4^mr a reddish IusIto 
from preoious stones. 8. a district of 
Tibet lying to the east and north of Mm 

5 H: ^, flW| iTw, iftw, ^W 
genersl term for boat, raft, Tsssel; also 
I'i^ (TN-fon a boat, feny, 

Byn. fT^'^V^ ti^i §nm-iMi %fk'^ 
gru^gi rob; f*^*^'IS igroUwar bge4\ sr 
9m'tnpha-ipHar igrol; ^'^^$$ti-ge^cam; 
y*^«S rta^mffo-can; ^^'i^'% tkubifMrrta 


5'^^"^ gru-^l^ (4u4w) a kind of 

I'l gru^ga Mtf^ that wUdi falling 
on water strikes it; an oar (4M>fi.). 

Syn. is9\ ikgo4J>ge4; «r«'*^-» 
itgral'^fiabi fM^ria. 

I'P gru4cha or fi'i'P gru fen-Ma or 
f9^'« gru itai-'M landing place on the side 
of a river, etc.; a feiry. See maps in 
Surrey Hepoxt of A. E.*s jooxney. 

%W gnhkhng the ksel of a dip. 

f'*^ grti^w^khaH wfftkii narigator; 
a ferry man. 

f«qi 246 

^'^ Qn^ga L olew; hank. 2. n. of 
ft oounixy. 3. atone or paint of whitiah- 
Une colour. 

^^gr^9^ 1* a thread-ball ; yam in 
round hall. 2. •dT^'S'l'^ Mtshon^iftfi gru^ 
^ n. of a village in Tibet («7t>.); 

(TS*^ d'rti-^ ligyn-ra n. of a Tillage 
in Kham (Zotf. i97). 

91 gru-gla passage money at a ferry ; 
a boatman's fee. 

9*S^jfrii-€iAar 1. rains; rainy season: 
««if'i«RV«'^'^iw*'« yul^gru kun-la 
khych^pat ibeU'paM char rains that fall 
OTer the vhole oonntiy and piroduoe a good 
harvesi. 2, a finei fertile rain (8ch.). 

^^9i gru^ma {(fu^ma) angle; corner; 
convex or concaTe ; also edge, border, brim. 

f *S grvHihoi or ^'^ gruHhtin %m 
comer; angle. 

9 '^V gru-gium f^(%n[ a triangle ; igo^ 
gru-ishi a square ; ('^^ gru-dtad a right 
angle ; %^^ gru^yim ot %^^ gru-gyel obli- 
que angled. 

%^ gru'ishi n. of a stone : S*^^^'!^*^ 
^'l^i^'t'lK'^X^ gru^lishit ilai^a gio sAtiff- 
Mn-mt iden the stone called Orulhishi 
heals the brain and draws out pas. 

f^^ gra-bdten 1$i^T«nr, defined asj'^p.' 

Mi fniHf person conveyed in a boat. Peo- 
ple who journey by boat are: — »fljT5 
guest; M^^ merchant, trader; |'«C'l(i| 
boat passengers. 

9'^ gru-pa ferryman. 

51* ^M-Jo=sJ'^Hn gru-griHi »hip 


+ g'^fci gru-ftUoM boatman*s fee; f 
^Na gru itwi^pa, V^'mWi'^^ Ou-bkhr^ 
9du^pa^po tot colleotor of a &ny. 

l'<^^ gru^tshng^f ^'ff^'m gnt-gfad^ t 
fany or ghai: d$ noi 8$'4fmr gyi-gru- 
ttkug^la bgon^noif then he anived at the 
ferry of Se^nwr {A. 91). 

|*<^'q grt^iAum^-^^rr^lm^ or r^T 
^S^ to sit silent, without speaUng. 

5*^*1 grtih-hdmn qlum, ftnv 1. n. of 
a mountain in the south oILidia; slso 
the residenoe of Avalokites^vara on the 
small island of Puto off Shanghai; n. of 
the residence of the Grand Lama at 
Lhasa. 2. an harbour. 

%^'^^^ gnkifi yan^gzsi^l gnnky^ 
an oar (4^^*). 

%'^'^ grthgi raJssf -^ gru-fon a ahip 

J'*i-^^q gru^ gfog-pa^f^^ gru-ikya 
oar; the wings of a boat (JKffan.). 

Syn. i^'^m^ grubi pan^lag; ^irjs 
gycb^iye; %^ §kya^a (MHon.), 

l*^^'l^ gru^yii igrol mUm a navigator. 

5'WR^«iq§ idat^ ^fyJfti one 
who has made a voyage. 

V-^ gru^n^%'^'^ grwyi nri a ship; 
W-ViT gru-^an kAa^^'i^^ gnt»rgl(A 
•a starting or landing place of a feny; % 
•1^'^ gru fan^pa ferryman; y^rHifq gnh 
la Bhon^pa to go on a ferry-boat. 

5'Sf gru-mo {fu^mo) the elbow ; |* 
gre-mo^ %'^ ku-m^ frqr the «Ibow, or 1'^ 5j 

pabi-tAig^pa bar-pabi rtse^tog the top- 
most piece of the middle joint of the ans : 
W^^r^^'^^'^''^ gru-mar k/u: ipan^ka hold- 
ing a trident in the hollow of his elbow. 
si^q^'^X lag-pa^i gru-mo is defined as w- 
foaii ipuH'pa ; J»5 W the hollow of tie 




dbow joint: •iY<A'|'lf ^Tn*Qmm'|c.'4|- 
^^ lag^pd^i gr^mo re /o-tco^i jMH-mo^' 
«M-iui Mff^ reetmg each elbow on the 
kneee of the lord {A. 136). 

^^*C| jfrug-pa to bieok into small 
pieoeB; to oonunble; to broue; f^'^A'^gm 
^r«9^pa^' liroi braised rioe {8eh~)\ 9^«'3 
grugi^ something broken. 

^C*9 I: ffna-po (M-iM>)sf^'4 jfrirf. 

/Ml 1. very intelligent'; ^qt oleyet ; wise ; 
prudent. 2. meek; mild; gentle ((/«.). 

SC*^ n : the com seed that is not. 
rotten iJig*)^ 

^grubl: Qftft) pronounced mi, in the 
upper HimalaTa's and Shax^Ehombu, 
signifying in Ld. all:f<i*4*V«* grvb^^i-wd 
all sze dead (<7i.). ItUhU-. altogether, 

gnUhpa anything aoeomplished or done 
by itself without any agent. 

]fi'*«<^ grub'W^hog^ip^^ a great saint ; 
^'•(S^'ci grttb'ffiehog'4mi fnitim a female 

|q'¥) grulhikobf {%1T a saint, ooooxs in 
the following passage of {Zam. S) :— |>r 
Mm ff^^ ^tii-iftbff one who has 
gained perfection. 

jp'*w^ i: pmft-qi^Aa^ 1. f^iT% iwvnir 
established conclusion; opinion; theory 
{Zdm.): |-^-i|-fV«m«raBiwqp^ iheie being 
00 conformity of doctrinal principles 
between the Brfthmans and the Buddhists. 

fTim n:«^'*Sf^ thar^paii ilo-grof 
NBolution for liberation from miseries; 
detennination for obtaining Nirvdna 

^^ gmb^pa I: 1. ftr^, I^Tf H^, WT- 
^^f ^1 1Q^» ^nnr; pf. of ^f^a to accom- 
plish 2. (<rin'3^*H^ grub-par hyei hwug 
WV^y fvnr a saint : |4*«Ni'49^'ci grub-poi 
|^to^^-/M^fll^q^ accomplished by a saint ; 
fa'mi'^'Q taught or preached by a saint ; 
fa<«l«i'^ grub^par gyw^eig U^C^ be 
it ready, complete, perfect. 

^P'fl H: X«» ^sm% f%f« exist- 
ing ; success ; *i't^'<i ma grub-pa not exist- 
ing (/a.) : l^d '^^'^'Q grtib-pa dM ide^tca 
^itn 1« the happiness arising from goga 
or union with the supreme spirit (in Bxak- 
ma^ism) and with the eternal (^AngaiA or 
▼oid in Buddhism : ^'V9im grub-pa Aif, the 
formed body, either the frame, the struc- 
ture, the body, or more prob. an abbre- 
viation of ««i«rwj^*^pi, the body that 
is made of the Ave dsandha (aggregates) ; 
|V«t'i^^«^ grub-pabi dwuean what is necea- 
saiy in the charms of neGiomancy for pro- 
pitiation ; fr^ mustard. 

|q>qS-^j^s| grub^pabi ffcaH'phgug^^^ 
^^ gridhcAefi great saint ( Ttg. k. 11). 

|a*-v.ftHM|-s|*spi Orub^pabi roA^ 
bgon ^an-roi gfigi the saint originated or 
existmg by himself; the self -formed 
Ayalokites'Tara ; 1^*^ Ikun^grub or 1^1* 
f^n Ikun^gyi gndhpa ^l^nf^ self-origi- 
nated or self -formed : ^^'f Q Dat^grub or 
i^T'«^'^V'*» Don ihami-cai grub'pa wuH- 
fn a name of the Buddha, in whom there 
is the fulfilment of every purpose; also the 
name of a magic spell or formula. 

^9V^ grufii-pa the Tit>etan badger: 

semi idsirt'pa phyi-bO'da^ grum-pa^ kyaH* 
f^l gmH he said both the badger and tiio 
marmot know how to suspend animatioD 




and flung — a rofleotion upon the the prao- 
tioes of Tibetan aeoetios or nal^jor (A. 
70) : |«i'(i$'| mi'i'^i^ «im grun^paH tgyu 
ma Kgifu^gm' bjom^ the mteatinai of the 
badger overoome oolio. 

5*I'H grum-po a maimed person ; a 

5*''9 in^fn-bu {ifunh-bu) ai J'''^ ffrurn^ 
na4 also called 1|*< irem^ gout or rheomatiBm. 
i'f* 9^grum^ aoo. to Ja. \^%9\ dreg-grum 
podagra; afeelingof lameness in the limbe; 
5V|ii ru^grum gout affecting the bones ; 
T^ Ua-grum rheumatic pain in the 
muscles. M« <TAw.^rwm, 5*1 ^ij^ ^rww.rf*ar, 
l^'fl grum^ag seem to be varieties of 

%^^%9\ grul^bum (iful^um) ^mxmw, 
l^W a class of Tampire-ghouls feed- 
ing in cemeteries; jpi'8«*i grui-bum-Ma 
l^vr^ females of the above. 

5^'g«l'«^ GhiAJwMfan n. of amedi- 
oinal drug ; an esculent root, Arum cam- 
panuhtium (a cure for piles). 

Syn. r«»* tiwb^mo ; ^ *h ga^gon ; wv^'-^' 
^9w ar^i$om ^ifff that which cures 
piles; q*Tls bra^ igo4i ^^VlS'^tl ^cfe^ 

Iffti %pctl^ (jtfjficMI.). 

wa^i nu Jio^an are the following three :--- 
^•^ Vu^4ug {^ nag), ^^'^gwb^ug {ST^ 
ikar), ^^^ gnan^g (p) kha {Sman. 

5^^ gr^^po {iu^) a yak only two or 
three years old (JS.). 

^ Ore (M) ^< *< i l im<f i the eleventh of 
the twenty-seven constellations mentioned 
in works on astronomy. 

Syn. 9lt^m mMo^gef; r« rlff-dkf ; a 

)« it8ho-§kge§ (M»on.). 

tlm gr0-4kye9 VTf«i« iphvY bom in 
the constellation of fiA^VTw ^. 

g|'^ gre^ga a sheet of paper {Ja). 

^*1^ Ofv-fM n. of a place in the pro- 
vince of Ki^po in Central Tibet. 

\^ gre^a (^;mm)ss^4 mgnn^ 
or «?| gh^yu ifhrr, «« the f one part of 
the neck, the throat, both wind-pipe sad 
the gullet; voice: ^^^lA gre^wa hh^ 
a good voice ; |-^-^^-9 gre^^ gag^^pa 
obstruction in the throat; hoanenen;!' 
^' V^ gre^wa, dar^wa a stertorous voice ; 
i' wq5^-§^ gr$.tMl htoMgei m F. to 
hawk; to hem; to dear the throat {Ja), 

^Mgre-'io a ttpmm of demons; |)( 
gn-^mo female demons of this kind. 

^'*W| gre^mag vulg. for %m gr^m 
awn of barley or of Poa grass. 

5l'#«|'^ gr$^4nog ^ in r. ant; 
emmet (Ja.). 

^^ grtn occurs in ^'^i^-v*^'* ^' 
M «^ gren-ggi dan^du koi*§i^i ri-m m. 
{Jig. Si). 

||^*^ gren-Uhag plaited wiolul^ 
work in ' 


+ ^^ !•• C»^4fr, or "^4 <A%^, a young 
bear : t ^mi^'^Urfp^'m oo^roi grthMf»9 
pkul^fcas Oho-ro having presented a young 
bear {A. 68). 

^% II : mm pea, peaa; 1^'^1|& mm- 
9ran gr$bu «a kind of pea growing in tiM 

^'1 gr^ «Mi 1. the fUahing UghU 
aiBgC&MrO. 2. V««^mmi a kind of 
plant: 9K«*^'W'|'r^'|^'m*4taii grn^ 
*m4»' #0-w* «rM.«iotf 0M.#JMi ^iNf the 
puta cf A^^iMfl kDlfl worau and ovummM 
the diflO M in mJMtM4M§. 

i gro *ipi wlieet; f^it ffrv^flum 

or %n^n»q^q f«MflV jw*t pagi^pa, 
white Urdh berk used lor writoig ohanni 
on; alflOMo. toJa.'oa&ii for omementiiig 
bows: ^*Vi ^*|^'^*V'^fM'^-^*ifii'9'«A4f- 

^^r^^w^fl^-fl-^B^'^^lic wrote 
mmtne en white oloth or paper or 
leaTee of the pelmyxa or the hark of the 
hiroh whichgiew in their oonntxy {Surat.). 

9 V*' pr»-dM the winter granary of 
wheat in ISbet; an nndar-gioand cell 
whfiope wheat is kept daring the winter. 

V'^ fro-Mgg Btere lor rifling wheat. 

f '^ prMM or <** gro^im reddish grey. 

f^^ at>. jsMi ^w%x inn the twenty, 
aeccmd or twenty-third oonstellationin the 
ssfaron om ieal works of Tibet and India. 

8yn. ^9S tpkrog^eg; ^'^ bon^-po; 

ffinT the lull moon in the month of July- 

f'^^'l*!'^ OrO'i^hm'ggi Mla-wa otfv 
^^ sAmm (rfim^Ni the month of Qrdwtt^. 

hole imder the ground where wheat is 
kept in winter {A. 



fW^i gro*g&§ {(to-yo) pardied 

f '^ gro^rit ball of dough, or lump 
made of moistened wheat flour. 

W'^h gro*9og (^tMoa) stalks of wheat, 

f « ^«. (^«) ^ ^ 

1. the swset potato of Tibet 2. name 
of a herb (Fai-fil.) [the grass ScirpiU 
Eymmt]8. %% rgga-gro or §5 J»i tggaH 
gro^ma the potato introdnoed from India : 
Vii mv«*iwq««-4-^-^T^ the potato being 
ewset is eooliug and stops diarrhooa. 

^'*I'^C' Gro^ma M n. of a phoe in 
the north of Tibet {Ka-than. 168). 

^'^K^* Oro^M n. of a village in the 
prorinoe of Lho-kha. 

^*<q*S| ffra^lo^ma (io-khma) ^*| go^^ 
Aen a kind of satin; silk stuil. 

^*9| Qfih9a yiUsge inthe distriot of 

3f 5 Grihho {io-ho) «W|"VW« phyag. 
tgya rMfiii*so a mystioal word used in the 
Mahdnmdrd TdtUrik rites {K. g. ^ tlS). 

Spl grog^f^^ jfro^ma or ^T* grog^- 
mo (fog-mo) ftriftwir, fjn ant; emmet. 

Byn. t^'S^" 9rin phran^fna; J'J'^ rjyw- 
r«ya-ra; ^i^H^'i gfrn^tiebi-bu^M^M.). 

VyIK grog^tM waist of the ant; also 
narrow as that is. 

^^9f^ grog-ifikhar niW ant-hill. 

8yn. H^'l' fttgya^^yin ^yuteo; 1(v 
(^^^T* nor^idan irtieyn %^9^'^' grog-' 
iM^MM; 9T«A'«r^ grog-ma^ mkhor 

3pp2j grog^po 1. ^m a deep ravine 
in whioh atonrant flows; the sides of such 





mvinesaietennedyfl#-iHi, *t^tN|v^5c 
<A V^Q^«ly ^q-vp^'K chu eken-poi brut-nat 
byuU'Vahi grog^poham^ gai-pa ya^9$r^ that 
whidx it caused by the erodozi of gieat 
waters 10 also styled grog^-po or gad-pa. 

f <?'a to grog'9bUf y. ^T" grog-maj ant 

i$kaH ant-hill. 

5f^?|R'I: grog-^iHar ^9^V' cultiva- 
tion in uneven naTrow ground away from 
"Tillages or gem. in wild places where cattle 
are pastured. 

daH gjter tkrais ehu sti-^i n. of a medioine 
which cures obstruction of the urine; akind 
of moas growkig on the sides of chorteuy and 
old walls, etc. 

If^f^i^' grog^gyai lateral gully on 
hill-side: ^h grog^hu^ brook; rivulet, 
V. 1^3 grog-po. 

V^spi^ grog^gjnr a torrent pouring down 
a ravine. 

^^^ ^f a friend, companion, fellow- 
labourer, assistant; paramour, also bus- 
band; r^T^ kha^grogi a seeming friend; 
a friend in words; a false friend; ^v 
1h« ttm-grogi or ^Ih* tHi^^grogi 
troe friend, boaom friend, assodate, com- 
panion, comrade, fellow ;I|^1I groghkhye 
pUymato or play-fellow ; ^^'%^ 4pu*' 
grog§9 fellow combatants comrades; ^^ 
W^ bdug-^rogi or ««*?**P' ifhugi-grogf 
Mlow-lodger ; ST^'%^4gai-grog9, 'W^t^ 
gtan-i/rog^ spouse; husband; wife; ^^V 
fspiidW^pro^f or^^V^-^* **rf^tvi sweet- 
heart ; •*! VF m^ihab-grogi a lover ; iVr 

lf^« gunt-grogt bed»fellow (not only con* 
cubine) ; V^V^ imag^grogs ally, conli- 
derate (in war) ; «m'9^ la^grog§ oolleagne; 
journeyman ; under-workman ; ^1^ 
Uhig-grog^ an auxiliary word. [if.-JB.— In 
pop. works and coUoq. language flie woid 
V^ sounded ro or rog is combined witli 
verbs in the imp. To give a pdite 

turn to any request; *^ nang^rtMumg" 
please give ; '^ ton^rog'mang " *^ will yoa 
kindly show,'' etc. 

V^^^^ grog8'4an a bad friend. 

y^'S^ grog^'dan vttott help or Bam- 

Hi^'A^ grogi^hdf[\§ mutual finsnd- 

!|^«Q grogp-po (fog-po) mm, finr, Hf 
friend; ally. 

H^'Sva I : grogt-byed-pa to be friend ; 
to make friendship; to assist; to befriendB. 

x^ <H'V^^9^'^ to cultivate friendship^ to 
be mutual friends. 

If^^'SS II : VTTW, ^W assistance ; aiding. 

K^'SV^ grogt^e^-pa is synonymoas 
with X^'^si rogs-ram ; in writing some- 
times ^^^'9^ 9doa9'grog9 is also used. 

9^'ii grog9»mo a female friend; also 
a mistress. 

Syn. I*'! nla-mo; ^i^q^mna p£a$^m$; 
V'fM pko fUhmo ; !l^'|v«<^«'<i kim^g94 
il^shuHt-fna; Ml^'|^'«i ipkrin ikgel^m 

1«^T^K.' grogi^i^^ or ^^V^ia'C grogf^ 
ifuA-po ^tvn^ Vrar frieodship, also 

§Jk' I: grai or gran^ pf. of *' 
to die; II'^'H^ gm^^kM resurreotion 
bringing life to a dead body, translating 




ike tonl from one bodj to another: ^* 

n*'^ hftnng done lervioe to religioiii 
md Ihing beings he is said to lisre four 
times performed the noUe work of transLa^ 
ting a soul from one bodj to another 
(J, ZbA). 

^^* n*. 1. imiy s^an inhabited plaoe ; 
a viOage ; hamlet ; also house ; ^S'^^* ftrs^yff- 
ftv4 aplaee of a hundred ; ^'%S itat^yrai 
thoosand houses or households {Ja.); V^* 
^^9 groi^la-kgramt^^n going or gone 
to the Tillage : y^'^«rsw^'9^ ffroi^gnm 
ifMAor-iyetf fi q^im^ he who has destroyed 
the three habitable spheres, the god S'iva. 

3^'Q^ groHJehper {iaHJAyer) jpr. 
ff^^ HHK, imw, S^ a town or city; 
a place which is soiroonded by a 
wsU, onginaUy a palace* That is eaUed 
a ooontij or Q^ ynl where there are 
100 bkk$ of households, a (Aaoe where 
thoe axe 100,000 households is oaUed 
q<r^fK yuUtkhor or provinoe. In a city 
(1^*^^ gndJshffer) which ui gen. fortiftBd 
there should be at least 10,000 honsehdds; 
a .town with population less than 800 is 
osIM a 9^' (fivH in Sans. HTW. 

nd^grot; 9^'5«i groHJskyim; ««'«Ti^« /«s- 
can-gnoi; V^^^V^'^v fmai^idul-ffttaf ; 
m:^ ^ nmr^ga^ti ; m'^fm so-ifibv ; fS'<A fi^'8 
Vyoi-P^ phur^; ^'^'i^'^K^ t^g^ 

^'d^*^ OnA-hhyer igra j^ the 
enemy of the oity, S^iva. 


gyi kdag^po ixr ^^'^' yul-hkkor iicaU 

sheriiE, also the ohiet of a city; also yr|^ 
tgyat-phran a petty R^ {M^on.). 

9^'ft^l^ OraHJAyer fpyo4 met. for a 

•fcft^VW*^*^ groiMyer itpMUyon-, 
e<in Jh^ifi i ^ni. {8chr. ; Td. *, 166). . 

♦l^Jl^^AI^ gro*4chyer me^tog yviSP: 
(A^r.) lit. the oity. of flowers ; it is the 
same as P&talipaira or Patna. 

|[^l|'^s^'s|s^ groA-gi gcan-gjkin fW^t 
met. for dog (Jfirton.). 

f clj-qf^-q groH^gi irfo^pa ift< pro- 
vincialism ; country (xt nual language; 9^' 
1'V^i^ grofi^gi ^t^ikhw HT^^^m the 
suburbs: !jK^i|'Mq*U gnAi^gi tthdb^nw 
feuds and quarrels (among villagers). 

f «.-S|q^^ Grafi-gi idag wrmftxr, VH^ 
the heodman of a village. 

||K.'vq'S^ grofi dra^wa-ean ^ W ^i tli| (9^' 

ica) a town Burrounded with fortifications; 
HK^Sj^fl grofi^gi dra-wa ^ir a circle or 
circuit of a village ; fortification round a. 
city: l|«i-^^|i^f^« groli^gi hpkreH Mm- 
fiMK, Sinif^^ the village flower- woman : 
|fc.'%^'9 OroA'-gi gtmhwo the chief man 
in a town or village; a headman. 

f ^*«gB.« grafi^gra^f the number of houses 
in a village or town. 

|fs.'sil|q| groA^^fckog chief eity; also 
scene ; sphere. 

9i^'m groH^Wien a 9^-!5;Mwrq|^ jq- 
9V<r a lama who performs meditations er 
aaoetioism remainii^ , inside a village 

or town; •^^^•ls•»•«|T*«"lT^'^•«^s^ rfi««- 

fta misUn-pahi groi imn dar^tca doA one 
not performing the practice of ascetiaism 
by going to any solitude (Ta-^l. il). 




K^'i^ g9^^0m ootintry. Bpeebh or 

fito-fto the headman of arillage or city. 

^y fwinr a large town (which is not 
endoeed by a wall) together with its 

one who causes or excites brawlsi 
tends, etc., among village people or com* 

^f^'^ groi'pa a villager; one holding -a 
house; a tenant. 

hkhrig^pa sexual union (Jtf^on.). 

ma ^of-jMisS'li V^^'«r||^'q bu^mo phthdaH 
nrnphrai-pa virgin 'purity; a *niaiden not 
toudied by a male (8man 989). 

iKm the chief of a town or village. 

SjC'^ grofi'tca {4ong'fca) in C aoc. to 
Jd. used for 9^'^ graU'Wa : cold. 

Ifc^'Q^ grod'-tcir the middle of a village 
Or hamlet. 

y^-gc^ grai'9paH§ I^W one who is 
liberated or has abandoned the Uto of a 
layman or householder. 

V^*'^ troA-tshig irnv provincialism: 
9 i;-lt^l|4i '9k- fp;^ groi'4shig gk^rna §ia^par 
^9^'^'%^'^^^'^ grad'^ikai kyi^-ma'bdte^ 
par not mixed up with provincialisms. 

^'^ groi'^iAo large village; town; 
several hamlets taken together. 

igi^-wX'A^'X OroH-i^sho mer^mo n. of a 
village in the district of «) J? in Lhokha : 

ilitsho fnef'fno (Zoil. ' SO). 

9^'^^ groi'^gihi an estate ; fsnn (Sch.). 
%^^ groi^yul country place (J6L). 

+ 5J^^ graHf {if(Hig)y v. ^1^*« resp. to 
die ; wl|c^'q«|-^-«-9^i<i u reqp. for natural 

SJS'^ jfrorf'-iw or ^V«' fisn9-pa Jbelljr; 
generally the paunch of nrnxinatinf; 
animals; in coUcq. language it is 
BometimeB. applied to the stomach or V'^ 
phihfca: ^f^'^ nwr-groi butter kept in 
the dried paunch of a sheep. 

^X^' groi'ibom (diManij a hffge belly; 
also the dried paunch of a bullock to keep 

fj^^S^ grtm^ean (don^ean) disadvan- 
tageous ; injurious. 

f^'^ groU'Che very noxious (Jo.) ; 
^on-m^^ harmless; innoxious (Zm;.). 

9|^*^ I: gtHm^pa (dan-pa) explained 
as ^f f ^'Q bgr(Higo ehen-po^ much expen- 
diture; expensive; also to expend, squan- 
der : 9^5 *i[^'W 8'!h'«»'S"^' baf-kyi mi iw 
fnaH^po gron»pa daH having equ&ndered 
much, wealth and men of Tibet: f^ 
^'^^^ tnag-fog gron-pa{^9g.) waste or 
eiqpenditure of much paper ^nd ink. 

Spi'W H: explained by h'^^wti^ 
%/ma^%'^ m4%httn cheiam (tsoi-ckehm 
i8t*an ehe^a^ applied to a great or illmteloafl 
family, to one who is very patient or ftw 
bearing, a thing th&t is very durable and 

f'J i" gron-fof ^HT hgf-o-^f^ item cl 
expenditure; also the account of the dis 
tribution and lending of grain. 


9yg) n. of a place in Tiang which con- 
tained one of the twelye templefl said to 
hftTe been eieoted by King Sr9H^mH 
fStam^po (Ftf-M/. 41). 

Sf'J pW (*)/) f% (&*r.; rdidc. T. 6) 
releoee ; deliTeranoe. 

^M GroMiH i^U^im) the day when 
the annnal aaeembly of the lamas diaiolve. 

»rf^ GM^om ((fol^m) a festival on 
the day whoi lamas relax after the terin of 
the speoisl devotions is over. 

^'^Vx grol^kdoi ii|w wishing to be 
emanoipated or set free from tmnsmigra- 
toiy eziftenoe and misery, etc. ; abbrevia- 
tion of ^•^vpi'^'i'^^w^^i'w^T^Vq 
ikkor-wa dai^uf-^ttiat iogt'lof grol^war 

%V'^ groLwa (4ol-m) pf. of ^»iie 
hgrol^mi •!«> Bbst. fw:fnv, *W^ iin, ifNn 
wfw deliveranoe; ddiveranoe from worldly 

3l^v«^ grol^m can ifHmr 1. relating to 
emancipation ; deliverance. 2. sbst. pearl : 
Ifirr tibat has been delivered from the 

8yn. %|^ mu^ig\ ^;^^^ na^le fam 

*r8*f i GroNmH //ia./^<i the five 
demigods cr, perhaps, NAga demi-gods. 

the kilkv of Namnoi; an epithet of India. 

advice; counsel. 2.=V« gtam speech; 
tftlk; ^'%^ ika^-grof conference; com- 

5^ ^ ' Aoc. to Cm. care, heed, caution. 



M^ gro^gragt (*>t-*v) a consult* 
icg friend ; anyone consulted with. 

%m*u^ gro§^n careful ; cautious. 

**'»'V»« gt-oi-gpam 1 consultation. 
2.=Wm§s <* gtH>§ bgei-pa to consult. 

fvsq^<K gro9^^hun^par^iuanmoQMfyl 
by unanimous decree. 

1*\^ gro§ idti-^a (*>Mff .«« ) the place 
where advice may be asked ; an orade . 
|[«'^^-9 ffra§ kdO^^fia giving advice. 

%^^^ gro§ hdru^ to ai& (a person's) 
advice ; to consult (with one). 

%^'^ grot-pa (fohpa) adviser; coun- 
sellor; senator; also advice ; V«'|«'«i gn^ 
bgof^pa {jfoi-je-pa) to have consiilted; 
^fftm consultation; conference; V^ftS^ 
gro% bjfei-fM {4<^je-pa) vapnn to con- 
sider; to deliberate; to resolve; decide 
after consderation, deliberation, eta 

%^^ Orohm i^oi^mi) consulting^ n^^ ; 
an adviser; sometimes in Bikldm the 
headman of a village. 

%m'i^ gro9'me4 without asking or con<% 
suiting anybody ; self Hraffloient ; csreless ; 

V^'S grotMoi {4in^$koi) the real 
pointscrobjectof a conference: V^'^'^Kf 
V"! WiXVQ gro§^9hoi idfin^at ga.rab§ 
Wfoi^ to catch the leading and salient 
poiuts in a conference (/''^O* 

'M^'^ groi-ya {iai^a) a secreUiy ; a 

8| fib wages; pay ; fee or remuneration 
for any work done: ^tf ^■jr^ J-^t- 

^WV^'iP^ , iige^tM irty^-tUa ktggai^gi 
^diihfca gl4M§a9 fiyffr the maintenance of 
cue hundred and eight monks was met 
from tl!e lees (he received) {A, 61). 




JKb«cAfMf»taMA{/fi'u.f)OX Hrhicb there are tbree 
Tarieties or perhaps eveu ipeciee in Tibet. 
Another species ooours ia Atudo t Ito9ohtt9 

lfi'^^^*^ gja-wa dad tna^tca^i pt^g^'pa the 
flkin of the Nao antelope and the miuk- 

^ gla-rtii can ; m'%M M'Ju^ : ^^'^^ f fo/f- 

E^*^^^^''^ gla-gor ahO'fa n. of a fruit, 
I'Hi^ti'Q gla ilaHt-pa has taken or 
received his wages for work. • 

I'V^* gh-'9gai ^^^ «fnnt n. of a med- 
cinal herb; ^pv CypcruB f^4undm\ unrx 
the root of OypcruB ptrtinnk. 

rw jffe.r^ew;^abbr. of B^^'M'i gla^daH 
tHan^pa^ wages and remuneration. 

8}*^ gkhpa cft V'Q gla-po or S*S glU'Jfu 
one who works on wages ; a servant em- 
ployed on a fixed salary; also a day- 
labourer or hired workman j ^^TB gyog- 
gla tr^ service money ; salaiy . 

3|*^$^ gla-phor a kind of tree the wood 
of which is good in txnning and for making 
plates and cups. 

j-M gjchphrug the young one of a 


yA gh^m HWt ^cm a servant; a hired 


B'lf gla-mo 1. a hired female servant. 
2. musk-doe: B'iJ«'1?^'8'''|«''*W''5^^ 
gh-icabi nor-bui tbrul-iogi dug-^n^ bye4 
the jewel of the musk deer (the musk- 
pod) is a protection against snake poison, 


>• J" gla-ttri HI, wnrrfil, * WW1<V musk ; 

idrtt muik is like burnt-wheat grains: 
|^'avrff|^\il'iiii;- the musk that is 

slightly soft, tough besides being of 
strong soenty is good : |*I^'^T II^T^IV 
*W^*^ musk eradicates anake-poisoii, 
kidney disease, plague. 

Syn. ^'Wi'*' ri^d^gtUe^wa; l«r|T9S 
^bruU^krag bye^; iJii<A'»i*|»i myo^-pafU 
n:dshan^ia\\^Tt\ dri-yi tho4\ V^'^«^ 
rfn-y» goi^ean ; ^'^^'a^' ri-doagi elaA ; ^' 
^^'^ ri'diagf rtsi; W^'^^'i gk^caf^i not'- 
bu (JVitfai).). 

|>^'A'!^ Qta-Ttaihi me-iog n. of a 
flower, the Pedieularis niegalatUAa. 

B*9 0^-/^0 food and wages. 

8J^ glag or Vtn bya-glag a bird des- 
cribed as resembling an eagle, but smaller 
than the vulture and larger thsn the hawk, 
of blaokish chocolate colour; carries away 
kids and lambs. This bird is numerous in 
Mongolia, Central Tibet and Eham. Pto- 
bably the lammergayer. 

I^'B'K ghtgJchrcHno a spotted speoiei 
of eagle. 

+ SPI'^ ^fe^-/>fl=fT«« itog-pa upper 
or back part or side : »^5'g^q i^g^gabi ffag- 
pa the crown or upper part of tha head. 
Defined as IT'V^T^^'JT*', the upper lack 
part or blunt side of a kmfe or axe. 

g|q|*q*a!Sl giag-pa /isin s. of a place in 
Tibet (Deb.). 

JBP\^ t^9 ^nw opportunity, occa- 
sion, possibility: W^^'^'i ghgi tUhcl- 
tea to Eeek for an opportunity: Vi^'l^ 
J^'^^^da glags rned-por hdug now the 
favourable time seems to have oome ; eep 
opportim.!ty of doing harm to anotbei, 




of g8ttiagahold<^ hioi (Ja); n«i>^«i^- 
^ ^r^ »*rpi *arf#«r m»  jfyiir he wiUnot 
get an opporlunitj to do you hann. <#S' 
1^^ intdonble; mmppcttible: ^ 
■^*S there ii no poanhility oi hi^ii&g 
him; he is inooraUe (Jd) : J^^/N not 
aUe to do injtuy or some interroptiQn to 
one's actions. 

+ S^f^'fl glagi-pa to go; be going; 
to proceed ; to be on the point of. 

M^' I: QlaH n. of a place in Tibet. 

8F' II: ^, mn 1. ox; buUocL 
2. one of the signs of the Zodiac, 
the Bnll: B*^'! •<S^<Rr|^-^ftl»if ^n^-^ 
gkii-gi ^khri^-pa^ ^$far^dug nUg^la phog- 
par phan the bile of the ox is useful when 
contagions poison strikes upon the eye: 
«^^**^*"w* ^^^■'•■•S the »pleen of the 
ox is useful in sores and poisons : fl'^'il'SfMr 
m-ffof^^m'^ the kidney of the ox le- 

nu/es kidney diseases: fl^itfn^^'^^l^'gS 
the blood of the ox (with food) draws out 
blood poison. 

Syn. R«-9\ bgnhlye4\ ^^V\ bdten^ 

'^ khyu^fl^hog (ifioft.). 

8F' m : <xW''vmgM.ikitb4, also called 
^1^- gzer^iaH, colic, gripes, spasms in 
t}ie stomAoh and similar aflsctions («7a.). 

«^Wi tia44habi^f^\ glo^bur h 
sodden; saddenly: |K*«w|-^gpr^-q was 

wddenly defeated by the enemy. 2. n. of 
atdisease, prob. hysterical fit. 

«^'5« glai^kAyifn rf^, iRj^ a shed 
or fold where cows are kept; an cma- 
ineated gateway. 

M; ox. 

B^'S'^ g.M4Qhyu.tca nm^m. a bull 
kept for breeding purpose. 

9FV\ gM-ghi 1. the bndns of the 
bullock or ox. 2. in Tsangassoap. 

tF^ Qlan^rgoi a wild ox. This term 
!• applied in Tibet to the bufPalo (in Tib 

5l^> VHi ^fWnf , WTW the elephant ; elephant 
in rut : ■^'^^asmcw^g^-j^i,^.,..^ q^^ ^^ 

of the elephant is useful in black small- 
pox: ■^•Btv«»iS«r'*T^lf«ftH^- ^4^.^ 

»W-«# nf^hun^pabi tilm ffo-sohimifi, Le., the 
names of various apparatus necessary for 
an elephant are the following :—- flw fra^i 
'W, -V^'^'H fHv^ga-ma n^; ^'^'^'^ glafi- 
Pobi tgyan ; >i^^ <i5n| q hdog^'pahi ka^a ; 
««i^ a-to-w r ^€m the post to which an 
elephant is tied, t^'ijcagf^i^ the 
conductor's hook; ^% ^fk; •iSqq ^i^n. 
«r« ; I'? Tir«J'^? bri4cia ka^a ba^ra^a 
«Wir.w^^or >i^tt^s|q gM^pobi thag^pa. 
V^-^-^'i hak^ gdsa-dsa ^^g|9fm^'<V\tr^^' 
'^V^ bbo4'Pa $hi9^bdug (M^on.). 

Syn. «f ^ s<hldan ; n^^M go^if . (qi,-^^ 
lag^ldan ; ^^^-^5^ gmhbihufi ; •n^B'^^ ,„a*- 
po bthu4 ; iil'8Si-«^ mffof bum-can ; «i^*T 
^^ nag94shai 4gab\ ^^v^^f(^ n^he^a 
9ecb9^-Idan;^'9iSV^M^ht4nal; H*«^ tj^^g, 
h can; ^?^«I5-^- MAi^r-A)*! f ita4 ; i'm'^ 
dsa^ka; S1'^'«S myof-r^tt/ can; ^JT* 
C«^ ibyug^pa^ tna^an ; ••J^'^ J^ qn;Ao^. 
rien bye4\ fwf^ ttob^^dan. 

W^M^'S"^ glai^hen tkal-^kar the 
white elephant, or one having a white fore- 
head ; the chief of the elephants (jffag ) • 
■^•^•^''•'WWSK-l-fF^' the bUe of the 
elephant cures emaciation caused by poison 
etc. : ■<-^-T^-^^^'^-^q^ft^ the flesh of 




ckfbiiit (tikoiM food) onrat the disMies 
attrflmted to deviU (in TT) 

i^'H-l* ghiUeken tt^i 4l<NiiT tha 
iMNtian of tlio dapbaat; also elephant- 

I^yn. •!'»• ^imH (in magio) or ^'•H 
11171U0 tMm (Jm. 5). 

f(*«Aii;-%l ^M «|^.|/oii a name of 
Prinoe Aatf-iNi fc^i-VfiVI yo«*, ion of King 
JCM^-jfMi Ab^N-ft^Mm. He iras ao called 
on aeooont of hit proweaa : «i^'cr^^'<i'|'^' 

t^y 0M-fo the Indian baU {Bob 
UmtHM Indicm). 

r*^- QhO^ih^ n. of a plain to the 
east of lihasa. 

tFVi uhMhug or i^'^^^i^ gM4U>g 
Mn a hall (not oasbrated) : li^'STiV^'vAf 
•Y^«i^ ffbril4kug rwa-coi ff^fo^f^^^ pf^^ 
thehocnof nneastrated bnU li useful in the 
fraebueottlle^head: gM-thug nag rw(hea§ 
miM*Ai fktm-par'bgBi the horn of a black 
nncaatmfted bull it nted in leprosjr: ^'^[ 

/Mill Uka^nhml the athet of a burnt bnll's 
horn taken internally cures inflamation of 

F'S^'«« Qbrn-dar-ma I. a youthful ox. 
2. n« of the King of Tibet who peneouted 
the Buddhittt in the ninth century A J). 

the hutbaadman, a mttio. 

^tnm a cow-herd; one who tendt or 
looks after cows (jtfiffm.). 

gi^-ViOt^ gbi-po-mchog imffit^ the 
chief of the elephants^ lit. a soent-deplymLt. 

Syn, tf^'^'fi'9 gM-poH tggaUpo ; Tfr* 

"^ ikaUuir ;^'<r%^ff fMAt-m drug^dan; 

gM-iH> *mgan*pa a wildf mad elephtiit 

IMsfl^'Vlh gianl^ia fyo^ wild eiephflat ; an 
elephant turned wild and mad lor nnkm 
with a the-elephant. 

8yn. ai|trw*$WQ ckagi-pai mgo§i^] 

^'>i'«^ ggo^wa-eaB ; |^'Q*ilh oMiP^ tg<4] 
a^« wl^jrq gfail.^ dM.^ mgo§^; 

ehad-ifii dteghpa\, ^^'^ glai^wi\ a^*Q'|T'i 

of a place within the district of Shiga-tw 
in Taang. 

qcQ*<3^« QlaH'po fodi n. of a place (in 
Tib.); alto one which was tituated near 
the ancient dty of EapilaTittn. 

glaH'tdm conductor of an elephant 

gkApO'ipahog {^fion.), 

|>^' A;|^ QM-paH iMg^ tfinm n. of 
a very powerful giant-like king; IF'lT*'^* 

§tob9 {Ta^L BT). 

glai^^ck^i gfm the stable where ela- 
phantt are kept (jVifofi.). 

gp:gf^ gM^phnm^gp:^ gU^krug^ 
young elephant (JV^on.)* 

|c^ gM^ire^ ihVTW ox-manger; ^' 
4%'^v gM'Poii bref elephant-i»tall. 

1^**1 gta^'ma 1. a medicinal plant: I*' 
mm1t'9^'\t:\4^tit^ gM-ma curee fever and 

I a47 

lettftk dttoaioa. 2« % laige kind of ftlpim fi 

r'K «M-Mo or ^'If^m lig.idan-ma ah^ 
dflphftat: |^'lA'X'iMrwQ*q|T«i^*tS tbemilk 
of a Affi daphmut iiTBry rogUming ; ff^'^ 
«iTr«wr»^-^-^r*n flia akin of • ahe- 
deplmt com fmale ditMM and f eror. 

V^*V^ f M-#M0r a atoUion ox : l^^'Vi^* 

^*^ irUliikewttrmbloodof alnriiigatdU 
lioiL ox the oiroiilfttioiii of poiaoo in tho 
Uood Ota bo neotndiied. 

9Ffi: ffal-fdW 4rf^ a oow-lseopar; 


IF'l^ u: 4Nm tlM kMper of aa «b. 
phaai; kiMpar ol oowi; Ejidivs. 

Byn, p'ttF'*-* gM^f M«-fe^; 

^w«tf liKHm tlie miulE>li]w, toented 
•eotetiim in the bnin* cr ii^the itonuMli 
at an dtophant. 2.s^Hh dbM.|iUr4 
bear's Ule {9mmt. 858). 

8Ata» in tiM&^nnr, mU to U^ben 
delhvnd lijr BoddlM h^mb <n a viait to 

W''% 0M*rM « kdlook'p ham; alto a 
large foriotd aliok mad Iqr tha ISbataa 
•oldien to ml the nnaket oa wben firing. 

r-«^-^vnrif ^mjm ^Mi-MnHNo n. 

of a plaoe in Kham. 

IFV gM^»^'9rU ghUita-^ or 
•*»•%' i w/w-ei»f> | a kind ol ii«e grow- 
ing largdy in Tibet, tbeleatee of ^rfiioh 
ate bornt as inotnse (l^*^* mntioal 
tent) (Jtai.). 

H^*-^ gM^ a kind of sot^-boof . 

gprpwrq 9M^«|«M»^ n. ol a 
IniuuI hma oqom from a plaoe oaUed 

QM-kkamt, who iras invited hf Sng 
■KlrMr«>< iAft»4<«M to bb oi^jtal on 
aooonnt ol the feme of bis l— wt^ng 

8}S 8f^<»W\-gkiif» ^imm the bead; 
!>»»•; of. r t«itf: r.** tbii4» m the 
top, on the bead; also wed as poalpoaitian 
in flie Mose of otht, dose over : ^'|S'«i 
«ittti^a4^dim above the river ornatar. 

the reins of the brain. 

1^'* «<«#iM genaraUy written as fS'« 

HV^ flHi^ also iro gk»^ 1. t^ 

patohi9;tonMod: ^^Vwan^ri^ll^-eH 
fV|T« A«i 0fa»jMi to sew up or patohi^ 
torn okthe% eto. (^tg.); tft^t (osew 
onapatoh. 9.toNton;«^«M aaaiMwer 
to rapty;MJoia (Zm.). 8. ooDoqoiallor 
W* ghm-pt. 

Wl^ 0<nHf(m, ▼. |t« ^fa».jNi dumb. 

* IPI'*' «<M»>jMi or fH'CHTV mm*u 
|M«9^ a kind of thick blaakot. 

ipr^flil^wi^l. tojswn orgrae: 

aialaatifliiofthebo47bgr lAratobfaig the 
Bnbs and yawiifaig. 3. ataniflo attilada 
or postonof sitting: ia^^ipilasi ti4^ 

a lion's attitode on his vasfnidied loe is 

iv^« ^ iMoMM one irho snbslBla 
on salaiy orin^ieB. 

QC* I: ^ ^. f« a Und of seared 


QC* II: 1. VK 4« idaad; isolated 
plaoe; limb or part of the globe; diTi> 
rfoB «l ]aad% large or small : continent, in 


f ftlmlotiA Indian senfie : |^'«WPi'|«'()'^* 
l^'^^V^ gIM fphan-noi ^y^t-pa UhMyei- 
mi tdtihwa fili««l«lMm\l : being of other 
continents they are of a diilerent manner 
of birth. 

jQC*in: a large monaebsy ; a monae- 
tery iaolated in ita greatness and separate 
from other jnxisdiotion* 

|i^*li(*q|*s(^i[i glUi^hen imt^gfUf the 
tuehe continents aoooxding to Bon oosmo- 
graphy are the f oUowing :— (1) ^^ V««K' 

'^'l'^' W QyuA-dtu/H tkoi^bi-gfi*; (2) 

(8) 'i^<l'vA^'l*|>^ (^) Bduhia khriffii- 

h* jr«« ; (4) "^^•^■'•K^'*'^ (^^) J*'^*^- 

Iftha Hkagykyi glM;{6) *S-*S»«»"8^' \S) 
T90^nw4 bp^wa gM ; (6) |^-<rim' wji; 
(^^) Sbyif^-ipa m^thai^at gM \ (7) ft'^' 
^nsri^ls. ((a) Mugyo iBom-gtan gM; 
(8) S^i'%W'l«^ (TW) J)g^tgya9 ytm-tan 
gUH; (9) ^S'^sgwua^i^ (^^) Tsha(hne4 
byamtpabi gHH; (10) ^Xvll'^^lfi^* (8^') 
Qno4-^yinmr^gyi gM; (11) %WJ^* 
(f n- (^jom) Ton-ian rgyot-p^b^ gM ; (12) ^' 
^-|C^'cA-|i;(i|^^) Ein^en fpuHtipabi gM ; 
or ?>rtf*|^ (Sa^) Jffol^-mo ^/M (A Bon. fi). 
The seventeen sub-continents attached 
to the tTreWe continents axe the follow-^ 
ing>-<l) fir<i^'yicdBs-*ii^- ^ya*-rt>j 
rpfoAM bdikhpabi gM ; (2) H'««lS'*K 
9f^iuVfoi^^ gMi (8) vfr^f^K 
DraH^$roHgro4dul^Mi (4) ««^Av*|v 
JTyiMlaii mei^pabi gfi^ ; («) a«»'^'«* i^' 
J)m»-ss gtioi^abigM; (6) yi>wK'l|^' 
J}riii9i-s« *«^»w s/« ; (7) %|-»^*i*«>iv 
^bri^ig miih(hyi gM; (8) V^v^v 
sfi^i^*aK'|i;' Jfniaghr%g% gdoUwabi gM ; (9) 
|q«-lii*3V)'|^* Siob^ck$n gyai-hyi gM\ 
(10) w^S'^^l*" A-bthdthrabf gM; (11) 
^^q-'^'TQ^I^' JffgriMfia bdui-wabi gM\ 
(12) ^'^^'^vi^'^iM^' ^^^^ ^^ ^Ao^edt 

368 II 

gUH; (18) f«i^'^»Af[^'5w»-*vW-«w*i 
0/M; (14) yi'K«f«i*|i^ RgyaUmo moJO^ 

gM; (16) vf^'^tA'QilV m/u»b-^ro mi' 
rkun gM ; (16) Aw)'^'|i^' Jfi»am <;^' 
0f/i«; (17) f^'99^\^'}i's: Zha4fli§mmMUia 
tpr^bu gM ((?. Bon. 6). 

I^'ij Qim^ka a garden or plsasurs 

9^'^ gM-tan dispute ; quarreL 

^KTf^'ft: Qiin^4kar rdtoi n- of a 
district in Tibet. 

1^*^ gKH^dar y^ n. of a kind of olocd. 

I^'f V gti^Han-ma^ ^ ifftsho iflrq^, 
^t^ a lake which contains islands. 

g|C*^ gMF^n WW, wfimw a reed-pipe; 
a musical reed; flageolet; the common 
musical inslnment of herdsmen^ and con- 
flists of two pipes joined together; 3s'|^' 
phr04^M flute; pieoolo^flute, mostly of 
metal; ^^'8^' itge-gM^ geDarsUy written 
S'l^' rgythgUf a larger musical instro 
ment like a hautboyi used in sacred cere- 
monies ; ^F^%^' thitl'HM trumpet made of 
the human femoral bone. 

I^'i gKH^ana gflm the margin of s 
lake or river. 

^C:*U(4|9|'q QM^agt^ n, of ibe 
chief preist of Gakkm who was bom st 

qe;'(!^ 9/$44v'revdlQtion;'inlenuil 
dissension: «^i^-^Bn^^w|^'<^%By then 
axose much civil disturbance there in 
Dikhufl, iji.f among the metfiberi of 
the BbriMuH monastery. 

ffl gh 9|Wf ^, ^fn, vm long; 

ditty; also a tune; |'«!^^«^l<rc^^1 
accompaniments of musical perf onnsaoer 
etc. ; f «5'5 ihhra^ WW; ^'^^ gat-4af in 
actor ; a stage-player \ ^'d^^l^^V fMr 





JMfr' iM^gV^r fftlling of the feet at tke 
2nuflic or oadenoe of the song ; ^'I'^^V 
gar^gfi pMo-^> itage-inaeter; r^ tiO'pa 
the dnonmar ; e '^J^'^r^ ftfiM-tM drum- 
beater ; iirl^^^ j>A0ft rdob-pa^ m^; m'»1fl 
tkal^m rdob the olapper ; Ks'<l fM-iii tpa 
trombone blower; |^V«<n fM-ftn i|iiMaii 
the flnte-plajer ; ^« fi-mUl gwA§r^ yiolin ; 
*"*'»W jpMWrtI vJbUm the yiolin player ; 
5'^ ^Amm the singer; T^*»W por-fJiAaa 
danoer; ^'^^n igfur^bag-^khan one 
who showii Twiona apjiearanoei in dillnent 
endh ai the olown, etc. (jVMofi.). 

I'l fkhUfra time in atnging. 

9*i^* ffe-tftnH a Uttle eong; ditfy. 

