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^ c 

TKe gijt of 

Court land Hoppln 
from the library of 
WllllaiB Woodville Rockhlll 


~ ^CE ubrary:3&^ 















2'^(pJl>» /a^ 




DEC 6 1960 



This work represents a new and thoroughly revised edition of a Tibetan-German 
Dictionary, which appeared in a lithographed form between the years 1871 and 1876. 

During a residence, which commenced in 1857 and extended over a number of 
years, on the borders of Tibet and among Tibetan tribes, I and my colleagues gathered 
the materials for this Dictionary. 

We had to take primarily into account the needs of missionaries entering upon new 
regions, and then of those who might hereafter follow into the same field of enterprize. 
The chief motive of all our exertions lay always in the desire to facilitate and to hasten 
the spread of the Christian religion and of Christian civilization, among the millions of 
Suddhists, who inhabit Central Asia, and who speak and read in Tibetan idioms. 

A yet more definite object influenced my own personal linguistic researches, in as 
much as I had undertaken to make preparations for the translation of the Holy Scrip- 
tares into the Tibetan speech. I approached and carried forward this task by way of 
a careful examination of the full sense and exact range of words in their ordinary and 
common usage. For it seemed to me that, if Buddhist readers were to be brought into 
contact with Biblical and Christian ideas, the introduction to so foreign and strange a 
train of thought, and one making the largest demands upon the character and the imagi- 
nation, had best be made through the medium of a phraseology and diction as simple, 
as clear, and as popular as possible. My instrument must be, as in the case of every 
successful translator of the Bible, so to say, not a technical, but the vulgar tongue. 

Thus, in contrast to the business of the European philologist, engaged in the same 
domain, who quite rightly occupies himself with the analysis and commentary of a lite- 
rary language, the vocabulary and terminology of which he finds mainly deposited in 
the speculative writings of the Buddhist philosophers, it became my duty to embrace 
every opportunity, with which my presence on the spot favoured me, to trace the living 
powers of words and of expressions through their consecutive historical applications, till 
I reached their last signification in their modem equivalents, as these are embodied in 
the provincial dialects of the native tribes of our own time. 

These circumstances, it is hoped, will excuse and explain the system of my work. 

As an inventory of the whole treasure of the language, as a finished key to its lite- 
rature, this Dictionary, when judged by the high standard of modern lexicography, may 
seem inadequate ; I have, for instance, been unable to consult, much as I could have wished 
to have done so, all the original and translated treatises in Tibetan which, down to the 
present, have appeared in Europe, and the reader of a Tibetan work may thus, here and 
there, look in vain for the assistance he expects. On the other hand, a consistent attempt 
is here made for the first time, 1. to give a rational account of the development of the 
valaes'and meanings of words in this language; 2. to distinguish precisely the various 


transitions in periods of literature and varieties of dialect; 3. to make sure of each stcj^ 
by the help of accurate and copious illustrations and examples. I. have done my utmost 
to arrive at certainty where, heretofore, much was mere guess-work, and I cherish the 
hope that, from this point of view, my contribution will be welcomed by the comparative 
philologist, and will be serviceable to the general cause of learning, as well as a useful 
volume within that narrower circle, whose requirements I was specially bound not to 
overlook, of persons whose main purpose is to be taught how to write and speak the mo- 
dem Tibetan tongue. 

There are two chief periods of literary activity to be noticed in studying the origin 
and growth of Tibetan literature and the landmarks in the history of the language. The 
first is the Period of Translations which, however, might also be entitled the Classical 
Period, for the sanctity of the religious message conferred a corresponding reputation 
and tradition of excellence upon the form , in which it was conveyed. This period be- 
gins in the first half of the seventh century, when Thonmi Sambhota, the minister of 
king Srongtsangampo, was sent to India to learn Sanskrit. His invention of the Tibetan 
alphabet gave a twofold impulse: for several centuries the wisdom of India and the in- 
genuity of Tibet laboured in unison and with the greatest industry and enthusiasm at the 
work of translation. The tribute due to real genius must be awarded to these early pioneers 
of Tibetan grammar. They had to grapple with the infinite wealth and refinement of 
Sanskrit, they had to save the independence of their own tongue, while they strove to 
subject it to the rule of scientific principles, and it is most remarkable, how they managed 
to produce translations at once literal and faithful to the spirit of the original. The first 
masters had made for their later disciples a comparatively easy road, for the style and 
contexts of the writings, with which the translators had to deal, present very uniform fea- 
tures. When once typical patterns had been furnished, it was possible for the literary 
manufacture to be extended by a sort of mechanical process. 

A considerable time elapsed before natives of Tibet began to indulge in compositions 
of their own. When they did so, the subject matter, chosen by them to operate upon, 
was either of an historical or a legendary kind. In this Second Period the language shows 
much resemblance to the modem tongue , approaching most closely the present idiom of 
Central Tibet We find a greater freedom in construction, a tendency to use abbreviated 
forms (thus the mere verbal root is often inflected in the place of a complete infinitive), 
and a certain number of new grammatical combinations. 

The present language of the people has as many dialects, as the country has provinces. 
Indeed, as in most geographically similar districts, well nigh every separate mountain 
valley has its own singularities as to modes of utterance and favourite collocations of words. 
Especially is it interesting to note, in respect to pronunciation, how the old consonants, 
which would seem to have been generally sounded and spoken twelve centuries ago, when 
the Tibetan written character came into existence, and which, at any rate, are marked by 
the primitive system of writing, remain still extant; every one of them can still be disinterr- 
ed, somewhere or other, from some local peculiarity of language, and thus even the very 
diversity of modem practice can be made to bear testimony to the standards imposed by 
what was termed above the Classical Period. (Compare my Essay on the Phonetic System 
of the Tibetan language in the Monthly Reports of the Royal Academy of Science at 
Berlin 1867, p. 148 etc.) 

I have already adverted to the circumstances which, especially in the case of the 
student, who has for immediate object to learn how to read and write the Tibetan language, 
render existing dictionaries almost if not quite useless. They give but scanty information 
concerning modes of construction, variations and limits of actual application , shades of 

meaning etc. In my own case, I was forced from the beginning to compile my own 
German-Tibetan dictionary, and found myself for all practical purposes thrown back upon 
my own resotirces. But the cause of truth appears to require a further word or two in 
regard to the Lexicon by Professor I. J. Schmidt of St Petersburg, the relation of that 
work to Its predecessors having been left by its author in some obscurity. 

The first Tibetan dictionary, intended for European students, was published at Seram- 
pore, as long ago as 1826. It contains the collections, amassed in view of a dictionary 
and grammar, by a Roman Catholic missionary, who was stationed in eastern Tibet or 
dose to the frontier in Bhotan. There was nothing to assist him, except the scanty con- 
tributions, given by Georgi, in his Alphabetum Tibetanum. He had to cope with an 
entirely unworked language. He evidently took the one way possible of making acquaint- 
ance with it, sufficient to enable him to understand, to speak, to read and write. Each 
word or sentence was jotted down, as soon as it was heard, or was committed to writing, 
at the request of the learner, by some native expert. After a while, the attempt could be 
made to master a book. In the instance of our missionary, Padma Sambhava's book of 
legends appears to have been selected, a work which represents rather a low level of li- 
terature, yet just on that account, perhaps, as a specimen of popular and current literature, 
not unsuitable to start from. Then, step by step, as best he could, our missionary had to 
possess himself of some abstract views, which would serve as a preliminary basis for a 
grammar. And had it been granted to this first occupant of the field to reduee his materials 
to an ordered system and to prepare them himself for publication, it is possible, that in 
Europe the knowledge of the Tibetan language might have reached, some fifty years 
earlier, the stage at which it has now arrived. The very name of that Roman Catholic 
missionary, however, has been lost. The papers which he left behind him, unsorted and 
uoisifted, came into the hands of Major Latter, an English officer, and were passed on 
by him to Mr. Schroter, a missionary in Bengal. English was substituted for the 
Italian of the manuscript, and the East India Company made a grant which defrayed the 
cost of the Tibetan types and the further expenses of printing. But there was no Tibetan 
scholar to correct the proofs. The author himseK would doubtless, on reconsideration, 
have detected and dismissed much erroneous or unnecessary matter. As it was, many 
additional mistakes crept in during the passage through the press. Thus the work, though 
it has a richer vocabulary than can be found in the later dictionaries, cannot on any 
questionable point be accepted as an authority, and has only value for those who are al- 
ready competent, for themselves, to weigh and decide upon the statements and interpre- 
tations it advances. I have not been able to extract from it much that was serviceable to 
me. Nevertheless, any one who knows by experience what time and toil such a work 
must have cost, though its design remained unfulfilled and its object unaccomplished, will 
not easily be able to repress his indignation at the tone, in which this book in the preface 
to his Grammar (p. VI) is recklessly and absolutely condemned by Professor Schmidt. 
High praise, however, is awarded by the Professor to a second work, the Tibetan- 
Ekiglish Dictionary by Csoma de KSros, which appeared in 1834. This work deserves 
aH eulogy; but the Professor's manner, which imitates that of a master commending a 
pupil, is, though on other grounds, as unwarranted and as ofifensive in this as in the former 
case. The work of Csoma de Koros is that of an original investigator and the fruit of 
almost unparalleled determination and patience. The compiler, in order to dedicate him- 
self to the study of Tibetan literature, lived like a monk for years among the inmates of a 
Tibetan monastery. It is to be regretted that, with the knowledge he certainly must have 
possessed of the later language and literature, he should have restricted the scope of his 
labours to the earlier periods of literature, and when in his Grammar conversational 

phrases are q[uoted as exitm,ple&, tixej are almost withopA exception in iJbie 4i^cl o|!,ibe. 
Kangyur, and of little practical value. 

This Tibetan-English dictionary by Csoma has been adapted for a 6^09411 publiCy 
by Professor I. J. S ch m i d t of St. Fetersbai^ The txaoislation from ^glish in^o German 
is good; in the general alphabetic^ arrangeJinent improyemant^ have bsen^iniroda^e^v, - 
and such as are in conformity with t^^spirit of the l,angjaage ; jnox^eoy% three Moi^oliaa^ 
dictionaries have been consulted, ajid from these a c^rtyin n^fnbfsj* of word^ haT^ b^^^sapr, 
plemented. But it cannot be said that evei^ oiji tjie ^orl^/of revision Profes6CMrr^^^,midt \ 
has bestowed much pains. For example, C sola's roi^ gro^ping of words p^qderth^ P[rin- 
cipal headings is left unaltered, though here e^pepially a r^ductipn to alphabetical prdcx, 
was obviously required. Mistakes aipid superfluities, ve^'y pardonable ip i^ case /of a fy^^ 
issue of an original. publication, ar^ repeatesd in this tmnslatlQUi and die§e^,cim]?K>t b^ s^i 
readily overlooked and condoned, when they are made at seeoi^d hand^ anid ^e,s^U2<5tioi)ie<|/ 
and subscribed to by on^ who has assumed so severe p, critical and re4iitoi!ial at43iti^d/^. 

. The national dictionaries of Tibet itself, so far as I have met with su^h,, ar^ either, ; 
little handbooks, meant only to furnish a correct prthogrf^phy, <>r ^hey aaro..glQ)56we^rpf^ . 
antiquated forms. The absence of an alphabetical order i^ thep^ mak^S tbc^ bu3i](^9 p£^. 
reference very troublesome. It is by great good luck that one sometimes finds an other- 
wise unknown word after a prolonged search. ^ ' 1 1 

My own dictionary, in the main, pursues the object and accepts the plan of the work, 
which was published by Mr. Schroter. As I said at the beginning, I have not restricted 
myself to the Classical Period, but I have endeavoured to deal with the Tibetan language 
as a whole, though I do not pretend to have performed this task exhaustively. My dic- 
tionary derives its matter and its principles, so far as possible, equally from the literature 
and from the speech of the people. Each word has been made the object of observation 
in its relation to the context as it occurs in books, and in its value and place among 
others when it is used in common conversation^ and then the attempt has been made to 
define its range and to fix its meaning. 

All the words, cited by C soma and Schmidt, even such as I myself had never seen 
or heard, I have embodied in this work, stating, in each case, the source from whence I 
drew them. 

The signification in Sanskrit has been added, whenever this seemed likely to be 
useful or interesting to the student of Tibetan literature. Of proper names only the most 
important are given. 

The great number of diacritical marks will perhaps prove irksome to the English 
reader; yet, they were not to be dispensed with, if the pronunciation of Tibetan letters 
and words was to be represented wiUi any degree of exactness, and the method of Prof. 
Lepsius seemed the most eligible among all the systems available for my purpose. The 
student, however, need not be disheartened, as he is not obliged to make himself acquaint- 
ed with all the minutiae of the system, but need only direct his attention to the peculiari- 
ties of that dialect, within the limits of which his inquiries, for the time, are confined. 
And by-the-by it may be observed, that the multitude of little marks, of manifold descrip- 
tion, cannot be startling to the Indian reader, who was ever necessitated to make himself 
familiar with systems quite as complicated, as e.g. the Urdu alphabet. 

One word more of apology. Of publications in general it has been said, that 
"when human care has done its best, there will be found a certain percentage of error". 
And the probability is but too great, that this .dictionary will exhibit a number of defi- 
ciencies and faults, in the English text as well as in the Tibetan transcript Still, I ven- 
ture to hope that an indulgent Public will be ready to make every reasonable allowance; 


in consideration of the peouBar difBcahies, which attach to the execution of a work like 
the present, and which, moreover, were not a little increased, in this instance, by the 
fact that the compositors of the press were altogether unacquainted with EncMsh. 

I should be guilty of great ingratitude, if I were not to mention my ooKgations to 
two firiends, without whose kind and efficient aid it wonld have been impossible for me, 
in my present infirm state, to complete this work, which was commenced in the days of 
heahli and vigour, viz. to the Rev. T. Reiehelt, formerly a Missionary of the Moravian 
Church in South Africa, and to Mr. F. W. Petersen, a relative of mine. 

Farther, I desire to record my obligations for Various acts of kindness, encouragement, 
assistance and advice, during the prosecution of my researches and the completion of my 
work, to A. 0. Burnell Esq. M. R. A. S., in India; Dr. E. Schlagintweit in Bavaria, 
Dr. Thomson and Dr. Aitchison of Kew, Dr. Eurz of Calcutta, and R, LaingEsq. 
M. A., Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

Not the least debt of gratitude is that which I owe to Dr. R. R os t in London, Secre- 
tary of the Royal Asiatic Society, to whose exertions, indeed, the execution of this work 
is, properly speaking, entirely due, inas much as he kindly interested the Indian Govern- 
ment on behalf of my undertaking. 

Herrnhut, January 1881. 





The names of all the Consonants sound in a, pronounced like the a in the English 
word 'far', 
'n lea pronounced like the French c — car ^ 7na mart 

p Ua like the English c or k — cart 

^ ga harder than the English (hard) g 

R wa ng — pang 

5 ha the soft English g — ginger 

£ {fa ch — chare 

E> j —jar 

^ nya the French gn — campagne 

^ to the French t — tard 

ig ta the English t — tart 

^ da dart 

&i na nard 

^ pa the French p — pas 

^ pa the English p — part 

^ ba bard 

5 Ua (is) parts 

<5 fsa (aspirated) 

^ dza (ds) — guards 

Q wa waft 

^ 2:a (zh) like the English s in leisure 

3 2:a like the English z — zeal 

Qy ^a (basis for vowels) 

^ •) ya yard 

^ •*) ra rasp 

Cq Za last 

^ ^a (sh) — sharp 

?| sa salve 

^ ha half 

l?J 'a (basis for vowels) 

*) yt yo, when combined, as second consonant, with k- and p-sonnds, or with m, 
is written under the first letter, assuming the shape of ^^ thus (^ hya^ 3 W^^ 
^ ^w^ya etc. 

**) ;^ ra^ when combined as second letter, with k-, t- and p-sounds is written under 
the first, in the shape of -./, thus: ^, kra^ S ^^' 5 ^'*" ®^' — When com- 
bined with another consonant as^rst letter, it is written over the second, thus : 
Tf\ rkay £^ r/ia, 5 rda etc., but it is seldom heard in speaking. 

The so-called Sanskrit Cerebrals are represented in Tibetan letters by ?, P, ^, JB, ^, 


and when in this dictionary they are transcribed, they are marked by a dot underneath : 

U f, 4y 9, i' 

The figure < (wa-zur or small wa) attached to the foot of a letter, is often used to 
distinguish homonyms in writing , e.g. <3b ^a hot and m ^a (fswa) salt. 

The doty which stands at the end of every syllable and of every word, is called Tseg 
(fieg) and is indispensable for a correct writing or reading. 

When ^ stands as a prefix, it is, when transcribed, represented by y^ e.g. 
yiig, ^f)^ ytam etc. 


The alphabetical order of the vowels is: a, i, u, e, o; they have in Tibetan the same 
sound as they have in German^ Italian^ and most other European languages: a sounds 
like the English a in ^far', i like ee in 'peer* or i in 'pin', u like u in 'rule' or in 'pull', e 
like a in fate' or e in 'met', o like o in 'note' or in 'not'. 

As the vowel a is inherent in every consonant, so that even a single letter may form 
a word, e.g. R' ba (cow), ^T sa (earth), there is no special character or letter required 
fortius vowel. The other four vowels are represented by little hooks, ^ standing for *, ^ 
for tt, **" for ^, *^ for o. The marks for i, e^ o are placed over the letter, that for u under 
it Examples : ^^'^ pad-ma, K' ri, ^' me, ^^' bu-mo. 

The letter B^ is used as a basis for initial vowels, thus: If^S^ 'a-ma; the letter (^ 
serves as a basis for initial and final vowels: w^ST ^o-ma^ ^^FP^ ^^' 

The vowel-sounds of (\ when transcribed, are indicated by the mark ^: Q^ ^a, Q^^t, 
Qi^tt, Qy ^e, 2\ ^0, whilst the B^ -vowels are denoted by the mark ' placed over the re- 
spective letters: B^ 'a, I?) V, ^ \ \^ 'e, 9^ o. — The real nature of the letters (^ and 
tf{ is treated of in the latter part of the Introduction. 

Whenever (^ is a prefixed letter, the mark ©, in transcribing, is put under the con- 
sonant following the Q^ e.g. Q^ ^du, ^^^R' ^gro-ba. 

Note. For a ready 'finding of words' in the Dictionary, it should be borne in mind, 
that the articles are arranged in the alphabetical order of the initial consonants and their 
prefixed and supej'scribed letters. Thus: n|_^n|_qm_;f|_a_«a_. n— ^m__Qra_ 

etc. etc. 


With regard to the language, with which I am dealing, it must, on the one hand, 
be admitted, that distinctions between sounds and, especially, variations in the mode of 
expressing their values as embodied in a written character, are far more numerous in 
Tibetan than either in Sanskrit or Hindi," in which two languages there is really littie or 
noopeakig for mistake or ambiguity in this respect. But on the other hand, Tibetan is 


scarcely more irregular than Frendi pronunciation, and a few definite i-uks enjoy uniter- 
sally recognized acceptation. , - // 

There is, however, one special difficulty in the case of Tibetan which, at thel present ' 
stage of that language, renders it practically impossible to set up an eqafable and authoi- 
ritative standard of pronunciation, and this is the existeiice of a great number of indcpett*- 
dent and well-defined dialects. An attempt to deal partially ^^ith this difficnlty, — to 
append, let me suppose, to every word from three to five different pronubcfations would 
involve a waste of time and an extension of space quite disproportionate to the value of ' 
the result. And yet, if one has to strike a preference in leivour of one particular diklect, 
it is very hard to determine, which is to be selected. At first sight, it might seem'tHe 
most natural course to fix upon the speech of the best educated classes in the capital city 
Lhasa. But when this method was followed, or when at least an endeavour was made t6 
act upon it, by Georgi and then by Schroter, only scant approval was bestowed upon 
it by European critics, and there were and are several reasonable arguments to be urged 
against its adoption. Of all the dialects this presents to the European ear and tongue the 
greatest difficulties, and accommodates itself least readily to the written character. Moife- 
over, in my own case, I have to add that I do not consider myself sufficiently master of 
it to care to risk its application to each individual word. Besides, modem political cir- 
cumstances make this dialect, for the present, the least available for general use. 

Csoma chose a much more manageable and a much more widely circulating m6de' 
of pronunciatioB, tliough one which presents problems of its own, when it has to be fitted 
to the written character: the West-Tibetan dialect. Here again, in representing^eaofe 
separate word, one has, in reality, to make choice between two, three or fotir pronuncia- 
tions, of whidi one agrees best with the written character, another conforms closest to 
the rules of spelling, a third recommends itself as that most frequent in conversational 
language; In my own smaller Tibetan dictionary I went no farther than to distinguish 
between two principal groups, which I termed West-Tibetan and Central-Tibetan; but 
in a more scientific work like the present I may permit myself to call more minute at- 
tention to the niceties and refinements of the language before us. I Jiave, accordingly, 
published a number of specimens from my note-book, in which I kept a collection <rf typ- 
ical words, of which [I availed mysdf as often as I had the opportunity of meeting the 
representatives of remote districts, and of enquiring concerning their manner of speech 
at home. Whenever in this collection a word had not been entered on sound native 
authority, or had not been sufficiently discussed, I preferred to mark it with a note of 
interrogation, and not to allow any conclusion from analogy, or any theory of pronun- 
ciation to interfere with the design of my handy-book and its simple and unprejudiced 
statem^it of fact. I may therefore, I hope, claim for this list a high degree of trust>- 
. worthiness, even among collections of the kind, into which words can sometimes hAve 
slipped, as they had been heard once, and perhaps were not heard again. 

In order to denote the pronunciation, I follow the scheme of Professor L opsins. 
Some objections have been ui^ed against this scheme; yet, amongst all systems of the 
kind, 80 far as I have become acquainted with them, I have no hesitation in affirming 
that of Professor Lepsiustobe the best, and it is certainly also that most appropriate 
for my purpose. A thorough study of the ^Standard Alphabet by R. L epsius, 2**** edi-^ 
tion, London, Williams and Norgate. Berlin, Hertz, 1868' may be recommended to all 
persons, who interest themselves in phonetic investigations. As I can scarcely take it for " 
granted, that the work mentioned will be already in the hands of every one, who may 
consult my dictionary, I shall endeavour, as briefly as possible, to indicate its essential 
plan and principles. Its rules may be stated as follows : 


^ pr4er to vd^rk somd, Lepsius uaes the letters of the ordinary. Latin alphabet. 
Where these are insufficient, he calls in the aid of a few Greek letters. Letters are used 
wkh.the powers they m^st geqeraUy possess in European languages. (Thus z has its 
nsu^ force^ and 4o^ npt staaid for the peculiar sound ts, which belongs to it in the Ger- 
man iaoguageaJoAeO Sq^^4s which, lack exact representation are indicated by cUacriHcal 
maurks^ priced above or below the letters which most nearly correspond. Every simple 
sowd.ijs rQpi>9^ented by pIl^ ^nd only one simple mark. Explosive and fricative conso- 
nantSiXt|iese term$ will be e;cplained below) are denoted by different letters. 

' Jhe folio wiug marks or sigiB are for vowels t the well known sign(") for a short, and 
(") for a long vowel; the mack of a modified vowel (•); German a,o,u, is placed by Lep- 
sius, for practiciU reasons, below, not above the vowel (a, q. \f) ; to dot under the vowel 
denotes, fli close vowel-sound (^ == a in fate, q in note); a horizontal line under the vowel 
denotes a nwwe ©pen vowel-soimd {§ in 'there', q in 'or, cord', which, indeed,, supersedes 
the a mentioned abov^); the mark Q) above the vowel indicates a nasal quality, the 
breath, passings whil^ uttering the sound, to a considerable extent through the nose (the 
Franc Va», $», .<>^, im' «= <f, /, ^ <?), 

tn marking ^onsonantSy tbere is first the distinction to be noted, that they are partly 
expf^iv0s^ formed by a rapid process of closing and re-opening the passage of the air at 
a certain point, partly fi'icatices and Uguids, formed by a partial process of compressing 
or jDArrowii^g the air-passage; and secondly, they are distinguished in regard to ike ex- 
act spot^ where the process of aarticulation takes place. The lowest articulation takes 
place in the f^uccU reffion, dose to the larynx (here, for example, h is formed); next 
comes the guttural region, at the throat, near the soft palate and uvula (here k is formed); 
it is marked, when necessary, with a dot above the consonant; then the palatal region, 
the hard palate, (here the German ch is formed in 'ich'); the mark is a stroke like the 
acute accent in Greek over the consonant; then the dental region^ at the teeth and gums 
(dj t, s, sh), mi finally the labial region^ at the lips (b, p, m). There exists a further 
clasp of consonants in the Lidian languages, and also in modem Tibetan, which are 
styled 0e>:etrals; they are most of them modified dentals, formed by bending or curiing 
the tongue upwards, |and bringing the tip of it into contact with the hard palate in the 
cenifre or toward the hinder part of its roof; mark, a dot under the consonant 

Many of these letters, in order to become audible, require in pronouncing them a 
certaip.fwai&c effort; others, to say the least, allow or suggest such an effort; the mark 
of these vocalized consonants is a small ring under the letter. When this vocalic effort 
is nMide by the medium of the nasal channel alone, the oral-passage being simultaneovisly 
closed at 3pnxe one of the points indicated above, we get the nasal consonants as a result. 
Wben tbe^ stoppage is made at the guttural point, ng is obtained (to be marked n); at 
the deotal point, n; at the labial point, m. In order to conform with the two final rules, 
cited above from Lepsius, the Greek letter % is used to represent the German ch, when 
it jys guttnn4 uxd bai*d, as in the word 'doch'; use is made of the Greek ;-, when it is soft 
or ^companied by a vocalic tone (the Dutch g); j( gives the force of a palatal ch (Ger- 
man, 'icb' r= ij[, 'milch' «= miljf); x^ is used to represent the strong English th (as in 
'thr<>ugh') ; d renders the softer or vocalized tone (as in 'that'); a hard, sharp and hissing 
s or ss (afi in 'yes', 'press) is marked as s; the soft vocalic s (as in 'his', 'rise') is repre* 
senf^ ss; the hard rushing sotmd sh, German sch, is rendered by S; the sound of the 
Freocji j^bj .s- If one attempts to give at the palatal point, where the English y (in 
'y^^'), <ur,the Qerman j (in 'Jahr') is formed, the sound sh, German sch, one obtains the 
Tpakfti^l 8y or the softened and vocalized z. In the Dictionary i and i have been substi- 
tuted for these marks. 


Further, in many languages, what are properly combinaiions of two consonants come 
to be regarded as simple forms, this happening, either because they are gradual gro'^^^ths 
upon an original simpler form, or because they have a natural affinity to each other. Thus 
properly dental sibilants should be distinguished thus: ^, ds; but for the sake of simpli- 
city Lepsius, in his second edition, marks them (Tand /, or, with their palatal force, ^ 
and ) (instead of tf and j). 

A further example of the combination of consonants is presented in what is known 
as aspiration y when the letter h is brought into more or less intimate connexion with 
another consonant. This introduces us to a very important distinction, belonging to the 
Tibetan language, which it is necessary to explain at some length, in accordance with 
which explosive consonants, as they have the force of tenues, mediae, or aspiratae, are 
treated. The ):enue8 are produced by a sudden opening of the air-passage at one of the 
points above mentioned: throat,. teeth, lips, such opening being unaccompanied by any 
sensible operation of the breath whatsoever. Thus, when quite exactly sounded, k, t, p, 
are produced. The mediae, g, d, b, are produced by the same process, carried out in a 
milder and less abrupt way, (the peculiar English pronunciation will come under con- 
sideration later). The aspiratae require a decided pressure by the breath (they will be 
found marked by the spiritus asper above the letter: Af, fyp). In northern Germany, in 
England, and in Scandinavia, modern educated speech recognizes only mediae and aispi- 
ratae, for we give an aspirated sound to every k, t and p. The French and the Magyars 
distinguish consciously the pure tenues from the mediae; on the other hand they ignore 
the aspiratae. Tibetan pronunciation makes room and requires a mark for all three gra- 
dations. Nay more, it augments the class of explosive consonants or mutae by the ad- 
dition of the dental sibilants in all three ranks or grades of aspiration: ^, <£,' ^ and ^5, 
db, R, or according to. the Standard Alphabet: by ?, j and <8, fs, dz. At a later stage of 
the language some further modifications were introduced, which we shall subsequently 
allude to. 

Let us now, passing fiom these general observations, draw attention to a few details 
of the Phonetic Table, which has been drawn up in deference to a wish that reached me 
from several quarters. 

The first colunm of the Table, now under review, gives the ancient Uteral pronun- 
ciation, as it was in vogue in the seventh century of our era, and was settled at the time 
of the invention of the alphabet. Such a pronunciation relies, after all, for its justification 
on the hypothesis, that the inventors of the alphabet had for their first object to re- 
produce, as exactly as possible, an artistic reflection of the natund value of sounds as 
spoken by their contemporaries: that, therefore, a later pronunciation is most in con- 
formity with the original genius of the language, if it gives with the greatest distinctness 
a special power to each written character. A reference to the Table will amply illustrate 
the fact, that a pronunciation, adopted on these principles, has actually maintained itself 
in one or the other provincial dialect, and it is veiy interesting to notice, that the purest 
and most striking forms of this survival have their homes in those districts, which are 
most i^mote from and least subject to the disintegrating and dissolving influences of the 
actual centre of Tibetan civilisation, the capital Lhasa. Thus the prefixes and the super- 
scribed consonants, for the most part, are still sounded at each extremity of the whole 
territory, within which the language is spoken, both on the Western and the Eastern 
frontier, alike in Shams, which borders on China, and in fialti, which merges into Kash- 
mere. Moreover, in both localities the same minor irregularities occur, transgressions 
against an exact rendering of the pronunciation according to the letters, the same frequent 
transformations of the tenues into the aspiratae, g and d (compare lower dovm) becoming 
/" or X, b becoming w. Now, about twenty degrees of longitude separate Balti from ELhiuns, 


and the former, embracing Islam , long since cut itself adrift from spiritual and religious 
cohesion with Tibet, and there, too, the dialect in other respects has greatly deteriorated, 
has admitted many foreign elements and has fallen altogether from the position of a lite- 
rary language. The resemblances and correspondences noted can, therefore, scarcely be 
accounted for in any other way, than by assuming that an old and strong instinct of speech 
lived on in oral tradition for more than ten centuries on the outskirts of the Tibetan do- 
main, which in the intermediate provinces has gradually surrendered and submitted to 
the spirit of change. 

Columns 2 — 6 contain, on most pages, the provincial dialects in their geographical 
sequence from West to East. The dialects of Ladak, Lahoul and Spiti correspond to 
what in my smaller Tibetan dictionary I called the dialect of Western Tibet. The last 
named, Spiti, represents in some respects the transition to the dialects of Eastern Tibet, 
nnder which heading Tsang and are to be classed. At the date of the publication of 
my former dictionary I was unacquainted with the dialect of Khams. Where a space is 
left vacant in the columns, the provincial pronunciation agrees with the model provided 
under column 1. Towards the end of the Table, where the anomalies become much more 
frequent, I hav^ for the sake of clearness repeated the word. 

The sign ^ (which does not occur in this Table) was pronounced ==: 'JJj or ^ in the 
substantive terminations ha and bo (v. Diet. p. 362), viz. = the English w, so that ^ 
sounded exactly like the French word m. 

The Accent.hsk^ seldom been marked, because, as in our Teutonic dialects, it gene- 
rally rests on the root of the word. In the case of compounds, it more frequently fells on 
the last than on the first of the component parts. But accentuation, altogether, is not of 
great sigmficance in this language. 

With regard to Quantity ^ vowels are pronounced shorter, even in open syllables, 
than is the case for instance in England and Germany. This applies particularly to the 
Central Provinces. Absolutely long vowels occur only as a peculiarity of dialect. They 
indicate d^at a consonant h^ been dropped, in most provinces, s, in tT, gs, in Tsang, 1. 
A long vowel may also indicate the blending of vowels. But when in tf and Tsang the d, 
(as in cf-pd) and when in Lahoul the g (as in fo\pii'T6n) is partially dropped, the vowel 
likewise maintains a short abrupt pronunciation. Moreover, the region, to which I have 
just refeired, is that in which the spoken language has been greatly affected by a foreign 
linguistic principle. A system of Tones hag been introduced imder manifestly Chinese 
auspices. I am told by European students of reputation, who have made the Tonic lan- 
guages of Eastern Asia their special deps^tment, that only the first principles of what 
are known as the high and low Tones ^ have made their way into Tibetan. Here, as 
in the languages of Farther India, generally, which possess an alphabetic system of writ- 
ing, the Tone is determined by the initial consonant of the word. This I have generally 
indicated in column 7, which column applies only to the Spiti, Tsang and tJ dialects. The 
system of Tones, as in Siam and elsewhere, has become of paramount importance in de- 
termining distinctions between words. An inhabitant of Lhasa, for example, finds the 
distinction between -^ and ^, or between ?^ and 3, not in the consonant, but in the Tone, 

pnmouncing ^ and ^ with a high note (as my Tibetan authorities were wont to describe 

it^with a woman's voice', shriU and rapidly), (^ and 3, on the coniarary with a low note, 

and, as it appeared to me, more breathed and floating. This latter distinction is still more 
apparent with regard to those low-toned aspirates, that in the course of time were intro- 
daoed in Central Tibet instead of the mediae, in contraposition to which now the original 
aspirates are used as high-toned; so more particularly in the dialect of Spiti. The low- 
toned a^irate I have indicated by h, the high-toned by the mark of the spiritus asper *. 


Those letters of the alphabet, which as simple initial consonants have a deep tone, be- 
come with a superscribed letter or with a prefix high-toned, so also ^, when subscribed. 
The tenues remain, it would appear, unaffected by the Tone. With reference to the mo- 
difying effect of a final w, d, and w, in different provinces, the Table may be consulted. 
The characterisation of the rushing sounds as 'palatals' is no doubt correct and agrees 
with the generally prevailing pronunciation; but the learner need not consider it as being 
of much importance. 

The two letters, ^ and l?|, introduce us to a very interesting linguistic phenomenon. 

We meet here with the idea of the vowel absolute, the pure vocalic note, freed altogether 
from any presence of a consonant. This vowel- tone is rendered by the letter of the 
alphabet Q^, in contradistinction to l?|, which represents the Semitic N, the spiritus lenis 

of the Greeks, the audible re-opening of the air passage of the larynx. The difference 
may be observed, for example, in the manner of uttering the words, 'the lily, an endogen' 
and in the pronunciation of 'Lilian' (a name), in Tibetan Sj*a|TfJ<r and (^^(^(^^(r. Thus, 

whenever in the middle of a word one vowel succeeds another (hence also in all diph- 
thongs), (^ is used. Again, in Tibetan, as in every form of human speech, it cannot but 
be the commonest of occurrences for a vowel to follow a consonant, and the strict rule 
might seem to require the vocalic tone to be always indicated, which, according to Csoma, 
was originally done. However, as the Tibetan language , adopting the principle from 
Sanskrit, deems the sound of a to be naturally inherent in every consonant, while the 
other four vowels, as mere subspecies of the vowel absolute, are indicated by little hooks 
above or below the letter, and as the end of a syllable is always marked by a dot (called 
fseg)^ the function of ^ in this capacity was soon seen to be quite superfluous. Its use is 

necessary only to obviate ambiguities, when for instance one of the five letters, used as 
prefixes, precedes a consonant with a; e.g. the word ^^', would be read 'mad'; whereas 

SI^Q^', written thus, implies that the vowel does not precede but follow the consonant d, 
and consequently the m is prefix, and the word to be read 'mdu\ If the vowel is not a, 
the sign of such vowel suffices, e.g. ^^ vido ; ^^K nulaOy standing now for ^^P^» 

Some practical difficulty attends the pronunciation of the pure vowel as an initial letter. 
In order that the effect of the consonant l?| may not be produced, it is necessary, after 

opening the larynx, to allow the tone gently to set in and then to let it gradually gaia 
fulness and force. I shall indicate this process by the mark ^. The sound would be 
still more accurately represented than it is in the Table, thus: ^adr-po^ ^uug-pa etc. Im- 
proper are the expedients of some of the dialects, the sound being hardened to /'in 
Ehams, to l?l in Western Tibet; also Csoma's device of indicating it by an h is inade- 
quate. This is a case ill which the true pronunciation has been preserved in the Central 
Provinces, perhaps, because it almost necessarily implies the effort connected with the 
low Tone, above referred to, so that, when the invading system of Tones had here estab- 
lished its authority, it acted as a conservative element. 

Finally, this vocalic tone can be used in connexion with certain consonants. It is 
unnecessary to indicate it in Tibetan, when it accompanies liquidae (w, n^ w, r, I) and 
sibilants; but with the mutae it must be marked, where the effect is that, with which we 
are familiar in the case of the English mediae, b, d, g, j, for instance in 'be, do, go, jew\ 
In Tibetan the vocalic effect accompanies aspirates too, and is marked by ^, placed as a 

prefix, which I transcribe thus o, e.g. Qf^ ^du = the English do. The pause on the tone 


IS of course in the case of mutae a very short one. Here again, though only in the case 
of the mediae, we find this peculiarity preserved in its purity in Centr^ Tibet. It is not 
difficult to understand, t^w, if one is careless about closing the nasal passage^ a nasal 
articulation of this prefix can easily grow common. This has happened throughout 
Khams, and in the rest of Tibet at least in compound words; at Lhasa it is considered 
inelegant, as is also the spunding of any prefix. On the other hand, the dialect of Central 
Tibet neglects the distinction between 5J and Q^ and pronounces the former only as a 
vocalic initial. In words from the Sanscrit the (\ is used in some respect as a 'mora', to 

denote a long syllable, e.g. 3 for ^; hence the opinion of Lamas of Lhasa, that it ex- 
presses pposodical length, when used as above in ^^^, 

^ mya, is not found in use in any of the dialects. The sole confirmation of its liter- 
al pronunciation depends upon the word myari-ha which, perhaps a thousand years ago, 
found its way into the Bu-nan language (Tibar-skad, Cunningh.) and which the people of 
I^oul', when speaking Tibetan, pronounce nyan-wa. The process of transition to the 
cerebiilJ ^out^ds in the words kro/drpa etc. is in many places not yet completed, so 
that 1 the sound of r is still more or less clearly distinguishable. The PreJLres have al- 
l^ays constiitated the most perplexing phenomena in the Tibetan language. At the time 
of the invention of the alphabet they mast have represented a sort of anticipatory sound 
jii& dose connexion with the initial consonant of the word. Certain seeming impossibili- 
ties of pronunciation, when one has, for instance, to deal with a prefix together with a 
threefold initial consonant (f^\ ^^) ^^^^^^^ ^^^ formidable, and not more embarrass- 
ing than those which meet us, for example, in the Polish language, when we ascertain 
Aat in fiahi and Ehams the three explosive prefixes are pronounced as fricatives, in 
vJiu^ case v must be written for w. Thus ^3*^' ybi-wct^ ^W tckra^ R^F^ wsgrags 

caSfor no greater exertions, than do the Polish chciwyy wkrdtce^ wskroL- Our strongest 
groirad for assuming this fricative pronunciation to be that of antiquity is, I think, that, 
had it been explosive, words like ^HJ^'* ^^F^ would have coincided with ^'^ ^^. Yet 

it^must be acknowledged that a pronunciation bbu^ bka etc. exists, side by side with wdu, 
wka etc. — ^, as a liquid, offers no difficulty. — P^, as a prefix, is no consonant. 

A doubt must still cling to ^, and I do not venture to determine its ancient pronun- 
ciation. It is by a strange anomaly that, in most dialects, when prefixed to ^, both it and 
the initial consonant die away into a spiritus lenis; and almost still more singular it is, 
that where it still asserts an independent force, in Khams and in Balti, it is sounded like 
^ with the power oiy. The investigations of Lepsius go indeed to prove, that ^ and ^ 

arc complements to each other; but how came, at t^e beginning, two letters to be chosen 
as signs for one and the same sound? Most probably the original sound was ^, which 
then very soon passed into y. The variations between r and s in Ladak afford no sure 
hold for drawing inferences. 

The purpose, for which the Phonetic Table was drawn up, will have been attained, 
if I succeed in convincing my readers, 1. that for scientific objects the pronunciation, as it 
is ^ven in Column 1, is the most suitable, and that with a good conscience it can be re- 
commended in the place of that introduced byCsoma; 2. that its system is regular enough 
to render it unnecessary to give the pronunciation of every individual word throughout 
the work; 3. that I present in this Table, in regard to the various dialects, as much in 
the way of results as, down to the present, it has been possible for European students to 
aocpiire and to pot into shape for the service of a European public. 



The columDS 2—6 are arranged according to the geographical site of the provinces from West to East 

I. Words containing only simple consonants and vowels. 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

West. Tibet Central Prov. 



kug = cook 



fab = fdp 


nad = ndt 
























nd Ts. 







fib-ri Ts. 




























o^t-mo Ts. 























in G. higb- 
1 toned 

[ in G. deep- 

f high-toned 
I deep-toned 














West. Tibet 

Central Prov. 





Tsang, C 






) deep- toned 


rO-mo Ts 






I high-toned 



II. Words terminating in q* or 







i deep-toned 
























aO-wa Tb. 


III. Words terminating i 



Uas, Ks 

Uai, He 





risy rl 


rl rl 




gus, ga 

gui, ga 

ghui ga 




dtts, da 

dui, da 

dJiui da 



> deep-toned 


des, di 


dhi dS 




Uos, Kd 

Uoi, Uo 

Md Uq 





gos, go 

goiy go 

gho g6 



1 deep-tofie«i 


tW, O) 

coi, ?J 

?i? ?(? 







nag., na 
rig, rl 







tugy (a 









poa, p6 










































IV. Words 

with diphtho 




Kaiy Us 




en, cl 






bui, b& 

buij bU' 


















and so forth 







2 3 

West. Tibet 

4 5 

Central Prov. 


roo^ rO 








hyi-ha, byi-wa 







dron-mo • 


bra-bOy bra-^o 







zla-bay zla-wa 





Tsang, t 

V. Words with subscribed letters. 

Par.Bal; Ld 
fh/ag ^ag 




bya- ja- 

7no mo 


(B. blan-sa) 
stran-ma f 

strin-mo B. 

ylog B. 


Iza B. 







t im(8) 
fits; ff} 
dri^ di 
bra- da- 
toOy too 




la-mo i 






























(log Ts. c6 0. 



te'-pa Ts. 











vulg. siip-mo 








VI. Words with superscribed letters. 


l^j he 



























^ deep-toned 


* high -toned 


> deep-toned 

/ high-toned 

i deep-toned 

' deep-toned 

' high-toned 

' high-toned 



these and all 
the rest are 


2 3 

West. Tibet 











































rta^ sta^ ta 


nay ma 

day ra 







(s)bodrpa I 

also ^reu i 
(s)baJrV3a j 

har-wa ' 
also dari'bu 


















sra, ta 

da, ra 















{s)t»al-wa ' tial-wa 



Central Prov. 


Tsang, tJ 
























































bd-^wa Ts. 
bal-wa V. 












tsd-wa Ts. 

tsal-wa tJ. 

































VII. Words with prefixed letters. 

Pur. Bal. 
rtsod, stsod 






























Bal. ynam 


























or gserpa 






Bal. yser 





















Bal. ynul 

nul (vnlgo 

mut) nul 


nuT8, nuia. 


or xmul 















West. Tibet 

Central Prov. 




Tsaug, Xi 
















tian (vig. an) 


















'a-po T8. 
'ul-^o^ ul'po 
'em-pa [0. 























nyd-wa Ts. 
nyal-tca C. 


bka^ vka 




























DbUy bbu 




bur-sum f 








' vbub-zif 

































































































































Ico-iva Ts. 











^u-wa Ts 
^gul-wa C. 
























ge- dun U. 

ygen-diin f 
























Bal. vrgyad 

Bal. vdun 
Pur. rdzrni 



2 3 

West Tibet 





4 5 

Central Prov, 

Tsang, ta 




















Bum. I. 




Chr. P. 















Do. or Dom. 



: abbreviated, abbreyiation 
accordini;^ to 
accusative case 
active, -ly 
adverb, -iaily 
Asiatic Researches 

books, book-langoage 
Balti, the most westerly of the districts, 

in virhich the Tibetan hinguage is 

Bharata, a dialogue, ed. by Dr. A. 

Bhotan, province. 
Bumoaf, Introduction au Buddhism 

Bumouf, Lotos de )a bonne loi. 
Central Tibet, esp. the provinces and 


earn, wit 

CODstruitur cum, construed vrith. 

construed with the accusative, etc. 

construitur cum accusative personae, 
instrumentativo rei 

construitur cum instrumentativo rei, 
dativo personae etc. 

confer, compare 

Christian writings by Protestant mis- 

Christian writings by Roman Catholic 

cognate, related in origin 

colloquial, -ly 

collective, -ly 


compound -s 



Gorract, -ly 

correlative, -ly 

Csoma de Koros, Tibetan-English Dic- 
tionary. . 

Cunningham, General, Ladak and the 
surrounding country. 

dative case 


Desgodins« La Mission du Tibet de 

Do-mang, a collection of incantations. 


Dzanglun, an ancient collection of Le- 
gends of Buddha. 

e.g. = exempli gratia, for instance 

eleg. elegant, -Ty 

elsewb. elsewhere 

emphat emphatical, -ly 

erron. erroneous, -ly 

esp. especially 

euphemist euphemistical, -ly 

ezpl. explain, explanation 

extr. extreme, towards the end of a longer 


fern. feminine gender 

jfig. figurative, -ly 

ft{\, frequent, -ly 

fut future tense 

gen. general, -ly 

gen. genitive case 

Glr. Gyalrabs, a history of the kings of Tibet 

Oram. native grammarians or grammatical 


Gyatch. Gyatcberrolpa, Biography of Buddha. 

Hd. Hindi language. 

Hook. Dr. Hooker, Himalayan Journals, 

ibid. ibidem, in the same place, 

id. idem, the same 

i. e. id est, that is 

imp. imperative mood 

impers. impersonal, -fy 

incorr. incorrect, -ly 

inf. infinitive mood 

init initio, at the beginning of a longer 


inst. instead 

instr. ^ instrumentative case 

interj. * interjection 

interr. interrogative, -ly 

intrs. intransitive 

i.o. instead of 

ifr. irregular, -ly 

Kb. Khams, eastern pari of Tibet 

Kopp. Koppen, Die Religion des Buddha. 

Kun. Kunawur, province under English pro 


Lat. Latin 

Ld. Ladak, province. 

Ld.-Glr. Ladak-Gyalrabs, a history of Tibet, 

ed. by Dr. £. Schlagintweit 

Lew. Lewin, Manual of Tibetan. 
Lex., Lexx. Lexicons, native dictionaries. 

Lh. Lahoui, province. 

Lis. Lishigurkhang, glossary, 

lit literally, also literature 

Ma. Ma-ong-lung-bstan, a kind of Tibetan 



masc. = 







































masculioe gender 

Schl. — 

medical works 


medio » about the middle of a 




metaphorical, -ly 

metonymical, -ly 


Milaraspa's hundred thousand 



Milaraspai nam-tar, Milaraspa't 

i auto- 



Man-ngag-rgyud, a medical work. 




neuter gender 


ni follor, if I am not mistaken 


noun proper 

symb. num. 

New Testament 





as opposed to 





passive, -ly 




person, personal 

perfect tense 


plural number 


pleonastic, -ally 


proper name 



popular language 











provincialism, provincial, -ly 
Padma thangyig, a collection 


of le- 


gends of Padma Sambhava. 


Purig, province. 


quod vide, which see 




respectful, -ly 


Shambhala, a fabulous country 

in the 


north and a book: Guide to Sb. 


Prof. Is. J. Schmidt, Tibetisch- 



sches Worlerbuch. 

» » Tibetische Grammatik. 


Dr. A. Schiefner. 

Dr. E.8chIagijitweit,Bnddhism in Tibet. 

Schroter, editor of the first Tibetan 

8had-gyud, a medical work. 

Sikkim, province 

similar in meaning, similarly 

singular number 

si lectio certa, if the reading is to be 
depended upon 

Ser-od, a religious work. 

Spiti, province. 


Stan-gyur,a collection of commentaries. 

symbolical numeral 


Taranatha, history of the propagation 
of Buddhism m India. 

terminative case 

Thos-grol, Direction for the departed 
soul to find the way to eternal hap- 

Thargyan, scientific treatises. 

Triglot, a collection of Buddhist terms 
in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Mongolian. 

tropically, figuratively 


Tsang, province of Central Tibet 

U, » » » » 

Urdu, a dialect of Hindustani. 

vide, see 


verb active 

verb neuter 

vulgar, low expression 

in common life 

Western Tibet 

Prof. W. Wasiljew, Der Buddhismus. 

Waidurya Earpo, a mathematical work. 

Waidurya Nonpo, a medical work. 

without explanation 

Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

Wilson, Sanskrit Dictionary. 

Wai-tsang-thu-shi, a description of Ti- 
bet, originally Chinese, ed. by Klap 

Zangskar, a Eashmere- Tibetan pro 

Zamatog, a treatise on Tibetan grammar 
and orthography. 


Page 122, 1st column, 4 th. line from the top, after dignity, are to be inserted the following words: 
2. Cs. exaggeration. sgro-Qclogs-pa 1. Sch, to bestow the peacock's feather. 

Other misprints in the English text will be easily recognized as such, and hardly require a specification. 




fjy ka I. the letter k, tenuis, = French c 

' in ca7\ — 2. as numerical figure, used 

in marking the volumes of a work: one. 

— ka-fo alphabetical register ScL — kd- 
pa the first volume of a work. — ka-dpe 
a-b-C-book. — ka-jwihy ka smad sum-cu, 
kd'li the Tibetan alphabet 

m- io 1, an additional syllable, so-called 

' article, affixed to some substantives, 

numerals and pronouns, v. the grammars. 

— 2. pillar, v. ka-ba. 

^ ka (kva) Oh! 

mTw- ka-kd excrement, (nursery word), 
' ' *ka'ka tan-ce^ W. = French: faire 


^^ ka-ka Ssk. crow. 

YT kanaka, Ssk. n^, heron. 

mjjr^' ka-ka-ni a small com of ancient 
' ' ■ India Cs. 

^'^'^' ka-ka-^rdn CUCUmber Kun, 

m-yfrpr ka-ko-la, Ssk. liS^t% * plant bear- 
' ing a berry-the inner part of which 
is a waxlike and aromatic substance. — 
ka-ko prob. means the same. 
Tjm kor-M the a-b-c, alphabet; ka-lcai fo 
' ' alphabetical register, ka-l^ai dpe a-b-c- 
book; ka-^or-pa abecedarian. 

'Tf^^ ka-m-ma V. M-ma. 

m^ kd'Ca also kd-ca, goods, things; kd- 
' ^ai jyeS'SU Jyi^dns-pai rffydlpo n. of 
a demon. 

m'C'W' *«-^-J/«^ ^Is^ ka-tya. n. of a lo- 
' ' cality Mil. Xi r - ^ ^ . . ♦ ' /, c\. 

'TS' ka-tu V. ke-tu. 

«|.*<-x' ka-td-ray more correctly ka-lo^ra, 
' / /W., metal cup, dish, basin. 

'^'^^ ka-fa-ra Kun. a sort of peach. 
mxqr ^«-<i«^j also ka-nas dag^ pure from 

' ' ' the beginning Lex. 
mzx^ ^«-^«^' (iromJiO^ Urd. f) only in 

' ^ the phrase: *ka^ar co-ce^ to be 
cautious, take care, take heed, -la, of. 

^'^'^ ka-pa4a Ssk. skull. 

'^ H y kor-pi-ta gum, resin ScL 

;^gfr^ kaTn-jyo-rtse^ absurd spelling instead 

' of kam-bo'ja Wdk. 

m-q- kd-ba *ka-ica^ 1. pillar, pOSt; *. o^^Jt/^r- 

' pa to erect a pillar. — 2. a large 
vein or artery in the abdomen. — Comp. 
ka-sked shaft of a column. — kd can 
having columns. — ka^ycig-sgo-Ycig a small 
house, poor cottage; also a mode of ca- 
pital punishment is said to be called so, 
when the culprit is fastened to a pillar 
in a dungeon until he dies of hunger. — 
ka-yag-pa having one pillar, ka-midh-ina 
having many pillars. — ka-cen the prin- 
cipal p. (cf. GxvXog GaL 2. 9) Tar. 182. 
10. — ka'7'ten base of a p. Lea:. — ka- 
st^gs, ka-yddn pedestal, base of a p. — 
ka-spuns many pillars, -r- ka-med without 
a pillar; helpless, destitute. — ka-rtse, 
ka-ydn-rtse capital of a pillar. — ka ted- 


^^^ ka-bed 

^^^ kdn-ma 

can, sul'can a channeled pillar. — ka- 
yhu capital of a pillar. — ka-yhi-yduh 
beam of the capital (pillars are mostly 
made of wood). 

^^^' ka^H prob. a sort of gourd Wdh, 
ka-ma-i-u 1. alabaster ScL — 2. 


n. of a country. 

d to 

Tyr^'Qi'^-Qt- ka-ma-la-si-la n of a famous 
' ' ancient pandita or Brahma- 

nical scholar. 

m'^Qrx^r- karmtd-^'dO'rcfydd is sai 
' \^^ denote a sort of alabi 

or of steatite in C. 

m-^'S)^^' ka-tsa-lindi n. of a fabulous, very 
' ' ' smooth, stuff or cloth, Gyatch, 

rjrjEr^- kar-rtsamy Ld, ^kasani*, prob. a 
sort of oats; differing from yug-po, 

accounted superior to buckwheat, but in- 
ferior to wheat. 

' ' ™ book cited in Glr. 
m^- ka-ye (kwa-ye) oh! holla! hear! so 
e. g. at the beginning of a royal 
proclamation PtL 

m-;^- kd-ra C, ^ B, sugar; nel-ka-ra 
crystallized s., sugar-candy, rgydU 
mO'ka-ra id. ScL; bye-rna-ka-ra ground 
sugar. — ka-^ra-^a tea with sugar; ScA. 
'a sweet soup'? — ka-ra tog-tog sugar in 
lumps. — kara-Hn sugar-cane. (W, Ua-ra), 
Tjyx^'^X^ karra-hl'Ta, also ka'm-wi'ra(SsL) 

' oleander flower, Nenum odorum, 

mx^'^* ka-^rah'dza Ssh a medicinal fruit, 

' ^ Galedupa arborea, 
rn-M'r' ka-ran-dha Pth. more correctly 
R ka-ran-da, Ssk., a species of duck. 

^'^' kd^ru wedge. 

rnw'n* ka-ld-pa a fabulous place or 
r\ country in the north of Asia; 
also n, of a grammar Cs. 
m'OJ'SlCm' ka-la-pin-ka (X: 'Ssk., n. 
' ' of a bird', WilL: 'kalapin 

peacock; the Indian cuckoo'. 

^'^'^' ka-la-sa Ssk, pitcher, jar. 

m'QJOT ^'1^9 W. mudy mixture of earth 
and water used instead of clay 
(C, ^ B.: cjim-pa); the word is also used 
for other similar compounds. 

/T^^T ka-lan-taka Ssk, n. of a bird. 

^'^' ka-li 1. Skull Lejc, — 2. = ka-U W. 

^^ ka4i the Tib. alphabet, v. ka. 
rrrSj^'CT- ka-lih-ga Ssk. n, of different 
' tracts in the eastern part of 
India; ScL: 'Korea', without giving fur* 
thcr explanation; perh. Mongol writers 

call it so? Cl « Kao-^ ftV-.^c^^'-.") -^^^Uki^. 

^^^' ka4ib, Ar. ^s bullet-mould W, 

^^ ka-le, also ka-leb, Saddle-cloth. 

m- n- kd-sa Ssk, a sort of grass, Sac- 
q; charum spontaneum; Tibetans 

often seem to mistake it for ku-sa q. v. 
rrr^'m' ^«-^-*« SsL, adj. of Kasi (Ba- 

' ' ' naras); inhabitant of Banaras; 
ka-^i'kai ras^ a sort of fine COttoncloth. 
Tjy^ kd-suy also *kd'S0y k<ju^ (perh. a 

' mutilated form of bka-stsal) resp. 

yes, Sir! very well, Sir! at your service! 
(W, also: *kd-sarju* v. zu) W, frq., also 
6'. ni f., never in B, 

^^^ kdg-gis suddenly ScL 

^^^' kdg-ma mischief, harm, injury Cs. 

^'^' kanaka Ssk. heron. 

nTC^'^C^'%^' ^/i-c?a/i-to n. of a terrifying 
' ' ' deity Glr., prob. = kih-kdn, 

which is said to signify Rahula (v. sgra- 

yean ^ drag-yhed. in drag-pa). 

mj;prm^^ kanda-kd-n Ssk. ('thorny') 
' ' Wilson: Solanum Jaquint; in 

LL a sort of wild Rubus. 

7«c- kady Ld. sometimes instead of the 
' affix ka, e. g. ynyis-kdd, fsan-kdd; 

perh. also in mnyam-kdd, Thgy.f 

^^ kan Med. = bad-kan. 
^'^^' kdn-ma middle finger. 

\6'^^rH'^^^^C 2)-^- S li-oZ '^^-^ 


^'3^ kdb-za 

7m'^ hab-za (iUksao Ar.^ W. hitt, handle 
' of a sword, 

^^^ kdb-m {JJ^ Pers.) shoe; in W. 
esp. the leather s^^oes of Hindu fashion, 
which ^re also bought by wealthier Ti- 

— ^^^ kavi'bo'dza Sak. n. of a country 
' in the northwest of India, Wd/f,: 


^^' kau watermelon ScLO^^^^-^^ two- 

jmx: ^'^'^ also kar-kar, great pain, suffering 

Tjusrzr karka-ta Ssk. the constellation 

••^ of Cancer. 
— -.^-. kar-skyin loan, when respectfully 

I Si requested, cf skyin. 

^SF\ kar-cdg register, list 

kdi-mu Ssh ('deed, action'); kar-ma- 

1 " 

y^j .^ 

IJf ^ kug-rtee 


pa (in Nepal kamiika) name of a 

philosophic^ school of Buddhism. 
m^'SJnr *"'*"2/^' porcelain, china-ware, 

' -cup etc. 

— «,™-~ /:tf/-/«w-ia , b\so k^r-lan-ba y tO 

' stand up, to rise. 

^j^jj.^^ or y kar-sa-pa-ni or wa, Ss/-. 

' • ' ^ mi^iMUl? a <^^^ ^'^ a^' 

cient India, or rather a weight of gold 
and silver, <»f different value (not = 'cow- 
ries', as Sch seems to think). 
;ypr(u- kdl-ya, also kaUyor, W, col. in- 

' st«ad of kar-yol, the former 

seems to be a corruption of ^tf^is. 

^ ki numerical figure: 31, ki-pa the 31st 
' (volume). 

^^)^' ki-kdh wild leek Sch. 

^\^ kt'ffu n. of tliB vowel-sign for i, ^. 

J^~ ki-ma DzL ^^ ace. to Schf. a 
' corruption of the 

Chinese khin, a lyre with 7 strings. (Pil- 
grim, of Fa-Hian Calc. 1848 p. 265). 
^"^ ki'tsi tickling W.y "ki-tri kvcf-ce* to 
I tickle. 

'^^t kin-kdh v. kah-dah-kin. 

^^ ^ kf'm^pa n. of a fruit, Le,r. 

Tjyku numerical figure: 61; kiz-pa the 
nJ 61st (volume). 

^ ku, kusgra B., ^ku-co* W, clamOUr. 

m-x-^j- ku-na-Ia, ku'7id'Ia Ssk,, n. of a 
n1 ^ bird in the Himalaya. 

^R ku-ba Wdh, gourd. 

m-^x' kii-be-ra Ssk, the god of riches, 
\1 also Nofj'ku'beraj Rnam-fos-kyi' 

buy Rnam-fossrdsj Lag-na-^dd-rye etc. 
rrrjrr' ku-nm-da Ssk. the flower of the 
>i ' red and white lotus, Nymphaea 
rubra and esculenta, 

'T^' ku-ya sediment of urine Med, 

m-x'rnai'(3i' ku-ru-kul-le n. of a female 
nJ^ J deity Mil. 

'T^^ ku-n'ig Ld. colt of an ass. 

— .^. ku-rej also ku-res jest, joke, ku-^^e 
ND byed-pa to jest, cf. kyal-ka. 
Tjr^m ku-lig key, also lock; more ac- 
\i ' curately: ^pe-ku-lig* key, bug- 
kii-lig lock, padlock; ^ku-lig-bur- (or bor-) 
tse* in IJl. a contrivance used instead of 
a doorlatch. W. 

m- rr ku'-ha a sort of grass, Poa cyno- 
ND ' suroides, often used in sacred 
ceremonies. , 

^^ ku-m apple DzL; W. (Cf. sN). 

'T^'^' Lni'su-ma Ssk. flower. 

m-^- k^'hu ring-dove Cs. (Ssk.: the cry 


of the cuckoo). 

fmy kug, also kug-kug^ crooked; a hook; 
n1 ' gri'kug a curved knife, short sabre; 
Itags'kug an iron hook; nya-kug a fishing- 
hook; hmi'hig jM'pa* C. *tah-ce* W. 
to bend, curve; clinch (a nail); *go knig 
tan-te* W. to nod, Vag kug tah-ve* W. Of 

beckon. (Cf. kum-pa.) 

^^S' kug-rtse, *kug-se* CUCkoo W. 

^ kun 

"^^^ ke-i 


mr^ kun (C: *kun*) all, every, each; whole; 
^^ I e/TM/V ^uh'Jm kun-nas from every 

pore DzL; de-dag kun ail these; yian 
kun all the others; also pleon. kun 
fams'ddd all of them, they altogether; Awn- 
ffyis mfoh-ba, fos-pa seen, heard by every 
body, generally known; kun-tu 1. into all, 
in all etc. 2. adv. everywhere, in every 
direction; kun-tu-bzdn-po AUgood, n. of 
the first of the celestial Bodhisattwas, 
Samanta-bhadra, sometimes confounded 
with Adibuddha, foy-miai Sans-rgyas; in 
later works even a Kun'tu-hzdh-mo Yum 
is mentioned Thgr.; kitn-tu rgyu-ha to go 
everywhere, wander about; Kun-tu-rgyu 
Hf^^l^ift n. of a class of Brahmans, itin- 
erant monks, DzL; kun-nas from every- 
where, round about, wholly, thoroughly e. g. 
overpowered by passions, cleansed from 
sin DzL; kun-mis ^dod-pa to wish from 
the bottom of the he^rt Tkgy. 

Comp. kun-dkm general corruptness, 
misery, sin Le^, — Kun-Uydb comprising, 
pervading all things. — Kun-mUyen^(pa) 
omniscient — Kun-dgd-bo, Ssk, anandd, 
n. of the favourite disciple of Buddha; 
Kun-dga is to this time frequently used 
as a name of (female) persons. — Kun- 
dga-^rd-buy also kun-dga Tligg,, or kun^a, 
Ssk, ^H\i^\M or fiv|i^i4| 'garden of all 
joys' 1. the grove in which a monastery 
is situated. 2. the monastery. 3. in Ti- 
bet, which is destitute of groves, more 
particularly the auditory or library of a 
monastery — Kun-brtdgs, in the Maha- 
yana: a personal, erroneous supposition 
Was. — Kun-jdiis all-gathering, all-uniting. 
— Kun-dbdn almighty. — Kun-rdzob al- 
together vain, delusive; kun-rdzob-kyi bdenr- 
pa subjective truth Was, — Kun^yki lit.: 
the primary cause of all things, viz.: 1. 
the soul or spirit, kun^yhU sems (opp. to 
Jyguh-ba bzii lus the body consisting of 
the 4 elements), kun-yzil setns-la po ino 
ma mch'te as no difference of sex exists 
in souls (we, though being women, \^(ould 
beg etc.) MiL 2. With more precise 

distinction: kun^yhi SOUl as the seat of 
the passions, opp. to sems-nyid, the very 
soul, the spirit as the seat of reason MU, 
3. To the .followers of the Adibuddha 
doctrine kun-^H is = God, Adibuddha, kun- 
yzii Sans-rggas, — Kun-yzigs all-seeing. 
— Kun-sUn hex, v. shn-ba, 

^^^ kun-da Ssk. jessamine. 

^^^'^' kun-du-m SskVinceMe. Boswellia. 

to;tw kum^a, also kum-kicm, kumrpo^ 
>o crooked, shriveled, dried up; *ku7n 

tdh-c^ W. to bend together, to double. (Cf. 

^^^'9' hmirbha Ssk. earthen jar. 

kumrbi-ra Ssk. crocodile. 


^ ke numeral: 91, ke^a the 91st (vo- 

' lume). 
^^x' ke-ke-ruy also kerkMana Sf ke- 

' ' taJca Ssk. hi. of a precious 

white stone' Cs.; our Ssk. dictionaries give 
but the last of these names, and as its 
only Signification the name of the tree 
Pandanus odoratissima. 
^.j-,^- ke-ta-ra Sarnbh., n. of a moun- 

' / tain, prob. Kedara, part of the 
Himalaya. WilL 
ff^-^ ke-tu Ssk. a fiery meteor, shooting 

'no star; the descending node. 

^5 ke-rts^ V. keu-rtsi. 
^^ ke-re v. kye-ri. 

^T^'Or^ moyjy ^-^«-««^ kai-la-m Cs., 
' ^' ' ^ %^rTO WHl-y n. of a 
lofty region of the Himalaya, mythological 
rather than geographical, seems to be the 
same as Ti-se q. v., though modem geo- 
graphers apply the name to different 

'ri'QJtS' ^'i^^y ^^ fraternity or asso- 
' ' ciation, which Hue mentions 
under this name (Voy. H ch. 6), seemed 
to be totally unknown to our Tashi- 
Ihunpo Lama, although the expectation 
of a final war between Buddhist believers 

^'^ ke^'ka 

^^ koh 

and infidels, in which the latter will be 
destroyed, is widely spread through Tibet. 
j^'jrm' ke-Mi-ka Wdn, n. of a plant, per- 
' \:> ' haps kecuka, Arum Coloeasia, with 
edible root; or = kensu-ka? 

^^' yg^a = ^^ kag-ma Cs, 

^'^^' keh-rns skeleton. 

f^-jq-m- keh'hi'ka Lea;., Sambh., Wdn,, 
' \3 ' n. of a tree. 

^^ keu-rtse, also ke^rtse, jacket MtiCU^ 

rfrr^' i^w-n n. of a female terrifying 

'^ deity Thffi\ 
mq-oj- keu'le DzL -^c©, 1: keu-lei rgya, 

'^ ace. to the Mon- 

gol version: customary seal, •— dubious. 

'^^^^ ker-gyis suddenly Sch, 
^^^q* J^r-ba to raise, lift up, e. g. the 
finger towards heaven Gh\; ker 
Idh-ia to rise, stand up. 
rjfrto 1. num.: 121; kd^a the Tilst 

' (volume). — 2. affix, = ka col. Ld. 
— 3. all, whole Schr., cf. kob. 
Tfrffr ko'kd 1. also ko-sko, throat, chin 

' ' /SoA., ko-sko ,degs Lea: J 2. «== ka- 

TSC'^ ^o-fe>-f«/i-?/ia n. of a country 

in or near Cejlon Pth. 
JK^jlJ-V- ko-nyon-tsiy also ko-nyol-ts^y ko- 
^ ' Um-tse the kernel of the pine- 
apple Cs.; more particularly the edible 
seed of the Neosa-pine in the valley of 
the SuUedj; also Bkan-nyavr-U^ Kun. 
rjfg- ko-fa, Ssk. ^^, a kind of leprosy 
'^ Wdn. 

^^ 5 kchpan-tse a sort of tea Schr. 

f^?f Ao-/>ow« guitar Ld.; it is tuned 

in 3 fourths. 
fffq kchba 1. hide, skin. — 2. leather, 
*kd'toa nye-Kan* tanner C; gldn-ko 
neat's leather. — ko-krdd leather-shoe. — 
k^mEan 1. tanner. 2. (ace. to some also:) 
csnductor of a leather-boat, boatman. — 
hhbtum 'leather-wrapping' is said to be 
a criminal punishment in 6'., in different 

degrees of severity, e. g. ^Idg-pa ko-Umf, 
when the culprit's hands are cut off, the 
stumps sewed up in leather, and the 
wretch thrown as a beggar upon public 
charity etc. — ko-fdg strap, thong. — ko-Jdgs 
Cs. : a small instrument of leather to weave 
lace with. — ko-gdd^i a piece of leather 
put under the saddle Sch. — ko-lpdgs 
hide, leather. — ko-Jbvgs ScA. : three-edged 
needle for leather. — ko-fsdg leather-sieve. 
— ko'M a rottei;^ hide. 

^^ kd-bo n. of a country Wdk. 

^?r kd-ma n. of a bird Wdn. 

Tffrrspx ko-wdg is meant to express the 

' ^ ' voice of a raven. 
rfrx^' ko-^ra, Hindi J^f^y more tibeta- 
nized ko^ds, unbleached coarse 
cotton cloth. 

rfyx^' ko^'4y in compounds Aw W.y cup 
for drinking; Mii-kor wooden cup, a 
utensil every Tibetan carries with him 
in his bosom; Ul-kor (European) tumbler. 
(Cf. pdr-pa). 

jQ- ko'ldriy a dubious word. Sch. has 
ko-loh-ba to hate, envy, but in 
a passage in Mil., where the connection 
admits of no doubt, ko-loh mdzad-pa must 
be taken for: to disdain. 

ko-ham-bi DzL, Glr,, Ssk,: 
lj\^|4lf) n. of an ancient city 
on the Ganges, in the Doab. 
r^^Qi ko^a-la Sambh., Ssk.: lff^^y 

' = Ayodhya, Oude, 

J^w kdg-pa I. subst., also skdg-pa, 

' ' skdgs'pa shell, peel, rind; mn-kog 
id.; pyi'kog exterior shell, bark; kdg^a 
svr-ba to peel, pare. — II. vb. n. to splinter 
off, to chink; kog lah-ba 1. id. 2. to rise 
suddenly and run away. 
f^ kon, also hoh-kdh, 1. concave, ex- 

' cavated. — 2. crooked, *pi^ fmg-pa 
koh'kdh bo* the cat makes a crooked back 
W. — kdh'po 1. cup, bowl. 2. crucible. 3. 
breach, gap Sch. 4. n. of a province S. E. 
of Lhasa. — kdn-bu small cup, bowl. — 
vi^dd'kdn offering-bowl; sndg-kon inkstand 


rf^^ hod 

5 %i 

for black ink, mfsdl-kon for red ink, ver- 
milion; Hug-kon* casting-mould C 
^- kod Ca gathering'?) 1. lag-kdd Ld. 
' ' an armful of corn, a sheaf. 2. affix 
« iorf, Aa, ko: ^nyu-kod^ na-kddS^ all the 
two, all the five Ld, 

'^ kob aU, Ld. col. 
fif^x^ kor^ root denoting anything round 
' or concave, hence: kor-kdr 1. adj. 
round, circular C (= ^kyir-kyir* W,); 
roundish, globular C; concave, deep, as 
a soup-plate (opp. to flat) W. 2. sbst. a 
thick loaf of bread, (opp. to a; flat, thin 
cake) C; a pan, saucepan W.; a hollow 
in the ground, a pit not very deep W.; 
stdd'koi' a little circle above a letter, Ssk. 
anuswara; kldd-kor id., a dot, zero, naught; 
ydub'hyr bracelet Cs,; pdd-kor a certain 
way of folding the fingers, so as to re- 
present the form of a lotus-flower; ^dd- 
kor a radiant circle Cs. Cf. shh^-ba, Jidr- 
bay ko-ri. 

^^'^^ kor-do-ba boot LdJ 

^*f^r^ kol'io dumb, mute SpJ 
rf^rff kds-ko = ko-ko; kos-myuA with a 
' ' pointed chin Sch, 

!3'^^'§^ kya-^ir-rlun v. kyin, 

fw£w kyag, also kyag-kydg, thick, run into 

^ ' clots Cs. 

pmi'fTTcn' /y^ff'f^y<^ff curved, crooked; *go 

^'^' kyag-kydg co-ce* W. to shake 

one's head, viz. slowly, in meditating; 

*n-nio kyag-Cga-) kyog'(gi)* a flourish (in 

writing) W. Cf. kyog-kyog, 

kyan I. adj., also kyait-kydn^ kyan- 
po, straight, slender, as a stick; 

*kyan'kyan rin-mo* tall, slender, as a man, 

a tree etc. W, — II. adv. = yar), too, 

also, always used enclitically, after the 

letters g, d, b, s. 

^- kyan-kydiiy also ^kyafi-na-kyon-m^y 
indolent, lazy, idle W, ; ^kyan-kyon 

co-l-e* to lounge, to be idle W. 

kyar-kydVy also kyar-po flat, not 




globular Cs, 

mx-m^- kyar-ky&i' , also *kyar^a'kyor're', 
^ ^ still feeble, as convalescents after 
a disease. 

mOjTn' kyal'ka 1. joke, jest, in words (LU. 
^ ' ku-rei fsig). — 2. jocular trick, ku-re 
dan kydl'kai jjyir by way of jest, for fun, — 
3. any worthless, foolish, indecent talk %. 
mO^'mG}' kyaUkydl Lex, w. e.; &ch,: kyal- 
^ "^ kyal'ba to go round (?). 
mfji-f^^ kyal'kydl = kyar-kydVy dM-^gro 
"^ ^ kyal'kydl ^ga some poor ill-con- 
ditioned beast, speaking of cattle, MU, nt, 
^ kyty affix 'I. to sbst. -roots, ending 
^ in d, b, s: sign of the genitive case. 

— n. to verbal roots, after the same 
final letters, and then without an essen- 
tial difference from kyis, to which we 
add in this place also examples of the 
other terminations gtCs), gyiCs)^ yi(s), 
i (the 8 by itself is not used after ver- 
bal roots): a. in the sense of a gerund, 
meaning by (doing something), because, 
dgos'kyis ^don-no we come because it is 
necessary . . . , or more freq. though, dgai 
though she is glad . . . DzL, in which 
case it may often be rendered in English 
by but: she is glad, but . . . ; zas bzdn-po 
mi cddd'kyis fa-mdl-pa zos he did not care 
for dainties, but ate vulgar food DzL; or 
it has to be omitted: bdM-pa yin-gyis 
rdzrm-jya ma yin it is true, no fiction Dzh 

— b. as an adjective, forming, like kyin 
(q. v.), with jiug or yod a periphrastical 
present tense e. g. ^groi ^dug he is walk- 
ing? -r^^^'ff^ yod he is coming. — c. at 
the end of a sentence in the sense of a 
finite verb and more particularly in the 
1. pers. fut.: ^gyod mi iinoi I shall not 
make you suffer for it DzLy Has grogs 
byd-yis I shall help Glr., biag-giy and: 
bhig-gis I shall put Olr, This use of 
kyi(s) is said to be quite common at the 
present time in C, whereas in W. not 
only the whole gerundial use, but even 
the distinction of kyi^ gyi, gi in the ge- 
nitive case of a sbst. has disappeared from 
colloquial language, instead of which the 
last consonant is repeated and the vowel 


ijC iyo^ 

i added: «?/i-/?t of the wood, *y/cWi* of the 
mind, *6aW«'* of the wool. 

Note 1. ktp'C^) when combined with 
adjective roots, includes the verb to be, 
e. g. mdn-ffi = md/t-po yin-yyi. — 2. In 
colloquial language and later literature 
the genitive of the verbal root often takes 
the place of the genit. infinitivi, which 
seldom occurs in the old classical style, 
e. g. nam Jsoi bdr-du lifelong. — 3. j/ 
nits kyt(s)y ji fub-kyiCs) or vulg. *fub-bi^y 
as much as (I, you etc) can (could etc.) 
— 4. kyi(s)^ when denoting an antithesis, 
is often followed by a pleonastical ^on-kyan, 
^S' kyi'lbe a medic, plant, Gentiana de- 
^ ^ cumbens L., k, dkdr-jyo a variety of 
it with white flowers. 

^^^ kyi'ldir iron hoop LdJ 

^5T ^y^'^^ * feeling cold, a chill Sch. 

^sc' kyi'hud the sound of weeping, la- 
"^N? mentation. 

^i" kytff'i-tse unbumt brick Sch. 

%-'^j^xr- kyiii'sir^rlun Mil, also kya-s, 
"^ ^ I., C.y an onomatopoetic word : 
a blowing wind. 

rfer* kyin^ used alternatively with (jyin 
'^ and giuy after a vowel : yiriy denotes 
a partic. present, e. g. smdn-lam ^dAbs- 
kyin soA proceed on your way praying! 
With yod or ^dn^j it forms a periphrastical 
present tense: smoTi-lam ^d^bs-kyin yod he 
is praying (just now); in Ld. even as a 
real subst.: *mg^ra JoTi-gyin (tiy) dan* 
'with a whistling sound proceeding from 
it', ^do-yin-dan* 'together with walking' 
= in walking. 

^f^ kyir-kyir W, (= kor-kdr C.) round, 
^ circular; a round thing, disk, e. g. 
the Httle silver saucer which the women 
of LA. wear as an ornament on the crown 
of their head; kyir-mo id., esp. a rupee 
L(L; *da kyiv'kyir* the disk of the moon. 
h^ kyis, after d, b, s. 1. sign of the 
instrumentative case, and therefore 
generally indicating the personal subject 

of the action. — 2. combined with verbal 
roots = kyi, 

fjt' kye ohl holla! in calling to somebody; 
^ in solemnly addressing a person or an 
auditory; also merely the sign of the vo- 
cative case jB. (in W. *wa!*) kye-kyi id. 
emphatically. /] -^ - '^ !> -'o^^c^.^ <k 

^ abbrev. for kye-kyi v. kye, 
^'^ kye-ga n. of a bird. Med, 

^'fiJC'Ciy') kye^pdn^pa) n. of an idol in 
^ Lh., consisting like most of the 

popular idols in those countries of a wooden 
stick or log decked with rags, but much 
dreaded and revered; said to be identical 
with Pe-dkar in C. Its worship probably 
dates from a time before Buddhism was 

rrtSJ' i^/^-ma oh! alas! mostly expressive 
^ of sorrow, often combined with kyi" 
hud; also sign of the vocative case. Sel- 
dom it expresses joy. — kye-mao id. 
qipj' kye-r^ upright, erect; ^kye-re lan^va*^ 
^ resp. *zm'Wa C\, kyer-kyer-la dad-te, 
resp. za/i'C^ W, to stand; *c(/o kyer jhe'- 
pa* to raise one's head, to look up C, Cf. 
^^' kye-hud^ = kyi-hud. 

^yi^ kye-hd hollo! heigh! well! also like the 
^ ^ behold of the Holy Scriptures. 
^-.^-. kyed'kyed, also bran-kyed, with the 
^ ' ^ ' upper part of the body stretched 
forward Ld. 


kyer, v. kye^re. 

'^' kyo'ba hoOk Sch, 

^- kyoy, also kyog-kyogy kydg-po, crooked,?VA^< 
^' bent, winding, rUe kyog with its point ^^'•^'^ 
bent, crooked at the top. Med. \^^^^€.^i^ 
mr- kyoiiy 9'lso kyon-hydh^ kyon-po 1. hard, 
^ as e. g. stale bread, cu kyon-po hard 
water; obstinate, unmanageable; kyon-Jmr 
a sort of relievo-work in metal. — 2. ob- 
long Cb. — Sch.: kyoii-Ua quarrel, kym- 
mgd cause of a quarrel (?). Cf. gym, 






|5|C^ kluris 

ff^' iyoriy also kydn-bu, small shovel, 

^ scraper ScA. 

r}ttj- kyoniy .also kyom-kyom^ 1. flexible, 

^ bat without elasticity, flabby, loose, 

lax. — 2. also Kyom-Uy&fn^ of irregular 

shape, not rectilinear. 

W^- %or, also kyor-kyor weak, feeble, un- 

^ fortified Cs. 

^^ %o/, also kyol'kyol ~ ^yar Ci?. 

^TWT i^ro^ V. bkrag, 

TIC'C' kran-iie standing, krait sdod-pa to 
"^ stand Zayn. Cf. kro/f, 

mc'n- krdd'pa leather half-boot or shoe, 
^ ' as it is worn by the lower class 
of people, often with a woolen leg; krad- 
rgyun C«. a long narrow piece of leather 
to fasten the sole to the upper-leather; 
^tadr-ky^ W. *ta^'ky2* C\ (or gyi, from ffyi- 
naf) 9k worn-out leather sole. 

^'^' krab'krdb v. Jrab-pa. 

rnxv kram W. cabbage, h^am-mndr sweet 

'^ or fresh cabbage; kram-skyvr sour 

or macerated cabbage Cs. (?) 

j^ft- kri'-kri n. of a fabulous king of India 

^ ^ Glr.y not mentioned in the Ssk. 


ftn^'^;^; krinna-sd-ra Ssk. the spotted an- 

^•^ Q, telope IVi. 

jjpjy kru'km W. windpipe, *tU'tit dam-te 

-3-3 si'l-e* to be strangled. 

nt'OTT kre-ndg smut of a kettle ScL (== 

"^ ' ' sre-nagf) 

'tjc'mc' kroH'krdn standing upright, e. g. 

"^ ^ books (opp. to ^gyel'Uan* laid 

down, lying W,)\ when used of persons 

it means also: standing on one's knees, 

kneeling in an upright position. 

kron^krdn hanging, ^ton-ton-la dug- 
be* to hang, to be suspended in 
the air W. 

rm^ kla-kh 1. Ssk, ^^^ barbarian. — 
^ ^ 5. in later times: Moslem, Mahome- 
tan; Mahometanism. Was, 

^pi'S^' klag-cor clamour, noise Cs, 

wxr klad, ace. to IM, = gon what is 
^ above; hence kldd-pa, also glad, 1. 
head. 2. brain, and klad-7na beginning, top 
ScJi,; gur-kldd chimney of a felt-tent — 
klad'kor v. kor, — klad-rgyd the skin 
covering the brain, pia mater; kladr-rgya», 
= Uid-bay 'the bloody marrow in the 
bones' Sc/t,, or simply ^brain' Schf. — klad- 
sgo the fontanel in the infant cranium ScL 

— klad'cun the cerebellum Sch. — kladr 
fzun spinal marrow. — klad^yzh head- 
ache Med, — klad-subs = klculrrgyd Sch, 
m^rjr klan-ka 1. censure, blame 6s., klan 
^^ ' byidr-puy Jlebs-pa to blame, cf. skur- 
kldn, — 2. klan ^tsol^a to seek brawls Pth, 

^<3ri^' kldn-pa v. klon-^a. 

m- klu.Ssk, irnr, originally: hooded snake, 
S cobra di capello; in this specific sense, 
however, it is never used in Tibetan, 
whereas every child knows and believes in 
the mythological signification: serpent- 
demon, a demigod with a human head and 
the body of a serpent, living in fountains, , j 
rivers etc., commanding over great trea- 
sures, causing rain and certain maladies, 
and becoming dangerous when in anger; 
ydug-^a is therefore a usual epitheton of 
such demons, klui skad means the Pra- 
krit language, klui yi-ge the Nagari cha- 
racter of Ssk, letters, viz. that which is 
called vaiitula^ in contrast to the holy 
landza, Ihai yi-ge, — klui ynod-pa or 
skyon diseases of unknown origin. — klu- 
mo a female serpent- demon. — 

klu-sgrtfb, prop, n., Nagarjuna, a fa- 
mous Buddhist divine. — klu-mdud Co- 
donopsis ovata. — klu-nad = klui-ynod-pa, 

— klu-pftig a young Lu. — klusmdn 'n. 
of a medicine' (Js,, but sman and klu- 
smdn are also synonyms for klu^ Glr., 
Mil, etc. 

^C klun river, more com. cu-kluny B, 

mc^jM* klum 1. cultivated land, field, kluns- 
^ su skye it grows on cultivated ground 
Wdn. — 2. a complex of fields^ dkar- 

^'Cr klub-pa 

J^^Tj^q- rf)td»--6a 



mdans-kyi Idun f^dn-ma all the fields be- 
longing to Kardang (n.#of a village). 
mT^' klitb^a^ pf. klvbs^ to COVer, e. g. 
ig^ the body vrith ornaments Pth. 

^pr khg V. klog-pa. 

rn' kidg-pa I. sbst earwax 8ch. — 11. 

' vh.y pf. (b)klag8, ft. (b)klag, imp, 
Uog, Ihogs, to read, B., C, yid-kyis klocf- 
pa to read without uttering a sound; 
klog-^a or klog sbst. reading, klog bzdn-po 
iis^a Mil, to be a good reader; kldg-^ 
sUhnlpon a reading-teacher. — kldg-gra 
a reading-school. — kldg-faisy kldg-fml 
art, way of reading. 

fjr- W^ ace. to Lex. = Ss^. wr77^^, wave; 
^ in the living language it is used for 
middle; in ancient literature for expanse, 
esp. ndm^mUofi of the heavens, rgyd-mfsoi 
of the sea; ran-byun klon yam bijod-mid 
the unspeakably vast uncreated space; 
hence: the space of heaven, the heavens, 
kl6n-du Idin-ia to soar, to hover in the sky. 
-; This vagueness of meaning makes the 
word suited to the idle fancies of mysti- 
cism, as in: kldn-du ^gyur-ba, which seems 
to denote a soaring into mystic perfection. 

— dha-kldn Sch.: wave; Tibetans of to- 
day, and Schr: : the midst of the waves. 

— Idoh'brddl Glr. was explained by La- 
mas: emerging from amidst the waves. 
(The significations 'depth, abyss, plenty, 
body' added by Sch. seem to be erroneous). 
Cf. dkyel 

f^x-j^ kldn-pa, also kldn-pa, to mend, patch 
^ V. also Ihdn^a. 

mv4' ^^-y^ ^^^' P^^P* phthisis pulmonalis; 
pj but ace. to Tib. pathology ksa-ya 
ndg-po denotes a bilious disease, prob. 
icterus niger, blacl( jaundice. 

rmzTOfq^ dkdgs-po W. for dka-bo. 

-— -. dkariy also rkan (Ld. *8kan*) 1. the 
' ' ' palate, t/a-<:M;an,' the upper, md-dkan 
the lower part oi the palate; *kdn-da jieb^ 
pc? to smack C; dkan-ynyer the wrinkles 
of the roof of the mouth (7s. — 2. dkan 

yzdr-po Lex. w. e, 8ch. steep declivity, 

rmQ'n' dka-ba 1. adj., also -Jo, seld. -mo, 
' ' difficult, sldb^a dkd'ba learning 

is difficult DzL, gen. with supine: sldb-tu 
or sldb^ar dka it is difficult to learn, or 
vnth the root: go-dkd difficult to under- 
stand; dkdr-ba byun it has become diffi- 
cult, it is difficult (to me, to him etc.) — 
2. sbst. dkd'ba pains, exertion, hardship, 
suffering, dkd-ba mM-par without difficulty, 
easily, dka-ba apyod-pa to undergo hard- 
ships = to use exercises of penance 

dka-^gril Cs. 'a difificult commentary', 
ace. to Tib. dictionaries = iTf¥^ P^^" 
petual commentary, lit.: explanation of 
difficulties. — dka-fuby dkaspyddy dka- 
spydd 1. penance. 2. penitent; dJca-fub^a, 
dka-spydd-pa, dkd'fub--dan, penitent, ofso- 
ba dkh'fub'ba rten-pa to live as a peni- 
tent. — dkasdug trouble, dka-sdug mdn- 
po byid'pa to take great pains C. — 
dka-fs^gs = dkd-ba. — dka-lds 1, a trouble- 
some work. 2. trouble, distress. 
-—-.-. rfX:rfr-Aa I. adj., also -po, seld. 
^ ' -TWO 1. white, whitish, gray. — 2. 
morally good, standing on the side of 
virtue — 3. candid, sincere? las dkdr-po 
good action; Ka-zds dkdr-po v. dkar-zds; 
dkdr-la dmar^rnddna-han white and red 
of complexion Pih. 

n. sbst. whiteness. — dkdr-mo sbst. 
1. the goddess Durga. — 2. whitfr rice Cs. 

Comp. dkar-skya light-gray. — dkar- 
Hun 1. window-hole in a wall W; — 2. 
opening for the smoke in the roof C. — 
dkar-goh C. a piece of quartz, (ace. to 
popular belief porcelain is made of quartz,) 
hence Cs.: 'porcelain-clay.' — dkar-7*gyd 
rose-coloured. — dkar-cdg register. — dkur- 
fog = dkar-zas. — dkar-m^ a light (?), 
dkar^mi sbar-ba Sch. *to light a candle.' 
— dkar-dmar light-red Sch. — dkar-rtsi 
white-wash, consisting of lime or some 
other earthy colour C, W. — dkar-zds, 
Ua-zds dkar-poy dkar-fdg dean food, lenten 

;^^ Wi?l3f. 


^T]" dku 


diet, viz. esp. milk^ card, cheese or batter, 
as dkar-ysum Schf. Tar, (Germ, translat. 
p. 335); also honey, fruit. — dkar-ydly 
resp. C. *ial-kar, W. aol-kar* porcelain, china- 
ware, cups or plates of porcelain, dkar-yol 
sffHg-pa to place the china-service on the 
table, for: to lay the cloth. — dkar-yyd 
W, tin, pewter, ^kar-yd dan Mr-be* to 
solder. — dkars^r yellowish white. — dkar- 
ysdl 1. shining white, sku-mdog dkar-^ysdl 
gdns-ri ^dra of a bright >vhite colour like 
a glacier Glr. 2. window Sch. (?) 
rm« dku 1. the side of a person's body Cs., 

\i dkur or dJcu-la rt^n^a to carry a 
thing at one's side Zam,; dku brtdlha to 
open the side (in child-birth, v. mnal), 
— 2. V. dku'ba, Comp, dku-lci a heavy 
feeling in the side, as a symptom of 
pregnancy. — dku-mda (^kum-da*) W. 
(=a m^an-^mdaf) pocket in the clothes. — 
dku-ndd apparently a disease of the 
kidneys. — dku-zlum^ Lex, ^rf^ cavity 
of the abdomen, womb. 
^mr^ dku'lto craft, cunning, trick, stratagem, 

\i ^ esp. if under specious pretence one 
person induces another to do a thing that 
proves hurtful to him. 
rrrrfl' dku-ba ^sweet scent' Cs.; Zam.: = 

\i ^rf?f stench. 

^ '1 ' Ug, C: kgn-td') 1. the most 

precious thing. Buddhism has always 
sought the highest good not in anything 
material, but in the moral sphere, looking 
with indifference, and indeed with contempt, 
on everything merely relating to matter. 
It is not, however, moral perfection or 
the happiness attained thereby, which is 
understood by the 'most precious thing', 
but the mediator or mediators who pro- 
cure that happiness for mankind, viz. 
Buddha, (the originator of the doctrine), 
the doctrinal scriptures and the corporate 
body of priests, fv^, dkon-mcdg ysum. 
Now, although this triad cannot by any 
means be placed on a level with the 
Christian doctrine of a triune God, yet 

^'ij^j'SlSS^ dkon-mcog 

it will be easily understood, how the in- 
nate desire of mgn to adore and worship 
something supernatural, together with the 
hierarchical tendency of the teaching class, 
have afterwards contributed to convert 
the acknowledgment of human activity for 
the benefit of others (for such it was 
undoubtedly on the part of the founder 
himself and his earlier followers) into a 
devout, and by degrees idolatrous ado- 
ration of these three agents, especially as 
Buddha's religious doctrine did not at all 
satisfy the deeper wants of the human 
mind, and as its author himself did not 
know anything of a God standing apart 
and above this world. For whatever 
in Buddhism is found of beings to whom 
divine attributes are assigned, has either 
been transferred from the Indian and 
other mythologies, and had accordingly 
been current among the people before the 
introduction of Buddhism, or is a pro- 
duct of philosophical speculation, that has 
remained more or less foreign to the 
people at large. — 2. As then the original 
and etymological signification of the word 
is no longer current, and as to every 
Tibetan ^dkon-m^og* suggests the idea of 
some supernatural power, the existence 
of which he feels in his heart, and the 
nature and properties of which he at- 
tributes more or less to the three agents 
mentioned above, we are fully entitled 
to assign to the word dkon-mSog also the 
signification of God, though the sublime 
conception which the Bible connects v^th 
this word, viz. that of a personal, absolute, 
omnipotent being, wiU only with the 
spread of the Christian religion be gra- 
dually introduced and established. 

Note 1. ran-^rub-dkon-m^og with Schr. 
is evidently the appellation of the Christian 
God adopted by the Rom. Cath. missio- 
naries of those times. — 2. In the older 
writings dkon-m^og occurs (as far as I 
know) never without ysum, and combi- 
nations such as dkan-m^og-la ToSod-fa 



^{^^ dkorirfa 

byed-pa or y»olrba jiebs-pay as well as blor 
ma dkon-mcog^ are to be found only in 
■writings of a comparatively recent date. 
— 3. Instead of the phrase of asseve- 
ration: dkonrmHog heSy God knows! the 
mere words dkon-m^og ysum are fre- 
quently used in the same sense. 

j-^ dkdn-pa C, jB., -two W. rare, 
scarce, and therefore dear, pre- 
cious, valuable (in an objective sense, cf. 
/des-pa) ^ig'Tthv-na dkdn-no is exceedingly 
rare in the world DzL, ^ig-rUn-na dk&n- 
par bzdn-^o it is of a beauty rarely to 
be met with in the world DzL; Uyod jdra 
mfdn-na dkdn-rgyu med to see a person 
like you, is nothing particular Mil.; Ide 
bd^-mo-la Ihd los dkon with a prattler 
religion is scarce, there is generally not 
much religion about him Mil. — dkoip- 
n&r riches, valuables Mil. 

dk6r 1. wealth, riches. — 2. mfU- 
dkoTy yan-dkoTy sa-dkor are ex- 
pressions current in C. which I could not 
get sufficiently ei^plained. — dkor-ndr = 
nor. — dkor-pa Cs., dkor-mi Sch. trea- 
surer. — dkor-mdzdd frq., treasury. — dkor- 
rdzogs (pronounce *kor'zog(sy) n. of a 
monastery in southern Ladak, situated 
16 000 feet high. 

jrm;^ dkyar Z., Ld., a sort of snow-shoes. 
^^ (ScL: 'stocking-boots'?) 
ffJfjQT dkyil the middle, dkyil-duy -na in 
^ the middle, c. genit in the midst 
of^ amidst; dkyil- nas from the middle, 
from amidst; relative to time: ^yar-ri 
kyil-la* W., in the middle of summer. 
dkyU-ma the middle one, e. g. room, — 
dwelling-room Ld. 

Comp. dkytt'dkHin v. skyil-dkrun. — 
dkyil'^Mor 1: circle, circumference, frq. 2. 
ligure, e. g. dkyil- Jar gru-bH-pa quadrangle, 
square; a certain mystic^ figure; diagram, 
model. 3. a circle of objects, Jior-gyi dkyil- 
cSor the circle of the attendants. 4. the 
area of a circle, disk, e. g. of the sun; 
idUgyi dkyiUJior bstan = he showed his 
foil countenance PA. 5. sphere, rlun-gi 


«^- <^ .^ 

«s^g: dkri-ba ^ ^ ..»,, , , ^. 

dkyil' JIm* the atmosphere, Tnivdkyil-Jior 
the sphere of fire, and similarly of the other 
elements, thai dkyil- Jot may perh. likewise 
be translated by : the sphere of the power 
of a certain god. In mysticism and magic, 
however, several other more or less ar- 
bitrary significations are assigned to the 
word, e. g. it is said to be used for lu%- 
kyi dkyil- Jor the whole extent or bulk 
of the body, = the body, dkyil-Jtor-gyi 
ynds-su ^Mn-ba to wear on one's body 
(e. g. an amulet); or instead of Ids-kyi 
dky. : dkyil Uor mfdn-ba to behold the 
whole extent of religious doctrine (?). 

Note. In Lex. dkyil is said to be = 
TTHi; perh. merely because dkyHrJor is 
used for in^lf!' ^^^ mdnrdal-gyi dkyil- 
U(yr is the Buddhistic map of the world, 
representing mount Sumeru with the sur- 
rounding continents etc. 
^mn-dkyti-ba 1 to run a race Cs. — 2. 
^ to wring out, to filter Sch. — 3. to 
caper about Ijd. — dkyu-byai rta race- 
horse Cs.y dkyusa race-course Ck. 
-— _«• dkyug-pa to lose colour by wash- 

"^ ' ing Ld,y perh. more correctly 
j^mtv dkyus 1. length, dkyus-m in length, 

"t^S dkyu8-rin long 6'., spyan-dkym leogth 
from one comer of the eye to the other 
(e. g. in an image) C. (Sch.: bold, in- 
solent?) — 2. untruth, falsehood, lie. Tar. 
108. 7. dkyu8-nyid seems to be used so, 
whilst 188, 5 is totally obscure. 

^Tl^ST ^y^'^"^ common, every-day, e. g. 
^ norbza every-day clothes, dbu-ia 

work-day hat; hence mi dkyus-ma common 
people (without office or authority) C. 

rfrhr ^y^^ seems to be ace. to Cs. a 
•^ synonym of kloii. 1 only met with 

the word dkyil-po 1e in a medical work; 

Sch. explains it by unhrerse, and a native 

Lex. by Uan ydm-pa the wide house, 

which possibly may signify the same. 

-^— . dkri-ba pf. dkrisy vb. a. (cf. Jri- 
'"* ba) to wind, to wind up, gru-gu a 

clew or ball of thread, lus-la gos (or g6$- 



^HTTOf i^ dhigspa 

' STTjO; bka 

sC^ di . ' 


V. / ./f6^i 

kyis) dkr.y to wrap a garment round the 
body ; rtsd-bar Jidi^-lo dhris-pai yceu Med. 
was explained to me: a magic spell in 
circular writing, wrapped round the lower 
end of a clyster-pipe, Jig,: s^rsnas ^kun- 
nas dkm quite ensnared in avarice; kun- 
dkns *all-ensnaring' = sin. — dkri-ma 
(Glr, 47. where the text has diima) 
means very likely necker-chief, which col. 
is called ^kog^fi or Ua-H C, 'og^sriy Ua-^ri^ 
kya-hri* W. — In the sense of Jcrid-pa 
to conduct fS<rAJ it never came to my notice, 
r^crorq' dktngs-pa 1. darkened, obscured, 
'"^ ' dim, = hngs-pa. — also dkrigs- 

prdg, term for a very large number, Cs.; 
a 100 000 billion, ace. to 2kim, = ytdms" 
poj which Cs. renders, a 1000 billion. 
The one may be, after all, as correct as 
the other, for all these large numbers are, 
of course, not meant to be used in se- 
rious calculations, but arc mere imitations 
of fantastic Indian extravagancies. 
rrmrn' dkrug-pa pf. dknigs (W. ^Hmg- 
^^' h*) to stir, stir up, agitate (as 
the storm does the sea); to trouble, dis- 
turb, confound (as enemies of religion con- 
found the doctrine, or as passions disturb the 
mind); dknigs-hin 1. stirrlng-stick, twirling- 
stick. 2. disturber, enemy e.g. of the doctrine 
Glr. — dkrugs Schr. : turning-lathe (?) — 
dk7nig8-7iiaSchr,:qnasrel.—DzL2^^T' dkrugs 

byid - pa 
dubious; a safer reading is dku-lto byid-pa. 

X dkrun v. skyiL 


XT dkrum-pa Cs. ^ Sch: broken. 

rrf^-q- dkrog-pa (= skrog-pa) 1. to stIr, 
''^' churn frq. 2. to rouse, scare up, 
Glr. — 3. to wag e. g. the tail W. 

^J]P^R' dh*dl'ba v. Jcrol-ba. 

qmcn-q- bkag-pa v. cg^gs-pa; bkdg-ca byM- 
' ' pa to forbid Sch. 

^^V£^P( bkdii'ba v. gMa-pa to fill. 

-— -. bkadf Lex. quote fdgs-kyi bkad, 
' ' which was explained to me by: 

the crossing of threads in weaving; si- 
milar: mgd^spui bkady mgo-bkddihe crossing 
or entangling of the hair on the head. — 
bkdd-pa seems =* Jcad-pa. 
nrw\^ f>l^d'8a 1. a bake-house, kitchen, 

'^ cook's shop Lea. — 2. open h^l 
or shed, erected on festive occasions Tib.- 
Ssk. Glossary; Tar. 18, 12. 
qmarq- bkdn-pa to pui to press, rkdn-pa 

' ' rtstg-^a^la one's foot against a 
wall; to apply, y^d-mo the plane, Idg-pa 
the hand Zam., to put the hand on or 
to something (or: stretch it out? Sch.) 
qrHq-q* bkdb-pa v. ^gibs-pa. 

q;wq- bka (resp. for ytam, fsig, skad) word, 
' speech of a respected person (where- 
fore order, commandment may often be 
substituted for it), rgydl-poi bka the word 
of the king, bkd-la ytsdgs-pa to belong to 
the word, i. e. to be under the command- 
ment or dominion (of somebody) Glr.; 
rgydUbai bka the word of Buddha (this 
is named as one of the five 'means of 
grace', so to speak, Glr.fol. 70; the four 
others are : md(hrgyud the sacred writings 
(sutra and tantra\ bstan bdos doctrinal 
and scientific writings (sdstraX lun oral 
benedictions and instructions of Lamas, 
man-ndg admonitions given by them). 
After quotations bka or bkao f= skad 4' 
skad'do) means: thus says (the holy book 
or teacher), bka as first part of a com- 
pound is frequently used to give the word 
adjoined the character of respectfdncss, 
and is therefore not to be translated se- 

Phrases and compounds: bka bkdd-pa 
to publish, proclaim; publication, procla- 
mation C. — bka-bkyon (col. *kab'kyon^) 
'verbal blows' reprimand, rebuke (given by 
a superior), bka-bkydn by^d-pa^ mdzad-pa 
B. C, *tdn'cey pin-ce*. W., bka bkydn-pa^ 
all of them construed with dat., to rebuke 
somebody. — bka-bUrims law, command- 
ment, rgydl-poi bka-Unms ynydn-pas by 
the cruel order of the king Dzl. — bka 
bgrd-ba tO COnSUlt, to deliberate, nan-bldn bru 


iOTQ^' bka 



dan hka-Ub'tu bgrds-pa-la deliberating 
carefully with the ten ministers of the 
interior Pth, (Schr. gives also, bka-grds 
jdri-ba to ask, — byid-pa to give advice), 

— hka-^gyur (^A^-^/ywr,* com. ^kan^gyuvy 
kan-^yury* in Mongolia *kanr^ur*) the 
word of Buddha, as translated from the 
original Sanskrit, the holy scriptures of 
the Buddhists (100 volumes). — bka cffroU 
ha to dismiss Pth, bka-bkrol leave of ab- 
sence, y^ol-ba to ask for, ynan-ba to grant 
leave Schr. — bka-rgi/ay bka-kogy resp. for 
rgya-ma and sog-bu, letter or paper from 
a superior etc , diploma, missive, communi- 
cation etc. bka-^'gyud 1. = bkai rgyud 
'thread of the word', the oral tradition 
of the word of Buddha, which is sup- 
posed to have been delivered through a 
coDtinual series of teachers and disciples 
besides the written scriptures; bka-rgyud 
bla-ma a Lama deriving his religious 
knowledge in this manner from Buddha 
himself Mil. 2. perh. also = bka da/i 
rgijud 'word and tantra', oral and written 
instruction; bka-^ygud-pa n. of a Lama- 
sect Schl. 73.; bka-bsgos commandment, pre- 
cept — bka-sgyur order, bka-sgyur jnan-- 
ha to issue an order C. — bka sgyur-ba 
1 to translate the words (of Buddha etc.) 
2. to issue an order (viz. in the name 
of a superior). — bka sgrog-pa 1. to pub- 
lish an order. 2. to proclaim, read, preach 
the word, — bka ycog-pa to act against 
an order, yab-kyi bka bcag-iu med the 
order of the father must be obeyed Glr. 

— bkorchns resp. for Ua-chm testament 
-— hka-mcid resp. for mcidy words or 

speech of a superior or any person to 
be honoured, — bka nyan-pa ccgp, 1. vb, 
to obey. 2. adj. obedient, bka mi nyan- 
J>a 1. to disobey. 2. disobedient, bka 
fnyan 'the cruel commander', ace. to a 
Lex. = bUan-pai sa-bdag 'the mighty 
lord of the ground', is said to be the 
fii^t of gods, either Siva or a pre-bud- 
dhistic deity. — *ka ta/i-ce* W. to per- 
niit — bka btags-pa (I^x. : = tcrims bsgrarfR- 

pa) a proclaimed order, cf. bkar. — bkar 
rtagz Cs.; mark, seal, precept, maxim (?) — 
bka-stod ScL: 'a subaltern, agenf (?) — 
bka-fau order, edict — bka-drin resp. for 
dnn, favour, grace, kindness, benefit, bka- 
drinmdzddrpa to bestow a favour, mi-la 
upon somebody; bld-mai bka-drin - gyis 
through the kindness of his (your) re- 
verence Mil.; bka-drin-M the usual phrase 
of acknowledgment, as our: you are very 
kind! many thanks! B. and col. — bka- 
dmh secretary (of a high person) C. — 
bka-yddTm^ =» ial-yddrm advice, counsel, 
instruction; bka-yddm^-pa I. adviser Sch. 
2. n. of a sect of red Lamas, founded 
by Brom-ston Scld. 73. — bka^^ddgs-pa 
to proclaim; proclamation. — bka-hdu-ba 
collection of the doctrine Tar. — *ia- 
ndn* instruction C. — bka yndn-ba 1. vb. 
to order, command; grant, permit; 2. sbst. 
order; permission; ned bdd-kji rgydl-poi 
btstin-Tno-la bka yndn-bar hi I beg you 
will give her as a consort to my (the 
Tibetan) king Glr. — bka-pSs Sch. a 
supreme order. — bka-prin message. — 

bka Jbdb-pa the going forth of an order, 
bka-Jbdb order, edict Sckr. — bka-Jkum^ 
vulg. *kam'biim*^ the hundred thousand 
precepts (title of a book). — bka stsol-bay 
pf. steal (stedl'to, stedl-pa), re.«p. for smrd- 
&a to speak, to say (ace. to circumstances; 
to command, ask, be^, relate, answer etc.), 
esp. in ancient literature, in which it is 
almost invariably used of Buddha and of 
kings. — bka-blo-bdA Lex.: = ^ERHT^ 
speaking well, eloquently; Sch.i bka-blo- 
InU'ba to acknowledge to be wrong (?); 
bka-bldn, (bkai bldn-jx) Glr. f. ^i) prime 
minister; any high official. -— bka-^dg any 
writing of a superior, decree, diploma, 
passport, official paper, letter. — bka ysdgs 
1. a high official, counsellor. C. 2. court of 
justice, judgment-halt 

— — -. bkar te/^m. of bka in or to the word 
' etc ; bkar ^ddgs-pa Cs. to legalize, 
Dzl. cap. 4: to proclaim, publish, bkar- 
bfags-pa published; publication. 


qm^*q* bkar-ba 

q^q* bkroba 


P^V^P[ bkdr-ba v. dgdr-ba. 

qmoj'q' bkdl'ba v. ol^dl-ba and ^g^Uba, 

nmsr ^^^ instr. of bka; bkds-pa v. ^ff^s- 

' pa. 
qm-q- bku'ba Lex. : to extract, t^ make an 
n] extract of a drug by drawing out 
the juice (Ku-ba Jbyin-pa); bkus-te Jb&r-ba 
id,; smdn-bku medicinal extract. 

q'T|^|' bktig V. kug; bkiig-pa v. ^gugs-pa. 

q^^' bkum V fe^m; bkum-pa v. ^gurm-pa, 

nmx'n' f^kur-ba 1. 1 . tjJ. to honour, esteem 
>J (synon. mc6d-pa)^ md/i-pos bkur- 
bai rgydl-pOy Wff^^mf^t the king honoured 
by many, frq.; kitn-g ,18 bkur-Hn mfod- 
pai ^08 worthy of general honour and 
respect Mil,; mis bkiir-bar mi c^.v^/* is 
not esteemed by men DzL — 2. sbst 
honour; more frq., bkursti, honour, respect, 
homage, mark of honour, bkur-stis mUd- 
pa to distinguish (a person) by marks of 
respect Zam,; rdn-la bkur^ti Jyyun dtis 
when honour is shown to. yourself Mil; 
bkur-sti byid-pa to do honour frq.; to 
make a reverence, to salute. — II. pf. of 
Jlitr-ba to carry; in the term mdn-pos 
bkiir-bai rgydl-po the legend combines this 
signification with the preceding one Glr, 

q^TWj'q' bkdg-pa v. cg^'pa- 
qnTC'q' bkdn-ba v. o^dn-Ja. 
q'rfe'q' i^Jd-jja v. ^gddrpa, 

q^wTq' bkon-pa v Ji6n-pa, 

!^:Tf^ hkdb'lta (^kdb-ta*) the plan of an 
' ^ undertaking W. (vulg. pronun- 
ciation for bkod'bltaf) 
— ;jijV-q5- bk&r-Jb'^ Mil, seems to be a 
' "^ kind of goblins. 

qn]arq'6)WWa v. U6l-ba, 

qmq-q- bkdl-ba Ca,: to talk nonsense, v. 

^ kydl'ka; bkydl-pai nag = kydU 

ka Lex. 

q^crj'q' bkyig-pa V. Jiyig-pa. 

q^'q' bky^'ba v. cffy^'^^' 

q^r-q- bkyedrpa to bend back, recline (vb. 
^ ' nt.), rgyam bySdrde bending or 
turning far aside. 

^^^^' ^^^'P^ *® ^^^ (=" rdun-ba) 
^ ' Mil. nt; bku bkyon-pa resp, to 
chastise with words, to SCOld, frq. (v. bka^ 
phrases); Schr. mentions also bkyon-bkydl 

qm-q* bkra-ba (Lex,: ^ f^^, cf. also 
^ Urd'bo) 1. variegated. — 2. beaufa'- 
ful, blooming (of complexion); glossy, well- 
fed (of animals); sa-bkrd n, of a cuta- 
neous disease. 

Comp. bkra-bzdn n. of a mountain in 
Tibet. — bkra-lam-Tn^ v. Ura-lam-mL — 
bkra-sis Ssk, if^pf 1. happiness, prosperity, 
blessing, Jbdns-mam^-la bkra-Ms sag happi- 
ness to my people! may they prosper! 
Olr,; *ndd-m£d fsdd-med torU punrsum- 
fsdg iu* I wish you good health and 
immeasurable and perfect happiness! (new 
year's wish in W,); bkra-his-kyi cu holy 
water Glr,; bkra-his-kyi mdl-Uri nuptial 
bed Cs,; bkra sis-kyi fsiff or smon-lam 
bleshing, benediction; ^ta-si sig!* Good 
bye! May you be happy! ^Uyddrla fa-hi 
co!* I wish you joy! (also ironically) W.; 
bkra-his-Un being happy, enjoying pros- 
perity Glr,; bkra-Ms siiin-bai gd-ca in- 
struments used for insuring happiness 
(to a new-bom infant) Lt. — 2. sacri- 
ficial ceremony by which blessings are 
to be drawn down, bkrorhis by^d-pa or 
mcdd-pa or ^ydg-b^ (W.^ barley being 
scattered — yyog-pa — on that occasion), 
to perform this ceremony, — bkrorsis-pa 
propitious, lucky, perh. also: happy; bkra- 
sis-^ai Itas lucky signs; bkra-sis-pai rtags 
lucky configurations or semblances (such 
as e. g. devout imagination seeks to dis- 
cover in the outlines of mountains etc. 
Glr, fol. 58.) bkra-sis-ma n. of a goddess, 
Sch,: goddess of glory Dzl, — bkra-^- 
his misfortune, calamity, bkra-mi-his-pa un- 


q^ bkrag 

happy; calamity, bh'a-mi-Ms'pa fams-tdd 
all maimer of calamities. (The expression 
hhrcHm-his c. dat. *|or: 'Woe to . . . ' in 
our translation of the New Test, does 
not rest upon classic authority, but has 
been adopted as analogous to the above 
mentioned bkra-his hog,) bkra-his-^os-rdzon 
(^ta-H-cO'dzd/i*) 'Tassisudon' in Bhot, 
hkra-m-lhun-po (^ta-sv-hlyTrirpo*) 'Tashi- 
lanpo' in Tsan. 
qTrar bkrag 1 . brightness, lustre = Tudam, 

^ also bkrag-mdam^ e. g. of jewels. 
2. beautiful appearance, colour, of the face 
or skin, also ha-bkrdg; ha bkrag-mdam pure 
gloss of the skin MU,; bkrag- ^an bright. 
bkrag- H&r without gloss, dim. 
qmq'q' AA^rai-pal. to select, choose; mUdg- 

"^ tu bkrab exquisite, choice Lea;. — 
2 = Jcrdb-pay skrdb-pa W. 

^^J^^" bkrdm-pa v. cg^'hn-pa. 

qirpjiq^ bkrdl'ba 1. pf. of ^griUba Cs., 
^ Tar. 124, 14. — 2. to appoint, 
Us'la to a business.. 

OTwf jF|- 6^a8-pa 1. Sch,: pf. of a verb 
bkrd-ba, adorned, decorated (?) 
2. Cs,: bkras abbreviation for bkra-sis^ 
y^as'btags for bkra-his Ma-btags = Ha-btags. 
qfi-q* bkri-ba 1. for dkri-ba to wrap. — 
2. for Jcrid-pa to conduct. — 3. 
to try to acquire, to search for Dzl 2q 
to lay up, = *hri'te'' W. 

^^^ bkris abbrev. for bkra-his. 
^^fj^m' bkn's-pa for dkris-pa v. dkn-ba, 

^, ^7W bkru, bkrus, v. Jirud-pa. 

qmqrq- 1. Dzl, ^^^ 1. prob. an incor- 
N5 rect reading. 2. prov. 

instead of dhiig-pa, v. )a bkrug. 

ij^q' bkr^-pa I. Ca, poor, indigent, 
hungry, sai pt/ogs bkr, a poor, 

barren country Stg, — 2. miserly, stingy C, 

qft^j-q- bkrh'pa vb. to be hungry; adj, 
^ hungry," sbst, hunger B., C, where 

it is now used as the respectful term; 

bkresskdm hunger and thirst; bkres-skdmr 

ifp^ rkan-pa 

pa-las ^og-par Jbyin-te leading after hunger 
and thirst to satiety; bkris-rnab-pa Sch,: 
to have a ravenous appetite. 
^^K?r bkrom v. ^grdhs-pa, 

^^^^^^ bhvl'ba V. ^dl'ba, 

^SPl'^ W/a^-;pa V. klog-pa, 

jL- rka 1. a small furrow conveying water 

' from a conduit (yvr-ba) to trees or 
plants; furrow between the beds of a 
garden; hence: 2. flower-bed. 
fsj^ rkan (Ld. *skan, yafC") 1. marrow, 

' rkan-Tndr id.; rkdn-bro-Trta tasting of 
marrow Sch,; rkdn-^ Kdn^naa bt/dms-pa 
love from the innermost heart TJigy* — 
2. the upper part of the arm or thigh, or 
the large marrow-bones of them, dpun-- 
rkan, rld-rkan Med, — 3. kernel of a nut 
etc. W, — 4. = rkan-pa no. 5, stalk; also 
quill of a feather. — 5. in compounds for 
jtQ-q- rkan-pa (resp. labs) 1. foot — 2. 

' leg. — 3 (cf. lag-pa) hind-fooL — 
4. lower part, lower end, e. g. of a letter, 
rkan-pa-tan ^having a foot', so the nine 
letters are called that extend below 

th r f^ P ®^'^ ^^^' ~ ^' ^®'"' ^"^» 
'' ' esp. leaf-stalk, lo-rkdn, — 

6. verse, metrical line; fstg-rkdny prop.: 

fs2gs'su-bcadrpairkdn'pa,id,y fsig-rkdn mfar 

nyis-hdd fob at the close of a verse a double 

sJiad is placed; hence: verse of the Bible 

Chr. Prot, — 7. base, foundation^ rdztp- 

prul-gyi rkdn-pa bhi Dzl, the four ^pillars' 

of performing miracles (isfT^TT) Tiigl, 

Comp. ^kan\dg^ bandy-legged cT'T^'^^^^ 
rkan-kiH a piece of cloth to wrap round 
the legs (Lat: tibiale) Sch, — rkoA-Jium 
Lex, w. e., prob, having a foot contracted 
by disease — rkan-Jidr bandy-legged Sch, 
rkan-mgijdgs'pa nimble-footed, rkan-mgydgs- 
kyi rdzas Iham-la byugs-te oiling his boots 
with swiftfootedness, a miraculous oint- 
ment imparting this gift Glr,^ Tar, 67. 
— rkan-cg^d a vassal or subject paying 
his duty by serving as a messenger or 


ff^ n 



'^ rko-ma 

porter Cs, — rkan-,gros or -brds 1. walk- 
ing on foot 2. domestic catUe; breeding- 
catUe. — rkah-rgfjU Cs.: Hhe hollow of 
the 8ole\ — rkan-yag-pa one -footed. — 
rkan-rjen bare-fOOted. — rkan-i^is footstep, 

trace. — rkan^ynyis-pa two-footed, a biped, 
po. for man, manl(ind. — rkan-&tegs foot- 
stool; trestle. — rkaH-fdn on foot, rkan- 
fdn-pa pedestrian, foot-soldier, rkan-fdn-du 
grul'ba (Sch. also: rkan-fdn-ba) to walk, 
to go on foot. — rkan-mfil sole of the foot. 

— rkaitrjiin (crron, also -fun) Ssk. VfX^n 
'drinkiDg with the foot' po. for: tree Mil. 

— rkan-dun trampet made of a haman 
thigh-bone (Hook. I 173). — rkan-diiig^ 
puy rkan-drug-ldan-pa six-footed; insect, j>o. 

— rkan-ydub foot-ring (ornament). — 
rkan^jdrhi (v, also zabs-jdr&n) disgrace, 
rkan ^drin-pa c. genit. to get a person 
into disgrace, to deprive him of his 
honour and good name, to be a disgrace 
to another, e. g. a son to his father by 
criminal actions etc. rkart-rdum a maimed 
foot; lame Cs. — rkdn-snam trowsers, 
mdm-bui rkdnmam ycig one pair of cloth- 
trowsers. rkan pags Umn S. g. fol. 9? — 
rkah-pyin felt for covering the legs, v. 
rkan-dkri. — rkan-bdl upper part of the 
foot. — rkanjbdm a disease in the foot^ 
Sch. : gout. rkan-Jxrds or bros v. rkan-^grds. 

— rkan-ts^gs v. fsigs. — rkan'mdzub'^dzer- 
pa Sch. : corn (on the toe). — rkan-mdz^ 
iron pricks fastened to the feet for climb- 
ing mountains. — rkan-bii-pa f Olir-f ooted ; 
quadruped. — rkan-Ug hands and feet, 
rkaii'lag bhdl-ba Lty Sckr.: 'numbness or 
rheumatic pain in hands and feet^; rkan- 
Idg sSr-kar ^m hands and feet chap Sch. 

— rkan-ldm foot-path. rkan-hin treadle, of 
a loom. — rkan-subs stocking, SOCk. — 
rkan sdr toe. 

rfi^ rkan v. dkan. 

rfiSI'CJ' ^*"'^*P« I- ^i- to desire, to long, n&r- 
I la for money. II. sbst. 1. longing 

(cf. Ham extr.) — 2. v. skam-pa, 
jt-n* rku'ba^ pf. (b)rJcuSy ft. brku, imp. 
ND rkusy to steal, to rob, brku-bya to be 

stolen, brku'byai rdzas things that may 
be stolen. 

jLT-w rkun-ma 1. thief frq. 2. theft rk, 
<r^ by^dpa (W.: "co-ce*) to steal; 
^huvrma zos son* W. it has been carried 
away by a thief; *llarkun gydb-d^ W, 'to 
steal with the mouth', to promise to pay 
without ever doing so, or: to deny having 
known a thing missing, until all inquiry 
has ceased and it may be safely appro- 
priated (a common practice of servants 
in India); dur-rkun robber of graves. — 
rkun-fabs-su iZa«-Ja to take away thievishly 
Stg. — rkitTir-nor stolen goods. — rkun- 
po, fern, -vio thief. — rkun^dpon the head 
of a gang uf thieves or robbers Cs. — 
rkunrzla a thief's accomplice, 
ytq- rkub (Lex. Ti[Jt) 1. the anus B. — 
3 2. vulva W., C^— 3. backside, poste- 
riors C — rkub'sUgs sitting-bench C. — 
rkub-fsos buttocks Cs. 

^'^ rke-ba (cf. skhnpa) lean, meagre Cs. 

^r-jpj- rked'pa, also sked-pa, W. : ^sked- 
I ' pa* 1. the waist, sen-ges mcdns-sar 
was m^ons rhed-pa jcag if the fox takes 
a lion's leap, he breaks his neck MU.; 
*skyed kug tdn-he* W. to bOW; *8ked'Z^*(?) 
the arms a-kimbo W.; more particularly 
that part where the girdle is worn, loins; 
rkedrgydn ornament of the girdle; rk^dr 
pa-nas gri bton he took a knife from his 
girdle /^. ; *kS*'pa bhab* 'her waist fell', 
euphem. expression for: she has got her 
menses C. — 2. the middle of a building, 
of a mountain, ^Uar-skyid^ W. the mid- 
dle story of a castle; rk^d-pa tsam brtsigs 
fsdr nas when the building was half finished 
Glr.; Ti'sei rked-pa-na yar bslebs son he 
is already half-way up the Ti-se Mil. 
^T^n* ^kd'ba, pf. (b)rko8, ft. brko, imp. 
I rkos 1. to dig, dig-out, to hoe, e. 
earth; rko-byM digger; po. also a spade, 
mattock; brkdbyai sa soil to be turned 
up. — 2. to engrave (cf Jmr-ba); brko- 
spydd a gouge Sch. ; brkds ma sculpture. 
5^3T '^kd'Tna n. of a bird Wd/i,, prob. = 
' ko-ma. 

^?r r%. 


mT Tky4n 


mnrSf rkdg-ma v. Ikdg-ma. 

^fJT'nr rkdn-pa Cs.: itch, za-rkdn id.; L^.; 

' rkdn-fo. Others describe it as a 

scabby eruption of the skin, chiefly aflfect- 

ing animals, but occasionally also men C, 

fff{^' rkdd-pa, = rkd^a Ts. 

3^q- rkdn-pa, also skdn^a 1. basket; the 
I' word is said to be used in Kun.; 
perh. also the Ladakian word ^kun-dum^y 
a large cylindrical or bottle-shaped basket, 
may be traced to the same form. I never 
found it in books. — 2. net, fowler's net 


MT/q-N rkyag(-paX also akj/agC-pa), dirt, 
^ ' ^excrement; ^kydg-pa tdn-^a* C.y 
^kydg tdn-b^ W, to cack, vulg. — mig- 
skydg the impurity in the eyes Cs,; ^na- 
skydg* ear-wax W. 

AT- rkyan the wild ass or horse of Cen- 
^ tral Asia, Chigitai, po-rkydn male, 
TfUhrkyan female of it; rkyan ddr-ma a 
young wild ass, rkyan-rgan an old one, 
Cs. -^ rkyanrhi n. of a lake in the south 
of Ld,y in the neighbourhood of which 
these animals are particularly numerous. 

M^zx ^l^on-pa simple, single; ras rkyan 
^ a single sheet of cotton cloth DzLy 
Mil,; *mi kyarf a single i. e. free, un- 
employed man, one that carries no burden 
C; yi-ge rkydn-pa a letter that forms by 
itself a syllable, or one that is not brtsSgs- 
pa and without any other consonant or 
a Towel-sign superscribed; rkydn-pai gram 
are called 1, 10, 100 and the fiLrther 
powers of 10; min rkydn-pa a word that 
has no affix-denoting case etc. attached. 
— *kyahy kyan-kydnj kydn-ka^ Ua'(r)kydh*j 
coL (in B. ^a-stag) only, nothing but, *p^' 
Ha nags kdr-kyan du^ the book contains 
nothing but charms. — *kyah'kydh* also: 
living by one's self, childless W. — 
^kyan-Uab* single folded. 

^f^^ rkydn-ia v, rkydn-ha, 

^P'$r rkydn-ma n. of a vein, v. rtsa. 

«• rkyan (Ld, *skyan*) 1. a brass- vessel 
^ ^ like a tea-pot, with a spout, rag- 
rkyan id.; ^o-kyan^ W. milk-pot. — 2. 
pot-belly, paunch Sch. 
^PP^ rkydUkay sometimes for kydl-ka. 

ffpj^q^ rkydl^a, jfja, leather bag frq.; 
^ pun-po mi-ytsan-rdzdS'kyi rkydl-pa 
a poetical term for the body Mil; rkyal- 
bu CkyaUu*) small bag, pouch; ranrkydl 
bag of goatskin; pye-rkydl (*&'kyal* C, 
^pe-ky.* W.) bag for flour, 
yfifirn' ^kydlnba to swim, *kyal gydb-ie* 
"^ W. id.; rkyal rtsidrpa to amuse 

one's self by swimming. 
Sl^ rkyeny /g^^f^ WiU.: ^with Buddhists: / 
^^ a co-operating cause^ the concurrent 
occasion of an event as distinguished from 
its proximate (or rather primary, original) 
cause\ rgyu \ig{. (The right meaning was 
given already by Schr.y whereas after- 
wards, by a mistake of Cs.j the totally 
erroneous sense of ^effect, consequence' 
has become current among philologists.) . 
1. cause, occasion, rkyin-gis c. gen. by, on 
account of, dii rky^n-gis whereby? dei 
rkyin-gyis thereby, therefore, dei rgyu dei 
rkyin-gyis id. As a medical term, opp. 
to rgyu (the anthropological or primary 
cause of a disease) it denotes the patho- 
logical or secondary cause of it. — 2. 
event, occurrence, accident, case, circum- 
stance, in a general sense, in as far as 
the Buddhist conceives every thing that 
happens in the mutual connexion of cause 
and effect; rkyen nan-pa unfortunate ac- 
cident; rkyen ndnrpas ^das he has perished 
by a fatal accident Glr.; fse ^dir hyun- 
bai rkyen ndn-ma/ms the adversities of 
the present life Mil.; ran mi ^dddrpai 
rkyen an event disagreeable to one's own 
self; bU-bur rkyen a sudden accident Mil.; 
rkyen dd-la brt^n-nas owing to that cir- 
cumstance Tar. 8. 1. midrpai rkySn-la 
bltds-te or brtin-te C. considering the case 
of not being . . . , not having . . . , thus 
nad-kyi rkyen^ jH-bai rkyen stands also 
for: a case of disease, of death; <^aZ- 



^C'^ rkydh-ba 

rkyin any circamstaDce or event adverse 
to the success of an action, obstacle, hin- 
derance, any thing opposite or hostile to the 
existence of another thing, mfunrrhyiny 
a happy, favorable circumstance, furtherance, 
assistance, supply, mfun-rkySn byid-pa c. 
genit to assist in, to help to; mfrnirrkyin 
odzoTHrpo altogether successful. — 3. mis- 
fortune, ill hick, calamity, rkym zldy-pa to 
avert a misfortune, figs-pa to endure, 
iulnpa to brave it Mil. — cf. rgyu. 

3^-«- rkydn-ba pf, ^ ft brkyan, to stretch, 
^ extend, stretch forth (one's hand to 
a person), put out (the tongue), spread, 
distend (the wings, a curtain), labs ynyis 
brkyan-bskum one leg stretched out, the 
other drawn in Pth,; ^kyan-kddrb^ W. 
to stretch one's limbs. — brkyan-hin 1. 
*extending-wood\ an instrument of torture 
in Tibet, a wooden frame on which the 
extended arms and legs of the delinquent 
are fastened down, whilst burning pitch 
or sealing-wax is dropped on his naked 
breast, which procedure is called brkyan- 
Hn sprdd-pa, brkyaMin-la biug-pa or 
brkydn-ba 2. cross Chr. Prot This word 
has been adopted on account of its ety- 
mological signification, although it differs 
in its form and use from the atavQcg of 
the N. T., which is unknown in Tibet 
and India. Additional explanation will 
be at any rate required on the part of 
missionaries; but much more so in the 
case of the Kro-^e (ItaL croce) of the Rom. 
Cath. missionaries of the last century. In 
favour of the word ysal-siny pointed stake 
for empaling a delinquent, speaks the 
circumstance, that this is also the original 
and classical signification of atavQog^ and 
that Buddhists from their own legends 
are well acquainted with the idea of 
martyrdom inflicted in this manner. Still 
pal-^in leads to a conception of the death 
of Christ historically untrue and revolting 
to our feelings and is therefore better not 
employed; moreover it is to be assumed 
that in the times of the Evangelists arav- 

' ^S^ skd-ba 

Qfig was the term generally used for cross, 
whilst in the case oi /salrHn no Tibetan 
thinks of anything else but empaling. 

5r'^ rkydn-tse^ W., resp. ^zim-kyony zim- 
tm^y lamp,candle,(spelling uncertain). 

oprofcr f^ff^-p^^' dumb, mute; Ma Ikugs- 

<6 ' par byedrpa to put to silence 

Do,; Vcugs-parpa a dumb man, -ma woman 
Cs. — 2. dull. Stupid Sch. 
^m Ikog secrecy, Ikdg-gi 'fun-ma Cs.: a 
^ ' wife kept secretly, a private con- 
cubine, Ikdg-tu in secrect, secretly frq.: 
Ikdg-tu gyur-puy Ikyog-gyuVy V^f^y secret, 
hidden, out of sight MU.y Tar.; Ikdg-tu 
gUn-ba to converse secretly; Vc. sddd-pa 
to keep in retirement. — Ikog-rnan a re- 
ward given secretly, a bribe. — Ucog-ids 
Sch.: 'a secret doctrine'; but Vcog-^os by id- 
pa is gen. understood: to apply one's self 
to religious studies or exercises in secret 

— ttogr jab byid-pa to hide one's self in 
a lurking place: Ikog )ab byed-nas Ita-ba 
to watch, to witness from a lurking-place. 

— Ikog-zdn zd-ba Sch. to take usury- 
interest in secret. — Ikog-ldb backbiting, 

^•$J' Zid^r-TTia (vulg. ^og-ma*) 1. gullet, 
^ ' oesophagus. — 2. wind-pipe. — 3. 
throat — 4. neck. Ikdg-mai Iha-g&n Sch.y 
(ace. to others: Ihar-g&r) the larynx, 
^Koi Ikdg^ma* or *og^ma h*an son* W. his 
throat is swollen, he has the croup. — 

— Ikog-dkdr a small nocturnal carnivorous 
quadruped with a white throat, marten? 

— Ikog-gdgs hoarseness of voice Cs, — 
Ikog-^dl dew-lap (of oxen). — Ikog-sdg craw, 
maw (of birds) Cs, 

^' Ikob fat, heavy, plump Sch. 
^^TSI^^' Ikolmdudy ako 'ol-mdudy larynx. 
JJTOTr ska-tig v. skad bigy skad no. 4. 

S'^^' ska-hdg n. of a grammarian Zam. 

«y«- skd-ba thick (of fluids, cf. sldrba); 
^ sUa-sldd (Ld,: *kas4dd^) consistence, 
density. — W.: *skdn-t^. 

cr> c 


f^^P!}^ skorrdgs 

gpQmr fiorrdgs B. ^ C, also ake^dgs, 
^ ^ W. *kye'-rdgs^y resp, sku^rdgs 
girdle, aka-rags JHn-ba to put on the girdle, 
skorrdgs bkur-ba Sch.: a girdle with a 
clasp (?). 

»qr dsuff 1. Cs,: = keiffy keg, mischief; 
^' unluclcy. — 2. v. rgyuskar. 

skdn-ba « akon-ba; skan-ysd 1. sa- 
tisfaction iScA. — 2. a kind of ex- 
piatory sacrifice, to make amends for a duty 
not performed. 

^lE^'^ skan-ia Sch.: SOds cat out. 

j«r- skad (C: *ka*) 1. voice, sound, cry 
(V- ^S'^^^)? gldn-po-lfei skad Itorhui sgra 
a sound like the voice of an elephant, *X:a'- 
la 'iig^a dkgn mi-big-^c^ C. (words) equal 
as to sound, but of different sense (= ho- 
mophone), sdug-bsndlrhai dead jbyin-fa^ 
snyin-iei skad ddn^a to utter lamentable 
cries; akcui sUr-ba Sch., *A«' gydg-pa^ C, 
^skad tdn-t^ W, to SOUnd; *Aip' tan-wd^ 
C. ^skad gyab^^ W. ccdp. to call to a 
person; skad mf&n-par with one voice, 
^ith one accord. — 2. speech, words, talk, 
news, *Aa' H nan (odug^ what is your 
pleasure? what did you say. Sir? C; 
zir-ha de H-skad yin the (words) spoken 
what speech are they? = what do they 
mean? Pth.; ^di'Skadr(du) in these words, 
thus, (before a literally quoted speech), 
d&skad^hes) id. (after it); it is also used 
in a more general sense instead of ^ 
Uar: dd^ad ma byed don't do that Mil.; 
shad smrd-ba to give account, to relate 
Ld.'Glr. fol. 12. b. &c}d.y ace to another 
reading instead of ara smrds-te; skad by id- 
pa id, rmi-ldmrdu byiin-ba skad byds-te 
reporting it as having been revealed to 
him by a dream Pth. ^ 3. language, bdd- 
skad the Tibetan language, rgya-gdr^kad 
the Sanskrit language, bddr-skad^Uy coL 
-^ into or in the Tib. language, yuU 
skadrdu into or in the provincial dialect. 
— 4. a snap with the fingers, always 
with big: skddrbig'(7na)y gen. as a measure 
of time: a moment; also adv.: for a mo- 

' ' ^^ skabs 

'^'^ -^ C t'u C-JtI. Itu,'. Vv^A- 

ment, skdd-big-la in a moment^ instantly, 
in one moment, skddriig de-nyidrla in the 
very same moment. (Some mathematical 
books compute the skdd-Hg = *IJ*'y others 
as long as Vj'O- 

Comp. and Deriv. skad-^gdgs hoarseness 
of the voice, C^. — skad-ndnl.B. bad voice. 
2. cry, screaming. — skddrhan having a 
voice, sounding. — skdd-ia 1. C: dis- 
course, conversation, *ka^'(fa Ub-pa* or 
^jM-pcf to converse, to have a chat. 2. C. 
talk, rumour, *mii kd*^^a re* it is (but) 
talk of the people. 3. W.: news, tidings, 
intelligence. — skadrti, -Hin 1. a loud 
voice Sch. 2. n. of an animal Lt -^ skadr 
ynyd Sch.: a high voice. — skad^snydn 
agy&r-ba MU. to sing or whistle in a 
quavering, warbling manner, of birds, 
flute- players etc., ^yv/r-skad a singing 
or playing of this kind. — skad-d6d an 
equivalent word, ^n-mai sk. another word 
for wife Ghrarnm. — skddrpa v. the se- 
parate article below. — skad-f/kir Cs. «= 
skad-^dgs. — skad-bzdn 1. a gOOd VOiCO. 
2. W.: good news. — skad-lkgs dialed 

— skad-ldg clamour, screaming. — skadr 
ysdns mfo Sch.: a loud Voice, skad-ysdn 
nyamS'}Sun c^iyur the voice is getting 
weak Wdn. 

^^ skad ladder, v. skds-ka. 

Mr^r skddnpa I. vb. 1. to say, tell, relate, 
^ ' Hn-Udfrns Ug yddrdo skddrpar fos 
that a land (of bliss) exists I heard say 
Mil; more frq. at the end of a sentence 
skddrdo or skad for: it is said (= dicitur), 
grags skad id. MU. — 2. to name, call, 
skddrpa partic. = byd-ia named, called. 

— 3. Ldr. *skdd-iey ;(dd'i^ to measure, 
take measure.— n. sbs. interpreter; language- 
master, teacher. 

«up^ skdn-te, W. instead of skd-ba thick, 
^^ turbid. 

Mq^ skais 1. time, opportunity, case, 
^ circumstances; mfdn-Cbai) skabs op- 
portunity of seeing , skabs myidrpa to find 
an opportunity, skdbs-su or skabs-^ikdbs-su 
now and then, under certain circumstances. 





skdbs-m or skais with genit. at the time 
of^ on occasion of^ during, while, when; 
d^ka skdb-m in a moment, instantly, 
skabs odir now, here, in this case, in this 
place (of a book etc.) frq., skais re once, 
for a time, ^skabs-tdg* Ld. (col.) now, 
bdrskabs interval, interlapse of time Tar.; 
dus-akabsy fsS-^kabSy ynds^kabsy time, state, 
situation, skabs dan sbydr-bay dus-ekaba dan 
batun^a fit for, adapted, suited to the oc- 
casion. — 2. 6J}. 'mode, method', or perh. 
rather, way, manner; so the word seems 
to be used in Wdn.: Idum^i skabs la- 
pug dan skyi-higs ^drd-bar the manner 
(nature) of the plant being similar to that 
of a radish as to growth. — 3. section, 
chapter (cf. ytam no. 3), so Tar.; 
skabs bdu the ten sections of Buddhistical 

^S^ skdr-ma 

md gut skav^ a little box weighing 9 
rupees (about 4 ounces); ^skdr-ka or -Ma^ 
weight; ^skar-Md^ measure, scale. Wl, C. 

— 3. ""skar-tdg tdn-b^ to inquire rigor- 
ously; to restrict, to bind down, to flog; 
^akar-lddg^ a rigorous inquiring, a flogging 
TT., also a 

Bjrgr dcdr-ma Ssk. TITTT 1- *^» fixed 
^ star, nyi zla yza skar sun, moon, 
planets and stars; sometimes it is used 
generally: ^skar-Hhi^ a very large, un- 
commonly bright star, esp. Venus when 
appearing as evening- or morning-star; 
nytn-moi akdr-ma a star seen in the day- 
time (a thing of very rare occurrence). 

— 2. constellation, asterism; buas-skdr 
constellation of nativity Med; yyanskdr 
propitious constellation (such are the nak- 
datras no. ^ to ^^^ v. rgytir%kdr). 

theology, also: one^that has absolved them. ^ ^^ 

a3T dcam v. akdmrpa and -po. tlt^^^r^^^"^ ^^""^ skdr-hm (th 

gijqw skam-pa I. vb. 1. = rkdmrpa to 
'm' Innn fnr _ 9 = 

long for. — 2. = sk^m-pa (bskam- 
pa). — n. sbst. 1. «= rkdm-pa longing, 2. 
a pair of tongs; skam-^^/i small tongs, 
pincers; also several other instruments of 
a similar shape. — III. adj.^ com. skdm- 
po dry, skam-rldn 1. dry and wet — 2. 
dryness in a relative sense, ^skam-^ Ld. 
very lean (like a mummy), skdm^a the 
dry land, the shore, skam id., skdm^ar 
pyin^pa, skam^la aUb^pa to get ashore, 
akam-lam journey by land Wis,; ^skaTTV- 
sah* Ld. meat perfectty dried. 

skar; this and the compounds skar- 
ka and skar-fsad v. under ska-ba; 


skar-kun etc. under skar-ma. 

skar-ba Cs.: 'a penning of cattle, 
assortment, separation, to pen, to 
fold, to separate'. But as these significations 
seem to belong to the spelling bkar-ba 
and dgar-bay it will be safer to confine 
the verb skar-ba, pf. bskar, imp. skor, to 
the following, 1. to hang up, ^skar-tan- 
be, Mr-la skdr-de id. Ld. (e. g. clothes). 
— 2. to weigh, and *«*ar* weight, ^gau 

e same word as 
dkar-Uun^ but of a different etymology) win- 
dow. — skar-Kdns Cs.: 'the angular dis- 
tance between two stars or planets' (?) 
— skar-Md a weight (*5 points* on the 
steelyard for gold) = 1 io or Y,o ounce; 
as money = Vj rupee. — skar-^ 'star- 
water'; bathing under the constellation 
skdr-nna rib-bi (prob. rewatiy the 28 th 
nakkatra, is meant) in October is con- 
sidered beneficial for every kind of com- 
plaint, because Sans-rgyds amdn-pai rgydl- 
po (quasi 'Buddha Aesculapius' , to whom 
the origin of the medical science is ascribed 
by Tibetan Buddhists), bathed in that 
season, and therefore Tibetans, though 
not particularly fond of washing and bath- 
ing in general, are said to follow this ex- 
ample pretty firequetnly. — skar-mdd (Cs. : 
'ignis &tuus'?) a shooting star, Itun or 
sa-la dril is coming down, opans Mil. id. 
— skar-dpyddy -rtsi» astrology. — skar- 
prdn a small star. — skar-ts6gs the starry 
host. — skar-^dzin 'star-catching', mak- 
ing one's self sure of a propitious constel- 
lation, e. g. for an intended journey, by a 
sham departure, conveying luggage or 
goods to the next village etc., but then 





interrapibg and postponing it to a more 
convenient time. 

gjpr:r skdl-ba Ssk. ^fpf, re»p. sku-^dl 1. 
^ portion, share; bgo-skdl allotted 
portion; zas-dcdl portion of food, ration; 
ran-dcdl personal share; norskdl or sycd- 
ndrGfr. hereditary portion, inlieritance; skdl- 
ha ma Md-par without being shortened of his 
portion MiL; ma mfdn-ba skdl-ba ma m^- 
pa ^dra it does not seem to fall to my lot to 
see my mother. — skal-cdd dried up, 
withered Sch. (f) — 2. in a special sense: 
the portion of good or bad fortune that falls 
to a man's lot, as a consequence of his 
former actions, lot, fate, destiny, a. rela- 
tively: skdl-ba bzdn-fOy ndiv-pa good, bad 
fortane; fse ^dn grogss^dl the matrimonial 
share of the present life, the connubial 
fate for which a person is predestinated 
Glr, (The Buddhist priests pretend to be 
able to calculate the skdl-ia of any one 
after his death J b. in a positive and 
good sense, denoting either prosperity 
and blessing as a consequence of good 
actions, or those actions themselves as 
heing pious and meritorious, so that skal" 
Man means happy, blessed as well as pious, 
devout, and skal-mid unhappy, irreligious, 
impious, skal-lddn are all those who have 
devoted themselves to virtue and treasured 
up more or less good works, and who 
may expect to be promoted in proportion. 
The term worthy, therefore, though not 
quite correct as to the word itself, is still 
very appropriate as it regards the subject; 
even venerable, holy may be applied oc- 
casionally, cf. VR^ and ^nr^TPC* ^^^^ 
some single blessing or spiritual gift may 
be meant by skdl-ba and so the Ommani- 
padmehum is called the cos-skdl^ the re- 
ligious treasure', of Tibet Olr. 
mrrjr skds-ka B.y C, skds-Ka, skds-pa C, 
^ ' skrds-ka (pronounced *te-ka C, 
hds-kuy kre-^ca W.)y even skas, skad lad- 
der, generally consisting of the notched 
trunk of a tree; rkydn-skad C. 'single lad- 
der\ the same, compared with two or 
tbee of them joined together, to make a 

sort of staircase with broader steps; *do- 
td C, do-^ds, do-sre* W. a flight of stone- 
steps; ^gya-krds, gyor-hre W., gya-ke^^ C, 
(Schr.) a regular staircase as in European 
houses; grvr-skds Olr. prob.: flight of steps 
at the comer of a building ; gro-skad Glr, 
fol. 7 appeared to be unknown to those that 
were consulted; skas-kyi rimrfa Cs, steps; 
*kra-ldan, kral-ddn* W, spokes of a lad- 
der; ska» ^gram Cs, the two side-pieces 
of a staircase or ladder; skas odzt^-pa 
to apply a ladder Schr,, Cs. 
g4 sku, Ssk. ^iT^, sometimes ^;f^ 1. also 
^ sku-luSy shu-yztigSy resp. for lus: body; 
by being prefixed to the names of parts 
of the body and even of everything that 
has reference to the bodily existence of 
a person, it imparts to them the charac- 
ter of respectful terms: sku-stody -smad the 
upper, lower, part of the body; sku-^a 
flesh; skttr-mfsdl (for sku-Krag) blood Cs. 
sku-mddg colour of the skin, sAw-wdlage 
8fe^-fs« lifetime, life; sku-Mms state of health; 
sku-skdl portion, share, sku-cds goods, 
stores MU.y sku-bsdd virtue, happiness 
Tar.; sku-sky^s a present (given to or re- 
ceived from a respected personage^; shi- 
Jbdg image, statue Glr.; sku-mdun-pa (C: 
*kun-dumr^a*) or -drun-pa attendant of 
a man of rank; *ku-)ar-wa'' ('adherent', 
V. Jbyar-ba) id. C; sku-nye Sch. relation, 
kinsman; sku-ysegs-pa dying, deatjt (of a 
king etc.) Glr. ; sku-bstod praise Sch. ; sku- 
hogs (ace. to Cs. instead of sku ysogs the 
side' = your presence) a title of honour, 
when we should say: your or his honour, 
your or his worship, in W. only for cle- 
rical dignitaries, in C. also for other per- 
sons of rank. Even buildings (monasteries 
etc.) are honoured by these respectful ex- 
pressions: sku-dkar ysol-ba to 'administer' 
whitewash. — 2. in a special sense: the 
person of Buddha, whom philosophers re- 
present in three forms of existence called 
sku-ysum p|i||^, viz. : Hds-kyi sku, \|4}^l<|, 
lons-spyddriyi sku ip^t^ttfilll and sprul-pai 
sku ff | i i lH|mi|. These three 'persons', 
however, have as little as dkon-m^og-ysum 

any thing in common with the Christian 
Trinity, nor even with the Indian Tri- 
mfirtti, for the first state, the 'body of 
law', the absolute body, is Buddha in the 
Nirvana, the so-called first world of ab- 
stract existence L e. non-existence, which 
is the ultimate aim and end of every ex- 
istence and the ideal aspired to by every 
believing Buddhist; the second state, the 
'body of happiness or glory' is Buddha in 
the perfection of a conscious and active 
life of bliss in the second world (heaven or 
Elysium), which state however is inferior to 
the first; the third, the 'body of transfor- 
mation and incarnation', is Buddha in the 
third or visible world, as man on earth. 
Notwithstanding the altogether abstract 
character of ^dsskuy as a philosophical con- 
ception. Buddhistic fancy is pleased to re- 
present it as a visible image of Buddha, 
shining in the colours of the rainbow, or at 
least as abrilh'ant apparition of light, though 
impalpable and unapproachable; and this 
is not only a notion of the vulgar, but 
is acknowledged ako in literature. More 
recent speculators have even added a no- 
bo-nyidnkyt sku superior to the three, viz. 
that which is eternal in the essence of a 
Buddha, even ^dssku^ the absolute body, 
being described by these philosophers as 
transient. Xhe unintelligible passage in 
CsJs dictionary, p. 305 b. might be cor- 
rected thus: 'adding to the former three 
as a fourth' etc. — To this signification 
belcJng the compounds dcurrim^ resp, for 
rim-^o reverence, respect, particdarly in 
the special sense of a solemn sacrificial 
ceremony, performed on public and private 
occassions, e.g. in cases of disease; sku- 
rim byM-^a to perform such a ceremony. 
— skurrUriy sku-^dby skur-yzugs, sku-odrd 
(W. ^kuip^d*) image of Buddha etc. — 
3. image, statue, of Buddha or other holy 
persons, j's^sku a gold image, rddsku a 
stone image, c^im-sku an image of clay,fcm- 
dcu a painted image, o^wr-sto a basso-relievo, 
rkdssku an engraved, bUgS" or Idugs-dm 
a molten, fdgssku a woven image Ci. — 

g^-cr sk&d^ 

sku^Jmm 'mausoleum' or ace. to another 
etymology 'the 100 000 images', n. of the 
famous monastery Eumbiim east of the 
Kokonor (v. Travels of Hue and Gabet). 
— sku ysun tugs 1. (cf sku no. 1) resp. 
£ lus nag yid the three spheres of a man's 
doings or sufferings, works, words and 
thoughts. — 2. the rten ymmy the three 
representations of Buddha: the image of 
his person, the books containing his doc- 
trine, the pyramid (mcod-rt^) as the 
symbol of his grace. — sku-lnorrgydl-po 
five deities of degenerated Buddhism 
ScM. 157. 

sku-^ru a paddle-wheel, without a rim; 

such are the water-wheels of all the 
mills in the Himalaya sku-ru-Ka the figure 
of a cross -f- X. The latter is conmion in 
books as an abbreviation like our 'etc.', to 
save the repeated writing at full length of 
the same sentence, as refrains etc. 
M^i^ skugs the stal(e in a game or wager 
>3 ' received by the winner, — skugs*- 
stdn Sch. id J 

gjT'fl- skun-ba pf. bskuns^ ft. bskun 1. to 
^ hide in the ground. — 2. to bury, 
to inter. — 3. to tie in a doubled or twisted 
position, e. g. a corpse before it is burnt, 
to cord on all sides. — bskuns-sa lurking- 
place, hiding-place MU, 

S^' skud sbst V. skddrfa, 

^^^zr «^d-pa I. sbst. thread, yam; wire; 

>3 ' skud-pa yhdd-pa to cut off the thread, 
also fig. Cs. to divorce; ras-skud cotton 
thread, Uags-skud iron wire; fson-skiid co- 
loured thread; skudr^d the thread-ends of 
a seam; skiiS-bris-mHan an embroiderer. 

II. vb. pf. bskuSy ft. bskuy imp. skus, 
col. ku-wa C\ *shti-<e^ W. to smear *^d- 
gir-^la iaar sku-ie^ to butter the bread W,^ 
*di'la ndg-po ma sku* don't make that 
dirty W.; to besmear, to daub snyin-poC-la) 
snum-gyts a wick with grease Dd.; sgd^ 
la rtsi to pahit a door; spds-kyis skM^a 
to anoint; skud ointment, *hra-sh^ po* 
matum W. 

jjc-gs' dcudr^ 1. brother-in-law C%. 

^q' skd-ba 


— 2. 



S3r^ 8^n-^ = Ww-Jm Lea. 

r^v skum^a pf. bskums^ ft bskurriy imp, 
skum(s) to contract, to draw in, e.g. 
the leg. 

wq* dcur-puy also skur-kldn, skur-Ms ab- 
^ use, occasioDally blasphemy; skur- 
jMs-^a, byed-pa, smra-ba to abuse, viz.: 
persons to whom respect is due, esp. holy 
men or things, e.g. o^pags-pa-la the ve- 
nerable DzL ; dkon-mddg ysum mi bdht-par 
hd'Hn skur-pa Jiibspa to blaspheme by 
' denying tie 'Three Most Precious' Thgy. 
igrihskiir v. sgro. 

jprn* skur-ba I. pf. skur, at the end of 
>3 a sentence shur-rOy sometimes for 
skur-pa ^debs-pa Mil, — 

II. pf. ft. ^ imp, bskuVy pf at the end 
of a sentence bskur-to 1. to send, to trans- 
mit, e.g. news, objects, also an army, 
but not a messenger; mdun-du skttr-ba to 
send on in advance, to have carried be- 
fore, e.g. a banner; skur ynan mdzddr- 
pa resp.: to be pleased to send. — 2. to 
give, hand over, deliver, consign, ghfe in 
dnrge, commit, e. g. an army to a general; 
dban skur^a to invest with power, to 
authorize, ji dgd-iar gyid-du dban skur big 
give me power, permission, to do what 
I like Dzl,; rgydlrpor dban skurba to 
aathorize somebody to be a ruler, to ap- 
point, create, designate as king. The 
ceremony observed in such a case is a 
kind of anointing or baptism, pouring holy 
water on the crown of the head, spyi-bo- 
noi dban skur-bay and as supernatural 
powers are supposed to be active during 
^ process, dban dcur-ba means also: to 
Men, consecrate, endow with miraculous 
power; esp. four mystical powers of me- 
ditation are imparted in this way. 

j-fl- skul-ba pf bskuly at the end of a 
sentence bskul-to, Ssk. ^^, to ex- 
hort, admonish, enjoin, mi iig las byedrpar 
a person to do a thing; to appoint, mi 
Hg Id^luy in the same sense; to impose. 


f< -T 

\-~ -^-n--: d.;«75 - 

mi Hg-da laSy work on somebody, — perh. 
a mere provincialism; dei fsig-^ bskul- 
nas induced by his words; mdm^es las 
dan nyon-mdns-kyis bskid-nas the (departed) 
soul urged on, influenced, driven, by its 
former works and sins S,g,; Ihasrin 
mcod skul kyan though I tried to deter- 
mine, to bring round, the gods and the evil 
spirits by sacrifices Pth,; glin sags drdg- 
tu skul-hin flutes and other (instruments) 
calling, resounding, fortissimo and so ani- 
mating the actors; *yid skul-^e* W, to 
remind, admonish; *8an* (for yean) "skuU 
be* to rouse by shaking. — bskuUba and 
more frq. bshd-ma exhortation, admonition; 
bskuUma ^debs-pay C. also dcuUrgyag-pay 
skub-bdg by^d^a Mil, nt to admonish, OX-^ 
hort — *skuUUan W, overseer. 
^- ske^ vtdg, skye, seld. skyay neck, throat, 
^ frq,; neck of a bottle Ca,; *skye tsir 
tdn-bCy *kyig'bey sddm-ce* W. to choke, 
strangle, *8ky4'la fdg-pa tdg-na sdd-ie* id,; 
ske ybddrpUy ytkb-pay Jbrig-pa to behead, 
slaughter; sker j^dmnpa to seize by the 
throat, to worry &ch.; zker ddgs-pa to tie 
round the neck e. g. an amulet; dce-Jidr 
necklace Schr,; skewed ornament for the 
neck, necklace Mil.; skestdn Med.y Sch,: 
cavity of the throat; ske-rmd Sch.: a 
wound of the throat, a jugular gland that 
has opened. 

^V ske-is^ Wdn,y Ssk, 4^|f% i ni Sinapis 
^ ramosa, black mustard; mustard seBi^ 
a grain of m. s. 

gcn-^g^ skeg-fsds paint, rouge (for the 
^ ' face) Sch, 

^^^ sk^d-pa V. rkid-pa, 

"^gr^ skhnrpa I. bskamSyft. bskamy 
^ . imp, skom(s) to make dry, lean, 
meagre; to dry up; exsiccate. — II. adj.y 
also skSm-poy dry, dried up; meagre. — 
skem-byM a demon that causes drought 
Lt. — skem-ndd Bhar. consumption, 
'^g- skd-bay pf. (b)skoSy ft. bskOy imp. 
^ skos 1. to appoint, nominate, com- 
mission, charge a person, Ids-su with a 
work Dzl.y much more freq.: rgydl-pory 


^^ shh-tsi 

^•^ skdr-ba 

dpon-du to be king, chief; rgydlrsar M^ 
ba to raise to the throne; ma bskos^in 
without mandate, unbidden Glr, — 2. Ids^ 
la bakds'pa destined to the works i. e. 
destined to a man in consequence of his 
works; ned-kyi las-bskos my destiny, fate, 
lot Mil. 

Note, The signification: to elect, to 
choose (Cs,, Sch.) cannot be proved and 
was expressly denied by Tibetans. 
gf^ 8kO'tsS 1. a kind of wild onion Cs* 
^ — 2. a mixture of the leaves of 
several kinds of leek, pounded, formed 
into balls and dried; when used, a small 
portion is broken off, fried in butter and 
then added to the food. This spice forms 
a lucrative article of commerce and is 
exported from Ld, to Cashmere and from 
Lh. to India. 

