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150 1LTUST1{AT1(3NS 





BY E Y.' CLARKE . . >,,., 

' ■ ' ' ' ' ' ■) -1 T 

Ja?. p. Hakrison & Co., Publishers anp PiiiNTEKS, 



71? f^e Women of Atlanta, ever foremost in the Charities and 
Amenities, great and s?nall, projected for the uplifting of Hu- 
manity, as abundantly evidenced by their labors in behalf of the 
Young Men's Library, by the establishment of a Benevolent Home, 
and by the Monumental Column of Granite kissing the skies froin 
Oakland Cemetery, memorial alike of the Patriotism of man and 
the Devotion of woman ; and to the Men of brain and muscle^ 
whose etiergy, enterprise and public spirit have constructed the 
Railroads, erected the Massive Walls, and sent up the Church 
Spires of the Giant Young Metropolis of the South, and whose 
hearty appreciation a7id liberal support of all efforts tending to 
the public good have been unremitti7ig, this Work is most respect- 
fully dedicated. 

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About four years ago appeared the first edition of this work 
The present one is considerably enlarged, having more pages, with 
more matter upon each page, and with nearly double the number of 
illustrations. As to the liistoric part, some of the oldest citizens 
assert that they can discover in it no material inaccuracy- 
The author has the pleasure of knowing that leading articles 
about Atlanta, such as recently in the Louisville Courier-Journal, 
obtain their facts from this book, and he has furnished numerous 
correspondents with copies in order to benefit Atlanta by 
these publications abroad. He hopes that the present edition will 
impart a still broader idea of the growth, magnitude, advantages 
and future of Atlanta to thousands of strangers into whose hands 
it will pass. 

October, 1881. 


Introduction. CHAPTER I. 

Overland Transportation-The Seaboard and the Great West-A State Convention- 
Action of the Legislature-Construccion of the State Railroad-From the Tennes- 
see to the Chattahoochee-The Site Selected-Reason of the Location-The First 

House— Page 17. 


Terminus-A Wilderness-A Few More R-<i-^--F^-\ ^ V°%f "^^^^J^"^^ 
Firm-A Half Dozen Families-Building and Progress of the State Road-Con- 
struction to Marietta-The First Engine-First Two-story Frame House-A Dis- 
oouraged Citizen-The First Real Estate Sale-Page 19. 


Marthasville-Another Epoch^The Village incorporated-The First School House 
and Church-The First Newspaper-The First Editor a Parson-Complet.on of the 
Gerg^lRailroad-A. Accidental Death-Population in x845-Names of Inhabi- 
tants-The First Saw Mill-Number of Stores-Washington Hall-Page 2a. 

Co„in„.d Prosre.s--Co„,„ of Macon ^ We,.e,„Ka«roadL^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

:^rrap:rCh„';rFi":Blo°Uo.B,ic. S„..s-Ca„,e„nr,e.u.aH., i„ S.e« 
System-John C. Calhoun's Prophecy-Page 26. 

AUanta- o, the Na.=-F,rst Ci'V E.ecion-Nu.ber o, Vous Po..;d--_F!rs. 
Mayor and Cou„cn™e„-0>d Wesley ^^ ^J-' .^"^f, Po.ndries-Th. Fir. 
S;y p:;.rS;r„7:Hrs;a\;S:oal.Aaa„,a . ... P«.n. KaU^ay- 

^"'"'- CHAPTER VI. 

Snake Nation— Page 31. 


^. TT ■ -A^ TViP First Fire— Removal of the Cem- 
Accident and Incident-The First H^^^^^^J.^^ f^ ' ^Bi^hop Andrew-Second 
etery-The First Bank-The First Lawyer-Old 1 nnity iiisn p 
Baptist Church-The Original Nineteen Members-Page 34- 



Continued Growth-Population in 1854-Rate of Annual Increase-Sales of Goods- 
First Commercial Crisis-Census of i860 -Building of the City Hall-General Im- 
provements and Progress-Atlanta Medical College-Bank of Fulton Established-- 
The Air-Line Road Agitated-Young Men's Christian Association-Hibernian 
Benevolent Society-Our First Military Company-First Atlanta Directory-Bus- 
iness in 1859 — Page 36. 


The War Period ; Progress Checked; Reaction; Manufacture of War Munitions- 
Martial Law; Hospitals; Bombardment of the City; Terrific Scenes; Battle of 
Peachtree Creek ; Battle of Atlanta ; Death of McPherson ; Occupation by Fed- 
eral Army ; Expulsion of Inhabitants ; Destruction of City ; Page 41. 


Return of the People ; Rebuilding of City ; New Life ; Four Hundred Buildings 
erected in one year ; New Enterprises and new Business ; A Flush Period ; Com- 
pletion of the Air-Line Road ; Growth of the Wholesale Business ; Starting of the 
Cotton Trade ; Page 50. 


Birth and Growth of Associations ; Young Men's Library Association ; Hibernian So- 
ciety ; Concordia; Ladies' Memorial Association; Page 56. 


Educational Progress ; Public School System Recommended ; Convent School for 
girls ; University for Colored People ; Page 60. 

A Financial Crisis ; Population in 1873 ; The Panic ; Its Results ; Run Upon the 
Banks ; Damage to Business ; Page 63. 


Municipal Reform ; A Committee of Forty-nine ; The New Charter ; Its Provisions- 
Page 68. ' ' 


Movements of Business ; Marvelous Progress ; Unsightly Spots filling up ; Wholesale 
Groceries ; Page 69. 


General Progress of the Last Decade ; Establishment of Waterworks ; Their Exten- 
sive Use ; Page 70. 


Atlanta As It Is ; Railroads ; Hotels ; Public Works, Buildings and Grounds ; 
Churches ; Colleges ; Manufactures ; Capital of the State; Municipal Govern- 
ment; Population ; Society ; Healthfulness ; Advantages; Streets ; Leading Bus- 
mess Houses ; Architecture ; Residences ; Surroundings ; Directory of Informa- 

-■^"'^i^E^^ .^"I^SI^ /'""cI^ErN 


Engineer's Office. 

The First Church, 

No. I. Fire Company's Building. 

The Terraces— Residence of E. E. Raw- 

Federal Camp in the Park. 


James R. Wylie's Store. 

Kimball House. 

Residence of B. F, Wyly. 

Republic Block. . 

Clarke & Co.'s Hardware Building. 

Residence of W. B. Cox. 

Residence of Julius L. Brown. 

Residence of James R. Wylie. 

Er Lawshe's. 

Southern Express Offlce. 

Markham House. 

Hebrew Synagogue. 

Confederate Monument in Oakland Cem- 

Residence of F. M. Coker. 

Residence of A. C. Wyly. 

National Surgical Institute. 

Trinity Church. 

Franklin Printmg House. 

Marietta Street. 

Surburban Residence of Wra. McNaught. 

Atlanta Rolling Mill. 

Terra Cotta Works. 

Box Factory. , 

Sugar Creek Paper Mills. 

Residence and Store of Joseph Smith. 

McBride's Crockery Store. 

Hunnicutt & Bellingraths' Building. 

Atlanta Nurseries. 

Wilson & Bros.' Coal Yard. 

Merchants' Bank. 

Georgia Railroad Depot. 

Western & Atlantic Railroad Depot. 

State Capitol. 

Residence of Judge George Hillyer. 

First Baptist Church. 

Governor's Mansion. 

Whitehall Street. 

Van Winkle's Foundry. 

M. C. & J. F. Riser & Co.'s 

A. C. &B. F.Wyly's. 

Ponce de Leon Springs. 

Residence of S. M. Inman. 

Residence of J. C. Peck. 

Residence of H. A. Fuller. 

City Hall. 

Residence of Wra Laird. 

County Jail. 

The Old Atlanta Hotel. 

Stone Mountain. 

General Passenger Depot. 

Fast Mail by Night. 

Interior Kimball House. 

President Hayes in Atlanta. 

Exposition Grounds — two views. 

First Presbyterian Church, 

Seond Baptist Church. 

Methodist Protestant Church. 

First Methodist Church. 

Other Churches. 

Southern Medical College. 

Eclectic Medical College. 

Reform Medical College. 

Custom House. 

Atlanta Health Institute. 

Fulton County Court House. 

Cotton Factory. 

Whitehall Street. 

W. M. Scott's. 

Stocker & Castleberry's— two views. 




J. P. Stevens & Go's. — three views. 

F. G. Hancock's — three views. 

The Inman Building. 

Mitchell Wagon Company. 

F. W. Hart's. 

Fuller & Oglesby — two views. 

Dunn. Alexander & Go's. 

National Hotel. 

Wilson House. 

Boaz's Stables. 

Mark W. Johnson's. 

P. H. Snook's. 

Bird's Eye View. 

Peachtree Street. 

Walter Taylor's. 

Avery & Son's. 

McBride & Go. — two views. 

Traynham & Ray's, 

Reception of Military. 

The Library. 

West End Spring. 

McPherson Monument. 

Residence of G. W. Leonard. 

Hirsch Bro's. 

Oglethorpe Park Entrance. 

Exposition Hotel. 

Other Exposition Buildings. 

Atlanta — Bird's Eye View. 


Atlanta is now a city of nearly 50,000 souls. In 1835 the spot on 
which it stands was forest and swamp, with a few country roads 
running through it. Its history is indeed a remarkable one, but 
not only in the -particular of rapid growth. It has an experience 
of battle and flame and heroic story exceeding in some respects 
that of any city in the South. There is a dim tradition of a fierce 
and bloody combat upon the site, between two tribes of Indians who 
originally possessed the land. But there is no evidence of any such 
conflict, and unfortunately Atlanta's history needs no dependence 
upon savage legends for romantic elements, as the internecine strife 
of 1861-64 was terribly sufficient for that purpose. The city was 
completely destroyed, but rose from its ashes grander than ever, and 
has grown like towns grow in the West. The history of such 
a City it is interesting to trace, and the following pages will be de- 
voted to this task, beginning with the first log cabin. 




In 1825 the Creek and Cherokee Indians ceded the lands inter- 
vening between them to the State of Georgia, and their acquisition 
increased the restlessness of the people for some mode of trans- 
portation between the State and the expanding West. About this 
time, too, the steam engine was applied to railroad transit, and in 
1826 a train of cars, in the Old World, was first drawn by one. 
When this idea of overland transportation crossed the Atlantic, 
people began to think of railroads as the best means of interior 
communication ; hence the Legislature of Georgia granted three 
charters in 1833, for the Central, Georgia and Monroe railroads. 
This still further stimulated the general desire of the people to es- 
tablish direct commercial intercourse between the South Atlantic 
coast and the West ; and as this could be done by building a great 
trunk-line railway northwestward, the people of Georgia determin- 
ed upon its construction. A State convention met at Macon in 
N'ovember 1835, and memorialized the Legislature to that end. 
This movement, like all progressive ideas, evoked the fiercest op- 
position, and finally prevailed in the General Assembly by a very 
small majoritp. One of that majority is the present venerable Sec- 
retary of State, N. C. Barnett. 


On the 2 1 St of December, 1835, the act was approved by Gov- 
ernor Schley authorizing the "construction of a railroad from the 
Tennessee line, near the Tennessee river, to the southwestern bank 
of the Chattahoochee river, at a point most eligible for the running 
of branch roads theiice to Athens, Madison, Milledgeville, Forsyth, 
and Columbus." In 1837 Stephen H. Long was appointed engin- 
eer-in-chief, and the eastern terminus was established, not at the 
Chattahoochee, but seven miles east of it (for the reasons hereto- 
fore given), and near the point of the pfesent General Passenger 
Depot. The quotation shows that the act itself required this loca- 
tion ; and the site of Atlanta was therefore the result, neither of 
accidental circumstance nor of arbitrary choice, but of natural con- 
formation, as the most "eligible" point for the purposes recited in 
the act. Here intersected three great mountain ridges, upon which 
were soon afterwards constructed the Georgia, Macon & Western, 
and Atlanta & West Point railroads. 



TERMINUS— .1836— 42. 

The site chosen, as mentioned in the foregoing chapter, was 
known for a number of years as " Terminus." The first house built 
near it, or within village distance of it, was a log shanty, erected 
by Mr. Hardy Ivy in the year 1836. To John Thrasher belongs 
the honor of erecting the second house, in 1839, in which year 
"Cousin John," as he is familiarly known, was the only inhabitant 
save an old woman and her daughter. There were a few people 
in the neighborhood, generally very poor; women wearing no 
shoes, and the houses having dirt floors. The country was wild — 
traversed only by Creek and Cherokee Indians in roving or hunt- 
ing excursions, and straggling white adventurers. 

In 1 84 1, 1842 and 1843, a few persons moved upon the ground 
and became neighbors of John Thrasher, who had been enterpris- 
ing enough to organize a store. In the keeping of the store he 
associated with him a man by the name of Johnson, the firm name 
being Johnson & Thrasher. This was the first business firm, as 
well as the first store of the embryo city, and was erected on the 
spot where the First Presbyterian church now stands. Cousin John 
did not take a hopeful view of the future of Terminus, for in 
1842, three years later, he sold out and moved to Griffin. At this 
time very little progress had been made in population, there being 
not more than a half dozen dwellings, or about three or foui fami- 
lies at the close of the year. Among these was Mr. Willis Car- 
lisle, who came in June 1842, and established a store near the 
location of the First Presbyterian Church on Marietta street. His 
daughter, who might be termed the "pioneer babe" of our great 
city, is still a resident, having married the well-known iron founder, 
Mr. W. S. Withers. 

But in another direction there had been decided progress. The 
construction of the Western & Atlantic Railroad had been prose- 



cuted slowly, but steadily, the turbid stream of the Chattahoochee 
had been spanned and Marietta reached. 

This year is distinguished by the arrival of the first engine, called 
the Florida, which was brought from Madison, the then terminus 
of the Georgia Railroad, in a wagon drawn by sixteen mules. This 
was a most enlivening spectacle, and assembled the people from all 
the country round about, at least five hundred, it is said, accom- 
panying the engine from the village of Decatur and below. This 
was the first of the great succession of crowds collecting at or near 
the Whitehall street crossing, then to do homage to that wonderful 
invention of human genius, the steam engine — since that time to 
impatiently await its pleasure in moving out of the way. The 
engine was successfully placed upon the track, and with a box car 
brought from Milledgeville, made a trip to Marietta December 
24th, 1842. The engineer was W. F. Adair, who is now em- 
ployed at New Holland Springs. 

This year is also noted for the first real estate sale at public 
auction — Mr. Fred. Arms being the auctioneer. He had sub- 
divided Mitchell's lot — the same, a part of which made such a 
conspicuous figure in later times — but succeeded in 'selling only 
three of the sub-divisions, Mr. Daniel Dougherty buying one, Mr. 
Wash Collier another, and Mr. Arms himself buying a third. Mr. 

Wash Collier stid owns his 
I >t, upon ivhich stands the 
drug store building at the 
junction of Line and Deca- 
tur streets with Pcachtree 
and Marietta. 

In this year, or the suc- 
ceeding one, the first two- 
story framed house was built, 
which is still standing, at the 
present day, on Peters street, 
across from Trinity Church. 
ENGINEERS OFFICE. It is the propetty of Mr. E. 

W. Holland, of our candy manufacturing firm of Jack & Hol- 
land. The house was removed to its present location from the 
rear of the Republic Block, where it was first erected by the State 


Road authorities for the use of the engineers and other officers of 
the road. It was afterwards occupied as a boarding house — the 
first in our history. The accompanying design of the building, ?.s 
it now stands, is a fac simile of what it was in 1843, with the ex- 
ception of the Httle shed-room, and an extension of the original 
porch over the door. Few citizens are aware of its existence, and 
it is quite a curiosity under the circumstances, surrounded as it is 
by princely mansions and magnificent structures of brick and stone. 
In it, as book-keeper for the Western & Atlantic Railroad, Hon. L. 
E, Bleckley, ex-Justice of our State Supreme Court, passed the 
first three years of his citizenship, and Mr. J. Norcross, one of the 
earliest mayors of the city, slept his first night. Though the oldest 
house in Atlanta, it is now used to make old things new, as it is oc- 
cupied by J. E. Kreisand his good wife with their steam dye-works. 



MARTHASVILLE.— 1843-45. 

The year 1844, marks a distinctive epoch. The settlement had 
grown somewhat, and the people became ambitious for a corporate 
name. Application was made to tlie Legislature for a charter, 
which was granted on December 23d, incorporating the village un- 
der the name of Marthasville, in compliment to the daughter of ex- 
Governor lumpkin, which distinguised gentleman had been con- 
spicuous in the development of railroad interests in the State. This 
may appear to have been quite fast for a community of ten familes 
at most ; but it should be regarded rather as the evidence, or first 
manifestation, of that spirit of enterprise and go-aheadativeness 
which afterwards became so distinctive an element of progress. 

In 1844 the chief attraction of Marthasville, next to the State 
Railroad, was an old tread saw-mill, run by Mr. J. Norcross, through 
the motive power of an old blind horse. This was our first factory. 

In 1845 there occurred three very noted events — one was the ap- 
pearance of The Lwfiinary, our first newspaper, shining forth un- 
der the editorship of Rev. Joseph Baker. Atlanta editors have 
always been preachers ; but, unfortunately for them and the city, 
their preaching has been too often at variance with the doctrines 
and morality of the first Atlanta editor. 

Another of these events was the completion of the entire line of 
the Georgia Railroad by its vigorous management — the first train 
running through from Augusta to Marthasville September i^th^ 
1845, arriving about dark. Judge King, the President, was on board, 
with many others. In the midst of the excitement and crowd, 
Georgia came near losing one of the greatest railroad men which 
any State has produced. Judge King, in the darkness, was just 
about stepping into an open well, where he would have lost his 
life, when he was seized and drawn back. Unhappily, another 
man had not such good fortune, and falling into the well was 



drowned ; so the day was marred by the occurrence of the first ac- 
cidental death on our records. 

The third event is the most striking. In previous years we have 
had evidence principally of material advancement, but during this 
year an enterprise was completed embracing all the elements of 
true progress — moral, mental and miterial. This was the erection, 


by general subscription, of a small building for church and school 
purposes, in the angle made by Peachtree and Houston streets, 
diagonally across from the present First Methodist Church. It 
was used during the week as a school-house, and on Sunday as a 
church. In it the various denominations of Christians worshipped 
until their churches were erected ; and here was preached, prob- 
ably, the first sermon in the village, by Rev. Dr. J. S. Wilson, 
afterwards pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. 

Atlanta's first Sunday-school was organized in this log-house on 
the second Sunday in June, 1847. All denominations united in it, 
and it was known as the Atlanta Union Sabbath-school. The 
original record-book, containing the constitution, subscriptions, or% 
ganization, and history of each Sabbath meeting, is in the posses- 
sion of the present General Passenger Agent of the- Atlanta & 
Charlotte Air-Line Railway, Mr. W. J. Houston, who received it 


from his father, Mr. Oswald Houston, who, with Mr. Jas. A. Col- 
lins, shared the first superintendency of the school. From these 
records it appears also that Robert M. Clarke was appointed Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, and R. M. Brown, Librarian. Edwin Payne, 
A. F. Luckie and A. E. Johnson were made a committee to solicit 
subscriptions. The list of names subscribing various amounts 
gives an idea of the people in the neighborhood : Jas. A. Collins, 
W. R. Venable, W. T. Bell, W. A. Harp, F. F. Hight, Wm! 
Printup, Mary J. Thompson, Jas. M. Ballard, M. A. Thompson, 
Wm. Henry Fernerdon, A. L. Houston, A. T. Luckie, W. b! 
Chapman, Geo. W. Thomason, A. B. Forsyth, Geo. Tomlinson, J, 
C. Linthicum, S. T. Downs, J. R. Wallace, and T. S. Luckie. In 
the following year a more extensive subscription to keep up the 
library includes the additional names of D. G. Daniell, J. Norcross, 
L. C. Simpson, "Miscellany," J. W. Evans, W. Buell, B. W. Bal- 
lard, David Thurman, H. Mattheson, H. A. Eraser, Thos. Rusk, 
Jas. McPherson, A. W. Walton, J. V. W. Rhodes, Samuel Wells! 
Joseph Thompson, S. Goodall, J. T. Burns, G. M. Troup Perry- 
man, H. C. Holcombe, Z. A. Rice, Geo. W. Cook, J. Wells, A. W. 
Wheat, J. W. Demby, W. L. Wright, H. M. Boyd, Haas & Levi, J. T.* 
Doane, W. H. Wilson, B. F. Bomar, A. E. Johnson, W. J. Hous- 
ton, F. Kicklighter, O. Houston, A. L. Houston, J. J. Smith, Wm. 
P. Orme. Logan E. Bleckley, A. Wooding, C. H. Yarborough, J. 
R. Crawford, R. J. Browne, Lewis Lawshe, W. L. Wingfield, and 
M. J. Ivy. On the 12th day of December, 1847, there were sev- 
enty scholars present. Among the names of these scholars, as 
among the names of the subscribers given, are recognized many 
well-known citizens of to-day. 

But the immediate village population in 1845 numbered onlv 
about a dozen families— perhaps one hundred men, women and 
children. Among these was Stephen Terry, dealer in real estate ; 
James Collins, a merchant, and father of the present Clerk of the 
Superior Court ; both of these gentlemen hving in good houses for 
those days ; Dr. George G. Smith, A. B. Forsyth, who kept a gro- 
cery ; Joseph Thomason, William Crawford and Harrison Bryant, 
workmen ; Jonathan Norcross, merchant, who boarded at the two- 
story frame-house heretofore mentioned, kept by a Mrs. Oslin ; and 
John Thrasher, who, having recuperated his courage, had retilrned 


to the villag-e the preceding year. William Kile and the Ivy family 
lived about three quarters of a mile distant. 

There v^-ere two general stores, one kept by Collins & Loyd, and 
the other by A. B. Forsyth, for whom E. A. Werner clerked ; Kile 
had a small grocery, and Dunn had a bonnet and hat store. Among 
the improvements was a storehouse, erected by Mr. Norcross, upon 
the southwest corner of Marietta and Peachtree road, known since 
as the "Norcross corner." S. B. Hoyt was his clerk. The store 
of Collins & Loyd was built near the east end of the Passenger 
Depot by Loyd,who also resided in it; the house afterwards becom- 
ing a hotel, under the name of Washington Hall. 




The year 1846 ushered in the third great railroad event in the 
career of Marthasville. This was the arrival of a train from Macon, 
on the Macon & Western Railroad, which had just been completed. 
It was intended at first to build the depot of this road near the 
present round-house of the Western & Atlantic Railroad, and hence 
the embankment by the Mineral Spring, known as the "Monroe 
Road," that being the name of the Macon & Western before it 
changed hands. This intention of the management occasioned 
great excitement in the village. Those who had settled near the 
present passenger depot became alarmed, for fear that the junction 
of the two roads would become the business center of the future 
town. Hence they determined to induce the President of the Ma- 
con Road to abandon the original purpose, and make the junjtion 
and depot near the terminus of the State Road, or present General 
Passenger Depot. To do this, Mitchell offered ground for the 
depot, ^nd it was accepted. This was a turning point in the affairs 
of Marthasville, and fixed the location of the coming city ; but it 
proved an over-turning point for some of its people, among whom 
was "Cousin John Thrasher," who had bought one hundred acres 
in the vicinity of the first proposed depot of the Macon Road, but 
sold out in disgust, and at half cost, upon learning the "change of 
base." The property, which he thus disposed at four dollars per 
acre, he lives to see worth at least half a million. 

The completion of the Macon & Western Road was the occa- 
sion of the first mass-meeting of which we have any record, and 
among the speakers were Daniel Floyd and Mark A. Cooper. 

Three more newspapers made their appearance : The Democrat, 
by Dr. W. H. Fernerdon; The Enterprise, by Royal & Yarborough; 
and The Southern Miscelhuiy, by C. R. Hanleiter. . They were all 


It is not surprising that the villagers, buoyed up under the influ- 
ence of recent events, began to feel too large for a village incorpo- 
ation, and about'this time an effort was made to obtain a charter 
for a city. The effort failed, however, through the opposition of 
less ambitious citizens, who employed a lawyer to break it down. 

But in the following year, 1847, the attempt was successful, and 
the charter was obtained. In the meantime there was considerable 
progress, and the population probably reached, or exceeded, three 
hundred, according to the estimate of the late H. C. Holcombe, and 
others, with whom the author has conversed, A Methodist quar- 
terly meeting was held under a cotton-shed, there being no build- 
hig large enough for it. The Baptists began the building of a 
church edifice. I. O. & P. C. McDaniel built the first block of brick 
stores, the only other brick buildings being the Atlanta Hotel erec- 
ted by the Georgia Railroad the previous year, and the railroad de- 
pots. Atlanta Lodge No. 59 of Masons organized April 13th; 
Mount Zion Chapter No. 16 was chartered May 3d. There were 
other evidences of coming municipal greatness, among which might 
be meiuioned the appearance of the razor-strap man, who could be 
seen daily crying his wares from the top of a stump, near the pres- 
ent corner of Whitehall and Alabama streets. Despite all these 
prosperous indications, there were few who had any faith in the fu- 
ture of the town. Colonel Long, the chief engineer of the Georgia 
Railroad, thought Atlanta would never be more than a wood sta- 
tion, and made all his investments in Marietta. He expressed the 
opinion, according to Judge J. A. Hayden, that Atlanta, after the 
completion of the various railroads, would consist of a cross-roads 
store and a blacksmith shop. Partly to this want of confidence, and 
of the failure to secure the proposed charter providing for commis- 
sioners to lay out streets, is due the irregularity of our street system ; 
everybody building where he pleased, without reference to any plan. 
But there were a few men who did believe in a prosperous future. 
Among them was L. P. Grant, then attached to the engineer corps 
of the Georgia Railroad. About this time, also, the great John C. 
Calhoun, in passing through the town, prophesied that it would be- 
come the largest interior city of the South. A few years later, this 
same far-seeing statesman urged upon Joseph E. Brown, then stop- 
ping in Washington, on his way home from college, the propriety 
of making the embryo city his home ; but the young man's judg- 
ment was not then so good as afterward. 



ATLANTA.— 1847-49. 

In 1846 J. Edgar Thompson, chief engineer of the Georgia Rail- 
road, in a letter to Mr. Richard Peters, also an engineer of the road, 
suggested Atlanta, as a better name for the terminus of the Wes- 
tern & Atlantic Railroad, deriving it from the word Atlantic, using 
the expression, "masculine, Atlantic — feminine, Atlanta." The de- 
pot was thus called until December 29th, 1847, when the Legisla- 
ture passed an act incorporating the "City of Atlanta ;" but the 
village had virtually adopted the name before, as evidenced by the 
fact that the Sunday-school started in June, 1847, was called the 
"Atlanta Union Sunday-school." The charter was drawn by J. 
Norcross, John Collier, and J, Vaughn. 

The first city election occurred Saturday January 29th, 1848, for 
Mayor and six Councilmen, and was held at "Kile's corner." It initia- 
ated the series of municipal excitements which have occurred annu- 
ally from that day until the adoption of the last charter. The first 
election brought out every voter, and the total poll was two hun- 
dred and fifteen, resulting in making Moses W. Formwalt the first 
Mayor of Atlanta, and the following six gentlemen Councilmen : 
Jonas S. Smith, Benj. F. Bomar, Robert W Ballard. Jas. A. Col- 
lins, Anderson W. Walton, and Leonard C. Simpson. Atlanta's 
first City Council met on Wednesday morning, February 2d, 1848. 
Fresh impetus was imparted to every material interest, and new life 
was infused into the body politic, manifesting itself in every direc- 
tion. Churches were organized, and houses of worship ascended. 
Societies were formed, new enterprises were inaugurated, and new 
businesses established. Better still, excellent people moved in. 
As this march of progress continued at an accelerating rate for 
several years, it will not be amiss to enter somewhat into details. 

In three years, five churches were organized and church edifices 
built. The Methodists had a hull of a church in which they were 


holding services. Old Wesley Chapel was finished in a few years 
afterward. The Methodists were the first to hold services in their 
own building, but the Firt Baptist Church was the first finished- - 
in 1848 — under the pastorate of S. G. Daniel, and stood where the 
new one now stands, In this church the second anniversary of 
the Union Sabbath-school was held on the loth day of June, 1849, 
Rev. Dr. J. S. Wilson preaching the sermon. The First Presbyte- 
rian Church was organized by Rev. Dr. J. S. Wilson, in the old 
church school-house, in 1848, with nineteen members. Judge Cone, 
Major Terry, Richard Peters, and Julius Hayden were made a 
building committee, and upon a lot on Marietta street, presented by 
the first named gentleman, a church was erected, and dedicated 
July 4th, 1852. The First Episcopal Church — St. Phillips — was 
consecrated in 1848, by Bishop Elliott. The first rector was John 
J. Hunt, now of Marietta, through whose efforts, chiefly, the church 
was organized and the house built. The Catholics held their first 
public services in 1848, in the school-house. Rev. Mr. Ouinn offi- 
ciating. They at once began the erection of a building, which was 
completed in 1848. 

Organizations for various purposes were formed. The first 
lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Central Lodge 
No. 28 — was organized October 7th, 1848. The first fire company 
— Atlanta No. i — was organized March 24th, 1851. The compa- 
ny's first building was erected in 1855. The Knights of Jericho 
organized their first lodge Nov. 6th, 1852. Among the new enter- 
prises started were a large flouring mill by Richard Peters, and an 
extensive foundry and machine shop by Winship in 1851. 

The first job office was started by C. R. Hanleiter. All the 
newspaper enterprises having failed, in 1849 ^ number of gentle- 
men concluded that so promising a town ought to have at least one 
journal. Z. A. Rice, J. Norcross, J. O. McDaniel, B. F. Bomar, 
and perhaps others, bought a press and started the Intelligencer, 
out of which in time grew the Daily Intelligencer. The first 
daily was started in 1853 by Kay & Ramsey and was called the 
Daily Examiner. It was a five-column folio. It was printed at 
first on a hand press, but afterward a power press was bought for 
it in Knoxville. Mr. A. P. Prince, now living in Atlanta, was the 
first foreman and printed the first number. 


Among the citizens gained about this time, were Er Lawshe 
in 1848, John Silveyin 1849, and G. J. Foreacre, then a conductor 
on the Macon and Western Road, in 1850. 

Improvements in realty were numerous. The Georgia Railroad 
round-house was completed in 1850, and Messrs. Austin, Wright, 
Dunning, and other citizens put up handsome residences. 

One of the grand events contributing to this era of prosperity, 
was the completion of the State Railroad, December ist, 1849. 
Three years afterward, the Atlanta and West Point Railroad into 
Alabama was finished, being chiefly constructed by the Georgia Rail- 
road Company ; Mr. John P. King becoming president, and Mr. W. 
P. Orme becoming secretary, treasurer, and auditor. Thus was 
added another arm of strength to the rising young city. It is true 
that the building of the last mentioned road alarmed some, upon 
the idea that it would enable cotton to pass through to Augusta 
that was now wagoned to Atlanta. It did so operate for a few 
years, but in all other particulars it proved only another feeder to 
the young giant which was fast developing a muscular power 
destined to thrust aside all its rivals, and pass them in the race for 
commercial prosperity and metropolitan dimensions. In fact, with 
the completion of these roads, Atlanta needed but one other ele- 
ment of success to assure a triumphant career, and that was the 
element of pluck, energy, and enterprise in its inhabitants. To 
what enormous extent they possessed this element of success, will 
readily appear in the course of their history. Their railway sys- 
tem, though not complete, was sufficiently so to secure superiority, 
and to justify the prediction of John C. Calhoun and the bright 
visions of its most sanguine citizens. Farther on, in the progress 
of this work, the railroad system and history of Atlanta will be set 
forth more in detail. 




Taking as a basis the vote cast in ttie first municipal election, 
and considering that in all newly-settled countries the proportion 
of women and children is always small, the population of Atlanta 
in January, 1848, at the beginning of its municipal career, may be 
safely estimated at about five hundred. This population was 
largely composed of workmen, employed by the various railroad 
companies, and adventurers, who are always to be found in new 
settlements. If to these be added a liberal sprinkling of desperate 
characters, ever hunting opportunities to better their fortunes by 
playing upon the ignorance and passions of men, it will readily ap- 
pear that, among our first people, there was a strong element of 
rowdyism and lawlessness. Among men, many of whom were 
without the reptraining influence of family ties, and destitute of the 
civilizing refinements of a settled society and social system, it was 
natural that crime should riot, and humanity* should develop its 
lowest and most loathsome traits. This class in Atlanta fiercely 
opposed the imposition of municipal restraints, and the chartering 
of the city was simply a declaration of war between them and the 
lovers of law and order. On Decatur street, between the Collier 
or drug-store corner and the present Pryor street, was a lot of 
huts known as " Murrell's Row," in the back-yards of which gamb- 
ling and cock-fighting were constantly engaged in. There had 
been gradually built up two suburban villages of huts on the west- 
ern and eastern borders of the city, known by the euphonious 
names of Slab Town and Snake Nation. In these villages pre- 
vailed almost every species of idle, vicious, and criminal amuse- 
ment. The denizens of these villages, being in a majority, had suc- 
cessfully resisted every effort to subject them to the restraints of 
the law and its penalties, and they lorded it with a high hand over 
the better citizens. This was one of the inspirations of the new 


charter, as well as the ambition for larger things. The charter^ 
was not obtained too soon. It needed all the machinery of munic- 
ipal government, and all the power of municipal authority, to 
maintain the public peace and protect the lives and property of 
the citizens. Good laws were enacted by the city council, munici- 
pal courts were instituted, and a city prison, called a calaboose, 
was built. It may not be uninteresting to describe, in passing, this 
first abode of Atlanta's evil-doe-s. It was made of hewn timber, 
three logs thick, being about twelve feet square on the outside, or 
some eight feet square on the interior. A novel jail delivery oc- 
curred very soon, in this fashion : a number of able-bodied friends 
of imprisoned offenders lifted the structure bodily, allowing the 
inmates to crawl " from under." As may be imagined, this was 
not a very formidable affair ; still it served the ordinary purposes of 

The municipal laws, courts, and prisons were speedily in opera- 
tion. The lawless characters resisted and defied, in all possible 
ways, the restraints of law and decent society. The struggle be- 
tween the good and evil elements continued, with varying success : 
the force of municipal law was sometimes weakened by the elec- 
tion, through sheer numerical advantage, of men representative of, 
or friendly to, the evil-doers. Municipal authority was evaded dur- 
ing the day by countless subterfuges, sometimes by boldfaced 
violence ; and at night the streets of the city frequently resounded 
with wild shoutings and the reports of fire-arms. In 185 1 Jonathan 
Norcross, the candidate of the merchants and better class of peo- 
ple, was elected Mayor, with an excellent board of Councilmen, 
among whom was Julius A. Hayden. This further incensed the 
law-breakers, and brought matters to a culmination. Open violence 
was resorted to, and the authority of the municipal court forcibly 
defied. Growing bolder in their desperation, t\ey planted a cannon 
by night in front of the Mayor's store, and gave him written notice 
to resign his office or quit the city. The crisis had arrived, and 
with it the time for summary action. The Mayor and Council 
issued an address to the citizens, and they assembled at a given 
hour, thoroughly armed. The law-breakers had gathered in force, 
but their courage failed them, and all, who had not dispersed in 


"^time, surrendered without resistance, They were at once cala- 
boosed, and on the following day were tried and sentenced. 

This decisive action established the supremacy of the municipal 
authority and of the law-abiding class of citizens. Still, lawless- 
ness and indecency were only limited within their own precincts and 
*'Snake Nation" in particular. Its scenes of shame and carousal 
became finally unbearable. A body of disguised citizens assaulted 
it by night, and driving out the inmates, visited, by axe and torch, 
so complete a destruction upon the village of filthy huts, that "Snake 
Nation" was never rebuilt. 

Er Lawshe was one of the assaulting party, being always ready 
to respond to the call of the authorities for such needful work. He 
has a graphic recollection of the assault. From that day, though 
there were occasional ascendencies of the worst classes, mainly 
through unfortunate divisions among the better people, law and 
order reigned triumphant. 




It is interesting to note some of the accidents and incidents of 
this period. 
/■"^ The first homicide of the city occurred in 1848. A man by the 

/name of McWilliams was stabbed and killed by Bill Terrell, who 
ran away and escaped. The second, of which we have any record, 
was the murder of Wilburne by Bird, who was found guilty, but 
was pardoned by the Legislature. 

In 1850 occurred the first fire. The building burned was located 
near about the present place of John Stephens, on Alabama 
Street. Several bales of cotton were also burned at the same time» 
in a ware-house in another part of the city. As the money-drawer 
of the Georgia Railroad depot was broken open on the same night 
and robbed, it was generally believed that these fires were incendi- 
ary, with the object of creating favorable opportunities for theft. 

