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Full text of "Atlantic City and County, New Jersey, biographically illustrated : a short biography : illustrated by protraits, of prominent residents of Atlantic County and the famous summer and winter resort, celebrated throughout America - Atlantic City."

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Alfred M. Slocum Co. ■.• Printers 
and Publishers '.• 718-724 Arch St. 
.-. . . Philadelphia . . [1899 .-. 



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Publishers' 

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IN OFFERING this volume to the public the puhHshers feel 
they present an unusually attractive field to the many admi- 
rers of the famous seaside resort, Atlantic City. The object 
throughout has been to introduce, by means of short biographies, 
accompanied with portraits, a number of prominent residents 
of Atlantic City and County, making a permanent Souvenir, 
which we feel will add value to the pleasant past associations 
which this delightful locality has given so many. As a matter 
of history and local interest this book has unusual value, pre- 
serving in complete form memories of man\' prominent people 
who have stamped their individuality upon the past events of 
their town. 

The publishers have aimed to secure accurate information 
and to arrange their data in such attractive form as may increase 
its usefulness in e\'erv sense. 



PhiladelphiA, Pa. 



ALFRED M. SLOCLlM CO. 

PUBLISHERS 



• I t 



Introductoi^y 



S S 
# 



"ATLANTIC ClT^■ AND COUNTY," biographically illustrated, 
is a combination uf history and biography. The life of the local- 
ity and the story of the individual are inseparably connected, for 
local history and biography are the perfect analysis of kindred 
topics, and in a general sense most valuable as an intelligent 
study of events, conditions and people which constitute a nuKt 
comprehensive view of the national existence of yesterday and 
to-day. 

This history particularly pertains to a wonderful and original 
city and embodies the outside influences which have contributed 
largely to its success, and attempts a summary of the many de- 
tails of unknown or forgotten events, which in the broad light of 
the present assume their proper importance as factors in the 
fulfilment of the Atlantic City of i8q9, and lead with unerring 
judgment the progressive movement for future success and 
greatness. 

The history of the past is the record of the few, unfortu- 
nately forgotten by the residents of the present generation, uiio, 
in their earnest struggle of to-day, are progressiveK' pushing 
forward against tremendous competition for that substantial ben- 
efit which, in the opinion of philosophers, if successful, creates 
a like advantage to the community as well as the individual ; 



wherefore the history of the present is the record of the many, 
» to whom the future holds out its infinite promise of success, and 

III in no locality does that future seem fraught with happier con- 

In Irocllirtor"/ ditions than Atlantic City and surroundings. 

This seaside city is, without doubt, the most famous resort 
in the fair state of New Jersey, and has established itself upon 
a permanent basis entirely different from other like resorts; in 
^ fact the historian must approach conditions here without the ad- 

vantage or use of former time-honored methods, for this is a city 
created by unusual opportunities, readily seized upon and wrought 
out by "brainy men, who have builded better than they knew," 
and to-day, from all over the country, deep in the hearts of its 
countless sojourners, there exists a warm and tender regard for 
the City by the Sea. Romance and reality have both been im- 
portant factors in this respect, as the child, maiden, lover, invalid, 
physician, and many a business man will testify in their unstinted 
praise for the special relief they represent. 

A careful study has been given to the medical, political, 
judicial, financial, educational, religious and social matters, 
principally compiled from articles furnished by eminent local 
authorities. 

Produced by a vast amount of careful and diligent labor this 
work supplies a general and permanent need, and its information 
will not become obsolete through future change and progress, as 
it preserves the value of the past and present for the advantage 
of the future. 

The compilation of this work has been entrusted to Mr. Frank 
H. Taylor, whose reputation as artist and author requires no 
introduction from us — and the publishers are confident that the 
following pages will constitute not onl_\' an attractive souvenir 



of descriptive art, but also an invaluable record of lasting useful- 
ness. We beg, also, to express our appreciation of the valuable 
assistance of Mr. A. M. Heston, City Controller of Atlantic City 
and publisher of Heston's Hand Book ; for the aid rendered by 
Mr. A. H. Mueller, of Philadelpl:ia, publisher of the very accurate 
atlas of Atlantic City recently completed ; and our thanks are 
also due to the many officials and citizens who have bestowed 
upon our undertaking their aid and patronage. 



Introcluctorv 



ALFRED M. SLOCUM CO. 
PUBLISHERS 



Philadelphia, Pa. 




^ 



CoRteiAts 



CHAPTER I. 

Historical Sketch Page 17 

In Olden Days — The Harbor of Eggs — A Highway of 
the Revolution — The Story of Commander Somers — 
Our Early Navy — A Naval Exploit of Note — A Sad but 
Heroic Ending — The Gallant Hohson — St. George's, 
Bermuda — People of the Coast — A Legend — The Drinks 
of our Forefathers — A Shore County — First Hotels. 

CHAPTER II. 

The Old shore Road Page 29 

An Early T\pe — Natives Inland — Quiet Highways — 
Jersey Arcadia — Along the Road. 

CHAPTER 111. 

The Birth of a City Page 33 

The Camden & Atlaniic Railroad — .A Gloomy Prospect 
— When Speech was Golden — The Opening Wedge — 
The First Through Train — Through by Rail — Success 
Assured — The Survey and Naming of Atlantic City — An 
Early Impression — In 1879 — Nature's Great Physician. 

CHAPTER I\'. 

First Administration Page 45 

Early Hotels of Atlantic City — Railroad Progress — The 
Present Era — A Noted Comfort — Atlantic City Twenty- 
five Years Ago — Happy Days — The Higbee Club — The 
Border of the Deep. 

CHAPTER V. 

The Restless Sea Page 54 

Rivers of the Sea — Facts from Heston's Hand-Book. 



CHAPTER VI. 
The Boardwalk Page 59 

# ^ # The Pleasure Piers — Boardwalk Glimpses — The Sum- 

mer Multitudes. 

COntCnLs CHAPTER VII. 

Atlantic avenue Page 67 

A Great Business Thoroughfare — Pacific Avenue — In the 

# 1 # Suburbs — A Pleasant Round Trip — Room to Spread — 
! A Friendly Call — About Advertising — Bygone Discom- 

• forts— A Forecast— Cycling to the Sea— A Port of Entry 

— An Aquarium — A Port of the Manx — An English 
Resort — Make People Talk. 

CHAPTER Vlli. 

The Pleasure Fleet at the Inlet Page 82 

Upon a Summer Morn — Old Favorites — The Fleet of '98. 

CHAPTER IX. 

A Refuge from Illness and Care Page 86 

A Health Record — Winter Hospitality. 

CHAPTER X. 

In Private Cottages Page 88 

Ideal E.xistence — Palatial Homes. 

CHAPTER XI. 

The Country Club Page 90 

A Social Centre— Many Comforts— The Stables— The 
Pines — Varied Sports. 

CHAPTER Xll. 

The Lenten Season Page 94 

The Awakening — The Joyous Sea — Cycle Road to At- 
lantic City. 

CHAPTER Xlll. 

Some City Matters Page 97 

Values and Finances from Report of 1898 — The Fire 
Fighters — Light and Water — Sewerage — Military— At 
the Nation's Call. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Children's Seashore House Page loo 

A Splendid Charity— For Young and Old— Tl:e Story of ^ ^ 

an Old Man — Return to Simplicit\- — In Business by the 

se^»- Contents 

CHAPTER XV. 

ALONG THE Boardwalk Page 104 

# I # 
A Healthy Spot — The Unprofitable Sign — On Rollers — 

The Gamins of the Beach — E\ening Scenes — Love by -^ 

the Sea. 

CHAPTER X\l. 

Off Days at the Shore Page in 

In the Drifts — The Flow of Enjoyments — Sunny Corners 
— Rainy Day Philosophy — The Stormy Sea. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

The BOROUGH OF LONGPORT Page 115 

A Great Drive — Advantages — Beautiful Homes — A Re- 
view — Natural Science — Hotels and Clubs — The Ferry 
— Borough Officials — Seashore Joys — In Spring — Au- 
tumn — Winter — Joys of Longport — The Thoroughfare — 
The Lower Inlet — In Late Autumn. 

CHAPTER X\lll. 

Light-houses Page 135 

.Antiquit\- of Beacons — A Noble Beacon — \'iew from the 
Tower — Little Egg Harbor Inlet — Channel Leading into 
Great Harbor Inlet and Bay abo\e Somers' Point. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

The Life-Saving Service and Wrecks Page 141 

The Atlantic City Station — Statistics — Ship Ashore — 
Famous Wrecks— The Love Letter — The Message in a 
Bottle — List of Casualities to Vessels — List of Life- 
Saving Stations — Absecon Inlet and Bay above Anchor- 
age to Brigantine Wharf. 



CHAPTER XX. 

ABORIGINAL Footprints Page 156 

^ ^ ^ -^'i Indian Home— Reading the Past — Wliat Did They 

I Eat ? — A Lotus Land — A List of Game. 

Contents chapter xxl 

II a Plate of Absecons Page 162 

' The Struggle of Life — Ancient Oyster Beds— Some Cal- 

ais I # cuiations. 

^ CHAPTER Wli. 

A Pen Picture of the Beach Page 167 

The Tides of Life — A Word on the East Wind — A Bois- 
terous Friend — The Floor of the Sea. 

CHAPTER XXilL 

The Fastest Train Page 173 

A Run to the Shore — The Big Engine — The Start — hi 
the Cab — Over Seventy Miles an Hour. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

ATLANTIC CIT^- as A WINTER AND SPRING RESORT . . Page I78 
The Gulf Stream — The Music of the Surf— A Pen 
Picture — A Round of Pleasure— For invalids— Schools, 
Churches and Charities. 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Penna. R. R. Routes to the Coast Page 184 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Atlantic City Horse Show association .... Page 187 

CHAPTER XXVIL 
The Climate of Atlantic Cit^' and its Usefulness 

in Disease Page 189 

Distinguished Testimony — A Mistai<en Idea — Com- 
parison of Temperature — Days Bright and Sunny — Pro- 
fessor Bache's Conclusions — Formation of the Gulf 
Stream — Evaporation and Precipitation — Tonic and Al- 
terative Climate — Immunity from Hay Fe\er. 



Index 

Biographical 

Sk6fches 



PAGE 

ADA.MS, 1. G cli 

Ada.ms, Lewis R c.xxix 

Albertson, Daniel I Ixxjii 

Albertson, Levi C xix 

BanEV, H. C clxiii 

Barton, SA.wuel clix 

Bell, William A ' cLxxiii 

BR^'ANT, Major Lewis T Lxv 

CoNROw, Roland xcix 

Crandall, Dr. J. F Ivii 

CuRRiE, George F xvii 

Daley, James cxxxv 

Darnall, William Edgar, a. B., M. D h 

Devine, Michael A xxxvii 

Dickinson, Thomas J cxivii 

Donnelly-, John cxix 

Down, Lorenzo a xxi 

Edge, Walter E L\i 

Edwards, Devol'x B xcv 

Eldridge, Henry C cxiii 

Endicott, Hon. allen B xiii 

Evans, Hon. Charles xv 

E\'ans, Hon. Lewis xxiii 



Index 

(3i()cjm|)lvc(:il 

5Uerclie:> 



PAGE 

FEDIGAN, Rev. J. J., O. S. A cxxxvii 

Felker, George C cxiiii 

Gale, Samuel P cx.wii 

Garrabrant, C, M. D clxvii 

Generotzky, William G. . . cxxxi 

GODFRE^■, Burrows C xxxi 

GODFREY', Carlton, Esq xxix 

Gorman, John L clxxiv 

GouLDEY, John Ixxi 

Gross, Theo cixv 

GUTTRIDGE, 0LI\ER H cvii 

Harris, Howard G., C. E ciii 

Heston, Alfred M xxvii 

INGERSOLL, JUDGE ROBERT H xxxix 

Irelan, Emery D cxlix 

JOHNSON, C. G. . . .' cxi 

JOHNSON, William N xliii 

Jones, William P ixxix 

Jordan, Albert M cix 

Kelley, Samuel Hastings xxx\- 

Lee, Edward S cxxxix 

Leeds, Chalkle^' S v 

Leeds, Robert 1 Lxxv 

LONG, George H clxi 

McCann, Herbert cLxxii 

McLaughlan, William ixiii 

Mehrer, John E Lxxxi 

Merchant, Oliver cxxv 

MiDDLETON, Frank cv 

Moore, L Wilden xcvii 

MOORE, Samuel W cxxi 

Morris, Daniel vii 

Mueller, Jacob cxxiii 



PAGE 

M'lERs, Charles R xlix 

MVERS, Daniel W Lxxxix 

Myers, Jacob C. xci 

Myers, John Lxxxvii 

NORTH, James, M.d., D.D.S iv 

Perkins, Col. George H xlv 

Reed, Thomas K cxiv 

ROCHFORD, J. J clv 

Rose, S. B cliii 

SCHWEISFORT, S. A Ixxxv 

ScoTT, Lewis Pennington xii 

Seeds, Dr. W.w. Francis iix 

Sherrick, Harry W xciii 

Shreve, John G Lxix 

Smith, Edwin ci 

Smith, Frank A Lxvii 

Smith, J. C clxxi 

SouDER, Frank A cLxxv 

SouTHWiCK, James D xxxiii 

Speidel, Charles M cxvii 

Stewart, Vv'M. Blair, M. D liii 

Sti.wson, Gilbert S Lxx\ii 

Stoy, Hon. F. P cxii 

Taylor, S. C clxix 

Thompson, Hon. Joseph xxv 

Voelker, Cari cLxx 

Wahl, William F cxxxiii 

Walton, M cixxvi 

Williamson, Benjamin cxv 

Wilson, Thomas K civil 

WOOTON, Harry Lxxxiii 

Wright, Elias ix 

YOL'NG, John L xlvii 



Index 

Biographical 

5l^e.rcl\e5 




atlantic Citij. 



Cbapter IF. 





"S-'it'? 



The story of Atlantic 

City is a part of tlie 

annals of our own 

generation ; it Ibistorical 

cliro nicies an ^''2^^<^t' 

'i>%'^^^t\<JZh.»'■:i^■^'::ili>.x^&^ ' acliievement, typical 

in its magnitude and character, of the resistless 

second half of the greatest of all the centuries. 

Summer resorts have existed from the beginning of 

civilization. Beside the purple bays of the Orient, for thousands of years, 

tired humanity has been lulled to rest to the music of splashing waters. 

Babies have disported, while youths and maidens have loved, and men 

and women have forgotten the vexations of life in the sensuous allurements 

of the passing hour. But there has never before, in all the ages, existed 

an Atlantic City. 

As an effective background to the picture of our great " City by the 
Sea," it is proper to sketch, in the briefest way, the outline of the develop- 
ment of a Commonwealth from the crude materials of a region which 
remained essentially a wilderness for more than a century after the Colonies 
of the Cavaliers were well advanced along the James River, and the 
Puritans of Massachusetts Bay had established there the foundations of a 
Province of enduring influence. 

New Jersey has a history peculiar to itself. All of this domain having 
been, in the first instance, held by right of discovery by the English, 
was wrested from them by the energetic mariners of the ships from the 



17 



Holland States, who dominated the territory from the settlement of Niai 

Ainstel, or New Amsterdam, the Dutch immigrants spreading forth from 

this citadel, as they came in frequent shiploads, into the present counties 

of Bergen, Essex, Monmouth, Somerset and Middlesex, a portion of the 

State which carries the impress of their influence to the present day. 

In 1664 the English came in force and expelled the government of the 

Dutch, and Governor Stuyvesant's " New Netherlands" was blotted from 

the map of Holland's Colonial possessions. Closely following, was written, 

^ „,^ „ by the hand of Charles II, the all important Royal Patent, granting 

1Fn ®l^en ©ate t j , b t, 

this broad territory to his brother James, then Duke of York, and 
afterwards the successor of Charles. All titles to lands have, in this trans- 
action, their foundation stone. 

In turn the Duke of York conveyed this far-away wilderness to Lord 
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, in payment of the political debt due their 
loyalty in the course of the Civil War. Carteret, who had been Governor of 
the Isle of Jersey, proposed the name of New Jersey for their joint domain. 

In 1675, John Fenwick and Edward Byllinge, who had settled at 
Salem, had succeeded to the rights of Lord Berkeley, and upon July ist of 
the next year, at a conference in the City of London between Sir George 
Carteret upon one hand, and William Penn, Gawden Lawrie, Nicholas 
Lucas and Edward Byllinge upon the other, as Trustees, a line was agreed 
upon defining the boundary between the Jerseys. Said line running from 
a point upon the upper Delaware River, below the site of Port Jervis, " to 
the most southernly point of the east side of Little Egg Harbor Bay." 
Sixty-seven years later this line was corrected and reaffirmed by John Law- 
rence, Surveyor, its location being upon the longitude of 4i°and4omin. 
These sections were denominated respectively East and West New Jersey. 
The Executors of Sir George Carteret eventually disposed of this property 
to twelve persons, who, in turn, sold a half interest to twelve others, all 
of whom were known as its proprietors. 



An interesting old map of tlie Jerseys gives a fair idea of the extent to 
which European civilization had leavened the lump of New Jersey's wilder- 
ness in the year 1769, when it was prepared by Lieutenant Bernard Ratzer, 
of the 60th Regiment, Hnglish. A vast tract to the west of the division line 
drawn between Hast and West New Jersey was an untrodden wilderness. 
Within the present confines of the County of Atlantic, a single pathway, 
the Old Shore Road extended, having its beginning near Little Egg Harbor, 
where it joined a cross country road from Burlington, and extending down 
the coast to Cape May. The only settlement was Leeds. It was here, per- 
haps, that the early settlers lived who attracted the first oltkial notice of the 
Provisional Assembly, the record of which appears in the proceedings of the 
session of 1694, in the following words: ''Forasmuch as there are some 
families settled upon Egg Harbor, and of right ought to be under some juris- 
diction, be it enacted, that by the authority aforesaid, the inhabitants .of 
said Egg Harbor, shall and do belong to the jurisdiction of Gloucester, to all 
intents and purposes, till such time as they shall be capable by competent 
number of inhabitants to be erected into a count)', any former act to the 
contrary notwithstanding." 

Egg Harbor had gained its name from the vast numbers of eggs of 

wild fowl noted there by the Dutch explorers, who called it " Eyer Haven." 

By the early English settlers it was also known as New Weymouth, but 

time has perpetuated its quaint, and doubtless earlier cognomen. This 

ancient " Egg Harbor," set upon the winding channel back from its 

Che Ibarbor 
bay some miles to the north of the modern station of the name, may ^f Eggs 

be counted, therefore, as the first seat of white settlement wilhin the present 

county. A few years after the issue of the foregoing edict, tithing officers 

were sent to the Egg Harbor settlement by the Gloucester Count\' 

authorities, although the legal right to do so has been since brought into 

question, as the coast district was not regularly engrafted upon that county 

until 1 7 10, and for a long period all of what is now Atlantic County was 



19 



known generally as the " Egg Harbor region." The townships of Galloway, 
Gloucestertown and Woolwich were created therefrom, the name of 
Galloway first appearing upon the county records in March, 1775. This 
name is believed to have been derived from that of a tongue of land at 
Solloway Firth, Scotland, called Galloway Mull. 

One Gabriel Thomas, an early traveler through this strip of coast, 
wrote that ships of two or three hundred tons might navigate the great Egg 
Harbor River, and that the country round about was famous for plenty of 
corn, as well as horses, cows, sheep, hogs and other evidences of prosperity, 
but preacher John Fothergill, who labored in this wildwood vineyard in 
1722, called his experience a "journey through a desart," having had a 
particularly rough time by field and flood. 

Over upon great Egg Harbor, a group of 
settlers was huddled around Somers' Point, 
and a considerable business was doubtless done 
in the cutting and shipping upon small vessels 
of timber and firewood, for George May built 
a store at the landing still bearing his name, 
in the year 1710, for the accommodation of the 
skippers and crew. May's house was still 
standing as late as 1830, upon the bank of the 
winding little stream, a few rods above Babcock's Creek. 

During the period of the Revolution, Egg Harbor seems to have fully 
maintained its reputation as a lively spot. Richard Westcott and Elijah 
Clark built a fort upon Chestnut Neck, dominating the stream, and manned 
it with cannon at their own expense. It was called " the Foxburrows ,^ ij^jai^^yav of 
Fort." The New Jersey authorities bought it from them in 1777, for tbc IRcvoIutton 
£430 IS. 3d. sterling. A British force landed here in 1778 and effected 
considerable destruction. Privateers sailed in and out of these harbors, and 
there was much coming and going of both royalists and whigs. British 




prisoners escaped from the cantonment in Virginia, later in the war, were 
harbored here and helped on their way to New York. There was much 
thrifty traffic with the British masters of Philadelphia in supplies carried in 
stealthy expeditions through the woods to the Delaware River. The majority 
of the people were, however, sound rebels, and the rolls of the Revolutionary 
forces contain many names of the men of Absecon who played the patriot's 
part. For some time a company of Continentals w as stationed here to close 
this gateway of traffic and travel to the enemy, and some skirmishing 
occurred. 

In the war with Great Britain, beginning in 1812, the Somers' Point 
people distinguished themselves. In 181 3 the sloop Nczc Jcrstr from that 
port was captured by an armed British schooner off Cape May, and a prize 
crew put on board. Captain Barton and his two men o\ercame the captors 
and brought them into Somers' Point, doubtless with great fc/at. 

The summer loiterer at old Somers' Point may wander from the 
huddle of hotels and club-houses at the wharf back among the pines, along 
a winding and sandy by-way, until he comes into view of the old Somers' 
homestead. 

This was the birthplace of a hero. It is generally said to be the 
oldest house in Atlantic County. It is a quaint and rambling trio of struc- 
tures, still occupied upon rental. The "new part" was built about a 

century since, and the oldest section, with its huge chimney, was Ibe Storg of 

Comman&cr 
doubtless reared by John Somers soon after his purchase of this Somers 

plantation of 3000 acres from Thomas Budd in 1795, and it was here that 

Richard, his son, brought his beautiful young bride, Judith, the daughter of 

Sir James Letart, of Acadia, whose adopted father, Peter White, had moved 

to Absecon. 

The Somers family always held an active part in the affairs of the 

central New Jersey coast, and the French strain in their blood impelled 

them constantly to that abundant field of adventure, the convenient sea. 



THE OLD 
SOMERS 
HOMFSTFAD 







whose breakers were ever within sight of their windows. Colonel Ricliard 
Somers, the second, was active upon the side of the patriots in the period of 
the Revolution, and it was during this fateful era, September 15, 1778, that 
the third Richard Somers, the lost hero of Tripoli, was born. Like all of 
the amphibious youth of the coast, this member of the fourth Somers gen- 
eration took to the water almost in his babyhood, and, as a handy boy, he 
sailed upon coasters to and from the ports of New York and Philadelphia, 
Then he took to the navy, and at the age of twenty had won his warrant 
as midshipman upon the grand old frigate United States, of forty-four guns, 
the flagship of Commodore John Barry. 
®ur JEarlv; 1Ha\n: In that year, the Ganges, twenty-four guns; the Constellation, 
twenty-eight guns, and the Delaware, twenty guns, had hastened away 
ahead of the flagship in hot chase of the French privateers, which ravaged 
our coasts. The United States, built and equipped in Philadelphia, sailed in 
July. A messmate of Somers was the midshipman, Stephen Decatur. In 
the following year, after many adventures, Somers was made third Lieuten- 
ant, and in 1800, second Lieutenant. The "Old Wagoner," as the United 
States was called, cruised far and wide. Many of our early naval heroes 
were graduates of her decks. In the year 1801 this famous ship was laid up 
until a dozen years later she was called into service by the exigencies of the 
War of 1812-14. Upon her retirement, young Somers became first Lieuten- 



ant of the frigate Boston, a tvventy-eighter, celebrated at the time as the 
captor of the heavy French corvette Bercean. The Boston was sent to the 
Mediterranean with orders to join the squadron operating there. In the fol- 
lowing year the Boston came home, and, under the reduction law then 
applied to the navy, through the workings of the economies of the time, she 
was laid up to rot in her berth. But one vessel below the rate of frigate, 
the Enterprise, of twelve guns, was kept in service, but of four new ships 
of war ordered by Congress, Somers was given command of the Nautilus. 
She was a beautiful schooner, mounting twelve carronades and a couple of 
sixes, with a crew of from eighty to ninety all told. 

It was Preble's squadron that sailed away to chastise the pirates of the 
Algerine coast, and the Nautilus led the expedition, followed at brief intervals 
by the Constitution, the flagship ; the Philadelphia, the Argus, the Siren, the 
Vixen, and the Enterprise. All met at Gibraltar, then over they sailed to 
Morocco, and the Philadelphia, with the Vixen, was sent on to blockade Tripoli. 

Presentl\- the whole fleet were sailing up and down in front of -^ IHaval Exploit 
the capital of the troublesome Bashaw, all but the Philadelphia, which ^^ '^^'^^^ 
had been bagged by the old pirate, and her crew sent into bondage. The reefs 
of the dittlcult harbor gleamed through the breakers like the teeth of a tiger 
in a cave, and many were the projects born in the cabins of the American 
ships to get at the batteries and gunboats of the corsairs. In the course of 
a hot fight one August day, the frigate John Adams came sailing into view, 
bearing certain promotions, one of which constituted Lieutenant Somers as 
full Commander. 

Four attacks were made upon Tripoli, and then Commander Somers 
persuaded the Commodore to authorize an experiment. A certain ketch, 
which had been employed in bringing supplies from Malta, was a tender to 
the fleet. Built originally by the French as a gunboat, in an expedition 
against Egypt, she had passed into the hands of the Bashaw, and was now 
a capture of the Americans, who called the little craft the Intrepid. 



23 



Commander Somers proposed to fill this craft with powder, load her 
deck with projectiles, and sail at night into the midst of the Tripolitan fleet 
and blow the whole collection out of the water. 

Elaborate preparations were made. One hundred barrels of powder 
were poured into a central compartment, fuses and port-fires were carefully 
arranged, shot and shells were piled above. Lieutenant Henry Wadsworth, 
of the Constitution, volunteered to go as second in command, and ten brave 
Yankee seamen made up the crew. Lieutenant Joseph Israel, of the Con- 
stitution, joined at the last moment. A couple of boats were taken in tow 

to provide a possible means of escape. 
a SaO but 
THctoic EnCtiiut The entire fleet was pervaded with a tense feeling of sadness and 

admiration for the little group of venturers which reported upon the Intrepid 

at 8 P. M., September 4, 1804. An hour later anchor was up and the sails 

trimmed for the narrow gap in the reefs several miles away. The long line 

of ships was peopled with the silent spectators of this fearful undertaking. 

A long hour elapsed, and then those who had marine glasses saw the 

flicker of a lantern far away across the breakers, and a moment later a 

great gleam of light, flecked with flying wreckage, and finally a "sound 

like thunder," the bursting of shells, and the silence which closed over a 

failure which, perhaps, meant death. 

And all night long the crews watched for the coming of the boats and 
the cheery shouts of the seamen, but when daylight spread abroad, there 
was no dot upon the heaving reach in front, only the surf, and behind it the 
gloomy castle, the low town and the scattered huts of the fishermen, with 
the gunboats of the pirate huddled together like frightened ducks. 

But over upon the shore that morning, Captain Bainbridge and Sur- 
geon Cowdery, of the Philadelphia, found the fragments of the Constitu- 
tion's cutter, and as the bodies came in upon the tide, blackened and torn, 
they were buried in the sands, the officers a little aside, and there ended the 
story of Somers, of Somers' Point, leaving a legacy to the navy in the 



24 



XLbe ©al[ant 
•JHobflon 



mystery of that night, which is still talked about in the mess-rooms of the 
American warsmen ; and just why the Intrepid was prematurely exploded 
has never been settled ; but old Commodore Preble used to say that Somers 
had sworn that the Bashaw should not get the powder, and that when he 
had run upon a reef in the darkness, he lighted the fuse, and in the turmoil 
of waters failed to get away. And this is just what the fleet all agreed 

upon, considering how well they knew Somers. 

Smce this record was penned another boy-hero has impressed his 

pages of our naval history, 



name upon the enduring 
wonderfully similar \n 
incident of Tripoli 
the harbor of 
sinking the 
Ensign Hobson 
has fortunately 
happy denoue- 
In consid 
worthy record of 
family, one is led to 
their strain is likely tv 
brave stock as that of the 




its situations with the 
The entrance into 
Santiago and 
Merrimac by 
and his men 
had a more 
ment. 
ering the note- 
the old Somers 
the supposition that 
spring from the same 
heroic but unfortunate Sir 



George Somers, Kt., who perished by the loss of his ship upon the reefs of 

the Bermudas in the year 1609, while upon the way to the relief of the 

St. ©eorcic'^ starving colonists upon the Virginia plantations. Every visitor to Ber- 

*'®^'^'""^'' muda will recall the monument to his honor in the wall of the Public 

Garden of quaint old St. George's, which was named for him. 

A pioneering people, located upon the sea-coast, with a broad reach 
of tide-washed meadow in front, protected from the open ocean by almost 
continuous ramparts of sand ; an arable border of land between this and 
the inland wilderness, from which comes the out-flow of navigable streams, 



25 



possess, at their command, a wide variety of profitable pursuits. Their 
different occupations, in the forest, upon the sea, or in the less hazardous 
tillage of the soil, tending to the development of a hardy ancestry, fit to 
found a thrifty and deeply rooted native population. people of tbe 

These forefathers of the modern New Jerseyman of this Coast 

section, were equally farmers, wood-choppers, shipbuilders, hunters, traders 
and sailors. The fine, cultivated lands, which now reach down to the 
fragrant salt marsh, through which the old road along the coast has its way, 
were cleared by them. Many a fine craft has slid from its cradle 
here, and gone out upon the deep, manned by the sons of Absecon, 
whose schooling in the coastwise trade has made them valuable in our 
navy when our wars have called them forth. Saw mills were plentiful 
in the old days, and salt works were scattered upon the islands. Probably 
one of the most attractive and remunerative trades was that of the hunttr 
and fishermen, for the woods were full of the game commonly found in 
this latitude, including the bear, panther and deer, the pheasant, wild 
turkey, wild pigeon, partridge and woodcock, and, in the marshes, the 
wild goose and the duck. The thoroughfares were alive with sheepshead, 
rock, sea bass, flounders and perch, and the getting of subsistence was 
an easy thing to do. The Indian word, Absecon, is said to signify " The 
Place of Swans." 
a XecienD Tradition, often cruel and unjust, declares that the business of the 
wrecker was an active pursuit along this coast. No doubt the flotsam and 
jetsam of the sea brought its share to the substance of the people, and lent 
an element of excitement to the secluded existence of the natives, which 
gave it welcome zest. 

A curious suggestion of the cost of wayfaring in the Jerseys in the 
last century is gained from an old tariff of prices enacted by the County of 
Gloucester for the better regulation of hotels and inns. It is worth some 
sample quotations: 



26 



Every pint of Madeira Wine i s. o d. 

Ever>- quart Bowl of Punch made of Loaf Sugar and 

fresh Limes i s. 6 d. 

Every quart of Miraho made of Muscovado Sugar . . o s. 8 d. 

Every quart of Methejiiin i s. o d. 

Every quart of Cyder Royal o s. 8 d. (jijg H)rint;d Of 

Every jili of Brandy • • os. 6d. ®ur jforcfatbere 

Every jill of Rum o s. 3 d. 

Every Breakfast of Tea, Coffee or Chocolate o s. 8 d. 

Every Breakfast of other victuals o s. 6 d. 

Every hot Dinner or Supper provided for one person, 

with a pint of Strong Beer or Cyder i s. o d. 

Every Night's Lodging, each person o s. 3 d. 

Athintic County finally came into being as a distinct political division 
in the year 1837, and this event may be taken as the mile-stone marking the 
beginning of the modern order of things. May's Landing became, and still 
continues to be, the County seat. 
a Sborc flountg Atlantic County now embraces the townships of Mullicas, Buena 
Vista, Hamilton, Galloway, Weymouth, and Egg Harbor. It forms an 
irregular quadrangle, haxing upon its southeastern side a sea front of 
twenty miles. Mullicas, or Little Egg Harbor Ri\-er, and Tuckahoe River 
are respectively, its northeastern and southwestern limits. 

Long Branch was locally noted as a seaside resort soon after the close 
of the Revolutionary War. Sixty years ago three hotels of considerable 
proportions were there maintained and a steamboat plied to and from the 
Amboys regularl\-. 

The statement is made that Reuben Tucker opened the first beach 
hotel along the middle coast upon Short or Tucker's Beach. It is referred 
to in Watson's ^Annals. This house was burned about fifty years ago. 
John Horner, who kept the Tucker hotel above mentioned for a time, built 
a small house at the southern end of Long Beach about 1815. It was 
bought by a party of Philadelphians in 1822 and after being enlarged was 



27 



Sfitet Ibotcis 



called the Philadelphia Company House. It was near tiie once famous and 
popular " Bonds," built in 1847. 

In tlie middle of the present century Cape May was already an old 
time resort, popular especially with the affluent families of the South, but 
the region of Absecon was less understood by the average resident of Phil- 
adelphia than is the coast of Oregon to-day. Only the tireless occasional 
gunner toiled along the dusty miles of the winding roads through 
the jungles of pine to tramp across its marshes and sand dunes. 
Extending along the margin of the dry plateau bordering the lonely meadows 
was the Old Shore Road with its scattered hamlets and intermediate farms of 
the amphibious native Jerseymen, a class equally at home at the plow and 
the tiller. Over upon the dreary waste of Absecon Beach, where no beacon 
light yet warned the sailor from its outer shoals, was the ruin of the salt works 
of the first inhabitant, Jeremiah Leeds, an officer in the Revolutionary Army, 
who located here in 1785. The Steelman and Chamberlain families were also 
owners of beach property here. The whole stretch of beach, as level and 
broad as it exists to-day, was associated in the minds of the mainlanders 
only in connection with its tragic chronicle of wrecks. 




28 




atlantic CLit\?. 



(Ibaptcr 1I1I. 




an Earlv) Zvvc 



The traveler seaward bound to Atlantic City gains his first appetiz- 
ing whiff of the savory odor wafted from the wide expanse of salt meadow 
at Pleasantville. As the train halts here for a moment he may note that it 
is a scattering village of undefined extent wherein the old houses, built long 
before Atlantic City came into existence, lurk beneath the shadows of large 
trees, and new ones stand out in the glory of this season's paint in the full 
sunshine. 

It will be seen, too, that a well-graded road traverses the place 
parallel with the edge of the land, which is, indeed, the principal thorough- 
fare of the village. This is the Old Shore road, extending from Leeds Point 
at the north to Somers Point upon the south, and passing through the inter- 
mediate settlements of Oceanville, Absecon, Cottage Hill, Pleasantville, 
Bakerstown, Linwood and Bethel. 

This road and its characteristic environment have been but little 
changed by the vast increase in population and values over upon the imme- 
diate sea front. For many generations it has been the highway binding 
together the continuous farms of the amphibious natives. Between Pleas- 
antville and Somers Point it has lost much of its traffic since the building of 
the branch railroad to 
the latter haven. 

The early fami- 
lies of the region, 
whose fathers, sons 
and brothers found 
profit upon both the 



Cbc ©15 
Sbore TRoaD 




sea and the land, held broad farms extending from the tidewater tliorough- 
fares over the meadow and far back across the ridge into the pine barrens 
to the westward. The ridge land, with an average elevation of from 25 to 
30 feet above high tide, pro\'ed an ideal trucking strip. The heirs of each 
generation divided their inherited lands, each retaining a portion of the 
meadow, field and woodland, the present holdings being often ribbon-like 
strips, like the ancient seigniories of the Beauport Road, below Quebec, 
and thus numerous branches of the Somers, Steelman, Scull, English, 
Ireland, Adams, Ryan and Lake families are scattered along the Old 
Shore Road. 
IHativce HiUanO The highway skirts the margin of the upland, affording almost contin- 
uous outlooks across the meadows to Longport, Brigantine Beach, Atlantic 
City, Ocean City and Beasley's Point. The white pleasure fleets are seen 
cruising in and about the inlets. Forty or fifty yearsago the mainlanders were 
the guardians of the coast, and at the first sight of naked spars projected 
above the sand-dunes or of black hulls lashed by the surf, they swarmed 
tumultuously across the wet marshes to gather the flotsam and jetsam of 
somebody's misfortune. Nowadays the Jersey coaster of Atlantic County 
goes over to the shore in frequent local trains to jostle awhile in vanity fair, 

or, perhaps, drives over in the moist dawn his load of "garden sass " 

(Sluiet THigbwavs 
for the certain and profitable market that awaits him there. A good 

turnpike road makes this an easy expedition. Much of the table supplies of 

the great resort is grown along the Old Shore Road, and it's worth a day's 

drive to see the thrifty expanses of all the seasonable fruits and vegetables, 

not to mention the quaint old gardens, flower beds and wide-spreading trees 

that rally around the gray mansions built by Jersey skippers long, long ago. 

My friend J is a business man in Philadelphia. Being an 

expert in his occupation, his business can be led. Therefore, for fi\-e months 

in the year he leaves his city home and takes a little farm of a dozen acres, 

with a comfortable house, close beside the Old Shore Road. Here, with his 



30 



family, he dwells all summer, working at bistable, " bossing" the man who 
tills the farm on shares, fishing, and, with the rest of his brood, growing 
brown and impervious to the able-bodied mosquitoes that, it must be con- 
fessed, do inhabit this latitude. 
Jcrscv BrcaMa To enter for a day or so into the simplicity of this Arcadia 1 left the 
cars at Bakersville. We first went to the post-office, the social rallying point 
of the little place. 

To gauge a country village one must go to the post-office, and the 
cemetery. At the Bakersville Post-office were gathered sundry old captains, 
Cap'n Bob, Cap'n Tom and Cap'n Jack, hearty, ruddy old fellows, rejoic- 
ing, most of them, in the fruits of many long cruises, full of narrative as the 
Ancient Mariner, and not altogether reconciled to the sort of innovation rep- 
resented by the pretty city girls, halting in their dog cart for the mail to be 
sorted. The inherent pro\incialism of many of these old residents is found 
in the candle-mold still used in man\' of the farm-houses. 

The Old Shore Road is hard and level, a real joy to the cyclers that 
spin to and from Somers Point. Its picturesque suggestion is almost con- 
stant, needing only an English to find and paint its gnarled cedars, willows 
and oaks ; its rounded maples, hickories and walnuts and all its confusion of 
underbrush. There are several old farmyards along the way, choked with 
sea junk of all sorts. Some gray-tinted readers will recall, doubtless, along tbc IRoaO 
the old-time Dolphin Hotel, at Somers Point, with the cedar grove upon the 
slope. Probably the new hotels clustered beyond ha\e lured away some of 
its trade, but it still continues business cheerfullv "at the old stand." 
About a mile back from the road, near Linvvood, is the practically abandoned 
village of Bargaintown. Probably the colonists there got more than they 
bargained for. 

In the matter of theology the Baptists have got a clear lead, and are 
away to the windward along the Old Shore Road. Upon a Sunday the way 
is bright with pilgrims to the frequent chapels, but the unregeiierate also 



throng the road in vehicles of ail degrees. Upon Sunday it is pleasant to 
loiter down one of the lanes that end at a wharf redolent with oystering, 
where fleets of schooners lay at anchor for want of profitable occupation. 
Cat-boats skim before the breeze, and fiddler crabs spatter in regiments 
through the ooze at one's feet, and sitting there one may muse and wonder 
why the world at large should worry itself so grievously when so much 
plenty can be found by looking for it, and why Philadelphians should broil 
in narrow streets when, for so little, they might have farms somewhere 
hereabout, and wear out last year's coats and dresses in reasonable peace 
and comfort. 

There is but one single shadow athwart this idyllic scene. It is in the 
danger that the Old Shore Road will become fashionable. Already the 
Country Club of Atlantic City, duly mentioned elsewhere, has taken to 
itself an old time farm-house and a wide reach of land between the old 
highway and the sedge, and now the red coats of the ardent golfers fleck 
the scene so lately the undisturbed domain of the ruminative cow. The 
restless capitalist is turning his speculative eye hitherward, and it may be 
that the year is in sight when the Old Shore Road in its quaintness and 
simplicity will become a boulevard of modern estates, its peculiar charm for 
the lover of nature existing only as a fading memory of the days that were. 



32 




atlantic eitij. Cbaptcr UIFH. 




To Dr. Jonathan Pitney, a progressive resident of Ahsecon viliag;e, 
and Samuel Richards, a manufacturer of glass, local history awards the 
honor of first recognizing the superior possibilities of this place for the devel- 
opment of a resort for people from the cities. A casual study of the map of 
Central New Jersey affords no special hint of the advantage of this particular 
stretch of shore above that either to the north or south of it for many miles, 
save that here only it was possible to build a railroad direct to the beach, 
and it was to the promotion of this railroad that Dr. Pitney bent his ener- 
gies. In i8s2 when this movement began there were but six 

Cbe JBittb 
houses, small and weatherbeaten, upon the island. of a Cttg 

That some special reasons do exist which have contributed to the 
advantage of Atlantic City will appear more fully in later pages. One of 




these is the fact that here the line of the shore trends to the westward to a 
greater degree than at any other portion of the coast, giving an ocean expos- 
ure but little removed from southern, which deflects, at a sharp angle, the 



33 



heavy scour of northeasterly storms. Another and very important condi- 
tion urged very strenuously by physicians is that Absecon Beach is belted 
by a broad thoroughfare of pure sea water always running in and out, quite 
undiluted by fresh water streams and securing perfect immunity from 
malaria. These and many other advantages were doubtless urged by in- 
domitable Dr. Pitney, and believed by many who listened to his enthusi- 
astic predictions, for, upon June 24, 1852, the subscription books for the 
stock of the Camden & Atlantic Railroad Company were opened at the 
Arch Street House in Philadelphia, ten thousand shares were taken and the 
books were closed the same day. The incorporators were John W. Mickel, 
Andrew K. Hay, John H. Coffin, John Stanger, Jesse Richards, Thos. H. 
Richards, Edmund Taylor, Jos. Thompson, Robert B. Risley, Enoch Doughty 
and Jonathan Pitney. The thirty-eight original stockholders elected the 
following gentlemen as the tirst Board of Directors : William Coffin, Joseph 
Porter, Andrew R. Hay, Thos. H. Richards (who subsequently gave place 
to J. C. Da Costa), Enoch Doughty, Jonathan Pitney, Stephen Colvvell, 
Samuel Richards and William W. Fleming. The first president was John 
C. Da Costa. 