^f|'^ sMg-pa V. kdg-pa. 

skon V. under kon. 

q* skdn-ba pf. bskans, ft bskafi, imp. 
skon(8) 1. to fulfil, e. g. a hope, a 
vow etc., *nyiri^ the desire W.; A^a Mn- 
ba to fill up what is open, to make up a 
deficiency Zam., also dgibai Haskon to 
fulfil perfectly the laws of virtue, Ira- 
skdhy Uorbskdm, Uas-skon 1. appendix, sup- 
plement, ^Mm-du Korskdn-du bhad will be 
said, described, below in the appendix 
Wdn. 2. By Tibetan copjrists of books 
a short prayer is called so, consisting of 
a stanza of 4 verses, which they are ac- 
customed to write down or recite after 
having finished the copy of a work, in 
order to make amends for the mistakes 
they may have committed. — fugs-dam 
bskan-rdzds a certain ceremony v. Schl. 
260. — 2. V. dpa. 

^grn^ skon-^a I. sbst v. rkdn-pa. — II. 
^^'ft.bskonlo dpess, to clothe 
another person (7*^. pdl-ba). 

S^^ skoba = skabs Schr., Sch. 

^;r skom 1. thirst, skdm-gyis ydiim-pa tor- 
^ mented by thirst Dzl. — 2. resp. 

zal'Skdm^ drink; zas (dan) skom food and 
drink. — 3. i.o. skam the dry land Glr., 
provinc. — skdm-pa 1. to thirst, to bo thirsty. 
2. the thirst 3. thirsty, skdm-pa-dag ni 
skomrpa dan brdl-bar ogyur the thirsty 
will get rid of their thirst S. 0. — skom- 
dad (dad'pa = Jjod-pa) thirst Med. — 
skom-fsdd burning thirst MU. — *8k(hnrri* 
thirst W. 

H^- skor (cf. kor) 1. circle, mig-skor eye- 
^ ball W.; sbaskdr hoop of bamboo 
Schr. — 2. appurtenances, yi-ge Jmrbai 
skor writing utensils, fdb-kyi skor every- 
thing that belongs to the fire-place C. 
(perh. provinc.) — 3. section, division, e. 
g. of a book, similar to leu, chapter Mil, 
Tar. — 4. repetition, skor Iddb-pa to re- 
peat Schr. — 5. theme, subject, gan skdr- 
la J)ri jkig what is the subject of this 
writing? Answer: rtai skdr-la a horse C; 
de sk&r-la on that account, therefore Ld. 

— 6. skor, skdr-zas food presented to La- 
mas; laymen are deterred from laying their 
hands on it by the mysteriously menacing 
verse: skdr-zas zd-la l^ag-gi cgrdwrpa dgos 
he that eats Lama's food^ wants iron jaws. 

- 7. V. skdr-ba no. II. 'Z.^i-^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 
g^-q- sk&r-ba I. vb. pf, ^ ft. bekor 1. to 
^ surround, encircle, enclose, besiege 
cca^^ d.; also of inanimate objects: d^-la 
skdr-bai Wthe mountains surrounding it Glr,; 
ri ndgs'kyis bsk&r-ba Sambh. a mountain 
surrounded by a forest. — 2. to go, move, 
ride round a thing; esp. the reverential ce- 
remony of H^f^ ' H transferred from Brah- 
manism to Buddhism, which consists in 
going round a h6ly object with one's 
right side turned towards it — one of the 
most meritorious and indispensible religious 
duties in the eyes of a Buddhist; ?(fe- 
skor-la byon they walked round in the 
rehgious direction, i. e. according to the 
precepts of Buddhism, bdn-skor-du son in 
the Bon manner, i.e. the opposite di- 
rection Mil.; pyag dan skdr-ba byid-pa, 
as a specification of religious duties: to 
make salutations and circumambulations. 




^q- sM-ba 

gdj-q- skydff^a 

3. to wander through^ traverse, rgydlrMrm, 
the countries, Mil. — 4. to return, go 
home Sch. — 5. to turn round, twist, mii 
Udg-pa a man's neck, i.e. to choke, to 
strangle him Glr. 

Phrases: mgo skor-ba, mgo skor byid- 
pa (W.^ ^tO'C^) to befool, delude, deceive 
a person, by intoxication or flattery Glr.^ 
also by a flood of words. — *lla kdr-wa 
C.y kdr-c^ W, to make one alter his sen- 
timents, to divert one from a plan etc. 
— *ian* or ^dugs skdr-b^ to take ven- 
geance W, — *si kdr^e (v. rtm) W. to 
count, calculate. — fsdgs-hfi U&rlo Mr-ba 
to arrange the objects of the mandal (q.v.) 
in a circle n.f. — skor Idg-pa, skor Idg- 
la cffrd^a to go round the wrong way 
MU.; *p4'Ta kor^e-log tdn-be* to talk fool- 
ishly, to twaddle W. — *lag kAr-l^ the 
patting a seal under a document which 
is done by several persons one after an- 
other W, 

Comp. sk&r-Kan Glr., prob. « skdr- 
lam. — skor^rgyiigs turning the enemy, 
getting into his rear Mil. — skdr-mUan, 
skdr^a a turner Cs. — skor-spyddy skor- 
sin a tamer's lathe Cs. — skor-fig a pair 
of compasses. — skor-dbyug a sling, for 
throwing Sch. — skor4dm 1. the pathway 
roand-about a monastery, used for the 
holy processions. 2. a veranda surround- 
iag a house. 3. col. also: round-about way. 

II. 1. the going, moving round, en- 
drding etc. — '2. the way round a thing, 
= skor-ldm^ in the compounds: ndn-skor 
the inner, bdr-skor the middle, pyi-^kor 
the outer roundway, pyi-skor ^Sn^o the 
oatermost — sd-skor round-about way, 

^n- MUba pf. & ft. bskol to boil (vb. 
^ act., cf. JUUa), 
^rjy skds-pa 1. V. skd-ba. — 2. Sch.: 'to 
^ order',, but this is sgd-ba. 

fskya 1. Oar C, Thgy.; skya-Ub id.; 
skya-^ug rudder; sky a rgydb^a to row 
Schr. — 2. spatula Schr. — 3. pot-ladle, 
C. — 4. wall of stone or clay, bdr-skya, 

partition-wall, ^bhdr-kya ia^-pa^ to make 

a partition-wall C. 

m^yjY skyd'ka, skyd-^a Lt, n. of a bird, 

^ ' Cs.: magpie. 

■yq- skyd-ba I. vb. 1. pf. bskyas, ft. bsh/a 

^ 1. Lea.: = op(^'ba to change place, 

cf. skyas. — 2. to carry, convey to a place 

(a quantity of stones, wood, water etc.) 

W., V. skyed-pa. — 3. Sch. to SWim (?) 

II. sbst. 1. kettle Sch. — 2. prob. « 
sky a 1. 

grSf skya-bOySsk. \ i\ ^\ and ITH^, whitish 
^ gray, yellowish-white; ^skya idg-be to 
fry or toast a thing so that its whitish 
colour turns partially into brown Ld.; 
mi skya one clothed in light-gray, (not 
in red or yellow, as monks are), a lay- 
man; sno'skya light-blue, Qan-skyd light- 
green, and so of the other colours; there- 
fore ser-skya ought to denote light-yellow, 
but it is also used as an equivalent of 
T^lfjim^ n. of a saint, (Ser-skyai-^gron =» 
Kapilavastu, an ancient city in Oude, and 
Buddha's birth-place); originally: 'monkey- 
coloured', tawny, Ito^kyd *pale' i. e. poor, 
insipid, miserable food Mil.nt. 

Comp. *kya-ko-r4, kya-fe-r^* pale, 
white C. — skya-skyd id. Sch. — skya-ndr, 
V[TZf^ ^' of * flower, Bignonia graveolens; 
Skya-ndr-gyi-bu n. of a city of Old-India 
PataUputra, now Patna. — skya-sndr ace. 
to Stg. the colour of the skin of the Indians, 
brown. — skyorrbdb Cs. : a hind of dropsy, 
Sch.: a grayish oedematic swelling; slsya- 
rbab^krdhs Lex. — *skya-^mdr* fresh (i. 
e. not melted) butter W. — *skya 'od* W., 
skya-rerts morning -twilight, dawn. — skya- 
Idm — skyd-bo Thgy.y 6'. — skya-sdh 1. 
n. of a tree. 2. translation of P'andu, 
skyors^-gi bu a Panda va. — skya-s^ 1. 
Sch.: tawny, cf. ser-skya. 2. 'white and 
yellow' viz.: men, lay -men and priests 

fjr^'^' skyd-ruHra n. of a drug Med. 

Mn-q- »kydg^a 1. = rkydg-pa. - 2. pf. 
S ' bskyagSy ft. bskyag, imp. skyog to 



SC^'(3p|' skyan-nil 


^pend, lay out, expend; skyagsgo expenditure, 
dcyag-fd account Of expenses. —- 3. W.: 
*skyag tdn-be* to slaughter, to murder. 
^'d;q' %a;7-nt/Z pavement, day^oor, mud- 
^ NO floor LftF., Cs.; skan-nul byid-^a 
to pave, to plaster {ScL also; to rab^ polish), 
jviq^- skyabs (cf. skydb^a) Ssk, jfjj^ pro- 

^ tedion, defence, help, assistance; me- 

cu'la skyabs is a protection against water 
and fire; skyabs m^drdo I am (or: he is 
etc.) lost! skyabs byM-pa^ skyabs su cffyur- 
ba ccgp. to protect, help, save a person, 
frq. with srog-gi added; skyabs- su cffrd-ba 
eleg. mUbay W,: *skyab cdl-la ydh-be* to 
seek help, miioT mi-la of some body, skyabs- 
cffrds 1. the seeking of help, if^lf 9f7fir 
2. the formnla Sans-rgyds-kyi skyabs-su 
miHoy iSds-kyi sky. mSo, dge-jdun-gyi sky, 
mSfo, the Buddhistic creed or confession 
of fedth. 

Comp. skyabs-mgdn helper, protector, 
deliverer; this is applied to certain highly 
esteemed and respected persons, mytho- 
logical as well as liviag, ni f.; Chr. Pi\ 
use it for Saviour, Redeemer, Christ — 
skyabs-^grds v. above. — skyabs-ynds 1. 
place of refuge, shelter; also of persons, 
= helper, frq ; mi-la skyabs-ynds byM-pa 
Mil. to take refuge to a person, to seek his 
assistance. 2. seld. for skydbs-su ynds-pa 
client, nd-yi skydbs-ynas pd-mo-maTns all 
my clients, men and women Glr. — skyabs- 
sbyin a gesture of the right hand, like that 
for giving benediction Glr. — skyabs-yul 
= skyabs-ynds. 1. 

g^-q^ skydr-gog naked Pur. 

M-q" skydr-po Sch.: snipe, wood-cocic; 
^ skyar-fun Sch.: 'a large snipe' (??); 
skydr-mo Sch. heron; skyar-Ub Sch. spoon- 
bill; fu-skyar Cs. duck, Sch.: bittern, but 
the ^iT^lSf of the Lex.^ 'a kind of goose' 
speaks in favour of Cs. \ ' - "^ ' ^ 

S^'^' skydr-ba v. sky&r-ba.' 

Kjxn- sky as a changing of abode; sky as ^dSs- 
^ pa to change ones dwelling-place 
(cf. skya-ba)y skyas ifen-po ^dibs-pa to die 

§^S|' shfds-ma 1. v. skyes. — 2. Sik.: fem. 

&• skyi Cs.: the outward side of a skin 
^ or hide (opp. to ia); skyi yyd-ba to 
shiver, tremble with fear Cs. Comp.: slyi- 
dkdr Cs. dressed leather; hide. — sh/i- 
Ipdgs Scfi.: chamois, wash-leather. — slyi- 
bun Mil.f — skyi'btinjpr oh. an itching of 
the skin MiLf"^ sJyv-^d 1. outward and 
inward side of a hide. 2. Sch.: the anus, 
^•fl" «%«-^« I- shst. 1. a medicinal plant 
^ Med. — 2, also *kyi-Uy pi-lin kyi-u^ 
potato C. 

II. vb. pf. bskyiSy ft. bskyiy imp. skyis 
to borrow, esp. money or goods (cf. yydr-ba 
and skyin-pa). 

^prn' skyig-pa to hickup; skyig-bu the 
^' hickup Med. 

^Z,'^^ sin/in-sdr Mil,y eagle, vulture. 

for-q* skytdrpa vb., sbst, adj. ; tO be happy, 
^^ happiness (Ssk. ^i^), happy; skyidr 
do (I, thou etc.) am, art etc. happy; bd4- 
Hii skyid-la being happy and glad; skyid- 
pai nyi-ma sun of felicity, propitious day 
Glr.; skyid-po = skyidrpa adj., firq., skyidr 
de-ba id. Tar. 5, 19. 

Comp. skyid-glu song of joy. — skyid- 
mgo be^nniug of happiness Mil. — sh/id- 
sdiiggoodeaiA ill luck, happiness and misery; 
skyid sdug ji byun kyan whatever may 
happen Glr.; skyid sdtcg bsr4-ba to share 
pleasure and pain. — skyid-l&u n. of the 
tributary of the Ya-ru-tsan-po, on which 
Lhasa is situated. 

^ skyin wild mountain goat, Capra ibex. 
^^^(^ skyin-g&r lizard Lex.y « da-byid. 

^^' skyin-fdn Sch.: hail, sleet. 

fe^q* skyin-pa, W. ^skyin-po*y resp. kar- 
^ ' skyin a loan, a thing borrowed; 
money advanced without interest; sh/in- 
pa skyi'ba to ask a loan; nd-la cdi skyin- 
du J!sal he asked me to lend him this 
DzL; skyin-pa Un-pa Cs. to take on cre- 
dit; skyin-pa sprdd-pay c^cdrba to pay back 
or return a loan Cs.; n&r-skyin a loan of 

^^ skyibs 

goods or money, gdB^kyin oi clothes. — 
slyin-mi Schr, debtor. — skyin-fsdb C: 
the pledge for a loan; ace. to others, how- 
ever, it just means the object lent or its 
equivalent when being returned, 
^q^ deyibs everything giving shelter from 
^ above, an overhanging rock, a roof 
etc.: *(lar skyib* shelter from rain; ^dag- 
skyib* nnder a porbon q. v. (gyam is much 
larger, pug-pa deeper) W.; bka-dcy. IHTR, 
a covered terrace or small portico before 
a house. 

^arn* ^kyil-ba, pf. & ft. bskyil 1. to bend, 
^ esp. the legs when sitting on the 
ground after Oriental fashion, also an- 
other's leg by a kick from behind; to 
bend the bow. — 2. to pen up, shut up, 
cattle, to dam up, a river, also: hi rdzin-du 
skjfil-ba to collect water into a pond Glr., 
or rdzm-bu sky. ; to dam up a pond (but not 
'to dig if Schr.); to keep back, retain, 
detain a person W.; *Ua kyiUbe"^ to keep 
a person from doing something, to dis- 
suade from W. — skyU-kruny also skyil- 
mo-krun, the posture of sitting cross-leg- 
ged, skyU-hrun byidrpa (resp. mdzddrpa)^ 
shfU-^mo-krun-gis (or du) ^dug-pa (re»p. 
bzugs^a) to assume such a posture; sems^ 
dpaxdcyil-krun the usual manner of sittings 
in which the feet are not seen, rd<Mjei 
sly, the posture in which the soles of the 
feet are seen turned upwards, rdzdgs-pai 
sky. another posture requiring particular 
practice. (The spelling dkyil-krun, though 
frequent, is expressly rejected by gram- 
marians.) — *skyUrdin* W. a small hole 
filled with water. — *skil'ldir* W. handle, 
ling fixed to a thing, for carrying it, hang- 
ing it up etc. 

annr- skyur-gdn Lea:, w.e., Sch.: a gulp, 
1 '^ draught 

P- skyii^ru a sour fruit Med.; skyu-ru- 
>5 ra Med. (Lex.: ^Fiif wood -sorrel) 


^^^ skyiir-ba 


skyurTitm Cs.: ^cohdimenf, 8auce, 

the same (P); in later times the word 
seems to have been used also for the o- 
Bve, and skyit-rurUn the olive tree, which 
io Sik. is called Ka^skyur'poi hih. 

pidde', ace. to others, at least in 
W.y only the resp. word for spags: 1. 8auce, 
gravy. 2. dish, mess. 

sprq' «%«^-:P« p£ skyugs. 1. to vomit, e- 
^ ' jed, e.g. blood, skyug-tu )ug^a 
to cause to vomit, skyug-pa drin-pa to 
excite vomiting Tar.; skyiigs-pa (partic. 
p£), nan-skyugsy the VOmit (it is the food of 
certain demons, and being, boiled in it, 
is one of the punishments of hell). — 2 
to lose colour, to stain. 

Comp. 8%t^-;(;dd rumination, chewing 
the cud; Sch. also; eructation. — skyug-^ 
bre^a nausea, skyug-bro-bai nod disease 
of nausea; skyug-bro-bas from disgust; 
skyug-bro C. also impure vnth regard to 
religion, « W. ^fsidrdu*. — skyug-smdn 
an emetic. — skyiig^hg-pa Sch. to feel 

Mr Tyr skyun^ka, also Icun-ka, jack - daW 
5 ' (black, with a red bill); skyun-kas 
Z08 Lex. eaten or stolen by a jack-daw. 
gjr-n' dcyun-ba pf. bskyunSy ft. bskyun, 

% imp. skyun(s) Cs. to leave behind, to 
lay aside, e.g. a task Lex.y pride S.g. 
wr-q- skyudrpa l.Ci.; to forget, leave off. 2. 
^ Sch.: to comminute; to swallow. (?) 
F^x^O' ^ky^r-ba I. adj. sour, sbst acidity; 
^ more frq.: skyur-po C, -mo W. adj. 
sour, Ssk. ^9?|f; skyv/r (^itg-pa 1. to turn 
sour. 2. to suffer a substance to turn sour, 
V. fjug-pa. — Ua('ka)^kyur^ olive, Ua 
(^a)'skyur-p(H ^ olive tree Sik. — skyur* 
Ha Cs.y ran'sky&r Cs.y skyur-ru (Sik.)y 
skur-mo Lh. a sour liquid, vinegar. (Vi- 
negar seems to be little known as yet in 
Tibet, and the above mentioned expres- 
sions may have been framed by different 
persons on different occasions, but are 
not in general use. The same may be 
said of Cs.'s skyiur-pa and skyur-^tsi for 
add in a chemical sense.) 

n. vb. pf. & ft. bskyur 1. to throw, to cast, 
pyir out, Ihun^M ndm-7nKa^la bskyur-na^ 
having flung his mendicant's-bowl up into 
the air Dzl.y ?Mr skyur-ba to throw into 
the water, rgydb-tu befain4 one's self » to 


^ siyus] 

|-q- skyUa 

tarn one's back apon a thing; to throw 
away, throw down, a stone, a corpse etc.; 
to eject, lud-pa phlegm; to throw off, a 
rider; to give up, abandon, a work; to for- 
sake, a firiend; to abort — skyur-ma ab* 
ortion W, (f) — ?u skyuVy yyamkyur ca- 
pital punishment in C, when the delinquent, 
with a weight fastened to his neck, is 
thrown from a rock into a river. 
Mf- skjfusf Sch,: skyus fdg-pa altogether; 
^ sh/ussu kldg-pa Gramm.: to pro- 
nounce jointly, viz. two consonants without 
a vowel between them, 
g s^ 1 V. ske, — 2. v. skyed and sky^-ba, 

^fl* dcyi-ba I. vb. (^fif) pf. ikyes 1. to 
^ be bom; nd-la (seld. fcw) bu skyds-pa 
yin 1 have given birth to a son Gh\; j^d- 
skyes a man, 7nd skyes a woman, female; 
skye^ga-na^oSi-'bai adug-bmdl the evil of 
birth, old age, sickness and death (which 
constitute what in the opinion of the Bud- 
dhist is the greatest evil of all, that of 
existence); fdg-ma sky^-^as, md-la skyis- 
nas B,, ^^d-ma skydsa-na* W. from one's 
birth; sKye S- (or ^) mdd pa subject 
neither to birth nor to death, eternal; skye^ 
^gag-^mdd'Thgy.y Lea., is said to mean the 
same. In the special sense of the doctrine 
of metempsychosis skyd-ba has often to be 
rendered by: to be re-born, mi-ru as man, 
bur as (somebody's) son. — mi skyi-hai 
HdS'la bzdd-pa v. bzdd-pa. — W. : ^skyi-^e* 
1. as inf. to be bern, reborn. 2. as sbst. the 
being born; birth. 3. as adj. being with child, 
pregnant; big with young, also "sMyd-de-ma*. 
— 2. to become, to begin to exist, arise, nod 
kun mi skye, skyds-paan ii-bai pyir ut ne 
morbus ullus nascatur, natus quoque se- 
detur Med,; skye-ba dan o^ig-pa to arise 
and pass away ; firq. of thoughts, passions 
etc. (the person as well as the thing in 
the accus.) : Kyeu Urds-pai sems sky^-te the 
youth — thoughts of wrath arising (in 
him). — 3. to grow (nasci) liin-pa Jbru 
sky^ba valleys where com grows; ru mgd- 
la skye a horn is growing on the head. — 
4. to grow (crescere) ^er or Hen-por sky^ 

ba to grow up, to grow tall; tm kyan 
lus'icyi tsddrdu akydsso the garment also 
grew in proportion to the growth of the 
body, or: vdth the body DzL; rM-pod-- 
par sky^'SO he grew up a valiant man, 
became a valiant man; to bud, germinate, 
sprout, "sbdns-te skye hUg-ce* to accelerate 
the germinating of the seed by maceration 
W.; even = opilria DzL y^i^ ? — 5. some- 
times — skyd-ba 2. unless in that case 
*kyi-c^ should be spelled bskyds-^es W. 

II. sbst. (^nfn) 1- tJie being bom, the 
birth, skyi-ba mfo-ba^ skye-mfd or mfdn 
high birth; of high birtli, noble, man, male; 
skyd-ba drnd-ba, skye-dmd, -dmdn low birth; 
of low birth, ignoble, woman, mi-lus fob 
kyan skyd-ba dman bom a human being, 
it is true, but only a female Mil,; skyes- 
dman col. *kyer mdn* in C. the usual word 
for woman and wife, ne Uyer m4n my wife. 
— In the special Buddhistic sense: re- 
birth mir skyi'ba bidn-pa to take or assome 
re-birth as a human being; also period of 
re-birth = existence, life, skyd-ba Ji-la in 
this, my present, period of life; skyi-ba 
bdun seven periods of life; also manner of 
re-birth, v. skye-ynds; in a concrete sense: 
the re-born individual, yum-gyi skyd-ba ym 
she is the re-birth of the queen dowager, 
the re-bom q. d. — 2. the arising etc. — 
3. the growing etc. 

Comp. skye-dgu v. skyd-bo. — skye-^d 
= ^groba being (q.v.) — skye-sgd 1. en- 
trance to re-birth, viz. to one of the six 
regions of birth, v. ^6-ba II., skye-^gd 
yddd-pa to lock it up. 2. face, Idgs-pa a 
handsome, kan-pa an ugly face; also 
ka-sgd skye-Jyras legs-pa is said for: having 
a handsome exterior C. — skye-m^ed 
(^n^nnr) the five (or six) seats, i. e- or- 
gans, of the senses (the sixth is ini^ the 
inner sense); the senses themselves; Uiis 
conception, however, has been greatly al- 
tered and varied by the fanciful theories 
of medical and philosophical authors, cf. 
Bvm. I, 500. Was. (240). — skye-ynds 
1. birthplace; station or loi»lity of a plant. 

^2f «%^6o 


2. dan or region of birth or re-birth, class 
•f beings (▼. ^grd^a); byol s6n-gi skye-ba 
the beiDg bom as an animal. 3. manner 
of birth ^sililTK) sky^-ba biiy also ^g4f0>l- 
the foar kinds or ways of being bom: 
mndl^as (or nas) out of a womb (so, ace. 
to Stg., elephants and some men are bom), 
sg(hnd4a8 out of an egg (birds, some klu, 
some men), d^od-yhir^-loa out of heat and 
homidity (insects, some men etc.), rdzus- 
fo in a supemataral way (so the Uuiy the 
fiaddhas, when they spring from lotus- 
flowers; also the inhabitants of infernal 
regions, souls in the bardo and some men). 
— skye-yz^tffs prob. == byad-yzugs stature, 
figure. — skye^dbs series of the births of 
a man, history of them, and esp. so of 
the births of Buddha, — so in the title 
of a work. — skye-hm ^ ikyed-Un Wdn. 
^2f deyi-ho 1. being, (animans) mi'la-sogs^ 
^ pa sKyS-bo man and the other living 
beiDgs Dd, — 2. human being, man, gen. 
as a collective noun: mankind, Jlrul-bdas 
dcyi-bo infatuated men Pih.; ikyi-bo mKd»^ 
fayMnHmamz other sensible people Tar.; 
dyi-bo mdn-poi yid-^u J>h-ba universally 
beloved horn.; mi nag sky^-bo laymen (on 
account of the dimness of their religious 
knowledge); so-sdi skyi^bo U f nei n (cf. 
Will,) the lower clergy, common monks 
Tor., but also simple laymen, if they are 
not quite without religious knowledge; 
Jeye-bo'cog^ (skyeo-dog Cs. is a less accu- 
rate pronunciation), dcy^-dguy or (less cor- 
'^^^y) ^ff^y wen, mankind; skye-dgui-bddg- 
''"^ H^IMiiY ^^^' P^- ^*9 ^6 A*^^ <uid first 
governess of Buddha Glr.y OyatcLy also 
a name of dpal-lhd-^mo's q.v. 

a*(5' skye-tsi = ske-M Lex.^ mustard. 

I'^FTpr sky^dgs W, for skorrags girdle. 
^ ikyeg Cs.: — kig^ kag misfortune. But 


rtm-kyi sky eg Lex. w.e.? 
^mr ^!/^9 1. n. of a bird: hi-sky. Lex. 
^ ' w.e., Sch.: coot, water-hen; W- 
«iv^ I/£^. w.e., Ck.i a large singing-bird. 

Sch.; greuse, heath-cock. — 2. rgya-skyigs 


^T'n* ^kyen'ia9iLA9kyens^a\xi be ashamed, 

^ also Uo/^kyen-iay B; and col. frq. 

^r»«Jx'xr'«%^-8^''-^'w^ also skye- or sky a- 
^ ^ 8er4un MU., cold wind. 
^c* skyed and skye, 1. growth, increase, 
^ ' skyed ce-bar ^gyur-ba to grow much; 
yian-gyi zla- skyed -pas dei iag- skyed <fe 
his daily growth wad greater than the 
growth of others in a month etc. Pth. — 
2. progress, the getting on, improvement skyed 
yon progress comes, I am making pro- 
gress MU.; profit, gain nad-la skyed med 
(this) is of no use for that disease, of no 
benefit S.g.fol. 10. — 3. interest 6*., dntU- 
skyed of money, Jbru-skyed of com C, 
skyed-du ytoh-ba to give on interest Cs.; 
skyed pog pa Cs.: 'to be the full term of 
payment', more accurately: skyed pog I 
(you, he etc.) am struck or hit by the 
term of payment; skyednian yielding inter- 
est, profit Cs. 

^C'^ skyedrsgo MU.nt. prob. «= rgyaUsgo 
^ ^ On principal door. 

^ff'a" «%^-p^ '• vb pf. bskyedy act. to 
^ ' skye-btty in W. pronounced alike: 
*skye-de* 1. to generate, procreate; seldom 
in a physical sense: bskyed-pai yah o ysv- 
vfjoag najijg Pth.y (opp. to bltams-pai yum 
Pth.y for which however skyed-^ma Cs. does 
not seem to be an appropriate substitute). 
— 2. to produce, form, cause (opp. to med- 
par byed-pa to destroy, annihilate) e. g. 
diseases, fear, roots of virtue, merit, bsod- 
namS'kyt fsogSy sa-bon (fig.) Dzl.y Jbras-bu 
retribution; to reproduce, zadrpa what has 
been consumed Med.; to create certain 
thoughts or afi^ections either in one's self 
or in others : sprd-ba bslq/ed-pas dei par 
md yan sprd-ba cun-zad sky^s-nas by his 
own rejoicing also to his parents a little 
joy arising/)^/. 22. 5; fams-dad-kyisbrison^ 
cgrus bskyed'do they all created zeal, took 
great pains Dzl; ces bham-pa bskyidrnaz 
thus they thought. — 3. to cause to ger- 
minate or grow, yiir^bai M-yis Hn skyed 


^(^j'CJ* skyhirpa 

^dra just as the water of the ditch makes 
the fields green Med.; sd-bon DzL (v. be- 
fore, but it may as well be referred to this 
significatioD); ysos skyMpa to bring up, 
to nurse up Dd,; ^skyed srin-ba id. Glr, — 
4. = skyd'ba, to bring on, carry, convey to 
a place Pth. 

Comp. skyed-mos-fsdl grove, park. — 
skyed-rdzdgSy instead of skyed-rim and 
rdzogs-rim, ^STCfUnR »nd ^FRHnr^ two 
kinds or degrees of meditation. — skyed- 
kin Cs.: 2^ planted tree (?) prob. a fruit- 
tree, DzL 

II sbst. 1. the generating, producing etc. 
— 2. = skyedy e g. skydd^a Un-pa to gain 
flesli, to tlirive C. — 3. = rUdrpa. 
^q* skyin-pa adj. 1. quick, swift Lea;,, 
^ ^ Urd' or sddn-skyen-pa quick to wrath 
5^.; byidrskyen-pa rash, hasty, precipitate 
Glr. — 2. nimble, dexterous C.W.; .p&k- 
ikyen-pa dexterous in shooting, a skilful 
archer Dzl. (Besides : vb. to make haste, 
to strive; sbst. zeal, ardour; adj. strong C«., 
&ch. ??) 

g^'CJ' ikyhn-pa resp. to be thirsty. 

^^- s^y^'"^ resp. 1. thirst^— 2. drink, 
^ beverage, esp. beer, also ial-skyhm 
or skyoms, skyems ^drM-^a to offer or set 
before an honoured perso^j something to 
drink, bzes-pa to accept of it, to take it; 
skyems- la ysoUris byed-pa to drink beer in 
company Glr,; ysegs-skyims a carousal on 
the departure of an honoured person; yser^ 
skyems beer together with grains of corn, 
as an offering to the gods for the good 
success of an enterprise, a journey etc., 
in religious dancing-festivals, yser-skyims' 
pa sbst. the priest or dancer who offers 
it. — skyems - Mn beer. — skyems - cu 
drinkable water. — ^skyhns-dan* W. (?) 
brandy. — skyems- fsvgs Sch.: cup, dish. — 
skyemssih small-beer. 

^^'CJ' ^^^"V^ Lea;,: f^ftjfi curcuma, tur- 
^ meric; in W, barberry. 

S^^W^T ^^K^ ^^^ ske-dmdn woman C. (v. 
^y"^ skye-ba II). 

g^AI* skyi^-pa 

Sof fl' skyU-bay pf.A ft. bskyely imp. skyol 1. 
^ to conduct, accompany, resp. ydan- 
skyil^a; skydUla hog conduct him hither! 
Pth.; ^skyel-la-la^ (for ^skyilrwa-ld^) son 
he has gone to accompany (him) W. — 
bsu'bskydl ^oing to meet, and accompany- 
ing on departing Dzl.y yhegs-skyel byid^a 
resp. to accompany an honoured person 
on departing, to see him off Mil. — 2. to 
convey, bring, take e. g. a child to a place, 
food to somebody, Dzly C\ W. id.; to carry 
off, to take away C: *8in ma kyal dig* do 
not bring any more wood! more accurately 
*kyal hog* bring! *kyal soil* take away! — 
3. to send B. ^ C. e.g. clothes' to some- 
body Dzl. — 4, to risk, to stake, raH-srog 
Mil. — 5. C\: to use, to employ *bd4an U 
jh£'pa4a* an ox for work; to spend, *k 
^M-paAa mi-tse* one's whole life in work- 
ing, *U-lg ndn-na* in idleness. — 6. *Ka ky^U 
wa* C. to kiss; yndd-pa skyd-^fa, B. *kyal- 
wa* C. W. coL, to do harm, to hurl, inflict 
an injury, to play one a trick; mna skyel-ia 
B.^C.W.y to swear, take an oath; *lo kyiU 
be"" W. to rely, depend upon, confide in.— 
skyeUfun byid-pa = yhegs-sky4l byid-pa, 
(prop.: to accompany one to a short dis- 
tance). — skyeUbddr Lex., also col., pre- 
sent of the departing person to those that 
accompany him. — skyel-ma an escort, 
convoy; skySl-m^r yod he is a guide (to 
me) Mil.; skyd-ma iu we ask for a safe- 
conduct Glr.; dmag dan bhds-pai skyil-Tna 
a military escort Glr. 
^«r skyeSy also skyds-m^y skyds-mUy Vyds- 
^ ma, resp. /wa»-s^^, a present, skyes 
skur-ba to give or send a present; Jbyon- 
skyhy pebs-skyes a present given to or re- 
ceived from somebody on his arrival. — 
sUyaS'-Mh a present of beer, skyes-Kur of 
cakes, skyes-^ndr of merchandise or money; 
skyes4dn a present made in return Cs. 

^^^' skyes-sdM Sik. banana, plantain. 

^^^f^ skyes-ndgy also skye-ndg C. widower. 

^^q» skyes'pa 1. pt. p£ of skyi-ba. — 
^ 2. sbst. roan, male person, skyd»-pa 

I^g" skyis-bu 

^•^* skydd-pa 


dan budrm^dj men and women B, Sr C.\ 
emphatically: rgydUpo ybig-po skyh-pa yin 
the king alone is a man DzL; husband 
Gkr, B sb/es'bu a holy man? 
htrn' sky^-bu, Ssk. v[^^ man, people; 
^ ^ skyes-Jmgan whosoever; roan opp. to 
the rest oi nature Med.; one (French: on), 
ikj/h'bu lag- pa brkydn-ba tsdm-gyis as 
quick as one stretches out his hand Dzl 

— Though this word may also be applied 
to culprits and criminals (Pth,\ it is chiefly 
used of holy men: sky^-bu ddm-pa the 
saint; dad-lddn sky. the believing, the 
faithful Glr,; skyh-bu cen-po, MH \ U\H the 
great saint, in Buddhistic writings nearly 
identical with Buddha; skyh-bu mcog id. 
(For the 32 chief characteristics and the 
80 subordinate marks distinguishing such 
a person refer to Koppen. I. 433. Bum, 
IL 553 £F. Gyatch. c. VII.) 

^^rw* sky^s-ma 1. fem. of skyh-pa^ she 
^ that has been bom Mih — 2. fern, 
= skyds-ma Sik, 

^?^xr skyo-ridgs Cs.: quarrel, Lex, = 
^ '^ Jcrug-m, 

aW skydba 1. vb. to be weary, ccir: bdag 
^ Hyim-gyis skyd^te I being weary of 
living in the world DzL; in a more ge- 
neral sense: to be ill-humoured, grieved, 
vexed, to feel an aversion Tar. 12. 13; skyo 
m Ih-par or skyo mi h^-pa tsdm-du with- 
out being tired, indefatigably; namsMyo^a 
when he was tired of it Dzl. — 2. sbst. 
weariness JsoUj^sdl-nax skyd-ba yan skyS- 
bar dug we are quite tired of that con- 
stant seeking Mil,; yid ydm^su mi sky 6- 
ha indefatigableness, perseverance Thgy. — 
dofd-mo adj., *sems skyd^mo rag^ I feel 
iicontented^ disheartened Ld, 

Comp. skyo-grdgs comforter, companion 
Qk.y Mil. — skyo-glti Cs. : a mournful song. 

— skyo^dly skyo-dRib weariness, skyo-nal- 
medrpai ddd-pa unwearied faith Mil. — 
dsyo'^ds disgust, aversion. — skyo-sdm re- 
creation, skyo^dns-la ^grd-ba, resp. Jbyon- 
fa to take a walk or a ride, to prome- 
nade. — skyo-bsun-pa to be grieved Sch, 


IfST ^^^-^A !• P&P of parched meal and 
^ beer; any pap, paste or dough; skyd- 
ma J^yug-pa to spread paste (upon a 
wound, as a salve) Med.; la-skyd Med. f 
(it may denote a paste of meat as well as 
one of mushrooms). — 2. blame, Slander, 
skyd-ma Tnan-la when he slanders a great 
deal Mil. 
qpf ^kyogs 1. SCOOp, ladle. — "m^-kydg* 
^ coal-shovel C; *hjirky6g* melting- 
spoon, crucible (7. .PT. — 3. drinking-cup, 
bowl, goblet — yser-skydgs, dnul-skydgs 
gold, silver goblet. iaUskydgs C. B., *dxm- 
skydgs^ W. resp.: drinking-cup. Krag-skydgs 
bowl for drinking blood, a skull used for 
that purpose Pik.; *kyog-kdb saP may I 
ask your honour for the foot of your cup 
(viz the remnant of your drink)? W. — 
3. srab'skydgs Cs.: the rein of a bridle. — 
^ywi^qg" ^kydg^lixhjni snail W. *'ol- 

Kmrq* skySgs-pa to turn, mgririrpa the 
^ ' neck, = to look round, back, 

Mil.y also = to turn away, aside C. 
SC'fl' skyon-boy pf. bskyanSy ft. bskyarty 
^ imp. (b)skyon(s) Ssk. T[\y j^ to 

guard ; to Iceep, to tend, cattle; to defend, the 
religion; to savo, preserve, the life, the 
body; support, to talco care of, poor people, 
e.g. drin bzdn-pos by benefits, favours, fdbs- 
kyis by various means; to attend to; tO be 
given to,ftfjrs-d«wmeditation,/agr-Z^^exercise; 
rgyal'srid shyon-ba to rule, govern a king- 
dom, ?os b^in-du in conformity vrith the 
law of religion, justly. — ^os-stydn 'pro- 
tector, defender of religion', ^iRlimr? ^^ ^^^^ 
for a certain individual deity, or = cjig- 
Tten-sky&ny or for a class of magicians in 
the monasteries of C, v. Schl. 157. Ko. IL 
259. — r^ig-^^n-sky&tiy ift^Bumw 'guardian 
of the world'; there are four of them, iden- 
tical with rgyal'^en bii the four great 
spirit-kings, q.v. — shyon-ddl assistance 
C.y *kyon'dhdl jM-pa* to help. — skyon-- 
wa = brtdnma the goddess of the earth. 
^•jTi skydd-pa pf. & ft bskyody Ssk. ^m, 
^^ 1. to move, to agitate, rHk-gis ydl-ga 


«i Q?, 





^ ^%0W 

ukyodrfia when the wind agitates the bran- 
ches DzL; to shake; hence Mi'skyddrpa, Ak- 
shobhya, n. of the second Dhyani-Baddha. 
— 2. W.: resp. to go, to walk, (^yUg^-pa, 
Jbydn-pa B. C.) *ndn'du dyod!' step in, if 
you please! — 3. W.: to go >down> to set, 
of the sun, moon etc., to expire, to pass, 
to elapse, of time. ..Tor^f.ovv, ^Vf.v- r. t^ 

^j- skyon t^ 1. fault, defodH^opp. to 
^ S 1 ydn-tav^y skyon gah yan med I have 
not to complain of anything, I do not want 
anything DzL; damage, harm, disadvan- 
tage, misfortune, Jirul-pa-la skyon ci yod 
what harm is there in erring? Thgy.; C: 
^mi kyon, kygn m^'*, no harm, no matter 
(W. more freq.: ^mistd*); yidn-gyi skyon 
tds-na dgd-ba rejoicing in the calamities 
of others, malicious Glr.; sky&n-du mfdn- 
bd to consider it a loss Glr. — 2. bodily 
defect, fault, as lameness; derangement, dis- 
order in the mixture of the humours Med, 
— 3. spiritual defect, sin, vicious quality, 
rdzun-du smrd-^ai skyon the sin of lying 
DzL; skydn-gyis ma gos not defiled by sin ; 
lar skyon ^e but that is very bad (of you) 
Glr,; skyon byid-pa Cs, to commit a fault, 
sH'ba Lex, to remove, amend, correct a 
fault, spdn-ba to leave oflF, to quit it; mi- 
la skyon Jbebs-pa^ cdogs-pa (col. *tdg-pay 
tdg-ce*) to charge one with a crime, to 
calumniate(T/r.;;'i:an-^* skyon gUn- ba, rydd- 
pa^ to name the faults of others, to speak 
ill of them, to slander B., C, Schr, also: to 
blame, criticise. — skydn-ian 1 . faulty, de- 
fective, incorrect, e.g. dag-yig the spelling, 
of a word. 2. sinful, subject to vice. — 
4. sjrmb. num: 18. 

skydn-pa pf. (b)skyon to put astride 
upon a thing, (causative form to 
idn-pa)y mi hig rtd-la (or rtd-ru) to cause 
a man to mount, to go on horseback: to 
fix something on a stick; mi ^ig pdl-sin- 
la to empale a man. 

'^TH'^^^^^f pf. (J))skyabSy ft. bskyab, 
^ imp. skydb(s) Ssk. ^ to protect, defend, 
preserve, save frq., rjigs-pa^las from fear, 
c^ig-pa-las from destruction; bsiydb-pa the 


gSTj-q- skrdg-pa 

protecting power, the preserving cause 
MU, (ni f.;. 

1^ skyobs help, assistance, seldom for 
skyahs; skydbs-^ma Thgy, id.; ^hrog- 
kydb* col. preservation of life, escape; also: 
he that saves another's life, helper. 

'ZT ^'y^^^'i-p^, pf- bskyomsy ft. bskyom, 
imp. skyom(s) Cs. : to shake, agitate, 
stir up. Lexx. give: hi skydm^a and sndd 
skyomrpa, to stir the water, to shake a 

^x' skyor = %or, the hollow of the hand 
^ filled with a fluid, e.g. hirskydr a 
handful of water. 

§^0" dcydr-ba I. vb. pf. & ft. bskyar 1. tO 
hold up, to prop, — 2. to paste.— 
2. to repeat, bskydr-te btan it was repeat- 
edly sent DzL; to repeat word. for word 
what the teacher says, in order to learn 
it by heart Mil,; to say over again; to 
recite by heart (opp. to sgi^dg-pa to read); 
glu de ryes skydr-nas ma bldns-na if one 
does not sing the hymn afterwards repea- 
tedly MiL; *kyor jan jM-pa* C. to prac- 
tise repeatedly. 

II. sbst. enclosure, fence. 

'^ skydl'ba sometimes for skyel-ba. 

'$!' skyds-ma v. skyes, 

«M- skray resp, dbu-skrd (C: Hay W,: sra*) 
^ the hair of the head, *hrwWLd, id., used 
caressingly in speaking to children and 
women; skra dan Ud-spu the hair of the 
head and of the beard ; s^a bsgril ba Cs, : 
plaited or curled hair; skra nyag ycig a 
single hair. — skrd-ban having long hair. 
— skrordo'ker the hair plaited together 
on the crown of the head, as Buddha and 
Hindu*women wear it. — skrormdud the 
bow of ribands at the end of the long 
plaits of the women in Ld. etc. — skra- 
fsdb Cs. : false hair, a peruke. — skra-sm 
Sch, thin hair. ' ^ li vt. .--^ «^. 

Mw-^ skrdg-pay with instr., to be terrified, 
^ ' frightened by, afraid of something 
'skrag-pay dndns-skr, id. B,y C, 

^ ^. , 

^Z.'^' skran-ba 

jjrw skrdn-ba pf. skranSy lo swell, •^rans- 
^^ son* it is swoUen, a tumour, a bile, 
a weal has formed itself W,; skrdns-po 
Sch. a swelling, tumour; skram-obur Sch, 
an abscess not yet open, 
w^ skt'an 1. Ssk, ij^ Cs.; a fleshy etc. 
^ ^ excrescence in the abdomen, a con- 
cretion imder the skin, in the bowels, 
womb etc., Sch. also: a swelling of the 
glands. Wise (Commentary on Hindoo 
Medicine) says, that very different diseases 
are comprised unter the term gulma, tu- 
mours of the pylorus, partial enlargements 
of the liver, diseases of the large intestines, 
fixed and moveable swellings; -> perhaps 
also bemiae, which I did not find' men- 
tioned elsewhere. — In S. g. I found skran- 
nod described as a consequence of great 
fatigue and want of breath, and sh^an-yzir 
as pain in consequence of suppressed 
winds. — 2. rdo-shrdn, bad-skrdn, two 
sorts of steatite C, 

94n'!:v skrdb-pa Cs,: to beat the ground 
^ with one's feet,' to stamp, tread, cf. 
Jh*db'pa; Lex.: brd-skrab-pay to dance. 
S^prr skrds'ka v. skds-Jca. 

&.q- skri-ba 1. Cs. to COnduct (?) 2. W. 

M£^> skru-^a pf. bskrus ft, bskrUy Sch.: to 
>3 wait; the latter would suit well in 
a passage of Mil.y perh. also in zds-la skru 
of the Lexa.; but ^n-skrus-pa Lexx. re- 
mains unexplained. 


BAgrzy ^Jcrun-pa pf. & ft. bskrun to produce, 
^ ' fruits Mil., a root of virtue (v. 
rtsd-ba) Stg. 

gm- skrum meat, resp. viz. when spoken 
■^ of as the food of respected persons, 
^n-q- skrdg-pa = dhrdg-pa^ perL also f. 
^ ' skrdg-pa. Lexx. dd-ru skrdg-po lo 
beat the drum: W. *kop6h hr6g-ce" to play 
on the guitar. 

^r-^- skrddrpa pf. & ft. bskrad to expel, 
' ' drive out, eject, out of the country 
Dzl.y Mil.; to deprive of cast; *krdd-de 
tan be* to expel a thief publicly out of 
the village W. 

n^"" njj'") words beginning with these 
' ' ^ letters will in most cases be 
found arranged under rk • . and sk . . 

nwn' bskd'bay Ssk. 1KWPS(^ astringent^ as 

^ to taste, Cs. erron.: bitter. 
qfyof q- bskdl-pa, Ssk. ^1^, a kalpa, a 
^ fabulous period of time; the fan- 

tastical reveries of the Buddhists concer- 
ning this subject v. Kd. 1. 266, also Will. 
under kalpa. bskdl-pa ^in-po the great 
kalpa; bdr'(gyi) bskal-pa the intervening 
or middle *kalpa'; bsk. bzdn-po the happy, 
blessed period, viz. in which Buddhas ap- 
pear; bskdl-pa ndn-pa the bad 'kalpa'; 
bskaUrrU conflagration of the universe. 

^H'^' bsku'ba v. skud-pa II vb. 

bskan-rdzds a sacrificial ceremony 
V. Schi. 360. 


mHa 1. the letter k', aspirated, like c in 
^ccUr. — 2. numerical figure: two, Afa- 
pa the second volume. 
m^ Mai. additional syUable, = ka, but less 
' frequent — 

II. in compounds instead of Md-ba 
bitter and Kd-ba snow; for the latter sig- 
nification it is in W. the only form existing. 

III. i. o. Hag part, Ha ynyissu into 
two parts (e. g. to cleave) Stg. ; ^ISa-ghdn* 






one part; in a special sense: the sixth 
part of a rapee C; Ua-cig part, some, se- 
veral, frq. 

IV. (also S%k. ij) resp. ial, cf. Ud-po 
1. mouth, Ua Ka bitter mouth, bitter taste 
Med.; Ua dul-po (soft month), manage- 
able, tractable, Ua gydn-po hard-mouthed, 
refractory; Ka sffyur^a (= Ka-lo sgy,) to 
govern, to rein the mouth (of a horse), 
to lead, guide, influeoce other persons Glr.^ 
to turn oflf (a river) Tar,; Ua Jhi-pa (U> 
pull the mouth) to stop a beast of draught 
Tar.; Ua Jryedrfa^ TF, */5^^^* ^ <^P^^ ouq^s 
mouth, yddns-fa to open it wide, jizum- 
pa^ W.y * bug-be^ to shut it; Ua brddh-pa 
(or krdb-pa?) to smack; *Ua dab* (or *fab*) 
*zir-wa* to produce a smacking, snapping 
sound, col. ; Ua rig-pa c. dat. to put one's 
mouth to a thing, in order to eat or drink 
it; Ua ^iiq-pa c. dat. to interfere, to meddle 
with; Ua tdl-ba 1. col. ,= Ua ^ug-pa^ 2. 
C«.; to promise; Ua ytugs-pay Ua ^o ytugs- 
pa^ Ud'la ^0 hyidrpa^ Ua shydr-ba B.y C, 
*Ua Ufn-W W.y *Ua hfd-^a* C. to kiss; 
*Ua kyi'ce^ W.y to inveigh, to give ill lan- 
guage; Ua bsri-ba to have intercourse, social 
connexion with one another, viz. in eat- 
ing, drinkiug and smoking together, 
which is a matter of no little social con- 
sequence; Ua^dzin iy^d-pa c.genit. to receive 
friendly, to be kind to, assist Mil. ; Ua ^tad- 
pa Glr. 16. 3. was explained: to bring 
together personally, to confront, = Ua 
sprdd'pa; Ua Jyub-ta nyal-ba to lie in that 
position; Ua bsldn-ba the contrary of the 
preceding; Ua ^dg-ta bltds-te hi-ba to be 
kiUed by a precipitous fall. Especially: 
the speaking mouth, Ud-naSy col. also *Afd- 
na*y orally, by word of mouth, e. g. to 
state, report, ^Ud-ne z^-na* in the collo- 
quial language C; *Ua di-mo nyin sdg-po* 
W. hypocritical; Ud-la sld-te ddn-la bka 
easily spoken after, but difficult to be 
understood (e. g. a doctrine); *Ua i&r son* 
'my (his etc.) mouth has run away', *nor 
son* 'has erred', the former denoting in- 
considerate talk, the latter a lapsus lin- 
guae; Ua>s Un-pay bldn-ba 1. 'to anticipate 


with the mouth', to promise frq., with di- 
rect speech or term, inf., sometimes also 
with the term, of a sbst. e. g. brdn-du 
Uas blans he promised or engaged himself 
as a servant, — also : to presume, to arrogate 
MU. 2. 'to accept, adopt with the mouth*, 
to acknowledge, admit Tar.; Uas Ji-ba B.^ 
Ua fdl'ba Cs.y to promise; Ua snd-bay snds" 
pa to blurt out, speak Out inconsiderately; 
Ua Jldrn-pay mfun-pay col. ^iing-pc^ to agree 
upon; Ua sddm-pay mndn-pa to silence, 
W.; *Ua kdg-dey kyil-ce* id.; Ua skydr-ba, 
slu-ba to speak cunningly, to try to per- 
suade etc.; Ua rdg-pay more freq. *Ua rdg^ 
(te) dug-pay dddrpay to be Silent; Uaopdn- 
ba Tar.y prob. — Ua ^yam dbyug^pa C, 
to divulge ill rumours; Ua Idg-pa to reply, 
contradict; Ua gdn dgar smrd-ba (*gan tad, 
gan dran zh-be* W.) to talk at random; 
Afa- (la) nydn-pa to obey, Ua nydn-po 
obedient (resp. bka i.o. Ua); ysdl-Ua clear, 
intelligible language; Ua ndn-du smrd-bdy 
W.: *Ua sdg-po z^'de*\o use ill language; 
also without *ndn-pa* or *sdg-pOy Ua zir^ 
he* or *Ua tdn-wa* means the same. — 2. 
mouth, opening, orifice, of a vessel, cav^n, 
pit etc., Uayddd-pay cffibs-pa to cover, shut 
an opening; Ua Jbyid-pa to open, is also 
used of a book, a letter etc. (for holy 
books hal is employed i.o. Ua); Ua Jbye-ba 
to open or unclose itself, to begin to ap- 
pear, Ua Jyu'ba id., of flowers; Ua bub-iu 
the opening turned downward, Ua bsldn- 
du turned upward; Uorfug skdn-ba to fill 
to the brim; Ua skdn-ba to fiJl up a void, 
to make up a deficiency, yianr-nas or Uts 
from elsewhere; Ua nan the inward brim, 
Ua 'pyi the outer edge Gtlr. — 3. the front 
side, face, Ua Ihor st6iv-pa or Itd-ba to be 
directed southwards Glr. — 4. surface, Ua 
Jyri'bay to be diminished, of a fluid the 
surface of which is sinking; Ud ^pri-ba to 
diminish, to make less, by taking away from 
the surface; the outside, Ua dkar yUn nag 
outside white, inside black, fig. MU.; in a 
special sense: colour, v. Ud-ddg; therefore 
Ud-rUy Ud-na, Ud-la, Uar 1. on, upon, abOve, 
sm-Uar upon the tree (e. g. he sits), up 

lyirv\A — 


r^.:^^^-^^ ^j^ 

pr «a 

the tree (be climbs) Dzl,; hit Kar on tbe 
water; pyog^ bzi Kd^ru all round Glr. 2. 
on, at, (fu Afar OD the river side, m^ Kar 
pebs he came to the lake Pth, 3. above, 
besides, = stM-du Mil. 4. towards, in the 
iace of, mtison Mar sra proof against thrust 
or blow Mil. 5. at tlio time of, when, sl^ 
pai Sary sUb Kar, Jbyon Kar when (he) ar- 
rived; rS-bai Kar in the hope of; — Afd- 
nas down from, away from, rta Kd-nas 
Jkibs^ to alight from the horse Glr.; 
•i^d-wa, Kd-ne, Kd-la* col. for sgd-nas, *iMs- 
d Kd'-na* by way of the opportunity, on 
otcasioD, *yun rinrgi Kd-n^* by little and 
little, gradually. — 5. sharpness, edge, of 
a knife etc., *Ka tug-po son* the edge has 
become blunt, *log son* has become bad; 
*Ea wd ^dug* the edge is wantiog; meiy 
hii, rlun-gi Ka ndn-pa to suppress the 
sharpness of the fire, water, wind, to stop 
tbe flames, floods etc. (viz. by means of 
incantations) Glr.; *Ka tdn-be, pin-c^ W. 
to grind, to sharpen ; Ka Un-pa to become 
sbarp Sch. 

V. yesterday, also: the day before 
yesterday, Kai nyin id., cf. Ka-rtsan. 

Compounds. Ka-dkriCC. *'ti*y W. *'h^) 
neck-cloth, sometimes worn as a protection 
against cold. — Kd-skduy Kasskdn appen- 
ds, of a book. — Kordcyur-po olhro, olive- 
tree Sik. — Ka-Ka^sdn or sin about two 
mcmths ago C. — Ka-Kibs cover, lid Sch, 
— Ka-K&Ty Ka-Kyir border Sch. — KorKral 
(k: respect, regard, with respect to. — 
HorJUr the circumference of the mouth 
Cs. — Ka-gdn (cf. Ka III) quadrate, 
S(|Uare, Ka-gdn-ba square adj.^ Ka-gdn-ma 
id., e.g. pieces of cloth so shaped. — Ka- 
gab Sch. cover, lid. — Ka-g6n snow-bail. — 
Sorgru comer of the mouth. — Ka-mgdl 
T. iorsd. — Korrgdn Mil. privilege of old 
age n. f. — Ka-rgdd Sch.: ill language; a 
slanderer. Kanrgyug Glr. ace. to the con- 
text: idle talk, unfounded assertion. — Ka- 
fgyiid or -gyun, resp. icd^gyuriy oral tra- 
dition, esp. certain mystical doctrines not 
allowed to be written down. — Ka^gds 
advice, « Kd^ta; commandment, cf. bka- 

— Ka-mndr bitter and sweet.. — 
Ka-lig (v. Ka III) some, — Ka-yidn 
clever talking, cf. Ka sbydn-po eloquent 
(Cs.: fair words?) — Ka-ytdd cover, lid; 
cork. — Ka-bbdl Sch. idle talk, prattle. — 
Kor-cdg Mil., was explained: abuse, ill lan- 
guage. — Ka-Mdy resp. ial-cdd agreement, 
convention, covenant, *k zumrh^ W. to con- 
clude a convention. — Koridr MU. snow 
and rain; KormorMr both falling promis- 
cuously, sleet. — Ka-cins the appeasing 
of wild beasts etc. by witchcraft Mil^ — 
Ka-du 1. spittle Cs. 2. snow-water. — Ka* 
2f<? 1. a large mouth. 2. a person that has 
to command over much (cf. Ka-drdgyKa-idn). 
3. n. of a mask in the reb'gious plays. 4. 
n. of a country, Cashmere, v. below. — 
Ka-^hns last will, Ka-c&ms ^dg-pa to make 
a testament. — Ka-ios hypocrisy. — =• Ka- 
mht 1. lip. 2. Sch.: word, voice (?) 3. 
quarrel, dispute. — Ka-rji 1. great lord, 
mighty personage Cs. (?) 2. good luck, 
good fortune Cs.; but in C. it is only used 
for fortune = goocjs, wealth. — Ka-nyun 
Sch sparing of words, laconic. — Kd-tay 
also Kd'lta good advice, lesson, by^d-pa or 
f^dg^a to give, C. W. — Ka^tdd-la (or -wo) 
Ld. = Kor-tdgUiy on, upon. — Kor-fdn Cs.: 
'a reading or saying with a loud voice' 
(Lea.^^^)^ better: the saying by heart, 
kldg-gam Ka-tdn^du ddn^nas reading or 
saying by heart, Ka-tdn-du h^-pa to know 
by heart Dzl.; gen, in reference to reli- 
gious texts. — Ka-ytdm Cs. tradition. — 
Korstdh not yet having eaten anything. — 
Ka-fug C. to the brim. — Kor-tdg-la or -^a^ 
« Kd-Uiy above, upon, on the top or sur- 
face of, Ka-tdg-tu id.; Ka-fdg-nas down 
from. — Ka-fdr Sch. pustules in the mouth. 
— Kordigy Ka-ldig-mKan W. stammerer. — 
Ka-d6gy also Ka (v. Ka IV. 4.) colour skra 
mfon-mfin-gi Ka-ddg-tu gyiir-to the hair 
became blue Dzl.; Ka sgyur~ba to change 
colour, Ka ^gyur the colour changes, cf. 
also 7nd/og. — Ka- drdg 1. mighty. 2 
haughty. — Ka-dran W. over -against, just 
before, opposite, straight on. — Ka-^ddms, 
« Kd'ta, yddmS'Kay advice W. — Ka-oddr 





p-J^ Ua-lli 

Cs.: *one who speaks too fast', Sch.: 'too 
loud'. — Ua-^dig cork, bung, stopple. — 
Ma-nan yesterday morning C. — Kd-nar-dan 
obtong. — Ma-^nU last year. — Md-po some- 
times {. Ka 1. mouth, e.g. *Ud'po dul-mo* 
W.y *Ud dul'po C, tractable. 2. speech 
Mil. 3. bitter C. — Kd-lpdgs lip, gdn-ma 
upper, J^g-ma lower lip; W,x 'UdUpag (s) 
pdg-dey ddb-be* to smack. — Kd-spu hair 
of the beard, skra dan Hd-spu hair of the 
head and beard, frq. — Ud-pd boasting, 
Ua-pO'M id. — Ua-pdr ^ 'p&r-pa^ a CUp. — 
Ka-pyis napkin. — Kd-ba v. below. — Ua-- 
bdd the humidity of the air or the moisture 
of the earth caused by snow. — Ua^bub 
mouth or face being turned downwards. — 
Ka-brdg v. below. — Ua-rbdd C«. : 'a boast, 
proud speech'; others: idle talk. — Afa- 
sbydn eloquence Mil.^ Ua-sbydn^o eloquent, 
cf. Kor-ybdn f — UorTna-Mr sleet, rain and 
snow. — Ka-mur bit (bridle) Sch — Ua- 
rtsdny Ua-sdn 1. B.C. yesterday forenoon, 
Ka-rtsdn-gi byis-pa the boy that was here 
yesterday forenoon MiL 2. W. (^kar-sdh*) 
the day before yesterday; some days ago; 

""kar-sdh za-nyi-ma* last Sunday: ^Kar-sdn 
(s)tdn--ka* last autumn. — Ka-fsa 1. bitter 
and acrid Med. 2. 'hot in the mouth' a. a 
very acrid sort of radish, e.g. horse-radish. 
b. aphthae, thrush, a disease of the mouth, 
incident to horses, cows, sheep, c. Ka-fsd 
rin-ne-ba Mil. nt. daily warm food. — fla- 
fsub snow-storm. — Afa-^d boasting, Ha-fsd 
Mn-tu fi-ba a great swaggerer Glr. — Afa- 
fsdn V. below. — Ua-mfsul muzzle, mouth 
(of a dog etc.); the loWer part of the hu- 
man face col. — Ua-J&dg abuse? ^Ka-fsdg 
'6imrpo* C. a great abuser, reviler. — i^a- 
zdn the contrary of Uanlrdgy low, unim- 
portant, having no authority, Ha^idn-pai 
sdug-bsndl the misfortune of being of low 
birth Mil. — Ha-hd 1. 'mouth and mind', 
Ma^iS mi mfstins-pa hypocrisy, hypocrite C. 
2. *mouth-mind', meaning the same as the 
phrase just mentioned : hypocrisy Mil, Ha- 
le-m^drpa unfeigned, sincere Mil. — Afa- 
iin breadth, expanse, e.g. of the heavens 
MiL — Ka-zds food, victuals B. C. — led- 

ya lit: 'being one's partner or match as 
to speaking', also Kai ya^ — gen.: part- 
ner; match; ^kd-ya jh£ -pa* C. to assist, 
*Ug Ue yct^ (or *Ua^ya) n§ nd fitb* I am 
not his match, not able to compete with 
him; with regard to things: I am not 
equal to the task. — Horras neck-doth, cf. 
Ha-dkri. — Md-rurfsa alum MM. — Morrud 
snow-slip, avalanche, — Ka-rd taste in the 
mouth. — Ma rog v. Ma IV. 1. extr. — 
Ma-ldn 'mouth-requital' 1. thanks-giving Mil. 
2. reply, esp. angry reply. — 3. requital 
for food received C. — Ma-leb cover, lid. 
— Afa-fo 1. 'mouth leaves', anoi Md-lo Mil. 
the young, tender leaves of several wild 
herbs, used as vegetables. 2. v. below. — 
Ma-M 1 . V. Mor^kyttr-po. — Md-sd kd-ba S.g., 
'snow- deer', elk Sch.; shoe-leather from 
the skin of this animal is mentioned in 
Mily and is known in Tibet. In Sik. how- 
ever the deer of the neighbouring Tarai 
is called Ma-^a^ in other parts of the coun- 
try the spotted deer, — Ma^dgs jest, joke, 
*Ma'hdg fdb-ce, tdn-te* W. to jest. — Ma- 
hugs- ban J -Ud-ban W. eloquent — Afo-^^ 
Cs. some. — Ma-h6b col. lies, falsehoods; 
obscene talk; idle talk. MorUdd talk, gossip 
MU. — Masdn V. Ma-rtsdn. — Ma-sin se- 
veral weeks ago Cs. — Ma-sd mouth and 
teeth; similar: Ma-mgdl mouth and jaw- 
bone, *Mdsd* or *Ma-gdl cog yin* I shall 
break your chops W. — Md-srof Ld. *Ma- 
hrd Idm-be* to fry (meat) in butter. — 
Ma-sldby —^Ma-tdUy learnt by heart, (used 
by children) W. — Ma-lhdg remnant of 
a meal Mil. 

p^'Afa (Mica?) v. Mwa-ta. 

|rrsr[2f Md-ga-po Sch.: difficult (?). 

PT5^ ^a-^/ W. col. for Ma-ce-yuly Cash- 
' mere. 

m-^« Afa-?6f Cashmere; amongst other things 
' it produces much safFron, hence Ma- 
fe-skyes safh*on; in Cashmere Buddhism 
was once flourishing (v. the legend re- 
lative to its being introduced there: In- 
troduction du Buddhisme dans le Kashmir 

-C -f^ 

- t - 







par L. Feer Paris 1866), but afterwards 
it came under Mahometan rulers, and A'a- 
fi denotes therefore now in C. a mussul- 
man (cf. Hue & Gabet's journey); Afa- 
?ei dp^-ca the koran Schr.; Ua-^H cff^dn- 
(an an inn kept by a mussulman Mil. 
prr- Sd-ta (Hva-ta?) Ssk. 1. CrOW. — 2. 
'^ ' raven, = bya-rdg^ po-rdg. — 3. Ka-ta 
M-bo magpie. 1 ^^--^^ . sbt^t^ 
iqTj^^r' fcd-to-hin is said to be = /"saZ- 
' ' • stw, a pointed stake used for the 
execution of criminals. 
p^w Ua-tcdn-ga, Ma-fv.^ gen. pronounced 
' ' ' Ua-tom-ga Ssk., WilL: 'a club or 
staff with tk skull at the top\ the weapon 
of Siva, also carried by ascetics; Tibe- 
tans refer it also to the trident."^ 
-.^--2-^ Ka-btdgs handkerchief or scarf of 
' ' ' salutation, a piece of veil-like 
and generally worthless silk-fabric, about 
as large as a small pocket-handkerchief, 
which in Tibet is given or sent, with or 
without other presents, to the person one 
intends to visit; cf. Hue's journey XT, W 

fO^ Ua-jld, V. Kan-da. ^^ ^^ e 

jq-q- M-ba I. col. C. "Ud-po*^ W. ^Udn-te*, 
" Bal. *xo* bitter. - II. W. *Ua* snow, 
M-ba dun Itar ysal bright as snow and 
shells Pth.; Kd-ba J)ab, col. *lia yon* it 
snows; *A^aj[?a^-cV W. to remove the snow 
(with a shovel) ; Ud-ba-can snowy, and as 
a subst: the snow-country, Tibet; Ud-ba- 
can-pai Bems-ban-mams the Tibetan beings 
Qlr. — III. correspondently to the Arabian 

word 8^' the missionaries in Lh. have 
given to Ua-Jja the signification of coffee, 
which is otherwise unknown in Tibet. 
BTflC' Ka-bdd 1. the architectural ornament 
^ of a Tibetan house formed by the 
projecting ends of the beams which sup- 
port the roof (not 'parapet' C«.) — 2. v. ka. 
p-qqr Ua-brdg fork (not generally used in 

'^ ' eating); any forked object. 
D-^ Ud-mo Cs. enchantment, irresistible in- 
' fluence. 

PT^ ^o-^dr fringes, threads, such as the 
loose threads at the end of a web. 

iq-Vy Ua-fsdn Sch. decision; but in the 
' ^ only passage where I met with this 
word, viz. Dzl 9'SU 13, this meaning is 
not applicable, but something like surface 
or width. 

pr(SJ^ Ua-iur Sch. water-hen. 

m'sx^Kct-zur (Ssk. ^[^9 Hindi Igrar) col. 
' Ua-zur-pa-niidX^j Ua-zur ^//idate-tree. 

pr^^' fe-/2^^' 1. W.: rake (gardening). — 
' ' 2. Sp.: a carrier's load, ^Ka-zS-pa* 
a cooly. 

m^jjwjw- Ua-ydg a false charge, C, : *ma nye- 

' ' pe Ua-ydgjhuif he was innocently 


iq-x' Kd-ra 1. W. i kd-ra sugar, - 2. 

' Sch. : trough, manger, r 

pT^* Afa-?V, or Ka-ru, v. Udl-^ri. '' 

m-J^' Ua-^ogy V. Ua rog-pa^ Ua IV. 1. 
' ' towards the end. 

K'd'le V. Uyd'le. 


prSf ^^"^^ \. "v. Ua Comp. — 2. Schr. 
' prow of a ship, others: helm; the 

word is very often used in the phrase: 
Ka-do sgyur-ba, esp. gvu-yzihS'-kyi, to turn 
a ship, to steer, to lead, govern, rule, Afa- 
lo sgyur^mUas-^a skilful in driving, k'a-lo^ 
pa a charioteer. — 3. Cs.: the glans penis. 
m'jT Ua-hfa n. of a mountainous country 
' ^ in the N.E. of India Tar. 21. 10. 

pT^^' Ua-sur v. Ua-zur. 

nqcn- Uag 1. a task; charge, business, duty; 
' ' responsibility; importance; Uag Jcur-ba 
to be charged with, kdg ^gel-ba to lay upon ; 
*kag feg-pa* or ^kydg-pa* C. to warrant, 
become responsible; d^r Jso-ba ydn-ba kag 
teg I warrant you will get something to 
eat there Mil.; *Uag -f^g, Uag-Uydg* C. a 
bail; Udg-dan important. — 2. W.: part, 
bbvr-Udg the tenth part, tithe, *Uag-nyi co- 
U tdd-de* to cut in two; division, section 
(of a book); place, *Udg nyi-la pog son* 
1 have hurt myself in two places; *Uag 
big-la rub-be* to press towards one point; 
in a more general sense: *Uag big-la 'i 



Y^^l^ Hdff-^ 


sda-ka ios* finish this work at once! — 
yid-Mg province, district; rgyal-Mg king- 
dom. — 3. W.: *\iag^ or *lxdg'^a tdg-ce* 
to hang (by the neck) 
jiCTSf Ugfo a 1. difficult (W. *lldgCs)- 
P^*)y l*^ (^ bear), *Mg-pojhun* 
it proved hard, ^/fdg-po )M-pa* to suflfer 
want. — 2. bad, spoiled, rotten, *mar kag- 
po 80H* the butter has become rancid. 

nOT*Qr (?) ^<^9'l^y ^<^'' *Udg4a mar'' fresh 


butter, just made. 

Uan C: vulg. i. Uouy sometimes also 

in books. 

pqr'a' Hdfi-pa house, kdn-pa-la W. home, 
' at home; in compounds also for a 

part of the house: room, story, floor etc., 
sten-y bdr-y ^dg-lcan upper story, middle 
story, ground-floor Glr.; bdr-ma, dkyil-ma 
or yziin-Kan means also the usual dwelling- 
room, opp. to pugs and sgo (v sgo): bzd- 
Udn workshop; bdn-Kan storo-houso, store- 
room; sgd-lcan entrance, vestibule; skdr-l-an 
(Glr, 68, 9) seems to be a passage run- 
ning round a building; *h6g'Uan* W, the 
scoo ping-form or mould used in the ma- 
nufacture of paper; ^fsds-Kan* bed (garden). 

kafi^ld house-rent — Kah-cuh house 
or room reserved for decrepit parents; 
kan-curi-pa inhabitant of such; yan-lxaii- 
'iun-pa such a person of the second de- 
gree, (if, during his life, his son enters 
into the same right). — kahstdh an empty 
house, which is thought a fit place for 
sorcery and necromancy. — ^dn-bu \ . little 
house, cottage. 2. room, myor-ndn-gyi K. 
room of mourning DzL — kan-mig room. 
— kan-^isd foundation of a house Sch. — 
Ifan^idbs flooring of a room. — Uan-bzdns 
residence, chiefly of gods. — kan-rid Sch. 
a house in ruins. 

pC'^ Kdn-bu Pth. n. of a (fabulous) country. 

fqr- flod 1. litter, barrow. — 2. like, as, 
I ' .= Itar Glr, — 3. = Afod, kad^nydms 
V. Jcod^nydms. 

pqr-q' fiad-pa^ 1, the same as Jiddrpa to 
■^ stick fast, to be seized, stopped, im- 
peded, y. Jcad^a; hence also ma^dd = 

pq^ Kabs 

ma-fag as SOOn as: dbugs iad ma-Uddrdu 
as soon as the breathing ceases Thgr,; 
*de Tna-MdT instantly, direcUy, bu sh/es- 
ma-kdd cigGlr, a child born just now. — 
2. to approach, draw near, with Uiy nubda 
Udd-pai fse when the evening drew near 
Pth,'^ frq. with the perfect-root of a verb: 
dbtigs cddda Udd-foi dua when the ceas- 
ing of the breath approaches Thgr.; zin- 
la i'ad ydd-porla as we were just about 
to seize him; Udd-du postpos. c.a.: rth'i' 
pa k-dd-du as far as the heel Mil,; kdd- 
kyis adv. by degrees Mil.; Mdrlay k'dd-du 
id. Tar. 

pTT«q» Kdn-pa, also U&nrpa 1. sbst. Schr,: 
' ' wormwood, probably a mistake for 
Udm-pa, — 2. vb. to add (arithm.) Wdk, 
myc- Udn-day more correctly Udn-da^ also 
' ' ' speUed Kd-^ddy Ssk , treacle or mo- 
lasses partially dried, candy; di-laUdn-da 
bbos-pa the candy made of it Med,; skyir- 
Kan-da candied skyer-pa. 
_-.-.-• Uan - mdn (corrupted firom ^- 
' ' ' dmanf) modost Lh. 

iqq- kab 1. court, residence of a prince, 
' rgydl-poi Kdb-kyi mi-mams courtiers. 
— 2. wife, spouse, Kah ^M-ma the first 
wife (in rank) ; de-la Kab ^6s-pa ma myidr 
nas as there was not found a wife worthy 
of him Glr.; jdi ynyis nai kdb-tu byim-ia \ 
rmis-so I dreamt that these two would 
become my wives Glr.; Mb-ta bih-pa to 
take for a wife, to marry. (Schr. has even 
a verb: ^h-7na$r Kdb-pa.) — 3. needle, I 
Kab-rtse point of a needle, kab-rdl^) Sch, 
needle-case, Kab-mig eye of a needle, kdb- j 
mig-ta skud-pa ^ug^pa or rgyud-pa to 
thread a needle; prorMb a small needle, 
sbom-Hdb, mo-kdh Dzly fa Mb W,y blo-Hab 
W,y Kab-rul W, a large, thick needle, 
packing-needle; Kab-spu bristle Sik.; kab- 
Un (rdo) loadstone, magnet. 

py^y^ kab-td-ka col. Jpapsack, pouch. 
pq-O^ kdb-le (or last) W. difficult 


Kahs n. of a disease Med. 

pST /cam 

Ham 1. a bit, a small piece of any- 
thing, Icam-cun a small bit, Uam-gdn, 
I'am ycig a roonthfal^ /ram-fsadrdu yddd-pa 
to cat Sn the size of bits' Dzl (infernal 
ponishment); Ham-zdn a mouthful of food 
MiL; zas Kam jrbig id. — 3. W,y C. ap- 
petite, ^zd'ce-la If am yon* W. I get an 
appetite for eatmg; */fam dig son* W, I 
have no appetite; Kam-ldg want of ap- 
petite, nausea, aversion (Cs. also: hatred); 
^fam-ldg-pa* inclined to nausea, easily 
sickened C; ^^am-ldg-kan* W, id.; *Kam- 
fom bo dug, nyin Kam-Hdm do dug* (with 
la) W, he has a desire, a longiog for, 
perh. only provincial pronunciation for 

pSl'pj' Ram-Hum high and low Schr. (?) 
pr^^' Uam^dr walnut Sch, 

iqjij-q- ^aW^, sorrel, brown- 
^ ish. — 2. porcelain-clay, china-clay. 
— 3. Tanacetum tomentosum, a very arom- 
atic plant, frequent on high mountains. 
pg^fS^' Homrf&r a cup made of dough, 
used as a lamp in sacrificing. 

^^ Kam-hir (perh the Ar.-Hd. ^ 

p^^;^' llar-gdn 



leaveo) thick bread-cakes leavened with 
butter-milk Ld. 

m^q 1cdm-bu 1. apricot B,, C, Hdm-bui 
tsi-gu the stone of an apricot; 
hmlu-mdr the oil pressed out of apricot- 
stones, smelling and tasting of bitter al- 
monds Med,; mna-rk kdm-bu dried apri- 
cots, V. pd'tin, — 2. peach Sik. — 3. 
V. tarn. 

mgjmynr Kam-yydg Sch. cherries, morels; 
• ' these not being known in Ti- 
^ the word must be either of Khotan 
or Chinese origin, or else the signification 
of 'stones of apricots' is to be adopted, 
as given in Wi», 

wg^ Uanm (Ssk. ^rfj) !• physical con- 
stitution of the body, state of 
I fcBaltii, kams bd^ ha healthy constitution, 
good health; f^e-btsiin-gyi kam» hde lags-- 
»«m.? is your Reverence well? asks a lay- 
man, and the Lama answers: na Unr-iu 

bde; kyed kams bde-amf I am quite well; 
are you well? MiL; W, more frq. : */^am- 
zdn-po*, C. also kam sdn good health; 
kams-rmyd Med,, ace. to Cs. nausea, feel- 
ing sick; kams-sds Sch,: rest, comfort, health, 
prob. more accurately: recreation, recovery, 
restoration (of health), so: kams sds-par 
gijur MiL; sometimes it seems to be a 
synonym of ItiSy body, kams dub-pa bsinr 
ba to recreate the exhausted body MiLnt 
fig.: piod'Sems-midrpai kams has fe the 
peaceable disposition predominates Stg, — 
2. (synon. of yul) empire, realm, territory, 
domain; yvl-kdms empire, in a geographi- 
cal and political sense, e.g. Nepaul Glr,; 
rgyal'kdms I. for rgydUpoi kams kingdom, 
korborian gyi rgyal-kdms the kingdom of 
Tibet 2. for rgydl-bai kams the empire 
of Buddha, the world; rgyal-kdms ^rim- 
pa to roam over the kingdoms, the coun- 
tries Mil,; region, dominion, bar-sndh-gyi 
kaTHs the atrial regions, where the Iha 
live Pth,] in physiology: mkris-pai kams 
the dominion of bile Med,; kams ysum 
the three worlds ace. to Buddhistic spe- 
culation, viz. the earth with the six heavens 
of the gods, as the 'region of desire', jdod- 
pai Kams; above this is the 'region of 
form', yzugs-hfi kams, and ultimately fol- 
lows the 'region of formlessness', yzugs^- 
m^d'pai kams. — 3. element (syn. Jbyun" 
ba), kams drug the six elements of some 
philosophical systems, consisting, besides 
the four elements familiar to us, also of 
ndm-mka and ma7n-hh^ the ether and the 
substance of the mind. In chronology, in 
naming the single years of the cycle, five 
elements are assumed, which (according 
to Chinese theory) are wood, fire, earth, 
iron, water. — 4. p.n. Khams, Great Ti- 
bet, the parts between U and China; 
smadr-mdo'kams-sgdn ysum the low-land, 
the three provinces Do, Eham, and Gong, 
cf. mna-iis; kdms-pa a man from Ehams. 

V^^^ kar-rstdn v. kd-^iisdn, 

nqx-^fr* kar-gdn steatite, soapstone, Sch,, 
' ' prob. = dkar-^on. 

40 ^ ^ 

P^'^|C Uar-rkydn 

P^^|C* Uar^kydn v. Ka-rkydn, 
' P^'S^^' ^ar^Udn V. {id-rtsdn. 

P^Crl" or p'?|^-q'(3r l^^trsa^a-^ni or ^a- 
' ' ' ' sar-pa-na n. of a 

deity 6Zr.; 2ar. p. 110 gives a (rather 
absurd) legend concerDing the origin of 
the name. 

mq- k'al 1. (of. sffal) burden, load, Kal 
' cl'i/n'-ba to carry a burden; Udl-ffyi 
sten-du on the top of the luggage Glr,; 
]ial Qffel'ba to load a burden, to put a 
load upon, leal Jbdffs-pa to take off the 
burden, to unload; load, freight; as a fixed 
quantity, lug-l'al a sheep - load, bdh-Ual 
load of an ass; Jbimi Hal a load of com. 
— 2. bushel, a dry measure «= 20 bre; 
therefore = a score or 20 things of the 
same kind; in W, ^h^aUycig frq. for nyi- 
hu^ also with respect to persons; yhdr-lcal 
a 'measuring-score', 20 bre, actually mea- 
sured, as is usual with com; ^d^gs-Ual a 
Sveighing-score', the weight of 20 points 
on the steel-yard (rgya-^ma)^ in weighing 




p'Af* numerical figure: 32. 

j^(^" /ciu C: *Kyiu* a cutting-out knife. 

PUu 1. numerical figure: 62. — 2. for 
^^ tiu-lu (?) Lt7. 
p^ Uu-gu Cs, '1 . uncle. 2. an address'(?) 

fq«e- Hu'tu a hut, cottage, constructed of 
>o>o branches Lh, 

r^' ^ Uii-^u p. n. Kunawar, also Bissahar, 
i^ n3 country on the upper Sutledj, bord- 
ering on Tibet, and inhabited in the northern 
part by Tibetans. Here are situated Ka- 
nam, a monastery with a considerable 
collection of Tibetan books, and Poo, a 
missionary station of the Church of the 
United Brethren, founded 1865. 
iq«q- Uu-ba 1. fluid, liquid, also (but less 
io frq.) Mu-H; Ihun^z^d bkrus-pai Uit- 
btty the fluid in which a beggar's bowl 
has been washed Tar. ; Itrus-Ku dish- wash, 
swill Tar,; Jfrds^/^u Cs,: rice-soup, Schr,: 
rice-water; sin-Ku, rtsd-Uu the sap of trees, 
of plants Cs,; hd-Hu broth, gravy; mdr-hi 

x^'ood, hay, butter etc. r;*-r;^7rZ:t->"«>^*^ ^"**«'-- " 2- wmen v|rile^^« 

•^ -^>-^^KwtvX^*^/u..^ b^'n-pa emittere semen; fhi-krag the mix- 

pOI'P" M.^an.ofaMongSftribe,Khal-ka. ture of the semen with the uterine blood, 

paj-pSor Ual'Udl stunned, insensible Thgy. 

pqQi'^jqr Ual'bdg the best sort of wool for 
' ' manufacturing shawls, coming 

from Jang-thang. 

|q(^^- Udl-pa 1. wether, castrated ram. 
' — 2. sow-thistle, Sonchus. 

n:y^*j;|: Udl-ma beast of burden, sumpter- 
mule B,y C, Hdl-^ma-mams bzdn^la 
skyM-ba to drive beasts of burden to the 
pasture, to turn them on grass-land Glr,; 
Schr,; *mi Kal nyis-kyi la* C, payment 
for carriers and beasts of burden; though 
in W, it might be understood as: payment 
for twice twenty men. 
PHOI'I^' PW^' ^a/W, UaUrUy also Ua-Hy 
' ' Afei-rw twenty bushels, 

m^ Uas instr. of Ka; Uas-len-pa etc. v. 
' Utty 4 ; kas-skdn = Md-skoriy q.v. ; kas- 
stdn with an empty stomach; kas-dmdny 
kas'iduy weak, poor. 


by which process, ace. to Indian physio- 
logy, the fetus is formed, Med,y Ssk. ^^i^, 
r^^ Ku-bo uncle, on the father's side B, 
!^^ and C; pa-Uu father and uncle; hi- 
dbdn and fcu-fsdn uncle and nephew. But 
owing to polyandry, the degrees of kindred 
lose their precision, in as far as all the 
brothers that have become the husbands 
of one wife may be called father' by the 

children.;^ J ;^" r/ (^. / ' y^'^'^l'^ZA-^ 
p-OTi- Uvrbyug B,, also Uu-gyug and yxigr^^ 
KspD ' cuckoo, called byd-'yi rydl-po and 
described as a sweetly singing bird, whence 
prob. Cs. has conjectured nightingale,'which 
however is scarcely known in Tibet. — 
hi-iyug-rtsd n. of a medicinal herb, 
m-gmr ku-mdg Lh, purse, money-bag, col. 

for ktuf-ma. 



m'£xr ku-fsur Cs, the clinched hand, fist, 
1^^ ku-fsur snun-pa (Sch, also rgydb- 
pa) to strike with the fist. This signifi- 

^''^ I'-^^fi JLxO ^o A^ tril^ , Art^^c. 



- OvVt/.^v.'. ^. tfv^^ JL J?_r^ 



p^' Uur 


cation, however, seemed not to be known 
to the Ijamas consulted, who interpreted 
the word: a religions gesture, the fore- 
finger being raised, and the others drawn 
bacL Some native dictionaries have wffe 
fist, others WZ^ half-closed fist, 
pqw- Ku^-yuy in C also ^^a-yu^^ homless, 
!^ ^ having no horns, used of cattle Sch. 
rrrpv Ku^lu 1. the short woolly hair of 
[5 the yak. — 2. Lh. : venereal disease, 

fq-gj- Icu'le Sch.: steel-yard and its weight; 
!^ but DzL 7Vy 17 the word refers to 
an ordinary pair of scales and denotes 
that scale of the two which contains the 

iqqf, iqqicr l^} ^ug^ corner, concave 
!^ ' 1^ '^ angle, nook; of rivers, lakes 
etc.: creek, bay, gulf, cove, also cu-kug; 
Uug-tu within a recess, on the farther side 
of a cavity. 

iqqpr l^ug-ta (or rta)y a-li-^ug-tay a kind 
1^3 '^ of swallow Cs.; the lights (lungs) 
of this bird are used as a remedy against 
pulmonary diseases, Aled. 

htg-md and Kug-snd fog, mist, haze, 
during a calm, esp. in spring-time. 
Iciig-fa I sbst 1. Cs.\ "part of a 
X5 long period of time" (?) — 2. a 
certain part of the body Med. — II. vb. 
1. also UugS'pay to call = gug-pa Mil. (cf. 
also ryah). — 2. to find; get, earn; nor 
Mg^a-cm srid there is a possibility that 
we may yet replenish our cash Mil. nt; 
ynyid Ic^cgs-pa to get sleep ; sraii ysum JlugSy 
it drew i.e. weighed three ounces. 

is mine, pit Cs; 


used in Pur. for he, she. 
PWTCJ' Mn-pa to grant (Sch.: to groan), 

m%-ma pouch, UtUe bag, w-ttogrs- ;^ 

money-bag, purse ; ^rdzon-i^ug* Pur. knap- 
sack; rUdm-Hugy resp. lib-k'ng, little bag 
for flour; nu-Jcug sucking-bag, for babies. 
pj^' Icun hole, pit, hollow, cavity, originally 
used only of dark holes and cavities; 

ma-Mn nostril, morUun the ear-hole, mean- 
to arm-hole, arm-pit; bragUun cleft in 
a rock, cavern; byi-Uun mouse-hole; 'Sab- 
to a sink; bso-Hun peep-hole; mda-Kun 



loop-hole; in C. *H-Hun^ mig-lfuny te-Uun* 
are used of any hole in walls, clothes etc., 
caused by decay or daily wear. ytor^Uun 
a sink, gutter; l^n^dregs soot of an oven 
or chimney Sch.; Hun-pay Uun-po Cs. a 
large hole, Mn-bu a small hole, e.g. spui 
Uun-bu pore, passage of perspiration Dzl. 
'-^pwj« Icuns 1. the original meaning perh. 
! ia minA. nit Cr: — 2. 

ongin, source 

(fig.), yyoi Icuns snubs y he stopped the 
source of the deceit Ld.-Glr. Schl. 13, b. 
IciinS'cany and prob. of similar meaning 
hins'btsuny of noble descent, or when ap- 
plied to statements etc.: well founded; Cs. 
also fine, excellent; Kuns-midy Huns ndn-pa 
having no 'origin', mean, pitiful, ill founded; 
in the last sense it seems to be used of 
historical accounts, Tar. 43, 5, and more 
esp. of religious records Pih.y Glr.; ftamr 
Kuns Tar. 66, 18, prob.: historical source, 
record, document; in Pth. facetiously: 
ftam-Kuns can yin the source of that 
speech is beer. 

m^- Ihid coat-lap, or any cloth serving in 
!^ ' an emergency as a vessel; *]iu^ ze^* 
hold forth the lap of your coat, words 
frequently used to beggars, to whom the 
alms, chiefly consisting in flour, are poured 
into that receptacle, C. 

p^'^' Kud-pa pocket, pouch Sch. 

mc'jT Uud-ma side, edge 6's.; Uud-du aside, 
!^ ' apart, secretly; Kud-du o)og-pa to 
put, to lay aside. 
nqx^- Hun-tiy or *1cyen-ti*y is stated to be 

fq^/«jy Uum(s) V. ^gum-pa; Hums-pay 

lo crooked. 

nw«y Uums Sch.: so it is said; Mil.: 16- 
\^ tsfsa-bai snydn-pa rgydn-nas hums 

might be rendered: the interpreter's re- 
nown was proclaimed from afar; the word, 
however, is of rare occurrence. 
rnx^ hi/r 1. burden, load, for men, more 
lyp fully: mi-Hur; Htir-skyed-pas Jts6-ba hig 




■q* Hitr-ba 


one that lives by carrying loads Tar. — 

2. rarely porter, carrier of a load; Uur-po 
load, burden; Kur-iu^ col. ^JUlt-tv!^ prop, a 
small load; a load in general; Kitr-pd car- 
rier, cooly; Uur^ixdy tt^r-Wm cooly-station, 
a day's journey, gen. 10 to 12 English 
miles; Icur^tsd-pa a station-cooly. 
pqx'CT QnK'fl' l^^r-bay Jiur-ba 1. sbst. 
Ic ' \, Ci.; bread, food, 8ch. also 
forage, fodder. It is, however, not the 
common word for bread, but only for cer- 
tain sorts, such as brar-UuVy bread of buck- 
wheat, rtsabs-Kur qv., and more particu- 
larly it is applied to cakes and pastry- 
work baked in fat or oil. — 2. vb. v. 

|q;^5|' p^5IC(?|)' Uur-Tna, Kur-mdnCs) 
lo ' >c dandelion C, used as 

a pot-berb and medicinal plant; as the 
former it is also called Uur-tsdd. 
mr^xv Kur-tsds C. and B. cheek, the 
!^ ruddy part of the face below the 

eyes (cf. ^rdm-pa); *llur''tsdg W. 
pqQi- Ihtl 1. ScL: "the soft down of furs", 
!^ abbreviation oiUu-lu; Utd-mal small 
basket for wool Ts, — 2. ravine Kun, — 

3. disbict, province, domain; Uidsa Uul all 
that belongs to Lhasa Georgi AlpL, *dei 
Uul'la ^du^ is subject to him C. 
mir^T ^^"^'*^ ^te bottom^ or the side of 

a thing Cs. 
Ue numeral, ninety-two, 92. 

&• !&• ^, ^ye (Sch, : Ue-^ma) 1 . profit, gain; 
' ' ^ He-spdgs B. erni a, */!e-b^d*W. id.', 
Ke-tsdn byid-pa to trade, to traffic P(k.; 
his-Uyi He gain, advantage obtained by 
knowledge and attainments; Ke-pa trades- 
man, dealer; fson-^dus Hi -pa trader in a 
market Mil.; Ice-ni/in Sch.; profit and loss, 
risk; Ice-sgrub-pa Ci., *liye^id tdb-h^ W., 
to make profit, to gain. He brggdb^ay to 
make a good bargain Sch.; *Ke^ru odo-wa* 
C. to abate, to go down in price; *Hi-cqn, 
He-m^*, profitable, unprofitable; ^Kyi-mo* 
W. cheap. — 2. tetter, herpes, ringworm 
(eruption of the skin) Sch. 
feqW" Uegs v. Uegz. 

pr Ho 

fer^n' HMs-^a l.partic. ofJlMs-pa, filled, 
' replete with. — 2. adj. pufFed up, 

proud, haughty, arrogant; sbst pride etc.; 
Hens-s^mSy Uem-^rigs pride. Hens-po Med. 
with reference to food: producing flatulence. 
j^q- HM-pa 1. Schr. worm- wood, prob. 
' ^ erron. for Kdm-pa. — 2. Sch.: to 
lean, to repose on, erron. for bHdn-pa. 
gjq^ Hebsy col, W.: ^Hgebs*, Cs.: l^-ma 
' covering, coverlet: *Heb sdn-pa^y to 

take the covering ofF C. ; Mr-H^ a cover- 
ing against rain, rain-cloak; sUn-Hebsy Icdg- 
Hebs, table-cloth Cs.; fddr-HebsLt. cap, hood; 
ydicn-Hebsy a certain beam or board above 
the capital of a pillar; ydM-H^y veil, cloth 
to cover the head; *dun-Hy^9* W. apron; 
*pan-H4b* C. napkin, apron. 

pSI' Hem V. Hyem, 

hs^smq- ^-^^«S^-p«) to defraud ; to usurp 

j^P|-q- HSl-ia prob. iorJUIrba^ to load upon; 
' bh Hihba is said to be used inC 

for bh skyiUba W.y v. skyiJr-ba no. 6. 
fe?r^ Afe8-nyA» the day before yester- 
' /' day Sch. 

fe^q'^"!^ 6'. to hit, Jkdms-la (or 
' mfsdrM-laf) to hit the right thing, 

the exact point or line; ynddrla to strike 
the vital parts, to hit mortally, fatally, 
af Ho I. numerol, 122. — 2. BaL (^o*) 
' for Horbay bitter. 

p5^ Ho pers. pron. of the third person, he, 
' she, it, but almost exclusively in col. 
language. In ancient writings it occurs 
but rarely, being either omitted or sup- 
plied by dCy but in later works that come 
nearer to the present language, it is to be 
found the more frequently. Hoi his, her; 
*H6'pay Hd'wa* plur. they, W. and C v. 
Georgi Alph.y in an edict; *H6^agy Hd-fso^ 
id. C. ; ^Hd-^a nyH^ W.y both of them : Ho- 
ran 1. he himself. 2. he, » *ASo* col.; 
with partic: Ho dd-H snon la son-ba dcy 
Mil.y he that just went on in advance, 
preceded in front. 

Note. The word prob. has been ori- 
ginally a sbst., denoting essence, substance 

^ Ico-ti 

pC'^' HoH-pa 


(like itd^bo); md-hoy yii-llo, rgyu-Uo are 
said to be ased in C. for: the essential, 
tke most important part of a thing, the 
main point, and the noun substantive may 
possibly have changed into a substantive 
pronoun, in a similar manner, as na^ I^ 
is connected vnth nd-bo; cf. also Ud-na, 

^ Ko-H C. (Chinese?) tea-ketHe. 

8fgqrcn^-i:j- flo-fdg yHdrpa c. U 
' ' ' ' to despair of Mil ; to 

to acquiesce in, to reconcile one's self to; 

also sems Uo-fdg ybdd pa Pth. 

^^ U6-na adj. and adv. 1. just, exactly, 
' ' the very, rgydl-pos ^dod-pa Ud-na yin 
that is just what has been wished for by 
the king DsL U^. 17. md-ma Kd-na biin- 
du just as before; c4i Kd-na yin-par nes 
he is evidently the very same (man) Mil.; 
mn-bu Hd-na cdrd-ba just like a worm 
Thgy,; fsul de Ud-nas by the ve^y same 
process Tc^, 13, 12; de /l6-na nyidr4u gyur 
Hg just so may it happen ! (at the con- 
clasion of a prayer) Glr,; but de-Jio-na- 
nyidy as a philosophical term, is also the 
translation of the Ssk. tdttva^ essentiality, 
^ath, implying to the Buddhist nothing 
but vacuity, the Nirvana Trig. 20. — 2. only, 
solely, delusively, skdd-Mg Ud-nay only for 
a moment Dzl ^:?, 12. ^dod Hd-nas bril 
nay if taken up merely with lust: s&ms- 
hm ]c6-na bdi^bar ^ddd-tsa-na as he in- 
tended only the welfare of beings Thgy.; 

P'S^ ^6^ mas., Ho-mo fern. pers. pron. 1 st. 
person, I, pi, Kd^o-dag we, indiscri- 
minately as to the rank of persons, B, 
and C; mi /cd-boi mam-^h the soul of me 
the man, i.e. my human soul Mil; also 
pleon. ^(J-Ao na. 

p^ggr Ko-bdnty the Tibetan name for Khat- 
mandu, the capital of Nepaul Glr,, 
iKL; sometimes also called khd po-brdrty 
prob. on account of the mineral treasures 
supposed to abound in that country. 

g^w Kd-mUy perh. misprinted for l^om knap- 
' sack, wallet M7., or else a secondary 
form of that word. 

K^mM* ^yy^y occurs only in ^Uo^yii sk&r" 
' '^ de (perh. col. for Jior-yyid) W. to 
thrash, which is done by driving a number 
of oxen fastened together round a pole 
that stands in the middle of the thrashing- 

j2^x* Uo-Ttty Cs. also Hdr-say circumference; 
' circumjacent space; also fence, sur- 

rounding wall; lld^a Uor-yiig'tu, (Hot-) Hot- 
yug-tUy in a circle, in circumference, frq. 
in measuring ; also round about, all round, 
e.g. to flow, to encompass; Icor^yug kun- 
tu in the whole circuit, round about. 
j^omr ^^'^9 ^* ^^•- bigness, robustness 
' ' (Lex. TjhTBTf )> ^'<^%-y«w«-ipa big, 
prominent limbs; Sch,: Uo-ldg li-badi large 
space. — 2. Lh,\ dumpling, made oirtsdm- 
pa and beer; Ld,: pap of lixdm-pa and 
tea, called spags in C. 
fi^- Uog 1. frq. for lcon(-pa)y the interior, 
' ' inside ; v. also Kdg-pa and lidg-ma, — 
2. for KogSy Jcogs q.v. — 3. for ^^g^-pa, 
mqi-^ Mg-pay sometimes Kdg-may Uogy the 
' ' trunk of the body, ka^/cog the body 
of an animal cut up for food; *sa^Icdg ddU 
bey Ug-ce* to cut up a carcass; ^Udg-tUy 
Uog ndn-dv!^ within the body. 
ffi^'Sr ^5^-^^*^ ^* pot, earthen vessel = 
' ' pru; Uog-^M large pot. 

f$n?f Kogs cough Med,y Udgs-pa to cough. 

jgr- f^oriy rarely Udn-pay pers. pron. 3d. 
' person, he, she; like Ko it is of far less 
frequency in the earlier literature than in 
the later; at present it is in W. used as 
the respectful word for he, but in C, ace. 
to Lewin, as plur., = they; fSdn-^i his, her; 
pi. Udn-mamSy Uon-cagy Udn-tsOy Udn-cag- 
mams; Uon-rdn and Uoh-nyid he himself; 
rgydl-po Uon-^'dn yin dgdns-nas the king 
supposing that he himself was meant Glr. 
ffiC'Q' f^n-pa 1. prov. for Kdn-pa. — 2. 
' the inside, inward parts, prov. Icdg- 

pa (Cs. also: the veins); Kdn^Uy Udn-^nay 
/cdn-nas adv. and postp. in, within, from 


p5c?r Icons 

paj'^ mi^ 

within, out of; Udn-du (jaX&o Uonssu) Md-pa 
or fsud-puy with or without sems (resp. 
fugs) being prefixed 1 . impressed on, fixed 
in the mind, thoroughly understood, known. 
2. very restless, uneasy, sorry, anxious in 
one's mind ; -r- K'M-du sdu-ba to impress 
on the memory, to learn (by heart) Glr.; 
tid'/i-nas snyin pyun-ba Itar as if their heart 
was torn out, PtL; snyin Icoti rus-pai 
dkyil-nas .y^dl'ba btab he prayed from his 
inmost heart Thgy, ; Udn-ncts ses-pa, smrd- 
ba to know by heart, to say, recite by 
heart Cs, ^Uog-la yid-du med^ W, I have 
no recollection of it; Icdn-pai drdd-la 'pan 
it helps against internal heat Medry U6n- 
par sdn-bai dug bzinno it is like a poison 
that has entered into the internal parts 
(or the veins) Thgy.; ^Udg-panKan-^a^^ a 
bad character W,, ^Uog-pa ^4n-mo* W. ge- 
nerosity, magnanimity (?) — 

Comp. Kvii-kragy the blood contained 
in the veins Cs, — l^dh-Kro (-ba) wrath, 
anger; Kdn-Icro spdn-ba Mil, to put away, 
subdue anger, *zd'ba* C, to 'conceive' anger, 
take a dislike; Mh-mi'-KrO'-ba quiet, calm, 
mild Pth, — ^Uog-iug* col. uneasiness, 
sorrow, anxiety; *liog'fiig jM-pd^ 61, ""co- 
be* W, to be uneasy, anxious. — Mo/Ugdn 
full, filled up in the inside, solid, /coif- 
ston hollow, tubular. — ""Uog-fhi, Kog-dhi'', 
W, grudge, ill-will, hatred. — Jcon-fsil suet 

— ^kv/i'ldg* W. cholera. — *](og-Mn* W. 
1. the core of a tree, heart-wood. 2. tenon. 

— *Uog'hvgs* a groan, sigh W., *kbg-sugs 
tdri'de* to sigh, to groan. — ^Kog-svbs-la 
sil-de* W, to read low, softly, whisperingly; 
*lcog'Sil tdn-ce* W, to read noiselessly, so 
as not to be heard. — Uon'(y)seh inner ca- 
verns, not opening to the daylight; (those 
of the Rirab are the habitations of the Lha- 
ma-yin or Asura). 

g5r«j- kons 1. sbst. (Udns-ma CsJ) the 
' middle, the midst; gans-Udrts-na in 

the midst of alpine snows JlftZ. ; respecting 
time: idg bdiin^yi Motis-su within, during, 
seven days Pt/i,, Tar,; respecting money: de 
nyid'kyi Kdns-na yndS'SO, (this) is contained, 

included in that (sum) 2ar. 5^, 15; Mons-su 
ytogs-pa Lex,^ Cs,: annexed to, united, in- 
corporated v^ritb. — 2. adj. crooked; W.: 
*/cons ca dug* it is bent, curved, e.g. paper 
by heat, the limbs by the gout; ^Kdns- 
kan* W,, ^/con-iiT C. crippled. 
nqr- kod I. V. Jfddrpa and ^od-pa, — II. 
' inst. of Jiod. 

j^q- Icon-pa anger, grudge, resentment; 
' ' Uon ^dzin-pa, U&a-du odzin-pa to 
hate, *lc6n4a kur-t^ W. id.; ^/con-gng-ste 
ddd'ce* W, (*'to sit waiting with hatred") 
id.; *lcon'b^* W,, the sting, the burning 
of anger or hatred in the soul, 
ggr /cob 1. fat, heavy, clumsy Sch, — 2. 
' sometimes for Jcob, — 3. v. ^pebs-pa, 

jiqW Kom wallet, leather trunk C,y Cs, : felt 
' or skin bag; yzims-Uom Cs, id. (prob. 
resp.); Kom-Jbog Cs, a cloak-bag; more 
accurately: the cloth in which the trunk , 
is wrapped and carried by the porter. ™ 

j^^q- U6m-pa Schr.; to be able, esp. to 
' be enabled to do a thing by the 

absence of external impediments; U&m^a * 
min Cs,, ^Jcom-ce mi ra^ W, I have no 
time, I cannot do it now; sdod mi Kom I 
cannot sit and wait now Pth,; mid mi \ 
/com -par vdthout your having time to 
swallow it down DzL 9S^i 17. mi-Uom- 
pa brgyad, the eight obstacles to happiness, 
caused by the re-birth in places or situa- 
tions unfavourable to conversion Trig, no. 
66. Ace. to Sc/ir. the word is also used 
in that special sense: to be able to carry 
on a law-suit, to which there are likewise 
eight obstacles. 

j^'^WCrr ^'o^'-'^-y^ff Scfi-y /cor-yug, /cor^ 
' ^ ' sa V. /c6-ra; Km^-yug'tii conti- 

nually, incessantly Mil. 
g^- /lol Cs. = /col'bu; /cdl'du jh/un-bay 
' abridgment, epitome Cs. 

fj^Qj-q- /c6l-pa 1. Cs. boiled. — 2, Sch, boil- 
' ing, bubbling, zans /c6l-pa a bub- 

bling kettle Dzl. 

mQi-'Jjti /col-pOf also /iol'brdny servant, raan- 
' servant, /ioUpor r^is-su bzun-ba to 

por^ Bi-bu 



13^^' Ki/db-pa 

take, to hire for a servant Pth,; frq. fig. 
sems-kyi Uoh-por yda (the bodyj is a ser- 
vant of the mind Mil,; jig-rUn srid-pai 
Icol-po a servant of the world i.e. of mam- 
mon Mil, 

pjj^q- Hol-iu a small piece, M-bu nipm- 
* ^ Jbru tsam zig kyah ma lus Pth, 
not so much as a grain of mustard seed 
is left. 

ffiof 3T ^'^i-"^^ 1 • Cs. 'anything boiled' ; perh. 
more accurately: anything boiling, 
ht Uol-ma boiling water; dttg-mfso /col-ma 
a boiling. lake of poison. — 2. Sch,: an 
outlet for the smoke in a roof. 
pOT^ ^o7-?wo 1. mald-servant ^. — 2. a 
' coarse sort of blanket usually given 

to slaves Schr. — 3. mowed com, a swath C 
jp^ Uos V. gh-pa, 

pWr^I' Uds-pa wished for, wanted Sch. 

^0\' %«-?^ ^«., *h^d'le* W,, as much as 
^ fills the hollow of the hand, a handful, 
e.g. of water. 

1^1^' Kydg-pa to lift, v. Jcyog-pa. 

rocn^^j'd' %^^(i)"?« ^- frozen; ice. — 2. 
the frost, cold, Hydg-tog-Uar on 
the ice Glr,; Icydg-pa Jxydg-pai bod-yul 
'Tibet frozen up with frost' Pth,; ^Rydg- 
la jar (v. byor-ia) *son* W, it has stuck 
fast by freezing. — ^Myag-iu-ko-kc!^ Ts, 
mad caused by a thaw, snow- water. — 
^Icydg-^ran^^an* W. hardened against the 
cold. — Kyag-ruvi^ Ityag-i'dm ice, pieces of 
ice, floating blocks of ice (also calM'om); 
cf. Ji'yag^a, 

[nr- By ad 1. difference, distinction B., C, 
^ ' W, *gan tdn-na Icyad Tned^ W, it is 
no matter which you give me; vd-dan- 
prad-pa^ddn Uyad-m^d-do it is quite the 
same as if they came to myself; sems-la 
l^yad byun a diflference of opinion arose. 

— Hyad'cos mark of distinction. — 2. 
something excellent, superior, bzoi Byad, bzo- 
Bydd an excellent work of art Glr,; bsgiiib- 
pax Jcyad yon prob. : it shall be instantly 
performed in the very best manner Pt/i. 

— leyad-ndr the principal or chief wealth 

Cs. — liyad-don the principal sense Sch. 
— 3. syllable employed to form abstract 
nouns. A transition to such formations 
appears in the following sentence: dkar- 
nag-ids'kyi ce-Kydd blta Mil. we wish to 
examine the difference of greatness or 
worth of the white and the black religion; 
so also whenever a certain measure is 
given, and in general, when such abstract 
nouns are used in a relative sense, as: 
mfo-Uydd height, zab-Uydd depth, pyug-Uydd 
wealth. — 4. part, division, the same as 
Hydd'par 2; ^sa-Uydd^ W, place, corre- 
sponding exactly to *sar^a* C, 

Derivatives, ^kye^-fsar-cen* — nd-mfsar- 
can wonderful C, — Icydd-du adv. espe- 
cially, particularly, Bydd-du cpdgs-pa par- 
ticularly (uncommonly) lofty, sublime Glr. 
Bydd'par adv. = /rydd-du Glr. 50, 7, and 
more frq. sbst.: 1. difference, dissimilarity 
B. and C, wa da/i Byod ynyis Uyddrpar- 
ce I and you — that is a great difference 
Glr.; de dan kydd-par-ma-mcis-pai rten 
an image not differing from this Glr,; 
min-gi Uydd-par yin it is (only) a diffe- 
rence of name Glr. — 2. sort, kind, J^rds- 
but Uydd-par kun all sorts of fruit; ri- 
dvdgS'kyi Icydd-par zig a particular kind 
of game; perh. also: division, part, yul-gyi 
Uydd-par province Tar, 7p, 14. — 3. = 
K-yad 2. something of superior qualities, 
an excellent man Tar. 50, 7. Kydd^par- 
<^an superior, excellent, capital, bld-ma Byddr 
par ' can big Mil, an excellent spiritual 
teacher; Kydd-par-du adv. particularly, 
chiefly, especially. Rather obscure as to 
its literal sense, but of frq. use is the 
phrase Kydd-du ysod-pa, ysdd-^a^ c. accus. 
but also dat., to despise, e.g. drnd-la an 
inferior, rgyu-Jbrds the doctrine of retri- 
bution, nyon-mons-pa trouble etc. 

ra^ Byab V. Uydb-pa. 

on-n' f^'y^^<^ to fill, penetrate; to embrace, 
^^ comprise, c. accus., also dat., mi- 
^tsdn-bas kydb-pai sa-pydgs a place full of 
dirt Thgy.; Jn^m-pa mdn-pos full of, quite 
covered with pustules, pocks Med.; mJcHs- 

j9as filled, impregDated with bile Med,; 
lus serm dga-bd^ Uydb-par ffyur-nas body 
and soul (filled with) fuU of joy Glr.; bar 
Kydb-pa to fill up an intermediate space; 
to make (a country etc.) full of light, re- 
ligion, happiness, frq.; fams-cdd-la diin- 
gyis to embrace all creatures with bene- 
volence; kun-la /cyab'pa in grammar: 
capable of being joined to any word, com- 
prising all of them, Glr. ; hjab-^^-ha com- 
prehensive; used also in the way of cen- 
sure : everywhere and nowhere , to be met 
with everywhere MU,; Uyab-yddl or rddl 
comprehensive, extensive. — Kyab seems 
also to be a sbst. in Uyab-c^-ba, and still 
more so in rgya bod yom Icydb-tu grdgs- 
pa-la according to what is spoken in the 
whole compass of India and Tibet Tar. 87. 

POT'Qg^r ^)/^'J^9 Vishnu, a Brahmanical 
^ N9 ' divinity, appearing, like Brahma 
and Shiva, also in Buddhist legends, yet 
principally known in his quality as yza- 
sffra-ycan-jizin (Rahula), conqueror of the 
demon that threatens to devour sun and 
moon; hence Ixyab-^ug^yzh* Med.^ *)<yab- 
jug-gi noj^ W.^ *ra'hu'le ne* C, epilepsy. 
ra$I?T %«^^ ^'*-> 'ScA. yard, court-yard, C«. 
•^ also gallery. It is, like Uom^^ a 

space that is to be found in many Tibetan 
houses, and may be compared to the com- 
pluvium of the Romans, being open in 
the middle, and on the sides generally 
enclosed by verandas, hjarm may there- 
fore be called court-yard, when it is on 
the same level with the ground, (so also 
perh. Tar. 89, 4, reading Kyarm-su for 
JiyaTm-su); but in the upper stories such 
a construction is unknown in European 
architecture, /cyams-stod the upper court- 
yard, k^yams-smdd the lower one; Uyayn^- 
tons Cs,: 'impluviuro'. 

ro$|^ /iyams Cs. : p. n, = /cams, v. f^arm 3. 

^ ' ^ ' '^ pa, Hydl'pa v. 

JcydTm-pa, etc. 

J^* l(yi dog, liyi rmng B. and C; the dog 
^ bites, W.: barks; *so taJ/ W.; bites; 

^ST hjim 

*fam* W. lays hold of; Uyi bds'tias rna 
brdun proverb: if you call the dog, then 
you must not beat him Glr, — Icyi rkan- 
ynyis Sch. 'a bastard dog, a cor' (?) — 
Hyiskdd the barking. — Uyi-Udfi dog-ken- 
nel, — f^gu a puppy. — Uyi-rgdn an old 
dog. — hfirTiiO the itch of dogs. — %i- 
ddm ^dog's seal', a mark burnt in; stigma 
C, W. — Icyi-^ug poison of hydrophobia 
Sch. — Uyi'indud'pa the pairing of dogs 
Sch. — Hyi-pul dog -kennel, dog-house. — 
^Uyi-pal-^drit W. Blitum virgatum. — %i- 
spydn W. jackal. — k'yi-po a male dog. — 
kyi-bru Sch. a vicious, biting dog. — %i- 
sbrdn dog's fly. — Icyi-mo a female dog, 
bitch. — Icyi'Smym canine madnes, hy- 
drophobia C, W.; also mad dog = %i 
smydn-pa. — I'yi-rdzi dog-keeper. — Uyi- 
yion trough for dogs and other animals, 
manger. — Uyi^g flea. 
^w %'-^ 1- V. Icyi. — 2. W. bud (of 
•^ nJ leaves and branches, not of blossoms), 
eye (of a plant). 

^.;^. Uyi-ra chase, hunting, esp. of single 
•^ huntsmen, not of a party; stable- 
stand, cf. lihs; ^kyi-ra-la cd-te* W. to go 
a hunting, *lcyi-ra co-ce^ gydb-bCy gyug-ce* 
id.; ^Icyt-ra^la M-Uan* hunter, sportsman; 
Myi-7*a-ba B. and C, H'yirra-pa* W. hunts- 
W'XC' Kyi-ron p.n., v. skyid-grdri. 

fe'aj'Ql'^* ^^^-Za-^a-W a sort of treacle 
•^ ^ made of seri-tden Wdn, 
^^ Icy^g V. Jiy^g-pa. 

^-. Uyid breadth of the hand with the 
13 » thumb extended, a span. 

hsT %*^ C^*- 'If) ^- ^^^^j not as a 
^ building, but as a dwelling-place of 
man, a home. Even when in Sik. they 
speak of ^sin-Hyim^ nyug-Uyim* a house 
of wood, of bamboo, the idea of habi- 
tation, dwelling-place predominates in these 
expressions. Uyim-na at home, Uymi-du 
home (to go home); Uyim dan Kyim-na 
house for house, each in his house Tar. 
151. 22; Uyim spo-ba. to remove to an- 
other place; Uyim skydri-ba to have a house- 

hold, to gain a livelihood; Uyim-gyi so-fsis 
household, housekeeping, farming; Uyinfirgyi 
rig^a knowledge, experience in house- 
keeping and fanning; Hytm-med-pa home- 
less, without a home; therefore esp. as 
opp. to the life of a homeless and un- 
married priest: Icyimrgyi byd-baov las, 1. 
domestic business, 2. lay -life, worldly 
life; of. also many of the compounds. 
^jprn-la ^dn-btty ytdn-ba to get married, to 
be given in marriage, respecting the fe- 
male part Glr.y Mil. — 2. the signs of the 
Zodiac, which is called Uyim-gyi Jcdr-lo^ 
viz. luy ram, ylan bull, Jirig-fa (pairing) 
twins, kdrkata (Ssk.) crab, s^^e lion, 6m- 
mo virgin, srah balance, sdicfC-pa) scorpion, 
yzu (bow) archer, (hc-srin (sea-monster) 
Capricorn, bum-pa water-bearer, nya fishes. 
To these 12 signs however the correspond- 
ing Tibetan figures are not 9 to ?:?, but 
to ;^, as seems to be the usage in astro- 
nomical science. There is moreover a di- 
vision into 27 lunar mansions' much in 
ose; V. rgyu'skdr. — 3. double-hour, the 
time of two hours; or the twelfth part of 
the time of the apparent daily rotation of 
the heavens and consequently also of the 
zodiac, or, as we should say, the time of 
the passing of a sign of the zodiac through 
the meridian. — 4. C«.: halo, or circle 
round the sun or moon. — 5. Symbolic 
nomeral: 12. 

Comp. and deriv. Uyim'fdb(s) husband, 
frq.; also wife; Kyim-' fab-la yidn-ba to 
give in marriage, to give away a woman 
for a wife; Uyim-tdb-mo wife, housewife, 
Oj. — Hytm-bddy master of the house, 
knband; owner of a house, citizen; %ww- 
bddg-ma fem. — /cyim-pa 1. layman, 
2, ft.: surrounded by a halo (/k^yim 4); 
Sjfm-pai pyogssu sbyin-pa given away to 
laymen DzL; Hyim-par ^dug or p^as he 
lives as a layman; pyis I'yiTn-pai fsul-can- 
gyi mdlrjbyor-pa a devout man, who lives 
outwardly like a layman MU, — k)fim' 
porpa a houseowner, peasant, farhier, hus- 
iNUld; Uyhnrporma housewife. — fiyrm by a 

(tie fowl, cock, hen, poultry IT., C. — 

15^-^ Uyud^mo 



Hyimrmi family of a house, household Cs. 
— Hyim-fsdn id. — Hyim-fs^r Glr, 51, 10, 
usually Hyim-mfsh, /cyim-mfses-pa^ fem. 
Hyim-mfsh-ma neighbour. — Kyim-hdg^ 
/cyim-zldy Uyim-U 'a zodiacal day, month, 
year' (?) Cs. — Uyim-sa earth, dust, diit 
(in a house), sweepings W., ^k^yim-sa du- 
ce^ sputi'ce to sweep (a floor), to sweep 

Uyim-nya ScL: whale (if at all 
correct, it must be taken as my- 
thological signification, no Tibetan having 
ever known of the existence of real whales), 
pq- /*yw, Icyu-bo Cs.^ Icyu-mo Pth, fiocl(, herd, 
§ lug-Hyu a flock of sheep, Trvdzd-Tno-hfu 
a herd of bastard cows, yndg-Uyu of hom- 
ed cattle; Uyu skdn-ba to keep, tend a 
flock or herd; company, band, gang, troop, 
mi'Kyu Cs. a company of men, bu-Tno-Icyu 
a bevy of girls, dtnag-Uyu a troop of sol- 
diers; Uyu-nas Jriid-pa to exclude from the 
company Pih.y C; Kyu-snd ^dr^-pa to go 
before, to take the lead of a troop, a flock 
Mil.; Vyu-mMg bell-wether; also the most 
distinguished amongst a number of men, 
the first, chief, head Pih.y Uyu-mcdg-ma 
fem.; Uyu fsdgs-pa vb.n., Sch. to collect, 
to gather in flo<is.^*^'|^^•g,*(3*<^dp>'^.>C| .^^^ 

15' %«^ Sch. 'ell', prob. incor. for Ih^. 
B'S^ %t^6yw^ ace. to Lex. = ku-hu. 
igsrr Uyug v. Jiyug-pa. 

pqr- Uyun (Sch. also Icyun-mo) the Garuda 
'S bird, a mythical bird, chief of the 
feathered race. Kyun-hog-ban = pyag-rddr. 
|nr-r;FjC' Uyun-dpyad a small round bas- 
!^ "^ ' ket of reed Cs.; Kyuh-ril is said 
to be in C. a large cylindrical basket, the 
same as kun-diim Ld.^ v. rkdn-pa. 
mj^'^x- Uyun-sd^ ('Garuda claw') Med.^ 
§ ^ Cs.: n. of a medicinal root, pseu- 
do-zedoary; Jcyuh-rgdd Med. id (?). 

W^' Uyud V. Jcyud'pa. 

^^ Uyudr-mo rim of a vessel Sch. 


H^'*I*n'^' Uyur-mid-pa 





mX'fjC'n' ^yur-mid'pa to SWalloW Med,; 
^ ' ^xfiir-mid'du son-ste su£Fering 
himself to be swallowed (from the story 
of an Indian idol) Pth. 

(5^' %W5 wall-side Ts. (?) 

gi- /eye 1. for %«^ Mil. — 2. for /'^ q.v.; 
^ Uye-nio v. A^^. 

R'^' k^ye-ma n. of a disease Jl/<?d. 

feo' %^ (diminutive of ley d-bof) 1. male 
'^^ child, Infant boy. 2. youth, adolescent B. 
fer* %^cipers. pron.2nd. person, thou, and 
^ ^ particularly in the plur. you, in B, 
eleg., in addressing superiors, but also 
used by superiors in speaking to inferiors, 
and even contemptuously: /eyed Itd-bui md- 
robs such vulgar, mean people, as ye are 
DzL — /eyed-/cyi thy, your. — /eyed-^dn 
(/cyed-nyid seems to be little used) thou 
thyself, you yourself; plur. particularly 
expressed : /cyM-cagy /cy^dr^marm, /iyed-fso; 
dge-fsul /iyid ynyis you two Getsuls Glr,; 
/iyed ysum-po you' three (a mother speak- 
ing to her sons) Glr,; /iyed-cdg you, when 
speaking to one person Glr,, — nyidntag, 

^^ /eyed \, ^ /iyid W. 2. v. Jcy id-pa, 
E^ %^-ft Pur, he, she, v. /eun-ti, 

fe^^ Uyehs v. /cebs, 

giw /iyem (Sch, also /eem) a Shovel, W,: 
^ */cyem dan pdn-ce* to shovel away, 
to remove wath a shovel; /iyim-gyi ^ddb- 
ma the blade of a shovel, yn-ba the handle 
of it 6s. — gi'U'/vyhn, cU'/cyim W, oar, 
Ica^fs-Kyhn spade; me-Uyem fire-shovel; 
wa'le-y&m a scoop, hollow gutter-shaped 
shovel 6s.; Hyem-bu spoon 6s. 

R^' liyer v. jeyi-ba; /eyh^-so v. Jiyerso, 

fg^ /iyo B, frq., also /iyo-po Pth, 1. man 
^ (seldom). 2. husband, /cyo byid-pa ('to 
act a husband' cf. byed-pa I. \) to take 
a wife; liyod nai /cyo mi byed-na if you 
do not marry me Dzl, — /iyo-med single, 
unmarried. — /cyo-^w wife Cs, — /iyo-hiig 
husband and wife, married couple; /cyo- 

hug ynyis grogs-nas son these two married 
people went together; Syo^ug mdzd-ba- 
mams a loving couple; /eyim-bdag /iyo-sug 
ynyis the citizen with his wife; yser-Qia 
/iyo-sug ynyis about the same as: Mr. and 
Mrs. Serlha; Uyo-sug-tu sdu-ba to join a 
couple in marriage Dzl, 

pfm' ^y^'9^ !• ^^^ emphatically, as: 
^ ' s/zyh-im ita /lor-pa yan /cyo-ga yin 
we Turks are men, too; hero, /iyo-ga-fa 
id. — 3. heroic deed, exploit 

jScn-Jf 1^y^9'Po crooked, curved, bent; C«. 
•^ ' also cunning. 

jgcn-gr' /cyog-ton (v. /eyo-ga and ton) W, 
^ ' young man, youth. 
ffj^cr /iyogs litter, bier Pth., palanquin 6s. 
^ ' also scaflFold (?) Cs, 

rgC^' ^yon V. Uy&h-ba, 

jg^- Z^oJpers. pron. 2nd. person sing, and 
•^^ plur., thou, you; /cyodrkyi thy, thine, 
your; if plurality is to be especially ex- 
pressed, it is done by adding ha^: /cyod- 
cag Mil,; occasionally also liyod-fmaim, 
cf. Icyed; /cyod-^rdn 1. thou thyself, you 
yourself. 2. thou, you (W, ^/lyo^dn*), 
jq^' /cyon size, extension, width, circum- 
•^ ' ference, area, height e.g. of Dzambu- 
ling DzLy of the Sumeru Glr,, of the lunar 
mansions or the zodiac Glr,; Uyon-ydns- 
pa a wide extent, /iyon-ydns sa-yii all the 
wide world (earth); /cyon-sddm Cs, 1. nar- 
row-extent 2. sum, contents. — /iydn-nas 
thoroughly, Mydn-nas mi sdig^an thoroughly 
a sinner; /lydn-nas med not at all 6*. 
pw-pw* /cyom-Zcydm J. oblique, awry, ir- 
•^ "^ regularly shaped. — 2. y.Jeyomrpa. 
jnx • l^y<>^ (Cs, /iy&r-pa) as much as fills 
•^ the hollow of the hand, a handful, 
cf. s/cyar; /iyor gan, /eyor re one handful, 
/\yoi' do two handfuls. 
fSoj'n' l*^y<^l'ba V. JSydl'ba'j /eyds-ma C. = 
^ skyds-ma, s/cyds-mia, 

pr /era 1. a small bird of prey, sparrow- 
'^ hawk, falcon, used for hunting, also hya- 
/era; /era-zvr Sch,: a species of eagles; Mrd- 
pa falconer. — 2. v. the following article. 

^^'f^'^'^^y^^^'^^^^y^ /^^--V- f^(siC<dLy 

o^lK/^l •^ 

^^ /h-d'bo 

pgrff' Urd'bo perh. also Urd-mo piebald, two 
'^ coloured, (not many-coloured, which 
is btrd-Jfa); rgya^stdg-lcrd-bo the streaked 
Indian tiger MiL; *fa-fd* C, id.; *fa^cO' 
pi'WOy fa-si-^-si* W. id. (spelling un- 
certain); naff '/era black -spotted, so that 
black is the predominating colour of the 
whole; dmar-Urd red-spotted, red being 
the predominating colour. — The signi- 
fications of the various compounds of /ra 
have all a reference to the peculiar effect 
produced on the eye by the blending of 
two or more colours together, especially 
when seen from a distance; so: Wra-cam- 
m^ Glr. is said of a rainbow-tinted meteor, 
Ura-lam^-w^i MiLj (or Uiam-Tniy) of a similar 
phenomenon, Jh'a-^em'C&m Pth, of a flight 
of birds; ^ia-Mmrse^ ia-cem-nne^ ta-chn-se* 
C, ^cam-i d'i ir'i'Ti^ Ld,^ Hor^ig^fftf' ia^Jciff' 
ge, ier-rdg-ge* C, — all these seem to be of 
nearly the same import. — These com- 
pounds have also assumed the character of 
an adverb, signifying, together, altogether, 
Icrorme-r^ MiL id. 

pryj- Urd-^ma 1. Cs. register, index. — 2. 
^ C\ judicial decree. — 3. a species of 
grain, ace. to Wdn. = mgyogs-nds a kind 
of barley growing and ripening within 
60 days; v. nas, 

war ^^^ (}^ Bal, still pronounced ^Ura^ 
' ' elsewhere V^*)?^'**' rcsp. «AM-7nf«a/, 
Mood; ^nal'idg^ hah-idg* W, vulg. blood 
discharged by menstruation, from which, 
ace. to some authorities, ^pan-idg^ blood 
of the childbed is to be distinguished; 
yzm-lcrdg healthy, nourishing blood Cs,; 
noeJ-^ro^ bad blood Cs.; Ura^ ^ddn-pa, W, 
*t6n^c^^ to bleed a person; ytdr-ba id.; 
iVdgr j-bddrfa to stop, to stanch the blood; 
h'ag cddrfa vb. n. to cease to bleed, ces- 
sation of bleeding; ^nyin-idg JldUla ra^ 
W, I feel my blood boiling, e.g. from 
ascending a steep hill; Urag ^dzdg-fa men- 
struation (the plain undisguised expres- 
sion): Utajg idg-fa clotted blood, gore Cs.; 
Kroff'^aS'}!^^ plethoric Med, 

Comp. Mrag-ol^rugs Sch.: agitation, 
flatter, orgasm of the blood. — Mj^dg-ban 


bloody, e.g. ral-gH, — Urag-yhdd n. of a 
medicinal herb Jl/<?rf., Icrag-cags-rtd a 'blood- 
bred' horse, i.e. a real horse, opp. to a 
metaphysical one MU, — l^rag^Jtun a class 
of terrifying deities Thgr, — ^idg-fun-bu* 
W. leech. — Ihag-yz^ W, rheumatic 
pain (?) — k^rag-rd clotted blood (?) Med, 
— Krag-lin a clot of blood. — Urag-hdi* 
hemorrhage, bloody flux (?) Med, 

Icrag-Urig one hundred thousand 

million, an indefinitely large num- 
ber 6«.; ace. to Lea. « hot one million, 
cf. dkrigs-pa, 

Urag-RrugCs. complicate, Gonfused; 

Zam,: like a troop of fighting 
men, or like the loose leaves of a book, 
when out of order. 
m^ 1irag.lMg LtJ 

Wis' /i'ran v m/cran, 

pqrw /tTod-pa Cs, stretched out; Urdd-por 
'*^ ' sddd-pa to sit (with the legs) stret- 
ched out (?). Urdd'por skgS-ba Wdn, a 
botanical term applied to the leaves of 

rnn- Ifrab shield, buckler; coat of mail, 
'"^ scales ScL; ace. to oral communi- 
cation the word in the first instance denotes 
scale (scale of a fish), and secondly coat 
of mail; consequently /^rdb-dan 1. scaled, 
scaly. 2. mailed, armed with a coat of 
mail; Urdd-nnUan armourer Glr> 
mrv mrv Urab-lcrdb 1. a weeper, one that 
l-T^ I-^T* g}igjg tears on every occasion 
Sch, — 2. Ma, 92, 4? 
pw-iq- l^dm^Ka a cut, a notch (in wood), 
'^ ' lines cut into wood so as to cross 
one another, as an ornament; Krdm^hin 
a club-like implement, carved in the man- 
ner just mentioned, representing the at- 
tribute of a god. nyag^Krdm a notch, 
pw-q- Krdrrwpa I. C, : a liar, slu-J)ar by^d- 
' fai Urdm-fa PUi,; Krdm-^ma fern. 

Cs,; Ua-Urdm a lie Mil,; Mrdm-^ems-dan 
lying, mendacious Mil, — II W,: 1, lively, 
brisk, quick, like boys, kids etc. (the con- 
trary oiyUn-pa slow, indolent, apathetic); 
*fdm-^a do* W, a wish of good speed, ad- 






f5f Krhn* 

dressed to one going on a journey, such 
ae: good success! may all go well! — 2. 
mode^ attentive to the wishes of others, 
fmr l^ol (Lea;, ^^ punishment) 1 . pun- 
'^ ishment, chastisement for sins, visita- 
tion ; in this sense the word is said to be 
used still, but much more frq. it signifies 
2. tax, trilmte, duty, service to be performed 
to a higher master; Uralsdu-ba to collect 
taxes, cjaUbay skdr-ba to pay taxes, bkdl- 
ba to impose taxes; dnuUkral money-tax, 
tax to be paid in money, Jyru^lcral corn- 
tax, tribute paid in corn, tU-mdr-'/lrcd tax, 
tribute to be paid in sesame-oil. 
ft* AW (Cs. Uri-maX Uri-Krdg, Uru-M ten 
^^ thousand, a myriad, tiri pyed dan ynyis 
15 000; nyi'M 20000; A;h- AW 40000; 
brgyad-Kri bii^tdn 84 OOO, a number frq. 
occurring in legends, 
j^ AW, also AWtt, seldom Uri-bo^ resp. 
'^ bht^'Uri, seat, chair; throne; couch; 
frame, sawing-jack, trestle etc.; ^gya-i^ 
an Indian (Anglo-Indian, European) chair; 
ids-Uri a professorial chair, pulpit Pth,^ 
reading-desk, table for books, school-table; 
*ny4-fi* (v. wiyi-ba) a contrivance to rest 
the head on when sleeping on the ground 
W, nydl-Uri, resp. yzim-Uri^ bed-stead; 
s^n-ge-Uri throne; AH-to bskd-ba to raise 
on the throne; AW-Za Jidd^a to preside, 
to hold the chair. — As the Tibetans 
generally sit on the bare ground, or on 
mats, or carpets, chairs are rather articles 
of luxury. ' - • c' r . 

Comp. and derhf. Kri-ydugs po. the 
sun. — Uri-paCs, a chairman; one sitting 
on a throne. — Kri-^pdn 1. Cs,: the height 
of a chair, a high chair. — 2. mcod^rt^- 
gyi KH'o'pdn the same as ban-rim, — Uri- 
mvn or 7n6n Pth.^ Tar,^ prison, dungeon. — 
^iir-Hn^ iivr^m*^ the common, plain word 
for chair. 

j^-ia^-q- AW-fe-ia fear C. (?) 

jfeofrfeor Urig-Urig 1. «o Urig-l^rlg bt/Sd^pa 
'^ "^'to gnash, grind the teeth Mil,; 
yzirgs-po to shiver, shake with cold, terror, 
rage Mil, — 2. col for tig-tig. 

Krigs plentiful, abundant Sck,; zor 
^6g Urigs-ie silk-fabrics, silks, in 
abundauce MU,; Urigs-se gan quite full 
Sch, ; Krigs-se bgSd-pa to treat, to entertain 
plentifully Sch, 

1^-. gj^.. AW^, ^Icrid, instruction, teacb- 
H 1 ' I'S^ jpg. ^^ ^d^-pa to give in- 
struction, to instruct, /Md^as-^og I am 
willing to give you instruction, you may 
have lessons with me MU.; Urid bkdd-pa 
to give instruction, to make admonitory 
speeches, to give parenetical lectures; Urid 
zdh-po thorough instruction; slu-lirid in- 
struction to an evil purpose, seduction, v. 
slu-ba; sna-Zhnd Lex, guide, leader. — 
UridrmKan col. teacher. — Icridrj^nSig scho- 
lar, pupil. — Krid-pa v. Jiridrpa, 

[^ Krvms 1. right, not in the abstract 
sense in which the word is gene- 
rally understood with us, but in more or less 
concrete applications, such as administration 
of justice, law, judgment, sometimes also 
implying custom, usage, duty. Accordingly 
rgydl-po^ or btivn^ Urims-mSd means an 
unjust king, an unprincipled priest or ec- 
clesiastic; AWms bitn-du^ Urims dan miufir 
pan' conscientiously, justly; in conformity 
with custom, duty, law; foB-Krims religious 
right, coming nearest to our abstract right; 
when, for instance, in Ghr. king Sron- 
btsan-sgam-po says: rgydl-Mrims l^-Krim- 
8u bsgyur 1 have changed the right of a 
king into that of religion, he means to 
say: I have subjected my own absolute 
will to the higher principle of universal 
right. A somewhat different sense conveys 
Glr, 97, 4: ios-Urims c^ig-pai gros byas 
they conspired to extirpate the religious 
principle of administration. — 2. law, dge- 
ba btu dan Iddn-pai Krima a general law, 
founded upon the ten virtues Glr,; dm 
^ds-Urims dan rgydl-Hrims ynyis ytdn-la 
pab^ he regulated the spiritual and secular 
law Glr, 97, 1.; bka-Urims resp, law, as a 
collection of precepts, decree, command- 
ment; krinm Hd-ba to enact a law, to pub- 
lish a decree, frq. ; AWw?« sgrdg-pa to pro- 



^ Urm 

claim an edict; mfd^ha Krims^kyis ynon 
he h'mited the power of the nobility by 
laws G&»., Urims-yig code of law C, ; Urims 
also a single precept, rule, commandment 
Dzl; Bum. I, 630. — 3. administration of 
JHllice, iSds-kyi Krims the ecclesiastical, 
dfdn-gyi Urims the secular civil, exercised 
by the Mms^dpon; lugs )'nyi9-kyi /Mms 
a twofold jurisdiction, a combination of 
the ecclesiastical and secular administration 
of justice (as it existed among the Jews); 
krims srun-ba to observe, to act according 
to right, custom, duty; also to exercise 
jurisdiction, to govern, to reign; to bridle, 
to keep in check Glr, 95. 9.; /hims by^d- 
fa id. ni f . — fstd-Urms a spiritual pre- 
cept or duty ; also a frequent man's name. 
— 4. action, lawsuit, W, also ""Um-hags* 
or only *hags; gan iig iim-si pi-la* W. 
for the sake of some law-suit, *t'wi tan- 
h^ to sit in judgment, to try, to hear causes; 
*/fe» ^j^'-pa* C. = *fim tan-h^ W"., means 
also to pass sentence, to punish. Him dag- 
po M-wa* to inflict a heavy punishment; 
mi 'la Urims - bdad pog he incurs, suffers 
punishment Pth.; *t'im iu-t^ W, to go 
to liaw, to commence an action; *ftm iu^ 
San* W, plaintiff; Him tdn-fian* W, ma- 
gistrate, judge; Urims 'dpon £., C, W., 
superior judge, chief-justice; *tim-b/iddg' 
po* C, id.; hrims-yyog apparitor, beadle 
Cs.; Icrrms-pa lawyer, advocate Cs. (seems 
to be little used); Urims-kan court, court 
of justice, tribunal; AW7w«-7*a id.; place of 
execution. — 5. use, custom, usage — that 
power to which people in general show 
the readiest obedience, and which in every 
sphere of life forms the greatest obstacle 
to reforms and improvements. * 

§ar UrU 


Kris? Uris-cjdgs peace, v. cjags. 

BT Ifru (Kriir^ma Cs,) cubit, a measure of 
>c eighteen inches, from the elbow to the 
extremity of the middle finger. The aver- 
sige height of a man is assumed to be 
ibur cubits, that of a short man three. — 

Uru c^aU)a to measure with a cubit mea- 
sure 08. ' ' ., . , , ' ., ) -. 

13'^ Uru-^a sometimes for Jirurba. 

ig'^^nS^ Uru-yzdr a kind of stew-pan Sch. 

|n^z^ Uru^log a pit filled with com(?) 
'^^ ' ScL; in Mil. Uru-sUg-pa stands 
for digging, breaking up the soil, gardening, 
par-pir- Uruh'Urun (Ssk. if^) crane, Grus 
'^ ^ cinerea. 

1^ Urun heiglit, length, extension Lea., Cs. 

rmv Ural 1. Ural yton-ba to let fall, to 
^3 drop (several things at intervals), 
mci-ma tears MU. — 2. ^da-ftil^ W. Inter- 
calary month. 

•nq-'gj^ Urtil'po C. 1. cheerful, merry. — 
!S 2. fornicator. 

raoi'JI' Urul-m^ 1. W. */cu'wa ful-ma* 
-^ crooked handle, crank (spelling un- 

certain). — 2. C. a whore. 
pw-pw- h^um-Urimiy Sch.: /frum-Urim 
-^ ^ byM-pa^ Lt: UrumnUrum brdun- 
ba to pound in a mortar, 
pw^-igr' UrumS'Stod^ and -smad, two 
^ ^ ^ Nakshatras, v. rgyiu^kdr ^. 
mtr Urus 1. pf. of JirU'ba. — 2. sbst. 
^ bath, washing, ablution; Krus-Uu, water 
for bathiog, washing or rinsing; dish- 
water; Urus byid-pa to bathe, to use baths 
DzL; Krus-la ^gi^d-ba to go to bathe DzL; 
kTus ys6l-ba resp. to take a bath Glr.^ also 
to administer a bath to another (cf. ysoU 
ba) Glr.^ Pth.; esp. as a religious cere- 
mony, consisting in the sprinkling with 
water, and performed, when a new-bom^ 
infant receives a name, when a person 
enters into a religious order, or in diseases 
and on various other occasions (cf. Schi. 
Buddh. p. 239, where the word is spelled 
bkrus). Therefore '3. baptism, and Krm /sol- 
bato baptize 6'Ar. R. and P. — krus-kj/i rdzin^ 
pond, pool for bathing; Urus-Udn batbing- 
room or house; Urus-sd^r basin, washing- 
bowl Sch.; hhruS'bum sacred watering-pot; 
/Irus-yiM bathing-tub Sch.; Urus-fhir bath- 
ing-water ScA., but in Lt this word re- 

A^ ^J< -^^ -^JixM'To^'. ^^j 4 • 4 ?c> ' 


g- l^re 

lates to a certain medical procedare or 
method of caring. 

g|- /ire (SsL fireTY) niiHet, Ure-Mn Mur- 
'*^ wa-beer /S«A., v. Hook, HimaL Jouum, 

jl'^' ^^.fe^ Chinese vermiceili C. Cie-ts^). 

E^^pr^' Icregs-pa v. mJirigs^a, 

jnoj' ^^^^> resp. fuffS'/crSl 1. shame, shame- 
'^ facedness, bashfulness, modesty; V<?Z 
kdb-ce* W. V. g^bs-pa, — 2. piety, esp. PT. 

— 3. C, disgust, aversion. 

Comp. and deriv. — Urel-gdd a scorn- 
ful laughter. — Urel-can Cs, bashful, ti- 
mid; W, pious, faithful, conscientious. — 
Icrel-ltdSy IcreUltm^ dread of wicked actions; 
Urel-ydon (lit. a face capable of shame) 
id. — *i il-doAlrbanj ieUJIx>d'can* W, fond 
of making others ashamed. — UreUlddn = 
IcrJl-dan, — Krel-ba vb. to make or to be 
ashamed, *ielsoh* he was ashamed, *iil' 
be mi yon* W, he is not put to shame; 
C. also: to get into a passion; sbst. shame, 
Urd'ba dan no-fsa-ba med he has no 
shame nor dread DzL^ ^iil-wa yod*^ W, 
it is a shame. — HreUmid (-pa), W, */crel' 
mSd- (/can) shameless, insolent. — *f^l'^Q* 
object of disgust, C, — /crd-yod Chastity, 
modesty, decency, /irel-yod-pa chaste etc., 
/iril-yodrpar byed-pa to behave chastely etc. 

— /crel-^dr =» /Irel-m^d. 

j^'Xf /cr^-po T/igy. load, burden, «= *wr. 

jg^ /cro 1. a kind of bronze, of about the 
'"^ same quality and worth as ^/kdr-ba, 
but inferior to fo', q.v.; /ird^hi liquid, melted 
bronze; /crd-cus sdom^a to fill up joints, 
grooves etc. with melted bronze, to solder 
Glr, — 2. kettle Sc/ir, /> .' . 

j^q' itrd-pa W. for /crod. 

jgr-, /cro'ba 1. anger, wrath, (cf. Jir6-ba 
' vb.) frq ; /i&h'/trd-ba inward anger 

T/igy, — 2. angry, wrathful 6's.; /rrd-bar 
byid-puy ^gyur-ba to be, to grow angry 6s. ; 
/ird'boj fem. /ird-mfw angry, fierce, ferocious, 
e.g. ycan-yzdn a ferocious beast; esp. ap- 
plied to the 54 (or 60) deities of anger 

and terror (S|x^), e.g. /ird-ba-lin-po = 
yHn-rje the ruler of hades; ^i^o-^tum^po* 
furious with rage, raging with anger C: 
/cro^ynyh* distortion of the fae^ by anger; 
/crd-ba-may /ird^a^ban she whose face is 
wrinkled with anger, n. of a goddess Gh, 
17, 12. — Vonfd* W, dissatisfacb'on, grumb- 
ling. — /irO'Tndn Sch, prison (perh. /cri- 
mdn). — /cro'^l an angry, frowning 
countenance Glr. 

g^- /crog f — /Srog brgydb-pa to drink 
'^ ' hastily, to gulp down Glr. ; /crog'/crog 
plump! the sound caused by something 
falling heavily on the ground W. — /crag- 
itmdn the raw, unprepared substance of a 
medicine Sc/i. 

ipnyif /Irdg-po botanical term, used of 
'^ ' leaves standing round the stem 
scattered or alternately. 

S^-P- i^ron-n^ upright, sfa*aight, erect, (cf. 
/cronj Glr., MU. 

^^'^^/cr6h'po,*f6n'po* Ts. close-fisted, 
'*^ stingy. 

fiSrVCJ') ^^^od('pa)y W. *fd (-pa)* crowd, 
i^^^ assemblage, mass, muKitude; nu- 
Urdd a troop, crowd of men, ri-llrdd an 
assemblage (mass) of mountains; rtsva* 
/crdd a heap, stack, rick of hay; nags-lcrdd 
a dense forest, mun^/crdd thick darkness; 
dur-Zcrdd cemetery where the corpses are 
cut into pieces for the birds of prey; dei 
/i^rdd-^u Uwr-ycig cjdg-pas placing the prin- 
cess among their (the girls') compaLy 
Glr. ; in W. *f6^ai ndh-na* and *ndn'^u* 
c. genit. is the usual expression for among. 
jn^ /cro7i claw, fang; Irdn-kyis rkd-iaisde 
'"^ the class of the gallinaceous birds S.g. 
gfrq- /ir&n-pa 1. well, spring. — 2. Lk: 
'^ a wooden water kennel; /irdn-fm a 
little well; also n. of a medicinal herb, a 
purgative against bilious complaints Med. 
/i-roU'-rdgB enclosure of a well Sch. 
^^/crom 1. market-place,* market- street, 
'^ bazar; /irom dcdr-ba to wander, to 
ride round the market Glr.y to ramble 
through; yaan^snaga krom-du /dog secret 
spells (magic formulas) are read in the 
market (a crime and sacrilege in the eyes 

jgar^f Icrdm-po 



$jpQ^' mJla 

of a Buddhist). — 2. crowd of people, 

multitude of persons; Mrom-i^dn a great 
crowd ; tsdgs-pai k'r&m-marm the assembled 
crowd Pih.; jpo-Hrdm a multitude of men; 
f^cJr-lcr&m prob. an assembly, a gathering 
of kings MU. ; Urom dmar-ndg Jcyil-ba a 
moUey crowd, throng of people JPS^. 

Comp. — Brdm-cen (po) Thffr. chief 
market-place, principal street 6«. — Icr6m- 
dpon overseer, police-officer who is char- 
ged with the supervision of the market. 
— Mm-skar-ma harlot, strumpet 6s. 

mfUr UrdTHr-po Glr,y n. of a province (?), 
^ Icr&mrp(hpa an inhabitant of it. 

Brom-me sparkling, glittering, zil- 
pa Uromrm4 a sparkling dew-drop 

Ifroms V. ^griTnrpa, 

Hor Urol 1. V. JcrdUba and ^(^rdUba, — 2. 
^ a sound; Ih^dl-gyu son Qlr. (the ring) 
slid sounding (across the azure-floor); /crol- 
d6h is said to denote a large hand-bell, 
and KroUldg the same as Urog-lcrdg W. — 
Ct Ml-ba. — 3. kettle (?) v. Idags. 
Hjl-Hq- Urol-lirdl €^j 1. bright, shining, » 
^ Brol-po, — 2. UroUlcrdl byid^pa 
Gir., *mig tol-U fol-U td-wa* C. to stare, 
ky at 

p^x' Uril'ca the act of forgiving, pardon 

jz^^ Irrdl-^o 1. sparkling, glistening, dazz- 
ling, e.g. water when the sun 
shines upon it; *^od fdl^* W, brightness, 
splendour. — 2. distinct, intelligible, *(8J!P^- 
ra i6l-po zer mi de(8) W, he cannot speak 

m^ Urdl-^mo W. brittle, fragile, opp. to 

^^^^PV^ Krol'fsdgs Lex,y Cs, a sieve. 

^^r Irrds-pa v. ^Ifro-ba. 

m^m/cariy an affix to substantives and 
^ verbal roots, denoting 1. one who 
knows a thing thoroughly, making a trade 
or profession of it, sa-w/a/i one who knows 
tbe country, the road, a guide, a pilot {DzL 

:?^, 7); Idm-mUan id. MU,\ hin^mEan, 
worker in wood, carpenter, joiner etc. — 
2. affixed to a verbal root, it is often (at 
least in later literature) equivalent to the 
periphrastic participle, signifying: he who 
in any special case performs an action; 
so (^ddgs-mllan Glr,, one who is binding, 
fastening; also with an objective case: 
iiai bu'Tno jidd-mlian Glr. such as are 
courting my daughter; bsdd-m/can the man 
having killed, the murderer. — 3. In col- 
loquial language, esp. in TT., it has on 
account of its more significant form en- 
tirely displaced the proper participle ter- 
mination in pa: *dun-7na Mger-tt^an^ni w«* 
W, the men carrying the beam ; contrary to 
its original signification, it is even used 
in a passive sense: *sdd-Uan-ni hi^ W, 
the slaughtered sheep. 

M^x••2f 'f^t^dn-po (Ssk, ^qrwrer, vfwrfO 

' ' a clerical teacher, professor, doctor 
of divinity, principal of a great monastery, 
abbot, who, as such, is endowed with the 
mXan-rgyudy or spiritual gifts, handed 
down from Buddha himself by trans- 
mission, viz. dban, luhy Icrid; next to him 
comes the slob-dpon^ or professor in or- 
dinary, mlidn^po fdn-mi sdmbho^ta Dr. 
Thon-mi Sambhota ; mJkdn-Tno mista*e8S, in- 
structress 6'^.: mtcdn-bu pupil, scholar Tar,; 
TnMan-lSen a great Doctor, a head-master; 
mUan-Mb for inJidirr-po dah ddb-dpon, e.g. 
bld'7na mHan-sldb^kyi bka the words of 
the Lamas, abbots and mastery; also for 
mUdn-po dan sUb-ma Glr, 100, 4. — mMari' 
rdbs the series or succession of the abbots 
in the great monasteries Cs. — mKan-rim 
the respective prospects of being elected 
abbot, as depending on the different ranks 
of the expectant individuals. 
^nqq- mUa (Ssk. v^i) 1- heaven, heavens, 

' gen. nam-mHa; mk'a-la in the hea- 
vens, mUd-la pur-baj rgiju-bay Idrn-ba to 
fly, wander, soar, in the air. — 2. ether, 
as the fifth element. — 3. symb. num.: 
cipher, naught 

Comp. — 7nlca'kl6/'iy mKa-^kydby mHa- 
dbyins the whole compass or extent of the 

A' 7-4^ '^.'■\ H '•^(3/ r.\-fu. ^fecu. ■ , 


' ^ ^ '^o k...^, oL^ 'tt:-^ ^->^' "-^ p^"^-^ t4<. 

heavens (7«, 

»ip^* mKar 


- tUf ^^ 


— mtfa-^^rd-may in J/tZ. 
mHor^chma, Ssk. ^tlftiiR^ fabulous beings 
of more modem legends, 'wise' women of 
supernatural powers, sometimes represent- 
ed like angels, at other times like fairies 
or witches. — mUa-mnydm Lea:, like the 
heavens, infinite. — mHa-ldin the sky- 
soarer, the bird Garuda, v. ki/un, — m/ca- 
spydd wanderings through heaven Tar, 
112, 4, also: enjoyment of heaven, en- 
joying or inhabiting heaven; m^a-spyod' 
du y^^ffs-pa to go to heaven, to die AfiL 
^ijmx: wj^a^ 1- resp. shirmMr, Glr,, casUe, 

^ nobleman's seat or mansion, manor- 
house, frq.; citadel, fort Pth,; house in 
general MU. — 2. termin. case of mk'a, 

Comp. — m/car-dpdn governor of a 
castle, commander of a fortress. — mKar- 
Ids C. and B,y the work of constructing 
a castle, of raising an edifice; ^Har-Un* 
W. id. — mHar-sTun the guard or garrison 
of a castle, fortress Cs, — 
jjpqx-n' mUdr-ba 1. (also oAfar-6a) B. and 

' C, etaff, stick; mkar-ysU staflF of 

the mendicant friars, the upper part of 
which is hung with jingling rings; pyag- 
micdr resp. for mUdr-ba. — 2. bronze, bell- 
melal, v. Jdr-ba. 
SPW$r ^'^^"^^ Iddney, reins, mlidl mdog 

' 'kidney-colour, dark red' Cs, 

jnq«r^ mUds-pa Ssk. mr, (originally like 

' aoq)6g) skilled ; skilful, in mecha- 

nical work, and so it is frq. used in col. 
language; further in a more general sense: 
smdn-pa mfds-pa a skilful, clever physi- 
cian ; experienced, learned, prudent shrewd, 
wise; c. accus. or dat., in a thing; so-6ts- 
la in farming, cos in religion; sUb-ma 
sky6n-ba4a mKds-pa an able tutor, peda- 
gogue Mil,; mJcas-btsun^zdn prop, denotes 
the qualities of a right priest: learned, 
conscientious, good, but sometimes it in- 
dicates only the position in society, the 
clerical rank, so esp. mlras-b^m learned 
clerics, reverends Glr,, mUds-po or -pa a 
learned man, a scholar, sndn-gyi mi'ds-po- 
nutms learned men of former times; micas' 
grib id., rgya-gdr-g^fi mSas- grub -mams 

Indian scholars; it is also used like oar 
'most wise', 'very learned', and similar 
expressions in a pompous address Glr,; 
mHas-mSdg profound scholar Zam, I never 
found the word applied to inanimate things 
in the sense of 'wisely contrived', and the 
correctness of Cs,: tabs mUds-pos 'by wise 
means' may be questioned. 
5jp(5'Cf mJlun-pa Sch, v. Hun-pa, 

S|p^'^ m/iur'isds v. Hur-fyds. 

M^fn* ^wXy-6a desirable, to be wished for, 
' m/cd'bai yo-byddj in C, also *&- 
jh§*j desirable things, requisits, wants, 
desiderata; *}dndur'ten^gyi nd-la Ud-w§ tson- 
z6g* articles of commerce, goods, commo- 
dities, such as they are called for in 
Hindostan; nyi-bar m/cd-ba indispensable, 
most necessary. Cf. Jro, 

5Ip5^fi|^ mlios-pdb Lex, v. Jcos, 

^xraxrir micyiidrpa Cs,: to keep, to hold, 
H ' to embrace, = Jiynd-pa; dpe- 
mlbyudLea, w.e.; Cs,: unwillingness to l«id 
books, dpe-mlcyud'ban unwilling to lend 
books, dpe-mKyud byedr^ to be unwilling 
to lend books; m/cyud'Spydd a sort of bag 
or vessel for carrying something (?); sor- 
cery, witchcraft Sch. 

M^yy mMyen-pay resp. for ^^-pa, rig-pa^ 
^^ gd'ba, io know, yab-yikm-gyis 
mUyht-par mdzddrcig my esteemed parents 
may know Dzl,; to know, one man from 
another, rgydl-po mtcyen-tam does the king, 
does your majesty know the . . . ? (the 
king himself will answer: nas his^so) Dd. 
It is frq. used of the supernatural per- 
ception of Buddha and the saints, bsdm- 
pa ddg-par mUyhi-pas as he (the Bodhi- 
sattwa) perceived the sentiments (of his 
scholar) to be sincere Dzl,; mUySn-par 
gydr-to perceived, found out, discovered; 
to understand, m^yen sdh-nam did you 
understand it? mUyen-rgyd-han possessed 
of much understanding, very learned MU,; 
mKyifi'ldan-ydnS'pa profoundly learned; 
mJcyen-brts^ Glr. prob. : omniscient-merciful; 
fams-cad-mlSfhi all -knowing, a later epi- 

•. t 

/ ,.K 

thet of Buddha; ye-mHyiriy mnon-mHyin = 
j»-«^, mnon-seM, — fugs'inky^ is known 
to me only as a sbst abstr. : the knowing, 
knowledge, prophetic sight, r^e-htsun-gyis 
fug^-mHyin-gyii yzigs-pa Idgs-sam has your 
reyerence seen by your prophetic sight'? 
MiL; ace. to C«., however, sku-mHySny ysun- 
mHySn and tugB'mHy&n are identical in 
meaning with mUyen-mKyiny a form of 
entreaty which, as a Lama told me^ pro- 
perly has the sense: you know yourself 
best what is good for me! In accordance 
to this explanation we find in MiL after 
an entreaty: bUx-ma Uyed mfcyen-m/lyen. 
It is gen. added without any connecting 
word, like our pray, or please, but some- 
times it is construed with the inf. : mdzdd- 
pa(r) mHyen-mHy^y please to do. 

wpqrYfl'N rnHran (-ba)y also AJraw hard, 
1^ solid, compact; ^rd-mU^^dn-ban 

^^gyur-med Thgy. firm, hearty, sound, of a 
strong and robust constitution. — Tntirdn- 
pa denotes the fourth stage of the devel- 
opment of the foetus Thgy. 

'$r mUHg-ma the wrist of the hand. 
w ^iig^a* col. W, (also Bunan) 

rq- mlMs-pa B, and C. {Ssh fipH') 
bile, gaH. — 1. the vesicle of the 
gall, the gall-bladder, as part of the intes- 
tmes. — 2. generally:- the substance of 
the bile, the bilious fluid, which ace. to 
Indo-Tibetan philosophy is connected with 
the element of fire, and which, conform- 
ably to its functions, is divided into five 
species, of which physiology gives the 
oddest details. — m/crta-ndd bilious disease; 
mbis'tBod prob. biUous fever; grdn-m/H^ 
a feTerish shivering, a chill. 

