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INGEIOLOGY 




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TOLDT 





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T 



AN ATLAS 

HUMAN ANATOMY 

FOR STUDENTS AND PHYSICIANS 

BY 

CARL TOLDT, M.I) 

PROFESSOR 01 

PROFESSi >R ALOIS DALLA R< >S \. M.D 



Eranslateo from tbc Gbiro (Berman Eoition and aoapteo to Englisb ano American .ui^ 

international Vermfnoloos 

M. EDEN PAUL, M.I). Brux., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 



FIFTH SECTION 
/•'. ANGEIOLOGY 

(FIGURES 933 TO 1 125 AN; 



LON1 

REBMAN I.I.MI II I' 






GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Part I. 

A. The' Regions of the Human Body (Figs, i to 5). 

B. Osteology (Figs. 6 to 377). With Index. 

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Part II. 

C. Arthrology (Figs. 378 to 489). With Index. 

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Part III. 

D. Myology, with a Supplement on the Anatomy of Hernia 

(Figs. 490 to 640). With Index. 

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Part IV. 

E. Splanchnology (Figs. 641 to 932). With Index. 

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Part V. 

F. Angeiology (Figs. 933 to 1,123). With Index. 

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Part VI. 

G. Neurology (Figs. 1,124 to 1,333). 

H. The Organs of the Senses (Figs. 1,334 to 1,505). With 

Index. 
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ANGIOLOGIA 
ANGEIOLOGY 






ANGEIOLOGY— GENERAL C( >NS1I )ERA I l< >NS 






556 



ANGEIOLOCY— GENERAL CONSIDERA TIONS 



Internal coat or tunica 
intima (trilaminar I 



Middle coat or tunica media 



External coat or tunica adventitia 
Tunica externa (adventicia) 




Fig. 933. — Part of a Transverse Section through the Wall of the Descending 
Thoracic Aorta (Human): Internal, Middle, and External Coats; Tunica Intima, 
Media, et Externa. 

In the external coat sections of two vasa vasoruni are seen. 



Internal coat or tunica 
intima 



Brachial artery 
Arteria brachialis 



Brachial vein 

Vena brachialis 



w 











Internal coat or 
tunica intima 



Middle coat or 
tunica media 



External coat or tunica 

adventitia 

Tunica externa (adventicia) 



9 m h 



Middle coat or tunica media 



i Outer part^ of the external coat 

Inner part / or tunica adventitia 



Fig. 934.— Part of a Transverse Section through the Cubital Portion of the Brachial 

Artery and Vein (Human). 



The Layers of the Walls of the Bloodvessels. 






External coat or tunica adventitia 
Tunica e 

Middle coat or tunica media 

Internal coat or tunica intima 



Artery 
Arteria 




K !M- 




External cci-. 01 tonii i i ■■■• 



•Middle coat oi I 



Internal coat or '.us: > 



I 7 " ; - 935-" Transverse Section through an Arterv of the Mesentery .•.- 

Vein < Human). 



External coat or tunica adventitia 
Tunica externa 



Middle coat or tunica media 



'I 



Middle coat or tallica media 



Artery 



Vein 



1 I UDINAL S 



The Layers of the Walls of tl 















' 



rjlMmat.e raorffScaiUra 

Uanne 







" 



dM|)Mt 

Uasts 



- 

■ 














nbrane. 



The Capillary and Subcapillary Vascular Ramification. 



. 







Fig. 939. — Valvi - iPILlary Lymphatic \ , Lymphatica) from th; 

mucous Lymphatic Plexus of mm. Hi. man Ocular Conjun kjunctiva . 

injected with transparent gelatin. 



Lymphatic 




Small lymphatic trunks 




Fig. 940. — Lymphatic Capillaries from "<■ 

injected with Opaque Yeli i in. 






The Capillary and Subcapillary Lymphat Lymphatica 



560 



A NG EIOL OGY— GENERA L CON SID ERA TIONS 



Septum of the sheath of the bloodvessels, or septum 
vagins vasorum — Septum vaginse vasorum 



Femoral artery 
A. femoralis 



M / Vasa vasorum 




Femoral vein 

V. femoralis 



Sheath of 

the blood- Internal or long 

vessels. saphenous vein 



or vagma 
vasorum 



V. saphena Bill 
ma»na 



Femoral vein 
Vena femoralis 



, Venae comites 1 
' Venae comitantes 



Sheath of the blood- 
vessels, or vagina vasorum — 
Septum of the sheath of 

the bloodvessels, or 
septum vagina; vasorum — 
Septum %-aginse vasorum 

• Fig. 941.— The Sheath of the Femoral Artery 
\m> Vein, opened. The Vasa Vasorum and 
the VENiE Comites 1 of the Femoral Artery. 
Semidiagrammatic. 




Valvular pouches 
or sinuses in the 
walls of the veins 



-Anastomosis 



Valves 



Fig. 942— The Valves of the Excised Femoral 
Vein and its Branches. 



Helicine arteries— Arteriae helicinae 



Trabeculae of the corpus cavernosum 
Trabeculae corporis cavernosi 



Fibrous capsule of the • 

corpus cavernosum 
Tunica albuginea cor- 
poris cavernosi 

Artery of the corpus cavernosum - 
A, profunda penis 



•Cavernous vein- 
"Vena cavernosa 






Intertrabecular spaces, sinuses, 
or lacuna of the corpus caver- 
nosum (central and larger) 
Lacunae corporis cavernosi 



Intertrabecular spaces, sinuses, 
.- or lacunae of the corpus caver- 
nosum (peripheral and smaller) 
Lacunae corporis cavernosi 



Fig. 943.- Longitudinal Section through the Corpus Cavernosum of the Penis: Ramification of the Artery 
of the Corpus Cavernosum (Arteria Profunda Penis) ; Arteri.f. Helicin.f., Helicine Arteries : \ 1 \ 1 
Cavernos 1 - Veins 2 ; the Fibrous Capsule, the Trabecule, and the Intertrabecular spalls, 

Sinuses, or Lacunas of the Corpus Cavernosum. Semidiagrammatic. 

1 In full, vena? comites vel satellites arleriantm. . , , 

- Vena Cm ernostr.— The venous blood leaves the corpora cavernosa of the penis by two roots. A larger moiety leaves the crura to 
join the internal pndic veins by the veins of the corpora cavernosa (corresponding to the arteries of the same name). 1 he remainder passes 
by small veins which pierce the fibrous capsule of the corpora cavernosa in the free region of the penis, and, anastomosing With cutaneous 
veins, join the dorsal vein of the penis. These latter are called by Toldt * cavernous vans. — Tk. 

Vasa vasorum.— Vagina vasorum, the sheath of the bloodvessels.— The valves of the veins. 

Corpus cavernosum of the penis. 



COR 

THE HEAR'l 



562 



THE HEART 



Superior vena cava 
V. cava superior 

Eight superior pulmonary vein— 
V. pulmonalis dextra su] ei ii i 

Ascending aorta — 
Aorta ascendens 



Eight auricular appendix 1 

Auricula dextra 



Atrium of the right auricle 
Atrium dextrum 



Smallest cardiac veins' 1 _ 
Venae cordis minim 



Eight coronary artery 1 ' 

A. coronaria (cordis) dextra 




Arch of the aorta 

Arcus aortse 



Ligamentum arteriosum* 

Left pulmonary artery 

Ramus sinister arteria? pulmonalis 

Left superior pulmonary vein 
V. pulmonalis sinistra superior 

Pulmonary artery (main trunk) 

A. pulmonalis 
Sinus of the pulmonary artery (sinus of 
Valsalva/- — Sinus arterise pulmonalis 



Left auricular appendix ' 
Auricula sinistra 



Conus arteriosus or infundi- 
bulum of the right ventricle: 
Anterior or descending branch of 
the left coronary artery 1 — Ramus 
descendens anteriorarterise coro- 
narise (cordis) sinistras 
Great cardiac or coronary vein ' 
V. cordis magna 

Left ventricle 
Ventriculus sinister 



Anterior cardiac veins 
Vena; cordis anteriore: 



Eight ventricle 
Ventriculus dexter 



Anterior surface 

Facies sternocostal!! 



Apex of the heart 
Apex cordis 

"Apical notch of the heart 5 
•Incisura(apicis) cordis 



1 See Appendix, note " r . ipendiXj note 112 . .. pendix, note " 3 . 

4 These vessels are named by Macalister the anterior interventricular artery and vein. — Tr. 

5 * Apical Notch of the Heart. — This is merely the apical portion of the interventricular groove, furrow, 
fi See Appendix, note "4. 

' Borders of the^ Heart. — These are not mentioned by the author in the original work. The upper t 



left bora'er, conspicuous 



in the present figure, is shorter, rounder, and thicker than the other, hence it is often called marge obtusut : ttie lower or t \ 
conspicuous in Fig. 945, is longer, and i; ihin compared with the other : for this reason it : distinguished as ntargo aeittus.- ~ 



Fig. 944. — Tin; Heart seen from Before, with Injected Coronary Vessels : the Right 
Coronary Artery, Arteria Coronaria (Cordis) Dextra ; the Anterior or Descending 
Branch of the Left Coronary Artery; the Commencement of the Great Cardiac 
or Coronary Vein, Vena Cordis Magna: the Anterior Cardiac and the Smallest 
Cardiac Veins, Ven.e Cordis Anteriores et Ven.e Cordis Mixim.e. The Ligamentum 
Arteriosum, or Ligament of Boi \i lus (sec Appendix, note 111 ). Margo Obtusus Cordis, the 
Upper or Left Border of the Heart (see note ~ abov 

The cavities of the heart have been injected with tallow. 



External Appearance and Bloodvessels of the Heart. 



////•' ///•: IA7 






Ligamentum arteriosus 
Left pulmonary artery 

Left pulmonary veins 
Vense pull 



Oblique vein of Marshall" 



Atrium of the left auricle- 

Auricul.i 



Great cardiac or coronary vein" 

V. col 

Marginal branch of the posterior 

division of the left coronary artery" 

Auriculoventricular groove or 

furrow n:irius 

Posterior cardiac veins' 
Vena ; 

triculi sinistri 



Apex of the heart 

Apex cordis 




Buperior vena cava u 



monary artery 






cava 
Sinus vcnosus of I 



Atrium of the right _ 



Coronary sinus 

. Right coronary a: 
r 

Right or small cardiac vein 

Middle cardia 

Descending branch of the right coronary artery, or 
posterior interventricular art' • 



'Apical notch of the heart 1 
'Incisura (apicis) cordis 

Posterior surface 1 a< ies diaphragmatica' ' 

1 Sometime:; i all 
I See Ap| 

Fig. 945. — The Heart seen from Behind, with 1' 'in Ves 

Coronary Artery, Arteria Coronaria Dextra, wit 

Ramus Descendens Posti I rm Pos 

Tka\s\ erse Branch of the Li 
Coronari e (Cordis) Sinistr/e, i 

Cardiac; or Coronary \ i Cordis M 

Sin i Coronarius ; the Middle and the Right or Smai.i 
Media et Parva ; the O iai.l, \i: 

(Marsh vlli). Thi I kmin w.is oi rm 

I I] \ IK I : AND THI SlNl \ 

note "")- Basis Cordi 

matic v) i if rHE Heart. Ma 

Heart (s< 



Externa] Appearance and I 



564 



THE HEART 



Superior vena cava 
V. cava superior 



Ascending aorta — 
Aorta ascendens 



Right auricular appendix 
Auricula dextra i 

Conus arteriosus or infundi- -asm 

bulum of the right ventricle 



'Supraventricular crest 4 — 
"Crista 
supraventricularis 

Atrium of the right auricle 3 — 
Atrium dextrum 

I Anterior cusp'' 
Cuspis anterior 
Internal cusp' 
Valvua ,. 1 Cuspis mediali: 



Lunula 



tricuspidalis 



Posterior cusp 
Cuspis posteri 




Ligamentum arteriosum 1 

Bifurcation of the main trunk 
of the pulmonary artery 
Nodule or corpus i of the anterior semi- 
'' Arantii — Modulus | lunar or sigmoid flap 
\ ..Lunula 7 | of the pulmonary 



valve- ( i ) 



Left semilunar or sigmoid flap of the 

pulmonary valve' 2 — Valvula semilunaris 

sinistra arterial pulmonalis 

Left auricular appendix 1 

Auricula sinistra 



Musculus papillaris, arising 
from the interventricular 
septum 
Anterior interventricular 
groove or furrow 1 ' 
Sulcus longitudinalis 
anterior 
- Chorda? tendineae, arising 
from the interventricular 
septum 



: semilunaris 
nnterioris arterix 
pulmonali 



Musculi papillares 



Fig. 946. — The Heart seen from Before. 

The anterior wall of the right ventricle and of the conus arteriosus or infundibulum has been 
removed ; the main trunk of the pulmonary artery, arteria pulmonalis, lias been opened by an 
incision passing from a point between the anterior and the right semilunar or sigmoid flaps of the 
pulmonary valve 2 to the bifurcation, and the anterior wall of the artery has been turned to the 
left. In this manner the tricuspid valve, valvula tricuspidalis, with its papillary muscles, musculi 
papillares, and tendinous chords, chorda? tendinese, and -also the semilunar or sigmoid' flaps of the 
pulmonary valve with their nodules, or corpora Arantii, and lunulas, have been brought into view. 
The heart had previously been hardened in the distended state {i.e., in diastole) by immersion in 
chromic acid solution and alcohol. 



1 See Appendix, note 1M . 

2 'Flaps of the Aortic and Pulmonary Valves. — These are differently designated by different authorities. I. The Pulmonary 
Valve. According to Von Langcr and Toldt, the flaps of this valve are anterior, right, and hft ; according to Quain, they are right, left, 
and posterior : and according to Macalister, they are (1) anterior and to the Ie't, (2) posterior and to the right, and (3) posterior and to 
the left. II. The Aortic Valve. According to Von Langer and Toldt, the flaps of this valve are/ , and left : according to 

Quain, they are anterior, right, and left ; and according to Macalister, they are (1) behind and to the right, (?) forward and to the right, 
and (3) forward and to the left. The position of these flaps can be accurately determined only by the examination of frozen sections of the 
thorax. The eleventh plate of Braune's " Atlas of Topographical Anatomy " (English edition) gives an excellent view of the aortic and 
pulmonary valves, and if the arrangement there figured is a normal one, Quain's description is certainly to be preferred. In the text, 
however, I follow Toldt's nomenclature of the flaps. — Tr. 

3 See Appendix, note "3. 

4 'Supraventricular Crest. — " On the inner wall of the right ventricle, between the ostium venosum (tricuspid orifice) and the conus 
arteriosus (or infundibulum), there is an eminence that projects freely into the ventricular cavity : this is the crista supraventricularis. 
Thus, whereas on the left side of the heart the mitral and aortic crifices are closely approximated one to the other, and are surrounded by 
a common ring of muscular tissue, on the right side of the heart the tricuspid and pulmonary orifices are a little distance apart, and each 
is surrounded by its own ring of muscular tissue.'' (Von Langer and Toldt, op. cit., p. 481). Quain (op. cit., vol. ii., part ii. , pp. 358, 359), 
speaking of the tricuspid an 1 pulmonary orifices, writes: "Between the two the wall of the cavity projects downwards in the form 
of a thick, rounded muscular partition, which corresponds to the beginning of the aorta from the left ventricle "; but he gives the structure 
in question no name. Macalister (op. cit., p. 327) writes : " Between the auriculoventricular ami the pulmonic openings is an area in the 
septal wall crossed by oblique pilasters, called the Jicshy pons." — Tr. 

5 Trii u spitl 1'aivc. — The cusps or flaps of this valve are variously named by different authorities. Cuspis an 'crier, the anterior cusp 
of Toldt, is similarly named by Macalister, but by Quain is called the infundibular or kft flap; cuspis mcdialis, the internal cusp of 
Toldt, is called the right flap both by Quain and by Macalister ; cuspis posterior, the posterior cusp of Toldt, is called posterior also by 
Macalister, and by Ouain the posterior or septal flap.— Tr. 

6 See note S to p. 566. 

7 Lunula. — This term denotes the thin, narrow portionat the free edge of the semilunar flaps of the aortic and pulmonary valves. 
Toldt, however, describes one lunula in each flap, in the middle of which is the nodule or corpus Arantii ; whereas English anatomists 
recognise two lunula? in each flap, separated from one another by the nodule. — Tk. 



Right ventricle — Ventriculus dexter. 



II! I: HE IRT 






Arch of the aorta 
Areas ai irtse 
Superior vena cava 

Azygos vein' 



Right pulmonary artery 

Ramus dexter arteriac 

pulmonalis 



Reflection of the pericar- 
dium on to the anterior 
surface of the right pul- 
monary veins' 

i 

Tubercle of Lowe yr^ 
Tuberculum inter ^ 
ium i Loweri) 
Annulus ovalis or isthmus 
of Vieussens 
Limbu 

Fovea or fossa ovalis' 



Reflection of the pericar 

dium on to t\.e inferioi 

vena cava 1 



Left subclavian artery 
^Innominate artery 



Reflection of the pericardium on to the outer 
surface of the aorta and the superior vena cava' 



Fatty foldB of the visceral pericardium 
or epicardiuni - 
Pulmonary artery mam trunk | 
A. puln 

Interauricular septum 

Eight auricular appendix 1 
Auricula 

• Conus arteriosus or infundibulum 
of the right ventricle 
y Right coronary ar 




Anterior cusp of the tricuspid 
valve 
Cuspis anicr 

Interventricular septum 
Septum i 



Eustachian valve— Yalvula vena: 
! itachii) 
Thebesian valve 
Val\ ula sinus con marii [Thebi 



Foramina of Thebesius 

Foramina venarum minimarum (Tl 



Auriculoventricular groove or furrow 
Sulcus coronal 



Musculi papillares 
Internal cusp of the tricuspid 

Posterior cusp 



' Or junction of the par 
rhcpei 

1 






Fig. 947 The Heart seen from the Right Si 

The heart having been hart] 

ol tl 

thai 

with the annulus i 

the • 

cava, ami tl 
visceral 



The right auricle Atrium dextrum. The righl ventricle Ventriculus dexter. 



566 



THE HEART 



Superior vena cava 

V. cava superior 

Azygos vein 1 
V. azygos 



Musculi papillares;.' 




Left pulmonary artery 

Ramus sinister arteriae pulmonalis 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk)--.. <^'>.-\Sf 
A. pulmonalis /!' ■' i 9t* ! * 

Left pulmonary veins 

Verne pulmonales sinistra-^-'- / _ 

... / § 

Left auricular appendix 11 * 
Auricula sinistra 



Entrance ts the aortic ori-. 

flee ('ostium arteriosum 

sinistrum) 



Interventricular septum „^ 

Septum ventriculorum 



Reflection of the pericardium on 
to the wall of the left auricle- 
Right pulmonary artery 
Ramus dexter arteria- pulmonalis 



Right pulmonary veins 
Venae pulmonales dextra? 



---Reflection of the pericar- 
dium on to the wall of 
the right auricle- 



--Inferior vena cava 
V. cava inferior 



"sAtrium of the right auricle ; 

Atrium sinistrum 



-Coronary isinus 
Sinus coronarius 

Posterior cusp of the mitral or bicuspid 

valve* 

v Cuspis posterior valvule bicuspidalis 

(mitralis) 



Chordae tendineae 



^ Posterior interventricular groove or furrow 5 
■/, Sulcus longitudinalis posterior 



Fig. 948. — The Heart seen from the Left Side and Below. 

In the left ventricle, ventriculus sinister, which has been opened by the removal of a portion of its 
posterior wall, the mitral or bicuspid valve, valvula bicuspidalis (mitralis), the two muscuh 
papillares, and the chorda? tendineas of the latter, are displayed. At the base of the heart the 
reflection of the parietal pericardium to form the visceral pericardium of the auricles is seen (see 
notes l and' 1 to p. 565). The preparation is the same as that shown in Fig. 946. 

1 Sometimes called the right or large azygos vein, 

2 Or junction of the parietal with the visceral pericardium (epicardium) ; see also note 2 to page 565. 

3 See Appendix, note ''5. 

4 Mitral or Bicuspid I'alve.—Thft cusps or /laps of this valve are named anterior and posterior respectively^ but do not lie exactly 
in front and behind one another in coronal planes. The anterior flap, which is the larger of" the two, is to the right as well as in front, 
between the mitral and the aortic orifices (hence it is sometimes named the aortic flap of the mitral valve) : the posterior and smaller flap 
lies to the left of as well as behind the other, and close to the wall of the ventricle. At each side of the orifice, in the angles of junction of 
the large flaps, are small intermediate flaps. — Tk. 

5 Sulcus Longitudinalis.— Strictly, this term, as used by the author, denotes, not only the interventricular groove or furrow (anterior 
or posterior, as the case may be), but in addition the much less strongly marked interauricular groove or furrow. In the text, however, I 
have translated the term sulcus longitudinalis, either lis interventricular or as ii te> auricular groove or furrow, according as the 
ventricular or the auricular part of the 'longitudinal sulcus is indicated in the several figures.— Tr. 

6 Basis Cordis, or Corona Cordis. — These t^rms are used by the author as alternative name- for that portion of the heart (together 
with the intrapericardial extremities of the great vessels) that lies above and to the right of the atiriculoventricular groove. In England, 
however, the term base of the heart has a different signification. (See also Appendix, note I I 



Left ventricle — Ventriculus sinister. 



I III: iiE.ua 






Azygos vein 1 

Superior vena cava 



Ligamentum arteriosus' „ 



Left pulmonary artery 

Ramus sinister arteriae pulmonali 



Left superior pulmonary vein 
V. pulmonalis listra 

Pulmonary artery (main trunk j 

A pulmonalis 

Entrance to the left 
auricular appendix" 

Left auricular appendix' 1 
Auricula sinistra 
Great cardiac or coronary vein— 
V, i id magna 
Posterior or transverse division 
of the left coronary artery 
l i is circumflexus arti i 
coronariae (o 
Posterior cusp of the mitral or 
bicuspid valve (left half - 
1 pispo r vah ulae 

bicuspidalis 



Musculus papillaris 



Interventricular septum 

Septum ventriculorum 



Right pulmonary artery 
M^, /Interauricular septum 
PRjaj^k .Right ru'mctaiy veins 




Valve of the foramen ovale- 

■ 

Anterior cusp of the mitral 
or bicuspid valve 

9L. Left inferior pulmonary vein 



Posterior cusp of the mitral or 
"" bicuspid valve 'right half 

Chorda; tendinea,' 



Musculus papillaris 



Trabecular carneae' 
Trabecule 



Trabecular tendineav 

' 

i i 

• p. 
t Column* l i thecaviti 

some arc simply ridges, I 

pendix, note '". 



these arc 



I I . 






Tin III. 



I he ifii ■. Mm i [i ,i 

oi the heart to the spai e betwei 

the uppi i wall of the I 

veins, ■ • i i . 1 1 v. , 1 1 1 s i . i 

venti 

aortii flap, 

papillary i , with lh< i 

ulorum, the I 
trabi 

i! septum, septum .iti iorum, u I 
porl 



Left auricle Atrium sinistrum. Left ventricle Ventriculus sinister. 



568 



THE HEART 



Superior vena cava ( 
V. cava superior 



Ascending aorta. 
Aorta ascendens 



Right auricular appendix". 
Auricula dextra 

Transverse sinus of the 
pericardium— Sinus - 
transversus psricardii 

_ . . | Nodule. 

Posterior L us - 

semilunar or | »_._?„ 
sigmoid flap 
of the aortic 

valve* (i) 



Ligamentum arteriosum 1 

Bifurcation of the pulmonary artery 



Reflection of the pericardium on 

to the left pulmonary artery and 

the left pulmonary veins- 



Arantii 
Nodulu 
Lunula 9 --' 

Lunula 
Pars membranacea sipti' 1 
Septum membranaceum 
ventriculorum 
/ Anterior cusp 
Tricuspid | Cuspis anterior 
valve' ; Posterior cusp 
Valvula i Cuspis posterior 
tricuspi- 
dalis Internal cusp 

\ Cuspis medialis 




Transverse sinus of the pericardium 
Sinus transversus pericardii 

.- Left coronary artery 
A. coronaria ^cordis) sinistra 

...-•Left auricular appendix 
Auricula sinistra 

Left semilunar or sigmoid , 

— Valvula semilunaris of the 

sinistra I aortic 

Posterior semilunar or sig- 1 valve 4 

moid flap — Valvula semi- 1 aortse 

lunaris posterior J 



Anterior cusp 
Cuspis anterior 

Posterior cusp 
Cuspis posterior 



of the mitral 

or bicuspid 

valve' 

valvul.e 

bicuspidalis 



Musculi papillares 



Musculi papillares 



Muscular part of the interventricular 

septum 

Septum musculare ventriculorum 

(i) Valvula semilunaris 



1 See Appendix, note "i. 

- Or junction of the parietal am 

3 See Appendix, note "3. 

6 The membranous part of the i 

7 See note 5 to p. 564. 



Trabeculae carneae 



J Sc: 1 
entrieular septu 



8 See note 4 to p. 567, 



(See also note = to p. 565).— Tr. 
to p. 564. S See note 4 to p. 566. 

is sometimes spoken of as the undefended space. — Tr. 



9 See note 7 to p. 564. 



Fig. 950. — The Heart seen from Before. 

The organ having been hardened in formalin in the distended state (i.e., in diastole), the anterior 
portion of the :: cone of the heart {i.e., the anterior portion of both ventricles — see Appendix, note™), 
the anterior half of the ascending aorta, and the main trunk of the pulmonary artery nearly as far 
as the bifurcation, were removed by a coronal section. In the opened *cone of the heart, we see 
the interventricular septum, at the top of which is the pars membranacea septi, or undefended 
space (septum membranaceum ventriculorum) ; all the cusps of the mitral and tricuspid valves ; 
and also the musculi papillares with their chordae tendineaj. Of the auricles, the right and the 
left auricular appendices are visible ; and between these and the aorta, on the right, and the main 
trunk of the pulmonary artery, on the left, the entrances to the transverse sinus of the pericardium. 
In the aortic orifice (ostium arteriosum sinistrum), the posterior semilunar or sigmoid flap of the 
aortic valve {see note - to p. 564), with its nodule, or corpus Arantii, and its two lunula' {se, 
to p. 564), is preserved intact. On the anterior surface of the left pulmonary veins, the left 
pulmonary artery, and the superior vena cava, we see the reflection of the serous layer of the 
pericardium into the epicardium {see notes l and - to p. 565). 



The Ventricles of the Heart and the Interventricular Septum. 



THE HEAR! 






Aortic isthmus 
Isthmn 



Ligainentuni arteriosum 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk 
A. pulmonalis 



Left coronary artery 

Interauricular septum N 
Septum atriorum 



Left auriculoventricular aperture" 
Ostium venosum sinistrum 



Coronary sinus 
ironarii 



Thebesian valve 
Valvula sinu 3 coronal ii 

(Tin! 



Posterior cardiac vein" 
V. posti 

sinistri 




/Great sinus of the aorta 
sinus maximus aortae ' 



Ascending aorta 
cendens 



Bulb of the aorta' 

Bulbus 



--Right coronary artery- 



Right auriculo-ventricular 

aperture 
-Ostium \< 



/.uriculo-ventricular groove 
Dr furrow 



Middle cardiac vein ' ( in the posterior 
interventricular (troove or furrow) 
--Vena 1 

tudina 
Posterior surface 



Apex of the heart - 



1 ii 
1 



ventriclr 
Left ventricle 









1 i' . 951.— The 1'- n ri> . Si n: ■■■• \ . I n ies Diapi 

., 1 III \ I \ I RIi ( 1 \i; I', iRTION Ol I III I I . . I ,; ">, Willi J 1 1 1 : 

Trunk of thi Pi i nary Artery and its Bii . wo 

THE YRCH Ol 1 111 \ORl \. [*H1 BULB Ol I ill A iR I \. I'i 

1 HE CORON \RY ArTEKII RlGIH WD I 1 ! I. \ 

SlNl 1 l: \. I 11 1 I M AR I l.KI ,1 
1.1 IIMl'S, I SI I, 11. 

The Ik .hi 

1 i laid (iprn . 
whi< h it 1 ommun'n ties with 



The Ventricular Portion of the Heart with the Aorta and the Pulmonary 



370 



THE HEART 



Great cardiac or coronary vein— Vena cordis magnc 

Anterior interventricular groove or furrow __ , 

Sulcus longitudinalis anterior >^p 

Interventricular septurr 

Septum ventriculorum 

Left ventricle— Ventriculus sinister 



Musculi papillares 



Middle cardiac vein"' — V. cordis media'' 



Anterior or descending branch of the left coronary artery 
. Ramus descendens anterior arteriae coronar; nistra? 

,/Conus arteriosus or infundibulum of the right ventricle 
■' Conus arteriosus 
s ,,-Epicardium- 
X ' Myocardium 

- Endocardium 



- -»Musculi papillares 



Right ventricle 
&?£/ ~~~ Ventriculus dexter 

Posterior interventricular groove or furrow- 
"""Sulcus longitudinalis posterior 
'Descending branch of the right coronary artery 4 
Ramus descendens posterior arteria: coronarise dextrx- 




Fig. 952.— The Lower Half of the Transversely-divided *Cone of the Heart (/.<•., the Ventricular 
Portion' of the Heart — see Appendix, note m ). 

On the surface of the section we observe the nearly circular contour of the cavity of the left ventricle, nnd the sickle- 
shaped outline of that of the right ventricle ; further, that the wall of the heart consists of the heart muscle, or 
myocardium, lined within by the endocardium, and enveloped without by the epicardium ; and, finally, the notably 
greater thickness of the wall of the left ventricle. 



Left semilunar or sigmoid flap of the aortic 
valve 6 — Valvula semilunaris sinistra aortae 
Eight sinus of the pulmonary artery ( sinus of Valsalva 
Right semilunar or sigmoid 
flap of the pulmonary valve u) 
Pulmonary orifice — Ostiun 
arteriosum dextrum ^ 
Anterior semilunar or sigmoid flap 
of the pulmonary valve'- 

Left semilunar or sigmoid flap 
of the pulmonary valve 6 — Valvula" 

Aortic orifice 
< istium arteriosum sinistrum - 
^Anterior or descend- 
Left coronary "f.H??^"^^" 5 " 



Conus arteriosus or infundibulum of the right ventricle 

Right semilunar or sigmoid flap of the aortic valve" 
•' Yah ula semilunaris dextra 

.-Posterior semilunar or sigmoid flap of the 

,-' aortic valve —VaKulasemilui a: 

Right coronary artery 7 

A. coronaria (cordis) dextra 



Right auriculoventricular 
aperture 8 — Ostium venosum 

dextrum 



artery 



iaria j posterior 0] 
verse bra 

V R.L u 



Posterior sinus of Valsalva 1 " — 
Sinus aortas (Valsalvae) 
posterior 
Interauricular septum _ 
Septum atriorum 
Left auriculoventricular - 
aperture 1 -' (3 

Mitral or bi- .Anterior cusp — ' 
cuspid valve'" I Cuspis anterior 
Valvula 1 Posterior cusp 
bicuspidalis [ Cuspis posterior 




Coronary sinus — Sinus coronarius •' 

Orifice of the middle cardiac vein 14 



j :' Anterior cusp— Cuspis anterior^ of the tricuspid 
Posterior cusp — Cuspis posterior .- valve' 

Internal cusp— Cuspis medialis J valvulae tricuspidalis 

Thebesian valve — Valvula sinus coronarii (Thebesii) 



(t) Si. 



■i;e puln 



(2) Valvula semilunaris dextra arterisc puln 



n. !i- 



(3) Ostium venosum sinistrum 



Fig. 953.— The Relative Position of the Valves and Orifices of the Heart, and also of the Aorta 
and the Main Trunk of the Pulmonary Artery just above their Respective Valves. 

The section lays open the coronary sinus along its whole length as well as the adjoining portion cf the great cardiac or 
coronary vein, and displays the Thebesian valve and the orifice of the middle cardiac vein. The valves are in the 
position that obtains during the cardiac systole, the auriculoventricular valves being closed, the pulmonary and 
aortic valves open. 



■. . 
to p. 566. 

7 See Appendix, 1 
1 « See A 

Called by Macalister the an '= Or mitral i *3 See note 4 to p. 

*4 Called by Macalister thi arveitu 



> P- 5^5- 



The Mutual Relations of the Ventricles of the Heart and of the Cardiac Valves and Orifices. 



THE HEAR1 



571 



Left pulmonary veins 
I ulmonales sii 



Valve of the foramen ovale 
Vah ula f 'i amini i ovali i 

Transverse sinus of the pericardium 
Sinus tra 
Left coronary artei •>■ 

. rdis) 

Left auricular appendix ; 

Auricula sinistra 



Pulmonary artery imaiu trunk) 
A. pulm 



Right inferior pulmonary vein 
Atrium of the left auricle 




Eustachian valve 



Inferior vena cava 



Fovea or fossa ovalis membra- 
nous part of the interauricular 

septum 

Sinus venosus of the right 
auricle 

" Annulus ovalis or 
isthmus of Vieussens 

Crista terminalis- 



Orificc of the superior vena cava 
Right auricular appendix 

Fig. 954.— Sinus Tra iter i Pericardii, rm Tran ver i i 

Crista Terminai.i n 1 ti Right Auricli i .-. The Membran I 1 the 

Imi i: u rh 1 1 m: Septum. 



Origin of the right coronary artery 

; Right auricular appendix -Auricula dextra 



Musculi pectinati" 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk 1 



Anterior semilunar or sigmoid 
flap of the pulmonary valve'" 
1 emilunaris antcrii ir 

Left auricular appendix 
Aliri: ula sinisti .1 
Left coronary artery 
\. cori maria (cordis) sinistra' 



Transverse sinus of the pericardium 
Sinus transversus pei ii 



Left auriculoventricular aperture 

Membranous part of the interauricular septum 
Pars mi mbrar u ea :epti atriorum 




Right auriculoventricular aperture" 
Annulus ovalis or isthmus of Vieussens 
Eustachian valve 

Reflection of the pericardium on 
to the surface of the inferior 

von. 1 



Inferior V 



''!<:. 955. I ii 1 1 'ill 1 C AND Pl'I.MON \UY V VI '■ 

OR < ■ ■ ' 1 1 [ 

RICU1 ''iii I'ACHIAN Vai 

utricular portion of the hcai 
of the aorta and of the put iiwn 
In Fig. Qj/ the upper segment, and ii 









1 
I 

1 









The Mutual Relations of the Auricles, the Aorta, and the Main Trunk of the Pulmor 



572 



THE HEART 



Superior vena cava 
V. cava superior 



Right auricular appendix 
Auricula dextra 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk 
A. pulmonalis 



Casts of the sinuses of 
the pulmonary artery 
(sinuses of Valsalva') 



Conus arteriosus or infundi- 
bulum of the right ventricle 
Impression of the 
*supraventricular crest 4 — 



Right ventricle 
Ventriculus dexter 




— Azygos vein 1 
V. azygos 

-Left pulmonary artery 
Ramus sinister arteria; pulmonalis 

-Right pulmonary artery 
Ramus dexter arteria; pulmonalis 

Impression of the 
tubercle of Lower 

Impression of the annulus 
ovalis or isthmus of Vieussens 
»v Angle representing the anterior margin 
of the interauricular septum 



-- Impression of the fovea 
or fossa ovalis 

- Inferior vena cava 
V. cava inferio» 

"— Atrium of the right auricle ' 
Atrium dextrum 
Re-entrant angle representing the 
lower ccrnu of the Eustachian valve 

Coronary sinus 
Sinus coronarius 
Auriculoventricular groove or furrow 

Sulcus coronarius 



( Internal (left) wall of the right 
J7entricle ((' e. , an impression of 
the right surface of the inter- 
ventricular septum) 



ght or large azygos vein 



- See Appendix, note ' 



Fig. 956. — Cast of the Interior of the Right Side of the Heart, with the Main Trunk 
and the Bifurcation of the Pulmonary Artery, the Proximal Extremities of the 
Superior and Inferior Ven.e Cav.e, and the Coronary Sinus, seen from the Inner 
Side. 



The Configuration of the Right Side of the Heart. 



I HE HEARl 






Left subclavian artery 

A. Mill' 1 ivia 
Left common carotid artery 
A. carotis communis sinistra 



Innominate artery 
lyma 



Aortic isthmuB 
[sthmu 



Arch of the aorta 



Eight pulmonary veins 
Venae pulmi ma 



Ascending aorta-- 1 
Aorta ascendens 

Atrium of the left 
auricle 1 Atrium sinistrum 
, left 
' sinistra 
Coronary artery 
A coronaria (cordis) 

I right 
V dextra 




., Left pulmonary veins 



Left auricular appendix 1 



Auriculoventricular groove or furrow 
irius 



/'right 
Sinus of Valsalva 
Sinus ami, i- (Y.il alva ) 



Anterior or descending branch , 
Ramus di i 

Posterior or transverse branch 

l i ircumflexus 



Internal lefti wall of t. - right ventricle 

[i.e., an impression of the left surface 

of the interventricular septum) 



Left ventricle 
Vcntriculus sinister 



! 

scmilunnr 

ister tl 



the several 



Fig. ')57- — Cast of the Interk Ll THE rl VRT, with the \ 

Point a Little beyond the Isthmus, thi < 

and thi. Proximal Extremities or thi Superior and Inferior Ven 
tiii; Inner Side. 



The Configuration of tin- Loft Side of the Heart. 



574 



THE HEART 



Right superior pulmonary vein 

V. pulmonalis dextra superic- ■ 



Atrium of the left auricle 1 

! Atrium sinistrum 



Superior vena cav 
V. cava superior 



Atrium of the right 
auricle 1 

Atrium dextrum 



Auriculoventricular groove 

or furrow 

Sulcus coronarius 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk 
A. pulmonalis 




Left pulmonary veins 

Vena? pulmonales sinistra; 



Left auricular appendix 1 

Auricula sinistra 



Left ventricle 
Ventriculus sinister 



Right ventricle 
Ventriculus dextei' 



Anterior interventricular 
groove or furrow 1 - 

Sulcus lontjitudiiialis anterior 



1 See Appendi-v : note "3. 



See note S to p. 566. 



Fig. 958. — Superficial Fibres of the Myocardium on the Anterior Surface of the 

Ventricles and Auricles. 

The heart was injected with tallow prior to dissection. 



The Myocardium. 



THE HEART 






Right pulmonary veins 
Vens pulmonales dextra 



Superior vena cava 



Inferior vena cava 

■ 



Atrium of the left auricle 
Atrium sinistrum 



Left pulmonary vein3: 

1 'ill tale i 

sini iti 



Coronary sinus 
Sinus coronarius 



Auriculoventricular groov 

or furrow 

Sulcus coronarius 



Left ventricle 
Ventriculus sinistci 




■Atrium of the right 
auricle 1 

Atrium 



Auriculoventricular 
groove or furrow 



Right ventricle 



Posterior interventricular 
groove or furrow 

Sulcus I 









Fig. 959. Superficial Fibres 01 . mi Po nil-; 

Ventricles and A 

The preparation ;!u i 



The Myocardium. 



576 



THE HEART 



Anterior interventricular groove or furrow 1 
Sulcus longitudinalis anterior 



Right ventricle 
Ventriculus dexter — 




-Left ventricle 
Ventriculus sinister 



Posterior interventricular groove or furrow 1 
Sulcus longitudinalis posterior 

Fig. 960.— Vortex or Whorl of the Heart, Vortex Cordis, at the Apex of the *Cone 
of the Heart {i.e., of the Ventricular Portion of the Heart— see note '- to p. 563); 
seen from Below. 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk)' 
A. pulmonalis 

Semilunar or sigmoid flaps of the aortic valve---; 
Valvulae semilunares aorta; 

*Trigona fibrosa- - 



Mitral or bicuspid valv^ 
Valvula bicuspidalis 

Fibrous or tendinous ring 

of the mitral orifice 
Annulus librosus sinister 

Left ventricle— Ventriculus 

sinister 



Posterior interventricular groove 
or furrow 1 

Sulcus longitudinalis posterior 




Upper wall of the conus arteriosus or 
infundibulum of the right ventricle 



„ Fibrous or tendinous ring of the 

tricuspid orifice- 

Annulus fibrosus dexter 



,. Tricuspid valve 

Valvula tricuspidalis 



Right ventricle 
Ventriculus dexter 



"Apical notch of the heart 3 
•Incisura (apicis) cordis 

Fig. 961.— The *Cone of the Heart (i.e., the Ventricular Portion of the Heart — see 

note 12 tO p. 563) SEEN FROM ABOVE AND BEHIND, WITH THE SUPERFICIAL FIBRES OF THE 

Myocardium laid bare; the Fibrous or Tendinous Rings of the Auriculoventricular 
Apertures, Annuli Fibrosi, and the *Trigona Fibrosa. 2 

1 See nolc S to p. 566. 

"-''•' Trigona Fibrosa. \ ■■ ■ of I auriculoventricular apertures are by Macalister 

called ( . . i..J with these ar< th I lish anatomists). These are strong 

triangular masses .llil. r.» utila-e. 1 h< • . ted ..■'■ ; tv enthei 1 ' iculoventricular 

irresponds to the as ..■'. of certain mammals, such as the ox. fhe left 'Mganum ■ 1 front of the mitral orifice, 



in the angle 1,. 



ifice and the left side of the 






1 p. 566. 



Vortex cordis — Vortex or whorl of the heart. — Annuli fibrosi— Fibrous or tendinous rings of 

the auriculoventricular apertures. 











Aortic bulb or 
bulhus arteriosus 
Tr uncus 



ulbor bulbua 
arteriosus 



Left auricle _ 

Bightauncle 



Eight ventricle 




IntervtL- 
groove or furrow 






. 



Fig. 962.— Stages in ihi h thk Human Hi 



Superior vena cava 
uperior 

Right pulmonary ,- 
veins 

Foramen ovale 
Valve of the foramen - 
ovale 
Inferior vena cava 



Pulmonary artery main trunk 1 
j \ pulmi 



Limbus of Vieussens 



Anterior interven- 
tricular groove or 
furrow' 

alis a: 




Ductus arteriosus (Botalli) 
Left pulmonary artery 



Left auricular appsndix 
Left ventricle 




Aorta 

Superior vci.s 

Limbu 



; Left pulmonary veins 



liiight ventricle 
Ventricul 



Valve 01 thi foramen oval,; 



Foran 
Inferior v< 



iHT SlD) 









(^Valvula 















Fig. I Septi Atriorum, thk For.-i 

I\ [HE lllAUl OF \ Hi HAN KCETUS AT 1T1E i .. SIXTH MON 

when phe Free (Outer Walls 01 Both Auricles iiavj 



Left common carotid artery 
Innominate artery— 

A. .111. :; 



Arch of the aorta 
Superior vena cava V < ;r. .1 
Ascending aorta 

Pulmonary artery 1 main trunk 

Right auricular appendix 
Auricula dextra 



Left auricular appendix 
Auricula 



1 'Utricle 




-Left subclavian artery 

A sul" 



'Ductus arteriosus Botalli , 
or duct of Botallo 



Left pulmonary artery 

Kaniu 



-Left pulmonary veins 



Descending thoracic aorta 
.Vol l.i d' 






; 



nl '1 tin I lr.11 t 



578 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM 



Stomod;eum, or 
buccal invaginatio 



Aortic bulb or 
bulbus arteriosus 
Truncus arteriosu 

Primary ventricle 
of the heart 



Umbilical arteries 
Aa. umbilicales 
Umbilical vein 
V. umbilicalis 




Primary auricle— An ium cordis 
Left primitive jugular vein— V. jugularis sinistra 
Left duct of Cuvier (left superior vena cava) (.0 
-Saccus reuniens-Smus reuniens 

-Rudiment of the liver 

Midgut 

-Left umbilical vein -V. umbilicalis sinistra 
-Left omphalomesenteric or vitelline vein 

-Left cardinal vein- v. caidinalis sinistra 

-Cceliac artery (cceliac axis) -A. i 

- Omphalomesenteric or vitelline artery 



Wolffian body,mid-k dney. or 
mesonephros 



Fig. 965.— The Vascular Sysi em 

IN A HUMAN-EMBRYO OF \l."i 1 

Eighteen to Twenty* Days, 
having a Body -Length of 
,\; Inch (2-6 Millimetres), 
seen from bl fore. (com- 
PILED from Two Drawings 
by W. His.) 



Auditory or otic 
vesicle 



Right primitive jugular vein- 
V. jiuularis dextra 

Right descending aorta 
Aorta descendens dextra^ 



Right duct of Cuvier 
right superior vena cava) 2 - 
Right cardinal vein -V. cardinalis dextrc 
Saccus reuniens 
Sinus reuniens 



Open communication between the intestine— 
and the yolk-sac or umbilical vesicle 



Posterior portion of the intestine, 
already closed in (hind-gut I, indicated 
by dotted lines 




Right internal carotid 

artery 
A. carotis interna dextra 



Maxillary process of the maa- 

dibular or first visceral arch 

Mandibular or first visceral arch 




Aortic bulb or bulbus arteriosus 

Right auricular appendix 1 

Auricula cordis dextra 

Primary ventricle of the heart 

- Rudiment of the liver 



Omphalomesenteric or vitelline vein 
V. omphalomesenterica 



Pedicle of the yolk-sac, 
or splanchnic stalk 



Umbilical vein 

V. umbilicalis 

Allantoic 



ndix, note > 



Left umbilical artery 
A umbilicalis sinistra 



Fig. 966. Condition 01 the Heari and Vascular System i\ a Human Embryo 01 mi: Twenty-second 
or Twenty-third Day, having a Body-Length of / Inch (4-2 Millimetres), -kin from mi; Right 
Sim:. (After W. I lis.) 



The Vascular System at the End of the Third and in the Beginning of the Fourth Week 

of Intra-uterine Life. 



THE DEVELOl F J III-: VASCULAR 



internal carotid artery 
A. carotis interna 



The five paired arteria'.' 
or aortic arches 



Aortic bulb or bulbus- 
arterioaua 



Descending thoracic aort 




Right common carotid 

artery 
A. carotis communis 

Innominate 

artery 



Right vertebral artery 
A. vei i 



Pulmonary artery (main 
trunk i A. pulmonatis 

Ascending aorta 



External carotid arteries, right and le.t 

Arch of the aorta 

Ductus arteriosus, 
or duct of totally 
Left pulmonar. 

—Left vertebra'. 



ueit subclavian artery 
Descending thoracic aorta 




Fig. 967. Di 1 

A. 1 1 1 ml, i\ -1 . r. /.', 'I'm ir ': 

Akteriai li vk . (After Rathke, with a Slight Modification in !■'. li 



Duct of Cuvier, or I ,),. ,,,.,. 
superior vena cava ' 

1 I left 

Right cardinal vein 




Left innominate vein 

■ 



-External jugular vein V 

Internal jugular vein \ 

Left subclavian Right subclavian 

vein \ 
clavia sinistra 

Superior vena cavr 

Coronary sinus 0; 
the heart 



Left cardinal vein 



Azygos vein 1 

'■ 




Accessory hemi- 



: Diagram ■. \i;v Arrangemi s 

Vein M, ani hi fRAxsn >rm \ 1 n in 01 1 m : 



A) 
Rathke. with Uodifh vtion r . i . Hoch 



Eucts of Cuvier 1 superior-' 
Vena; cava; 1, right and left 

I ' 



Right cardinal vein 

External iliac com inu ed 
the femora 

Hypogastric becoming the in - 
ternal iliac vein 




-Ext. jugular vein \ 
Internal jugular vein \ 

Left subclavian Right subclavian 



vein \ 



Hepatic veins 
Inferior vena cava 

Left cardinal . 




vein V 



Inferior . 



Right duct of Cuvier 
1 right superior vena 

-Left duct of Ci. 
superior von. 

Hepati 

Left cardinal vein 

I iliac continued 

the internal 

vein 



[ATI 1 



1 n r "i rin 
Katiike, im 









The Rudimentary Condition of the Arterial and Venous Systems, and the Transformations 
by which the Normal Adult Condition oi these Systems is attained. 



580 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM 



Innominate artery 
A. anonyma 

Innominate veins, right and left 
Venae anonyma?, de.xtraet sinistra 

Superior vena cava . . 
y. cava superior 

Azygos vein - 
V. azygos 
Right pulmonary artery 
Ramus dexter arteria? pulmonalis 



Right pulmonary veins 
Vv. pulmonales dextrse 

Valve of the foramen ovale'" - 
Valvula foraminis ovalis 
Eustachian valve — Valvula vena? 
cava? (inferioris, Eustai hii) 

Hepatic veins *« 
Vv. hepaticse 



Inferior vena cava .- 
V. cava inferii ir 

Descending thoracic aor:a 

Aorta descendens 



Right branch of the portal vein - 
Ramus dexter vena? porta? 

Renal veins, right and left" 
Vv renales, dextra et sinistra- 



Inferior vena cava— V. cava inferior. 
Abdominal aorta 
Aorta abdominalis- 

Right common iliac vein 
V. iliaca communis dextra 

Common iliac arteries, right and _-_- 

left - Aa. iliaca^communes, dextra 
et sinistra 

Gluteal artery 
A. gluta?a superior- 
Sciatic artery 
A. glutaea inferior - 
Eight external iliac artery 

A. iliaca externa dextra 

Right hypogastric artery 
A. umbilicalis dextra 

Right femoral artery 
A. femoralis dextra 

Right femoral vein — 
V. femoralis dextra IN 



Companion to the .' 

I 
Called also the rigl 
■ Sometimes called the ei 



Left common carotid artery 
A. carotis communis sinistra 
Vena thyroidea ima (lowest thyroid vein) 1 
,V. thyreuiuea ima 

Ascending aorta — Aorta ascendens 

Ductus arteriosus (Eotalli), or duct of Eotallo 
/ Right pulmonary artery 
/ Ramus dexter arteria? pulmonalis 

Tubercle of Lower 
Tuberculum interrenosum (L.weri) 

. Fulmcnary artery (main trunk)— A. pulmonalis 
■'' ,. Eight auricular appendix 
" Auricula dextra 
' Foramen ovale 



Right auriculoventricular aperture" 
Ostium venosum dextrtim 




Ductus venosus (Arantii 



Hepatic branches of the umbilical vein 



Left branch of the portal vein 
Ramus sinister vena* porta- 

- Cceliac artery (cocliac axis' 
A i oeliaca 
- Ports 1 vein 
V portse 

Umbilical vein 
Y. umbilicalis 
I Inferior mesenteric artery 



* Umbilical ring 4 
•Annulus umbilicalis 



Urachus, or 'median umbilical ligament 
"Lig umbilicale medium 

Left external iliac artery 
A. iliaca externa sinistra 



Left hypogastric artery' 1 
■\. umbilicalis sinistra 



(Si .Umbilical vein 
i^A V. umbilicalis 



Umbilical arteries'' 

Aa. umbilicales 



2 See Appendix, note TI 3. 
5 See Appendix, not 



Fig. 970. — The Circulatory Apparatus of the Foetus, as seen in an Infant still-born at Full Term. 

Viewed from the Right Side. 

The right wall of the right auricle has been removed, to show the foramen ovale and its valve, and also the Eustachian 
valve. The umbilicil vein with its hepatic branches and the ductus venosus (Arantii) are coloured yellow ; the 
portal vein, the pulmonary arteries, and the ductus arteriosus (Botalli), are coloured green. 



The Foetal Circulatory Apparatus. 



THE DEVEL0PMEN1 Ob THE \ 






Left common carotid artery 



Innominate artery 

Ductus arteriosus Eotalli,, 
or duct of Eotallo 
Left pulmonary artery 

pulmonalis 
Left pulmonary veins 

Left auricular appendix 3 - 

Atrium of the left auricle- 
Auium sinistrum 

Left ventricle 

ulus sinister ' A 



Ductus venosus (Arc.ntii) 



Left lobe of the liver 



Hepatic branches of the 
umbilical vein 




Left subclavian artery 



Right pulmonary artery 



Eight inferior pulmonary vein 

Left hepatic vein 

Inferior vena cava 

V. c 

'Ligament cf tl e vera ci\a. cr ponu 

sHRSfeBHRElb^ cuius lit] -. 



\ 



Inferior vena cava 
■ 

:anch of the 
portal vein 

Eight lobe of the liver 

I 



Gall-! lae'der 



Umbilical vein 
V. umbilicalis 




Left branch of the portal vein 



_" Umbilical ring 1 

lus umbilicalis 












Fig. 971. Tin Liver and the Heari of an Infant still-born \r Fui.i Tf.rm. Tim 

1 I 1 ■ ' I \ I . \ , ! 

ITS Tl KMINATK >N IN Till 

I \ I IN IN THE 1 

Divi rHE Portal Vein, Vi 1 

D 1 1 n tii k Left 1 

rERMINATION 1 IN. 

The liver 

portion of the trunk of ihc portal 



The Fcctal Circulation in Relation to the Liver. 



582 



THE HEART 



Brachial plexus 
1 1<' .us brachial! 

Eight subclavian artery 
A. subclavia dextra 

Right subclavian vein 
V.»subclavia dextra 
Trachea 
Trachea 
Right pneumogastric (vagus)-, 
nerve — N. vagus dexter 
Superior vena cava— v. cava superior--, 

Azygos vein :: — V. azygos... ._ 
Right bronchus 
Bronchus dexter"" , 
Right pulmonary artery /J 
Ramus dexter arteriae 

pulmonalis 
Right pulmonary veins 
Vv. pulmonales dextrrr 

Inferior vena cava--. 
V. cava inferior L 



"Inferior bulb of the internal jugular vein 1 
*Bulbus venas jugularis inferior 

Innominate artery 
anonyma 

Vena thyroidea ima (lowest thyroid vein) 
Left innominate vein 
/ ; anonyma sinistra 

The manubrium or presternum 
/ Manubrium stern: 



Superior sternopericardial 

ligament 
Lig. sternopericardiacum 
superius 
Pericardium 




Inferior sternopericardial 

ligament 
Lig. sternopericardiacum 

inferius 

Ensiform or xiphoid 

process 
Processus xiphoideus 



Endothoracic fascia 
Fascia endothoracica 



Area devoid of muscular tissue, 

between the sternal and costal 

portions of the diaphragm 

Seventh costal cartilage 

Cartilago costalis VII. 



3 Called also th( 



i artery- 



1 to p. 500. — Tr 



Fig. 072.— Position and Relations of the Pericardium; its Connexions with the Endothoracic 
Fascia and with the Diaphragm. Prolongation of the Fibrous Layer of the Peri- 
cardium to form Tubular Investments for the Aorta, the Superior Vena Cava, and the 
Right Pulmonary Veins. The Superior and Inferior Sternopericardial Ligaments. 
Seen from the Right Side and Before. 

The sternum having been divided sagittally in the median plane, its left half was drawn a little 
forwards ; the right wall of the thorax was removed as far down as the tenth rib : and the right 
lung was drawn backwards as far as possible, in order to display the vessels forming its root. 



The Pericardium. — The Sternopericardial Ligaments. 



11 IE IlEAkl 



583 



Innominate artery 



'Inferior bulb of the internal jugu 

Right pneumogastric ivagi. 
N . 
Villi thyroidea ima lowest thyroid vein) J . 
Right subclavian vein 
V - ul 
Right innominate vein 

Left innominate vein /£ 



Arch of the aorta 



Left common carotid artery 

• pneumogastric ( vagus j nerv.. 
Scalenus amicus mu 
Vertebral artery 
Thyroid axis 
Subclavian artery A 
Tran v. n e cervical artery 
• i tery 



Superior vena cava 

Ligamentum arterioium ~ 
Right pulmonary artery 

Right superior pulmonary vein 

Superior sternopericardial 

ligament 
I ; iternopericard 

rius 
Inferior sternopericardial ., 
ligament 

inferius 



Endothoracic Sascia 







Brachial p 
F;rst rib 

Left inferior or recurrent I 

nerve 

Left pulmonary artery 



y Left pulmonary veins 



Ef Fericardium 



Endothoracic fascia 
llioracica 



Ensiform or xiphoid process of the sternum 
■ lideu i stcrni 

Seventh costal cartilage 
.lis VII. 



Sec Appendi; 









[G. g l rioN and Relations oi rm Pericardium ; its Connexions with 

rHOKACIi I CIA VND WITH IHE DIAPHRAGM ; l'l ! 

form Tubular ] ro i \ Lei P 

Ar it ry, and mu I i i i Pulmonary On nil \\ 1 1 h .: W \i i 

c \ki>m m. i in-. Remain: oi nil Sti lRdial 1 wim ii i 

DIVIDED, ARE VIE IHLE. SEEN 1 I 

III till : 

111 ordi r to i 



The Pericardium. The Sternopericardial Ligaments. 



584 



THE HEART 



Anterior jugular vein 
* Jugular venous arch"— 



-V. jugularis anterior— 
*Arcus venosus juguli 
Left innominate vein 
V. anonyma sinistra 
Vena thyroidea ima (lowest thyroid veim 
Right innominate vein — V. anonyma 

Superior vena cav; 
V. cava superior 
Anterior or descending' branch of the left 
coronary artery and great cardiac or coronary 
Vein 8 — Ramus descendens anterior artenai coror" 
(cordis) sinistra: et vena cordis magna 

Posterior cardiac veins'-' 

Vv. posteriores ventriculi sinistri 
Descending branch of the right coro- 
nary artery and middle cardiac vein'" 

Ramus descendens postei ' 

(cordis) dextrae et vena cordis me 
Right or small cardiac vein 
V. cordis parva 

Left ventricle 
Ventricul us sinister, , 



Right ventricle 
Ventriculus do 




_ Internal jugular vein — V. jugularis interna 
Reflection of the pericardium on to 
the surface of the ascending aorta 
Left pneumogastric (vagus) nerve 

Accessory hemiazygos vein- 
V. hemiazygos accessoria 

( External jugular vein — V. jugularis externa 

, : — - Left subclavian vein 
^- .--'V. subclavia sinistra 
jf^- Ligamentum arteriosum 

Left inferior or recurrent laryngeal 

nerve— N. l.uyn-eus interior sinister 

Reflection of the pericardium on 
to the left pulmonary artery 
Vestigial fold of Marshall 1 
Plica venae cava; sinistra.- 

, Oblique vein of Marshall 1 
V. obliqua atrii sinistri (Marshalli) 

_, Left pulmonary veins 
,■ Vv. pulmonales sinistra:- 



Atrium of the left auricle 4 
Atrium sinistrum 
Coronary sinus 
Sinus coronaritis 
Hemiazygos vein 5 

V.I. -yes 

Right inferior pulmonary vein - 
V. pulmonalis inferior dextra 
Intercostal vessels 
Vasa intercostalia 
Intercostal nerve 
X. intercostalis «. 