Early in the movement of this enterprise the projectors were so for- 
tunate as to secure the professional services of Mr. Richard B. Osborne, a 
young but already well-known civil engineer, whose enthusiasm for the 
success of what was regarded by many investors as a very hazardous ven- 
ture, was strong enough to convince doubters, and whose predictions have 
Cbe CamOen S. "^" '^^^" verified a hundred-fold. Mr. Osborne is one of the few 

atlantic'RailroaO survivors of those who "made " Atlantic City, and is still a resident 

of Philadelphia. He not only surveyed and put into motion the first of the 
iron bands uniting the Quaker City with the New Jersey coast in this section, 
but he planned the city of pleasure which was to spring, almost like a scene 
of magic, from the barren waste of sands upon Absecon Beach. Twenty- 
five years after the completion of the Camden & Atlantic Railroad, at a great 



34 



quadri-centennial of the event held at Atlantic City in June, 1879, Mr. 
Osborne had the happiness to see the verification of his forecasts and as one 
of the principal speakers of the occasion to furnish an accurate history of the 
inception, completion and operation of the original railroad, which, as 
reprinted, in part, in this book will have an increasing value as an 
authoritative chapter of reference. 

Mr. Osborne first referred to the great difficulties encountered in 
enlisting interest in the project, and to his first interview with the officials 
upon May 24, 1852, and then continued: "Arrangements were made on 
that day with me for a preliminary survey. Accor- 
dingly, in this very month of June, seven-and-twenty 
years ago, my engineers, under the active super- 
vision of the late Mr. E. Lyons, as my principal 
assistant engineer, stretched rapidly across the 
State of New Jersey the thread of our first experi- 
mental line, which afterwards was woven into an 
iron band 59^% miles long, to bind Camden and 
Philadelphia to this beach. ^ 

" This survey was completed to 
the sea on the i8th of June, 1852, and 
the engineering party became that day 
the first bathers that had traveled along 
the line of the Camden & Atlantic Railroad 
to get a reviving plunge in the waters of the 
Atlantic, an example v\ hich it has rejoiced millions since to be able to follow. 

" The report of this survey was submitted by me to the directors on 
the 2ist of June, 1852, who at once adopted it. Previous to the completion 
of the experimental survey, the directors, by the solicitation and the request 
of their engineer, made a carriage trip across the State to visit the island 
and Absecon Beach, and pass their opinion on there being a fitting site there 




35 




SOLITUDES OF 

ABSECON 

BEACH 



'for a bathing village,' to be called Absecon, 
as its beach bore that name. We had a 
weary journey through the deep, dry sand, 
and after leaving the village of Long a-coming 
(now the town of Berlin — the name Long-a- 
coming seemed appropriate for all the country 
we passed throughj, we at length gained the 
village of Absecon, and were joined by the directors, Messrs. Pitney and 
Doughty. 

" The flat, wet marshes, with their water ditches and thoroughfares, 
turned our party into a sail-boat, by way of Absecon Bay, landing us at the 
point on the Inlet now occupied by the Inlet Pavilion. The island appeared 
most certainly uninviting to the eyes of city gentlemen, and its sterile sand 
heaps, naked in their desolation, gave it a weird, wild look, a veritable 
desert without a building on it that many would deem worthy of beingcalled 
a habitation. My directors, save Messrs. Pitney and Doughty, were disap- 
pointed: they did not deem it desirable as a site for the proposed bathing 
H Gloimv village, that to build a railroad to reach such a wild spot would 
Iptoapcct be a reckless piece of adventure. All of these gentlemen were 

doubtful about the possibility of a locomotive being sustained while 
crossing these meadows, some of them felt certain this never could be 
accomplished. Thus, indeed, all hope of making our trip and visit the 
means of leaving a favorable impression on the minds of these gentlemen, 
as to the feasibility of the project, and of giving them any sure hope 
of a return, and of getting from them a decision that would settle the 
question of the construction of work that in the opinion of the engineer 
was certain to prove a boon and blessing to the city of Philadelphia, to 
carry civilization and wealth to that part of the State within reach of 
its influence, and to yield a rich reward to its enterprising promoters, 
seemed almost lost. 



36 



" It was the turning point on wliich everytliing depended. Tiiere 
were no lil<e interests elsewhere to be secured that would offer sufficient 
inducements to attempt it. Tiie words and wills of those few gentlemen in 
that short hour, on that memorable day, controlled e\'ents measured by 
millions. I heard their expressions of disappointment and disapprobation 
with regret. In reply I said : Gentlemen, every objection made fif \iewed 
properly) is really an argument in its favor. I pleaded for the site, and in 
this Messrs. Pitney and Doughty coincided with me ; I showed that its 
rough, wild state was precisely what would give them the control of the 
ground at low rates, and that here was a fortune in itself. This argument 
was very assuring to the directors, 'ifonlvthe meadows could be crossed 
by the trains.' I was not unprepared to meet this question, and for the 
time settled it in the minds of the gentlemen by giving them a guar- xiUben Si'cecb 
antee that the locomotive should pass safel\' over its whole extent. ^^''^^ (3olJ>en 

■• I quote from a communication written in June, 1852, to show how 
this assurance was imparted and the efforts that were necessary to remove 
the doubts occasioned by the first visit of the directors to this beach just 
described, viz.: 'As the pioneers through this country in railroad works, you 
will surely be the recipients of large profits — yes, much larger than can 
accrue to many roads which tra\'erse a country intersected with railroad 
lines.' Again, ' Your road v\'ill have the benefit of all the latest improve- 
ments, and if the public be not excluded from a fair participation in them, it 
must prove a popular work, affording the largest accommodation at the least 
cost,' Again, 'I will assume that but 20,000 of the inhabitants of Philadel- 
phia will, in the first year, be attracted to your road, while the Cape May 
visitors last season numbered 120,000. Twenty thousand passengers will 
thus be taken on your railwax', and freight and other articles in like propor- 
tion. There has been enough evidence given you by me to show that in 
all my estimates I have kept far within the bounds of what I should be 
justified in going to.' 



37 



" Wlien the report of the experimental survey was adopted by the 

Board on the 21st of June instructions were also given to proceed with the 

final location of the road, and accordingly, on the ist of July, 1852, my 

engineering parties took the field, and the 'location ' of the line to the sea 

was completed, and the estimate made by the 25th of August following, and 

on this date, also, John C. Da Costa, at the earnest solicitation of myself, 

after he had declined to accept the position, consented to act and was elected 

president of the Company. 
Xlbe ®peniiui 
•jjmejqg "On the 31st of August, 1852, I submitted to m\' Board proposals for 

the construction of the whole road, based on my estimated fixed rates per 
mile ; and on the first of September, 1852, those proposals were accepted, 
subject to certain changes of the line to accommodate the Waterford manu- 
factories and Spring Garden, and subject, also, to other requirements, all of 
which were not completed till after the contract was signed on the 4th of 
March, 1853. This change was a detour that shortened my long tangent 
some 10 miles and left only the present straight line of 25 continuous miles. 

"On the 2d of September, 1852, the construction work of the road 
was sub-let to Mr. P. O'Reilly, and he received his first bid from sub-con- 
tractors, for sections of one mile each, on the 4th of September, 1852. 

" There was no formal breaking ground ; the contractors were set to 
work as soon as their houses could be erected, and in September, 1852, the 
construction by grading was started. 

" The first estimate, returned December, 1852, was for work on eight 
sections between sections 4 and 32 and amounted to a payment of $10,000. 

" The crossing of the Camden and Amboy rails at Camden by those 
of this road was laid by night in the month of July, 1853. 

"On the 20th of June, 1853, the whole management of the contract 
work was given up by Mr. O'Reilly to Mr. John H. Osborne, Civil Engineer 
and previously manager of the Richmond and Danville Railroad, who com- 
pleted the three-fourths of the whole contract that had not been touched. 



38 



On the nth of September of the same year this gentleman was also chosen 
by the directors as their Resident Engineer for the benefit of his advice and 
for the more active management and superintendence on their behalf of the 
progress of the work, and for the return of the estimates. 

"Track was laid on the road between Camden and Haddonfield, and 
also at Absecon during August, 1853. Passenger trains commenced running 
from Camden to Haddonfield in August, 1853, and to Winslow, 27 miles, 
regularly in January, '54. The wharves at this date at Camden and the 
station grounds there were nearly complete. In February, 1854, a high 
storm tide was driven across the meadows and damaged the grading of the 
road-bed ; and on the i6th of April following, after the work had been 
replaced, a northeast storm and spring tide made a clean sweep of the same 
work. This class of road-bed was then abandoned and the track was laid 
on the original sod, except at the thoroughfares, where it has rested in spite 
of storm and flood for five and twenty years. It is right to say the railroad 
company bore the whole expense of the third renewal. It has made good 
the guarantee given by the engineer to his directors in 1852, and the loco- 
motives make their trips now at their usual speed. The whole work was 
completed in time for the opening celebration. 

"On July ist, 1854, the pioneer excursion train stood at the plat- 
form in Camden and steamed forth its greeting to 600 guests— gentlemen of 
the press from New York and Philadelphia, and friends from town ^bc ffiret 
and country, who had assembled to celebrate the completion of Cbroucib Crain 
the line that had occupied two and twenty months in building the 58yV 
miles of main road. Its opening to public travel was on July 4, 1S54." 

The excursion train conveying the six hundred guests was composed 
of nine long cars. The "Atsion" engine was selected for the trip. At 
Waterford, the residence of Judge Porter, one of the directors and early 
friends of the road, a salute of artillery greeted the arrival. Conspicuous 
was also a large wreath of native Jersey laurels, and wrought in the interior 



39 



of it the words in tlovvers, "Welcome to Waterford." It was a poetic em- 
Clbrouflb bB IRafl blem of the faith of the man which had always encircled and 

wreathed around the enterprise. 

From Waterford the train, which left Camden at g.30 A. M., then 
started for the embryonic Atlantic City. It was the first engine with pas- 
senger train that passed over the entire road, and it reached the United 
States Hotel by 12 M., thus with all the stops at the various stations to 
respond to the earnest congratulations of friends. 

At the meeting of the guests of the railroad company in the great saloon 
of the United States Hotel spirited addresses were made after the dinner 
cloth had been removed, Mr. T. H. Dudley moving for an organization of the 
meeting by the calling of Judge Grier to the chair, and who appointed the 
vice-presidents, among whom were Henry C. Carey, Hon. Abraham Brown- 
ing, J. C. TenEyck, T. P. Carpenter, Robert Morris and many other gen- 
tlemen of note were among the vice-presidents. The first impressive address 
was made by Henry C- Carey, who offered also an appreciative resolution, 
which was seconded by Mr. Browning in an eloquent speech. These were 
followed by addresses from J. C. TenEyck, Gen. Wyncoop, President John 
C. DaCosta, Mr. Montgomery and Judge Grier. 

The train containing the guests left Atlantic City between 5 and 6 

P. M., and arrived safely at Camden about 8 P. M. 

Succcsa assurcJ) The success of the road, the Board now felt, was assured. A new 

era was opened for New Jersey, and the engineer had time to congratulate 

himself that his plans had been perfected and his promises made good thus far. 

"The line of the road along which the locomotive brought us to-day was 
located on the 20th day of August, 1852. Surveys of the beach and island 
had been made by my principal assistant, M. E. Lyons, and also by Messrs. 
Rowland and Clement, but these last were of later date. 

"The centre line of the railroad was run parallel to the general line of 
the beach for a distance from the inlet southward, of over two and a quarter 



40 



miles, for the purpose of fixing a line that would be suitable for a base on 

which to plan the village, and which would permit the streets to be carried 

on in their proper directions whenever requisite to enlarge the village plot. 

On this as a base, December, 1852, under the instructions of the directors, 

I proceeded to lay out the plot of the proposed Bathing Village. This plan 

was completed and submitted to a full board in the middle of January, 1853. 

"There is, says an old proverb, 'Nothing in a name.' As the 

engineer I denied that it was applicable to this case, and when, before my 

Board, 1 unrolled a great and well-finished map of the proposed new ^bc Surveg an& 

IHaming of 
bathing place, they saw in large letters of gold, stretching over the Htlantlc Cit? 

wa\'es that were delineated thereon as breaking on Absecon beach the words, 

'Atlantic City.' This title was at once approved of by the Board. It was 

unanimously adopted, and Atlantic City that day came into e.xistence, on 

paper, and in thirteen and a half months afterward, viz., on the third of 

March, 1854, was created, by act of incorporation, a city in realit\'. I have 

ever claimed, and do so now, that this name created in the minds of men 

throughout the Union a certain interest in this city, and this interest it was 

sought to further secure by giving to each State its own asenue, and hence 

the name of every State from Maine to Iowa to-day designates the avenues 

that run east and west, while the general parallelism of the shore of the 

Atlantic with the main line for 2.3 miles suggested the names of all the 

great oceans of the world for the avenues running north and south. 

"It is true, then, that there is something in a name, and I may be per- 
mitted, without egotism, to say that I am proud of having christened her and 
her avenues and stamped on her a dignity that my old departed friends, 
Messrs. Pitney and Doughty, little dreamed of when they talked together 
on the scheme of getting up a 'bathing village, ' to be called Absecon. 

"Early in February, 1853, after the plan of this city had been adopted 
by the Board, a committee was sent down to Absecon Island, composed of 
Dr. Jonathan Pitney, a director, and Robert Frazer, the faithful and efficient 



41 



secretary and treasurer of the Company. Dr. Pitney was acquainted with 
the Messrs. Cordery, Adams, Paterson, Bartlett, Carter, Read, Bowe, and 
other landowners on the Island. Mr. Robert Frazer took with him a draft 
of the plot of the new city. These gentlemen were instructed to confer 
with the owners, (who had been notified December ir, '52, that commis- 
sioners would be appointed to assess the damages. This land was bought 
for less than $20 per acre ; it brings to-day in the central parts $50 a footj — 
and obtain possession of the land for the formation of the roadbed on Atlantic 
avenue, arranged on the plot to be the great Highvajy for the accommodation 
of the main tracks of the railway. 

" The tracklaying commenced May 29th, 1854, and enough for the 
immediate wants of the road, after its opening from about one-quarter of a 
mile above the United States Hotel, was finished by the last of June, 1854. 

" Such was the barren condition of the Island, that on the first visit of 
the engineering party, on the 14th of June, 1852, they were unable to get 
anything to eat ; and Mr. Stack wrote, even on the 4th of June, 1853, that 
he could get some board for the sub-contractor's hands on the Island, but 
Sn Earlv ^'^'^'^ '^'^ must provide for them tents for their shelter. 

Impression << [ ,-emember clearly the misery of my first visit with the engineering 
party. The Island was rough and sterile, producing only rushes and stunted 
brush, though in spots the magnolia was to be found. It was comfortless to 
the weary traveler. There was no accommodation for our little party. But 
there was faith in the future ; experience of what had been achieved else- 
where under some similar conditions, determination to persevere, and a 
power to foresee the great revolution that would be produced by even a 
moderate success, 

" This is the picture of the early beginnings of this city. The present 
reality is all around you and speaks loudly for itself ; yet to enable others to 
join you in the contrast, 1 will say a few words about the glory in which the 
city of Atlantic stands clothed to-day. 



42 




" CunnecteJ as 1 have been with the laying out of towns and cities in 
the Western States, and professionally engaged in Chicago at the time when 
her population was less than 5000, and when the great influx of our eastern 
men began and large investments were made, 1 was carried along on the 
tide and became, professionally, the means of placing many towns and paper 
cities profitably on the market. 1 know but one of them, to-day, that has 
not made its mark ; but few of them, in twenty -five years, can show a better 
record than Atlantic City. My report of August, 1852, foretold much of it 
all, and the statements therein were then considered enthusiastic, 
but she has, in some things, exceeded even my sanguine hopes. 
She has made herself more widely known than many towns and cities twice 
her age. She stands to-day a grand example of the power of a first-class 
railroad to achieve wonders that wise men once thought chimerical. Her 
churches, numbering one dozen ; her schools, where over 1,000 children are 
instructed ; her five or six beneficial societies ; her daily mail and daily news- 
paper ; her five trains a day from the city of Philadelphia ; her passenger horse- 
cars, which of course every important city must now have ; her lighthouse, 
built twenty-two years ago ; her signal service station, city hall, jail, and fire 
department ; her fifty hotels, many of which are first-class ; her numerous 
beautiful villas, that appreciative gentlemen, bankers, merchants, physicians 



In lS7f> 



43 



and professional men own and occupy ; her hundreds of cottages ; her 
boarding houses ; her 34,000 inhabitants, during her busy season ; her 4000 
permanent residents, and the fact that about five and a-half millions of 
people have enjoyed her invigorating and health-giving climate, and her 
numerous inviting recreations on land and sea since she was opened for the 
public good. All these form a picture so full of interest, so rich in all the 
bright tints of a glorious reality in the foreground, that the original back- 
ground has almost faded away, and had to be repainted to give our visitors 
to Atlantic City some slight idea of the real contrast. 

"There is another point particularly worthy of mention, viz. : the won- 
derful effect a residence here has on invalids. This is testified to by scores 
c .. , _ ^ of medical men, who send their patients to the sea as the best prescrin- 
IPbVBiclan tion they can bestow on them. It is testified to by the multitudes who 

have received the benefits. 

"In 1852 1 called Atlantic City 'the lungs of Philadelphia,' through 
which she would inhale much of the health and ability of body and mind 
that now characterizes her business and professional men ; and she has 
proved the truth of the assertion." 

Mr. Osborne referred to Mr. Robert Frazer, the first secretary and 
treasurer of the Camden & Atlantic Railroad, to Mr. John H. Osborne, who 
became the superintendent in 1855, Mr. George W. Richards, the second 
president, Mr. John Tucker, Mr. John Lucas, Mr. D. H. Mund\-, and others 
identified with the early years of the Company. He predicted with remark- 
able accuracy many of the great things which have since become realities 
and urged the importance of moving to secure government aid in creating at 
the inlet a great port of entry. Mr. Richard B. Osborne is a native of Eng- 
land. His early engineering experiences were largely under the guidance of 
the late Moncure Robinson, C. E. He has long been identified with manv of 
the most important railroad, canal and municipal engineering achievements 
of his time. 



44 




atlantic Cit^. 



Cbapter W. 




Upon the legal creation of Atlantic City, Chalkley S. Leeds, a son of 
one of the original owners, became the first mayor and his brother, Robert 
B. Leeds, was the first city treasurer. JFirst 

It was, perhaps, believed by the originators of the young city ^^minll5tratlon 

that the supply of States would always afford a sufficiency of names for the 
transverse avenues placed upon the city plan, but the latest official map 
gives us a long list of new streets to the west of Chelsea bearing the titles of 
American cities. At Boston avenue, down by the old Sea View Excursion 
House, Atlantic avenue comes to the sea front and Pacific avenue is halted 
in its course, a matter somewhat confusing to the stranger. 

The hotel man who had ventured thirty years ago to announce his 
intention to keep open house all winter would have been esteemed a vision- 
ary unfit for the practical duties of a Boniface. In 1868 the average attend- 
ance at the schools was 1 10 pupils. Thirty thousand dollars was expended 
upon educational facilities. 

At that 
time the best ^^^^. 

known hotels 
were the 
United States 
(famous for 
its fine park), 
where the 
first train load 
of excur- 
sionists dined 




when the railroad was opened, Congress Hall, Mansion House and Surf 

House. Other hotels and cottages which were all well filled in the summer 

were these : Neptune House, Light House Cottage, Alhambra, White House 

Seaside House, Clarendon House, Ashland House, Glen's Inlet House, 

^ , ^, , , , Kentucky House, Chester County House, Bedloe's (built in i8S4), 

ibarlg 1botcl5 of ^ • v ^ty. 

atlantic Citv Pennsylvania Cottage, Cottage Retreat (built in 1854), Macy House, 

Reed House, Arch Street House, Constitution HoLise, West Philadelphia 
House, Bradley House, Sherman House, Excursion House, Grove Cottage, 
Columbia Cottage, Sand House and Atlantic House. 

Besides tliese were scores of less pretentious boarding places scattered 
through the young city. At this time the road across the marsh, bridging 
the thoroughfare, was being developed. 

The Atlantic House, which originally stood at Baltic and Florida 
avenues was in its original state a tavern for oystermen, kept by Mrs. Leeds. 
It was built about 1812 and is the oldest building now upon the island. It 
now stands on Baltic avenue near Massachusetts avenue. 

The heavy travel over the Camden & Atlantic Railroad in the Cen- 
tennial year, together with the rapid progress of the young city led to the 
incorporation of the Philadelphia & Atlantic Railroad Company, which was 
formerly narrow gauge but changed to standard gauge in 1884, now operated 
by the Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company. This line opened for 
business June 2;, 1877. The resulting competition proved of the .,„ ., 
greatest benefit to Atlantic City, both in the reduction of fares and progress 
freight as well as an increase in the number of trains, especially in sum- 
mer, and a decidedly more rapid schedule. "The Reading" route was 
double tracked in 1889. 

In the year 1880 a third bond of iron was extended between Phila- 
delphia and the sea through an extension of a branch from the West Jersey 
Railroad, known as the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad, which also affords 
through ser\'ice without change between New York and Atlantic City. 



46 



Upon the acquisition of the Camden & Atlantic Railroad by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company the old name disappeared and it became the 
Atlantic City Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. On completion of the 

great bridge over the Delaware River above the city in the spring 
<r o < iu i ■ ■ 1 . , , " ^^^ iPrceent 

ot iSgO, with Its mcidental trackage, which joins the old line at Era 

Haddonfield, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company began to run its fast 
trains to the shore from Broad street station. This line, which is double 
tracked, has been laid in the past winter with " loo lb." steel rails. The 
proposed terminal station at Atlantic City will be upon a scale of mag- 
nificence unknown at any resort in the world. 

The West Jersey & Seashore Railroad is largely devoted to way 
trains and local traffic. It is expected that its tracks will be elevated through 
Camden, and other important improvements made in the near future. 

The old Philadelphia & Atlantic City Narrow Gauge Railroad was 
acquired by the Philadelphia and Reading Railway Company in 1885, and 
soon afterward was practically reconstructed upon standard gauge lines. 
Under its modern title of "Atlantic City Railroad," it has always enjoyed 
a heavy traffic in pleasure and business travel. With ferry-boats from both 
Chestnut and South streets to its terminal opposite the foot of Washington 
avenue, it maintains a rapid service upon double tracks ; dividing the honors 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad in giving a service to and from the shore 

a THotct) unequalled by that of any other resort. 

Comrort A recent number of the Scientific American contains the statement, that 
the Atlantic City trains are the fastest in the world ; but so smooth is the 
trackage and fine the equipment that, although running at a mile per minute, 
the superior speed is not noticeable, except in the fact that while absorbed in 
a brief story upon the pages of a magazine, the traveler leaves and arrives. 
The once ubiquitous "duster" has long since become obsolete, and 
the excursionist alights at the terminal quite unsoiled by the slightest evi- 
dence of travel. 



47 




The new Penn- 
sylvania Ferryhouse, 
at the foot of Market 
street, Philadelphia, 
has been recently 
completed. it is a 
modern two story 
building, which is an 
ornament to Philadel- 
phia's water-front. 

At the foot of 
Chestnut street, the 
" Reading " has also 
*CH built its Ferry terminal at large e.xpense. These improvements, with 

OKINC WEST 

double-decked boats, will make travel to the shore still more popular than 
heretofore. 

A sketch made by the writer twenty-five years ago from the light- 
house, recalls to mind most vividly the relative paucity of Atlantic City's 
attractions, and the comparatively limited area covered by the town in 1873. 
At the Inlet, a single small open pavilion of one story stood upon the site of 
the present large structure, a rather shaky pier reaching out into the Thor- 
oughfare for the accommodation of the little fleet of yachts, some of them 
famous flyers, which afforded one of the chief means of pleasure at the com- 
mand of the visitor. A horse car line connected the Inlet with the town, 
over a long stretch of open sand reach. 
Btlantic Citv> ^ ^^"^ more or less pretentious hotels had been built upon the sea- 

25 ^eaxs Hcio ward side of Pacific avenue. Narrow and precarious plank-walks 

extended outward, here and there, toward the beach, subject to the vicissi- 
tudes of winter gales and high tides, elements which played havoc 
frequently with the long rank of gay little pavilions which bravely faced 



48 



the surf and furnislied bathing facilities then regarded as more than ample 
for the present and future. 

Heston's very complete Atlantic City Guide Book states, that the 
first bath-house upon the beach was built by Joshua Note, from an old 
wreck, and at that time there were to be seen upon the beach some 
fourteen wrecks. 

Nearly all of the popular hotels were located between Atlantic and 
Pacific avenues. The former was fairly lined, upon the shoreward or 
northern side with structures, some of these still e.xisting, but the majority 
of which have long since disappeared to make room for more costly and 
elaborate buildings. Beyond this, all of the flat land between the town and 
the thoroughfare was unoccupied, save by the embankment of the Camden 
and Atlantic Railroad, around the terminus of which, Sciiauftler's and a few 
smaller houses of entertainment were located. 
IbaiH'B 2)aB» Over at the bridge which carried the road across the thoroughfare 
toward Pleasantville, the Island House stood, just beyond the present junc- 
tion of Baltic and Florida avenues, its nearest neighbor being the Higbee 
House, just built by Jonas Higbee, upon the northward side of the railroad 
track. What pleasant memories of happy times that name invokes! Jonas 
Higbee was a rugged manly specimen of the old type of New Jersey coast- 
men. For many years he was in the employ of the Camden & Atlantic 
Railroad Company, having charge of the drawbridge at that point. The 
original Higbee homestead, a little modest building out upon the lonely 
meadow to the south of the railroad track, was presided over by Mrs. Higbee, 
a famous cook, in whose cosy little dining room, the hungry mem- ^u^, 
bers of the Higbee Club were wont to gather, with joyful anticipations, tUibcc Club 
upon Saturdays and Sundays, when they used to come hastening down from 
the hot city to this pleasant haven with due certainty. The Higbee Club 
bunked in a little shanty at the southern end of the bridge, the vibrations of 
which used to shake the tired fishers out of bed in the night when casual 



50 



freight trains rumbled past, and sometimes, wiien the tide was high, seemed 
likely to carry the occupants out to sea while they slept. The rotund Secre- 
tary of the Club, a well-known dentist of Philadelphia, kept the log book 
and nothing counted but sheepshead. A brace of these gamy fellows were 
esteemed a fair return for a long day of patient effort, beginning with the first 
indications of rosy dawn, and only ending when night and hunger impelled 
the fishermen to pull back to the drawbridge, with the prospects of a savory 
supper to cheer them. The writer recalls one amphibious old native who 
haunted the thoroughfare with his leaky punt and maintained, it was said. 




a multitudinous family somewhere in the depths of the pine scrub, from the 
products of the waters and the marsh. For a long time this quaint, frowsy 
old salt enjoyed a monopoly, for he knew, when nobody else could find a 
nibble, just where the elusive sheepshead were loafing about at an\- turn of 
the tide, and the man who was lucky enough to negotiate his valuable ser- 
vices was certain to come in with the best and biggest fish. 

After the new house was built by the Higbees, as a natural result of 
their growing fame, spread abroad by the unwise members of the jolly little 
club, strangers began to come and trench upon the vested rights of the old 



51 



timers. Somehow, the members sighed for tiie little low-built cottage 
which stood reproachful and silent across the railroad. And so with the 
passing years the hand of time closed its veracious log book, full of the 
records of joyous days and wonderful piscatorial adventures, and the Higbee 
Club became but a memory worthy only of passing mention among the flot- 
sam of bygone times. 

All of the level stretch of open meadow, between the thoroughfare 
at the bridge and the city nearly a mile away, which used to rest so still and 
dark just before the moon began to glow over the twinkling windows to the 
eastward, and which was so gloriously rich in color when the early sun 
poured down upon it, is now covered with a close huddle of houses, not par- 
ticularly pleasing to the eye, either in architecture or environment. 

An interesting phenom- 
enon of the ocean front, which 
has, by the way, been worth 
millions of dollars to ^bc JSorDcr of 
Atlantic City, is seen ^^c Wccv 
in the gradual "making" of 
the beach, which, by the 
piling of the sands, has grad- 
ually forced the surf-line out- 
ward and safeguarded the cit\- 
from inundation, adding at the 
same time a vast area of most 
valuable property to the city's 
plan. In the winter of 1866-7 
the storms were unusually 
severe, and the tide swept in 
almost to the line of Atlantic 
avenue. There were many, 




in those days, who predicted that tlie time would come when the sea would 
swallow up the whole property of the community, and that Atlantic City 
would be hut a costly and extravagant memory. This prediction has long 
ago been shown to be fallacious, and has been dismissed from the minds of 
even the most nervous citizen. Last autumn the town was cut off, for 
several days, from the world-at-large by remarkably high water, which 
covered the meadows and railroad tracks, but at no time did the sea, which 
swayed about the iron pillars of the Boardwalk, threaten more than tem- 
porary damage upon the immediate ocean front. The regrading of the 
tracks across the meadows promises to safeguard the city from any similar 
experience in the future. 





53 




atlantic Citp. 



Cbapter D. 



I.ONG THE Ol. 



" Oh weel 1 mind, oh weel I mind. 

Tho' now my locks are snow. 
How oft langsyne I sought to find 

What made the bellows blow ! 
How, cuddling on my grannie's knee, 

I questioned night and day, 
And still the thing that puzzled me 

Was, where the wind came frae." 

The man who told his little boy that the ocean was salt because the 
codfish were so numerous, was a type of the large class of people who are 

never disposed to take 
the sea seriously. It 
is associated in their 
minds with daily romps 
in the surf, pleasant 
little cruises off shore, 
and gleaming moon- 
light touching the tips 
of sleepy rollers, which 
break with tranquilizing 
monotony all through 
the summer night. And 
yet, what is this vast, 
D implacablt, trt-acherous, beautiful thing which spreads away from our very 
feet, thousands of level but storm-swept miles, to lands we have never 
seen ; which hides, far down in its sunless depths, such unknown wonders, 
such myriad victims of its wrath, such strange creatures and shapes .? 



Zbe IRcstless 
Sea 




54 



From the north to the south it spreads some 8000 miles. Between 

Greenland and Norway it is but 800 miles wide. Between the peninsula of 

Florida and the coast of Morocco, upon the parallel of 30° north latitude, it 

expands to a breadth of 3600 miles. While a line drawn from Cape St. 

Roque, Brazil, at 5° south latitude, to the coast of Sierra Leone, would be 

but 1500 miles long. The ocean voyage from Philadelphia to the British 

Isles is practically 3000 miles long. Ships going eastward are helped by the 

Gulf Stream, and in coming west, by keeping well up over the Grand 

Banks, are speeded by the Polar Current, which sweeps around the southern 

end of Newfoundland. ^ 

IRivers of 

The ocean is full of vast rivers — broad ribbons of water hund- the Sea 
reds of miles in width, distinct in color and action. The strange, beneficent 
phenomenon which we call the " Gulf Stream," sweeps across the Southern 
Ocean, flows along the South and Central American coasts, curving in con- 
formity to the shore lines, makes the circuit of the Gulf of Mexico and 
rushing through the narrow outlet between Key West and Cuba, swings 
northward in a current of about fifty miles per diem ; spreading out with 
the resistance of the cold under streams from the Polar regions, and endow- 
ing our latitude with a climate which, without this great natural warm-water 
heater, would be so unendurable as to probably preclude the occupation of 
this part of the world by human beings. Even with this moderating agency, 
ours is a comparatively cold coast, for Atlantic City is about one hundred 
miles further south than Naples ; while Nice, the beautiful semi-tropical 
winter resort of Southern France, where palm trees nod and thrive in the 
warm atmosphere, is upon the latitude of Portland, Maine. Let us be 
thankful for the wonderful blue Gulf Stream, over the western margin of 
which, far down upon the horizon, we may often see the pearlv rampart 
of clouds. 

The temperature of the Gulf Stream opposite the New Jersey coast, 
in the warmest of its three bands, that nearest the coast, is in winter 70 



55 




degrees, in spring 71 degrees, in summer 
80 degrees, and in autumn 74 degrees. 
The average elevation of the land 
of this globe is less than one-fifth of a 
mile, while the average depth of the sea 
is about two miles. The bulk of all 
the dry land in the world, when considered in its proportions with the 
sea, is but one in thirty. 

The greatest depth found in the Atlantic Ocean is at a point about 
one hundred miles north of St. Thomas, W. I., where soundings were made 
to four and four-tenths miles. 

From the interesting pages of Heston's Hand Book of Atlantic 
City, we are permitted to add to this chapter of ocean lore some further 
interesting facts. 

The curvature of the sea level in one mile is eight inches, in 
three miles it is six feet, and in five miles about sixteen feet. There- 
fore, a person of six feet in height, standing upon the Boardwalk, could see 
an object upon the water at the latter distance. 

Water more than sixty fathoms deep appears blue ; shallow waters 
show green. The waves move forward but the water does not. As the top 
of the wave moves faster than its base, due to the lesser friction, it presently 
topples over or breaks ; this generally occurring as soon as anv shallow or 
submerged obstruction is encountered. 

Sea breezes are caused by the action of the sun upon the air above 
the land. During the day time, the inland air, receiving more heat than 
that upon the water, rises, and the cooler sea air rushes in to till the vacuum. 
In making arrangements to this effect, nature has placed the residents of 
Atlantic City under a sense of great obligation. 

The action of the sea in its perpetual pounding and scouring of the 
New Jersey sands, is full of interest. Shores recede and advance. To the 



jf act^ jf roni 

iHc6ton'6 

■iHanC>=J6ook 



56 



south of Barnegat all of the beaches wear away at their northeastern ends 
and the inlets work southward; above Barnegat the inlets work to thi 
northward. Old Cranberry and Shrewsbury Inlets, for instance, have 
worked a mile or more to the northward; while important changes have 
taken place in the openings and shores to the southward. Long Beach 
"made" outside of Nickus Beach, and closed up old Little Egg Harbor 
Inlet so completely, that people could walk across at low tide. New Little 
Egg Harbor Inlet was formed about 1800, and soon afterward ships drawing 
twelve feet of water could safely pass in or out. 

The northeast end of Absecon Beach is much older than the shore 
further south. In front of the present city it has changed greatly since the 
town was founded. Mention has been n.ade of the cutting away toward 
the lighthouse, but between New Jersey and Florida avenues it has advanced 
many hundreds of feet. Half a century ago, the surf line was about where 
Haddon Hall, The Chalf.mte, Arlington and Brighton Hotels stand, not more 
than a block from Pacific avenue. 

The relative fineness of the sand upon a beach has much to do with 
its character for stability or change. When the tides recede, the surface of 
the sand dries, and. being picked up by the sea-breeze, is whirled landu'ard, 
sinking into little heaps around every bit of drift or herbage. These form 
small " leas," which catch still further sand, and soon the coarse salt grass 
springs up to hold it, and thus the ridges grow. Along the Virginia coast, 
upon such islands as Broadwater, the ridges, due to the lightness of the 
sand, have become very high, and are covered with dense thickets. Still 
further south, at Currituck, North Carolina, the sand-hills reach the greatest 
height upon the Atlantic seaboard, completely engulfing, upon the landward 
side, miles of forest and even farm houses. 

Hardly less interesting than the sands are the broad marshes formed 
behind them, plentifully threaded with creeks and •■thoroughfares," which 
connect with the uide reaches of bays. These meadows give excellent 



57 



grazing to many cattle and teem with wild fowl. A curious phenomenon is 
seen in the fresh water springs which come to their surface, where the kine 
and the birds may drink. 

The sandy area of Atlantic County is about 4000 acres, and the marsh 
area 38,000 acres. 

A list of the various birds found along the coast, including both those 
of the forest and aquatic species, gives the names of more than one hundred 
kinds. The varieties of fish are still more numerous. While the hunting 
and fishing is not, of course, what it was in the early days, the sportsman 
of the present and future need never go hungry in the neighborhood of 
these waters. 




DAY WITH THK BIRDS 



58 




atlantic Citij. 




(tbapter IDIF. 



.lOoavtiwaik 



The spacious permanent Boardwalk extending along the immediate 
sea-front for a distance of some twenty-five blocks, and continued many 
tibc blocks to the westward by a narrow structure, is the glory of the city, 

and in many respects, its most profitable investment. It is the rialto 
of the masses, the great social exchange for the multitudes from the scores 
of large hotels, and the hundreds of lesser establishments and cottages so 







.ft.ftk vv" ^C,^'>'i(if'^( ^' 'i^-^- 






* 



closely packed upon the costly space stretching shoreward, square upon 
square. It is a pleasant and astonishing " Vanity Fair," the favorite parade 
for the young and gay, and the delightful out-of-door sanitarium for the tired 
and age-worn, it always carries the aspect of festivity, suggesting a pano- 
rama of life in all its phases. With every hour of the day, and in every 
season, every condition of weather its aspects change. From this sun-lit 



59 



gallery, one may watch the sparkle of the glorious sea in its tender moods, 
or face the tempest when the billows break and war incessantly beneath 
the foot. Along its iron rail in the bathing hour of a summer's morning, 
the people cluster like bees, to watch the other multitudes gathered upon 
the warm gray sands or splashmg in the rollers with all the abandon of 
children. Upon the outward side all is majesty, breadth and mystery. It 

is the edge of the world. Upon 
the other is ranged the 
thousand and one devices 
of the trader, a far- 
stretching chain 
of temptations, 




every link of \\ hich has its own particular form and attraction. It is a gaunt- 
let which few run from end to end, without stopping to pay tribute. Per- 
haps it would be impossible to accurately estimate the volume of the traffic 
enjoyed by the owners of these gay pavilions and shops upon Atlantic City's 
"Midway," but it must run into the hundreds of thousands every year, and 
the total of rentals when considered might make one dizzy. It is a great 



60 



object-lesson upon the potency of success. Nearly every human want has 
its ministers here. Its multitude of signs and banners catch and confuse the 
eye, the dazzle of the scene banishes every prudent resolve at economy, and 
so the holiday crowds surge to and fro, in and out of the portals of temples, 
theatres, casinos, piers and bazaars, scattering the currency of the realm 
with a reckless prodigality, truly American, and those who spread their 
wares in the sight of the visitor are rejoiced with prosperity. How barren 
would be the Boardwalk without its shows and shops, and after all, how 
much the visitor can get there for the money spent ! Many of the stores, 
notably those dealjng in foreign wares, carry superb and costly stocks, for- 
tunes in bric-a-brac. The theatres present excellent entertainments, the 
merry-go-rounds, the razzle-dazzle, Ferris wheels and temples of mystery, 
all afford startling sensations, at the smallest possible price of admission, 
while it is well known that the oriental giants and fat women are quite as 
ponderous as they are depicted upon the canvas in front of their abiding 
places, and the anacondas are as ferocious as the most captious could wish. 
Handsome pavilions, reserved for the guests of the principal hotels, are fre- 
quent along the promenade, together with many extensive bathing-houses, 
enclosing large swimming-tanks, some of whiLh are in use throughout the 

year. _ 

i^bc pleaeurc 

Projected from this hurly-burly of pleasure, far out into the BMtr!3 
surf, are three vast piers upon which are built expansive concert halls, 
restaurants and pavilions. The most costly and elaborate of these struc- 
tures, thus daringly built above the restless surge of old ocean, is the 
one constructed by the Atlantic City Steel Pier Company, at a cost of 
$200,000. All day long, and far into the night the piers are crowded, the 
KoarOwalh military bands play on, while the summer rolls merrily along. 
©Mmpecs A tramp along the Boardwalk from the breezy Inlet away down to 
the old Excursion House is a constitutional. It would more than satisfy 
the inveterate old sea-dog one always tinds among the passengers of 



61 




the bii; Transatlantic liners who 

makes his regular mileage along 

the lee side of the deck every day 

of the voyage. Indeed, such a walk 

; this is not unlike the appetizer one 

take at sea. 

Up around the Inlet at the eastern extreme of the island, where the 
white fleets of sloops are always speeding up and down, and where the 
rollers used to sweep in so perilously close to the big shapely lighthouse, 
there are acres upon acres of made land, now being rapidly covered by 
stylish modern cottages. In this section, one of the finest improvements is 
seen at Gramercy Place, an extension of .Arctic avenue. Here the centre 
of the roadway is occupied by raised intervals of grass, along which, as well 
as upon the curbs, are ranged pedestals of Pompeian brick, similar to those 
guarding the entrance to St. Charles Place, and surmounted by handsome 
lanterns. 

The greater hotels are nearly all between Pacific avenue and the 
ocean front, most of them in touch with the Boardwalk. Proceeding south 
and west from the Inlet along the Boardwalk, these, and the other principal 
features of the fashionable side of town, come into view in the following 
order : 

Rhode Island Avenue: The Senate. 

Massachusetts Avenue: The Lelande. The iron Pier. 

The Japanese Tea Garden occupies most of the next block. 

New Jersey Avenue: The Rudolf. 

St. Charles Place: The St. Charles. 

States Avenue, a very broad highway, is bordered almost entirely by 
cottages. 

Maryland Avenue: The Imperial, Hotel Portland and the Scarborough. 
Several extensive bathing-houses front on the Boardwalk. 



62 



Virginia Avenue: The Isiesworth, Ponce de Leon, Majestic, Berkshire 
Inn, Brookehurst, Grand Atlantic, Irvington, Wiltshire, Ardmore, Monterey, 
Linden Hall, Clarendon and Albemarle. 

At the foot of this avenue, opposite the Jackson Bath House, is the 
new Atlantic City Steel Pier. 

Pennsylvania Avenue : The Seaside, Hotel Hoffman and the Lehman. 

North Carolina Avenue : Haddon Hall and Chalfonte. 

South Carolina Avenue : Somers Casino, Hotel Warwick, Tudor Hall, 
Manhattan, Stanley and Mentone. 

Ocean Avenue : The Toboggan Slide, The Crystal Maze. This is a 
cottage avenue. 

Tennessee Avenue : The west side is occupied by a range of twenty 
hotels, the Rossmore, near Pacific Avenue, being the largest. 