*W^$r mUriS'ina Lex. w.e., perh. = ^/cris. 

mjmr^' micrdgs-pa, W. *tdg'mo* (Ssk. 
JTPO ^^^^f fifW*, e.g. snow; *go- 
idg^an* W. obstinate, stiffnecked, stybbom. 
(Mj^'q* j^dn-ha (not: to put a fault or 
crime on another C«., but:) to 
iMrt or offend, to annoy, to vex, tmr-la Jean 



OpwrCJ' Jiun-pa 

we cause vexation to ourselves (by mind- 
ing too much the affairs of others); Jiah 
animosity. Jean man there occur many 
'Collisions, quarrels Mil.y dpon^sldb re ^MaA 
Jyyun there arise mutual differences, ani- 
mosities, between masters and scholars MH. 
Qjqrw J'dd-pa eep. W. 1. to sit, to sit 
^ ' firm, rtai Md-ru on the back of a 
horse. — 2. to remain sitting^ to sticl( fast, 
to be stopped, kept back, e.g of a bird, 
myius, in a snare; rkdn-pa Jidd-de ^^gy^l- 
ba to get entangled with the foot so as 
to fall; sgo Jiad ^dug the door sticks. CJf. 
also Rad-fa and hkad-pa. 

qjzg3;j'Cr J^^'^M^^ l- to faint away, to swoon. 
' — 2. Sch. also: to take into one's 


Mq^fl' o^^-^ I- sbst. 1. staff V. mKdr' ai/'f>^ 
^ ba. — 2. bronze, bell-metal, Jidr- 

(bad) H molten, liquid bronze, Jfdr-bai 
rrU'lan a metallic mirror; Jcar-rnd gong, 
used in India and China instead of bells; 
Cs.: a drum of bronze; yet it is rather a 
large bronze disk, producing, when struck, 
a very loud sound like that of a bell. — 
Jlar-yidn a dish or basin of metal; J^ar- 
zdM a metallic kettle. — II. vb., in C. the 
same as Jidd-pa. — 2. in W. intrs. to 

Qm^'Onrq- Jldr-Jlu-ba to resist Sch. 

CyZM'n* J^'dl'ba^ pf. and fut. (imp. lcolf)y 
^ W. *kdl'ce* 1. B., C, W.: to spin, 

baly wool, skud-pa a thread, srdd^bu yam. 
— 2. W. to send, to forward, things. 
Qpq-q- ^R^'ba to offend, insult, Bhar. {Lex. 
ND = iftf JDJ^y); J^'J^, ace. 

to the context, denotes certain passions 
that disturb the tranquillity of the mind, 
such as malignity and covetousness; JUdn-- 
ba is synon. — Cs.'s 'to emulate, contemn, 
hate, long for', and Schh *pride' I am 
not able to verify. 

Omgrq- Jtim-pa to groan, to fetch a deep 
>o sigh, not so much as a sign of 
pain or sorrow, but rather as a mere phy- 
sical deep and hollow sound Med.; Jcun-- 
sgras Mn-pa Kens he filled the house with 


QjnSTCI' Jf^m-pa 





groan ings Pth,; sddn-bai dgrd-la yi^ag Itar 
Jfun he groans (grunts, bellows) 'like a 
yak against a fierce enemy MiL 
Q-q^.«- JUmt-^a pf. VsUTm (cf. skum-pa) 
>o to shrink, to be contracted, e.g. of 

the limbs, by gout; ^yiir-ra rai't-zin ^um- 
be yin* W, the ditch will get narrower of 
itself; fcums-pa shrunk, shrivelled, con- 
tracted; fig. reduced, restricted, deprived 
of power. 

onMJJSJ'CJ' o^^^^^^'P^ ^^*^' *^°^ ^*' ^^ com- 
>o prehend, understand; Sch, also: 

to practise, to impress on the mind. 
ara^'n' o^^^^'"*^ !• ^^^* ~ Mr^a, pastry. 
>o 11. vb., pf and fut. /.W, rarely bkur 
(v. bkur-ba) 1. to Carry, convey, l^ur(-m) 
^Kur-ba to carry a load ; mi t^g-far Jiiir- 
ba Med. to carry too heavy loads, prop 
to carry what one cannot carry; *liur ^off* 
C, *Uurky(yfi* W. bring! fetch! *«t*r sow* 
C, *lcu7* Uyer* W, take away! carry off! 
Jiur-du fdgs'te taking up in order to carry, 
taking on one's back DzL; *ldg^ar l^ur^ 
c^ W, to hold in one's hand. — 2. to 
carry away or off, ro Jiur-ba Pth.^ to carry 
away a corpse; to take along with, in W. 
eveii : to pocket, ^sem-la /cur-ce* W. to take 
to heart; *'d^n£ Jiur-ce* to take a wife, 
to marry. — Jiur-tag carrying-girth, rope 
or strap Thgy. Cf. Aw, Hur-ba etc. 

Qp^'^Wf Jx^r-fsos v. Ihir-tsos, 

qmai'q* J^^^-^^ ^^ subdue, to subject Cs, ; 
N» Sch, also: to be uneasy about. 

I^xr, yydg-tu Jiul-ba; v. also thd 3. Zam,; 
Krai Jiiil-ba perh. to force a tax, a rate, 
on a i)erson. 

C^fim^-q- o%«-P« pf- %« *o hinder, stop, 
^ ' shut off, debar, lam the way 

Mil.; p4tar bkag inin ma /c^gs-pas Mil.y 
although they prohibited, tried to prol>. 
him), he was not prohibited; rgyaL-bai 
pydg-gis kyan mi Uigs-pa MiL not being 
hindered even by Buddlia's power. 

Q^^'ZX Jf^''^-P^y pf- ^^'^'^ t® •>© full, 
^ his kens yod^pa Glr.; blo-gi'ds 

ma U4hs - te his mind not being satiated 
Tar. 135, 13. 

Qj^q-q- o^^*-P« pf- ^^*»? to cover, to spread 
^ over, yortS'SU Mbs'te being covered 

all over Stg. ; Ua fams-lad Kebs-te over the 
whole fax^e Stg.; to overshadow Dzl. >S5, 17. 

oraa^'n' o^^^^-*« pf- ^'^^ l. to put on, to 
^ load, topackon, =oy^Z-6a; bcu-fdg 

Kel-na when the ten stories or lofts shall 
have been put on Mil.nt. 2. to spin, = 
Jdl'ba C, Glr. [ 

oSffl' o^^^-*« (vb. to mlid-baX to wish, to \ 
^ want, to think useful, serviceable, | 
necessary, to have occasion for Mil. ; Jx^- 
ste ^oit he will be able to make use of it 
MiL; *^kda mi Jio* or *^K6'ce med!^ W. I ] 
do not want it, I do not like it; Jio-bjed i 
fit for use, useful. j 

Qfficn^q- J(6gs'pa weak from old age, | 

' ' decrepit, decayed; rgan or rga^- \ 
Jldgs id. ; sno - kdg^ skya - /% (sic) Jligy. 
with a complexion blue or pale from old age. ^ 
qKC'CT o^'^^^-^^ (cf« sg(^i'ba) to contract 

' one's limbs, to sit in a cowering 

position, to squat; to hide one's self; dpa 
Jc6ii-ba to become discouraged, dishearten- 

ed r%. 

oK^' mir o^^j ^^d 1- surface, super- 
' '' ' " ficies; sat JKod mydms-pa to 
remove inequalities of the surface, to level, 
to plane, Jidd - 8ny(yrm - pa levelled, made 
even, plain; also fig.: bdr^gyi Uod snyomM 
gaps were filled up, i.e. distinctions of rank, 
wealth etc. were done away with, not in 
consequence of a revolution, but as an act 
of kindness, forced upon the people by a 
despotic government. — 2. a mill-stone, 
*yd'/ig'* the upper stone, *md'Kg^* the 
nether stone C. 

QMr-q- Jcdd^a to sit down, to Sit; bar- 
^ ' sndn - /a, suspended in the air, 
floating, soaring, frq. of gods and saints 
in legends ; rgyal - srid -la to have been 
raised to the throne Tar.; to live, to dweU 
DzL; gen. used like a passive to ^6drpa 
to be put, placed, established (in virtue, in 
a doctrine, == to be converted to); gleg^- 
bdm-du to be put down in writing, to be 
recorded Tar. Cf. Jidd-pa. 





ggji-q* JUn-pa {Lexa, have a pf. AAfon) etc., which the soul, when passing into a 

1^ 1. C.C. datiy to bear a grudge or 
ill-will afj^aiost a person, to be dissatisfied 
with a thing; Jidn-nas when they (the 
states) were at war with one another (opp. 
to mt^n-nas in peaceful relations) Glr,; 
JUn-med-par honestly, without insidious 
intentions, e.g. in negotiations Glr. ; ?08 dan 
^Sdn-fa to wish to keep aloof from reli- 
gion, or to have done with religion; in a 
special sense: to be tired of the clerical 
profession Glr,; Jldn^higs-paj Ji&n-du 
^dzin-pa = J(6n-pa; ^Hon res by^d-paSch, 
to quarrel, prob. more accurately, to have 
a spite against each other. — JUdn-po dis- 
tension, discord Sch, Cf. Itdn^a. — 2. C. 
= Jiar-ha 11. 
g^ Jc6b Sch. barbarous, rough, rude, gen. 

'^ combined with mfa^ mta-Jidb, with 
or without yuly barbarous border - country. 
So the Tibetans always designate their own 
country, in comparison with India, the 
holy land of Buddhism, as being mfa-J^db 
gd-ba-can. The rarely occurring yan-Hdb 
seems to indicate a still more distant and 

new body, cannot take along with it Thgy.; 
it is also used for a single servant or at- 
tendant (Cs. has Jt&r-po or Ji&r-pa male 
attendant, and Jf&r-ma female attendant), 
JioT yiig Mil.; J'or ynyis two attendants 
Glr.^ hence Jlor-mams sometimes for do- 
mestics, household servants; but if ^^or with 
a numeral is preceded by "fUd-bo^ or a 
similar noun^ this preceding word is ace. to 
the Tibetan mode of speaking included in 
the number given, so that ytsd-bo JHor Ina 
should be translated: the master and four 
attendants (not five). — 2. instead of ^Kdr- 
bay or Kdr^h^ esp. in compound words; fo- 
JUdr = lo-skdr a cycle, comprising a space 
of twelve years. 

Comp. Ji&r-mUan attendants Glr. — 
Ji&r-Jbdm subjects (Js. — Jior-yydg = Jl6r 
retinue, servants etc. — ^dhun-Kdv^ C. wait- 
ing man, valet de chamber, = sku-nuMn-- 
pa which is the respectful word for it. — 
nan-^Kor household servants, domestics. — 
^Kor-gyd^ W. latch. — Jfor - ^dds v. sub 
I'dr-ba n. 

erer, it is explained by Uydb-pa. 
qj2^- /or 1. circle, circumference; the 
' persons or objects encircling, sur- 
romiding (a certain point or place); Iti- 
ha dim dei Jldr-mofmA the navel and the 
circumjacent parts Med.; ^de-Udr-lcf W. 
thereabout; nye-Ji&r v. nye; more esp. 
retinue, attendants, Jior dan blas-pa (^^. 
f^frO ^^^ attendants, suite; ^Ifor mdm- 
pa ta Tar. frq., the attendants of Buddha's 
hearers, divided into four classes (viz. in 
the earliest times: dge-sldn^ dge^sUn-may 
dge-my^y and dge-snyM-ma; at a later 
period : nyan-fdSy ransans-rffydSy byan-hib- 
thnt'dpay and so-sdt skyi'lxMmaTM q.v.) 
JicT dgrorbbdmrpas bsk&r-te surrounded by 
the retinue of the Arhants (v. dgra-bb&m- 
pa); JUr-du bsdits-so he gathered them 
nmad himself as his retinue DzL\ also 
fig.: the train of thoughts, reminiscences 

ning, flying etc.) round the . . . Glr.'^ esp. 
of the successive transmigrations of me- 
tempsychosis, V. II; mgo Jior my head 
turns, I am getting dizzy, confused; also 
I am duped, cheated, imposed on, KyH- 
kyi Hasbydn-gyts ned mgo mi Jior we are 
not to be taken in by the volubility of 
your tongue Mil.) to pass away, to grow 
full, to be completed, h^iis Jidr-ba-^na when 
one year was past Glr. ; srds^kyis lo Jidr-- 
te when the prince had completed one 
year, was one year old; *da bit-Ion Kor* W. 
now the debt is entirely paid off, cleared; 
*llor mi fub* it cannot be paid off; *mi 
lior*y the sum is not full, not sufficient to 
cover the debt; to walkabout, roam, ramble 
W.; to return from a journey, to come home; 
*rdn-la H&r-ba* to come or fall back (on 
the head of the author, originator); to 
come together, to contract, to gather, e.g. 



qjq^-c^ >r-t^ 


^P^'^^' J^-r^^ 

clouds, frq. water, *Uoi M-hi Kor* W, it 
makes his mouth water; dgrd-Jx> JUyr Mil, 
enemies are collecting (we create ourselves 
enemies); also impersonally: *Uor son* it 
has become cloudy; ynam l^or the sky is 
getting overcast, clouded; therefore even 
to arise, to be produced, formed, zil^a Jior 
dew is produced, yyd^ rust, even : lus-la 
sras ^Hor a child has been formed, pro- 
duced, in the womb Pth, — 

n. sbst. 1. the turning round or a- 
bout etc.; more particularly 2. the orb or 
round of transmigration within the six 
classes of physical beings. Though the 
Buddhist has not a more ardent wish, than 
to be finally released from the repeated wand- 
erings of the soul, yet he believes so firmly 
in these migrations, that he will rather fol- 
low the doctrines of his philosophers, and 
doubt the reality of the perception of his 
senses, than thmk it possible, that the whole 
theory of the JcSr-ba with all its conse- 
quences should be nothing but a product 
of human imagination. — Jldr-har Jc&r-ba 
to turn round, to wander about in the orb 
of transmigration; Ji&r-bai btson^a, ^dam^ 
mtso the dungeon, the swamp, the sea of 
the Ji6r~ba; Jidr-ba^las Jtm-pa to escape 
from the Jcdr^ba^ = to enter into the Nir- 
wana Jidr - Jixxz 1. abbreviation of the 
foregoing. 2. for Jidr-ba dan ^das-pa the 
stay in the Jcdr-ba and the escape from 
it ; Jior ^das ynyis-su nas ma w^on I have 
not seen that there is a difiFerence between 
these two MU. 
Q^5^•W^^ o^'^-y^ a wall, rampart C«., v. 

Qpiv'^rpo; u&r-ryd c\ latch. 

d^^df /(^-to (Ssk. ^TO, ?ri3w) 1. circle, 
^ fsdgS'Ja/i Jidr-h ofiTerings arranged 

in a circle, v. feojrs: Ji&r-lo Jbri-ba to de- 
scribe a circle Tar. More frq.: 2. a cir- 
cular body, a disk, roll, wheel, any modi- 
fication of the cylinder, bbu-ysum-Jidr-lo 
the column on the ml^d-rUn consisting 
apparently of thirteen circular disks ; Jidr- 
lo brtsfib-brgydd the wheel with eight spokes, 
a frq, attribute of deities; rdza-mMn^gyi 

JiArAjo potter's wheel; tds-iyi JUT4o^^r9»y 
ing - cylinder, cf. below; also a compli- 
cation of wheels, wheel-work, engine, j^riiir 
(jgyi) Jidr^'lo) 'magic wheel', a phantas- 
tic attribute of gods, but also any real 
machine of a more ingenious constructioD, 
e.g. sugar - press Stg,^ electrical machine 
etc.; M-fsod-JUdr^h a clock; kvA-rta-^kor- 
lo waggon, carriage, also cart-wheeL — 
Figuratively : bdi - ba dan sdug - bsndl - gyi 
Ji&r^lOy vicissitude of fortune; duA^kyiJUr- 
^ (mii ' ^Jt) ace. to Cs.'^ Chronological 
Table (Oj.'s Gram, p. 181) a later philo- 
sophical system, contained esp. in the rUor- 
rgyitdy Mulatantray in which the Adibud- 
dha doctrine, prophecies, chronology etc 
are propounded. It was introduced ioto 
Tibet about 1000 p. Chr.; cf. also SchL 
45. — JUdr^lo sgyur-bay or skdr-bay with 
ids'kyiy to turn the wheel of doctrine, =■ 
to preach, to teach religion, (vulgo under- 
stood only of the turning of the praying- 
cylinder); *'S^hyi K&r-lo Uh-mcyr ie'-j?a* G, 
to devote one's self to the preaching of 
religion. On the other hand: ^Kdr-lM 
sgyur-bai rgydl-po ( f | l^filn ) WHL: 'a 
ruler, the wheels of whose chariot roll 
everywhere without obstruction, emperor, 
sovereign of the world, the ruler of a ^ 
kra^ or country extending from sea to sea'. 
In this Indian explanation two different 
etymologies are given, the former of which 
is undoubtedly the original one. Buddhism 
and the Tibetan language have added a 
third signification, 'praying-wheel'; modem 
scholars a fourth, that of the 'orb' or round 
of transmigration or metempsychosis: hence 
the confusion attaching to the import of 
this word. 

Qra^*9^ */5t>r-%* is said to be used in 
^ ' col. language instead oi Ha^-ld 

3. W, 

Qji^-^ Jidr-sa = skdr-lam v. skdr --ba I, 
^ extr.; JUdr-sa bdr-pa^ ^Snrpo Gbr. 

QJ^'^^^W' o^^'y^^'^y li^- three circles, 
^ '^ Ssk, trvmcuidala; Sck,: 'every 
thing that belongs to archery' ; more cor- 
rectly: arrow, knife, and spear. 

^ boil, to be boiling, ht Uol the water 
is boiling; JHol jug-pa to make boil, to 
set to the fire for boiling, = skdl-ba; to 
ferment (dough), to effervesce, to sparkle 
(beer) W, — 11. pf. bkol, imp. Mol 1. to 
oblige a person to be a servant or bond- 
man, to use as a servant; in full : bi^an-du, 
^^ Ty^'^y oA!oZ-6a; therefore bran-Kdly 

C\g^'^' o%^*« 


Tar, 153, 15. — Jcydm-Uyi a vagrant dog. 
— Ji\fdim-fo 1. a vagabond. — 2. n. of a 
disease Med, — 3. erroneous Tat, — hi 
Jiydmrfa inundation, flood Ma, 
qjM-q- Jcydr-ba to err, to go astray, to 
'^ deviate from, ^yan Mydr-la ma ?a* 
Ld, do not step out of your rank! do not 
absent yourself! ^Kyar dogs yod one should 
be afraid of going astray Thgy,\ dpe Jiydr- 

idUpo servant, man-servant: bkol-spydd-kyi po a defective simile; fsig Jcydr-po an 

sdug-bsndl the calamity of servitude, cur- inadequate designation. — In Tar. 48, 4 

rent expression for designating the lot of dpe Jiydr-po is translated 'epitome' by 

animals; yhdn-dag^gis dbdn-med-par bkdU Schf,^ but the whole passage is somewhat 

6a to be enslaved by others, to be com- obscure. 

pelled to do slave- work T%.; dg^-bat ^j—j.^- ^^^^^ j^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ 

IdS'la bkdUba to make a person minister ^ 

to works of virtue. — 2. to save, to spare, afi'q* J^-^^^Kv^^- *° incorrect read- 

to enjoy vrith moderation Cs., ziir-du ... ing for J^^'^^- 

^ ' bind (a prisoner, a bundle of straw 

bbH-ba Lea, ; Sch. : saved, laid up, put by. 
— 3. Sch,: to become insensible, to be a- 
sieep, to get benumbed, in reference to the 
limbs; seems to be used in Med. 

etc.); *ky^ (v. ske) *Uyig^(f C. to strangle, 

Qffi^ Jos 1. a also Jds-ka (cognate to agrrorcT °%^«-P^ *® comprise, encom- 
^ o^6a), worth, value, importance C«.; ^ ' paw ^^-^ v- pan-pa. 

JU^-han important, mighty, of great in- afi^'^T o^iP^'P^^ ^^*-- ^ J^^'P^ *® 
fluence, Jios-m^d the opposite of it. — 2. '^ ^ turn or roll one's eyes. 
^-m^ab^a clyster /SrA.; one J^ex. has afis^J^^'CT o%'^-P^^- to be encircled with 
nfos^dby w.e.^^'^'^r'^*^ ^cA^^y^v>//6^i^e;^<l i|^ ^ haJo, as the sun and moon 

sometimes are Cs. ; ^og-Jiyvrm Lex. = irf^fv 
halo; also ^a-dd Jiyims a rainbow-coloured 
halo appears Pth. — 2. : ^na-bur^ or ^mdig-pa 



►•q* J^^gW'P^ 1 -to freeze (of water, 
earth, provisions); to coagulate, 
csngeal (melted fat etc.). — 2. to feel cold, 
Jcydgs-na gds gyon if you feel cold, put 
on clothes Glr.y ^Hyag )hu7f C, *Kydgssa 
raf W. I feel cold; J&ydgs-gri a feeling 
cold, a shivering (cf. Itdgs-grt) Mil.; ^Kydgs- 
ia* W. id., the cold fit of the ague. — 
Jcyags-^iim, JHyag^-r&m ice Olr.\ JHyags- 
Mm snow-shoe Sch. 

nijKrq* jcydmrfa to run about, to wander, 
^ e.g. cd-medyiil-du in an unknown 

UyimSy d'dd'pa Kyims*^ fog, smoke, COmes 
floating on. 

qfii^'q' ""f^ir-ba to turn round in a cir- 
^ cular course 6«., Lea;. :ydug8 JHyir- 
ba to turn a parasol round (?). 

QiBaj'q' o%^''-*« v*>. n. 1. to wind, to twist; 

•^ dun yydssu J'ytl'ba a triton or 

trumpet-shell, wound to the right, and then 

considered particularly valuable, these shells 

country Glr.; Jdr-bar in the orb or round generally being wound to the left;^of the 

of transmigration, v. Jidr-ba'^ Jlydm^te nai* 
fin hddg-pa Hg one who lives as a va- 
gabond Dzl.'^ di-dag-ni mdm^ar Jcydm- 
pao they are mistaken, on the wrong track 
Wdn.; Jcyam-du .^^ug^pa to cause to ramble 
or rove about, to scatter; Joydms-^a strayed, 
KMt, wandering, vagrant; erroneous, erring 

hair: gySn-la Jfyil-ba wound or twisted 
(on the crown of the head) Glr. ; ro-smad 
"^brttl - du JHyil - ba the lower part of the 
body being wound into a serpent (the 
usual manner of representing the '^Zw'); 
^dd'du ^Hyil'hiny the body enveloping itself 
in light Mil.; to roll: nya yner-mig J^yil- 


«,I5'^ o%*-*« 

ba yod the fish rolls its golden eye Mil,'^ 
to whirl, to eddy, to move round rapidly, 
of the water, so prob. DzL ©5, 13; ^>ce, 
2; Urom dmar-ndg Jiyil-ba the motley 
crowd in a whirling motion Pih, ; to hang or 
flow down in folds, of a tent or a curtain 
Glr. 33, 12. — 2. to flow (whirling) to- 
gether, used of rivulets and brooks over- 
flowing so as to form small lakes Mil,\ 
of persons: to meet, to flock or crowd 
together, mi md/t-po dd-ru ^Icyil-bar ffyur- 
te Pth, ; ^KyU-hi* and *cU'llj/il* col. puddle. 

QW'^' o%ti-6a, pf. Jiytts to run Lex. 

^ ^Bfug-po a runner; Jiyug-yig run- 

ning hand, current hand-writing, as is used in 
the writing of letters etc. ; Jiyug-po Jiyu- 
ba Lea. is explained by Sch,: to run away 
hastily. The signification of running, how- 
ever, seems to be obsolete, whilst the 
usual meaning is: 2. to dart or sweep ra- 
pidly along, &q. used of a flash of light- 
ning, also of the rapid motion of a fish 
in the water MU,; of spectral apparitions 
Mil,; of acute rheumatic pains; of the 
light: to flash, to shoot rays of light, Ura- 
/cyug-Myug-pa to gleam, to sparkle with 
light, to shine in various colours I^.; 
ser-Jfyug-ge-ba glittering in yellow lustre 
Mil.; to glitter, to shine, of the rainbow; 
to shine through, of the veins through the 
cuticle etc. — ^Uyug-har-cdn* W, hasty, 
hurrying, careless. 

nmr-q- Jiydd-fa 1. to embrace frq., rngiil' 
T^ ^ nas Jiyud'pa to clasp round the 
neck, to hug; to encompass by spanning 
Pth. and elsewhere, .cf. Jiyigs-pa. — 2. to 
glide in or into (as serpents), mndl-du 
Jcyug-pa of the soul in the new concep- 
tion, like the synonym Jcril-buy for ^^itg- 
pa. — 3. to be able, *ndd-pa mdl'Sa-na 
Idn-na* (instead of Ian-bar) *mi UytJxT the 
sick man is not able to rise from his bed. 
— bios mi Jcyud-pa by id-pa Thgy. (not 

Q—-.-. Jcyur-baCs.: to be separated, di- 
^ vorced; Lex.: bskur-bas Jcyur-ba, 

therefore prob. the vb. n. to skyur-ba^ to 
be deserted, cast ofF. 
oj^r-fl' Jiyin-ba seems to be = ^ins-fa 
^. C. col. 

qj^r-n- fiy^d'pa (1. cf. ^yedr^a) 6i. to be 
^^ distributed, e.g. food, Dzl — 2. 
C. and W. to be sufficient, to suffice, to be 
enough, to hold out, *mi Uyed!" there is not 
enough. — 3. C. to gain (a law-suit), to 
be acquitted. — 4. pyir KyM-pa to bow 
without uncovering one's head, as a lc§s 
humble way of saluting Mil.nt. 
nj^x'fl' JiySr-ba pf. Jcyer (Northern Ld. 
^ *ISyer8*)y at the end of a sentence 
Uyer-ro Tar. and others, (6«. Kyer-tof), 
nearly the same as JHur-ba; (the ipj of 
the Lexx. : to lead, to guide, does not fully 
agree with the sense in which it is gene- 
rally used) — 1. to carry away, to take 
away; ?2^s to be carried or swept away by 
water; fig.: U-los to be overcome, carried 
away by idleness Mil.; Ide-mig Uyer take 
the key with you! — 2. to carry, to bring, 
in a more general sense, C. and B.: Icyer 
hog bring! Uyer son carry off! take away! 
(in a like manner as Jitir-ba); des hi blan- 
nas Uyer ^dn-bai Idm-Ua-na he having 
fetched water, being on his way to bring 
it Pth.; Uyer-la hog bring me (word), let 
me know (the result of your investigation) 
Mil. -J- Jiyirso 1 . appearance, esp. a neat, 
handsome appearance of persons or things. 
2. advantage, superiority, pleasantness, 
Mil, C. 

flgq-q- JiyeUa Ld. to hit, to sbike. 

I'q- J^<^9'1P<^y pf- %<2t^i imp. Uyog, to 
lift, lift up, = JdgS'pay figs-pa 
Glr.; to carry, bring, ^M-jha Wyof bring 
in the tea 6'., cf. sub Ua^. 
/QNgcn-Tlf o%^S^-P^<>r%(>9r-po crooked, bent; 
\y\^ I Jiydg-poi ri^mo a crooked figure, 
a curve, flourish, crescent etc. ; mfa» par 
JUyog fsur Jcyog byds-sin the fish winding 
its body, writhing Pt/i.; Jiyog-ban, J^' 
JUydg tortuous; Jiyog-bhdd a crooked, out 
of the way construction or explanation. — 
JUyog st&n-pa to fly into a passion (?) Sclu 

Qjgcrpr o%o^« 





/'q^grw o%<>?« »r %^S« palanquin, sedan- 

id.; a lath or pole for carrying burdens 

oBSt^'fl' o%^'ba pf. and imp. Ifym to bring 

qg^q- Jydm-pa pf. ^Ayeww 1. tO rock, 
^^ to wave, of a ship Schr,^ of the 
water Sch. (not quite clear); *l,-yom'Kyom 
d<hba* C. to reel, stagger, "cdh-ghi i^am- 
pa dug* he is staggering under the in- 
fluence of beer; to be dizzy Med,; mfso- 
Jhj&m dizziness, vertigo ,j ni. f. ; lug -glad 
ing(hji&r Jly6m-pa yso the brain of a sheep 
cures the swinimiug of the head (vertigo) 

i-q- Jiyorba 1. to miss, fail, not to hit 
Cs. — 2. to reel, stagger, from 
intoxication. — 3. to warp, of wood. 

CT ^/^(^I'ba, pf. o%o/, cf. skyiUbaj to 
be carried, to be brought (some- 
where) Pih.; with ynod'pa to be done, 
inflicted Mil. ; to arrive at, come to, reach, 
%kurfs4 mfd-ru the end of life. 

Qi%cr rQS^•a•^ o%<^-/'« Copyo^'P^) 

^^ ' ^ ^ ^ScL, ^Hyds-ma MU., 
a present, gift, = /cyds-ma, skyds-ma. 
Oprq* o^^^-^^ I- vb., pf. prob. ^Kras tO lean 
^ to, to incline towards Cs.; Jtrdsa 
a support to lean against, a prop, back (of 
a chair) Lex. — 11. adj. hard, = Jcrdn- 
ba, mkrdn-^a Sch. 

QXa^q' Jl^db-pa^ pf. bkrab (?), cf. also 
^^ skrdb-pay 1. to strike, to beat, in 
repeated strokes, as in swimming and row- 
ing; to thrust, stamp, thump, tread heavily, 
brejcrab-pa to daoce in that manner MU., 
Pih. — 2. to winnow, to fan Stg., col. *tdb- 
pa*. — 3. *mig tab fab* (or *{ab-tab*) 
*jM-j>a* a, *dd'ce* W;, to blink, twinkle, 
wink with the eyes. — 4. *Iia-hdg iah-be* 
)^. to jest, to joke, to crack jokes. — 5. 
^h.: to leap, jump, Schr. for joy. — 6. to 
scoop out, to bail out Sch. — 7. to fight, to 
combat C, W.. 

^0^flB^' J^ral-Ji'M confusion, disorder. 

w Jhn-ba^ pf. Jirky cf. dkri-bay cog- 
nate to Jril'ba, 1. to wind, roll; twist 
one's self, to coil (of snakes) Dzl.; Uyimr 
fdb'lcyi Jiri-ba conjugal embrace Pih.\ *'6g- 
ma Hse* (for Jlriste) *ra^ W. I have 
a sore throat, prop. I feel my throat tied 
up, I am choking; fig..* kun-la Jaris-pay 
either as an adj. ^ensnaring', or as a sbst. 
'ensnarer' = sin, cf. kun-dkris in dkri^a; 
Jx^H-Mn = Jy^ril'Hn. — 2. mostly as a sbst. : 
the being attached to, given to, c.c. genit. 
(synonym of cdgs-pa): ran-ddn-gyij to 
one's own advantage, busmddnkyi to wife 
and children Mil.; fondness, attachment; 
ien-Jiris id. — 3. Krai Jlri-ba to impose 
a tax C.y Lea. 

Ofe^rq' o^^-P« I- sbst. 1. {SsL f^ryPf) 
'^ ' coitus (of the two sexes), copula- 
tion, pairing, the usual, not exactly obscene, 
yet not euphemistic term for it; Jtrig-pa 
spydd^pa^ also Jirig-^dgs spydd-pa J5. and 
6'., *iig'pa bo-ce* Wi, to lie with etc.; Jcrig- 
pai ^ds-la rfin-pa to indulge in lust, to be 
given to voluptuousness; Jcrig-skdd Sch.y 
Jcrig-fsig Lexx., obscene words, unchaste 
language; Jhig-pa Jyyin-pa to talk smut. 
— 2. a sign of the zodiac, the twins. — 
3. symb. num.: 2. 

IT. vb. 1. to cohere, to stick together 
Cs. — 2. to be clouded (of the sky), yna/tn 
^Urig the sky is getting overcast; also 
Higs son* W. without a sbst., it has be- 
come cloudy, dull; ^dd-z^ dan ^a-^dd 
^k'tig-pa wrapt in rays of light and the 
splendours of the rainbow Pth. ; tan tarns- 
bdd mes Jcrig-pa the whole plain was 
enveloped in a flame of fire Mil. Cf. 

Jcrid V. Krid. 

oj^ffw JcHd^pa^ pf. /'m?, fut.iW?, to lead, 
1*^ » to conduct men or beasts to a place ; 
to command, to head (an army); to bring 
along with, Jirid-de ma ^dns-so he has not 
brought (his wife) with him Dzl.; there- 
fore qA^/'m! equivalent to 'with': bu-tsa Jfrid 
byun-7iajs coming out with their children 


C^j§5W Jirhm 



Gfo". — ifo Jhid'pa perh. a mistake for 

JcriUba 1. to wind or coil round 
(of serpents), to embrace closely, 
to clasp round, e.g. in the act of coition; 
ma byams bu-la Jiril a loving mother 
clasping her child Pih, ; JiriUmUan a plant 
furnished with tendrils or claspers W,\ 
^KrU'sin Wdm, a climbing plant, creeper. 
— 2. to glide, slip into, of the soul when 
entering another body, = Jiyud-pa. — 3. 
Ua JcrU-^a W, to speak imperfectly (like 
children), to stammer, — 4. to heap up, = 
^dril'ba^ sgrU-ba, 

i«t- Jiri» 1. syn. with ^ram^ bank, shore, 
' coast, rmd'Od Jcrk-na ydd-^ai mMar^ 
a castle on the banks of the Hoangho 
Glr, ; *Ilyg^'i*dn'gt fi-na yg^* C\ it lies just 
before you, under your nose; bla-mai ska- 
It'HS'SU = bld-mai py6gs-la Mihnt — 2. v. 

QjZTfl' ^Ti^-ba 1. Cs. to wash, to bathe, = 

''3 Jbrudrfa^ cf. Urm, — 2. diarrhoea, 

looseness; dysentery (?); Jcm-ndd, Jcru- 

»by<^n8 (^ufirerr) id. 

QjOTrq- J^'P^ 1- vb., pf Jcrugs, cf 
>3 ' dkrug-pa^ bhniff-pa^ to be in dis- 
order, agitation, commotion, to be disturbed ; 
Jii^'par ^gyitr-ba to get disordered; of 
the blood : rtsa fams^dd Jii'iig-tu bbitg^ it 
made all his blood boil Glr,\ of the sea 
irq. ; esp. of the mind, disturbed by wrath, 
fear, anxiety, or some other passion, cf. 
Mog-Ji^uffs; to quarrel, fight, contend, de 
ynyis ^Icrugs^nas^ the two quarrelling; bod 
^e nan Jirug-go^ the nobles of Tibet are 
contending among one another, have in- 
ternal feuds; met -via Jcrug-pa tears ap- 
pearing, coming forth, (lit. tears being 
stirred up, excited Thgy,^ MiL^ Tar, — 2. 
sbst. disorder, tumult, war, also single com- 
bat, duel, Jii*iig'pa mr disorder arises; 
Jcrug-diis by as he appointed the time of 
the duel Glr.\ Jirv^f-dpon = dmag-dpon^ 
Jirug-pa byed-pa to take up arms, to begin 
war; respecting subjects: to rebel; Jcrug- 

pa byM-pai dd^-su in times of war Gir.; 
dnuig-Jirkg^ Jab-Jc'riig war. — mi-Jlriigi- 
pa n. of a Buddha (not = vii-skyddr-pa). — 
Jirug^dh is the explanation given by Zy&w?. 
for skyo-ndgsy hence prob. : contest, strife. 
— ^tugs-Tnlcan* W, having small cracks, 
flaws, of potter's ware. 
nnqr -fl* *JiTun'ba or Jcruns-pa 1 . resp. for 
^ skyi'ba to be bom, bcom-ldan-^dds 
Jirum-pa dan dua-mnydm-du at the same 
time when Buddha was bom Glr,; ynyis- 
la sras ma Jorum-par as by neither of the 
two (queens) a son was bom Glr.\ Jirum- 
dkdi shyh-bu (holy) men, such as are but 
rarely bora (lit. with difficulty) M7.; to 
arise, to originate, Jirum-rdhs legend of the 
origin . . .; Hyed-rdn-gi fugs-la Jiriins-pai 
fsig words as they may just arise in your 
honour's mind Mil,; snyin-rye fugs-la Jcrum- 
pas compassion arose in the soul of his 
reverence Mil.; tin-ne-^dzrn Jiriins-poi 
meditation arising. — 2. to come up, shoot, 
sprout, grow, of seeds and plants frq. 
nnir'q' Jcrud-pa,, pf. iArM«, fut. bkru to 

>3^ wash, to bathe, gos clothes, k'a^dg 
face and hands DzL; to wash off, dri-ma 
dirt; fig. sa ndn-gyis j^rvd Ma, is stated 
to mean: the country is fleeced, thoroughly 
drained of its resources. 
nm^^ Jcrums carcass, carrion, game torn 
^ by beasts of prey, Sch,^ (the word 
seems to be very little known). 
QjnQJ-q- Jirul-ba {Lea,: Ssk. ^9^ to turn 

>^ out of the way, to wander, to 

stray, hence perh. originally:) 1. to 1)0 dis- 
located, sprained, distorted, *f^ tul'' W. 
the limb is dislocated; usually: 2. to be 
out, to be mistaken, almost always used in 
the pf tense, JUi^l-pa mistaken, deceived, 
na mig Jcrul-pa yin-nam, does my eye 
deceive me? Md.\ imd-ba Jirul dogs tur- 
re gyis take care not to hear wrong MU,; 
ynyis yng-iu JUrid-bar byed-pa to make by 
mistake two to be one, to confound one 
thing with another Tar.; ^di dge-sldh-ma^ 
jdod-pa Jcridr-pa yin-la she being frustrated 
in her wish to become a nun Tar. 85, 1 ; 
^ro-ba Jcml-pa the deceived creature Olr. ; 

q(gaj-q- Jtnd-ba 

frq. with snan : ran-sndn Jcriil-par ^dug I 
have been mistakeD, it was a deception 
of the senses Mil, ; Bnan-JiruL and Jcrul" 
man illusion, delusion; JUrul-mdn-ban de- 
lusive Glr.\ to err, as a syn. of ndr-ba: 
tyod-^ag Jk/ruUfai Jig^ten-pa ye deluded 
children of the world! il/iZ.; kes ^cUm-pa- 
mams ^Urul they who pronounce (read) 
in this manner, are mistaken; ^a ^dogs Jcrul 
the adding of ^a is a mistake; non'-Jhid 
mistake, nor- Jcrul sel-ba Schr,^ *t<hir-ce^ sal- 
po gydb-c^^ W. to remove mistakes, to 
correct. — 3. to be insane, deranged, syn. 
of iffM/ds-pa DzL and others. — JiHtl-pa 
1. adj. mistalcen, deceived. — 2. sbst. mis- 
talce; frenzy, madness; Jcml-yii mistalce, 
error; Jlrul-so (errandi locus) occasion for 
committing mistakes, a wrong way, peril; 
mistake, error, cf. golsa; JfruUJfdr artifice 
ScA., (6^.: machine, contrivance; but this 
is spelled more correctly ^prvl-Jidr). 



^|-«^' gd; 


Qi^F^' JirSn-pa 1. to wish, to long for, 
'^ ' zdS'skom Med,^ Uyrni-la Lex, — 2. 
W, to look upon with envy, jealousy. 

0^P( Jcrd'ba, pf. AV-os, to be angry, la at. 

qjSqrq' Ji^<^'V<^ to roar, rush, buzz, hum, 

'^ ' md-ba Mr-la JUrog Med,^ a tin- 
gling noise is caused in the ear; rgyu-loh 
Jcrog-bin a rumbling in the bowels Med, ; 
sbo-JHrog in the belly; Jirog-Urdg roaring, 
rushing, buzzing. 

Qjg^.-. Jirol'ba pf. and fut. dkrol^ imp. 
'^ Icrol 1. to cause to sound, to make 

a noise, to play, rol-mo on an instrument, 
to ring (a bell), to beat (a gong, cymbal); 
ma dkrdl-bar without being played on. — 
2. to sound, resound, *d6d-pa f6l4a ra^ 
W, my bowels croak; Jirol-po a player, 
performer, bell-ringer etc., cf. Krol-po; 
*frol'lO'lO't8^ W, a tinkling of bells. 


mga 1. the letter g, originally, and in 
the border countries still at the present 
time, as initial letter = the English hard 
g, as final letter == ck; in C. as initial 
deep-toned and aspirated (gh), as final 
letter more or less indistinct; as a prefix 
(in Khams and Balti) fricative = ^ or ;f ; 
▼. Preface. — 2. as numerical figure: 3, 
c£ ia 2. 
^r ga affix (article) to some substantives, 

' like ka, 
m ga (C. ^gha"") 1. = ^a (C, >*)• - 2. 

= gan. 
mppjl' ^d'^dl C. Tpron. ^gha-f'at^) tax, 

"^ duty (on cattle and butter). 
mm g<^d W. a title of honour: the old 

' ' gentleman, the ojd squire e.g. *ga-gd 
Uk-rorbdn* the old Squire Tara Chand, opp. 

to no^nd the young Squire; instead of it in 

C; ^'a^hO'ldg*, 

mm^O^' gci'-ffct tsily tickling Cs,; ga-ga-fsU 

' ' byM-pa to tickle. 
zT]*q|'^ ga-g^-mo such a one, such a thing 

' ' Cs,; such and such; v. ^e-ge^mo, 

mcMr 9^ - 9^^ a melon Cs. (some Lexx. 

' ' ^ have: cucumber, others: barley). 
^^ OT<3^ fl'a-cm,gra-^ some (people), 

' '' '^ a good many; a good deal 
W., C, 
m^K' 9<^'^<^d witliout cause, involuntarily, 

' ' e.g. to weep Med, 
mTT- gd'ta Ssk,^ ga-tai sde-fsan a particular 

' ^ kind of Indian hand-writing, besides 
Nagari and Lantsa Glr, 

^^ gd-da («n[T), club, mace. 

64 , 

m'rx' ga-dur medicinal herb of an astrin- 

'>^ gent taste. 
m-§jx" ga-ddr Lex. w.e.: ha-bai ga-dar; 

' Sch. explains : the growth of a new 

branch on a stag's horn. 
mQtZKr ga-^drds C. (pronounced ^ghande*) 

'^ how? 
^r^ gd-na = gart-na^ where, used interr. 

' ' and corrcl., frq.; gd-na-ba and gdii- 
na-ba the same as a sbst, the wherea- 
bouts of a person, his place of residence; 
rgydl'po gd-na-bar^ (or gd-na-ba der^ gd- 
na ^dug-paVy gd-na biugs-par) son he went 
where the king was DzLy frq. — ^ga-na- 
mid^ W. absolutely, at all events, ""ga-na- 
mid kcUgos* it must be sent by all means; 
*ga--na-med log-te tan yin* I shall give it 
back at all events (5. cts-kyan), 

^^^ ga^-pur camphor Med.^< 

^9* ga-bra n. of a medicine Med, 

m^' ga-tsdm how, how much, how many 
' how long, interr. and correl; as 

much as, e.g. as much as you like (you 
may take) col. 

^^wT ga-bl»6n an eruption of the skin W, 

— .^, ga-tsdd C. how much, *rin gha-tsg* 
' ' what is the price? 

a jesi, joKe, lauynier, 

gd'ka dan rtsid-mo rise Pth, they jest and 
play; also adj.: inclined to jesting, *d^ 
rin gd'ha mi dug* he is not in a good 
humour, in good spirits, to-day W. 

^^Pj* gd'Zug W. how, interr. and correl. 
^'^l' ga-yzi W. squinting. 

CT"^-^ rqp-^^- ga-^j dga-n's = gd za W,; 
' ' ' ' *ga - ri mi rag* I am in 

low spirits, dejected. 

OTX' gd-ru = gan-du 1. whither, which 
' way, to which place, whereto. — 2. 
where, interr. and correl. 
^^P^ga-ru^a the Garuda-bird. v. Hyun, 


PjC' gan 

m^' ga-re 1. where is7 B. and col. — 

' 2. Lfd, a species of Lathyrus. 
OTO}' ffd'la for gdn^la^ ci^la C; ^ghd-k 
' tM-ne ne^ }hun* owing to what or 
from what cause did the disease arise? *^ghd- 
lapm* to what does this serve, of what use 
is this? Sch.\ whither, to what place? V^- 
la ^dd^hi yinn-pa* U^ where are you going 
to? — gd'lorba = gd-nor^m, 

gd'le C\ slowly, softly, gently, gen. in 
a good sense, opp. to every thing 
turbulent; therefore in exchanging com- 
pliments on meeting or parting: %o-iwi 
ghd'le ^ hu ita^ (perh. to be spelled 
ska bhigs snan) says the person that has 
paid a visit, %o - nd ghd - le peb* he that 
received the visit, when taking leave of 
each other, both phrases implying about 
the same as our farewell! good-bye! Cf. 
^(^ga-ldg W, squinting. 

qr n- gd'ha 1. v. ga-ha^ — 2. girth or 
' ' rope slung across breast and shoulder 
in order to draw or carry anything; also 
dog-harness; also the bandoleer or shoulder- 
belt, worn as a badge of dignity by con- 
stabjes and the like officers; sobriquet for 
the rope of meditation, v. sgom^fdg. 
OT,/Kr ff<^^dsy C, *gha-he*y somo, part; *AAii- 
' ' TWO yan gha-^e ^)h^-pa yin* even 
girls, in part, take to religion (become nuns). 
2Tr^^' ga-sid v. sed. 

^'^0^' ga-sel glass-beads, glass-pearls Sch. 

^^^' ga-sir, instead of j^ punishment L<£. 

qjOT gag 1. sih^er in bars, ingots, small 
'^' pieces etc., uncoined W. — 2. wad, 

wadding (for loading muskets) W. — 3. 

Cs: = bya-gdg, gag-tsi a water-fowl. 

mm'n* 9^9 'V^ Med,y a swelling in the 
' ' throat Cs,; gag-Uvog id. (?) 

j^- gari I. interr. pron. 1. who 7 which? 
' jB., C, W.; when used adjectively, it 

generally follows its sbst. (so at least in 

good language), and if preceding it, it 

stands in the genit. case: pyogs gan which 


^^' gan 

region or part of the world? gdn-gi dus 
which time? in the latter case it may also 
mean wbose: gdn-gi lam whose way? j^ 
nan jrnyis ids lugs gah bzan which of the 
two doctrines, the Brahmanic or the Bud- 
dhist, is the right one? pyogs gdn-nas 
o/i, no mi ^^-paa not knowing from what 
part of the country she comes Glr.; ma 
ni gctn yin bu ni gan yin bye - brag pyes 
decide which is the mother and which the 
child DzL; gan iS-na lit. 4f one asks 
which?* corresponds sometimes to the Eng- 
lish. 'namely, to wit, viz.'; gdn-na where? 
gan-la whither? gdn-na^y gdn-las whence? 
gdn-du where? whither? gdn-na-ba = ga- 
na-ba v. above; gdn-pa, yul gdn-pa^ col. 
*gan'yul'pa*y from what country? — 2. 
C for H what? *ghan z^-raimf what 
shall I say ? *UyQ^'kyi min-la ghan zir-ghiyi 
yg^'dhaTfj^ what is your name? ^ghdn-la 
yah* what are you coming for? what do 
you want? — 2. rel, or rather correl. 
pron., who, which, he who, she who, who- 
ever, whichever, whatever, ogvig: gan pyir 
ian-ba de ni she who follows Dzlr^ gan 
gos ^ddd'pa-la gos byun whoever wanted 
clothes, to him they were given DzL ; rig- 
pa gan md^ba cig-la stir-TO I give it to 
him who is the sharpest as to sagacity Glr, ; 
hfod'kyi dpd-ba gan yin-pa-la Kd-bo mgu 
the bravery which you have shown pleases 
me Tar. 21, 13; rgydl-bu gdn-du fse opds- 
pat ynds-su s6n-no they went to the place 
where the prince had changed life Dzlr^ 
gdn-gi lam sndn-du grub-pa des . , , he 
whose way (of sanctification) will be com- 
pleted first, shall . . . Stg, Often fams-ddd 
or a plural-sign accompanies the partic. : 
gah mi his-pa-dag they who do not under- 
stand DzL Rarely in fi., but frq. in the 
col. language of W., the pa after the verb 
is supplied by a gerundial particle, such 
as no, »a«; *gan tdn-na Icyad med^ which 
you intend to give is all the same. Some- 
times, however, particularly in more mo- 
dem literature, no pa is added to the verb 
at all, esp. when gan is joined with yin, 
yod, or dug^ so tliat such sentences in 

^TjC'flrr gan-gd 

their form are very similar to the relative 
sentences of occidental languages; but that 
this omission of pa^ although sanctioned 
by long continued use, is after all an in- 
correct breviloqnence , and that pa must 
always be understood, appears from the 
frq. occurrence of the plural sign imme- 
diately after yod etc.: de ynyis-kyi srid 
gan ydd-7*nam8 the claims to government 
which both of these maintained Glr, ; gdn- 
fse — dM-tse when —then; gan hg whoever. 
If any body etc. frq.; vulgo in W. often 
pleon. = any or some, *gan }Ag firm-si pi- ^- ^'^^ 
la* on account of some law-suit, instead 
of fim>s hig-gi pyir ; gav la-Id iftjr is of a 
similar meaning, but less frq. The import 
of the word is still more generalized by 
yari being added to gan or to the verb: 
dnos-po gan mfon yan Mil. whatever he 
sets his eyes upon ; gan Itdr-na yan^ gan 
yin kyan whatsoever it may be, however 
that may be, be that as it may, at all 
events, esp. C; gan-yan-rttn-ba^ gan-run^ 
gan-H-yan-run whosoever he may be, 
whatsoever it may be, quicunque; ynas gan- 
yan-riin-ba-na whereever; gdn-nas gdn-du 
shyes kyan out of which class of beings 
and into whichsoever I shall be re-born 
DzL — 3. indefinite pron., used absolutely, 
each, every, any, all, when followed by a 
negation = not any, none, no: h) dar cu 
sogs gan yan Afa, curdled milk, buttermilk, 
water, every thing tastes bitter Med. ; sans- 
rgyds gdn-gis kyan Tna bhdgs-pa not yet 
trodden by any Buddha Glr.; pan gan 
fogs gyis be as useful as ever possible Mil. ; 
gdn-dag all Glr. and elsewhere; d^-dag 
mi Jyyun gaii yan med these are to be 
found everywhere; gdn-la gan-^dul con- 
verting each in the manner best suited to 
him ; gdn-gis kyan = cis-kyan by all means; 
gdn-gis kyan dgds-pa mid -pa altogether 
useless Mil. ; gan dan gan 6s., Sch. (more 
frq. gan dan bi) every thing whatsoever Glr. 
mr^mxr^ gar't-ga-hin an officinal plant 
' '^ Med 

^'2^' gan-ga Ssk the river Ganges. 



^'R" gdn-ia 

snr'fl* gdn-ba^ sometimes gdn-po^ also gan 
' 1. full, rin-pO'Ces ban-mdzod gdn- 

ba iig a treasury fiill of jewels DzL ; fdU 
cu Kdl-mas gdn-ba-ste being filled with 
boiling lye Thgy,\ yser-pyi bre gdn-po^ 
yser yidn-pa gan a measure filled with 
gold-dust, a basin full of gold; ^dbs-kyi 
ndn-na sh'ul ydug-pas gdn-no lit.: in the 
ditch it was full of poisonous snakes DzL^ 
brgyvd gdn-bar gyur-to the progeny in- 
creased Glr, ; mcdd-rten h'ru gdn-pa Glr. a 
pyramid, a full cubit in height — 2. W. 
also heaped (measure), opp. to ^gan-bdd^ 
(lit. bbad) smoothed (measure), 
qr^-q- gdn - bu pod, shell, husk {Sch. also 
' ^ also flower -bud?) ^od-zh^-gyi gdn- 
bur JbiUnas enveloping himself in a veil 
of rays, wrapping himself in a garment 
of light (another reading: gdn-por in a 
lump, in one mass) Glr. ; gan-ld an empty 
pod, freed from the kernels W. 
m^'spr gan-zdg 1. man, as an intellectual 
' ' being, a person; gan-zdg yidn-gyis 
brda sprdd^as another person describing 
it to you (opp. to what we know by our 
own perception and observation) Mil.; 
hence philosophical term for the I or self, 
OT^ Was. ; bstan-bdds'la mKds-pai gan-idg- 
mams learned or lettered men, men of 
science Glr.; esp. man in relation to reli- 
gion: ?(?8 j^yi'bhdl byM-pai gan-zdg Mil, 
men who postpone religion, not troubling 
themselves about it: opdgs-pai gan-zdg- 
mams-kyi rgydl-po the king of reverend 
persons, i.e. Buddha ; Idg-lta-ban-gyi gan- 
zdg heretical people ; gan-zdg pdl-pa^ tormdlr 
pd common people MU. and others; also 
explicitly: people favourably disposed to- 
wards religion, religious people Gyatch. c. 
26 & 27. (at present the word is generally 
understood in the latter sense); dtis pyts- 
kyi gan-zdg Glr., mor^dns-pai gan-zdg skdl- 
ba dan Iddn-pa Mil. a pious posterity. 
The word, however, so little implies the 
clerical state, that it is used directly for 
2. layman, one that has not taken orders 
DzL ^sS®, 5 and elsewhere. — 3. (resp. 
lal'Zdg) tobacco-pipe, not the hukka, but 

^ gem 

a small sort, similar to ours, gen. made 
of metal; gan-mgd bowl of a tobacco-pipe; 
gan-mjug mouth-piece or tip of it C. 
m^:^' ff^^^ 1. glacier-ice, glacier; grdns-^an 

' adj. abounding in snow, in glaciers, 
also as a sbst. a glacier ; gdns - ban - las 
Jbyuh-bai cu the water issuing from a gla- 
cier Med., and even as a p.n. : Tibet; jron*- 
ban-gyi skad the Tibetan language; gdns- 
b^dg-pa to cleave the snow, i.e. to have it 
trodden down by yaks sent in advance, in 
order thus to form a path for the travellers 
(v. Hue Voyage 11. 421). — gans-rgyud 
a chain of snow -mountains. — gans-ien- 
mzod-lnd 'the five receptacles of the vast 
glacier-ice', or gans-iSen-r^S'lnd 'the five 
kings of the same', pronounced ^ghan-^ien- 
^dzjo^-ndf, or *je^d*, n. of a high mountain 
in Sikkim, commonly spelled Einjinjunga; 
gans - ^en - mfso - rgydl n ame of a deity (?) 
Glr. — goMS'figs Med. perh. stalactite. — 
gans-ri a snow- or ice-mountain, as p.n. 
= Ti-se. — Seldom 2. col. ice in general; 
*gansson* it has frozen W. — 3. snow in 
general, *ghan Jbab* it snows Ts.; *ghan' 
ma-cdr^ sleet — 4. the sclerotic of the 
eye Sch. 
mC'H' gddrpa 1. a bluff; precipitous river- 

' ' banks, such as frequently inclose 
the mountain rivers of Tibet. — 2. In IT. 
the word seems to refer more to the spe- 
cies of rock, which is favourable to the 
formation of such banks: conglom&*ate;^a(f- 
pug a cavern in such a bank; gad- rgydl 
the gigantic walls of conglomerate rock, 
through which mountain rivers have cut 
their way. 
zwr^' gdd-mo laughing, laughter, )ig'^rUn' 

' ^ pai gdd-mo a laughter, a laughing- 
stock, to wordly-minded people; nai gad- 
moi ynas this is to me an object of laugh- 
ing, it is ridiculous to me Mil.; gdd-mos 
Jtibs-pa to laugh at a person Tar. 25, 15. 
qur gan, B. and W., gdm C, neamess, pro- 

' ' ximity, used only in such connections 
as gan-du to, towards, up to, nai gdn-du 
hog come to me; rgydlrpoi gdn-^ he went 
to the king; Kdn-pai gdn^u son he went 

^i J * 


y -^ 

fll|if^nr ^an-*yd/ 



Pj^'l?!' gdr-ia 


towards the hoose; rgydlrpoi gdn-nas pyin 
he came from the king; in col. language 
also c. accQS. : *d6g^po gdri-du* W, close 
by the brook, and c. termin. case, *hir 
gdn-te* W. hard by the water: rir-gdn-pa 
one living close to a mountain or hill. 
^uJ7nQr gan-kydl, and rkycdy supine, lying 

^^ ^ on the back, with the face upward, 
gan^kydl (du) ngdl-ba to lie in that position; 
^^eJrba to faU backward; BgyiUba to make 
one fall on his back; ^ghqn-kydl Ug-fci^ 
to perform a somerset, to tumble over 
bead and heels C. J} ( <^ }^"' 
mrft- gan-rgyd 6'., *gam-rgya* W., a 

''^ written contract, an agreement. 
CTT-rx- gan-ddr Sch, : a silk handkerchief 

' ^ ' offered as a present in exchanging 
compliments on meeting, = Korbtags 
-^1 2;--.»|^. ^a7i-7m/2:(jc{ store-room, storehouse 

j-Qf- gdndhxh-la n. of a famous temple in 
\ rdo-fje-yddn (Vajrasana near 

^ Gaya in Bengal) Tar. 1 6, 4 and 
elsewhere frq.; yet the words in Glr, 8, 
10: pyt gdndho'la ndri'du Ikd-Uan byds- 
pea ^making outwardly a gandhola, inside 
an idolshrine', seem not to admit of a noun 
proper; a Lama explained it by yUmg-lag- 
Kan; more correctly perh. = dri-ytsan-kan, 
i.e. = j|ma^. Cf. also ghdndhola. 
CT^"-:^ gdnji-ra Glr, 65, 8 obviously a Ssk. 

'g word, though not in our dictiona- 
naries; Lamas described it as an archi- 
tectural ornament, consisting in small tur- 
rets or spires along the edge of a flat roof. 

i^S^ gdbsgra W. a belch (vulgar). 

mn'CI' 9^^^ ^® '^'^^^ ^ conceal one's self 
' Dd. and elsewhere frq.; gdb-yig^ 

writing in secret characters, cryptography 

W.y C; gab '8a a place of concealment, 


qifl-«trxr gab-spdns Glr., panels or little 
•^ ^ boards beneath the cornice of a 

roof^ often filled out with paintings. 

PW^ ^w5S^ ^d6-te^, gdb'tse a tableau 
■^ ' "^ containing numerous my- 

thological and astrological figures, and used 
for fortune-telling. 

cnq-^ff-^ cnq-qS^-<3g-q- ff^-^^^y gdb-pai 
' I ' I fsd'ba 2i, disease 

Med.; ace. to Schr. a hectic, consumptive 

^jST gam v. gan. 

2^^^' gdm-bu-ra W. citron, lemon. 

my gau 1. a chest, box PtJi.; a little box 
''^ or case ; when containing amulets, it 
is worn suspended by a string round the 
neck (v. Schl. 174). — 2. a squeaking sound 
W., *gau z^'te"* to squeak. 
^ix* g(i^ I- (Cs. gdr-ma) a dance, gar byed- 
' pa, W. *gdr se-ce*, to dance ; glu gar 
rts^d'iTW byM'pa Glr. to sing, to dance 
and play; gdr-mUan 1. one dancing, a 
dancer, a performer, e.g. even Buddha or 
any saint, when displaying miracles. — 2. 
n. of a god Tar. 11, 17, ace. to Schr., Siwa; 
gar-stabs a dancing gesture or motion. — 
II. ^ gd-ru, gdn-du, whither, whereto, where; 
gar yan anywhere, gdr yan skye-ba grow- 
ing everywhere Wdn.; gar yan mi ^6-ba 
to go nowhere, to remain where one is 
Mil. ; Pill. — ^gar-m^d* W. at all events, 
by all means, = ^ga-^na-m^d* — gar-bdb 
at random, hit or miss, at hap-bazard Sch. 

^|^5?Tr gar-ndg n. of a medicine Lt. 
^ffs'^' gdr-ba strong, gar-^an strong beer. 
^^^ gdr-bu solid, not hollow Sch. 

msf^ gdr -mo thick, e.g. soup, = skd-ba; 

' gar-sld Sch. : thick and thin ; thick- 

CTxw gdr-la, native name of the district 

' ' called by the Hindoos Lahul or La- 
hol (ace to Cunningham 'Lahul' is a cor- 
ruption of UuHyul^ southern country, which 
latter appellation, however, is not in use 
in that district itself). Here, in the village 
of Kyelang, a missionary station was es- 
tablished in 1857, by the Church of the 
United Brethren (Moravians), together with 
a school and a lithographic press, for dif- 


q|^'f3^ gar-ldg 

fusing Christian knowledge by means of 
books and tracts. 

zmrfSpn' 5'«^-%? y«^- 91 » 7. 10. Transl. p. 

' '317: 'ace. to Was. a rapacioas 

mountain tribe, north-east of Tibet; in the 
Tibetan-Sanskrit dictionary mentioned as 
'Turushka". They are doubtless the same 
robbers, that are called *Kolo' by Hue (II. 
p. 187), who were known to our Lama 
from Tashilhunpo as mgo-ldg, or Idan-mo- 
mgO'ldgy they having received this name 
(*^queer- heads') in consequence of having 
their hair closely cropped. Possibly gar- 
I6g is the older and more correct form; 
cf. dar-^gyas-glin, 
mr^ gar-^d the muscles of the thumb (?) 

^^ Med, 
mQi- gdl 1. importance, gdhdu jizin-pa to 

' consider of importance, to esteem 
highly Mil,; gdl-can Cs., more frq. gcd-^^- 
ba important, de mi Un-iu gdl-ci-bar yddr 
do Glr,y bsldb-bya gal-ce-ba Glr. important 
precepts; gal-^n unimportant, insignifi- 
cant; undervalued, slighted MiL; gdl^po 
prob. = galy Schr,; gal-po-ce-yi bzd-dpon 
the important^ indispensable master of the 
house AfiL — 2. constraint, compulsion, */ia- 
la ghal )hun* C*. I have been compelled. 
— 3. trap, snare C, W., also Mil; *gal' 
It&m* W, id.; gal ^dzug-pa to set a trap 
or snare. 
qTQj'Qqiqr gdl-^gdg Med, f 

m^'^' gdl'ta W. crow-bar, handspike. 

mQf->- gdl'te 1. sbst., gdl-te mcdn-Uun bcug 
' '' Pth. f — II. conj. if, in case, serves 
to introduce a conditional sentence, ending 
with na (which is the essential word, 
whereas gal-te may be left out as well): 
gdl-te . . ^dri-na if . . comes (eav . . . iX^rj) ; 
also followed by yarl (kyan\ although black 
snow fell Dzl, (nas instead of na, frq. to be 
met with, is either merely a slip of the pen, 
or an impropriety of speech). — gdl-te-na 
as one word, and with the signification of 
perhaps, or the Greek av (not 'if, 6i.) I 
found only in a few passages of the Kye- 

lang manuscript of 2)^Z., where the edition 
of Sch, has gdUte^ which makes no sense. 
gal'srid W. = gal-te. In Lewin's Manual 
it often occurs in the sense of but, how- 

^rpj'^^' gdl-mdo n. of a disease Med, 

zmrn* gdl-ba to force, to press something 
' on a person (cf. gal 2), mi-la btson 

gal in-door confinement is forced on mea 

srprX^ gal^ W. refuse, rubbish. 

TO^' ga& V. ^ds^a. 

^' gi 1. num. for 33. — 2. affix instead 
' of kyi^ after g and n; for the signifi- 
cation V. kyi. 

Hl'ni' gi-gu the vowel sign ^, i. 

&-cn-3ai- ^'^^ gi-gu'sel, gi-gu-hd Sch.; 

' nJ ' ' ' >J ' ^having a white speck 
in the eye, wall-eyed (of horses)'. 
ft-Qfjl^ gi-wdhy Glr.y gi-bdm Lt, also giu^ 

' ^ or giu'wdhy Cs.i 'n. of a concretion 
in the entrails of some animals, used for 
medicine'. But Glr, 35, 9 an elephant has 
it on its neck, and ace. to oral assertions 
it is to be found also in the human head; 
a man. for instance, is said to have gi- 
wdn in his brains, if in his sleep he is 
heard to utter long-drawn humming sounds. 
^'^r^gi'lin a strong-bodied, durable horse 

' Sch, 

HrS)(3r gi-lin Wis. a fabulous animal. 

§ir' gin Pth. prob. a little drum, or the 
' beating of it, as an accompaniment 
to dancing. 

HJ<3[' Qzn affix, v. kyin. 

^ixf^ ^'r-?wo Ld. the Indian rupee, = 5 

' jau. 
§>i^' gis instead of kyis after g and w, v. 

' kyis. 
qy gu I. num. for 63. — 2. sign of dimi- 
nJ nutives, e.g. Uyi-gu puppy, little dog. 
— 3. extension, extent, room, space ynds-sa 
gu-ddg, Ittn-pa gu-ddg^ lam gu-^dff a nar- 

C_ ''^■^^ V e< V V 

^- V-. 


«^-^ Sfu-ffu^a 



row place, valley, road; gvrydns (-pa) spa- 
cious, roomy, wide, gu ydns-pa ^dug there 
is much room here. 

2?pT[-/^" gu-gu-^a Ts. plate, flat dish. 

OTqp- gu-gul (fnyf) AmyrisAgallocha, 
nJ nJ a costly incense, one kind is white, 
another black. 

qr&- g^-ge n. of a province in the south- 
\J ' western part of Tibet. 
gu'U W. deaf (?). 

OTX" gn-ru Ssk.y spiritual teacher, father- 
\J confessor. 

^^^ jTM-rzf^ Lfd. colt or foal of an ass. 

m-Qjr- gvr-ldn n. of a deity, resorted to by 
\J mothers for being blessed with 
children; ace. to Sch.: Siwa. 
mw gu'le W. for gd'le q.v.; gu-U-la id., 
J slowly, softly, gently, without noise, 
*go gu-le-la hug"*^ shut the door gently! 
fir^dr Sch, apparently the same. 

^^ gu'su Wdk. garment, dress (?). 

npraj'fl* gug-ge-ba bent, bent downwards 
>o ' (?), of leaves Wdn.; giig-'pa id. 
qprq- gitg-pa W, to rub or scratch gently, 
xT' to tickle. 

qr^ gun I. Sch.i ^the broad-headed tiger 
\3 of Central Asia, Charachula' (Mon- 
(fol)\ it is said to differ from stag^ and is 
not found in Tibet. — II. also dgun (i's. 
g^tn-ma) 1. the middle, gun-la in the middle, 
e.g. the king in the middle (between his 
two wives) ; stdd-kyi gun Q-nas) ton taken 
out of the middle of the upper part Mil. ; 
pun-du byH'pa Thgy. prob. to divide 
through the middle, to dissect (anatomi- 
cally); gun sgrig-pa Sch. *to unite'; with 
respect to time: dhydr-gyi gun -la W. in 
the middle of summer; nyin-gun, and mfsdn- 
gun mid-day, mid-night Cs. ; gun-ynyiSy the 
two middle times, mid-day and mid-night; 
ndm-gyi gun -fun -la at the hour of mid- 
night — 2. mid-day, gun Jbdb^a to take 
a noon-rest on a journey; gun-tsigs dinner 
^hr.\ gufi sdnS'la ^rd-ba (PF. *(fd-c'^*) to 
take a walk about the middle of the day. 

at noon; perh. also generally: to take a 
walk; gun-ldn Sch.: 'at noon', more prob.: 
afternoon. — 3. mid-night, gun-la at mid- 
night Glr, ; dgun-ycig one night (?) Sch. — 

4. (Chinese?) title of a magistrate in Lhasa, 
something like Privy Counsellor; v. dgun. 
snC'^JOT ff^^^'^^^ff prob. = stag lA.-Glr. 
J ^ ' Schl fol. 13, 6. 

niC'SCr' 9^^^'^^^^ II- ^f ^ monasteiy in Mdn- 

>J yul Mil. 

mc'^ ^rw/i-Two the middle finger; *gun'dzug* 

J a id. 

2T|C'^^^'argm' gun-dmdr-la-pug C. carrot 

^Cn^'^ZTj- gun-la-pug C. radish. 

mr gud 1. slope, declivity Cs. — 2. sepa- 
>j ' ration, solitude, seclusion Sch.; gud-du 
J>6r-ba to place obliquely Cs.; gud-du 
y^egs-pa Dzl. ^^^ 18 to separate, to dis- 
perse (?) Sch. — 3. C: loss, damage = gun, 
god. — 4. Ld.: heavy or thick of hearing, 
*gvd-ndg* quite deaf, deaf as a post. — 

5. gud'du jiig pa v. ^dnpa. 

^^'CJ' gud-^a V. ^d-pa. 

mx- gun (6s. gun-pa) loss, damage, *nd-la 
xj gun pocf^ W. I have suffered a loss 
(prop, damage has come over me). 

^ H gun-^o Lh. expensive, dear.» 

z^rg;?' guh-dum a bottle-shaped or cylin- 
N5 >J, diical basket to put fruit in, Ld. 
(perh. akin to rkdnrpa). 
^jSI'^' gum-pa v. ^um-pa. 

mr gu/Vy resp. biugs-gw', yzim-gur Cs., also 
>J dbu-giir C, tent, gos-gur Cs. a tent of 
silk, pyin-gur of felt, sbra and re-giir of 
coarse yak's hair felt, ras-gur of cotton 
cloth ; rgyal - gur Cs. 'a king's pavilion', 
dmag-gur a military tent. — gur-m^dg a 
magnificent tent, or gur-rgydl. is used by 
Chr. Prot. for the tabernacle. — gur-fdg 
the tent-ropes, *gur-b^r* W., or gur-kin Cs. 
the tent-poles. — gur-fdg Cs.: 'the upper 
covering or outer fly of a tent'. — g%i/r- 
yzdl Cs. : 'the walls of a tent'. — gur-kldd 
passage for the smoke out of a tent, gur- 


flj^rmSI' gur- 

^am lattice in the side of it, and gur- 
Uom stakes supportiDg the roof Sch,j — 
peculiar expressions relating to the felt- 
tents of the Mongol nomads, 
qrprma^- rw;TTKJ' gur-kum, gur-gum 1. 
>J \i ' nJ xT saffron, Croc us GZr.,Lf. 
— 2. marigold, Calendula, and similar yel- 
low flowers C, 

m^ZTC; J^^-S'^^ I^' a small chum used for 
\J nJ preparing tea. 
m^ajrraj- ffur-lpdgs a perforated skin, a 
nT^ 1^ hide full of holes Sch. 

^rpr^^' gtd^l BaL slowly, for gu-le, 

^P}'(3?Tr gul-ndg Lt n. of a medicine. 

q^t-q- gu8-pa sbst. respect, reverence, de- 
xT votion; also adj. respectful, devout; 

dge-jdun-la gus-pas yyag Jsal-h the priest- 
hood 1 respect with devotion; ma-gus-pa 
unbelieving, undevout Thgy,; ^gus-Mb cd- 
ce^ W. to show a respectful willingness to 
serve; humble, gus-par ^gyur-ha Cs,: 'to 
humble one's self; in modem letters = 
prariy your most humble servant. 

TO|'2f gus-po i\y W,y expensive, costly, dear. 

hI' ge num. for 93. 

^^jyge-^d a kerchief for the head hanging 

' ' down behind. 
$r^^' 9^"^^^ ^ ' ^^' ^' ^^ ^ flower, Lt and 

' elsewhere, prob. = %^; it is said 

to grow in Nepal, and to be called also 
pad-ma gesdr. — 2. Hch : pistil, but, like 
ze-jyrus it signifies undoubtedly the organs 
of fructification in general, as the natural 
science of Tibet is certainly not acquainted 
with the sexual difierence in the parts of 
flowers; ge-^dr-ban the lotos flower 8ch. — 
3. n. of a fabulous king in the north of 
Tibet, with the epithet drndg-gi rgydl-po 
Glr, and elsewh.; ge-sdr-gyi sgrun the fa- 
bulous history of the same. 

gegs hindrance, impediment, obstacle, 
gigs -med' par without hindrance, 
unimpeded, fe-fsdni dan gegs sel-ba to re- 
move doubts and hindrances Milr^ ff^ff^- 
byed bgeg$ a malignant spirit, causing im- 


pediments or mischief Zam.; ^os-indzad 
ydns-la gegs byM-pa to throw obstacles in 
the way of all pious people Pth, ; sans-rgyds 
mi fdb'pai gegs bH four obstacles to at- 
taining the Buddhaship Thgy,; also vnih- 
out a negation : fdb^ai grogs ^d-am gig^- 
su ^0 will you help me or hinder me in 
obtaining . . . ? MiL\ ^^gritiy-pai gegs impe- 
diment to perfection. 

npi'^' gil-pa branch of a tree, hHi-gel-pa, 

^r go 1. numerical sign for 123. — 2. num. 

' inst. of dgu^iu, in the abbreviated num- 
bers go-ytig etc., 91 — 99. — 3. for ^-?a. 
— 4. for gd'bo, 
'i^ gd \. place, room, space (prob. ^jrw); 

• in this sense it is used in go^ifsams- 
m^d-par without intermediate spaces, con- 
tinuous; Jb)^ sna fsogs go-mfsoTfis-med-par 
skyes grain of every kind grew densely, 
luxuriantly; go 'mfsams-m^d-par gdn-ba 
closely filled Ta7\ 13; prob. also in go-cod: 
*the space is cut ofi^, or filled i e. the matter 
is done with, settled, satisfaction has been 
made; col. also: I have got enough, I am 
full, (the thing lost or missed) has been 
found, restored; *gho &' sott* or *jhun C, 
*go cdd'Uan yodT W. he has managed the 
business well, he has executed his com- 
mission satisfactorily; des rgydlbai gd mi 
Sod by this the victory has not yet been 
fully decided Mil.; fos bsam sgom ys/kftp- 
gyi go Sod (by only once looking at ths 
Ommanipadmehuro) every other hearing, 
thinking, or looking at is done away with, 
any thing further is rendered unnecessary 
Grlr. ; Uyid'la go mi Sdd-pai cos a doctrine 
not satisfactory to you J/«7.; bu Uah na 
spyugs H pyir go mi Sod why should it not 
be sufficient that I be condemned to exile 
instead of my son? Pth. — 2. the proper 
place of a person or thing among other 
persons or things, position, rank, condition 
of life, so in many of the following com- 
pounds, the word being seldom used alone: 
pai g6r in the place, office, dignity of his 
father DzL'^ gd-nas according to, in pro- 
portion to Glr, ; go rgds-na when rank and 


o r. 





)C/w^vCm|>6.<^ O/vvvi 




dignity are grown old and gone, when the 
position in life has been lost Gh\\ hence 
go-rgds may be applied to an old maid 
(Schr,); rdn-ffi go ^dug that is my place, 
my business, like ca; also place, space, 
spot in a ^ill more general sense : 'd-mai 
go-na at the place of my mother, with my 
mother Glr.; ran-Jag-gi gd-na near the 
mill Glr.; go Iddg-pa (zlog-pa^ l^g-fci) to 
change place, esp. to torn to the contrary 
S.^.; ndd-go the seat of a disease Sch,; 
gO'byid is mentioned as a quality of the 
airiS.^f.; sprin-gyi go-bar py^-nas ^ons^ we 
came parting the space between the clouds 
MU,; iiprin dkar Idin-gi go-bdg MilJ — 3. 
amour, gen. gd-cd. — 

Comp. go-skdbs lit. a chance of taking 
place, of existing, bde-bai go-skdbs gd-la 
yod Pth., where is there a possibility of 
being happy? — go-skdl C. the share or 
portion due to a person in accordance to 
his rank. — go-Kdh arsenal Schr. — go- 
Brdb coat of mail with helmet, armour. 

of rank Glr. — 2. succession, successive 

order, turn. 

qrpq- gd'Ica the place (near the hearth) for 

' ' firewood Mil, 
9pq' 9^-^^ I- vb. 1. to understand, com- 

' prehend, W. ^hd-go-be*; go-dJcd-ba 
difficult, hard to be understood, go-sld-ba 
easy to be understood, intelligible; *gho- 
di^wa yon* C. now it becomes intelligible, 
thus it will be understood; go-byed-brdd 
Lex. an explaining, illustrating symbol; 
gd-zin rtdg-pa to take in and comprehend; 
brdd-ru go this I understand to be a sym- 
bol Pth. ; gd'bai yul, go-byai yul a subject 
intelligible to all Schr. — 2. to mean, to 
imagine, par that. Glr.; go-^ndr-ba to mis- 
understand, to mistake, to be mistaken. — 
II. sbst. perception, comprehension, go- 
ba bldn^a Mil. to come to a right com- 
prehension, a clear perception (of some 
philosophical or religious truth); gd-bai 
rrydl - ba Lea;. : 'mjdl - 6a in the sense of 

go-^dl rank, dignity Cs. — go-grds id. Cs. SffSf £^^-*^ » large eagle or vulture, C.,W. 

— "' " -^ ^ ' ' and B.; go-sen^ the common black- 

bearded vulture of the Himalaya, with a 
yellow neck; go^run excrements of it Med. 
rfyh^Or go-byi-la Med. n. of a poisonous 
' ^ medicinal fruit Cs. ; go-bye Med. id.? 

^W* go-yu Med., n. of a flower Cs. 

— go-rgds y. go 2. — gd-ia 1. armour; 

often fig. : bz6d-pai gd-'Sa bgd-ba, or gdn* 

poy to put on the armour of patience; mt- 

jigs-gO'-'Sa the harness of intrepidity. 2. 

gear, implemenis, tools in general, bkraMs 

srunrbai gd-ca (charmed) instruments used 

for securing future happiness (in behalf of 

a new-born infant) Med. - go-mnydm C ^f^" S^o-rd Cs. ; 'prison, jail'; prop, a court 

of equal rank. - go-f^ degree of dignity surrounded by a wall. 

or rank a. - go ^, dun = sua-, dun, of 9f ^-3^- S'^"^^^^ ^ waiting-servant, page 

different sorts, various Lex. — go-lddg (cf. 

go-lddg-pa) the contrary, reverse, opposite; ^^ gd-la Ssk. ball, bullet 

wrong, perverse, d^las go-lddg the contrary ^^.^ 

of it Med.: *go jug go-ldg-la* W. head ^^' go-ldg v. go-lddg sub go Comp. 

fore-most; *go-ldg bd-ce"^ VT. to go to work 

io the wrong way, *go-ldg di-de* to write 

wrong. —go-pdn(s) 1. degree, rank, dignity, 

Udnrfoi go^dn-la bkdd-par ^^gyur-ba Pth. 

to be installed into the dignity of a minister ; 

go-pdn spdr-ba Lex. to raise the dignity. 

2. model, pattern, standard of perfection (?) 

(i. — go-mfsdms v. go no. 1. — go^-mfydn 

harness and weapons. — go^m 1. order 

^*n^ gro-^^ V. go-cin. 

2(f ^ yo^<^ rank? dignity, *go-sd ihi-po, fdn- 
' po* W. high in rank. 

^•'r, ■TST'r. ^ST"' %':,^^Z, 

GoU'ta-ma, the Gotamide, the descendant 
of Gotama, which, among others, was the 
name of the founder of the Nyaya philo- 


A* n 



sophy in India (Banerjea Dialogues on 
Hindoo Philosophy p. 66 f); but in the 
Buddhist legends it is mentioned as the 
name of one of the ancestors of the Sa- 
kya-race, on which account Buddha is 
often called Gautama. The difiFerent forms 
of this name are used promiscuously by 
Tibetan writers. 


gog W, for gon^po a lump. 

9fprfl^' 9^9'^^l Whes, *gog - fdl yum - de, 
y^9'^'^y tin-ce* W, to spread ashes 
(viz. on the snow, in order to increase 
the effects of the sun, and to accelerate 
the thawing of the snow), 
^prn* 9^9^?^ 1- to crawl (of little children). 

' ' ~ 2. to cramble off, to scale off 
(of the plaster of a wall, of scurf etc.). 
9p]'2f 9^-1^ dilapidated, ruinous, KdnQ-fo) 
9^9('P^) * house in ruins; mk'ar- 
gdg a dilapidated castle; of clothes: out 
of repair, ragged; zin-gdg a field lying 
waste; dpe-gdg an antiquated, worthless 
book; gog-gdg Cs,: 'the sound of a some- 
what broken vessel', 
aj-- goii 1. price, value, also ^ow-fd^ Glr.^ 

' frq.; gon dpyddrpa (often also bcdd- 
pa, inconsistent with etymology) to ap- 


to fix 

has been said, explained above; gdn^du 
smdS'jya the above mentioned; gdn-gi . . . 
zes smds'pa the above statement that . . .; 
sna gon bod-kyi rgydl-po the former (an- 
cient) Tibetan kings; gah and ^og like our 
subdivisions of a and J, the first and se- 
cond part, division or section of a book, 
ba-gon and ba-^og Volume XV Section 1 
and 2; the face and the back of a leaf: 
bzirgon folio 4, a. — gansku-y^ogSy a title, 
like our: his highness, excellence, eminence 
Sch. V. sku. 
Sfr-gf ^-q 9^n'po, gdn-Jm, W. yog\ 

' ' i >^ lump, mass, heap, clot, sa- 
go A-po a lump of flesh DzL\ Urag-gdn a 
clot of blood Glr,; ^boUgdn* 6'., ^sa-ffdg* 
W.y clod, glebe; *lia'g6g* W, snow-ball. 
SfJT'n' 90n'ba, W, *g6n'na*, gds-Jcyi gdn- 

' ba, collar, gon-ba-nas ^dzin-pa to 

seize by the collar. kijL t(rfL»^4^?ww £. 
9fiC'W 9^^'""^ a higher one, a superior; 

' the former, the first named, gdn-^ma 

bzin-du like the former; rgydl-ba gdn-ma 
the most high, the divine Buddha MU.: 
gon-ma ce, gon-ma chi-po the most high, 
applied to worldly sovereigns, as: rgyon 
nag gdn-ma the emperor of China C, ; gon- 
ma - mams Mil the gods (the 'superi' of 
the ancients), among whom according to 
the doctrines of Buddhism the Lamas are 
included.-^^^'^ *>'-^ '^ '^^^'.-j-^^' ^^ tk'^K. 

a price; gon brgydb-pa C, 
(goH ^rig-pa Schr.^ Sch.) id. — 2. the 

above, in space as well as in time, (in , , ... 

Khavu> e. g it is used as a sbst., signi- Sc'^ 90^-^ f^^^^on, white growe, Ika- 

mo* W., gon-m^eg id. (?); gon -yog Sch.: 
wood - grouse, cock of the wood, Tetrao 

fying: elevated, alpine pasture -grounds); 
the above said, the former, referring to a 
preceding part or passage of a book, gon 
dan mfun, gon dan ^drd-bar, gon-bHuj gon- 
mfsitns as above (mentioned); prin gon 
^og ^dz6l-ba to confuse a message, to make 
a medley of it Glr. ; gdn-du, gdn-na, gdn- 
nas^ gdfi-la 1. adv. over it, on it, thereon, 
above, from above. 2. postp. c. genit. or 
accus.: on, above, over, before, sgo gin- 
du over the door; ydb -kyi gdh - du jlas, 
he died before his father Glr.; del gdn-du 
before this time Glr.; ma tsogs g&ii-du be- 
fore they are assembled; g&n-gi the former, 
the above mentioned; g&h-gi de-mams 
those preceding; gdn-du bhdd-pa Itar as 

uTOgallus. '^•e*^^'^ '^\t^ H\i^sM:4.Vj^ 
qfc'(5|' gon-zk C. paper lantern. 

g^i^' god^ W. ^gdd-Uct' Dzl. god-pa, Cs. gdd- 
'^ ma 1 . loss, damage, god ^yur-ba Thgy., 
*ghg'-la jdo-ava^ C, *god-la M-c^ W., to 
sufiFer loss, e.g. ndr - la or nor, a loss of 
money and property; god-pa vb. id., *nor 
gdd^* W. have you had a loss? 2. C. 
SK' gon the common gourd, pumpkin W. 

9fwrq' put on (clothes, shoes), 
' ' mgd-la ^a gdn-pa to put on a cap. 

r&^^^^^^ '' 

l^?^^ '\, ^O^ V. y/ ^^l , , 

'TO'SS' gob^non 


^ 9y<^ 

— II. sbst. coat, clothing ScL; ^gdn-lSe^ 
Lh,y Ld.y ^gdn-ma* Bal. id. 
Hq^fr gob-ndn (spelling uncertain), ^gob^ 
' ' non hd-cey tdn-be^ gydb-ce^ W. to 
tease, vex, irritate. 

^fe^n* gom^a 1. a pace, step, gdm-^pa Jb&r- 
' ba to make a step, to pace; gdm- 

pa bdun Jb&r-^a Glr. 5, 2 and elsewh. : to 
make seven steps, as a ceremony, which 
may also be counted equivalent to a reli- 
gious pilgrimage^ the actual performance 
of which is not possible: g&m-pa ^ddr-ba 
prob. = Jbdr-ba; g&m-pa ^dibs-pa and skyiU 
ba Ll ff — g&mr-pai stabs the (peculiar) 
manner of stepping Zam,; ^pru-gu-la gom- 
ion Idb-ce* W. U> teach a httle child to 
walk; *gom cdg-t^ to stride solemnly a- 
long; ^gcm-jdr^ col. a veranda (?). — 2. 
the 'pas' in dancing. 

9m^q* 9<^'^^'P0' accustomed, wonted, wont 

' c dat. ; kUg^Or-la gdms-hui prac- 

tising (the art of) reading DzL; g&ms-par 
byid-pa, and ^yur-ba c. dat and accus., 
to accustom one's self to a thing, to prac- 
tise; mi g&m^pa unaccustomed; *mi dan 
gdm-t^ W. accustomed to man, tame, do- 
mesticated: ^ghow'llye'* C. a habit, custom. 
Sjk'jT 9^ " '"^ ^- • * general name for 

' stone; Sch,: stones, rubble, bowl- 

inr^xnr gor-ma-cdgy eleg. gor-ma-bkumy 

^ ' certain, sure, indubitable, de 
Jbyun-ba gor-ma-cdg-go his coming is quite 
sure Wdn.; di yin gor-ma-'Sag-go that it 
is this, is quite certain Stg, frq ; gor-Tna- 
(lag-par adv. certainly. 
9fe'^ 9<^''"M 1. round, circular Sch,; got*- 

' g&r Med, id. — 2. W. a rupee. 

1"**^ *^ 5'(^-^«-^a V. tsdn-da-na. 
5]^^ gdl'ba v. ^dl^a, 

gf«l' go8 1. resp. nd-bzay garment, dress. — 
' 2. in some compounds sill(. — rgydn- 
g6s fine clothes Glr,; rgyun-gos 6'., W,y an 
every day coat; ^s-gos clerical garb or 
garments Schl. 170, Bum, I, 306, Kopp, 
L 339, II. 266; mfdn-gos ^ sort of petti- 

coat worn by the monks, having many 
plaits and folds, like the kilt of the High- 
landers, but longer and of one colour; pd" 
gos man's dress ; bld-^os an upper garment, 
a kind of toga; md-gos a woman's gown; 
yzdb^os holiday clothes, opp. to rgyun-gos 
C,^ W, — gos gon-pa, gydn-pa to put on, 
Jmd'pa to take o£F, brje-ba to change 
clothes; brts^s-pa Sch,: to put one gar- 
ment over the other; gos bUg-pa to tuck 
up, by drawing the front skirts under the 
girdle; gos Iddb-pa to lay or fold a coat 
together; gos spu-ma a coat of napped cloth. 
Comp. gos'skud sill(-thread. — gos-sgdb 
sicirt or flap of a coat. — gos-sgdm box, 
chest, or press for clothes, wardrobe. — 
goS'ifM^ col. go-heny silk fabrics, silks. — 
gos-myin an old coat or dress. — gos-fun 
trowsers Glr,y C, — gos-mtd = gos'Sgab, — 
gos-ndg a black garment, a female dress. 

— gos-bzdn a beautiful dress, fine clothes 
(as an object of show), festival raiment. 
gos'ldg (in W, also pronounced ^goi-ldg, go- 
lag* in C. *gho-ld^) dress, clotiies, body- 
linen; ^gos-ldg fu-be^ W, to wash linen. 

9fer^' g6s-pa pf. of bgo-ba, 

iwgya num.instead of brgydd-bu^ in the ab- 
^ breviated numbers jryo-/^^ etc. 81 — 89. 
^r gya^ a root, the meaning of which is 
^ not quite settled yet; it occurs in tbe 
following combinations: gycf'-gy^ (fis,: 
crookedness?) intrigues, secret machinations 
C,y W,; yndd-sims dan bslu-bai gya-gyu 
sogs malicC) deceitful tricks and the like; 
gya-gyu'ban crafty, deceitful, fraudulent, 
e.g. sems; gya-gyu bySd-pa to intrigue, to 
plot. — gya-ma-gyii 1 . of rivers etc. : quiet, 
calm, gently flowing along Mil, 2. of 
a man: cautious, close, reserved, so that 
one does not know what to think of him, 
ni f. — gyornyh Mil, was explained : mar- 
velous, inexplicable, of men, occurrences etc. 

— gya-nom-p^Cs, : 'contentment, joy' ; yet 
the context in several passages of Mil, 
suggests the signification : abundance, suf- 
ficiency. — gya-rtsdm^ gya^tsdm haste, 

hurry, rashness Cs^ c^ ^ 


^•-TO^c^^ t/oC.vU^4 /^/-^^^'^^-^ 

xrrq* iiy^'^^ deformed, disfigured, having 
^ lost his or her former beauty Cs. 

MjMl'^' gydg-pa diminished Cs,; v. ^gydg-pa, 

qr' $r' 9V^^^9y^^ P"8^> earth or clay 
"^ ' "^^ stamped into moulds, and fre- 
quently used as building- material in Sp., 
jLd., and other parts of Tibet; gyahsgr&m 
pis^- mould; gyah-skdr pis^-wall round 
an estate or village Glr,; gyah-ra cattle- 
yard constructed of pis^; gycm-tse terrace 
wall of pis6 Ld,; gyan-rvm one layer of 
pise^ i.e. as much as is stamped in at a 
time, about one ell in height; this frequently 
serves for a measure of the depth of the 
snow MU, ; gyan-n's fresco or wall-painting. 
OT-- gyad^ also gydd-pay Ssk. ^j 1. a 
"^ ' cliainpion , a man of great physical 
strength, an athlete, frq.; dor-dun gydd-gyi 
tscU ^an let us try once more our strength 
in fighting MiL\ gydd-rdo giant-stone, i.e. 
a stone which only a giant is able to lift 
Mil. — 2. n. of a people Tar, 11, 10. 
I mr*' ffy<^^^9y^ ^^d'> ffy<^n'rgyui bu-ga, 

qm« gyam a slielter, a grotto large and 
"^ wide, but not deep (cf. skyibs), brag- 
gyam a shelter under a rock; gdd-gyam 
a grotto beneath a conglomerate rock ; pon- 
gydm (for porbo/i-gyam) a shelter under a 
beetling rock: gydm-bu a little cover or 
shelter Cs. 

m^^K' ffy<^'^9y^^ P^ob. = gyodrUa, god-pa 
^ ^^ loss, damage. 

HJ' gyi for gyiy after n, m^ i\ I; v. kyi, 

'^/q-x gyi-na^'bd) 1. bad, coar8e,''mean, 
' ^ poor, miserable, of food, clothes 
etc.; gyi-na Jsd'ba a miserable, starving 
life Pth. — 2. unsteady, fickle Schr. 
§rSt' gyi'ltn Glr. n. of an excellent breed 
^ of horses. 

^Dj* gyig caoutchouc, India rubber, gyig-Hn^ 

gyig-sdon caoutchouc-tree Sik. 

Sic 9y^^ ^' of ^ ^^^'t-y P^^-y P^rh. = kin- 
^ kdn. 

%Cf^ ^m-wo W. gently sloping, gradu- 
^ ally descending or subsiding. 

^' gydn 

^ gyin v. kyin. 

gyim-bdg amalgam; gyim^bag-gk 
Jyyug-pa to gild in the fire Schr, 

Sl^' 99^ ^' ^^^^- ^f ^y^y "ft^^ liquid let- 

^ ters. — 2, V. bgyidrpa. 

qj- gyu Cs. = gya-gyu^ cf. also sgyu. — 

^ gyu'ba v ^gyu-ba. 

— j-.-jr: gyiih-ro v. gydn-ro; gyur v. ^^r- 

^ ba. 

^vm ^^^-^ crookedness, curve; hunch, hump, 

^ ND crookback, crooked ; gye-giP-ban of a 

camel, gyi-gur ^dug-pa being crooked, of 

trees, opp. to dran-po, Stg. 

[jC gye-gdn n. of a Bonpo idol (?) MU. 

^' gy^n v. ^a/i. 

3^'^' 99^d'pa V. ^gyid-pa. 

^MT 5:y^ (opp- ^ ^^0 up? upward, up-hHI, 
^ ' mostly followed by du or Za, gyen-^ 
^dzig-pa to mount up, to ascend; gyM-du 
rdzi'ba to turn up, to cock (a hat or cap); 
above, on the surface, gyM-du lus-pa to 
keep above (water) Glr. ^gyen-la ddh-po* 
W. perpendicular, vertical; gyen^^dd (opp. to 
man-^dd) the upper part of a country, 
pu-rtg gyen-Md Upper Purig, Ld.'Glr. 
Schl. 26, b. also sbst.: gyen fzdr-po a steep 
ascent C. 

3^ ffyer V. dgyer-ba. 

3^' 99^ V- o99^'^^' 

m'^ gyo-mo 1. gravel, grit Dzl^ Stg. — 
^ 2. potsherd Cs.; gyo-dum id. - 3. 
tile, brick Sck.; gyo-mgd id.; clay- vessel. 
In an aUegorical comparison of the body 
with a house, the hair of the head is^ said 
to be like a pd-gyo mo-gycA rdza Med.'i 
gyo-rtsi Wdn.f 

Efirn-q- 9y^9'P^ curved, crooked Cs,\ gydg- 
^ ' po left-handed, awkward Sch. 
^W ^^S^ ^ • pronounced *ghyog, ghyo*, 
^ ' tor sgyogs cannon, large gun. 
^- gydn want, need, indigence, Ito-gds-kyi 
"^ gydn Ug-pa to be able to endure want 
of food and clothes Mil, ; Jitir - ia to be 


reduced to want. — gydn-po (cf. kyon-po) 
hard, harsh, rough, rude, impolite, (^rab-) 
Ica-ffy^n-po hard-mouthed ; f/yon-rd a dried 
op body, a mummy Sch.; metaph. cU/ra" 
gydn a hard, cruel, dangerous enemy; Ua- 
gyoTt'M very rude, impudent MiL 

^' gyod V. ^yodrpa, 

^^ gy6d-Ua loss; quarrel, law-suit Sch, 

^firq* gy&n-^a to put on, to wear = ydn- 
"^^ pa'; lus'la gydn-pai gos the garment 
that one wears DzL; gy^h-rgyu materials 
for clothing Mil. 

9»f2lf 9y^ 'P^ father- in - law , gyds - mo 
"^ mother-in-law, gyos-sgyug parents- 

in-law DzL^ Sig. (In Ld. this word is 
rather avoided, sounding, as it is pronoun- 
ced there, much like the obscene rgyd-ba.) 
qrgt-va 1. angle, comer DzL 7^c^, 13; lap, 
^ lappet, extremity, gds-kyi gr^a coat-tail 
Tar. 98, 10 (seldom used). — 2. school, 
kMg-grva a reading-school Cs.; sgdm-grva 
Glr. and elsewhere: a meditating-school; 
siidgs-grca a school for mystical theology 
6«.; Jtul-g^rva Glr. a training-school, se- 
minary ; smdn-^rvd a medical school ; rtszs- 
grva a school where mathematics are 
taught; yig-grva a writing -school 6«. — 
3. a ceH Cs. (?) — 4. sometimes ior grvd-pa. 
Comp. grvd-kan school-house, school- 
room ;*/a6-rfa-Aaw*— ^n^d^a scholar, 
disciple, generally; monk, the lowest eccle- 
siastical grade; grvd-pa byed-pa to become 
or to be a monk. — grvd-dpon school-master 
Ci. — grva-prug SChOOl-boy. — gi^vd-fsdn 
the apartments in great monasteries, where 
the monks belonging to the same theolo- 
gical confession live together. — grva-fsdgs 
convention of monks. — *da^dg* cell C, 
W. — grva-aa monastery, grva-sa l^hi-po 
a great monastery; a school attached to 
such a one; mfsan-nyid'-kyi grvd-sa iig a 
school of the Tsannyidpa sect; dei stdn- 
pa- mams the teachers of such a school 


^ grd-ti plate, dish Ld. 


crpprq' grdgs-pa 

z^rn* ^^-^^ 1- sbst., also grorpdd 'a muzzlo' 
^ Sch.; a net before the window, to 
prevent passers-by from looking into the 
room Schr. — 2. vb. to carve in wood. 
OT^r S^«-^« 1- * beard of com, awn, Jyru 
^ grd-ma^han bearded, awned plants, 
such as com etc. (opp. to Jbru gdn-bu-can 
leguminous plants) S.g.; the bones offish 
V. nya. — Zam.: a tree or shrub, prob. 
the Tibetan furze, Caragana versicolor. — 
3. a disease of the genitals, perh. venereal 
boils (condyloma) Med. 
zrarq* 9^<^'P<^ I- sbst. 1. noise, rumour, 
'^' talk, Cs. — 2. the principal or most 
distinguished amongst several persons Mil. 

— n. vb. = o9'f'^9-p(^y ^*^ y^^ ^^ 9^^' 
par so that not even the name is men- 
tioned any more Pth. 

cnTOrq- 9^^9^'1>^ I- vb- ^ • ta bind Thgy.y 
^ ' C, W., e.g. grSs-po a load, a 

burden, also grds-pa Thgy.; perh. also 
^grdgs-pa, ^dgs-pa q.v. — 2. pf. of ^grdg- 
pa. — II. sbst. 1. fame, reputation, cha- 
racter by report, grdgs-pa ndn-^a ill name, 
bad repute Pih. ; rumour, report, del grdgs- 
pa chh'po byun the report of it spread, 
was circulated; in most cases it signifies 
good name, renown, anydn-pa dan grdgs- 
pas sai sten tamfts- bdd Hydb-pa Glr. the 
whole earth was filled with (his) fame and 
renown; snyan-grdgs id. (Cs. ; good tidings); 
grdgS'pa-dan, snydn- grogs -ban illustri- 
ous, renowned; rgym'i-nas grdgs-pa ce-ba 
of great renown, of celebrity at a distance, 
(of less significance when more closely 
examined); fame, glory, my^drpa dan grdgs- 
pa- la MgS'pas DzL, greedy of gain and 
fame; grdgs-pa-^en-po is also the name of 
a goddess •= dpah-lha-mo. — grogs = grdgs- 
pa: grdgs'^dod-ban desirous of glory MiL ; 
grdgs-dan W. (pronounced ^rdg-bdn*^ fa- 
mous, renowned; beautiful, splendid, glorious; 
proud, haughty (in this case perh. for drigs- 
pa^ban). — grdgs-^dzin-ma^ Ssk. i{^V|4^, 
ei^qff l , the second wife of Buddha, ace. 
to others the second name of his first wife. 

— 2. cry, outcry, clamour (perh. better 


^nC'^' grdn-ba 



written grdg-pa\ dga-^dgs ^ur-ba to raise 
shouts of joy. 

OT-'fl" grdn-ba^ W. ^ddn-mo*^ I. adj. cold, 
'^ cool, grdn-bai ynas a cool place; 
^ddn-mo rag* W., 'dhdn-ghi ^du^ C. I 
am cold. 

II. sbst coldness, cold, grdn-ba ni drd- 
bar gyur the cold changed into warmth 
DzL : *mM'fog ddn-mo pog* W. the cold has 
struck, killed, the flowers. — gran-ndd the 
cold fit of the a^ue, *dhan'fi* (lit. m/iris) 
C. id. — *dan-ndd^ W. synoD. with grum- 
buy gout, rheumatism, arthritic pain; gran- 
dro cold and warmth, gran-dro-mSd-pai ras- 
kydn JH this thin cloth which constitutes 
my clothing, in warm and in cold weather 
MU.^ V. Tnidrfa; also warmth in a relative 
sense, temperature. — gran-hiim Lty grcm- 
hum by^drpa to shiver with cold Sckr. 

III. vb., also grans-pa 1. to get or grow 
cold, grdns-su bbug-pa Lea, to let grow 
cold ; grans ^6-bar ^dug it will grow cold 
MIL; gi'an mi bya one must not suffer 
(the child) to catch cold Lt — 2. to count, 
judge, consider, v. bgrdn-ba; also Zam.: 
bes grdn-naan though such may be sup- 
posed; Cs, and Schr, have also gran per- 
haps, yin gi^an perhaps it may be so, 
qir*j' granSy col. also *dan-ka*y Ssk. ^j;^ 
^ number, frq., Ian grans- dii -mar a 

number of times MiL; grans-m^d-fa^ eleg. 
granS'-ma-mcis-pa innumerable; grdns-ban 
numerous (?) Cs,; grdns-ban-pa the atheistic 
Sankhya sect of the Brahmans (Ban. p. 
66); *dd-ddn hdg-dan gydb-be* W. to date 
(lit. to write down the number of month 
and day) ; grans ^d^bs-pa or rtsi-ba to count 
Cs, — grafiS'brdd (Cs. Gram. § 235) sym- 
bolical numerals, certain nouns, which in 
some books are used instead of the usual 
numerals, e.g. mig^ eye, for 'two\ 
mC5TCI' ff^^^'P^ ^o grow cold, V. grdn- 
^ balU, 

^[P'3P1' ^rai-r^^a^f pride, boasting Sch, 

cnq^' 9^^^^ ^ • preparation, arrangements, 

'^ measures; a contrivance, grabs byM- 

pa to make preparations for, to be on the 

point of, frq., ^grd-bai grabs bySd-pa^ to make 
fs^-^ia just as preparations were made for 
slaughtering them Mil.; *1io kyug dhabjhe"* 
C\ he is getting sick, is going to vomit; 
Hdb-grabsy ^dzin-grabs the making one's self 
ready for combat — 2. col. also for gros, 
deliberation, *n€ iHr dhab )he' dug'' C. they 
are deliberating about me; *nan-ndn-ni 
dabs fun-ne* W, on mutual agreement. 
jMT-q- grdm-pa 1. swamp, marsh, fen Lex. 
'^ — 2. ^rhn-pa Mng. 

qm" graly SsH. irfag 1. row, series, class, 
"^ esp. a row of persons, gral(-du) sgrig- 
pa to order, to dispose in rows, in rank and 
file; grdl-gyi fdg-ma^ Itag, gon, more frq. 
gral^mgd the upper end of a row, the up- 
permost place, the seat at the head of the 
table; fd-ma, ^og or gral'7ryug(^-yhig) the 
lower end; gral mgd-ma the first, the head 
person Mil. ; yyas-grdl the right-hand end, 
^yon-grdl the left-hand end; gral-fim C. 
claim, title, rgan-yion-gral-rim the right 
of seniority ; grdlrpa a beer-house customer; 
gral-ytdm tap-house talk Mil.\ dban-ffrdl 
the row of supplicants for a benediction; 
mlSed-grdgs dan dhan-grdl m,fun dus-su 
MiL if you sit with your fellow-believers 
in one row, on one mat; *lle-ddl-la hid 
son* W. he has entered into the row, the 
class, of adults. — 2. bench. — 3. propor- 
tionality (?), *ken-rin dal-mM dan* W. with 
his disproportioned length and breadth, his 
unwieldiness. — 4. *mi h'g-la dal Hg dig- 
be* W, (lit. sgrig-pa) W. to play a trick 
to a person. 

OT3^'^' ff^^i-''^^ a small beam, rafter, Cs.; 
'^ grdlr-buj gral-pydm S.g. roof-laths, 

sticks which are laid close together and 
covered with earth. 

m^' gras class, order, series; rank, dignity; 
-"^ tribe Cs. 

m^n' grds-pa 1. for drds-pa. — 2. to 
^ bind, V. grdgs-pa. 

^ gri (so pronounced in Pur.) 1. taiife, 
•^ gris yhod'pay ^di dan bdd-be* W.y to cut 
with a knife, but also grir rndmrpay ysdd- 
pay ^iim-pa Ma: to kill with a knife; 

■i .. 

rJr,- ' 


^Spr gri-mdg 


Orp^q' grulnpa 

griridy gri-dndy gri-M the edge of a knife; 
ffri'ldm lit. *the path of the knife', the cut, 
incision ; gri-gug Pth, a short, crooked sabre 
or sword, falchion, cimeter; grirhd flesh of 
a man that has been killed with a sword, 
(used in sorcery). — 2. Lt: dar-mai gri? 
Hp^pr grir^mdg v. grib-ma. 

^ig'q' gririrfa Mil.^ prob. = sgrin-po skil- 
'^ fill, clever. 

§jq- grib 1 . shade, grib - Icj/i pu Glr. the 
"^ shady part of a valley on the north 
side of a mountain range, cf. sribs; grib- 
yyogz the side not exposed to the sun; 
north side, col., grib-lhdgs the coolness of 
the shade, the cool shade ScL; grib -ma 
""dirmdg* W, Shadow (cast by an object); 
dei grib -ma gdri-la jpdg-pa on whom his 
shadow falls; grib-fsdd a dial Cs. — 2. 
Sfiot, filthy defilemeni, contamination, mostly 
in a religious sense : grib yon pollution a- 
rises; ro-grib defilement by a corpse; grib- 
9il name of a Buddha; grib'(kyi8) nongyi 
ydon a demon that defiles and poisons the 
food, a harpy; "Uo-la (lib yog sori* W, C, 
he is crack-brained, not in his right mind; 
*dib'ban* stubborn, refractory, whether 
from stupidity, or from ill-will. 

MJSrq' grim-pa to hasten, to hurry Sch. 
^|5r^ grim-tae Sik. a pair of scissors. 

%^^ 5Twn« MedJ (Lex. fPTT^ quadran- 
*^ gular, regular, harmonious) Schr.: 
intelligent, clever. 

^jOj* gril (cf. ^l-ba) a roll, ^og^ril roll- 
ed paper, a paper -roll; gos-gril a 
garment folded up Cs.; gril-Ka byM-pa to 
make up a parcel Sch. 

mgrul. boat, ferry, ship, vessel, also a hide 
^ blown up with air, used for crossing 
rivers = *ko'dhu* C. ; gru-hdn id. ; gi^u^dn- 
pa ferry-man; gru-la Idn-pa to go on a 
ferry. Comp, gru-Uay grvr-Miv-Uay gru^tmi" 
«a C. starting- or landing-place of a ferry. 

— grvr-gld, grvritsd» fare, passage-money, 
a boat-man's fee. — grii-pa ferry-man. — 
gnnipdn ship-master, master of a vessel. 

— gru^'boy gen. gru-yzinsy ship. — gni- 

^dzvn (iitTRr) ancient name of Tatta, at 
the mouth of the Indus, ancestral seat of 
the Sh«kya race, whence the name is trans- 
ferred to the residence of the Dalai Lama 
in Lhasa, v. Kopp. II, 342. — 2. (Ci. gru^ 
ma) angle, corner, convex or concave, also 
edge, border, brim; gru-ymm^ grvr-bH etc. 
triangle, quadrangle; gru-fsum-pa trian- 
gular; dkyiUJcor gru-bzi-pa itg Jbri^a to 
draw a quadrangular figure, a square; ^dom- 
gdngru-biiy a surface six feet square; dbyibs 
grurhkir yod S.g.; ^du-nar-can* W. rhom- 
boidal ; grvr^on^Cs.gru^gyd^ oblique angled ; 
gru-drdii right-angled 6's. ; gru-Uun v. mfo- 
gon. —yul-gru place, village, town, country. 

— 3. lustre, of precious stones, gru-dmdr 
a reddish lustre MiLnt. 

zm^ Sf^'ff^ 1- clew, hank. — 2. n. of a 

>d country. 

^\^^ gru-Mr 'a fine, fertile rain' Sch. 

^t^ %^ ^^ii-?no, gri -mo elbow, grit- 
<i ' ^ Tnor ka-tvdm-ka bziiii^a hold- 
ing a trident in his arm jftA.; d^-la grit^ 
moipuWd^g big byds-nas pushing him with 
his elbow Mtl.;grU'8yg byed-pa id.; gru-moi 
higy the hollow of the elbow-joint Glr. 
^'^grvAdy or grtc-^d^ n. of a country Pth. 

^prq• grug-pa to break into small pieces, 
d^' to crumble, to bruise Dzl; gi^-pai 
Jbras bruised rice Schr.; rua-pa ^ag-grugs 
firacture of a bone Med,; grugs-bu some- 
thing broken. 

mC'^' '^'^F ff^^'^^j grun-po., fern .gruh- 
d ' >d mo \. wise, prudent Mil; 
also: grum-pa lags very learned Sir! Thgr. 

— 2. meek, mild, gentle Cs. 

qiq- grub Ld. all, *dvb M son* all are dead; 
>d *dvb zas son* it has all been eaten 
up, (v. the next word), 
mxq* grub-pa, pf. of ^^jgriib-pa 1. made 
-3 ready, complete; perfect; {ma grid)- 
pa also: not existing); gruh-pai rajii-byon 
spyavr^as-yzigs Glr. the perfect, by him- 
self originated, Awalokiteswara = Ihun-gyis 
griib-pa; don fams-tdd grub^ay don-gruby 
^jl^ftH i f^rrnl ^^^^ fulfilment of every 
wish' n. of Buddha, also of a spell or 


cn$r^ griim-pa 



magic formula. — gruh^a lus Med, eitber : 
the frame, the structure of the body, or 
more prob. an abbreviation of puii-'po Ind- 
ian grub'pai lus Med,, v. 'piiii-'po, — 2. 
the state of perfection, grvb^pa fob -pa to 
attain to this state, grvb-foh f|ni one that 
has attained to it, a saint; grub-bmyh, 
grvb-m^dg id. ; grub mfd (Clcol. ^dhum- 
fa*) Ssk, fliTRT opinion, theory Zam.; pyi- 
ndn-gi grub-mfa ma ^Mms-par Glr, there 
being no conformity of opinion between 
Brahmanists and Buddhists; also n. of a 
philosophical work, Was: 262. — ma-gi^b- 
pa, gruh-pa-mid-^af 

rrarq' S^^^^^ !• S.^- ^' of a burrowing 
>3 aniraal, Sch,: badger. — 2. pf. of 
^^gruwrpa lamed, crippled, grum-po a maim- 
ed person, a cripple; griim-bu, grum-ndd 
gout, rheumatism, = fsig-ndd; drag-grUm 
gout, podagra; "^ha-diim* W,, a feeling of 
lameness in the limbs, 
qi jr5f grum -tse a, thick woolen blanket 
nS Mil,nt, 

g^Qxr grul'bum a class of demons, grul- 
<i ^ bum - mo female demons ; there 
are also homed demons of this kind. 

mfrtf ff'^'1^^ ^« ^ y^^ ^wo or three years 
<S old. 

hV gre a Naksatra, v. rgyu-skdr. 

^'^1' ^rr^-HjraC'.asheet of paper (W.*%-ya/i*) 

$rn' g^*^'ba the fore-part of the neck, the 
^ throat, both the wind - pipe and the 
gullet; *(]e-wa de-m^o*, or *nydn-pa dug* 
W, he has a good voice, sings well; gre 
(-ba) gdgs(-pd) Med, hoarseness; ^de-wa 
tdn-ce* Ld. to join in singing or shouting; 
gri-ba ddr-ba a snoring or rattling in the 
throat; ^de-bsdl tdh-c^ W, to hawk, to 
hem, to clear the throat. 
^Tg* gre^o a species of demons; gr^-mo 
^ 1. female demons of this kind. — 2. 
V. grit-mo, 

nT^m' de-mdg, vulg. for grd-ma awn. 
^^^'0^ grd-mog-^bu W. ant, emmet 

^in- greu pea, pease, mdn-sran-greu ace. 
-•^ to Wdn, i= ^x^' 
m^^' grh-ma the flashing, lightening, shin- 
'^ ing Schr, 

^^ gi'O 1. wheat, p^o-yds parched grains 
^ of wheat, parched com; gro-sdg stalk 
of wheat, wheat -straw. — 2, breakfast, 
taken late in the forenoon or about noon, 
gro ^d^gs-pa Glr., also *dJio Jydg-pa* C, to 
take breakfast, = fsdl-ma zd-ba, — **do 
Hg* W. a morning's march, short days 
march, reaching quarters already at 10 or 
11 o'cl. a.m. 

BfTOT 9^^ '9^9 ^' ^^so *dd'Wa*, the thin 
•^ ' bark of the birch - tree, frq. used to 
write on (csj) letters), or for ornamenting 
bows etc. Mil. 

9f ST, 3f ^ gro'ba, gro-mo reddish gray. 

qv^- gro-m^a 1. = gro 2. — 2. n. of a 
"* medicinal herb Wd/i. — 3. *dh6-^ia, 
gya-dhif C. potato. 

qwi-q" 9^'^9'P<^ (^^^- T^^) 1. a deep dell, 
•'^' ravine, lateral valley C; grog-h 
brook, rivulet; grog-yzdr a torrent pouring 
down in a ravine. — 2. W. = grdg-ca. 
qpi-^- ^'^^ 9^og-m^, grdg-mo 9S^, 
•^ ' ' -J I emmet; grog-tsdn, grog- 
m/cdr ant-hill; grog -spur ace. to some = 
grdg-ma, ace. to others some other insect 

^pV^' grog-zin n. of a medicine Wdn, 

OTn5T 9^ogs^ col. *rog* 1. friend; the more 
^ ' definite form is grogs-po, fem. grdgs- 
Tno; Ka- grogs a seeming friend, a false 
friend; ytin-grogs a true friend; sdig-pai 
grdgs-pO'la rten-na if he attaches himself 
to bad friends Dzl:; snyin-gi grogs^ in- 
timate friend, bosom-friend Pth.; grdgs- 
po(r) byM'pa to make friendship, to enter 
into connexion with, to make a league, ma- 
mfon-ma-prdd-pai grogs-po byas, they join- 
ed in friendship without knowing each other 
Glr, — kye grdgs -po ho, friend! Pth, — 
2. associate, companion, comrade, grdgs-po- 
dag company, society Dzl. also used as 
address: comrades! friends! or more 
respectfully: honoured friends! honoured 



V- 7j 


gentlemen! Stg.; fellow, grdgs-Uyeu play- 
fellow, play^mate D^Z.; dpuh-ffrogs fellow- 
combatant, brother in arras; odug-grogSy 
resp. bzuffS'C^roffs inmate, fellow-lodger Mil,^ 
*ddn-^Off* W,, (v. bran-sa) id.; also neigh- 
bour W.y C; dgd-grogSj ytdn-grogs^ gf^ogs, 
companion in life, spouse, husband, wife, 
^rogs mi myed she cannot get a husband 
MU.; fse ^ddi grogs- skdl a man's destination 
as to marriage, the matrimonial lot assigned 
by fate Glr, ; ^ddd^ogs, mdzd-grogs, bzan- 
grog$ C. one beloved, lover, sweet -heart, 
mdlrgrogs resp. yzim-grogs bed-fellow (not 
only 'concubine' Cs.) ; drndg-^ogs ally, con- 
federate (in war), hence also: — 3. assist- 
ant, fellow-labourer. Ids-grogs journeyman, 
under -workman; grogs byid-pa to help; 
rgdn-mo mcdd-rfen skud-pai grogs by as 
they helped the old woman in anointing 
the pyramid Dzl.; rtsig- grogs byM-pa to 
help in building a house ; at present in C 
a word of courteousness in making requests : 
*ten rog nan (/nan) be so kind as to show 
me; *nan rog dz§^* would you kindly give 
me; *dha na ton rog dzg^* now please let 
me go! cf. rogs, 

ifr* groh an inhabited place, a human ha- 
bitation, house, village, town, brgyd- 
gron, ston-groH a place of a hundred, of 
a thousand houses or house - holds (mv- 

%M»). — 

Comp. gron-Hyir 1. a large town, city, 
B. and C, gron-lfyer (gyi) mcog chief city, 
capital Tar. 2. fig. place, scene, sphere, 
(e.g. this world is a scene of illusions MiL) 
— gron-grahs the number of houses in a 
village or town. — gron-mcdg Mil., gron- 
Tncdg ^drim-pa, ^^o-ba^ rgyitg-pa one that 
wanders about among the peasantry as a 
fortune-teller; clerical charlatan, hedge- 
priest. — gron-ytdm prob. = gron-fsig — 
gron^rddl (Leu;. iRflV? 'an extension of 
houses') a large town, also a suburb. — 
groh-pa 1. TT. a villager, peasant 2. C = 
gron. — gr&n-^ = groh Mil. — grdh-dpon 
village- chief, Sch. — groh- mi peasant. — 
grori - Mg Lex. provincialism. — grm - tso 

village, borough. — gron-bUs farm Sch. — 
gi*6h--yul village Mil. 

2fir'ZT groh'ba C. col. for gran-ba COld, 
^ in Glr. occasionally. 

^ffc'q* yrod'pa 1 . belly, grod-fsil suet — 2. 

•'^^ col. stomach; of ruminating animals 
the first stomach or paunch. — 3. a dried 
paunch, or bullock's stomach, for keeping 
oil etc. Glr. 
q^^ grdn-can disadvantageous, injuri- 

"^ ' ' ous, gron-ce very noxious, gron- 
m^d harmless, innoxious Lea. 
^jarfl' ff^ol'ba pf. of ^grdl-bay as sbst. = 

^ pf^ the having been delivered, 

deliverance (from the pain of existence). 
^(^ gros 1. advice,, counsel, gros ^debs-pa 

'^ B. to give advice; gtvs byed-pa B., 
*(Ids gydb-be"^ W., to consider, to deliberate; 
to resolve, decide; gros ^dri-ba to ask (a 
person's) advice, to consult (with one); 
groS'^dri'Sa the place where advice may 
be asked, an oracle Glr.; gros-pa adviser, 
counsellor, senator; gros-mi id., head-man 
of a village ; gros mfun-par by unanimous 
decree, unanimously Dzl. — 2. speech, 
talk, = }tam Mil. nt. — 3. council (?). — 
4. Cs.i care, heed, caution, grds-han careful, 
cautious, ffros-med careless, heedless, 
gi' gla pay, wages, fee, gla zd-ba to live on 
^ wages, to work for daily wages Dzl.; 
gla-lto food and wages; gld-pa, gld-bo (col.), 
gla -mi a day-labourer, hired workman, 
gld-mo (Cs. gld-pa-mfw) fem. 

gi'fl' gld'ba 1. the musk-deer, Moschus mo- 
^ schiferus, gla -mo the female of it, 
gla-pmg the young of it; gld-bai lU-ba 
musk-bag (lit. navel); gld-rtsi (W.*lar'si^)y 
Ss^' 4^0 fXtUSk, gld-rtsi-me-tog Pedicularis 
raegalantha, *gla-dd-ra* W. Delphinium 
moschatum, two alpine plants smelling 
strongly of musk; gla-sgdh n. of a medi- 
cinal root Cs. ; gla-gldd v. glah-glad. — 2. 
n. of a pretty large tree, similar to, or 
the same as stdr-bu Glr. 

gierr q-gwr 9^^^ bya-gldg eagle, vulture; 

fari' 5 ran ^/^ ^(^^.^ ^^^^^ •%-%** 

W^ (an eagle which is said to bark like 


gpf^ gldg-pa 

a dog), rgyab^ldg perh. different species 
of eagles. 

gprcr ff^'P^ often used erroneously in- 
^ ' stead of rlag-pa. 
np^ gloffs opportunity, occasion, possibi- 
^ ' llty, glags JsoUhd to seek an occa- 
sion, to look for an opportunity; da glags 
myed'par dug now tiie favourable point 
of time seems to have come Gh\; esp. 
opportunity of doing harm to another, of 
getting a hold on him; glags myid-par 
mi gyur^ he will not be able to get at you, 
to do you harm ; ysd-glags med there is no 
possibility of helping him, he is incurable 
Med,; bzdd- glags med intolerable, insup- 
portable, frq. 

giQ- glan (Bal. *^fa/**) 1 . OX, bullock. — 
^ 2. elephant — 3 Taurus, the Bull, in 
the zodiac. 

Comp. glangldd 'bullock- or elephant- 
brains'; soap being made of such, ace. to 
popular belief: C. soap {Schr. glor-glad). — 
gldn-to the Indian bison. Bos taurus indi- 
cus, Lh. — glan-fugy glan ^dg-tan a bull. 
— glan-ddr-ma n. of a king of Tibet, liv- 
ing about 1000 after Christ, notorious for 
his hostility against the hierarchy of the 
Lamas. — glan-^r a team of bullocks. — 
glari'Snd the trunk or proboscis of an ele- 
phant; a plant so called on account of the 
long spiral spur of its corolla, Pedicularis 
Hookeriana. — glan-po «= glan. — glan- 
po-^y glah-l^y elephant, gldn-mo a female 
elephant, glan-prug the young of an ele- 
phant. — glan-bu a young bullock^ glan" 
ru a bullock's horn; also a large fork used 
by the Tibetan soldiers to rest the musket 
on, when firing (Hook. II., 235). — pa- 
glan = glan-fug. 

gir- giC'M^T ^^' glan-fdbs Med.^ yzer- 
^ ' ^ ^ gldn W.y colic, gripes, 
spasms in the stomach, and similar affec- 
tions; glan-hu Med J 

91C'$r ^^^'^ " ^* ^ large kind of alpine 
^ willow. 

mr gl<xd 1. the head, glad -la round 
^ ^ the head, e.g. to brandish a sword, 
Glr,; as postposition used in a general 

^•g gUii'bu 

sense: close over, hd glad- la close over 
the water. — 2. brain Med.y cf. kldd^pa, 
mrn' glf^drpa to thin Sch. Cf. Jhady slddr 
^ pa, 

nHrn* gl^^^^ !• = gUn-pay to patch, botch, 
^ ^ mend; glan brgydb^pa ScLy gldn- 
par byid'pa Lt id.; Ihdn-pa gldn~pa to 
sew on a patch Lea, — 2. to return, Ian 
an answer, to reply, rejoin Lea, — 3. C. 
col for gUn-pa; so also occasionally in 

gpr^ gldl'ba to yawn. 

S|r- gli^y Tfl^y prop, island, but usually: 
^ continent, part of the globe, viz. one 
of the four imaginary parts of the earth, 
as taught by the geographers of Tibet, or 
rather of ancient India: lus-pdgs the part 
east of the Sumeru, of a semicircular shape; 
Jb^amrburglih in the south, triangular; 6a- 
glah'spydd in the west, circular; sffrormi- 
snydn in the north, square. The general 
character of the first of these parts is de- 
scribed as being zirba tranquil; that of the 
second as being rgyds-pa rich ; that of the 
third as being dban-lddn strong, and that 
of the fourth as being drdg^po wild. In a 
more general sense: region, country, so Ne- 
pal is frq. denominated rin-po-cei gUh the 
country of jewels and treasures, Urgyan 
mHa^oi gUn the country of the Dakini, 
as is also Lahoul, in local chronicles; byai 
glin region or country of birds Glr,; the 
word is also not unfrequently a component 
part of the names of towns and villages. 

— glin-^dn prop, a little island, generally 
one of the small continents, of which there 
are eight, ace. to the above mentioned 
geographical system; also island in general. 

— glin-ka a small uncultivated river- is- 
land, or low-land C. 

Sir'n* ffi^^-f^ (Ssk, ijui) fife, flageolet, made 
^ ^ of one piece of wood and much like 
those used in Europe as play-things for 
children; it is the common musical instru- 
ment of herdsmen, and often consists of 
two pipes; pred-glih flute, piccolo - flute, 
mostly of metal; dge-glin a larger musical 

mstnunent like a hautboy, used in sacred 
ceremonies; rkan-glih lit. a fife made of 
the human femoral bone, but sometimes 
also of metal. 

gr glu (Ssk irtfir) song, tune, mostly, 
S though not -always , of a profane na- 
ture, opp. to religious hymns; glu-dbi/dm, 
glu-sgrd^ id.; the word is also used of the 
singing of birds; glu-Mn a little song, ditty, 
hummed by a person Glr,; glu-ris alter- 
nate song; glu-gar^rts^d'po rejoicings of 
every kind Glr. ; glu lirirfa B., *lu ggdb- 
pa* C.y ^tdn-^^ TT., to sing. 
niT' nr* nwr'/SCcf gly^y blud, glud-fsab 
fi' |i' ^^ a ransom, a thing giv- 
en as a ransom, srog-gi glttd a ransom for 
one's life Lex. ; Koi glud-du lug brgya ysod- 
pay to "slaughter a hundred sheep as a ran- 
som MU.; *lu''la tan* C. he is made an 
expiator, a scape-goat; ^mi-lu* C in a spe- 
cial sense: a man's image which in his 
stead is cast away in iheytdr-ma: there- 
fore *lco mi-ly^ yin* C. he is a curse, an 
uiathema, one deserving to be cursed (ni.f.). 
mr glum boiled barley, wheat, or rice, used 
\[ instead of malt in brewing beer (not 
for food). 

^ gle 1. Glr. 60. a small uncultivated is- 
^ land, = glin-ka {Ld. *zal*). — 2. n. of 
the capital of Ladak, usually sle. 
Srnr^xr gle-Jtams n. of a distemper Cs.; 
^ ^ involuntary discharge from the 
bowels, or of urine Sch. s^^^^^i^) 
5|™t- glegs (fis. gldgs-ma) table, board, 
^ ' fMe; zdnS'kyi gUgs-bu co^fer-plaXe 
Tdr. 26, 10; glegs-bdm (ii^Rh) book, also 
dpi-ca glegs'bdm Glr.; gUgs-bdm mdn-po 
bJtMs'So he made a present of, dedicated, 
many books (for the use of a temple); 
glegs 'Mn the wooden boards which in a 
Tibetan book supply the binding; glegs- fdg 
a thong etc. fastened round a book; glegs- 
?aJ a buckle, clasp, or ring attached to 
this thong. — sgd-gkgs the pannel of a 
door; *num'lag* writing -tablet, a small 
board, blackened, greased, and strewed 
over with scraped chalk, on which the 
school-children write vdth wood-pencils. 



§|C;'IT ff^^-f^^} ^i. glens to say, talk, con- 
^ verse, ytam (-du) gUn-ba id., resp, 

ysun gUh'ba; Hdrn-la ma far^ bes glens-nas 
as word was sent: 'the road is not pas- 
sable!' Glr.; ytam gUn-ba ni bddg^gis by as 
I have made this speech S.O.; ybig gUn 
ynyis glen rim-pas mcid-de btsun-moi bdr- 
du gl^-zin the rumour spreading from one 
to the other, until it came before the queen 
Pih.\ ^os-kyi sffrog-gUn byM-pa, (resp. 
mdzdd-pa), to preach Glr.; gros-glM council, 
consultation, perh. also disputation. 

Comp. and deriv. gl^n-br)6d, gUn-mo 
sbst conversation, discourse, lecture, gUn- 
bryod ma man dar-yMg yson listen a little 
to a short discourse Mil.; cds-ytam gUn- 
mo byed let us converse on religious sub- 
jects Mil.; glM-mo the act of speaking, 
opp. to yi-gey the act of writing, the written 
letter etc. Lea. — glen-yii 1. the subject 
of a discourse Cs. 2. table of contents, 
index S.O. and elsewh. 3. place, scene, 
of a conversation or discourse Stg. frq. — 
gUii-ba-pOy glM-mo-mHan a story-teller Cs.; 
glen-Jrum 'a hundred thousand stories', 
title of a book, Sch. 

^^ZT gl^n-pa 1. B. and C. stupid, foolish, 
^ ' glen Ikugs bkolspyddrkyi sdug-bsndl 
the misery of stupidity, of dumbness and 
of servitude (the state of animals) Thgr.; 
byol-sdn-las kyan gUn-po more stupid than 
a brute MU.; fool, Mydd-mams re glen fools 
that you are all of you DzL; often in the 
sense of 'fool' in the Bible, = the wicked, 
the ungodly : glen-pa yti-mug-ban infatuated 
fools Dzl. :?©, 9 = profaners of holy things; 
*len-ndg* W. id.; *len-ndg-gi pd-r a* iooUsh 
talk. — 2. W.: idle, lazy, dull, imbecile, e.g. 
a sickly child, an animal affected with a 
disease (opp. to *idm-pay hdn-po* being in 
good health, active, lively). 
giq-q- gUb-pay pf. glebs, to make flat, plain 
^ Cs.y Ub-mor gleb Lex. 

di^-n- gUm-poL to press, squeeze; to crush, 
^^ squash Stg.y C. 

§f glo (Ld. % *^*)' ^^^P- Siogf^^ 1. the 
^ ^ side, esp. of the body, ghs 

pdb-pa to lie down on one's side (lit. by 



means of the side); gU-ca (Ld. *ldd'ca*) 
ornaments, suspended on the side of the 
body, strings of pearls, shells etc., worn 
by women in the girdle; also in a general 
sense: sran-gi glo yyas yy&n-na on both 
sides of the street Siy. ; perh. also side of 
a house, wall, in the expression: *kun-me 
lo tot* the thieves broke through the wall 
W,; glo'skdr window Pth. — 2. saddie- 
girth W. — 3. cough, *lo gydg-pa* C. to 
cough; (Sell, has: to err, to act foolishly, 
to lose, to neglect); *fo Idn-wa* C. to cough; 
glO'Ua sra a bad cough ScL; *lO'K6g* C, 
W,, cough; glo-rgydl Lt a chronic cough; 
glo-bstud Lt a permanent short cough. — 
4. Not quite clear is the etymology in glo 
rdeg-pa Sch.: to be frightened, timid, and 
glo rd^g Q-tu) suddenly, « gld-bur q.v. 

Bfir ^^"^« the lungs, gld-ba ma Ina prob. 
^ the five posterior lobes of the lungs, 
gld-ba bu Ina the five anterior ones Med, ; 
glo'/ca of a colour like the blood of the 
lungs, pale-red Sch,; gh-ddn windpipe Cs. 

— gh-rddl a disease of the lungs; glo^kd 
perh. the same. — glosbubs (Sch, spub) 
wind-pipe. — ^glo-ro* W, prob. pulmonary 
consumption. — glo lu-ba Lt 'convulsion 
of the lungs' Cs.y or simply: cough, v. lii-ba, 
grq;^ gld-bur 1. suddenly, instantaneously, 
•^ "^ also gld - bur- du^ glo - bur - bar ; glo- 
bm*'du mi mdn-po JH-bai sdug-bsndl the 
calamity of many men dying suddenly; 
glo-bur-ndd diseases that arise on a sudden 
(opp. to Uian-skyes inherited diseases) Med, 

— gld'bur-ba adj., glo-bur-bai don the sig- 
nification of suddenness Lex, — 2. Cs,: 're- 
cently, gld- bur- du ^dns-pa a new comer . 

grnqi^' ^^^o^^ * •'ise, an elevation above 
'^ '^ a surface Sch, 

9&1' fftog (Bal, and Kh, *xlog*\ col. also 
^ ' glog ka^ lightning, flash of lightning; 
glog Jbar it lightens; glog Ryug id.; glog 
Kyug-pai yun tsdm-las ma Idn-par with the 
rapidity of lightning Mil.; glog rgyu-ba 
the flashing of light, Dzl, ; ghg-sprin thun- 
der-cloud, also as a symbol of the transi- 
toriness of things. 

^^p•q• dgd'ba 

3^'CJ' gldg-pa a disease, = Ihdg-pa. 

Sjr-q- glod'pa 1. to loosen, relax, slacken 
'^ ' vb.a. Cs, — 2. to comfort, console; 
to cheer up Sch.; gldd-la rgyun-du bzv^s 
your honour may be easy about staying 
here always Mil,y cf. Ihdd-pa, — 3. U: to 
give, 7na bzun ma gl6d(^ar) without any 
regard to taking or giving Glr. 
Ifi^^' gix-q- gldn-pa^ gldrirpa 1. to return 
'^ ' '^ an answer, to reply. — 2. 
to patch, to mend, cf. kUn-^a etc. 
cn(3fr^aJ' ghdn-dho-la n. of a mountain in 
k' O la., perh. incor. instead otgan- 
' ' dho'la q.v.; it may also be de- 
rived from V[^\ hell, wid thus the word 
would signify the same as dril-bu-H, which 
is the name of another holy mountain, at 
the foot of which the nobleman^s seat 
Gondia is situated. 

^^^^dgdg-pa v. ^^gs-pa. 
^^jC'^ dgdn-ba v. ^ens-pa, 
^^}p^]3^ dgan'/'zdr v. yzar, 
^^TK'Sr dgdd-mo v gdd-^nw, 

V^'^ dgab-pa v. ^gibs-pa, 

rqvvq' dgd'ba (Ld, col. yd-te*) I. vb. to 
' ' rejoice, to be rejoiced or glad, la 
at, in, or of; d^-la dgd-stCy rejoiced at it, 
glad of it, — mi dgd-ste grieved, vexed, 
indignant at it; Krims ydd-pa-la dgd-nas 
if you wish to have the law introduced 
Glr,; ysdd'pa-la dgd-zin sanguinary, de- 
lighting in blood-shed D^Z.; bu-mo de-nyid- 
la dgd'baSj as I wish to have none other 
but this girl Dzl,; bod-la dgd-ba yHg kyan 
ma byun nobody took an interest in Tibet 
Gh\; Uyed cii pyir mi dga why are you 
so dejected, low-spirited? dga bzin-du vrith 
pleasure (e.g. I shall accept it) ; rarely with 
the gerund: bram^ze da-ruh ^dug-ste raih 
tu dgor-nas much rejoicing, very glad, when 
(that) the Brahmin was still there Dzl,; 
with the termin. of the inf. : to do a thing 
readily, willingly, nydn-par dgd-ba to like 


^qp'q' dgd-ha 

to bear, to listen eagerly; to be willing, m 
hig ^dug-par dgd-na if anybody will stay 
here yoluntarily Dzl; to have a mind, to 
intend, to wish, Hyodrdb-tu byuh-ba/i* dgd- 
am do you intend to take orders? DzL; 
bddg-gu ras JU. . . sbyin-par dgao I should 
like to present this cloth to . . . Dzh : m^d- 
par byd'bar dgd-na as I wish to annihi- 
late .. . DzL; gar dgd-bar (or gar dgd-ba 
der) son go whereever you like DzL; sel- 
dom with the accus.: ^dzdrrir-pa de dga-ste 
as you now enjoy an abundance MiL; with 
the instr. case: des dgd-har hdg-big^ may 
you be cheered, comforted by it DzL ; frq. 
absolutely: dgd-bar by^d-pa to make glad, 
to rejoice, C. also: to caress, to fondle. 

II. sbst joy, dgd-bai ytam byM-pa to 
express one's joy DzL; dgd-bai sems id.; 
cWa rdb'fu dgd-bai sems sky^-so he found 
great delight in it DzL ; compounds v. below. 

IH. adj. 1. glad, pleased, enjoying, na 
dgd-ba Tna yin-pas as I was not pleased 
with it DzL; de-la mi dgd-ba^ W. *mi gd- 
lan*^ not favourably disposed towards, un- 
friendly, inimical to; dgd-bar byM-pa to 
niake glad^ to delight^ bu (hin dgd-ba byid- 
pcd yo- bydd things which delight little 
children, play-things Glr. — Less frq. 2. 
charming, sweet, pleasing, agreeable, beauti- 
ful, Ihdg-par dgd-ru ^o she is getting 
more and more beautiful; C. in a general 
sense: good^ cf. below: dga-bdL — 3. as 
a proper name — ifi^ Tar, 

Comp. and deriv. dga-gi^dgs Jir-ba to 
give cheers, to raise shouts of joy MiL — 
dga-grdgs a participator of joy, gen. with 
reference to husband or wife (col. *ga- 
n^). — dgormgu great joy, dga-mgii-bay 
dga-mgu-rdn-ba to have great pleasure, 
to be very glad, to be delighted, frq., dgd- 
Hn mgii-la yinrdns-pdr ^gyur-ba id. Glr. 
frq.; yet dga-mgur spydd-pa to indulge in 
sensual pleasure PtL, Stg,y bu-mo dan with 
a girl. — dgorst&n feast, public festivity; 
dga-st&n-gyi yddfiv-sa the place of a feast 
6fr.; bsd-ba dgd-ba festivities of welcome 
6fr.; dgor^t&n byid-pa to celebrate a festi- 
^*^» ^^d-pa to spread a feast, to distribute 

^ap:q' dgdr-ba 

festival dishes; fig. md-bai dga-stdn a 
feast or treat to the ears Glr. — dga-bdi 
1. joy, Ivs sems dga-bdh Uydb-par ^yur 
Glr. 2. (Ts. col. *gan-d^) good, = ydg- 
po, (of servants, dogs etc.) C; * mi-la ga- 
d4 jM-pa* to treat a person kindly, with 
affection 6'. — dga-^dun wedding, nuptial 
festivities &ch. (seems to be a word not 
generally known). — dga-Jtdd n. of the 
plain of Lhasa, or at least of the northern 
part of it. — dga-lddn joyful 1. n. of a 
residence of gods, or of one of the heavens, 
'S«A. ijfinf V. Kopp. I. 265. 2. n. of one 
of the great monasteries near Lhasa, found- 
ed by Tsongkhapa, about the year 1407, 
V. Kopp. II, 345. 3. yiim - sa dga - Idan 
n. of the royal castle of residence at Lha- 
sa; dga-lddn-pa n. of a sect = dge-lugs- 
pa. — dgd-bo = dga-bd^ 2. good C. — 
dga-sdug-drag-ian good and bad, strong 
and weak, of articles of roerchaodise and 
the like C\ — dga-sp^d joy, dga-sprd dpag- 
tu-m^d-pa fdb-pa yin he entered into a 
state of indescribable joy Mil. — dgd-ma 
n. of the goddess of joy Cs. — dga-ma- 
Jldr 6'., W. (col. *gd'man-dd7'*) tho trem- 
bling with joy, the state of being enrap- 
tured, in ecstasy. — dgd-mo 1. delightful, 
pleasing, charming, of news, of a speech W., 
of a landscape MiL 2. delighted, joyous, 
cheerful PT., *sem gd-md rag* 1 am cheer- 
ful; *gd-i7io-dan* W. id. ]*gd-mo)h^ -pa* C. 
to caress, to fondle. 3. pure,holy Sch.^ DzL, 
prob. also MiL ; ^ds-pa dgd-mo a godly priest. 
— dga-fs&r jOy, *Uo ga-fsdr mdn-po )he'* 
C. he is very joyful; dga-fs&r cS-ba grati- 
fying, dehghtful Mil. — dga-rdns being 
glad, rejoicing, *dM-la ga-rdn dhdg-te* C. 
beiog greatly delighted with it, — dga-^is 
V. ga-rij = gd-ka. 
rqix' dgar = dgd-bar^ ra?t-dgdr at plea- 

' ' sure, ad Ubitum, frq.: H dgar Pth. 
seems to mean: why. 
-2-^.- dgdr-ba I. to separate, confine, fold 

' ' up (men, cattle, goods), dgar-byai 
pnpigs cattle to be penned in a fold 6s.; 
ynds-nas dgdr-ba to banish, to exile; dgdr- 
bai ddn-du in a special sense, in particu- 

lar &ch. — *gdr - te bdr-i^ W. to set a- 
part, exclude, shut out; to lock up, shut 
up, to lay up or by, to preserve; *gdr- 
gya cd-ce* W. to store up; *tdb~ct gdr-te* 
to button up. — 2. to hang up, to fasten, 
to attach, ^dkar-cdg fdg^orla* C. a flag to 
a mpe. Cf. skdr-ha. 

'V^'^ dgdl-ba v. ^el-ba. 
^^|?r^' dgds-pa V. ^ds-pa. 

cqr dgu 1. nine, dgu-bbu (fdm^a) ninety; 
sj dgu'bhi rtsa yUg^ or qo-Hg^ W. *gtt- 
bdu^O'dig* ninety one etc. ; dgu-pa 1 . the 
ninth. 2. having, comprising, measuring, 
nine, e.g. Uni-dgii-pa measuring nine cubits 
(in length, height etc.); dgu-po the nine, 
those. nine; lan-dgu nine times; dgu-nin 
three yeafs ago col. — 2. many, dgu-cig 
id. Mil ; fabs dgus bsags^ gathered by many 
eflforts, with great difficulty; used as sign 
of the plural: skyi-dgu men, skye-dgui 
bddg-po (SsL D^THlfTT) ^^^ ^^^^ of crea- 
tures, the lord of men; skye-dgui-bddg-mo 
n. of the aunt and wet-nurse of Buddha; 
yddnlgu Lex. those that are, the existing 
beings; Tior ydd-dgu-bog MU, the goods 
that one has, property; bzdn-dgu Lex. the 
good and the brave (among men); Im ^dod 
dgur sgyur-ba to be changed, transformed, 
ad libitum Mil. ; navrdgu fiib-pa Lt. to over- 
come every evil ; mi ses dgu Us-^o Thgy. he 
that knows every thing; *mi jhe^ gu )he' 
mi yon gu yon* C. if you do many things 
which ought not to be done, many things 
will take place which ought not to take 
place; N-ba ytd-kyi dgu - la mi byM-de 
Thgy. not countiog death among things 
to be thought of. — 3. inst. of dguUy dgur- 
zld winter- month Mil. frq — zer-dguy 

5^cr|^' dgu'lcri litter, bier C. 

^_2^^'- dgU'Yt&i'y for fses nyer-dgui ytor- 

sj '^ ma, a sacrifice on the 29 th day 

of the month W. 

of a 



dgu 'tub 'all -conquering', n. 

«^^, *^^]^' dginy dgurv-ka 

rOTOTli^sr ^-F^« ^^-y Thg., a parti- 
\J n:> ' cular kind of meditation. 
•q- dgu'ba 1. vb. lo bend, to make 
crooked; *go gu-be* Ld. to bend, 
bow, stop; to submit — 2. sbst. the act 
of bending, bowing, inflection. — 3. adj. 
bent, stooping; dgu-poy dgu-mo Cs. id. 
rOTam;!' dgu-rtsigs n. of a yellow flower 

sj ' sJ ' ^ tsigs skya-mo 

the galaxy, the milky way MU. 

^^^^ dgu-mfsdn prize (of combat) C. 

^Pl'^ dgicg-pa v. og'^-pa. 

rCTT' dgun^ another form for gun (the 
si former of the two appears to be pre- 
valent) 1. the middle. — 2. noon, mid-day. 
— 3. mid-night — 4. heaven. dgM-la reg 
it reached up to heaven Mil. ; dgun sndn- 
po the blue heaven, yd~gi dgun-sndn the 
blue heaven above Mil.; dgun-du (or -la) 
yUgS'pa (lit to repair, to withdraw, to 
heaven) to die Mil. and elsewh. — 5. be- 
fore dates, esp. before the word fo, it ser^ 
ves as a respectful word, and is e.g. frq. 
used in stating the age of a Buddha or a 
^i^g) y^^ it; occurs also in compounds, 
where no such bearing is discernible: dgun- 
hdg^ dgun-zla Cs.; dgun-do-nub Mil. this 
evening, to-night; dgun-snyin a year, a 
year of one's life; dgun-Udg division of 
time (?); dguh-hdun a week. (Cs. has also 
dgun-fig^ and dgun-fig-gi dkyiUJior, which 
terms were prob. framed by him, and meant 
to denote the meridian line and meridian 

ffCTT-'^ dgiin-mo evening Sch.^ perh. a cor- 
sj ruption of dg6n-mx>. 

rmr «:m3rm' ^^' dgun-ka^ W. "gun- 
\J1' IJI I ^a* winter; dgun \& also 
used adverbially : in wiDter(-time), during 
winter; dgiin-dus winter- time; dgun-fdgj 
dgun- fog- fdg, W. ^gun-fag^fdg^y all the 
winter through; *gun fse re* W. every 
winter; dgun grdn-bai dus-na during the 
cold of winter Dzl. ; dgun-nyirldog the win- 

«W|$r^' dffifn-pa 

^R' dgi-ba 


ter solstice; dgun^yi-ldog^i tig^ or Uor- 
fig the tropic of Capricorn Cs. (cf. the re- 
mark at the end of dgun) ; dgun-stdd^ dgun- 
smdd the first and the last half of winter^ 
(v. dm), 

^pr^ dgiim-pa v. ^^m-pa, 

CM-^ fti;- 5j;^ <k/^r, rgur, sgur, three 
sj '• >J ' ^1 diflferent spellings of the 
^ same root, all of them 
pronounced *5Pwr*, crooked, dbyibs-dgur of 
crooked stature S.g.; rgur kig stoop down! 
bend your back! DzL; sgur-te writhing 
(with pain) DzL; sgur-po crooked, hump- 
backed, by birth Lt; with age Thgy.; C. 
coL ^ffur-gi^r* id.; mgo dgiir-ba to duck, 
to bend vb.n.; to submit, to humble one's 
self (cf. dgu-ba). Cs,: dgur-poy dgur^mo a 
crooked man, a crooked woman; fsigs-dgur 
a crooked back^ crook-backed; lag-dgiir 
having crooked hands etc. ; dgur-^gro oi a 
stooping gait. 

rai«r dffus 1. instr. of dgu, — 2. C, W., 
sT this day five days (the present day 

i^q^z^- 4^-*« (5^^. ^, ^nrw, ^^W; also 
' ^ ^CTf^, mwrwrseWom iji) 1. happi- 
ness, welfare; happy, propitious, dg^iin Ms- 
pa Wdn. More frq. : 2. virtue (opp. to mi- 
dgirba^ and sdig-pa), also adj. virtuous, sems 
dgi'ba a virtuous mind G/r., las dgi-ba^ 
mi-^i^a good and bad actions Stg. ; d^^- 
bai rUdrba roots of virtue, meritorious ac- 
tions, from which afterwards the fruits of 
reward come forth; dgi-rtsa skyid-pa ic({.y 
spyddrpa Thgy,^ by^d^a MU. to produce 
such a root, to achieve a meritorious ac- 
tion; dge-ba s^ms-par ^gyur-ba to become 
inclined to virtue, i.e. converted DzL] dge- 
tsdgs (v. fsogs) a virtuous work, a good 
deed; dgi-ba bbu the ten virtues, viz. 1; 
srog mi yhdd^pa^ not to kill anything living 
(by which Buddhism has replaced our 
scriptural interdiction of murder); 2. ma 
byin-par mi Un-pa not to take what has 
not been given (those who closely stick 
to the word go even so far, that they will 
not touch or accept an alms, unless it be 

put into their hands) ; 3. Ug-par mi yyhnr- 
pa not to fornicate; 4. rdzun mi smrd-ba 
not to tell a lie; 5. fsig-rtsub mi smrd-ba 
not to abuse or revile; 6. nag-kydl (or 
JiyaT) mi smrd-ba not to talk foohshness 
(cf. kydl'kd); 7. prd-ma mi byidrpa not to 
calumniate; 8. bmdb-sems mi byM pa not 
to be avaricious or covetous; 9. yndd^ems 
mi byidrpa not to think upon doing harm 
or mischief; 10. Idg-lta mi byidrpa not to 
entertain heretic notions, or positively, ydn- 
dag-par Itd-ba Stg, to be orthodox. — 3. 
fasting, abstinence, in the phrase: dgd-ba 
sriin-ba to fast, to abstain from food, frq. 
— 4. aims, charity; banquet, treat, as a re- 
ligious work, U-dge ys&n-dge largesses, 
treats, taking place at funerals, or given 
in one's Ufe time Mil, {W. *j)d'tra*^ and 

Comp. and derhr. c^^-is^ censor, and 
at the same time provost imd beadle in a 
monastery, who has to watch over strict 
order, and to punish the transgressors E5pp. 
n. 259, 276; in Ld. he is also called cos- 
UrimS'pa (vulg. '^osrmpa*). — dge-rgdn 
surety, moral bail, a monk that is made 
answerable for the moral conduct of an 
other, who is placed under his care and 
called dge-yidn; also in a gen. sense: teach- 
er, schoolmaster. — dge-bsnyin^ fem. dge- 
bsnyin-ma (Ssk, ^irRiV and ^Mfiim) 1. 
the pious of the laymen who retaining their 
secidar occupations have renounced the five 
cardinal sins (murder, theft, fornication, 
lying, and drunkenness) and provide for 
the maintenwice of the priests (so in Dzl, 
and gen. in the earlier writings). 2. in 
in later times as much as a novice, pro- 
bationer, catechumen, i.e. either a kind of 
clerical apprentice (the Shabi of the Mon- 
gols, hrOmanera SsLy v. Kopp, 11., 252), 
or one of a next higher degree, a candi- 
date (v. Schl, 162). — dge-ltds S,g, a pro- 
pitious omen, a favourable prognostic. — 
dge-jdtin (col. ^gen-diin^^ prop, dge-sldn- 
gi ^dun (Bum. II., 435) Ssk. ^, the whole 
body of the clergy, priesthood; dge-Jun- 
dkon-m^dg the priesthood as one of the 


86 cf 

tiree great jewels, or as part of the god- 
head (in which latter sense the word now 
is usually understood) cf. dkon-m^dg; dge- 
^dun-dpal'cin MaMsahghika ^ n. of a Hi- 
nayStna school Tar.^ Wa8.\ dge-^dun-^gTuh- 
pa n.p., the first Dalai Lama about the 
year 1 400 ; dge -^dun - rgyd - 7wf«o n . of the 
second Dalai Lama, v. Kopp, 11., 131. — 
dge-lddn virtuous; dge -Man -pa n. of the 
most numerous sect of Lamas, founded by 
Tsonk'apa; it is also called dge- lugs-pa, 
or dga-lddn-pa from Galdan, a monastery 
near Lhasa which , as well as Sera and 
Da-pub, belongs to his sect. The Lamas 
of this community wear for the most part 
yellow garments; they are said to approach 
nearer to perfection in mysticism (the 
highest aim of Buddhist priests) than any 
other sect, since they apply themselves 
more systematically to the preparatory stu- 
dies of morality etc. — dge-^dig for dge- 
ha dan sddg-pa. — dgesbydn SsL ^fiflir * 
Buddhist ascetic, or mendicant friar, Bum. 
' I. 275. Kopp. L, 330. — dge-sbydr seems 

to have corresponded in its original accep- 
tation to our conception of piety, sancti- 
fication and practical religion, but in later 
times the sense of expertness in the art 
of meditation was attached also to this 
word, as : dge-sbydr pel (this man^s) expert- 
ness increases, is making progress Mil, — 
dg^-rtsa instead of dg^-bai rtsd-ba v. above. 

— dge-rtsis the amount of virtue, the sum 
of merit, dge-^rtsts rgyds-pa a considerable 
amount of merit. — dge-fsul 1. a young 
monk; in the older writings it may be 
understood as novice; 2. in later literature 
it denotes the degree next to the dge-bsny&n^ 
being that of a subordinate or under-priest, 
Kopp. n. 252, 335. ScM. 162.; dge-fmU 
ma a young nun, a novice. — dge-mtsdn 
a lucky omen Glr, — dge-yzdn v. dge^^gdn. 

— ^^'yy^g (seems to be pronounced *ger' 
ydg* in col. language) constable, beadle, 
a servant of the fsogs-cen zal-nd^ or chief- 
justice of Sera and other monasteries. — 
dg^'las a good deed or action, but by later 
writers also applied to magic ceremonies 

and the like. — dge-lugs-pa v. dge-lddn^ 
pa. — dge-Ugs good fortune, prosperity 
Glr. — dgesldn Gelong, 1. originally 'beg- 
gar of virtue', mendicant friar, tifij one 
that has entirely renounced the world and 
become a Buddhist priest, 2. in later wri- 
tings the highest clerical degree, a priest 
that has received the highest ordination, 
V. Kopp. I., 335. The Gelong is bound to 
observe all the 233 commandments of the 
sosdr far-pai mdo. — dgesldb-^ma a/young y 
nun Cs. — dge-bkis 1. v. bses-ynyhi. 2. n. 
of priests or monks. — dgeslon-Mn is said 
to be a provincial name of the cedar, Ce- 
drus Deodara. 

^^CGT ^^'^y *lso dgdn-la^ On, upon, In, 

" ' at Ts. 

r&X'n' dg&r-ba ^yyo-ba, to prepare, (food), 
' ' Jciir-ba dg^-ba to bake pastry; 
*fiC-^ma gir-wa^ C, = JM-pa. 

^Hj?f^ dgh'pa = dgyh-pa frq. 

rSff ^Oy in Lexx. explained by diim-bur, 
^ ' to divide (?). 

rSfrq' dgo-ba, a species of antelope, living 

' ' on high mountains, Procapra picti- 

caudata Hodgson, v. Hook, II. 157 and 139; 

dgd-ba-mo the female of this antelope Cs. 

^hW|' dgog Lexx. w.e.; dgog-tin pestle C. 

r9fjq/^y dgon(s), also dgdn(s)'7nOy Sch. 

' ' ^ -^ dgdn(syka 1. evening, dgons-ycig 
one evening, once on an evening G/n; 
nan re dgons re every morning and even- 
ing; ^gons-zdn* W., *gdns-ze* 6'., resp. 
dgons -ysdl evem'ng-meal, supper; dgons- 
^dm resp. evening -soup; dgdm-su DzL, 
dgdns-mo and dgons Glr. in the evening; 
dgons dan fo-rdns in the evening and in 
the morning AJed. frq.; dgons Jbdb-pa to 
hold an evening's rest, to take up night- 
quarters. — 2. supper C. — 3. a day's jour- 
ney, dgons-zdg col. id.; rta-dgdns a day's 
journey for one travelling on horseback, 
lug-dgdns a day's journey for a drove of 
^SfJC^CJ' ^^-P«> resp. for s^m-pa, snydm- 

' ' jm etc., and sejns, bio etc. I. vb. 




. ^<_ 


^OT^^^I' dgdm-pa 

1. to think, to meditate, dgons-pa-la jug-pa 
to enter into meditation .G^Zr.; ^^cK snydm- 
du dgdnS'par gyw-to he thought so in his 
mind Ife/.; rgydUj^ Uon-rdn yin dgdns-fias 
the king thinking that he himself was 
meant, referring thfe allusion to himself G/r.; 
to regard as, bu dan ^drd-bar dgdnS'pa to 
treat one like a son Dzl ; to remember, to 
think of, to devise, mna-ris-kyi ydul-bya-la 
remembering those of Nari that were to 
be converted, thinking of the conversion 
of Nari Glr.\ also with pyir Pth.; nd-la 
fugs'brtse-bar dgons-hig rem^piber me gra- 
ciously, frq. ; go in a similar manner: to 
hear graciously, to take a kind interest, 
share, or concern in, to interest one's self 
for, to try to promote; so our Lama ex- 
plamedthe passage Glr. 101, 9: sans-rgyds- 
kjfi Utdn-fa-la dgdns-nas ^ batdn-pa ^il- 
hai jpyir bsdm-blo btdn-nas; to intend, to 
purpose, with the termin. of the inf., frq., 
fugS'kyis ma dgons-so he did not intend, 
he had no mind Pth. — 2. to die,>77z^8- 
kyi dgdnS'dtiS'kyi mcdd^pa btstcg Glr. is 
stated to mean : he instituted sacrifices for 
the remembrance of his grandfather's death; 
and so similarly in other passages. 

