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A tour in Scotland 1769 

Thomas Pennant 

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li O 13^ D O N, 

Trinted for BenjTWhite , 


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T O 


O F 

MOSTYN, Flintshire. 

Dear Sir, 

A* GENTLEMAN well known to the political 
world in the beginning of the prefent century made 
the tour of Europe^ and before he reached Abbeville 
difcovered that in order to fee a country to beft advantagie it 
was infinitely preferable to travel by day than by nigut, 

I CANNOT help making this applicable to myfelf, who, 
after publifliing three volumes of the Zoology of Great 
Britain, found out that to be able to fpeak with more 
precifion of the fubjedls I treated of, it was far more prudent 
to vifit the whole than part of my country : ftruck therefore 
with the reflection of having never feen Scotland, I in- 
ftantly ordered my baggage to be got ready, and in a reafon- 
able time found myfelfon the banks of the Tweed. 

a As 

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As foon as I communicated to you my refolution, with 
your accuftomcd friendfhip you wiflied to hear from me : I 
could give but a partial performance of my promife, the 
attention of a traveller being fo n>uch taken up as to leave 
,very little room for epiftolary duties ; and I flatter myfelf 
you will find this tardy execution- of my engagement more 
fatisfadlory than the hafty accounts I could fend you on my 
road. But this is far from being the fole motive of this 

I have irrefiftible Inducements of public and of a private 
nature : to you I owe a mod free enjoyment of the little 
territories Providence had beftowed on me ; for by a liberal 
and equal ceflion of fields, and meads and woods, you con- 
nefted all the divided parts, and gave a full fcope to all my 
improvements. Every view I take from my window re- 
minds me of my debt, and forbids my filence, caufing the 
pleafing glow of gratitude to difFufe itfelf over the whole 
frame, inftead of forcing up the imbittering figh of Oh ! Ji 
angulus ilk! Now every fcene I enjoy receives new charms, 
for I mingle with the vifible beauties, the more pleafing idea 
of owing them to you, the worthy neighbor and firm friend, 
who are happy in the calm and domeftic paths of life with 
abilities fuperior to oftentation, and goodnefs content with 
its own reward: with a found judgement and honeft heart 


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you worthily difcharge the fcnatorial truft repofed in you, 
whofe unprejudiced vote aids to ilill the madnefs of the 
People, or aims to check the prefumption of the Minifter. 
My happinefs in being from your earlieft life your neighbor, 
makes me confident in my obiervation ; your increafing and 
difcerning band of friends difcovers and confirms thc'juflice 
of it: may the reafons that attradt and bind us to you ever 
remain, is the moft grateful wi(h that can be thought of, by. 

Dear Sir* 

Tour obliged^ 

0md affeSiianati Friemf, 

Dotrimiey «th, ,77,. THOMAS PE N N ANT. 

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Rows in BRtDGi-STRBET, Chistir* with a view of St. Pi- 
ter's church. Page r 
Burton Constable, the feat of WiLLtAit Constable, Efq; 


Greater Weever and Saury,^ 27 

EiDBR Drakb and Duck, 46 

The Bass Ifle from Tantallon caftle and Loch-lbvsn cafile, 

from (ketches of profeflbr OciLVhR, of Old Ahtrdt$Hi 5I 

Edinburgh callle from Grey-Friars church-yard^ 62 

DuppLiN, the feat of the Earl of Kinnoul». 84 

Head of the old Coontefs of D«smom d, 80 

Dunk ELD cathedral, 92 

Tay mouth, the feat of the Earl of Brbadalba^nb^. 94 

Ptarmigan and H^n of the Wood, 97 

Cafcade near Tay mouth, 98. 

The brotche and walkingHaff at Colonel Campbell's of Glbk 

View near Blaxr, 

YoRKE cafcade, near Blair op Athol^ 
Brab-mar caftle. 

Thorny Crab and Cordatbd Crab 
The bridge of Don, 
Urn near Bamfp, Flint arrov-head, &c« 
Old Castle Gordok?. 