1*1^4^ Q f&f-i&m hti-pa to sing a 

9 Si^ fh^pa^i tJM^ tinging ; |* 
^irt^q-ojH gjhh4ig0H%4cyi i^^^pa- 
idun ibe aeren kinds of harmonioal pitch 
or meaames of the oompass of the m^ri^l 
tones. These are. — ^K'n ter-ma nipr, 
^<'C^* drai-irai «m, «'^ M-^dWii niaiT^, 
Vrf^ dcug4dan W€m\ f ^ jifo-pa ww; 

iV^Pf. Then, too, there axe Taiions 
deftniiions ot songs and. modes of aSng- 
ing. Snch axe: ^V^'«V^'|^*^*^V^« 
r^jfiHjMstf Kt^m-fof ^ye^-pdii ^yatfi, ^* 
mF'^rra hkhar^n gtaH-poH igra Ita^ 
hu, a'^^^^tFVii^ khyu-mehog la^la^ 

9ktfe9-ni ra-gi sAjforf, %T j'TliS^fR-f^-l^ 
dtug-lfcu^ rnuhbyaii fkai^llar %grog%^ ^ ^ 
^V^'W^^^M har^tm khr^4ckrui §grth 

mm kMny i-^pmiRTi^-^'^ 6fo-fsfl/ rfo- 

fl^^V^^ jifo-pa- fM-togAdan cfai-sa, Mfi« 
irr^-^w-sA-^g^m itied-mo thmfor ftM«i«f« 

«•'• /i^*-^ rfal-/M W-moAi (Tiyo^ff •V^^'B-yf^n 

drag^po Ho^tgUskaT'du^ drug-^ei kkgw 
^hog de^Mn-^ *'^*r^•^•'^•W^8^*, H' 

5'Wll^a pft^ftyertli kgi Mal-jHi 
<^Ifi*«nmc ft stage; a plaee where sing- 
ing IS done. 

^H^mf^glu iig^^fgMm a singer; 
one who sings or ixistmots in singing. 


•A« gkt-rei alternate songs, 

|%« flu-hu^nm « 5»W*f f /a «JM«a- 
4910 a songstress. 

|R ghd a thing giyen as a ransom ; 

iV^^ « ransom for life: pt'|N'^*«i' 
^*^ Je/«ati* fAfi^da lap itgg^t^oi 
slaughter a hund^ld sheep as a ransom 
lor him, |^ ^*^* ghi Uh »/a« to ransom a 

^'^ $kKh*$k0A the ransom ofleted to 
soma malignant spirit, oonstsling o( cue's 
effigy mads of barley or wheat-atcaw, and 
ita interior fOled with grain, ediUas, dothf 
medicines, and preoious artidea sneh as 
goldt nl^^er or coins, and then thrown in 
the direction from which the evil spirit 
is supposed to bars come. There are 
sereral Taxieties of this Und of oeremony. 

Xglum or ^'^ iM-gJiiai frssh 
ed rice, harley, or wheat, used 
instead of malt in brewing besr. w«ll^* 
iiq'a$q*Qfi'i^*««*a*ai;*^flirw(i; m'«k*)% 



gi gb»m-mtm fM glum pai^wer. 

J^ QU m snuJl mumltiTated idand; 
alio ft gtof^; MBM M ^ UM m'i^^ 

I'l^^jwrn gb hdamhma I. one- having 
fhe dueaao in idiioh mine and f caoal mat- 
ter paM togetber, m., by the leotom (K. 

^ihau^tmi hmmhK a hennaphiodite ; 
having neither the sign oi male nor d 

gp|lt ^g§ taUe; plate; board; amy 
flatpieoe: |^«W^ §g<hgleg§ gO^g^go 
there iraa a door panel placed. 

%fficm^ ghg%-Qluik abaok]e»olaeporring 

attached to the thong. 

\l^'^ gkghthag a thongi fto., fastened 
round abook. 

a^'W ghgttam 9W» nl^ a volume ; 
a book; leaves placed between flat boards. 

)^'9 gbfi^ ^* ^ label; explained ar 

glHl'i^Ki jmnftaAi boaiifoii gra ikag-pa, a 
square or rectangular piece of dcih or 
paper put as label containing the name of 
iKioks, chapters, pages, etc. (J^ag.). 3. a 
tiUet 8. ^'?h«'« ftJbr^gfa^iti or «1^ 
^iMhf09 ft diploma; «^«*)')«1«'B copper 
plate or taUet. 

1^'si gbghmat v. H^ gleg§. 

g4fii*3|c gbgi^ the wooden boards 
which in a Tibetan book supply tho 

jp^^^ gbHrwa or )^'<i gMi-pa 4w4 to 
gay, converse, relate, describe: V^l«^'^ 
gtam^ gM^wa or ^fl^')*^'« 0Mi4 ([Mhmi to 
relate a story : m rirw^ii'l|a«-^^ hmJa 
fna4har $he§ gbti-na§ as the word was sent, 

the road is not passable I ^9*rl^'^^«W 
^fv I have made this speech: ^H 
|i^-i||yr)i^-^qi|-«fcS*^-4A'A-qK-^ai^'V the 
rumour spreading from one to another, 
unta it csme before the lady. W-|-|s|i( 
IS'4 eko§4fpi igrog^gbi hge4ifa to preach 
religious discourses; %^1f groS'gMi coon- 
dl ; consultation. 

h^'v9 gM-^UHJhpo OT ■^•Ssfii gkdHm 
fgkhan a story-teUeir. 

l^-^ii e^M-liifma hundred thoQssnd 
atcries; the title of a book in the ITibAflrs 
division of the Kahgyur or Tibetan Bud- 
dhist soriptuxes, which contains dxSarent 
stories on the bdkaviour of devotees, monks, 
nuns, Ac , who adopted the Buddhut fsitb . 
and who violated the rules of monastio 
laid down 1^ Buddha. 

a^K gm-mo or wiF hlhgblL lF^t\ 
gbi-itjoi wwT, irrfWV, mrf, ^iwnr tslk; 
conversation ; story ; account. 

K^^ gbii^dU or |i^'^|Mr4 gM ifUlh 
pa i7lt|, fii^[ni any subject ; primary csnse: 
|vs|%^^-ii gbit^gOi kdi-h ^al^ fmffk in 
narration. 1. narration. 2. tbe 
cl a discourse (Gv.). 8. table of 
contentif ; index. 4. plaoe, scene cf a coa- 
versation or discourse. 

SJ^'fipi Jim^favi, abhr. of If^r^ 
l^^'Q gkn-pa da^^-ffcugi-pa^ very stupid end 
idiotic: |S|^««KKJ'|T«Vt gbn^gt 
Veoi tpyoiJiyi §dug-i9^i the misery of 
being stupid, of dumbness and servitude. 

Sja^'fl gbn^pa upr, Hf , ^w, fk%, W 
stupid, foolish, ignorant ; a thick-headed 
fool; an idiot: Jrla-iw^jl^a mm 
stupid than a brute : 9s'¥<^*^')<l foob thst 
you arei each of you: l^'^t^'^ mad- 

1«W«I I 261 

IQ'Q fjUh-pa^ pf. !«« ^Mfy to main 

flat, plam (C«.); ^'>^'l^ Mhnot^M 
make flat. 

•Ji JQc^'CI^Mi^yliniil to trampla; 
to tread down ; to jraa down by the feet 

9pi*C| gknhfM to pgeei, aqoeeae; to 
cnuih, aqnash (/<i.). 

8J 9^ or f |db» m X^f. nap. «ff^ 

fito^y 1. iha aide, eap. of iha body: IK"*^^ 
gh§-pMb^ to lie. down on ome'a nde. 
2. aooQgh. 

a imall window in (the lide of) a honae to 
let in light. 

8|'Ql|0fc-i*nin. of a country in Tibet 

I'l*^'* glbh-VfOf^^ w^m^ to ooQfl^ ; 
to dear the throat. 

f f^ jJMwr»f vr *to-*kar or V^W 
«Atfr4BAif4 a amaQ dooor or window. 

i^'P 0<9-iMa n. of a ookmr like tha Uood 
of iho lungs ; 

Ifm ghMug a imall money-bag 
attached to the eaah cpr girdle of a 

f^P^q gh hgog9iMmfn^^ or J 

3^'Q ^fe tgyog^ to cough; to feel stifled 

{'^ym gih^grami WW, n. of a disease. 

tfy 9^tn«9 a disease of the longs; 

y ^fc' ^fe»00o< a disease of the lungs 
which insceaaes daring the night. 
I^' gh^daH wind-pipe (Cs.). 


?l(«t **.f«W« WX^fwiVr*' ozcessiYe 

IPI^ 0iHpfr n. of a kind of shield: ir 

ha^kar fhib^i rab^la ^ho^tHa^gte, gh-^ir 
9ko^fkA>ffior9h0i^kt$4ym thebest£W<. 
tfXwr shield costs fiye «Ao and that of Qkh- 
|p«r costs a s*o for each disk on it (Jig.). 

i^tS ^khfkug place whore things aio 
kept— either in a wall or a comsr of a 
house, Ac: ^i<r^^^wrfwVrT«»^'*fl 
that boy kept the gold in a nkU. 

^ Q gkhwa ti^m( fkm the lungs ; 
Y^'9T 0<^«Mi bu-IHa the fiye anterior 
lobes of the lungs ; f ^-sry gfo..wB maita 
the Ats posterior lobes of the Inngs. 

^ 9^ glo*^ ^mmvi sodden; adr. 
|'8^'^fA>4ifr-<Ai suddenfy ; allon a sadden ; 
instantaneoasly : |^a^' V*^**^^'^'^ (^^^ 
gh-im^'du fnUmal^ ^wati idug-igiMikB 
missKy or cakmity of many men dyiog 
soddenly. I'S^'^^cw'Q gkhbur-du Ao^f-iM 
^mniwone who has come all on a sadden ; 
JtV^'^'^^gh^htr^^^idon thesignifloation 
of saddBuaess* 

f «^'|ir9 Qh^htr tpaUpo a name of 
&e King of Tibet aboot 900 years ago. 

If 9^'^ gMmr-mid a disease that arises 

i^QVQ gh imr^^wa suddenness. 

if Qi^^ ffMiar a^iTW a projection; 
uprising : ^-^'l^^i »ur^du gdot^pa to rise 
up into sitting postore. 

ft^ gUH/mb wind-pipe. 

Jj;^^ gbhkhw^ eonrulsions of the lungs} 


flfT, ^Wnr, ^nraTi ^W*T, ^q^^> ^WT 
liglttning ; flash of .. lightning ; l^'iMi* 
<?|Mqq-«Wgi;q ^n-phan^tskm bthab pa 
hihyu^rwa that produoed from theoon- 
eaasion or oollision of oloadi. The naioea 
ol difhreni kinda of lightning are men- 
ikmed in the £iA-^yiir :— |^^>qt\«a( gjog 

piuiv^i'^n the lightmng with flash ; ^ 
jpf'^S fbg-^htg hoi the lightning of dense 
Initie^aheet-Hghtning; ft»*<'9^«^^fo^- 
lMb0« phre^-oan the lightning of beoutifal 
atringa or aig-aagd, fto. {K. g. \ US). 
The lightning that oomea from the south is 
•ailed fS'^iJ*' ikai^gifa-pa, that of a 
hnndred ratUsa; that ooming from the 
west is oalled ^'^'^V'^ ho4'liam§^pay that of 
fading Inatre ; that whioh oomee from the 
north is oalled Wi'^T' tg^un-gyi Itdag^ 
pa^ loid of stnaming flashes (JT. g. ^^ SHU)* 

Syn. H^«rqj-a Jifug^pa irgtfa-pa; l^gS^' 
|«i gfihi^sAcn ^e^; |t8'jT« 9prin-gy% 
hug-ma ; ^^S'^n (per-hod can ; ^v^ /fi^ 
phra; ^^'H^' hb-^ithuH; fS'^^S tka^g 
Aoi; isHtw'* thf^-ifig gmUioa (4f«o».) 

¥rf 4 flog-Uan nf^ full of light* 
ning; flashed dond. 

ifC*9^* QMUka^ n. of a place in 
Tibet poroper and also in S[ham. 

Sk-ai^"|^»A-f r^' QloUhaH igrtm-mabi 
Iha^khaH n. of a monastery and temple in 

i^^ gbg'pa t^q silyer. 

m'cA'^ glog-paii^tkxit n. of a disease 
mentioined in grammar, but not found 
in the medioal works. Aoa to Id. |^^ 
iaanothernameof the disease oalled ]|t^ 



SJV^ afofprr= fS'^ ftorf-jia to , relax ; io 
Joosen ^V«'<rJ(i ieas-pa-^knisi^^w^f^ 
hdatn^-pthghi daoken binding; %mrl^*4 
to relax Ihe mind, be at ease; l^w 
J^*^'^*"!^ gloi-la tgyu%-d» i^hugi yoa 
may stay here always with easy mind; 
•rqi^si- J^q^ fna^MuH ma^loi^par wiUumt 
any regard to takmg or giring. 

31^*^ gUm-pa or |^'4 glan-pa L to 
return an answer ; to reply. 2. to psieh, 

If. ^^I'fl gla$^ or iTw*! fmsiff^fw 
stupidity ; ignofanoe. 

)^«n'4 ghhphab-pa to lie on one side or 
on the side : V«*)'^>(^'>n'<Fn«'Q'f B to 
lie on tlie side like an ox lying down. 

^*ip|'q igag^pa, fut. of ^^^^ to hindar. 

SSjsj Tf^cgfllB igag^pa daH bral^wa^^m^ 
^S^ igag-pa rne^a f^Mif open ; with- 
out let or hinderanoe ; unobetmoted. 

^^'\ 4gag-phye, T. STT^'Ss igcg-^ 

mrftif stopped; obstruoted. 

^^'^9'8^ igag^ibye hye4 vm^ ons 
who stops or obstraots. 

tihig w %e( word of prohibition ; objeotion. 

4ka^a'%jkKKi hard to fill up. 

^q|C*q (fgaUHPa^ fut. of ^^vq kgeit 
iTdT, to fill ; fill up. 

S'^'\^ 4g^'iiug ^^i ^ ihnm a Isdk 

to pour butter in sacrifioial fixe. 

i^qp-q|« 4gafUgzar imjt saoariftoial spooxi 

or ladle: i^•5*^'8'1'«■9^S'V^'e*^^*|Tr8 
fbyin-sreg ilug^ hyei-kyi gtar-lu doA ifspo^ 
tki^'bu there are two kinds of spoons in koff» 




■Mrifloial fire, one is luge called ^gai^ 
fMar^ aad tlie other unalier Vug*gmr^ 
whioh is used to poor butter on fire. 

tree, the tree resembling tiger's feet 
8yn. n'^^q iiaf^ rka*^ ; >^*«> 

^f^'W^ igad^tfa-wa full to the brim; 
replete: f^-^'^vfi-^^ iHat-du khedhma 

^«ip'q igtA^poj fut. of ^^'^ bg^hpa. 
^^% 4gdfhl>y^ garment; dxeas 

^f^^ iga^wa w^, fNPTw, i|«W, Wit 

^4^» wwp^ i1jc» thw, iwT, tfir, m^, 
Ww, viiYw, ^VTWIit, ^wi, ffH, Whpr 1, 
delight ; happiness ; joj. 2. vb. neat, to 
rejoice ; "W^i-^i^-fl to be pleased ; V^r^w 
^^<i to be displeased; also S^'i^'|S'<i to 
make glad: ^^ was displeased: WQ' 
^fl^'^ rejoicing gieaUj. 

8yn. ^n ^gu'wa ; VWQ raii-pa ; f''^ 

ya*^^ ^'fl** *S^' ^it-ran; ^va ^^y#|. 
/>« ; •!h"'' V«ei-ji« ; *«'^ i9him^fa ; l^•|^ 

#ii«ifi^a ; ^'V^ ralHrigab ; ^fi^i |4^ 
9Ur^a (JKfion.). 

V!^H^ igab^rkgad (5Rr^|i) n. of a 
laige numerical flgm:e (Fo-stf/. rff). 

Sf^'i^4ff(^9kg0§ in Toy pleased ;gkd. 

S^|-a«|-^fW 4ga^^go minium the 
abbreviation of the names of the three 
plaoes situsted to the west of Lhasa, 

mo4ui and liS 2U^, in each of which 
tiiere is a monasterj. 

S^l^ i9^0rog§ loTcr; spoose; 
wife ; an intimate friend {MHon.). 

Vt^M iga^igu #i^ interooorse ; asso- 
ciation; merriment; MP^W-* ^sW^iir 
Vlf^P^ <ii^^I to perform oonji^gal 
rites; also to indnlge in 8e]^aal enjoyment. 

S^s^ S'S"^ Jfga^^can gyu^do^ the 54- 
<rfl of S^i«^ Vffak^ufa^.em in (Zl A i 
4^i), which contains :— f^^1^'«A>l^l^«' 
^ <ro^ gfio4-pab% net4nugi ^ (10) ; PJ-^f 

teu (10) ; K'^^>A>s-^«^-^iq|.«'|| ^ 
Mud^waii 9e$>4mg§ ium^iem io-lfla (36); 

His^mig^ icu (10) ; *| «Re|^*>|-^*^ij 
hg^par ggem-pabi H^Hmgi teu (10). 


1^1' 49ai'§i(m-§kge§ psodneiiig 

^T'V^')^ igahnUm §bgin ^mi an astao- 
loger ; water. 

VP'^ 4g^id$, coUoq. <<fWMb/' 
]oj and happiness. 

SV •^^ *j»»wfar or ^-i^F^u^ 4g^ 
tDobi kka^g% a soarl presented for plsas- 
ing or consoling ; a searf of oongratalaijon. 

'n^'^V* Cgai^gOad n. of a monastery 
near Dapong which has an orade and a 
divinity called Ghudcng Ohokyciig, whose 
duty it is to cause rain during a drought. 

S^'f}^ I: ]^gaHdm O^^n) gf^ 
a paradise of the Buddhists; the residence 
of those sainted beings who enjoy beati- 
tude, which is the peculiar privilege of 
the Mdhdgana Buddhists. It is piesided 



^'l'\ I 

<rf^ by tile coming Buddha, now the 
BiMimtha Maitreya. The gods redding 
in it are said to li?e 4,000 yean, the 
duration of a day of whibh is equal to 400 
human years; and the length of one's 
body is a forlong (Sorig.). «^'Q'Vm* 

BW*^^*qHfi^'5rt owing to Lord 
ICaitreyas' spiritual and temporal rule 
the celestial people are possessed ol the 
joy of a righteous life. 

^qp,^[^ n: (pronounced Oftndan) the 
great monastery of CHlndan situated 86 
miles N.R of Lhasa, which was founded 
by the Buddhist reformer Tsong-kha-pa. 
It contains twentyndz dirLuons or wards 
for the residence of monks. 9'V'S^'|f« 
Ch/TO'M jOgd^4ion the quarters for the 
residence of the monks of Qftndan are 
divided into two seofcions 1. called 9'^' 
^'V^*t^ grfm49kaiH goi Bya^ti^e which has 
the following divisions or psw'^ khami* 
tdiani—0) V^'^V Har-ffcM; (2) «••*? 
99am-gh; (3) !|« Sre^io; (4) ^'«i JjAa- 
pa; (6)^T^' g$er4AaH; (6) ^^ «*- 
ra; (7) W^^ t^ibum ; (8) gi> Brag^fli; 
(9) ■Iflw-ii-; (10) f^'^' SgyaUrat; (11) 
^ Oihwa ; (12) 1f^« Eai-po ; (13) «^- 
^« MMhri§ {Lad. '^ U)* 2. called 
v A'Xs|'-^'f grvo'UtiailL bog (^ot^tiMj which 
has the following diTisions or pw^ 
kham'tshan:—{l) 1(7* 5efo-*Aa<; (2) 
«-r^- PhoJfhaH; (8) f «i iAo-pa ; (4) n^ 
mg^\ (6) t'\ Oihne; (6) V5 The^; 
(7) t«^-« Zuti^hu; (8) ^T* 8og^; (9) 
«^H itt»*m; (10) ww'M MXat^rii; (11) 
• c Oha^; (12) ^'B i?a<-iw; (18) 
qa'v (^tdl-n« (£o/i. a, !>&). The name 
Gandan is generally fixed before the 

of monasteries and institutions 
which belong to the J)gab4ig$^a cr 
Gelug-pa sect. i 

formerly the residence of Sang ijpon^ 

phihbroA near Lhasa (Xc^ % 18). 2. the 

residence of King J)gak4iam T%h0-wQ/k is 

situated to the back of the royal monastery 

'of TihihmfhgUii in Lhasa: yrq;^^'f^-I' 

S^'lf^'l'q ]fga^l4an khrupa the Imssl 
successor of Tsong-kha-pa in the ecclesias- 
tical throne of the great monastery of 
Qdndan. He is the chief of the ordinary 
non-incamate lamas and occupies tibs 
third place in the hierarchical precedeooe 
of Tibet. 

gtii n. of a monastery in Higher Tibei 
It is a yery common name by wbidi 
several monasteries are designated. ^ 

S^ f^ W*Vi|^' 0gdh4ian Phm4Aogi 
gliU the monastery of Fhunta'o Ling situa- 
ted to the west of Taahi-lhunpo in TMDg. 
It contains a large number of bloek-pimts 
and religious works. It was (f oimeily) 
Lama Taxanatha's monasteij. ^'V 

fikra-^'lhun^p^ mib^la f^ Jo-nOk 
t^rbehnia ihabi igon-pa yin, I'^fpf^a* 
If^'^'f ^'^^'9^'^'^9hi^^ug tkughtUm 
daH^ ohoh'kyi phar ma^-pa yo4^ 

S«!^f^«g^' JOgab-ldan phoJn^ also 
called t^^SF^ Sde^pa ^aJM tii-^ Ooron- 
ment-house in Lhasa, also the GK)T»in7Qe^i 
of Lhasa (5^MY.i>i). 

S^'fS 4gah^9py(4 ws^^kr entertam- 
ment ; merrimeut ; ai^o good 



^«i|q-^V^yj-«^ I 

of dieerfiiliMis and entbanaim. 

the dl-good; thai esiatiby itodf ; tbe em- 
bkm of purity; puritytyiofled. 2. n. of 
a gem. 8. the knag's pekoe. 

^w^RbV^^H^^^ ^^^W^*4w^^W %^^F^^^^*y* 

oneol fhe namee of Yiah&ii; one of e 
hnndzed Jcya (Jfiloii.). 

AMriflw or |reK-»i kkgim^pa^ cho§y 
lezaal enjoymeiit (J^ltoi.). 

pleeeue; one delightiiig in aenal plea* 
8Qiee;*in0t« aoodk. 

Vl^'v^^ 49^1^-^ M« the four pkeaniei 
cr delighii ere the f oUowing :— (1) Ipf^r^ 
<J^^^^ ifaV-ew erf-Mf pfa-fa 4^; (2) 

k ig^i (8) Wr*^««'^^ #W4» g^o<4f 
4g^l (4) VwMV'l^r'rW M^tgm^ 

^^*e-«V^ jPga^HM k<44pkro n. of 
Atii^ft'a raddsnoe efc Nye-tliaag neat 

Jo-Mi «a*MI «JM Offa^wa M4f^ 
•he§^i¥ g/» {A. 98). 

mn the BrtlmieQe at wboae leqeeat the 
Kaahmman poet Kahemendra wrote Ava> 
dina Kalpel^* and aoTenl other Sanskrit 

^^f^tH-^^'o n:W^(iifi {Sehr,, Butt. 
18U, 99U). 

^^eft S'4| ^gak-wibt Im^ga tfvif^ the 
female osgan. 

^|w1%ii; ff^H^ khpab-tjug a name of 
Yiflhnn (Jfloa.)* 

tgg^hP^ lf^g9i4%hal tojbI gaidens ; alao 
«r^^Tlw the oeleatial gardens. 

(^) n. of a plaoe;'^'9^ f^^P^ogi the 
Orient, ibe East (JT. tf. S i»d7). 

W^^ igai-Wttti ro ^^[kV9 aemal 

^T'A'«*^^^w»-iMi«i a?-fff*ithefeiiie]e 

8 jn ■iT' n¥H[lag% ,  •i*^ itte-frfafaM 

^T**iS igai-wati ib4 fimv for tbe 
sake of pleesora. 

W^ Is *«»-ice#" i*erf» W»l* ^^«». 
^roff or •<f^*VT* mdMi^-grogi or. JS'V iya*-te 
a friend; sweeiheert ; a hnbsend (JfioM.). 

^/T^-m'tHm #p»l-iMv friMf iimr lore- 
bomid ; bond of lore. 

•^^•' x: igat^w^ ^^ {Sehr.; JH. », 

^itfv, xi9iWt finvrCi s[1^ Bima, thp bare 
of the epio Bim&yana; n. of a dond« 

n. pr. (&Ar.; Ti. 9 IQS)^ imat to or fond 
of Nanda (the dslighifal). 

S^IS'Vr*^ l?P«» hge4 Dgra^9ta^m 
n^QfTVf the'third aooepted inoamation of 
Yiahnn; his othsr names are— ^B'^'st 


Opalhpo dta^ma^ vwr^'^w Ag^niii 9ra§ i 
9kyn ; 'I'r «'«n 9t^on-eha ii^khan ; t VfQ 

S^'9^ Aga^i igai^iyei (4|Moi}.). 

^^ '^'V 4gab^e4 fM ff% the tree 
oalled I '9^'^ tpyi-^hur gM. 

Syn. «T^'dS gduH byeg; 91^*^^ lu^ ^an ; 

'ff^'^^fm igai'ibyam niRTT she who 
IB full of enjoyment ; a number. 

^fl^w jPga^ma Tfil, TUT, ^ir, wfiniT 
the beantifal ; a name of Bati, the wife of 
Gupid; ^^••««)S^ J)ga1hmahi idag'^Sk^^ 
the husband of Rati. 

S^* igab'fno iftfir good ; loyely . 

^«p-4^ 4gai^t9hati^'^'^ yag-po, «i«'2i 
izaH'po and ^^'Q legt^pa good; fine; 
handsome : ^'^cai'^iSi-lS^^^'fc'jii «|«i-3K. 

among them there was one artide which 
was very pretty (-4. li). 

to be suffioiently pleased (KAn^, 32). 

S^'^\^(fgab i^i-pafm-^mTX: possess- 
ed of the four joys— piety, wealth, men 
and lands: «^(X"^«vqV^*'"*^^'''^«' 
choi nor miM'^i ^chom-paii iga^ ishi^pa,' 

yip'om 4ga^ya9 fkw%, boundlees joy 
or pleasure. 

S^'*^!'^ ig^ib-yi ^kye^war fw^rw^ 
bom or grown out of joy or enjoyment. 

Vf^'^HJI ffgai^rab Rdo^je n. of a 
celebrated Ijama of the S^tog-chen sect 
of the t^m-im School (Grub P IS). 

Vr^WV^S^ Pgab-rad i^a^phyug 
the Lord of Love, Cupid. 



WU« tga^^rMi fSHicfii mefc. for the 
hog [^4ong in copulation "; a dog]& 

S^P^ iff^ 1- T^' of a place; n. of a 
district in Tibet* 2.s^^'^* itga^^mr 
^^'^ rafl-4gar at pleamire, 0fd UbUumi 
frq. ^'W^ chu4gar what is your pleasioe; 
according to «/a, whyP 

^'ip^'P igar-^wa w^^sir to separate; 
confine ; place apart (men, cattle, goods) : 
^^'iS'l^ igar^aii phugi cattle to be 
penned in a fold ((7«). ^aprifir^^'q g^^h 
iMTf (fgar-'wa to banish from a place; to 
exile; ^T^'^**^^-^ igar^waH don-^ in 
spedal sense; in particular {8ek.). In W, 
^^gar^te bar-ee'* to set apart, exclude, shut 
out ; to lock up, shut up ; to lay up or by ; 
to preserve (Ja.); JOgar-rgya co-ce to 
store up. 

*\V^ igal-wa^ fut. of ^^'^ igel-wa. 

S^'fi igod-pa, V. ^^ ^ bgai-pa ; IK'T 
S^t Ber-ga 4g(f9-^ to have oraoks or be 

S'S ^9^ ^- '"^^J ^'^ igu^icu or ^ 
«'}'W*' rfjrw-}«i ^Afffw-jw ninety. 2. as met 
=many: «\5^'Wf^^ 4gus^ihab9 fpagi 
gathered by many efforts, with great diffi- 
culty. 3. also sign of plural : f^v^fpc 
I'^g khanii'gmm tkye-dgu the people of 
the three worlds: fr<^^'R'i|^S5'J|«'«r^ 
this man says many things he knows 
not. ft«^Vi^J|n-B one who knows every- 
thing; l^'S^ or fl^^ many talks; many 
things to say; j'^^q^i^'ZI Skye-^guH 
kdag^po mmrf^ the lord of all living 
beings; |M^«IST« Skye^igubi idag^ 
^9mtfii, wnTV the name of the step-mother 
who nursed Gautama Buddha; ^'^ 
those that are; the existing many or 
beings ; ^^'^SAgt^ the goods that one 
has; property; ^»^'^ the. many gcod 




and lame ; also V^^V^'^I^ a lui^^dod 
4$^ iffur-wa to be Qhanged, trans- 
fanned ad OMwn; M'^i^ q Han^u thub^ 
pa Qua who oan sapprem the wici[ed; obo 
to overoome every evil : '^SS'^^'Ss'ti ^^'S9' 
*• m^eif 4ga^bye4 tm^jfoll 4g^yofi^ 
•ooording to C«., t/5., if you do many 
tlungs which ought not to be done, many 
things will take place which ought not to 
take place ; ^•i^S ^T^ft IV^ not count- 
ing open death among things to be 
thought of; ^f^ 4gu4shn the chair or 
Mnvejance for the many, $^., for the 
dead; litter ; bier {Ja). ^%^'^'4(^ 4ffu^ 
eM iea^^Mit the twelye continents 
mhabited by living beiogs. Here 4gu 
would seem to act as mere plural sign. 

^a^ 4ga-gtw dlerings made to evil 
sprits on the 29th day of the last Tuonth 
of flie Tibetan calender in the monasterioe 
of Tibet- ^^•^•il'iiifl*-^ q^|q-^-^M- 

^'¥t 49U'^thub able to subdue the 
many; one full of resouices; the all- 
ooDquering one. 

"VS^ 4ga'pa the ninth; having, com- 
priamg, meaauzing nine^ e.g,^ j ^jq khra 
49u^, measuring nine cubits (in length, 
hdght, etc) ; ^a« 4gu.po wmf the ninth, 
tte nine^ thode nine; ^^'^ 'ht^4gu nine 

V|^ 4gu^hrug9 or ^^ 49i*'9aebt 
as^ge of meditation which is dependent 
upon tiie legolation of the breath ; fti^' 
l^*li^«^-H r/M igam^pa^i dui^ dU. 
1K>. The fbnrt stage in the regulation of 
the breath in the art of meditative con- 

V dgii-toa 1. vb. to bend; to maka 
looked. 2. sbdt. the act of bending, 

atoopiiig, bowing; inflection. 3. adj. 
bent ; stooping. 

^'t^ 4g^f:i9eg§ n. of a yellow flower 

M'*V 4fif'tMgf or ^^wjH dgu- 
ickigi ikga^mo the milky-way oonstella. 

8yn. ^•fAj-^i^ nam^f^kaH ^kye- 

^•»B^Bf dga-zi gM'^po ma n. of the 

enohanted sword of Grugtm iisan^po; one 

of the esrly kings of Tibet who wasassa- 
sinated {Ytg. 68). 

Sl'W^' Vgu-ffshuA n. of a place in 
Tibet iSMi. 70). 

S*3^'*' 4gug^pa, v. •5T«» bgug-p(*r 

^T8^' 4gag'bga4 uigent call ; ^T«H^ 
4gug-gthttg^^'^^'^ igug^ugt id. 

S^*^' 4guA ^Tfw generally applied to 
niidn ght, but at times to noon as well. 
Sometimes is made equivalent to 5«^' guH^ 
but properly speaking S^^' dguH signifies 
sublimity, loftiness and also profundity; 
and 51^- guA signifies the middle part, 
«ntre. Vw:*^**ia^' i« sometimes writ- 
ten as >1 V*^ V I The direct sense occurs 
in V^flfT^-^^'^-I^P ri nUhon^po 4guii^la 
tftegt-pa^ a high mountain rising aloft; 
W*V«f*^'SMrii=VW-^5^- at noon, 
the middle of the day (Ufag.). 

Wn 4git*Mag division of time. 
^S^**r^ 4gu^i!*hab midnight sky. 
^^'•^ 4gai^har^9^'^ ehar-pa rain 

. S3^1^' dgni^inM a yeajr; a year of 
one's life. 

^^'^ 4gv*'ihig the meridian line ; "SS^' 
H^^-^ 49^ tkif^gi dkgiUmo*^ the 
meridian circle. 




tftyt-pt gone to hoaven, *.«•» dead. 

^a^cqc^i; ifgud'idun seven nights; a 

sy^ "^'i^ 4gfift-do^nab thiB erenlug ; to- 

seated steadily without moying or leaning 
on any side; rused to the Ay, 

S5^'* igad-mo Tffir the early night; 
evening ; the time from 4 f.m. to 7 p.m. 
NS^'^ 4guH^hag a day's halt ; halt. 
^i;'ii'^4|«<i ^gui^la reg-pa touching, the 

sky ; the meridian. 

^^'V 4gui»h the age of a respeetAhle 
or high personage: ^•^w^•^5^•< •»«* «*«*«- 
kgi 4guik-h what is your honour's age P 

pa an elderly person, 61 to 72 years old 

tfA^»7 the middle of the sky. 

^^3j 4gm frfw; W^ rf^inJw.the 

•WSy'* igun-gyi tgy<i^fM {8chr.; 

8U C). 

^9^y^ igun-ni fdog the winter sol- 

|*s'V| kh&r-thig the line of the winter 
BoUtice ; the tropio of Oaprioom. 

^^9{ils4gun^oiiSieflxfA^^oi winter. 

^ijj( '^gsi ^guH'ibrum winter grapee. 

Si^'fS 4gun'fina4 f'ff^ tl^«»ter part 
of the winter season ; W!^T^' Vl rf^«- 
9to4 kha (Iu9 hetnanU^ time of snow in the 
beginning winter; WrN'SFV' time of 
eold, about the end of the winter 

winter time. 

^9^1 49^^^'^ the mid-winter mondu, 
|-qqj<i »fa-if(i icU'P'i, J'^'^^J'^H^ liwfa 
icu-geig.'paf l'**'^'MV'''« »&-wa J<?«-^w|-/>fl 

S3<^|^'<^' 4gun'%la tha^hulk m% the 
month of January-February. 


Wl'^*'rff •*»-«*» ••ff-iTfl «nin?Hf Janu- 
ary ' lit. tne beginning of the jear^ U, 

W 4gun^m ^fmm WlW winter 

^«IJ»I'C| 4gunhpa, fut. of '^^'^ *^»- 

S%^ I- rf*«<^ crooked: <9^SV^ 
4kyib%^gur ua of orooked stature : *w J« 

kyta fu$-kyi9 4g^r'Wa tshugs although the 
mind may bend, yet do not let yoiir body 
bend («*«.): ^'^ rgt^r^Mg stoop 
downl %^^ 0jrifr.i?e writhing (with pain); 
w'T W to bend ; to submit ; to humbl* 
onp's self; •T'S^^ a crooked-back, 
fl|4|'^^>^ drawn bent hands. 

Syn. f^ rgur; %^ igur (4f^o«.). 

^qj2^ II : many ; aU ; '^'^'S^^^ 
Si^'^'^SSi'^ ikhw^'kyi 4kyil'hkhor jf«f 
4gHr yaH yo4 dgur signifies *s «» 5^ pi-!^ 
kun all or all of those existing. 

^■I'^'^lf 4gur'bgro a snake ; one of * 
stooping gaif. 

^5^5 4gur^po anything crooked; » 
orooked man ; |^« igti^r-po hump-backed; 
^^'K 4gwr'mo a crooked woman. 

\'^ 1 : 4ge-iC(i wfti, lJin^» Wit V^ 

. , WRH, ftWt '^^ Jirf, ^t'J'J 

^f^ happiness, welfare, virtue ; also adj 

happy, propitious, yirtuous: S^**^ 







^f B^wa V mm a Tirtoons mind; «r^^'«' 
'^^^ <•§ ^^MM mi'^ff0»i9m Tirtuoiii and 
eyfi MtiDiii; ^'^X^ 49^waii fiM. 
M fondaoMiitid iMom: ^^r^f HV 
^Hl^r^ (MMM mighty tot of Tixtus 
dioiiUi be parformed {A. 6S) ; ^^T 
1^*1 ^^f^ iky«ff« to oaaoeiTe the idea 
of a nMEftorioof aot. Thwo «e two kindf 

4^0<^M and ^A^^-^ wa fm B iif i igMoa ; 
tiieloniiflr, oalled 99 oor ^'V^ i^oi-nami, 
beloiigs to tlie worid of denresaiid k mib- 
jeot to deoay; flie lattw is undwbrootible, 
oonaifitiiig d tiie mdnriiig ivorki of piety 
perfo g med bj iaisto bdongiiig to the fM* 
%^ kkmrn go^-fm wapmat itatsa of ed0t- 
coMs. Thore aie two oUmt kinda of ^pe^iM^ 
▼ia.:— ^^rpri'^e kdn-bfo^^k^ 49^^wa 
and ^^^vrl'^^e »<«Mt.4fw iyaf^^* 4ge. 
«0B, the foniMr coofliflla of worka done for 
gain or happinen in this world; ^^'TVf^ 
^"S^^ tdtm'^ ifoi-pati igf'^^ oonsistsin 
paying levwenoe to and woorahqiping the 
Tathigata and the inoamate saints. S^^ 
maj mean fasting, ahatinenoe, as in the 
phrase ^t^ 'f^^ ige^wi ^ntH^^ca, to fast, 
to abatain from food. Akoafans, charity; 
that which is done as a zeligioiis work. 
^^^^^^^ p 4g^ gfM 499 benerolenoeB 
bestowed or given in one's life time when 
^q•^XV«"^•9^ 49^^ioa hdoi-par iye4 
wishes for prosperity; aR-^l|-q'^' 

fsC ^^SHM la iitg^tftm-pati 4ffe-wa dai^ 
inhfi^t^^bihdaiJpa^ (fffe^wa ffo4. ifge-wa 
sve of two kinds-^he worldly religions 
woika, and the .same for spiritual onl- 
tnres ; the former oonsists in *n*'^9 phar' 


f father or knowing him as sooh; w^j^-ii 

mtnfei'Pa knowing the m 
grateful to her ; to regard 

^^l^'V'^'''*' #jw.|6yrtl-Aipa|.jw to Tenerate 
or revere one as a member of the Buddhist 
chnroh; 9F^'^^bram-urf$hpaioiHifwA 
or pay homage to a Brihnum ; M^l'^*^'^' 
WrtrVrKa rifnJtpi m«hm tf^n^ h 
rim^fro bffei^ to pay reiipeot to the ddeia 
of a Isntay; \^'^i^'^ i/byin^ (MUw 
to giro alms in dharity ; S<^q| dg^Jftcu the 
observance of the ten yirtuons acts; ^V*^ 
^'"^' kA^^fH igwdatl the nine SainJtdra ; 
V^^ dioH'Pti ft^ the ten remembrances. 

S^* i^ it^-ih^ lil^ ohaim ; good 
•ppearanee; n. of a goddess. 

^fl 4r»4lyoiis|pi'i^*9 ikgan pirate 
hv iVf^'f^ §kfon cui^4 elighfly dsfec 
tive; a little fault. 

S^f^ 4ffe^9kpo§ or S^^m ige^^%kf09, 
^Mfmeiftai a supervisor or director of 
monks in a monastery. A sort of pso* 
Tost*sergeant in the larger monasteries 
who keeps strict order and puniahea trans- 
gressors. He is also called ^'^|sMi'4 ^ji^^ 
ikhrkm-pa in some monasteries. BocUiill 
calls this officer at Eumbom the Ge^kor. 

ST^ Og^tgan I: sorety; moral 
bail; a monk that is made answerable for 
the moral conduct of another who is 
placed under his care (JS.). 

S^'4)^ n: Ut. an old man of the 
reUgious order. ^^^iT^ff*! ige-^Mm 
rgan^pa ordinarily signifies a sohool- 
mq«ter, tutor: ^Hf'I^^Wfcr^^V*^ 
both the spiritual teacher and worldly 

^S^ 9g^-rgg^i n. of a celestial region 
{B. eh. ($).; one of the JRupa^Mu or 
worlds of form. 



-S^'^W f 

IL of ft noiiagtnj niw SMii-je fooadBd Ij 
JBhr^lUm^ irih of Xing JDrf-M* deku- 

\^'^^ it^ Arl-iMfliiS<^f«' novioe monk. 

S^^ rf^ft«»^^^«» rflp»-twr^«» the 
tsn tirtoeSyivIiidhLiMMfQlbws — (1) 4^^ 
i|«S-^ wtogmt^BQi^pa, (3) ir|ir^-ft%4 mo- 
Ifriw^Hrr m-lm^pa, (8) ^MTwf ^ci <cMl- 
JMrr iptoi^^ (4) 4^<^'|*^ frdim-jMr imitr- 
<M», (fi) HwrQ^f q iMg yam-par tmea^ 
mh (8) ^frMq*q Hag mi^okal^wa^ (7) f 
v^K^ pktthma mi-bgei-pa^ (8) «m*iX^' 
^HMT^frfi^'Q g$km^t nor4a hanh^a mi- 

In p^oi-paV fMNf ffij-ft|ty#d[ j>a, (10) ^^'^ 
«A-9'q paiMxg^ptiV tta^wa. Those aie : 
not taking life; not to take what ib not 
gxfen; to obeorve purity of moralB; to 
qp^ak the tmtk; to apeak gently, politely; 
not tofareakftpKonii8e;notto apeak dander; 
not to ooiret anothar^e p ro p er ty ; not to do 
miaiduaf or thinkof doing injnxy to otherB ; 
to ngaxd the p ow at dootrine. 

^^t igi'dim Bftoed water. 

StV^' Dd^-^^ one of the eeleetial 

dM'dag ehm^-po m^i-^ without aome im- 
portaat object or hoaixieM: vijf^'q^'S^i' 
IK'Wi|an'^')^ if iliare be nothing Teiy 
importantto be done qmoUy, woxk aooocd- 
ing to oixoiunstanoe (D fet. 7). 

^^^'i tft^-WiM virraii Bnddhiat 
devotee with only eight towb to obeerye. 

^'fi|^«r^«q Dg0-i§Sm Ohoi-^pkel the 
original name of «i5« f^ fi-* ^•l^ 
Hbronh490m Jlfgjfai^tthi ibgai'^ai the 

hieranhy <rf 

founder of the Bt 
ISbet (Orkb. ^ S). 

female Bnddhiat denrotee. 
§kgob (Sohr.). 

q*qnfS*»MprgK%'|^ ige-iton r*y«i ^<i- 
gi f^hm^gyur kg^-^pel bya^tgyu r^mh 
khge^-roH la ikoi-ij^gi ff4an gofUHar. 

S^f^ ig^tto^ propitionB prognoatio. 

ttkud-pa an unintemipted paymant of 
allowanoea or endowments attached to 
seligiooB offices or institationB; aoonneoied 
series of pious actions or works ; also the 
perf onnanoe of some religioas obserraiLoef 
by several persons one following anoflier: 
|f^*af*^' VW^'^Hf^'*!**' q^-^<^ i^-qnn'^* J 
drui-^IAar^da gtm^rM ifda^-pa bUko-wtr 
ige^itkudbabt dcA the estimated permanent 
allowances to the I>tu^klMr (dvil em- 
ployes) for food and lodging (2>. ed. ^, 

S^JF^fT^' Pge-drttH tta4dM n. of a 
monastery in Tsang. 

S^^^^ ige-bduHj «|>, the third com- 
ponent of the Baddhist tziad or Vf^ 
'tfi'^IV* may be rendered as ^ihe priest- 
hood," '' the assemblage/' or "^ the ohnich.'* 
The term • dge^kdum is composed of two 
words, ^^ ige and^^ hdun\ ^^ ^Am 
means ^^^'d hdoi^pa desire: ^^q-^WQ' 
|qtfK-^^\W^^^q<^«f ige^^ca-^oH ihar-jfA 
igrulhpar bdoi^pa§ na dge^bdun he is 5^ 
^Vi ig^-^dan who longs for piety and 

emaneipation: ^^•^^•■*|'«rV»«'^«^'V^ 
dge^hdun ttsun-pa rnam iM9Mh$ giol 
I beg the venerable body of monks would 
hear me. In this sentence 4gp^dm bt 

^^•^Wl I 371 

^^fVJ^' f 

tke general meaning of an aiBemUj o( 
religiaiiB folk. There axe m partioolar two 
haiM of ^^ 4g^4dim: «l^|'rt^^ 
^^ MNior li^y^M* ^pi^dbm the osdinary 
dargy, and ^»^«*S^«V tphag^pa^ 
ige^dum the lainted olecgj. Fourindrri- 
dnals of the fonner elaM ooUeotiveljr, ue^ 
when they afleemhle together, form what 
IB oaDed Sa^gha-ratna "S^^^^f*^ (fc^tf- 
tdun ikom^9iohog. An indiTidnal of the 
latter olaea. i ^.^ the sainted olergy, maj 
Buigly form the Baygka^ainr*. The 
Sajfha of the MahAyina Sohool diilered 
frnn thttb of the Hinayftna School. In the 
Ahkiumaya of ICaitreya, twenty daaaee 
of So^hft ase ennmevated as belonging to 
the Hbmjrina Bdhool. TheS^r&Taka, Bra- 
tyeka Bnddhfty Bodhisattra and the Dhar- 
maptia, who protect Bnddhiam,. aie also 
mdnded in the J&iyirAa-r^fui. ^'^'^i'^ 
9^*1 ige^tdwn^la rag^hti'pa w^fuftw be- 
longing or Bubjeot to the ohnroh ; ^^^^' 
«r^*e ige^hdun-la ntH-wa m^^nm eoitable 
for Ihe nee of the clergy. 

^^^%^ iffe-hdun 9kye§^t^ri^ 1. 
n. of a mediflinal plant; ^^' gab^mH 
(Hit) mysiic. 3. n. of a lama. 

^'^Wl'V ig^idun^gyi du§ |wPina 

belonging to the months following autnmn 
when the lamas perform religious medita- 
tionfl| &o. 

^t^VM ig^hAm^ni vie the elerical 
order or class of the clergy. 

'^^9't^K*' ige-bdun^i dien hyei^ 
pa If ilili one who prodnees diflsrenoea 
or disonioa among the clergy ; to produce 
sQoh disunion. 

^^WS'** J)g^-hdun Sgjfo^ifiMo n. of 
fte Dalai I^una who died in 1851. 

f oondsr ol the hiecavohy of the Dalai 

jkkgir for the purpose of aasembKng; the 

clergy of the IffahisaitghiVa Sohool. 

•^^^V'O' ige^hdun hphel tnnTw n. 
of a Bnddhist saint; pr. (Bckr.; 2Vf. 97^. 

•^•^^•^«W Qge^un V>a^9 #WfTW {8eh.;Td.9,l»7). 

tf^ n. of a Bnddhist sage pr. {Sekr.; Td. 
t, lOJi). 

S^f(^ **»-»wi=S^«J«S ige^wa eon 
possessed of virtne or of piety; pious. 

^'^n Jlfge^ldan-pa a name of the 'A' 
q^ q jPge^lugi^ sect of Lamas foonded 
by Tsong-kha^Mt. 

^^IK ig^'^pgoi religious acts; ace. to 
the Ban-po ^Ts 4ge-fpyo4 consists in erect- 
ing tombs, images, eaUga^ painting of 
holy personages and printing of the sacred 
texts, making moulds of images of gods 
and saints, uttering maniras and, generally, 
acquiring moral merits, 

S^'JI ige-phrug pupil-monk; young 
boy trained as a noTice monk. 

S^^rffc fye-wa tbyod or S^f[^' gge^iA 
wifW a religious ascetic. In this term aie 
included all those who have taken the vows 
of renouncement, t.^ ., mrwr ; so both ^((m 
4ge49hul and ^'^'9^' ige-flod are within 
its signification; in the Southern School 
only the S^M^' ige^ttat^ i^.^ the Bhikshu, 
can haye claim to this title provided they 
Uto in conformity with the rules of the 
Vinaya, The qualifications of a dge-tby^ 

^^•q-'^q I 



av« the foBowing:— V'*^V* dul^pa <M 
mond diadpliiie; «^'-^«rs^- «i« f^i-pa 
dM irisdom; *r|iirJvB-^wvw«rv- 

dM purity of BM»di;M'^»r«m^«r^*' 
Me tdik^la kfug^ f$§^pa kno^Kring to per- 
f ozm Samddhi or meditiitioii. 

^^^-|ir^ 4g$»wa ^m^^ ezplftined M 

davMnef-par $ika$^h ^grog^pth to trumpet 
or adTertiie one'b acts of charity ; ^^^' 

to do Tirtoe tecveUy, m., without any 
fuaa or tnunpetiiig or adrortuenieiit* 

^^^•'iS^iyS 49^^watiiag^m4 ^^Im for- 
tone ; good luok. 

^^qt'4|ipi 4ff^fMiugfMi a place of 
piety; a pucMui man. 

id&b^in' 0hm-ta if^aB-pa one Teraed in 
poeb7» .^AiidMMay and in rhetoric like 
the great poet Eahemendra of Eaahmir. 

itkrun^pa^i ifkge^pa ^^f^{^^9nm%^ 
one who has done some religious acts. 

^i^^ft'^« 4g€^4ffaM kt9 fnw-ipft good 

0fiMi fipii*irar bgthwa nw^filwrainiT 
paying rorerencey fto.» to please ^ JSMgd* 
fumUra (a Buddhist monk-scholar). 

good lock to yon. 

^^ V*. ifff'brat ^mMQt devoid of Tir- 
tne or piety* 

an epithet of Bnddha; S^f^'^'^Xwi 4ge- 
'fiyo4 Uar ieoi^pa ^inrvfiRFn in the 
manner of a regions ascetic. 

wa ^m^r-^ifini one who has avowed to 
betake tothe lile of a #0P0-f(^ or ^nMW9a. 

the perf ormanoe of ascetadsm in Ihe 
manner of a Bnddhifit Qramanm: ^f^' 
l^'AOfoiql^ 4ge-^aH byei^fati ^o§-kAi 
WWTKt «i|i|«K«r W^f :, the four dniaes of 
a true Qram^mfa^yfYdxilx are as follows: — (1) 
s|J|i^C9^'A*^qK'B fffeieA^lar mi-^fe war 

hya ^Tijll vmaha^^ do not cuBe othea 
though you haTe been abused by them; 
(2) f[vv^'fp:^jf^'%kkro§'kgali ^ar-m 
khnhwoT'-bga ftftWOTfWlfw^ do not 
be angry with others though you haTO been 
enraged by them; (8) wte-yrs^a^frj 
^^'9 fg^9haH'-btu§ kyai ilar^mi bru^war^bga 
n maviifiiii fHaaii^ do not commit injuiy 
to others though you haTe been injured 
by them ; (4) '^T»^«vfr4^T««'« itdeg- 
kyail §lar mi^t<'^grp(nr bya vrf^oi ufaaiff- 
HWH do not beat othen though you ha^ 
been beaten by them. 

^iii|'|k's«-S)«i'<i^ 4g&4byci mt^ym-par 
^f^vnw not being a ^eia9a. 

S^l^ ige-^^ycr *i«>^-«ni"8S«i i^o§ ifge- 
loi byef-pa one who has attained to s 
stage of holiness by religious deyctkni 
and works: «<«^•y^^MJT•^^^•^•i^ 
** ns^shan-'dui ige-^pr-gyi tgtr^^^ 
cutl'wa4 gnoi-pabi Uke at night when be 
was absorbed in the state of picas 
devotion {Ta-seL IT). 

^m ige^ma^^^^bUun-^iHt 1. a Budi 
dhist nun. 2. mf^ peace. 

novice-monk; the first stage of a monk 
after he has taken the vow of Pra^rvf^ 
or mnunciationy when he has to cfasflrrc 

^^•*r« I 



tiiixty-ax Towi bef <m he is qualified to h^ 
ordeiaedMa ^M^* i^0iMM; m long m 
he IB not adimttiM! into the latter order 
he iriU oontinne m a ^JNa^^rtf thoogh 
even to eighty yean old. 