ILsbst, also fugs'dgonsy 1. the act of 
thinking, meditating, pondering, fugs-dgdns 
yton-ba Mil, to meditate; thought, rgydl^ 
poi fugs'kyi dgdns-pa-la ^gdn-du pyiri 
mydmrpa lit. in the king's 'mind-thoughts' 
was thought: where shall I go? Glr.; mean- 
ing, sense, esp. the sense of sacred words 
or writings, therefore dgdm-pa ^grd-ba to 
explain that sense, dgonB^^ril, dgons-bgrdl 
commentary; a will, a wish, rgydl-poi (or 
-pas) dgom-pa bkin-du bsgrvh nks-ao I am 
able to fulfil your majesty's wish Dzl."^ 
skyonrbai dgom-pa-tan Glr. 104, poetically, 
one having the desire of protecting, one 
wishing to protect. — 2. soul, dgdns-pa 
mya-ndn-las ^ddsso his soul quitted (the 
abode of) misery. — 3. permission 6'., W., 
*g&n'pa zurwa* to beg leave, to ask per- 
mission, ^gdn-pa tdn-wa*y resp. *ndn'Wa* 
to give permission, in Sik. also: to grant 
admission; but gen. it is used for leave of 

^5fj^'q' dgds^a 

at)sence, and *&J-Za gdii-^og jhurl son* C. 
signifies : he has been dismissed, turned out 
rg^-n- dgod-pa 1. to laugh, ffZn; gen. in 

^ ' ' such expressions as the following 
^go'-dhd (lit. bro) yim-pa* C. to make 
one's self ridiculous, a laughing-stock, also 
Glr.; *fiab-gdd cd-de* W. to set up a loud 
laugh, to burst out into laughter; dgod-bdg 
a jest, joke Sch.^ cf, bgdd-pa. — 2. v. 
j^^^ dgdn-pa 1. a solitary place ; desert, 

' '' wilderness, dgdn-pai ynas a deso- 
late place or region Stg. ; dgon^un a sandy 
desert, sands Sch. (Zam. ^I^p^ and dgon- 
pai-^X!^ forest). — 2. hermitage. — 3. 
monastery, frq.; dgdn-pa-pa 1. a man 
dwelling in a desert, a hermit. 2. a man 
dwelling in a monastery, a monk; dgon- 
pa-ma fem. 
-gi|i-,q. dgds-pa I. vb. implying necessity, 

' "^ as well as want: to be necessary, 
to be obliged or compelled; to want, to stand 
in need of; also where we use 'ought' ; it is 
gen. used with the verbal root or with the 
termin. of the inf. present, byed dgos^ but 
sometimes also of the inf. future or perfect, 
e.g. rin-po-cea brtsigs dgds-na rin-po-ce 
mid- pas sd-las by a dgos though it ought 
to have been built of precious stones, yet 
for want of such, it will have to be con- 
structed of earth DzL — la gen. denotes 
the person standing in need of a thing, e.g. 
nd-la dgos I want, I stand in need of, but 
it also refers to the object for which a 
thing is wanted: rgya-ydr-du ^rd-ba-la 
^ser dgos -pa yin for a journey to India 
gold is wanted (required) ; in such a case 
the termin. may also be used : ci zig- tu 
dgos, for what purpose is it wanted? zas 
za ma dgos I did not want to eat MU.; 
dgos-pai diis-su blans they took them when 
they wanted them Glr. ; bz^ns via dgos he 
was not obliged to erect . . . Glr. — In 
commanding, the word is used to para- 
phrase the imperative of a verb: ^dn-bar 
dgos come! in entreating, the respectful 
term is chosen: Jbyon dgos Mil., or in W.: 
*skyod dgos iu* 'you must come, pray!' = 


^q- dffyUa 

q^Tj^^'Cr bgad-pa 

please, do come! Jirid dgds-pai ysdl-ba, or 
zu-ba^ a request to be taken along with (by 
another person) Mil. C, : to wish, Ki/g' ^e^a 
^di na go-pa yin I wish you to know thisL^. 

II. sbst. necessity, want, use, purpose 
{W, dgds-hj pronounced V^^W*)> ^«^" 
po Jtsol dgds-pa byun we have been under 
the necessity of looking for you a long time 
M7.; nd'la yyui dgds-pa med I have no 
use for that turkois, I do not want it M7. ; 
^^tifi'la gd-^e pi-la* W. for future use; 
dgds'pai Mn-baa as it is rather useless; 
dgds-pa bii pyir for what purpose? frq. 

ni. adj. (C. also ""go-gyu*, and *5ro*, 
W. *g6-he*, as in 11.), necessary, due, need- 
ful, useful, med kyan dgos-pai Kral-bsdud a 
tax necessarily to be paid, unrelentingly 
exacted Mil.; rdn^la dgds-pai dcdUba the 
portion due to you Mil. ; dgds^ai bsldb-bya 
useful doctrines Glr.; dgds-pa yin or yod 
B. and 6', *gMes yod^ W. it is requisite; 
dgas(-pa) med B., *g^-gyu men'^ C, ''gd^e 
man* or *m€d* W., it is unnecessary, unfit, 
not wwited; mi- dgds-pa useless, noxlous, 
mi-dgds-pai prormhi pernicious witchcraft 
Ptk.\ dgos-byid useful, don dgos-byid H^dug 
what there is in it of useful contents Ml; 
dgos-^ddd wishes and wants, dgos-ddd J>yun- 
bai dpal a treasure out of which all wishes 
and wants come, i.e. are satisfied Glr.; 
dgos-Jldd nags-fsdl a forest for wishes, i.e. 
a forest which grants every wish; dgos-Jbdd 
necessary expenses Cs. 

rqj-q- dgy^'ba to bend, to be curving or 
"^ crooked; dbyibs dgyi-ba stooping, 

cringing, ducking S.g. 

-^p^^ dgy^r-ba, glu dgy^ba for glu Un- 
■^ pa to sing, chant, expression of the 

Bonpas; the word is also pronounced 


^Qf q* dgyil-ba Sch. = sgyiUba. 

-^k-j.^. dgyh-pa, resp. for dgd-ba, to re- 
'^ joice, to be glad; often with ftigs: 
rgydl-poi (or -po) fugs dgyes the king re- 
joiced; with la (to rejoice) at or in, (to be 
glad) of; to please, to be pleased, to choose, 
id-bo Jbydn-pa-la fugs-dgyes-par Jtug it 

seems the lord is pleased to walk 06*.; 
mi dgy^-te sorrowful, sad, discouraged, 
dejected; angry, indignant; cf. dgd-ba. 
^N%r*rP,e^q' %^-«w Jtig-pa to bend, 

•^ ^ N3 ' to double down Sck, v. 
dgy^a. • 

sqr dgra, tdso dgrd-boy Ssk. jm 1. enemy, 

''^ foe, sddti-bai dgra the hating enemy, 
(opp. to bydms-pai jrny^)^ frq. used of 
imaginary hostile powers, that are to be 
attacked and withstood only by witchcraft; 
dgra ynyen med there is no difference be- 
tween friend and enemy = no such thing 
exists (viz in the golden age); dgrar^^r^ 
ba to become an enemy (to one) Tarr^ 
dgra by^d-pa^ dgrd-ru Iddn-bay Idn-ba to act 
in a hostile manner, la^ against ; dgrasLdn-ba, 
causative form, to make a person one's ene- 
my S.g. ; dgrar sim-pa^^dzinrpa to look upon 
one as an enemy, to take him for an enemy; 
dgrar h^-pa id.; dgrd-bbdm-pa Arhant, 
Arhat, the most perfect Buddhist saint 
(Ssk. ^1^ venerable; the Buddhists, how- 
ever, explain it as a compound of ari enemy 
and han to extirpate, he who has extir- 
pated the enemies i.e. the passions Bum, 
I. 295, n. 287. Kopp. I. 400). Also dgra 
bgegs ^dul-ba Glr. is interpreted as refer- 
ring to the subduing of spiritual enemies. 
— snd-dgrd a former foe, dd-dgra a pre- 
sent foe, pyi-dgra a future foe Cs.; pyi- 
dgra prob. also a foreign enemy. — ^a- 
dgra a mortal, deadly enemy Cs. — dgrd- 
ca weapon, arms Wdn.y dgrd-sta battle- 
axe; dgrd-lha v. Iha. — 2. In W. also 
punishment, "Kd-la da pog son* he was pun- 
ished; also for any self- incurred misfor- 
tune: *lcyddrla da pog yin* you will draw 
upon yourself trouble, fatal consequences. 

^Op^^ dgrdm-pa v. ^im^a. 

^^fc'^ dgrdn-ba v. ^grdn-ba. 

ffSnOf q* dgrdl-ba v. ^rdl-ba. 

ncmrzX ^^"P^ ^*' ^^^^^^ form ior^egs- 
' ' pa. 

qrTT^'q* bgdd-pa to laugh Dzl, c£ dgdd-fo. 

^^|$|CI hgam-pa 

^^ hffrd'ba 


Cppi'^ bgcmi'^a v. ^dni-pa, 

q^jqi^ bgegs l.^^^^'^s, hindrance, obstruc- 
' ' tion, seldom. — 2. an evil spirit, 
demon, devil, like ydon\ bgegs-kyi rgydl-po 
U-nd-ycC-ka Mih frq. {Ssk. fquv^jifc a re- 
mover, of obstacles; the godGaneshaetc.). 
q£(fq'bg6-ba 1. vb. 1. to put on clothes 

' etc., pf., imp. bgos; Iham rtdg-tu 
bgos always wear shoes S.g.; esp. to put 
on armour. — 2. v. under bgod-pa. 

n. sbst. clothes, clothing, bgd-ba dan 
hzd-ba food and clothes DzL 
iX^ZV bgdd-pa (bgog-pa Sch. is perh. a 

' provincialism) pf., imp. bgos, fut. 
bgo; W. inf. *g6-de*] imp. *go8 fdn* to di- 
vide, nor an inheritance; to divide in cipher- 
ing, grans a number; to distribute, sas-sas- 
m into shares, mi-^mams'-la to or amongst 
people Dd. 

Comp. bgod'-byid divisor Wdk.y and ac- 
cordingly also bgo^d dividend. — bgo-skdl 
1. share, lot, B. and col 2. the doctrine 
of strict retribution Thgr. frq. — ""go-Uan* 
W, sharer, partaker, heir, joint-heir, — bgo- 
Ud = bgoskdly bgo-bsd by id-pa to distri- 
bute, allot, apportion, ncyr the property 
Thgy.y la among Stg. 
OTwrq* bg&mrpay pf. bgams Sch.^ to walk, 

' to step, to stride, gdm-pa bgdm- 

pa Lex. to make steps; Jem pa4a bgdm- 
pa to step over the threshold; bgom ^rd- 
ba to pace, to walk slowly; bgoms fvinpa 
to begin to walk (?) &ch, 

^Pfe' bgoTy supine of bgd-ba. 

^^f^^ bgdr-ba, Cs. = ^dr-ba. 

OTir'n* bgydn-ba^ ace. to Zam, = brgydn- 

^ bay V. rgydn-ba. 
S^^' bgyi-iay eleg. for byd-bay 1. fut. of 

^ bgyid-pa. — 2. sbst. action, deed. 
;^-q- bgyid-pay pf. bgyi^y fut. bgyiy imp. 
9y^y ®J®g* for byed-pa 1. to make, 
tomanufachire; ^^ zer-baiyzttgs the images 
regarding to which there had been said*, 
'make them!' i.e. the bespoken, ordered 
images Glr.; to do, to act, to perform, las 

bgyid-pa to do a work, bkd bzin-du bgyio 
according to the word will be acted DzL; 
nye-ynds bgyid-pa to act the disciple = to 
be a disciple DzL; mi-la yndd-^a bgyis I 
have hurt the man, I have done him harm 
DzL; bu ydd'par gyis sig make, bring it 
about, that a child be (bom)! DzL; rgydU 
bu m^i h&r-ba gyis Ug see that yo do not 
let the prince escape Pth. (ba for bar in 
the more careless popular style). — 2. to 
say, zes bgyis so he said Dzlr^ ies bgyi-ba 
the so called DzL 
nZTlC'fl' bgrdn-bay pf. bgranSy tO number, 

^ count, calculate bsddr-nams-kyi fsad 

the amount of merits Glr, ; bgrdn-bya what 
may be numbered, numerable; bgrdn^bar 
mi byd-btty bgrdn-du midrpay bgran-yds in- 
numjerable; bgran-pren rosary, beads G/r., 
dso the garland of human skulls, often 
seen as an attribute of terrible deities. 
qzqiC'n' bgrdd'pa 1. to open wide, mig 

^ ' bgrdd'pa to stare, goggle, Ka bgrdd- 
pa to gape (?/r., Cs.; rkdn-pa to part the 
legs wide, to straddle, cf. bsgrddrpa. — 2. 
to scratch ScL (spelled more corr. ^brdd- 
OTir'n* bgi*un-ba^ pf. bgruns to cause to 

nS deposit, 'to strain, to depurate Cs,, 
e.g. 'i'nydg-Tna impure water Lex.. 
qcnr'n* bgrud-pay pf. bgrus, fut. bgtniy to 

>d ' clear from the husks, to husk, to 
shell, bgrus-pai Jbras Lex. husked rice, 
nqtH' bgrS'ba, pf. bgrSs, resp. to grow Old, 

^ often with an additional sku-nas in 
years (v. rui) DzL; bgres-^*gyiid weakness 
of old age, infirmity Pth. : bgrh-pOy in W. 
pronounced *ri(s)'po*y an old man, a man 
gray with age, hoary; *ri(s)'m(^ fem. 
q^jr-g- bgren-bay occasionally for 1. sgr^A- 

^ ba. 2. bgrdn-ba. 

^^lHJ(3rCI' bgr&n-pa, Sch. = bkrevrpa. 

q^q. bgrd'bay pf. bgros (resp. bka-bgrds 
^ mdzdd'pa Pth.) to argue, discuss, 
deliberate, consider; the subject discussed 
is gen. a direct quotation: ciipyir ^di-Uar 
gyur eel bgrds-nas to converse on the cause 
of the present state of things DzL ; zes pan- 



q^^'q* bg^rdii-ba 

$j9f Vigo 

(sun-du bffrds-nas thus declaring their opi- 
DiODS to one another Tar,; to ask advice, 
H-ltar bya ies bgrds-nas asking what they 
shoald do Dzl ; tO resolve, decide, byd-bar 
to do 2)2/.; bgro-glen byed-pa to dispute, 
to debate Lex, 

S^^^' bgrd/i'ba Tar, = bgrdn-ba tO COUnt 

.^. bgrod 1. the wall(, gait, mode of walk- 
'^ ' ing. — 2. symbol, num.: 2. 

nifSr'a" bgt'od-pa to wallc, bgi^dd^la pan this 
^ ' assists in learning to walk Lt, ; 
to go, wander, lam bgrdd-^a to travel over 
Glr.; to get through, Uydd-kyis bgi'dd'pai 
skabs med run although until now you have 
not been able to get to this place Mil,; 
cu bgrdd'par dkd-ba a river difficult to 
cross; nyi-ma-lho-^'dd the sun's going to 
the south, in the winter half-year, the sun's 
south declination, byan-bgrod, north decli- 
nation, bgi*dddus ynyis S,g, both declina- 
tions; btid-med'la bgrod- pa to lie with a 
woman Schr.y Cs, 

^^5[pi'^ bgrds^a v. bgrd-ba, 

^mx: ^'^«^ n. of a noted crafty vizier of 
' the king Srontsangampo Glf\ 

»ZM'fl' ^o'' " ^ (col. ""gar - m*) smith, 

' mgdr-bai bzo smith's work; ^gdr- 

zo co-ce* W, to forge; mgdr^lcan^ mg&r^sa 

smithy; j-ser-mgdr gold-smith Cs, 

jjqnj' "ff^^l JJIW, jaw-bone, ya-mgdl the up- 

' per, ma-mgdl the lower jaw-bone; 

mgal'Cdg a broken jaw-bone, mgal-bud a 

dislocated jaw-bone Cs, 

gmpj'n' ^^'-p«> also ^dl'pa a billet of 

' wood; mgal-dum 1. a large piece 

of wood split or cut, 2. a piece of wood 

half-burnt W., C; *gal - do, gal tsig* W,, 

*gal'rd* C, id.; ^gal-vie* a burning piece 

of wood, a fire*brand; torch, consisting of 

long chips or thin billets of wood; mgal- 

mSi Jidr-lo a circle of light produced by 

whirling round a fire-brand. 

S^n* ^^-^ to rejoice, to be glad, joyful, 

nJ content; mgu-nas delighted Mil,, 

Tar,; mgu-bai Ian ma byun he did not 

receive a gratifying, satisfactory answer 

Tar, 17, 27; fams-^dd byin yan mgMtts 
med he is never content though every thing 
be given him Mil,; mgu-bar by^d-pa, W,: 
*gu cug-ce'^y to exhilarate, to gladden, to 
make content; dga-mgu-ba, dga-mgu-rdn- 
ba are intensive verbs; mgur «= mgu-bar, 
»m^' tiu^r {Ssk, nr^) resp. 1. throat, neck, 
nJ gyu mgui^du ptd-nas presenting (the 
great teacher) with a turkois for his neck 
Ma. — 2. voice, mgur snydn-pa a sweet, 
haimonious, voice Cs. — 3. (coL *giir^mcf) 
song, air, melody, hence a religious song is 
always designated by the respectful word 
mgur (not by glu), although the term in 
itself has no immediate reference to it 
mgur^-du) ysurl-ba, bi^s-pa resp. for glu 
Un^a to sing a song; Sch,: mgwr fenrpa 
id. — m^gur-Jbv/m a hundred thousand Songs, 
title of the Legends of Milaraspa, which 
are richly interwoven with songs. — ScL : 
mgur bsdl-ba to clear the throat, to hawk, 
to hem; ^-boi mgur 'by-water', a tribu- 
tary, a subsidiary stream (?). 


mgur4ha the god of hunting with 
the Shamans Sch. 

s^^p;vq') '^K-p^^) &^- v^ i. neck, 

nJ throat, mgul-du Jlogs-pa to tie, 

fasten to one's neck e.g. magic objects; 
rdn^ mgul'pa ybdd-pa to cut one's own 
throat Dzl,; mgiil-pa sub his throat is 
stopped, choked Mng,; mgtU('paynas ^dzin^ 
/>«, oJ^f^-bcLt to seize by the throat, some- 
times also used for mgiU-pornas Jcyitd-pa 
to fall on a person's neck, to embrace. — 
mgul-nad disease of the throat, SOre threat 

— mgtd'ci/is dkdr-po a white neck-cloth 
l^h, — mguJrddr or dpa-ddr a silk doth 
tied round the neck as a badge of honour. 

— 2. the shoulder of a mountain Mil,, 
yyon-mgul-na on the left; slope. 

^J^K^' mgeu = 5^3fc' vigou Cs. v. vigo. 

^t^ mgo (Ssk. t^).resp. dbu 1. head, 
' *gd'la zug rag* I have a headache, 
a pain in my head W.; *mgo Jioi^ my head 
turns, I feel dizzy, I am getting confused, 
perplexed; mgo skdr-ba to cheat, swindle, 
deceive; mi -mgo ma skor do not cheat 






people! Mil.; mgo dgu^a^ dgiir-ba y.dgu' 
buy mgo Jdm-pa v. Jtdm-pa; mgor jdg-pa 
to carry on the head Sch ; *go yug-be* W, 
to shake one's head, ""kug tdn-c^ W. to 
nod with the head, either as a sign of af- 
firmalicm, or of beckoning to a person; 
^kyog-kydg bd-te* to wave the head from 
one side to the other, expressive of re- 
flection. — 2. summit, height, top, H-mgo 
Ud'bas yyogs Mil. the hill-tops were co- 
vered with snow. — 3. first place, principal 
part, mgo byidrpa to lead, to command, to 
be at the head Glr,\ to educate cf. dbu 
mdzdd'pa; to inspect, look after, super- 
intend, control, bu-^mo iig-gis mgo byed-pai 
mi mdn-po a number of (labouring) people 
looked after by a girl (the farmer s daugh- 
ter) Mil. ; *do8 gd hd-le^ W. to preside in a 
consultation. — 4. beginning, W.^ *go-ma*\ 
gr6$'mgo the beginning of a consultation; 
mgo ^dzug-pa to begin; bod sdug-pai mgo 
^dzugs that was the beginning of the mis- 
fortunes of Tibet Jl/o; brtdn-^gyi skyid-mgo 
d^nas fstigs with this my constant good- 
fortune commenced MU.; lo-mgo^la at the 
beginning of the year Mil.; mgd-nas from 
the beginning DzL — 5. Gram. : a super- 
scribed r, ly 8 e.g. rd-mgoi /a, ;f[, A with r 

superscribed ; dS-^mams basptd sd-mgoi kao 
these are the words beginning with bsk. 

Comp. and deriv. Tngo-kldd brain Cs. 

— mgo^yil col. crown of the head, ver- 
tex. — *gO'kdr*y or *gar* Ld. a tight un- 
der-garment, drawn over the head when 
put on, (Ssk. ^UM [ ^^ Hd. nfipc^ir) some- 
thing like a shirt, but not in general use. 

— mgO'skdr imposture, deceit, bdyd-kyi mgo- 
skdr de na mi ^dod I detest these diabo- 
lical tricks Mil, — mgoskyd a gray head, 
mgo-skyd^tan a gray-headed person Cs. — 
""go-ky&n* C, TT., protector, patron, = mgo- 
^dren. — mgo-lcra scald, scald-head Sch. — 
mgo-mUrigS'ban obstinate, pertinacious, stub- 
born, esp. in buying and bartering, selfish, 
bargaining, haggling: *go i<xg cd-de* W. to 
have these qualities. — mgorrgydn head- 
ornament — mgo^an having a head, *w?- 

go-ban* having a man's head, such as Eng- 
lish rupees and other coins (bearing the 
image of a head) W. — *gO'UrT 6'., W. 
= go-^drin. — ^go-Q^cd^ a blow or knock 
on the head Ld. — mgo-Udgs little shoots, 
sprouts, branches Sch. — mgo-M = mgo- 
rgydn. — mgo-mjtig beginning and end 
(head and tail), sin ^dii mgo mjug gan yin- 
pa bye-brag pyes Mg find out which is the 
upper and which the lower end of this 
piece of wood Dzl. — mgo-jdh Cs.: *an ob- 
long head.' — mgo^hi bare headed. — mgo- 
nyag Cs.: 'a compressed, contracted head'. 
*gO'nyt'pa* C. two-headed, double-tongued; 
a double-dealer, backbiter. — mgosnydms 
indifferent, unconcerned. — ^gor-tin fsdn- 
ma* from hiead to heel, the whole from top 
to toe, =« ^gO'lttS'^a-fsan*. — mgo-^ddn = 
mgo-^drhiy with byed^a ==■ mgo JUm^a to 
bring or draw forth, to raise, to lift up a 
person's head, gen. with ra/l, one's own 
head, used in the sense of: to be self-de- 
pendent, one's own master, to come off well, 
to be uppermost Mil.; mgo Jon-pa id. — 
mgo-^drht protector, patron, used frq. in 
letters as a complimentary title. — vigo- 
nag po. for man Olr. — mgo-ndd headache. 
— *g6-bu* W. first-bom. — mgd-ma 1. adj. 
first, gral-mgo-ma first in order, the first 
in a row or line of persons Mil. 2. sbst. 
the beginning W., *go-ma tsug-ce* to begin. 
3. adv. in the beginning, at first W. — mgo- 
fs&m ^stitched at the head' denoting a book 
which is so stitched, that the lines run 
parallel to the back, whilst one stitched 
in our way is called rtaymgd-ma. — mgo- 
yliiny col. *gog-iun* crown of the head. — 
m^ou^ mgeu a small head Cs. — mgo-y&r 
= fsd-bai nod Ts. — Tngo-yydgs a covering 
for the head (hat, cap etc.). — Tngo-ril 1. 
a round head. 2. cattle without horns W. — 
mgo-r^g for mgo bregs-pa one that has his 
head shaved, a monk; mgo-rig btsun-ma Lt. 
monks and nuns, or: nuns that have their 
heads shaved. — *go-lus-ca-fsdn* a com- 
plete suit of clothes, *gor-tih-fsdh-mo^ id.; 
*go lus sum kon-de* W. to furnish a person 
with new clothes; *go lus spd-ce* W. to 


«. ;^ . i(>c ^' 


^9f&'CI' mgdn^o 

give one's own clothes to a person (e.g. 
when a king honours any body by array- 
ing him in splendid garments). — mgch-Ub 
a flat head Cs. — ffo^<^ff) resp. u-^og cover, 
of a copy-book etc. 6s. — mgo-mn n. of 
a disease Lt 

$I^W^ ^^^^"P^' '^^' 'TT^ protector, pa- 
'' tron; principal, master, lord; tutelar 
god; ^ro-mgdn protector of beings; skyabs- 
mffdn V. sh/abs; Hi jryir nai mgon mi byed 
why do you not assist me? DzL; Ihaiy 
bdud'kyiy yhin-rjei 7ngdn-po the principal 
of the gods, of the devils, the lord of death 
Cs,; mgdn-po mi^dd-pa, stdd-pa, rbdd-pa to 
honour, to praise, the tutelar god, to stir 
up or urge him to aid one's cause. The 
special tutelar god of Tibet, called mgdn- 
po by preference, isAwalokite^ara,Spyan- 
ras-/zigs; ^ig-rten -mgdn-po, or mi-mjed- 
hn-gi mgdnrpo lord of the world, Jig-rten 
ysum-gyi mgdn-po (Hindi : triloknath), lord 
or ruler of the three worlds, an epithet 
1. of Buddha, 2. of Awalokite^wara, 3. of 
the Dharma-Raja of Bhotan. 

Comp. mgon mam many patrons or 
defenders of religion; many small pyrami- 
dical sacred buildings Cs. — mgon-m^d 
unprotected, mgon-med-zassbgin, IV^HtlM- 
igf?, n. of a certain house-owner in Bud- 
dha's time, often mentioned in legends. 

^^I^i^sTq- ^py^«-p«5 ^^ "gy^g-po* quick, 

^ ' speedy, swift; mgydgs-par (sq\- 

dom. mgydgs-la Mil.) adv. quickly, speedily, 
soon; *gyog-riH* W, speedy, hasty, rash, 
*ggog-ldm* W,y 6'., a straight, short way, 
a short cut; rkan-mgydgs v. rkan, — sm- 
mgydgSj pronounced *sun-ggdg(8)* W., (lit. 
'who is quick?') a race, a racing or run- 
^q^SY "f^^'P^^ (Ssk. iS\^i) 1. neck, 

'^ ^ mgrin rin-ba, a long neck, mgrin 
fun-ba a short neck Lt ; mgrin-snon blue- 
necked, an epithet of gods. — 2. throat, 
as passage or organ of the voice, mgHn 
ycig-tu (to call as) with one voice, frq.; 
mgrin-bzdn a loud voice Cs. 

d^9f0r ^^'*^ '^^ ^^^^9 banquet, enter^ 
'^' tainment, mgron ytdrl-ba, resp. sku- 

m>gi*6n Jbul-ba to entertain; *il6n-tah-Uaff 
W, host, entertainer; mgrdn-la Jbod-pa, 
resp. mgrdn-du spyan- ^drin-pa, to invite 
to an entertainment ; mgrdn-du jmyh-ba to 
treat, to regale DzL; mgrdn-du ^d-baio 
go to an entertainment, a party Dzl. (cf. 
^rdn-du ^d-ba to go abroad); za^-^mgrdn 
an entertainment consisting in eating; }a- 
mgrdn a tea-party; lan-mgrdn a treatment 
with beer or wine Cs. 

QTfor o^^ 1* obstruction, stoppage, esp. in 
' ' comp. : yi-^a-Qgdg want of appetite; 
ycin-^dg, also -dgag, strangury. — 2. a 
place or spot that has to be passed by all 
that proceed to a certain point, *zdm-pe 
gdg-iu gug-na kt/m-ma^dzin fub* €. the thief 
may be stopped, if you are on the watch 
in the thoroughfare of the bridge; ri-bo 
dpal-Jbdr-gyi ^ag the place on the Palbdr 
mountain, where there is the only passage 
Mil.; sgo-^gdg the door of the house, be- 
cause through it all that enter or leave 
have to pass; Ua-^dg the mouth, through 
which every thing must pass that is eaten; 
fig. : far-ldm-gyi ptad-^gug, the main point 
for obtaining salvation; ^ag ycig-tu driU 
ba to unite, to be concentrated in one 
point Mil. 

Qoprq- cg^^g-po' l. vb, (cf. ^egs-pa) to 
' ' stop,tocease,tobeatastand-sUll; 
mostly in the perfect form ^ags; ddn-Ha 
^gags the appetite is gone Mil; it is also 
used of the passions having been sup- 
pressed, having ceased Mil. — 2. sbst 
door-keeper, v. sgo-^dg sub ^gcig, 

OF}C,\gan v. 7yan. 

0^^'^' ^dnspa difficult, troublesomo &*A. 

OPlC'CSf ) oS^««(-i^) ^^^ burden of an of- 
' fice, business, commission, ^^gcm 

J^'ur-ba to bear such a burden, bdeur-ba 

to impose it on a person. 

Qcnn' o?^ = mfd-ma, mjug-ma^ the end, 
' of a bench, a garment etc MiLnL\ 

as postpos. c.genit. after, behind C. 

qqiq-q- cg^b-pa l. ScL: to take care, to 
•^ be cautious; orderiy, decent — 2. 


W, to suffice, *m% gdb'ce rned^ the work- 
men will not suffice. 

Qonrfl' c&^'^'P^y pf« i7«w« Sch., bgams 
' Ci., fat. bgairiy imp. gorm 1. to 

put, or rather throw, into the mouth, e.g. 
grains of wheat, a rooutbfal of meal, as 
Tibetans use to do; pye iur-migo re Uam 
^ams 1 took a small spoonful of meal Mil 
— 2. to try, bgdm-vw I will try him, 1 
shall put him to the proof DzL; fsdd ^dm- 
pa id. Lex, — 3. W. to threaten, to menace. 

(OTr o9^ CoJ7«-*o t'«-0 some, a few, sev- 
' oral, Uyi-ra-ba ^a some huntsmen 
MUr^ yzdn-pa ^a iig some young men 
ifi/.; f(h^dn ^a some of them Mil,; ^go- 
re = ^a ^ig Pih,\ gdUte ndn-gyis ^a kig 
bkdg-na if 1 appoint some by a peremp- 
tory decree DzL; skabs ^ar in some cases; 
Ian ^a {hg) sometimes, now and then 
(opp. to frequently, as well as to once, one 
time); res^a 1. sometimes. 2. col. for some, 
several; bar ^a sometimes; Ian ^a — Ian 
o^a, res ^a — res ^a^ bar ^a — har-^a at 
one time — at another time, some — others; 
^a tsam a few, few Thgy,: ^ga sds some, 
part (of them) Mil; ^a yah followed by 
a negation: no, no one, not any, none. 
QaiQ- ^a Glr,y also ^ga - ti n. of a place 
' ' in the east of Tibet. 

flf^' ^ar^ terrain, of ^a, 

Qfwrq* ^dr-ba 1. sbst. ( W. also ^gdr-r^^ 
' Ts. *^o,r^ cS^V*) masc. ^dr-po, fem. 
^ar-mo, a mixed breed of cattle, of a 
tndzo (q.v.j and a common cow, or a ball 
and a mdzd-Tno, — 2. vb. v. sub dgdr-ba, 

QfTW'^$r ^dl'dum v. mgaL 

gnprq* ^dJrhay c. las or dahj to be in op- 
' position or contradiction to, as: 
rtdg-pa dan dnos-po ynyis ^dUba yin the 
ideas of /perpetuity' and of 'thing' are con- 
tradictory; commonly of persons: to coun- 
teract, to act in opposition to, to transgress, 
violate, infringe, break, a promise, law, duty; 
yid dan mi ^dlr-bar DzLy resp. fugs dan 
ftd^aliar^ (he gives them) to their wish, 
to their heart's content; bka bzin-du mi 

OppK^'q' ,£fu^(s)-pa 

^a]rbar bgyio I shall act faithfully accord- 
ing to the order DzL; *gal mi dug* W» he 
has not committed anything, he is inno- 
cent; Iha or klu dun ^al-ba not to hon- 
our a Lha or Lu according to duty. 

Comp. ^al'-rkyen mishap, untoward 
accident, impediment (opp. to mtun-rkyen) ; 
^gal-rkyen sel-ba, or mid-par byed-pa^ or 
zlog-pa to avert, to remove such accidents 
or impediments. — ^al-JcM transgression, 
^al-Jh^ul spans 'te^ conscientiously; *gal- 
iiil sd-wa* to make amends, to atone for 
a transgression. — ^gal-mfun-^es-pa Chr. 
Proty the knowledge of what is conform- 
able or contrary to the divine law, meant 
to express our 'conscience'; the term was 
formed after the Tibetan phrase: dge mi- 
dgi ses'pay or rig-pa, knowledge of what 
is virtue and what is vice; cf. however sis- 
bhin, ^'n&ffba, and byas-cos, — ^dl-borpo 
Cs,y ogdl-po Sch.y a transgressor. — o?^~ 
fydbs Cs. a great fault, a crime: ^gal-fsdbs- 
^an faulty, criminal, a criminal (?). 

Qfrorq- c9^-P^> pf- ff^ (cf cff^'P^^) to 
' be cleft or split, of rocks etc.; to 

chap, of the skin, the lips; to break open, 
to burst, of a bag etc., /•« Ind-ru into five 
rents, in five places; to crack, to break or 
burst asunder, of a vessel, the heart, a fruit, 
bdiin-du into seven pieces; sih-gi rigs -la 
byds-na ni ^as if it be made o£wood, it^ 
will split, crack G/r.^-j^-^^J^N-^^l-aV 

Qnr^cc^' ogu-mdd gun-stock, (spellmg not 
nJ ^ certain) v. sgum-mdd. 

Opr^' jgit-ba^ incorr. for rrvgu-ba, 
Qf^(^' oS^(«) a mesh W. 

nJ '^ imp. Rug 1. (cf kug) to bend, 

to make crooked, fnya ^ugs-pa C. to bend, 
bow, stoop; m/go ^ffugs-^ugs-par sdh-ho he 
went ofiF bowed down, crestfallen. — 2. 
to gather, to cause a gathering, rndg-tu of 
matter, pus, to suppurate. — 3. to call, to 
summon, to send for, e.g. the gardener DzL^ 


^^'^' o?«^*:pa 


«^'^ o?«-*« 

one's daughters DzZ.; to conjure up, ghosts^ 
des Mag ^itg-par ^gyiiT-ro by this (charm) 
I may be conjured up; hh ndn-^u Hug-la 
calling the spirit back into its inner do- 
main, abstracting the mind from the ex- 
ternal world. — 4. to draw back, to cause 
to return, to convey back MU.^ C, 
Qatr-q- o9^d-pa, p£ Sfud, = rgud-paf gud- 

xj ' du bcug pa to ruin, to reduce to 
an extremity Schr. ; rtsa byih-gud dal Med, 
a pulse slow and sinking. 
Opra-q- off^fn^a 1. pf. gum, ^ffmu eleg. 

nT to die. — 2. pf. bhim, fut dkum^ 
imp. 1luifn(i)y to kill, to put to death DzL 
frq. ; to slaughter (butcher), ysdr-du hkum- 
pai ^a, meat of an animal just killed, fresh 
meati>2:/. — 3. to bend, curve, make crooked, 
to contract, v. kum and skuni-pa, 

oppi' ^l neck, v. mgtd, 

Q_jj-— . ^Uha (cf. sgul'ba) to change 
xj place or postur^, to move, shake, 
to be agitated, *ri-gu ddd-pa-la gtd dttg^the 
kid moves in the womb (of the goat); 
^igul-dka (the limb) moves with difficulty 
Med. frq. ; ^l yan ma nus-ao (they) would 
not even stir (from terror) DzL ; to waver, 
tremble, shiver, ^ddr-iin ^ul-ba; sa-^l 
(pronounced *san'gul*) earthquake W.-^-^^^'i 

Qnta(?f)-q- og^ff^-pa pf- *%. f^t. dgag, 
' '^ ^ imp. Kog to hinder, prohibit, 
stop, bddg-gis bkdg-na yan ma fub-kyis 
though I was preventing it, I could not 
(carry, my point) Dzl.\ ma bkdg-ate ndn- 
du btaii he admitted him without impedi- 
ment Dzlr, *kdg'ce med z^-Uan-gyi kcu- 
hd^ a warrant, a permit to traffic without 
hinderance, a pass-bill, and the like TT.; 
to shut, to lock (up), to close, sgo the door 
Gh\j lam the road frq., to close one's nose 
with the hand Pih.\ to retain, keep back 
excretions Med.^ bhan^dgdg pbstruction (cf. 
^a^); *zd'be kdg-te ki* W, his food sticking 
fast he died; to lock up, shut up (things 
for keeping), to pen up (sheep, cattle), 
*kdg''te bdr-ce* W, id ; dgag-dbyi the ending 
of the seclusion, viz, of the monks who 
have to stay in their houses during the 

rainy season Schf.^ Tar, 10, 10, cf. Kopp, I, 
369; to forbid^ dgag-sgriA Sch,: 'to forbid 
and to allow' (?J; gdg-pai sgra^ ^ag-^ig 
a prohibitive particle Gram,\ bkdg-ca byid^- 
pa to forbid, prohibit ScA.; *iPa kdg-b^ 
W, to silence, to hush; dgdg^a a negative, 
a negation; bkdg-^a the negative side Wa*, 

Opr^q' ^^nS'pa, pf. bkah, fut. dgan, 
' imp. Uon 1. to fill, tib-ril fus 

or (seld.) ^laSy or fib-ril-'du cus, or cu, 
(to fill) a tea-pot with water; to soH, smear, 
stain, the bed with blood Glr,; dgdn-dka 
difficult to be filled, not to be satisfied, 
insatiable Stg, — 2. to fulfil (more frq. 
Mn-ba) fugs-ddm Lea^, — 3. giu ^em- 
pa^ mda ^^ns-pa to prepare bow and 
arrows for shooting, frq.; *tu'pag kdn-ce* 
W, to load a gun. 

Qfj^'^' o9^d-pa, Cs, = ^yM-pa. 

Q^iq^q- c5^^*«-p«. p£ b^<^y fut. dgaby imp. 
^ ^ Uob^W, *bkob'), to cover, e.g. 
one's breast with the hand; to cover up, 
Ua an opening, aperture; to spread over 
or on, to set up, to put on, a cover, lid, 
cork, plug etc.; to protect, btsuip-mo mi- 
ma-yin-gyis ^Sssu ^jug-pa to have the 
queen protected by ghosts; to disguise, 
metaph: ^bkdbste* in disguised language, 
euphemistically W,, *kdb'Ce pi-la* in order 
to express it euphemistically. 
q5«;t-jpt- ^hn-pa, ace. to Cs, another form 
^ ' for ^m-pay to kill, to destroy; 
Schr,: kldd-pa ^gems-pa to surprise; to 
overthrow an argument by reason; cf. 
n^gO'^hm Lea:, w.e.; as a partic: stupid 
Schr. ; the few passages, where I met with 
the word, leave its meaning doubtful. 
Q^nj-q' ^il-ba^ pf. bkaly fut. dgal^ imp. 
' ' Uol, 1. to load, to lay on a burden, 
brui Ual dig bkdl-te loaded with a load 
of grain Dzl,\ fig. to put a yoke upon a 
person's neck, byur to bring down misery 
on a person; W, to bring accusations 
against a person, *mi 'ds-pe Ids-ka iig mi 
kig-la kal tdn-na* Ld, if one is accused 
of an unlawful action ; ffral ^H-ia to impose 



<5^^'^' o9<^<^ 


tribute Lejc.; to cemmissiony to charge with, 
to make, appoint, eonatitiite, *mi zig gad- 
p(hla kdl ce^ Ld, to appoint some one to 
be an elder or senior, cf JcdUba, — 2. to 
pat, to place on or over, yduh-ma bkuUha 
a beam placed over it &,g.\ to set or put 
on, e.g. a pot on a trevet; to hang up, go^- 
^el-yddh a stand to hang clothes on; fig. 
^H-bar rtu8-pai fog ^el dgos one must set 
on it the roof of being able to die, i.e. 
one must crown the whole edifice by being 
free from fear of death Mil. 
qSwrq- ^h-pa, pf. bkas^ fut. dgasy imp. 

^' Ho8y trs. to ^ds-pa^ to Split, cleave, 
divide, bkaa-Mn Lex, cleft pr chopped wood ; 
dum-bur (to divide) into pieces Lex,, to 
cut up or open, e.g. a fish, gourd, pump- 
kin, Dzl. 

(Sfy c9^-» ** ^^ ^ ^^"*® figurative appli- 
' cations of the word: dmdg^^o com- 
mander of an army Cs,; mMr-^Oy rdzdn- 
^o commander of a fort 6k; ^o mam a 
sort of fine cloth made of shawl-wool, or 
also: Europe-cloth, i.e. broad cloth =? sa^jr- 
Idd; off<H>^ officer, captain, head-man of a 
village or district, esp. in W.; in a general 
sense : *kon~(fdg jig-ten-gyi gd^a yin* God 
is the ruler of the world; ^kon-idg-gi %an 
g6'pa med^ God is the only and highest 
ruler; ^^-pin* C. rector, director, head- 
master, principal e.g. of a school; ^d-ma 
Zam. beginning, origin, source; ^-Tm Lex. 
^^6-pa; ^go-ydd^ = ^gd-pa Ld,; ^m- in 
the beginning, at first, originally ScA., «€^- 
hai ^or when it began to hail MiLnt 
C^q- ^^dj pf 90s (or ^s), cf. bsgo-ba, 
' 1. to stain, to lose colour; to dirty, 
lully one's self, dd-la with it, nan-sh/ugs 
liiS'la to soil one's self with vomit. — 2. 
to infect, with a disease, ^d^ai nad^ ^^- 
nddy ^d^ai rimSy a contagious or epidemic 
disease, a plague, frq. 
Q^prq- og^-p^^ pf- *%. f^^t. dgogf imp. 
' ' %r 1. to take away forcibly, to 
snatch, tear away, pull out, lisd-ba a root 
Lex.y 90 a tooth Schr,'^ to tear up, eg. a 
floor W.; to peel Sch.; *kdg-te ey&d^ W. 
to rob, plunder frq.; *%.fe layers* Ld, it 

has been robbed. — 2. to take off, a cover, 
a lid. a pot from the fire W. 
QSfpwj'm- ^ogs'pa another form for ^^gs- 

' ' 'pa, to prevent, to avert unfortu- 
nate events, fatal consequences; to suppress, 
the symptoms of a disease by medicine; 
to drive back or away, to expel e.g. spirits, 
ghosts; to repel people that are trying to 
Qafr^-q- ,^(i/i-ia 1 6«. : to bewitch, enchant 

' (?),5ro;?-fta-po, ^dh-po an enchanter, 
sorcerer, gdn-ia-mo enchantress, sorceress 
6^. ; more frq. ^dn-po an evil spirit, demon, 
also fig. demon of concupiscence, of fear, 
of terror Mil; ^gdn-mo fem. — 2. pf. bkon^ 
perh. more corr. sgdii-ba^ spd-sgon-ba Lex, 
to despond. 
QBfjr'jy 69od'pay pf. bgod^ fut. dgod, imp. 

' ' Uod (cf . Icdd-^a), die Latin condere, 
1. to design, to project, to plan Schr. — 2. 
to found, to etablish, to lay out (a town), 
to build (a house) ; hence bkdd-pai rig-byid 
books on architecture Glr.; to manufacture, 
to form, to frame. — ^ 3. to put, to fix, to 
transfer, into a certain state or condition, 
bde(-ba)'la Dzl, bder Lex,^ into a happy 
state, dg€-ba-4a Dzl. into virtue, cds4a Pth 
into the true doctrine, imdm-par ^rdUba^ 
la Dzl. into salvation, mya-ndn^las ^dm- 
pa 'la into delivery from existence DzL; 
tag ' grans to fix a certain time or term 
Schr.; fsad (to determine) the measure or 
size of a thing Schr. — 4. to set, put, or 
place in order, graUpydm bgod-pa jdra as 
the rafters of a roof are placed side by 
side S.jr.; mfar dgdd-pa to add or affix e.g. 
ciphers to a certain number Wdk.; bkdd- 
par mdzes-pd beautiful as to arrangement, 
nicely ordered, (b)rgyan dgdd-pa Lex. .to 
arrange ornaments (tastefully), to decorate, 
adorn, to construct or adjust grammatical 
forms, sentences Zam. — 5. to put down 
in writing, to record, min kd-ba-la to write 
names on a column Ptii.; to compose, draw 
up, write, a narrative etc., frq. ; to mention, 
to insert, in a writing; *ka ko-pa* C. to 
publish, to make known. — 6. to rule, 
to govern Schr.; byol-sdn bkdd-pai rgydl- 


^^^' c^<^-F« 

2)0 yin he is king over all subjugated ani- 
mals Mil, 

The partic. pf. hkod-pa is also sbst.: 
1. plan, ground-plan, draught of a building 
Schr. — 2. delineation, sketch, zin-bkdd 
map. — 3. form, shape, figure Schr. — 4. 
sample, copy, even of one's omti body, e.g. 
when a person multiplies himself by magic 
virtue, = sprul-ba. — 5. building, edifice, 
structure, hkod-pa vidzes the structure (is) 
beautiful Glr, — 6. frame, body, bkdd-pa 
lus id. Mil,; nat bkdd-pa ndm-mUai ran- 
zin my body of an ethereal nature Pth, 

Note, The Lexx. have for bkdd-pa 
alw^ays iin^ putting down, depositing; but 
often it has the signification of 9|[ orderly 
arrangement; as vb. it comes nearest to 
^1^5^. As the meaning of the word is 
almost quite the same as that of xrlKetv 
and condere, it recommends itself as the 
most suitable term for io create', to. call 
into existence, ^god-pa-po for creator, and 
bkod-pa for creature, notions which are 
otherwise foreign to Buddhism. 

qStS^'CJ" cS^^'P^-i ^^- = g&tns-pa^ Sch, also 
= ^ghn-pa^ ^vm-pa, 

q5fjx' o9or 1. v. the following article. — 
' 2. termin. of ^jfo, in the beginning, 
at first Sch, — 3. supine of ^6-ba, 
qa^-q- ^&i*-ba to tarry, linger, loiter, W, 
^ frq. *mdn-po gor son* you stayed 

away very long; *ldm-la gon^ he lingers 
on the way; *mdn'po ma g&r-t^ without 
long delay, = rih-por ma Un-par,, and nh- 
por mi fogs - par B,; de ^or-yzi yin that 
impedes, delays; zld^ba ynyis Jcor (the 
work) lasted two months Glr, 

q9fjaj-q- off<^i'^^^ pf- ffoi 1- to part, to sepa- 
' rate vb.n.; o^o7-iai/ was a hermitage 

Pth,^ ^gdl-po hermit, recluse. — 2. to de- 
viate, err, go wrong or astray; ^6l-sa 1. 
the place where two roads separate. 2. 
error, mistake. 

OTW* ^os n. of a monastery Tar, 
OPj^^' o^^'«-P« V. ^o-ba. 

O.^^R' ^ 

aflW|-q' oh^ff'P^ cf- dtydg-pa, to be soM, 
^ ' spent, expended Cs, 
QCTr -q- Jcy^^-^^^y pf' o53^«^s, to be delayed, 
^ deferred, postponed, pyir ^an-na 
if one defers it; *nyin ^an iag ^gyanjhi- 
p€^ C, to delay again and again ; lo vian- 
po mi ^yan-bar before many years shall 
have passed; dus ^yans Lex, w.e. 
Q§iCQ' cSV^^'^^ !• ^ \'^^ about haugh- 

^ tily, to look down upon, to slight, 
mi-la a person ; also of things : tO despise, 
contemn, neglect them B, and col.: *^yih- 
bhdg jM-pa!^ C, *gyin td-te* W. id.; *gyin- 
can* supercilious, contemptuous. — 2. = 
sgyin-ba Glr,; Mil, — Ul-kyi ^^n-JKar a 
sceptre of crystal, an attribute of gods, in pic- 
tures represented as a plain, unadorned staff. 
Qp]-q- o^w-ia, pf. ^gym, to move quicMy 
^ to and fro, e.g. as lightning, the 
quivering air in a mirage, the motion and 
versatility of the mind etc. 
OPJ^q* o52/wr-ia I. vb., pf. gyur(-to, -pa) 

^ imp. gyur (-cig), cf. sgyur-bay 1. 
to change, to be altered B, and col; mk- 
mams-kyi spy6d-pa ^ffyur the behaviour of 
men changes Ma, ; ^^gyur-bai Zos a change- 
able (and therefore perishable) thing Ci.; 
and ^yvr-du ydd-pa changeable, variable, 
^gyvi^du mid-pa^ ^gyur-rned unchangeable, 
invariable; sometimes to decrease, abate, 
vanish, die away, mfu-stdbs^ ndd-m>ed-pa, 
yzi-tyid ydns-su ^gyifr-ba the total decay of 
strength, health, and esteem (in old age) 
Thgy, ; bddg*gi sems ma gyur^ ma m/dms" 
so my mind has not been altered, nor my 
resolution weakened DzL; also vrith las: 
dddrpa ^di-las ma gyur cig do not depart 
from that belief Mil, (1 have therefore 
availed myself of this word, combined with 
the active (transitive) form sems sgyurrba 
'to change the mind' for expressing the 
(.uxavoalv and fuecavoia of the N. T., 
though the Buddhist is wont to regard the 
mi-gyur-ba as the thing most to be pr&ised 
and desired.) With the termin. it signifies 
to be changed, transformed into, B, and coL; 
hence — 2. to become, to grow, dge-sUn- 
du ^yur-ba^ rgydl-por ^ffyur^-ba to become 

Q^^^' .gyur-ha 

Q^'^' ^er-ba 


a moDk, a king Dzh; skra mfon-mfin-gi 
Ha-ddg-iu gyur-to his hair turned azure 
(sky-blue) Ihl, ; sbriim^par ^iir-ba to get 
with child; bdun-^u ^gyur-ia to reach the 
number of seven DzL (In all these cases 
the more recent writings and the col. lan- 
guage in C. usually have *^dd'Wa*, in W. 
*?a-^e^.) ^yiir-ha is also frq. used in con- 
junction with verbs : yodr-par ^xpir-ha 'to be- 
come being^ i.e. to begin to exist, 'to become 
having,' i.e. to gain possession ; sTdg-lamiltd- 
bar f^gyur-pat dnds-po ^di-dag these acts of 
having become indifferent to life, i.e. acts of 
contempt of death DzL\ nd-bar gyur-na 
jii mfdn-ba tsaTH-gyis nad sds-par ^gvr-ro 
when taken ill, they get well again, as soon 
as they obtain a sight of this Glr.; dan mi 
smrd'bar gyur-to h© became speechless 
Dzl» ) ojywr-ia denoting both the pass, voice, 
and the fut. tense, the context must decide 
in every instance, how it is to be under- 
stood : su iig rgyal^id byed-par ^gyur who 
shall have the government, who shall rule? 
Tar. 21.; de rgydl-por ^yur-bar hh-so they 
knew that this man is made king (for: 
would be made king); Kd-mos Kyod-kyi bu 
bsdd'par gyur~na if your son has been 
killed by me Dzl,\ Ihfod mi-ha zd-bar gyur- 
cig may you be obliged to eat human flesh! 
Dzl,; Hi pyir Icyod ^di-ltar gyur by what 
means have you come into this state? DzL ; 
ya-mtsdn-du (or -par) ^gyur-ba to be sur- 
prised, astonished; with ynds-su: to come 
to a place, to arrive atM7.; ^ddd-pai dnos- 
grvb-tu ^gyitr-ha to be endowed with the 
perfect gift of wishing, viz. of having every 
wish fulfilled; to happen, to take place, to 
•ccur, ya^mtsdn^du ^yur-ba hi yod lit. 
what is there that has wonderfully hap- 
pened, what w'onderfiil things have hap- 
pened? yyd^ar ^gyur-ba to become mov- 
ing, to begin to move. — 3. to be trans- 
Wed, bod^u into Tibetan Tar.; bka-^yur 
the translated word, v. bka; cf. sgyur-ba. 
— 4. joined to numbers it signifies time 
or times, yidrir-pas brgya-^yur ston-^yttr^ 
^ of^^<^ a hundred times, nay a thou- 
sand times more sublime than others DzL\ 

kydd-pas brgya-^yitr^bas Uidg-par bzdn-ba 
yod there are (girls) a hundred times prettier 
than you DzL; ysum-^gyur ltd -bur three 
times as much DzL; de ynyis-^gyur tsam 
iig one twice as large as that MiL 

II. sbst. change, alteration, vicissitude, 
dus biii ^gyur-bas through the change of 
seasons T/igy, — ^gyur^ddj or also ^gyv/r- 
Ktigs singing or humming a tune in a tril- 
ling manner MiL; ^gyur-ltam nya MiL 
perh. a fish swiftly moving to and fro; 
^gyur-rUn bidg-pa to pay money in hand, 
as an earnest that the bargain is not to 
be retracted. — Instead of the imp. gyur^ 
sdg is frq. used. 

q%z:r o^^-*«^ pf- (and imp.?) gyes, to be 
^ divided, e.g. a river that is divided 
into several branches; mam -pa ynyis-su 
(a ray of light divided) into two parts 
DzL; to separate, to part, bem rig ^es dus 
when body and soul part from each other 
MiL; to disperse, of a crowd, with or with- 
out sO'Sdr DzL and elsewh.; of a single 
person: to part, withdraw, go away, *mi' 
fsdg dan ghyc-n^ C. withdrawing from tlie 
crowd; to issue, proceed, spread, d^-dag-las 
gyh'SO they have proceeded from those 
(their ancestors); of a disease: gyin-du 
gyes (opp. to fur-du zug) Med.? 

^^ ^ fut bkye, 1. to divide (trs.), to scat- 
ter, disperse, diffuse, e.g. rays of light; it 
is also used when the neutral form ^ye- 
ba would seem to be more correct; to let 
proceed, spriil-pay an emanation; hence to 
send, a messenger Lex. and Schr.; to dis- 
miss, fsogs, an assembly Sch. — 2. Jab- 
mo ^gyidrpa^ yyul ^yM-^a, also ^y^d^a 
alone, to fight a battle, to fight, to combat, 
^edrpai tie in the dispute; similarly ^dziii- 
ga bkyi'ba to quarrel Med.; hence prob. 
W.: *Ka kyi'b^ to abuse, to menace. — 
3. stdn-THO ^gy^d-pa frq. to give an enter- 
tainment, banquet, prop, to dispense a feast; 
nor ^gy^d-pa to distribute a property Lex. 
oS\s:i^ o9y^'^^ *® ^"^P <>r let fall, to 
^ throw down Schr.; to quit, aban- 
don, throw away Sch. 


Ogarq- ^yiUa 

OgST ^am 

QDJorq- ^el-ba, pf. gyel(:to\ imp. gyel, 
^^ to fall, to tumble, *ffi/el ma gyel* 

W. don't tumble, take care not to fall; 
*gyd'kan^ W, lying, (not standing), e.g. 
a bottle. 

Q^?;r^ o?i/^-P«5 another form ior ^i-ba, 
py('g^09'8u ^gy^'par ^gyur back 
foremost they retreat Glr, 

(Sfkrq' ^y^'V^ (^*- 'ftww) vb. (tr. 
^ ' ^gydd-c^) to repent, to grieve for, 
and sbst. repentance, sorrow for, not only 
for bad, but also for good actions, when 
the latter are attended with disadvantage 
or loss; pyis ^^n-^ar ^gyur you will have 
to repent it hereafter DzL; with Za, to re- 
pent of a thing; ^6d-pa skye repentance 
arises, I feel repentance, 1 repent frq. ; 
•^'w* ^gyddrfar ,^gyur id. ; *da gyddrfa yen 
du^ W. id.; ^6d-pa Tned I do not regret 
it; ^yodrpa-han repenting JVA.; ^ddrpai 
serm Tnid-par Uydd-la sbijin-no I give it 
you readily and with all my heart Pih,'^ 
^dd-m^d without repentance, without grud- 
ging, also: in good earnest; ^od-fsdm 
bySd-pa^ JdUhin ^dd-pa, ^dd^Hn bhdg- 
pa DzL to acknowledge repentingly, to 
confess with compunction; ^od-fsdmbyM- 
par yndn - 6a to accept a repentant con- 
fession = to forgive, to pardon DzL (p. ^9^ 
y?-, ^®, ^^©); ^ddrTTno-baj c. te, to make 
repent, to make one suffer, feel, or pay 
(for a thing) DzL\ ynon-^dd repentance 
proceeding from consciousness of guilt Pih. 

QCTp|(?f\-q- ogr^ff(»)'P(^^ pf- grogs, to sound, 
^ ' to utter a sound, of men, ani- 

mals, thunder etc. DzL; to cry, to shout, 
del md'lam-^u ^dgs-par ^ffyur-na if it is 
shouted into his ear; tea grogs so it is called, 
so he was called, by this name he goes, 
under that name he is known, celebrated; 
bdd-la yi-ge Tned ces grogs Tibet, so it is 
said, was without letters, without a written 
language; Zam. 

Q^p|?f ^ ^^dgs-pa to bind, v. grdgs-pa. 

pnr^^O' off^on-ba 1. C^. to number, to count, 

^ V. bgrdn-bo, — 2. to satisfy with 

food, to satiate, *Jdn'de med^ W. he is 

insatiable; gen. only the pf. is in use: 
^rans tyes after having eaten one's ^Med.; 
sd'ba bsddrpas mi ^dn-^te not yet having 
enough of deer-killing MiL 

Qpic-jn* fff^ddrpa Cs, = bgrddrpa, to spread, 

^ to extend (vb. a). 
Qourq- ^dn-po (Ssk. ^i\|) 1. to vie with, 

•^ contend with, to strive (for victory), 
wo sin-ge-la a fox (contending) with the 
lion DzL; ^o-^jyrul in magic tricks DzL; 
rig-pa in shrewdness, cunning Glr, ; pyug- 
Uydd mamr-fds'kyi bu dan ^dn-te to cope 
even with Plutus as to riches DzL; bstdd- 
par ^ffran let us vie with one another in 
songs of praise Glr.; ^grdn-^as 'iog let us 
now draw a parallel between (these two) 
Glr,; ^grdn-du Jitg-pa to cause (two per- 
sons) to strive (for the victory) Dzl. — 
2. in a general sense, to fight, to defend 
one's self, to make resistance. 

Comp. ^gron-tsig words of contention, 
a quarrelling speech Glr, — ^an-sems i. 
contention, emulation. 2. jealousy. 3. quarrel- 
some temper, spirit of controversy; o^an- 
sems ytdg-pa to stop, put an end to con- 
tention. — ^dn-zla (pronounced *ddl^a* 
in the north of Ld,)^ rival, competitor, equal 
match; ^dn-zla-med-pa, ^ran-zla dan 
brdl-ia, also ^dn-gyi do-mid, ^dnr-yor- 
Tned, without a rival, matchless, unequalled, 
applied also to things. 

aqaj' o9rom 1. shore, bank, m-^dmii.; 
^ cu ^in-poi ^aTnr-du son they went 
to the bank of a large river DzL — 2. 
side, sgO'^grdm yyds-Tia on the right side 
of the door Glr, ; sgoi fyi'^wmrrux before 
the door, outside, out of doors POu — 3. 
wall, Udn-pai ^dg-^am the lower wall of 
a house (opp. to the roof) Mil,; ^gram-^zi 
C, S.g. foundation, basis, ^am-yii ^din-ba 
to lay a foundation. — In a more general 
sense: ^dm-du near, close to, just by, 
rgydn-Tias sgra ci-la ^grdmr-du don hm he 
has a great voice, is making much noise, 
at a distance, but looking nearer, yon do 
not find much in him Mil,; sm-gi ^dm^ 
du close to the tree. 


qnttrq- off^dm-pa cheek (ci, Kur-ts6s)y 
^ *ddin-^a horn son* W. his cheeks 

are fiGkllen; Idg-pa ^rdm^or-la rUn^a to 
lay one's hand on the cheek (in a pensive 
or sorrowful mood) DzL 

Comp. ^gram-Udg a slap on the face, 
box on the ear; *dain~ddff ffj/db-ce* W. to 
bOx a person's ears. — ^am-hi Man that 
makes one's mouth water Sch. — ^gram" 
pug LtJ — *d(tmr'dz6^ C, a blow or cuff 
with the fist upon the cheek, ^gydg-pa* 
to deal such blows. — ^ram-^rus cheek- 
bone, jaw-bone. — ^dm-ha the flesh of 
the cheek. — ^am-yhdg the hinder part 
of the jaw-bone Sch. — ^rdmso cheek- 
tooth, molar-tooth, grinder. 
Qptt|-^^qr ^am-yig edict, proclamation, 

'^ ' publication ScL 
Qnttt^Tq* cS^dms-paiii hurtL^. ; of wounds: 
^ to get inflamed, ni f. Mil. nt 

Q?TB^?^(3^^' <3^^^^'^f^^^^^-i ^ disease, fever 
'^ ' in consequence of great ex- 

ertions Med. 

QgP'^ oS^*-p« 

QTOrn* ^dz-pa to hate, to bear ill-will, 
•^ to have a spite against, *na /y- 
loL ^ de Jta^ C. I hate him in my heart. 
QSfcn-q%r .ff^'ogrig l. gelatine, jelly of 
^-J I ^-1 I nieat C. 2. V. the following 

oSfarq- off^g^P^ (cf- ^grig-pa) to suit, 
^'-Tl agree, correspond, to be right, 
adequate, sufficient, in B. seldom, col. very 
frq-i V*?-p<* y*^* ^« that will do, I am 
satisfied; *dadig* W. now that will do! 
just enough now! ^dig^di^ W. to be sure! 
quite so! of course! %o dig go^ W. yes, 
to be sure! *tsd'be mi di^ W. it is not 
yet time for cooking; *(d're tsdg-na dig- 
ga* W. will it be early enough, if 1 sift 
it to-morrow V *d€ yan mi dig-pa du^ W, 
also that is not practicable; na )c?-yan di 
ma dig^na if my pronunciation is not 
correct C. (Lewin). 

qSWq- .ffrib^a, pf. grih^ 1. to grow lOSS, 
^^ to decrease, to be diminished, syn. 
to Jbri-ia; mi ^<grib mi lud-pa neither to 
grow less nor to flow over DzL ; but gen. 
^p^lrba is opposed to ^ffrib-pa, and both 

words refer not only to bulk, size, and 
quantity, but also to strength, well-being etc., 
so that ^rib-pa also means to sink, decay, 
be reduced; bskdl-pa mar ^grib^ ace. to 
Schr. = Treta yuga v. dus 6; mar ^grib- 
pa also opp. to yar skyi-ba to be re-born 
in lower regions. — 2. to grow dim, to 
get dark, cf. sgnb-pa Cs. 
q^ta- ogf^'^, in %-o5^'w Grlr. 45: lag- 
'^ ^im-gyis brgyus-pas passing from 
hand to hand, v. ^rim^-pa II, 1. 
Q§b;t-jrr ^rim-pa I. sometimes for Jbrim- 
^'^ pa Pih, II. pf. ^gnms 1. to go, 
walk, march about, perambulate, to rove or 
stroll idling about, rgyal-l'ams over the 
countries Mil.; ybig-pur ri-Urod-la Mil.; 
bdr-dor in the bardo (q.v.) Tkgr.; mi-sSr 
)dg-pai ^ffHm^sa yin it is a resort of robbers 
Mil.; it is also used of the course of the 
veins in the body Med. — 2. W. to go 
off, to sell, to meet with a ready sale. — 
3. ing-pa ^Hmrpa v. rig-pa. 
Q§jq'q' o5^'^-*«; pf- g^l (cf- ^gril-ia) 1. to 
^^ be twisted or wrapped round, Dzl. 
TV-St 17. ace. to one manuscript, ior Jhi" 
ba Sch.; to be collected, concentrated, to 
flock or crowd together, kun ^^l-nas all 
in a heap, all together Mil. — 2. to be 
turned, rounded, made circular or cylindric, 
e.g. a stick Mil. — 3. to fall, e.g. leaves 
from a tree; in B. seldom, in W. frq. {jdril- 
ba is the same word). 

Qi^^ offris V. ^dris. 

QOTfl' og^-^^y pf- 5''*w«, to bestow pains 
^ upon a thing, slob^a-la upon study 

QCTin'cr oS'^'*^^^? pf- g^*^ 1- *® ^^ tn^iie 
<P ready, to be finished, accomplished; 

^grub-pa mi arid it is not possible that 
this be accomplished Glr.; ma ^griilhpar 
before its having been finished Glr,; ma- 
^Hib-pa-maTns ^rub-par ^yur-ro (frq. of 
charms, regarding their desired effect) prob. 
means: all that has not yet been effected, 
will be accomplished by it; grub-pa-mams 
is applied in a special sense to the ordained 
Gelongs (v. dg^-ddn); kugs-la ^grub the 


Qpf]$r^ offr&m^a 

^^ oJ7^^« 

thing is brought about quite of itself Mil ; 
80 esp. in the phrase: Ihun-gyis grub^a 
being produced spontaneously (opp. to 
making, procuring) e. g. clothes, food etc. 
were always at his disposal, viz. in a 
supernatural way DzL\ dpdl-las grub it 
devolved on me in consequence of my 
perfection, my superior qualities Mil,; 
ddn-la grub-pa med kyan though it did 
not actually happen so (still, being meant 
to frighten by appearances etc.) Glr, ; by^d- 
na don cen ^rub if you do so, you will 
have many advantages (lit. great welfare) 
by iti/^/.; gru .ffrub^a Tar. 25,6; 34,20 
Schf. : to take in a full cargo, though from 
the wide meaning of the word, it may 
als6 signify: to accomplish a journey 
happily, so esp. in the passage Tar. 35,3 — 
2. to be made, fabricated, rdd-las out of 
stone. — 3. to be fulfilled, granted, of 
wishes etc., also with bhin-du, — 4. to be 
performed according to rule, of charms; cf. 
sgritb-pa and grub^a, — ^vb^bydr is an 
. expression occurring in almanacs, relative 
to the proving true of certain astrological 
prognostics of good luck, similar to, but 
not identic with rten-Jrrd. 

Opra-q- ^grum-pa, pf. grum(?), to pinch 
^ or nip off (the point of a thing), 
to cut off, to prune, lop, clip, the wings, 
W.y cf. grum-pa. 

Qcnq-q- ^rul'ba I. 1. to Walk, to pass, to 
-d travel, ^grul-bar by^d^a to cause 

to go, to send off, despatch, a messenger 
DzL; ^nun-la duV^ W, walk first! take the 
lead! ^rul-ba-po^ ognd-po Sch.^ *dul- 
Uan^ dul^mi* W. a walker, foot-traveller, 
pedestrian; ^rul-pa Sch. id.; ^^grul sbst. 
passage, the possibility of passing, ynya- 
ndn-gi ^gnd 'Sad-pas the passing from 
Nyanan being made impracticable (viz. 
by snow) Mil, — 2. fig. to walk, to live, 
act, or behave, *(i7n-8i* (or *ti7nr^ni^ nan- 
tar* W, (to live) in conformity with one's 
duty, in accordance to the law. — 3. to 
pass, to be good, current, of coins. 

II. i. o. brul'ba Mil 

Opwj-q- cff^^-P^ ^ • pf- of ojrrti-fta. — 2. sbst. 

nT zeal, diligence, endeavour; more 
frq. brtfon-^^grus, 
QCTJ-q- ^^ba 1. to roll one's self, sd-la 

^ on the ground; ^e-lddg Glr. (or 
^e I6g Pth.) by^d-pa id., e.g. from pain, 
despair etc.; also of horses etc. — 2. to 
repeat Cs. 
Qpt-q- ^r^n-ba (cf. ^sgren-ba) to stand 

^ (not in use in W.) ddn-gi /car 

^r^n-nas standing at the top of the pit 
DzL; dndm-pa Itar ^grSn-bar ^gyur they 
start up as if frightened Dzl.; of the po- 
mfsdn: to be erected Med.; mi ^gren ysum 
three lengths of a man Tar. — ^rM-bUy 
also ^rSri-po (Glr.) the sign of the vowel e, 

"^ ^ '^ dgrarriy imp. Icroms ( W. *tam' 
ce*, imp. *f(m*) I. to put or lay dOWn in 
order, e.g. beams, spars etc. B. and col ; 
to spread out, to display, goods, books, on 
the table or ground; to scatter, blossoms 
by the wind Stg.; to draw, a curtain. — 
2. to sprinkle, water, B. and col. — 3. to 
distribute, for Jbrim-pa C. 
QnprsT o9^^^'^^y pf- bkraly another form 
^^ for ^oUba, to explain, comment, 
illustrate, dgdns-pa the import (of the words 
or writings of the saints); ^grel-ba Cs.^ 
^'el-paZam.y Tar. explanation, explication, 
commentary; don-^M, resp. dgons-^il 
explanation of the meaning; fsig-^d ex- 
planation of a word, of the words; ^iun- 
grel 1. explication of the text 2. text and 
commentary; ran-^grH ^roh. self-explana- 
tion, an explanation contained in the book 
itself Wdri.; ^grel-ba-po Cs.y ^griUpo Sch., 
^el-byid 6s. an explainer, commentator. 
QpaTi'fsiin^rd'baj and Ural^d-ba Leax.f) 
C&v^ o9^<^'^9^ ^' expense, expenditure, of 

'^ ^\ money, ^do-gor tdn-ba* to lay out 
(money), to spend. 
OSf^' ofi^o-W?// Dramila, country in the 

** ^ south of India Schf.; another 
reading gives Dravida (coast of Coro- 
q^rq- ^6-ba I. vb., pf. and imp. «ow, the 

^ imp. oi^o(s) seldom used, 1. to 

d^^ cffrMa 

0^^ ^rd-ha 


walk, Icyeu ogro mi tfits-pa gdg-pa Ua/m an 
infant, a child, that creeps only, and is not 
yet able to walk Dzlr^ ^^d-fta dan nydU 
ha dan ^dug-pa the walking, lying and 
sitting Dd.; com. in a more gen. sense: 
to gOy to move, ^6-am mi ^0 will you 
go or not? rgyaUpoi mdun-la ^grd^ai lag- 
ca the things going, i.e. carried, before 
the king Glr, ; to go away, da na ^grd-bar 
hi now I beg to be permitted to go Pth,] 
ynds^as ^grd^a to go away from a place, 
to leave, Hyimr-nas ^gro mi pdd-na if one 
cannot leave his house, part from home 
Pth,; to go out, Uyod nyin-par rtdg-tu ^gro- 
na if during the day you always go out, 
are from home D^Z.; to travel, paTt-fsun- 
du ^6^a DzL^ par ^o tsur ^rd-ba Pth. 
tiavelling there and back; yar ^gro mar 
o^d-ia to travel up and down, up hill 
and down hill GZr.; ^rd-cos-m as a spiritual 
vademecum Mil,; ^d-fse on the way, on 
the road; opp. to ^6h-ha (more fully: par 
ojrro tmr ^on-bay col. yon-ba) to go and 
to come back; hence ^ro-fse may also 
mean: on the way thither; ^gro-^on-m^d- 
pa a thing that is neither going nor coming, 
but always remaining in its place Mil.; 
to go, move on, to continue one's way, esp. 
in the phrase son^'Son^-ia-^las. Connected 
with adverbs and postpositions : pyir ^grd' 
ha to return, go home, to come back, also : to 
go out, mdun-du^ sn&ip^u^ sriun-la ^d-ba 
to go before, pass before, precede (mdun- 
du referring to space only, andn-du and 
9nun^u both to space and time); ryes-su 
^6^a to follow, come after or later, to 
succeed, also to give one's self over to, 
to addict one's self to (e.g. ill courses) 
Ld.'Glr. ScfU. p. 7,b; ^gro hig, C. let it 
be, let it take its course! -^ rkydl-^ro 
a swimming fish Cs. — dgiir (or rgur)- 
^0 = dud'^o. — oS^niZ-o^ro pacing, 
walking Cs. — ^gyi^-off^ running, galloping 
Cs. — ndn-^gro going to damnation, iidn- 
wn having gone to damnation, fidn-sm 
pum the three damned, or not saved, 
classes of beings (v. sub II); ndn-^on ysum 
is opposed to bdi-^ro^ and often used in 

a general sense = 1iell\ — sndn-^gro 1. pre- 
ceding, foregoing, previous, former. 2. preface, 
introduction, opp. to dnos-yii^ the thing 
itself^ the text etc. Thgr. and elsewh. — 
ISos (ams-Md-kyi SHdn-^roisldb-byaFetersh. 
Verzeichniss no. 409) does not mean : 'advice 
given by the former (teachers)' S<?A., but: 
introductory and preparatory doctrines. — 
mifdn-^o (going in leaps) a frog Cs. — 
nydU^ro (creeping, crawling) a worm. — 
Itd'^gro (crawling, sliding on the belly) 
worm, snake, frq. — dud-^o (^Ssk., fwi^) 
walking in an inclined posture, an animal, 
V. sub. n. — bd^'^o going to happiness: 
the happy, the blessed, also bd^-^o Was.^ 
opp. to ridn-^o^ v. above; usually in a 
gen. sense, like our 'heaven'; bd^-^o 
mfo-ris-kyi lus fdb-pa to receive a heavenly, 
glorified body, v. liis. — Jtur^^o trotting 
Cs. — Jmr-gro a bird Cs. — oPy^'off^^ = 
Itd'^o. — IdnS'^v walking erect, man. 
— 2. to get, to get into, to enter E-bdag- 
gi dbdn-du sdn-ba having got into the 
power of death S.g.; grdUgyi fd-mar son 
they got (in a miraculous manner) to the 
end Dzl. VvS, 4. b.; de nyid mig-tu s6n- 
na if the same (ar little hair) gets into the 
eye Thgy. — 3. to find room in, to be 
contained in, like^dn-ba: til-r^dn Ual brgydd-- 
hi ^grd^ba zig a sesame store-room that 
will hold 80 bushels; KalyHg ^d-bai zin 
as much land as can be sown with a 
bushel of com (prop, a field holding a 
bushel) Pth. — 4. to turn to, to be frans- 
formed into, syn. to ^^gy&r-ba and often 
used instead of it, but only in more re- 
cent writings, and in the col. language of 
C (in W. *M'de* is much more in use): 
dtig^tu ^0 it turns to poison, it is changed 
into poison Mil. ; Uyi-mo hig^tu son she was 
changed into a bitch Mil. ; mfar gyur-nas 
sdtig'bsndl-du ^grd^bas-na because they 
finally change and are turned into misery 
Tligy.; Idg-par ^d-ba to take an un- 
favourable turn, to have a fatal issue (of 
a cure) ht.\ da sgrub-ynas-su son yod it 
has now become a place of meditation, it 
has been transformed into sacred ground 


Q^S^^cr osrrdgs-pa 

Mil.; stohs 'Siin^du ^grd-ba the state of 
declining, the decay oisireugthMed,; M- 
har ^ro they get intermixed, confused 
Ma,; similarly Tar. 210,10; las zin ^rd^ 
na when there is no more work, when 
work ceases. In a somewhat different 
sense: mi-tog smdn-la ^ro the blossom is 
used for medicines. — 5. In W. ^d-ba 
is gen. joined to a supine in te, and used 
to express uncertainty or probability: *dt- 
i*ih der Ub-te do* he has probably arriv^ed 
there to-day; "zir^te yod do* very likely 
he has said so; *hro U-te do* his anger 
will have abated, I think. The origin of 
this particular use of the word may perh. 
be traced to such sentences as the one 
following: pun-^te ^ro we are going to 
be ruined, we are likely to be ruined. — 
6. to be spent, expended, v. ^T6-%go; *^m- 
fo* col., account, of expenses. 

II. sbst. a being, a living creature, ^' 
ba mi the being *man', Mil.; ^d^arin- 
(fin Cs., Qgro-mSdgy the highest being, or 
creature, man; ^rd-bai rigs drug^ ^ro- 
drug the six classes of beings, viz. /Aa, 
Iha-ma-ytTiy md, dud-^o, yi-dvags^ dmydU 
ba-pa. The Iha-ma-yin are sometimes 
omitted, or placed after man. — ^o('bai) 
don byid'pa, or mdzad-pa to care for the 
welfare of beings, which expression is 
frq. applied to the benevolent activity of 
the Bodhisatvas etc., at present as much 
as: to perform divine service, to officiate, 
= sku-rim by id-pa. — ^opdn = ^o-d&n 
Tar. 13, 16. — ^6-m 1. way, road TT., 
*d6-m m£d^ one cannot go there. 2. aim, 
scope, ^6-sar pyin he reaches his aim, 
attains his end Glr. 3. access, approach, 
^grdsa mi ^dug one cannot gain access, 

'^ ' associated, l^yo-kUg j-nyis ^dgs- 
na husband and wife together Dzl; de 
dan ^dgS'te ^ons he came with him, had 
joined him Dzl.; ^dgs-te ddh-no let us 
go together DzL; na dan Ryid-maym Jjral- 
mid rtdg-tu ^ogs I and you, we shall 
always remain inseparably united Glr.; 

^dgs-^os-mams those with whom we are 
to keep close fellowship, our nearest re- 
lations and associates S.g. — 2. cf. ogrdgi- 
pay sgrdg-pd) to cry, to Shout DzLy esp. 
joined with^iod. — 3. (cf. grds^pay grdgs-^ 
pa I.) to bind, to tie, tdg-pa-la dar4€dg, a 
flag to a rope; to hang, fix, fasten, nyi-mai 
zir-la hanging on a sun-beam Glr. 

dStr^y'Sf offrdn(^)-pOy or ^dtis-pa, 
^^ ^ ^ straight, = bsrdns^a, Ts. 

pSryo' o9i*^'f>^ 1- pf- grans 1. resp. to 
die; ^dns-ka the very time of 
one's death C«., cf. JH-ka; sometimes it 
stands 2. for ^drin-pa^ Mil. and C. — 2. pt 
bkronsy fut. dgrons^ resp. to be killed, murdered, 
put to death, of Lamas and kings. 
Qair-jn- ^r6d'paj=:^bgr6d-pa, to go, to 
^-^ travel Glr. 

qSmt ^on alienism, the state of bemg a 
^ ' foreigner; ^grdn-du ^S-ba to go 
on travels, to go abroad DzL; ^ff^dn-pOy 
fem. ^rdn-mOy guest, foreigner, stranger, 
traveller fi*q.; ^grdn-po JM-mlian one 
inviting guests, an inviter col.; yzis-^on 
a native guest, byis-^ron a foreign guest 
Cs. ; ^on-Udn inn, public house Mil. ; ^on- 
ynyir \. that servant in a household who 
has to announce visitors, to receive and 
hand over requests etc. ; in W. an official 
in the monasteries attending on strangers 
and travellers. 2. a mediator, one supporting 
a petition, one taking care of sacrifices etc. 
— ^on4dm road Cs. 

Q^^fe"^' ^6n-pay Cs. = ^6d-pa. 

oSfMrn* cff^dn-bu (W. col. *rum-bt^) a 
•'' ^ small shell, cowry, at present chiefly 
used as ornament, or as a medicine, after 
having been burnt and pulverized; ^rdn- 
bui fal the ashes of this shell Med. ; f^gron- 
fdd an ornament for the head, consisting 
of cowries Mil. 

OPJ^' ^or, supine of ^d-ba. 

oSfpi'fl" o^^W« I. vb. neut., pf. grdy to 
'^ become free, to be liberated, re- 
leased from, bbinS'pa gan yin-pa di-dag 
nd grdUbar gyiir-to all that were bound 




ft' rgu 


were released; lus di las from this body 
Glr.; ndd'lm from disease, wa« by me MU, 
In a specific Buddhistic sense: yid^ or sems 
mdm-par grol the soul or spirit is released, 
made free, viz. from every impediment 
arising from imperfect knowledge or per- 
ception, the latter being no longer subject 
to dimness and uncertainty, but perfectly 
clear; ran(-8ar) grdl-ba what has become 
clear of itself (without any study or exertion) 
Glr,; yet ran grdl-ba seems also to denote: 
to be set free, to get released (from the 
fi^r-ba) through one's self; cos-nyid-kyi 
gUn-du ^dl-ia to be released and elevated 
into the region of the highest perception 
Glr,; ^dl-bayused absolutely, always signi- 
fies, like far-hay to be released from the evil 
of existence. 

II. vb. act, pf. bkroly fut. dgroly imp. 
1irol{W. hkroly pronounced *ft)Z*) 1. to loOSe, 
untie, unbutton^ unfasten, a knot, a bag, a 
garment; to put down, take off, arms, or- 
naments etc. — 2. to release, redeem, liberate, 
bcins-pa-las from fetters Ta7\ — 3. to re- 
move, do away with, put an end to, sduff- 
bsndl misery, fe-fsdm doubts. — 4. to re- 
move obscurities, to free from uncertainties, 
to explain, interpret, comment, = ^rSUbay 
e.g. dgdns^a the sense, import L«^. ; ^groU 
h^d) o9^^K''^^y-po commentator Cs. 
q3k|- o^f^ ^^^ act of 90'ng, walking, pyi 
oCf(^ssu V. sub ^gyis-pa; skyabs-^rds 
▼. skyabs; spyod-^ffi^ds manner of walking, 
gait, carriage; sen-gei spyod-grds Mil, the 
manner of a lion; also manner or mode 
of living, of transacting business, di-fso 
nd-yi spyod-^ffrds yin these are my occupa- 
tions MU,; mig^ spyod-^ds the language 
of the eyes, of looks; rkan-gi'ds 1. agoing 
or travelling on foot, a march. 2. breeding 
catde, rkah'^69 spil^ba to breed cattle, 
to be a grazier. — hi-^grds a current of 
water; *^ hi'^6s4a kydl-c^ to float tim- 
ber W. — ^oS'cSn amble (of a horse) Sch, 
i.q* rga-ba^ pf. rgas 1. to be old, aged, 
' rgorMs yzir-ba to suffer under (the 
infirmities of) old age Zam, (cf. skyi-ba 
iait); rgds-pai sUn-du beside my being 

already old Dzl, ; rgas-Udgs v. Jfdgs-pa, — 

2. fig. to go down, to set, of the sun etc.; 

go-rgds v. go 2. 

5i'^3Kr'^^'^ r5fa-w?aw-Afrad-^3/^(?)bat,flltler- 


SFT^' ^9^9'^9 * ^*^8^ S^^y species of 

« ' ' lizard Ld. 
gjT^ rgariy also ^ah-yzh'-ma hedgehog /ScA., 

I or perh. rather porcupine. 
furzv rgdd-pa, or rgdn-pa, old, aged; more 

' ^ frq. rgddrj>o 1. an old man, a man 
gray with old age. 2. an elder, senior, 
headman of a village; rgdd-mo an old wo- 
man; rgan-bgrk old people Sch.; rgan-rg&n 
}nyis Sch. : 'both the old man and the old 
woman' (?) ; rgan-^ydn'mams-kyiskyo-grdgs 
the comforter of old people (so Mil. calls 
himself). — ryan-%/« old people and children, 
old and jonng Mil. — rgan-mi-mdn = rgan- 
ysum. — gan-fsir-ldn-f^r W.y gen-ign-dhal- 
rim C. the privileges of seniority. — rgan- 
^ugs those that are grown old Cs., 'an old 
monk'(?) Sch. — rgannrabs the aged, rgan- 
rdbs'la rim-gro byid^a Stg., rgan-^gs pw- 
dyd-du Uur-ba S.g. to respect old age. — 
rgan-ysttmj rgaip-mi^mdn the elders of a 
^' rgal W. a ford. 

flOI*^^^' rgah-big-pa = rgag-cig Ld. 

ftOJ'Q' rgdl'ba, pf. and fut. fo'^aZ, imp. rgoly 
' c. /as, or accus., or /a, to step over 

(a threshold) Glr.; to pass or climb over 
(a mountain); la brgdl-bai byd/i-nos the 
north-side of a pass crossed Glr. ; to leap 
over (a wall) DzL; to ford (a river); to 
travel through, td sail over, to pass (a river 
or lake), rgyd-mtso-la ginc-yzins-kyi lam- 
nas brgdl'te after having crossed the sea 
in a ship. 

ft^'dCT^' rgal'fsigs Sch. = sgal-fsigs. 

ffi^ rgaSy v. rgd-ba. 

A^m- rgds'ka old age; rgdS'ka sra a vi- 


gorous old age. 
rgu sometimes for dgu; rgurfub = dgu- 
tttb Med.; -gurdru9? 


^1^'^ rgud-pa 

Qfrq" rgud'pa to decline, to sink, to get 
n/' weak, frail, esp. with old age 3ft/., 
Pih.\ in W. used in a more general sense: 
•grr^cf soil* 1. he has grown thin. 2. he is 
impoverished, much reduced, in declining 
circumstances; dar^gM the rise and fall 
in the world, ^v^v^^^. X ^.^^^rJfjL o^v^ . 
A^ rgun the vine; grape; rgw^kdr white 
^5 ' grapes , rgun - nag black , or purple 
grapes IT.; rgun-rg6d W. raisins; rgun- 
Jyrum grapes; raisins; rgun Q-JmimYUn 
vine; rgun^-Jbrumytsas vineyard; rgun-cdn 
Mil. wine, resp. rgun-skgems Cs, 
£(f^ rgur v. dgur. 

m rgOy sometimes for sgo. 

h|'^ rgd-ba = dgd-ba, 

ftC^ rgom S.gJ 

Sfc^ST rgdns-mo Mil. for dgdm-mo (?). 

^. rgod 1. laughing, laughter S.g, — 2. bird 
^ of prey. — 3. wild. — 4. prudent (v. 

the following word). 

Sijr'q- rgdd'pa I vb. 1. to laugh, aloud 

' ' Mil,; (Bal. *rg6d-ca*) cf. gdd-mOy 
dgddrpa^ bgdd-pa. — 2. to grow weak, lan- 
guid, or indolent, syn. to yyM^ba^ often 
joined with byin, for emphasis; rgddrbag- 
can weak, languid, indoleut Stg, 

II. adj. 1. wild, ra-rgdd wild goat, 
pag-rgdd wild boar, yyag-rgdd wild yak or 
ox; rgod-yyag-rwd horn of the wild yak 
S,g,; byor^gdd vulture, bird of prey = bya^ 
rgydl; rgod^o, and rgod id.; rgod-kyi rtse- 
rgydl an eagle's feather, stuck as ornameut 
on the hat PtJi.; mi-i^gdd a wild or savage 
man; a robber, ruffian; mi-rgdd byed-pa to 
rob (usually named together with murder- 
ing and lying) Dzl.^ but as the Tibetan 
always attaches to this word mi^gdd the 
notion of some gigantic hairy fiend, it 
cannot in every instance be applied to be- 
ings really existing. — Fig. furious, angry 
(seldom); dbugs-rgdd Med J — 2. prudent, 
able C, Zam, 
gjc'^ rgdd-ma^ rta rgdd-ma (Bal, ^gun- 

« ^ ?wa* a mare; rgod'skdmrma a bar- 

5' r^ya 

ren mare Sch,\ rgod-briin dung of a mare 

flfpl' rgol 1. V. rgdl-^a. 2. v. rgol-ba. 

^ffiva' f^g^l-if^i pf* and fiit. brgol, to dispute, 
' combat, fight, mi-la with or against 

a man; pd-rol-poi dmdg-la rgdl-du ^d-ba 
they are about to fight against the hostile 
army DzL; j-zdn-gyis rgol ma nus-so no- 
body could fight them, could make head 
against them Glr.; to offer resistance, to 
make opposition, sua kyan rgdlrba ^dzugs- 
pai mi ma byuii nobody arose to offer re- 
sistance Pth, (evidently incorrect; it should 
be either ; at« hjan rgdl-ba ^dzuga-pa [inf.] 
ma byuf'ij or: rgoUba ^dzttgs-pai [partic] 
Tni su yan Tna byun); sometimes as much 
as to accuse, to charge, Hydd-kyis nai bu 
bsdd'do les brgdl-te 'you have killed my 
son', thus accusing me DzL ; fsur ynyis 
rgol he quarrels at a double rate Mil. ; 9m- 
la rgdUba zu-ba to find fault with another 
(higher in rank), to pick a quarrel with 
him MiL\ rgol-bai iu-don a speech pro- 
voking a quarrel with a superior Mil. ; pas- 
rgdl a quarrel or contest begun by the 
counter-party Sch,; pas-rgol-mi, pas rgol- 
pa mi adversary, opponent Dzl, ;^o, 2. — 
siid-rgol^ and pyi-rgol (Ssk, ^^^\fi\ & 
M<^lf^^ ) 1- ^<^* ^o ^'^' plaintiff ana de- 
fendant, but these terms are not quite ade- 
quate, as snd-^rgol prop, denotes him who 
begins a quarrel, the aggressor, assailant, 
both in war and in common life, e.g. in 
court, and pyi-rgol designates him, who 
is intent on defending himself against the 
attacks and accusations of the opponent, 
by surpassing him in abusive language 
and esp. by having recourse to witch- 
craft. Hence pyir-rgdl-bai yndd-pa is a 
kind of danger against which every one 
tries to protect himself, and chiefly again 
by charms and witchcraft — 2. sna-rgol 
and pyi-^gol are also said to signify those 
students that are contending with one an- 
other in academical disputations. 

rgya 1. resp. pyag-rgyd, seal, stamp, 
marl(, sign, tol(en; (pyag-) rgyds ^dibs- 



^* rgya 

puy Cs. rgya hrgyab^dy to seal, to stamp; 
to seal up, bum-pa-la a bottle Glr. ; ndvi- 
mKai dbydi^s-su (to seal up) into the hea- 
venly regions, i.e. to cause to disappear, 
to hide for ever Glr, ; to confirm or pledge 
solemnly by a sealed document; ri-rgya 
Itch ^ rgya ^dzug-pa 'to seal up bills and 
valleys', i.e. to protect the living beings 
inhabiting them from being harmed by 
huntsmen or fishermen, an annual perfor- 
mance of the Dalai Lama, consisting in a 
variety of spells and incantations; rgya 
yl'dg-pa to break open a seal Cs. — Fur- 
ther expressions v. compounds. — 2. (Cs, 
rgya -bo?) extent, width, size, rgyar dpag- 
tU'wM'pa immeasurable in extent Glr,\ 
sems-can-gyi rgyai fsad ni ci tsam how 
vast must be the extent (of love) with res- 
pect to beings! T/igy,; rgya- tan having 
extent, mUySn-rgya-can of extensive learn- 
ing Milr^ rgya-cen^-po) of very large size, 
very extensive, of a building, a pond etc. ; 
grand, enormous, prodigious, of banquets 
feasts, sacrifices, assemblies ; c. accus. very 
rich in, Schr.; in a general sense: great, 
stdn-pa rgya-ce-ba a great master or teacher 
Thgy. ; rgya-cen spydd-pai bld-ma may be 
rendered: a very virtuous Lama, po. ; rgya- 
iuh denotes the contrary of all this; rgya^ 
ce^iuTi V. rgya-Uydn in Compounds; rgya- 
?^ adv. «=» rgydS'par in detail, at large, at 
full length, e.g. to explain; rgya-cer byM- 
pa to extend Feer Introd. etc. p. 72; rgya- 
cer-rdl^pa Lalitav^istara or Lalitavist&ra^ 
title of a biography of Buddba, translated 
and edited by Foucaua (a conjecture con- 
cerning the signification of the Sanskrit 
word V. Fouc. Rgyatcherr, 11. p. XXII.; 
some statements relative to the Chinese 
translations of this work, v. ibid. p. XVI., 
and PTos. 176; on the historical value of it 
V. Was, 3, 4); rgya bskyid-pa Zam,^ Cs, to 
widen, augment, enlarge, extend, rgya 
bskum-pa to contract, to diminish the ex- 
tent Lastly, it also denotes, like dkyil- 
JioTy a plain surface, a disk : nyi zlai rgya 
dkar sar Mil, the bright disks of the sun 
and moon appear, cf. rgyas in zla-rgyds; 

^' rgya 

V. also the compounds. — 3. (6s. rgyd-mo:, 
perh. also rgyd-ma) net; byd-rgya fowling- ^~^^ 
net, nyd^rgya fishing-net, ri-dags - 7*gya 
hunting -net, — 4. for rgyd-ma, v. com- 
pounds. — 5. for rgyd-mo beard, rgyd^ 
can having a beard, bearded C, — 6. for 
rgya-gdr^ rgya-gdr-pa^ and rgya-gdr-skad. 

— 7. for rgya-ndg^ rgya-ndg-pa, and rgya- 
ndg-skad. — 8. for rgya-ru, — 9. for rgya- 
sky^gs, — 10. erron. for brgya, 

Cemp. and deriv. rgya-dkdr l. nyi- 
zldi rgya-dkdr v. above do. 2. extr. 2. Cs, 
= rgya-gdr India, 3. Cs, a dog with white 
spots on the nose. — rgya-skdd 1. Sans- 
krit language, 2. Chinese language. — rgya- 
skds ( W. *gya'hre*) a (European) staircase, 
cf. skds-ka, — rgya-sk^gs, rgya-sky^Sy Ssk, 
^fmjj Williams: 'a kind of red dye, lac, 
obtained from an insect as well as from 
the resin of a particular tree' ; in medical 
works it is mentioned as an astringent me- 
dicine; the adjectives dkar^rgyd light-red, 
and rgya-smug violaceous C. are derived 
from this word. — rgya-Kur Med,? — rgya- 
Uyi a Chinese dog. — rgya-tiydn width, 
extent, area Pth,^ col. ^gya-^e-cuff, — rgya- 
Kri C. chair. — rgya-gdr (the 'white ex- 
tent or plain') India, rgya-gdr-pa an Indian, 
rgya-gar-skad Sanskrit language. — rgya- 
grdm a figure like a cross; rdo^tye-rgya- 
gram shaped like a quadrifid flower; rluh 
rgya-grdm hh-pa Glr, seems to be = rlun^ 
gi dkyil-Jior atmosphere (connected with 
some phantastic association); Idm-po rgya- 
grdm a cross-road Sch, — rgya-tdn a kind 
of girdle Lea;, — rgya-lan v. rgya 2 and 
5. — rgya-cu-Uiig-pa n. of a river in China 
near the Tibetan frontier (also rgya- hi- 
rabs-med) Glr, — rgya-^e etc. v. rgya 2. 

— rgya-tdm Bhot, = tdmr-ka, the third part . 
of a rupee. — rgya-^^tags maric, signature, 
stamp Sch, — rgya-fil a kind of seal or 
stamp Cs, — rgya-mtdiis 1. a platform, 
an open pavilion on the house-top, 2. a 
vent-hole for smoke. — rgya-^dri a quarrel 
MiLnt, — rgya -nag (the 'black extent') 
China, rgya-ndg-pa^ and -Twa a China-man 
and woman; rgyd-mams the Chinese Glr, 



f .' l/; o^- :fiv /. \ 



, '^' ^' rgya 

— rffya-^n W, the great royal seal, of a 
square form; surpassing (ndn-pa) all others 
in influence and power. -- rgya-dpe a 
Sanskrit book Tar. 33, 2. — rgya-^-lin 
n. of the country, rgya-pi-lih'pay n. of the 
people, through which the Tibetans heard 
first (prob. at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century) of the civilized nations of 
the Occident, hence n. for British India, for 
Englishman, or European resident of Bri- 
tish India, and also (sometimes without 
rgya) for Europe and European in general. 
The word is of course not to be found in 
literature. Some derive it from 'Feringhi', 
which term, in the slightly altered form of 
j>a-^*dn, jpe-rdn^ is current in 6'., along with 
the above mentioned rgya-jd-lin; it is there- 
fore not improbable, that pi-Un represents 
only the more vulgar pronunciation of the 
genuine Tibetan word pyi-glin^ an out- 
country, a distant foreign country and esp. 
Europe, Chr, Prot — rgya-pib(8)y rgya- 
pubQi) a Chinese roof Glr. — rgyd-ba 1. 
vb. to be wide, extensive, pf. rgya» (q.v.), 
2, sbst. width, extent, 3. adj. wide; rgyd- 
bar ^yiir-ba to extend, to increase, to be- 
come copious 6«., perh. no longer in use. 

— rgyd-bo 1. Cs. and Lex. beard. 2. a 
Chinese Glr.y but not without an allusion 
to the former signification. — rgya-dbdn 
rin-^O'C^ title of the Dalai Lama, v. Utic 
n., 275, where 'kian ngarC stands erro- 
neously. — rgyd-ma 1. a large steel-yard 
6% rgya ' ma-la ^d^gs-pa to weigh Glr,, 
*gyd -ma-la teg-ne* C. being weighed out 
by retail, e.g. meat; *gyd -ma-la ma tig- 
ne* C, wholesale. 2. a sealed paper, do- 
cument. — rgyoi-mi a Chinese. — rgyd-^mo 

1. net Cs. 2. a Chinese woman Glr,; rgyd- 
nfw-bza id. — rgya-i*md the venereal disease 
Sch, — rgyasmug violet colour C. — rgya- 
fsd sal ammoniac Med, — rgya-Ms Med,y 
perh. = rq^ya-skyigs. — rgyd-mfso 1. sea, 
ocean; rgyd-mfsor oJ^'P^ ^^ S^ ^ sea 
DzL, ytdh-ba to let one go to sea Dzl,; 
pyii rgyd-mfso the outer sea, ocean; ndn-gi 
rgyd-mfso an inner sea, inland sea, lake. 

2. Bal. (*rgydmr'f8o'') river. 3. dropsy Mng, 

4. symb. num.: four. — rgya-yzi W, is 
stated to be a kind of yt&r-ma. — rgytk- 
z&r Mil = zor reaping-hook, sickle. — rgya- 
yzib Sch, 'a large net', C, a large rake, 
used in reaping. — rgya-yul 1. a large 
country 2. China Glr, — rgyd-f^a, rgyd-ry^ 
occasionally rgya alone, the Saiga-antelope 
Sch, — rgya-ri a portion of meat, (= sder- 
gdn a plateful) small or large, Pth., W. C\; 
it also denotes a measure = | dum, or \ 
Urn. — rgya^rdg beard C, — rgya-ldb talk, 
gossip. — rgya-ldm^ high-road, high-way. — 
rgya-sog Chinese paper. — rgya-s^ 1. gap, 
cleft, fissure, chasm, in rocks, glaciers etc, 
2. a dog with yellow spots about the nose 
Cs. 3. Russia, rgya-s^-pa a Russian; d. 
rgya-gdr, — rgya-sog 1. TF. a saw 2. ScL: 
^a Chuichui, or Chuichur, an infidel, a 
Mahometan ; also Turkestan'. — rg^yc^-srdh 
the open street (opp. to house) Glr. 

gay^r 'f'ffydff-p^ another form for rgydb- 
^sT' pay used esp. in C, to throw, cast, 
fling, mda rgydp-pa to shoot arrows Glr,; 
brdg-la hi rgydg-pai ^ah a path along 
a precipice, where the water rushes against 
the rock, i.e. where there is a cataract 
Glr, ; dg&n-pa iig rgydg-pa to found a mo- 
nastery (= ^dibs'pa) Georgi Alph. Tib.; 
*g64a zmg gyag* C, = mgd-nad ^debs. 
«y«|- rgyags, or brgyags, provisions, victu- 
J ' als, food, in fiill; ^fsd-bai rgyagSy 
Jso-rgydgs; lam-rgydgs provisions for a 
journey; dgun-rgydgs pro v. for the winter; 
'^W^O^'Vy^y provisions of meal or flour; 
rgyags-zm merchandize to buy or barter 
victuals with. 

jLqm-q- rgydgs-pa fat, stout, Schr, also 
J^' mighty, powerful, proud; rgya^- 
priig Pth,y Schr,: bastard-child. 
gLT- rgyan (so pronounced in Bo/.) instead 
^ of gyaiiy wall. 

ACQ' ^W^'*' ' ^^y ^^^ (hyrkydn - ba, Pth.: 
^ rgydn-nas bzag they laid him down 

with his hands and feet stretched o«t 

giC'Sr ''*9!/^^ ' "^"^ distance l. absolutely: 
^ rgydtiQ-ma)-nas at a distance, from 

afar, e.g. to see, to call to; rgydn(;md) 

5^*^ /^^on-fetf 


^q' rgydb-pa 

-nas grdgs-pa ^S-ba famous^ celebrated, 
from afar Mil.; rgydn-du Ids-pa lingering 
far behind Sch, ; rgyah miff mi mfdn-mlcan 
W. short-sighted; rffyan m^on btdn^gin 
moying forward by long leaps; rgydn^so 
^dzUgs^pa to look over Sch,^ (ought per- 
haps to be spelled rgyan-zo one looking, 
spying into a distance); rgyan-Ul spy-glass, 
rgyan^srins-pa lengthened to a great dis- 
tance Lex.'^ rgyan^pdny rffyan -phi n. of a 
philosophical (atheistical Cs,) sect in an- 
cient India, Tar, 22, 8: Jig-rten-rffyan- 
pan. — 2. used relatively: rffyari-rih-po 
far, rffyan-rin-por son he went far away 
Mil.; rffyan- fun 'ba near; rffyan-yrdys the 
reach of hearing, ear-shot, (gen. the dis- 
tance at which the sound of a trumpet may 
be heard, i.e. about 500 fathoms; however, 
as this number is much in favour with the 
Tibetans, such estimates are not to be de- 
pended upon). — miff-rgydn Glr. distance 
of sight, i.e. the distance at which a man 
may be well distinguished from a woman, 
or a horse from an ass; — rffydns adv. far, 
rgyans bkyidrde Mil.nt moving fer away, 
e. g. in order to increase one's distance 
from an unpleasant neighbour at table). 
sfiC'^ rgryaw-fe^ n. of a village and mo- 
"^ nastery in Tibet, not far from the 
frontier of Bhotan, Kopp. II., 358. 
g^ rgyan 1. 1. ornament, decoration, rgydn- 
^ ^ gyi» brgydn-pa decked with ornaments 
Dzl.; rgyan-^dogs-pa to adorn one's self 
Mil.; Ua-rgydn an ornament at the moutb, 
edge, or brim of a vessel, e.g. peacock's 
feathers about the mouth of a bum - pa 
(sacred bottle), flowers in a glass etc. ; Ua- 
rgydn-tan decorated in the front-part, eg. 
a coat trimmed with fur of different co- 
lours, an arrow gaily painted at its notch- 
ed end; rgydn-mams Dzl. ornaments, 
rgydn-ia id.; rgyan^gda Glr. festival gar- 
ment, beautiful vesture; dim-rgydn an or- 
nament of the head, a diadem. — 2. in 
relation to spiritual things : shns-kyi rgyan 
something good, a blessing, for the heart 
Mil.; rgydn-du Jlar it proves a blessing, 
a moral advantage or benefit MU. 

II. 1. a stake or pledge at play, = skugsy 
*gyan tsug-de* W. to bet, to wager, e.g. 
a rupee: (also rgyalf Schr.). — 2. lot, rgyan 
rgydb-pa to cast lots, without religious ce- 
remonies, whereas rtags-ril and mo are 
connected with such. 
^ELq- rgyoby resp. sku-rgydb^ SsL n 1. tho 
^ back of the body, the back part of any 
thing; rgydb-kyis pyogs-pa, in later literature 
also rgyab-pydgs-pa Thgy, to turn one's 
back to a person or thing, c. fe, also fig. 
Dzl.; rgydb-kyis pyogs-par by^d-pa to put 
to flight; rffyah st6n-pa to turn one's back, 
to turn round Glr.] ryydb-tu skyur-ba to 
throw to the back, to leave behind, to give 
up, to quit, frq.; ryydb-tu Jbdr-ba id.; ryyab 
brthirpa to lean one's back against or upon, 
to lean or rest on, to rely upon, confide 
in Mil.; ryyab byM-pa to protect Sch.; 
rgydb-tu, rgydb-na, rgydb-la behind, behind 
hand; after, back; ryyah-nas from behind; 
rffyab mdtin piyis-la Glr.^ *ffy(ib dun dun- 
la* col. behind and before; ti-sei byan- 
rffydb-tu sleb fse as we came behind to the 
north-side of the Tise Mil. ; rgydb-kyi skyed- 
mo8-tsal-du ysegs-ao let us go into the gar- 
den behind us Dzl. ; rgyab^dzi one stand- 
ing behind working people, in order to 
watch and superintend them. — 2. as much 
as one is able to carry on his back, a load, 
dreWgydb ymm three mules' loads Glr. 

Comp. bal-rgydb, or *rgyab-bdl* W. a 
fleece of wool. — rgyab-Udl 'a back's load', 
a burden carried on the back Sch.^ Schr. 
— rgyab -snds a cushion or pad for the 
back C. — rgyab -rUn something to lean 
against, a safe retreat, prop, support Mil.y 
rgydb-rten by^d-pa to be a support Mil. — 
rgyab-rin serpent, snake Sch. — *gyab-ldg 
jhe'-pa* C 1. to turn one's back 2. to rebel, 
revolt; *gyab-l6g ddd-ce* W. to sit back- 
ward, with the back in advance. — rgyab- 
Ugs the back, back-part, reverse of a thing, 
jtqw rgydb-pa, pf. and fut. brgyab^ imp. 
^ r^oi, to throw, to fling, aiming at 
a certain point, hence to hit, also to beat 
with a stick, ^ rduh-ba^ to strike, md-la 
mhc8 brgydb-nas bsad he (the male bird) 


^p|5I'cb' rgyam-fsva 

killed his mate by a stroke of his bill 
Bhar,\ ^tsd-ge-la gyob* W, throw into the 
centre! hit the mark! sdM-po-la brffyab 
yog (the ray of light) fell upon the stem 
Glr.; d^'la cu rgyob sprinkle this with 
water! i^A.; pyugs ndgS'Seb-tu rgydb-pa 
to let the cattle run into the wood; ^zag- 
ddh gyab'h* W, to put down the date, 
to date; *la gyab-ce* to cross a mountain 
pass. — rgydb-pa is particularly used in 
W, in many phrases, whilst in C. rgydg- 
pa, and m B. ^Ms-pa are more in use, 
as may be seen by referring to the several 
substantives, e.g. ^hidgydb-be* W. to throw 
dung upon the fields, to manure; *par gydb- 
pa* C, and ^gydb-c^ W., to print; gydb- 
pa stands also jdone, elliptically : *ka gyab 
dug* here (is printed) the letter ka, 
g^'jt' rgyam-fsva Med,, Cs.: 'a kind of 
^ ^ salt, like crystal'. 

rgyar v. rgya 2. 

rgyal 1. victory, in certain phrases: 
*gyalfdb'de^ W, to gain the victory, 
to conquer, overcome; to win a law-suit, 
opp. to *pam pdg-ce*. — 2. Schr. and Sch, : 
rgyaWgydn a pledge, a stake, rgyal bUug- 
pa to bet, wager, gamble Sch; rgyal biag- 
pa to contend with an other person about the 
first place, to try to get the precedence (?) 
Sch, ; perh. also ornament, v. sub rgdd^a 2. 
— 3. fine, penalty, for theft C, — 4. n. of 
two lunar mansions, v. sub rgyu-skdr; 
rgydl-gyi zld-ba, skdr-ma rgydl-la bdb^ai 
nyin-par, skdr-ma rgyal dun ^dzom-par, 
dpyid-zla rd-bai skdr-nia rgydl-gyi nyin- 
par,, are dates relating to them. — 5. for 
rgydl-po and rgydl-ba. 
AOr^' ^'^3/a/-*a I. vb. neut. to be victorious, 
^ to obtain the victory, always with 

the sbst. in the nom. (not instr.) case, 
and gen. with las, over or against, ndg-poi 
pydgs'las over the powers of darkness, 
Jigs-por-las over fright, fear; aho ^yul-lds 
in battle; prob. also fsod Itd-ba-las to pass 
an examination successfully ; but also 
without las, rtsodrpa (to win) in a contest 
Glr,'^ very frq. rgydUbar ^yur-ba id.; na 

^'^* rgydl-ba 

pdm son Uyod gyal son I have lost, thou 
hast won (also in business) ; to be acquitted, 
to gain a law-suit; dmag-JcritgS'kyi rgyal- 
pdm-gyi ynas-fsul Uol send (us) news con- 
cerning the progress of the war; in a 
similar sense: rgyal pam ci-ltar byunB,; 
rgydl'bar gyur-big, rgydl-ba dan fse-rin- 
bar hog Hg victory and long life! Dzl. 

II. sbst. 1. {Ssk. ^ra) the act of con- 
quering, the victory, *(Ji gydl-wa fob* C, 
this bears away the palm or prize, this 
is the most excellent of all. — 2. the con- 
quering party or person, he that prevails, 
the conqueror (opp. to pdm-pa the con- 
quered, vanquished). Much more frq.: 
3. the most high, Buddha {&sk. f^), rgydl- 
bai sku his person, rgydl-hai bka, his word; 
rgyal dan de »ras (po. instead of rgydlrba 
dan dei sras) Buddha and his children, 
his disciples Pth. 1,1; rgydl-ba gdn-ma 
the highest Buddha, God, Mil. — i. rgyal- 
ba rin-pO'ifS His Highness, His supreme 
Majesty, title of the Dalai Lama. 

HI. adj. 1. conquering, superior, eminent, 
excellent, mdm-par rgydl'bai Ican-bzans 
the most magnificent palace (of Indra) 
Glr, — 2. W, (gen. pronounced *gydlla*, 
in Pur, *rgydl-wa*) good, instead of bzm- 
po; *gydl'la ddd-^e* or *luS'de* to continue 
in good condition, entire, uninjured; md 
gyalla excellent! capital! 

Comp. and deriv., belonging partly to 
rgydl'ba, partly to rgydl-po: *gyal'kdr* 
window C. — "gydl-Ua, Ua-gydl* victory, 
gain, advantage W, — rgyal-Hdg country, 
empire. — rgyal-Udms 1. kingdom. 2. realm, 
dominion of Buddha, the world. — rgyal- 
krid Lid, for rgyaUs^Hd, — rgyal-Urims v. 
Urims, — 'rgyal-^dn n. of a demon MiL — 
rgyal-brgyud,, and rgyaWdbs 1. succession 
of kings of the same line or family, dynasty 
Glr, 2. a single generation of a dynasty, 
rgyal'brgyud Ind-bcu-na in the fiftieth degree 
(in the line of descent). — rgydl-sgo prin- 
cipal door, entrance-door, gate C. — rgyal- 
sgruns, legend of the kings, esp. that of 
Gesar. — rgyal-c^ bhi the four kings of 
the spirits or guardians of the imiverse 


a^r^ rgydl'ba 

(^^ig-rten-skydn v. skyon-ba)^ residing just 
below the summit of Meru, the protectors 
of the gods against the A suras, v. Kopp, I, 
250; II, 261. — rgyal-stdd lunar mansion 
V. rgyu-^dr. — rgydl-po 1. king, rgydl-fo 
cen^po great king, emperor; rgydl-por Jug- 
pa, bsko^a^ to inaugurate a king, to raise 
to the royal throne; mt-la rgydl-po JcoU 
ba id. Pth,\ rgydl-po byed-pa to act the 
king, to be(a) kin^; na rgydl-po mi ^dod 
I do not wish to be king DzL ; rgydl-po 
7ni idb-na if I do not obtain royalty DzL\ 
7ias ni rgydl-po mi rnus-so I cannot be king 
DzL The word is also used for : govemment- 
aathorities, police etc.; rgydl^pd cdd-pa 
public punishment, rgydl-pos yadd^a to be 
publicly executed. (As a characteristic sign 
of Asiatic views it seems worth mentioning, 
that the rgyaUpo is usually spoken of much 
in the same maimer, as robbers, confla- 
grations etc. are, i.e. as a kind of calamity 
against which protection is to be sought, 
esp. by charms and spells, cf. Jigs-pa), 
2. a local god, ^ro-tdh rgydl-po the Dewa 
of Dotan Mil, 3. fig. something excellent, 
superior in its kind; not only as with us 
the word is applied to the lion, as the 
king of animals, but also to distinguished 
flowers: the Udumbara (Ficus glomerata), 
to mountains, Meru and others; and col. 
ffans-rgydl a large glacier, bt'og-rgydl a 
huge rock, rnidn-lam-gyi rgydl-po a very 
comprehensive prayer, the bzan-spydd Glr, 
4. symb. num.: 16. — rgyal-pt'dn vassal 
or feudatory prince. — rgydl-bu prince. — 
rgyal-bldn king and ministers, council of 
state. — rgydl-mo 1. queen. 2. pupil of 
the eye, together with the iris ; rgydl-moi 
mdans nyam» the brightness of the eye- 
ball disappears Med. 3. like rgydl-po 3, 
e.g. a charm of particular power. — rgyal- 
smdd lunar mansion, v. rgyu-skdr, — rgyal- 
fydb (for rgyal-poi fsab) \ . vice-roy, regent. 
Such a vice-roy under Chinese supremacy 
is now the king of Tibet, who about a 
century ago was still an independent ruler. 
2. successor of a king. 3. (for rgydl-bai 
tisab) Maitreya, the future Buddha. — rgyal- 

*^^ rgyds^a 

mfsdn sign of victory, trophy, a kind of 
decoration of cloth, of a cylindrical shape, 
erected upon a flag-staflF, or carried on a 
pole. — rgyal-rdbs 1. = rgyal-brgyud, 2. 
history, annals, of the kings, title of several 
books. — rgyal-ngs 1. the royal family, 
house, lineage, 2. warrior-caste ^^. — rgydl- 
sa 1. a king's or prince's residence, city 
where a court is held, and hence often 
capital, metropolis. 2. col., esp. in W,: 
town. 3. throne fig.; rgydl-mr yhegs-pa 
to ascend the throne, rgyalsa bziih-ba to 
occupy the throne, rgydl-sar bskd-ba to 
raise to the throne, rgyal-sa J>rog-pa to 
usurp the throne; ^di-nas rgydl-sa rgyai 
min rgydl-po-la ^or from him the dominion 
passed over to the Chinese Ming-dynasty 
Glr, — rgyalsrds 1. prince. 2. son Of Buddha, 
a saint; sn6n-gyi rgyal-»rd$ saints of the 
olden time, of past ages. — rgyal-»nd 
1. government, reign, rgyalsrid bzun-ba to 
enter upon the reign, to take possession 
of the throne. 2. rgyal - srid sua - bdun 
the seven jewels of royal government, v. 

*2Sf Cf r^rf«-pa (prop. pf. to rgyd-ba) 1. vb. 
^ to increase in bulk or quantity, to 
augment, to spread, bd-yi nu Itar rgyas (the 
swollen uvula) gets as big as a cow's dug 
(these are in Tibet particularly small) L^.; 
^a-fsdn rgyds-pa ^dra like an expanded 
rainbow Glr, ; bstdn-pa rgyds-Un the doctrine 
gaining ground, spreading Glr,\ to grow, 
develop itself, of blossoms frq., of the 
body etc. — 2. adj. extensive, large, ample, 
wide; copious, plentiful, manifold, numerous; 
rich in, abounding in; great in, strong in 
cca.; detailed, complete, full; esp. adv. 
rgyds-par (col. *gyds-pay gy^a*\ rgyds- 
par hes jdM-na^ often also rgyds-par ^dod- 
na if you wish to know it fully, to hear 
it in detail; ^tsdn-ma gyds-pa z^-na* W. 
if all the particulars are to be told; rgyds- 
par by4d-pa 1 . to make bigger, to augment, 
to increase, to bestow or confer plentifully, 
mi-la on a person Glr, 2. to describe, narrate, 
state at large, in detail frq.; don rgyds-par 
byed-pa to be very useful, to exert a 



beneficial inflnence, la on, Glr, — zlorha 
rgyds-pa full moon Pth,; nya-^^gyds zlorba 
id. — rgydS'pai fsd-ba^ rgyas-tsad n. of 
a disease 3/erf. — zi^gyds etc. v. gliii^ and 

^« rgyu Ssk. '^H I- 1- matter, substance, ma- 
^ terial^ rgyu hel-las crystal being the 
material; Mn-rgyu ingredients for making 
beer, i.e. barley, barm etc.; rgyu dgi-ba 
bsdgs-pas fdb-pa yin (the human body) is 
a substance obtained by accumulating virtue 
Thgy,;7id'ladgdS'rgyu cun I have few wants 
Mil.'^ also for substance in an emphatical 
sense, = nervus rerum , money Mil, ; bzd- 
rgyu matter or substance of which any 
thing is made or manufactured, material 
Glr, ; zd-rgyu med we have nothing to eat 
Glr.\ hence opportunity , chance, possibility, 
dd'ltar rgyu iig sudh-iio an opportunity 
offers now Dzl ; arrangements, preparation, 
^Jid-gyu )M'pa* C. to make preparations 
for a journey. In a special sense: material, 
stuff for weaving, warp, chain. — 2. cause, 
reason, motive, main condition, Tnya-ndn- 
las ^ddsf'pai rgyur ^yur it becomes the 
cause of Nirwana, i.e. it leads to Nirwana 
DzL\ in elliptical speech: Uia dan mii 
rgyur gyur-pai dg^-ba the virtue that leads 
to (the re -birth amongst) gods or men 
DzL ©V, 17 (Sch, incorr.); in the same 
manner wdw-80w rgyu-ru^^gro; rgyus c. genit. 
by reason of, on account of, in consequence 
of Tar,; &* rgyus why Stg,] rgyu mM-dUy 
med-^ar without the impulse of a foreign 
cause, spontaneously; without sufficient 
reason, without good cause, the Latin ^^ler^; 
rgyu dan rkyen Cs, and Sch, 'cause and 
effect', more correctly (cf. rkyen) : primary 
and secondary cause, which, certainly, 
sometimes coincides with ^origin and further 
development', and so, too, wdth 'cause and 
effect'; rgyu dan rkyen dei pyir^ del rgyu 
del rkyin-gyisy dei rdyu-rkyhiy therefore, 
on that account; in Med,: nyi-bai rgyu the 
three anthropological causes or conditions 
of diseases, the three 'humours', air, bile, 
and phlegm; rih-bai rgyu the ultimate 
cause of diseases, and of every evil, viz. 

ignorance (ma-rig^pa^ v. rig -pa) '^ skyM- 
byed rgyu the creative cause Zam.\ jpel- 
bai rgyu ni If^a the main condition, the 
efficient cause, of growth is the navel-string 
Med.; rgyu bySd-pa to be the principal 
cause of, to lie at the bottom of a matter 
MU,; rgyu skySd-pa to lay the foundation 
of Dzl. — 3. after verbal roots rgyu implies 
necessity, like our I am to, I have to, I am 
obliged to, I ought to; in later literature, 
as well as in the present col. language of 
C, it indicates the fut. tense: ^ds-skar yyd»- 
nas byid-rgyu'la whereas the holy dr- 
cnmabulation (v. skor-bal^ 2) ought to 
be performed from the right (to the left) 
Mil,; sddh-^gra ydl-rgyu-la as the enemy 
must vanish, or: is sure to come to an 
end Mil,; *soUc6g taUdig jhd-^yu yin^nam* 
C am I to lay the cloth? *dhd'ta td-ca 
zd'la ^dd-gyu yin* C. now I will go and 
dine; nai drun-du Jm-^^gyu yin-pa those 
that intended to come to me (the Latin 
'venturi') Glr,; dd4a rgyal-srid yfddr-rgyu- 
la when the government was to be con- 
ferred upon him, when he was to enter 
upon his reign Glr,; rta hdn^rgyu med 
(riding-) horses were not to be had Ghr, 
— When appended to adjectives, it is a 
mere pleonastical addition: dkdn-rgyu med 
that is not a very precious thing, there 
is nothing particular in that Mil.; atn- 
rgyui Uta-Kdn a very small temple Jfi/.; 
yidn^pas Ugs-rgyu med he is not more 
beautiful than others Glr, ; yor-m^sdn-rgyu- 
med that is not to be wondered at; ^gg- 
gyu m^n* C, that is useless. 

Comp. rgyu-rkyhi (v. above sub no. 2) 
connection, meaning, signification, rgyfi- 
rkyen bsad^du ysol please explain to me 
the connection, which is often used in a 
general sense &= what does that mean? 
what is that? Glr,, but also in a special 
sense relative to law-suits: ^Uyg-kyi gyti- 
kyen hii-la jdo* C. I am going to tell what 
it is with you, i.e. I shall inform against 
you, bring an action against you. — rgyu- 
M col. that which belongs to a thing, an 
appurtenance, necessary implement etc. — 

A'Sy rgyiir-ba 

rgyurjn^ds cause and effect or consequence, 
gen. in a moral sense: actions and their 
fraits {ld8'hfirgyy^Jbrd£)\ also the doctrine 
treating on this subject, the doctrine of re- 
tribution, the principal dogma of Buddhism, 
prop. : las-rgyu-Jbrds-kyi ?os ; la^-rgifW'Jyrdji- 
la yid-^es'pa to believe in the doctrine 
of retribution Glr, — rgyu - mfsdn (Ssk. 
fiffinT) 1- cause, rgyu-mfsdn ^dri-ba to 
ask after the cause Glr.; rgyu-mfsdn hh- 
rgyus Jbri^ba to question closely, to examine 
rigorously M7.; the connection of events, 
the manner in which a thing has come 
to pass, nai ndn-nas pye Icy^-bai rgyv/- 
mUdn sod tell me how it was that you 
could fetch the flour from my house, how 
you were able to accomplish it Mil, nt 
2. token, sign, characteristic, proof, evidence, 
^dug-pai rgyu-misdn as an evidence of 
being . . . Glr, 

IL instead of rgyu-^ma, 
A'q* rgyu'ba to go, wallc, move, wander, 
^ range, of men, animals, and fig. of 
lifeless things, cu-la rgyu^bai ^dab-cdgs 
birds firequenting the water; kun-tu rgyu-^ 
ba to wander from one place to another, 
hence: kun^tu-rgyu itinerant monk, n. of 
a sect of the Brahmans Dzl, ; rlun rgyu- 
bai rtsa those veins in which air is cir- 
culating, cf. rtsa and rlun; also c. accus.: 
iful, or ffron rgyu-ba to rove through coun- 
tries, through villages; rgyu-^rdny btsdn- 
gyi rgtfU'Srdn the road that is frequented 
by the btsan (a kind of demons). — rgyu" 
sidr V. below. 

A^ rgyu-ma 1. entrails, intestines, bowels, 
^ esp. the small intestines, opp. to Ion- 
ka the large intestines; rgyu Jiril-ba con- 
whfdus infestinorum Sch, (?) ; rgyu Jirdg- 
pa the croaking of the bowels Sch.; r^gj/u- 
sgrog the caul, covering the lower intestines ; 
rggU'Stod the upper bowels, rgyu-smdd 
the lower bowels Cs, ; rgyttr^ndd disease of 
the bowds; rgyu-yzer colic. — 2. sausage, 
*ff}f*t^^fna gydn-^joa* C, (v. 8gy6n'bd)y ^kdn- 
c^ W. to stuff sausages; ^gyu-ma kar- 
gydh* meat-sausage, meat-pudding, *gyu' 
yna nag-gydn* black-pudding C. 

^ rgyud 


rv^x^rgyu'skdr the lunar mansions, Ssk, 
^ "^^, or those 'constellations' through 

which the moon 'passes' in her revolution 
round the heavens; ace. to Wdk, and others 
they are the following: ofa-skar (jBbhodbgug- 
gu) three stars in the Ram's head; ^ bra- 
nye (conceived by the Brahmans to be 
the image of the yon{)\ ^ miin^drugy the 
Pleiades; ^ be-rdzi, snar-nia; ^ mgOy smal- 
po; V lag; >S nabs-so, rgyal-stody nam-so; 
V rgyaUsmad; Hskag, wa; Qmhi, rta-pa, 
rta-lSen (with Regulus its brightest star); 
7^ grSy rtaUy rta-iun; 97 dbo^ Ura; 9^ me- 
bli, bya^ma; 9^ nag-pa^ byau (with Spica); 
9^ sa-ri; 9^ sa-ga; 9S Iha-mtsarmy lag- 
9V snron, Ideu (with Antares); 9L 


snrubsy sog-pa: 9Q cur-stod; ^ cu-87nad,pul; 
:^9 gro'biin and byi-bHn (considered as 
one constellation); ^^Trum-gre^ rrum-dre; 
smad; ^vS narn-gruy he-^a. 
fficrrq- rgyug-pa, pf. brgyug^, fut. brgyu^ 
^ ' 1. to run, frq.; to make haste, to 
hurry, to rush, sgor to the door (out of 
the room) Dzl, , , . kyi fdg-tu upon . . . Dzl. ; 
*hd-la gyttg* be off! get jou gone! C. 1. 
to start (of a rail-way train) W. ; rta-rgyug- 
pa to ride full speed, to gallop; also sbst. 
race Glr, — 2. to go, to pass, to circulate, 
to be current; to be valid, to have force. 
«TOJ' ^9y^^ J^*^' 5 ^^' • ^i^^ term, aim, 
^' end; W.: task, lesson. 
Mmv^r "^ffy^s^'P^ pride, ambition Sch,; 
^^ grief, sorrow /S<?An(?). 
-— .— . r^j/ti^-ia the nerves, sinews /ScA.; 
^ cf. brgyuns-pa, 

rgyud 1. Ssk. Tpff, 'jfifft string, cord, 
but only in certain relations: the string 
of a bow ; rgycnrgyud Chinese string Mil. ; 
string, chord, of a musical instrument, 
rgyud-mdns harp; chain, v. lu-gu; mostly 
fig.: W-r^^tirf,^aw«-rp^ywdchain of mountains, 
ridge of snowy hills; also thread of tra- 
dition, i.e. continuous, uninterrupted tra- 
dition, so in: Ha -rgyud, dgom^gyud, cos- 
rgyud y bka -rgyud (v. bka, compounds); 
8nyan-rgyud=bka-^gyud^ frq. in Mil, ; ytam- 
rgyud Zam. legendary tradition. — If used 


^'Cf rgyud^pa 

for expressing a succession of generations 
or families, the word is gen. written brgyud^ 
rarely rgyud^ e.g. rje-btsun shb-rgyiid dan 
bcas'te his reverence (the venerable divine) 
with his race of scholars, in as much as 
the disciples of a saint are frequently called 
his spiritual children Mil. — 2. treatise, 
dissertation, Ssk. tj jfi, also rgud-sde^ esp. the 
necromantic books of the mysticism of 
later times Was. (184), in four classes, the 
so-called four classes of Tantras (rgyud^ 
sde bzi): bi/d-bai rgifud, spyddrpai rgyudy 
imal-Jbyor rgyud, i-nal-J^yoi" bla-na-med- 
pai rgyud; yet rggud bzi is also the short 
title of a medical work consisting of four 
parts : rtsd-bai rgyud, bhdd-pai rgyud, vian- 
nag rgyud, pyi-rnai rgyud. — 3. connection, 
relation, reference, e.g. of a word.(?) — 
i. character, disposition of mind, natural 
quality; heart, soul; rgyud bzdn^o& good 
disposition, rgyud ndn^a a bad disposition ; 
rgyud li-ba a mild disposition, good nature, 
rgytcd ^dm-pa a soft temperament Cs.; 
rgyud ma -- rum -pa a wicked character 
Thgy.; sem-gyu 6'., se-gyu ('., Mil, prob. 
also tng-rgyud Mil., character; rah-rgyud 
nan-pat ^gdn^o ful restrain the demon of 
your own wicked heart Mil. ; of thoughts, 
feelings, passions, also of a tin-ne-dzin is 
said: rgyud-la shye they arise in the soul; 
rgyud smin the mind ripens Mil.; in some 
phrases and passages it designates a man^s 
whole personality: rdn-gi rgud fog-tu ten- 
pa to take (other people's) sufferings al- 
together upon one's own person (not merely 
to heart) Glr.; ran-rgyud-la brtdg-pa, yban^ 
rgyud'la sbydr-ba to think a matter through 
in one's own mind, to draw conclusions 
from an attentive observation of others, 
Thgy. — Concerning ran-rgytid, ^mAyzan- 
rgyitd (^^nT^ & TT^Tf^Sf) in the more recent 
philosophical writings, andinmedical works, 
v. Was. — rgyud- cdgs Tar. 15, 14, ace. to 
Schf. sentence, thesis, point. — don-rgyud, 
sgi'ub^rgyud Mil. ? 

S^'V '^W^^'P^ I. vb ., pf . brgyus an d brgyud, 
^ ' fut. brgyu, imp. rgyud, 1. to fasten 
or file on a string, to string, fd-gvAa hrgyus- 


pa strung, filed on a string Stg. ; ys^-nyag- 
fag yyu brgyits-pa a gold chain with tur- 
quoises inserted Mil. — 2. to pass through 
or over, to traverse (later literature and 
col.) milage rgyud-nas ^on famine passes 
over, prevails in the country Ma.-, *ndn' 
na nan gyiid-de dvl* W. be passes from 
one room to the other, he visits room after 
room; *nyiih-ti-ne cfyud-na gdr-la fan* W. 
he is passing through Kullu to Gar; lag- 
^rivi-gyis brgyus -pas v. ogrirn; yi^-ndr 
brgyud-pa an error in writing has crept 
in Tar.; stdn-pa ysum ras-cun-pa brgyudr- 
nas zer the three teachers, using Ras-iun- 
pa ^ B, go-between, said . . . , — they sent 
word by Ras-cun-pa to this effect Mil. 

II. sbst. and adj. 1. prop, a participle 
used a. actively; rgyud-^a (or brgyudrpa) 
one that is transmitting knowledge, a 
teacher; rgyud-pa bzdn-poi byin-rlabs-^an 
one that enjoys the blessing of having an 
excellent spiritual teacher Mil. ; nai rgyikdr- 
pa rdo-rye-^can-cen yin Mil. (in this in- 
stance it would be justifiable to write brgyud- 
pa, and, regarding this as a derivative of 
brgyud, to translate it with ^ancestor'). — 
b. used passively: rdo-rye-JSan-nas nyams- 
rtdgs rgyud-pa de nd-ro lags he to whom 
knowledge was communicated by Dor^e- 
can is Naro Mil.; nd-ro ^en-poi rgyud-pa 
a scholar of greatiVaro Mil. — 2. a derivative 
of rgyud 2., a Tantrika, a mystic. 
jLr-^«f- rgyud-ris a term used in architec- 
^^ ture, wall, panel (?). 

g^'Sjc^' rgyud-ldri bolt, door-bar Sch. 

rgyun, Ssk. ^\^^^ a continual flowing, 
the flow, current or stream (seldom river; 
perh. smig-^yyui rgyun Lex. a river seen 
by a mirage or fata morgana (?); gdn-gai 
rgyun the river Ganges); cu-rgyun-gyis 
Jky^-ba to be carried away by the current; 
rgyun^du zugs-pa v. Jyrds-bu bzi; frq. fig. 
fugS'/yei rgyun stream of grace Glr., and 
sim. in some compounds; of ten in reference 
to time, hence rgyun-du continually, per- 
petually, always, dus-rgyiin-du id.; *dlm- 
gyun ta-bhu jM hig* C. make it as usual! 


^^ ri 


^' sffan 

snar-gyi rgyun all the time before, opp. 
to da-ltar now; also for ordinarily, predo- 
minailtly, e.g. ordinarily it is white, only 
by way of exception it is of another colour; 
Kor^yun = ka-rgyud tradition ; rgyun-^os 
an every day coat, opp. to yzdb^os ; rgyun- 
^dgy and more frq. rgyun^fdd an inter- 
nption of flowing, of progress, hence rgyuiv- 
iSadrindd-pary or rgyun-mi^cdd-par uninter- 
ruptedly; rgyun-zdsdidiy food] rgyun-rin-ba 
lasting, of long continuance; rgyun -lam 
an endless, interminable way, to be pur- 
sued again and again, e.g. ^^yr-Aai of trans- 
migration, byan-'Sitb^kyi of virtue, holiness 

rrgyus 1. v. rgyu. — 2. (Cs. rgyiis- 
ma) notice, intelligence, knowledge, nd- 
la de-i gyu8 yod I am acquainted with it, 
1 know the thing, I am up to it, frq.; W.: 
^gyus ydd'Uan* one that knows about it; 
*^yM5 yddrpai lam* a well-known road ; ca- 
Tndd yuUdu rgyus-m^d Jh/am as a stranger 
1 am rambling through a foreign country 
Glr.\ h-rgyus 1. annate, chronicle, 2. in a 
general sense history, story, tale, narrative, 
l(Mrgyu% biddrpa to relate a story Glr., *nd- 
la lo-gy&s sdd-^e mdn-po yod* W. I have 
mach to relate, to tell; lo^rgyus ^b-tu ^dri- 
ba to ask closely, to inquire minutely into 
a story i/f7.; gdn-gi lo-rgyus bhdd-do he 
reported what was related above Pth, ; also 
used of any short notice or intelligence, 
without reference to things past: der Jby&n- 
pat IcMrgyus ymim he mentioned that he 
was going there MU. 

r^ rgyuji-pa the fine threads or fibres 
of which animal muscle, plants etc. 
are composed ; rgyiis-pa^han fibrous ; rgyus- 
skud catgut. 

^q- ^^o-*«j pf- l^ffyos, fut. brgyoy imp. 
^ rgyoty to unite in sexual embrace. 
This word is an undisguised, and therefore 
somewhat obscene expression, which in 
books and in col. language is avoided, 
though referring to an act not criminal in 
itself^ as C%. seems to have understood it, 
when he translates rgyo^ba by: to abuse, 
constnprate, ravish; hence it is allowable. 

yet vulgar, to say: ^^d-pa dan 'd-ma gyd- 
wa jhe^* C. 

Tf^'O' rgydn-ba, pf. brgyam, fut. brgyan^ 
^ seems to be a secondary form of 
rkydit'ba, to extend, stretch, spread (vb. a.); 
the word is to be found in Lexa;,^ but seems 
to be little used ; brgydm-pai md-fsa Pth. 
a disease consisting in some parts of the 
body being morbidly distended (?). 

g^n'n* rgydb-pa Cs,, a secondary form of 
^ rgydb-pa, prob. but a provincialism. 

gj- Iga, also sga, Wf^X OinO®** (fresh or 

^ dried); Iga-rlon fresh ginger. 

Qjr-P' Igan-ni Pth,: skya-lgan-n^, is stated 

^ to mean: perfectly white. 

nsT'cv Ig^n-pa, Igan-pug urinary bladder 

^ ^.Med, 

gp'^ Igdn-bu, = gdn-bu, husk, pod. Shell. 
gj^'Tj^^' Igau-yh^r Cs. «= Iga-rlon. 

§}' Igo Cs. = pa-ba-dgo-dgd puff-ball. 

q^xr^' Igydm-fswa = rgydm-fsa Zam., a 
2! ^ kind of rock-salt 
R|- sga 1. gen. Ibd-sga, bba-sga, ginger, = 
^ Iga; sga-skyd Lt id. (?); sgd-pt-po Lt, 
prob. for sga dan pi-pi-lin dan pd-ba-ri 
ginger and two kinds of black pepper; sga- 
spydd Sch, = sga- sky d. — 2. saddle, rtor 
sga (Ld. *stdsga*) horse-saddle; sga bstdd- 
pa, resp. cibs-sga bstdd-pa Glr., to lay the 
saddle on, to saddle; sga-KSs saddle-cloth, 
Sch,: the leather cover or coating of a 
saddle; sga-gld saddle-girth W., C; sga- 
Idg Cs. : frame of the saddle ; saddle-bow, 
saddle-tree; sga-hd straps for fastening the 
travelling - baggage to the saddle, cf. ^a- 
stdg 2. 

^^' sga-pdh bat, flitter-mouse Sch. 

«yr* ^^^^ 1* & projecting hill or spur, on 
^^ the side of a larger mountain; sgan- 
ysdh elevations and depressions on a hill- 
side, in Kun. sgarl-Hul; sgdn-Ua-la yod (the 
village) is situated on a mountain- spur; 
*sgan gydb-na* W. when you have passed 
round the extremity of the hill. — 2. cu- 



gjC'q* sgan-ba 



sgdn a blister, caused by vesicatories, by 
loDg marches etc., C, Wr^ cf. bsgan, 
jaC'n' sgan-ba y pf. bsga/ts, fut. bsgan , tO 
^ grow or become full 6'«.,- bud-m^d 
ndso^sgan a marrigeable girl, 
■wq-q- sgab'pa, secondary form of ogebs- 
^ jt>a, byd-mas bu-la sgab-pa the cov- 

ering of a young bird by its mother Glr. ; 
gos'sgdb Lea^.y skirt or lap of a coat, sgab- 
fun a short skirt. 

Rm« sgavi chest, box, trunk; sgam-cuh a 
^ little chest or box; sgamr-bu id. ; sgavi- 
sgo-mdiis a chest of drawers, cabinet C; 
sin-sgam a wooden chest, Udgs-sgam an 
iron chest; kd-sgam a leather trunk; ro- 
sgam, resp. sptir - s^am coffin Cs. — syn. 

gOT-q* sgdni-pa, or sgdm-po Cs. deep, pro- 
^^ found, ScA. also prudent, quiet; Leoj, dubious. 
bh-sgam w.e. Only the following phrase 
came under my notice: fugs htn-tu sgdmr- 
mo he (the prince) is very clever (as a 
legendary explanation and confirmation of 
the name sron-btsan-sgdmr^o). Prob. ob- 
MX' sg<^^* camp, encampment, dmag-sgdr a 

Sprq^ ^^'P^y pf- bsgugs, fut. bsgug, imp. 
^ ' sgug(s\ to wait, zld-ba ydig sgug- 
pa to wait for a month Glr.; to await, to 
expect, ^dt-ba death Mil.; Idm-na sgitg^a 
to wait on the rood MU.\ sgug-bin sdddr 
pa J W.: ^giig-te dddrh^ to sit waiting; *'i- 
m giig-te ddd^ W. wait here! sgug-tu Jug- 
pa to keep one waiting Glr. ; to lie in wait 
(for a person), to waylay; )dg'pas sgug-ptd 
sa a place where robbers are lying in am- 
bush Mil. ; *Uon gitg-te dddrce* W. to bear 
a grudge, to have a spite against a person. 
n^^j sgun Ld. clap, crack, crash, report (of 
5 a gun). 
^^^ sgud-po father-in-law, sgud-mo 
! ' mother-in-law Sch. prov. 

sgum-mda Schr, butt -end of a 
gun, gun-stock C, W.; speUing 


military camp, sgar ^d^bs-pa to pitch 
a camp; sgar-min C. watch-word, parole, 
= bso^grd. 

fupi- sgal load of a beast of burden, rta^ 
^ sgal a horse-load, hin-rtai sgal a cart- 
load, waggon-load Cs. ; sgal ^d-ba to put 
on a load, ^drir-ba to throw it off, J)6gS' 
pa to take it off, sgal bsrau-ba to adjust 
or balance it; sgdl-rta pack-horse, sgal- 
pyugs beast of burden. 
FjQj'n' sgdl'pa 1 . the small of the back, sgdl-- 
^ * ^dais the lumbar region Med. — 2 
the croup, crupper, back of a horse Glr.; 
*gdl'pa ton dug* W. the back comes out, 
i.e. has become sore or galled; sgal-fsigs- 
Med.y sgal'i'us col. backbone, spine; sgal- 
i^id a sore on a animal's back caused by 
the load. 

H*Sm?r ^9^^^^9^ ^^- ^•®-5 ^^' cK^^w, 
5^ '' angle. 

S^ sgu-rdd a sling Sch. 

S^ sgur V. dgur. 

giQrg- sgid'ba vb. a. (cf. ffful-ba^ p£ and 

^ fut. bsgul, to move, agitate, put in 
motion, rgytid kg an ma sgul-^to he could 
not even move the bow-string DzL; to pull 
(e.g. the bell-string). 

sgeu 1 . diminutive of 8^a, ginger, ftgeu' 
ysh* Med., Ssk. IRT^^ (Hind, adrak), 
fresh ginger. — 2. a small dOOr. 

SotcI' ^9^9'P^ ^^'' *^ boast, brag; yet not 
^ ' so much vrith respect to words as 
to looks and demeanour, so that it may 
be applied to the airs of coquettish girls 
{sgig-Hh mdz^-pa coquettish Mil., Sig.) 
as well as to the bearing of insolent young- 
sters and bullies, sg^g^ma n. of a goddess; 
sgeg-mo Lex. HT^T? * dancing girl. 
^C^'f^' sgM'la, or dgen-la (?) on, upon Ts. 

^x: sff^ Sch.: 'different, dissimilar, foreign'. 
^ This word I repeatedly met with in 
books of physical science, without finding 
the signification given above applicable. 
i^^ sgo 1. door, the aperture itseU^ as well 
^ as the wood- work of the door: sgo Jbyidr 
pa, W. ^jd'ce"^, to open the door; ^ojvg- 
pa* J. C. to put in a door,' to hang a door 
on hinges 2. W. to dose, to shut the door; 





yM'pa 1. to shut, 2. to lock fa door); 
^gyog^tty gydb^a* C, to shut (the door); 
ytdn^pa Sch.: 'to lock up', prop, to bolt, 
to bar, V. sffo-ytdn; bkitmr-pa^ bskum-pa Cs.: 
resp. to shut (a door); sgo bdiiii-ba to 
knock, to rap at the door; *go hiig-ga rag* 
W, I hear a rattling or rapping at the 
door. The ground floor of a house into 
which the door leads, is generally occu- 
pied by the cattle, hence: sgoi pyugs the 
cattle near the door, opp. to: pugs kyi nor 
the money in the inner chamber farthest 
{rom the door, cattle and money being thus 
the two poles or terminating points of 
household property. — rgydl-sgo the prin- 
cipal door or entrance of a house or cham- 
ber (in Ld. also: *gydz-^o*). — sff^^fg-^go 
folding-door Cs, — Mb ^ sgo resp. for sgo 
Cs,, cf. ysdn-sgo. — rtd-sgo a door which 
may be passed through on horseback, viz. 
the door or gate of a court-yard or gar- 
den, open at the top, or a high castle-gate; 
in the latter case syn. to rgydl-sgo, — ndn- 
sgo the innermost door, bdr-sgo the middle 
door, pyi'Sgo the outer door Pth, — fs^- 
sgo V. 2, Ids-^o v. 3. — UUsgo glass-door; 
wing of a window, casement; ysdn-sgo se- 
cret door; Cs, resp, for sgo (?). — 2. the 
boards that form the pane or square of a 
door, hence beard, plank, v. sgo-rrtdm\ fsi- 
sgo a Chinese punishment, consisting of a 
thick board with an opening for the neck 
oi the culprit, and resting on his shoul- 
ders; sgo yydg-pa to put on the board of 
punishment — bse-sgo dan Iddgs-sgo bdun 
sbrags a door constructed of sevenfold lay- 
ers of leather and iron, used as a butt for 
shooting at — 3. the aperture of a door, 
and hence aperture in general: sgo kun- 
nas from all the apertures (of the body); 
idl-ggi sgo resp. mouth DzL ; mndl-sgo the 
opening of the womb (v. m/ial) frq. ; sky^- 
bed sgo id. less frq. Thgy,; dkyiU^kor sgo- 
bhi-pa a square figure with four openings, 
about thus : [ ] ; the opening of a semi- 
circle; entrance, passage, outlet, connecting 
passage, communication ; also fig : way of 
mediation, of bringing. an agreement about, 

nan^dn-^ sgo the entrance, the road, to 
misery viz.: to hell; dbdh-poi sgo the or- 
gans of sense, also sgo Ina alone ; sgo-ysiim 
the three media or spheres of moral acti- 
vity, lv»j nag, yid, action, word and thought 
frq.; bzd-ba dan btun-bai sgo ^rog-pa 
to cut off the supply (of provisions) 
Pth,; bdag cos sgor oJ^'P^ ^ I ^^S ^^ 
allow us to enter religion, to receive 
us as students or disciples Mil,; ^d- 
sgo Schr, 1. also bud^o, Mf^g-go W., ex- 
pense, expenditure 2. dd^o-tar he^-pa C, 
to relate accurately how a thing came to 
pass; Ids-sgo *door of intercourse, of traded 
a commercial place or town, emporium Glr, 
Hence sgd-nas with the genit by means of, 
by, in the way of, according to, but never 
as connected with a person or joined to 
an infinitive : tabs du-mai sgd-nas in diffe- 
rent ways, variously (often coinciding with: 
by various means); his nag yid-kyi sgd- 
nas in or by actions, words, and thoughts 
(e.g. to strive for virtue, cf. above sgo- 
ysum) DzL; mam^a sna-fsdys-kyi sgd-nas 
in every possible way Dzh; dpei sgd-nas 
(to explain) by way of comparison Thgy,; 
mfsan-nyid-kyi sgd-nas (to describe a thing) 
according to its characteristics Thgy,; ngs- 
kyi sgd-nas (to divide) according to the 
species Lt, ; ^drd-hai sgd-nas btugs-min ste 
it being a name given to it from its re- 
semblance to . . . Wdn,; , , , la prag-dog-gi 
sgd-nas from envy of . . . Mil,; mi-snan-bai 
sgd - nas by way of invisibility, by being 
invisible Wdn, 

Comp. and deriv. sgo-Jidn the entrance 
into a house, vestibule, porch, portal. — sgo- 
Uiin opening of the door Mil, — sgo-Hyi 
a door -guarding dog, watch -dog. — sgo- 
Jc6r hinge of a door or gate. — sgo-gldgs 
Zam. = sgo-) tan (?). — sgo^Ugs the board 
or plank of a door Cs, — sgo-^mm the 
space near the door. — sgo-jdrig (Z^. "^sgon- 
dig*) door-frame, window - frame. — sgo- 
rgydb the space behind the door, within 
the door Glr, — *go-Mg* (Uiags) C, lock 
of a door. — *go{gytdn* a bar or bolt (a 
small beam) to secure the door with. — 







sgo'thn threshold, also the head-piece of a 

door. — sgo-bddg = sgo-dpon, — sgo-mdm 
a single board, e.g. of Uie floor. — sgd- 
puy resp. Mbs'sgO'pa door-keeper, porter; 
sgO'dpdn the first, principal door-keeper. 
— *go'pin* W, door-hinge. — sgo-^pdr board 
or plank of a door Gs. — sgo-bdr Ld, 
chinks between the separate laths of a door 
(for of such the doors in Tibet frequently 
consist, owing to the scarcity of wood). — 
sgd-mu 1. pane or square of a door, fold 
of a folding-door; 2. a masked dancer in 

religious dramatic entertainments, repre- 
senting one of the four guardians of the ^(51^ ^g6-lo 1. v. %g6^, — 2. Ld. 
world (v. rgual'^hi). — sgd-mo 1. a large ^ sgo-nd. 

* ^L 

(v. rgyal'^hi). — sgd-mo 1. a large 
door, a gate, castle-gate, town-gate; 2. be- 
ginning, rtsiS'kyi sgd-^mo Ptii, = rtsh-^o Cs. 
^^Chronol. Table) beginning of a new epoch. 
— sgo-mtsdms the small openingleft between 
door-post and door, when the latter does 
not perfectly fit. — ^go-y^'g Cs, i. inscrip- 
tion, 2. lampoon, libel, 3. a magisterial ad- 
vertisement fastened to a door. — ago -Id 
n. of a high and difficult mountain -pass 
between Lhasa and Pah, v. Hue. I. p. 244. 
^ — sgo'srun door-keeper^ porter Dzl. 

S^ sgOj in sky^-sgo v. sub sgd-po. 

^ry sgo^id or sgon-nd and agorly egg, Oggs, 
^ spawn, also egg as a measure Lt; 
sgon-dhis the pellicle, membrane of an 
egg Sch.; sgdn-^u the white of an egg ScL; 
sgon-Mn, or kog, the shell of an egg; sgon- 
8^ yolk of an egg Sch, — 5^0 - na pyed 
a scholastic term, v. Was. (274). 

^^^ sgo-pur foreskin, prepuce C. vulg. 

^if ^9^'P^y ^^^ 8^(i-6o, (Ijd, *gd'po*) W. 
^ 1. the body, with respect to its phy- 
sical nature and appearance, *gd-po chi- 
Tuo , rin-Tno, go-rin^ go-zdrt tall, ^gd-po 
ctt/i'Se* of small stature, short; *rdm^o* 
stout, lusty;, ^fd-mo* slender, thin; *cfe- 
wo* healthy, well; *^o-yaZ*aman that has 
lost his own body by gaming and become 
the slave of another. — 2. = skyi-sgo face, 
countenance, skye-sgo legs a beautiful face, 
M7i'8go an ugly face Mil — sgd-h 1 . body. 


2. face, as a flattering word; also directly 
for a nice or pretty face, *g6'lo min dug 
bag fsogs yod* she has not a pretty face, 
but looks like a fright W, 
^q- sgd-ba, pf. bsgo (bsgos in L^jw., prob. 
^ obsolete) to say, when used of sup- 
eriors, hence mostly to bid, to order (of. 
the article bka init.), frq. in early litera- 
ture, in later times more and more dis- 
appearing, being unknown to the common 

^^ sgo-tsdm a little Sch. 

also => 

sgdg-pa, (Ssk. ^pftfi) garlic, leek, 

(Allium); ri^gdg Med. Allium 
sphaeroceph. L., or a species allied to it; 
sgog-shyd Med, Allium nivale Jacqm. (?); 
sgog-sndn Med. perh. A. rubellum, a blue 
species, very common in the Himalaya. 
— sgog-tin mortar, sgog-ytun pestle, for 
bruising leek. 

Scrrq* ^9^9^<^ l- Cs.: 'pf. bsgags, fut. 
^ ' bsgagj to make one swear, sgdg^ 
one that makes a person swear.' I only 
met with mna-sgdg Lex, w. e. — 2. yya 
sgdg-pa v. yya. 

Kr' ^9oh 1. V. sgo-nd, — 2. n. of a coun- 
^ try, prob. = kon Glr. — 3. sgon-fdg- 
pa n. of a plant Med. 
SC^'n* sgdn-ba^ pf. bsgons, fut. bsgon^ imp. 
^ sgon (s), 1. to make round, globular 
6s.; so it is prob. to be understood in: 
bu-^dm bsgdr-zin bsgrdm-nas bsgons Lex,, 
he having boiled down the sugar and 
allowed it to grow cold, formed it into 
balls (in this form the sugar is usually 
kept in Tibet). — 2. to hide or conceal 
a thing Sch,^ thus in ^gon-te bdr-de* W.; 
cf. also dpd'Sgon-ba. 
Kq-^CT sgob'sgdb unable, deficient, wanting 

^ ^ in strength Sch. ; *ldg-pa gob-son* 

Ku7i. the hands are unable (to move), stiff 

(from cold). 

sgom reflection, meditation, contem- 
plation, sgom hdr-gyi ddgs-pa the fear 

lest contemplation should be prejudiced 


^$rcr sffdmrpa 

or rendered impossible Mil, ; sgom si^un-ba 
to sastaiD, to preserve meditation (undis- 
turbed) Mil. ; sgom-mid without meditation 

w sg6m~pa I. vb., pf. bsgomSy fut. 
bsgorriy imp. 8gom(s), resp. f^rs 
sgthn-^a (Ssk. m, causative m^^) 1 . ori- 
ginally: to fancy, imagine; meditate, con- 
template, consider, c. accus. and dat.; to 
have, to entertain, to produce in one's mind, 
= dcyidrj>a^ e. g. bzddrpa^ snyin-^ey by arm- 
pa etc.; rgyim-du nam Jci M-med sgom 
always consider that it is uncertain at 
what time yon shall die Mil,; with the 
accus. and termin., or with a double accus.; 
to loolc upon, to represent to one's self 
as ... , ^grd-^brug-shns-dan pa-mar sgom 
look upon the beings of the six classes 
as being your parents Mil.^ viz. with the 
same respect and affection, or even so^ 
that you imagine your father s or your 
mother's soul inhabiting just now the ani- 
mal body of one of those beings; rmi-lam 
%(!y&'-ma sgom look upon it as being the 
illusion of a dream Mil, — 2. In later 
times sg&mr-pa became the usual term for 
the systematic meditation of the Buddhist 
saint, so that this word, and the expressions 
tih-ne-jiziip-du ^iig-pa^ and bsam-ytdn 
sgriib-pa^ which in classical writings de- 
note the concentration of the mind upon 
one point or subject, e. g. upon a certain 
deity^ Iha, prob. imply one and the same 
thing. Three degrees of this systematic 
meditation are to be distinguished, viz. 
Itd'ba contemplation^ sg&nwpa meditation, 
properly so called, (which requires ysal 
dan mi-rtog m^i-yyens ysum^ i.e. that it 
be performed in a clear and decided man- 
ner, without suffering one's self to be 
disturbed or distracted by any thing), and 
the third degree spy6d-pa^ exercise and 
practice, which three distinctions will be 
somewhat elucidated by the following: 
bzd(jbai)-ytad(^so) ydd-na bltd-ba 7nin, 
bjfin-rgod yddr-na sgdm^pa min^ btdn-dor 
yddrna spydd-pa min^ if one lives plen- 
teously, there is no contemplation (pos- 

^^ sgos 


sible); where there is inattention and a 
distracted mind, meditation cannot take 
place; where there is desire or disgust, 
exercise and practice are not (to be thought 
of) Mil, 14, 11. Hence contemplation would 
seem to be more immediately opposed to 
the rule of sense, meditation to the rule 
of imagination, practice to the rule of 
passion; v. also Was, 037), Kopp, I, 585. 
Sometimes contemplation and meditation 
are also opposed to fds-pa, and bsdm-pa, 
hearing and knowing, as to mere acts of 
memory and intellect. — sg&m^'paypo Cs,, 
sgom-by^j sgdmr^ml'an Mil, one that me- 
ditates, an ascetic; sg&m-ma fem. Mil, — 
sgom-chi 1. a great meditator (so Mil, often 
calls himself). 2. a kind ol field-mouse, La- 
gomys badius Hook, II, 156. — * sgom-fag 
'meditating-cord', a cord or rope slung by 
the laxer sects round their bodies, in order 
to facilitate the effort of maintaining an 
erect and immoveable posture during me- 
ditation, which expedient of course is scorn- 
ed by the more rigid devotees. 

II. sbst. 1. meditation. — 2. Cs,: 'the 
state of being accustomed to' (prob. erron, 
for goms-pd), 

^'(^' sgom-^b)^dg (?) holly. Ilex. Sik. 

Jx* sgor a spindle in turning-lathes? v. 
the next word. 
Kx-n' sg6f*-ba 1. pf. and fut. bsgar, to boil 
^ down, to condense by boiling, e. g. 

bti^rdm sugar. — 2. to turn on a lathe, W, 
*gdr-la f^-de*, 

^x^ sgdr-mo (perh. also skdr-mo) 1 . round, 
^ e. g. of leaves, Wdn, and elsewh. — 
2 a circle. — 3. a disic, a globe; hence a 
rupee W,; a semi-globular bowl or vessel 
W,^ sgor 'fig circular line, circumference, 
circle; sgor-ftg py^-ba Cs,, pyed-ka Schr, 

kj«T* sgos, in compounds and as adverb: 
^ private, separate, distinct; privately etc., 
opp. to spyiy e. g. spyi-ydiigs a parasol for 
several persons, awning, shelter, sgos-ydugs 
a parasol for one person Glr,; sgds-skal 
share of a single person, individual lot 



^Ppi" sgyiu, sffyig-gu 



MU,'^ sgdS'SUj or sffos adv., (opp. to spyir) 
particularly, especially; sgoS'Qcyt)^ dpon a 
subaltern officer Cs.; sgds-pa Sch,: ^to 
choose^ to find the right thing'. 

§^' ^crar ^9y^^^ ^gy^g-g^ bag, purse; 

sdn-nas our purse being at low ebb; d/mZ- 
sfft/ig money-bag, purse. 
&r 'gr sgy^n-btty pf. bsgt/tris, fut bsgyin^ 1. 
S^ ace. to Lexx. = Ssk. n^ syn. to 
gldl-ba, to yawn, gape, and perh. to stretch 
one's self after having slept; it is almost 
exclusively used in describing the attitude 
of a dying lion, and so also the dying 
attitude of Buddha. — 2. perh. also = 

^svn'\ ^g^'d(-p^)^^' the hollow of the 
3 '^ ^ knee, bend of the knee; knee- 
joint; sgyid^a yiddr-pa to lame the knee- 
joint, to hamstring (a horse) Glr, — 2. 
the caH (of the leg) AIiL\ sgyid shjiir-ha 
acute pain in the knee and leg e.g. of a 
woman with child Med,; C«.; 'to despair ? 

— sgyid-Uun the hollow of the knee Med. 