Descending thoracic aorta 
Aorta descendens 
Oesophagus 

Sinus venosus of the 

right auricle 1 ' 
\trium dextrum (sinus 
venarum cavarum) 
Inferior vena cava 
cava inferior 



Lower wall of the pericardium 



1 See Appendix, note 122 . 
4 See Appendix, note 1! 3. 
7 Companion to the thyroidea ii. 
s Called by Macalister the ante 
"J Called by Macalister the poste 



- Called also the left upper asygos vein. 

5 Known also as the left lower or small nzygos vein 
i artery — see note ' to p. 590. — Tie. 
rr interventricular artery and 
'or 'interventricular artery and 



Appendix, note lxl . 
Lppendtx, note "5. 



Macalister the left 1 
Sue Appendix, note '->. 



Fig. 974. — The Vestigiai Fold (Plp \ Vi \ Appendix, note l2 -), and its Relation to the 

Obliqi 1 Vein of Marshall (Vena Obliqua Atrii Sinistri Marshalli Appendix, note us ). Seen 
Bei-ure, Below, and the Left Side. 

The sternum having been removed and the greater part of the left lateral wall of the thorax having been cut away, the 
front and the left side of the pericardium were removed by incisions passing along the attachments of the membrane 
to the great vessels and to the diaphragm. The heart was drawn upwards and to the right, in order to display its 
posterior surface (facies diaphragmatica). The coronary vessels were dissected out by partial removal of the 
cpicardium (visceral or cardiac pericardium). 



Pericardium, Epicardium, Vestigial Fold, Cardiac Veins. 



lilL H 



585 



Inferior thyroid veins 
Vv. thyn 



'Right venous angle- 



Right superior vena cava 
V. cava 



Reflection of the pericardium 
on to the aorta ; ' 

Conus arteriosus or infundibuluni 
of the right ventricle 

Anterior or descending branch of 
the left coronary artery and great 
cardiac or coronary vein" 
Ram 
arte: 
sinistra; et vena a >i 




Transverse communicating 

between the right and U 

superior ven.i 



'Left venous angle- 



Left superior vena cava 



Inferior vena cava 



Hemiazygos vein' 
V. hem:... 

- Ligamentum arteriosunr 



Left pulmonary artery 

Cut edge of the epicar- 
dium (visceral or cardiac 
pericardiumi on the left 

superior veni 
Left superior pulmonary 
vein 

Radicles of the oblique 
vein of Marshall 



"Left inferior pulmonary 
vein 

Posterior or transverse 
branch of the left 
coronary artery 

Posterior cardia 



Middle cardiac vein 7 



Termination of the left 
vena cava in the sinus venosus 
of the right auricle 









' Or junction 






• 









I 

I 

in Ihc [ 
the left 

i 
the coronary arl 



Persistent Left Superior Vena I 



7! 



586 



THE HEART 



Right common carotid artery 
A. carotis communis dextra 
Innominate artery — A. anonyma-. 
Vena thyroidea ima (lowest thyroid vein) 3 ^-. 
. Right subclavian artery - 
A. subclavia dextra 

Right innominate vein - 
V. anonyma dextra 



Superior vena cava y| 
V. cava superior 



Internal jugular vein 
V. jugularis interna 



Left common carotid artery 
\. carotis communis sinistra 



Left subclavian vein 
V. subclavia sinistra 



Ascending aorta 
Aorta ascendens 
Aortic orifice 
Ostium arteriosum 
sinistrum 



Atrium of the right auricle' 
Atrium dextrum 
Right auriculoven- . i 
tricular aperture' / 
Ostium venosum dextrum ' 



Auriculoventricular f KM 

groove or furrow"' ! 6' ', 



Sulcus coronarius 




Left innominate vein 
anonyma sinistra 
Left superior pulmonary vein 
V. pulmonalis sinistra superior 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk I 
A. pulmonalis 
Pulmonary orifice 
Ostium arteriosum dextrum 
Left auricular appendix' 
Auricula sinistra 

left auriculoven- 
tricular aperture- (i) 

— Anterior interventricular 
groove or furrow ' 

Sulcus longitudinalis anterior 

— Left ventricle 
Ventriculus sinister 



"Right ventricle 

Ventriculus dexter 

Apex of the heart 
Apex cordis 



1 s.ee Appendix, n I 
3 Companion to the 
5 See note 5 to p. 566. 







Fig. 976. — Position of the Heart and the Great Vessels and of the Cardiac Orifices, 
and the Projection-Outlines of these Structures on the Anterior Wall of the 
Thorax. 

After preliminary hardening with formalin, the pericardium was exposed in the intercostal spaces. 
The sternum was then saw 11 izontally at the level of the second and the sixth intera istal 

spaces, and was removed with a sufficient extent of the attached ribs and rib-cartilages to lay the 
heart fully bare. The excised portion of the wall of the thorax having been replaced in its 
position, the preparation was then photographed, first with, and then without, the excised 
segment, and the projection-outline of the heart was thus determined. By means of suitable in- 
cisions, the position and extent of the respective orifices was determined, as well as their projection- 
outlines upon the anterior surface of the heart. The cartilage of the eighth rib is in this specimen 
directly attached to the sternum : and the innominate and the left common carotid artery arise 
from the aorta by a common trunk. 



Position and Projection-Outlines of the Heart, the Cardiac Orifices, and the Great Vessels, 



ARTERIA PULMONALE 
THE PULMONARY ARTERY 

ARTERI/E TRUNCI 
THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



58S 



THE PULMONARY ARTERY 



Right pulmonary artery 

Ramus dexter arteria: pulmonalis 



Left bronchus 
Bronchus sinister', 



Left pulmonary artery 

Ramus sinister arteria? 

pulmonalis 

Ramification of the first ventral^ 
(hyparterial) branch of the left \"~ 
bronchus 



Right bronchus 
Bronchus dexter 




Eparterial branch of the 
right bronchus 
Ramus bronchialis 
£tq eparterialis 



Dorsal hyparterial branches 

of the right bronchus 

Rami bronchiales dorsales 

hyparteriales 



Pulmonary artery (main trunk) ; 
A. pulmonalis 



Internal branch of the right bronchus 

Ramus bronchialis medialis 



Fig. 977. — The Main Trunk of the Pulmonary Artery, Arteria Pulmonalis; its Bifur- 
cation into the Right and the Left Pulmonary Artery, Ramus Dexter et Ramus 
Sinister Arteri.e Pulmonalis ; the Ramification of the Pulmonary Arteries within 
the Lung, and their Relation to the Bronchial Ramification. Seen from Behind. 



Arteria pulmonalis — The pulmonary artery. 



THE ARTERIES OF THE '1 i 






Multifidus spinas and semispinalis 

dorsi muscles 

Mm. multifidus et semispinalis 

Inner dorsal cutaneous branches 
Kami cutanei dorsales (mi 

Spinal branch 

Kami] 
Posterior or dorsal division oft! 
tercosUl arter. 
arteria 



Posterior or dorsal 
branch of the anterior division 
of the intercostal artery 
Anterior division ot the intercostal 

artery 
Ramus i 

Intercostal artery' — A. inti 

Descending thoracic aorta 
\ < > r ■ t i til il ' 

Visceral branch — Ramu 

Longissimus dorsi muscle 
M. longissim 



Mediastinal branches 

Arteriae me liastinales anterioresc 



Muscular offsets of the posterior or 
A dorsal division of the intercostal artery 

Posterior ( lateral I cutaneous branch 

Posterior or dorsal branch of the 
nterior division of the intercostal artery 
, Iliocostalis or sacrolumbal muscle 
Muscular layer belonging to the ex- 
tremities or appendicular layer) 
External intercostal muscle 

Collateral intercostal branch, 

which runs along the upper 

border of the lower rib 




■ Subcostal muscle 



Internal intercostal muscle 



. Posterior branch 



— Anterior branch 

Ramus anterior 



Lateral cutaneous (pectoral branch 
lor lateral perforating branch) 

Ramus 



Sternal branches 
Kami sternale • 



Anterior intercostal artery 



.^Triangularis sterai muscle 

M. tra 
Internal mammary artery 

Anterior or perforating branch 
Ramus perforans 



Fig. 978. — Diagrammatic Representation of the Distribution of the Arteries supplying 
111 1 Body- Wall, shown in a Turn ment. 1 



■ Intercostal A • 
main trunk of the int 

on the " Morphology of the / 



Diagram of the Arteriei of the Body-Wall. 



590 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Thyroid body 

Glandula thyreoidea 



Arteria thyroidea ima (lowest 
thyroid artery)— var. 1 

Trachea 

Innominate artery 
A. anonyma 

Arch of the aorta 

Arcus aortaa 

Ascending aorta^. 

Aorta ascendens 

right 
Bronchus I dexter—. 
Bronchus I left 
• (^sinister 
Left coronary artery 

(Esophageal branches of the bron -.__ 
chial artery l;..™ ,e.opha.i;.:i arteri.u 
bronchialis 

Eight coronary artery' 

A. coronaria (cordis) dextra 

Bulb of the aorta 
Bulbus aortas 




Left common carotid artery 
A. carotis communis sinistra 
Inferior thyroid artery "\ 

■.thyreoidea inferior 
Superficial cervical artery I Thyroid axis 
' . cervicalis superficialis I Truncus thyreocervicalis 

Suprascapular artery- 
Transverse cervical artery J — A. transversa colli 
-Internal mammary artery — A. mammaria interna 

Left subclavian artery 
~A. subclavia sinistra 

Superior intercostal artery 
A. intercostalis suprema 

Third intercostal artery 
A. intercostalis III. 



Bronchial artery 
A. bronchialis 



Posterior or dorsal division of the 

fourth intercostal artery 
Ramus posterior artenx' intercos- 
talis IV. 



Intercostal arteries 
anterior divisions) 
Aa. intercostales 



(Esophagus 



Descending thoracic aorta 
Aorta descendens 



Inferior vena cava— - 
V. cava inferior 



(Esophageal artery 
A. cesophagea 



Subcostal muscles 
Mm. subcostales 



(Esophageal opening — 'imi 
Hiatus cesophageus toK 



1 Arteria Tkyroidea Ima (Lowest Thyroid A rtcry).—Tin.% artery is met with on an average in one body in every ten._ It may arise 
from the innominate trunk (most frequently), from the right common carotid, or from the aorta. In exceptional instances it springs from 
the internal mammary or from the subclavian artery. "l ts size is a very variable one, being related inversely to that of the other thyroid 
arteries. Lying in front of the trachea, this vessel, like the inferior thyroid veins, is endangered in the operation of tracheotomy. — Tr. 

- Known also as the (ran:-, rse scapular or transvei < humt ral a 3 See note ' to p. 569. 

4 Or posterior scapular artery (Macalist«r). See Appendix, notes m t 135, 172. 

5 See Appendix, notes ''».', . 

Fig. 97j.— Aorta Thoracalis, the Thoracic Aorta (consisting of the Ascending Aorta, the Arch of 
mil Aorta, and the Descending Thoracic \ n its Visceral and Parietal Branches seen 

from the Left Side and Before. Bronchial Arteries, Arteri.f. Bronchiales. (Esophageal Arteries, 
Arti ki.i CEsophagejE. Intercostal Arteries, Arteri.e Intercostales. in all the Left Intercostal 
Spaces except the Uppermost, are exposed as far forwards as the Internal Intercostal and 
Subcostal Muscles. Their division into Anterior \xi> Posterior Branches (Rami Anteriopk- i:t 
Posteriores) is seen, and the Origin of the Muscular Branches (Rami Musculares) of the former. 

The specimen shows a frequent variety in the origin of the fourtli and fifth and of the sixth and seventh intercostal arteries 
from common roots. The second intercostal artery consists of the distal portion of the superior intercostal artery 
(arteria intercostalis suprema), which arises from the costocervical axis (truncus costocervicalis — see Appendix, 
note '77). From the subclavian artery arises the abnormal lowest thyroid artery of Neubauer, arteria thyroidea ima 
(see note l above). 



Aorta thoracalis, the thoracic aorta. — Aa. bronchiales et oesophageal, the bronchial and 
oesophageal arteries. — Aa. intercostales, the intercostal arteries. 



I III. 



591 




1. ••■ 






V 



\ 



\ 



'Inner dorsal cutaneous 
branches 
Rami 

Spinalis clorsi muscle 



Outer dorsal cutaneous, 
branches 

(latei 



Semispinalis dorsi 
muscle 




Muscular 
anterior d 

intercottal arteries 



Iliocostalis muscle 

Dorsal lateral cutaneous 
branches of th- 
divisions of the inter- 
costal arteries 



] is dorsi 

muscle 



the posterior r 
of the intercostal 

•Ties 



■1 or posterior 
layer of the lumbar 



I 

m 

and i : 

Kami Musi 
i 



Rami Posteriores, Posterior or Dor teries. 



592 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Trachea 
Right common carotid artery — 
A. carotis communis dextra 
Inferior thyroid artery- 
A. thyreoidea inferior 
Thyroid axis 
Truncus thyreocervicalis 
Superior intercostal artery 
A. intercostalis suprema 
Right subclavian artery — 
A. subclavia dcxtra 

Innominate artery '" 
A. anonyma 

Arch of the aorta ; 
Arcus aortas 



Ascending aorta 
Aorta ascendens 



Right coronary artery 

A. coronaria (cordis) dextra 

Bulb of the aorta' 
Bulbus aortae 



Intercostal arteries , 
Arteria: intercostales', 



Right inferior phrenic or 

diaphragmatic artery . 
A. phrenica interior dextra 
Aortic opening- Hiatus aorticus — 
Superior mesenteric artery 
A. mesenterica superior 
Internal arched ligament, or 
ligamentum arcuatum internum- 
Arcus lumbocostal med talis 

Right renal artery 7 - 

A. renalis dextra 

External arched ligament, 

or ligamentum arcuatun.- 

externum 

Arcus lumbocostalis lateralis 

Costal portion of the diaphragm *- 
Pars costalis diaphragmatis 
Quadratus lumborum muscle 

Spermatic artery 1 ' 
A. spermatica interna' 
Abdominal aorta ... 
A< irta abdpminalis 
Lumbar or as- 
cending branch 
Ramus lumbalis 



(Esophagus (cervical portion) 
CEsophagus (pars cervicalis) 

.-Inferior thyroid artery — A. thyreoidea inferior 
. (Esophageal and tracheal branches 
Kami ccsophagei et tracheales 

Vertebral artery 

vertebralis 

Internal mammary artery 
A. mammaria interna 
- Left common carotid artery 
A. carotis communis sinistra 



-A. bronchialis 



Iliolumbar 
artery 



Iliac or trans- 
verse branch 
Ramus iliacus 

Spinal branch 
Ramus spinali 

Iliolumbar artery 
A. ilii 'lumbalis 
External iliac artery •' 
A. iliaca externa 

Psoas magnus muscle 
M psoas major 




—Descending thoracic aorta 
Aorta descendens 



(Esophagus (thoracic portion) 
i Esoj hagus (pars thoracalis) 



— (Esophageal artery 
A cesophagea 



Posterior or dorsal division 

— Ramus dorsalis 
._. Intercostal artery (anterior 

division) 
A. intercostalis (ramus 
anterior) 
Cceliac artery (celiac axis) 
\ i i eliaca 
•First lumbar artery 
A. lumbalis 1 

Inferior mesenteric artery 
"A. mesenterica inferior 
-Middle layer of the lumbar 
fascia, forming the posterior 
aponeurosis of the transver- 
sals abdominis muscle (0 
---Fourth lumbar artery 1 
A. lumbalis IV. 
-Lowest lumbar artery 1 
A. lumbalis ima 
-Left common iliac artery 
A. iliaca communis sinistra 

..Iliolumbar artery 
A. iliolumbalis 

— Internal iliac artery- 
A. hypogastrica 

— Middle sacral artery, or 
sacral aorta :1 

A. sacralis media 



r£f Deep circumflex iliac artery 

A. circumflexa ilium profunda 



Sw Vppendii 



3 See Appendix, note 12? . 
■ite 3 to p. 595- 



(t) Lig. lumbocostal 



-Parietal Branches of the Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta : the Intercostal Arteries, the 
Lumbar Arteries, and the Middle Sacral Artery, or Sacral Aorta. 

The visceral branches of the aorta, with the exception of the bronchial artery, have been cut away close to their origin. 



Arteriae intercostales et lumbales — The intercostal and lumbar arteri< 



THE ARTERIES OF 111: 






Sixth intercostal artery 

. I 

Anterior division 



Posterior or dorsal division 
Kami 

Anterior superior costotransverse 

ligament 
Lig. costotransversariurn anl 



Spinal branch (anterior offset) 



Annulus fitrosus, or external 

fibrolaminar portion of the 

intervertebral disc 

Annul!: fibrosu i fibro- 

cartilaginis tntervertebralis 



Fourth lumbar artery - job 
A lumbalis IV. l/ /ft 



Lumbar or ascending branch 
Ramus lui 



Iliac or transverse branch 
Ramus iliacus 



Iliolumbar artery 
A. iliolumbalis 



Lateral sacral arteries 




Spinal branch posterior offset) 

Spina! jor offset 

I 



Sixth rib 

Spinal dura mater 



Anterior spinal artery 
First lumbar artery 

Anterior, ventral, or abdominal 
branch 



Posterior or dorsal branch 

Middle layer of the lumbar fascia, 

forming the posterior aponeurosis 

of the transversalis abdominis 

muscle 

■ Posterior common ligament 



— First sacral vertebra 



Internal ilia<. &i 



First coccygeal i 



>u Spin \i i 
Kit inl 



The Arteries of the Spinal Canal. 






594 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Left inferior phrenic artery 
A. phrenica inferior sinistra 
Coronary artery of the stomach 1 — A. gastrica sinistra j 
Coeliac artery (cceliac axis)— A. cceliaca 
Right inferior phrenic artery— A. phrenica inferior dextra 
Hepatic artery— A. hepatica 
Inferior vena cava— V. cava inferior 
Left branch > 



(Esophageal branches 
Kami cesophagei 



Hspatic artery 
A. hepatica prop 



Ramus sinister 
Right branch 
Ramus dexter 

Cystic artery 

A. cystica 



Hepatic artery 

A. hepatica propria 2 



Portal vein— V. porta? 
Common bile-duct 
Ductus choledochu! 

Pyloric artery' 
A. gastrica dextra 



Gastroduodenal artery 
A. gastroduodenal' 

Right kidney 
Ren dexter 
Right gastro-epiploic 
artery 
A. gastro-epiploica dextra 




Abdominal aorta 
Aorta abdominalis 



Splenic artery 
A. lienalis 



Epiploic branches 

Rami epiploici 



Spleen 

Lien 



Splenic branch of the 

splenic artery 
Ramus lienalis arteria: 

lienalis 
Pancreas 

Left gastro-epiploic 

artery 
A. gastro-epiploica 

sinistra 



Called l>y M.u Ji-l' t th< 



\ 



3 See Appendix, note *3 r , 



Fig. 9S3. — The Division- into Three Branches of the Cceliac Artery or Coeliac Axis (Arteria Cceliaca, 
Tripus Cceliacus Halleri) displayed from Before by the Removal of the Small or Gastrohepatic 
Omentum. These Branches are: The Coronary Artery of the Stomach (Arteria Gastrica Sinistra 
— Gastric Artery, according to Macalister) ; the Spleni Artery (Arteria Splenica); and the 
Hepatic Artery (Arteria Hepatica), which din: iif Gastroduodenal Artery and the 

*Arteria Hepatica Propria, the latter giving off the Pyloric Artery (Arteria Gastrica Di 
— Superior Pyloric Artery, according to Macalister), and then dividing into Left and Right 
Hepatic Arteries {see Appendix, n,>ic i; ">. The Cystic Artery is derived from the Right II j 
Artery; the Right Gastro-epiploic Artery from the Gastroduodenal Artery; and iiii. Left 
Gas fro -epiploic Artery from the Splenic Artery. In the Great Omentum, which is spread our 
flat, are sfex the Epiplo ' of the Gastro-epiploic Arterifs. Ix the ^Hepatoduodenal 

LIGAMENT {part of the small or ga omentum— see Appendix to Part IV.. note 4 -i we OBSERVE 'I 111 

Mutual Relations of the Hi path Artery, hie Portal Vein, and the Co i -Duct. Thi Lefi 

Inferior Phrexic Artery is in this Specimen derived from the Cleliac Axis (a Common Variety). 



The Asymmetrical Visceral Branches of the Abdominal Aorta. 



ARTERIES OF THE 1: 






Hepatic artery A 
Hepatic artery -A. liepatica pi- 
Right gastro-epiploic artery 

Pyloric artery 

Gastroduodenal artery 

Cystic artery A cystica 
Superior pancreatico- 
duodenal artery 

rioi ^ ' 



Coronary artery of the stomach' 



Fig 



Pancreatic branche 
Kami pam 



Duodenal branches 
Kami duodenales 




Cceliac artery coeliav 

Left gastro-epiploic artery 
Splenic artery 

Short gastric arteries vasa 
brevia) 

. Gastrosplenic omentum or 

ligament 



I Splenic branches 

[ 



Duodenojejunal flexure 



Costocolic or phrenocolic 
ligament, or pleurocohc 
Told I 

Bifurcation of the 
abdominal aorta 



Right renal artery 
dextra 



Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery- 



Inferior mesenteric 
Superior mesenteric artery 






< 

; 

I milk i 









084. — The Distribution of the Branches < ery or Cceliac Axis 

(Arteria Co2liaca, Tripi ; Ccei.iacus Halleri\ seen from Bi 

\ Lienalis ; its Ofi mi Pancreas and thi 

Pancreatici 1 r Lienales ; im Short Gastrk \rteries (Vasa !■ 
Gastrii i B 111 l.i 1 1 1 "1 \stro-i rn 1 1 \ Gasi ;. 

Si 1 ii\. \\i' n Anastomosis with the Right G i-epiploic Artery, \ 

\ Di \ 1 ra ; the Bifi 
Gasi lis ; the P^ D Offsi rs, Rami ! 

ERIOR AND iNFl RH iR I ' VM I 

PANI II \ I I OD1 1 >D1 N \l I S, St T! RH >K II I N I 1 Rl 

In tin 

of tin c abdominal aortn « ith thi 

the 

' ! 



The Asymmetrical Visceral Branches of the Abdominal Aorta. 



596 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery 
A. pancreaticoduodenalis inlerior 
Middle colic artery — A. colica media 



Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery 
A. pancreaticoduodenalis superior 



Right colic artery 
A. colica dextra 



Superior mesenteric artery 
A. mesenterica superior 

Duodenojejunal flexure— Flexura duodenojejunalis 
; , Upper (ascending) branch of the left colic 
artery, inosculating with the 
left branch of the middle colic 
artery 



Ileocolic artery 
A. ileocolica 



Artery of the vermi- 
form appendix, or 

appendicular artery 
A, appendicularis 




Iliac arteries 1 — Aa ilese 

1 Jejunal nmf Iliac Arteries. — Quain calls these indifferently the in es of the superior 

Lis.; lies the upper half as jejunal, and the lower half as iliac arteries. — Tr. 



Macalister, 



. 9S5.— The Distribution ok the Superior Mesenteric Artery, Arteria Mesenterica Superior. 
The Intestinal Arteries, Arteri.e Intestinales : Superior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery, Arteria 
Pancreaticoduodenalis Superior; [ejunal and Iliac Arteries, Akiikm Jejunales 1 1 Iliac* ; Ileo- 
colic Artery, Arteria Ileocolica, giving off the Artery of the Vermiform Appendix or Appendp i i w 
Artery, Arteria Appendicular^; the Right Colic Artery, Arteria Colica Dextj-la ; the Middle 
Colic Artery, Arteria Colica Media. 

The jejunum and ileum with their mesentery have been drawn to the left side ; the colon and the transverse mesocolon 

have been drawn upwards. 



The Asymmetrical Visceral Branches of the Abdominal Aorta. 



llll. ARTERIES OF THE II 






Superior mesenteric artery 
Middle colic artery 



Abdominal aorta 

Inferior mesenteric artery 



Duodenojejunal flexure 

jejunalis v 



Ileocolic artery 




Left kidney 

■ 



Left colic artery 



Left ureter 
Sigmoid arteries 

Spermatic artery 

Common iliac artery 

Superior hemor- 
rhoidal artery 



Artery of the vermiform appendix, or 
appendicular artery A. appendicularis 



Left internal iliac artery' 
Middle sacral artery, or sacral aorta 






Fig. 986. — 'I'm Distribut] 11 Inferior Mi enteric Artery, Artei M 

inferiok 11 i i ! 1 colil u 1 ery, ar i : ' ca slnistr \. an i i 

with the Middle Colic Ai i-ery, Vrteria Colica Media; 1111 ? 

ARTl Rl E SlC.M .11 I III Si p] RI, .|; Mi Mi >KRHl ,||>\| ,, ,R M . 

Arteria H,emorrhoidalis Superior. The Ileocolic Artery, Aktkkia Ilkocolka. 

DERIVED FROM nil Sl'I'ERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY. ARTERIA MeSENTI 

supplying thi Artery 01 rui Vi «n u Appendix or Appendicii.au Aktkk 

APPE ND1 

In the preparation shov 

1 ;tn<l ileum v 

vermifoi ma 



The Asymmetrical Visceral Branches of the Abdominal 



598 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Superior suprarenal (or cap- (Esophagus 

sular) branches of the right inferior vena cava / 

inferior phrenic artery v cava m f erior j 

Rami suprarenales supenoresV 



Left inferior phrenic artery 
; A. phrenica inferior sinistra 
/ / Splenic artery — A. lienalis 



, Splenic branches 
Rami lienales 



Cceliac artery (cceliac axis)-- 
A. cceliaca 

Inferior suprarenal or 
inferior capsular artery ,_ 
A. suprarenalis inferior 
Middle suprarenal or 
middle capsular artery 
A. suprarenalis media 
Spermatic artery — A. testicu-- 
laris (spermatica interna) 4 



Lowest lumbar artery 1 
A. lumbalis ima 
Iliac or transverse branch of 
the iliolumbar artery — Ramus 
iliacus arteria' tliolumbalis 

Right ureter — 
Ureter dexter 

Deep circumflex iliac artery - 
A. circumflexa ilium 
profunda 
Poupart's ligament superficial 
femoral arch) — Lig. inguinale 

Lateral sacral arteries 
Aa. sacrales laterales 



Deep or inferior epigastric 

artery 

A. epigastrica inferior 

Spermatic artery - 
A testicularis 4 
Cremasteric artery ; 
A spermatica externa 
Vas deferens — Ductus deferens -" 

Spermatic or pampiniform plexus 




Inferior suprarenal or 

inferior capsular artery 

-Ramus capsularis arteria? 

renalis 



Superior mesenteric artery 
A. mesenterica superior 
Inferior mesenteric artery 
A. mesenterica inferior 
Abdominal aorta 
Aorta abdominalis 
Third lumbar artery 
A. lumbalis III. 

Common iliac artery 
A. iliaca communis 



Middle sacral artery, 

or sacral aorta' 

A sacral is media 

Internal iliac artery" 

A. hypogastrics 

-External iliac artery 
A. iliaca externa 

Vas deferens 
Ductus deferens 

Cremasteric artery" 
■- A. spermatica externa 

Spermatic artery 

\ t, sticularis 1 

Femoral vein 

V. femoralis 
" ~ Femoral artery 

A. femoralis 

Spermatic cord 

Funiculus spermaticus 

Cremasteric artery :i 
A. spermatica externa 

Internal or long saphenous vein 
V. saphena magna 



Internal surface of the testicle 
Facies medialis testis 



! See Appendix, note 12 7. 
4 Arteria Testicularis. — This 
English anatomists. (See Appendb 



2 See Appendix, note 
is used by the author as a synonyn 
>-).)-Tk. 



Infundibuliform fascia (posterior surface) 
Tunica vaginalis communis 

k>. 3 See Appendix, note ,2 9. 

for arteria spermatica interna, the spermatic artery of 
5 See Appendix, note I26 . 



Fig. 987.— The Parietal Branches and the Symmetrical (Paired) Visceral Branches of the Abdominal 
Aorta: the Inferior Phrenic or Inferior Diaphragmath Artj ries and the Lumbar Arteries : the 
Middle Sacral Artery, or Sacral Aorta, and the Later \l s u ral Af. 1 1 ries : the Splenic Ari 1 111 s, 
the Renal or Emi lgi tn Vrteries [see note to p. 595), and the Suprarenal or Capsular Arteries; 
the Spermatic Arteries (Arterlk Testiculares et Arteri.f Spermatic.e Intern.e), and the Cre- 
masteric Arteries (Arteri.e Spermatk ' 11 see Appendix, note 1 -' 1 . 

The abdominal viscera were removed, with the exception of the spleen, the kidneys, and the suprarenal capsules 
(adrenals). After removing the anterior half of the scrotum, the internal sur'ace of the right testicle was laid bare 
by the removal of its coverings, in order to display the entrance of the spermatic artery into the gland ; the left 
trsticle was rotated inwards, in order to show the terminal ramification of the cremasteric artery on the infundi- 
buliform fascia, and between the fasciculi of the cremaster muscle. 



The Parietal Branches and the Symmetrical (Paired) Visceral Branches of the 

Abdominal Aorta. 



THE ART1 . 



Superficial cervical artery" \ 

Transverse cervical artery (abnormal 01 1 
A. transversa colli 

Suprascapular artery ~ v 



Eight subclavian artei . 

ostu 



Anterior inter 

costal arteries 

Rami 



Subscapular art >ry 

\ 

rur I outer 1 ' 

Mammary 

branches 

R m 

mammarii 




- 
I 



Musculophrenic artery 



Superior epigastric artery 



Anterior cutaneous branches 
(abdominal 



External oblique muscle of the 
abdomen 

M 

Internal oblique muscle of the 
abdomen 

M 

Transversalis abdominis muscle 



Deep or inferior epigastric 

artery 

A. epigastrica inferior 

Deep circumflex iliac artery 
A. circumflexa ilium profundi 

Superficial circumflex iliac 

artery 

A. circumflexa ilium 

Artery of the round ligament of - 
the uterus 1. 

Femoral artery 

A, femoralis 

Femoral vein 

♦Anterior labial ( vulval arteries 1J 
Fll O IMI .MHI 

M vmm vkia Interna ei 

IASTKIC Am I R\ VM) II 

■i ! ' 



Superficial epii- 
artery 

Superior superficial in- 
guinal lymphatic glands 



Inferior superficial in 
guinal lymphatic glands ' 



Internal or long saphenous vein 
uperior and inferior external pudic art 



The Arteries of the Anterior W.UI of the Trunk. 



600 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Lumbar artery 
A. lumbalis 



Inferior mesenteric artery- 
A. mesenterica inferior 



Abdominal aorta 

Aorta abdominalis 



Superior hemorrhoidal artery ; 
A. haemorrhoidalis superior 



Left common iliac artery 
A. lliaca communis sinistra"' 



Left external iliac artery — _ 
A. iliaca externa sinistra 



Left internal iliac artery 4 --, 
A. hypogastrica sinistra 



Gluteal artery 

A. glutasa superior — 




~>t>orsal branches 
Kami dorsales 



Iliolumbar artery 
A. iliolumbalis 



Left obturator artery /y 

A obturatoria sinistra — - I -. ._' 

Inferior vesical artery 7 - 

A vesicalis inferior 



Superior vesical arteries 
Aa. vesicales superiores 




Dorsal artery of the penis 
A dorsalis penis 

Artery of the corpus 
cavernosum 
A profunda penis 
Corpus cavernosum peni.. 
Corpus cavernosum penis 
Bulbocavernosus or ejaculator urina? muscle' , 
Artery of the bulb- -A. bulbi urethra/ 
Internal pudic artery *artery of the penis) s ! 
*A. penis 
""Urogenital diaphragm ,; — *Diaphragm urogenitale 



Lateral sacral arteries 
\a. sacrales laterales 

-". ■*"'■ '.'"■' '--., «5k' *w«^7\ Internal pudic artery ' 
*■' ' ■ j^^£™ '''-'''-a'' A ' Pyemia interna 
WijfSP 1^U?\ - Z ' '/•'! ■ Sciatic artery 

Km A. glutara inferior 
| Spinal branch 

Left ureter 
tireter sinister 



Artery of the vas 
deferens, or de- 
ferential artery 
A. deferentialis 



deferens 
Ductus deferens 
^Seminal vesicle 
Vesicula seminalis 



Pelvic diaphragm- 
Diaphragma pelvis 



External or superficial sphincter of the anus 
M. sphincter ani externus 
Prostate gland — Prostata 



1 See Appendb 
■t See Appendi: 



2 See Appendix- 
See Appendix, note ' 



3 Called by Macalister the 
6 See Appendix, note '-J 2 . 



perior rectal artery. 
i Appendix, note '43. 



Fig. 989 — The Visceral Branches, Rami Viscerales, of the Internal Iliac Artery, Arteria Hypogastrica 
(see Appendix, note™), as seen on the Left Side of the Male Pelvis. 

The left innominate bone was sawn through close to the pubic symphysis, and was removed together with the left part of 
the sacrum ; a small part of the left side of the pelvic diaphra fix, note '*>) was preserved, and was 

drawn down a little towards the perineum. Further, by the removal of the transverse processes of the fourth and 
fifth lumbar vertebrae, the dorsal branches of the two lowest lumbar arteries and the lateral sacral arteries were 
displayed, and their spinal branches (rami spinales) were traced to their entrance into the spinal canal. 



The Arteries of the Male Pelvic Viscera. 



THE ARTERIES Ul- THE TT\ 



601 



Abdominal aorta 



Obliterated hypogastric artery 
l 

Superior vesical arteries 

A a . 



Bight common iliac artery 

Middle Bacral artery, or sacral aorta' 



Internal iliac artery 
. Iliolumbar artery 




External iliac artery 
A. iliaca ■ 



Deep circumflex iliac 
artery — A. circum- V 
flexa ilium pr 
Deep or inferior epigas- 
tric artery \ 

■ ferior 
Spermatic artery 



Pubic branch of the obturator 

artery (0 ^ 

Pubic branch of the deep or 

inferior epigastric artery, 

and the obturator branch 

arising therefrom < 2 

Vas deferens 

Artery of the vas deferens, 
deferential artery * 

Dorsal arteries of the penis _. 
Aa. dorsales penis 



Corpus caverncsum penis • 
Corpus spongiosum, or corpus cavernosum urethras' 
(1) Ramus pubi 1 1 



Lateral sacral artery 
-Gluteal artery 



Pyriformis muscle 
-Sciatic artery 



• rnal pudic arl 

-Inferior vesical artery * 

■Coccygeus or levator coccygia 

must .•;•• 
Obturator artery 



Internal pudic artery in Alcock's 
canal 
^MT Posterior or great sacrosciatic liga- 

/-l^ ment 

Inferior haemorrhoi'Hi arter. 
Obturator fa 
Superficial or long perineal artery 
Internal pudic artery artery of the pen:. 
1 Ischiocavernosus or erector penis muscle 
! ' Artery of the bulb 
) Levator ani muscle 
Artery of the corpus cavernosum 
Dorsal artery of the penis 



i obturatorius 












inferior 



Fig. 99 1 P vrietal Br w* in- • 

' : -'l : VRTERIA 
ARTERIA • 1)1 A, Till' 



R VM1 P IF THE IN II i;N VL III V< \ 

''■ 

Artery \m. i hi Si 

Deep 1 ir Im t riok i 
s da, the I) 

■1 in. Al 

. VL Pi DIC Vl 

External i I 
In ihi 

to the penis. 



The Arteries of the Lateral Wall ol the Pelvis and of the External Genital Oi 



602 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



•Posterior scrotal arteries - 
Aa. scrotales posteriores 



* Urogenital diaphragm 

*Diaphragma uro- 

genitale 

(Superficial I transverse 
perineal muscle 4 



M. 



sup 



Bulbocavernosus or ejaculator 
urina? muscle 



Ischiocavernosus or erector 
penis muscle 

Internal pudic artery 

artery of the penis) ' 

•A penis 

'Perineal artery- 

*A. perinei 

Internal circumflex 
artery (of the thigh) 
A. circumflexa 
femoris medialis 
Great trochanter 
Trochanter major 



Internal pudic artery 

("artery of the 

penis) 1 — *A. penis 

Obturator fascia 

Fascia obturatoria 



Inferior hseinor 

rhoidal artery : 

A. hsemorrhoid 

alls inferior 




Internal pudic 

artery in 
Alcock's canal' 1 



Gluteus maximus muscle 
M. gluteus maximus 
External or superficial sphincter of the anus < 
M. sphincter ani externus 

Gluteus maximus muscle 
M. gluteus maximus 



See Appendi: 



2 See Appendix, note ] 
5 See Appendix, note ' 
8 See Appendix', note > 



Obturator internus and 

>W gemelli muscles 

Pyriformis muscle — M. piriformis 
Comes nervi ischiadici artery 
A. comitans n. ischiadici 
Sciatic artery — A. glutaia inferior 
Internal pudic artery ' 
A. pudenda interna 
Posterior or great sacrosciatic ligament 
Lig. sacrotuberosum 

3 See Appendix, note '4 2 . 
kppendix, note "5'. 



Fig. 991. — The Course and Distribution of the Internal Pudic Artery (Arteria Pudenda 
Interna) in the Male Plrineal Region : the Inferior or External Hemorrhoidal 
Artery (Anal Artery, according to Macalister), Arteria H.emorrhoidalis Inferior, 
and the *Perineal Artery {i.e., Transverse Perineal and Superficial or Long 
Perineal Arteries — see Appendix, notes 147 and u9 ), Arteria Perinei, with the Termina- 
tion of the Superficial or Long Perineal Artery by its Division into the Two 
Posterior Scrotal Arteries, Arteri.e Scrotales Posteriores (see Appendix, note 13S ). 

On the left side of the body, the course of the internal pudic artery (arteria pudenda interna) is shown 
from its emergence from the pch is through the great sacrosciatic foramen until it penetrates the 
base of the triangular ligament of the urethra in the author's terminology, up to its entrance into 
the """urogenital diaphragm — see Appendix, note "-'i; the gluteus maximus muscle has been partially 
divided by an incision passing upwards from its lower border and has been turned upwards, the 
great sacrosciatic ligament has been divided, Alcock's canal has been opened {see Appendix, 
note 1SI ), and the (superficial) transverse muscle of the perineum has been entirely removed. 



The Arteries of the Male Perineal Region. 



THE ARTERIES OF I III: 'II 






Offsets of the right artery of 
the corpus cavernosum arteria ""---__ 
profunda penis i passing to both 
the corpora cavernosa of the 
peni;. 



Artery of the corpus 
cavernosum 

Arteries of the crus penis 
Aa i 

Ischiocaverno3us or erector 
penis muscle 
Constrictor or compressor urethral, 
or transversa perinei profundus 

muscle - 
Second, membranous, or muscular 
portion of the urethra i 
Internal pudic arterj 
of the penis * \ 

Internal pudic artery 4 .. 

* Perineal artery 



Corpus spongiosum, or corpus 
cavernosum urethras 

,' Corpus cavernosum penis 




Dorsal artery of the penis 



Artery of the corpus caverno 
Transverse ligament of the ; 

Artery of the bulb 

Urethral ar 

Constrictor or compressor 
urethra or transversus perinei 
profundus mn 
Internil pudic artery 



External or superficial sphincter of the anus 
M sph 






Internal pud: 
'Perineal arv 
Corpus spongiosum, or corpus cavernosum urethras 



mcmbrana 






Fig. 992. Mi l'i 1 m r. ■ i i ' I 1. Pudic .'•. Tin: 

Penis, to Toldi tv of rm 1 

1 isi m iAkii r P ;■ and the Dorsal Akti ry of thi I 

I )i IRSAl IS Pi 1 THE Bll 1 

supplied : Ai 1 ! 1111 Bui 

THE I \ .. V: 1 1 

pudic artery in tin 

urethi 



The Arteries of the Male rem; 






604 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Ischiocavernosus or erector 
clitoridis muscle 
Superficial or long perineal artery :: 



I Superficial) transverse perineal 

muscles to 
Internal pudic artery (artery 
of the clitoris)' ■— A. clitoridis 
External or superficial 
sphincter of the anus 

M. sphincter ani exjernus 



*Anterior labial (vulval) artery 1 

*A. labialis anterior 
*Posteriorlabial(vulval)arteries' / 

'Aa. labiales posteriores / / 




Sphincter vaginae or bulbo- 
cavernosus muscle 
'Urogenital diaphragm - 
•Diaphragma nrogenitale 
Superficial or long peri- 
neal artery"— A. perinei 
Obturator fascia 
i,J ■ Fascia obturatoria 



Gluteus maximus muscle , '•"M. 
M. gluteus maximus •?. a < 

Sciatic artery — A. glutEea inferior ^™ 
Internal pudic artery 7 — A pudenda interna 
Great sciatic nerve 
N. ischiadicus 

(i) M. transversus perinei superficial!' 



Gluteus maximus muscle 
M. glutaeus maximus 
Inferior or external hemorrhoidal artery J (2 
Levator ani muscle 
Posterior or great sacrosciatic ligament 
Lig. sacrotuberosum 

'< ( ■) A hremorrhoidalK inferior 



* See Appendix, note '3 8 . 
4 Called by Macalister the < 
7 See Appendix, note x 39. 



rtt>y. 



2 See Appendix, note ' ; 

5 See note ' to p. 537 in Part IV. 



' See Appendi: 
> See Appendi: 



Fig. 993. — The Superficial Branches of the Internal Pudic Artery, Arteria Pudenda 
Interna, in the Female Perineal Region : the Inferior or External Hemorrhoidal 
Artery (Anal Artery, according to Macalister), Arteria FLemorrhoidalis Inferior, 
and the *Perineal Artery {i.e., Transverse Perineal Artery and Superficial or 
Long Perineal Artery — see Appendix, notes ul , u '', and l55 ), /\rteria Perinei, with the 
Termination of the Superficial or Long Perineal Artery by its Division into the 
Posterior Labial Arteries, Arterle Labiales Posteriores {see Appendix, note 13S ). 

On the right side of the body the gluteus maximus muscle was partially divided by an incision passing 
upwards from its lower border, and was turned upwards ; the posterior or great sacrosciatic 
ligament, ligamentum sacrotuberosum, was cut completely across, and turned upwards with the 
gluteus maximus muscle. By the removal of the superficial layer of the obturator fascia where it 
covers the internal pudic artery in Alcock's canal {see Appendix, note l4S ), that canal was opened 
throughout, and the artery was exposed from its point of emergence from the pelvis to the point 
at which it perforates the base of the triangular ligament (or, in the author's terminology, to the 
point at which it enters the *urog r enital diaphragm — see Appendix, note 14 -). 



The Arteries of the Female Perineal Region. 



THE ARTERIES UF III! 



60S 



Dorsal artery of the clitoris 

ion. lis 
Urethra 

Corpus cavernosum of the clitoris 

■ 

Vaginal bulb or bulb of the, 
vestibule' 
Bulbu 

Superficial layer of the 
triangular ligament 
of the urethra 

enitalis inferior 
Internal pudic artery 
('artery of the clitorisj < 

"A I'lll I I lis .■$ 



Dorsal artery of the clitoris 

Artery of the corpus 
the cliton 

Dividi 

or bulb ol Ihe 



Superficial or Ion; 
neal artery 

Artery of 




' 



Internal pudi. 

■ ' 



Bartholin's gland 

i 



^^ Superficial or long perinea] artery 

1 Inferior or external hasinorrhoidal arteries 
A a h 



mii Internal i in i hi 

i iTAi. Region," Ri i iw Fem vi.e l'i kineai 

i 

ARTERIA B .il Vl . !'. I ! : 

Aim i 

The Dor ^rteri.e Dorsales'Ci.itoriims, ari i 

by \ mii Superficial Surface of rut Inferior i 

Lli 1AM1 N 

In i!i and the 1 ibia m 

transvi 

of Ih ll 












The Arteries of the Female Perineal Region. 



60S 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Fourth lumbar artery 
A. lumbalis IV 
Abdominal aorta 
Aorta abdominalis 
Inferior mesenteric artery - 
A. mesenterica inferior 



Lowest lumbar artery 3 ^ 
A lumbalis ima 
Left "ureter — Ureter sinister — 
Left common iliac vein 
V. iliaca communis sinistra- 

Common iliac artery | def tra ' 
A. iliaca communis 1 left 

Iliolumbar artery 4 
A. iliolumbalis 
Superior haemorrhoidal artery s 

A. hjemorrhoidalis superior 

Left external iliac artery— A. iliaca externa 

Left internal iliac artery 

A. hypogastrica sinistra 

Obliterated hypogastric artery ■ 

Lig. umbilicale laterale 

Suspensory ligament of the ovary 7 v 

1. 1, r . suspensorium ovarii 

Left obturator artery-A. obturatoria sinistra --/' 

Ovarian or pampiniform venous plexus /£? 

Plexus (venosus)ovaricus A ■ 

Parietal peritoneum y&M 

V i,a- , u ,m;Jc sf&Z*' 

Round ligament of the uterus 

Lig. teres uteri 



Left ureter 
Ureter sinister 



Uterine artery 
A. uterina 
Vesical arteries' - 
Aa. vesicales 
Crus of the clitoris 
Crus elite 
Sphincter vaginae or bulbo 
cavernosus muscle 
"Urogenital diaphragm" 
* Diaphragma uri igenitale 




Dorsal branch 
Ramus dorsalis 
Spinal branch 
Ramus spinalis 



First sacral vertebra 
Vertebra sacralis I. 



Lateral sacral arteries 
Aa sacrales laterales 



Gluteal artery 

A. gluta:a superior 

Sciatic artery 
A. glutaea inferior 
Internal pudic artery 1 
A. pudenda interna 



Parietal peritoneum 
Peritonaeum parietale 



(Vaginal arteries- 
Aa. vaginales 
Levator ani muscle 



Rectum 

Intestinum rectum 



External or superficial sphincter of the anus 
M. sphincter ani externus 



1 See Appendix, note T 39. 

5 Called hy Macalister the superi 

7 Called also the in ' 

1 ' Or 'LlUi ' 



= See Appendix, note l6 °. 
1 1 tery. 

vie/old or ligament. 

' — see Appendix, n : 



3 See Appendix, note I26 . 
6 See A]i; 

Appendix, note l6s . 



See Appendix, note l61 . 
1 See Appendix, note 1 -t 2 . 



Fig. 995.— The Left Ixternal Iliac Artery, Arteria Hypogastrica (see Appendix, note 12 °), \xi> 11- Visceral 
Branches, Rami Viscerales, seen in the Subperitoneal Space of a Female I'i.ia is : 1 he Lowest Offsets 
of the Superior Hemorrhoidal or Superior Rectal Artery. Arteria Hemorrhoidals Superior; 
the Uterine Artery, Arteria Uterina, is i \r \s its Point of Entrance into the Broad Lig 
of the Uterus (Mesometrium) ; the Vaginal Arteries, Arterle Vaginales (see Aipendix, note lco ; the 
Terminal Offsets to the Bladder, Arterli. Vesica] is (see Appendix^ noU " ; >. iND ro the Ureter. Of 
the Parietal Branches, Rami Parietales, the Lateral Sacral Arteries, Artei ci les Laterales, 

and the Two Lowermost Lumbar Arteries, Arteria Lumbales, have been preserved; the Spinal 
Branches have been traced up to their Entrance into the Spinal Canal. 

The left lateral wall of the pelvis was removed by a section which in front passed close to the median plane, and behind, 
through the left row of sacral foramina ; but the parietal peritoneal investment of this wall was preserved up to its 
reflection on to the urinary bladder, the vagina, and the rectum. The parts of these organs situate outside the 
peritoneum were laid bare, and the pelvic diaphragm (sec Appendix, note '*") was turned downwards. 



The Arteries of the Female Pelvic Viscera. 



THE ARTERIES OF THE 77 






Left common iliac artery 
A. ilia 



Left external iliac artery 
A. il 
Left internal iliac artery* _ 
A. !; 
Obliterated hypogastric artery '-' .^ 
I 
Left uterine artery inistra *. 

Left ovary ' • :■ um_ 

Ovarian artery tin the suspensory 
ligament, oi t> 

Ail :. 

Mesovarium" 
Mesosalpinx'... 
Ovarian branch of the uterine 
artery I 
Fallopian tube Tul 
Tubal branch of the uterine^ y^ 
artery 



Kound ligament oi I 
uteru. ' 

:al peritoneum of V 
the urinary bladder 

Dorsal artery of the clitorij 

Artery of the corpus caver 
nosum of the clitoris 
\ | : iunda clitoriilis 

Divided anastomoses of the vagiral 

bulb or bulb of the vestibule with 

t he corpora cavernosa ot the clitoris 

Urethra 

Deep layer of the triangular 
ligament ol the ureth; 
Constnctrr urethra?, or trans 
perinei profundus mus 

Artery of the bulb i I 
Vaginal bulb or bulb of the vestibule 

Offset of the internal pudic artery 

(*artery of the clitoris ') to the 

"urogenital diaphragm ' and to tha 

urethra 

i ,] 




Superior hamc :• 



¥ "- Uterosacral liga 
r or fold of Do 

* Vaginal arteries' 
- Rectum 

Left ureter 
Vagina 



Levator ai 

Internal pudic artery 
(artery ol the clitoris ' 

Bartholin's gland ' 
Glandul 






noN - oi i in ; 

H/l : \k 11- kl.\ I! 

ARTERIA 1 : 

I 



rhr i I 

bifurcation 






anastomosis oi mis or. nun \wui i 
bifurcation. 



The Arteries of tin.' Female Pelvic Viscera. 



608 



THE ARTERIES OF THE TRUNK 



Ovarian artery 

A. ovarica 



Iliopsoas muscle 



Ureter 
Anterior crural or femoral » 
nerve — N. femoralis 
Common iliac artery 
A. iliaca con 
External iliac artery 
A. iliaca externa 
Internal iliac artery - 
A. hypogastrica 

Gluteal artery 
A. glutaea sup. 
Sciatic artery 
A. glutsea int. 
Mesonietrium 4 i anterior 
layer) 
Internal pudic artery 
\ pud. 
Uterine artery— A. uterina 
Ureter 
Anterior or small sacrosciatic 
ligament Lig. sacrospinosum 
Vaginal artery 1 — A vaginalis 

Obturator internus muscle " 
Inferior or external hemorrhoidal 
artery 3— A. haemorrhoidalis infi rioi 
Levator ani muscle 



Ovarian branch of, 

the uterine artery '< 

Ramus ovarii 



Tubal branch of the uterine artery 
Ramus tubarius 

Fallopian tube — Tuba uterina 
.Mesosalpinx 4 




Uterosacral ligament, or fold of Douglas 
Plica recto-uterina (Doi 



■ See Appendix-, n i ? See 

S Called by Macalister the anal ar. 

1 Or external umbilical ligament -see Append 



Fig. 997. — The Arteries of the Uterus, the Ovaries, the Fallopian Tubes, the Vagina, 
and the Urinary Bladder, seen from Behind: the Ovarian Artery, Arteria Ovarica 
(Arteria Spermatica Interna); the Uterine Artery, Arteria Uterina, with its Offsets 
to the Ovary (Ramus Ovarii), the Fallopian Tube (Ramus Tubarius), the Vagina Arteria 
Vaginales — see Appendix, note l63 ), and to the Bladder (Arteria Vesicalis Inferior) — 
i.e., the Inferior Vesical, Vaginal, or Vesicovaginal Artery (in this Specimen arising 
from the Uterine Artery, instead of, as usually, arising separately from the 
Anterior Division of the Internal Iliac Artery — sec Appendix, note 16S ) ; the Internal 
Pudic Artery, Arteria Pudenda Interna, and its Offsets to the Vagina {see Appendix, 
note I03 ). The Pelvic Portion of the Ureter, and its Relations to the Uterine 
Artery, the Cervix Uteri, the Vagina, and the Urinary Bladder. 

By a frontal section passing on each side through the great sacrosciatic foramen, the posterior wall 
of the pelvis was removed, in order to display (after removing the rectum) the uterus and the 
vagina, and, in addition, the lateral parts of the bladder. The uterus and the vagina were drawn 
upwards, the ovaries upwards and forwards ; the lower layer of the mesovarium and the hinder 
layer of the mesometrium were removed, and the ureters, thus exposed, were preserved as nearly 
as possible in their natural position. The right internal iliac artery was drawn outwards and 
backwards, to display more- fully the origin of its branches and that of the obliterated hypogastric . 
artery {see note '• above). The branches of the posterior division of the artery have been cut away 
near their origin, and the internal pudic artery has on both sides been traced as far as its passage 
through the small sacrosciatic foramen. 



The Arteries of the Female Pelvic Viscera. 



ARTERI/E COLLI ET CAPITIS 

THE ARTERIES OE THE HEAD 
AND NECK 



610 



THE ARTERIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Anterior temporal branch 
Ramus frontalis 

Posterior temporal 

^branch 
Ramus parietalis 

Orbital or zygomatico- 
orbital branch of the 
superficial temporal 
artery 
A. zygomatico-orbitalis - 
Anterior auricular 
branches — Rami . 
auriculares anteriores 
Superficial temporal 
artery 1, — A. tempo- 
ralis superficialis 

Mastoid or occipital branch 
of the posterior Auricular 
artery"— Ramus occipitalis 
arteriae auricularis poster! l 

Parotid gland 
Glandula parotis 

Occipital artery 

Sternocleidomastoid artery 3 -—" 
domastoidea 
Sternocleidomastoid branc'j of the superior thyroid 
artery : — Ramus sternocleidomastoideus arteriae thyieoidea; 

Superficial carvieal artery 1 - 
A. cervicalis supsrficialis 



Frontal artery 1 
A. frontalis 



Nasal branch- of the ophthalmic artery' 
A. dorsalis nasi ex arteria ophthalmica 



Angular artery- 

A annularis 



Coronary artery of the upper lip 
V. labialis superior (ramus super- 
ficialis) 



Transverse facial artery 
A. transversa faciei 

% 
Submental artery 
- A. submentalis 
_ Submaxillary lymphatic glands 
"" Lymphoglandulas submaxillares 
_ Submaxillary gland 

Glandula submaxillaris 
Facial artery; 
A. maxillaris externa 



Lingual artery— A. lingualis 
Superior laryngeal artery 

Superior thyroid artery 




Internal carotid artery 
A. carotis interna 
External carotid artery 
A. carotis externa 
Common carotid artery 
A. carotis communis 
Omohyoid muscle 
M omobyoideus 
v Scalenus anticus muscle 
. __alenus anterior 

V X ^fc^^L " Subclavian artery 
subclavia 



Costocoracoid membrane 

Fascia coracoclauicularis 



( Descending or humeral branch 
Acromiothoracic artery" I Ramus deltoideus 
A. thoraco-acromialis I Acromial branch 

I 

1 See Appendix, note >«4. ■ See A; ; 3 See Appendix, note >«. 

S Or laryng eal branch of the svj tery. 6 See Appendix, note ,& *. 

7 Called by_Macalister the posterior terminal branch of the posterior auricular artery, 
9 Or post . — Tr. 

11 Called by Macalister the thorat h o a romial at tery. 



Anterior or perforating 
branch of the internal 

mammary artery 
Ramus penorans arteria? 

mammarias interna? 



Fig. 998. 



■i See Appendix, note l6 7. 

- a te ><9. 

; per.dix, note »7 2 . 

-Superficial Arteries of the Head and Neck, and of the Upper Part of the 
Pectoral Region and the Shoulder: seen from the Right Side. 

Over the anterior part of the parotid gland, the parotideomasseteric fascia has been left intact. The 
lower ends of the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, levator labii superioris proprius, and zygo- 
maticus minor muscles have been removed, to display the facial artery and the origin of the 
coronary artery of the upper lip. 



The Superficial Branches of the External Carotid, Subclavian, and Axillary Arteries. 



THE ARTERIES Oh THE HEAD AND 



fill 



^Transverse facial artcty 

■ 



Bifurcation of the superficial 

temporal artery ' 



Supra-orbital artery 

Frontal artery 

neb of the ophthalmic artery' 

Infra-orbital artery 



Angula.' 




Auricular branch 

i 



Stylomastoid artery- \9B2 
\ 

Occipit 

Posterior auricular artery 
\ - 

Cervical or descending branch of the 
occipital artery l 
Spleuius capitis muscle 

Internal carotid artery 



iry artery of the upper lip- 
Inferior labial arv 



Mental artery 



Submental a 
Glandular branches 

Facial art< •;. 
Lingual artery 

Hyo:d brai 

of the Bupenor 
Anterior branch ' thyroid artery 

■Posterior brand, 



Transverse cervical artery ' ' 



Trapezius muscle 

♦Ascending branch '- 
•Ramu 
"Descending branch 

Axillary artery, 
A. axi 



Acromial branch 



Thyroid body 

Common carotid artery 

Inferior thvroid artery 

Ascending cervical art. i 
Superficial cervical a: 

Thyroid axis 

■ ian artery 
Cervical pleura 
Internal mammary 
Wk Suprascapular artery " 



Descending or humeral branc 



; Thoracic or pectoral branches 
Acromiothoracic artery " 






. 