^^^•| Pfe-tikml-mM ^^^^m a nun 
young or old that hpe not yet taken the 
TOWS of otdinatiftn belonging to the order 

hioky omen; also entarteinmeDti atnnae- 
ment or anmang; ^^*i^'<^ 4ife*ifM0t^ 
Ma Kyvf hoaTing luoky tF^Tf^t 

^^^ l^g^ifdum a young ttndent irho 
is 8to47iiig nnder a tutor oalled ^^ 49^ 
T9f^»% ivlho IB leiyniBihleior hiBednoation, 
heharioor end moral training. He ia 
req[iiirod to attend, irhen neooaiary, hia 
nionk4abor as a aerrant. When he ia Tory 
young he ia oaUed ^^ ^ft^pkruf. 

S^^F^f i^fa-fyef hoy oor youth attend- 
ing vftm. a monk and who wcrka with a 
new hianaell to ai^er the holy order. 
When he haa paaaedlhe preeeilbed eiamin- 
atJoBB lor •i i i Mi— i ftP | he geta the iKHiiitfan 

of a ^^S Og^-ffl^n 

^Vf^'^l-Vt^t'Vti^ TMng-Uia^ 
foundad 4 Jia monaetery of W*fr<P'<i^*SF 

aitiuBted oci the hill called «t|^^'V*i Mtrog^ 
ri^ eke^ aind redded there dming the laat 
part of hiia life. Hia aohool waa oalled 

kg§ and vulgariy S1l^'fT*tT' -P^i- 
Vam^jpaH^lug^ or ^l^fT^TT* VgaHdm 
hghftt^ which tenn haa aaaaned the form 
* W<i J>r^49W-p($ (QnA. » 1). 

^^^^pn .11: JOge^hifhpa one belonging 
to fha aeei d JtgalhVlm'P^ founded by 

^^•^ *»-fc#f or S^^ 49^^ **? 

ipi» www piety; good and anqpidona 

ftffirof; ft^H^«'«lS Moa-ftMT^iHiiMa; Fl 

•«i*t>*a/; ^M^'f'iftiAryi^oi; >K«H^H 
gti iskit^igntb; *:*^^'Vi^ id&^wati 
tbgu^gmii W^ roi-aki; ^Tr^l few4*«»; 

^^^«^ 4g$.b9Hm ^^ Ueaaed; 

•r^l^l jlPWei-^/liJ e^ (&*r.; Org. 

WwOnr {Sc^. ; Ttf . f , ill) a good eo«n- 
aellor; a piona Boddhiat zmmk. 

dadfii^ piety and Ueaaadneaa. 

^^'q^il 1fg6^§ mmmfk% a oon- 
traotion of S^'^'^'i^4g0*watit9H-$K^, 
a Bnddhiatgelong whohaa maaterad meta- 
phyiioa and ibe important faranbhaa of 
aaerad literatore. IConfc^ alao, who ha^a 
got the titlea of WMIW9 JUb^tbgmtjfa, 
l^wwe Sdo^rami^pa, 4c,, are by oonrtaay 
addroaaod with the tiQe of S^ ^ 9g^k9H 
WiilAv' ; othera who lead a pure life and 
are poaaeeaed of leenung and good charac- 
ter are also' generally addieaaed aa ^^'^v 

Og^irh ••*•! ^^ * ^^^ Og^-^V Jfea- 


•^^|•^^' 15 4g$^^ ««llll n. pr. 

•^^f^' n: fW«tf^ (flWlr.; Aaff, 

18i8, »99). 


^Tlf^' Jftf^M ^SNw, fii^ a Bud- 
monk who after flnuhiog hispioba- 
tionaij period in a monaflteiy has been 
ordained into the highertorder. Hehasto 
ohaenre 263 towb, S^W«,-irX*|'^«A'^«^|^' 
V5T»^«*At|^-^««^ among gibmg 
thearearetwoola8Be8:iMra mMka JBJtikfu 
and &nmffi JBAiifM. The following seven, 
f^.f Bnddha and Bodhi$aUtu^ Pratyeka 
JBwtdka^ ArhfiU^ sooh saints as on aooomit 

of ihsv pious aots will not be born again or 
win be bom onlj once, those who have 
attained to the sfaige of Sratdpanna, m., 
goiie on the path of iVSrsdf^i, belong to the 
higher dass or PafwMrfJkijBMfcfif. These 
or some of these while eren thej zeside in 
hnman habitation, being possessed of 
divine knowledge and wisdom, continue 
in the dass of PttramMha Bhik^u. 
Qrdinazy gelong or BhOs^ sodi as wear 
the yellow gamnentsy have shaven their 
heads and betaken to the life o| Pfxwivya 
cor zenmunstion of all worldly oonoems, 
and observe the vow belonging to the 
order, are oalled Sanwrti BhQsHh, 

^9^-sr^-4 ^v-|iM m-jfi$^pa ^vf)ri| one 
tmworihy the position of a gelong. 

^9*^'^ -Ot^HlM-mtf f9(^ an ordained 
nnn ; she has 864 vows or restrictions to 
observe; ^'itl^'*l'fH'^'« iff^^M-nw eun- 
phpt^wa (if^iSlf^qsi one who finds fanlt 
with or slanders a Buddhist nnn. 

«;^V^'V ige-iM^ aoo. to c%. is a 
provincial name for the {Oedtua deodwra) 

^%vm JfgaȤkb-'ma fnw^l^l a pupil 
monk ; one who is preparing himsdf for 
being admitted into the higher order. 



^^•Ql 4g$^ mate properly VFif 
di/at'la on; upon; in; at (in A., Jo.). 

^^'q 4ger^wiss^'9 gyojwa to psnh 
Of fry (food); 'HlW^a to fry pastiy. 

Motf to exert one's self in acts of pbtj; 
a pious man. 

^^^'q dgetpa^^m-fi ifyehpa or 
x^'Q qi&l-^ or ST ^ iga^wa delighted, 
pleased or cheered. 

S^'crl('| jPffeihi^a Sdinye^ also written 
as SS^'<rl(-t Ogfthpa S^tth i»me of 
the Tantrik deity V^ Bb^9qjra\ ^^ 

gyi i^oa^kyug 4fiet'P^ ^do-fje ikalipifi' 
pa he law (mixaouloudy) the face of the 
clsity Dgei'pa Bd^tJ^f the Chief of the 
Nal-jor {A. 98). 

Si^ rfi^o-wa a species of antelope 
living on high mountains, Protfopra fieti- 
wudata (Hodgson) ; coUoq. ^'jr<M'' Mongol; 
gura. ^vm 4go*mi'^nia^hmBli» of theabote 

bkhrunwa gcodtiie horn of the pvMl taken 
as medicine cores diarrhoea. 

-^ ^<<N^*V'« 4gog4u pkyin-pa 1. ^ 
IfiV to become aged. 2. aco. Zmt. |r( 
\^^ tkog^tu pkyin*pa. 

Syn. ^« rtus-jM (4Woii.). 

"^hPI'SI igog^pa abstraction: ^^ 
^'H^l^ei dgog^ki ^iami-^ifug eetf» 
sat perfectly abstracted, beizig absorbed in 
meditation on the emptiness of all worldlj 

^4 igo^tgv^ ^ ^ opinion. 

l^HpS'lf dga^^mo or ^^^'r* dgott^ 
fP^n, id^ the evening; the junotiofl of 




f he d«7 and the night ; I'^Vr^*'^ Ph^ 
dio §m*mB^ ifdkat the eremag which is 
the end of the day (SMi.) ; ^%*« ^lK4->a 
erening tea ; S^'^^ igai'9k0g e?Qning 
and monung. 

S^viF ^^f-ffiror Imtb in general ; also 
leaTa (from a Boperior oflSoial) ; aoing iame» 
body in a ooort to do him haim. 

|f'^^'^ than kkrO'^M fmi'pa without 
inooning diipleaaarei or diq^eaong. 

^^M'^'S igo^ht^ jndgOMnt; deoi- 
non on anj oaae or lawnroii 

^^Vq ri^HM I; 1. vb. to thinks 
reflect^ meditate, oonaider: 2. abet the 
aet of thinking, xefleotion, cogitation, 
5^-^« Mtllff^t^|s9^*^^^ wiah, 
oonaiderafcion ; ^i^q^'^^f^m^ fJUm^pa 
nii la igoHi-iM to take one aa his equal 
oraa a match for him; ^PW^^^M'^ 
to think of or at other timea; ^f^^FW 
w^^M^ to think cl another penop ; ^ 
^^^'9f^^ to xeAeot on some other object 
or boaineai; ^^^'^^^ 49oi9-pa kkrtU 
wa reap, f^'ff''*^ kh^Jskfo u^wa to 
become angr j ; to take offence ; ^^'iic^ 

m hda^^M iffoiti-pa kknl-wa never to 
be disobedient and to be angry (Ta-^L 
16) : ^^'i^'^M^ iffotH^tfOfi ma^toff^ 
'Ml if his opinion does not change. 

^^^q 11: ^efSi^ vb. to pmpoee, 
intmd ; naoally wifli termin. of the inf. 
^«qeq^-^%w« intended to fight. 

^^'§f^^ ^^f j»AjfOft-r» to be 
partial' to act with partiality. 



^^ I ^Mi-«Aa to aak lor leate or 
pemuflsion to do any thing, 

i^m'm 49<^Mab lerioas ooniridemtion ; 
aa Ttty iaiportant. 

^^'Pl:#fof|w,pr.tenaa,ifWi ^m 
to langh ; langhter. 

^^V^n:a jeat; joke (Ah*.)- ef. 

4g<4*9i^ h^ langhing, beiog in 
happineia; ^'»MFS'lm^ fa#^ ig^i* 
kffin idug langhing a loud langhter. 

of a Taiy lavge.nnmber* 

par rUoi^cH {Tig. 98). 

a> a a ii ^ - j pa tf aaji^jwyia de aa rt ; > dwolate 
wildemeiB wfaaie tfaaie ia no watv. 

^^•P igtm^pa (pr. "^gm^"^ or ^ 
4gim^^m% mm^^mii Lwflderaeaaiaoli- 
taiy place, waTed4eafflg4ree. HeneaS^a 
aJMra; a monaateiy, a hermitage, ao caDel 
on aocoont of ita cocii^nal a it riatifl ff in 
eadier timea in lonely placea aboonding 
in Baihi treea. A gowhpa ahoold be 
ntnated at least a thooaand yainda distant 
from a village or town (JT. du. *, SOJk). 
Later on theae hermitages became 
conTavted into monastsrias. Monaatodea 
in later timea aammed the aiae of laige 
castleaand collections of dwelling honaea. 

Syn. V«*)*^^T*a>oi-ftyf^ii-a0;Vir)* 

grMi-tna9} •f^*^-W it*kn9^paki 




»jfiti^gna§i Xr|l^^ ehohk^ phur^bu; 

S'fr^rq igm^pthpa "m^jmt one lading 
in the ipfldamMBy or in a hermitage or 
glimpa ; ^^'4'« 49^>^P^fna a fomale of 
tbia above. 

^*^ 48fm-g»hi landed endowments 
of 4 monaafcery; an estate belonging to a 
mon aefaty for the sapport of its monki. 

S^ 49ot (pacob- lor ^ 4grot) f^'^ • 

3FT^ '^^ IM-r^ ftfAfI kpM 9ntHr$ 4gol 
irbon some axe odleoted, others disperse. 

'St'**" ig^h^i xatgmi immUj; 
vgenUj needed. 

^*« 4go9-chM Mommry objeots; in- 
dispensables. ^ 

^^X^ 1. igohifhi neoeosazj 
expenses; what is wished for as very 
neoessaiy (0$.). 2. S^r^X^ wishes and 
wants : 'S^^^W^V" iffoi^bdof 
^Ifn^iroii 4pal a treasoie out of whioh 
all wishes and wants are met. 

Sffl *^ I = *»l-#w (goi^) wftei€, ^, 
nn^tfir implies neoessify and what is duo 
ardeaiied; to be neoessaiy ; to be obliged 

or eomgpelled ; to want ; to stand in need of ; 
also whne we nse' ought' ^of is generally 
nsed added to tbe terbal root, $.g.^ m^^^ 
most eat : ^'«l'^Y'^ 4€hla 4go^ I want ; I 
stand in need d : ^Vf'QA^'*' ci^Bhtg^tu 
4ifO§ for what purpose did he want themP 
sfj^m-mr^ i^ieU^ma^igoi he was not 
obliged to ereot. In oommandingi the 
weird is nsed to paraphrase the imperative 
of a verb: H'W^Ufa io^jwar gio§ oomel 
f .a.y yon musi oome. In entreating, the 
xespeotfol term is ohosen : ^^'^^« bbgoiU 
Jgo§ should praetise good works: '^'^^ 

^v*^ Ha^h gyu ^got^pa mBf I have no 
list for the turquoise, I do not want it 

^^^'S| II: neoessaiy; due; nMlful; 
useful ; *^ V ^*M'|pr«fS mef^k^ ^gn- 
pabi khral b§Ati a tax neoessuy to be 
paid ; unrelenting^ exaeted: %'«r^^|srqS- 
W^'^ the portion due to you: M^'o-W-J^ 
for what purpose? \^ir^/s:wR being oE 
little use; ^^'4'A^ igotpa^mei notneoes- 
sary: ^^•<r^ igo^-pa-yin it isrequisiie; 
•>'M^'^ mi^goi-pa useless ; nnneoeeeaiy; 
ft Sl«si*T|«, m^gn-pabipkra^mm pemi. 
dous witduoraft ; S^*4K'iqp-g jgttptiH 
iihkiga useful doetrines; ^^9s ^ot 
Jyerf useful: ^VS^iS^^^ dan^igofj^ 
d-bdugwhai is there in it of useful oon* 

rgvab'Phgog§'^ 4gy0-wa to bend the hssd 

S3*'' igy^-ufa to bend; to be ourving 
or orooked; 4w<5q iigHt 4gg0^ 
stooping; oringing ; writhing : vr^ jqffi' 
V^'^ nHMdo4 rggii pkgog§^ ^^mm 
don't wait, turn and go away : ^'^^g^' 
^f^ 4g»^'dgg^-wdlti bra/i-^mHfam do not 
stretohor heare up the breast by bending 
or stooping baekwards. ^^*^*S*91^'^'^ 
4gwr 4gur^ggi pkgag tUhal satulatite ^ 
bending the head low. 

^1* tifw^-w wf^fH a bent man. 

SS'^**' 4gy er^wa OT ^^ngbi4ggr' 
wa tor J*4^*«t glu bti^pa to sing, ehantss 
expression of the Bon«po. 

S^q 4gycl'wa or |«i'4 tgff$Uwm ^ fall 
down, tumble dovm. 

S3^fl 4gg09'pa {ge-pa) (elegit term) 
S*T^*^ 4gaifca w^ 1. torejioe; to be 



glad; ako oliMrfiiliMM: S^^" tt«fl* 
49pe%^^^ baart ckemd: l*4A*«*«'<^«* 

hi%mm jkmr Ptm the nimBiid lama Boniled 
with ijlMWffMiwii 2. to be pleaied to ; to 
ohooM : I-4'^'9'«i*i^<^*4i^-^^ the Lend 
in -waUdiif k pleased, m., likes to walk. 
^^^9 mh^jfe^4$ s un ow Xu l, sad, dis- 
eomfited, dejeoted ; angij, mdignant. 

SV*'***^'! J>1fyn'pa 9d<htJ^ the Tantrik 
god sailed He Yajxa; his other names 
aw:— ^fiCfTBTM^V'^'l Jipal^idm kkfygg 

r^m-Jkyi tmH^ %nnnw {Sekr.; Td. f, 
198^ 975) n. of a Tm/ra work. 

iAa/ Hhi'Wff^ «^ ekof^ may soon he 
pennitted to haye an interriew ; may meet 

or aee your oheechd oonntenanoe soon. 

^VW^ igyn-^ khnhP^ to bend ; 
to doaUa down (Sc*.)> ▼• ^^'^ rf^^-iw. 

foe; ^^ ioki^ffm mortal enemy; f^' 
^'^ 9dtd^'Wahi^49t^ the hating enemy, 
opp. i>ni'<A'S|^ l^amhpaii'^fi^ theloying 
friend; S"^ da-igra or V|^'M| <fa.^a»» 
4gra present enemy ; B'^ tfku^gra former 
Qi^oDKf ; %'^9 pkfi'^t^ ^ fatnxe foe ; more 
propedy the onter enemy, m., an ordinaiy 
enemy, not the inner foe ; also a foreign 

Byn. IF'I^ 1 *0 > » » rf ; ^'^^ »h^ 


i^'^ J»»rr.fje/; •irj'l^q i^Aof^y* W»/ 
w; Wl rf5?r»*«*»f ^*^l *«wii.sfa; ^|^ 

VP^* igrthkhH an enemy's house or 

f«f a domei a tuxret bnilt on the top of 

'STM JftroAm ^pifftiw bed or nngene- 
rons enemy; a name ol the king of the 
EanraTa, eon of Dhrtariftra. 

V*rsra Jfgtthioom^ ^rht ^A% 
Vr^\ ^^^^'^ igr^i-ieam Mar^wa ma 
who has snbdned his enemy; one who has 
subdued his inner enemy (that brings 
on snflerings) and by practising religion 
becomes an Jrhat of ihe Mahiyina 
Bdhool. The Jr^at of the Kahiyina 
School is he who has attained to the first 
stage of JBocttMo^^iMi perfections. An^Ae^ 
of the Tantrik School is one who has 
attained to the fourth order in the fiye 
orders of the TanMk School, ije.^ V^ 
^•r) Uiq ^^qfAojv rtm-ggi rim-pa iM-pa. 

^^^m killing of an Arkat or BuddObist 

^f-aei 4gra^ha§ the equipments of war; 
weapons; arms. 

^y^ew igra^iifomt f^iliinifl one who 
has subdued hie enemy ; subduing the 

itnm killer or subduer of one's enemy. 

lac. T. 110) destruction of the enemy. 

i^fp^eiei'q^-l^*)^ fgra iamt-par gywr-^g 
irrfU (let the enemy be destroyed or in- 
juriously dealt with). 


^'fl ijfra^i0 {(fa-o) enemy: "^*H^5I' 

^wr^S'j^', ^'«'r^'^>S'Vfr^ to whatever 
ttxemy one does good with an unruffled 
mind, even to him all the enemies also 
will show xeverenee. 

^% igro'lha the war-god. 

WW^'^ 4gr(^0ui ipaH'i^oi hymns 
to the war-god; religious servioe for the 

Vf igra-^a jiksi an axe the blade of 
wliioh is semi-oiroolar ; a sector-like disk ; 
a weapon of war. 

Syn. f * f^a*r0 ; Wf igra^td ; t^ th(hwa 


^f^ dgra-^a-wa mK^lfim one who 
holds the axe (sndi as Paras'ur&ma). 

^'ST** igra-dag-pa fimhw giving 
pains ; taking vengeance on an enemy. 

'VlV^ ignHldel {gMi. 61.). 

^gr^^«l«i 4gra idul4Pa. ^iftwf to sub- 
dne an enemy. 

^^•^■^'^ 4gr€Moo gduH^a injWT, ffW- 
m^ one who has destioyed his enemy; 
lit. foe-paining. 

V9S*^ 4grarby$i^fa, S3r%'lf^-^ 4gra jdM- 
iM, *i^'Q lat/^^noa to aot in a hostile manner. 

Yf '^ igr^iion always on guard ; careful. 

io) s i finPyi rival ; opponent ; adversary. 

•SST'^'E*' igra-yi khyim Hl%ijr, ftswn 
{Sohr. ; K&ldc. T. 1S7) the enemy's house. 

^5r*^'^S5'*' 4gra^la9 tgyal^a fmmfk^ 
i(ir^i( triumphant over an enemy. 

V[^^ igoa-fagi a substitute in cattla 
supplied for killing another's horse, yak or 
sheep, etc. : S5riT''"'^''»"5^^'*^''^«^'*«*^*f\^ 

278 0^1 

if you cannot give a substitute do not call 
me by my name. 

MTV*^'^ 4gra ihi'Wa to saaxoh for cue's 

rfjtff-jwas^ 95 pw-Jw njjc camphor (Smm. 

S^ S*^ igrwi-pa {(fa^ l%i^ spread. 

S9IV^ rfir««-**» (*«»-*») -^f* *»i^ 
or ^1 igngi^Oa eneniy; adveonnry; ii?al; 
foe (jVSlfon.). 

"SajTli igramfa {fanhpa) fut ^ ^« 
bgrm^pa *'^^5»rq m^^o^ igram^pa ^n- 
^iA^ flowers to be strewn ; Vfm i^nnv 
that which is to be ananged or set oui 

^g|»^•^•q•^*|•q igrar mn^pa td»m-pa to 
look upon one as an enemy. 

^gjK'^ dgrafi'pa resp. of Sf^ fj.^ 
to die; fib dgroH-gin idug now he is d^ing* 

^|f^*1 igrolHoa^iut of <^9^q ^prv^HRi 
^rI^I^, if^:, to set free; also free-will; 
q^^q-^ iMi^dgrol a knot or tie looaaDsd. 

CWppi'fl igag^iM pf. tenae of ^^'J 

igagi-^u gyur^pahi {oha i^hug^-pa) rag Jbifs 
settled or decided upon obebmctaBg or 
hindering, opposing^ etc.; ^w^f^'^^T*''* 
tam^wgs igag9i^ nfHvi obstruotediheroai 

^V^ (^O^J^ to laugh; a laagk; 
qi^^'U'qqj^'q igai-nu^ iga^^pa id. cf. S^. 


if q^faq^q j^^om^ to eat; to goUIe; 
to throw into the mouth. 

q^^ I: igegi ^ gm f^ dBman. 

ff§i'^mg d^A-g^ mg^ma yin^pa gfiihyof the 
ftgeg§ are of two dMBea, those mortal and 
those spiiit-like; theee cause hinderaaoe, 
ohetraoiioii. ^^'lyi'Q ig^ghiffi rggal^ 
J» ^X"^ vi^nO^ifaJMi Gaaetf^a, the zemorer 
of ohetadea, the leader of the (?a9a--clas6 
of demons. 

H'T'n' II' ^^f^f^f ftl hinderanoe; 
ohstade; "i^T^'J'j^rB J^geg^^hyi rgyaUpo 

ftl^m is the ohief of the evil q^ts who 

are of 80,000 difEarent kinds. Some cause 

heaty rains, hail stormsy etc., to injure the 

crops; aome bring on famine and so on. 


^ IP^oi-pati bdre§ igrib-pshla ^^'If-^^ir 

qT«r«TT«^'*'^w«r*r^Y!V ft*-fo igegi 
bag-pa min^4ia ehu^-wati tjrm-pa Uam^ 
hdrng^ruA (^stt.). 

that which causes obstmotion; to cause 

^i^'*rq igegi eet-wi ; %^'^^ ihgmml* 
iM to remoTe obstmotiony oalamitji disease, 
epidemio, fta : H'*t*''aT<'^^^ lA'H^'^^ 
^ tan^kmihugi^mgo^^^oahiohei-duigegi- 
9$l performed some religious ceremonies 
that no mishap may ooour on the way, 
etc. (9tm. 65). 

vf^y mn^ «in portion ; a kinsman or 
olaimant. 1. irl'^m i<#fPi the portion 
or lot on account oi one's former acts ; 
also ahare, lot 2. the doctrine of etrict 

tif ^rirlvq kgo^tkaUa ibgcf-pa (H^ V 



§kal^u A-fa 9nf<4^) ^lin[-^^ to 
enjoy one's own share. 

Q^*q I: ^^(MMiirdothea; clothing; 
Mi^v^nm:^ igo^wa dail (soAn^a food and 
dothea («/a.). 

Q^'P n: 1. to put on dothea, pf. 
imp. *^ igai f'^Wtf*^ l^am-rkig^u 
iga§ always wear shoes. 2. subet apparel, 
etc. : 4^v^9 igo-wa ian^pa ynfiicv. 

q^*21 ni: fut. of ^^ tgoiifa. 

^'t itfo^a dividend; the number or 
quantity to be divided. 

"f fft^K ftfO-fW^T^ ba^gam alao the 
parapet on the roof of a house ; a square 
turret or castdlated room on the top of a 
castle: IP^' w ns*^' f^'rf fl^'^J^^wl^ 
'^ it is applied to a building four-cornered 
in shape with an edge of crockets on the 

^^ igo-ifass^^f^ igo^bfob «r ^^ 

4f'^4p'SS'q tgo-ift^ bgef^pa to distri- 
bute, allot, apportion. Often also ^^f^* 

H^'fl Jtgo^pth ittt- *(><»» pi* *^ ft W 
•■Tf, ^tfum to divide ;1^*«^'^ norb^ffo-ipa 
to divide property; to divide in cohering 
a IpM graHi number; to distribute ^^1 
into shares; fripnTsi among people. 

^'crQ igd-pthpo the dhjider; ^'fiS 
igod^04 divisor. 

if^'^m igoi-gai ^m 1. protection. 
2. n. of a number {8. £$€.). 

^*>^ igoi-ra apportionment ; abare : 

no^sofi gtan §dai ffurfnf-fe 9i<m§-irda4 
yB^goH'Witi igoi^ra hyef divide every- 




thing (tlittt is left oTar) equally among 
the peRDaaent xemdentB of theianuly, fto. 
(9Mi. 61). 

*Wpi'3 igow^hya ifw way ; road. 

1^|WI*^ igami-pa mfp^j vrfir, also 
c^<v tg^MthpOf to walk, to step, to stride, 
to pace : a|ir«rir*fl^« a stepped over the 
threshold* ^^^V*^ to paoei to walk slowly. 

HMf% (^0r, sapine of ^'^ igo-toa. 

■if^'Q ftper-iMior ^^^ kgar*wa (0%.); 
^K%^ Awi-A» Ifor to linger or loiter in 
the way ; delay . 

'^S'^ &*»«**«, pf • «*« 6*yw, ftit. iJ§ 
igpi^ imp. 9^ ^^4- Is elegant form of 
9f^*Q m^: 1. to do; to act; to perform. 
2. to make; to mannfaotuie : S^'H'o^' 
ifppi the images regarding which there 
had been said, 'make them,' {.«., the 
bespoken, osdesed images (Ja.). «iVQS\a 
to do a work; ^^'^^'^'^ according 
to order, it will be done; V^'Tfll^q 
to act the disoiple; to be a disciple. 
ft-(rsfl[\q'«)m I have hurt the man; I haye 
done him hann ; f '^'■^'i^'^^ malw, bring 
]taboixt,ihataehildbe(boni): frQsrX^* 
1^'^ rggat-po ma-nar gpi§ fig see that you 
do not let the prince escape ; ^^'^'^ the 
so-called (Ja.). 

*§^''^ iggernca, past, of '^S'^ «» l^gyer- 
tea, |^-|spr«w*s|«)5i^V^ilS'T\Wf^*'''^^^'*' 
ejacolating ; chanting : ^w^'|^l*«'^^'.««^' 
al|^-i{«, *i-iT«i'^^«rVr8^' accordingly in 
the ohanting of the Mantra^ there was some 
mistake {A. 66). 

tJSIK' baraHtmf number; figure. 

^SP'Ti'' igraH'T^ogi n. of a T«ry great 
number (Fo^/. fT). 

^SF*^^ igrat^iphyei n. of a giest Dum- 
ber; ^gi^'^m igraH hphyot n. of a great 
number occurring in the passage V^f^ 
qj|^-^|vir^ir«i iffraH-gphyo§ igraH^ye^ 
la iigrei'Pii {Yu'-hI, 67). 

^3F'4^* igra^tphreiL ^wwiwr, vnrrvT 

^ff:^ igraU'Wa 9rf%v to number, ooimt, 
calculate : ^it'V<aF'^» fc}Artt«-«s 6jfrs«-swi 
bya should count the.beads of his roeszy. 

qip'q'i«(' ItgraH'^wa ydi ^(mm^^fk eren 

^SF'i igfoH'bya what may be 
numbered; numberaUe — ^years, time. 

*^gp^'*w ign^yaJ %^K low; n. of a 
great number {8. Lex.). 

fs^K^' igraH-yol ^itK that cannot be 
measured: naF'*»'M^*V^*''^^V» J^w^ 
yol gXn dad nd^al (fin {Ta^l ST). 

tafjf^'Q igrathpa i^nf n capable cf 
being counted. 

nspsM'trm'^S^'^ iffraHi-pa la idai-pa 91- 
mivrfininil' that is past counting. 

to open wide ; M-^-«i mg-igrad^ to 
stare ; to goggle ; r«^-«» kha^igra4^ 
to gape ; ip^rqaiSq rfa^-pa igrai^ to 
part the legs wide; to staraddle. 2. to 
Bcratoh (Sch.), spelt more correoay ^9^'" 
tibrai-pa {Ji). 



«i§|q4 igril-wa to fall down; to drop 
down: 'r^n-ii^'^ fell into tbe aby» 
{SUu. 7A). 




0^*4 ^gnd^wa or ^m igruMi^^^^w 
V^l^Q dMf*M imff-patontnin; todapu- 

AMiff-M tcuf^pa to strain the impurities 
cut of ivftter. 

^ tgrn to dear of liiialai; to ihell; ^^' 
^'^9^ igrut-iMti tibra§ kiuked rice. 

WS[^ tgre^wa reap, ^"i tga^-pa or «!«» 
(pfvi, «i old; grown in age. 

Syn. ^^^^ na-^o tgaf-pa old; •iftfl 
ifrehpo; ^B tgoi-po or W* rgau-po 

2T|e^' tpf«« oooamonally for 1. 1^^ 

<i^'l^' igreH-phreH wnmmt a roeaiy 
to oount the names of saints, Buddhas, &o, 

pa [8ek.). 

Q§| ((jffo (do) tJfin a song. 

jib to axgne, disonss: f^ %!y<r*r'i'^9'l'*»' 
4f >|c-§^'^'y^-| kk&t'fi grka-pa wkha§^hig 
BUHTe-la kgro^hg by^i-^ byuirfU one of 
his learned sohoian hating oome to oonf er 
ifith Ukaoe (JM. ^^). 

P§J 9 tgro^wa (^o^wa) (pf. ^f« igra§\ 
,«p. vn^'Vn ikak-groi with |^'^ pfe^-iw 
1. to argue, disooss, oonfer with, consider: 

furf tkofl mntoally disoossbg; ^^'g'^* 
^'¥> fi^tar-hya 9he% igroi-fun deliherat- 
ing what they should do. 2. to resolve, 

F'Q ^m^ya^t-kyi khafi-pa ^n^Nv-vnn^ the 
fctage; a music booth. 

tea to eonnt (JS.). 

Ql^ igf^{4<^ nifr 1. progress; gait 
(&fAr. ; JTd/AT. r t6) ; going. 2. it also 
signifies the number 2 (^sTt.). i^i;'S*1*'<v 
kgra4'4kfth'%va ^w difflonlt proiress; 
difflonlt to pass ; 4|SAT*«K' W> ignnHkak- 
waki gmti mmK a wildemess; a place at 
desert which is difiBcnlt to fa n av ers e ; 4K' 
'^''^'^ kgtoi-ikah'Wiki lam ygiw^ a 
di£Scult passage ; an inacoesaible path. 

2^^'^ wfir, ^fuir, nw 1. to walk; to 
get oyer; wander: ^V^'^rii^ tgro44a'Pktfn 
is useful in getting along. "W^^^q lam^ 
bg^'Pa to travel over ; to get through : 
V^'^^'MI^'^ cku-tgroi-par ikak-mt a 
river difficult to cross. 2. declination ; ^nw ; 
"^•^'i'^S ni-nm i/Khigroi the sun's going 
to the south; the sun's south declination; , 
i^'^S hyai-ftgroi the sun's north declina- 
tion; <^'^«r^ igri4^9 g*i§ both 
declinations ; Q\^'^'^S'Q Imi'-mB^lfi 
igro4'P(* to lie with a woman (C«.). 

4f^'§ igiy^i-bya {iai-ja) wwf a road in 
general ; met. a woman (jViHoii.). 

fffS^^ igroi-t^ ft^»t walking; a 
mover {Lex.). 

4K'^w hgtoiJam 1. a road; passaga 
2. met. the female organ {VAon.). 

^^ ign4 (#w)a6^F»p'y« ikak-groi con- 
ference, consultation {Situ. 76); ^^'^V 
B* igco^-IUin bya§ made conspiracy; hold- 
ing unlawful conference: '*''^'^'f^" 
^>r4fi|Xire^Qii yai Mi-im khaH-gHit 
kyii igroi-ihin bya§^f {Rdsa. H) again 
yesterday both of ihem held evil confer- 

M^ mgar the work or craft of a smith : 
^^'•T gffr'fpgar goldsmith. 





•^'I'f'W M9(fr4shri §gra-d8i thun; 
n. of a oelebmted minister of Tibet. 

•T^T^ mgar-^o4 {gar-choi) mA } K^\ 
the praotioe or oraft of a smith. 

*|^'q ^gar-wa iHwTKj wmin, irHlf. 

WF^, ^ilWCT blacksmith ; one of low caste. 

Syn. OTV*«i lcag9'i»>^; f^*wp^'^ 
teagt-mgor tea; •*<s«»fi^ nitBhrn^eha- 
Wkhan; M'«'*W tdeg-oha^mkhan (4Wew».). 

n. of the oelebrated minister Gar of Tibet, 
who was sent to China to negotiate jEor 
the marriage of the daughter of emperor 
Thad Tai*tsung with his master Inug 
.Srafl'itMn igam^po, 

*W|Q|'^ fpgal^a jaw ; jaw-bone ; «r»«^ 
ya^f^gai the upper jaw-bone ; •wfi'9 mgaU 
wa ot «'»i>f! ma-fi^gal the lower jaw-bone. 
In oolloq. both jaws together are called ^4' 
^^ya-kma-h. w^'*^ Qi^a/-<?^^ a broken 
jaw-bone; *»T''5'\ mgal-bu^ a dislocated 

•T^'y fB^gaMum ^T^snvnr a large piece 
of wood split or out, or half burnt. 

••^•«i m^gaUpa ot ^^^ ^gal-pj a billet 
of wood. 

••T''* fMal^m ^nrm, fire-brand ; torch 
consisting of long chips of wood. 

si^A'qJIk'q fgigal-me hikor-wa Hf i in ^ iw 
to whirl xound a fire-brand. 

•^•*8[''^'<«ijra/-wJid*Ao#--fca drole 
of light produced bj whirling round a fire- 

* *l^ Qfj^gi {8chr.; Kaide. T. S). 


«f«r 1. to rejoice; to be glad, joyful, 
content ; ^^'^ i^g^na^ delighted : ^J^ 
^*rg& fl^gthwaii tan ftm^byuH did not 
receive a gratifying or eatisfactorf answer. 
2. to exhilarate; to n^adden; to mska 
content. Sfl^A5'^ dgai'4gu^Wf Vf^'^' 
^^'^ 4galh4gu raA-wOy »q*«i'B*P ^gtMca 
hya^wa ^iim^r are frq. intenslYe forms 
to express joy or exultation in the older 

Syn. ^^''^ igal^^wa (Iptoi.). 

^'^^ m^g^r I.=»i5'^^ i^a^war. 2. 
«w throat : neck ; that idiich oomee out of 
the *<9^ fi^gur is called a ^^'^ i^^^r^-ma^ a 
song : I'dff A'oi^ •I'J^ r^Uun mi^la^ fj^gwr 
the venerable Mila's songs. 3. voice; 
913^'f ^'q tj^^r-fnan-pa sweet voice ; harxno- 
nious voice. 4. song, air, melody; hence 
a religious song Used as honorific form 
for II, especially in Milarapa, each 7f 
the doctrinal ditfcieb in that work beiiig 
preceded by the words »q^'^^'^ltvl, he 
uttered this song. 

tien^gyi hum-gdan the pedestal on which 
the cupola of a choifya rests. 

^^'V^fF^^ fl^gur^du gntfii'pa anythinf 
sxmg or put into verse. 

ornament worn round the neck {tUon,). 

st^^*^*! tl^gur-Hmm the hundred ifaoa- 
sand sacred songs; name of one of Jfifi^ 
ra9pa*9 two great works, which sie 
both interwoven with numerous religioiu 

^^'^ nigur-^ko or ^Q ne-wa 24; of the 
weight of 24 ratiee ; a weight equsl to 
7} {Sfsar-ma f^'«i). 

jq^-qwq I 



m^^mv^ 4i^t#r-(M/-tMi 1. to deliver 
a Bong with emphasiB. 2. to dear the 
thioftt ; to hawk ; to hem (Jo.) 

*9^'9 W^fr^Via a god of htmtixig with 
the Mongol FBiamanft {8ch.). 

«3^f «i^*q^ ff^gur4ha ifieheUM the 
four broihers (qrlvan gods) from whom 
the four great tribes of Tibet are eaid to 
have origiiiated. 

neok; throat; reep. f or M||if q tj^grin^pa; 
••S^V^^'^ n^ful'du i^dc'gt'pa to tie, 
futeii on the neck, e.g.^ miigio objects; 
^'^aqcv^lfS'^ raiUgi i^guUpa gco^'pa 
to cat one's own throat ; to commit sni- 
oide, soioidal; wp'^r'pi'^sq fj^guUpa na§ 
V^kgui-pa to fsU on a person's neok; to 
embrace; mjoi cr^n^l^'q or H*q to seiae by 
the throat. 

^^WVO-rien; ^'^mgo^bMn', reep. ^' 
li'^fprq ri^fnt^ (fmm^pa; y^^5»*l>S duK* 
hdraii^grin; i^'A'^^'^ bum^pa^i ijtgul' 
eon (Jlfilon,). 

*iyrg ig^guUgtu^ reip. S gla^ *^m:sSW 
|iM-fi^-g Tshmfli^ga^i tgya tpUhobi 
nguUgtuy n. of a work of the second Dalai 
Lama T^ha^-^iy^^^i tgyo'^io. 

•9^fl •V'-ryy^w qt^niT^ t^wr neck- 
lace ; a neck ornament. 

Syn. *'5S'*A'5S ii^grin-^p.i^i TOyon^ •V 
II rgkgur-na fpa ; ^^'^ ike^i^rgyan ; '^'^ 

^Wqm, 4NqpqrK 1. he with a bine necL 
2. a peacock. 

■ijflrSc^**|^'q ^gul^hid ikar-pa a white 

*^'t^ nj^guMwH a small amulet woin 
ou the neck. 

•q*' ^^ ffiguMar or S<i^ ^^ ipafn^r 1. 
a silk scarf tied ronnd the neck as a badge 
of honour. 2. the shoulder of a moun- 
tain ; ^^"9^*^ gytm^^gul na on the left 
slope (Ja.). 

••5^'^^ WS^Hfdub TW* the neck- 
bangle or necklace worn by the Indians. 

•«|«i'^ ig^gul-nad disease of the throat. 

•ijoiqi- j^ fikgul-pabi'igyan ^ •q^J^ ijigui- 
rgyan or ••lh'**'J^ mgrin-pa^i rgyan 

•'5'*'^^ iMul-riA '^f^^ a long neck. 

Wfl^ fjpgehu same as ^^ n^go^u^ v. ^ 

*Ih[[ I: nigo fiRi, ^, Uf, 'I^W 
the head: •<«lf«a[i|q^-^^-S|*i nigo^hjog^pai 
Iu9-f99 by the movement of the head the 
body is known; »<^fli i^'vi^q- jg Qipo-fa 
me-ibar^wa /^o-iu ^li^-fi|KH?Jhm as if 
glowing with fire on his head, ^'^m fj^go^ 
ru9 qrqrqr the head-bone; frontal bone; 
n^-^^-g-fg fj^ga boH^bu Ita^bu WKitn a head 
like that of an ass: •^|^'V59'>I'^I!^''^ 
iBffO'igytir ^log^^log isdai-^ug he sat (at 
times) bending his head (^daa.). 

*l^ II : 1. summit, height, top : ^••*f 
p-qn'^^^i the hill tops were covered with 
snow. 2. first place; principal port; 
•*^9V Wgo-^^d-P^ to lead ; to command ; 
to be at the head of ; S3'M\q dtcu'is^uhad'-pa 
to inspect, look after, superintend, control : 
3*Vl'%»*f8V*ft'«Q bu-mo ihig-gif 
fpgthbyed-paii rm'tna^-po a number of 
(labouring) people were superintended 
by a girl (the farmer's daughter) (Jd.). 
3. beginning: V'^'^^ grot^fngo the begin* 
ning of a consultation. «^ ^^'^ mgo- 
bdwg-pa to begin: «JVJ^**t^'^^ boU 
^dug-pabi ntgo-hditig that was the 
beginning of the misfortunes of Tibet; 

de-m§ t$hug§ with thiB my oonstant good 
forkme oommenoed; 4'*Mf^ to^go h at 
the begmning of the year; v^^fifPeMiai 
from the hegiiming. 4. in grammar a 
anperaoribed r, /, t, #,•; Vi#H«i| m-fi^' 
Jbi; q k with r (rapeiMribed ; ^'^Mrw 
««l'«'«ift*«if( d§^fyuim§ bH-phul m^mgoti 
koto these are the words beginnuig with 

^•"■^ *, «! * (•'a.). 

1^ HE: vrf)nr: n. of a oonstellatioii 
(the fith) enaimiiting of etars reeemUiaiglhe 
head of an antelope. 

•^IS «i/t>-»fe/tha brain. 

«Af*^ ^Mf^hfityil ooUoq. orown of the 
head; vertex. 

*^i^ fi^^o-ffftor impoetnrei deceit : ^S* 

im^tdoi I deteet these diabolical tricks 

•Mf 9|k'q ipgo^fkar'^ffa to dieat, swindle, 
confuse ; A'«Af ilf^ nd-ipifo «iMhriS0r do not 
dieat people. 

«*f| mffo^kya a gray head; •*f|'«S 
iipfO'ffcy€hean a gray-headed person. 

tgyathpa or IF«> tgV(»9^ »» old man; 
gray hairs (jyXoul). 

•ilf'f^' fipa-fffcye^ or v^'^l^ fi^icffMi 
a protector; patron. 

9flf'|q ii^styois JTsi rmo^ a helmet. 
9^ H ftgo-khra (j/H^) scald-head. 



ehm) pbstinate, pertinaoioiiSy stnbbom, s^ 
in buying and bartering; seUBali; baigam- 
ing; haggling. 

■*fS^ VJ'^-Wfww V^www, <lwm 1. 
head ornament. 2. n. of a place in Tibet 

•*l'|'^' mgO'Vi yofhV^ wwwft » 
heayy head. 

*^9*i ilfigo^M hair of the head. 

'f 9^ 41^X09 bewildesedy oonfused; 
tioablesome: \^l"f ^^•*f IN *»-w-*|i 
bj^wa idi-ft^go Sog work at these tmeB » 
yery troaUesome ({(Ao. M). 

s^ufsrsi^ «i^ii&if9»-0nMN the tbrM 
things of sbnultaneoQS oouurrence-; flMy 
aie :— (1) ^*'VVr«»|Vii|VP IcAmm *«». 
J1.1 tgifui'i^ ikfs9^p3 the thoog^t <kf dsaili 
ariging in the mind; (2) X-R%|V««^s 
tske^tdi }ibi-#iM|-iMr xenoancing of 
worldly afUrs; (3) <«*ls*«i cka-ii^e^im to 
practise religion. The contrary of the 
thiee are the f oUowing :— (1) ^"^ |^<i 
mi'teki'^fkm'pa the 'thooght that one 
will not die; (2) B-^^er^sewq Mls-*f«^ 
tthmm-'pa to remain attached to woridl^r 
a£Fairs ; (3) M'^tV^ 9dig^1^ if^*^ <>»- 
mission of sin (Lo. iS). 

•*f ^' f»J»-ftf^ti< ftiir>?NftTO »ti*- 

«if ^V^C*^ 90^ft^9l tte-iac io seek 
protection nnder one who is siqperior to 
himself I to seek refoge nnder such. 

s^-y^S^q ii0o.rftf|f-eAc#^ one who 
can giTB decided advice. 

*^'t^ mgo-r^tm that on which the hcsd 
reste, M., the throat or •^f «*H i^^^-»*w 
that holds thehead ; iV^r the neck {M»m.l 

•ATf^ mg<h9it^ a giddy-headed man ; as 
{i1ia4: • AM who mnnot think lor himeetf . 




•qoal, a nuiteh^ t mat. 

•^'S VfMA«# tw^ top or orown of 
thehiad; on tlui saminit. 

«^'»r' H^go^kon^ OM who b7 hia 
own ability oaa tUr^ot ofhorg 

■*f ^•••^ ^gO'ktM&m-pa oonfonnded. 

Mmi A|w#:fw to faTOUTi praerre, make 

safe: •i^-«H4*''*fS'*W«s-«#f-i^XfVH^^ 
all the propertwa of lour Upiiakaa ha oansed 
io be kept leoare {A. ft). 

*^4 ^tPMia w*wm haadaohe. 


'^l^ tV<»-«iiV the head together with 
the meat of e dam goat, dbeep or yak, fte. 
•*f a {i^imi Ak: the head. 

^mm the ohief of the Umbs of the bodj 

he who has a roond head reaemUing an 
tunlHrella beoomea a lord of men. 

•^9|-Ka 91^0-iM (py^rAtff-tM a bald- 

does not ehaoge hie reddenoe or head- 

*^*^^ ifMt^mhg^g head-oorar. 

«^f warif a i^^go-tmoh-pa^ g(hwa^^ t^ 
qa «r Jw-^lf a eu^ua4 lab-pa tsam^pit 90- 
wa to eaaDj pereeive the meaning from a 
di^t morement of the head. 

•*f *| ^go-iiog round protuberant head : 
'''i^'^'V^'%«*f*T»T^«rii on the heads of 
whatteerer things that may be rotiud. 

•*f ^"l mgo-^diin fiitKtfw the head of 
an offiee, or work-leader. 

■*f HPT*« mo^Msifff'pa n^9im to begin 
(a work or aabjeot, et« ). 

NoTapibar-Deoember of Indian ealndar. 
The eleventh month of the Tibetan 

•*f I" Vpo-alam (ffo^thm) or •^f^'^ 9^0- 
reff i^vr, lal^a, irftm%w ahaven head, 
alao round bald-head; a Bnddhiat monk: 
•^1*^^^* n^go-nbm^gna^ a plaoe where the 
ahaTen beads reside ; a monastery ; ai^iaia 
«itP»-aAMf».pa a ahaTen head ; a monk. "* 

a*f|»rw^ fi^aAfHi tam-nag^^^^m^ 

l^a-(PQ0a XTf the aonnding planet ; a oomet 

•*K'^ ^goi^ch^ WWar with a arnaU 

or no head; the running^hend oharaoter of 

or •*f|k ifigo^fkor to cheat, "deceive; "t^' 

i'ihiJ^rH to rob one ]^ deception or 

^^ *y«flh»« to bend the heed ; to bow down 
the head: ' t'8^ a^^qisflf^^g^q ^^^ 

bdrm-pahi f^go-rug hgei>^ he made 
obeisance presenting tea and treade. 

toeo;=»^*^W*» ivo **i/ItP« shaking the 
head as a signal or from illness. 

^M i^o-reg or "^T |^ i^o^eg^ Bud- 
dhisfc monk. 

^m^lS'^ orai^fsw 
IV^ Qi0^a-f ^onif dy<H^ to make all equal; 
not to make any invidious distinction bet- 
ween parties ; to deal evenly : ^*w^'*<^'fn' 
8S«w8*'^n thtt(m-ca4 mgo ihag-p/^e^-ptcr^ 
gyti shef thus commanded, all behave 
fairly among yourselves {A. 116). 

h$hm nor^ (Schr. ; 7t A.). 




JF|^*^ ffgan^po aoocffding to' some 
gnaammMm the word ^ iBgon i« an 
aUMTiatioii of the wotrdi ^'^^ w^bdt^ 
(<i Mri being elimisiAtad), rignifying mw 
protootOTi petroiit prinnpely inMAer, lord, 
tttteleqr god; lo the word is epplioable 
to Buddbfti laiiitBy aiid alio ordinarily to 
any poroteoton end benelactora in general. 
Whan ^f^ ooootB aa a proper name it 
denotes either Bnddha or Avalokites Tsra 
or Mshidenu Among the vAhl ^gan-po 
IM also daesed Oanesa, the Dikp&la or 
goardians o( the world and of Buddhism, 
besidea mai^ other spirits who ivre repre* 
ioted aa poajessing four, sizi and some- 
times eight arms. This (dass of gods is slso 
mmisrons in both the Taatrik and Bon 
pntheon. •*K«VW^'8T*'^^ i^gon-po 
tAfft-ftsM pkgag fti^ftrtV^tf the Lord with 
lour faces and eighteen arms. Sambhara 
(sl^'ftf^) of the Bon-po has three faces 
and six anns. In Bnddhist India there 
w«e worshipped three Nitba urn, or •*' 

§hf§ «^M-i^ ihe spirit invoked to ins- 
pire one bjr entering one's body; (2) W* 
9#firt> Ififff^ fMon^fO the blaok-spirit ; (8) 
qirrsi^'a Bt^^n^^ ij^gw-po the Brdkma 
ndtka, U^ BrihmaWB spirit (JT. dun. 60). 
•9t^Vc^^Yi Mgon-i^ gri-gug n. jr- 

mn phgat iM^ {aokr.). 

••*h'«WK*5 Mg^M^ ^g-9hM (&Ar.; 
87 A.). 

rai^^fm^fitNrc the patron I^rd A^bt 
lokttee'yara (Vflon.). 


(Sekr.; 81 C). 

•Bei^niK. Hfgotir^ BeA {Sckr.; SB CI 
• ii^'Q'^'Sii^iil Jfg(m-po Wam-ffzug^ d 

pr. {8ehr,). 

• sMfai'Q'frairq Jjfgon po m-pham-pa w^d- 

unr {8chr. ; Td. «, 111) [invinciblo Lard]6? 

^t^rirnf lit. immeasurable light; an. d 
the 4th Dhyini-Bnddha. 

• •AfvQ'iV^'ll^ Vgon^ BhaUgpig {Srhr.y 

• yiK^'Q-M-ql^ JfgCfP^ Bhot-kAi (Schr). 

• 9if/f^li^iktf9:^ JUgan-po hg9'ldan (ScAr 

(Org. m. 110, SO). 

sMfa('««^« fpgon^fnaHf many patrons or 
defenders of religions ; many small pyra- 
midal sacred erections (C«.)- 

•*h'^fS fiigon^mei 'Pro unprotected, 
helpless; ^^^'\^ Mg^m^-m^ M9'¥>y^ 
^«nw-f)im n. of a oertain house-holder 
who accommodated Bnddha in the Jets- 
vana gioye oi B'r&Tasti. He was the obiet 
house-holder devotee of BuddLa. 

graH-khper n. of a dty in the parediee of 

the Bon-po. 

'iiS^^V ipgyog9'bgro horse, wind. 
Syn. 1^- r*^; ? fte (4Wo«.), 
«^^'r!|^m fpagogt-igroii bru*^^ met. 

for V^'V^^ tta-yi tf^'^ff, horse^ung 

(S^n. 186). 

fwir, wf^, T* ^l ^^ ^^' '•P^^ ^'^' 
quick; speedily: •>j«ipi»-^!|-WWK*^ 
ar*%f'ii'«i^'a^'ffP»w«T^ ' by quickly 
going the horse and the elephant betoiue 
prostrate; by slowly wslking the donkey 
travels round a kingdom. In modem 
works and oolloq. »^B es adj. and*^ 
CK a9 the adv. are the eommoner f onss. 




f M-tefi asMloBtida (^nwn 109). 

•5^* Wnf^9hl»r qnibkly, speedilj, 

•^h^*w qyjfofv-fam a stimight, dbort 

» ahort-ont; ^•'J'pi mhM^^I a race; i^ 
xunning-matdh (•/$.)• 

(fbjfM^i tong; muiiio (4fifon.)* 

h^ with K bltie neok; the petoock* When 
the ocean was ohunied l^ the gods and 
the Amrafli there came out -the ran and 
moon and then LaknnI the goddeea^ of 
weelih and f ortnne, and afterwards neotar 
was the result. Lsstlj came forth a 
pot of poison yihiiik woold kaye destroyed 
the world. The God MahAdera out d 
eompasBion for all Imng beings of the 
world, himself drank ibe potaoa« in eonse- 
queooe of which his neok tuned Une. 

rmehipa (4f4eii.). 