Elgin cathedral^ 
Freswick cadle, 

Castle Ur<^hart, 
Cock op the Wood^ 
Upper fall of Fyerb^ 
KiLCHVRN caftle» '• 

Inveraray caftle. 
Old Inveraray, 
Sterling caftle, 

Arthur's oven, andtwoLoCHAiBR azcH 
Antiquities at Nethrrby 
Pillars in Penrith churchyard, 
Arthur's round table and Mayborough*^ 
Shap priory, 

S Three figures of antiqoities, 

^ Great yev^-tree in Fortingal cfaor^b-yard, deicribed. 
The admirable CaiCHfON, 

10 J, 













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ON Monday the 26th of June, take my departure from Chiitce* 
Chester, a city without parallel for the fingular ftruc- 
ture of the four principal ftrects, which are as if ex- 
cavated out of the earth, and funk many feet beneath the furface ; 
the carriages drive far beneath the level of the kitchens, on a line 
witK ranges of fhops, over which on each fide of the ftreets paflengers 
wall^'from end to end, in galleries open in front, fecure from wet 
or heat. The back courts of all thefe houfes are level with the 
ground, but to go into any of thefe four ftreets it is neccflary 
to defcend a flight of feveral fteps. 
The Cathedral is an antient ftrufture, very ragged on the outfide, 

B from 

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from the nature of the red friable ftone * with which it is built : the 
tabernacle work in the choir is very neat; but the beauty and ele- 
gant fimplicity of a Very antique gojtbic chapter-houfc, is what merits 
a vifit from every traveller. 

The Hypocauji near the Feathers Inn, is one of the remains of the 
Romans -Y^ it being well known that this place was a principal fta- 
tion. Among many antiquities found here, none is more Angular 
than the rude fculpture of the D^a Artnigera Minervay with her bird 
and her altar, on the face of a rock in a fmall field near the IVelcb 
end of the bridge. 

The caftlp is a decaying pil^. The walls of the city, the only, 
complete fpecimcns of antient fortifications, are kept in excellent 
order, being the principal walk of the inhabitants : the views from 
the feveral parts are very fine •, the mountains of Flintjhire^ the hills 
oiBroxton^ and the infulated rock of Beejlon^ form the ruder part of 
the fcenery ; a rich flat forms the fofter view, and the prolpeft up 
the river towards Bougbton recalls in fome degree the idea of the 
Thames and Richmond hill, 

Paflcd through Tarvin^ a fmall village ; in the church-yard is 
an epitaph in memory of Mr, John Thomfifenj an excellent pennj^o, 
but particularly famous for his exaft and elegant imitation of th? 
Gre^k charafter. 

Delamere^ which Leland calls a faire and large forefl, wi^h plenty 
of redde deere and falpw, is now a black an^ dreary wafte ^ it.feeds 

* Saxum arenarium friabile rabrum* Da Cojla^ Fofftls.h 139. 
f This city was the Deva and Devana of jintonine, and the flatlon of the ligia 
vicifima miOrix^ 

a few 

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a few rabbets, and a few black Terns* fkim over the fplaflies that 
water fome part of it. 

A few miles from this heath lies Nortbwicbj a fmall town, long Salt Pin. 
famous for its rock fait,* and brine pits. ' Some years ago I vifited 
one of the mines \ the ftratum of fait lies about forty yards deep \ 
that which I faw was hollowed into the form of a temple. I de- 
fcended thro* a dome, and found the roof fupported by rows of 
pillars, about two yards thick, and feveral in height •, the whole was 
illuminated with numbers of candles, and made a molt magnificent 
and glittering appearance. Above the fait is a bed of whitifh clay+, 
ufed in making the Liverpool earthen- ware -, and in the fame place 
is alfo dug a good deal of the Gypfum^ or plaifter ftone. The foflil 
fait is generally yellow, and femipellucid, fometimcs debafed witlj a 
dull greenilh earth, and is often found, but in fmall quantities, 
quite clear and colorlefs. 

The road from this place to Macclesfield is thro' a flat, rich, but 
unpleafant country. That town is in a very flourifhing ftatc ; is 
poflefled of a great manufafture of mohair -and twift buttons ; has 
between twenty and thirty filk mills, and a very confidcrable copper 
fmelting houfe, and brafs work. 