I\ I hi T i >.\R \ I |, ,N 
I XI I 

Tin i 

AND PAR Mill. Wl III I II \ I 



The Deep 1 'i. and Axillai 5 \ I 



612 



THE ARTERIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Internal palpebral arteries 
Aa. palpebrals mediales 

Tarsal arterial [^J* 
l inferior ■ 

nferior 

External palpebral arteries.., 
Aa. palpebrales laterales 

Infra-orbital artery 
A. infra-orbitalis 

Coronary artery oT the upper lip 
A. labialis superior 

Anterior auricular branches -;: 

Kami auriculares anteriores 

Perforating offsets of the auricular 

branch of the posterior auricular 

artery 

Inferior labial artery" 
A. labialis inferior 
Mental artery — A. mentalis-"" 
Submental artery— A. submentalis-- 
Lingual artery— A. lingualis 
Internal carotid artery — A. carotis interna 
External carotid artery — A. carotis externa 
Superior thyroid artery 
A. thyreoidea superior 
Levator anguli scapulse muscle 

M. levator scapula; 

Common carotid artery 




Inferior thyroid artery (i > 
Phrenic nerve— N. phrenicus 

Vertebral artery ; 



Suprascapular artery 



Internal mammary art 

A. mammaria intc 

innominate artery 
Comes nervi phrenici artery ' 

A. i inliai >phrenica 

Thymic artery 1: ' — A. thymica 
Superior vena cava, 

V. cava superior 

Remains of the thymus 
gland (corpus thymieum) - 
Anterior intercostal arteries I 
Rami intercostales 

Costal pleura 
Pleura costalis 
Anterior or perforating 
branches 
Kami perforantes 
Anterior mediastinal 
artery 

A. in' i 

'Superior phrenic 
artery s 
*A. phreuica superior 

Superior epigastric 
artery 

Musculophrenic 

artery 9 

A musculo- 

phrenica 



1 See Appendix, nc 
5 Called II 
7 See Appendix, nc 
9 See Appendix, nc 

1 also the tr 



Supra-orbital artery 
A. supra-orbitalis 

Frontal artery 
A frontalis 
Nasal branch of the ophthalmic 

artery '—A. dor.s.alis nasi 

,Orbital or zygomatico-orbital artery 

Angular artery-— A. angularis 
Anterior temporal branch i of the superficial 
Ramus frontalis I temporal artery) 

Posterior temporal branch | arteria: temporalis 
Ramus parietalis J superficialis 

Zygomaticus major muscle— M. 2ygorr 
-- Transverse facial artery 

A. transversa i. i i 
- Superficial temporal artery - : 
A. temporalis superficialis 



Masseter muscle 



Hyoid branch of the lingual artery 

Ramus hyoideus arteria: linaualis 

Superior laryngeal artery ' 

A. laryngea superior 

Posterior branch \ of the superior thyroid 
R-mus posterior ( artery 

Anterior branch I arte, isc thyreoidea: 

T ' -jius anlerinr ' superions 

Cricothyroid artery?— Ramus cricothyreoidens 
Trapezius muscle 

Ascending cervical artery 
cervicalis ascendens 
Superficial cervical artery 

A. cervicalis superficialis 

I Transverse cervical orpesterior 
scapular artery m 0) 

a Brachial plexus- 1 'It ««- brachialis 

Suprascapular artery 
■A. transversa s. ipula 
■Phrenic nerve— N. phreni 
Internal mammary artery 
""A. mammaria i I 
Comes nervi phrenici artery 
A. pericardiacophrenica 
Arch of the aorta 
\n as aortas 
Pericardial branches 
"' Rami pericardiac! 

Bronchial branch of th? 
internal mammary artery 
A bronchialis 
Mediastinal pleura 
Heura mediastinalis 

Mediastinal branches 
Rami mediastinals 



Pericardium 

Internal mammary artery 

(internal terminal or 

abdominal branch, or 

superior epigastric 

artery) 

A. mammaria interna 



(i) A. thyreoidea infeii. 



. I V 



\ppendix, note l6 S. 

See Appendix, ..~ 
Known a 
' Called by Macalister the superior coronary artery, 
or transverse humeral artery. 



ipendix, note ,68 . < See Appendix, note ' M . 

,i l tbe superior thyroid artery. 

/ artery. 

11 See Appendix, note s 7*. 
13 See Appendix, note I 7S. 



. iooo.— Ox the Right Side of the Body, the Costal Pleura and the Lung have been pushed some- 
what BACKWARDS; AND BETWEEN THE INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY AND THE ANTERIOR CUT SURFACES 

of the Ribs the Costal Pleura has keen removed, exposing the Surface of the Lung. The Left 
Layer of the Mediastinum has deen separated from its Attachments as far back as the Root of 
the Lung, and has been drawn outwards with that Organ. 



The Distribution of the Branches of the Arch of the Aorta in the Head and Neck, and the 
Distribution of the Internal Mammary Artery. 



THE ARTERIES 01 THE HEAD A 






Internal carotid 
artery in the carotid canal 

Internal maxillary 
artery - 
A. ma 
Superficial temporal artery' 



Stylopharyngous muscl 1 " 

External carotid artery 

Posterior auricular artery 

Stylohyoid >. 
Inferior or ascending palatine artery 

Occipital artery 

Origin of the lingual and facial arteries 
by a common trunk la frequent variety) 
iding pharyngeal artery 

Internal carotid arterj 

Superior thyroid artery — 
A I 
Posterior branch of the superior thyroid artery 

Common carotid artery 
Thyroid body 'left lateral lobe) 

Inferior thyroid artery 

A. t!. 

Scalenus anticus n- 



Costocorvical axis'' 
Truncu i 



(Esophageal and tracheal 
branches 

Left common carotid artery 
Left subclavian artery- 
Descending thoracic — 
aorta 

Left pulmonary 

artery 
Ramu 

nalis 







Anterior condylar foramen 
JuguUi 



Digas- 

bell;, 

Stylomastoid artery 
Posterior auricular u I 






Internal i 

¥ 

' Submaxillar}' gland 
Lingual artery 
Facial artery- 
Great cornu of the hyoid bone 

Superior thyroid artery 



Pharyngeal branches of the Buperior and 
inferior thyroid arteries 

Glandular branches 

tebral arterv 
,-^ Thyroid 
















ITS P 






Artcria subclavia, the subclavian artery, art immunis, tl 

artery, artcria carotis interna, the internal carotid artery; thi 
the trachea, and the a-; 



614 



THE ARTERIES OF THE HEAD ANU iViUA 



Superficial or 
cranial branches ' 
Rami occipitales <==: 
Complexus, or semispinals v 
capitis, muscle 

Occipital artery v 
A. occipitalis 

Cervical or descending branch 
or princeps cervicis ar£ery*' 
Ramus descendens 
Splenius capitis muscle 
M. splenius capitis 
Trachelomastoid muscle 
M. longissimus capitis 




Trapezius muscle 



Mastoid or occipital branch of the posterior auricular artery 1 
Ramus occipitalis artem auriculans posterioris 

Mastoid branch of the occipital artery 

Ramus mastoideus arterias occipitalis 

Splenius capitis muscle 

Posterior auricular artery- A. auricularis posterior 

Muscular branch of the occipital artery 

Ramus musculans arterial occipitalis 

Parotid gland— Glandula parotis 

Sternocleidomastoid muscle-M. sternocleidomastoideus 
Muscular branches of the ascencUn^cervical artery 
Levator anguii scapula? muscle— ^1. levator scapulas 
Scalenus posticus muscle -M. scalenus posterior 
Transverse cervical artery-— A transversa colli 
Ascending branch"— Ramus ascendens 
Trapezius muscle 

Posterior scapular artery- — Ramus descendens 
Dorsal branch of the subscapular artery * (i) 
Posterior circumflex artery 



Deltoid muscle 
M. deltoideus 



Ascending branch of the 

transverse cervical artery 

Ramus ascendens arterise 

transversa? colli 



Triceps extensor cubiti 

muscle 'middle or long 

head 

M triceps brachii 

(caput longum) 



Brachial artery 
A. brachialis 



nflcxa scapula; 



(Inner) dorsal cutaneous 

branches of the intercostal 

arteries 

Rami cutanei dorsales 

(mediales) 



Called by Macalister the paste 
In Macalisters tei 

> Commonly known in England 
Called by Macalister the ext 

> Or ramus Clrvicalii 



(Outen dorsal cutaneous 
branches of the inter- 
costal arteries 
Rami cutanei dorsales 
(laterales) 

r terminal branch of the posterior auricular artery. 

s the cervical branch of the transi'crse cervi at or posteri, 

the dorsalis scapula artery. 

temal terminal branches of the occipital artery. 



Teres major muscle 



Insertion of the serratus magnus muscle 
into the inferior angle of the scapula 



2 See Appendix, note *7 2 . 
- scapular. artery. See Appendix, note J 7 2 . 



Fig. ioo2.— The Deep Arteries of the Right Nuchal Region and the Back, of the Right Shoulder ; 

seen from Behind. 

The scapula was drawn a little away from the trunk ; a horizontal incision was made through the posterior half of the 
deltoid muscle a little above the middle of its vertical extent, and the muscle was turned forwards ; the teres major 
muscle was drawn somewhat downwards. The superficial offsets only of the dorsal branch of the subscapular 
artery (dorsalis scapulas artery — arteria circumflexa scapulae) are seen, on the surface of the infraspinous fascia ; the 
deeper branches of this artery, ramifying beneath the infraspinatus muscle, are shown in Fig. ioio. 

Arteria occipitalis, the occipital artery ; arteria transversa colli, the transverse cervical (or 
posterior scapular) artery ; arteria circumflexa scapulae, the dorsal branch of the sub- 
scapular or dorsalis scapulae artery ; and arteria circumflexa humeri posterior, the 
posterior circumflex artery (of the arm). 



THE 






Cervical or descending 
branch, or princeps cervicis artery 
Karau 

Posterior meningeal artery'-' 
Kami. 

verti 

Mastoid branch 

Occipital artery A 
Vertebral artery A . 

Transverse process of the 
atlas i 

Posterior belly of the digastric 
muscle 

culi di 

Levator anguli scapula; 
muscle 
M. [i 

Complexus, or semi- 
spinalis capitis, muscle 
Semispinalis colli muscle ^ 
- 
Spinous process of the seventh cervical 
vertebra i vertebra prominens 

\ 1 1. 
Deep cervical artery 
A.cervicalis ] 



Transverse cervical artery 
A transversa colli 



Semispinalis dorsi muscle 












Obhquu 




Mastoid 




post' 








majo: 




Aur. 




Mue... 




. 





Complexus, or semi- 
niuscle 
Deep branch of the ascend- 

Semlspinaiis colli muscle 

. Deep cervical 

s colli muscle 

Posterior or dorsal branch of the 
superior intercostal 

nch : , of the transverse 
" Descending br.i:. . 



Longissimus dorsi muscle 



.iscendens musclo 
M 
























AR I I l-:\ : ON I III K I' ,11 I SIDE, Hi i\\ KVKR, THIS M 















Arteriae cervicalis profunda, vertebralis el occipitalis The deep cervical, vertebral, and 

OCCipit.il .11 tr: i 



616 



THE ARTERIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Anterior deep temporal artery 
A. temporalis profunda anterior 
Posterior deep temporal artery 
A. temporalis profunda posterior . ( 
Temporal muscle — M. temporalis-, \ 
Cushion of fat beneath the superficial layer \ \ 
of the temporal fascia. This latter has \ . \ 
been divided, and the margins of the in-', 
cision have been drawn apart 



Masseteric artery 
A. masseterica 
External pterygoid muscl3 
M. pterygoideus externus 
Middle (deep) temporal artery !l -.. 
A. temporalis media > 

Middle or great meningeal 
artery — A. meningea media 
Superficial temporal artery 1 ' 
A t;mporalis superficialis 
Internal maxillary artery 
A. maxillaris interna 
Inferior dental (or alveolar) _ 
artery — A. alveolaris inferior 
Sphsnomandibular ligament" (0 
Stylomastoid artery- A. si\i anastoidea 
Inferior dental nerve (-) 
Posterior auricular artery (3) 
Mylohyoid branch of the inferior 
dental (or alveolar* artery 

Ramus mylohyoideus 
Digastric muscle (posterior belly) 
M. digastricus 

Internal pterygoid muscle 
M pterygoideus mternus 
Lingual nerve — N . lingualis 
Buccal artery — A. buccinatoria 
Occipital artery — A. occipital] 
External carotid artery — A. carotis externa '' 
Facial artery 1 " — A. maxillaris externa' 
Sternocleidomastoid artery 1 '- •' 
A rnocleidomastoidea 
Lingual artery -A. lingualis 
Hyoglossus muscle— M. hyoglossus' , 
Thyrohyoid membrane, or middle thyrohyoid ligament (4) 
Superior thyroid artery — A. thyreoidea superior' 

Internal carotid artery— A. carotis interna / 
Posterior branch— Ramus posterior 
Anterior branch — Ramus anterior' 
Common carotid artery — A. carotis communis 
Thyrohyoid muscle — M. thyreoln 



Superior lachrymal gland 1 
\ Glandula lacrimalis superior 
\ External palpebral arteries 
,Aa palp-joralca laterales 



\\ 




Supra-orbital artery 
A, supra-orbitalis 

Frontal artery 
A frontalis 
^ Nasal branch of the ophthalmic 
artery- — A. dorsalis nasi 



I Anterior (superior) dental (or 
alveolar) artery 
•%, A. alveolaris superior anterior 

.. Infra-orbital artery 

A : nfra-oibiUhs 



Posterior (superior) 
dental (or alveolar) 
artery 
—A alveolaris superior 
posterior 
Coronary artery of 
the upper lip 1 
-A labialis superior 



Inferior labial artery 4 
A labialis inferior 



Mental artery 
A. mentalis 

7, 

Mylohyoid muscle 
M. mylohyoideus 
""Facial artery -A. maxillaris externa 
" Submental artery 
A. submentalis 
Thyrohyoid muscle 
M thyreohyoideus 
Hyoid branch of the lingual artery 1 ' 
Ramus hyoideus arteria lingualis 
Superior laryngeal artery" — A. laryngea superior 
Cricothyroid artery- — Ramus cricothyreoideus 
Middle portion of the cricothyroid membrane, 
or middle cricothyroid ligament — Lig. crico- 
thyreoideum (medium) 



(1) Lig. sphenomandibula 



(2) N. alveola 



uferior 



(3) A. auricularis posterior 



(4) Membrana hyothyreoide. 



1 See Appendix, note '79. 
■ .-■ \; ■ 

7 Or laryngeal branch of the sup 
s Called by Macalister the inferi 
my.— Tr. 

Appendix, note l6S . I0 See Appendix, note l66 . 

11 Or internal lateral ligament of the temporomaxillary articulation. 



\; pendix, note l6 4. 
5 See Appendix, note 1<jb . 
>r thyroid artery, 
laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid artery. 



3 Called by Macalister the superior coronary artery. 
6 Called by Macalister the suprahyoidean artery. 



This artery is endangered in the operation of 



J - See Appendix, note 1&} . 



Fig. 1004. — The Arteries of the Upper Part of the Front of the Neck, of the Retromandibular Fossa 
(Fossa Retromandibular^), and of vke Zygomatic Fossa (Fossa Infratemporalis) ; seen from the 
Right Side. 

[11 the preparation shown in Fig. 999. the pinna or auricle was cut away, and the superficial temporal artery was removed 
above the point at which the middle (deep) temporal branch {arteria temporalis media) is given off. The zygomatic 
arch was rentoved, together with the greater part of the masseter muscle, and the ramus of the mandible was cut 
away from the neck to below the middle of its vertical extent, the sphenomandibular ligament or internal lateral 
ligament of the temporomaxillary articulation, however, being left intact. The anterior portion of the outer wall 
of the orbit was removed, the orbital periosteum being preserved ; the upper segment of the temporal muscle was 
drawn upwards ; and the superficial layer of the temporal fascia having been incised and the margins of the incision 
having been drawn apart, the cushion of fat beneath this superficial layer, and the anterior division of the middle 
(deep) temporal artery, were exposed ; the posterior division of this artery was exposed by an incision through the 
temporal fascia and the temporal muscle. The thyrohyoid muscle was for the most part removed, in order to lay 
bare the superior laryngeal artery perforating the thyrohyoid membrane or middle thyrohyoid ligament. 



Arteria maxillaris interna — The internal maxillary artery. 



Tt-lh Alill THE II L 



017 



Superior oblique or trochlearis muscle 

Posterior ciliary arte: . 
Central artery of the retina 
Superior rectus muscle i 

Sphenopalatine or nasal artery 
ilatina 
Ophthab 
Internal maxillary artery 

Internal carotid artery (third, terminal, or 
intracranial portion 
Vidian artery 
Cut surface of the external pterygoid pi; 

Sphenoidal sinus 
Eustachian cartilage 

auditivse 
Levator palati muscle ', 

Gasserian ganglion 

, ^^ " 

Middle or great meningeal 

artery 

Small meningeal artery i 

'Anterior tympanic artery 

— . 

Deep auricular arter , 

Superficial temporal artery : '. 



Lachrymal artery 

, Supra-orbital artery 

:ual portion of 






Internal maxillary artery 7 — 

Stylomastoid arte: 
Obliquus capitis superior^ 
muscle 
Cervical or descending branch 
of the occipital arter. 
Complexus. or semispinalis 
capitis, muscle 
Obliquus capitis inferior - 
muscle 
Posterior auricular artery... 

Splenius capitis and spleniu: . 
colli muscles 
Inferior or ascending pala- 
tine art 
Stylopharyngeus muscle-' 
Ascending pharyngeal artery -' 






Levator anguli scapula S 
muscle 

Occipital artery 
Lingual artery 

External carotid artery (C) 
Internal carotid artery 17) 
Scalenus medius muscle 
Scalenus anticus muscle 

Superior thyroid artery 9) 
Rectus capitis anticus major muscle 
M lo 




Superior or descending 
palatine ai- 



Angular artery : 



Cor^ia: 

uppv I 

., Corona: 

low. : 

_ Tons:: 

^Mucous membrane of the 

'Sublingual gland 

..Sublingual a) 
1^" lrom the sub:: 

and perfoiai:: 
hyoid • 
Submaxillary duet, or duct of Wh 

\ Styloglossus muscle 

Facial artery 
Digastric muscle intervening tendon) 

Hyoglossus 11:1. 
Mylohyoid muscle ' 
Common carotid artery 


















.' 









AkTl 

picryg 



A. maxillans interna, the internal maxillary artery; a. ophthalmica, tl 

a. pharyngea ascender the 

inferior or ascending palatine artery . a. sublingualis, the 






61 S 



THE ARTERIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Posterior nasal arteries and nasopalatine 

artery or artery of the septum (derived 

from the sphenopalatine or nasal artery - \ 

Aa. nasales posteriores septi 

Terminal portion of the Vidian artery 

A canalis pterygoidei (Vidii) j 

Pharyngeal aponeurosis 

Fascia pharyngobasilaris ] 

Eustachian cartilage 

Tuba auditiva .pais cartilaginea) j 

Internal carotid artery in the carotid canal i 

(second or intra-osseous portion) 

Tympanic branch ' — Ramus caroticotympanicus j 

Inner wall of the tympanum 

Paries labyrinthicus cavi tympaui j 



Posterior ethmoidal artery ' 
A. ethmoidalis posterior 

Anterior ethmoidal artery ' 
A, ethmoidalis anterior 

Anterior meningeal artery 
A. meningea anterior 



Anterior nasal arteries I de- 
rived from the ethmoidal 

arteries) ' 
Aa. nasales anteriores septi 




Levator palati muscie 

M. levator veil palatini 

Superior constrictor of the 
pharynx (0 
Palatopharyngeus muscle (2) 
Ascending pharyngeal artery 

A. pharyngea ascendens 

Tonsillar branch 
lonsil (amygdala) -Tonsilla palatina 

Inferior or ascending palatine 

artery — A. palatina ascendens 

Facial artery 7 — A. maxillaris,- 

externa 

Styloglossus muscle s- 

M. siyloglossus 

Lingual artery ' 
A lingualis ^- 

External carotid artery 
A. carotis externa 

Common carotid artery 
A. carotis communis 



Septum of the nose 
tLini nasi 



Nasopalatine artery - 
A. nasopalatina 



. Palatoglossus muscle 

or constrictor isthmi 

faucium 

M glossopalafinus 

Apical lingual gland 

(gland of Elandin, or 

gland of Nuhni ' 



Dorsal lingual branches 3 
Kami dorsales linguae 

Genioglossus or genio- 
hyoglossus muscle 

Ranine artery 

A. profunda lingua.' 



Geniohyoid muscle 
niohyoideus 
Sublingual artery— A. sublingualis 
Mylohyoid muscle — M. mylohyoideus 



Hyoid branch of the lingual artery ' 
Ramus hyoideus 



(1) M. constrictor pharyngis superior 

ndix, note ,s 4. - See Appendix, note ' 

1 by Macalister the supraJtyoidean artery. 

6 See Appendix, note 7 See Appendix, note ' 



Hyoglossus muscle 

(2) M. pharyngopalatii 



5 See Appendix, n I 
8 See note ? to p. 4- 



Fig. 1006.— Arteries of the Nasal Septum, the Tongue, and the Pharynx ; seen from the Right Side. 

In the preparation shown in Fig. 1005, by a sagittal section passing a little to the right of the median plane, the 
right side of the septum of the nose was exposed ; by a section somewhat further to the right, the lower part 
of tile internal pterygoid plate was removed, and the Vidian or pterygoid canal was opened up to its posterior 
orifice. By means of a section passing through the temporal bone itself, the direction of which was nearly 
that of the axis of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, the middle ear was opened, and also the carotid 
canal, by the removal of its outer wall. The posterior extremity of the Eustachian cartilage was cut away, the 
levator palati muscle was removed just above the point at which it enters the soft palate, and the pharyngeal 
aponeurosis was laid bare down to the upper border of the superior constrictor of the pharynx. By the 
removal of the anterior portion of this muscle, the outer surface of the tonsil (a i! posed. By the 

partial removal of the hyoglossus muscle and by drawing its lower segment downwards, the lingual artery was 
laid bare ; and by the partial removal of the intrinsic muscular substance of the tongue, the ranine artery was 
brought into view. 



Arteries of the septum of the nose. A. lingualis, the lingual artery. Aa. pharyngea et palatina 
ascendens, the ascending pharyngeal and ascending palatine arteries. A. carotis interna, 
the internal carotid artery. 



7 HE 






Posterior external nasal arterieB 

Posterior ethmoidal artery 

Sphenopalatine or nasal artery 7 I „ Eternal nasal bi 
Nasopalatine artery or 
I artery of the septum' 
Vidian artery A. 
Eustachian cartilage 

Middle meningeal artery 
Internal auditory artery' r, -rna 

Internal maxillary arter; 

Posterior meningeal arter. 
Meningeal branch of the verte- 
bral an 7, 



Anterior ethmoidal or internal qui 

- 



Anterior external nasal 
art- : 

Aa. n'i 




palatine artery 



Occipital arter; > 

Posterior auricular a: • ! v 
Levator palati inu: . 
Inferior dental or alveolar) artt i 
Mylohyoid branch I 

Stylopharyngeus muscle 
Pterygopharyugeus externus mu 

Styloglossus muscle 
Tonsil i amygdala i external surface (7) 
Tonsillar branch 1 
Inferior or ascending palatine art 1 
Occipital art 1" . 

Mylohyoid branch of the inferior 
dental or alveolar 
Ascending pharyngeal artery 

Internal carotid artery \ 
External carotid artery— \ 
Carotid gland or glomeruli] iroticum 

Common carotid artery munis 









• .nches' 
Sublingu.t 



Offset of the submental artery 
Submental arti rj 
Digastric muscle intervening tendn:. 
Stylohyoid muscle 
Facial artery 
Superior thyroid arter;, 





















I 

III! 1 

I HI S.\l \i 

I' 






. 



By ; 

■ 
■ 

Lrteries of the external wall of the na; \ opalatina, the superio 

palatine artery. A. canalis pterygoidei, the \ 
ascendens, the ascending pharyngeal and th< 



620 



•Ranine arch' 
'Arcus raninus 



THE ARTERIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK 




Dorsal lingual 

branches" — Rami 

arsales linguae 

Ranine artery 

profunda linguae 



Branches of the superior laryngeal artery 

(the laryngeal branch of the 
superior thyroid artery) to the epiglottis , 

Superior laryngeal artery 1 — A. laryngea superior, I 
Dorsal lingual branch for the root of the , / 

tongue and the tonsil (amygdala) j / 

Tonsil (amygdala)— Tonsilla palatina 
Soft palate 4 — Velum 



palatinum 



Genioglossus or genio- 
hyoglossus muscle 

Sublingual artery 
. A. sublingualis 

Hyoglossus muscle 
Tonsil (amygdala) 
Tonsilla palatina 
Tonsillar branch of the ascending 
palatine artery; -R.nm>- tonsillaris 
arteria identis 

Hyoid branch''— Ramus hyoideus 
Lingual artery— A. lingualis 

External carotid artery 
A. carotis externa 
Superior laryngeal artery 1 
A. laryngea superior 
Superior thyroid artery 
A. thyreoidea superior 
Internal carotid artery 
A, carotis interna 

Cricothyroid artery" 

Ramus cricothyreoideus . 

Middle portion of the Inferior laryngeal 

cricothyroid membrane, artery 

cr middle cricothyroid A. laryngea inferior 

ligament . G - th thyroid 

cricothyreoideum «._.»_ * «. 

(medium) body for the common 

v carotid artery 

(Esophagus 

Inferior thyroid artery 

A. thyreoidea inferior 

(Esophageal and tracheal branches 

Rami cesophagei et tracheales 

* Or laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid a ■ : 

1 See Appendix, o ite ' 4 Or velum pendulum palaii. - See Appendix, note If2 . 

I ie hyoid branch of tip . L by Macalister the supraliyoidean artery. 

" Called by Macalister the inferior laryngeal branch of the superior tkyroui artery. This vessel is endangered in the operation of 
my. — Tk. 




Fig. ioo8.— The Tongue, the Larynx, and the Thy- 
roid Body, seen from the Ventral Side. The 
Ramification of the Ranine Artery, Arteria 
Profunda Lingu-e, and the Transverse Anasto- 
mosis BETWEEN THE TWO RANINE ARTE]-:!! 3, KNOWN 

as the *Ranine Arch, *Arcus Raninus 

A ■'■. ndix, note I; " I ; THE LINGUAL ARTERY, ARTERIA 

Lingualis, with its Hyoid Branch, Ramus 
Hyoideus (see note ° above); the Arteries of the 
Tonsil (Amygdala), Tonsilla Palatina; the 
Superior Thyroid Artery, Arteria Thyroidea 
Superior, with the Superior Laryngeal Artery, 
Arteria Laryngea Superior (see note ' a 

AND THE ClUCOTIIYl; ARTERY, RAMUS CRICOTHY- 

uoideus (see note "' aiove). 

In the right half of the tongue the hyoglo sus muscle has be- n 
preserved ; in the left half it has been removed, and the left 
lingual artery has thus been fully exposed. The sublingual 
artery, arteria sublingualis, has been cut away on both sides 
close to its origin ; th-* dorsal lingual branches have been 
traced for a c msiderable distance by the pirtial removal of 
the intrinsic muscular substance of ihe tongue. 



Fig. 1009.— The Root of the Tongue, the Larynx, 
and the Laryngeal Portion of the Pharynx, 
with the Adjoining Portion of the CEsoi h 
and the Thyroid Body; seen from the Dorsal 

Side. 

After the posterior wall cf the pharynx had been removed, the 
mucous membrane covering the left pyriform sinus and the 
anterior wall of the pharynx as far down as the commence- 
ment of the oesophagus was dissected off, and the superior 
and inferior laryngeal arteries were exposed. The epiglottis 
was drawn to ttie right, in order to display the offsets with 
which it is supplied by the superior laryngeal artery. On 
both sides the mucous membrane of the root of the tongue 
and of the tonsils was partially removed, in order to expose 
the site of emergence on the dorsum of the muscular sub- 
stance of the tongue of the hindmost dorsal lingual branch, 
and the superficial ramification of that artery. 



Arteries of the Tongue, the Larynx, the Tonsil (Amygdala), and the Thyroid Body. 



lllh ARTERIES OF JUL HEA 






Anterior ethmoidal or internal nasal artery ' 

Posterior ethmoidal artery 
Anterior meningeal artery A 
Frontal art.- . 
Ophthalmic artery A. ophthali 
Tendon of the superior oblique or troch- 
lears muscle 
Supra-orbital artery 

Superior lachrymal gland 



Frontal artery 

Nasal branch of the ophthalmia .. 

Tendon of the Bupti. 

SU),. : 







Orbital or lachrymal branch 
of the middle or great men 

ingeal artery r 

Middle or great meningeal artery 

Superior tympanic artery" 

Petrosal or Fallopian branch | 
Small meningeal artery 

Internal carotid artery 
(0 Ram 



Lachrymal artery 

Posterior ciliary ar 

Muscular branches - 

Gasserian ganglion 
Ophthalmic artery 
Superior oblique or trochlearis muscle- > 
Pituitary body, or hypophysis cerebri 


















FIG. ioio.— Tn 
Caro 

TIN': OUTl R \V \\ 



Arteries of the Orbit, and of the Anterior and Middle 



1UC /IK1 tLKL&S Ut I tlC tltL/iU A1MU iV£.CA 



Olfactory bulb 
Bulbus olfactorius 
Right anterior cerebral artery 

A. cerebri anterior dextra y 

Optic nerve iu -. / 
N. opticus 
Ophthalmic artery 
A. ophthalmica 
Middle cerebral artery 
A. cerebri media 
Posterior cerebral artery 
A. cerebri posterior 
Superior cerebellar artery 4 
A. cerebelli superior 
Trifacial or trigeminal nerve 
N. trigeminus 

Basilar artery 
A. basilaris 

Internal auditory artery "- 
A. auditiva interna 
Digastric muscle (posterior .. 
belly M. digastricus 
Occipital artery — A. occipitalis--^ 
Splenius capitis muscle ...^ 
M. splenius capitis 

Anterior spinal artery 
A. spinalis anterior 
First cervical or suboccipital nervo 
N. cervicalis I. 



Lateral spinal branches 
Kami spin de 

Eighth cervical nerve 
N. cen icalis VIII. 
Deep cervical artery 
A. cervicalis profunda 
Costocervical axis ~ 
Truncus costocervicalis 
Transverse cervical artery 3 
A transversa colli 
Superior intercostal art 
A. intercostalis suprema 



Posterior or dorsal branch 

of the superior intercostal " 

artery 

Ramus dorsalis arterial 

intercostalis supreme 

Posterior or dorsal division 
of the third intercostal 

artery 

Ramus posterior arteriae 

intercostalis III. 




Anterior meningeal artery 
A. meningea anterior 

Cranial dura mater 

Dura mater encephali 

Posterior ethmoidal artery 1 

A. ethmoidalis posterior 

Ophthalmic nerve - 
N. ophthalmicus 
Pituitary body, or hypophysis 
cerebri — Hypophysis 
Internal carotid artery 
_-- A. carotis interna 

Middle or great meningeal artery 

a media 
Inferior maxillary nerve :l 
N. mandibularis 
Anterior cerebellar artery 4 

Hi inferior anterior 
Pneumogastric or vagus nerve ■' 
N. vagus 

Posterior cerebellar artery 4 
A. cerebelli inferior posterior 



= Vertebral artery 
A. vertebralis 



Spinal or intervertebral branches 
of the ascending cervical artery 

Rami spinales arteriae i 
ascendentis 
Scalenus medius muscle 

Ascending cervical artery 

A. cervicalis as. i 

-Scalenus anticus muscle 
M. scalenus anterior 
Thyroid axis 
Truncus thyreocervicalis 

Subclavian artery 
V subclavia 



Spinal branches 
Rami spinales 



. Intercostal arteries 

Aa, intercostales 



1 See Appendix, note l8 4. - Or first division of l\\& fifth cranial (trifacial or trigeminal) ncn'C. 

3 Or third division of the uil) J See \p pendix, note *&. 

6 Called by Quain tire auditory artery without qnal) i , note >77. 

[Herring's enumeration. I of Willis, the par i 



h 



5 Or fifth cranial nerve. 
i°nm of the eighth cranial 



i 



Fig. ion. — In the Thorax, the Bodies of the Vertebra with thi Head oi the Ribs have been removi d ; 
ix the Neck, thi. Bodies of the Yertebr.f. and the Axterior Limbs of the Transverse Pro< i i 
(/..-., the Costal Processes), so as to expose the Vertebral Artery, and, after cutting away the 
Anterior Portion of thi. Spinal Dura Mater, the Spinal Brani in - of iiii Vertebral Artery and 
the Spinal or Intervertebral Branches of the Ascending Cervical Artery. In the Head, the 
Greater Part of the Rase of the Skull has been cut away, and ox the Right Side the Exposed 
Portion of the Cranial Dura Mater has also been removi ro lay pare the Arteries of 

the Base of the P.raix. Seen from Before. Thi: Internal Auditory Artery, Arteria Auditiva 
Interna (see note i; above), arises in this Specimen from the Anterior Cerebellar Artery, Arteria 
Cerebelli Inferior Anterior {see Appendix, note 105 ), instead of, as normally, directly from the 
Basilar Artery. This is a Common Variety. 



A. vertebralis, the vertebral artery. A. basilans, the basilar artery. 

the internal carotid artery. 



A. carotis interna, 



THE 






Central lobe, or 
island of Reil 



Opercuhm 



Choroid, or anterior 
choroid artery' 

Posterior communicating 

artery \ 

Transverse or pontal 
branches of the basilar 

artery 

Anterior cereb 11 
Internal auditory artery' 



Anterior spinal artery 
Posterior cerebellar artery 




Vertebral artery 
A. vertcbralis 









artery 



Oculomotor i 
Posterior a 

Superior cerebellar 



Easilar artery 



--Posterior spinal artery 

Anterior root of the fir. I 
or sub. 



Lateral spinal branches of tht 



^J 















Fig. 1012. — Thi i Irain ; in 

asfai 

Arteries >>t the Brain. 






624 



THE ARTERIES UF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Offsets of the anterior 
cerebral artery 

Rami arteria: cerebri 
anterioris 



Fissure of Kolando, or central sulcus 1 
Sulcus centralis (Rolandi; 



Offsets of the posterior 

cerebral artery 

Rami arteriae cerebri 

posterioris 




Offsets of the anterior cerebral •- 
artery— Rami arteria; cerebri 

anterioris Optic nerve- 

N. opticus 
Middle cerebral artery 
A. cerebri media 



Offsets of the posterior cerebral 

artery 
Rami arteria- cerebri posterioris 



1 &»!■■ • ■/ AV/.iW,..— If the use of the term 
involve the v.in le thickness both of the grey and th 

i. rise 1 indices projecting on its wall, the central snl 

primary sulci, one of those that are already 
constituting the boundary on the outer surfaceof the hi 



suh i that 
}f the cerebrum, and thus affect the form of the lateral ventricle or 

It is, on the< th 
nth of intra>uterin< ver, it is an interlobar sulcus, 

en the frontal and the parietal lobes. Hence it is usually disl 



Fig. 1013. — The Ramification of the Cerebral Arteries, Arteri.e Cerebri, on the Convex 
(Outer) Surface of the Left Cerebral Hemisphere and the Central Lobe or Island 
of Reil, and also on the Basal (Inferior) Surface of the Frontal Lobe. The Left 
Hemisphere of the Cerebrum, seen from the Outer Side. 

The fissure of Sylvius, fissura cerebri lateralis (Sylvii), was widely opened by the separation of 
the adjoining lobes of the cerebral hemisphere, in order to display the ramification of the 
middle cerebral artery, arteria cerebri media, at the bottom of the fissure. 



Arteries of the Brain, 



Parieto- occipital or per- 
pendicular fissure 

Occipital branch of the 
posterior cerebral artery 
Ramus i 

cerebri posterioris 



THE ARTERIES OF THE HEAD AI 

Callosomarginal sulcus or fissure marginal portion, 

Fissure of Rolando, or central auicujj- 
Sulcu 









Vertebral artery 



- Posterior spinal artery 
ilis posterior 



Anterior communicating artery 

"■ Anterior cerebral artery 

•^ Posterior cerebral arUr, 

Superior cerebellar artery -A ccrebelli superior 

\ Basilar artery 
iiaris 



Offsets of the posterior cerebellar artery ' 
Kami ai 






a /xirs 






■ 









Fii ! C014. — 'I'm Di vnd Po i r 

Ci -. ' ' . I 

Hem 

I Right 1 

BELLUM. Til 1XAI. Akl 

Artery, Ar i ekia Vek n bkai 

The corpu 

the right hi 



Ai tei ies "i the Brain. 






Aperture of the glottis — Kima glottidis i 
Pharyngeal cavity (laryngeal portion) (i), v 
Prevertebral fascia — Fascia praevertebralis 

Anterior jugular vein 1 — V. jugularis anterior 

Superior thyroid artery and vein (2) 

Descending cervical nerve- — Ramus \ 

descendens nervi hypoglossi 

Common carotid artery 

A carotis communi 

Cervical sympathetic nerve (3) 

Pneumogastric or vagus nerve 3 _ 

X. vagus 

Communicating cervical nerve 4 (4) 

Jugular vein | external — externa 

»ularis I internal — interna — ,- 

Deen cervical 1 dee P la y er 

ueep cervical ^ lamina pro f un da 

fascia superficial layer 

1 '-' -' ln ' lamina ; 

Prevertebral fascia- 1 

praevertebralis Jriit 

Vertebral artery— A. vertebralis^ \W 

'Longitudinal vertebral sinus"' Ay 

*Sinus vertebralis longitudinalis \\ 

Deep cervical or posterior vertebral vein 
V. cervicalis pn funda Y\ 

Lateral tubercles of the bifid spinous pro- ^' \ 
cess of the fourth cervical vertebra 
Deep fascia of ff"^ rftcl: " 
the nuchal region- " dee « l'aver ' 
Fascia nucha.- [ *"» "JSEdJ 

Ligamentum nuchas— Lis 

(1) Cavum pharyngis (pars laryngea) 




Median vein of the neck 1 — *V. mediana colli 1 

.Sternohyoid muscle — M. sternohyoideus 
/ ,Sternothyroid muscle — M. sternothyreoideus 
/ .Omohyoid muscle — M. omohyoideus 

/ Longus colli muscle 

Rectus capitis anticus major muscle 

capitis 

Scalenus anticus muscle— II. scalenus anterior 
, Platysma myoides 
' Platysma 

^Carotid sheath — Vagina vasorum 
S? Sternocleidomastoid muscle 
Vk ^1. sternocleidomastoijLns 
a\ Inferior deep cervical 
6* 1 ~^~ lymphatic glands (5) 
iBHUl — Scalenus medius muscle 
■ Ml Cervicalis ascendens muscle 
sBShJ M- iliocostalis cervicis 
JBUhi-— — Transversalis cervicis muscle 
Kvvi/ ^'' ' on gi sslrnus cervicis 

/'•'-'- - Trachelomastoid muscle 
M. longissimus capitis 
Mr 11" ' Levator anguli scapula; muscle 
WIJJ M. levator scapula? 
'II i I ~~ Multifidus spinas muscle — M. rnukifidu 
',/' Complexus, or semi- 

i/y/ ^spinalis C3.pitis, muscle 
- Semispinalis colli muscle 
M. semispinalis cervicis 
~ Interspinalis muscle 
- Spinalis cervicis muscle 
"""Splenius muscles 
Trapezius (or cucullaris muscle 



(2) A. et v. thyreoidea superior 
(5) Lymphoglandula; cervical* 



(3) Truncus sympathit 
s profunda; infertores 



U) N. 



calis descendens 



Fig. ioi 5. — Transverse Section through the Neck, at the Level of the Aperture of the Glottis, and 
passing through the body of the fifth cervical vertebra ; upper surface of the lower seg ll 



Sternohyoid muscle 

VI sternohyoideus 

Inferior or recurrent laryngeal nerve, \ 

Anterior jugular vein 1 — V. jugularis anterior s 

Sternothyroid muscle — M. sternothyroideus 
Inferior thyroid artery— A. thyreoidea inferior 

Common carotid artery (1) 
Pneumogastric or vagus nerve : — X -^ 

Internal jugular vein ., ^jgfl 
V jugularis interna 
Cervical sympathetic nerve 
Truncus sympathicus 
Vertebral artery and vein ( 2) 
Phrenic nerve — X. phrenicus^ 
Brachial pleXUS-Plexus Irachialis _ 

External j ugular vein 

'Intervertebral vein' 7 (3) 

Seventh cervical nerve, surrounded 

by the venous rete of the inter 

vertebral foramens 

Supraclavicular nerve 

Posterior external jugular 

Vein— V. cervicalis subcutanea — 

Deep 1 superficial layer 

Cervical J lamina superticialis 

fascia? 1 deep layer 

a colli I lamina profunda 

'Vertebral | internus 
venousplexns r '(5)"| external 




Trachea 

CEscrfcagus 

Thyroid body — Glandula thyreoidea 
Superficial layer (9 j of the deep cervical 
I I j Deep layer (10) J fascia 

/ Prevertebral fascia — Fascia prasvertebralis 
I j I 1 : Longus colli muscle 

Platysma myoides — Platysma 
Sternocleidomastoid muscle 
M sternocleidomasi 

Carotid sheath— Vagina vasorum 
Omohyoid muscle— -M 
Inferior deep cervical 
lymphatic gland (12) 
Scalenus anticus muscle 
M. scalenus anterior 
Scalenus medius muscle 

First costotransverse 
- articulation — Articulatio 
costotransversaria I. 
.Cervicalis ascendens muscle 
M iliocostalis cervicis 
__ Transversalis cervicis 
muscle (13) 
Complexus, or semispinalis 

capitis, muscle 
Semispinalis colli muscle 
M. semispinalis cervicis 



- Levator anguli scapulas 
*0I // muscle 

y // M. levator 51 

., // Multifidus spinas muscle 
'S~~^\\. multifidus 

^^^^p^_ -^--^-^^'-~ Splenius muscles 

Spinous process of the seventh cervical 

vertebra (vertebra prominens 
Froc. spinosus vertebra; cervicalis VII. 

(4) V supraclavicular is (5) Plexus venosus vertebrate 
mina profunda 
(13) M. IciiKissimus cervicis 

Fig. 1016.— Transverse Section through the Neck, passing through the Spine near the Lower Si 

of the Body of the Seventh Cervical Vertebra (Vertebra Prominens). Upper Surface of the 
Lower Segment. 



Trapezius (or cucullaris)- 

muscle 

Deep fascia f Superficial' 

of the nuchal- layers ' 

regiont) I Deep lay en 

Serratus posticus superior muscle 

Ehomboideus muscles 



(1) A. carotis communis (_■) A. et v. vertebralis (i) *V. interv.i 

(6) Fascia nucha i l Lamina superlicialis (S) Lamina profunda 

(11) Fascia; colli (12) Lymphoglandula cervicalis pro'unda 



1 See Appendix, note 
3 Or tenth 
-ve.)-T R . 

■* See Appemliw note 
8 See note 5 to p. 667. 



pendix, note 
' to p. 665. 



(According to that of Willis, the par vagum of the eighth cranial 
6 See Appendix, note =»'. 7 See Appendix, note =». 



Topogranhical Anatomy of the Neck. 



ARTERI/E EXTREMITATUM 
SUPERIORUM ET INFERIORUM 

THE ARTERIES OF THE 
UPPER AND LOWER EXTREMITIES 



628 



THE ARTERIES OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Suprascapular artery 
Transverse cervical artery i -A. transvi 
Clavicular branch of the 
acromiothoracic artery 
Ramus subclavius 
Axillary artery 
Thoracic or pectoral branch 



Innominate (or brachiocephalic) artery — A. anonyma 
Subclavian artery — A. subclavia 
Internal mammary artery — A. mammaria interna. 
Vertebral artery— A. vertebralis 
Thyroid axis— Truncus thyreocervicalis , 
Scalenus anticus muscje— M. scalenus anterior , ; 



I COlli 



l scapulae. 



Acromiothoracic ( 

artery 4 
A. thoraco-acro- 

mialis | Descending or humeral branch 

» deltoideus 

Median nerve 
N. medianus 
Anterior circumflex artery (of the arm) 



An 



■ ■ft — . 



Posterior circumflex artery (of the 

arm) — Arteria circumfleNu humeri 

posterior 




Subscapular artery ' 
A. subscapularis 



Dorsal branch of 
the subscapular 

artery 5 
A. circumflexa 

scapula: 



Brachial artery 
A. brachialis 



Subscapular or thoracicodorsalis artery 1 / 

A thoracodorsals 

Long thoracic artery" 
A. thoracalis lateralis 



External mammary branches' 
Rami mammarii 



' See Appendix, - Known also as the transverse scapula* or transverse humeral artery. 

Often calle ulce artery. See also Appendix, note =03. . note a °4. 

Fig. 1017. Righi Subclavian and Axillary Arteries and their Relation to the Brachial r 

SEEN FROM THE FkiiN'l \\i> :m lv.11 ' IDE. THE DIVISION 1 [NNOMINAT1 01 Bl Ml HALIC) 

Artery into Righi Subclavian and Common Carotid Arteries. *Tho '" v - 01 the Sub- 

clavian Artery (see Appendix, nott "*), with the Origin oi thi .1. Artery, the Thyroid Axis, 

and the Internal Mammary Artery; the Cervical (Third) Portion of the Subclavian Artery 
(see Appendix, note **), with the origin of the Transverse Cervical Artery. 

Of the branches of the axillary artery [see Appendix, ?iole **) we see : the branches of the acromiothoracic artery, arteria 
thoraco-acromialis, the thoracic or pectoral branch, ramus pectoralis, the clavicular branch, ramus subclavius, the 
acromial branch, ramus acromialis, and the descending or humeral branch, ramus deltoidcus ; the long thoracic 
artery, arteria thoracalis lateralis ; the (long) subscapular artery, arteria subscapularis, and its division into the dorsal 
scapular artery, arteria circumflexa scapulre, and the thoracicodorsalis artery, arteria thoracodorsalis [see Appendix, 
note =o3 ) ; the anterior and posterior circumflex arteries (of the arm), arteriee circumflexse humeri, anterior ei 
posterior. 

A. subclavia, the subclavian artery ; A. axillaris, the axillary artery. 



THE ARTE 



Acromiothoracic artery, or thor 
A tin : 

Subscapular branches'., 

Subscapular artery : 

Anterior circumflex artery iof the 
arm 
Posterior circumflex artery of the 

'Boundary betweea the axil-, 
lary artery aad the brachial & 

artery- ^ . 



Superior profund 

n.rteryiof the arm 



Transverse cervical artery 

Superior or short thoracic ar 

Deltoid 
mUBcle 



Third 01 
sub. ] . 




Eorsal li-anch of tv 
subscapular artery 



\ or 
subscapular I 
Subscapular or thoracicodorsal 
artery 7 



Long thoraei' 









Fir,. 1018.— The Di 

Wall 01 1 111 Axn i..\ and i hi 13 

AND 

I'l.hX.l 1 [UMI II t\ 






' 












A. subclavia, the subclavian artery ; A. axillaris, the axillarj 



630 



THE ARTERIES OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Infraclavicular triangle or fossa, 
or Mohrenheimer's space 
Trigonum deltoideopectorale 
Acromiothoracic [Acromial branch 3 
artery, or thor- I Descending or 
acic axis' Numeral branch- 
A tnoraco-acromialts ^ Ramus deltoi | eu . 



Pectoralis major muscle 



Cutaneous branch 
Ramus cutaneus 

Coracobracliialis muscle 
M. coracobrachialis 

Brachial artery 
A brachialis 



Deltoid muscle 
M. deltoideus 



Biceps flexor cubiti muscle 
M. biceps brachii 



Musculocutaneous or external cutaneo' 

nerve 

N. cutaneus antibra liii lateralis 

Brachial artery 
A brachialis 

Semilunar or bicipital fascia 

Lacertus fibrosus 

Supinator radii longus mus< 
M brachioradialis 




Cutaneous branches 
Rami cutanei 



Subscapular artery 3 — A. subscapularis 
Axillary lymphatic glands 4 
Lymphoglandula axillaris 

Subscapular or thoracicodorsal 

artery^ 

A. thoracodorsalis 



Dorsal branch of the sub- 
scapular artery, or dorsalis 
scapulae artery" 

A circumflexa scapula? 



Teres major muscle 



Latissiraus dorsi muscle 



Triceps extensor cubiti muscle (middle 

or long head) 

M. triceps brachii (caput longum) 

Tendinous slip connecting the middle or 
long head of the triceps extensor cubiti 
muscle with the latissimus dorsi muscle 5 

uperior profunda artery 

(of the arm) 1 

A. profunda brachii 

Triceps extensor cubiti muscle (internal 
or deep head) 
M triceps brachii (caput mediale) 
Inferior profunda artery (of the arm)' 
A. collateralis ulnaris superior 
Ulnar nerve 
N. ulnaris 



Brachialis anticus muscle 
- IM. brachialis 

Internal intermuscular septum, incised 
longitudinally, and turned to the ulnar 
side [i c, inwards) 
Septum intermusculars mi 

Anastomotic branch of the brachial 

artery (anastomotica magna artery i 1 

A. collateralis ulnaris inferior 



.Cutaneous branch 

Ramus cutaneus 



Deep fascia of the forearm 
Fascia antibrachii 



Radial recurrent artery 
A. recurrens radialis 



1 See Appendix, - See Appendix, note so6 . Appendix, notes =03 and 2o6 . 

4 This, being one of tli at the lower border of the pectoral muscles, belongs to the pectoral 

:i).-TR. 

s This slip is vestigial i iris or accessorial tricfyitis muscle which is commonly met with in 

quadrumana, and exists in many other m Quain, op. n't., vol. ii., pp. 206 and 221, and Macalister, op. cit., p. 290.) — Tr. 

b Called co-acromial artery. See Appendix, : 

Fig. 1019.— The Arteries of the Right Upper Arm, Shoulder, and Axillary Region; seen from the 

Front and the Inner Side. 

Regarding the branches of the brachial artery, see Appendix, note*&; and regarding the upper limit of the brachial 

artery, see Appendix, note- -' . 



The Arteries of the Upper Arm and the Shoulder. 



THE 






Suprascapular artery ' ttermina. 



Triceps extensor cubiti 
muscle (middle or long 

head) 

1111) 



Subscapular triangle, or 
'internal axillary space ' 



Dorsal branch of tbc 
subscapular artery 



Teres major muse!: 






Bhoulu- : 




II 






Brai 



Latissimus dorsi muscl 



I External head 
Triceps extensor cubiti 
muscle 
M. triceps brachii Internal or deep head 

Caput 



Muscular brai. 
ternal or deep head ■> 

tensor cubiti muscle 
M. tri 

Medullary or nutritious 
the hunici i 
Musculospiral neive 

Lower part of the superior 

Anterior terminal bran 
superior profunda :.: 



Posterior ten., 
supern i 






— Supinator radii longus muscle 



Rete olc 






'■ 












Arteries of the Upper Ann and the Shoulder. 






632 



THE ARTERIES OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Biceps flexor cubiti muscle 
M. biceps brachii 



Supinator radii longus muscle 
M. brachioradialis 



Radial recurrsnt artery 
A. recurrens raclialis 




Median nerve 

N. medianus 

Anastomotic branch of the brachial artery 
(anastomotica magna artsryj l 
A. collaterally ulnaris inferior 



Eraehial artery 
A. brachialis 



Cutaneous offset 



- Flexor carpi radialis muscle 



Pronator radii teres muscle 
M. pronator teres 



Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 



Flexor longus pollicis muscle 

M. flexor pollicis longus 



Superficial volar artery - 

Ramus volaris superficialis 

arterial radialis 



Palmar fascia 
Aponeurosis palmaris 



Palmaris longus muscle 



Flexor sublimis digitorum or flexor 

perforatus muscle 

M. flexor digitorum sublimis 

Ulnar artery 

\. ulnaris 



Palmaris brevis muscle 



Often known in England by the La 



: of superficialis •-■o/ir artery.— Tr 



Fig. 1021— The Superficial Arteries of the A I Fossa and the Palmar Surface of the 

Right Forearm. 



Palmar Arteries of the Forearm and the Hand. 



THE Ali'fi LIMB 






Biceps flexor cubiti musclo 

Anastomotic branch of the bi 

artery .nagna artery;' 

Brachial artery . 
Semilunar or bicipital fascia— 



Supinator radii longus muscle 



Radial recurrent artery 
Ulnar recurrent artery' ; . 

Supinator radii brevis muscle M. 

Interosseous or common interosseous 
arterv 
Extensor carpi radialis longior muscle 
M. ex 

Extensor carpi radialis brevior muscle 
M. e.\ idialis brevis 



Flexor sublimis digitorum muscle- 
extremity, drawn outwards) 
M. 

Supinator radii longus muscle 

iialis 

Flexor longu:; pollici3 muscle--- 

Flexor profundus digitoruin muscle" 
M. ili 

Median artery ; \ 

Pronator quadratus muscle 
Flexor carpi radialis musclo - 
Radial artery 
Superficial volar arte . 

Antcr unentofthe 

wrist (deep layer) 

Abductor pollicis muscle 

Flexor brevis pollicis muscle (superficial head) 
Digital art, 

Adductor pollicis mua 



First dorsal interosseous 



muscle \ (~ 

Lumbricales muscles--" 

Mm I 




■ 

Internal .: 
drawn apai • 



•■ auticus mmclo 

Median n 



Pronatoi 
superficial or bu 

Flexor cai 

Palmaris longus muscle 
Ulnar artery 

Flexor sublimis digitonun i 
(proximal extr. 
M 



. Median artery, perforating 
the median nerve 

— Ulnar artery 

-Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 

Flexor profundus digitonun muscle 



Pisiform bono 

( 

Deep or communicating bra: i artery 

(double, in this insta:. 

I Superficial palmar ai 

Flexor brevis minimi d 

Digital art i 



: 



.ir Arteries of the I 1 1 intl. 



634 



THE ARTERIES OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Biceps flexor cubiti muscle 

M. biceps brachii 
Anterior terminal branch of the superior 
profunda artery 7 — Ramus anterior termi- 
nals arteriae collateralis radialis 

Brachialis anticus muscle ~" 
M. brachialis 



Supinator radii longus muscle 
M. brachiorad 



Radial recurrent artery 
A. recurrens radialis 

Supinator radii brevis muscle — II. supinator 
Interosseous or common interosseous artery 

A. intc-rossca communis 

Posterior interosseous artery— A. interossea dorsalis 
Anterior interosseous artery — A. interossea volaris 

Extensor carpi radialis longior muscle — 
M. extensor carpi radialis longus 
Extensor carpi radialis brevior muscle 
M. extensor carpi radialis bi 

Pronator radii teres muscle 
M pronator teres 
Interosseous membrane or ligament 

of the forearm 
Membrana interossea antibrachii 



Flexor longus pollicis muscle 
M. flexor pollicis longus 



Pronator quadratus muscle divided 
in two by a vertical incision, the seg- 
ments being drawn apart 



Anterior radial carpal 
branch— Ramus carpeus volaris 
SuperHcial volar artery 
Ramus volaris superficialis 
Abductor pollicis muscle— M. abductor 
pollicis brevis 
Radial artery— A. radialis 
Large artery of the thumb 9 
A princeps pollicis 
Adductor pollicis muscle 
M i .doctor pollicis 
Flexor longus pollicis 
muscle — M. flexor pollicis longus — 
First dorsal interosseous or abductor — 
indicis muscle 
M. interossens dorsalis I 
Radial artery of the index finget -' 
A. volaris indicis radialis 




Inferior profunda artery (of the arm) 1 

A. collateralis ulnaris superior 

Ulnar nerve 
— N. ulnaris 

Internal intermuscular septum 

Septum intermusculare mediale 

Brachial artery 

A. brachialis 

Internal condyle of the humerus 

Epicondvlus medialis humeri 

Capsule of the eltow-joint 

Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (humeral head) 
Brachialis anticus muscle 
M. brachialis 



Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 



Ulnar artery 
'7/ A ulnaris 

Flexor profundus digitorum muscle- 
M. flexor digitorum profundus 



Anterior communicating or anterior terminal 
branch of the anterior interosseous artery 

Anterior interosseous artery piercing the 
interosseous membrane of the forearm 
Arteria interossea volaris membranam 

interosseam antibrachii penetrans 
Posterior ulnar carpal branch 
Ramus carpeus t! 
Anterior ulnar carpal branch 
Ramus carpeus volaris 
Anterior carpal rete ' — Rete carpi volare 

Deep or communicating branch of the ulnar artery 
(double) — Ramus volaris profundus arteria ulnaris 
Abductor minimi digiti muscle 

— M, abductor digiti V 

=~ Superior perforating arteries 4 — Rami perforante 

— Deep palmar arch — Arcus volaris profundus 

_ Palmar interosseous arteries' 
~~Aa metacarpea: volares 
---Interosseous muscles Aim. interossei 



Digital arteries (turned downwards ,; 
Aa. digitales volares communes 



See Appendixj note 209. 
Call.-J by M .cali t 1 the 
Sec Appendi 



branch i> »;ar a>ch. 

8 See note - to p. 632. 



, ixle -';■. 



See Appendi.' 



Fig. 1023. 



-The Anterior Interosseous Artery of the Right Forearm and the 
Palmar Arch; seen from Before. 