In the succeeding block, which was the scene of the great fire of 




last season, preparations are being made to build a number of costly hotels 
and other structures. 

In front of this block is Young's Pier, e.xtending 2000 feet into the 
surf. This has been largely rebuilt and greatly improved this season. 

New York Avenue : Academy of Music, The Bryn Mawr Hotel, 



63 



ALONG 1 HE 
SEA FRONT, 
LOOKING EA: 



Metropole, Hotel Koopman, The Maryland, Berkshire Inn, Chester Inn and 
several other medium hotels. 

Kentucky Avenue : The Stratford, Berkely, Evard, Kenilworth, 
Hotel de Ville, Wellington, Runnymede, Boscobel, Westminster, Willard, 




Luray, Norwood, Wetherill, Hotel Riclimond and otlier lesser establishments. 

Bew's Hotel is one of the few fronting immediately upon the Board- 
walk. 

Illinois Avenue : The Windsor and the Traymore occupy opposite 
sides of this street. Just beyond is the handsome Casino building with its 
elaborate baths, parlors, ballroom and gardens. 

Indiana Avenue : The Hotel Brighton, and opposite is the large costly 
cottage of Mr. Fred. Hemsley, owner of the Brighton and the Casino. 
Between this cottage and the sea is handsome Brighton Park. 

Park Place : The grounds and building of the Convent of the Sacred 
Heart face Brighton Park, and beyond, toward Pacific A\enue, are the 
Cliatham, the Revere and some other houses. The Mercer Memorial House 
being at the corner of Pacific Avenue. 



64 



Ohio Avenue : A large space is occupied by the buildings of the 
admirable Seashore House for Invalid Children. (See chapter devoted to 
this charity.) 

Michigan Avenue : Hotel Dennis, The Shelbourne, Pennhurst, 
Arlington and Edison. 

Arkansas Avenue : The Fortescue, and many other moderate-sized 
hotels, crowd this avenue, and along this section the Boardwalk is lined 
with restaurants, bath and amuse- 
ment pavilions, etc., the same being 
true of Missouri Avenue. 

The Boardwalk extends in 
its full width several blocks fur- 
ther, merging at Texas Avenue, 
into the remaining portion of the 
old walk. This marks the limits 
of the closely built portion of the 
city, which, however, is rapidly 
spreading toward pleasant and mod- 
ern Chelsea just beyond. 

It is expected that the per- 
manent Boardwalk will soon be 
extended west from Texas Avenue 
through Chelsea, as this progressive suburl 
replace the old wooden walk' which at present exists upon its sea front. 

It has been well said that the Boardwalk- and its miles of clustered 
structures, form but the frame for the real picture seen in the \ast cosmo- 
politan. The true interest is in the cosmopolitans who are there to serve 
and to be served. The surging throngs that pass and repass, hour after 
hour, upon a summer's da\' find abundant diversion in the orientals who 
border their pathway-, displaying strange and beautiful wares filled with the 




niunc\' tu 



65 



rich colorings of eastern dyes, and fasliioned vvitii the fantastic designs of far- 
away lands: they are beguiled by the comic mountebank, and enthralled by 
the promise of a glimpse into the future by the shrewd devotees of astrology. 
The life of the world is arrayed here in all its \aried panoply to amuse 
and divert, but, after all, the greatest, most impressive, most interest- ^^^^ Summer 
ing sight is the vast, well-dressed, well-mannered, happy-faced crowd flHultituDcs 
of Americans, bent solely upon enjoyment, thousands and thousands of them, 
a marching army of men and women, with half a dozen policemen to keep 
them in order. In any other country it would take regiments of armed 
troops, and at such a sight reigning monarchs would tremble in their palaces. 
There are days in summer when the population of Atlantic City is reinforced 
by scores of e.xcursion trains, until the avenues, the Boardwalk and the 
beach are black with masses of pleasure seekers who aggregate a hundred 
and fifty thousand. Such a scene as this, familiar enough in the metropolis 
of the sea, would carry confusion, turmoil, perhaps anarchy in its wake, in 
any other land. It is a most inspiring object-lesson to the student, of the 
characteristics of a free people. 

That this modern phenomenon is possible, is due to the orderly instincts 
of the people who come here ; to the railroads which provide such 
unequalled excursion facilities, and to the government of the cit\' 

which, tolerating much, 
still enforces respect for 
the rights of all. 

To the wonders of 
America, as known to 
travelers from other parts 
of the world, must soon 
be added the new sub- 
ject, "A Sunday Crowd 
at Atlantic City in July." 




atlantic <l\ts>. Cbaptcr I^IIII. 



Atlantic avenue, which as surveyed extends some nine miles, was in 

the long-ago days of local history the principal hotel street from which more 

or less precarious board footwa\-s wandered across the sand dunes , 

^ ■ Htlantic avenue 

to the little coops of bathing houses that dotted the high water mark. 




a Orcat 



A local regulation requires that all new buildings through the heart 
of the city upon Atlantic avenue shall be fireproof, and many substantial 
public and business buildings are the result. Among the most 
striking buildings of a permanent character upon Atlantic avenue _ ^_ 

are those of the Union National, Second National and Atlantic City Cboroucibtarc 
National Banks. The Real Estate and Law Building is one of the largest 
in the city. The "Elks" Building at .Maryland avenue and the Neptune 
Hose House are handsome structures. 



67 



Banks are the most positive evidence of general prosperity. The 
institutions mentioned above should have more than passing notice. 

The Union National Bank was organized August 14th, 1890, with 
Mr. Allen B. Hndicott, President; Mr, E. P. Williams, Vice-President and 
Mr. J. G. Hammer, Cashier. 

The Bank opened for business October 
nth, i8go, at their temporary office. No. 1726 
Atlantic avenue. On the 23d of February, 
1892, the Bank moved to its present building 
at the corner of Atlantic and Kentucky aves. 
Mr. J. M. Aikman was elected Cashier, April 
14th, 1892, and in 1894 Mr. Smith Conover 
was appointed Vice-President, on resignation 
of Doctor Williams. The present Board of 
[directors consists of A. B. Endicott, Smith 
Conover, C. J. Adams, F. A. Souder, Thomp- 
son Irvin, F. J. Dickerson, A. H. Bailey, J. H. Lippincott, Lewis P. Scott, 
J. D. Southwick and George H. Jackson. A. B. Endicott, President ; Smith 
Conover, Vice-President, and J. M. Aikman, Cashier. 

Their deposits aggregate $400,000, and surplus and undivided profits, 
$45,000. 

From their central location and their courteous and liberal treatment 
of depositors their prospects for a large and rapid increase of business are very 
bright. 

The Second National Bank has won a reputation as one of the fore- 
most financial institutions of Atlantic City, being noted for its fairness and 
ample accommodations to the public. Its building is one of the most artistic 
and striking objects upon this busy avenue. 

The capital of the bank is $100,000 ; undivided profit, $75,000 ; aver- 
age deposits, $750,000. President, George F. Currie; Cashier, L. A. Down. 




68 




SECOND 

NATIONAL BANK, 
ATLANTIC AVENUE 



Ample banking accommodations like 
those afforded by such institutions as 
Second National Bank, have far more 
than local significance, as they often 
determine the visit and length of stay 
of families of wealth, resident in the 
large cities, whose heads must 
keep in touch with the financial 
world. No single influence has 
contributed more to the growth of 
Atlantic City than its group of banks. 

Among the business houses of Atlantic City, the important branch 
concern of the Bergner & Engel Brewing Co., of Philadelphia, occupies an 
important place. The long established popularity of the Bergner & Engel 
beers at the shore has been greatly increased by the facilities offered 
to the Atlantic City dealers, who have been uniformly loyal and apprecia- 
tive of the progressive spirit shown in erecting the handsome building de- 
voted by the company to its large business at this point. 

The relative importance of good beer in satisfying the multitudes who 
resort to this great pleasure city, and in affording at all times a reliable and 
healthful summer^ beverage cannot be over-estimated. There is something 
especially felicitous in the union of a bottle of B. & E. and the cooling 
breezes of old ocean in their soothing effect upon tired and over-heated 
humanity, which has just poured down from the crowded and stifling 
city for a blessed smell of the salt air and a ramble along 
the Boardwalk. 
. • ., Pacific avenue will probably always remain, as 

now, the leading cottage street. Many ipacific Svemic 
of the finest private homes in the city are 
ranged along its length. Most of the churches 




are also upon this avenue, and at the corner of Illinois avenue is the 
costly Garden Hotel, seven floors in height. Among the churclies are 
the First Presbyterian at Pennsylvania avenue, the First Baptist and St. 
James (Episcopal), North Carolina avenue, the Central Methodist 
. and Friends' Meeting House at South Carolina avenue, German Presby- 

terian at Ocean avenue, St. Nicholas (Catholic) at Tennessee avenue, 
Church of the Ascension (Episcopal) at Kentucky avenue, St. Paul's 
(Methodist) at Ohio avenue, St. Andrew's (Lutheran) at Michigan avenue, 
and St. Monica (Catholic) at California avenue. 
1In tbc bubiirbe j,^g, ^^^^^^ ,^^,^j^ ^^ Atlantic City and its suburbs, as the growing set- 
tlements down the beach may be termed, is full of suggestion. The whole 
shore front, extending from the Inlet to Longport, has been plotted into ave- 
nues, those parallel with the sea being continuations of Atlantic, Pacific and 
the other principal avenues. About 130 blocks are located in these nine 
miles. In Chelsea, Chelsea Heights, Leonard, Ventnor, South Atlantic 
City, and in Longport, miles of grading have been done, and fine avenues 
now extend where not long since there existed nothing but a waste of sand 
hills, reminders of the site of Atlantic City in its original state. In all of 
these places many attractive hotels, private cottages and other permanent 

structures have been built. The electric railway binds the whole a DMcaeant 

1 J i -^ 1 J I ■ £ ^ ui -^ IRoiind Crip 

group by a rapid transit schedule in very comfortable cars, its 

termini being at the Inlet and at the steamboat wharf in Longport, where 

it connects witli the ferry steamers for Ocean City and Somers' Point. 

The fare for the eight miles is ten cents. In summer the cars are open. 

The boats plying from Longport are large, handsome craft, regular pleasure 

yachts in fact, and form a part of a beautiful round trip, costing thirty cents, 

the return from Somers' Point being upon the dummy train via Pleasant\ille. 

In considering the still unoccupied territory which will afford an 

opportunity to the Atlantic City of the future in which to grow, the 

beach upon Brigantine must be included. A great deal of work has 



70 



been done here in the dii'ection of development. The Brigantine Transit 
Company operates a ferry line from its pier near the Inlet and also a rail- 
road along the beach to Little Egi; Harbor Inlet seven miles away. The 
charge for the round trip is 25 cents. TRoom to Spread 

But eleven per cent, of the total area of Absecon Island is yet built 
upon, a fact which may serve to impress such people who have concluded 
that the day for making money in Atlantic City real estate has gone by. 
There are still plenty of fortunes awaiting the future operator along the 
Jersey coast beside those buried there by Captain Kidd. 

In the winter and spring of 1897, and for a year or so anterior to this 
time, a vast amount of work was found for the army of carpenters, masons 
and other mechanics in the building trades, in the very general enlargement 
of the principal hotels, following a great tidal wave of summer prosperity. 
In the spring of 1898 these same busy workers were employed upon a great 
number of high class private cottages. These are being built in all parts of 
the city and its outer borders. A wonderful transformation is being wrought 
in the neighborhood of the Inlet. Upon long neglected territory beautiful 
streets are now projected down to the surf upon one hand and far out upon 
the meadows to the thoroughfare and " basins " upon the other, and hand- 
some cottages, in the best style of seashore architecture, are springing up 
from the ground as if by magic. The endless variety of these homes is 
bewildering, and the confidence shown by those who thus elect this as a 
summer residence is one of the surest indications of the greatness which 
still awaits the " City by the Sea." 

The permanent population of Atlantic City in 1898 may probably 
be safeK' put as high as 25,000. In the summer season it may, at 
times, be multiplied by five or six. The systematic, orderly, tranquil way 
in which this remarkable place absorbs an army of visitors e.xceeding 
200,000 persons, all eager, hungry and importunate — finds subsistence and 
beds for all of them and keeps them amused and happ\- between meals — is 



71 




one of the wonders of tlie time. Any other resort would get " rattled " by 
such prodigious patronage. Nothing disturbs tiie mental poise of the citizen 
here, whether he owns a hotel, a store or a bazaar. He knows that the 

people and their money will be 
along in due time and that "hard 
times " can't " down " the season 
to come. 

In connection with Atlantic City 
the summer travel books issued by 
the railroad companies each season 
contain a list of about 400 hotels 
and boarding houses with location, 
terms of board, etc. Each of these, big and little, has its list of regular 
patrons, and thus, in a certain sense, the people upon the arri\'al of the 
long trains sort themselves out. 

One of the most important lines of effort ever made by the authori- 
ties and hotel managers of Atlantic City has been its determined hid for 
convention business. There are held in the United States every year more 
than 1,000 regular conventions representing almost every possible human 
interest. The railroad companies all over the land from one ocean to the 
other are in constant correspondence in the interest of these gatherings, a 
large proportion of which are itinerant and thus, within a wide radius at 
least, open to the allurements of the seashore. The convention element is 
usually composed of intelligent and substantial people of the middle classes. 
They are well worth looking after as they are sure to go home and spread 
the fame of Atlantic City's greatness far and wide. 

During the summer of 1897, the influential Trades' League of Phila- 
delphia, an organization of above two thousand firms, having for its object 
the development of the city's trade, was instrumental, in co-operation with 
the Railroad Companies, in bringing to Philadelphia a series of eleven large 



72 



excursions of merchants and their families, from various sections of the 
United States. In the programme prepared for their pleasure, a liberal por- 
tion of the time was wisely given to Atlantic City. The public officials and 
hotel proprietors gladly seconded the efforts of the Trades' League in making 
these excursionists " at home." It was decidedly the most effective ^ „ . ^, 
advertisement this resort has ever gained. Call 

As a pleasant sequel, on December 2nd, 1897, a committee of Atlantic 
City's officials, business and hotel men presented to the Trades' League, at 
its beautiful rooms in the Bourse, a highly artistic copy of resolutions duly 
adopted at a meeting held for the purpose, thanking the Trades' League for 
its valued recognition as an essential in a summer visit to the Quaker City. 
In reply to the address of presentation made by Mayor Sooy, Mr. Thomas 
Martindale, the Chairman of the Special Committee upon Merchants' Excur- 
sions, made the following remarks, which embody so much of prophesy and 
suggestion, that by request they were afterwards printed and illustrated. 
By permission of Mr. Martindale, the pamphlet is reproduced that its con- 
tents may be more effectually preserved. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : 

As you are all busy men — even now there is hardly one of you but is 
occasionally taking hold of his watch-chain and nervously thinking of the 
time — I will be brief. In the first place, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, 
these Resolutions ought properly to be inscribed (in addition to the Trades' 
League) to the Passenger Railroads centering in our city, and also to the 
entire Press of Philadelphia, which accomplished so much in giving wide 
publicity to those excursions that have been the means of bringing us 
together in such a happ\' manner. 1 never knew the Philadelphia news- 
papers to be so united on any one topic ; but on this theme of theirs, and 
ours, of last summer — that of trying to help Philadelphia and Atlantic City 
by bringing great multitudes to both cities — every single one of them rolled 



73 



Hf>v 



about 



up its sleeves and spread the printers' ini< for all it was worth. And the 
railroad officials were equally liberal in granting many excursions, which 
were run upon the most generous plan, both as to the quick movement of 
the trains, and their sumptuous accommodations. 

I am a great believer in advertising, not only in advertising the indi- 
vidual business but in advertising a city as well. Where a business is 
" run down at the heel " the first thing a business man should do is 
to advertise. A community following one common purpose to ele- 
vate and improve the business of their city or town, can doit better by 
advertising their interests, as a city, than by any other method. Atlantic 
City shows a good example to all her sister cities, by being the foremost 
in advertising, and it is on that account, more perhaps than any other, that 
it has become the Brighton of Philadelphia, as Brighton 
is now the Atlantic City of London. 

My first trip to Atlantic City was in 1875. O" 
that occasion I reached the shore in three hours, but 
when 1 arrived there I was covered from head to 
foot with dust and dirt and cinders. It took me 
four hours to get back home. The result was, that I 
was so tired and worn out I had a horror of Atlantic 
City for a long time afterward, and 1 did not revisit 
the place for several years. 
As an idea of what the transportation facilities to Atlantic City may 
become in the next twenty-five years I would call your attention to the 
remarks of Mr. D. B. Martin, General Passenger Agent of the B. & O. R. R. 
in his speech made before the General Passenger Agents of the United 
States in St. Louis, October 19, 1897. Mr. Martin said: " The locomo- 
tive has reached its utmost development and will soon be overshadowed by 
the application of electricity. The inventive world is filled with the ghosts 
and shadows of inventions that are useful and accomplish the purpose of 




36\i(lonc 
©iscomt'orts 



74 



the inventors. The first stage of an improvement is the accomplishment of 
certain results ; the second, and equally as important, whether these results 
can be attained at a cost which will justify their use. In the adoption, 
therefore, of electricity to the steam railroad, we are in the second ® forecast 
stage of its development. The problem yet to be determined is, assuming 
that the railroad system now operated by steam can obtain the same results 
with electricity, will the increased cost result in increased traffic ? Then, if 
the electric power should develop a speed greater than steam, the distance 
across the continent would be minimized, and the business man who takes his 
breakfast in New York could dine in St. Louis and sup in San Francisco, 
while the span of the continent would 
be as hours instead of days." 

Thus, gentlemen, in twenty- 
five years from now, according to this 
General Passenger Agent's prediction 
it may be possible for a man to start 
from New \'ork and land in San Fran- 
cisco in one day. If this can be ac- 
complished, or anything like it, why may we not e.xpect that the distance fifteen 

MINUTES TO 

between Philadelphia and Atlantic City can be covered in less than fifteen the shore 
minutes, or say, in the same time it now takes us to go to our homes in 
West Philadelphia, from the centre of the city ? 

In closing his address Mr. Martin said : '• From horse-power through 
the city of Baltimore at the rate of one mile an hour to that of electricity 
at si.xty miles an hour, in one generation, is such an advance that the possi- 
bilities of the future can hardly be conjectured, and the rapid progress that 
has been made in the application of this wonderful motor justifies the belief 
that the days of smoke, steam and fuel anno\'ances are numbered. 

Within the last year a bicycle path between Philadelphia and your 
city has been built at considerable expense, which enables the cycler or 




75 




the "cyclist crank" that turns the crank, to pedal his way down to 
Atlantic City in from two hours and forty-seven minutes (which I think is 
the record) to ten hours. I believe that this bicycle path will in the future 
be supplemented by a broad highway on which we can ride our cvclina to 
wheels down with comfort in wet days as well as in the sunshine ^^'- ^'■''' 
— a grand road, with a broad and smooth surface — a modern Appian 
Way, upon which the rich and pleasure-loving people, blessed with fine 
horses, can drive _^ ■S^i^^ down from Philadelphia in their car- 
riages, leaving here in the morning 
and reaching your luxurious hotels in 
the evening of the same day. 

The first stage in the develop- 
ment of the United States as far as 
buildings are concerned was the era of 
A TRANS- ^he log house or cabin. And the next was that of the frame structure. 

JERSEY DRIVE 

Atlantic City has reached this latter stage and amplified it to its greatest 
limit, as your modern frame palaces fully demonstrate ; but the next 
twenty-five years will show your buildings to be, as they must be, 
of iron and stone and of brick, as a measure of economy, as well as 
safety. a port of 

I have a dream that within the next twenty-five years Atlan- Entry? 
tic City will be made a port of entry, as well as a harbor of refuge, which 
should have been an accomplished fact years and years ago. 

Last season an innovation in the method of conducting business 
between our city, on the waters of the Delaware, and yours on the sands of 
the great ocean, was made by some of our leading houses of trade, in can- 
vassing for orders in your city, and delivering the goods in their own wagons 
at your very doors. This innovation no doubt will broaden so that most 
of the large houses will conform to it in future seasons, and in addition there- 
to a number of houses will open branches of their business within your 



76 



borders, equipping their stores in a manner befitting the character of their 
home concerns, and of your increased demands. 

Your postal facilities will be largely bettered and increased. When 
I first went to Atlantic City you had but two mails a day and no free 
delivery. Now you have a free delivery four times a day, and I predict 
that it will be increased in the future to a delivery every sixty minutes. 
At the time 1 speak of we had no telephone. We now have it from Phila- 
delphia to Atlantic City, but have to pay fifty cents every time we use it to 
telephone to you or for you to telephone to us, and the telephone company 
takes care that the charges are surely paid. The time will come when, as 
a subscriber, you can talk to us in Philadelphia or we to you in Atlantic 
City, without extra charge, just as we do now to Germantown, West Phil- 
adelphia or Camden. 

To you hotel men I want to say a few words, not in the line of criti- 
cism, but as a stimulus to the great work of improvement and progress that 
is in store for you in the years to come. You have done well in the past ; 
you must do equally well in the future. Here are some things that I 
think, and believe you will accomplish. I see, in the future, a grand 
museum erected in Atlantic City, not a catch-penny affair with a hand- 
organ playing at the door, with an admission fee of five, or ten, or twentv- 
flve cents, but a noble museum in every sense of the word, projected an anuarium 
and maintained upon a liberal scale and supported either by your Hotel 
Men's Association, or by your city, for the instruction and entertainment of 
the good people that come to you from out the world at large. I also see an 
aquarium established upon a generous plan. Why should \ou not have this 
aid to the education and amusement of the visitors that come from the dif- 
ferent parts of our great country ? You, that have the ocean filled with its 
living curiosities at your very feet— 1 say why shouldn't you have an aqua- 
rium for their display- .' You should have had this attraction, at least years 
ago. 1 also see in the same future, a magnificent Concert Hall, not a little 



n 



BOULEVARD, 
CITV OF DOUGLAS, 
ISLE OF MAN 



hall with five or six musicians playing on stringed instruments, accompa^ 
nied by a twanging harp, or an orchestrion grinding out a set of tunes each 
and all out of tune, but a massive hall with a large and efficient orchestra, 
which orchestra shall play for the benefit of the whole people. A Crystal 
Palace, too, will arise in Atlantic City, and become the talk of the nation. 
Your now famous Boardwalk will give way to a broad boulevard of stone 




and cement aiul iiini. ' Twill be a boulevard wide enough and broad enough 
to accommodate lines of street cars, lines of carriages, lines of equestrian 
riders, lines of wheelmen, as well as the millions of pedestrians ; and 
moreover, a boulevard massive enough to withstand the ravages of old 
Father Ocean, and battle successfully with his most furious and destruc- 
tive moods. 



78 



1 have the pleasure of showing you here a picture of the City of 
Douglas in the Isle of Man. Just look at this grand boulevard built of iron 
a IPcrt -If ^'^'"^ stone fronting and encircling this magnificent array of hotels and 
the mum amusement places. It was built in 1875. At Douglas the ocean 
exerts ten times a greater power upon their stone walk than would be 
imposed on any board-walk or boulevard that you can build at Atlantic 
City, the currents, tides and storms being so much more severe over there 
than they are with you. Now I show you a picture of that same boulevard 
as assailed by the fiercest power of the ponderous waves which you see 
dashing over and above it. In spite of these severe storms, and of their 




effects, this magnificent roadway and promenade is just as firm now as it 
was the day it was finished ; and let me say that this same City of 
Douglas in the last century was credited with a population of only 810 
people who lived by the precarious industry of the herring fishery ; and 
that now it has a resident population of over 15,000, and that there is not 
a single frame structure in the whole city that I know of. 

1 also want to show you gentlemen this little picture of an ocean 
walk of stone and iron fronting the city of Scarborough, in the North of 
England. The scene shown here represents a storm severe enough to have 
washed a full rigged ship broadside up to, and upon this famed boulevard. 



79 




A STORM AT 
SCARBOROUGH, 

ENGLAND 



yet the storm that you now see here and hundreds of others that have since 
spent their fury on its firm foundation, have had little or no effect g,, Encilish 
upon it, and it stands as firm to-day as it did half a century ago. 1R«-'^>^rt 
In the City of Scarborough they not only have a grand museum, a great 
aquarium, and a " Spa," but they also have a very large and very fine 

Public Concert Hall, where on pleasant 
days the ladies bring their children, 
and with their knitting, their embroid- 
ery, or their favorite novel, remain for 
hours, while the gentlemen visit and 
chat, or flirt with them, and the chil- 
dren romp around or dance with childish 
abandon. Each and all are entranced 
by the grand music of the orchestra, 
which plays during the afternoon and 
evening the whole season long, and to the delight of visitors from all parts 
of the United Kingdom. 

One of your up-to-date hotel men has sent out a circular to his pat- 
rons, the closing sentence of which is the following: "There is more to 
say in favor of Atlantic City, much more to say that charms and fascinates, 
of this City of the Sea, but do not take our word for it ; come and see for 
yourselves." Now this too is my text ; but if you bring the people here, 
give them more than you do give, and are giving them at the present time. 
1 know that there are no better hotel accommodations to be found in the 
whole world than in Atlantic City, (provided you pay for them), whether 
that be at the rate of $3.00 a day or ^4.00 a day, but give your patrons 
something besides your hotels to talk about ; something to attract, some- 
thing to instruct the young people of the United States, as well as their 
elders. Have them go home and tell about your wonderful Music Hall and 
your attractive Aquarium, your magnificent Crystal Palace with its bewil- 



80 



dering glories of electric lighting, living waterfalls, and its things of beauty 

and things of pleasure. Let them also tell of their walks and the sights they 

have seen, and the people they have met, upon your grand boulevard of 

stone, of iron, and cement. All these things must not be catch-penny affairs, 

but big civic enterprises, big civic accomplishments, worthy of Atlantic City 

and in very truth of any city. Let them talk of Atlantic City as if it 

were another White City, as the exhibition buildings and grounds in nnahe iDeoulc 

Chicago were called during the World's Fair. Let them talk of the ^^"^ 

wonders of Atlantic City as people will talk of the wonders of Paris in the 

year igoo. Then you will have the visitors pour in upon you by the 

tens of thousands where they now come by the hundreds. 

In conclusion, gentlemen, if you will help yourselves in the future, as 
you have helped yourselves in the past, and live up to the full measure of 
progress that tlie pressure of the times will demand of you for the next 25 
years, the business men of Philadelphia must and will extend to you a help- 
ing hand, and the government of the United States must and will help you, 
not only to make Atlantic City a harbor of refuge, and a port of entry, but 
the greatest and most attractive seaside resort of the world." 




81 



atlantic Citv\ (Ibaptcr mn. 




The most picturesque feature of the Island at all 

times is found at the yacht wharf alongside of the 

great pavilion at the Inlet. It is worth while to 

bestir one's self at dawn upon a Summer 

dbc pleasure 
morning and ride or walk briskly up to the jficct at 

Inlet, just to have a glimpse of the lively ^'"^ ''^"''"'^ 

stir among the brigade of popular and enterprising 

"cap'ns" who are busy with the preparations for 

the expected rush of customers. 

VACHT PIER, It takes a lot of marine housekeeping to run an 

Atlantic City sloop, or even a cat-boat. There's the regular morning 

swabbing down of the decks, the overhauling of cordage, looking after 

blocks, brass work, ballast, tlag-halyards, reef-points, and all kinds of 

small but important nautical matters, not to mention tlie rugs and cushions 

which a capricious, exacting and effete civilization insists upon hav- 

Sumnicr nrioni ing. Very likely it's a dead calm and already insufferably hot out 

there upon the long wharf where the scores of craft poke their noses 

against the landing like so many mules at the crib, but the old salts 

don't mind it. They can tell you just to the minute and from what 

exact point of the compass the breeze will arrive ; and so when the 

trolleys begin to bring the festive throngs from the hotels and cottages, 

dressed in every variation of nautical outfit, the whole scene takes on 

the look of a dress rehearsal of the " Pirates" ; the " cracks " are already 

tacking to and fro in the jaws of the channel, and if you haven't a camera 

to catch the inspiring scene you are filled with vain regret. Then, some- 



82 




1^ 



times, there are gray days 
when the rollers pour heav- 
ily over the bars, or sunlit 
days, full of fresh breezes from 
the seaward, when the big main- 
sails are double-reefed down upon the creaking booms, with little corners of 
jibs raised above the tip of the bowsprits, and the skippers speed to and fro 
in their oilskins through the splash and gleam of the dancing waters, just to 
show the crowds how safe and jolly it is out there. This is the opportunity 
for the youth who pines for glory from the sea, and for the pretty girl who 
'•just loves a gale," and so they cling to the shrouds, with mackintoshes, 
skirts and ribbons all a-tlutter, and lor a little brief while are the observed 
of all observers as the sloop heels and plunges and races through the tur- 
moil of waters. But, bless you ! there's nothing to be alarmed at, for the 
sloop-man who brought his party into any sort of danger would presently 
have to hunt other occupation, if your "cap'n " says he will take you 
outside when things are looking ticklish from a landsman's point of view you 
can go right along just the same as if you were going to church, for it's fully 
■^* as safe, and sometimes more exhilarating. 

Just who or when the first .4bsecon boatman set up in the business 

of sailing pleasure parties is not a matter of \-eritied history. The 

supply has followed the demand, and the demand came along 

with the very first excursionists who discovered Atlantic City. 

Thirty years ago the Inlet was a livel\' place, and twenty 

years since the prowess of the Inlet sailors and their boats 

was known to the whole coast. 

There was the Ocean Star. Capt. J. A. Rider ; the 

Naittiliii. Capt. D. Chamberlain ; the 

C. L Mott, Capt. N. Sooy, and the 

C. L. /-farmer. Capt. H. Endicott, 




all of the first-class. Then in the second-class were the IV. G. Bartlett, 
Capt. Andy Snee ; the Neptune, Capt. S. Gale ; the Ranger, Capt. T. Conk- 
iin, who also ran the Cecilda. Among the smaller boats were the G. [V. 
®IC» Carpenter, Capt. A. Holdzkom ; Orion, Capt. H. Bowen ; Marshall. 
jravoritee ^^^^ ^, Conover ; Regina Mary, Capt. H. Snee; Aunt Emily, 
Capt. H. Smith ; J. H. Cousty, Capt. Leeds Mills ; Katie, Capt. D. Somers ; 
l^iola, Capt. J. Parker; Champion. Capt. J. M. Leeds, and the^ 
EJ'd'arJs. Capt. Walter Somers. 

Over at Somers' Point in those days the Steelman 
boys had the American Eagle, the W-^Jir, and the Hinhley, 
all well-known craft. Such things as " fin- 
keels " and "single-raters" and all that, 
were unheard of in those halcyon days, but 
those staunch old boats, full of the glory of 
red, white and blue paint, used to get over 
the salt water in a way that was inspiring 
and appetizing, and when there was a flutter 
of sea-gulls away out by the horizon, the 
race for the blue-fish was a beautiful thing to see. 

The present fieet at the Inlet is large and 
still expanding. It includes the following craft and 
their captains : 

Cat Yachts: — Tom Gardner, Con. Conover; 
Carrie M., Walter Somers ; B. C. Pennington, Norris 
Cramer; Stella. Henry Monroe; Jennie J., Lem Conover;' 
Cameron, Frank Gifford ; Star, George Tomlinson ; Prir, 
cess 'Bonnie, Charles Gale ; Emma S., George Quinn ; Leira, Isaac Cono- 
ver ; ^fw. Yeivdall, John Showell ; Ethel. Ed Jones ; A. IV. Beyer. Charles 
Huntey ; Ralston. Henry Endicott; Laura, A. Bowen; William H.. John 
Grahm ; Sallie, A. Hickman ; Marcella, Job Monroe ; Frances G., George 




Gale; •Tiilby, Luke Conover ; Pert. William Andrews; Caddie B.. Lewis 

Barrett; Sparkle, "HiWrnm Somers ; Nepaul.V\. H. Parker; Katie, William 

Lowder ; Harold, Wash Watson ; Uncle Benny. John Conover ; Anna, Jas. 

Monroe ; Dart, Sam Monroe ; Orville. Captain Haunslev ; Carrie 

r. , , .. , ^ - ■ Cbc Jflect 

Dolph Parker ; Defender. Abe Casto ; Albion, Francis Parker ; Delia, of 'i>S 

Dan Showell; Uttie, Alfred Showell ; Prince Arthur, Frank Doughty; Blue 

Bird. Fen Doughty ; L. S. Allen. Frank Ducase ; Kenderton, Ben Loveland ; 

C. S. Haines, Hd Turner ; Marv. Wm. Hammel ; Glide, Ezra Somers ; Paterson, 

Ben Bowen ; I/{{/V, Tom Bowen ; A'lTte Melier, Sam Mills ; fic/Zc, Geo. W. 

Gale; Kitty Clover, John Dutch; Majestic, Andrew Monroe; Pastime. Ab 

Adams; Snellenbiirg, James Miller; Lady Eldridge, Charles Malhis ; Clara 

S., Mark Casto ; Sparta Frit{, Gideon Conover ; Folnnteer, Nathan Parker ; 

Jennie, H. Frambes ; Seabright, Dan Giberson. 

Sloop Yachts -.—St. Charles. E. A. Parker ; J. E. Maher, Sam Gale; 

Cornet, Wm. Downs ; I'oliiniecr. Nic Sooy ; M. S. Quay, Ben Sooy ; Alert, 

Will Gale; C. F. II 'hall. Jim Downs; Zella. Lew Adams; Morgan, C. 

Foster ; Katie Becker, P. Blackman ; Dreadnaught, Joseph Higbee ; -Tillie 

Covert. James Mills ; Mascott, Harry Parker; Minerva, D. Driscoll ; Parnell, 

G. Mathis; Carrie Hgner, James Parker. 




85 



Htlantic ditv^ 



Cbaptcr 1I|. 



a IRcfugc 
from mincsti 
an? Care 



An idle sort of a place, where all day long 
It seems like evening with the day's work done, 
Where men haste not, because there is no haste, 
And toil but litde, for they've litde need : 
A restful corner, where the August breeze, 
From softly listening finger on the lip, 
At length from listlessness falls fast asleep, 
Till there is no sound heard save, now and then, 
The whet of scythe and heavy hoist of sail. 
The dip of unseen oars, monotonous. 
And softly breathing waves that doze below. 
Too weak to more than turn themselves, complain. 
And doze again." 

Philadelpliia is regarded as an especially healthful city, and justly so. 
No large city in the world boasts a death rate so low ; and yet Atlantic 
City, its near neighbor, and almost its suburb, has a record of 12.05 Jeaths 
per thousand in the year, or over eight deaths in the thousand better jj 7Hcaltl.i 
than , Philadelphia, and almost exactly the same rate of mortalit\- as IRccorCi 
I, OS Angeles, California, a city largely populated by East- 
ern invalids. It may be properly urged that among the 
permanent residents the percentage is still lower, as 
— the rate given in the oftk iai statistics include the mortality 
among the vast number of persons who come here as invalids. 
It is not necessary to live throughout the year in 
Atlantic City in order to partake of the beneti- 
ceiice of its climate. It may be taken, 
like any other good tonic, for a 
season. If everv o\'er-ta.\ed 




business man, worn-out mother, or tired society woman would hie to Atlan- 
tic City when " that tired feeling" asserts itself and stay until it liad quite 
given o\er the assault, regardless of the season of the year, the measure 
of their lives would be extended and their capacity for happiness vastly 
increased. Atlantic City is at the old stand, doing business all the year, 
TlClinter and there is never a time when the best hotels are caught napping. 
THoepttalttB Qi^g ^.^^1^ come here in the depths of winter and find every comfort 
obtainable in any large city in the country, it 
would be necessary to tra\el a long way 
southward to find an equal improve- 
ment in the temperature generally ,• 
existing here as compared with New 
York and Philadelphia. There are 
exceptions to this rule. Palm trees 
and bananas do not thri\e at At- 
lantic City, except in the sun- 
parlors and upon the dining-room 
tables. Sometimes the easterly 
storms smite the town, and for days 
it rains and snows and snows and rains, 
but just reflect how much worse things must 
be in the streets of Philadelphia, and how comfort- 
ably the hours go by in the bright sun-parlors with the latest magazines, 
cards, and the good companx' of scores of other sojourners just like yourself. 
When a person of leisure is well ensconced in a good Atlantic City 
hotel in the winter the only thing that should tempt him or her to go away 
should be the pleasure of coming back. 




87 



Htlantic (Titij. 




Cbaptcr J. 



Cottage life at Atlantic City is very like tiiat wliich exists at other 
fasliionabie seashore communities. It implies a wide variety of diversions, 
from bathing to golf. It bestows upon the occupants a pleasant -nn private 
degree of privacy without loneliness. The cost of living, through Plottages 
the facilities with which all market supplies are to be had from both the 

Philadelphia markets and the 
fertile mainland, is rather less 
than "in town," while the 
brevity of the little journey 
upon express trains to and 
from Philadelphia makes it 
very practical for business 
men to "'tend to things" 
every day at their offices 
in the big city, and enjoy 
evenings, half-holidays and 
Sundays where cool breezes 
woo health, appetite and good 
sleep. Hundreds of busy men 
who have at first projected a 
cozy little place for the summer months have finally adopted Atlantic 
City as an all-the-year home, with a few midwinter weeks, per- iifieal 
haps, with friends in Philadelphia (to be repaid in the next Sum- Existence 
mer). They thus find a happy solution of the problems of economy, 
health and happiness. 




Instances are plentiful where cottage owners have more than cleared 
their entire OLitlay through the advanced value of the land, and since it is 
the boast of the Atlantic City people that no property has ever been sold at 
a loss in the town, it is fair to presume 
that for many years yet to come a taste- 
ful cottage well situated will prove a safe 
investment for its owner. 
©alatial There are scores of beautiful resid- 
TDonies ences here furnished upon a scale 
of splendor almost undreamed of by those ^^^ 
who pass. Rich drapings, carvings and : 
curios from every land are hidden away 
in the private apartments of these lovely 
homes ; but it does not follow tliat these 
are prime essentials to the full enjo\'ment 
of shore life, or life anywhere else, for that (" 

matter. The family which now lives in the pent-up, solid brick, wooden- 
shuttered streets of the crowded Quaker City, or in any of its neighboring 
cities, can generally afford to have a cottage at Atlantic City and treat 
themselves, at last, to the glorious roominess of the " great out-doors" 
around them. Atlantic City seems to the casual observer to offer an abun- 
dant variety of occupations not yet over-filled. Twenty-five thousand 
people seem to have found it possible to live, work and enjoy life here suc- 
cessfully. To own a cottage at Atlantic City is to have a new insight into 
the brighter possibilities of life. 




89 




atlantic Cit\>. 



Cbaptcr p. 



Herbert James Tweedie, a high authority in the world of Golf, has 
authorized the statement in the chief periodical devoted to that fascinating 
Cbe Count rv diversion, that he had found near Atlantic City the "finest natural 
^'"'' sand-bunkers in America." This means a whole volume of delightful 
promise to the devotee of the sport, although to the indifferent layman it 
may seem of but transient purport, but then what can you expect of the 
man who is indifferent about golf, and can't tell you the 
difference between a putting-green and a turnip- 
patch. 

Mr. Tweedie was com- 
missioned by the Country 
Club to put this favored 
place into orthodox 
shape for the game. 
The Country Club 
had bought one hundred 
and ten acres over upon the main- 
land, upon the seaward side of the Old Shore Road, and upon this property 
the links and the new club-house have been opened. 

The following adequate description of this social and athletic enter- 
prise is taken from "Golf": 

" The plans for the club-house show a commodious structure of a style 
of architecture most suitable to the surroundings and well adapted for the 
purpose for which it is intended. The building will be two stories high, 




90 



125 f^t't long and 50 feet wide, with porches on three sides that will form 
a promenade 12 feet wide and 200 feet in lengtii. 

Entering the main doorway the visitor will find himself in the public 
hall or exchange, a fme large apartment that will prove a pleasant meeting 
and lounging place for the members of the club and their friends. A ^ S"'C(al 
large fireplace at one end of the exchange is fitted with an old-time Centre 
crane and kettle, that will lend a rural air to the scene. Beyond the hall, 
at the end of the house, is located a handsome reception-room. 

On the opposite side of the entrance to the right will be the stairway 
leading to the second story; and beyond that will be the cafe. This room 
will be elegantly fitted up and supplied with all that such an establishment 
should have. Adjoining it will be the kitchen and pantry, rooms that will 
be complete in themselves and furnished with all the appliances necessary 
for the successful practice of the culinary art. Next to the kitchen will be 
the men's dressing-room, where will be found plenty of lockers, shower 
baths and other conveniences. 

The second floor will be devoted principally to the use of the ladies. 
A dressing-room for their use, with baths connected, will be located over 
the cafe. The hall over the exchange will resemble a balcony, similar to 
finanv ^h'^t at the Ocean County Hunt and Country Club, of Lakewood. 
Comtovig Opening off this balcony on one side will be a small sitting-room or 
den. On the other side of the house, overlooking the golf course, is a porch 
that will be enclosed with glass, after the manner of a sun-parlor. In the 
end of the house, over the reception-room, will be the billiard-room, and at 
the other end there will be three large and airy bedchambers. 

The house is located in a commanding position facing the bay, and a 
circular drive will wind through the grounds from the main entrance to the 
club. An old farm-house has been moved from its original site and rebuilt 
near the main entrance. It will be used as a place of residence for the 
greenkeeper. 



91 



There will be ample stable-room on the premises. The stable will now 
ttbe StablCsj accommodate twenty-two horses, and this capacity will be increased. 
Sheds are being built large enough to accommodate vehicles of all kinds, in- 
cluding the tally-ho coaches that will make frequent trips to the grounds. 

A long-distance telephone service will be a convenience, and every 
modern contrivance has been arranged for the comfort of the members and 
guests. The putting greens are thoroughly worthx* of the name, being fully 
sixty feet square and carefully laid down with turf brought all the way from 
Pennsylvania. From many points the course with its surroundings closely 
resembles the famous Luffness Links, on the Firth of Forth. Cbc p\nes 

The pine woods, which make a delightful background on the land 
side, protect the links from the north winds in winter, and will enable the 
club to keep the grounds open the entire year. 

The famous bicycle path leading from Philadelphia to Atlantic City 
passes right along beside the course and will no doubt be a very popular 
mode of access to the club. 