The cemetery, then lying along Peachtree street, near the pres- 
ent residence of N, J. Hammond, was removed in 1850 to its 
present location. 

The city had enjoyed, for several years, railroad banking agen- 
cies ; but the first regular bank of the city was organized by Mr. 
George Smith, of Chicago, with a capital of $300,000. under the 
management of Mr. J. R. Valentine. 

The first lawyer was L. C. Simpson ; John T. Wilson was a stu- 
dent in his office. 

A number of the well-known citizens of to-day became such 
about this time : among others, C. W. Hunnicutt, in 1848; J. M. 
Holbrook, in 1852; G. T. Dodd, in 1853; Daniel Pittman, L. J. 
Gartrell, L. J, Glenn, A. J. McBride, in 1854. 

The Christian Church was organized in 1852, by State Evangel- 
ist Daniel Hood, with six ©r eight members, and their first church 
was erected the following year. 


A Sabbath-school, organized in 1853, by Green B. Haygood and 
Willis F. Peck, proved the nucleus of Trinity Methodist Church. 

Green B. Haygood, chairman, Joseph Winship, Edwin Payne, and 
Dr. George Smith were appointed a building committee. A lot was 
purchased on the Court-house square, and old Trinity was speedily 
built; Bishop Andrew dedicating it in Sept?ember, 1854, and Rev. 
J. P. Duncan preaching the first sermon. 

The Second Baptist Church was organized in 1854, by nineteen 
members of the First Baptist Church. These were Mrs. Lipman, 
Dr. B. F. Bomar, Mrs. B. F. Bomar, Thomas Veasey, Francis H. 
Coleman, Mrs. Sherburne, John M. Myres and wife, Mrs. Krogg, 
Mrs. Wells, T. W. West and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Oglesby, I. O. 
McDaniel and wife, R. J. McDaniel, P. E. McDaniel and wife, and 
Nancy B. McDaniel ; a majority of the nineteen being females. 
Yet a church was soon built, costing about $13,000. 




The year 1854 found Atlanta a busy and growing little city of 
6,025 souls, according to the figures of the census. The average 
annual increase of population, for several years past, had been about 
one thousand. There were about sixty stores, and the sales of 
goods ran up to one and a half millions of dollars. This was a 
fine showing and its presentation here will enable us to see, 
by comparison, the continued progress of the next six ye ^rs, or up 
to the period of the war. For, notwithstanding a commercial crisis in 
1857 and 1858, the growth of the city was steady and substantial, 
so much so that the United States census of i860 proved Atlanta 
to be, in size, the fourth city of the State. Casual glances at the de- 
velopment of business, the march of improvement, and accession 
to the population, will disclose some of the successive steps in the 
career of prosperity. 

First of all, should be noted the accesssions of valuable men, for, as 
before intimated, Atlanta owes its remarkable career of prosperity 
to no agency more than the character of its citizens. Among these 
— in 1854 came Dr. J. P. Logan, M. Cole, and Thomas M. Clarke, 
which latter gentleman, with Mr. Gilbert, opened the first exclu- 
sively hardware store in Atlanta, the failure of which in three 
month's time was freely predicted; in 1855, David H. Dougherty; 
in 1856, L. Bellingrath, and A. Bellingrath ; in 1857, E. E. Rawson ; 
in 1858, John Keely, J.C. Peck ; in 1859, A. C. and B. F. Wyly, W. 
B. Cox, J. Morrison, and John M. Clarke ; in i860, A. Morrison. Of 
course mention can be made of only a few of the valuable citizens 
gained during this period, for there were many. 

In 1854 the City Hall and Court House, 70x100 feet, two stories 
high, was begun, and finished the ensuing year, at a cost of at least 
^30,000. The old Athenaeum, also, was built by S. J. Williams, 
In 1857 Er Lawshe erected a store on Whitehall street. In 1858' 




nineteen brick stores were erected. In 1859 as many more stores 
were built, among them a block on Marietta street, by J. Norcross ; 
a store on Whitehall street by McNaught & Scrutchins ; a planing 
mill was built by J. C. Peck ; and among the residences one by Er 
Lawshe, on Peachtree street, and one by E. E. Rawson, on Pryor 
street, remarkable for its extensive grounds, lovely terraces, and 
forest trees. 

Important new enterprises were inaugurated and established. 
Among them was the formation of a company for the manufacture 
of gas, and the city was lighted with it December 25th, 1855. In 
the Spring of 1855 the Atlanta Medical College entered upon an ac- 
tive existence by a course of lectures in the City Hall, and in the 
following July the corner-stone of its present building was laid, and 
the building was occupied the following year. Thirty-two students 
were graduated the first term. 

In 1856 the Bank of Fulton was established by Alfred Austell 
and E. W. Holland, with a capital of $125,000. One of the grand- 
est movements of this period was that started in 1857, in favor of 
another railroad, the Air-Line, of which more anon. 

Among the many new firms entering business were P. & G. T. 
Dodd, grocers, and Silvey & Dougherty, general merchandise, in 
1856. In 1859 A. C. & B. F. Wyly commenced and established 
the first wholesale grocery business, building a fine store-house for 
the purpose. Rawson, (E, E.) Gilbert «& Burr entered the dry 
goods trade, and John H. James began the banking business in a 
Whitehall street window. 

From 1854 to 1859, churches, societies, and organizations of 
varied purpose increased numerously. In 1858 the Central Pres- 
byterian Church organized with thirty-nine members, Dr. J. P. 
Logan and John Ray being the ruling elders. Rev. John W. 
Baker filled the pulpit, that year, and Rev. J. L. Rogers was in- 
stalled the year following. A Young Men's Christian Association 
organized in 1857 or 1858, with Sidney Root, President; Lewis 
Lawshe, John Clarke, J. Hill Davis, and M. C. Cole, Vice-Presi- 
dents. In 1858 the Hibernian Benevolent Society organized, under 
B. T. Lamb, President. The Masons organized Jason Burr Coun- 
cil April 26, 1855; Fulton Lodge No. 216, October, 1857; Coeur 
de Leon Commandery No. 4, May, 1859. The Independent Order 


of Odd Fellows organized Empire Encampment No. 12 in i860. 
The Gate City Guards, our first military company, organized June 
8th, 1857, with the following officers : George H. Thompson, Cap- 
tain ; Wm. L. Ezzard, First Lieutenant; S. W. Jones, Second Lieu- 
tenant ; John /H. Lovejoy, Third Lieutenant; James L. Lewis, 
First Sergeant ; Wilson Ballard. Second Sergeant ; Willis P. 
Chisolm, Third Sergeant; James H. Purtell, Fourth Sergeant; 
Thomas M. Clarke. First Corporal ; Jas. E. Butler, Second Cor- 
poral ; E. Holland, Third Corporal ; Joseph Thompson, Jr., Fourth 
Corporal ; -James F. Alexander, Surgeon ; Daniel Pittman, Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

This brief survey may be concluded with a mention of another 
evidence of metropolitan ideas and growth appearing in 1859: 
Atlanta's first directory, compiled by Williams and published by 
M. Lynch, well-known member of the present book firm of Lynch 
& Thornton, at that time running Kay's book store. It contains 
a fine sketch of Atlanta from the pen of Green B. Haygood, a 
prominent citizen and self-made lawyer, father of Rev. Atticus G. 
Haygood, President of Emory College. Of this Directory it may 
be said that, except in the matter of mechanical execution, it is 
very little inferior to similar works at the present day. It is brim- 
full of information, and is exceedingly interesting. Many of the 
prominent business names of that day have disappeared ; while 
many, prominent now, were then in a very different kind of busi- 
ness. Still there are familiar names of men, who had already, in 
that day, attained prominence in lines of business in which to-day 
they are recognized princes. This first Directory also fur- 
nishes striking evidence of another powerful agency in the pros- 
perity of Atlanta. It contains nearly fifty pages of advertising, 
and about one hundred advertising cards. Few things have done 
more for Atlanta than this persistent determination, on the part of 
its business men, to thoroughly advertise their city and their busi- 
ness to the world. The Directory also shows that the men who 
afterward achieved great success in business were those who ad- 
vertised most fully and actively. 

At the opening of this chapter, the population and business of 
the city in 1854 were stated. Williams' Directory furnishes us 
with a summary of progress during the period through which this 


chapter has glanced. April ist, 1859, the population amounted, 
according to State census, to 11,500; the assessed value of real 
estate in the same year, to $2,760,000 : and the sale of goods to 
about $3,000,000. Thus, in five years, there was an increase, in 
population, of 5,000, and in sales, of about $1,500,000. This 
comparison shows that the city had just about doubled itself, both 
in population and business. The dry goods trade, particularly, 
began to expand, and sales were made over an area of at least one 
hundred miles around, "on terms as favorable," it was claimed, 
" as could be had in the retail markets of the great Northern cities, 
New York itself not excepted." The United States census, taken 
the following year, i860, placed Atlanta, in population, the fourth 
city of the State. The population in 1861, at the beginning of the 
war between the States, was about 13,000. 



THE WAR PERIOD.— 1861-5. 

In 1 86 1, Atlanta received its -first check in its onward career. 
The war between the States commencing this year, brought the 
march of improvement to a perfect standstill. But as in every 
other period or contingency of its history, that which was at first a 
check, became a great impetus. The cessation of growth was, in 
fact, more apparent than real. While building operations were 
discontinued, the population steadily increased ; and while business 
was paralyzed in some departments, in others it acquired a new 
vigor and greater proportions. These statements are verified by 
the official figures and facts of the time. 

That the life and business of the city should feel some paralysis 
was quite natural, for many of its master spirits withdrew them- 
selves from the avenues of labor and trade, and cast their fortunes 
upon the tented field. If space and the scope of this history per- 
mitted, a very long list of now familiar names might be mentioned 
in this connection ; some achieving high rank, and many honoring 
their city none the less, though in the ranks of the private soldier. 

The professional, the mercantile, and the mechanic classes were 
very greatly depleted, and Atlanta depopulated, for years, of a host 
of its best citizens. But despite the temporary loss to the city of 
brain and labor, both the population and aggregate of business in- 
creased. There was a constant influx of people, some drawn 
through the operation of the old attractions, and many through the 
circumstances and exigencies of the times. 

Atlanta became one of the military centres and supply depots of 
the Southern Confederacy. The manufacture of arms, ammunition 
and war material in general, was conducted upon the most exten- 
sive scale. There were many other manufactures, as for instance 
those of alcohol, vinegar and spirits of nitre, by Bellingrath, of the 
firm of Hunnicutt & Bellingrath, for the Confederate Government. 




In 1862, the city passed under martial law, and at once became 
the headquarters of Confederate quartermasters and commissaries. 
It was made, too, a chief hospital point. Several hotels, the Medi- 
cal College, Female Institute building and others, were used for 
hospitals and store-houses. It is probable that in these hospitals 
from time to time, were treated and nursed at least 75,000 Con- 
federate sick and wounded. These different enterprises required 
the labor of a large force of men, and heavy expenditures of money, 
which stimulated trade. 

The prominence and importance of Atlanta as one of the great 
work shops and supply depots of the Confederacy led to one of the 
most daring individual feats of the war. TheWestern & Atlantic Rail- 
road to Chattanooga was the main line of transportation to the Con- 
federate armies in Tennessee and Mississippi. This road has thirteen 
bridges. A man by the name of Andrews formed the idea of pen- 
etrating to the neighborhood of Atlanta with picked men, captur- 
ing an out-going train, and burning all the bridges. He obtained 
twenty odd men, fourteen of them soldiers detailed from their com- 
mand for the work, and the rest volunteers. On the 12th of April, 
i862they made their attempt. At Marietta, twenty miles from 
Atlanta, they boarded a passenger train,disguised in citizens clothes, 
claiming to be refugees, and paying their way to different points. 
The train stopped for breakfast at Big Shanty, seven miles from 
Marietta. Here Capt. W. A. Fuller, the conductor, and all the train 
men went into the breakfast house about fifty feet from the track. 
Anthony Murphy, the foreman of the Road's shop, and Jeff Cain 
the engineer, were sitting near to Fuller, when he called their at- 
tention to the fact that some parties had boarded the engine and 
moved off with three freight cars, having uncoupled the rest. They 
leaped to their feet and rushed out, only to see the engine going 
out of sight. Fuller thought that the train thieves were deserters 
from a Confederate recruiting camp at Big Shanty, who would run 
to a safe distance and then abandon the engine. He started in 
pursuit on foot. At a station two miles from Big Shanty, a party 
of track hands gave him such information as convinced him at once 
that the engine-captors were Federal soldiers. Taking the hand- 
car from the track men, and going back a short distance, he picked 
up Mr. Murphy and the engineer and then pushed forward in pur- 



suit. He knew that not far ahead he must meet Atlanta-bound 
trains, when he could secure an engine. He knew also that the 
fugitives would have to contend at Kingston, a short distance ahead, 
with freight trains which would detain them. Fuller finally got an 
engine as he expected, and the chase began in earnest. 

There were tremendous difficulties on both sides. The fugitives 
had not only to lose time in passing trains, but had also to secure 
the privilege of passing by plausible conduct. On the part of the 
pursuers the greatest difficulty was the encountering of obstacles 


upon the track, and the track itself at times so torn up as to 
force abandonment of their engine, and a new pursuit on foot till 
another engine was met. The flight and pursuit were thus con- 
tinued, the telegraph wires being constantly cut between stations to 
prevent their use, till Dalton was reached and passed — one hundred 
miles from Atlanta. But here Fuller got a dispatch through to 
Chattanooga before the wire was cut, and pressing on, soon again 
came insight of the fugitives trying to tear up the track. Off they 


started, and the engines flew like the wind over the track. Soon- 
the fleeing engine began to fag for want of fuel, and the men leap- 
ed from her and took to the woods and scattered. Fuller sent back 
word to a regiment at Ringgold and men were mounted and 
sent to scour the woods. Captain Fuller, with Murphy, Cox and 
Martin, nothing daunted, again continued the pursuit on foot. The fi- 
nal result was the capture of the entire party. Andrews, the leader, 
was tried, convicted and hung as a spy, and so were the eleven vol- 
unteers. The detailed soldiers were discharged. 

The feat was one of great daring, and was so adroitly managed 
that it would have succeeded but for the indomitable spirit and 
clear-headed tactics of Captain W. A. Fuller the conductor. This gen. 
tleman is now a quiet, pleasant-faced grocery merchant on Marietta 
street, where he may be found any day "sticking to his business" 
as he did with such splendid success on that memoriable 12th of 
April, 1862. 

From the operation of the various causes mentioned the 
^ population of Atlanta continued to increase, until a short time 
previous to the Federal captuie of the city, in 1864, it reached the 
figure of about 20,000. At the immediate moment of that event, 
there were not more than 12,000 citizens — men, women and chil- 
dren — as all had left who could well do so. 

On the 9th of July, 1864, the Confederate army under General 
Joseph E. Johnston, and the Federal army under General William 
T. Sherman, had both reached the Atlanta side of the Chattahoo- 
chee, which runs within nine miles of the city. Four or five days 
later, the bombardment of the city was commenced, and continued 
almost incessantly until September ist. The scenes which followed 
may be imagined, but not readily described. Shells were thrown 
into the city day and night, doing their work of death, and constant- 
ly setting the city on fire. Our firemen were thus kept busy in ef- 
forts to extinguish the flames, .and the women and children and 
non-combatants were frequently forced to retire to improvised 
bomb-proofs, behind walls and in" the ground, for the preservation 
of life. Around the city the ground was seamed with entrench- 
ments and earthen fortifications, some extending within the corpo- 
rate limits of the city. About these, fierce battles were fought, and 
many a brave soldier laid down his life. 


On the 1 8th of July, the forces of General Sherman, aggregating 
100,000 effective men, began an encircling march toward Atlanta. 
His right, under Thomas, formed line of battle along Peachtree 
Creek a few miles to the north of Atlanta, his centre under Scho- 
field reaching in the direction of Decatur, on the Georgia Railroad, 
six miles from Atlanta, and his left under McPherson swinging 
round upon the same railroad between Decatur and Stone Moun- 
tain, striking it about four miles from Stone Mountain and six miles 
from Decatur. 

Gen. Hood, who had succeeded Gen. Johnston in command of 
the Confederate army numbering some 45,000 men, believing that 
Sherman's forces under Schofield and McPherson were so far 
beyond supporting distance that the whole Confederate army could 
be hurled upon Thomas, and after crushing him, be thrown upon 
the left wing about Decatur, made his dispositions accordingly. 
This led to the battle of Peachtree Creek, July 20th. The Federal 
troops were at first driven in confusion, but from some cause the 
assault was partial, and the Confederate forces were finally forced 
back with considerable loss. 

Determining to make one more el tort to save Atlanta, Hood, on 
the 22d, two days later, attempted the same tactics as on the 20th, 
striking this time Sherman's extreme left, under McPherson, about 
Decatur. The attack was at first very successful, throwing the 
Federal troops into great disorder, and capturing many guns and 
thousands of prisoners. But by the most stubborn fighting, and 
the partial failure of the Confederate flank movement on Decatur 
a rout was prevented. The loss was heavy on both sides, amount- 
ing to about thirty thousand killed and wounded. Each'army lost 
a distinguished officer. Early in the battle. General McPherson, 
commanding the army of the Tennessee, Sherman's left wing, in 
attempting to reach his troops after the assault was begun, (he 
being at th« moment with General Sherman) ran upon a line of 
Confederates, and in wheeling to escape was shot dead, in a 
skirt of woods between Atlanta and Decatur. On the Confederate 
side Major-General Walker was killed near the same spot, while 
leading his division into battle. 

Failing of complete victory. Hood had now to content himself 
with holding Atlanta. This he was enabled to do without other than 



detached fighting from day to day till September ist., when Sher- 
man having cut his only remaining railroad line, the one to Macon, 
Atlanta was evacuated after a siege of nearly two months. 

On the following day Mayor James M. Calhoun, with a com- 
mittee of citizens, including E. E. Rawson of the city council, pro- 
ceeded to the Federal camp, and upon surrendering the city asked 
protection for non-combatants and private property, which was 
promised. On the same day. September 2d., the Eederal troops en- 
tered and took possession of the city. 


Two days later, September 4th, General Sherman issued an or- 
der, requiring the departure of all citizens within eight days, save 
such as were in the employ of the Federal government. Those 
who did not choose to go South were sent North. An armistice 
of ten days was concluded between Generals Hood and Sherman 
to carry this order into execution. The people were permitted to 
take away a certain amount of property, and, with the slight means 
of transportation at hand, even this could be done only with diffi- 



culty. By an agreement between General Sherman and Mayor 
Calhoun, considerable furniture was collected and deposited in the 
old Trinity Methodist Church ; but the larger part of this was after- 
wards lost through depredatioQ, and the great bulk of private prop- 
erty was necessarily abandoned at the outset. 

This forcible expulsion of twelve thousand men, women and chil- 
dren from their homes, almost entirely without means, produced 
terrible hardships and intense suffering. Mayor Calhoun", Coun- 
cilmen E. E. Rawson and Wells, on the part of the citizens, earn- 
estly petitioned for a revocation of the order, but to no effect. For 
the same purpose, an Episcopal clergyman of Atlanta had an in- 


terview with Sherman, at which the latter said to him : "Fortune of 
war, sir ; fortune of war ! I want this place for a citadel, and want 
no white citizens in it !" 

November i6th Sherman commenced his march to the sea. Be- 
fore doing so, however, the destruction of the city was completed. 
What could not be consumed by fire was blown up, torn down, or 
otherwise destroyed. No city during th.e war was so nearly anni- 
hilated. The center of the city, or business locality, was an entire 


mass of ruins — there being but a solitary structure standing on our 
main street, Whitehall, between its extreme commercial limits. At 
least three-fourths of the buildings in the city were destroyed, the 
remainins; number consisting chiefly of dwelling houses. The very 
few buildings of any consequence spared in the general ruin were 
saved through intercession, contingency or accident. Rev. Father 
O'Reilly was instrumental in saving the Catholic and several Pro- 
testant church edifices, and also the City Hall. The Medical 
College was saved through the effort of Dr. N. D'Alvigny. 

Atlanta was thus left a scene of charred and desolate ruins, the 
home of half-starved and half-wild dogs, and of carrion fowls feed- 
ing upon refuse and the decaying carcasses of animals. Such was 
the spectacle that greeted the eyes of Er Lawshe, and other citizens 
who returned to the city in December, 1864. 





The third great era in the history of Atlanta was introduced by 
the rehabilitation of its people in 1865, and the rapid reconstruc- 
tion of the homes and places of business, beginning in the spring 
of 1865, or about the close of the war. 

The two military measures — the one depopulating the city, the 
other destroying it — inflicted a calamity as terrible as was ever ex- 
perienced by an American city, even in the revolutionary times of 
1776. The desolation was utter ; but marvelous as had been its 
career up to its capture, the resurrection of Atlanta from its ashes, 
by a people moneyless as well as homeless, with thousands of wid- 
ows and orphans thrown upon their care, is more marvelous still in 
the rapidity with which the city not only recovered its former pro- 
portions, but sped far ahead of them. 

As previously stated, the people began returning in November 
and December, 1864. Before the end of the year 1865, the old citi- 
zens had very generally returned, and many others came who, 
ruined by the war, determined to seek new homes and begin afresh. 
In 1866 it was ascertained, through a census, that Atlanta, despite 
the losses of war, had already regained and passed the highest fig- 
ure of its population anterior to the Confederate evacuation, and 
that it contained 20,228 people — the city limits being enlarged, by 
the Legislature of that year, to three miles in diameter in every di- 
rection. The United States census of 1870 established the fact 
that Atlanta was the second city in the State, Savannah alone ex- 
ceeding it in population. 

To the return of the old population, with their old character- 
istics intensified by an almost total loss of property, is chiefly due 
the restoration to former prosperity with a rapidity rarely, if ever, 
paralleled in American history. Appreciating the situation, they 



resolutely set'to work to rebuild their fortunes. Did the scope of 
a general history allow, it would be pleasant to recount the story 
of individual effort. Every class proved true to its antecedent 
career. The lawyer, the merchant, and the mechanic, all went to 
work with a will. Conspicuous examples of merchants and me- 
chanics, and of professional men. could be numerously cited. 

Among the new citizens acquired during this period will be rec- 
ognized many who have attained official, social and business prom- 

At first the re- 
building was in a 
haphazard manner, 
and hundreds of 
wooden and brick 
shanties were erected 
out of the debris of 
the ruins — in many 
instances the owners 
putting their own 
hands to the work, 
clearing away the 
rubbish and picking 
out the material fit 
for use. Er Lawshe 
set up the first store- 
house on Whitehall 
street by the removal 
of a little one-story 
building from an- 
other part of the city; and this was done by many others. The scarcity 
of buildings made rents enormous, and building materials were 
equally high. This state of things continued for several years. By 
1869 and 1870, however, matters had settled down to a more solid 
basis. Splendid residences and stores began to rise, and many of 
the shanties were pulled down and replaced by massive structures. 
In the years 1869, 1870, 1871 and 1872, building operations were 
immense, embracing stores, residences and public houses. In 1865 
John H. James built his banking house, and McNaught & Scrutchins 




their store on Whitehall street, and J. C. Peck rebuilt his plan-> 
ing mill. In the same year, also, Mr. O. H. Jones, Marshal of the 
city in 1864, built fine livery stables for the accommodation of the 
greatly increasing stock trade he had established. In 1 868 the Third 

Baptist church was built by liberal contributions of Governor 
Brown and others. In 1869 E. E. Rawson rebuilt his store on 
Whitehall street ; Moore & Marsh finished a magnificent 36 by 185 


:storeon Decatur street ; John H. James built his famous residence' 
now the Governor's Mansion, on Peachtree street, at a cost of $70.- 
•000, and began a block on Whitehall street. In 1870 Louis DeGive 
built the Opera House, which Forrest, Booth, and other great ac- 
tors, pronounce unsurpassed in acoustic properties ; the corner-stone 
of the Catholic Church was laid by Father Ryan ; the Fourth Bap- 
tist Church was built by John H. James ; the Kimball House, one 
■of the largest hotels in the United States, was built by H. I. Kim- 
ball, at a cost of nearly half a million dollars; B. F. Wyly built a 
handsome residence on Washington street. In 1871 at least four 
hundred buildings went up, among them the Republic Block, built 
by ex-Governor Brown, Judge O. A. Lochraneand others, on Pryor 
street; the Austell building, on Decatur street ; the Union Passen- 
ger Depot, one of the largest and finest^iron depots in the United 
States, jointly constructed by the railroad companies. In 1872 an- 
other church — the Fifth Baptist — was built by John H. James ; a 
three-story building on Broad street, by ex-Governor Brown ; a 
splendid 52 by 140 feet slate bank- vault, agricultural warehouse, 
by Mark W. Johnson ; a building for his hardware business, by 
Thomas M. Clarke, and numerous residences. 

Business advanced at an equal pace. The old commercial houses 
were reestablished, banks were reorganised, and the old manu- 
facturing enterprises were resuscitated. Trade rapidly filled up old 
channels, and overflowing the banks, made many new outlets. 

The monetary needs of the people were, of course, very press- 
ing, and banking facilities were speedily forthcoming. In 1865 
John H. James recommenced his banking business ; the Georgia 
National Bank opened, John Rice, President, and E. L. Jones, Cash- 
ier ; followed, 1866, by the Atlanta National Bank, with a capital 
since raised to $300,000 ; in 1868 by the Georgia Trust Company, 
with a capitalof $125,000 ; in 1872 by the State National, now Mer- 
chant's Bank ; and in 1873, by the Citizens', and State of Georgia. 

Among the businesses established and reestablished were, in 
1866, wholesale groceries by Jas. R. Wylie and P. & G. T. Dodd J 
hardware by Tommey, Stewart & Beck ; wholesale crockery by 
A. J. McBride. In 1868 the Atlanta Daily Constitution newspa- 
per was started by Col. Carey W. Styles. In 1870 J. Morrison. 
A. Morrison and D. M. Bain established a new hardware store 


under the firm name of Morrison, Bain & Co. Before the war J. 
C. McMillan and H. Y. Snow began a wholesale and retail grocery- 
business. Snow started out again at the close of the war upon 
a salary of a half bushel of meal per day (worth twenty-five 
cents) in a southern Georgia mill, and McMillan, with equal pluck, 
went to work, and they reestablished that business. Very nat- 
urally the expansion of trade and great influx of population en- 
hanced the value of real estate, and increased prices brought upon 
the market a large and increasing amount of property, which was 
eagerly purchased by speculators in the city and from abroad, as 
well as by non-residents. This proved one of the most fruitful 
sources of revenue to an impoverished people, and at the same 
time built up a comparatively new business, which in a few years 
assumed immense proportions. In 1868 George W. Adair opened 
a bureau for the sale and exchange of real estate property. In the 
six years following, prices ran up to enormous and most unhealthy 
figures — millions of dollars changed hands. 

In 1873 came a new arm of progress — the Air-Line Railroad. 
As early as 1857, the growing wants of the city suggested to en- 
terprising citizens the propriety of increased railroad facilities, and 
the opening of new lines of transportation into undeveloped sec- 
tions. The agitation of the Air-Line Railroad followed. Ex- 
IVIayor Norcross was the recognized leader in this movement, ably 
assisted by James M. Calhoun, L. J. Gartrell and others, and ob- 
tained a charter. In 1859, Mr. Norcross was made President of 
the road, and was mainly instrumental in obtaining a subscription 
of several hundred thousand dollars along its proposed line. In 
1858 the city of Atlanta subscribed $300,000. Grading contracts 
were made, and in 1863 work was commenced. The war, and 
other causes suspended operations. In 1866 the citizens of Atlanta, 
in a large public meeting, endorsed the road. The company had 
been reorganized, work was recommenced in 1869, the road was 
completed in August, 1873, ^f^d in September, trains were running 
upon a regular schedule. Thus Atlanta became the market for an 
entirely new region of great and constantly developing' resources. 

During these years still another field of business enterprise was 
extensively opened up, becoming one of the chief contributors to 
Atlanta's prosperity. In 1859 it was claimed that dry goods were 


sold for one hundred miles around ; but not until since the war did 
the wholesale business develop into a distinct element of the city's 

This was also true of the cotton trade, which, in 1867, showed 
receipts of only 17,000 bales, but at once began an upward career. 

The religious, moral, social and educational progress of this 
period was equally gratifying ; the number of religious organiza- 
tions largely increased, some of which may be mentioned. June 
17th, 1867, the Hebrew Synagogue was organized from the old 
Hebrew Benevolent Association — Mr. Jacob Steinheimer first offi- 
ciating. In the same year the Loyd Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church was organized, and in 1870 and 1872 the Fourth and Fifth 
Baptist Churches followed, In the year 1870 Payne's and St. 
Paul's (Methodist) appeared. Educational and society organiza- 
tions were so numerous that separate chapters will be devoted to 




Association is one of the essential elements of progress, and 
wherever this principle is found in active operation, great develop- 
ment will also be discovered. So numerous was the organization 
of societies during this period — from the close of the war to the 
commercial crisis of 1873 — that it might be appropriately termed 
an era of association. Outside of educational institutions, and the 
mere utilitarian partnerships, combinations and corporations for 
business ends, great activity manifested itself in the establishment 
of societies and organizations for literary, social and benevolent 
purposes; and to the -Matter this chapter will be devoted. In 1867 
the Young Men's Library Association began its existence. Several 
attempts had been made in previous years, to establish a library, 
but had failed. This effort originated with D. G. Jones, then teller 
of th9 Georgia National Bank. He laid the subject before the 
author of this book, who became heartily interested. A young 
lawyer — Henry Jackson — was next consulted, and the three agreed 
upon the call of a meeting. This occurred in the room of Archi- 
tect Parkins, over the Georgia National Bank, on the night of July 
30th. There were present at the first meeting, Albert Hape, J. R. 
Barrick, D. G. Jones, C. P. Freeman, E. Y. Clarke, A. R. Watson, 
John R. Kendrick, W. H. Parkins, Henry Jackson, Ed. H. Jones, 
W. D. Luckie and C. H. Davidge. A temporary organization was 
effected by the election of J. R. Barrick, chairman, and A. R. Wat- 
son, secretary. It was unanimously resolved to form a Library As- 
sociation, and D. G. Jones, Henry Jackson and E. Y. Clarke were 
appointed a committee to draft a constitution. On the following 
Monday night (August 5th) this committee reported the constitu- 
tion, which was discussed but not acted upon. The question of 
rooms was considered, with the conclusion to continue, for the 
present, in the room of Mr. Parkins— returning thanks to Henry 


Jackson for the proffer of his office. By resolution of E. Y. Clarke. 
Rev. R. A. Holland was invited to lecture for the Association. At 
the third meeting, on Monday night, August 12th, A. R. Watson in 
the chair /rtf. tern., and W. D. Luckie, secretary /r^*. tern., the con- 
stitution, as reported, was adopted. It declared that the name and 
style of the association Shall be " The Young Men"s Library Asso- 
ciation of the City of Atlanta, " and that its purpose shall be " to 
facilitate mutual intercourse, extend our information on subjects of 
general utility, promote a spirit of useful inquiry, and qualify our- 
selves to discharge properly the duties incumbent upon us in our 
various professions and pursuits ; " and, in furtherance of these ob- 
jects, to -'collect a library, establish a reading room, and organize a 
system of instcuction by lectures. " At the next meeting the con- 
stitution was signed by forty-seven members. The following 
Board of Directors, for the first year, was then elected : Henry 
Jackson, President; Darwin G. Jones, Vice-President; C,P. Free- 
man, Secretary ; W. D. Luckie, Treasurer ; E. Y. Clarke, A. R. 
Watson, H. T. Phillips, E. B. Pond, Albert Hape, F. O. Rudy, W. 
M. Williams, J. R. Barrick, L. H. Orme, Directors. The Board 
held its first meeting August 20th, and appointed its committees. 
On September 2d, the Board met for the first time in the rented 
library room, which was retained until 1877, when the new rooms 
were occupied. The Library Committee reported that the room 
rent was three dollar's per month, and that the necessary shelving 
would not cost ov^x fifteen dollars. The first recorded donation is 
of Appleton's Cyclopedia, by Col. L. P. Grant, and others — a gen- 
tleman distinguished for warm friendship and continuous liberality 
to the Association, and who was justly its first elected honorary 
member. For a year the struggle fpr existence was a hard one, 
and taxed the utmost effort and ingenuity of the managers. A 
concert was given during the first year which netted several hun- 
dred dollars. The Lecture Committee inaugurated a system of 
lectures, and furnished a regular course, placing upon the stage 
such men as Rev. R. A. Holland, Admiral Semnies, Gen. D. H. 
Hill, and Rev. J. S. Lamar ; but they could do no more than make 
the course self-sustaining— the receipts exceeding expenses some 
fifty dollars. To sustain the institution, resort was had to many 
and various expedients. It grew gradually, however, into popular 


favor, the membership continued to increase, and, finally, each suc- 
cessive year showed continued progress till, in 1878— the end of the 
period now under review— our Public Library was established 
beyond question. 

A life membership, conferring all rights and privileges, except 
those of voting and holding office, costs twenty-five dollars ; dues 
may be commuted for life for fifty dollars. 

In 1858, the Hibernian Society organized under the presidency of 
B. T. Lamb. August 16th, 1S63, it was reorganized as the Hiber- 
nian Benevolent Society of Atlanta, with B. T. Lamb, President ; 
M. Mahoney, Treasurer ; Joseph Gatens, Secretary. In 1869 the 
following were elected : John H. Flynn, President ; Owen Lynch 
and T. Burke, Vice-Presidents; W. H. Roche and Jas. Walsh, 
Treasurers ; W. Dowling and T. Nunan, Secretaries. Its general 
object is the temporal welfare of its members and their families. 

In June, 1867, the Concordia Association was organized, and 
speedily became popular. The first organization was : A. Lands- 
berg, President; L. Lieberman, Vice-President; S. Rosenfeld, 
Secretary ; Charles Beerman, Treasurer ; L. Rosenfeld, Financial 
Secretary ; A. L.Labold, Stage Manager ; and the following were 
the first or original members : M. Eisman, Jr., Lewis Alexander, 
J. L. Cohen, M. Friedenthal, D. Fleishel, J. F. Fleishel, B. Fleishel,' 
B. Friedman, M. Frank, M. Fletcher, M. Franklin, M. Hartman, 
G. A. Huald, S. Hirschberg, H. Kuhrt, G. Katzenstein, L. Levy, E. 
Lang, E. Loveman, M. Menko, A. Rosenfeld, Wm. Rich, D. Rosen- 
berg, E. A. Shulhafer, J. Steinheimer, D. Steinheimer, Isaac Stein- 
heimer, E. Steinheimer, M. Somer, L. Somer, J. Rosenfeld, S. 
Weil, L. Cahn. Its objects are mutual improvement in elocution, 
debates and dramatic performances, and social amusements. 

In May, of the same year, the Ladies' Memorial Association was 
organized, for the purpose of collecting the remains of the Con- 
federate dead, their proper interment, and the erection of a monu- 
ment. How well its work has been done, appears from the state- 
ment that the scattered remains of over five thousand bodies were 
collected and re-interred, and that a splendid monument was 
erected out of our Stone Mountain granite. 

In May, 1871, the Baptist Orphans' Home was organized. Ex- 
Governor Brown was made one of the trustees, and Mr. John H. 


James, Treasurer, who, assisted by his wife, bad a very large share 
in the management. The Home was started in Atlanta, but 
shortly secured an excellent building two miles out of the city, 
where it supported many children. 

March i, 1873. the Atlanta Turn Verein organized with a mem- 
bership of twenty-five, for the purpose of mental and physical 
development. It is a member of the great Turner Verein, extend- 
ing all over the United States. The charter members were C. J. 
Weinmeister, H. Muhlenbrink, Dr. Ch. Rauschenberg, Aaron 
Haas, Chas. Brown, D. Fechter and E. Fechter. There were 
many other organizations, but sufficient mention has been made 
to indicate the progress in this direction. 




During this period of general reconstruction and progress, educa- 
tional interests had advanced, and the city was well supplied with 
private schools and collegiate institutions. But Atlanta began soon 
to grow restless under that pressing need of a great city — a thor- 
ough system of education, and one that would embrace every child 
within its limits, thereby securing ample instruction to all, whether 
rich or poor. Even before the war, public attention was directed to 
that necessity. In 1858, on the loth of September, a public meet- 
ing was held, at the City Hall, and a committee, previously appoint- 
ed, made an able report through their chairman — Green B. Haygood 
— favoring public schools, and urging the City Council to provide 
buildings, levy a school fund tax, and memorialize the Legislature for 
full powers. For some reason the matter went no further at that 
time, though the Secretary, Mr. J. S. Peterson, published the entire 
proceedings of the meeting. 