Here lived in great hofpitality, at his manor-houfe J, Henry Staf^ 
fordj Duke of Buckin^ham^ a moft powerful Peer, the fad inftrument 
ofth^ ambition of Richard III. He was at once rewarded by that 
moharch ij with a grant of fifty caftles and manors ; but ftruck with 
I'embrfe at being acceflary to fb many ctimes, fell from his allegiance, 

* Br. ZmL If. 430. t Argilla cxrula-dnerea.. Da tofta^ Feffib. I. No. 256. 48. 
X Ki/fg'a Vale Royal. 86. \\ Dugdali$BtLionsLge. I. i68. 

B 2 and 


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and by a juft retribution, fuffercd on a fcaffold by the mere fiat of 
his unfeeling mailer. 

In the church is the fepulchral chapel, and the magnificent monu- 
ments of the family of the Savages. In this part of the church had 
been a chauntry of fecularpriefts, founded about 1508 by Thomas 
Savage^ archbifhop of Tork*, whodiredted that his heart Ihould be 
depofited here. On a brafs plate on the wall is this comfortable 
advertifementof the price of remiffion of fins in the other life: it 
was to be wiflied that the expence of obtaining fo extenfive a charter 
from his holinefs in this world had likewiie been added. 

Thefe are the words. 

The Pdon for faying of 5 Pater noft and 5 aves and a creed is 26 
thoufand ycres and 26 dayes of Pardon. 

In the chapel belonging to tht Legbs oi Lyme is another Angular 
infcription and its hiftory. 

Here lyctb the body of Ftrkin a Ligh 
That for King Richard the death did die. 

Betrayed for righteonfneff^ 
And the bones of Sir Petrs his fonne 
That with king Hturii the fife did wonne 
in Paris. 

• This Perkin ferved king Edward the third and the black Prince 

• his fonne in all their warres in France and was at the battel of 

• Creffie and had Lyme given him for that fervice ; and after their 

• deathes ferved king Richard the fecond, and left him not in his- 

' Tamiert 66» 

• troubles. 

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* troubles, but was taken with him, and beheaded at Cbejler by king 

* Henrie the fourthe. and the fayd Sir Peers his fonne ferved king 
' Henrie and was flaine at the battel of Agencourt. 

* In their memorie Sir Peter Legh of Lyme knight defcende^ from 

* them finding the fayd ould verfes written upon a ilone in this 

* Chappel did reedifie this place yf«* Dni 1620.' 

After leaving this town, the country almoft inftantly changes and 
becomes very mountanous and barren, at left on the furface 5 but 
the bowels compenfate for the external fterility, by yielding fufficient 
quantity of coal for the ufe of the neighboring parts of Cbejhire^ and 
for the burning of lime : vaft quantity is made near Buxton^ and 
being carried to all parts for the purpofes of agriculture, is become 
a confiderable article of commerce. 

The celebrated warm bath of Buxton* is feated in a bottom, Buxtoh» 
amidft thefe hills, in a moft cheerlcfs fpot, and would be little fre- 
quented, did,: not Hygeia often rcfide here, and difpenfe to her 
votaries the chief bleflings of life, eafe and health. With joy 
and gratitude I this moment refledt on the efficacious qualities of 
the waters 5 I recoiled with rapture the returnuf fpirits, the flight 
of pain, and re-animation of my long, long-crippled rheumatic 
limbs. But how unfortunate is it, that what Providence defigned for 
the general good, (hould be rendered only a partial one, and denied 
to all, except the opulent ; or I may fay to the (comparatively) few 
that can get admittance into the houfe where thefe waters are im- 

* T\it R9man3f who were remarkably fond of warm bathf, did not overlook 
diefe agreeable waters : they had a bath, inciofed with a brick wall, adjacent to ' 
the prefent St. Jmie*^ well, which Dr. Sbwtt in his Eflay on Mineral Waters, fays 
was razed in 1709. 

prifoned ? 