Adjoining the golf links is the polo field, while the tennis courts, foot- 
ball, cricket and baseball grounds and shooting traps are ail conveniently 
located. 

The officers of the club have generously promoted this enterprise for 
the good of the cottage and permanent residents of Atlantic City, who 
were hitherto unprovided with suitable accommodation for field sports. 
All visitors, however, profit by the accession of this real seaside golf 
links, as it will only be necessary for them to mention GOLF at the desks 
of either of the hotels before mentioned to freely tread the springy turf here 
consecrated to the Royal and Ancient Game. 

The present list of officers is as follows: Fredk. Hemsley, president; 
J. Haines Lippincott, vice-president; Chas. Evans, treasurer; Joseph Fi. 
Borton, chairman; James B. Reilly, A. Ogden Dayton, Richard F. Loper, 
Joseph Thompson, E. S. Lee, directors; James D. Southwick, secretary. 



92 



Among the many diversions of this fascinating place, a month's stay 
may include golfing, cycling, polo, tennis, cricket, football, baseball, billiards, 
quoits, shuffleboard, euchre parties, dancing, shooting (snipe, marlin, iyat(eC> 
black duck, mallard, teal), fishing (bluefish, sheepshead, drum, cod, P^r & 

herring, mackerel, seabass and weakfish), crabbing, yachting, rowing, 
promenading, surf-bathing, etc. 

in short, at Atlantic City one can obtain more genuine pleasure to 
the square inch than in any other spot the writer is familiar with." 




\ 



93 



Htlantic Citi?. 



Cbapter pn. 



A couple of weeks in Lent at Atlantic City after the winter's 
exhausting gaieties has been voted the proper thing by the inner circles of 
fashion, and the early spring influx is counted upon in these recent years 
with great certainty. It is decidedly an exclusive patronage and -,|^^ %cntcn 
demands the best of everything. At this time one encounters the Season 
people of wealth and leisure from all over the country who propose, later, 
to fill the great trans-Atlantic steamships for the tour of Europe. National 
dignitaries from tlie capital, judges of courts, famous divines, ofiUcers of 
the army and navy, railway magnates, bank pres- 



^ A 







I.ENTEN 
PKNITENTS 



idents, eminent politicians and their fam- 
ilies, gossip, jostle, and throw dignity to 
the winds upon the great Boardwalk. 
Affairs of vast import are discussed and 
settled upon the porches of the big 
hotels; there is a great coming and going 
of extra parlor cars, and then the Lenten 
pilgrims take their flight full of the con- 
sciousness of time well spent, if not of sins properly expiated. The land- 
lords bank the proceeds of this Providential fashion, and calmly wait for 
the multitude which will pour in along with the first hot wave of 
the summer. 

Lent is, too, the popular awakening from the relative torpidity of the 
winter. The cosmopolitans who throng in the bazars along the Boardwalk 
begin to come back from the south with their oriental goods and catching 
trifles; the house-owners utilize their early spring outing to "fix up" their 



Cbc 
awakcnitui 



94 



properties ; hotels, big and little, are being painted ; yachts are overhauled 
and got ready for the season at the Inlet, and so it goes. Nowhere else 
does Easter reign as a special season of holiday. Here, as in many other 
things, Atlantic City is original. 

The Lenten period may he regarded as the most joyous time in the 
cycle of the year, for it is rich with the forecast of prosperity and pleasure. 
About this time the society columns of the daily papers in the leading cities, 
which have in the drear winter time made but brief and grudging mention 

of the existence of Atlantic City, begin to , 

blossom with long lists of social leaders and 
followers who are now registered at the 
various fashionable hotels, while the more 
important enlargements of hotels and other 
betterments in the community are detailed in 
tlowery language. Promptl\' upon the heels 
of these disinterested items comes the adver- 
tising man, who knows better than an\-one 
else when the harvest is ripe for the scythe. 
Cbc Jovouti Sea Even the surf along the beach seems to roar joyously in Lent, and 
the ripples that play upon the bosom of the Thoroughfare and along the wide 
reaches of the bays have a gladsome gurgle. The gunner and the ducks 
are heard and seen in the sedges. The husbandman and the golfer are both 
hard at work upon the slope of the mainland ; briefly, all nature is happy. 

Lent, in other places, may stand for metaphorical sack'cloth and 
ashes. Here, by the sea, it e.xpresses quite a different sentiment. 

The famous cycle road across New Jersey now teems with life 
awheel. Upon pleasant Sundays, when the wind is westward, the wheel- 
men and wheelwomen come in shoals. 

One of the great events of the past year, relating to the progress of 
Atlantic City's interests, was the completion of the now famous cycling 




95 



road across New Jersey. The initial portion of tliis very popular route out 
of Camden and Gloucester is over the excellent White Horse Pike, via Berlin 
Cvcic TRoaC to ''^'""^ '^''-"^ Anchor. From the latter point the course is almost an air line 
atlantlc Citv parallel with the railroad lines throu.tih Winslow Junction, Rosedale, 
Hammonton, Da Costa, Elmwood, Egg Harbor and Absecon, turning to the 
right at the latter place to Pleasantville, and thence across the meadows. 
At numerous points along the road "Cyclers' Rests" and hotels built with 
special reference to the patronage of the wheeling element have come into 
existence, and upon Sundays, especially, the cyclers in clubs, groups, pairs, 
and singly have been simply uncountable as they sped to and fro upon this 
level course. They have added a large and joyous contingent to the popu- 
lation by the sea, not only in the crowded season, but both in spring and 
autumn. From Pleasantville cycling tourists can go down the coast to 
Cape May, or via Barnegat to the fine cycling district around Long Branch, 
with but brief stretches of poor road. It seems superfluous to call attention 
to the many miles of perfect riding within the limits of Atlantic City and 
down the Island to Longport, not to mention the beautiful stretch of hard 
beach at low tide. The cycling regulations are similar to those of other 
cities, and the wheelman who observes the ordinary rules by which he is 
guided elsewhere will have no cause to complain of the liberality of the city 
toward this important class of visitors. 






%^' 



96 



Atlantic Cit^. (Tbapter J* mill. 



The annual report of the City Controller, Mr. A. M, Heston, indi- 
cates in detail the various items of public property which aggregated 
September 6, 1897, in value $1,591,646.14, including $138,929.85 some Gitw 
expended upon the Boardwalk. The indebtedness of the Corpor- flnatters 
ation amounted at that date to $7,175,433.31 ; this included water bonds 
slightly in excess of $300,000. 

The per capita debt of Atlantic City as compared with many other 
cities of the state, notably, Newark, Jersey City, Elizabeth, Orange, New 
Brunswick, Bayonne, Rahway and Asbury Park is highly favorable. 

The item of Police cost $28,174.79; and the maintenance of Fire 
finances from Department, $16,608.00. 

IRcport of 1S9S The assessable property is rated for taxation at $13,357,523, the 
actual value being generally held to be about three times that amount at the 
present time. 

Among the firemen of the United States the Atlantic City fire service 
has a great reputation. Although composed of but seven companies all told 
it has often demonstrated its remarkable ability to conquer the frequent fires 
which are inevitable in a city built so largely of wood. The chief, en- 
gineers, drivers and tillermen are upon the city pay roll. The rank and 
file of the companies are volunteers. The oldest company is the United 
States, No. i. This company has two engines of the Silsby type and also 
a chemical engine. The other companies are Atlantic No. 2, a Clapp and 
Jones engine; Neptune Hose, No. i, a La France engine; Good Will Hook 
and Ladder, No. i, a Holloway chemical engine and a Hayes truck; Beach 



97 



Pirates Chemical, No. i, one HoiJoway chemical engine; Chelsea, No. 
6, a chemical engine and combination truck ; Rescue Hook and Ladder, 
XLbc Jfirc No. 2, a Gleason & Bailey truck. 

fficibtcts jj^g j^Qgg carriages at the several tire-houses are provided with about 
two and a half miles of hose. 

The cost of the department in 1897 was $31,540.73. The Gamewell 
Fire Alarm System is in use. 

Both gas and electricity are emplo\'ed as public illuminants, and the 
use of incandescent electric lighting is very general in the larger hotels. 




In the matter of good wholesome water, Atlantic City is far ahead of 
Philadelphia ; many unfailing artesian wells, some of which pierce the earth 
liabt aiiD to the depth of a thousand feet, supply the big hotels and reinforce 
lUatcr ^j^g public supply whi^h comes seven miles across the marsh in 
pipes from the mainland, where the pumping station and stand-pipes are 
located. Nearly fifty miles of pipe are laid in the city, with which are 
connected about 450 fire-plugs. The total cost of the waterworks has 
been $877,957.92. 

Realizing the great importance of safeguarding the city from the 
effects of inefficient disposal of sewerage, the most costly and scientific 



methods have been adopted, with the result that this problem, so difficult ot 
solution, especially in a town built upon a perfect le\el, has been mastered. 
Upon the borders of the meadows a large receiving pit, walled and Scwcracic 
cemented, is used as a central receiver; this is ventilated by a lofty tower; 
the inflow is forced onward by steam-power to a series of filter beds so far 
removed from the city as to preclude any possible danger, e\en in midsum- 
mer. No sewerage whatever is allowed to contaminate the salt water thor- 
oughfares or the open sea in front. All garbage is burned at a crematory. 
nrjilitarp Company F, Sixth Regiment, \. J., National Guard has its head- 
quarters at Atlantic City. 

The Morris Guards, an independent company, is also one of the city's 
attractions upon occasion of parades. The armory of this company is a 
fa\-orite place for entertainments. 

In the summer of 1898 when the Atlantic Coast seemed to be in 
danger from the Spanish fleet under Admiral Cervera, the fever of military 
spirit spread everywhere among the young men of Atlantic City. Active 
measures were taken for defence against landing parties of the enem\-, and 
in such a contingency the local troops would have certainly given a good 
account of themselves. For a time the generality of the resident and -. 
large property owners were considerably excited, especially in view "inatictn'^ Call 
of the news from the eastern resorts where the Yankees were moving e\'ery- 
thing portable far inland. It was difficult to rent cottages, and matters 
looked black for the hotels. Nevertheless the people recovered their 
mental balance, the crowds came as usual and the season was a great suc- 
cess. Many of the soldiers gallantly marched awa\' with the splendid New 
Jersey regiments and took an acti\e part in the campaign as volunteers of 
Uncle Sam. 



99 




atlantic Citi^. Cbaptcr p\D. 




Cbantv! 



One of the early institutions of tlie young city was the beneficent 
though modest charity known as the Children's Seashore House, founded 
just a quarter of a century ago, and intended for the recuperation of babies 
CbilDrcn'6 Sca= «i'"'<i small children, generally in charge of the mothers. This idea 
shore "iHousc originated in Philadelphia where as a matter of course the majority 
of its beneficiaries live. It would be impossible to measure, even approxi- 
mately, by any known formula, the great good accomplished at this juvenile 
Invalids' retreat. The incorporators were James S. Whitney, J. Shipley 
Newlin, W. L. Rehn, Rene Guillou, Samuel Middleton, Francis W. Lewis, 
M. D., Mrs. Elizabeth F. Whitney, Mrs. Cynthia Guillou, Mrs. Annie E. 
Middleton and Miss Catharine C. Biddle. a SplcnCii? 

In July, 1883, the institution took possession of a new and com- 
modious building at the foot of Ohio avenue. Since that time it has been 
further extended by the addition of no less than fourteen lesser buildings, 
the gifts of guests in the several hotels for which they are respectively 
named. These cottages consist of one dormitory room each, neatly furn- 
ished. The capacity of the establishment is now sufficient to entertain one 
^ hundred children and thirty mothers. The 

selection of those who are to receive the 
benefits of a seashore rest at this noble 
charity is uninfluenced by any considera- 
tions of creed, race, or color. Children 
over three years of age are cared for in the 
wards of the main building by attentive 



H 





nurses. The little ones with their mothers 
are assigned to the cottages. Each 
mother in care of a sick child may 
have no other child with her. Seri- 
ous cases requiring close attention 
and quiet are secluded in a special 
building immediately on the beach. 

The institution has a resident physician, 
staff of nurses and matron. A proportion of the 
inmates are recei\-ed without charge, the number being based upon the 
current revenues at command. Those who can afford it, pay board at 
the rate of $3.00 per week, which includes medical attendance and wash- 
ing. Railroad tickets are also furnished at a reduced rate. 

Visitors are welcome every afternoon between three and five o'clock, 
and upon Tuesday and Friday mornings from half past nine to half past ten 
o'clock. 

To the person of kindly impulses the sight of scores of these little 
ones with their wan and tired mothers, gradually winning for themselves 
some little share of God's sunshine and the blessings of new strength as 
they romp or recline upon the sands, is to gain for the Children's Seashore 
House new and very welcome friends and supporters. 

A wide-spread impression is current that the world, and more par- 
ticularly Atlantic City, exists principally for the benefit and pleasure of the 
young. This in its application at large is an old idea which has been pop- 
ular from the most remote bounds of history. 

If our peerless city of the sands attracts the gay and youthful by its 
perennial round of varied pleasure ; if it is a joy to the tired mother and 
fagged father to watch their little tots industriously toiling with spades and 
buckets in the clean, wholesome, gray sand, it is a glowing satisfaction to 
the impartial observer to note the wonderfully large proportion of aged 



people in tlie rullint;-chairs and in all the bright comfortable nooks along the 
Boardwalk ; to see with what loving care they are attended, and how grate- 
JFor JDounct ful the fresh stimulating sea-breeze is to their senses. To the old 
aiiD ©If more than any others of our American people who throng here, 
Atlantic City is a blessing, and an opportunity in prolonging and brighten- 
ing the later years of life. Here the still heaving waves of past reverses 
which have surged over them ; the deep sorrows which have torn their 
hearts are drowned in the brightness of the present, and lost in the tumult 
of the restless sea which goes on forever beating the sands with its statel\-, 
wraceful billows, whose deep voice lulls us to rest in the daytime and fol- 
lows us in our dreams at night. 

This is the true story of one aged habitue of the Boardwalk who may 
be seen every da\-, strong, erect and keen-eyed among the throng ^y^^ storv; of 
of pedestrians : '''" ®'^ ^«" 

" Fourteen years ago, I had arrived at the age of sixty years. All of 
my life, from the close of my college days, 1 had worked steadily and with 
success to the end that my wife and children should escape the bitterness of 
that poverty of which 1 had been a witness in my father's home. At sixt\' 
I was a worn-out man, but 1 was worth nearly half a million dollars. 1 
believed it to be safely invested, but a little group of men, none of whom I 
had ever met, sat together in a room in Wall street, New York, and willed 
otherwise. Through those modern weapons of the legalized robber, com- 
bination and reorganization, my fortune was nearly swept away. It was 
weeks before 1 realized the full extent of my loss. My first impulse was to 
return to the business world and try to rebuild my property, but in the short 
five years of my absence nearly all of the men I had known and trusted had 
been replaced by other and younger workers. I was a physical and a 
mental wreck. Out of the remnants of our means, my wife and sons paid 
the cost of a year in Hurope. We wandered from land to land, but the 
ghost of my misfortune threw its gaunt shadow across my pathway wherever 



we went. Once more we were in America. An old friend wlio liad been 
content with smaller prizes in life than those most of us reach for, invited 
us to visit his little farm out in Jersey. IRcturn to 

At first 1 was almost disgusted at the primitive style of life 1 t^imrlicitB 
found under my friend's roof. Most of the modern indispensables with which 
we were in daily contact in the city, were conspicuous by their absence. 
But there was an abundance of good substantial food. I began to sleep — 
to sleep as 1 hadn't slept since I was a little boy, tired out after a holiday 
afternoon. The light of content began to drive the old tenant, worry, from 
the eyes of my dear wife. In the stillness of the evenings as we sat and 
smoked happily upon the porch, I gathered in some of my old comrade's 
philosophy, and began to feel ashamed when 1 thought of the two occasions 
in years gone by when I had prepared to destroy myself. Well, in the end, 
Hn J6u6(ncii6 '^^ bought a little place of a few acres near our host, and within an 

DB tpc Si'Ca hour's ride of either the city or the shore. One of our daughters and 

her husband came to live with us. Four years ago my two sons rented a cot- 
tage here at Atlantic City and brought us down to share it. We have now- 
built our home here. My sons have developed a good business " upon the 
avenue." My son-in-law, God bless him ! runs the farm, and runs it well. 
I spend my time about equally between the little farm and this magnificent 
sanitarium, the Boardwalk. I look back Lipon the years that have gone as 
one remembers some dreadful nightmare. Here we have found, my wife 
and 1, the happiest part of our lives. You must come to dinner with me 
and meet her. We have just an hour to spare, let's walk to the hilet and 
back." 



103 



»' 


atlantic cm. Cbaptcr JD. ^^S 




Nowhere outside of a minstrel sliow is there a place which offers 

more temptation to good honest laughter than the Boardwalk. It's worth 

aiono the while to make the little journey hither just for the health-giving 

JBoarCwall? benefits of wholesome mirth. Something quaint or funny is always 
happening. There are so many odd-looking people mixed up with the 
great crowds, such bizarre bathing costumes, such pranks, such fun ; and 
if one has a keen ear, so many humorous suggests (quite without the need 
of eavesdropping,) float 
in upon the understanding 
and tickle the fancy. 

One recent morn- 
ing an elderly lady, evi- 
dently upon her first visit, 
and much impressed by 
the healthful advantages 
of Atlantic City, found op- 
portunity to confide in one of the big, handsome men of the life-saving 
service, a robust native of the sands. "How I do wish" said she, "my 
boy John was here now; he ain't ever seen the ocean, and it would do him 

a Ibcaltbv '^ world of good, don't you think so ? " 

Spot "Yes marm," agreed the guard ; " there isn't a better place to get well 
and have a big appetite in, anywhere in the world." 

" Well, 1 guess that's so; you look like it; guess you was never sick 
in your life nor weak either; 1 guess you didn't come here for your health?" 
continued the visitor. 



_IIU .H|M4WI"«Wl _ 




104 



"Madame," said the guard, solemnly, " you may not believe it, but 
when 1 arrived here I was perhaps as weak as any human "being you ever 
saw; I had no use of my limbs; I couldn't walk nor feed myself; 1 did 
not realize where 1 was." 

" Goodness gracious ! " she exclaimed with astonishment; " how did 
you ever live through it ? " 

" 1 had t(i, marm, although 1 was toothless, could not speak a word, 
and was dependent upon those around me for everything I needed. But as 
soon as 1 got here 1 began to pick up. The climate agreed with me. My 
legs and arms began to get strong, my voice developed, and I gained in 
weight every week. 1 have never been sick a day since that time." 

"How interesting!" said the visitor. "How many years ago did 
you come here .'" 

"Thirty-one years, marm." 

" Why, you must have been a baby ! " jjlj^ "{.inrrotits 

"Of course I was, marm. 1 was born here." ^'''^ S\i\n 

Far down the Boardwalk, toward Texas avenue, a fat lobster-hued 
German has a "bathing plant." His rotund form was observed as the 
centre of a highly interested crowd in which the " party of the second 
part " was a lath\- individual with string)' locks damp with recent sea-water. 

"Holt on von minud," shouted the proprietor. " ^'ou can no leaf 
dese blace out so you not bay me for dot bat ! " 

" ' Pay you for that bath ' ? " exclaimed the lathy one, in tones of 
astonishment. " Who said anything about paying .' " 

" 1 say somedings about dot." 

"You do ? " 

" Yaw. 1 say you moost bay me for dot bat ! " 

" You sa_v that the kind of bath 1 had don't cost anything," argued 
the wet-haired man. 

"1 no say any sooch tam foolishness ! " 



105 



" What's that reading on your sign then ? " 

" Dot sign reats, Duri<isli bats, vapor bats unt sponge bats," repeated 
the German. 

"Well, ain't that plain enough. 1 didn't have any money, so 1 took 
a sponge hath — see ? " 

The German eyed his sign with slowly gathering disgust, and an 
hour later a sign artist was busy obliterating the announcement of this 
unprofitable branch of the business. 
IRollers The rolling-chair is a most essential factor in the life of the Board- 
walk. We are moved, when we consider the matter, with sincere pity for 
our ancestors who had neither porches, hammocks, or rolling-chairs, who 
had, indeed, no Atlantic City. The rolling-chair made its debut as an 
ambulatory convenience at the great Centennial Exhibition twenty-two 
years ago. It filled the highways and by-ways of the Columbian E.xposition 
at Chicago, but in its present perfection of comfort and grace it is only to be 
found upon the Boardwalk of Atlantic City. Upon the bright Sundays of 
springtime cohorts of rolling-chairs are constantly advancing, passing and 
receding into the throng. Reserve brigades of rolling chairs are ranged in 
line of battle at frequent intervals, and the rivalry of the rolling-chair mag- 
nates sometimes stirs Atlantic City to the profoundest depths of e.xcitement. 
Some rolling-chairs are "built for two," but as a general thing the "con- 
ductor" carries only a single fare. The prettiest of these vehicles is built 
of basket work which glows richly under its varnish and which has a swan's 
neck prow rising well in front. In the winter and spring the passenger is 
buried in warm fur-robes, in summer bright blankets of light texture give a 
touch of barbaric color to the ordinarily sombre-hued American crowd. Flat 
Japanese umbrellas are rigged above the rolling-chairs, and when you have 
seen a pretty girl thus enframed, her lovely eyes drowsing in calm content, 
you have looked upon the finest picture you ever saw, and ought to be thank- 
ful that the Boardwalk, its rolling-chairs and its bewitching maidens exist. 



io6 



No truthful mention of the Boardwalk can be made which fails to 

recognize its swarm of gamins, white and black'. Atlantic City's resident 

population is abnormally active and enterprising. There is so much to be 

^, _ , done in properly taking care of and still further extending the modern 

TlXiz ©amine \ t , r- ,, 

ot tbe JScacb Atlantis which the_\' lia\e built. It is said that there are business men 
so closely occupied up along Atlantic avenue that they have never been 
down to see the new Boardwalk. But if the adults of the male element are 
thrifty and hustling in their 
ways, their progressive ten- 
dencies are as the movement 
of a glacier when compared 
with that which impels the 
gamin of the beach. This 
joyous creature leads a highly 
exciting and varied existence. 
He is in evidence at every 
storm centre of accident or in- 
cident. His senses are acute p 
through long attrition with an 
ever changing multitude, and 
his coin-beguiling inventions 
are numberless. His morn- 
ings and evenings are devoted 
very generally to the dissem- 
ination of news, and he serves it hot. The intermediate period is given to 
disinterested anxiety for your comfort. If _\'ou stop in your walk for a 
moment to think of a word he charges upon you by the dozen ready to think 
of it for you. It is the gamin who navigates the unwilling donkeys along 
the beach for the joy of infantile riders, and who troops enviously after the 
haughty "caddies" attendant upon the self-absorbed golfers who golf upon 




BUSINESS 



107 




the sand at low-tide, but if you want to see the gamin 
at his best just throw a handful of pennies into the 
dry sand below the Boardwalk. When a wreck 
comes in your beach gamin is a stormy petrel. 
One of these days, very likely he will get a 
place in the Life Saving Service. These hardy soldiers 
of humanity were all beach boys once. Every beach boy 
can swim like a duck or handle a boat with 
the best of the graybeards at the inlet 
pier. He can tell you the name and the skipper of every 
little dot of a craft in sight away out there among the blue-fish. His soul is 
filled with contempt for any duffer at the helm who misses stays on a tack. 
He is resourceful beyond his years. Not very long ago one of these young- 
sters captured a prize just off shore in the shape of a cask of wine from some 
unfortunate cast-away coaster. Bigger boats and bigger boys were after 
the same cask. It was too heavy to lift into the boat, so he managed to 
tow it into a shallow, jumped overboard, sank his boat under the cask, 
bailed out with his cap and then got his flotsam to his daddy's wharf in 
the inlet. 

The beach gamin is the pet aversion of the small but dignified nurse 
girls, who love to sit under the shade of the pavilions upon a shawl and read 
"Lady Desmonde's Secret or the Mystery of the Haunted Manse" while 
their wayward charges stake out claims and prospect with picks and shovels 
close under the heels of the untamed and impetuous donkeys. But the 
gamin and the girl will look at each other with different eyes some of these 
days. They will set up a little home over upon the seaward side of Arctic 
avenue, and a new generation of beach boys will be selling papers, running 
races and getting into everybody's way in the same cheerful, impudent, 
delightful fashion that you may see on any sunny day along the miniature 
world of the Boardwalk. 



1 08 



If, in the glare and color of morning and the fashionable array of 
afternoon the Boardwalk is attractive, at night it becomes fascinating. 
When the full muon glows and rises close upon the fading of the j£vcmnci 
day, its white radiance comes tremulously across the sleepy sea to ~'Ccnc5 
our very feet, touching a thousand features of the scene, which, m day- 
light are crude and garish, with a brush dipped in silver and revealing the 
long array of hotels as a veritable "white city" all aglow with gleam from 
a thousand casements. 

The great arc lamps along the promenade cast dense contrasts of light 
and purple shadow, all the colors of the prism pour out from the hundreds 
of shops and shows of all sorts. E\er_\' inclined pathway from the hotels 
leading up to this pedestrian boulevard adds its tributary stream of gay 
humanity to the concourse of promenaders which have already filled the 
walk, the pavilions, and every place of attraction to repletion. The strident 
voice of the ticket seller and the fakir is heard above the roar of the toboggan, 
and the melody of the elite orchestra is hopelessly confused in the less 
classical but e\er popular music of the hurdy-gurdy. 

Nearly twenty centuries ago Glaucus folded his toga lovingly about 
the beautiful form of lone as they wandered under the witching light of 
this same old moon, upon the crescent strand of Pompeii, the Atlantic City of 
Patrician Rome, the blue waters of the Bay of Naples splashed at their feet, 
the far lights of the fleets of Egypt and the orient twinkled in the oftlng, the 
soft music of slaves touching the cithera floated out from festive villas, and 
the magic of the summer night held them in the sweet spell of its happy 
influence, and thus the "old, old story" is rehearsed in unconscious emu- 
lation of those classic lovers along the sands and in many a shadowy nook 
between the inlet and Chelsea upon every rapturous summer night that 
draws its velvet curtain over the great pleasure resort of modern America. 
%ovc bv the Sea Summer love has oft been spoken of, and where but at Atlantic City 
can it be found in its prime.' Together from earl)' morn to dew}- e\e, in 




the fishing expeditions, the buth, the ball- 
room, and the twilight promenade, that lov- 
ing couple we see at every turn would 
appear to the unobserved visitor to be the 
most devoted pair of lovers the world has 
ever seen. Their shy retreats to cosy cor- 
ners, their cunning escapes from the prying 
eyes of mamma or the inquisitive looks of 
papa stamp them as strategists, while their 
rapt looks and tender salutations stamp 
them as loved and loving. And what does 
it all amount to ? Nothing, absolutely noth- 
ing. He leaves, and his departure is atten- 
ded with a tender parting at the train. She 
returns to the hotel or the cottage, perhaps, 
to start a new flirtation or maybe to mourn 
over the old one. The summer draws to a 
close and she goes back to her home. He 
moves in one set and she in another of our 
Quaker City aristocracy, and the conse- 
quence is that were barriers of iron, were 
the wall of China itself to be raised up be- 
tween them, their separation could not be more complete. Like oil and 
water, up-town and down-town society do not mingle when within the 
sacred precincts of the City of Brotherly Love. So, of course, all inter- 
course is at an end. A cold bow and stately nod take the place of the 
familiar salutation at the seaside, and the signs of love upon these young 
hearts are as surely effaced by Dame (irundy as the footsteps they made 
together on the sands of the Atlantic are effaced by Dame Nature and 
her satellites, the waves. 



atlantic dm, Cbaptcr IIPU. 




An incident in the iiistory of Atlantic City wiiich deserves to be pre- 
served is the memorai^le snow hloci<ade of February 12th, 13th and 14th, 
1899. The City by the Sea lias been more than once cutoff from ^^ ^^^^. ^^ 
the outer world bv phenomenal tides and suffered with the rest of tbc Sborc 
the countr\- in the blizzard of 1888, but upon this occasion she was fairly 
" bottled up," and this is not to be wondered at when the same conditions 
existed in all sections of Philadelphia's suburbs. 

A newspaper dispatch gave the following condensed report of the 
situation : 
1ln tbc 3i-itt6 " With the wind blowing at the rate of forts' miles an hour, a hurri- 
cane promised bv the Weather Bureau for to-morrow, and the snow still 
falling, efforts of man to break the drifts are worse than useless. Not a 
train has entered or left this city since yesterday afternoon. Ofificials of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad started two engines out this morning to open up 
the road, but they only got as far as Egg Harbor, twenty miles distant, 
when the\- came to a final standstill and at last reports were still stuck in 
the drifts. The Reading Railwa_\- to-morrow will put to work e\ery man 
that can be hired and an attempt will be made to shovel the snow from the 
tracks, but it looks like an almost helpless task. 

The snowfall has been actuall\- three times as heav\- as during the 
memorable blizzard of March, 1888, although the wind was much higher then. 
A total of twent>--one inches of snow has fallen up to this evening, but the 
size of the drifts would lead to the supposition that the fall had been much 
heavier. The milk supply is entirely cut off and there is a great demand 
for the condensed article, but there is no danger of any serious famine. 



There are enough provisions in tlie city to last at least two weeks, and the 
coal supply will probably hold out equally as long. 

Scores of visitors went to the beach front during the day, in spite of 
the storm, to witness the novel sight of a frozen ocean. The wind had 
broken up the ice in the bays and it drifted down along the beach, tilling the 
ocean with huge cakes that had the appearance of a solid mass. The ice is 
piled up on the beach at high water mark in great walls. No damage to 
shipping has been reported here, but communication with other life-saving 

Cbc Jflcw of stations along the coast is shut off." 

Eiijovmcntii Despite this isolation the coast folks managed to have a good time. 
The round of gayety went merrily on. It was cold, it is true. When the 
official records of the Weather Bureau show that the mercury has been 
doing the cake-walk in the neighborhood of the zero point, it would be use- 
less to claim that June-like balminess had prevailed. But there was a 
peculiar something about it all that made one long for the open air, be the 
glowing coals in the parlor grate ever so attractive. Suniu: Corners 

This had the effect of bringing many strollers out on the Boardwalk 
every afternoon, in spite of the wintry winds ; and when people once got 
out o' doors they were not willing to return as long as the nipping breezes 
could be borne. There were many sunny nooks along the walk where it 
was possible to rest for a short time, and these coveted places were in great 
demand. Even the devotees of the rolling chair habit were able to indulge 
their fad in comparative comfort. Well muffled up in furs and blankets, they 
were pushed along as though it were spring time, albeit the frosty air put a 

^ , ^ little more than the usual vim into the movements of the pushers. 

IRaniV! 5)a\j 

IPbilosopbx? To-day it rains. The waters prevail upon the face of the earth. As 
this visitation of dampness is not peculiar to this point alone, the force of the 
above observation is in some degree weakened. But it is needful to speak 
of it, in explanation of the fact that the sojourners at our various hostelries 
are at the present moment, as with one accord, in a state of torpidity sad to 



behold. They sit about here and there, just out of reach of the eaves drip- 
pings, looking for all the world like a lot of chickens on a very wet day in 
a farm-yard. A few have aroused their sluggish blood sufficiently to go 
down by the beach, and, protected by some one of the roomy pavilions, gaze 
out pensively over the storm-chafed waste of waters. Many have gone to 




"the city." Mondays always bring about a greater exodus than other days, 
but to-day many of the departures were occasioned by the adverse weather. 
The summer visitor tlies like a bright-plumed songster before the slightest 
approach of skies overcast. 

To leave the seashore for no better reason than a day or so of unkmd 
weather is unwise — partly because the blue skies, which succeed almost 



113 



invariably, will look all the brighter for the contrast, and again because the 
sea, to one who loves the beautiful, presents new charms at such times not 
ttbc Stortn\2 Sea to be disregarded. To stand in a sheltered place and watch the 
surging, inrushing billows lashed to a white fury is charming, but to view 
the waters illumed by the fitful electric glare, leaping out of the blackness 
of night, the deep diapason of the thunder mingling with the surf's unceas- 
ing roar, is to add another page to one's memories of the sublime. 

The occupants of three hotels join in a revel of spontaneous and un- 
controllable mirth at the sight of a stylish person in pursuit of his hat, which 
Boreas has snatched from its abiding place on its owner's head. 1 never 
could fathom what there is so very funny about the thing, though it is notice- 
able that the party in pursuit always "comes up smiling," and seems to 
rather enjoy his brief claim to public notice. There's nothing remarkable 
about it. Now if the hat was to be seen chasing its owner the case would 
be different. A stray hat is a fitting symbol of human life and aims. When 
we get a little wealth we enlarge the borders of our garments and deck our- 
selves with phylacteries. We wear our riches as the youth weareth his 
hat, and it is quite likely that the first gust of adversity which strikes us 
will send us in hot pursuit after our fleeting possessions, which seem always 
just out of our reach, like the ignis-fatutis, eluding our grasp again and again, 
while all the time we feel conscious of the undignified position we occupy, 
yet "smile and smile," and be a "heap mad" still. Don't be so foolish as 
to forsake the seashore even if it rains iiM days; it can't rain always, nor 
can the sun always shine upon you when you want it to do so. 



114 



atlantic Citv^ Chapter |*1^1I1I. 



The local history of Longport, although covering a period beginning 
much later than that of its big sister town to the north-east, furnishes a 
\aluable record of foresight, perseverance and energy. Se\'enteen Cbe JSorouiih 
years ago, when Mr. M. S. McCullough, the founder of Longport, and *" <^"9P'^i 
its present mayor, first determined that he could and would transform the 
lonely desert of sand dunes into a pleasure community, there were (as there 

always are and always will 
be) many wiseacres who pro- 
claimed their belief that things 
were alreadv " over-done " 
upon the island ; that Atlantic 
City had touched the high- 
water mark of its prosperity 
and greatness, and as for any 
new places, it was just so 
much money wasted to pro- 
mote them. Despite these very common and fallacious-opinions of the past, 
the sparkling city by the sea has spread amazingly, adding new attractions 
year after year, and so far from regarding the ambitions of Longport with a 
jealous eye she has leveled and beautified much of the intervening wastes, 
joined hands with Longport in the completion of a magnificent drive, unsur- 
passed upon the Atlantic coast, and by e.xtending the electric railway to the 
south-west as far as Longport has made the younger resort practically her 
most important and promising suburb. 




"5 



The Longport driveway will be tlie great feature of development for 
the season of 1899. One-third of tlie cost of tJie new road will be paid 
by the State under the law for the development of better roads. ^ ^r-nt 
Not only will it vastly stimulate the use of horses for both the Bvivc 
saddle and carriage, and add greatly to the pleasure of cycling, but un- 
doubtedly it will bring into service the new automobile type of carriage 
and thus develop a fashionable afternoon hour when all the world upon 
wheels will seek the new dri\e in endless review, a bright kaleidoscopic 
parade of wealth and style from the lighthouse to the crescent beach 
at Longport. 

By electric cars, closed and heated in winter, open and breezy in 
summer, it is but a whirl of thirty minutes to or from Longport. By carriage 
it is less than one hour; the roar of the surf to tlie south-east and the calm 
waters of the bay upon the inland \-ista are charming features of this ride. 

Do not cherish the delusion that wlien you have made the little 
journey upon the "trolley line" as far as the steamboat landing, you have 
seen Longport. As a matter of fact you have only just penetrated its 
suburbs. 

Atlantic and Pacific avenues are bisected by the transverse avenues, 
and the whole is enclosed by Beach avenue, which, as its name indicates, 
borders the shore line not only along the sea front but around the shapely 
curve of Great Harbor hilet and eastward along the bay to the landing, thus 
furnishing a superb finish to the splendid new drive already described. 
aOvantagcs Having so man\- reasons for the most harmonious relations with the 
famous "city by the sea " e.\isting as it were but ne.xt door to her, it would 
ill become Longport to indulge in comparisons at the e.xpense of the older 
and greater resort, but there are one or two facts wnich may be safely 
mentioned. The first of these is in reference to the beautiful sloping beach 
which e.xtends all the way around the point and far up the bay shore. 
There are no ragged edges of crumbling marsh; it is all clean sloping gravel 



117 



and sand, and from whatever quarter the winds may blow there is always 
a stretch of shore where the wavelets ripple gently and where there is 
sunshine and comfort. 

Apropos of another claim, it must be conceded that the future yacht- 
ing interests, as well as the most popular fishing facilities, will be centred 
at Longport. 

Mr. P. M. Sharpies, who contributes a lively description of life at 
Longport in its many phases (see page 129), has touched upon this topic 




convincingly. There is room in the bay for all the pleasure craft between 
New York and St. Augustine. 
16-n Iff ^^^^ accompanying illustrations indicate the artistic and substantial 

Iboinee character of the residences which establish the class of Longport 
improvements. The lots are of liberal dimensions, and in some sections 
of the borough but one cottage is allowed upon a lot. 

Having thus sketched the Longport of to-day we may consistently 
record as an important chapter in the history of the island the story of the 



ELECTRIC CAR 
STATION 



118 




iig 



making of the settlement. In his first annual message addressed to the 
Longport Borough Council in April, 1898, Mayor M. S. McCuliough fur- 
nished the substantial basis of fact upon which all future histories of the 
place must be built. 

Mr. McCuliough purchased the site of Longport from James Long of 
Philadelphia, in the year 1882, including the entire area from a line drawn 
between the present 23d and 24th avenues and Great Egg Harbor Inlet. It 
was an absolutely primitive waste. The first building was erected at i6th 
and Beach avenues and was used for a restaurant. It has since been moved 
to 17th and Atlantic avenues. The desolate sand hills reared their wind- 
swept crests everywhere. One of the greatest tasks in sight was the 
levelling of many of these in order to establish properly graded streets and 
building sites. The sand dunes were of such great height that from the 
location of the Aberdeen Hotel the thoroughfare could not be seen. 
H IRcvicw In his message Mr. McCuliough says: "After careful study of the 
situation, noting the long hard and smooth beach along the ocean, the long 
port or harbor on the bay or thoroughfare, the close proximity of Atlantic 
City, the freedom from meadow land, the sand beach along the thoroughfare 
as well as along the ocean, the grand outlook over the sea as well as over 
the quiet waters of the thoroughfare and the bay, and the beautiful land- 
scape beyond, it seemed to be an ideal place to found a family resort, and to 
make it attractive, as such, has since been my constant aim." 

Building lots were offered for sale late in 1882, and in April, 1883, a 
special excursion train brought to Atlantic City a pleasant party of Phila- 
delphians who were taken to Longport along the beach in carriages, and 
many of them became identified as real estate owners with the future 
destinies of the new settlement. It is a matter of much satisfaction to all 
concerned, and especially to the original promoter of the enterprise, that all 
of the rosy forecasts made upon that occasion have long ago been far more 
than realized. 



The first cottage builders were Mr. Amos Dotterer and Mrs. S. L. 
Oberholtzer, the first locating at 17th and Beach avenues and the second at 
19th and Beach avenues. Cottages were built by Prof. J. P. Remington 
and his sister, Miss Caroline Remington, in the spring of 1884. in the same 
year a Philadelpiiia caterer had charge of the restaurant, and so attractive 
was the place that the building, which is now the west wing of the Aberdeen, 
could not accommodate all who wished to come. 

The first train of cars entered Longport on the morning of August 
31st, 1884; prior to that time passengers were conveyed by carriage to and 




from south Atlantic Cit\ . In .i ;r\\ \iMr-, Iimwcwi, n.uii m. i.mm,iI so 
rapidly that the Railroad Company put into service between Atlantic City 
and Longport small cars with steam motors, making frequent trips between 
the two places, and in 1893, introduced the present electric system. Among 
the events of 1884 ''^'as the organization of an Agassiz Association, the 
Oberholtzer family being the prime movers. The first meeting was held in 
their cottage. Much pleasure and benefit were derived from the study of 
natural history as found in the specimens of animals and alg:v from the sea 
and wild flowers from the land, which were gathered and brought in for 
examination. 



Interest in this society seemed to warrant a wider field than at first 

had been determined, and the present Longport Society of Natui'al Science 

was dulv incorporated under the laws of New Jersey. Tiie Society 

IHatural 
erected a hall at the corner of 15th and Atlantic avenues, which has Science 

been of great benefit to Longport, being used for divine worship on Sunday 

and for lectures and other purposes during the week. 

In 1886 the Aberdeen was enlarged and leased to Mr. James Hood 
and Miss Elizabeth Newport ; shortly after Mr. Hood having built the Penn- 
hurst, in Atlantic City, Miss Ella Hood and Miss Elizabeth Newport as- 
sumed management of the Aberdeen. They were very successful, making 
Ibotcls many friends for themselves and also for Longport. 

*■ ' In i8go, Miss Hood being needed in the management of the Penn- 

hurst, and Miss Newport unwilling to assume the entire charge of the 
Aberdeen, they reluctantly withdrew, and it was leased to Mr. James M. 
Moore, now proprietor of the Revere, Atlantic City. 

The Aberdeen was under Mr. Moore-'s management during the 
seasons of 1890 and i8qi. In the spring of 1892 Mr. Wilmer W. Lamborn, 
who associated with him Mrs. Elizabeth Kitts, purchased it, and under their 
management it has been enlarged, and many improvements have been 
made, and it has continued to grow in favor with the public. 

In 1886 Mr. James Long erected a beautiful cottage and made it his 
summer residence until recently, when he sold it to Mr. A. H. Phillips and 
Mr. Carlton Godfrey. Also in 1886 the Bay View Club rented and oc- 
cupied a house which had been built for them on 17th avenue. The 
members of the Club have taken great interest in Longport, and have done 
much for its improvement. They now own and occupy their new club- 
house, corner 17th and Beach avenues. 

Mr. Fred Boice and sisters erected and opened the Devonshire in 
1895, and have been very successful in its management. In i8g6 Mr. A. H. 
Phillips, of Atlantic City, became interested in Longport and made large 



123 




purcliases of property 
for himself as well as 
for his friends, and has 
done much to improve 
the property he pur- 
chased. The beautiful 
residence he erected 
for his own use, and 
the one for Mr. R. M. 
Elliott are handsome 
additions to Longport. In addition to the cottages already named, others 
have been built by Elizabeth Newport, Philip M. Sharpies, David Scott, 
Anna B. Hunter, Aaron B. Steelman, M. McCoy, Thos. S. Butler, Wilton D. 
Jackson, Mrs. James Sampson, Thos. C. Pearson, John R. Minnick, Samuel 
Stetzer, Bolton E. Steelman, Mrs. Henry Disston and M. S. McCullough. 