Deep 



Palmar Arteries of the Forearm and Hand. 



llll: ARTERIES OF 1 III: UPPER LIMli 






Posterior terminal branch of the superior 
profunda artery 1 

Ramn ; 

Triceps extensor cubiti muscle 
M. trio 



Rete olecrani 

Anconeus muscle divided by a 

vertical incision, the segments 

being drawn apart 

Supinator radii brevis muscle 
M . su] 
Posterior interosseous recurrent 
artery 1 
A interossea recurrens J 

Posterior interosseous artery — \ 



Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle—- 



Dorsal or perforating offsets of the 
anterior interosseous artery 
Rami 

<Vnterior interosseous artery posterior 
terminal branch i 

Extensor indicis muscle 

proprius 



Posterior carpal rete' 
irpi d i sale 
Posterior ulnar carpal branch 




Perforating branch 

Kan.v 

Dorsal interosseous arteries' 1 ... 
Aa. mi 




Biceps flexor cubiti muscle 
Brachials anticus muscle 

Supinator radii longuB muscle 



__ Extensor carpi radialiB longior 
muscle 



Posterior interosseous nerve 

. Extensor communis digitorum and 
extensor minimi digiti muscle 



Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis 
or abductor longus pollicis muscle 

Extensor carpi radialis brevior muscle 
M exti 



Extensor primi internodii pollicis 
-or extensor brevis pollicis muscle 

M. i 
Extensor secundi internodii pollicis 
or extensor longus pollicis muscle 



Posterior annular ligament 
of the wrist 

Posterior radial carpal branch 



Radial artery 



.-ous or 
■ abdu 






\ /\ A i 



M 






. 1024. 

I 

Till. II 



Dorsal An 






636 



THE ARTERIES OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Supinator radii longus muscle 
M. brachioradialis 

Flexor longus pollicis muscle 
M. flexor pollicis longus 

Radial artery 
A. radialis 

Flexor carpi radialis muscle 

Superficial volar artery 4 
Ramus volaris superficialis 



Palmaris longus muscle 
M. palmaris longus 



Flexor carpi ulnaris muscls 



Flexor sublimis digitorum 

muscle- 

M. flexor digitorum 

sublimis 




Palmaris brevis muscle 
M. palmaris brevis 



Palmar fascia 
Aponeurosis palmaris 

Digital arteries ; 

An. digitalcs volares 

commu 



Superficial transverse ligament — 

of the fingers 

Fasciculi transversi aponeurosis 

palmaris 

Radial artery of the index 

finger' 
A. volaris indicis radialis 



Middle vaginal band 
Lig. vaginale 



Digital arteries 

\a. diyitales vol ares | 



< . ipendix, note ='3. 

6 Or collateral digital <-■ 

Fig. 1025.— The Superficial Arteries of the Palm of the Hand; the Palmar Digital Arteries. 

In the thumb, the index-, and the middle finger, the skin and the superficial fascia have been removed, thus exposing the 
digital sheaths of the flexor tendons (ligamenta vaginalia, etc.). In the ring and little fingers, the superficial fascia 
and the arteries ramifying in it have been preserved. 



Arteries of the Palm of the Hand. 



THE ARTERIES OF 1111 LIMB 






Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 

Extensor minimi digiti muscle 
M. exti 

Extensor communis digitorum 

muscle 
M i 

Posterior carpal rete (superficial layer, 

en the dorsal surface of the posterior 

annular ligament of the wrist) 

Posterior ulnar carpal branch of 

the ulnar artery 
Ramus i 

ulnaris 



Dorsal interosseous arteries 
Aa. mi 



First dorsal interosseous — 
artery ; 

Dorsal digital arte] 

/ 



Anterior interos 



Dorsal offsets of the ipalmai 
arteries 

Rami : 




Posterior interoEseou 



Extensor 
longub j 
Extensor i 






muscle 
Radial artery 



Posterior radial carp 
oi the radial a 



sseous or 
abductor . 



Muctor pollici: : 



Dorsal digital arteries 1 















. 



I'n; 



Mil. I 1 \ \ I ' 
1 









Arteries of the i Hand. 



838 



THE ARTERIES OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Musculocutaneous or external cutaneous 
nerve — N. musculocutaneus 
Brachial artery— A. brachialis 
Median nerve— N. medianus S^ 
Internal cutaneous nerve J§$%& 
N. cutaneus antibrachii 
medialis 



Brachial veins, or venae comites 
of the brachial artery — Vena?,/ 
brachiales 
Internal intermuscular septum 

Septum intermusculare mediale \\ XH 

^Internal or deep head \\,' ^ 
Triceps extensor | Caput Middie or long head 
Caput longu 



cubiti muscle 

M. triceps bracbii 




Cephalic vein 
/ V. cephalica 

>>X - Biceps flexor cubiti muscle 
s*\,\ M. biceps brachii 



Brachialis anticus muscle 
M. brachialis 



External intermuscular septum 
Septum intermusculare laterale 



--Superior profunda artery 1 
']] A. collateralis radialis 
- Musculospiral nerve 
N. radialis 



Deep fascia of the arm, or brachial fascia 

Fascia brachii 



External head 

Caput laterale 



Fig. 1027. — Transverse Section through the Middle of the Right Upper Arm ; Upper 

Surface of Lower Segment. 



*Median vein of the elbow 
*V. mediana cubiti 
Brachial veins, or venae comites of 
the brachial artery \ 
Brachialis anticus muscle— M. brachialis 
Median nerve— N. medianus v 

Pronator radii teres muscle 
M. pronator teres 




Cephalic vein" 

V. cephalica 

Brachial artery— A brachialis 

Tendon of the biceps flexor cubitri muscle 
^^^>. TenJn musculi bicipitis brachii 
^*sfccK\. Musculospiral nerve 
■ "^> N. radialis 



Supinator radii longus muscle 
II. bracbioradialis 



Ulnar nerve 

N ulnaris 
Inferior profunda artery (of the 

arm) 3 
A. collateralis ulnaris superior 

Olecranon 



Subcutaneous bursa of the olecranon 

Bursa subcutanea olecrani 



m 

/' Extensor carpi radialis 
longior muscle 
M extensor carpi 
radialis longus 



Fig. 1028. — Transverse Section through the Extended Elbow-Joint at the Level of 
the Two Condyles ; Upper Surface of Lower Segment. 



1 See Appendix, no 



3 See Appendix, note 2 °9. 



Topographical Anatomy of the Upper Arm and the Elbow. 



THE ARTE1 LIMB 






Flexor aublimis digitorum muscle 

Ulnar artery -A. ulnaris 
Dinar nerve 
Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle ^/. 




Anterior ulnar vein 
Flexor profundus digitorum muscle : 



Extensor secundi internodii ' 

pollicis muscle 
M. extei 






Tendon of the palmaris longus i 

■ 
Flexor carpi nul 

\ 




t 



Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 
Interosseous membrane or ligament of tho \^ 
forearm Meml 

Posterior interosseous artery 
A. inter 

Extensor minimi digiti muscle 




Radial vi . 
Pronator ran:: 

/ Tc-i.' 

E>:i 
• • ,>•- '' Anterior interosseous m 

Anterior interosseous :■ 



Exten. - - i 
Posterior interosseous nerve 



is and extensor 



i he Right Fork 
Ex 1 1 niE Insertio 

Anterior annular ligament of the wrist superfi. . 
Tendon of the flexor sublimis digitorum muscle 

Tendon of the flexor profundus digitorum muscle _ -r~— — — _ Tendon of the palmaris longus muscle 

iTggJ-Sjv. Median nerve 

>. Tendon of the flexor carpi radialis muscle 
Vt-v N - Tendon of the flexor longus pollicis muscle 

nernclal volar 



Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 
Ulnar artery 






Ulnar nerve X. ulnaris 
Dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar 

nerve 
Ramu 



erve to the hand l^lA 

■salis manus nervi ulnaris // /r? 
Triangular fibrocartilage \w'^ 
W 1 ' 



Head of the ulna Capitulum ulna \ 
Tendon of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle \^S-b» 
Tendon of the extensor minimi digiti muscle 

Posterior annular ligament of the wrist 

I 




:>\ 



Radial artery 
Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis > 

Extensor primi internodii pollicis :. 

" Radius 



Extensor carpi radialis longior n. 
Extensor carpi radialis b;evior : 
Extensor secundi internodii pollicis muscle I • i 
"Tendons of the extensor communis digitorum 
and extensor indicis muscles 



(■) M 






I il 






Palmar interosseous arteries 
A, i. 
Adductor pollicis muscle 
Deep fascia of the palm V£ 
Tendon of the flexor 
longus pollicis muscle y 

Large artery of the thumb 7 //jj^Si 
A. prin 



Thenar eminence 



Dorsal interosseous arteries of the second and third 

Tendons of the flexor profundus 
digitorun 
Supei • 

Deep ■ 

Fourth dors..l 



; iii»A»I\\\ 



Superficial palmar arcl 







Third palmar intorossec s muscle 
:uenco 






|-f.\\l>, 


















Topographic; ' Anatomy of the Forearm and I 



640 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Superficial circumflex -~ 

iliac artery 
A. circumflexa ilium 

superficialis 



Superior superficial 

inguinal lymphatic glands 

Lymphoglandulee 

inguinales 



•Inguinal branches 3 
*Rami inguinales 

Inferior superficial inguinal 

lymphatic glands 

Lymphoglandul<e sub- 

inguinales superficiales 



Cutaneous branches 

Rami cutanei 




Superficial epigastric artery 
A. epi-. , iali , 



Superior and inferioi 
external pudic arteries 1 
Aa pudenda externa 



Anterior scrotal crteries" 
Aa. scrotales anteriores 



Internal or long saphenous vein 
V. saphena magna 



1 I'll, upper of these is named by MacalLiter the superior or superficial pubic, the lower, the inferior pubic artery.— Tr. 

3 Kami Inguinales.— According to Von I I p. 525) there are m ingvm> to the 

skin and superficial lymphatic glands'of this region, in addition to tl branches of the femoral artery commonly enumerated, 

ternalpudic arteri \ lain does 

n, t t in. 1111. hi independent inguinal branches, stating that 1 enumerated all gi\ 

lymphatic glands in the groin. Macalister mentions an additional superficial branch of the femoral . . 'le, the 

saphenous, "one, two, or three branches descending to the skin .1 the saphena vein'' (<>/. cit-, p. 486). 

branches are in part identical with the rami inguinal s ..1 Ti 

e.'ands. 
. Fossa. '* Immediately below Poupart's ligament, a slight h ;een, corresponding to Scarpa's triangular 

in ■.* lii h, just internal to the centre, the femora! artery may in, op. cit.. " Appei .! and 

Surgical | I Though this author .1 tion, he gives it no distinctive name, and I 

used a translation of Toldt's name of fossa subinguinalis. — Tr. 

Fig. ioj.2. — The Subcutaneous Arteries of the Hypogastric Region (Regio Hypogastrica), 
the Inguinal Region, the Male External Generative Organs, the Subingi 
Fossa (see note 5 above) and the Adjoining Regions of the Right Thigh; the Superior 
and Inferior Superficial Inguinal Lymphatic Glands and the Proximal Portion of 
the Internal or Long Saphenous Vein ; seen from Before. 

The cribriform fascia (fascia cribrosa), the intercolumnar or spermatic fascia (fascia cremasterics 
Cooperii, and the deep fas( ia "1" the penis, have been left intact. 



Arteries of the Front of the Thigh. 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LIMB 






Iliopsoas muscle 

Anterior crural or femoral 
nerve 

Superficial circumflex iliac artery 
A. circumflexa ilium 

External circumflex artery of 
the thigh i 

Deep femoral or profunda artery 

Tensor vaginas femoris or tensor fascia 
femoris muscle M. 

Femoral artery 



Cutaneous offsets, 



Deep fascia of the thigh, or fasci: 
lata superficial la . 
ata (lamina su] 




. Superficial epij 

Femoral u 
Femoral vein 



— | Superior and inferior external 
pudic .1 

-- ' 

-Muscular 'superficial branch of 
the inter:. 



Adductor longuB muscle 
Gracilis • 



Cut margin of the superficial layer 
of the deep fascia of the thigh, or 

i I lata 



Sartorius muscle 



- Cutaneous offsets 



Superior iuternal articol 












Arteries of the Front ol the Thigh. 






642 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Superficial epigastric artery 

A. epigastrica superficialis - 

Tensor vaginae femoris or tensor fasciae 

femoris muscle — M. tensor fasci.'c latae" 

Anterior crural or femoral nerve. 

N. femoralis . 

Femoral artery ' —A. femoralis" 

Femoral vein— V. femoralis - 
Sartorius muscle 
Deep femoral or profunda artery 

A profunda femoris 

External circumflex , Ascending branch 
artery (of the thigh I J Ramus Sseendens 
\ circumflexa femoris I Descending branch 
lateralis Uamus descendens 

Cut margin of the superficial layer of the 
deep fascia of the thigh, or fascia lata 

First or superior perforating artery 
A. perforans prima 

Deep femoral or profunda artery - 
A. profunda femoris 

Vastus internus muscle - 
M. vastus medialis 



Femoral vein— V. femoralis. - 
Internal or long saphenous nerve 
N. saphenus 

Femoral artery 4 — 
A. femoralis 

Rectus femoris muscle- 



* Articular rete of the knee 5 
Rete articulare genu 



: : -. . ii tc '-"i. 




Cremasteric artery 1 
A. spermatica externa 



Internal circumflex artery (of tie 

thigh f 
A. circumflexa femoris medialis 
Muscular .superficial) branch- 
Ramus superficialis 



Adductor brevis muscle 



Adductor lon^us muscle 



Gracilis muscle 



Anterior wall of Hunter's canal 
Paries anterior canalis 
adductorii (Hunteri) 



Muscular branch ; 
Ramus muscularis 



Internal or long saphenous nerve 
N. saphenus 
Sartorius muscle 



Anastomotic artery' 
A. genu su] 



Superior internal articular artery 
A genu superior medialis 
Articular branch of the anastomotic artery' 
Ramus articularis 
Superficial branch of the 
anastomotic artery 
Ramus saphenus 






Fig. 1034.— The Femoral A v. i 1 ri . Arteria Femoralis , exposed as far as its Entry into 

Hunter's Canal {see Appendix, note 22s ) ! and the Deep Femoral or Profunda Artery, Arteria 
Profunda Femoris. 

The middle portion of the sartorius muscle has been cut away. 



Arteries of the Front of the Thigh. 



THE ARTERIES Of ill. LIMB 






Proximal extremity of the sartorius musclo 

Anterior crural or 
femoral nerve 

Gluteus medius muscle 

Rectus femoris muscle 

Distribution of the deep motor branches 
of the anterior crural or femoral nerve 

Tensor vaginas femoris or tensor 

fascia; femoris muscle 

External circumflex , Ascending brand 
artery of the thigh: I I. 

I Descending brand 



Vastus externus muscle- 



First or superior perforating artery 

Second or middle perforating artery 

Rectus femoris muscle" 
Deep femoral or profunda artery 



Supeni 



I 



Adductor longus mu?cle 



Muscular branches 
Kami mu 



Vastus interims muscle drawn outward 



Articular branches taking part in the forma 
tion of the articular rete of the knee' 




MubcuI 

"Deep branch 

Deep femcral or profunda a: I 
-Adductoi 



Musculo 



Fascial roof of Hunter's canal canalis adduc- 
torius Hunteri divided by a longitudinal 
incision, with the segments drawi 

Adductor magnus muscle 
Femoral artery 

Femora 

Opening in the adductor magnus c 
through which the feiV' I 

popliteal space, forming the inferior onfice of 
Hunter's canal 
Anastomotic ai I 



Popliteal vein 
Popliteal artery 



Distal 






Superficial branch 
'ranch 









■' wiik II II 



Alt' ■ 



644 



THE ARTERIES OE THE LOWER LIMB 



Sartorius muscle 
Poupart's ligament (superficial femoral arch) 
Lig. inguinale (Pouparti) 

Tensor vaginae femoris or 
tensor fasciae femoris muscle (i) 



, Iliopsoas muscle 

Descending branch of the external circumflex artery (of the thigh) 
! arising separately from the (common; femoral artery (var.j (2) 
! , Deep circumflex iliac artery — A. circumflexa ilium profunda 
I 1 External iliac artery--A. iliaca externa 

;Deep or inferior epigastric artery — A. epigastrica inferior 
i , Internal circumflex artery (of the thigh) 1 (3) 
I i Muscular (*superficial) branch 1 — Ramus superficialis 
Articular or acetabular artery 1 — A. acetabuli 

Obturator artery -A. obturatoria 
: I External terminal branch — Ramus posterior 
; • ' Internal terminal branch (4) 

Obturator membrane or ligament 




Femoral artery 4 
A. femoral is 
Ascending branch of the 
external circumflex artery (of 
the thigh) — Ramus ascendens" 
arterial circumflexae femoris 
lateralis 
Deep femoral or profunda artery 
A. profunda femoris 

Vastus externus muscle 
M. vastus lateralis 



Rectus femoris muscle 
Articular or acetabular branch of 
the internal circumflex artery (of 

the thigh) 1 

Ramus acetabuli arteriae circum- 

fiexse femoris medialis 

Crureus muscle 

M. vastus intermedins - 



First or superior perforating artery 
A. pcrforans prima 



( 1 1 M. tens • fa 
( ;) A. circumll 

1 See Appendix, note 23 4. 

3 Adductor Minimus i i by English 

superior portion of the adductor magnus musi 
3 See note - to p. 643 and Appendix, no: 



Adductor 
minimus muscle- 

^Obturator externus muscle 

Deep branch of the internal cir 
cumflex artery (of the thigh) '■ (5) 
Small trochanter 
Trochanter minor 



Adductor minimus muscle- 



' Deep femoral or profunda artery — A. profunda femoris 



1 separate muscle, but as the anterior and 






Fig. 1036.— The Right Obturator Artery, its Division into Internal and External Terminal Branches, 
and the Origin from the Latter of the Articular or Acetabular Artery. The Dei c I 1 moral or 
Profunda Artery, the *Deep Branch of the Internal Circumflex Artery [see Appendix, note K4 ), and 
Articular or Acetabular Branch, Ramus Acetabuli. Ok the Two Principal Branches of the 
External Circumflex Artery, the Ascending Branch arises in this Specimen from Tin Deep Femoral 
or Profunda Artery, but th) Descending Branch irises from the (Common) Femoral Artery (Var.). 

The sartorius muscle has been removed, except forthe proximal extremity ; the pectinetts, adductor longus, and adductor 
muscles have been divided transversely, the parts below the incision have been drawn inwards, and the 
proximal extremities have been cut away. The adductor magnus muscle has been entirely removed, the adductor 
minimus muscle (see note = above) has been divided transversely, and the segments have been drawn apart. The 
obturator externus muscle, which has been thus exposed, has been divided by an incision passing vertically down- 
wards from its upper border, and the inner segment of the muscle has been turned downwards and inwards. 



Arteries of the Front of the Thigh. 



THE ARTERIES 01 THE LOWER LIMli 






Cutaneous offsets of the dorsal branches 
of the lumbar arteries 
Rami i 

i iarum lumbalium 

Cutaneous offsets of the gluteal arterj 



Cutaneous offsets of the sciatic 
artery 
Kami culanei artei i. 




Cutaneous offsets of the gluteal 



Cutaneous offsets of the inferior 

hemorrhoidal artery a branch 

of the internal pudic artery l 



Cutaneous offsets of th? muscular branches 

supplied to the adductor muscles by the 

deep femoral or profunda artery 

■ mi ail 

fem 




■ 



lutaneous offsets of thi 
artery 

■ 



Cutaneous offsets of the first or 
superior perforating artery 



Cutaneous offsets of the perforating . 
arteries (internal series) 

rantium 



Cutaneous offsets of the other 

perforating arteries leitemal 

series i 



Cutaneous offsets of the popliteal artery 

Kami cut, 



I 



\ Cutaneous offsets of the popliteal 
Rami cutar 









I'm i'i 

Ham. Right l 



Arteries of the Buttock, the Back of the Thigh, ami tin 



646 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Gluteal artery (superior branch)* 
A. glutfea superior (ramus superior) 
Gluteus medius muscle 
M. glutseus medius 
,Pyriformis muscle 
M. piriformis 

Comes nervi ischiadici artery 
A 



Sciatic artery 



Sciatic artery mg 

A. glutaea inferior J39S 



Internal pudic artery 
A. pudenda interna 

Posterior or great sacrosciatic 

ligament 

Lig. sacrotuberosum 

Inferior hsemorrhoidal artery 5 

A ha:morrhoidalis inferior 



* Superficial or long 

perineal artery 11 

*A perinei 




omitans n. ischiadici 
Obturator internus muscle with the 
gemelli muscles above and below 

Internal circumflex artery ("deep branch )- 
' A. circumflexa femoris medialis (ramus 
profundus) 
Trochanteric rete :L 
Rete trochantericum 



Quadratus femoris 
muscle 



Gluteus maximus muscle 

^.1 vim. rus maximus 



'Adductor minimus 
muscle' 



Adductor magnus muscle - 
Semiteudinosus muscle 



First or superior per- 
forating artery 
A. perforans prima 



Adductor magnus muscle 7 



Vastus externus muscle 
M. vastus lateralis 



Biceps flexor cruris muscle 

(long head) 

M. biceps femoris (caput 

longum) 



■ See Appendix, note ==9. 

5 Quain gives tx it 

6 See Appendix, note *47. 



note - to p. 643 and Appendix, note —4. \ : | ,endi\, note 2 3». 

iwrrhoidal as an alternative name for this vessel, while 11 the anal artery. 

Appendix, note 2 3 s . 



See note = to p. 644. 



Fig. 103S.— The Deep Arteries of the Right Buttock; seen from Behind. The Upper Branch, Rami's 
Superior, of the Deep Part of the Gluteal Artery, Arteria Glutea Superior; the Sciatic Artery, 
Arteria Glutea Inferior, and the Comes Nervi Ischiadic] Artery, Arifria Comitans Nervi 
Ischiadici; the Interna] Pi dh Artery, Arteria Pudenda Interna, from its Emergence from the 
Pelvis through the Gri \t Sacrosciatic Foramen to its Entry into the Ischiorectal Fossa ran 
the Small Sacrosciatic Foramen; the Inferior or Externa] ii i viorrhoidal Artery (Anal Arti i \ •. 
Arteria H/emorrhoidalis Inferior, and the Superficial or Long Perineal Artery, Arteria Pi 
The Emergence of the First or Superior Perforating Artery, Arteria Perforans Prima, between 
the Adductor Minimus and Adductor Magnus Muscles (see note - to /. 644), and its Dim-kin into 
Ascending and Desi ending Branches; the Crucial A ,xu the Trochanteric Rete, Rete 

Trochantericum. 

The gluteus maximus muscle has been cut across a little above and interna] to its middle, and the segments have been 
turned inwards and outwards, respectively. 



Arteries of the Buttock. 



111 E LIMB 






Inferior branclr 



Superior branch ; 
Gluteal artery' 

Pyriformis muscle 
Sciatic artery 



Gluteus medius muscle 



Gluteus minimus muscle 



Internal putlic artery 
Comes nervi ischiadici artery 
Obturator fascia 
Inferior hemorrhoidal . 

Posterior or great sacro- 
sciatic ligament 
I 

"Superficial or long 
perineal artery 7 
"A pel 



Internal circumflex artery 

deep branch; 
A. circum 
dialis ('ramus profundus 



Biceps flexor cruris muscle 
long head 




Obtura- 



Quadratus femoris 



iopsoai 



muscle 
First or supei 

--Adductor magnus n u 
Second or middle perforating 






After ii 



648 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Gluteus maximus muscle 
M. glutaeus maximus 



k 



Gluteal artery (superior branch) 
A glutaea superior (ramus super 



Internal pudic artery 

A. pudenda interna 

Offsets of the sciatic artery which per 

forate the great sacrosciatic ligament 

Rami arteriae gluteae inferioris qui liga 

mentum sacrotuber osum perforant 

Pudic nerve— N. pudendu: 

Sciatic artery — A. glutia inferio 

Supernumerary sciatic artery, which per 

forates the great sciatic nerve (var. ' 
Arteria glutaea inferior addilitia qua: nervu 
is hiadicum perforat 



Comes nervi ischiadici arter 
A. comitans n. ischiadici 



Gracilis muscle 
Adductor niagnus muscle 



Semim3mbranosus muscle. 

Deop fascia of the thigh, or fascia lata, 
(cut off short, and turned outwards, 

Semitendinosus muscle 



Semimembranosus muscle — 

Internal popliteal nerve— 

N. tibialis 

Gastrocnemius muscle inner head 
M. gastrocnemius (caput mediale) 
Internal sural artery 
A. suralis medialis 



Superficial sural artery- 

Ramus cutaneus. arteria?. 

suralis medialis 



1 See nod 
5 One of the; 
i the coccygeal branch of the sciatic artery. — Tr. 




| .Gluteus medius muscle 
' M. glutaius medius 



„Pyrif oralis muscle 
M. piriformis 



.- Inferior gluteal nerve 
N. gluteus inferior 

- Obturator internus muscle with the 

gemelli muscles above and below 

- Great trochanter 
Trochanter major 

Internal circumflex artery ('deep 
branch ' 

- A. circumflexa femoris medialis 

(*ramus profundus) 
Quadratus femoris muscle 



Cutaneous offsets of the first c 
superior perforating artery 
i : .iiii i arteriae perfoi ant 
primae 



Cutaneous offsets of the other per- 
' forating arteries external series 
Rami cutanei arteriarum perforan- 

tium aliarum (series lateralis) 



.- Great sciatic nerve 
Milieus 



Biceps flexor cruris muscle 
M. biceps femoris 



External popliteal or peroneal nerve 
N. peronaeus communis 



External sural artery- 
A. suralis lateralis 



Gastrocnemius muscle (outer head) 
uocnemius (caput laterale) 



Superficial sural arteries- 
Rami cutanei arteriav 



3 See Appendix, note =-". * So, Appendix, note " 

sacrosciatic ligament, i> d: i 



Fig. 1040.— Topographical Anatomy of the Buttock and the Ham: the Cutaneous Arteries 
postero-external part of the right thigh; seen from behind. 



Arteries of the Buttock, the Back of the Thigh, and the Ham. 



THE A LIMB 






Gluteal artery (superior branch 

i 



Sciatic artery I 

Internal pudic 
artery 
Posterior or great sacrosciatic ligament.. 

Inferior hemorrhoidal artery' 
A. ha : 



Comes nervi ischiadici 

artery 

Adductor magnus muscle. 



Semitendinosus muscle 



Biceps flexor cruris muscle ilong head) 
M. bice] iput longuro) 



Semitendinosus muscle 
Adductor magnus muscle 



Popliteal vein V. poplitea.. 
Opening in the adductor magnus muscle through which 
the femoral vessels pass into the popliteal space, form- 
ing the inferior orifice of Huntor's canal 1 1) 

Semimembranosus muscle-' 
Vastus internus muscle M lialis — 

Popliteal artery 
\ ! 
Superior internal articular artery 



Internal sural artery' 1 A suralis i 

Gastrocnemius muscle (inner head) 
i 

Inferior internal articular 
artery 

Popliteal vein V 

Internal popliteal nerve 







Gluteus medius m 

PyriK. 

: nor gluteal l. 

., 

^^H . Obturator lnternus muscle » 
^^B gemellus superior mi, 

■ I 



Trochai 

: 

"deep br 

Quadratus femoris mu 

Offset of the fir 
- perforating artei 

Gluteus maxiraus mu 

"Adductor minimus m 



First or superior perforating 



Superior medullary or nutritious artery of 

the fem . 

External intermuscular septum of the thigh 

Third or inferior perforating artery 

Biceps flexor cruris muscle | short head 

Muscular branch of the femoral ai I 

Inferior medullary or nutritious artery of 

the femur 

Biceps flexor cruris muscle long head 



Muscular branch 

Superior external articular artery 

Externa'. 

Middle or azygos arl 
i 

rior ext. 



-Tendino 



■ i liir Hi 
I'Oi'l i 

into mi ' 












Artei ies i'l tin- Buttoc k h, and th< 






650 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Vastus externus muscle 
M. vastus lateralis 

External intermuscular septum (of the thigh). — _« 
Septum intermusculare (femoris) laterale 

Superior external articular artery 
A. genu superior lateralis 

Biceps flexor cruris muscle ... 
Si biceps femoris 
External lateral ligament of the 
knee-joint — Lig. collaterale fibulare - 

Inferior external articular artery 
A. genu inferior lateralis 



Anterior tibial recurrent artery 
A. recurrens tibialis anterior 



Anterior tibial artery 
A. tibialis anterior 



Extensor longus digitorum pedis muscle 

M. extensor digitorum longus 



Extensor longus r./ extensor 

proprius hallucis muscle 4 
M. extensor hallucis longus 



Peroneus longus muscle 
M. peronaeus 1. 



Anterior peroneal artery 

Ramus perforans arteriaj peronaeae _ 

Anterior external malleolar artery' 
A. malleolans anterior lateralis 

External malleolar rete 6 . 
Rete malleolaxe laterale 
Fundiform ligament of Eetzius 7 
Lig. cruciatum cruris 

Extensor brevis digitorum pedis muscle 
M. extensor digitorum brevis 



Third and fourth dorsal interosseous 
arteries (of the foot)— Aa. metatarsea • dorsales \ 

Dorsal digital arteries 
\i. digital dorsales 




Patellar rete 1 
Rete patellae 



Patellar ligament, or infrapatellar tendon 
Ligamentum patella; 



Interosseous membrane, or ligament, of the i 
Membrana interossea cruris 



Tibialis anticus muscle 
M, tibialis anterior 



Dorsal artery of the foot- 
A. dorsalis pedis 



External tarsal artery 1 

lateralis 



Internal tarsal arteries :: 
Aa. tarsese mediales 



Extensor brevis hallucis muscle' 
M. extensor hallucis brevis 



Fig. 1042— The Anterior Tibiai Artery wd its Continuation into the Dorsal Artery of the Foot, 

or Dorsalis Pedis Ar i 1 . ■ 

The tibialis anticus and the extensor longus digitorum pedis muscles have been drawn apart, and the uppermost part of 
the former lias been cm away. Tlie anterior annular ligament of the ankle has been divided by a longitudinal in- 
cision, and its outer limb (fundiform ligament of Retzius 7 ) has been 1 ihed from the subjacent tendons of the extensor 
longus digitorum pedis and peroneus tertius muscles. 



See Appendi: 



See Vppendix, note =37. 



3 See Appendix, I 
1 See Appendix, note =38. 



Arteries of the Front of the Leg and the Dorsum of the Foot. 



THE ART1 I.I Ml; 






Anterior tibial artery __ 

Interosseous membrane, or_. 
ligament, of the leg 

Anterior peroneal artery 
Ramu 

Communicating branch 
Anterior external malleolar artery 

: ill-, 



External malleolar rete ; 

External tarsal artery 

Extensor brevis digitorum pedis _ 
muscle 
M. extensor digitorum brevis 



Dorsal rete of the foot 1 



Posterior perforating arteries 7 

Rami ; 



Anterior perforating arteries 7 







Tendon of the tibialis 



Anterior internal malleolar artery- 



Internal malleolar rete 



Dorsal artery of the foot' 

A 

Internal tarsal arteries' 



Metatarsal artery' 



Communicating branch to the 
deep plantar arch 

Dorsal interosseous arteries' 
Aa. mi 



Dorsal digital arteries' 



; j. -The Di 

the Foot (Arteria D is) ; i he Am i rii >k l \ 

A: 

■ 

\ i i ii i in: I' 









Arteries of the I 






652 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Internal or long saphenous vein 
V. saphena magna 



Cutaneous offsets of the popliteal •_£ 
artery 
Rami cutanei arterial popliteae 



External or short saphenous vein - 
V. saphena parva 



Superficial sural arteries 1 

Rami cutanei arterial suralis medially 




/ JHj - Superficial sural arteries 1 

J ' .sigMJ ~~-< Rami cutanei arterial suralis ] 



Cutaneous offsets of the posterior / 

tibial artery 

Rami cutanei arteriae tibialis 

posterioris 



External calcaneal branches ' 
Rami calcanei laterales 

Calcaneal rete' 
Rete calcaneum" 



Plantar rete'' 
Rete plantare 



See Appendix, note -3-. 



See Appendb 



3 See Appendix, 



; Cutaneous offsets of the peroneal 

artery 

Rami cutanei arteria: peronaeae 



Anterior external malleolar artery- 
A. malleolaris anterior lateralis 



^External malleolar rete' 
Rete malleolare laterale 



See Appendi 



£ See Appendix, note J 43. 



Fig. 1044.— The Subi 1 caneous Arteries of the Calf and of the Popliteal Region in Addition to Portions 
of the Internal or Long and the External or Short Saphenous Veins (Vena Saphena Magna et 
Vena Saphena Parva ); the Calcaneal and Malleolar Reti \ ; the Posterior Portion of the Plantar 
Rete. Right Leg and Foot; seen from Behind and the Outer Side. 



Arteries of the Back of the Leg. 



Rectus femoris muscle 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 

■i m 






Vastus internus muscle 



Articular rete of the knee 



Internal lateral ligament of the knee-joint 

l 



Inferior internal articular artery 

Deep lamella of the deep fascia of the leg (fascia 
cruris i covering the popliteus muscle' 1 

Tendinous arch of the soleus muscle 7 '' 
Arcu 

Soleus muscle 

Posterior tibial artery 

Peroneal artery 
A, pi 



Tibialis posticus muscle- 
Deep fascia of the leg cut - 
short and turned forwards) 



Cutaneous offsets of the posterior tibial artery < 
Kami cutanci 



Flexor longus digitorum pedis muscle" v 
M. flex 

Posterior internal malleolar artery\ 

A. m I 

Internal plantar artery 
External plantar artery... 
Abductor hallucis muscle^ 





Femoral art 

Tendon of insertion of the 
magnus muscle 
Anastomotic ai 

.. 

Semimembranosus muscle 



Popliteal artery' 

Superior internal articular artery 

, Inner head , of the gaatroc- 

Outer head 
-Sural ar 

Plantaris muscle 

Soleus ::. 



Gastrocnemius muscle 



- 



Deep fascia of the leg (superficial layer^ 

.Flexor longus hallucis muscle 
M. fli 

Deep fascia of the leg deep 
ayer, divided and turned backwards) 



^Cutaneous offsets of the posterior til . 



_ Intern ranches' 







'Deep fascia of the sole, or p 






Fig. 1045. ' m PoPI ' " Vl Al ' ' RV i 

1 111 



Arteries of the Bach of t' 



654 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Adductor magnus muscle 

Vastus internus muscle 
M. vastus medialis 
Anastomotic artery 7 ' 
A. genu suprema 



Superior internal articular artery- 
A. genu superior medialis 

Distal extremity of the semi- 
membranosus muscle 

Internal sural artery e ' 
A. suralis medialis 



Gastrocnemius muscle (inner head) 
M. gastrocnemius (caput mediale) 

Inferior internal articular artery - 
A, genu inferior medialis 

Deep lamella of the deep fascia of the leg (fascia 
cruris) covering the popliteus muscle^ 



Posterior tibial artery 

A. tibialis posterior 

Soleus muscle (tibial origin) 4 
M. soleus (caput tibiale) 



Tibialis posticus muscle 
M. tibialis posterior 



Flexor longus digitorum pedis muscle 
M. flexor digitorum longus 



Posterior internal malleolar artery 5 

A. malleolaris posterior medialis 



Communicating branch 9 

Ramus communicans 



Internal calcaneal 
branches" — Rami calcanei mediates 

Calcaneal rete'\ 
Rete calcaneum 




Popliteal artery 1 
/ K. poplitea 



Biceps flexor cruris muscle (short head) 
M. biceps femoris (caput breve) 

Superior external articu'.ar artery 
A. genu superior lateralis 

External sural artery- 
~A. suralis lateralis 
§^ __..Middle or azygos articular artery 
jenu media 
Plantaris muscle 



Gastrocnemius muscle (outer head) 
M. gastrocnemius (caput laterale) 

Inferior external articular artery 

A. genu inferior lateralis 

Tendinous arch of the soleus muscle ; 

Arcus tendineus musculi solei 
Soleus muscle (fibular origin) 4 
M. soleus (caput fibulare) 



Peroneal artery 
A. peronaea 



Flexor longus hallucis muscle 
M. flexor hallucis longus 



Peroneus longus and brevis muscles 

Mm. peronaei 

Peroneal artery 

A. perona;a 

Posterior external malleolar artery'' 

A. malleolaris posterior lateralis 

Tendo Achillis 
"Tendo calcaneus (Achillis) 



External calcaneal branches 6 
Rami calcanei laterales 



: Appendix, note ; 
: Appendix, note - 



2 See Appenilij 
7 See Appends 



8 See Appendix, note ; 



' 
9 See Appcndi: 



See Appendix, note -36. 

perforans muscle. 



Fig. 1046.— The Popliteal Artery, Arteria Poplitea ; its Passage through the *Popliteai. Canal, Canalis 
Popliteus (see Appendix, note ^ ; nn Posterior Tibial Artery and the Peroneal Artery. Right Leg 
and Foot, seen from Behind. 



Arteries of the Back of the Leg. 



THE A i.i Mi; 






Adductor magnus muscle - 
Anastomotic artery' 



Vastus iateruus muscle - 

Superior internal articular - 
artery 

Middle or azygos articular artery . 

Tendon of the semimembranosus 

muscle 
Inferior internal articular artery-- 

Popliteal artery' - 



Posterior tibial artery 



flexor longus digitorum pedis 

muscle" 




Bicep.-. ■ hort 

Supers 'icular art*ry 

Popliteal arl 

Sural arteries tut cfl 



External It 



-Tibuli i 



ament of the knee-joim 



Anterior tibial arl rj 

of the leg 
Medullary or nutritious artery 
of the tibia 



Peroneal artery 



Medullary or nutritious artery 
of the fibula 






Flexor longus hallucis muscle 
M. Hex 



Communicating branches" 

Tibialis posticus muscle 
Posterior internal malleolar artery' 
Flexor longus hallucis muscle - 
Communicating branch" - 
Tendo Achilli 

Internal calcaneal branche i 







Flexor longus hallucis muscle 



Peroneus brevis muscle 
Anterior peroneal artery 
Peroneu; 



Posterior external malleolai 






N 



Arterii 



656 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Calcaneal rete 1 
Rete calcaneum 



Internal plantar artery 

A. plantaris medialis '■ 
Abductor hallucis muscle 



'Deep branch 1 
•Ramus profundus"-^ 

"Superficial branch 3 
"Ramus superficialis 



Flexor brevis digitorum pedis 

muscle' 

M. flexor digitorum brevis 



Tendon of the flexor longus 
hallucis muscle 

Flexor brevis hallucis muscle. = 
M. flexor hallucis brevis 



Lumbricales muscles.- 
Min. lumbricales 



i Common! plantar digital ,/f"/ 
arteries 4 

Aa. metatarsea; plantare 



Superficial transverse ligament 

of the toes 
Fasciculi transversi aponeurosis 

plantaris 

(Collateral! plantar digital „^ 
arteries' 
Aa. diyitales plantares 



See Appendix, note - 



2 See Append 




— External plantar artery 
A. plantaris lateralis 

- Abductor minimi digiti pedis 
muscle 
M. abductor digiti quinti 



Flexor brevis minimi digiti pedis 

muscle 

M. flexor digiti quinti brevis 

I Interosseous muscles 
["Mm. interossei 



Adductor transversus hallucis 

muscle 

M. adductor hallucis (caput 

transversum) 



—--Anterior perforating arteries- 
Kami anastomotici arteriarum 
digitalium plantarium cum ar- 
teriis metatarseis dorsalibus 



See Appendix, note ?5>. 5 Or /!cxar fier/oratus muscle. 



Fig. 1048.— Superficial Arteries of the Sole of the Foot: the Calcaneal Rete, Rete Calcaneum {see 
Appendix, note m ), and Pari of itii; Plantar Ki 11 {see Appendix, note 243 ) ; the External Pi vntar Artery, 
Arteria Plantaris Lateralis, and m icial Di rRiBi noN ; the Internal Plantar Artery, 

Artekia Plantaris Medialis, and its Division in.to 'Superficial and *Deep Branches, *Ramus 

Superi u i\i i- i i ^Rami Profundus {see Appendix, note '-'•") ; the (Common) Plantar Digital Arti i n , 
Arteri 1 \I111 \i:-i 1. Plantares r. note 261 ) ; the (Collateral) Plantar Digital Arteries, 

Arteri.e Digitales Plantares 'see Appendii .\i> the Anterior Perforating Arteries {see 

Appendix, note -"). Plantar Aspect of the Right Foot. 

The deep fascia of the sole or plantar fascia (aponeurosis plantaris) was removed, except for the superficial transverse 
ligament of the toes (fasciculi transversi aponeurosis plantaris) ; in the heel, the subcutaneous pad of fat was left 
intact. 



Arteries of the Sole of the Foot. 



T HE . LIMB 






Flexor brevis digitorum pedis muscle 
Posterior tibial artery 



Abductor hallucis muscle 



Internal plantar artery . 
External plantar artery | 

Flexor longus hallucis muscle -J 

Superficial branch of the internal | 
plantar artery 1 
*Ramu 

♦Deep branch of the internal -Jj 
plantar artery' 

I 

Tendon of the flexor longus 
digitorum pedis muscle 

iDeep) plantar arch. 

Posterior perforating artery- 
Communicating branch from the dorsal 
artery of the foot to the ideep) plantar 
arch 

First common I plantar digital artery ' 

I 



Flexor brevis hallucis muscle 
Adductor obliquus hallucis muscle 

Adductor trans versus hallucis - 
muscle 

(caput 
transversum) 






-Calcani 



'Flexor accessoriua muscle 



—Abductor m:: 

.Adductor obliquus hallucis 
muscle 

— Posterior perforating artery 

• Common plantar digital 
arteries - 



Anterior perfoi 



Collateral 1 plantr.r digital ai 



,— D 

I ■ ! 

In the 
posti 
oul 















Arteries of the Sole ol th< 






658 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Sartorius muscle 
Internal or long saphenous nerve 
N. saphenus 
Femoral artery- — A. femorali 
Deep femoral or profunda artery 
A. profunda femoris 
Internal or long saphenous vein '--/£-■ 
\ . iphena magna 
Femoral vein-^V. femoralis —-_...,. 
ectineal fascia ; -Fascia pectin. .- 



External circumflex artery (of the thigh) 
A. circumflexa femoris lateralis 

External cutaneous nerve (of the thigh) 

-' Rectus femoris muscle 

Tensor vagina femoris or tensor 
\ tascia; femoris muscle M. tensor 
fascia; l.it.i- 
Crurtus muscle — M. vastus 
intermedins 



Obturator nerve (anterior or 
superficial division) 
N. obturatorius (ram - 
Adductor longus muscle 



Pectineus muscle— /.ara 

Urn 

Adductor brevis muscle -Sjjraii 
Gracilis muscle 



Obturator nerve (posterior 

or deep division) 

N. obturatorius (ramus 

posterior) 
Adductor minimus muscle''''; 

Adductor magnus muscle''' 

Semimembranosus muscle 
I tendon of origin) 




\ ,\\ Vastus externus muscle 
C\\ \\\I. vastus lateralis 



■ Deep fascia of the thigh, 
or fascia lata 
1^1 ^ ''Iliac fascia 

Fascia iliopectinea 1 
•' . J/ , -,-J 

/ / "Iliopsoas muscle 
M. iliopsoas 

/' Small trochanter 
Trochanter minor 
/ Great sciatic nerve 

~- Smail sciatic nerve 

N. cut.m. .1 i ti m. .] i i posterior 

Semitendinosus muscle and biceps 
flexor cruris muscle (long head) 
Mm semitendinosus et biceps^ 
femoris (caput Ion- 

Gluteal fold ' 
Gluteus maximus muscle ' 
M gluteus maximus 

Fig 1050.— Transverse Section through rai Right Thigh at the Level of the Small Trochanter; 

I'l'il R Si Rl \< I 01 LOW] 1; Si GMENT. 




Femoral vein- -V. femorali 
Internal or long saphenous nerve N 
N. saphenus 

Sartorius muscle ■ 



Femoral artery'-— A. femoralis. 

Adductor longus muscle. // 
Internal or long saphenous // ' '0rS&"'uRL 
vein V. saphena magi 
Internal intermuscular septum (of- A J 
the thigh)— Septum intermusculars; 
(femoris) mediale 

Gracilis muscle - 



Deep femoral or profunda artery 
A profunda femoris 



Adductor magnus muscle 

Semimembranosus muscle— 
Semitendinosus muscle 




- Rectus femoris muscle 

,>. Crureus muscle 

,-\ M. 1 astus inteo mediu ■ 

,~> N \ - Vastus internus muscle 

■ * .',v'-\ M \ astus medialis 



■ Vastus externus muscle 
\.istus lateralis 



, Deep fascia of the thi^h. or fascia 
. iliotibial '.and or ligament) 
jsf Fas< ia lata 

I sternal intermuscular septum of 
%& ~~the thigh)— Septum intermusculare 
iterate 
.£/' Perforating artery A. perforans 

" Great sciatic nerve 
Biceps flexor cruris muscle (long head) 

Fig. 1051.— Transversi Righi Thigh, \ Little vbove ihf Middle; 1 face 

OF Li - 11 ST. 









Topographical Anatomy of the Thigh 



\PPI >'l 



TH E ' THE LOWER 1. 1 Ml; 



Femoral vein 
Femoral art. 
Internal or long saphenous nerve -^ 

Aponeurotic membrane passing from /^Qb^B 

the surface of the vastus internus to 

I'luctor magmis muscle, forming //' //m5S& 

:'ierior wall of Hunter's canal I 

Sartorius muscle 
Hunter's canal' 

Internal or long saphenous vein 

Adductor magnus muscle • 
Gracilis muscle 

Third or inferior perforating 

artery 

A perforans til. 

Semimembranosus muscle 



Vastus internus muscle 



Rectus femon 



Crureu8 muscle 




I 

or fat. 



Vastus externus muscle 

H I 

ternal intermuscular septum 
/ of the 

/Jl head 

f Great sciatic nerve 



Biceps flexor cruris muscle long 
head) 

Semitendinosus muscle 



Fig. 1052.- Tran versi ough the Right Thigi . i 

in the Am'i. roi Magnus Muscle through which the Fem 

the Popliteal Space (Hia'i ius Hunteri); Upi 

:i NT. 



Patella 
Internal lateral patellar ligament ■.. / 



Internal tuberosity, or epicondyle 
Gastrocnemius muscle inner head) 



Internal or long saphenous ve 

Sartorius mu 
Internal or long saphenous di 

Tendon of the gracili 
Bursa of the inner head of the gastrocnemius 
muscle 

Semimembranosus muscle 
Tendon of the semitendinosus muscle 

1 053.— Tran 

of ti ik p at 1 




Subfascial prepatellar bursa 



External lateral patellar ligament 

Anterior or external crucial ligament 

Popliteal artery 
\ \ External tuberosity, or epicoudvle 
\ 
l\\ \\ Popliteal vein 

m\\ 

Biceps flexor 1 1 
muscle 

/ I. a'. 

Tibial conn; 
External or short saphenous 



Popliteal 






Intern 

,11 r K\i 1 . 
I 



Tope 



660 



THE ARTERIES OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Tibialis anticus muscle 
M. tibialis anterior 
Tibia .. 
Internal or long saphenous vein 

Internal or long saphenous nerve - 

X. sa 

Flexor longus digitorum pedis muscle- - 
cor digitorum longus 

Tibialis posticus muscle ._ 
M. tibialis posterior 

Posterior tibial artery 
A. tibialis posterior 
Posterior .tibial nerve' 
N. tibialis 
Gastrocnemius muscle inner head 
trocnemius (caput mediale) 

Tendon of the plantaris muscle 



Soleus muscle 




Interosseous membrane, or ligament, of the leg 

Membrana interossea cruris 
S3v Anterior tibial artery 
5B&\ A tibialis anterior 

\ Anterior tibial nerve 
/N. peronaeus profundus 



V& Extensor longus digitorum pedis muscle 
if 



Anterior peroneal intermuscular septum 
Septum intermusculare artterius 'fibulare) 

_ Extensor longus vel extensor proprius 

hallucis ' — M. extensor hallucis longus 

-Musculocutaneous nerve 

X. peronarus superficialis 
- Peroneus longus muscle 

M. peronaeus longus 

Posterior (peroneal intermuscular 
septum 

Septum intermuscular poslerius (fibulare) 

Peroneal artery— A. peronaea 



Deep layer . '| f the deep fascia 
uncial' layer, ««£*¥ 

Peroneal or fibular communicating branch (i) 
external or short saphenous vein — V. saphena parva 
(i) Ramus anastomoticus perouzeus 



Tibial communicating n;rvc- 
N. cutaneus suras medialis 

Fig. 1054.— Transverse Section through the Right Leg, a Little above the Middle; Upper Suri 

Lower Segment. 

Anterior tibial artery— A. tibialis anterior Anterior tibial nerve— X peronarus profundus 



Tendon of the tibialis anticus muscle 

Internal or long saphenous vein /£& 
V. saphena magna WBr 

Internal or long saphenous nerve 

N. saphenus 






Tibia 



Tendon of the tibialis posticus muscle 

Tendon of the flexor longus digitorum 

pedis muscle - 

Posterior tibial artery— k 
A. tibialis posterior 
Posterior tibial nerve \ 
X tibialis Y? 



Flexor longus hallucis muscle VA 
M. flexor hallucis longus Y-J 

Tendon of the plantaris muscle 

Tendo Achillis — Tendo calcaneus (Achilli 




Musculocutaneous nerve 

Extensor longus : el extensor proprius hallucis muscle 1 
I. extensor hallucis longus 
_ Superior annular ligament of the ankle' 

- Extensor longus digitorum pedis and peroneus tertius 

Anterior peroneal artery (1) 



^7^-^?l3-Inferior tibiofibular articulation 
rai flat : I = 



|- Fibula 
" Peroneal artery - 



Fig. 



\. peronaea 

Tendon of the peroneus longus muscle 
Peroneus brevis muscle 
•Posterior peroneal intermuscular septum 

W-S External or short saphenous nerve— N. surahs 
f~ Eternal or short saphenous vein — \ . saphena parva 

L^Sa^roftmda I of the deep faECia 0f 
Superficial layer f (0 R-™^ perforans arte 

Lamin.. 

—Transverse Section through the Right Leg. the Ankle-Joini ; L'pper Surface 

of Lower Segment. 



Internal (terminal) branch of the musculocutaneous nerve 

N. cutaneus dorsalis medialis 

Fascia of the dorsum of the foot-Fascia .: 

Dorsal artery of the foot ■ - \ 

Anterior tibial nerve — 

Tendon of the extensor longus 
i proprius hallucis muscle 
Communicating branch to the (deep) plantar 

arch 1 — Kamus plantaris profundus - 

Second dorsal interosseous muscle 
M. interosseus d 
First metatarsal bone— 'J- metatarsal I. 
(Deep) plantar arch - 

Arcus 1 -. 

Adductor obliquus hallucis muscle •- 
M. adductor ha [uum) 

Abductor hallucis muscle—^ 
Flexor brevis hallucis muscle 
Tendon of the flexor longus hallucis muscle 

(Common plantar digital nerves 
Nervi digitales plantares communes "" 

Deep fascia of the sole, or plantar fascia 

Aponeurosis plantaris 



Second dorsal interosseous artery —A metatarsea dorsalis II. 

'Dorsal interosseous fascia '- 
/ External (terminal) branch of the musculocutaneous nerve 1 1 1 
First plantar interosseous muscle 
Second plantar Interosseous muscle 
Fourth dorsal interosseous muscle 
Feroneus tertius muscle— M. perorceus tertius 
(Common 1 plantar digital artery 1 

Plantar interosseous fascia (5) 
Terminal portion of the external or short 
sapLenous nerve— N. 

r Abductor minimi digiti pedis muscle 
- Flexor brevis minimi digiti pedis muscle 

Third plantar interosseous muscle 
M. int ' Hi- 

External plantar nerve superficial portion) 
taris lateralis (ramus superficialis) 
-Deep layer of the deep fascia of the sole - 
Tendons of the flexor brevis digitorum pedis muscle ' 

Tendons of the flexor longus digitorum pedis 
muscle -, with the lumbricales muscles 




(.) N. 



[ntermedii 



rrosseus plantaris II. 
.. plantaris profunda 



:::rsalis IV. 



(/) M. interosseus planraris I. 
(5) *rascia interossea plantaris 

Fig. 1056.— Coronal Section through the Right Foot, passing through the Middle of the First 
Metatarsal Bone: Surface of Distal Segment. 



1 Regarding the nomenclature of this muscle, see note = to p. 364, in Part III. -r ferfarans muscle. 

4 Known also as the upper hand of the anterior annular ligament of the ankle. 
5 See Apr. 

ndix. note -55. ppenduc, note 2 57. 

11 Often known in England by its Latin name of dorsalis pedis artery. 



■ .-rforatiis muscle. 
See Appendix, note «*>. 



Topographical Anatomy of the Leg and Foot. 



VENy^E TRUNCI 
THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



662 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



Internal jugular vein . 

V. jugularis interna 
Vena thyroidea ima (lowest thyroid vein)"'- 

Subclavian vein — V. subclavia 
Right innominate or brachiocephalic vein 

Y . anonvma dextra „, 

Thymic veins 

Vv. thymicae 

Superior vena cava 

V. cava superior 



Hepatic veins _ 
Vv. hepaticae 

Coeliac artery 
(coeliac axis) — A cceliaca.. 

Right suprarenal capsule- 
Glandula suprarenalis dextra 

Superior mesenteric artery 

A. mesenterica superior 



Inferior vena cava_ 

V. cava inferior 
Abdominal aorta — Aorta__ 
abdominalis 
Spermatic vein" — V. sper- 
matica interna (V. testicularis 

Spermatic artery 7 — A. sper- 
matica interna (A. testicularis) 



Right common iliac artery 

and vein 

A. et V.iliaca communis dextra 

Presacral venous plexus s 
Plexus (venosus) sacralis 
anterior 
Deep circumflex iliac 
artery and vein — A. et V. 
circumflexa ilium profunda — 
Deep or inferior epigastric 

artery and vein 
A. et V. epigastrica inferior 

Cremasteric artery and vein 7 
A et V. spermatica externa — 

Femoral artery 
A. femoralis 

Femoral vein . 

V. femoralis 

External pudic veins" 
Vv. pudenda; externae- — ~i 

Anterior scrotal veins 
*Vv. scrotales anteriores 
Infunclibuliform fascia 11 — Tunica - 
vaginalis communis 




Thyroid body — Glandula thyreoidea 

f/ ^ Left innominate or brachiocephalic vein 
^V . anonyma sinistra 



Internal mammary artery and vein 

A. et Y. mammana interna 



Arch of the aorta 
Arcus aortas 



Inferior phrenic vein 
V. phrenica inferior 

Cardiac portion of the stomach 

— l'ars cardiaca ventriculi 

Coronary artery of the stomach ' 

— A. gastrica sinistra 

Inferior phrenic artery 
A. phrenica inferior 

Left suprarenal capsule- 
-~* Glandula suprarenalis sinistra 

-.Splenic artery (terminal 

portion)— A. lienalis 
-Spleen 
Lien 
-...Splenic vein 
Y lienalis 

Suprarenal or capsular vein 

Y. suprarenalis 
-—.Left renal vein :: 
V. renalis sinistra 

— Left kidney— Ken sinister 

Lumbar artery and vein 
A. et V. lumbalis 
Inferior mesenteric artery 

"" A. mesenterica inferior 
Left ureter 
— Ureter sinister 

Left common iliac artery 
__ and vein-A. et y. ilia 

Iliac or transverse branch of 

the iliolumbar artery and vein 

Ramus lliacusarteriie et venae 

iliolumbalis 

Internal iliac artery and vein' 

A. et V. hypogastrira 
External iliac artery and vein 
A. et V. iliaca externa 
Vas deferens 
~~Ductus deferens 

Superficial circumflex iliac 
"~artery— A. et V. circum- 
flexa ilium superficialis 
-_ Falciform border 
Margo falciformis 

Spermatic or pampini- 
form venous plexus 
Plexus pampiniformis 

Internal or long saphenous 

vein — V. saphena magna 



suprarenal body i or aeirenat. 
iendix, note I3 °. 



t-from the vena spermatic 



esponding arteries (note 5 to p. 599). 



-the cremasteric vein 



* Called by Macalister the 

5 Sometimes call, i c note 3 to p. 595. 
I - . 1 te ' t.. p. 500. _ 

6 This vein is called by the author rv«« spermatica interna to distmguj 
i>f English anatomists, 1 

Appendix, note =! 3 . 
> Called by Ma. -e note on nomenclature of c 

\ .]."endi\, note "■': " See Appendix to Part IV., note ~. 

Fig ,057— the Superior and the Interior Vena Cava; the Parietal and the Visceral Tributaries, Radices 
Parietales et Viscerai i 3, of the Latter. The Abdominal Aorta, Aori \ Abdominalis. Seen from l^ fore. 



The System of the Superior and the Inferior Venae Cavae. 



I 



Longus co!; : 
Scalenus anticua muscle 

>ral vein and iirtcry _ 

Costocerviciil ,i .... 

^lbclavian artery 



Vena thyroidea ima lowest thyroid vein/ 
Left innominate or brachiocephalic vein. 



Eight superior intercostal vein 



s vein- 




■ 















'~ Accessory hem 



Intercostal arteries and veins — 



>£ 



Azygos vein — 



Hemiar 



Subcostal muscles 



Right ascending lumbar vein 



Lumbar arteries and veins 
Aa. ct '. 



Superficial or posterior layer of the 

. fascia' / 

/ 

Inferior vena cava 



Iliolumbar vein 



Iliacuj muscle . 