— sgyid-Hyol one lame in his legs Cs. — 
sgyid'lug-pa Lea;, w. e., Cs.: slothful, idle, 
lazy; sgyid-lhdd Sch, id. 

fr'fl- sgyidrbuy also sgyid-bu, a hearth, 
' ^ fire-place, consisting of (three) stones 
on which the kettle is placed; Uagssgyid 
iron trevet, tripod, cf. sgy^d-po, 

fsgyu artifice, imposture Dzl. and elsewh., 
ygo-^gyu id.; yyo-sgyurmied-na if he is 
without guile DzL; ^gyu-can artful, crafty, 
cunning, Cs. — sgytL-jprul-mUj 4Hen, the 
name of Buddha's mother. — sgyu-ina^ 
Tfpsff, illusion, false show, deception of sight, 
opp. to dnos reality; sgyu-ma sprul4)a to 
exhibit a false show Cs, ; nas sndn-ba tarns- 
Md sgyu-mar ses I know that every thing 
visible, the whole external world, is only 
an illusion MiL; sgyu-mai Twr apparent 
riches, hence riches in general MU. (cf. 
sgyu-lus)', sgyu-nna-mUan a juggler Milr^ 
sgyu - ma - mUan - gyi m can - bu, sgyu - mat 
mcdn-bu a juggler's apprentice Lexa;, — 
sgyu-rtsdl art. Skill, dexterity, frq., the In- 
dians, and so also tbe Tibetans counting 

S^^ sgy&r-ba 

64 arts (or 60 in a round number) Tar. 21, 
2. — sgyt^zog deception, hypocrisy Pth. — 
sgyu'liis 1. the immaterial, subtile aad 
pure body of the soul in the Bardo, hell etc., 
henc^ ^ yid'kyi bis Thgr. 2. the animal 
and human body in general, in as much 
as it is only an apparent body, a phan- 
tom, when considered from a higher phi- 
losophical point of view Mil. 
5CT^ ^g^-''^^ mother-in-law Stg.; mna^ 
^ ^y^ hoth daughter-in-law and 


ay^fl' ^ggur-ba, pf. and fut. bsgyuVy (vb. a. 
% to ^yuT-ba) 1 . to transform, lus jdjod- 
dgur to transform one's body (i. e. one's 
self) at pleasure, {DzL 9^ /tis is to be 
supplied, or gyur-te to be read); to trans- 
form the royal prerogative into a religious 
one, V. Urims, — 2. to change (colour, one's 
mind), to alter (something written), hence 
to correct, to revise. — 3. to give up, leave 
off (customs, scruples, doubts, timidity) 
(rZr., pyi^rol^ai ^ds-lugs the non-Baddhist 
religion. — 4. to turn o£F or aside (the 
course of a river) ; to dissuade, divert, las, 
from Dzl, — 5. to turn, *)mpa gywt-h^ 
W, to turn round on one's heel; ^jin-pa 
gyuT'te Itd-de* W. to look back; A^r-fo 
sgyur-ba to turn a wheel = «i()r-6a; skad 
sgyur-ba to vary, to modulate the voice, 
also to hum a tune, to sing or whistle, 
as birds do. — 6. to govern, rtai Ua srdb- 
ky^is, a horse's mouth by the bridle; also 

fig* *gg<^i'P9 ^^ fe^-fly^ gg^^*} %^ ^ ^^" 

me gyur^ C. the king is governed by his 
minister, the husband by bis wife; ^dod- 
cdgs ndn-pas Ua-sgyur he is governed by 
evil passions Mil,; Hd-lo sgyur-ba to go- 
vern, prop, and fig., v. Afa-to; Un-^rta sgyHr- 
ba to drive a carriage; in a similar sense 
dban sgyur-ba c. la^ to have command or 
control of, to command, dominate, frq.; 
prob. also to possess MU. — 7. to trans- 
late, sgra sgyur-ba id. — 8. to multiply Wdk. 
(cf. ^yuT'ba 4, and tdg-pa); bsgyiir-bya 
the multiplicand Wdk. — 9. Lad.^ Pur. 
to kill, to slaughter. — 10. to publish, pro- 
claim, announce ^ka-sdl gyiir-^e^ W. to pub- 

^( ,> ^'' c 

/^^Jr'- '. "^ !^tJv>rv y ;-:' (V 





S"^]^ sgra-ycdn 

lish an order; *fon ffj/ur* W. annooDce me! 
said in my name! 

i'S^ ^esgur crooked ScLy better %^. 

r^gye^bo is said to denote in 6'. one 
of the lower classes of officials or 

S-^f ^y^-rno l.sbst. a bag (not of leather) ; 
" ras-sgye a bag of cotton stufiF PtL » 
«S^ew diminutive. — 2. adj. quiet, gentle 
(of horses) Sp. 

^if ^,y^'PO a stone for a fire-place, 
^ hearth-stone, three of which are so 

placed together, that a fire may be kindled 
between them and a kettle put on; sgyid- 
bu a fire-place constructed in this manner. 
^Orq* ^^Wa, pf. and fut. bagyely vb. a. 
^ to ^41rbay to throw down, to over- 
ifaroWy overturn, gan-^db on the back Lex. ; 
to lay or put down (a bottle, a book); to 
thwart (the charm of an enemy); to kill 
(horses); ^mi 8e\ ta ggel* manslaughter 
and the killing of horses, C. 
OTWf ^y^ff^ ^ • a warlike engine to shoot 
3 darts or fling stones with, catapult, 

ballista, sgydgs^kyi ^prul-Jcdr Thgr, id ; 
sgyogs-rdo a stone flungfromsuch a machine 
Sck; in later times: 2. mortar, cannon, gun, 
in Tibet even at the present day without 
wheels, col. *gkyo^. — 3. a surgeon's 
instrument for setting broken limbs 6s. 
K^'q* 9gy6h'bay pf. bsyganSy fut. bsgyan^ 
5 perh. originally = sgdh-ba to hide, 
but actually used 1. in C: ^gyitr^ma ggan- 
««»• to fill, to stuff (a sausage) 2. col. in 
Wr. ""gydn-ce^io put into (the pocket, a 
box, a coffin) ;*^yrfw-rfw b&i^be* to keep, lock, 
or shut up (things); *ugs gydn-l^ to hold 
one's breath; gla pyir sgydn-ba to retain 
the wages due to another person ScL The 
form rgyans often occurs in MU,^ in passages 
where *to retain, lock up, put into' or a 
similar term Would suit very well. Other 
passages cannot yet be sufficiently ac- 
counted for, and upon the whole the roots 
^yan and kyan (rgycm etc.) require to be 
roore< closely inyestigated. 

sgray W. also Va*, 1. a sound, noise; 

voice; hd-sgra the sound h Glr.; sgrd- 
bbas J^ru noisy evacuations take place Lt ; 
^dn^a-dag sgrd-mams fos the deaf hear 
sounds; sgra sgrdg-^a to produce sounds, 
noises Mil, ; sgra dag ysal ysum (read) loud, 
correctly, and distinctly, those three (a 
precept for reading or reciting); ^nyid-ra 
tdh'be* W, to snore; ^hdg^rc^ the noise 
made by a flight of birds passing; mih- 
sgra a mere word, name, or sound TTos., 
as a philosophical term. — 2. word, syllable, 
bddg-sgra Cs., bddg-poi sgra Grram,, the 
name given in grammar to the so-called 
article pay e.g. in rtd-pa horseman, rider; 
dgdg-sgra prohibitive or negative particle. 

— 3. language, science of languages, philo- 

Comp. sgra - skdd (= sgra 1 .) sound, 
voice, sgra^kdd snydnr-pa frq. — sgrd-ban 
sounding, sonorous. — sgra-^SS far-famed, 
renowned MU.. sgra Her gragspa Stg. id. — 
sgra-snydn 1. a well-sounding, agreeable voice, 
2. C. a guitar. — sgra-bmydn echO Mil — 
sgrd'ldar SOUnding, SOnoroUS. — sgra-dbydns 

1. pleasing tone, harmony, euphony, e.g.glu 
dan rdl^mm Tar, 2. n. of a goddess 
(Js, — sgra-sbydi' Zam,y Tar., Schf,, a 
coalition or connection of letters. — sgra- 
mi'Snydn (a disagreeable voice) n. of a 
larger and two smaller northern continents 
of the^ fabulous geography of ancient India. 

— sgra - fsdd (sgra dan tsqd - wa) Tar., 
Schf.: grammar and logic; yet yi-gei sgra- 
fsddy sgra 'f sad -yi-ge Glr. seem to denote 

grrn«- sgra-ybdUy Sskjj^Rahu^ 1. a 
^ ' ^ demon or monst^ of Indian my- 
thology, esp. known by his being at enmity 
with the Sun and Moon, on whom he is 
continually wreaking his vengeance, oc- 
casionally swallowing them for a time 
and thereby causing their eclipses. The 
Buddhist representation of the Rahu- 
legend is given by Schl, p. 114. — 2. Cs,: 
the ascending node of the moon, determining 
the time of the obscurations. — sgra-ybdn- 

^C^'^ sgrdn'-ba 


<J^in, TnW Rdhula 1. ^seized by Rahu' 
(Folic. Gyatch, II, LVII), obscured, eclipse 
of the sun or moon, 2. 'catcher of Rahu,' 
ace. to the Tibetan legend an epithet given 
to the deity jryag-rd&r^ ace. to Indian my- 
thology, to Vishnu, who in Tibetan is called 
l^yah'^ug (also h'yab-^jug-ysdd Cs.); some- 
times, however, he is identified with Rahu 
himself, for the names yza-sffra-ycan^ yzor- 
sgra-fcan-dziTiy yza-Uyab'^ug, yza-rd^hu" 
la, and even yza-du-ba-^ug-rin (comet!) 
are used promiscuously. — 3. a son and 
disciple of Shaky am uni, who received this 
name on account of an eclipse of the 
moon taking place at his birth, v. F(mc, 
Gyatch, II, 389. 

ijjr -n* sgrdn-bay Cs. ; pf bsgrariSy fut. bsgi'an, 
^ imp. sgron^ 1 . to enumerate, to reckon 

up separately. — 2. to upbraid, to reproach. 
5Jf2rfl' sgrdl-ba to CUt into small pieces, 
^ viz. the picture of an enemy whom 

one wishes to destroy. 
ftm-q. sgn'g-pa, pf. bsgrigs, fut. bsgrig, imp. 
^ «5^^(«\ W. *rig'te*y to lay or put 

in order, to arrange, adjust, pan-Ub boards 
or planks, so^dg bricks or tiles 6Zr., kar- 
yol plates and dishes, = to lay the cloth; 
ydan stuffed seats or chairs DzL'^ to put 
or fit together, to join the separate parts 
of an animal body Glr.; to put close to- 
gether, side by side, hence W.: *zin de 
nyis ng-te yod* these two fields are ad- 
jacent, *(a dan rig-te yin* it is situated 
close to the border; to compile, to write 
books Gh\ — ''rigmo^ W, tight, close, e.g. 
a joint, commissure, seam. 
^<T'2f^ sgHn^Oj Zam. : = mlcds-pa^ prudent, 
^ ' skilful, clever, bio sgrin-pa a pene- 
trating mind Sch, 

^przy sgn'b^a 1. vb. pf. bsgribs^ fut. bsgi^iby 
^ imp. sgrib(s)j W, *rib-ce*^ to deprive 

of light, to darken, to obscure, W, *rib via 
rib* get out of my light! nyi-viai ^od-zer 
bsgribs-nas the light of the sun being ob- 
scured, by clouds Glr , by a curtain Zam. 
— 2. sbst. the state of being darkened, 
obscuration, gen. fig., mental darkness, sin, 
also sgrib; s^ms-dan fams-tdd-kyi sgrib-pa 

^(^' «STO«(«) 

s€lJ>a frq., hence sgrib^armani'S^l n. of 
a Boddhisatva; sgnb-pa Ina Dd., the 
five obscurations caused by sin , prob. = 
H^mmei Bum. II, 360. — 3. adj darkened, 
obscured, dark; sinner, bdag-rdn sgHlhfa 
ii-am am I so great a sinner? Pth. — 
^Hb-ma* C, *rib-ma* W. shelter, fence, e.g. 
at the side of a field against the wind. 
gg^«^ sgrim-^a, pf. bsgrims, fut bsgrim, 
^ imp. sgrim(s), Cs.: *to hold fast, to 

force or twist together; to endeavour'; Sch 
also: io squeeze in, cram in; to be ove^ 
hasty, confused'. Only the following phrases 
came to my notice : *ku-pa divfi-pa* C. to 
twist or twine a thread; ^rig-pa dim^ C. 
take care! (collect your thoughts!); ^dim- 
tog ^ can* Sp. inquisitive, curious. Some 
passages in £., e.g. bh-bsgrims (explained 
by blo-^dds Zam.) are as yet dubious as 
to their sense. 

Sorn* sgril'ba^ pf. and fut. bsgrUy W. 
^ \s)Hl'ci*, (cf. ^'ba 1. and 

Jiril'ba\ 1. to wind or wrap round e.g. a 
bit of cloth round one's finger; to roll, 
wrap, or wind up; ril-bur to roll or form 
into a pill Med.; to make fast or tight, Uiddr 
pa what is loose; pyogs yag-tu sgril-ba to 
gather into a heap, to heap or pile up, to 
sweep together; hence sgril-baa (also dril- 
bos Glr.) to sum up all, taking all together, 
in short Lt; mjug-ma sgHl^ba to wag the 
tail, mi-la at a person (of dogs) Mil; to 
roll, e.g. a large stone to some place. — 
2. to multiply Wdk.^ frq.; bsgn'lrma a doubled 
and twisted thread or cord Sch. ; sgril-kin 
a wooden roil, round which paper etc. is 
wound; the rolling-pin of bakers. — sgrilr 
hdg^ W. *^og'Hl*^ rolled paper Ca. 

rq- sgfmg-pa, pf. bsgrugSy fut. bsgrug, 
imp. sgrtig(8), W. *rug-he(9)*^ to 
collect, gather, pluck, pick up e.g. wood, 
flowers, vermin etc. 

fjjr/^y 8grun(8), Ld. *hrum*y C. *(jlum*, 
3 fable, legend, tale (to the unculti- 

vated mind of the Tibetan, destitute of 
any physical and historical knowledge of 
the countries and people beyond the boun- 
daries of his native soil, the difference 

^'^' sgrun-ba 

between truth and fable is but vague and 
unsettled); 9ffrun ^Md-^a to relate fables, 
stories etc.; anon-rdbs sgi^un Zam., sndn^ 
ffyi sffimn-rgyud Glr,, sgi^un-ytdm tales of 
ancient times, of the days of yore; sffrun- 
mUcm Cs., sgrm-pa Sch. the inventor or 
writer of fables and tales, also a narrator 
of tales. 

r'H' sgrun-bay pf. bsfft^uns^ fut. bsgrun, 
1. to mix. 2. to invent, to feign Cs. 
Fjjgr^r sgrun-poj pf. and fut. bsgi^un 1. to 
•3' compare c la and dan DzL — 2. to 
emultte, vie, contend with Cs. 

rq- 8grub^al,yh.^i,b9grubs,i\xi.bsffi'vby 
imp. 8grub(8) (cf. ^rub-pa Ssk, 
^rr\r) l* to complete, finish, perform, carry 
out, an order, a wish, hence usually with 
b^n-du DzL; to make, achieve, manufacture, 
obtain, attain, dnul-rdo-la dnul bsgrub'tu 
btub^a Itar shns-bafir-la Sam^gyds bsffi'uU 
tu btub-pa yin-no in like manner as silver 
is obtained from silver-ore, Buddha may 
proceed from beiugs Thgy.; don sgrub^a 
to attain to one's aim, to obtain a blessing, 
a boon; fse ^dii don sgrub-pa to care for 
the wants of this life; to procure, rgydgs- 
pye floor, as provision for a journey Mil; 
nor sgridnpa to gain riches ; to furnish with, 
to supply, one's self or others Mil, — 2. 
Iha-sgrub'pa implies, in accordance to 
Brahmanic -Buddhistic theology, not so 
much the making a deity propitious to man 
(6!s.), as rendering a god subject to human 
power, forcing him to perform the will of 
man. This coercion of a god seems to be 
effected in a twofold manner. The practise 
of the common people is to perform a vast 
amount of prayers and conjurations, spe- 
cially intended for the god that is to be 
made subject. Another method is adopted 
by saints, who are advanced in every kind 
of religious knowledge. They continue 
their sgom-pay or profound meditation, for 
months and years, until the deity, finally 
overcome, stands before them visible and 
tangible, nay, until they have been per- 
sonally united with and, as it were, in- 
corporated into the invoked and subjected 

S(3rd!f sgrdn-Tfio 


god. Whilst the conatus, the labouring in 
this arduous undertaking, is often called 
sgriib^a, the arriving at the proposed end 
is designated by ^grub-pay e.g. rgydl-pos 
rta-vigrin sgrub-pa mdzad-paa ^^grub-nas 
rta-skdd btdn-pas etc., the king began to 
coerce Tadin (Hayagriwa)^ and when the 
latter was made obsequious, so as to ap- 
pear, a neighing was heard etc. Glr,; sgom- 
sgrub byed-pa for sgdm-pa dan sgrub-pa 
byed'pa MU. — bsgrub-Mn, sgrub^/ndSy 
sgrub ^ pug the house, the place, the 
cavern, where a saint applied himself to 
sgrtdh-pa ; sgrub^a-po one effectuating the 
coercion described above, Sambh, frq, — 
sgrub-rtdgs tokens, proofs of perfection, of 
an accomplished saint. — sgincb-fdbs the 
method of effecting the coercion, of obli- 
ging a god to make his appearance; sgruih- 
byed 1. he that accomplishes the coercion 
(cf. Schl p. 247). 2. a kind of bile Med. 

— sgi^ub-yshi the Bon-doctrine Mil. 

II. sbst. 1. one that contemplates and 
meditates, like sgom-cen Mil. 2. n. of 
a sect of Lamas, with whom marriage is 

tq- sgre-ba I. Cs. adj. nal(ed, gen. sgren-- 
n. vb. pf. bsgresy fut. bsgre (cf. ^gre-ba) 
1. to roll Glr.y Pth. — 2. to multiply Wdk. 

— 3. to repeat Cs. — 4. to put or place 
in order, to put together, to compare, e.g. 
records Tar. 174, U Schf. 

^ raT W^'^^9 * sea-washed beach Sch. 

i^mzr 9ff^^9'P<^ I- vb. pf. 8g7*egsy to belch. 
5J I — 2. sbst. belch, eructation, sgr^g- 
pa ^dM-pay J>yin^a Med. *ml'-ddg* C. a 
belch of a fetid smell. 
^r'q- sgrin-bay pf. bsgrens, fut bsgi^eAy imp. 
^ sgren(s)y cf . ^^-bay J . to raise, 8- 
rect, lift up, hold up, plant up, e.g. a fin- 
ger, a beam etc. — 2. to stretch out a limb 
and hold it stiff C. 

^-•^ sgi*hi-mo naked, sgr^n-mor Jyyun-ba 
^ ' to appear in a naked state, to show 
one's self naked Dzl.\ Bhar. 59. Schf, Mor- 
bus', orphaned (cog. to bkrenf). 



sgiv 1. a large feather, esp. qafll-fea- 
ther, used for an ornament of arrows, 
as a charm etc. ; sfft'Ch-rnddm peacock's fea- 
ther, as a badge of dignity. 2. to elevate, 
exalt, increase; 68.: to exaggerate. Was. 
however has p. (305): 'Vorurtheil (An- 
erkennung des Nichtwahren) , Gegensatz: 
skur-^dibs Lasterung (Leugnung des Wah- 
ren)\ and p. (297): ^sgro-skur Vemeinen 
und L&sterung\ Cs. renders sgro-skur by 
'exaggerated praise and blame'; sgrchskur 
^dibs-ba occurs ako in Mil, The phrase 
sgro-^ddgs ybdd^a might therefore be ren- 
dered: to put an end to overrating and to 
prejudice ; this meaning, however, does not 
suit in every instance, and ace. to expres- 
sions heard from people in 6'., sg^v^^dogs 
yhdd-pa would signify : to turn to account, 
to work one's way up, to contest for a 
prize. Finally ought to be mentioned that 
ace. to Schr. sgro-^ddgs sfpyodrpa (sic) de- 
notes 'logic'. A connection between these 
heterogeneous significations is not discer- 
nible, but a clew may perhaps be found 
hereafter. — 3. sack, bag (?), fdl-^gro Glr, 
was explained by: a sack full of ashes. 
Srar sffro^a C, the little bubbles in spark- 
^ ' ling beverages, *Mn-la do-ga du^ 
the beer sparkles. 

'W^ W^'^y V- W^g-g^ sub sgi^og, 

rq- sgrd-ba I. sbst. 1. Wdh,^ ace. io Sch. 
the bark of a species of willow, *but 
prob. the same as grd-ga. — 2. C. the penis. 
II. vb., pf. bsgroSy fut. bsgro^ imp. sgro- 
Lea;x. w.e.^ Cs, : to debate, discuss, so that 
it would be only another form o{ bgro-ba; 
but in C. *dO'^e' )M-pa* is said to mean : 
to talk at random, to chatter away thought- 

f^r^' «5^^W ^^^f ""OPCj for tying, fet- 
'^ ^ tering; fetters Mil. and C; Icags- 
sgrdg iron fetters, chain; Uags-sgrdg Idg- 
pa sbrel-nas the hands tied or chained to- 
gether; Idags ' sgrdg ' pa a convict put in 
irons; kin -sgrdg fetters made of twisted 
twigs Cs.; Iham-sgrdg shoe-strap, lace, lat- 
chet. — sgrdg -gu^ sgrd-gtc, W. *r6g'bu*^ 

^O^-qi sgrol^a 

string, strap, for binding, fastening, strap- 
ping; Sch. also button; sgrog-ril Sch. but- 
ton, sgrog-ril sgrdg-pa to button up. 
^m-q' W^ "P^y pf- bsgrags, fut. bsgrag, 
^ ' imp. sgrags(s), to call, call OUt, call 
to Dzl. and elsewh.; to publish, proclaim, 
promulgate, ytam-snydn good news Mil.; 
st'bai ytam bsgrdgs-na if his death becomes 
known. Tar.; ISos sgrdg-pa^ resp. cds-kyi 
sgrog-gUk mdzddrpa Glr. to preach; dril- 
sgrog-pa to publish by ringing a bell, to 
pubUsh, proclaim ; sgrdg^a-po a proclaimer, 
a preacher Cs. — 2. to shout, to scream, 
nu'skad drag-par sgrog (the infant) weeps 
and screams Lt. — 3. C. (in W. only resp.) 
to read, ysun sgrdg -pa to read words of 
Buddha Ma.; even: shns-kyis sgrdg-pa to 
read silently. — 4. to bind, like ^grdgs-pa; 
V. also sffTog extr. 

Kr'CT sgrdd-pay another form of ^grddrpa 
** ^ tx) go; not much used. 
^'^ W^''^^ A Isunp, lantern, torch, 
^ ' sgr<m-7n^ a burning lamp, (prop, a 
lamp-fire) ; often fig. — sgron - pa vb. to 
light, to kindle, dpe-ca-la me sgrdn-nas light- 
ing (burning) the book Pth. — sgroiviskdl 
the enlightened age Cs.^ opp. to mun^bskdl 
the dark age. — sgron-dtrigs Iamp4llack. — 
sgron ' (me ') Hn Sch. the yew -leaved fir, 
Pinus picea, which tree, however, is scarcely 
known in Tibet; in Sik. it denotes Pinus 
longifolia, and prob. also in every other 
province, the most resinous species of co- 
niferous trees prevailing there, 
^•q- sgrdn-pa, pf. and fut. bsgron 1. to 
^ cover, to lay over, adorn, decorate 
Glr. — 2. to light, to kindle, v. sgrdn-wa. 

sgi'ob haughtiness, arrogance, pride, Z^jt. 


^- sgrom box, chest, trunk, coffer = sgam; 
^ sgrdm-bu a small box or chest: smyug- 
sgrdm Cs. = yzeb-ma a [chest or trunk made 
of bamboo ; ro-sgrdm^ rus-pai sgrom Zam. 

^ rescue, deliver, save, las from, cot 
of, sgi*6l-bai ded-dpdn-du ^^gt/ur he becomes 
a guide to salvation Glr. — 2. to lead, 

S&r5|' sgrdUma 


^'^pX^* brgyal-ia 

transport, carry, to cross (a river) by boat 
or ferry, m-bsffrdl Lex.: Tft^ passed over; 
H-boi pd-rol-tu bsgrdl-bar mdzdd-cig have 
the goodness to take me over to the other 
bank Sambh,\ Jcdr-ha hsgrdl-bai gi^-yzim 
yin Glr, it is a boat that carries over the 
river of transmigration. — 3. to remove, do 
away with, drive away, ^dre - mams pyii 
rgyd^mfso ihi-po-la bsgrdl Glr, the demons 
were driven to the uttermost parts of the 
sea; bdtid sgrdl-ba to expel the devil; sdig- 
can rgydl-^ sgrdl-bar ^yur the guilty king 
will be removed out of the way! 6/r.; 
dgra-bgegs bsgral-hai ha Urag rus-pa dan 
nan-rol glo snyin bbds-pa mcod-par Jml 
the flesh, blood, bones, heart, lungs and 
entrails of slaughtered enemies of the faith 
are offered by us as a sacrifice. This say- 
ing, the tendency of which is often justified 
by the sophism, that it is an act of mercy 
to kill an enemy of the faith and thus 
prevent him from accumulating more sin, 
shows that even 'mild Buddhism' is not 
incapable of bloody fanaticism, and instan- 
ces like that of king Lan-dar-ma of old, 
and of the recent martyrdom of Roman 
Catholic christians at Bonga confirm this 
fact from experience. 

^ar^T ^yrdl-Tna^ sometimes also sgroUyum 
^ 68., W. ^rdl-ma*, 1. n. of two god- 

desses, Ssk, TTTTT' J^^own in the history of 
Tibet as the white and green Tara, incar- 
nated in the two wives of Srongtsangampo, 
Schl 66 and 84; Kapp. IL, 65. — 2. a 
name of females, of frequent occurrence. 

^^j- sgros 1. Cs. manner, method, way, bsdd- 
^ sgros way of explaining, instructing, 
informing: sgrogs bhdd-^gros Sck,: Hhe me- 
thod of instruction which is to be proclaim- 
ed' (?); ytdm- sgros Cs,: 'way or manner 
of speaking' (?). — 2. Cs. edge, brim, lip; 
ScL also mark from a wound, SCar; idl-gyi 
mcur-sgrds seems to signify only 'lip'. 
nMTZV brgdd-pa = bgdd-pa to smile, to 

' ' smile on Stg. 
^3fpr brgal 1. v. rgdl-ba, 2. v. rgdl-ba. 

flSfOin' brgdUba ScL 'das Gegenseitige', 
' mutual relation, contrast, contrary? 

5!fliYS5I'^''\ ^''^^ {^dm-pd) a hundred, one 

^ hundred; brgyorprdg the hun- 

dred, a century; brgya-prdg bcu 1000; 
brgyd'pa the hundredth; brgyd-po con- 
sisting of one hundred (cf. under dgu); 
brgya dan bburbli 114; brgya-nyi-hi 120; 
bii'-brgya (dan) go^brgydd 498; brgyd-9*isa 
V. rtsa; brgyd-la (Cs,: brgya-Tnalan-ydig, 
or brgyd-lam-naf) once among a hundred 
(cases or times) i.e. very rarely, e.g. (diis) 
brgyd'la bmyed kyan though it be found 
for once at last MU. frq., cf. Schf, Erlfiut. 
zu DzangL p. 45; also == finally, in short, 
the Latin denique^ Mtl.nt; brgyd-can er- 
ron. for rgyd-dan. — brgya-m^dd a heca- 
tomb of 100 lamps, offered on certain fes- 
tival occasions Sik. — brgyd-^dans about 
or nearly a hundred ScL — brgyd-dpon 
a captain of a hundred men, the Latin 
centurio. — brgya-byin (ipTlff^) '(honour- 
ed by) a hundred sacrifices', epithet of 
Indra, cf. exatn^ifiaiog) 1. Indra. 2. n. of 
a medicine Wdii, 
nfff brgyaf 1 . in smrd-bai brgya ScL : noisy 

^ conversation; Lexa, simply "KIWHI 
speech, conversation (with the remark that 
the word is obs. and prov.). — 2. often 
erron for rgya, 
ngJT'n' brgydn-ba 1. v. rgyon-ba 2. to call 

^ to a person from a distance, C. 
agjT' brgyad eight; brgydd-pa the eighth, 

yJ ' brgyad^ consisting of eight, brgydd- 
cu eighty, brgyad-bi-rtsa-yag (W, ^gyad- 
cu-gya-i^), gya-ycig 81; brgyad-brgyd 
800; brgyad'Stdn 8000; brgyad-k'n SO 000. 
^2S^Yq)'Tpr %i^«*<*)% a reproach, re- 

J H >' M |ju|(e^ brgyad-kdg byidrpa to 
rebuke, to chide DzL 
— --.«• brgydnr-pa^ vb. to adorn, decorate; 

^ to provide with (c. instrum.), cf. 
rgyan sbst. ; nya mgo sd-^yis brgydn-pa the 
letter nya (^) being provided with an s 
above it, = sny. ., Zam. 

QSfli"^' ^ffy^^'^^ ^' *^ ^^^^ ^®^^ sense- 
^ less, to faint; *brgydl'te ddd-b^ 


qjC^q- brgyins-^a 

W. to lie in winter-sleep; ^o-brgydl-te very 
much exhausted, v. ^o. — 2. to howl, of 
the fox. Sch. 
ngr^'zy fyf'ffy^'fi^-pct' Lexr^ Cs,: *the mar- 

^ row in the back-bone'. 

q*N' %W, cf. r^yud, Ssk. q?;iq< fa- 

^ ^ mily (^^, lineage; relations, ances- 
tors, descendants, offspring, mi-brgyud i. 
= brgyudy del mi-brgyud yin-pa being of his 
family Glr. 2. people, nation, bdd-kyi mi- 
hrgyud the Tibetan nation. 3. the human 
race, mankind Cs. ; rigs-brgyudy resp. yduh- 
brgyud family ;' issue, progeny, rigs-hrgyud 
jpd-bar ^gyur there will be a numerous 
offspring; blcHtgyud succession or descent 
of Lamas Cs. — *mig nd-be gyud-la yodf^ 
W. diseases of the eye frequently occur 

in that family; *dA-n§ gyvd mi ^ad yin* m 
W. then the racQ will not die out; *8p^^ 1 
gyvd'la bdr-ce* W. to set apart cattle for 
breeding; brgyvd-nas brgyiidndu from ge- 
neration to generation C«. ; bu tsa brgyud- 
du bdeo he is blessed even to his children 
and children's children DzL 

Comp. brgyvd-brgyugs a continuous suc- 
cession ScK — brgyud-can like his pro- 
genitors Cs. — brgyitd'pa 1. belonging to 
a race or family. 2. v. rgyud and rgyud- 
pa. — brgyud-m4d degenerate Cs,, cf. 
brgyud-han, — brgyud-ma 1 . Cs. = brgyud- 
can. 2. W. fruitful, fertile. 3. brgyud-^ma- 

C na 

brgyab Lea:, w.e. — bryyvd-^dzin a first- 
bom male, heir and successor. 
njLfr brgrad is acknowledged by Leaar., 

J ' but evidently an incorrect form for 
qiu • • • bsg . . . words beginning thus will 

^ for the greater part be found under 
sg ... 

^SfT^ ^^9^9'P^ V. ^igs-pa and sgdg^a. 

qgi r * bsgan {Lexx. = dnos-yziy Wif?) point 
^ of time, moment, insbmt, conjuncture, 
h-ymr-bsgd/i-gi Ihdgs-ma a chilling gale 
on newyear s day Mil. ; esp. the proper time 
or season for doing a thing, byd-bai bsgan; 
Jb^ri-baiy zd-bai bsgan the time for writing, 
eating. (A different word from sgan). 
nofn' bsgd'ba 1. v. sg6-ba. — 2. pf. bsgo^ 
^ vb. a. to ^6-ba, to soil, stain, defile, 
lit. and fig., *kygn-ghyi 7na gif C. he was 
not tainted with any spot or blemish, 
nothing could be laid to his charge; to 
infect with disease ; rarely in a good sense: 
dri sna-fsogs-Kyis legs -par bsgos-pa Sig. 
well anointed with salves and perfumes. 

qsc'q' bsgrdn-ba 1. to enumerate, count 
^ up (?) Cs. — 2. to cause to grow 

cold Lexx. 

^§!^'^' bsgrdd-pa Lexx. = bgrddr-pa. 

r^na 1. the letter ^, sounded as a nasal 
guttural, the English ng in singing, in 
the Tibetan language often the initial let- 
t>er of a word. — 2. as numerical figure: 
4. — 3. as numeral adjective = Ind-bcu^ 
in the numbers 51 — 59. 
r-- wa, pers. pron., first person sing, and 
pi. I, we, the usual word in familiar 

speech; nai my, our; mine, ours; na mi 
rgan old man that I am Mil.\ na rgyalr 
po sroh-btsan-sgaTn-po dun with me, king 
Srongtsangampo Glr.; bld-ma iia I, the 
Lama Mil.\ de mi rgan nai Kd-la nyon 
listen to my word as that of an old man 
Mil.; nai ^di this my (doing) Glr.'; nai 
rje-btsun my honoured masters! MU.; nai 


C^P^*" na-rgydl 

yidn^&h my dearest! ftt.; na-rdn I my 
self, esp. col. very frq.; *na rdn-ka* Ts.^ 
*na tsog* Uy na nyidy na Ud-na^ na bdag (?), 
norio (??) Cs. id.; na rdn-gi yah moreover, 
what concerns my own affairs MiL Distinct 
expressions for the pi. we are: nd-cag B. 
and C; *nd'2:a* W., "nd-ya* Bal; in W. 
*nd-^a* seems to be used in an exclasive 
sense : I and my people, i.e. excluding you 
or the person or persons addressed, so that 
when Europeans use it in Ld. or LA., in 
addressing their hearers, meaning to include 
themselves (all of us, we and you), they are 
generally misunderstood; *na dan* *he or 
those with me', is said to be used in a si- 
milar manner; *7ia dan nyis* both of us; 
na-maTns we Cs, Synonyms are: ned, noSy 
bdaff^ *U(hbo* ; and han^ nOy dno^ dnos^ nogs 
may prob. bederived from the same root. 
C3PI' wtt-^S'^a^ ('I the first') pride, arro- 
^ gance, frq.; norrgydl skyid-pa to be 
proud DzL; ycag-pa to break (another's 
pride), to humble, humiliate MiL; na-^gydl- 
can proud; W. also naughty, of children. 
r'r;r na-nur a species of duck, v. nur-ba; 

\» perh. Anas casarca. 
r'n* wd-io, rarely for hdn-pa*^ dri nd-ba 

stench Stg,; cf. nydTn-na-bay yd-na-ba, 
r-;^ nd-ra (cf. nad) air, na gdns-hyi nd- 

ras mi jigs I am not afraid of the 
air of glaciers MiLy *nd'ra ddn-mo ra^y 
idmrpo rag* W. I perceive the air to be 
cold, to be mild ; esp. cold air, nd-ra-can 
fresh, cold. 
r-1^ hd-^o a loud voice, a cry, kye-hud-kyi 

nd-ro JM-pa to raise woeful cries 
Pth.] skdd'kyi nd-ro cin-pos bsgrdgsso they 
proclaimed, shouting at the top of their 
voices Pth.; s^-gei nd-ro the loud voice, 
the roaring, of a lion MiL; ydug-pai nd- 
ro prob. voices foreboding mischief MiL; 
the roar, roaring, rushing, of waves etc.; 
nd-ro sgr6g-pa to roar, to rage; in a rela- 
tive sense: skdd-kyi nd-^^o drag-idn a loud 
and a low sound, the different force or 
effort required in producing it Grram. ; nd- 
ro-han loud, noisy, roaring ; a crier, bawler, 
noisy fellow. 

CQ' nan 

rzw wa^, sometimes dnags, resp. ysuAy 
' speech, talk, word, ndg-gi nyes-pa sins 
committed v^dth the tongue, in words, (rcfeww, 
prd-may tsig-rtsuby prob. also kydl-ka); iiag- 
gi Uid-mo the goddess of speech, of elo- 
quence , Sarasvati ; ndg - gi dban - pyug = 
^am^dbydns Manjusri; nag Jdm-po kind, 
polite speech or words; na^-^jdm smra- 
mUds of a soft tone in speaking and pru- 
dent in words Glr.'y Sfnidn-pai nag bzin-du 
byed-pa to obey the words of the physi- 
cian; nag sddm-pay nag bcdd-pa silence, 
as a monastic duty or religious exercise, 
resp. Ysun-bbdd MiL ; fzan-gyi nag ycdg-pas 
not doing according to another's word, not 
obeying him Tan, frq.; nag mnydn-pa to 
be obedient DzL 

Comp. nag-kydly or -JHyal « kydl-ka. — 
nag-^rdsy smrd-bai nag-grds ^a manner of 
speaking or uttering words' Cs, — nag- 
rgyun tradition, not recorded history, 6s. 
-~ hag-rniydUy snyan-ndg, snyan-dndgs 1. 
poetical expression, figure, metaphor. 2. poem, 
piece of poetry Glr, — nag-dbdn 1. elo- 
quent 2. p. n., e. g. nag - dbdn bio - bzdn^ 
rgyd-mfso Dalai Lama, bom 1615. — nag- 
sby&r arrangement of speech Cs. — nag- 
tsig^nag, — nag-ldm Iti-ba to apply to 
a person by word of mouth, resp. 
^^ nan (not in the earlier literature) 1. the 
nature, essentiality, idiocrasy of a per- 
son, the peculiarity of a thing, sans-rgyds- 
kyi nan yin he is (partaking) of the na- 
ture of Buddha, Buddha-like (correspon- 
ding to our 'divine', which consequently 
might be expressed by dkon-mc6g-gi nan) 
Mil.'y st&n-pai nan-nyid the essentiality 
of the vacuum itself Glr.; frq. used only 
paraphrastically or pleonastically : Un-ne- 
dzm-gyi ndn-la h{igs-pa to enter into me- 
ditation MU.'y fttgs-mnyds bHn^pai ndn-la 
in a cheerful mood Mil.; cdgs-med-kyi 
ndJi - la ynds - par gyis continue in that 
passionless state of mind Thgr.; ^igs-skrdg- 
gi ndn-nas Jii-ba to die of fear or anxiety; 
ndn-nas in general is used nearly like sgd- 
nas MiL frq.; character, disposition, ndn- 
bzdriy nan -nan Sch.; hah-fsul, and esp. 


aZ,'^' ndn-pa 

C^ nar 

ncm-rgyud id., nah-rgyud bzdn-po Wdn,^ 
dgi-ba Glr,y a naturally good, virtuous cha- 
racter; very frq.: narl-rgyud rin-ba for- 
bearing, longsufFering, not easily put into 
a passion Glr.\ not easily excited to action, 
phlegmatic, cool, also *nan rin-wa* C\; 
even na?i alone may have this meaning: 
nan ma fun don't lose your patience Mil. 
nt; ndn-gis adv. not only signifies spon- 
taneously, of one's own accord, but also 
slowly, gradually, gently Mil. (so already 
Schr.) — 2. dominion, sphere, province, pa- 
rallel to klon and dbyiiis Mil. ; *na ma-si' 
kai ndri'la dug* I belong to the kingdom 
of Christ, said one of our Christians, in 
order to show the meaning of *fiaw*. Hence 
it might be used for expressing the ev of 
the N. T. (I John 5, 6 and many other 
passages) denoting a pertaining to, belong- 
ing to, being connected with, ndii-la 
^^g-pa (bhdg-pa) Mil, and C. is an ex- 
pression not explained as yet. 
--.^- ndh'pa 1. goose, more accurately 
ndn-pa a gander, ndn-ma a goose 
Cs. The domestic goose and the breeding 
of it is not yet known in Tibet, at least 
not in W. — 2. a light-bay horse, an isabel- 
coloured horse Ld.-Glr. 
rr- ncul 1. cog. to nd-ra^ air, */uid'la 

' skdmnbe* W. to dry in the air; in a 
general sense the air in its chemical qua- 
lities, in its influence on the senses: scent, 
fragrance, spds-kyi nad Iddn-ba the rising 
of an aromatic breeze; nad yal the fra- 
grancy, the aroma evaporates; vapour, Zed- 
nady M-nad snowy vapour, aqueous va- 
pour ; aromati csubstance, snd-nad aromatic 
vegetables, such as onions Med.; cold air, 
the cold, coldness, v. nad -ban. — 2. W. 
(cf. ndr-ba, ndT-Tod) severity, roughness, 
*ne nad jigs du^ he fears I might address 
him harshly; ndd-han 1. fragrant, fresh, 
cool, W. cold. 2. W. rough, impetuous. 
^^ nan 1. evil, mischief, misfortune, nan 

^ chi-po byas it has done great mischief 
Glr. ; esp. harm done by sorcery and witch- 
craft Mil.; nan-dgu every possible evil Lt. 
— 2. curse, imprecation, nan J^ibs-pa^ W. 

*tdb - ^^*, to curse, to execrate; miu nan 
^dSbs-pa to curse by means of witchcraft 
Cf. mnan. 

rx-q* ^^^ 'P^> ^^^' ^^^ %dn-po*y bad, of 
' food etc. ; mean, miserable Dd.; poor, 
humble, low, (prop, rigs-ndn)^ nan-ldh poor 
and blind (people) Glr.; lo ndn-pa a year 
yielding no crops, an unfruitful or bad 
year; of men, actions etc.: wicked, nan^a 
Myod ynyis ye two villains! Glr.; noisome^ 
pernicious, pol-ndn pernicious food, i.e. 
poison, resp., Glr.; . . , la ndn-du f^ddrpa 
to revile, blaspheme; mi-la rndg nan Ud-ba 
to look with an evil or envious eye upon 
a person Glr.; rdn-rnams spyod nan byds- 
nas dies nan zer acting badly themselves 
they speak of bad times Ma. — namr^^ 
nan^wn v. ^gro-ba I. extr. — nan-ndn (a, 
mean, pitiful, very bad. — nan-rudn tsdm- 
gyis cog his-pa prob.: to be satisfied witli 
any thing, and be it ever so poor. — nm- 
ne-ba bad. — *nan-p^ W. meal of parch- 
ed barley, roasted meal. — ndn-so 'bad 
place', hell; cf. ndn-^o under ^ffro-ba I. 

ndn-bu C, we, eleg., = Jdojr, when 
speaking humbly of one's self. 

rjj'Bfpn' nam-grdgy Cs. 'torrent', Sch. 'ditch 
^ ' filled with water, water-ditch; the 
bank of a river grown high and steep by 
having been gradually washed out by the 
current' ; (only this latter sense of the word 
was authenticated to me). In Glr. Tibet 
is poetically called ''nam- grog -bS\ which 
is a very appropriate name when render- 
ed: having large and deep erosions. 
--..--•--• ndm dur-dan given to gluttony 
ND ' and drinking Stg. 

CJPJ'^' nam-ru n. of a disease Med. 

C5J'*/W^ nam-hugs reluctantly. 

^;^- nar 1. fore- or front^de, forepart, na/r- 
yddn id.; esp. of the leg, the shin-bone, 
also knuckle ni f. ; lag-ndvy rkan-ndr fore- 
arm, lower part of the leg; tye-^r seems 
to be an appellation for both, (in W. *mfQ^ 
instead of it). — 2 v. ndr - ba \. — 






3. termiD. of 7ia, 'to one's self, nar-^dzin = 
bdag-^dzm, selfishness, self-interest. MU. 
— 4. liar ^don-pa to set on or against, 
to instigate, nyams-kyi na/r ^ddn-pa irrita- 
tions of the mind, excitements Mil; nyjam- 
ndr Lex, id. (?) — 5. v. nar-ndr-po. 
r:^wr' nar^kdd the roaring, of lions etc., 
^ ' ^don-pa^ sgrdg^a Mil.;W. *tdnrce* 
also to call to, to shout at. 

C^t^'Sf ^^^"^^^-?^ hoarse, husky, wheez- 
ing, e.g. in old age Thgy, ; nar^ 
mr Jcun-sgra a hoarse groaning Pth, ; nar- 
glud hoarseness and phlegm Medr^ gr^- 
ba nar-ba a hoarse throat Med. 

C^'S3r ndr-ban v. ndr-ba. 

Z,^im^ nar^sndbs mucuS, snivel, (affords 
^ food to certain demons). 

C^CT ndr-pa stalk of plants Med, 

C^SfT ^^•-p^^ W, strong, ferocious, of the 

tiger etc. 
C^'q* ^dr-6a 1. strength, force; hardness, 

of steel; cold, frost, cold wind Mil. 
(of. nd-ray nad); nar yton-bay W, ^tdn-ce, 
cuff'C^, Sch. also Jdud-pa^ to steel, to tem- 
per. — ndr^can 1. strong, vigorous 2. tem- 
pered; ndr-ldan id.; sems ndr-Jdan a strong 
mind Mil.\ na/r-med weak, soft. — 2. (v. 
nar 1.) a sort of flap (of breeches). 

ZK^ ^^^'^'^ ^' ■>''*l^l>l^7 passionate, impe- 
tuous Sch. — 2. strong, powerful, e.g. 
a powerful protection, Mil. 
zp^tx ndUba to be fatigued, ti'red, wearied; 
fatigue, weariness, resp. ska ndUbay 
or fugs ndl'bay also mnyil-ba; nal son I 
am tired; spdbs-pa nal the strength de- 
creases Med.; ndWlad-pay ndMtcb-pa in- 
tensive forms o( .nal; nal Jug -pa vb. a. 
to tire, fatigue, weary; nal ysd-ba 'to cure 
weariness', to rest, frq.; naUsUgs a rest, 
a sort of cratch or fork, which coolies so- 
metimes carry with them, to support their 
load, whilst taking a momentary rest in 
standing; also any bench or seat inviting 
to repose. To provide such conveniences 
for wayfaring men is considered a meri- 
torious act. 


nas 1. instr. of na. — 2. mi- 

Tar. 37, 16. is undoubtedly a typo* 
graphical error, instead of mi-nad. Schf. 
has left it without an annotation. 

C ni num. fig.: 34. a " ^ C - '^/M/ 
C nu num. fig.: 64. j 


C'fl' ^U'ba^ pf. ntiSy resp. hum-pa^ 1. to 
ND weep, 2. W. also to roar, used of 
swelling rivers, not of the wind; Schr.: 
'to groan like a turtle-dove' ; *nu ma nu^ 
W. do not weep! nus-pai mci-ma tears 
that have been shed DzL; ga-cdd nus-pa 
weeping without a cause, hysterical weep- 
ing Med. ; nu^ru Jug-pa to| cause to weep 
Lt. ; ^nvr^ia-god^ W. weeping and laughing 
at the same time; hes nus-so thus he said 
weeping Glr. ; *i}u dhd^wa* (lit. gi'o-ba) C. 
to be sorrowful, sad. — nu{-ba)-po 6s., 
nu-mUan col. one weeping, a weeper. — 
nii-sur-ban Sch., nu-mUan col. a child that 
is continually crying. — nu-Jbod^ nu-rdziy 
W. *7m-z^^ sbst. a crying, howling, lamen- 

C.^' nu-ru W. for nxir-ba 1. 

rOTq- nug-pa Ts. = nur-ba 2, to grunt; lo 
x> ' snore; to pur (of cats). 

K d^T nud-Tftw a SOb Ca., Schr. 

rx'ZT ^«^^-^« 1. sbst. duck, esp. the red 
No wild duck, ^ i fc^ i ^ft Anas caisarca; 

nur-ka as red as fire, fiery red; nur-smrig 
yellowish red, safh*on COlour, the original 
colour of the monks' habit, though not the 
common high-red of the Brug-pa monks 
in Sik. and in W^. — 2. vb. to grunt, of 
pigs and yaks. 

C?^ nus V. nvr-ba. 

C' ne num. fig.: 94. 

Pr- ned pers. person, first person, eleg. 
^ for ria, I, we; nM-kyi my, our; ned 
ynyis(^-ka) we two; ned fsumQ-pd) we three; 
ned spun ysum we three brothers Glr. ; nid- 
kyi bu - ddd mdzod have the goodness to 
become our foster-son J/«7.; sometimes wa 



CQi'^PT neu-cag 



and ned are used promiscaously in the same 
sentence, so: nas I, and directly after: tied- 
kyi OUT Mil, The plural number is specially 
indicated in: Md-cag^ nM-fso, nid-mams^ 
fied-dag Mil,; ned-hag-maTm Cs, — nedr-rdn 
1. I myself, we ourselves. 2. I, we Glr.\ 
ned-nyidy ned-Kd-na Cb, id. (Ld, %ad*). 
pQ-,gqr neu-cag Dzl. WAi 11. 15. is prob. 
^ ' an incor. reading in ScA.'s edition, 
instead of ^u-bti^bag, 

P^^- ves'pa 1. adj. certain, true, sure, firm, 
bddg-la nh-pa zig stsdl-du ysol I 
ask you to communicate to me something 
certain, i.e. authentic news; nes-par byM- 
pa to fix, settle, establish, ascertain, e.g. 
facts of chronology, v. Wdk, chronological 
table in Cs.'s Grammar; to ratify Schr,; 
Jci'bar n^-pa yin or nh-so death is certain; 
de bden-par nes-sam is it certain that, this 
is true? Glr,; mi btub-tu nds-na as it is 
certain that I am not able (to do it) Dzl. ; 
nam Jiyer nis-pa Tried it is not certain at 
what time they will be carried off Glr. ; 
bdug Kydd-kyi bu yin nes-ma if I am actually, 
for certain, your son Pth, ; pan nis-pai cos 
that religion which is sure to lead to sal- 
vation J/^7. ; nh-pai ddn-las gol he is missing 
the true sense Pth,\ mor-nh-pa untrue Tar. 
109, 17; yndS'la nes-pa m^d-pa yin as to 
abode I am changeable, I have no fixed 
abode Mil,; also nes-med alone: homeless 
Mil; undefined, nes-mid-kyi ri-la some- 
where on the mountains Mil.; sometimes 
it is but a rhetorical turn, like the Eng- 
lish evidently, obviously, bic-la bh^a- mi- 
sis nh'kyisy as our son has evidently met 
with an accident Dzl. ; btvdrmid yin-du nh- 
so they are evidently women, they do not 
deserve to be called men Dzl,; also sbst. 
certainty, surety, truth; tse-la, hag -la, 
liiS'la hh-pa Tned (man's) life-time, word, 
body have no certainty, are transient Glr. 
Hence i^s-pa-ban real, actual, hes^orcan- 
du really, truly, in fact, in reality, opp. 
to deceitful appearances, false opinions, 
wrong calculations etc. Glr.; hes-pa-nyid- 
du adv. 1. in reality Glr. 2. truly, in truth, 
verily Glr, ; nh-par adv. 1. really, certainly. 

to be sure, frq. ; sdig-pa byds-na imam-par- 
smin-pa nh-par mydn-ste as retribution 
for a sin committed is sure to take place, 
will certainly follow Dzl.; de-dra-ba zig 
hh - par ydd -na ii such a one is really 
present i)2:/. ; his-par ci-ba the certain dying, 
the certainty of death Thgy.; bdag nes-par 
byao I will surely do it Dzl. 2. by all 
means, to add force to the imperative mood 
Tar. 16,11. — 2. often it is used sub- 
jectively, esp. in 6'., when s^ms-la is to 
be supplied, so that it may be rendered 
by to know: bden-par heSy rdzun-par nes 
I know (I am certain) that it is true, un- 
true; hes-pa cer vied I am not quite sure, 
I do not know for certain, I do not fully 
understand, I do not clearly see through 
it Mil. ; shns-ban ^di bddg-gi pa-md yin nes- 
na, if we take it for granted, if we try 
to realize the fact, that this being is our 
father or mother Thgy,; to remember, to 
bear in mind *s^m-la h^ fiib-bam* C. shall 
you be able to remember that? nis-ddn^ 
also ydn-dag-don, is said to mean immediate 
knowledge of the truth, which may be ob- 
tained mystically by continued contem- 
plation, and is opp. to drdn-don, know- 
ledge obtainable through the medium of 
the sacred writings Mil. , also Lexx. ; nes 
{-par) Jbyun-(ba) Mil. frq., Schr.: *deli- 
verance from the round of transmigration', 
Sch.: 'to appear, to prove true'; another 
explanation still: 'knowledge of one's self 
is not borne out by etymology. — nes- 
bzun ace. to Lexx. a synonym of bmdn^ 
pa^ q. V. — Tfes-(par) Ugs(-pa) Thgy.y 
'that which evidently is the best', is said 
to denote deliverance from the round of 
transmigration. Ch-^\' '?^^^. - ^a\X^ ^ 

k no num. fig.: 124. 

^ ho 1. resp. hal-hd (cf. hd-bo^ hor^ hos) 
face, countenance, air, look, as the ex- 
pression of a man's personality and mind 
(rio mdzes-paCs.y and hdn-pa Schr. are 
dubious), bddg-gi hd-la yzigs-na/s when she 
(my mother) shall see my face, hod kdr-po 
a cheerful face; ho ndg-par ^dug-pa to sit 





with a sad and gloomy lace Glr,; no ndg- 
par ^yuT'ba to grow sorrowful, to turn 
pale with fright^ pain etc. ; no bab courage 
fails(me); no srun-ba frq» *to watch the 
countenance', to pay much or even too 
much regard to other people's opinions; 
no dziTi-pa Mil. seems to signify the same, 
and no cdgs-pa the contrary : not to comply 
with a person's wishes MiL\ no sprdd-pa 
to lay open the features, to show the nature 
of a thing, to explain; no ^pi^dd-pa to 
understand, to learn, in later literature frq. ; 
no ses-pa to know ccap: na no kydd-kyis 
ma sh--na if thou dost not know me MiL\ 
with termin. inf.: to know (that something 
happens); to find out, e.g. by calculation; 
to perceive; no vii ses-pa 1. not to know 
2. unacquaintance, ignorance 3. unknown: 
nd^ii^ses'pa-la Iddh-ba to rise before a 
stranger; nd-mi^ses-pai yvl an unknown 
country Th<fy,\ no Itd-ba Glr. is said to 
signify: to submit (vb. n.); *no Un-c^ W. 
to beg pardon, cf. nos bldn-ba; no Iddg- 
pa or Ug-pa to turn away, always fig. = 
to desert, Jidr-bai yul no ISg-na if you 
will desert, get rid of, the land of trans- 
migration; more frq.: no -log byid-pa to 
revolt, rebel, rtsdm-pa to bring about a 
revolt, no^ldg-^mUan mutineer, agitator, r'to- 
Ug-^an seditious, faithless, no zldg-pa ccg. 
to oppose, resist, not comply with a person's 
wish Dzl. — 2. side, like nos^ esp. W.: *'a 
no 'la %on* he has gone to that side, in 
that direction; ^sdm-pa 'a no H nd-a son* 
he is absent, inattentive. — 3. self, the 
thing itself, cf. nd^bo and nos; v. Jdl-ha\ 
also sbst. the self, the I, no-fsdb the re- 
presentative of the I; c£ also no-cen. — 
4. likelihood, prospect of, c. genit. inf. or 
root, Jcyir-bai no a probability of its being 
taken away; bu big Jbyun no ce a great 
chance of (getting) a son. — 5. (also 
nos) a. the waxing and waning moon, with 
regard to shape; one half of the lunar 
month with regard to time, yar-no the 
former, mar - no the latter half; ydr - no 
zla Itar like the crescent moon. b. in a 
special sense the increasing moon, or the 

first half of the month; thus vulgo; so 
also in B.: zld-ba dgu no bcu lon-pa-na 
Glr., no bcu-naSy zld-ba no bcu-na Pth. in 
the first half of the tenth month (to denote 
the duration of pregnancy). 

Comp. and deriv. no dkar v. above 1. 
— nO'lkog prop, adj.: public and private, 
open and secret, but it is generally used 
as a synonym of zol or rdzun, fraud, im- 
posture, deceit, eye-service. It may be ex- 
plained by its contrary: nd-med Ucog-med 
acting in the same manner in public as 
in private life, the open and the secret 
conduct being alike Mil. (cf, nos). — wo- 
can natural (?) Cs. — no-cin ('the greater 
self), a man of influence interceding for 
another person, an intercessor; no-cen byid- 
pa to intercede Glr. ; mi-la no- cm ^cdl-ba 
to use a person as negotiator, to make 
inquiries through him Glr. (Sch. incorr.) — 
no-rtdg W. 1. (like nh-pa oi B.) certain, 
e.g. *n0'tdg U-c^ to know for certain. 2. 
(like diiosy yan-dag-pa) real, actual; true, 

genuine, */?«/ yin-na no-tdg yin* is it 
counterfeit or genuine? illusion or reality? 
^no-tdg sdd-Uan* the actual murderer, he 
who really occasioned the death. — *^d- 
stodrlian W. he who praises another to his 
face, a flatterer. — no-ndg v. above 1. — 
7'i6- bo - nyidy entity , no -bo- nyid - mid -pa 
non-entity Tar. 90,2.; essence, nature, sub- 
stance, e.g. shns-kyi MU.; character Was. 
(278. 294); marrow, main substance, quint- 
essence (=sny{n-po) Glr. and elsewh.; 
rdn-gi nd-bos in itself, according to its in- 
trinsic nature Mil. ; also col. *nd - bo Ko- 
ran* C. the thing itself, opp. to a surrogate ; 
no-bo ydig rtdgs-pa ynyis Was.: *one quality, 
two (different) ideas' (^Schl. has Iddg-pa 
instead of rtdg-pa). — no-Jbdb-pa adj. dis- 
couraged, timorous, bashful W. — n6-m>a 
ace. to Cs. = no. — iid-ma-yyog C. : master 
and servant. — nd-mig W. boldness; *n6- 
mig-ban*.^ or *cen-po* bold, daring, cou- 
rageous; * nd-mig cun-s^ shy, timid, faint- 
hearted W. — no-fsa ('heat of the face') 
1. the act of blushing, shame, nd-fsai ynas 
shameful things Sch., Schr.; nd-fsa-ban, 



£^pr nogs 



nd-tsa-^es-pa shamefaced, chaste, ashamed; 
nd-fsa-medrpa^ mi-hes-pa shameless, bare- 
faced, impudent; *na nd-fsa ra^ 1 am 
ashamed, *Uo nd-fsa dug^ nd-fsorhan du^ 
W, he is ashamed; no^tsa byM^pa to be 
ashamed. 2. a shameful thing, Kyod no-mi- 
fsa-la no-fsar byed you are ashamed where 
there is no occasion for it MiL ; nd-fsa-ba 
to be indecent, indecorous, unbecoming, 
yul-du Idff-na nd-fsa-la as it would be a 
shame if we returned Glr, ; ycer-bur ^*6- 
ha nd'fsa kin as it would be indecorous 
to go naked Pth, — ncHnifsdr-ba v. mtsdr- 
ba. — rid-rw, nor 1 . into the face ScL, e.g. 
skud'pa to smear; rtsub^pa to say rude 
things to another's fac6 Tligy,; no-rdn-du 
id. 2, in the face of, before the eyes, yhdn- 
gyi of others. 3. by reason of, in conse- 
quence of, des bskuliai nor in consequence 
of a summons, of a request of him Glr, 
and elsewh. — no-hh an acquaintance, a 
friend (the usual word in'Wl). — no-sd 
joy, no^6 ^'bar ^on you will have great 
joy, you will be delighted, highly satis- 
fied; sbyin^a no^d by id-pa to make pre- 
sents to another to his full satisfaction Mil., 
also Tar. 211, 2. — no^riins regard to the 
opinion of others, an aiming at applause 

P^f^ hogs 1. mountain-side, slope (cf. nos); 
' river-side, banic, shore, rgyd-mfsoi 
Dzl. — 2. ford, hi-ndgs id. C. 
g^jM- n&m-pay pf. noms^ 1. lo satisfy one's 
desire by drinking, Urdg-gis, also 
Icrdg-las Dzl; ma noms I am still thirsty; 
ndm-par^ also noms-fsdd, Juh-ba to drink 
one's fill; also of sleeping, nyid ma nam 
I have^ not yet had my full share of sleep; 
fig.: ids'kyi bdud-rtsis^ to fill one's self 
with the nectar of doctrine DzL; bltd-bas 
mi noms mdzh-pa so beautiful, that one 
cannot gaze at it long enough, frq.; also 
bltd'bas mi noms bpn-du not being able 
to look at it sufficiently Pth,; noms{;-pd)- 
med(-pa) insatiable. — 2. to show with 
design (boastingly, or indecently, e.g. one's 
nakedness) Glr., Pth. — 3. col. for sndm- 
pa to snuffle, to pry into, to spy. 

px' ^or !• V. under ho, Comp. — 2. n. of 
a monastery of the Saskya, Wdk. chro- 
nological table in Cs.^s Gram. 

pj«r nos 1. side, mdun-nos front-side, front 
of the body Lt; of a pyramid, a 
mountain, Utd-hos southern side or slope 
of a mountain, side, margin, edge, of a 
pond etc.; rgydb hos yyd^-na on the right 
hand behind, yydjs nos mdun-na on the 
right hand before Glrr, surface, plain, of 
the table; sai nos surface of the earth Cs.\ 
hence nds^su (opp. to Ikog-tu) Mil,., *h(h' 
la* (opp. to sbds'te (^be-te*) W. manifestly, 
notoriously, publicly, openly (cf. tid) ; side, 
direction, like pyogs, W. — 2. a thing itself 
(cf. ho 3), examples v. under ^dl-ha, 

— 3. pers. pron. first person I, we; esp. 
in Ld. in epistolary correspondence, eleg. 

— 4. instrum. of no, = nd-yis; nos dzin-pa 
MiL (dhos dzin-pa Thgy.) vb. 1. to be 
selfish, self-interested, also adj. selfish, cf. 
hos 3. 2. more frq. to perceive, to know, 
to discern, also hd-yis dzin-pa; nos zin-par 
gyis Mg, know it! be sensible of it! Thgr.\ 
with the termin.: to acknowledge as, to 
take for, to look upon as Tar. 189, 1. In 
a special sense: diagnosis, discriminating 
a disease Med. *ndh-ng Idh-wa* C. (lit ynoh 
hos blah-ba) = *no Un-b^ v. *ho* 1. 

5CCTOI'5J<3r dhags-snydn v. nag (Lex. = 

-——•—• dhdn-ba^ pf. dhahs 1. tO be OUt 
^ of breath, to pant, to feel oppressed 

e.g. when plunging into cold water C, bat 
esp. when frightened and terrified, hence 
2. to be frightened, to fear, to be afraid, 
sbrtd-gyis of a snake; bes dhdhs-nas thus 
he spoke in dismay Dzl.; dndrl-par ^gyur- 
ro you will (or would) be terrified DzL ; 
dhah-skrdg, skrag-dhdn great fear, fright, 
terror; dhah-skrdg-pa intensive form of 
dhdh-ba^ frq. 
-— -,Q^ -.^ dhan - Jin - pa Lex. not to 

11^1 return things taken away from 
rrx' dhar 1. for mhar., Sweet M^ and 

^ elsewh. — 2. also zXL-dhdrLtx. w.e.; 

i^C^-'Sf dniidrmo 


It>*-s. •*>(> v^-^ **-^ * 



SJC^HTi^' mndg-pa 

Sch.: order, succession (?); fsdr-du dnar 
LejCy Sch put in order, placed in array. 

^K'Sf dnM-mo = niid-mo Sch. 

rj^q- d/m/ (coL often *muP) 1. silver. — 
\ 2. money. — 3. a rupee. — 4. a tola 
or Indian half ounce; dniil-gyi fdg-nas 
dml ysum-du fob he gets 30 rupees out 
of the ready money; d/ml-Ka a silver mine, 
a vein of silver; dnuUkiigj dnul^gyig money- 
bag, purse; rf4i/Z-?w quicksilver, mercury; 
dnul-dulrma refined silver Sch, ; dAul-rmig^ 
lump, bar, ingot, of silver Sch.; *nul'Zdn(sf 
W.y C.y silvered or plated copper. 
fg^ dno 1. shore, bank Lejcjc. — 2. edge of 

^ a knife Cs. ; fig. rta-Udg-gi dno whip- 
cord, lash of a whip C. — 3. handle of 
a knifeC??) Cs. 
frtxq' dn6m-pa^ dnom-brjtd, brightness, 

' splendour; dndm-po^ dndm-ban 

shining, bright Cs.; Lex. dnom-ii very 
bright. Cf. vndTvwpa. 
rgir dnos 1. reality, real, dms daii sgyv^ 

' ma reality and illusion; rgydl-bu 
dnos the real prince (opp. to a spurious 
one); proper, true, genuine; positive (opp. 
to negative) Cham. ; personal^ dnds-la ydd- 
pa to be personally present; dnds-su^ resp. 
hil'dn6s'Su bodily e.g. to appear bodily; 
^d-yig dnds-su med kgan, even though the 
^a is not actually written there, Gram.\ 
dnds-su grub' pa Tnid-pa to have no real 
existence Th^y. — 2. Cs. : pers. pron. I, cf. 
nos; dnos-^zin-pa to be selfish Thgy.'^dnoS" 
dzin selfishness, selfinterest, dnos-dzin yddn- 
gtfis zin-pa to be possessed by the demon 
of selfishness Thgy.; dnos-dzin-can selfish, 
self-interested. Thus it was explained by 
Lamas, though it cannot be denied that 
sometimes the version : belief in existence, 
a clinging to reality, a signification equally 
justifiable by etymology (v. below), would 
be more adequate to the context. — 3. 
Tar. 150,14: thou, you; except in this 
passage I did not meet with the word in 
this sense, yet it may be used so, in the 
same manner as nytd q.v. 

Comp. and deriv. dnos-grub^ Ssk. siddh% 

1. perfection, excellence, any thing of superior 
value, e.g. honour, riches, talents, and esp. 
wisdom, higher knowledge, and spiritual 
power, as far as they are not acquired 
by ordinary study and exercise, but have 
sprung from within spontaneously, or in 
consequence of long continued contempla- 
tion. This dnjos-grub is, as it were, the 
Buddhist caricature of the xctQia^iata of 
the N.T. (v. I. Cor. 12,4). — 2. name of 
male persons, col. *n0'7*ub* W. — dnos- 
ndn having little flesh, ill -fed, emaciated 
Mil — dhds'ban material, real Cs. — dnds- 
dad true faith, opp. to blun-^ad 'a fool's 
faith', superstition Mil. — dnos-sdtg prob. : 
real, or still eflFective sin, unatoned, un- 
expiated sin Dzl. ^?^ 14; or less emphati- 
cally: sinful actions in general QP^ 15. — 
dnos-po, Ssk. '^^^ ^, thing, natural body, 
ser dnul'la sdgs-pai dnds-po Olr.; matter, 
subject, dgd'bai dnds-po matter of rejoicing 
Wdn. ; goods, utensils, dge-sldn-gi wearing- 
apparel of a Gelong; occurrence, event, 
action, dnds-po sgrub-pa to bring a thing 
about, to set it on foot or a going D2:/.; 
as a philosophical term: substance, matter. 
Was. (270. 294) ; dnds-por dzin^a the belief 
in the reality of existence Mil. — dnos- 
ma Cs. natural (opp. to artificial), natural 
productions. — dnds-min 1. the proper or 
real name for a thing; so Zam. uses the 
paraphrase :^o-7/i/«cfn-^*rf«(fe-7wi/i, in order 
to avoid the plain expression mjCy which 
is considered obscene. 2. noun substantive, 
Chr.Prot. a newly coined grammatical term. 

— dnoS'Tned Lea:. = Ssk. abhava^ Cs. im- 
material, not existing, Was. (281): not real. 

— dnoS'sldb z, real, a personal pupil Tar. 
often. — dfios-yii (Lea. = Ssk. miila) the 
main part of a thing, the thing itself, e.g. 
the subject-matter of a treatise, the cere- 
mony itself, opp. to sndn-^o introduction, 
sbydr-ba preparation, and eventually also 
ryes that which follows. 

3;T[^qrq' mndg-pa^ pf. mnags, tO commission, 

' charge, delegate, send (a m essenger, 
commissary tic.) Dzl. ; also used of Buddha's 
sending a Bodhisatva on the earth to con- 


5}C(3r^' mhdn-pa 

^jL^r^' mhdn^a 

vert all mortals. — mnag-yiug a servant, 
slave, but esp. a messenger of the gods. 
j;T[^^q- 7w/idn - joa to curse, to eltecrate; 
^ mnan bsffran-ba Cs, 'enumeration 
of curses'; hut mnan mibgranf Lex, w.e. 
$ICQ' wwa, resp. for (/6a/?, might, dominion, 
sway, mna mdzdd-pa to govern, to 
rule, la over; mrta bmyh-^a to have ob- 
tained power Glr.; mita sgyur-ba Tar, id.; 
to possess (books, knowledge etc); to have 
mastered, to understand thoroughly; vina 
ysdl'ba 1. to name, nominate, appomt, 
rgydl-^or a king Pth, ; btsiin-mor to declare 
a woman one's wife Glr, 2. to praise ('.; 
bkra-hh miia yzdl-ba C. to congratulate. — 
mna-fan power, might. — mna-bddy ruler, 
master, owner, frq. — miid-ba \ , vb. resp. 
for yod-pa^ to be (to have), rgydl-po-la sras 
ysum m/td'Ste the king having three sons 
DzL ; btsun-poi sku-la bsnyun mi miia Idgs- 
sam (1 trust) your majesty is not unwell? 
Glr, 2. adj. (partic.) being owned by, be- 
longing to, Dzl,9<^, 3; having, owning, == 
dan Iddn-pa, frq. — miia-vidzdd = mna- 
bddg, — m/ia-zdbs Glr,y mna-^dg Glr,, mna- 

ris Learx, subject to; a subject 

w-Q'^«f- mna-ris p.n., in a wider sense 
the whole country round the 
sources and the upper course of the Indus 
and Sutledge, together with some more 
western parts ; the Cashmere, English, and 
most w^estem Chinese provinces, where 
Tibetans live; in a more limited sense 
mna-ris skor ysum denotes Rutok, Guge, 
and Purang. — mna-ns-Mm-bu C, Cfid- 
ti/i* W,), dried apricots from Balti; mf'ta- 
ris cu, mna-ris ytsdn-po, also yyas^^vi-ytsd/i- 
po^ and rta-m^dg-Ka^bab, the principal river 
of Tibet. 

j;jrx'n' mndr-ba, W, ^ndr-mo*, C, ^ndr- 
po*, sweet, frq.; *vinar ysum* the 
three sweets, sugar, molasses, and honey; 
cf. dkar ysum, 

S^CCU' ""^^^^U resp. Uiums (^) WOmb; mndl- 
gyi dn-mas ma gds-par not con- 
taminated by the impurity of the womb 
(so all the Buddhas are not born like other 
mortals, but come forth out of the side of 

the breast); mnal dan Iddn-par ^gyur-ba 
to be with child ; mnal mi bde-bar ^gy^r- 
ba to be taken by the labours of child- 
birth; mai mndl-nas byun-nas rtdg-par 
constantly from one's birth ; mrldl-^u idgs- 
pa 1. the originating in the womb, con- 
ception, 2. the foetus or embryo Med,; 
m/idl-du fdgs-pa a disease ; mndV^-du) ynds 
(-pa) foetus, embryo Thgy, ; mndl-du ^ iug- 
pa to enter the womb, relative to a Buddha: 
his incarnating himself, his assuming flesh; 
mndl-du ^dzin-pa Wdn, to conceive, to be 
with child. — mndUKa mouth of the womb, 
orifice of the uterus Med, — mhal-ginb 
contamination of the womb; Cs, adds: ori- 
ginal sin, yet prob. it signifies nothing 
more than mndl-gyi dn-ma v. above ; (the 
said contamination is considered to extend 
to the least contact with a woman in child- 
bed). — mndl'Sgo the canal of the uterus, 
vagina; also in a more special sense the 
extreme orifice of the vagina Med,; frq. 
without any immediate physiological refe- 
rence, the same as mnal^ e.g, when the 
subject of re-birth is spoken of. — mnal- 
fur a spoon used in midwifery for ex- 
tracting a dead fruit (in the artificial deli- 
vering of a live child the obstetric art in 
Tibet is rather helpj^ei^ — mnal rUgs-pa 
abortion, miial rluK-par byid-pa to cause 
abortion Cs, 

^v^^^ mndn-pa conspicuous. Visible, e.g. 
' continents, because they stand out 
of the water; more frq. fig.: evident, mani- 
fest, clear, mnon-par ^yur-ba to become 
manifest; to be verified, proved, e.g. gold 
by refining Dzl, — Tibetan writers regu- 
larly translate the Ssk, abhi by mndn-pay 
hence ^os mn&n-pa Dzl,, and mndn-pai bka 
Pth,, the Abhidharmu (v. Kopp, 1., 595; 
Was,), mnon-pai sde-snod Abhidharma-pp- 
faka, vmon ' pa - Tndzod Abhidharma ko^a 
(v. Bum, I. and Was,); as a vb.: to be 
evident, to appear clearly, bdhi-par cis 
m/ion, from what is it evident that it is 
true? Dzl,; yndd-par bgyid-du mndn-no 
they are evidently bent on doing mischief 
Dzl, ; mndn-du byM-pa to manifest, to make 

^Ca'CT mndn-pa 


K"^' rndn-pa 

public; to show something to others; Tar. 
24, 1 should be understood: to make 
clear or manifest to one's self, to perceive, 
know, understand; mn&n-du Jbi^n-pato 
disclose, reveal (secrets, the future) Glr,; 
to make known (one's wishes) Glr, ; mii&n" 
(lu ^yur^ba to be revealed pr disclosed, 
to make one's appearance, rah-byun ye-hh 
miidn-du gyur-pas as the self-originated 
wisdom has revealed itself to us MIL — 
mh6n-par adv. manifestly, openly, evident- 
ly; often = entirely, highly, greatly, very, 
mnon-par rdzogs W<t8, (246) complete ful- 
filment; in the sense of 'very' it may also 
be taken in mndn-par dgao^ in the legends 
of Buddha, Hhey rejoiced very much\ 
though also one of the other significations 
of abhinanda might help to explain these 

Corop. mndn'(par) brjdd^-pa) = abhi- 
ddna, a collection of synonyms, of which 
some are mentioned in Bum, I. and II. — 
mnon-rtdgs proof, argument; sign or token 
of the truth of a thing Dzl VA, 2. — 
vin(m-(par) rtdgs^-pd) 1. a clear compre- 
hension Was. (287). 2. a hymnlike descrip- 
tion of a Lha from top to toe, v. also 
Schl. 260. — mnon-mfd re-birth as Lha 
or as man Thgy. (Schr.); also n. of a re- 
gion in Paradise. — mn&n-pa-pa an Ab- 
bidharma scholar. — mnon-spydd Sch. 
cruelty, severity; Schf. more corr.: witch- 
craft, Sdc. abhieara, Pth., drdg^po inhon" 
spydd-kyi las Tar. frq. — mnon-mfsdn Lejc. 
w.e., Sch.\ an evident sign. — mndn-^par) 
sh^-pa), re?p. ml'yhi('pa), Ssk. abhijndy 
a kind of clairvoyance, gift of supernatural 
perception, of which five species are enu- 
merated, viz. assuming any form at will, 
seeing and hearing to any distance, know- 
ing a man's thoughts, knowing a man's 
condition and antecedents; originally used 
as a vb.: to be clear-seeing Pth. — mnon- 
mwrdu 1. openly, publicly Dzl; more frq. 
2. bodUy, personally; like dnds-m, e.g. to 
appear, to instruct, in person (Tar.); to 
know by one's own personal experience 

p- rna I. kettle^lrum, drum, jidr-rna ^.fiar; 
rdzd-rna Glr., Cs.: 'a drum of earthen 
ware'; rgydl-rna the beating of drums after 
a victory, bdg-riia at nuptial festivities, 
*lhd-na* Ld. for the king; ^hih-na*^ and 
*zim-fta* Ld. a morning and evening se- 
renade with an accompaniment of drums; 
KHmS'kyi rnd-bo ^e brduns-te the beat or 
sound of the large proclamation drum (prop, 
law-drum) Glr. — 

Comp. rna-sgrd 1. sound of the drum, 
or- kettle-drum 2. n. of a Buddha, = d&n- 
yod-grub-pa or Amoghasiddha. — *na'ltd^ 
W.^ rha-rdeg Sch.^ rna-dbyug Cs., rhorydb 
Sch. drum-stick. — rnd-pa a drummer Cs., 
rna-dpdn a chief drummer. — rha-lpdgs 
drum-skin. — rha-yu handle of a kettle- 
drum (the larger kettle-drums being held 
up during the play by means of a handle 
or stick). — rha-Hh the wooden body of 
a drum Cs. — rna-s6n kettle-drum music 
Sch. — rha-ysdhs (also rna-bsans) a loud 
beat or roll of the kettle-drum Sch. 

II. for rna-bdn, and rnd-^na. 
pw rnd'ba, pf. briias, fut. brha, imp. rhos, 

to mow, to cut, to reap, >«u, or h- 
tog zdr-bas to cut, the harvest with a sickle; 
brtsds-ma brhds-pa the reaped com; rnd- 
mUan the mower, reaper. ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

F'SC' ^^'^"^^'^ ^"i ^ita-mdh* 6'., camel, r/)a- 
)'s^b male camel, rhd-w4) female ca- 
mel; a camel in general; rha-priig the 
young of a camel; rhoHrgdd a wild camel; 
rha-bdl camel's hair, -k^^- o ^.t, fo ^ '^l' 

K'^ rhd-nia \. tail. 2. in a special sense: 
yak's tail MU. — rhd-ma yyug-pa 
Sch., ^nd-ma tdg-c^ (lit. skrog-pa) W., to 
wag the tail. — rna-ydb 1. a yak's tail, 
used for fanning and dusting. 2. rha-ydb^ 
and rha-yab-yMn, n. of two fabulous is- 
lands in the south of Asia Cs. 
f <5r<5^ ^/?aw-?(£^ Lex., C. and PT., contempt, 
^^ disdain; *waw.?e»jA/-pa* 6'., *^d- 
<V* W. to despise, contemn. 

px-q- rndn-pa 1. sbst. 1. reward, fee, hire, 

' wages; rndn-pa mdn-po the wages 

are high; rndn-pa sbyin-pa or ytoh-ba to 


J^i^'CT r nob-pa 

f^'Cf rhddrpa 

pay wages; to bribe, to corrupt. — 2. in 
C, at present a kind of sacrifice. 

II. vb. to reward, to recompense, perh. 
better brndn-pa, 
pjg-g- rrtdb-pa 1. (cf. r nam' pa) to desire 

earnestly, to crave, bkrh-^^hab-pa to 
be greedy, to have a craving appetite Lea;, 
— 2. W, col. for rnd-ba to mow; *ndb'Sa* 
(lit. Tidb-rtsva) W, grass or com that is to 
be mown or cut. 
pq«rx' rhdbs-rva Med., a hollow horn, 

'^ used for sucking Sch, 
pj;rq' rhdm-pa 1. sbst. (cf. dnoni)^ also 

rnam-brjidy rnom-brjidj splendour, 
magnificence, majesty, an appearance, com- 
manding awe or inspiring terror (but not 
= awe Cs,); rndm^ai nd-ro a voice of that 
kind; rndm-po, rndm-tan adj. bright^ shi- 
ning, grand, majestic. — 2. vb., also rhdms- 
pa, pf. brnarmy to breathe, rhdm-pa bde 
the breathing is regular Mhg,^ f rq ; rhdm- 
pa fan short breath &A.; esp. to breathe 
heavily, to pant, rhdm-pa rgod wild puffing 
Med,\ c. dat. to pant for, to desire ardently, 
srog yddd-pa-la to be blood-thirsty Ma.; 
rhdm-pai fsul-gyis greedily (devouring) 
Thgr,; rhdm-can adj. greedy, avaricious, 
covetous; *za -ham-pa* voracious, glutto- 
nous, ravenous W,; to rush upon, fly at, 
throw one's self on, yidn-la on others MIL; 
to rage, to be in a fury; to destroy or 
murder in a state of fury; mi pal-ch* gnr 
rriom (like ffrir ysod) the people are in 
numbers murdered by the sword Ma,; to 
call out in a rage, tea Urds-rham-nas thus 
she called furious with rage DzL; rhdms- 
pai (Jiro)-kal an angry face, wrathful look 
fSI^ ''^^^'"^ height; in height Glr,, rndms- 

8U id. 

J^?f rhas, V. shas, 

^ rhu pain, v. zug-rhu, 

Ffl'H' Thijfb'pa^ pf. (b)rhvhsy fut. brhvh, 
NO imp. rhub%^ to draw in, dhuga air, 

anar into the nose Med, ; to breathe Med, ; 
dbugs rhtcb mi ^fon (?) is mentioned as a 
sign of great sadness and affliction Pth, 

SQ|- rhul perspiration, sweat, rhU-hi id.,C 
N:> esp. col.; rhvl ^du Med,, Jyuh Dzl, 
rhul - hi ^ton, *yoh*y col. perspiration is 
breaking forth; rhid ^ddn-pa to cause to 
sweat or perspire Cs.; rhul-ba, pf. brmd, 
to sweat, to perspire Cs, 
in- rheu 1. also rheti-Hh, rha-^h, a little 
^ drum, diminutive of rha, — 2. the 
young of a camel, v. rha-mM. 
'k^ rhOy is stated to be a kind of leprosy, 
covering the whole body, of a whitish 
colour, itching very much, and contagious; 
*/io j5o^, gyah* he is afiFected with leprosy; 
rhd-ban leprous (cf. mdze), 
g^ rhd-ba to be able Gs., rho-tog-pa id., 
so Fouc, Gyatch. Tip, 9, *n6b-b^ Ld,; 
Sch, has: rho mi fdg-pa to look at one 
with uncertainty, not being able to recog- 
nize; the passage of MU. : rho ma fogs hjoh 
is not to be explained by either of these 
significations; Lex,: rho mi fogs w.e. 

^'^^^^ rhd-bag-han Cs. v. rhomrbag-lan, 

FTak'cr ^^<^-^^^p« to roast, fry, (?) Sch, v. 

^ mod-pa, 
'^k^ Thog 1. also ze-rhdg, the hunch or 

' hump of an animal Lea;., more esp. 
a hump consisting of fat (like that of the 
camel); fsU-rhdg the fat around the kid- 
neys, suet Mil,; rus-kyi rhog Lea:, w.e. — 
2. rhogQ-ma) the mane of horses etc. (not 
of the lion, v. ral-pa), rta-rhdg a horse's 
mane, dre-rhog a mule's mane; dretHrhog 
a kind of stufifed seat or mattress Cs,, a 
thick-haired carpet Sch,; rhdg-han, rndg- 
Idan having a mane; rhogs-cdgs a beast 
that has a mane Cs. 
g^'n* ^^dd-pa 1. pf. brhos, fut hrhod Cs, 
(perh. erron. for brho) imp. rhodj 
rhos, W. *ho-de* 1. to parch (barley), ser 
tsam (to parch a thing) so that it turns 
yellovrish Glr. — 2. to roast, to fry e^. 
meat in a pan. 

II. to deceive (ace. to Cs. « rhdn^ 
to deceive wild beasts, to hunt) ; to seduce, 
esp. to sensual indulgence, bud^mSd Lej,\ 
similarly Tar, 39, 2. 

to'CJ' rndn-pa 

ll^'J It 




Sjx'jjr r non-pa 1. vb., pf. and fut. brnon, 
' to hunt, pursue, wild animals Cs., 
ScL; to fish C — 2. sbst. a hunter, hunts- 
mim 2)2:/. and i>^.; rnon-pa-mo a hunting 
woman, a huntress Cs, 

^^ rndb'pa Ld, to be able, V. rno-ba. 

g^-nSr* rnom-h'jid (cf. rndwr^a 1) splen- 
^ dour, stateliness, majesty; rn^^m- 
bag-ban, also col. ^nom-jig-ban*^ grand, 
majestic; terrible, of a judge, of terrifying 
deities. (A sbst rn&m-boff «= mom-btyid 
Cs, prob. does not exist.) 
Qj- /wa (fia/. VO> five, lnd-bcu(-fainr'pa) 
^ fifty; Inor-brgya five hundred; Iha-hbu- 
rUa-yhig {W, ^norbcu-na-big*) or nar-jrcig^ 
fifty one etc. ; Ind-pa the fifth, Ina-po con- 
sisting of five, cf. (ijfw; Ind^ga Cs,y Ihd-ka 
Pth, all the five," each of Uie five. The 
number five very oft;en occurs in legends, 
as well as in sacred science, v. the Index 
to Bum, n., and to Fouc, Gyatch. II. un- 
der 'Cin^. Iha - Un, Ssk. TI^T^Ti ^' ^^ ^ 
country in the north of ancient India. 
M- 9na (tjp^ a root signifying before, SOOn, 
^ early, rarely referring to space, and 
seldom used alone as adj. or adv., e.g. 
Dzl' Tift, 8: JlA'ba ni hd-bah yah sha 
€^-90 deliverance (sc. jfrom existence) takes 
place much too soon; ha ni fhfi-pa sha 
brgal ym I was the foremost, the first, to 
cross the threshold Glr.; bstdn-pa sha dar 
bar dar pyi dar ysum the first, intermediate, 
and last propagation of the doctrine Glr.; 
g6D. it is used with an adjective termina- 
tion, with postpositions, or in compounds. 
Deriv. shd-^a 1. adj. ancient, belonging 
or referring to former ages, rgya-ndg-gi 
rgydlrpo shd-ba an ancient king of China 
Glr,; of an early date, long ago, . . . las 
dd'Ua shd-ba ^dug-gam is it already a long 
time, since . . .? Mil.; 2. sbst. antiquity, 
t}ie olden time; the morning; = shd-dro, 
Mil; 3. vb. pf. snas, to be the first, to come 
first, to be beforehand, (cpi^dveiv): rye-yi 
dai mikm ha shd-bas as I was the first to 
see the king^s face Glr. ; ^ran-fsig shds- 
pa yfn you were beforehand vnth me in 

disputing Glr.; *Ua he son* Sp. you pro- 
mised it. — shd'bar in former times, for- 
merly, in the morning; sah snd-bar to-mor- 
row morning Glr. — snd-ma adj. 1. earlier, 
former, preceding, afore-said, frq.; sfid-ma 
sha -ma always the anterior in time and 
place; shd-ma Itar, or bzin-du, as before, 
frq. 2. the first, the foremost in a series 
or succession DzL; Iddh-bai shd-ma she 
who takes the first turn in getting up Mil. 
— shd-mo 1. earlier, by-gone; shd-mo-nas 
long ago MU.; 2. W.\ tte morning, in the 


*md hd - nio* early in the mor- 

mng, 'to -re hd-mo* to-morrow morning ; 
also: early enough, in due time (opp. to 
^pi-mo*). — snd-ru v. shar^ as a separate 
article. — shd-na before, previously, (gen. 
siiar is used inst. of it). — snd-nas id., 
prop, of former times. 

Comp. shd-g6h{'nas) adv. before, pre- 
viously, at first, a little while ago, just now 
Mil.; formerly, = late, deceased, sha-g&h 
yob your late father Glr.; sha g&h bod-kyi 
rgydl-po the earlier Tibetan kings Glr. — 
sha-dgdhs morning and evening Sch. — 
sha-shd very early Sch. — sha-cdd formerly, 
hitherto, till now, up to this time DzL, = 
shan-cddy shon-Md. — sha^'tih-du earlier 
or later, not at the same time, e.g. brds- 
so they escaped Glr. — sha- Itds omen, 
presage, prognostic; also the fate or destiny 
portended. — sha-fdg 1. forenoon. 2. the 
first-fruits of harvest Cs. — ma-dus anti- 
quity, time of old. — sha-dro the morning, 
the earlier part of the forenoon, 'the time 
before the heat of the sun' ; shd-dro ybig- 
la in haK a forenoon Glr. ; shd-dro dgdhs- 
mo morning and evening Sch. v. above; 
sah shd'dro to-morrow morning J/ti. — 
sha-pyiif) SOOner or later, like sha-rtih-du 
V. above Dzl. frq. — shd-rol time of old, 
past ages Cs.; shd-rol-tu before Tar. (cf. 
shdn-rol). — *nd-fo* W. last year. — sha 
higs^drhirpa Cs. : 'the accenting of the first 
syllable'. — sha-sdr early, ma-sar-sdr very 
early Cs. — sha-sdr 1. in the first place, 
first of all, 'at first (cf. rtih-s<yr) Glr. 2. an- 
ciently, in old times Cs. 





«j-S< snashjo vegetables, greens Th^y. (v. 

^xayzy ^^^Q-ff^y also snags-pa^ pf. bsnags, 
^ ' fut. bsnag^ imp. s/iogr, to praise, 

commend, extol; to recommend; ^gro-bar 
snags it is recommended to go Wdn,; bstod- 
snag" pa to praise, to sing praises, frq.; 
sndg'(pa-)po a praiser, commender, 6 s.; 
snag-(par) ^os('pa), snag -Man praise- 
worthy; praised; also n. of the horse of 
Buddha Cs. — snag-jsdl praise, thanks. 
^m^ snags (iTi|^, also \ITT# & TTn?) 
^ ' 1. incantation, magical formula, a 
set of words, consisting mostly of a number 
of unmeaning Sanskrit syllables, in the 
recital of which however perfect accuracy 
is requisite; hence detailed rules and in- 
structions for a correct pronunciation of 
the Sanskrit sounds have been drawn up 
for Tibetan devotees. (On magical formulas 
V. 5wm.IL, 21, and note; on Buddhist 
magic in general v. Was, 142. 177, Kopp. II., 
29.) — fzum-snagSy rig-snags, and ysah- 
sndgs prob. = snags, — snags sgrub -pa, 
spil-bay zld-ba, C. also *gydg-pa*, to recite, 
to pronounce charms, incantations; ^cdn- 
ba^ ^dzin-pa, to carry (charms) about one's 
self. — snags -kyi f^g-pa Tantray^na, 
Mantrayc/'na, v. Ug-pa, — shags-pa, shdgs- 
mUan* one versed in charms and their 
use, i.e. in orthodox and legitimate magic, 
as contained in the sacred books of religion. 
Opposed to this are han-shdgs^ rian-sha^s- 
vilxan, diabolical sorcerers and necroman- 
cers, and also common swindlers, jugglers, 
conjurers, fortune-tellers etc. — 2. praise, 
encomium Cs, ^^^ * ^^N'U . C a^ ^^.^ i— 

SC^ snans = dnans, v. dndn-ba Glr,, PtJi, 

Kj^ siian^ for sna, snon, e.g. siian - cad, 
^^ formerly, before, previously, beforehand, 

opp. to now Mil,; snan-cdd fd-Jsams-pa 
bzdd-par ysol pardon our former scoffing 
MU,; esp. W,: *ndn-la* for sndn-la^ snar^ 
before, previously; *ndn-ma* for s/td-ma, 
*ndn-me gydl-po* the former or last king, 
*ndn-ma ndh-tar* just as before. 
S«3r^' shdn-bu a medicinal herb, Wdn. 

sjx* snar, prop, snd-ru, before, beforehand, 
^ previously, formerly, at first; shar de 
byds-pai ^og-tu not until that has been 
previously done DzL; snar med-pa, snar 
ma byds-pa^ shar ma skyis-pa what has 
not existed, or has not been done before, 
where we only say new, frq.; shar hm 
get up first! Dzl.; shdr-bas kyanQhag-pdr) 
still more so than formerly, frq. ; shdr-gyi 
what has been hitherto in use, frq. ; shar- 
gyi yi-ge myin-pa-mcmis the old writings 
of antiquity Glr.; shar yin-na adv. =-8n^ 
Mil,; snar Itar, shar biin as before; shar- 
nas from before, from former times Mil.; 
also with reference to space: foremost, 
ahead, in advance, on, onward, joined to 
verbs of motion Dzl; shdr-ba the former, 
first-mentioned (?). In the sense of a post- 
position (c. accus.) shar is used but seldom, 
as far as I know only in spyan-shdr, 
R^xr^r sndr-ma intelligent, quick of appre- 
^ hension Sch, 

«j^- shas a bolster, pillow, cushion; yo^ydd 
^ shds-su ojug^a Glr., C. col. *yo-jhe^' 
la ne cug-pa* using the luggage as a piUow; 
shas-stdn, shas-J>6l, resp. dbu-shds pillow; 
rgyab-shds a cushion for the back; shaS" 
mdl a couch constructed of pillows or 
cushions; snas-^pdns (?) pillow, cushion Cs.\ 
W. *nye* for *shas*. 

S^^' snds-pa v. sha-ba, 

xj^ shun, col. for shon; shun-la c. genit. 
>fe ' before, ago, like gdh-du; ^dd-wa nyis' 
si htcn-la* two months ago; *hitn-la son^ 
he walked in advance, or ahead; *nw»- 
ma* former, last; *hun-ma-za^ W, two 
days before yesterday, *yan hun-za^ three 
days before yesterday. 

S^^ shur-ba to snore Lex, (cf. nur-ba). 

sheu Lea., Cs.: a kind of pulse or 
pease ; Sch, = monsran, v. greu. 

rsho, a root signifying blue or green; as 
sbst. plant, herb, vegetable, greens MU.; 
sho skye-na when it is getting green or 

Comp. sho-skyd blue bice, pale blue, e.g. 




R^^^" hrhdd-pa 

the skin of emaciated persons Med,\ *no 
gyan-ffydn* W. greenish-yellow (spelling 
dabioas). — snchsgd officinal herb, Wdn, 
(green ginger?) — sno-^md v. nod, — sno-- 
Ijdn bluish green. — sno-tdg Schr. 'unripe, 
sour, of fruits' (?); more corr.: green, un- 
ripe fruits. — snO' dregs green mud or 
mire Sch, — sno-ndg deep blue. — snd-ba 
\. vb. to get green, verdant; 2. adj., also 
sno-boy more frq. sndn-pOy sndnino blue, 
green, also used of the livid colour of dis- 
eased or famished people Glr, — sno-smdn 
a medicinal herb. — snch-fsdd vegetables; 
herbs. — sno-ld the leaf of a plant; 6s.: 
^snO'ld Jcdr^ba to become notorious'. — 
mo-sdm pale blue e.g. of the sky; sno- 
Bdns-ma night Sch, 

K^q- snd-bay Cs, also sAdd-pa^ pf. bsrios, 
^ fut. bsnOy imp. snosy 1. to become green 
Cs. — 2. (L^. irPcTrr'T?) ^ bless, *wo-?/?a 
gydb^de* W,, though in most cases as a 
requital for a present given; DzL :?V5, 16: 
to bless, to pronounce a benediction, hence 
also in litanies the words of the priest 
seem to be indiscriminately called snd-ba^ 
whereas the responses of the congregation 
of monks are termed mfun-^gyur; gene- 
rally: to dedicate, devote, e.g. one's pro- 
perty to the dkon-mcdg ysum^ i.e. in reality 
to the priesthood; dgi-ba ^ro-di^ ddn- 
du snoSy to devote alms, charitable gifts, 
to the (temporal and eternal) welfare of 
beings. Mil; also to design, to intend, «d- 
la bmds-pai yyu the turkois intended for 
me (by you) M?.; Dzl TV^y 3: sd-la 
Mn-iu dan rin-po-ih^ bsnds-nas rtse-ba, 
fancying the earth to consist of cottages 
and jewels, and thus playing with it. 
^n'O' sndg-pa Leaa,y prob. pf. bsnogs, 
^ ' fut. bsnog, imp. snogs , to VOX, to 
annoy; cf. skycHndgs^ skyo-sndgs, 
^^ snon = sna and snaUy formerly, before, 
^ previously; snon fds-na having formerly 
heard DzL ; snon mdn-du flyer yan although 
you have taken a good deal with you be- 
fore; snon ^ddS'pai or byun-bai dus-na 
in by-gone times, frq.; snon btom-ldan- 
^dds a former Buddha Glrr, snon mi dbul- 

po de this man formerly poor DzL ; bddg- 
las snon bddg-gi pa my father before me 
(has . . .); sndn-gyi adj. former, last; sndn- 
ma the former (when two persons or things 
are spoken of), STidn-ma-mams the former 
(persons or things) Glrr, beginning, Iha-fcdn 
)ig'pai sndn-ma Ikd-sa-la byds-te making 
a beginning with the destruction of the 
temples in Lhasa Glr.; snon-du adv. and 
postp., before, at the head, in advance, in 
the front of, sndn-du ^grd-ba to go before 
or in advance, to precede, also of words 
and letters; sndn-du o^ug-pa to put or 
place before, Gram.\ sndn-la^ sndn-du: 
sn(hi'la son walk first! Mil.; st&n-pai sndn- 
du (he died) before the Teacher (Buddha) 
Tar. ; sooner, earlier, before the time sup- 
posed, sndn-la tsdr-ro they were first in 
finishing (their task) Glr.; ^o-nd sndn-la 
^di pul big oh yes, but first give me that 
Mil.; sndn-nas from a former time, from 
the beginning MiL ; snon-bzin as formerly 

Comp. snon-skyis the first-born, eldest 
son. — snon-grd v. ^grd-ba compounds. 

— snon-cddy snon-cdd DzL^ v. snan-ddd, 

— snon- Jug a prefixed letter Grram. — 
snon-dus, snon-fs^ antiquity; adv. anciently, 
in times of old. — snon-byun Cs. = snon- 
rdbs. — shdn-rdbs ancient race, ancient 
history, antiquity, ^TTHir- — sndn-rol (cf. 
snd-rol) former time or period, ma ytdd- 
pai sndn-rol iig-tu formerly, in former 
times, when (the chair) was not yet trans- 
ferred (to . . .) Tar. — dtis nd-nih s6n- 
bai sn6n-rol-na a year ago (an expression 
with an unnecessary redundancy of words!) 
MiL — snov^-lds former actions. 

S5J' snon^shOy sndn-po, v. sno. 

snon-bu n. of a medicinal plant, 
ace. to Cs. poisonous; in Lh. Del- 
phinium Cashmirianura, officinal. — s/ion- 
bum n. of a botanical work: ^the hundred 
thousand vegetables' Cs. 
^^^ brnd-ba^ v. rnd-ba. 
^F^'Cr ^^^^'P^ Sch.: 'ausziehen, aus- 




^(3rCI' brhdvrpa 



— - -•^, brndn-pa, = rhdn-pa sbst. G/r., ^51?^'^' ^'*^'^"P^ ^ place upon a cushion 

' vb. Lex, ^ Sch 

MQ'^' bividb'pa 1. Sch. = brhdd-pa. — fl^n* bsnd-ba 1. v. snd-ia. — 2. a Uessing, 

2. Z>^J?. = rndb-pa^ rnams-pa. ^ cf. mo-ba. — 3. Cs. also: mauMy, 

q«jQi-q* bsndl'ba to be faint or exhausted rotten (prob. only livid, discoloured, v. 

^ Cs.; V. sdug^bmdL (J zfi>i 8no), 

^ ia 1, the letter r, tenuis, palatal, like 
the Italian ci in ciascuno^ or c in cl- 
cerone. — 2. as numerical figure: 5. — 
3. — Ida excrement, alvine discharges , ca 
^dor-ba to discbarge excrements Mil. 
^S^' boriir lark Ld. 

^5^ da-tu8 warped, distorted, awry Sch. 

5^ ^a-^(^ clamour, cries, 8ny^» fmn-gyi 
ba-bo shout, exclamation of joy /%. ; 
noise, of many people Thgy.\ da cd-c6 
ma zer now do not make such a noise! (so 
Mil. rebukes the atrial spirits); chirping, 
twitter 6/r.; cd-co-can slioiiting, bawling; 
talkative^ loquacious Stg. 
^rx^ bd'dar, also tsd-davy tsd-^ar, a sheet, 

^ blanket, toga. 
y;C^' ^^"^^"^^j cr di-n-H, W. * car -pa 
ba-^*a-rd yoh du^^ it rains heavily, 
it is pouring. 

^A^' ba-H W. bug. 

5*^' ba-re continually, always = car. 

^qr bag termination of the plur. of pers. 

' pronouns. 
gq i'y m y bag^h^m cartilage, gristle; snai 

' nT bag-krum bridge of the nose. 

S^^Tj^' bag-dkdr W. quartz. 

OTOT cdg-^a, C. *bdg-ga jM-pa*, = nyd- 
' ' ra byedr-pay c. /a, to take care of; 
^bdg-ga ddg-po jhe^ -pa* to look after, to 
keep, preserve carefully; *bdg-^a ddg-po* 
careful, orderly, regular, tidy, of persons. 

S^rs^r ^*^ ^(^'^^gt ^%-pa smacking 
' '' ' in eating Cs. 

mr^jrxr bag-ber-r^ closely pressed or 
' crowded, in standing or sitting 


^^^ bag-rdo = bag-dkdr W. 

jpp-' ^'«w, (v. biauy bi-yan)y every thing, 
any thing whatever, ban-hh knowing 
every thing, epithet of deities or saints; 
more frq. followed by a negative particle 
and then signifying: nothing; *ban mi sto* 
it does not matter, it is indifferent (to me), 
frq.; *ban med* there is nothing here, or 
at hand; also = *mw mi sto; ban mi ses- 
fon* ignorant, stupid; blockhead, simpleton. 

-j.:^. baii'tiu Glr.y also ban-ban^Uu 

(VTC) a sort of small drum Pth. 

jyr baUy affix, adjective termination, prop. 
' signifying: having, being provided with, 
= dan Iddn-pay corresponding to the Eng- 
lish adj. terminations -ous, -y, -ly, -fill, 
e.g. fser-ma-ban thorny; sometimes also = 
-like or -ish: bdn-ban Bon-like, heretical 
Mil.y hinnJu-ban Hindoo-like, Hindooish; 
seldom affixed to verbs: by^d-pa-ban a 
doer, maker; in C. also for the possessive 
pron. : nd-bariy ko-baUy my, his (her), *nag- 
gdn sd-hib'ben* the Sahib's inkstand. It 
may also be affixed to a set of words that 
form one expression: fs^-ma ndn-po-ban 
having sharp thorns, sin-^ei mgd-ban having 
a lion's head. 

53r ban 

jT- baUy po., prop, bdn-^u, postp. c. accus., 
^ to, With, Hon cdn-du mi ^gro I do not 
go to him MU.^ Ptfi.; na tdn-du with me, 
in my presence Mil. The word seems to 
be rather obsolete; more recent editions 
having gdn-du and drun-du instead of it. 

Sgr^Or ^«^^^ (?) ^- ^^ green shell of 
^ a wahiut. 

^ ' ^ ' ^^ n^, &A.; a small 
bowl or dish; Cs.: continually. 

55r^t' dan-dvdh green, unripe W'l (?). 
53^?r can-sa (?) kitchen, fire-place W. 

S^^ dah'bob Cs. nonsense e.g. smrd-ba. 

w* mw 1. Cs. slow; //^o'. cdvi^yis Jog, 

and several other passages, the sense 

of which is not quite clear; cf. ^am-me. 

— 2. glistening, glittering (?) cf. Icam-m^. 

— 3. W. whole, unimpaired, *«a* (lit. lisva) 
*i'a7n-7n^ yod^ the whole store of hay is 
still left (entire). 

5^qyaf bdm-pa'td'lo Ts. mallow. 

JW'CK' cam-pdd Ld. a bunch of flowers, 
^ sprigs etc., a handful of ears of 

«• ^ar 1 . Lea. car-ri^ Cs. ca-r^j Sch. also 
tar-^dr, always, continually Cs. — 2. 
also caVy Mr-du, with numerals, esp. ycig^ 
car at the same time, simultaneously, opp. 
to one after the other, successively (viz. 
domg or suffering a thing, sleeping, dying 
etc.) Dzl.: at once, on a sudden, opp. to 
gradually Afil.; Ihd-car all the five to- 
gether Thgy.^ j-nj/is'^ar, drug-car etc. 

5^^^^ bar-ras v. ^doms~ras. 

jpr col Cs.: 'noise, bal-bal id.; cal-^rgyug 
rumour, (false) report'; cal-bdl idle 
talk, nonsense, baUbdl ytam id. Mil. 

5^ bos Pur., V. bes 2. 
5^5?^' baS'bus Sch. «=» ba-biis. 



^ bi num. figure: 35. 



^ bi I. interr. pron. in direct questions: 
1. what? (C. gen. gan instead of bi) bi 
hes (like the Hind, ^f m^) who knows? 
col. W. ; also pleon. at the end of a question 
after the . . . am: na nd -hes- sam bi? do 
you know me? do you? Dzl.; cii of whom? 
whose? followed by yyir^ don., ced, slad 
(-du): why? wherefore? inst. of bit pyir 
also bi-pyir etc.; de bii pyir i^-na ^this 
wherefore? (=^ why this?) if so it is asked'. 
(This phrase, besides the gerundial particles 
— esp. pas — is the only way in which 
in B. the causal conjunction 'for' {Lat 
nam, enim) can be expressed, and in 
tmnslating into Tibetan, the English con- 
juuction must therefore often be altogether 
omitted.) bit J>rds-bu what sort of fruit? 
bit ri what kind of a mountain? i.e. of 
what consisting? Pth.; bi also, like an adj., 
is placed after the word to which it belongs : 
tgyu bi-las for what reason? on what ac- 
count? Thgy. — 2. why? wherefore? but 
only in negative questions : bddg-la des bi 
ma iog why should not that suffice me? 
Thgy.', bi mi sg^rvb why do you not pro- 
cure . . .? inst. of the imp. procure! Mil.; 
bsdm-na bi ma legs if you considered . . . , 
why would not that be a good thing? = 
you had better consider, you ought to 
consider Mil. ; frq. : de Jbyun-na bi ma run 
if that happened, why should it not be 
desirable? = would that it happened! oh, 
may it happen! — 3. how? in conjunction 
with other words, v. below. — 4. inst. of 
a note of interrogation, e.g. in: c^' piau, 
for yndn-7iam, )'h4gs-par bi ynaii do you 
allow (me) to come? Dzl. c^T', 13; ^nS, 5. 
II. correlatively: which, what; what- 
soever; every thing, much like gan, q.v., 
esp. the syntactical explanations given there. 
bi, as a correlative, ought prop, always to 
be written ji, yet not even in decidedly 
correlative sentences is this strictly ob- 
served: bi byed(-na-^a/i) whatever I may 
do Glr.; bi bgyi bka nt/an(-te) ndd-kyis 
bsgrub whatever we may be bidden to do, 
we shall obediently perform Pth. ; bi myur, 
also bimyur iig-la Pth. as quick as possible; 


|-S)$r binlim 

^' Hh 

also bi alone : by all means, at all events, 
spy an ci dram he must be conducted here 
at all events Glr. 

Comp. and deriv. ti-ffa what? col. — 
M-dgar^ H dgd-bar whatever one may wish, 
at pleasure, ad libitum. — H snyed v. myed. 

— *H ton* (lit. ytoii) *li^ 8ome, something 
col. — bi Ita-bu of what sort, manner, 
fashion, quality or nature? Lat, qualis. — 
H Itar how? in what manner? what? da 
H Itar byaj W, *da hi cd-be*, what is now 
to be done? — bi Itar gyur-pai ytam byds- 
80 he related what had happened, frq. — 
a-8te, followed by na or (rarely) te^ in 
most cases = the Lat. sin, but if, if however; 
even supposed that; sometimes for gdl-te, 
if, in case. — bi sto what does it matter? 
si yaii bi sto if he dies, what does it matter? 
Thgy. (cf. bat'i). — bi-^dra-ba similar to 
what? of what kind? also: of whatever 
description it may be Glr, — bt-nas from 
which or what? out of which or what? 
by which? etc. (BaL: *bi-ne* how?), H- 
nas kyan = bis kyan q. v. — bi tsam hOW 
much? B.y W.; bi tsam yod kyan though 
he have ever so much MiL ; bi tsam - du 
how far? to what distance? — bi-tsug Cs,^ 
col. *bi-zug, gd'Zuc^ how? in what manner? 

— bi hig 1. what? what a? 2. some one, 
any one, something, anything; bi hig-tu dgos 
for what (purpose) is it wanted? DzL\ bi. 
h'g^na once, one time, at any time Pth,; 
bi h'g-nas after that, afterwards Ptii, — c** 
yan, ci-ah^ ban whatever, any thing, all 
kinds of things, *nul yQ-na fsdn-gyu ci 
yan yo* C. if there is money, you may 
sell any thing; followed by a negative: 
nothing. — H rigs-pa adj , H ngs-par adv. 
1. in some measure, to a certain degree; 
in part, partly Tar,\ 2. of every %^TiDzl 
and elsewh. — bi-la why? wherefore? Glr., 
W, col.; also for the de bii pyir ^-na of 
i?. ; further it is used inst. of an affirmative ; 
e.g. question: shall we get rice there? 
answer: *fob yin; bi-la mi fob* of course, 
why not? *bi4a zu* why! well! 

5'S)3y' bi'lim {Hind, A^ 1. the bowl of a 
hukka (water-pipe). — 2. a hukka. 

^'5' bi'tse Kun,, also tsi-tse, millet 

^qr big, enclitic, a modification of ybig, 
' after s usually changed into hig^ after 
vowels, and the liquids n, n, w, r, I into 
^ig (exceptions, however, in provincialisms 
and in literature are not imfreqnent) 1. 
after nouns, the indefinite article a, or a 
few, when following after a plural; some- 
times also untranslatable: bttd-^mM-dag big 
some women; mdn-po Hg many (some- 
times expressly opp. to mdh-po, the many, 
Tar, 7, 15); gah hig v. gaU; a little, SOme, 
Ufi iig Ju-ru ^ro dgos I must go and 
pick up some fire -wood Mil,', after in- 
finitives: Urims dart ^dl-ba zig byM-pa 
to commit a trespass, to make one's self 
guilty of a transgression DzL ; fse ^ds-pa 
grdifs-med-pa iig myah he suffered innu- 
merable deaths Z)r/.; it is even added to 
numerals, and not only when 'nearly', 
'about' or similar words leave a given 
number undefined (jiii Ina tsam zig some 
five people), but also in sentences like the 
following: cu-mig bzi hig yod there are 
four springs or fountains. In all these 
cases, however, it may also be omitted. 
The numeral for 'one' ought always to be 
written ybig and never bigy but prefixing 
the y is so often neglected (e.g. in fobs 
big-tUy Ihan big etc.) that even grammarians 
let it pass. — 2. wJien affixed to verbs 
(to the root of the imp. mood, or, in ne- 
gative sentences, to the root of the present 
tense) it is a sign of the imperative. In 
ancient literature it is used without re- 
ference to rank, whether it be in making 
prayers to Buddha, or in giving orders 
to a servant; at present in C, only in the 
latter way; in W. it is of rare occurrence. 

§C' 3c' §C' ^^y ^^^ ^^^ * gerundial 
' ' ' particle, the initial letter 
of which is changed ace. to the rules ob- 
taining for big; it corresponds to the English 
participle in ing, is used in sentences be- 
ginning with when, after, as, and is affixed 
to verbal roots and adjectives, in the latter 
case including the auxiliary verb to be: 
ysdn-por dur^du bbitg-bih but ha zd-bar 


gyur-Hg («= bcug^nas, or bcug-sfe) may I, 
after having been buried alive, be obliged 
to eat my own son's flesh! DzL] usually 
however employed in the minor clauses 
of accessory sentences: brds^Hn gab -pas 
having hid themselves after running away 
Zfei.; frq. also where coordinate ideas are 
in English connected by and or but: hd-la 
zd'hn Krdg^la Juh-ba eating flesh and 
drinking blood; ce-iin Ugs-pa tall and well- 
shaped; drod yndd'bin bsil-ba pan heat is 
hurtful (but), cold is beneficial L^. It is 
also used like the ablative of the gerund 
in Latin; nya bhdv'iin ^fsd-o we live by 
fishing (piscando) DzL ; and = h/in (q.v.) : 
ri'la dran-sron byid-Hh ^dug-go he sits on 
the mountain acting the part of an anchorite 
DzL ; smre-sndgs ^ddn-cin ^dtuf he sits wailing 
DzL ; rah'dgdr ^^o-hih yda he is wandering 
at pleasure J//Z. ; ces smrd-Hh ydd- pa-la 
as they were thus speaking ff/r.; ?05 stdn- 
Hh ydd-pai fse as he was just giving re- 
ligious instruction Tar, 11, 12. 

S^a' cm-ri n. of a female demon Thgr. 

^;r S'X' <^^y ci-ru, termin. of ci, 1. 
' whereto etc., little used. — 2. 

with yan: everywhere ^ in every direction, 
for any purpose, by all means, with a 
negative : nowhere (so at least it is to be 
explained in several passages of Pth. and 

^«r cis, instr. of ci, cis yid-ces-par ,^gyur 
by what am I to believe it? what 
shall make me believe it? whereby Can I 
know it to be true? DzL; cis kyan mi 
skrdg-pa yin he is not to be frightened 
by any thing D^;/.; as kyah^ and H-nas 
kyan frq. used as adv.; by all means, at 
all events, at any rate, cis kyan ^6 - na 
if you wish to go by all means, at all 
hazards; da Hs kyan gegs byao now I vdW. 
at any rate play him a trick DzL; bis kyan 
bzes-pa hi I beg of you most earnestly to 
accept it MiL; tis kyan slobs never mind! 
teach it me at any rate! Pt/i. 
^ cu 1, num. figure: 65. — 2. inst. of bcu^ 
^ used in compound numerals for the 


5^' bur 


tens, when the preceding numeral ends 
with a consonant: sum-tu, drug-du, bdun- 
hc, brgyad^hi. 

used for medicine'. 

5'mC' ^^'9^^ Med.^ Ck: 'a sort of lime 

^gv iti-ti (Jyhi'ti) pig-tall, cue, worn by 
Ns ^ boys and men in Tib 

ribet proper, Lrf. 

and Sp, Cf. cO'to. 

5'S|' ^^' ^^'^^y ^^'^^ 1. TK a fresh apricot 
Ns ' — 2. C. dried apricots without 

stones. — 3. a sort of wild-growing vege- 
table Sik,, C. — cU'li tor-gir the pulp of 
apricots boiled down to a conserve and 
formed into cakes W. — bun-cu-li a kind 
of peach Ku7i. 

OTT^Snr htg-biuf = cag-cdg ScL 

^j-- cun 1, (\ gourd, pumpkin. — 2. n. of 

NO a place. — 3. for cuii hig: da Uyod 
cun ^yis-pa yin you are a little too late 
now PtL; can yo-ba a little slanting Gh\ 

sc'^cn-^ scs^-, s^z:^ ^^-%' ^^'^- 

xo ' ' Ns ' Ns > zady cuh'Zad, 
a little, B, and C, mii-ge biin-zad cig a 
partial famine MiL; buri-zad-kyi pyir for 
the sake of a trifle, through an insignificant 
circumstance DzL 97^^ 15; some, LaL non- 
nulla^ of rare occurrence. Was. (242); cun 
^ skyeii - bar gyiir - nojs rather ashamed, 
somewhat confounded Gh\; cuh-hg pdn- 
nam blta I shall see, whether it will help, 
or has helped, a little MiL; a little while, 
a short space of time, cuh-zad big sdod 
big wait a little (while) DzL When followed 
by a negative, it may either be trans- 
lated as in: buh-zad ma bde-ba a little 
unwell, uneasy etc. MiL^ or as in: dbah 
cuh-zad m£d, there is not even a slight 
possibility = there is no possibility at all 
PtJi. and elsewh. 

gr-Jg^ buh-lo^ also buh-hu, buri-ziy yboh- 
Ns ' ii^ a kind of white stone. 
^f^ bub W., from the Hind, ^jn^ *bvh 
X© bdd-de du^ he keeps silence, holds 
his peace. 

,5X- bm\ in bur mid -pa to devour food 
NO entire Sch. 



^5^'S^ Utr-ni 

^•$^ cur-ni meal, flour, only in medical 

xd ^ writings. 

^' de numer. figure: 95. 

^ar, 3'(9r S'^r ^•^-^,^^-^, 2:^-^^ (cf. 

na^ If one says so, asks so' etc., after words 
literally quoted, frq. (W, 'zer-na*), 

fP' <*^-spyaw jackal. 

^•^- ^-^^ ('^-r^, cer-re enviouS, j^lOUS, 
miff ce-re (c^r-gyis Thgr.^ eer- 
ie Glr.) ltd - ba to look with an evil or 
envious eye upon; le-i^e Idh-ba dim-sighted, 
purblind 6i. 

^•^q- cem-me-ba bright, shining, of 
polished metal Glr,, cf. Krd-bo. 

^'i^ (^^mrtse scissors C. 

^^ bdff-pa 

spelling and pronunciation (bes^ be) of the 
Lamas of Ld, it is the ordinary termination 
of the infinitive in W. (in Pur. and Bal. 
bas, in Kun, cd), though etymologically 
as yet not accounted for; sometimes used 
also as a sbst. or adj. i.e. partic: bsdd- 
tes killing, bsdd-ces yin it is to be killed ; 
skye-ees pregnant, v. skyi-ba, 
^ ro 1. num. fig.: 125. — 2. co-^dri-ba 

Lex,, (7., to blame, reproach^ slight; to 
vie with. 
^w fgT^- ^-d-^a, Icd-ga Mil lark (not 

' ' ^ ' common in Tibet), 
^^x- cd-gerQ)^ H-ger bzugsGlr., W. vulgo: 

' *c6-gan dug* he sits motionless. 
5fg^ cd'to, also ('6-ti, Cs.: a tuft of hair 


on the head, thus Lea^. : H-toi for- 

v6g (= cu-ti?); cf. Iban-lo. 

5a cd'ii = car, cdn co-^ri Ijex. (?). 

^- ecu 1. u small sucking-pipe for drinking 
^ the Murva-beer, in which millet grains 
are swimming Sdh (v. llook, I., 175). — -^ ^^j^ ^ .^^^ 
2. a clyster-pipe. 

5^ ber, v. be-r^. 

^«r bes 1. {Lex. ^fRf), also ses and ies 
(cf. i-ig) SO, thus, in ancient literature 
regularly placed after words or thoughts 
that are literally quoted, and so continuing 
the sentence; the quotation itself is gen. 
preceded by ^di skdd-du, or ^di snydm-du. 
In later literature bes and the introductory 
words are ofien omitted, in col. language 
always. Inst, of bes smrds-so, bes ysuns- 
sOj so he said, thus he spoke, so has been 
said or spoken, so it is said, often only 
beS'So is used, and in like manner bes-pa 
for bes smrds-pa, this word, this speech; 
bis-pa-la sogs-pa these and similar words; 
bh-pa ^di yaii also the preceding poem (is 
written by him); snyun ies-pa ndd-kyi 
mih yin the word snyun is a term for 
'disease' Zam. ; zes^-pa) dan 'such, and', if 
a quotation is followed by another, where 
we say 'further', ^moreover*; bh-pa-la B.iier 
words have been quoted, which form the 
subject of further discussion; bes byd-ba, 
or bh^a the so called, frq. after names; 
bes'su rarely for bes. — 2. ace. to the usual 

'^^ bd'lo the prattling or chattering of 

little children Mil. ; cf. bd-bo. 
^t- bogCs.: a plural-sign; ScAr. all (people). 
' This, or a similar original meaning 
of the word is also to be traced in an 
expression usual in Ld. : bdg-mdo a place 
where three roads meet, v. mdo\ cf. also 
bag. When affixed to a word, it must be 
preceded by the vowel o, the final con- 
sonant of the root being at the same time 
repeated. Affixed to verbs, it seems to 
convert them into participles: ^ons-so-bog- 
la Dzl. ^, 6, to those arrived, to the 
(persons) arrived, yin-no-bog^ ydd-do-bog 
those being, existing (things or persons); 
Cs.: ybh-so-bog things that are valuable, 
precious, to a man. 

^•^•q- bog-bog-pa W. grasshopper, cricket 

^rq- bdg-pa C. to have leisure bdg-na yoii 
99 if J^^ l^ave leisure, come! *^6g- 
ka* leisure, ^dlie-^rih bdg-ka me** to-day I have 
no leisure; *bdg-ka )h^ is an affirmative 
answer, when having been asked for some 
little service, something like: well, Fll 
do it. 

Uc /rt 

^^ Idg-Jm a sort of small tent Cs. 
^*' W^r-fe^, V. Icog-tse, 

^O^S^ c6g4a-ma a mineral (?) Med. 

jjp- ^o/i 1. L&r. a musical instrument, 
Schr. : a bell. — 2. M7: hoh-la skyur- 
ba to pusli one do^wn a precipice in order 
to kill him (the only meaning the context 
here will admit) ; cf. tson-ddn. — 3. v. j-con, 
3jr'§' ^on-bi a small bowl or dish Sch.\ 
V. can-be, 

^'^* con 'ion jagged, Indented, serrated. 

^'$r cdn-mo, col. for Idun-mo, 

^•q- cdii-ba^ Pth: nu-Jbdd bon-ba ace. 
to the context: to raise loud la- 
mentations, wailings (at funerals); perh. 
etymologically connected with l^o-nis. Cf. 

^'(3' bon-ii = bun-zo. 

^•5j^, con-rdhy perh. «= bon-bon^ Mil. boh- 

rdh tser-ma. 
S^'Q^T ^^^^^9 ^1^^' ornament for the 
^ ' head, worn by kings, tiara, diadem, 
erown; the crest of gallinaceous birds. 

'^^^ bdb-ddr Ld.-Glr., Schl. p. 29, a (?). 

S^TTC' ?5^'^ bor-gdh^bdr-big^mouiai' 
1^' ' ful, agulp, a little Sc^A.; 

cf. C(M*^. 

5gj.--, bol'cun Thgy. childish prattle or 

^ babbling. 
qraofq- ybdgs'pa 1. to apprehend, to 
' ' grasp (with the understanding), 

to impress, gen. with yid-la, on the mind, 
e.g. the doctrine Dzl. ; also bka nan-ybdgs 
im-po yndh-ba to give a thoroughly solid, 
impressive instruction; ybdgs-po byM-pa ■•= 
fbdgZ'pa; with additional force: *do bag- 
po )h£'pa^ C. to impress (to one's mind) 
as firm as a rock. — 2. relative to per- 
sons it is synon. to cdgs-pa to lOVe. 
qOT-:gr r^dh-poy W. *Mh'po* clever; lively, 
sprightly; W. also attentive to, ro- 
of; ybdh-po druh-po clever and 




sagacious Mil., ycah-druh Iddn-pa id. l^Ji, ; 
hence also yban sbst. sagacity, cleverness; 
Jia-ybdh clever words, clever speech Cs.; 
cf. also Ua-sbydh^ W.\ *mh bd-be* to watch 
for; to keep guard, to watch; ^hah-rig bd- 
be* to be very attentive, to listen with 
fixed attention, *Mh-rig-ban*, C. *bdn-^' 
ben* very attentive; W.: *hah skul-be* 1. 
to exhort, admonish 2. to wake, to rouse 
from sleep; ^^ds-si ^ah-akul tdh-b^ to give 
religious exhortations, to hold parenetic 
qi^^'CJ' j-bdd-pa, V. ybod-jya. 

m^rm gar yian'(j)zdn frq. beast of prey, 

]r\\ \'^ i^^f fera^ but more in a 
systematic sense, so that the cat, and even 
the dog may be included; Glr. po. yban- 
(j)zdn fa- ma 'the last of the beasts of 
prey', the cat. 
^.-«.-. ybdm-bu Cs. humbleness, servility, 

' ^ flattery,5cA.also untruth, lie; /caTw- 
bui nag^ or fsig a servile speech; ybdfm- 
bu mird-ba to speak submissively Stg. (not 
much used), 
m^-q- rbdr-ba 1. Sch.i CUt OUt, put OUt, 

^ knocked out, e.g. mi^ an eye (cf. 
bbar-ba. — 2. MiU 
—_.•-. ybdl-ba, ybdl-du bhrdm-pa to 

' spread, display, lay out e.g. precious 

stones, jewels, on a table, on the ground, 
Glr., also Lex. 
cn%'n- y^'ba 1. vb. v. ybidr^a. — 2. sbst. 

I s= y(^n ; bhah yci both kinds of alvine 
discharges. Dzl. 

' J one; one and the same, dus ybig-ta 
at the same time (whereas dus ojr-na once, 
one day, which however is also written 
dm ybig-na); ybig byed-pa to unite (vb. n.), 
to join (in an act), to act in concert; sole, 
alone; dear, beloved, yoA ^^^ dear father! 
Glr. : sin - tu yduh - bai ma ybig my own 
(only) beloved mother! somebody, some 
one Dzl.^ ycig . . . ybig the one — the other, 
somebody or other, very firq. ; ybig-gis ybig, 
ybig-la ybig etc. one another, each other 
frq. ; mi-ybig C. differing, different. 


^5^'^' ycid-jya 

Comp. and deriv. yUg-ka single, only, 

opp. to several, Mil. — ybig-baVy ycig-car 
V. car, — y^g-ciff, pronounced ^cig-cig*, 
a certain, some one, elt; tic^ sldb- ma-las 
ycig-big DzL; budr-m^d yag-cig DzL :^^, 5 
(where Sch. has big-ycig erron.); ycig-ycig, 
pronounced *cig-cig*^ \, one at a time; 
separately, alone, esp. W.\ 2. of the same 
kind, not different W. (v. Fouc. Gram. p. 21. 
42), 3. adv. by one's self, only, solely W. 

— yHg-cdg all-SUfficient Glr. — ybig-njpd 
Cs. 'unity' (?) — ycig-tu 1. into one, into one 
body, together, ybig-tu sdu-ba to unite e.g. 
six countries, DzL; to contract, to simplify 
C. 2. at once, wholly, altogether DzL ^, 3; 
3. firstly, in the first place, ydig -tu-ni; 
then follows ynyissu-ni etc. DzL 4. only, 
solely Thgy. — ytig-du unity and plurality, 
ycig-du-brdl not having tliese two qualities 
Was. (308). yd7g-pa 1. the first Wdn. (little 
used). 2. having etc. one, cf. dgu. 3. of 
one kind, not different or manifold, r/ii- 
yctg^a different B. and C. — ycigrpu (also 
^^cig-bu?) alone, single, yHg-pus mi ston 
tub -pa to be able to cope alone with a 
thousand men DzL; ycig-pur lus-pa to 
remain alone behind Glr.\ only, sole, bu 
yHg-pu the only son, frq. — ycig-po 1. 
alone, rgydl-po ybig-po skyis-pa yin the 
king alone is a man, DzL 2. being one, 
or the one, ma ynyis-la skyh-pai bu yctg- 
po thou (being the) one son of two mothers, 
viz. claimed by two, Glr. 3. Pur. tbe one 

— the other. — yHg-sds the other, when 
speaking of two. 

qi^-jpj- ycidrpa^ also yci-ba^ pf. ycis^ fut. 

c>^^^ ^™P' y^' ^ make water, to 
piss. ^2 •^:i^JUfcs. /y. - io%J 

m^- ycin urine, ycin ycid-pa, or yci-ba, 

' ' W. tdn-ce^ to make water; ycin sat* 

urine is discharged involuntarily; ycin- 

rkydg^ both discharges, vulg.; ybin-^dg 

the retention of urine Med.; ycin-snyi 

gonorrhoea, clap(?) il/<^. 

qi^Q« ytiu 1. clyster -pipe = leu; yH-ui 

' ^ smart clyster Lea^. — 2. cly8ter(?) Cs. 

^^'^' ytil-ba to spoil, to destroy Sch. 

CM-n* flTfl' ycu-ba, Icu-ba, v. y bud-pa; 
^ ' ^ p'ctt or Icu-Jior Cs.^ ybu-skdr 
Wl, ycus'bu Ts., screw. — yci^fo' v. ^w-fo'. 
— ytu-ddh screw-box Cs. 

^^^p'^rp' ycu-gdl importance, Cs. 

^\^^\N|'Z^ yl^gs-pa^ prob. not different 
NO ' from yhdgs-pa. The word oc- 

curs in: yid(-la) ycugs{-pa)he\oyed^ a friend 
DzL; mdza-ycugs byed-pa to treat ami- 
cably Wdn.; Von-yaigs having conceived 
a hatred Lej;. 

^pC H ycun-po, resp. a younger brother. 

^1^r• y^i^f f ycud'(la) ^adrQ-ba) Lexx. w.e. ; 
sd^ 5c/i.: to forsake, to cast out, to re- 
ject; (cog. to cud-zdn?) 

mxT' ^C'CT y^M'pa^ Icud^a, pf. ybuSy 
'>o ^ ' ^ ' Icus^ fut. ydu^ Icu^ imp.yc«^« (?) 
to turn, turn round, twist, twine, plait, braid; 
*cud log tdn-te* W. to untwist, untwine a 
rope; *bv^ zum idh-te nol du^ W. they 
wrestle and scuffle (prop, they fight scuff- 
ling); *sen bus gydb-ce* W. to press and 
bore with the knuckle; *du8-spu* a low 
expression for the hair; Idg-pa yhcs Zam.f 
mM'^y ybiin-pa^ secondary form of ^un- 
^ ' pa^ Lej^j*. : rtsdd-nas ydun-pa^ prob. 
to subdue completely; ybur-kin ybUn-pa 
prob. to beat or press a thing until it is 

yhur-ba., secondary form of ^ur- 
ba; ybur-pe I A. a coarse sort of 


z^'n' yc^-fx^ to esteem, to hold dear, to love 

' Sch. 
CT^y yben (Cs. ybbn-pd) resp. Cs.: one's 

' ' elder brother DzL 99S, 11; ace. to 
Zam.: first-born son. 

^15^^' ycSr-ba v. bc^r-ba. 

m^xrn' yc^^-bu naked, col., also MU.; ycer- 
' ^ nydl id.; Kun.: *der-g6^; resp. 
sku ybir-bu; ych^-bu-^mams ^dbs-par by^d- 
pa yin-pa being one that covers the naked 
Stg.; ycir-bur jyyin-pa to make naked, to 
strip Pth.; yhir-bu byun-ba, W. *der-nydl 
fdn-de* to show one's self naked; yterr 

li^s^ .'^'L^-'^^^^ 


cr|^-q- yddd^a 



bu^a, ycer-nyal-m/can Mil. (SsL nirgran- 
tha a naked man, gymnosophist; ^ds-sku 
ycet* mfon^u grol-bas having been deliver- 
ed so far as to see the ^ds-sku (v. sku) 
onveiled Gh\ 
qi^^q* yb^-pa (Lh. *^/-pa-*) dear, belov- m^-n' ycdd-pa^ pf. 

' ed, . . . Itar yhes-na yah although ' ^ cod^ W. *cw 

he is to me as dear as . . . Glr,; hM-kyi 
mi ycis-pa a man dear to us, our beloved, 
our darling MU, ; ybis-ma a favourite, sweet- 
heart 6s.; yces^prug dear child MUr^ ex- 
cellent, precious, valuable, Un-ta fces-pai 
Iha the five important letters (viz. the pre- 
fixed letters) Glr,\ h^^-pa ybes it is of im- 
portance to know Med,; often as super- 
lative : ^ig rtM ^di-na ych-pa ran-srog yin 
the dearest thing in the world is one's 
own life Pth. ; ybh-par by^drpa Stg.^ jdzin- 
pa Glr. c. accus , W.: *U-pa cd-be^ gen. 
with the dat, to hold dear, to love, to 
esteem, persons or things, but not appli- 
cable to the deeper affections of the heart 
— ybes-bsdus Lea. w.e.; ybes-btus Cs. choice 
pieces (out of books). 
^j^•q- ybdg-pa, pf. bbag, imp. %(«), W. 

' ' *bdg'be*^ imp. *cog* trs. to ^bdg- 
pa^ to break, dum-bur to pieces; to break 
off, or asunder; to smash, a glass; to crack, 
nuts; to burst; split, blast, a gun, a rock; 
fig. : to break, to violate, a promise, a vow, 
a law etc. frq., ydb-kyi bka bbdg-tu med 
the word of my father may not be violated 
(by me) Glr. 
m^C ^Tl^'a;^' y^^^y ycoh-ndd, consump- 


tion, phthisis, yboh-c^n 
prob. dropsy in the chest or in 
the pericardium Med.\ gen. any chronic 
disease ^boh-la ^f/ ma 8oh-ham* C. it has 
not taken a chronic turn, has it? also fig.: 
*8^w bdh-po dug* C. the heart is sick, af- 

CTa^'wr- yb&hskad Lex.^ Sch. : lamentations, 
' ^ wailings, plaintive voices, cf. 

m^-q- ybdh'ba 1. pf. bhohs, to oxcavate, 

' wash out, undermine through the 

action of water, fur-du yboh-bar mi gyui*- 

TO they are not undermined (by the water) 

Stg.; yboh-roh a narrow passage, a defile 
Cs. — 2. from yboh^ to get faint, languid, 
wearied in mind, C. 

^^'^' ybon-ii^ v. bon-zi. 

bbady fut. ybad^ imp. 
'bdd^be*, imp. "bod" 1. to 
cut, ; bdd'bya ybdd-pa secanda secare Gi'am.; 
to cut asunder, Kam-tsad-du into small bits; 
to cut off, chop off, the hands; to Cut down, 
to fell, trees; to CUt out, the tongue DzL; 
to rend asunder, to break, a thread, a rope, 
chains, fetters. — 2. to cut off fig.: cu^ 
the water, by damming it out, frq.; to 
reduce, the wages; to cure, a disease; to 
suppress, a passion; to discontinue, to give 
up, zan, zaSf eating i.e. to abstain from 
food, to fast; s^rog^ to kill, to murder, frq.; 
to stop a thing in its origin, to obviate, 
prevent, avert; to avoid; to lock, the door, 
frq. ; . . . kyi, or la, bdr-du ybddrpa to throw 
obstacles in a person s way, to hinder, 
impede, frq, ; srdg-la bdr-du ybodrfa d^-dag 
all these life-endangering beings Glr.; (for 
more examples refer to bar); to sfop, to 
make a pause, in reading, had yon- na 
drag-par bbdd-pa making a marked stop, 
when there is a shad, Gram. ; i^am^-par) 
ybdd('pa), or bbad^-pa), section, paragraph ; 
stop, pause; yons-ybod id. Gram.; to de- 
cide, bes bbdd'do thus he decided DzL; 
Ifrtms, or (DzL) ial-li, to pass sentence 
or judgment; to judge, condemn, cf. also 
fdg-ybod'pa. — 3. to cross (little used), 
cu^bo gru-yis a river in a boat Glr. — 4. 
tjes ybod-pa to follow the track, used both 
of men and dogs; *mdr-dz^ (to follow) 
the smell bf butter (vi^. of. roast-meat), 
^kyur-dzi bS'^-pa* C. to follow the sourish 
smell (viz. the smell of beer); (j)sdr' (also 
tsar Pth.) fbod'pa to search into, to in- 
vestigate, to examine or study thoroughly 
Ld.-Glr. Sc/d. p. 20, b. — (fod-pos ybdd- 
pa and other phrases v. under the re- 
spective noun. — *cg^'tdh* C. the Tibetan 
rupee, having lines {radii) of division mark- 
ed, by which they may be cut into smal- 
ler pieces. — Note; In some phrases the 





spelling of ycddrpa and the assonant verbs 
spyddr-pa and dpydd^a is variable. 

2^5^' ^S^ ^^'*^ *^^^' P"*®> haughtl- 
' ^ ness, arrogance, bskyun-ba 

to put it ofiP, give it up Lexx.; bconi cun- 
hus Tor. 20, 6 despondingly, low-spirited; 
gi^os-yhom Lex, obs. or prov. for g^ros^bcdm^ 
v. ^cdrrirpa, 

tn^-q* ycor-ba to spread, scatter, disperse 

^^^^' bhdg-pa v. yhdg-pa and JSdg-fa, 

q^r* ita»? ScA.: ^bban^gya-chirpo com- 
prising much, comprehensive, very 
extensive; bcah-rgydr mdzad-pa resp. to 
apply one's sel^ to bestow pains upon'. 
n^JTTn' biddr-ka W. a whole that has been 

' ' cut into, or a piece cut off. 
nx^ bddd'po W. something old, torn, 
^ worn out 

^^^^ btdb-pa V. ^cab^a. 

a^Syn^T bbam-bcdm Sch. : trivial things, 
medley, hodge-podge. 

^5CV§i' bddsga v. sga, 

n^fl'q- bbd'ba 1. v. M-ba, — 2. sbst. drink- 
^°g5 g^J^* used connected with bza- 
ba; bcd-ba dan bza-ba, or bza-bca food 
and drink. 
q^'Q^fj^- bba-^prdh MiL^ declivity, pre- 

^ cipice Sch. 
n^P'Smy bba-mdg^ the usual pronunciation 

' of Uags-mag, 
q^x'fl' bcdr-ba 1. = 6^V-6a to squeeze, to 
press in a press Thgy.'^ to crowd, 
to throng, ^ydr-la bbav^ C, stand (or sit) 
more closely together ! — 2. to pull or force 
from, to wrest 6s. — 3. Lexx.: mig bbdr- 
ba the same as in ycar-mig (?). — .4. Sch.: 
logs bddr-ba to prop sideways. — 5. Sch.: 
bbar bzugs-pa to have a permanent resi- 
dence (this would however be more cor- 
rectly expressed by bar). — 6. bbdr-bai 
rta- bbibs^ and lan-bbdrf Lexx. w.e. 

^S^'^' bcdl'ba V. JdUba. 

n^^ZV bbds-pa 1. originally pf. of ^ca-Aa, 
little used. — 2. adj. together with, 

R^' bcu 

connected with, having, possessing, containing 

a thing, with daii or termin. (the latter in 
prose only when a second daw, signifying 
*and', occurs in the sentence); gerundially: 
bbds-te^ sometimes also beds-pas or bbds- 
sin; adverbially: bbds-su frq.; ^Icor dan 
bbds-pa(-te^ -«u) with attendance, with a 
retinue or suite, frq,; bu-mo bcu bodnbldn 
dan bbds-pas skdr-te surrounded by ten vir- 
gins togethei" with the Tibetan ambassa- 
dors Glr.; btsun-mo dun st^ds-su bbds-te 
with (his) wife and son Glr. ; gos dan beds- 
su (to go into the water) having one^s 
clothes on DzL ; iai ^dzumnpa dan bbds-te 
with a smiling face Glr.; ser-sna dan beds- 
pa infected with, subject to, avarice; with- 
out dan or termin. (esp. po.); Jirid^bcas 
infatuated, fascinated Pfh.; Jyni-fdn fun 
bbas together with a small parcel of Du- 
tan tea; it is also, like mams^ a collective 
sign, used in enumerations, referring to 
several nouns, Wdn.^ or like la-sdgs-pa 
and other (things), and more (such things)^ 
and the like: rgyags dan bbas bskydl-lo 
provisions and other necessaries we shall 
supply Mil. 

^SC^ bcin-ba^ fut. oi ^cih-ba to bind. 

q^^CJ' bbim-pay pf. of Jciti-ba to bind. 
Both verbs (bcin-ba and bbins- 
pa) are also used as substantives: bonds, 
fetters, whether of a material, spiritual, or 
magical nature. 
q§q(?;|)'i:i' bbib(8ypa v. Jib-pa; Sch. also: 

carriage, conveyance. 
^^^'^' bbir-ba v. Jir-ba. 

^^'^' bbil'ba v. Jilrba. 

q J- bcu {Bal. *wbu*) ten, bbu fam-pa id. ; 
bbu-prag a decade; bbu-ybig^ bcu-pit/is 
(Bal. *wbu - nas*) eleven, twelve etc., (v. 
also bbo); bbu-pa^ bbit-po as in dgu-pa^ dgu- 
po. — bbu-skdr ^foUy bcu-gyur Jon (the 
field) yields a tenfold crop. — ^bU-Ka^ 
bii'Kai tal* C, *cU'Md^ W., tithe, tithes; 
bbu-Kdg-pa a collector of tithes, bbu-Uag 
Jtdn-pa to tithe, to decimate Cs. — bbu^ 
dpdn corporal, Lat. decurio^ bbu-^dg (^bu- 

^^'^ hhu'ba 

q^^ htds-fa 


way* T%.) a band of ten soldiers. — 6^- 
yHg-hdl the eleven-faced (Awalokiteswara) 

q^'^' bbu'ba V. Jm-ba. 


ic-i^s, from the phrases: s^ww A:d?j- 

med'pa dan bbugs Tned-pa dan 
yndd-pa med-pa Stg.^ and PratihOrya Ava- 
dana (v. Feer) p. 3: Iha-byin-gyi^s bcugs 
byds-te = %^r^;^rf%ppfr?t'r, it appears, that 
bcuffs signifies hatred, hostility, damage, 
loss, which when compared with ]rtug8 
seems rather strange, yet is in accordance 
with ^ftinV (for this must probably be 
read inst. of ^ft9?T)* 

q^r- f>cud (j^) moisture, juice, sap, but 
' gen. combined with the notion of a 
certain inherent virtue or power; zld-bai 
bbud a fructifying moisture, to be compar- 
ed in its effects to the warmth of the sun, 
and prob. means night-dew (if after all it 
is any thing real); hence essence, nutri- 
ment, rkdn-gis bead ^^gyur nourishment 
comes from the marrow Med. ; bcud-la son^ 
Mil. also bdud-la bor^ (this food) has prov- 
ed a nutritious fluid, it agrees with him; 
bhud^tan nutritious, succulent, of grass, 
food etc.; bcud-TrUd not nutritious, Med,; 
invigorating cordial, quintessence, bcud-len 
an elixir of life; frq. fig.: cos fams-ddd 
bsdus-pai bead Glr. 
gTxj'rr i^w-pa 1. V. ^um-pa. — 2. to 

use artifices, to chicane &ch, 
--^-•-, bbiir-ba 1. to be flattened down Sch. 

— 2. Kun. Hun-po bur-te yon* 
there is a draught (here). — 3. C. like 
bkdg-pa to bar, obstruct, blocl( up, e.g. of 
snow obstructing a road. Cf. Jiltr-ba. 

q^, q^ bee, btes v. JUa. 

q^q- bUr-ba 1. to heap or pile up 6«.; 

Lex.: Hn pun-por bbh'-ba to pile 
up wood. — 2. = bbir-ba 1. to squeeze, 
to press C, W. ; to squeeze in, ri-brdg ynyis- 
kyi bdr du something between two rocks 
Pth.; *^er tdn-d^ W. to squeeze, press. 

screw in; *cer-b4r tdn^ie* W. to throng, 
to crowd. 

qV^ bbo, for bbu in bdo-lnd 15, and Wo- 
brgydd 18; fo Ina )'sum bdo-lnd 
3 times 5, 15 years (Ina ysum standing 
pleon.) Mil. 

n3fn' bdd-ba^ pf. and imp. bdoSy prop, root 
of the fut. tense of Jcds-pa^ but in 
W. the usual word for byed-pa to make, 
perform; to prepare, manufacture, construct; 
employed in all kinds of phrases; H'6-la 
zim-lan h^ W. (he) makes him a liar. 

q^' bcog'i Glr. 99. 

q^' bdom for /^ow, pride. 

n^*^r bddm-pay ^i.oijdrm-pa, conquered, 
subdued; having conquered or sub- 
dued, e.g. dgrd-bcoms-pay v. dgra] victory 
Cs.; ^prog-bcdm, and *dom-fd^ W. rob- 
bery and acts of Violence. — bdom-brldg 
p.n., Mathura, town of ancient India, in 
the neighbourhood of Agra, Zam., Tar. — 
bcom-lddn victorious 6s.; bcom-ldan-^dds 
(Kh. *wcovirldan'd^*, Ld. *homrdaru-dds*, 
C. ^bom-ddn-d^) ^fl^pif 6s.; victorious, 
Sch.: *lhe victoriously consummated^ Bum. 
le bien-heureux, the usual epithet of Bud- 
dha, Burn. I., 71. 

n^rfl' bbdUba, v. ^ifdZ-ia; bidl-ma a thing 
committed to a person's charge, 
a trust 

n^^n' bhds-pa, a verb of its own, though 
as to form resembling a parti- 
ciple, 1. to treat medically, hence to cure, 
to heal, mMas kyan bdds-m med he cannot 
be cured even by the best physicians Jlf^d. ; 
beds- (pat) tabs the way of treating, the 
method of curing Med. ; aman-bcds medical 
treatment Med. — 2. to do (a thing) for the 
sake of appearance, for form's sake, to affect, 
bdds-m byddrpa to perform a sham work, e.g. 
blowing into a blazing fire 6'.; hence as 
sbst : a false conception, wrong idea, bl^ds 
pa da?i Ji'rul - bar gyur - ba to give way 
to odd fancies, to have crotchets in the 
brain, e.g. in consequence of old age Tligy. 
— 3. partic: made or contrived by art, 




'g^pr Itaga 

artificial, feigned, fictitious^ ma-hbos artless, 
unaffected, genuine; it also seems to de- 
note an absence of mental activity, or a 
forbearance of exercising such activity, in 
short that indifference to the world, which 
is so highly valued by the Buddhist, Mil. 
— bdds-pai ras, or ras bbds^buy washed or 
prepared cotton-cloth C«.; calico, chintz Cs, ; 
in S. 0, it seems to denote a costly, va- 
luable fabric; hbds-ma sbst. and adj., a 
production of art, any thing made or con- 
trived by art, esp. every thing imitated, 
counterfeit, mock, sham, not genuine, frq. ; 
bbds-ma ma yin-pa natural, unfeigned, ge- 
nuine, e.g. respect, reverence Glr. — tsul- 
bbos'TnUan, one that is shamming, a hypo- 
crite. Cf. JSds-pa. 

f^ Iba, Ld, for Ibi-ba, excrement, dung, 
^ manure. 
^S' Ibd-sga = bba-sga, white ginger, v. sgd. 

prq- Ibd'ba 1. Cs.: a sort of carrot, Med. 
^ frq., but not known to the common 
people, at least not in W. — 2. iRmil ace. 
to Was. a garment made of wool or felt 

(mvl^og 1. rod, switch, sticl(, whip; glan- 
^ ' Ibdg ox-whip; rna-lbdg kettle-drum 
stick; Iban-lbdg Lex. willow -twig, osier- 
switch; f'ta-lbdg horse-whip, whip in ge- 
neral, also a scourge, consisting of several 
straps vrith sharp knots; spa-lbdg a cane, 
bamboo Mil.] ber^^-mayibdg stick Mil. — 
2. (Ibdg -ma) strolte, bloW, cut, hit, Ibag 
rgydb-pa to give a blow or cut, rtd-la to 
the horse Glr.\ mgo-lbdg (Ld. *gO'lbd^) a 
blow or stroke upon the head; ^am-lbag 
a smack on the cheek, slap on the face, 
box on the ear Cs. ; faUUdg id. — 3. fore- 
part of a coat of mail Sch. — 4. a kind 
of Daphne, v. re-lbag-pa. 

Comp. Ibdg-rdo W. flint, flint-stone. — 
Ibag-Jyrds Mil. whip-COrd, lash of a whip; 
Ibag-Jyrh'i^ and Ibag-dnd id. — Ibag-fsdn = 
Ha-Udg C. — Ibag-yti whip-sticl(, handle of 
a whip. 
(Wl^]' Ibag-lcig Lex. w.e. i>«^ '^Vl'^Y) 

giqrgjr' Ibag-pSd a girdle, made of plaited 
^ ' ^ and interlaced strips and] resem- 
bling a chain; one Lea. adds : ddn-mai ^drilr 
du Ihdspa (?). 

am«f- Ibags 1. iron, Ibdgs-kgi of iron; l^dgs- 
^ ' bton-mUan a miner digging for iron; 
rgya-lbdgs Chinese iron; po - Ibdgs an in- 
ferior sort of iron, mo - Ibdgs a finer and 
better sort of it, Cs. steel (?) — 2. an iron 
instrument, tool, esp. lock (of doors), fet- 
ter, Shaclde, sgo fams - bad Ibags btab - Hn 
locking every door Pth. ; *kdn-bag lag-bag* 
C. fettered on hands and feet; ynam-lbdgs 
1. thunderbolt, 2. a flash of lightning jast 
striking an object; me -Ibdgs a steel to 
strike fire with, fire-steel. 

Comp. and deriv. Ibags-kyu B. an iron 
hook, esp. fishing-hook, angle; often fig.: 
fugs-rjei^ or ^6s-kyi Ibags-kyus jizin-pa to 
seize with the hook of grace or of religion 
Dzl., Glr. and elsewh. — Ibags-dkdr tin- 
plate, white iron plate. — Uags-skud thin 
wire. — Uags - Uim or Uyim a spade. — 
Ibags -Urdl Sch. a big iron kettle (=W. 
^bag-dot* stew-pan, large iron pan or pot?) 
— Ibags -mgdr iron smith, black-smith. — 
IbagS'Sgdr iron pan. — Ibags- sgyid trevet, 
tripod. — Ibags -sgrdg fetter, shackle. — 
Ibags'cds implements of iron, hardware. — 
Ibags 'tig a kind of gentian, cf. tig-ta. — 
Ibags-fdg chain or chains. — Ibags -fdl Cs. 
an iron dish or plate, prob. from fd-li. — 
IbagS'drigs (W. *bag-rdf) 1. iron droSS, 
scoria or slag of iron; 2. dirt of the in- 
testines. — Ibags -rdd 1. perh. more cor- 
rectly Ibag-rdd flint -stone. 2. iron-stone, 
iron ore(V). — Ibags -prd Cy a kind of 
musket, imported from Rum (Turkey). — 
*bag'Ur^ W, an iron bar, crowbar, hand- 
spike. — Ibdgs-mag^ bbd^mag, the Turkish 

y5UX:^ flint-stone, tinder-box W. — Ibags- 
tsdgs an iron cribble or sieve, colander. — 
IbagS'Zdm iron bridge. — Uags-zdns iron 
kettle. — *bag-zdn* C\ good iron, steel. — 
Ibags-yyd rust Med. — Ibags-ri a wall en- 
circling an estate, a town etc. — Ibags- 
sldh a large iron pan for roasting or kib- 




a-s :i ' 

drying com. — Uags-^dn iron hoop, hasp, 
cramp-iron. — Idags-sd iron ore Cs. — 
Idoffs-bsrd smoothing-iron Sch. 
OT^w Iddh-ma willow, Salix viminalis, 
^ almost the only leaved tree in Tibet, 

fjpq. planted in the vicinity of villages; 
rgydl'lcan the specific name of this tree 
in Kun. ; rdh-Uafiy sir-lbah different species 
of it; Iban-dkdr Kun, a white kind with 
birch -like bark, cf. ho\ Ran -16 willow- 
leaves, 2. (HZT) tnatled hair, Ibdh-h-ban^ 
or -pa^ one with matted hair, a penitent; 
also n. of a place in ancient India, of 
another in Lhasa, and of a third on the 
top of the fabulous Rirab. 3. queue, pig- 
tail C — Idah-rldm a flat willow basket 
T«. — Uah'Hh willow-tree, willow-wood. 
— Uan-hdl Sch. : 'the red willow'. — *da»- 
8fZ* W. coolness, shade under a willow-tree. 

heavy; 2. weight, ^yah-H ddn-(fa bd-b^ 
W. to balance equally, to counterpoise; 
with regard to food, perh. heavy, oppress- 
ing the stomach; but also in a favourable 
sense: substantial, nutritious; fig.: weighty, 
important, Uyid-kyi skyes dan bka-stsdl IN- 
ba des in consequence of your weighty 
presents and requests Glr. ; *ndin-^off bin- 
te* W, hard of hearing; Ica-^a-ma-fd-ba 
Ibi ba a heavy, deadly sin, frq. 

^^' Ibid V. Ijid. 
^5ry Ibin-te v. Ibi-ba. 

^nST /^8 denotes a. things, which serve 
^ to protect the hands, when having 

to deal with hot or otherwise disagreeable 
objects; so gloves may be called Whs Sch.y 
but esp. fsa-lbibs {W, ^tsalbib*) pot-doth 

f^^f^^lbah-lbon a,^sah-m a craggy ^^ ^^"^ P^^ ^''^"^ ^^^ ^^""^^ *^-^-^'** ^-^ 
^^ place, a broken country. *^^ "lag-bib'' id.; hence prob. mig-lbibs, 

resp. spyan-lbibs eyelid; mig-gi Ibibs-fdr 
sty, wisp in the eye, and perh. from some 
remote similarity sgo - Ibibs^ sgoi ya - Ibibs 
the lintel or head-piece of a door; nya- 
Ibibs fishgills. Lex, and 6«.; b. contrivances 
to facilitate the handling of different ob- 
jects, as: the handles of pots and vessels, 
the handles, hiKs, bows, ears, loops etc. of 
knives, scissors, pincers and other work- 

prgT' Ibam^ also pyam^ 1. lath, pole, rafter, 
^ spar of a roof. In Tibet the rafters 
are placed horizontally, and support a layer 
of earth; in Mongol tents they are slant- 
ing, supporting the felt - covering. — 2. 
also brag - Ibdm, n. of an officinal herb 
used for healing wounds Med, — 3. ^yur- 
Ibdm prob. denotes a glittering fish, or a 
fish rapidly darting along — 4. v. Ibdm- 

ygT^n' l^dm-me-bay perh. variegated, 
^ shining, dazzling Glr, 

(mf}a' l^amrmo^ resp. for spun^ and esp. 
^ for arin-mOy ace. to Cs, also for 

iiin-ina^ a royal consort, a great man's 
sister or wife; Iha-lbdm a princess Pth.; 
Ibam-iun a young princess or lady, a 
young unmarried lady of noble rank; Ibam- 
drdl^ mbid-U:am-dral^ lbam-»i^h brother 
and sister. tJ^**^^^ v ^^ .►. -^ • " » - • . 
flj^rq* Ibdm -pa 1. n. of a flower Wdn,; 
^ 2. n. of a kind of vegetables S,g. 

&-q- IH-ba 1. sbst. (Ld. *Ka*, Lh, *bi-a, 
^ bS-a*)y dung, esp. of cattle; bai Ibi- 
buy bd-lbi cow-dung; Ibi-skdm dry dung 
(used as fuel), Ibi-rUn fresh dung. -— 2. 
adj. heavy, W. *bin'te*y yah-lbi l. light and 

^^ Ibu-ba V. ybu-ba. 

a/mn" Ibug-pa C '«., mnyen-lcug Lex.y flexible, 
€ ' pliant; a supple branch; Ibug-lbug 
byid-pa to bend repeatedly 6i.; Ibug-ma 
a root-shoot of a willow or a poplar-tree, 
a rod, switch; "bkg-gu" C. the bud of a 
twig; Ihig-prdn a thin branch or twig. 

UugSy gri-yi Ibugs I^ex, w.e. 

M^'^TT Ibun-ka = sky^n-kay jack-daw. 
'gc;^ Ibun-mo thimble Glr. 

y^m' Ibud-pa V. ybudrpa, 

tw Ibum Med,y Ibum-fsa Cs,: 'a plants the 
stalks of which are used as a purga- 




S^ ia 

tive'; Umii'dkdr prob. another species of fggn- Uog 1. fi., C. a turret on a house- 
that plant Med. ^ ' top, pinnacle (TT. *speu*). — 2. v. 
^- teg 1. resp. Ijags (f^ljf) tongue, Ice rkyan- Icog-tse. 

^ 6a to put forth, to show the tongue T0^if l(^^9'P0 prob. low, Udg-por ikye (a 
7 . iha hn^min.tnn ^t/vn-^nn /^Vn^^nA Aw/W- "o I Certain plant) is low -growing, it 

does not grow high. 

Mil.; Ite brgyd-yis yon-tan bUh-zad btydd- 
par nus ma mdis even with a hundred 
tongues we should not be able sufficiently 
to praise the merit . . . Pth. — 2. blade, 
Ca. gn-lee. — 3. (^flrf'r) thunderbolt, Ide 
Jbebs-pai glog a flash of lightning accom- 
panying a thunderbolt. — 4. flame, me-lce. 
Comp. Ice-kyigs the frenum of the tongue 
Cs. — Ue-Mh uvula, Ice-htn Jfabs inflam- 
mation of the uvula Med. — Ue-ynyis-pa 
double-tongued, deceitful, Ue-ynyis bySd-pa 
to be double-tongued. — Ibe-Ubj Ibe-^drd 
a fleshy excrescence below the tongue Cs. 

— Ide-bde a nimble tongue a babbler Mil. 