On September 24th, 1869, however, the City Council passed a 
resolution, introduced by Alderman D. C. O'Keefe, to the effect that 
the success and perpetuation of free institutions depend upon the 
virtue and intelligence of the people, and that the public school sys- 
tem has been proven to be the best calculated to promote these 
prime objects, and is the cheapest and most efficient system ; and 
that a committee of Councilmen and citizens be appointed to inves- 
tigate and report upon the subject of public schools for Atlanta. 
Mayor W. H. Hulsey, D. C. O'Keefe, E. R. Carr, and citizens. Dr. 
J. P. Logan, W. M. Jones, J. H. Flynn, E. E. Rawson, David May- 
er, L. J. Gartrell and S. H. Stout were appointed that committee, 
and they prepared an elaborate report, which was adopted by Council 
November 19th, recommending the establishment of a public school 

On the 26th, of the same month, resolutions were offered by Al- 


derman D. C. O'Keefe, providing for the election of a Board of Ed- 
ucation, the erection of public school-houses, and such other steps 
as were necessary to the establishment of the schools. 

On December loth, the Board was elected, consisting of twelve 
members, J. P. Lbgan, E. E. Rawson. J. E. Brown, L. E. Bleckley^ 
for six years; John H. Flynn, L, P. Grant. David Mayer, H. T, 
Phillips, for four years ; S. H. Stout, W. A. Hemphill, M. C. Blan- 
chard, D. C. O'Keefe, for two years. 

The city charter was amended in 1870 to establish and maintain 
the system by the imposing and collection of requisite taxes, and the 
issuance of bpnds, not exceeding $100,000. In the following year, 
1870, the City Council passed an ordinance^ giving the Board of Ed- 
ucation full control of the public shools, with power to construct, 
lease or purchase buildings, making the necessary appropriations,, 
with the Mayor of the city ex-officio member of the Board ; and 
three school-houses were at once built, and by January, 1872, were 
completed. Public exercises of inauguration occurred January 30th, 
at the Ivy street shool building, with addresses by Chancellor Lips- 
comb, Rev. A. T. Spalding, State School Commissioner Orr, Mayor 
John H. James, Judge H. R. McCay and Gov. J .E. Brown. 

On the 1 5th of November, 1871, Mr. Bernard Mallon, of Savannah, 
was elected superintendent. By February following the public schools 
were opened, and at the end of the first year, showed the following 
remarkable status : Xmo thousand and .seventy-five white scholars \ 
two high schools and seven grammar schools, taught by twenty-four 
females and six males. 

Ivy Street School opened January 31st ; Boys' High School, Feb- 
ruary I St; Girls' High School, February 5th ; Crew Street School, 
February 21st; Walker Street School, February 21st; Decatur 
Street School, February 27th ; Luckie Street School, February 29th^ 
Governor Joseph E. Brown has been President of the Board since 
the organization ; E. E. Rawson, Treasurer, and David Mayer, 

The experience and ability of the Superintendent speedily devel- 
oped the work. At the end of the scholastic year the number of 
children enrolled in the schools was nearly four thousand, which 
evinced their great popularity. There were fifty-six teachers. The 


school property was valued at about $100,000. The last estimate 
of the average cost per scholar is less than $1.50 per month. 

A Convent School for girls is kept by the Sisters of Mercy. 

A University was built for colored people — male and female — 
which receives an annual appropriation from the State of $8,000. 

In 1868 Moore's Business University was established by Prof. B. 
F. Moore. It has gained a wide-spread reputation ; over one thou- 
sand young men have been in attendance on it in this city. It re- 
ceives an extensive patronage from Georgia, Alabama, South Caro- 
lina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana and Flori- 
da, and furnishes a complete business and commercial education. 

It will thus be seen that the educational progress of the period 
kept fully abreast of the advance movement in every other grand 
interest of the city. 




In 1873 the population, by census, was 30,869. The Air-Line 
Railroad was finished, and many improvements, under way at the 
beginning of the year, were completed. But in this year a great 
monetary crisis befell the country, and the financial panic swept like 
a whirlwind over Atlanta. Building stopped, the wheels of prog- 
ress were clogged, the prices of real estate tumbled tremendously, 
and business was prostrated. Of course this state of things caused 
general damage, and all suffered ; but to the great credit of Atlanta, 
and of the sound foundation of its business prosperity, few large 
houses were seriously effected, and though the crash of great houses 
and banks was resounding in all cities of the land, not a single bank 
in Atlanta fell, though there was a run on all of them. It is true 
that Mr. James' bank suspended, but the suspension was only tem- 
porary. With his characteristic judgment and decision, he threw 
a hundred thousand dollars of his real estate immediately upon 
the market, which, though sold under the auctioneer's hammer at a 
great sacrifice, furnished him ready money, and tended to restore 
to him public confidence. In less than sixty days his bank was all 
right again. Thus no bank in Atlanta was crushed. Business, 
however, was prostrate ; trade flowed sluggishly in its channels for 
several years ; but a people whom fire and sword, and consequent 
monetary bankruptcy, could not destroy, would not be kept down 
by a financial panic and its effects, however disastrous. Progress 
soon began to manifest itself ; indeed, as always in the career of 
Atlanta, there was not an absolute halt in its onward march. St. 
Luke's Episcopal Church and a German Lutheran Church were 
added to its houses of worship, and a Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church was organized. 

Progress soon again became quite noticeable, new hotels, facto- 
ries, banks, and other enterprises appearing. Immense, fires only 



made way for nobler structures, and so continued the march of im- 

Numerous churches were 
built, some of them, Trinity 
(Methodist), the Roman Cath- 
olic, and others, being exceed- 
ingly handsome. The new 
Hebrew Synagogue, completed 
a few years later, was begun 
under the efficient manage- 
ment of the building com- 
mittee, J. T. Eichberg, L. 
i^^fs^iss:.^^^'*^ Cahn, M. Franklin, H. Haas. 
CATHOLIC CHURCH, HUNTER STREET, Anothcr advaucc stcp, and 

a very great one in the direction of culture, w^as the formation of a 
musical society called the Beethoven. After a time it was suspen- 
ded, but it was reorganized January 25th, 1877, under the Presi- 
dency of Julius L. Brown, a gentleman distinguished for his devo- 
tion to the higher culture, an able lawyer, and one of the successful 
Directors of the Young Mens' Library. In the meantime the Ros- 
sini Society had organized, in 1876, under the business manage- 
ment of President J. F. Burke, Treasurer W. C, Morrill, and other 
competent gentlemen ; G. P.Guilford, organist of the Central Presby- 
terian Church, being the Musical Director, Mrs. Mary Madden, 
Pianist, and C. C. Guilford, Librarian. These gentlemen were suc- 
ceeded by J. C. Courtney, as President ; David H. Appier, Vice- 
President ; Prof. E. H. Kruger, Musical Director ; C. M. D. Brown, 
Secretary ; B. W. Wrenn, G. A. Camp, J. Scrutchin, L. DeGive, 
Jos. Morgan, Charles Beerman, and Messrs. J. C. Courtney and D. 
H. Appier, Directors. 

The humanitarian or philanthropic movements of the decade 
were most successful. By far the grandest of this character was 
the Benevolent Association, organized in January, 1874. The 
movement originated with the ladies, ever foremost in acts looking 
to the elevation of humanity and the amelioration of its suffering 
condition. The active efforts of Mrs. W. H. TuUer and Mrs. J. A. 
Hayden, among others, brought about a meeting of ladies and 
gentlemen, and an organization resulted. Its objects embrace the 


physical and moral welfare of the poor and the homeless. For this 
purpose a "Home" has been provided, where the homeless and sick 
are cared for. It is proper that so great a charity should be prom- 
inently set forth that it may accomplish still greater good by a 
more extensive knowledge of its purposes, which are, to provide a 
temporary home for destitute and helpless women and children, to 
aid women and girls out of employment in finding suitable work, 
and also, as soon as practicable, to give free instructions in industrial 
pursuits, thereby enabling such persons to become self-supporting 
and useful. 

Any person could become a member of this Association by pay- 
ing the sum of one dollar annually. The payment of twenty-five 
dollars at any time, constituted life membership. 

The officers of the Home consisted of a President, two Vice-Presi- 
dents, a Secretary, Treasurer, twenty-four Managers, and an Advi- 
sory Committee of seven gentlemen, chosen annually, and who to- 
gether constituted a Board of Managers. The officers were: Campbell 
Wallace, President; Mrs. W, H. Tuller, ist Vice-President; Mrs. 
James Jackson, 2nd Vice-President ; Mrs. B. Mallon, Secretary; D. 
Mayer, Esq., Treasurer ; Advisory Board : J. F. Burke, Dr. Sam'l. 
Hape, B. Mallon, S. M. Inman, W. R. Brown, J. C. Kimball, W. 
Goodnow. Board of Managers : Mrs. E. Y. Hill, Mrs. J. H. James, 
Mrs. Geo. Sharpe, Mrs. C. Peeples, Mrs. Paul Jones, Mrs. J. S. Oli- 
ver.Mrs. R. J. Godfrey, Mrs. J. H. Flynn, Mrs. W. A. Rawson, Mrs. 
B. A. Pratt, Mrs. R. A. Anderson, Mrs. S. J. Hines, Mrs. J. H. Al- 
exander, Mrs. G. W. D. Cook, Mrs. W. B. Lowe, Mrs. R. F. Mad- 
dox, Mrs. C. H. Milledge, Mrs. A. B. Sharpe," Mrs. W. C. Morril, 
Mrs. L. M. Rigdon, Mrs. O. C. Carroll, Mrs. Geo. Boynton, Miss 
M^ Dun woody. 

At a subsequent period the system of management was changed 
as will appear. 

The Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society was chartered in 1870, 
In 1878 the officers were : Mrs. J. T. Eichberg, President ; Mrs. D. 
Rich, Secretary ; Mrs. L. Lieberman, Vice-President. Its general 
object is assistance to poor Jewish families. 

The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was organ- 
ized in 1876 by Miss Louise King, of Augusta, aided by a lady 
noted for her charitable works. Miss Nellie Peters, now Mrs. Geo. 
R. Black. Under its operations several prosecutions have occurred, 






leading to improved treatment of dumb brutes ; and drinking foun- 
tains have been erected through the city for their benefit — the lar- 
gest one being the present of Hon. John P. King, the distinguished 
President of the Georgia Railroad, 

In 1877 another library association w^as organized — the Catholic 
Library Association. Its object is the dissemination of Catholic 
literature and -knowledge generally. Its first officers were : J, F. 
Burke, President ; R. D. Spalding, Vice-President ; A. C. Ford, 
Treasurer ; John M. Graham, Secretary, and John H. Flynn, E. 
Van Goidsnoven, P. J. Moran, W. B. Cox, John Stephens, M. H. 
Dooly, John Doonan and Joseph Gatens, Directors, 

For several centuries the progress of the printing art has been 
both a great indicator and powerful promoter of national and local 
prosperity. One has only to glance at a book or college catalogue 
issued from the Frankiln Steam Printing House of Atlanta, to as- 
certain how near perfection this art has been brought. The Frank- 
lin Steam Printing House is now the property of James P. Harrison, 
Geo. W. Harrison, Z, D. Harrison and J. S. Lawton, and has 
rapidly assumed mammoth dimensions. Under the business man- 
agement of Jas. P. Harrison, the superintendence of John S. Prather, 
and the thorough book-keeping of George W. Harrison — men 
unsurpassed in their departments — the Franklin has grown until it 
has become the largest printing house of the South. A half dozen 
journals and magazines, besides the regular job and book work, 
are issued from its presses. Its business extends throughout this 
and many of the neighboring States, and now embraces the official 
printing of the State government, by action of the Legislature. Such 
a house, giving the year round eaiployment to fifty odd men and 
women, with a large invested capital in its business, and with a 
large patronage from abroad, is a blessing to the city, and contri- 
butes largely to its prosperity. 




There is a tendency in all cities to create public debt, especially 
where there are few or no charter restrictions upon the municipal 
authorities. This arises in a great part from the importunities of 
the citizens themselves for subscription to this or that enterprise on 
account of alleged public interest or utility and in some measure 
from the incompetency and venality of officials. The citizens of 
Atlanta, wide-awake upon all matters touching the welfare of the 
city, and also incited by the monetary stringency and steady decline 
of values, had detected the accumulation of city indebtedness, and 
becoming alarmed, in 1873, set about devising means to save the 
city from future bankruptcy. The police system was also a source 
of great complaint and dissatisfaction on several grounds. Under 
the existing system a high state of efficiency and discipline was im- 
practicable ; and the police force was a powerful element in every 
municipal election, exercising an undue influence over the result. 
The public interest sternly demanded a change ; the policeman 
must be taken out of municipal politics, and be made more efficient. 
A petition, signed by J. H. Callaway, J. A. Hayden, Amos Fox,^ 
and some one hundred and fifty other citizens, was read before the 
City Council, November i, 1873, alleging that the charter, though 
often amended, had never been thoroughly revised, and urging that 
this was greatly needed, and should be done to insure future pros- 
perity. This petition was referred to a special committee, who re- 
ported on the following Friday night, November 8th, recommen- 
ding the appointment of forty-nine citizens, seven from each of the 
seven wards. The report was unanimously ado pted, and " the 
committee of forty-nine " was appointed, including such men as L. 
P. Grant, G. W. Adair, George Hillyer, N. L. Angier, J. P. Logan, 
L. J. Gartrell, John H. Flynn, John L. Hopkins, N, J. Hammond, 


John H. James, A. Murphy, W. G. Gramling, L. E. Bleckley, J. A. 
Richardson, W. B. Cox and John T. Grant. On the night of No- 
vember 1 8th, this committee met at the Recorder's room. L. E. 
Bleckley was made chairman, and one from each ward was appoin- 
ted to report subjects to be referred to sub-committees of three 
each. The subjects reported were City Government, Finance, 
Elections, Sanitary Regulations, Police, Water-Works, Public 
Schools, and Streets.and they were referred to the separate sub-com- 
mittees. On November 26th a committee was appointed to consol- 
idate the various sub-committee reports. The consolidated report 
was submitted and adopted. The ensuing Legislature passed the 
charter thus revised, and it was approved by the Governor,February 
28th, 1874. 

No event of more vital consequence ever occurred in the govern- 
mental policy of Atlanta. No municipal reform was ever more 
thorough, as will be seen at a glance at some of the new features 
of the charter and their operation. In the first place, it puts a 
stop to the creation of debt. Section 32 of the charter says that 
no bonds shall be hereafter issued, except by an affirmative two- 
thirds vote of two successive Councils, the approval of the Mayor, 
and a majority vote of the cizens in a popular election. In all ap- 
propriations of money for the increase of indebtedness or expendi- 
ture of revenue, except for salaries, the Councilmen and Aldermen 
must vote separately and agree. For this purpose the General 
Council was constituted of three Aldermen for the city at large, 
and two Councilmen from each ward; the Aldermen and Councilmen 
separating into two bodies in all matters of finance. It is also 
stipulated that the annual expenses shall be so restricted as not to 
exceed the annual income, after certain payments on the public 
debt, and that no General Council shall borrow money, save in the 
management of existing indebtedness. As an additional safeguard, 
a clause was inserted enacting the personal liability of Mayor, 
Councilmen and Aldermen for the refunding of all amounts appro- 
priated in violation of the charter, and it is made the imperative 
duty of the Clerk of Council to institute recovery suits. 

Advancing a step farther, provision is made for the constant 
annual reduction of the public debt by the setting apart of one- 
fourth of the tax on real estate for the payment of the principal of 


floating liabilities. Still another step was taken in this direction^ 
While increased indebtedness is prevented and reduction secured, 
the business interests of the city must be protected from burden- 
some taxation. To do this, taxation is limited to one and a half 
per cent. 

In the department of official conduct, and the proper administra- 
tion of the laws, the regulations of the charter are equally effective. 
Official malconduct, to the financial detriment of the city, is made 
impossible. The greatest reform, however, under this head, was 
the entire change of the police system, and its divorcement from 
the General Council. A separate board, called Police Commission- 
ers, consisting of five citizens, elected by a two-thirds vote of the 
General Council, was instituted, and into their sole control was 
confided the election and government of the police force. 

It is unnecessary to note any other changes wrought by the 
charter ; these are sufficient to show that it is a masterpiece of 
municipal reform, and secures the people, absolutely, against 
municipal bankruptcy and burdensome taxation, and guarantees a 
faithful and vigorous administration of the laws, for the protection 
of their lives, liberties, and property. 

It is true that the severe restrictions of the charter will not per- 
mit any very general system of thorough improvements at pres- 
ent, but any inconvenience from this cause will be cheerfully borne, 
in view of the steady reduction of the public debt, and the new 
stimulus infused into every factor of the city's prosperity, and th^ 
increased values imparted to its property, It must be remembered, 
too, that the gradual reduction of the interest account, together 
with the enlarged income from taxation, will, in a few years, pro- 
duce an excess, which will insure the most liberal appropriations 
for every object countenanced by the charter. The first Mayor 
elected under its operations was Judge C. C. Hammock. In his 
official address, at retirement, he uttered this strong language : 
"The most signal of your achievements has been the successful ap- 
plication, and faithful execution, of the provisions of the new city 
charter. Under its operation, the city has experienced what may 
aptly be termed a new birth — such has been the change WTOUght 
in her financial standing, and her prospects for future growth and 
p rosperity. Previous to its going into practical effect, her credit, 


(the foundation of governmental, as well as of private, character) 
was impaired and diminishing ; but under the confidence-inspiring 
provision of the new charter, wisely conceived and courageously 
enforced, Atlanta has, at one bound, inaugurated perpetual economy 
in her expenditures — the steady, gradual reduction of her in- 
debtedness — and placed her securities on an up-grade, without a 
parallel in the financial experience of these unfortunate times." 




The commercial panic, not being based upon temporary causes 
simply, but upon a general depreciation of the values from inflated 
proportions to their true standard, the settling down or adjustment 
of business to the changed condition was necessarily the work of 
years. But the commercial circles of Atlanta gradually worked 
out of the depression of the times, and reassumed their old activity. 
Renewed vigor produced greater expansion, and expansion, in its 
turn, demanded enlarged facilities. More banking capital was 
needed, and more and larger houses for the handling and storage 
of goods. One secret of Atlanta's progress is that no demand of 
trade, however feeble, fails to produce an effort at supply. So it 
was at this time. New banks were organized, and more business 
structures erected. In addition to those already mentioned, the 
Atlanta Savings Bank appeared in 1875, under the management of 
S. B. Hoyt, President, and R. H: Richards, Cashier. 

The year 1875 was one of marvelous progress in building opera- 
tions. Real estate improvements aggregated in value, perhaps, 
$1,000,000. This improvement embraced the filling up of numer- 
ous unsightly spots ; as for instance, the drainage of a marshy spot 
south 'of Hunter street, and the erection of numerous cottage build- 
ings thereon, at an expense of perhaps twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars, by Col. Tom. Alexander, at that period one of Atlanta's prom- 
inent railroad contractors, and who invested his faith in Atlanta and 
its future to the extent of one hundred thousand dollars, in real es- 
tate and improvements. P. &. G. T, Dodd & Co., to accommo- 
date their great business, erected a splendid building on Alabama 
street — part of an entire block erected at the same time. A costly 
hotel — the Markham House — was erected, and a six-story cotton 


factory went up. Residences — and many fine ones — ascended 
as if by magic. 

Business exhibited great activity. One of the most important 
events of the year was the establishment of the National Surgical 
Institute, for the treatment of all deformities of the body, face and 
limbs, including paralysis and chronic diseases. It is an incor- 
porated institution with a capital of $500,000, and has treated 
thousands of cases. It has the unqualified endorsement of leading 
citizens, and is accomplishing a vast amount of good. 

Among the movements of trade may be noted that of wholesale 
groceries to Alabama street. In 1873, Stokes & Co., wholesale 
fruiterers, removed to this street ; Stephens and Flynn, Dodd & 
Co., Fuller & Smith followed, making it the leading wholesale gro- 
cery street of Atlanta, of which more hereafter. 




The progress of Atlanta during the decade from 1870 to 1880 
not only equalled, but has surpassed that of any other period. 
The progress was a general one, extending to every department of 
business and industry. The same advance marked all other inter- 
ests, religious, educational and social. Besides municipal reforms, 
the city government had also made great progress in the establish- 
ment of important public works, among these was the supply of 
the city with water, at a cost of nearly a half million of dollars. 
Though the well and mineral waters of Atlanta were amply suf- 
ficient for all drinking purposes, yet the continuous increase of 
population rendered another source of supply advisable for the 
central part of the city, and more particularly for the objects of 
sewerage, and the extinguishment of fire. Hunnicutt & Bellin- 
grath, in 1875 and 1876, laid seventeen miles of pipe, all of which 
stood the test of two hundred pounds pressure to the square inch. 
The water can be thrown in numerous streams to the top of the 
highest buildings. The works are under the .control of a Water- 
Board, elected by the people. The duties of the members of the 
Board are not only responsible; but also quite onerou s in the 
case of the President, who at present is E. E. Rawson, the public 
spirited citizen, whose time and labor form so prominent and large 
a part of many of our best institutions. 

Another most important step was the building of a street railway 
by George W. Adair and Richard Peters. This proved a valuable 
stimulus to the property of the city. 




The preceding outline of the history of the city brings us to At- 
lanta as it is — the great, populous, and thriving metropolis, of the 
State. In attempting to impart an adequate idea of its present 
proportions and probable future, it will 'be necessary to glance at 
its population, trade, industries, institutions, and advantages both 
as a place of business and residence. In doing this no particular 
method will be observed in the treatment of these topics, except, 
perhaps, in following somewhat the order in which they present 
themselves to the notice of the visitor. 


• Atlanta is frequently called the "Gate City." The origin of the 
title dates back to 1857, in the summer of which year the Mayor of 
Memphis, with a number of ladies and gentlemen, on their way to 
Charleston, with water from the Mississippi, to be mingled with the 
water of the Atlantic, passed through Atlanta. They had a cordial 
reception and collation, and passed on, accompanied by Mayor 
Ezzard and ladies and gentlemen of Atlanta. In Charleston they 
had a royal time, a big banquet, and fine toasts. The sentiment 
proposed for Atlanta denominated it the Gate City, signifying that 
to reach the West from the sea-board, or the sea-board from the 
West, the way passed through Atlanta, which was thus the "Gate." 

To a great extent Atlanta is the offspring of railroads. The site 
was chosen, as previously stated, because it was the natural junc- 
tion of railroads converging from different sections of the State to 
meet a railroad line from the West, being at the intersecting point of 
several mountain ridges leading into upper, middle and eastern 
Georgia. The completion of the roads at once established com- 
mercial intercourse between the West and Atlantic seaboard, and 
Atlanta became a great depot or distributing point between the two. 
This is the foundation stone of the mighty superstructure of com- 




mercial prosperity to-day marking the spot — a prosperity unexam- 
pled in the South, and with few parallels in the whole country, as- 
regards both that rapidity and solidity of growth, from which the 
city has been often termed, not inaptly, the "Chicago of the South." 
The railroad system of Atlanta is now complete. With five finished 
railroads leading in every direction of the compass, and more roads in 
process of construction, Atlanta has a net-work of railroads, mak- 
ing the facilities of transportation simply perfect. Two of the latter 
roads are supplemental lines which will inure to the city's increased 
benefit by competition with existing roads. All of them are links 
of great trunk lines, traversing the country in every direction, and 


they make Atlanta the centre of a grand system of railways. The 
Western & Atlantic Railroad stretches toward the West, connect- 
ing with the railroad lines to the North ; the Atlanta & West Point 
Railroad, making direct communication with the Southwest ; the 
Central, formerly the Macon & Western Road, leading to the At- 
lantic coast and the South ; the Georgia Railroad, stretching to the 


East, and the Air-Line Railroad, running directly northward. For 
all the purposes of speedy transportition, commercial intercourse, 
and accessibility to and from every section, the railroad facilities of 
Atlanta are certainly perfect. 

Nearly all these roads have fine depots and round-houses, and are 
splendidly equipped, running- sleeping and parlor cars, and numer- 
ous trains every day. 

The Western & Atlantic Railroad, having been built by the State, 
is known as the State Road. Some years ago it was leased by the 
State, to which it now belongs, to a company, of which Senator 
Josph E. Brown is President. Under his presidency and the super- 
intendencyof General Wm. McRae, it has no superior in the United 
States, being splendidly equipped. It connects Atlanta with Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee, over a line of 138 miles in length. It is a most 
lucrative property, worth millions of dollars. 

The Georgia Railroad, which was the second road built to Atlan- 
ta, runs from Augusta to Atlanta, 171 miles. It has several branches. 
John W. Green is manager. 

The Atlanta & West Point Road extends from Atlanta to West 
Point, in the direction of Alabama, New Orleans and the South- 
west. The distance is 87 miles. Under the long superintendency 
of L. P. Grant it became famous among Southern railroads for its 
freedom from accident and its promptness on schedule time. 

The Central Railroad, formerly the Macon & Western, connects 
Atlanta and Macon, over a line of 103 miles, and extends to Savan- 
nah. The Macon & Western was the third road in and out of At- 
lanta. A few years since it was bought by the Central, which is 
managed most successfully by President Wm. Wadley and Superin- 
tendent Wm. Rogers. 

The Air-Line, or Atlanta & Charlotte Railroad, (from Atlanta to 
Charlotte 269 miles,) is now a link of the great Richmond & Dan- 
ville Railway. It is a magnificent road, originating in the desire to 
have an "air-line" to the North and East, which it is. 

The new roads in process of construction are the Georgia Pacif- 
ic, of which ex-Senator John B. Gordon is President, and will extend 
to the Mississippi, through the inexhaustible coal fields of Alabama, 
and it is a road which Atlanta has been trying to build for years to 
supplement her coal supply. The other roads are from Atlanta to 



Macon, and from Atlanta to Rome, and will form links of the 
'Cole" system, managed by the distinguished railroader, E. W. Cole. 
The completion of these roads (and two of them will certainly be 
finished within a year), will give Atlanta eight railroad lines, which 
in this particular will rank Atlanta among the great cities of the 
United States. It makes its railroad system and facilities abso- 
lutely complete. This fact alone assures to the city a constant 
growth in business and population. 


The Southern Express Company has cars on all the roads. W. 
H. Clayton is the Superintendent, and Wm. H. Hulbert, agent. 


There is no city in the United States better provided with hotels 
than Atlanta. In fact, for years, the splendor and capacity of its 
hotel accommodations were far in advance of the city's needs. 



The Kimball HOUE is a magnificent hotel both in its proportions 
and appomtments, ranking in these respects among the' rst of "he 

land It covers .. ' ^ i^, feet. „^f* ^ ^-~2;^HI 
frontmg on three streets. Pryor, Decatur and Wall. IHs sL stories 



high and has three hundred and fifty rooms. The vestibule or of- 
fice floor contains a beautiful fountain surrounded by tropical plants, 
and a magnificent chancielier suspended through a number of 
arcades. It is under the management of Messrs. Scoville & Terry, 
who have made the hotel popular and conducted it in a style com- 
mensurate with its rank and class. 

The Markham House was built a few years later by Wm. Mark- 
ham, and is called a "parlor hotel" on account of its interior beauty 
and comfort. It is exceedingly popular, and is first class in every 

respect. Until lately it was under the joint management of ex- 
Mayor W. A. Huff, of Macon, and Mr. Phil Brown, of the famous 
Blue Ridge Spring of Virginia ; but lately Mr. Brown sold to his 




partner, leaving the management entirely with Mr. Huff who is 
one of Georpa's foremost men in ability and enterprise. The 
Markham uncle,- h,s management will be always filled with guests 
sti^notf r°,M ' "°™^' '"^""gh not so large as the two 
st.ll not a small hotel. It has recently been enlarged by the addi- 
tion of a story and other improvements, and is under the manat 
n.ent of Capt. E. T. White. The custom of the house show'hat 


it is in great favor with the traveling public, and Capt. White is 
liked by everybody who becomes his guest 

The Wilson Hou,sf, one of the cosiest little hotels to be found 
anywhere. Col. B, J. Wilson bought the old building and lot 
corner of Alabama and Pryor streets, in .872. In 187? he tore 
down the building to the foundation and erected a new one. It has 
about fifty rooms, and double parlors. Capt. Keith keeps a good 
and a neat hotel, and finds no difficulty in securing a remu- 
nerative patronage. * 

bouth Pryor street, and is kept by Mrs. Tilman. 

A new city has rarely as many attractions in public buildings and 
t'hTrtpe'^t." ™" ^"^""' ''°*^^^^' '^ "°^ -interesLg in 




The Capitol Building is six stories high, and contains all the 
departments of the State Government. This building is only tem- 
porary, and a new one will soon be erected to cost a million or 
more, for which the grounds have already been selected and plans 
advertised for. 

On the second floor are the Senate Chamber and Representative 
Hall. In these are to be seen on the walls large portraits of dis- 
tinguished Georgians, including that of James Oglethorpe, the 
founder of the State, as well as portraits of George Washington, 
Andrew Jackson, Thomas Jefferson, and LaFayette. 

The State Library is on the ground floor, and is quite extensive. 
The efficient Librarian, Mr. Frank L. Haralson, keeps it in excel- 
lent order and it is worth the visit of any intelligent gentleman or 

On the same floor will be found one of the special objects of in- 
terest in the city — the State Department of Agriculture. 
It is conspicuous for its features of instruction and information to 
the stranger and the farmer. On entering the capacious and airy 
hall occupied by the department, the first object which attracts at- 
tention is the beautiful aquarium, which is used during the spring 
and summer to illustrate the varieties of carp fish and the wonder- 
ful rapidity with which they grow. During the fall and winter it 
serves as a temporary depository for the young carp while they 
are being distributed to the various ponds of the State. The facts 
shown in this little aquarium have contributed in no small degree 
to the interest in fish-culture which has so completely taken posses- 
sion of the people of the State. On either side are tables bearing 
specimens of minerals and woods illustrative of the resources of 
the State. 

The walls are ornamented with portraits of prominent agricul- 
turists, pictures of fine stock, game birds and fish, and samples of 
various kinds of wool. 

Further on we come to the display of agricultural products prop- 
er. Gracefully suspended from circular pendents are samples of 
the various grasses, grains and textile plants grown in the State ; 
illustrating at once the quality and variety of the productions of the 
commonwealth. Arranged in tiers on tables are samples of seeds 
of every imaginable variety. 


A large book-case on one side of the hall exhibits the publications 
^f the department which are distributed free of cost to the citizens 
of the State. Hundreds of thousands of books and pamphlets have 
been distributed since the establishment of the department, which 
has exerted, in this way, a most valuable educational influence upon 
the farmers of the State. In glass cases prepared for the purpose 
.are specimens of goods of various kinds, manufactured. 
In still other cases are samples of commercial fertilizers taken by- 
inspectors under the law requiring the inspection and analysis of all 
fertilizers sold in the State. In rear of the hall an interesting and 
instructive experiment is being conducted. Representative soils 
were collected last spring from seven different sections of the 
State. Each of them was put into eight bins or boxes two feet 
square and fifteen inches deep. In collecting the soils the subsoil 
and soil were kept separate and deposited in the bins in the posi- 
tion and ratio in which they were formed to the depth of one foot. 
Virgin soil was taken in each case from the original forests. In 
order to ascertain what element or elements of plant food each va- 
riety of soil needed, the following test was applied to each: To 
bins No. i nothing was applied, to No. 2 phosphoric acid alone, to 
No. 3 potash alone, to No. 4 ammonia alone, to No. 5 phosophate 
acid and potash, to No. 6 phosophate ac'd and ammonia, to No. 7 
potash and ammonia and to No. 8 all three combined. 

This is just the experiment which every farmer needs to conduct 
on his own land. The department is daily visited by many persons 
in search of information, and they seldom leave unsatisfied, as the 
gentlemen in charge are well informed on scientific and practical 
agriculture. The Commissioner, Hon. J. T. Henderson, is a gen- 
tleman of liberal education and large practical experience. Mr. R. 
J. Redding, the assistant commissioner, is a gentleman of fine ac- 
complishments and long practical experience on the farm. Mr. J. S. 
Newman, editing clerk of the department, has a University educa- 
tion and a practical experience in every branch of husbandry, in- 
cluding grass, grain and tobacco culture and stock breeding as prac- 
ticed in Virginia, besides a large experience in planting and fruit 
culture in Georgia. Mr. W. B. Henderson, clerk of the Depart- 
ment, is a young man of good education and fine business qualifica- 
tions. Mr. W. H. Howell is a gentleman of well-known character 




and business qualifications. All these gentlemen take pleasure in 
entertaining strangers and visitors. The department as conducted 
is worthy of the great State to the development of whose resources 
and industries it was established. Visitors to the city should not 
fail to go through this interesting department. 


The Governor's Mansion is situated on Peachtree street and is 
now occupied by Governor Alfred H. Colquitt. It was erected by Mr. 
John H. James for his residence, but was bought by the State for over 
a hundred thousand dollars. It is quite a democratic mansion, as the 
Governor and his good wife frequently allow the ladies of the city 
to have lawn and supper parties there for charitable objects. 

The City Hall and park are on East Hunter street. The 
building is used at present by the city government, county and city 




the chief attraction at Oglethorpe Park. The visitor will find in 
guide-books a more detailed account. While temporary in its na- 
ture, it is to be hoped that the buildings or a part of them may fall 
into the hands of the city for permanent use. The first suggestion 
of the Exposition came from a newspaper article. Hon. Edward 
Atkinson, of Boston, Massachusetts, made an address in Atlanta on 
the 19th of October, 1880, on the Cultivation of Cotton, which led 
to a meeting of business men, at which a Cotton Exposition was 
determined upon somewhere in the South. It was Atlanta's good 
fortune, after considerable discussion, to be selected. The object 
is the presentation, of the various processes through which 
the fleecy staple goes, from the seed to the manufactured 
fabric, the cotton field and machinery resting side by side. This is 



a spectacle never before ex- 
hibited at a fair. But the 
original scope of the Exposi- 
tion has been greatly enlarg- 
ed, and embraces the wide 
fields of exhibits usual to 
World's Fairs. Several hun- 
dred thousand dollars were 
subscribed in various parts 
of the country for the erec- 
tion of buildings. The or- 
ganization was such as to 
inspire confidence, as it was 
I composed of leading citizens 
^ and prominent gentlemen. 
^ Senator Joseph E. Brown 
^ was the first President of 
^ the Executive Committee, 
^ but a short time before the 
^ opening, October 5th, was 
g succeeded by Governor Col- 
quitt, of this State. 

Vice-Presidents, Robert 
Tannehill, N. Y., W. H. 
Gardner, Ala., W. C. Sibley, 
Ga. Secretary, J. W. Ryck- 
man, Pa.; Secretary pro. tern., 
J. R. Lewis, Ga.; Treasurer, 
S. M, Inman. The Director- 
General is H. I. Kimball, 
who is also Chairman of 
the Executive Committee. 

Maj. Ben. E. Crane,(Langs- 
ton & Crane), President of the 
Atlanta Chamber of Commerce, is Chairman pro. tem. of the Execu- 
tive Committee, which comprises James R. Wylie, A. C. Wylieand 
G. T. Dodd, wholesale grocers ; J. R. Lowry, banker ; R. F. Mad- 
dox, cotton warehouseman ; W. A. Moore, M. C. Kiser and E. P. 



Chamberlin, wholesale dry goods ; L. P. Grant and G. J. Foreacre, 
Railway Supt's. ; J. A. Fitten, hardware ; Richard Peters, Sidney 
Root, E. P. Howell, Hon. J. L. Hopkins, B. F. Abbott, T. G. 

Healy, J. C. Peck ; J. T. Henderson, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
and J. F. Cummings, of Atlanta ; W. C. Neff, Cincinnati ; Edward 


Atkinson, Boston ; John H. Inman, New York ; Richard Garsed, 
Philadelphia ; J. W. Paramore, St. Louis, and Cyrus Bussey, New 

Mcpherson's B \rracks are in the western part of the city near 
West End. 