•^^^WS W^'» gpig^tu with one Toiee ; 

•^^ Mgrm-icu icmrv a name of 
R&Tana, King of Oejlon and the son of 

V«ip 9gjtaU^ Mamtf^a, sing Btaia 

*^9^'^ Wrh iku/l'tM a short neck, 
ifazoaty or Toiee. 

*4Kf^ tV^MMif «frm the cuckoo or 

«%^ mtrm^ {4mifa) ^ ^nr^, 
«^, fintf^y H^ the neck ; 'il^'V^ Qiyrin 
nX-iMi a IcMig iieek. 

8yn. |-^ gre^-uai ^"^ Vjw-; wj^iq «i^/. 

|4nt; ^U-ii|vr«i rtlmo giM^pa\ y^^*-^ 
diA^hdtahi nfgrin; vr^A't^Vi bmn^paH 
mguUan the last three axe used in polite 
language (,V*m.). 1'^ gre^^a is a ooim^ 
form of the Sanskrt word v^ gfMi 

*iiK'^^ ngrin^po'can peaked mountain. 
•^«r^^ il^grm^ itegi raised head 
(as if out of panic or alarm). 

kkm^^Oru^ the stork (Mitan.). 

mg^t tgyan or 1| ^i- J« 9ky^g% rgg^n neok- 

Isce (#1^011.). 

•*|S***1 mgrin^ii %gra voice. 

•^'*'fT« mgrin-paH pkgog$, mj the 
month [the coDaz^bone]^ 

^*'t mgrim-psm tUM mmn the 
root or base of the neok. 


•^V^ V^rw-^jw Ktnrtw rsd-throat; 
n, of a bird. 

•*5h'»** ifigrm-^giAei ^rftw a hand- 
some neck; •ilhrn^' MgrU^iwH n. at the 
friend and general of Bima in his eadla. 

•^T*^' fMrif^inat one with a loud, 
dear Toice. 

••ijT««,i,rwi.jM^^ ^B^^ ; «f A). 

•*^««-^« H^o^^mmH iimm^ 1. 
n.of a goddess. 2.^9f^' gi^^^t ti^i^^rr 
n« of concretion found in the brsins of 
elephants or stomach of cow* {Smtm. 94) ; 
a bright yellow pigment 

tioghitfoin. of a Tibetan romance con* 
taining 138 block-print learesi composed 




by Lama i^ib-^soX fiilan-pati rm/^t-Vt^ham 
of Tahor-phtt in Tibet. 

1^ I: ffgron (don) is also Bometimes 
wrongly tpelt as -tC^ bdxon ^ififfw, f^mmn 
feast, treat, banqneti entertainment, resp. 

tbul'¥fa to entertain; vif^'ii'^V^'ci Qt^roit- 
't' Hoif-pa, resp. Mf^ !^' V(*«iV <* mffran-du 
9pyan*bdrm^pa n^!^^m% to invite to an 
entertainment ; «Vr^'^^^*^ to regale, txeat 
(jr. du. \ 87). 

l!^ 11: in Buddbism signifies object 
of inrooation ; and any person invoked is 
oalled ^^'«i 9^r<m-|»x The latter are of 
four classes :—(l) S'f^' «*|'|v ft*- tillij rf*on. 
^^hog ecii Mn^t fjigron the holy ones 
form the object of invocation in the 
world. The holy ones are :•— Buddha^ 
Dharmai BaAgha, one's lama (Guru) and 
one's tutelaiy deity : ^2) •*h«*^^'>^lM(^ 
fl^gan-po yon^an^gyi ffigron^ the Natha who 
are a olass of f earfol deities, the celestial 
Diibnli the Dharmapdla and the guardian 
gods of Buddhism; (8) ^^«Yrl^i^*4^ 
rig^-dcug tUA-'tjeti ffigron the six dasses of 
animate beings such as human beings, gods, 
demons, the animal kingdom, the Preta 
or ghosts, and the hell-beings ; (4) ^^^' 
q^'oi^a^I'Mf^ gdat^igm hn^haghkyi 
igkgran \ here the invoked are 360 demons 
called M^^ Qdon and 80,000, evil^spirits 
called 't^T* 99^99* These do mischief to 
all living beings on account of their own 
misdeeds of a former existence. It is 
necessary to invoke such and to appease 
them by offerings. According to the Bon- 
po there are chiefly two kinds of '^ipgron, 
i«, objects of invocation: — (1) a person 
or deity invoked for worship; (2) a person 
invoked oat of compassion {D.B.). 

•^ir^' HMfran^kkai ^Olftnw a hcose 
for the accommodation and temponiy 
board of guests, strapgers, Ac 

h^l Vl'l hf^ tkga-ka the mag-pie 

••ff^ mgron-gfier or ^Tf^'^*' 
mgrm-bu ibod'pa to invite or call a gusst; 
••W^'9'^K^ fV'Wi-Jtt gfier^ufa lit the 
receiver of guests; an officer whose doty 
it is to introduce others to the king or 
to the great lamaa of Tibet. He is abo 
oalled •^^«I4 •f'S yor-jrw/ shu^mkhtm, he 
who communicates the wishes or mandates 
of a superior person to an applicant. 

•flfl'^'^W ^ mgron-du bgro-tca to go to sn 
entertainment ; ^^•(V^ a f eapt ^ ^'^^ a tea 
party ; •k.'MJ^ a treat with beer or wine. 

«l[^5 mgron^po ^i^rfir, ^nimwi oue 
newly come ; a guest. 

Syn, ii^v^V^q (^r-du AoH-m; |a^' 

M'wa (4filfoi».). 

s4^-Zi'9vq fg^gron-po bo^-pa to call or 
invite a person. 

•ilf^-Q'SH'R mgron-bu thaUtca name of a 
medicinal drug which is alleged to stop 
bleeding; it is useful in fracture and sores. 

^*^P| hg'tg 1. obstruction ; stoppage; 
^\^^ IfHt-bgag want of appetite ; ^i(^1^ 
gcifi-bgag also ^^ bgag strangury. 2. a 
place or spot that has to be paaeed by all 
that proceed to a certain point : Jwot*^^ 
5*^Trs3'»^^*«'t^ nam-pahi bgog-tu tgug-na 
rktMna hckin^hub a thief may be arrested 
if you be on the look-out for him in the 
passage of a bridge ; ^ JJvw"<wS<i^ the 
place on Pal-ibar mountain where there 
is a narrow passage ; Ip^TV 9t<h4gog the 
door of the house because through it 



W,<|-ci I 

all that enter or leare hare to pass; 
pr^^ kA^tgag the moath, tbfough n^oh 
eyerything mml pan that ii eaten; flg. 
^'■^i'^W'^^ thMT'lan^yi gtiai-^gag the 
main point for aalvation. ^TT^WS'^^'^ 
^g-gcig-iu dpil^'wa to unite; to be oonoen- 
t?wted in one point (/«L). 

^^¥^ ^9^^ anything like a 
fencing that is pnt round a field or garden 
or a honee to stop ingreM from outside. 

%T!'*' kgog-fo^ or m(^ ^g^ flr^ 1. 
pf . form of ^^^4 ht^tt-pa to etop, to 
cease, tobeat astaod-etiU; moitljin the 
perfeet form: W^^F^ the appetite ia 
gone; the paMJottahaTing been e up preaied. 
2. doov»JDeeper| t. ^^^^ ifo^hf^t* 

^^prt^ igag-j^ nm4 'if^Wl free, 
unobetnieted ; thetl^; alao Toidity or that 
▼Uoh is in a simple or unoompounded 

^^ igaH, V. IF r^. 

MF*(«) kgaH (po) the burden of an 
ofioey Vuinnesef oommmion. 

Cl4|C4rl^ bgati^ken alio ^^'^^ Atre4- 
chen impoitaat; Tery talnaUe; ^*^^«* 
lii-||Mi*i^i^-^-K^**^ gdtm ^gat^l^n 
tnam§ iM ftib dMtfe-ner m$^ ^^^^^ 
^^9fm gjm% igallh^hen pum§ important 
or ohief plaeea of pilgrimage, Ab. ; |^'^il>^' 
M Twy laered symbols; fp;^nffm:l^ 
valuable things; ^'^i^^'^^ important 
meaning or objeot. 

Syn. t'^'^ fUa eke-wa^ V^^ drag-pa; 

^IM'^W tga((§^k9m equal ; «iirU'«i|i| 
phaU^her igthm in thorough agrtoment; 

in harmony: ||^«|fF^Vi«'*^'V' 
^'^ff|M*«i^ ao-0MI-0iiMi tng-tubgoi-pati 
hJmjittH gat ^gaUi^hm (it was about) 

equal to the area which the three southern 
places together occupy {Ta-$eL 19), 

R^^q ^gaUt'pa difficulti troublesome 


^^'^IP*^ hgau-hkhur-wa to stand seou* 
rity for; to guarantee; to take respon- 
sibiUty on one's self; mh'^^*^ ^^m- 
k^kgur^-wa to impose responsibility. 

a^'S)« ^gan-^kri^ {gan^ti) making 
QTcr charge ; making responsible. 

^^1 k9('*h£gya9^^\ gan'rgpo H^^^^ 
ment| coTsnant^ 

'^^^ kgtm-^n responsible. 

^'^'9 kgan-^g-pa to undertake any* 

thing; to take charge of: wi^^-nW^s^i' 
Vc'^siga'^ifif)^ when sell^interest is con- 

osmed eren the donkey understands his 

Q,4|X|*^ tgampa to cram into the 
mouth, especially of dry ediUes; I'^T^oQ 
pkge kgrnm-pa^po an eater of flour (SiUt. 


to contradie^:; to disagree; to mistake; 

^poU^a not to make mistake; to aToid 
errors ; ^T*'^ kgint^nmi without mi^tske. 

•^'T'l hgal'zla9L^y^A'%^m bgdl-fcahi 

gtH>g9 or ft«W<i5'!|^^ mi-ffiikun^^i gt^g% 
an enemy : "^ ^^* •«|^*^^f ^iw vajfan' 
^^ having joined with such of the enemy 
as were not in agreement with one another 
(JOf-tf. 116). 

Q,4|9(*C| hgof-pa to split, to crack, to 
burst apart. 

'q^* kg^4-P^f ▼• Vi'^ gu4-p^. 

^sprci ^gH^ to summon; bring 
back; '^T^" kg^^^P^^i^ one who is 
called to ; a waiter {SUu. 8Ji). 





+ ^'^"'^ ^^i^w^ to die (of xiatural 
de^th, of difloase) : ^5'U«r< i'*^'*'"« 
te'*^'^w^n at that tiine most of those of 
the atteDdaats of the L(htM*wa wHo were 
smitten ivith ferer died {A. 65), 

(^K^QI*q ^gul^wa to movOi quake, 
shake ;^'^ s0-gyosii*^^Qi ith^gui earth- 
quake ; '^n-'cn hguUxi p0 or <^ai*SS bgui- 
iy»^ shaker; fat. ^^'^^ hfful-i^hin^^y^i' 

%\ bgut-^gyin. 

^^'^ ^gur-nlio^ same as «Q^')( ft^gur-sho 

sho-gptg^ one ttgw^^ho is equal to eight 

^^"fiS ^^iyvsJS'V Myi0^M or 'li^' 
V^ fgideak^grogi husband (#yoii.)- 

l?a to oonfound; to subdue W|%w ; •*[ ^^«^' 
Q'Q qi^ igem^pa^ one who confounds or 

R^^Cd^'IS'^ igemt-par byei-pa ftoA 
repeatedly bites ; aoo. to C7«. aaotJier form 
for ^9«rq ^gum-paj to kill, to destroy 
(fi^*.) ; iS'«r^^wr« ]^4^ bgemi-pa to sur- 
prise; to over-thiow an argument by 
reason; sAf^sm ii^go-gem stupid (^A.). 

^^(Rprq *<^ jr«w mini, fti%^, wfirftw 

to hxadsr, obstruct, keep back or in; fut. 

^'•r<^-^^^'^ 4gag pa^ia m$4'4g^ M 
fna^n 4gag ffUk'yoi %%V'S yin^min l4a^ 
bu preventing what is and what is not, 
etc., in Buddhist metaphysics. 

Q^^if q igeM-pa, pi ^P^' ikaH, fut. 
S'^' 4go^ imp. f^^' **^*' to fill up ; also 
to satiate. 

(^^|em*q igek9^pa, pf. ^<i iilMii fat. 
1)^ (pti* imp. i*Q AAoi, to coyer qp; 
to put on; to oonceal. 

*T« ftika/, fut. ^T> #pa;, imp. fN Mo/: L 
toload;tolayonaburden; BT^'^Um/ 
bget-fM to impose tax or rent; to oonnois- 
sion; to ohargewith; to rnake^ >ppoiiitk 
oonstitute; to put; to plase on or oyst: 
^••rqii|i|q- ^^-ma hM^oa a beam placed 
over it; to set or put on, e.g.^ a pot; to 
hang up; ^li'^^'^v go^ igeluM a 
stand to hang clothes on; fig. ^'i^^'iU'^S' 
l^'^^'^lf^ icki-war nuhpt^ ikoff-^g^ 4gH 
one must s4 on it the roof of being 
able to diet m., one must crown tbe winds 
edifice of life \fj being free from fear c{ 
death («/3.); to impose a fine; to girs 

^^S^ »p»fc*r»/ old ; ^a^Tf^ ig^ 

brel fux'-idan the old, iged. 

^^•^^ h^f-ggog^fm^r^ kkO-ggn 
laden yaks. 

^^'^spi bg^l-lug^ the method of im- 
posing fine or punishment. 

^^'^ t^f-jw, pf. ^T> Jifaift fut W» 
tfjMVy imp. F^ kho§^ to split, deaTB, divide; 
■^'^' ftitas-fiW (Ze«'.) cleft cr chopped 
wood; ys^^^'<i dum^bur ige^fM te 
divide into pieces; to cut up or open. 

^^hgo^ same as *^ fi^^ origin, soores; 
i^[W 1. foremost; in front; ^F^^ imig^ 
bgo commander of an army ; •^P^'^tfiiMflri 
igo or V^'^W f AcA-^^ commandsr of s 
fort, of a district: *il-^^fw:vjir^« 
ehoi4cyi bgo MHi-rgg^^-f^ thug the origm of 
Dharma (Buddhism) is traced to Boddha; 
^•^•RUfni^ii q*)^ the source of a msr is 
ii!aced to the snows 2. beginning; ibs 
first: ^^ igor in the beginning ; ^'^"^ 
$0r-i»abi bgor the beginning of the haiL 

Syn. *|'*< ihog-^w; V** *<hps; T^ 




•^<H 4pi»-iMMs%«i Ihoff-ma bagiimiog; 

^^1" d^lM4m brood-dotii; also the 
laperior kind of Uanket. 

^'^ hgo-pa the hflftdman of a Tillage. 

'^'^hgnh^fMxwAxa^ direotor, head- 
master, priiiapai. 

^^f"^ ftl^j^AA W^^i-Mi aooTor; also 
a eaDopy or dome OTer a ten^e or tomK 

df^K-f f Jfgo-wdhi l^lHa the flte 
superior demi-goda, which are the follow- 
ing: (1) If wi^'9ffio.aa^MiiM-<U» (2) 

fTf «t^tt«, (3) Vf *n»-»«i (*) Mf*^ 
fliaf (^ WfyifMltf* These are the inaepa- 
Table oompanions of hnmaai^y and rsjoioe 
when we do good aotioni and beoome soRj 
iriiea we ma. There are sereral t re atis es 
(m the rites to propitiate them. 

^^^ bfihpk&riBi^T^'^ 9 e a*e#^jM usbCqI: 
V'«^-^4f 4^ tnm early yearsi m.» from 
boyhood, he has been nssfal. 

^^'^ kgo-^ioa #q, pt, ^ f»i, or ^ 
Vet, ef. ^'«i k%g>m 1. to stain; to 
lose ooIouT} to dirty, sully one's self. 3, 
iN^ to infsot with a disease; ^Y^'^ 
hgtHMti mA ^'A'^'^ ^f^-tmti* rim • 
oontagious or epidemio dissase, a plague ; 
^^ or ^^*^ ^*r^«!'^^'^ ^^- «n 
infeotioas disease; also a contagions disease, 

^s« igthma beginning, ongin, source. 
^A Ajfo-m headman. 

Cl^l^^ll hgogJm prob. deriTsd from the 
Chinese^ signifying the goddess of the ele* 
msnta. Aoo. to the Chinese the funda- 
mental elements are tree, Are, earth, iron, 
and water. Bach of these is prseided orer 

itWj irnw, mrtic, wfinwi t. ^^^^tt^ 

bar-du iooi-paf ^Vl'« ^9H^ 

wqfirf^ to keep; to plaoe; to anrange; 
a deposit ; pledge. 

<^^^'«l m: pf. "^ Vcog. fut 

away f cceibly ; to snatch, tear away, 
pull out; r*^' ffae^ss h^f-1^ 
to pull up the root; ^^B Af^^JM^ 
one who tekes or draws out 2. to take 
odBaeoTer,ftUd,apctfroaitbeflre9in W. 

alff «r^ Mgog^fihri the hill on whieh 
the monastery of Qahdan is situated : ^% 

VlH'*N'*' mmttsgi rntmhtiog tfog^ to 
stop the arising of imaginstjons or faades, 
in the mind. 

^^IS $9O0^h^ «iv diseiplineb and 
from ^^ iy«lf1Mii there arise 1, ^'^9ld* 
wa wf^ peace ; 2. V^F^ ggm ussi j m i iW 
iPrS^*« /t t i fi w i ia (sAoyi^ wfM^n per^ 
footed state; 8. U «r*^'« il#f^|Nr »ftyii4^ 
lasiWiww firm ccnviotion. 

Q.^fi«ipi I :*popi«^T!^ft*ffjhpe(4^ 

Q.^^ n : tntw, «T^ passing OTsr; 
Iranat ; crossing; getting orer. 

^^flUI'fl *«ef!HM-i^^¥r«i kgm^ to 
present; to aTsrt unfortunate erreuts, aa 
danger, fatal consequences; to suppress 
the qrmptoms of a distese I7 med^oine; 
to drive back or away; to expel, s.^., mirits. 




ghoitt; to repd people that are ixjing to 
lead : ^V^m'IN'^^'f td^ tnam^ 
Jde-ffV h§of;0t$ it lumBg been arerted bj 
the Are kinda of demona (H.R.). 

^' V*l( ^f^Ai^ nfe, or «V*lk'« jMkeHcwC 
lai^ a kmd d atone of Iher ooloor, 
believed to be aaoredto the God DamHshen 
irbo zidea on a goat — the peooliaaritgr of 
thia ahme being that it breaUi in oabe-like 
pieces {9tmn. JiOU). 

§m4^ f^Tf to bewitoh, enohaiit; alao 
to pdba ow, get the better of: ^^rv^v* 
^*m%m iitt-li w^ tg^ft^mr tm who 
eaa oferpower tbia, i^., irho oaa enbhant 
him; ^^¥1 t^oif-iMf l^vp having 
ccoaaedi paasedoTer. 

^'^'V ifot'Wtipo or ^%'V ^gai-po an 
enehaater; ^*^li kgott-wa mo an en- 
ohantreaii a aoioeKefla. 

^%'V Ifoi-io fifW a claas of demonB 
whioh bring dinnaBO on men and oattle. 

<^^'^ iffod-P^ pf • «*|S **oA fat. S^ 
A^tf, imp- f^ khoi, of, F^'i khoi-pa m^, 
^1. todeaign;toprojeot;toplan(S9A.)- 
2. to found; to eataUiah; to lay out (a 
town) ; to build (a house) ; to manufaoture ; 
to form; to frame. 8. to put; to fix; to 
tranafar into a oertain state or ooi^dition ; 
q^-q-ii'^ifS places in m state of happiness ; 
f^qlt'iiir ii'^l^ puts into the wajof salya- 
tion; ««• ja i-^«i-^^«i S04|-fvyaff-*yt 
S0-^ hgoi-pa establishes in the xeelm of 
Buddhahood 4. to set or place in oider: 
frfw^fs^;^ f/ral-pkyam kgoi^ bdfa, as 
(he rafters of a roof are pboed side by side 
(8.g) ^^'^^ irf*^ igoi^ to add, 
place at the end {VaiJuir.y, *fva^s«a'«i 
ikoi-par v^tbttpa beautiful as to arrange- 

ment: nioely ordered; «^T^fV' tejyis 
4goi-pa to arrange oraAments (tastehdly); 
to deooiatei adom ; to oonafamot or aljut 
grammatical forma, sentenosa {Zm). 
5. to set down in writing; 'l^tr^^ yi. 
goJa hgoi'P^ to record t ^^sf^^'^^'^ 
mX ka-'Wa-la ^goi-pa to write name on i 
oolumn; to oon|Kiae, draw vq^ wiiie s 
narratiye^ etc. Frequently to mentioB; 
to insert in a writing ; to puUiah ; to mab 
known. 6. to rule; to govern (fiM.): 9v 
«^'anr\qt*|^*q'«^ 6fof.eo« kkot^paV rn^ 
pa pinhbiB king over all subjugated aai- 
maib (JS.). The partidple pf. ^'^ Vf9f 
IM is alsb sbst : (1) ground-plan ; oofliDS of 
a building; delineatioii ; sketch; 1^'^ 
sAMftW map; design; (2) form, flhspa, 
figure (Sck.) ; sample; oopy ; even of oneM 
own body, s.^r., where a pevasA multiplifli 
himself by magio virtue |^'« ^pnSw; 

(3) building; edifice; struoture: <^«riA 
(fa^/Ni fubei the structur e is beautifal; 

(4) frame; form; *K'«i«<i ikoO^pa Isf tlif 
structuxe of the body : rt-i*fs*«rnpr»f*-vti^^ 
^i» ikei-pa n am - i pkkai i r^<-(«Ai« m/ 
form of an etherial nature. 

fl^'^tgomnw I. totiead: W^H^^ 

grilhma daH^ iikughtdtm m-^s^ 9og9 M 
M>it¥H*$og§ igam^im isf^w-oAs treading on 
the shadows of lamas, teachers, Ac, tls) 
on their ohairs, seats or olothea, or objects 
of food and drink, is sinful. 2. aoo. to 
Sck. ss ^^^ ti^em-pa^ ^*rq ^umpn to pea 
over;^^'^#jWii-|Ki«^« A^roHM to go; 
going (by passing) ; f^ ^^i-^i^^^ee |M 
na§ 4gom ikei-poi^^^^ij^^^^ to paa 
over a tbiffg ; lei^ over it. 

S^'<l bphar-kgom tdkur^igam hpei-pa to ciotf 




or puss oT«r horn <»• ride to anotlwr 

with the feel. 

Q.^ »for 1. ia thebegiiming; ^Ifr 
^«t the t6p or heed oi e low or order : 
V^ «t the Bimroe of e riTor. 2. eapine 
of ^'« Af»Hre. 

vr: to tuny, linger, loiter : ••■r^^'^toei 
dm kgorwm to linger on the mj. 

8yn, T'"' (ful-tNL 

^gor^gfU m$ ipM without delay. 

^^'9 «f3f^ vitV) pt '^ ^/ 1. to 
pert» to eepento; Tb, a. ^el'H^ ^^ 
M^' 0Mf A hemitege; ^^'H ^<fe/-jip 
hflnnit, rednee. ?. to deviate; eonr; go 

^Hftrm Ifof-M 1. the plaoe where two 
loeda leparate no At to create donbt in the 
mind regarding the right path. 3. error; 

^^fpR ffgo§ n. of a monastery, Ttf., 
also n. of a tribe and of a minieter 
of Tibet: f^H^*»lw-^*^^'^W^^^ 

if^-^lfii-^« tpo-fre^' fuitf bffohvc^ it will 
oatoh oontagion. 2 f^firir a liniment; a 
medicine to be rubbed on; f€f anointed, 

«%iiK^'l*^ Bgoi Q$hot^Hu 4pta n. 

pr {8ckr. * Td. t, 60). 

^"T** *W^y-l«» <rf- IT*" 9kyag^pa, to 
be told, qpnt, expended ((?<.)» 

(^C*q |«iy«4-iM, pf. ^S*^*! kgyadv, 
ftwpeir, finranr, ^flt to be delayed, 

deferred, poatponed; farthest: %^'^S^'«I 
ph^ir tgpad'4ia U one defers it ; < skQA* 
^9^'^ not many years shall have passed ; 
^«sj^^i a long time after. 

^'i^^*^^g^i§'m4 without delay 
{Tig. k. »e). 

^§^*Q hgyiit-pa firm, ffNrr an 

appearanoe of greatness or of pride. 

^3^*1 hgiid'^ca 1. to assume air or 
appeeranoe of greatness; to sit lifting up 
the body in the manner of a lion. 2. to 
look haughtily; to bok down iqion; tO/ 
slight a pefson ; A'r^Saa m^h ifyid-^m 
also of things, to despise, eontemn, uegleot 
them. tP^wfi^l^e seems to be an vutendited 
form, meaning to soom loftily ; to look 
down on as from a summit 

^S^*'^ bggiM^g attitude; poiture; 
gesture; also manner in rsfersnee to. 
^^ 9Mug§ form, or ^|m Hgib§^ appear- 

^|^«'^p^ ^yit^^kar a staff consecrated 
to a fearful deity, or haying on its top a 
head with wide yawning mouth or in some 

Ct|JSl*Q bgyinhpa v/Mk the oiroum- 

^S*^ i^yti-tra, pt. ^ igy^h to moTe 
quickly to and fro^, as lightning, the 
quiTsring air in a mirage, the motion and 
versatility of the mind, ftc. 

^^'P igyuTHca w*», ^irT«%« pf. 

|^¥ gyur-io or |^" gyur-pa, imp. %^M 
gyvT'Cig^ cf . |^'^ igynr^tca 1. to become ; to 
grow, increase, chmge : ^tl^'^'^l^^ dg^- 
ihArdnk bgyur^ua^ to become a monk; J^ ISK' 




^^^tgyal-par igj^-ipa to become a king ; 
|irii^*^«^'q ^rum-mar hgywr-wa to get with 
diiid; ^if^S^^^idun^du bgywr to reftoh the 
niunber of Beven: gvwa5Aj^<w'f^«i^' 

ftMaft-iM yo4 there axe those which grow a 
hundred timee better than you ; ^«<'^'^'||f' 
B^ gtmn t^ywr |to-6iif* thrive times as much} 
\^'^*iii Vl da tni§-tgyur Uanhihig ona 
twice as large as that; ^%^'^ a changing 
Toice. 2* sbst. change, alteration, revolu- 
tion, Tioifsitode: ^ii'«i^9'^'m <h$ iahi^i 
bgifur-wat through the change of the 
fonrth season; ^^f^'*'^*' bgy^nr-iv^ 
ifhag^pa to pay money in hand as an 
earnest that the bargain is not to be re- 
tracted. N|^' V*^ ^ ijvtii^dtt tmi-^ tiftl^ 
unchangeable, inyariable: *9'fQ^'^'^'<^ 

pa^ gfHjif yotfff-sif hgyur-tca tiie total 
decay of strength, health and esteem (in 
old age); ^F^^l^wfrf^-Pr^wra idag-gi 
mm nuhgyuf ma-iamt^pa my mind has 
not been altered nor weakened; ^' 
q-%^-iiii-«rA|^ ^ dai'pa bdi-hf9 ma-^pur^ 
rig do not depart from this belief. ^'V 
^*9 igyur^du goi^ ohangeablei Taziable : 
l*ll'^*a pho-mo bgy^r'IP^ n»le changing 
into female and mm iw^sd; ^sni*^*^ 
to change the mind ; ^'<i^'H^'9 to become ; 
begin to exist; to gain possession : ^*<i'l^ 
frw*^|'^*<A ^*Ai*Q'^\^^ these aets of haying 
become indifferent to life; v'^fq^'i^y 
eaU mi tmca-war gyur^o he became speech- 
less. 3. ^|vq bgifur^ipa annezed to an infl* 
nitiTa may denote either the perfect or the 
futare tense, the context deoiding^ in eyery 
instance how it is to be understood: 
CHS^I^*•*»^'^"^ 9wMgtggat^tii ftj^ 
parigguir who shall haTe the GoyemmentP 
who* shall rule P ^frtK'^f v^'i|ii-» db 
fggaUpor iggt^^ioar c^i-so they knew that 

rould become king. "TM^^-^i^q 
'du, bgywr^a to be' sorpriBed 
; V'fl'^l^*^ gnat^u kgyuv'^ 
to come to a place; to airiyeat : ^^S'**^*" 
yi Q'^'^'^ idoi-pa^ Moygntb^tu, bggwr^ 
to be endowed with the perfect gift of 
wishing, vis., of having every wish fulfil- 
led; ^«'«i^*^«^«» to become moving; to 
begin to move. 4. to be trandated; ^'%' 
«9^'9 to be translated into Tibetan; ^'^ 
VMh'bgyw the translated word; ^'9^' 
iggur-bguH was translated. 

a|i('qt'V«i bgffur-wabi'Choi changeaUe 
(and therefore peridiable) things (Os.). 

•ai^-^-^ bgrur-war bggur nfm^ 
{Sifkr. ; KdUtc. T, 89) it will become. 

^'d^ bgywr^hyei a changer ; one who 
% about changes. 

nncjiangeable ; 


'^'^^ hgywr-t9hig the translated 
words; according to some authors wonk 
that have been translated into another 
language: l^'^^^^'H^Ksr^^f*! 
tgy^ ro^gi bgyur4ihig flfWot-pMf-Mi l^og 
keep the original terms of the IMn 
intact with their translation (Fa* 
d$t 88). 

^ bye^^M^ light; a whip^ 

^3*^ byy^'^^t pf * and imp. ^ gyei^ I. 
to be dispersed; to be divided, e.g., a nrer 
that is divided into several branches; ipo 
4fVr« inam-pa (fKig-tu (a ray of light) 
divided into two parts; to separate; to 
part: 9fr%^^%m'\mUfiM^gbgyn^duiirhen 
body and soul part from eadi other. 2. 
to issue, proceed, spread} faranioh frooi: 
^ ^^^«i*Sw« they I^«^ proceeded tea 
those (their aneestorsl. 




^^^ ^99^9^^^ purflf the flense; the 
real meaning; easenoe **I«wi«^J'^|T 
*^'^^^n-<ni Bon ihamiMfa4J^ hgy^g. 
mtm^iag-la tkug^pa§ the eseenoe of all the 
Bon meete ia the )lA&-A»g. 

^^S -0yy^ !• &• of a difltriot in north 
Teang: ¥*'%*HV»T*«>Ti^*lh (?<tfl4. 
^ i2i» «p««»*iii Bu lag Qaii bin^i {LoH. ^ 
6). 2. alrne in money or eetaUe things ; 
^i^^ H9^4 gt(^*^ to dirtribnte alma. 
This expreaeion is defined by Tibetan 
writer as *^*ir^sprf '5* ^-^w^^Jswr^ |^q 
f beatow aUrer and the like in an anmnn 
hiy, diatribitatmg to each man. 

^'^ h9^i-9tob§ ^Tfrnrwrn athletio 
faat ; esaroise of anna* 

^S^ i99^P^f P*- ^f i99^9 int. 
^ J*ya ^nr9; fwi^, <^h[w 1. to diTide 
(tn,)j to aoatter, disperae ; V^Kit^'Q Ao^ 
ur ^a^:pff to diffoae raya of %ht : H'4' 
^^ V9^9^hP^i99^ aendfl forth an emana- 
tion ; V'f^^'V pkO'iia igpei^pa to aend a 
meaaenger; to diamiaa; '<f^ an aaaembly. 
2. to inatitate, aet goings Mq'lf'i(^*ii to 
atart a oombat ; ^vr<i|S'<i to fight abattle; 
^qr ^*4'a one who girea battle ; lfryi#- 
paii Uh$ m the dispate. 8, to gi^a ap 
entertainmant, banquet ; to hold a feaat 

^^ i99^(h^w»W^^*^ jpAra» mm-^pa n. 
of a goddAaa— one that brings on divi- 
aion, diaaenaion, or diannion. 

Q.^^*^ hgy^^a or K^^'^ (po4-iro lak 
to drop or let fall; to throw down; to 
quit, abandon^ throw away {Boh). 

^QI*q bfuel-^ to fall; to tnmUe 
down. ^t^^'^'^^M-rftya/i^^e/fellonhia 
baok, face upwarda; ^'^'''t^ ut-la^^gp^l 
tambled on ihe gxonnd ; |K'«^«*)«*4^'q 
rM-ao^Ayt hgyel^vM to b^ thrown by the 

wind, Ac. ; ^^'M^Hfrir 'iiVr^ abiaken 

down by illneaa ao ae to be nnaUe to walk : 
^•c1H«i-^i^^ he leU by atambling on a 
atone; ^t'l'^ »^i wi f a i- s i i t%ryy then 
I, fainting away, fell to the gfoand. 

^^*^ hgyn-l^^ another foam iaf ^« 

i99^i'1»f to aeparate aannder or between 

4eal ; ^ht'um'^m propeitiea nnder aeal 

<K«» iggogipa to ascend; V'V*'!''*^ 
gyen^ hgyog^-pthpo one who dimba up 

^SS'^ l^oflHi WHr4 ^fiTV, ^ifW, 
w\^, ni»«Ri«K to rapent; to grieve for. 1. 
lament, relent, not only for bad, but alao 
for good aotiona, when the latter* are 
attended with diaadTantage. 2. abet. 

regret: «i'SSQ'<9^'^ b99<4^ (f*y0#iM 
regret ariaea at last ; ^'«^l^'<r%V4 ta bg9c4- 
pa itkgeii^a I felt regret; ^'ii$S'«A'%Mi- 
*S'^'SV^'l^'^ 4a igfci-pati mm m$4-par 
khjfo^la ^gm^no I gave it to yon readily 
without regret. 

af^-q-Hi'^ai hggoi-pa MMi-0mn the 
three kinda of regret are iUuatrated aa 
foUowa:— (I) Sf%^V^^V^'^'W^ not 

being able to defeat an enemy out «f one'a 

country, or Vi>fMi'8«ia|tT|^'^*«^ iP^S to 
be aorry for an oooaaional defeat after one 
haa behared himself as a hero ; (2) 9^ 
a|^-fl'ar|^|rva>^ to be aony, when out 
on a journey, at not being properly equip, 
ped with proviaiona, etc; «fS<CF«V| j^ 
^ii<i;*^-4|S to be aoiry on inviting an im- 
portant person when there is no proper 




arrangement for his entertainment or re- 
ception ; (3) ? iJ i|^«i«»«*l«a««'^^ to be 
torry for not haying fed one's horse when 
on a journey; also y^HW i^'^^'^"^«i5S 
to be sorry when the horse dies, one has 
to carry the saddle on one's own back; 
(4) f «fim^'y •••gwripr^^i-^'Ss to be sorry 
in old age for not having done religious 
works as a youth ; (5) *^T^V'5-^'8"^'^''' 
^' ''when that DeyU the lord of death 
has come, he repents." 

■9JS***\*' bgyod^ii dtu^fna regret after 
a gift has been made; ^^'^S bgyoi»fm4 
^mVTW without regiBt or repentance. 

"■^'JT^ bgyod'tmihwa to cause repent- 
ance; to make one suiler; feel, or pay for a 
thing: ^^'^^ ^fUfH-igyad repentance 
proceeds from consciousness of guilt (/a). 
^^yS'^^'SV^ igifod^tshaHf hyed-pa to apo- 
logise: ^*^%S^'^IFI^'^ to accept an 

^)S' V'^ bgyo4 ^n-pa having repented. 

^^'Q-^^ bgifod-ifagf confession and 

Q,gppi'9P|*l bgrag^-gm, or ?ni'^»^ 
grag§-bgrag§ ^ffkm^ ▼^y bright. 

^5PPI'P I: bgrag§^(j/ag^a},^i. ^m 
grag% 1« to sound forth ; to utter a cry or 
•oondi of nkBUi animalsi thunder, fta ; to 
shout : ^^H«w^'^ippiqi^A|yn if it should 

be shouted into his ear. 2. to be famous ; 
to be called ; ^^'9^ aAe^-gragf so it is 
called ; so he was called; by this name he 
goes ; under that name he is known. 

^9I^^'fl II: bgf-aghpa to bind, v. 
^ W** graghpa^ 

QJSj^^Q |^pf»4-iMi {ifang-wa) 1. to 
number ; to count, v. ^fl^'^ igraH-wa. 2. 

to satisfy with food; to satiate; ^9^<ri« 
bgraii-rje^ after having eaten one's fill ; 
4)qq^i^iMlii^^^*9 not yet having enough 
of deer killing. 

0,^^m bgra^t {ffang) ^^i fully fed; 
eaten to the full extent ; filled up. 

C^^^TQ hgra4i9-pa^^S^^^^ grod-pa 
bge^i or ^|prq-^^¥ gmi-pa hgeHf beUyful, 
•tomaohful j if ii"^^« iUhtm bg^i eaten to 
one'B fill; also Bwq Hom^pa eaten to 
satiety ; with "^^K.tshwhpa satiated ; H^ 
ehog-pa contented (Jlfi^on.). 

C^5|^'^ bgrai-pa or ^S|S'«i igrci'Pa 
. {4^jpa) to spread ; to enter. 

^^ »?rtf» (flbn), V. ^5^'** bgran^po 
^rrvd, ^, % ^t ^9 wt challenged; 

Wl'^*^ bgroH-gyi (khtnei^'i^^^ 
bgran-pa meg without a rival ; matchlett ; 
unequalled (applied to things). 

Syn. ^aR'8'^'|'*S'*i bg^^an-gyi do-tltt md- 
pa ; ^SK'I'As'Q bgran-nta med-pa {M«(m.). 

^V^%W9 bgrm ihOhpa^^Wik^'^ bgrsi^ 
nui-pa or ^in*^*^ bgrm iao^^ to snfhr 
rivalry ; to stand rivalry. 

^5W'^'HT*» bgran^du tjug-pu 1. to place 
in opposition ; to enter ' into osmpetition. 
2. ui a general sense, to defend one's sslf ; 
to make resistance (^dm,). 

 ^W^^ *^/vn-«te=^^T| bgran-zh. 

Q,5I^'fl bgran-pa (denifki) nfiimd, 
nfimil, t^ (1) to vie with, contend with ; 
to strive (for victory) ; J^'ffS'il*»'*i'«P'V' 
^^'9 phyug-khffad tnam-4ho9 mvi-dni 
bgrat^U to cope even with Yais'ravava as 
to riches : ^'^'^Sn Mod^p(fr bgran let iu 
vie with one another in uttering pnuse; 
4^*cwX4| let us now draw a parallel 
between (these two) 

^m 907 

Hn*^ tgnm^ikig woids of oonten* 
tion, bibkering. 

petttoor. 2. equal mfttoh; ^Wr4^^'9^'<9 
wa mmrmlled; nmtohlow. 

^' db-sfa ; ^!K'^ ^frron-di^ nTal ; match. 

^9^*^Mi t^nvM-Mmf 1. contention; 
emnlatioin. 3. jealovuy. 3. qnanelBome 
temper; wpni oi oonteofersy; ^^t^'^vw 
^Y^a to stop ; pat an end to oontentionf 

Q^^QXI ^^raf?! (^iMi) bank; ehore ; tide ; 
neighboiizliood, as H'^^'HT* the foot 
of the wall; •''^'^ST ^^^yi kgrom river- 
side or hank; A'^'^gpi n^-yi igram 
fixeHside; ^^'*^**M|•' igon-pa^i bgram 
neighhonrhood of a monastexy ; !f«^'<i5'^5p 
aroA-pa^ bgram vioinitjr of a village ; «w)* 
^^hm-ggi bgram roadside: 4^'*r«'Siir^' 
V^BF^' Vri^'^l* if the river fills the valley, 
a stone on its iMtnk does not remain dry 
(a proverb).^ Often used as a poetp. with 
or without <ia or /a annexed : ^^'>A'^^^ 
at the brink of the preeipioe ; v^^ ^!pr^ at 
the lake ; close to the lake ; ^9"*^ ia also 
used as adv. meaning near; dose by. 

Ryr^ii bgran^jfuisi^ipf^ bgram^. 

^^^S^bg^Mm4og4i^k^ Haabathing- 
plaoe ; a ahore. 

^V^W bgram-lfihag a slap on the face; 


0^9f^^hgram^ X%^ wm eheeK (of. 

bg^ami^a la rt^n^pa to lay one's hand on 
the ciheek; as vb. to prodaim, publish. 

^^Q bgramifo mm\m one living or 
residing in the nd^bourhood ; one pes- 
sessing crashing teeth ;a demon* 

^9^^^ bgram-gibi foundation; basis; 
^V^^^'^^vq bgram-ffhi bdHi^wa to lay a 

^SF^^i bgram-yxg edict, proclamacioni 
publication ; V'^ti'4|i(«i*^|*^'^-^3|si q A>- 

Tggmgna9^9huUgy%yuge bg^^am^pa to pub- 
lish accounts of biography or history, Ac. 

^W^'^^bgram-rui cheek-bone ; jaw-bone. 

^^F^^ bgram-gfog the hinder part of 
the jaw-bone (ficA.). 

^SF* bgram-w ace. to Ja. cheek-tooth ; 
moltt^-tooth ; grinder. 

Q.9JWr*l bgramhpa to spread over; 
*'?^'*^'^3pw*i 5 me4og 9ogt bgramt-pa-^po 
one who spreads or scatters flowers, etc. : 
R^^« ««r^^»iwq this will be spread over the 
man; «'^^7«i*q to spread on the ground; 
S^-Jspr^-^jpm-q phg0g§»phpog$'mi bgran^ 
pa to scatter to the dUbrent quarters ; 9Si* 
^^'^If^^ lu9^la na4 bgram-pa to infect 
the body with disease. 

^V^^ bgram^i9ha4 overrmastering 

R5pf Rj^ bgra^-bgrui •« Jf gga-ggu ; 
fin &(vpentine^ crooked, bent. 

^5|V« bgrag^pa {4e^) m^^^^m^t^ 
phan^tfkun m^hnn^pa 1. disagreement ; 
difleranoe between two parties. 2. f^, 
f^in^ to hate; to bear ill-will; to have 
spite againstr 

Os o^ 

^g|^'^5^ bgrig-bgrig (fig^tg) 1. 
arranged properly; '^*^^^§T*' Mig 
bgrig^bg^g-pa to arrange words properly. 
3. gdatine; jdly of meat {Jo,). 

oSh'*! bgrig-pa (ef . 1t«« %grigifa) to 
suit,agxee, correspond; to be right; IpK' 
4^4 S^o&ff bgrig-pa suitable occadoiJL; 
J^-^«r«i^^q r^en-b/brel bgrig-pa good or 





aospioiooft ooinddenoe; ^«'^'^)t^ dui' 
t^hoi bgrig^pa the tim# miits; 9<f'^9|^d 
gral bgrtg-jM, ib make eveiytlimg ready ; 
p'^^^q kha bgrig-pa taiaidmity in deposi- 
tion; all of one ezpresaion or speech; if' 
•••w'^J^fl iUh^etm bffrig^pa to agree in 
opinion; P««-^§|^a M^^ffichu bgrig-pa 
oompFomise in a law-snit or case (ei'nl or 
in oriminal). 

^^•«i bgrib-pa 1. irrl^to grow dim; to 
get dark (Ob) (of. |qq igrib^a). 2. nvm 
loss; diminution; also to grow less; to 
deorease, to be diminiched, to decay ; ft '^Jq* 
ft'q^o tm-tgrib tm-lu^-pa neither to grow 
less nor to flow over; ^4^'q bpheUwa is 
opposed to «q|q'q bgrib'pa\ q||a|'q'W<^q'4 
i^aUpa mar-bgrib^a the kaJpa (period) 

t^^*l bgriin, V. «9»*a figrim-pn in «IT 
^S** kig-bgrim ^'m'K%9r%WQ^'tm hg^bgrtm 

gy^ irgy^t-^h passing from hand to 

^5»i"^|ai bgfifn^bgrul communioation ; 
also travellers, either merchants or pil- 
grims: l(tTN^'!i«'>|'«i5-«^3*i'^5«l'«S Edo-rje 
gdan-du sog-pohi bgrim-bgrul cha4 the 
oommnnioation of the Tartars with Dorje- 
dan (Ghtya) was interrupted (A^ 19). 

0,5*'^ bgrim^pa 1. sometimes for 
^I'Q ibrinhpa. 3. pf. ^m bgrim to 
matoh abouty perambulate ; to rove or stroll 
about; walk round; J^'PWi'^fl^iq tgyuU 
kkoifii bgrinhpa to Toye oyer ibB oountries; 
%'iS'^)«i Q ri'hbrc4 bgrim pa to wander on 
a mountainrange;«Ai^'^^'«i««i^'*(}«'^^!('^ 
ehu-^ktd lu/i-'ta yai bgrim na^ bgra-wa to go 
about crossing rivers and valleys, ^o. 

^fsrXi^ ^^m-m^ doing or accomplish- 
ing any work: «i«i'^'w5^«is.i|^i»iiiflrir- 

iwati^gi^ ni^ia^go gahan^yai bgrim^m^ 
kit viAar bde some in conseq[uence of ki 
(m. karmd) entered the womb, othoB 
having accomplished good deedsi woe 
happy enough to escape (here 9mxm) 
{tHram. r, *4). 

^^H^ bgrimt {4m) or ^^l/mn bgrim^ 
pa ^n^^ "tmrn inferiorify; inequa- 
lity or also less in quantity or quality; 
^T«r«^9»«<' rig^pa bgrimhpa failing ia 
intellect ; growing foolish. 

Q^gj^'P bgril^a idO^a), pf. %n grU 
(of. |ii'q igril'Wa) 1. to be twisted or 
wrapped round, for ^fi«5 bkhril (SWL), to 
be collected, concdntrated ; to flock or 
crowd together; ?A^5**'^'' Awn bgrO-na^ 
all in a heap; all together. 2. to be 
turned, rounded, made circular or cylin- 
drioal, e,g.^ a stick (tTa.). 3. to fall, drop 

^^^ bgrii (?0, V. -^^^i bdrii, ^ti«i' 

«T8'V' V'ft'^iS'*^' bgrii-ma tkag4u vHf^ 
gtam mi-ifod^^ immediatly after aoqusin* 
tance not expressing one's heart's wordB^ 
(t.0., revealing one's secret) (Jig)- 

Q,^'P bgru-wa^ (dunca) pf. f« grui 1. 
to bestow pains upon a thing ; (q'tr^l'^'^ 
to take pains in studying. 2 n. of a tribe 
in Tibet : S9^'^f ^••'^HFflV^'^^ dbrab-bgru 
Idom-'fBum IgnhdaA bshf (Jig)* 

0,5^'^ bynOhpa {dub^a) pf. p gnh 
(jSUu. 69) to be accomplished without sajr 
perceptible agent; to be made ready; to 
be finished; ^l^f^'^^'^bgrub-fttr bgym^ 
ro will be finished : <H|7<i^'l^')^ bgrub^^ 
gyuT^eig let it be finished or performed | 
i^iq-cF'^l^ or R^q-^^' will be finished, peis 
formed; ^5P<i*|^ bgrub-f^ m-sntf it oalh 
not be accomplished or done ; 9r^tfk 




^y^^^par before aooompliabed or per- 
formed: »«*^l|^*<r^i«fR|qcii;-i^jvX let those 
deedfl not yet effected be accompliflbed. 
f^'S*'?**'*' lhun%-gyii grub-pa Bpontaneously 
grown or producedi i.e., in a supematnral 
way: '^^'^ ^grulhpar fog wns nay 
it be aooompliabed . 

^"T*^ i: bgrub-ibyor or ^5^«rv|kq 
hgruh-pa daH ibyoT'Wa anything aooom- 
plished and perfected (as a reward). 

^>r^ II : is an expression ooonzring in 
ahnanaclcB^ relative to the proTing tnie of 
certain astrological prognostics of good 
lack ; similar to, but not identical with, 
^^"^^ tUn-hbrel 

Q,^*|'q hgnm-pa (dunhpa), pf. 5»< 
grum (of. 5*i'*» grum^)y to pinch or nip 
(^ (the point of a thing) ; to cut off ; to 
prime, lop, dip the wings («/a.). 

(^^Qpq ignO-pa (#iil>j^=w8»fl|^B 
hm-gyi mgron-po a traydler, passenger; 
also a pilgrim: as'irv*«TB'^fT<r»iK«l' 
$«ry^ %^*sse.'r«irq'9^' Boi-la da-lo tog- 
po hgrul-pa maH-po ikb^'byuA^ ^gye4 
maH'ja yag-po byud this year many 
Mongol pUgrims haye come to Tibet ; there 
were liberal alms-doles, and tea for many. 

(^^Q|*q igrut-toa 1, to walk; to pass; 
to tamli^fff'^'^'^ l^gr^t^or byej-pa to 
canse to go; to send off, despatch, a 
messenger; ^'^Q ^grul^wa po a wallcer, 
post, traTsUar, pedestrian; sbet ^ 
igrul passage; the possibility of passing: 

pa§ the passage from Nyanang being 
stopped (by snow). 2. fig. to walk; to 
liTS,a0t, or behaTe. 3. to paaa as good; 
to be oorrent (of coins). 

^V^tS bQruU%hu4 passage, oommuni- 

 '^V^^^^ 6(rru9'bgog^^9i'(%M JrtaoH 
bgrt^ assiduity, industry. 

Q^^^'Q ^gru§-pa {ifui^pa) 1, pf. ^^q 
bgru-wa. 2. sbst. seal, enthusiasm, dili- 
gence, endeayour; more frequently ^V 
^ irtwn-bgrui (Jd.) 

^'^ hgre-tea {(fe-toa) (^'f 'a ttgt fta- 
hu) ^irm to roll one's self ; Tni«i||q sa^la 
bgre-uta to roll on the ground ; ^'|^ bgre^ 
Idog or "^1 <T8S ** tgre-hg byed-pa to roll 
on the ground from pain or despair, &c ; 
also of horses, &c. 

'^ISTtIt*! bgre Idog-ldog-pa to roll en 
the ground from pain, etc. ; to wallow : 
9«i^'SR-^i^-i^ V^jq q ffa^sogt pkar^shur 
bgrO'log rgytOhpa the horses, etc., roll 
hither and thither, J^i«E«rft-^«w*^ 
^f*! 9S S-^*^^-*! idug^Wal nd-'izo4-pa§ 
bgre Idog-ldog hye4^kyin bdug unable 
to bear pain they were rolling (on the 
ground) {Khri4, 39). 

0,^t:r^ igreH^tca ((M-tro) (cf. !« 
sgreH-fca) 5tiH, ^?(flrw to stand: X'^'^ 
r^'^^'^^ standing at the mouth of the 
pit; S^W'r%K^'^^\ iia^i^ ttar 
bgre^'iffar bffU^r they started up as if 
afrighted. *>'^'^»' m-bgrei g»um three 
lengths of a man (JS.). 

^'5 bgr^-bu (de^-bu), also ^B bgreH^ 
pOj sign of the vowel ' "«.'' 

0,^*1'^ bifrenypcr^ pf. Pfjj^ ikram^ fat. 
SSF^ iigram^ imp. ff^ kkromt 1. to 
spread (as of grainy f oar drying), or ^%>nr4 
bgrem^^ {detuhpa) (f'f 4 eki$ lUhbu) 
^mfk^M to sprinkle (water). 2. to put' or 
lay down in order, e.g.^ beams, fte. ; to 
spread out; to display; to scatter; to 
draw (a curtain). 

m n. pr. (&Ar.; Td. «, tOO). 


^^^'fl bgrehx^ h^^Un ht$h6l^ 
Vf^ ^pff^rr to beg, sapplioate. 2. to pat 
in, anange ; ^ ''^^'^^^ ishig-dm hgrtUpa 
the ananging or paraphraaing the Hieaa- 
iiigs of woidB. b* to esplauiy conmieiit 

'^^ bgrei'pa e^oBLoeat ; late offioar. 

•^t^' ffgro-fm flirar n. pr. (Schr.; 
Ta. if 89i)f &• of a ooontry (piob. 
Tamil) ; of a lezioograplier [prob. iTftv]. 