Deep circumflex iliac artery 
and vein 

i ilium 



Lateral sacral artery and vein' 1 

Middle sacral artery, or sacral 
and middle b 




k . Left ascending lumbar vein 



Quadratus lumboruir. i 



Abdominal 

Iliolumbar ligament 



' 



- 









Fig. 1058. Tin ' 

Tli> 






664 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



Right superior intercostal 
vein I 

V. intercostalis supremi 'A 
dextra 



Left innominate or 

brachiocephalic vein^ 

V. anonyma sinistra < 



Right innominate or 
brachiocephalic vein 



Thoracic duct - Ductus thoracicus 



Accessory hemiazygos vein : 
V. hemiazygos accessoria 



Azygos vein 3 — 



Intercostal arteries and veins — 
Arteria; et vena^ intercostales 



Hemiazygos vein 1 opening 
into the azygos vein ; 




Thoracic duct 
Ductus thoracicus 

Left subclavian artery 
/A. subclavia sinistra 
S.' Left superior intercostal 
x^fc vein 

intercostalis suprema 
sinistra 



Hemiazygos 
vein 4 



Descending thoracic aorta 
Aorta descendens 



Aortic opening of the 

diaphragm 

Hiatus aorticus dia- 

phragmatis 



Lumbar arteries and 

veins 

Aa. et Vv. lumbales 

Ascending lumbar veir- 

V. lumbalis ascendens 



Inferior vena cava . 

Vena cava inferior 



Left common iliac vein 

Vena iliaca communis 

sinistra 



Iliolumbar vein— Vena : 
iliolumbalis 




1 Companion to the thyroidea ima artery. See note ' to p. 
* Known also as the right or targe azyg 



Known also .is the left upper azygos vein. 
Known also as the left tower or small azygos z 



Fig. 1059.— Seen from the Right Side. Fig. 1060.— Seen from the Left Side. 

The System of the Azygos and Hemiazygos Veins. 



. 






Deep cei 



First rib 




Spinous process of the 
twelfth dorsal . 



Posterior or dorsal bra 
of the anterioi 
the intercostal artery 
their companion \. 



■ nding lumbar vein Jl 



"Posterior external vertebra', 
plcxuse I 

He layer of tl; 

External intercostal muscle 



_.- Posterior or dorsal divisions 
(fix of the intercostal veins 

ilium 

Posterior or dorsal branche: 
of the lumbar art 
veins 



•Levator costae muscle 



V 










Plexus venosi vertebrales externi pi 

plexu 



666 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



Subcutaneous venous 
network of the occipital region 



Mastoid emissary vein 
Emissarium mastoideum 



Communicating branch between 

the posterior auricular vein and 

the superficial temporal vein 



Occipital vein — V. occipitalis - 
Posterior auricular 
artery and vein — A. et V 

auricularis posterior -yap* 

Occipital artery 
A. occipitalis 

Digastric muscle (posterior belly> 
M. digastricus (venter posterior) 



Levator anguli scapula? muscle 
M, levator scapulas 



Semispinalis colli muscle 
M. semispinalis cervicis 



Deep cervical artery and vein 
A. et V. cervicalis profunda 

Scalenus posticus muscle 
M. scalenus posti rii >r 

Transverse cervical artery 
and veins 4 

A. et Vv. transversa; colli 




Posterior temporal branch of the super- 
ficial temporal artery 
Ramus parietalis arterial temporalis 
superficialis 



Occipitalis muscle 



Mastoid emissary vein 
'Emissarium mastoideum 



^Condylar emissary vein 1 
Emissarium condyloideum 

-Posterior arch of the atlas 
Arcus posterior atlantis 

Internal jugular vein 
i 'ins interna 

.Internal carotid artery 
A. i arotis interna 

Deep cervical artery and vein- 
;V. et V. cervicalis profunda 



Scalenus medius and posticus muscles 



A 'Posterior external 
»\ plexus : — *Plexus v 
[\ \ externi po: 



vertebral venous 
enosi vertebrales 
posteriores 



■ ndixj rn ite ' r . 
, ndi* not< : . 



.mi also as lhc/o.' 



Fig. 1063. -The Veins of the Occipital Region and the Deep Veins of the Hack of thi ecj ei 
from Behind: the Subcutaneoi Venous Network of the Occipital Region; the Occipital Vein, 
Vena Occipitalis, continuous Below with the Deep Cervical Vein, Vena Cervicalis Profunda;the 
Mastoid Emissary Vein, Emissarium Mastoideum, and the Condylar Emissary Vein, I 
Condyloideum {see Appendix, note** 1 ); the *Posterior External Vertebral Venous Plexus, Plexus 
Venosi Vertebrales Pi Appendix, notes m and m ) ; the Posterior Auricular Vein, Vena 

Auric ularis Posterior. 

On the left side the levator a muscle was drawn outwai he removal of the complexus or semi- 

mispinalis colli muscle 
1 terior external vertebral venous 

plexus was thus laid bare. 



The Deep Veins of the Nuchal and Occipital Regions. 



THE VEIS S OF THE Ti 






Torcular Herophili, or confluence 
oi the sinuses 



Lateral sinus 






Occipital sinus I \ / / 



'Sigmoid sinus' 



Venous plexus surrounding the \ 'iH'TSffZ 
vertebral artery, continued into..\ 2«fjj 
the vertebral vein 

Spinal dura mater 



♦Posterior internal vertebral 
venous plexus 

Deep cervical vein- 
V. cei 



-Venous rete of the intervertebral 
foramen : ' 

minis 

•Intervertebral veins 
*Vv. interv 1 1 



Articular surface of the tubercle of the 
second rib 
articularis tubei 
Cut surface of one of the 
neural arches 
Neck of rib 
im cost.-n 

Tubercle of rib 



External intercostal 
muscles 



•Intervertebral veins 5 . 



Posterior or internal inter- 
costal aponeuroses 

Posterior or dorsal divisions 
of the intercostal art 
vein 
Neck of the sixth rib 
VI 













Plexus venosi vertebrates interni The 'internal vertebral venous plcxi 

deep cervical 



668 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



*Venous rete of the vertebra 
*Rete venosum vertebrae 



•'Posterior external vertebra! 

venous plexus 5 

* Plexus venosi vertebrales 

externi posteriores 



Tenth and eleventh dorsal;.. 7 



nerves 
Nn. thoracales X. et XI. 



'Posterior internal vertebral; 

venous plexus 6 

* Plexus venosi vertebrales 

interni (posteriores) 

"Longitudinal vertebral 

sinus" 

*Sinus vertebralis 

longitudinalis 

Interspinous ligament 
Lig. interspinale 



Gaps in the 'venous retia 

of the vertebras for the,. 

passage of the spinal 

nerves 



:: tC 

Or a 




Venous retia of the inter- 
vertebral foramina 1 
' Retia venosa foraminum 
intervertebralium 



^Anterior internal vertebral 

venous plexus- 

*Plexus venosi vertebrales 

interni (anteriores) 



Basivertebral veins 3 
Vv. basi vertebrales 



Twelfth dorsal vertebra 
Vertebra thoracalis XII. 



Posterior common ligament 
Lig. longitudinale posterius 



idix, notes =59 and *3. 



Fig. 1065.— The *1nternai Verti be \i. Venous Plexuses, *Plexus Venosi Vertebrales Intern) 

notes™ and™'), displayed in the Left Half of a Median Sagittal Section thi i ower- 

most Dorsal and the 1 I ertebrjE ; their Connexion with thb Basiveb 

Vein Appendix, uric 20S ), and their Relation to thi Emerging Roots of 

Spinal Nerves. 

The posterior common ligament was removed from the dorsal vertebrae, but left intact on the lumbar vertebra 

the spinous pp ighth, ninth, and tenth dorsal vertebras, by the removal of the interspinous ligaments, 

portions of the 'posterior external vertebral venous plexus have also been exposed. 



Plexus venosi vertebrales interni — The internal vertebral venous plexus. 



THE . THE I: 






Basivertebral vein 



Anterior longitudinal spinal vein, !__. 
or longitudinal vertebral sin i 






•Posterior external vertebral venous plexus' : 




Anterior oxterr nous plexus' 



Right ascending lumbar vein 



1 



terior internal vertebral venous 

plexus 

Posterior internal vertebral venous 

plexus 






'Venous ret* of 
the vertebra' 



Fig. i i brai Veins, 

'A- I 

■ r 

Rete m Verti I 

* PO iERIOR Interna] 

. !•: IN A II 

In order I 

the substance of the 



Vv. basivertcbralcs The b :nosi vert< 



670 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



Cutaneous offsets of the superficial cervical 

artery •'■ 
Rami cutanei arteriae cervicalis superficialis 
Cutaneous offsets of the suprascapular 
artery 4 — Rami cutanei arteriae trans 
versae scapulas 



Cutaneotis offset of the 
posterior circumflex 
artery (of the arm) (i) 

Cutmeous offset of the dorsal 
branch of the subscapular 
artery'' — Ramus cutaneus 

arteriae circumflexoe scapulas 



(Outer! dorsal cutaneous 

branches of the intercostal and 

lumbar arteries — Kami cutanei 

dorsales (laterales) arteriarum 

intercostalium et lumbalium 




Inner dorsal cutaneous 
branches of tne intercostal 
arteries— Rami cutanei dor- 
sales (mediales) arteriarum 
intercostalium 



Lateral cutaneous branches of the - 

intercostal arteries"' 

Rami cutanei laterales arteriarum 

intercostalium 



Inner) dorsal cutaneous branches 

of the lumbar arteries 

Rami cutanei dorsales (mediales) 

arteriarum lumbalium 



Cutaneous offsets of the gluteal 

artery 

Rami cutanei arteriae glutaere 

superioris 



Cutaneous offsets of the sciatic 

artery 

Rami cutanei arteriae glutaeae 

inferioris 

Cutaneous offset of the first 

or superior perforating artery 

Ramus cutaneus arteriae per- 

forantis primoe 



Cutaneous offsets of the 
dorsal branches of the 
lateral sacral arteries 



Cutaneous offsets of the 

inferior hasmorrhoidal artery 1 

which is itself a branch of the 

internal pudic artery - 



posteriory 



1 Calij.r 'artery. - See Appendix, note I ?'- 1 . 

viealis superficialis, see Appendix, notes '3i, '35, '7=, and = 0B . 

■1 Calle'": :l. ' 

r Know ranches. See note ' to p. 580. 6 Or dorsalis scapula artery. 

Fig. 1067. — The Subcutaneous Arteries and Veins of the Posterior Wall of the Tri"nk. 



The Subcutaneous Bloodvessels of the Posterior Wall of the Trunk. 



THE 






Anterior jugular vein 

Cut edge of the deep layer of ttio deep 
cervn i has been folded back 

Superficial cervical artery and vein 
Cephalic vem joining the cutaneous . 
of the neck and cheat and terminating In 
the anterior Jugular vein . 



Tributaries of the internal 

mammary vein together with 

cutaneou ;,,. anterior 

or perforating branches of the 

nal mammary artery 



Tributaries of the superior 

epigastric veins* together with 

cutaneous offsets of the superior 

epigastric arteries* 



us circle of the umbilicus 
and communicating branches with tl 
para-umbilical veins of Sappev iven 
parumbilicale; Sap; 
Tributaries of the deep or inferior 
epigastric veins together with 
cutaneous offsets of the deep 
or inferior epigastric arterie:; 



Superficial epigastric artery and. 
vein 

Superficial circumflex iliac artery 
and vein 

Internal or long saphenous vein„ 

■ 

Femoral vein . 

Subcutaneous dorsal veins of 

the pe 








Long thor.v . 
Costo-ax 



rhoracico-epiga.- 1 

'> - 



ibeutaneous veins of the abdomen 



Superioi 



Tin.' Subcutam 



672 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



Inferior mesenteric vein 
V. mesenterica inferior - 

Abdominal aorta— Aorta abdominalis_. 
Inferior mesenteric 
artery — A. mesenterica inferior- 
Superior haemorrhoidal artery- 
A lisem irrhoidalis superior 
Left ureter— Ureter sinister 
Left common iliac artery and vein 
A. et V. iliaca communis sinistra 
Left internal iliac artery 1 > v 
A. hvpogastrica sinistra 
Left ureter— Ureter sinister. 
Left external iliac artery and vein 
A et V iliaca externa sinistra 
Caecum — Intestinum cecum v _^^t 
Obliterated hypogastric artery^ 
Lig. umbilicale laterale 

Superior vesical artery 

V. vesicalis superior 
Right vas deferens 
Ductus deferens dexter. 

Obturator artery and vein v 
A. et V. obturatoria 




Dorsal artery and vein : 

of the penis' 1 
A. et \'. dorsalis penis 



Parietal peritoneum 
Peritonaeum 
Vesical venous plexus?— Pk 

Pudendal venous plexus 
15 pudendals 
Left corpus cavernosum of the penis .-'' 

Internal pudic artery ('artery 
of the penis) v —* A- penis 



Lumbar artery and lumbar 

veins 
A. lumbalis et Vv. lumbales 



Left ascending lumbar vein 
V. lumbalis ascendens sinistra 

Left iliolumbar veiu 
V. iliolumbalis sinistra 



Posterior or dorsal branches 
Rami dorsales 

Right internal iliac vein 1 
' V, hypi igastrii a 

Lateral sacral artery 
•' A sacrahs lateralis 

Gluteal artery and vein 
, ' A. et V. gl 

Superior haemorrhoidal 
artery and vein-- A. et V. 
haemorrboidalis 



Sciatic artery and vein 

t V. glutsea ii 
Lateral sacral artery and 
vein A et \'. sacralis 
lateralis 

U- Parietal peritoneum 
Peritonseum parietale 



, Right vas deferens 
Ductus deferens dexter 

'/(£,. Seminal vesicle 

Vesicula seminalis 



Rectum 
Intestinum rectum 



'elvic diaphragm 4 
Diaphragma pelvis 



__ Internal pudic vein 3 
V. pudenda interna 






clalure of the com; . 

I See Appendix, note 
6 See Appendi 



■ice Appendix, note '3?. The sai 



= Called 
lature of the inii . 
— Tr. 

Hi, See Appendix, 

3 See Append 



;iderations apply to the nomen- 



Fig. 1069. — The Venous Plexuses of the Male Pelvis; seen from the Left Side. 

By a section, which began in front a little to the left of the median plane, and behind passed through 
the left row of sacral foramina, the left lateral wall of the pelvis was removed, the parietal 
peritoneum covering this wall being, however, retained up to the level of its reflection on to the 
urinary bladder and the rectum. I i om al portions of these organs were exposed, 

together with the vessels by which they are surrounded; the pelvic diaphragm (see Appendix, 
'■•) was cut away close to the rectum and the bladder and drawn slightly downwards. The 
inferior mesenteric vein has been injected with a yellow material. 



The Veins of the Male Pelvis. 



Abdominal aorta 

Inferior vena cava 



Obturator nerve 






. 



Obturator veius t 



Deep circumflex iliac artery and 
vein 

Vas deferens turned upwards; 
and spermatic vein 







Internal :. 



vein 



it muscle 
I 



Deep or inferior epigas 
trie artery and vein 

Obturator artery, ai 
from the deep or inferior 
epigastric artery (\ 

Obturator i 
Pelvic diaphragm 



Dorsal arteries ol „, 
the penis JSk 

Dorsal vein of the 
penis 
Left corpus c.ivernosum of the penis 



... muscio 
••in 






Internal • 



'pudendal veno 















The V 






674 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



'Anterior scrotal veins"'— *Vv. scrotales anteriores , 



•Perineal artery and vein 
*A. et V. perinei 



Ischiocavernosus or erector penis muscle 

, 'Urogenital diaphragm 1 — Diaphragma urogenitale 
Internal pudic artery (*artery of the 
,penis) with its companion veins'- — *A. penis 
Posterior or great sacrosciatic ligament 
,Lig. sacrotuberosum 

i Comes nervi ischiadici artery and vein 
lA. et V. comitans nervi ischiadici 

4T 




Inferior hemorrhoidal veins' /V^Ef 
\'v. ha2morrhoidales inferiores*' 



Internal pudic artery and veins — A- pudenda 
interna et \\. pudendas internae 



Sciatic artery and vein 
A. et V. glutaa inferior 



Gluteus maximus muscle 
glut, i.: maximus 
/ 'Obturator internus muscle 

Anterior or small sacrosciatic ligament- Lig. sacrospinosum 



i Se> 


: Appendix, 


note 142. 


Vppendix, 


note '4i, 


4 Re 


gardmg the 




perinei, : 


iee Appendi 


nomenclature of the 


in.— Tr. 






l 


e same considerations apply n 


the nomenclature 


of these v< 


Appendi 


■ 










. 


. 







: considerations apply to the 
a-s regarding that of the artery the 



Fig. 1071. — The Superficial and Deep Veins of the Male Perineal Region. 

On the right side of the body the superficial bloodvessels were dissected out and the subcutaneous fat 
was partially preserved. On the left side of the body the gluteus maximus muscle and the 
posterior or great sacrosciatic ligament (ligamentum sacrotuberosum) were cul across and the 
segments were drawn apart, in order to display the passage of the internal pudic artery and veins 
through the small sacrosciatic foramen (foramen ischiadicum minus): these 1 1 wen also 
exposed in the outer wall of the ischiorei tal fossa. The left testis was removed, in order to lay 
bare the anterior scrotal veifis and their anastomoses with the ^"posterior scrotal veins. 



The Veins of the Male Perineal Region. 



THE VEINS OF Til 



vein of the clitoris between the two 
al arteries of the clitoris 

Glans clitorid: 



Rctiform venous anastomoses of the v 



Cms of • 




Inferior hsmiorrhoidal 

'Subcutaneous venous plexus of the' 
anus 

Internal putlio artery and veins' 






■ 



Gluteus maxima 



Posterior or great sacros 



' 


















Tin- Veins of th 



676 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



Inferior vena cava V. cava inferior ■ 
Inferior mesenteric artery 
A. raesenterica inferior 
Abdominal aorta — Aorta abdominalis . 
Inferior mesenteric vein — V. mesenterica inferior. 
Ovarian vein 
V. ovarica 
Left ureter — Ureter sinister- 
Eight common iliac artery 
A. iliaca communis dextra~ 
Left common iliac artery and vein v 
A. et V. iliaca communis sinistra 
Left external iliac artery and vein 
A. et V. iliaca externa sinistra 
Ovarian vessels (in the suspensory ligament 
of the ovary) 1 " \ 

Vasa ovarica (in ligamento suspensorio ovar.. , 

Obliterated hypogastric artery" s?W: 

Li;,', umbilicale laterale 
*Venous plexus of the round ligament 
of the uterus and artery of the round \ 
ligament of the uterus'^ (i 
Obturator artery and vein 
A. et V. obturatoria 
Parietal peritoneum 
Peritonaeum parietale 




Left ascending lumbar vein 
lumbalis ascendens sinistra 



Left iliolumbar vein 
V. iliolumbalis sinistra 



Left internal iliac artery 
and vein 1 
et V. hypogastrica 
sinistra 
Left ureter 
Ureter sinister 

Spinal branch of the lateral 

sacral artery and companion 

veins 



Urinary bladder 
Vesica urinaria 



Dorsal artery and vein cf 

the clitoris 
A a V. dorsalis clitorid 



Retiform venous anastomoses 

of the vaginal bulb or bulb of, 

the vestibule with the veins 

of the clitoris 



Crus of the clitoris— Cms clitorid 

Internal pudic artery (artery of the clitoris) 
and internal pudic vein 4 (2) 
Vaginal bulb or bulb of the vestibule 14 
Bulbus vestibuli 



Second sacral nerve 

N. sacralis II. 



Gluteal artery and vein 
A. et V. ghttaea superior 

, Lateral sacral artery 
A. sacralis lateralis 

Parietal peritoneum (site 

of the ovarian fossa)" 

Peritonaeum parietale 

(situs fossae ova 

Superior haemorrhoidal 

artery and vein 

A. et V. ba mi irrhoidalis 

superii i" 

. Parietal peritoneum 
(lateral wall of the 
pouch of Douglas, or 
rectovaginal pouch 
Peritonaeum parietale 
(paries lateralis exca- 
-'/ 3 vationis recto- 

inae) 

Internal pudic artery and 

vein 4 
A. ct V. pud 

_ Middle haemorrhoidal vein' 
V. hasmorrhoidalis n 
Haemorrhoidal or rectal venous 
plexus 1 
Pelvic diaphragm 
J ijaphragma pelvis 
terovaginal venous plexus 8 

Vesical venous plexus' 

Plexus vesicalis 
Rectum 

Intestinum rectum 
Vagina 






1 teretts uteri < 



1 ligament) teretis uteri 



i nda interna 



1 See Appi 

3 Called by Macalis;. 

VL 
7 See Appendix, nol 
10 This ligament i 

1 
Ir '1 be honi .,]<'ucs in tile female of t 1 

I ■ ■ 



the Appendix to Part IV., note 

ppendix, note -75. 
■ 'or ligament. 



Fig. 1073. Thi Ovarian Vein, Vena Ovarii \; the Vesical Venous Plexus (see Append - Plexus 

Vesicalis, and the Uterovaginal Plexi 3 (see Appendix, note 28 °), Plexus I'itim' hh *Venous 

Plexus of the Round Ligami m rai U"ti Plexi - Venosi - Ligamenti Tj 

1 1 1 ri. The Superior and Middle Hemorrhoidal (or Rectal) Veins, Ven/E H.kmorrhoidaij s Superior 
Media; Hemorrhoidal Venous Plexus, Plexus Hemorrhoidals. The Venous Plexuses that 
surround the sl'inal branches of the iliolumbar and lateral sacral alii 1 

By .1 section, which in front passed near the median plane, and behind through the left low of sacral foramina, the left 

lateral wall of the pelvis was removed ; but the parietal peritoneal investment of this wall was preserved up to its 

lion on to the urinary bladder, the vagina, and the rectum. The parts of these organs situate outside the 

peritoneum were laid bare in so far as this was possible without removing the adjacent venous plexuses. The 

pelvic diaphragm was turned downwards. 



The Veins of the Female Pelvis. 



THE VEINS 01 Til 






Internal iliac artery and vein 1 
\ Left common iliac artery and vein 






\ Ovarian vein 

\ Left external iliac artery and vein 



irt«ry and vein 

Cut edge of the 

Ovarian or pam- 
piniform venous Fallopian 



Left ureter 







Posterior or 
ment 

Obturator internum muscle 



Uterovaginal venous plexus' 



Uterine artery 
A. uterina 

Vaginal artery 

Pelvic diaphragm" 

Internal pudic artery and v 
A. et \ . 

Venous plexus situate behind the vaginal 
bulb or bulb of the vestibule 

I i 



The Veins o( the Female 



678 



THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK 



Coronary vein of the stomach 
V. coronaria ventriculi 
Hepatic artery 7 — A hepatica. 
Hepatic artery 7 
A. hepatica propria\ 
Pyloric artery" , 
A. gastrica dextra \ 
Right gastroepiploic artery, 
and vein 
A. et V. gastro-epiploica dextra 



Portal vein, or vena 
portse 



Common bile-duct 
Ductus choledochus '-- 

Gastroduodenal artery __ 
A. -..istroduodenalis 
Cystic artery and vein,.. 
A. et V. cystica 

Pancreaticoduodenal 

vein 

V. pancreaticoduodenals 

Middle colic vein 11 (cut 

short) — V. colica media 

Duodenal veins _ 

Vv. duodenales ~~ 

Ascending portion of the 

duodenum (fourth part) 



Duodc 



i(l* 



ndei 



Inferior vena cava 



Right colic veins ■-_ 
Vv. colics dextra; 



Cut edge of the.. 

mesentery 1 " 

Artery and vein of the 

vermiform appendix, or 

appendicular artery and 

vein 
A. et V. appendicularis 

Meso-appendix 

Mesenteriolum 



(i) V. et A. lienali; 




Great or gastrocolic omentum 1 (cut short) 
' Coronary artery of the stomach- 

Cceliac artery (cceliac axis)— A. cceliaca 
••' /Splenic artery and vein (i) 

Inferior mesenteric vein u) 
Right gastro-epiploic vein and 

artery (3) 
V , Duodenojejunal flexure 
*' Flexura duodenojejunalis 
Gastrosplenic omentum or 
ligament' (posterior sur- 
face)— Lig. gastrolienale 
, Short gastric veins and 
'-'' arteries (vasa brevia) 

Vv. et Aa. gastrica; breves 

Splenic vein 
- V. lienalis 
,, Spleen— Lien 

...Tail of the pancreas 

Cauda pancreatis 

Great or gastrocolic 

, omentum 1 (cut short) 

( Imentum majus 

Pancreatic veins 

Vv. panci 1 

Superior mesenteric vein 

and artery 
V. et A. mesenti rica 
— - Intestinal veins 
Vv. intestinales 



Left colic vein and artery 
V. et A colica sinistra 

. Abdominal aorta 

Aorta abdominalis 

Spermatic vein and 

artery' (4) 
— Left common iliac vein 
V. ili; 

Middle sacral vein ' and 
~ middle sacral artery or 
sacral aorta ' 
V. 1 1 A. ' ralis media 
Sigmoid veins 
Vv. sigro 



1 . \. 



inferi ; 



(3) V. et A. gastro-epiploica dextra 



Superior hemorrhoidal 

vein' ; 

V h ■ mi 11 ! it. lidalis 

superior 



(4) V. et A. spermatka interna 



1 Or epi. Called by Macalister the gastric artery. 

ted below with the threat omentum, and is often regarded as a part of it.— Tr. 
4 See Apj.. 6 Call d by I 

7 See Appen I 1 by Macalister the superior pyloric artery. See Appendix, m :■ 

9 Called 1.) 

and ileum, which is always denoted in England by the term mesentery when 



qualificatio 

■i Called by Macal 



■ the tr, 






See Append!: 



Fig. 1075.— Formation of mm Portal Vein or Vena Port.e by nn Confluence of the Superior and 
Inferior Mesenteric Veins, Veve M Superior et Inferior, the Sri 

Lienalis, and the Coronary Vein of the Stomach or Gastric \ i in, Vena Coronaria \"i ntriculi. 

The great or gastrocolic omentum (or epiploon) was cut away immediately below the great curvature of the stomach, and 
the stomach itself was turned upwards. The jeiunutn and the ileum as well as the transverse colon and the upper 
half of the ascending colon, were cut away, and the mesentery (• . note ' ahm/e) was cut away close to its root. 
The caecum was drawn outwards, in order to stretch the meso-appendix and to display the artery and vein of the 
vermiform appendix (appendicular artery and vein — arteria et vena appendicularis) between its layers. By the 
partial removal of the pancreas, the confluence of the superior mesenteric vein, vena mesenterica superior, and the 
splenic vein, vena lienalis, was displayed. The abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the middle sacral artery or 
sacral aorta, and the middle sacral vein, were exposed by the removal of the parietal peritoneum covering these 
vessels. 

The Portal System of Veins. 



THE 






Epiploic branches arteries 
and veins) 






Middle colic vein 



Head of the pancreas -w\ 

' a 

Superior mesenteric vein and 
artery 

Eight colic vein and artery , 

^ / 

Ileocolic vein and" {>, 

artery 
V. 

Vein and artery of the ■„- 
vermiform appendix, 
or appendicular vein 

and artery 
V. ci A 







Duodeii" 



I ■ ■ I 

MESl N I ERICA INFERIOR. Si 

drawn upw . 



V. mesenl 



VEN/E COLLI ET CALLUS 

THE VEINS OE THE HEAD AND 

NECK 



682 



THE VEINS OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Superficial temporal veins 
Vv. temporales superficiales 



Middle temporal vein ^_ / 7 . s\jf\ \Av 

V. temporalis media t^' 



Anterior auricular veins ,- .™^, 

Vv. auriculares anteriores'' ^JK£35*^>c 

Occipital vein 

Posterior auricular vein ( i ) 
Teniporoniaxillary vein -V. facialis p>steri i. '■tSSBffi 
Common facial vein -V. facialis ._ mimiiias - 
Deep cervical fascia (superficial layer, turned 

backwards) -Fascia colli (lamina superfi. ialis) 
Prevertebral fascia — Fascia praevertebralis 
Posterior external jugular vein 
V. cen ii all-, subcutanea 
Superficial cervical veins— v. cerviealis superficialis , 
Suprascapular vein 4 — V. transversa scapula; 

Posterior belly of the omobyoid muscle "» / 
(enclosed in a sheath derived trorn tbe f 
deep layer of tbe deep cervical fascia) 
Costocoracoid membrane , 
Fascia coracoclavicularis 

Acromial vein A 

V. acromialis ,/ 



Superior palpebral veins— Vv. palpebrals superiores 
Inferior palpebral veins— Vv. palpebrals inferiores 
Frontal vein— V. frontalis 
"Nasofrontal vein 1 
*V. nasofrontalis 
Nasal veins 
' Vv. nasales externa? 

Angular vein — V. annularis 
Transverse facial vein 
V. transversa faciei 
x Superior labial vein 

" Venous plexus surround- 
ing tbe parotid duct or 

duct of Stensen 
. Deep facial or anterior in- 
ternal maxillary vein- (2) 
.-Inferior labial vein (3) 
. Anterior parotid veins 

' Vv. parotides anteriores 

Facial vein" (4) 
Masseteric veins 

Facial artery" 

A. maxillaris externa 



Submental vein 
submentalis 




Submaxillary gland 

Glandula submaxillaris 



External jugular vein 
ilaris externa 



Anterior jugular vein 1 
1 1. iris anterior 



Acromial rete (arterial and venous) 
Rete acromiale Cephalic vein 

V. cephalica 



' Pectoral fascia (deep layer) 
Fascia pecloralis (lamina profunda) 
Thoracic or pectoral branches of the acromiothoracic artery and verj 
Kami 1 ■ ■ vcn.L ihoraco-f 

'Deltoid veins' 1 -*Vv. deltoidea? 



(1) V. auricularis p isti 



til a facialis 



ipi ndix, note -" ; -. - Ii 

•I Known also as the tran*. 
1 See Appendix, note ■«. 8 See Append 



'■ labialis inferior 

nousptext 

5ee Appendix, note l 7°. 

9 See Appendix, note = E S. 



(4) V. facialis anterior 



3 See Appendix 
6 See Appendix 



Fig. 1077.— The Superficial Veins of the Head and Ni.ck: : the Origin of the Facial m; Anterior 
Facial) Vein, Vena Facialis Anterior, and the Temporomaxillary (or Posterior Facial) Vein, Vena 
Facialis Posterior (see Appendix, note - s:! ) : the Occipital Vein, Vena Occipitalis; the Anterior and 
External Jugular Veins, Ven^e Jugulares Anterk i I erna; i m i Posterior External Jugular 
Vein, Vena Cervicalis Subcutanea. 



The Veins of the Head and Neck. 



THE i THE HEAD 






Middle temporal vein 
Superficial temporal artery aud vein 



Veins of the temporomandibular 
articula 
\'v. ai 



Tcmporomaxillary vein : 



Occipital artery and vein 



Common facial vein 
nimuni: 



Transverse cervical vein • V. li 
Subclavian artery and vein ' 

Cephalic vein 
Acromial vein V 
Axillary artery and vein 
Basilic vein . 

Anterior circumflex 

vein of the arc I 
Posterior circuir 

vein of the arm 

Brachial veins'* 




ntal diploi 

'ins 
/Angular vein 



Submental vein 



Superior thyroid aner. 

Superior laryngeal i: 
and 



Externa! jugular vein 
■ 
Suprascapular \ 

Right innominate or brachio ■ 

uperflclal cervical lymphatic gland 

I 

Vena ihy I 




Long thoracic artery and vein 



Dorsal branch of the subscapular vein ' 
N.\ ; rill A 



Veil: '•. \ill.i. 






684 



THE VEINS OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Frontal vein— V. frontal 
Superior palpebral veins 
Vv palpebrales superiore: 

Inferior palpebral veins 
Vv. palpebrales inferiores-^ 

Angular vein 
V. angularis 

Superior labial vein 
V. labialis superior- 
Middle temporal vein 
V. temporalis media— 

Temporomaxillary vein 1 — 
V. facialis posterior 
Inferior labial vein — V. labialis inferior 
Submental vein— V. submentalis 
Common facial vein ■ :— v. facial 

Lingual vein 10 — V. lingualis ~_ 
Deep cervical fascia (superficial layer, turned 

backwards) -f'.iM-ia colli (lamina superficialis) 

Deep cervical fas;ia (deep layer) 
t colli (lamina profunda) 
'Jugular venous area" --*Arcus venosus juguli 
Suprascapular vein' -— V. transversa scapulas 
Superficial cervical vein 
Costocoracoid membrane i 
Acromial veins — \ 



Supra-orbital vein 
V. stipra-orbitalis 

Nasal veins 

Vv. nasales externa? 



Superficial temporal vein 
V. temporalis superficialis 

Deep facial or anterior internal maxillary vein 1 
V. anastomotica facialis 



Anterior auricular veins 
Vv. auriculares anteriorcs 



Facial vein-— V. facialis anterior 
Superior thyroid vein— V. thyreoidea superior 
Suprasternal space 3 

Spatium intera^oneuroticum suprasternal 

External jugular vein — V. jugularis externa 
- Inferior bulb of the internal jugular vein 4 y 



transversa colli 




Subclavian vein \ 
Transverse cervical vein" 
Subclavius muscle 
Axillary vein and artery— -V. et A. axillaris 
Cephalic vein— V. cephalica 

Brachial vein -V. brachialis 
Median nerve— N. medianus 

Basilic vein— V basilica 



Thoracic or pectoral 

branches of the acromio- 

thoracic artery — Rami 

pectoral es 

(i) V. cervicalis superficialis 
(4) A. eL V*. circumflexa scapula? 



Internal maminarv artery and 

vein- A. ei V. mi 

Costal pleura — Pleura costalis 

Triangularis sterni muscle 
M transversus thoracis 



(2) Fascia coracoclavicularis 
(5) A. et V. subscapulars 



Ulnar nerve N ulnaris 
Internal cutaneous nerve ( j) 
Dorsal branches of the subscapular 
artery and vein, respectively U) 
Subscapular artery and vein? (5) 
Long thoracic artery and vein 1 ) 

(3) N. cutaneus antibrachii medialis 
(6) A. et V. thoracalis lateralis 



Fig. 1079.— The Superficial Veins of the Face, the Superficial and Deep Veins of the Neck, and the 
Veins of the Axilla; seen from Before. 

On the right side of the neck, by the removal of the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, the 'submaxillary 
fossa ('fossa submaxillaris — see note '3 below), the 'greater supraclavicular fossa (fossa supraclavicularis 
major — see note ■< below), and the suprasternal space (spatium interaponeurotieum suprasternale — see /">'* 3 
were opene I. The lower half of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle was removed, together with the 
corresponding portion of the superficial layer of the deep cervical fa=cia, in order to lay bare the opening of the 
•jugular venous arch (see Appen into the te-minal portion of the external jugular vein. On the left 

side of the neck the ensheathing portion of the deep cervical fascia was entirely removed, and the lower half of the 
sternocleidomastoid muscle was removed, together with the sternal extremity of the clavicle, in order to display the 
deep venous trunks and the left 'venous angle (*angulus venosus — see Appendix, note '-"-). On the right side of the 
body, the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major muscle has been turned downwards, thus exposing the axillary 
vein above the pectoralis minor muscle. On the left side of the body, the pectoralis major muscle having been 
removed, the vessels and nerres of the axilla were dissected out. Further, on this side, by the partial removal of 
the anterior or external intercostal aponeuroses and of the internal intercostal muscles, the internal mammary 
vessels were exposed, and their relation to the costal pleura and to the triangularis sterni muscle was displayed. 



\ 



See note - to p. 682. = Sometimes di-tineuished as the anterior fa. 

3 Called by Macalister Burns s space. 1 See Appendix, note 1='. 

° Known also as thi ..-.respectively. 

J Known, \al mammary artery and vein. 

! ' (.'' arft-ty. See Appendix, note 226 . 

> the transvet te scapula 

1 N e Appendix, note 26 -. 



J 5 See Appendi: 



■alvebt. See Appendix, not. 

• the brachial artery. 

J S <■ Appendix, note 2 °3. 
les tailed the posterior facial 

■ 
<i See Appendix, in ■ 
: ; Sec Appendix, note 28 5. 



n. See Appendix, note = 6 3. 
14 See Appendix, note 2? 9. 



Veins of the Head, the Neck, and the Axilla. 



THE VEINS OF THE HEAD 






Trigeminal or trifacial nervr 

Superior petrosal sinus 

Inferior petrosal sinus i 
•Emissary velu of the anterior v 
condylar foramen var, 

Internal carotid artery 

Termination of the inferior 

petrosal sinus in the internal 

jugular vein 

Occipital artery and companion 

veins A. 

Internal jugular ve u 

Ascending pharyngeal artery- 

Digastric muscle (posterior belly 

Parotid gland ' ■ 

External carotid artery 
A. i i ' 

Temporomaxillary vein : '_ 
V fai 
Lingual artery and vein 

Sternocleidomastoid artery and vein — 
■ 

Superior thyroid artery and vein— 
\. 
Internal jugular vfin 

Pharyngeal venous plexus 

External jugular vein__ 

Omohyoid muscle M 

Inferior thyroid vein 

Left innominate for brachiocephalic) 
Vein nistra 

Suprascapular vein" 

Left subclavian vein 

Left common carotid artery 
Left subclavian artery 

Accessory hemiazygos vein 



venous plexus or ba.-: 



\ h, 



Thoracic duct 



Internal mamm. i 
and v 
Left pulmonary artery 



Descending thoracic aorta 










Internal i 

Pharyngeal veins 

Lingual artery 
External carotin 

Superior thyroid 

—Sternocleidomastoid : 

Common carotid artery 

Inferior thyroid artery and companion 

veins 

Vertebral artery and . 

Eight subclavian artery 

'Inferior bulb of the internal jugular 
vein • I 
Innominate ior brachiocc-phai 

' il and tracheal veins |6| 

•'Vena thyroidea ima 
thyroid 
Right innomina- 

cerii. 
-Trachea 
Superior vena 
. 

Superior intercostal vein 

Azygos vein 7 















_, 

Th( I : ' 



686 



THE VEINS OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Internal maxillary artery' — A. maxillaris interna 
Ophthalmic artery — A. ophthalmica 
Cut surface of the external pterygoid plate 
Circumflexus or tensor palati muscle — M tensor veli palatin , i 
Internal carotid artery — A. carotis interna , J 1 
Cavernous sinus — Sinus cavernosus | i 
Internal carotid artery — A. carotis interna 
Tympanic cavity, or tympanum (promontory) 

Cavum tympanism,, 

Obliquus capit; 
'Sigmoid sinus *Sinus sign 
Occipital artery and vein 
A. et V. occipitali : 



Superior ophthalmic vein — V. ophthalmica superior 
Inferior ophthalmic vein— V. ophthalmica inferior 
Lachrymal vein — V. lacrimalis 
, Posterior ciliary veins— w. ciliares posteriores 

* Nasofrontal vein 1 — •V. nasofrontalis 




Stylomastoid artery and vi 

A. et V. stylomastoidea 

Ascending pharyngeal artery (i) 

Inferior palatine vein' 1 -V palatina 

Vertebral artery -A, vertebralis 

External carotid artery 



Common facial vein' 
V. facialis communis 
Facial artery I— A. maxillaris externa 
Lingual artery and companion 
veins > (a portion of the artery 
ha3 been excised 



__. Stylopharyngeus 
muscle 



Styloglossus muscle 



Sublingual artery and 

vein 
A. et V. sublingualis 
Geniohyoid muscle 
M. geniohj i>:Jeus 



Semispinalis colli muscle — 

M. semispinalis cervicis 

Deep cervical artery 

and vein ; (-) 

Vertebral vein -_ 

V. vertebralis 



Raninc artery and veins- 
A. et V. pre 'Inn. l.i linguse 



\ Superior thyroid vein 
uperior 

Posterior tubercle of the transverse process 

of the sixth cervical vertebra 
"Inferior bulb of the internal jugular vein 3 
•Bulbus venae iugularis inferior 



(cut short) 



(i) A pharyngea ascend 



(i-) A. et V. cervicalis profunda 



1 See Appendix, note 
' Sec App 



Vv ix, note IaI . 4 See Appendix, ni 

i s ■ Appendix, ri 

i ■ o as the postcriot 



i p. 689. 



Fig. 1081.— The Cavernous Sinus and the Veins of the Orbit ; the Deep Visceral Veins 01 1111 Hi id 
and Neck; the Deep Cervical or Posterior Vertebral Vein, Vena Cervicalis Profunda, and hie 
Vertebral Vein, Vena Vertebralis. Seen from the Right Side. 



The Deep Veins of the Head and Neck. 



Till: V 






Anterior ethmoidal or internal nasal artery and 
Inferior ophthalmic vein ' 

Levator palpebral superioris t 

ll;u icle 

Superior rectus muscle 



.Posterior ethmoidal ar I 
I /Front 






Vorticose veins 
Lachryn 

Sphenoparieta 
sinus 

talis 

'Ophthalmomenin 
geal vein 







- 



Middle meningeal artery and veins 

i rete of the foramen 

• Superior petrosal Bin 
Anterior intercavernous sinus i 

' Circular sinus 
Posterior intercavernous sinus I Si 

Basilar venous plexus or basilar sinus' 



Superior ophthalmic vein / 
V. ophthaln 

Ophthalmic artery 

/ 
Internal carotid artery in the cavernous sinus 

Pituitary body or hypophysis cerebri ' 

I'l.l.V 

■ 

m 



The Veins of the Orbit. The C and Circul 



688 



THE VEINS OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Deep temporal veins 
Vv. temporales profund 
Cranial dura mater 
Dura mater encephali s 
Venous lacuna (lacuna lateralis) 7 ^^^W 

of the superior longitudinal sinu: 
(injected)' 
Lacuna lateralis sum, sagittate 

Sphenoparietal sinus 
Sinus sphenoparietal! 



Infra-orbital artery and vein 
1 A. et V. infra-orbitalis 
i Frontal diploic vein 

/V. dipioica frontalis 
Frontal vein 
V. frontalis 




Middle temporal 

vein 

V. temporalis media - *-' 

Veins of the tempore 

mandibular articula 

tion 

Vv. artic ulares mandibular 

Suparfieial temporal artery 11 

A temporalis superficialis 

Pterygoid venous plexus- 

Intsrnal maxillary artery' 

tnf irior dental or mandibular nerva 

, aUo.Urh, inferior 

Temporomaxillary vein 

V. facialis postenql 
Inferior dental (or alveolar) artery 
and vein -A. et V. alveolaris inferior 

External jugular veiu 
V. jugularis externa 
Internal jugular vein 
V. jugularis interna 
Common facial vein 1 - "' 
V. facialis communis 



Nasofrontal vein 1 
V. nasofrontalis 



Nasal veins 

nasales externa' 



Deep facial or 
anterior internal 
maxillary vein 2 
V. anastomotica 
facialis 



„ Lingual nerve 
N. lingualis 

Facial vein 3 

V. facialis anterior 

Facial artery' 

A m.ixillaris externa 



Digastric muscle 
M. digastricus 
Ranine vein' 
V. comitans nervi 
hypoglossi 
Lingual artery 
A. lingualis 
Superior laryngeal artery and 
vein'' 
A. et V. laryngea supi 
Superior thyroid artery and vein 
A. et V. thyreoidea superior 



x See Appendix, note 28a . 2 This vein is a communicating branch from ihi 

3 Sometimes distinguished as the anterior facial vein. See Appendix, note : " ;i . ■* See Appendix, note 

6 Ot larya , e, respectively. 

7 See Appendix, note =93. » See Appendix, note - s7 . 9 See Appendix, note "8. "> See Appendix, note >«. 
11 Sometimes called the posterior facial van. See Appendix, note -"!. '- See Appendix, note =5. 



5 See Appendix, note 2S &. 



Fig. 1083. — The Formation of the Common Facial Vein, Vena Facialis Communis, by the Confluence of 
the Facial (or Anterior Facial) Vein, Vena Facialis Anterior, \m> the Temporomaxillary (or 
Posterior Facial) Vein, Vena Facialis Posterior [see Appendix, note® 3 ). The Pterygoid Vi 101 
Plexus, Plexus Pterygoideus, tih Veins oi ie ] ir [aw, and rHi Veins of the Dura Mater— 
the Middle Meningeal Veins, Ven« Meningi i Mn>n. Seen from hie Righi Side. 

By the partial removal of the skull-cap (calvaria), tile cranial dura mater was exposed. By the removal of the zygomatic 
arch, of the upper half of the ramus of the mandible (with the exception of the head of the condyle), and of the 
temporal and masseter muscles, the pterygoid venous plexus, plexus ptervgoideus, was exposed. By the opening 
of the mandibular or inferior dental canal, canahs mandibular, the infeiior dental (or alveolar) artery and its plexi- 
form companion veins were exposed. 



The Pterygoid Venous Plexus, Plexus Pterygoideus.— The Veins of the Dura Mater and 

of the Lower Jaw. 



■ 






Venous lacuna (lacuna lateralis 
of tue superior longitudinal sinus. 

injected 
Lacuna 1 il 



Superior cerebral veins 



Cranial dura a 



Middk- 




Lateral 3inus 



Sternocleidomastoid muscle 



External carotid artery 
Inferior palatine vein 

Internal pterygoid muscle . 

Temporomaxillary vein 
Internal carotid artery 
Hypoglossal nerve 



Internal jugular vei 

■ 









Internal ma\ 
anni' 
Submaxillary duct, or 

"Superior thyroi.i 
into the common 









I 









The Pterygoid Venou 



690 



THE VEINS OF THE HEAD AND NECK 



Superior longitudinal sinus 

Sinus sagittalis superior 



Inj33ted venous lacuna (lacuna 
lateralis)' of the superior longi- 
tudinal sinus (unopenedj 
Lacuna lateralis sinus sagittalis 
superioris 



Superior cerebral veins 
cerebri superiores 

Venous lacuna (lacuna 

lateralis)' of the 
, superior longitudinal 

sinus (opened) 
Lacuna lateralis sinus 
sagittalis superioris 

Arachnoidal villi 

/ or Pacchionian bodies : 

Granulationes arach- 

noideales (Faccliioni) 



Superior cerebral veins,'' 
Vv. cerebri superiores""^- 




Venous lacuna (lacuna lateralis) 1 

N of the superior longitudinal sinua 

(opened) — Lacuna lateralis sinus 

sagittalis superioris 

Arachnoidal villi or Pacchionian bodies 2 

Granulationes arachnoideales (Pacchioni) 



See Appendix, note *93. 



V pendix, note =9 5 . 



Fig. 10S5.— The Superior Cerebral Veins, Yex.f. Cerebri Superiorf:s. The Superior Longitudinal Sinus, 
Sinus Sagittalis Superior; its Venous Lacux.e (Lacux.e Laterales — see Appendix^ note -'"■;, \nd the 
Relations of the Latter to the Superior Cerebral Veins and to the ■'. Villi or 

Pacchionian Bodies (Granulationes Arachnoideales Pacchioni- r, tioU m ). Seen from 

Ai < i\ 1 . 

The cranial dura mater was removed, except in the immediate vicinity of the superior longitudinal sinus (sinus sagittalis 
superior), which was opened. On the left side the injected vei iterales) of this sinus are seen 

unopened ; on the right side these lacuna; were opened from above, and the arachnoidal villi or Pacchionian bodies 
proliferating in their interior were thus displayed. 



Veins of the Krain. 



'I HE I THE 111 






i • 
ns on the inferior 01 
surface of the frontal loot 



Basilar or basal vein 1 



Superior petrosal sinus 



Termination of the inferioi 

cerebral veins in the lateral 

sinus 




Middle a • 



■ 



Inferior cerebellar veins / 



Opening of the superior longitudinal 
sinus into the right lateral 






Inferior cerebral veins 



Anterior external spinal 



Opening of the nto the 

left 1. 






Occipital sinu rebelli) 



, I N : ! 1 1 1 ' ! 
Ml in \ ; in: 

trunk 



Vrii ' train. 



VEN/E EXTREMITATUM 
" SUPERIORUM ET INFERIORUM 

THE VEINS OF THE UPPER AND 
LOWER LIMBS 



694 



THE VEINS OF THE UTTER TIME 



Superficial layer of the aponeurosis 
of the arm (or deep brachial fascia) '-" 
divided along the deltoideopectoral 
groove, the cut edges being turned 
inwards and outwards 



Aponeurosis of the arm, or deep brachial 

fascia 

Fascia brachii 



*Accessory median vein (of the elbow 

( var. ) 

*V. mediana cubiti accessoria (var. 



Median basilic vein,- 
V. mediana basilica 



Median cephalic vein 
V. mediana cephalica 

Deep median vein 
Ramus anastomoticus 



Deep fascia of the forearm 
Fascia antibrachii 




Subcutaneous venous network of the 
anterior surface of the upper arm 



)' Anterior and posterior ulnar veins" 
V. basilica 



Median vein of the forearm) 
V. mediana antibrachii 



\ pendix, m ite ■ 
- Called by Macalister ant > superficial ulnar veins. See Appendix, note 3«. 

'■ " ..: Appemlix, ■ 

Fig. 1087. — The Subcutaneous Veins of the Front of the Shoulder, the Front of the 
Arm, and the Flexure of the Elbow. 



Cutaneous Veins of the Arm. 



THE ! LIMB 






Deep fascia of the forearm 



Communicating branch between the 
superficial and the ileep veins 




Anterior ulnar vein 



ledian vein of the forearm i 



I 



Subcutaneous venous network ol 
the palmar surface of the foi 



Communicatiuj 
superficial am 



■ hiJQ-HfWk Palmar venous rei 

; 4 



"Intercapitular veins' 
"Venae intercaj 




to the 



Subcutaneo 



I 






696 



THE VEINS OF THE UPPER LI ML 



Subcutaneous venous network of 
the dorsal surface of the forearm 



'Accessory cephalic vein r ' 
V. cephalica accessoria 



Anterior ulnar vein 
V. basilica 



Dorsal venous rete (or plexus) of the hand 
Rete venosum dorsale manus 



Digital venous arches . 

Arcus venosi di»itales~ 




Accessory median vein of the elbow ivar.) : 
V. mediana cubiti accessoria (var.) 



jifi\ *Dorsal metacarpal veins 1 

I HB "*Vv metacarpeae dorsales 

It 



See Appendix, note I -. 
See Appendix, note -< '-. 
Called by Macalister the cutter 



- See Appendix i 

■ i i 
ulnar vein. See Appeniii 



Intercapitular vein 
V. intercapitularis 



3 See Appendix, note 3°8. 
6 See Appendix, note 3°4. 



Fig. 10S9. — The Subcutaneous Veins of the Dorsal Surface of the Forearm and Hand, 

Cutaneous Veins of the Arm. 



THE ! LI ML 







Cephalic vein 1 

* Capital vein of the 
arm basilic vein: 



Anterior ulnar vein 
Median vein (of the fore 

V, mo I: 
Radial vein' 

dica (antibrachii) 





Palmar venous rete or plexus) ot th 



Cephalic vein' 



Basilic V2in 

Median ba^i: 

Median cepha 

— "Median vein of the 
elbow 

— Median vein of the ._ 
forearm 

Radial vein 

ichii) 




Anterior ulnar vein- 
\'. basilica (antibrachii) 



IV?- 















Fig. 1090. — 1 

1 . 

AND I UANNliLS. 



Cutani 



88 



THE VEINS OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Suprascapular vein 1 — V. transversa scapula? 
Axillary artery and vein — A. et V. axillaris 
Anterior circumflex artery (of the arm) and \ 
companion veins (0 




Internal jugular vein 
V. jugularis interna 
, External jugular vein (3) 
Transverse cervical vein 1 - 
. transversa colli 
Suprascapular vein 1 (4) 
Subclavian vein 
subclavia 

Jugular venous arch" 
Arcus venosus juguli 
Right innominate (or brachio- 
cephalic) vein 
anonyma dextra 



Posterior circumflex vein (of the 

arm) 
V. circumflexa humeri posterior 
Dorsal branch of the 
scapular vein 1 " (2) 
Biceps flexor cubiti muscle 
M. biceps brachii 

Inferior profunda artery 1 ; and 

veins (of the arm) 

A. et Vv. collaterals ulnares 

superiores 

Basilic vein— V. basilica 
Biceps flexor cubiti muscle 
M. biceps brachii 
Brachial veins 11 — Vv. brachiales 



Supinator radii longus 

muscle 

M. brachioradialis 



Long thoracic artery and vein 
A. et V, thoracalis lateralis 



Subscapular artery and vein 4 
A et V. thoracodorsals 



*Median vein of the elbow'' 
*V. mediana cubiti 

.Anastomotic branch of the brachial artery [anastomotica 
magna artery j 1 : and companion veins 
A. o [lateralis ulnaris inferior et venae ccmitantcs 
Ulnar vein' : 
V basilica 



< :':ilar t 
ill' . ;ry artery and 

<> See \ 
1 . ulnar artery. 

• 1 Ml.;!! called the dcrsalis scapula -.'dr.. 
12 See Appendix, ni i 



(4) V.Ira, 

p< ijdix, 
1 Or vem. 
' Or vctic 



apula 



Fig. 1091.— The Deep Veins and Arteries of 1111 1 praclavicular i i 

*fossa supraclavicularis major, of the axil la, and of the front of the upper arm j th 
between the .superficial and the deep veins of the flexure of the elbow. 

Deep Veins of the Axilla and the Upper Arm. 



udi.v. note 
e Conn 






THE VEINS OF THi 



Triceps extensor cubiti muscle middle or long 
bead 

Teres minor muscle 
Dorsal branches of the subscapular 
artery and vein, respectively' \ 



* Internal axillary space 1 



External axillar . 

i Posterior circumflex artery 




Teres major muscle 

Latissimus dorsi muscle 
Superior profunda artery and vein 



Muscular branch to the inner head of 
the triceps muscle : artery and vein) 



Triceps extensor cubiti muscle external 
head i 
M trii 



Rete olecrani 



Accessory superior profunda 
artery' ar; 
circ >.: ■ 

Brachial artery and brachial 

Inferior profunda artery arising ab- 
normally from the Buperi 
and compani' i 

Superior profunci. 



\'t§ " Musculcspiral nerve 



KlG. 1092.— 'I III. 1 H 1 
A hoi 



Deep Veins ol the Shoulder and the Upper A 






700 



THE VEINS OF THE UPPER LIMB 



Biceps flexor cubiti muscle— - \ 

M. biceps brachii 



Brachial artery and brachial veins 5 
A brachialis et Vv. brachiales 

Cut edge of the semilunar 
or bicipital fascia 

Radial recurrent vein -_ 
V. recurrens radialis 
Divided communicating branch — 
between the (deep) radial veins 
and the superficial veins 1 -' 

Radial artery and (deep) radial veins 10 
A. radialis et Vv. radiales 

Median artery and vein 11 
A. et V. mediana 

Pronator radii teres muscle (distal - 
extremity) 

Flexor profundus digitorum muscle 1 '- - 
M. flexor digitorum profundus 

Supinator radii longus muscle - 

M. brachioradialis 

Flexor carpi radialis muscle - 



Palmaris longus muscle — 



Radial vein 13 . 
V. cephalica 

Divided communicating branches between «. 
the deep and the superficial veins 



Superficial volar artery 14 

Ramus volaris superficialis arteria? radialis "---_ 

Superficial palmar venous arch 
Arcus volaris venosus superficialis - 




Median nerve 

N. medianus 



Anastomotic branch of brachial artery 

_,and vein (anastomotica magna artery 

and vein) 1 

A. et V. collateralis ulnaris inferior 

-Divided communicating branch between 

the superficial and the deep veins 



— Brachialis anticus muscle 
M. brachialis 



-- Anterior ulnar recurrent artery 
and vein 
A. et V. recurrens ulnaris 
■- Ulnar head -\ of the pronator radii 

Caput ulnare teres muscle 

--Humeral head j musculi pronatoris 

Caput humeralej radii teretis 

- Ulnar artery and (deep) ulnar veins 2 
A. ulnaris et Vv. ulnares 

Flexor carpi radialis muscle 



Palmaris longus muscle 

Flexor sublimis digitorum muscle" 
M. flexor digitorum sublimis 



Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 



Flexor sublimis digitorum muscle'' 
M. flexor digitorum sublimis 



Ulnar artery and (deep) ulnar veins 2 

A ulnaris et Vv. ulnares 



Anterior annular ligament of the wrist 
(deep layer; 4 
Lig carpi transversum 
Anterior ulnar vein"' 
V. basilica 

Palmar digital arteries and veins" 
V, el V >' ..iles volares communes 



.Lumbricales muscles 



*Intercapitular vein 7 

*V. intercapitularis 



1 See Appendix, note 

4 Se< Appendix, note 2I 4. 

■ S< e .\| pendix, notes 2I 3 and 3°*. 

s Or vciics comites of the brachial artery. 

■''the radial artery. 
'= Or flexor per/brans muscle. 
M Often known in England by the- Latin n 



3 Or flexor perforates muscle, 
lording to Macalister. See Appendix, note 3<*. 



- Or vena coxites of the uln 
5 Or ant. 

i See Appendix, a 

I i probably represents the deep median vein of English anatomists. — Tb. 
I l>y M.uali,i,;i .,«.-, s tiervi mediant' artery 

"i- .. a! tin Hal vein, according to Macalister. See Appendix, note 3°5. 
ne of superficialis vola artery. 



Fig. 1093.— The Deep Veins and Arteries ok the Flexure of the Elbow and of the Palmar Surf' 
of the Forearm; the Superficial Palmar Arterial and Venous Arches. 



Deep Veins of the Forearm and Hand. 



THE l LIMIi 






Biceps flexor culriti muscl 
M bii 



Musculospiral nerve. 
N. ra 
Brachial artery and brachial veins __ 

: nerve 

Posterior interosseous nerve Ramus . . 