Congress passed an act on February 12th, 1872, appropriating 
the sum of $100,000, to build a United States court-house and post- 
office at Atlanta, Ga. In June, 1874, another act was passed, extend- 
ing the limits of the cost of the building to $250,000. Other ap- 
propriations were afterwards made which swelled the whole amount 
up to $275,000. The site for the building was presented to the 
Government, by the city of Atlanta. Ground was first broken for 
the new building on the 21st of August, 1875. The style of the 
building was taken from a copy of an ancient Italian villa, but 
somewhat modernized, and is termed the Italian Gothic. It is built 
upon a concrete foundation composed of cement, sand, and gran- 
ite, and is three feet thick. Mr. T. G. Healy, of this city, has been 
the able superintendent of its erection, from the commencement to 
the finishing. Mr. James G. Hill, in his annual report to the U. S. 
Treasury Department, says : "This building will be completed within 
the limit placed upon its cost by the act of Congress, and it will 
afford larger accommodations in proportion to its cost than any 
other building under the control of this department." The lot of 
land is 200x210 feet, and is bounded by Marietta street on the front, 
by Farley on the west, and Forsyth on the east. The size of the 
building is 135x75 feet, is three stories high, and is of granite, and 
the total cost of building, as shown, was over a quarter of a million 
dollars. It is used by the Post-Office, Custom House, and Reve- 
nue Departments, and has also a court-room and offices for the 
Federal District Court. 

Oglethorpe Park was laid out by the city since the war, two 
miles out on Marietta street, just outside the city limits. It has 
buildings for the use of State and County fairs. 

The City Water Works are a few miles out of the city, 
reached via McDonough street. 

Oakland Cemetery is situated on the eastern side of the city, 
at the head of Hunter street. It contains the remains of several 





thousand Confederate soldiers. Some very fine monuments are 
to be seen there. 


The Jail is in the immediate neighborhood of the City Hall, 
and is a substantial building of good appearance. 




Atlanta may well be called a "City of Churches." All shades of 
religious opinions are represented. Some of the church edifices 
are very handsome. 

The First Baptist Church, Rev. Dr. Gwin, pastor, is lo- 
cated on the corner of Walton and North Forsyth streets, nearer 
the centre of the city than any other house of worship. 


Since the accompanying view of Forsyth street was taken, the 
unfinished church in the distance, the First Methodist, has been 
completed, and is a most imposing structure. It is located at the 
junction of Peachtree, Pryor, and Houston streets. Rev. C. A. 
Evans, an ex-Confederate General, is pastor. 




The Second Baptist Church is another handsome edifice, 
located on the corner of Washington and Mitchell streets. The 
pastor is Rev. Dr. Spalding. 

The Second Methodist Church is situated on Whitehall 
street, and is also new. It is most elegant, and accommodates 
one of the largest memberships in the city. Rev. Dr. Heidt is the 


^|The Catholic Church is a massive, cathedral-like structure 
and cost a large sum. Rev. Father O'Brien is the priest in charge. 
The corner-stone was laid by the famous Southern poet-priest. 
Rev. Father Ryan. 

The First Presbyterian Church is on Marietta street. 
The building has been recently erected, but the organization was 
one of the first in Atlanta. Rev. Dr. Martin is pastor. 




The Synagogue is on South Forsyth [street, and is one of the 
most presentable buildings of the city. 

The Methodist Protestant Church is on the opposite cor- 
ner from the Synagogue, on South Forsyth street. Rev. W. D. 
Mitchell is the pastor. 


St. Phillips Episcopal Church, now in process of erection, 
is a triumph of architectural beauty. It is located on the corner 
of Washington and Hunter streets. Rev. Dr. Foute is the rector. 
It is in front of the grounds donated by the city for the new State 
Capitol, and will be an ornament to them. 

These are leading church edifices, but there are other tasteful 
and commodious ones in the city. 








^t^^Tc ^^ ^^'°T ''""' ' "'''''^"' '^'="'^^' having a number Of 
Medical Colleges and medical journals established in if. The num- 

tncreltg '"''' "^"''^"'^'^'^ '^ ''""^ '-S^' -" ^^ instantly 

The Southern Medical College is located in the heart of the 

hoT:.r f :h'°°'"'"1"^ """" ^^^^^"S- D^P"'---^ the leading 
hotels of the cuy; w.thin 50 yards of a number of good boarding 


houses and of the junction of the street-car lines from every part of 
the city. The building is commodious, elegant and convenient, and 
contains all the modern appliances and improvements for a first- 
class regular medical institution. Its Board of Trustees, as seen 
in the list below, numbers eighteen gentlemen of enlarged and 
progressive views ; among whom are a number of the best and 
most active business men in the city, and also a number of distin- 
guished Georgians residing in different parts of the State. 

The Board of Trustees consists of Dr. Thomas S. Powell, Presi- 
dent, Hon. D. W. Lewis, Judge S. B. Hoyt, G. T. Dodd, Rev. 
C. M. Irwin, Mr. A. F. Hurt, Rev. David E. Butler, W. T. Gold- 
smith, M. D., Mr. J. J. Toon, Hon. Alex. H. Stephens, Rev. W. F. 
Cook, Rev. A. J. Battle, LL.D., Rev. H. H. Parks, R. C. Word, M. 
D., Rev. H. C. Hornady, Mr. W. W. McAfee, Mr. John H. Flynn, 
and G. M. McDowell, M. D. 

The Board has established this institute with special reference to 
the great advantages of Atlanta, present and prospective, as a 
great Southern medical centre, ajid with the avowed object of ad- 
vancing medical science and elevating the standard of the profes- 
sion in the Southern States. 

The curriculum of study in the Southern Medical College 
covers a wider range than many institutions in this country. The 
lectures are able and instructive ; the museum attractive ; the clin- 
ical and anatomical advantages excellent, and all the facilities exist 
for imparting a thorough medical education. 

Lectures in this institution open annually between the loth and 
1 5th of October, and continue about five months. Parties desir- 
ing to see the annual catalogue with full particulars of the school, 
will address, W. P. Nicolson, Dean, Atlanta, Ga. 

The Georgia Eclectic Medical College is the second 
oldest medical institution in Atlanta. The faculty is composed of 
John R. Borland, M. D. Emeritus Professor of the Institutes of 
Medicine ; Stephen T. Biggers, M. D. Emeritus Professor of Ob- 
stetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; Hon.O. A. Lochrane 
LL. D., Emeritus Professor of Medical Jurisprudence ; W. P. 
Haller Fishburn, M.*D., Professor of the Principles and Practice of 
Surgery and Operative Surgery, Professor of Medical Jurispru- 




dence ; Joel F. Hammond, M. D., Professor of Clinical Medicine ; 
Joseph Adolphus, M. D., Professor of Physiology and Pathology, 
Professor of Dislocations and Fractures; I.J. M. Goss. A. M., M. 
D. LL. D., Professor of Materia Medica, Professor of the Science 
and Practice of Medicine; H. R. Jewitt, A. M., Professor of Chem- 
istry and Toxicology; John A. Goss, A. M., M. D.. Professor of 
Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children ; Thomas W. 
Dean, M. D., Professor of General Descriptive and Surgical Anato- 
my ; John B. Liddell, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy. 




The college building is located on Butler street, near the Georgia 
Railroad, and is well arranged for its purposes. 

The Reform Medical College has a new building just erec- 
ted on the corner of Broad and Walton streets, in the very heart of 
the city. The Faculty is thus constituted : J. M. Comings, M. D., 
Professor Anatomy and Surgery ; J. T. Cox, M. D., Professor 
Physiology and Pathology ; S. F. Salter, M. D., Professor Theory 
and Practice ; Jos. D. Friend, M. D., Professor Obstetrics and Dis- 
eases of Women and Children ; W. C. Jones, M. D. Professor 
Chemistry and Toxicology ; John Kost, M. D., Professor Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics. Dr. Salter ia Secretary of the Faculty. 


In the cities of the South there never has been such a de- 
mand for benevolence and charity on account of destitution 
as in the northern and eastern sections of the country. The ab- 
sence of beggary was a noted fact till war and its devastation 
brought their changes. Hence great p^ublic charities have not had 
such progress here as in the North. But the poor and the suffer- 
ing have always been taken care of ; especially is this true in At- 
lanta. Benevolent associations and relief societies have long 
been in existence. There are several that may be mentioned. 

Atlanta Hospital and Benevolent Home. — In January, 
1 874, a movement was made by the women of Atlanta, which re- 
sulted in what was called the Atlanta Benevolent Association, the 
object of which was to provide a temporary "home for destitute and 
helpless women and children, to aid women and girls out of em- 
ployment in finding suitable work, and also, as soon as practicable, 
to give free instruction in industrial pursuits, thereby enabling such 
persons to become self-supporting and useful." Practically, the 
matter took a turn which was not at first anticipated, as will appear 
in the sequel. For a time the ladies carried on their benevolent 
work in rented buildings, and on a comparatively small scale. Still 
they afforded shelter and support to a large number of destitute 
women and children. No records were kept, and it is impossible 
to tell the number of their beneficiaries, but probably there were 


in all several hundred. After most persistent and heroic effort, the 
ladies succeeded in raising $4000.00 with which they purchased from 
Hon. W. L. Calhoun the two buildings Nos. 79 and 81, East Ala- 
bama street, and here they greatly enlarged their sphere of opera- 

In March, 1881, they, of their own accord, turned over their 
property and the entire management of the institution, to which 
common custom had given the name of "The Ladies' Benevolent 
Home," to aboard of trustees, whose names are as follows : 

President, Henry H. TuclTer ; Vice-President, John Milledge ; 
Secretary, H. Cranston ; Treasurer, David Mayer ; John H. Fitten, 
G. T. Dodd, S. M. Inman, John Flynn. 

When these gentlemen took charge of the institution, its name 
was changed, and it is now called The Atla?tta Hospital and Be- 
nevolent Home. Its objects are also changed correspondingly with 
the name. There are two departments, one called the Hospital 
Department, the other called the Home Department. The former 
receives all sick or disabled persons sent by the Mayor of the city, 
and up to the present time, (September, 1881) has never failed to 
afford sufficient accomodations for all that have been sent, and the 
Mayor never sends those needing Hospital treatment who fall 
into his hands, to any other institution or place. From this, the 
appropriateness of the name — the Atlanta Hospital — will be appa- 
rent. Medicines and medical treatment are supplied by the city, and 
for the lodging, diet, nursing, attendance, &c., the City Council pay 
to the institution $75.00 per month. Patients remain in the Hos- 
pital until discharged by the city physician in attendance. 

In the Home Department persons who are objects of charity are 
admitted at the discretion of the trustees, or of an officer appointed 
by them, and are discharged by the President when he thinks 
proper. It is not intended as a permanent home for any one, though 
usually no definite period of stay is fixed. No charge is made for 
board, lodging, medicines or medical attendance; everything is 
furnished gratis. The institution is sustained by voluntary dona- 
tions from the citizens. It is not denominational ; persons of all 
religious persuasions unite in its support. Men are received as well 
as women and children. When paupers are sent from other cities 
or counties, to be supported by this institution, they are promptly 


sent back to the place whence they came. The average number of 
inmates per day throughout the year is about twenty-five, includ- 
ing those in both departments. 

For the present, as will be seen from what is above stated, the 
Hospital accommodation is sufficient for the need of the city. As 
the population increases, more room will be required. The prop- 
erty of the institution, bought by the ladies for ^4000,00 has greatly 
increased in value, and will doubtless continue to increase, as it is 
in the very heart of the city, not one minute's walk from the car- 
shed. At the proper time, this property will probably be sold at a 
large advance on its cost, and a new building, larger and more suit- 
able, will be erected. 

It is only a just recognition to record here the fact that to the pres- 
ent Vice-President and former President, Captain John Milledge, is 
due large praise for his great devotion to the work. He contributed 
much time to it, notwithstanding his official duties as Recorder of 
the city, and assisted the ladies greatly in securing a building. 

St. Joseph's Hospital is under charge of the Sisters of Mercy. 
The building which they own was erected originally for an Eye In- 
firmary, and is therefore, well suited for hospital purposes. Per- 
sons of all reliofious creeds are admitted. 


There are two leading library asssociations in the city. The 
Young Men's Library Association has a newly erected building on 
Decatur street, in the immediate vicinity of the Kimball and Mark- 
ham hotels. The building is a very handsome one, costing about 
thirty thousand dollars. The Association was organized in 1867 
with about sixteen members, as stated in Part First of this book. It 
now has over eight hundred members and its own building. Each 
succeeding board felt the pressing ambition to do something to ad- 
vance the institution, and so year by year it made progress, and all 
had a share in the crowning success. In 1880 the building was 
dedicated, and President Julius L. Brown delivered an address, in 
which, speaking of the benefits, he said : "In 1S67, when those six- 
teen young men, the honored founders of this Association began 


their eood work Atlanta, with a population of less than one-half its 
present number, had no public schools for the children and no 
libraries for the adults. But Atlanta did have a police force nearly 
double that of to-day, and she expended more money to preserve 
order and protect property than it does to-day with schools, colleges 
and libraries, within her boundaries." 

The library has now some 10,000 volumes upon its shelves, and 
numerous fine paintings. Mr. Brown accomplished a great_ work 
for the library, and makes a pardonable expression of pride m the 
, dedicatory address in these words : "They who founded this Asso- 
elation felt that the city needed it. and some of us who have fol- 
lowed in their footsteps have for years anxiously looked forward to 
the day when the library should have a home of its own, when 
it would have an independent revenue of its own to be applied to 
the purchase of books, and to the days when there should be no 
dues required. It is my happy privilege, thank God, to say that 
during my administration the first step has been taken, that we are 
now in our own home and are no longer tenants and strangers in 

the houses of others." . 

To his board of directors, and preceding directors, great credit is 
likewise due, for each had a part to perform in the work culminating 

in the grand result. . 

In 1877 the Catholic Library Association organized. Its 
present officers are Peter Lynch, President; John Stephens Vice- 
Presidem ; Wm. Dowling, Secretary ; and the directors are John J. 
Lynch,JohnJ.Falvey.J.J.Duffy, John M. Graham, M._ Bowdm 
A Jordan M. E. Maher and M. Mahoney. The library is located 
in the basement of the Catholic church, and contains quite a large 
collection of books for its age. 


This Association is in a very flourishing condition. Its rooms 
are very p easant and comfortable, situated at 49 1-2 White- 
hall street. It has one hundred and fifty active members. Its ob- 
iect is the elevation of the moral character of young men by oppo- 
sition to evil influences, by personal attentions, invitations to the 




churches, and otherwise. Having committees for various depart- 
ments of duty, they work in the jail, National Surgical Institute 
and in the Hospitals. They seek out strangers and look after them, 
and sit up with and take care of the sick. Mr. Walter Brown was 
the first President, and has been largely instrumental in its success. 
Mr. W. Woods White is the present President, and Walter E. 
Lewis, General Secretary, 


Elsewhere is given a description of the splendid building of the 
Atlanta post-office. In the matter of business it is now one of the 
first in the country. Ex-Governor Benjamin Conley is the post- 
master, and has managed the office not only efficiently, but to the 
great satisfaction of men of all political parties. Mr. J. S. Nail is 
the assistant post-master, cashier and chief of the money order de- 
partment, and is the man for the place. The employees are Louis 
Seldner, registry clerk, W. H. Howard, assistant; Wallace Rhodes 
mailing clerk; D. A. Shumate, assistant; Frank Mills, distributing 
clerk; W. F. Mills, assistant; B. A. Stout, general delivery clerk; 
Miss Libbie B. Tuller, stamp clerk; and Charles D. Tuller, money 
■order clerk. 


The City is pretty well supplied with means of locomotion. The 
Atlanta Street railroad has eleven miles of track and runs six lines. 
In 187 1 the company organized, the object being to establish a line 
to West End, the citizens of that suburb subscribing liberally. G. 
W. Adair, Richard Peters, John H. James, B. E. Crane, and others 
subscribed * 14,000, but $24,000 were needed, and Col. Adair 
promptly undertook to become personally responsible for the ex- 
cess. So the road was built, and September Sth, 1881, the West- 


End line was completed to McPherson Barracks and the first car 
commenced running. Shortly after books were opened to build 
roads on Peachtree, Marietta and Decatur streets. Adair canvassed 
Peachtree, but raised only three or four hundred dollars. Adair 
and Peters then determined to take all the stock; these roads were 
built and others, including an extension from the Peachtree line to 
Ponce DeLeon Springs, about \\ miles, spanning a creek by a 
bridge 270 feet long and 40 feet high, the whole extension being 
accomplished in 38 working days. Mr. Adair took the manage- 
ment and Mr. Peters the construction. Cars commenced run- 
ning on the Marietta street line January 14th, 1872 ; on the Deca- 
tur line. May 3rd, 1872 ; on the the Ponce DeLeon, August 8th. 
1872 ; on the Taylor Hill, March 30th, 1873 ; on the McDonough, 
street line May, 26th, 1873 ; and on the Whitehall street line Feb- 
ruary 15th, 1874. The total cost of these lines, including construc- 
tion and equipment, is nearly $200,000. The Imes all start from 
the vicinity of Whitehall street railroad-crossing, near the Depot 
and Hotels, and cars start every fifteen minutes. The time made 
is much faster than that usually made in Northern cities. The 
present officers are, Richard Peters, President, Edward Peters, Su- 
perintendent, and J. W. Culpepper, Treasurer. Col. Richard Peters 
owns a controlling interest of the stock. 

It is unnecessary to speak of the vast benefits to Atlanta resul- 
ting from this great enterprise, for the inception and completion of 
which the people of Atlanta are indebted to Richard Peters and G. 
W. Adair. The management is and always has been excellent. 

The Gate City Street Railroad Company.— Organized 
May, 28th, 1 88 1 by the election of officers. It commences oppo- 
site the Markham House on Wall street, runs to Pryor street, thence 
iDy the Kimball House to Wheat street, thence to Jackson, out Jack- 
son to Nolan, out Nolan to Boulevard, and thence to Angier Springs 
and Ponce DeLeon, making a beautiful and interesting route. Ar- 
rangements are making to build other lines. The present manage- 
ment is composed of M. B. Weed, President ; John Stephens, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer ; L. DeGive, L. B. Nelson, A. M. Reinhardt, 
John Stephens and M. B. Weed, Directors. 




The Atlanta Health Institute is located on West Peters street, on 
the most elevated site in Atlanta, in a beautiful home, surrounded 
with most tastefully arranged and well-shaded grounds. Its pro- 
cesses are known as the Hygienic, Movement and Electrical Water 
Cure. It is in charge of U. O, Robertson, M. D., Physician and 


Surgeon; M.F. Horine, M. D., Assistant Physician and Manager; 
Mrs. U. O. Robertson, M. D., Lady Physician and Matron. Chronic 
diseases are treated with large success. 

The National Surgical Institute is located on Alabama street,. 
Elsewhere will be found a description of this splendid institution. 



The merits of this institution are such, and the people of Atlan- 
ta accord it so high a place among the grand enterprises of the 
city, that a separate article is devoted to it. To see it is well worth 
the time of every visitor to the city. It is an institution from which 
life-long cripples come forth cured, and wher? hideous deformities 
are removed. Since its establishment here it has cured thousands- 
many of these cases apparently hopeless, and by ordinary medical 
treatment really incurable. Said a gentleman to a lady: "This is 
certainly a most beneficent institution, and many cures wrought by 
'it are indeed remarkable." "Undoubtedly" was the lady's prompt 
reply, adding the testimony of her own personal observation in sub- 
stantially these words : "Not long since I saw on Whitehall street, 
walking arm in arm, a brother and sister, who had grown to years 
of maturity without taking a step till they came to the Institute." 

The building occupied by it is one of the largest and most com- 
modious in the city, five stories high, and located on the corner of 
Alabama and Pryor streets, in sight of the Passenger Depot and 
the leading hotels. The upper stories, devoted to lodging, are 
bisected by wide and spacious halls which furnish ample room for 
exercise and pure, fresh air. 

Upon the second floor are situated the offices, machinery rooms 
and various operating departments. Crossing a wide hall from 
the double doored entrance at the head of the stairway, the visitor 
is ushered into the office. From this there is direct communica- 
tion with the library, laboratory, and a well lighted apartment for 
surgical operations. Here are kept the very best surgical instru- 
ments, known to medical science and practice, though it is the prac- 
tice of the Institute to use them only in cases of absolute necessity, 
relying largely upon their methods of restoring and developing the 
physical man by mechanical appliances, electro-thermal and vapor 
baths, manipul?.tions and proper exercising. Upon another side 
from the central office there is entrance to the room for the treat- 


ment of ladies, who are attended by an excellent and long-experi- 
enced matron. Adjoining this is the ladies' reception parlor which 
is often used by the Young Men's Christian Association for hold- 
ing religious services. We pass the mailing and correspondence 
department wherein fifty or sixty letters of inquiry are often 
received in a day and answered. The visitor now finds him- 
self in a large broad apartment in the midst of machinery, braces, 
mechanical movements and appliances of numerous kinds, and a 
first-class gymnasium. 

The engine room opens from this hall, in which is situated an 
eight horse-power engine to drive all the various machines, com- 
plicated machinery and movements. This opens into the work- 
shop — Vulcan's forge— where Dr. J. C. Allensworth and his as- 
sistants manufacture into the exactly needed shapes the appli- 
ances used in the institution. This institution does not import ap- 
pliances ready made, but takes the measure of each case and manu- .^/ 
factures to suit it. Conveniently near Dr. Allensworth is the sketch ^ 
book, where bodies and limbs are outlined, with notes indicating 
where straightening is needed at this point or rounding out at that. 
Near by are the various baths, Russian Vapor, Electro-Thermal, 
and others. The electrical apparatus is so arranged as to charge 
the bath with the degree of electricity desired. 

The business is conducted with the perfect method that charac- 
terizes the operations of every department. Here is to be seen a 
collection of extracts from letters from parties expressive of their 
opinions of the Institute. It is true that the Institute is already 
abundantly endorsed and by the best men of the State, but there is 
a peculiarity about these letters, which make their endorsement 
much stronger than ordinary certificates. It is this feature— the 
writers were answering letters of inquiry from afflicted persons 
and did not expect their sentiments to be seen by the managers of 
the institute. 

They are powerful recomendations, sufficient to satisfy any in- 
telligent person of the remaikable capacity and success of this In- 
stitute. From Florida is a letter from a gentleman stating that 
his daughter was cured of clubfoot and is perfectly well. A North 
Carolina gentleman states that he was told that an afflicted limb 

never would be so strong as the other, but it could be restored and 


would do him good service. An Alabama gentleman writes that 
from his experience he is satisfied that the Institute can treat all de- 
formities successfully. A South Carolina letter declares that the 
surgeons are all gentlemen and of acknowledged ability. Another 
lady writes that there need be no "fear of imposition." A gentle- 
man from South Carolina writes to an inquirer, "the surgeons are 
gentlemen, I would not hesitate to send there my wife and daugh- 

But we have not space or time to quote further. These state- 
ments suffice to show the character of the institution and the men 
who run it. They do not undertake to cure every case, they are 
frank in their statements, they are reasonable in their charges, and 
they can cure all deformities that are curable. That is the testimony 
in brief. * 

The management of the Institute consists of D*". C. L. Wilson, 
surgeon in charge. Dr. K. H. Boland, business manager and treas- 
urer, and Dr. C. A. Wilson, with assistants. The institution has 
received the strongest endorsements from leading citizens of Atlan- 
ta and the State, including Senator Joseph E. Brown, and the State 
Treasurer who declares it "a great public benefit to have such an 
institution in Georgia." But the highest endorsement comes from 
the thousands of men, women and children scattered all over the 
South, who have been cured by it. It is a public blessing, and in- 
formation of it can not be too widely disseminated. Few persons 
are aware of the enormous number of cripples and deformed un- 
fortunate there are in every State. To these all good people, 
informed of the fact, shouM convey the intelligence that there 
exists in Atlanta a scientific institution which has the largest collec- 
tion in the South of mechanical appliances and scientific means for 
the cure of deformities and chronic diseases, and these appliances 
and means are operated with skill aided by long experience. 


Now in course of erection, is situated near the center of the city, 
on the corner of Prior and Hunter street. It is rapidly approach- 
ing completion, and within a year the county of Fulton will have 



a "Palace of Justice" of which she may well be proud. It is being 
built under the supervision of Judge Daniel Pittman, assisted by a 
committee of prominent gentlemen, and it will be a magnificent 


and imposing structure-indeed it is said that it will be the finest 
and most substantial building of the kind in the South. 


The total cost, including heating, etc., will probably be between 
ninety and one hundred thousand dollars. The cost of the United 
States' Custom House was about three hundred thousand dollars, 
and our Court House will compare favorably with it in point of du- 
rability, and will be superior to it in beauty of architecture. Much 
credit is due to Judge Pittman for the inception and beauty of this 
edifice, and for many public improvements in city and county while 
he was Ordinary. He spanned our streams with fine bridges ; and 
gave to the poor of the county a comfortable alms-house ; his man- 
agement of the county chain-gang was excellent ; he beautified the 
City Hall lot, and gave to the city her pleasant park. 


The cotton trade has now become one of the city's strongest 
supports. Ten years ago Atlanta was not even recognized as a 
cotton market. The receipts in 1867, were about 17,000 bales. A 
few years later the receipts began steadily increasing, reaching 20,- 
000 bales, then 32,000, then 55,000, then 65,000, and in the year 
1877, reaching 90,000, and in 1881, reaching 130,000 bales. Not 
recognized as a cotton market ten years ago, Atlanta is now the 
third largest interior receiving point in the South. These facts 
alone would justify the statement, that, in a few years, Atlanta will 
handle 200,000 bales annually. But there are other reasons for the 
statement. The section immediately tributary to Atlanta is enlarg- 
ing, both in area and production, and the city is every year acquir- 
ing greater facilities for the trade, in the way of large compresses, 
low freights, and through bills of lading to Liverpool. It has, also, 
the needful capital and men. One firm, that of S. M. Inman & Co., 
handles the largest business done by any firm of interior buyers in 
the South, and are only exceeded by a few houses in the ports of the 
United States. They do at least two-third^ of the business passing 
through Atlanta. To them is largely due the rapid growth of the 
Atlanta cotton market, for they had the capital, enterprise, and 
ability necessary to accomplish it. 



The educational facilities of Atlanta compare favorably with 
those of any other city. 

The Public Schools of the city, organized ten years ago, are 
of a high character, embracing a High School system for botn sexes. 
The buildings are large, commodious and conveniently located, one 
or more in every ward of the city. 

Besides the Public Schools, there are numerous private schools 
of a high order, and well patronized. There are also several Col- 

The Atlanta Female College is a flourishing institution. 
Its principal and founder is Mrs. W. J. Ballard, who is in every 
sense qualified to preside over it. So popular is she, that a num- 
ber of citizens raised sufficient capital to erect upon the leading 
residence street, a most elegant college building, upon the most im- 
proved and thorough plan, and which will soon be finished. The 
faculty is large, and is composed of educators of established repu- 

The negro population is well cared for. They not only have their 
public schools, but also several collegiate institutions, Atlanta Uni- 
versity, Clark University, and others. 

Moore's Business University is the leading business college 
of the South, and has been established over twenty-five years. The 
teaching of this college is such that a young man steps forth from 
it prepared to conduct extensive business, for, he has been actively 
engaged in busijiess from the day he entered the institution. This 
js one of the features of the institution that a regular system of 
business is carried on by every student. One who steps into the 
institution at once is attracted to this fact, that business operations 
are actively going on, buying and selling, negotiating paper, bal- 
ancing books, shipping goods, receiving consignments, etc. 

The college is now in full working order, Vvcll supplied with 
teachers, and has a patronage reaching into the Far West. The 


President, B. F. Moore, is not only an accomplished educator, but 
a gentleman in the fullest sense, who is very popular with the peo- 
ple of Atlanta, and with all his students. No better or more prac- 
tical business education can be obtained anywhere in the United 
States than in this city, and the fact is pretty widely known. 


Atlanta is now one of the largest distributing points South for 
fertilizers, nearly all the manufacturers in the United States having 
general agents here, and she is also making rapid strides as a manu- 
facturing centre. 

In 1876 Messrs Geo. W. Scott & Co., who have been for many 
years connected with the development of the Charleston Phos- 
phates, started in this city, the manufactory of their now Famous 
Brand " Gossypiuin. "Their business has grown to such propor- 
tions that they have this season completed a new factory with a 
capacity of eight to te?i thousand tons ; and they and their friends 
are now preparing to start a Cotton Seed Oil Mill — cotton-seed 
meal being an important ingredient in these fertilizers. 

The Pendelton Guano Company are also erecting new works 
which willl greatly increase their capacity. 

The Georgia Chemical & Mining Company have just completed 
one of the best equipped works in the country, including four im- 
mense acid chambers. These works are under the skillful man- 
agement of Prof. N. A. Pratt, who is recognized as one of the lead- 
ing agricultural chemists of the age. They will burn sulphur from 
the copper and iron pyrites that abound in this section, and thus 
furnish the manufacturers with an ample supply oi pure sulphuric 
acid. This company will also grind phosphates by Pratt's new 
acid process. 

Situated about midway between the Phosphate Beds of the Caro- 
lina coast and the great slaughter-pens of the Northwest — from 
which comes the ammoniacal material, with sulphuric acid, extrac- 
ted from the minerals of her own hills, with cotton-seed meal pre- 
pared from the seed of her surrounding farms, and with the mod- 
erate freight rates arranged by the railroad commissioners At- 


lanta is,indeed, well equipped for furnishing the farmers of Georgia 
and adjoining States the very best and purest fertilizers at the 
lowest possible prices, and thus retain a large amount of money in 
her borders, to be paid back to her own people, for labor and sup- 


The combination of enterprise and superior commercial facilities 
has made Atlanta the supply market of a gradually widening area 
of country. Its wholesale business and manufactures now pene- 
trate all surrounding States, and frequently into sections beyond. 
Some indication of the extent and superior sweep of its trade is 
found in the ofHcial statement, that there is, in weight, more origi- 
nal mail matter handled in the Atlanta post-office than in the post- 
office of any other Southern city — excelling even New Orleans ; the 
statement also showing this other remarkable fact, that, in the 
weight of original mail matter, which has nearly doubled in the last 
year, there are only fifteen cities in the United States ahead of At- 
lanta. Its great factories and mammoth wholesale establishments 
are not surpassed in capacity anywhere in the South. There is not 
a v/ant of society or of trade, which it does not supply. The sales 
of the last year aggregated about $50,000,000. Notices of some 
of our immense establishments will be found elsewhere. 


Among the many interests which, since the close of the war, 
have experienced new life and great development, is that of manu- 
facturing ; indeed, so great has been the progress, that Atlanta is 
now, unquestionably, the leading manufacturing city of the State^ 
in the variety and value of its manufactures. Manufacturing es- 
tablishments are numerous, including foundries and machine shops, 
agricultural and terra-cotta works, ice factories, rolling mill, paper 
mills, tobacco factories, candy and cracker factories, and two cot- 
ton factories. The manufacture of agricultural implements is con- 
ducted on a mammoth scale. 





One of the largest cotton factories South has been built, and is 
supplied with 10,000 spindles, and all necessary machinery. It is 
in operation under the management of R. B. Bullock, and the Su- 
perintendency of George B. Harris, and employs about six hun- 
dred hands. Mr. W. S. Zellars, of Palmetto, furnished the first ten 
bales of cotton used by the factory, and took payment in stock. 

When cotton spin- 
ning in the South is 
spoken of, Georgia 
comes to the front as a 
leading Southern State 
in this department of 
industry. People, how- 
ever, are inclined to 
look upon Augusta and 
Columbus as our man- 
ufacturing centres. It 
is not generally known, 
that in Atlanta, and 
within a radius of 
twenty miles around 
this city, there is cott6n 
machinery having a 
. capacity to spin twenty 
thousand bales a year. 
This is about what 
Columbus consumes, 
and half as much as 

Besides this, there is 
a shoal on the Chatta- 
hoochee, within a few 
miles of the city, where it is contemplated soon to make a large 
preparation for machinery, in the way of a dam and canal which 
will give a water-power almost, if not fully, equal to that of Colum- 
bus or Augusta. It is confidently expected that withm a fevv years 
there will be several mills erected at this point, and that Atlanta 
will have more spindles in its vicinity than any other city in the 



State. But Atlanta is independent of water-power, as it has an 
exhaustless coal supply to run its machinery by steam, and already 
has one of the largest cotton factories in the South in operation, be- 
sides. The Tennessee and Alabama coal is sufficiently near for 
supply, but we have in Georgia two mines, the Dade and Castle 
Rock, which ship daily about thirty caY-loads, which ^e not one- 
half their capacity. These mines are operated by the Dade Coal 
Company, and are able to furnish Georgia with an indefinite sup- 
ply. The Castle Rock coal is an excellent coal for domestic use, 
and is extensively used in the city, and being nearer to market than 
any oth^, is correspondingly cheaper. But the Dade coal is the 
coal for steam and iron making, and is said to have no superior. 
Its great excellence for this purpose is attested by the following 
analysis, from the great coal analyser, J. Blodgett Brittain : Fixed 
carbon 65.88, volatile combustible matter 25.58, ash 7.56, moisture 
.98 ; the percentage of coke being 73.44, and the sulphur in 100 
parts of coke being only .11, General McRae, John H. Flynn, and 
the Georgia Railroad authorities, use this Dade Coal in large quan- 
tities for steam, and give it the highest character. With an un- 
limited supply of coal at this place, we have one great reason why 
Atlanta is becoming a great manufacturing centre ; and we doubt 
not that in time the manufacture of locks bolts, hinges, knives, etc., 
will be added to our present products. It is also an advantage not 
to be overlooked that these mines and coal lands belong to Georgia 
companies, who have displayed the largest liberality in the sale of 
coal, and in contributions to manufacturing enterprises — having 
subscribed five thousand dollars to our cotton factory alone — and 
we have a guarantee of the continuance of this policy, in the char- 
acter of the officers of these comipanies, who are: of the Dade, Jo- 
seph E. Brown, President ; Julius L. Brown, Vice-President ; C. D. 
Watson, Treasurer, and B. E. Wells, Superintendent ; of the 
Castle Rock Company, Julius L. Brown, President, and W. C. Mor- 
rill, Treasurer. 

Another large manufacture has been started within a few years, 
that of fertilizers. This branch of business has grown to such 
dimensions that a separate article is devoted to it. 

The Atlanta Rolling Mill employs from five to six hundred 
hands, and the annual sales of its products exceed a half million 



dollars. Its capacity is about eighty tons of rails and forty tons of 
bar iron per day. The rail made by it is said by competent railroad 
men to be equal to the steel rail. It is now under the superin- 
tendency of Grant Wilkins, and manufactures rails, bar, and bridge 
iron, spikes, bolts, fish plates, etc. 

There are several 
foundries and machine 
shops, exclusive of 
those of the different 
railroad companies. 
Prominent among 
these are the machine 
works of E. Van 
Winkle & Co., which 
furnishes cotton 
presses, saw and cane a 
mills, and agricultural h 
machinery in general. § 
The cotton press and n 
cotton gin feeder, :^ 
known as Van Win 

kle's, have a wide rep- g 
utation. ^ 

The iron foundry 
of W. S. Withers, on 
the corner of Calhoun 
street and Georgia 
Railroad, manufac- 
tures all kinds of cast- 
ings, fencing, grates, 
etc., turning out most 
excellent work. 

One of the new and greatest manufacturing industries of Atlan- 
ta is that of the terra-cotta works, established by Pelligrini & Cas- 
tleberry. Artificial stone is made, which to a very great extent, 
serves all purposes of the natural stone. Ornamental work for 
buildings, such as cornices, window caps, and sills, and the like, is 



largely manufactured, and may be seen upon our prominent busi- 
ness structures and private residences ; also vases and ornamental 
articles for halls and gardens. This firm is making a very large 
quantity of pipe for the city authorities for sewers. 

The manufacturing of candy and crackers has grov^n into tre- 
mendous proportions, and supplies a wide section of the country. 
The manufacturing establishment of Jack & Holland is well and 
very extensively known. 

There are two paper mills. The Sugar Creek Mills, of Wm 
McNaught (S: Co. manufacture nearly a half million pounds per 


Mr. James M. Ormond has also fine mills near the city, which 
makes newspaper used in many States, South and West, 

It is safe to state that the manufactured products of Atlanta, in 
value, amount annually to eight millions of dollars, and give em- 
ployment to several thousand hands. 




Within the last five years the wholesale trade of Atlanta has as- 
rsumed enormous proportions. 

In dry goods alone the annual sales now swell to nearly ten mill- 
ions of dollars. Our leading houses, such as M. C. &. J. F. Kiser 
& Co., Moore. Marsh & Co., and John Silvey & Co., in the amount 


of capital invested, and the mammoth proportions of their business, 
are not excelled south of Baltimore. Take, for instance, the first 
mentioned house, M. C. &. J. F. Kiser & Co. They occupy an en- 
tire building of four floors, including basement. In these four sto- 
ries is gathered a little world of dry goods, in all varieties, and of 
articles connected with that trade. A purchasing merchant could 
not call for an article which would not be instantly forthcoming. 
Their annual sales reach one million dollars. 