^WT bgrih§go^ ^f'fe'fl bgrihwtHwa 
es^^enditiire, ooet ; anything expended. 

^9'^' i: Sgr<hidM n. of a conntiy in 
the BOath of India, t .« , Diavixu. 

^«-^- n: iftw {8ehr.; 2». », iW). 

Olf P bgro^Of pf. *^* «><, imp. «^" 
•oil, btd; negatiTe form of imp. f ^V 
fna-bgro 1. to.go, in all its ognifioations, 
f .e., to go awaj, proceed to, walk, Ac. 2. 
abflt. aliTingoreatiiie;that which movee; 
R^-iq ^^yi the six oLasfloB of lining 
tilings. 8. to live; be Hying; moye; 
exist ; to be. 

<|>?|T« bgr(MM po^^^'9\ bgrihbpei one 
who goes; goer; walker; traveller ; passen- 
ger; pres. «1'^^'^ igro-iahm bdug^ 
^V^*^^^ hgro-gin hdug proceeding; 
going ; fat. ^' W ^ bgnhwar bgyw^y 

i^H-q'^n'l^ bgrthwa rigs-drug the six 
kinds of moving beings :— (1) f Iha ^^ the 
gods ; (2) f«'^ iha-ma yin ^^ the d«. 
mons ; (8) ^ tm ^^m hamanity ; (4) ^^% 
dui-hgro fiwhl beasts, etc. ; (5) ^'^^ yi- 
diags 5n the ghosts; (6) SV^'^ rfmyaAt^. 
n^M hell-beings. 

R!f 'iA'«^4i'Q bgrihfcabi Qi$^on-jH> ^firirni an 
epithet of Avalokite9vara ; WA<fi|^«|i^ 

800 ^tC^'^l 

SyofM'as gnigi a name of Bnddha, of 
Yishnu (4^lo«i.). 

previoasly visited. 

^'««'^ hgr^ltH iike^^t'^'^ hgro^ 
ehe or ^%M'^ bgro-Sen eke^ adv. very pro- 
bably; in all probability ; also wt alooe 
is osed: ^•«^^«r^^'*S'*|"jH"As-«i-i^i(r*f 
VK^l g9(hW0 rig^fa idi bod-na tnmm m^ 
pa$ mdhnat hgnhla^ che the science of 
healing, there being no medkiae in Tibet;, 
may in all pKobtUlity disappear {A, 3S). 

0.^^'V bgrogi-iki to assodate with; 
to keep company; to be in the company of; 
to accompany: •x»f«rws^-^!|^wq^ 
ffma'pa iga-daiH bgrog^^Mt^ iam tiy to 
associate with the holy ones. 

^WT^'^tB tgrogii^hpo or Mf^o^tS 
bgrogt-par byed associate ; one who acoom- 
panics, gocA together. 

Syn. l*«^ tjH^hags\ *«f^ ^ 
l/>yor\ '^•W^W^ ydirdag bgrogs (4P*wi)- 

^V'^^ bgr^hlugi (eastern) manner. 

^V^'S bgrai^bu '* AmV^ eho-loV M-i«M 
cowries; dice (40on.). 

»^f« J^fro-»ia HWiiT {Sehr.; Kdhc. T. 

• Qft'pmm bgro (sa/t-m0 (Schr.; 98 A.y 

^V'iS bgrd^^d'^V^'^ ghOrpo an 
phant (JOfeJi.). 

O^^mx bgrol'¥;a,^.^^Wol,i^ 
^^ dg^ol^ toonravel; to make looee ; to Mt 
free; to onfasten; ^^•^•fi^^r^*^^ ^ 
du ^ud-pa bgrol-wa to cot the knot ; ^V^ 
«!'« bgrol^a po or ^«^'8S bgrol-byed one 
who unravels, loosens; ^^•''S^'^^^ *^ 
gyin bdug is being set free ; '^♦r^ ^^ 
igrol-icar bgywr will be set free. 

^Tq n: to 6Mape, be libemted, be 
releieed from. The pf • bare is f^ grol 
G^erallj -QgfiA in the dietinoiiTe Bud- 
dhist aense of eeoape from the neoeBtitj of 
lirmg, re*fairth, eto. 

kyi i(fr<hiuff9 gait ; mAimer of ivmDdxig of 
men, hones, eto. : *^'|'^>^'l|^'^ Hi-ipUai §kar 
la :— W'Rf ^ ^tr ^^n- f^- V^^ ra/l-* ffro§ 

rlu^igroi gn%% re-yoft those that are self- 
moTing, raoh as sun, moon and planets, 
eto^ and those that are moved ; s.^'Q'^'St' 
^t^^^^'irS^'^V those whose manner of 
walking is like the goose or tlte parrot are 
respected by all; l^'H^'^B'«i^^9«'if^ 
IN, «w|^- »Krt'iiST«'§S'««'5^^ gM-chen 
mH^ khff^ffichog ^gro^ldan tm^ Mi-^pyo^ 
%ia1lrpoii idag-po bye4'par ido4 those that 
walk in the manner of elephant, lion or 
bull become rich and wish to be master of 
many people; BT^srtii;-^fw«ir^|TV*i 
whosoeiver walks in the manner of dog, 
pig and donkey gains imhappiness (Jff .)• 

9(^ tga-wa, ji. W r^«l •wr 1. to 
be old, aged ; also sbst. old age. 2. to go 
down ; to set (of the smi, etc.) (Ja,). 

Sf'W^'H^'S tga-watl krai^cjfi bat, flitter* 
mouse (c/a.). 

•4r< rg^lo {Sekr.; Td «, Ui). 

^'^ rga^ vi^Uf^ old age and death; 
4|*^W4^'<9 tga-fii gmr-nm to suffer under 
the milnnities of old age. 

9f rgad also m|K'^'« kg^V^-fna 
hedge-hog, the second term designating 
two species: Erinaeeu^ aurUus and 
BrinacetiS amur&nm^ the latter found in 
Edkonur district. 




9f\^ rgaii^^^^^ tgatpa also* 
^^'Q kgrt%^ an old man; a man gray 
with age. 

Syn. ii^-* *i M^49ho pel; ^^'^ m. 
Mo4 yol\ « •«^B^^f^ hhmA khur4ian ; S** 
3*9^ iitci-po ia/Mf; ^fH^'<i ikJ^ogf-pa; 
^'i^'SV^ mgo^fkp0§ ikar^wa ; «i%q*-ifipr 
fW iM-paii tfnat^tkabi; fT|T«» 9hMia 
imm^pa^ ; ^c»»i»f fl igi^h igtthon^ ; ^fl 
tgan-pa (jVXoii.). 

^'If tga4-mb an old woman. 

tgai^) old man and old woman. 

9^^^ rgan-pa ^, ^ff^ an elder; 

senior. In Tibetan astrology a person 
agedbetween 60 and 72 is called W«i, 

4|3^*Hf^«»-j» «^ l!i;«Vi| 1. an old 
inhJi ; elder. 2. the headman of a village. 

^ti5U| rgan^poH thig^ ^^ go^a vul- 
tore ; also met for rainbow {M^Han^. 

^•qS«^4 rgan^po^i ikigJe V^-JHW 
met. an old man's son. 

SK'Qt'iRi tgot^HH^ hi the woik of an 
elderly man. 

^T* r^iMwo velflsii, iJNf, va an 
old woman ; one inflrm and worn oat. 

^*Vf< tgan'^hugi ^TM those thai 
are grown old; elderly people. 

ij^'^OT fpan-roif Hm the TsneraUs, 

SH'^^m tgtu^m imra of the older 

^'^'V^^ rg^n-la Sam^ WK^^ iolislsn 
to the adrice of the old. 

^'V^ rgan'9aii wrvfi} has become old* 




9pn tg^i nw,^nww;«^^«* •^^^^J 

fHii «*»-f jwrf the lord in driver: ^W^ 
ffo/ tf!h4-fMi difBonlt to ford or to oroM. 

^•P f paA-^ or ^'^ tg^^ P*- aad fat. 
'^ &rMi»p. Ipi fi»/> to ford (ariYer)}to 
traTd through; to pasB orer; to sannotint 
apaas: f**'irfi(»M-|f«r9 tgya-wMc^ 
gru-gMi-kfi tgnUt attar having coroflaad 
the Bea in a ahip ; •'^lii^V^r jv (f^t 
iMifti ftyoll 4o« the north side (faoe) of the 
monDtain-paai thai has been orotsed. 

jointe of the bade ; hip-joint ; aoeocding 
to Beh. ^Upk tgat4Mn^W^^^ m^ 
igi the spine. 

(fo-fiiff tyatcijr the ohameleon. 
4PR f jwas^l'^ rpuMMi old, ripe. 
ipn«| f fOff-Jki old age. 

«it4 aged^ old; exhausted ; inflnn ; sbst. 
an old man. 

^pro-q^-q rgaH>^f ito^wa an dixir 
(which has the property ol giving the 
appearanoe of yonth in old age) ; "fK^f 
if icui-kngyi 9kar {M*g. 90). 

Hsrfis rvn-ky^ ^w^oftrw that makes 
one look old and hac^;axd. 

^iV tg^ ipei^na unfWt a woman 
whose company makes a youth look old. 

V*S rga§'fne4 9^ *!""* Mirer 
grows old, anameofthe celestial beings. 

ft f^sM-tf^ many; ^f igthtM 
one able to orercome many. 

ilV rya-*»l a mixture of many ingr^ 
diento healrng sores, joining veins and 
removing pains in the intestines, as in 

9i^^ r^M^iMi 'pw, fW^i ftj^f w^- 

1. disadvantage ; trouble. 2. to dec- 
line, to sink, grow frail: ^•«r-^*^-iJ'^y 
'^l'^ C'1''^8^'l^*4^*^'9S'''i ffFOS-jNi dai no- 
Ufa (M mi/a^an dad ^g-itttal gyn lut 
9MI9 f fMtf^ (his) body and mind become 
deteriorated from misery, sorrow, disetie 
and age ; 7'|^ dar^tg^ rise and dedine. 

8S*« tgu4-po9 V. 5S'B gui^. 

pkoH§Jkff% fnu9hfa a destitnte person ; des- 

grapes ; f*l ^T^ tgm-4kar the white spe- 
cies of grape: fT'^3*rJf^^^^-^<ifc 
rguf^tbrum ghhnad 9eU9kiA Uhai-pa ibifni 
the grape removes diseases of the lungs 
and cores fever. 

fh^^ rgufHff^m irine or drink made 
from grapes. 

|V^ rfnfM-r^ wild grapes ; acocffdifig 
to J3. raisins in W. 

flV^'^ rgurnH} or pB i^r^TO fi 

hunchback ; one bent by age, v. ^^ 4g^* 

^'^ rgur-re ^Y"9^''^ff^'^ tgwr-tg^ 
bffa^fMf idad-pa At dowi^cast, bendisg 
the head downwards. 

4) rgO} somet ime s for f(§g^. 

V'^ tg<hwa:lB'^'^ ^gthwa a q^es of 
antelope FA)capra picticaudata r. Ji. 

TljC^'lf r^0^s-mosS^» ^0O«^ in 
older writings the evening. 

bird of prey; "^'^ inld goat; >it'?S wild 
boar;^f««r'Pi«*^'ft'^irfWysk 2.*fV|'i 




fm-rffoi jtcf-te like a wild 2nan ; a savage ; 
a robber; a ruffian; *JiS'9S'«» mi-rffO^ 
byei-po to rob (tuually named together 
with murdering and lying). 

J^'ipi •! rgoi ikam-ma a barren mare. 

^S^ T9o4*P<^ !• to iangb* 2.=:*(^'^ 
fytHr^wa to grow weak, languid, or in- 

^ ^'^'*^ r9o4 hag-ctmy deeotibed as ^^^ 
5K i^yU.^^mr'^m:^^^ yon^tan me^-eii $mi 
4ufan iBi^o-ua 1. a Tain person pi:6tend- 
ing to be great and powerful, but devoid 
of wisdom. 2.3Bs*'wrnir«K'fr^n semi rnam* 
par mi^nhuwa the disturbed state of the 
mind {K. d, ^ S5S). 3. weak; languid 

'isSSr^^^rf-iy^rf^^W'W*! laughing; laugh* 

^S*" rffoi-^na iuft, wifIT a mare. 

j^*«i'|st tgo^-rna ffcyei 1. a name of the 
physioian of the gods. 2. bom of the 
mare. One of the wi^es of the Gbd of the 
Sun who, unable to bear the glare of his 
rays, ran away in the g^ise of a mare to 
the northern oontinent, TJttara Kuru. 
The son followed there, and oaused her to 
give birth to the oelestial twins oalled 
As'vinI kum&ra. 

9^'»<^'^^ r^oflMaft* ^'fo^l WTfW a herd 
of mares. 

^***"* rgoi^at a numerioal figure. 

J?t rgoif ▼. 8?T^ tffd^wa. 

9K%'^ tgoUphyi tgol a posture of witoh- 
oraft against enl spirits: l^)')f>rS'sp^ir 
Piffn tifolphyi^gol gyuffian ifami (A. 8S) 
prepared the seat for a defiant attitude to 
suppress evil spirits. 

^^'fl rgol^M^^tS^ tioi^pc Wf% pf. 

and fat. ^ too/, to dispute, oombat, 

fight, make controTersy^ Hi^^l^i) to 
hold discussion, Tsrbal di^mtation; ^KF^' 
S^'^m^ii'lf^'^ to fight by means of troops 
and powers ; i^'^*t'X^ rpof-iM^', sMi-dsn 
a challenge ; a speech provoking a quaxvel ; 
^'^ a quarrel or contest b^gun by the 
counter party {8ek.) ; wl^ac'll an adver- 
sary, opponent ; B' ^ sAc^rgol vk%f^ the 
plaintiff in a law suit, but generally signi- 
fies an aggressor, assailant; h'^phyi-rgol 
^ITfi^ defendant; %«^lii|-*-^va phytr^ 
tgol-woti gnoi-pa is an external danger 
against which every one tries to proteot 
himself and chiefly by charms and witch- 
craft ; W^ i^a-tgol and \^ pAyurgoi are 
also said to signify such students as hold 
religious controversies with one another. 
g^ ina-rgol is the party putting the 
questions; %J^ phyi-rgol is the party 
answering the questions. 

^'*^ rgol-tMg tibaatening words. 

Syn. |-«^ tpycUhigi ^^^ tf«^ 

iBhig (4r«ofi ). 

§ I : rgy^ W«r seal, stamp, tokei^ 
man, sign; )*^^w« rpyii-|4rif-fw to 
seal; to stamp: %^^^Tgy^ 0^4^! to 
break or open a seal; ^'1«^'1^BT^ ri- 
tgya M'tgya i^hug^p^ to seal up luDs and 
valleys,, to protect the living beings 
inhabiting them from being harmed by 
huntsmen or fishermen; an anntud reli- 
gions perfdnnanoe. of the Dalai Lsma» 
consisting in a variety of qiells and 
incantations for the safety of animals 

Syn. H'V <4e»#4si ; rr^Ph^0-^^; 
V^^^ danhpkrug (MnaH.). 

A II: aniinal of the dear classy in 
appearance lik^ the IfUgai^ possiUy the 




* A ni: mm, W a ntt, a trap; f% 

lUnrm • ^''^^ ^^ *'S h^-rttf^ a 

nwk Qortxap to oatoh Uxdi or wild ammab. 
«IV: 1. «t«it; file: jt-^s'^lw 
rgiAi tiM'^Uehi4iam bow mnoh waa its 
eitant P f^Frff*S'» m^ 4P^*^ «••*** 
imiiiMfOTaUa in wtoni 2. HTKH a 
nyyii^ for India boi sometiixiea for Ohixia, 
wbioh are both Tast oountriet; also foll- 
hms oomplote itatei or perfeotioa. f^q* 

pa tiiero are fleren kinds of mark used 
in dmding a Tolume ; they are the f ol- 
lowing^^-Cl) H^*^^^'H^'5 tBhig-Hru 
nd4k»rug§ tiVg-ifi tgy^ the sign or mark 
for diflting n'«^^^g one verse from another, 
so that the verses may not be confused ; 

(2) H'F'*■'^9T'"*''•1^'J'S <«*V-f*«^ *«^ 
tkkrug§-p0 foi^ rpya the marks or stops 

used at the end of a sentence or the line of 

a verse ; (8) H^^^I^^'-^^'S <*««^-*» 

mi4kkru9H>^ **^ »»* ^ "^*^ '^ 
chapters: (4) Jt»sr*-^liTia-«'*S fo-fo- 

ka m-Vckruft^pa banhpoti f W« t^« "^^ 
■o that the lines may not be carried from 
one chapter to another; (8) «irB»-^||spi- 
^•n«flRg|s.ij|*f bamnio tm-VArugt-pa bam^ 
pdki graUfhl^yi ttV^ marks to shew the 
number of parts in each votame; («) •w^' 

tUiMfi tgy^ the marks to shew the end 
of book, part or chapter; (7) »^«w* 

ykhrugi pa gM^p^ flw** fPlf^^hkhfer^ffpi 
tn^ the serial number used in marking 
ihe volumes of a ooUeoticn. 

* S'l" tn^H^^^'^ igifihtam) a cross ; the 
S^Ossign; ^HV" rdfHJ^ tn^l/ram 
A doss made of two Vqfru, one placed 
upon another ovosiwise. 

%^ ttV^Hf^i Indian or Ohinese Isa- 

}*4pi rp^yo-iikes a staircase, ef. f***^ 

fl^ T9y(i^ffV^99 ^nWT, ng lac; a 
kind of resin; j|*^l'<FV tgp^t^yegi 
kyi t^uim-igyur wmi a sort of lao of the 
colour of MaHJi^hd. 

j-jspi-^c rgy^^-9kyeg p» ^w^iw, wtu, 

imiK a kind of tree the twigs of which sie 
used to oleen the teeth. 

|*q|ira fgffa i^m-pa to contract ; to 
dinunish in extent. 

S'^n^ rgy^t^iP^ large orb ; disk : \|^' 
JVI^'-^ ^iJaH tgy(^4kar far the bright 
orbs of the sun and the moon appear 

%^S^ rgya itfV^P^ ^ widen, 

enlarge, extend, augment. 

|7«nrq fgpa kham9i^ the Khamps 
tribes residing on the confines of China 
and Tibet. 

f H tgyohkhyi a Chinese lap-dog. 

llSr^ tgy^iM^fon or f '^""B^ tgya iam 
khpon^ V. % tgya. 

A*4p^ 9gya-gar said tp stand for 
J^gya-^MT, because ikm becomes '^ ger 
when joined to the word f rgy» Wita; 
Tibetan n. for Lidia, the extenaive counfry 
wheie the people dress in white. l%e 
difiarent names for India are— <l) 

Bphaghyttl ''^^'^ ^» ^^»5 (2) 
i^l^i^ti ]Bphag§'ikkn$il§ birth (place) of the 

Holy onai; (8) ^'Vwrv^ fsotf^MMf 

50-^1 S^anjRf Puyy g-Ma-e ii for IC agadha ; 

(4) ^*)a*Q /8»ii tOi^po ^^mm. 




HAf€ to I17 a net or tmp, 
S*|'^ fflMHriyiMw, mot for H"* 

groff-mm ibm oat (Jfioii.). 

S'JT fMiMp^ ff^ a goto; a priiuipal 
door or onbaaao. 

long monflj-bag BMido of not and iaoaiilj 
joined to tiia maku 

Si^ fyy»4Mf OUnoM taUa, 

^*S^ rir|r«-«Aa/ partiality J uiTkUoiu 

%*^ tn^ ^*i-<Mi or ri'M pMa/ elMM 
great, lai^ eopioai^ diiloeed; f^'^I'M 
itoa^M rpv tfftMM a great matter or 

f )^-Xff|-a Jfgpa^h$r rtiifM Tflbetmi 
edition of the LalitaTiftara. 

§♦•••". mMh9k$ km ifqw^S"*!^ ffya- 
Imm main road. 

9*VrV t Wf <* i < t jw yM ffifa iJUi ia 
e%« larger eopiooip wide; ^la'S'lfV 
M-ala tg fM di mfo an eadeoilTe eotrntsy 
or large ]ilaoe;%W)'HV Mai CT f xri b aj w 
a geneKooi toadlieart ; *i'yHWei< ifyfa 
dlM-fio a Tolimiinoaf religioiie work ; reli- 
giooa obflerranoea on a large eoale. 

wkm oopioos or abondant deeoription. 

long table; abendbu 

91^ r«f«-ftopf 1. ^ made, dgn, 
rignatore, etemp. 2. (^m §K4t§) n. of a 

S>i ry#»4JMa Uad of eeal or elamp. 

9''^ r«fa-V«Mi HL widetioir; a 

platform or open pavjUon en the top of a 

9*^ t91f^^4^im the Indian mpee. 

y^ 9§9^^tm B. «f a diMet in 
iVpor Kopg^ (7i^. *. ifl). 

9*^ tl»i»fr> or 9P^ r 9f mti i$ a 


S"^ Afiw-Mf nvrTKr Obiaa, U, ih« 
gm* Mid MtlMdm oooAqr iriMn faofk 

rtNMw Oo OUaMW pMfl*. 

f n fflNHM r» la agnll* hiif i^i 

9*1^ rnMPn mni tke OUreee 
inoanae etjck or / eeo et M t 

9t^ tt p^ r hu f t wwn a fun eotaiiic. 
9*4 r#jMMMi«ii^w fkm%p§^ mmn^mi^ 

tMi»«i»|ifl##atobeveoAdandaf enrrioe; 
to eaort one'i oaU : «m-9^«^«r^«g*a^* 

^ •ft^nH^tt tt fti a jw ii fMNMna 9^ 
jMf (X /M) be waa of g^teat anr?iee te 
tiie religion of Bnddba. 

9'< l yy e lie tbe beard ; eoPoq, ^gj^mJ^ 

Jl9# China and Tibet ^fMh; alao 
Ultttkr or OUneee Tibet 

9^^ t9P^h*^ fiAa mf: rain- 

y*> fy»«-eai a eteel-jmd. In Jkmdo 
the term 9*ii tn^Pi^ eignidea eeoondeiy 

yA^'^l^f^j^MM n mto § a flower need 
asmedioine: y*T*fTirT^T^'fV*^H^n 
the flower Offmmm eaufif ia neefnl in 
diioaeed blood and in peine in the 

yV ttp^-m a net; aloo a Chineee 




9'li tn^i^'lf of the oolonr of the 
liver ; pnxple. Aoo. to Ja. violet oolonr. 
fV^ tgy^T^^ ^ ''^°* ^ liaarJ 

5> tn^rtri {^'t «i-r^«) a Ohinese 

tmthfuifbrap'tkirontio-4%phan Chinese var* 
yiinK oares aQreSy wounds, skin-irraption, 
itohf etc. 

n. ol the learned Tihetan Zo-^«<f-tta who 
twioe visited Vikramas'ila in Magadha with 
a Tiew to take Atls'a to Tihet. 

frtftcMMi sal^amoDiaa 

|*tfii r^yo-^sAof yermilion. 

I'fi* f[gyijhwt9ho «»nf, inrT,^^ 1. the 
ooean; the sea. 2. dropsy. 8. it also signi- 
fieeihe nnmher fonr: sfii«|-^*isj*^ 

me4 no amoont of elegant sayings or writ- 
inga is adequate for the learned; no 
qnantii^ of water is soffioient for the oeean. 
Kwift is a Qommon personal name in Tihet. 
Syn. f^ ckii^^i^\ h'S^ohi»rdag\ t** 
ICH ckubiph^»t^\ VH^^^'^^ rin^chen 
bbu^V^\ !•«'**• 9kHM9bphet\ f«»t- 
^^ sftMWiW gn^V, "r^**»l i>A«-ro7 mi^ 
i^n\ «wp'W rjw^-rffcffJ-Kw; *ts'^^- 

eke; ij|5«;W« wn-d*i4ftt 6*i«hi; ^J*^*^ 

f^siro Idiw-iiia; w«K« ««-fl«W «w ; W 
«H-^ipi rfw^-wn jiMTi ; ^w-^^*-*^ mO^bgroki 
gfer\V^'^^ dal-hbab fBdBo4f tl*" «*«- 
«:»/} «l«^'f^'''*'<''^ c*i*Jfm rgval'fpi9kan 
eon I |«A'W*< sto-iraji nm-fna. 

jM^'VI^ tgya^^ifiUko 4gai ww^v^n the 
moon; J*i*i'| rjfya-t!rf«*oii sto *lpftR| 
refieetkxa of the moon in the ooean; %'^' 
V9Mr9«fb\'%'^gSrgya''fgii9hopa*bam 9»^'9P 
4pya4 iRnfVOT a eeaman or anything 
belonging to the sea. 

a f •t'l^d ^tgya^Uho ^fot-pa Samu- 
dra QupU ; Kir^nr n. of anoient monai- 
tery fonnd buried under sand by Xing 
Dhannapfthiy near site of whiohwaa found- 
ed the monastery of Yikramaa lla. 

•I* j'sdR'sAc.' rgya^n^Bhohi QidiM=l 
fn-sMUsi r^ya-Qi^iAo^' wMi or f>^'S)« AM- 
ikyil the vast expanse of the sea. 

^•A'^'^i^' tgya-iftihohi dud-pkn^^ 
^n Uha-la billows ; wayes of the sea ; alio 
borax {Swan. 166). 

j*si)ft*!^*q l^gyMfMoti nf^-^^ n. of a 


j«A-«-ii igpM^tgiUkati iwMra, y. J*«W* 

^'H tgya-mho^i dbu-wa «13|^W, a land of 
inedioine [(I) sea-foam, (2) outtie-flBh 

S'*i^ r^yo-isM in W, is stated to be a kind 
of (^or-ma offering to demona and demi-gods 
as a substitute for animal saorifloa {M). 

9*^ r9ya-0s»( aoo. 8oh. a large net; a 
large rake used in reaping. 

I's^ tgg^hf^m^i'^'^ tOfet^'^pa laasssi; 

xemi«ness : V^ WJ'^'^* tnamJmm t99^ 
M7fi eltfi during the time I am found negli- 
gent (of religious duties) {Tig. k. »t). 
^ 4*^'^^ r^yff-yf-Aftar engravings on a 

seal; ^^^"^ tgy^fi Vntr^^l^^* 
danhpkrug gi rMwo the raised %ures or 
ineoriptions on a seal ; 9^*9 pkyag^tgga in 
mystio rites the q^mbolioal gestnrM 
ol the hand or the fingers, to express o«r- 
tain ohanns and language. 

9'fP tgy^'K^t ^^ oountry of India or 




f ^ rfr««ri wvn ptinMd flgUTM, etc; 
• poitkm of meat ( Jd.). It alio de&oUt a 
mMrarashalf dum or ona fourth of Ihu. 

S'"W tn^Ub talk, goiiip. 

1*<^ tgy^km high road, main way. 

S'4^ rgifM^ tha jimipar trae; a 
speoiea of fir from Chma and the Hima- 
lajas; a speoiee ol jujube; S*^*^'Y^*4|* 

gi ptf-ifa t£nv-6a chui-^ihuii p4ifM 9kig 

Syn. V9^%X ^a-lW m^mno; ^m«' 

( rgfthfug-gi gM-po taai-i^o) a ipeoias 
of juniper. 

f -4^ rgga-fitbi or V«'4^ jparfiiif UgU 
trousen irom by tiba Ohinaea. 

S"^ rw^^f Ohineea paper. 

J-'H rp*»-ft>i«f *i rgg^Mc§ Termi- 

9'^ tgg^'^^ I- g<^Pi olAft, flanna 
ohann in rooks, glaoierg, fto. 2. a dog 
with yeUow q^ about the note. 8* 
1*^^ a Bueeiea. 

J'^ rw«-tv «f J'^h"* tgg^^'^og4$ 1. 

a flaw imported from India or Ohina. 2» 
a Tartar of Turkittan. 

)'V^ tgya^^n^ 9^ wide opening or 
paasage; a etraet ; a belanoe. 

S V( rgyth^ran fva (^ iftm) a kind 
of pulse ; gram. 

Aqj*q r9W^ another form for yi «> 

tgy^p^ used eep. in C, to throw^ east, 

fling • *^^1^'^ V^^ tgiWhP^io shoot 
arrows ; S^'^^'iT' igon-pa $hig tgg4»g^ 
ps to found a monastery. Ha% in 
general, all the signifioations of ^^Qwa. 

y|V«l I : ttnmhp^ 'iiwr provisions, 
viotuala, food; O-aljim tlti<MMfc' 
r^o^l profiaions for Irring; «i>r j^ b«^ 
rn^l provisioQS for a journey ; ^Y|^ 
A^iM*rfya^ proTisioas for the winter; 
ST^fc' tggttgh^QA merohaadise to buy 
or barter Yiotuals with. 

l>a anoganoe, prida. Adj. arrogant and 
ioabriated. lliers aafe eight kinda of ff^*^ 
rgiMVhpa :— (1) ^asa-^ri^pre rigttmO^ 
wurggagi^jaidMol high birth; (2) <fn*i* 

S1^ gsN^i iyiir rggtvH^ v^ ^f VP^'^ 

anoe; (8) •(«'*«'S«fV«i M^aAof rggaghp^ 
pride of youth; (^ ^'*S*«nrypra m^ «m^ 
pa§ r;#a(ri-jM pride of freedom from sick* 
MS»; (6) K^'S*" Jfl* «i aor-wwli m/mg^P^ 
prida of wealtti; (6) V^*i «W|W«» *«i 
V^i-r^ tn^Wi^ pnde of power; (7) * 

pride of teohnioalkoowledga;* (8) ««^*^*Vr 
W*|^'Q MMrf-da M^-fM| rgg^wpm pride 
of versatile peroeption. 

fat, stout (fiivA.); alaomi^tyi powerful, 

AC* r^ya^ae]^' r^jra/l 1. wall. 2. 
^ distanoe. 

S^*VT< rgg^grt^i litw the distanoe 
of about two milaa; the reaoh of hearing. 

^.••afeq^lf^ rggmt^moMl iiali^gii^ 
moving forward by long leapa. 

f^'V^'^ tn^ MallHMi near; S^*f^* 
mig^tggM distanoe of sight, m., tha 
distanoe fkom whiah a man may be well 

ja-^^l^q r^ya«*da tu%^pa Ungaring 
behind (Soh). 

ja-^.^^ tggM^na9 f^g-pa x^ 
ear shot; hit from adifltanoa. 




jNi liiqr liid Um dofwa ifa tit Jwd out 

]^'«r^ l^aM f*ifi-jM or ]^'^*4 r^ywi 

pMpM a iMi ot Hindu phOotoflien idio 
WW9 w wntiil hj JhtBnddhiiti andoilled 
alMMii ^irfrSF'^* lii tiie otft <mt by 
thi« iraddt £«^ tlit datpited of tiM p«opl0» 

tbii Utiig&lti MOfc of Awftitu t Tn^i^., 

y^""! iff ti twm diftenao; gnot wj oil; 
^*9r^ jy yt H wwii fi at a dWanoe; irom 
alv. l^w^ f^ li l-a nyaH^pia-MV ^iiVi- 
jM aiMM £mbo«i odtbratod ; hmiA from 
ate. Yhj ooaunoD in oldar at mH as 

iMm duvfraii^itod. 

1^*' ^f i H^ ti ovdiniK7 pranuaoiation 
of yr^|tfrffl-r<M,tlia dbkf town in tho 
distriot of Nyaag in SoaiiMm Taang. 
y^*^ ffyaH falai not to trouL 
^*^'V ffyat-rM^i^ far, ramoto ; ja* 
te'V'^pr^ra rffad r iW jio a ai fca^w taken 
or laooglit fiom a gveat diitanoo. 

]a-U*a r|f|f«i-rM-tMi flnv^ wiM, 
^lffii( dalagriagf pvocvaitnuiting. 

ja-alMra r^yatf krMHNi longihoned 
to a gioAt diofattoa. 

JKI r»»irtl|odT.lw} |Mr^*'^ r^ywii 

W^ ^ moring far away, $.g.t in oidar 
to incKOMO ona't diitanoo from an onpleA- 
iant nei^lxmr at table (Ji.). 

fM^ r^yaHH^ arriTing as in haste: 

gfi tViMr-^im'^kig tkogfnoi khoH^gi tt$mr 
tgf(d4$ flyad oairying a cKystal staff he 
eniTed near him (A. 188*). 

f^^' r^fsd-fM, also wrongly written 

|k ax-^'Vuri-^-ll-V^r |a*a f*if.Ma< rMwe 

M^tn^ r0h§M f fiud aati fUt so^ M 

mi'^og ty f a ilf fgis 1. eastla. 2, the bosid 
oniAioh the body of a enlprit is sfaretelied 
for flogging ; theboardor oaaraa on which 
oloth or pasteboard is ]^aoed for makiiig 
a piotiire* 

4^ I: r^ym, ooDoq. tyfva-aAa ^pmi; 
<i|ffwK| ft^ijTWj 4w onamenty deoor- 
ation; f^l'''^^ rnm-gpii ftr#jm-/« 
deoked wiOi ornaments; ^'fl 4w^tgy^ 
the oraament of the head; a diadem; 
^*Mt'l'S^ SMN|4yi r^yaa ableasing; an 
omamant of th^ heart : ^rK'^*^«'Vr|'S^ 

ornament of the body eqnals mental talents; 
the ndssries of the body are not equal to 
anadely of liie mind (^. 18). 

Syn. an eM|; ^-fs fc| i> W ; "^t* 

4^ n : 1^ ita^f 1. a stake or pledge 
at piay. 2. lot ; 9^'S^<r rggan^mi^b-p^ 
to east loti— without religions eeremonies. 

(fiMr.; ra f| i^ one vaned in rhetoria 
fT^'^ f#y«a ktrei-piilfit^ to lay 
a wager* 

f»'«*^ rff»«a-90A^ irln *Mring- 
|^*^*M^ rfywMlif Mar it prom a 

blessing for the heart ; a moral ad fantega 
S^^ tgifm^drug ilfancn the siskinds 

of omamenis need by the Aryan people of 

jS'^^^q rggam^^gi^pa to adorn 
one's self. 

y'H'^'S^ tgyan ae»a U<mH Ufaa 
ornament made in the ahape of a weaaers 

adorned^ bejeweUed* 

§cit 309 

H  ttim^P^ V''^ tliiowing dice; 
also S^^^W^m fyym (dWv-vMM OM 
wbo joiiit in a wager; gamUer. 

S^^l^*^ tgfm^pa bg^i^ to lay a wager. 

yi'^^a fffaa cfpr-eie or ^^ <i M<V:|m 
^IW^ a dioe-rogae ; a gamester; one who 

9^m nryea-jiAfwii em e w oommonly or 
sli^ilj ornamented. 

STf* r«r4W.J»a#, V. S^ r»eii. 

fW^ r#y^>a Mbhgam W"i« a lemi- 
oiromlar neoUaoe. 

M ffyefr IV, ^^ 1. liio baok ol the 

body ; tiie beck part of anything; ^'%' 
i^ rn^Mtfi rkyog% behind ; |Fl«^ft** 
'^'9K^ rn^hJfi/k pkifof^'ifmr b^4^ to 
pot to ffght ; S^px rn^iM a boiden 
cttiied on the beek ; S^Q^Q rgif^ ftfr. 
po hannoh-backi 9^P< tfy^M^ « 
ouahion w ped Itnr the back 2 a load; 
wj^ a load or peek ol wool ; Vf *W 
ihiee mnle>loada. 

frj rgMlhiu J^^ rg^ab-mj and fr^ 
rgytMa are in oommou ute both as adverba 
and ae poetp., in the latter ionngoyaming 
the genit. eaae, signifying afterwards or 
after, behind, at the baok» eto. : y^t^ 
rgfab4a tftnV «"^ behind ; f<*|*5fii^^' 
thiy ^y down baUnd Urn; S%cA'«f|^Y 
^fT^fti after building the roof of the 

y^Q'^ tn^iib^ ^^ moanta on the 

|q*^i( r^yoA-fiMi ^[^ww a baok-Bupport ; 
BOinetliiDg to lean againat ; a aafe retreat ; 
^ropi support. 

9^'f I**! tgy^ ttenrpa to lean one's back 
againsa; to lean or rest on* to rely npon, 

i^|^^•8^•«' r»«l-r^ea h^i-pa to make 
a support ; to baok. 

S^V^'^ m^ f#of»lNi to turn one's 
bask; to turn roood. 

f^^ m^0"M oonflrmation. 

^n*Q r^yaft^, pf* and fut «yi 

ftrfyaft, inq^. ^ r^ffoft, to throw, to fling; 
to hit, tobeat, to strike ; ^'f^^ tdo-tff^ 
JM to throw or pelt stones at ; ^'f^^ fftl- 
vgg^h^ to put wood (on flrsi Ac.) ; Vfre 
to-rgpMb^pM to kiai; I^^P'ta-Qfee 
pkfug%^mg% mb'tur gydb^ to let the 
oattle ran into the thiokeis. '^'^ej^'ci 

i^^gif^ tgg^p^f ^^ ^'^ ft<a(-jM to 

slap; ^*sr|q'q tihrna^rgpiA-jm to poor or 
mix milk; \^i tAkthvggA to salt (a 
comj or meat)* 

y^Sr*'^ rgifdb phgog^pa to turn one*s 
baok to a person or thing; to leare it 
behind ; to be indifferent. 

f^¥i^ t99^ bj/ei^ to protect; to 

faaSii tgyah^bwQl, fcf^ rggab-ti^H 
cushion for the back. 

S^ V*1 rgg(ilh4mag^U''^m veHmag 
re*inf oTcement ; reseive. 

S^^** rpyafr-r^aif intend to make; hint. 

S^'t* tggab^rM one standing behind 
working people in order to watoh and 
auperintond them. 

9^'ia^ rggab'99hui the spine, the 

I^aw rt^jfofi-yei, JF* groHi %W (or 
%eT) a number. 

S^^' r^a&-rM ^Hfw the long^back; 
met. a fish or a snake. 

JP'^'•^*•' tgydb-log hyei-pa to tiirn 
one'a back ; to rebd; revolt 

9^'^^ rgg^Mogi the back; back part; 
the rersrse of a thing. 

AMo tggum-i9htatsf^ tgyonUkka 

f>mm^ Vvnw * l^ind of rookHMlt 
(brought from Bind) used in medicine. 




*^ I: rggaliv^'m §kmHi$a) fkmi,ym 
the eighth ooiuteUttlioii in theHinda 
and Buddlidrt asbrononqr. 

Syn. 9'«A'f*fir«i ikhmaki tka-tdam-ma ; 

^^ II: L ^nr. 2. the fiyepoMltiM 
for thioft 

A<M m : (tuied <miy in. oompoonds) 
lOTal, TidxmooB; abo gT«at» chief 

a GhakraYsrti B&}& (4f Am.). 

inyindble ; the nnoonqnerablo. 

|fll*|*«iii('ff rm^fV^ fg^sAan-mo ^W^f^ 
a Deoember night ; |^'8|«» T9!f^gyi 9h^ 
«a qHnPl the month of Deoember; f^ 
S^yq rggol-fgi fio-wi ^ fP^n the 
fun-moon day of Deoember-January. 

fff^' rgyal^klM^fr^^gF tgyal- 
p0^fh4hiraA the king*8 leiidenoe; palace. 
Syn. fe-rtr* tgg^ai^tikhab\ ^S'^m* 

yrr^'^V rgg^f-fdM chen^po the mair. 
goYenmient, imperial gOTenmient {Fig. 

^0^ kkrim court law; the king's law : f^ 
^mrJi^'S^^y^*^' the law 18 a golden yoke* 

n. a, SSO) learned. 

S*'^ tgg^t^tggui^ voyal family or line- 

yrt r^yoArifa wm« dram of viotoiy* 

kbyami Mi hmMfoh ^jmr^i§grHf the 

dram of Tiotocy diffaeing far and wida 
proolaima. yoor fame all o^er the wodd 
{Tig. *.). 

yrlif'^ql^ l^gydUksn ide-itkisz j«l %Q^ 
Rggal-cken Mi ^g^iKlUt ^litKwi- 
«l^; flwy are: (1) »r^[»^-f^^- Tul-ikkar 
n^ VTOf , (2) «V}8re| JBphagi fkgetfo 

ft^W^» (8) W^«' 6w«» e»-fcM< fWsunr, 
(4) vr«rf«i .5iiaif^tt0f ir«v ^^iriw 

p. (&rAr • ; T4. 9^ S) iietau9Qs ; sahdner. 

•yiiOtar^'H l^gyal-wdiog rim^hin 
{Sckr. ; tr JL). 

y^^^ tgg^idab imic n. of a tree 
[a lotnfl}9. 

%ir {8ohr. ; 111 f , «I«). 

A^'Sf I . igyai^fo ^mr, ^iq^, wfn, 

VI Jung, ohieftain, ruler ; j«i'ZK'a^*c 
tgy^hp^ tffo-iMi to inangoxate a king; 
to miae (him) to the throne : f^Q 
^•^^pr^-^^ %WfT«»'5T5''^'^ the king 
ifl honoured in hig own ooontry, the learned 
is oTerywhere xeapeoted; ^V'^'^yrQ tibe 
ruling deity of Do-thang : ^*yrQ-fr^^^ I 
do not wish to be king : ]«rQ-%^V«-i( if I 
do not attain royalty. 

fo-Qiyetf; rv^ea-rfw*; «sa^«r|8i ^mfpfl 
ftyet; •I^W|8I Apg4rt« li^t; Vr«^|« 

rnam-par tkgei ; ^'^^^ tgro^wnH #bMJl; 
jM^'^^'lfcftf^Fi*** WV-JH>; ft-| »a-i3t 
fr*i^ m^-Wiv ; «V^1^ miki iwmii^fngi 

pm\ ^v«if^ « gfi^fm^ggi tgg^^h^i ^♦r 

•SiWM*'**^; ^1*' rf»»w*-i*yeft;l* 




^^21 II: OiAtivhioh 10 etcaUent ; 
U)!n6tbi2ig ibperior in. iti kind; ^*&*^ttf 
yi^ <M-ib-^fiftm Tffpat-fo Saxn&dhi*rija, 
iLe excellent work on meditation. 

u. of a mediCTTiftl root ('^mm. lOJH). 

frW^n^ tgpal-po thk^t-wu 1. * 
medifiine. 2. Miil^^>'tWWf • kiiid of 
preoiofos etone lud to be teongfat from 
VixttdM'a; a zoyid fillet. 

%a li P u St i Biqpported bj the king. 

|>rQ'«^ tg^ot-pfhrni^ xoyal ; kingl/. 

jprQ'4lM tn^-lfo kt^m xmg one who 
has killed the king; regieide. 

f ^*'"' tn^po imug-po^ >> gjUhftti 
nnidc (^atofi. SSS). 

the 000k. 

rgyaUpa nat'-lUfr Tim^ in the manner ol 
a king; xi|;ht royally. 

hexaoe of kinga. 

frn-mr^ Sgfotifo wafgtmH Sang 
'uddhodana; «r«rfir^Vi't'« ftMn^Am 
dohifi y«& the father ol S'akya-miud. 

90r tpo irfimr n« of a medieinal plant 
Sirtm. 77) [the plaat Judieia 

ffr«A-«rp igyalifo Ma-ma^ King 
taa-ohaiiidza oi the Bimijaoa 

Syn. ^lH Ai-ft*ii*Uti ; ST'9^«^ {»Ani|. 
i<; ^«^^t^ ftili#-i*#»«i^;.%fV**Vt 

^.|1a fttftf-jioftf 4t«i; «i|^'^*^^ Mgrin 
tcuii-igraHCo: M'^^Q Bi4at4hia0^po; 
^tor|^jti« BmnhgM fffta^po; '^'9^^^ 

IflrCh^AII^ Sft^hpo rai'4nai desaibed 
aa ^Virfipi<^^^'^'^^' VV^'^'S^'Q'M 9: 

H^'^n-ofakingwhowaaboem on the 
day Boddha waa bom. 

|4it|*^'V4 Jinalifo fa-fi0-ir« «fv« ; 

|i|»4pia q^ir^ Mftf^^h^ flwrttirtl 

n. of a medichte (^tnaii. M4)- 

frO^'f a|a«*a rgpil^po^ ftv-ta'N^^jM 
a kLig*a body-gnard. 

Syn. ^c»A»^Q Ifio^i^wmtBkogtifmi 
|*q|Mr4 fkv ftfrt^H^; ^!^\ ha4rmH9i$; 

V^iN tn^fo^ tikal or ST'^*l ^J^ 
iMii Uhal T0J9I gardens; padc (jKImi.). 

Tgg^hf^hi mi trus^ peraonage of tihe 
king'a family; an offidal. 

yrqK'pq rpiMfh^H ^f*^ "^mn the 

king's zeddenoe ; palaoe ; capital lUjagir 

Syn. V;^'^^ kkgoi-pmr ikoi^fai ^A^* 
^^ ii>Ad{-ipa««ea ; ^^«^ ft^vv-^i mm; 
«iK'^mrp^-4 ftfotf^-iMMii Moil-jw; vrv^'^^ 
Jfctffi-fMii ftaoH ; ^^^ to^jP flw a >a ; ^'^wi*< 
M-ft<bV MyAn; «Tl^y4«r« fyutf-dSruil 
tkhfil'ipa; {Vf^' tgfmtMaH\ |<irt*«*qa' 
tgif^P<*i pi^-inUi i yrM*4'^« rtfywA 

igyttl-9tii vm kutgdom. 

fK^i^ m^^h^ ^<Vf the aigna of 
foyalty» iuoh as the nmbi^Uai the aAai^ry, 
etc. i^ royal paraphetnaUa. 




mM the son of a king ; a prince ; a scion 
of the royal family ; a royal descendant. 

r' *W tgy^i'pobi 4py(»4 wftr, w^rvrt 
present ; tribute (to a king). 

|i|'Qt'S'^ rgjfol-poti wyu^gu tlie son of 
a Idng ; a prinoe. 

^tsun-moti fdo^sa the queen's apartments 
in a palaoe, also her attendants. 

gyn. ^^Itt-^ iUufMnoAi **Aor ; ^g/^' 
'^ph<hbrai kkkor (Mion.). 

fii Birajw-q tgyatifo^ ikrab§^:m f^Vm' 
^•mu tgyal-po^ tdamtpa chosen, selected 
gain and loss ; win by the long. 

S^*^ tgya^pham victory and defeat; 
iriDing and losing. 

S^'W tgy^-phran (gyat^fhan),9i. petty 
king ; a feudatory prinoe. 

Syn. jrR^'a'^^ tgy^l-rigt eha-^ai; 
%^^'\P^' yul>hhkcr^ai ; ^^ S'^VI «« 
yuUgyi bdag^po; IJ^'ft^l' groM^hyer-tje \ 
\'S^ 9de^pon\ w^'%^k^ u^yi iihg- 
le itUn; r»^%'frn kham^cyi rgyal-po 

^Pf^ I : tgyaf^a iwr, v. neut. 1. to be 
victorious ; to win ; to conquer ; to subdue ; 
to overpower ; ^«1 rtji^irw jsiq mg^pobt 
phyogt^i vgy^^^^ to be victorious over 
^the powers of sin, t .0.1 the side of darkness ; 
iiRiflr«ir j«i-n gyul-lat tgyaUwa to be vic- 
torious in battle; ^VfiJ-Wfiq i9ho4 tta^ 
u:a Iji rgy^^^^ to pass an exanuoation 
successfully ; f \«i Wf«i«i rtwd-pa-la vgyaL 
tea to win a contest. 2. the number 
t went v-f our. 

^QI'Q II: wn 1. the act of conquer- 
ing ; victory. 2. the conqueris^ party or 
person; he that prevails; the conqueror 
Vppp. to *^'«i phcm^a^ the vanquished). 

J^'q III : finr, m^\ 1. the eon. 
queror, most high, (a.^ the Buddha. 2. 
the earliest known Buddha, Adi-Buddha \ 
the conqueror of passions. 

AQI*q IV: adj. victorious; superior; 
eminent ; oycellent : ^sor- j^^pnuK 
tnam^par rgyai-wa^i Ma4-(sff4 the man- 
sion completely excellent. 

♦jnq«^ tgyol^wa eqn^ n. p. (8ehr.: 

BvU. 18U8, m). 

tkyei'^that fimttiw {8ckr. ; JTtfiSff . T. 

|«l'q*^si'it ^yal-wa gMii-po the seoood 
Buddha of this age; an epithet which 
once belonged to N&gizjuna, now given 
to Tsoug khapa, m., i ^H'>^ Uf^rA-pe- 

tgyaUwa fpHit^paii igian^pa^i r^^vA^pMiM 
9ri4'li$ef' ifgrei9^ he uplifted in the king- 
dom the banner of the creed of the second 
Buddha (Tsong-khapa) {Tig. k. f»). 

* f^'t^'^^mm fgyal-wa iMkuI-kkrimi out 
of the four great Teaohera of the Bon 
religion ((?. Bon. 86). 

tiR-^19mT9! {Sehr.; 99 A.) n. of a 

V^'^H'\ ta-tya-th^a mu-m {Sdkr. ; 8S J). 

y^*^^%^•fi% ^gyal^a Slfn-pthdU ths 
'^most precious Jina'' is the ordinary title 
in Tibet of the Grand Lama of Lhasa— 
the Dalai Lama. 

jfli cj^ J«^ <|j^ RgyaUtcaid eoi-pan wrw^ 
n. of a famous king of Kashmir who reign- 
ed about the seventh century A.D. 

S^'5^^ ** sadf rgyahkyi ittfln-pa the reli- 
gion of Buddha ; Buddhism {Yig.k. 10). 




mm: the spiritiiAl 000 of Buddhft* 

91 iig-^mg m^iog % flower rewmbling in 
appeamioe the eye of » Buiddh* and used 
in medioine (9^ntm. W). 

the A ^^ttl Bnddh»; also an oooMtonal appol- 
Ution of the Grand Lama of Lhaaa: f^' 
A'^^Wnmr9\'9^s\^'^f^'vU:n the 

Oyal-wai Wang-po is flie gieat tear and 
one who knowa all thinga (Tig. k. i)« 

poUihirroifiAvif^ {8cht.; Butt. 18k8, 
9U) one whoee mind ia devoted to the 

fr*'9«| rggal-waii mgu-gu^y. J^fl* 
r^yoA^roTf^i^nn [a naaoent Baddha.]& 

yiqft-|«riiq rg^at^paii rgg^l^^kabssfrv 

VQ'tt-|-'q Jgg^al-wirm^ch^ki §ku-49kab 
the Begent of Tibet who administers the 
ooimtr7 dnzing the minoritjr of the Dalai 
Lama; now edled fiifprnl-UM Rin-po rh$ 
or Boi-Rgga^-po (Po-gge po.) 

jtr^K'M rggal-wati t$kab the Tioe-xegent 
of Buddha; a name of ICaitreym Bodhi- 

f^'l^'^'^ rgg^-u:^ g9ki fkmWfK bgu^ 
chvA s e m i^ or BodhUoUvQ. 

yr^K'^ JRggat-ftaH ko4 envm, f^- 
^ the glory of Bnddha; name of a 

ffrt^'%m rcgal-waki ^fflf^S^'lF tgyal' 
fca liiHS^; BodMMitUaj a Biaddhist monk; 
an ordained Bkilsfu. 

•)«i'cft'|; tggnl'waH Iham^ (&Ar.; 
74. », U6). 

Ate. T. M) one cl the ten stagea of 
pvfeolion or ^ijw. 

a king ; a prince ; fra fi-IS WJfi**» Wf**- 
»y»tf n. of a prince in Eoa ala in Bnddha'a 


8jn. 4Hs'i|»ir|w }«0tf-fMrMi iiobt; 

rig§ tkig-b; fr^'V tggchpoti 9*^1 

mgu-gm (JMea.). ^ 

f^•^'•* ^W«' Jfarf-ai« 1W* ^n^ifwil 
n. ofagoddeia. 

yrSS *« 9ggaHge4-t9M Anw n. of 

the grore whioh was pnrdhaaedhy AnAth- 

pi«4ada a merchant of B'rivaati Mid where 

the Buddha leaided for a long time. 