The United States Government also erected a Life-Saving Station at 
the corner of 2:;rd and Atlantic avenues. 

The pavilion at the foot of i6th avenue was built by the railroad 
company, and the restaurant connected with it has for some years been 
leased by Capt. James B. Townsend, who built a residence for himself, 
purchased the property at the corner of 17th and Atlantic avenues, and 
opened a store, which has been a great convenience to the residents. Cbc jFcrr\i 

Longport and its neighbor, Ocean City, have been connected with 
the mainland at Somers' Point for many years by a ferry. The service 
which was formerly desultory, and at times rather nerve-trying, is now 
about as safe, speedy and comfortable as money and enterprise can make 
it. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, which controls the trolley line 
between Longport and Atlantic City, maintains a service of fast steam 
yachts upon this route which are models of their kind. They are beamy and 
supplied with large seating capacity, being open all around the sides in fair 



124 



weather, affording an unrestricted view. In wet, or cold weather, the sides 
are curtained. As elsewhere described, they form a part of a charming 
local round tour, the continuation from Somers' Point being by dummy 
train through Pleasantville and across the meadows back to Atlantic City. 
In 1895 the Longport Water and Light Company was formed. Water 
is obtained in abundance from an artesian well. The flow is so abundant 
that for nine months in the year the surplus is utilized as power for 
pumping. 

Much attention has been given to the important question of sanita- 
tion, and at the present time it is not too much to say that the «,,.,„,■, 
drainage is nearly perfect. Officials 

The borough of Longport was created by act of Legislature, March 
7th, 1898, and the following officers were elected April 5th, 1898 : Mayor, 
M. Simpson McCullough ; Councilmen, Ar\ine H. Phillips, Joseph P. Rem- 
ington, Samuel Stetzer, Wm. H. Bartlett and John R. Minnick ; Assessor, 
Robert M. Elliott ; Collector, James B. Townsend; Justice of the Peace, 
J. P. Remington, Jr. ; Commissioners of Appeals in Cases of Taxation, 
Wilmer W. Lamborn, Bolton E. Steelman and J. P. Remington, Jr. Mr. 
Wilmer W. Lamborn was appointed Borough Clerk ; Carlton Godfrey, 
Borough Attorney ; John P. Ashmead, Borough Engineer ; M. McCoy, 
Superintendent of Highwavs, and Daniel Yates, Marshal. 

More hotels and homes are to be the order of the early future. 
Broad areas still unoccupied will soon 
be well covered witii pleasant avenues 
of cottages. New neighbors will bring 
new stimulus and still greater am- 
bitions for the beautifying and comfort 
of this ideal spot. Nothing can halt 
the impetus of its steady progress. 
The fashion of a sojourn by the sea. 




once reserved for the wealthy, is now the privilege of all classes of citi- 
zens. It has become a necessity in the lives of vast numbers. To own 
and occupy a cottage by the ocean not only lends a wonderful zest to the 
otherwise monotonous lines of workers in the great cities, but is actually 
with many a real matter of economy. Longport is but an hour and a 
Seasbore l^^'f from Philadelphia. 

JOBS j]-|g jyveller by the sea knows a multitude of minor joys to which the 
people of the great cities are strangers. It is for him that the splendors of 
dawn gild the tossing blue expanse of the deep. For him only there is the 
quick appetizing walk along the beach before breal<fast, the rare finds 
among the mass of flotsam and jetsam tossed up by the last high tide; for 
him the sea-bird's cry and the twitter of the meadow lark ; for his appre- 
ciative eye the creamy sails along the bay, just spread to catch the first 
faint puff of the coming breeze, and his alone the romance of the ships that 
grow upon the far horizon and fade toward distant lands — the silent mer- 
chants of the deep. Neither mountains, inland lakes or broad rivers can 
give that ecstatic sense of life and happiness which is the daily stimulus of 
those who live upon the sands where the salt billows break and the breezes 
sing through the cedars. 

The coming and going of the sun is brilliant and spectacular — a 
wondrous burst of color. The rise and decline of Luna is chaste and poeti- 
cal. Taken together they form one of the grandest phases of nature, and 
nowhere are they seen more frequently in the perfection of their golden 
and silver drapery than at Longport. Ilu Spriiui 

The vast majority of city people know the sea only in its midsummer 
aspects, but in every season it has its special charms. In the springtime 
there is the pleasure of watching nature as she responds to the soft bland- 
ishments of the balmy winds and ardent sunshine. The wide reaches of 
young marsh grass are of the most delicate green. Even the neglected 
sand dunes take on an emerald tinge. Everywhere is heard the cheerful 



126 




127 



echo of the hammer and the rasp of the saw. Ever\'\vhere the painter 
spreads fresh color upon storm-worn surfaces. Everybody is busy making 
ready for the business of the summer. It is like youth when all the good 
things of life are yet in anticipation. 

autumn Autumn has its own votaries. Then the gunner takes his innings. 
The myriads of wild fowl that swarm the creeks and thoroughfares of great 
Egg Harbor Bay have no rest. From skiff and blind and sneak-box the 
bang! bang! of the shot-gun is constant; and then, later, when the birds are 
gone, snow flurries sweep across the brown landscape and indigo sea, 
driving the all-the-vear-round residents into the recesses of their cottages, 
and a new chapter in the life of the year 
begins. It is the holiday time of winter. 

imitntcr Winter no longer stalks hand-in- 
hand with desolation through the empty 
avenues of a deserted city of pleasure. 
The great permanent population of Atlantic 
City has been elsewhere detailed. There 
is a brighter showing of stir and life there 
and at Longport than in most inland towns. 
The temperature as a rule is higher, and 
the temptations to healthful, joyous out-of- 
door life are more constant than in inland cities. Longport faces almost 
directly toward the south, and that accounts for much of its well-established 
reputation as a winter refuge. 

It is certain that there is a large class of semi-rural people whose 
affairs drag them into the cities but now and then, and who have nothing in 
common with the farmer except to buy his surplus. These are the people 
who should be caught up by a beneficent fate and set down for the balance 
of their lives by the seashore, to write stories, paint, delve in hobbies or cut 
coupons, as the case may be, in a climate wonderfully exempt from those 




128 




ills which make life in this latitude, 
between November and May, ordin- 
arily a prolonged struggle for con- 
tinued existence. 

One of the most enthusiastic 
summer residents of Longport is Mr. 
P. M. Sharpies, of West Chester, Pa.; 
a gentleman who, with his family, de- 
votes the warmer half of the year about equally to the seashore and the H, 
Thousand Islands. At the request of the editor he has penned the following 
Jovi; of entertaining description of the joys of life upon the sands : 
Uoiiciport .'n is feared that a description of the advantages and pleasures of 
Summer life at Longport will lead to the impression that the writer is either 
a hotel owner with a desire to boom that resort, or is the owner of property 
there which he is trying to sell. So let me preface these remarks with the 
statement that I am neither, but on the contrary would personally prefer to 
see the village remain just as it is. 

An increase in population means less freedom, more conventionality, 
less sociability and more cosmopolitan surroundings. 

At present the little town is just the right size, and each inhabitant 
has the feeling that he owns the whole place and can do in it as he 
would in his own back yard. 

It is rare, indeed, that a home-like little seashore town should have 
such complete railroad facilities and the best markets in the land right at 
hand. Its proximity to Atlantic City, however, and the fact that every 
ti\e minutes all day and well into the night a swift trolley car pulls right up 
at the back door gives Longport both. 

In front of the house where this is written, not one hundred feet 
away, is the full unobstructed stretch of the finest bathing beach on the 
Atlantic coast, while but three hundred yards in the rear is a long and 



129 




130 



substantial fishing and sailing pier extending well out into the deep waters 
of the thoroughfare. _, 

This thoroughfare, swarming in season with sea bass, blacl< fish Cboroiuibtare 
and weak fish, with an occasional sheepshead and plenty of small blue fish, 
opens at one extremity into Great Egg Harbor, as fine a sheet of inland 
yachting water as the coast affords, and in another direction leads to miles of 
smooth, safe water where crabbing and fishing can be indulged in with per- 
fect safety during the roughest weather. 

Miles of sailing in almost every direction from our pier can be 
indulged in by the fortunate owner of one of the beautiful, obedient and con- 
venient, though illy named, " cat boats." Half an hour's sail in one direc- 
tion brings us to oyster beds and oyster houses where the finest bivalves 
can be purchased for seventy-five cents per bushel, while in another direc- 
tion the best fishing or crabbing is found. 

Atlantic City is within sailing distance, while Ocean City is but one 
and a half miles in the opposite direction, and close alongside are Somers' 
Point and Pleasantville — all reached over inland waters safe to sail on at 
_, ™ any time. 

■jliilct Before reaching Ocean City, and less than a mile from our pier, is 
the " Inlet," opening right out into the broad ocean, so that when sea fish- 
ing and sailing are at their best no time is lost in getting right on to the 
fishing grounds with least delay. 

This latter feature, lost sight of by many sojourners at the seaside, 
is one of the leading attractions to the writer when he is at Longport. The 
ocean fishing is at its best in September and October, and if I ma\- be 
excused for expressing my opinion 1 will state that there are no other 
months half so enjoyable at the shore as those of September and October. 
The best bathing can be enjoyed throughout September, while, as stated, 
fishing and sailing are at their finest ; mosquitoes have departed, or are less 
rabid in their attacks ; the gunning is beginning to get interesting for those 



131 



who indulge. The fishing and sailing continue into October and Novem- 
ber ; the air is something delightful, and the woods at Longport become 
beautiful. 1 know that even some of the inhabitants of Longport will 
e.xclaim that there are no woods, but ne\'ertheless, within five or ten min- 
ute's walk from our house there is a beautiful stretch of woods, composed 
of holly trees with trunks a foot or more in diameter, large evergreens and 
aged oak trees. A walk through this woods in October is a treat. Bushels 
of luscious wild fox grapes and sprightly chicken grapes can be had for the 




pulling, while great trees, covered with the red holly-berries or oaks with 
the drooping bitter-sweet, are at every side. 

Before the end of September nearly all the Summer residents of 
Longport have departed, but " our house " is only a stone's throw from the 
United States life-saving crew, so we would never get lonely even in the 
middle of winter. These brave and e.xperienced men of the ocean are kind 
and obliging to a degree. Rubber boots, gum coats, guns, and other requi- 
sites are gladly loaned to any of us who may be short of such supplies, and 



132 




133 



advice regarding the weather, as well as help in sailing or fishing make 
things especially interesting. Twice a week the life-saving apparatus is 
IFn Xate brought out and a most interesting drill takes place, including the 
Butumn throwing of a line to an imaginary wreck, and the saving of some 
one in the breeches buoy, besides practice in the breakers with the 
life-saving boat. 

Now you think I have been all over the special attractions of Long- 
port, but 1 have not, for there are yet to be extolled the cool breezes which 
always blow at Longport, though Atlantic City may be suffering with the 
heat ; the purest artesian water, the bathing beach which slopes so gradu- 
ally into the ocean and as hard as a board ; the fleet of steamers sailing 
every few minutes, and for ten cents will take you a long cruise over Great 
Egg Harbor ; besides the shell beach, the sand dunes, and the only sandy 
bay beach to be found on the coast. But it would require a volume to 
describe all these and others. " 




134 



atlantic (Iit\>. Cbaptcv IDmiH. 



The numerous sea-coast beacons established and maintained by the 
national government along our coasts form both the most conspicuous and 
picturesque features of the immediate ocean front. Perched often upon lofty 
li9bt=>b0U6C5 promontories or reared upon tempest-battered reefs, they attract the 
eye and appeal to the imagination with a force only exceeded by the senti- 
ment awakened upon passing one of those restless outer guards of our land, 
the solitary light-ships. The models upon which our light-houses are 
constructed are of almost infinite variety, conforming to the location 
and desired range of light, as well as tu the personal ideas of the 
engineers and board in charge. 

Light-houses for the guidance and warning of mariners are 
nearly as old as civilization. The first recorded light-house was the 
tower of Pharaoh, of Ale.xandria, built nearly three centuries 
before Christ. The oldest e.xisting light-house is at Cor- 
unna, Spain. It was built in the reign of Trojan and 
anticiuitv? reconstructed in 1634. 
of JScacons jhe first beacon light upon our shores was main- 
tained by the merchants of Boston at Allerton Point, where 
" fier-bales " were burned in an iron basket upon the top of a stone tower. 
In Boston harbor, too, was placed the first real light-house of the Atlantic 
coast in 1715-16 upon Little Brewster Island. It was erected at the expense 
of the Province. 

The control of the light-houses was assumed by the general gov- 
ernment in 178Q. At that time but one light, that of Sandy Hook, was 




135 



maintained within the State of New Jersey. This was established in the 
year 1762. The Hghts now maintained within the limits of Atlantic county 
are at Tucker Beach and Atlantic City (Absecon Light). The former guards 
the entrance into Little Egg harbor. It is distinguished by a black tower 
forty-six feet high upon top of a white dwelling with lead-colored trimmings 
and green shutters. Its location is eighteen miles southwest from Barnegat 
light and ten miles northeast from Absecon light. It shows a fixed white 
light varied by red flashes, the light showing white for one minute followed 
by six red flashes at intervals of ten seconds, visible twelve and one half 

B TRoblc ni''es. 
Beacon Absecon light, which is probably familiar to more people than any 
other light-house upon the Atlantic coast south of the Highlands, is set upon 
a shapely brick tower 159 feet high, having a broad, red band in the centre, 
the balance above and below being white. At its base are two white dwell- 
ings with lead-colored trimmings and green shutters facing upon Rhode Island 
Avenue. It shows a fixed white light, visible nineteen miles. It is dis- 
tant from Barnegat light twenty-eight miles, and from Cape May light 
thirty-seven miles. This light was built in 1853 at a cost of 5 50,000. Uicw from 

Thousands of visitors annually toil up its winding iron stairway 
to be rewarded at the top by a magnificent panorama of land and sea, all of 
the once desolate strips of sandy beach being dotted with a chain of beautiful 
summer resorts of more or less note, while in the foreground is peerless 
Atlantic City with its mile upon mile of beautiful streets and avenues ; its 
hundreds of hotels, countless stores, public buildings and private homes ; 
its unrivalled beach and magnificent Boardwalk ; its triu of railroads, and 
numerous heavy trains hurrying to and fro laden with pleasuring humanity ; 
Its fleets of fairy-sail craft, and its great, happy population, temporary and 
permanent together, enlivening all of its open spaces, a scene which every 
old resident must gaze upon with a thrill of pride and every stranger view 
with wonder. The venturer who toils up the two hundred and twenty- 



136 



eight steps of Absecon tower is interested, too, in the beautiful mechanism 
of the great lamp set in the midst of its prismatic Fresnel lantern. Just 
beneath and upon the le\el with the exterior gallery is the little watch- 
room in which the keeper holds nightly vigil. The post of light-house 
keeper was held for many years by genial Major " Abe " Wolf, long a 
familiar figure in the town. Many a stormy winter's night has the writer 
shared his watch and listened to his yarns, while the howling gale outside 
shook and swayed the great structure in which we sat, and the roar of the 
surf was incessant. The Major maintained intimate relations with scientists 
and sportsmen in the city, to whom he frequently sent fine specimens of 
aquatic fowl, and sometimes very rare birds which, flying with great force 
against the glass prisms, were easily picked up in a stunned condition upon 
the gallery or at the foot of the light-tower. The cats of the town were aware, 
with true feline intuition, just when the fat and toothsome birds were likely to 
fall, and very often deprived the Major of coveted specimens, and such was 
his antipathy for these nocturnal hordes that he sometimes snared them 
and sent them home minus their caudals ; and it is estimated that during 
his incumbency the majority of the cats in Atlantic City possessed tails 
more or less abbreviated, and their descendants might well make claim to 
consanguinity with the famous cats of Manx. Fine specimens of 



brant and other strong flyers were to be seen domesticated among «r _ 
the Major's flocks of chickens and ducks. f ^ 

The light-house is open in summer _^ ' f 

for visitors from 9 A. M. to noon, and in win- 
ter from II A. M. to noon, Sundays and stormy days excepted. 

The following descriptions of lights and buoys in the 
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Btlantlc (rit\?. 



Cbaptcr PJ'. 



The establishment of the Life-Saving Corps adjoins the light-house 

reservation. When the Atlantic City, or Ahsecon, light was established 

here the site was at a considerable distance from the surf 

line, but in later years the hook of sand which formerly 

extended outward upon the west side of the Inlet has 

been scoured away, and it was finally found needful to 

^. »,.^ build jetties in front of the tower to keep the sea 

(I be Xife= - ^ 

Saving Service from undermining it. 

an? XUrccf?6 , ^, , , u , • . j- . t 

As the Absecon beach is at a distance from the great 

ha\'ens to and from which the trans- Atlantic commerce plies 

it IS but rare that great steamships come to grief upon this 

stretch of coast. The wreckage of vessels, both 

sail and steam, engaged in coastwise traftk 

is of frequent occurrence, and the eagle-eyed patrol located here holds a 

fine record for deeds of humanity and daring. 

The original Go\'ernment Boat-House at tliis point was opened about 
forty years ago, its first keeper being Ryan Adams, one of the early resi- 
dents who came here in 1833. He was succeeded by Samuel Adams, and 
he, in turn, by Barton Gaskill who was the incumbent for sixteen years, hi 
June, 1878, the station was removed to its present site upon Vermont a\'enue, 
near the light-house, Capt .Amasa Bowen being appointed keeper. The 
building now in use was finished in 18S4, and is one of the model stations 
of the coast. The first fioor contains three rooms and a pantry, the second 
floor having three bed-rooms with a tower abo\'e where a constant watch is 




GIVING THF 



141 



Statititicsi 



maintained for vessels which may need lielp. The crew consists of the 
keeper and seven men. The present keeper is Timothy H. Parker. The 
names of the crew are: I. S. Conover, Wm. B. Treux, Thos. R. ^^^^ atlantic 
Ni.xon, George Tomlinson, Joseph Holdscom, George Strickland and ^'tv> Station 
Henry Headley. The shore is patrolled at night by the guards in relief. 

Upon the first clear day of 
each week the crew drills 
at 8 A. M. upon the beach, 
with mortar, life-line and 
surf-boat. The apparatus 
stored in the station is varied 
and interesting, and is ex- 
plained courteously to visi- 
tors at any hour of the day. 
The Atlantic City Life- 
Saving Station is one of 
thirty-nine located at nearly 
equally distant points upon the New Jersey coast, which is known as the 
Fourth District of the Life-Saving Service, the superintendent of which 
is located at Washington. The records of the service show that in the ten 
years between 1885 and 1894 inclusive (the most recent data at hand) the 
following was accomplished by the crews of the Fourth and Fifth Districts 
between Atlantic City and Chincoteague, Va. : 

Total number of casualties, 447 

Property involved, 16,135,325 

Property saved, |4, 594,860 

Persons on board, 2,671 

Lives lost 17 

A competent authority has estimated that in the past seventy years 

upward of 500 ships have been lost upon Absecon beach, or within sight of 

it. When it is remembered that until the Life-Saving Service was insti- 




142 



tuted there was but little help to be had from the shore, the signifi- 
cance of the above report and the heroic work of this fearless body of 
Sbiu pi-iblic servants become more manifest. 
asbore When the rumor goes forth, like a great electric thrill, from 
house to house and lip to lip all through the widespread city, be it 
summer or winter, that there is a wreck upon the shoals the beach 
is presently black with an excited, deeply inter- 
ested throng. The myriad of occupants of the 
great brilliantly lighted hotels forsake the rich parlors and cafes for the 
Boardwalk, shivering with sympathetic apprehension as they watch the 
rockets gleaming momentarily far out in the tumultuous waste of waters, 
and see the red glare of the Coston torches as the life-hoats speed away 
to the rescue. It is something well worth while to be in Atlantic Cit\- 
when a wreck comes in. It is rare, nowadays, that lives are lost upon this 
coast through disasters to ships, but in the course of a year, from one reason 
or another, unfortunate shippers lose their vessels along here, or are obliged 
to jettison a part of their cargo to get awa\' from the dangerous shoals in 
front. When the alert town boys begin to throng up from the shore with 
bunches of bananas or bo.xes stenciled with foreign marks which look sus- 
piciously like tine imported wines, it's high time to make a break for the 
beach and take a chance in the lottery of the sea, which sometimes 

Jfamous rewards the patient searcher in a most magnificent fashion. 

'Mrccfts Prior to the establishment of the Life-Saving Service along this coast 
no systematic record of wrecks was kept ; the only data obtainable was to be 
found in the often unreliable panellings of the older natives and their ances- 
tors, scribbled upon the fly-leaves of old books, or existing in the traditions 
of the families who formerly gleaned considerable profit from the misfor- 
tunes of those who were cast upon this forlorn and inhospitable coast. There 
are tales without end of big ships which have been broken upon the bar 
and swept in piecemeals to litter the shore far and wide with twisted and 



143 



torn wreckage. One of the oldest of these local records refers to the wreck 
of the British transport Mermaid, at Egg Harbor Inlet in 1779, while bring- 
ing troops from Halifax, when 145 persons were drowned. 

The wreck of the ship Ghergcs Kalni occurred in 1830. The majority 
of the passengers were saved, but Captain Busk, the commander, is said to 
have deliberately submitted to drowning rather than face the underwriters. 

Soon afterward the John Willcits 
came ashore with some loss of life, 
and in 1845 the Rainboii' was lost 
here. Upon Long Beach the brig 
Patapsco was lost in 1847, not far 
from the remains of the schooner 
General Scott, wrecked seven years 
earlier, whose captain was the only 
survivor. In 1856 the Charles Col- 
gate came ashore at Long Beach, 
and two years later the Firing 
Diitelnuan drove in. 

LIpon Brigantine and Abse- 
con shoals in 1847, '48 and '49 the 
schooners Ann Nile, Ida, IValter A. 
Merchant, Brook Haven, and barges 
Chester and Mary Ellen were lost. 
These disasters probably represent 
an average of the vast destruction 




of life and property upon this coast before the laggard authorities of the 
general government could be induced to light and patrol this dangerous sea- 
line, as, between 1847 and 1856, sixty-four vessels were lost here. The 
fearful wreck of the barque Powhatan, upon Long Beach, twenty-five miles 
north of Atlantic City, took place in 1854, when all of the passengers, mainly 



144 




ttt 



1 



immigrants coming from Havre, with the crew, numbering in all 311 souls, 
perished. Nearly fifty bodies came ashore upon Absecon beach. Upon 
the same night the schooner Manhattan was lost at the same place, eight 

being drowned. Since the light- 
house was founded one of the 
worst wrecks was that of the 
Santiago de Cuba in 1867, upon 
Long Beach, which was attended 
by seven fatalities. 

One of the most curious 
wrecks which ever came upon 
the Atlantic City beach was that 
' of the steamer Rockawaj', a great 
excursion vessel, which was launched with much ceremony upon March 23, 
1877 ; started in tow for New York harbor, and having broken away from 
the tug in a gale, broke her back upon the shoal and came upon the shore 
in front of the hotels in two f i I 

parts, being dri\'en so high ' " 

that visitors could board her 
dry-shod at high tide. 

Upon January g, 1884. 
a fine, large, three-masted 
schooner, the Robert Morgan, 
of New Haven, came ashore 
at the foot of New York av- 
enue, and fi\e months later 
she was taken off with but 
little injury ; although during her involuntary visit she was so high and dry 
that people could walk around her at low tide, and an admission price was 
cliarged to see her decks and interior. 




145 



Among the tlironging memories of far away winter nights spent upon 

CbC %OVC ' -' fc ^ h 

letter the tumultuous beach with the men of the coast guard there comes 
to the writer the thought of a letter rescued by him from a mass of drift 
two days after one of the most fearful wrecks ever known upon the Atlantic 
coast, and which gave occasion for these lines : 

HER LETTER. 

We walked at night the wreck-strewn sand. 
We walked and watched the dying storm : 

With eager eye and ready hand 
We sought to find some sea-tossed form. 

And as we walked, the guard and I, 

The tide crept out till broad and gray 
The shingled sand lay smooth and dry. 

Beneath our fitful lantern's ray. 

On either side and everywhere 

Lay limp and broken bits of wreck, 
Of clothing, ropes, of wooden ware — 

All kind of things one finds on deck. 

From out this scattered wreckage waste 

I stopped and picked a little note ; 
A dainty monogram was traced 

Above the lines the owner wrote : 

" My darling," but it gave no name. 

As if he only of mankind 
To such sweet title had a claim ; 
The words were coined her love to bind. 

'Twas written full, and crossed again. 

All interlined with afterthought; 
'Twas spotted o'er with Salter stain 

Than e'en the sea could yet have wrought. 

" My darling ; " there a fold was pressed. 

The words just here were fainter yet, 
As though 'twere worn upon his breast, 

A prized and sacred amulet. 



146 




Anon, she wrote her hopes and fears, 

Of fickle fortune's smile or frown, 
Of homelike joys in coming vears. 

When they were wed and " settled down." 

She spoke of spring and Easter flowers. 

Of silk and satin for her bonnet. 
Of sick friends, funerals, marriage dowers. 

Her new suit and the trimmings on it. 

And so this unknown maiden wrote 

Her loving letter to its end. 
And little dreamed the waves would float 

Her v\riting to a stranger's hand. 

Somewhere, to-night, a girlish face 

Is raised to God in mute despair ; 
Somewhere a woman prays for grace 

And strengtli of soul her load to hear. 

Somewhere along the wintry coast 

Her hopes lie buried in the sand. 
While this tells of the love that's lost — 

This sea-stained letter in my hand. 

F. H. T. 

It is pleasant to relate that after a time there came 
a letter from a Western town bearing the same "dainty 
monogram " claiming the stray love-missive from the 
author of the verses, and beneath the maiden's peti- 
tion were a few nervous lines from the young officer 
liimself, who had been dragged from the surf as 
dead, but who was, at the writing, slowly recov- 
ering at the home of his boyhood. " And so they 
were married," and this little true 
story of the sea turns out just as 
things should, but seldom do. 

And then there was the bottle 



found rolling up and down the sand in the shallows which held a pretty 

message from a romantic little maiden away up the coast at Asbury 

Park, who hoped that her venture, which had been adrift now half 

Che /Ifteei^aqc 
a year, would come to some handsome youth in a far-off land, and ,„ ^ jsonie' 

that he would lose no time in his response. Alas I little maiden ; it was 
picked up by a middle-aged man with a family, who printed it in a news- 
paper and sent you a marked copy 
as a warning. 

The publishers of this work 
take pleasure in stating that 
in its preparation they have 
been supplied with the fol- 
lowing complete data in re- 
gard to the various marine 
casualties which have occur- 
red upon this coast since the Life- 
Saving Service was instituted, by 
General Superintendent, S. J. Kimball, of Washington. As a record for 
future reference this list will doubtless prove one of the most valuable 
features of this publication : 




o ■= s 



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1 3 500 

500 
17 140 

25 000 

10 000 

300 

22 000 

600 
100 

23 000 
15 000 

75 

7 950 

2 500 

210 

2 435 

1 920 


p.A.s.<,.do.d i 88 888§ S §l8i:2§§> il §1 8 

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p.A.o.u.,.,.ao.d § ° 8 58 8 8 § 8 §8 §1 §1:5 8^8° § §8 U 8 ?§ 1 

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Sc. Ware 

Sc. Alfred W. Fiske 

Sc. Yht. Marv McCabe 

Sc. Ella Arnsden 

Sc. Atlantic 

Sc. .Seabird 

Sc. Kate C. Rich 

Str. Nederland 

Sc. Northern Light 

Sc. West Wind ' 

Sc. Brandywine 

Sc. R. J. Corson 

Sc. Elizabeth W. C.odfiev 

Yht. N. King 

Sc. Benjamin l'"ranklin 

Sc. Mary Stainlish 

Str. Richmond 

Sip. W. VV. Wallace 

Sc. B. N. I lawkins 

Sc. Twilight 

Sc. Annie S. Carll 

Sc. Dick Williams 

Bk. Wilhelmina 

.Sc. Asenath A. Shaw 

Sc. J. B. Van Dusen 

Sc. C. and C. Brooks 

Sip. John Leach 

Sc. Lydia Budd 


Datk 


187 1— November 25 

1872— No\ember 16 

1873— August 23 

No\'ember 14 

1874 — January 16 
January 18 
March '29 
April 16 
May 13 
November i 

187s— February 3 
September 2 
November 15 

1876— January 10 
May 14 

1877 — February 18 
August 13 
November 18 

1 878 — January 6 
January 26 
Januar\- 30 
November 2 
I U-cenibei" 4 
1 )e( ember b 
December 20 
1 )ecember 24 

1879— June 21 
June 27 



149 



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Locality 


Absecon Inlet 
Absecon Inlet 
Absecon Inlet 
Absecon Inlet 
Absecon Inlet 
Absecon Inlet 
Absecon Inlet 
Ab.secon Bar 
Absecon Bar 
Absecon Bar 
Great Egg Harbor Inlet 
Brigantine Shoals 
Great Egg Harbor Inlet 
Great Egg Harbor Inlet 
Great Egg Harbor Inlet 
Ab.secon Inlet 
Brigantine Shoals 
Absecon Inlet 
Absecon Beach 
Absecon Bar 
Absecon Inlet 
Absecon' Inlet 
Brigantine Shoals 
Brigantine Shoals 
Absecon Inlet 
(ireat Egg Harbor Inlet 
(ireat Egg Harbor inlet 
Brigantine Shoals 
Absecon Bar 
Brigantine Shoals 
Absecon Inlet 


33Eimox 


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Rig and Namr 

Sc. Sam'l L. Russell 

Sip. Greenwood 

Sip. -John W. Fo.x 

Sc. Eva I. Shenton 

Sc. A. H. yuinby 

Sc. Annie S. Carll 

Sc. Annie Godfrey 

Str. George Law 

Sip. J. W. Luce 

Sc. Louisa B. Robinson 

Sc. Louisa B. Robinson 

Sc. Hein-y B. \\'inship 

Barkentine Nicanur 

Sc. Palestine 

Sc. Three Brothers 

Sc. John \V. Hall, Jr. 

Sc. Hattie Baker 

Bk. Stafford 

Sc. Commodore 

Yht. Ida 

Sc. Henry M. Clarke 

Sc. Annie Godfrey 

Sc. Benj, B. Church 

St. Sh. Venezuela 

Sc. Annie E. Fouler 

Sc. Arthur 

Sc. Marcia S. Lewis 

Barkentine Baldwin 

Sc. I'lduard M. Hartshorn 

Sc. Booth Brothers 

Yht. j. O. Smith 


Q 


May 2 
May 9 
May 14 
August 14 
December 5 
December 22 

1889 — January 5 
March 24 
April 2 
April 25 
August 2 
August 23 
September 2 
September 10 
November 30 
November 30 
December 20 

i8go — June 2 

1S91— May 31 

1891— August iS 
August 25 
December 11 
December 19 

1892 — February 5 
June 5 
June 16 
September 2 

1893 — March 2 
March 7 
May 4 
July 29 



152 



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William F. Gaskill 
Major B. Ireland 
Charles H. Horner 
James Rider 


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John H. Turner 
Constant Brown 
James A. Abrams 
John M. Holzkom 


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1 

I^S' atlantic Cit^. Cbapter ?|. 


»" 



Dr. Charles C. Abbott, an ardent naturalist, has wandered much 
along this coast, and the following extracts from an essay born of his pen 

Sbodcjinal m^Y well have place in the lore of the region. 

jrootprlnts ,,^ ponderous geologist, with weighty tread and weightier manner, 
brought his foot down upon the unoffending sod and declared, 'These 
meadows are sinking at a rapid rate; something over two feet a century.' 
We all knew it, but Sir Oracle had spoken, and we little dogs did not dare 
to bark. 

Not long after 1 returned alone to these ill-fated meadows and began 
a leisured, all-day ramble. They were very beautiful. There was a 
wealth of purple and of white boneset and iron weed of royal dye. Sun- 
flower and primrose gilded the hidden brooks, and every knoll was banked 
with rose-pink centaury. Nor was this all. Feathery reeds towered above 
the marsh, and every pond was empurpled with pontederia and starred with 
lilies. Afar off acres of nut-brown sedge made fitting background for what 
meadow tracts were still green and grassy, while close at hand, more beau- 
tiful than all, were struggling growths held down by the golden dodder's net 
that overspread them. 

It does not need trees or rank shrubbery to make a wilderness. This 
low-lying tract, to-day, with but a summer's growth above it, is as wild and 
lonely as the Western plains. Lonely, that is, as man thinks, but not 
forsaken. The wily mink, the pert weasel, the musk-rat and meadow 
mouse ramble in safety through it. The great blue heron, its stately cousin, 
the snowy egert, and the dainty bittern find it a congenial home. 



156 



THonic 



Tlie fiery dragonfly darts 
and lazy butterflies drift across 
the blooming waste ; bees buzz angrily as you 
approach; basking snakes bid you defiance. Verily, this is wild life's 

domain and man is out of place. 

It was not always so. The land is sinking, and what now of that 
older time when it was far above its present level — a high, dry, upland 
track along which flowed a clear and rapid stream.' The tell-tale arrow 
point is our guide, and wherever the sod is broken we have an inkling of 
Indian history. The soil, as we dig a little deeper, is almost black with 
charcoal dust, and it is evident that, centuries ago, the Indians were content 
to dwell here, and well they might. E\en in Colonial days the place had 
merit, and escaped not the eager eyes of Penn's grasping followers. It was 
meadow then, and not fitted for his house, but the white man built his barn 
above the ruins of his dusky predecessor's home. All trace of human habi- 
tation now is gone, but the words of the geologist kept ringing in my ears, 
and of late I have deen digging. It is a little strange that so few traces of 
the white man are found as compared with relics of the Indian. From the 
barn that once stood here and was long ago destroyed by a flood it might be 
e.xpected to find at least a rusty nail. 

The ground held nothing telling of a recent past, but was eloquent of 
the distant long ago. Dull, indeed, must be the imagination that cannot 
recall what has been by the aid of such material as the spade here brought 
to light. Not only were the bow and spear proved to be the common 



157 



weapons of the time, but there were in even greater abundance, and of 
many patterns, knives to flay the game. It is not enough to merely glance 

at a trimmed flake of flint or carefully chipped splinter of argillite, and 
tbe past say to yourself, 'a knife.' Their great variety has a significance that 
should not be overlooked. The same implement could not be put to every 
use for which a knife was needed ; hence the range in size from those of sev- 
eral inches in length to tiny flakes that will likely remain a puzzle as to their 
purpose. It is supposed and possibly asserted that the Indian knew nothing 
of forks, but that he plunged his fingers into the boiling pot or held in his 
bare hands the steaming joints of bear or venison is quite improbable. Now, 
the archseologist talks glibly of bone awls whenever a sharpened splinter of 
bone is presented to him, as if only to perforate leather were such imple- 
ments intended. They doubtless had other uses, and 1 am sure more than 
one split and sharpened bone that was found would have served excellently 
well as a one-tined fork wherewith to lift from the pot a bit of meat. 
Whether or not such forks were in use, there were wooden spoons, as a bit 
of a bowl and mere splinter of the handle served to show. Kalm tells us 
they used the laurel for making this utensil, but 1 fancied my fragment was 
hickory. Potsherds everywhere spoke of the Indians feasting, and it is 
now known that besides bowls and shallow dishes of ordinary sizes, they 
had huge vessels also, of several gallons' capacity. All these are broken 
now, but, happily, fragments of the same dish are often found together, and 
so we can reconstruct them." 

But what did the Indians eat .-' Quaint old Gabriel Thomas, writ- 
ing about 1696, tells us that "they live chiefly on Mii^e or Indian Corn 
rosted in the Ashes, sometimes beaten boyl'd with Water, called „,„, ^ _.. 
Homine. They have cakes, not unpleasant ; also Beans and Pease, Cbex} Eat? 
which nourish much, but the Woods and Rivers afford them their pro- 
vision ; they eat morning and evening, their Seats and Tables on the 
ground." 



158 



In a great measure this same story of the hidians' food supply was 
told by the scattered bits found mingled with the ashes of an ancient 
hearth. Such fireplaces or cooking sites were simple in construction, but 
no less readily recognized as to their purpose. A few flat pebbles had been 
brought from the bed of the river near by and a small paved area, some 
two feet square, was placed upon or very near the surface of the ground. 
Upon this the fire was built, and, in time, a thick bed of ashes accumulated. 
Just how they cooked can only be conjectured, but the discovery of very 
thick clay vessels and great quantities of fire-cracked quartzite pebbles 
leads to the conclusion that water was brought to the boiling point by heat- 
ing the stones to a red heat and dropping them into the vessel holding the 
water. Thomas, as we have seen, says corn was " boyl'd with water." 
Meat also was, I think, prepared in the same manner. Their pottery 
probably was poorly able to stand such harsh treatment, which would e.\- 
plain the presence of such vast quantities of fragments of clay vessels. 
Of traces of vegetable food none are now to be found, except very rarelv. 
A few burnt nuts, a grain or two of corn, and, in one instance, what ap- 
peared to be a charred crab apple completes the list of what as yet have 
been picked from the mingled earth and ashes. This is not surprising, and 
what we know of vegetable food in use among the Delaware Indians is 
almost wholly derived from those early writers who were present at their 
feasts. Kalm mentions the roots of the golden club, arrow leaf and ,„ , , 
groundnut, besides various berries and nuts. It is well known that Xa1l^ 
extensive orchards were planted by these people. It may be added that, 
in all probability, the tubers of that noble plant, the lotus, were used as 
food. Not about these meadows, but elsewhere in New Jersey this plant 
has been growing luxuriantly since Indian times. 

Turning now to the consideration of what animal food they con- 
sumed, one can speak with absolute certainty. It is clear that the 
Delawares were meat eaters. It needs hut little digging on any village site 



159 



to prove this, and from a single fireplace, deep down in the staff soil of this 
sinking meadow, have been taken bones of the elk, deer, bear, beaver, rac- 
a %i»X coon, muskrat and gray squirrel. Of these the remains of deer were 
of Game largely in excess, and as this holds good of every village site 1 have 
examined, doubtless the Indians depended more largely upon this animal 
than upon all the others. Of the list only the elk is extinct in the Delaware 
Valley, and was probably rare even at the time of the European settlement 
of the country, except in the mountain regions. If individual tastes varied 
as they do among us we have certainly sufficient variety here to have met 
every fancy. Not one of the animals named but is considered eatable 
among ourselves, although raccoon is scarcely a delicacy. Eyebrows may 
raise at the suggestion of dining on muskrats ; but he who has had their 
hind legs properly cooked, knows what a royal dish they make. Prominent 
among the bird-bones were those of the wild turkey, but traces of smaller 
game were found. The turkey has been extinct on these same meadows 
less than one hundred years. Fish of many kinds have been recognized 
from the scattered bones, jaws, with teeth and spines, and frequently the 
large horny plates of the sturgeon are found. It is said that these were 
used as knives, their edges being made sharper by grinding. It is very 
likely, and knives of jasper, of just such shape and size, are not uncom- 
mon. Of course, the Indian well knew the merit of our oyster, as the 
huge shell heaps on the sea-coast testify, but here he was content to use 
our river mussels, and with proper seasoning they can be made palatable. 
I have known one to be worried down, backed by a wad of pepper-grass. 
Mussel shells, like sturgeon scales, were also used as knives. 

With a food supply as varied as this (and nothing whatever has been 
surmised), an ordinary meal or an extraordinary feast can readily be re- 
called, so far as its essential features are concerned. It is now September, 
and save where the ground has been ruthlessly uptorn, everywhere is a 
wealth of early autumn bloom. A soothing quiet rests upon the scene, 



1 60 



bidding us to retrospective thought. Not a bit of stone, of pottery or a 
burned and blackened fragment of bone but stands out in the mellow sun- 
shine as the feature of a long forgotten feast. A I dreamily gaze upon the 
gatherings of half a day, I seem to see that ancient folk that once dwelt in 
this neglected spot; seem to be a guest at a pre-Columbian dinner in New 
Jersey. 




i6i 



atlantic Cit^. Cbaptcr J'p. 



"Let's walk up to the Inlet and take a half dozen raw." A common- 
place suggestion, but how interesting if you care anything about the family 
affairs of the oyster, especially the famous Absecon oyster of Atlantic City. 
~ -V. J. J To begin with you may be surprised to know that the oyster is a 
aiisccoiu- Jersey farm product. The great area of soil which is always coming 
down the little rivers is the agency which makes the Absecon possible. 

The most valuable part of the soil of this great tract of farming land, 
ultimately finds its way to the bay, in whose quiet waters it makes a long 
halt on its journey to the ocean, and it is deposited in the form of fine, light, 
black sediment, known as oyster-mud. 

This is just as valuable to man, and just as fit to nourish plants as 
the mud which settles every year on the wheat fields and rice fields of 
Egypt. It is a natural fertilizer of inestimable importance, and it is so rich 
in organic matter that it putrefies in a few hours when exposed to the sun. 
In the shallow waters of the bay, under the influence of the warm sunlight, 
it produces a most lu.xuriant vegetation ; but with few e.xceptions, the plants 
which grow upon it are microscopic and invisible, and their very existence 
is unknown to all except a few naturalists. The oyster obtains the lime for 
its shell from the water, and while the amount dissolved in eacli gallon is 
very small, it extracts enough to provide for the slow growth of the shell. 
It is very important that the shell be built up as rapidly as possible, for the 
oyster has many enemies continually on the watch fur thin-shelled speci- 
mens. In the lower part of the bay I have leaned over a wharf and watched 
the sheepshead moving up and down with their noses close to the piles. 



162 











crushing tlie shells 

of tlie young oysters 

between their jaws and 

sucking out the soft bodies. 

As 1 watched them 1 have seen 

tlie juices from the bodies of the 

little ov'sters streaming down from 

the corners of their mouths, to be swept 

away by the tide. 