The wholesale grocery business is nearly as large, and there are 
equally great houses in it. James R. Wylie, Langston & Crane,. 
A. C. & B. F. Wyly, Fuller & Oglesby, Dunn, Alexander & Co.,. 
carry an immense trade. 


There is no greater evidence of the position assumed by the city 
of Atlanta in the estimation of the whole country, than its popu- 
larity as a place of holding National conventions. It is a "City of 
Conventions." In all the land there is no other that surpasses it in this 
particular. Its geographical position, and political importance have 
long since made it the meeting place of all State conventions ; but 
in late years it has become the favorite of National bodies for the 
holding of annual or biennial conventions. It has had the Interna- 
tional Sunday School Convention, Masonic and Odd Fellows' Con- 
ventions, railroad conventions, conventions of the leading religious 
bodies in the United States; indeed it is safe to say that, taking the 
year round, there is an average of at least one State and National 
convention a week. It thus becomes the theatre of prominent Na- 
tional events, and it has been the scene of a special visit from the 
President of the United States himself. The visit of President 
Hayes a few years since, and his speech from the verandah of the 
Markham House, will be remembered. It has also enjoyed the 
presence of one of the largest gatherings of the volunteer soldiery 
of the country. All this proves that Atlanta has reached the rank. 
of a real metropolis. 




In speaking of the commercial crisis, it was stated that not a 
single bank in Atlanta was overwhelmed. This fact proclaimed 
volumes in praise of their management and solid status. That an 
idea may be had of Atlanta's strength in the way of banking insti- 
tutions and capital, the leading banks, together with some of the 
prominent business men and capitalists in their management, will 
be noted. 

• The Atlanta National 
Bank, with that great finan- 
cier at its head. President 
A. Austell, has a capital of 
$200,000. Among the direc- 
tors are such men as W. B. 
Cox, W. J. Garrett, S. M. 
Inman, and R. H. Richards, 
The Merchants' Bank of 
Atlanta, formerly State 
National Bank, has a capital 
of 200,000. Campbell Wal- 
lace, a distinguished ex-rail- 
road manager and capital- 
ist, is the President, and W. 
A. Moore, senior member 
of the great house of Moore, 
Marsh & Co., is Vice-Presi- 
dent, and among the direc- 
tors and other officers, are 
Jas. R. Wylie, J. H. Porter, 
Ben. E. Crane, Clinton I. 

Brown, Geo. Winship and H<nE;:i!U::i;ii!«iimiHiii;»intMiiitiiiiitiiHWi^^iii!i»!ii!ii ^ 

W. D. Luckie. This bank, 1 

in 1877, erected a hand- 1 ^ 

some building of its own on ^"^ mekchants' bank. 

Alabama street. The Bank of the State of Georgia has a capital of 

nearly $200,000. There are other State and National banks, and two 



strong private banks, those of John H. James, and Messrs W. M. 
&. R. J. Lowry. In these banks there is a capital of nearly a million 

and a half. 


By a vote of the people on December 5th. 1877, Atlanta was made 
the permanent Capital of the State. This adds largely to the influ- 
ences tendmg to the continual growth and prosperity of the city 
makmg it the home of the Governor and other officers of the State 

/"tt — -- 


government, and the seat of all State conventions, political, com- 
mercial and industrial, thereby creating a source of very great 
revenue. Illustrations are given of the present Capitol and Gov- 
ernor's Mansion. But the State will doubtless soon begin the erec- 
tion of a new Capitol building upon a magnificent site presented 
by the city. The overwhelming majority — 43,946 — by which the 
people of Georgia expressed their preference for Atlanta is a home 
estimate of its worth and advantages. In his management of the 
campaign for Atlanta, the present Mayor, J. W. English, deserved 
high praise, and received a public testimonial from citizens in the 
shape of a massive silver salver. The location of the Capitol at 
Atlanta is, however, but one of many causes operating to centre 
upon it the attention, interest and affections of the people of Geor- 


Atlanta is now considerably the largest city in the State. Its 
population proper is something over forty thousand ; but the im- 
mediate suburbs will swell this figure to the neighborhood of forty- 
five thousand. 

The chief elements of population are mercantile and mechanic. 
But all honorable avocations and pursuits are well represented — 
the literary or professional man, and the humblest day-laborer, 
toiling side by side in the busy hive of this great young city. This 
is the only class distinction existing. Similar pursuits and tastes 
engender mutual sympathies, thus bringing men into closer associ- 
ation. Beyond this, there is no city in this or any other country 
more free from the domination of caste ; admission to society be- 
ing based upon character alone. This statement no one, with any 
knowledge of the facts, will call in question. There is another 
somewhat kindred characteristic, metropolitan spirit. All men are 
welcomed, and eagerly welcomed, to our midst — capitalist or la- 
borer, the seeker after a home or employment — objections being 
made only to drones. This metropolitanism is the result of public 
zeal and the mixed elements of the population. Public spirit fos- 
ters every source of increased population or business, and the va- 
rious classes and nationalities, into which the people are divided 


create sympathy and kindliness to all men of whatever name or 
pursuit. The stranger finds congenial occupation and society. 

The population contains representatives of many nations ; Eng- 
lish, Irish, German, Italian and French being the most numerous. 

A nervous energy permeates all classes of the people and all 
departments of trade, and the spirit of enterprise never sleeps. 


The picture of any city's prosperity would be incomplete without 
some representation of its civil and geographical surroundings, so 
far as vital relations exist between them. It is, therefore, neces- 
sary to look briefly into the condition of Fulton county, of which 
Atlanta is the site. 

The State of Georgia, of which it is the capital, is so prosperous 
that its financial credit is above par — some of its bonds command- 
ing as high a premium as those of any State in the Union. It is 
essential, then, to consider Fulton county only, and that very briefly^ 
It is almost sufficient to say that the tax for county purposes is the 
smallest in the State, with the exception of, perhaps, a half dozen 
counties — the total county tax being only two mills, or one-fifth of 
a cent on a dollar ; the entire State and county tax amounting to 
only seven-tenths of a cent, or 70 cents on the $ioo. Till recently 
the county owed nothing, and had money in the treasury. This 
is a happy condition, enjoyed by very few counties in Georgia, or 
out of it. The building of a splendid court-house, creates a small 
county debt in the shape of bonds. 


The subject of this chapter is always a gratifying one to the 
denizens and friends of Atlanta, for, in the matter of healthfulness, 
no superiority is granted to any city or clime. This is one of the 
greatest attractions and proudest distinctions of the Gate City. Its 
healthfulness is so great, and its climate so delightful, that it is ac- 
quiring a national repute as a place for permanent residence, or of 
summer resort for invalids. 


This healthfulness is the result of numerous causes, and among 
them the altitude. The city has an elevation of 1,050 feet above 
the level of the sea, and lies, if not upon the mountain top, on 
mountain ridges, from which water flows freely, creating a natural 
drainage and sewerage, and preventing stagnation. Its mountain 
breezes make a pleasant summer temperature, while its southern 
locality moderates the severity of winter. Malarious fevers, the 
curse of low regions, and epidemics, the terror of the seaboard, 
are, of course, unknown. 

But these healthful conditions have their culmination in the exist- 
ence of numerous mineral springs of great excellence within the 
city and suburbs. The mineral properties of these springs are un- 
questioned — as their waters have been chemically analyzed. An 
analysis of one, the Atlanta Mineral Spring, running one gallon per 
minute, contains, among its solid ingredients, proto-carbonate of 
iron, suspended in carbonic acid gas, sulphate of magnesia (Epsom 
salts,) and chloride of sodium. The analysis was made by one of 
the most distinguished chemists of the South, Prof. Means, of Em- 
ory College, who, on the strength of it, asserts the excellence of the 
water for general debility, dyspepsia, torpidity of the secretory func- 
tions, and kindred diseases. Experience also establishes the same, 
and remarkable cures might be instanced. Ponce de Leon and 
West End Springs have been similarly tested — so that Providence 
has even blessed the city with great natural remedies or restora- 
tives, as a guarantee of the health already assured by the requisite 
natural conditions. 


As the first, hardy, practical population of Atlanta paid little at- 
tention to architectural beauty or the aesthetics, there was little cul- 
tured society among a people composed mainly of rough laborers 
and uneducated business men. But, as population flowed in, bring- 
ing men of skill and genius in the various departments of labor, 
and men of talent and education in the professions and business av- 
ocations, a change began. Meantime, the original inhabitants 
were improving through the influences of prosperous circumstan- 
ces, the refining contact with cultivated men, and the educating as- 


sociations of a growing city. To be brief, the result was the grad- 
ual formation of a splendid society, which, for brilliancy, accom- 
plishments and refinement, is not easily excelled. Such a society is 
but the combined result of association between men and women of 
learning, skill and culture in the professions, the avocations of bus- 
iness, and the industrial pursuits — the intercourse of science, art, 
literature and religion. If this be true, what city is richer in the 
elements of a splendid society than Atlanta ? 

Its lawyers and physicians stand at the head of their professions ; 
our musicians are famous for their accomplishments ; our literati 
rank among the best ; our merchants are princes of success ; and 
our mechanics evence the highest skill. We also have authors of 
national note, and newspaper writers of wide celebrity. 


The city is quite irregular in plan, as it was never regularly laid 
out, the first streets growing out of public roads. The road to 
Marietta became within the corporate limits Marietta street, and 
so with Decatur, Peachtree and others. Originally, too, the city 
had much hill and valley. But many streets have been straightened 
and graded, hills cut down, and depressions filled up, so as to im- 
prove the city greatly in this respect. 

Within the past few years the architecture of the city has made 
great progress, for which large credit is due to the architects, Park- 
ins & Bruce. To-day Atlanta has residences and Business houses 
that will compare with those of far older cities. 


Perhaps in no period of its history has Atlanta grown more 
rapidly than the present year. At one time over 1000 houses were 
in process of erection, at a cost of one million dollars. In fact it is 
at times difficult to obtain sufficient labor and building materials, 
and delays have often resulted from this cause. 




The municipal government consists of a Mayor and a General 
Council, which is composed of three aldermen and ten councilmen, 
who act as separate boards on all financial questions or appropria- 
tions of money. The Mayor holds his office for two years, the al- 
dermen for three, and the councilmen for two. Elections are held 
annually for one alderman, and one councilman from each ward, 
about one-half the whole body going out every year. All are in- 
eligible for the succeeding term. Public education, police govern- 
ment and water- works, are confided to separate boards with plen- 
ary powers. 

The character of the government in connection with that of a 
people always public spirited, but never reckless, has made the 
financial condition of Atlanta one of its chief attractions, and su- 
perior to that of any Southern city ; with, indeed, few rivals on the 
continent. January ist, 1877, the bonded debt was $1,787,000, and 
the floating debt amounted to $388,240,70 — making a total indebt- 
edness of $2,i75,24o,7o,of which $400,000 were water- works bonds. 
The assets of the city exceeded 1,000,000. Under the operation 
of the charter the floating debt is constantly undergoing reduction, 
so that the financial condition is far better to-day, and continually 
improving, the creation of new debts being well nigh impossible 
under the charter as amended. The obligations of the city have al- 
ways been met, and the bonds are above par. 


The preceding brief reviews of Atlanta's population, institu- 
tions, business, facilities of trade and healthfulness, while discover- 
ing the basis of its past growth and present prosperity, also demon- 
strate its continued progress in the future ; for the same causes are 
operating only upon a grander scale. The railroad system is p 


feet, but the sections penetrated are constantly developing their re- 
sources, and Atlanta must grow with its tributaries. In addition to 
this, the combined power of superior facilities, increasing enterprise 
and skill, and the prestige of past success,are continually extending 
trade into new and more remote sections. The rapid development 
of the manufacturing interest, the social and healthful attractions of 
Atlanta for residence, the admirable character and excellent finan- 
cial condition of the municipal government, and other considera- 
tions noted, assure constant future increase of population and busi- 
ness. A population of nearly 100,000 is generally accepted as a 
thing of the near future. 


The city of Atlanta is famous for the greatness and brilliancy of 
its enterprises. Its citizens have kept pace with the general ad- 
vancement by grand conceptions and magnificent execution. Now 
people encourage and confidently assert the success of almost any 
enterprise however immense its "magnitude, so great is their faith 
in Atlanta based upon the triumphs in its past. But, years ago, 
predictions of failure would greet every unusual boldness of busi- 
ness movement. It was the good fortune of Atlanta to have citi- 
zens made of such stuff that no discouragements could depress 
them, and only the grandest success could satisfy them. To the 
business men of Atlanta of this stamp is largely due the prosperity 
of the city, and its present leading position in the eyes of the whole 
country. To them is due the fact that in Atlanta to-day may be 
found business houses carrying stocks and conducting a trade that 
would do honor to the largest American cities. As New York has 
its famed establishments, so Atlanta has its great houses, attract- 
ing thousands of people from far distances and from other States to 
admire and examine their brilliant stocks. A striking illustration 
of these facts presents itself. To mention the retail dry goods trade 
of Atlanta is to suggest to any one who lives in or has ever visited 
the city, the name of John Keely, who ranks among the greatest 
and most brilliant retail merchants of the South. The stock he 
carries is tremendous in quantity, and magnificent in character. He 



has enlarged his store room till he has the greatest front in Atlanta. 
To visit Keeley's brings ladies from distant parts of the State 
and his store is seldom seen without a moving throng within and 
carriages without. The history of this merchant is the story of pluck 
and enterprise, out of which the city grew. With an humble be- 
ginning after the close of the civil war, in which he was a gallant 
Confederate officer, he rapidly succeeded in business, enlarging his 
store from time to time, as his trade increased. With his pleasant 
manners, geniality of disposition, and business tact, he soon be- 
came popular, and at once made special effort to swell this personal 
popularity by a reputation for low prices. He proclaimed himself 
on this line, and soon the public took up his cry of "leader of low 
prices." The result was a brilliant success, and John Keely's estab- 
ment is to-day one of the best known in the South, and its trade 
one of the largest. John Keely is a representative citizen and the 
embodiment of that spirit and energy which, has made Atlanta, 
while his establishment is an illustration of the city's rapid progress 
and magnitude of development. 


The city has a system of water- works, which will be sufficient to 
supply its wants to twice its present population. Like that of all 
advance movements in Atlanta, the history of the conception and 
establishment of water- works is interesting. Several years before 
its establishment, in 1866, Mr. Anthony Murphy, a prominent and 
progressive citizen, being chairman of the City Council committee 
of pumps, wells and cisterns, observed the inadequacy of our water 
supply for sanitary purposes, tire protection, and also for use in the 
extensive building operations of that year. He accordingly made a 
report to the Council on the subject. Nothing however, was done till 
1870, when Mr. Murphy being again a member of Council, offered a 
resolution to investigate the matter, and was authorized to go North 
and examine the various systems in operation. Through his unre- 
mitting efforts a charter was finally obtained, a Board of Water 
Commissioners was elected, and he was made President of it. 
Bonds were finally issued, the works commenced and completed as 
elsewhere noted, Mr. Murphy never ceasing his labors, in conjunc- 



tion with other public spirited citizens, till the grand result was 


The immense advantages to the city are too apparent to need 
mention. Insurance was at once greatly reduced, and the health 
of the city made doubly sure. 

This is but one of the many public enterprises in which Mr. Mur- 
phy has proven himself not only a public spirited citizen, but a wise 
and useful one. It will be remembered that he was elected Presi- 
dent of the company organized under the charter of the Atlanta & 
Alabama Road, which would have been pushed through, had not 
the Georgia Western fallen into hands which would certainly con- 
struct it.'' Mr. Murphy has large city interests and has been man- 
aging a fine lumber business in the city. 


Atlanta has a volun- 
teer fire department. 
Whatever may be said of 
the merits of the two 
systems,it is nevertheless 
true that Atlanta has a 
very efficient force, and 
a fire never makes much 
headway, if water is suffi- 
cient. There are three 
fine steam engines. AU 
the companies have en- 
gine houses, several of 
them good brick struc- 


The city is well lighted 
with gas, which is furn- 
ished at a reasonable 
price. The works are 
near W. & A.R.R. The 



President is T. G. Healy ; Secretary and Treasurer, J. H. Mecaslin. 
This latter gentleman is the manager, and a very popular citizen. 

There is quite a number of these. The Gate City Guards and 
Atlanta Grays are prominent white companies. Of negro compa- 

nies there are five or six. 


Among the objects of interest to strangers from the Northern 
and Western portions of the country are the negro villages located 
at several points near the city's limits. One is Summerville, near 
the terminus of the street railroad on McDonough street, another is 
near Whitehall street, near the corporate limits, and another— Sher- 
mantown— out Wheat street. They are thickly populated, and 
have their churches. 

The preceding general sketches of the trade of Atlanta will be 
made more intelligent by a description of our business streets and 
some of the leading firms doing business on them. Some of these 
stores in architecture and proportion would do honor to the largest 
of cities, and the business done is on an equally grand scale. 
Whitehall street, the oldest street of the city, and the Broadway of 
Atlanta, will be the first in order. 


Pope, the Hatter, begins the numbers of Whitehall— No. i. with 
an elegant hat, cane and umbrella store. 

Fairbanks & Cox, 7 1-2 Whitehall street, are manufacturers of 
seals, rubber stamps, stencils, and embossed metal work generally. 
Mr. C. F. Fairbanks has been in the business in Atlanta for years, 



but has recently formed a partnership with Chas. H. Cox of 
Indiana, an engraver and metal worker. Mr. Fairbanks has also 
added to his business the agency of printing presses, some of 
which he exhibited at the Exposition. The firm is thoroughly 
skilled and equipped, and consequently does a big business. 

W. Bollman, 10 Whitehall street is a reliable jeweler, and has an 
attractive store and stock. 

At No. 21 Whitehall 
street is the clothing 
establishment of Mr. W. 
M. Scott. Understanding 
the business of men's 
furnishing goods in all its 
-details, it is not to be 
wondered at that Mr. 
Scott experienced a rapid- 
ly growing trade, and re- 
cently found it advisable 
to move into a building 
expressly fitted up for him. 
It is sufficent to say that 
he not only keeps a com- 
plete hne of goods, but 
also those of .the best man- 
ufacture and reputation. 
A very large part of his 
business is in the order 
line, as he is the agent of 
the immense Philadelphia 
establishment of Wanna- 
maker & Brown. The goods are selected from samples, the meas- 
ure taken and forwarded, and very speedily the suit has arrived in 
Atlanta. Mr. Scott receives orders from a half dozen States, parties 
either selecting from samples he sends, or leaving it to his taste and 

No. 26 is Bradfield's drug store. The name is at once recognized 
as familiar, in connection with a noted female remedy. Dr. 
Bradfield, the compounder of the medicine, is proprietor of this 




drug establishment, and has a fine line of pure drugs and medicines 
and all the popular patent remedies. He keeps a large assortment 

of colognes and toilet goods. 


He furnishes the trade, or single 
orders from a distance? prompt- 
ly. His prescription department 
is carefully conducted, and the 
drug store is first-class in all its 
appointments. His business in 
this line has grown very rapidly 
on account of the satisfaction 
of customers. If the prices were 
stated, it would be seen that 
Mr. Scott gives most attractive 
figures, and his goods are as ex- 
cellent in character as any 
brought to this market. 

Jack & Holland, manufactur- 
ers of and wholesale dealers in 

pure candies and crackers, have one of the largest houses in this 

line in the South, and are located 


at No. 36 Whitehall. They also 
carry a large stock of canned 
goods, both fruits and meats, 
and all articles usually carried 
by such a house. They supply 
merchants in this and neighbor- 
ing States, and have an immense 
trade. In their retail depart- 
ment their trade in breads, cakes 
and soda water, is the largest 
in the city. 

Stocker & Castleberry, No. 85 
Whitehall, have a very large 
stock of furniture, selected in 
the best markets and of the 
best manufacture. Their store 
runs through from Whitehall to Broad street, and is very spacious. 

Si wsrfEHiM* m%. 



But their business is large and constantly growing, and they have 
not more room than is necessary. ■, j , , 

L Morgan. No. 80 Whitehall, is a wholesale and retail dealer 
in harness and saddlery goods. He has been in the busmess a num 
ber of vears, thoroughly understands it, and has built up an ex 
tensive custom. He also deals in wagons and buggies 

Goodman's No. 28 Whitehall street, is the popular pVture and 
Frame sre<;f Atlanta. Mr. Goodman has a very fine collection 
of oUpaintings, chromos, steel engravings, ,nd prints and manu- 
facmres frames of every kind. He carries a full line of picture goods, 
and can furnish any parlor, reception room or office^ handsomely. 
At No V 1-2 Whitehall street, up stairs, are the offices of Mr, B. 
M Woolle'y, who is now known very widely °-/ '^e country m 
connection with his opium cure. It is a fact beyond question 
thaW remedy is a sure one, He has the testimony, voluntarily 
i-vnorhun/reds cured by it, and he has besides, t e ev, ence o 
fhose who have been eye witnesses of the effic.en y of _this m^ed^ 
cine. The author of this book is one of the latter. The opuim 
hab t has many devotees, and the effects are so destructive, th 
it is a matter of great congratulation that a certain remedy exists 
it Th apparent hopelessness of the victim's condition .vnd 
he failure of Tueffortsto break the chain which b-" t^^^e 
nrocess of a siow but sure selt-destruction, have been the terrib e 
Matures of the disease till the appearance of this remedy Not only 
nihis country, but across the ocean, far into Europe, this remedy 
;:L:re its :;y Of healing and 0^^ 
tarv to At anta as well as to Its cinzenb. lucw 
s7ndeed humanitarian, and his heart is in it. A gentleman by 1 a- 
tue he stands high with his fellow-citizens for integrity, and his 
trues riends are those who know him best. He does not belong 
othlss of advertising quacks, but is one of the best and mos 
ntellieent citizens of Atlanta, doing a vast deal of good througl^ a 
intelligent ciuie, u„^,-n.c, is so large that it necessita- 

remedy of great merit, riis business is so larg 
ted the assistance of an associate to handle it, that M . vvo 
r^tht devote himself exclusively to the preparation of his med. 
™fes and the conducting of a voluminous corresponde^^ In 
Mr. Lowndes, a worthy young gentleman, he found a partner 
fine business traits. 



The pioneer in the crockery trade of Atlanta, is T. H. Ripley, of 
No. 89 Whitehall street. No one has greater experience in the 
business than he has. He keeps a full stock of crockery and glass 
ware, and sells at wholesale and retail. He buys his goods in the 
best markets and exercises taste in their selection, His stock is 
varied and embraces all goods usually found in a crockery store. 

The handsomest retail 
clothing store in Atlanta is 
that of Hirsch Brothers, 42 
and 44 Whitehall 'street. 
They keep a large stock of 
mens' and boys' clothing, 
and also have a fine mer- 
chant tailoring establish- 
ment in connection. They 
command one of the best 
trades in the city.. The 
wholesale house of Messrs 
M. &. J. Hirsch, manufac- 
turers of and dealers in 
ready-made clothing, is on 
Pryor street, in front of the 
Kimball House. 

Keely's, the far-famed dry 
goods establishment of At- 
lanta, is on this street, corner 
of Hunter, with a front on 
Whitehall equal to that of a 
halftiozen ordinary stores. 
In it is a little world of goods, 
and often a day's sales 
shipped out of it or the new 


the stock of a small store. It is a spectacle worth seeing, the 
ladies filling its numerous departments, and^ flitting about from 
counter to counter, admiring and buying. Any day the citizens 
will see in there the faces of strangers, for people are constantly 
visiting the establishment from long distances. There is nothing; 


in the dry goods line that is not to be found in this house, and 
its immense sales enable it to run a popular system of low prices, 
so low sometimes as to astonish the purchaser. Where there are 
heavy sales a successful business can of course be conducted on 
profits so small that they would bankrupt lesser establishments 
It is not to be wondered at that Keely's is nearly always full of 
neople in season or out of it. , . o o 

The General Insurance Agency, of John C. Whitner & Son 
i, I--' Whitehall, is quite extensive, embracing a number ol 
the best companies in the United States and foreign countries 
for one of which these gentlemen are general agents of 
the entire Southern Department from Virgmia to Texas 
inclusive All of their companies have been so long represented 
in the South that they are well known for honorable dealmg 
natrons and prompt adjustments and settlements of losses. The 
seX Major Whilner, has spent most of his life in this busmess, 
and i familiar with its practical details, from for r.sks 
and writing policies, up to adjusting losses and supervismg agen- 
des He is acknowledged to be one of the first underwriters m 
tW 'country. The son is "a chip off of the old block, in busmess 
urn as weU as appearance. General W.S. Walker, m farewell note 
the agents of 'the British America Assurance C-pany on the 
occasion of his retiring from the general agency, said It gives me 
peasTre to commend To your confidence my esteemed successors 
Messrs Jno. C. Whitner & Son. Having been recently associated 
wkh me they need no formal introduction. The senior Major Jno 
C Whitner has been a long time in the business, and is known all 
o;eythe country as one of our best underwriters. His acknowledged 
nrofitny covers the entire field of insurance experience, as lo- 
cll aeent special agent, adjuster and general agent. You may, 
h refore rest assufed, that you are in the hands of a gentleman 
Ind an eVert of rare accomplishments and proficiency in the pro- 
fession "A visit to their office will reveal a most thorough system, 
lession. n.\ai<. ,„ri fViptniir or five busy ones seem 

Everything goes along quietly, and the four °r f™ o ^ 
to lose no time in looking for things put '" w™"S P'aces^ There is 
not an itemat all affectingthe. busies but^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



the whole as to avoid all possibility of mistake. Their business is 
rapidly increasing, and we are glad to learn that the outlook is 
most encouraging. Their agents will be found in every important 
town in the South. 

A. & S. Rosenfeld are among the oldest clothiers of Atlanta, 
prominently located at the corner of Alabama and Whitehall. 

They are prominent alike in the 

trade, doing a very large business 
in furnishing men's and boy's 

Mr. Er Lawshe is the oldest 
jeweler of Atlanta, and one of 
the oldest citizens. 

Kuhn & Sons' Art Gallery, 
33 1-2 Whitehall street, has been 
long established in Atlanta, and 
their work is popular. They 
make very fine pictures, both of 
persons and houses, quite a num- 
ber of the illustrations of this 
book being reproduced from 
their plates. They have good 
rooms, including a reception 
parlor, which they have recently 
fitted up in elegance. No one 
will be disappointed who sits for 
his picture with Kuhn & Sons. 

The Smith American Organ 
Company is located at 27 White- 
hall street, where they make a 
ER LAwsHE's JEWELRY STORE. fine dlsplay of tficlr instruments. 

They are manufacturers of pianos as well as organs, and their chief 
offices are Boston, Mass., Kansas City, Missouri, and Atlanta. Mr. 
A. H. Tyler is the manager of the Atlanta branch. The company 
has been estabhshed since 1852. 

Thomas & Richter, at No. 90, have a fine stock of furniture. They 
run a class of honest goods, being what they look to be, and these 
goods sell upon their merits. Mr. W. H. Thomas has long experi- 



ence as a purchaser and seller of furniture, and knows both how to 
select goods and how to dispose of them to the' advantage of the 
public and himself. 

At 34 Whitehall street is 
the leading jewelry estab- 
lishment of this section, 
that of J. P. Stevens & Co. 
The stock is one of the 
largest and costliest in the 
South, and as varied as on- 
ly such a great establish- 
ment can afford. The dis- 

play is rich and magnifi- l 
cent, and J. P. Stevens & "% 
Co. is to Atlanta what 
Tiffany is to New York. ^ 
The stock embraces solid 
and plated ware, diamonds ':|;|i|li 
and general jewelry. The ^^ 
salesroom is a palace of 
glass filled with precious 
gems, and beautiful articles 'M 
of personal adornment and 
household utility. The visi- 
tor walks over the tesselated 'i!:!' 
floor enchanted by visions 
of loveliness. Keeping pace j 
with the predominant spirit 
of Atlanta enterprise, ^^ 
Messrs. Stevens & Co. de- E 
termined upon a big ad- 
vance step, and established 
a watch factory. Some of 
the leading citizens of Atlanta and other sections have tested 
these watches and pronounce them excellent in every particular. 
The operations of manufacture are very interesting, employing a 
large force of skilled workmen. The business of the house is very 
extensive, and constantly growing both at wholesale and retail. 




mwrzmdR of 


Crowds of ladies are to be seen at almost any time of the day in- 
specting the splendid and beautiful gold and silver wares of this 
really magnificent establishment. Hours may be spent in it with- 
out weariness. It is one of 
the best known places of 
Atlanta, and few visitors 
leave the city before visiting 

J. C. & I. Daniel, 32 White- 
hall, have a popular boot 
and shoe store. They keep 
in stock the latest fashions 
and the best makes. They 
seek to win custom by the 
excellence of their goods and 
uniformly courteous treat- 
ment of customers. 

J p. STEVENS & CO. Mr. W. W. Haskell, 27 1-2 

Whitehall street, has been many years in the fire insurance busi- 
ness, and is agent for a number of strong companies, among them 
the Niagara, Williamsburg City and Westchester. These com- 
panies are notes for their promptness, and Mr. Haskell carries a fine 

^J^^rAA^ " J« - ast ■ > ' Ma&ia ! w^ g !a!jti*<BW^ s«i wAi.M;gj« hncit-jpcc for them 

S. L. Solomson, watch- 
maker and jeweler, 35 White- 
hall street, understands his 
trade, and gives satisfaction 
to all. He has a beautiful 
transparent clock in his win- 
dow, which is a great public 
convenience, telling the pass- 
ing populace the hour by day 
and night. Mr. Solomson is 
a man of both skill and expe- 
rience in his business. 

Gomez & Pines, 43 1-2 
Whitehall, plasterers, do ex- 


J. p. STEVENS & CO. 



cellent work in plain and ornamental plastering. The firm is com- 
posed of G. P. Gomez and C. S. Pines. 

C. W. Motes & Co., 90 Whitehall street.have a very fine harness 
and saddlery establishment. They make a specialty of hand-made 
work, and no handsomer work is turned out anywhere. In charac- 
ter of material, in finish and style, the goods of this house cannot 
be excelled. They are exclusively engaged in the harness and sad- 
dlery business, not selling wagons or buggies. Their work has 
taken some fine Fair premiums. 

Walden & Stowe, no Whitehall street, have a book-store, where 
may be found the largest stock of theological and miscellaneous 
books in Atlanta. Besides, they have a variety of articles, station- 
ery and the like, usual to their line of business. 


Among the finest establishments of Atlanta is the Wholesale 
Paper Warehouse and Paper, Box and Blank Book Manufactory of 
F. G. Hancock, oa the corner of Broad and Alabama streets. Some 


years ago Mr. Hancock started on a limited scale in the book and 
stationery business, in the firm of Burke & Hancock. After the 



dissolution of the firm, Mr. Hancock had a general partnership with 
an old and wealthy citizen, Mr. W. A. Rawson, whose death left Mr. 
Hancock to conduct the business alone. This, however, he has 
practically done from the outset, having always been the managing 
partner. Gradually enlarging as his trade grew, he commenced 
the manufacture of paper boxes and blank books. His success be- 
came so pronounced, his trade so expanded, that he determined up- 
on an enlargement of his business to embrace the trade in papers, 
stationery, and printers materials in all its branches, and to conduct 
the manufacture of paper boxes and blank books upon the most 
extensive scale. This in turn necessitated enlarged quarters, and he 


soon effected an arrangement with Judge George Hillyer for the 
erection of the building he now occupies, one of the largest and 
handsomest structures in Atlanta, at a cost of some $25,000. Some 
idea of the extent and scope of his business may be gathered from 
the statement that Mr. Hancock occupies the whole of this large 
and splendid building. The lower part is the warehouse, in which 
is perhaps the finest and heaviest stock of paper, stationery and 
blank books in this section of the South. The upper part is devo- 
ted to the manufacture of paper boxes and blank books, which 
gives employment to fifty girls. We saw, speaking of this depart- 



ment, a single order from the Eagle and Phoenix Cotton Mills of 
Columbus, signed by its secretary and treasurer, Mr. G.Gunby Jor- 
dan, for 30,000 boxes. This house controls the sale here of the fiat 
and ruled papers of the Whiting Paper Company, and also carries 
in stock the superior printing inks of Chas. Eneu Johnson, ot which 
it has the sole agency in this section. It also controls exclusively 
in this market the Stone Fort Mills printing papers. Mr. Hancock 
is quite a young man and deserves great credit for building up 
such a house, which is so largely beneficial to Atlanta. His estab- 
lishment is undoubtedly one of the largest in the South, and is a 
great success. • 

Messrs. Harwell & Smith's depot of engines, wagons, and agri- 
cultural machinery is located at 65 Broad street. These gentlemen 
handle popular stationary and portable engines, and the best makes 
of all agricultural machinery, as also the best made wagons. This 
accounts in part for their heavy business, though they have for 
years stood in the front rank of the trade for their reliability and 
general high character, They are general agents for the old relia- 
ble Sweepstakes Thresher, Buckeye Reapers and Mowers, and keep 
on hand a large lot of Whitewater wagons, every one warranted. 



The Estey Organ Company's branch house in Atlanta is located 
on the corner of Broad and Alabama streets, in splendid quarters 
specially erected for it. The reputation of the Estey organ is tv^orld 
wide, and the business of the company became so large South as to 


necessitate the location of a branch house, and Atlanta was selected 
as the most eligible point. This works to the great advantage 
of purchasers, as they can buy here at the same price as paid at 



the North. The Atlanta branch is also a general depot for music 
and musical instruments of every kind, both of American and for- 
eign manufacture, embracing celebrated pianos like the Steinway 
and the Weber. The stock of musical instruments, from a mag- 
nificent piano or a <piooo organ down to a Jew's harp, is very large, 
to meet the requirements of the demands of its wholesale and retail 
trade. Mr. C. M. Cady, the manager of this department, is a gen- 
tleman of most extensive experience in the business. He is a man 
also of large culture and fine taste, and has introduced a most en- 
joyable feature in Atlanta musical society in the shape of regular 
weekly concerts in the beautiful rooms of the Estey. Atlanta is 
proud of her distinction as the Estey headquarters for the South. 

The "Mitchell" wagons, made by Mitchell, Lewis & Co., of Racine, 
Wisconsin, have a national reputation, and the experience of farm- 
ers in different sections of the country agree as to their convenience 
and durability. Only the 
best material of wood and 
iron is used in their con- 
struction. The thimble 
skein, made by Mitchell, 
Lewis & Co., from their 
own patterns, it is claimed, 
is the reason for the pop- 
ularity of their wagons as 
among the lightest run- 
ning in the world. The I 
patent steel skein used are I 
manufactured expressly fori;? 
the "Mitchell' wagon. The! 
"Mitchell" wagon is tool 
well known to need any 

extensive notice as to its' 
special feature, and its ac- 

ceptibility to the farmers is attested by the frequent sight of the 
name upon our streets and country roads. These wagons embrace 
-the various styles in use, the spring wagon, business wagon, deliv- 
ery wagon, etc., one and two horse. The large brick depot or 
warehouse in this city, at the corner of Broad and Hunter streets 




is filled with a large stock of these handsome and popular wagons, 
and is in charge of W. L. P. Wiard, the general agent for Georgia, 
North and South Carolina, Florida and Alabama, who has been 
in the business many years. He sells both to merchants and 

Messrs. Wilson & Bro., whose office is at No. lo North Broad, 
and lumber and coal yards on Spring street along the Western & 
Atlantic railroad, are wholesale and retail dealers in coal, lime^ 
laths and shingles. Their trade is not confined to the city, but 
stretches far out of it, as they are shipping extensively on all lines of 
railroad in the State. Though young men, they have shown enter- 


prise and ability of unusual order. Some years ago they succeeded 
to the well established business of Edward Parsons, but have every 
year since increased it until now it is very great. They deal in all the 
best grades of coal, all kinds of lumber, and the best lime for build- 
ing and fertilizing purposes. With ample capital and facilities, 
having railroad yards, they are able to sell at prices that can not be 
be beaten. 

A. P. Tripod, 13 Broad street, has a fine establishment of paints, 
oils, brushes, varnishes, glass, anok a full stock of that line of goods. 
Mr. Tripod being an experienced painter, and now conducting the 
business on a very large scale, furnishes in this the very best pos- 
sible evidence of the merits of his paints and paint goods, for he can- 
not be deceived, and knows their value from actual use of them and 
through knowledge of the requisites of a good article. This is im- 
portant to customers, for there are many inferior paints and paint 



goods upon the market. In speaking of Mr. Tripod's practical ex- 
perience as a painter, it is proper to add that he is recognized as 
the artisf painter of Atlanta. His sign, fresco and artistic work 
generally, is of rare beauty and taste. The handsomest work of 
this kind in Atlanta, is from his brush. We have seen wooden man- 
tels emerge from his touch so like slate and marble that a critical 
examination would be necessary, even by an expert, to detect the 
difference. Mr. Tripod carries on the business of sign, fresco and 
house painting in connection with his paint and oil establishment. 