« j^'SOf^'f <rlJi*Q ^ysA^mi Itc^ •ken- 

iwM rgrMgMoU c*e(f {Sekr. ; 16 A). 

^Vrq Mf^Mggoi ffik^ or f^^V'W 
^fai-^pcHi Rm-po-^he an epithet of the 
nint Padma Bambhava gi?en him by the 
^XM-ma aeoto {Tig. k. 97). 

f^f^ tgy^I^b^ the king and hie 
minister, alao the state minister. 

yrll rgy^fno xntt the qneen; wife 

of the king. 

J4i*li'i^'^* fygal-mo ka-ra \9K IMM) a 
iri^ a ooarae sugar nsed in medieine. 

rod n. of a eoontry on the oonflnea of 8. E. 
Tibet (Situ. 66). 

^'m:^'^^ rgyal-moii g^-gan wtSfn n. 

of a plaoe. 

joi'sq tggal^ithab ffnn 1. the Desi 
(Bde^trO) or regent of Tibet 2. t^e 
woold-be snooessor of a king; crown 

Wfnn 1. the armorial flag or banner of 


jQi'Siiaj-gpi^ I 


victory of Buddhism; is the arthodoz 
standard of the Buddhist. 2. used as a 
personal name of BodhtaaUvaa and indivi- 
duals such aB:-^««J*w«-^*«JK*S^«^ 
ByaA^ehUb 9emi*pa mi itye^^aii tgyal- 
i^Man, ^r^c*j^»»^ S^gi-pabi rgy(^ 

riog^-pa daA Wai^wa^i rgyahig^shan. 3. 
^-^f^'pho^^wta. The Gyal-tshan or Bud- 
dhist banner is seen as a kind of decoration 
of oloth in varions odours and of oylindrioal 
shape erected upon a flagstaff or carried on 
a pole. It is also madein brass and wood. 
In Tibetan Buddhism the following are th^ 
jq-«i^ rgyal^Aaiiy to combat with the 
powen of eviL— (X) ^'^•wi'S^'w*^ inkul- 
khrim^kyi rgyal-m^han, (2) Kfe*J^S'Jft' 
9^ ta^fle-^dsifh-gyi rgyta-i^han^ (3) ^^' 
'wSj^wAf fe^-rab^yi r^ya/^s^/}, 
(4) *-^if^-M^- ye^hkyi rgytU-mtsAan, 
(6) ^»rq^lflrq5-yr»i*^ rnanhpar grol-wati 
rgyal-igtishan, (6) ^c| ^Zft- jcr*i*r fiiil^tye 
chen-poH rgyal-mishany (7) f^'^'^^'^' 

fptshan-ma med-paii ^nnon^pa mei-pahi 
rgyal-nUshan^ (8) vwj'jar'wl^' thahs-hyi 
rgyal'Wishan, (9) ^twvi'i^'ti'SK'ifrfi^^rs^' 
4|e;' j^'M'qS' J«r«i^ sams-oan faeg-pa-da^ arog 

^ned'PdhdaA gad-fuig mei-pal^i tgyal-^sAanj 
(10) ^•Va|flrfl^''^§5.-q-pi;'^-4^-qv»W||'n"^' 

^'^^'ij^'Hi^ rten^H bdreUpdr bbyuH-tca 
khad'du chhi'paf fpihar ita-bu dai bral^tcct^t 
tgydl^shan, (11) ^i^'ft*»««*'^«^'^'«'^T«' 

•u dag-pof Mn'tgyoi-kyi byin-gyk }ttkh9. 

^^'9^'^jf^' xgyal-i^iBhan gragi mmm 
fame; ornament. 

 yi'si^'ff rgydl^nitBhcM-ma vfiiwwir 
{8chr. ; 99 B) ensign of good fortune. 

fir^ (Sekr.; Org. m. HI, S6). 

9^1 rgy^^fda tfK 'TTIT the monih of 

jjoi'^wi tgydl^irahi genealogy of Idngs. 

f«l''Wi%|''^-^<i Rgyai^ab9 Bon-gyi 
bbytiH^gnof n. of a work on the origin of 
the Bon religion. 

5^^^ rgyal-ngi vm/m; ^^, ^tP*v the 

military caste ef India; royal raee; tile race 
of a king. 

jflT^^'jM rgyai-rigs ikyei ITPIW ^f^W 
bom of the military caste, also of the 
royal family ; resident of Magadha. 

tgy€^hran a petty king; a yassal or feu- 
datory prince (ifufon.). 

r^^^'H* rgyal-rigi ttv-*^=frg 
rgyaUu the son of a king; a prince. 

yr^«ipi'S rgy(*^ rigt^mo nfimi^ a lady 
of the mUitaiy caste of India. 

J5'^^' rgyaUrofi, v. j«l*Xc rgyal4n(hrofi. 

jflfii .tgyol-^a capital seat of (Sovern- 
ment, royal place ; the place or position of 
a king. 

f^V^ €gyal-&iiH^if^^'V^ tgyoh^ 

$taf the son of a king or prince. 

• jpiq^ tgyal'^fei ^orpm n. pr. {8ehr. ; 
Was. 65). 

J^ls rgyaf^4 ttw, ^vw a kingdom ; 
empire; state. 

|^|S'J^<| r^yoA^rtf rgyoi-pa WW 

idun the seven different preoious artiolee 
of royalty, viz: — ^'W bMor^io ^m the 
wheel ; ^^'^ nar-bu nfk gem ; ^S* {<••«»- 
fnOf fpV queen; 9^'Q ilon^ ^mh minis- 
ter ; q^'Q gsa^'po Wt elephant; W^^ lia- 
nichog ^1^ spirited horse; B«r*4^ khykih 
kdag vSVlf^ house-holder; ^»«r^^^^rt 
ifnagpon riippb eke %wnTlir commander 




to defend a itate against enemiea. 

^^y(r^JMr kfai^paii ^greUpa oomprehen- 
rive commentary : fri'«rV5n«|-^^qft- 
il^'^S^'^ an elaborate oommflniary on 
the texts of StBrn-cu-pa and S^g9 tijug'pa 
{Situ. 137). 

8yn. ^•^fl ^phet-wa; fV^'^ td«>g%-pa\ 
^q gai'wa ; Fd'^ khthbye-wa ; B^*^ khfoi- 
pa\ ^''^ d^Hca; ^'4 Uhim-pa (If^on.). 

^^'Q I : arm n. of a great sage of 
Ancient India* the repated author of the 
Hfth&bhirata; ^cSa-jnQ J^a^rofl rgifOi- 
pa VTwfir the sage Yjisa. 

4^'^ n : (prop. pf. to f^ tgya^wa) 
1. yb. to inorease in bulk oi quantity ; to 
augment ; to spread : ^^'41^1^ ha-yi rnt- 
Uar rgyoi swells like a ooVs dug; <i|n* 
<r|«'^« iftan^pa tfftf^^t^ ^^ dootrine (of 
Buddha) spreading; to grow, derelope. 2. 
adj. extensrre, laa^e, ample, wide, mani- 
fold, numerous, copious, complete, full; 
fryrn mUmou . rffy^^P^ ^^ moon ; the 
adverbial form is frequent : J«'<«'^^S'^ 
rgyatpar ida(H^ if yo^ ^^^^ to know 

S^^'SS'^ rgt^M^^ iystf^a 1. to make 
bigger; to augment; to increase. 2. to 
describe, narrate, state at laige. 

jiiq^q^q tgya^-par ifoi-pa f)|^inr 
ehiddation; fuU explanation; ^^'f^'cn* 
9^'Q ioih tgyui-par hgei-pa to be very use- 
ful; to exert a beneficial influence. 

S«*l^ rg»ahb»e4 UTtff the land of 
pleaty ;a name of India* 

kg-pa^^f^^*^ iwa^lag n. of a medioinal 
plant growing below the limit of snow in 
the Himalayas and resembling the human 
band in appearance (gnmn. Jtl6). 

|«*§S'*i f pyat-^a^ma «rr^ n. of a 
goddess — Oomocopia, the goddess of 


• jirV rgpoH^ 3ft (Sehr. ; Kdlde. T. 
110) thriving. 

4i I : tttl^ ^iHinf a kind of blanket. 

4 II : 1. matter ; substrjice ; material ; 

\^ rgg^^M superior quality : (^^ rgy^ 
gtBon any stufi, wool or cotton, &o., when 
cleansed and washed for making cloth, 
also pure origin, ^f^ rgy^9gog n. of a 
medical drug ; wild garlic. «^'4 chaA-rgyu 
ingredients for making beer : •'S^''* Wi^r 
iw<r«r^ rgyu fge-wa isagt^pa^ thob-pa yin 
the substance has been obtained by means 
of accumulated merits : *'T^^'^'<«.' ^a-la 
igot'tgy^ <^k»H I have few wants. ^'4 iso- 
tyy^ material to make or manufacture any- 
thing with ; ''4'A^ na-tgyn^tei nothing to 
eat: M|^'J^Tf(^'^*»-f^<3r»' vgyu^ig ^na^io 
an opportunity will presently offer itself 
(Ja.). 2. In W. airangement ; preparation. 
In a special sense material; stuff for weav- 
ing; warp; chain (Ja.). 

^ m : ^g 1. cause, namely, the primary 

cause as distinguished from^^ the second- 
ary or co-operating cause; the direct 
cause for any event ; also reason, motive, 
main condition : tt'i;^ w^^^i* J^'^^' mya^ 
Han hn Adai'pa^i rgy^^-btoywr it becomes 
the cause of passing out of misery, m., 
Nirvdn^ ; M'<^* J^'^W Han-saiL tgy^ru igro, 
tv tffV^ "^^ genit. by reason of; on 
account of ; in virtue of ; in consequence of; 
W* Ji cib$ tgy^i why : ^^\ rgyu mei-du 
s t''^'<>^ rgyu met^par without any actual 
cause; spontaneously; without suflicient 
reason; without good cause; ^'^'|^ 
tgyu-daH t^y^n jfrisnaxy and secondary 




oauMt which aometuiies ooinoidM with 
'cauaeaadefleot'; JS^jT^*!^ tgyu-da^ 
rkym^ti phybr, ^ | cb^' rgyuy ^^*|r3« 
flfe^i tkyen-ni§j ^'\\^ dehi tgyt^tf^y^n 
fherefore; on that aooouxit. V*^^'^ He'Wati 
tgyu io medioine the three aathropologioal 
oftoaes or oODditums of diaeases ; the three 
^htnaourB,' wind, hQe, and phlegm; ^c^'^'^ 
rM-tm^' r^yif the nltimafee oauBe of diseaaee 
and of erery evil, yii., ignosuioe; *r^^'q hki 
rig-l^i \S9S\ f *y^ hf^tn^ the oreative 
oaoie; ^^^^'^^^'^iphBl-w^rgyu^ilf^' 
wa the effioient oanae of growth is the 
nayel-fliring ; t*9S'Q rgyu hy^i-pa to he the 
prinolpal oaofle of; to lie at the bottom of 
a matter; V%S^ tgyu fkyei^pa to ky the 
foandatlon of. There are six kinds of 4 

rgytif »^-> %W r^yi«-*«v :— SS'*J by^ 

waki tgy^ P Vl^'S' J rnam-itmn-gyi tgyu^ 
«iCci|-cK'f 1 cA'l i^AuM-par Idan-paii rgyu^ 
W5'^<'*'| kun-tu igro-waii rgyu^ W^'V^ 
S'J skal-^ffiSam kyi tgy^ 2. attached to a 
verbal root r^yt* often indioates the 
supine and, ooUoquiallj, the infinitive ; 
^^1^^^ wishes to go. Also forms a 
future tense when connecting the root 
with the auxil. verb. ^4*^^ will eat : ^^'^' 
%^^'V^'i^ those that will come to me; 
^'•rg«i l}V^'*'«i when the government was 
to be entrusted to him ; 9 ^^'|'^ horses 
were not to be had ( J2L) ; S'Vf^*«*^ 4kan^rgyu 
fnetf that is not a vary precious thing; tfaeie 
is nothing particular in that ; ^^'cni'4^^* 
m'i^ gshan-pa9 Isgs-rgyu tnei he ib not 
more beautiful than others; "('si4a|'fl'Ai^ 
ya-fl^han zgy^^^ that is not to be won- 
dered at. 

^'^^ rgv^^tkyen ^fp(mM reason ; cause ; 
ace. to Jd. connection: 4'3^*^i^'^'4|^ 
tgyu-rfpyen k%ha4^u giiol please explain 

to ma the connection. 4** rgy^cia oolloq. 
that whidi belongs to a thing; appurte- 
nance ; neceaeary implement, Ac. ; alao pro- 
perty. J'^T* tgyw-V^ag oause and effect 
or conaequence; gen. in a moral sense; 
actions and their fruits (wS'|'^9« h^kyi 
rgyu-ikra9) ; Wj-iqaj-Jfci £r« rgyu tint^ 
kyi^hoi the doctrine treating on this 
subject ; the doctrine of letributicn ; 
the principal dogma of Buddhiam; 
wj-^q^'flr^aaiq hi-rgyu tbroi la~yi4 
chei-pa to believe in the doctrine of 

^^^rgyt^ikar H^W, '■W " the moving 

stars." The constellations through which 
the moon passes in her revolution round 
the heavens are called I'V^'f'X'^'^T^ 
tgyu^9kar Iha-mo Hufu r^mk-irgyorff the 
twenty-eight goddesses, moving-staray le- 
lieved to be the daughters of the four 
Sfaardian-kinga of the .world. The cons- 
tellations are thus named: — (1) ^'ffj^AfriHi 
C^^iby^g-gu); (2) W^JBkaratai (3) i^ 
Yi KrUihd the Pleiades; (4) lU^i^ {^\ 
be^rdte) ; (6) •^ MrganrM (B^rfl wd^) ; 
(6) Ardrd,^'^', (7) ^f^'^ Punai-vaiA] (8) 

f< Pugyd (f^'f\ rgyal-9to^^^ «•»• 

so) ; (9) 4n Affefd (Q wa) ; (10) •!« Mapkd 
(91 r^o-fw) or 9'^^ t^a^hgn with Begnlns 
bright star: (10 9 Pi^rtaphalguifi or ^ 
fid^ or r «^ ttm-okuA ; (12) ^ UitoNLph^ 
gu^ or B ^^A^tf ; (18) A-i)^ Hmru or B'«i 
bya^ma ; (14) W^ Oiird (or 8% bya^u with 
8pica); (16) v^ ScOii; (16) v^ rifdkki 

(17) f Maw Anurddkd or ^^ lag^n 

(18) f^ Jy^hd, or ^ Ide-ku (with 
Autares); (19) f <ni MittOf or f Y^ srog-pa; 
(20) «'f S Pltrod a»adkd ; (21) «'iS uitard 
dsddhd or Qoi phut; (22) t^M Abkifti; 
(23) |'<i^^ ^ronifid 'f^v ^sTif; (24) M 
Dkanazia or 'K*^ ffioii-<^e; (25) ^1 




gaiMi$a or i^ §grog) (26) |B*«ifS P«nw. 
hhadrapada or (27) ^•i* IK uttindbhadrtt' 
pada ; (28) ^f iZet^^i or ^'^ fe^$a. 
^%'^'V^ rg^fM/utr du$ {Seh.; EMde. 

m^UBS rgyu^kar mu-kkyuii l^^fir 
lae moon whkh iA sorrcunded by the 

^•fp'»i«;*l5 ^ ^gyu-^r^ma^^^ n ii. of a 
moantfldn ; the f abxdooB north polar moon- 
tain (iT d. "^ SU^). 

J*^^ "W rgy^ikar lam the milky^waj ; 
TWit-uw the starry path. 

^'^' rpyw-^tfflfor what reason. 

I'^N rgyu-Het the oertain or real oause. 

oau&L ; reaeou. 

1'*^ r^y!i-«w=s^^^ one who knows 
about a thing ; woil-inf onnecL 

\^^ r^tf«*m^At«it oanse soffioient to 
prodnoe obeerred efEeot. 

\^ tgy^ldan 1. -pni^ [a esnre]S. a 
hill, also loimtain; a rioh man* 

1^ rgyu'iui4 disease of the bowels. 
Symptoms are : — ^^^ tggu4chrol oausing 
much soond in the stomach ; V^%^ vgy^ 
hkhrU oansing mnch griping in the 
rtomaoh; J'^8«.u tgu^bgtn^i wheie the 
fltomaoh or the intestines miiain swollen 
and stiif with wind^ etc.; j^'^TP* tgy^ 
igagi obstmotion of the bowels; ^'^ 
rpyw-^a^r aching or pains in the stomacL 

)'H r^yn-^pMH the threads stretched 
lengthwise and corosswiise to make dotb. 

*'^ lyytMM ^fw, in to go, walk, 
move, wander, taoge; twa'^*^^* Mf^ 
ehu-h tgtf^-^^t^i'^gi birds frequent- 
ing the water; 3^Q*|'4 iiut^u tggu-^M 
to wander from place to place. This ymh 
14 genemlly used instead of ^9'^ in Bikkim. 

j^*Sq rtvu-wa mei-pa ^tq^ fliat 
doei not move; motionless, btill. 

^f^H ^he vow of :walkiEg. 

%9S rgu^h^4 ^rw, m^ feet; that 
which moves. 

^'1^ rgptn rrfr^ met. the cloud. 

an alms-giver ; the maker of a gift. 

^^ rpy tMna ^Wentrails; intestines; 
bowels, more especially the small intea- 
*^nm4 I'^T^ rt^ tkhtogpa the croak- 
ing of the bowels; ^*f^ tgin»9§rog the 
envelope of the lowev intestines ; Afs 
rgg^iU>4 the upper boweb. CoUoq, 
tgyt^fna is also % term for ** sausagea." 
((?. 8ndg.). 

^'*^V*> rgyu nmi-pa without oaoser 
evidence devoid of (Aiifsama) or chaxao- 

Syn. |-^f«^- rggu-gii §ion; M^Vigil 
i^^shan-iUii bral (4f^ofi.). 

J****^ tgy^nsdshan firfww 1. cause; 
concatenation of events; ciroumstancea; 
Asi^rR^q ^gjfu-mMtan idri^ to ask after 
the cause: <^9'^'ipi'^'d^-4^'4'*^-^ Hatt 
nat-nai phffe khfer-wahi tOtn^mMan fct 
tell me the oiroumstancee of your fetching 
the flour from my house 2. .nwiw token, 
sign, characteristic, proof, evidence ; ^^^ 
^^*^ hdug-pahi tgy^md^kan as an evidence 
of being (Ja.). 

J »^ ^ rggu-^idshm rig m^fin: rela- 
tiiig to proof or cause or reason. 

%''^ r^Jftf-pwr ^finmw eolie; 

[dysentery] A ^'»'^<-TS*^Vw^|-'s^-<^^ 

ni rm§^9kaa Vgi dot kdra^a h, gtmn^ 
na^ Is »a»f -M rm gmr ilU-ptiho, Ifg^o 


318 ^) 

gm^Ml iMrcMMTf ttV^V^ yin^ ^'"^XV^' 

We read of, abo, |-^>!tT*V^-^V 
tgyu'tur gnog^pati iho^ica gnum the tbree 
hammers to break the nails of oolio. 

3^**4*1 rtlf^i tgiM"^ irrwjtnr the 
stream of oaose. 

^9S tgf^ h^^ f^'Vf' that has 
beoome a oause ; exeuse. 

^'fftV tgy^i gt^o-to imTn-%g the 

flhiel or prhnarj oatm. 

at'^ tgyu^i rig %o-fiv the soienoe 
of reasoning. 

a-ss^'^4(qi^q«^q ^gyu yati^dog-par toa^- 

pa tnat has folly stopped or terminated 
the oaose ; the oonsequenoe. 

5'^W^ rgpu-ffy khifoi-par wn the 
ehief oaose ; the agent. 

inn%ff a nnmber. 

fTPCW inaffn^u to attach a froit to oaose. 

a*««*|i^' fjiyN-Aii bgtt^ ^Igm prodooed 
or origAiiated from oaose. 

||'9«')'^'ti tgy^^-^^^yi UgHi-waas 

4||qpi-fwm g$ugtMami the body ; form. 
%^ tgg^^'M^ ('^ hm) road, passage. 

€*f|Si* tgy^9tQ^ track, passage, road: 
^<^')'4'9>^* tUan^ggi rggt^^raH the road 
that is freqoented bj a S*m^ (demon). 

^\tffy^li ^ a string; ohain; that 

T.hioh joins things together; a oonneotion, 
whether ph7«ioal or mental ; ^'4^ ohain of 


[; mt Tantrik treatise; ritaal 
eoeroing deities and for other 

magioal ceremonies. One of the huge 
divisions of the Kah-gyor is styled 4S 
beoaose it oontain<i innomerable magi^ 
treatises. There are said to be io\xr 
dasses of Tantras, t^^^^, namely, (1) 
»-iAy, (2) r^*!^ (3) vn«^|S, (4) 
VrMI'^'«'^'*S'*JS. In the Tan-gyur the 
ooUeotion of Tantras is named ^S itgy^- 

9S*^ tgy^'P^ T : vb. to tie, lasten, 
connect together. 

4^*Q n : religions teadier ; espeoisliy 
a teacher of mysticism. 

A ^*C| xn : extraction ; Uneage ; belong- 
ing to a family or race , family. 

Syn. ^Sff ir gyu^-pa; t'^S rts^ 
WcAf-tf; ^•«V' ripfibyta; ^«|^ ni^ 

rgy^i ^^^'^'^^ «»-*o» iaH>yt^ ; '^^ JS 
gdu^rgy^f ^^ rus-rgyvi; *'^9^' ^o- 

^^ ng§ (Won.). 

M'^'^Hpi rgyt$i-pa gnum the thiee Idods 
of lineage are: — (1) ^^*|^ g<iuA-tgy^ 
family ; descent ; personaJi; (2) |'^^ «Aih 
tgy^ descent (of the bpiril in emaoadcnB, 
etc., ae in the ease of Incarnate lamas); 
(8) 9^4^ §Uhtgyud spiiitoal desoeot 
(ministerial socoession by disciples}. 

4^ tyytm continoifcy ; r^ytisi-db always ; 

at all times; continually. 

4*^*11 rgy^n khri settled seat or throne; 

gMi gfiig^iu bjog^pa^i khri the chair wbidi 

always remains in one place. 

M*^[^ tgyuf^khyctii always to protect 
W*J'«'5 tgyufi-iiiyi «»yf#-^ii=sa^'*i Aar- 

nil rain-^brops or dews (4ffoi».). 

heavy run (ifilan.). 

jTfW rgy9m^gtan:s^\^'\^ du^-tty^ 

at all times; the stream of time: t^^V 

^Y^ ic^pm real bttaineoB ; tmoiaotions of 

a pablio ohazEoter must alwayi be reliable 
(2>. ($1. 7). 

|r4 tttn^pa sinewB ; tendons. 

jl r^i^ frf«r, WTM (a oolloq. and 
obscene tenn) sexual tuaion ; .copulation. 

\^ rgyo-wa^ pf. ^m trggot^ fut. ^ 
r^jfo, imp. ^ f ^jTOf , to bave seziud inters 
ooone; aco. to Cs. to deflower, ntTish. 



tnetffyogi rd(HrffUog§ gun ; missile. 

y '*' tn^-wa, pf. 4|Mi ir^^fo^i, fut. 

^' irfftt^^i seems to be a secondary form 
of f^'^ rkyclUca^ to extend, stn^toh, 
spread forth, distend. 

^'Q rgtfW'-ua mtKM to kilL 

i{ {^'a iliis word ia seldom used, its 
modem form being f 9ga. 1. ginger freah 
or dried; ^'Hfi Iga-rhn fresh ginger. In 
medical works both 9 tga and f ^ ^a are 
used to imply Wft,'^ Vja-imug^ the brown 
ginger. 2. ^n'Sft*^' r/is-ifey» iwi» n. of a 
tribe; SSr''^%'^'^Vr%'^^^ fimlhbgru 
VM-fpmm tga-daH ishi the four tribes were 
Jfbrab, Sgra, J^doA and Iga. 

It mystical word ; oxide of mercury ; also 
agniftes VTV imat^ga^ medicinal ginger. 

^'S IgaA^e marble white. |'^«i* 
^ga /gatr4e is stated to mi>.ai perfectly 

white (Ja.). 

^^^ igai-fd o; ^R-OT tga^-phug aoc. 
to Jd. the urinary bladder (Med.). 

Srn. I^-* #AfMo; ^'%igai^bu (M^Um.). 

ip Q /^vK^jw relating to the bbkUkr 


9^*8 /^o^ftfi urinary bladder; samn as 
««'<t /^-ifMi ; aoc. to </a. husk» pod, ufaell. 

the bladder ($man.). 

W^ lga^'gfer^W%^ l^o-rfc/i fresh 

^^••rA^iB l^at^n^a me^-po pattiareh of 
the tribe of i^nr'ttta ; a tribal name: SfH* 
(i^irJN«*i iffa-tn lyat-ma mttpQ iM the 
tribe of ^ga obtaixied the name o2 Ifgtfr^ 
ma m$fpo. 

^ 4jfo a common kind of fungus like 
the lycoperdon or puif-ball. 

f^'ihVonhUhM^tn'mnmi^ga L gin- 
ger, V. i'il* Iga phiHthe. 2. aoc. to Jd. a 
kind of rook salt. 

^ sp»«f Iga ^Ti«, ^fw, is^ L 
ging«r. 2. saddle, resp. t^«n«A.|fi0, a 
saddle for a horse; ^'ff^K'^Mb^aga t§ia^ 
pa to hj tbe saddle on; to saddle; T^V^rn 
gg(fg-gi §ga a saddle*for a yak. 

i| 9ga^ga ging«r: iV^iS'Ji^^ir-V 
BTNS'V'H 9ga4kfaf had^M^ mMUd kktag^ 
ikhyag iifu ginger remo?es phlegm, and 
wind and liquifies the blood. 

r^ 9gaJshebi saddle doth ; the leather 
cover or coating of a saddle. 

Wi[ iga^lo saddle girth. 

VT^'^ f po-ff^rcn-jMi described in JBirom 
as meaning; to saddle a horse. 

«ItW* Sga-iig nag^ the flower of 
a bitter species ol ginger : vItW^^'WH' 
•'•^'^^ iga4fg nag-poi i/nm fdM aAff-s<«r 
bdt4$r the flower of 9g^^ used as a 
medicine draws out the yellow water of 



f «^ ip«.«Aap xopai or itept uMd in 

ftdjuttixig a Middle. 

fdfflfok^l. ft young hone jurtfltfor 

th« aaddk. 8. T<T1IK-VVT^"«'«''C*«' (•!«> 
i^n')i/K gpag thafi^ iha^ipo la §gthpM ur 
ft yak with a wUte lorehMd if oftlled 

r*^* 9ga^hM Imt; flittor-monM 

TM w^-lwMijf, alio written |[^*| fiwii^ 
f ^^ lirown gingcc. 

f4«f«HMl4itihAilow«rof ging«r plant: 

ft|f0tf rul^g»i chu-ter Mf^ ginger floww 
(nied) as a fttimnlanti oaree lOves and JrawB 

ant pQi* 

f^ %ga4%ha ijf^n^ pungent ginger. 

V^ igtp^U^ frame of the saddle; sad- 
dle-bow ; saddle-tiee (Ck.). 

f*^ 4gth9er wPofT turmerio; yellow 
ginger; a i^iee used in oooUng meat for 
the table. 

C-l Mftf-fe straps iter fastening the 
traydling-baggage to the saddle, of. 1*W 

j|q|*|C:* j^gag-ehtd n. of a small silk 
Boarf used in religions services in Tibet : 

IT^ ^gag-pa wirnc to ravish; to 
copulate ; to embrace in sexnal union. 

BC* %gaH 1. a hill-spur ; the ridge or 
top of a hill : <^ ««^«» -^ eog-Uehi 
9gaH'h %hag keep on the top of the table. 
2. time; oooasion: wwiSScft|«^- m« 
fas-ibi byei^hi W«< to-morrow at ttie 
time of doing work ; Vff'«Al|^ da-Ua 
Uo-ta-waii igati just now while taking 
food. 8. •1^' chu^gai a blister caused 
by manual work, by long mfcpches, &o., 

of. HF JV^*- 

Byn. ^' iMT, •tf'Q «i«Ao-im (¥<ok.) 
^rr «»*•**«* IP B*« vai-kMtl 1. s 
hill-qmr : f^T^'^^S the (village) is aitaated 
on a mountain qmr. 2. full, entire: 

J^ • asm • ^V| • *i^ • J^ • |^-e-|R-r ^'^•*^''«^ 

irog<*ag§ grig ftsa^ya* idig-pa §gti' 
kha r0 iO'W t^oil even if (you) kill od« 
living being there will be the full (ameoat 
ol) sin in each sspaxate oasa. 

tf^W igaiJckut aoo. to Ja. same ai 
l&'P ^goAJkka. 

|s.H*H* ig^gi^lM a speoiea et p«^ 

|K.*s4!^'Q igaH «<Aofi eo a high hill 

(^•«i §gatk'Wa^ pf. ^(w> ftsfo^ fnt. » 
fts^oA, to grow or become full (0».) : 8SA 
<r«'f^' M^«fi#tf na so-lfttt a full grovo 
iroman ; marriageable girl. 

IjCQ igaH^fm full quantity; entire piece: 
K,'fr^K'^'^m'f^'9r^'^ has not bis tridc 
been entirely broken-down within (A 

1*^*1^ igait^iffoi wirir-f*f^l%W ele- 
vations and depresdotts on a hillaids. 

^pH igaii 3t^ 1. bsnk or elevst- 
ed pbw on the margin of a river. 2. 
c. of districts in S.E. Tibet. 

W'QSiffob-bdte a class of demon; a 
ghost that remains concealed : i^^r^^'VF 
%fi'9^fm^'^''^''Vi s^^W-*«*«* iugt-M 
fpthun^pa^ tgab-bdre i^krai if the Tantrik 
priest properly performs eKo r dsm, the 
ghosts are seared away 

^^ igcih-pa 1. secondary farm of ^^'^ 
bgebhpa, to cover ; covering : g'W'a'^'IF' 
bga-^w bihla igalhfa the covenng ol • 
young bird by its mother. S. 'Hi* 90t 
l^aft skirt or lap of ft coat ;«'-4* Si^*4*<rf 

a short skirt* 




^^ Hf^m ir^, «W» ftrv box. truxik, 
oheot; ako the te«teB: ivrl'm' igtm- 
iffomaH A ohart of drawers; W^ll* Ar<»jr#- 
1^0111 an iron-ohett; ^*ll^ hhigam a 
leather trunk; %'^ r0^gam or J^i" 
ipur^iffom a ooflBn. 

il^^F^'igam'CMl^ email box. 

V^*> f^m^jM^Wii utAi^ ii4k deep; 
pcofonnd ; ••fru eif ijMNi^^fM « *w^ mi 
tab-pm ahellow ; not deep. 

I^V 99tmi^, adj. full or hlOj aooom* 
pliihed; one who ia deep: fr«l[i^'^-iir 
Q Bgfitlifo SfsH-fttem I^mmumv King 5|«4- 
ft^n who 1^ fi^WM^f <.#.! fiiUf aooom- 
pliflhed. Aoo. to 8eh. prodent, qiiiet : W 

^aiohpo he (the prinoe) wae rery 

f^ ^ar, defined ae l^'^*Vl^'^'^fS'<t 
^<ir uNi^^po phA-nai ifcbtf^fM^ pito|mg 
mnj tente (at- a plAoe) ; oaaip ; enoamp- 
ment ; V^l'f^ • militarj enoampment ; 4^* 


^'9 to encamp ; to pitoh aoamp. 
V^'IF Aiw^mH reipeouUe men. 

irat^-word ; paide (JH.) . 

I|^ ffof a load that is oazried on the 
baek; load of a beast of burden ; TH^ r<a- 
«^ a hofl^e-load ; ^'i^'W^ ft^tiaM tgal 
osit-load; waggon-load. 

W% nfnt-tta pai Vhone. 

V^9^ 99^^9^9 beast of burden. 

^•Mia.'« 1^ j[pAe^-iMi to throw a load 
of ; ^r ^Vs|sre §gai tbog^pa to take out a 
load; «<riiVB.'4 ^gal kwa/^""^ to Mjuslt or 
balance a load. 

9F^ IfTtfAjMi 1. the back of man or 
beast of turdan; ^'^'^'V^^t^tgyclhla 
hkhur-nai igro-wa^W^'^^'V^^'^'^t 9galif» 
la ^khur^U igro the carrying a thing ou 
ont's back. 2. the small of the back ; H^* 
^4*1 §gal^^tUb* the lumber region. U. 
croup ; cropper. 

i^'^ 9gal4t0 to carry a load (on one*s 
back) or to cause a load to be carried on 
the back of a beast of burden ; f<i^^'«t 
f fa/ hgeUwa to put on a load. 

fiiai igalrma a acre on an anunars 
beok caused by the load. 

ipii^si §gat49hig9 the spine in general; 
the backbojie of a beast of burden. 

ktgy^ the twenty-ejght joints in the 
backbone; ii^'ri*«Ti wi^i igal-iihigi the 
joints in the human qrfnkl cdunm. 

i$ki these are iwenty-lonr jointa in the 
backbone d a beast ol buden. 

1^ Vspry^'^ §gaUMig§ $t^d^wa a beast 
of boxden of which the backbone in 
stfoight, M.| not bent by wcdk. 

round; orb-like; globtaUr. 

jiyihadj. bent; |t^ igthiUgi 1. a 
loot-etooL 2. ace. to Boh. elbow ; angle. 

iX itra-fife ding-string, explained as 
^^•l(Mii|-8viai«i Awr-frfa tphan hye4-kyi 
ihag-pa the string that is coiled round a 
stone for flinging it; a sling. 

f S¥» ig^t-phogi (f Si' m^p^ifog%)^ 

M^^rn-i^iffli VdaiirAi tdkyog^ , bent, 
forward: ifSMtTr^-r^-ft'^' »!•- 
phyg igH'pkgog^ f dt-pa f^m^u ton those 
that axe bent forward and bent rfun4 
Talnable f {Jig h 



I'M 99ihmo9i%^'^^ tur^r^ a ding. 

|T^ f««ViNi VfTlw (in PaU irft«T) 
to wait, j{. ^|T* if^Mi fnt. <^<f igug, 
imp. l^ 1^01 (or %^'^ 9ffug9 fig) I 
^'^'%%^^'^ «• foHrttuu 9ffug iidai^, 
to wait for a man's axriTal ; (T^'IS V^'^* 
jMT it»#OQe who waitt for; or |^o Q ffPHi/ 
jM jpo a waiter ; iivV|^'«( <9i»i-iia fgug-pa to 

wait on the road; 1^'Q'H^'^ l^0^-'ti Aftf ^ 
jMi to oavae to lie in wait (for a porion) ; 
to oaiiae to waj-lay. 

K* 1^ in 14. olap ; oradk } oraih ; 
roport (of a gnn) (J2L). 

K*H ifui^f 9m. to iS^A. faib«r*m- 
law; |S*M igui-nm moUior-in-law. 

M^XI^Q, ifum^m^i^f aoo. to iS^Ar. the 
butt-end of a gon; gon-atook. 

1^ f ^r, T. Sl^ igur. 
1^*9^ g^r-rgg^ a bent-baok. 
p'Q figur-po )ni| W^ifw bent ; crooked 

Bjn. |>^'^i igur^mgog; % igu 

V\^ 9gur^0f ilhui firnr to become 

l^iK ignl-ikgoi w^ agitation. 

1^^ M^Kf-tfo, pf. <^«i fti^/| fat. ^^ 
(f^/ (of. ^^4 t^gui-ica) to move, agitate, 
pat in motion: 4^'P*«i'|^'y rgyui^ya^ 
fmhH'4l'to be could not even moye the 
bow-0tring : "i^-wl(«f«iy lagipa$ rdo 
tigul-to with his hand he ahook the ro^k. 

1|*P^^ ige-khuHf f^^' 9go^hA a small 
door ; a window. 

1|^ 9gcg WT^m grace, charm in the 

ll ' ig^g-pa %w^f fWrm, «rf%«i, ^ 

WIV^ 1. the grace or charm of 7011th. 

pa is the fascination arising at ibje appear- 
ance of a IkmIj of beautiful ahapf. Z 
sensua) eojoymeut ; flirtation. 3. aoo. to 
(7«. to l^rag, boast ; airs c£ ooquetish girls 


Sjn. ^flf<i ral-pa ; *^ fy'o- wa (Iptoii,). 

1^ qSm ggeg-pabi Rda-tfe wrrow, 
^wnrn n. of a Buddhist sage of Ancient 
India who Yi.uted Udy&na (Ancietit 
Cabul) and spreac Btiddhism there. 

)^'si ^{f€(f^*a u. of the goddess of 

Ht^ fgeg^fpo wmn mhft a danoing- 
girl ; a charming damsel. 

^r^ Wg-'t^^ pecfumecy, pomadne, 
Ac, articles which (aooordixig to BuddL- 
ism) nre woentires to senaual plea^u/es. 

JjC^l tgeH'h or S^'^l igeirhj aco. to 
JS. on; upon ; perhaps a wron^ spelling of 
the word i^' igaA. 

W^% ig^b^ 1- diminutiTo of I e^, 
ginger. 3. t. H^^ i : nog-pa {K. g. « WY 

• i|%'4^' 9geiu^huii WfU^ garlic. 
ift'^ %g9b^g^t ^viw ginger. 

Hi's fjwr private; semi-independent; 
1^'^ tg^T'tit* speciallj ; priTatdy. 

1|^'9 9g9i^t^a a horse for tlie use of s 
prirate party, uot for a publio offlcar. 

Ih'^^ igeT'dan one's own interest, pri* 
Tate or special reason or object : 1*'^'^ 

iia^ neither prirate nor publio (but an in- 
dependent famUjr) sendizig f ortl: smob 
from house-fire. 

^*« §ger-pa a private land-hcldcr ; V 



ri i 

«if-Mr; y€tH yo^jM bii iAra j*ftf cfaf Mf m 
itdai-Man a land-hdlder who without 
paying a lazg^ tax to GoTmuneat enjoTs 
aD aetata is Cidled)^'^ ig^-p^ alao one who 
bolds land fea-aimple; i^f iger-lha or 
K|«-«as-&^^ iffer-gpi ffteho4-paii Oa, a 
spooiaL deiiy, m., a deity specially adored 
by a olaaa of people or by an individual or 
by a partieulsr Ismily ; )^'n §gn^hag 
demi-indepeodant estate. 

I^'^l^ ig^'fftfog private serranti also 
one who does his own work; ssrtantor 
empby^ of an independent perty or estate 
wfaibh has no oonneotion witii the Qottai- 


gyi cMI 1o4ot the produce of a 'private 


i| 9ifo ITK9 Vy ivHfl^f 4W a door; 
an entrance or doorway; the aperture 
iiaelf as well as the wood-work of tlio 
door; I«^'^ %go Jtoaiipa or f ^W*' m 
igag-pa to shut or oloee a door; 7|'4 
«po phpe-wi or f^^ §go h^^f^ to 
open a door; I^HY^ igollfuf^ to. put 
x&adoor;tohsngadocr; I'S^*'! Ifo rM#- 
jMi to shut a door; i^'W^ f^ ftew^jM 
a€o. to Seh. to lock up, to holt, to bar ; 
f^^'^igo ikun^pa or Q|*< i§lmn^ aoc to C«. 
rap. to shut (a door) ; f'^^'^ §go ftAf4-ira 
to knock or rap at the door; |*1 f^yvi-l^ 
large, or the principal, door or entrance ; W 
the gate or gate-way ; %'fjdkpi^go the outer 
door ; vf:1( bar^go the middle door ; ^'l( 
n<Ufr§go the inner door ; ^*^'¥ gmi^'igo the 
secret or private door;'*A'Y n^d9oi-%go 
the door to the store-room; '^1[ g!Mm- 
$90 an apeortore in the roof for light; sky- 
light; ^^'f §Ml^9 ttie-iqiper door; *|ir 
hog-tfo the lower ^t lander door; ^X^T^'f 

IMW^Mail §go the chapel-door; WA'I 
tM-iilM igo kitohandoor ; ^'*b«*¥ g/kr- 
M0H §go the store-house door; «^P^T 
ekA^ikaH igo the bathroom door. In 
Sikkini ^Ofwadoor. 

i| II: often ffgthmo^ the admission to, 
the medium or means of, the passage off 
knowledge or learning and, as such, the 
science itMlf, Ac ; V«*) ffH cAo§4fi/i §go*nio 
the service of DilanM (religion) ; l^'t'lf" 
ftrng^kgi tgihmo the science of arithmetic 
or nu«abers{ M'lf gmm^J^ igo^mo 
science of medicine: i^*"A*f'ipi'^^'sA^si' 
^* Qgroh-wM^ §go^na§ gguUyiidn gM in 
the religious service of Dolma — the n^d0§ 
for victory (in war) should be oflared: 

tggu kgi t§tMnif0 Ja tifitg-prntt §go danhpti 
ikgakhm ^gro'W0 as a door lor entering 
(he religton of Buddha, it is nensssery 
to take refuge in the holy ones : H^T'^Y 
■ATi^^l^'lliwi iheg-^htthb kf^g-p^ti igo 
bgalMM'kgi Mm§ for entering the 
Greater Yehicle doofarine the means is a 
saintly heart (ths puriiled heart of a ^ecM<. 

th^ ^^V 9go it*ion-bgt^t Hbm means of 
acquiring kaming is diligence and indus^ 
try; V^•^•*T*•*^•^'•' ffM^fNiMyN^ 
iM^ffc k»h Uig-^mii^ being idle and 
immodest forms a way to the springing up 
of vice. 

flY^ 190 iHiii-irre i441iv ih eveiy 

l^f^* §go4!^ TRmtr porter; doce^ 

f 1*^ igoHf^gor, V. ft i(fo-ip#. 

¥t<^' §gQ'*IM or W^' l«a-#Mf f^^ tha 
entrance into a house : vestibule; perch; 
portal ; a?9o a snuJl house on the gate* 

f frSF' I 324 

f'ttF" ig^kkui opening of the door ; an t 
appertuze in a door ; S'T^^I^'I'^^'P*.' ^go^ 
kkafl iteH'ifi fpU^kha^ the TBrandak zoom 
on ihe poToh of a honse. 

4"ft tgo-khffi watoli-dog. 

1^^ lyo-iiAor hinge of a door or gate ; 
the piTot on vhich the door timui. 

$^|T* %9o^glkg9 a small beam need to bar 
or bolt a door* 

I '^V %g(hhgram the spaoe near the door. 

W%^ ifo^gyA the space behind the door 
or wi£hin the door. 

the board or plank of a door; the 
lintel; irame nork on the fonr ridee of a 
door [a bier, the bed on whioh a dead, body 
is oarriedjA 


% 'C $g<h1la ^nr eggi, spawn ; if*^*^ igo- 
ia-^an egg; producing or posaessing or 
hating spaim. 

¥'«^^'^ tgo^ahi mde^ ^ the testU 

^'%^m igo-lcagt nrvii the lock of a 

f^^ iga^hcTt T. fi ^go-fpe. 
WfS tgo-iioi^^^ §g(h9^ 


^*Qf^ 9go itian n. ot.a Bon deity who 
has eighteen hands and holds eighteen 
diffezent weapons of war, whioh are as 
foUows:— (1) «i^^'**^^ iteg pabi mdab 
an azrow for shooting; (2) ^^'^'9^- 

bbygt pabimdu^ a spear to pierce with; 
(3) ^»«H«ftf -^ ffoog pa^ 9t€Hre an axe to 
split with; (4) 1|tV*S|f gfioi-paki gra^ 
§iaa chopper to out off; (5) ^i^'«A'mi'| 
btkufhpa^ ral-gri a sword to out into 
pieces ; (6) 4«*iA-«') tftinhpati 

a dagger to pierce timragh; (7) ^-<w i' 
V^ bokog^ahi iho-lum a cannon baU 
for battering inj (8) Rg^oS-^ivtii 
tbugi^pahi gtor^hen ajdn io bore through; 
(9) ^gm-qS 941*4 ^ral^waii sog-h the saw 
to separate or cat asunder ; ^10) ^^^'iH 
igra^wobi 9pu-ffri a racor-knife to cot flis 
enemy; (11) ^-^'^^-^v* i^r-waki hkkor- 
io a disk to whirl zound ; (12) |^-**r^ 
tgywMMii yt^lai an armour to ward off; 
(13;^ »w^^*S«*Tsr4 Satn^tkag (^i-paki 
ka-ma-U a sword to out oil ; (14) Iff^' 
W^'1 m'eg-paii gtar-U>; (16) ^HTaft-f^'ft 
behii'wabi k^Mgrog iron chain to bind 
with; (16) S^nKSf^pCi ^pal^ter^yi ekt^ 
khol boiling water; (17) >(^K^-a-««K' Ao^ 
s^r-^^im« ^4 a heap of glowing lire; (18) 
i&^'ri'i V^'v^S^ dr^t^r^ua gyi thof-w^dctk a 
thunder-bolt for ohivabous 

^i['V^ igo-gian a bar or bolt of a doer; 
i ')*! fgthtkem threshhold ; also the head- 
pieoe of a door. 

fS^ iga-^hr the scarf that is attached to 
the door at the time of a marriage in 

|^^4 igo-^M enumeration of persons; 
the counting of peRons of a Tillage cr 
town, &0i 

i'^S^'I'^i^ igthgdan muH-can ^.'^vt a 
circular disk with string attached to it that 
is put on each side of the door to open it 
by the hand* 

I'^t^ ^go-bgrig doov-frame; window 

f'V^' tgo-Idai each side of the door. 

f'^ igo-nag the dark door, t.#., (he 
door of the dark zoom whsae a dead hodj 
is kept before disposal (JD. fs/. 8). 

1^^ tgo^fnam a single board, i>, of 
the floor. 


ff ifo-pa icW'w, or fV^ Mffo-^n or 
f'^^ 9ffo^d^g 1* the door-keeper, porter ; 
2. also the heedii^aii of the Tillage. 

8yn. ya^" igo^ru^ ; f j^' ^go^yoA ; «• 

i''9^ iffo-pur fare-ekin ; prepnoe* 
CQf^^alflo %'^^g(hlo oatwwrdlooke; 
stature ; bodily appearanoe (Ja.) ; |T fh^ 
l^the lace; eoimtenanoe ; I'l**^^ 9ky$ 
igo-kgi a heatitifnl face ; ^9 aieM-f|fo an 
uglj face, 

fV i^cpfrii 1. lintel. 2. |'«i Viv*' 
li^'^^'Q-^w^*^ §g<hyi thenhpa fpag-pahi 
maUibyor-pa foM^d there are eren fogi 
who hare only left the lintel and thres- 
hold of their home (and no more). 

fi #pe-(p0 a projeotion of .the roof of 
a home aboTe the principal door of a 
hoiue» imd«r Tvhioh one oan att or deep, 
01 where aenrants wait : ^l** y** O* 
^^^'f^ 4l0'4htb a^kru^maki tgo-^ii iog^tu 
M {A. 180) to-night deep nnder the 
portieo of Yikramas Ila. 

Syn. ff^ §go-^$far; f9^ §g(hifekar; 
f ^S^ 9g<hthyar (4IMc/ii.). 

1*'*^ ii^hphar^ y tffraK'Q iffo-rim mM^po 
the name for a aeriea of doora. 

gl$g§ [the junetion of the leaTea of. a 

If^ %go^wa pi m i§go alao ^« ftf|RO«, to 
say; to apeak, moatly to bid; to order (naed 
in old work8» now beoome obiolete). 

1^^ §go-tibye4 a kind of graaa naed aa 
a liiadifline in cye-diaeaae (^maii* $6S). 

f'^igb'-nm L panel or sqaare of a door ; 
fteioldof a folding door; 2.m^'^'^ifm' 

825 ••^«I| 

xr IT«*1*f gt^r-rgg^ ^uAhkgi- tg^^t^gi 

tha^ the deity who goaida the door on the 
oooaaion of oflerlfig tarma\ ^•i'«r*-J|«J- 
Ipw-q^tik' ^pmlpQ ffe-fH kytijfo^fa ftsAt^' 
md the namea of the fonr miiaouk>u8 divi- 
nitiea (of the Bai^po) i-^l) rr^VVT'*' 
1^*3'^'^*^ Siog-ffMi fiufi'-nio koghkgu 
bandi^tcUn; (2) •rtr^^«^''^**«IT«» Phag- 
fdoU mr^m Aaffa^ (3) ^'nVV^'i'l^pr 
8^, SeH-gfiM ^^for-po lcag§^gro\ (4) |^' 
^V'r^'B'^^9 ^mt-gOaii liai kku drtUu. 

f'* . igo-^m (1) a laige door; a gate ; 
oaatle-gate ; town-gate; (2) Xte beginning : 
t^'I'IT'' tMi'kgi igo-im the beginning of 
a new epoeh. 

f <i> igq-tBfm a Uttie (&«.). 

fft wo-r^Msa[t r«i vo»tr^«a^« at the 
door ; ift^ near or at the door. 

Y'daai §fthifi$ham9 door-junotioii ; alao 
the ohink left between a door-poet and the 
door, when the latter doea not perfeetly fit. 

O'Sn igo-ki IO09 nvmr raiaed place or 
atoola placed on either aide of a doo^r [a 
place where four roada meetjA 

i^ ^^ §goki ikmn^ the thxeahold. 
f^'^arlaf^ ffo^ m$U9ke ifkktm, r. f «r 

Kf^ §g^hyig 1. insoription. 2. lam- 
poon; label on the door; aign-board. 8. a 
magisterial adfertiaement laatened at the 

y^'< igo^ra^wa^}f%K^ ^go stuUhmi a 
door-keeper; a door-guard. 

i"* tgo-lo 1. body. 2. face (Jl). 


pa aa inscription on the door; a isign- 

f^HF §g<hfnm the three med]a» m., 
of body {%m fei), apeeA ( «^ 4^^), and th% 
mind (%S yitf). 


inrf a door-keeper. 

,9^'^ tgog sk^aoT i'if'^ ^h'f/a-sffog white 
garlio used in medicine; Allium nioal 
Jacqm : ipT'PJ igog-iHon a blue species of 
garlici very oommon in the Himalayas^ 
pert. Allium rubellum (JS.) ; ir*"l'1^''' igog^ 
gmg-ma a garlio grown on a single root ; 
l^'AjS'^** fgog-icui gaum three species of 
garlic which have three different proper- 
ties: — (l)'f^'SW ^«o4-#war red onion ; (2) 
jf^'l igog-ikya ^the oommon white garlic ; 
(3) Ih'i't tgog-sHon the blue species of 

i*l'^' 9gog-tiH mortar; ifTIS^ igog- 
gtun )^tle for braising leek {Ja,). 

ih'5*' fgog-tum or li'*?"' Mog-fdog a 
number of garlio rootb bunched in one. 

Vp{^ I: sgog-pa ^rajT, K^ garlic; 
leek ; allium ; ^'If^ ri-tgog Allium sphaero^ 
eeph a species of garlio growing wild in the 
hills of Tibet. 

Syn. Ti^S^kun'do^\ %'%^ vo^ldan\ 5VS«i 
guH d9un\ |i mbu\ %% igebu; f^^^fn 
tha-min khrag; Vf^T^ Va-^hhi 9po9 

j^^'^ II : ace. to 0%. pf . ^9f^ bsgagdj 
fat.'^ Jltgcigy to make one iwear; i|^'Q 
tgog^ one that makes a person swear 

1^'^^ igog-gM a single garlio root or 

i(^* I: $gaflBlBo1l(^'^sgofMaHSi egg. 
In Sikkim '^igoH-do'' {Snd. Ebk.). 

j|C II: n, of a country, prob, ^^'B 

|if ig^tkpei^if^-'^m'lw^ ^go-Ha^ 
lai tkye^-pa ^m^ bom of or produced 
from an egg. 

ir^'li tgod'W^'i the white of an egg or 
more properly the thin film which wiape 
the contents of an egg. 

j|C^*l|'^ sgoU thog-pa n. of a plant. 

gjCq tgoA'^My pf . «i|«^« iigt^if fut. «^|^ 

iigofly imp. |k" (*) tgofi («) or if^T^ ^^ 
fig fk^V 1. to make in tea balls to eat ; to 
make reund balls of dough (C«.;. 2. to 
hide; to conceal (a thing) (Seh.). 3. 
i|k«i'ciwjf^-i( tgofli-pakam igor^mo s 

laughing speech or exclamation. 