Radial recurrent artery and vein 



Supinator radii brevis muscle ... 
M. su] 

Extensor carpi radialis longior muscle 

1 

radii teres muscle (distal extremity __ 
Radial artery and deep) 

radial . 
A ra 

Supinator radii longus muscle, 

M 1 Tl 



Radial head of the flexor sublimis 

digitorum muscle (the rest of the 

muscle has been cut away) 



Anterior interosseous artery and 
anterior interosseous veins 7 

A. el \ 

Flexor longus pollicis muscle 

Pronator quadratus muscle (divided by a 

vertical incision) the segments being drawn apart 
Anterior radial carpal branch 



Superficial volar artery 4 
Abductor pollicis muscle 

Opponens pollicis muscle 



Large artery of the thumb and com- 
panion veins ' 

First dorsal interosseous or abductor ( 

indicis muscle 



Palmar interosseous 

veins and arteries ' 

Second palmar interosseous muscle 




__ Median nerve 

__Ani>. ■ 
and 



Anterior ulnar r- 

Ulnar artery a: 

Pronator radii teres muscle 

Flexor carpi radialis m 
PalmariB longus mn 
Flexor car] 



Flexor profundus digitorum n 
Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle 



Anterior ulnar carpal branch 
Deep palmar venous arch 



_ Abductor minis 



Fourth doi is muscle 












I 111. PAI.MAI 



Deep v. in : and Hand. 



702 



THE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB 



1^ 

Superior superficial inguinale, Ms\V i 

lymphatic glands 
Lymphoglanduhi' inguinales 

Superficial circumflex iliac vein 
V. circumflexa ilium superficialis' 



Inferior superficial inguinal lymphatic gland. <; 
Lymphoglandulae subinguinales superficiales 



Subcutaneous venous network of 
the anterior surface of the thigh 




Superficial epigastric vein 
V. epigastrica superficialis 



External pudic veins' 
Vv. pudenda; externa; 



. Subcutaneous dorsal veins of 
the penis 4 

Vv. dorsales penis subeutaneas 
- Anterior scrotal veins- 

Vv. scrotales anteriores 



Internal or long saphenous vein 
V. saphena magna 



Posterior branch of the internal 

or long saphenous vein (Quain), 

or internal femoral cutaneous 

vein (Maealister) 

V saphena accessoria 



■ According to Maealister, fuiie tribu ts 
3 Often called the femoral /: 



nal or long saphe 



: See Appendi: 
See Appendi? 



;. 1095.— The Cutaneous Veins of the Anterior and Inner Sides of the Right Thigh, of the Lower 
Part of the Front of the Abdomen, and of the Male External Genital Organs. The Internal 
or Long Saphenous Vein with its Posterior Branch (the Internal Femoral Cutaneous Vein, 
according to Macalister), Vena Saphena Magna et Vena Saphena Accessoria; the Superficial 
Lymphatic Glands of the Inguinal and Supincuinal Regions. 



Cutaneous Veins of the Lower Limb. 



THE I LIMB 






Subcutaneous / 
venous network 




Internal or long 
' saphenous vein 



Internal or long 
sapbeii' 



External or short 
saphenous vein' 



Subcutaneous / 
venous network ( 



Communicating branch 1 
between the external or 
short saphenous vein 
and the internal or 
long saphenous vein 







Communicating branch 
between the internal 
or long saphenous vein 
and the external or 
short saphenous vein 



External or short 
saphenous vein : 



Internal or long 
saphenous vein 



Calcaneal venou 

i 




Communicating branch 
ficial and the 



n 



Dorsal digital \eins of the foot 



Plantar venou 



venous 



Til! I 

■fill. 

Cul mb, 






704 



THE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Sciatic artery and sciatic veins 

A glutasa inferior et Vv. glutai-a; inferiores 



Posterior or gre 
sacrosciatic 
ligament 
Lig. sacrotuberosum 

Internal pudic 
artery and veins :1 ( 

Cut edge of the obturator fascia 

Conies nervi ischiadici artery 
and vein 



Posterior or great sacrosciatic - ~ 
ligament —Lig. sacrotuberosum 

External or superficial sphincter - - 
of the anus 
M. sphincter ani externus 

Bulbocavernosus or ejaculator 
urinEe muscle 

* Posterior scrotal arteries and- - 

veins 5 
*Aa. et Vv-. scrotales posteriores 




Gluteal veins 

Vv. glutaeEE superiores 



Gluteus minimus muscle 
/M. glutaeus minimus 



Gluteus medius muscle 
M. gluteus medius 



Pyriformis muscle 

M. piriformis 

- Obturator internus and 
gemelli muscles 

Great trochanter 
Trochanter major 

Obturator 
■externus muscle 
Gluteus maximus 
muscle (=) 
Deep branch of the in- 
ternal circumflex artery 
(of the thigh)- and com- 
panion veins (j) 

Iliopsoas muscle 



Quadratus femoris muscle 
Adductor minimus niuscle- 



Semitendinosus muscle 



Semimembranosus muscle - - 



. Vv. pudenda; interns (2) M. gluteus maj 

ailed *deep branch 0/ the internal t 



First or superior perforating vein and 
artery — V. et A. perforans I 

Adductor magnus muscle 

- Vastus externus muscle 
M . istus lateralis 



( :) Ramus profundi! 



itself. See Appe; 
3 See Appe] 



Called b) 



1 inatomisl 

[1 .te 2 to p. 644. 
lanalveins. 5 SeeApp- 



femoris medialis et vena: comit; 
the continuation of that vessel 



Fig. 1098. — The ]>i ep Veins and Arteries of the Right Gluteal Region and Ischiorectal 
Fossa, with the Superficial Vessels of the Posterior Surface of the Scrotum. 

The gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles and the posterior or great sacrosciatic ligament 
were cut across and the segments were drawn apart, and the greater part of the quadratus femoris 
muscle was cut away. 



Deep Veins of the Gluteal Region. 



THE I L1MU 






Deep or inferior epi- 
gastric artery and 

vein cut short 
A. et \ 

Femoral artery and 
A. et A 



Tensor vaginae femorij 
or tensor fasciae 
femoris muscle 
M. lei 

Internal circumflex 

artery and veins iof 

the thigh ' 

feiro 



Vastus cxternus muscle, 

External circumflex 
veins iof the thigh) 

Pectineus muscle 



Adductor brevis muscle 
First or superior per- 
forating artery and . . - 
veins 
v -t \ 
Deep femoral or pro- 
funda artery and vein 

Vastus internus muscle 
M. va 

Second or middle per- 
forating artery and vein 
A. et \'. |'ci fi rans 1 1. 

Adductor longus muscle ■- 
(drawn outward ; 



f Deep circumflex iliac artery and vein 

i Pectineus muscle 
Obturator vein 



Obturator eitemus muscle 
















.-■ major 

- niahs 



Terminal portion of the deep femoral 
or profunda artery and vein I third or 
inferior perforating artery and vein 






I 



Fig. [099. — The Distribi 

ET Ak I ERI \ PR( IFUNDA FEMi iR] ; OF THE 

THE D< IRS a Vl 

1 



Deep Veins of the Th il the Male External l 






706 



THE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Deep circumflex iliac vein 
V. circumflexa ilium profund 

Sartorius muscle 
Superficial circumflex iliac artery and 

vein 
A. et V. circumflexa ilium superficialis 
Iliopsoas muscle - 

Rectus fernoris muscle 

Tensor vagina? feniDris or tensor fascise_ 
fernoris muscle - M. tensor fascia? lata: 

Femoral artery' — A. femorali:- 
Ascending branch of the external., 
circumflex artery (of the thigh) 
and companion veins ( 1 1 
External circumflex vein (of the thigh- 
V. circumflexa fernoris lateralis 

Descending branch of the external - 

circumflex artery (of the thigh) and 

companion veins (?) 

Vastus externus muscle 1 
M. vastus lateralis 



Rectus fernoris muscle — 



Vastus externus muscle, 
M. vastus lateralis 



ascendens: 

lateralis et ' 
(2) Ramusd 

lateralis et ' 




Superficial epigastric artery and veins 

'-/ A. et Vv. epigastricse superficiales 

Deep or inferior epigastric artery 

and veins 

A. et Vv. epigastrica 1 inferiores 

Femoral vein— V. femoralis 

Pectineus muscle 

External pudic veins 
Vv. pudenda; externa: 

. Spermatic cord 
Funiculus spermaticus 

Internal or long saphenous vein 
V. saphena magna 

Subcutaneous dorsal veins of 
the penis' 1 

Vv. dorsalcs penis subcutanea: 

*Anterior scrotal veins- 
*Vv. scrotales anteriores 



■ Adductor lougus muscle 
Gracilis muscle 



Vastus internus muscle 
M. \ asms medialis 



Venae comites of the femoral artery 
Vv. comitantes arterial femoralis 



Anterior wall of Hunter's canal : 

Paries anterior canalis adductorii (Hunteri 

Sartorius muscle 



Anastomotic artery 1 and companion veins 
A. genu suprema et vena; comitantes 






1. 1 Ma. .ili- 



>™ Appendix, note --3. 



note m8 . 



Fig. iioo. — The Femoral Artery ynd Vein, Arteria et Vena Femoralis, until theii I france into 
Hunter's Canal {see Appendix, »,',v -'-'1. \xi> the Distribution of the Exteral, Circumflex Artery and 
Vein (of the Thigh), Arteria i.i Vena Circumflexa Femoris Lateralis. Right Thigh, seen from 
Before. 

The sartorius and rectus femoris muscles were in part removed, ami the tensor vaginae femoris and vastus externus 
muscles were drawn outwards. 



Deep Veins of the Front of the Thigh. 



THE l LI Mb 



707 



Tensor vaginae femoris or tensor fasciae 
femoris muscle M. ; 



External circumflex veins (of the thigh} 
V v. cii 

Deep femoral or profunda artery 

Vastus externus muscle M vastus lateralis 
First or superior perforating artery and 
companion veins 

Second or middle perforating artery, 
and vein V et V perl rans II. 



Terminal portion of the deep femoral 
or profunda artery and vein < third or 
inferior perforating artery and vein;'' 



Vastus externus muscle 
M. vastus lateralis 



Companion veins 

mantes 



Rectus femoris muscle - 



* Deep circumflex iliac art;ry and vein 



Deep or inferior epigastric artery and veins 



Femoral vein 

External pudic veins- 



Adductor longus muscle 



Deep femoral or profunda vein 



Adductor brcvis muscle 



Adductor magnus muscle 




Femoral vein 

Femoral artery 

Anterior wall of Hunter s canal < divided by 
a longitudinal incision, the segments being 
turned inwards and out 






Sartorius muscle 



Anastomotic artery 1 and companion 
veins 



N 
- 

In tl. 



I >eep Vein i ol tl 



708 



THE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Communicating branch between the 

external and the internal saphenous 

veins (proximal subcutaneous portion 

of the *femoropopliteal vein") 



Communicating branch to the 
deep veins 



'Femoropopliteal vein" (distal portion, 
lying partly in the substance of and 
partly beneath the fascia lata, and 
accompanying the small sciatic nerve) 
*Vena femoropoplitea 



Popliteal vein 
V. poplitea 



Internal or long saphenous vein 
V. saphena magna 



Gastrocnemius muscle 
M. gastrocnemius 



Deep fascia of the leg (deep layer) 
Fascia cruris 




g - Deep fascia of the buttock, or gluteal 
portion of the fascia lata 
Fascia gluta^a 



Small sciatic nerve and companion 

artery 1 

N cutaneus femoris posterior et 

arteria comitans 



ep fascia of the thigh, or 
fascia lata 



Semimembranosus muscle 



Biceps flexor cruris musclo 
M. biceps femoris 



Internal popliteal nerve 
N tibialis 



External popliteal or peroneal nerve 
N. peronaDus communis 

External or short saphenous vein and 

small sciatic nerve 
V. saphena parva et nervus cutaneus 

femoris posterior 

Deep fascia of the leg (superficial layer, 

incised and turned backwards) 

Fascia cruris 



1 This artery is one of llic , utanemts branches of the sciatic artery.— Tr. * See Appendix, note 313. 

Fig 1102. — The *Femoropopliteai Vein, *Vena Femoropoplitea (see Appendix, note 3I3 ), of the Right Thigh. 

The small sciatic nerve (nervus cutaneus femcris posterior), with its companion vessels, was exposed in its course 
between the layers of the fascia lata along the middle of the back of the thigh ; and in the region of the ham the 
deep fascia was entirely removed. 



Superficial Veins of the Back of the Thigh. 



THE I I WER LIMB 






Gluteus maximus muscle 
M. gluteus maximus 



Great sciatic nerve 

ulicus 



Adductor magnus muscle 



Muscular offset of the femoral artery 

and companion veins 

Rami! moral is 

ft vena; comitantes 

Semitendinosus muscl 



Semimembranosus muscle 



Popliteal artery and veiu 
A. el V ■ 




the ad.: 



Biceps flexor cruris muscle 
ilong bead 
M 



TMrd or inferior perforating artery 
and vein 

III. 



Femoropopliteal vein J 



Internal popliteal nerve 



External popliteal or peroneal nerve 



External or short saphenous vein 



Fig. i 103.— 'I'm'. Pi 



Deep Vein 1 of tl 



710 



THE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Anterior tibial recurrent artery and 

veins 
A. recurrens tibialis anterior et Vv. 
recurrentes tibiales anteriores 



Tibialis anticus muscle 
M. tibialis anterior 



Extensor longus digitorum pedis 

muscle 

M. extensor digitorum longus 



Extensor longus vel extensor proprius 

hallucis nmscle- 

M. extensor hallucis longu 

Anterior peroneal artery and companion veins 
Ramus perforans arteria: perona?K- et vena? comitantes 

Communicating branch between the anterior tibial 
and anterior peroneal arteries and companion veins 



Anterior external malleolar artery and veins 

A. malleolaris anterior lateralis et Vv. malle 

olares anteriores laterales 



Metatarsal artery and veins 4 
A. arcuata et Vv. arcuatas 




Anterior tibial veins 
Vv. tibiales anteriores 



Anterior tibial artery 
A tibialis anterior 



Dorsal artery and veins of the foot 1 
A. dorsalis pedis et Vv. dorsaies pedis 



Dorsal venous arch of the foot 
Arcus venosus dorsalis pedis 

Common digital veins cf the foot 
digitales communes pedis 
Dorsal digital veins of the foot 
Vv. digitales pedis dorsaies 



England by their Latin 
364. in Part III. 



5 of dorsalis pedis artery and 1 
3 See Appendix, n« 



V. 



See Appendix, note -39. 



Fig. 1104— The Musci.es of the Front of the Leo were separated, the Proximal Portion of the 
Tibia) is Anticus Muscle was detached from the Bone and turned forwards, the Extensor B 
Digitorum I'euis Muscle and the Tendons of the Extensor Longus Digitorum Pedis Muscle were 
removed from the Dorsum of the Tarsus. 



Deep Veins and Arteries of the Front of the Leg and the Dorsum of the Foot. 



THE ! i 



711 



Adductor magnus mu 
Semitendinosus muscle 



Semimembranosus muscle 



Superior internal articular artery 
and vain 

Internal sural artery and vein 1 




Popliteal veins 



Gastrocnemius muscle inner head) • 

Deep layer ol th i deep fascia of the leg on 
th; surface of tin poplit3US muscle incised, 
juieats being drawn apart 



■ igus digitoruiu pe:lia muscle 

Posterior tibial artery and veins 

.lores 



Flexor longus hallucis muscle 
M. [1 n ;us 



Communicating branch between the posterior 
tibial and the peroneal arteries and com- 
panion veins' 

posteri 

Peroneal artery and veins 

Flexor longus digitorum pedis muscle . 
M fie 

Tibialis posticus muscle 

Posterior internal malleolar artery 
and ■. 

Internal calcaneal branches and companion 
Calcaneal venous I 




BicepB flexor a 
Superior i 

External 
I 

Gastro i i bead 

- Inferi 01 

Inferior internal arti 



Peroneal artery and % 



Flexor longus hallucis muscle incised 
longitudinally, the segments being 
drawn 



Flexor longus hallucis muscle 



Tendo Achillis 



Posterior external malli 



IJ^jf Extern. < 















■ 



Deep \ 



712 



THE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB 



Internal or long saphenous veil. 
V. sapliena magna 



Tibialis anticus muscle 

M. tibialis anterior t' »m, 



Dorsal ar-tery and veins of the foot 
A. dorsalis pedis et Vv. dorsales pi 



Extensor longus vd extensor propriu 

hallucis :1 

M. extensor hallucis longus 



Dorsal venous arch of the foot 
Art ii-. venosus dorsalis pedis 



Dorsal digital veins of the foot- 
Vena; digitales pedis dorsales 




Anterior tibial artery 
A. tibialis anterior 



Anterior tibial veins 
Vense tibiales anteriore 



Dorsal venous rete of the foot 
Rete \enosum dorsale pedis 



. Dorsal metatarsal veins 
Vena: metacarsea: dorsales 



rjsaCommon digital veins of the foot 
Vena; digitales communes pedis 



1 The *intert 
- Often kno* 



xpitular : 

i in I ngland by their T.ati 

■ i ■ . , i I Ml 



*Intercapitular veins 1 
♦Venae intercapitulares 

.' homolo] f the hand. 

vy and rt 



idlXj note 3°°. 



Fig. iio6.— The Superficial Veins and the Deep Vi ins and Arteries of the Dorsum of the Foot: the 
Dorsal Digital Veins of the Foot, Ven e Digital) s Pej Doi i es, and the Common Digital Veins 
oi the Foot, Ven.e Digitales Commi nes Pedis; the Dorsal Metatarsal Veins, Ven.-e Metatarse* 

Dorsales, and the *Intercapitulai Vein (oi mi i , Vine Intercapitulares (Pedis); the 

Dorsal Venous Ari ii oi iih Foot, Ar< i 3 Vi rosi s Dorsalis Pedis, and the Dorsal Venous Rete of 
mi Foot, Rete Vi nosum Dorsai i Pi dis ; the Continuity of the Dorsal Veins of the Foot, \'k\\] 
Dorsales Pedis, with the Anterior Tibial Veins, Yex.e Tibiales Anteriores ; the Internal or 
Long Satin noi Vi in, Vena Saphena Magna. 

Of the muscles of the front of the leg, the tibialis anticus muscle only was retained ; on the dorsum of the foot, the 
extensor brevis digitoruiii pedis muscle was removed, but the distal extremities of the tendons of the extensor 
longus digitorum pedis muscle were retained. 



Veins of the Dorsum of the Foot. 



THE V. LIMB 






\ ' Intercapitular veins' 



Plantar venous rete 
Rule venosum plantarc 



Posterior tibial veins 
Vv. 

Tibialis posticus muscle 

Posterior tibial artery 
A. tibial 
Internal or long saphenous vein 
nagna 

Flexor longus digitorum pedis muscle 
M. flexor digitorum 1 




Pktntar digital veins 



, Plantar metatarsal veins 



Plantar venous arch 



External plantar artery and veins 

'Deep branch of the r.. 

artery and ■. 



Calcaneal venous rete 



External or short saphenous vein 

■ 









Fig. 1107. — Tin: Superficial Veins and the I'm; Veins vnd Aktekii 
the Foot : the 
Venous Rete, Rete Venosum ( 
p 1 1 

Pedis) ; thi Plantar Met at a 
Plantai 

Posti 1 . i 

I I VL OK SlK 

MAi ill' RVA. 

The 11. 



Veins of the Sole of the Foot. 



SYSTEMA LYMPHATICUM 
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



716 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM— GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 



Afferent vessels 
. Vasa afferentia 



Efferent vessels 
I Vasa efferentia 

Anastomosis between afferent 
and efferent vessels 




Afferent vessels 
Vasa afferentia 



Fig. 1108. — Lymphatic Gland (Human) from 
the Internal Iliac Group, of which the 
Afferent and Efferent Vessels have 
been injected. 




Connective tissue of 
the hilum 1 with the 
aggregation of effer- 
ent lymphatic 
vessels 



Connective-tissue 
capsule 



Efferent vessels at ' 
the hilum 

Fig. nog. — Transverse Section through 
One of the Internal Iliac Lymphatic 
(.lands of Man in which the Lymphatic 
Vessels have been injected with 
Prussian Blue and the Gland has subse- 
quently BEEN HARDENED IN ALCOHOL. 



Trabecular of the 

connective-tissue/' 
framework > 
Connective- 
tissue 
capsule 



Lymphoid cords of the 
medullary substance" 
Substantia medullaris 

Area of multiplication 
of lymphoid cells 

Cortical nodules 
s^i or follicles 
Substantia 
corticalis 



Cortical nodules 
or follicles 




Deep lymph sinuses or 
lymph-channels 



Veins in the connective tissue 
of the hilum 

Fig. iiio. — Section of a Mesenteric Lym- 
phatic Gland, hardened in Alcohol. 

The bloodvessels, which were injected with Prussian 
blue, are tinted deep blai k. 



Connective-tissue 
capsule 



Trabeculae of the ' 

connective-tissue 

framework 



Lymphoid cord 3 (in 
transverse section) 




Cellular reticulum'-' 
Lymphoid or medullary cord 
(in longitudinal section) 

Fig. iiii. — Cortical Nodules or Follicles 
and Lymphoid or Medullary Cords of a 
Mesenteric Lymphatic Gland, seen in 
Transverse Section, and magnified Forty 
Diameters. 



1 Connective Tissue of the Hilum. — " In the region of the hilum, where the efferent'vessels leave the gland, the trabecula 
with the connei tive-tissue i apsule to [i inn a dense mass of i onnectii e tissue, the Hilusstroma, in the interim- of which the radicles of the 
efferent lymphatic vessels are aggregated " (Von Langei and Toldt, op. fit., pp. 561, 562). It is this term Hilusstroma which I have 
translated by the phrase "connective tissue of the hilun 



Keintcentrum in the Ge 



1 original. 



3 Or lucdullary cords (Foster). 



Lymphoglandulae — Lymphatic glands. 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTi 






Connective-tissue capsule 
Cellular reticulum 



Lymphoid cords of the medullary substance 
Substantia medullaris 



Cortical nodules or follicles 
Substantia corticalis 



Connective-tissue capsule 



y Connective tissue of the hilum 1 




vessels 

■ 



Anastomosis between an afferent 
and an efferent vessel 



* Deep lymph-sinuses or lymph-channels 






Afferent vessels 
erentia 






CII2. — DlAGRAMMAI C REPR1 r THE INTERNAL Si HATK 

Gland with Affereni Lymphatic Vi els, V A 

I FFER1 ■ riA. 



Lymphofjlaniluhv Lymphatic glands. 



718 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



Internal jugular vein— V. jugularis interna 
Right lymphatic t Right jugular lymphatic 

duct I trunk— Truncus jugularis dexter , v 

Ductus lymphaticus") Right subclavian lymphatic 

dexter UrunlM-Truncus subclavius dexter 

Right subclavian vein-V. subclavia dextra 
Right innominate (or 
brachiocephalic) vein— 
V. anonyma dextra 



Azygos vein 
V. azygos 



Intercostal lymphatic glands 
Lymphoglandulae intercostales 



Inner crus or pillar' 1 of the 
vertebral portion of the dia- 
phragm 
Crus mediale partis Iumbalis — 
diaphragmatis 

Lumbar lymphatic trunks, right and left 
Trunci lumbales, dexter et sinister 

Lumbar lymphatic plexus 7 
Plexus (lymphaticus) lumbal 



Aortic lymphatic glands and aortic 

lymphatic plexus 7 

Lymphoglandulae aorticn? et plexus 

(lymphaticus) aorticus 

Sacral lymphatic glands and 

median sacral lymphatic 

plexus 

Lymphoglandula? sacrales et — 

plexus sacralis medius 

Iliac fascia 

Fascia iliopectinea 

Lymphatic gland of the femoral 
ring (gland of Rosenmiiller) and 
deep inguinal lymphatic plexus 

Deep inguinal lymphatic glands.--! 
and deep-seated lymphatic 
vessels 
Lymphoglandulae subinguinales 

profunda? et vasa lymphatica 
profunda 
Femoral artery and vein 
A. et V. femoralis 



■ According to Quain, the /,// axillary lymphatic trunk. 

. glands. 
5 Known al>. ■ .11 tin' »-.v*' or large ,i iv..'. vein. 
I . ndixj not ■' >. 




Thoracic duct— Ductus thoracicus 
/ Internal jugular vein— V. jugularis interna 
Left jugular lymphatic trunk 

"runcus jugularis sinister 

Left subclavian lymphatic trunk 1 
Truncus subclavius sinister 
- — Left subclavian vein 
V. subclavia sinistra 

7Axillary lymphatic glands and axillary 
lymphatic plexus 

Lymphoglandula? axillares et plexus 
(lymphaticus) axillaris 



Descending thoracic aorta 
Aorta descendens 



Thoracic duct 
Ductus thoracicus 



Hemiazygos vein- 



Receptaculum chyli 

Cisterna chyli 

Intestinal lymphatic trunk 
Truncus intestinalis 

^Lumbar lymphatic glands" 
"Lymphoglandula? lumbales 

Iliac lymphatic glands and 

•external iliac lymphatic plexus 

Lymphoglandulae iliaca.- et plexus 

iliacus externus 



Poupart's ligament 
,, Lig. inguinale (Pouparti) 

Superior superficial inguinal 
lymphatic glands and super- 
ficial inguinal lymphatic plexus 
Lymphoglandulae inguinales et 
plexus inguinalis superficialis 



Falciform border (inferior 
cornu) — Margo 
| — falciformis (cornu inferius) 
Jj Inferior superficial 

« inguinal lymphatic glands J 

9 Lymphoglaniliilie mi!. inguinales 
j 

Internal or long saphenous vein 

V. saphena magna 



3 Known also as th> 

4 According to Quain, the right axillary lymphatic trunk. 
6 See note ■ to p. 2S6, in Pari III. 



Fig. i 113.— The Thoracic Duct, Ductus Thoracicus, and the Lymphatic Trunks opening into that Vessel ; 
the Lymphatic Vessels and Lymphatic Glands of the Posterior Wall of the Abdomen ; the Super- 
ficial and Deep Lymphatic Vessels and Lymphatic Glands of the Groin. 



Ductus thoracicus — The thoracic duct. 



THE LYMril.n : 






Small intestine 
Intestinum tenui 



Lacteal a 




Intestinal artery and 

vein 
A. et \ 



Mesenteric lymphatic glands 
1 ntericje 



Fig. im-(. 

Loop of Small 1 ; 



Vasa chylifera Lactc Mesenl 



720 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



Suboccipital lymphatic glands 
Lymphoglandulae occipital 

Posterior auricular lymphatic gland 1 
Lymphoglandulaauricularis posterior 

Superficial cervical lymphatic glands 
LymphoglandulEe cervicales superficial 



W > Suprahyoid or submental 
' lymphatic glands- 

Lymphoglandulse 
I submentales 




Axillary lymphatic glands 
Lymphoglandulae axillare: 



Axillary fascia j 
Fascia axillaris 

; is one of the mastoid lympliatic glaA i Q 



2 See Appendix, note 3'5. 



Fig. 1115.— The Superficial Lymphatic Vessels, Vasa Lymphatica Superficialia, of the Head and Neck, 
and of the upper thoracic and the humeral regions, with the superficial lymphatic glands 
with which they are connected. 



Lymphatic Vessels of the Head, the Neck, and the Anterior Wall of the Thorax. 



THE LYMPH ATI* 



T>\ 



Anterior auricular lymphatie 

glands' 
Lymph 



Posterior auricular ior mastoid) 
lymphatic glands 



Suboccipital lymphatic glands 

Sternocleidomastoid muscle mastoid 

extremity, the rest of the muscle 

having been cut away; 

*■«. ' I 
Superior deep cervical glands ^^ 
Lj mph< iglandula 

Inferior deep cervical glands 
Lym 

Right lymph,- lymphatic trunk 

.-■lava,, lymphatic 

Cephalic vein V. 
Axillary lymphatic plexus 




Parotid lymphatic glands' 
Mucous membi 



Submaxillar}' lymphatic glands- 
Suprahyold or submental lympL. 
Internal jugular vein 

Jugular lymphatic plexus 
Communication with the anterior mediastii 




Axillary lymphatic glands' 
Pectoral lymphati. 



plexus 



„ 



Lymphati >l thi Head, the Neck, the Axilla, and the Wall of the Thi 



722 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



Axillary lymphatic glands 
Lymphoglandulae axillares Kjfc: . 



Cephalic vein- 
V. cephalica 




1 See Appendix, note 3° 8 . 

= Super/: recording to Macalister. See also Appendix, note 3°5. 



Fig. i i 17.— The Superficial Lymphatic Vessels, Vasa Lymphatica 
superficialia, of the arm, the anterior and lateral walls 
of the Trunk, and the Mammary Gland; and the Relation of 
the V\ i ro the Superficial Lymphatic Glands of the 
Cubital Region and the Lowermost Lymphatic Glands of the 
Axilla. In the Specimen depicted in Fig. 1117 the Lymphatic 
Vessels of the Infraclavicular Region i nite with those of the 
Shoulder to form a Common Trunk which passes beneath the 
Deep Fascia above the Clavicle, whereas in the Specimen 
shown in Fig. 11 15 the Lymphatic Vessels of the Infraclavi- 
cular Region and the Shoulder, and also those of the Supra- 
clavicular Region, pass downwards to enter the Axillary 
Lymphatic Glands. 



Lymphatic Vessels of the Upper Limb and the Anterior and Lateral Walls of the Trunk. 



I III: L 






Deep fascia of the 
arm. or braclu 



Brachial artery and veins' 
A. brachials 



Tendon of the biceps flexor cubiti muscle 



Deep lymphatic vessels 
Vasa i 



Deep fascia of the forearm 
ichii 



Arcuate lymphatic trunk, passing 
to the dorsum of the hand 



Lymphatic trunk of the thumb 'l 



Lymphatic trunks of the fingers, passing 
to the dorsum of the hand 







Basilic vein 



Superli 



D?ep cubital lymphatic glandB 



uperficial lymphatic vessels 



Radicles of the superficial lymphatic vessels 
of the palmar surface of the forearm 



Superficial palmar arch 



Palmar fascia 



Network of lymphatii ■ meous 

adipose tissue of .':. hand 



Subcutaneous of the fingers 



Tin i : 



Limb. 



724 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



Poupart's ligament (super- 
ficial crural arch) 
Lig. inguinale (Pouparti) 

Superior superficial inguinal 

lymphatic glands 

Lymphoglandulae inguinales 

Femoral artery — A. femoralis 

Femoral vein — V. femoralis 
Falciform border 
Margo falciformis 
Inferior superficial inguinal 
lymphatic glands 1 
Lymphoglandulae subinguinale 
superficiales 



Internal or long saphenous vein 
V. saphena magna 




' Often called Has femoral lymphatic glands. 

Fig. nig. — The Superficial Lymphatic Vessels, Vasa Lymphatica Superficialia, of the 
Inguinal Region, the Male External Genital Organs, and the Adjoining Portions 
of the Thigh and Abdomen, with the Associated Lymphatic Glands ; the Super- 
ficial Inguinal Lymphatic Plexus. 

The superior cornu of the falciform border and part of the internal or long saphenous vein were removed. 



Superficial Lymphatic Vessels and Glands of the Inguinal Region and the Male External 

Genital Organs. 



THE LYMPHATh 







Superficial epigastric vein 



Superior superficial inguinal 
lymphatic glands 



' Poupart's ligament superficial 
crural a 

Lymphatic gland of the femoral 
ring 'gland of Roseumulleri 

Femoral artery and vein 



Inferior superficial inguinal lym- 
phatic glands' 



Glaus clitoridis 



Labium majus 



Labium minus, or nympha 



Fig. [i2o. The Superficial Lymp Lymphatica Sitkrficialia, 01 

[NGl'l 

Thigh ani with thi 1 



Superficial Lymphatic Vessels and Glands of the Inguinal Region and the 1 

Genital Organs. 



726 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



Superior superficial inguinal lymphatic - 

glands 

Lymphoglandulae inguinales 

Inferior superficial inguinal lymphatic - 
glands' 
Lymphoglandulre subinguinales 
superficiales 

Internal or long saphenous vein - 
V. saphena magna 




Superficial epigastric vein 
V. epigastrica superficialis 



Posterior branch of the internal or long 

saphenous vein (Quain), or internal 

femoral cutaneous vein I Macalister) 

V. saphena accessoria 



called tXic/cmotal lympha ■ 



Fig. ii2i.— The Superficial Lymphatic Vessels, Vasa Lymphatica Superficial™, of the Right Lower 
Limb, the Male External Genital Organs, and the Anterior Wall of the Abdomen, with the 
Superior Superficial Inguinal Lymphatic Glands, i.ymphoglandul.e Inguinales, and the Inferior 
Superficial Inguinal Lymphatic Glands (often called the Femoral Lymphatic Glands), Lympho- 
glandul.e subinguinales superfici ales. seen from before and the inner side. 

The lymphatic vessels were injected with metallic mercury. 



Lymphatic Vessels of the Lower Limb. 



THE LYMPH AT, 



Popliteal lymphatic glands. 
I litese 






Deep lymphatic vessel 

: iindum 



' J]M Popliteal space, or ham 
Fossa popluea 



External or short saphenous vein- 



Fig. ii^:. The S 

r Ll.Mll, mi. Hi i'. VND mi 
Lymphatic . 



Lymphatii I 



728 



THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



Glans clitoridis 

Superficial epigastric vein 
V. epigastrica superficialis j 

Inferior superficial inguinal lymphatic glands 1 , j 
LymphoglanduUe subinguinales superficiales 



i Dorsal lymphatic vessels of the clitoris 

Skin of the labium majus 
/ Adipose tissue of the labium majus 



v. 







Region of the tuberosity of the ischium / Perineum (obstetrical) 

Adipose tissue of the ischiorectal fossa' 'Anus 

1 Often called the femoral lymphatic glands. 

Fig. 1123. — The Superficial Lymphatic Vessels, Vasa Lymphatica Superficially, of the 
Perineal Region and the Female External Genital Organs. 

In order to expose the dorsal lymphatic vessels of the clitoris (both in this specimen and in that 
depicted in Fig. 1 120). the anterioi commissure of the vulva was divided and the prepuce of the 
clitoris removed, so as to lay bare the body of that organ. 



Superficial Lymphatic Vessels of the Perineal Region. 



APPI.XDIX TO PART V. 



NOTES BY TRANSLATOR 



in (i i 

i the right pull 
a little to the left of the bifurcation of the main trunk, upwards 
and backwards to the t the arch of the aorta. It is 

the remains of the obliterated fo 
structures are sometimes called the ligament ami 
lits). 

i Valsalva (Ibid ). The p tl 
the aorta, exhibits three bulgings at its roo the three 

semilunar or si [its ventricular 

ter in the ca rta than in the case of 

ry, and it is the aortic sinuses that 
rule denoted when thi ken of without 

furthei Macalister, 

■ ins the similar 

ither hand, in 1 H Ian Anatomy " 

:i only, 
and states that " the si'niM aortici correspond to the sinuses of 
a on the right side ;" but thi i itomary 

. 

■■'Allium (Ibid.)- — The name '.little 

inally applied to what in England is now 
the auricular appendix, which has a triangular pointed shape re- 
sembling that of the external ear of many mammals. The ante- 
rs of the heart as a whole «. In 

II used in their primit 
it in England the term auricle has, by metonymy, come 
unber as a whole, e.a 
irts: the Allium and th 
111 .1 . • 

I 

i nomenclature, however, the distinction 

i are by him named 
i 

ifficient 
tnd the qualification unnecessary. The 

! 

'. liich ramifies i 
i that into wh 



termii. 
and n 

denotes by th 

cavity I 

English equivalent, 

as it tlu-n del 

terminal Iran 
by Macalisti i I 
earlier 

117 (Ibid ) i 

back of the 1 

sinus, 

of the i '.ow). 

lis '■ 
divided by the auriculoventricular 

intrapericardia 

(" cone of the heart 
of the : 

portk •:.. 

in the ai 

during l 



728J 



APPENDIX 



jugular foramen (see Fig. 1080, p. 685). According to Langer, 
however, the bulb does not belong to the internal jugular vein, 
but is to be regarded as the convexity of a sharp bend formed by 
the lateral sinus before it terminates in the vein. The bull us 
vena jugularis inferior of Toldt is the dilated inferior extremity 
of the internal jugular vein, just above its junction with the 
subclavian vein. 

122 Plica Vena Cava Sinistra (Fig. 974, p. 584). — This is a fold 
of pericardium, called by Marshall the vestigial fold, lying between 
the left pulmonary artery and the subjacent pulmonary vein. It 
encloses a vestige of the left superior vena cava (duct ofCuvier) 
of the foetus in the form of a strand of fibrous tissue. From its 
inferior extremity the oblique vein of Marshall runs across the back 
of the left auricle to open into the coronary sinus. See note n " 
above. 

123 *]ugttlar Venous Arch (Ibid I -This term is not used by 
Quain or Macalister, It is applied by the author to the com- 
municating branch in the suprasternal space (Bui us' s space) between 
the two anterior jugular veins, and to those portions of the anterior 
jugular veins below the communicating branch which run outwards 
on each side behind the origin of the sternocleidomastoid 
muscle to open into the lower end of the external jugular vein. A 
transverse venous arch is thus formed at the root of the neck 
between the external jugulai veins. 

121 (Fig. 975, p. 585). — In the normal development of the 
great veins, it is this communicating branch, often called the 
transVi 1 ;e jugulai vein, which forms the greater part of the defini- 
tive left innominate vein. 

ias Angulus Veuosui (Ibid.). — The name 'venous angle, right, 
and left, is given by the author to the junction on the respective 
sides of the neck of the internal jugular and subclavian veins, 
normally to form the innominate veins ; in the specimen shown 
in Fig. 975, however, to form the superior vena cava (right and 
left). 

126 Lumbar Arteries (Fig. 981, p. 592).— These are usually five 
in number on each side, of which the upper four regularly arise 
from the aorta, and sometimes the fifth also ; but quite often this 
artery, arteria lumbalis una — the lowest lumbar artery — is, as in the 
present specimen, a branch of the middle sacra! artery, or sacral 
aorta 

127 (Ibid) The middle sacra! artery represents the caudal pro- 
longation of the aorta met with in lower mammals, and its 
lateral branches are homologous with the intercostal and lumbar 
arteries; hence the name sacral aorta, used by Macalister. 
According to the terminology of this author (op cii . p. 428), 
" At the sacrococcygeal joint the artery becomes middle . 

or caudal, and is continued downwards to the tip of the coccyx, 
where its terminal branch passes outwards to end in the coc- 
cygeal glomerulus." In Toldt's nomenclature, however, as in 
that of Quain, the middle social artery (arteria sacralis 1 

retains its name unchanged up to its termination in the 
gland or 1 This structure is shown in 

', p. 534, Part IV. 
1JS Sinus Maximus Aorta (Ibid). — The space between the 
dotted lines pointing to the ascending aorta and the arch of the 
ao:!. 1 in Fig 981 is occupied by the great sinus of the aorta, 
which is not mentioned by the author. The aorta is first of a 
trefoil shape, owing to the presence of the sinuses of I 
then becomes circalar, then elliptical, the upper part of the 
ascending aorta and the commencement of the arch being dilated 
to form 1 , the long axis of whose ellipse is directed 

backwards and to the left. The dilatation varies in size in 
different bodies, is usually better marked in elderly persons, and 



occasionally is not to be detected. Before the aortic isthmus, the 
lumen of the tube again becomes circular. See also Fig. 951, 
P- 569. 

129 Spermatic Artery (Ibid.). — This artery is called by the 
author arteria spermatica interna, to distinguish it from the arteria 
speriuattca externa — the cremasteric artery of English anatomists. 

130 Arteria Hepatica Propria (Fig. 983, p. 594). — According to 
the author's nomenclature, the hepatic artery breaks up into 
a descending division, arteria gastroduodenalis, and an ascending 
division, arteria hepatica propria. The latter gives off the arteria 
gaslnca dextra (pyloric artery), and then breaks up into a ramus 
sinister and ramus dexter (the left and right hepatic arteries). The 
term arteria hepatica propi ia has no English equivalent, the artery, 
from its origin from the coeliac axis to its division into right and 
left hepatic arteries, being called simply the hepatic artery, 

'■'■' Pyloric Artery (Ibid ). — This, the arteria gastrica dextra of the 
author, is called by Macalister the superior pyloric artery, to dis- 
tinguish it from a small branch, usually unnamed, of the gastro- 
duodena! artery, but called by him the inferior pyloric artery. 

132 Ramus Costalis Lateralis (Fig. 98S, p. 599). — "Among the 
branches of the internal mammary artery, a not unimportant and 
somewhat common variety is the existence of the ramus costalis 
this arises just above the first rib from the internal 
mammary trunk, runs obliquely downwards and backwards on 
the inner surface of the wall of the thorax as far as the fifth or 
sixth rib, and gives offsets in the intercostal spaces which anasto- 
mose with branches of the intercostal arteries " (Von Langer and 
Toldt's " Anatomy," p. 513). Quain (op. cit., vol. ii , p. 429) 1 alls 
this the lateral branch of the internal mammary artery, and states 
that when present it runs " about midway between the spine and 
sternum, or somewhat further forward." Macalister calls it the 
lateral infracostal branch, and remarks: "The existence of this 
vessel must be remembered in paracentesis. I have seen it of 
enormous size in cases of obliteration of the dorsal aorta from 
the pressure of an intrathoracic tumour " (" Anatomy," p. 554). 

'■'•'■ Inner Mammary Branches (Ibid.). — "The perforating 
branches (of the internal mammary artery) of the third, fourth, 
and fifth spaces in the female give rami mammarii to the breast " 
(Von Langer and Toldt, op. cit., p. 513). In Fig. 988, it is the 
perforating branch of the second right space that furnishes 
the largest of these mammary brandies. 

134 (Ibid.) The origin of the branches of the subclavian artery 
is so variable that it is difficult to decide which arrange- 
ment is to be regarded as normal Von Langer and Toldt 
describe the thyroid axis as supplying four branches : the 
inferior thyroid, the ascending cervical, the superficial cervical, and 
the suprascapular. Quain states that the thyroid axis divides 
into '■ the inferior or ascending thyroid, the suprascapular, and a 
third branch, which is either the tia il, or one of the 

branches into which that artery, when present, divides— viz., 
the superficial cervical" (the other being the posterior scapular). 
Here, however, we see a trunk, called by Toldt the superficial 
cervical, dividing into the transverse cervical and (presumably) the 
posterioi scapttlai Macalister uses the name posterior scapular as 
synonymous with transverse cervical, and regards the common 
origin of the superficial cci era! and the posterior scapular as one of 
the most frequent arrangements. (See also note " 5 below.) 

'"■"' (Ibid.) According to Quain's nomenclature, this trunk 
would be called the transverse cervical, while of the two branches 
into which it divides, the lower, called here transversa colli, is the 
superficial cervical, the upper, apparently, the posterior scapular. 
(See also note 1W above and notes u - and 20s below.) 

"" (Ibid.) According to the usual English nomenclature, this 



APPh 






artery is siill known as the subscapular after the 
branch bas b 

For tin 

plied bj 
this n 

i 

te manner in which I 
applied bj the author 'I hi 
notes " 7 and "' below i tei n 

half of the perineum (in the triangular intermusculai 
beneath i ia) by dividii 

branch' 

in the male, to suppl) the ) 
and as the ; ply the 

hinder part of the vulva. 1 I 
.lacalistei 

I of the 
scrotum, in th< 
of terminal brai 

!., which anastomose with the posterior 
scrotal and posterior labial (or vulval) arl escribed. 

The art similarly nami 

Toldt. tin 

and the tin'., i 
ibis opening into the 
im interi h Fig. 989, p. 

. ithout qualifii a he small 

branch' istric artery com I xlernal 

\gm (Ibid.). \ ■ 

: [hi 

muscles; the author, however, inclu 

in addition to the muscles themselvi covering 

their up] and the 

their lower 
■ 1 irtIV of this wi 1 
111 .1. i rhe name oi 

English a is left the i -• h 

1, and bel lifurcal 

nosum and the 
derived I the trunk. 

b the author to the fi 

HI /,. 
10 [1 

prostata 



the tria 

the anus an 

of the placenta 

umbilicus, and is convertc'l 

but the - 

distinction to the */« 

name fi ir thi > arterj 
the whole length of . I 

clature 



72SW 



APPENDIX 



nomenclature, the artery of the penis as soon as it leaves the 
ischiorectal fossa (see note 141 above), so, in the female, it be- 
comes the artery of the clitoris, which gives off the artery of the 
bulb (arteria bulbi vestibuli—see Fig. 994, p. 605, and Fig. 996, 
p. 607) to the vaginal bulb or bulb of the vestibule, and termi- 
nates by dividing into the artery of the corpus cavcrnosum of the 
clitoris (ui ti riti profunda clitoridis) and the dorsal artery of the 
clitoris [arteria dorsalis clitoridis). 

157 Superficial or Long Perinea! Artery (Fig. 994, p. 605). — In 
the female, this artery is considerably larger than in the male, as 
will be seen by a comparison of Fig. 994, p. 605, with Fig. 991, 
p. 602. The foremost of the branches indicated by the author in 
Fig. 994 as arteria hamoi 1 hoidales inferiores represents the transverse 
perineal artery of English anatomists— see notes I4? and 14s above. 

158 (Ibid.) Represented here by several twigs, instead of the 
single stem normally given to the anus by the internal pudic 
artery, and called by Macalister the anal artery. But see also 
the second sentence in note 157 above. 

1511 Bulbus Vestibuli (Ibid.). — Regarding the nomenclature of 
this structure, see Appendix to Part IV., note 9I . 

160 Vaginal Aitiiics (Fig. 995, p. 606). — The arrangement of 
these in this specimen is worthy of note. The uterine artery, after 
crossing beneath the ureter and then running parallel with it for 
a considerable distance, gives off two branches which pass in 
front and behind the ureter, respectively, and then turn upwards 
to unite again into a considerable branch of the internal pudic 
in/, iv. From the two arches thus formed, numerous small 
offsets are given to the vagina and the lower part of the bladder. 
For an account of the normal arrangement of the vaginal arteries, 
see note I,B below. 

161 (Ibid.) The left iliolumbar artery in this specimen is very- 
much smaller than usual, and arises from the common iliac 
artery, instead of, as is normally the case, from the internal 
iliac prior to its breaking up into anterior and posterior divisions. 

16 - Arteria Vesicates (Ibid ) —The arteries called vesical in 
Fig. 995 are the terminal offsets merely, not the vesical arteries 
proper. No superior vesica! artery is depicted in this specimen ; 
and the inferior vesical artery (or vesicovaginal alien) is represented 
by the branch of the interna! pudic artery which contributes to form 
the arterial arches mentioned in note lco above. 

113 Vaginal Altaic* (Fig 997, p. 60S). — The upper part of the 
vagina (with the cervix uteri) is supplied by a special branch 
of the uterine artery, and it is this branch which in the left 
side of Fig. 997 is by the author denominated the vaginal 
artery. The lower part of the vagina is separately supplied. In 
the right side of Fig. 997 the author depicts vaginal arteries for 
this region arising from the internal pudic artery; in Fig. 995, 
p. 606, a somewhat similar arrangement is shown ; while in 
TIP 677, a larger branch for the lower part of the 
vagina arises in common with the internal pudic. According to 
Quain ("Anatomy." 10th ed., vol. ii , part ii., p. 474 , "the 
vagina! ailay [vesicovaginal) in the female corresponds to the 
inferior vesica! artery (vesicoprostatic) in the male. Arising from 
the anterior division of the internal iliac, or frequently from the 
uterine artery, it descends and ramifies upon the vagina, sending 
at the same time offsets to the lower part of the bladder, to the 
bulb of the vestibule, and to the contiguous part of the rectum. 
It anastomoses behind the vagina with the corresponding artery 
of the opposite side." The fact is that the vagina is normally 
supplied with blood from both the sources mentioned, the branch 
from the uterine (which might be termed the superior vaginal 
artery) and the branch from the inferior vesical artery (which might 
be termed the inferior vaginal artery) varying inversely with one 



another in size. In Fig. 997 is shown a slender vertically dis- 
posed artery occupying the median line of the posterior surface 
of the vagina ; this is often much larger than in the specimen 
here figured, being supplied by offsets from both the superior 
and the inferior vaginal arteries, and is termed the azygos artery of 
the vagina. It is well shown in a plate by Hyrtl, reproduced as 
plate vi. of Hart and Barbour's "Gynecology," 3rd ed., 1S86, 
facing p. 68. 

164 (Fig. 99S, p. 610.) The ophthalmic artery terminates by 
dividing into the frontal and nasal branches. Macalister follows 
the Continental terminology in speaking of the latter as the 
arteria dorsalis nasi. 

165 Angular Artery (Ibid.). — The facial artery is described by 
English anatomists as terminating usually by division into the 
lateral nasal and angular arteries, the latter being the slender twig 
which inosculates at the inner side of the orbit with the nasal 
branch of the ophthalmic artery. Toldt, however, gives the name 
of arteria angularis to the facial as soon as it has given off the 
coronary artery of the upper lip, and the lateral nasal artery is not 
mentioned by him. The last-named artery in the present 
specimen is represented by two or three slender twigs seen 
ramifying on the side of the nose. 

,,; ' p Facial Artery (Ibid.). — Quain gives external maxillary, and 
Macalister external mandibular, as an alternative name for this 
artery; but it is so rarely in England called anything but the 
facial artery that I have not thought it necessary to mention 
these synonyms in the text. Conversely, the internal maxillary 
is sometimes, though rarely, spoken of as the deep facial aitei y 

"'■ Ibid.) The liyoid branch of the lingual artery usually runs 
along the upper border of the hyoid bone (in the figure, how- 
ever, along the outer side of the great cornu), and is called by 
Macalister the suprahyoidean artery. 

103 (Ibid.) Very often called the temporal artery, without 
qualification. It has, however, to be distinguished from the 
anterior and posterior deep temporal branches of the internal maxillaiy 
at lay, and from its own middle deep temporal (middle temporal) 
branch. 

168 Sternocleidomastoid Artery (Ibid). — This is described by 
Von Langer and Toldt as a special branch arising from the 
posterior side of the external ibove the hyoid bone, 

and arching downwards and outwards to enter the inner side 
of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. It is described also by 
Macalister, but not by Quain. It varies inversely in size with 
the sternocleidomastoid branches of the occipital and supeii, 1 
and is sometimes absent. 

1711 Acromial Retc (Ibid.). — This name is sometimes given 
to the arterial network formed on the upper surface of the 
acromion by anastomosing branches of the aeromiothoracie, supra- 
scapular, and posterior circumflex arteries. I may add that the word 
retc in this section of the " Atlas " is used without qualification 
only in speaking of arterial retia. The venous retia are always 
distinguished by the qualifying adjective. 

171 Arteria Labialis Inferior (Fig. 999, p. 611). — Macalister 
describes the inferior labial artery as dividing into two branches: 
an upper, the inferior coronary artery, which runs near the free 
margin of the lower lip; and a lower, the superficial mental artery. 
Quain mentions the inferior labial artery and the coronary ail, ry if 
the lover lip as being sometimes distinct branches of the facial 
artery, but sometimes arising in common from that artery. 

172 Arteria Transversa Colli (Ibid). — Fig. 999 shows what the 
author describes as the normal distribution of the branches of 
the subclavian artery, in which the superficial cervical artery arises 
from the thyroid axis, while the transverse cervical artery, arising 



APPENDIX 






/ trunk, terminates bj 

.•■t running i 

the ramus ascendens is 

I lie artery it! q 
(uain's termim 

t usual arrangement In his ao 

the subclavian art. i 
that "The transverse cervical branch t>t I 
jently consists 

axis is very small, and repr part the 5 

ling near the 
anguli 

the other form , vol. ii., 

p. 427). In th have the arru: 

Toldt a 

ig 1000, p. 612). — Called b; 

' : 

This artery is endangered ; : my. 

ri s, • 
upper surface of the diaphragm are su] | 
mammary artery. I. Tl I nglish authors, 

the phrenic nerve, and sup;' 
as well : as an 

alternative name for this artery. II. The internal mamm 
minates by dividing 

•a ell as suppl 111 On the 

r branch sup- 
i 1 the diaphragm by the internal mammary artery, and 
this he iM 

This small offset, which in the 
adult supplies the remains of the thymus gland, is one 

! name 

is, in England, h of the 

to tlie meningeal bran The 

name i . 1, in fact, the 

the dura mater with a larger 
ban that derived from 
i~ t' '.I —This name for the tr 

usually 
artery 
[uain. 
• 

tinction made by the author, and b 



and anl 

the infei 

:rnnk. 

11 ther qualifical 

11 :i/i in the cai 
their anastomoses tlie tympanic %■ 
round the margin of the membrana ;;. 

I 

; 

small bran, 
are variously named in England / 

■ 

on the septum are termed by him the 

: 

harynx and the 

I trunk, M 1 

I 



728/ 



APPENDIX 



the vomer, and ends in a small vessel which enters the incisor 
foramen to communicate with the descending palatine artery " 
(Quain, op. cit., vol. ii. , p. 406). According to Macalister's 
nomenclature, the nasopalatine artery divides into superior and 
inferior branches, the latter being that which passes through 
the incisor foramen. Von Langer and Toldt regard the arteria 
nasopalatine! as the terminal branch of the arteria palatina de- 
scendens, which ascends through the incisor foramen (canal of 
Stensen) to anastomose with one of the arteries nasales previously 
mentioned (see note ls,s below). These are merely two different 
ways of regarding the same anatomical data. 

186 Rami Dorsales Lingua (Ibid.). — The lingual artery may 
supply a single dorsal artery of the tongue on either side, or (as 
here) several dorsal lingual branches. 

187 Internal Carotid Artery (Ibid.). — Two branches are given 
off from the second or intra-osseous portion of this vessel : 
(1) the tympanic lnjn.li [ramus caroticotympanic^), which passes 
through one of the caroticotympanic canaliculi and anastomoses 
with the other tympanic arteries (see note m above) ; and (2) the 
Vidian branch (not shown in Fig. 1006), which anastomoses with 
the Vidian branch (arteria canalis pterygoids Vidn) of the internal 
maxillary artery. 

13s Arteria Palatina Descendens, 'Arteria Palatina Major, it 
*Arteria Palatina Minores (Fig. 1007, p. 619). — The superior or 
descending palatine artery, arising in the sphenomaxillary fossa 
from the third (terminal) portion of the internal maxillary artery 
(see Fig. 1005, p. 617), sometimes gives off the Vidian artery, 
which may, however, arise separately from the internal maxillary 
trunk ; it also gives small branches which descend in the posterior 
and external accessory palatine canals to supply the soft palate 
and the tonsil — these, called by Toldt *artcii.e palatum minores, 
are left unnamed by Quain and Macalister, but may be termed 
the 'accessory palatine arteries ; descending in the posterior palatine 
or palatomaxillary canal, the superior or descending palatine artery 
emerges on the inferior surface of the hard palate accompanied 
by the large palatine nerve, and runs forward in one of the 
*palatine grooves; in this situation its name is unchanged in 
the English nomenclature; the author, however, now calls it 
"arteria palatina major, the 'great palatine artery: the vessel termi- 
nates, as described in note l8 "' above, by ascending through 
Stensen's canal to anastomose with the nasopalatine artery or 
artery of the septum. 

189 Rami Gingivales Inferiores (Ibid.). — The inferior gingival 
branches are derived partly from the sublingual artery, partly, also, 
from the submental artery, and from the mylohyoid branch of the 
inferior dental (or alveolar) artery. 

190 Meningeal Branch of the Vertebral Artery (Ibid.). — It is to 
this vessel that the name of posterior meningeal artery is commonly 
applied by English anatomists. The small vessel seen emerging 
from the jugular foramen, to which the name arteria meningea 
posterior is given by the author, is an offset of the ascending 
pharyngeal artery. (See also note ,7li above.) 

191 'Areas Raninus (Fig. 1008, p. 620).— "Near the tip of the 
tongue the two laiunc arteries communicate by means of a small 
loop (Krause), but with this exception the right and left arteries 
do not form other than capillary anastomoses " (Quain, op. cit., 
vol. ii., p. 396). 

19 - Rami Musculares Arteria Ophthalmia? (Fig. 1010, p. 621). — 
Some of these are named by English anatomists. Quain writes : 
" Small muscular offsets arise at uncertain intervals from the 
trunk of the ophthalmic artery, as well as from the lachrymal and 
supra-orbital branches ; in addition to these there are two more 
regular branches, an external, which is distributed to the upper 



and outer muscles of the orbit, and an internal, larger and more 
constant, to the lower and inner muscles" (op. cit., p. 409). 
Macalister calls these branches superior and inferior muscular, 
respectively, and describes also a special muscular artery to the 
external rectus. 

193 Ramus Orbitalis Arteria Meningea Media (Var.) (Ibid.). — 
There is normally a small communicating branch, called by 
Quain the orbital branch of the middle or great meningeal artery, 
passing from the trunk of this vessel or from its anterior division 
through the outer end of the sphenoidal fissure (or through a 
special aperture in the great wing of the sphenoid bone) to join 
a branch of the lachrymal artery, and the ramus orbitalis here 
figured is a larger homologue of this vessel. Macalister names 
it the lachrymal branch of the middle meningeal artery, and in one 
place (op. cit., p. 582) describes it as supplying the lachrymal 
gland; in another (p. 657), he states that the lachrymal artery 
(1 r arterid ophthalmicd) "receives a large branch through the 
sphenoidal fissure from the middle meningeal artery, this branch 
varying inversely in size with the lachrymal artery itself. ' ' 

Mi Arteria Tympanica Superior (Ibid.). — Usually known in 
England by the name of the tympanic branch of the middle or 
great meningeal artery. (See note 19:1 above.) 