In order that the oyster may grow rapidly, and may be securely pro- 
tected from its enemies, it must ha\e lime. The lime in tlie water of the 
bay is derived in great part from the springs of the interior, which, flowing 
through limestone regions, carry some of it away in solution, and this is 
finally carried down the ri\'ers and mto the bay. Some of it is no doubt 
derived from deposits of rock in the bed of the ocean, and some from the 
soil along the shores, but the oyster obtains a ver>' considerable portion of 
its lime in a much more direct way, by the decomposition of old oyster 
shells. On the oyster-beds an old shell is soon honeycombed by boring 



163 



sponges and other animals, and as soon as the sea-water is thus admitted to 

its interior, it is rapidly dissolved and diffused. In a few years nothing is 

left, it has all gone back into a form which makes it available as oyster 

food, and it soon begins its transformation into new oyster shells. If all the 

shells could be returned to the beds, this source of supply would be greatly 

increased. 

The full-grown oyster is able to live and flourish in soft mud so long 

as it is not buried too deeply for the open edge of the shell to reach above 

the mud and draw a constant supply of water to its gills ; but the oyster 

embr\-o would be ingulfed and smothered at once if it were to fall on such a 

bottom, and in order to have the least chance of survival it must find some 

solid substance upon which to fasten itself, to preserve it from sinking in 

the soft mud, or from being buried under it as it shifts with wind and tide. 

in the deposits which form the soft bottom of sounds and estuaries solid 

bodies of any sort rarely occur, and the so-called rocks of the Chesapeake 

-ru c-», .^^i^ are not ledges or reefs, but accumulations of oyster shells. 
Cbe Struggle ^ 

of Xlfe A young oyster which settles upon a natural oyster-bed has a much 
better chance of survival than one which settles anywhere else, and a 
natural bed thus tends to perpetuate itself and to persist as a definite, well- 
defined area. As the flood-tide rushes up the channels it stirs up the fine 
mud which has been deposited in the deep water. The mud is swept up on 
to the shallows along the shore, and if these are level, much of the sedi- 
ment settles there, if, however, the flat is covered by groups of oysters, 
the ebbing tide does not flow off in an even sheet, but is broken up into 
thousands of small channels, through which the sediment flows down, to be 
swept out to sea. The oyster-bed thus tends to keep itself clean, and it 
follows that the more firmly established an oyster-bed is the better is its 
chance of perpetuation, since the young spat finds more favorable condi- 
tions where there are oysters, or at least shells already, than it finds any- 
where else. Now, the practical importance of this description of a natural 



164 



bed is this : Since it tends to remain permanent, because of the presence of 

oyster shells, the shelling of bottoms where there are no oysters furnishes 

a means for establishing new beds or for increasing the area of the old ones. 

The oyster dredgers state, with perfect truth, that b\' breaking up the 

crowded clusters of oysters and by scattering the shells, the use ancient 

of the dredge tends to enlarge the oyster-beds. - '"'■" 

Although the development of this industry on a large scale is quite 
modern, seed oysters for planting have been raised artificially upon a small 
scale in Italy for more than a thousand years, by a very simple method. 
Pliny relates that the artificial breeding of oysters was first undertaken by 
a Roman knight, Sergius Orata, in the waters of Lake Avernus, and that 
the enterprise was so successful that its director soon became very rich. 
At the present day the methods which were introduced, and probably in- 
vented by Orata, are still employed by the oyster cultivators of Lake 
Fusaro, a small salt-water lake. 

in quite modern times the study of these old methods of oyster 
culture has resulted in the development of the improved methods which are 
now employed in France. In 1853, M. De Bon, then Commissioner of 
Marine, was directed by the Minister to attempt to restock certain^e.xhausted 
beds by planting new oysters upon them, and during this work, which was 
perfectly successful, he discovered that, contrary to the general opinion, the 
oyster can reproduce itself after it has been transplanted to bottoms on 
which it never before existed, and he at once commenced a series of experi- 
ments to discover some way to collect the spat emitted by those oysters, 
and he soon devised a successful apparatus, which consisted of a rough board 
floor, raised about eight inches above the bottom, near low-tide mark, 
covered by loose bunches of twigs. 

An average Maryland oyster of good size lays about sixteen million 
eggs, and if half of these were to develop into female oysters, we should 
have from a single female eitilit million female descendants in the first 



165 



generation, and in tlie second, eiglit million times eight million or 64,000,- 

000,000,000. In the third generation we would have eight million times 

this or 21^,000,000,000.000,000,000. In the fourth, 4, 006, 000, 000,- 
Somc 
Calculations 000,000,000,000,000,000. In the fifth, 33,600,000,000,000,000,000,- 

000,000,000,000,000,000 female oysters and as many males, or, in all, 
66,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. 

Having thus embarked upon the limitless sea of statistical fact I pre- 
pared to further enhance the appreciation of my companion for the festive 
and toothsome oyster, but he had fled from the scene. Some people have 
a strange dislike for concrete knowledge as expressed in numerals. 




166 




Etlantic am, Cbapter IPI. 




There are frequent points of descent from the Boardwalk to the wide 
space of shore in front. 

The wife and iier sister and lier cousin have a simultaneous craving to 
"come unto these yellow sands," and a little fair-complexioned niece -^ nj^,, ipj^turc 
of mine has long had, however she has smothered that longing. So '•"'f ^l'*- ^Geacb 
we descend, and soon we have that pleasant sensation (a belt of dry yield- 
ing dust passed) of standing upon the firm cool sand. Hey, for the treasures 
of the shore ! Alice must have her shoes and socks off, and be let loose to 
scamper and to paddle at her will. Let her race about to her heart's con- 
tent, leaving the wet sands slowly to efface the gleaming prints of her little 
naked feet, or let her select a firm swell of sand, and with busy spade erect 
an edifice, while we elders dwell again on the well-worn thought, how, 
indeed, this is a type of the labor of many a life ; how many spend the 
hours between morning and evening, just merely in sand-arciiitecture ; then 
death brims up in full flood, and the shore is empty of them, and all their 
busy labor is levelled, and has left no mark, and is as though it had never 
been. For when at last the tide goes down, you shall not discover it ; it 
was not like a rock wall, that was submerged for a while, but appears w hen 
the waters draw off. The builder is not there : " He passed away, and lo ! 
he was not : yea, I sought him, but he could not be found." The builder is 
gone, and his works do follow him. There is nothing to show in eternity 
for all the long and careful labors of time. 

How furrowed are the sands when the tide has drawn away from 
them ! There was such sparkle and glee when the pleased waters were 



167 



swelling and glittering over this tract ; but they drew off by degrees, and 
now how all the smooth face is mapped out in furrows and wrinkles ! It is 
^^ „.^ tired of its toys, the tickle sea ; it has left behind, little prized, these 

of %itc shells and seaweed, these smooth pebbles ; these round chalk mar- 
bles, and pyramids and cones of spar. But it cannot rest; see it is coming 
back again even now ; the far murmur grows into a hoarse roar ; the silver 
curves hasten each after each along the level sand ; for a time it was sick at 
heart, and tired of all ; moaning, bankrupt, broken-hearted, weary, just now; 
quitting, as worthless, its possessions and its playthings ; and now the turn 
has come ; the old eagerness has awakened, the thoughtless, fervent pursuit 
is resumed. Ah ! some do indeed 
make life a series of rises and fall- 
ings of the tide ; now it is a loss, 
and they leave life's bare shore to 
moan in solitude far from men ; 
now another prize has allured 
them, and see how earnest and 
continuous the plashing, ever- 
advancing pursuit again. Deso- 
late, bankrupt just now ; but a second object attracts, and the old excite- 
ment and eagerness return. This in some cases, but not always, nor often. 

O nature, quiet nature ! we cannot then keep our thoughts, ourselves 
rather, out of you ; you must ever suggest to us the sad or strange or glad 
realities of our own life ; you are ever a parable, an allegory, of which the 
history of man is the ready interpretation. The song of a bird ; the tint of 
a sunset ; the dance of the falling snow ; the thud of the waves advancing 
or retreating — these are but the accompaniment to which the life of man is 
the glad or sober song. 

There was a time with most of us when we neither knew nor cared 
from what quarter the wind blew — when we had not the remotest conception 




1 68 



that the direction of the air-ciirrents could concern us at all. Those were 

the da\^s of childhood's happy ignorance ; when we l<new nothing of the 

contents of the human thorax beyond what others chose to tell us ; 21 •miorD on 

when lungs, and liver and heart, were things we sometimes heard ^'■'"- ^^'^^ tUiii? 

mentioned, but did not trouble our heads about, having very vague notions 

of their existence ; when the stomach was only known by its cravings, and 

the nerves were a mystery intelligible only to elderly people. A blissful 

state of things that, more permanent, it would appear, among our ancestors 

than with the average of mortals now-a-days. The first practical idea 

about the east wind that a young fellow gets hold of is that it is good for 

sliding and skating, because it locks up the canals and streams, and covers 

the ponds and ornamental waters with practicable ice. We can well recall 

the eagerness and the profound interest with which we used to watch the 

weathercock on the church tower in our skating days, and the mortification, 

not to say disgust, with which we saw the brazen indicator veer spitefully 

southwards. 

As we grow older we grow more conscious of the mysterious ma- 
chinery within us, and the atmospheric conditions without us, and of the 
marvellous and ominous sympathy there is between the two. But if we 
are in a\-frage health it is long before we begin to quarrel with the east 
wind. For a time we love to face it, and even take it to our embrace, 
feeling that it is a might\- breath, strong to build up the stalwart frame and 
renew the energies of youth. We revel in it, and, rejoicing in the freshness 
it brings, and the vigor it imparts, can repeat with pleasure Mr. Kingsley's 
a JBoi^'tcrou'' rhapsody in praise of the east wind. 

3fr(cn^ But by-and-by we find it rather too much for us — just a leetk too 
boisterous and rude ; and though we hardly confess to that much, we catch 
ourselves shirking its proffered embrace, shunting ourselves to the lee side 
of a\'ailable shelter when it blows hard, and buttoning up to the chin when 
it must needs be encountered. Still, we c\ui encounter it, and get the better 



WHEN THE EA 



of it too, in a brisk wali< or a gay canter along the open downs ; and we do 
so occasionally, perhaps pluming ourselves on our hardiness. But it may 
happen that we do it once too often, or without sufficient care, and then the 
east wind gets a grip of our breathing apparatus, and shows that he is 
master by consigning us to the bed or the easy chair, to a slop diet and tee- 
totalism — to the hot mustard "foots." When a man, verging, say upon the 
fifth age of Shakespeare, has had one or two experiences of this kind, it is 
truly marvellous to note how learned he becomes upon the subject of the east 




wind. He need not look at the weathercock for information ; he has an 
index with him — a sort of weather-gauge — that tells him when it is coming, 
as sure as a gun ; he scents it afar, even while sitting by his fireside ; can 
tell of its advent twenty, thirty, forty hours before its arrival ; he will 
wake up in the night and say to his wife, "The wind is getting into the 
east," and, turning under the blankets, go to sleep again to dream of it and 
the plagues it may bring with it. He does not indorse the poet's invocation — 
"Hail to thee, north-easter!" 



170 



— rather he dreads its approach and only hopes to have done with it as soon 
as possible. 

The east wind caroms upon Atlantic City at an acute angle, and 
although it may come to us laden with the fogs of Newfoundland its effects 
are felt less than at any other place upon the coast. 

Nothing else so strongly appeals to the imagination of the frequenter 

of the sea-coast as the mysteries of its myriad victims — the countless ships 

which are scattered upon its sunless floor, gone from the ken of man 

Zbc Jflooc oi 
and forgotten in the limbo of time past and blotted from memory. tbc Sea 

The idea that ships are likely to be buried in the accumulations 
which are forming on the deeper sea-floor, rests upon a mistaken conception 
as to the speed with which sediments are laid down at a distance from the 
shore. These deposits of the open oceans are so slowly made that we 
must decree it excessive to suppose that a depth of a single inch can be 
formed in a thousand years. It is likely that in no case, save near the 
coast-line, or in the rare places where the showers of volcanic waste bring 
an unusually large amount of detritus, can a ship be buried in the accumu- 
lating strata so as to be preserved in a recognizable form. If the creatures 
of the far future, to whom it may be given to scan the rocks which are now 
forming and are hereafter to be uplifted into dry land, are to find a trace of 
their remote ancestors in the deposits, they will secure it not by finding the 
hulks of great vessels, probably not from the bones of men or the common 
implements which serve them in seafaring, but from the objects composed 
of glass, or more likely those made of the rarer metals, such as gold and 
platinum. Of the vast wreckage of an iron warship such as the Captain, 
w hich sank in the Bay of Biscay, the hulk, great guns, shot and shell, the 
timber, and all the forms of its crew will probabl\- disappear before they 
are entombed in the slowly gathered strata. The geological remainder will 
perhaps be the coal of her fuel store, the gold of the watches and trinkets 
and the massive glass objects which abound in such a ship ; in all but a 



171 



small and little indicative part of what went to tine bottom of the sea when 
the vessel foundered. It has, to many persons, been an interesting specu- 
lation as to the aspect of the countless wrecks which have been swallowed 
up by the North Atlantic since the churn of waters has been ploughed by 
the keels of ships. Their number is probably to be reckoned by the tens 
of thousands, and the greater part of them lie in a comparatively small part 
of that field. If we count this portion of the Atlantic which is most peopled 
with wrecks as having an area of 3,000,000 square miles, and estimate the 
total number of such ruins within this space as 30,000, we would have an 
average of one sunken ship for each hundred square miles of surface. 



A BALTIMORE 
KELLE AND TWO 
PHILADELPHIANS 




172 



Htlantic (Tit^. Chapter fpnn. 



[Angus Sinclair, in Locomotive Engineering for August, i8g8 :] 

" It has been my privilege to ride on a great many fast trains in 
America and Great Britain. 1 have a hahit of carrying a stop watch and of 
using it to time the speed between mile posts, which practice has _, « . . 
given me positive evidence of the speed attained or maintained. JTraln 

After watching the speed of celebrated trains in the British Isles, 1 
have at certain times been moved to remark to railway men and others 
that some trains in America made better time than those of other countries. 
When I proceeded, by referring to my note book, to give particulars, the 
best of friends would regard me with a pitying smile which said as plainly 
as possible 'he has acquired skill in the Yankee habit of boasting and lying.' 
B TRun to ■^^ ' '"^ going to be visiting among railway friends abroad for a few 
tbc Sbore weeks I wished to witness for myself the run of the fastest train in 
the world, that runs from Camden to Atlantic City, a distance of 55.5 miles 
in 50 minutes, an average speed of 62.2 miles per hour. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. Theodore Voorhees, Vice-President of the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway, I received permission to ride on the engine of that 
celebrated train. The train is due to leave Camden, which is across the 
Delaware River from Philadelphia, at 3.50 P. M., and I was there in good 
time to witness the preliminary touches given to the locomotive before 
starting upon a trip that must put a severe test upon various elements of 
the engine. 

Half an hour before starting time the engine was backed up to 
the train, which consisted of seven passenger cars. I happened to be 



173 




174 



exceptionally fortunate to take notes of an extraordinary feat of fast train 
running, for it was the first time that seven cars had been hauled on this 
train, tlve or six cars having been the usual load last season. Each car 
averages 75,000 pounds, and the engine, in working order with tender, 
weighs about 218,000 pounds, so there were 525,000 pounds of train, 
making a total of 743,000 pounds, or 371^^ tons to be moved. Che .ISiCi Enainc 

1 found a crowd of interested admirers about the engine watching 
every move of the engineer and fireman, both of whom were quietly 
attending to the duties of preparing the engine to do its work without 
chance of failure. The engineer, Mr. Charles H. Fahl, kept moving about 
the engine scanning every part, and dropping a little oil on the parts that 
needed the greatest amount of lubrication. While I remained watching him 
he oiled the principal bearings twice, and then carried his cans to the cab, 
apparently satisfied that his full duty had been performed. The fireman, 
Mr. John Pettit, was engaged throwing a few shovelfuls of coal at brief 
intervals into the enormous firebox which has 86 square feet of grate area, 
and watching at intervals to find a thin spot that needed covering up. 

These trains were run for three months last year on the 50 minute 
schedule, with the same men on the engine, without a single mishap, or 
without losing a minute of time. The engine never had a hot pin or 
bearing, and, in spite of the tremendous work put upon it, was always 
ready to turn round and take out another train without a minute's delay. 
That fine record was due to the care in seeing that everything was in good 
order before the start was made. In conversing with \'ice-President 
Voorhees I found that he attributed the successful running of this train in a 
great measure to the care and skill of the engineer and fireman. 
Cbc Start At 3.50 precisely the signal came to start and the engine moved 
ahead without slip or quiver. A few turns of the great driving wheels 
forced the train into good speed and away \\e rushed out through the 
yards, through the suburban residences and away past smiling vegetable 



175 



farms. On reaching the first mile post to be seen, which was about a mile 
out, 1 had my watch in hand and the second one was passed in 68 seconds. 
An interval of 62 seconds brought us to the following post, and then the 
succeeding notations were 60, 59, 56, 52, 50, 48, 46, 52, 53, 53, 51, 50, 52, 
49, 50, 53, 52, 50, 49, 44, 45, 42, 44 seconds for each succeeding mile, 
• Then I made up my mind that the high speed was authentic and put my 

watch in my pocket the better to note particulars about the handling of the 
engine. 
In the dab 1 was sitting on the fireman's side and could not see how the 
engineer was handling his reverse lever and throttle lever, but I noticed 
that there was no change in the point of cut of^ after the train was going 
forty miles an hour, and it seemed to me that the steam was permitted to 
follow the piston at a little more than half stroke. The steam pressure 
gauge could be easily noted, and the safety valve blew off at 230 pounds 
per gauge pressure. The fireman appeared to do his best to keep the 
pressure about five pounds short of the popping point, and he did his work 
well, but tlie indications were that he had more difificulty in keeping the 
steam down to the popping point than in letting it rise. He did not seem to 
work mucJT on the fire. He watched it very closely, and threw in a few 
lumps occasionally, but there was no hard work in supplying all the steam 
needed to do the enormous work of pulling the heavy train at the speed 
noted. The coal used was small lump similar to house furnace coal. 

The road is a little undulating, but the rises and descends seemed to 
make little difference to the speed. Out through stretches of farm lands, 
away through spreading woods and moor-like regions of scrub oaks the 
train rushed along, neither curve nor grade seeming to restrain its velocity. 
The engine rode with astonishing smoothness. When I have ridden on 
other engines working hard and keeping up speed over 70 miles an hour, 
there was always a harsh vertical vibration due probably to the jerk of 
compression, but that disagreeable sensation was entirely absent in this 



176 



compound. The work done gauged in horse power per hour was enormous, 
and perhaps unprecedented for a locomotive, but it was performed with 
remari\abie smoothness, and the impression was always present that the 
engine still had some margin of power in reserve which could be used if 
necessary. 

About four miles from Atlantic City a signal was against the train 
and the speed was reduced to about 20 miles an hour before the signal was 




lowered. That was about three-quarters of a mile from the succeeding 
mile post. I noted the time from that mile post to the ne.xt one and the 

mile was run in 60 seconds. 'Ihat will give a good idea of the power Over 70 /IBUee 

, ., an "jHour 

of the engme. 

Two minutes were used in running the last two miles through the 
switches. At least one minute was lost with the signal check. With these 
deductions I calculate that the average run was made at a speed of over 70 
miles an hour." 



177 



Btlantic Cit\». Cbaptcr IIHIP. 




[Extracts from an article which appeared in the Cfnturv Mdga^iiir, for 

January, 1898, which very aptly portrays Atlantic City of to-day and 

Atlantic ilitfl as furnishes ample demonstration and proof for the now practically 

a TlUintcr anC> undisputed title of " the greatest all the year resort of the world : "] 

Srring IRceort ^ ,. , ■ , ,. .u ^, 

" Durmg the winter, accordmg to the reports issued by the weather 

bureau, the thermometer at Atlantic City averages higher than at any 
other point on the North Atlantic Coast. The fact needs no proof, for it is 
evident almost at once to any visitor. But the explanation requires some 
observation of the course of the Gulf Stream. This great river of warm 
water approaches so near to the coast of New Jersey that it furnishes an 
excellent natural " hot-water " system for warming the sea-breezes jn^(. q,ii\x 
that constantly sweep over this great city of the coast. ^ "^''"" 

One may say with little exaggeration that the waves which wash 
the Florida Coast are the same as those that here visit the Northern States. 
At no other point does the great Stream make a " P. P. C." call before 
setting out upon its voyage across the ocean to look after the comfort of 
our British Cousins. Fortunately the comparative warmth of the climate 

during the winter is not fol- 
lowed by the same rise 
of temperature in the 
summer. Owing to 
the nearness of 
the great Ocean, 
which acts as a 





regulator of heat, Atlantic City is em- 
phatically a resort for all the year. 
Cooled by sea-breezes in summer, 
and, strange as it may seem, warmed 
by the same breezes during the winter, 
the result is an equal climate that is 

tlhe rmu-^ic e-'^'^i'^tly adapted for those enjoying good health or for invalids. 

Of tbc Surf The thunder of the sea along the shore is heard at once upon 
alighting from the train ; and it is but a few minutes' ride to any of the 
many delightful hotels that the throng of visitors has caiised to spring 
up all along the wonderful beach. Ordinarily, the journey to a warmer 
climate is so long and tedious that it serves to discourage the visits of those 
who are in good health, even if it does not mal<e it impossible for in- 
valids to secure a needed change of climate. Then, too, no one wishes 
unnecessarily to put himself out of reaching distance of his own home and 
friends. It is sometimes most essential that a return should be possible at 
almost a moment's notice, and where one is seeking health, to go into a 
distant land, or to make a journey of hundreds of miles, might neutralize 
any possible benefits expected from the trip. 

Proverbially ignorant of the advantages of their own country, few 
Americans know that Atlantic City is the largest, richest, most popular, 
and, in short, the finest watering place in the world. Its "season " never 
comes to an end, which alone gives it a great advantage over all resorts of 
the kind, for the proprietors of its hotels need not reckon upon making 
the profits of one season carry them over a dull time. There are forty 
millions of dollars' worth of property within the city limits, as estimated 
by the State Comptroller, and not a little of this value is due to the many 
miles of seaside homes owned by the well-to-do and fashienable of the 
world, who have discovered here advantages lacking elsewhere. As a 
result, houses are magnificent and the avenues are broad, clean and 



179 



well-kept, the owners showing a. spirit of rivalry in making houses as 
attractive as possible. The location being so favorable, and the climate 
so exceptional, the railroad facilities are of the best, and the hotels are in 
the hands of most enterprising owners. The fastest regular trains in the 
world, according to the Scientific American, are those running between 
Atlantic City and Philadelphia. These lines, of course, connect this 

^ ^ resort closely with all parts of the country. 

picture As for the beach itself, everything possible has been done to make 
it attractive. The " Esplanade " or ocean steel walk is the name given to 
a walk five miles long and forty feet wide that is parallel to the edge of the 
ocean. It used to be called the Boardwalk, but since it has all been 
rebuilt the name is not quite appropriate, for it rests on a frame 
work of steel, and is as secure as an iron pier throughout its whole ' -^ 
extent. Along the line of the shore there is nothing to cut off 
a view of Old Ocean except an occasional pavilion in which 
are comfortable seats where promenaders can rest. The walk 
itself is from six to twelve feet above the sand, and is guarded 
by a metal railing on the side toward the ocean, while along 
the shore side will be found shops, batliing houses, and booths for 
the sale of whatever can attract visitors. When it is said 
that a quarter of a million dollars have been spent in making 
this walk all that it should be, it will be understood that the steel walk is 
something more than a line of planks with which other seashore resorts 
are occasionally provided. In winter and summer the walk is thronged 
with pleasure seekers or those who have come here for health and rest. 
Shakespeare's "Seven Ages" each finds thousands of representatives. 
Here one may see the red-cheeked, bright eyed school-girl, swinging 
breezily along, enjoying the enfranchisement which the new time has 
brought to her ; the matron who, tired by the turmoil of the town, finds 
rest in the tumult of the sea, while about her are children, unconsciously 




180 



breathing in health, though thinking only of pleasure ; professional and 
business men renewing their youth far from the counting-room and the 
court ; the philosopher and the idler, side by side, sunning themselves in 
the salt air, forgetting that there is to life any side but this. 

As mildly temperate breezes turn winter into summer, so electricity 
turns night into day along this crowded thoroughfare. Truly, the throng does 
not seem to diminish at night. The old lady from the country who asked, 
upon first seeing the crowd upon Broadway, "What church is out.'" 
might be e.xcused for inquiring, as she gazed upon the thronged esplanade, 
where all these people find lodgment. But when she had learned how 
many hotels Atlantic City supports, her wonder would be whence came all 
the people who fill them. It is claimed that no other cit>' has a greater 
number of hotels and boarding-houses and the claim will be conceded at 
first glance. Indeed, it may be said that every building which is not either 
a hotel or a boarding house is a private cottage for the accommodation of 
visitors from the cities. One hundred and seventy-five thousand people 
can be cared for within Atlantic City, and besides those who go and come, 
there is a permanent population of twenty-five thousand. With such a 
number of inhabitants, it is hardly necessary to say that Atlantic City is a 
municipality perfectly equipped in all respects, and prides itself upon the 
enterprise and energy with which its affairs are conducted. There is 
a perfect sewerage system, a trolley line eight miles long, traversing the 
beach, well-paved streets, electric lights, and — most important of all — an 
ample water supply from artesian wells and springs, besides first class fire 
and police departments. The only complaint that can be made in regard 
to the police department is that its excellently disciplined force ^ iRounO 
has not enough to do. <^^ pleasure 

The old principle of " supply and demand " explains the excellent 
equipment of this seaport resort, for the people who gather here are 
used to the luxuries and delicacies of life, and familiar with the dainty 




surroundings offered them by the 

capitals of the world. Naturally 

there is a numerous leisure class 

of the best type, and outdoor sports 

flourish, while theatres, dances, card 

parties and other entertainments never 

cease in the many hotels. 

In the winter and spring, New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore send thousands of 
representatives to this city by the sea, and perhaps from February until 
June the island is at its best. The villas are filled with gay house parties, 
and the hotel-registers show the names of guests distinguished in the 
professional, political, or social world. 

One advantage of this favored child of the Gulf Stream has not yet 
been mentioned. Although surrounded by salt water, the air of the island 
is exceptionally dry, and physicians agree that its climate is the most 
pleasant and invigorating in the world. Under the supervision of the best 
medical talent, with the aid of hot and cold sea-water baths and her ozone- 
laden air, her dry, crisp breezes from pine forests, and her wealth of 
sunshine, Atlantic City performs marvelous cures. jfor UnvaliCis 

Not the least of the advantages offered to the invalid is that of being 
surrounded by the strong and healthy sportsmen, who come, with guns and 
rods, to enjoy the best hunting and fishing to be found along the coast. 
Who does not know the reputation of the great game beaches of Brigantine 
and Barnegat ? Who has not heard of the safe, speedy and comfortable 
fleet of fishing boats and other craft of the Atlantic City squadron ? The 
succession of game and fowl, each in its season, is varied and attractive. 
Snipe, plover, marlin, willet, yellow legs, black duck, mallard and teal flock 
here, as if, in spite of the eager sportsmen, they were determined to enjoy 
the delights of the climate. The brother of the rod and line will find 



182 



schools of bluefish, sheepsheaJ, drum, croker, codfish, herring, mackerel, 

sea-bass and weakfish. 

When it is understood that Atlantic City has every convenience of 

comfort and luxury to be found in great cities, it will be seen that it 

is impossible to do more than refer to the many-sided attractions 

Scbool5, 
here collected. The schools, both public and private, are excel- Cburcbcs anO 

lent. There are churches of every denomination, and several well ^-oanties 

known charitable institutions, such as the Children's Seashore Home, the 

Mercer Memorial Home and the City Hospital. 

One can sum up by sa\ing that Atlantic City possesses in perfection 

every attribute that one could expect in a seashore resort, and enjoys 

exceptional repute among the medical profession as a home for invalids in 

need of wholesome rest and the tonic of the sea air. It may fairly lay 

claim to the title, "Queen of American Watering Places." 



A 


XXI'. 


B"" — > 


# 

'^c^ 




r 






r 



183 



atlantic Cit^. Cbaptcr |JD. 



The steel tentacles of the Penns\-lvania Railroad are spread across 

New Jersey, touching the seashore at Long Branch, and by means of its 

line between that point and Barnegat Pier it touches the score of beautiful 

iDeiina IP IP ^""^ popular intermediate resorts, including Asbury Park, Belmar, 

IRoute^ Spring Lake, Sea Girt, Point Pleasant, Bay Head, Mantoloking, 
to tbe Coast 

Lavalette, Ortley, Berkeley and Seaside Park. It also extends a 

branch to all points upon Long Beach. It operates two routes to Atlantic 
City with spurs which reach Somers' Point and Longport, with an admir- 
able ferry service between these places. 

The West Jersey Division extends to Ocean City, Sea Isle City, 
Avalon, Stone Harbor, Anglesea, Wiidwood, Holly Beach and Cape May. 
The rails of this line also touch Delaware Bay at Salem and Maurice River. 

In handling the enormous traffic to and from Atlantic City its trains 
are run both from Broad Street Station direct and via the splendid new' 
ferry station at the foot of Market Street. The trains from the Broad 
Street Terminal start westward, describing a great semicircle through the 
upper section of Philadelphia and cross a magnificent bridge which spans 
the Delaware River above the city. 

The old Camden & Atlantic Railroad, the detailed history of which 
is fully related upon earlier pages, is now the Pennsylvania's direct passen- 
ger route to Atlantic City. The entire roadway has been rebuilt and 
double-tracked with standard steel rails. 

To one who recalls the discomforts and vicissitudes of a railroad 
journey in the early days between Camden and Atlantic City, the swift, 



clean run of the present seems to fully express the progress which has been 
made in everything relating to seashore travel. 

Pretty suburban settlements are growing up all along the Pennsyl- 
vania's route as a result of the improvements in service in recent years. 

The handsome ferry building recently completed by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company at the foot of Market Street, Philadelphia, is an 
ornament to the city. Provision is made in the design for the use of double 
decked ferry-boats in the future, and it is probable that in the course of 
time elevated trackage will extend to the limits of Camden, thus enabling 
engineers to make high speed from the instant of starting. 746 miles or 
about nine per cent, of the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad are in the 
State of New Jersey. With the single exception of the line between Tren- 
ton and New York, the Atlantic City Division is the most important. 

The equipment, speed and attention to the comfort of passengers upon 
the seashore trains are the same as exist upon the main line, and these 
features are unsurpassed upon any of the great railroads of the world. 




186 




Htlantic Cit^. Cbaptcr fJDIF. 



This new and influential organization was formed as the result 

of a meeting held at the Windsor Hotel, Atlantic City, in April of the 

present year (1899), Mr. G. Jason Waters, with whom the move- 

. . Htlantic Citw 

ment ongmated, bemg elected president. The purpose is to main- fbovee Sbow 

tain an annual horse show which will attract leading horse S^sociatlon 

owners and the many interested in tine animals and equipages to this 

resort upon such occasions. 

The tlrst of these exhibits was held July n, 14 and 15 at the Inlet 
Park and proved an unqualified success. The exhibits included road- 
sters, hackneys, horses in harness, saddle horses, polo ponies, hunters and 
jumpers, four-in-hands, tire horses and apparatus, hotel coaches, delivery 
wagons, baggage w«gons, etc. 

The Club is composed of the following gentlemen: — G. Jason 
Waters, President; Charles Evans, Vice-President; Hon. Allen B. Endi- 
cott. Treasurer ; Walter J. Buzby, Secretary ; William S. Blitz. Assistant 
Secretary. Directors: G. Jason Waters, Hon. Joseph Thompson, Walter 
J. Buzby, F. W. Hemsley, J. H. Lippincott, H. W. Leeds, D. S. White, 
Jr., Edward S. Lee, A. O. Dayton, A. C. McClellan, Dr. J. R. Fleming, 
Jacob Myers, W. -H. Catlin, A. J. Nutting, Morton W. Smith, Charles 
Evans, Hon. Allen B. Endicott, J. D. Southwick, Philip J. Leigh, Josiah 
White, J. H. Borton, Newlin Haines, W. E. Edge, Charles R. Myers, J. B. 
Reilly, Dr. M. D. Youngman, Charles Lackey. John G. Shreve, John M. 
Shaw. Executive Committee : G. Jason Waters, Hon. Allen B. Endicott, 
Charles Evans, Edward S. Lee. 



187 




Htlantic dm, Chapter U^n. 




[Extract from article in 'Jlicrapcittic Gazette, February 15, 1898, by 
William Edgar Darnall, A. B., M. D. : ] 

®(stitunu5bcC> Forty years ago, when the beautiful island on which Atlantic City 
is built was an arid waste of sand, Philadelphia physicians recognized 
the wonderful health-giving properties of the climate it possesses. At first 
an occasional patient courageously ventured to the place ; later, as hotels 
went up, they came in greater numbers ; at the present day the wide-spread 
fame of this resort draws liealth seekers from all parts of the world. Abun- 
dant evidence from most credible sources now e.xists as to its usefulness in 
many forms of disease. It will be my purpose in this paper to describe 
some of the local conditions and causes that contribute to this remarkable 

climate. 

, . , , , , ■ , . , J Cbc Climate of 

From meteorological tables, geographical and other data, a i^tlantfc Citv 

general opinion can be formed as to the nature of the climate of a anCi its 'Cl6etul= 

ne5s in ©iscasc 
section and whether it is favorable or unfavorable to health. It will 

generally be found, however, that there are strictly local conditions which 

should enter into consideration in determining whether a given locality is 

or is not the best place to send a case. 

" Climate is so dependent upon purely local conditions, pertaining 

often to only a limited area of territory, that it is impossible for any work 

based solel}' upon oft'icial data taken at fixed points to convey anything 

more than a generalization. These conditions can only be ascertained 

by a careful study of the localities claiming the patronage of the health 

seeker. The phv'sician who prescribes climatic change for his patient on 



189 




generalizations will benefit just about as large a pro- 
portion of them as if he filled his prescriptions for all 
his patients from the same bottle. The ideal health 
resort must have natural conditions on which to 
build."* 

Geographically Atlantic City is situated on an 
island just off the coast of New Jersey, lying in lati- 
tude 39° 22'. This island, about three-quarters of a 
mile in width and ten miles in length, is completely 
surrounded b}' salt water — a point to be borne in 
mind. From its magnificent stretch of ocean-swept 
beach, an arm of water known as "The Thorough- 
fare " is sent around it, dividing it from the mainland. Beyond this, 
extending shoreward, there is a five-mile expanse of salt meadow land. 
The coast of New Jersey has a general direction from southwest to 
northeast, but the beach front of the island trends more to the west, thus 
causing it to face almost to the south. It is possible that this may be one 
of the factors accounting for some of the characteristics of its climate which 
are not possessed even by other Jersey resorts. 

The soil is porous and sandy. Water therefore soon soaks through 
it, leaving no standing pools. Even the natural atmospheric moisture 
seems to be absorbed by the dry sand. The growth on such a soil is 
necessarily scant, preventing the possibility of disease which lurks 3 nriistaftcn 
in decayed vegetation. ''"'■'^ 

It seems to be a common impression that the air at the seacoast, 
especially during the winter months, must necessarily be heavy and damp. 
This is not so by any means. One of the most distinctive features of 
the climate of Atlantic City is the dryness and bracing quality of the 



» This paragraph by Dr. A. F. McKay {Medical Record. Oct. 31, 1897) is so much 
to the point that I have quoted it bodily. 



190 



atmosphere. There are of course occasional mists and foggy days ; but 
by far the greater part of the time the air is dry, producing a feeling of 
buoyancy, as if it were wafted from mountain heights. 

The dryness of the climate is, however, best shown by an examina- 
tion of the rainfall. This will average about two and a half inches per 
month, or thirty inches annually. These figures are in striking contrast to 
those of other points along the coast. At none of them does the rain- 
fall approach so low a point, and at many it will be seen that the annual 
precipitation is from 50 to 60 inches. 

The question of temperature is always an important one in the study 
of any climate. It has gotten to be a saying among weather observers that 
Atlantic City breaks all rules of meteorological calculation in this regard. 
Se\'ere extremes of temperature are unknown here. Even in the coldest 
winter weather the middle of the day is usually pleasant, the temperature 
at noon rarel\- being below 40°. As this is the most con\'enient time for 
invalids to be out, it is fortunate that it is rarely cold enough to be disagree- 
able to them. On the coldest day of last winter (Januar\- 27, 1897) 
Atlantic City showed the highest temperature of any Eastern city, and the 
same average temperature for the day as New Orleans. On the other 
hand, during the most intense heat of Jul\- and August the thermometer 
seldom registered above 85°, while the average temperature this time of 
the year is 71.5°. 

The records show a mean maximum temperature for three years of 
57.7°, a mean minimum of only 45.5°, or an average annual temperature 
of 51.6°. A daily comparison will show that it is six to ten degrees warmer 
here in winter than in Philadelphia, and that much cooler in summer. Comparison of 
There are several factors to be mentioned in accounting for this <-cnuicraturc 
remarkable record, most important of which are : the winds ; the geograph- 
ical position of Atlantic City, which has been described ; and the Gulf 
Stream. During the winter months the prevailing direction of the winds is 



191 



from the west and north-west. These winds come to us across sixty miles 
of the sandy soil of New Jersey. They are not only warmed by the radia- 
tion of heat from it, but the sand absorbs their moisture and dries them. 
If the winds, on the other hand, are from the south, south-east, or east, 
they become heated as they pass over some three hundred miles of Gulf 
Stream. This leaves the north-easters as the only disagreeable winds we 
have. Blowing down between the Gulf Stream and the coast they have no 
modifying influence. These, however, are of rare occurrence, and do not 
last longer than a day or two at a time. 

The nearness of such a large body of ocean water is itself an im- 
portant agent in the modification of the climate. Sea water possesses a 
fairly constant temperature, which does not fluctuate much from winter to 
summer. 

During the rigors of winter, when the earth and air are colder than 
the water, which remains constant, this fact causes the water to serve as a 
blanket by which the heat that would be lost from the soil by radiation is 
retained. Temperature is thus elevated in winter. In summer, however, 
the opposite effect is produced, for the atmosphere is now warmer than the 
water, and when everything is roasting inland the temperature is made 
refreshingly cool here by reason of the evaporation from the surface of so 
large a body of water, and the breezes wafted from it. In this way the 
climate is made more equable, and less subject to e.xtreme or sudden 
5)a\i^ 38iinbt i^hanges of temperature either in winter or summer. 
anCi Sunnv [p the consideration of a place to which patients may be referred for 
their health, it is highly necessary that a locality be chosen which has a 
majority of its days bright and sunny. Dark days depress the invalid and 
deprive him of the sun, besides shutting him in the house, so that he also 
loses the benefit derived from outdoor exercise. A casual reference to 
statistics disproves the common impression that life by the sea must be 
bleak and dreary. It is safe to say that there are at least 265 days in the 



192 



year on which an invalid could be out enjoying the delights of the famous 
Boardwalk. This leaves but 27.5 per cent, of the days— a little more than 
one-fourth — on which the sun hides his face entirely. Quite a percentage 
of these occur in March, the disagreeable month everywhere, and such 
weather is usually of very short duration. iVlost of the time the weather is 
bright and sunny, the air bracing and e.xhilarating, and the winds tempered 

with a softness that 
is surprising ; while 
during the autumn no 
wealth of words can 
paint the glory of the 
sea and climate. 

Undoubtedly the 
most important modi- 
fier of tlie climate of 
the Atlantic States is 
the influence of the 
Gulf Stream, which 
bears a peculiar rela- 
tion to the coast oppo- 
site Atlantic City. It 
has been determined 
by the United States 
Geodetic Survey that there is a mutual relation between the moisture, 
temperature and barometric pressure on land and the varying velocities 
and different positions of the currents of the Gulf Stream. The surface 
velocity, according to Pilsbury, is sensibly affected by barometric differ- 
ences, forming low and high areas of pressure. These currents have also 
daily, monthly and yearly variations in position, and each motion is no 
doubt governed by laws that are as yet but dimly understood. The Gulf 




193 




Stream follows the declination of the moon like 
a needle does a magnet. Its axis moves from 
west to east as the moon proceeds from high 
declination to low, and crosses the equator. Its 
volume expands and contracts. Even its temper- 
ature, which is about 80°, presents variations 
within narrow limits. 

The conclusions adopted by Professor 
Bache from the observations taken under his direction were as follows : 
"That between Cape Florida and New York the Gulf Stream is divided 

into several bands of higher and lower temperature, of which the 
lProfc6^ct 
(3 3Bache'6 axis (of the stream) is the warmest, the temperature falling rapidly 

c 1 iisiony inshore and more slowly outside. This is not only the case at the 
surface, but with modifications easily understood at considerable depths. 
That between the coast and the stream there is a fall in temperature so 
abrupt that it has been aptly called the cohi zvall. The cold wall extends 
with varying dimensions and changes of its peculiar features along the 
coast from Cape Florida, northward as far as examined. Inside this wall 
of colder temperature there is another increase, while outside the warmest 
band, which is next the cold wall, there is another warm and one other 
cold band." 

The innermost of these warm bands approaches as near as sixty-five 
miles from the coast, opposite Atlantic City. Not only its proximity to us 
here must be noticed, but also its course. At this point it takes a bend 
running a little more than a half degree of latitude to the north-east, 
then bendmg due east in latitude 40°. A certain outl\ing portion of Gulf 
Stream water, therefore, setting in the direction of this current will, when 
it makes this sudden turn, continue the original direction of the current, be- 
ing deflected as a tangent from the curve of the stream. The beach of 
Atlantic City with its southern exposure is situated just where it would 



READ^■ FOR 



194 



receive with open embrace whatever modifying influences might be derived 
from such a current setting in this direction. What leads me to believe 
this fact has some bearing on the question is that no other seaside resort 
even along the Jersey coast possesses exactly the climate we have here. 
ffirnntnn it "■ "^'^^ ^^ °^ some interest to digress here a little in order to describe 
tbe (Suit Stream briefly the two generally accepted scientific theories of the causes 
of the formation of this remarkable body of water known as the Gulf 
Stream. These are the (a) Wind Theory and the (b) Density Theory. 