^^'^^ tgoi^ya9 n. of a numeral **' 

j|7j|J2( fgolhigob unable; deficient; 
wanting in strength (Sch,), 

^9^ igdm^ see %^'^ igom^pa. 

iprli^ fgom'-aken 1. a Buddhist asoetic 
who remains absorbed in deep meditatioii. 
2. species of fieldmouse, Lagamy^ hadm^ 
so called from its hybemating disposition. 
See Hooker's Himalayan Journals. 

semhh i9am'lug9 Ke&'pa or X^'^ nar^n^ to 
blunder in meditation. 

fsi*^4| 9gonhthag ^tnn meditatiog- 
cord ; a long piece of cloth about four 
inches wide which is worn by the Yogi 
when he sits in meditation ; it xa stretched 
round the neck and'imder the knees while 
sitting. About the loth and 11th oentnrieB 
A.D. Buddhist ascetics used to wear it in 
the manner the saoted thread is worn by the 
Br&hmanSy passing round tiiie right shcol- 
der to the sidSe below the arm-pit : ¥»«*^'K 
*''H''hB"^**rapi-s««r^-ar-^'«l5fl| let a laige 
tgom^thag pass from the shoulders over 
the bosom (A. 11). Aco. to Jd. a coxd 
or rope is slung round the body in order 




to f aoilitate the effort of muntaining an 
erect and unxnoyeaUe posture during medi-^ 
tation, which expedient of oonite in seomed 
hj the more ri^d deyotees. 

|>n^ Sifom^de n. of a section of the 
school of monls called •^gVTfc' Ser^byoi 
grka-Uhai of Tihet {Loi. « 16). 

^Sl'fl fgom-pa m^mif vb. pree, Ifi^^ 
tgomhgyinf or i»''*i^^ f^om-ftsAin, pf. ^sw 
^Vomff fat. ^1^ b^gotn^ imp. f^ iffom or 
i^ 9gom§f resp. 1^T*> thugMgom 1. 
originallj to isncj, imagine; now to 
meditate, contemplate systematicallj (c. 
aoooa. and dat.) ; to have ; to entertain ; 
to re*ptoduce (in one's mind), with the 
aocos. termin. or with' doable aocos. 
2. shst. 1^'^ 9ga$ihpaf has come to signify 
sTstematic meditation of the Buddhist 
Munt. Four degrees of this meditation are 
to be distinguished, vis., f'^ jfo-ica contem- 
plation ; |*^*i igom-pa meditation, properly 
80 called (which requires ^sw ^i^'ftyT^^' 
^^w^«i gsal-dai nU-rtog^ ma-gye^i gmm^ 
I.0., that it be so performed in a clear and 
decided manner without suffering one's self 
to be disturbed or distracted l^ anything) ; 
the third degree |^**i 4pyo#-/Ki oonsumma- 
ticn; and ^^( ^ra§-bu fraition. 

iviatl iganhpapo^i^'iFi 9g(M^^by$4^ U^ 
|*i'«n S^om-viAtfn an ascetic who medi- 


|ai*q*i^' ggonhpa t$ha^ the term used in 

Amdo to signify |^'^^ sgom^h&n^ a Bad- 
dhist ascetic who meditates, Ac. 

|si'B igom^a and |«vf^ fgonnien the 
Object 01 meoitauon. 

|«r^fjif fgotfhkbrog 1. the wilderness or 
solitude where hermits dwell for medi- 
tation. 2. holly in Sikkim {Ja.) ? 

prmi^t$^ §gom ptm-lag ^yaMs a branch 
or form of asceticsl meditation [lit. burn- 

ing the limbs; it is a kind of penance in 
which the whole body is exposed to four 
heaps of fire in four quarters and to the 
sun on the head]5. 

I^r^isi ii^m-Am the practice of asoetical 
meditation, also |si'S'«|ii igon^gyi tam^ the 
way to Nirvdffa by means of meditation : 
siMVra-^srft^e-^-lfvqsrrOT^ firom the 

."iiecond stage of perfection free from 
defilement he entered on the practice of 

^^ f/jrom-fM, ^i^iifi^ the stick on 
which the ascetic fixes his gase while 
engaging himself in meditation. 

1^'^** igoffhifmm three kinds of $*>'4 
^gomrpa or mystical meditation, vis. : — (1) 
meditation performed in the three, four or 
mi periods into which a day may be 
divided for that purpose w¥« 1|, w^cB«5«' 

Mtifi-ff^om-nt, ibf da4'po dut gnen-po phar 
bdeh^'kyidran-pa yin-pofj thun-'tBhamtphye' 
to btgom-paio ; (2) ^'fr-l^, $'^'*^''^^l^^<r 

^'^^'^ tfaiii-f^in-nf, myod-ishur id$b§-kyi 
dtan-pa yin^pa^^ igr<hidug %a4ial lot ^pyo4 
ciJ^a9''kyaH ibral m$i^u Ml^gi^ fiwMOf 

igom-ni d^yaA tmi/-pa la Hai-dafl dafl'^i 
\a1irthag ^'^(sreA ; (3) |<^T«<1, ^'ilsnr«' 

m, natr9$m9 nm^thag ckoi-pai^ iigo^ hya- 
tgonhiyei'kyi ikhdai Iral-tffaio. 

^*W igom (rr9 »« ^«-i«) «IW a 
deity thought of for propitiation. 

dj^ igor a spindle in a tuming^latue 

%^'fS^ igor^igor round. 

fr'W'^'^i^ igi^T'^gar ^AAyt'f forming into 
an eddy or whirlpool {Nag. It). 




i|^'^ tgof'Wa J. pf. and fut. ^^ 
itgar to boil down ; to oondensebjr boiling, 
e.g.^ 9'^w bu-rani sugar. 2. to turn on a 
lathe (Ja.). 

i|^'^ tgor-mei without interruption or 
break: (M'^'W^lf rii^tne^ hm-hgro) to 
go on a journey without break, $.« ., with- 
out hayiftg to turn baok. 

|k*lf $gar'fn^f y. 1. |>^ tgoUg, 2. w^ a 
ball, globe ; also a disk ; henoe an Indian 
rupee is oaUed d't^T'^'XjpAy^^lM ggar-mo ; 
g*urjfvX btM'am igor'WO a ball of treacle ; 
|k'^ ggor-thig a pair of oompaaaes; i^' 
'^'5'^ fgor-thig phpenca or ^^'^ phyei-ka 
aemi-oiioular (C«. ; 8chtr.). 

H^WOI^l^WW-rfttor^^^ Ihag-par^ 
opedalljy partioularlj, ohieflji Ao. ; in com- 
pounds and as adrerb : private, separate, 
distinot; also as opposed to | fpyi^ e,g.^ 
1'^^ V^yi-gdugi a parasol for several 
persons ; awning ; dbelter ; ¥v'^^« ggog- 
gAuge a parasol for one person ; f^'upi f pof- 
ekal share of a single person ; individual 

<*»W 9goi4chur ^'\^^^i^' n. of a 
yiniwag orpreta. 

|«rq igohpa to choose ; to find the right 
thing (Sck.) 

I'cv fgof^u or jjai §go§ adv.a|9V<^^ 
khycii-par du or 1^'^ fger-du (opposite to 
)^ Cpy»r), partioularly, especially. C^'d'SQ^ 
igof-'kyi dpon a subaltern ofBioer {Cs): 
!*'•«• ^T'^^w'S' V^'^'fi'^ tgoi-m ikah' 
gdam^^kyi (tiian-pa rtn^po eke particularly 
the' precious doctrine of the ^ka^gd-jm^pa 

School {A, my 

way of bxeaking, ue.^ at low ebb; %^i^ 
ifiiul^gyig purse to ke^ silver pieces. 

fiC^q fgyUl-fca^ pf. '^^M ftffyMi, fia 
^^' igyifl. 1. ^ to yawn, gape. 

Syn. $c^q hgyHi-ua\ |^4 flsf-mi 


il^ igyid 1* tibie hollow of the knee; 
bend of the knee ; or tV^ tgyid-pa knee- 
joint ; IS'^'^^V M^fft^a gpoi-pa^ to lAmf" 
the knee-joint; hamstring (a horse). 2. 
the calf (of the I^). 

^S*3^ Wf^^ttf^^ ^ns^ idlenesi; 

^^^ {J^ag.) |V|«s tgykf^gyur is the 
vidous' indolence of beginning a oew 
work before he has finished the one he 
has in hand. 

I VI ^'.4 §gyid ikyttr-pa acute pain in tlis 
knee and leg, e.g.^ of a woman with child. 

tVR^' Wid-l^huA the hoUow of the 


pqrse: \^*S^^'S'^'%^'^^ igyig-gu i^ai 
poii (fwafi'du eafl-nai our purse being in the 

%SiS^ 9gyii'khyol one lame in his legi 

|V^fi«i tgyii-ikhril mimT% QiL raised 
knee, that is, squatting and doing nothing) 
langour ; lairiness 

Syn. l^pm ^gyi4^Mam§; |VW #w* 
lug; 9\^'^ rfnugi^pa; ^«"«i ^jas^pa 

§S'9 99y^<f^f »l«o |V8 9gye4-iu ^fw 
a hearth, fire-place, consisting of threa 
stones on which the kettle is placed ; f ^' 
Is IpagMgyid iron trevet, tripod, cf. 'i\^ 

\SW^ tgy^i-fug-pa ^nm slothful ; idle 
0$. and Lece. ^9F^ yi4 ehtm-pa prostrate 
with fatigue or mantaL lassitude. 



m'^m'^^'tlirmm:^^^ the fringe that is 
attached to the border of robes or of 
tanta^ &o. 

Cf^ytfs^l gfiHff^ craft; deoep- 

don; poretezt. |'^ tgifu^an artfiil; 
crafty; oanning (Cm.), 

§'H^ iffir^bphrtil nmr magical decep- 
tion; I'Hp*'' iffpt^^krut^nia mmx the 
name (^ Gautama, Buddha's mother. 

9'^ ffi^yw-fmi miT illusion; fancy; 
imposition whether natural or intentioual ; 
|-srsfi^ fgjfw^na igMan mVT^rnc a juggler; 
1'^^ igg^nm^'Cttn irsnr an imposter ; 
one who plays deception ; I***'! '4 iffi^nw 
tta^ mifnm like illuiion ; iilusiTe; f«r 
l*>'^ nggU'-nin ^rut^oa to exhibit a false 

mait^iM ihmnH»4 ^ggu-nwr fe§ I know 
rliat ttU phenomena aie only illusions 
|*sr§^*q ngpu-fiw bgei^M imTtTV, WT911«;f 
one dexterous in magical fthow; a magician ; 
|*«r A^'« tgffU'tna «i»»a^-jNi Hiff^l^^ free from 
guile; guilaleas; I'vA^X^ tgffu^nwhi fwr 
iUusiine r^dhrts, henc(^ ^'e&eral wealth: |* 

^qn^a^^i'S^-R ^he mind is not sa- 
tisfted with the illuaive v^ealtb, though 
Acciunulated by deeire it reinajos b^hi-.d, 
and tbon^li acquired hy yourself it is 
enjoyed by others. 

th^ twelTs exprssdons iUuskratiTe of illu- 
«- .-;n r*ni« iggu^ma »a^t (2) ta 
uhuMln the image of the muon in water; 
(8) ^^ iNV-y^ MSttM that appear in a 
vision ; (4) M'^ wtg^rggu mirage; (5) ft' 
M tfdJtm dream; (6) rW Ifm-irim, 
•^ ; O V'* V^d^ rfr»-M»i gr^kkyer 
oasOe m the air; (8) Hh[«i mw-J!P*fW; 


(9) ^qc *ei|-4n #i6a<:p0»i ^sAff rain-bow ; (10) 
1^^ pA»9 lightning ; (] 1) «*Q^ aAa«&irr bub- 
bl<;; (12) **^%^^l«Wr8 nte^hH^gi 
fffMg9-iciM liO'bv^ reflection or reflected 
image in a mirror. 

I'ni f ^|fii-r/sif/ ^raiT art, skill, dexterity: 
|r«*^'a^'%^B^'^^ ^gyU'tiMl gna^-hyaA 
dca^-par cgfji^r iraTurilxfT ut^ though 
dexterous (artful; be was sincere. There 
are 64 arte, of which JO are distributed in 
handicrafts. 18 in music, 7 in singing, 
9 in dancing. 

f *»"^ Wyii-f<sa/#as5 jsr«5 f \4n rgyal- 
pohi 9kye44%hat the rornl gatdens where in 
ancient time Vlugs used to try fenta of 
arms, etc. (4f^on.). 

1^^ §agn'ln9 1. the immaterial 
body of the soul while in the Jiardo, 
2. the animal and human body in general, 
inasmuch as it is only an apparent body : 
a phantom, when oonsiaered from a highe^^ 
philosophical point of view. 

mother-in-law; «^|^ mna^fgyu both 
daughter-in-law and mother-in-law : l^Mv' 
V^^'^ fgjfvg^mot b^ru^ipa «TQ^-xfwin 
watched by one^9 luother-in-law. 
J^'**fS igyur-bkoi/ strong advioo. 

y^'fl igyur-fca w^n, pf and fut. a|^ 
j^^ytir, trans, form of ^|^q bgyur-tca. I. 
to transform, alter, change (colour, one's 
mind) ; to correct; to translate; to revise. 
2. to cast aside; to dissoade, divert; 
to turn ; to cause to turn j ^'V'K-e 
tkhot'lo fgyur-wa or i^Q ikor-ua to 
turn a wheel; l^'|^*^ gkai Bgynt^^ca tc 
vary or modulate the voice, also to 
hum a tune; to sing or whistle. 3. 
to govern, steer, control: f^*Ff^*)«'|^. 
rtati-kh^ 9t»h-kyi% §gyttr a horse's mouth 
hy a bridle: ^^V^T^'i^if Q<rp'|^ ^d^ 





ehagi fUm-pa^ kha-fgyur he is gOTemed 
by oTil pafldons ; r^^^'^^ kha-lo tgyur-^a 
to goYom ; alflo a driver ; r'**^'?'|^'^ 
kkm-h fM-^rta ^gyur-tioa to drive ft oarriagc ; 
^«'|^ '^ 4waH ^gyuT'Wa to hftve oonmumd^ 
control of: to dominate; to oommand. 

5 Wy* (f^ i^rf)> ^Jt^, '^f ft vessel 
[ft sftck ; ft Oftthem bottle]& 
\%^ 9gyf*'igitr crooked {8oh). 

bent forward and bump-bftoked. 

^ H igpe^io ^f^tfm 1;< Iramp-bftok ; 
ftco. to Ja. 2. one of tbe lower dasses o{ 
offieiala or noblemen. 

1. flbst. a small pouoh; ^«'i rof-^gge a 
bag of cotton staff. 2. adj. quiet, gentle 
(in Spiti) (t/3.). 

1% igycb^ a small bag. 

fl^*^* ^gyei-po int a small fire-plaoe ; 

SS*9 99y^i^ "^ ^ make-sbift 

9aj*q igpethpa to be on the move. 

E^^^ igyel-jwa^ pf. and fat. ^l^ 
iigyel^ transit, form of ^S*''^ bgyeldca^ to 
throw down; to over-torn; to lay or pat 
down (a bottle, a book) ; to thwart (the 
charm of an enemy) ; to kill (horses) (Ja.). 

^^ipi §gpogi m€f mn^m a warlike 
engine to ahoot d%rtB or to fling stones 
with; mortar; cannon: I^J-^gfif^ 
igyogiJcgi bphrul-bkhcr id ; %V%^ 9g»ogf^ 
fdo stone ilong from sach a machine. 
i>|^ tne-tgydgt and 3(|^ fd^tgyog^- 
cannon : *>'ll« me-fgyogs now called '^«» 
dob in Tibet; ^%^ rdo^sgifogs a stoae- 
tbrower is used dn Bhutan. 

«f^«^^ ^gyog^^ndab ^ (&^.;£a- 
lae. T. 1S8) catapnlt. 

W^^^ fgyoH-ica^ pf . 'H^^ i9gy(^h ^^• 

^Y^' (f i/j^o^i perh. origioallyszi'^'^ fpoif- 
tea to hide. 1. to fill; to stuff (a saosage) 
2. ooUoq. in TF. to put into (the pocket) 
i*^^'f>s'4 gla^phytr sgo^-wa to retom the 
wages due to another person (Sch,), 

§ Wm (^a) 11^,^, ^7 ^^j ^i 
^ftsif m^, ^rftnif*r, «WT^ 1- Bound, 
noise, voice: ffll'»l«A| ^^wK*1^V» 
^S ^gra^a un^paii 9grar<M mthMH-p^i 
fgra-gnti yo4 there are two Idnds of somid, 
viz: — H^'cA'i Min-pa^i igra^ i,e,j sound that 
can be caught or heard and undeffstood; 
ail^iA'l fiM'Zifhpaii ig-i'a which cannot 
be heard or undentood; indiatiiiot sound; 
fi^'l ndH-^gra a mere word. 2. word, 
syllable. 3. a language. 

I'tIS 9gfa-9kai sound ; voice ; fame ; f 
llS'f^'^ igra^itif iiian^pa sounding; sono- 

I'lfficq fgra iskyui-tca ^vmiw one 
who speaks few words. 


* |q|V wqH|: Sgra-iigyur mar-pa hU 
tshas:9^'^ Mar-pa the translator andlo- 

O^'*' tgra 9grag9-pa (^a-^ag^ v^- 
«9 the soimd returned by the targ<>t 
when the arrow hits it. 

|-Ji|«K-9S 9gra 9grog-par byi (^a^rfog- 
par ocb) v^n one who proclaims muoh; 
a great self-advertiser. 

f f^ 9gra-tgrog9 ^pi, KTW* «ft^ 
1. the famous. 2. n. of tbe king of LMki 
(Ceylon) with whom Bdma waged war, 
described in the epic of B&mftyan l^y 




11 T*** tgra-igrogpa (da^g-pa) to 
pTodnce sounds, noises, etc. 

|-^vqF^'|^-q fgrM Hey par ^Jyor-traa:*^ 
%f W*'^'!^'*' iMg-gi igra dag-par sbyar- 
9pa 1«r4if the oorreot f onnfttion of words. 

^'4|^ §gra'gca% XTT, itr^, frt^ 1. 
n. of an Atw^a demon, who fought with 
the gods and drank neotar obtained 
by ohnming the ocean. 2, fabulous 
planet of Chioese and Brahminical astro- 
log7 wAuoh exercises malignant influences 
on the destinies of mankind; speoially 
known by being at enmity with the sun 
and tiie moon, on whom it is continually 
wreaking yengeanoe. Eclipses are caused 
by Sgra-ffoan swallowing the sun or moon. 
His difierent names are the following: — 
qi^-i|mrfi| 9m4-nam9 tfian ; Vl^^ Mun-pa 
em\ mt\v^^*^ m/io.riitnai'bpei; vR' 
^i'fl ffwa^i rM-t00 ; •*?!•• ^fipra-s/mi; "W^ 
Lam-nag ; ff*^ Zh-m^ 4gra ; *R-^' W'i 
8^gB w^ hu; I'^am Zla-wa |;bmff; 
y«^MK-R^ tfe-war tphar-hgro I -I*' Qa-M; 
l^'W^w-yi Sprin-loi tnam-tgifal; g'Vi* 
Browne ikyes; ffrn't^H^fi-f^ KhatH-gjMm 
rnam^rgifal (Ifnon.). 

|-^sr ^^^ Sgra-gcan-hdiin xxmm the only 
son of Gautama Buddha who, accord- 
ing to the southern Buddhists, was bom 
on the day Siddh&rtha left the world. 
Aooording io the northern Buddhists he 
was conoeived in the womb of his mother 
Yasodharft long before the renunciation 
todkplaoe, and saw light six years after, 
on the day when Buddha finished his six 
years aaoetielBm, on the bank of the river 
Nairafijanft ; he was so named being bom 
on ihe day when there was an eclipse. 

•■•W^'^^^^ Sgra-gcan idsin Jf^i- 
gUn xnpti^ {Schr.; Td. t-iltS) [friend 
of IUlinla]/S. 

f ^«Ji^«i'tf«w ^gra-gcan faj tjomi KVf^ 
sS^f^\ the god who subdued Eihn, the 
demon, by cutting him into two. 

^'^ igra-che far-fnmed, renowned; C 
*ai 9gra^hen i!tnf great; sound; f'^'^ 
sgra chm-po ifftrnr high loud soxmd; 
I'i^'fipiQ ^gra-cher gragt-pa well-known, 
famous; t'W*" «i/'*^^ nan-pa to heer; to 
hear sound; f »»««« igra nami-pa wnt^, 
sinking voice; low sound; |'f^ tgronfiian 
WW%9, ^ a well-sounding, agreeable 
voice; a guitar: |*W 9gra^irn(f^ {W^ 
brag-cha) ^ftryr, ^»r^ an echo. 

W^ VlV-^'^r/ Bound mude by the tongue 
striking on the roof of the mouth : P'*' 
ft»*;-a5*X'^CT-3|X-8|-jirtn K^r, qoi v.Uen I 

happened not to see him he by striking the 
roof of the month with his tongue signi- 
fied the relish of meat, &o. {gbrom. 118). 
1*^^*4 §gra dag-pa pure ; cleor-voioed. 

I'M igra-don Hi^ meaning of a word. 

II'^T^ tfjfra drag-po fHn^ sound made 
by a sudden blow. 

ii'«!^ ^gra-ldan 1. noisy. 2 (9'^^ h^- 
rog) wm, ¥t^ met. a crow. 

B'f^ tgra-ldar sounding ; sonorous. 

 f 4 j^yra-tra HT^ (ScAr.) [speech]^. 

|'fl!^'<i tgra-ihyin-pa irof^ 'W^fir; ^' 
'^^^ 9kad idon-pa to resound, groan, cry 

I'jK.* sgra^yuH ^4> wrc [resounded]^?. 

I'SS 9grarhy€4 sound-^makisir; flS*^ 
%gra byed-do w«icnrft makes sound. 

f ^V^^ 9gra-4iya^9 fM^ pleasing 
tone ; harmony ; euphony {A. k. 111-8). 

• f Nft^^'S^'^ Sgra-ibyaili rgifal-po 
{8ckr.; (JlfdB.). 

I'NS^'9'^ Sgra dbyaKf Iha-pto the 
Goddess Svaraevat!. 




iMa; ^^^^M ayafy-^km-mai ^m%m* 
nha4§-9ra^mo; 9ii^^^'* Miahthbpuil Iha-' 

I'l^'w ip^a i^hyor-ma a ooalition or 
oonnection of letters. 

I'd f^i Sgra-viUp^m fPf of disagreeable 
Toioe. A.ooording to ihe fabulous geo- 
graphy of the Buddhists the northern 
oontincnt which is said ix) be square in 
shapOy and whivrer ai language is spoken 
not intf^liigible to the people of India. 

ir^*S>5$^yvi-fn0(f ^^t^ soundless; voiceless. 

I'd^'l^ ^g}xt^fne4 ^rin a cloud without 

|'<si 9gr048am ^pm only a Toice. 

r«^ fgratsAoif (|'S^'^'«i igra-doA 
ts/ioi'tm) grammar and logic. 

1'^*^ igra-lfthin^f^'^ tnawa njf^m that 
oatchee the sound ; the ear. 

the origin or roo^i of a word. 

%^'fS igrabi-rgyan %x[m, irmr metaphor 
in rhetoric. 

^'\^ igraffi iHe^tm ttnder tones and 
h»lf tones, Ao. ; also the name of a book 

|-A^'H«i(5»i §gra M'zer g$um the three 
rays of sound which are incident on the 
soul in the Bardoi %'^'^fMc% 9gra-yii 

l***!^'^ f^r-gpif igrag-go. 

 *•? fgra-pi ^ vfim (Sekr. ; KdlOe. 
T. IH) [soldiers of the adversaryj/S. 

• ||-^-^« fgi^a-yi-gfiai = ^'"< r#i«-irtf 
i9«(rf«iFm the ear. 

Jiil^ii the science of words; grammar 
[one versed in lezioography]& 

versed in the science of words ; a gram- 

«nr^ A BoddhiHoUm and Qod of Lesm- 
ing of the northern Buddhists, 

|'^«i 9gra-gsal ^it9 articulate; intel- 

W^^ 9grags 1. together with; jointlr. 
2. n. of a place in Tibet. 

t^'i'S^'Vi Sgf^g9-kyf dar^pkug n. of a 
sanctuory situated in a rock-cavera of 
Tibet {D&h, T UY 

OT«a"«*lP^* Sgragi^kyi YtHi-rdsdi dis- 
trict in Uuhhrag in 8. Tibet. 

8^"^ 9graA»tca (^ang-wa) pf. ^m 
i9grix^9^ f ttt. fs' itgraiy imp. |«t- ;^r^ L 
to enumerate; to reckon up separatelj 
2. to upbraid ; to reproach. 

I^'I'^ 9gral^wa {(fal-fca) 1. to cut into 
small pieces, vix., the picture of an enemj 
whom one wishes to destroy (Jd.), 2. 
^-|{4pram*|ai'q ehu-sogf hf 9graLwa to pass 
over or travel upon a river or sea. 

hye4 ^ir^TfiffHrnwfiT by voice or sound 
he causes to be undei'stood. 

M igrfg (dig) or SP |^«i gral fgfig-pti 
well arranged ; good arrangement ; v. i^ 

1*11^ fgrig^pa, pf. if^ itgrigi, fot 
^1*^ itgn'g, imp. |«! tgrig or |T» tgngtf^' 
^'i^'*" grai'du igrig-pa, to arrange in order 
or row ; to lay or put in order ; to arrange, 
adjust ; to put or fit together ; to join (die 
separate parts): IT'^'^'SS'^ 9grighp» 
byei-pa v^vrrfvr to compile (books); to 
stHch close (books, do.) ; ^ I^KnOl eoven. 

It^ §grif-k$i dsfeot in fixing goma 

^' even thong k there was iama defect in 
fixing a aapphixe (fiMi. and Tig. 17). 

It^** igrif-km anangement aooording 
to naage; oiutom: |^«i'H*^'^ igrig-hm 
Aig $oti^a there wae a ooitonL 

1^ 9§^9^% ^P- of 1^4 §grig-pa. 

^*^ §grifhpo {fin-po) n%. akilfiilt 
elevor, pradent, expert 

8yn. ■f*^ ii^ka§-pa; |^'' 9fyal^po 

iifm-can-^ lyrA^fa, to edipae; to oorer 
oTer, ▼. §^4 1 : §gri^rP^. 

^a^'Q dui-rgg^^f^gSfi rM-Av mar-tgrib M 
^kgg-pa rednotion; jMiything below the 
ftTorage oaleoIatioQ ; also dincoant. 

i'^i)m'f^'*9grib^9-kpi tf^yenra dis- 
tinction between the two defilements. 

HTQ lifgrilhpi 1. sbst. ^mrt, ^v, 
wfmm, ^M4ii% 4finnir sin; mental and 
moral defilement; the state of being 
obscured, darkened ; obeonration. 2. ^mr, 
[a roof, oorer] 8. sr^^^irt^qm-JI^-q 
ma^rig paki fgo-ia^i tbughl^gi igrUh-pm 
hidden inside the egg of ignoranoe. 

iv^, imp. |4 ignb (^ §) to obsoue; to 
ooTor; to darhoD, defile: \«ff'^'i^*4irfs 
ii-nmii hoi-ner k^grOhnoi the light of the 
ion being obsonied : |^*ot>'w| «*« QriV 
pffi ffMM igrii-pa the son is eoTered hy 
the clouds. 3. ^^<rc«|q« paU^ btgribi 
i^MlV^ ntterlj obsonred or ooyered. 

fTQ HI; adj. dark; sbst. darkness; 



l^^llfri^JNi IKm the five kinds of 
moral ohsemratioAs are the following :— (1) 
«m')|^ « b§4fgi igrOhpa, or ^^^ tvl'l^ 4 
idoi'^Ci4'Jtifi igrib'pm defilsznents or sins 
of passionate desiies; (2) tj^V^t^'tl'i'i 
gnoi-^^mhipi igrdhpa sins of an evil heart, 
M.| of the wish to do evil to others; (8) 
*[Tl'4^'l'|« pmgt-tgoi^gi 9grib sins of 
iasineis andindolenoe ; (4) M^'I'I^ « gmi^r 
hgi igrib-^ sins of sleep; (6) )^ S'l^ii 
ike^ikom gpi igrib^pa sins of donbt. 

|w^lpr<^Hig«*or|iri^ igrib^ii 
the two kinds of moral and mental obson- 
ations ai«:~(l) 9^ltai-«|m imrfir 
deflkment of vdaaj that oansed by 
habits, eto.; '^'ftt'lq'q linvfir the sin 
prodnoed from the objects of cognition ; 
aec to the Mmkdpanm dootrine these 
two sins vanish as soon as one hasattained 
to the eighi- stage of Badkkaitm peffee* 
iioQ; ace. to the Afii^ytfiMi these lemain 
even when one has become an Arhai. 
/Ccc. to the Bon religion, sins which bring 
Biiiferings encompass the living beings of 
the three worlds, sins that appertain to 
knowledge only affect such saints, ^v 
U'%M'e QpuH^^miL •emi-pa and ^Y^l&i' 
wfKn Rig^hddn •em^pa^ as belong to the 
tenth stage only. 

|q«|-V«*il ffgrOhpM igrtb-pa tnawh$el 
n. of a BodkkaUva. 

1^ V Sgrib^ {4*^g) invisible by 
the power of charms or by certain articles 
of inflnenee on men andT devils : f^s't'f ^v 
|^%*SS khM4ati nro^ igrib^ hge4 
made invinUe by the feathers of a mag- 

iWq 9grm^ il/imifal igL n^ iigrim§ 
(4im), fut. •!« ftfpriei, imp. l*i («) §grim (i). 


1. toliold iist; ta foiw or twist together; 
to endaATOor; (Ot.) to iqneeie in, orowd 
in; {8eh.) to be oonfoaed: If'^^-H'^l'^**! 
t/o-iM rif -JM igrim^pa to be oevefnl both 
in mind end intelligenoe, that ie» not to 
iocgot anj important point or taj a 
fooliahiroird in oondnoting a oaee ; to bring 
all tttt £atelligenoe into play; |^'Q'|««'<i 
ffeii#4Mi fgrim^pa to twist the threads 
t(^gether that they may become a compact 

)^r* igril-kha a piece rolled together : 

ypi-p^i ifrii a xqU containing twenty- 
one pieces. 

%^"^ tgril^a, pf.and fnt ^«i («^i7 
(of. ^IK^ hiffnUwa and ^^'i hkhriUwa). 
to make a roll of; to roll, wrap up; to 
wind into a spool ; ^'^tS^'^h'S >i*W thag^ 
pa dM fog'bu igrU-fiikhan he who rolls np 
lopes or paper ; ^S'^'l^'i rtAitir igril-tca 
to roll car form into a pill ; ^*f V«i'|«i'q 
gai Uo(ffM tgril-wa to roll up tightly 
what has got slack. 

|«'g«ni §gri9'9khrim9 rales or regu- 
lations of admission ; l^'^n'^ fgrif icttg- 
fa to admit ; to introduce. 

jj*l|'fl irug-pa {(fug-pa)^^'^ iihu-tca^ 

pt. ^^'^i itgrug^-pa^ fut. ^^ ifgrug^ imp. 
J^ 9grug or fff^ 9grug9 to collect, gather, 
pluck, pLok up, 0.^., wood, nuts, vermin, 

doA (r9«/{-nae haying requested that some 
wood should be collected. 

fjp^* I: Sw^ ((f^f^g) n. of a ^nbetan 

king of the Ben period. 

SR* II: or a^« igrutf, deseribed as 

884 %V^\ 

ideti^idiun efto-Moyi, YBzions anecdotal, 
true and false, of fonner times; 1^**^ 
§gru^^^han one who narrates fables or 
stories (C«.) : |^*t^ ^grvi^tgfai the storiM 
cr fables that have come down to tis; |^* 
^'<i tgrui, iehai-pa to relate faUes, storin, 
fto. ; l^'^Hi igntH-gtam legends ; Isles of 
ancient time. 

I'^'I^'W^'V^ igvyi^tha gnamJH>n the 
heavenly or celestial Bon-po teachers who 
flourished before the time of King Di^gum 
i^aai^jpo and his successors in the mytho- 
logical period. 

m^'^f tgruA'pa a rdater of legends. 

|"^'< igi-uU'Wasz^^ p^'ft^ fffntH Jftfrf- 
qitAa;i 1. one who relates fables or stories. 
2. vb. pf . ^"^'i i9gru(l9f fut. ^^' iigruiy to 
mix ; to invent ; to feign (C7«.); | ^'^QV igrui- 
babt the inspired story-teUers of Tihet, 
whose profession it is to narrate &bles for 
a Uvin^; he puts a square cap on hia 
head and goes on telling stories without 

>fi 8^*^ igrun-pa {f^n^a)^ pf . and fut. 

^^ i9g»-un nfinnl 1. to resound; to reply 
in the sametone; to rival. 2. to compare; 
to emulate, vie, oontend with (Cs.). 
Syn. ^9ff'*' igran-pa (4Woii.). 

^^*4 tgruh-poj vb. pf. V^hff^ 

fut. ^ Ugrub^ imp. |^ 9gfnh (of. 
^V^^ bgrub-ptii f^niij, mr, W{%m to com- 
plete, finish, perform, cazyy oat| aooom- 
plish ; to achieve, manufacture, attain to) 
^<i'|qc don 9grub-pa to attain to one's sin; 
to obtain a blessing, a boon ; I'^^Mf |^ 
Uhe-idiii don §gr^pa to care for the 
wants of this life ; to accomplish the aadi 
of this life ; S^'S'f^'^ tgP^ghph^ tt^ 
pa to procure flour as provinon far a joii> 
x^ ; K^'l^^ nor tgrub^pa to gain xiohii; 

|q^HR-q| 335 

•Iflo to fanuBh withi to ntpply; f'|^'o 
ika §grHlhpa to propitiate a god. Aoo. 
to Jd. ^f%^^ iha tgrnlh'pa implieSi in aooor- 
dance with Britoanio-BnddluBt theologj, 
not io much the making of a deity propi* 
tioos to man, as rendering a god snbjeot to 
human power^ forcing him to perform the 
will of man. Whilst the conaiui^ the 
labouring in this arduous undeitaking is 
often called |^<i ^gruUhpa^ the aniving at 
the wiahed-for end is deaignated ^f9'« 

^n'^i^q f^tfi ika^ua ^.irm very 
difficalt to propitiate, to perform, to eace- 

J^'P^' igrub-khaa the house or place 
where one sits to meditate or propitate a 
deitj, or idiare the rites and ceremonies 
are observed for the same. 

|^»W iorab^han ^mnr one who 
propitiates ; a propitiator. 

1*^31 9Sfrt4b-gla=z^v^^ igrub-yon remu- 
neration for propitiating {Jfi^on.). 

^'^*^ 9grub'bchag hvol^ng or making 
and dii»mantling or destroying ; the term 
is defined in i«i^'fl |^« s^^i^q-^jn* w^^Mj-a 
gmr-wa Mgruh-tgyu daH rnin-pa na§ mar- 
hehag tgyu coustruciing a new one and 
breaking down the old one ; 

I^W* igrub-rtffgi token ; precis of the 
attadnment of pwfection in aooomplished 

jfr^m igrub4h9b9 unnr, «!|T the 
meUiod of effecting the propitiation of a 
deity, of obliging a god to make his 
appearance. There are two kinds of V^w 

•huraH fgrulhthabi da^ khro-wahi 9grub- 
ihabf ffUi the propitiation or oo-eroion 
of gods in tiieir mild aspect, and of those 
of wrathful aspect. 


• p^^ S'*^ igrub4kah9 tgy^vMi^ 
m^ itn {Sohr. ; Td. », SSO) the ocean 
of coercion. 

|q^*«4i*tft4 fgruMad min^thin pro- 
pitiating and discomfitting* 

1*1*4^ igrub-nui wvnm the power to 
perform or propitiate. 

|«'W««SS Sgruh-^pa 4kab-irgyai the 
eight gods who according to the) vm ^niV(. 
49MI sect of Tibet are diffiottU to propitiate 
They are the following :— ««i'^«w j| jS/'am- 
^[po/ 9ku, 't^H^v^ Pai-ma gwfk, ^'S'^l^ 
Tad^dag tkug$, ^'t^^f^ ^dui^rUi pan- 
tan, «w^l*i-inr^tsrf^'^^si*t-f Pkur^ 
bphrin4a§ kiiig^iien hdai-paH fde-^tRa^ hH- 

Ifmoi^pa drag^fbg^, ^*^^\«K^ Sjig- 
tUn nichoi-ittod (On(h. f^ 11). 

fp^iSn igrub-par byed-pa tp cause 
ecstasy in meditation. 

l^-QsiX^ ^griOhfo fnichog WK:i highest 
stage of consummation. 

I^S fgrttb-bga ftfi^, mv^ anything 
to be propitiated ; a god. There aie two 
kinds of deities, male and female, who 
baring in view the good of all living beings 
do many kind servioes when invoked ; they 
are manifested in aspects, calm and peace<- 
ful, or terrific and wrathful. For instance, 
the Goddess Dolma when she is propitiated 
is a mild deity and is called fXl^'S Ika-nup 
tgrub^bga, t>., the goddess to be propitia- 
ted ; the man who propitiates being called 
|a«re fgrub^fi-'po, and the manner of ex- 
horting her is called 9fl^'i^ 9gom4shul; the 
propitiatory rites are called, f^'^w igrub- 
tkabf. I^'ci^iv^ igrub-par by^d-^a in- 
cludes the persons who observe the ritea, 
who meditates on her and offioiateB at the 
service. When the goddess has been pro* 
pitiated, •>., fl|«w k^grub^, she appears 




before the devotee and grants him his 
prayenp or wiflhes. 

1. he that aooompluhes the propitiation 
or ooerdion. 2. a kind of bDe. 

1^'^^ igrub-ran or |«l«^ sgrub^Hau i[fttr 
oaanot easily be propitiated «or acoom- 

|<l*4 §grulhle SQi^'4sc.|q*4 ^waA-h dad 

I^i^ §grulhgfen a deity of the Bon 
to be propitiated; the Bon doctrine («7a.). 

I^'V'^ igntb ikhwa iffSlW easy to per- 
form, or easy of acocAnplishment. 

U'fl igre-wa {4e»wd) 1, nnoovered : <«' 
I jmi'vr|ijiqsiiar ft-^^- chof-kpi glegt-bam 
igre^wa la i^hag nU-ruH a sacred volume 
should not be kept unoovered. 2. adj. 
gen. **- )'^ igre-ko bare; naked; I'M 

AAoi/ m-^mi^pa or «*^'9 «a gptr^bu 
bare uneven ground. 3. vb. pf . and fut. 
ci| k^gre to repeat; to put or place in 
Older ; to put together ; to collate. 

^'fl igreg-pa (deg-pa) vb. pf. t'^M 
9greg9^ sbst. ^rir^ f^nc to belch; also 
sbst. eructation. 

Byn. -WVO ggui-pa or ^9^<i-3^«^i 
gmi^-pa ggen-i^log eructation that rises 

^C*^C|^r<t4-ff^r6^ firm and well-fixed: 

§gt'Mk rc4l mc4^ hdi^hn. 

||K'q tgreH'tpa {deHg-ufoj^'^^'W^''^ 
ggeh'du iiad-fM W^fT, m^lf vb. pf. ^^1 
itgren^. fut. 4^' t Vr<?<I, imp. |* ^r^^ or |^^ 
lyrvfiff, cf . ^9^" hgreH'pa 1. to b'f t, hoist or 
rise up: S^-$V|^K.'jq-M^-«^i^V«"^*''' fix 

or erect the house-flags and the saored 
standard. 2. to stretch out. 

gof-mei gcer-bu naked; without cover; 
destitute; bleak 

j^X'^mii fgreiM9io g9um {(fen^mo guntf 
the three dennw according to a Tibetan 
saying are the following: — (1) 9^'N 
A^'l^'lf'9 iMt'Ui e/iO-iiie^ ^gt^eu-mo ^e a 
valley is bleak when it is without water; 
(2) ^«i'^»*f^»^|^« i/ul-bkAor mgf^ 
me4 §gren-fiH> a country without a protect- 
ing deity is destitute; (3) ^^as^eoi 
^SV^f 5»^*\'a*\*iSi^ *J^ gai-fe iuin-poJ^ 
yoi'l'yad^ khyo-me^ btid^fite^ sgren^moho 
that woBian who i& without husbantl 
though she may have got ten brothen it 
denntOj %m.^ destitute. 

Ijl'^ igre^-pa (tfe^-pa) n. of a nimieral 
figure used in Buddhist astrology: t^'^ 

njt V (Fflhw/. 57) 

^ igro 1. a large feather, eep. quill-fea- 
ther, used for an ornament of arrows, a^ a 
charm, etc. : f 9f^ fgrihldan feathered race: 
a general name for birds as being possessed 
of feathers ; also an arrow. 2. $^Q fgro-tca 
to elevate, exalt, increase (C«.); to exagger- 
ate {Jd). 3. sack; bag; ^*i^ tAai-^gro a 
sack full of adies (e/a.), v. S^^ sgro-ua. 

V'^' igfo-t^aH {4<hka»ig) a speciea of 
tall fir ; the feather-fir. 

^ K^ ig^O'fkur (ifihk^) is an abbrevift- 
tion of the exp?esaon; f'^^t.^fS'^ 
|i^qR^'q ggro l^dogi-pa daif ^kur-pa tddy 
pa decorating with feathers and casting 
abme,, exaggeration and depreciation : 


jNx^f ^MfMytJiIama mdnk (BUkfa) who 
neitlMnr flatteori nor ipeski ill of othsn. 

f B«i §ffro^kh^im (4o4fhim) f |^ir«iMr<r 

)j*^| Mgro-ga ((fo^) L the little hubUoc 
in spariding berengei. 3. the ropet used 
io peek doth;oQEd, ietter; |^'| l^fh 
§gr0 iroa lettm ; rr^Y^'^lo ¥< Invf- 
§fro lajf^ 9br$t4ui§ the hende chained 
togeOer; yrf Ihtm §g ro ih oe  h cep ; laee ; 

iTi Hf^9^ (^^) Btnogt '^'^P ^ 
Unding» faetening, itcapping : f ^'f^ \9gro^ 

gm rfm-jNi ths iteel point or hlide of an 
•now to which a leaOer ii attaehed. 

I^^T^**! ipr^ V'fttp^ ^f^ Th. to 
make a falae ahow ; topiretmdnraoh;ibet. 
Tanity; pfeeomption : V''*'^T^'*''I^^!T'' 
^-^^-O^'H-^ {Lim^u 4») imaginarj 
thongliii are po n wwa d of the natare of 
Tiin and nnieal ■wai ( ion. 

<lV|W^Y^ ^ro-idof^ ff»i free from doahte: 

the {upade^) pieoepia of the holy Lama 
his doabta weve diaadTed (A. 77). 

|fa[i^i^arl^ igro-hdofi nuhdhi his 
doubts were not deared {A. f7). 

fm 99^0^1^ n. of a plaoe in Tibet. 

f %<T^ n. of a oelehrated Nying^ma 
Lama who U^ed in Dophng:' fKir'^- 
I'VTQ'^^'^'^'^ the temple of Do-ton 
was built at Do-phng (JM. ^ 6). 

||*Q I : §9nhi9a {fo-wa) a leather or 
hide bag for keeping barlay-flouri peas» 
ets. Those that are oaxxied on hovsebaok 
are called fl ti«-ffro; mall leather b«gs 
Bie caUed "WW laff^gro hand-bag; T**| 
fuH-igro or the mystto bag is atcrm ..or 
the sQfotiun. 

837 «'«II 

Syn. |X|fye*Nte; || §99^1 <¥'*|^ 
Mtf^l-ftio#; m:ipka44$ie (ifllofi.). 

Ifq n: sbst L aoc to Vai^. and 
Sek. the bark of m spades of willow. 2. 
in 0. Tib. tiie penis. 

|*q m: Tb. pf. «4r^ (vroi, fat. x|' 
tf jrro, imp. V I jirO) to debate, disoosS) 
chatter irsdy. 

f A^M §gro^tM§ {iam-Mlg) a pea^ 
cock's plnmss or feathiini (^iroei. Pli) ; 
a Ohinese dseoraiion need to adorn the 
hat worn l^* the chiefs and noblemen of 
Tibety Cfhinai Ae. 

)n '<^^ (^) ''^P' ^ ^ ^^ '*^'^ 
igrog (AM-^of) ; shoe-dzap ; |^* jpt iM|t- 

Iffftv iion fetters or chain; H^«*V«tT^ 

V^'^VI igrog-gdtm (iog^dttt) the trian- 
gular patoh gcDeially made op of satin 
on the '(■^'^^ jM^-fAui, m^ the biba which 
corers the front of a woman's pettiooat. 

f^'^a igrog^gdub (fog-Mb) a bangle 
made of oord or stnps also of jade. 

IPI'fl ign>gi^ {fig^) w, Kftn, t% 

fi|.ii% pf . ^rf* iigragif fut. V iigrag^ 
imp. 1^ l/nrf or IT* igrag§ to call, ihout 
forth; to puUish, proclaim, dedare; |^'4 V 
§grog^ po a dedaimer, preacher; ^^' 

Used in Jfi/., also, of birds sending forth 
their cries, f^cwr^^'a §grogtpakm 
ffutl-wa ^^to; *»'ft«»<i cAof tgrogtP^ or 
<^*li^ H'*^'^ chohkgi 9groghght 
ifd$ai^ to preadi ; V^lh^o (kit f^^t- 
jM to puUidi by ringing a bdL 

ff Vi §grog^ {/log-fit) batton, xoond 
button; fr^lh"*" ^grog^l 9grog^ to 
button up (AxA.). 




[a Bhelteer foor swa]u]& 

||^*P %groi-pa (i/oi^) anotbor loirm 
99re4iM to go ootuds; not muflk uflod. 

mK^W^ lyrw^Mhr/ {^Mm^O tbe en- 
ligbtmed ago^ opp, to W^ Mm-ftiiff/ or 

|^*Mi ifrwhok4i§ the axtiolas tiioh m 
buttar, oily fto., lor ligliiiiig lan^a in a 
ohapdL during the eight holj daya in a 

1^*9 ignm40mV9 pM4$ haying oflns 

ed: ^WT*T^i"fVW«n<H|T? haying 
ofisred to the TrirMna (the tiixee preoioiis 
QDes) a wibk (9Mt. Si). 

f^'^ f^itMMM the list of people able 
to give lamps in a town or' on a laige 

|<|*4 igrof^^f vh.f pf . and fat. ^ 
iigron hio oorer; to lay over, adonii 
decorate; to light; toUndle. 8. n. of a 
land of anow irhioh shoots like a meteor. 

^^1 1 : iffrcfhma (^bn-me) light, lamp, 
lantern, toroh. The word jpi igran is used 
to various persons as a title of honour; ^' 
f I'i^ fi^f^tfutn igr^n is intended for 
royalty ; ^•^'Ipl shal-gfier ^grm this golden 
enlightener, term of address to great 
lamas ; ^'<iM'y^ na-itab 9gr<m is applied to 
the dxess of royalty; ^(tN'4'|il gMol-waignm 
to the food served to a prijoioe ; ^^'t'fi 
fBol^na §(fron to his tea.. 

If |a;*S| n: ^i«Tt (B^.; BuV. 18iS 
991). [light]5. 

in'^c^i) ffgnm-ma dfug the mx lamps 
used to signify the oz religions dieooarses 
of Pmiehen Naropa genenlly oalled ^'^' 

If* iffrothm^^, ^tftU, vnr a burning 
lamp; prop, a lamp as religions offering: 

thoog^ a lamp he in his hand, the Uind 
will not see the way (^«. dot. 16). U;M 
fpf^ rm-^^Mi §gnm-m$ vinft^ the preoious 
light ; name of a book. 

Byn. •H^*lft'f^'|s «rfiAm-Me^' fMil- 

WA IfMT-ffM (JMOfl.). 

IPl'^^'n £Fjvoii g$ki-kka n. of a large 
estate in the disfariot of Lhnn-tM in Tibet 

¥^'^^' 9gran^ or IV**^* vron me-fM 
the yew-leaf flr, PjfiM pieea; in Sikkim 
PmiM kmg^Ka is so called. IV^'K'y^V 
%^'SP'q'N §ffrtm^H removes mnoons, wind« 
and cold in the stomach. 

fP igrob (d^b) haughtiness, aixoganoe, 

J^^^-^igrob ehs-ufa^V^m'^'^ Mam oks-w, 
one with great airs; bumptioua, preten- 
tious person : ^^'^f ^^•^•|p-»- W^sf'^' 
*^1*^'^^T«»'«w (2>. fel. 7) Some Jong- 
pons are as over-bearing, as if the whole 
country belonged to their cirouit. 

|e'^ igrob-^Aen and sometimes l^rl^ 
$ghm^hm are provincial words used to 
signify pretentiousness or relf -assumption ; 

pompous : »l^»f V"1^U«^'«iriw*^ 
f ^'irS*'^^ {Aag. 18) mi dob-ohen a;id doQH 



oktii eio. mgniif yt^tmtUmakmn in pio- 
Tixunid IftngQage. 

f|^ 9grmn {(fom) fqviit 9^ a (arudkor 
poctmanteaii ; a box tb.« inaide oi wluok ii 
xnade of wood or wicker wock and tho out- 
aide linod with leather; a hffge leather 
box. [fkMt may be regarded as the Pall 
fann of Banikxit iJVitr, a eeati an iltar]& 
'^'i^ W^ho^grom a chest to keep articles 
of religious service; w|"t tkab-igrom a 
box to keep utenails, plates, ftc^ lor 
oookingy generally oorered with tanned 
tiger skin. 

iN-9 ilfrom-bu a small box ; M'ih 
mfuff^gromm^m ffheb-fna a chest mads 
of wicker work. 

i^^'^ SgroHUMT and frp- §grol^\faA 
1. are known as the Whits and Giesn 
manifeeta t ians of the Goddess Bolma or 
T&rft, the two wites of King BnH^tum 
^i^dMi^, being deifledand worshipped as 
their incarnations. 3. names of Ismalss 
of frequent oocuxrenoe in Tibet. 

^^'•1 Sgrol^^m tggal^M^mm are other 
difieKent manif astations of the Gkxldaaa 

fpi*Q igrot^a^ pf . and fui ailil i§grat 
1. to aave, leaoue, deliTsr; to set free; 
to liberate ; «• V|^ V V'^^^^r^^'^'^ 
"i^*IK^ to save from the water, from 
nusery, fear, and from tranflmigratory 
existence: ^^'^•^•^«^•^'^^ tgrot-waii 
dai-ifpan du tgtfur he becomes a guide to 
nlTstion. 2. to trasaport, carry; to oroea 
(a rxver) by^boat or lory: ^*rq|ii'aft'|' 
^k«'%^ ^OTHM Ugrahwahi gru^^Mi gin 
it ii a boat that will carry you oTer the xiTBT 
of tranamigration. 8. to remoTSi e^pel, 

drirsaway : n'V»>«'l*l**''^*'^V **#- 
tmm§ phgi^rggt^ 9M0 ck$niM> la bfgrtJ^ 
the demons wwf banished to the uttermost 
parts of the sea; ^VlH'^ idinf igrol- 
lea to expel the devil. 

f^q'Q igrot-^^chpo umri the delirerer, 
met. for saviour. 

W9m, ^flimrft (SUkr. ; JMl. 1898, f 98) 
the lioKd of final deUrsKanee. ' 

t^'tS lyrsUyi^ wr^«i» ir^ adeliverar; 
met. for a boat, ship. 