193 Arteries Cerebelli (Fig. 1011, p. 622). — Some confusion is 
liable to arise regarding the nomenclature of the cercbeilai arteries, 
and for this reason the use of double names is better avoided, 
and I adhere to those employed by Macalister. These vessels 
are three in number, two being offsets of the basilar artery, the 
third being derived from the vertebral; (1) Arteria cerebelli 
inferior anterior, the anterior cerebellai artery (Macalister); this 
arises from the posterior extremity of the basilar artery ; Quain 
calls it the anterim [inferior) cerebellar artery, Ellis the anterior 
(2) Arteria cerebelli superior, the superior cerebellar 
artery (Macalister) , this arises from the anterior extremity of the 
basilar artery, being commonly described as one of the terminal 
branches of that vessel ; Quain and Ellis also call this the 
1 cerebellai artery (3) Arteria cerebelli inferioi / ten 1, the 
posterioi cerebellai artery (Macalister) ; this arises from thevertebral 
artery ; Quain calls it tin- [posterior) inferior cerebellai artery, Ellis 
the inferior cerebellar artery 

1M Operculum (Fig. 1012, p. 623) — This name is given to the 
portions of the frontal and parietal lobes lying between the 
ascending and posterior branches of the fissure of Sylvius, and 
covering the upper part of the central lobe or Island of Reil. It 
is sometimes called more fully the operculum of the insula ; some- 
times, also, the operculum of Burdach. 

197 *Vena Mediana Colli (Figs. 1015, 101G, p. 626).—" When 
both anterioi jugular veins are absent, or very small, we find in 
the median line the *mcJian vein of the neck, the radicles of which 
are beneath the chin, and which runs in the superficial fascia 
towards the supi . (or fossa jugularis) ; in this region 
it usually bifurcates into right and left branches, which enter 
the * jugular venous arch in the spatium interaponeuroticum sufia- 
sternale [suprasternal space, or Burns' s space — see note 12! above], 
or the lower part of the median vein of the ncch may itself form 
part of the "jugular venous arch " (Von Langer and Toldt, op cit., 
p. 542). Quain states that the anterior jugular vein varies 
greatly in size, and that the right and left veins may sometimes 
be united into a single median vessel for a part of their length. 
Macalister uses the term vena mediana colli as a synonym tor the 

jugular vein. 

198 (Fig. 1015, p. 626). — Called by Macalister nervus descendens 
cervicis. This branch is, however, still very commonly known by 
the old name of descendens noni, the hypoglossal nerve, the 



APPENDIX 






i the enumeration of Willis. 
N 
which join the 

nternal 
•rtclir.i , and conne< t the a 

h 

■i I them the an:. 

■ 
spinal canal. They are, in up in 

[ their course." The term • 

ili iter, writing ol the intcrmil 
remarks: " The wh . extra- 

, but within thi , 

atomy," 

mi the 
ie vei tebral • exusi 

vertebral foramina, p 

ital and lumbar veins, and the lateral sacral veil 
also note art below). 

i < alister 
(i) The 

i ■ 

t this sheath I i us w ith 

(3) the 
across the median line behind the < pharynx; 

of the carotid sheath .interior to the trachea, anil betwi 
layer and the suprasti 

he pretracheal 

passes into the thorax to join the pericardii.' 
(5) the deepest trans-.. 

il fascia, bin 

i 

lenclature, which is that pted in 

England, the branch, 

and its down- 
mailer than the dorsal brani 

main ti link as 
by the 



I 'art III 

in the( 
as altei 

part of A 

Vi in Langer and T 

former 

mewhat variable in their n 

■ 

as the 

and by Macalister termed tin 

(there may be : 
is often an i I 

wards beside the cephalic vi 

Toldt a 
from tl • 

branch of this is the 

e Pari III'. 



72SA 



APPENDIX 



follows the Continental usage in terming it the thoracicodorsalis 
artery, but by most English anatomists it is still called subscapular 
artery in this part of its course ; it terminates in muscular branches 
to the latissimus dorsi, serratus magnus, teres major, and teres 
minor muscles. III. Branches to the Internal Wall of the Axilla: 
4. Arteria thoracalis lateralis, the long thoracic (or external mammary 
artery), which gives muscular blanches to the serratus magnus, 
pectoralis major, and pectoralis minor muscle, and rami mammarii, 
external mammary branches (see note 204 above). IV. Branches to 
the External Wall of the Axilla : 5. A rteria cii cumjlexa humei i ante} ior, 
the anterior circumflex artery (of the arm). 6. Arteria circum- 
flexa humeri posterior, the posterior circumflex artery (of the arm), 
which runs backwards through the 'external axillary space (see 
Part III., p. 312, Fig. 589, and note 1 to same page) or quadri- 
lateral space (Macalister), and gives numerous offsets, named by 
Macalister as follows: Ascending branch, to the teres minor muscle; 
descending branch, to the long head of the triceps ; nutrient branch, 
to the great tuberosity of the humerus ; posterior articular artery, 
to the shoulder-joint; acromial branch, to the rete acromiale (see 
note 17 ° above); and an anastomotic branch to the superior pro- 
funda biauch of the brachial artery. Fifth Group. Branches not 
annuel ate J by Von Longer and Toldt : 7. The alar thoracic artery to 
the lymphatic glands and fatty tissue of the axilla ; this is a 
very variable branch, and may arise (a) direct from the axillary 
trunk, (b) from the long thoracic artery, (c) from the thoracii axis 
[acromiothoracic artery). 8. In females there is occasionally an 
independent external mammary artery, arising from the axillary 
trunk below the origin of the posterior circumflex artery. Sixth 
Group. 9. Rami subscapular es, the short subscapular arteries, must 
also be mentioned, usually two in number, small vessels passing 
backwards from the axillary trunk to the subscapularis muscle. 

207 Parts of the Axillary Artery (Ibid.). — By Von Langer and 
Toldt, as by English anatomists, the axillary artery is divided 
into three parts, but the limits of these are not exactly identical 
in the Continental and the English description. As already 
mentioned (see note - 1 ' 5 above), according to Von Langer and 
Toldt, the subclavian artery becomes the axillary at the lower 
border of the subclavius muscle, but according to English 
anatomists at the outer border of the first rib. It is obvious 
that the English boundary is more precise, inasmuch as the 
position of the subclavius muscle varies with the varying eleva- 
tion of the shoulder. The first part of the axillary artery extends 
from its commencement to the upper border of the pectoralis 
minor muscle. The second part of the artery lies beneath 
(behind) the pectoralis minor muscle. The third part of the 
vessel extends from the lower border of the pectoralis minor 
muscle to the termination of the vessel. In this respect, again, 
there is a difference between the Continental and the English 
usage, for according to the former, the axillary artery becomes 
the brachial opposite the lower (outer) border of the pectoralis 
major muscle ; but according to the latter, opposite the lower 
(outer) border of the teres major muscle. Thus, the third part 
of the axillary artery, as the term is understood in England, is 
nearly twice as long as the third part of the vessel as described 
by Von Langer and Toldt. 

208 A rtei 1,1 Cervicalis Superficialis (Ibid.).— "The superficial , . 1 
ai terv is distributed to the superficial structures of the (greater) 
supraclavicular fossa, to the trapezius, levator anguli scapula?, 
rhomboideus major, serratus posticus posterior, and splenius 
capitis muscles. Its size and the area it supplies are exceedingly 
variable; it may entirely replace the transverse cervical artery 
(arteria transversa colli), or, conversely, be entirely replaced by 
that vessel. Normally it is one of the principal branches of the 



thyroid axis" (Von Langer and Toldt, op. cit., p. 512). Quain's 
use of the term superficial cervical artery is explained in notes 1M , 
13;i , and ' 7 - above. 

203 The Branches of the Brachial Artery (Fig. 1019, p. 630). — 

1. A rteria profunda brachii, the superior profunda artery (of the arm), 
which gives the following offsets : (a) Ramus deltoideus, the com- 
municating branch (Macalister) or deltoid branch (Quain), which 
anastomoses beneath the deltoid muscle with branches of the 
posterior circumflex artery; (b) arteria nutricia humeri, the nutritious 
(Macalister) or medullary branch (Quain); (c) arteria collate/alls 
media, the muscular branch to the inner head of the triceps muscle; 
(d) arteria collateralis radialis (regarded in England as the terminal 
portion of the superior profunda artery itself), the anterior 
terminal branch of which passes with the musculospiral nerve 
through the external intermuscular septum, and anastomoses 
with the radial and recurrent artery, while the posterior terminal 
branch passes along the back of the external intermuscular 
septum, and ends in the rete olccraui, anastomosing there with the 
inferior profunda, anaslomotica magna, posterior ulnar recurrent, and 
interosseous recurrent arteries. There are, further, (e) the muscular 
branch to the long head of the triceps muscle ; (/) a cutaneous branch 
with the inner cutaneous branch of the musculospiral nerve. 

2. Arteria collateralis ulnaris superior, the inferior profunda artery, 
which supplies the inner head of the triceps, and ends in the 
rete olecrani already described. 3. Arteria collateralis ulnaris 
inferior, the anastomotic branch (anastomotic.! magna), which runs 
in the inner bicipital furrow, perforates the internal inter- 
muscular septum, and joins the rete olecrani ; it gives aw anterior 
branch which descends between the brachialis anticus and 
pronator radii teres muscles in front of the internal condyle to 
anastomose with the anterior ulnar recurrent artery. 4. In addition 
to the medullary or nutritious branch of the superior profunda, 
there is another and larger vessel supplied to the humerus 
called the chief medullary artery, which usually arises in common 
with the upper muscular branch to the brachialis anticus muscle; 
the foramen for the chief artery is just below the insertion 
of the coracobrachialis muscle, that for the nutrient branch 
of the superior profunda is higher up, near the top of the 
spiral groove. 5. Small muscular branches are furnished by the 
brachial artery during its course, and are stated by Macalister 
to be usually eight in number. 6. According to Macalister, a 
vas aberrans, arising close to or in common with the superior 
profunda artery, descending over the median nerve, supplying 
the biceps, and ending by joining the radial (or less commonly 
the ulnar) artery, is usually present, but often so small as to 
escape injection; other authorities speak of its presence as 
exceptional. When large it may replace and simulate the 
brachial artery, which then appears to be superficial to the 
median nerve. If moderately large it may replace the ordinary 
origin of the radial artery (rarely that of the ulnar artery) ; 
we thus have the condition, often met with, called the 
high bifurcation of the brachial artery. "A very interesting 
variety in the origin of the branches of the brachial arterv is 
that in which the superior profunda artery, the inferior profunda 

and the anaslomotica magna artery all arise by a common 
stem, from which the circumflex arteries and the subscapular artery 
are also derived. In such cases, the axillary artery, as it emerges 
from the axilla, is seen to divide into two trunks of equal size, 
one of which runs as far as the elbow without giving off any 
branches of importance, whilst the other supplies the structures 
of the shoulder and the other arm. This condition resembles 
that normally met with in the distribution of the femoral 
artery " (Von Langer and Toldt, op. cit , p 516). 



APPENDIX 






that the whole of the 

the brachial arterj 
signify 

fn m thi 

1 by the authi » 

terminal 
external interm 

n of the 

I 
this pli ! . 

rid the 

without qualil 

much smaller than thi t in the 

Quain's nomenclature, 

ti'Jll , III; 

artery lying between them. I 

lie median net 
the nim . forming the a 

tnnular 

.. but 

. I have 



The ;.' 

I 

network lies beneath 

with tii 

1 



728/' 



APPENDIX 



--- (Fig. 1031, p. 639.) It will be noticed that the author 
numbers the arteria metacarpus dorsales according to the number 
of the interosseous space in which they lie. In Quain's 
nomenclature, however, the arteria metacarpea dorsalis prima, being 
very small, is ignored ; and thus the first dorsal interosseous artery 
of Quain (metacarpal branch of the radial artery, according to 
Macalister) corresponds to the arteria metacarpea dorsalis secunda 
of the author. The Continental enumeration of these vessels 
is much to be preferred. See also note ~" above. 

'--' Femoral Artery (Fig. 1033, p. 641). — The portion of this 
vessel above the origin of the profunda is often distinguished as 
the common femoral, that below the origin of the profunda as the 
superficial femoral artery. 

-'-' Internal Circumflt x Artery [of the Thigh) (Ibid.) — According 
to Von Langer and Toldt's description (op. cit., p 525), the 
arteria circumflexa femoris medialis divides almost immediately after 
its origin from the profunda into a ramus superficialis, distributed to 
the muscles of Scarpa's space, and a much larger ramus profundus, 
which passes backwards between the pectineus and iliopsoas 
muscles above the small trochanter to the back of the neck of the 
femur and supplies the ramus aceiabuli to the hip-joint. According 
to the description given by Quain., the ramus superficialis cor- 
responds to unnamed muscular branches, while the ramus profundus 
is the continuation of the internal circumflex artery itsell ; arrivi d at 
the back of the femur it supplies an articulai branch, the author's 
ramus acetabuli, the development of which is inversely propor- 
tional to that of the articular branch of the obturatot artery ; the 
internal circumflex finally divides into ascending and transverse 
brandies, the former following the tendon of the obturator 
externus muscle to the digital or trochanteric fossa, and the 
latter ending in the crucial anastomosis (see note -'■" below). 

--'' Sete Patella (Ibid.). — The fat, liar rete is that portion of the 
reti articulan genu, the 'articular rete 0) the knee, which lies imme- 
diately in front of the patella. The term patellar rete is used by 
Macalister to denote the whole of the articular network of the 
knee ; but Toldt limits the application of rete patella as above 
defined, and the latter's usage is to be preferred, on the score of 
accuracy. For an account of the articular rete of the knee as a 
whole see note --'■ below. 

'--'• Branches of the Femoral Artery in the Lowei Part of Hunter's 
Canal (Fig. 1034, p. O42). — The author's nomenclature of these 
differs from that usual in England. "The branches oi the 
femoral artery for the region of the knee-joint often ar. i 
common trunk, the arteria genu siipreiua. This springs from the 
femoral artery just above the opening in the adductor magnus 
muscle, and runs down towards the capsule of the knee-joint in 
the substance of the vastus internus muscle near the common 
extensor tendon. It gives rami musculares to the vastus internus; 
a ramus saphenus which, descending beside the internal saphenus 
nerve, is distributed to th i integument ; and finally rami articu- 
lares, which contribute to the rete articulare genu [see note '--■' below]. 
Often, however, the greater number of the rami mu 
and the ramus saphenus are supplied by a separate branch of 
the femoral artery, which arises from that trunk somewhat 
higher up in Hunter's canal " (Von Langer and Toldt, op. Lit , 
pp. 526, 527). According to Quain's description, several muscular 
blanches are supplied by the femoral artery in Hunter's canal, 
the lowermost of which, constant, and of considerable size 
(sometimes derived from the upper part of the popliteal artery), 
passes outwards across the back of the femur, perforating the 
short head of the biceps and the external intermuscular septum, 
to end in the crureus muscle. The anastomotic artery arises from 
the femoral a little above the opening in the adductor magnus, 



and divides almost immediately into two branches (which are in 
many cases derived separately from the femoral trunk). The 
superficial branch runs down with the internal saphenous nerve ; 
the deep branch courses along the front of the tendon of the 
adductor magnus muscle to the internal condyle of the femur. 
It supplies articular branches to the rete articulare genu. From 
these desciiptions it will be apparent that the anastomotic artery 
is identical with the author's arteria gain suprema, and the super- 
ficial branch of that vessel with the author's ramus saphenus. 

--' r *Sete Articulare Genu (Ibid.).— The 'articular rete of the knee 
is an arterial network over the front and sides of the knee-joint. 
It consists of two layers: a superficial, with wide meshes and 
very minute constituent vessels, lying between the skin and the 
deep fascia ; and a deep, with finer meshes and larger constituent 
vessels, actually in contact with the bones. The patellar icte is 
that portion of the network situate immediately in front of the 
patella, but the term is by English anatomists usually applied 
(inaccurately) to the network as a whole. The vessels supplying 
the rete are six in number, viz., the four lateral articular branches 
of the popliteal, the anastomotic branch of the femoral, and the 
I iranch of the anterior tibial artery. 

-■'- Hunter's Canal (Ibid.).— It is to be noted that the author 
uses the term Hunter's canal in a sense different from that 
attached to it by English anatomists. We find the following 
description in Von Langer and Toldt's "Anatomy," 7th ed., 
p. 263: "The fossa iliopectinea (Scarpa's triangle) . . passes 
below into a groove, bounded internally by the adductor muscles 
and externally by the vastus internus muscle, and extending 
downwards along the long axis of these muscles. Already at 
the upper part of the middle third of the thigh, this groove is 
roofed by the sartorius muscle, and in addition, from about the 
middle of the thigh downwards, it is covered by a strong ten- 
dinous membrane, which stretches across from the commence- 
ment of the tendon of the adductor magnus muscle to the vastus 
internus muscle. Thus the groove is converted into a closed 
canal, canalis adductorius Huntcri (Hunter's canal)." If this de- 
scription leaves the point still undecided, the description of 
Fig. 1034 shows clearly that the fascial layer there 
covering the lower part of the femoral artery is the rooi oi 
Hunter's canal, the upper aperture of which is in the middle of 
the thigh. In England, however, the sartorius muscle is n 
as the roof of Hunter's canal, and that canal extends from the 
point at which the muscle comes to lie in front of the artery, 
; c, the apex of Scarpa's triangle, to the opening in the adductor 
magnus muscle. And while it is true that the accessory fascial 
roof of Hunter's canal is thicker and stronger below than above 
the middle of the thigh, that fascial roof exists wherever the 
femoral artery is covered by the sartorius muscle, and the well- 
defined upper margin of the fascia shown in Fig. 1034 is the 
product of dissection. 

228 Gluteal Artery (Fig 103S. p. 646).— By English anatomists 
this vessel is described as dividing just after it emerges from the 
pelvis into a superficial, smaller, part, and a deep, larger, part ; 
the latter, again, divides into superior and inferior branches. In 
Toldt's nomenclature the superficial part is called the muscular 
branch to the gluteus maximus muscle . whilst it is the continua- 
tion of the trunk of the arteria glutaa superior which divides into 
a ramus superior and a ramus in) 

-" Trochanteric Rete and Crucial Anastomosis (Ibid.).— The 

anastomoticbranch of the sciatic artery (seen in Fig. 1038 running 

downwards and outwards along the lower border of thepyriformis 

muscle), the ascending branch of the first or superior perforating 

the transverse branch of the internal circumflex artery, and 



APPENDIX 






the transverse branch 

behind tl banter and in I rmwhal 

maxim 

inferior portion ol th< 

i See 
15 in Part III oi 

(Fig. 1040, p. 648). — 1 

i the 
ink supplying the lower parts .of the adductor 1 

and ham 1. 1 

140 and 1044. m 
figured, from tl 
r, they are independent brai ial trunk. 

distinguished 

I 

than the former) is usually a branch of tl 

figures two arterial foramina 

■ ra, but 

', . which ent< : 

ii , part ii., p. 1 . 

! 
medulla rig to this author, frequently di 

from t'n 

. 

I 

(anterioi through 

which tl 

I 

small ; 

thout i'li tfi. 1 

is to 1 

n front with i ! 



■ 
I 

rein for. 

in I in many ii 

and an i 
tarsal b 

from tl. 

I 

adjoinin 

in the 

usualh 

communicates with tb 

1 



728/ 



APPENDIX 



notes ' r,a and ' u " above. The anterior perforating arteries are small 
and inconstant vessels connecting the anterior extremities of the 
dorsal interosseous arteries with the plantar digital arteries adjacent to 
the terminal bifurcation of these vessels. The author calls them 
rami anastomotici arteriarum metatarsearum dorsalium cum ai terns 
digital thus plan tar ilnts. 

•-'-' Calcaneal Rete (Fig. 1044, p. 652).— The arterial network 
over the back and the under surface of the heel communicates 
above with the external and internal malleolar retia (see note "'•' 
above), and in front with the plantar tete (see note - 43 below). It 
is supplied by the external and the internal calcaneal branches, 
the former being derived from the peroneal artery, and the latter 
from the posterior tibial artery (Von Langer and Toldt), from 
the external plantar artery (Quain), or from both these vessels 
(Macalister). 

-''■'Plantar Rite (Ibid.).— The fine-meshed arterial subcu- 
taneous network over the sole of the foot communicates freely 
with the calcaneal and malleolar retia and with the dot sal rete of the 
foot, and in addition to the blood received from these sources is 
reinforced by numerous unnamed cutaneous offsets of the 
branches of the plantar arteries, which reach the rete by per- 
forating the plantar fascia. 

iu (Fig. 1045, p. 653.) The fascia covering the popliteus 
muscle is reinforced by, and, indeed, to a large extent derived 
from, a downward expansion of the tendon of insertion of the 
semimembranosus muscle. 

245 Lower Limit of the Popliteal Artery (Ibid.).— There is some 
inconsistency in the account given both by Quain and by 
Macalister of the lower limit and point of division of the pop- 
liteal artery. According to the former author, " the popliteal 
artery . . . reaches from the opening in the adductor magnus to 
the lower border of the popliteus muscle, where it divides into 
the anterior and posterior tibial arteries." But in describing 
the relations of the artery Quain states that " its termination is 
beneath the upper margin of the soleus muscle " (op. cit,, vol. ii., 
part ii., p. 493). Macalister also states that the artery divides 
" at the lower border of the popliteus muscle " (op. cit., p. 499) ; 
and a few pages later, in describing the termination of the artery, 
he tells us that it is exposed by removing the gastrocnemius and 
the soleus muscles (p. 509). Now, these statements are irrecon- 
cilable, for the popliteal or oblique line of the tibia (see Fig. 334, 
p. 136, in Parti), which gives origin to the soleus muscle, at the 
same time marks the lower limit of the insertion of the popliteus 
muscle. Hence these muscles do not overlap, as is well shown 
by Fig. G11, p. 363, in Part III , and if the popliteal artery 
really divided at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, the 
soleus muscle could not possibly lie behind its termination. 
The description given by Von Langer and Toldt of the ending 
of this artery is at once more accurate and more consistent than 
that of the English anatomists just quoted. The German 
authors ("Anatomy," 7th ed., p. 527) describe the vessel as 
passing down behind the popliteus muscle to enter what they 
call the 'popliteal canal (see note - :4 above) —i.e. , the space beneath 
(anterior to)Hhe tendinous arch of the soleus muscle, and immediately 
thereafter dividing into anterior and posterior tibial arteries (see 
also note - 4S below). The entrance to the *popliteal canal is also 
shown in Fig. 612. In not a few instances, indeed, the popliteal 
artery divides, as described by Quain and Macalister, at the 
lower border of the popliteus muscle, and in such cases, as stated 
in note 3 to p. 363, Part III., it is the p,<slaior tibial vessels and 
nerve that enter the 'popliteal canal ; but this high division of 
the artery precludes the possibility of its termination lying 
beneath the upper part of the soleus muscle. 



' 2K Soleus Muscle (Fig. 1046, p. 654). — It is somewhat incon- 
sistent of the author to speak of the tibial head (caput) and the 
fibular head of the soleus muscle, inasmuch as he gives the name 
of triceps sura to the gastrocnemius and soleus, considered as a 
single three-headed muscle (see Figs. 617 and 618, pp. 368 and 
369, in Part III), of which two heads, the inner and outer head 
of the gastrocnemius, are superficial and attached to the femur, 
whilst the third head, the soleus, is deep, and attached to the 
bones of the leg. Moreover, the fibres from the fibula, those 
from the tendinous arch, and those from the tibia, form a con- 
tinuous muscular mass, which is not separable into distinct 
heads (see Fig. 612, p. 363, iu Part III.). Quain, however, falls 
into the same error when he writes: "The tibial head of the 
soleus is almost peculiar to man : among the lower animals it 
occurs, of small size, only in the gorilla, and sometimes in the 
chimpanzee" (op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., p 264). It should, of 
course, read " the tibial origin of the soleus," etc. 

2i: Communicating Blanches between Posterior Til ■ 
Arteries (Ibid.).— Quain writes (op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., pp. 496, 
497) : " A communicating branch passes transversely beneath the 
flexor longus hallucis muscle, between the posterior tibial and 
peroneal arteries, about an inch above the ankle-joint. A second 
loop of communication between these vessels is sometimes 
present, lying in the fat beneath the tendo Achillis." It is this 
second loop which is seen in Pi','. 1046, just above the 1 
extremity of the tendo Achillis; and in Pig. 1047, in addition 
to both the vessels above described, we see a large communi- 
cating branch two or three inclus above the ankle-joint. In 
Von Langer and Toldt's " Anatomy " (7th ed., p. 528,1 the prin- 
1 ipal communicating branch between these vessels is called 
ramus anastomoticus. 

218 •Fibular Branch of the Anterior Tibial Artery (Fig. 1047, 
p 655). — Quain and Macalister agree in calling this -111, ill vessel 
the superior fibula: branch; but as there is no inferioi fibular 
branch, the name used in the text is to be preferred. 

■' Division oj the Popliteal Artery (Ibid.)— As explained in 
note 345 above, Von Langer and Toldt describe the popliteal artery 
as entering the *popliteal canal, and " immediately thereafter 
dividing into anterior and posterior tibial arteries." It is necessary 
to add that the German authors regard the ante) 

..inch of the popliteal artery, which latter vessel, in their 
view, terminates nearly an inch below the origin of the anterior 
tibial by division into the posterior tibial and peroneal a\ 
According to the description usually given by English anatomists, 
on the other hand, the terminal branches of the popliteal artery 
are the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, while the peroneal 
artery is regarded as a branch of the posterior tibial artery. The 
difference is solely one of terminology — I may, in conclusion, 
mention an actual but somewhat rare variety in which the 
popliteal artery divides into three terminal branches : the 
anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. 

- : " Branches of Internal Plantai Artery (Fig. 1048, p. 656). — 
According to Von Langer and Toldt (op. cit , p. 529), this vessel 
divides into a ramus supcrfieialis (superficial branch) which supplies 
the abductor hallucis muscle, and a ramus profundus (deep branch) 
which sinks deeply into the inner plantar furrow (the interval 
between the abductor of the great toe and the short flexor of 
the toes). Quain (op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., p. 498) enumerates 
the branches of the internal plantar artery as follows : (a) Small 
communicating branches to the digital arteries of the three inner 
clefts; (b) muscular branches; (c) cutaneous branches in the 
inner plantar furrow ; (a) cutaneous branches to the inner border 
of the foot ; (<•) deep offsets to the bones and joints of the foot ; 



APPENDIX 






and, li Dternal plantar artery terminates 

p. 3151. 

al plantar nerve, " may join 
■! d plantar ai 
i 
nil coarse injei I 

from i'i 

called, 
on account ol in the inter 

metata; 

I 
ire known sini; 

nomenclature of the digital arterie 

■ :' 

cance of this term 

to p. 370, in Tart HII! 

'. or crural sheath. 

al layer called by the 
author ■ 

it III). 

G )).— In the author's 

two terminal branches of the froi 

te internal annular li te ankle) 

into the 

the upp as far as the r of the 

'■•, is known a , ind for 

course it receives the nam 

[n con- 
find a 

■ layer of the anterior annul 
f the ankle" 
Quain 

annular 



• 

with the 
part ii 

I have, therefore, given in 
the Latin terms us.. I 

manner. 

■ 

I troni the mu: 

author 

1 












728/; 



APPENDIX 



262 (Ibid.) Concerning the author's application of the term 
arteria transversa colli (transverse cervical artery), see Appendix, 
notes lsi , 133 , 172 and -°- ; similar considerations apply to the 
use of the term vena transversa colli (transverse cervical vein). 
Macalister gives posterior scapular as an alternative name for 
these vessels. 

263 'Posterior Internal Vertebral Venous Plexus (Fig. 1064, 
p. 667). — " Within the spinal canal and on the back of the theca 
vertebralis there is a close plexus of veins, the posterointernal 
plexus, whose main trunks are longitudinal on the inside of the 
articular masses" (Macalister, op. cit., p. 260). " The posterior 
longitudinal spinal veins . . . two in number . . . are often much 
broken up in parts of their course, and they communicate with 
one another by numerous cross-branches on the anterior surface 
of the arches of the vertebrae " (Quain, op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., 
p. 533). Here we have two different modes of regarding the 
same anatomical data. See also note "''" above. 

261 Lateral and Sigmoid Sinuses (Ibid.). — The common English 
usage is to extend the meaning of the term lateral sinus so as 
to include that sinus which (following Macalister as well as 
Toldt) is here distinguished as the sigmoid sinus. Thus, accord- 
ing to Quain and the majority of English anatomists, the lateral 
sinus extends from the internal occipital protuberance to the 
jugular foramen. In this work, however, it is regarded as 
extending from the internal occipital protuberance to the point 
where the channel for the sinus passes from the cerebral surface 
of the parietal to the cerebral surface of the temporal bone. 
At this point the lateral sinuses "in their archaic foetal condi- 
tion communicated through the post-gleroid foramen with 
the primitive external jugular vein, but this connexion early 
diminishes, and is ultimately represented only in rudiment by 
the mastoid vein ; an original small channel of communication 
from the lateral sinus to the posterior lacerate foramen becomes 
commensurately dilated, and appears in the adult as its continua- 
tion, the sigmoid sinus " (Macalister, op. cit., p. 533). 

'-'" *]'euous Rele of tin Intervertebral Foramen (Ibid.). — Writing 
of the posterior longitudinal spinal veins and the posterior internal 
vertebral venous plexus (see note '-''" above), Quain states (op. cit., 
vol. ii., part ii, p. 533) : " From the plexus . . . offsets pass out- 
wards to the intervertebral foramina, where they join the similar 
branches given off by the anterior longitudinal veins, and form 
a plexus around the issuing nerve ; ' ' but this authordoes not make 
use of the name given above. Macalister merely says that through 
each intervertebral foramen there emerges an outflowing ramus 
spinalis [i.e , the 'intervertebral vein] to join the plexus dorsalis 
[i.e., the 'posterior external vertebral venous plexus-see note '■*" 
above]. 

266 Torcular Herophili, 01 Confluence of the Sinuses (Ibid). — 
Properly this name should be applied duly to a somewhat rare 
arrangement of the sinuses, when a true conftuens sinuum is 
exhibited at the common meeting-point of the superior longi- 
tudinal sinus, the straight sinus, the occipital sinus, and the 
right and left lateral sinuses. The usual arrangement is for the 
superior longitudinal sinus to be continued into the right lateral 
sinus, a dilatation marking the angle of union, this dilatation 
receiving the occipital sinus, and being conventionally called the 
torcular Herophili ; the straight sinus turns to the left into the left 
lateral sinus, and the right and left lateral sinuses are commonly 
connected at their origin by a larger or smaller communicating 
vein. Sometimes this arrangement is reversed, the superior 
longitudinal sinus being continued into the left, the straight 
sinus into the right lateral sinus. (See Fig. 1234, P- S04,. 
in Part VI.) The lateral sinus that receives the superior 



longitudinal sinus is larger than that which receives the 
straight sinus. Something approaching a true confluence of the 
sinuses is seen in Fig. 1064, in which the superior longitudinal 
sinus divides, a larger right division being continuous with the 
right lateral sinus, and a smaller left division being continuous 
with the left lateral sinus. The termination of the straight sinus 
in this specimen is not apparent in the figure, but the occipital 
sinus passes to the commencement of the right lateral sinus. 

267 *A utci ior Internal Vertebral Venous Plexus (Fig. 1065, p. 668). 
— The postero-internal plexus, says Macalister (op. cit , p. 260), is 
connected by transverse branches "with the still larger antero- 
internal plexus, which lies on the backs of the bodies of the 
vertebrae. The main stems of this latter are two long veins 
which pass from end to end of the vertebral canal on the roots 
of the pedicles of the vertebrae. Across the back of every body 
these are joined by a cross-branch. Each of these anterior 
transverse branches receives the basivertebral vein from the can- 
celli of the vertebral body." Quain gives no name to this 
plexus, but states (op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., p. 533) that " the 
anterior longitudinal spinal veins are two large plexiform vessels 
which extend the whole length of the spinal canal, lying behind 
the bodies of the vertebrae, one along each edge of the posterior 
common ligament." Young (U.S.) calls this plexus the anterior 
intraspinal plexus. (See also note -"" above.) 

268 Basivertebral Veins (Ibid.). — Quain calls these veins the 
internal veins of the bodies of the vertebra, which is cumbrous. The 
name basivertebral veins is current, and sufficiently distinctive. 
Young (U.S.) calls them vena basis vertebrarum, of which the 
name used in the text is a convenient modification. For their 
connexion with the 'anterior internal vertebral plexus, see note - ,i7 
above. 

-^ * Venous Rctia of the Vertebra (Ibid.). — " The plexus 
venosi vertebrates iuterui are mainly constituted by individual 
circularly-disposed extrathecal networks, tl id verte- 

brarum, which, in each vertebra, are attached in front :o the 
posterior surface of the vertebral body, and are in apposition 
behind with the neural arch. There are, therefore, as many 
vertebral venous retia as there are vertebrae in the spinal column. 
Their series is completed above by a plexiform vascular ring 
surrounding the foramen magnum " (see notes - so and ai above)- 
— Von Langer and Toldt, op. cit., p. 540. 

270 'Venous Plexus of the Nipple (Ciieulus Venosus of Holler) 
(Fig. 1068, p. 671). — Von Langer and Toldt, after stating that 
the veins of the breast correspond in distribution and nomen- 
clature with the arteries of that organ, write (op. cit., p. 411): 
" Noteworthy is the plexus venosus mamilla in the region of the 
areola, which is nothing more than a ring-shaped anastomotic 
chain of small subcutaneous veins surrounding the nipple 
(mamilla)." The term * venous plexus of Use nipple is not used by 
Quain or Macalister, but the former authority remarks | 

vol. iii., part iv., p. 290) that " Haller described a sort of 
anastomotic venous circle surrounding the base of the nipple as 
the circulus venosus "; and the latter, describing the blood-supply 
of the breast, writes (op. cit., p. 264) : " Some of the veins are 
deep, and accompany the arteries ; others form a superficial 
circle of anastomosis in the areola, and end in the superior 
thoracic vein." 

271 *G s/. '-a 1 ilia) 1 and *Thoracico-cpigastric Veins (Ibid.). — " Of 
considerable importance are the anastomotic connexions between 
the axillary vein and the intercostal veins, on the one hand, and 
between the axillary vein and the subcutaneous venous net .vork 
of the anterior abdominal wall, on the other. The former is 
affected by a number of venous radicles, known as the 'vena 



APPENDIX 






seven u| u trunk 

into the 

in the n 

tnd run 
on each Link directly 

the axillary 
trunk, sometim 
superli 

the axillary vein and the femoral vein 

in nun; 
1 

1 eneath the fa 
these ve 

\ Macalister, is an anastomotic ■ 
subcut.i irrounding the navel, similai 

i Hallei 

umbili- 

I 

circulat: ip of commuri 

the principal channels of c ilion, and it is their 

a known 

I 
i vessels are tributai 

i\e). They must Le carefull 

i minates in the 

over tli 

or^an, r 

and the ,:tl ' ll,c 

. 

r; 

iO intimate t! 
two under a joint name . 

urethra 
in the n 

: 



: 

commui 

■ 

on the 

author : 

It will bi 































728/. 



APPENDIX 



considerations apply to his use of the term superficial cu vical 
vein . 

- Mli Ranint Vein (Fig. 1078, p. 683). — "The lingual artery is 
accompanied by two small vencs comitcs, but the largest vein of 
the tongue is the ranint, which lies external to the artery of the 
same name, and, after being joined by sublingual branches, passes 
backwards over the hyoglossus muscle with the hypoglossal 
nerve. These veins end in the internal jugular" (Ellis, 
"Demonstrations of -Anatomy, " 10th ed., p. 97). The ranint 
vein, called by the author, from its course adjacent to the hypo- 
glossal nerve, vtna comitans ucrvi hypoglossi, thus returns the 
greater part of the blood carried to the tongue by the lingual 
artery and its continuation the ratline artery (called by the author 
arteria profunda lingua) ; but the vein and the nerve lie superficial 
to, while the artery lies beneath, the hyoglossus muscle. 

- s " Veins of the Temporomandibulai Articulation (Ibid.) — Among 
the tributaries of the temporal vein, Quain mentions " branches 
from a plexus which surrounds the articulation of the lower jaw, 
and into which one or two small veins issuing from the tympanum 
by the 'fissure of Glaser pour their contents, ' ' but he does not give 
these vessels any distinctive name. 

< - Fossa (Fig. 1079, p. 6S4). — The name of fossa 
submaxillaris is given by the author to the space between the 
sup ill. 11! and deep layers of the deep cervical fascia, in which 
the submaxillary gland lies, bounded above by the lower margin 
of the mandible, below by the anterior belly of the digastric 
muscle, and behind by the stylomaxillary ligament. In Quain's 
terminology this region is the submaxillary triangle: in Maca- 
li it is ioi half of the digastric space. 

-*■' Supraclaviculai Fossa (Ibid.).— In the terminology of English 
anatomists there is one supraclavicular fossa only, viz., the lower 
part of the posterior triangle of the neck. This, however, is 
called by the author * fossa supraclavicularis major, the 
supraclavicular fossa ; while he gives the name of *fossa supra- 
clavicularis minor, the *lesser supraclavicular fossa, to the depression 
above the sternal extremity of the clavicle which corresponds to 
the interspace between the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid 
muscle. 

290 Basilar Venous Plexus or Basilar Sinus (Fig. 1080, p. 685). — 
This is sometimes also called the transverse sinus, but the name is 
better avoided, since the occipital portion of the lateral sinus is 
known in the Continental nomenclature as sinus transversus (see 
note - 111 above). According to Von Langer and Toldt, the 
basilai venous plexus is to be regarded as an upward extension of 
the 'anterior internal vert pit wis (see note -'" above), 

with which it communicates through the foramen magnum. On 
each side it opens into the inferior petrosal sinus. The basilar 
venous plexus must be carefully distinguished from the bo 
basal vein, vena basalis (Hoseutiiali). See Fig. 1086, p. 6yi, and 
note - ||; beli »u . 

'-"" Rete Canalis Hypoglossi and Emissarium Canalis Hypoglossi 
(Ibid ) — According to Quain {op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., p. 526), "A 
venous ring surrounds the hypoglossal nerve in the anterior 
condylar foramen, and communicates internally with the occi- 
pital sinus and intraspinal veins, externally with the vertebral 
vein and the plexus on the front of the spine." Von Langer 
and Toldt describe as normal the existence of a venous network 
round the hypoglossal nerve, known as the *venous rete of the 
anterio) condylar foramen , and shown in the right side of Fig. 1080 ; 
a variety is the existence of a single, comparatively large, emissary 
vein in this situation, the 'emissary van of the an 
foramen (called by Macalister the antcrioi condyloid run), shown 
in the left side of Fig. 10S0. See also note - ' above. 



'-" ■"- *Venous Rete of the Foramen Ovale (Fig. 1082, p. 687). — 
This name is not used by Quain or Macalister, but the former, 
in his description of the emissary veins, writes (vol. ii. , part ii., 
p. 526): "One or two considerable veins descend from the 
cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale, as well as small 
ones through the fibrous tissue in the foramen lacerum, to the 
pterygoid and pharyngeal plexuses. There is frequently another 
vein passing through the foramen of Vesalius." 

-■'■'■ Lacuna Lateralis (Fig. 1083, p. 688). — " Communicating 
with the superior longitudinal sinus from its anterior end as far 
back as the beginning of the occipital region are a number of 
diverticula, from o'5 to 3 cm. long, which form a series of venous 
lacunae (lacuna laterales of Key and Ketzius) receiving the inde- 
pendent meningeal veins, and soma veins from the diploe, and 
are invaginated by Pacchionian granulations. These venous 
lacunae are not entirely confined to the region of the superior 
sinus, but some may occur in the neighbourhood of other 
sinuses, especially the lateral and straight sinus" (Quain, op. 
cit., vol. Hi., part i., p. 184). 

- 9I (Fig. 10S4, p. 689.) The superior thyroid vein sometimes 
opens directly into the internal jugular vein, sometimes, as in the 
specimen shown in Fi.u 1084, into the common facial vein. Regard- 
ing the last-named vein, see note ** above. 

Palatine Wins (Ibid.) — Quain describes two palatine veins, 
a superior palatine vein, which enters the /. is plexus, 

and an inferior palatine vein, which returns the blood from a 
plexus surrounding the tonsil and from the soft palate, runs 
downwards beside the pharynx, and opens usually into thi 
vein near to its proximal extremity. The inferior palatini 

is the vein called vena palatina in the author's terminology. 
The sphenopalatine vein (the companion vein of the nasal or 
sphenopalatine artery), like the superior palatine vein, joins the 
pterygoid venous plexus. 

- x Arachnoidal Villi or Pacchionian Bodies (Fig. 1085, p. 690). 
— The nature of these bodies having long remained uncertain, 
they are variously known as Pacchionian bodies (. \rpora 1'acchionii), 
Pacchionian glands [glandules Pacchionii), and Pacchionian 

. a ,1 u chka, however, has shown 
conclusively that they are really enlarged arachnoi I 

'"'■ /• ■ Rosenthal!) (Fig. 1086, 

p. 5gi). — This vein, which winds backwards round the crus 
cerebri to open into thi 11 just before it unites with its 

fellow, forms an anastomotic communication b tween that vein 
and the small veins of the base of the brain, and is formed by 
the confluence of some of these latter, viz., the antcrioi 
vein, the deep .'■ ad the inferior striate veins. It must 

not be confused with 1 1 us plexus or basilar sinus, which 

•is shown in 1 ;, and described in note '-"' above. 

-'- I cms of the SpinalCord (Ibid.). — Both Quain and Macalister 
'speak generally of the veins of the spinal cord without any attempt 
at further precision in their nomenclature. According to Von 
Langer and Toldt [op cit.; p. 599), "the veins of . 
are arranged in two sets: a superficial set, vcnir spinalis externa 
(the external spinal veins), which, like the arteries, run on the 
anterior and posterior surfaces, respectively, of the spinal cord : 

nales externa antcrioi es et posteriores [anteriot and / 
external spinal veins); and a deep set, vena spinalis interna (the 
internal spinal veins), which are situate within the substance of 
the spinal cord in the neighbourhood of the central canal. The 
two sets communicate by horizontal branches ; and other 
horizontal branches, running along the roots of the spinal 
nerves, connect the external spinal veins with the internal vertebral 
venous plexuses. (See note 2S9 above.) 



ViO/.Y 



r, in the 

mcating branch between th 
deep veins [ramus anastomotic™)." Macalister call 

i).-" The palmar veins 
of all i 

by a transverse chain of anastomoses; f, 
backwards to the veins of the dorsum of the h 

ie author disti, 
between 

15). which are situate on the palmar surfaces 

communes 

nar surface of the mel 

blood that ,s not carried to the dorsum of the haul 

""''' ' ibove). 

1 • 1089. P . ( 
Quam s Anatomy." and to a les in Macalister's 

Anatomy," the description 
" ,e V ' ' especially as regards the veins of the 

euremifes. is less full and less precise than that of Von Lan-er 
and Toldt, whose terminology is used in tins Atlas. In the case 
of the 

have therefore given a literal translation of th 
used by the author. 

•tin (Ibid.). -•■The nan, 
" P /"T given to a vein, often of considerable sue 

which is mainly a continuation of the »/ 

; above] ; this vessel crosses the back of the fore- 
arm obliquely, running upwards and outwards to join the radial 
trl of the forearm, or the cephalic vein just 
above the bend of the elbow" (Von Langer and Toldl 

Macalister 
descnbesthis plexus as consisting of two, 
dorsal plexus is form, 

, nser ind fourth inter- 

lcIe , ft - The <" I by the junction 

of a vein from the thumb I with veins from 

the index and middle fingers " (op. cil., p 

According 
to the English nomenclature, ins in the oll(er 

P u art ' : : the hand, runs upwai d 

the out, 

" 6 a ' H- trunk 

formed by the conflu , : ,„ |a]U , knQwn 

Hie author gives the name , I 

1 English anatomists 
er, distinguishes 
1 the latter as 

: anatomists (a 
w. according 1 the former commencing on 

! running upv 
:.n. and the I 
the .nner part , ; ( 

I unite 



The adult form 
d«e'othed,lat 
radicle 

veins sh 
an exam, 

forth "' 
for the, 

o,ir e,,n ' 

«d an inner branch, called 
inwards and 
flexure of the , 

the ,:, 

above).a 

, still, an ana 
vein. This vein, whe, 

. ein. 

med by the 



728r 



APPENDIX 



the profunda, which perforates the adductor magnus muscle in 
series with the branches just mentioned, constitutes the fourth 
perforating artery. In the specimen shown in Fig. 1099, how- 
ever, there are apparently three perforating arteries only, the 
terminal portion of the deep femoral or profunda artery constituting 
the third of the series. (This is the arrangement described as 
normal by Von Langer and Toldt.) 

313 *Femoropopliteal Vein (Fig. 1102, p. 70S). — "As the externa! 
or short saphenous vein, enters the popliteal space, it is joined by an 
anastomotic cutaneous vein from the back of the thigh, *vena 
femoropoplitea, which runs beside the small sciatic nerve for some 
distance, and communicates with the lowest perforating vein ; 
finally the externa! saphenous run enters the popliteal vein. Not 
infrequently, however, the *femoropopliteal vein forms the true 
upward continuation of the externa! saphenous vein, so that the 
latter is connected with the popliteal vein only by a relatively 
small communicating branch, while it terminates in the deep 
femoral or profunda vein through the intermediation of the lowest 
perforating vein " (Von Langer and Toldt, op. cit., pp. 552, 553). 
This variety is described by Quain (op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., 
p. 538), but the name *femoropopliteal vein is not used by this 
author. Another fairly common variety is an enlargement of 
the communicating branch between the external and the internal 
saphenous veins, so that the former vein empties itself chiefly or 
entirely into the latter. 

314 Lumbar and Aortie Lymphatic Glands and Plexuses (Fig. 1113, 
p. 71S). — Quain does not speak of aortic lymphatic glands and 
plexus, but divides the lumbar glands into thrae groups, two lateral 
and one median, which correspond roughly with the lumbar and 
aortic glands respectively of Toldt. Macalister's terminology, 
however, resembles that of the German author, for according to 
the former (op, cit., p. 432) the lumbar lymphatic plexuses "are 



united across the aorta by a median aortic lymphatic plexus, with 
about six glands in its course." 

315 Submaxillary and Suprahyoid or Submental Lymphatic Glands 
(Fig. 1115, p. 720). — "The lymphatic glands situate along the 
lower border of the inferior maxillary bone and on the surface of 
the submaxillary (salivary) gland, known as lymphoglandula sub- 
niactllares, receive the lymphatic vessels from the face that run 
beside the facial vein, and also those from the lower gums, the 
floor of the mouth, and the isthmus of the fauces. One or two 
glands, situate between the anterior bellies of the digastric 
muscles, and known as lymphoglandula submentales, receive the 
lymphatic vessels of the chin " (Von Langer and Toldt, op. cit., 
p. 566). The last-named are apparently identical with those called 
by Sappey the suprahyoid glands, one or two small glands " placed 
in the centre of the neck between the anterior bellies of the two 
digastric muscles, and connected with the lymphatics descending 
from the lower lip " (Quain, op. cit., vol. ii., part ii., p. 558). 

316 (Fig. 1116, p. 721.) As the author recognises two medi- 
astina only, anterior and posterior (see Appendix to Part IV., 
note - 4 ), the lymphatic glands called by him lymphoglandula 
mediastinales anteriores comprise the superior mediastinal or cardiac 
lymphatic glands in addition to the anterior mediastinal lymphatic 
glan Is of English authors (see also note 3 to p. 482, in Part IV. |. 

;,lr Anterior Auricular and Parotid Lymphatic Glands (Ibid.). — 
Writing of the parotid lymphatic glands, Quain states (op. cit , 
vol. ii., part ii., p. 558) that they are "three or four, of small 
size . . . beneath the parotid fascia, and . . . frequently more 
or less embedded in the substance of the parotid gland ; one, 
larger than the others, is situated immediately in front of the 
tragus of the ear." It is thus evident that the glands called by 
Toldt lymphoglandula auriculares anteriores are included by Quain 
among the parotid lymphatic glands. 



NDEX 



ANGEIOLOGY 






INDEX 
TO nil. ANGEIOLOGY 



in this In 
n imenclature used 

lies used by tlic am 
! 



lave an asterisk (') prefixed 

■ 
i the original work, but not included ii 



. 



. 



A. 

ADVENTITIA (arterial tunic), see "Tui 
Alcock's canal, 601-604, •"''' App., noti 
Anastomoses of the vaginal bulbs or bulbs of the vestibule 
with the vessels of the clitoris: arterial, 605, 607; 
\ em 'Us. 675, 676 
Anastomosis, crucial, App., note -'"' 

of veins, 560 
\n i' iphical, see " Topographical anatomy " 

Ang< ii 1! considerate 

tAngulus veil' , and App., w 

Annuli fibrosi 
Annul ;, 571 

ssion of, in east of the heart, 572 
Aorta, 564, 566-569, 571, 573, 577, 5 

abdominal (aorta abdomin 95, 597, 59.S, 644, 

678 
parietal branches, 5 

visceral branches, asymmetrical, 594-597 
svinm 
arch or, 562, 57;,. 577. 57', 

■ S69, 573, 577, 
'. 592 
caudal, App., noti 
descendens, 570, 5S0, 584, 
< 
nding thoracic, 579, -02, 613, 

layers of its wall, 556 
right, 578 
visceral bran 

thor.i 
ramus visceralis. 
Aperture, auriculoventricular, let' 

cordis, 562, 563, 569, 5S6 
of tic 
Appendix, auricula: 

right, 

Arachnoid, villi of, \: 
Arch, aortic 

(art 

sup< 1 

rani 1 1 , 
tarsal, infei 

of tic 

plan I 
jugu 
palmar, dee] 

Slip! 



Archt 

arte::..: 

venou 
Arcus .. 

rami ] 1, 657 

t raninu 

torseus infei 

super c 

veil' 

jugul 

plant. u 
vol 

venosus profundi 

Ana of multiplication of lymphoid cells ol lyu 
gland, 7:'' 
- - . 
Arteria 1 

acetabuli, 

'iris inferior. 
rami. . 619 

ilares superii ■ 

t 

angul 
anonyma, 

■ 

auditiva inti 

666 
ramu 

auriculoris profuud 
axillaris, 6l I, 628, 
rami 

rami ad pi 

rami cutaui 
brouchiale.' . 

r 

bull 

vestibul 

intei 11 

rami 

meil 



732 



INDEX 



Arteria vel arteria; : 

cerebri, posterior, 622-625 
cervicalis ascendens, 612, 622 
rami musculares, 614 
ramus profundus, 615 
rami spinales, 622 
cervicalis, profunda, 615, 622, 666, 667, 686 

superficialis, 590, 599, 610-612, 629, 6S3 
rami cutanei, 670, 671 
chorioidea, 623 
ciliares posteriores, 617, 621 
circumfiexa femoris lateralis, 641-644, 65S 
ramus ascendens, 642-644, 706 
descendens, 642-644, 706 
circumfiexa femoris medialis, 602, 642-644, 705 
ramus profundus, 643, 644, 646-649, 704 
ramus acetabuli, 644 
superficialis, 641-644 
circumfiexa humeri anterior, 62S, 629, 69S 

posterior, 614, 628, 629, 631 
rami cutanei, 670 
ilium profunda, 592, 598, 601 

superficialis, 599, 640, 641, 671 
scapulae, 614, 628-631, 684, 699 
rami cutanei, 670 
clitoridis, 604, 605, 607, 676 
ci eliaca, 578, 5S0, 592, 594, 595, 59S, 662, 67S 
colica dextra, 596, 679 
media, 596, 597 
sinistra, 597, 67S 

ramus ascendens, 596 
collateralis media, 631, 699 

radialis, 031, 634, 635, 63S 
ulnaris inferior, 630, 632, 633, 69S, 700, 
701 
superior, 630, 633, 634, 63S, 69S, 
699 
t colli et capitis, 610-626 

comitans nervi ischiadici, 602, 646-649, 674, 675 
communicans anterior, 623, 625 

posterior, 623 
coronaria (cordis) dextra, 562, 563, 569-571, 573, 590, 
592 
ramus descendens posterior, 563, 570, 584 
coronaria (cordis) sinistra, 56S-571, 573, 590 
ramus circumflexus, 563, 567, 570, 573, 5S5 

descendens anterior, 557, 562, 570, 573, 5S4, 
585 
cystica, 594, 595, 678 
deferentialis, 600, 601 
digitales (maims) dorsales, 637 

(pedis) dorsales, 650, 651 
plantares, 656, 657 

rami anastomotici cum arteriis meta- 
tarseis dorsalibus, 651, 656, 657 
volares communis, 633, 634, 636, 700 
propria?, 633, 636 
rami dorsales, 637 
dorsalis clitoridis, 605, 607, 675, 676 
nasi, 610-612, 616, 617, 621 
pedis, 650, 651, 660, 710, 712 
ramus plantaris profundus, 651, 657, 660 
dorsalis penis, 600, 601, 603, 672, 673, 705 
epigastrica inferior, 59S, 599, 601, 644, 662, 673, 705- 
707 
rami cutanei, 599, 671 
ramus obturatorius, 601 
epigastrica superficialis, 599, 640-643, 671, 706 
superior, 599, 612 

rami cutanei, 599, 671 
ethmoidalis anterior, 61S, 619, 621, 622, 6S7 
posterior, 618, 619, 621, 687 
t extremitatum superiorum et inferiorum, 627-660 

femoralis, 59S, 599, 641-644, 658, 659, 662, 705-707, 724, 
7-5 
rami inguinales, 640 
t musculares, 643, 649 

frontalis, 610-612, 616, 617, 621 
gastricaj breves, 595, 678 
gastrica dextra, 594, 595, 678 



Arteria vcl arteriae : 

gastnca sinistra, 594, 595, 662, 67S 

rami oesopnagei, 594 
gastroduodenalis, 594, 595, 67S 
gastro-epiploicae, dextra et sinistra, 594, 595, 678 

rami epiploici, 594, 679 
genu inferior lateralis, 649, 650. 654, 655 
medialis, 649, 653-655 
media, 649, 654, 655 
superior lateralis, 649, 650, 654, 655 

medialis, 641, 642, 649, 653, 655 
suprema, 642, 643, 653-655, 706, 707 
rami articulares, 642, 643 

musculares, 642 
ramus saplienus, 642, 643 
gluttea inferior, 5S0, 600-602, 604, 606, 60S, 646-649, 
672, 674, 675, 704 
superior, 580, 600, 601, 606, 60S, 647, 672, 
676 
ramus inferior, 647 

superior, 646-649 
hsemorrhoidalis inferior, 601, 602, 604, 605, 608, 646, 
647, 649 
rami cutanei, 645, 670 
superior, 597, 600, 606, 607, 672, 
676 
t heliciiKL', 560 

hepatica, 594, 595, 67S 

propria, 594, 595, 678 
ramus dexter, 594 
sinister, 594 
hypogastrica, 592, 593, 598, 600, 601, 606-608, 672, 676, 
677 
rami parietales, 606 
viscerales, 606 
ill :e, 596 

ileocolica, 596, 597, 679 

iliaca communis, 580, 592, 59S, 601, 606-60S, 672, 673, 
676, 677 
externa, 5S0, 592, 598, 601, 606-60S, 644, 662, 
663, 672, 676, 677 
iliolumbalis, 592, 593, 600, 601, 606, 676 
ramus iliacus, 592, 593, 598, 662, 663 
lumbalis, 592, 593 
spinalis, 59 
infra-orbitalis, 611, 612, 616, 6SS 
intercostales, 593, 622, 663, 664 
rami anteriores, 589, 592, 593 
rami cutanei anteriores (abdominales), 599 
rami mammarii mediates, 599 
cutanei laterales (pectorales et abdominales), 
5S9, 670 
ramus anterior, 5S9 

rami mammarii laterales, 599 
posterior, 5S9 
f ramus dorsalis, 589, 591, 592, 665 

rami musculares, 590, 591 
posteriores, 589-591, 593, 622, 667 
rami musculares, 589. 591 

ramus cutaneus t dorsalis (lateralis), 589, 591, 614. 
670 
(medialis), 5S9, 591, 614, 
670 
spinalis, 589, 593, 622 
intercostalis suprema, 590, 592, 622 
rami dorsales, 615, 622 
spinales, 622 
interossea communis, 633. 634 

dorsalis, 634, 635, 637, 639 
recurrens, 635 
volaris, 634, 635, 639, 701 
intestiuales, 596, 719 
jejunales, 596 
labiales anteriores, 599, 604 

posteriores, 604 
labialis inferior, 611, 612, 616, 617 
superior, 610-612, 616, 617 
lacrimalis, 617, 621 
larvngea inferior, 620 

superior, 610, 612, 616, 620, 683, 6SS 









Arteria 

liena! 
rami liei 
pani • 
ligamenti teretis ill 
liugualis, i 
rami i 
ramr. 
lumbal 
t ramus antei ii 

dorsali 

rami CUtani 

rami cutanei do 

ramus spinalis, . 
lunibalis im. . 
nialleolaris anterior lateralis, 

15, 7 1 r 
meilialis, ■ 
mammaria intei ■ 
rami i 

perfo 
ram. 

mammal ii 
rami sternali 
rami < i 
massel 
maxillaris extern 

ran;: 

maxillai is interna, 

mi' I 

media, 
meniuj*eus a> 
orbitalis (vai 

urn. . 619 

nieutalis, • ■ 
mesenterica inferii a 
superio 
metacarpe 

rami perforani 
metatai 

rami rias digi tales 

'■ 657 
plani ;. 660 

nmsculophrenica, 

t nasal. 

t 

t Dasopalati 

nut 1 iiferior, 649 

1 ,r > 649 
fibula 

nutricix' !;. 