(a) The Wind T/icoiy, of wiiich Pilsbury is an advocate, supposes that 
any permanent wind blowing constantly in the same direction across a body 
of water will cause such friction between the surface particles and the 
lower strata of the air that these particles will tend to move with the wind ; 
also the wind caught behind the crests of waves would push these along. 
The friction thus produced among the surface particles of water is trans- 
mitted from layer to layer, with "continually diminishing force as the depth 
increases. It was calculated by Agassiz that loo.ooo years was ample 
time to allow friction of this sort to be communicated from, the surface to 
the bottom — a depth say, of 2000 fathoms. It is held therefore that the 
trade winds blowing in the same direction for ages, over the Atlantic 
Ocean, have by this friction process, slow in itself yet attaining a mighty 
momentum as the centuries have rolled on, been able to move this vast 
body of water along in a constant stream. 

(f') The advocates of the Density Theory 
hold that ocean currents owe their origin 
to the difference between the specific 
gravity of sea water at one place and 
sea water at another place ; whether this 
be due to difference of saltness, tempera- 
ture or what-not, it disturbs equilibrium 
so that currents result. 



195 






The effect of heat, as at the equator, causes a lesser density of the 
surface water, while the effect of the cold of the polar regions causes a 
greater density. This latter being heavier sinks as it is cooled by reason of 
its greater specific gravity and diminishing bulk, and sinking, causes a flow 
of water to be drawn into its basin from the surrounding surface area of 
water. Such a supply must come from a yet greater distance ; and so this 
cooling causes a set of water in the direction of the poles, when a corres- 

ponding deep-down current of cold water sets toward the equator 

anO to be again heated. 

precipitation , , ^ , , , . . 

Also precipitation over the central portion ot the water hemisphere 

of the earth is greatly in excess of evaporation. Northwards evaporation 
is in excess of precipitation. The water thus drawn from polar seas by 
evaporation is quickly hurried down to the areas of low barometric pressure, 
where precipitation follows. But its loss from the polar regions makes the 
basin referred to above still larger, and so adds an additional impetus to 
the set of the water northward. The disturbance of equilibrium thus pro- 
duced between equatorial and polar water, by cooling and evaporation, 
causes a steady current to flow from gulf to poles, and a return under- 
current from poles to the equator. 

These are in brief the two most prominent among the many theories 
that have been advanced as to the formation of the Gulf Stream. It must 
be true that warm water comes from the equator and cold from the polar 
regions, and whatever be the mode of transfer the modification of climate is 
due to its presence rather than to the method of its delivery. 

But to return to Atlantic City. After having studied the meteoro- 
logical conditions and geographical environments that conduce to its unique 
climate, the practical question naturally arises. What is it good for ? What 
classes of disease will receive benefit by a sojourn in such a climate ? 
Climatology is a subject beset with many and peculiar diftlculties. While a 
great and growing department of therapy, it is as yet but dimly understood 



196 



by the bulk of the profession. Formerl>- climatic change was only 

thought of as a remedial agent in respiratory diseases. Now every 

chronic deviation from health is studied with reference to change. Such 

change, however, must not be recommended in a haphazard wav. ^ • 

' (Ionic anD 

There must be some rational basis underlying it if any good is to Hlterattvc 

!,„ J • J i.u r Climate 

be derived therefrom. 

The climate of Atlantic City is a dry one, tonic and alterative in its 
qualities. Its air is both a stimulant and a sedative. Actual experience 
drawn from many sources has demonstrated that those suffering from 
almost all functional disturbances, nervous prostration, overwork 
of both mind and body, depression from any cause, indiges- 
tion, insomnia, or any torpid state of the system, as well 
as strumous conditions and diatheses, are much benefited 
by the bracing qualities of the air. Residence here 
has proven of inestimable \alue to that elderly class 
of cases whose health and strength seem to have 
forsaken them, making them chronic invalids. 
Long-lasting and obstinate diseases of women 
rebellious to treatment at home oftentimes 
show marked improvement or disappear en- 
tirely under the alterative influence of the 
air here. 
There is a class of cases in the practice of nearly every physician 
whose management becomes very trying to his skill. These are the con- 
valescents from se\'ere and e.xhausting diseases or operations who seem 
to reach a standstill. The}' remain without improvement of vitality or 
appetite till the patience of the family becomes exhausted, while the 
physician pursues resources clear to the end of his string without avail. 
Such cases usually have an appetite before they have been here twenty- 
four hours ; they seem to improve almost as they cross the meadows. As 




197 



soon as they come under the intluence of the stimulating air oxidation is 
increased. Its soporific effect is at the same time a sedative to a disordered 
nervous system. Its purity and freedom from unsanitary conditions and 
miasmatic intUiences allows more rapid elimination of deleterious matter 
from the system. 

On the other hand, the softness of the air and its balmy warmth 
soothes the stiffened joints of the gouty and rheumatic ; relieves the dis- 
tress of emphysema and asthma, especially those cases coming from inland 
or from high altitudes. There are some asthmatics, however, whose 
difficulties are aggravated by coming here. These should seek the warmer, 
more sedative climate of the far South. The cases that do not do well 
at the seashore will oftentimes be relieved by the mountains, and vice 

llmnninitp frcm versa. 

Ibas dfcvcr Whether due to the antiseptic and alterative qualities of the atmos- 

phere, or to the absence of the pollen of vegetation, sufferers from hay- 
fever enjoy comparative immunity from their malady. Atlantic City has 
been referred to as a " hay-fever paradise!" Most noteworthy perhaps 
and most striking is the number of people living here who have been cured 
of chronic bronchial and catarrhal affections. This is no doubt brought 
about by the alterative influence of iodine, bromine, chlorine, oxygen, and 
the ammonia salts, with which every inspiration they breathe is laden. At 
the same time it must be remembered that the air is pure and free from the 
dust of a city, factory smoke, exhalations from slum districts, and other 
impurities that serve to keep up an irritation once started in the respiratory 
tract. 

Skin diseases are not common here. They are often mitigated or 
disappear entirely, for the atmosphere, while dry, is not irritating to the 
sk'in lil<e that of high climates. 

The profession formerly held that high altitudes were better adapted 
to beginning cases of phthisis. The trend of opinion, however, now seems 



198 



to be that neither wind, humidity nor altitude in themselves and apart from 
other factors play so important a part as do the purity of the air, its percent- 
age of free ozone, and the absence of unsanitary conditions. Cold, humid 
winds chill the surface of the skin by conducting away its heat, and drive 
the blood inward. It is easy to see that this does an already inflamed lung 
no good. Such weather should always be avoided therefore by a consump- 
tive. Raw or penetrating days will occur at times in every climate. Atlan- 
tic City, however, has a very small percentage of such days, and they soon 
give way to sunny weather again. 

Much may be said in favor of this place as a resort for tubercular 
patients. Not a small advantage is its proximity to the large centers of 
population. Long journeys from home are always depressing to 
invalids. The best results may often be obtained by sending the sicl< 
one to a place near enough to his home for him to enjoy the com- 
fort of friends, and where the change will not be too radical. 

The following points have been enumerated as 
reasons why the well known climates of New 
Me.xico and Southern California are model ones 
for phthisis, viz.: (i) a dry aseptic atmos- 
phere ; (2) a ma.ximum of sunshine and a minimum of cloud ; (3) a slight 
variation of temperature between e.xtremes of heat and cold ; (4) a mini- 
mum likelihood of sudden changes of temperature ; (5) a light, porous soil. 

If what has been said in this climatic study has been carefully fol- 
lowed it will be easily seen that Atlantic City meets these requirements 
adequately in each case, and her climate stands as the peer of any resort 
for phthisical patients, in the earlier stages of the disease, when it is 
threatening rather than in actual progress, or if the area of diseased tissue 
is small, not progressive, no wasting nor hectic of importance, and diges- 
tion is good, it may be recommended with confidence. This climate is 
especially good where tuberculosis has resulted as a part of a general 



199 




breakdown from overwork, and where excavation is not rapidly extend- 
ing. Cases of fibroid phthisis, or phthisis associated with catarrhal or 
laryngeal trouble, much nervous irritability, emphysema, bronchitis, bron- 
chiectasis, organic heart disease, or any brain or spinal affection, and in 
other conditions where high altitude is directly contraindicated, will usually 
receive much benefit here. Even in advanced cases with double cavities, 
degenerative diseases of the blood vessels, ulceration of the intestines or 
albuminuria, temporary improvement may often take place. It is only 
temporary, however. The death warrant of such patients has already 
been written. Their best place is home, wliere their latter days may be 
made comfortable and their end be among friends. If they insist on 
climatic change the warm and sunny South is better for them and may 
prolong their lives a short time. The air here is too stimulating for this 
class of cases. 




•4" 'tr 



Biographical 
SKetcIrs 



of Prominent Clfizcivs 
vv'Iao l\a\'e helpecl to make 
Atlantic Citg 



Men of 
th6 Doy 



THE SUCCESS of a city, not less than 
of a business corporation, is due to the in- 
telligence, enterprise and energy of those 
who are at the head of its affairs, or who 
are identified with large interests within 
its confines. 

The portraits and biographical outlines 
which appear upon the following pages are 
those of men who have, in a large meas- 
ure, made Atlantic City and placed it fore- 
most among the great resorts of America, 
if not of the world. 

it is proper and appropriate that the 
names of such useful and influential citi- 
zens should be preserved in a work of this 
character which is intended as a permanent 
record of Atlantic City from the date of its 
inception to the present time, and which 
will be treasured in thousands of homes 
when this generation has passed away and 
the affairs of a still greater Atlantic City 
are entrusted to other men of, let us be- 
lie\'e, equal sagacitv and breadth. 



(f"c 



Cbalhlev S. Xee&s 



HE subject of this sketch is well worthy of a leadership in the biography of the 
City bv the Sea, as the representative pioneer of her domain. Born in 1824 at a 
place then called Absecon Beach, now known as Atlantic City, Chalkley S. Leeds 
is entirely a product and example of the oldest and best class of citizens. Descended 
from an old and prominent family — son of Jeremiah and Millicent Leeds — his early 
education was completed at his boyhood home, and the associations formed have proven 
of sufficient strength to keep him one of the steadfast citizens and ijrominent factors of 
Atlantic City's best progress. In 1854 Mr. Leeds was appointed the first Mayor of the 
then infant City, and at that time the entire voting population numbered about twenty- 
five. The primitive form of ballot receptacle, a cigar bo.x, is one of the curious recol- 
lections of that period ; and another original condition, not a sufficient number of citizens 
availalile to occupy the offices required by the City's charter, would doubtless cause 
some wonder in the minds of the present age when the average office has candidates 
beyond the possibilities of successful attainment. Filling many positions of trust, Mr. 
Leeds has been for twenty-five consecutive \ears City Treasurer, and further identified 
with man)- enterprises leading to the advancement of Atlantic City in the best and most 
conservative sense. His is the example of a busy and well-spent life, surrounded now 
by the best evidences of success and mellowing into the ripe old age of a citizen who 
holds the highest affection and esteem of his friends and neighbors, and in every sense 
deserves the reputation which comes by reason of its just desert, as a thoroughly honor- 
able and representative citizen. 





CHALKLEY S. LEEDS 



H)aniel fmorrts 

^ORN in Ireland in 1820, son of James and Rebecca Morris. Daniel Morris 
received liis early education at Port Irlington, Queens County, Ireland, and was 
graduated from Carlow College, assuming his chosen vocation as a civil engineer. 
A belief in the future of America induced the young soldier of fortune to seek success in 
the promise of a new country, and to this type of pioneer our nation owes a constantly 
increasing debt of gratitude. Loyal to his adopted country and with a determination to 
achieve success, the early manhood of young Morris was marked with a series of strug- 
gles, a condition from which he finally carved success, and in every sense deserved it. 

It is related as an incident in his early career in this country that he applied to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company's engineering department for employment in one of 
their most difficult departments — canal construction — where only the highest skill and 
personal reputation were the stepping-stones to preferment, and this candidate, a stranger 
and without reference, offered his services with this statement, that he could only refer 
to his work, as he was without acquaintances, but the young engineer had offered to the 
keen judges assembled in that office, a challenge which they immediately accepted. 

In 1853, Daniel Morris located in Atlantic City, at a time when the present metrop- 
olis was but a small settlement amid the barren Jersey pines, with a turbulent ocean lapping 
the edges of a wonderful beach. A keen judgment as to future possibilities immediately 
convinced the young engineer that this apparent desert could be developed and Tie deter- 
mined to locate there, with a firm belief that time would prove the wisdom of his choice, 
and during the following years he found most active employment in surveying the proposed 
town and gave the early corporation the inspiration for the famous and beautiful thor- 
oughfares of to-day. 

As a philanthropist, Daniel Morris has given substantial evidence of his spirit of 
benevolence, contributing to many Catholic institutions in recognition of the Mother 
Church, of which he was a consistent member, and probably the most enduring monument 
to his memory is found in the Orphan Asylum now approaching completion at Hopeville, 
New Jersey. 

The "Morris Guards," a military organization of local fame, was founded by him 
and bears his name in evidence of the esteem of the members. As a holder of much 
Atlantic City real estate, the city proper has had the benefit of his financial enterprise and 
good business judgment, and every emergency has brought forward the ability of the keen 
raaa of affairs, which in our progressive age is always an element of conservatism and 
safety. 

Atlantic City has many citizens of merit and prominence, but the subject of this 
short sketch, her representative, Daniel Morris, did her credit from the many-sided com- 
pleteness of the essentially self-made man who, in the ripening years of his busy life, 
found time and opportimity to deserve the affection of his town by many acts of quiet, 
self-respecting benevolence and philanthropy. 

Col. Daniel Morris died on the afternoon of December 21st, 189S, and a life was 
ended of one who never held an ignoble passion, of one who never wronged a human 
being. In his life the ideal business man was typified. His hand was as open as his 
heart. He lived a long life, in which good deeds were sown with unstinted hand and far 
reaching arm. 




DANIEL MORRIS 



Elias Mricibt 

r(r\^ HE subject of this sketch was born June 22, 1S30, in Durham, Greene County, 
v^!J New York, and is the son of Anson P. and Abigail Pierce Wright. His early 
education was begun at a country district school and was largely su]3i)lemented 
by hard study at home, coupled with considerable exercise as a student at farming on 
his father's farm. As a young man, General Wright began his struggle for prominence 
as a teacher of a country school, to which occupation he gave three years' faithful service. 
He located at Atlantic City, New Jersey, in March, 1852. JHis first vocation was that of 
a school teacher for several years, later taking up the science of civil engineering and 
surveying. At the outbreak of the war in iS'6i, he was instrumental in raising and 
equipping a company called the "Home Guards," of which he was commissioned 
Captain. Promptly after the Bull Run fight he took his company to Trenton, where 
they were mustered into the 4th New Jersey Regiment of Infantr\-, and General Wright 
accepted a position as 2d Lieutenant (the lowest commission in the army). After 
much re-organization, drilling and other military preparation, much of the duties of 
the soldier was gathered by these patriotic spirited men. Among the many other 
duties the General filled the office of Judge Advocate of several special Courts-Martial 
during these stirring times, and practically working his way up from the lowest ranks as 
a non-commissioned officer to a position of prominence and importance in military 
circles. Probably no man among the veterans remaining in the State of New Jersey has 
seen a more varied or peculiar career as an intrepid soldier and a warm advocate of 
President Lincoln's policy. Many incidents are related which vividly portray a strong 
decision of character and individuality which make successful men no matter what their 
vocation may be. Elias Wright's service during the rebellion is a record of which he 
may be justly proud, and the many attestations from his superior officers prove the 
opinion in which they held his courage and ability. General Wright entered the service 
as 2d Lieutenant of Company G, 4th New Jersey \'olunteer Infantry, August 17, 1861. 
Promoted to ist Lieutenant Company D, January 3, 1862. Captured at Gaines Mill, 
Virginia, June 27, 1S62, and imprisoned in Richmond, X'irginia. Exchanged August 5, 




ELIAS WRIGHT 



i862. Wounded at Crampton Pass, Maryland, September 14, 1S62. Promoted to a 
Captaincy, December 1S62 ; Major, June 1863 ; Lieutenant-Colonel, April 1864 ; Colonel, 
August 1S64 ; Brevet Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteers, January 1S65, and confirmed 
by the Senate at that time for gallant and meritorious services during the war. The 
following enumeration of army service will doubtless be of interest : 

He was on duty near Washington, D. C. until March 7, 1S62 ; moved to the 
Peninsula, April 4th ; in action at West Point, Virginia, May 7th ; Seven Days' battle, 
June 25th-July ist ; battle of Gaines Mill, June 27th, wliere he was captured and impris- 
oned at Libby Prison for seven weeks. He was in action again on the Plains of Manassas 
and Bull Run Bridge, August 27, 1862 ; batde of Chantilly, September ist ; Maryland 
Campaign, .September 7th-2oth ; battle of Crampton's Pa.ss, Maryland, September 14th, 
where in leading the advance in the charge up the mountain he was badly wounded. 
Battle of Antietam, September i6th-i7th ; battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 
I3th-i5th ; Chancellorsville Campaign, April 2Sth-May 6th ; battle of Salem Heights, 
May 3d-4th ; expedition to South Mills, December 5th-2oth, 1S63 ; battle with Fitzhugh 
Lee's Cavalry, May 21st ; battle of Chaffin's Farm, September 29th-3oth ; e.xpedition 
against Fort Fisher in December, 1864, and January, 1865 ; at the surrender of Johnson's 
army near Durham, North Carolina, April, 1865 ; Provost-^L'lrshall of New Berne, North 
Carolina, May and June 1865. 

The brigade having been ordered to Texas he resigned and went home, and was 
immediately taken into service by his former employer, Stephen Colwell. General 
Wright held eight commissions in the volunteer arm\-, two of them as Captain, and 
rising, as above stated, to the rank of Brevet Brigader General of the L'. S. \'olunteers. 
Of these he asked only for the rank of Captain. 

After the war was over he was assigned by Mr. Colwell as surveyor and engineer 
and partially as manager of Mr. Colwell's business, with headquarters at Weymouth, Atlan- 
tic County, New Jersey. He continued that work until 1S73, "hen he was engaged by 
Joseph Wharton, of Philadelphia, to manage his estate of more than 100,000 acres of 
land in New Jersey, in which work he is still interested. His researches of the titles 
extend back to 1720, covering many owners and many conditions, with the result that 
great credit is due to the ability of General Wright. No other land owner in that 



region has ever undertaken such a tremendous task, in tlie successful outcome of which 
the General takes a just pride. It is an enduring monument to his industry and energy 
and also to the tenacity of purpose of Joseph Wharton, who has saved niucli trouble for 
his successors by clearing up the titles and boundary lines in Southern New Jersey. 

In politics the General is an uncompromising Republican, though he is opposed to 
voting in the field and still does not believe that soldiers, either volunteer or regulars, 
should be allowed so to vote. 

General Wright is a believer in thorough education, but has no superstitious rev- 
erence for mere literary culture as contrasted with ijractical training in aliairs. He 
believes in the employment of men and women equally as teachers, and yet is decided in 
his belief that our public school system suffers, not only from incompetent officers, but 
from an undue proportion of women teachers. He has never had the time nor the 
disposition to contend for political preferment, and has, therefore, held but few offices, 
but he has had sundry occasions to look into the accounts and doings of political hench- 
men, and he regrets the knowledge so acquired. He has no denominational affiliations. 



f\ 



Men. Hllcn ffi. EnMcott 

LLEN B. EXDICOTT was born in May's Landing, New Jersey, Marcli 7th. 1857, 
and is the son Thomas D. and Ann Endicott. On liis father's side he is a lineal 
descendant of Governor John Endicott, of Massachusetts, while on his mother's 
side the famous Pennington family of New Jersey is represented. He graduated from 
Peddie Institute in 1876, and in June, 1879, from the Law Department of the L'niversity 
of Pennsylvania, receiving the degree of LL. B. After having spent three years in the 
law office of Peter L. \'oorhees, Esq., was admitted to the New Jersey bar in 18S0. 
In June, 18S1, he was married to Ada H., daughter of Rev. J. B. Davis, D.D., of 
Hightstown, New Jersey. 

Mr. Endicott was elected Collector of Atlantic County in May, 1.SS3, and held that 
office continuously until the spring of 1898, when he resigned. Has also held the office 
of City Solicitor since 1887, without regard to the political complexion of the City 
Council, and during that period he has .successfully prosecuted many cases of great 
interest to Atlantic City. The most important, perhaps, were the condemnation for the 
city of the Consumers Water Company and the Atlantic City Water Works Company, 
and the contest in the Supreme Court and the Court of Errors and Appeals between 
Atlantic City on the one side and the Camden & Atlantic Railroad Company and the 
State of New Jersey on the other. This litigation lasted several years and resulted in a 
victory for the city, whereby the Camden & Atlantic City Railroad Company was com- 
pelled to pay to the city the assessment on $400,000 upon the trolley road on Atlantic 
Avenue instead of paying it to the State, as the Company had preferred to do. Judge 
Endicott has a large civil practice. Declining all criminal business, and only appearing 
in the Criminal Court twice of recent years, and on these occasions under the appoint- 
ment of the Court to defend Robert Elder and John Rech, both indicted for murder. His 
saving the life of Robert Rech is conceded to be the greatest triumph achieved in the 
Criminal Court of Atlantic County. 

Judge Endicott was prominent in the organization of the Union National Bank, and 
has been President of that Institution since its organization. On tlie iSth of January he 
was appointed by Governor Griggs, Law Judge of Atlantic County for the term of five 
years. 




HON. ALLEN B. ENDICOTT 



noon. Gbarles Evans 

I HARLES EVANS, son of Joel and Hannah Evans, Orthodox Friends, was born 
in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1S3S, educated at Westtovvn 
Friends Boarding School, and took up farmina: for a livelihood. In 1S67 he 
gave up farming and moved to Atlantic City, purchased the Seaside House, which, under 
his skillful management, together with many improvements, has made this house a 
fa\orite resort during both the summer and winter season. 

Mr. Evans is connected with many prominent institutions of Atlantic City, having in 
18S1 organized the Atlantic City National Bank, of which he is President. This bank 
ranks as the first in New Jersey, and twenty-fourth in the United States. 

Mr. Evans is \'ice-President of the Country Club of Atlantic City, Hall Com- 
missioner, one of the Governors of the Atlantic City Hospital, a Director in the Gas and 
Water Company, Vice-President of the Guarantee Savings Loan and In\estment Com- 
pany of Washington, D. C, and a member of the Union League Club of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Evans has always contributed to the interests of Atlantic City, and has dis- 
tinguished himself as an active and efficient promoter and protector of the interests 
entrusted to him. 







HON" CHARLES EVANS 



George f. Currie 

President Second Nadonal Bank. 

President Adantic Safe Deposit and Trust Company. 




GEORGE F. CURRIE 



Xcvi (I. Hlbcrtson 



]Z\'l C. ALBERTSON. was born in Sniith's^Landing, Atlantic County, New 
Jersey, December 6th, 1844, and is the son of Jonathan and^Asenath Albertson. 
Was educated at the public schools of his native town and at Pennington 
Seminary. 

Mr. Albertson has an enviable record of service in the Civil War. He enlisted in 
the U. S. Navv in 1S64 and served on the L'. S. S. " Kansas," North Atlantic Squadron, 
under Admiral D. D. Porter until the close of the war. He participated in the attacks 
on Fort Fisher in December, 1S64 and January, 1S65 ; at Dutch Gap on the James River, 
March and April, 1S65 ; served with land forces at City Point in April of the same year, 
acted as guard of prisoners at the capture of Petersburg and vicinity, and was dis- 
charged at Philadelphia, June 12th, 1865. 

Mr. Albertson has been actively identified in the Insurance and Real Estate business 
for eleven years ; was postmaster of Atlantic City for eighteen years, and is at the jiresent 
time \'ice-President of the Second National Bank. He is actively interested in social and 
educational organizations, having filled the offices of school trustee and superintendent 
of public schools of Adantic City. Is also a trustee of the Dock and Land Improve- 
ment Company, having lots located near the Inlet, and has also other large real estate 
connections. Mr. Albertson is a member and trustee of the Central M. E. Church, and 
is an ardent and loyal Republican in politics, and is one of Atlantic City's most popular 
citizens 




LEVI C. ALBERTSON 



w 



Xoren30 H. H>ovvn 

JAS born in Downsville, Gloucester County, New Jersey, October 9th, 1S39, is 
the son of Jessie and Catharine Kandel Down, was educated in the schools 
of his native town, and in December, 1S86, located in Atlantic City, having 
previously resided for eleven years at May's Landing. 

Mr. Down has held, for over thirty years, positions of honor and trust, was for 
eleven vears Secretary and Treasurer, also a Director, of the Atlantic Safe Deposit and 
Trust Company, and at the present time is Cashier of the Second National Bank of 
Atlantic City, is also identified with numerous building associations located on the 
Jersev Coast, the owner of a handsome residence in Atlantic City, a block of stores 
in Vineland, New Jersey, and considerable real estate in other parts of Atlantic County, 
including- dwellings at May's Landing and Holly Beach, and several cranberry bogs 
and farm lands. 

Mr. Down has received numerous political honors, and for the past twenty years 
has filled various appointments and positions. He served as Township Clerk of Buena 
Vista Township, and Ta.\ Collector thereof from 1S69 until 1S74, Clerk of Atlantic County 
1875 to 1SS5, being the first County Clerk to secure the re-election, and from 1SS5 to 1890 
was Deputy County Clerk. When elected Clerk of Atlantic County he received all the 
votes in the township in which he resided, excepting three. 

Mr. Down is a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is at 
present a Trustee of the Central ^L E. Church of Atlantic City. 

In politics he has been a staunch and life-long member of the Republican Party. 




LORENZO A. DOWN 



"Hon. Xcwis Evans 

)E\VIS EVAXS born in EstelKille, Atlantic County, New Jersey, August I2tli, 
1S42. Left home wlien fifteen years of a^e and settled first at May's Landing. 
Remaining there but a short time he then went to Camden, and engaged his 
services as messenger boy, carrying messages between that city and Philadelphia before 
the cable across the Delaware had been laid. In leisure moments he learned telegraphy 
and for three summers was sent out during the season as operator. 

Gaining confidence in the young man from his faithfulness in these smaller matters 
the West Jersey & Seashore R. R. gave him the appointment of station agent at Atco. 
From there he was removed to a larger office in Hammonton, and later in 1865 came to 
this city, still in the position of agent. He remained in the railroad's employ until 1SS5, 
when he was elected County Clerk on the Republican ticket, this compelling liim to 
resign the position of agent, holding the Clerkship until 1895. 

His early interest in political affairs, perhaps, brought about the happy coincidence 
which led to his marriage to Miss Clara Leeds, daughter of Chalkley S. Leeds, the first 
man to hold position of Mayor of Atlantic City. .Mr. Evans has a family of three 
daughters and one son. 

Mr. Evans has held during his life in this city many offices of prominence and 
trust, being City Clerk for two years, many years in the Board of Education, and at the 
organization of the first Building and Loan Association to be formed in this place, was 
elected a Director, which position he still holds, together with position as Director of the 
Second National Bank. 

Mr. Evans was one of the originators and incorporators of the Neptune Hose 
Company when organized in this city fifteen years ago, and has been its President 
successively since that time. 

He is also a Past Master of Trinity Lodge, No. 79, F. iS: A. .M., a Past Grand of 
American Star Lodge, L O. O. F., and one of the originators of the .Atlantic City Hos- 
pital, one of its Board of Governors, and its Treasurer. 

Mr. Evans was elected State Senator at the last election. He has succeeded in 
making a happy combination of business success and social prominence which falls to 
the lot (if but few men. 




HON. LEWIS EVANS 



IHon. Josepb ITbompson 

/--V I OSEPH THOMPSON was born at May's Landing, New Jersey, September 21st, 
\y-y3 1853. Is the son of William W. and Hester T. Pennington Thompson. He 
was educated in his native town, studied law, and in the year 1S7S was admitted 
to the New Jersey Bar. 

In iSSo, Judge Thompson located in Atlantic City, and since that date has been 
prominently interested in the financial and political progress of the City and County. 

In May, 1881, Judge Thompson was elected Collector of Atlantic County, which 
office he held until May, 1S83. In the year 1882 he was elected Solicitor for the Board of 
Cliosen Freeholders of the County of Atlantic, being re-elected each year since that date. 
P'rom April, 1S82, to April, 1892, he ably served Atlantic County as Prosecutor of the 
Pleas, at the expiration of which term he was appointed Law Judge of Atlantic County, 
which position he held until April, 1S98. 

Judge Thompson's sterling integrity and marked personality ha\e won him many 
friends and admirers, and although representing the minority party, he was in March, 
1898, after an exciting contest, elected Mayor of Atlantic City. 

Judge Thompson was one of the organizers of the Second National Bank of 
Atlantic City, also the Atlantic Safe Deposit and Trust Co., and has been a director and 
solicitor of both since their incorporation. He is also closely identified witli other 
corporations of Atlantic City, 

In March, 1898, he was appointed one of the managers of the Slate Hospital for 
Insane, at Trenton, and in July of the same year was appointed a member of the State 
Board of Taxation. 



# 

^ 



J>'f^ '^ 



- ■•-(*,, 




HON. JOSEPH THOMPSON 



f\ 



HlfreC> fm. "iHeston 

LFRED M. HESTON, born at Hestonville, Philadelphia, April 3uth, 1S54, is the 
I of I. Morris and Anna Patton Heston. He was educated in Philadelphia, 
attending both the common and high school. He is descended from a family 
which located in Bucks County (Pennsylvania) during the time of William Penn, thus 
representing the sturdiness and strength of Quaker people, coupled with the native 
shrewdness which has made Bucks Count)- famous. 

Mr. Heston located in Atlantic City in 18S4, and has contributed largely to the 
success of the city in whose progress he has shown great interest. He is an active and 
busy man ; who for fifteen years edited and published a prominent daily pajier ; is fond 
of antiquarian and historical studies ; author of various historical papers ; author and 
publisher of Heston's Hand-Book of Atlantic City, and is at all times found at the head 
of any progressive movement which is to the advantage of his city. Active political 
connections have resulted in his filling the following offices : was a clerk in the House 
of Representatives during the 51st Congress ; elected Comptroller of Atlantic City in 
1895 (which office he still holds); appointed Commissioner of Sinking Fund by the 
Supreme Court of New Jersey in 1S96, and coupled with many other connections in 
which his individuality has brought success and distinction. The Republican Party has 
reason to take credit in this representative of her best tenets. His earnestness and 
painstaking coupled with ability and tenacity of purpose, place his powers of accom- 
plishment beyond the ordinary. 

Mr. Heston is a Presbyterian, and is actively interested in the Atlantic City Hos- 
pital, whose beginning was entirely due to his efforts. His record as a public man is 
without blemish or reproach, and his ability as a scholar, student and writer extends far 
beyond the boinidary of his city and state. Atlantic City is fortunate in having so worthy 
a son, and an earnest scholar to protect her best interests. 




ALFRED M. HESTON 



Carlton GoDtrcv, Esq. 

ARLTON GODFREY, son of Samuel and Martha (Carson) t',odtrey, was born 
in Cape May Connty, N. J., January 13th, 1865, and receixed a public school 
education. 

Mr. Godfrey read law with Jatnes B. Nixon of Atlantic City, and was admitted to 
the bar in November, 1S89, and has since successfully practiced his profession in Atlantic 
City. In 1S94 he formed a partnership with Burrows C. Godfrey under the firm name of 
Godfrey & Godfrey. 

Mr. Godfrey is a Republican in politics, held tlie office of Tax Collector since 1893, 
for five successive terms, and each successive election has received an increased majority. 

In March, 1S9S, was elected Cit)' Solicitor of Atlantic City, which position he still 
holds ; his firm has represented the borough of Longport since its incorporation. He is, 
in addition to his active practice, closely identified with the corporation and other 
business interests of Atlantic City. 

Mr. Godfrey is President of the Real Estate and Investment Company of Atlantic 
City, and has been Secretary of the Mutual Benefit and Loan Association for ten years, 
is also a member of the Board of Education. 




CARLTON GODFREY, ESQ. 



asurrows (I. Goitres 

I AS born in Cape May County, X. ]., July 22d, 1S57, is the son of Leariney and 
Comfort L. Godfrey ; received liis early education in the schools of Cape May, 
and graduated from the American University, Tenn., with the degree of LL. B. 
Mr. Godfrey taught school in Cape May and Cumberland counties, locating in 
Atlantic City in 1890, read law with Carlton Godfrey, Esq., and in 1894 was admitted to 
the bar. He was admitted as a Counsellor June term, 1S97. In 1894 entered into part- 
nership with Carlton Godfrey, forming the firm of Godfrey & Godfrey. He has success- 
fully practiced his profession in Atlantic City since 1S94, always social and pleasant, being 
a great favorite with those who know him. 




BURROWS C. GODFREY 



3ame5 B. Soutbwlch 

y'^ I AMES D. SOUTHWICK, son of Joseph and Anna L. Southuick, was born 
\Ji December 25th, 1S59, at \'incentown, New Jersey, and was educated in the pul>Hc 
schools of his State. 

By his generous and judicious management Mr. Southwick has made "The Shel- 
bourne" 1 of which he has been proprietor for eigliteen years ) one of the foremost hotels 
of the island city, embodying all the comforts and entertainment which are appreciated 
by its many patrons. 

.Mr. Southwick is prominent in the management of the .Atlantic City Hospital, 
which institution he has served in the capacity of Governor, has also acted as Secretary 
of the Country Club of Atlantic County, President of City Council, Chairman of the 
County Board of Elections, and is a Director of the Union National Bank. 

In politics he is of Republication afifiliations, and has received honor and office at 
the hands of his constituents. He is prominently known in religious circles as a commu- 
nicant of the Episcopal Church 




JAMES D. SOUTHWICK 



Samuel Mastimis H^elles 

|AS bom in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and is the son of Ehvood and Annie 
Kelley. His early education was obtained in the public schools of his native 
city. Mr. Kelley located in Atlantic City in the Spring of 1S90, and became 
at once active in the development of this progressive city. The portion of this city 
known as Chelsea owes much of its development to his untiring energy ; the improve- 
ments of the streets are also due to his unceasing advocation in that direction, apprecia- 
tion of which is shown by many people who have erected beautiful cottages along these 
improved thoroughfares. Mr. Kelley was elected to City Council in 1897 for a term of 
three years. 

Mr. Kelley is connected with the Protestant Episcopal Church, and is a staunch 
Republican in politics, but one of whom his opponents favor with the criticism "a shrewd 
and able friend, but a dangerous foe." 




SAMUEL HASTINGS KELLEY 



m 



/IDtcbael H. IDerine 

ICHAEL A. DEX'INE was born in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 
moved early in life to Atlantic City, his father conducting at that time one of 
the first dry goods stores to be established on the Island, afterwards engaging 
in the hotel business. Mr. Devine was educated in the public schools and has always 
resided in Atlantic City. His first position in business was with the West Jersey Railroad 
Company, remaining with them about eight years, first in charge of the E.xpress Depart- 
ment, and at the consolidation of the West Jersey and Camden & Atlantic Railroads 
held the position of Chief Clerk. 

In 1S91, Mr. Devine was elected to the office of Ta.x Collector and re-elected in 
1892. In 1894, he organized the real estate, insurance and law firm of Devine & Wooton, 
whose prominence and ability has won for them many clients among the business houses 
of Atlantic City. 

In July, 1896, Mr. Devine was appointed Postmaster of Atlantic City by President 
Cleveland, the Senate confirming the appointment in 1S97. 

Mr. Devine is largely interested in the development of real estate in the city, and 
actively identified with the Democratic Party in politics. He is a true representa- 
tive of a progressive citizen, having many warm friends and admirers. 











MICHAEL A. DEVINE 



3uC>Ge IRobert M. "ilugcrsoll 

Is the son of the late Doctor D. B. Ingersoll, a promhient county physician, and was 
born at May's Landing, New Jersey, November 17th, 1S6S. He graduated from 
the county pubHc schools, and later attended Rutgers College. In 1884 he was 
appointed Page of the Senate, and in 1885, Assistant Journal Clerk, which position he 
filled until the close of the session in 1S90, at which session he was the oldest officer 
in continuous service and the youngest in age. 

Judge Ingersoll studied law with J. E. P. Abbott, Esq., of May's Landing, and 
Judge Endicott of this city. In 1890 he was admitted to the bar, and located in the 
Law Building — later, however, moved to his present office at South Carolina and 
Atlantic avenues. 

He was Coroner of Atlantic County from 1892 to 1895, Alderman and President of 
City Council in 1895 and 1896, Recorder 1S96 to 1898, and on February 28th, 1S9S, was 
appointed Judge of the District Court of Atlantic City for the term of five years. 

Judge Ingersoll is an attorney of ability and prominence, has been identified with 
many progressive movements of Atlantic City, and his honest efltorts have w^on for him 
the confidence of his constituents. 




JUDGE ROBERT H. INGERSOLL 



Xewis iPenntnotoii Scott 



JEWIS rEXXIXGTON SCOTT was born in Burlington, New Jersey, February 

9th, 1854, is the son of John Hancock and Mary Pennington Scott. He received 

his early education at the public schools of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Scott located in Atlantic City early in 1SS8, has been actively identified with 

the Republican Party and is at present time County Clerk of Atlantic County, having 

been elected in 1895 for a term of five years. He has a large and varied interest in real 

estate and is interested in the development of his adopted city. 

Mr. Scott is a conservative, careful business man of sound principle and marked 
executive ability. 




LEWIS PENNINGTON SCOTT 



immtam IR. 3obnson 

^ORN in Port Republic, New Jersey, March 14th, 1S53, and is the son of John W. 
and Sara Johnson, a prominent family of Atlantic County, largely interested in 
the cultivation of fertile farm land which has made the eastern portion of Atlantic 
County famous. 

Mr. Johnson gained his early education at the place of his birth, Port Republic, and 
graduated from the County High School. He located in Atlantic City in 1875. In iSSo 
the Knickerbocker Ice Company absorbed the Norris and Peckert Company, of which 
Mr. Johnson was Manager, and subsequently installed him in that capacity in the new 
corporation. As a representative business man Mr. Johnson stands very high in the 
estimation of his business associates, representing one of the largest and most important 
branches of the famous Knickerbocker Ice Company. The success which has attended 
his management speaks highly of his ability to hold his Company's business in face of all 
competition. 

Mr. Johnson owns considerable real estate in Atlantic City, and while not actively 
interested in politics, has always been a staunch adherent of the Republican Party. 




WILLIAM N. JOHNSON 



Col. (Sec. 1l3. iPerhiu? 

i:ORGE H. PERKINS was born in Boston, Massachusetts, July 12,1846, and is 
tlie son of Geo. W. and Eliza S. Perkins ; attended private schools until thirteen 
years of age, was then admitted to the Parks Street Grammar School, and later 
entered the High School in Portland, Maine, and in November, 1S62, he enlisted in the 
army, and was assigned to Company H, Sth Maine Volunteer Infantry, then stationed at 
Beaufort, S. C. From this time until his discharge in November, 1S65, Col. Perkins saw 
much actual camijaigning, was present on a transport during the first bombardment of 
Ft. Sumter, from then on taking part in many hard fought engagements, and finally 
present at the surrender of General Lee at Apponiatto.x Court House. 

At the close of the war he took up his residence with his parents in Hammonton, 
N. ]., and in 1874 came to Atlantic City, following the trade of carpenter for about ten 
years, after which he held various positions both in public and private enterprises, until 
his election in 1S92 to the oftice of Justice of the Peace, which by a succession of 
re-elections he has since held. He lias also been an active member in many of the secret 
societies of Atlantic City. 

Since the foregoing memoir was written, and awaiting pul:)lication, Mr. Perkins 
died somewhat suddenly on Jan. 3d, 1899, at 2.30 A. M., aged fifty-two years. The news 
of his death was recei\'ed with profound sorrow by his large circle of friends. His remains 
were laid at rest in the Pleasantville Cemetery on January 5th, 1S99, with the funeral 
ceremonies of five secret orders to which he belonged. 




COL. GEORGE H. PERKINS 



3obn X. l^oung 

|OHN LAKE YOUNG was born on the 25th of September, 1S53, at Absecon, 
N. J., and is the son of James and Mary Ann Young. Has resided in this city 
since 1870, received his early education at Absecon, N. ]. Mr. Young is a very 
successful man, and has always had a firm and abiding faith in the future of this city. 
He is a worker in every sense of the word, and has done much for the entertainment of 
tlie visitors to Atlantic City, erecting the first iron pier which proved of such great success 
that three others have since been erected. He is owner of much real estate. 



@j' 




JOHN L. YOUNG 



Gbarles IR. /lOviers 

I HARLES R. MYERS was born in the State of New Jersey, March 20th, 1859, "s 
the son of George and Christine Myers. Was educated in New Jersey, and 
located in Atlantic City in 1S76. 
Mr. Myers is owner and proprietor of the Hotel Rudolf, which under his skilhul 
management has become one of the most popular hotels in Atlantic City. 

Mr. Myers is one of a family noted for its progressiveness and interest in the im- 
provements and welfare of Atlantic City. 




CHARLES R. MYERS 



Milliam lENyav Barnall, H. B., /ID. H). 

Is the son of Henry Thomas and Margaret Pogue Johnston Darnall. He was born in 
Pearisburg, Giles County, Virginia. Place of early education, Durham, North 
Carolina, later graduating at Washington and Lee University, and at the University 
of Virginia. 

Prior to studying medicine. Doctor Darnall served as private Secretary for several 
years to Gen. Custis Lee, and in May, 1896, located in Atlantic Cit)-. Doctor Darnall is 
prominent among the younger phjsicians of Atlantic City, and has already achieved quite 
a reputation as the writer of several treatises in connection with his profession. The 
"Fortnightly Club," composed of many of the leading literary people of Atlantic City, 
has had for its president Dr. Darnall. He is also a member and reporter of the Atlantic 
County Medical Society and the Academy of Medicine of Atlantic City. He is physician 
to the St. Michael's Baby Hospital, Visiting Physician to the Atlantic City Hospital, and 
Fellow of the American Academy of Medicine, also member of the Medical Society 
of New Jersey. 

Doctor Darnall is a descendant of a prominent family of X'irginia. He has genuine 
literary taste as a scholar and writer. 




WILLIAM EDGAR DARNALL, A. B.. M. D. 



Vf 



Mm. iffilair Stewart, /ID. E>. 