Irn igrol-ma (fhl^a) WW, wrM^ the 
Goddess Dolma, she that saves fkum trens" 
migiftioiy eads ten oe; one of tha most 
popular dsitiea in Tibet, and of whom 
thers are supposed to be many tpnMtm or 
hranbh emanations.^ BawB ffgr^lmm igU^ 
tkkor exhibit tww&tgMne diflarant aml- 
fsstations of the goddess. The several 
appellatiins of IK*' dgmhrnm are :— -^^ 
Om-fpAfftf; S<(Vi SggtO^gmni •«y^«i 

MAag-gi m; ^«'|pi MguM^g<ih\ ^'fil 
^si^'VVll jytg-ttiH \ fJtwgH 9C9hm\ \9f 
Umjf^ Bkt-wmpkatMkob; ^V'n Zigh 
bgin ma; V^rivioM 0*o§^ ^Imo 

1^9r^'VV^'^ Sgr^-im hunru hOk one of 
the twen^-one manifestations of tho God- 
dess DohtiA (jr. g. ^ tee). 

f^'m-l SgroUma cAs nimra Mahl Tirft 
or the great Goddeee Dolma. 

s |aiii^*1^'fulir if SgroUma 9m4U 
mttshan-khro {Sakr. ; J!^5 A) ** Dolma, mild 
by day and wrathful by night." 

{8ehr. ; AS JB) Dolma» the wealth-givir. 

Wfnft Dolma, the most glorious. 

ao-fe^) {8ehr. ;i6A) tha BedDobsMu 




DohBA in hir mild aqpeot. 

fl0f^4ll ( AMr. ; 46 0) Ddma tb» iriah 


ih^ iWH^ n i Mfm^HW i (n f , 166) 
n. ol a. bods oonuiftiiig oi one kimdiad 
ftsmiM oompoted f orpacopitiftting the Qod« 

f "T J|i^ ggrot-^ abbreTiatilon of the 

end 4|irwi*\^'9 ^f-roi iM^. 

|p( 10^00 (^ manner ; method ; way ; 

^i^'i^ iftKhigroi manner of ffiqilaining ; 
4pirf « gtam-igroi mj oi epeeUng ((7<.) ; 

Iffof oonferenoe ol the lamas ; I^'^iSf ^ 
iprofff bfa4'4gro§ the method of inetrootion 
whioh 11 to be prodaimed (/8M.)- *^'I^ 
QMAtf-f^oi is seme as •*«'|^''' «w*t»- 

ttar^ his gxaoefol. lip was like the fruit 
oalled J}i/fito. 1. edge, brim, lip ((7s.)* 
3. soar, also a mark from a woimd {8eh). 

m|V^ ftr^tf^iw-^^*' ftj^tf##a to 
smile ; smile on, 

qaj^ 6rM pf. rf f^'^ t9(^Uwa ^-^ 
irgol-ien^ oonlroTersy, disputation. 

J^'VI^'^ (fjfa/ ikaJhwa the ooean 
(that whioh is diffionlt to oross) {VHon). 

qi|i|'q izgal'pa ^eVflt [enjoined ; asked ; 


q|fli'q itgol-ufa to disagree; to act in 
opposition ; to be disposed to oontrariefy. 

^^irg»^ mr one hundred; ^'^ 
irgy^W^oi^ hooatomb of 100 lamps; one 

hundrsd oflerings; ^9^* irggtHl^ wi 
1V€ one hundred thonsani; ef'^^ 
itgg^ iham^^ full one hundred ; ^'^S 

remuneration to one hundred monbi for 
oonduoting a religious serrioe; <«'ei«X^' 
S'^VW*^^^! do., remunerstjan in 
silTsr, grsin, eto., for oonduoting tiie 
religious servioe of one hundred oAmigB; 
a|*^^^ itgya^ida^i about a hundred; 
nearly one hundred. 

q|*«l ^tggorpa wfifir, iimi|t oen- 
tcnerian; one of a hundred years of sge. 

a|'Q ftf^fie^ ooTisisting of one hmi- 

^'1^ ktgy^^i^og vw the hundred; a 
century ; W»|m'^«^*w»«h jj*r«Hiitoji 
if gga^fhrag mi-pham qifm (jL f2). 

^'W ftr^ye-iosi anything kept in 
groups of one hundred ; ^'V\l*rr ja*^ 
i^^-fl {Zam. Uy 

^'ft^ ffrgv^t^ii^ !• n- of a medidssl 
root; ^*X'|^' dug^mo iUM a mystiowoid 
V*^ (JVaf. S). 2. mnis one 


who has performed one hundred gefia 
(seorifloes); an epithet of Indra. Aeo. to 
Buddhist mythology there are two 
Indies, the senior India mlsB over the 
gods, the junior, riding on the greet 
elephant oelled AiriTata, keeps guard orer 
the oelestial regions, hanng in his imme- 
diate ohsrge the quarters of the Bast 

^'(v|^ ftr^yo-iyifi ffty^fmni Indn'i 

son ; bom of Indnu 

^•ft^K^' ftr^yo-^ytn gr^ w«>nr^ the 
residenoe of Indra; the oelestial metropolik 

Syn. <^1t-q'AV9^ bcM-Wi me^lOan; f'r(^ 
tkhtM 9dug; %^Vfn^ 9um^u liss-^Msi; 
p^*^K*il«rcn'ja|-q kAatl-inai tnam-par tgy^U 
tra; MiKM'f^'^^'^' fyunn^p^r tggaligii 




gr&g^nfMar aat-ldll ; alio asit's ioot 

bt$imm mpma the deUght of Indra. 

fr^y*-*^ (^AMM-mp nil^ the oeleitial 
queen; tiie wife of Indn. Her different 
wanee tie :— ^> *S ^^^ J^M-m^i iwatr 
mo; ffi'^* LhaM ftftiin-eio; *T«*S»' 
Leg9'ityo4 ma; ^^*V'«t X^waipi^AMi me; 
j0^ ma (JT^M.)* 

bow of India, i^^ reinbow^ 2* a kind of 
medicinel fmit. 

iwatt-p^ mii the diflarent names ol 
Wjfi j|pAo-rtirM^;f^S^ Lka-yitgy^ 
«» ; ^"9S'^< QUaMy$4 «ipw^4» ; ^t^ 

f^qS"^ XAe-y» ft<fa^; ^BA^-Jii Q SdU^mei 
tgyahpo\ ^^^"^'^ Legg-irit 8t9o; WV^' 
*V5^ Qragtfoti mw1thyu4\ ««^•|s«^S'^ 

M^ko4-9hi^ itg»»i» ; ^ ^^^^W 9<i9.Mpi 

**# ; f ^" JM«-*«rtl ; •^f ^ Lfghfkgci ; 
^OT^ir^* ^SMf-0iMm ^M«; 4^*"^^ 
It^an-b fan; ^'f^'lhW gii-ityoi Han ; -ffv 
J-i^^B Qnat^kyi itdag-po ; |^"r^^ -fipfin-fa 
•Aon ; «^^•^T^^Wl ffnoi-ikai rail§ ; ^•«%»«»' 

C*er.»Wf grt^bjomi ; <il*i'««'« Qrol-hyei 
hfomi; V*'9r^ Pu^h ma^gra; ^•^•«^9^ 
Oa«^:fM» AW; V^T«^ JBe-nfti rto-dkrn; 
|i|e-i^ ^min^ ^Eiotf; H*^'*^'Q Tiktf 
9iaH W^goH'po ; Hl^*^ Mig-fiotHfan ; ^%- 

^'^ (r0f0-tAm niflfr that contain! 
or holds one hnndied objects, etc. 

«I9'^1^^^« (rf|ftt4Aeiii-|M fa| gfiig^kdam* 

Q^^*B|S^ firggog-irHan n. of a Am 
god who is also called f own XAe-^M^f . 

QA4[9I itgg^Hf9 vn Tictuals; prori- 
sion« as in mimc^^^ fB^iAof-ftrMwyii ^^ 
^1^ fae»-ftr|fyvjfi pcoTision for the jooniey. 

irg^ogg^ fnt m*^' ftr^yo^t imp. I« ryj/oMi 

or^^m*^ r^ffotff-fv !• to eitendt siaratch 
out, set outer anange; ^ c^a^e'^i^'^ 
ia-wa daHikog-pa (m^rrM-iss to stNtchhide 
and rope ;YvY*^|9ie^rfya4-iM to set out 
a Tcssd; •tf^'A'eja'^ fusAetf-ins ftrnNril-ise 
to pat in ana J lamps as oflsiings.* 8. to 
call a person from a distance. 

qjS ftr»»rf^ eight- 

Symbclio Syn. m*^ iir4hfi§; f Ae; 

iftflHi; if »o; ^« ^0 isuu.). 

iky<m-fa finrr rebuke; refMof; reflection 
on one's conduct or act 

Vn^ *r»«rf-Wi*f or ^^^afs•li^ lihtf. 
JM ftr0ff»#-f^ thread in eig^t-fold twists. 

^'«^' 9rgr^^^ &• of a kmd of tea 
which is of inferior qnalit j, largely con- 
sumed by Tibetans in general. 

one of the abridged sscrsd scriptures of the 
northern Buddhists containing 8,000 

^^^ 9rgyai-9ton f|w4W the fsstival 
on the eighth lunar day of the month. 

ajS'ci Ittgyai^ ^«w 1. the eighth. 
2. *^'q«S'a i$kar icai-fM he who finishes 
or puts an end to; the destroyer. 


842 qfs't 

^i^'^ ttfiff»4ipo oooiuiiiig of eight; 

^*V^ irgy^il^g lit. eight in ezceee 
(ol one hundred); fiif a rowry which 
coniiets of one hundred and eight heads. 

^^^ brguat^iM (j/yen) ^wij, ^WfF^, 
^m^9 yh. to adorn, deoorate ; to provide 
with : Vi *'l'fT>«'HT«» rin^hen tgyan-ffyU 
^tgifon'fa adorned witii preeioue orna- 
ments, of. yi ffyem; sbet. 

che§%/e4ifa V^ n^^ h io UH doim 
sensaLess ; to lie senseless ; to sink down 
unoonsoaoas ; to Idnt. 3. to howl, of a fox 
{8eh.) ; ^'^f^ ko tm^t-^ fainting with 
fatigue; ^yrV^Q trinfil bog-pa laid pros- 
trate and nnoonsoions: awi^S'^'^T'T^V 
ikamhoa4 itgy^ibogipa inhin all as if pros- 
trate and senseless {A. 76). 

*f ftrP*wi=fS'y l^fH^gif09 together 

2H^pil irggugit pf . of J^T^ Vlfir, 
mw need as shst. a raoe ; also nmning a 


CHC^*^ irgv^f-P^ ^ marrow in the 
fcaok-^one ((%.). 

qa^ lrg»*^9 of- ^ rgjfui^vm, in, 

iutgiv^^ii^ desoent from one to ano- 
ther. 1. family, lineage, ancestors, off- 
spring. 2. race, people, nation : *V8*^S 
bc^-kffi mi-irgy^ the Tihelan nation, 
people. ^^'«"'|"i rigf-irgyu4TdB,iions ; *fi^- 
w> giki^brgvtii descendants; 9'^^ ib- 
Jttgy^i the succession or line of Lamas. 8, 
Tantras and mystic manuals, v. J'S ; *^' 
)'q|<S'q ehohJ^yi religions arguments and 

^V'^'^ brgyui-itgp^gi a continuous 

succession {Shh.). 

^'^ ttgp^i"^^ possessed of dssoen' 
danto ; fmitftiL 

^V^ (f f^ytH^ !• belonging to a raoe 
or family. 3. y. t^ f ^yiitf and VS'^ fflfW 

q|\cri|ircrf irggui-pa tnam-pa |ta thais 
were five different schismatic aueoeanons 
among the Buddhists in ^oient India; 
they were the following :— (I) ^«r^'|S 
tdul-iffaii tgifu4 taf^m^tn the generaticD 
observing moral disoiptine; ^) T^'B^*! 
yi gtai-iikigtJnfi tgif^ or fvi^ the 
mystical succession ; (8) S'^fS'|^ rgu^ 
ch$n fpgo(htgytii or w^nmr the sucoessioii 
of abundant performances; (4) wX'IfV 
Mob^mo U(^tfnM4 Wttif^ [the profound 
successiQn]& ; (6) l^'Q' V^'S ffiM^ Aa- 
tgy^ or the OmiU raoe irnw (Oruh. 

q|^*aarq }iTgyu4 iphet^ga to increasa 
the race, or progeny; to multiplj; ta 
increase the family. 

^VK^irgv^^if''''^ 1. one belonging to a 
family; a soion; one well acquainted with 
the secrets, well informed; aoo. to 
^V^ irgpui^n. 2. in ^. fmitfal; 
fertile. 8. f^^'^f^'i irgvui-ma rpyoM 
to perpetuate family lineage; W'^ 
irgv^i^^ i^C^ heir ; successor. 

^V^^w irgy^'foi flnw n. of a 

numerical figure {Ta-9el. 66). 

^Si^^^ itgu^i'l^ Vfvv to maks a 
string of; to stitch together. 

jS^Q tgog-pa. 

point of time ; moment ; instant ; conjtmc- 
tuxe : *^WiH^«rfT«'to-J»rr ftsjr^^' *<W- 
pa a A^fli^ttp gale on.the opening of the 



2I0W jMr; t^K'^* ihapnpw tim« far 

doing 11 things ^'^ ^ 'VF' ^ ^>»« <<« 
writing; j-^*iq|^- the time of eathig. 

Qlp^Q iffotlM^ to fonn into; ^'ft' 
^i^« 9o4-i« iigati mAde a ImJI of ; ^HQ' 
^i^ goif'iu i§got§ ooUeoU into one. 

^V^ btgar, pf . of 1f^'^. 

P|^prfl ^gughpa pf • of 1^^ %guihP^ 

to wait (for one's aniTal or retnm). 

^^'4|K itfol-iikgoi tremulous; to 
shake and tremUe : ^m'U^'^t^'^'^' 
^V9S the liTing beings more, stand 
andtremUe {Ekriif.iT). 

CH^^CI }f^if/ jM mat to shake, trem- 
ble, quake, qnirer Gen. |"r4« 

zjf P iip«MMi. Wjiwr 1. to diieot, 
initnuA, T. ¥'^ igfhwa. 2. to nib with; to 
•pp^ on fira|%<i inum tufotpa; to stain, 
asmnt ; to inleet with dissase; 4^'^ infOh 
jM pL of ^<i to oommand, oxder; also 
v^^fwq ^kai (ipeMNi to give dize<s|ions; 
iisae eommanda; also the ooerdTe bidding 

of the mjstio ezoroist towards an evil 

dsBled with moral impiudtj (ifag. 19). 

Syn. rr»wlsMai^toliJf^i;V«rii»S 
M^abdtimi ^m'^*Mgitlo9^^i^^ 

to disobej ; to disregazd diieotions. 

M^^T^^^ tffo-fMi ffM-fa fffum-pam 
sjfwhf^^ Jt^go-wa nnhfUm^pa not listening 
to instmctions or diieotions. 

^^qifm'^lfi X : (f^fOHM fiuwfi-jM ^tumthe 
thiee religions instniotions or directions:— ^ 
1- V^^Vrl^^^ instniotions issued by 


the ehttzeh. % If^^^ those ianied bj a 
section of the dhnoh. 8. ^^^VT^I^'W 
l^i'^f'a direotians emanating from the 
senior member of the holy order. 

<WHr«rs|fa (n) : 1. i^^S^r^^ the 
order of the principal of a ooUege or the 
euperior of « monasteiy. 2. ^r^'B^m^a 
the command of the Ehanpo (abbot). 3. 

9fw9prv^nF^ m ; 1. S'^'^Tl^if ^ the 
TOWS of the holy order, 2. sps^^ql^a 
TOWS of crdinazy men. 8. ^^r^K^-mt^m 
TOWS lor indindnal emanflipation in the 
ordinary ipray (f • dm. Jit). 

^^^VM** tigthwa k9hm iumi^ or|« 
CUT* C^i-ea ti^gifa ^fft^wm to 
follow, do as directed. [One who aeta aa 

■r^l^ breach of rdigiona disnipline ; ^nr^ 
f^%sw fiot to aet'ttOQcrdiiig to inatmoitioBi. 

'li'l*1 t§gf^mrpa nrv ociiteaaplafcio«;s 

^^'^m^ (vem^Mi and gomt-pa in their 
application to road hare one and same 

^%9 i§gom4ltgH uran, mntm pro- 

dooed faom ccmten^lation, also reflection ; 
^4*1^-4 iigomifa bgU^wa emiiiiii^ 
sprung from contemplation ; ^|«r<r«r^^'a 

ftMmn^M &i tffw^HM delighting inoontem* 

'^^ tagomi^pa, pf . of IWw §gm^pm. 

1. f^^,^ to yawn. 2.sf '«i «&o-ias. 

QV^'Q I: {f^yar-tMr, another form 
of 1^*^ §ggwtmwk tnffHinw, ^m#^, to 
ohaoge; F^'^*^ Ma-A^ ftlfur-fta 
changing colour; Mfii*^*^ to change 
clothes ; to change the ooTer (like a snake) ; 

t||Vq| 344 

to traofilate ; J'^'^**ra|^'ii ^gya-'gar na§ 
choi iigpur^ufa to tniulaie bookB bxoaght 
from India; ^4|^ Uhig'^Jt^gyur to 
tmudate words ; %S^^ don-itgywr io filim 
the meaning ; ^' ^ ihairkigyur to change 
the direction ; ^Vai'q|^ ^ehol-iigym', V^'^'^ 
iui^iigyur to change one's body (miza- 
oolonalj) ; A^'4|^ mUrft^gtfur to change 
one's name; m^T^|^ ^dofhiflfV^ to 
change the complexion or colour ; 1^*^^ 
V^Hhigyur to chapge the qnalitj ; "iT^'*^^ 
Mcf-ftf^ytfr, f .0 .y to change one's intention ; 
)*^* Y phyi'naH Jngyur to insert the 
object ; Vv'^^fii'^ oAohtug^ i§gifur con- 
Tersion; ^V^^ ^i-iigyur to change 
the language. 

^P^^'J n : irf^ to mnltiplj, increase. 

Syn. ^^ lt9nun\ 4«'<i tigre^pa; |«r^ 
fpel-wi ; "^^ gril-wa (Mdon.). 

ZH^*^ Jtigp^hp^ Vf mnsde. 

m^'9f 9urag^hr€i {(fag^heAg) n. 
of a Jong in Tibet. 

q|ppi t$grag§ Qfag) (*i1h*^'«' cho§ 
Vog»i%har*wa) ^Ptfftir, "Pwi proclaimed; 
read or recited loodljr. 

^I^VQ iigragf-pa song ; difCosed. 

C||jC*^ iigr€tliiM h to entimerate, 
connt up (d.). 2, to cause to gxoir cold. 

V^ iigraiiM^'Vi** tgroitpa to open 
wide; A^'^^IS*^ mg bgra^-pa to stare; ^'v 
^!|S'<| tkaH'pa bgra^-pa to part the legs 
wide ; to straddle. 

V tsgral TO, ^ [crossed ; passable]iS. 

q|jQI*q b§graUwa v^-H^ to pass ; cross 


q|arat'J|^*9 JugraUwabi ftX-£fa a boat, 
also» I'l gru^kya an oar of a boat 

V^B iigroMya fx^, ircV met. a host 
V^ ifgral-gai nXKi a nmnerioal 
figure used in Buddhist astrology. 

put in order, arranged, artayed ; ^^^ 
itgrigi-pa vfiir formed into string. 

q|P^*C| ifgribf^pa {4(b^\ pf. of \^ 
§gri6 fiivn, iHmf^ili ^nfVy ^cil^ coTorod. 

rnHf^on-iHi [kv^mmxn. to absbdn from 
obscure prec'ictions : ^^^^^•^•'^%9• 
^r^csrqf^: do not prophesy or predict 
what is not known either to be good- or 

V. |»r«i igrinhpa^ fig-pa hgrimhpa perra^ 
ted flldll ; also chaotic acquirements ; oon- 
fused information. 

^D^*4 ifgrun^pa^ akin to ^ bgran 

V^nm, to rival, Tie with; toreply to: 4^ 
^^ itgrin miifhoi^^Vti^^V^^ hgna^ 
ula bye4mi^u§^pa cannot compete cr be a 
match for. 

up-lifted; hoisted. 

4>^ ftwMl (<biv), pf. of 1^' tgntf 
imp. lMr3h i«H^pi>, aiMri«frM^ 
frspftf^l-ftys^' rsfyaHP^cAon, a flag that is to 
be hoisted {8Uu. 77). 

^^ iigre§ {4s) (^ (i^e) old, aged; 

f/if«-»fl/ iigm (Ta^L). ^'Ur ifrUi ^ 
^Aof iigrsi rbn aged respectable lamas. 

a|sr4 k^grei-pa ^if^f^ changed. 

^sr«ni i9gr€§^a§ a numsrioal flgoit 
used in Buddhist astrology. 


E^* Ai I : is tlie f ourtti contscAant of the 
TilMtan alphabet. It correspondR to the 
Sanflkrit letter w and sounds Kke ny in 
the English word "song." As a final the 
pronnneiation is therefore eaqpr enough; 
but in its frequent ooounenoe as an initial 
letter the difficulty of sounding it properly 
comes in. As an initial ^' must be pro- 
nounced as a nasal g. To acquire the 
sound, first say un-ga ; and then, dropping 
the u, try to say the nga. 

C* n : 1. it represents the numerical 
Egure 4. 2 stands for gr^ in the conse- ^ 
cutive nmnbers ^^ 61 ; ^^^ 62; ^ ^H« 
53;ii«fl| 64; ^8 66; ^Yt 66; ^^^ 57; 
'^'^ 58 ; ^^5 69. 

C* ni: in mystical Buddhism is sym- 
bolical of the dissolution of all Samdedra 
(combinations either phenomenal or mate- 
rial). K.'^-irl|-i^vSS*'«'^'H**'*<VS-^f 
''the term <^' is the sign of the synthesis of 
all matters which phenomenally exist in a 
eompounded state" (JT. tny. 1 gOT). ^'^ 
«iB^ qds'iAT, -^l^g^^wi^sH^i*!^ f^ (JT. g. 1 
JiSI) *'^' is ^mbolical of the state where 
there is no oohe8i0n ; it explains that all 
thst are without adherence (attachment) 
wiU be liberated." 

C* IV: ^ pen. pron., first peoraon, 
fliDgidar I : ^'^V old man that I am ; 
c. yrQ ifi^'^lx'Q'V^' I ''I with Sroi-tiMn 
l^om-pa"; 1«'^' I the Iiama. ^* or ^^ 
E\y, mine : «S 'K*^' my charming (wife), 

t>., dearest ; «^-^-5l^=«JS'^8t^^ itis mine; 
i)*cL$*i;cri|4i Boul of me a man; ^^'^^ 
this my; ^^'i'^j'^ my venei'able master. 
CoUpq. the common form . for ^' nga is 
i^«- «<i.ra< " I." 

^'f^'^ ia k/to-na I myself ; I alone. 

^'iS i^*e4, ^'S% ^•'^' ^^, ^,.^ 
I myself. 

Syn. }^'^kho<co. 

sre the several plurals of ^' signifying we. 
"^'^ luts for ^'^^ i^a-yii by me, v. ^' Ai. 

^' J«l m-rgyal ^iTi ^, '»T»l, W^'^K (lit. 
"I, the chief"), m., pride, arrogance: 
*''S^*8*tl'^'"''^^'W'8«'*'«!^ I "on the height 
oi pride the water of merit does not 
accumulate" ; ^JilV^ to be proud, ^'^v 
^t^i to break (another's) pride; to 
humble ; rt*|»rqSx'j«i=the pride of asser- 
tion of self ; lit. the pride of reflecting '*! 



Syn. 5*1* rgifagi ; \^ dreg^ ; '^g^'^^' 
|»wi hphytMr-gyet^^neim ; «Z3^q5x- jai m^o«- 
pa^Ha-rgi^l; ^^^Ha-ldan (J^^oii.). 

vtrraiff; proud, boastful ; rivalling. 

Byn. ^'yff^ ia^tgyal-iian, \'^'%^ 
dteghidan {M*onX 

trynm'^zji^'y^ mniftnH supreme 

C*^^ t^a^hoi iL of a district in the 
province of Eong-po (2M. S 16). 





bad ; daiLgeroiis ; feaiful. 2. rarely for 
M'ci bad; ^'^'4 a bad smell. 

^•^ Ha-meg ^^^^ lit. without »elf; 
without vtaiity; not thinking of one's 
self or seU-interest. 

^'^^'^*2i Hodmen choi-po (he who is 
personified by warldliness)| the name 
by which MdrOj the lord of worldliness 
of the SaddhistSf is known to the Bon 
(jB. Nam^. 

C'^^:^ AMtir a species of duck, r. V^'^ 
Hur-pa, peih. Anon emarea, 

^*^ Ai-fi, Ht. I die ; ory of fear with 
wonder ; evidently a Bengali expression of 
wonder—** 9rf^ or TT nfc I die, alas 1 1 die," 
which Atis^a introduced in Tibetan — vr^' 

**0h, I die from wonder I yet there are 
wonderfnl stories in India* (to be told). " 

C JT ia-mo for l'^ the camel : (J^'fl'^^' 

f m ^-tno mgyag the camel, granting with 
loads, travels quickly {Jig. SS). 

«i«^fc' Oa-hisMi self-suffident or self- 
sufficiency; pride; egotism (A. 90). 

i^^kA^ Ai-ytr mei ^mnr want of self- 
ishness: ^^^al&iPsqi^qiil^^ili^Q or «|^«r 
q^^ft'^l^'q the cognition of personality 
whidi may be styled the self or ^% 

C'^ Ha-ru h noise; sound. 2. cold 
air : c'^vj-^wfr^^ | I am not afnid 
of the air of the glaciers (ifiV.). 

«^'^'«S i: {fa^rO'Can 1. loud, noisy, 
roaring. 2. a crier, brawler, noisy fellow. 

^'^'^ II : rarifled ; cold. 

«.' V*.' fia^ra ihaH n. of a place in Tibet : 

Vfc^H5H*ij (/»>. 66) when the lid of the 
c(^per-coffin was opened, there came oat 
from it the ory Ibr-nr-ra ; hence the name 
of that ^ace became known as ^a^ra^km. 

tS'K\ iar ra^ra expression of exbeme 
pain and suffering. 

'^^^ Na^ru n. of a place in Andent 
Tibet, whidi HoJ^ one of the four sons of 
King Se-fbreg-jkij had chosen for his 
residence {Deb. % 19). 

C*^ fla-ro, ?!T 1. a loud, deep voica; 
a cry ; HSj-^'^'^^'^ the pitch of the voice 
loud and lOW. 2.=«Mar^a, ix^ f. ^g^' 
li;qg5-»«^-H^'ii-^-2|V«?SS«^n I at the end of 
the five short vowels, there being the 
eisarga dots (they should be regarded as 
a) vowel (Fo-w/. Ji7). 3. ^^-^i^i^fTl" 
c^^'HM the roaring souod of the lion or 
the tiger : W'T^'^-^^^^J-^, iV^'^rii''- 
1^* I the tiger's growl issuing forth, the 
monkey drops down from the top of the 
a tree ; tl|Vl«^'X ^'5<i«f^« they pro- 
claimed, shouting at the top of their voice ; 
^T**^'^'^ voices foreboding mischief; 
5-5V5'tX-A«^-q to raise woeful ories. 

^•^'Jf^q 40-ro f grog-pa 1. to roar; to 
rage. '2. the circlet used coi the top of a 
letter to signify « turns into S '» ^ ^^*^ 
before words beginning with any of these. 

^'^^9 ta^ro byin^pa ^vriUnc, ^Wl, 
ifwpr crying ; bewailing; to cry or bewail 
loudly on account of pain or grief. 

^*^| Sa-la nu also ^'«nc'i i^o-irf nu 
HWKII n. of a mythological king who ruled 
as a Ohakravarti«|rij& over heaven and 
earth and shand the celestial thronewith 
six successive lodras. N. of an ancestor of 
Gantoma Btiddlia : %«'<nr('*rr«'|'^9K«7 




eried ^^give me suck/' was cill«d Na-lft^na 

(PiV. U). 

C*l| ibr|^ irt, iriV, fKT, iinciiVt 'It: 

Bpeeoh;talk; ward; •^T^^^'O iUM com- 
mitted -with the tonguA (in mxidB); ^T 
^vrQ polite speech ; geatle words ; ^^^ 
fff^Nw or ^i"^**! il^hnm nlenoe, 
obeerved as a monastio duty or religious 
exerase; the vow of not spea]dng» t.^., of 
keeping silenoe for a definite time. 

i^Y|« (iag'9tfe§ v9tm bom or pro- 
duced from speech. 

MI ^ iag^ikhyflt WtW, f*IWnit firftll- 
irq deliriam ; unoounected speech ; foolish 
tB]k;raYmg8 (iWO- 

Mrt"f«*' ^ag-gi tmhfo ^^fttw; ^w 

V^^ the Bodkinattva MafijuVri ghoshat 
who is believed by Buddhists to be the god 
of speech; ^'tS^ Hag-gi-rgpim ft^im a 
Ague of rhetoric or speech ; gen. amplica- 
tion of an idea by the use of apt esprsssions ; 
'^S^'S ^'^^Cl^ ^ qrmbolie speech 
or mode of ezpression by the codlgoration 
cf the fingers i this is deeoribed aa Ti^-A* 
^•ilS*^**r^,mysticallanguage in which 
e xpr e ssi cn by lignsi m*i with the confl- 
goraticn of the fingers, forms the prin- 
cipal feature; ^'^A«'9^» wvftn the 
lord of speech— Jam-yaag or Mafi-ju-s rl 

ghosha: Mr%^-|srwr*-^(Ml*ViT^*''<l 
sslntation to Jampai-yang, the prince of 
speech {BOm. S) ; K.^*^^pi Hag^gi Atf/one 
poor in i^eebh ; a dumb penon, t. |Y<i 
SmfiM (IWeii.). 

^1*4* iof-hgrH mannsr of speaking or 
uttering words (Ob.)' 

c^j^'q ^ag rgyaf'pa wnrfHrr too 
much talking ; full and detailed discassion. 

'^^^ V Hag-^gyun vmf a discourse ; also 
oral trsMlition, not recorded history. 

t^^^/m Hag^^halssK^'^ irregular or 
senseless speech. 

Syn. M^*^ kchaUUhig] «*\'^9»< cha- 
me4 gtuvh\ W^*^ ^lag^ear; wTfll bal/^ol; 

^^^^ Hag^^n met. the cuckoo. 
2* pleasant voice or sweet iuiguage ; one 
who speaks in sweet language. 

i^ifspM Hag-gtam yerbal message; also 
oml tradition. 

^i^-q|wiw« iag-ifdami-pa wifii ilim, V^[- 
«lii one who has controlled hii speech or 

f^^^^ Hag-bdch or ^T^^'V'''' iicg-gi 
^da^ma (Ut. the leaf of ^eech) ^:fc^ the 
organ of tasting; X'^S^ the tongue, y. ) 
Ice : (If^on.). 

^^'^^^q tag-yim-pa mm to express in 
words; to cry ; to speak. 

^^f^ iag»tdim mwmt% Wlf^rw elo- 
quent; possessed of (the power of) speaking. 

Ci^l^ (bg-hif0i WBCWm ; the speaker. 

i^s|*i^* iag^iwaa a title of learning 
giten to some of the Grand Lamaa of 
Tibet. Is also the first name of the present 
or 14th Dalai Lama of Lhasa. 

M|*v^-*-J|«j's* jfiag^waH Te^§tgy^ 
i^%ho the Lama who with the help of 
LhabiaA, King of the country round lake 
EokdncT, conducted the Gh)Temment of 
Tibet for thirteen years {LoA. \ 16). 

t^ the goddess of speech; ^Bcii'«{si 
an epithet of Sarasratt (JUhn.). 

I 348 

i^^8^ iaff-ibym- ^iikHw i arrangement 
of speech {Cs.). 

^^'9^ Aag^ma mm the speech itself. 

one of imperfect or defective . speech ; 
a stup'd person. 2. indistinct speech. 

];4|*S^^^ Hag-tni'ldan a dumb person ; also 
one who cauuot express himself in clear 

Syn. |T*« ffsug-pa ; ^^^^M iMg-mi- 

^^'«^ fbr(/-9/i«^ ^Rrrf^ meditation ; a state 
in which there is no use of speech. 

i^^sq tiag^hhab representation in writ- 
ii^g. Mf-Aq-J-l^'lUii the pnncipal points in 

a representation or petition. 

c.Y9i$i;«i Hag-ns^aAuHf nA of uniform 
and consistent speech, t.0.» where there is 
no contradiction, redundancy, or iirde- 

^^^ iag'yi4 ^TV^: the speech and 
the heart. 

i;q|'ai«rj'q fbff^lam ahu-wa to apply, or 
pray to, verbally. 

«^^'«lJ|^ iiag-gfer in vulg. f^^ or 
^^"^'^^ in Sikk. cross-examination ; also 
deposition of the plaintiff and defendant in 
the presence of eaoh odier. 

c.<f ^ Heg^for committing to words ; a 

1^1^*^9101 Hag^gsal ^i^fkqi, iTTfi^^ clear 
speech or lucid language. 

^^'^'i J^ag iha-mo WT9(j^ the Ghxldess 
of Speech. 

KK' I: ^a^'iF or ^m firaJr 1. the 
nature, being, idiosyncracy ; the very 
essence of any person or thing. 2. sphere ; 
province ; domain : f^«A«=:|^'*'^^ the 


essentiality of vacuity {Q&nyatd) : ^«f9" 
«• the sphere of the void apace : %wS*^- 
=r%wi'9-^sL4i the nattonl constitutioii of 
the mind: S^w^^f^V-*^'*! in ache^ful 
state of the mind {Thgr.) ; I^tAxr'^ the 
very essence of vacui|;y itself (Glr.} : ^i' 
«it^§-^i; flri^vq to enter into the state of 
deep meditation: M|«'^'9'ci('<f'^^'<R'§ii| 
continue in that 'state of mind which is 
free from attachment, etc. : ^^^fq it*^' 
^v^8-q| to die of fear or panic. 

CC n : character ; diflpodtion : ^'M 
or KX'|VM'<i a naturally bad disposition; 
c^l^-qj^'Q a naturally good diqxMition 
(8eh.; Jd). 

«<N ia^gi^ adv. spontaneoudy; 
naturally; also, aoc. to Ja. and Sckr,, 
slowly^ gradually, gently. 

u*^ Artt-cait natural opacity ; ^'A' 
^^'^ Hii4|i(l<j) one who is naturally capa^ 
ble of renouncing or giving up; able to 
abandon. ^^'^^ is generally used like IT^i. 

^^**T*S ^M-bag-pod naturally modest: 
^cuq|'?5i^g if ^i,'^ai-8fW| hig jnoral character 

in regard to his natural modesty {A 5S). 
^'9^'i^' OaH tna-ihuH do not be short- 
tempered : ?f'*i'«rw^f ••rofa'SJu-i^itwf^k- 

^ t when I had said to the kha-^lo-ma ^'pray 
be not short-tempered " {Shrom. 93), 

^^'i^ (iaH'tshui natural disposition or 
temperament; ^^'^'m^'^ 1. good con- 
duct ; a naturally good dispositioQ. 2. n. 
of a Buddhist sage and author of Ancient 
India, included in the list of twenty-three 
sages (JT.F.). 

«^^' nai-riH or ^^-J^'^q forbearing; 
long-suffering ; of cool nature : ^^'Kp'*'' 
«'^«^' I 9^'S^ I in aooompliahing import, 
ant business one should work ivith great 




Vi ^ IM-pa t> the male goose. 

w^'il^' iM-T^^ VTT that which 

^1 HaA^ya ^mmi grey teal of 


u'f foM'tgro the quill of the gooee. 

<*V HaH'inr ^ivww the ruddy gooae, 
lealy Tadoma ruiila^ the sheldrake. 

ci;*<r^'ti^ iiai'pn Qfer-idan 1. the 
yellow or golden goose. 2. y«'^1*^f V 
g^-^^QMii he said "fetoh the hone 
called ^aH'pa f^er-fdan^ (7t^.). 

u-iA'yi'9 iai-pati rgyal-po the " kiug- 
goose" and flamingo; also the plant 
Jawiinum zanibae. 

tj^'^'9flpBk ^oA-paiu-nagi a mythologi- 
cal groTo called the swan's grctve (as) situ* 
ated beyond the Cuckoo's hill on this side 
of the ocean. It is filled with numberless 
flocks of ducks, geese and swans, with 
billB of coral, ruby, sapphire, and other 
precious stones. The lakes in that gro^e 
are filled with lotuses of the colour of 
glittering gold; and the grove extends 
oyer ten thousand miles {K. d, ^ S7^). 

j;c qS-sr^pi iaH-pahi tshogt wm a flook 
of wild geese. 

^'A HaH-mo ^^ a goose. 

C^ I : iUi4 uice smell ; aroma frag- 
ndoe: ^S'*^ the fragranoyy the aroma 
eraporatee; i^^^ aromatic herbs. 

C^ II ace. to cTS. oog. to ^"^ air ; 
^'^c^-^q he rising of an aromatio 
breeze; also vapour; r'^S Tapour from 
the mouth; also snowy vaponr; 4'^, 
aqueous vapour. 

^'^ AiflMni fragrant ; also aoc. to Ji, 
I. fresh, eool. 2. rough, impetuous. 

^^•«« iai^zai good smell : *w'*^^* 

^8^|-^V«'^-^-HB^-i-i<Sq-»d^ I let the 
breese of your letters laden with the 
aroma of camphor come again and again 
to me,, pray write me often. 

C^ Arn evil; mischief; misfortune; 
defilement : «^ ^'Q'S^ii it has done great 
mischief ; esp. harm done by sorcery and 
witchcraft ; M*V^^^ to revile (a penon). 

W^W fan-Ajro I: jiiffir going or about 
to go to the undesirable state, i>., tiie . 
state of the damned, comprising those m 
hell and those wandering about in distor- 
ted forms. 

II : ^VF9npf^i|«r 1. one who foUoiiva the 
dictates of his wife and is led by the nose 
by her in all his works. 2. ^innr dis- 

III : ilff^ lightning. 

^^'M5 ^an^gu all kinds of evil or 

^'V^iafi^9kp€9wm of low birth; also 
i;fim lit anything produced from the 
soil and manure; the planet Mars. 

^^' J**^ ^n-rgyu-^n one who does mis- 
chief, speaks ill of others ; «^|'«i*^ one 
that does not speak evil of anybody 
{A. 139). 

^'^ Aan^on iir^, i«wnr sordid, vile, 
mean, pitiful : ^^Hj-ftrJ'^^q or ^^B^iiir 
5-*|-^irq ^ ^inin^iim^ to be satisfied 
with anything be it ever so little or poor ; 
=^^V^«^*' unambitioQs. 

^^SHun-tnei ^K^^ 1. scabby; itchy. 
2. unchaste ; Ufaidinous. 




t^mm iioff-Maif sf*! phra^ma or |IF<> 
kkram^ Slfl^ jm yila kngnage; meui, 
▼nlj^ar oonvenation ; abuse. 

onto; "tt'c^'^^^v^ to ouiao by means of 
witduffaft; of. *^^ 

M'^'« AiiMMHMi the bad. 

«^'«i I : Am-^ fi, ^, ^^w, '^^ w; 
fnr> vftv bad; miserable; poor; wicked; 
ugly; also a scoandiel, slanderer, rogue; 
the filoi vulgar, low, mean. 

M'«in. 1. ezoarem0nt;ordnre; mannxe: 
i«{trfq'M%('<i(Vq*q^'i(i;*l by the nse.of 

mannze the soil beoomes ynrj fertile. 

f^if^^llS^ taihpa ttJoftiKt ^ m\wim to 

t blaspheme. 

gjfPT^fl^'^m ian-pa ffnai're^i a stiff- 

uedked villain {SUH. 13). 

^PTf^'tiifm ian-pa ^pui^idebt conspi- 
rators; evil-mindod men who intrigue, 
form a league to do mischief to others. 

or ^¥^9 Faras'u B&ma, ^s^-sA'S the 
SOL. of Rdul^^n-ma {Mian,) ; an epithet of 
6'ukra and also of the planet Yenus 

Ml 4im4m in earlier Tibetan the 
word ^^('9 was used in the place of the 
modem expnession !|^ or V^^ my humble 
or little self. 

^t'Q #M iyo-iM f^lfiiii repocoaohed; 
deceiTed ; cheated. 

^'1 4aif^|fm*a ^mrrr^ fNNT notoriety; 
bad lepntadon ; disgrace. 

VT not ledaimed : made useless. 

«T^ ian-g$f0^ffri or |«« v^sirr 
hypocrisy \,Xion.) ; ^^^^ (or «^ |'iMi«i«| 

f^faik 1. ahypocrite;a fox. 2. of alow 

^^•^i;ii-ir also t^-^tMirm ^rj proGnsti. 
nating, delaying ; always throwing a duty 
or anything to a distance. 

^•« Am.tom=i|^-s|-Jf^q 1. bad habit, 
indulgence in any kind of work, beharioDr, 
(HT eating, of a degrading natore. 2. n. of 
a pUoe in Tibet {Deb. % g). 

^'^ ian^ ^V^l^ death from starva- 
tion 01 from an accident or epidemio or 
plague, etc.; any person or animal that 
has died from starvation. 

^*^ Aafh9el that which remoTcs the 
defilement and purifies: ^'^^^JT*^, 
^i^-O'^-^^Ji-lk- 1 iaf^9el is a term for 
water and also for tufts of itvfa and diii 
grass (4f^ofi.). 

^^^' ^Um-sad wn^ those actually 
gone to damnation. 

^^'^ fian^90 to feed and foster per- 
sons or animals that have sufbied from 

^^'^Han^hrullow and destitute ; delapi- 
dated decomposed: AiK''^'9Bri(»arlk'|'^r 
^' (agricultural) tenants who have beco:]i6 
scattered and destitute " {RUii.). 

K^'^Tj^ Ham-dkar grey colour; not 
very white. 

ravines with precipitous eroded banks, 
which are impassable and inhospitable 
in aspect. Ace. to Cs. a torrent; soo. 
to Seh. the bank of a river grown ndgj 
andsteepby having been gradually wished 
out by currents. 

^«'!Jsfl^5 Haffh-groff ehen-po innit a 
poetic name of Tibet iHiich is ealkd 
^M-f^2, the country of deep lavinei. 




boiapkbiii penoiiy om who wnanM th* 
appa t aaoeof greatoeis. 

^^r^'^^ iam-^nr^eatn given to gluitonj 
and dzmkiiig' (J8.). 

^v^' Jmwi-riX n. of a disbriot in 
Uppar Tiang with a fort and moaaitefy 
sabjeot to Taflhi-lhnnpo. 

^'^Mm^ a. o< a diaeaia (Mid.). 

CSfJ^^ fiam^m n. of a Bnaka-dami* 
god of the nether legions. 

^V^ *Ha-^fiiB%'4^ M a matter 
of <xrane; bjr one'e own loroe (of nafaue) 

Md lower: ^'^••4^-^*ir'3f^-awre^-f^-fc-| 
thenoe qpireading orer inundated the Ufqper 
/and lower parts (of the oountiy) {A. 99). 
2. n. of a plaoe in Ijhokha*-4he eouth- 
eaetem dietriot of the province of C (JCa4. 
* S) : ^'^'tS the lowar pert of wifs 
(IM.% IS) 

C^^aitpJ.foyeflide; fEontaide; '^^'^V 
front eozfao^ ; f orepart^ eep. of the leg, the 
di]n4xniey also knnekle; ^'^ forearm; 
^'^^ lower park of the leg; I'i^^ aoa to 
J8. an afi«nation for botL 3. taimin. 
of V •toooe^s celf'; '^''dk^rvin:; ^*^' 
^s«^*4^ pride; leliblmeie; eell- 
oteeiL 8. M-^ra to eet on or agatnet ; 

w^tMHfu4 the eonndof the lOiciof 
of lioDe,eto. 

^'>»l>iaMer^hoazm»hnefc7, wheea- 
h»r e^^ In oldegv (Ti^.); %^-jS 4ar. 

gM hoaxaeaeei and phlegm (JM.) ; Iw"^'^ 
irMii 4ar-iM ahoane throat (JM.; /i.) { 
"^"^"Wl a hoaree groaning. 

C^^ipOff llarb|iMii mnooi of the noae. 
V^"^ tm^pa italk of plante (JTtA). 

ft^*Q itHMoa 1 • strength ; vigour ; haid- 
nesa (of steel) ; ^'W^-l-a^'^vrQ ^.ssyf. 
kifi iifi^yom^ the hard or soft temper of 
(the metal of) knife; etc. 3.eold; froet; 
nold wind {^U.) ; (of. «'^) «^*|^'<l to steel; 
to temper. 

va^ ikr-MM 1. strong; vigorons. % 
dnotile; w%^ id., Iwrai(-fi|, strongs 
nindid; w*S weak; sofL 

M*V itar^ grim; strong; ferooioiiSi 
(of beasts) (Ji.). 

M*|^ <ar^^W abet. 1. valoor and 

stimigth: V^^Awj^riFB''*'^'* tk« 
valour of a hero is indioated in hie face 
(physiognomj). 2. rb. «^*a or M*ii^*a 
to temper and sharpen a steel-weapon or 

w*^V«i *m^hM strong in qnaUtj; ift* 
•^TV«^*w^'«i'«»*S«i the red eclofr ol 
tea is its strength. 

v:m Har-ma 1. irritable^ paaiionate, 
impetiions (8ok.). 2. strong, powerful, 
s.^., a poweKfol proteotion (iri7.| Ja.). 

M-OH, V. M I 

K^W«a*Hra^,wniT« fatigue; weari- 
nees ; rssp. |'M*a also ^<MrM qft<eir ; (^ 
w< or ^^ tired mentally; ftwna, vw, 
^m to be fstigtwd, wearied; prosbaie 
with atardse of the body. 

flyn. ^-^'9 tJuU^haiifai \wn M^; 

wrVq tal^fkm^ (« na^ ftwTW a 
kindof disease. [1. a kind of white lap- 
rosy. 2. weaiinees, langnor^A 





Mi'«^-9 M chaiiM to he protbrate hy 

i^ii*H^'4 Actt-l^g'^ vb. a. to tire ; to 
OMte to be weavy. 

M|^ M^tsgii: a :.^; a aort of 
wooden arutob to impport a load on the 
baek while xeeting in a standing poetore. 

ui*|ifiin: or M'C'^.a benoh or aes^ 
inyiting repoee. 

MT^qq Hal-dulhpa intensiye form of 
*ar«i, to be very tired. 

^ H<' 4ali>ho(l fatigned ; become tired. 

«v^ tal'tmi ^vwrm not wearied ^ nn- 
tired ; untiring. 

wrI^ Hal'iifho refreflbment. 

^'^'4 fo/-ji[80-tralit. to oure weaxinefls ; 
to takd rest: fipim, ftiW, ftxfii rest, 

sA^ai 4af.^f ^firi met. for an aaoetio. 

C* 4t nun. fig. 34. 

§' 4tf 1. num. fig. 64. 2. ▼. ^'^ «fwa. 

§'fl| <tf-«ra ^T^, W^^ to cry ; to weep ; 
pf. (5«i, reep. '^^^'\ hm'Q^'9ii'9i^ tears that 
have been shed (Ds/.) ; ^•S'^^q weeping 
without cause ; hjsterioal weeping (Med.) ; 
%VZI ihi^a^ a weeper; ^'»fS HM^fj^han 

%'a^S ihhMoi ^^fi[wfir wishing to cry; 
going to weep. 

^'9 4a-iro was about to cry or weep. 

h'^^S iiu^'boi 1. bewailing; orying or 
weeping loudly. 2. ^^^ n. of a hell: 
^'(^9Yld(Q ii^n^K^ the hell greater in 
suffering than Sauram. 

^T iu^rdii W. sbst. a loud orying; 
bawling out ; lamenting ( Ja.). 

V% Hi^ru teaL 

WHY^ t^'Tu ifug^ to cause to weep^ 

^'4^'^ Ibf-fttr-eafi aoc to Sch. a child 
that is continually oiyiug. 

V\^ liu^mo a sob {C%. ; Schr,). 

5*'|'''<v<r-po«=i'^'^ to grunt; to snore; 
to pur. 

^V|'«) ^r^gra'-can that wjiich grontB : 
a pig; a yak. 

^^^ tuT'pa Wiinnpv duck, esp. the 
red wild duck| Anas nyroea. 

8yn. ^^^S-^ii fM^jctabi'hii ; i^'^^ 
ikhar-h-can; 'f^'^XS gn^f-gSif-^p^; 
•Hl^'li-^ ^tshaf^mo-ibral; ^^\^fS hdod- 
pa^dan; t'^ co-ka; R^qai^-^f^ idah- 
chagt gaer4dan (4f4o».). 

^^'q'i4{*i; Hur-^ ehen-po 1. sheldiake. 
2. n. of a celebrated Lama ^f Tibet men- 
ticmed in the jKffon (IM.). 

^^*Q HuT'toa to grunt (of pigs and 

§^^^1 AuT'ka as red as fire ; fiery-red 

%^8^ HnT'tmrtg wm^ is deeoribed as 
5V5»i-5«^^'^H^'iK reddish yellow; aaff- 

^^OT*^^ tfttr-jn^V 9^ the robe of an 
^ordained monk which ought to be, bat is 
not often so. in IHbet, of orange-colour; 
he who wears the reddish-yellow; a 
Buddhist mendicant dressed in reddish- 
yellow clothes. 

^v|4|l^HS Hur-smtig oA^n-poas W'^P 
q g ^ i q^ ^ fi i q i a great Buddhist monk; 
a monk who is great on account ol hii 
orange robe. 

t\ 353 

C i$ ntun. fig. 94. 

^ tei ^ pen. pron. first penon, 
ring, in C. for S I ; ^VJ my or mine; 
^SV^ % oar. 

we oniBelTes. 

ftV^ «erf^M we two; 4SM*«IV we 
three broUien. 

•re yvncnuij nsed for the pltanJ of ^ to 
rignify we. 

t^*«' Ibtf-r04 I, or I myNlf . 

^V'P"^^ ifei-Mkr-rey n. of plAoe in 
Tibet (IM. ^ «5). 

CiTfl 401^ 1*1^, ijf f P"ifilf f*'''' 
oertein^ trae, lore, firm ; eleo trath, reality, 

oertainfy: ^^•t^ro'HH^-l^ I •* 
you to oomnraniottte to me iomething oer- 
tian, M.,. authentic newe: ^'^^^ death 

is oertain (tTo.) ; H'^T^rft*^ f««i JSP*^ 'i' 
ibf.^ to be enre of a maihematioel oal* 
onlatioD, U.f to hold it as a oertain rendit. 

Syn. ^•«». Wm^; •'"^j-^ im-fti/iiHw; 
ficq-ir^q fiAirfi^ ma^ym-fa {MHon.). 

1^' j'i-(K If the proportion of spaoe inride 
a oountry to that which is out8ide» whether 
large or small; B«J-9l'^lhift«'««B^<i that 
which ia fully enoompaaaed or covered 
over by another object is oeXLedkhyab-byei, 

im'l^ He^^grol (ie-^l) fimHw, wlasiv' 
«i^-W««i, 1.0., ^-^-^-W VfT vr«w<«i I 
liberation from the tranamigratory esdst- 
ence, diaeaae^ and eoilering 

^^^9 Mh^fro tzaaamigration ; iw'^ 
^ajT^^^^W^^I^'ir return to 
aaofher atate of eodatence after death, 

eitkwr to hall or heaven, or to any non- 
earthly place. 

tm-^m iehtgpfl^^^'^'f^ ^'^"^ cer- 
tain victory ; irinmph. ^•i^SK**'""'' 
triumph over euemiea, the devil and miaery^ 
ia deaoribad aa Ai| ryya/. 

^^1 IhMfft^ f^nj^ a real lonnd; t^m* 
ii'&«i*qK'f Vna any sound that haa made 
an impveasion in the mind. 

fcv'm^ HeMgrogf Mf^ emphaaia ; any 
proclamation; reading lettava cr aacrad