F. W. Hart, doors, sash and 
blinds, occupies No. 30 South Broad 
street. His stock is always heavy, 
and is one of the largest carried 
by any house in the South. His 
trade has grown to great pro- 
portions, and to meet its demands 
his orders sometimes are of such 
magnitude as to stagger credulity, 
were the facts not before the eye. 
The whole career of Mr. Hart in 
Atlanta is one of remarkable suc- 
cess. Acquainted with the trade 
in the Southern field from a trav- 
eling connection with a Western 
establishment, he saw an opening 
in Atlanta, and a few years since 
embarked in it. His business in 
doors, sash, blinds and builders 
hardware, ran up like magic, and 
now he ships goods into a number 
of adjoining states, as well as 
Georgia. His trade necessitatee the keeping of a heavy stock 
always in store and warehouse to prevent delay in filling orders. So 
extensive be^anje his trade that he found it advisable to establish a 
branch house in Rome, Ga. Last year he added a planing mill to 
his business, in conjunction with his son, F. W. Hart, Jr., under the 
style of F. W. Hart & Son. All work is done here usually done 
by planing mills, the mill being supplied with the best of machinery, 
and under the personal superintendence of F. W. Hart, Jr. 



Messrs. J. D. & T. F. Smith, No. 59 South Broad street, sell the 
White Sewing Machines. These gentlemen have been engaged in 
the sewing machine business for a long period, and know what a 
good sewing machine is. They are reHable and prompt. 

Broad street is the printing-house street of 
Atlanta, though it is also the main cotton 
street. The Co7istitution, Chrzstmn Index, 
Su?iday Gazette, Sunny South, Weekly Post, 
and other journals are published on it. The 
job offices are numerous. Bennett, in the 
basement, corner of Broad and Alabama, is 
one of the best and most tasteful printers in 
Atlanta. The Franklin Printing House, of 
Jas. P. Harrison & Co., is the largest in the 
State, at times having a hundred employees 
in its various departments. The Daily Con- 
stitution has also a job department, managed by James D. Robin- 
son. Reynolds' job office, by P. S. Reynolds has also a stereotype 
department, which does very satisfactory work. Walker, Claridy 
& Co,, at the North end of Broad street bridge, have a good 
bindery, and so has R. J. Maynard, in the Brown building, at the 
south end of the bridge. 

Moore's Business University, corner of Broad and Alabama 
streets, is a splendid institution. A short time since a city journal 
contained a list of over 200 students by name who attended its 
sessions last year, these gentlemen coming from all over the South, 
and some from the West. President B. F. Moore has recently made 
extensive improvements in his rooms, and also enlarged the educa- 
tional scope of his work. He is a gentleman of high character and 
cultivated manners, and elicits the esteem and respect of all who 
come in contact with him. 

Jas. R. Wylie, 32 N. Broad, is one of Atlanta's leading whole- 
sale grocers, and is prominent in banking and commercial circles 


R. H.Knapp, Real Estate Agent, No. 10 East Alabama street, 
does a general real estate business, selling and renting city property* 
and buying and selling farms and other properties in the country. 



He is paying special attention to the latter, and is opening up a 
large correspondence, looking to the purchase of Georgia farming 
lands by Northern and Western parties, and emigrants. Mr. Knapp's 
references are the best bank officers of the city. He is, however, 
well known, having been long connected with the strong house of 
Wm. McNaught & Co., and for the past year a Councilman of the 
city, representing its mercanfile ward. He is a gentleman of strong 
character and large intelligence, capable of handling well any bus- 
iness he takes up. He is one of the class of men who always suc- 

The Merchant's Bank, 12 and 14 East Alabama street, is one of 
the strong institutions of the city. It has a paid up capital of 
$200,000, and a directory that is taken from the best and strongest 
business men of the city — such men as Benj. E. Crane, president of 
the Chamber of Commerce, W. A. Moore, Jas. R. Wylie, Jas. H. 
Porter, Campbell Wallace, Clinton I. Brown, Geo. Winship, and 
J. W. Beach. Campbell Wallace is president, and Jas. H. Porter, 
cashier. No bank has a higher reputation than this. 

The two views on this 
and the next page rep- 
resent one of the largest 
grocery houses in the 
State, that of Messrs. 
Fuller & Oglesby. The 
building has been re- 
cently erected especially 
for them,and is so built, 
and arranged, that every 
possible convenience is 
afforded for the transac- 
tion of their immense 
business. The firm is 
composed of W. A. Ful- 
ler and J. G. Oglesby, 
both of whom have 
been for years in the fullee & oglesby— front view. 

grocery trade in Atlanta, and in the present connection since 
1878. The progress and success of the firm of Fuller & Oglesby 



has been something remarkable, and although among the leading 
grocery houses of the South, their growth seems just begun. They 
have a large force of traveling salesmen, who visit every section in 

Georgia, and the sur- 
rounding State, con- 
tributing to Atlanta 
trade, and their large 
and favorable personal 
acquaintance gives them 
the fullest confidence of 
their customers. The 
business is thoroughly 
systematized and its effi- 
cient management in- 
sures prompt execution. 
Mr. Fuller has been in 
the business thirteen 
years, and Mr. Oglesby 

sixteen. fuller & oglesby — rear view. 

The Atlanta National Bank, East Alabama street, is the designa- 
ted depository of the United States. It is a national bank, and has 
a capital of $150,000. It is the oldest bank of the city, having been 
in its earlier years the old Fulton Bank, run by two of the financially 
strongest men of the time, Alfred Austell, and E. W. Holland. 
Gen. Austell has been ever since connected with and is now its 
president. He is known to be very wealthy, and has a reputation 
for financial ability that is Stat e-wide. The directors are likewise 
strong men, consisting of the president, Paul Romare, who is cash- 
ier, W. B. Cox, who is vice-president, S. M. Inman, R. H. Richards, 
Jas. Swann, P. Romare, and W. W. Austell. 

T. S. Lewis, 67 East Alabama street, has a very extensive es- 
tablishment for the wholesale manufacture of crackers. He makes 
a "snow flake" cracker that is delicious and very popular. He is also 
a dealer in confectionery and canned goods. He has some thirty 
employees, and his products amount to some seventy-five thousand 
dollars annually. His trade extends from Virginia to Alabama, 
and is increasing rapidly. His business has been established ten or 



eleven years. Mr. Lewis has the latest improved machinery, and 
adds to it from year to year. 

Mickelberry & Whitlock, No. 24 E. Alabama street, do a very 
large wholesale business in groceries, provisions and fruits. Mr.» 
W. M. Mickelberry has speedily built up his trade since he came to 
Atlanta from Griffin, and understands the trade thoroughly. The 
store house is one of the largest in Atlanta, with back platform by 
the side of the railroad track, which gives it the very best facilities 
of transportation. 

At No. 40 E. Ala- 
bama street, is the 
house of Dunn, Alex- 
ander & Co. Mr. 
John N. Dunn, the 
senior partner in this 
house was born in 
Alabama, but raised \ 
in Tennessee. He 
refugeed to Georgia 
in 1863 and spent six 
years in Brooks coun- 
ty, making cotton 
with free labor. He 
came to Atlanta, De- 
cember 1 869, and or- 
ganized the house of 


Dunn, Ogletree & Co. in February, 1872, which was succeeded 
by the present firm January ist, 1881. The old concern and 
the new have been highly favored with the confidence of the 
community, and have always been able to make promptly any 
transaction which seemed to them a prudent one. The house has 
always been able to control sufficient means of its own or others 
when they wished so to do. Full weight and fair dealing in every- 
thing has been their motto as well as their practice. 

Crane & Langston is another house in the wholesale grocery line, 
doing an immense business. They have recently built a very ex- 
tensive cotton warehouse. 



Messrs A. C. & B. F. W^^'ly, wholesale grocers are also on this 
street, and is a strong, first-class house in every respect. 

W. M. & R. J. Lowry, 69 East Alabama street, have a private 
, bank of high reputation. The bank appointments are among the 
best and handsomest of the city. The Messrs. Lowry are wealthy 
and of strong character. Mr. W. M. Lowry, the senior, is one of 
the most respected citizens of Atlanta, and a Christian gentleman 
of great usefulness. Mr. R. J. Lowry, his son, follows in the foot- 
steps of his father in strong traits of character, business energy, 
and financial ability. He has often been honored with official sta- 
tion by his fellow citizens, and is now one of the three Aldermen of 


the city, who have the control of the city's finances. He is chair- 
man of the board of Aldermen, and the financial matters of the 
city are well handled by him. This is a very responsible position 
and shows the esteem in which Mr. Lowry is held. He is stil] 
quite a young man and has a field of wide usefulness before him. 

Davenport, Johnson & Co. occupy 68 and 70 Alabama street. It 
is the same as the New York House, at 33 Park Place. It was 
started in 1791. Its business extends everywhere in the United 
States, and they send goods to China and Europe. All kinds of 
cotton and woolen mill,railway and machinist supplies,as well as rub- 


ber goods of every description, constitute the stock, and anything 
not on hand will be speedily furnished by order. This is the only 
establishment of the kind in the South. Mr. Edward L. Vourhis is 
the resident or managing partner in Atlanta. The Atlanta house 
is admirably located for business, being in a few feet of the General 
Passenger Depot, and having a side railroad track for shipping and 
receiving goods. 

In the splendid building on the corner of Alabama and Pryor 
streets, are the office rooms of Bradstreet's Commercial Agency. 
This department controls a very large section of the South, em- 
bracing a great portion of Georgia, all the counties in Alabama, ex- 
cept seven, thirteen in South Carolina, and thirty-two in Tennessee. 
It has from ten to eighteen employees busily engaged, and four 
type writers in constant use. Mr. H. C. Leonard, 4 gentleman of 
fine experience in banking business, is the Superintendent. Mr. 
Leonard is a well known citizen of Atlanta, and was recently ap- 
pointed to this position. Bradstreet's Commercial reports are in- 
valuable to our merchants, and are very popular. Their book of 
reports is issued quarterly, containing the collection laws of each 
state in abstract, names, business, estimated worth and credit of 
merchants and business men generally in the United States and 
Canada; and a mass of other important information. Besides 
this, written and special reports are furnished to subscribers upon 
application, covering the various points of information needed 
The names of reliable attorneys in'all sections are also furnished'. 
Subscribers will find the pocket edition very serviceable. Brad- 
street has been so long estabhshed that it is well known, and its 
reliability unquestioned. Its use in this section is general, and 
this led to the opening of the branch office in Atlanta. Mr; 
Leonard, the Superintendent, is courteous and prompt; all who 
have business with Bradstreet, will find him either in person or by 
letter. The Executive offices of the company are 279, 281 and 283 
Broadway, New York. 

Frank M. Potts, 19 East Alabama street, has a large trade in 
wholesale Hquors. He controls some of the best brands on the 
market. His experience in the business extends over a cons iderable 
period, which enables him to handle the trade to better effect. 




Lewis Clarke, so widely known as a hatter, has been for some 
time also in the merchant tailoring business. He is now running 
this business exclusively at No. 8. Alabama street. He always had 
the finest and best hats for the money, and he will doubtless make 
a good reputation in that way in his present business of merchant 


The Markham House is on Loyd street, at the north-east corner 
of the General Passenger Depot, and at the head of Wall street. It 
is the nearest hotel in Atlanta to arriving and departing trains, 

Boaz's livery stables are 
located on this street, conveni- 
ently near the Markham House. 
Mr. G. R. Boaz, the propri- 
etor, has long been in the bus- 
iness ; keeps a good stable 
both for livery and sale, and 
has also an undertaker's de- 
partment connected with it, 
which is one of the best fitted 
up in the South. His hearses 
are very costly and elegant, 
and his line of coffin goods 
embrace very costly cases and 
, caskpts 

boaz's livery stables, loyd street. '-.-i.Ji'>.»-tJ. 

Next to Boaz is. Dr. J. Stainback Wilson's Turkish Baths. 

Atlanta's great plasterer. Thrower, has an office at No. 12 Loyd. 
Mr. J. G. Thrower is a gentleman whose name is very familiar in 
Atlanta, being in a very particular sense a "household" w^ord, for 
he has plastered more private and public buildings than any man 
in Atlanta, or all the balance put together. "And his works do 
praise him." He was the plasterer of the Kimball House, and of 
the most prominent public edifices of Atlanta, winding up with the 
work in the Exposition buildings. Plain and ornamental plaster- 
ing, calcimining, and all work in the line of his business he executes 
with great skill. He keeps a regular force of good workmen con- 


stantly employed, being never without a number of buildings in 
different parts of the city to finish up, though he can pick up the 
tools and beat his best workman, for he is master of his trade. Such 
a man always has as much as he can do. Being a very intelligent 
and thoughtful man he very frequently publishes, in interview or 
letter form, hints and suggestions to the ladies in reference to the 
proper care and management of the walls and interior embellish- 
ments. But Mr. Thrower is as widely known in another field. He 
is a chief temperance advocate in the State, never lagging in the 
cause. He is a recognized leader, in fact the most prominent in 
Atlanta. He has accomplished great good by his zeal and unremit- 
ting efforts, which have become so familiar to the public that his 
name has almost become a "synonym" for temperance. 


This street starts at the Markham House, and runs only two 
blocks, but it is one of the most important business streets in At- 
lanta, being thick with wholesalesale houses, offices, etc. After 
the corner building on Loyd street, occupied by the Richmond & 
Danville railroad company for its various offices, comes the Brown 
Block, which is a massive structure occupied up stairs by offices. 
Lawyer Julius Brown, former president of the Young Men's Library, 
and who is one of the prominent young men of the city, has his of- 
fice here. Next to it is the ofifice of Capt. W. D. Ellis, another 
prominent young lawyer and city official. Mr. Ellis came to At- 
lanta from South Carolina, about twelve years ago, just after hav- 
ing been admitted to the bar in that State. He has been a member 
of City Council three terms, and is at present Solicitor of the City 
Court of Atlanta,a court whose civil jurisdiction is almost unlimited, 
and whose criminal jurisdiction extends to all misdemeanors com- 
mitted within the county of Fulton. But leaving the offices and 
descending to ^he first floor we come to one of the great drug estab- 
lishments of the city. 

Geo. J. Howard &Bro., 36 and 38 Wall street, have one of the 
finest wholesale drug establishments in the South. Their stock 
embraces all the goods and varieties of articles that go to make up 


such a house. Druggists of this and other States are supplied by 
this house with complete stocks. Messrs. Howard & Bro., also- 
manufacture for the trade to a considerable extent, and their prep- 
arations are winning quite a reputation. In addition to their whole- 
sale department, they also have one for retail, which is one of the 
most elegantly and handsomely furnitured and appointed in the 
South. In this department they retail the best and most popular 
medicines and compound prescriptions under the direction of a. 
skilled and thoroughly competent and experienced pharmaceutist. 
The ladies find here the most exquisite colognes and toilet goods, 
and the public generally are served in a hrst class style and satisfac- 
tory way in every particular. 

The Gate City National Bank, on the corner of Wall and Pryor 
streets, has a capital of $250,000. It was originally a State bank. 
but was converted into a national bank, with enlarged capital. Lod- 
Gwick J. Hill is president, L.M. Hill, vice-president, and Edward 
S. McCandless, cashier. 


Messrs. Parkins & Bruce, architects, are on the second floor of 
the Healy building, corner of Peachtree and Marietta streets. These 
gentlemen have done much to make Atlanta what it is in point of 
architecture. The splendid building in which their office is, as 
well as the large majority of the magnificient storehouses and 
beautiful residences which have been erected in the past few years, 
were designed by them, including the Kimball House, Library 
building, and principal churches. They have a reputation that is 
more than State-wide, for they have calls into different States, and 
frequently send their designs for public and private buildings to 
considerable distances. Their business is very large, and probably 
they have no superiors in their profession in the South. 

The splendid building, corner of Peachtree and Marietta street, 
one of the finest structures in Atlanta, is the work and property of 
Mr. T. G. Healy, who has been a contractor and builder in Atlan- 
•ta tvv^enty-seven years. Mr. Healy built the Kimball House, Capi- 
tol, Passenger Depot, Catholic church. Post Office, as well as many 






other of the finest edifices in the city, private and public, and has 
just finished the Exposition buildings. He owns extensive prop- 
erty in the city, and has been a resident of Georgia 36 years. 

The People's Mutual Relief Association has its offices in the build- 
ing on the corner of Peachtree and Wall streets, directly opposite 
the National Hotel, occupying the whole second floor. Their plan 
of assurance is now the most popular, and altogether the safest. 
The Gate City Bank is their repository. Among its officers, are 
Wm. S. Baker, president, and R. O. Randall, secretary. The cost 
of insurance is about one-third of that on the old plan. 

Near this street an extensive business has been carried on, in 
part, by a gentleman who is now a member of the Legislature, 
whose success in business has been so phenomenal that a passing 
notice will be readable, as it illustrates the possession of those 
qualities which recommended him to the people for official stations 
of responsibility ; and so it is with many of our citizens. Mr. Frank 
P. Rice was one of the earliest settlers of Atlanta. When a mere 
boy he was apprenticed to the first book bindery in Atlanta, and 
carried a route for one of the papers, the Weekly Examiner, and 
about his first work was driving a dump cart for a railroad. 
Steadily from that day he pushed his way, gradually gathering 
around him friends and property. Forming a patnership 
in the lumber business, he has seen it prosper greatly, and all 
his business ventures have similarly resulted, proving his busi- 
ness capacity, and making him a wealthy man. But all his wealth 
he has put into real estate, his faith in the future of Atlanta being 
•supreme. In the municipal politics and history of the city he has 
had an honorable prominence. He was elected to Council in 1867, 
and was a fourth time chosen. In 1880 he was elected to the 
Legislature, leading the ticket in the vote, and has been active in 
thatbody, pushing through the bill creating County Commissioners, 
the Cole charter, and other important measures. He has always 
taken a spirited part in public enterprises, and is a most valuable 

T. M. Clarke, & Co., wholesale hardware and saddlery, corner of 



Peachtree and Line streets, have the leading establishment in this 
line ill the city. It is the oldest house, having been started in the 
early days of Atlanta. It has grown until it is equal to any hard- 
ware house in the South, Their building is one of the largest and 
handsomest in the city. The firm consists of Thomas M. Clarke, 
R. C. Clarke, J. C. Kirkpatrick and Jno. C. Fitten. 

Taylor's Drug Store, 
corner of Marietta and 
Peachtree streets, is 
one of the handsomest 
in the State. The 
store is situated in the 
very heart of the city, 
and the most crowded 
thoroughfare. The 
stock is excellent, cov- 
ering everything car- 
ried in a first-class 
drug store. Walter A. 
Taylor, the proprietor, 
has long experience in 
the business, and has 
built up a most suc- 
cessful trade. But his 
greatest triumph is his 
manufacture of Tay- 
lor's Premium Co- 
logne. It has gained a 
wide-spread celebrity, 
and finds a sale in all 
parts of the country. 
At times it. has been 
difficult to supply the 
demand for it, which is - taylor's drug store. 

constantly growing. The prescription department is in the most 
competent hands and is a special feature of recommendation. On 
the whole, Mr. Taylor has a model drug store, reflecting not only 
credit upon himself, but also upon the city. The beauty and 

1 66 


style of its appointments ; the excellence and variety of its stock, 
the efficiency of its various departments,and the popularity of the 
cologne manufactured by it.seem to keep pace with each other. 

Messrs. Hunnicutt 
& Bellingrath, 36 and 
38 Peachtree, have an 
immense stock of 
house furnishing 
goods, stoves, plan- 
ter's goods, etc. Their 
building, which they 
erected a number of 
years ago to accom- 
modate their growing 
business, is one of the 
largest and best in the 
city. The house has 
grown up with At- 
lanta, and its pro- 
prietors are among the earliest inhabitants. It is perhaps the largest 
establishment of the kind in Georgia. 

Wm. Clifford Neff, & Co., have at No. 70 Peachtree, an office 
for their soap manufactures. Here may be seen popular varieties — 
some thirty brands — of toilet and laundry soaps — made in Atlanta. 
These gentlemen are valuable and enterprising citizens, running 
in addition to their soap works a large ice factory, under the name of 
Artie Ice Company, managed by the junior of the firm, C. G. Neff. 



Phillips & Crew, Nos. 6, 8 and 10 Marietta street, have one of 
the largest book and music stores in the South. They have been 
in the business in Atlanta for sopie ten years, and in this time have 
built up a splendid trade, extending into various States. They deal 
in school books, blank books, stationery, and in everything gener- 
ally kept in a well appointed book store, for such it is.and first-class 
in every respect. Their music store carries in stock the famous 



Knabe and other good pianos, and many makes of organs, includ- 
ing the splendid Clough & Warren. A full line of musical instru- 
ments is kept, and sheet music is made a specialty. Messrs Phil- 
lips & Crew are highly respected citizens, whose establishment is 
an honor to the city. 

The furniture establishment of P. H. Snook, near the corner of 
Marietta and Peachtree streets, is an immense affair. His store 
and warerooms stretch fropa. Marietta street clear through to Wal- 
ton, and are literally packed with goods. He sells at wholesale and 
retail, is constantly shipping and receiving goods, and is doing a 

p. H. snook's. 

tremendous business. His orders come from all parts of Georgia, 
and from neighboring States. He carries a great variety of goods 
in stock, and his prices run from tens into thousands of dollars 
for suits. His establishment is of course visited by every person who 
comes to Atlanta with any idea of making purchases of furniture. 



The Singer Sewing Machine Company's office and salesroom 
No. 42 Marietta street, are very elegant. The popularity of the 
machine is universal, and its sales have run up to an enormous fig- 
ure, in 1880 exceeding a half million. Mr. G. W. Leonard is the 
manager of the Southern Department, of which Atlanta is the 
headquarters. His management has been very successful, and the 
Singer is a general favorite. 

At No. 27 Marietta, is the agricultural seed store and machinery 
warehouse of Mark W. Johnson & Co. They have been in the 
business ior many years, and enjoy a trade extending to very far 
distances. TLe farmer can get of them anything he needs in the 


line of farm implements and agricultural machinery, as well as the 
choicest and best seeds, to which department special attention is 
paid. The best brands of fertilizers are also sold by this house. 

The Atlanta Bridge Works of Wilkins, Post & Co. are on this 
street, near the city limits. They have one hundred or more em- 
ployees. They are now, in 1881, building iron bridges on the 
Memphis & Charleston, Georgia, and Alabama Western, roads. 
They furnished all the iron work for our county court-house. About 
two years ago Wilkins, Post & Co. established their shops perma- 
nently in Atlanta, and their machinery is complete. They have vet. 


connection the largest foundry in the city. They will probably 
erect at an early day a new building about 50 x 100 feet. 

At a point of our view of Marietta, that indicated by the large 
sign on which is seen the word "Remington," the reader can find 
what may be called the cradle of the sewing machine business in At- 
lanca.although less than a dozen years have passed since the erection 
of this fine business block. Many changes have taken place in the 
sewing machine trade of this section. The present occupants of 
No. 31 are the well known firm of Fred Bell & Co. The senior 
partner of this house was born and raised in England ; coming to 
Amerca in 1852, he has been engaged in the sewing machine busi- 
ness over a score of years. Mr. Bell was one of the first occupants 
of Opera House building, and for ten years past, amid the many 
changes that have transpired has steadily maintained a prominent 
position as a wholesale dealer. At present the house of Fred Bell 
& Co. are sole agents for the Stewart Sewing Machines and needles, 
parts, oil and attachment for all machines, which they sell strictly 
to the trade only, having exclusive control of the States of Georgia, 
Alabama, South Carolina and Florida. This was one of the iirst 
houses in the South to sell sewing machines as merchandize. 

The Boiler Works of Jas. A. Gifford, are at 222 Marietta street. 
Mr. GifTord manufactures boilers, wrought and sheet iron work. 
He furnishes our leading factories and shops in this line, which is 

a sufficent proof of his skill. 

E. L. Winham, printer. No. 8 1-2 Marietta street, has one of the 
most complete of the smaller job establishments of the city. He 
has recently added several more presses to his press room, making 
his facilities excellent for general work. 

Wm. Brenner, manufacturer of and dealer in mill stones, porta- 
ble mills, and mill findings, is at 320 and 322 Marietta street Mr. 
Brenner emplovs an average of six to ten hands and his annual 
sales will amount to $25,000. He sells into the Southern States gen- 
erally, and his vvork is first class, finding a good market where- 
ever it is introduced. Mr. Brenner has been in this business a great 
many years, and understands his trade in all its details. 

John Davis, 221 Marietta street, has a brass foundry and ma- 
chine shop, where he does the best of work in his Ime. He has a 


brick building of good dimensions, partly two-stories high, and on a 
corner lot. Mr. Davis is a practical machinist, is skillful and indus- 
trious, and has thus built himself up by degrees, until he has a 
foundry of his own and a good business. 

The Atlanta Coffin Factory, of L. H. Hall, & Co., is near Mari- 
etta street, on the corner of Elliott and Newton streets. It is one 
of the biggest manufacturing enterprises of Atlanta. The capital 
invested in grounds, buildings and machinery, is about $50,000, 
and employs some fifty hands. $50,000, however, would not buy 
it. It is a very successful enterprise. Started four years ago on 
Decatur street, its business grew so rapidly that it necessitated the 
building of a factory. The building, which is three stories high, 
140x160 feet in dimensions, exclusive of engine and drying rooms, 
is heated by steam pipes. The manufacture of cofifins and caskets 
covers every style and price, and they are shipped all over the 
South. In looking at the stock one would think that he saw every 
kind made, both wood and metallic, so perfect is the imitation of 
metal and of the various kinds of wood. They are prepared to ship 
at telegram's notice, any desired style or size, so complete is their 
stock and machinery. There are two acres surrounding the factory 
which will be used at an early day for factory cottages. L. H. Hall 
and E. E. Rawson are the company. 

The Atlanta Cotton Factory is one of the great indus- 
tries of the city, located on this street, 170 and 172. On account 
of financial difficulties in the building and starting of it, it has been 
placed in the hands of a receiver. ex-Governor R. B, Bullock, who 
is now managing it with success. 

The Atlanta Brass Foundry, Geo. R. Meneely & Co., are near 
Marietta street, on the corner of Foundry and the Western & 
Atlantic railroad. The building, which is of brick, is owned by the 
company, as also about an acre of land. The Atlanta foundry 
was established to look after the interest of the company in the 
Southern States. The^• manufacture Hopkins' patent self-fitting 
journal bearings, and supply a great many railroads. Several 
hands are employed. The foundry has facilities for general brass 
castings, but makes no bells. 



E. Van Winkle & Co., 214 and 216 Marietta street, and 16, 18 
and 20 Foundry street, manufacture cotton gins, presses, circular 
saws, sawmills, shafting, mill gearing, castings, etc. This is the 
leading establishment of this kind, not only of Atlanta, but of Geor- 
gia. To give an idea of its growth and magnitude it need only be 
said that three or four years ago they occupied the factory as 
shown in the accompaying cut ; since that time this has been re- 
placed by a mammoth brick structure covering nearly an acre of 
ground, fronting 115 feet on Marietta, iSoon Foundry, and 250 
on the Western & Atlantic railroad. The average number of 
hands is about seventy-five, and the capital invested from seventy- 
five to a hundred thou_ 
sand dollars. It will be 
seen that this is one of 
the great industries of 
the city that go to make 
up its prosperity. It not 
only feeds three or four 
hundred people, but it 
enriches the city by its 
sales, which ramify Geor- ^^ 
gia and neighboring 
States. There- is no gin 
in the market more pop- 


ular than the Van Winkle, and it has been difficult to keep up with 
the orders for it. The firm is composed of E. Van Winkle, who is 
a practical machinist, and has been engaged in the business many 
years, and Mr. W. W. Boyd, who manages the books and finances. 


Messrs. Geo. W. Scott & Co., guano manufacturers, are located 
upon this street. They have a great and growing trade for their 
manufactures. Their new factory is on the Georgia railroad near 
the city limits. 

Avery. & Sons, carriages, wagons and plows occupy the whole 
of the large warehouse building corner of Forsyth and Alabama 
•streets. This is a branch of the Louisville house, which is one of 


the largest establishments in the United States. It is complete in 
its departments, and always has an immense stock on hand. Mr. 
George L. Miller is the manager of the Atlanta Branch. 

Logan & Co., flour merchants, are at 18 S. Forsyth street, near 
Marietta. The firm is composed of Frank R. Logan and James L. 
Logan. They have been in the business for many years, and have 
sold heavily in this and neighboring sections. So great has their 
business grown that they have occupied recently their present large 
store, or fire-proof warehouse, where they keep on hand the differ- 
ent grades of flour they sell. They have mills of their own at Bridge- 
port, East Tennessee, the firm there being Susong, Logan & Co. 
Logan & Co., handle in this market all the brands of their mills, 
the Waverly and the Bridgeport, and also the brands of other mills. 
They are wholesale dealers in flour and grain. 

B. M. Winn & Co., wholesale dealers in tobacco and cigars, have 
their office at No. 18. The firm consists of Frank R. Logan, of Lo- 
gan & Co., and B. M. Winn, who has been in the business for eleven 
years, which gives him a valuable experience. They deal in North 
Carolina tobacco, buying from first parties. The firm of B. M. Winn 
&. Co., are also manufacturers' agents for tobacco and cigars. 


Maddox, Rucker, & Co., 36 West Alabama street, are bankers, 
•cotton factors, and dealers in fertilizers. They have recently erected 
a magnificent warehouse, one of the largest and best in the State. 
Col. R. F. Maddox, the senior membar of the firm, is one of At- 
lanta's oldest and most respected citizens. He is of those citizens 
who are always prominent in public enterprises, that 'speed the 
city on its way of prosperity. He was a prominent member of 
the citizens' committee, which drafted our new charter, a work of 
great blessing, and one that will be more and more beneficial as 
the city grows older. Col. Maddox has often been honored by the 
people with official station, and has discharged his duty to their 
satisfaction. A few years since, at a very critical period he was 
chairman of the Aldermanic Board, and in that capacity managed 
the finances of the city so well, as to improve greatly its financia 


condition and largely advance the general interests of the city. He 
is now and has been an active member of the Executive Committee 
of the International Cotton Exposition, and has earnestly labored 
to make it a grand success. In business he has been uniformly 
prosperous, and his integrity alike in commercial and official life, 
united with fine capacity, is the secret of his honorable prominence 
and success. In his present extensive business his partners are 
possessed of high character and qualities for its successful manage- 


This is a very important street and is still to be more prominent. 
Our new Court House is upon it, and the State Capitol will be in a 
few years. The city hall and park are on this street. The building 
is jointly used at present by county and city officers. A look 
within it any day will reveal some faithful officers at work. There 
is C. M. Payne, one of the quietest and finest of gentlemen, and 
one of the best county treasurers in the State of Georgia. He 
is so popular with the people that they select him every time. 

A. M. Perkerson, the Sheriff, and one of the best any county 
ever had, here has his office with his assistants, and is as clever a 
man as he is a faithful official 

• Near this is the Ordinary's office, now filled by Judge Wm. 
Lowndes Calhoun, one of the most popular men in Fulton county, 
in this particular very like his father, who in his life-time held many 
offices at the hands of the people. Judge Calhoun has been a 
memiber of the Legislature, was last year Mayor of the city, and was 
elected Ordinary by a flattering vote. He is a good lawyer, and 
will make ' a good judge in the Ordinary's courts. In all county 
matters within his jurisdiction he will doubtless serve the county 

Upon the same floor are the offices of the City Clerk, Marshal 
and Tax Receiver. This latter gentleman is Jas. A. Anderson, who 
has had quite a noted and certainly very honorable career in 
Atlanta. Coming here quite a young man, he worked his way into 
the confidence of the people, has represented his ward in Council, 
was several years Chief of Police under the new system, and has- 


been recently elected-to the office he now holds by the City Council. 
During most of this time his law partner was John B. Goodwin, a 
young law^yer, whose career has been quite similar, representing his 
ward in Council and being now one of the three Aldermen of the city 
by the general vote of the citizens Last year he narrowly missed 
being nominated for the State Senate, which would have been equiv- 
alent to an election. Mr. Goodwin is attentive to his duties as a 
city official and is an active participant in the proceedings of the 
General Council. 

Bergstrom's printing house, 2J E. Hunter street, is a neat build- 
building, 30x75 feet, specially erected for him, and finely adapted to 
the printing business. Redoes journal, book and job printing, 
and has an experience of many years in his profession. Mr. J. K. 
Tnrower is the foreman or assistant of Mr. Bergstroln, and is a 
very worthy gentleman, who has been in the printing business for 
a long period. He is also one of the five Police Commissioners 
who control the police force of the city, having been elected to this 
responsible position by the General Council. 

Tichnor, Dunlop & Co., at No. 11 East Hunter street, are gen- 
eral job and book printers. They have a new office, with the latest 
styles of type, and four or five presses. They employ an average 
of ten or a dozen printers. Their work is excellent and satisfac- 
tory and has brought them a large custom. 

A. Ergenzinger's is headquarters for upholstery, at 12 East Hun- 
ter street. The manufacture of awnings and tents is a specialty. 

The flour mills of Henry Lewis, corner of Hunter and Thompson 
streets, rank among the leading enterprises of the Gate City. They 
have been established seven years, and the popularity of their pro- 
ducts is such that it is almost impossible for Mr. Lewis to keep up* 
with his orders, though his mills have a capacity of two hundred 
barrels a day. Lewis Patent Process, Choice and Extra Family 
brands tind sale in numerous States, especially Georgia and South 
Carolina. The flour sells well in any market. 



The hardware house of McNaught & Scrutchin is on White- 
hall street. This is an old firm. Mr. Wm. McNaught, the senior 
member, was born in Scotland, but came to Atlanrta from Newport, 
Florida, where he was in the commission and cotton business 
many years with James Ormond. In Atlanta, with Mr. Thomas 
Scrutchin and Mr. Ormond, he started a hardware store. His 
place of business was destroyed during the war, but he rebuilt after 
it. In 1864 he started a paper mill in connection with Colonel J. G. 
Foreacre, and later built another mill. Mr. Thomas Scrutchin is 
partner in both the hardware business and the mills. 

Hutchison & Bro., I4 Whitehall street, have a very fine drug 
store, complete in all its appointments. They carry in stock all 
drugs, medicines and other goods usually found in such a store, 
and a fine line of toilet articles, including an excellent cologne of 
their own manufacture. They also carry a stock of the most pop- 
ular patent remedies. They manufacture, themselves, a remedy 
which has won a large reputation, Neuralgine, for the cure of neu- 
ralgia and headache. The merits of this remedy have the endorse- 
ment of many prominent and widely known persons. The pre- 
scription department of this establishment is reliable, and medi- 
cines are compounded by competent pharmaceutists. This store 
has a very large city trade, §nd it is growing in public favor. 

The Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine has gained a wide pop- 
ularity in the South, and especially in Georgia. Their headquar- 
ters in this city, on Whitehall street, are very elegant. Mr. Wey- 
burn is the manager of this department. 

O. L. Braumuller & Co., No 35 Whiteball street, have a large stock 
of pianos and organs, including the Chickering piano and Mason 
& Hamlin organ. This is a branch house of Ludden & Bates of 
Savannah, one of the greatest music houses of the South. Pur- 
chasers will always find a varied stock in store from which 
to select. Messrs. Braumuller & Co., also keep sheet music, and 
can supply any demand for it, however great. Their business is ex- 
cellent and growing. 



Messrs. W. J. Willingham & Co., on Mitchell street at the cross- 
ing of the Central railroad, are extensive dealers, wholesale and re- 
tail, of dressed and undressed lumber, flooring and ceiling, and 
make a specialty of selling in car load lots. Located immediately 
on the line of road leading from the great lumber regions of Geor- 
gia, they have great facilities in the trade. Mr. Willingham estab- 
lished the business last year, coming from Forsyth, where he was 
highly respected. He has formed a partnership with W. A. Will- 
ingham, of Columbus, and J. T. Willingham, of Atlanta, the latter 
of whom has charge of the books of the concern. 

M. E. Maher, wholesale liquors, ii West Mitchell street, has been 
a member of Council, and in that capacity served the city well. The 
citizens will remember his efforts in a number of important mat- 
ters, which by his energy and persistent work were pushed to a 
successful issue for the city, saving a large amount to its treasury. 