1 .mm 

3, 6S6 

rami 

IIIUSI : 

ram: 

r 

ophtlialtnii 
rami niusi 

ramus tonsil! 
palal 

t 


















: 

phan n 
rami pli 

I 

phrenii 

I 

ram 11 
pophte: 

musi 

prima ; 
profun 

rami. 
pro fund 1 

pudenda 
pulmonal 

rami; 

sin: 

radialis, 

rami: 

recurren 

ulnari 

ran:: 

rami cutam 
spin 

inli 

spin 1 



734 



INDEX 



Arteria vti arterire : 

suprarenales, inferior et media, 598 
surales, tlateralis et tmedialis, 649, 653-655, 711 
tarsea lateralis, 650, 651 
tarsese mediales, 650, 651 

temporales profunda;, anterior et posterior, 616 
1 temporalis media, 616 

superficialis, 610-613, 616, 617, 6S3, 688 
rami auriculares anteriores, 610, 612 
ramus frontalis, 610, 612 

parietalis, 610, 612, 666 
testicularis, 59S and note, 662, 705 
thoracalis lateralis, 628, 629, 671 
f rami mammarii, 628 

thoracalis suprema, 629 
thoraco-acromialis, 610, 611, 62S-630 
rami pectorales, 611, 628, 6S2 
ramus acromialis, 610, 611, 628, 630 
deltoideus, 610, 611, 628, 630 
t subclavius, 628 

thoracodorsal, 599, 628-630, 69S 
thymicae, 612 
th}reoidea ima (var.), 590 

inferior, 590, 592, 611-613, 620, 626, 629, 
663, 717 
rami glandulares, 613 

oesophagei, 592, 613, 620 
pharyngei, 613 
tracneales, 592, 613, 620 
thyreoidea superior, 610-613, 616, 617, 619, 620, 626, 
" 683,685 
ramus anterior, 611, 612, 616 

ramus cricothyreoideus, 612, 616, 620 
hyoideus, 611 
posterior, 611-613, 616 
t rami pharyngei, 613 

ramus steriiocleidomastoideus, 610 
tibialis anterior, 650, 651, 654, 660, 710 
ramus commuuicans. 651, 710 
fibularis, 655 
posterior, 654, 655, 660, 711, 713 

rami calcanei mediales, 653, 655, 711 
cutanei, 652, 65 j 
transversa colli, 599, 610-615, 628 

ramus ascendens, 611, 614, 615 
desceudens, 611, 614, 615 
faciei, 610-612 

scapulae, 590, 599, 611, 612, 62S, 629, 631 
rami cutanei, 670 
t trunci, 5S7-60S 

tympanica anterior, 617 
superior, 621 
ulnaris, 632-634, 636, 639, 698, 700, 701 
ramus 1 . 1 1 ■ ,1 1 : . 1 ! . 1, -,7 

volaris, 634, 701 
volaris profundus, 633, 634 
umbilicales, 578, 580 
urethralis, 603 
uterina, 606-608, 677 
ramus ovarii, 607, 60S 

tubarius, 607, 608 
vaginales, 606, 608, 677 

vertebralis, 579, 612, 613, 615, 622, 623, 626, 628, 6S5 
rami spinales, 622, 623 
ramus nieniiigeus, 615, 619 
muscularis, 615 
vesicales, 606 

superiores, 580, 600, 601, 672 
vesicalis inferior, 600, 601, 60S 
volaris indicis radialis, 634, 636 
zygomatico-orbitalis, 610, 612 
Artery, 557, 55S 
Artery or arteries : 

acetabular, 644 and App., note "' 
acromial, 610. 611, 62N, 630 
acromio thoracic, 610 and note, 611, 628-630 
acromial branch, 610, 611, 62S, 630 
clavicular branch, 628 

descending or humeral branch, 610, 611, 62S, 630 
thoracic or pectoral branches, 61 r, 628, 6S2 



Artery or arteries : 

alveolar, see " Artery, dental " 
anal, see "Artery, hemorrhoidal, inferior" 
anastomotic (branch of superficial femoral artery), 
642, 643, 653-655, 706, 707, and App., note --''• 
articular branches, 642, 643, and App., note 2 -° 
muscular branches, 642 and App., note — 6 
superficial branch, 642, 643, and App., note ~° 
anastomica magna, 630, 632, 633, 698, 700, 701, and 

App., note - u3 
angular, 610-612, 617, and App., note 105 
anterior intercostal, see " Artery, intercostal, 

anterior" 
appendicular, 596, 597, 678, 679 
articular (of the hip), 644 and App., note --■* 
(of the knee), App., notes "-' ; and '-"-' r 
azygos, 649, 654, 655 
inferior external. 649, 650, 654, 655 

internal, 649, 653-655 
middle, 649, 654, 655 
superior external, 649, 650, 654, 655 

internal, 641, 642, 649, 653-655 
ascending cervical, 612, 622 

palatine, 613, 617-619 
pharyngeal, 613, 617-619, 686 
auditory, internal, 619, 622, 623 
auricular, 611, 612, 615 

anterior, 610, 612 
deep, 617 

posterior, 6ri, 613-617, 619, 666 
auricular branch, 611, 612, 615 
mastoid or occipital branch, 610, 614. 615 
axillary, 611, 628, 629, 683, 684, 69S, and App., notes 
- B and -"' 
branches of, App., note 208 
parts of, App., note '-"" 
basilar, 622, 623 

transverse or pontal branches, 623 and note 
brachial, 628-634, 638, 699-701, 723, and App., note - m 
branches of, App., note 209 
layers of the wall, 556 
limits of, App., note '- 10 
anastomotic branch, 630, 632, 633, 698, 700, 701, and 

App., note -"'■' 
cutaneous branches, 630, 632 
brachiocephalic, see "Artery, innominate" 
bronchial, 590, 592, 612 

oesophageal branches, 590 
buccal, 616 
of the bulb (of the urethral. 600, 601, 603 

ivaginal), 605, 607, and App., note ' "'' 
of the buttock, 645-649 

calcaneal, external, 652, 654, 655, and App., note •*- 
internal, 652, 653, 655, 711, and App., 
note 
capsular, inferior, 598 
middle, 598 
superior, 59S 
carotid, common, 579, 590, 592, 610-613, 626, 6S5 

external, 579, 610, 612, 613, 616-620, 685, 689 
internal, 578, 579, 610-613, 616-623, 685-6S7, 
689 
carpal, radial, anterior, 634, 701 
posterior, 635, 637 
ulnar, anterior, 634. 70] 

posterior, 634, 635, 637 
caudal, App., note 127 
central, of the retina, 617 
cerebellar, 622, note 

anterior, 622, 623, and App., note I95 
posterior, 622, 623, 625, and App., note ''■''• 
superior, 622, 623, 625, and App., note VJi 
cerebral, 622-625 

anterior. 622-625 
middle, 622-624 
posterior, 622-625 
cervical, ascending. 612, 622 

deep branch, 615 and App., note l7s 

muscular branches, 614 

spinal or intervertebral branches, 622 









Artery or arteries : 
cervical, fl< i | 
supi I 

not. 1 

cutaneous branchi 
transverse, 
App., : 

mil App., 
noti 
descending branch 

Ilia! nil App., 11' 

choro 

antei : 

cili.it' 

circumflex o 

iliac, di 

supi 
of the thigh, exti i 
ascending branch, I 

of the thigh, inti 1 1 
and App., m 

-649. 7< 4, and 
App., 1 

and App., ii 
cla\ ii 

of ill' 

dec]'. 6 

, note 
(middle), App., n I 

upper or ascending branch, 596 
middle, 596, 597 
righl 
come 

mediani, 633, 
phrenici, 612 ami App , 1 
mediastinal branch' 
pericardial branchi 
communicating (< 

(forearm), anterior (theanterio 

niinal branch of the auterioi 

il ami 

peroneal and 

companion, of tin 
coronary (of the In 

■ of, 557, 

5 8 -»> 5«5, . . 
ior or transverse dn ision 

(ol tl 

niargi 

pOstei 

of the lower lip inferior coronary), 611, 
of tin 
of tl 

■ 

I and App., 
cvsln . 



dental 

in;. 

diaphragm il 

■ 
(oft!. 

oftht 

■ 

ol' ll 

nasi 

ped 

sea] 'J99 

of 1! 

duodenal 
euiuljj 

supi : 

ethmoidal, 

maxill 

of the extremities, 
facial, 

App., 11 

trans- 

artel' 
I'eui"! 

uni- 
on h 
iron' 

shoi I 

- 

right, 



736 



INDEX 



Artery or arteries : 

gingival, inferior, 619 and App., note m 
superior, 617 and App., note 181 
gluteal, 5S0, 600, 601, 606, 60S, 647, 672, 676, and App., 
note '-- 9 
cutaneous offsets. 645. 671 1 
deep division, inferior branch, 646, 647, and 
App., note '-'-'■ 
superior branch, 646-640. and 
App., note '--' 
superficial division, App., note '-"-' 
of the gluteal region, 645-649 

hemorrhoidal, external, see "Artery, hemorrhoidal, 
inferior " 
inferior, 601, 602, 604, 605, 60S, 646, 
647. 649 
cutaneous branches, 645, 670 
middle, App., note liJ 
superior, 597, 600, 606, 607, 672, 676 
of the ham, 645, 648, 649 
of the hand, 632-635 
of the head, 609-626 

and neck, 610-626 
helicine, 560 

hepatic, 594, 595. 67S, and App., note I3 * 
left. 594 and App., note 1:l ° 
right, 594 and App., note 130 
humeral, 610, 611, 628, 630 

transverse, see " Artery, suprascapular" 
hyoid, 610-612. 616, 618, 620 

hypogastric, sSoandApp., note 120 ; see also "Artery, 
iliac, internal " 
obliterated, 601, 606-60S, 663, 672, '17(1, 
and App., note 14a 
ileocolic, 596, 597, 679 

iliac, common, 580, 592, 59S, 601 672, 673, 

676, 677 
external. 580, 502. 59S, 601, 606-608, 644, 662, 

663, 672, 117D. 677 
internal. 580, ,s>j2, 593, 59S, 600, 601, 606-60S, 
672, 676, 677, and App., note '-" 
parietal branches, 606 
visceral branches, 606 
(intestinal branches of the superior mesenteric 
artery, supplying the ileum). 596 and note 
(or transverse) branch of the iliolumbar artery, 
59^ 593. 59 8 - 662, 663 
iliolumbar, 592, 593, 600, 601, 606, 676 

iliac or transvei 31 >., 663 

lumbar or ascending brain 
spinal branch, 592, 606 
of the index linger, radial, 634, 636 
inferioi palatine, '113. 617-619 
infracostal, lateral (of internal mammary), 599 and 

App., note ,33 
infrahyoidean, 611, note 
infra-orl.ital, 611, 612, 61(1. 688 
inguinal (branches of the femoral artery), 640 and 

note 
innominate, 565, 579-586, 590, 592, 612, 613 
intercostal, 5S9, 593, 622, 663, 644 

diagram of distribution of, 589 
anterior branches, 589, 592, 593 
cutaneous branches bdominal), 599 

lateral (pectoral and abdo- 
minal), 589, 670 
inner mammary branches. 589 
muscular branches, 590, 591 
posterior or dorsal branches, 589, 591, 592, 665 
intercostal, anterior, 5S9, 599, 612 
collateral, 589, note 
superior, 590. 592, 622 

dorsal or posterior branches, 615, 622 
spinal branches, 622 
internal auditory, 619, 622, 623 

mammary, see " Artery, mamillary, in- 
ternal " 
maxillary, 613, 616, 617, 619. 688, 6S9, and 

App., note " li; 
pudic, see "Artery, pudic, internal" 



Artery or arteries : 

interosseous, anterior, 634, 635, 639, 701 

anterior terminal branch, 634 
posterior terminal branch, 637 
common, 633, 634 

dorsal, 635, 637, 639, and App., note --'" 
of" the foot, 650, 651, 660, anil 
App., note 230 
palmar, 634, 639, 701 

perforating branches, 634, 635 
posterior, 634, 635, 637, 639 
recurrent, 635 
interventricular, anterior, 557, 562, 570. 573, 5S5 

posterior, 563, 57 1, 
intestinal, 596 and note 
jejunal, 596 and note 

labial (of the face), inferior, 611, 612, 616, 617 
vulval), anterior. 599 and App., note 138 
posterior. 604 and App.. note 138 
lachrymal, 617. 621 

(branch of middle meningeal), 621 and 
App., note 103 
laryngeal, inferior. 620 

superior. 610 and note, 612, 616, 620, 6S3, 
6S8 
of the leg, 650, 652, 655 

lingual, 610-613. 616-618, 620, 6S5, 686, 6S8. 689 
dorsal branch, see " Artery, dorsal, of the tongue" 
hyoid branch, 610, 612, 616, 618, 620 
long thoracic. 628, 629, 671, and App., note -"' 
of the lower extremity, 640-660 

lumbar. 592, 593, 598, '600, 606, 662-664, 672, and App., 
not I 
lowest, 592, 598, 606, ami App., note 120 
anterior, ventral, or abdominal branch, 593 
cutaneous branches, 645 
posterior or dorsal branch, 593, 600, 606, 692 
cutaneous branches, 670 
spinal branch, 593, 600, 6o5 
of the male pelvic viscera, 600 

malleolar, external, anterior, 650-652, 70S, and App., 
note 
posterior, 654, 655, 71 r, and App., 
note 
internal, anterior, 651 and App.. note 230 
posterior, 653-655, 71 1, and App., 
noli 
of the mamma, App., notes ' : and 137 
mammary, external, App., note 204; and see also 
" Artery, thoracic, long" 
innei (oi mi. 1 rial mammary), 599 
internal. 583, 589, 599, 6l I, 6l 2, 684, and 
App., in iti 
abdominal branch, see •Artery, epi- 
gastric, superior" 
outer (of long thoracic), soy and App., 
note '3' 
anterior intercostal branches, 5S9, 599, 612 
cutaneous branches, 599, 671 
lateral branch, 599 and App., note ' - 

infracostal branch, 599 and App., note 
mamillary branches 599 and App., note ' :; 
perforating brauches, 589, 599, 610, 612 and App., 

note 1 33 
rami lnammarii, 599 and App., note i 33 
sternal branches, 589 
marginal (of the heart I, left. 563. note 

right, App.. note 1M 
masseteric, 616 
mastoid, 610. 614. 61 = 

maxillary, external, see "Artery, facial," and App., 
note i'" 1 
internal, 613, 616, 617, 619, 68S, 689, and 
App., note lii; 
median, 633, 636, 700 
mediastinal, 5.N9, 612 

medullary, of the femur, inferior. 649 and App., 
note 233 
principal, 649, and App.. 
note 233 









or arteries : 

medullary, of the femui I App., 

of the fibul 

of the humerus, 63] and I 
of thi 
mening 

great 6 
middli . 
Falli ipian i u petrosal) bi am li i 

App., : 
lachrj mal branch, 621 and App 
orbil : and App., m 

petri 1 inch, '121 and 

App., note '• 

note 1 " 1 
mental, 6i 1 

superficial, App., 1 1 
mesentt ric, inferior, 581 

superii 
metacarpal, App.. 11 
metatarsal, 651, 7:''. and App., 11 
musculophn . and App., note i"i 

mylohyoid (branch of inferior dental arti • 

nasal, App-. in >ti s ' ' and 1* 

anterior, 618 and App., note iw 
extern 
li of the ophthalmia 612, (>if>. 

intern 7, and App., 

noti 

note '-'■ 

nasopalatine, 618, 
of the neck, 1 

nutritious (of the femui I App., 

noti 
principal, 649 and App., 

note 
superior, 649 and App., 

lli'l. 

e fibula. 655 
ol tin- humei us, 63] an i 1 

obtm 

external terminal branch, 644 
interna] terminal 

cranial branches (external and internal terminal 
branch 

tiding branch 1 r\ icis 

arte 1 J 
masti ii 

■ cerebral arti 

liyroid artery, 

ophthalmic, - 
muscular I) 
orbil 

branch of middle meningeal, 621 and App., 

nd App., uol 1 
tonsil! I App., 

i. and App., 

palm 






of the ; ■ 

of thi 
of th 
not< 

third or in; 

cutanei 
pericardi 
perineal, 

transvi 
of the ; 

coniimmicai 
noti 

mcniii 
pharynj 

phreni( 

supei 

illti ■: ' 

note 



738 



INDEX 



Artery or arteries : 

princeps cervicis, 611, note, 614, 615, 617, note 

pollieis, 634, 639, 701 
profunda, see "Artery, femoral, deep" 

(of the arm), inferior, 630, 633, 634, 63S. 69S, 
699, and App., note - m 
superior, 629-631, 635, 638, 699, 
and App., note - m 
communicating or deltoid 
branch, 630, note. 631 
superior, accessor)-, 699 
pubic, branch of the femoral artery, see " Artery, 
pudic. external " 
branch of the obturator artery, 601 
inferior, see "Artery, pudic, external, in- 
ferior" 
superficial or superior, see "Artery, pudic, 
external, superior" 
pudic, external, inferior, 599, 640. 641 
superior, 599, 640, 641 
internal, 600-608, 646-649, 672-677, 704, and 
App., note l:::) 
pulmonary, left, 562, 563, 566-56S, 572, 577, 579. 581, 
5S3-5S5. 588 
main trunk, 562, 564-569, 571, 572, 577, 

579. 58i >, 5*6, 588 
right, 563, 565-56/, 572, 579-5*3- 583 
pyloric, 594, 595, 67S 

inferior, App., note isi 
superior, App., note 131 
radial, 632-637, 639, 698, 700, 701 

of the index finger, 634, 636 
recurrent, 630, 632-634, 701 
carpal branch, anterior, 634, 700 
posterior, 635, 637 
superficial yolar branch, 632-634, 636, 639, 700, 



radialis indicis, 634, 636 
rauine, 618, 620, 686 

rectal, middle, see "Artery, hemorrhoidal, middle" 
superior, see "Artery, luemorrhoidal, supe- 
rior " 
recurrent, anterior tibial, 650, 710 
interosseous, 635 
radial, 632-634, 701 
ulnar, 633. 7110, 701 
renal, 592, 595 

suprarenal or capsular branch, 598 
retinal (central), 617 

of the round ligament of the uterus, 599, 676 
sacral, lateral, 593, 59S, 600, 601, 606, 607, 662, 672, 
676 
cutaneous branches, S70 
spinal branches, 593, 600, 676 
sacral, middle, 592, 597, 598, 601, 663, 673, and App., 

note 127 
saphenous, 640, note 

scapular, posterior, 612. 614: footnotes to pp. 590, 
592, 610, 611, 615, and 628; aim App., 
notes 13*, 133, 1::, a,,d 20s 
transverse, see "Artery, suprascapular" 
sciatic, 580, 600-602, 604, 606, 608, 646-649, 672, 674, 
675. 7"» 
coccygeal branch, 648, note 
cutaneous offsets, 645, 670 
perforating branches, 648 and note 
scrotal, anterior, 640 and App., note 1M 

posterior, 601, 602, 674, 704, and App., 
not< 
of the septum of the nose, 61S, 619, and App. 

notes 134 and'-j 
short thoracic, 629 
of the shoulder, 630, 631 
sigmoid, 597 and note 
of the sole of the foot, 656, 657 
spermatic, 592, 597, 598, 608, 662, 678, and App., 

ir ite 123 
sphenopalatine, 617. 619, ami App., note 185 
spinal, anterior, 593, 622, 623 
posterior, 623, 625 



Artery or arteries: 

of the spinal canal, 593 
splenic, 594, 595, 598, 662, 67S 
pancreatic branches, 595 
splenic branches, 594, 595, 59S 
sternocleidomastoid, 610, 616, 6S5, and App., note 10 " 
stylomastoid, 611, 613, 616, 617, 686 
subclavian, 565, 579, 5S2-586, 590, 592, 610-613, 622, 
628, 629, 664, 683 
the origin of its branches, App., 
notes 1M, m, and -"" 
sublingual, 617-620, 686 
submental, 610-612, 616, 619 

glandular branches, 611 
subscapular, 62S-630, 6S4, and App., note - a:s 

long, see "Artery, subscapular" 
short, App.. note -"- : 
subscapular branches, 629 
superficial cervical, see " Artery, cervical, super- 
ficial " 
mental, App., note 171 
superficialis vola;, 632-634, 636, 639, 700, 701 
superior intercostal, see "Artery, intercostal, supe- 
rior" 
thoracic, 629 
suprahyoidean, see "Artery, lingual, hyoid branch," 

and App., note "■■ 
supra-orbital, 611, 612, 616, 6:7, 621 
suprarenal, inferior, 598 
middle, 598 
superior, 598 
suprascapular, 590, 599, 611, 612, 628, 029, 631 

cutaneous branches, 670 
sural, external, 649, 653-655, 711. and App., note SM 
internal, 649, 653-655, 711, and App., note S32 
superficial, 648, 652, and App.. note -"■•' 
larval, external, 6511, 651, and App., note 235 

internal, 650, 651, an 1 A]. p.. note 
temporal, anterior, 610, 61 

dei J- anterior, 6i5 
posterior, 616 
mid-l'i 
mirldli lee] 
posterior, 610, 612, 666 

superficial, 610-613, 616, 617, 683, 688, ami 
App., note 108 
anterior auricular branches, 610, 612 

temporal branch, 610, 612 
orbital or zygomatico-orbital branch, 

610, 612 
posterior temporal branch, 610, 612, 
666 
of the thigh, 640-645, 64S, 649 
thymic, 612 and App., note its 
thoracic, 611, 62S, 682 

long, 62S, 629, 671, and App., note 206 

external mammary branches, 628 and 
App., notes 137 and 208 
shorl 

superior, 629 
thoracico-acrorhial, see "Artery, acromiothoracic" 
thoracicodorsal, App.. note ' ;i; : and see also " Artery, 
subscapular," and " Arteria thoracicodorsalis " 
of the thumb, large, 634, 639, 701 
thyroid, inferior, 590, 592, 611-613, 620, 626, 629, 663, 
717 
glandular branches, 613 
oesophageal brandies, 592, 613, 620 
pharyngeal brandies, 613 
tracheal branches, 592. 613, 620 
lowest I'yar. ), 590, and note 
superior, 610-613, 616, 617, 619, 620, 626, 683, 
685 
anterior branch, 611, 612, 616 
hyoid branch, 611 

inferior laryngeal branch, 612,616, 620 
posterior branch, 611-613, 616 
pharyngeal branches, 613 
sternocleidomastoid branch, 610, and 
App., note 103 









Artery »r arteries: 

tibial, anterior, 650, 6§i, 654, 66 

couimunical ,1,710 

fibular branch, 655 and A 
posti 1. 713 

cutani 
internal calcaneal branches, 652, noti 

: treat, anterii 1 
of the tongue, set- •• Artery, lingual " 

deep, see 'Artery, ranine" 

llai (branch 1 ; datinc 

artery), 617-620 and App., tl 
ial arter) <. App., II 
heal, 592, 613, 620 
Iran-' rvical, trans- 

facial, see "Arterj', facial, trans 
humeral, see " Ai t< 
of t!ie pons Varolii 

tpular " 
of the trunk. 587-1 
tympanic, antei ior, 617 and lp] . note 1- : 

(branch of internal carotid arti 

618, and App., not' 
inferii :]'•■ note '- : 

: ite '• : 

ulnar, 632-' 
recui 
carpal bram ' 

deep or communi< atin . 634 

umbilical, 57 

of the upper inn, ' 

extren 

urethral. 603 ami App., 11 

uteri 11. . 

tubal brain 
vaginal, 601 [ App., notes 1°° and tra 

of the vas defer. !. 

of the vermiform appendix, 590, 

vertebral, 579, 6 1, ■-"■. 62S, 

■'-'• 623 
615 
of the vertebral can 
vesical, 606 and A: 

iufei " : and 

idal or middle rectal 
branch, 60 1 and \: 

!, and App., 
noti 

itic, see " Artery, vesical, inferior," and 
1, ,te 11- 
;inal, App., note 
Vidian. <>i ; 
volar, superficial, 
zygomatico-orbita 
Atrium cordi . 
(cordis 

sim ■• 

of the left auricle, 

of the right aurii ' 

and A,>p.. m 
Auricli Uriiiin," and also App.. noti 

primary, 577 

Auricula (cordis) d< ,7, 57 s . 

Aurii 1 

thyroi 



B. 

of til' 

Body, inl 1 

Hull), a 

of the internal jug 
and A] 
nusj of the inl 

and A] 

with th 

675, 
Hulbus . 

arterii 

vena 



Canal, 

Hunt' 

Capillar. 

lymphatic, 
venou 

Caput Medll 
Cast of the inl 

le of the he I 
Caudal aorta, App.. n 
Cellular reticulum of I 
Chordae tend. 

u m bill 

ind App.. 
not« 
of Willis, ai 
Circnlus arteriosus (Willisi 

veil. 

Cistern 1 
1 

inter 11 
middli 
Column 
Comun 11 the right and tli 

supei io rid note 

'Cone of the hi and App.. n 

Coulluens sinui 

Uiedllll 

pulmi 

. of lymplmtii 
lupraveuti ici 

Crista supi n 
term:' 

' 



740 



INDEX 



Crucial anastomosis, App., note - 30 

Cusp of mitral or bicuspid valve, anterior, 566, note, 567, 

5°3, 57° 
aortic, 566, note, 567, 

568, 57° r 
posterior, 566, note, 567, 
56S, 57o 
of tricuspid valve, anterior, 564 and note, 565, 56S, 570 
infundibular, 564, note 
internal, 564 and note, 565, 568, 570 
left, 564, note 

posterior, 564 and note, 565, 568, 570 
right, 564, note 
septal, 564, note 



Development of the heart. 577 

of the vascular system, 57S-581 
Diaphragm, pelvic, App., note u« 
* urogenital, App., note 14 - 

Duct of Cuvier, 578, 579 

lymphatic, right, 71S, 72r 
thoracic. 664, 685, 718 
Ductus arteriosus (Botalli), 577, 579, 581 
t Cuvieri, 57S, 579 

lymphaticus dexter. 71X, 721 
tlioracicus, 664,-685, 718 
• venosus (Arantii), 580, 5S1 

E. 

f Emissarium canalis hypoglossi (var.), 6S5 

condyloideum, 666, 667 

mastoideum, 666, 667 

occipitale, 667 
Emissary veins, see "Veins, emissa.y " 
Endocardium, 570 

Epicardium, 565 and note, 566, 568, 570. 571, 584, 585 
Eustachius, valve of, 565, 571, 572, 577, 580 



Facies diaphragmatica (cordis), 563, 569 
sternocostalis (cordi 
•Fascia, interosseous, dorsal, 660 and App., noti 
* plantar, 66 1 and App., note -■'■ 

Fold of Marshall, 584 and App., notes 1" and i-- 

vestigial, 584 and App., notes "" and l -- 
Folds, fatty, of the epicardium, 565 

flaps, semilunar or sigmoid, of the aortic valve, 564, note, 
568, 57". 576 
of the pulmonary valve, 564 
and note, 570. 571 
of valves, see "Cusps" 
Fleshy pons, 564, note 

Follicles, cortical, of lymphatic glands, 716, 717 
f Foramen ovale (cordis), s;, 
Foramina of Thebesius, 565 

venarum minimaruni (Thebesii), 565 
Fossa ovalis, 565, 571 

impression of, in a cast of the heart, 572 
Fovea ovalis, 565, 571, 572 

Furrow, auriculoventricular, 563, 565, 569, 572-575, 5S6 
interauricular, posterior, 563 

interventricular, anterior, 564, 570, 574, 576, 577, 
586 
posterior, 566, 569, 570, 575, 576 

G. 

General considerations regarding angeiology, 555-560 

Gland, carotid, 619 and note 

Glands, lymphatic, see " Lymphatic glands" 

Pacchionian, App., note -"' 
Glandula interearotica, 619, note 
Glandulae Pacchiouii, App., note -""' 
Glomerulus, carotid, 619 and note 



Glomus caroticum, 619 

Granulationes arachnoideales (Pacchioni), 689 and App., 

note 296 
Granulations, Pacchionian, App., note 2 * 
Groove (see also "Furrow" and "Sulcus"): 

auriculoventricular, 563, 565, 569, 572-575, 586 
interauricular, posterior, 563 

interventricular, anterior, 564, 570, 574, 576, 577. 5S6 
posterior, 566, 569, 570, 575, 576 



H. 

Heart, the, 5 6l "577 

development of, 577 
Hepatic branches of the umbilical vein, 5.80, 5S1 
Hilum of lymphatic gland, 716 and note, 717 
Hunter's canal, see "Canal, Hunter's" 



I. 

Incisura apicis cordis, 562, 563, 576 

Iufundibulum of the right ventricle, 562, 564, 565, 570, 572, 

576 
Intercarotic body, 619, note 
Intitna (arterial tunic), 556, 557 
Isthmus aortic, 569, 573 

of Vieussens, 565, 571, 572 

J. 

"Jugular venous arch, 5 S 4 and App., note 123 

L. 

Lacteals, 719 

Lacunae corporis cavernosi, 560 

t laterales sinus sagittahs supenons, 688-690 

venous (lacumc laterales), of the superior longi- 
tudinal sinus, 6SS-690 
of the walls of the bloodvessels, 556, 557 
Ligament or ligaments : ■ . 

sternopericardial, superior and inferior, 582, 5S3 
umbilical, lateral, 601, 606-608, 663, 672, 676, and 
App.. note U" 
* median, 5S0 

of the vena cava (inferior), 581 
Ligamentum vel ligamenta : 

arteriosum, 562-564, 567-569, 583-585 
sternopericardiaca, tinterius et tsupenus, 5S2, 

umbilicale laterale, 601, 606-608, 663, 672, 676 
medium, 580 
+ vena- cavas (inferioris), 581 

tLimbus foraminis ovalis, 577 

fossae ovalis (Vieussenii), 565, 571 
of Vieussens, 577 
Lower, tubercle of, 565, 572, 5S0 
Lunulas of the semilunar valves, aortic, 568 

pulmonary, 564 
valvularum semilunarium aorta;, 568 

arteriaj pulmoualis, 564 
Lymphatic duct, right. 71S. 721 
glands, 716, 717 

aortic, 718 and App., note U 

auricular, anterior, 721 and App., note- 1 '' 

posterior, 720 and note, 721 
axillary, 71S, 720, 721 and note, 722 
cervical, deep, inferior, 626, 721 
superior, 721 
superficial, 6S3, 670 
cubital, deep, 723 

superficial, 722. 723 
femoral, see "Lymphatic glands, in- 
guinal, superficial, inferior" 
of the femoral ring (gland of Rosen- 

mullen. 725 
hilum of. 716. note, 717 
iliac, 718 

internal. 716 









Lymphatic glands, infraclavicular, 721, note 

inguinal, d 725 

supci ficial 

intei 

lumbar, 71S and App., m 

mast 

meseutcnc, 

id, 721 and A] 

and note 
popliteal, 727 

structure of, 716, 717 

snlmi i 1 720. 721, an 

!1< lt< 

submental, 7.'", 721, and App., ui 

subscapular, 721, note 

snpral ■■. and App., 1 1 

oti H 
axillary, 718, 721 
iliac, external, 71S 
inguinal, dei | 

supei ficial, 71S. 72.J 
jugu! 

lumbar, 718 and App., nol 1 
mamuiarj . 72] 
sacral, median, 7 lis 
1 "i, 71 5-728 
trunk, axill 

intestinal, 7 i.S 
jugular, 718, 721 
ar, 71.S 

■'■ ian. 718, 721 
I 

organs, female, 
725. 7-' s 
of the external genital organs, male, 724, 

of the 

of th< 

of the perineum, 72S 

supei Rci 1], 

O-722 
Lymphatics, 559 
I.\ mph-channels, 716, 717 
L) mphoglanclulse, 71(1. 717 
t aortic 

auriculares antei ioi 

axill 

721 

cubil 

supi 723 

hypo; 
iliac? 
inguinales, 

interi 

lumbali 

me entei 7'9 

occipil 

paro 

721 

sacrales, 71s 
subinguinali 

t 
Lymph-sinuses, 716, 717 









Moduli 
SJ 

N. 



Nodules, cortical, of lymph 

puh 
N'oduli valvularum seniiluuarium 

O. 
Orifice, 

mitral. 
pulmoii 
tricus] : 

i istiuui 

siuistrum, 
venosum dextrum 
siuistrum, 
Outlines, projectioi lh the 



Pars ui< 571 

ventrii 

I 

Plexus, lymphatic, 

1) niphaticus 

■ 721 
ili.i 
inguin 

iugulai 
lumbal 

venoui 

of the ham 

pltai ■ • 
pter 



742 



INDEX 



Plexus, venous, prostaticovesical, App., note - 75 

pudendal, 672. 673, and App., note '-""' 

of the round ligament of the uterus, 676 and 

note 
spermatic, 59S, 662, 705 
spinal, dorsal, App., note - ; " 
situate behind the vaginal bulb or bulb of 

the vestibule, 677 
subcutaneous, of the anus, 675 and App., 

note 279 
sufrounding Stensen's duct, 6S2 

the vertebral artery, 667 
uterine, App., notes 275 and 281 
uterovaginal, 676, 677. and App., note-' 1 
vaginal, App., notes - 75 and - sl 
vertebral, external, anterior, 669 and note 
posterior, 665, 666, 668, 
669, and App., note 260 
internal, anterior, 668, 669, and 
App., note - 07 
posterior, 667-669 and 
App., note 263 
vesical, 672, 676, and App., note '-" 5 
Plexus venosus vel plexus venosi : 
basilaris, 6S5. 687 
hsemorrhoidalis, 676 
mammillae, 671 
ovaricus, 606, 677 
pampiniformis, 598, 662, 705 
pharynge u i, 
pterygoideus, 688, 689 
pudendalis, 672, 673 
sacralis anterior, 662, 663 
I .subcutaneus ani, 675 

uLerovaginalis, 676, 677 
vertebrates, 669 

externi, 626, 665, 666 

(texterni) anteriores, 669 

posteriores, 665, 666, 
66S, 669 
interni, 626, 667, 66S 
t anteriores, 66N, 669 

t posteriores, 667-669 

vesicalis, 672, 676 
Plexuses, venous, of the vertebral column, App.. note -•' 
Plica vena: cava." sinistra, 5S4 and App., note ]- 3 
Pons, fleshy, 564, note 
Ponticulus hepatis, 581 
Popliteal artery, division of, App., note -'< < 

lower limit of, App., note 245 
Pouches, valvular, of the veins, 560 

Projection-outlines of the heart and its orifices, with the 
great vessels, 586 

R. 

Radicle, venous, 558 
Ramification, capillary, 558 

subcapillary, 558 
tRami cutanei (arteriosi), 630, 632, 640, 641 
Ramus cervicalis princeps arteria; occipitalis, 611, 614, 615, 
617 
commuuicans, 651, 654, 655, 708-71 1 
Ranine arch, 620 and App., note u " 
Receptaculum chyli, 718 
Rete, arterial, acromial, 610, 631, 6N2, and App., note 17 « 

articular, of the knee, 642 and note, 643, 

653, and App., notes -'-' - ami 227 
calcaneal, 652, 653-657, and App., note - 1 - 
carpal, anterior, 634 and App., note aa 

posterior, 635, 637, and App., note 219 
of the foot, dorsal, 651 and App., note '-"' 

plantar, 652 and App., note - 1:l 
malleolar, external, 650 - 652, and App., 
note -'■'■ 
internal, 651 and App., note - " 
of the olecranon (rete olecrani), 631, 635, 699, 

and App., note '-'- 
patellar, 641, 642. 650, and App., note 225 
trochanteric, 646, 649, and App., note SJ0 



Rete (arteriosum) acromiale, 610, 631, 6S2 

articulare cubiti, 631, 635, 699 

genu, 642, 643, 653 
calcaneum, 652-657 
carpi dorsale, 635, 637 

volare, 634 
dorsale pedis, 651 
malleolare laterale, 650-652 

mediate, 651 
patelke, 641, 650 
plautare, 652 
t trochanterieum, 646, 649 

venosum, 558 
t calcaneum, 703. 711. 71 ^ 

caualis hypoglossi, 
t cutaneum abdominis, 671 

t pectoris, 671 

dorsale manus, 696 

pedis, 703, 712 
foramiuis ovalis, 687 
plautare, 703 
t volare manus, 695, 697 

venous, 55S 

of the anterior condylar foramen, 6S5 and 

App., note - ,;i 
calcaneal, 703, 711, 713 
of the foot, dorsal, 703, 712 

plantar, 703 
of the foramen ovale. (187 and App.. note - :l - 
of the hand, dorsal, 696 and App., note : "" 

palmar, 695, 697 
of the intervertebral foramen, 626. 6(17, 
of the vertebra, 668, 669. and App., note Jl,:l 
' Retia venosa foraminum intervertebraliuni, 626, 667, 668 
t vertebrarum, 668, 669 

Reticulum, cellular, oflymphatic glands, 716, 717 
Ring, fibrous, of the mitral orifice, 576 and note 

of the tricuspid orifice, 576 and note 
tendinous, of the mitral orifice, 576 and note 

of the tricuspid orifice, 576 and note 
* umbilical, 580, 581, and App., note lla 

Rudiment of the liver. 578 



'Saccus reuniens, 57N and App.. note l15 
Sacral aorta, 592, 51 and App., note ** 

Sections, Iran 

of the forearm, 639 
of the foot, 660 
of the hand, 639 
of the knee, 659 
of the leg, 660 
of the thigh, 65S, 659 
of the upper arm, 638 
Septum atriorum, 565, 567. 569-572 

interauricular, 565, 567, 569-572 
interventricular, 564, 566-568, 570, 572, 573 
membranaceum veutriculorum, 56S 
musculare ventriculorum, 56S 
of the sheath of the bloodvessels, 560 
vaginas vasorum (femoralium), 560 
ventriculorum, 564, 56f>-5<>8, 570, 572, 573 
Sheath of the bloodvessels, 560, 626 

septum of, 560 
femoral, 560 
Sinus i>r sinuses : 

aortas (Valsalva.!, 570, 573 
t arteria- pultnonalis, 562 

basilar, 6S5, 687, and App., note - oci 

cavernous (s. cavernosas), 686, 687 

circular (s. circulai 1 

confluence of, 667 and App . no1 

coronary (s. coronarius), 563-566, 569, 570, 572, 575, 

579.584 
>>f the corpus cavernosum, 560 
dura matris, 667 

intercavernous, anterior (s. intercavernosus anterior), 
687 









Sinus or sinu 

intercavernous, po 
terio i 

longitudinal, 

IlU'lll I 

osal, inferior (s. petrosus inferioi , 
superior (s. petrosus sup< 
of the pulnx ■ ■ and App., 

rectu 
■f reuniens (-..icons reu 

sagittalis superior, 6 

6, and App., 
noti 
sphenoparietal (s. spheno] 

teuloi 
transvi 

trail--. 

: 

ol Valsalva, 57". 573, and App., n 
valvular, of the vein 
venamm (cavarum), 563, 571. 584, 5- s .S 
venosus of the right auricli 4, 585 

venous, <>i the cranium, ' 

confluence of (torculai Hero 
ind App . 111 ite 

* vertebral, longitudin lApp^note 2 "" 

vertebralcs longitudinale: . 
Space, undefended, ol the interventricular septum, ' 
Spaces of the corpus cavernosum, intertrabecul 
Substance, cortical, of lymphatic glands, 716, 717 

medullary, of lymphatic glands, 716, 717 
Substantia corticalis, 716, 717 

medullaris, ; 
Sulcus coronarius, 563, 565, 569. 572. 
interventricularis, 
longitudinalis anti 5S6 

terniinalis atrii ilcxtri, 563 and note 
terminalis of the ri.yht ai 
Surface of the heart, antera 

■ ior, 563, 569 
System, lymphatic, 715 728 

] ortal, of veins, 580, 5S1, 67S 
Systema lymphaticum, 715-728 



Taenia terminalis, 57 
Thebesius, foramina ■ 

valvi ol 
Thoracic duel 
Tissue, conn: hilum of lymphatic glands, 716, 

7'7 
Topographical anatomy 1 etions, transvei 

of the popliteal • 

ol Si 

md App., iiot< 

■ ruosi, 560 

.717 
t tendim 

Trigona fibn 1 m ite 

tTripus 1 also "Axis, cceliac" 

Truni : 
t arterio 

COSti 2, 663 

iutestinalis, 718 
jugularis, 7 

'llllllli ill 

ins. 71S. 721 

Trunks, lymj 

sec 111 ink "j 



1 

intim 
111- 



U. 
Undefi 



Vagina 

pulmi HI 

Valves of tin- veins, 
Valvula re/ val\ 
bicusp 

foramin 
seuiiluiian 

valvula semi 

. 
semilunar* 
valvula semilunaris anti 
dexti 
sinisl 

sinus coronarii (Tl 

cuspis 

Vasa al 717 

brevia of tin 

utia, 716, 717 

lymphatic.. 

superficial: 

7- 558 
\\ ill or veins: 
acroi 
acrom 
alvi 

anal, sec " Wins, h 
and also \- 

anastomotic (of the thigl 
an. 1 

ind App., noti 
appendicul 

an: 711 

inti 

auricular. 

1 

left 1 



742Z> 



INDEX 



Vein or veins : 

azygos, left upper, 579, 584, 663, 664, 6S5 

right. 563, 565-5 6 7, 5/2, 579. 580, 5S2, 663, 664, 

6S5, 71S 
small, 579, 5S4, 585, 663, 664, 6S5, 71S 
basal, 601 and App., note - 17 
basilar, 69] and App.. note " ,: 
basilic, 638, 683. 684, 694, 697, 69S, 722, 723, and App., 

note " ' 
basivertebral, 668, 669, ami App., note ' m 
of the bodies, of the vertebrae, App., note - c,a 
brachial, 638, 683, 6S4, 69S-701, 723 

layers of its wall, 556 
brachiocephalic, see " Vein, innominate " 
- capital (of the arm), 697 and App., note 3 ° 7 

capsular, 662 

cardinal, right and left, 578, 579 
cardiac, anterior, 562 

great, 562, 563, 567, 570, 5S4 
middle, 563, 569, 570, 584, 585 
posterior, 563, 569, 584, 585 
right, 563, 564 
small, 563, 564 
smallest, 562 

* cavernous, 560 and note 

cephalic, 63S, 671. 682-6S4, 694, 696, 697, 721-723, and 
App.. note w ° 

* accessory, 696 and App., note W ' J 
cerebellar, inferior, 691 

cerebral, App., note '- ; '~ 
inferior, 691 
middle, 687, 6S9, 691 
superior, 6S9-691 
cervical, deep, 626, 665-667, 6S6 
subcutaneous, 626, 6S2 
superficial, 682-6S4, and App., note 295 
transverse, 666, 6S3, 684, 698, and App., 
note 
ciliary, posterior, 6S6 
circumflex (of the arm), anterior, 683 

posterior, 683, 69S, 699 
(of the thigh), external, 705-707 
internal, 705 
circumflex iliac, deep, 662, 673, 705-707 

superficial, 662, 671, 702, 706 
colic, left, 67S 

middle, 678, 679 
right, 678, 679 

transverse, 678, note, 679, note 
comes uervi ischiadic], 674, 675, 704 
communicating, between the posterior auricular and 

the superficial temporal veins, 666 
companion, of the *artery of the penis (internal pudic 

artery), 674 
condyloid (emissary 1. anterior, App., notes- 1 and- 31 

posterior, App., note 261 
coronary, 562, 563, 567, 570, 584 

of the stomach, 678 
of the corpus cavernosum, 673 
costo-axillary, 671 and App., note - rl 
cremasteric, 662 and note, 676, note, and App., note 27r 
cutaneous, femoral, internal, 702, 724, 726 
cystic, 678 
* deltoid, 682 

dental, inferior, 6S8 

digital, common, of the foot, 708, 710 

descending (branches of the deep palmar 

venous arch), 701, note 
dorsal, of the foot, 703, 708, 710 
palmar, collateral, 695 and App., note m 
common, 700 and App., note 801 
(proper), or collateral digital veins, 695 
and App., note !01 
plantar, 711 
diploic, frontal. 6S3, 68S 

dorsal, of the clitoris, 675, 676, and App., note 2 " 5 
of the foot, 710, 712 
of the penis, 672, (173. 705, and App., note -'' 

subcutaneous, 671, 702, 706, and 
App., note - 7i 



Vein or veins : 

dorsalis pedis, 710. 712 

scapulaj, 683, note, 6S4, note, 69S, note, 699, 
note 
duodenal, 678 

emissary, of the anterior condylar foramen (van), 6S5 
and App., note '-■'' 
condylar, 666, 667, and App., note 2C1 
condyloid, anterior, App., notes " ,1 and - 1 ' 1 

posterior, App., note '- 61 
mastoid, 666, 667 

(regardeil as a vestige of the primi- 
" tive terminal outlet of the 
lateral sinus), App., note -" 
occipital, 667 
emulgent, see "Renal" 
epiploic. 679 
epigastric, deep, 662, 673, 705, 707 

deep or inferior, tributaries forming con- 
nexions with the other cutaneous 
veins of the abdomen, 671 
inferior, 662, 673, 705, 707 
superficial, 671, 702, 706, 725, 726, 728 
superior, tributaries forming connexions 
with the other cutaneous veins of the 
abdomen, 671 
ethmoidal, anterior, 687 
posterior, 687 
of the extremities, 693-713 
facial, 682-684, 688, 689. 721, and App., not. 

anterior, 682-684, 688. 689, 721, anil App., note '■"'■'• 
common, 682-684, 686, 688. 6S9. ami App., note ** 
dee]', 682 and note, 684, 688 
posterior, see "Vein, temporomaxillary," and 

also App., w 1 
trausverse, 6S2 
femoral, 579, 598, 599, 641-643, 65S, 659, 662, 705-707, 
724. 725 
deep, 705, 707 

* femoropopliteal, 708, 709, and App., note ; 
frontal, 682, 684 687, 688 

diploic, 683, 688 
of Galen, App., note'- 97 
gastric, (17s and note 

short, 
gastro-epiploic, left, 678 

right, 678 
gluteal, 672, 673. r>76, 704 

li 1 imorrhoidal, inferior or external, 674. 675, 704, and 
App., note -'■' 
middle, 676 
superior, 672, 676, 67S 
of the head and neck, 681, 691 
hemiazygos, 584, 585, 663, 664. 68 

accessory, 579, 5S4, 663, 664. 6S5 
hepatic, 579-581, 662 

humeral, transverse, see "Vein, suprascapular" 
ileocolic, 679 

iliac, common, 662-664, 672, 673, 676-67S 
external, 579, 662, 663, 672, 676, 677 
internal. 579, 662, 672, 673, 676, 677, and Apr 
not, 
iliolumbar. 664, 672, 676 

iliac or transverse branch, 662, 663 
infra-orbital, 688 

of inner head of triceps extensor cubiti muscle, 699 
innominate (or brachiocephalic), 580 

left, 579. 582-584, 586, 662-fti|. r > s S 
right, 583, 584, 5S6, 662-664, 683, 685, 6S6, 
698, 719 
- intercapitular (of the foot), 712 and note, 713. ami see- 

also App., note wo 

* (of the hand), 695, 696, 700, 701, and 

App., note 300 
intercostal, 663, 664 

• superior, 663, 664, 6S5 
posterior or dorsal branch, 665, 667 
internal mammary. 662. 684, 685 
interosseous, anterior. 701 
palmar, 701 



IS HI: \\ 






interventricular, 

intervertebi ud App., noti 

intestinal, ' 

ular, anterioi , 

intern 

litive, right and led 
transverse, App., in 
labial, infei 

i\ ulval), anterior, App., ni i1 

laryngeal, 

lingual, 

lumbal 

malleolar, external, auterii 

posterior, 71 1 
internal, posterior, 71 1 
mammary, external 
note 
internal, & ■ 

iminal branch of, r >7t. note 

of, forming connexions with 
the other cutaneous veins of the 

marginal, li :'. 

-'. 684 
mastoid (emissai j 

(as vestige of primitive terminal outlet of 
lateral sin 
maxillary, internal, anti 
median basil nd note, and App., 

. and App., note-. '-'" and :; "~ 
of thi ' !, and App., 

App.. 
noti 
of the forearm, 694, 
of the neck, 626 and \pp.. noti 
meningeal, middle, 6S7, 
nteric, interior, 672, 6 

metacarpal, dorsal, 696 and App., not 

metatarsal. 710 

dorsal. 7:2 
r, 713 

nasal. I 

intern 

:, and App . r. it 

of the neck, median. 626 and A] 

lie left aui ii . nd App.. 

685 
ompli 
ophthalmic, infi i i 

App, 

palatini 

and App., ni iti 

palpebral, infi 

pam 

pain ri 

umbilical (ol 

1 nexioiis with the ' 

umbilicus, 671 and App., 
noti 



phn 
plant 

ofth 
left brai 

unda, inferioi 

sillier:' 

pilbi nal" 

ptidi 

internal, <•- 
pulmonary, I 

radial. 

uoidal " 

renal. 

inecli 

713. 7^7 
inti 

1 ior branch, 7 
scapular, trail 

total, ant( 1 

note 

sperm 

■ ine, App., 111 ' 
spinal, doi 
exti 

■ 
internal. A] 
longitudinal, aiitei ud App., 

Kplenii 

striate, inferior. A; 
st\ lomastoi 

subi the abdomc 11, 

snhlin 
siibmi 

S ' 699 
supi 

1 \ternal, 71 1 
intci 11 
S) Ivian, di 

SU I 11 1 

middli 
supci ' 



742rf 



INDEX 



Vein or veins : 

of the temporomandibular articulation, 683, 688, and 

App., note *" 
temporomaxillary, 682-6S5, 6SS, 689, and App., note 293 
thoracic, long, 671, 683, 684, 698 
thoracico-epigastric, 671 and App., note rl 
of the thumb, large, 701 
thyroid, inferior, 585, 685 

lowest. 5.S2-5S4, 5S6, 662-664, 6S3, 6S5 
superior. 626, 683-686, 688, 689 
tibial, anterior, 710, 712 
posterior, 711, 713 
recurrent, anterior, 710 
tracheal, 6S5 
transverse facial, 682 
of the trunk, 661-679 
tin mic, 662 

ulnar, anterior, 639, 694-697, 700, and App., note soc 
(deep), 698, 700, 701 
posterior, 694 and App., note 300 
recurrent, anterior, 700, 701 
superficial, see "Veins, ulnar" 
umbilical, 57S, 580, 581 
uterine. 677 
valves of, 560 

of the vermiform appendix, 67S, 679 
vertebral, 626, 663, 667, 685. 686 

posterior, 626, 665-667, 6S6 
vitelline, 578 
vorticose, 687 
* vulval, anterior, App., note 138 

posterior, 675 and App., note 1SS 
Vena, 557, 55S 
\ ena vel venae : 
I acromialis, 6S2-6S4 

t alveolaris inferior, 6SS 

anastotnotica facialis, 6S2, 6S4, 6SS 
angularis, 682-684 

anonyma dextra, 583, 584, 5S6, 662-664, 683, 6S5, 686, 
69S, 718 
sinistra, 579, 5S2-5S4, 586, 662-664, 6S5 
anonyma?, 5S0 
t appeudicularis, 67S, 679 

+ arcuatae (pedis), 710 

articulares, anteriores, 6S2, 6S4 

mandibular 683, 688 
auricularis posterior, 666, 682 
axillaris, 683, 6S4, 698 

azygos, 563, 565-567, 572. 579, 5S0, 5S2, 663, 664, 6S5, 71S 
basalis (Rosenthali), 691 
basilica, 638, 639, 683, 684, 694-698, 723 
basis vertebrarum, App., note 263 
basivertebrales, 668, 669 
brachiales, 63S, 683, 6S4, 69S-701, 723 
t capitalis brachii, 697 

t cardinales, dextra et sinistra, 57S, 579 

cava inferior, 563, 565, 566, 571, 572, 575, 577, 579-582, 
5' I- 585. 590, 594, 662-664. 678 
parietal and visceral tributaries (radices pane- 
tales et viscerales), 662 
superior. 562-56S, 571. 572, 574. 575- 577. 579- 58°, 
5S2-586, 662 666 
left, 5S5 
sinistra, 585 
t cavernosa;, 560 

cephalica, 63S, 639, 671, 6S2-6S4, 694-697, 721, 723 
accessoria, 696 
pollicis, App., note 304 
cerebelli inferiofes, 691 
cerebri inferiores, 691 

media, 687, 6S9, 691 
superiores, 689-691 
cervical is profunda, 626, 665-667, 686 
subcutanea. 6 
1 superficialis, 682-684 

ciliares posteriores, 686 
circumflexa; femoris laterales, 705-707 

mediales, 705 
circumflexa ilium profunda, 662, 673, 705-707 

superficialis, 662, 671, 702, 706 



Vena vel venae : 
t circumflexa humeri anterior, 6S3 

t posterior, 6S3, 69.8, 699 

t scapulae. 683, 684, 698, 699 

colica dextra, 67S, 679 
media, 678, 679 
sinistra, 678 
t collaterales radiales, 699 

t ulnares* superiores, 69S 

t collateralis media, 699 

t ulnaris inferior, 700, 701 

t colli et capitis, 681-691 

comitans n. hypoglossi, 6S3, 68.8, 6S9 
t ischiadici, 674, 675. 704 

comitantes arterise femoralis, 560, 706, 707 
comites, 560 

of the brachial artery, 6^8, 683, 684, 698- 701, 

723 
of the femoral artery, 560 and note, 706, 707 
of the lingual artery, App., note 280, and see 
also " Veins, lingual " 
cordis anteriores, 562 

magna, 562, 563, 567, 570, 584 
media, 563, 569, 570, 584, 585 
minima;, 562 
parva, 563. 584 
corouaria ventriculi, 67S 
costoaxillares, 671 
cystica. 678 
t deltoideae, 682 

digitales communes pedis, 708, 710 
pedis dorsales, 703, 708, 710 
pi an tares, 711 
volares communes, 71 1 1 
propi 1 
diploica frontalis, 683, 688 
t dorsales pedis, 710, 712 

penis subcutanea;, 671, 702, 706 
dorsalis clitoridis, 675, 676 
penis. 672, 673, 705 
duodenales, 678 
epigastrica inferior, 662, 673, 705, 707 

superficialis, 671, 702, 7-/1, 725, 726, 728 
superior, 671. 
ethmoidalis anterior, 687 
postei ior, 687 
t extremitatum superiorum et inferiorum, 693-713 

facialis anterior, 682-684, 68S, 689, 721 

communis, 682-684, 686, 688, 6N9 
posterior 682-1 
femoralis. 579. 598, 599," 641-643, 65S, 659, 662, 705-707, 

724. 725 
femoropoplitea, 70S, 709 
frontalis, 682, 684, 687, 688 
gastrica; breves, 67S 
gastro-epiploicae, dextra et sinistra, 678 
t rami epiploici, 679 

genu, 711 
gluta;a; inferiores, 672-675, 704 

superiores, 672, 673. 676, 71 14 
haemorrhoidales inferiores, 674, 675, 704 
hasmorrhoidalis media, 676 

superior, 672, 676, 678 
hemiazygos, 579, 584, 585, 663, 664, 685, 718 

accessoria, 584, 663, 664. 685 
hepatica;, 579-581, 662 
hvpogastnea. 579. 662, 672, 673, 676, 677 
ileocolica, 679 
iliaca communis, 662-664, 672, 673, 676-678 

externa, 662, 663, 672, 676, 677 
iliolumbalis, 664, 672, 676 
t ramus iliacus, 662, 633 

t infra-orbitalis, 688 

intercapitulares (tmanus), 695, 696, 700, 701 

(tpedis), 712, 713 
intercostales, 663, 664 

ramus dorsalis, 665, 667 
intercostalis suprema, 663, 664, 6S5 
t interosseae volares, 701 

intervertebrales, 626, 667 









Vena vet venae : 

intestinales, 678, 719 
t iugulan I sinistra, 57S 

jugularis an 

intei - 

labialis infei i 
supei 
lacrim ' 
l.ir\ n .' 
lienali 
lingti 
lunil 
t lami dors ili 

lumbal is asci u 
r nialleolares anterion 

r 

niammai ia inl 

masseteric;e, 682, 

mediana antibrachii ,-7.700 

basilica, 694, 696, 

ceph; 

colli 

cubiti 
meni 
mesenteric l 

nietacarpeae di irsali 

metatarseae dorsal 
plan 

I . 563, 584, 585 

obtui 

t oinphali 

ophthaluiica inferi< 
supei 
venae imisculares, 6S7 
opkthaliuomening( 
ovaric 

palpebrales, infer* 1 

superiores, 682, 6.N4 

parumbilicales (Sappeyi) O71 
pei P irans pi ima, 704, ' 

tenia, 7 15, 707, 709 

perona 
phai 
phrenica ii 

medial 

709 
popliti 

ramu 

sinisti 

1, 585 

femi 11 
f pri 

t intei 

pulmonales dextra 

radi 



t 1 

t 
Vena . 

Salval 

S.lplll I 

I 

sigmoidea 

t 

tin:- 
spiuales externa? ai 

stei ■ 

subcutam 
t colli 

t 

sublingual] 

submental 

Sill)-. 

t supra-orbitali 

sup: 
:.■ later; 

tempi ii 

tern ■ 

superfi 

testicul 

tboi 
t tkoraco- 

t thoracod 

thoraco-epigas tries 

tin mi. 

thyreoidea ii 

supei 
lideae inferioi 
tibiales anteriores, ; 

. ')S5 
transvei sa colli, 666 

sea; 1 ; 

t truuci, 

tiln 1 
umbil 
uteri n; 
vertcbi 
vortii 

V» utricle [of the h 

prni 
Venti ii ■ 

sinisl 

1\ uipl 
■ ■I the liearl 



QM 


Toldt, Carl 


25 


An atlas of human 


T623 


anatomy 


Sec. 5 




cop. 2 





BioMed 



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