AS born in Middle Spring, Cumberland Co., Penna., March 6th, 1867, is the son 
of Dr. William Graham Stewart and Martha Coyle Blair Stewart. Received 
his early education in the Chambersburg Academy, Penna. 
Dr. Stewart graduated and received the degrees of Ph. P). and A. M., from 
Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. ; M. D. and M. D. Summa cum laude, from the Medico- 
Chirurgical College of Philadelphia, Pa. He located in Atlantic City in 1890, where he 
has since resided. His abilities have secured for him a large practice ; he has also 
achieved note as the author of "A .Synopsis of the Practice of Medicine." He is 
Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and the Physiologic Action of Drugs in the Medico- 
Chirurgical College, Philadelphia, member American Academy of Medicine, American 
Medical Association, Ex-President Atlantic County Medical Society, and President 
Atlantic City Academy of Medicine. 

Dr. Stewart is a member and Treasurer of the First Presbyterian Church, this city. 




WM. BLAIR STEWART. M. D. 



James lllortb, flO. 2)., W. 2>. S. 

Is the son of the late Dr. Jos. H. North and Eliza H. Underwood, daughter of 
Hon. Jos. H. Underwood, of Fayette, Me. He was born in West Waterville (now 
Oakland) Kennebeck Co., Maine, Sept. 2d, 1855. He came to New Jersey in iSsg 
with his father, one of the first settlers at Hammonton, who was instrumental in 
building up that thriving village. He was educated in the public schools of that town, 
at the State Normal School at West Che.ster, Pa., and the Bryant & Stratton Business 
College in Philadelphia. He graduated from the Jefferson Medical College, Philadel- 
phia, in 18S0, and practiced the profession of medicine in Hammonton for two years with 
marked success, giving up the same for the profession of Dentistry, taking the degree of 
Doctor of Dental Surgery from the Philadelphia Dental College in 1S83. He located in 
Atlantic City in the spring of that year, and has built up a large and lucrative practice. 
The Doctor is a member of many of the fraternal and social societies of the city, his 
speeches being models of beauty and eloquence, and as an orator has few equals. He 
enjoys the title of Poet Laureate of Atlantic County, though his reputation as a master 
of v'erse is not limited by its boundaries. The Doctor was married in 1SS3 to Miss Cora 
E. Faunce, and has two daughters. 






J 



\ 




JAMES NORTH, M. D., D. D. S. 



©i' 



2)r. J. jf. Gran&all 

I OSEPH F. CRANDALL was born at Honesdale, Pennsyhaiiia, in 1S72. Gradu- 
ated from the Pennsylvania Dental College at I'liiladel]ihia, and located in 
Atlantic City in the spring of 1896. 
Doctor Crandall has acquired much reputation as a dental specialist, and endeavors 
by means of the best and most advanced appliances to banish that dread of the dental 
chair experienced more or less by all. He has, by years of extensive travel and suc- 
cessful experience, developed a proficiency of treatment, which, in connection with his 
close observance of sanitary regulations, warrants the highest possible results in his 
profession. 




DR. J. F. CRANDALL 



S)r. Milliam jfrancis SeeCts 



^ORN in East Bradford, Chester County, Pennsylvania, November 8th, iN52, and 
uas educated in the public schools of East Bradford and at Unionville Academy. 
Mr. Seeds' early life was spent with his parents until he reached the age of twenty, 
when he entered the dental office of Doctor Jonathan Hisey, of Columbiana, Ohio, 
where he became an expert in extracting teeth, a specialty which has gained Doctor 
Seeds an extensive reputation. Doctor Seeds has had wide experience in Ohio, Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey, and has achieved among the profession an enviable position 
as an adept with the forceps. At present he is associated with Doctor Joseph F. Crandall 
in the Union National Bank Building. 

Doctor Seeds has also been connected with the management of hotels here for 
many years, especially of later years with the hotel " Cedarcroft." He is a charter 
member of the Beach Pirates' Chemical Engine Company ; Secretary of the Fire Wardens' 
Association, and a member of the Firemen's Relief Association. 

In a quiet and conservative way, Doctor Seeds has always been identified as an 
influential Republican. 




DR. WILLIAM FRANCIS SEEDS 



"Cmalter E. E^ge 

JALTER E. edge was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 20th, 
1S72, and is the son of William Edge, of Downingtown, Pennsylvania. He 
was educated at Pleasantville, Atlantic County, New Jersey, and graduated from 
the public schools of Atlantic County, second in a class of fifty-two, in 1SS7. Mr. Edge 
moved from Pleasantville to Atlantic City in 1S8S, and served for four years on the staff of 
the "Daily Review." He was publisher and proprietor of the "Daily Guest" when 
twenty-one years of age, the youngest editor of a daily newspaper in the State. After- 
wards, in 1S95, changing the name of his paper to the Atlantic City "Daily Press." 
Mr. Edge is also proprietor of The Dorland Advertising Agency, which handles much of 
the advertising for Atlantic City and her hotels. 

Mr. Edge, by reason of his untiring energy and marked ability, achieved success 
and prominence in the walks of journalism at an early age. He is at present Journal 
Clerk of the New Jersey State Senate, and is a member of the Atlantic City Republican 
Executive Committee. Mr. Edge is also a member of the " Morris Guards," having 
served as its President in 1895-6. Is Secretary of the Country Club of Adantic City 
and likewise of the Pen and Pencil Club. He is prominent in the Masonic fraternity, 
a member of the Order of Elks and connected with the Atlantic City Hospital Association. 

\\'hen the war with Spain commenced Mr. Edge offered his ser\ices and was com- 
missioned a Lieutenant in Co. F, 4th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry (the former Morris 
Guards) — relinquishing business to serve the nation and served until the close of the 
war when he resigned his commission and returned to business. 

Mr. Edge is interested in the development of Atlantic City and is the owner of con- 
siderable real estate. He is prominently identified with the highest and best interests of 
the city. As a representative citizen of Atlantic City, Mr. Edge is of the type which 
promises much for the future of this flourishing seaside resort. 




WALTER E. EDGE 



umilliam fmcXauGblan 

f(r\, HE son uf John and Jane McLaughlan, was born in Pliiladelphia, March 14th, 

V 1 1866. His father contributed during life to the "Ledger" and other papers in 

Philadelphia and New York, and published books on the Slavery question 
before the Civil war. 

Wm. McLaughlan located in Atlantic City in iSSS, and started a small paper, the 
" Shoppers' Guide." In 1SS9 it was changed to " Mercliants' Gazette," and later to the 
" Sunday Gazette," the only Sunday paper in Atlantic City. It is an influential Repub- 
lican paper. 

In 1895 Mr. McLaughlan was elected Coroner, and held office until 1S98. He held 
the inquest in the great meadow wreck of 1S96, which was the most disastrous railroad 
wreck in America. 

Politically he is a staunch Republican, and is actively interested in advancing the 
suiccess of the Republican Party, He is a member of the Atlantic City Lodge of Elks, and 
Pequod Tribe of I. O. R. M. 

Mr. McLaughlan is a very successful promoter and speculator. He built the 
beautiful place known as Gramercy Place, introducing the idea of flower beds through the 
centre of streets. He changed the waste section of sand hills into a garden spot. He has 
also erected several fine cottages, and in many ways has helped to beautify the city. 




WILLIAM McLAUGHLAN 



m 



nnajor lewis TL. JBrvant 

AJOR LEWIS T. BRYANT was born in Atlantic City, July 26th, 1S74, and 
belongs to one of its honored pioneer families. His father, the late 
Hon. John L. Bryant, was one of the early promoters of. Adantic City, and 
always interested in the advancement of the resort. He was at one time Mayor of the 
city, and at various times held many public offices of trust, and at the time of his decease 
represented Atlantic County in the House of Assembly. 

Major Bryant entered the Pennsylvania Military College at Chester, and after com- 
pleting a full course graduated with the degree of Civil Engineer in the year 1891, being 
the youngest graduate from that institution from the date of its organization. After 
leaving college he returned to Atlantic City and commenced the active control of his 
hotel, the W'averly, and under his progressive management it has been very successful 
and enjoys the patronage of a large and select list of patrons. The A\'averly is one of the 
oldest and thoroughly established hotels of the resort, it having been previously con- 
ducted by Captain Bryant's father, and later by his mother. 

During the intervals between seasons IVIajor Bryant studied law in the office of 
Judge Allen B. Endicott, and was admitted to active practice at the New Jersey bar in 
February, 1S98. 

Major Bryant was Captain of the Morris Guards, Adantic City's leading military 
and social organization, for four years, and has also been prominently identified with 
other social and philanthropic organizations. 

At the outbreak of the Spanish-American war the Morris Guards volunteered their 
services on the first call, but were not accepted. When the second call for troops 
was made they again volunteered and were among the first companies mustered into the 
United States service from the State of New Jersey, Major Bryant then receiving his com- 
mission as Captain of Company F, Fourth New Jersey \'olunteer Infantry, and received 
his commission as Major on March 6, 1S99, while in the field. 




MAJOR LEWIS T. BRYANT 



fvmW a. Smitb 

f^'jRANK A. SMITH was born in Philadelphia, January 5th, 1S41. His father was 
an old resident, who was the first foreman of " ThejPhiladelphia Press" in 1S63, 
and acquired quite a reputation in newspaper circles. 
Frank A. Smith located at Atlantic City, 1870, and achieved prominence and suc- 
cess through his connection and management of the Inlet Hotel — which association has 
won him many friends and acquaintances. He is identified with many fraternal orders, 
is a prominent thirty-second degree Mason, and is a well-known business man, whose 
success has been won by conservative judgment and fair methods. 




FRANK A. SMITH 



Sobn (5. Sbreve 

Publisher "Atlantic Review. 




JOHN G. SHREVE 



3obn (Boul5eg 

^-^ I OHN GOULUEV was born in Philadelphia, Pa., on ^hlrch nth, 1S27. Of all the 
\\^J hard workers for the interest and welfare of Atlantic City, who have been promi- 
nent for their unselfish elYorts in the city's behalf, none is more worthy of praise than 
Ex-Alderman John Gouldey. He came to Atlantic City, June, 1867, and was elected to 
Council in 1869. Previously the City Council only held meetings during the summer ; he 
advocated all-year meetings and reform, and was elected on that ticket. This Council 
did the first important work, and on the measures then passed depended much of the 
future of the now flourishing city. In 1S70 he was one of the instigators of the petition for 
a boardwalk, and pressed the ordinance through Council. The petition was fought on 
account of the city having no funds for such purpose, but Mr. Gouldey insisted upon 
burrowing the sum needed, and five thousand dollars was borrowed from Joseph Piersall, a 
cottager. Thus again another step was taken toward the city's future. 

In 1875 he was again elected to Council, and in 1S83 was elected Recorder and 
Justice of the Peace. Through him as Recorder the City Treasury received its first 
money. He has been Justice of the Peace ever since. 

Mr. Gouldey was the father of, and started the first secret order on the Island, the 
American Star Lodge, I. O. O. F., and is now Past Grand. 

Mr. Gouldey has always been a hard and persistent worker for what he conceived 
to be the interest of the people. 




JOHN GOULDEY 



H)an(e[ X. aibcrtson 

^ORN at Smith's Landing, N. J., July ist, 185 1. and located at Atlantic City, 1S92, 
where he became prominently identified with the local interests of this com- 
munity. Mr. Albertson comes of a family noted in the Republican politics of 
Atlantic county for many years, and has personally been the people's choice for many im- 
portant offices— serving in the City Election Board as Township Clerk for Egg Harbor 
and City Clerk of Pleasantville, and more lately has successfully filled the duties as Over- 
seer of the Poor. 

He is prominently connected with the Order of Red Men and other social organi- 
zations. 




DANIEL L. ALBERTSON 



IRobcrt JB. %cci'S 

,m-», Robert B. LEEDS was bom at Atlantic City, May 2d, 1828, then known as 



Absecon Beach, and is the son of Jeremiah and MilHcent Leeds. He thus repre- 
sents one of the original pioneers. He is a brother of Chalkley S. Leeds, and 
has been identified with him in the early development of Atlantic City. 

Mr. Leeds was the first Trea.surer of Adantic City, and has been Alderman, 
Recorder, Tax Collector, together with numerous other public appointments. 

He is connected with the Masonic Order, and is a prominent man in other fraternal 
and social organizations. 




ROBERT B. LEEDS 



(Bilbert S. Stimson 

[(i^ ILBERT S. STLMSOX was born in Philadelphia, September iSth, 1845, and is 
l^-^ the son of Joseph S. and Caroline S. Stimson. He was educated at the publie 
^"^^ schools of his native city, and is a graduate of the Philadelphia High School. 

Mr. Stimson located in Atlantic City in 1884, and has been actively interested in 
and identified with hotel management, and was clerk for the season of '76 at the Sea Side 
House, and was later connected with Garden Hotel, but has since removed to Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. Stimson is a representative of the successful hotel men who have contriljuted 
largely to the comfort and pleasure of numerous sojourners at the City-by-the-Sea. 




GILBERT S. STIMSON 



•wauiiam IP. 3cncs 



|ILLIAM P. JONES was born in Philadelphia September Sth, 1S42. He is the 
son of Isaac and Anna C. Jones. Received his education in the Friends' 
Boarding School, Westtown, Pa. 
Mr. Jones is the manager of the Glaslyn Hotel, and has a host of friends. He 
has met with deserved success since coming to Atlantic City. 



^c. 




WILLIAM P. JONES 



3obn ]£. /IDcbrcr 

/•^loHX E. MEHRER was born in New York City, March I2tli, 1S45. He was 
f (_V/ educated at the Philadelphia High School, and located in Atlantic City in 1S60. 
He is a thoroughly representative, progressive, generous business man, and is 
identified with the social, fraternal and sporting interests of both Philadelphia and 
Atlantic City; an active, enterprising man who has taken advantage of shrewd foresight 
in the rapid growth and value the real estate of Atlantic City has made. John E. Mehrer 
deserves credit for his firm belief in the future of this portion of the Jersey coast. He has 
large holdings at the Inlet, and his Pavilion is one of the really enjoyable points of 
interest of which thousands of sight-seers and visitors to Atlantic City have so delightful 
a recollection. Mr. Mehrer is an enthusiastic yachtsman, and has established a reputation 
for his fast boat and namesake. One of the e.xciting events in the history of the summer 
City-by-the-Sea is the annual yacht race in which everybody takes such keen interest, and 
which so frequently results in victory for the Mehrer colors, representing the "John E. 
Mehrer," commanded by Captain S. P. Gale. 

He is identified with the Masonic Fraternity as a 32d degree Mason, and is also 
connected with numerous other organizations, is prominent in every movement; is the 
owner of much valuable real estate, and has a reputation for progression in improvements 
of the best and most lasting nature. 




JOHN E. MEHRER 



flDarry XClootton 

((7l^ HE son of Henry and Anne J. Eldridge Wootton, descendants of old and distin- 
v!:il guished families of the State of Pennsylvania, was born in Atlantic City, October 
30th, 1S69 ; Mrs. Wootton being a daughter of Lemuel Eldridge, one of the foun- 
ders of the late publishing firm of Henry 15. Mann & Company, afterwards Barnes & 
Company, of New ^'ork City. 

Mr. Wootton attended the public schools of Atlantic Cit\ , was graduated from the 
Atlantic City High School in the class of 1S86, studied law under the tutorage of Honor- 
able Joseph Thompson, was a member of the Class of '93 School of Law, Columbia 
College, and later in 1892 received the degree of LL. B. from the New York Law School. 

Mr. Wootton has resided in Atlantic City since his birth, and as a successful 
attorney and progressive man of business has achieved prominence and distinction. 
Now on the side of life wliere work is not the main innpose, we find him again taking 
a prominent stand as in 1S93-94 he served as Commodore of the Corinthian Yacht Club, 
and for many years an active member of the " Morris Guards." He is also connected 
witli many secret societies, and is a member of the .Atlantic City Country Club, 

Coming as he has from staunch Republican stock, we find him actively interested 
in the success of his favorite party. 

The Wootton family own a great amount of leal estate in Atlantic City, and Mr. 
Wootton devotes much of his time to real estate matters, being a member of the firm of 
Devine & Wootton, who are prominently known throughout the State. He has practised 
law since June, 1892, and has been identified in the best sense with the progressive 
developments of his native city. He is a grandson of Jonah Wootton, Sr. , owner of one 
of the pioneer hotels of Atlantic City, the Light House Cottage, which was afterwards 
moved to become part of the old Saint Charles Hotel, the site of which now forms part 
of St. Charles Place. 




HARRY WOOTTON 



1^ 



S. H. Scbwctstort 



K. SCHW'EISFORT was born in Montgomen- County, Pennsylvania, and 
located in Atlantic City in 1880. 

As proprietor of the "Little Brighton," a hotel of note, restaurant and 
buffet ne has achieved popularity and success. He is a thoroughly conservati\e business 
man, and with foresight and consideration for his patrons has made for his house an 
enviable reputation. 

Mr. Schvveisfort has been connected with the best developments of Atlantic City ; 
is interested in all its improvements, and is a man of many friends. 





S. A. SCHWEISFORT 



3ohn /Il^^:er5 

Philadelphia, May lotli, 1854, located at Atlantic City in 
brothers established tlie famous Union Market. By attention 
to details and perseverance, success has been attained and the firm of Myers 
Brothers are types of business men who have demonstrated the value of fair dealing, good 
judgment and generous treatment of their patrons. 



^^^ JOHX MYERS, born in 
(G/l 1876, and with his brod 




JOHN MYERS 



iDaniel "M. fiRvcr^ 

HE subject of this sketch is a native of New Jersey, and a f;racliiate of the High 
School of Atlantic City. He is an active business man and is identified with his 
brothers in the ownership of the Union Market. He is connected with the " Morris 
Guards," and is interested in the development and ownership of valuable real estate 
in Atlantic Citv, and is connected with numerous fraternal and social associations of the 
island. 

Mr. Myers is a successful business man, and has been prominently identified with 
the improvements and progress of his city. 



i..\x\vin 




DANIEL W. MYERS 



5acob (I. nnvers 

NATIX'E of New Jersey, and received his education in the schools of Atlantic 

City. He is the son of George and Christine Myers, and connected with his 

brothers in the ownership of Union Market. 

Mr. Myers has large real estate interests in Atlantic City and is a tirm believer in 

the future developments of this locality. Is also prominently identitied with the Masonic 

Order and other social organizations. 



f\ 




JACOB C. MYERS 



■fl^avrv? Wi. Sbcrrich 

AkKV \V. SHERRICK was born in Hellffoiite, Pennsylvania, in 1S75, graduated 

from Bellefonte Academy and Preparatory School for State College. He located 

in Atlantic City May 30th, 1893. 

Mr. Sherrick is prominently connected with the Morris Guards and other fraternal 

and social organizations. He was formerly identified with the Atlantic City Railroad 

Company and is now cashier of the United States Express Company at Atlantic City. 

Mr. Sherrick is deservingly popular among the younger element of Atlantic City. 




HARRY W. SHERRICK 



IDcvoui 36. £^^var^s 

^EX'OUX B. EDWARDS was born in Bridgelon, New Jersey, May 13th, 1S64, and 
received his early education from private tutors and in the Soutli Jersey Insti- 
tute. He located in Atlantic City in 1SS3, establishing the well-known "Floral 
Hall" and beautiful conservatories covering about eight thousand (8000) square feet, 
with all modern appliances for the propagation and grov\ing of plants. Mr. Edwards 
deserves great credit by reason of the beautiful gardens which every summer, under his 
care, adorn the lawns in front of the "Brighton," "Traymore," " H addon Hall," "St. 
Charles," and the fronts of many private residences and public squares. 

Mr. Edwards is connected fraternally with the Masonic Order, Knights Templars, 
Odd Fellows, and is a member of the Morris Guards. He is a young man of ability and 
enterprise and as a business representative his methods are original and progressive. 




DEVOUX B. EDWARDS 



H. Mil&en fiTloore 

IWILDEX MOORE was born in Bridgeton, New Jersey, in 1S67, and is the son of 
• George and Hatty T. Moore. He received his early education at I'ridgeton and 
graduated from the high school at that place. 

Mr. Moore located in Atlantic City in iSgo. He came to Atlantic City rich in 
ambition, but poor in worldly goods, and has amassed a fortune by real estate investments 
and other legitimate enterprises. He is prominent as an importer in works of modern 
art, and his researches extend to Austria, France, Italy, etc., etc. He has a large patron- 
age of the best and most critical class of our citizens coming from all parts of the country. 
Mr. Moore's establishment has e.xcited favorable comment from thousands of visitors to 
Atlantic City. 

Prominent among his fraternal connections we name the Order of Elks and the Odd 
Fellows. Mr. Moore has many friends, is a conservative, yet generous, citizen, and gen- 
erally prominent in the affairs of Atlantic City. 




I. WILDEN MOORE 



1Rolan& Conrow 

^ORX in Ciiinaiiiinson, Burlington County. New Jersey, in 1871, and is tlie son of 
Clayton and Mary S. Conrow. He received his education at a private school and 
later at Suarthmore College, Pennsylvania. Mr. Conrow located in Atlantic City in 
1S96, and has established on Atlantic Avenue one of the most attractive as well as suc- 
cessful high grade grocery and provision markets to be found in the entire city. Mr. 
Conrow is a thoroughly progressive and able business rnan. To him also is due the 
credit of having built the first modern Apartment House in the City by the Sea— a 
handsome brick building at States and Atlantic Avenues. This design of building has 
since become very popular and is much appreciated as a departure from the old style of 
architecture. 




ROLAND CONROW 



]£&\vin Smitb 

DU'IN SMITH was born in Philadelpliia, November 2ist, 1858, son of Edwin A. 
and Lavinia Russell Smith, and received his education from the public schools 
of his native city ; entered active business life as a member of the firm Edwin 
A. Smith & Son, lime, cement, builders' supplies, an old Philadelphia house established 
in 1822. In 18S4 Mr. Smith located in Atlantic City, and later became prominently 
identified with the Morris Guards, serving as Captain until 1891, when added business 
responsibilities compelled his retirement. Conservative in temperament, yet confident 
when conditions warrant progress, the subject of this sketch is a representative type of 
the men who have added much to the prosperity of Atlantic City. 




EDWIN SMITH 



MovvarC) O. Marrts, C. TE. 

OVVARD G. HARRIS, C. E., bom in Tuckahoe, New Jersey, October )6th, 1871, 
l^J 1 son of Gilbert and S. Frances Harris. Received his early education through 
public schools of Atlantic County, gained a State Scholarship and paid his 
expenses through college by outside employment, took the engineering and scientific 
course and was graduated from Rutgers College, New Brunswick, New Jersey — and 
within the past few years associated himself with the firm of Harris & Company, com- 
bining real estate, civil engineering and a general business office. The success achieved 
by the new firm is attributed to fair methods and systematic business forms. 

Mr. Harris believes in the future development and growth of Atlantic City. 




HOWARD G. HARRIS, C. E. 



f©' 



jfranft jflDib&leton 

)RANK MIDDLETON was born in New Britain Township, Bucks Co., Pa., 
January 25th, 1S61, and is the son of Barclay and Emma E. iSIiddleton. He 
received his education in the public schools of Montgomery County and Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. Mr. Middleton located in Atlantic City in 1881, but in 1882 moved 
to Albany County, N. J., and returned to Atlantic City in iSgi as assistant surveyor with 
Gen. Elias Wright, with whom he is still connected. 

He is a member of the firm of H. G. Harris & Co. , combining the real estate busi- 
ness with his profession as surveyor. Mr. Middleton ran the line for the county road from 
Hammonton to Absecon, and has completed a survey for the completion of the drive 
from Atlantic City to Longport. 




FRANK MIDDLETON 



©liver M. (3utti*tC>oe 

Ll\'Ek H. GUTTRIDGE was born in Xotlingham, England, May 2d, 1842, 
attended the public schools of Nottingham and graduated from Queenstown 
College. Mr. Guttridge is a lineal descendant of General Snialhvood, who 
was especially noted in the war of the French Revolution. 

He located in Atlantic City in 187H, has many social connections, and as a charter 
member is actively identified with the Order of Elks. Mr. Guttridge conducts a suc- 
cessful business as a general contractor, owns valuable real estate in Atlantic City and is 
favorably known as an enterprising, progressive business man. 




OLIVER H. GUTTRIDGE 



f\; 



aibcrt m. Jordan 

LBERT M. JORDAN was born in Auburn, New York, July 20th, 1H47, and 
received his early education at Independence, Iowa, finally attending Cornell 
College, Mount \'ernon, Iowa, but owing to the death of his father (then doing 
active service in the War of the Rebellion) he was prevented from graduating as a 
Mechanical and Civil Engineer. 

Mr. Jordan upon leaving college became identified with tlie printing business in 
Philadelphia, but not being satisfied with the results, migrated west, and located in 
Dubuque, Iowa, becoming identified for several years as part owner in the "Dubuque Daily 
Times." Later, in 1883, Mr. Jordan came east and located in Atlantic City, and shortly 
afterwards secured from Council an C^rdinance for a Sewerage Company, and helped to 
construct the plant. He was .Superintendent from the time of its inception until 1S97, 
when he was elected President and General Manager, which position he now fills. 

Mr. Jordan is largely interested in the Robinson Land Company, has long been 
identified with the Republican Part\- and is a thoroughly representative business man of 
Atlantic City. 




ALBERT M. JORDAN 



(I. 0. 3obuson 

G. JOHNSON was bom in Absecon, New Jersey, March 27, 1S72, and is the 
son of C. P. and Silvia Johnson. He received his early education in the public 
schools of his native town and in Atlantic City, locating at the latter place 

about 1892. 

Mr. Johnson is a successful wholesale manufacturer and dealer in white lead and 

painters' supplies, having a large factory at Pleasantville, N. J. He is also connected 

with fraternal and social organizations of the city, and is a member of the Reserve Hook 

and Ladder Company. 




C. G. JOHNSON 



1 



|AS born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, and is the son of €aim»«l Eldridge, 
one of the pioneer cottagers of Atlantic City, who was favorably known and 
highly honored as an old sojourner. Mr. Eldridge located in Atlantic City in 
1S57 and was educated in the public schools. He early became identified with the Police 
Department and secured an appointment as a Patrolman, finally working his way up to 
Chief-of-Police, which appointment he still retains. 

Chief Eldridge is noted for courage and quiet manliness. He has probably made 
some of the most e.xciting history of the city, but disclaims all unnecessary publicity or 
credit and quietly goes on his path of duty. 

Chief Eldridge is a staunch Republican in politics and in a modest way has acc|uired 
prominence in real estate and other interests. 



WILLIAM M POLLARD. PRESIDENT RAYMOND P. READ. SECRETARY 

CHARLES B BOYFR. VICE-PRESIDENT -JOHN F. TURNER, TREASURER 



THE MUTUAL BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION 

lOO GUARANTEE TRUST BUILDING 
ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. 

November 19, 19£3. 



Mr. A. H. Phillips, 
Phila. Pa. 

My dear Mr. Phillips: - 

This is to advise you that 

Chief iildredge's father's name was Lemuel. 




YouxB .,rj truly. /^( /M \^^,_^^l^^^^^^ 




HENRY C. ELDRIDGE 



IBenjamin Mtlliamson 

^EXJAMIN WILLIAMSON' was born in ("rlassboro, New Jersey, May 6th, 185S. 
He was educated in the public schools of Atlantic City and Philadelphia, and 
resided in Atlantic City for thirty-eight years. He was identified with the Fire 
Department for twenty years and was elected its Chief on January i8th, 1S97. Mr. 
Williamson contracted pneumonia while attending to his duties, at the fire of the Currie 
Hardware Co., Christmas Eve, 1897, and died on January loth, 189S, closing a busy and 
active life, but the memory of his many sterling qualities and attainments has endeared 
him to his friends. He gave the best years of his life to the development and success of 
the Fire Department of Atlantic City, and largely through his efforts the reputation of 
Atlantic City's Fire Department has reached fame antl distinction. 







BENJAMIN WILLIAMSON 



Cbarles fill. Spci!?el 

HARLES M. SPEIDEL was born in Sclioeneich, Wurtemberg, Germany, March 
5th, 1S62, at the old homestead or family seat of the Speidel Muehle, who for 
generations have been noted millers. He is the son of J. G. and Kate Speidel, 
and received his early education in the public schools of Germany. 

Mr. Speidel located in Atlantic City February 17th, 1890, and is proprietor and 
owner of Hotel "Speidel," located on Atlantic Avenue, and is identified with the Masonic 
organizations and is a member of the Atlantic City Fire Co., No. 2, of which company he 
has been elected for the third time as Trustee, and in 1S94 as Foreman of the Company, 
and for his unremitting energies for past years, was elected by the entire Atlantic City 
Fire Department in 1S97, as one of their superior officers. 




CHARLES M SPEIDEL 



3o\m iDonnell? 

/''-^ loHX DONNELLY was born in Philadelphia May 14th, 1848, and is Ihe son of 
(Q/l Doniinick and Catherine Donnelly. He was educated in Philadelphia, and is 
a graduate of the Philadelphia High School. 

Mr. Donnelly located in Atlantic City in 1890, and is actively interested in the 
development of real estate and interests which mean the betterment of the city. 

Mr. Donnelly is agent for the Philadelphia Brewing Company, and has been suc- 
cessful in every sense. He is a member of the Catholic Knights, Order of Red Men, 
Elks and City-by-the-Sea Society, has many friends, is conservative but loyal to the best 
interests of his adopted city. 




JOHN DONNELLY 



Samuel M. finoore 

^L AMl'EL \V. MOORE was born in Bridgeton, New Jersey, June 12th, 1S70, and 
(C)) is the son of George \V. and Hettie T. Moore. He attended school at Bridgeton, 
— and graduated from the \\'est Jersey Academy. 

Mr. Moore located in Atlantic City in 1890, engaging in the real estate business, of 
which he made a great success. He later went into the hotel business, and is now pro- 
prietor of the Waldorf-Astoria, a new hotel just completed on the beach. This modern 
hotel is the result of his untiring energies, and is proof of liis knowledge of the hotel 
business. 

He is a member of the Sons of American Revolutionary Society, his great-grand- 
father having been an officer in the Revolutionary War. 

Mr. Moore is largely interested in real estate personally, and is prominent in social 
circles, having an e.xtensi\e acquaintance and many friends. 







SAMUEL W. MOORE 



\f 



Jacob nnueller 

|AS born at Elsas, Germany, in iS6i, attended the public schools of his native 
country for ten years, and came to tliis country in 187S. He resided in Mont- 
gomery Co., Pa., for si.x years; in Philadelphia, Pa., three years; moving to 
Atlantic City in 1SS7. 

He is prominendy connected with the Odd Fellows, Knights of the Golden Eagle, 
Red Men, Elks, Volunteer Fire Department, and is an honorary member of tlie Pen and 
Pencil Club; also, is an active member of the Turn Yerein and the Mannerchor. 

Mr. Mueller is a progressive hotel keeper of Atlantic City, and has achieved a 
reputation for the management of his house and careful consideration of his guests and 
patrons. 




JACOB MUELLER 



Qlxvcv /ll^crcbant 

f(rt HE subject of this sketch was born in Devonshire. Ens^land, in 1S54. and was 

V 1 educated in a private scliool in his native town. 

Mr. Merchant located in Atlantic City in 1894, and has established and 
successfully conducted the famous Merchant's Cafe and Restaurant, which has achieved 
quite a reputation in Atlantic City. He has had a wide and varied experience in the care 
of his patrons, and he was for many years steward on the famous vessels of the White 
Star Line plying between New York and Liverpool. He also successfully managed the 
" Iroquois House," a famous mountain resort on the Belveil mountains. St. Hiliare, 
Province of Quebec, Canada, and superintended the building and equipping of the St. 
George Club, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, which institution he successfully managed 
for upwards of three years and left it one of the most successful institutions of its kind in 
Canada. 

He is actively interested in many of the fraternal associations, prominent of wliicli 
may be mentioned the ^L-^sonic (jrder. Elks, Odd Fellows, Ancient Order L'nited Work- 
men, Sons of St. George and Red Men. He is also interested in the management of the 
Atlantic City Hospital. 

Mr. Merchant feels a deep interest in the welfare of his adopted city. 




OLIVER MERCHANT 



Samuel IP. Onlc 

^AML'EL P. GALE was born in Tiickerton, New Jersey, August 24th, 1855, and 
beins the son of an old sailor, in early life developed for himself a fondness for 
"old ocean." He located in Atlantic City in 1S59, where he received his early 
education. 

Probably no man in Atlantic City is better known than Captain Gale — tislierman, 
sailor, man of affairs. He has friends innumerable. As skipper of the new champion 
yacht "John E. Mehrer Second," Captain Gale has won renown. The John E. Mehrer 
Second was designed and sailed by Mr. Gale and his brother, and won the championship 
in the match race against the St. Charles. 

He is a charter member of the Order of Elks, and is actively known among the 
yachtsmen of the Jersey Coast. 



i 




SAMUEL P. GALE 



Xcwis IR. a5am6 

j/r^ iKWIS R. ADAMS was l:iii-n in Atlantic City, January loth, iSSa, and is tlie son 
I V»X of Alfred and Clara Adams. He received his early education at the I'enn Avenue 
School House, Atlantic City. He learned the trade of bricklayer and plasterer, 
and worked on most of the important buildings of this city. 

Mr. Adams was the first Building Inspector elected by the Atlantic City Council, 
holding the office for some years. He made a good and very popular city official. 

Mr. Adams has been in the bath business for nine years, is Republican and was for 
four successive years Chairman of the City E.\ecuti\e Committee. 




LEWIS R. ADAMS 



\(^II, 1,1AM G. G 



Milliam G. Oencrot^f^v? 

GEXERDTZKV was Ixirn in Biekteld, Westphalia, Prussia, 
<ust 2Sth, 1S52, and is the sun of Henrich G. and Dorothea 
Generotzk\-. He was educated in the public schools of his native country, 
located in Atlantic City in 1881, and in 1S91 established himself in the business of baker, 
in which Mr. Generotzky has had a prominent and successful career. 

He is connected with most of the lodges in Atlantic City in a fraternal and social 
sense. Possessed of quiet determination and considerable business abilit\-, he lias, li\ 
hard work and |ierse\erance. reached his present successful position. 




WILLIAM G. GENEROTZKY 



TimUliam 3f. Mabl 

JILLIAM F. WAHL was born in Boston, Massachusetts, December lotli, 1S53, 
attended the public schools of his native city and located in Atlantic City in 
1872. 

Mr. Wahl has been for over twenty-five years one of Atlantic City's most successful 
merchants, having probably the best representative store on the Jersey coast. 

Mr. Wahl is the owner of much real estate and is actively interested in the develop- 
ment of Atlantic City. He has built and occupies a residence noted for its good taste and 
quiet beauty. 




WILLIAM F. WAHL 



James IDalcv 

^ORX in lialtimore, Md., July 19, 1S35, and located at Atlantic 
Citv in i8S5. iMr. Daley became identified with the commer- 
cial interests of his town, and established himself prominently 
in the manufacture of cigars and smokers' articles, and his store is 
thoroughly representative of the best class. Active socially, but of 
conservative habit, and thoroughly interested in the welfare of his 
adopted city, he is, in every sense, a self-made man. 




JAMES DALEY 



TRew 3. 3. ffcMgan, O. S. H. 

Yx^AMOl'S in the history of Atlantic City by reason of his fidelity 
I >— ^ to liis parish, and the rare good humor and racy uit which 
marked his intercourse with the events of the past years. 
Higher honors have called him from his old field, but his memory 
will ever be endeared to the people of Atlantic City as a scholar and 
man of rare integrity. 




REV. /. J. FEDIGAN, O. S. A. 



EC>\varC» S. Xee 

Is a well-known business man of Atlantic City whose interests have 
aided the development of many improvements. Mr. Lee has h:;en 
in close touch with the political srowth of his city and has served 
in several official connections. 




EDWARD S. LEE 



lion. if. IP. StoY> 



X-MAVOR c:f Atlantic Cit\-, and promineiitly connected with 
many social and iiolitical organizations of his coninuinity. 




HON. F. P, STOY 



Gcorcic C. jfclhcr 



DCATED at Atlantic City in 1SS5 and estal)lislifd a noted 
deciirative and designing luuise in liis adiii>led city. Mr. 
Felker is a carefnl and industrimis business man and uortln 




GEORGE C. FELKER 



P' 



XTbomas fli. 1Ree^, /ID. ID. 

\'SICIAN, author and scientist. One of the most prominent 
in the medical fraternity of Atlantic Count)-. 




THOMAS K. REED. M. D. 



XTbomas 3. H>ichinson 

|NIC of tlii_- pioniineiit merchants of Atlantic Avenue, noted 
for fair dealin.a; and liberal treatment. Interested in every- 
thing of real value in the promotion of Atlantic City's real 
liiogiess, yet always safe through conservative judgment of tlie best 
and most prudent course. 




THOMAS J. DICKINSON 



lEmerv 2>. Prolan 

E^KoMINKNT otticially in the affairs of Atlantic City, lie lias 
Y^^ tilleil many important oftices, and has a large circle of ac- 
(luaintances. One of the representative yonnj^er men of his 
community. 






'M^ 




EMERY D. IRELAN 



H. 0. a^am5 

XK uf Atlantic City's prominent real estate operators who 
has been identified with the tjrowth of his city. 



S. B. IROSC 

I HE subject of this sketch is ]iroiiiiut-nlly identified with the 
commercial interests of Atlantic City and lias been successful 
field. Mr. Rose represents progress and a practical 
knowledge of affairs. 



^" 



p 



3. 3. IRocbforS 

lOR.MERLV of a famous sanitarium located in Atlantic City 
and more lately identified with numerous mechanical and 
intUistrial inventions. 




J. J. ROCHFORD 



Hbomas Ik. "Milson 

I HE subject of tliis sketch is a conservative business man of 
Atlantic City, and has been identified with many of the com- 
mercial interests of his locality, prominent of which is the 
distributing of the dairy products of Atlantic County. Mr. Wilson 
has a large circle of friends and is connected with sc\eral social 
aftiliations. 



(f^. 




-X 



THOMAS K. WILSON 



^ 



Samuel Barton 

PROMINEXT citizen of Atlantic City who has been con- 
nected with many improxenients and permanent interests of 
his localitv. 




M 




SAMUEL BARTON 



(Scorcic 1I3. loiiii 



^3\HE subject ol this sketch is a deservedly iiopiilar biisin 

V^^;x^ man, <uul has established a \alued and important persn 

cniinection with tlie local interests of Atlantic Cit\ . 



i' 




GEORGE H. LONG 



1l3. G. JBancv? 

ROMINICXT ill local affairs and nirtfd for his social and 
fraternal connections, the subject of this sketch is a pro- 
gressi\e representative of Atlantic City. 




H. C. BANEY 



Zhco. Ovoss 

Is a popular business man of prominent social connections, noted 
for his genial disposition. Mr. Gross has been identified with 
the many impro\-ements of Atlantic City and li.is a large circle 
f aciiuaintances. 




THEO. GROSS 



C. ©arrabrant, fm. ID. 



(f^S I'kOMIXF.XT and siicxessful |iliysici,ui of AUantic City, 
tV 1 vvliuse aliilit\ has |;lac^-d hill in the front ranks of liis 
profession, and uho lias a strong interest in the welfare of 
his localitw 




C. GARRABRANT. M. D. 



S. (I. Savior 

C. TAYLOR is a promiijent gentleman, largely interested 
in the business prosperity of Atlantic City and the many 
architectural improvements connected with the phenomenal 

growth of his locality. Mr. Taylor is successful and affable, and has 

a large circle of acquaintances. 



S- 




S. C. TAYLOR 



w 



Garl Doelher 

|AS born in Neiderbraun, Alsace, Germany, May 20th, 1855, and is the son of 
Christian and Magdalene Voelker. He received his education in Germany and 
later in Buffalo, N. Y., having moved with his parents to the latter place before 
the German-Franco war. 

He moved to Egg Harbor City after the Philadelphia Centennial, and later, in 1SS2, 
formed a connection with "The Times" of Atlantic City as journalist, locating perma- 
nently in the latter place in 1S82. Following his chosen profession he became editor of 
the "Atlantic City Frie Press," which, under his able management since iSgi, lias become 
an influential paper among the German-American element. 

Mr. \'oelker is a prominent and influential member of the Democratic Party ; is a 
member of the Democratic County E.xecutive Committee ; ex-member of the Board of 
Education, on which board he served eight years, four of which as Secretar\-. 

Mr. \'oelker has been connected with .SchaufHer's Hotel more or less since 1S80 as 
chief clerk, and in 1S97, when the city purchased the property for a City Hall site, he 
was proprietor. 

He, was one of the organizers of the A. C. Maennerchor and the A. C. Turnverein, 
and generally recognized as a factor among the German-American element in city and 
county. 

-Mr. Carl Wielker is also local as;ent for the North German Llovd Steamship Co. 



5. C. Smitb 

S lUJted for carefLiI and conservative business judgment, and dining 
tlie past years has had a large commercial interest in the wholesale 
produce trade of Atlantic Citv. 



•fl^crbert mcGann 

I HE subject of this sketch was prominently identified with the 
famous Boardwalk interests of Atlantic City, and a pioneer 
the ocean pier construction, which has added so much 
pleasure to thousands of visitors of the past years. 



^' 



muiiam H. JBcll 

|n.LIAM A. BELL is a memlier ol a progressive firm of 
enterprising mercliants located on Atlantic avenue, who 
have been largely identified with the commercial interests 
ot Atlantic Citv. 



\f 



3robn %. Gorman 

|OHN L. GORMAN is associated witli his partner, William 
A. Bell, and their film is deservedly popular, representing 
a large and constantly increasing business in their general 
department store. 



©J 



JfranI; B. Sourer 

i!^)RA\K A. SOL-DER is a successhil Iniilder and has lar-e 
I >-^ property interests in Atlantic Citj-. He lias risen to a prom- 
nient position in his profession, and has been interested in 
e\ ery large operation throughout this community. 



m. Maltou 

.t>\\Rc ).M1XI-:XTLY connected with the commercial interests of 
t^^ Atlantic City, and has the gratification of achieving merited 
snccess as the representative of the famous Abbott Dairies, 
known throughout Atlantic County for their cream products. Mr. 
Walton is a self-made man, of genial temperament, and has a large 
social and business acquaintance throughout his community. 









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