W. T. Wilson, 14 Mitchell street, is the manager for Atlanta, 
and this section of the Davis vertical feed sewing machine. He sells 
at wholesale to merchants throughout the South. The Davis ma- 
chine has won distinction at our fairs, and does most beautiful work. 


W. L. Jarvis, manufacturer of carriages, buggies, sewing ma- 
chine wagons, and other styles of vehicles, has his factory at 44 
Line street, and his repository just around the corner from it, on 
Pryor street. Mr. Jarvis is one of the first manufacturers of the 
State, and his vehicles are made with skill, showing strength, 
gracefulness, elegance and beauty. He has won numerous prem- 
iums on his work. He has made great reputation on the manu- 
facture of sewing machine wagons, having made a large number 
for the Singer and Wheeler machine companies, and has sold them 
clear into Texas, notwithstanding the large freight expense neces- 
sarily incurred. Mr. Jarvis has built up*a fine business, and employs 
quite a numerous force of wood workers, blacksmiths and painters. 

On the corner of Peachtree and Line street is the firm of T. M. 




Clarke & Co., mentioned elsewhere. The accompanying illustra- 
tion of their magnificient building is exact, with the exception that 
Messrs. Clarke & Co., now occupy the entire building from top to 
bottom, the old Eastman college having disappeared years ago, 
finding there was no room for another business college in a city 
where Moore's University is. 


McBride & Co's. wholesale and retail crockery establishment is 
situated at the corner of Decatur and Pryor streets. The business 
of this house is immense, and has grown with great strides in the 
last few years. In 1878 they occupied the second story of quite a 
large building on the corner of Line and Pryor streets, the interior 
view of which was quite handsome. But their trade speedily outgrew 


this, and they added the lower floor, thus occupying the entire build- 
ing. Recently they leased the largest and handsomest building, with 
few exceptions, in the city, using four great floors for their business, 
which extends all over the South. Thiy are, large importers, re- 
ceiving goods direct from England, France, Germany, Japan and 
other countries of the old world. To Col. A. J. McBride, the sen- 



ior of the firm, is due a large part of the credit for the making of 
Atlanta a port of entry, he devoting much valuable time to this end, 
and making many trips to Washington. Their present stock of 
imported and domestic 
goods is very large, and 
no need exists for any 
merchant in this section 
to go North or East for 
supplies. The useful, the 
beautiful,and the artistic, 
in this line, may be seen 
in all their glory at this 
house. McBride & Co. 
are agents for the Seth 
Thomas clocks, and gen- 
eral agents for the United 
States and the world for 
the famous Lambreth's 
Improved Fly Fan,w^hich 
they are now exporting 
to all countries. Each 
floor of this establish- 
ment is a beautiful pal- 
ace, to see which is one 
of the pleasures of a visit to Atlanta. Merchants who want to buy 
crockery, wood ware, tin ware, cutlery, show cases, etc., can no<- do 
better than to call at McBride's. The firm now consists of A. J. 
McBride. S. L. McBride, and Russell C. Johnson, who commenced 
for his board as clerk in 1873, but through constant attention and 
fidelity to his duties, recently became a member of the firm, and 
financial manager. 

The Builders Supply House, of Messrs. Broomhead & Co., No. 
36 Decatur street, has a full stock of doors, sash, blinds, builders 
hardware, paints, and goods generally kept in their line. Mr. B. H. 
Broomhead, senior of the firm, is well known as a leading builder 
and contractor for many years in Atlanta. He erected the Library, 
and many other prominent buildings in the city, and is a strong 
man financially. Mr. Frank Tryon, managing salesman of the firm. 



has experience and capacity for making a successful business, and 
Mr. John S. Broomhead handles the books and finances with effi- 
ciency and energy. 

The Milburn Wagon Co. occupy all three stores under Library, 
Decatur street. These tine warerooms contain at all times a large 
stock of their wagons, carriages and buggies, as well as goods man- 
ufactured by others. This department is under the energetic man- 
agement of Mr. H. L. Atwater. The Milburn Wagon Company, of 
Toledo, Ohio, is one of the largest in the country. It was organiz- 
ed in 1848, at which time it commenced the manufacture of carriages 
and wagons, and has grown to the massive proportions they now 
exhibit. Their mammoth works occupy some thirty acres used as 
lumber yards, store rooms, factory, offices etc., etc. The principal 
buildings cover twelve acres, and are five stories in height, and are 
of modern style of architecture, adapted especially to their purpose. 
They have all the latest and most improved machinery known to 
the trade. The force of hands ranges from 400 upwards. The 
company states that they employ only skilled labor, and make it a 
special rule to turn out none but the best work, that will stand the 
test of time and use. Their material is also the best, and. they em- 
ploy sufficient capital to allow them to fill their yards with lumber 
and keep it until it is thoroughly seasoned. They have been award- 
ed many premiums and prizes. In addition to the regular farm 
and plantation wagon, they are making a variety of platform, half 
platform, three-spring, side-spring and side-bar business and pleas- 
ure wagons and buggies^ Some idea of the magnitude of their sales 
will be had from the statement that during the past thirty-two 
years some half million wagons have been sold. They have branch 
houses for the sale of their goods at Atlanta, Ga.; Austin. Texas; 
Memphis, Tenn.; Council Bluffs, Iow;a St. Paul, Minn.; and San- 
Antonio, Texas. 

Messrs. Sciples & Sons, dealers in coal, lime, plaster, cement and 
lumber, are on Decatur and Loyd, entrance from either street. 
They do a very extensive business. They have recently embarked 
in the manufacture of brooms, and have a large factory on Marietta 
street, run by the most improved machinery. They sell brooms all 
over the South. 



Traynham & Ray, Decatur street, have one of the largest estab 
lishments of the city, and have a great trade in doors, sash, blinds, 
and builder's materials. Their capital must be $50-000 or more, 
having a very large brick building and mills furnished with the 
best improved planing machinery. They occupy about an acre and 
a half of ground on a leading street almost in a stone's throw of the 
general railroad depot. They have a hundred employees, and thus 


make one of the principal industries of the city. J^eir sales 
amount to a hundred thousand dollars a year. Such establish- 
ments as these are immensely beneficial to the city, and are an in- 
dex to the city's growth and prosperity. Messrs. Traynham & 
Ray have built up a business from small beginnings, which reflects 
great credit upon their energy, skill and business capacity. 

1 84 



This is a street noted, in its business portion, for the splendid 
buildings upon it. Chief among them is the great Kimball House, 
but there are other splendid buildings and blocks, among them the 
Republic block, the Austell building on the corner of Decatur, the 
Dodd building on the corner of Alabama, the five-story structure 
occupied by McBride & Co., and others. Some of the first whole- 
sale houses of the city are located on it, mcluding grocery, hard- 
ware, and dry goods. 

On the corner of Wall and Pryor streets, are M. C. & J. F. Kiser 
& Co., wholesale dry goods. This is one of the leading houses of 

M. C. & J. F. KISER & CO. 

the South, doing an annual business of over one million of dollars. 
Their trade extends into many States, hierchants coming from 
great distances lo buy their stock from this house, because they 
can buy as cheap -as in New York. They occupy the whole of the 
fine building, the various floors being devoted to separate depart- 
ments. Few firms in Atlanta reflect as much credit upon the city 
and themselves as this. Their history is one of energetic struggle 



crowned by brilliant success. M. C and J. F. Kiser came here from 
CampbelFcounty, started their business and pushed straight ahead, 
showing themselves masters of enterprise as well as energy and 
sterling business character. It was the first Atlanta house that 
went direct to^Europe for goods, Mr. J. F. Kiser going in person 
and importing direct. There is not a firm in the South that has a 
more solid reputation based upon character and notable success. 
W. S. Everett and W. E. Reagan were admitted into the firm some 
years since on account of their capacity and valuable service. 

--y pn^f' 


On the corner of Pryor and Decatur is the hardware establish- 
ment of Beck, Gregg & Co., which carries a great stock and enjoys 
a trade extending into a number of States. 

M. & J. Hirsch, clothiers, opposite the Kimball House, have an 
immense stock of clothing, and have a great wholesale trade. 




Our streets and roads are of course not the best in the world but 
there are pleasant drives nevertheless, and they will increase with 
the growth of the city. 

Ponce- de Leon Springs is only a mile beyond the corporation 
limits, north-east of the city, though it is within police con- 
trol. Here thousands of people assemble during the summer days, 


and especially afternoons, both for the beautiful woodlands and 
the refreshing water, which is a mineral of great virtue. The road 
to it is over hill and into valley, and overlooks some yery fine, rollmg 
scenery It may be reached by many streets, which converge on 
a high ridge into the main Ponce de Leon road or the boulevard, 
a recently laid out drive. Beautiful residences will be passed m 
going out, giving an idea of the architecture of our streets. On 
the ridge mentioned, a magnificent view is obtained of the city, which 


lies stretched out with its spires and massive structures limned 
against the sky. 

A short distance east of the city, going out by the cemetery, 
in which is located the Confederate monument, a visitor will find the 
monument of General McPherson, made of gun barrels. ' General 
Mcpherson was killed in the battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 

A third drive is out on McDonough road, which leads to the 
extensive nurseries of M. Cole & Co, to Clark University, and to 
the waterworks, some three miles from the city. This drive is full, 
of interest. The sight-seer may go out Washington street, passing, 
the City Hall, a number of churches, and residences of Major Benj. 
E. Crane, president of the chamber of commerce, U. S. Senator, 
Joseph E. Brown, and the suburban villas of Wm. McNaught, R. 
H. Knapp. and James Ormond, situated in beautiful groves, and 
surrounded by meadows and streams. Returning, he will 

Ai'ri'ERSC.N'S MUM M t.M , 



take McDonough street, one of the oldest in the city, and one o 
the most prominent of residence streets. 


The Atlanta Nurseries of Messrs. M. Cole & Co. are just outside the 
city, on the McDonough road, which within the city becomes Mc- 


Donough street, one of the oMest and leading streets of the city. 
Their nurseries are quite extensive, and their business has enlarged 



KESIUHNCK ..■ B. i'. W ^ L\- . Vv .AS H I N . , r<.>N ,'-T. 




with great rapidity. In 1868 they grew only some thirty thousand 
trees, chiefly fruit. A few years later, the number had increased 
to five hundred thousand, the culture of evergreens and roses hav- 
ing been added. Their trade extends into different States, and 
they must grow at this time a much greater number of trees to 
supplythe increased demand. All kinds of standard and dwarf 
fruit, nut trees, grape vines, the various most palatable berries, and 


ornamental, evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs, and roses 
in their choicest varieties, are grown. Messrs. Cole & Co contract 
to plant orchards and ornamental grounds. Visitors to the Cotton 
Exposition will notice their work, for the grounds of the Exposi- 
were planted by them. A telephone connects the office of the Nur- 

series with the city. r * .1 . 

A fourth drive is out Peaclitree street, the Fifth Avenue of Atlanta, 
as Whitehall is its Broadway, Upon this street is the Governor s 
Mansion, that of U, S, Senator Ben Hill, and splendid residences 








that would not discredit any street in tliis country. Upon it live 
quite a number of the prominent citizens of Atlanta. The resi- 
dences extend some two miles. 

A fifth drive leads east by Decatur street to the villages of Edge- 
wood and Kirkwood, in the latter of which resides ex-Senator Jno. 


B. Gordon. This drive passes by the Oakland cemetery, on the 
right, and is one of the routes to it. Still another drive is out 
Marietta street, which presents a view of the capitol, custom house, 
and factories, and leads to Oglethorpe Park, where the Interna- 
tional Cotton Exposition is held. 

Another drive is to West End, directly west of the city. This 






suburban village, which is really a continuation of Atlan.a, is chiefly 
reached via Whitehall or Peters street, which both furnish pleas- 
ant views of residences. McPherson Barracks, where United States 
soldiers are always quartered and a splendid band discourses de- 

Mn.7S fxc Co fjy 


lightful music every afternoon, is on the line between U^est End 
\ Atlanta In West End is anotlier mineral sprmg. and other 
;lt ora„rac"ion. among which is a beautilnl lake on the 
premises of Col. B. J. Wilson. 






.UM"««M«'>«.I.>.'"»;^'' * 







20 1 




Accessibility has been mentioned as one of the special attractions 
of Atlanta. It can be reached from all the great cities of the 
country within twenty-four, or forty-eight hours, passengers now 
breakfasting in New York one day, and taking late breakfast in 
Atlanta the next. Equally are the interesting sections of the 
country accessible to Atlanta, twenty-four hours transporting its 
citizens to Florida, the "Land of Flowers," the mountains of Vir- 
ginia, the leading summer resorts, and the sea shore. 

But Atlanta has scenery of a high order right around her. 
hours ride on the Atlanta & Charlotte road carries one to the 
zerland of 
A mer ica. " 
From a point 
on Peachtree 
street, on the 
right the eye 
c an sweep 
across inter- 
vening valleys 
to the famous 
Stone Moun- 
tain, a soHd 
mass of gran- 


height of twelve hundred feet; and on the left to the northwest, loom 
up in plain view, among others, the Kennesaw Mountains, now his- 
toric as fiercely contested battle grounds of the civil war, and near 
which is a large National Cemetery for the Federal dead. These latter 
mountains are only twenty miles distant, while a two hours drive 
over a good dirt road will take us to Stone Mountain, a distance of 
sixteen miles. This mountain is a curiosity not only in itself, but 
in the process of stone cutting, by a large force of experienced and 
skilled workmen, who are constantly chiseling monuments, build- 
ing and paving stones, and all other forms of granite in popular 
use, where durabihty and excellence is desired. 




Atlanta has very little need at present, for an extensive park, as 
the immediate country for miles around furnishes nature's own 
park of woodland and stream for pleasure-strolling and recreation. 
What the city needs most is a number of small parks within the 


corporate limits. However, looking to the future, the city purchas- 
ed some years since a tract of land, fifteen or twenty acres, on Ma- 
rietta street, with a view to its improvement for public use. It is 
about one mile beyond the city limits, and embraces ridge and valley, 
with a small lake. It has been used for State and county fairs, and 
has a race-track of a half mile circuit, within which are now the 






Exposition buildings, ten or twelve in number. The Exposit.... 
Hotel, by Phil. F. Bro;vn, of the famous Blue Ridge Springs'of 

''' ''ilii'liii'iiii'iiiiri'k'Hiii' ' 

VT^^.-}^ ^'"" """''•^ ** grounds, and is both an attraction and! 
<x curiosity. 




In conclusion, after a presentation of details and illustrations of 
the business, architecture, and progress of Atlanta, the reader will 


get a still broader comprehension of this great young city from 
a bird's eye view of it. This view shows all of the city except its 



From the foregoing pages a reader may gather a very good idea 
of Atlanta's past, present, and prospective future. The facts 
demonstrate that Atlanta will grow speedily to twice its present 
size. It possesses every requisite for this result There is not an 
element of progress lacking. In every field of enterprise there 
are earnest and successful laborers, and in every depart- 
ment of professional skill. Manufacturing is done upon the most 
extensive scale. Mercantile business has its mammoth establish- 
ments ; professional skill is abundant ; lawyers and physicians of 
almost national distinction are citizens of Atlanta. There is a 
painter here, J. VanStavoren, whose portraits are triumphs of genius. 

In addition to the railroad facilities of Atlanta, Mr. Walter R. 
Brown has obtained a charter for the construction of a canal to 
supply the city with water for manufacturing and transportation 
purposes. Mr. Brown is one of the prominent young men of the 
city, and would not engage in a project of this kind were it not a 
feasible one. Mr, H. I. Kimball is also organizing a company. 
The proposed route is via Gainesville from the Chattahoochee. 

The banks and banking capital of the city are excellent. In the 
great panic of 1873, which destroyed so many of the banking in- 
stitutions of the country, the Atlanta banks were able to stand 
The Atlanta National Bank, the oldest in the city, was a bulwark 
of confidence, that imparted moral strength as well as financial 
aid. This bank has much in common with Atlanta, and the history 
of the two are interwoven in the march of progress. The Bank 
of Fulton will be remembered by many of our citizens. It was 
established in 1845 by Alfred Austell and E. W. Holland. It made 
a character that never left it. After the war it was changed into 
the Atlanta National Bank, General Austell continuing to be its 
President. It is one of the strongest banking institutions of the 
South, and especially so in the character and financial standing of 
its managers and stockholders. It has done much in aiding^ the 





merchants to undertake great enterprises and enlarge the prosperity 
of Atlanta. 

The city is well supplied with newspapers. There are two dailies, 
the Constitution and Post-Appeal ; the Gazette, Phonograph, 
Snnny South, ChristtaJi Index, Weekly Post, and other weeklies, 
are published here. There are also medical, literary and agricultural 

The trade of Atlanta is rapidly extending into wider and more 
distant territory. The drummers, or commercial travelers, for 
Atlanta houses swarm over Georgia and surrounding States. The 
majority of these men are of notable intelligence and activity. 
There is a newspaper traveling agent. Col. Thomas A. Acton, who 
is the equal of any in the South. Coming to Atlanta in 1858, he 
published 20,000 copies of the " Life of Crocket," who was hung 
for the murder of Landrum. Having a predilection for the printing 
business, he engaged in it in one way and another till about 1868, 
when he became connected with the Atlanta Constitution, and has 
traversed Georgia for that paper till he knows every foot of its soil, 
with unequalled success in gathering subscribers. His energy, 
notwithstanding he weighs three hundred pounds, and his genial 
manners, add to the effectiveness of his work. He has accumu- 
lated considerable property, and is a good and useful citizen. 

The building of the Athnta Female College, now in process of 
erection, will be very "handsome. 

Mr. W. M. Scott's clothing house. No. 1 1 Whitehall street, is 
erroneously printed No. 21 on page 139. 

Dr. Josiah Bradfield, at 26 Whitehall, has an excellent drugstore. 
On page 140, the notice of his establishment is concluded with 
paragraphs belonging to the preceding section, which the reader 
will readily detect. 

Wilson & Bro., No. 10 Broad street, are W. S. Wilson & Bro., 
Mr. J. C. Wilson being the resident and managing partner. 

T. R. Ripley, not T. H., as stated on a preceding page, is the 
pioneer crockery man of Atlanta. 

Thomas & Richter arc doing a large business in furniture. Mr. 
H. W. Thomas, and not W. H., as printed on page 144, is the 
senior partner. They make a fine display at the Exposition. 


Mr. S. F. Solomonson is the watchmaker and jeweler No. 35 
Whitehall. The types changed his name somewhat, but it would 
not alter his reputation as one of the best in his line of business in 

C. W. Motes & Co. are at No. 96 — not 90 — Whitehall street. 
Their harness and saddlery establishment is first-class in every 

On page 155, mention is made of the very large wholesale house 
of Fuller & Oglesby. The types not satisfied in writing the initials 
of Mr. H. A Fuller wrongly, also changed the final syllable. Mr. 
Fuller has been in the grocery business in Atlanta thirteen years, 
and Mr. Oglesby sixteen. Their names are certainly very familiar, 
but types will do these things occasionally. 

The Atlanta Soap Factory, Wm. Clifford Neff&Cc, proprietors, 
have removed their office to a more central location — No. 37 South 
Pryor street. 

One of the handsomest establishments in the South is in the 
splendid building pictured on page 181. The firm of McBride & 
Co. is composed of A. J. McBride, S. L. McBride and Russell C. 
Johnson. The initials of one name were incorrectly printed in the 
former notice. 

T. S. Lewis, the large candy manufacturer, was com.pelled to 
enlarge his establishment. His factory, bakeries and office now 
occupy 54, 58, 60 and 62 East Alabama street. 

The Central Planing Mills are doing a large business in doors, 
sashes, blinds, etc. The firm is composed of W. L. Traynham and 
D. J. Ray. These gentlemen have built up a business of great 
value to the prosperity of Atlanta. 

Fulton Planing Mills, J. M. Nace, proprietor, are also on Decatur 

Messrs. Walden & Stowe have, at 1 10 Whitehall street, a branch 
book store, as at Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis. Mr. H. C. 
Jones is the manager of the Atlanta house. 

On Marietta street is a very important industry recently started 
in Atlanta by those enterprising gentlemen, Sciple & Sons. Else- 
where allusion is made to their extensive coal and lumber yards, 
and also their broom factory. At this factory they are now manu- 


facturing broom and hoe handles separately for the trade. They 
have also added another new enterprise — the recutting of old files 
and manufacturing of new. The work is done by skilled labor, 
and is as good as any turned out in the United States. The enter- 
prise of Messrs. Sciple & Sons is most commendable, and is justly 
meeting with large success! Their entire business, including that 
of coal and lumber, has assumed great proportions, and extends 
into a very wide territory. 

An evidence of the constant growth of Atlanta is found in the 
great amount of business done b^ its railroads. All the roads are 
well officered. They nearly always furnish a city official — at 
present two. Mr. L. C.Jones, of the Western and Atlantic Road, 
is not only one of the best of railroad officials, but makes a most 
excellent member of Council. He is now representing the Fifth 
ward, but is a candidate for Alderman. Being a business man of 
fine capacity, he would fill the position well, and the finances of the 
city would be well managed as to his part of the work and respon- 
sibility, and the best interests of the city advanced. 

Mess. White & Miller, corner of Broad and Hunter streets, have 
engines, saw mills, grist mills, and agricultural machinery gener- 
ally, for sale. The senior, Mr. J. J. White, has been in the business 
in Atlanta for a considerable period. 

In a few years Atlanta will, in all probability, have a good canal 
in addition to present advantages. In a recent interview, Col. Z. 
D. Harrison, clerk of the State Supreme Court, in answer to ques- 
tions from a reporter of a daily paper, said that the recent surveys 
were, made by a company which was organized some years ago, and 
who have only been waiting for a favorable time to interest Northern 
capital. The feasibility of the enterprise was placed- beyond 
doubt, and at a cost not exceeding that anticipated. The company 
is largely composed of prominent Atlanta business men. During 
the past winter, or early last spring. Mayor English, after his re- 
turn from New York, called the attention of the city government to 
the matter. He became a stockholder in the company about that 
time and was made a director. He had, while at the North, talked 
with capitalists and entertained strong hopes that the necessary 
means could be had to build the canal should its feasibility be dem- 



id ; 


onstrated. Surveys had already been made, but there were still 
points in doubt, and to settle these points the recent survey from 
Seven Island ford and Carter's shoal was made. This was long 
before anything had appeared in the papers relative to the building of 
the canal at an early day, and since then Mayor English has been 
actively engaged, working up some practical plan to give us the 
benefit of this enterprise. 

This much of the interview is quoted to show that the canal is^ a 
probability of the near future. In Mayor English the enterprise 
will find an efficient and tireless worker, as the City finds him in aU 
matters looking to its progress. Under his official administration, 
the city has great prosperity. The value of the taxable property 
of the city is assessed at twenty-two millions of dollars, and is rap- 
idly increasing. The income of the city government will soon be 
sufficient for all purposes of internal improvements. An evidence 
of the prosperous condition of the city is found in the fact that it 
was recently able to place an issue of 5 per cent, bonds (to meet 

others falling due) at par. , r r> ^ 

The police department is under the separate control of a Board 
of Commissioners. Their names will be found in an appendix. 
Mr. G. T. Dodd is the chairman; W. T. Goldsmith, Amos Fox, 
C W. Hancock and J. K. Thrower, are the members of the Board. 
Dr. Goldsmith has been secretary of the Board since the organiza- 
tion, (and also a commissioner) which are facts highly complimen- 
tary to him. 

We also append directories of city and State governments. 



Governor — Alfred H. Colquitt. 

Attorney-General — Clifford Anderson, 

Comptroller-General — William A. Wright. 

Secretary of State — N. C. Barnett. 

Treasurer — D. N. Speer. 

Commissioner of Agriculture — John T. Henderson. 

The Judiciary. 

Supretne Court — James Jackson, Chief Justice ; Martin J. Craw- 
ord and Alexander M. Speer, Associate Justices. 
Clerk — Z. D. Harrison. 


Mayor — James W. English ; office, 35 S. Broad street. 
Aldermen — Charles Beerman, J. B. Goodwin and R. J. Lowry. 
Councilmen — First Ward — J. J. Barnes, A. J. Pinson. 
Second Ward — John Berkele. R. H. Knapp. 
Third Ward — T. J. Buchanan, D. A. Beatie. 
Fourth Ward — T. J. Boyd, J. W. Johnson. 
Fifth Ward — L. C. Jones, W. D. Payne. 
City Attorney — W. T. Newman. 

Police Force. 

CONNALLY, A. B., Chief. 
Starnes, W. A., Captain. Bagby, D. N., Captain. 

Aldredge, N. G., Captain. Couch, E. F., Captain. 


Spyers, G. P. A. Buchanan, J. F. 



King, W. A. 

Barnes, L. P. 
Baird, J. C. 
Brenning, C. 
Bone, W. H. 
Brooks. A. A. 
Crim, W. M. 
Christophine, F. 
Dennard, W. F. 
Flynn, Wm. 
Foute, W. E. 
Goodson, A. H. 
Glover, J. W. 
Holland, M. N. 
Haynes, R. O. 
Joiner, J. C. 
Lynch, J.T. 
Mercer, J. L. 
McWilliams. — 
Menkin, Fritz. 

Belcher, Sol. 


Veal, T.E. 


Moon, Z. B. 
Moss, A. J. 
Manly, W. P. 
McEwen, W. F. 
Norman, J. W. 
Parish, J. R. 
Rapp, J. E. 
Russell, J.G. 
-Spier, J. W. 
Starnes, Henry. 
Seirdan, W. N. 
Simmons, M. T. 
Steerman, J. C. 
Stroud, J. H. 
Thompson, Thomas. 
Thurman. J. M. 
Weaver, J. W. 
West, Nat. 
Reid, Z. T. 


Stroud, S. A. 


Atlanta Hotel, 27. 

Atlanta, 28. 

Atlanta and West Point Railroad, 30. 

Athenaeum, 37. 

Austell, A., 38, 127, 209. 

Association, Young Men's Christian, 38. 

Alexander, Dr. J. F., 39. 

Annual sales, 40. 

Atlanta, Battle of, 45. 

Adair, Geo. W., 54, 65, 70, 106. 

Angier, N. L., 68, 

Alexander, Tom. 70. 

Annual Business, 117. 

Alabama street, 138. 

Atlanta National Bank, 156, 209. 

Adair, W. F., 20. 

Arms, Fred, 20. 

Atlanta, Future of, 133. 

Atlanta, Growth of, 132. 

Avery & Sons, 171. 

Anderson, James A., 174. 

Atwater, H. L., 182. 

Atlanta Nurseries, 190. 

Acton, Thomas A., 210. 


Barnett. N. C, 17. 

Baptists, 29, 89. 

Baker, Rev. Joseph. 22, 38. 

Bomar, B. F., 29. 

Bank, First, 34. 

Baptist Churcn, Second, 35. 

Bellingrath, L., 37. 

Bellingrath, A. 37. 

Bank, Fulton, 38. 

Bain, D. M., 53. 

Bank, Atlanta Savings, 70. 

Biggers, Dr. S. T., 97. 

Baker, W. 164. 

Bell, Fred & Co., 169. 

Brenner, Wm., 169. 

Bullock, R. B., 170, 119. 

Brown, J. E., 27. 53, 58, 61, 74, 122, 128 

Brown, Julius L.,64, 102, 122, 161, 193. 

Burke, J. F., 64, 67. 

Brown, Phil. F., 77, 205. 

Bird's Eye View — Map, 207. 

Brown, Charles, 59. 

Bleckley, L. E., 21, 61, 69. 

Bradstreet, 159. 

Bray, G. R., 160. 

Benevolent Association, 64. 

Brown, W. R., 65. 106, 209. 

Bollman, \V., 139. 

Bradfield, Dr. Josiah, 139, 209. 

Banks, 127. 

Beland, Dr K. H., 112. 

Brass Foundry, 170. 

Boyd, W. W., 171. 

Berg Strom A. M., 176. 

BraumuUer, O. L. & Co., 177. 

Broomhead, B. H., 181. 

Broomhead& Co. 181. 

Broomhead, John S., 182. 

Beck, Breeg 6i Co., 186. 

Cahn, L., 58. 

Crane & Langston, 157. 

Clarke, Lewis, 159. 

Catholic Library Association, 67, 103. 

Cox, W. B., 37, 67, 69, 127, 190. 

Church, Loyd street Methodist, 55. 

Church, Payne's 55. 

Church, St. Paul, 55. 

Church, Fourth and Fifth Baptist, 35. 

Clarke, E. Y., 56. 

Concordia, 58. 

Cohen, J. L.. 58. 

Crane, B. E., 84, 106, 127, 188. 



Capital, State, 80, 128. 

Culpepper, J. W., 107. 

Court House, County, 112. 

Cottou, 114. 

Christian Association, 103. 

Conley, Ex-Gov. Benj., 106. 

Courtney J. C.64. 

Coker F. M., 194. 

Creek Indians, 17. 

Central Railroad, 17. 

Carlyle, Willis, 19. 

Collier. Wash., 20. 

Calhoun, John C. 27. 

Collier, John, 28. 

Church, the First, 23. 

Citizers, Early, 24. 

Collins, James, 24. 

Cooper Mark A., 26. 

Catholics, 29. 

Cemetery, 34, 86. 

Christian Church, organized, 34. 

Census, 37. 

Cole, M., 37, 38, 188. 

Clarke, Thomas M., 37, 39, 53 165. 

Clarke, Jno. M., 37. 

City Hall. 37. 

College, Atlanta Medical, 38. 

Church, Central Presbyterian, 38. 

Chisolm, Willis P., 39. 

Calhoun, Jas. M., 47, 54. 

Cole, E. W., 75. 

Clayton, W. H. 75. 

Colquitt, Gov. A. H., 82, 84, 214. 

Cummings, J. F., 85. 

Churches, 8g. 

Cady, C. M., 151. 

Clarke, T. M. & Co., 164, 178. 

Clarke, R. C, 165. 

Coffin Factory, 170. 

Cotton Factory, 170. 

Calhoun, Wm. Lowndes, 174. 


Dougherty, Daniel, 20. 
Democrat, 26. 
Dodd, G. T., 34, 101,211. 
Dougherty, David H., 37. 
Dodd, P. & G. T., 36, 53. 

Directory, first, 39. 

D'Alvigny, Dr. N., 49. 

Dooley, M H., 67. 

Daniel, J. C. & I. 146. 

Davis, John, 169 

Decatur street, 180. 

DeGive, 53, 64, 107. 

Doonan, John, 67. 

Davenport, Johnson & Co.. 158. 

Dunn, Jno. N., 157. 

Dunn, Alexander & Co., 157. 

Election, first city, 28. 

Enterprise, 26. 

Elliot, Bishop, 29. 

Episcopalians, 29. 

Examiner, 29. 

Ezzard, Wm. L., 39. 

Exposition, 83, 203 

Educational, 60, 115. 

Express Co., 75. 

Evans, Rev. C. A.. 89. 

Ergenzinger, A., 176. 

Edgewood, 193. 

Everett, W. L., 186. 

Estey Organ Co., I50. 

Eichberg, J. T., 64. 

Ellis, W. D.. 161. 

Eiseman, M.. 58. 

English, J. W. 129, 210, 213, 214, 216. 

Falvey, John J., 103. 

Fairbanks & Cox, 138. 

Female College, 115. 

Fertilizer trade, 116. 

Fire Company, the first, 29. 

Fitten, John A., 85, 101, 165. 

Flynn, John H., 58, 60, 67, 68, 97, loi. 

Formwalt, Moses W., 28. 

Fcreacre, G. J., 85, i77- 

Fox. Amos, 68. 

Forsyth, A. B., 25. 

Foute, Rev. Dr., 93. 

Franklin, M., 64. 

Fuller & Oglesby, 155, 212. 

Fuller, H. A., 155, 197- 



Fuller, H. A., 155, 197. 
Fuller, W. A., 43. 
Fuller & Oglesby, 126, 155. 
Fulton County, 130. 

Gartrell, L. J., 34, 54, 60, 68. 

Gas Works, 137. 

Gate City Guards, 39, 138. 

Gate City, 71. 

Gate City National Bank, 162. 

Georgia Railroad, 17. 

Gifford, James A., 169. 

Glenn, L. J., 34. 

Goldsmith, Dr. W. T., 97, 211. 

Gomez & Pines, 146. 

Goodman, C. M., 141. 

Goodwin, John B., 175. 

Gordon, John B., 74, 193. 

Graham, John M.. 67, 103. 

Gramling, W. G-, 69. 

Grant, L. P., 27. 57, 61, 68, 74, 85. 

Green, John W., 74. 

Guilford, G. P., 64. 

Gwinn, Rev. Dr., 89. 


Hall, L. H . 170. 
Hammock, C. C, 70. 
Hammond, N. J., 68. 
Hancock, F. G., 147. 
Hanleiter, C. R.. 26, 29. 
Hape, Samuel, 65. 
Hape, Albert, 56. 
Harrison, James P. «& Co.. 67. 
Harrison, Z. D., 67,212, 216. 
Harrison, Geo. W., 67. 
Hart, F. W., 153. 
Harwell & Smith, 149. 
Haralson, Frank H., 80. 
Haskell, W. W., 146. 
Hayden, J. A., 27, 29, 32, 68. 
Hayden, Mrs. J. A., 64. 
Hayes, Ex-President, 126. 
Haygood, Greene B., 35, 39, 60. 
Healy. T. G., 85, 86, 138, 162. 
Health Institute, 108. 
Healthfulness, 130. 

Hemphill, W. A., 61. 

Hoyt, S. B., 25, 70, 97. 

Huff, W. A., 77. 

Hulbert, W. H. 75. 

Hulsey, W. H., 60. 

Hunnicutt & Bellingrath, 43, 166. 

Hunnicutt, C. W., 34. 

Hunt, Jno. J., 29. 

Hunter street, 174. 

Hutchison. Bro., 177. 

Hebrew Benevolent Society, 6". 

Heidt, Rev. Dr., 91. 

Henderson, J. T., 81, 85. 

Hibernians, 58. 

Hibernian Benevolent Society, 38. 

Hill, L. M., 162. 

Hill, Lodowick J., 162. 

Hill, B. H., 193. 

Hillyer, George, 68, 148, 199. 

Hirschberg, S. 58. 

Hirsch Bros., 142. 

Hirsch, M. & J., 186. 

Holbrook, J. M., 34. 

Holcombe, H. C, 27. 

Holland, E. W., 20, 38, 39. 

Homicide, first, ^4. 

Hood, General, 46. 

Hopkins, John L., 68, 85. 

Hospital and Home, lOo. 

Hospital, St. Joseph's, 102. 

Hotels, 75. 

Houston, W. J., 23. 

Howard, Geo. J. & Bro., 161. 

Howell, E. P., 85 


Inman, S. M. & Co., 114. 
Inman, S. M., 65,84, loi, 127, 196, 
Inman, John H., 85. 
Intelligencer, 29. 


Ivey, Hardy, ig. 

Jack & Holland, 140. 

Jackson, Henry, 56. 

James, John H., 38, 51, 63, 58, 53, 69, 106. 

Jail, 88. 

Jarvis, W. L., 178. 



Jericho, Knights of, 29. 
Johnson, Mark W. & Co., 168. 
Johnson, M. W., 53. 
Johnson, Russell C, I80. 
Johnston, Joseph E., 44. 
Jones, E. L., 53. 
Jones, O. H., 52. 
Jones. D. G., 56. 


Keely, John, 37, 134, 142. 

Kimball, H. I., 53, 209. 

Kimball, J. C, 65. 

King, John P., 22, 30, 67. 

King, Miss Louise, 65. 

Kiser, M. C. & J. F. & Co., 125. 126, lE 

Kiser. J. F., 186. 

Kiser, M. C, 84. 

Kirkpatrick, 165. 

Kirkwood, 193. 

Knapp, R. H., 153- J:''8- 

Kreis, J. E., 21. 

Kuhn & Sons, 144 

Laird, Wm., 200. 

Langston & Crane, 126, 

Lawshe, Er, 30, 33, 37, 38, 49, 51, 144 ■ 

Lawshe, Lewis, 38. 

Lawton, J. S., 67. 

Lawyer, first, 34. 

Lewis, T. S., 155, 212. 

Lewis, H , 176, 

Leonard, G. W., 168, 195. ' 

Leonard, H. C, 159. 

Libraries, 102. 

Library, Young Men's, 56. 

Lieberman, Mrs. L., 65. 

Logan, Dr. J. P., 37- 38,60, 68. 

Logan & Co., 123. 

Logan, Frank R., 173. 

Logan, James L.. 173. 