— Icespydn = ce-wpydh Thgy.^ Stg. - Ibe- 
Jbur a swelling on the tongue Cs. — Ice- 
myan-fsd alum Med. — Ue-rtsd the root 
of the tongue, Ibe-rtsd-ban a letter pro- 
nounced from the root of the tongue, a 
guttural. — Ue-rtsd the tip of the tongue 
Cs.y Ih-rtsd'can a letter sounded with the 
tip of the tongue, a lingual. — lie-fsd' 
(j-bd) a sharp-tasted, pungent medicinal herb 
Med. — Ive-yMr a tongue-scraper Cs. 

^^r Iteg a coat of mail for a horse Sch. 

J^fl'CJ' '^^^"P^ ^o g^ ^ ti'l one's self, to 
^ seek death, esp. by a leap into the 
water or down a precipice, but not every 
kind of suicide; also used of insects that 
fly into a flame etc. 

^^1' IH-ga^ also Iddg-ma or mo lark. 


a/c M'Ji.z 


^ '^ ysol-Udg, table, in Tibet, 
esp. in W., a very rare piece of furniture, 
and always small and low; Itog-Mebs table- 
cloth, Ibog-Uibs btiA-ba to lay the cloth; 
rgya-lbdg a large table, a European table; 
mdun-lHg 'fore-table', a sort of table before 
an idol, for spreading offerings on it, v. 
e.g. Hook. I, 172; but it is not the same 
as altar. 1V(^ ^^c , io .^ 

1^ Uogs, 2:^-/^d^8 pronunciation 6'.(?) 

T'Wyn' ledges) -pa I. to be agitated, to 
'"^ shake, to tremble, me -tog mgo- 

Udg Zam. a flower shaking, waving its 
head (little used). * "^^ 

11. 1. vb. to be able, de ma Ibdg-na if 
(he) is not able (to do that); ji Ibdg-kyi 
Mil. as much as possible, to the utmost; 
*na*rdn-ghi gan bdg-pc!^ C. as far as I am 
able. More used: 2. adj. able, hed-kyismi 
Ibdg-pa unable, feeble, weak, rig -pas mi 
Ibdg-pa ignorant; *n^ tsar big -la bog-pa 
me^* I am not able to carry the whole at 
once C; *b6g-ban* clever, skilful^ handy, 
*bog-m4df^ awkward W.; *U€ bog mi dug* 
he does not get on with his mouth, he 
lisps; also *Ua bdg-pa* irreverent, dis- 
respectful in speaking W,{?) 

Ibon^ sbol-lbon a frog in its first stage 
of development, tadpole Pth, 




jp- ^« 1. the letter ?, the aspirated b^ pro- x- ?« I. pari, portion, share 1. opp. to the 

nounced hard and forcibly, like ch in whole, ?a ysttm-du bgos divide it in 

chap or church. — 2. numerical figure: 6, three parts! brgyai Ha lifjf Glr.; stdn-gi 

ca-pa the sixth volume. ca^^j^^^ban-mdzM ysum-caybig on^^tix^ 


U ^^c c, 0..X- . ;. 

/. . , / . / 


«3B'^' ca-^a 

of the provisions DzL; dbui ca team big 

jfser'ffi/isma Un-bar there being still wanting 

about as much gold as (the weight of) 

his head Glr. ; nan - par siid - bat ca the 

following day's first part, i.e. the following 

morning Mil.; sd-ca a piece of land Gh\ 

C, also land, territory, country in general, 

ghcd sa-ca the country of Gha Glr,; zur- 

ca frontier parts, frontier province; ca- 

snyoms at equal parts, equally, e.g. cu 

sbyar mixed with the same quantity of 

water L^.,* ca^mnydm id., ISa-mnydm iib 

bteg accurately weighed in equal parts Lt; 

ca isam, ca jira tsa/m in part, in some 

measure ; ca ma jdra or ma mtun-fa partly 

not equal, differing a little; ca tsam hes 

kyan even if one knows but a little Mil. ; 

ifid smon ^os ia tsam mi ydd-has it being 

not in the least desirable; ca-rdz6gs being 

complete in every part, entire, integral 

Sch. — Esp. 2. the half, ndm^gyi ca stody 

die first half of the night, ndm-ggi ca 

smad the second, the last half of it. Hence 

3. the one part of a pair, similar to ya^ 

Iham ca yHg the one boot; ba sgng-pa 

to pair, to match, to couple Sch. ; an equal, 

a match, ca-mfun-paj ^a-^drd-ba^ C. also 

^lorldh-wa* ^ similar, resembling Wdh, and 

eleewh.; la-Id fdr-pa ca-^m^fun dge-ba med 

some have no virtue befitting (i.e. leading 

to) final salvation Thgy.; cormid without 

an equal, matchless; id-ma-yin-pa unfit, 

improper, unbecoming Sch., nag ybdg-pa 

m ca ma yin not obeying will not do, is 

out of place Tar. 110, 11. — 4. a pair, = 

zm ScL; Zam.: ot. — 5. share, portion, 

lot, mfsdr - sdtig bltd - bai cd - nas mnyam 

being equal as to their (respective) share 

of beauty Glr. ; dmdn-ca ^dzin-pa to choose 

the humbler (inferior) share, i.e. to be 

humble,=dwan-8aotfem-pa Mil.\ in general : 

la Jkm-pa c. genit. to adhere, to be 

attached to a person or thing Pth.\ kin 

nm-ia nai Ka yin ploughing is my business, 

my lot, my department Dzl.\ cd-la equally, 

in equal parts, equally divided, Hd-ba nyin 

dgu misan dgu babi, cd-la nyin mfsan bco- 

^^dd bobs Mil' there was a fall of snow 

during nine days and nine nights; it fell 
equally portioned out to da;s and nights, 
(together) eighteen (the peculiar mode of 
reckoning is here to be noticed). 

n. news, intelligence, notice, construed 
like rgyus and ytam; ytdm-ca ^dri-ba=' 
ytam ^dri-ba; ca yod^ ca med like rgyus 
yod and rgyus med; nam ^ci ?a mdd-kyi 
?08 the doctiine of the uncertainty of the 
day of death Mil. ; . . . par ca mcis-te there 
coming news or intelligence that . . . ; skdd- 
ca V. 8kad\ physically: VOice, SOUnd, brdg- 
(Sa echo; intellectually: prospect, auspices, 
Mil.: srdg-ca prospects of life (as to its 
length and preservation), Hyim - ca pro- 
spects regarding the household, dgra - ?a 
prospects, expectations as to one's enemies; 
Ham- ?a* C. prospects of a safe journey 
(cf. no 4). 

ni. thing, things, relating to clothes, 
ornaments, materials etc., cf. cos; *go-lu»- 
ca - fsdn* W. a complete suit of clothes ; 
but mostly used in compounds: ske-^a neck- 
ornaments, glo-ca ornaments suspended to 
the belt or girdle, e.g. strings of shells; 
dgds - ca necessary things Cs. ; mcod - ca 
things necessary for sacrifices, requisites 
for offerings Glr.; mfsdn-ca weapons; ytg- 
ca prob. writings, deeds, documents Glr.; 
*re-ca* cottons, cotton fabrics C; lag-ca n ^ 
implements, utensils, goods, baggage etc, ^ ^~ 
Glr. — There is still to be noticed the 
expression: ca-bzdg-pa^ lit. to add one's 
own share to a thing, 1. to adhere, stick, 
or cling to, to follow, obey (laws); sam- 
rgyds-kyi bkd-la ca biag they adhere to 
the words of Buddha; rgydl-poi bkd-la to 
obey the king s commandment. 2. to refer 

to(?) a 

x-*y ca-7'kydnLea.^ Sch.: 'share of destiny, 
^ ' of fate; consequence of one's ac- 
tions' (?). 
x'nqr* cd-mkan soothsayer, fortune-teller 

x«qr ^d-ga Mil., hem, edge, border; M-ga 
' ^debs'pa to hem, to turn in (the edge 
of cloth). 


(5'2T|'Q^ U-ga-Jm 


^wnfl M-ga-JmC.^ Lex, also cd-ga- 

' ^* pa, grasshopper. 
(5'^ ?«-S5^^»^.,S^A.: 'things homogeneous, 

x'n* cd-ba, pf. and imp. so« (the regular 

form cos being nearly obs. at present), 
in W. the usual word for ^gro-ba to go, 
in B. little used and only in later writings, 
1. to go, *8dr-te M'be* to retire, to retreat 
slowly; *da ca yin% or *da cen* adieu, 
good bye, farewell! *da Hen zu* resp., your 
servant! (in taking leave); *'d'^ru'80n* go 
thither, or that way! *^d-ru ma ca* do 
not go to this place, do not step this way! 
to travel, *gydl4a* (or d^-mo, ydg-po) ca 
zi^ I wish you a safe journey, a pleasant 
trip to you! *ldg-te cd-de* to return, to 
go or come back; ^tin-la M-b^ to follow, 
to come after or later; *?« bu^ let (him) 
go! give (it) up! let (it) alone! to be gone, 
consumed, spent, used, wasted, *Hh ^ndn- 
po ca yin* a great deal of wood will go, 
will be consumed. — 2. to become, grow, 
get, turn, *fsan Za dug* it grows night, 
it is getting dark; *gas M c^ to grow 
old; *ndg'po son* that has turned black; 
*8eS'Kan M-he* to get information; also 
with la: * bag -ma-la cd-ba* {= bdg-mar 
^grd'ba, ^ynr-ba^ to become a bride Ma,\ 
*mdn-lami ca* this is not used for medicine. 
— 3. with a supine (fi.) or a verbal root 
(col): to be about, to be on the point, to 
be going, sleb-tu M-bai fse when they were 
on the point of arriving Mil. ; nyi-ma oCdr- 
du cd-ba dan when the sun was just going 
to rise Mil, ; *me hi ca dug* the fire is on 
the point of going out; *nad ii ca du^j 
the disease is decreasing. — 4. with the 
gerund it expresses a continuous progress, 
a gradual operation, an effect by little 
and little, *hi pd-te ?a dug* the water 
increases from day to day. — 5. with the 
inf. it is used in the sense of the future 
tense, or like the Greek fiilleir: to intend, 
to purpose, *ci Md-de dir hnh-ce ?a du^ 
how long does he (do you etc.) intend to 
stay? *nam lug sdd-ce Ha du^ when are 
you going to kill the sheep? 

S^^<^ ca-hdr 

x'n* Hd-bu,, a kind of little ornament worn 

'^ in the ears Ld, 
e^'qc' ^^ %^ 1- thing, implement, instru- 

^ ' ment, e.g. a musical instrument Dd,^ 
a surgical instr. Med, — 2. clothing, dress, 
mi'sdug-pai ca- by ad- dan poorly clothed, 
ra«rgcdM7.; external appearance, also of 

(3B'wI' Ha-tsdm v. ca 1 , 1. 

(3B'(3b^' Ha-tsdd =s co/g-tsad, 

(S'<^ ca-fsdn species, division, class &A. 

(5'^fe^' ca-^dzin v. ?a L, 5. 

(5'g^Wr ca-t*dzdgs v. ca J, 1. 

r-sr Hd-ra 1. oak, also man- cd-ra (on 
account of its growing only on the 
southern ranges of the Himalaya mountains, 
inhabited mostly by Non - Tibetans) in 
several species, with pointed, evergreen 
leaves, a tree much inferior in beauty to 
the English oak. Hd-ra pi*eu Sch,i *the 
stunted or dwarf- oak'. — 2. also ca-ri, 
ca-li, ca-lu, a coarse sort of blanket made 
of yak's hair. 

(5'^ cd-la V. ?a I., 5. a^ ^^t-^ 

xroJ^y cd-lag 1. C. implements, instruments, 
' required for the carrying on of a 
business. — 2. W, things, effects, loggage. 
— 3, Tar. 4:3, 18: cd-lag dan bbds-pa 
rdzdgs -par sis -pa Schf, : 'the systematic 
and complete understanding'. 
^'OIC" ^^ " ^^^ joined with rddb -pa Lex, 
and Mil,, meaning not known; Wu, 
gives: petite lance des bonzes. 
-,.Q,«, cd - lam ^ hd- lam, some; for the 
most part, rather C. 

(5w, <5'^' ca-lif ca-lu v. sub cd-ra, 

x'oisn^' ca-lugs clothing, costume, ap- 

N? ' pearance. 
x'^^ ca-hds part, portion, share, bus-tyi 
' Ha-hds Q, part of the body, a 
limb etc. *'-x|N'^-waaj*j 4^^ vio^ uo*^ l^^'t^M 

(5'^S^' Ha-hdr Chakhar, a Mongol tribe Sch, 

SP\ i^ag 



(SB^rpr^ cdgs-pa 

xm iag 1. dry fodder for horses and other 
' animals, as hay, barley etc.; lag- 
yhn trough, manger, crib. — 2. the fourth 
finger Med, — 3. resp. for shoe Glr.^ also 
p}fag(-lhdm). — 4. iag-pib^a Glr. = pi/ag 
pSb'pa, — 5. the breadth of a fist, (fag 
gan id , Mng, frq. — 6. v. cdgpa, 

(JCTT^^TWr^' ca^-Cd)*''^*) piece, frag- 
'^^;f ^ ^ ment Z^., r%.; ♦%. 

fim-la son* C. it has gone to pieces. 

xpfTjrjX <fag ' ski/a ' ba Sch.: 'having only 
'^ one purpose, pursuing but one 

aim; unremitting, indefatigable'. 

(5PW3^rr^r ^ag-^a-cog-gi (or pyag^a-^ 
Pyog-g^'^) various things 

mixed up or thrown together, medley. 

S^Tj'^fpr cag-grum Lex. = ^ag'dkrum(?). 

grngpr ^^'^^ff I- 1- with byed-pa, ^debs- 
' ' pa, to sprinMe, besprinkle, cm 

with water, Hdn-^tty ldm-ma7n& the house, 

the streets B,, C. (W. ♦?«*- Ub*). — 2. 

Sck : cag-^dg ydab-pa to Starch, tO stiffen. 
II. W. cag-ildg dd-de* to tread, to trample, 

e.g. the narrow paths or furrows between 

garden-beds; to clap the hands. 

SP\$F^ ^ag-cdd rent, break, rupture Sch. 

SR^ ^^'dum fragment, piece, crumb, 
'>! scrap, bit. 

$P\^c: cag-^dm doubtful, incredible Sch, 

gprq' cdg-pa 1. a large tuft or bunch of 
flowers, ears of corn etc. — 2. pf. 
ot Jdg-pay broken; ma - cdgQi) - pa^ and 
esp. adv. ma- cdg(8) -par also cdg-med- 
par uninterrupted, unintermitting ; uninter- 
ruptedly ; gas - (fag - m^d without a crack, 
flaw, or chink. — 3. lam cdg-pa v. ^cag-pa. 
^if ^dg-po broken; a broken vessel, 
pot etc., a pot-sherd; tseUQpo) cdg 
(-po) a broken dosser or pannier. 
SWrn* cdg-bu, diminutive of Zag-pa^ a 

'no little bunch. 
gpi^ cdg-mo bunch, Jbi'ds-bu Mg-mo a 
fruit growingin the form of bunches 

or clusters, like the grapes of the vine, 

the berries of the elder etc. W. 

xsr^ cdg-tse a small grain, e.g. of ground 

' grits, ^cdg'tse-can* granulOUS; *bdg' 
pe ^dg-tse-dan^ ground grits, W.; Hind, 
xffrds' iSag^tsdd Sch.: the right measure, 

' ' dug ster ^a>g-tsdd if a sufficient 
quantity of poison has been administered 
to a person, Med. 
xnr^jr^^^'^n a wooden splint for a 

' • ' broken limb, *itcg - de* to put it 
on W. 

<3CT^Z^' cdgs'pa I. frq. for ^dg-pa 2. 

n. vb. to be begotten, produced; ma- 

cdgs'pa not begotten or produced in the 
usual way of propagation, but = rdztis'te 
skyes-pay or Uvun-gyis gHib-pa Pth. frq.; 
mndl-du cdgs-pa to be produced in the 
womb, as the foetus is; hence cags in 
compounds : animal, Jlab - ^dgs^ ysog - cdgs ^<<\ d> ^<n( ' 
winged animal, bird; srogr-?(t^s in general r^**-^/- ^^^ 
a living being, an animal, = sSms-dan; 
opriil-gyi fmJrMgs Glr. prob. as much as 
a wonderful child, a prodigy; Un-la ^dgs- 
pa to grow on a tree, of fruits; and in 
general: to rise, arise, spring up, originate, 
of the world, of new works, buildings, 
empires, customs, of eruptions on the 
skin; *zil-pa ^ags son* W. dew has fallen; 
to come forth, to appear, = Jn/un-ba, e.g. 
^dd-^u (fdgs-pa to come to light, to appear 
MU.; *ntd cogs* W. sweat comes forth, 
breaks out, I perspire; even: rdb-tu Mgs- 
pa = rdb^tu Jbyun-ba to become a cleric 
(little used); ^ags-rdbs genesis, history of 
the beginning, esp. of the world; cags- 
fyfltl 1. manner of beginning, origin, pro- 
creation i/<?(]?. 2. W. form, figure, demeanour, 
*i!ags'fsul sdg-po* coarse, rude, rough. 

in. l.^vb. to love, QqSiv), bu-mo-la 
a girl; sky^^pa dan na-^n ybig ^dgs-pa 
the mutual affection between a man and 
a maiden; tender attachment in general, 
connubial, parental and filial love, yid-la 
(fdgS'pai bu-mo-mams my dearly beloved 
daughters Pth.; ardent desire or lonpng 



($Cr JSan 


S^ ISad 

for sometking^ grdgs-pa-la for glory; to 
be attached to, to ding to, e.g. lus dan srdg- 
la cogs ' pa to life, ydl-la to one's home, 
to one's jiative country; often: to suffer 
one's self to be enticed by a thing, to 
indulge in; 'idgs-par mi bya Jigs-par mi 
hydr%te allowing neither desire nor fear to 
have any influence upon himself >Sam6. — 
2. sbst. love (J^Q<jii9\ luet, passion for, affec- 
tion, attachment, Mg^-pa sky^-so he fell 
in love DzL ; cdga-pa spyddrpa ■= Jhig-pa 
spyddrpa. According to Buddhistic theory 
all cdgs-pa is a great evil, as it betrays 
a troubled state of mind, and a repre^ 
hensible attachment to external things; yet 
even a saint, so far advanced in dispassion 
and apathy as Milaraspa, may sometimes 
be caught in very tender a£Fections and 
sensations of ^dgs-pa, very like those of 
other human creatures. 

Comp. ^ags-sdan i . Schr. love and hatred, 
2. Olr.^ Pth. jealousy Qoye showing itself 
in hatred), also cags-sddn-^ prag-dog, — 
cags-spydd coition, copulation, cf. Zdgs-pa 
III., 2. — cags-Hn^ also ienrldgs = Mgi- 
pa sbst. MU.; *^agS'iSn dd-de* W., to love, 
c. la; 'SagS'i^ m^d-pa dispassionate, in- 
different to all terrestrial things. — ^ags- 
sims = ^ags - zdn. — cdgs - 9red - ^an Pth. 
lustful, libidinous, wanton.3 a)^N k ci^aw*. 
xr* 2<m (m) resp. skyemSy ysol-fan^ 
rnidd* ?a« C, a fermented liquor, 
beer, wine, (not 'brandy' Sch,); bu sky^- 
pa-la miAy }^an drdns-pa-la yfam proverb : 
to the new -bom child a name (is due), 
to the beer to be drunk a talk; nds-ifan beer 
made of barley (the usual kind); brds- 
can of rice Glr,; grd-^an of wheat Ci.; W- 
ramfir^anj or bur-can of sugar Med,; rgiin^ 
can wine; zbrdn - tan Med. honey - wine, 
mulse, mead? rus-Kan Med.f — zds-tan, 
zdn- l^ah eating and drinking, meat and 
drink. — doh^^ tig-, and bm-tah v. sub 
bdg-ma. — Fig.: btitn-ba dran-des bdud- 
rtsii tan my drink is the wine of wisdom's 
nectar Mil. — 

Here the process of brewing may be 
mentioned. When the boiled barley (Lrf. 

*sbo-bdd^j Ts. *falA) has grown cold, some 
*pabs^ (<!•▼•) is added, after which it is 
left standing for two or three days, until 
fermentation commences, when it is called 
ghtm. Having sufficiently fermented, some 
water is poured to it, and the beer is 
considered to be ready for use. If proper 
care is taken (and the people of U and 
Ladak generally do so), tbe pale beer, 
thus obtained, is not amiss, and sparkles 
a good deal, but not being hopped it does 
not keep long. The people of Lahoul are 
accustomed to press out the glum with 
their hands, instead of filtering it, and 
mismanage the business also in other re- 
spects, so that their tan is a gray muddy 
liquor, that has hardly any resemblance 
to beer. The residue of malt, called sbdn- 
ma^ may be mixed with water or milk, 
pressed through a strainer, and used instead 
of barm in baking bread, cakes etc. 

Comp. tdn-/can boer-liouse, pot-liouse, 
tavern, — ton- ban drinking - cup or bowl 
Sch, Wt». — tan- tern- ban an intoxicated 
person. — tdn-tem-sa Lex. prob. = tdnsa. 
— tan - ^fun - m/lan a beer-drinlcer; *tdn- 
Jun-Uan mdn-po dzom^ a great beer- 
drinking bout takes place W. — ^tan-dad- 
ban* a drunlcard, tippler W. — tdn-Uiigs = 
tan -ban Sch — tdh-Json-gi Kyim beer- 
house Dzl — tdnsa 1. beer-house 2. beer- 
carousal, tdn-sa tSn-po byed-pa to give 
or arrange a great beer-drinking bout Mil. 

^C^C' tan-tun a little Sch. 

xr- tad 1. also tad-ddn, tad-mdo, W. 
^ *tdd-ka*^ promise, engagement, agree- 
ment Ua-tdd oral, verbal engagement, Utg- 
tdd pledge of faith by hand; tad-d&n 
bySd-pa, *tddrka bd-be^ zkm-b^ W., to give 
a promise, make a contract; yton - (bai) 
tad(-don) by^d-pa to agree about giving; 
tadrdon Itar byid-pa to keep, fulfil a pro- 
mise; tad-rdd 1. the stone which is broken 
in the ceremony of rdo ybog - pa q. v. 
2. monument, memorial of a covenant. — 
2. in compounds also for ^dci^a punishment, 
lus-tdd corporeal punishment. 



:z,2- -N ai 

I \ 



XJrn' cad' pa I. sbst., resp. bka-'idd, 
' punishment; the preceding genit, 
contrary to our usage, is the genit. of the 
punishing person, thus: rgydl-poi idd-pa 
a punishment of the magistrates, i. e. a 
punishment decreed or inflicted by the 
magistrates, frq.; seldom, if ever, genit. 
of the punished action, and never that of 
the punished person. In classical language 
the usual construction of the words is the 
following: iddrfos yhdd-pa to punish, mi 
Hg - la somebody, . . ,pas or . . . pai pyir 
for having...; in more recent literature: 
iddrpa ybddrpa Thgr,^ Glr.; cddrpa fdb^pa 

1. to receive the fine incurred by another 

2. to suffer punishment, to pay a fine; 
nd'la Mdrpa pog punishment is inflicted 
on me, I am punished. 

n. 1. to promise^ e.g. bM-las mi ^dl- 
bar to obey. — 2. v. sub Jcdd-pa, 

lU. adj. begotten, i)om, descended from ; 
the Tibetans are ebreu dan srin-mo-nas 
(or las) cdd^a the o&pring of a monkey 
and a Raksbasi Glr.; M-nas Idd^ai bu 
a full child Glr. 
^i^q- ^ddrpo 1. rent, torn, worn-out, ragged, 

' tattered, sgyi-gu ^dd-po a leaky 
purse. — 2. a limited time, a term Sch. 
gr-^mr iad-yiff a written contract; ^ad- 

^ ' mdh-gyi yi^e Olr, id. 
xr'Q»rn' ^dd'-lus'pa not to obtain the 

I ^ things hoped for, to be disap- 

pointed Sch. 
xr*%f ifdd-80 1. a limited time, a term. 

' ^ — 2. a time-purchase ScL — 3. an 
agreement Tar. 

XX- ^an, also {fan-f&g 8ch.y boiled corn or 
^ barley etc.; Jbras-Mn rice-pap, nas- 
(Son barley-pap. 

xx-n* ^dn-pa a pair of SCissors, but the 
^ common people know only shears, 
which are for various purposes; the scissors 
mentioned in surgical books are prob. of 
a nicer construction. 

M- ?ai, resp. and cleg, ior ht 1. water, 

dri'idb scented water; sna-Mb, pyi- 

'^dby water which at the beginning and 

close of the meetings in the large mo- 

SjS^^ Mm-^a 

nasteries is handed round, and of which 
every one present takes a few drops on 
his tongue, as a symbol of purification, 
in place of the original ablutions. — 2. for 
other fluids, as spyan ^ Idb tears, iaUMb 
spitUe, ysan-Mb, or ^ab-ysdn urine, bor^ab 
cow's urine (so with the Hindoos inZ^., the 
cow being to them a sacred animal). — 
3. in some compounds: power, dominion, 
authority. — cab-rkydn brass can, brass- 
(tea) pot with a long spout for pouring 
out tea, W.;' also n. for Tibet, perh. on 
account of the large consumption of tea 
there. — ^ab-Uun privy Ca. — ^ab-sgd 
door, iab'&go-pa door- keeper, porter. — 
*^'dd* (spelling dubious) a wooden pail, 
of a similar shape as ?a6 - rhfdn W. — 
iab-brdmy ?ai-rd?» ico. — ^ab-bliig C. a 
vessel for rinsing one's mouth with water. 
^ab-mig eleg. for hi-mig fountain, spring. 
— ^ab-tis6d eleg. a watch, a dock. — JfoA- 
^dg what is subjected to a person's sway, 
territory, dominion etc., ^ab-^dg-tu sd&'ba 
to subject; (lab-^dg-gi rgydUpo a vassal, 
feudal tenant Trig.; 'Sab-^dg-pa, also hxb- 
Jbdns one owing allegiance to a sovereign, 
a subject. — 'Sah^hdg Cs, eleg. for letter, 
diploma etc. — ?ai - «^ eleg. for hi - sA* 
matter, pus. 

^^gr Mb-ma W., C, also MU., lid, valve; 
buckle, clasp, Zdb - ise, or iSdb - rise 
a id. 
xflxr (fabs Lex. ^abs-yUg Sch. = fahs'-ybig 

xjt- ?aw, in ^dm-la Jbibs-pa Lex. w.e.; 
Sch. : to throw down, to cause to lie 
down; to subdue, subject; to spend, con- 
sume, to have done with; by this last sig- 
nification it would be a syn. to zin-pa, 
and the circumstance that ^ams is used 
in Balti as an auxiliary vb. of the pf. 
tense agrees with that supposition, e.g. 
*2an zds-se ISams* I have done eating, = 
Z08 zin B. 

xwq« Mrjp-pa 1. cold (in the head), ca- 
tarrh; sne-Mm id.; gre-tam catarrh 
in the throat, bronchial catarrh; gh-tdm 
catarrh in the lungs; rims-cdm an infects 


^6S|'^ tam'-mi 


^1^1^ s-K-fo' 

ing or epidemic catarrh. — 2. C«. = ^Jaw- 

fa accord, accordance. 

^^^ iam-mi slowly, by degrees, gradually 

Schr. (cf. ^em-^m^, 
xj^ <^«^5 termin. of ca, 1. Into parts, e.g. 
bgd-ha to divide into parts. — 2. as 
an equal, as a match, ... /a car mi pod 
he is not an equal to, cannot come up 
to . . . Thgy, ; . . . dan stdii -prag - ^ar mi 
nye prob.: he does not come up to . . . at 
all (Ht. not for the thousandth part) Pth. ; 
so in a similar manner: hrgyai }^ar yah 
mi sleb Tar. — 3. affixed to numerals, 
and sometimes, though less correctly, writ- 
ten ^ar, q.v. The terminations of the cases 
mag be affixed to it: Ina Mr-gyis every 
fifth day Thgy. 

xx^ ^ar^ also Mr-pa^ 1. rain, ?ar cm-po 
a plentiful rain, ^ar drdg-po^ or drag- 
car a heavy rain; ^ar cen^pas or ^-bas 
as it rained heavily Pth,; car Jb4bs-pa to 
cause to rain; car Jbab it rainSj'^W. * car- 
pa yon* ; ^dr-cfyi rgyun a sudden or violent 
shower of rain Tar. — 2. at Kyelang for 
watering-pot; this utensil having never been 
seen there before, the word was at first 
applied to it jestingly, but is now gene- 
rally adopted; cu-fsdg 'water-sieve' would 
be more correct. cLc^ vc^ ' ^ <■ u ' r 

Comp. car-skyibs a Shelter, pent-roof, pro- 
tecting from rain. — ^ar-M^bs dress against 
rain, rain-cloak. — car-ban, vdr-Jdan rainy 
Cs. — Mr-cu rain-water. — ^dr-dus rainy 
season. — ^ar - ^dod (-byeu) n. of a bird, 
water-ousel. — ^ar-sprin a rain-threatening 
cloud. — *^ar-bht* (?) C rain -cloak. — 
^ar-rlun rain and wind Cs. — *'Sar-Hn^ 
= carskyibs W. — car-Un the coping or 
water-tile of a wall Cs. 

SP^^ M, sku-Ml resp. belly, abdomen, Cs. 

xnyxpv cal-cil Lex.^ wavering, fluctuating 

^pf^' cal-M Tar. 184, 20 « /oZ-Za- 


xaj'g^JX'fl^OJ'fl' ^dl-mar brddl-ba to spread 
^ equally, uniformly (vb. a.) 

x;^ ^ds (Sch. ^ds-ka) cf. <ki DI., 1. tMng, 
tool, requisite etc.^ si-mo-da-la sdgs- 
pai ^ds-kyis brgydn-te adorned with or- 
naments of pearls and other things AfU,; 
dga^tdn-gyi cos rgya i^-po grand festival 
arrangements; ^as d^-mams bsig overtom 
the whole affair! Glr.; bdg-mar rdzon^bai 
ca» things to be given to her as a dowry 
Tar. 121, 5; Ibdgs-^as iron tools or uten- 
sils; Ito-cas food; drrmg-^as military stores, 
requisites for war Pth. ; ^fyd^iSas provisions 
Mil.; Idg- cas tool, instrument Cs. — 2. 
dress, garment, pd - cos man's dress; cas- 
gds, W. ^gdn-ce*, coat, dress; in a more 
general sense: appearance, form, shape, bud- 
med-kyi <^ds-su bydste appearing in the 
shape of a woman Gbr. ; h&r-^ojs byed he 
puts on a Mongol dress 3/a.; bu-moi cds- 
su hugs he puts on a girl's dress, disgaises 
himself as a girl Glr., Pdi.\ cos sgyur^ba 
to put on, to assume another dress. 
XSJ'H' cds-pa, originally the pf. of Jfa-io, 
but always used as a separate vb. 
1. to set out, set forth, depart, cos dgos-par 
as I must depart from here Thgy.; bddr 
du cds-so they set out for Tibet Ghr.\ dus- 
ybig-tu ^ds-so they departed at the same 
time Dzl.; cds-su ojug-pa to send away, dfe- 
patch; mgydgs-cas ytdn-ba to rush, ran to- 
wards. — 2. to set about, to begin, ;«W- 
par to kill; ^6-bar ids- pa-las when he 
made arrangements to depart Dd. ; also in 
the following manner; da pyir jdM-no ies 
ids ' pa 'now we will return' they said, 
making preparations, or: saying thu§, they 
made preparations Dzl.; fugs cds-so he had 
set his mind on departing MiL 

dB' a num. fig.: 36. 

^*^' (H-ka wallet, knapsack W. 

S>\^J(h-tra W. variegated, figured, of fabrics. 

^'SJ'SJ' ^'H'li onomatopoetic word for 
snuffing up scents by the nose; 
*iim%-!tim di-ma ci-li-li llyer^ C. sweet odours 
of cakes are meeting us; m^-tog dri-ma 
H-li-li the perfumes of flowers are per- 
ceptible MiL 



^m ^ •* /^ one, as the first part of 
' compound numbers: Mg-hhi 10, S^- 
ir^rya 100, ^g-ston 1000, %-Afn a myriad 
etc; also: (Hg-rkydn Lea., Schr.: 'separate, 
single, one alone'; cigsb/h Med,y 'IHg-tdn 
MedJ — ctg-fub n. of a plant Med.; Sch. 
also: cig^fub-pa to be able to do a thing 
alone ; cig-^ril Sch, : rolled, wrapped, packed 
up (in one parcel or bundle); ^-Idb by^d- 
pa to talk to one's self, to hold a soliloquy 

^(^' »«(«) V. ^m^a. 
3b^^ fid-pa V. pyidrba, 
3b^^ iHb^a equal, uniform, suitable Sch. 

^^/^•\ fibs (-pa) resp. hOfSe, riding- 
horse, saddle-horse, fibs-la ^fib- 
pa (for rtd-la i&n-pa) to get on horseback, 
to mount; to go on horseback, to ride; 
W)s-las ykdl-ba to dismount, *cib8 idl-la 
nan* C\ may your honour please to dis- 
mount; Hy^d-kyi fibssu Jml I give it you 
for a riding-horse Mil, 

Comp. cibs'ka Jcrid-pa to lead a horse 
by the bridle Schr.; cibs-Ua tub-pa to have 
the conamand of the bridle, fig. : to be ex- 
pert in ruling Ld.-Glr. p. 14, a, Schl. where 
j^yibs is incorr.). —• fibs-cds a horse's fur- 
niture, harness Cs. — fibs- fur the head-piece 
of a bridle. — fibs-dpdn a master groom, 
equerry. — fihs-rd a stable for horses. 

^ fu I. num. fig.: 66. 

II. sbst. (resp. fab) 1. water; fu dan 
sai bu is said to be a poetical name for 
wood; Jbdb-fu lit. descending water, viz. 
brook, river, also rain. — 2. brook, river, 
hi Jiyam-po overflowing rivers, floods 
Ma,; fdn-fu a river or rivulet of the plain; 
ri-yzdr-fu cataract, mountain torrent Glr. 
— 3. water in the body: snyin-fu dropsy 
in the pericardium, pdgs-fu anasarca Med.; 
pdgs-cu-zugs one suffering from anasarca; 
V. also fti-sh'; esp. euphem. for urine; mi- 
S* urine of men, bd-fu of cows Med.; fu 
ni cu ^dra the urine is like water Med. — 
4. V. cu-iM. 

Comp. fu-klun river, e.g. fii-klun gan- 



^' ^ 

gd the river Ganges Dzl. — fu-kUn Cs.: 
'the body of a river', yet v. kUm. — fti- 
dkyil the middle of a river. — ai-rkydl a 
leather bag for water Cs. — fu-skdd the 
voice of the waters, the sound of rushing 
water. — cu-skdr, ran-tdg-fu-sk6r water^ 
mill Glr. — fu-skyur n. of a bird Thgy.y 
Sch.: 'bittern, snipe'; also n. of a plant. — fu- 
skyiir I. Lt\ acidulous mineral waters 2. 
C: vinegar. — fu-skyis 'water-bom', the 
lotus Glr. — fu-skydr a handful of water. 
fu-Ua the bank or brink of a river. — 
fu-Uug bay, gulf. — fu-Jcur containing 
water, po. for cloud; a native proposed to 
use this word also for sponge, which is a 
commodity hitherto unknown in Tibet. — 
fu-Jiyil puddle, pool. — fu-gdn 1. full of 
water. 2. — fu-sgdii (v. sgan) which latter 
is prob. the more correct spelling. 3. Dzl. 
99^, 2; ^^9y 18 « ^^ virtue, honesty, 
V. Schf. on this passage. — fu-gin a sort 
of knife; Tar.AZy 1 Schf. razor; also the 
attribute of a god, a weapon with a curved 
blade Stg. — fu-gr6g Sch. : rivulet, brook; 
dish-water, rinsings; boiled water (?). 

— fu- mgd C. source or head of a river. 

— fu-gdgs stoppage or retention of urine, 
ischury, fu-gdgs Jbigs the ischury is re- 
moved (lit. bored through) Med. — fu- 
^grdm bank of a river; fu-gi'dm-gyi 
Hn a tree on the edge of a river, a me- 
taphor for frail and perishable things. — 
fu-rgyun the streaming, continual flow- 
ing, current, often fig. — fu-sgon the wa- 
ter-egg, po. for moon Sch. — fu-ndgs v. 
ndgs. — *fu-ta-gir* W. flour-dumplings, 
boiled in water. - *fu-stdn* W. swaddling- 
cloth. — *c^'td^W. calamus, sweet-scented 
flag, or some similar plant. — fu- turns 
Sch.: 'a swelling in the flesh, or a tumour 
filled with water'. — fu-mtd the side or 
bank of a river, *fu-td ts^-pa* (the ava- 
lanche came down) even to the river side. 

— fu-ddr Wdk. a small prayer-flag stuck 
up close to the river, in order to avert in- 
undations. — fu-dug Sch.: 'a poisonous 
plant, hemlock', but Tibetans usually un- 
derstand by it the stupefying power ascribed 
to certain rivers. — fu-d6n a deep well. — 



^' ^ 


^' ^ 

— ?t^^ndd a jet, a spouting forth of water 
Med. — ht-mdd ^mouth (of a river), spoat 
(of a tea-pot)' Sch,; but v. mcu, — cu- 
mddg the colour of urine Med. — <kt-rdd 
C\ small rounded pebbles, as in brooks. — 
(Su-ndg inundation, flood (?^ Ma. — cu- 
mdg matter, pus Sch. — hi-sndd 1. pitcher, 
jug. 2. Schr.: chamber -pot (yet in W. at 
least this article of luxury is not known). 

— ^-pa water-carrier. — hi-pydg-pa is 
enumerated among other synonyms to grn- 
puy signifying a ferry-man, water-man. — 
hjHprdn a little river, brook. — cur-bdr 1. 
('between the waters') isthmus, neck of land. 

2. p. n. of a place in Tibet. — cu-bdl n. 
of an aquatic plant Wdn, — ihi-bun white 
paint for the face Sch. — cu-bdr J . bubble, 
also cut hi-bur 2. blister, bladder, vesicle, 
e.g. occasioned by a bum or a vesicatory 
Lt. 3. boi^ulcer, abscess 2%^., 4. icd ?w- 
bur a word describing the foetus five days 
after conception Thgy. — ^^ bur- can 1. 
n. of a hell Thgy. 2. the eye Schr. — M- 
bo river, frq., iu-bo-ri n. of a mountain 
with a monastery two days' journey from 
Lhasa Glr. — hi-byd a water-bird; Sch,: 
hi-byd dkdr-po swan, hi-byd mgo-drndr 
stork (not known in W.). — ht-byi water^ 
ratiS^A. -- hi-Jhag v. Jbag. — hi^bur 1. Sch.i 
'driftwood and the like\ prob. more cor- 
rectly : thin pieces of wood, chips, chaflF etc. 
floating on the water. 2. water-beetle Med. 

— hi'sbrul water -snake, not a mytho- 
logical conception, like klu^ but a really 
existing animal, though for Tibetans a 
somewhat faboulous one, as they have ne- 
ver seen the creature itself. The eel {Sch.) 
can hardly be meant by it. — ^-mtg I. 
spring, fountain frq. 2. n. of a vein Med. 

— Su-rtsd V. ^"(hi, BS Bk separate article. 

— ^fsdgs I. a strainer, sieve, 2. watering- 
pot — hc-fsdn 1. hot water, 2. warm 
water, not too hot for drinking Med. 3. a 
hot spring Sch. — 'Su-fsod 1. the clepsydra 
or water-clock of ancient India. 2. clock 
in general, cu^fsod-Jidr^lo a wheel-clock. 

3. the Indian hour = \ Kyim or 24 minutes. 

4. the European hour; W.i *cu-fsdd nyis 

ma leb* it is not yet two o'clock. — Sm- 
^dzin po. cloud MU. — hi-rdzd earthen 
vessel for water, water-jar. — hi-zin {LexW 
Tfftwnf) long and broad, area, superficial 
extent, cu-^M ttru-brgydd-pa eight cubits 
long and broad Dzl.; also hi-ien-gdb^a^ 
e.g. cU'Zen-gdb-par-la dpag-fadd brgydd-hu 
Glr.; cu'zen-srab'fug in length, breadth 
and height; also separately: <hir dpag-tidd 
^V«o, len-du yah :?V*®®, mfa-dcdi'-du dpag- 
fsdd yoQco ydd-pa 2600 miles in lengtfi, 
2500 miles in breadth, 10000' in circum- 
ference; yet except in this connexion he 
alone is never used for length. As an- 
other signification of cu-ien-gdb-pa Schr. 
mentions moreover: proportioned, symme^ 
trical; others have: beautiful, great, con- 
siderable, which e.g. is its proper meaning 
in: 2w - ien - gdb - pa nya - grodha Stg. the 
stately fig-tree. — hi-z^ water-tub. — cu- 
zld 1. the image, the reflexion of the moon 
in the water; a sort of deception of the 
senses by witchcraft 2. the water-month, 
the first month. — hi-yzdr a large ladle Ci. 

— cu-bz&m a covered bucket for carrying 
water. — hi-^dbs water-ditch Sch. — hjirytxr 
col. water-rat (?) — hi-rdgs dam, dike. — hi- 
H 'hill of water', billow. — ^w-rwrf water 
rushing in, inundation, deluge. — cu-rldbs 
wave, billow Dzl. — hc4dg the arm of a 
river Glr. — cu-lud Sch. dung, manure (^?) 

— m-W n. of an edible plant S.g. — ht^ 
I6g floods. — cu'ldn, dam, dike Tar. 56, 
15. Lis. — hi-hin wood drifted away by 
the water = hi^^ofm-^yi Im v. above; or 
the translation of H^lft plantain or ba- 
nana-tree with its spongy wood, in the 
place of which the Tibetan thinks of the 
J/m-bu.^ a shrub of similar qualities, at 
any rate a symbol of perishableness, of 
the frailty of life. — hiAiih Sch. surfEU^e 
of the water (?) — hi-Ul v. lei. — hi- 
yUh Dzl. 9^Q^ 17, a ravine containing 
water. — hi-sd river-mud, as manure. — 
hi-sdr 1. animal water, serum, whether 
normal, or of a morbid character Med. — 
2. matter, pus. — cu-srdn^ = ^ cu-fsod, i.e. 
a minute; the Indian or Tibetan minute is 



equal to 24 of our seconds, = 6 dbugs Wdk.^ 
cf. iki - fteW. — ?w - snn a water- or sea- 
^nster, also Capricoro in the Zodiac. — 
cU'lhd water -god (^Varuna); also «= klui 

x'x* ^<5i, = i!a-a3', rhubarb, iu-i^d its 
^^ root, used as dye and as a laxative C 

^C Stt-nw four years ago C, TT. 

xw cu-^a 1. C. a man^s dress, coat, — 
^ 2. water-carrier. . r^ v^ : ^ 

x-q- cti-6a a large sinew, of which there 
^ are 16 ace, to Tibetan anatomy; 2iw- 
ha Iddg-pa a contraction of the sinews Cs.j 
id'ba lameness, paralysis of the sinews 
Sch — hirrgyuB (^^TRj) sinews, ligaments 
and nerves (tfiere are'SOO rgyits-pa); with 
respect to these, as well as to the veins, 
Tibetan science seems to be rather in the 
dark. — hirrUd 'sinew-veins', a term com- 
ing nearest to what we call the nerves. — 
curbct-lna-lddfiy and Ina-Un Cs, names of 
countries in India. 

§'5r^* fu-ma^risi a medicinal herb Med. 

^ an infant, baby. 

X'^f ?w-8d the external and internal uri- 
^ nary organs. 

^ (hiff Y. Jvg-pa. 

SC'fl" ^^"^^ ^- ^^V ^1- cun-nu^ W, also 
^^ *2fin-8fi*, little, small, cuh-c^-pas 
DzL when he was very little; young, bu 
^n-ba or -nu the younger or the youngest 
son; lo'ifun young in years; ma-hm the 
younger sister of the mother; ^'d-^pa cim- 
«u* the younger brother of the father; the 
younger or the youngest of the fathers (in 
polyandry); ^n-nvrna» up from infancy; 
(Sun-^dgs an early friend, friend of one's 
yonth; iun-zdd a little, cf. cun-zad; cun- 
{gyi) sri a devil devouring infants, infants- 
devil; *nyin-Kdm-^ no-^mig-y podr^y OT*nyom- 
Sin-«* W. shy, timid. — 2. vb. to be 
little, small etc., snyin ma hin Hg Glr., be 
not timorous^ do not fear! ^dun-^ma rgya 
TMhiAHg let the consultation not be tri- 

fling, let at once something of moment be 
consulted; ^dun-ma rgya mi Hun^r bt/edr- 
do let us now decide on important things 
Glr,; cuns-^a pf., cuns^pa yin^nam is it 
too unimportant? MU. (hin-Jug v.ja). 
xrw ^/i-w«, C, also ^iun-grdgs^ (kin- 
^^ ^dris*, resp. btsun-mOy wife, COnsort, 
partner B., 6'.; Un-pa to marry; mi Hg-gi 
cun-mar byed^pa to be made a man's wife, 
to be married: 

, Vj-« hid occurs only in Hd-yzon-pUy ^yson- 
P^y -/«an-pa, -za-ba^ seldom -^dza-ba 
(Lex.) to consume, spend, waste; hid m 
zd-ba inexhaustible. 

xjrq- ^drpa = Jsiid'pay Jug-pa, to go, 
^^ get in or into, to enter, to |iut in or 
into etc., to go into a town Dzlr, of food 
entering the body Dzl.', gan yan rUn-ba 
mi hidrpa med all without distinction may 
enter (my religion), says Buddha, in op- 
position to the aristocratic exclusiveness of 
Brahmanism DzL; fugs-su cud-pa, resp., 
to impress on one's mind; Uon-du v. Hon" 
pa; ^dg-tu to subject Tar.; grdbs-su c. ac- 
cus. to procure, to provide or furnish one's 
self with a thing Mil. '< \ ^ ' 

hin, occurs in itn- hin one that is 
watering or taking care of fields, fsds- 
hin gardens ^dl-hm meadows Ld. 

xx-gf cun-po (y^xm) 1- bunch, bundle. 2. 
^ tuft, tassel, ornament, of silk, pearls 

^$r ^un-ma the second wife in rank. 

^i!^ Hn-tse Bal. little, small. 

Xfvn' cikb-pa, a corruption of cud-pay kun 

^^ ivb-par byao all this is to be well 

impressed on the mind; dban-po fams-tdd- 

du hib-pa to pass through, to penetrate, 

every organ Stg. 

-^™ cum-pa,^'g8'him-paMil.yloshrif\ky 

^^ to crouch with fear. 

x;^ hiVy termin. of cu; cur JH-ba to be 

^ drowned. 

xx'fl- cdr-ba a kind of vermicelli, prepar- 

^ ed from butter-milk boiled Med.^ 

Lid. *ifurpe*. 




^{^y ?m(s) 


xx;f- ?M5 I . instram. of }kt; ScL also ^- 
^^ j-to^h'ba 'to melt'; more correctly: to 
gild, to plate (in the warm or in the cold. 
way), to overspread with a gold or silver 
liquid. — after five days C, TF., or, the 
present day included, on the sixth day, 
cog. to bbi. 

Si' ce \. num. fig.: 96. — 2. v. ce-ba. 

^^.qij.'^ ci-ge-mo such a one, fo 'Si-ge-mo 

' zig-la in such and such a year 

DzL; ^-ge-mo Uyod you so and so Thgr, 

^'Q?TOr ^*^"oS^^'^^ ^' being jealous of one's 
^ ' own honour, nif. 

ie fdbs arrogance, haughtiness, sde- 
pai ce-fabs the arrogance of the 
great Ma.; ^^e-fabs-med-llan* W. affable, 
condescending, kind; ce-fabs-dan proud, 
arrogant, haughty; ce-fabs by^drfa B.y ^co- 
ce* W.J *zun-wa*C.y to be arrogant, haughty. 
^'^' ^^'<^ A missive to an inferior, an 

"" edict 
^w ^^'^^ 1- ftdj- gi'eat, (for c^n^o); bu 
^e-ba the eldest son, the elder; ^e- 
bar ^gyur-ba to become great or greater, 
to grow, increase e.g. of passions; c^-bar 
^rd-bay ^ei* ^d-ba id., cf. &r, Z^-bar bi/^dr- 
pa to make great; frq. in conjunction with 
nouns: ze-sddn M-ba great with respect to 
anger, i.e. very prone to anger; rigs ci- 
zih being of high extraction; also in com- 
pounds, V. below. — 2 sbst. greatness, high 
degree Mil.; superiority, excellence, ...kyi 
ci'ba stdn-^a to show the superiority of a 
thing Mil.; *c6-wa srun-wa* Ld. to behave 
decently, respectably. — 3. vb., pf. &8 to 
be great, not only in ^'kin, ^e-Oy but also 
in : na-rgyal ma l^-zig do not be great in 
pride, i.e. do not allow pride to become 
great Mil.y and so in similar cases ; cf. ces. 
Comp. '64'ka Sch.: 'chiefly; the plura- 
lity'. — ce-kydd greatness, size Dzl. — *og- 
ildV^ W.y *ce'ddl'la aid son* he has entered 
the class of adults, he has come to full 
age. — ^e-rgyu = cd-ba^ cf. ryyu 3. — ce- 
brgyiid perh. lineage by the eldest sons 
Glr. -— ce-cun great and small; size; ^e- 
Mn ni in size — ce-^ddn the coming to 

full age Mil. nt. — ^^e-mi" W. an adult — 
*^'ldm* C. grown up, adult (/ScA. 'chiefly'?) 
l^-^- ce-s^e one's elder sistor Cs., the dder 

^ wife Sch. 
^•flS* &-ftlt' Lis. = bden-dpdn, witness, 
' eye-witness; witness, testimony, ?^ 
bzir dris'te being questioned as a witness, 
or asked for a testimony Stg. 
>c- ?(pd, as sbst. of rare occurrence, Schr.: 
' reason, signification = don; Sch.: <M 
^hi-po a great thing, an important business 
or affair. Mostly ^d-du postp. c. genit on 
account of, because of, for; Ud-bai cM-du 
yin it is in order to see Pth. ; rin-gyi lidr 
<^t^ as an equivalent Pth. ; Ihai 2W-dw jdzin" 
pa or yny^'ba^ also rj^-'su JBdn-pa or 
ynyir-ba to admit to the discipleship or 
communion of a god Mil. — As an adv. 
led'du seems to signify 1. for a certain 
purpose, designedly, purposely, expressly, e.g. 
with byM'pa to do, to make a thing; 
mndgs-pa to send off, dispatch. — 2. again, 
once more, once again, *= pyir Mil. — dgos- 
ced the construction of any noun with pyif- 
duy cid'du etc., regarded by Tib. gram- 
marians as a case of declension. 


^ednldn v. ce-ddn. 

^^ cM-po B. and C,*»n-wo* W., great 
^ (c^-mo in B. only as fem. DzL 
TV*^, b), ^Sn-por ^gyiir-bay W. *cen ?d-&*, 
to become great, to increase, col. also for 
to grow up; skyes-bu ^S^n-po a great maD, 
a man of great worth (by his talents and 
actions), a saint; *mi c^n-mo* W. a man 
of quality, of rank, a nobleman, a rich 
man; i&n-ma the first wife in rank; &» 
cun ynyis the first and second wife Glr.; 
^c^-mo* W. also: old, ^iit^gu lo cu ^en- 
mo* a child ten years old. 
3^-S»n' chn-me-ba Le^.y Cs. stillness, si- 
lence, c&m-mer ^ditg-pa &Ar., 
'S^m-mer Jcdd-pa 6'., to sit still without 

^XT/XT\- ^em(s) in compounds: 1. 5iii- 
^^ ?M«) V. can. — 2. ka'iShn(sl 
resp. laWS&im(s)y bka-'len^s) farewell ex- 
hortation; last will, testament, srds-la h- 

-^- 7>' 

I ,i 

^(^)"^(^' cmC«).(M«) 


^Sr ^dff^pa 


cA»(s) Jog - pa to deposit a testamentary 
disposal or devise for a son Glr, 

^(^'^(^y ^K«>^M«) 1. the noise 
made by thander, by the 
shock of an earthquake etc., Jbrug-sgi^a 
cem- Zim sgrdgz-pa the rolling, roaring, 
ckpping of thunder; bzad-gdd ^ur Ifim-pa 
a roaring laughter. — 2. Ura cemrc^i v. 

^^ cer termin. of cej cer ^6^a to grow, 
increase ; ier sky4-4>a to become great; 
to grow up, cer skgds-pa partic. grown up, 
adult; dd-dun cer ton go on! go on! MU,\ 
rgycU - grid byd -ba cer ma byuii Glr, his 
government was not (yet) of much con- 
sequence (as he was too young); nis-pa 
cer med this is not quite evident to me 
MU.; perh. Tar. 36, 16; 101, 22; 120, 21; 
169, 14 will allow a similar interpretation 
of Ser. — cS'-na S.O, yea; still more (?). 
5^ ces 1. instrum. of Ze. — 2. pf. of c^- 
ia, as adv. very, Ua-zas nan cis-kyi 
•as the food is very bad Dzl; Zes sgrin-pa 
very prudent or clever ScA.; ces ddr-bar 
gyur-to it spread very much Tar. 
^^q- ^-pa 1. pf. of ce-ba to be great, 
ha-han yan ces^o he is much too 
great DzL ; dmag-dgun Zes-pa a great army; 
cStan Ze&^as being very mighty Gh\; car 
^es'pas as it rained heavily Pth. ; dga (fes- 
nas greatly rejoicing Mil. — 2. to believe^ 
but only when preceded by yid (resp. fugs)^ 
or bden (col.), c. la, also c. accus., or par^ 
that, DzL 9^, 18. 
^ CO 1. num. fig.: 126. — 2. as a word 

for itself seldom to be met with, e.g. 
Ld.'Glr. Scfd. fol. 13, 6, Tar. 129, 20; 
signification not clearly to be mad^ out. *2<rf- 
med'pa* C. = d&n-inedrpa to no purpose, 
vain; fickle, 
^pr 2rf-^a (f^fv) the way or method of 

' doing a thing, e.g. of solving an 
arithmetical problem Wdk.^ of curing ma- 
ladies iS.jr., esp. used of magic performances, 
c6^€^pa Cs., cd-gcMnUan Mil.^ a performer 
of such ceremonies. Whether it may safely 
be used for religious rites or ceremonies 
in general, is doubtful. 

5'^ co-g6 Bal. great. 

vrp; 3g^rk|' cb-^, co-nhy lamentation, 
' wailing, esp. lamentations for 

the dead, dirge, ^dAbs - pa Dzl. , Jbdd-pay 
^don-pa in more recent literature, by^d-pa 
/ScA., to lament, wail, cry, clamour; with 
la to cry to a person; the crying of a 
new-bom child Thgy. 
*"Q^QJ' co'^M magical trick, jugglery, 
^S often put to rdztt^jpruly also used 
of the apparitions and doings of goblins 
MU. Cf. rdzu-^prul. 

V^q- cd-ba to set on (a dog), cd'Zo-ba to 
set on repeatedly Cs. 

^aqCC^' C0'jyrdn(8) Mil; Cs.\ the 
'^ ^ ^ mother's family or lineage; 
co^ngs Dzl. frq. Cs.: 1. the father's lineage, 
descent by the father's side; 2. an honourable 
extraction. — S>-m Mil.^ frq. = lo-rigs, 
also applied to things, e.g. a cane: co^s 
yd -nas btsiin-pa a cane of an excellent 
kind, not coming from any mean or noxious 

^fif ^^"^ ^- *'®? ^'^j game at dice. — 
2. 8eal(?) — Hd'lo-mUan a dice- 
player Cs., ?o-fo rtsd'ba to play at dice 
Cs.; cO'lo-ris Glr. the figure of a die, a 
square figure, in Glr. 47,9 the Mongol 
translation substitutes a wheel, v. Ji&r-h^ 
a checkered colouring or pattern, e.g. of 
cotton cloth C. 
j^n* cog 1. for cd-gfa; bdn- 'Sog Mil. the 

' ceremony of the Bonpos. — .2. v. yidg- 
pa, — 3. V. Zdg-pa. 
^gm'q' (^(^-pa vb., sbst., adj. 1. to be suffi- 

' cient, sufficiency y sufficient, ccdpir: 
nid'la d^'kas Zog it is sufficient for us, 
we are satisfied A/ii. ; dris-pas (instr. of 
pai) Zog-go DzL V^?^ 10 (there has been) 
enough of asking, = don^t ask any more! 
gan-^u bhugs kyan cdg-par ^dug it is suffi- 
cient (for him) wherever he may live, i.e. 
he is satisfied with any place of living 
Mil. ; Mdrla nor lons-spydd-kyis cdg-pa yod 
we have money and goods enough Mil. ; 
Jii ysum - gyis i6g - na if these three are 
sufficient for you Mil. ; rin-po-ces fdg-par 



3^rpri:r %«-pa 


^3C*r iolrzdm 

ffy{tr-nas when tbey had precious stones 
enough DzL ; ^di-tsam-gyis ^dg-pa ma yin- 
no that is not enough, that will not do' 
Dzl,\ sgdUpa mi brgya ion Idg-pa his back 
(is) large enough for a hundred men to 
ride on it GZr.; adv.: 'Sdg-far sufficiently, 
e.g. sbyin-pa to give DzL ; *wa cdg-pa* or 
*-^a* W. (col. for '(Idg-pa/r), * dun -be ma 
cdg-ga sad son* he not only struck but 
killed him; pyin-pas ^dg-gi it being suffi- 
cient (for the present) that I have come 
Mil. ; famS'dddrla ^g-par gyiir > f& as all 
were satisfied D^'Z. ; ^dg-par ^dzin-pa to 
deem a thing sufficient, to be contented 
or satisfied with it; ^og his-pa vb., sbst., 
adj. to be contented, contentment, content; 
Ud-bas cog mi his-pai rdzas a thing at which 
one cannot look enough Glr,, Pth.; yo- 
bydd'kyi (better kyis) ISog sis -pa easily 
satisfied as to the necessaries of life. — 
2. to be allowed, permitted, at liberty, con- 
strued in the same manner: Ihid-pas cog 
you may have lessons with me, I will 
instruct you Mil; ^dn-pas 'Sog I am quite 
at liberty to compete with you, we may 
safely compete with each other Glr.; Jsd- 
ba drdns-pas ^og you can have meat set 
before you Mil.; with a root: bu byin cog 
then you may render up your son; hence 
it is in W. the usual word for rkn-ba, 
^ndn-du ia Hdg^be yin-na man* is it allowed 
to enter or not? *»rdd-ma za cog"" eating 
pease is allowed, also: pease are edible; 
*U-na Kyoh cog ka tan* he issued an edict, 
that it should be permitted to fetch wool, 
i.e. he (the Maharajah of Kashmir) per- 
mitted the export of wool; ^Ub-na pul 
cog when it arrives, I shall take the liberty 
of sending it to you. 
S^n^rcr ^^9^"?^ seldom for Jcdg-pa to be 

•^ broken Mil. 
XT* «3^' con^ mtoh a transparent, va- 
' negated, half- precious stone 

brought from India to Ld, and considered 
less valuable than^'^t; perh. cornelian or 

^- ^od 1. C. the cutting off; deeiding; */a^ 
^i^ gyO' cemr-pojM'pa* to bring about 

a great remission of taxes, *6Att-to»-5?^ re- 
mission of debts; *sa-i^ gya cen^po jh£- 
pa* to make a great way; c£ however 
pyod. — 2. partition-wall Sch , cfod rgydg- 
pa prob. to construct a partition-wall. — 
3. V. ybdd-pa. 

'^^' ^ddrpa 1. to be cut off, Idm^o ynyis 
^ M'bas ^6d-de both approaches being 
cut off or obstructed by snow Mil.; bead 
kyan mi ?dd-do impossible to be severed, 
caedendo non caeduntur, Glr. ; mfi-^ddrrd^- 
r)e a diamond that cannot be cut to pieces, 
an epithet of a firm unbending king Pth, 
— 2. to be deeided, settled, fixed, gon-fdn 
dpydd-kyis (or pas) mi cod Glr. the value 
(of the stone) cannot be fixed, though one 
should attempt to apprize it i.e. it is in- 
valuable, priceless; go idd-pa v. go. 
^•gf iSdd'po W. 1. split, cut through; 2. 

' distinct, of words or writings. 
^ ?on 1. W. (cog. to cudf) useless, to 
^ no purpose, rin lion soil the payment 
has been useless, thrown away; gen. adv. 
*c6nAcf gratuitously, in vain, for nothing, 
*c6n-la K&n-b^ to hate without cause or 
reason; *^<ki-la ddd-he* to sit idle, to spend 
one's time unprofitably. — 2. tent(?), con- 
fag tent-rope Mil., concur tent-pin. 

^om(s) 1. robbery, cdms^kyis zas 
Jsdl-ba to live on robbery Ma.; 
cdm-po Tohher DzL, "idm^o rk^n-ma robber 
and thief, gen. ?o?w-rAtin, com^rkun-gyi 
^igs-pa fear of robbers and thieves ; ^omr 
rkun-pa id. Stg. — 2, imp. of jdms-pa. 

^^sy ^(hn-pa to be finished, accomplished, 

W.y ^fd-re com yin* to-morrow it 
will be finished, *da 'Som son* now it is 
done, completed; cf. cam. 
Xir col 1. inconstant Cs.\ dpyid-M fickle 
spring- weather. — 2. Cs>: for cd-fo 
in compounds, rus-^iol a die made of bone; 
hih'Cdl a wooden die; dun-cdl shells used 
inst of dice(?). 

3gwq* col-Ka Sch. : 'a hole made by a blow; 
' a nest\ 

SOT'SC^ coUzdns a shallow shore Sch. 


dwr ^08 


dwr <fos 


"At ^08 (^) 1. doctrine, a particular 
doctrine, tenet, or precept; ysdn-bai 
hi Hg 9i,ii esoteric doctrine, a mystery 
DzL; Uydd-cos for Hyad-par-ban-gyi cos a 
peculiar, distinguished, sublime, and there- 
fore difiBcult doctrine; Jig-rUn-gyi cos 
hrgyad the eight doctrines or principles 
of the world (though frq. mentioned, 1 
found them nowhere specified) cf. Fou- 
caux Gyatcherr., Translation p. 264; ISoS' 
hrgyddrmlcany a man of the world, worldling 
Mil — More esp. 2. moral doctrine, whether 
any separate dogma, or the sum of various 
doctrines, religion in general, both theoreti- 
cally (system of morality, ethics) and prac- 
tically (faith', exercise of religion); iAa- 
eds the religion of the gods or (Buddhist) 
deities, i.e. the Buddhist religion, as the 
only true one, in opposition to all other 
heresies and false religions (log-^ds)^ as 
well as to irreligiousness (?08 ma yin-pa) ; 
Ha-c6s profession with the lips, hypocrisy 
Glr.; Jlrtg-pai cds-la brt&n-pa those prac- 
tising the religion of voluptuousness (an 
expression designedly forcible, like St. 
Paul's: ^ whose god is their belly'); mi- 
hs V. below; cos JSdd-pa^ or bMd-pa^ 
ston-paj smrd'huy sgroff^pa, resp. cds-kyi 
sgrog-gUn mdzdd-pa Glr, to expound, to 
teach, to preach religion; Sw smrd-bcd idU 
la Itd-ha to watch the mouth of the preacher 
Pffi.; *cg ddg-pa* C. to read a religious 
book; ^^os hdd-Uani^ W, a preacher; ?os 
Jcdd-pat ^dun - Rdn place where sermons 
are delivered, church DzLi tos nydn-pa 
to hear religious discourses D-eZ.; ?os iu^ 
ba to ask for religious discourses; partic: 
one eagerly desiring or asking for religious 
instruction, an inquirer /%., Mil,\ cos byedr- 
pa to act or live religiously, righteously, 
'=■■ ?a8 bkin-du by4drpa; also merely to wish 
to become pious, to strive after piety; l^yed 
mym-^as las byed-na if you are in good 
earnest about religion, if piety is the aim 
of your heart Mil,; lastly in a special sense: 
to become or to be a monk Pth.; cds-la 
sems sgyitr-ia Mil, to show an inclination 
for religion, to turn religious; (Sds-sUy or 

^S'la ^ug-pa 1. vb. nt. to enter into 
religion, to be converted, also : to go over 
to a religion, to turn (Buddhist), 2. vb. 
act. to convert, to turn a person from a 
bad life to a good one, to make him a 
believer, to make another a convert, a 
proselyte; cds^a ^dd-^a *= ^ji^g-^a i; ?os 
spyddrpa to practise religion ; the exercise 
of religion, worship S,g.\ bka-lSds the word 
of Buddha, the doctrine as taught by 
Buddha himself; rtdgs-pai (fds Thgy, the 
knowledge acquired by meditation, inde- 
pendently of books, scarcely diflFerent from 
nes-d&n^ or non-Us; bstdn-pai ^os Thgy. 
any knowledge derived from other sources. 

— 3. in a special sense the religion of 
Buddha, Buddhism, ddm^ai (!os^ and frq. 
dam- pa &s id. (cf. ^ niattg Acts 6, 7); 
(fos dan bon Buddhism and Bon -religion 
Mil, ; ?d«-to Idn-spyod^ar ^gyiir-ba to live 
in the enjoyment of true faith. — 4. re- 
ligious writings, and writings, books, literature 
in general, in as much as the Tibetans 
derivate every science from religion; 6dn- 
gyi ^os fams-ddd all the Bon-writings Mil, 

— 5. custom, manner, common usage, fashion, 
mi'^os manners of the world Mil,; mi-coS" 
kyi dus-su as long as he lived according 
to the ways of the world Mil, ; yiil - &s- 
kyis according to the custom of the country 
Dzl; kydd-'ios the way of distinguishing, 
of pointing out the characteristics Glr, (cf. 
under 1); nature, quality, Dzl. 9U^^ 18 cf. 
^os-nyid, — 6. substance, being, thing, Jfos 
fams'cdd mi-^tdg-pa yin-gyi as every thing 
existing is perishable Dzl — Other philo- 
sophical expressions containing the word 
?os V. Was. (296). 

Comp. * ds-skad* W, book -language, as 
opp. to pdl'skad. — ^ds-sku v. sku, — 
^os^kydn v. skyon-ba. — 'Sos-Uri reading- 
desk, lecturer's chair, pulpit Pth.\ reading- 
table, school-desk. — ISos-Urims v. Krims. — 
^oS'UriTns-pa v. dge-hskds. — llos-Jcdr vulgo 
prayer -mill; the column of disks on the 
mfod-rthi Pth. v. Jidr -lo 2^ also Jcdr - lo 
extr. — cos-grd school. — ^os-(kyz) rgyal 
(-po) 1 . honorary title of kings deserving 




sj^^r wS^ 

well of religion. 2. = yhin-^e SchL Bvddh. 
93, 3. also as a p. n. — ^m-rgyud religious 
tradition, also = confession, creed, i^e-bi»iin- 
gyi ISos-rgyiid Jtzin-pa-mams those em- 
bracing the religious tradition of his re- 
verence, his fellow-believers Mil. ; cos-rgyud 
ycig-pa one confessing the same faith or 
religion Thgr, — ^os-ban 1. pious, devouL 
2. V. ?08 5, Q^ig-pai cds-tan yin having the 
properties of perishableness^ being subject 
to the law of mutability Thgy. — ^os-iji 
'lord of the faith', viz. 1. Buddha Lea,^ 
2. devout or righteous lord, title of honour 
given to distinguished scholars Tar. transL 
331 , and elsewh. ; perh. also = cos-rgydl. 
— ioB-nyid 1. = cos 5, quality, nature, rgyd- 
mfsoi cos-nytd-iyis in a manner peculiar 
to the sea, Dzl nSO, 9 (112, 9?). 2. philo- 
sophical term: existence, entity, = c2^-ii^m- 
nyid (ace. to Thgy!) by which the Buddhist 
however means a negation of being, non- 
existence, Bon- entity. — ^as-stegs W, -- 
ioS'Uri, — ^oS'Stdn religious festive enter- 
tainment given to saints Glr. — cos-^rdn- 
po righteous with regard to the laws of 
religion (adopted by Prot. Miss, for the 
scriptural term 'righteous' or 'just'), ?os- 
drdn-ha justice, righteousness. — cos-lddn 
= cos'ban. — Hos-sd^ convent, monastery, 
WdJcy Glr, — (^ds-pa a religious man, a 
divine, a monk— cos-apun a religious brother; 
such brotherhoods e.g. are formed by two 
devotees, before going on a pilgrimage. 
After having been consecrated by a priest, 
who consults the lot on such an occasion, 
they owe hospitality and mutual assistance 
to each other for life. — cos-spydd exercise 
of religion; cos'spyod-bcu = dgi-ba-bcu. — 
cos-sbyin is said to be frq. used in book- 
titles: bkra^is-Uiun-pchnas ^ossbyin ^dzad- 
med spel pyir bris written from Tashilhunpo 
as a religious gift for infinite increase and 
blessing. — cos-bldn a pious functionary or 
official (bdtcd'blon an impious or wicked 
one) Glr. ^os-ma a religious woman, a nun 
6i. — cos-mM without religion, irreligous, 
wicked. — ^os-mydn religious frenzy, W.: 
*co8-ny6n iiigs* he has become deranged, 

his brains are turned (in consequence of 
meditating). — cos-z6g priestcraft MU. ^ 
cos-lugs religious party, denomination, seel 
*c6s-sem-can* W. inclined to religion, | 

^xr'H' ^^d-^^ Lea.: = ^tomb, sepulchre; 
' = pramarita Ssk. killed, slain; 
mMd-pa-Tned-pa entire, perfect; mMd-par 
byd'ba = maMman Sak. greatness; also the 
magical power of increasing size at will'. 
^S^ ^^an 1. the side of the breast, mean- 
^ gyi bu bosom-child, darling, mcan- 
gyi mcu-brdn boeom-wife (cf. our 'bosom- 
friend') ; m^dnHJlu ^jug-pa to put into one's 
bosom Glr.; mcdn-lcun arm-hole, arm^ 
often « m^an; mcdvrJiun yyd^-pai HsSh 
mai bdr nas (the Buddhas are bom) from 
between the ribs of the right side (cf 
mncd)] *Mvr-da^ W. pocket, in clothes, c£ 
dku-mda. — 2. v. the following article. 
»xyq- mfdn-bu 1. apprentice, bzoi in a 
^^ handicraft, trade or art, rig-pm 
in a science, disciple 6i., sgyu-TncHmian- 
gyi appr. of a juggler, conjurer Zam. — 
2. yi'get mcdn-^ words or lines, printed 
or written in a smaller character than the 
rest, and inserted in the text (called wa- 
yig Cs.) like our parenthesis, but without 
brackets; hence 3. note, annotation (Seh. 
also: testimony?). 

^J^q« mU-bay eleg. for 1. to come, to go, 
sldd - bUn - par miio I shall come 
later Dzl. ; to appear, used of a god ; shfiAs- 
su (to put one's self) under the protection 
of another person, ccd.; Jmhs-su wSa 1 
will obey Mil. — 2. to say, ies niUo thus 
he said. 

5jJ^'3^' wS-ma, resp. spyan- cab a tear, 
Jbyirir-pa ; ^ddn-pa Glr., bldg-pa DzL, 
ytdn-ba Mil. to shed (tears); sk^m-pa to 
dry up tears Cs. ; opyi^ba to wipe off tears 
Cs. ; m^-mas brndn-ba to be choked vnih 
tears, to sob violently Sch. 
^^nr ^% I. Cs. a stone for grinding 
' spice etc., a mortar; m^-gu a small 
mortar ScL, a pesHo Cs. — 2. the netfiar 
mill -stone, m^-ma the runner or upper 
miU- stone, Sch.^ mcig skdr-ba to grind 

^3K' mfin 


3^I^5S mfed 


«i^- m^n Cs, a» klon; one Lea. = cttryt/; 
V. klon, 

^($C^ niBn^bu Cs, = JUn-bu. 

»J^' "miHd^ bka-7nad^ ysun-mady W. *mol' 
^ ^d* resp the talk, discourse, speech 
(of an honoured person) Cs.; mcid-ldn 
answer to such speech MiL 
jfj^q* m^n-pcL, resp. sku-mcin the liver; 
' miHn^ri, micm - n the midriff or 
diaphragm; m^Hn-k^a liver-coloured; mMn- 
nan 'liver - pressing^, first breakfast, be- 
cause according to popular belief water 
rises from the human liver in the morning, 
which is depressed and appeased by taking 
some food; mHn^ndn byed-pa to break- 

^J^'Cr "f^^h^ 1. fishing-hook Dzly mciU 
pas nya Jc&r-ba to fish with a 
hook, to angle a. — 2. a little bird, W. 
^ci'pa*, Ta. *cii-pig; hi -pa skyd-wo^ W. 
sparrow; mM-llra sparrow-hawk; mcil" 
mgd a fabulous stone, like a bird's head, 
supposed to possess a variety of marvelous 

^&pr^ "fn^Uma 1. W. ^mHl-mdg^y resp. 
Ijags-mcily Ijags-cdb Spittle, prob. 
also other similar fluids Lt; ^ddr-ba (W. 
*pdn'ce) to spit; m^UlM ( W, *mcil'ldM*) 
morbid saliva, e.g. of people affected with 
a cough or with hectic fevers; mcU'Sndbs 
prob. id.; miHl^sndd, resp. zalrbzM^ spitting- 
box; mWrzumy miUrbkdb W, slavering-bib 
or cloth. — 2.-=mm'lhdm Tar. 72, d? 
S^pj;^3m'' "mM-lham shoe, boot, mM-Uidm 
^ ynyis ^dor^a to lose both shoes 
TTdw.; mM'lhdm'm/can shoemaker, cob- 
bler, seller of boots; mcU-Utdm-gyi yu-ba 
the leg of a boot Ca. 
^^fv^ mfia-pa 1. also m^'ldgs-pa, eleg. 
for yodrpuy to be, to be there, to 
exist, du wSw how much is there, how 
many are there? Cs.; su-la dam -pat &w 
fncis-pa whoever has the holy doctrine 
^.; y^ dbus-nas mcisso (he) is (comes) 
from the country tf Dzl. — 2. pf. of miH- 
J« 1. lam rin-po-nas m^s-te having come 
from afar. 2. ies mHis-^a so-called. 

3^J^^' '^^'^^^ 1- ^l^g- dwelling, i 

'^ domicile; also when speaking 
modestly of one's own dwelling: bddg-gt 
miu-irdn my humble roof Dzl. — 2. Lea;. 
wife, partner. 

^^^3^10}' mcis-mdl bed, bod-stoad Cs. 

^x'W«^ 1. lipj ya-mhi upper lip, ma- 
^ mhi lower lip; mht btud mf^as Wil. 
prob.: one must be wise in lowering the 
lips, i.e. one must yield, giving up pouting; 
Ua-mMy resp. ial-miu 1. lip 2. word, 
voice (?) Sch. 3. quarrel, strife, ka-m^^ 
rgyal-pdm ji-ltar byun hi-na if one asks, 
which are the details of the quarrel; *Kam- 
^)1\£ -pd^ C. ^gydg-pa"" Cs. to quarrel. 
— 2. beak or bill of birds, mU-la fdgs-te 
^6-ba to fly, ciirrying something in the 
bill S. 0.; mcu'lto (or iurmdof) W. id. — 
3. n. of one of the lunar mansions, v. 

Comp. mhL-sky4 muzzle Sch. — wJ^- 
sgrds v. sgtos. — mhi-tdr Sch. (prob. a. 
mis-print for mhi^fdi*) pustules, tubercular 
elevations 'on the lips. — mcu-rins long- 
beaked, n. of a bird, and also of an in- 
sect (a large musquito). 

^^•q- mce-buy Cs. also m^e-^dy comer-tooth, 
canine tooth, eye-tooth, fang, tusk of 

an animal, mc^-la ytsigs-pa, W. *ii'h*^ to 
show one's teeth, to grin; mce-ba^ban-gyi 
sde the class of the tusked animals, viz. 
the camivora (lion, tiger, leopard), and the 
tusked pachydermata (elephant, boar etc.). 

g;tj^- 7W?^</, sku-mced^ mced'ltdmy resp. 
^ for spun, brother, sister; m^d piyis 
my two brothers Dzl.; srds-mo Iha-lddm 
meed bii four princesses, sisters; del mfed 
his illustrious brother, in reference to a 
king, prince etc. Olr.\ esp. of gods: m^ed 
bhi four divine brothers Glr.; mhd-^*dgsy 
grogs -mfid clerical brother, mced-grdgs 
mdn-po tsdgS'par where many clerical 
brothers assemble; mced-grdgs dam-fsig 
yhig^a Thgr. betrothed brothers, religious 
brothers, «= cos^pun; also mUed-Udm has 
this signification. 


^ly*- v^*^ 



^*^'\£, Or 

gj^^Sr^fnced-pa 1. to spread, to gain 
' ground, esp. of a fire, frq.; also 
fig.: bddg-gi ^dod-cdgs-kyi me m^ed-pas 
as the fire of voluptuousness spread or 
increased within me DzL; also in the 
following sense : mdr-me ybig-la ybig m^ed 
Itar as one kindles one light by another 
Mil, ; y^ glen ynyis glen riwr-pas mf^d-de 
as (the news) spread more and more by 
gossiping people Pth. — skye-m^M v. skye, 
— 2. ^yyd^a^ mi-Tn^edrpai dddnpa = dad- 
pa brtdn-po, 

S^^^^'mc^-pa the milt, spleen. 

3?^^' ^^0^ the best, the most excellent 
' in its kind, nky^s-bu mcog, mii m^og^ 
rkan-ynyis-maTHS-kyi m^og Buddha; nyes- 
Itun-gu ma pdg-pa (or na) mcog yin-te 
pog-Ttin bsdgs-pa by4drpa rab yin Mil, the 
best thing is, not to have been surprised 
by sin, but after having been surprised, 
it is the best to confess it (and thus to 
atone for it); ysun-mUdg chief or funda- 
mental doctrine, main dogma, principal 
commandment etc. Glr,\ na ni ^ig^-rUn 
JLi-na mcog I am the highest in the world 
(says Buddha immediately after his birth) 
Qlr,\ ynas-mcdg the most glorious or splen- 
did country Glr,; ro-m^dg excellent taste 
or flavour Mil,; mUas-m^dg -mams most 
learned gentlemen Zam, ; also as a compli- 
mentary word; mi mcog Uyod most honour- 
ed Sir! Pth,; mcog-dmdn^ m^og dan fun- 
mdn, m^og dan pal-pa^ good and bad, 
first-rate and common, fine and ordinary, 
of goods etc.; eminent and ordinary, of 
mental gifts, talents etc.; mcog-tu gyur-pa 
= mcog, e,g, mi-mams-kyi ndn-na mcdg- 
tu gy^r-pa yHg one that has risen among 
men, so as to become their chief Glr,; 
y^l-^mams-kyi m^dg-tu gyur-pa the most 
splendid of countries. — Adv.: mMg-tu 
very, most, with verbs: bdnrpo-la mcdg-tu 
m^^s-pa )ig a great admirer of the Bonpos 
Mil,; gen. with adjectives: ro mlS6g-tu 
mndr-ba extremely sweet; with the com- 
parative: much, far, by far, greatly, rf^- 


5J^'^ mUd-^a 

bas ni^dg-tu c«) ... is far or much greater 
than that Dzl, 

Comp. m^og-sbyin pyag-rgyd a gesture 
made in practising magic, in conjuring ap 
or exorcising ghosts. — mcog-zuh the 
model pair, the two most excellent amongst 
Buddha's disciples, Shariibii and Mau- 
dgalgyibii, v. Kopp. ~ miog-rin longest 
Thgy, 'i . I. ^A ' v^, ^^-^^^ ^f^^ '^^- 

V. con. 


3JW5C-q ^ZJ^Pi ^^^^'^^y w?(fei«-pa to 
' leap, to jump, frq., e.g. 

hir into the water; mi-seb'la among the 
people, e.g. of a mad dog). 
^T^trn^'f^^^drpa (^w) I- vb. 1. to honour, 
' revere, respect, receive with hon- 
our, kun-gyis bhur Hn mcdd-pai ^os worthy 
of being honoured and praised by all; 
usually ccapir. (rarely dp.) in the special 
sense: to honour saints or deities by offer- 
ing articles of food, flowers, music, the 
sound, odour and flavour of which they 
are supposed to relish, hence to treat, 
entertain, regale (the gods), and in a more 
general sense applied also to lifeless ob- 
jects, e.g. to honour a sepulchre in soch 
a manner; Glr, m^dd-pa may therefore in 
English be sometimes translated by: to 
offer, to sacrifice, but it should always be 
borne in mind, that no idea of self-denial 
or yielding up a precious good (as is im- 
plied by the English word), or of slaughter- 
ing, as in the Greek l>v€iy^ can be cod- 
nected with the Tibetan word itself, though 
in practice bloody sacrifices, abhorred as 
they are by pure Buddhism in theory, are 
not quite unheard of, not only animals 
being immolated to certain deities, but 
also men notoriously noxious to religion 
slaughtered as dmar-m^od^ red offering, 
to the dgrd-lha q.v. — 2. C, resp. tO eat, 
drink, take, taste, (in W. expressed by 

II. sbst offering, oblation, libation, mcdd- 
pa Jnil-buy W, "^pul-de* frq., also by^drpa; 
rdl-7no m^od'par Jb^l-ba to bring an 

^c^fiT midd-pa 



fly<S^^ Jag-pa 

offering of music Mil. : mcdd-pa sna-fsdgs 
fdgs'te carryiDg along with them all sorts 
of offerings Glr.; mcdd-pai Kydd-par bba 
the ten kinds of offerings Tar. ; Iha-m^dd 
offering or libation brought to a iAa; ^hru- 
midd an offering consisting of grain; dus- 
mcdd offerings presented at certain times 
Pth.; rgyun-m^dd daily offering; fig. dad- 
pad mcdd-pa Mil; ytan-rdg-tu sffi^ub-pai 
mcodrpa pul as a thanksgiving bring the 
offering of meditation! Mil. — 

Comp. mcdd^Uan house or place of offer- 
ingSy of worship, Pth.\ adopted as an appel- 
lation for the temple of the Jews, as Ihct- 
Kah could not be used Chr. Prot — rnidd- 
Ibri offering-table, Jewish altar, Chr. Bvt 
— mcodrlcdg prob. the same, C. — mcod- 
cd Glr. = miod-rdzds. — mcod-b/ydd words 
of adoration, doxology. — mcodrrten Ssk. 
%lf (religious building) and -m (elevated 
place, elevation, tumulus) l.etymologically; 
receptacle of offerings; 2. usually: a sacred 
pyramidal building, of a form varying in 
different countries and centuries, esp. near 
temples and convents, where often great 
numbers of these structures are to be seen. 
They were originally sepulchres, containing 
the relics of departed saints, and therefore 
called ydun-rt^; afterwards they were 
erected as cenotaphs, i.e. in honour of 
deceased saints buried elsewhere, but in 
more recent times they are looked upon 
as holy symbols of the Buddhist doc- 
trine, V. Kopp. 1, 533. — mcodrstigs offer- 
ing-table, altar. — miod-stdd Sell.: an 
offering with a hymn of praise. — mcod- 
stdn an entertainment, as sort of libation, 
given to the priests DzL; perh. also a 
sacrifidal feast — mSod-sddn 1. Sch. = 
mcodrrten (?), 2. offering-lamp Sch., 3. the 
wick of such a lamp (in this sense it is 
used in a little botanical book). — mcod- 
ynd9 1. prop, place where there is offered, 
place of sacrifice. 2. the object to which 
veneration is shown, image of a god Glr.^ 
sanctuary. 3. the offering priest, the sacri- 
flcator. — ml^ddrporpo a sacrificer 6'«. — 
mZodrJbul the offering of a sacrifice Cs. — 

mcod-sbyin id. (though elsewhere m^od-pa 
sbst, as a gift to deities, is distinct from 
sbyin-pa a gift to men), also: sacrificer; 
m^od ' sbyin - gyi ^dun-Kdn house where 
people assemble in order to perform sa- 
crifices; srdg-gi mcod-sbyin bloody offer- 
ings or sacrifices Tar. — m^od-md offer* 
ing - lamp, lighted in honour of a deity, 
and very common in the houses of Bud- 
dhists; *^od-mi pid-be* W. to light such 
a lamp, (prop, to offer it). — mcod-rdzds^ 
mlSod-M^ midd-pai yo-byad instruments, 
utensils, requisite for festival processions 
in honour of a deity. — mcod-h&ms or 
-b^dms the upper shelves in the holy re- 
positories, containing the little statues of 
Buddha etc. 

g^£z^ty fncdr-po, sometimes Jnj6r-po 1. 
pretty, handsome, neat, elegant, /o 
mcdr-po a handsome man, bud-mM mc&r- 
mo a pretty woman, esp. a smart gaily 
dressed female. — 2. W. also vain, con- 

O^ffT^ ocfo^-^an col. trodden, stamped; 
' ' solid, firm, compact, like the 
Hindustani pakka. 

' vb. n., snod iag-pa a broken vessel 
Dzl.'^ fig. nor-rgydl cog my pride is broken, 
frq.; der-Jby&n- stabs iag the opportunity 
of going there has been cut off MU. ; *lam 
Mg-pa (also hog -pa)* C. a. a beaten, 
practicable road (a road broken through, 
V. Jcig-pd) b. W. an impracticable, broken- 
up road. -^ 2. to be broken off, abated, 
beaten down from the price, hjtr-Zdg-med- 
par there being no room for either asking 
or abating MiLnt. — 

II. also Zdgs-pay pf. bbags, fut. bhag 
(imp. Jcogf) 1. to b^ad, to walk, to move, 
esp. when speaking respectfully or for- 
mally, yab»mis-kyi Idbs-kyis bcdgs-pcd 
sd'ca the place where my ancestors did 
walk Glr.; zabs cdgs-pai pyag pyir ^o 
follow me on my walk Mil. nt. — Jidg- 
tu or J^ags - 9u ^*d -ba to take a walk 
DzL; *g6m-iag-c^ W. to step along so- 
lemnly; idg-peb-pa v. pydg-peb-pa. — 2, 


n.<36f'pi'CI' ^cc^t-pa 


like ^rd-ba in a more general sense: b^idn^ 
pa - Za, cibs - /a to ride in a carriage, on 
horseback Cs. 

CWgrorq- o?«9«-;>« 1 V. Jag -pa, - 2. 

' sometimes for J^g-pa, 

q^(^-^ o%C«)-«« » place for walking, 

qxc^-q- Jdn-ba^ pf. i^a/i«, fut. ^a^t, imp. 

(^on{s\ 1. to hold, to keep, to take 
hold of, skrd'la by the hair Mil. — Jan- 
zuns handle, crook of a stick, Mil, — 2. 
to carry, to wear, to carry about one, e.g. 
amulets etc. — 3. (yid-la) to keep in 
memory, in one's mind. — 4. to have, to 
assume, e.g. the body of a goddess, of a 
Rakshasi Pth. 

qxc^^q- Jdns-pa W, a (closed) handful 
e.g. of dough; ^Mni-btf a clod 
(of clay), a snow-ball etc. formed in the 
haud.^d^-e/^*>C3"^^^«-^-^^-^'<./^j/ . 
QXfrzv Jddrpa I. pf. ?ad, vb. n. to ycdd- 
' j?a, like, (fdd-pa^ to be CUt into 
pieces, to be cut off, to decay, dum-bur 
(to fiedl) to pieces Med.\ to cease, end, 
stop, of diseases (r/r., of life Lex,; to cease 
to flow or to blow, of water or wind; to 
die away, to become extinct, of a family, 
a generation; to be consumed, of provisions 
Pth. of bodily strength Thgy.; to be decided, 
Rydd'kyis bsdd-par Jdd-na you being 
determined to kill me Dzl. — 

II. pf. and fut. bsady imp. hod 1. to 
explain, ^dg-tti Jcad it will be explained 
below Lt.\ yid-la byos Hg dan bsdd-do 
give heed, and I will explain it to you 
Stg.; Jcad nydn-pa to listen to an expla- 
nation Sch. ; Jig (Jos jrtam Jddrpa to teach 
the transitoriness of existence Sch. (?) — 
2. to tell, to relate. 
Qxrr^' Jdb-poy pf. bdabs^ fut btab^ imp. 

cob to conceal, to keep secret, Jab- 
por^med " pat sems a candid mind, open- 
heartedness Stg. (cog. to jab-pa). 
Qxxrzy o^^^'i^ !• vb. (pf. bbam Lea.), 

also adj. and sbst. to accord, to 
agree, agreeing, agreement, sHd-la nU Jam- 
pas as they did not agree about the go- 
vernment Glr.; Jam byid-pa to make 

q(3B^'q' Jdr-ba 

agree, to reconcile MiL, ^"Sam mi ?ai»* 
col. they do not agree; Ua Jam -pa to 
agree upon, to concert, e.g. an escape; 
Ka Jdm-par by concert, unanimously. 
II. 1. to dance. Jam-par byed-pa Sch. 

2. a dancer, Uro Jdmr-pa a dancer with 
a frightful mask; gar-Jdm(s) a daooe; 
Jdm-po a dancer Glr.; Jam~dpdn leader 
of a dance; Jdm-yig book or programme 
of a dance. 

^<$^'o?« Ld.y Sp. cupboard. 

Q -Q.-, Jd-ba 1. pf. bcasy rarely Jas^ fat 
'^ bitty imp. cos, to make, prepare, 
construct, but used only in reference to 
certain things; 1. ffias, vulg. fsan, Jd-ba 
Pth. to prepare a place, house or abode, 
to settle; mal Jd-ba to make a bed or 
couch Ci.; dmag-sgdr Jd-ba to pitch a 
camp ; Krims'^a Jd-ba to establish a court 
of justice Glr. — 2. rgyal - Urimx Jd-ba 
to draw up a law, to give laws, frq. -— 

3. dam Jd-ba to make a vow, to promise, 
assert, protest, frq. ; yi - dam Jd - ba id.; 
also to utter a prayer; ddm-bba v. sub 
dam. — 4. skyU-krith cd-ba ^ skyil-kritn 
byM-pa^ v. skyilrba. — 5. blo-ytdd Jta-ha^ 
c. c. ia, to place confidence in. 

II. to bite, ybig - la yUg Jd-Hn zd-la 
to bite and devour one another DzL; so 
Jd-ba to bite with the teeth (?) Mng.^ or 
to gnash or grind the teeth (?); sin Jd-ba 
to gnaw at a piece of wood £1^. 
nx.xrfffSr o^"*^"^^^> ^^ Jar-bdn a preseot 

-^ given reluctantly Sch. (?) 
a^x^q-o^r-ba, pf. kar, to rise, appear, 
become visible, of the sun etc., 
also of the sun's appearing above a moao- 
tain, from behind a cloud etc., frq.; ts 
shine, gans-ri-la nyi-ma har-ba the shiniag 
of the sun upon a mountain covered with 
snow, a snowy mountain lit up by the 
rays of the sun Glr.; yzugs-bmydn mi 
Jar - ba the not appearing of the image 
which is formed by the reflection of a 
mirror (as something strange and surpris- 
ing) Wdn ; yztigs Jdr-ba byid-pa to cause 
an image to be reflected (in the water); 

Q.SPrq- Jdl'ba 

a^^?r«i' o«^-p« 


dpyidrka iar spring has appeared; frq. of 
thoughts : nydmS'SUy or jfid-la ^Mr-ba 
(thooghts) rising in one's mind ; yid - la 
iar kyan Mil. though I can figure it in 
nay mind; grogssu Jlar (they) appear as 
friends Jl/tf.; rgydn~du Jiar Mil, it turned 
into a blessing. — JSdr-sgo thought, idea, 
eOflceptkNly Jidr^o Jbtjun an idea comes, 
a (happy) thought, a (new) light, bursts 
upon me MU.; ^ar-ga Mil. the rising, the 

(XXprn' o^^^'^ secondary form to ^SJ^ 
ba II., 1. Cs.: to fluctuate men- 
tally; in this sense prob. Zam. ytad-mid 
JidUba to fluctuate, to waver, without aim 
or object. — 2. to be confused, in disorder, 
wmra- Jldl^ also Jial-ytdm mwa Lt.^ as 
a morbid symptom, prob. he raves, he 
talks nonsense. — 3. morally: tstd-IMms 
JSdl'ba S.g. to break one's vow, bsldb- 
pa to act contrary to the doctrine, to 
violate it Tar.; in a more restricted sense: 

— 4. to fornicate, to commit adultery, btidr 
tnM »inad'JSdl byid-pa a whore, harlot 
MiL\ Jicdrpuj -po lecher, fornicator Stg.; 
JidlrparmaffiS''kyi fsig obscene language, 
mentioned as sub-species of kydl-ka; jSdl- 
mo whore. — ^iSaUla-lol-W TT., Hal-M 
Tar. 184, 20 confusedly, pellmell. 
Q^q-oS-Aa, pf. Hy 1. vb. to die, of a 

flame: to go out; ran JHo I will 
seek death DzL; ^^-ba yin he dies, will 
die S.g.; JH or H^a-las sds-par ^yitr-^a 
Dzl. to be saved from imminent danger 
of death (but not: to rise from the dead); 
JH'bar by^d-pai }hi water causing death 
Sambh.; H-bar gyiir-to they perished Pth. 

— 2. sbst, the state of dying, death, ^S- 
ba tsdm - du ^gyttr - ia to die almost (of 
grief etc.) Mil.; das-min JH^ba nyiin-ba 
yin premature death rarely occurs Sambh. ; 
JH-ba nam yon ?a med Mil. when death 
will come one does not know, ( W. ^H-de* 
to die; death; *H son* he has died, *H 
yin* he will die).^ab*?^ ^^^^S ' 

Comp. JH'/la Cs.: tfie very ^ of dying,' 
but I doubt whether such a sbst. exists; 
I only know the adv. JH-kar at his very 

dying, at the point of death MU., when 
being exstinguished Glr. (v. Kar sub Ka 
IV. 4, 5), and JH-kd'^ma 1. adj. dying, dud- 
^0 JH-lca-Tna a dying animal Glr.\ 2. 
sbst. the dying, JH-ka^ ma -ru^di- Mar 
(doubtful); JH-kar and JH-gar may be 
incorrect spellings. — - JH-ltas^ more rarely 
JH{-bai) rtdgs forebodings, foretokens of 
death Med. — J^bddg the lord of death, 
perh. = yMn-rye^ but it seems to be more 
a poetical expression than a mythological 
personage; ^U-bddg bdud id. — JH-ndd 
a disease causing death, a fatal disease 
Tar. — JH-Jya-po Cs.; a person dying (?) 

— JH-^baym^^d^-pa) immortal; cf. H-ba. 

— Note. ^U jp6A)a is prob. only a rather 
incorrect, yet common expression for Ue 
jpd^a to change one's place of existence, 
to transmigrate. 

qJ^(^'^' o%(«)-P« to bind ScA., prob. 
' an incorr. spelhng iorjiyig^a. 

qlC'cr, qJfc^ci' o^«-*«, J^^-pa I. 

vb., pf. bHhs^ rut. bciriy 
imp. o^^(*)^ ^« *^'w-c^*, to bind (in ge- 
neral); to fetter (a prisoner) Dzl.\ to bind 
or tie up, to cord, a bundle or package; 
to tie round, to put on, a girdle Glr.; to 
bind up, to dress, wounds; fig. to render 
harmless, to neutralize, paralyze, esp. by 
witchcraft, to exorcise, frq.; bUns ^dUba 
to untie, to loosen, to take off the dress- 
ings Lt. — 

II. sbst. any binding-material 1. ribbon, 
mguWSins necklace, neckcloth, neckerchief. 

— 2. fetter, shackle, also fig. for magic 
curse, anathema. — 3. string, tie. — 4. 
cramp, spasm C. 

Q^r-q- Jcih'bu a spurious, glass jewel 
" ^ \8chf. Tar. 142, 9); bsam-yas- 
JHn-iu p. n. Ma. 

^ ^ imp. M>8 resp. to ascend, to 
mount, a horse or carriage, rtd-la^ or more 
correctly ifibs'la, to ride, to proceed on 

qJ^^^ jHms'pa to be full, to get full 



Q^q- Jit^ba 


0^^ Ml^ 

Q^x^ST o^Hr-ba^ evidently a present-form 
of the pf . cir-ba, to press, to squeeze. 
n x'fl- ^cii'ba I. ace. to grammatical ana- 
^ logy 1. vb. n. to jrdM-pa, to be 
twisted, distorted, pf. ^his. — 2. sbst. cur- 
vature, crooi(edness , distortion. — 3. adj., 
more frq. ^^us-pa crool(ed, wry, Ua-Jcus Wdn. 
the mouth being wry, distorted Lt; also 
obstinately perverse; fig. yig-Q&us Med, frq., 
prob. = Uam-ldg, 

II. pf. bbuSy fut. bbUy imp. cms, W. *^- 
^e^y 1. to lade or scoop (water), cu-mig-la 
^u to draw water from a well DzL; ?m- 
fdm water- conduit Sch. — 2. to irrigate, 
to water, Hn a field Cs. (?) 

in. ndn-gyu Ju-ba-la Tar. 127, 6, 
when he was pressed hard, was urged with 
importonity; (this signification, however, 
seems to rest only on this passage). 
q^M-q* o^ -pa to be mistai(en Pth.^ v. 

(XXJgrsy oCiin-pay evidently vb. n. to ^un- 
^ pa^ hence 1. to be tamed^ subdued, 
made to yield, stdbs-kyis "by force, Ids-kyis 
by hard work. — 2. to confess Cs. — 3. 
to wrap or twist ScL — 4. to fix Sch. — 
5. to fix one's self Sch.; Jcdl-^a/r Jhin en- 
tangled in vicious indulgences Sch. 

O.SSi(^'^^ o^^(«)-f a 1- to wish, to long 
^^ ^ for Lea:. - 2. to shrink Cs, 

Q(5'n' o^^'^^y pf- ^^^} o^^ (Sch.), fut 

bce^ imp. ces, 1. to assure, to pro- 
mise, Mas JSe-ba Lex., resp. idl-gyis 
Jce - ba id. — 2. resp. for smrd - io, like 
ysiin-ba (?) 

q^q- o%-P«. 9Xso ^cdg{s)-pa, pf. bhags, 
' fut. bhag^ imp. hog, W. ^sdg-be*, 

1. to cleave, to split, hm wood; sdg-lesj^g- 
pa to saw Sch.; ^ceg-byed (a thing) that 
cleaves, a batchet Cs. — 2. to confess, to 
acknowledge; v. also bkdg-pa and hdg-pa. 
QXJTZV ^idrpo, an incorr. form of cdd-pa 

^ or mcid-pa. 
Q^jT^-q- Q^^ms-pa, pf. bbemsy fut. bcem^ 

to chew Jfi?d. 
q,2^fl' o^^l'^^ ^'«- 1- to believe, give cre- 
^ dit to; blo'J^lrba (?) col. id. — 

2. Lea^. = z^-^pa to wish (?). 

P^SS^ 0% wall Sch. 

= Jldn-ba. 
Q^g^^-q- Q^dms-pa 1. = Jidm-pa Glr. and 
Leorj?. — 2. vb. n. to Jdms-pa 
4 W., *da ?(ww 80»* now it is done. 

^ot^'H oC&i*'po = m^or-po. 

q2xw ^Idr-ba I. vb. n., pf. «or, 1. to 
escape, slip, steal away; to drop 
from, stdn-mo hdr-ggis as the meal escaped 
him, as he was deprived of the meal DzL; 
rtso/'Krdg Jo&r-ba hemorrhage, bloody flux 
Med.; bkrag-JSor without splendour, lustre- 
less; nor Jcor the money is gone, spent, 
lost Tfigy.; sddm-pa Jcor the duty is vio- 
lated Glr.; mi'la^ iSu4a Ji&r-ba to be con- 
sumed by fire, carried off by water; *Zan 
mi fun d^-ne Ua mi ^or* W. I will not 
drink any beer, then the mouth cannot, 
run away, i. e. then no indiscreet words 
will escape my mouth; to flow out, to run, 
of a leaking vessel, to run over, of a fall 
one. — 2. to come out, to break out, frq. 
of fire ; Jtriig-pa lor a quarrel, a war broke 
out, also of water breaking through an 
embankment etc. -— 3. to go over, to pass, 
from one person or thing to another, r^/yoZ- 
sa Bddrnas Me-nydg-la sor the supreme 
power passed from Tibet to Tanggiit Glr.; 
yzdn-gyi dbdn-du sor then 1 shall get into 
the power of another Mil.; rkun-mct-la sor 
it became the prey of a thief. — 4. W. 
to run away, flee, escape, elope, inst. otjbrds- 
pa, *hdr-te ^a-dug* he retires, falls badt. 
n. vb. a., pf. (b)hor, fut. yhor (?) 1. 
to pursue, chase, hunt after, ri-bon rggas 
hares by means of nets; nya Jior-ba to 
fish DzL; Cs. also to strain (?); JSor-sgeg 
a seducer; a swaggerer Sch. (cf. sgSg-pa). 
— 2. to light, kindle, set on fire(?) 
q^gq-q- Jcol-pa 1. disorderly, dissolute, im- 
moral. — 2. disorderly action or 
conduct, dissoluteness, ^cdl-pa sna-tsdgs 
spydd'pa committing several acts of im- 
morality Wdn. — IcrO'bO'^dl-pa n. of a 
demon. (Cf. J6l-ba H). 

O.W^^ MUa 



^^•^ j6U)a I. pf. bhol,M. yM(^) 1. 
to entrust a person with a thing, 
to commit a thing to another's charge; to 
make, appoint, di-la rgyal-po Jcdl-lo they 
made him king Pth.; btsun-mo-la i^td-rdzi 
bbdl - lo they made the queen tend the 
horses Glr,\ fab- )y6g ^^61 zig he may 
be employed as a Idtchenboy, scullion 
Pih,'^ dban-rndd-du JSdl^ba to make one 
powerless, to compel by authority Glr,; 
bHl'bai ynyer Lex. manager; Jcdl-bai 
no her, intercessor; *pi-Ai'dh'la ram-^digs 
bcdUnas glu blahs she sang with accom- 
paniment of the guitar (Ut. committing 
the accompaniment to the guitar) Glr.\ 
*kyab ^dlrla* (for Jol-du) ""yon-he* W. to 
place one's self under another man's pro- 
tection. — 2. to commit, commend, recom- 
mend, Jm J^dl'ba to commission one with 
an affair or transaction; resp. prin('la8) 
J^dl'ba^ though jpWw(- /as) seems to be 
sometimes a mere pleonasm: ban -so yul 
del Iha-sruH-mams-la prin-bhdl mdzdd-do 
(the king) recommended the sepulchre to 
the tutelar gods of the country Glr.; *?dZ- 
te b&r-h^ W. to deposit a thing for tem- 
porary keeping. 

II. = Jdl-ba 1. Cs. to change, to turn 
aside (?) — 2. to be thrown together con- 
fusedly, e.g. of the loose leaves of a (Ti- 
betan) book; J^ol-bar byid-pa to put in 
disorder, to confuse, to confound il/a.; 
dge-sdig Jc6l-bar ^o virtue and vice 
are confounded Ma,\ ^i le-ka ^61 du^ 
W. this affair goes wrong, turns out badly; 

in a special sense: to rave, to be delirious 

C; * col 'lab gydb-pa* C, id.; ^nyid-^ol 
Idb-pa, gyag-pa* C, to talk confusedly 
whilst being heavy with sleep ; *cdl'tla* C, 
senseless talk; ^cdl-Uan-ni iii-gu^ col-tug* 
W. being of a mixed race; illegitimate or 
bastard child, bastard. — 3. morally: to 
break a vow; *arne Zol son* he has broken 
his vow on account of a woman, i.e. by 
having married. 

Qxpi'3;r Q^dl^ma Cs,: 1. a thing committed 
to another's care. — 2. a sly, crafty 
woman, Sch. a dissolute woman. 
Q^rt;rq- ^cds-pa I. pf. bcos or o?08, fut bto, 
imp. cos, supine bbds-su DzL 5? 
4, W. ^id-be*^ pf. and imp. *cos*^ to make, 
make ready, prepare, to construct, build, a 
bow, a road etc. Glr.;\i6s-sam am I to 
build? Glr.; dris-ma tag-par Jfds-pa to 
make ropes out of drdsnia (a kind of grass) 
prop, to work dr^sma into ropes, Glr.; 
:zab Q^6s-pa to adjust one's ornaments 
Sch. ; his ^cds-pa to dl^ss, to trim one's self 
up Sch.; \sdr-du Jlds-pa to renew, reno- 
vate, repair Sch.\ UUn-bapyir JSds-pa Tar. 
95, 20 perh. to retouch, amend, correct, 
improve. — fstd-Jcos hypocrisy, a mere 
outward performance of religious rites and 
observances Mil.y fsul-Jcos ma by as spydd- 
pa to live without hypocrisy Mil.; fsM-^cos- 
mUan hypocrite. — fsM-JSos-pa or bbds- 
pa ace. to Cs. also an established rule or 

II. Sch.: to gnaw off (secondary form 
to JSd-ba). 

g- ja 1. the letter ^, media, palatal, like 
the Italian gi in Giovanni, g in giro; 
in C as initial deep-sounding and aspirat- 
ed, jh. — 2. numerical figure: 7. — 3. 
tea, resp. ysol-ja. For the trade in Cen- 
tral Asia it is pressed into brick-shaped 
lumps, a portion of which, when to be 

used, is pulverized and boiled, having been 
well compounded with butter and salt or 
soda (bul) by means of a kind of chum 
of bamboo {gv/r-gur)^ after which it is 
drunk as hot as possible. Of late years 
tea grown on the southern slopes of the 
Himalaya Mountains finds its way into 



Central Asia. The tea called Jbru-fdn is 
considered the best, and of other teas Cs, 
mentions rts^-^a^ zi-linspu-^a hairy (?) tea 
from Siling, (a province in the neighbour- 
hood of the Kokonor); Sckr.: yndm-ja^ 

n; bzan-^a, or ko-tse is, ace. to Cs,, good 
ordinary tea, Jfwn - Jug, or (htn- hm are 
sorts of inferior quality. The shepherds 
in W, make use of a surrogate^ viz. the 
Potentilla Inglisii (span -jo) ^ growing on 
the mountains at a height of 15 000 feet; 
poor people in Sik. use the leaves of the 
maple (yya-U)- 

Other comp. ja-bkruff (pronounced 
^Aa6-%*), prob. for ja-d*ri^, twirling-«tick 
Ts. — ja^m^Ud, libation of tea. — jci\fdg, 
or btdg grinding-stone, in India and Tibet 
used for kitchen purposes inst. of our little 
mortars. — ja-ddm Sch. tea-pot (?) — 7a- 
blug W. a little pitcher -shaped brass ves- 
sel. — ja-Jnn (pronounced *)ham'btn*) C. 
tea-ketUe, tea-pot — jd-ma the man that 
prepares the tea in a monastery, tea-COOk; 
)ai dpon head-tea-cook. — ja-WZ 1. W. 
grinding-stone; 2. Lea. skull. —jo-^n-^an 
^a cup of tea, or: as much as a cup of 
tea' Sch. — )ar-seg tea-dust Sch. 

R'^' jo-Add Lea. yellowish red. 

Sppr )<V robbing, robbery, jag rgydg-pa to 
' rob, to be a robber; rku^ag-gyu-zol 
byid-pa Glr.; ^dg-pa frq. robber (not rob- 
bery Sch.); jag-dpdn captain of a gang of 
robbers Mil. 

^ ji 1. num. fig.: 37. — 2. the correlative 
form of the pron. ^', what For the con- 
struction of a sentence containing H or ji, 
V. gan U. The explanation there given 
shows, that in correct language Jt is always 
followed by a participle: ji ydd-ya depul 
zig offer what you have, make a libation 
of what you have. Owing, however, to 
the slight difference in the pronunciation 
of H and ji, the former is frq. written in 
the place of the latter; ji, of course, is 
used in conjunction with the same words 
as ^*; a few more instances may follow 


here: jt-skad whatever, relative to words 
spoken: nas ji-skad smras kyan whatever 
I may say Glr. — )p-snySd 1. as much as, 
as great as; 2. C. very much, every thing 
possible. — ji'lta-ba 1. adj. of what kind, 
of what nature, . . .ji-lta^ biin-du . 
yan de-bUn-no as it is with. .. so it is 
with . . . Stg. 2. sbst. quality, nature, con- 
dition Cs. — ji-Ua-bu such as, like as, 
Lat. qualis. -^ ji-Uar adv. as, in what 
manner; ^d-mas ji-ltar z^^pa bUn-^ ac- 
cording to what the mother has said Glr. 
— ji'Ste = ci-^te. — )i nus-h/is to the ut- 
most, to the best of one's ability DzL — 
ji ma ji'biin-^ (?) according to custom or 
common usage Sch. — ji^mi-smfdm^pai 
bzdd-pa a patience prepared for every event 
Sch. (?) — ji'tsam ^ji-snyM; lo Ina Idn- 
pa ji'tsam-^a de-bbin-no Uiey are (as tall) 
as (children) five years old Stg. ; ji tsam 
by as kyan whatever they had done Tar.; 
ji-tsam-na or nas as soon as, when. — 
ji'bUn as, like, hoyr^ ji-biin Jko mi run 
(he) can in no wise, by no means, con- 
tinue to live Lt; ji-bhn-^ ysuns ellipti- 
cally: he said how (it was), he answered 
according to the state of the case (Schf.) 
Tar. 89, 9. — )i^Hd as long as. 

W)u num. fig.: 67. 

g.^-. ju-% denotes a way of drawing 
>o ' lots by threads of different colours, 
whence a class of Bonpos is called pya^ 
ban jU'fig-dan Glr. 

^'^ ju-po Li^., ^ju-hum* W., a globular 
V9 stone used for grinding spices, = 

B^'jus C. sta*ategy. 

^^^ jus-ma a sort of silk stuff Cs. 

g?;|-a|trKf i««-%« 1- ^^^•- 'possessed of 
X9 ' good manners, of propriety of 
conduct, decent, agreeable; jus-idS sincere 
(?) — 2. Cs. clever, skilled, able, experien- 
ced. *^in-gi fe* in agriculture, *ma^ in 
military matters C. 

S jg 1. num. fig.: 97. — 2. a particle, 
used for expressing the comparative de- 



siEcrj- ^li^ 

gree of an adj. or adv., and esp. a gradual 
growing or increase, often with tennin. or 
la: je man ^o (they) go on increasing 
or multiplying in nomber Mil, ; je ysdUdu 
son it has become more and more clear 
or evident Thgr, ; gen. repeated ' je nye)e 
nye sdn-^te going nearer and nearer Mil,\ 
)e can )e ^n-la son^ also )e ^n je nyun 
Mil. less and less; sometimes also for the 
saperlative degree, Cs. ; je ddn-po the very 
first, also Lea, — 3. j^-z^f a little while, 
= r^-Hg Lea. — 4. Bhar. 14, Schf.: 'an 
adhortative particle, often connected with 
a vocative'; Sch. has: je Hyod ^now you, 
you first!' — 5. «= dJbyans Lex. 
^jo 1. num. fig.: 127. — 2. v. the fol- 
lowing word. 
^-ifjd^ (1IT%) 1. C*. the elder brother, 
also ^o-jd* and *'d-jo* (the latter 
also in W.\^ys. — 2. lord, master, 
esp. nobleman, grandee, W. *)o*, yar-lunjd- 
bo Olr. the lord of the manor of Yarlung; 
*ti - nan jo* W, the nobleman of Tinan ; 
)o-jo min-po my noble brothers (says a 
princess) Glr.; in C. used as honorary 
title for noblemen and priests, in W. also 
for noble Mussulmans; in ancient times 
for certain divine persons, and idols, par- 
ticularly for two, famous in history: jJ-6o 
nd-sh/od^dd-TJe J and tsan-ddn-gyi jd-bo^ 
also jd-bo sd-kytty jd-bo rin-po-ii v. Glr. 
^^ jd-mo 1. mistress, the female head 
of a household, a woman that gov- 
erns as mistress of her servants Dzl. — 
2. lady, e^. a cloistress, nun Mil,; in W. 
frq. - 3. goddess (cf. sub jo-bo 2), jo-mo 
syrol^ma the goddess Dolma Glr. — 4. p. 
n. jo-mo^lha-ri one of the highest moun- 
tain summits in West-Bhotan, usually 
called 'Chumulhari' ; jo-mo-Ka-nag another 
summit in southern Tibet. 
SIEQJ'Q' mjdUba, imp. rrijolj 1. to meet c. 
dan^— jprad'pa^ without any 
respect to rank. Mil. often. More frq. 
2. resp.: to obtain access to an honour- 
ed person; ial - dms - sw Tnjdl - bar yod 
he (the incarnated Buddha) may perso- 
naUy be seen and spoken to Glr.; to wait 

on, to pay one's respects to a person, yob 
dan mjal jHaUh I will pay a visit to my 
father Dzl. ; pyis myur - du nydl-du yon I 
shall take the liberty of soon coming back 
Mil. ; rgydl-bai ska dan fa-mal injal to thee, 
Buddha, my own humble self approaches 
(says a prince to his father who appears 
to be an incarnated Buddha) Glr.\ rrydU 
bar iiSt'ba to ask for an audience Gh\ ; 
mjdl'du mi btub (they) cannot get in, 
cannot obtain admittance Pth. ; *jal - Mg 
dd-t^ (or *}^ag-jdl* Cs.) W. to salute, to 
exchange compliments on meeting; nyal- 
prdd'byidrpa = ^prad-pa'^ used also of a 
king and his ministers: mjal-prdd dan dgd- 
bai ytam mdn-po mdzad (they) exchanged 
many compliments and expressions of joy 
Pth. ; to visit or pay one's respects to holy 
places, as pilgrims do, to go on a pilgrimage, 
also ial mjdl'ba Mil; ynas rr^dl-ba id., -^ 
ynas-mjdl'pa partic, a pilgrim/ palmer; 
Jti 7r0dl kig do make your pilgrimage to 
this place. — 3. to understand, comprehend, 
Z(mi. : ^gd-bai mjdl-ba ^' ; don mjdl-ba to 
understand the sense Mil., yet cf. Jdl-ba 3. 
— 4. often erron. for jdl-ba. 

Comp. mjdUUa audience, access, admit- 
tance, mjdl'Ua ytdn-ba^ or yndn-ba to give 
audience, ^ff^gs-pa to refuse it Mil, — ry^al- 
ddr ^ Ka-btdgs, — rr^dlsna-pa an USher, 
master of ceremonies Cs. — mjal-pydg 
salutation. — v^al-mdm a visit paid by 
many together, a grand reception Cs. 
»£h'n' ^«'^-p« I. = o^i^-fo.* — 2. risfwa- 

mjin meadow Bhar. 82, Schf, 
gmqfT ^«^ 'what is behind, hind part, e.g. of 
N9 I the body, resp. skur^^^y posteriors, 
back-side, tail, often also mjiig-ma^ rfijug 
skdr-ba col. to turn one's back (on another) ; 
rryikg'Tna sgril-ba to wag the tail; fig.: 
the further progress and final issue of an 
affair, the consequences = rjes, opp. to dnos- 
yii the thing itself, and to sridn-^o the 
preparations Thgy,; the lower end or ex- 
tremity, e.g. of a bench, a stick, a river 
(« mouth), of a procession, train etc. ; with 
regard to time: the end, zld-ba brgydd-pai 
mjitg-lay at the end of the eighth month ; 


Sli" n0e 

(^sp: Ja 

in general mjug-la, rr^iig-tu adv. and postp., 
^mfar^ at the end of, at last, behind, 
after, with the genit. inf., or the verbal 
root, gen. opp. to mgo, — mjug-sgro (PT. 
*)ug^o*) lower or inferior part, underpart, 
buttocks (cf. yzuff); mjug-to id. — mjn^- 
btdg (for i%), and mjug-hUb W, wagtail. 
— mgo-Tryiig above and below DzL 
^^ mje^ resp. ysdn-mjej fw^, ||Hi the penis ; 

Zam, avoids the term by making use 
of circumlocutions, others employ it, esp. 
Med, ; also in vulgar use; mje Idn-ba erection 
of the penis; mje sbubs-su nvh the penis 
recedes; mfe-mgo glans penis. — mje-rhg 
the penis and testicles. — Tr^e-huhs the 
membraneous covering or sheath of the 
^gt-y mj^d'pa, Zam. ^ suffering, en- 

' during, bearing patiently; Cs,: ob- 
noxious; mi-mjed prop.: free; gen. the 
world, the universe, ace. to Buddhistic ideas; 
except in the last mentioned sense the 
word seems to be little used. 

QgOTq* J^'P^y pf->i^«j Cs.; Sch.: to 
' establish, settle, fix, found; hence 
prob. bde^^dgs and Uris-^dgs^ ^ags-HHs 
(Lea^. and elsewh., but not frq.) time of 
prosperity, of peace, of rest, a time without 
disturbances, war, epidemics etc. (^m by 
itself is not known). 

QgOT'gf' Jdg-po 1. Lea. = klu^ or n. of a 
' Lu, also ojdg-po. — 2. vulgo = 

n gqr^- Jdg-ma 1 . Sch. : a sort of coarse 
' and \hiek grass of inferior quality; 
so Pth. of a hut: ^dg-mas pub-pa covered 
with such grass. — 2. Lea. ^V^ a fragrant 
grass, Andropogon muricatus. — 3. Olr.i 
a blade (of grass), stalk (of corn), Jdg- 
ma m st^-na on every blade, ku-hai Jdg- 
ma pan big a bundle of blades of Eusha 
grass; Jag-rgddSch. horse-tail, pewter- 
grass, Equisetam. — 4. Sik. squirrel, perh. 
= byorTna-byi Sch. (?). 

Q^S^rpr jag^y V. sub Jdg-pa. 

agTOT^ J^*"P^ C to give, to make a 
' present Georgi Alph. Tib. 

QRC^' Jdn-ba to devour, swallow, Sck 

< ' ' sort, husband, wife Cs. 
Q^E<3r^ ^dn-sa, v. cdn-^a. 

QEi^'CI' J^^'P^y P^' P'"^'^' bhabs, fut bhtb, 
^ to sneak, slink, creep privily; to 

lie in wait, in ambush, ts^-la jdb-pa to 
attempt a person's life Pth.; *pdg-n$ job- 
te sad tdh'he* W. to assassinate; Ikog Jab 
by^d-pa v. Ikog] ^db-bus ma byin-par len- 
pa Thgy. to steal clandestinely. Cog. to 

QkE^S' jdb-tse nippers, tweezers. 
Q^E^'^9f|(3r ^am-mgdn = ^am-^pdl. 

Jdm* C. col. (opp. to rtxub-fOj 
rtsin-ge) soft, smooth, tender, mild, e.g. of 
cloth, hair, a meadow, a plain without 
stones or rocks, of fruit, the air, the cha- 
racter of a person, a person's way of 
speaking (nag C, ^pi-rcf W., ^p^-ra jam- 
po daii* with mild expressions, fair words, 
in a friendly manner), of a law; of bever- 
ages: weak W.; of a (hay-)rake: dose W.; 
^jdm-po ndb^e* W. to mow off close ; Jaf^ 
Jykd blo\ving or playing (the flute) softly, 
piano; ^am-rtsi Med., seems to be a kind 
of medicine; ^a7W-8a^* TT., C, plain, without 

aeS^'^qOI' Ja^dpdl (Jl^j^) Jam^ik 
(•TRT), Jam{'pai)-dbydh$ 
(o^t^) one of the two great Bodhisattvas 
of the northern Buddhists, the Apollo of 
the Tibetans, the god of wisdom, demiurge, 
and more particularly the tutelar god and 
civilizer of Nepal (v. Kopp. 11, 21), in- 
carnated in Thonmi Sambhotay and after- 
wards in king Kri^ron-sde^tsdn and others. 
Cf. spyan-ras-yzigs. 

Q^eS^'Sr, i'a.E^T oi«wi-^,77^Jaw,re9p. 
for fug-pay SOUp. 

0,5^'^ Jam-mo post-stage Sch. 

QSP: qgQ-^ >.>-^^ rainbow frq.. 
' ' oja-jod light, splendour 

-^i >/ 

*^ «• 

C^EQ^-q- Ja^ba 




of the rainbow Jtt.; Jjci-fson yal-ba the 
vanishmg of the rainbow frq. ; ja-lujs v. his, 
QSp:^ J^^ ^' *^so Ja-mo Sch. lame, 

gen. ia-ba; Ja-bar byed-pa to 
make lame, to lame S.g, — 2. to bespeak, 
to concert, to confederate Sch. 
OBOr^ J«-««j oi«-*^i wlict, diploma, a 

permit Ci., who declares this word 
to be Chinese. 
nejTfl' ojcer-ba Lex. w.e., ace. to Cs. = 

Jyyar-ba to Stick together, to cohere. 
QCQi-n' jol'ba^ pf. bbal^ fat. yzaly imp. 

Jo/, W. ""bal-be^j 1. to weigh, Jal- 
byed sran (a pair of) scales for weighing 
Lex.y srdn-la yhal-ba Glr. — 2 to measure, 
rin - fun - tsdd jdl-ba C. to measure the 
length. — 3. to appraise, to tax; to weigh 
in one's mind, to ponder; more fully ex- 
pressed by blos'^dlr-ba to understand ScA., 
although native grammarians refer this 
signification with less probability to mjal- 
ba. — 4. to pay, pay back, repay, bu-lan 
a debt, akyin-pa a loan, Ural a tax; to 
retaliate, return, repay, esp. with Ian: pan- 
Idn ynodrpas or Ugs-pai Ian ny^s-pas to 
return evil for good. The following is a 
Buddhist principle of law, butprob. existing 
only in theory: dkon-m^.dg-gi rdzds4a AH 
JaZ, dge-jdiin-gyi rdzds-la brgyad-bu Jal^ 
pdl-pai rdzds'la bdun^^yur no brgyad ^Jal 
divine or sacred objects are to be repaid 
or made good ten thousandfold, things or 
property of the clergy eightyfold , of 
ordinary men sevenfold, and besides the 
object itself, hence eightfold 6'.; in Glr. 
there is the following passage: brkus-pa 
la brgyad Jal nos dan dgu. — 5. often 
erron. for ir^dl-ba\ thus prob. also in: 
jal JnUr-ba to -bring a present ScL (more 
correctly: a present of salutation). — ^jdl- 
Ua the act, or business of measuring (J. 
Q^fl* oi*'"*<* 1- ^'«-? also Iji-ba^ a flea. — 
2. Lex. and Cs.: = Jim -pa. — 3. 
Cs. = Jam- pa SOft, smooth. — 4. Sch.: 
disgusting, nasty, e.g. of a fishy smell, 
q^n-xy ojig-rUn (receptacle of all that is 
'" ' perishable) 1. the external world: 
a. ace. to the common (popular) notion: 

the whole earth, the universe, Jig-rt^n- 
na dkdn-pa^ what is rare, the only thing 
of its kind in the world Dzl.; Jig-rUn- 
gyi Iha the god of the world, a deity of 
the Bonpos Mil.; Jig-rOn-la^ ^dds-pa one 
that has escaped from this world, one 
emancipated, blessed Cs. — b. the external 
world ace. to Brahmanic and Buddhist 
theories, as set forth: Kopp. I, 231; Jig- 
rtM-gyi Hams id. Glr.; Jig-rthi ^dga-pa 
origin, beginning, ynds-pa duration, Jig- 
pa destruction, bidg-pa arrangement of 
the world, cosmography (title of a volume 
oi Stg.) ojig-rt^ ysum the three worlds, 
earth, heaven, and hades; Jig^rt^ (pum- 
gyi) mg&n-po (Trilokrulth Hind.) lord or 
patron of the three worlds, which is also 
the title of the third of the three highest 
Lamas, viz. of the Dharma Raja, residing 
in Bhotan, v. Ounningh. LadakSll; Bud- 
dha Sakya-fub-pa seems to have the same 
title, Pth. — c. fig. : bdi-ba-han-gyi Jig-rt^^ 
or bde-^*o mfo-ris-kyi Jig-rthi the world 
of the blessed, like our 'heaven', but of 
rare occurrence. — 2. world, in a spiritual 
sense, Jig-rUngyi byd-ba worldly things 
or affairs; Jig^rt^-la dgds-pa (or pdn- 
pat) bsldb-bya useful maxims of life, moral 
niles Gb\; Jig-rUn-gyi Hos brgyad^ v. cos; 
Jig-'rten byid-pa short expression for Jig- 
rthi-gyi las by^d-pa Mil. — 3. symb. num. : 
three. — Jig-rt^-pa i. an inhabitant of 
the world, or the inhabitants of the world, 
the world as the totality of men, and more 
particularly of the worldly-minded; Jig- 
rUrirpa ni ma-dul-ba yin^as as the world 
is unconverted, in which sense also Jig- 
r^ (by itself) seems to be used. 2. a layman. 
q|fcn-q- J^g'P(^ I- vb. 1. act. pf. bkig, fut. 
' Z^^, imp. (6)%, W. *9ig-be, hig 
tdh'he*, to destroy, buildings etc., frq.: to 
cut to pieces, to divide, e.g. a killed animal 
W. ; to ruin, to annihilate, existing institutions 
or things, also other people; to abolish, 
annul, a law W.: to dissolve, an enchant- 
ment; to lay aside an assumed appearance 
or manner (= to unmask one's self) Mil.\ 
to break, violate, one's duty, a vow, Dzl.\ 






rma - ^jig Med. was explained : healing 
wounds, ojig-par byed-pa = ojiff^pa^ frq. 
— 2. vb. p. pf. biig, and more frq. zig^ 
W, ^iig-cey Hg M-be^^ to be ruined, undone, 
e.g. by mischief-making people Dzl,; to fall 
to pieces, to decay, to rot, of the human 
body etc.; to be lost, to perish, ^ig-far 
lin-iu sla (earthly goods) may be easily 
lost again Thgy.; to vanish, disappear. Jig 
(or zig^'par ^^gyur-ba id.; sem lig son W, 
he was quite dejected or cast down; in^ 
ysds byedrpa B,, C, *ztg^6 (or -sob) td-be 
or tdn-id* W. to 'restore from destruction', 
to rebuild c. dat. frq., also c. genit. Pth.; 
prob. also c. accus. — 3. to SUck, draw 
out moisture ScLy v. jib-pa. 

n. sbst decay, destruction, ruin, entire 
ovei throw, sky^-ba dan Jig-pa kim-la srid- 
na as it is the lot of all men to rise and 
to decay DzL; Uis-kyi mfar Jig-pai has 
symptoms of the final decay of the body 
Wdn.; *Mn'la Koi zig-pa yod^ beer proves 
his ruin, beer is his destruction W.; Jig^ 
p§ ^O'den* C,y Jig-pa^can Cs, frail, perish- 

III. adj., but only in conjunction with 
a negative: mi- Jig -pa imperishable; mi- 
Jig rtdg-pa as explanation of a synonym Lea;, 

qlfefprq* 0)^9^-?^ I- ^*>- (^) resp. tsdbs- 
' pay to be afraid of a thing, is 

gen. connected with the instr. (lit. 'by'), in 
later literature and col. with la^ srin-pos 
JigS'Hn from fear of the Rakshasa DzL\ 
d^-la na mi Jigs I am not afraid of that 
Mil; in W. frq. in conjunction with *rag*: 
*ll6-la Jig rag^ I am afraid of him; also 
relative to the future, like ddgs-pa: yi-ge 
mans -pas Jigs - nas = man - gi dogs-noA^ 
fearing lest there should be too much 
writing, i.e. from want of room Pth,; 
Jigs-^su-run-ba dreadful, frightful, frq.; 
*Jig't€ ddr-ri spi-ra zer-c^ W. to speak 
trembling and shaking with fear; ^mdn- 
po )ig son* W, I am very much afraid; 
Jigs-par .jgyur-ba to be frightened, Jigs- 
par by id-pa to put in fear, to frighten. 

II. sbst. (ift^) fear, dread, srin-poi 
Jigs-pas from fear of the Rakshasa DzL 

WQ'i 14 (unless srin^pos ought to be read, 
as above) ; Jigs-pa brgyad the eight fears 
of life (so among the rest: rgydlr-poi Jigs- 
pa the standing in fear of the king, who 
in the East is always supposed to be an 
arbitrary despot); mi- Jigs-pa 1. fearless- 
ness, intrepidity; mp- Jigs-pa sbyin^^ to 
impart intrepidity; mi-Jigs-pai Idg-pa a 
fearless hand, heroic vigour. 2. pardon, 
quarter, safety Cs. — Jigs (-pa)- dan Cs. 
1. fearful, timorous. 2. dreadful, frightful 
(I never found it used in this sense). 

in. adj. 1. (fearing) fearful, timorous, 
Jigs-pai ^6-ba-mams timorous beings 
Pth. — 2. (feared) dreadful, frightful, Jigs- 
pai mfsdn-^a dreadful weapons; Uyodrpas 
Ihag-par Jigs -pa yod there is something 
even more formidable than you are Dzl. 

Comp. bdr-de-la Jigs skydb-mai sm4nr 
lam a prayer efficacious in the Bardo- 
horrors Thgr. — Jigs-skrdg fear; also a 
terrible object, Jigs-sh'dg-tu son he has 
been changed into a fright, a monster Mil.\ 
*o)V'^ tQm-pa* C. (lit btdn-pa) to 
frighten, deter; intimidate, threaten; Jigs- 
skrdg-pa to fear, to be afraid DzL — Jigs- 
mMan col. timid, timorous. — Jigs -ban v. 
Jigs -pa- ban above. — Jigs-cum-pa v. 
dum-pa. — J^s(-pa)-po one afraid Cs. (?) 

— J^s-byid one that is terrifying Schy 
appellation of Yamantaka, who is invoked, 
e.g. in drawing lots. — Jigs-brdly Jigs- 
mid ieSjAess^ intrepid, bold; also noun pers. 

— *Jigs-ri^ W. fear, terror, *Jig-ri fs&r- 
be* to be afraid, ^ig-ri hid-be* to frighten, 
to menace, to intimidate. — Jigs-sa Mil.y 
Jigs-sa ci it is a very dangerous quarter 
or region, in that place there is much 
occasion for being afraid. 

Q&t' Jin 1. ace. to 6«. = wSn, Afon, e.g. 
rgyd-mtsoi; Sch.: mtso-Jiin the 
whole circumference of a lake; prob. more 
corr.: the middle. Lex.: lus-Jdm Jdg-po 
mfs6-Jin Jug the smooth-bodied Lu alights 
in the middle of the lake. — 2. sirodrJUi 
Lex. I or srod-byin twilight 
Q^t'CT oJ^^-P^y ^so m)in-pay neck, resp. 
ska- Jin; *jin-pa gyur-b^ W. to 

n^l^C^'^ jiK^ypa 


^S^^ ojiig-pa 

turn or move round (as vb. n.), *jin'pa 
gyur-te Ud-ie* W, to look round, or back; 
*]in-pa hag-he^ W, to break one's neck; 
*)m'pa z^m-ie* W. to hug, to embrace; 
^in-kydg a wry neck Cs.\ Jin-kun the 
nape of the neck Glr.; Jin-Udg the back 
part of the neck 68. 

qlqC^yq- J^K^)-?^ (Sch. also Jigs-pa) 
^ ^ ^ pf. fe*« (jiibs\ fat. bzib (/lib), 
to SUCky e.g. of a suckling baby; mhis 
with the lips Lex.; Krag Jibs-^a to suck 
blood Lex.\ to $uck out, in, or up, to im- 
bibe, absorb, also to blister, )ib-mdn W. 

q^&- Jib-ri»i 1. C«. a kind of sirup. 
— 2. Wdn, a medicinal herb. 

Q^STCT o)^'P^ B'7 ^*'> » compound of 
earth and water, mud, clay, loam 
etc. {W. *kd'lag^); Jim-^kan a small cup 
of clay, a crucible Cs. ; Jim-yzugs a figure 
formed of clay ©&•.; rdd-r^ei Jim -pa y. 

Q^q- oi«^*a, pf. hbil, fut. yltU, fo cxpel, 

eject, remove, turn off, pyir ^ilria 

Lex, id., e.g. noxious auimals, vices etc. 

qg'q* jU'ba I. vb. 1. pf. Jtt«, to seize^ 
X) grasp, take hold of, c. dat., dprdU 
bed mdd-la ju-ba grasping the arrow 
sticking in his forehead Glr,; yUg-la ybig ^ 
Ju-ba taking firmly hold of each other 
(in a storm at sea) Glr,; to seize a per- 
son (in taking him prisoner) Pth.; Idg-pa- 
nas to grasp by the hand, to shake hands 
(in greeting) DzL — 2. pf. btus, fut. biu, 
W. *lu^de {oTju-befT to melt, to digest, 
zas Ju-^a to digest the food; ju sld-ba 
digestible, Ju dkd-ba difficult of digestion; 
*ra ju - t^ W. to digest intoxication , to 
sleep the fumes of wine away; Ju-ln/^d 
a sort of bile, the bile as the promoter of 
digestion A(ed. Cf. hH-ba II. 

II. sbst. 1. digestion, Ju-ba slao the 
digestion is in order, is easy Med.; Ju- 
stibs hin the digestive power is weak Med. 
— 2. a flea Sch. = Ji-ba. 

05^ Jug-, sometimes for rryug. 

QgOTfi^WT o)^'^^ ^' entrance, way 
^ ' "^ of access, to a tank or river, 
Ghat (Hind.). 

QEcrrcr o)^'P^> ^' P^- ^^ ™P- ^^> ^• 
^ ' *i%.a^*, vb. n., 1. to go or walk 

in, to enter, Mdn-paiy or <hii ndn-du Jug- 
pa to go into the house, or into the water; 
rgyd-m^sor Jug -pa to put to sea, to set 
sail DzL; Idm-du Jug-pa to set out, to 
start, to prosecute a journey; *mdl-8a-la 
lug -be* IF. to go to bed. In a special 
sense: a. of a demon, entering into a man to 
take possession of him, hence *dS-lug-Xan* 
W. possessed (by a demon); Jugsgo Med. 
the place where the demon entered the 
body. b. dgS-ba-la Jug-pa to walk in the 
path of virtue; ace. to Schr. J^-pa by 
itself, without dg^a-laj implies the same, 
and in conformity with this a Lama gave 
the following explanation of the expression 
Jitg-pai las in Thgy.: works that are a 
consequence of having really entered upon 
the practice of virtue, positive good works, 
opp. to the negative good works of the 
ten virtues. ?d«-ia Jug -pa to turn to 
religion, to be converted ; cos or bstdn-pa 
lig-la Jug-pa to adopt a certain religion, 
a certain doctrine, c. bud-mid-la Jug-pa 
to lie with, sleep with a woman Med.\ 
* bar -la hUg-ie* W. euph. expression for: 
to commit adultery, d. *dun-du liug-te* 
W. to appear, in reference to gods. e. r^^- 
»a Jiig-pa v. fj^-su. — 2. to set or fall 
to, to begin, rig -pa sbgdn-bas rts6m-pa 
kun-la Jug a skilled, an experienced man 
is prepared for anything, knows how to 
set about it, how to manage it Med. ; gen. 
with the inf. : to begin to do, to commence 
doing a thing, rtdg^pa-la, resp. dgdns-pa- 
la Jug -pa to begin to think upon DzLj 
Glr.; stdn-pa-la Jug^ci to begin to show 
DzL; ycig-la ybig imam -par brldg-pa-la 
lugs-pas being in the best way of entirely 
exterminating one another Stg. — 3. pass, 
of Jug-pa U, 3, of letters: to be combined, 
to be preceded, to be followed, zla yig sndn- 
du ba lugs-can (words) having zl preceded 
by 6, i.e. beginning with bzl Zam, — 4. 


^e^^ Ji^-Va 


to take place, to exM, He-cun-Uydd iug$- 
par mhon^as as evidently a difference in 
size is existing (?) DzL V©, 3. 

n. pf. bduff (perh. also ^ugs Lea.% 
fut yhiffy imp. &/gr, W. *J% - ^% vb. a., 
with ndn-^u or termin.: 1. to put into, e.g. 
meat into a pan, a key into the key-hole, 
a culprit into prison; to ififlise, inject, yhig- 
par bya this must be infused Med,\ also 
fig. *nyin-rus biig-l^ W. to inspire with 
courage. In a special sense: a. (U-la bio 
^iig-pa to set one's mind on, to apply 
one's self to Glr, b. mi hig 'Sot-la ojug-pa 
to convert a man, to induce him to adopt a 
certain religion ; Jit^-pa also without an ob- 
ject, to missionate successfully Feer Introd, 
du B. au Cachem. 68. — 2. to malce, render, 
appoint, constitllte, with the accus. and ter- 
rain., or col. with two accus.: mi zig rgyaU 
per Jug-pa to make one king D^Z.; mnon- 
du fjug-pa to make public or manifest, 
to disclose, to show Samb,\ *8in bug-te^ 
W. to clear, clarify; frq. with the supine 
or root of a verb: a. to cause, compel, 
prevail on, zar c)ug-pa to prevail on another 
to eat something DzL\ skrod-du yhig-go 
I shall induce (them) to expel (you) Dd, ; 
bzugs jug rgyu yiu he will induce (the 
god) to take his abode Glr.\ ^oM-m 
Jug -j?a to be the cause of somebody's 
death Mil.; yid-la Jug-tu Jug-pa to cause 
a thing to enter a person's mind, to put 
in mind, to remonstrate; jpel-bar Jug-pa 
(resp. mdzadrpa) «= speUba to increase, as 
vb. a.; *)un dug-ie* W. to cause to exist, 
create, procure; *1iol)ug-h^ W,=^*8kol'h^ 
to cause to boil; dar-du htg Hg cause it 
to spread Glr, b. to conunand, order, bid, 
dmag ^dzin-du bbug he ordered the soldiers 
to take (the man) prisoner (but he escaped) 
DzL ^'^^ 3; byedrdu Jug -pa to bid one 
do a thing, frq.; btmn-mo blon-poB ^ebs- 
8U bbug he gave orders for the queen being 
protected by the minister, c. to let, suffer, 
permit, smon-lam ^debs-su hig allow me to 
say a prayer; rtsig-tu mi Jug I shall not 
give permission to build Glr. d. to give 
an opportunity Thgy. e. in a general sense: 

C^R^'^ Jiir-ba 

daJrdu Jug-pa to do things slowly, to be 
slow Mil. — 3. to put grammatically: sikm^ 
du Jug-pa to put or place before, shcn- 
Jug a prefixed letter, a prefix; fjes-Jug 
final letter, yah'- Jug the last but one; also 
to put, to use a word in a certain signi- 
fication, rgyu-mfyan-la Jug is used with 
reference to cause Gram. — 4. to banMi 
to exHe (prob. erron. for sp^itg-pa), bydn- 
la to northern regions Gbr* — 5. sgo Jug- 
pa V. sgo. — 6. inst. of Jbyug-pa. 

Nd ' entering; in a special s^ise 2. the 
beginning, the first stage of a disease Mng. 
— 3. ( liqfl l O ^^^ incarnation of a deity. 
QEC^ZT Juns-pa avarice, Dzl.^ Lea.; Juns- 

N3 pa-ban avaricious; Juns-Jur a 

miser, niggard. 
Qgr-yjOT-yj- Judr-mfiin-may or Ju^Jun- 

'vd' nP TnaLea. ('accessible to all') 
a. prostitute; Jvd-mfun byid-pa to be a 
-g-.q- Jud-pa, and more frq. ^dzudrpa^ 

\D ' secondary forms of Jitg-pa. Cf. 
Sitdrpay jML-pa. 
Q--,q, Jun-pcL, pf. bbuHy fut. yhin (cf. 

O bzun^ iun) W. *btm-be^y Cs,: to 
subdue, make tame; to make confess; W.] 
to make soft, to soften, e.g. iron; to punish, 
by words or blows; to convert. 
QsxTzr Jy'f'^C'^ pt bbum^ fut. yzu/m, imp. 

X9 cum, to shudder, to shrink. (Ace. 
to grammatical analogy Jumrpa ought to 
be vb. a., to cause to shudder, and ^asm-pa 
vb. n.) ^a Jums-pa Lea,, contraction of 
the muscles, shrinking, shuddering Sch. 
Q EX- Jur, supine of Ju-ba^ Jur mi ^dod 

>o indigestible Sch. (?). 
QS^X^-q- Jur-ba 1. (pf. bbur, q. v.) C$.: 

>o complication; Sch. also: to struggle 
against, to resist PtL: Jiir-bar ^^gyur-ba 
to be entangled; Jur-bu Sch.^ *Jur-pa* C. 
tangled yarn; srdd-bui Jitr{-pa) Lexx. 
w. e., Sch.: 'the tightness of the yarn'; 
Jur-mfug wrinkled, as the skin is in old 
age Thgy.; Ju/r-mig a wire -drawing 
plate, Jur-mtg-nas ^drSn-pa to draw 
through this plate Thgy. — 2. == ^dzur-ba 

to evade y to ehun, to go oat of the v^ay, 
jwr^nM uimvoidablc Mil. 

qg^ ^^m, V. Jtt-6a 1, 1. 

Qgq^q- J^*»:P«> J^-po, well-aounding 
Stg.'y snyan - ^)&)9 harmony, 

. emess Lex. 

dexterity, clev- 
akilled, clever; 

Sck decent; JSms-po id. 

^^^ J^-^^ a coquettish, alluring, 
^ ' seducing attitude or posture; Zv^ar.; 
Jud-^mfun ^(hsgig ^og the harlot assumes 
such an attitude. 

Ogs^ Jd'bcL, pf. &^, ft. ftio, imp. Jo8, 
to milk, rd^ma jd-ba to milk a 
goat, ^o*ma)<h-ba 'to milk the milk'; %(W- 
%w ^(^-ma 6io« dug, nas m bids-pa medy 
it is you, -not I, that have 'milked out 
the milk' Glr.\ Jd (- ba) - po^ Jd-mHan, 
milker, milk-man, jd^-ba^-mo milkmaid; 
^dod-Joi ba a cow that is able Jo fulfil 
every wishfi^/^^I.//;*^^^ 

' %, C. col. ^idg-pa'', 1. to put, 
to place, e.g. the foot on the ground; abo 
to place persons, to assign them a place 
Dzl.y Glr,\ fig. = ^dd'pa (e.g. dgi-borla^ 
bjfah'itib'lay bgan-^M-kyi Idfh-la) v. Qgdd" 
pa 3; to put in order, to arrange, Jig- 
rtin-bia^'pa the arrangement (system) of 
the world; Im drdn-por bzdg- ste sitting 
straight, bolt-upright XteZ., MUr, bidg-na 
mi sdod if one places her any where, she 
will not remain there Mil. ; st^n - du yar 
lAag (the anchors) were placed above, 
were weighed Jtt.; Ida-su oJ^'P^ ^^ ^^ 
one a task, to employ one in a certain 
service DzL^ rgycd-sridnla ^dg-pa to ap- 
point one to the government i.e. to make 
<me king; idma (resp, fugs) -la ojdg-pa to 
take to heart &&*., M%1.\ lus-la gfnii ^du- 
kes tAdg-la if we fancy the human body 
to be a ship Thgy. ; ndm-mJia rdh-gi ndn- 
du iog transfer it to the nature of the 
ethereal space, i.e. figure it to yourself as 
e^er MU.;.pyir Jdg^a 1. to leave behind, 
at home DzL; 2. to put by, to lay aside 

Qg^?r^ J&ms-pa 

<l3^--q •'^j^N-n '/?J^ "^»^/y/«^ !'7^A/(t^. /t// 

DzL; (another reading omits ^yir). — 2. 
to lay or put down, a burden etc., "^idg-la 
hog* put (it) down and come! C; nor 
(y)sog )og medh&8kpm!g up treasures and de- 
positing them was not, i.e. was never heard 
of; ysdg-Jog-mUan a hoarder up, a miser 
Cs.\ to leave, to leave behind, lag-r^^ ^ 
trace or mark of activity, monumentum 
Glr.; to leave, quit, abandon, rdn-gi yul 
one's own country Glr.; pdns-par ma bidg- 
par so that it is not abandoned, given 
up, to poverty Thgy.; ^yiig-le h)g* C. (= 
^pdn-ti bor^W.) throw it away! to de- 
pose, yi-ger bris ^dg-pa to depose in 
writing, Uteris mandare Glr. ; sd-bon, ydun- 
brgyud jdg-pa to leave an oflFspring behind, 
to propagate the species; to lay up, to keep, 
as holy relics; to lay aside, ri-^iig idg-la 
setting aside, apart, for a while DzL; 
mnydm-par J^-pa v. mnydm-pa; sgrdU 
lam ^og shall we turn them out or leave 
them? Mil. nt. 
^^rf^ II. pf. (b)iogs, fut. yiog, imp. iog, W, 
*iog-ce^ to cut, to hew, to square, a pen, 
timber etc. ; to carve, to chip, a thin piece 
of wood etc. 

OS^JH ojog-po n. of a Lu Mil., = Jag^. 
QgC' Jon^ldon, tadpole. 

Qg^-Q^- Jon-Jdn col., Sch. Jdn-po, 
oblong, longish, oval, elliptical, 
cylindric, bottle-shaped etc. ; col. also applied 
to stature: tall; ^on - nydms - ban Wdn. 
oblong shaped, in relation to leaves, cones 
of fir etc.; Id -ma ^on- stabs nydg^a-dan 
split into narrow slips, wing-cleft (leaves 
of caraway) Wdn.; dbyibs^-Jdn an oval 

Q^'i^' Jdn-tse 6s. = Icdg-tse. 

dM^^SJ' c^dms'pa, pf. bbom, also iom, 

fut. yhnn, imp. com, W. *ddm- 
^^ 1. to conquer, subdue, oppress, suppress, 

an enemy; ^ddd-cdgs-kyis kun-nas ^dms- 
pa to be quite overpowered by lust; 
ncui Jfdms-pai sman a medicine for a 
disease (to overcome it); rdb-tu ykdm-pa 
jM the following overpowering (charm); 


«?"u^; £, , 


(S^- Jor 

|«^'Cr t^id^ 

bbdm-mo an exclamation like: I am done 
for! periil — 2. to destroy, towns etc. 
Glr.; bddm-la yiidg-go id. Glr, — 3. to 
plunder, spoil, rob, J&ms -pat grabs byds- 
fa-la as they were about to rob him MU. 
— 4. to finish, accomplish W., cf. ^6m^a. 
ogx- Jo7' 1. C'., also yioTy hoe, grubbing- 
"^ hoe, mattock, pick-axe (W, *t6g'ts^), 
j&r-gyis rkd-ba to turn up with the hoe; 
oj&r-po a large mattock, pick-axe, spade, 
Jdr-bu a small one, a hoe; Jor-yu the 
handle of a hoe, Jor-lddgs the iron of a 
mattock Cs. — 2. supine of ^Jd-ba. 

Q^'H' J(ii'f><^ I* ^b. 1. to hang down, 
of a cow^s udder, of the long hair 
on a yak's belly, of tails etc.; Jol-Jdl 
hanging-belly, paunch. — 2. gen. Jbydl-ba 
to turn aside, to make way. 

n. sbst., also (Cs.) Jol'Jdl and j-zdl- 
ba, train, trail; retinue Cs.; Jdl-gos 6i., 
^dJr-ber Wdk.^ Pth., a robe or garment with 
a train; Jdl-ian having a train; Jol-mid 
without a train Cs. 

agora)- ojo^^ hanging, cf. pyan-ni, grdd-^ 
pa ojol'U hanging-belly, paunch, 
cf. jh/al Lea. 

Qggi-jjt Jdl-mo, ace. to the descriptions 
given by natives, a bird of the 
size of a blackbird, of lively motions and 
an agreeable whistling, in the neighbour- 
hood of Lhasa, building in willow -trees 
and thorn-bushes; Cs. has: a turkey-hen. 
^r^^' T^dn-may or rdzan-ma, store -room 
^ Thgy. 

g^'CJ' T^id-pa lean C«., gen. rid-pa. 

|w^^ ^hib'las^Q) W.^ service done in 
socage, compulsory service, in the 
fields, on roads etc. 

§^'^' r)M-pa^ rdzudr-pay = rgud-pa Lex. 

S<3r r^uUj nadrT^iin MU. a disease. 

^.^. rye('bo)y also ije-u^ lord, master, 1. 
^ ^ ruler, king, yul-gyi r^e mdzdd-nas 
ruling over a country, actiog the part of 
a sovereign Qlr.; bod-Kdms-kyi r^S-bor gyur 
he became sovereign of Tibet Wdk.; sd-yi 

bddg-po mi-yi rye MU. lord of the ground, 
ruler of the people; fji-ho dan bran, fje- 
U61 Stg.^ master and servant; rje-bldn king 
and minister; rye bi lags sir, what does 
that mean? Olr.; also a title before names, 
esp. names of kings, jd-bo rye Dipanghdra 
Glr. ; r^e-bdud r^e-btsdn the gentlemen devils 
and the gentlemen goblins (messieurs les 
diables et messieurs les farfietdets); tje 
dkonr-mbdg-la ysdl-ba ^ddbs-pa MU. is in fewt 
an empty phrase in the mouth of a Bud- 
dhist philosopher, but may nevertheless 
be used in Christian language for addressing 
God as ^our Lord\ — 2. a nobleman, a 
person of rank, ryeu(%) rigSy rje-rigs = rgyd- 
rigs the caste of nobility."— r^^-c^pe^ (Lear. 
irnJ) *== ^^9 master, lord, prince Cs.; rji- 
ma^ also ydSs-ma Cs.^ col. ^ke-ma*, a lady 
of rank, r^e- Hn a young lady, a miss; 
ry^'Srds a young gentleman; also a term 
of address Cs. — rye-btsun reverend Sir, a 
title of the higher priesthood, r^e^tsun-ma 
fem. — ry^-sa (or id-sa) bydd-pa to show 
deference, to pay one's respects; ii-sai 
ytam^ or id-sai skad courteous words, esp. 
ceremonial and complimentary terms, e.g. 
dbu for mgo etc. W,: ^yd-sa bd-hy yd-ke 

Jw-^ fje - ndr the lower part of the leg, 
the Shank (W. *m^); rkan-ldg f)e- 
ndr the lower part of the arms and the 
legs Med. 

^IT ''y^'bay pf. bfjesy fut brje^ imp. hjes, 
W. ^le-h^^ to barter, to give or take 
in exchange; ^di-dag-gis br)eo it may be 
exchanged for these Dzl.; *zan dan srog 
i^-be* W. to risk one's life for the necessary 
food (as thieves do); fo^^-iyat nor articles 
of barter; in a more general sense: to 
change, to shift, mih the name, gos the 
clothes Dzl., ynas the place, ^ the life, 
i.e. to die Cs. — br)S('ba)'po a barterer Cs. 
gw-q- i^id-pay p£ and fut hyed 1. to 
' honour, reverence c. dat., mUddrbin 
br^dd-pa id. Dzl.; brjid-pai ^os venerable 
Lex. — 2. to forget, frq. (cf. lus-pa); bi^Ur 
du oi^'pa to make forget, to cause to 



g^ vyes 

forgetful, oblivious; (a. gives inst. of it: 
i^d-nei'tan^ but also thos no clear etymo- 
logical explanation is obtained. - t^^ihi 
draught of oblivion, of Lethe Cs. — ryed" 
bsnyM (etymology?) sgiig-pa technical term 
for the common practice of Indian servants 
to hide an object belonging to their master 
in some obscure comer, and after waiting 
(jyiig^d) for some months, until it may 
be assumed that the thing is altogether 
forgotten (JnyM-pa), to appropriate it to 
themselves. — tyM-fo list of notes, me- 
morandum-book, journal, diary, cash- 
book etc. Glr.y C,y W. — r^ed-rdd prob. 
monumental or memorial stone. — vjed- 
lydh specifications or lists of goods, pieces 
of luggage etc. which the Tibetans number 
and mark with the letters of the alphabet. 
"— Tjedrbyid 1. a demon that takes away 
the power of memory, also rjed^byid-kyi 
ydon, 2. epilepsy (urirtt) ^^' — ^^' 
zd» Cb. : Hhe meat of forgetfulness'. 

K*^^ r^^n^ne-ba v. the following word. 
gV-q- rj^n-pa 1. not covered, bare, naked, 

(-pa) barefooted, unshod; iabs-iyen-par 
fdd'ba or yhigs-^a^ resp., to be barefooted, 
to go barefoot; ydon Ty&n-du sddd-pa to 
sit with unveiled face, mgo-iy^n^pa with 
oncovered head, rgyaih-ryhi with a naked 
back Ci.; lyhi-par ^ddn-paC, to strip 
perfectly ; e^Tnor-r^^ stark naked Sch. ; rdUgri 
fjinrfa a naked sword; *iM-pa ton* W. 
give it (me) not wrapped up! aa-rjen the 
bare ground, not covered with a carpet 
Gi.; r)^ne^a undisguised, obvious to the 
understanding, manifest Mil. — 2. raw, 
not roasted or cooked, ha^en raw meat, 
dmar^ryin red raw meat; mar-rj&n not 
melted butter; nas-r^hi raw barley, not 
prepared or roasted; also the meal of it: 
W. *nar')Sn* barley -flour, cf. Sch,: bra- 
r)M buckwheat- meal. — T^en-zasMed. 
{Cs. also r^en-rigs) victuals that may be 
eaten raw. — 3. not ripe, unripe W. 

^r f^es 1. trace, track, mark left, impression 
made (on the ground) , pj/i-ryh Med. 
prob. id.; mi-r)h a man's track, rta-r^h 
a horse's track Glr.; Hn-rtai r)e8 the track 
of a waggon or cart, a rut; rkan-^hy resp. 
labs^^^, the trace of one's foot, footprint, 
rkan-^h byun a footprint is made; rkan- 
^^ cJ^'P^ to leave a footprint behind 
MU.; byas^rjh proof of an accomplished 
deed, whether it be the work itself or 
some indubitable result of it; loff^r)^^ resp. 
pyaff-ry^ impression or mark left of one's 
hand, hence fig.: action, deed, charitable 
institution, pious legacy, whereby a person 
wishes to immortalize his name. — 2. the 
hind part of a thing Sch. (?) — 3. inrelation 
to time: that which follows, the conse- 
quence, the course or progress of a thing, 
the last, =» n0uff. — 4. adv. and postp, 
inst. of r)^»su^ v. below. — r^es ybdd-pa 
1. Sch. to destroy, blot out, efface a track 
or trace, in Med. to eradicate the trace 
of a disease, to cure it thoroughly, 2. Sch.: 
to separate, disjoin the hind part(?) 3. W. 
*ltes Md-be* to follow a trace or track, to 
find out or to come upon the track. — 
ryes dzin-pa to 'seize' the track, to over- 
take Crlr., also to be able to follow the 
track, rd-ma Uyui lyes mi zin-pa a goat 
that cannot follow the flock Mil. — ry^- 
loy r)S8''8Uy ryes^ adv. and postp., afterwards, 
hereafter, for the future, lat^r; after, be- 
hind, d^ T^ds^ltty de-fyh after that, after- 
wards, later Mil.; di-dag ^dds-^ai Ty^-su 
after these were gone Glr.; bhag-f^is po. 
= bidg-pai ^dg-tu Lt; nai t^^-m after my 
death, r^h^su in conjunction with verbs 
corresponds to the Ssk. ^ and is often 
not to be translated, or serves only to give 
additional force to some other word or ex- 
pression: ry^su ^rd'ba^ Jbrdn^ba to go 
after, to follow, to come after; also fig.: 
spyddrpa fams-bdd ya^dbs-kyi r)^su Jbrdn- 
ba to imitate the nobility, the free-bom, 
in their whole demeanour Glr.; U4o dan 
9py6drpa ndn-pai f^is'-w, ^6-ba to imitate 
idleness and wickedness, or idle and wicked 


|fr r^es 




people Ld.'Glr, ; ddb-dpon-gyi T^is-m br^dd- 
de saying after the teacher Thgy, — rjh- 
9u Jbdn-pa to Peceive Pth. : kdl-por ijh-su 
bzfkn-nas Ito^dskyis bskydn-du ysol pray 
take me (the orphan) into your service, 
and provide mc with food and clotHes ; to 
receive as a disciple or follower = ^ed-du 
^dzvnrfa frq.; to draw after (after death) 
Mil, ; to assist, ^di ryes-su zu/i iig do take 
care of, or provide for this man (as a 
future CO - disciple) Mil. ; finally with re- 
spect to charms and spells: to commit to 
memory or keep in memory ni f. — T^is- 
su Jug-pa 1. vb. a. to add, affix, 2. vb. n. 
to follow, bdag dan hddg-gi ij^-m Jug- 
pai ddb-ma-mams I and the disciples that 
follow me MiL\ in a similar sense: mi-la 
T^^su Mb-pa to follow another as a dis- 
ciple Dzl :?«^, 3 (7«^5, 7 seems to be a 
corrupt reading). Also in the following 
phrases rjes^su may be understood in the 
sense of: afterwards, subsequently: lySs-su 
drdn^pa to remember, recollect, keep in 
mind^ fyis-su drdn-par by^d-pa to bring to 
one's remembrance, to remind Pth.; r^^s- 
su ^ddrpa to repent 6«. ; pleon. or without 
any obvious meaning in: ry^-su mfkn-pa 
Thgy. to agree, to accord, rjis-m my id- 
pa Stg. to find, rjSs'Su dpdg-pa to weigh, 
to ponder C«., rjh-m snyin-brtsi-ba Thgy. 
to pity, rjiS'Su bstdn-pa Tar. to instruct, 
and thus in similar expressions, esp. in 
one of frq. occurrence in legends: iyh-9u 
yi^dif'ba, resp. rjis-su fugs - ran - ba (Sch. 
erron. fugs - pa!) to rejoice, to enjoy, for 
which sometimes also ryis-su pydgs-pa is 
used, e.g. dbyi^bd-mamS'la rjis-su yi^dn- 
ba to rejoice at people disagreeing, to enjoy 
dissensions and jarrings Stg. 

Comp: rjes'skyis (yi^) oora later; 
younger brother. — ryes-griib-kyi min by- 
name, surname Cs. — ryes-Jitg \. following, 
coming after, pyi-rdbs rjes-jtig foTtw-ddd 
all the following generations Pth. 2. final 
consonant — rjes-fdg prob. the same as 
tyis - la \^dn. — ryes - fdb Mil. is said to 
denote short interruptions of meditation 
by taking food, but no more than is ab- 

solutely necessary for the preservation of 
life. — ryes-dpdg 1 . consideration, dehb^- 
ation. 2. Was. (297) a syllogism consisting 
of three propositions. — ryes-ma = rje$ 2 
hinder part Cs. — ryes-mid without leaving 
any traces, trackless, oP9'P^ ^ destroy 
thoroughly Gh*. 

E^^' r}is-^a V. r)i-ba. 

gr-n' 'fy(^drpa pf. and fut. bryody to say, 
' pronounce, utter, e.g. a charm or 
magic formula; ne mih hdd-da ra^ W. 
I hear my name mentioned; sans-rgyds- 
hyi mfsdn-nas to pronounce or invoke the 
name of Buddha Dd.; to propound, pro- 
mulgate, dos a religious doctrine; to enu- 
merate, set forth, Ugs-pa or nyes^pa the 
good or bad qualities, actions etc., ydn^tm 
the excellence or superiority of a person 
Dzl. and elsewh.; to treat of a subject in 
writing: Ihdg-pa-mams ni ^dir brjdd-bya 
we have now to treat of the rest Zam.\ 
an author even says zes briod-de with 
regard to his ovm words (after a bombastic 
poet\cal.exordium, Jike^ho 'dixi', of Roman 
orators) Glr ; rjdd-^ mid-pa unspeakable, 
inexpressible, ineflFable, r)6d-du med-cin 
dpdg-tu mid- pa id. Dzl.\ bryod(-kyis) rm 
Idn-ba (or Un-ba) id.; also vb.: to be in- 
expressible or inexhaustible, frq.; re-rn 
min-nas rjod mi Ian one cannot mention 
or enumerate them all Mil.; don mdzdd-fa 
rjod mi Idh-ho his utility is beyond de- 
scription Dzl.\ rydd-kyis mi Idn-bai pyif 
mi bkod I do not write it down, because 
it is impossible to relate every thing Jtil. 
(v. brjod). 

r^^ Ijags, resp. for Ice, tongue, Ijdgs-kyis 
^ ' cab ^ddr -ba to spit, to spit out; 
Ijags-Mb spittle, saliva; lyags-dbugs breath. 
Qjr'^ Ijdn-mo p. n. of a district 1. in U, 
S 2. in Kams. 

Fm- Ijdn-Uu, or lydn-gu Lt , W., greOfl 
1^ (gen. expressed by n6n-po, notwith- 
standing the ambiguity), lyan-skyd greenish 
white, Ijah-ndg greenish black, dark green. 
— Ijdn-pa green com, in the first stage 
of its growth (in the second stage it is 

'SC'^C Ijan-dun 

^1^' br^od 


called s6g-ma^ in the third sny^'md). — 
lo-ljdn-ba having a green blade. — Ijdh-bu 
greenness, verdure (grass, foliage, shrubs), 
Lex.i ^nW — (/a/i-dmar greenish red; Ijah- 
9&r greenish yellow. 

aC'^C (^^^"^^ (spelling?), solid, not 
E -4 hollow, W. 

f&:%&: /iat^(;^ filth, dirt, dust, sweepings; 
^ E ^ bkdrpa Ijan-ljin man a great deal 
of fool mucous expectoration Lt 
mo' &^b ^' ^^t, plain, even; Hjab-lj^b- 
E ba bor* lay or put it down flat; ^IjcJ) 
ed-te dug* sit down flat (on the ground)! 
q- ^i-ba, 1. a flea (Ji-bd). — 2. heavy, 

fr-q- l)idrpa, heaviness, weight, yser dan 
' Ijid-pa mnydm-pa dgos it must be 
weighed up with gold Glr.; de dan Ijid 
mnydmpa of equal weight, equal in weight 
Med.; Ijid'ban^ Ijidrlddn heavy; l/id-c^-ba 
very heavy; Ijid-m^d light, not heavy; 
bis tams-cdd'hyi l)id pab he sat down 
with the whole weight of his body Cs,; 
Ijid-b/is ndn-pa pressing down by hisrtts) 
weight. ^»^ o ^^ y^alrUy^ f ^^ *- ^^ * %\ 

trzv O^'paCs. to enter, to penetrate, 
' bU-la one's mind, = to be perceived, 
understood ; fson-ljiri a die or colour pene- 
trating and remaining fixed in cloth etc. 
Cf. i^n-pa. 

^^ Oo^^ A 1^9^ valley, principal or main 
^ valley; region, district, province DzL] 
Vjohi dan yul'Ji&r countries and provinces; 
J^ohs Ifirirpo a large country; Kd-ba-^ban- 
gyi Ijons ^dt^ gdnS'Can(-^yi) Ijons Tibet, 
frq.; ndgs-Qons woody country; midn-ljons 
a country of medicinal herbs Zam. ; mu- 
gei Qons a very poor country, starving 
country MU.; IjdnS'la in the valley, in the 
plain; Ijdns-mi-mams country-people 6«. — 
Qons(^8u) rgyu'ba to rove about, Ijons 
sgtfur^a the end of the estival fast of the 

monks (about the end of August), when 
they are permitted to rove about the whole 
district of their monastery. 
^Vq- lj6n-pa a country of gods, paradise; 
S ' ^on-Mn a tree from paradise, or 
any large and beautiful tree; Ij&nrpai nags 
a beautiful forest. 

fllfc' ^^ Tar. 11, 14, but more frq. yzi- 
^ brjid, brightness, splendour, lustre, gen. 
of gods and saints, v. yzi"^ also dpal-br)td 
Lex. ; bryidrpa to shine, glisten, glitter Cs., 
brjid'kgis bryid shining with brightness 

n^'if bry^'bo a making up, a compen- 
sation by barter, btji-bo byid-pa 
Glr.y *bfj^bo gydb'be* W.^ to give an equal 
measure in bartering, e.g. of salt for barley. 
q|^' ^^^^ (cf* fydd'pa) sound; talking; 
' speech, bryod bdA'ba euphony; also 
well-sounding, agreeable speech ;.fo;^od 7m 
bdA-ba the contrary; also: *dha jo mide* 
C. it is not meet now to speak about it; 
bfydd'pa speech, utterance; mnon-brydd 
synonymy, explanation of words; Cs. also: 
'a poetical term'; miod-brjdd praise, eulogy, 
Sch.: invocationof a deity; ce'brj6dSchr.(^\ 
and ^M-du brjdd-pa^ Tar. 140,2 acc« to 
Schf. : preface, introduction, in C. : to ap- 
prove, sanction, commend, TFoa. (270) in 
the title of a book: « -^^^^ ^ w.e. 

Comp. brjdd-bya sbst., Zam. also brjdd^ 
pa, = '^rnif ^^ attribute, predicate Lea. — 
bryod-med 1. a speech not earnestly meant, 
empty words, mere talk. 2. Mil: the un- 
speakable, vhe transcendental, identified 
by some with the Nirvana, by others not. 
— brjod-^ddd Tar. 210, 7: bryodn^dod-Uam 
ace. to Schf. : 'a mere supposition' ; but in 
a passage in Mil. it seems to denote the 
(conceited) hibit of constantly proposing 
one's own opinion, and so it might also 
be understood in Tar, 






a<^ •^<^ '^ '^'^N* ^<'^'T^ 1 ' ) vM^ 27 / 




V nya 



A- nya, I. the letter ny, double-consonant, 
^ distinctly pronounced like » + y (Ssk, 
i^), and used only as initial letter; there- 
fore diflPering in its nature and soand from 
the S%k. ^, though representing it in Sans- 
krit words. 

II. symb. num. for eight. 

III. fish (i??^), nya Jtzin-pa^ W, *nya 
zum-ce^y nya Jc&r-ba (or biar^ba) DzL^ nya 
Unrpa (bldn-ba) Pth, to catch fish; ^ddw- 
nya Ld.^ an eel Cs ; rgydlrpca ysdl-nya the 
king's table fish Pth. 

IV. also nyd'CU (cf. cu-ba). I. tendon, 
sinew; W.: ^Mh-pe nya did «o/i* my foot 
is asleep. — 2. coL mark, left by a blow, 
a weal, *nya Ums^ the blow has left a 
weal W. 

V. 1 . the fifteenth day of a lunar month, 
the day of the full moon. — 2. = f^es ni 
f.: zld'bai nya dritg-la on the sixth day 
of the month Mil. 

VI. nya Sck 1. lock(?) — 2. muscle 
Med.^ nyor-b^d the four principal muscles, 
viz. those of the arms and the calves of 
the leg, V. also the compounds. 

VII. *nya idd-ce* W. to arrive sooner 
by a short cut;.ct. also ^fadrnya"^, 

Comp. nya-rkydl the bladder of a fish 
Cs, — nya-skyogs gills. — nyor^hrd sea-eagle, 
white -tailed eagle Sch. — nya-Urdb-can 
carp Sch. — nya-Hrab'^^ sturgeon Sch. — 
nya-lir&m fish-market — nya-gdn 1. full 
of fish Sch. 2. full moon Cs. — nya-grdy 
nyai yrd-ma small fish-bones. — nya-^ytir 
= nyorlog 2 S.g.^ C. — nya-rgyd fishing- 
net. — nya-rgydb C, earth heaped up (like 
the back of a fish) on the top of outer 
walls to prevent the entering of the wet. 
— nya-rgyds {zld-ba) full moon Pt;h. — 
nya-sgon fish-spawn, roe of fish. — nya- 
Uiba fish-gills Cs.; mother of pearl Schr. — 
nya- ^ tendon , sinew; perh. also a large 

nerve in the nape of the neck. — nya-ddl 
fishing-net; ^nyorddJrpa* fisherman W. — 
nyd-dds a load of fish Sch. — nya4dir 'a 
muscle' Sch. — nyd-pa fisherman Cs. — 
nya-pyis (Cs.: fish-gills) mother of pearl 
S.g. and col — nya-mid Sch.: a sea-mon- 
ster (this word seems not to be generally 
known). — nyd-mo a (female?) fish JUU. 

— ^nya-tsiJ^ bow -net, kiddle W. *nya'' 
tsdg C. id. — nya-tsU the fat of a fish. — 
nyor-tser fish-bones Sch. — nya-fsdh-pa fish- 
monger. — nya-Jtzm Cs.y ^nya-kug^ W., 
angle, fishing-hook. — nya-zdn a fish-eater, 
one feeding on fish Cs. — nya-rus fish- 
bone Cs. — nya-Ug 1. Cs.: 'a contraction 
or sinking of the sinews'. 2. Sik.: cholera 

(Urd. tjta^) — 3. Med.^ also nya^lhdg^ a 
name for a disease. — nyd-ha 1. flesh of 
fish 2. W.\ meat cut into long narrow 
strips and dried in the sun, in C. ^hor-bcug*. 

— nyoryhdg the fin of a fish Cs. — nya- 
sdg fish-scale. — nya-sdg prob. the back- 
bone with the bones attached to it, re- 
sembling a saw. 

9*^9 ?F\ ^y^'^^-> '^y^y * steel-yard. 

V^nyd-bo body, figure Sch. 

yaa* nyd-^ma (Sch. : ^mistress of the house, 
^ housewife?) hearer of a Lama, with- 
out being a regular disciple Mil. frq.; nyd- 
ma pd-mo-mams Mil. (cog. to nydn-paf) 
A-x' nyd-ra care, ryd-ra byM-pa Sch.y ^nyd- 
^ ra dd-ce* TT., to take care of, to pro- 
vide for a person, to keep a thing well; 
*nyar go* C. for nyd-ra byed dgos; cf. 

y;cS^^' nya-ra-nycHr^ weak, feeble, frail, 
^ ^ e.g. of a worm Thgy. 
Aqi- nyag 1. v. nyd-ga. — 2. v. nydg-ma. 
^ ' — 3. also nydg-ga, nyag-Krdm^ notch, 
indenture, l6-ma prd-la nydg-ga-can having 




^(^)- nyam(5) 

moltifid leaves, like those of caraway Wdn. ; 
wfdg-ga mMrpa not deft, not indented. — 
4. of wool, nydg-tu ^drin^a to draw out 
into threads, to spin MU. 
orn^br ^y«jf-«yi^ ti., Sch. also nyag-nydg 
^'/ ' fiKh, diit 

Wrwr ^y^"*^^ ^*^' "= snor-fyogs (?), of 
'^^ '^ ' rare occurrence. 
A q i nq i nyag-tdg thread; chain, of gold M^., 
/^' 'of iron ilfiZ.; cord for stringing 
tarkoises MiL; a cable iScAr. 
^^^. nyag-mfil scale of a steel-yard, 
^' vyag-Tdd weight of a steel-yard, 

tmcz^^ nyag-'prdn a small beam, a pole 
^ '^ ' Cs.; an arrow; nyag-pran-mdd ar- 
row Jlft/. 

MTS^' ^y^g-^f^^ ftlso nyoff-rSy single; nyo^ 
''^ ' ydtg 1. id., s^o, or spu nyag{-ma) 
ycig a single hair, frq.; skrd-yi nydg-ma 
id. (a man has 21 000 of them Med,) — 
2. a minimum MU. — 3. iScA. also: bache- 
lor, old voluntary bachelor. — sam-rgyas- 
nyag-ybig Thgy.^ Pih.^ only Buddha, or 
nothing less than fiuddha. 

^3f nydg-mo Lea. w.e.; woman Sch. 


^^' nydg-Hh beam of a steel-yard. 

oTTyr 'jkC'^j' nydh'ka^ nydn-ge Sp. 
^ »' ^ ' rant, Ribes. 

"^S^nydn-ti Pur. thy, your(?). 

7f3rsr "nydn-pa (nydn^tOy nydn-tam)^ imp. 
^ nyon 1 . (also, though seldom, mnydn- 
pa) c. dat. or accus. to hear, to give ear 
to, to listen (cf. fo^^a) ; sUb^poh-gyi fdd- 
du io8 nydn-pa to attend to the religious 
instruction of the teacher; nag or fsignydn- 
pa DzLy Hd - ia, or resp. zdl - io, or bka- 
nydn-pa to obey, to yield ; nas ji-Uar z^ 
pai Md'la nydn^na Glr.^ na zer nydn-na 
MiL if you listen to my word; Tar. 14, 
14; 17, 16 c.c. Jm. — 2. to listen secretly, 
to be an eaves-dropper, ^pag-ny^n )h^-pa^ 
^"i V*^^?"^^^ ed-ce^ tdaa-^e* W., id.; nydn- 
mHan col. nydnQ-pa) -po^ fern. nyan(jpa) 
-^mo^ B.y a hearer, auditor; nyan-fds id.; 
but esp. of the personal disciples of Bud- 

dha, the Sravakas, Kopp. I, 419; Bum. 
L, 296; nyan-fds bbu-dHtg the sixteen 
yna;&'brtdn q.v. ; nyan-fds-Tna a female 
hearer ; Ha-la nydnrpo^ nydnr-mkan obedient, 
Ud-la mi nydn-po disobedient — 3. to be 
able, later jB., and col., gen. with a nega- 
tive: ^rd ma nydnrpas not being able to 
walk (on account of illness) Ji/i7.; also like 
ma btdb-pa not being willing; without a 
negative: *nydn yin* TT. yes, I shall be 
able; inst of run^ba: *za-nydn ydd-na 
Myon* W.y bring it me, if it is still eatable. 
ajr nyam^ also nyam-Ug^ nyam^ds cricket, 
^ locust Sik. 

WC^' »yaw(«), resp. fugs, fugS'nydm{s) 
/ ^ ^ 1. soul, mind, ?^aw«-%i ^0^8 com- 
panions of the soul, Yiz. the murmuring 
springs and rivulets in the solitude of al- 
pine regions Mil.\ nydms-kyi ian the soul's 
wine, i.e. religious knowledge Jlft/.; nyams 
dgd-ba 1. well being, comfort, cheerfulness, 
nyam» mi-^d-ba an unhappy state, dis- ^ 

comfort, nyams 'dgd glk-ru blons sing a^c<N<i 'Mi^ 
song of joy! MU. 2. gen. adj.: agreeable,iAAX7y < 
delightful, charming, nydm>s - dga - bai sa- ' 

ynds a charming country Glr.. — 2. thought, 
nyams skye or ^ar a thought rises. — 3. 
sfrength, magnitude, height, state, manner, 
nyams-(kyt) fsdd by id -pa Pth. (also with 
bbdd'pa or Un-pa C.) to try, to put to 
the test, e.g. one's strength; fugs-ddm-gyi 
nyams sddrpa to try the degree of a per- 
son's devotion or spiritual progress Mil.; 
smra-nydmSy byed-nydms manner, — and 
particularly a pleasing, agreeable manner, 
— of speaking or dealing. 

Other phrases are: nydms-su Urirpa to 
take to heart, to interest one's self in or 
for a thing DzL, to commit to memory, 
to learn (v. below); nydyns-su mydn-bduy c t>. •< , 
sufiFer, undergo, experience DzL; nyams 
nd-ba v. the compounds; nyarns bhdd-pa 
C. to try, to examine; nyams Jbtii-ba C. 
to irritate, provoke, vex; nyams mydn-ba 
=^ nydms-su mydn-ba; nyams bzdg-pa is 
said to be «= drdn-pa nye-bar bidg-pa, v. 
nyi-ba; nyams Un-pa I. = nydms-su Un^ 
pa, V. above, 2. col. to measure out, to 



^(*iy mf<m(f) 

take the measure, die dimensions of, to 
survey, sa land, nor the property, to take 
an inventory, to ascertain or compate the 
state of one's property, 3. C. = the follow- 
ing; nyams sddr-pa ccg. 1. to try, to test, 
byid-dam mi byed whether he will do H 
or not Mil,, to tempt, tug^-Mm-gyi nya/rm 
mdrfa V. above. 2. to mock, scoff, trouble 
maliciously, provoke, irritate* 6'. 

Comp. nyam^-dgu v. nyams-fabs, — 
nyams-rgyitd Mil. = nyams, nyam^^^gyfudr 
la sbydnS'pa, intellectually skilled, well 
versed. — nyams-nd anxiety, fear, dread^ 
of a thing, with the dat. or instr. MiL\ 
nyamd^d'las fdr^a to be delivered from 
anxiety 8.g, ; nyaim-nd-ba vb. to be alarm- 
ed, to be in great anxiety Sch.; adj. dread- 
ful, horrible, ncys^Ml nyams-^a-ia a bor^ 
rible forest DzL — nyami'iidg is said to 
be used resp. or euphem. tor skyon, e.g. 
for damage done to an image of a god by 
water C; nyams-^dgs sin Schr,; in I%r. 
it seems to be used in this sense. -^ nydms- 
Mn 1. faint, weaic, Tanguid, exhausted, by 
hunger, illness etc. DzL; poor in learning, 
destitute of knowledge, ignorant W,; des- 
titute of money, destitute of virtue C 2. W 
col. for snyems'ciin, — nyams^rtdgs resp. 
knowledge, cognition, pereeption, nyams-^'tdffs 
hg yod^ nyams^rtdgs bzdn-^ skye or Jcrwiis^ 
a perception, a good thought arises (in my 
mind); in a general sense: nyams^rtdgs-kyi 
mfar pyin-fa to obtain perfect knowledge 
Mil,^ frq. — nyams-stdbs strength, zin is 
gone Med, — nyams-ston-ysdl v. ysdl-po. 

— nyams'brtds byed-pa strengthening, resto- 
rative, nourishing Med.^ (but nyams-Wtas 
he recovered, grew well, got up again Dzl) 

— nyams'tdg-pa sulfering, tormented, ex- 
hausted DzL; nuams^fag-pai skad or sgra 
lamentation, doleful cries. — nyams-tdbs, 
nyams-dgii Sch. : 'appearance, colour, figure, 
state' (?). — nycprns-mydn Tar, enjoyment, 
delight, nyama^mydn ma skyes run, although 
I had no real enjoyment of it Mil,nt,; ts&r- 
bai nyam^-mydn prob. perception by the 
senses, knowledge acquired through the 
medium of the senses Mil, — nyams-rtsdl 

7^^ nydUha 

Dzl yy^ 7 skill. — nyams-mtBdr-ba C. 
wonderful, most beautiful. — nyams^Un n 
memorial verse, a rhyme or verse serving 
to retain things in memory MU. 
Ml^n' nydms-pa injured, hurt, e.g^ by a 
^ fall DzL; of lifeless things: spoil- 

ed, danu^od C; impaired, imperfect, stoU- 
nyams, dbdh-po nydms-^ay ydn-lag nyams 
Lea. (as explanation oizd-bo); rnnra^nydxM 
(the sick person) speaks little Med.\ ^^em- 
nydm soh-Uan* W. discouraged, disheart- 
ened; esp. relative to a violation of daty,, 
failing in, tstd-Hrima (or tsul-las) nydms" 
pas because he has failed in, acted against 
the moral law Dzl,; bzdd-pa ny dins -par 
^ytir-bas because their patience failed DzL; 
also stained Glr., e.g. I^rdg^gis with blood; 
nydms-par byid-pa Wdn.\ nydms^su ^ug- 
pa Glr. to spoil, deteriorate, destroy; ma 
nydms-pa entire, complete, untouched, un- 
corrupted. 4lf><*^SV4g^ ^^^ j^Y"^ 
AX' ^y^^ !• V. nya-ra. — 2. Cs., also nyar- 
^ nydr^ Oblong. 

^.^j^. nydr-yd6h W. inst. of har-fdony 
^ ^ shin, shin-bone. 

nyalrnyii, or nyal^ydl filth, dirt, 
foul matter, loo^e and dry dirt 
that may be removed by sweeping Pth.y 

aQi*n' ^ydl-buj imp. nyoly 1. to lie down, 
^ e.g. before a tigress DzL; to lie 

down, to sleep, nyal^'du) son (he) went to 
bed Glr.; rgyorsrdn^a nyal ^ditg-go (he) 
slept in the street Glr.\ mi nycd isdm-la 
when people go to bed, at curfew MiL; 
rta nyal byH-pa to make a horse Ue down 
Glr.; rarely of things: rfet?a nyal the grass 
is laid-down (by the wind or rain) DzL'^ 
ra ^og nydl-bai nya so Zam. calls the let- 
ter mya\ fig. to rest, bd^-bar nydl-du m^d- 
do (he) had no rest, viz. from envy DzL 
yy&y 12. — 2. with dan or ia, to lie with 
(a woman) DzL and elsewh. — 3. fig. to 
dwell, to Ihfe Mil. 

Comp. nyal'M couch, bed, sofa C. — 
nyal-gds counterpane, quilt, blanket Sch. — 
nydl'po coition, nydl^ byid^pa to practise 
cohabitation, mdn-du immoderately Med. — 









nydl-bu liastarcl, whoreson Ma, — nydl^a 


S^ nyt 1. nram. fig.: 88. — 2. nun% inst. 

^ of ynyis in compounds, nyi-brgyd^ -stdn, 

'Uri etc., nyi-Kti also title of a book, the 

Prajnu Paramita, containing 28 000 Sloka. 

— 3. for nyi-ma, • 

fpK' nxfi-Kud a lake in Nepal Pth. 

w nyi-ma (Bed. *nyd-wa*, 1. the SUn, 
J^r becomes visible, rises; ^ar id., 
also: has risen, shines; nub, rgas, W. also 
*Bkyody hud*y sets, is setting; nyt-ma rvub 
Ue bar (for fsA bdr-du) until sun-set Sch,; 
nyirmod ynyen akin to the sun, the Sakya 
race 6i. ; *da nyi^ma rin-mo* W. now the 
son stands already high in the heavens; 
^ntfi-ma^ah'kdf^ sun -flower, Helianthus. 

— 2, day, « nyinr-mOy opp. to night, frq.; 
*mfi^ma'^^ W. the whole day, all day 
long; ^nyi-morpi^ W, noon, mid-d&y; nyir 
ma yUg one day, once Dzlr. nyi-morre-rSr 

Comp. mfi-dkyil disk of the sun 8ch. — 
nyi^gim^ nyi~mai gwn noon, mid -day; 
meridian (?) Cs, — nyi-dgd seems to be 
the n. of a medicinal herb Med, — nyi- 
rgd» sun-set — nyi4d6g the solstice, dgitn- 
nyi^ldog winter solstice, dJbydr - nyi - Idog 
sammer solstice Wdk, — nyi-niib = nyi- 
rgd». — nyirf^ l.Sch.: the time or duration 
of one. day. 2. Leo!,: «= jf^lt direction, 
place, country (?); nyi-fsi spydd-pa Lea,: 
a kind of ascetic; nyi^tsi-ba Sch.: ephe- 
meral; single, simple; Thgy,\ n. of a class 
of infernal beings. — m/i-tsdd sun-dial, 
nyi-fydd'h/i kdr-lo the circle of a sun- 
dial Cs. — nyi-Jbski eclipse of the sun f cf. 
sgra-yMn). — nyi-z^ sun -beam, nyi-zh 
rtd'la zdn-ruis riding on a sun-beam MU. 
and elsewh.; nyi-zir-gyi rdiU a mote 
floating in a sun-beam. — nyi-zld sun and 
moon; also the figures of sun and moon 
connected, crowning the top of the m^od- 
rthi; nyi'Zld bsdad mi on sun and moon 
will not stand still Mil. — nyi-^dg below 
the sun; the earth Was. (49); nyi-^dg-gi 
rgyaUUams Glr, id.; it seems, however, to 

denote a certain country, ace. to Mahavyut- 
patti the same as Aparantaka, Williams: 
the western country ; cf. Schf, on Tor. ^, 

— nyi-^od sun-shine. — nyi^dl any screen 
or shelter from the sun's rays: awning, 
curtain, parasol, pent-house Sch.; ^nyi-rib* 
(prop, sgrib) W. id., umbrella. — nyi^dr 
sun-rise Cs. — nyi-UtaaSch, a cold day(?) 

— Cf. nytn-Tno, ^.*'7?ot«t4f ^i^t*'^^*^ 
^jr nyi-hu (inst. of nyis-cu), often in con- 
"^ ^ junction with fdm-pa^ twenty, nyi' 
ku-^rtsa-ytig jB,, C, ^nyi-hir^yer-ybig^ W., 
nyer-ydig^ twentyone. 

^^^ ^ tight or tense. 

St'ra* nyin-Ku^ Ssk. m^ Cs,: ^heart, spirit, 

^ '>^ essence', cf. snyin-po, 

S^-S^ nyin-to Sch. : sure, trustworthy, Lea. : 

^ ' nyih-tor = nes'par, 

^.Q_, nyih'lag^ a category not familiar 

^ ' to us; gen. mentioned together 

with ydn-lag^ it might be translated by: 

members of a second order, parts of the 

ydn-lag^ the exact meaning must however 

remain undetermined, as the Tibetans 

themselves are not able to give a clear 

definition of it. In C, : inner parts of the 

body, opp. to outer. In books, phrases 

like the following are to be found: ydn- 

lag dan nyin^lag fams^bdd dan Iddn-pa; 

ydnlag dan nyin-lag nd-ba; ydn-lag dan 

nyin-lag yb6d'pa\ evidently the nyin-lag 

are smaller, but more numerous than the 

ydn-lag. In Pth, also nyih-syrid is found 

besides yah'Sprid^ emanation of the third 

order; v. «p^-pa.3f*^A^ i^ ^115 ^"^'^y^^' 


ma nyid the mother herself D^Z.; mi 
de ni rgydlpo nyid yin-no this man are 
you yourself, o king! Dzl* the very, just 
he, just it etc., las byidrpaiynas nyid-lajnst 
where I am working Dzl, ; cfe? drun-nyid- 
na (or du) close by, to, or before, hard 
by, Thgy.; dus de-nyid-du at the very 
moment, frq. ; m^ddrbya nyid that which is 
venerable par excellence Tar. 15, 13; ydn- 


^(^) m/inC-mo) 

^"^ nyiirti 

tan nyid Tar. 16, 14 id.; dd-nas mi rin- 
barnyidrna a very short time after Tar,'; 
when added to adjectives it denotes ab- 
stract nouns, as in English the terminations : 
-ness, -ship, -ty, -cy, -yetc., but it is 
chiefly limited to the language of philo- 
sophical writings, from which a few ex- 
pressions only (such as ston-pa-nyid the 
emptiness, the Buddhist vacuum) have 
found their way into col. language. — 

2. In the more recent literature it is used 
resp. for l^od, thou, you; nyidrkyi thy, your 
Pth,^ Ma.; nyid -ran you (col. ^nyi-rdny 
nyo^dh"^) W.j C, resp., like the Grerman 
^Sie^ ; nyidnbag(jran) you, addressed to one 
person or to several, C. (in Glr. Myed^ay 
seems to be used in the same way). — 

3. only, granS'kyi Ina nyid 2jam. only the 
numeral Iha; zanyid-do the letter 2:a alone 
(without a prefix). 

S^f?^') wy^-^wo) 1. day, =»y/-wia 2; nym- 
ff^ ^^'^ during the day-time 
Pth.; nyin^mor ^yur it dawns Cs.; nytfi- 
mor byed 'making day\ an epithet of the 
sunOs.; nyin adv. in the day-time G/r. ; 
nyinrhig one day, once Dzl. ; nyin big bkin' 
du daily Dzl.; nyin-par during the day- 
time Dzl. ; by day-light Dzl. ; del nyin-par 
on that day, frq. Dzl.; pyir nyin^ ^y£ de 
nyiny dei 'pyi nyin the following day, on 
the f.d. Dzl.; tses bbo-lndi nyin the 15th., 
on the 15th. Glr.; fig.: bstdn-pa vyin^ar 
mdzdd-pai sky^-bu a saint that restores 
the doctrine, a reformer of faith; hence 
Schr, : dddrpainyin-byed evangelist, apostle. 

— 2. propitious day; *na 'Sa nyin-mo mi 
. Jiu^ W. this day is not propitious for 

me to go. 

Comp. nyin-dkdr a white, a ludcy day 
Sch. — nyin^dn, mfin-fog-fag (W. * fag- 
fog*) all the day long. — nyin^h noon. 

— nytn-gla daily pay, a day's hire Cs. — 
^nyin-fse^^ W. all the day long, the live- 
long day. — hyin-mfsdn 1. a day and a 
night, nyin-mfsdn bbchbrgydd Mil. for nine 
days and nine nights. 2. day and night 
Dzl.y nyin-mfsan-mM-par id,, frq.; nyin^ 
med-fsdn-med W. id.; nyin-mfsdn^du id. 

Mil.; Ttyin^mfsdn mnydm-pa equinox. — 
nyin-idg{'fbig) 1. a day with the night, 
24 hqurs, divided into 1 2 portions of time, 
called Kyim (q. v.): nam-pyH midnight, 
nam-^yed-ydl 2 o'clock a. m., f(hrdn8 4 o'cL 
a.m. (in popular language also: ^jd-po 
ddn-po* about 2 o'cl., ^nyis-pa* 3 o'cL, 
*9iivmrpcf 4 o'cl., nofm-ldns 6 o'cl. a. m. (i.e. 
the time when the sun first illumines the 
mountain tops; it is from this moment, 
and not from midnight, that in daily life 
the date is counted); nyi-Mr 8 o'cl. a. m. 
(when the sun rises upon the valley); droe- 
Jdm (col. ^nyi'd^) 10 o'cL a.m.; nyin- 
gi&n^ nyi-pyM 12 o'cl., noon; pyed-^161 (W. 
*zd-ra pi-mo*) 2 o'cL p.m., myur-smdd 
4 o'cl. p. m., nyi-rgda 6 o'cl. p. m., srod^ 
Jfdr 8 o'cl. p. m. (col. *8a-rub^ srodrrub*)^ 
srod-M 10 o'cl. p.m. (coL ^Hn-mff*) — 
thus ace. to Wdk. By adding the names 
of the 12 years' cyde (nam-pyM byi-ba^ 
pyed-^l glan etc., v. the word fo), these 
terms have been rendered still more con- 
venient for astrological calculations. Of 
course, all the terms given are strictly 
correct only at the time of the equinoxes, 
and deviate at the summer and winter 
solstices for more than an hour from the 
time indicated by our clocks. 2. nyin-idg 
as symb. num.: 15. — nyin-bSdn-gyia Pth.^ 
nyinr^d biin Qlr.y daily adv., yfith-gyi adj. 
— nyin-ldm a day's journey Gir.y rkati- 
fdn-gi^ rtd^pai, Mg-pai nyin -lam a pe- 
destrian's, a horseman's, a sheep-driver's 
daily march. — nyin-rdm Tar. (= to-rdns) 
day-break, morning twilight Schf. 

^ ^ ^ sunny side of mountains. 
ly^^j^ nyt^a to decay, to crumble to pieces, 
^ of rocks, mountains etc.; rarely to 
run down, of tears, to flow down, of locks 
of hair. 

Sjj;f- nyis 1. instrum. oinyi. — 2. in com- 
^ pounds for ynis. 

^* nyu num. fig.: 68. 

TjiK nyd-ti pear Ld. 

^SJ- nyitg-^a 

wrcr ^^y^'P^ l* ^^ besmear, spoa to per- 
4 ' fame; to rub gently, to stroke, to 
caress ScLy in this sense perh. Gyatch V9i 
14. — 2. to touch, = rig^a ccd. W.; C? 

— 3. to search after (feeling, groping) Cs. 

— 4. to put out, stretch out, H-nas mgo 
one's head out of the water, to look or 
peep out, resp. dbu nyug mdzdd-pa Glr.\ 
m/ug^-njfUg-fa Tar. 80, 21 to stand out, to 
project (Sch,: to nm to and &o?). 

fflTjT iS) ' ^ ' wy«^-^« ^- ^9 Carthusian 

Wr^SJ- ^C:'53T ^J^-^^' nyMw-nim a 
4 ^ (o eunuch D^;/. 

M^'n* wytin-Ja 1. adj. col. ^nyuh-nu^y little; 
^ *wyww-fiw irijr*, Ld. col. ^nyun-na- 
ri^y nyitn-zad big id. Dzl. ; nytm-^os Wiiw., 
a llttie, a few, some; nyun-iar byM-pa to 
make less Cs. — 2. vb. to be little. 
(urxr nyun-ma turnip, la^^-pug dart) nyun 
(^ (-wa) radishes and tomips Glr, — 
nyun-hiy nyun' hi ja tamip-soup, turnip- 
tea, an infusion of dried turnip leaves, 
much used, e.g. in Bbotan, and considered 
very nouri8hing(?). ^nyun-d/^C.y mentioned 
by Wu. p. 137. as ^navets ronds', large 
sweet, red turnips (perh. turnip - rooted 
cabbage?). — nyun-y^ seed -turnips {Ck. 
turnip-seed). — nyim-lo a turnip leaf. 

Note. In writing and speaking this word 
is often confounded with yun(s) mustard, 
so that e.g. yun-ma is. said for turnip inst. 
^nyuh-may nyuhs-dkdr for white mustard, 
iust of yuni^dr. 

V^^^ nyvn-Hmt v nywg-rum. 

AQrq« nyiilrba to wander or rove about, to 
^ pass privily or steal through, e.g. 
towns, countries, mountains MiLy burying- 
placea, tombs (as jackals) Jl/i/.; (Ita) nyulr- 
pa, nyiilrmi Pth.y sa^nyul a spy Cs. (Also 
ynyuJrbay myiU-ba,) 

^ nye num. fig. : 98. 

Vf nyi-fi a pear Schr. (cf. nyu-tiy nyd-ti). 

i^n- ny^'ba L vb., to be near, to approach, 
^ always with the supine of a verb. 


ft^ nyi-ba 


dm byid'du ny^-bas when he was near 
dying DzL; zld-ba fsdn-du ny^-bas (when 
she was) near the completion of the months, 
i e. the time of giving birth to a child 
Dzl.y frq.; sldb-dpon pyir Jm-du ny^-ba» 
when the time of the teacher's return drew 
near DzL ; zin-du mi ny^ste being not near 
having done Dzl.\ even used as follows: 
fnas der sUb-tu vyi-bai fse when he came 
near the place MU. 

II, adj., col. ^nye-nfiio^ near, both as to 
space and time, lam-^n-gt ynyM-pas Uyim- 
mfses nye the neighbour is nearer than 
a kinsman living far off; kd-ba dan ny^- 
bai sar at a place near the pillar Glr.\ 
fag-ny^'ba id.: ri fag-nye-ba big a near 
or neighbouring hill Ma.; standing near, 
fig. being closely connected with by con- 
sanguinity: nyS'ba-mams C. relations, 
kindred (Dzl. 7^^ ^ 13 ynySn-pas prob. is 
preferable to mo ny^-bas) ; allied by simi- 
larity: mtsdms-medr-pa Ina dan de dan ny^- 
bai sdig-pa the five worst sins, and those 
coming nearest to them; near by friend- 
ship and affection: ^ny^-mo yin"^ W. he 
is closely connected with us, he is desirous 
to enter into an intimate connection with 
us; bhy or snyin^ or sems nyS-ba (or *ny^- 
7W0*), friendly, kind, amicable, bio nyS-ba 
Itar bySd'pa to affect a friendly manner 
Glr.; *nyi ' mo jh£ ' pd^ C. to love, e.g, 
parents loving their children or vice vers&; 
nyi'bai sras brgyad Glr. the eight intimate 
disciples (of Buddha, not historical, but 
mythical persons, Mandshusri etc.). 

III. adv. nyi'bar or nyer 1 . near, dan 
to, d^-dag dan ny^-bar Ihd-Kan bkens near 
to them he built a temple Tar.; ny^-bar 
^dn-ba, sUb-pay to come near, to approach; 
ny^-bar ^gyiir-ba id , ^tdm-w, nyi-bar ^gyur- 
ba dan when it was nearly empty PtJi. ; 
ddr-la nyi-bar gyur-to it began to spread, 
to extend itself Jtt.; nyi-bar ynds-pa to 
be near, to stand near, e.g. of a star Wdn. 
— 2. ny^'bar byidrpa^ with la, to adhere to, 
to keep (one's promise) Pth. — 3. nyS-bar 
bidg-pa to make use of, to employ, drdn- 
pa nyi'bar bidg-pa (^infR'nr, Bum. I., 


r nye-io 


^q- nyh-pa 

626. ^pj near, though Tibetan dictionaries 
write ^1^) to make use of one's intellectual 
powers. To do this rightly forms part of 
Buddhist wisdom (v. Kopp, I, 436) and 
instruction {DzL 9(5^^ 7, where Sch.'s 
version is incorr.), being divided into four 
divisions or degrees (Bum,)\ sans-rfft/ds- 
la dhdn-pai ^du-h^s nyi-har bidg-pa to 
apply to Buddha the notion of rareness 
Tar. 5, 13. — 4. intensely, urgently, speedily, 
ojiffs^a ny^-bar it fear is speedily allayed 
Glr, ; Tiadny^-bar Jso the disease is speedily 
cured Tkgyr^ nyi^bar Un-pa MU.y Thgy. 
to seize eagerly, to strive for earnestly, 
to aspire to, esp. to the re -birth as a 
human being; cf. also nyer-Un^ nyi^baar 
Tnlcd^a of urgent necessity, frq. Tar, nyer 
jpel it increases rapidly Med. 
rV. sbst. V. nyi-Hh. 

Comp. nye-sUor Sch. nye-Jcdr those 
about US, the company around us, Kyedn 
rdn^gi nye-Kor-gyi Iddm-bu-ba a beggar 
belonging to the people around you Mil. ; 
esp. relations, kindred, des nye-Udr yan 
kuys'kyis yon in this way family- connections 
are formed of themselves Mil. — nye- 
mUdn = nye-rin Cs. (?) — nye-grogs neigh- 
bour, fellow -creature Ci. — nye-Mr now 
Sch. — ny^'dag C«., nyd-duy and most frq. 
nye-Jbrd {ynyen - Jbril) kindred, relations 
(these being considered a main obstacle 
to moral perfection, they are to be shunned 
accordingly). — nye-ynds disciple, kyid- 
kyi nye-ynds bgyio^ nye-ynds-su mcio I 
wish to become your disciple Dd. — nye- 
t%dn^ nye-rigs relative, kinsman. — nye-rin 

1. near and far, near and distant relations. 

2. distance, sgw nye-rin ci-tsam yod how 
far is it from here to the gate? 3. partial, 
rgydl-po nye-rin ^es the king is very par- 
tial Glr., nye-rin-m^d-pa impartial Glr. — 
nye-ldm near; now Sch. 

^1^ nye-io damage, mishap, accident (syn. 
to bar-lad), nye-io-m^d-par without 

an accident, safely Dzl. 

^x^mqf nye-r^g-pa Leocx. to wash. 

5^3c ^y^"^^' ^^ nyi-bai kin Med., a tree 
^ ' the fruits of which are used as a 
sweet medicine. 

Strrq*, ^^ ny^-ma, nyeg-fdg, v. 
^ ' ' ^ ' ' nydg-ma. 

Wn'^ nyid'pa = mnyM-pa. 

2>- nyen l. = nye, nyen-kdr, or nyen^skdr 
^ ^nye-Jior a relathre, Pth.: nyen-hdr 
Hg yin he is a kinsman; also alone, like 
ynyen. — 2. with a vb.: danger, risk, myur- 
du ^jig-nyen yod there is a danger of its 
being soon destroyed Glr.\ dmydl-bar ^o- 
nyhi yda there is a danger of going to hell; 
srdg^ bar-Md-du ^ro-bai nyen yod Mil. 
of risking one's life; ^dim-nyerf C. he has 
the chance of receiving a good beating; 
occasionally also: to be near, to impend, 
in reference to happy events; in col. lan- 
guage it is simply used for danger, nySn- 
can dangerous, e.g. lam, las, sbrul etc. 
2>-^ nySn-pa, pf. nyhi-to, to be pained, 
^ pinched, pressed hard, e.g. by hun- 
ger, cold, enemies; to toil and moil, to 
labour hard, to drudge; v. ban. 

^' nyer 1. ^nyd-bar. — 2. v. nyi-hi. 
^'^?r ^y^''-*^* Thgy.y theme, task 

$x'5{:c' nyer-nyir, nyer-ie; W. dregs, sedi- 
^^ ment 

Sr-fl* ny^-ba 1. Sch. to tan, curry, dress, 
^ make soft. — 2. W., also ^nyer-kdd 
tdn-de"*, to snarl, growl. — 3. W. to tarry, 
stay, linger (myh-ba for bsndr-ba?). 

ft^'^ nySr-ma W. for jy^-may red pepper. 

^ ^ said to be - rgyui rgyu, original 

^^T nyd'ba taken ill, sick ScL 

5^CT ^y^'P^ !• sbst any thing wrong 
^ or noxious, or liable to become so, 
and the consequences of it; hence 1. evil, 
calamity, damage, nyh-pa fams^dd del lus- 
la ^diu> all sorts of plagues are collecting 
upon his body DzL; lo-nyh a bad harvest, 
failure of crops, lo-nyis by^n-bai f$e when 




^1^ yni/dn 

Ae harvest had been bad; in a special 
sense in medicine: the three hlimours of 
the body, air (v. rlun)^ bile, and phlegm, 
gen. called f^7t^ ynodrbyM nyh-pa ymm 
the three noxioas matters (most diseases 
being ascribed to a derangement of one 
of them). — 2. moral fault, offence, sin, 
crime, ny^-^ai skyon^ being contaminated 
by a crime DzL; lus dan ndg-gi (or Uai) 
nyis-pa sin in word and A^tA DzL\ nyes- 
pa by^'pa to commit a fault, a crime; 
to sin, frq.; also: mi hig-la nyes-pa hyun 
a slip has occurred to a person DzU ; bddg- 
la nyh'pa H hig ydd-de ma ynah what 
crime have I committed, that you will 
not give me permission? Dzh — 3. punish- 
ment C. *nyi-mi^ id., resp. *Aa nye\ nye- 
fa fog-Uarf he that has got a punishment. 

U. vb. to commit an offence, o^^ ^ 

»^A-te hz%kh what offence has he com- 
mitted that he is taken prisoner? Dzl, (c£ 
above); sn^n-iad bdag^gis nyds-pa bden it 
is tme that formerly I committed a fault 
Zte/.; shdr Tna abrdn-pa nyds-so the not 
reporting sooner was a fault DzL] yydgs- 
pa nySs - so you have committed a fault 
by covering . . . DzL; bdag nyis-na if harm 
is done to me; hence hi nyis in a general 
sense: Uyod H nyis-pa smros Ug tell me 
what has happened to you DzL\ btsdn-na 
H nyh quid mali, si vendideris? DzL\ mi 
dranrnam di nyes is she out of her senses, 
or, what is the matter with her? DzL; 
H ny^-na why, ci nyds-na Mdn-pai nan- 
na rdzin-bu bshyil why is there a pond 
within the house? DzL; ma ny^-pai ^rd- 
ba innocent beings MU, ; wa nyes-pa pyir 
byun he came out again unhurt DzL ; nyes- 
byas a wicked action, a sin Cs. ; nyh-ltuh 
sin, sinful deed, trespass, nyMtun-gis pog 
he has been overtaken by a sin Mil, 

y nyo 1. num. fig.: 128. — 2. carrot 6's. 

^^ nyo'ti a pear Ld, Ctv i^ ^ . 

a^ nyd-ba^ pf. and imp. wyos, 1. to buy, 

dnul brgyas for a hundred rupees; 

nyd-^bdhypo a buyer, purchaser, nyo-iba-) 



mo fem.; nyd-mkan a buyer, customer; 

nyd'fo account, bill; nyo-Jsdh commerce, 

traffic; nyo-Ja&n bydd-pa to trade. — 2. 

to take at rent, to take the lease (of a field, 

by buying the crop). 

rq* nydg-pa soiled, dirtied, made unclean, 
' e.g. of victuals Mil.; nydg-ma Sch.j 

hi-nydg Lex. muddy, foul water; nyog^nydg^ 

po confused (story) Tar. 

^r- nyogs-byin Sch.: too soft; nyog- 
^ nyin Sch. soft, tender, weak, 

inclined to weep; ^s^-nyog-^arC^ (for ybis- 

nyog-tan) dandling, fondling W. 

^'CJ' nyddrpa food Lex. 

^^^j^-j.q. wyon-w^iws-pa (seldom without 
^ -pa), S%k. %ff 1 . misery, trouble, 

pain, frq.; also used as a verb: nyorwm^m- 
hin ; tsd-bas nyon-m&nS'te molested by the 
heat DzL\ nyon-mdhs-par ^gyur-ha to get 
into trouble DzL ; nyon ma mons-sam had 
you to experience any hardship? DzL — 
2. in a restricted sense: the misery of sin, 
nyon-mdns-pa-las p'an-pai don med this 
does not avail for being delivered from 
such misery DzL; sin, nijon-n7i6m-pai nod, 
dai> - ma DzL ; set* - sna - la sdgs-pai nyon- 
mdnS'pa avarice and other sins S.O.; nyon- 
mdrfS'pa-mddrpa free from sin, sinless S.O.; 
fiyon-mdna-ian-gyis nyd-ha nyos Zam. the 
offender buys the flesh of a fish. 

nyob-nydb weak, feeble-minded 


?^' nyor 1. v. nyd-ba. 2. a rectangle Cs. 

nyoly imp. of nydl-ba; nydl-ba prov. 

for nydl'ba. 

nyos^ imp. of nyd-ba; nyos-mi a slave 


^nW^'^' ynydn-ba Sch., prob. = mydn-ba. 

™l^- ynyan 1 . a pestilential disease, epi- 
'^ ^ demic, or contagious disorder, plague, 
mdze dan Jbrwm-bu ynyan Ma.] ynyan- 
ndd id.; ynyan- ditg a poison against, or 
a remedy for the plague Med.; dka-ynydn 
a destructive plague Sch. — 2. a species 
of wild sheep, argali (Ovis ammon). 



^TjWT^ ynydn-pa 

srj^ ynyis 

mksrzT ^'f^ydn-pa cruel, fierce, severe, Iha 
piydnrnams Glr. gods of venge- 
ance, deities of terror; klu-piydn id.; 
llrims ynydn-pa a cruel commandment, 
£rq.; darnrtsig ynydvr^a prob. a rigid vow, 
a solemn oath MU.; of mountains: wild, 
rugged, precipitous; ynydn - sa a rugged 
country MU.\ in ynydn-pai ynad (v. ynad) 
prob.: dangerous. — ynydnrpo sbst. Mil.f 

rnMvq-) r^ya(rba) 1. neck, nape, r^yd- 

'^ ba brfuns the neck is contracted 

or shortened Med, — ynyd-ko hide, or 
leather of a beast's neck Cs. — ynya-Zldbs 
screen of the neck (attached to a helmet) 
Sch. — ynya - rff^ydb (?) C. breast - work, 
parapet. — ynyorrUi vertebra prominens, 
the cervical vertebra with its projecting 
process MU, — ynya-fsigs cervical joint. 
— ynya-rHs stiflf neck, ynya^Sns-dan 1. 
having a stiff neck; 2. stiffnecked, obsti- 
nate. — ynya-nh a yoke (for oxen) GZr., 
Lea. — 2. skad-ynyd v. skad, 
J— fl-j.— . ynyor-ndn, or snya^ndn, a village 

1/ T^ Qjj ^\^Q frontier of Nepal. 
mfx^ y^yd-bo a witness, one that gives 

'^ evidence C«., Lex. = d^a^ -^; 
ynyd'bo by^-pa to pledge for, to be surety 
for; DzL 97V'' bskyi-ynyd byas^ Sch.: 'he 
made an attested loan\ 
T^my^y^'9^ for ynyis'ka Stg.; ynyi-z^ 

'^ ' for nyi-zh* hex, 

PwTry ynyig-tu Lex.^yUg-ta, 

qiSt- ywyid, resp. wTm/, sleep, ynyid-du 
'^ ^rc^-Jo to fall asleep Glr., MU.; W. 
*nytd ma yon^ sleep has not come, I am 
sleepless ; ^nyid ma Uxig^ nyid Hug ma nyan*^ 
also *nytd sa/i son* id.; ynyid mi tub he 
cannot find sleep Med.\ ynyidrtum-pa one 
uninterrupted portion of sleep GZr.; ynyid 
mfug-pa a sound sleep, ynyid-srdb a light 
sleep, a slumber Med. — ynyid -log -pa 
(prop, ynyid' kyts log -pa) Dzl. to fall a- 
sleep, Dzl TV^-, 16; ^L^ 9 (thus correctly 
translated already by Schr.)^ prob. also 
to sleep; ynyid-la ^^o-ba, W. *ca-b^^ to 
fall asleep ; ynyid fug-por son he fell into 
a deep sleep MU.\ *da-run ynyid ma Idg- 

mKan-Jluj^ TT. I am still awake; ynyid 
sdd-pa to awaken, to awake vb. n. ; ynyid- 
yur-ba to be overcome by sleep Sch., 
Tar. 31, 22, Pth., — ynyid-rddl C. som- 
nambulism; *nyidr7na-m&n4a did-h^ id., 
Ld.; *nyi^-M gydb-pa* id* C. — )-nyidr 
can sleepy Cs. ; ynyid^mM having no sleep, 
sleepless; ynyid-yir morbid sleeplessness; 
ynyid-ydr Med., Pth.^ id? ynyidrlam C. = 
rmi-lam dream. 

^&^ ynyis 1. also ynyis hig (v. ci^), two, 
'/ de ynyis^ ynyis-po^ ynyis-ka the two, 
both; ynyM(-«w)-w^(-pa); mi -ynyis -pa 
Tar.^ not being two, i.e. not differing, 
identical, the same, ha dan rgydJrba ynyis- 
su med I and Buddha, we are one, i.e. 
I am an incarnation of Buddha Olr.; Cs. 
also: indubitable, thus perh. used by MiL; 
ynyis-su Jbyttn-ia to be divided into two, 
to become two Glr. — 2. a (married) 
couple, brdm - ze ynyis Brahmin roan and 
wife. — 3. both (v. above), in Tibetan 
often added, where two nouns have the 
same predicate, either disjunctively, and 
then usually followed by re: jd-bo dan 
byams-mgdn ynyis mdad-mo ret st^-du 
l^s both the lord and the Maitreya were 
mounted on bastard-cows Glr.; ha-rdn re 
ynyis either of us MiL] pyi nan ynyis lUs- 
lugs gan bzan which is the better of the 
two religions, the esoteric, or the exoteric? 
Glr.; — or copulatively: kyo-Mig ynyis-la 
rds-lug y tig-las mi bddg-ste as they both, 
husband and wife, had only one cloth to- 
gether Dzl.', — and recipiocally : &« dan 
bon ynyis rtsdd-pa the contest between the 
religion of Buddha, and the religion of 
the Bons Glr. ; Hyod dan ha ynyis bzcHin 
byao we two shall marry each other Glr. 
In most cases mentioned sub 3, ynyis-po 
(the two), ynyis-ka, (yy^y^-Q^-i W* col- *'^^ 
*nyi-ko, nyi-kady nyi-kod*, Sp. *nyi-mo*y 
may be used inst. of ynyis; ynyis may also 
refer to several nouns on one or on both 
sides: Kyed dan ha ynyis both you (re- 
ferring to several persons) and I; but it 
may also be quite omitted, as in other 
languages: ga dan bai ^ug-tsvl the way 

STj^^^ ynyug-ma 


of employing the (two) letters g and b 

Comp. and deriv. ynyis'skyes one that 
is born twice i.e. a bird Cs. ; also one that 
has entered into a religious order Cs. — 
ynyis-cdr v. car, — ynyis-ynyis two a 
piece. - ynyis'lddb twofold, double, v. Idab. 
— ynyis -^fuh (ft[^) 'drinking twice', the 
elephant. — ynyis-pa 1. the second. 2. 
having two, possessed of two, e.g. mg(h- 
ynyis-pa having two heads, two-headed; 
also double-tongued, deceitful W. 3. having 
doubts, doubtingC?) W^^^. — ynyis-po the two, 
both (v. above). — ynyts-mid v. beginning 
of this article. — ynyis-Jbin prob. the state 
of being affected or influenced by contrary 
things: doubt, unsteadiness, wavering Glr.; 
piyU-^dzin Itd-ba prob. to look upon two 
thmgs as differing, to think them different Jii'Z. 
mMTJI' y'^y^g-'^na Cs, natural, opp. to 
'4 beds -ma artificial, hence (Sch.) 

= dnos-ma; Lexx. = flpf innate, peculiar. 
It occurs in the expressions: semsynyug- 
may and ynyiig-mai sems Mil; ynyug-mai 
ye^es MU. ; ; nyug-mai don Mil, and Lea. ; 
ma-bids ynyiig-mai ndh-du jdres^ perh.: is 
dissolved into the uncreated primordial 
existence MU, Our Lama explained it dif- 
ferently in different passages, and was not 
certain of the true meaning of the word. 

CTa[;*rm^ ynytl,n-dkdr rape-seed for press- 
4 ing oil; but cf. nyun-ma. 

^'R^^ ynytiZ-ia = nyul-ba. 

ffl5*fl'/w^^-ia, Gh\ also ynyeo, smy^-bo, 

^ a wooer, courter. 
m^^ yny4-ma the twisted part of the 

'^ colon or great gut, Med. and col. 
{8ch, erron.: rectum). 
mjr ynyen^ resp. sku-ynyM 1. Icinsman, 
relative, bydms-pai ynyen loving re- 
lations, frq.; ynyin-la bydms-pa byed-pa 
to love one's relatives; yny&n-gyi sgy{tg- 
ww, sgyug-mo as a degree of relationship 
i«jr.; ynyen byed-pa to become related, 
or allied, by marriage Dzl. — 2. gen. 
yn^po helper, friend, assistant, esp. spiri- 
tually: rgyud yny&n-po bzdn-bar byin-gyis 



^^ ynyen 

rlobs bless my soul, that it may become 
a good spiritual helper (to these people) 
Mil. ; ynyen -po-la ma Itos -par without 
looking up to a spiritual adviser Mil.; frq. 
used of supernatural helpers : bod ^dul-bai 
ynyhi-po the promoter of the conversion 
of Tibet (the special Saviour of Tibet, as 
it were), Awalokiteswara, frq. ; applied to 
things: remedy, means, expedient, antidote, 
ndd-la yso-bar byidrpm ynyen-po assistants 
in curing maladies (e.g. medicine, diet etc.) 
Med. ; dd yny^n-por as a remedy for Thgy,^ 
frq.; sgrub-pai fahs mi his-pai yny^-p&i* 
as a remedy for helplessness in acquiring 
a certain object, i.e. direction or instruc- 
tion how to obtain it Thgy,; ynyhi-po 
ysdn-ba mysterious helpers, or sources of 
good (relative to fetish -like objects frq.) 

— 3. Cs.t ^yny^nrpo adversary, antagonist, 
enemy; contrary, opposite, adverse'; Sch,: 
^yny4nrpor rUn-pa to adhere to the counter 
party'; Lexx. have ^span-by ai yny&n-po^ a 
yny^n-po to be shunned, explaining /72;^^7^j[>o 
t>y TfRnrr (prob. to be corrected into t|^) 
opponent, adversary. Sure proofs of this sig- 
nification of ynyin-po I seldom met with in 
literature, but Lewin mentions some instan- 
ces scarcely to be doubted. — 4. i. o. mnyen 
and bsnyen. 

Comp. dpun-ynyen helper, assistant, frq. 

— pd-yny^y md- ynyen a relation on 
the father's side, on the mother's side Cs. 

— bses-yny4n friend, esp. spiritual friend, 
V. bses. — ynyen-grds (^ScLf), ynyen-^hrel^ 
*nyen - dun - po* W. relations, esp. of the 
same blood ; ynyen-sd^^ ynyen-tsdn^ ynyen- 
srid MU. id., col. — ynyen-^dun 1. Sch,: 
^concord, harmony, amongst kinsmen', in 
which sense it seems to be used in Stg,: 
ynyen-^dun zddrpa yin this harmony ceases. 
2. relations, pa yan ma yin, ynyen-^d^n min 
neither father nor relations Thgy, — ynyen- 
zld prob.: qualified, fit for miatrimonial 
alliance (as to birth etc.), ky^d-mams kyan 
ned rgya-ndg-pai ynyen-zld yin- pas as ye 
Tibetans may enter into connubial con- 
nexion with us Chinese Glr.\ in a concrete 
sense: a good match, ynyen-zld ma my^d- 



m^*^ ynyir-ba 

kyis Dzl 5V, 14; Kyod dan ynyennzld min 
1 am not allied with you by marriage, 
with you I am not on terms of affinity. 
— ynyenrhdl (?) reconciliation C. — ynyen- 
Uis relatives and friends, also separately: 
Uyodrla ynyen med hhes hycm med Mil. 
qw^w yny^ - ba c. accus. to take pains 
'^ with, to talce care of, to provide for, 
to try to get; to procure, to acquire, ynyer 
byid-pa id.; as a sbst Tar, 165, 22: the 
procurer, provider Schf.\ gen. in conjunc- 
tion with don in various ways, as: bda^ 
don hig fnyir - fe as I have to look after 
a business Dzl. 2p^ 7; don ynyer -ba to 
earn money; ddn-du ynySr-ba c. accus., 
rarely c. dat : to provide for, to strive to 
procure, nor ddn-^ ynyir-ha to endeavour 
to make money, frq.; yo-bydd ddn-du 
yny^'ba-mams people who dfesired to 
have goods Tar, 169, hence don-yny^ 
exertion, effort, zeal, don-yny^ ^Snrpo dgos 
great exertions are necessary MU, ; in this 
sense prob. also Tar. 4, 8: earnest exertion 
(in investigating); don^-ynyir byidrfa c. la 
to study, investigate (a thing) Glr.\ don- 
ynySr-ian 1. zealous, painstaking. 2. Sch, 
also : liked, welcome, Tn^ona welcome guest. 
— dkon-yny^ Tar. 183, 21, Schf.i ad- 
ministrator of valuable property; ace. to 
others: the first secular functionary of a 
yteug- lag- Kail y about the same as bailiff 
(steward) of a convent, = Jhorynyir Georgi 
Alph. Tib. (in an edict); also the manager 
of the daily sacrifices (dgon^ynydrf); slob- 
ynyir a student, ^osslob-yny^ a religious 
scholar (a student of theology) MU., slob' 
yny^ gdn-du bgyia where did you study? 
Mil. — ytad-ynyir byid-pa to trust (a 
person with), to intrust (a thing to) Olr.\ 
cM'du ynyir-bay and ij^-m ynySr-ba v. 
^ed, — yny4r-Ka attention, care, ynyir-Ka 
byid'pa ccg, to pay attention to, attend 
to, take care of Pth.\ ynyir-Ka ytdd-pa 
to commit (a thing) to a person's charge, 
to put a person in trust of Glr. — yny&r^ 
pa farm-steward, in convents etc. — yny^- 
bydn prob. = ynyer-Ka, — ynyer'fsdn store- 

*W5r^ fnnydm-pa 

room, store-bouse, (if under the charge of 
a special ynyir-pa). 

qw^w ynyir-Tna a fold of the skin, 
'^ wrinkle Med,\ ynyer-ma r^-pa 

^gyur the wrinkles are made straight, are 
smoothed Stg.\ ynyir - jna ' han wrinkled; 
Kro-yny^ (^19^) * frown, a severe or 
angry look v. ]lr6^ba\ ynyir-ha to wrinkle, 
sna-gdn ynySr^ba to knit the brows, to 
frown Pth. 

t^JM^S^ ynyilria^mnyiUba Sch. 

v^&aczv y'W^'P^ t® desire, to wish earnestly 
'^' C%. \. snydg-pa. 

qj^. ynyod strengtb, durability, stoutness 
''^ of cloth etc., C. and TF., ynydd-can 
strong; ynyod-^n^ ynyod-med weak; Lex, 
hts ynyod - Sin a weakly body or consti- 
mSS^'tr y^y^'P^ ^ draw, stretch, strain 

'/^ c, w. 

^ox* mnyan C. boat, skiff, wherry; mnydn^ 

^ pa boat-man, ferry-man. 
35IWrQ ''^'^ydnrpa 1. = nydn-pa DzL etc. 

^ — 2. V. mnyan. 
$I(5«i)!fe' '^^y^n-yody ^rr^^, a town in 
'' ' the northern part of Oudh. 

51%$!' nmyam v. the following word. 

SlftST^ ??iwy(fm-^a (iw) ^^ *nydm^*, 
^ 1. like, alike, equal, WKie^mnydm- 
po ydd they are alike, equal, not differing, 
col.; with dan^ seldom with the termin., 
Uia dan mnydm-pa yod they are like unto 
the gods Pth.y Olr,\ zlum-por mnydm-pa 
roundish £[a9n6/l.; rigs rrmydm-pa of equal 
birth, rank DzL\ dtis mnydm-^a contem- 
porary, simultaneous, frq. mnydm-par gyur- 
ba to become equal, to be equal Dzl. — 
2. even, level, flat, lag-mfil Uar mnydm-^a 
flat like the palm of the hand Gk, and 
elsewh.; mnydm-pa (or -par) byM-pa to 
make even or level, to even, to equalize 
DzL; to divide equally; sems mnydm-pa 
imperturbation, evenness of mind, not to 
be affected by kindness or the reverse; 
sems mnydm-par jdg-pa to compose the 


miDd to perfect rest, for meditation, frq. ; 
fimydmr^ sbydr-ba id. (?) — mnydm-du 
adv. (col. *nydm^o*) c. dan: together with, 
in company of, bld-ma dan nydwrdu offrogs 
dus-m MU. ; ma dan mnydm'duQtH-ia Thgy.\ 
col. *«o dan nydTnrpo hog* or merely ^nydm- 
po ho^ come aloDg with me! ^nyamson- 
te* going along with; nyi-ma hdr-ba dan 
mmydm^du with the rising sun Mil.; col. 
*dul dan nydm-po* in walking, ambulando] 
^fen dan nydm-po* in taking it away (it 
was broken); ^Kwr^a nydm^ (to send some- 
thing) by (with) a cooly. — mnyamrmidy 
mnyam-brdl unequalled, matchless; mi 
mnydm^a 1, unequal, 2. uneven. — pyag 
(or lag) ynyis mnydwriiag-tu ydd-pa both 
hands laid together on the stomach, mnydm- 
hkag fyajg-rgya-han id. — mnyofWr^a-nyid^ 
^pnn, equality, parity; impartiality, justice. 

«^w mnyidrfa^ pf. and imp. mnyes, fut, 
^ ^ mnyCy W. col. ^mnyo-be*^ 1. to nib, 
between the hands or feet, e.g. ears of com ; 
ODe^s body Tar,] esp. hides, hence to tan, 
curry, dross; kd-ba mny^-pa a tanned 
hide, dressed leather; *hed dan ny^-i^ 
W. to rub in or into with force. — 2. Cs. 
also: to coax. 

«^q- mnyhi-fa, W, *nyin-mo*j flexiblo, 
^ pliablo, suppio; soft, smooth, of the 
voice frq.; of the mind DzL\ mny^n-par 
bySd'pa to make soft, smooth, flexible, 
^gy{ir4)a to become soft, of the skin etc. 
Med.; mnyen^mnyil-ba to make soft by 
tanning Sch. — mnyen^mnyh yhin-pa to 
caress, to fondle Sch. 
jqSflrq- mnyiUba 1. also piyiUba^ to tan, 
^ to dress (hides) Sch. — 2. resp. 
for ndl-ba to get tired Pth. 

^^fv^' mnyis'pa^ resp.for dgd'-ba, in more 
^ recent writings and col. for the 
dgyk'pa of ancient literature, to be glad, 
to take delight in, ccd.; to be willing, to wish, 
often with fugs ; mny^s^m* byidrpa to make 
glad, to give pleasure; e.g. to the king by 
presents Olr.y to Buddha by worshipping 
him Glr. — mnyes-Wn-pa Leax.y Sch.: to 
love much; to be rejoiced at 

S^^'Cf myid^a 

S^S^^ 'mnyd-mnyo-ban W. fondling, 

^ ^ ^ petting, prii^gMrla a child. 
x-'gr «r3f rnyd'loy myd-loj several vnld- 
V ' V growing species of Polygonum 

M-'fl' rnydn-ba Cs. = hsdUba^ to rinse; W. 
^ to sufFer diarrhoea, myan-ndd diar- 

rhoea; mydn-pa diarrhetic stool; mydn- 
may ynydn-ma id,, ni f. 
SC'Ec ^y^'^y^y wom-out clothes, rags 

S^ myan = ynyan wild sheep, argali. 

jc^n-xq-q- myab-mydb-pa to SOizo orsnatch 
^^ together ScA. 

^^' myaSy sometimes used for bmyas. 

^ §• Tuyiy snyiy W. *nyiu^ nyin-nu* (cf. 
V ' V myon) 1 . snare, for catching vrild 
animab, myi JbUg-pa to lay snares, also 
fig. — 2. trap, f^r-myi mouse-trap (con- 
sisting of a flat stone supported by a little 
stick {piiT-pa). — 3. net Sch. (?). 

fr-q- myin-pa old, ancient, of things, e.g. 
clothes, ysar^myin new and old; 
sndr-gyi yi-ge myin-^a-^'nams ancient re- 
cords Glr.; brdormyin the ancient ortho- 
graphy Zam.; lo-myin = na-^n last year 
Wts,; dran-srdn rnyin-pa the old rishi, i.e. 
the well-known, of long standing, opp. to 
a new-comer Dzl. — myin-ba vb., pf. 
bmyinSy to grow old, gos bmyins old clothes, 
Uiam bmyins old shoes Lex.; myin^bar 
^gyur-ba id.; myth-bar byid-pa to wear out 
or away in a short time DzL 

St'^T ^^y^^"^'*^^ °' ^f ^^ most ancient 
* sect of Lamas, clothed in red, v. 

Kopp.; Schi. 72; myin-ma-pa one belong- 
ing to this sect, 

$^j^-q- myid'pa^ pf. bmyid, (b)myisy fut. 
y^ gnyidy 1. to wither, to fade, also fig. 
— 2. to grieve, (vb.n.) Sch. 

^^\ %^ myily snyUy so-myily the gums. 

S^^^' myil-ba v. snyil-ba. ^ 

ir-q- myidrpa I. vb., pf. bmyedy bmyesy 
^ ' fut. bmyedy (^m) to get, obtain, ac- 
quire; to meet with, find, B.y C, frq.; gdn- 

/* - 


^crj-q- mydg-pa 

nas myed where did you get that? DzL<^ 
abo: whence shall I get it? Dzlr, mi 
myM'du mi fun-no it must be got or pro- 
cured by all means Dzl. ; nas imyed I ob- 
tain; myid'par dkd'ba wi[^ difficult to 
be obtained, found, or met with, frq.; sditg- 
bsndl dan bsdos-te hs myM-^a to purchase 
the acquisition of religion by sufFering tor- 
tures DzL ; zas dan shorn mu myid-de hav - 
ing nothing to eat or to drink, frq.; don 
my^drfa v. don] da ni ri-ba myM-do now 
my hopes are realized DzL\ ffrimyed-pas 
as he found a knife DzL\ skabs myed-pa 
to find an opportunity DzL] btsdl-na yan 
ma myid:de not finding it in spite of every 
search Dzl, (W. *fob-^^). 

n. sbst. irm profit, gain, acquisition, 
property, goods, myedr-pa m^n-po myedrpa 
(or ^fdb'b^) to gain much profit; bdag 
myid-pa dan Iddn-na mi dga if 1 have 
got some earnings, he envies me for them; 
often in conjunction with grogs -pa and 
similar expressions : riches and honour. — 
myed sdu-ba^ myid-pa pr6g-pa Sch.: to 
make booty, to plunder. — myed-bkurLea.y 
prob. riches and honour. — i^yed-nor v. 

^CT-q- mydg^pa (cf. nyog-pa) vb., pf. 
^ ' bmyogs, fut. bmyog^ 1. to trouble, 
to stir up Cs,\ also adj.: thicic, turbid. *^ 
nydg-pa* W. — 2. to rub one's self, kd- 
ba-la against a pillar Dzl, (snydg-pa). — 
*nydg{'pd)"dany nydg-po* 6'., troubled, tur- 
bid, dirty ; mydg-pa m^d-pa clear, limpid, 
mfso Wdn. — mydg-ma dirty, muddy water; 
mud^ mire, myog-ma-ban muddy, miry. 
^Jn5;r rnyogs Lt ? myogs - fsdd a disease 
^ r^ Med. 

^[r' rnyon seems to be the same as myi 
^ Lexx,; mydn-ba, pf. bmyonSy fut. bmyon 
1. Cs.: 'to ensDare, entrap'. — 2. Sch.: 'to 
stretch out'. I met with rnyon in the fol- 
lowing expressions, not satisfactorily to be 
explained either by Cs. or by >^ch. : rkdn- 
pa rnyon Lex.; dku ma myons Lea:."., Itts 
my&n-ba S.g.; frq.; yyal-mydns S.g.; mgulr 
rgydb zug dan rnyon S.g.; myons -fsdd 


S<^^ snydn-pa 

S*^' snya-ndn v. ynya-ndn. 

51'^ snyd^lo v. myd-lo. 

snydg-pa^ col. for snyig-pa; also in 


snyags Lea. w.e. ; C. = dbyans music, 


jMc- snyad malicious or fake accusation or 
^ imputation, myad Jzitg-pa {W. ""tsug- 
b^) to bring in an action against, to pro- 
secute; *nyad du-^e* W., *ny«' kd^wcf 6'. 
id., esp. to irritate, to provoke another, by 
accusations; snyad ^ddgs-pa id. Glr.; snyad 
^ddg-pay W, *ddg-te* to clear one's self of 
an accusation, to refute it; snyad by^d-pa 
cdat. to use as a pretence or pretext Glr.; 
*nyf' bo' (or ^') tdn-wa* 61, *nyad-si tag- 
be^ Ld. to weary another by too great 
punctiliousness, nif.; ^nor-nydd bd-b^ W. 
to extort money by false accusations^ la 
from; snyad midrpar without cause, pre- 
tence, or provocation Thgy.; ^nydd-zer-ban^ 
W. one that makes false accusations. 
jMjp-^- snydd-pa^ p£ and fut. bsnyady imp. 

V » snyod, to relate, to report, e.g. to- 
rgyus a story Pth,, rmi-lam a dream DzL; 
ytam snyddrpa 1. to speak, state, inform, 
give notice (W. *hun tdn-be*). 2. Cs.: to 
rehearse' (?). 

syx- snyan 1 . resp. the ear, rgydl-poi snydn- 

V » du fos it came to the king's hearing 
Glr.; snydn 'du zus or bjyod they told or 
informed him Pth.; snydn -du zun listen, 
pay attention, give ear to! Pth.; snydn- 
du pul they sang to him or before him 
(lit. they made him hear) Mil. (cf. sub 
snydn-pa); snydn-(gyis) ysdn-pa to hear 
Mil.; snyan -ysdn bebs-pa to give ear to 
one, to hear one Cs.; *nyin-hi Jbul-^a^ C 
to address a superior, to apply to him; 
snyan -kun the ear-hole; snyan- ctbdn the 
organ of hearing Cs. ; snyan-sdl the lap or 
tip of the ear Cs. ; snyan -prd hit -ba to 
slander, mi mi-la to calumniate one per- 
son to another. — 2. = ynyan argali. 

gl^q- mydn-pa (ifipO ^- ^^^^ renown, 
^ ' glory, fame, praise, rumour, Hydd-kyi 

§^^ mydb-pa 

snydn-pa pyogs bbur gragn every part of 
the world rin^s with thy praise ; dei snydn- 
pa rgydh-Tias fos Mil, his praises are heard 
far and wide; des del snydn-pa brj6d-Hn 
thus speaking praisingly of him Mil; Jf^- 
pai snydn^a-la rtM-nas owing to a ru- 
mour of this purport Mil.; tes mydn-pa 
dan grdgs-pa ^-po byun so was said far 
and near Mil.; del snydn-du to his praise 
Mil. (cf. snyan). — 2. adj., W, *nydn-pd^, 
well-sounding, sweet to hear, of voice, words 
etc.; *fsor'ndh'la nydvr-po^ W. pleasant to 
the ear; also: dgesUn dbyam rdb-tu mydn- 
pa a monk having a well-sounding voice 
DzL; fng mydn-par with pleasant words 
DzL; snydn-pai fsig-gis id.; low, not loud; 
myan^kdd also C: elegant, well-sounding, 
poetical language; mi snydn-pa 1. un har- 
monious; 2. offensive, insulting, gan iigbddg- 
la rtsddr'hm mi-snydn-bryod he who in a dis- 
pute says to me insulting words ; mi-mydn- 
par z^r-ba ddn-du Un-pa to put up with, 
to pocket offensive remarks. 3. lamentable, 
dead mi snydn-^a z^-ba to utter lament- 
able cries, plaintive tones, also of animals, 
DzL ; ytam'8nydn(-pa^ 1 . good, joyful news, 
glad tidings, byid-pa to bring them DzL, 
Mil. 2. a pleasing talk, conversation Cs. (?) 

— snyan-grdga v. grdgs-pa. — snyan-^^gyud 
oral instruction of the Lamas, =* bka-rgy{id. 

— snyan '(d)ndg(s) v. nag. — 3. vb. to 
praise, extol, glorify, stdd-Hh snydn-par 
grdgs'te he extolled him in songs of praise 
Dzl (?) 

jMq-q* snydb-pa to smack with the lips 
^ Sch. 

xm*q* snydm-pa 1. vb. to think, suppose, 
^ fancy, imagine, bddg-dag rin-po-^e 

btan (better: ytan) snydm-mo we think we 
shall give jewels DzL ^W, 16.; na Ideb 
dgos snydm-nas thinking, I must seek death 
(v. ttib'pa) Pth.; ydn-tan dan Man -par 
snydm-^te fancying to be possessed of ex- 
cellent qualities DzL — 2. sbst. thought, 
sense, mind, feeling, cos byds-na snydm-pa 
y&n-gin yda (cf. na III., 2) we have a 
mind to renounce the world Mil.; simi- 
larly: ojigS'SO snydm-pa yod re-skdn I am 





far from any thought of fear MU.; most frq. 
snydm-du bsams he thought in his mind; 
snyam-byed : pan snyam-byM kyan though 
one may imagine that it will help Med.; 
skyug-pa., brduns^ dkris snyam-byid there 
arises a feeling like that of nausea, like 
that of being beaten, of being (tightly) 
wrapt up, Med, 

§' snyi V. imyi. 

f'O" s^yi'ba 1. adj., also snyi-bo, snyi-mOy 
snyin-po 6s., *nyin-f^ W., soft, smooth, 
to the touch; tender, delicate, of the skin; 
easily broken or injured; loose, crazy, not 
durable, not strong or stout, of cloth, 
ropes etc.; not hard or tqugh, tender, of 
meat, rendered so by beating or boiling. 
— 2. sbst softness. — 3. n. of a plant. 

f'SJOJ" s^y^if5tiZ corn of luxuriant growth 
^ Sch, (?) 

§'$r snyl-ma prov. for snyi-ma ; also Glr. 

f- nr'm'er snyi-san-ka-tya^ and snyi-^an- 
' 'xi gur-rta, names of mountains 
in Nepal. 

^smr-q- snyigs-pa degenerated, grown worse 
V ' Cs. snyigs-ma (^ir^^T) 1. impure 

sediment, mdr-gyi in butter; dans snyigs 
jyyed-pa to separate the clear (fluid) from 
the sediment Med. — 2. the degenerated 
age (iron age), prop. snyigs-(7nai)'dus, 

fr- snyin (^JR) the heart 1. physically, 
also snyin -ka^ snyih-ga^ resp. tugs 
(-*a); also the breast; *nyih-ka par -ra 
ra^ W, I feel my heart palpitate; snyin 
jddr-zin ^l the heart trembles (with fear) 
Dcmah; bddg-gi lus-kyi snyin liar yces as 
dear to me as my own heart Glr. — 
2. intellectually: the mind, snyin dgd-ba, 
snyin bde-ba gladness, cheerfulness ; snyin 
dan mig jpr6g-pa to transport, to ravish 
Sch.; courage, snyin ma cun big be not 
afraid ! sentiment, feeling, will, ^nyin sdg- 
po td-te Tna dag*" W, I have not broken 
it wilfully; */la dan nyi/i ma dd-te* W. 
hypocritical; *nyih-shn ddn-po* W. sincere, 
candid; in a more general sense: snyin 
yddn-gyis bslus the heart is infatuated by 




a demon Olr,; even madness may be at- 
tributed to the heart Do. — snyin -nas 
1 . heartily, zealously, earnestly, e.g. looking 
for or to a thing DzL ; S7iyin fdg-pa-nas with 
all one's heart, most earnestly, devoutly, 
e.g. to say one's prayers T/u/y. 2. actually, 
really, Hon snyin'-nas mi Jbyin-ba yin really 
he does not sink! (the water actually bears 
him) Mil, 3. v. myih-po, 

Comp. and deriv. snyin-ku v. nyih-Hu, 
— snyin-Udms courage Sch, — ^nyin^iag 
KoP W, my heart's blood is boiling (with 
anger etc.) — snyih-dgd v. above. — 
myin-can courageous, spirited Ld, — ""nyin" 
hi hi^ W. afflicted with dropsy in the peri- 
cardium, hydrocardia. — snyih-ry€y resp. 
fiigs-rye (ip^qr) kindness, mercy, compassion, 
mi 'la snyin- rye sg&m-pa to commiserate, 
to pity a person Jl///.; snyin-r)es kydb-pa 
id. with respect to a great number of beings, 
to embrace with affection Dzl.\ snyin-tyes 
ndn-te overpowered by compassion; ^nyin- 
he ts&r-b^ W. to have compassion ; snyin-rye- 
iany snyin-^e dan Iddn-pa compassionate, 
merciful i)2;/. : snyi/i-r/^-sAod lamentation, 
a cry of compassion DzL\ snyin -rje-Tno: 
1 . kyod snyin-rje-mo ran iig jiug you are 
much to be pitied Mil. 2. col.: dearest, 
most beloved, amiable, charming; also snyin- 
r)e for snyin-rye-mo^ snyin-rje mdzd-bo my 
poor little friend. — snyin -ny^-ba, col. 
*nyi7i ny^-THo*, friendly, amicable, loving, 
affectionate; friend; friendship, snyin-nye bit- 
mo a woman connected by friendship with, 
a woman, the friend of (a sick person 
mentioned) Lt — snyin-ytam a confidential 
speaking, for exhortation, consolation, or 
encouragement; brts^-bai snyin-ytam affec- 
tionate exhortation GZr.; pdn-pai snyin- 
ytam useful admonition etc. Mil, — snyin- 
stobs courage. — snyin-^ddd^a to wish, to 
desire, to long for, za-snyih-jdddrfa to wish 
to eat, to be craving for food Thgy. ; ^gro- 
snyih - ^ddd - pa to wish to go. — snyin- 
rdun-ba palpitation of heart Sch. — *nyin 
dan (etymol. dubious) dd-ce* W, ccd. to 
interest one's self for, to take an interest 
in. — myin-sdug W, liked, beloved; darling, 


favourite, e.g. a child; nyin-dug hig dag* 
W, he is a general favourite; *na di nyin- 
dtig bo duxf^ W, I am very fond of this, 
it is my favourite (pursuit etc.); but snyin- 
ma-sdug bad people Mil. — snyin nd-ba 
1. = snyin-ndd. 2. 'heart-sickness', grief, on 
account of injury suffered from others, 
curable only by indemnity paid or revenge 
taken. — snyin - ndd disease Of the heart. 

— snin-po (^tR:? ^) ^^ ^^^ P^ ^^^ 
substance, quintessence, e.g. the cream of 
the milk Med.\ the soft part of a loaf, 
the wick of a lamp Dzl.\ frq. fig.: the 
main substance of a doctrine, a book etc., 
don -snyin Jyyin-pa to give a summary, 
the sum and substance (of a writing); 
shns-can fams-tdd sans-rgyds-kyi snyin-po- 
dan yin-na if all beings have the pith and 
essence of the nature of Buddha in them- 
selves Thgy. 5^8', the OmmanipadmehtUn 
is called the snyin -po of religion (?&•.; 
snyiri-po-m^d-pa worthless, null, void,«nym- 
pos dMn-pa id. Tar, 185,2; de-biin-yhigs- 
pai snyin-po the spirit of Tathagata Wa», ; 
snyiri-po-byah-cub- (or by ah - hjibsnyin-po) 
-la mcis-pa to become Buddha Thgy.; 
srog(;-gi) snyin{-po) Jbul-ba Mil, frq, to offer 
one's heart's blood, to pledge one's own 
life. — snyin -rtsa (col.) the great veins 
connected with the heart, perh. » snyih- 
luh, — snylh-rtse the tip or apex of the 
heart, mentioned by MU. as a particular 
dainty (perh. only by way of a jest). — 
snyin-brtse-ba^ resp. tugs-brtsi-ba^ vb., iJso 
sbst. and adj., not much differing from 
snyHt-^e: love, pity etc. frq.; Dzl.: bH-la 
snyin-brtse-nas; fams-cdd-la snyin-brtse^a 
yin-na; de-dag-la snyih-brtse-baipyir; snyih- 
brtse-bai sems skyh-te etc. — snyin - Mm 
contentment, satisfaction, sometimes also 
pleasure felt at the misfortune of others 
PtJLy snyih-fsim ^d£bs-pa to manifest such 
an enjoyment. — snyin-tsil the fat about 
the heail Cs. — snyin-ho-^a v. id-scu — 
snyin -ruSy resp. fugs-rus (ace. to MU.: 
snyih-gi rus-pa t&n-par gyis let energy and 
diligence arise in you); firmness of mind 
(heart) i.e. 1. diligence, zeal, perseveranee 

wC*^ wyin-ba 


^^ snt/i-Tna 


Mil. and C. 2. courage W. — myin-re^i 
(myin-K^ej with re placed between, v. re) 
the poor man! the poor people! either 
standing absolute or as predicate to a 
preceding noon: ^dt-mamssnyin-re-r)^ these 
(people) are indeed much to be pitied 
Mil,] kyod'Ton . . . ^dztn^a snyin-7*e^S you 
(would) comprehend that? poor wretches 
that you are! Mil.; even as an adjective: 
sdms-can ^nyin-re-ryi the poor creatures! 
frq. ; mjfin-re-TJd'baisdiff'ban the lamentable 
sinner! — snyin-rlun Sch.: 'low spirits, 
melancholy, mental derangement'; I met 
with it only in MiL , as signifying heart- 
griefy deep sorrow, e.g. snyih-rlun drdg-po 
Idan great affliction is caused. — snyin- 
lam-na Sch,: 'in one's mind\ — *«wym- 
l&n* W. the heart, liver, and lights of a 
slaughtered animal, the pluck. — snyin- 
hubs pericardium. 

gj--q- myin - ba W. to swell (in water), 
V Hvm nyin son* the soaked barley 

has swollen. 

7^ myidrpa prob. = myid-pa Pth. 

fK'^ swy/cJ-mo Lex, the sister of a wo- 
' man's husband. 
w myin- pa y snyin-po, myin-tey v. 

^rsr(mr") snyim-pa^-gan) a measure 
^ "for liquids, as well as for 

fiour^ grain and the like, as much as may 
be taken up by both hands placed together. 

§0r snyil «= myil. 

forn' 9nyil-4>aj or myil-ba^ pf. and fiit. 
bmyil (ct. nyil-ba) 1. to pull or 
throw down, to break down, to destroy, 
houses^ rocks etc.; pyi - mar snyil -ba to 
reduce to powder Lea,, Sch. — 2. pyir 
(bskrad) snyil -ba Lex.\ Sch.: to expel, 
banish, exile. 

wqi-q- snyuy-pay also smyiig-pa, pf . bsnyugs^ 
% ' fut. bsnyug, to dip in, to immerge. 
{uqrjT «w;ytfgr - ma, more frq. smyuff - wa, 
^ ' reed, rush, bulrush; snyitg-gu reed- 
pen; snyHtg-bzo basket-work of reeds i^.; 
fnyisff-hn bamboo. 

snyugs C. duration, continuity, time 

>;j> Cs. ; *nyug-ben* C. contin ual ; snyugs- 

srins Lea. protracted, lengthened out. 

OTj^goj snyugs'sbrul lizard Sch. 

awr- snyun^ resp. for nad, W. ^nyun-zii^, 
% disease, illness, sickness, btsun-pcd sku-- 
la snyuh mi mnd - am is your Majesty 
well ? Glr. ; snyun-du mdze byun Olr. leprosy 
arose to him as a disease, he was attacked 
with the disease of leprosy; snyun mdzes 
btah id. Tar. ; snyttn-yH = ndd-yH. 
-—•g . snyim-ba I. vb., pf. bsnyuns, fut. 
^ bsnyun, make less, to reduce, 
to diminish; Sch.: to disparage. — 2. resp. 
to be ill, sick, indisposed; fugs snyttn-bai 
mi people that are disagreeable, annoying 
to others Mil. 

n. sbst. 1. the state of being ill, illness, 
indisposition. — 2. W. awl, pricker, punch; 
also snyun-hu. 

jM^ snyun — snyun, sku-la snyun-gyis bzun 
^ ' he was taken ill Dzl.; snyun ^dri-ba 
Mil, rmi'ba Sch., ysdUba DzL, snyun- dri 
hU'ba MU., to inquire after a person's 
health; to wait on, to pay one's respects 
Dzl. VJ^, 16. 

Bg^Zv snyim-pa^ pf. and fut. bsnyun, tO 
^ ' be ill, to labour under a disease. 
d*9Cr' ^^'^^^ ^ village and convent near 
^^ Lhasa. 
^fl' ^^y^'ba, pf. bsnyes, fut. bsnye, imp. 

V mye to lean against, to rest on, rtstg- 
pa-la against a wall; to lie down, recline, 
repose on, mdl-stan-la on a bed, snds-la 
on a cushion or pillow; ^gydb-nye* col. 
a support or cushion for leaning against 
with one's back. — snye - Kri v. Uri. — 
snye-stdn^ snye-Jbdl pillow or cushion to 
rest on. 

^jt- sny4-ma, also snyi-ma, 1. ear of com. 

V 2. com torming ears (v. Ijan-pa), 
sny^-ma mig-can fruitbearing ears, *nye- 
Uh* W. empty ears; ^nye-ma fan* W. the 
com blows, is in flower; *nye cdg-pa* C. 
to thrash, *nye-cdg-gi dhu^-do* an animal 
used for treading out the grain. — snye- 
dkdr diseased ears. — snye-ingd^^sny^-ma 1. 


^(^)'Cr snyeg(s)^a 


^(i^-q- snyeg(s)-pa, pf. bsnyegs, fat. 

de*, 1. c. accus. to hasten or run after, to 
pursue, frq.; also with ryds-nas, ryes - su, 
ryh-bHn-dUy pyi-bzin-du ; rah-^grd'Sasnyogs 
hasten towards your aim! Alil ; snyeg-sar 
snyogs Lea, id.; bsny^g-tUy or sny^gs-su 
Jbn-ba to walk hastily, to make haste 
or speed Dzl — 2. to overtake, sny^gs ma 
nuS'pas not being able to reach Dzl. — 
3. c. dat. to hasten to some place, Itdd^ 
mo-la to the play Mil.; to rise, yndm-la 
rising up to heaven, as a flame, Glr,^ a 
cedar Wdh.^ frq.; to strive or struggle for, 
to aspire to, ndr-la riches, sde-l^-la in- 
crease of territory, zin-Uam^s-bzan-la the 
region of eternal bliss. — snyeg-ma pursuer 

W^ snyega straight, stretched out ScL 

^C'G' ^^y^^ " *^ ^ • i^ist. of rmyeh - bay to 
V stretch Mil. — 2. also snySns-pay 

resp. for Jigs- pa y vb. (pf. bsnyenSy fut. 
bsnyen) and sbst., rgydl-pos ma snyens sig 
do not be afraid of the king! Dzl, 

fr- snyed I. the crupper attached to a 
' saddle Sch, 11. = tsam: 1. Jti-snyM 
(rHg)y de-sny^d{-cig) SO much, SO many, 
frq.; also for: how many! e.g. . . . ydn-tan 
^di-sny4dmnao how many excellent qualities 
has . . . ! Dzl. ; ci-snyedyji-snyM how much? 
how many? also snyed alone (examples 
V. sub by^-ma). — 2. after round sums: 
about, near, ston snyed y also ston ji-sny4d 
Mil, about a thousand. 

f^^ snyen-pa Cs.: 1. to come or go near, 
' to approach, gen. bsny^-pa, — 2. to 
gain, to procure, inst. of myid-paQ), 

fS^fl^^Zy snyhn(s)-pa 1. vb., pf. bsnyemsy 
to be proud or arrogant, to boast, 
na-rgydl snyems-pas to be swollen with 
pride Dzl, ; mfu-rtsdl (to be proud) of one's 
strength Dzl. — 2. sbst. pride, haughtiness, 
snySm-pa-can prideful, proud, snyenis-Mn 
1. pridelese, humble, affable, kind, col. 
^nyom-cun^y and *nyam-mn*. 2. poor, 
indigent C. 
^^ snyes v. snye-ba. 

^(^•^' my&m{s)-fa 

S'^' snyd-ba sometimes for smyo-ba, 

^nq- snydg-pa, or bsnydg-pay secondary 

V "^ form of myeg-pay esp. when sig- 
nifying to wish earnestly, to crave for or 
lust after, also Ha-snydg-pa Cs, 

S^' snyody — go-snyddy caraway. 

S^'^' 8nj/dc?-pa I. pf. bsnyady 1. to draw 

V ' out and twist, as in spinning %,, 
C. — 2. Cs,: to tell, to relate, = snyad-pa. 

If. pf. bsnyody bsnyoSy fut. bsnyody to 
feed, to give to eat and to drink, ccapir. 

^rcr ^'^y^ 'P^ ^- ^' P^- ^^^ ^^ bsnyoriy 
v< to deny, to disavow dishonestly, Dd, 
99(5, 2; 91P, 8 to assert falsely, snyon byidr 
pa Glr, — 2. *nyon du-ce* W. is said to 
signify the same as *nyad du-ce* v. snyad. 

II. inst. of smy6n-pa. 
Kn'^' snydb-pay pf. bsnyabsy fut. bsnyab 

V 1. to stretch out, e.g. the hand, Lex. 

— 2. W, to reach, by stretching one's self 
out, to arrive at, *nyob mi tub*. 

^^^ snyobs = snyoms Lex. 

»5J(^y ^nyom{s)y Lex. = j(fi^ 1. 1. weari- 

V ^ ^ ness, lassitude; laziness, idleness, 
lus snyoms -IM-ba yin one is exhausted 
and dull Med. ; sny&ms - la nul - 6a to be 
tired and exhausted. — snydms-las 1, in- 
dolence, unconcern, esp. religious indifference, 
Glr,; snydms-las byM-pa, or drdn-pa Glr. 
to be lazy, indolent, indifferent; sny&ms- 
his-can adj. lazy etc. Glr. — 2. Sch,: an 
idle person (?). 

II. col., also MU,y inst. of snyems. 
"^^(^YZV snydm(s)-pa I. vb., pf. bsnyoms, 

V fut. bsnyomy to make even 1. to 
level, ynas a place, DzL; sd-la snyoms-pa 
to level with the ground, to demolish Dd. 

— 2. pan-fsun to equalize different things, 
to arrange uniformly, zas one's meals, i.e. 
not cold and warm promiscuously Thgy,; 
to level, to reduce to an equality of con- 
dition, Itogs-pyug rich and poor (according 
to the principles of the communists) Glr,]. 
similarly bu-lon Tar. 74; fams-cdd-la 
sny6ms-na bdag kyah sny&ms -par mdzad 

Sar«r mydUba 


^»^'^' bmyir-ba 

fid 1 wish to be treated fairly like any 
other people DzLT^'^ Kd-lo snydms-pa to 
regulate (a matter), to manage or direct 
(a business) justly, uniformly GZr. — snyom- 
du medy he has not bis like DzL; *tag 
nyom-la* C always uniformly, without 

II. sbst., also btan-snydmSy evenness, 
or calmness of mind, equanimity, snydms- 
par Jfiff'pa to assume it, = sems mnydm- 
par hidg-pa, v. mnydm-pa, — snyoms- 
Jug byed-pa 1 . id., 2, eupbem. for Jing- 
pa spyod-pa. — mgo-^ny&ms impartial MiL 
— my&ms'po equal, even, uniform, e.g. 
in every part equally thick. 
^Jjrq* snydl'buy pf. and fut. bsnyal (of. 
y nydUba) 1. to lay down; to bed a 
person, to assign him his couch or bed 
Pth,\ ^tu-gu mdl-du* C, (to lay) a child 
on its bed, to put to bed; *nydl'te hdg- 
pa* C, b&r 'ce W.y to lay or put down, 
opp. to lan-te etc., to set or place upright, 
to set on end, e.g. a book. — 2. fig. : *me 
nydlrwa* C. to put the fire to bed, i.e. to 
scrape it together and cover it with ashes; 
spw mydlr^a to smooth down the bristlbg 
hair, i.e, to abate one's anger; can^ iOy 
myol - 6a to allow the beer to ferment, 
the milk to curdle, in a state of rest (un- 

qx-q- frrwya-6a, pf. btmyas, 1. to borrow 
^ DzL VP, 12. 14; W^, 6. 2. to seize 
by force, to usurp 8ch, 

^iC" bmyan Lex. prob. = i^ydh-pa. 

^S^'^T bmydd-pa for b^nydd-pa, 

ajLTSr bmydn-pa Cs, to borrow; h^nydn- 
^ ' po borrowed; also fig.: borrowed, 
reflected, fzugs-bmydn (J^ex, snan-bmydn) 
a reflected image ||fj|fqj4| .frq.; also image, 
picture in general; even a little statue 
ftA.; i*mi ' lam ' gyi yzugs-bmydn vision, 
visionary image; sgra^bmydny Jlffpa7{ re- 
flected sound, echo; mgo-hmydn a mask, 
a fearful apparition Thgr,^ mgo-bimydn 
ser-po Sc/U. 234. — pyag-bmydn servant 

Cs. — bmydn-poi gos Cs.: 'a garment 
marked with the figures (sic) of the rain- 
bow' — h^nydn-poi bmyas Lex. interest 
for a loan, rent for things borrowed Sch. 

qarq%v^ fyimydbs-pa diligence, painstaking; 

y^ to take pains Sch. 
Q^^^ f^^^y^^'P^ !• borrowed, v. bmyd- 

II. 1. to despise, contemn c. dat., frq.; 
ma bmyds sig do not despise ! Dzl. ; bmyas 
smdd'pa id. Dzl. — contempt, bimyds-pa 
byed'pa^ W. *nya-se tdg-ce*, ccd. to despise, 
to treat contemptuously, frq.; hmyas-bcos 
{Thgy. bmyas-^os) contempt, scorn. 

^i^^' bmyons convenient, suitable Sch. 

n^m^zr bsnyigs-pa 1. to return, restore, 

V I deliver up Cs. 2. sediment 

««mi- bsnyug full Sch.; skyu-gan bsnytig 
^ ' Lex. a full draught (?). 

^§^^ bsnyul-ba to wash Lex. 

n^x'n' bsnyhi-pa 1. to approach, to come 
^ ^ near, c. dat., also drun-du^ Uo-boi 
drun - du bsnyen big come to me Dzl. ; 
gom-pa re-ri b&r^lin JH-ba-la bsny^n-pa 
Itar as with every step we come nearer 
to our death Thgy.; to join, to stick to a 
person Dzl. — 2. to propitiate, soothe, 
satisfy, a deity Cs. — 3. to accept, receive, 
admit W.; bsnyen-par rdzdgs-pa to be or- 
dained, consecrated, frq.; c. las by Tar. 
— dge- bsnyen v. dgd-ba. — bsnyen- bkur 
reverence, veneration, respect, byM-pa to 
pay one's duty or respect, esp. to the 
priesthood by various services, ^a-k bsnySn- 
pa byds'te Dzl. and elsewh., frq., also 
bsnyen-zin bkur-ba Glr.y and "^nyen kur-c^ 
W.; bsnySn-bkur lu-ba to ask permission 
for performing such services Mil. — bsnyen- 
bsgrub priestly function, religious office, 
esp. mags q. v. — bsnyen -ynds fasting, 
abstinence ; bsnyen-ynds srun-bay W. *zum- 
ce*y to abstain from food, to fast. 

— rj^.— • bsnyer-ba to make grimaces or 

V gesticulations Cs. 



qf^'^' hmyiUba 

^'^^ td-bag 

q^q-q- hsnyeUa, Lexx.: resp., to forget; q^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^y^ 
V bsnuel^med not forgettinff or for- v ' 

bsnyel-med not forgetting 
lindfal; bsnyel-ysd-ba to 
to put one in mind of a thing Af^. 7^ 

getful, mindful; bsnyel-ysd-ba to remind, q^f^-q- bsnyar-ba^ Lex, Tias bmydr-ba^ 

V ace. to ScL: to sift barley. 


P' ^, the letter t^ cerebral ^ SsA. ^. 

^-Aa, i/iTw/. ^JUJT in W, imaginary 
q; coin, money of account, = 2 paisa or 
Id. — Different from it is 


tasn-ka^ tan-ka^ 

i/tW. ^1^ 1. in C, \ rupee == 9d,, v. 
also jcod'tan (v. ycod-pa comp.). — 2. a 
gold and silver coin Tar, 112, 6. — 3. 
W, money in general. 

5^^-, ^r^is' .^*'r^rf, ^r/-A^ card, ticket; 
\ H' V n postage-stamp. 

^ ^^ 5^ "^.^^ ^^ O^TUk^ 


?* da, the letter d, cerebral dj Ssk. ^. 

^•^ d^ - 4t (^T^ Hind, : 'husband of a 
a^ ' Ddkinty Shaksp,) in Mil, prob. = 2)a- 
Hnz, mUd-^gro-nna, 

' ^ ' ' ^ small tympan or drum, with 

a handle and two balls fastened to it by 

a strap. 

pjjy daky gen. *drag*y Hind, : ^r^, the posl, 

o, letter-post 

--.% dan - diy Hind, ^1^, the beam of 

' ' ' a pair of scales; a kind of litter. 



tay 1. the letter t, tenuis, French t. — 
3. inst. of btagsy v. 


2. num. fig. : 9. 

c-m-^' td'ka^-i {Hind, ^4,\^4\) 
' ' scales, Ld. 
q-m- td'kii W, stick with a hook, hooked 
' ND cane , crutch ; *to -ku- m - hi* I A. 
crooked, contracted, crippled. 

^^\x: td-gir W, bretd, esp. the flat bread- 
' ' cakes of India, commonly called 
^chapdtee^ "^ ^cu-ta-gir* Ld, boiled flour- 
dumplings; *ful'ta-gif^ pancakes. 
c-q* td'ba (Pers. LLj) gen. *to>* W. a 
^ flat iron pan without a handle. 
^rnqv ^'^^9 ^-^ ^dr-Jbag 6*., a plate, 
^ ' *td-ba^ duUddl* W.y '*{ei^-{h* C.y a 

To ; ^/ { r ^ . u . ix V4.'' t v^ C' n e : rvi 


flat plate, *h>r'k&i^ a deep plate, soap- 
c-q;^- ^rt-to- (spelling?) PT. fence of boards 

or laths, 
crgm* ta-zig^ or ta-zig-yvl^ Persia, ta-zig 

(rV^) ^ Persian. 

y^'^' ta-ra^tse (Pers. ^\\j) W. a small 

pair of scales, goldweights. 

^^' ta-r^ V. re, 

KOI' ^«-^« 1- m^ *e palmyra tree, Bo- 
' rassus ftabellifoi^mn (not the date- 
tree ti.) fi. — 2. In more recent times, 
and already in Mil, td-la seems to denote 
the plantain or banana tree, Mtcsa para- 

yoTOi" ta-la-la Lex. lamp, lantern. 

c^mS'q-^' ta-lai' bid - ?na (ta-Uti Morig, 
^ ^ ocean, sea), the Dalai Lama, 
V. Hue. n., 155. K&pp. II., 120. 
rm-CTi' tag-tag W, the imitative sotmd of 
' ' ' ' knocking, *tag-tdg zet* there is a 
knock, *tag'tdg co-de* to knock at the door. 

^' tow through, v. to/i and Iten, 

cr-m^ tow - kun n. of a medicinal herb 

^W tun-ga v. F^' tan-ka, 

^^'0^' tatkd'la Ssk. the present moment 

cgrrx- tan-dur lA, a sort of hjird cake 
' '\6 or bread, resembling biscuit or 

W«OT' tab-tab v. toi-to'i. 

lyrrx* tar -tar ^ *tar - tar - c6 - te* Ld, to 
' ' smooth (wrinkles or folds in cloth, 
paper etc.) 

^QTCr ^^^^y ^'' tdlPtna^ Ck; 'a moment', 
' Sch, : ^quick, decisive, penetrating' ; 

tdl-par, Cs, also tdl-mar, 1. instantly, 
immediately, quickly C, e.g. son go without 
delay! I^x, — 2. Sch.: completely, quite 
through, ycdd-pa to hew, to cut (quite 
through), JyigS'pa to bore through, to 
perforate; also to/ Jxiys-pa, 


- 203 


KQJ'n* tdl-ba a tool with holes in it, used 

' by nailers Sch, 

gv ti l.num. fig.: 39. ~ 2. Not originally 


Tibetan, designating 'water'; this word 

has found its way into L^., where it how- 
ever occurs only in *lcd-ti* saliva (water 
of the mouth), and in *nd-ti* mucus (run- 
ning from the nose). — 3. v. spyi, 

^^' ti-ka (^tm) explanation, commentary. 

^_. u-fug, (Sch, yti'fug) bad, mean, 
^^' silly Cs.; obstinate, stubborn Schr, 

yclCT' ti-ndg heath-cock Sch. 

g^gv- tf-pi(?) W. cap, hat (from the Hind, 

;^ ^"?^9 6VA.: ti-pu mjug-rin pheasant 

^^' ti-tsa Stg.y tu-fsa Sch,, anvil. 

P*^' ti-fsa 1. Og-fm zinc Med,; ti-tsa s^r- 
' po cadmia, calamine (?) Med, — 2. a 
musical instrument, constructed of metal 

g^^ Pi^. ti-sCy te-se, the snow- peaks 
^ ' ^ around the lake Manasarowar 
in MnainSy which are considered to be the 
highest and holiest of mountains. 
Sq^' tig 1. also tig- tig y IjCx, w.e.; Sch,: 
' ' 'certainty, surety; certain'. In col. 
language *%, dig^ tig, iig*, is frq. used 
for: to be sure! well, well! very right! also 
as an adj.: nor-dag tig-tig the right, the 
lawful heir. Cf. *o9^^; tig Itd-h, tig tsam*, 
tig - tsdd V. sub tig. — 2. Sik, the great 

S^fiiT' tig-ta (from f^nm ^^e n. of several 
' ' ^ bitter herbs, e.g. of Gentiana Chi- 
rayta) several species of gentian. 
§^^<3r ^'^^^^ ^^v tig-ts^ lA.y the ribands 
' ' ^ which are wound round the felt- 
gaiters that cover the lower part of the legs. 

y^'<3&' tig-tsa «= ti-tsa, 

W| A^T tig^ng Sp, inst. of ta-gir, 

P^- tin 1. a small cup of brass used esp. 
' in sacrificing. — 2. the sound of me- 
tal, *tif) zer-ra rag* W, I hear a tinkling. 
"^T^ljZk' S'WvAX^. c^vk^^ *^^^^ t^ 


"^ o-vi/ K^^ I 


, IfZCf 

^CCQ^E^' tih-ne-^dzin 




^ ^ ' Was. also iin i Mpti ) contem- 
plation, profound meditation, perfect ab- 
sorption of mind, cf. bsam-ytdfiy and sgdm- 
pa; Un-ne-^dzin bydd-pa Sch.^ gen. Un-ne- 
Jtzin-du Jug- pa to be absorbed in deep 
meditation; tin-ne-^dzin Jtrun devout me- 
ditation takes place; also meton.: the fa- 
culty, the power of meditating e.g. pel Mil. 

K^'gC;' Uh-^rjin Sik\ 8hrew(-mouse). 

r tin-tin dean, well-swept Ld,, Ts. 

^C tin-ti-lin Snipe Ld. 

qr^/^jr\nTmv tin {'tin) 'hags little bells 
7 ^/ -^ r moved by the wind Sch, 
Sb'^ClJ" ^^% resp. ysol'tiby tea-pot, zam- 
' tib a copper tea-pot, rdza-Ub an 

earthen tea-pot. 

^"2^' tim-pi Mil goat's leather, kid-leather, 
^ from India, dyed green or blue. 

^•^ tim-hi Ts, funnel. 

^hy /^7 (f?f?3r) sesame, til-mdr sesame-oil, 

' seed-oil. 

^' tu I, num. fig.: 69. — 2. an affix, 
\l denoting the terminative case, or the 
direction to a place, joined to the final 
consonants g and b; ct du^ ru, su. 

c-qcn- i^-pag {Turk ^^) W, gun, mus- 
>2 ' ket, fire-lock, fowling-piece, *gydb'bS^ 
to discharge, fire off; ^tu-pag-man* gun- 

n-T^rry tu-ni-ka Ma, the Turks, Turkomans, 

7n^ 'I 

^S' tU'tsa v. ti'tsa, 

^'Qv tu'ld (Ssk,y Hind.) a balance, pair of 
NSra, scales, C\ *tu-la tig-pa* to weigh. 

W1'§|^'(5^^2TI' tug-gin jdug 'cannot' Sch, (?) 

cnrxr* tug-ri/i^ or tug- cum , prob. also 
nS ' tug-cim^ Cs,: a wooden rattle's 

sound or noise; Sck. also: the trotting of 
horses heard in the distance; titg-9in-can 
Stg, noisy (?). 
W' tub J tub ycig-tu rgyiid-dof 

Cfl'rai' ^^^.9 ^^' w.e.; Sch,: 'either — 
Nb Nb or, whether I be able (to do it) 
or not' (?). 

^^R' tur-ba (?) W. to darn (stockings). 

c;^'5' ticr-re clear, distinct, syn. to iml-le; 
x^ yid tar -re ^dug it is clear to my 

mind; tiir-re bzun Mil. prob. watch it! 
have a sharp eye upon it! ie-sddn hm 
dogs tur-re gyis Mil. take care lest an emo- 
tion of anger arise in your mind! tur-gyu 
sad Mil. prob.: he awakes, stirs, is eri- 
dently roused; tur^re-ba Glr.; adj. (or ab- 
stract noun), rjed -yen -mid-par tur-re-ba 
clear, firm with regard to perceptions, opi- 
nions etc., without omission or digression. 
P' te 1. num. fig.: 99. — 2. an affix de- 
^ noting the gerund, and used after the 
final letters w, r, Z, s (v. Grammar), to be 
translated by the participle in ing, or sen- 
tences beginning with when, after, as etc.; 
also used as a finite tense (though seldom 
in J5.), and in that case followed by ^dug 
or yod^ or also without these words: *ddd- 
de^dug* I sit W.; jgro-ba yin-te Mil. I go. 
c^qx- ti-p(yi' Lex. = ligs-par; Sch.: very, 
^ really, actually. 

^2j^' ti-bor Sch. constantly, continually. 
^^' te-se V. tt-se. 

^ ' pa, to pack up, put up; to put in 
or into, *'aw - bag - la* into one's bosom; 
*tag-fut* or *tug* preparations for a jour- 
ney, *tan-te* W. to make. 
?-Q- teuf Ld.-Glr. {Schl. f. 25, b); teu sk- 
' '^ po; Mil. 59, 4 of my edition; Lex.: 
teu mi-fcrij where Sch. translates: a square 
S:qw til-pa Cs. : an instrument for burn- 

^ ing Med. ; ledgs-tel such an instru- 

ment of iron Cs.; sprd-tel Lt.f 
-i^ to I. num. for 129. — 2. affix added 

' to certain verbs, when they terminate 
a sentence. 
"^^fqt'fSjt;' to-to-lirUin W., an adv. de- 

^ ' noting a swinging motion; 

hence ^tO'to-ldn-Un sed s^-de* to play at 
swinging, to swing. 

"yor to-la for tU'la C. 

T^' *^9 1- (%5 6b.; ihe top of any things 

^' a top ornament'; esp. the button on 
the cap of Chinese dignitaiies^ as a mark 
of distinction; tog-dkdr^ ^Tl^? ^- ^^ Bud- 
dha in paradise (dga-lddn) before his in- 
carnation Ld.'Glr. 8, a.; vidmi-tog point, 
thorn, nail. — 2. for tog^ and thus prob. 
also used in skabs-tog now, at present Ld. 
ISqyBT if^g-^g^ct-, tdg-tog-sgra Lex,, a rolling 

^ ' ^ sound Sch , ace. to Wdn. also a 
cracking sound. 
"^^Q)' tog- til a bump, a swelling, by a 

' ^ knock against the head. 
"&]'5^ %-fe^ W., tdg-rfse Lex., hoe, mat- 

^' tock, pickaxe W, (in 6'. Jar); </j</- 
/ra^s the iron of the hoe, tog^/u the handle 
of it; tog-leb a spade (?) Cs. 
" g^^ g^'qr'q* to/i'ton byid'pa Lex,,, Sch.: 

^ ^ ^ ^ to perforate; to produce a 
whirling noise. 
1^%' tob'H W, button, *fdA-tY brgydb-^e* 

^ to button up; cf. fdb-hi; (buttons 
are not in general use in Tibet). 

T^rgq-jT-n' tob-tdb mnrd-ba to talk con- 
~ ~ ^ fusedly ScL ; W, : *tab - tab*, 
or ^tab'tdb ma co* keep your temper! do 
not talk with such agitation! 

l^'Sf tou'lo polecat Sch, 

tolf Mng, bem-tdlf Sch. tol-ycdd-pa = 

tal^ycod-^a q.v. 
M;r^ trdm-pa hard (of rare occurrence); 
"^ ha-trdm, rm-tram, rtsa-ti^amy tram- 

dkdr, tram-ndg, are different species of 
gout Med, 

^n|^' tri'ked v. ti-ked. 

^^(Or\ tri'hu^'la), from f^nw trident 
-^nJ^ ^ Wdk. 

c'^^ tre-tre-hx) (by the context) a dan- 
'^ ^ ^ gerous disease of the stomach or a 
serious symptom of it Pth. 

5'^'^^ tre-ba-can coloured Sch, 

1 ^i'^K^^^^^'^^'^^'^'^'^f^-*^ d^<'^ 

R'?J5^' ^''^"^"^ ^ medicine in the shape of 
"^ a powder Med, 

>i' ^row diligence, industry Cs.; ^ow Ay^J- 
"^ ' pa to be diligent, to exert one's self. 
q g CT 'qBfr* yio^-yton Lex, w.e.; ytag-yton- 

' ^ ' ' '^ . 6a to disperse Sch. 
zxr^xnv ytan'7'dg thanks, thanksgiving, and 

' ^ ' prob. also thank - offering, esp. 
rendering thanks to a deity ; ytan-rdg byid- 
pa, Jnil'ba Mil,., Lt, W, ^do-ce, pul-ce* to 
render thanks. 
CTcr* yi^d (v. ytod-pa), in the direction of, 

' ^ ' towards, yf/dn-gral-du ytad pyin-^as 
going towards the left end of the row Glr, ; 
*doh'tdd* W. directly opposite, just over 
CTcr'n* ytdd'pa 1. vb , v. ytdd-pa, also 

•^ ' brtdd^a. — 2. sbst. hold, steadi- 
ness, firmness, ytddrpa-^med it has no hold, 
no firmness Mil,', ytad-med J^dl-ba Zam, 
prob. to vacillate, to waver, to be unsteady. 
rer'^ ytdd'so a refuge, resource, esp. 

' ^ ' store of provisions ; *^"-«o idg-pa* 
('. to procure such a store. 
re<3r /n'\ ytdn^-^a) Cs, : 'series, order, sys- 

''^ ^^ tern; a bar for a door ; Sch, 
also 'anvil', and 'to lock up'. People from 
(J, knew only one signification oiytdn-pa, 
viz. mortar, = ytun; bar, door-bar occurs 
in sgo-ytdn C, and W, But a different 
word seems to be ytan: 1. order, system, 
in the current phrase ytdii4a Jbibs-pa to 
put in order, to arrange, to reduce to a 
system, bre-srdn measure and weight Glr,, 
the Tibetan alphabet Glr,, the civil law 
and the canon law Glr,, laws, books, = to 
compose, draw up, write Glr,', ran-shm 
ytan -pa in a mystic sense: to regulate, 
compose, and purify the mind Glr,; also 
to fashion, to train C, to set right MU. 
(Cf. bsam-ytdn,) — 2. duration, perh. also 
entireness, completeness, hence ytdn-gyi 
constant, continual, /'ton-orro^s consort, part- 
ner for life Mil,; ytan-inid Sch,: 'perish- 
able, without duration or continuity' ; ytan- 
du 1. always, continually, for ever, ytdn- 
du bzugs-pa living there continually Tar. 
2. entirely, completely (which is the usual 


^''^'d^'W yUtn-fsigs 


^^^r yti^mug 

signification of yfan-du) e.g. to cut oflF, to 
deliver completely ; ytdn - ?ufs id. ; ytan- 
Krigs agreement, stipulation, convention, 
ytan-h^igs by^d-fa MiL 

Note. Owing to its second signification 
ytan is often confounded with brtan(^o)^ 
or even with bsfan('pa). Not only illiter- 
ate people, but well-educated Lamas from 
C. were occasionally doubtful as to the 
correct spelling of this \Vord. 

''^ ' ' '^i.34:4:yta7i'fsigS'kt/i d€'fJo'7ia- 
nyid bstdn-pa = ^j^t4^M^1() 1 • argument, 
syllogism Cs.; evidence before a court of 
justice DzL 99^^ 6. — 2. &ch,: a standing 
proposition, indisputable point Thgy, (where 
in my iV/s. bt'tan-tdgs is erron. written; v. 
the note to the preceding word). — 3. 
logie, dialectics 6s. ; ytan - fdgs - mM -par 
smrd-ba is in Stg, the term applied to a 
kind oi kydl-ka^ evidently: illogical, ir- 
rational talk; ytan-fsigS'Su blM-nas Gh\ 96. 
wishing to clear up, to render evident (?) ; 
ytan-fsigs-mMan dialectician, logician. 
qc^. ytam (^^fT) talk, discourse, speech, 

''^ 1. in a general sense: *tom ag-pa^ 
6'., *tom Hg-Hg* W,, that is one and the 
same talk, that means the same; ytam 
bsdur-ba to compare depositions, to exa- 
mine, to try judicially, *tam-d'ur^ W, trial, 
judicial examination. — 2. news^ tidings, 
intelligence, ytdvi bzdn-po good news; pyis 
ytam mi Jiug after which there are no 
further accounts MIL ; *tam sdd-ce^ to tell 
a tale, a story W.; report, rumour, fame, 
de pul z^r-bai ytam rgydl-pos tds-nan when 
the king heard the report that . . . had 
been delivered up Pth,\ fag-rirl-gi ytam 
fame of remote matters or events; bddg- 
gis ytdm-du tds-na as I have learned, have 
been told Dzl — 3. section, chapter Tar.^ 

Phrases, ytuvi gUh-ba /S.O., Dzl.^ ytdm- 
du gWi'ba Dzl. to speak, to converse, to 
discourse; ytum byed-pa^ smrd-ba^ zer-ba 
id.; ytam fryar o^^^^ I ^^^1' g^ ^^d speak 
to him DzL; the genit. preceding ytam 
always denotes the person or thing spoken 

of, not the person speaking; ci-ltar gyur- 
pal ytam byas he gave an account of the 
manner how it had happened Dzl.; mfun- 
pai ytam byM-pa to negotiate about peace 
Glr,\ cosQ-kyi) ytam byH-pa to begin a 
religious conversation Mil.; na de-Uar hyed- 
pai ytam mi - la ma lab do not tell any 
body that I am doing this Mil. ; in a si- 
milar manner: mi lim-bai ytam bsgrdg-go 
he shall declare it to be unbecoming Thgr,; 
pa - mdi ytam dris he inquired about his 
parents DzL ; bu-moi ytam fos he heard of 
the girl DzL 

Comp. ytain-rgytui tradition, oral account; 
dei ytam-^t'gyud the legend of him. — ytam^ 
nd7i ill report, slander. — ytam^nydn joyful 
news, glad tidings, sgrdg-pa to annoonce 
Mil. — ytam-bsdiir v. above. — ytdm-dpe 
a proverb, a saying Cs. — ytam-rtsiib 
rough speech, abusive language. Note. Id 
W. *(s)pd-ra* is more in use than *tam*. 

cnKj(^yq' r^«Ks) -i^« 1- adj full, spd- 
'^ gn ytdm(s)'2)a quite full of 

razors Thgy.; also I^'xx.\ more frq. it is 
spelled {b)ltdm[s)-pa. — 2. vb. to appoint, 
to commission, of rare occurrence. — 3. 
sbst. Cs. : a term for a thousand billion, 
yet V. the remark to dkngs-pa. 
qicQY»'N ytd{'7na) Lej-.v. (cf. yte-pa) pawn, 
' ^ pledge, ytd^m^r ^jug-pa to pawn, 

to give as a pledge, ytd-via blu-ba to re- 
deem a pledge Cs ; ^ndr-ta* W. jewels, 
precious stones, given as a pledge (f«.; 
'pecuniary security, bail'); mi-yta a hos- 
tage Cs. 

re;^'q- ytdr-ba, with /crag, tO bleed, to 
^^ let blood Med.; ytdr^-bar) byed- 

pa., rtsd-ba-la from a vein, or also ytdr- 
ga jlebs-pa id. 

^ P' yti'/c^ a kind of louse Sch. 

^^^P\ y^^'f^ insane, mad Sch., = Mug. 

i^;mryfi-mug (Jf;^^) gloom, n»enlal 
' ^ ' darkness, ignorance, stupidity, glhh 
pa yti^mug-can infatuated fools Dzl. ; vitsan- 
mx) yti'imtrg-yiiyid-du son at night I fell 
into a profound sleep MiL; in a special 

sense: the lowest of the three gtma or 
psychological qualities of animated beings, 
?mr, T^y ?RTO:, virtue, passion, stupidity, 
ace. to the Brahminical theory, for which 
however Buddhism has substituted the 
three moral categories : ^dod-Mgs^ ze-sddn^ 
yti-mug^ voluptuousness, anger, inconside- 
rateness (Kopp, I, 33); yU-mug, as for 
example, is the source of falsehoods told 
with a pretended good intention, Stg,; the 
symbol for it is the pig Wdn, Note. The 
philosophical term ma-^riy-pa is altogether 
different from ytL-mug. 
cife|c?jyn' /^K«)-P« ^^^^' to fall in drops, 

•^'^ ^ to drop, to drip. 
qc^' y^n^ Ld, *ltin*, bottom, rgyd-mUoi 
' ^ ytm-dhnigs he turned up the bottom 
of the sea; ytin-du nub-pa to sink to the 
bottom 6s. ; depth, hence ytin zab-po DzL, 
ytin fin - ba deep, ytin nye - ba not deep, 
shallow; rgyd-mfso-bm ytin-zdh-bo it is 
deeper than the sea Dzl. ; yydn - sa ytin- 
rin-ba a deep abyss Thgr,; 7:u-bo ytin- 
zdb-po zig a deep river Dzl ^2/^, 1. (in 
the third line however zdb-bo would be 
the correct reading for zab-pd); yUrvzab- 
/fydd Icm-brgydd-pa eight cubits deep (lit. 
with regard to depth holding eight cubits) 
Dzl, :?^vS, 5 ; fig. ytin-nas from the bottom 
of the heart, nd-la dad -pa yttn-nas gi/is 
believe in me with all your heart Mil; 
Ica-gf'dgs and ytin-grdgs v. grogs ; ka-dkar- 
yiin-ndg white without, and black within 
(fig.) Mil. ; the following passage of MiL : 
rgyd-mtso ^e-la dpe Un-la fca-ytiri-med-pai 
sgom dig gyis^ is not perfectly clear, yet 
the real sense seems to be: resembling 
the ocean, be so lost in contemplation, 
that you do not know any longer a diflFe- 
rence between surface and bottom; ytin- 
rdd a stone or piece of lead {M-nyei ytin- 
rdd PtL) fastened to a rope, and used 
as plummet, as anchor, as a clock- weight, 
as a means for drowning delinquents etc.; 
*<hi nydg -po-ce-la tin m^d^ W. a very 
muddy water has no depth ; ytm-can deep, 
ytin-wM shallow Ci.; also fig. deep, re- 
served, covert, difficult to fathom, to form 

** to h • «^-^ ^ ^ /w.r^'fa^ ' ^ 

. '^ 207 

CTBTCJ' ytub-pa 

an opinion of, and the contrary : shallow, 
superficial; ytin -minion C, of unknown 
depth ; ytin-drom-pa fathomed, penetrated, 
ascertained C, 

acq/?;jyq- ytib(8)-pa 1. to be gathering, 
•^ of clouds, spnn-pun ytlb-pa 

thick clouds gathering Wdn,; bdug-spds 
spin - bhin ytib incense wafts along like 
clouds Glr,; mun-pa ytib Lex.y col. also 
*nam-ka tib-tib yod^ cf. Jib -pa, — 2. 
sometimes for rdib-pa, 

^^^'^' ytim-pa v. fim-pa, 

cnn:n'q-/%-i^«? pf. ytugs, also btug-pa, 
'>4) ' cognate to fug-pa^ 1. to reach, to 
touch, yi'davi-gyi fuys-kar ytugs-nas putting 
or pressing (his forehead) against the breast 
of the image Glr,\ mi hig-gi hdbs-la mgo- 
bos ytug-pa^ or only zdbs-ytug-pa to touch 
as a supplicant a person's feet (or skirt) 
with the brow, to cast one's self at another's 
feet, frq. ; btug fug-pa daii was explained : 
when it (the danger) draws quite near 
Ma.; to overtake, to reach, ni f., e.g. mta 
the end Lex,; to meet with, to join Tar, 172, 
14. — 2. to bring an action against a 
person, tO SUe ScA., thus prob. Dzl 99(^, 3, 
and Pth, — 3. = zdd-pa to be exhausted, 
to be consumed(?) Zf/m. zdd-pai y tugs-pa. — 
Note. Not only ytug-pay but also many 
of the following words have b as well as g 
for their initial letter, and moreover a 
corresponding form beginning with ^, of 
the same or nearly the same signification. 
mzT' ytfuny Sch. also rtun^ col. *gog-tun* 
^^ (spelling dubious) 1. pestle; there 
are small ones, like ours and large ones, 
in shape of poles, as thick as a man's 
arm, and about 6 feet long, by means 
of which the pounding is effected in an 
excavation made in a rock, called yttm- 
Kun; ytun(-gyis) rduA'ba to pound with 
a pestle Dzl; ytun-po mortar 6*s.; ytun- 
buy ytun-Uit pestle (!s. — 2. mallet, knocker 

mrn'q" y^b-pa., more frq. btitb-pa^ = fiiA- 

'<r pa, to be able, pyir J>h-du btub- 

pa-aw shall you really be able to come 


^(^)'^' rtubisypa 

back? DzL; mi btub-pa very frq. not to 
be able to prevail upon one's self, to be 
unable, also: to be unwilling, to have no 
mind (to do a thing). 

2TKq(^yi:f ytub(8)'pa, btMb(s)'pa, Ld, 
'•<D *5^wi-^^*, = Jub'jya, to cut tO 

pieces, to cut up, meat, wood etc.; in W, 
also to mince; (in C, btsdb-pa); ytubs- 
spydd chopper Sch, 

mr^j-q- ytum-pa 1. ferocity, rage; also 
^<o adj. furious; Kro-Hh ytum-la snyih- 
rje-Tned in furious wrath, merciless DzL\ 
ydug-Hn yt&n-pai klu a Lu in a deadly 
rage Sambh,; ytiim-pai sg^ra Sffrdg^pa to 
roar furiously Pth,\ Mrd-ytum-pa furious 
with rage Gh\ ; ytum-iih rgodrpa obstinate 
and unmanageable, of a boy; ytUm-po 
MiLf ytum - ^an, yttim - Iddn cruel, fierce, 
furious Cs.; bld-ma fugs-ytum-po ^on the 
ivama grows angry Mil. nt ; ytum-mo fern, 
a fury of a woman DzL :?oo, 10; Sch. also: 
hangman (?); rluh ytum-mo Cs, a farious 
wind, a hurricane — 2. = btum-pa^ Jum- 
pa^ to veil, to cover; to wrap up, e.g. the 
head; with the instr. to wrap up or cover 
with a thing. 

mpffS''^ y^^^^^po 1. V. ytUm-pa 1. — 2. 
'Sd ^"1^ (hot) in the more developed 

mysticism the power which meditating 
saints by dint of long continued practice 
may acquire of holding back their breath 
for a great length of time, by which means 
the air is supposed to be drawn from the 
rd-fna and rkgdn-ma (two veins, v. rtsd- 
ba) into the dbu-ma {srdg-iisay dhu-ti^ 
aorta?) thus causing a feeling of uncom- 
mon warmth, comfort, and lightness inside, 
and finally even emancipating the body 
from the laws of gravity, so as to lift it 
up and hold it freely suspended in the 
air. Mil frq.; v. also Tar. 186, 20; ytum- 
poi bde-drod the feeling of warmth just 
mentioned MiL\ ytum-po Jbar the warmth 
of meditation commences Mil. The three 
above-named veins are symbolically re- 
presented by a-shddy i.e. the second half 
of an (?I, viz. N, hence a-had-ytum-po 

^^'q* ytdn-ba 

the three veins' -meditation -warmth, MH 
— 3. n. of the goddess Durga or Uma. 
qTM-n* ytur-bu Lea.w.e,; Cs. bag, sack, 

>o wallet. 
cnco^'q* ytuUba to grind, to pulverize, co- 

\^ lours, medicind substances etc; 
of. Jd^-pa. 
zx'Zr yti'pa W, (Ld. *std-pa*) yte-ba^ yte- 

' '^ ma C.y ytSn-pa Lexx,^ pawn, pledge, 
bail {Sch. also: a present); cf. /td-wia; 
yteu id.? hostage? Tar. 

rmx: y^ (^*rf^' ^*tir) 1- treasure, frq. - 

' ^ 2. symb. num. for 9. — yter-mdM 

a treasury. — yt^-Ka a mineral vein, mine, 

n&i^-gyi yter-Ua myH-pa to find a mine 
of precious metals. 

zjp^yto Lt.y Thgy. a magic ceremony for 
^' the purpose of averting misfortune; 
yto-bbds id. 
cn5^i:f y^ff'P<^ 1- also btdg-pa, o%-P«> 

'^' to pluck off, gather, crop, tear out 
(one's hair) Lea^. — 2. v. se^L 
L^CS^v M'^v ytfk/s-pa to belong, appertain to; 

^^ ' belonging, rgydl-pcfi ydun-la 

ytdgs-pa yin you belong to the royal blood 
or family Dzl.\ dei ndn-du mi ytdgs-sam 
am I not included in them? Dzl.; ^dzam- 
bui-gUn-la ytogs-pa belonging to Dzam- 
buling Glr. ; *dz le-ka dan ma to^ W. do 
not meddle with that! ma-ytdgs-pa ^ gen. 
adv. Tna ytdgs-par except, besides. — ytog^ 
^dod Sch.: 'to love, to like, to wish; a 
good-for-nothing fellow' (?). 
^l5£•fl• ytdH'ba, pf. btaa, fut ytariy imp. 

^ ton (W. *tah'ie*, imp. *ft>ii*) liH 

1. to let a. to let go, to permit to go, to 
dismiss, hii pyir bdag-ba^-mams-kyis yton 
why should we let you go, suffer you (our 
teacher) to go? to let escape (a prisoner) 
Dzl. ; to let loose (a dog against a person) 
Mil.; to let go, to quit one's hold ma /ton, 
col. *7»a tail* don't let him go, stop him! 
to leave, abandon, renounce, cos one's re- 
ligion ; more definitely : bios ytda - ba, ?. 
bio ; yons-su ytdh-ba to abandon altogether 
Dzl.\ to leave off, to abstain from, ysdd- 
par by a - ba yt6h - ba to leave off killing 
DzL b. to let in, to admit, sg6-nas throngk 

'^ y*od 


cr^'q* yfdr^ba 


the door Dzl,, ndn-du ytdn-ba to permit 
to enter. — 2. to let 90, i.e. to make go, 
to send, mi a man, a messenger, very frq.; 
^(ham-bui^lin htm-tu btdn-nas he made 
bim go all over the country of Dzambuling 
DzL ; shyil-^u ytdh-ba to dispatch for con- 
veying (a message); Un-du ytdh-ba to 
send (a person) for (a thing); Js6l-ba 
btdn-ba4a8 he sent out searchers (people 
in search) DzL ^^ 18.^ unless this passage 
should be read Jsdl-bar. — 3. to let have, 
to give, so in W. almost exclusively; rnian 
yton - ba to give medicine, ytdn - fml the 
way of giving medicine, for 'a dose' Med. ; 
ytdn-pod'Can liberal, bounteous Mil. ; ytdn- 
sems'ldan id. S.g.; ytdn-sems liberality, 
bounty; "^tdn zer* he says, give me! he 
wants to have, he tries to get W.; ids-la 
ytM'ba to give a person up to religion, 
i.e. to destine him for the priesthood, to 
make him take orders. — 4. to make, to 
cause, e.g. a smoke by lighting a fire Glr. ; 
with the termin. to turn Into, bye-fan nm- 
fan - du sandy plains into meadows Gh\ ; 
rims(-nad) yton-ba to cause, to send down, 
epidemics, plagues (of gods) ; to construct, 
fix, place, chains before a building 6Zr. ; 
in W. \s)kad tdh-c^ to utter sounds, *hk' 
cOy bo^ra tdn-ie* to raise, to set up a cry; 
*ku^ or *kum tan -be* to make crooked, 
to bend; in forming intensive verbs: *go 
tdd tdn-ce* to decapitate; *tdn ton^ pins 
ton* take out! throw out! *fsa ton* put 
salt into it! *cu tan - be* to water (the 
garden); *h(d tdn-te* to manure (the fields^. 
The participle *tans-pa* is used adverbially 
in Ld. ; ^t-ne tdns-pa a tsug-pa* from here 
to there, from this place to that place 
(=^ bzuns-te). 
mBc- ytodf ytdd-la mndn-pa, of the sun 

' ^ Pth.y of the galaxy Mil. , evidently 
denotes the disappearing of these celestial 
bodies by enchantment or only as a poetical 
figure; perh. = /dos, or to be explained 
by ytdd-pa' II. 
PJS^XT y^^'P^ !• *lso ytdd-pa^ pf. btad, 

'' ' ytad^ fnt. ytad^ imp. btod (Mil.; 
Cs. fodf) 1. to deliver ^p, Idg-tu into the 

hand, to hand over Glr.^ to hand to a 
person the subject for a theme or problem 
Glr.y to commit the management of the 
household to another DzLy to commit a 
child to a teacher Dzl.^ dge-^duvr-la dban 
to confer important offices on the priest- 
hood Glr.y rig-pa to teach ; ybig snyin ybig- 
la ytdd-pa to communicate one's feelings 
to one another Glr, — 2. to lean against 
or upon c. dat, e.g. to rest one's head on 
one's arm; to lay or put against, to, or 
on, one's mouth to a person's ear Thgr.^ 
the tip of the tongue against the palate 
G^am. — 3. to direct, to turn, mi-la mgd- 
boy one's face towards a person Lt.^ mi-la 
mdziib-mo^ or sdig-mdzub to point at a 
person (with the finger) Glr.; sgo nub- 
pyogs bdl-poi yul-du ytod Glr., the door 
points south, towards Nepal; Jbim-la to 
take aim, to aim dX Lex.; md-bai dbdn- 
po ytdd-pa to listen to, to give a person 
a hearing Mil.; sems^ resp. fugs, ytdd-pa 
Mil. id.; ^od-zh*-la ytdd-nas yzigs-pas 
turning after a ray of light, following it 
with the eye (= brten-nas) Glr.; also used 
absolutely: dkar-Mn ytdd-pa the projecting 
windows S.g.(?) — Ha ytdd-pa Glr.? 

II. inst. of rtdd-pa^ to fasten (cows etc.) 
to a stake (driven into the ground), to 
^iBgr'n- yt^rn^cL to talk, to speak Sch., cf. 

•^ /tom(?). 
^Sgx^ZX ytdms-pa filled up, full, for bltdms- 

' ^ pa^ ytdms-pa^ Sch. 

CTgx'fl* ytdrba (Lexx. ^f^rv) cf, J6r-ba^ 
"^ 1. to strew, to scatter ccirdp , me- 
tog^gis ytdr-ro Dzl. they strewed flowers, 
also ytdr-to DzL; nd-la sas ytdr-ba they 
that threw earth upon me DzL ; sd-la ytdr- 
ba to scatter over the ground Glr. — 2. to 
cast, to throw, ccar., books into the water 
Glr.^ a ring into the fair Glr.; to throw 
out, e.g. spittle into a person's ear, for 
healing purposes (= ^d^-ba) ; to cause to 
circulate the chyle through every part of 
the body Med.; to waste, to dissipate Dzl.^ 
occasionally with the accus. of the vessel 
containing the substance thrown out: nii- 



lli^'Sr ytor-ma 


S^q^ btdd^a 

maytdr-ba Glr, (a cow) empiying Its udder 
by discharging the milk. — 3. ScL: ^srtib 
ytdr-ba to rehd, to tear to pieces'. 

z^iBx •»• ytdr-ma strewing-oblation, an offering 
I ^ brought to malignant demons, either 
as a kind of exorcism or as an appeasing 
gift, in order to prevent their evil in- 
fluences upon man ; m^dd-pa dan ytdr-ma 
sbyin-pa to offer such an oblation, ytdr- 
mar snd^a to devote something for it. The 
ceremonies are similar to those used in 
8byin^r4g Sctd. Bvddh. 249; the offerings 
consisting of things eatable and not eatable^ 
of blood, and even of animal and vege- 
table feces, scattered into the air (the 
benefit being shared by the dri-za q.v.). 
There are various sorts of Torma-offerings, 
according to the nature of the substances 
offered (he- or '(ab-ytor^ pye-ytor'^ Uiag-ytor^ 
an oblation of the fragments of a meal 
JIfiZ.), or according to the time at which 
(dgu'yt&i* V. dgu\ and the purpose for which 
they are offered (mtsun-ytor v. mtsun). 
Other names of Torma-offerings are: blud- 
rgyd^ mar - me - rgyd^ tih-loQ^-rgyd^ ?a- 
yswm etc. Tormas in general belong to 
the ceremonies most frequently performed; 
ytOT'M are the vessels and other imple- 
ments used for that purpose; ytor-Mb 
Sch.: *a bowl for these offerings' (?)• — 
ytor-zdn Lex. afflf oblation of the remnants 
of the daily meal to creatures of every 

mfioi' y^^'i ^^y ^° ytoUmid^ = ^JGr-m^d, not 
^ known, dubious, pd-^am md-^am ytoU 
m^d-do one does not know yet, whether 
it will be a boy or a girl DzL; bi byd-bai 
ytol m^d not knowing what to do DzL ; 
gar fdl-bai ytol med not knowing where 
she had gone to; bddy-la ytol m^d I do 
not know any thing about it Dd, — (Sch. 
has a verb ytol-ba to perforate, pierce; 
to discover, disclose; v. rtol-ba). 

^p^ ytos size, width, quantity, ri-boi ytos 
' ^ tsam as high as a mountain Lex. ; 
rim-gro ytos-c^-ba^ like rgya-M-ba^ great 
marks of honour, extraordinary homage. 

^i^m*^ btdg-pa v. Jdg-pa. 

qnTOfZ^J' btdgs'pa v. ^dogs-pa^ and Ba- 
^^ btdgs. 

^^FC*^ btdh-ba v. ytdn-ba. 
S^^ZJ' btddrpa v. ytddrpa. 

^FVT^' btdb-pa V. ^dibs-pa. 

qct;-^^ btan-snydms (cf. snyoms) ^ 
^ V complete indifference, perfect 
apathy (ace. to Schr. prop, 'a liberality per- 
fectly impartial'?). 

jgcr'n^C btan-bzun Lea. |i f^f||^n. of a 

^ ^ hill where Buddha was teaching. 

q&rq* *%"P«9 pf- *^> Cs. to drop, to 

^ ' let &11 in drops, md-bcar timany 

medicine into the ear, v. Jig-pa. 

^^sC*^ btin-ba v. ^dtn-ba. 
^^ btu-ba V. Ju'ba. 
^^^C'^ btuh-ba V. Jun-ba. 
^hMl^r btHig-pa V. ytug-pa. 

^^R^'^' btud-pa V. ^dud-pa. 

qcff 'Jix' bfudrmar Glr. in rapid or clo 
^ ' succession, ^tiZ-tu-pa-la* C. id 

qcq- btub^ Lex. = run^ fit, convenient, prac- 
^^ ticable, becoming, btdb-bo it is con- 
venient etc. ; btub-pa v. ytdb-pa. 
qrwq- btum-poy ytum-poy 1. to wrap round, 
<r to envelop; hence 2. in W. to start, 
a book, valuable books being wrapped op 
in a cloth before being laid by; btum-pog 
bunch or loiot, produced by money and 
the like being tied up in the girdle. 

^^JR^'^ btulrba V. ^duUa^ ytul-ba. 

^y*!^ 6%-jt>a V. ^dSgs-pa. 

qgj^-q- btdd-pa 1. = rtdd-pa^ to fasten 
^ ^ (grazing horses or cattle) by a 
rope to a stake, to tedder; Mil. declares 
relations to be the btod-fdg (the tedder) 
in the hands of the devil. — 2. to erect, 
raise up, produce, cause, occasion; srol-btdd- 


1^ V^^'^^^^ e^u---- ^'<«-' 

'U '"^il 

^^^ htdn-pa 





pa (Lea. w.e.) may accordingly imply: to 
inirodoce a custom. 

^^y^T bt&nrpa V. ^d&ri-pa. 

iS^^iT htdUba Sch. = ytdl-ba, 

X- rto (rtd-po 6'., M?.), resp. ce6«, 1. horse, 
' jKMTta a geldiDg, md-rta^ or lixL-rgddr- 
may a mare; rto ^dulrba to break in, train, 
a horse; rta rgyug-pa to gallop; to run 
horses for a wager, to race Glr,\ *8ta hrvl- 
be* Ld. id.? — 2. the lower front part of 
a pair of breeches, ddr-rta^ anrrta, 

Comp. rtaHrhfa(-pa)y or - gfe/a(-y? g)''one 
skilled in horsemanship. — rta ' bskrdgs 
(*stab'rdff8* Ld.) a clattering train of 
horsemen. — rta-^dl Tb, pouch or bag of 
a horseman, saddle-bag. — rta-grds^ 
rta-rd. — rta-bgdd a horse-laugh, rta- 
bgdd-h/ia ^dSbs-pa to set up a horse-laugh 
Sch, — rta-mgd a horse's head; rtormgd- 
ma V. gO'Uim, — rta-mgrm ( ffltfj^) ^' 
of a demon {Schl. 110), a terrifying deity. 

— rtd'Sga^ W. *t§-ga*^ saddle. — rtasgdm 
a large box or chest. — rtd-sgo v. sgo. 

— rta-sgydy gen. connected with mi-bsddy 
the slaughtering of men and killing of 
horses. — rta-ndn Tibetan horses, small, 
strong, unshod, v. Hoot II, 131, and so al- 
ready in Marco Polo's travels. — rta-rna 
berse-tail, *te nd-ma yod* W. it is (made) 
of horse -hair. — rta-Udg horse -whip; 
whip in general. — rto - Mg dry fodder 
or provender given to horses, com, oats. 

— rta-Triidg the best horse, a splendid 
horse, state-horse; gen. a fabulous horse, 
a sort of Pegasus, thus e.g. Glr. chp. 6, 
where it partakes of divine properties {rtai 
rgydUfo han-iis bd-la- ha; ace. to Schl, 
p. 253 rlun-rta is the same). — rtarmidg- 
Ua-Jnib = yyas-rti-ytsdn-po = mnd-ria- cu 
n. of the principal river of Tibet. — rta- 
Qdn he with the green horses, the sun, 
po. Gir. — rta-md horse-ear, n. of one 
of the seven gold-mountains, surrounding 
the Rirab. — rtd-pa horseman, rider, *td- 
pa toridn* Ld. a balancing-board, see-saw; 
rtd-pat dpUh horse, Cavalry Cs. — rta-lpdgs 



a horse's skin; n. of a medicinal herb Med. 
— rta-bdbs 1. a large stone or raised place 
for alighting from a horse (?) Cs. '2. the 
superstructure of a large door or gate, 
the arch of a gate- way, Lex, twa^a-na^ 
^|j^? — rtordhydm ^JHlj\t| n. of a great 
scholar Thgy. — rta - bil a horse's front- 
hair (i. — rta-abdna horse-dung. — rta- 
mdg a horse's hoof; n. of a plant Med. — 
rtor^rmig-ma a lump of silver bullion like 
a horse's hoof Cs. — rta - rdzi one that 
tends horses; a groom Gl/r, — rta-zun a 
good horse. — rta-zdm 1. post-station, rta- 
zdmrgyi t&dgs-pa a post-house; rta-zdm 
gyi spyi-dpon postmaster-general Cs. 2. in 
Ld. also for rta-zdm-pa. — rta-zdm-pa 
postillion, courier, express, estafet An estafet 
rides day and night, mounting fresh horses 
at certain stations, and making the way 
from L^ to Lhasa (for ordinary travellers 
a journey of 4 months) in 18 days. — 
rta(i)'^U'lag a compulsory service con- 
sisting in the supply of horses. — rtchrd^ 
rta-grds inclosure, stable, for horses. — 
rta-M 1. horse-flesh. 2. the oblique ab- 
dominal muscles of the hips. — rta -had 
curry-comb Sch. — rta-ysdr a horse not 
yet broken in or dressed Schr. — rta^bsib 
stallion. — With regard to the colour of 
horses (spu-Ha), the following distinctions 
are made: rta-dkdr a gray or white horse; 
rta-rkyan-ndgy or Uam-ndg Sch. a dark- 
brown horse; rta Kdm-pa Ld. a yellowish- 
brown horse (Sch. a dark- brown horse); 
rta - Uam - dmdr Sch. a light-bay horse, a 
sorrel horse; rta Urd-bo a piebald or a 
dappled horse Z/d. - GZr. , ScJU. fol. 26, a; 
rta-grd Sch. a gray horse, rta gro-dkdr a 
light-gray horse, rta gro-sndn Sch. a dapple- 
gray horse, rta gro-dmdr a roan horse, a 
roan; rta rgyorho Sch. a chestnut-bay horse 
(a bayard, a brown horse) with white 
breast and muzzle; rta ndn-pa an Isabel 
Ld.'Glr.; rta rnog-dkdr a bright bay 
horse; rtorsno-Kra^ rta-sno-fig-ban Sch, a 
dapple-gray horse; rta-sno-nag Sch. a dark- 
gray horse ; rta-fig-Ura Sch. a spotted horse ; 
rta nag a black horse; rta-brau = rgyor- 



£^^ rtdg-pa 

bo Sch. ; rtor-mog-ro Glr, a yellowish-brown 
horse; rta zag-fa Sch, a horse having gray 
and white spots; rta ^dl-ba Mil, Ld,-Glr.y 
a black horse; rta ra-rdSch, a yellow- 
dun horse; rta rdg-pa Ld, a tawny horse 
(Sch.: 'a white and red spotted horse'); 
rta rag -rag an ash -gray horse; rta rag- 
s^'y or rta ser-s^rSch. a yellowish -red 
horse; rta sram - srdm Sch, a gray horse 
with a black mane and tail, 
xqi-q- rtdg-pa (f^m) 1- perpetual, constant, 
^ ' lasting, eternal. 2. perpetuity, duration 
to all futurity, a quality which, ace. to 
Buddhist views, can be ascribed only to 
the vacuum, to absolute emptiness, the 
ston-pa-nyid; mi rtdg-pa not durable, 
perishable; de yan mi^rtag fml-du yda 
this, too, is subject to the law of perish- 
abletiess Mil,; mi rtdg-pai ^os the principle 
of transitoriness; rtdg-par ^dzin-pa to look 
upon (transitory things, i.e. the world) 
as lasting, and hence: to be worldly-minded 
Glr.; as partic. one that is earthly-minded, 
a worldling; nydl-ba-la rtdg-pa steady in 
lying, i.e. disposed to lie down, to be con- 
tinually at rest, Stg, ; rtag-cad lasting and 
transitory, frq.; rtag-par^ or more firq. 
rtag-tu, always, i.e. 1. continually, 2. at 
each time (Dzl. :?€^, 5); rtdg -tu-ba per- 
petuity, eternity Cs, — rtdg-^Oj Ld, *$tdgs- 
po*y lasting, durable, reliable, rtag-brtan 
id. C, ; rtag - snydm - la C. adv. uniformly, 
equally. — rtag -res Jidr-ba Sch,: a con- 
stant change (?). 

gqi^ ^^^* (^^* ^^J's-pa) 1. resp. pyag- 
^ ' rtdgsy sign, tol(en, mark, characteristic, 
*tag'Zf W,^ *tag8'pa* Ld,^ id.; rtags byM- 
pay vulg. *tag rgydb-pa* to make a m?irk; 
rdb'tu byiin-bai rtags ydd-pa (partic.) one 
having the outward marks of an ecclesiastic 
Glr,] bkra-m rtags v. bkra-h's; omen, 
prognostic, = ftos, bu-mo sky^-bai rtags a 
prognostic of a girl being bom Med. ; proof 
of a thing, c. genit., frq.; mnon-i'tdgs DzL 
id.; proof, argument, evidence, *H tags-pa- 
ne zum* lA. upon what evidence have they 
seized him? *tdgs-pa zig gos* you must 
prove it, *fdgs-pa-an mi dug* there is no 

CC' rtih 

trace, no evidence, left. — 2. inference, 
deduction Was, (320). — 3. the black, the 
centre of a target, W. *tdg-la cug-b^ to 
take for a mark. — 4. sexual organ, organ 
of generation, li^gs-sam bhd-ga as tvpo 
synonyms for the same thing Wdn.j po- 
rtagsy md-rta^s frq. — 5. gift, present, resp. 
pyag - rtags, — 6. any mark for denoting 
grammatical distinctions, such as termi- 
nations etc., ni f.; rtags ^ug-pa using such 
marks, making grammatical distinctions, 
seems to imply about the same thing 
as our etymology, the etymological part of 
grammar. — rtags-yig 1. stamp, type(?) Cs, 
2. letter of recommendation, credentials W, 
— *tag'ril* W., lot, Hag-ril tdn-ce"^ to cast 
or draw lots (a half-religious proceeding) 
cf. rgyath. 

-— .^. rtdb-ptty also rtab-rtdb-pay and stdb- 
f pa, to be In a hurry, to be con- 
fused, frightened, in a state of alarm, e.g. 
of fowl frightened by some cause {Zam, = 
bvM-pa); rtdb-po adj.; stab-stdb-por sdn-nas 
having become quite startled and con- 
founded J^A.; rtab-i^b sbst, rtab-rtob-ta m^^ 
ndn - du pyin - te she ran into the house ( Tf 
in haste (full of joy) Mil,\ rtab-rtdb-la ra 
mi Jtren I cannot help you with such speed 
Mil. nt. It is also spelled brtabs-pa, 

6^^' rtds-pa v. brtd-ba, 

^^ rtig-gi Ts, for r^, foal, COH 

£h' '^Hn (in more recent literature and col.) 
^ what is behind or after, with regard 
to space, and more particularly to time, 
rtin-duy rUn-lay rtin-na adv. afterwards, 
rtin-du bbds-so they were made afterwards, 
were added later Glr, ; postp. c. genit., or 
less corr. c. accus., after; byon rtih -la 
after their appearance Pih,y byun-rUn after 
he has come Mil,; de-rtin-la after that 
Glr,; *Uh'n§ ddn-be" W, to follow, to come 
after or later; rtin^ma adj. and sbst, the 
last Tar, ; ytdm-gyi rtin-ma yin this is my 
last, my farewell-speech Glr,\ without mu: 
*dm tin Hg-na* W. some day hereafter, 
some future day; *t(n-ma iag, tin-ma nyi^ 

^^^ rtib-pa 



S(3k'i^' rten-pa 

ma* W. the following day; * tin - jug* re- 
maining part, the last remainder, ^di-rih 
ja tin-jitff len son* W, to-day I have used 
the last of my tea. — rtin-pa 1. the end, 
extremity, lowest part, e.g. of a stick Glr,\ 
gen.: 2. the heel of the foot, rtin-Uags a 
spur, rtin - Uags rgydb - pa to prick with 
the spars, to spur; rtin-cu the Achilles- 

hrcy rUb-pa, pf. brt^s, fut. brtib^ imp. 
/ rfib{8) to break or pull down (cf, 

M' rtiuy sometimes for rteu^ a foal. 

Mrq* rtug-pa 1. excrement, dirt rtug-skdm 
1^ ' or 'sk4m dry excrements Med. ; rgyal- 
srid rtkg-pa bzivndu ddr-ba to throw o£f 
royalty like dirt Pthr^ rtiig - pa pyk - pai 
rdo a stone for wiping one's seU MU. — 
2. C, wind,^ flatulence. — 3. (b)fiug v. sub 

xr'fl* rtun^ba, pf. brtunSy fut. brtun, also 
■^ 8tun-haj to make shorter, to shorten, 
to contract, e.g. a rope, a dress; ynyd-ba 
' brtuns his neck is contracted Mng, 
.. x^ **/ww V. ytun; rtun-rll a trituration- 
V bowl Sch. 

t3\Zr ^^^-p«5 brtufir-paj diligence, rtun-pa 
IJ dyed' pa to be diligent Zaw. Of. 

gfjj-gf rtul'pOj or rtul-ba^ Dlunt, dull, mfsow- 
<3 rtul a blunt weapon Cs.; gen, fig.: 
dbdn-po rtul-po (opp. to mdn-po or ttic^ 
6a sharp, and Jbrin-po middling) dullness, 
stupidity, imbecility of mind; dull, stupid; 
blo-rtul weak intellect. — (J))rtul -pdd-pa 
('ftr) boldness, courage; bold, brave Dzl. 
gn- rteu foal, colt, rteu Jyi^ah-ba to bring 
' forth a colt, to foal 6«. 
*^ r^w (cf. the next article) that which 
' ' contains, keeps, or supports a thing, 
1- a hold, support, esp. in compounds: ka- 
rtin the plinth or base of a pillar Cs.; 
fkan-rUn (resp. iabs-i^ten) a foot-stool Cs. ; 
hi-rten a present given to support a suppli- 
cation, and never omitted by Orientals 
when making a petition; ^sem-Un* W, token, 
keep-sake; — esp. a visible representation, 

a statue or figure of Buddha or of other 
divine beings, which the pious may take 
hold, of, and to which their devotions are 
more immediately directed (v. the ex- 
planation in Glr, chp. II, init.) — 2. re- 
ceptacle, resp. ydun-rtin^ for the bones or 
relics of a saint, rnfdd-rten for oblations, 
V. m^od-pa, compounds; rig^pairten re- 
ceptacle of the soul, i.e. the body S<?An; 
rig-pa rtin-medrpa , rten dan brdl-ba the 
houseless, bodiless soul Thgr.; ^jig-rt^ v. 
fjig] snyin ni fse srog s4ms - kyi rten the 
heart is the seat of life and of the soul 
Mng.; seat, abode, residence, oi a deity, 
sanctuary, temple (D^Z.)^ shrine, rtSn-gyi 
ytsd-bo the deity residing in a shrine Glr.; 
visible representation, symbol, of divine ob- 
jects or beings, esp. the rten ysuvn sku- 
rten an image of Buddha, ysUh-rien symbol 
of the doctrine, gen. consisting in a volume 
of the holy writings, tugs-rten symbol of 
grace, a pyramid, Kopp. II, 294. Hence 
rtenmi^i very suitably be used for denoting 
the material element in the Christian sacra- 
ments, viz. the water, and the bread und 
wine. — 3. present, gift, prop, for 2:^rten 
(v. sub no. 1), and then in a more general 
sense, resp. jtn/a^-r^, W.^ iov pyag-rtdgs; 
also offering, oblation. — 4. sex, specified 
as male, female, or hermaphrodite, in- 
dependently of age S.g. ; • sometimes com- 
prising age S.g. ; or denoting age alone, 
as child, man, old man Lf.; calling, situation 
in life Tar. 163, 15 (where gyi ought to 
be changed into ni) 176, 15; 178, 18; some 
compounds follow still at the end of the 
next article. 

rtSn-pa 1. vb., pf. and fut. brten^ 
imp. rton (brtenf), to keep, to hold, 
to adhere to, to lean on, ^kdr-ba-la on a 
staff Pih.'y kd'ba-la against a pillar; lag- 
pa ^rdm-pa-la to lean one's head on one's 
hand, in meditating Dzl.; fig. to depend 
or rely on, brten-pai bld-ma the priest to 
whom one holds ; snunir-la rthi-pa to keep 
to the fat, i.e. to eat much fat Med.ijirig- 
pai ^os'la to be given, addicted, to sensual- 
ity; *cu fdii-wa mdn-pO'la. tM-ne* C. if 






i.'< ■ ? 