Lochrane, O. A., 53. 

Long, Engineer, 27. 

Long, Stephen H., 18. 

Lowry, W. M. & R. J., 127, 158- 

Lowry, W. M. 158. 

Lowry, R. J., 84, 158. 

Loyd street, 160. 
Luckie, W. D., 56, 137. 
Luminary, 22. 
Lumpkin, Governor, 22. 
Lutheran, 63. 
Lynch, M., 29. 
Lynch, Peter, 103. 
Lynch, John J., 103. 


Macon and Western Railroad, 26. 
Madden, Mrs. Mary, 64. 
Maddox, R. F., 84, 173. 
Maher, M. E., 103, 178. 
Mahoney, M., T03. 
Mallon, Bernard, 61. 
Manufactures, 117. 
Marthasville, 22. 
Martin, Rev. Dr., 91. 
Markham, Wm., 77. 
Masons, 27, 38. 
Mayer, David, 60, loi. 
Mayor and Council, the first, 28. 
McBride & Co., 180, 211. 
McBride, A. J.. 34, 53< 180, 117. 
McBride, S. L,. 180, 200. 
McCandless, E. S., 162. 
McDaniel, L O. & P. C, 27. 

McDaniel, L O., 29. 

McMillan, J. C, 54- 

McNaught & Scrutchins, 38, 51, 177. 

McNaught, Wm. & Co., 124. 

McNaught, Wm., 177, 188, 192. 

McPherson Barracks, 86. 

McPherson, death of, 46. 

McPherson Monument, 188. 

McRae, Wm , 74. 

Mecaslin, J. H., 138. 

Meeneely, Geo. R. & Co., 170. 

Medical Colleges, 96. 

Memorial Association, 58. 

Merchants' Bank, 155. 

Methodists, 28, 89. 

Mickelberry & Whitlock, 159. 

Milledge, John, loi, 102. 

Miller, Geo. L., 173. 

Milburn Wagon Co., 182. 
Military Companies, 138. 



Mills, Frank, io6. 

Mineral Spring, Atlanta, 130. 

Mitchell property, 26. 

Mitchell Wagons, 151. 

Monroe Railroad, 17. 

Moore's Business University, 62, 115, 154. 

Moore, B. F,. 62, 116. 

Moran, P. J., 67. 

Morgan, D., 141 . 

Morrison, J., 37, 53. 

Morrison, A., 37, 53. 

Morrill, W. C, 64, 122. 

Motes, C. W. & Co., 147, 212. 

Municipal Government, 133. 

Municipal reform, 68. 

Murphy, A , 43, 69, 136. 

Murrell's Row, 31. 


Nail, J. S., 106. 

Neff, Wm. Clifford & Co., 166, 212. 

Neff, W. C.,85. 

Negro Villages, 138. 

Newman, J S., 81. 

Newspapers, 154. 

Norcross J., 21, 22. 24, 29, 32, 38, 54. 


O'Brien, Rev. Father, 91. 
Oddfellows, 29, 39. 
Oglesby, J. C, 165. 
Oglethorpe Park, 86, 202. 
O'Keefe, 60. 
Orme, W. P., 3o. 
Ormond, Jas. M., 124, 177, 188. 
O'Reilly, Rev, Father, 49. 

Paper Mills, 124. 
Parkins, W. H. 56. 
Parkins & Bruce, 132, 162. 
Patillo, W. P., 206. 
Payne, C. M., 174. 
Payne, Edwin, 35. 
Preachtree street, 162. 
Peck, J. C, 37, 38, 52, 85, iJ 
Peck. Willis F., 35. 

People's Muiual Relief Association, 164. 

Perkerson, A. M., 174. 

Peters, Richard, 28, 29. 70, 85. 106. 

Pittman, Daniel, 34, 39, 113. 

Ponce de Leon Springs, 130, 187. 

Population, 37, 40, 63, 129. 

Police, 69. 

Porter, J. H., 127. 

Potts, Frank M., 159. 

Peters, Edward, 107. 

Peters, Miss Nellie, 65. 

Phillips, H. T.,6i. 

Post Office, 86, 106. 

Powell. Dr. Thos. S., 97. 

Phillips & Crew, 166. 

Pratt, N. A., 116. 

Prather, Jno. S , 67. 

Piince, A. P., 29. 

Presbyterians, 29. 

Property, 40. 

Pryor Street, 184. 

Public Charities, 100. 

Quinn, Rev.. 29. 



Railroad, Air-Line, 38. 54, 63. 

Railroad, Atlanta Street, 70. 

Railroads, 71. 

Randall, R. O., 164. 

Rawson, E. E., 38, 47, 52, 60. 170. 

Reagan, W. E., 186. 

Real Estate, 40. 

Redding, R. J..,8r. 

Reinhardt, A. M., 107. 

Rhodes, Wallace, 106. 

Rice, Z. A , 29. 

Rice, John, 53. 

Rice, Frank P., 164. 

Rice, Mrs. D., 65. 

Richmond and Danville Railroad, 161. 

Richards. R, H., 127. 

Ripley, T. R., 142, 211. 

Robertson, Dr. U. O., 108. 

Rogers, Wm., 74. 

Rogers, Rev. J. L., 38. 

Root, Sydney, 38, 85. 

Rosenfcld, A., 58. 



Rosenfeld, S., 58. 
Rosenfeld, A. & S., 144. 
Ryan, Rev. Father, 91. 


Sabbath School, The First, 23. 

Salter, Dr. S. F., 100. 

Schley, Gov., 18. 

Sciple & Sons, 182, 212. 

Scott, Geo. W. & Co., 116, 171. 

Scott, W. M., 139, 211. 

Schools, Public, 60. 

Scoville & Terry, 77. 

Sherman, Wm. T., 45. 

Shulhafer, E. A., 58. 

Silvey & Dougherty, 38. 

Silvey, John, 30. 

Silvey, John & Co., 126. 

Singer Company, 168 

Slab Town, 31. 

Smith American Organ Company, 147- 

Smith, Dr. George, 35. 

Smith, J.D.& T. F., 154. 

Smith, Joseph, 201. 

Snake Nation, 31. 

Snook, P. H., 167. 

Snow, H. Y., 54. 

Society, 131. 

Solomonson, S. L., 146, 212. 

Southern Miscellany, 26. 

Spalding, R. D., 67. 

Stanton, W. L., 198. 

Steinheimer, D., 58. 

Steinheimer, J., 55, 58. 

Steinheimer, I., 58. 

Stephens, John, 67, 103, 107. 

Stevens, J. P. & Co., 145. 

Stocker & Castleberry, 140. 

Stout, B. A., 106. 

St. Luke's, 63. 

Surgical Institute, 108, 109. 

Synagogue. 55, 64. 


Taylor, Walter A., 165. 
Terminus, 19. 
Terry, Major, 29. 
Terry, Stephen, 24. 
Terra Cotta Works, 122. 

Tichnor, Dunlap & Co., 176. 
Thrasher, John, 19, 26. 
Thompson, J. Edgar, 28. 
Thompson, Joseph, 39. 
Thomas & Richter, i44,'"2ii. 
Thrower, J. K., 176. 
Thrower, J. G., 160. 
Tommey, Stewart &JBeck, 53.. 
Traynham & Ray, 182, 212. 
Trinity, 35, 63. 
Tripod, A. P., 152. 
Tryon, Frank, i8i. 
Tucker, Dr, H. H.. loi. 
Fuller, Mrs. W. H., 64. 
Turn Verein, 59, 
Tyler, A. H., 144. 


Van Stavoren, J. 209. 
Vaughn, J., 28. 

Van Winkle, E. &^Co., 123, 171. 
Voorhis, Edward L,,i59. 


Wadley, Wm., 74. 

Walden & Stowe, 147, 212. 

Wallace, Campbell, 65, 127. 

Wall Street, 161. 

Walker, W. S., 143. 

Walker, Gen., death of, 46. 

Washington Hall, 25. 

Water Works, 86, 136. 

Weed, M. B., 107. 

West End, 130, 193. 

Western & Atlantic Raifroad, 19, 30. 

Wheeler & Wilson, 177. 

White, W. Woods, 106. 

White, E.T., 78. 

Whitehall Street, 138. 

Whitner, Jno. J. & Son. 143. 

Wiard, W. P. L., 152. 

Wilson, Dr. J. Stainbaek, 160. 

Wilson, Dr. C. L., 112. 

Wilson, Dr. C. A., 112. 

Wilson, W. S. & Bro., 152, 178, «ii. 

Wilson, B. J., 78, 195. 
Wilson, Rev. Dr. J. S., 23,29. 
Willingham, W. J. & Co., 178, «i«. 
Wilson, W. T., 178. 



Wilkins, Post & Co., i68. 
Winn, B M. & Co., 173. 
Winn, B. M., 173. 
Winham, E. L., 169. 
Winship, Jos., 35. 
Winship, George, 127. 
WooUey, B. M., 141. 

Wylie, Jas. R., 53, 84, 126. 127, 154, 190. 

Wyly, B. F., 37, 53, 192. 

Wyly, A.C., 37,84, 199. 

Wyly, A. C. & B. F., 38, 126, 158. 

Wrenn, B. W., 64. 

Withers, W. S., 19. 123. 


Atlanta National Bank xxiv 

Bergstrom, A. M ix 

Brenner, Wm xxiii 

Constitution xvli 

Emery's xvii 

Ergenzinger, A. xiii 

Fulton Planing Millls xi 

Gomez & Pine viii 

Goodman's Picture Store xiv 

Gate City Bank xx 

Health Institute xxi 

Harwell & Smith xvi 

Hutchison & Bro xv 

Howard, Geo. J. & Bro vii 

Haskell, W. W viii 

Jones, J . G xiv 

Jack's .' xii 

Kennesaw Route ... i 

Ladd, A. C xix 

Lagomarsino. xx 

Logan & Co x 

Mickelberry T Whitlock xii 

Milburn Wagon Company xi 

Morgan, D x 

Merchants' Bank xx 

Maher, M. E xv 

Mallan, J.J xxi 

Motes, C. W. & Co xvii 

Opium Cure. xvi 

Post-Appeal xviii 

Piedmont Air-Line. ii 

Phillips & Crew vi 

Potts, F. M X 

Ripley, T. R xiii 

Stone Pipe and Roofing Company v 

Singer Manufacturing Company iii 

Scott, Geo. W. & Co iv 

Smith American Grgan Company., .xxiii 

Scott, W. W xi 

Tripod, A. P xv 

Thrower, J. G ix 

Thompson's ... xii 

Winham, Printer ix 

Winn & Co x 

Wilkins & Post viii 

Withers' Foundry xxiii 

Walden & Stowe xiii 

Whitner & Clarke xxi 

Van Stavoren xviii 

And other advertisements. 




By its superior management and unsurpassed facilities, has 
earned the confidence of tlie traveling public, and is steadily grow- 
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Cincinnali, Louisville, yiaoapolls, Cliicap, 



f ashin^tos. Mmm, Wdif\l^ Ik Ifork i^ll lastern Fai&ti, 



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Fare the same by all Lines to New York and Sastsrn Cities. 
For further information, address 

B. W. WRENN, Gen. Pass. Agi., A f Inn fa, Ga. 
WM. MacRAE, General Manager. 




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No. 7 10th STE2ET, RICHMOND, VA. 





Sen Singer IwFaaiilybiBgMasliiae, 

The popular demand for the Genuine Singer in 1880 exceeded that of any pre 
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has been before the public. 

In 1S79 we sold 431,167 Machines. 
" 1880 *< 538,609 ^' 

Excess over any previous year^ 107,442 Machines. 

Our pales last year were at tlie rate of over 1.700 Sewing Mjicliines a 

I>ay for every business day in the year. 



Se-wrirLg 2y<,e Ever TTe-b Gosis-brvic-fced.- 

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\il Co. 


34 Union Square, 


1,500 Subordinate O^ices in ths United States and Canada, and 
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CeitlraJ Oflice— for Ocorjjria, FJorirtn smd Soiilli Carolina- 
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Atlanta, Ga., Macon, Ga., Columbus, Ga., Augusta, Ga. 

Savannah, Ga., Thoniasviile, Ga., Charleston, S C JackKorvville. Fla. 

Branch oftices at all important points. Agents m every county. Addrees al' 
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42 Marietta Street, Atlanta, Ga. 
G. W. LEONARD, Agent. 





Manufacturers of and Dealers in 


OiE^ZF-XCIE, ZSTo- 20 ^ors37-tlx -Street, . 




1^ ^w^y 


Cotton # Corn 

Miuiufacturcd from PURE and SOUND MATERIAL. Actual poil tests 
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Special terms given to merchaote, agents or clubs. Address 








Stone Pump, Pipe I Roofing 

<3^5^ Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

All Kinds of Pumps and Pdmp 

We keep constantly in stock a full line of all makes of Iron Suck, Lift and Force 
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General Dealers in 


peoMnaiin jj-jiiuj 



IN FACT, cverytlirns generally kept iu a well appointed Book Store. 
Address, for prices, 

■ • PHILLIPS & GREW, Atlanta, Ga. 

'"""— "'^~'n"TT"iirMfiT— Tin WTiiTftllTrinif TMTTTlMllMrMinMIIMaWMLlMUMMIiaAiMLIUIU-LWTirifl 


PHILrl^IPS & CREW, Atlanta, Ga., 

General! A«:ents for Celebrated 

f^^ ORG-JLirS, 

S'eet Musio, Small Masioal Instrurrents, Etc. Etc. 



1 ■ 

asniQjiaDiG natter, 







Publishers, Booksellers and Stationers, 

V'c have the largest stock of Theological and Temperance Books, Oxford 
Teachers' Biblea, Smiday-^chool Ren-ards, Birthday Catds, New Year, Christmas 
and Easter Cards, in Atlanta. 



. J. HOWAED & MO.. 

Wholesale & Retail 

36 & 38 Wal5 Street, 

{Opposite Pasgenger Depot.) 


Oldest House, Largest Stock, Lowest Prices. 
35 Whitehall St., ATLANTA, GA. 

Great Reduction, in Sheet Music. 

Having recently becon.e Wholesale Southern AS-^^'.^'rabfed^o-'LuSe' 
■""S-'n";:"''-*?- 'a"also r \ansrfV;'n°arother publishers, at the follow„,s ex- 

We also carry a l^?«5,f^??,H: "^ fee thich we sdl at v^ry low figures ; and parties 
INSTRUMENTS, ^^^ ^^^^^^S &c wine we se^.^^ ^^ y^^ prices and terms before 


Wholesale and Retail Piano. Organ and Musio Dealers. 






J f 

1, ,,, 

27^ Wliiteliall Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

Authorized Agent for the following New York companies, namely : 


Assets, $15600,000 


CITY, - 








- - _ 



6. P. GOMEZ, 

43}^ Whitehall Street. 


Crumley Street. 


Plain and On 

Work solicited and satisfaction guaranteed. All work entrusted to us will re* 
ceive our personal attention. 










Enginssrs and Bridge Builders. 


Triangular, Post and Quadrangular .Trusses, Oushing's Patent 
Piers, Iron Viaducts, Turn Tables, Eoofs, Eiyeted BeamB 
and Gird ers, Forgings and General Railway Work. 



No. 12 Loyd Street Atlanta, Ga. 




Cements, Calcined Plaster, Plaster Ornaments, 

i^^^i-iSonivdiinsriEs, Etc,, 

Will Fill Orders for CEMENT and TERRA COTTA DRAIN 


GGiieral Book I Job Printer, 

21 East Hunter Street, 
Estimates Furnished on All Kinds of Work. 

Practical Job Printer. 

Office Over Phillips & Crew's Book Store, 
I^fos 8 and lO MI^TilETT^ STREET. 



Wholesale Liquors. 

19 East Alabama Street, 


Harness and Saddle lanufacturer 




OFFICjE and warehouse : 



B. M. WINN & CO., 

Wholesale Dealers in 

Tobaccos and Cigars 





283, 285, and 287 Decatur St. Atlanta, Ga. 
J. M;. N^CE, Froprietor, 

Manufacturer and Dealer in Eough and I)re>sed Lumber, Monldino-s Rriftpfa 
Shingles, Laths, and Pickets, Wood-Turning and Scroll-Sawine 


ffibftfCE WnH'JL £ Y 



T^O. 11 
Whitehall Street, 

Is spoken of in 

As at No. 2! (instead of 
11) Whitehall. 

THIS Matters little, 

however, as 

E^^er^^ Visitor 

is bound to 



Branch House, Sale and Ware-RoomG under Young 
Men's Library, Denatur Street. 

A large sto'-k of Milburn Wagons always on hand. Also Crrr;'S and Buggies 
of their ovn and other makes. 





i-* ^'^ 

James' Block, Whitehall Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

Open Day and Night— All Good Things in Season. 


&raiii, Produce and Fruits, 

£7o. 2^ S-bree-b. 


43 Peach-tree Street. 

At Jack's 43 Peachtree, are to be found excellent fresh 

Breads, Cakes, Pure Eancy Candies, 



His Bread and Cakes are made of the best qualities of flour, and the most 
handsome Wagon in the South is especially used for their delivery in all parts of 
the city. A beautiful selection of 

Willow Ware, Ladies' Shopping Baskets, 

CA.K^r> CASES, Etc., Etc. 

Toys to Supply Everybody. 

Weddings and Banquets Furnished in Elegant Style en Short Notice. 




no "^Tv^liitel^^ll Street^ 


Theological and Sunday-School Books a Specialty. 

Jind the ZTsiial I/ine of Goods in a Book Store Stock. 


12 E. Hunter St.. 





Tents. Etc., Etc. 

T. HI. I^UPXjEir, 

89 Whitehall St. and 95 S. Broad St. 

Glass and Q-u-eeas-oirare. 



No. 28 Whitehall Street, 

I^iotixro and I^i*ame ^tore 


E^ra, lv!ra,KL-u.fa.ct\ to Crd-er. 

'S?^'-'^ otSS' 

S- ^«S5' »SS?l's 

■rr.^' 5TO.W X^^:K^^' x^* titUWt ^ 

Jew^Ilep and Watclimak^r^ 

35 ^TxTiEXiT'iE-Hr^XjZj sariEa:^::^^?. 

^^ Repairing Promptly Donei 

Mm ^:wm 





Merchant Tailor, 

No. 1 East Alabama Street, 

Established 1871- 



13 South Broad Street, 

Paints, Oils, Brushes, Yamislies, dlass, 



I»x-oiiiptly Execxitecl. 


14 Whitehall Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

First-Class Drug Stock. 

Proscriptions carefully compounded. Orders by mail promptly filled. 
HUTCHISON & BRO., Pkopkietoks. 

Is the Great Specific for Neuralgia and Headache. 



Wholesale Liquors, 

11 Wes-fe IvIi-fccHell S-bree-b- 




65 33ROA.I> STREET. 

Agricultural Machinery. 

Tliresliers, Iieai>ers, M]o-w"ex*s, Etc. 

•L-^^i TZ3::s i=^_j> 

Famous Whitewater Wagon 

aijWAys in stock. 


Relief at Last from this Terrible Habit I 


The Secord of the Work of the Only Perfect Opium Cure in the 

World !— The Best, the Cheapest, the Safest, and the Only 

AlDsolutely EeliaTole Cure !— A Painless, Pleasant. 

Agreeahle Remedy that does not Detain the 

Patient from his or her Business ! 

i :o: 

(Extract Jrom Editorial in tJie. Atlanta Constitution, October 5th, 1881.) 
" About ten years ago, Major B. M. WooUey commenced advertising an opium 
cure. Since that time it lias become famous throughout the entire country, and to- 
day stands unchallenged by the general public, by patients and by physicians, as 
the best cure for this terrible habit that is known to man. The Cbnstituti07i, after 
it had been before the public a year or two, found that its success was so unvarying 
that it gave ii its indorsement, and we are prepared this morning to say, that never 
in a single instance have we, directly or indirectly, heard complaint against this 
remedy. It has gone on quietly and doing its work effectively, and carrying peace, 
health and blessings to the afflicted, and commanding admiration and confidence of 
the general and professional public. As said before, not one single criticism has 
been made upon its work, as far as we can hear it, and the testimonials received by 
Major Woolley from grateful men and women restored to life and happiness from 
the agony that is worse than death, would fill a library. The Woolley Opium Cure 
is simply without equal, and has come to be the standard. North. South, East and 
West. It commands patronage in every State in the Union ,and has been sold in 
England and upon the Continent. Wherever one case is sold, there is certain to be 
a demand for others. But we can say nothing about this remedy that will com- 
pare with the original t stimonials that come from men and women who have 
tried it and who know its power, 

AD VER TI SEMEN TS. x v 1 1 

No. 90 Whitehall Street, 

Harness and Saddlery. 

Hancl-iytade T^ork a Si>ecialty. 


Uo. 15 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 


Goods delivered to any part of the city free of charge °®9 


Published Daily and Weekly, 

The Daily Constitution 

Is published every day exc'ept Monday, and is delivered by carriers in the city, or 
mailed postage free, at $1.00 per m^nth, $2.50 for three months, or $10.00 a year. 

THE CONSTITUTION is for sale on all trains leading out of Atlanta, and at 
news stands in the principal Southern cities. 

Tlie Weekly Constitution 

Published every Tuesday, mailed postage free for $1..50 a year ; ten copies, $12.50 ; 
twenty copies, $20.00. Sample copies sent free upon application, Agents wanted 
at every post-offlce where territory is not occupied. 

Advertising rates depend on location in the paper, and will be furnished on appli- 
cation. Correspondence containing important news solicited from all parts of the 
country. Under no circumstances will the editors undertake to preserve or return 
manuscripts not available for publication. Address all letters and telegrams, and 
make all drafts and checks payable to _ ^ ^^^^^ 


A^tlanta, Oa. 


The Atlanta Daily Post- Appeal. 

With one exception the Post AppEAX is the only successful Daily uewpaper 
ever started in Atlanta. It has attained a large and steadily increasing circulation, 
which has been kept pace with by its large advertising patronage. The paper is a 
paying institution 

This is because it is in every sense a trustworthy and reliable newspaper. It is 
the determination of the proprietor to constantly give the people of Atlanta and 
Georgia, one of the best daily papers in the whole country. In this he has suc- 
ceeded to an admirable degree. Its telegraphic facilities are complete, and it is 
able to give all the news of the day in attractive form. Its local and State news 
are gathered by a large and efficient corps of reporters and C'lr^espondent^, station- 
ed at all points, who may always be depended upon to give the public all that 
really is news. Any regular reader of the Post ApPEAii must necessarily through 
it be a well informed person. 

Terms of subscription $6.00 per year; for portions of a year sixty cents a 
month, or fifteen cents a week. 

Advertisements taken at Si. 00 per square, or ten cents per line. Favorable 
terms made for large advertisements 

Sample copies sent on application. 

Address the publisher, O. E. CAL,»WEI.L, Atlaitla, Ga. 

What is Thought of the Post-Appeal. 

The Atlanta Daily Post -Appeal has won its way to popular favor everywhere. 
It is fearless and outspoken in its sentiments, and is highly commended for its war 
upon corruption in every shape. It is ably and vigorously edited, is spicy and in- 
teresting — LaGrange Reporter. 

the Atlanta Post-Appeal is a model daily newspapi r.— DcKalb News. 

The Atlanta Post- Appeal is now one of the best, if jotthe best daily news- 
papers in the South.— Knox ville Tribune. 

The Atlanta Post-Appeal seems to have an underhokl on success and we re- 
joice to see it wax fat and prosperous.— Gainesville Eagle. 

The Atlanta Post-Appeal is one of the spiciest journals in the South, and fuir 
of vigor and life.— Macr-n Telegraph and Messenger. 

The Atlanta Post-Appeal is eagerly read by many in this vic^nit3^— Barnea- 
ville Gazette. 

The Atlanta Post- Appeal bravely contends for thebe?t interests of Georgia. — 
Cartersville Express. 

In passing, let us say that the Post- Appeal is the most readable paper we re- 
ceive from Atlanta. It is feir ahead of the Constitution in this respect And is 
what makes a city daily paper valuable at home and respected abroad,— Milledge- 
vilie Union and Recorder. 

Those who want a cheap and fearless daily published at the capital, should 
subscribe for the Post-Appeal.— Sparta Ishmaelite. 

The Atlanta Post-Appeal we are glad to see is on 'he high road to prosperity. 
Its advertising columns are crowded and the editors have but I'ttle to do, but that 
little is well done.— Augusta News. 

The Atlanta Post- Appeal is a rattling good paper. If you want a real live 
newspaper, why send for the Atlanta Daily T'ost-Appeal ; for it is the livest», 
spiciest and best paper now published --Darien -Timber Gazette. 

In speaking fearlessly on all political subjects, regardless of the past standing- 
of the men principally concerned, the Atlanta Post-Appeal h'.s proven itself an 
earnest and worthy co-worker with the weekly press of Georgia. The same can- 
not be said of any other dailies in the State —Perry Home Journal. 

The Atlanta Post-Appeal is well thought of wherever known, and it carries 
force with its arguments. It has become a w 11 established institution, and is 
brimful of interesting reading matter, including all the late important news.— 
Rome Tribune. 









ladd's Lime Works 


















Portland, Rosendale and Louisville 

Plastering Hair and Calcined Plaster. 


ATLANTA, . - - . . GEORGIA- 

























































r*aid up Oapital^ - 
Siirplu.}*;, - - - 



JAMES H. r OUTER Cashier. 

NEW YORK CORRESPONDENTS— National Park Bank, Hanover National Bank. 
Collections and remittances from and to all points in the United States. 

Campbell Wallace, Wm. A. Moore, James R. Wylie, 

Ben. E. Crane, James H. Porter. Clinton I. Brown, 

J. M. Veach, George Winship. 




Capital I»ai<i in - - - - ^S^0,000 



President . 


Vice President. Cashier. 

f. ^. }A]sfi<hfi-yi ' 


Toombs and Headstones. 

to the above. 

14: Broad Street, A-tlanta, G-a. 


16 the first and only institute South, who.e various departments are superintended 
by regularly %'^^fl^^yf'l^'^^ a^'^raduate of the Hygeio-Therapeutic College 

culiar to her sex, can be Fully attested to by l^uMreds of la^^^^ physicians in 

recover under some of the most noted specialists oi urug bi, i j 
this and other sections. . „v,„,.„o r^f frflinpd attendants, superintended by 

The Gentlemen's department, is in ^^f §« "^ f^^ JJe V^^^^^^^^ "^^ccoss 

Dr. U. O. Robertson the Pbysieian-in-chief, and tne rec u^r to his sex, 

attained by him in the treatment of the var.o,^^^^^^^ ^^^^.^^^^ ^^^^ 

is alone a guarantee to all who are tortunaie ^"""^" . .iij, 
they will riceive scientific treatment and speedy restoiation. 






No. 43 1-2 Whitehall Street (.Clarke's Building), Atlanta, Ga. 

Capital Represented, $102,251,765. 

Royal, .... 


Western, , . . 

$ 1,422,008 


. 3,094,030 

British America, 

. 1,408,051 

Manhattan, . . 


Phoenix of London. 


Continental, . . 

. 3,888,720 

Scottish Union & N, 

, 33,041,045 

Watertown, , . 


Merchants & M., 


Connecticut, , , 

. 1,636,383 

Columbus I.«&B.Co., 



British America 

ASSETS, J-vans 30, ISSl, - - $l,3SS,OSS.SS. 

JNO. C. WHITNER & SON, Gen'I Ag'ts. 



Ii^oi-ti'ixit and I-^anclsei'pe Paintei^, 


^r?^^ No. 73>< WHITEHALL STREET. ^:^^:0 

Where he has fitted up rooms suitable to display his works of Art, and has the 
largest exhibition of Oil Paintings that was ever before seen in the city, consisting 
of full length, life-size portraits of EMINENT MEN, LOVELl' WOMEN and 

TBe public are cordially invited to call. Prof. Van Stavoren is prepared to in- 
struct a limited number of pupits in the Art; of Portrait or Landscape Painting. 


Manufacturer of aii kinds of Castings, Fencing, Etc. 



The Smith AmRrican Organ Company. 


Call and See Us Before You Buy. Send for Catalogues. 



Improved Grits and Flouring Mill Machinery a Specialty. 



National Bank 

Desipated Depository of the United States, 

C-A.I=ITJ^Ij, - $150,000 




W. B. COX, 

Vice President. 





A. All St ell. 



W. B. Cox, 



Jas. Swann, 

P. Rom are. 

W. VV. Austell. 



The Mill is situated on Entrenchment Creek, five miles south 
east of Atlanta, by a fine road which is macadamized part of the 

"^The property, besides the mill, consists of three hundred acres 
arable lands, well adapted for cotton, gram and fruits 

The Mill, (for cut of which see page 125 of this book), is part 
two and part three stories high, the first story stone, balance 

'Tachin'i roTm .5x75 feet, engine room 4ox5o feet rag -0^ 
^ovcn fppt storae-e room 25x35, stock house at three hundred 
^arJs dSant 20X, and seVn' frame and four log houses for 

^■^PThtrcWnelfaT/inrcylinder, with six driers, (paper dried 

''"o'ettack chilled calendar rolls, nine, 7 inch, . foot u inch. 
One stack chilled calendar rolls, seven. 
One stack sand rolls of four. 
Two beaters. 300 pounds each, built this year. 

?.TeS^rnoS?n°^rwt^ff ^^^^^^^^ -- -^^ 

tenances needed to make a complete outfit for a mill. 


Twenty foot Turbine water wheel under fall of /i feet 

paper machine. recently overhauled, and is now in 

The whole mill has been ^ecem^y ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ great 

first-rate working «^^^^^^^^.^^'the 'resent proprietor wishes to 
bargain can be now had in it, as ttie presen h v 

retife. Apply at Office, No. ^3 ^h^;^^j^j,^J,^^;',o Alabama St. 
Oct. 29, 1 88 1. 


Cor. of Cooper and Glenn Streets., Atlanta, Ga. 


Brick in any quantity for sale. Leave orders at yard or ad- 
dress through mail, 

Office 10 E. Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 


Has vacant lots, dwellings, stores and buildings for business in 
Atlanta; also farms and plantations in all parts of Georgia, at low 
figures and on reasoLable terms. 

Fire Insurance at Icwest rates. 

See in person or addt °ss by mail. 


Its Durability Demonstraied — lis Success Without Parallel. 

[Atlanta Post- Appeal.] 
This latest invention and improved sewing machine was introduced into this 
market about five years ago by Meggrs. J. D. & T. F. Smith in the face of the 
heaviest kind of cornpeiition with the old patent sewing machines which were 
already established m the trade. But np^n the unsurpassed merits of their ma- 
chine, and by the energy and shrewd management of the Messrs Smith, it has 
advanced m the public favor, unril to-day it is one the leading machines in the 
market. The most attractive and advantageous principle of this m. chine is that 
it 19 simply constructed without any cog-gears or heavy cams, thus rendering it one 
ofthe lightest and quietest running machines on the market. All of its wearing 
parts are adjustable so that lost motion can be "taken up'' in an instant, thereby 
making it more lasting than other machine made. When the shafts of all other 
machines wear the machine is worn out, but the same parts of the ''White" after 
wearing, can by the tightening of a few screws, be made just as good as new. A 
few other merits conamendable about this machine is the self- threading, self- set- 
ting needle, the bobbin winding device and the workmanship ; in fact the Wh.te 
Sewing Machire embodies the most practical and useful principles of other ma- 
chines, together with advantages peculiarly its own. It is the easiest selling ma- 
chine m the maiOiet, and therefore all wide awake dealers make it there specialty. 
Messrs. J. D. & J . F. Smith, wholesale as well as retaUthe White Sewing Machine. 
Address or call on them 59 South Broad street, Atlanta, Ga. 





Done with Neatness and Dispatch. 

See City Directory for Office, or /^ddress tiirough Post Office. 







Brass Machinery Castings, Babbitt Metal, Solder, Etc. 

Pattern and Price Lists Furnished. A. B. BOSTICK, Supt. 

87 Whitehall and 94 Broad Streets. 


Oil Stoves, and House Furnishing Goods, 


Send for prices. 


Gale City Premium Steam Dye Works, 


Silk and Woollen goods of all descriptions dyed in a superior style. Ladies' Crape, 
Stella and Gashmere Shawls ; Silk, Merino and Honneline Dresses ; Gentlemen's 
Cloaks, Coats, Pants and Vests handsomely cleaned, and everything appertaining to 
the business punctually attended to, 

HorSE AIB SiGI Paiiter, 

ioo>^ Whitehall Street, . . . ATLANTA, GA. 

If « MeKIH/LlY, 

Sign, Banner, Transparency, 


No. 8j^ Decatur Street. 

Atlanta Post-Appeal. 

The indefatigable Southern Manager, Capt. W. T. Wilson, of Atlanta — a gentle- 
man of many years' experience in the Sewing Machine trade'of the South — has spared 
neither pains nor expense in making the display of this really novel Machine one of 
the attractive features of the Exposition. While it is not as large as some of the 
machine companies, yet, for good taste and real elegance, it is not surpassed. Four 
years ago the Davis was not known in the South. To-day there is none better known, 
and the business of the Southern Department, under the management of Captain 
Wilson, has steadily grown from the first, and the sales in the territory contiguous to 
Atlanta is now running away up into the thousands. 







Popular Goods ! Popular Prices^! 




— 1 ii 





1^^1331 No. 11 (North Side) Marietta Street, Atlanta, Ga. '■-pjt^^ 




'v3 O ^ 







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^ i 

> 5 


X. ^ 










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O (U 


'•5 y 



35 '1 









<" — > 

rt ^ •^ 

ac - 

>- rt "! 

^ al 
c S ci 

•-) a! G 

I). A. COOK. 





Particular attention given to Buying, Selling, Shipping and Boarding Horses and Mules. 
J^"" Special attention given to the Livery department. •=©& 



East Fair St eet, (adjcining Cemetery,) 
.^^. Xj-^^il^vdlBEI^'X', :E=roprietor, 

Special attention given tolBoquets a.jd Cut Flowers ; also, to Cemetery Lots. 

WlI^KIHe M Mau€: 


mini ^ if 


No. 15 East Hunter Street, 




Nos. 84, 86, 88, cor. Decatur and Collins Sis., 

35 and 37 Thompson Street, 


KEURT L-E^WIS, I^roprietor. 




KuHNS' Art Gallery, 

IPine iPb.o'togra.plis a. Special-ty- 
Old Pictures Enlarged and Finished in Crayon, Ink or "Water Colors. 

33K Whitehall Street, - " - - - ATLANTA, GEORGIA. 


K70 McDonough Street, - - JITI^AITTA^ GA. 




1 ^iiiil,,. 


Invites all who are going to build or have job work done, to 
address him through the mail, or call at his shop, (for which see 
City Directory.) and get estimates. 

I'lie Stlkiitk Weekly l^^t, 



Only ^1.00 i>er -A^iiiiiiiii, ^vltli I*i'eiiii\im. 

J|Write for sample copy and particulars. 

Agents Wanted in every County in every State of the South. 

Address EI. 1^. CL^RIvJE, 

Publisher Weekly Post, ATLANTA, GA. 



Building and Supply House of B. H. Broomhead & Co., 36 Decatur Street. 

&. JIcqMJ X % 




J2fi^<i^<i^^'^t€i'i-e4d cr c/^ciAe^ c/(^-U'n-e^e't<) . 


Z/.I Broad C01'. Alabavia Street. 

Baaaer;, Traaaspareaac^r^ Fresco a»d Omanaea-bal 


Cra,3ro3a. .Portraits Correct Iji3s:er2.ess :E2.ea,so3:ia,TDle. 





\!rr i'~r~ rsp 


TiirgQ^Ii Frsi^lil ui hmm Eoule 




Eastern Cities and tlie Soutli and Soutliwest. 

The Short Line to Macon. 

Double Daily Passenger Service between Augusta and 
Macon. _■____ 

Double Daily Passenger Service between Augusta ana 
Athens and between Atlanta and Athens. 

The Only Line to Florida, from the West, by which 
Passengers can visit the Cities of Atlanta, Augusta and 
Savannah without additional Cost. 

The Only Line to Florida, from the East, by which 
Passengers can travel via Augusta and Macon and connect 
with the Cumberland Route. 



General Manager. Gen. Freight and Passenger Agent. 

« T) * 



- -^^^^^^ 'J^^r.\ ^^^ ^^^^ -"^^.^ 

4 CK 

4 V <p- 

4-^ <^ ■ 



O N O 


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^^1 DOBBS BROS. INC. , . ^^ "V. V' , s • • , 'V .0^ 

ST. AUGUSTINE ^r^f-"^^^ ; c, O"' ' V^^Zl^^#0\V • k\^ ^ 


,V ^^ ^'