55rcr rth^a 


IJorpr^ rtdg^a 

one is intent on watering; Jsd-ba dka^ 
hub -la V. dkd'ba compounds; Uyid-kyis 
ysun-ba-la brUn-nas following, obeying 
(your) orders Glr.; nai nius^ck-la rUn-nas 
relying on my strength, i.e. by the help 
of my strength (you will be able to get 
to that place) MU.; hence (b^rUn-Tias is 
frq. used for: in consequence of, with re- 
spect to, concerning etc. : rkyen di-la rthi- 
nas in consequence of this event (the doc- 
trine spread) Tar. 8, 1; *gha-la tin-ncui* 
why? wherefore? 6\; yul Uyddrfar-bcmrla 
rtM-nas (to sin) with regard to a noble 
object Thffy.; to hang on, to depend on, to 
arise or issue from; rtM-par JbrH-ba v. 
i^en-JyrM; to be near, to border on, ""tinrte 
yod^ W. (the two villages) are contiguous 
to each other; ^ ytdd-pa^ stdn-pa to 
be directed, to be situated, to lie towards, 
Ifu^-pyogs'la to be situated towards the south 
Sambh.; ^od-zir-la rthi-nas ^rzigs-pa to look 
after or pursue with one's eye a ray of 
light, like ytdd-pa I. 3. Cf. stin-pa. — 
2. sbst. that which holds, keeps up, rgydl- 
pot rtin-pax> (these) are the supporto of 
kings De/.; brthi-pa riks-pai ynds-lugs bstdn- 
pa ^e doctrine of the hold-giving bones', 
osteology J/^n^. 3. adj. attached to, faithful C 
Comp. rt^-grog8^ tse hrilrpor ^rogs-pai 
rtm-grogs perh. erron. for ytdn-grogs. — 
rthi-ynas Gram.: the case which denotes 
the place of a thing or person, the locative. 
— rten-Jn'My or in full: rtM-par JbriUbar 
^gyur-ba or Jbyun-ba 'the coming to pass 
in continuous connection^ (the explanation 
of Bum. 1 , 623 is grammatically not quite 
correct) i.e.: 1. in a general sense: the 
connection between cause and effect; in a 
special sense, the Buddhist doctrine of 
the rtm-Jyrel bbu-ynyis^ f^T^TW) the twelve 
causes of existence Wdk. 551 (vrith illus- 
trations); Schl. 23, Bum. I. 485, Kopp. 
I. , 609. 2. the auspices of an undertaking, 
in as much as the complete knowledge of 
the causal connection of things implies also 
a c>ertain prescience of future events; rten- 
JbrH rtdg-pa to investigate the auspices, 
hes-pa to know them, (a physician e.g.. 

when treating a patient, must try to find 
out the auspices) Med.; rten-Jyril bzan or 
legs good auspices, nan bad auspices, frq.; 
so also frq. col. — rt^n-ma prop, support, 
pillar S.g.y *thi'Un* W. a pole used as a 
prop; rtin^a Mil.f 

J^prqjrqf rtdg-ge-ba (in|) the act of argu- 
^ ' I ing, reasoning; dialectics Cs.; Sch. 
distrust, suspicion (?); Ha-biddrtdg-^ei sUb- 
dpon seems to describe a teacher who talks 
in a hypocritical manner with a mere i^ 
pearance of wisdom. — rtdg-ge-pa an ar- 
guer, disputer, reasoner, difdectician Cs. 
J^cy rtdg-pa I. vb., pf. brtags (rtogs q.v.), 
" ' brtagy imp. rtog(8), 1. to consider, 
examine, search into, look through, cca. 
(also dat), brtags -na mi hes though one 
meditates (upon the soul), one cannot un- 
derstand or fathom it MU.; frq. with a 
single or double indirect question: to exa- 
mine whether (or whether not); brtag- 
dpydd (or rti^g-^ing) ytdn-ba Pth , MU. id.; 
brtags 'dpydd examination, trial Zam.; c. 
termin. to discern, to recognize as, e.g.9n^'s- 
par brtag it is ascertained to be bile, to 
be caused by hile Med.; so^sdr rtdg-pa 
Stg. prob. to recognize as being different 
— 2. to muse, to ruminate, to trouble one's 
head about a thing, which is considered 
a fault much to be guarded against, and 
the more so, as religious faith as well as 
meditation require the mind to be strictly 
directed and entirely devoted to the one 
subject in question; hence ma-rtdg tln-jizin 
MU. contemplation without any disturbing 
reflections and by-thoughts; cf. no. 11. — 
3. V. dog-pa. 

II. sbst. 1. consideration, deliberation, 
reflection, cf. I., 2; rtdg-pa skyi-ba^ rtdg- 
pa-la ^ug^a to reflect on a thing, to in- 
dulge in musings Bzh — 2. scruple, hesi- 
tation, rtdg-pa skyh-te to grow doubtful, 
hesitating MU.; rtog(-paymed(;-pa) simple, 
unsophisticated; simplicity; singleness of 
heart. — d^-la rtog-jug mi byed Glr. he 
does not meddle with that, 
"^^rq- rtdgs-pa (prop, the pf. of rtdg-pa^ 
^ * like navi of nosco) 1. vb. toper- 



ceive, to know, fo underaand, dfyddrna ma 
rtdffs-so they did not understand, though 
they inquired into it Dzl. ; rtdgs-par ^yv-r- 
ha to obtain information, to convince one's 
self of a thing DzL; rtdgs-par byid-pa to 
teach, to demonstrate, to convince a per- 
son of ZteZ.; md-rtogs'pa stupid, ignorant; 
ignorance Mil. — 2. sbst. (but in Tibetan 
always construed as an infinitive with the 
accus. inst. of the genit, and with an adv. 
inst. of an adj.) knowledge, perception, cog- 
nition, frq.; sems rtdgn-pa the knowledge 
of (one's own) soul Mil, ; mndtirpar rtdgB- 
P^ ( MfiWH^) ^^^^ understanding or per- 
ception, in modern Buddhism the same as 
ston-pa-nyid Trig. 21. — rtdgs-pa-dan^ 
rtogs-ldan rich in knowledge MU, — rtdgs- 
(pa) brydd^-pa)^ for Hr^f^TW cf. Bum, I. 64, 
a moral legend. — rtogs-spydd theory and 
practise, n^togBspyod by4drpa to know and 
to do, rtoffs-^ydd la mUds-pa theoretically 
and practically religious. — rtdgs-Jbd-ban 
desirous of knowing or learning, inquisitive 
MU. — Sometimes for togs-pa. 

T\^^ n^^' "T^^ j^d^^ 1. sbst., 

also rtodrpiir, a stake, in the ground, for 
teddering a horse, for securing a boat etc. ; 
a peg, in a wall, for hanging up things; 
rtod'fdg a tedder (v. btod-pa); rtdd-pa 
brgydb'pa to drive in a stake or peg. 
2. vb. to tedder, fasten, secure Dd. 

^^ ' 7» ' /I pa, brtdn-pa^ 
with or without yid^ ccd., to place confi- 
dence in a person, to rely on. 
-g^ rtolf ^s-rtdl Tar. 164, 20, Schf. the 

f pith or marrow of a doctrine; rtoU 
skyes-kyi his^a Mil.f — brtdt-ies-pa Tar. 
197, 8, Schf. to know thoroughly, 
"gor rtol Cs.y rtol-gdg Lew. w.e.; Sch.: a 

' bastard, an animal of a mixed breed, 
rtdl'po a male, liidl-mo a female bastard 
Cii.; ace. to Desgodins the cross-breed of 
a yak-bull and a ^ar-mo. Cf. Uor. 
-g^q- rtM-ba, pf. hrtol {Ld. *stdUe*) 1. 

^ to bore, to pierce, to bore into, cci. 
& Ly Sig.; to bore through, to perforate cca.. 



a board etc., sgo-na the shell of an egg (of 
chickens creeping out) Sch.^ to open (an 
abscess) by a puncture; to make an incision; 
*bi-gan* W. to bore a hole. -* 2. to COBie to, 
to get to, to arrive at, ynds-su to (at) a place 
Lex. (cog. to fdl'ba^ t^l-ba); yons-^dtis-brtol 
I^. w.e.; Tar. 30, 22, Schf.: vnf^^^^mm. 
the coral-tree, Erythrinaindica; also a tree 
of paradise. (In Dd. ^(&?, 13 the manuscript 
of Kyelang has: de-da^-las rtdUha it out- 
passed them). 

Tlta 1. more correctly 6Zto, v. sub ltd- 
bay I. 1., we will see, Mil, firq. — 2. 
in various phrases and expressions , in 
which its special signification is no longer 
clearly discernible : a. Ita hi smos Dzl. and 
elsewh., the most frq. form, Ita smos H 
dgos Thgy y Ita tmos hi Jsal (eleg.) Stg.y 
W. more distinctly : *lta dgos ci yod*, also 
""zer dgos ci yoeT, far from, not to mention, 
to say nothing of, how much less, how much 
more; with a preceding infinitive or noun: 
JU-dag ^dvl-ba Ita bi smos to say nothing 
of the conversion of these! how much 
easier is it to convert these! DzL; ^6-skol 
Ita a smos how much more we! Thgy.; 
Ita iog is much the same: lo zld^ba Ita 
iog to say nothing of years and months; 
*tor zogy td-la ioj^ C. id. — b. the word 
is frq. used after participles or adjectives 
ending with pa, when, judging in each 
case from the connection in which it hap- 
pens to stand, it may be deemed equiva- 
lent to: evidently, indeed, thus then etc., 
spoken either ^th emphasis, or ironically, 
or in a sorrowful tone. As it is next to 
impossible to learn from the Tibetans the 
exact import of those little words, which 
slightly modify the grammatical and logi- 
cal relations of a sentence, European trans- 
lators have generally passed them over. 
Cf. Dzl. 7^, 18, ^^cs^nS, 2 (where a shad 
ought to be added), LAy 7 (where ste means 
though), J?vS©, 18; Tar.7, 17, 19. \nDzl. 
^j?, 7 Uay in accordance witJi the manu- 
script of Kyelang, is to be omitted. — c. 
like, as, (Itd-ba sbst. abstr., Itd-bu adj., 
Itd'bur or Uar adv.), du-ba ltd -bur ydd- 







pa kiff one having the nature or the co- 
lour of smoke Glr, ; rta bbus rffyug-pa ltd- 
but sgra a noise as if ten horses were gal- 
loping Qlr,;,\ . Itd'bu mtlds^a hig a man 
as wise as . . . DzL; pa-md Itd-bur gydur^ 
to he was (to him) like a father DzL; bat 
dzi-ma Itd-bu dan Iddn-te having eye- 
lashes like those of a cow Stg. ; rdn-la mi- 
mMd'ba bu-la byin-pa Itd-bu ma yin not 
as if she (the mother) would give her child 
only what she does not want herself Thgy, ; 
i^s-pa Itd'buo is the usual expression for 
quoting a passage from an author, and 
always follows the quotation; %odnd-Zto- 
bu min you are not my equal, and also: 
you are not in my situation Mil.; ^di-lta- 
buy dA-lta-bu^ one like him, such a one 
as he; H-lta-bu what sort of? sahs-rgyas 
he$ byd -ba H-lta-bu yin the so-called 
Buddha, what sort of being is he? what 
is meant by 'Buddha'? DzL H-lta-bu-la 
bskalrpa ies bgyi what sort of a thing is 
called 'Kalpa'? )i'lta^ba y. ji\ )i'lta-bu 
of what kind, as a rel. pron. Sometimes 
Ita alone is used for Uorbu: Kydd-lta your 
equal MZ.; so prob. also in the passage 
DzL 9^^^Sy where ydd-pa Ita H mton 
would be = yod-pa Itd-bu gan mfon (better 
than taking Ita H mfon for Ita hi smos 
Schf.). In DzL ^^, 13, and :?vr, 3 ltd- 
iig is prob. to be altered into Itd-iog^ v. 
sub a, 2, above. — d. fta is sometimes a 
mere expletive, e.g. in dd-Ua (v. da\ and 
after the conditional na {DzL 9^0, 1 ; V©, 
b; 2/:?, 16, ^^, b.). 

Qj-q- Itd'ba I. vb., pf. blta^y fut. blta^ imp. 
^ Itosy blta^ resp. yzigs-pa (cf. Itos-pa) 
1. to look (as an act of the will, cf. mtdh-ba^ 
to View, often with Twijr, or mig-gis (v. below); 
bltds-na mi mfon though you look (for it) 
you do not see '\i MUr^ *ndn-tan Hb-^a 
Itos* Ld. look at it accurately ! *to H^ C, 
look (before you)! have your eyes open! 
^tg sig nyon big* C. attention! mind! be 
careful! ltd ^ bos ^og mi ^ds I never can 
look enough at it; with nas: to look from 
or through, sgo-sM-Tias (to peep) through 
the narrow opening of a door Tarr^ bltd- 

na sdug-pa pleasing when looked upon, 
charming to look at; also n. of the city 
of gods on the Birdb Stg,, and of one of 
the seven golden mountains around the 
Kirdb Glr. ; Itd-ru son go there and look 
(at it)! *ltarla ton* W. let me look (at it)! 
show it me! pan-fsun^u Itd-ba to look 
around DzL; ^cog^iog-U^ , or ^ye^dn-ld!^ 
col. id.; pyi mig, or pyir (to look) back 
Dd.; *pi mig log Ua-ce*, or ^jih-pa gydr- 
te Itd-de* W. id.; to inspect, ccd., rarely 
c.a., frq. Glr,y DzL; Uyed md-nus-pa-la 
bltds-na if one views, considers, your in- 
ability DzL; nas ma bltas^na if I do not 
inspect it Glr,; *ghdn4a te run* C. whatever 
one may fix his eyes upon = whatever it 
may be; to look after or into, to revise, to 
examine, to try, rtsa Ud-ba to feel a person's 
pulse Med.'^ pdn-nam blta I will see, if I 
can help Mil,; also: I will see, whether 
it has done good; su 8e blta let us see who 
is taller MiL; e* tsvd Uos hig see, if you 
can put it through Glr.; rtin-sor blta we 
shall see that afterwards J/iZ.; ydn-dag- 
par Itd'ba to examine or search into mi- 
nutely MU.; *fsod Itd'ba* in col. language 
is the expression most in use for to examine, 
to put to the proof, to test, to try, to 
sound etc. Lastly, as a mere act of the 
mind: to meditate, reflect, muse, ponder, 
investigate, du jdug blta let us see how 
many there are MU.; Ita rtog byM-pa, or 
ytdn-ba Mil, to investigate closely. Also 
in a mystic sense, v. sgdm'pal^2. — 
2. ccd. (or accus.) and termin. , to look 
upon a thing as, hh-pa-la zdg-tu to look 
upon knowledge as deceitful; dkon-mlSdg 
f9um mi bdin-par Itd-ba to think the three 
treasures to be untrue, not real, = not to 
believe in them. — 3. c. dat. (rarely termin.) : 
to have regard to, to pay attention to, to 
take notice of, and with a negative: to be 
indifferent to, not to care about, sr6g-la mi 
Itd'ba not to care about one's life (from 
heroism or desperation). — 4. to be situated 
or directed towards, Tndo ni nub-Ui Z^a the 
lower part of the valley is situated towards 
the west. — 5. rias bltds-pa in my opinion; 

W[S(3j' ltag4Hn 

nd'la bltd8''na(s\ or rUn^nas^ with regard 
to me, as for me, for my sake Gh\ ; yzdn- 
ma-rnams'la bltds-pas as far as the others 
are concerned, with regard to the others 
Glr, — 

II. sbst. 1. the act of looking, beholding, 
V. I, 1 . 2, ; Itd'ba ydns-sin circumspect Glr, 
— 2. contemplation (mystical) v. sgdm-^a 
1,2. ^ 3. (^<jir) opinion, doctrine, theory, 
philosophical system, school (in Tibetan a 
verb, cf. rtdga-pa II), rtdg^par Itd-ba the 
theory of perpetual duration (of earthly 
things); ndn-par Itd-ba a false opinion, = 

Comp. Ita-nyul'pa a spy, scout, Ita- 
nyul byid-pa to spy, to explore, v. nyul- 
ba, — ItorStdm^ resp. yziff-stdns Pth, the 
look, or manner of looking, air, mien, zi- 
bed Ita-stdns a mild look, or countenance, 
C«.; Uro'bai Ita-stdm an angry or fierce 
look C«. ; esp. the magical and powerful 
look of a saint, Itastdm sig mdzad-^a to 
cast such a magical look il/iZ.; Ita-stdm- 
la bzugs-pay Itastdm - kyi ndn-nas M-ba 
Mil. to sit, or stride along, with such a 
look, Le. with great solemnity of deport- 
ment, as of one in a trance; Itastdns-bhi 
the four magical looks, viz. : ^ugs-pai Ita- 
sta'w5 the attracting look, skrod-pai Ita- 
stuns the repulsive look, Ihiin-bai Ita^stam 
the {)recipitating look, rihs-pai Ita-stdns 
the paralyzing look Cs.; also s^-gei^ gldn- 
'po-iei Ita-stdm-kyis yzigs-pa to look at a 
person with a lion's look, with an elephant's 
look. — Ita-log, in later lit. and col. Idg- 
ItOj false sentiment, not only false doctrine, 
heresy, but any irreligious impulses of the 
mind, perverse and sinful thoughts, eg. 
Idg-Ua skyeS'te is used for conspiring against 
a person's life G/r., giving way to doubt 
or weakness of faith Glr,, falling in love 
with a woman Pth,; mi-la Idg-lta byed-pa 
to slander, to abuse a person Glr, 

1^^^ Itag-Uin puff-ball Sch, 

(OTrn* Itdg-pa 1. the back part of the neck, 
^ nape Med, and elsewh., frq. — 2. the 
upper part or place, grdl-gyi of the divan. 





the seat of honour Dzl, — 3. the back, 
gri - Itag the back of a knife. — 4. Itag 
^og sgyur - ba to turn upside down Dzl, ; 
ltdg-na(s)y Itug^ above, sgo-ltag above the 
door, grdn-ltag dg&n-pa Mil, the convent 
above and behind the village, the front- 
side of the houses being gen. turned to- 
wards the valley and the river; thus 'be- 
hind' is equivalent to 'higher up'; Itdg- 
na-med-pa (of rare occurrence) for bld- 
na-med-pa the highest, ^ ^^4| ; Itag sk&r- 
ba to strangle, to suffocate Glr,; Itag ybdd- 
pa 1. Cs, to cut off a man's neck, to 
behead. 2. W. to make a person change 
his mind, to alter his sentiments; *ne K6- 
la gy^g-pa tag bad yin* I hope I shall 
talk him out of it, shall dissuade him from 
doing it; Itag nyal-ba to lie backward Sch, 
Comp. Itdg - sgo the back - door of a 
house, v. above. — Itag-yddd or -^od 1. de- 
capitation, 2. Sch,: changeable, fickle, in- 
constant Itag-cuMed,; Sch,: 'sinew of the 
neck, the covering of the neck'. — Itag- 
mdud Sch,y Itag-sdiid Lt, , the hole in the 
occiput, the connexion of the brain with 
the spinal marrow. — Itdg-spu neck-hair, 
mane, of the horse, of the lion Ld, - Glr, 
— Itdg-ma what is uppermost, e.g. words 
written over other words. 
Qjr' Itan 1. a bale of goods, carried on 
^ one side of a beast of burden, half 
a load, Itan ynyis two bales, or a whole 
load. — 2. also Iten, W,: through, quite 
through, *p7-sta-ne ndn-la Itan ton dug* 
one sees from the outside into the interior; 
Htan bug tjorf bore through! *ltah fon-te 
ca dug* he is passing through, he does 
not make a stay here. — Cf. ton, 
-j--^ Itdd-mo, col. also *ltdn-mo*, resp. 
^ yzigs-mOy the looking on, a sight, 

scene, spectacle, ltdd-7no-la ^fsogs they 
came together in order to look on Glr,; 
Itdd-mo Itd-ba to look at a scene, to be 
an eye-witness; Itdd-mo Itd-bai sa a place 
where there is something to be seen; a 
theatre. — Itddr-mo-Kan a playhouse, ex- 
hibition, puppet-show etc. — Itddr-mo-pa 
Pth,^ *ltdd-77io-lta-mi^, *ltnd-m0'la yon-Uan* 


^q-Cr Itab^a 

TT., a spectator, a visitor; Itdd-iruMn/^an^ 
Udd-mo stdn-pa a showman, actor, mimic 
etc. — grdn-yvl-gyi Uddrmo ma dran hg 
MU. forget the scenes of viUage life! 
qjfl'ZT '^^-P^^ pf« hUabSy fut bltab^ imp. 
^ Itob {W. *ltabs ton*), to fold or 

gather up, to lay or put together, *kijan'' 
tab, nt/i-tab tab^i^ W, to fold single, to 
fold double; fsiim-ltab byidrfa to fold or 
bend together threefold, e.g. a corpse pre- 
vious to cremation; Udb-Tna Cs. a fold, 
crease, plait; Itab-gri a clasp knife. 
f^w^Tv'q- ltdm(8)'pa, pf. bltamsy fut. 
^ ^ ^ bltaniy 1. to be full, also ytdms- 
pa. — 2. resp, to be born, skyidrpai yab 
dan bltams-pai yum the father by whom 
one is begotten, and the mother by whom 
one is born Pth. 

f^xr ^^^^ !• ^80 bltar^ supine of ltd - ba, 
^ in order to see; bltdr-run-ba visible; 
Sch.: 'pleasing to the eye'; gca^ Udr-na 
yany U Itdr-na yan^ be that as it may 
Glr. — 2. postp. c. a., Hke, as, after the 
manner of^ ri-ltar like a mountain; pyag 
byid'pa Itar byed-pa to make a saluting 
gesture Glr,; no-hes run mi s^-pa Itar 
byas although they knew . . ., they affected 
not to know... MiL; J)ral mi pdd-pa 
Itar yodr-na yan being like one that cannot 
part with, = being scarcely able to part 
with, Olr.'y Itar sndn-ba to appear like, 
hence prob. Itar-sndn appearance, simi- 
larity jScA., (Lea. w.e.); lun-bstan-pa Itar 
(to do a thing) in conformity with a pre- 
diction Tar,; also Itdr-nay and Itdr-dUy 
mi-lo Itdr-na , , . yod computed byOiuman 
or terrestrial years it amounts to.. . Thgy,; 
bdd-mam^s Itdr-na according to Tibetan 
(sources) Tar,; H-UarQ-na) how? in w^hat 
manner or way? H-Uar also serves to 
paraphrase the English 'so that', e.g. 'he 
played so that all were enraptured' is thus 
expressed : he played — how did he play? — 
all were enraptured; ji-ltar^-na) as ji-lta 
ji'ltar , , , d^'lta d^-Uar Sambh, even as . . . 
so; JU-^ltary di-ltar^-na) so, thus, in that 
manner; ^di-ltar mi rgan Kyod such an 
old fellow as you are ; frq. also in referring 

^' Iteh 

to the words of others, where we use 'that* : 
d^'ltar bdhi-na if that is true. 
fjjx'Qjj^'gj^ Itdr-ltar-po Lex,y Cs, : of a liquid 
^ ^ nature, as an embryo first in 

the womb. 

Qj^ Uas prognostic, omen, more distinctive 
^ %nd4tas; miraculous sign, mirade, pro- 
digy, more accurately: no-mtsdr^bai Itas] 
bkra-Ms-pai Itas a propitious omen; mU- 
Itas bzdn-po a good sign in a dream Ptk.] 
dgS'ltas a favourable sign; ndn-ltds^ or 
Itas-ndn a bad sign DzL; Itds-m/can a 
soothsayer, fortune-teller; Ita^s stdn-pa to 
soothsay Cs, 

%'^' lU-ri pitcher Sch, 

^ra-rtr* Itig-fun C, a person of small stature, 
^ ' ND perh. a corruption of Ite-fun, 

§q'q' Utlhpa to fall through Sch. 

§^*^' Itir-ba v. Idir-ia. 

ayrw Itun-ba 1. vb., pf. Ihuny to fall, to 
^ fall off, down, into; fig.: mfd-ba de 
yan mfar Ihun^no what is high will finally 
fall down Dzl,\ more esp. to fall into sin, 
to commit sin, hence nyes-lttm an actual 
sin, a sinful deed, Itun-byed a transgression, 
crime; also ndn-son-du (v. ^d-ba I, 5), 
or dmydl'bar to fall into damnation. — 
2. sbst. the fall, esp. the moral fall, Uun- 
bas gds-pa polluted by sin ; Itdn-ba b^dgs- 
pa confession of sin.^<^''^Y<^y^^^-^'V,^.i^U. 
;^q« It^'ba 1. navel-string, umbilical cord, 
^ yidd'pa to cut it Med, — 2. navel, 
Iti-bai Uun(bu) Lt. id. ; gld-bai JM-ba musk- 
bag. — 3. the middle of a thing, centre, 
dkyU-Jcor-gyi of a circle; mu-Kyud ysvmr 
gyi Iti-bar in the middle of three (con- 
centric) circles Lt,\ ran-fdg-gi It^ba the 
axle-tree of a water-wheel Glr.-y sat Iti^a 
the centre of the earth, in the opinion of 
the natives: Tibet\ also cognomen of se- 
veral fabulous kings of Tibet Kopp, II., 52. 

— Ite-ba yhun-rdh Lhasa, or, in a more 
special sense, the palace of the Dalai Lama 

— Ite-fug W, = *tig-fun* C, 

Q|r' If^n^ 1. V. Itan. — 2. Iten-rgyds n. of 
^ a Buddha. 

^'^ It^-ka 


^^fjaj* sta-gdn 


^^It^'ka pool, pond DzL 

^B'sr Itilh^a (cog. to Itdlhpa), to double 
^ down, to turn in, mfay or sn^-mo to 
hem, by taming io the edge, c£ snd-mo. 
(^AQ* ItemrTgydn humour, whim, caprice, 
^ ^ Uem^gydn byMrfa to be whim- 
sical or capridoas Cs. 
(^•q« lUm-fa the state of being full, e.g. 
^ a vessel full of water, full, overflowing, 
Uhnrfo fall; Itemnlt&m so fall that it runs 

af to, seldom Z<d-6a (C, il/tf.) 1. food, 
^ victuals, lto(b)za'ba 1. to eat, /to yan 
ma 208 he did not eat anything Glr.\ 2. 
to gain or get one's living C. ; Itd^la byin 
give him to eat! L^.; lug- la Ito ster feed 
the sheep; fto yyd^a to prepare food ilfiZ.; 
*ft> nyo krog hon* C. he risks his life in 
order to procure food; gla-ltd wages and 
food; Uo-gdSy Ito-rgydbj food and clothes 
ifiZ.; Ito ^ rgyab - skyid Le^. prob. food, 
clothes, and good health (comfort); *dha 
td'ie za gyu yin* C, now I will go and 
eat (something). — Ito^^fiy UcHrdn ScL: 
a person temperate in eating. — Itd-^dun- 
^n an epicure, parasite, sponger. — to- 
Hn provision ground which a person re- 
ceives for his subsistence. — Hm-lto-can 
dainty -mouthed, lickerish. — 2. goat's 
keard, Tragopogon, used as a kitchen- 

rjfq' Ud-ba belly, stomach; also the belly 
' of a bottle; Itd^ba ad-la Jb^ba-pa to 
prostrate one's self. 

Comp. Ito-gdn a full belly, also: with 
a full belly or stomach. — ltd- ^gro^ Itds- 
^ I. moving or creeping on the belly, 
a worm, a snake. 2. symb. num.: 8. — 
/to(-6a)-o^(^(-pa) t'«.: 'belly-fretting, a 
nervous excitement of the belly'. — Ita- 
9tAn with an empty stomach, jejune, empty. 
— Uo-ldir belly of a vessel, Itdldir^an 
swelling out, bellied, like vessels. — ltd- 
na-ba, Ito-ztig stomach-ache. — l^-jpy^ 
crawling or creeping on the belly, a snake; 
l^jpye lihi-pOy 4|f^<< i i ft fabulous monster 
of the serpent kind, similar to the klu. 

f^n-Qff' Itog-^dri a demon Sch,; Jbre- 
^ ' *^ Itdgs prob. the «ame. 
r^n;^;rj- Itdga-pa I. vb. 1. to be hungry, 
^ ' Itdgs-so I am hungry Cs.y Itdgs-au 

J)&r-ba to snflEer a person to hunger, to 
starve Dzl. — 2. &ch, : to regret, Itogs nyal 
ma byeb do not always lie in grief and 
regret! Sch,(f); ItdgS'par bUtga-pa resp. 
to be full of regret. 

U. sbst hunger. 

III. adj. hungry, 8hn»'han Itdgs-pa-mams 
DzL; Itdgs-par ^yiir-ba to grow hungry; 
Itdgs-gri Mil y col. *ltdg''ri^ W. hunger, 
^nc^'la) Itdg-ri ra^ 1 am hungry, *%od 
(-Za) Udg-ri ra^ you are hungry, *Uo 
Itdg^a yodT he is hungry. — Itogs - pyug 
hunger (i.e. poverty) and wealth Gh\ — 
Itog-tsdr the feeling of hunger, Itogs- fsor 
ce 1 tan very hungry Mil. 
r^^ Itdn-ga notch, incision, indentation, 
^ ' mdd'lton the notch in an arrow; 
a depression, ri-tdn in a ridge of moun- 
tains, la-tdn the indentation of a mountain- 

^^' Itons summK Mil.y frq. 

^^ Itob V. Itdih-pa, 

'S^' ItOTy sras-ltdr a bastard prince Glr. 

^^ lt08 \. Y, Ita-ba, 2. Sch.=^)'tos, 

aj^q- Itds-pa 1. vb., = Itd-buy to look at, 
^ on, or to, ccd., ynyin-po-la ma 

U6s -par without looking to a spiritual 
guide Thgy.; Uyod d^-la Itos mi dgos-pa 
hig yin you need not care for that Mil,\ 
ri-Hh Itde-pa Glr. to look at (a thing) 
hopefully; dS-la hds-na if I look at, con- 
sider, this MiLy if one compares this with . . . 
Thgy.; \s)nd-lto% <H-ttig(^i) fsdn-ma td- 
Man* W. a person acting with great cir- 
cumspection. — 2. sbst. the looUng at or 
on, Itds-pa m^d-par without looking at it 
(e.g. in playing at dice); relation, respect, 
regard Cs. 

wS(^ sta-gon preparation, arrangement, 
^ ' ' sta-gdn by&l-pa to make prepa- 
rations, to prepare, arrange, fit out; Js6- 






^^' sU-ba 

bat sta-gdn-la biens he rose to make pre- 
parations for dinner Mil, 
«j-gx' sta-zur hip, hip-bone, e.g. as the 
^ seat of strength Mil ; s^-2:wr ya^ 

?at^ from the hip upward DzL 
•j-^- sta-ri W.y originally sta-gri Mil. and 
^ C, 8^a-r^ B.fdiM^ hatchet; dgrd-sta 
battle-axe Lex.\ star-ltdg Cs, the back of 
an axe or hatchet, star-mig the hole for 
putting the handle in, star-yu the handle, 
atcu^'Sd the edge of an axe. 
KOT- stag 1. tiger, rgya-stdg the Bengal 
^ ' tiger Mil,; stag-prug a young tiger, 
stdg-mo a tigress ; stag-fsdn a tiger's den ; 
stag 'TIS the stripes of a tiger's skin. — 
2. Tar. 166, 2? 

5jjqi-x5;r stag- cos Mil, utensils carried by 
^ ' men about them, such as a knife, 

smoking-implements, weapons etc. 
Mw-CT stdg-pa birch -tree; stag -ma n. of 
^ ' another tree. 

^mi'mB^ ^^'y^9 ^ ^^^ un&equent form 
^ ' ' ' (which prob. has been adapted 
to Tibetan etymology) for ta-zig^ Persia, 

ydan; saddle-cloth ; stun jMn-ba to spread 
a mat {on the ground), ^ibs-pa to lay 
(a mat) on; ^hc-stdn* swaddling-cloth W.; 
*bol'ten* mattress, *ttd-ten* (lit. pnd'Stdn) 
a light travelling -mattress C; sometimes 
substratum of any kind, also of hard ma- 
terials, e.g. ytstcb^tdn^ btsab^tdn, 
^g- stab 1. V. rtab, — 2. Sch,: stab stem- 
^ pa to suffer, to tolerate, to yield. 
»jq«r stabs (cog. to fabsj also syn. ofstam), 
^ mode, manner, way, measure, sen-^ei 
stabs 'kyis (or su) ^grd-ba to walk in the 
manner of a lion; gar-stabs v. gar\ oppor- 
tunity, Jby&n-stabs an opportunity for going; 
* tabs-si Kd-^a* (also *M-ne, ov Ud4c^)W, 
when an opportunity offers; rins-stabs-m 
hastily, speedily Mil,; ^kdrt-stabs* dearA, 
famine, wantLd.; *rin'Stabs* a describing 
at full length, copiousness (stabs ^ in this in- 
stance, corresponds to the English termi- 
nation ^ness', changing the adj. into an 
abstract noun). 

^^' star, for sta-^i q.v. 

-j«— - stdr-ka Sch,, stdr-ga Lex,,, stdr-Ea 

OTTjT stag-sa a medicinal herb, Glr., ' ^ ' (?Zr., walnut, star-(jgai) sin, Qdn-^h 

Med,; stag-sa-di-ba Glr, 
Mn-nx- stag 'Mr a youth, young man 6'., 
^'^ Mil. 
«jr'Sfy stari'Zil Cs,: n. of a black stone, 

^ ace. to Zam, a silver-ore. 

^jrxr* stanSy Sch, also stdn-Jca, manner, 

^ style, posture, gdmpai stans manner 

of walking, gait; brdig- stans byM-pa to 
assume a fighting posture Mil,; ltd- stans 
V. Itd'ba comp.; stdn-pai blttgs- stans the 
sitting posture of Buddha; C: ^Ko ghg- 
ghgn-tan di-mo* his style of dressing is 
fine, he is well dressed; ^tdm-zer-tan Ice- 
pa* eloquent; even like a mere termination 
for forming verbal substantives: *zd'tan*, 
or * tun-tan leg-mo* good eating, drinking. 
xjr-q- stdd-pa, pf. and fut bstad, imp. 

stody to put on, to lay on, rtd-la sga 
to put the saddle on a horse, to saddle; rtd- 
la ^grd'Cas to load the baggage on a horse. 
«jy Stan mat, carpet, esp. a carpet for 
^^ sitting on, also a CUShton, resp. bi^vgs- 

star -Ha walnut-tree Glr,; star-skdgs nut- 
shell; star-sddn trunk of a walnut-tree. 
stdr-ka byM-pa IA,-Glr, Schl, f. 15, b(?). 
»x'fl* stdr-ba, pf. and fut. bstar, imp. stor, 

^ 1. to file on a string, e.g. pearls; tO 

tie fast, to fasten to, e.g. sheep to a rope, 
in a bivoaac, stdr-la rgyud-pa id. — 2. to 
clean, to polish Lex. — 3. Sch. : to ornament, 
decorate (?). 
-J-,—, stdr-buy or star-iun Med,, frq., the 

^ ^ berries of Hippophae rharanoides, 
a shrub or tree very frequent in Tibet; 
ace. to a Lex, also a kind of Rumex in 

^fl" stf-ba, pf. bstis, fut. bsti, imp. stis, 
^ 1, to rest, to repose, to refresh one's 
self, sti-(bai) ynajs resting-place. — 2. to 
honour (?); (b)stistdn honour, respect, reve^ 
ence, byM-pa ccd., to show a person 
honour, frq,; *U6-la ti-tdrl dan med^ W. 
he is not esteemed at all, he enjoys no 
credit whatever; bkur-sti id., v. bkvr-ba. 

%;*q' stin-ba 


^P(^ stega 


^•q- sti/l-bay pf. bstinSy fut. bstin^ imp. 
^ 8fz/^ to rebuke, scold, abuse Lexx, 

%Qf^'V ^^^^ ^*) " P^ *^ ^^^^ (sacrifice), 
^ ^ rarely used. 

^^jy stimr-pa^ pf. bstimSy fut. isfew, imp. 
5 8ft7W«, prop. vb. causative to Jim- 

pa, gen. = ^fim-puy to enter, penetrate, 
pervade, to be absorbed in^ fugs ios-nyid- 
kyi kUn-du stim Pth. the soul is absorbed 
in the expanse of the cos-^yid. 
»• 8tu cunnus, orifice of the vagina, the 
>i vulg. and obscene expression for the 
pudendum muliebre. 

OTi/«f\w $tug(8)-fa 1. abstract noun and 
X^'^ ^ adj.^ thickness, density, thick; 
stags 'po adj., = o%-i>«5 o^^'P^^ ^^^^K 
deiitte, e.g. a forest, DzL; sound, heavy 
(sleep, clouds etc.); dpal-stugs right noble, 
most noble Ci.; stugs-^o-bkod-pa IVi, one 
of the heavens of Buddha. — 2. a wind, 
flatulence C, 

RjT'fl' stun-ba^ pf. bstunSj fut bstun^ imp. 
>^ stuns = rtun-ba, 
«rw stud-pay pf. and fut. bstvA^ to repeat, 
^^ to reiterate, to give or oflFer repeatedly 
(medicine, food, beer etc.), bstud-na if 
it is repeated Mitg.; sbrid-pa mdn-po 
stud-Hn ^on repeated sneezing ensues Lt; 
hstud-nas nd-ba to be always ill Sch, ; cf. 

xj^g* stkn-pa, pf. and fut. bstun, prop. 
>i ' causative to Jim-pa^ gen. = J^un- 
pa, to agree, dgS-ba bcu-la bstun-pai ryjal- 
hims a law agreeing with the ten virtues 
Glr.; ^dod-y&n Iha dan stun-pai lons-spgod 
a life of pleasure in accordance with the 
five enjoyments Glr,; dus-skdbs dan stun- 
te agreeably to the (proper) time, in due 
time G/r.; nai iin i^md-ba ^di dan sti/n- 
pat Tngur-ma a song having reference to 
this my labour in the fields Mil, ; ykun dan 
st&n-^a Lex.y Cs, : 'to confer, to make agree 
with the original text*. 
W'zvst&b'pay or ste- pa, Ld,^ for httib- 
-Z pa^ yt^-jya, 

§• «fe an affix for the gerund, inst. of (e, 

after g^ n^ and vowels, v. te. — As 

ste contains the copula, it may be added 

also to other words than verbs, e.g. kgod 
rigs ce-zih mfd-ba-ste as you are of high 
and noble extraction DzL; like jU'lta-ste 
it is also used for namely, to wit, videlicet 
(viz.), that is to say, esp. before trans- 
lations of foreign words and names: hi-- 
ror^te mgo'bo zes-byd-ba Tar. 11, 11 ; 4, 11 ; 
189, 2 and elsewh. In the latter case it 
may also be rendered by or (Lat. sive). 
After an enumeration of several things, 
it serves to point back, or to comprise: 
ia, za, a, ya, ha, sd-ste drug-ni the six 
letters I, z etc.; ysum nd-ro kyi-gu grin- 
bu'Ste thi'ee signs, o, i, and e GZr., Tar, 
188,16; dd'Ste iag bddin^na as to the being 
now, in seven days, i.e. in seven days firom 
to-day DzL; sometimes ste seems to stand 
in the place of a preceding verb, Feer 
Introd, 73, s.l.c. ; at other times it is used, 
where its exact meaning is not obvious, 
^gf' st^'po^ or steuy carpenter's axe, adz, 

^ an axe with its blade athwart the 
handle {Cs,: 'paring axe'), used by Indian 
and Tibetan carpenters, Ilind, basula^ ste- 
Itdg its back, ste-yii its handle, ste-Ud Cs, 
its edge, though in S.g, 32 st^-Ka so-^yis" 
pa it must be the name of the tool itself. 
— ste bzog ytdn -ba to pare, to smooth, 
to hew with the axe. — ^pdg-ste* W. a 
^qw- stegs, also sUgs-bu, any contrivance 

^ ' for putting things on, a stand, board, 
table, stool etc.; kd-stegs the pedestal or 
base of a pillar Cs,; rkdn-stegs foot- stool, 
jack, horse (wooden frame with legs); 
^kydn-stag* W, candlestick; *<fds-stag; 'So- 
tag* W., book-stand; jiug-stegs a board, 
stool, bench, to sit on Ci.; *do-t6^C, a 
stone -seat, whether artificial or natural; 
sndd-stegs Cs. 'a board to put vessels on'; 
pdV'Stegs a cupboard Cs.; *po-stag* W, a 
bench; zdbs-stegs resp. for rkan-stegs; ^zun- 
teg* C. candlestick; yzag-stegs a board to 
place things on Cs.; zd-stegs dining- table 
Schr,; ysol'Stegs id resp., and table in 
general, col. *so/-jfa^; Idm-stegs seat.^ resting- 
place by the road-side Glr.; ^on- teg* C. 





^'CT stdiv-pa 

^- stea that which is above, the upper part, 
^ top, surface, sat stm fams-^tdd the 
whole face of the earth Glr,; s^iu-moi stSn- 
gi sa the earth here upon my finger nail 
Dzi ; sten^i ndmrmKa the heavens above 
DzL; steh-gi pyogs the zenith; sten-^dg 
above and below, sten-^dg-gi ydon demons 
of the upper and lower regions; sUn-na 
adv. and postp. : above, overhead, on high, 
up-stairs, on the surface, answering to the 
question where or in what place; stdn^u 
adv. and postp., answering to the 
question whither, to what place, but also 
where or in what place, e.g. to sit on a 
lotos, to throw down to the ground, to 
send a thing or a messenger to a person 
DzLy frq. 2. above, over, moreover, besides, 
in addition to, rgds-pai sten-du in addition 
to my old ageX^.; byds^pai stdn-du he 
made it and besides. . . Dzl.; bdag cds-la 
mi mds-pa midrfai stin^du bdn rdnrla mas 
I am not only no despiser of religion, but 
a regular Bon- worshipper MiL ; stdn - nas 
down from. — stdh-ka ( W, ^tdn-ka*)^ also 
stSn-tse a terrace. — st^^Kan upper story 
of a house, garret — *sten'd&n*(?) W. 
pestle, pounder. 

^^^* 8t^n-pa^ pf. and fut bsten^ imp. sten^ 
^ to Iceep, to hold; to adhere to, to sticic 
to, to rely or depend on, almost like rt^ 
pay but c. accus., bld-^ma mkds-pa stSn-pa 
to adhere to a learned Lama; to stick or 
keep to certain victuals, medicines etc., using 
them regularly, frq.; even sdug-bsndl to 
have to taste misfortunes Thgt/. ; to addict 
one's self (to virtues or vices), sdr-^na to 
avarice Stg, ; mi sUn-pa = spdn-ia to avoid, 
shun, abstain from Glr.\ Cs. also: yyog 
sUnr^a to keep a servant in pay. 
^j;rq' st^m-pa^ pf, and fut. stems (= stiri' 
^ />a?), to hold, to support Mil. nt, ; to 
shut or fasten a door, io secure it by a beam 
or bar. C. 

^^- 8fem.s curse (?) Tar, 181,20. Cf. 
^ byad, 

^Qv' steu V. ste-po. 

^x-n- sUr-bay pf. and fut bster^ ccdp. 
^ 1. to giveJ5., 6'., frq.; to bestow, 

present, grant, contede, attow; with the 
supine or root of a verb: to let, permit, 
ndn-^ ogro(r), ndh-du Jm-du to let enter 
to grant admission Dzh — 2. W. in a 
special sense: to give to eat or to drink, 
to feed (infants, animab). — 3. to add (in 
arithmetic) Wdk, — *tir-go* aid, COnbri- 

^•rr^TT' stes-dban Lex,^ where stans-legs 
^ ' is added for explanation; in Tar, 
134, 7 stes-dhan-ms is translated by Schf,: 
power of fete. ^W yjC ^^tS^J- ^^ 

^^ sto-fag rope Sch, 

^:t std-ba^ most frq. in the col. phrase 
^ tan mi sto it does not matter, it 
makes no difference, it is all the same 
(also can mi rtog); MiL: H run mi std- 
ba ^dug it does not matter if they die; H 
yan ci std^te what does it matter if they 

^^'(?) «^<^« W,y a circle of dancers. 

ston 1. thousand, ston-prdg id., ston- 
prag-brgyd-pa (the work) containing 
ten thousand (viz. Sloka) Kopp. 11, 272; 
Bum, I, 462. — slM-^p(m a commander 
over a thousand; stoh-Jcdr^h a wheel with 
a thousand spokes ; Uxs ston byed Med. that 
is a remedy producing a thousand good 
effects. - 2. a fine for manslaughter, to be 
paid in money or goods to the relatives 
of the person killed; 8^S*fi-jft ston bySd- 
pa Glr,y to proportion this fine to the rank 
of the man killed. — 3. v. stdn-pa. 

^'2|m|^' ston-grdgs v. stdhs-pa. 

^•q- «<dn-pa (ijjir) empty, clear, Mdb-kyi 
^ rtsS-mo tsam yzitgs-pai sa stdn^pa 

about so much clear space, as to allow 
the point of a needle to be stuck in jD^:^; 
hollow, not charged or loaded (of a gun); 
not written upon, blank; indifferent, having 
no distinct or definite quality, e.g. as to 
taste or smeU; rlu/i-gi rah^bzin ni ston 
mM-kyi though wind (or air) in itself is 
without smell D^;.; waste, deserted, brag- 
stdh a rocky desert, hin-stdn a desolate 


^CfSPJi' ston-zil 



valley Mil.; *ian - stdn* Ld, , *dom - stdn* 
Pur., bare -bottomed, having the bottom 
bare, vulg.; *mi tdn-pa* W., = *w* kyan*, 
V. rkycth'pa; Ican-stdn a desolate house, 
as a place suitable tor enchantments; fig. 
*sem tdn-pa raff* W. I feel lonely. --- 
Bton-pornyid. ^j«97T, emptiness, vacuity, the 
void, the chief product of the philosophical 
speculations of the Buddhists, and the aim 
and end of all their aspirations, v. Kopp. I, 
214; Bt^rw. 1,442; 462. (Five synonyms 
V. Trig. f. 20). stdh - zdd - la skyd - 6a to 
squander, to waste, tse one's life Mil.; 
stonsan-nd absolute vacuity, Mh-^an-hd 
byds-nas making tabula rasa, keeping, re- 
taining nothing whatever Thgy. — ston- 
}8dl V. yacU^o. — Adv. atdn-par in vain(?) 


^'S^r 8ton'Zil(?) W. Corydalis melfolia. 

wrxTCT 8t6n8-pa 1. pf. batans (DzL), fut. 
^ 6«ton(?), to accompany, *t6n-te 

dd-wa* C. to go along with a person; dis 
kyan mi stdns-par ^ci I die without any 
thing following me Thg^y.; more frq. sto/i- 
gr6g% byed-pa ccgp. (also dat.?) to help, to 
assist a person Mil. — 2. to make empty; 
to bo empty, to become waste or desolate, 

rdh-gi ynas stdns-Hrl S.g., rah-hul stdm-nas 
Mil. J your own place becoming desolate; 
stdm-su nyi-bar gyv/r it had become nearly 
empty, was almost spent or exhausted Pih.; 
mis stdns-pai l^dn-^o ruins forsaken by men ; 
Mns-rgydS'kyis itdm-pa Thgy. the period 
during which no Buddha appears, a mi- 
Bdm-pa V. Il6m-pa; sa-yhir stdns-pa to level 
with the ground, to raze, to demolish 

^« stody Ssk. ^^TTi I' *he upper, higher, 
^ former part of a thing, the upper half 
opp. to amad; 1. esp. the upper part of 
the body, resp. deur^tdd Pih.; stod-Kdg the 
upper part of a carcase ScA., also stddrpo 
Mil.; atodrHydba a sort of frill or ruffle of 
the Lamas ; stod-^dg doublet of the Lamas, 
without sleeves; stod-ftin a short coat, 
jacket. — 2. the upper or higher part of 
a country, stddrpa an inhabitant of it, high- 

wT^ sUin-pa 

lander. — 3. with respect to time: the first 
part, of the night DzL, of life Glr., of winter 
and the like; stddria at the upper part of, 

n. V. stdd-pa, and stddrpa. 
'mtzt stdd-pa 1. vb., pf. and fut. bstod 
^ ' ('to raise^ to exalt', opp. to amdd- 
pa) to praise, commend, laud, bddg-stodr-pa, 
W. ^rdh-todr^^, to praise one's self, ^ran- 
tod-bav!^ a self- admirer, self-flatterer; to 
extol, to glorify, men, gods etc., frq. ; stod- 
{bin) bsnaga-pa id.; stod-tdg an epithet of 
praise, a commendable quality. — 2. sbst. 
praise, eulogy , also "tdd-ra* W.; compli- 
ments, complimentary phrases e.g. in letters; 
hymn of praise, also stod-bshags, stod- 
dbydnSy itod-glu; st6d'pa(r) bydd-pa, W. 
^fful'd^, ccd. (the former also c. accus.) 
to praise, to extol; stod-^ds laudable, com- 
mendable, worthy of praise, 
^r- ston 1. autumn (more about it v. dm), 
^ ' ston brgya mfdn-bar gyur big may 
he live to see a hundred autumns! Lt — 

2. in autumn, during autumn J5., frq. — 

3. = ston-fdg. 

Comp. stdn-ka, st&r^Ua, autumn, *st&nn 
ka-na, stdn-ka-la* in autumn, during 
autumn. — ston-fdg autumnal fruit, harvest, 
ston-fdg sdd-ba ( W. also ^ddg-ie*) to gather 
in the produce of the fields, to harvest. 
— ston^us harvest-time, autumn, — ston- 
zld autumnal month. 

w st&a-pa I. vb., pf. and fut. bstan, 
at the end of a sentence bstdn-7u> 
(so prob. also in Dzl. 9^y 10 the correct 
reading), W. *(s)tdn'b^j 1. to Show, lam 
st&n-big B., \s)tdn ton* W.y *ten rog jhe 
hig* C. show me the way! stdn-mMan iig 
yod somebody has shown Glr. ; bii-mo sgo 
stdn-mUan the girl that has shown the 
door Jii7., mfsdn-mKan-la bu st&n-pa to 
show the soothsayer a child Dzl.; lus stdn- 
pa, applied to deities etc. : to show one's 
self, to appear Dzl.; rdzu-^priU stdn-pa to 
show, to exhibit magic tricks, v. rdzu; 
dmdg-pa yin-no zes bstdn-te 'this is the 
bridegroom!' with these words showing, 
i. e. introducing him as the bridegroom 







DzlVsSji. — 2.=ytdd'pa, to face, to 
front, to look towards, sgo Iho-pyogs-su ston 
the door faces the south Glr, — 3. to point 
out, to indicate, describe, explain, c^-ba the 
greatness or superiority of a thing Mil. ; 
bu-mo dcyi bar ^gyur-bar st&n-pa tjin it 
indicates that a girl will be born Wdn,; 
H'jdra Off (yod) ston dgos give me a de- 
scription of her person Gh\ ; bstdn-par byao 
now I will explain that, frq.; ji-Uar by&n- 
pa bstdn-pai leu the chapter describing 
the arrival; hence to teach, (Sos religion; 
luii V. luii. — 4. W. to make one undergo 
or suffer, to inflict (just as *fdn'ie* to suffer), 
*mi'la nag stdn-pa* to torture a person, 
^dug-itdlston-pa* to plague, torment, grieve. 
— b. W, as a vb. nt, to show one's self, 
to appear, *'w*w tdn-te yod* this appears 
here, this turns up or occurs here. 

U. sbst. a teacher, firq., lun-ston-pa a 
prophet, V. lun; the stdn-pa par excellence 
is Buddha, frq.; — ston-niin, and tse-min two 
false doctrines Glr. 92, 3. (the translation 
given by ScL is but an arbitrary one). 
^P-^ stdn-mo feast, banquet (v. also yd- 
^ ' <ra), st&n-mo bzdh-po, cen-po^ a 
grand, splendid feast DzZ. ;^<^m-pa to prepare, 
arrange (a feast), byM-pa to give, hold, 
celebrate it, also c. dat. in honour of; 
st&nr-mo ^dr^-pa to serve it up MiL^ ^y^d- 
pa to distribute the dishes, dmans-kyi ston- 
mo offyM-pa to distribute of the viands 
of the table to the common people MiL^ 
zd-ba to eat, or partake, of such a festive 
entertainment DzL; stdn^mo-ynan^sbyin a 
present of meat, of provisions Glr.; dgd- 
ston festive entertainment, frq.; md-bai 
dgd'Ston a feast or treat to one's ears Glr. ; 
cdS'Ston a religious feast Gflr. (might be 
used for agap6, love-feast, feast of charity); 
duS'Ston a periodical festival, one connected 
with certain times or periods Tar.; bdg- 
ston wedding -feast, frq.; min-ston feast 
given at the solemnity, when a name is 
given to a child; rdb-ston a feast after 
settling some important business Cs.; btsds- 
ston a feast given after the birth of a child; 

fsdgS'Ston sacrificatory feast; ykid'Ston 
funeral feast. 

^q-jM- stob'pa^ pf. bstab (Cs. bsiob)^ fat 
^ bstob Cs.j imp. stob^ (causative to 

fob-pa f)y to put into another's mouth, esp. 
food, to feed; also applied to a mare that 
shoves the grass to her foal DzL; nan- 
tan-gyis stdb-pa to press a person to accept 
of a dish etc. DzL; in a more general 
sense: Idn-ste stan stdb-par byid-pa rising 
to oflFer one's own seat Stg.; to make a 
donation DzL; also capir. : yo-bydd f(m»' 
ddd-kyis stdb-pa to provide a person with 
every thing within one's power Tar. 
Kq^/gf N 8tdbs('po) strength, vigour, force, 
^ frq. ; lus-stobs bodily, snyinstobs 

mental strength; ju-stobs digestive power 
Med.; stdbs-po ce of great physical strength 
DzL; stdbs-hyis by virtue, by means of; 
stobs'^pel-nyams-brtds byid-pa strength- 
ening, nourishing, oiioodiMed.; stdbs-can, 
stobs'lddn^ strong, robust; stobs-cuhy stob^ 
m^d^ powerless, weak; the five powers of 
a Buddha v. Bunt. II, 430; Kopp. I, 436; 
the ten powers v. dbah bbu. — stobs-cen 
1. n. of a Lu-king, S.O. — 2. rammer, 
pile-driver, (or rdob-cinf) C. 
M-q- stdr-ba to be lost, to perish, to go 
^ astray, bu st&r-ro a child has been 

lost DzL ; lus dan srog (to lose) one^s life 
DzL., sems one's senses, lam one's way 
(also fig. to err from true religion JW.); 
*tor ma dug* W. do not lose it, do not 
drop it, carry it carefully; stSt'-sa med it 
cannot be lost or antiquated Mil. — star- 
Hun for ytor-Uun drain, gutter Lex. 

^£" '' brt. . . V. chiefly sub rt. 

gx'q» brtd - 6a, pf. brtajs^ Lex. : his sems 
' brtaSy explained by rgyds-pa^ lo 
grow wide, to extend; gen. to grow stout, 
esp. with nyams DzL; cf. also the ex- 
pression for strengthening sub si6bs{^)\ 
also rtas by^d-pa Med.; fig. strong or great: 
offyod'pa rtas the greatest, the sincerest 
repentance Pth.; bdg-Zags rtm-pal^ 
passion Thgy. 

q«5^^)'^' brtdg(sypa 

qsmn^yq- brtdg($ypa, v. rtdff-pa; as sbst., 

/ "^ preceded by a genit., inquiry, 

examination, Stg., £rq.; gen. c. accus. rmi' 
lam brtdg(s) --pa examination of dreams 
Stg,; rm-pch-ce brtdg{s)^a-la TnMas-pa con- 
noisseur of precious stones Dzl. ; hrtdg^-pa 
brgyad Tar. 21, 2.? 
qgr- brtad a kind of imprecation, which 

' ' consists in hiding the image and name 
of an enemy in the ground underneath an 
idol, and imploring the deity to kill him; 
brtad ^ug-pa to perform that ceremony 
qgr'H' fyf^d'pa 1. Lex, = hU-bur new, 

^ ' recent — 2. Sch. haste, speed, for 
nab-pa{1f) {Tar, 180, 2 it should prob. be 
OMrn' brtdn-pa adj. and abstract noun; 

^ ' brtdn-po adj., firm, steadfast, safe; 
firmness etc.; brtdn-par ynds-pa, ^tdn- 
po ddd'de* W., to last, hold out, abide, 
continue, frq.; brtdvrpa tdlhpa to become 
finn or durable (lit. to acquire firmness 
or durability) Mil,; brtdn-par ^gyiir-hay 
*tan'po M-te^ W, id.; brtdn-gyi skyid a 
continued or abiding happiness Mil ; dban 
brtan their strength is holding out Med.; 
hixmrdu Jty-pa Glr,^ *tdnr-po bo-de^ W., 
to watch, keep, preserve carefully; *tdn- 
po km^ W. oarry it carefully or safely! 
ddm-btaS'pa brtdn-par hes he knew his 
word to be inviolable Dzl. ; yi - dam - la 
brtdn^as because he firmly kept his word 
Dd.] dus brtdn-fft/i bd^-ba eternal welfare, 
everlasting happiness MU. (perh. this ought 
to be ytan). 
atgrxr brtdn-^may or bstdn-may and batdn- 

' ' pa-moy n. of the goddess of the 
earth, (also skdn-may yd-ma), used in 
practising magic. 

Tq* brtul'ba 1. deportment, behaviour 
Ci. — 2. Sch. also diligence, pains- 
taking(?). — brtul-hiigs^ ITff \ . Cs. manner, 
way of acting. 2. Sch. and gen.: exercise 

q^Cr bstdd-pa 


of penance, brtul-iugs byid-pa or spyddrpa, 
to perform such exercises, to do penance. 
3. penitent. — brtul - htgs - ban penitent 
(adj. and sbst) — brtul-pdd-pa v. rttd- 

Qi^l^P[ bstdn-ba v. stdns-pa. 

nB^Sy bstdn-pa 1. v. stdn-pa. — 2. sbst. 
^ ' doctrine, a single doctrine, or a 
whole system of doctrines; sam-rgyds-kyi 
bitdnrpa the doctrine or religion of Buddha, 
fub-bstdn, for fub-pai bstdn-pay id.; ynds- 
lugs bstdn-pa the doctrine of the position 
of . . . Med.\ bstdn-pa ynyis with Urgyan 
Padma etc., the same as mdoi and sndgs- 
kyi lam^ v. mdo extr. — bstdn-^gyur the 
second great literary production of Bud- 
dhism, containing comments on Kan-^^gyv^y 
and scientific treatises (v. bka-gyur in 
bka) Kopp. II, 280. — bstan-bios (iJT^) 
a scientific work. — bstan-rtais a chro- 
nological work relative to the year of 
Buddha's death. — bstan-^dzin follower, 
adherent of a doctrine, sans - rgyds - kyi 
bstan-^dzin Mily Buddhist; also frq. used 
as a noun personal. — bstan-{b)Mg col. 
a destroyer of the doctrine, in general a 
good-for-nothing fellow, a mischief-maker, 
an obnoxious person or thing. — bstan^ 
sruh 1. a keeper, guardian of the doctrine; 
perh. also - bstan-^dzin. 2. I(eeper, warden, 
guardian in general, Iha-Mn-gi bstan-srun; 
Ihd - sai bstansrun the tutelar goddess of 
Lhasa, ace. to Glr. = dpal-lha-mo. 3. in 
general the contrary to bstan-bsig. 

Q^xr ^*^^ supine of sti-ba; bstir-mdd 
^ ^restlessness', one of the infernal 
q^m;rq< bstugs-pa to malce lower, to lower 

>5 ' Sch.(?), 

q^x-q- bst^-pa 1. vb. V. stSn-pa. 2. sbst. 
^ ' confidence, — brtdn-pa Bhar. 

^^^'^' bstod-pa V. stddrpa. 



^ ta 






«• fa, the letter t aspirated, like the Eng- 
^ lish t in 'tea', 

«• fa 1. num. fig.: ten. — 2. every thing, 
^ all, total Sch.(?), 

ffSffT ^^'^^^^ ^ certain star, faskdr-zla- 
^ 6a a month, prob. = ^iffn (April- 
May); fa-skdr-gyi bu irf^Qpft twin half- 

i^WT ta-'Udb Lh. a large needle. 

j^qj'Cr fd-gorpa a weaver Da:/. 

n-qr fa-^rw, vulg. f/-^, 1. a short cord or 
nJ rope. — 2. string, twine, for making 

garlands Stg.\ a bell-rope Dzl, 

g-CT- fa-gruj originally tag-gru Pth.y ex- 
^ tension, width, breadth, Jzam-bu-glin" 

yi ta^gru kun-la Glr, in the whole extent 

of Dzambuling; fa-gru ci-ba Pth. extensive. 

erSfjr' fa^g^d 1. obtuse, rounded off Sch. 

^^ - 2. MU.f 

1^(5^' fa-^dd very bad, mean Cs, 

or XT* ^A ~ ^^ tt'C Iflst month of a season 
^ (v. dvs), e.g. dpifid'zla ta-'Sun the 
last month of spring, opp. to rd-ba, (and 
Jyinn - po) ; the youngest of three or more 
sons, opp. to rob (and Jyvih-po the middle 

n-Kjr* fa-mydd 1. appellation, i:«8 fa-myad- 
y^ du grogs so it is called TTdw.; 
Tar. 96, 13; 178, 3; TTos. (296): suppo- 
sition ; condition, fasnydd-^ai bdki-pa con- 
ditional truth. — 3. Schr,\ etymology, Cs, 
only: part of grammar; so frq. used by 
grammarians, e.g. fdg dan fa^snydd ddb- 
pa to learn spelling and etymology. 4. 
In col. language I heard it used only for 
talking or disputing in a conceited, foolish 
manner, so also in MU, — Lex. in con- 
formity with each of these significations 
=> eiiqf 14^ from ^^if^ to distinguish, to 

name; to dispute. — ta-snyad-ytig-pa n. 
of a school, of a system or doctrine Tar,; 
fa-snyadr-grtdhpa n. of a literary work. 
-..-.«. fa-dddrpa different, various, sundry, 

' ^ gen. opp. to ytig or ycig-pa; dgds- 
pa fa-dddrpa the various wants of a man 
DzL; fa^-^mi'dddr-pa alike, equal, 
n-jj' fa-7ia even, so much as, up to, fd-na- 

' srog-cdgs grdg^sbur yan^cdd even Ae 
smallest insect Stg.; fd-na yig-obru re-re 
yan-'Cdd even every single letter Thgy,\ 
at the close of an enumeration: finally abo 
Ld.-Glr. Scki. 20, 6. 

i^^'^^ fa-pinfurpi confusion, disorder S«k 
i^^FT fd-pag v. fdr-dpag. 

^^ fd'ba Q^fu'ba) bad Mil 

n-g;r fd-ma the last of several things, with 
respect to number, time, rank, the 
lowest, meanest, most interior, often opp. 
to rab and Jyrin, and also to Icydd- par- 
can; it appears somewhat singular, that 
yban-zdn-gyi fd-ma signifies a cat, and 
Jtab cdgS'kyi fd-ma a hen Glr.; dus-hyi 
fd-ma-la in the last times Glr,, prob. also 
alluding to the general decline taking place 
towards the end of the Ealpa; sometimes 
it is to be translated: in the last place, 
finally, at last Glr., like fd-mar Dd. :?c^, H ; 
last = parting (parting-cup, parting-kiss); 
for the last time: ynyhi-gyi fd^mas bskor 
he sees his relations for the last time 
around him, zds-^kyi fd-ma za he eats for 
the last time Thgy.; fd-ma-la c. genit at 
the end of, after. — ^prdd-pat fd-ma ni 
Jyral, yson - pai fd - ma ni S - ba yin the 
end of every meeting is parting, the end 
of every living is dying. 

fa-ma-Ma^ Cs.y vulg. W. *fd-7nag*, 
tobacco, Jun-ba, W, resp. *d(^n-^* 
to smoke (tobacco). ^ 

^'' \^V ' 





!S[^OJ^'SJ' fa-mdl-pa 

-.jrj^g, fa-mcU^pa (fa-mdl abbreviated 
from fd-ma-ld) 1. mean, vulgar, 
plebeian, fa-mdl-par ^ditg-pa to live like 
tbe vulgar Dzl, — 2. ordinary, usual, fa- 
mdl-^a ma yin that is no usual thing DzL ; 
fa-mdl adv. = poL-Mr. 

fa-/5wjr ScA. ^oath'; but in two pas- 
sages of Dd, Hi fa-fstg can only 
mean: Svhat signifies?' '^^ ^ - " = i^a ^ 
h-xmS^' fa-^'a-fo-ri W, wide asunder, wide, 
^ta-ra-fo-rS idg-pa* C, to scatter, 
to throw loosely about. 

fa-rdm 1. Sch.: 'the breadth of a 
plain\ — 2. a medicinal herb Med,j 
in LA. Plantago major, 
g-x' fa-ru Tar, 20, 17, Sch/,: 'the utmost 

limits', or it may be a p. n. 
g-gj- fa-li W., *fe'h^ C, Eind, irf^L *^ 
tin plate. 

^iSfc" fo-W^ tr. a sort of red cloth. 

ffjaor ^o,'^<^l Sch,: 'the end, the conse- 
' quence; bad'; Bhar,: skyh-bu fa- 
kdl nyid Schf, : homo nequam, a good-for- 

mr fag 1. sometimes for ^fag^ Glr, — 2. 
' distance a. relatively (prob. from fdg- 
pa measuring-cord, surveyor's chain) only 
in: fa^-r/w-ia adj. and abstract noun, fag- 
rin(-po) adj., W. *fag'Hn'(mo)* distant, a 
great distance, sa fag-rinis) a far countr; 
©&•.; with dan or Za« far from; fag-mi^ 
rin-ba not far JYA.; fa^-^n^-po^-nas from 
afer, from a distance Thgy,\ ta^-nyi-ha 
near; proximity; W, adj. ^tag-nyi-mo* ; tag 
H-tsam how far? Cs,; fag-gru v. fa-gru, 
b. absolutely, only with respect to time, 
in: ma- fdg but just, just nOW^ gen. with 
a verbal root, sfeJ ma-fdg yin-pa he that 
has arrived just now Glr,; snat Mad ma-- 
fdg-pa (the passages) that have been ex- 
plained just now Gram, ; as an adv. gen. 
nortdg-iu^ or only ma- fdg ^ frq., e.g. fos 
ma-fag-tu as soon as he had heard; de 
fna-fag-tu directly, immediately, in W, 
^ma-fdg-fs^, — 3. fag-fdg v. fog -fdg, — 
4. fag-ybdd-pa v. fdg-pa I, 
W\u\\ fag-fdg^ with *jM'pa* 6'., ^id-ie* 
' ' to knock, ago at the door. 

!^^ fdg-pa 

mrcy fdg-pa I. rope, cord (in Lh, hempen 
' ropes, as a foreign manufacture, 
are often distinguished from other ropes, 
by being called '^^, baUfdg rope made 
of wool, ral'fdg rope of goat's hair, rtsidr 
fdg rope of the long hair of the yak, rtsa- 
fdg J or 'pon-fdg Glr, rope of grass; Udgs- 
(kyi) fdg - pa chain , wire - rope , used as 
fetters or otherwise; ^ras-fdg* W, bandage; 
fag-mig mesh of a net Sch,\ fag-zd rope- 
maker's work Pth. — fdg yidd-pa vb. a. 
(fag ^dd'pa^ or ?ad - pa vb. n. or pass.) 
1. to cut a cord, bdag m/S-du dan Jbril- 
fag bcdd-pas bde I am glad of having cut 
the cord (tie) which united me with my 
family Mil. ; gen. with re, the cord of hope, 
e.g. ^6'bai ri-fag 'Sad the cord of the ' 
hope of going on a journey is cut off, i.e. 
the journey has been given up Glr,; Schr,: 
^6'fag ycdd^a to wean (a child) ; bU-fag- 
dod deliberation is cut off, the matter is de- 
cided or resolved upon ; hence frq. without 
bh: 2. to decide, resolve, determine, rgyal- 
po bkrdh'bar fag-bddd it was determined 
to murder the king Glr,; Uyod ynyis nd- 
la Mn-ma mi len fdg-cdd-pa-na if you 
positively refuse to give me a wife Pth.; 
*fa^'hdd mi Kyud^ W, I have no right to 
decide on th^t point; fag-cdd-pa bySd-pa 
to decide, pass sentence, give judgment 
Mil; to be sure, decided, certain, . . . grdns- 
par fag-bhdd-de (cf. above) as it is quite 
certain that he has died Mil, ; . . . yod fag- 
c6d there are certainly . . . Glr, ; (^os dar 
J>h fag-ldd it is quite certain that religion 
will spread Mil, ; Itd-bas fag-bhdd-nas being 
immovable in contemplation ; with ternun. : 
to know for a certainty, to understand or 
see clearly, rdn-sems cos-skur fag-lldd-bih 
knowing one's own mind to be vain and 
frail (v. cos'sku sub sku 2) Mil,; sndn-ba 
8^1718 ' su the visible world as a thought, 
as imaginary, i.e. as nothing Mil,; fag- 
c6d certainty, surety, evidence, ^on-kyan 
fag - c6d byed dgos but one should know 
it for certain, one must be sure of it Mil,; 
Itd-ba fag-^ddrkyi mdl-Jyar-pa you, the 
ascetic, firm in meditation! Mil — *fag- 
W-rb§^-Sg>^ C. resolute. 


Sp^ fags 


II. prob. = dag -^a, in ^]/in (or ze^ or 
bsdm-pa) fdg-pa-nas with a faithful heart, 
with all my heart, heartily, ie fdg-pai iu- 
ba Mil. a sincere prayer or entreaty. 

Note. In fag^a and other words be- 
ginning with f, (e.g. tan^ fo\ d sometimes 
takes the place of f, and this uncertainty 
in the use of the initial letter dates perh. 
from a time, when the aspirated pronun- 
ciation of the media first began to be adopt- 
ed in C, and was not yet generally in- 
gjTOT fags texture, web, fags Jag -pa to 

' weave Dzl,y fags-Jfa^-mkan col. for 
fd-ga-pa^ also fdgs-mkan Pfh. a weaver; 
*fser'fdg* W, thorn-hedge, fence consisting 
of thorn; fags - Uri (weaver's) loom Ld.- 
Glr,; fdgs-gra-Jm Cs,^ ^fdgs^Kan-bu* W.^ 
spider; fdgs-^a weavers implements; fags- 
ynajSy fdgs^ra, a weaver's place or shop 
6s.; fags'brdn bydd-pa JW*/., *fag rdn-b^ 
W., to begin the warp. 

^s^'^pi' fags-fdgs impediment Ci* 

nr- tan 1. also fdri-ma Mil.y fdn^bu DzL 
Ms., *fdn-ka* W., flat country, a plain, 
steppe; also fig. like i^in^ bde-cin-gyi fan 
land of bliss Mil.; fdn-la (from the house) 
into the plain or steppe, = into the open 
air Dzl.'^ fdn-la Itun - ba to fall to the 
ground; *mofdh* W. the unfloored bottom 
of a room; gramr-fdn a fenny or swampy 
plain Cs.; spah^fdn a green grassy plain 
or steppe, meadow, prairie; by an- fan the 
northern steppes or plains of Tibet (used 
as a noun proper); bye-fdn a sandy desert 
or plain ; ^ol - fan ground covered with 
(snail-) clover, pasture ground, grassy plain; 
hag-fdn a gravelly plain; fdh-du byid-pa 
Cs. to lay waste, to make a desert of, fdn- 
du ^^gyur-ba to become a desert. — 2. Ob. 
price, value, perh. also amount; rin-fdh id. 
Dzl; rin-fah'can dear, precious. Mil; yon- 
fdn \. W. income, profit, 2. 6. = ydn-tan 
talent, natural gift, faculty; h-fdn yearly 
tribute, ybod-pa to fix, to order it Tar.; 
za - fan (a person's) capability of eating 
Thgy. — 3. W. for dwans clear, serene, 

^•§$I' tan-pr&m 

*nam fah^ a cloudless sky, fine weather; 
*dan pi-ro fdh-te yo^ fthe sky) was cloud- 
less last night — 4. potion Med. — 5. 
= bha-fdn. Order, command, Q>ka) fan-yig 
decree; pad-ma-fan-yig is the abridged 
title of a collection of legends about Padma 
Sambhava. - 6. (resin?) fan^H resin, gum, 
e.g. of fruit-trees. — 7. a very short space 
of time (the statements as to its length 
vary from five seconds to one minute and 
a half), a moment, a little while, gen. fan 
ycig, not seldom joined with skad dig and 
ytid tsam; fan tsam id. PtL; cig-fan^ bhi- 
fan one moment, four moments; Lty fan- 
rd S.g.j one after the other Sch. — 8. v. 
fan-ka. — In a few instances the mean- 
ing of fan is not quite evideut. 

Comp. fan-Krun bastard Sch. — fah-ctt 
V. fan C. — fan-stijn uninhabited, deso- 
late; wilderness. — fari-jyru Sch. 'cedar- 
nuts', perh. = hMfiyon-tsi q.v. — fan-^mdi* 
tar Cs. - ^fan-ma-lar-la-'ts^ a small lizard 
Ld. — fan-yzi market-price, *fan-ki ?«o^ 
C. the market-price abates. — ^fan-zi* W. 
fata morgana — fan-rdg cedar (?) Sch. 
— fan-^n fir, pine. 

n r 7M gr 'rn* ^<^^ - ^^ ^dn - ga^ resp. M- 
^ '' ^ ' fa/i, W. *sku-fdn\ Tar. fan- 
skuy image, prop, of human beings, at pre- 
sent s= picture, painting, in a gen. sense, 
also of landscapes etc. 
gr'rm:^' ^<^ - dkdr the white-tailed eagle 
^ ^J Sch. 
^'^' fan- fdn v. the following word. 

oT'tf fdn-po, tense, tight, firm (= Jdn- 
pof); fan-lhdd tight and loose; also 
tenseness fig. MU. ; fdh-ha ybdd-pa to strain, 
to stretch, cddrpa vb. n. or pass. Stg.^ MU., 
C; *ziig-po fan-nam* C. are you well? — 
rkan-fdn^du or la on fOOt, v. rkdn-pa 
comp. ; fan ydod-pa tO tire, to fatigue Mil.y 
fan cod-pa or cad-pa to be tired, wearied 
Pth.; *gom-fdn Idb-de (jlu-gu-la)* W, to 
lead a child in walking, to teach a child 
to walk; sa-fdfl-fdn to the utmost of one's 
power Sch. 

--•^^. fan-prdm a medicinal herb MecLy 
^ Wdn. = dha-tu-ra thorn-apple (?). 



i^'^A' tdn-m 

gr*^ fdn-^a v. sub fan-po; tan-Hh v. fan 

' com p. 
grvrrrv fdd(-ka) 1. the direction straight 

' forward^ sten dan ^oy dan fdd-ka 
fctma-tdd-^u upward and downward, aud 
in every other direction Stg.; steh-^og-fddr 
kar straight upward and downward S.g,; 
po^rdn-gi fdd-kar pyin they came straight 
towards the castle; tdd-ka-na directly be- 
fore Thffy.; dd nub-tdd-kyi that which is 
situated to the west of it Tar,; most frq. 
fdd-du c.genit. towards, in straight direction; 
over against; in presence of e.g. to assemble, 
to propound, to lay before one, to study under 
a professor Dzl-y exactly in the place of 
a thing Tar, 17,1; aai fdd-nas cod Tar, 
159,4 prob.: cut off only from the flesh; 
*fe''kj/a, f^^'kan-la* Ts, straight on; fad- 
dran-na directly before Wdn,; ^fad-nyd* 
W. over against, opposite, facing; fdd-so-na 
= fdd-ka-na Mil, — 2. fad-kar each for 
himself Glr. — 3. entire, whole, untouched, 
safe (integer) 6'. and perh. Thgy, 

^ frq. abbreviation for ^^T^^' fams- 

tdd^ whole, all. 

^ fan. Hind, irni7 = 3W) * P>CCe of cloth. 

orrMx' tan-k&r^ tan-skar Lej;,^ surround- 
' ' ing country Sch. 

^^ fan-tun {Schr. fad-fun) a little Sch. 

^Cj' fcfn-pa dry weather, heat, drought Olr. 

Hq- fab l,resf, ysol-fdb, fire-place, hearth, 
me-fdb^ id.; also for stove, Ibays-fdb 
iron stove; fab dor 'the hearth is running 
over', i.e. the food placed on it runs over 
in boiling, a mis-hap the more serious, as 
the household god is offended by the evil 
smell caused thereby. — 2. v. sub can, 

Comp.: *fdb-ka* W, fire-place, *fdbka 
Uam yod* how many fire-places, i.e. house- 
holds, are there? — fah-Uun opening or 
mouth of a stove, furnace, or fire-place; 
V. also Schl, 249. — fab - ynds fire-place, 
furnace, oven Cs, — *fab-fsdn* W. kitchen. 
— fab-pyiSy W, *fah-pif^ clout, dish-clout, 
wiper. — fab-yidb burnt smell. — ""fab- 

q 229 

^^F^, ^''^ fdm-ga, fdnUa 

Ids dd-kan* W. cook. — fab-yydg kitchen- 
boy, scullion Pth, — fab -kin fire -wood, 
fuel. — fab-lhd deity of the hearth. 

^''^ fab-fdb W. = fom-fom, 

nq^ fabs {cog. to stabs), opportunity, chance, 

possibility, ♦fd/i-or Ml-fdb ma)un* W. 
I had no opportunity of seeing or going; 
"fob hg nyi-rdn-nc mi jiin-na* W, if you 
offer no chance, if on your part it is not 
made possible; fabs mi fvb Dzl, and col. I 
am not able, I cannot; ydan-drdns-pai fabs 
med I then shall lose the opportunity of 
meeting (the princess) Glr.; J/rds-pai fabs 
med there is not any chabce of escape 
Glr, ; Idm - la yiol - fabs med there is no 
occasion for stopping or tanying on the 
road Mil; way, manner, mode, klog-fabs 
way of reading, e.g. Sanskrit; rkun-fabs- 
su in eL thievish manner, by theft Stg,; 
rgydl-poi fabs ytdh-ba to give up the way 
(of life) of a king, to resign the crown 
2)2;/., fabs ycig-tu together, in company, 
jointly, e.g. to sit down with one another, 
to go together to a place, frq.; means, 
measures, fobs byed-pa^ W, ""co-bey Hydn-ce* 
to use means, to take measures; bio fabs 
Jfs6l-ba to contrive means Ma,\ fabs stdn- 
pa to show means or ways, to give di- 
rections, to instruct Glr,; Jfsd-fabs liveli- 
hood, subsistence; fabs zad there is nothing 
else to be done Glr,; hi-bai fdbs-kyis in 
a fair way, amicably, not by constraint 
or compulsion Glr.; fdbs-kyis by various 
means, by artifice, cunningly, craftily; 
fdbs(-la)-m/lds-pa^ fdbs-hes-pa^ W, also 

*fdb - ban"", skilful, dexterous, clever, full of 

devices; da bdd-du ^6-fabs gyis Hy now 
take steps, make preparations, for a jour- 
ney to Tibet Glr.\ de ysdn-poi fabs ydd- 
dam is there a means of recalling those 
men to life? fabs-cdg Mil.^ *fab-Mg* or 
*feb-Mg* vulgo, a shift, make-shift, surro- 
gate; fabs (dan) ses (-rob) the mystical 
union of art and science, or {Sch, less cor- 
rectly) of matter and spirit, cf. Was, (144). 
m^T'cn- g^'m* fdm-ga^ fdm-ka a seal, sign 
' ' Cs,y v. ddm-Ua, 


^^$r tamrtdm 


igraf q* tdl-ba 

Mt-nxr fam'tdm Sch. 1. also fdm-me^ba^ 
unconnected, scattered, dispersed. — 

2. famrfdm (byed) -pa = Jdm-pa. 
agvzr fdm-pa (sometimes fern - pa) com- 
plete, full, almost exclusively used 
as a pleon. addition to the tens up to 

35I?r^' ^«^^-^'«^ whole, all; added to 
' the singular number : rgyal-Udrm 
famS'ddd the whole empire Glr.; lus farm- 
ddd na the whole body aches (opp- to one 
part of it); bdd-kyi zam fams-ddd all the 
copper of Tibet Glr. ; more frq. added to 
a plural (though usually in the form of 
the singular number): all (the persons or 
things), de tarm-bdd^ rarely d^-dag tarns- 
bdd^ all those; fams-bdd-kyis so-sd-nas all 
of them one by one, each. 
m;j«rq- fdms-pa (= Jtdm-paf)^ sa^ or bye- 
fdim-su ojug-pa to suffer (a person 
or beast) to stick fast in the mud, in the 
sand (?) Glr, 84. 
1^' tau Wdn, capsule (?), Wu, peach (?). 

i^^ far V. far-tor, 

^xraxr(oy\ ^^r-fdr(-la) = fa-7*a-fO'r^ (cf. 
^^^^^ ^ Jdr-ba); 'far bds-se dug* Ld. 
sit wide asunder, not too close together! 
far byed -pa Mil to break to pieces, to 
smash, to crush. 

i^'(3r fdr-nu a purgative Med, 

M-rqqr far-dpdg, (J, *far-J}dg''^ W, *td- 
^ ' bag* a large plate, dish, platter. 
n;^*q< fdr-ba to become free, to be saved, 
*far go8^ or got* W. he must become 
free, las from ; to be not hindered or pre- 
vented, to get through, to get on, to be able 
to pass, ^u-la through the water Mil,; zas 
mi far the food cannot pass through Afed, ; 
to be released, acquitted, discharged, Vm- 
na* C. by a court of justice; fdr-du ojug- 
pa to set at liberty, to acquit, with fse 
(col. *fse - fdr - la tdii - iva*) to pardon (a 
malefactor}, to grant him his life, frq., to 
let live (animals) Mil,; often in a religious 
sense (with or without mdm-par) to be 
saved, freed, released, viz. from the trans- 

migration of souls; more frq. the pf. far- 
pa 1. to be free etc., lam far the road is 
free^ passable. 2. sbst. freedom, liberty, hap- 
piness, eternal bliss, ift^, far -pax rgyur 
^yur it will be serviceable for (my) liberty; 
fdr- (pat) lam the road to happiness (a 
common expression); far-m^d-kyi dmydl- 
ba hell without release. 3. adj. free, far- 
par ^gyur-ba to become firee, byM-pa to 
make free, to liberate, to save; f(ir-«a place 
of refuge, asylum Thgy. 
apj' fal^ sometimes for fa-li; fdl-gyis v. 

fdl-ba II. 3. L^ (^ '^ {cc ' 
gOJ'fl' fdl-ba I. SDSt. 1. dust (cf. rdul\ 
ashes, and similar substances; gog- 
fdl ashes; *fug-fdV (*soup-dust') roasted 
barley -flour C. — fal-kdr a kind of ele- 
phant, Cs., perh. the ash-coloured. — fdU 
cu lye. — tal-cSn ashes of the dead; also 
a sort of light gray earth, representing the 
former, and used for bedaubing the face 
in masquerades Mil, — fal-tdg Ld. un- 
leavened bread. — fal-mddg ash-coloured, 
cinereous. — fal-pydgs broom Sch, — fai- 
byi the gray or cat-squirrel. — fal-fsd a 
sort of salt Med. — 2. bya - fal dung of 
birds Glr, 

II. vb. (6i. also /dZ-ia) 1. tO pass, to 
pass by, *fal ca dug* W, he goes past, he 
does not come in; *zdm-pa fal ?a (%*, 
he goes past the bridge, does not pass 
over it; to miss the mark, of an arrow 
or ball; rba fal-fdl^on the waves flow 
past Mil, — 2. to go, step, pass beyond, 
lo Ind-bcu fdl-nas when the age of fifty 
has been passed Wdn,; *cu-fs6d yHg fsd- 
big fal* W, a little past one o'clock; s«o- 
ba-las fal-nas dmar-zin Thgy., prob. inebn- 
ing from blue to red; to be in the ad- 
vance 6'.; to project, to be prominent, hence 
fal -fun different lengths, one object pro- 
jecting beyond another; to play a promi- 
nent part, to take the lead W,; fat-ces-pa 
to exceed the due measure Sch.; *lca fal- 
wa* to be forward in speaking, bold. — 
3. to go or pass through, brdg-la yar fal 
mar fal, and par fal fsur fdl-du ^gro-ha 
to soar up and down before a rock, and 

!3pJi^ tdlrfno 


^(^ fig-le 


to pass actually through it (the saints not 
being subject to the physical laws of matter) 
Mil,, ThffT.; to shine, to light through; tal- 
°byun'du ^grd-ba to go straightforward, to 
act without ceremony or disguise DzL 
7vS?, 3 ; fdl-ma ScL, fdUU C, through and 
through; fdl^yis directly, straightway, unhesi- 
tatingly Mil. — 4. to come or get to, to 
arrive at ( W, *td'ce*\ fdl-nas lo ysum Ion 
three years have elapsed since they arrived ; 
pa-md gar fdl-bai /tol-m^d; bzan-fdl safe 
arrival Thffr.; ydr-gyi hzdn-fal iin-por 
^grd'ba to arrive at, attain to (a blessed 
state) in a pleasant and speedy manner 
Thffi\ — 5. to be over, past, finished, done, 
tdl'lo of a song: it is over, finished Mil,; 
drug-bu fdUlo the number of sixty is full; 
ydl-nas fdl-ba Mil, having disappeared, 
vanished; stdr-te (or stdr-nas) fal he is 
undone, it is all over with him Mil. frq.; 
rifn-gyia je nyun je nyuh tal by degrees it 
vanishes, dies away Mil; snofr ^ad-tsig 
tal the former agreement is no longer 
vaUd; fal son col. = tsar son. — Tar, 46, 
5.12? 172,5: fdl-gyur-pa Schf. follower, 
adherent, or the name oi a certain sect. 
nq-^ fdl-^mo the palm of the hand, fdl-mo 
sbydr-ba to hold together the palms 
of the handa, as a gesture of devotion; 
fdl-Tno snun-pa DzL, more frq. fal^lcdg 
rgydb-pa to give a slap on the face, a box 
on the ear; fal-brddb-pa to clap with the 
hands Sch. 

^ fi num. fig.: 40. 

Sw fi-^/u V. fd-^; fi^gvr-Krd^ (?) C. = 
^ J ^ar^gdrC" W, 

^q- fi-ba 1. wood-pigeon, stock-dove Sch,; 
fi'bo plover, peewit, lapwing Sch, — 
2. C, =. ^.6a. 

fig^ prob. from fi-gu^ 1. carpenter's 
cord or string to mark lines with, 
marking-string, fig^-gis) ^debs-pa to use such 
a string, to draw lines. — 2. any instru- 
ment used in drawing lines; skoi*-fig a 
pair of compasses, yya - % slate - pencil, 
lead-pencil ; also a line drawn with a lead- 
pencil; ^fig-ta tan 'be* W, c. genit. to 

examine, try, test. — 3. a line, %- 
pay rgyag^pa., rgyab-pa, to draw lines; 
gun-fig the meridian line Cs.; nag -fig or 
snag-fig a black line, fsal-fig a red line; 
fsans-fig diameter; equator Cs, — 4. symb. 
numeral for zero. — 5. v. tig, 

Comp. fig-skdd string to mark lines 
with. — *fig-nyd* W, over against — fig- 
ndg Stg,y Sch,: that part of hell, where 
the damned arc sawn to pieces, lines being 
drawn upon them. — fig-fsdm a little. — 
fig-fsdd Cs, proportion, symmetry, Ld,-Glr. 
f. 27, 6, fig -f sad by^d-pa to proportion; 
*fig - fsdd ziim - be* W, , to determine the 
relation or proportion of things. — fig- 
Mn a ruler, to rule lines with. 
SotoV fig-le 1. a spot like that of a leop- 

' ard's skin , fig-le - ban spotted, 
speckled; Mg-ma* W, id., of variegated 
woolen fabrics; Hos fig-le nyag big Mil,^ 
the centre of all religion, in which finally 
all the different sects must unite. — 2. 
zero, naught Wdk, — 3. semen virile. — 4. 
contemplation. The two latter significations 
are mystically connected with each other, 
as will be seen from a passage of J/t7., 
which is also a fair specimen of the phy- 
siological and mystical reveries of the more 
recent Buddhism: yons lits-la ytum-mo 
Jbdr-bas bde; rlun ro rkyan dhu-tir citd- 
pas bde; stod byan-cub-s&ms-kyi rgyun-Jbab 
bde; smad ddhs-mai fig-le Hydb-pas bde\ 
bar dkar dmar fug prad brtsi - bas bde] 
Ins zag-med-bd^-bas fsim-pas bde; de mdU 
Jbyor nydms-kyi bde drug lags^ he (the 
Yogi) feels well in general, when the 
warmth of meditation is kindled (cf. ytum- 
mo) in his body ; he feels well, when the 
air enters through rd-ma and kydh-ma 
into the dhuti] he feels well in the upper 
part of his body by the flowing down of 
the b6dhi\ he feels well in the lower parts 
by the spreading of the chyle (chylous 
fluid, semen) ; he feels well in the middle, 
by being affected with tender compassion, 
when the red (the blood in the kydh-ma) 
and the white (the semen in the rd-ma) 
unite ; the whole body is weU, being per- 


^Tj^CT figs-pa 


vaded by the grateful feeling of sinless- 
ness; this is the sixfold mental happiness 
of the Yogi. 

^roro' %S'pa a drop, figs -pa re-ri-nas 
' in drops, by drops Glr.; car- figs 

a drop of rain ; yser-fig-po (sic) MU, seems 
to denote a drop or globule of molten gold, 
which in this form is oflFered for sale by 

xf^ fin V. ^dih'ba, 

Sw-n' fib-pa V. Jib -pa and ytib-pa; fib- 
fib very dark ScL; bi/in-rldbs fibs- 
fibs Pth, seems to imply the descending 
of a blessing upon a person; fib(s)-po^ 
mo dense, Cs. or perh. nothing but obscure, 
dark, nags Stg. 

^Mw fim-pa^ also Jim -pa, ytim-pa and 
stim-pay gen. with la or ndn-dUy to 
disappear by being imbibed, absorbed; to 
evaporate, of fluids; of a snake: to creep 
away, to disappear in a hole; frq. of the 
vanishing of rays of lights , of gods etc. ; 
to be melted, dissolved (salt or sugar in 
water); to sink, di^an - mid - du into un- 
consciousness Mil. 

^ fu \, num. fig.: 70. — 2. *fu gydb-ce* 
Nd W, to spit, with la^ to spit at or on. 
— 3. often erron. for mfu. 
n-q- fu-ba 1. also fu-pa, skirt, coat-flap 
>o Glr, — 2. rarely Ju-ba^ bad, e.g. 
wood MU, ; *gyal - tu* W, good and bad 
promiscuously; sdug-bsndl fii-ba a bad 
accident Thgy,; malicious, wicked, vicious 
Glr. — 3. vb., V. Ju-ba. 
n-2f ^^-^ ^ & chief; an elder brother, 
NO Dzl. , Tar. ; tii-mo Cs. : mistress, 
lady (?). 

^^ fu-mi p. n., V. fon-mi. 
1^^' fu-7'e uninterrupted Sch. 

ND^ cannon-ball: 

my fug^ C, also *fug-pa*, c. accus. until, 
N» ' to, in reference to time and space; 
*^ag zib-tu fug* for forty days; only col. 
gqi- Vj;r % - ?dm Sch.: ^dreadful noise'; 
V© ' Thgr. tug-fs6m; Mil. fug-sffrd id. 

^^ fu^s 

myo' fug-po^ I* sbst. soup, broth, Jjrcah 
\» ' ^ rice-soup, bag-fiig meal-soup, 
gruel, rgya-fug Chinese soup, a sort of 
vermicelli-soup C; fug-fdl v. fdlrba. 

II. vb. 1. to reach, arrive at, come to, 
c. dat. or termin., fsd mfar fug -pa to 
reach the natural term of life DzL; to 
come or go as far as Dzl.; rits-pa-la fig- 
pa to pierce to the quick Dzl.; U-la tug 
fse Mil.^ Ji-bar fug-pa-la Lt when one 
is near death ; ... fa fug - gi bdr -du \i\L, 
until Dzl.^ Tar.^ Pth.; bziih-la fug he was 
just on the point of seizing her Dd.; * sad- 
da fu^ W. going to kill; 9i-la (or bsdd- 
pa-la) fug-pa often means deserving death 
(of culprits) Dzl.; fse ^po-horla fug kyan 
though life is at stake Dzl.; in like man- 
ner W.: *lus hrog dan fug-te ca dug* he 
goes at the peril of his life; fug-yas not 
to be reached, endless (jj. — 2. to meet, 
to light upon, c la or dan, = ^dd-pa^ 
esp. col. *nyi-i'dn-la fug-ga-la yoris* W, 
he has come to see you; *fug yin* W, we 
shall meet again, = till we meet again! 
a re voir! )dg-pa dan fiy-pa MU. to M 
in with robbers; ydon fug-pa^fug-pa\ 
ci-la fug run MU.^ *ghd-la fug kyan* C. 
whatever may happen to me; fug-idd 
agreement to meet Sch. — 3. col. to touch, 
to hit or shike against, W.: Y-ru fug-Rm* 
here it touches, or strikes against; here 
is the rub; *lag-pa mi fug yin* I shall 
not touch it, 1 shall not come near with 
my hand ; *di-la fug kyan ma fu^ W. do 
not even touch it! 

OTf«j- fugs^ resp. for snyin^ yid^ sems, bsdm- 
ND ' pa y bio etc., and whenever mental 
qualities or actions are spoken of in respect- 
ful language, v. below. 1. heart, breast, in 
a physical sense, gen. fitgs-ka-; fugs-kyi 
sprtd-pa the incarnation of a deity, ori- 
ginating in a ray of light which proceeds 
from the breast of that deity Ghr. — 2. 
heart, in a spiritual sense, mind, SOul, spnit, 
will, V. below; design, purpose, intention, 
sbyin-pai fug zUg-tu fsol we beg to desist 
from the intention of giving Dzl.; onde^ 
standing, intellect Glr. (v. sgdm-pa)-, fugs- 

fSP^ fug^ 



^ fwn 

Bu Hdrpa =» Kon-du iHtdrpa] fAgs-m Jn/dn- 
pa to be kept in mind, in memory MU.; 
also ■■ yidrdu ^dn-ba ni f. ; cf. ^d-ba, — 
3. f&ffS'la btdffs-80 v. ^d^gs^pa. — 4. for 
fugs-rye or bka-drin^ fugs mdzad-pa to 
grant or show a favour Dd. — 5 in the 
phrase fugs mi fub^Oy with the genit. of 
the inf., it is used without ceremonial 
distinctions for to venture, to risk, to dare 

Comp. fugs-ka V. above — fugs-mUg^ 
resp. for mnon^h^ Mil. — fugs - ^Mritgs 
resp. for Koh-Jlriigs Ma. — fugs-dgdns ■= 
dgdnS'pa IE.; fugs-dgdns ytdfi-ba = bsam- 
bid ytdh-ba to muse, meditate, reflect Mil. 

— fugs^-m) ^6-ba resp. for yid^u ^dn- 
6a to be agreeable; agreeable, pleaMmt, 
delightful; pleasure, delight, ... Za in (a thing) 
MU. — fugs-rgydl resp. anger, wrath, In- 
dignation MU.y fugs-rgyal biens anger arises, 
is roused. — fugs-ndn grief, sorrow, afflic- 
tion Dzl. — f&gs-^es-pa resp. for yidr'ies- 
pa to believe. — tiigs-rje prop, respectful 
word for snyin-rye pi^, commiseration, com- 
passion; gen. grace, mercy, generosity, nor 
la fugs'r)e(s) yzigs pray, look graciously 
upon me! MU'^ even thus: sd-bon iig 
fugs - f)e yzigs dgosy pray, be so kind as 
to send me some seeds! W. — fttgs-ijes 
^dzin-pa^ fugs-r^e mdzdd-pa id. — fugs- 
r)e'ian gracious, merciful, generous. — 
(tta) fugs -rye ^Sn-po the All - merciful, 
Awalokiteswara. — fugs-ddm^ prop. resp. 
for yi'dam, 1. oath, VOW, solemn promise, 
e.g. bid'ba to take (an oath), to make 
(a vow). 2. a prayer, a wish in the form 
of a prayer, =- sm6n-lam* 3. contemplation, 
the act of contemplating a deity (cf. sg&m- 
pa and sgHA-pa); meditation in general, 
Mil frq., fugs -dam jpel meditation in- 
creases, proceeds successfidly ; devotion. 4. 
a deity, a tutelar god or saint, a pab*on Glr. 

— fugs-ngid v. sems-nyid^ sub sem^s. — 
fugs-miig resp. for yiJ^d^-mug despair. — 
fugs bdS^a^ mi bd^-ba^ v. bdd-ba. — fugs- 
ytsigs-pa to be cautious ScA. ; v. however 
ytsigs-pa. — fugs-brtsi-ba love, affection of 
tho heart, compassion, resp. for snyih-brtsi- 

ba^ frq., fugs-brtse-bar dgdns-pa, yzigs-pa^ 
with Za, to look upon compassionately, to 
remember in mercy. — fugs -rob Sch. = 
hes-rdb. — fugs-rus MU. = snyin-rus. — 
fugs-(iyi) srds Mil.^ Tar.y sphitual SOn, an 
appellation given to the most distinguished 
scholars of saints. 

ar^' fun -Ha three yoars old, of animals 
^ Sch. 

gr'n* fun-ba^ col. fuh-nUy Ld. *furi-se*y 
N9 short, relative to space, time, quan- 
tity of vowels etc.; fun-iiu ^o-ba to be- 
come shorter; but the word is not so much 
used as ^short^ is in English; yid fun-ba 
Bzly spro ftih-ba Wdn. passionate, hot- 
tempered, hasty. 

nr* fud cheese made of buttermilk, or of 
>o ' Swr-//^, butter and nailk Ld., Glr,, Pth.; 
^o-fud milk -cheese, made of curd, or of 
milk coagulated with runnet 
nx< fun I. a regular amount, a fixed quan- 
nP tity 1. of time, a certain length of 
time, as long as a man is able to work 
without resting, a sMft, six, four, or three 
hours; Schf. translates Tar. 67, 17 even 
by one hour; a night-watch, msl-fse fun 
Jior the night-watch is over Dzl.\ fun 
bm mal-Jbyor the meditation of a whole 
day Mil.; *fun ddd-te* W. (the cock) 
announces the watch (by crowing); tun 
bzun-ba Pth. prob. to have the watch; 
nam-gyi gun-fun-la at or about midnight; 
srddrkyi giin-fun-la MU. prob. id. — 2. a 
dose of medicine Med. frq. — fun-hgf 

II. in sorcery: bodies or substances 
which are supposed to be possessed of 
magic virtues, such as sand, barley, cer- 
tain seeds etc., fun-ddn a hole in which 
such substances are concealed; fun-rd a 
horn to carry them; fun fs6-ba to revive 
a charm Mil. nt. 

III. one who collects, a gatherer (from 
^fu-ba), Hn-fun one who picks up or 
gathers sticks MU.; ii»a-fun a gatherer 
of grass, snye-fun a gatherer of ears of 
corn Cs.; fun-z&r reaping-hook, sickle Sch. 

IV. fun, or more frq, tun-mdn(s), usual, 



^SJ; fib-pa 


daily, what is done or is happeDing every 
day; common, general, dnos-gntb fun-mohs 
earthly goods ^ as well as intellectual en- 
dowments, considered as common property, 
but not spiritual gifts; fun-miny tun-^mons 
ma ytn-pa unusual, uncommon, not for every 
body; ^big-la big iun-mdh lo* take good 
care to live together in harmony W,\ fun- 
mdn-du or m in common, in company, 
jointly; fun-Tnoh by itself is also used as 
adv., =» fun-^yir^ in general. 
«q-q» fitb^a (n^) I. vb., c. accus., so- 
Nd metimes c. dat, 1. to get the better 
of, to be able to cope with, to be a match 
for (an enemy), to be able to stand or bear 
(the cold etc.), to be able to do one harm, 
to get at one, dug^gis ma fub'Hn as the 
poison could not do him any harm DzL\ 
to be able to quench, extinguish, keep off 
e.g. fire, hail Olr.; ^dn-ggis mi tiib-pa 
invincible, not to be overcome; nan dgu 
fub-pa to be able to subdue every thing 
that is bad Lt; to have under one's com- 
mand or control, to keep under, e.g. one's 
own body; to be able to bear, e.g. mis 
fub-par dka (water from a glacier) is not 
easily borne by man, i.e. does not agree 
with him Med.; ras rkyah tub ^ pa to be 
able to bear a simple cotton dress Mil.; 
lo brgya f&b-pa to live to (the age of) a 
hundred years, frq. — 2. with a supine 
or verbal root, to be able, col. the usual 
word, in B. gen. niis-pa; cf. ytdb-pa. 

II. sbst. 1. ^j^ a mighty one, one 
having power and auttiority, M-kya-fub-pa 
Buddha; a wise man, a sage, a saint in 
general, arfif. — 2. symb. num. for 7. 

flSIf^' ^w(«), also fiim^pa Ci., iiim^po 
v» ^ ^ /ScA., 1. cover, covering, wrapper, 
of a book or a parcel; rgyab-pa Sch. to 
put (a cover round a thing), to wrap up; 
*Mg'pa* C, TT., *8dn -pa* C. to take off 
(a covering); fum-dan having a cover. — 
2. a parcel wrapped up (in paper etc.):; 
Jbru-fan-fum btas together with a small 
parcel of tea. iM'ii"^ c^^^i^Mr^-^^f^^^^c^ - 

!^$I'C1' fimhpa 1. v. mm. 2. v. ynyid. 

9^^ fis-pa 

gsffl- 3^rr f^^-buy fdm-bu a large 
^ va^ ^ va 3p00||^ g igiHe- rag-fim a 

brass ladle, zans^titm a copper ladle. 
^ ifm I. Cs. 9l declivity (?), prob. only 
N9 adverbially: down; fur-ldm a down- 
hill road; fur-lay fiir-da down, downward, 
^6-ba to go down, nitb^a to sink down; 
mgo f&r-du b9tdn-4e head down, head over 
heels Stg.\ *ti-pi fur4a Mh^ W. to un- 
cock one's cap. — 2. v. fwr-mgOy and 

^^^ fur -mgo 1. the tip of a spoofl, 
Nd ' fur-mgo fsam as a measure MiL 

— 2. also f&r-mgo halter, *fur-go bug-c^ 
W, to bridle, to bit (a horse); *fur-la 
fin-b^ W. to strive, to struggle against; 
to real*. — fwr-fdg the rein, fwr-mfa the 
end of the rein. 

^'9', ^'^' ^r-buy fkr-ru foal, colt, fHly. 

nx'jr f^T-may W, * tar-man y 1. spoon. — 
^ 2. Chinese chopsticks. — 3. a pole 
Bd, 7V7'i 4. — 4. a whole class of surgical 
instruments S.g, 

mr ^uZ 1. egg (ace. to Cunningham a 
\» Cashmiri word), fH-ta-gir pancake. 

— 2. V. ^dulboy also substantively : ftd de 
min besides this way of converting (people) 
Pth,; ful ^6g-tu Jisg-pa Tor. 25, 16 to 
keep a tight hand over a person, to dis- 
cipline one; Hn-gi ful ^d^bs-pa Ld.-Olr. 
to clear land for tillage, nif. 

nQj'n' ^^^^) Cs- also fulrpOy dress made 
Nd of the skins of animals, a furred 
coat or cloak Mil.] lug-ful dress of sheep- 
skin, rd-ful dress of goat-skin, fulnbi the 
common sheep-skin dress; *f&l-ban* W. 
wide, not fitting close or tight. 
gq-q- fulnba 1. pf. to ^did-btty to tame, curb, 
NO check, restrain, Mil. : nds ^dr^-mams 
fid-nas the goblins having been subdued 
by me; las nyon-mons fid-ba dka it is 
difficult to check a sinful deed MU. ; parti- 
ciple: tamed, civilized; converted. — 2. to 
roll or wind up Lh. 

nQ^-Q^- fitl-le Ld. impressive, nearly the 
N9 same as t&r-re. 
mrq* fiis-pa 1. bad = fu^ay prov.; 2. v. 
v> Ju-ba, 

^ te 


^3pr f^n^o^ 


^ te 1. for ti-7no\ 2. num.: 100. 

^1^ ^<?-r% scruple, doubt, uncertainty, 
^ ' hesitation, occasionally used for te- 

^•n' ^^ - *^9 C*. also *% - ba*y pf. f<w fifeA., 
the col. syn. of ytdgs-pay seldom in 
B., 1. to belong, appertain to, c. la, — 2. to 
occtqiy one's self with a thing, to meddle 
with, to interfere, c. dan (= jdH-ba); U- 
vfUian belonging together, c. 2a, belonging 
to a thing; ^ma-fi-a* W. for ma^ti-bar^ = 
ma ' ytdgs ' par; fe^r^g the connexion or 
relation of ownership, di-la ydb-kyi fe- 
rig med to this my father has no claims 
Mil. nt 

^2f, ^2jC' ^^'f>Oy fe-bdn W. thumb, v. 

S^ fS-mOy col. f^tsey diminutive feUy resp. 
pyag - ^ seal, signet, stamp, *f^ - tse 
gydb-bey or ndn-h^ to seal, to stamp; «a- 
^ r«r.79,12(?); *^^.<w %.*(^ <rfn-«?a* 
to engage, to bind one's self by a seal in 
some common concern. 
^^^ ^^'^^^ doubt, scruple, uncertainty, 
perplexity, fe-fsdm skyes, byed(W. 
*^*), za^ fe-tsdm^u gyur I am doubtful; 
fe-fsom za-ba-maTns scrupulous, irresolute 
persons Pth.; *fe-fsom man-po ra^ W. I 
am in great perplexity, I am quite at a 
loss; te-fwm Hg ^dri-ba to utter a doubt 

^^C fe-ran v. teu^an, 

^^- fe^i col. straight, upright, firm ; smooth, 
without folds or wrinkles; fe-ri fin 
C. draw (the carpet) smooth. 

^^0^ ^i?-r^Z W. incomplete, defecb've, un- 
finished, fe^iUla lu8 son (the loaf) 
is not whole, there has already been cut 
from it. 

^fif fe4i V. fa'li. 

^prST ^^O'P^ ^* ^^3^* ^rnf, l* vehicle, car- 
' riage, riding-beast, rtai fig-pa-la ion 
he mounted on horseback Dzl,; Ug-pa Ina- 
hrgyd bkams he procured five hundred con- 
veyances (horses, elephants, carriages) Dzl. 

2. for attaining to salvation, fSg-pa /sum 
three conveyances are generally mentioned, 
but in most cases only two are specified, 
viz. ffy-(pa) dman(-pa)^ ^n<(|H , and 
feg(-pa) ^en-po, YVfT^pr, gen. called 'the 
little and the great conveyance or vehicle', 
by means of which the distant shore of 
salvation may be reached. Yet mention 
is also made of a sndgs-kyi fig-pa^ ^f(^!f;fj(\;9{ 
maniraydna^ e.g. Tar. 180, 13. For more 
particulars about these vehicles, and other 
more or less confused and contradictory 
notions, the works of Koppen and esp. 
WoMljew may be consulted. 

n. vb. 1. to lift, raise, hold up, support 
Mil,y Olr.; hence Uri-Ugs leg of a table 
ScA.; feg-Kiig C. knapsack, travelling-bag. 
— 2. to raise, set up fig. bhad-gdd to raise 
a loud laugh Mil — 3. most. frq. to be 
able to carry, )i t^-pa as much as you 
are able to caxrj Dzl.; mis feg-tsdd ybig 
as much as one man is able to carry Tar.; 
esp. with a negative: ma feg he was not 
able to hold him up Dzl.; mi- feg Kur to 
carry what is too heavy to be carried (by 
ordinary muscular strengtli), to strain one's 
self by lifting, Med.; to endure, tolerate, 
stand, Udn-mams-kyi nan rna feg-par not 
being able to stand their urgent demands 
Mil; to bear, to undergo without detriment, 
skyid feg sdtig feg to be able to bear good 
fortune and ill fortune. Cf. Jegs^a, JUgs- 
pa. — 

^- fen 1 feh-r6Mil.y ^ha-f^* Ld.y the 
dead body of an animal killed by 
beasts of prey. — 2. ^fSh-la* C. down, 
downward, e.g. *kyitr^wa^ y^-V^^-i b&r'wa*y 
to fling down. 

Sj^-gjJ' f4n-po Pth.y fM-bu ScLy ""f^-Zlan* 

W.y lame, hobbling, limping. 
9t^^ f<?w« time, times, fens Ina five times 
Pth. ; dbugs - fens tig - la in one 
breathing, at a stretch; without inter- 
mission Pth. 

^^' fin-pa tax, duty, impost Sch. 

fen 1, a litlle while, a moment — 2. v. 

^fen-pa'. ^ - 


^ fek 


^5)- fo-u 

go- feb 1. for fern, full Glr. — 2. for iab% 

thumb; feb^^n the little finger; v. mfe-bon. 
^^ f<?68 series, order, succession Sch., 

febs-re byed-pa to do successively; 
fdbs-pa V. Jieba-^a, 
'^ij^^v ^ifnrfa I. 1. threshold, rgdl-ba to 

cross it G^/r.; sgo-thn door -sill, 
threshold; yd-f^ head -piece of a door- 
frame, lintel, ma- fern sill, threshold Glr. 

— 2. staircaise, stairs, flight of steps, tern- 
skds id.; *fem^d* W, step, stair; fern -rim 
Cs. 1, the several steps of a staircase. 
2. rank, dignity. — rdo-^m stone staircase; 
Icor-fhi winding stairs Cs. — II. 1. to be 
full, complete, zla-dm fem-pa dan when 
the time of the months was fulfilled Glr, 
frq.; iag ybig ma tim-pa-la one day being 
still wanting ffZr.; brgya t&m-pa v. tarn- 
pa Glr, — 2. TT.: to be sufficient, enough. 

— 3. to receive (?)/S(?A. 

ni. Sch. = fen-pa, tax, impost, tribute. 
g^q. fhn^buy fem-^am stopping, closing, 
^ shutting up; a stoppage Sch. 

^^^•w|ot fems-yigSch. memorial. 

gn';^r' feti-rdn Glr,, fe-brdn Lt, fe-rdh 
^ Ma,y a sort of demons. 
'^x: ^^ 1- bald, bare, spyi-f^ Thgy, a bald 
head; a bald-headed person; fer-fh* 
C. flat. — 2. = fe-re(^) pyi fer nan gog 
strong and hale outside, decayed within 
Mil, ; fer-zug-pa = rtdg-pa Thgr, 
'^x:ansy fer-JMmSch. 1 000000000; fer- 
^ ^^ >7w-?^n^ 10000000000. 
Sx'^' fir-ma a kind of thin woollen cloth, 

a flannel-like fabric, U-ter made of 
shawl-wool, bcd-fer of common wool. 
Sqi- fel for fe-li, rag-Ul C, a plate made 

of latten brass. 
Sq-fl* fd-ba W. frq. = sUb-pa to arrive, 

cf. fdUba n., 4. 
doi'^ ^<?7-8^ Sch, and Wis. a seal, stamp, 

=« fe-tse, 
Sw'Cr ^^"P^ ^^^' P^- ^ fi-ba; = fes-bsitn 


^ fo 1. num. for 130. — 2. register, list, 
catalogue, index; fo Jyri-ba to register. 

to make out a list or catalogue Schr.", dib- 
fOy ^i^n-fo account of receipts, $6n-fo^ bvd- 
fOy dcydg-fo account of expenditures; btdn- 
fo account of money or goods lent out; 
ny6-fo account of goods bought, bill ; lo-fo 
calendar, almanac; dd Idg-tu prin-bar-fd 
list of orders or directions given to him 
(lit. laid down in his hands); dei rgyiidr 
la fdb-fo a list of things which his relations 
shall receive. 

Qtm; fo-gdr Pth.; ace. to Sch. the Turko- 
■^ mans ; Tar, 18, Schf. : Tukhara, name 
of a people in. the northwest of India; 
prob. the Togarmah of the Bible, 
gr^^ to^o Mil., a foolish joke, unbefitting 

a sensible man. 
gs®^ f(hpyi Schr. love(?), in Pth. it seems 
^ to signify the slqf. 

9^ S&ir ^^^^' mfd-ba, a large hammer, 
' fd-bas rdun-ba to hammer, 

to forge ; rdd-fo a stone hammer, ^-fo a 
wooden hammer, mallet; ^fo-^n"* 1. an 
ordinary hammer. — 2. the COCk of a gun. 
— 3. a soldering-stick. Lh. 

gSQ^£»w fo-Jsdmrpa tO SCOm, SCOff, joor, 

^ sneer at, vex, insult, mock, c 2a, 

by words Dzl.y also by actions DzL ; snan- 
hid fo-Jfsdm^a bzddrpar yaol pardon our 
having sneered at you before! Mil.; also 
mfo-mfsdmrpa^ -budmrpa^ -brtsdm-pa, 

9^33^* fo-^(^ stone pyramid, heap of stones 


morning, to-rdns^-kyi) dus-9u early 
in the mormng; 2. the following, the next 
morning, c. genit.; both also adverbially: 
de dan mjal-bai fo-rdns on the morning 
after having met him. 

^^ fd-re W. to-morrow (5., C. san). 

gf^.-, fd-re-bay tor-tsdl Cs.: a few; M7., 
fog-re-tsal a little while. 

?n3^' fO'lum V. fu-lum. 

g^Qj* fo-U 1. fo-U ^dib$-pa to spit, c. Za, 
at or on Plh. (cf. fu). — 2. button 
C. — 3. fo-U dkdr-po C. chalk. — 4. fo-le- 
rgyal Mil. ? 


^9^ fo-% C. mule, hlnny. 

^ % I. what is uppermost 1. roof, fog 
' ^bubs-fa to cover witk a roo^ to roof 
(a house) frq.; tog ^d-ba id.; also fig. to 
complete, to crown a thing M;.; Hdg-sa 
ndn-ie* W. to roof, to finish a roof by 
beating and stamping down the earth or 
sods, of which the covering consists; fog- 
rdzis ytdn-ba Mil, id. ; also fig. to impress, 
c. genit., MiL — *tog-kdr* W,y the opening 
for the smoke in a roof. — fog- dan having 
a roof, *f6g-yog* W, under cover. — 
2. ceiling; yd-fog ceiling, md-fog floor of 
a room. — 3. story, dgu-tdg having nine 
stories or floors, frq. — 4. in a general 
sense: fog Jtrin-^a MU. to be at the head, 
to lead, direct, govern; fog-Kavy W, *Afa- 
fdg4a*, on, upon, Hydg-fog-Uar on the ice 
Qlr.'y fdg^tUy and tog-fog adv. up, up to; 
above; ydn-fog-tu in the uppermost place, 
quite at the top, Glr.; postp. c. genit. (or 
accus.) 1. on, upon, e.g. to lay on, to place 
upon Pth,; sems fdg^tu V/i-bar byiin-nas 
lying heavy, weighing heavily, upon one's 
mind Glr.; ncd tdg-tu byun my heart was 
smitten (by that); that has touched, has 
grieved my heart Mil, ; fog-ta Uel-ba Mil, 
vb. act. to it. 2. above Qlr, 3. towards, 
in the direction of, e.g. running towards, 
mcd fog-tuDzL; yd-fog, md-fog ad. above, 
below, or up to, up stairs, and down, down 
stairs Mil. 4. to, e. g. to send to Dzl. 
5. dmag-fog at the head Of the army, or 
only with the army. 6. during, as long as, 
throughout; whilst (fog gen. without -^), 
dgufi'fog throughout the whole winter; 
*dir d'Uu sem f^er fog* whilst her husband 
is here in great anxiety Ld.; bgros-fog 
during the w^alk. Cf. also na-og, pi-fog 
as sbst.: morning, evening, forenoon, after- 
noon W. 7. directly after, bios-fog ^6 -ma 
fresh milk, S.g. (s.Lc.). — fog-nas 1. above, 
IBOre than, *lo nab-bu fog-n§ ma lies* Ld. 
they remained, i.e. lived not more than fifty 
years. 2. on the part of, Thgy., analogous to 

IL thunderbolt, lightning; fog dan sSr-ba 


^•^' fdg-ma 


lightning and hail, fog-sdr-gyi yndd-pa 
damage done by the elements; fog Jbdb- 
pa lightning descending, rgyab-pa striking, 
fog^bdbssu J}y6n-^a to arrive, to approach 
quick or suddenly like lightning Tar,, resp.; 
fdg-gis ysdd-pa S.g,^ fog bdb-ste JH-ba Do. 
to be killed by lightning. 

III. 1. fruit, produce, dkdr^og v. dkdr- 
po; Uii-tog produce of the fields Da:/.; lo- 
tdg a year's produce; Uh^fog produce of 
a tree or other plant, fruit; ysar-fdg this 
year's crop S.^r.; fog-pitd first-fruits, as an 
offering; fog-^ds id.(?), — 2. W. fortune, 
wealth, property, *nid-li fog* property in 
money, cash in hand; (ji)pi-fog common 
property, property belonging to a com- 

IV. m ma- fog{-fse) for m^ fag^ col. 
and Thgy.y s.l.c, v. fag. Cf. also fog-fdgy 
fdg-ma^ tdgs-pa. 

gqf'gqr ^off^^^t prob. augmentative of 
' ' fog^ V. fdg-tu 6, al^ fag-fdgy 
during, as long as, throughout; quite, mfsan 
fog-fdg-tu all night long; nyi-ma-ycig-gi 
bdr-du fog-fdg during a whole day; lam 
fog-fdg gdn-no the roads were quite full 
(of snow) Dzl, 

^rsr fog -ma what is uppermost, 1. the 
' upper end, the uppermost place, grdl- 
gyi fdg-ma-la ^dug-go they sat down in 
the first, or uppermost, place Dzl. ; gen. 
2. origin, beginning; f6g-mai sam-rgyds kun- 
tU'bzdn-po Adibuddha Samantabhadra, so 
a deity is called, by which a prayer has 
been appointed that is supposed to be 
particularly efficacious; fdg-nut ^o-Hgsmfd- 
ba of noble birth, as regards his origin. 
Dzl. ; fog-ma btsda-pai fs^-na, fdg-ma btsds- 
naSy fdg-ma skyh-nas already at his birth, 
from his very birth Dzl,; fog-ma m^d-pa- 
nasy du8 fog-med-naa time out of mind, 
from eternity; fdg-ma-naa from the very 
beginning; of itself; as a matter of course 
Dzl,; bsubs-pai fog-fdg-la as soon as they 
began to fill up Glr.; fog-mfa-bar-du at 
first, later, in conclusion (lit. in the be- 
ginning, end, and middle) Lt; most frq. 
fog-mar 1. at first, first, the Lat. primum. 


|^<3^' (og-(aM 


primo, and primus. — 2. postp. c. genii, 
before, with respect to time Mil, — fog- 
drans-pa Jtt., Glr., Sch,: 'at first, begun'; 
our Lama explained it by io lead, to guided 
V. fog I, 4. 

^rjgc' fog-tsdd W. story (of a house); 
' ' fdff-80 Mil. nt id. 

Xppr foff9 ^ ^ddgs-fa^ and ^fdgs-pa. 

'&£mrn' f(^gs-pci^ c. la, to strike, stumble, 
' run against (like fug -pa v. 3); 

to be hindered, impeded, delayed, frq. ; mi %t 
gdn - loan fdgs -pa mid - du without being 
hindered by men, dogs, or anything else 
MU, ; fogs-pa-TrUd-pa^ fogs-mid, foga-brdugs- 
{ox(h)rtug-)m4drpay ^/p^ not hindered, un- 
impeded, unchecked; all-searching, all-pene- 

^' forty fon-^dl a pfough. 
^W fdn-Ka Mil., fon-ga MitgJ 

g^-q* fdn-pa 1. Cs. a ploughman. — 2. C« 
^a ram that is castrated, wether; ra 



fon a castrated he-goat'; according to my 
authorities, however, fdn-pa, and ra-fdn 
signify a ram and he - goat one year oM, 
foh - fair and ra - fair being the feminine 
forms (?) — 3. fon-pai lo Mil. the years 
between childhood and manhood, juvenile 
years, Sch. fdn-po, cf. Mydg-fon. 

^'^' fdn-spu mane of the camel Sch. 

^^q- fdns-pa MU.fSt4.^Z.'A 

tod 1. Ca. a head-ornament, crown; gen. 

the usual covering for the head in the 
East, turban, la-fdd Olr. id.; dhu-fdd resp.; 
ad - yig fod - du bbina -pai ka the letter k 
having for a crown the letter s: ^ Zam. 
— 2. = % I.: "^gO'fQ* C. over or above 
the door; Ua-fdd-lay Uc^fdg-lay Ua-tdd-la^ 
up, upon Ld. — 3. threshold, yd-fod, md- 
fod = yd-re, md-re. — 4. v. fddrpa. — 5. 
fodrrgdl ii-ba (fonf) Mil., ace. to the con- 
text: angry, wrathful. — 6. fod-fdd v. m. 
'^^' tddrpa 1. skull, cranium; skull of a 
^ dead person, death's head; fod-akdm 
a dry skull, fod-rldn a fresh skull Thgr. ; 

!^m' f(^hpa 

fod^Urdg a skull filled with blood Thgrr, 
fod'p&r a drinking -cup made of a skuU. 

— 2. col. forehead, brow; fod-rtad vena 
frontalis Lt; fod-Hnay fod-lUbay todr^rgydfiy 

^•oj-rj'ji- fod'le-kdr Lea. alabaster; Tar. 

^ "^ 67, 18 Schf. « ^rftuT, chalk. 

gy ton V. Jdn-pa and ^ddn-pa; f&nrpa C. 

^ also : good, Mr, beautiful ; amrd-bar f&n- 

pa eloquent 

f6n-im, or furTrd aam-bhd-fa n. of 
the minister that was sent to India 

by king Sronbtsansgampo^ in order to pro- 
cure an alphabet for writing. 

i^' fob 1. y. tdb'pa. — 2. y. JUba-pa. 

Qq-x* tob-iu Schr.y ^fob-l^y tob-lHy feb-iu* 
^^ C.y button (Y.tob-H). 
gq-q- fob'pa I. vb. (synon. to myed-pay 
and exclusively in use in W.) 1. 
to find, frq. — 2. to get, obtain, naa fob 
B., nd-la fob col., I find, I get; fob -par 
^gyur-ba id.; to partake of, to come to, 
ddd-pa faith (to come to the faith) Mil; 
to obtain, to get possession of, to subject to 
one's power Dzl. ; da-drdg fob-mfdr Gram. : 
after (words) that have got a da-drdg; 
aana-rgyda, rgydUpOy bddg^, fdb-pa (Ut 
to get the Buddha etc.) to become a Buddha, 
a king, a lord ; *cag - dzdd fob -^^ W. to 
become frq. (cf. rgydl-po). — 

II. sbst. that which has been got or 
obtained: the sum, result, of a calculation 
etc. Wdn. 

III. *fdb-de(ay W. adj. that which is 
to be got or received, e.g. *bulon fdb-tea- 
ai bun-yig^ a list of demands to be called 
in, of money owing. 

Comp. fob-rgydl byidrpa to rob, pillage^ 
plunder (?) Sch.; fob-M the share which 
one gets C. — fob-fdn Ca, income , re- 
venue'; more accurately: that which &lls 
to one's share, as a reward or pay, for 
work, services etc., e.g. bits of cloth or 
silk, which a tailor may keep for himself. 

— fob-ndr 1. share, quota. 2. quotient. — 
fob-bU C. desire, bkur-aU fib-pa ambition 
Schr. — fob - fsir (lit the turn of getting, 

receiving) claim, right; duty, due, fob-tsir 
nd'la yod I have a daim, a right to it 
W.\ ^fcb'Uir tdn-^^ W, to give each his 
share in his turn (prop. ace. to the due 
turn). — fob-rim Glr, id. — fob-yig re- 
pertory, index. — fob-srdl prob. = fob-fsir^ 
right of succession C. — iob-hd C. contest, 
quarrel, sfaife; scramble, e.g. for money 
thrown among the people. 

^rS* fdm-bu fi= fum-bu. 

^^CT f&ms-fa V. Jdms-pa. 

^'p$^' for-Uddy or for-gdd, a INongol tribe. 

^'5l9f far-mgd v. fur-mgd. 

9^'^ ax-j£qi^^w--c(^,f(>r.<^«tt^,(also 
^ '' ^N. ^ do-ker) a plaited tuft 
of hair, toupet, Lexr. hd-toi for-tdg; for- 
hdg dar sna Ina bbins Pth, he bound his 
tuft of hair with a silk string of five colours; 
prob. — ytsug-t&r q.v ; f6r-to{r) Lex, id. 
g^-q- fdr-pa, also /dr-pa Med.^ the small- 
pox Sch.; in Sik, fdr-ba signifies 
pimple, pustule, but the usual word for this 
is srm - f&r, and in W. *pul - f&i^ has a 
similar meaning, whereas f&r-bu Med. de- 
notes a whole class of diseases^ comprising 
dyspepsy and cutaneous disorders. — dmar- 
fdr measles Sch. 

^•q' f(^-6a ], Y.J&r-ba. — 2. v. for-pa. 

g^-q- idf*-bu single, separate; Tar. 120^ 19: 
^ prd -mo fdr-bu-pa separate little 

works, books -ScA/^^tC^/^ut^''^'^*^ 
Jr'sS^ f<^ - wm) the ^growing fat of cows, 

goats etc. in consequence of steril- 
ity Sch. 
ag^q* fdl4fa 1. y.Jdl-ba^ pf. to rtdl-ba^ 

what has come forth, what has been 
raised, elevated (?) Sch. cf. fol-f6l Mng.; 
foUydn to arise, to begin, suddenly Sch. 
^q- fos-pa 1. vb. to hear B., C. (TT. 

*fsdr-de*)y rgydUpo lig-gi ytam fds- 
Bom^ or only rgydUpo iig fds-aam Dzl, have 
you heard of a king? Jbrds-so zh*-baiytam 
TgydUpoi snydn-du fds-so it came to the 
king's hearing that he had escaped. Glr. 



^^ m£a 

— 2. adj. m4n-du fds-pa far-famed, renowned, 
frq.; ma fds-pa unheard of; fos-grdl the 
title of a book which is read to the soul 
of a deceased person (^6-dh6P 6*., *fo-d6J^ 
W.)y and the full title of which is: fds- 
pa tsdmrgyis grdl-ba fdh-pcd ?(W a doctrine 
by the heariog of which a man is instantly 
saved Thgr.-^ fo9-Mn Mil. hearing little. 

frig-frig the creaking of shoes. 

nqr fwag Ld. the sharp sound, the crack- 

^' ing, which is heard, when a branch 

of a tree is breaking off; cf. tsa-rdg and 


^-^. fnfan Cs.: the lower part of the body, 

mfan-gda a vestment for it, a sort 
of petticoat (ace. to others : toga) worn by 
fjnrr mfa (cf. fd-ma) 1. end, ending, i. re- 

lative to space: edge, margin, brink, 
brim, of a well GZr., skirt of a forest, gen. 
mfd-ma\ limit, bound, border, confines, fron- 
tiers, mfa sk6r-ba to go round the confine.*^ 
(of a place) ; mfd-las ^dds-pa exceeding all 
bounds, very great, e.g. sdug-bsndl Thgr. ; 
used even thus : rgydUpo bhugs-pai mfd-la 
bskor to walk round him that sits on a 
throne Qlr.y po. ; adverbially : di-mfa round 
this (mountain) Mil.\ mfa dbus k&n-tu in 
the whole country (in the frontier districts 
and in the central parts) ; mfai rgyal^Kams 
neighbouring or border- country; mfa id., 
e.g. mfa bit the four border-countries, i.e. 
all the surrounding territory, frq. ; mfai nor 
the treasures of the border-country Glr.; 
mfai dm<ig border -war.; in the Tibetan 
part of the Himalaya mountains mfa de- 
notes in a special sense Hindoostan; — in 
grammar: termination, na ma ra la i^- 
mams mfd-ban words ending in n, m, r, 1; 
gormfd a final g. 2. relative to time: bskdU 
pai mfa Dzl. the termination of a Ealpa; 
dus-mfdi me the conflagration at the end of 
the world, the ecpyrosis ; in a more general 
sense : mfa ndn-pas as this will end badly ; 
mfa yhig-tu Wdn. and Tar. 4,7 Sch.: on 
the one hand, in part, in a certain degree, in 
some respect; Schf.: ^schlechthin' (?) — 


9^^ mfa 


^^ mfu 

mia-yiddrpa final or definitive sentence or 
jadgment Sch.; dei mfa f^d-pai pyir io 
order to settle it definitely, viz. by counter- 
proof, Gram.; ydn-dag-mfa the true end, 
i.e. objective truth Was. (297); the rert, 
remaiflder, re - ddgs - kyi mfa span having 
given up also the last remnant of fefu: and 
hope (?&•., cf. mfa - dag; mfa - ru, mfar 
1. towards the end, towards the boundary 
or the neighbouring country; at the end 
etc.; m£ar fug ^ pa to reach, to attain to 
the end, frq. ; fsei mtar f&g-pat grans the 
number of those that reach the (natural) 
end of life DzL; mfar^fug-pa-m^d-pa 
inexhaustible Dzl.\ mtdr^pyin-pa (rarely 
mfa/r-Jiyilrba) id.; also absolutely as sbst. 
mfar-j^yin-pa a perfect, a holy person, 
a aaint; mfdr-fon-pa id, (?) Mil.; mfdr- 
byedrpa to give a work its finish C, (Sch. : 
'to destroy, demolish'?) 2. adv. lastly, finally, 
in condusion Dzl, Thgy.; perh. also to the 
very last, wholly, altogether. 3. postp. with 
genit after, behind, rgyal-rdbs sum-brgj/di 
mfar after 300 royal generations Glr.; sd- 
mtar Hn^ Hh is to be written after a final s, 
Gram. — 2. aim, purpose C«. — 3. system, 
opinion Tar. 107, 4 Schf.^ perh. for grub- 

Comp. and deriv. mfd-klas-pa Cs. ^ mfd- 
medrpa^ yet v. mfas. — mtaskdr circum- 
ference, perimeter, v. dpag-fsad. — mfa- 
Jc6b V. Jiob. — mfa^'u Glr. 42? — mfa- 
rgyds very wide Schr. — mfa-ltags frame, 
of a mirror etc. Schr. — mfor-cag Med.f 

— mfor-rlht final consonant Gram.; mfa^ 
rten-^med-^a ending with a vowel Gra/m. 

— mfa-tig boundary line Sch. — mfa-fog- 
fdg unceasing (?) Sch. — mtd-dag several, 
sundry; all, frq.; man-fsig mfd-dag the 
plural sign mfa-dag Gram. — mta-drans 
Gram.f — mfd ma the end, grdl-gyi mfa- 
mm bvr-mo the girl at the end of the row 
(opp. to the middle or the other end, not 
necessarily to the beginning, like rryug-vicC); 
border, hem, seam, of dresses Dd. ; dm mfoti" 
ba mfa -ma to-day we see (him) for the 
last time Glr. (fd-m^a would be more cor- 
rect, like Dzl. ^7, 16). — mfa-mal-pa 

sometimes for fa - mal - pa. — mfd - mi 
borderer; neighbouring people. — mfdmed- 
pay mfd - yas -pa infinite^ endless. — mfa- 
ysk WdhJ 

^^^ mfkr 1. V. mfa^ 2. for far. 

mfar-skydl the bringing to an 
end, carrying through, per si stence, 
perseverance Mil. 


^^SI^ limit? cf. .nfa c 

^ DzL; by degrees, gradually. 

« il^Kf , border, 


Hn indigo - plant' ; ace. to a Lama 
from Lhasa however: 1. mountain - blue 
(which is found, together with malachite, 
in the hills near Lhasa). — 2. from the 
resemblance : indigo-colour (whereas indigo 
as a substance is rams)y and esp. a li^ht^ 
sky-blue, azure; cf. mfon m«n, aSr-^'^«^ 
jtSj-'^Qr mfin - rt7, Lex. a certain bird; 
Sch. : a sort of wild duck ; ace. 
to Pth. a smaller bird. 

^^Qv' mfiu V. mfeu. 

S^^X[ ^^^ 1* bottom, of a vessel, of the 
sea; floor, of a room Glr.; foundation, 
of a house. — 2. the lower side of a thing; 
inner or lower part of a thing, Idg-mfU (resp. 
pydg-mfil) the palm of the hand; lag^^mM- 
na in the closed hand; lag-mfU gan a 
closed handful ; rkan-mfU (resp. iabs-mfil) 
the sole of the foot; Iham-mfU the sole 
of a shoe; mfil bit the palms of the hands, 
and the soles of the feet. — 3. the back- 
ground, the far end,' of a cave, a tunnel etc. 
— 4. C: the centre, the principal or chief 
part, of a town; the principal place, chief 
city, capital, of a country. 
^n. mfil 1. power, force, sta^ength, of the 
Nd body, of the mind, of Buddha, of a 
prayer, of witchcraft etc. ; ability, power or 
authority to do a thing; mfu dark Iddn-pa 
staDng, powerful, efficacious, able etc., mfu- 
mid powerless, feeble, unable ; *mt za fu m£* 
C. I must eat it; bsgrub^^v-fmB-^mfi^-mMa 
80/1 we must be able to fulfil it Mil.; mfur 

^SP\ 'fnfiLg 


^^ mfd'ba 


hig-ffis by an extraordinary manifestation 
of power or strength DzL ; hlui mfu yin 
that is an effect of the Lus, is produced, 
comes from the Lus Stg,; mfiis by virtue 
of, frq.; mfu-stobs = mfu. — 2. magic, 
witchcraft, mfu ytdn-ba MiL^ mfu ^debs-pa, 
*tdb'te* Vr., to practise witchcraft, to in- 
jure a person by magic spells, to bewitch 
MiL and col. frq.; mfu ser brtad ysum-- 
po rdzogS'par bslabs conjuring, raising 
tempests, exorcising ghosts, all these things 
I have learned thoroughly MiL; mfu -bo- 
ce high-potent, high and mighty Tar, 

^^py mfug V. Jug. 
^^'^ mfud-pa V. Jfvd-pa 

^ogrzv ^*^ww -pa, also Jun -pa, to agree, 
nP to harmonize; agreement, harmony; 
agreeing etc., 1. in a general sense, c. c- 
dan^ . . yin-^ar don mfun-no they agree 
in the opinion of her being . . . Glr. ; mfun- 
par byM-pa to make agree, to bring to an 
agreement, to make consistent, mfim-par 
^gyitr-ba to be made agreeing or consistent 
Glr.\ dgdm-pa yUg-tu mfiin-pa unanimous; 
ttm lv^8 dan w/%^n god -like (in deeds) 
Glrr^ rigs mtun-^a of equal birth; h mfun- 
pa of the same age, contemporary; bio 
mfitn-te being of the same mind, similarly 
disposed, cos byd-bar with respect to re- 
hgion Glr.] Ua mfuvrpar with one mouth, 
gros mfun-par with one accord, unani- 
mously, as one man ; grabs mfun-pa to live 
in hannony; — to be adequate, correspond- 
ing to, e.g. yid {dan) mfi^Vr-par^ resp. fugs 
dan mfun-^ar^ to one's wish, as one could 
desire = yid l^n-du; nad dar'i mfun-par 
corresponding to the disease, fit or proper 
for the disease. — 2. in a special sense 
1. viz. yid dan, to be wished for, desirable, 
particularly in mfun-j'ky^^ v. rkyen; also: 
to wish, to like, to delight in, Uyed-mam^- 
hp» mfun-pai rdzas things wished for by 
you, desirable to you Mil.; 2, with or 
without ybig-la ycig: mfun-nas whenever 
they (the two nations) lived in peace with 
each other (opp. to Jidn-nas) Glr. ; mfim- 

pat ftam byed-pa to converse amicably 
Glr.y to enter into negotiations of peace 
Glr.\ mfun-par byM-pa 1, v. above, 2. to 
caress, to fondle, to dandle Gh\; sin-tu 
mfun-par yod they are on the best terms 
with each other, are making love to each 
other Glr.\ mfun-po bsdad ^dtig col. id.; 
mfun-po byed-pa to be kind, affable, con- 
descending Mil. (opp. to being proud, cold, 
reserved) ; rgya bod ynyis mfun ^oh there 
will be a good understanding between China 
and Tibet Glr.\ mi mfun-pai pyogs fams- 
cdd'las rgydl-ba to gain the victory over 
all the hostile parties; mfun-^gyur-gyi yi- 
ge C. letter of recommendation; mfun -can 
W. gentle, peaceful. 

^«x» mfur^ also mtur-mgo.^ v. fur^m^go^ 
N3 halter, rta-mfur Lex. id.; mfur-fdg 
rein, reins 8ch.; mfur-mfd the end of the 
reins, e.g. to place them into the hands 
of another. 

^^^' mfu>s V. mfu 1. 

^n«^ mfi-boy col. mf^-bo/'i, mfe-cin^ mfc^b- 
mo (v. also fe bo), thumb, rkdn-pai 
vife-bo the big toe; mfeb-^un the little finger, 
the little toe Glr. 

^gn* ^^<^ 1- * "ttle hammer; 2. mfeu-clm 

^^ the little toe. 
^^ mfo 1. a span, from the end of the 

thumb to the end of the middle 
finger when extended; mfo jdl-ba or yzdl- 
ba^ W. *tdb-de*y to span, to measure by 
the hand with the fingers extended; mfo 
gdn, mfo re tsam a span (in length), mfo 
do two spans. — 2. v. mfo-ba. 
jMg^'gfjr- mfo-gdn a little triangular re- 

' ceptacle into which the likeness 
of an enemy is placed, to whom one wishes 
to do harm by witchcraft W. 

51^^^' mfo-rgydb earnest-money W. 

«^. mfd-ba 1. to be high; highness, height; 
high, lofty, elevated, B. (cf. mfdn-po), 
frq. fig.; ligs ce-lih mfd-ba-ste being of 
high and noble birth Dzl.\ de-las mfd-ba 
more elevated than that, surpassing, sur- 
mounting that; c. accvis. or instrum., high 



Sli^^l mfOH-ga 


SJ^^H mfdip^o 

as to (stature, rank etc.) mfo-na when I 
am high, when I rise; mfd-ba yndn-pa 
to lower what is high, to bring down, to 
humble, frq.; nas mfo^mfd byas-pas dma- 
dmd byun the more I was aspiring, the 
more I was brought low Pth,\ sbyin-pa 
mfO'ba Stg. was explained: gifts or alms 
bestowed from a sincere heart. — 2. hammer, 
V. fo^ba\ mfo-pO'tog a stone used as a 
hammer Cs. 

Comp.: mfO'Kyad height, highness Dzl 

— mfo^ddgs Pth, (together with yyo-sgyu^ 
and prag-ddg) perh. mistrust, suspicion; 
* fdn - dod - dan* W. ambitious, aspiring, 
aiming at things too high. — mfo^spydd 
W, a haughty manner. — mfo-dmdn 1. Cs, 
high and low, uneven; also Schr. 2. height, 
mto'dmdn mnydm-pa of equal height Glr, 

— mfo^Jsam^s^-pa v. fo-Jsam-pa, — mfo- 
ris heaven, abode of the gods, paradise, 

^Qt'ot mton^a Sch., mfom-Ua Pth.y chest, 
' breast, mfdn - ga - nas ^dzm-pa to 
seize by the breast Pth, 
jtgr-n' ''n^f^'bcL to see, 1. vb. n. to have 
the power of vision, often with 
mig^-gis)] mfdn-bar ^gyur-ba to obtain the 
faculty of seeing, to recover one's sight; 
mfdn-bar byidrfa to make (the blind) sec 
Dzl,\ mig-gis nye mfon Hh mi mton he 
sees only when the object is near, not when 
it is far, he is short-sighted Med, ; nye-mfon 
short-sighted Sch. — 2. vb. a. 1. to perceive, 
by the eye, to see, to behold, b6d - kyi ri 
mfoh'bai ri an eminence from whence one 
can see the mountains of Tibet Glr,; mi 
yidn-gyis mfon-sar (a place) where one 
can be seen by others; de bu-mos mfdn- 
bar mdzdd^ he made it visible to the girl, 
he made her see it Dzl. ; mfdh-ba hig ydd- 
na if there is one that has seen it, if there 
exists a witness Dzl ; de mfdnste ses seeing 
this, I came to know, i.e. from this I gaw, 
I perceived; mfon fos dran reg^ frq., the 
seeing, hearing, touching, thinking of (e.g. 
a form of prayer, or magic formula); ma 
^dn-bar^ (or ^dn-Ja) mfdn-nas as he saw 
his mother coming, 2. with accus. and 

termin.: to regard, consider, take for, 7%y.; 
rdzas dkar s^'-por mfon Lt taking white 
things for yellow ones. 3. to meet, find, catch. 
4. to know, understand, perceive (mentally) 
Mil 5. col. to undergo, suffer, endure, mis- 
fortunes, pain etc. (cf. stonpa 4), mi mfon 
mfdii-ba to suffer what is not to be suffered, 
not bearable nif., cf. Itd-ba. 

Comp. mfon -Huh Cs. *a window', prob. 
for mfohs-Hun, — mf&n-sgom-ban Thgy, 
was explained: one who instantly knows 
and understands every thing he sees (?) — 
mfdh-Jior, mfdn-mfa^ the reach of sight, 
range of vision Cs., *f6n -Ji(yr - la bot^ W. 
do not take them (the horses) farther than 
you can see them; the horizon Cs.; ndon- 
dug ('eye-poison') evil-eye &ch,\ envy, grudge, 
jealousy. — mfoh-sndh V. snan-ba. — mfon- 
byid that which sees, the eye Cs, ; the sub- 
stance which is the source of vision, a 
species of gall^ ^Hih'M% M^^* — mfoii" 
lam the path of obtaining the power of 
sight, a mystical state Was, (139) — mf6hr 
Itigs the way of beholding, of viewing a 
thing; notion, idea, opinion = sndh-ba^ mtdn- 
higs pum-du byun three different opinions 
were forming Gh\ 

^'^^' S'^HC^ '^^^'^^^ r^o-wfen* 1. 
' ^ anopeningforthesmoke 

in a ceiling or roof, also mfdns - Hun, — 
2. also mfdhs-Ua, pavilion, platform, open 
gallery, on a flat roof Glr, (Cs.: Smpluvium, 
or the opening in the middle of a sqoare 
building', for which, however, the Tibetan 
word seems to be Kyamjs or Myams-midiis). 
^^^_. mfdns-ka silk omaments on the 

' borders of a painting Cs. 
$I§C?TQ' 7wfd/28-^a Cs, : to lose one's sensss; 

perh. J&ms-pa, 
^^•m- mfdn-ka, or mfdn-ga Lex,\ Cs, 1. 

^ ' azure, sky-blue (?). — 3. n. of a 
flower. — 3. Glr, one of the five celestial 
gems; mfon-ka 'S6n-po another ol these 
gems. — 
gjj^gjr mfdn-po high, elevated, B. and coL 

^ (cf. mfd-ba)y of water deep, of the 
voice loud, of weight and measure full, of 
rank high; *?(fe-«/fead f&n-po* W. high- 

^^•^ mfdlria 



q^q' Jdb-pa 

sooDdiDg words, pompous style; *ldg-len 
f6n^* W. highly skilled, well practised. 
— mfon-mfiii 'the high blue (thing)' viz. 
the hair of the head of Buddha, always 
represented as of a light sky-blue. 

^Sorq- qgoi'q' ^^^of^f>(^^ JdUba, to con- 
' less, to avow, nyes-pa 

Dd,; mfol fsdns (cf. ^yod-fsdns) confession, 
acknowledgment, mfoUfsdm byM-pa Dzl, 
mfol Mags-fa to make confession, to con- 
fess, which ace. to Buddhist doctrine in- 
volves atonement and remission of sins. 

$fS?r ^'^^^ ^- ^* '•'fl'^' elevated, *(.im-si 
Ban fo8 ma len* do not take more 
than is right! — 2. MilJ 

' foffy 1. to grind, ran-tdg-gu in a 
mill Zfe/., gro wheat, pyi-mar to flour; to 
reduce to powder, to pulverize, by means 
of two stones (cf. ytan)'^ to mash. — 2. to 
weave, snam-bu cloth; ofdg{'j>a)'po, Jdg^ 
mSan a weaver; dar-fag-bu-mo the daughter 
of a silk -weaver Glr. — Jag-stdn loom 
ScA. — /o^-rdd mill-stone, grinding-stone(?) 
ngr'gf' Jdn -po Wdn, a bodily defect or 

deformity, prob. f^n^po. 
qnr- Jad \Mfi%, pleasure; will; joy, v. the 

following article. 
Qor-q- Jddrpa I. 1. to be pleasant, agree- 

' able, well -pleasing ccdp., ymn de 
kun ^^tu s^ms'la /dd-pa hlg byun all 
these sayings have pleased me very much 
Mil. — 2. (not governing a case) to please, 
to be acceptable, to be considered as good, 
to be (generally) admitted, mi Jdd-par 
mion I see that (this reading) is not ge- 
nerally accepted Zam,; les-pa^ah Jdd-do 
it occurs also in this form Zam.; mi-Jdd' 
de wrong! Was. (294); to be fit, proper, 
SuHable (syn. to ^os-pd)^ sems z^r-ba mi 
Jdd-la as it is not proper to call it soul, 
as it cannot fitly be called soul Mil — 
3. a familiar word, very frq. used, in W. 
almost the only word for dgd-ba and ^dM- 
pa, *sem fad - de* cheerfully, joyfully W., 
Jadrrgyu mid-pa tsam zig-la prob. : as he 
became angry Mil.; ^sim-mi ndn-ne fad 

son*, also *tin (q. v.) ^fdg^pa-ne fad-son* 
W. I have been heartily glad; Jad-Jad- 
JLra yan Mil. though apparently rejoicing; 
*ma fad-fd(f^ W. I am very glad of that; 
*sem fdd bug-be"^ W, to make glad, to 
exhilarate; ^sd-heb-bi ho-la mi fadnla* W. 
does your honour not like curdled milk? 
*fdd'Uan* W. willing, ready; ^gd-ru fad- 
na son* W. go wherever you like; log-pa- 
Jad let us turn back Glr. ; rdtVhi Jdd-la 
voluntarily, spontaneously. 

II.. Sch. = Jdn-pay Jad-lddn = Jdn-po. 

Q^i^ Jan bad, Jan-^dre a demon Sch. 

Q^S^ZV ffdn-pa (cog. to brtdn-po and 
^ fdn-pof) Cs. also Jdd-pa, firmness, 
constancy, in Lea^x. explained by ndn-tan; 
mi Jdn-po a steady, resolute man Cs. 

Qon'zr Jdb-pa to combat, to fight, in a 
battle; to quarrel, to dispute, to 
brawl; Ua-fsub dan Jdb-pa to struggle 
with a snow-storm MU.\ Jfdb-pa m^d-Hn 
si'ba to die peaceably, without a struggle; 
Jdb'pa ^diim-na when quarreling (persons) 
are reconciled; Ka-JdbCs. a fighting with 
the mouth, altercation; lag - Jfdb Cs. a I 

fighting with one's hands, a close fighting, 
a scuffle {Sch. gesticulation?); Jab -Ml *^ It^lifoJhi^ 
Lex. dispute, contest; Job-Jirug prob. id.; Lijl^^'<t^ 
{Lex. in^ weapon?); *fab-dhdb* Cl^'^"^"^ 
weapons, arms; Jab-cds ammunition, re- c*^*;;^*^ ' 
quisites for war Schr.; Jab-brdunSy a-/W 
Jab'brduns the quarreling and thrashing 
of my uncle Mil.; Jdb-mo quarrel, fight, 
row, fray, battle, B. and col. frq., Jdb- 
mo byM-pa B., *c6-ce* W. , to quarrel, 
fight etc.; Jdb-md sprdd-pa to fight a 
battle, to join battle Glr.; Jab-^hdb a dry 
cough Sch. — ^jfdft-rfedd altercation, quarrel, 
brawl, frq. — Jab-ya antagonist, Kydd- 
kyis nai Jdb-ya byed dgos thou must con- 
tend with me Glr. — bdud-mai Jdb-ya 
a termagant, a she-devil to struggle with 
Mil. ; ynds'skabs-kyi Jdb-ya the antagonists 
of life, i. e. the family and relations a 
secular man has to struggle with Mil. — * 
Jab-rdgs intrenchment, breast-work, forti- 
fication C. 



(^^•(^ Jib-^ha 





^^'^S' o^^^'J^ a cricket Sch. 

nmr-q- Jdm-pOy pf. o^«^w«, 1. to Seize, to 
lay hold of, to grasp, to take a 
firm hold of, esp. with the teeth (dogs), 
or the jaws (serpents W.); to sting (of 
bees PT.); to embrace, ^rkan-pa ^fdm-be* 
W, to put one's arms around a person's 
feet, as a supplicant; to grasp intellectually, 
to comprehend (?) Glr. — 2. to gnash, so 
one's teeth; to Shut closely, Ha one's mouth, 
frq. — 3. to join, unite (vb. n.), grdgs-su^ 
grogs 'por Stg.^ in friendship, by a -bar in 
an act, an undertaking D^;/. 
C^^'^' Jdl'ba V. fal-ba. 

Qin«j-q- ^,fa«-pa, Leas.—mKregs^pa^ hard, 
solid; bag-Mgs rgyud-la ^fasprob.: 
inordinate desire has taken a firm hold of 
your minds; sra^Jds Sch, strong^ robust, 
sinewy; a-Jas-te, and o-Jas-b/i bag- cogs 

to fall in drops, to drop from, flrag 
via Jigs-^ar Lt without any blood drop- 
ping out. — 2. vb. a., pf. btigs^ fut. bUg to 
cause to fall in drops, to instil etc. 
(IflC''^^' o^iVi - slad Cs, a term of blame 

^ ^ or abuse; Lexjn, 
nSqxr o^**« a c<>ver, covering; Jibs-^og 
^ tmdf S.g. 

^g— -j™ ^fibs-pa, pf. fibs and /'tibs (cf. 
ytibs^pa% to gather, of clouds, 
storms; nd-bun bkin^du ^fibs-par gyur-to 
(all the Buddhas) came drawing nearer 
like clouds of mist Glr,; to condensate, vb. 
n. Ijdn-sin fams-cdd dgci-bai fsdUdu ^fibs 
all the trees afiFord a delightful shade Glr,; 
byih Jihs drowsiness overcomes me; po. 
and fig. to grow dark or dim, hh-pa con- 
sciousness Med, — Jibs'po dark, close, 

^i^'^' ofifn-pa V. fim-pa. 

nrrq* o^"'^^ !• ^^j- V* fi^-ba, — 2. vb., 
NO also Jun-^a^ pf. Jus^ btus, fut. btu^ 
imp. fiis, biu (Cs.), to gather, collects pick 
up, siuy me-tog^ frq.; fus-mi an assemblage 
of men, council, Cs, 


n nj^'q- Jun-ba, pf. /urn (Cs. also iiii^s 
NO I have drunk out), (fut. btun Cs.), 

^fu/'i^ {Cs, also btwi drink out!), IF. 

ce*, to drink, frq.; to suck, to smoke 
(tobacco), to eat (soup); to be soaked, 

drenched (cloth) DzL; ndms-pa Jun-ba 
to drink one's fill Dd.; zo-^fum^ ^o-^^ 
suckling baby; io-Jun dus-^na during the 
time of giving suck Medr^ Juns-pa t^m- 
gyis immediately after drinking Thgy.; 
Juris 'SO they were engaged in drinkiDg 
Ghr.; Jun-du run-ba^ W. *fun'C6^, drink- 
able; btuh'ba sbst. drink, beverage, bzd-ba 
dan btuh-bay bza4>tun ( W, ^zabtkr?) meat 
and drink, frq.; btun-^ water for drinking 
Mil. — 

^^^, ^^^ o%-:P«, mfug-pa, adj. 

NO ' ' NO ' and abstr. sbst, Jug- 
po adj , thick, mta-Jiig thicker toward the 
margin or edge Mng>; gen. of woven stuffs, 
opp. to »rdb^a; srab-Jug 1. thin and thick, 
2. thickness relatively; also consistency, of 
liquids, opp to sld-ba Med,; dense, nags, 
frq.; SOUnd, heavy, ^tiyid ^fug-po a soond 
sleep; strong, bag- ^dgs ^fug-po a strong 
inclination MU, 
qgr-q- ^fl^'^' ^fiid'pa^ mtiid-pa to 

No^ ' no' make longer by adding 
a piece, to piece out, to prolong, pu-dm 
W, a sleeve; sky^a Jud mi dgos he has 
no need of adding a re-birth, a new period 
of life Pth.; Jud-ma 1. addition, prokm- 
gation, ^srdg-gi fud-ma tdn-^e* W. prolong- 
ing life (by medicine, careful nursing). — 
2. aid, assistance, subsidy, e.g. to a needy 
betrothed couple; also a gift of- honour, a 
present, offered to a departing benefactor 
ur respected Lama W.; dmag-Jud sub- 
sidies; auxiliary troops. — 3. help, assistance 
in general. 

nngr j^^n gatherer, Uh-Jim a gatherer of 
^No' wood, rtsa-Jiin of gras^.:«. •'J^-^ 

xT Jub, btuby W, *fuh-b^^ to CUt into 
pieces, v. ytub-pa, 
ngxTCT o^^"i^^5 pf- JuTns^ btums, fut 

NO btum, imp. o^ww, bturrk, W. *ft#i»- 

c'd^, to cover or lay over, to put over, to 




Q^^^cr o%«^« 


coat, zdnh-kyis Glr.; to wrap up, to envelop, 

Qmx^ o^tiTns barren, sterile; addled (eggs); 
\3 blO'Jums stupid Lexx, 

Q^ Jur supine of Ju-ha, 

Qgoj-q* j^id-ha to rise, to spread, of smoke, 
\d vapours, perfumes, ga-pur Jul it 
smells of camphor L^a?.; rdul m