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prifoncd ? There are other fprkigs (Camden fays^ nine) very near 
that in the Hall^ and in all probability of equal virtue, I was in- 
formed that the late Duke of Devon/hire^ not long before his death, 
had ordered fome of thefe to be inclofed and formed into baths. It 
is to be hoped that his fucceflbr will not fail adopting fo ufeful and 
humane a plan ; that he will form it on the moft enlarged fyftem, 
that they may open not folely to thofe whom mifufed wealth hath 
rendered invalids, but to the poor cripple, whom honeft labor 
hath made a burden to himfelf and his country-, and to the foldicr 
and failor, who by hard fervice have loft the ufe of thofe very limbs 
which once were aftive in our defence. The honor refulting 
from fuch a foundatio'h would be as great, as the fatisfadtion 
arifing from a confcioufnefs of fo benevolent a work would be un- 
fpeakable. The charms of diflipation would then lofe their force; 
and every human luxury would appear to him infipid, who had 
it in his power thus to lay open thefe fountains of health, and 
to be able to exult in fuch pathetic and comfortable ftrains as 
thefe : PFben the ear beard me^ then it blejfed me ; and when the eyefa*u) 
me it gave witnefs to me ; 

Becaufe I had delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherlefs^ and 
him that had none to help him. 

The blejfmg of him that was ready to ptrijh came upon me, and I 
caufed the widow* s heart to fing for joy. 

I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame. 

After leaving Buxton, paffed thro' Mddleton dale, a deep narrow 
chafm between two vaft cliffs, which extend on each fide, near a 
mile in length: this road is very fingular, but the focks are 'in 
general too naked to be beautiful. At the end is the' fiiiall village 


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of Stoney MdHeton j here the profpeft opens, and at Barfly Bridge^ 
exhibits a pretty view of a fmall but fertile vale, watered by the 
Derwent^ and terminated by Cbatfworth and its plantations. Arrived 
and lay at 

Cbejlerjield \ an "ugly town. In this place is a great manufafturc 
of wQrfted ftoqkings, and another of a brown earthen-ware, much 
of which is fent into Holland^ the country which, within lefs than 
half a century ago, fupplied not only thefe kingdoms but, half, 
of Europe with that commodity. The clay is found near the 
town, over the bafs or cherty * ftratum, above the coal. The 
fteeple of Cbejierfield church is a fpire covered with lead, but by a 
violent wind ftrangely bent, in which ftate it remains. In the 
church are fome fine monuments of the Foljambes of WaUon. 

At this place may be faid to have expired the war of the 
Barons in the reign of Henry III. After the battle of Evejham^ 
Robert Earl Ferrers^ zn^ Baldwin Wake Baron of Chefterfield^ at- 
tempted once more to make head againft the royal power. They 
rendevoufed here ; but were fuddenly furprized by the royalifts ; 
Ferrers wzs taken, and Wake fled. The eftate of the firft was 
forfeited ; the fortunes of the laft were reftored, after certain 
mulfts. By the marriage of a fifter of one of his defendants 
with Edmund of Woodjlocky this place and Bakewell became the pro- 
perty of his daughter, the fair Maid of Kenty widow of the Black 
Prince, and were part of her jointure on his deceafe. 

On the road fide, about three miles from the town, are feveral pits Jukb 27, 

of iron-ftone about nii^e or ten/eet deep^ The ftratum lies above 
the coal, and is two, feet thick. I wa^ informed that the adventurers 

• Or flinty. 


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pay ten pounds per annum to the lord of the foil, for liberty of 
raifing it ; that the laborers have fix (hillings per load for get- 
ting it : each load is about twenty ftrikes or bufhels, which yields 
a tun of metal. Coal, in thefe parts is very cheap, a tun and a half 
bei ng fold for five fliillings. 

Changed horfes at JVorkfop and Tuxford. In the fouth aifle of the 
church 2itTuxfordj beneath a flowery arch, is a very rude relief of St. 
Laurence placed on the gridiron. By him is a fellow with a bellows 
blowing the fire ; and the executioner going to turn him. The 
zealous Pox in his Martyrology has this very thought, and makes 
the martyr fay in the midft of fufFerings, ^hisftde is now roajled-, turn 
me J O tyrant great ! Crofl^ed the Trent at Dunham-Ferry y where it is 
broad, but (hallow : the fpring tides flow here, and rife about two 
feet, but the common tides never reach this place. Dunham had 
been a manor belonging to Edward * the ConfeflTor, and yielded 
him thirty pounds, and fix fextaries of honey, valuable, when mead 
was the delicious beverage of the times. From hence pafs along 
the FofS'Dikej or the canal opened by Henry Lf to form a communi- 
cation between the Trent and the JVitbam. It was opened J in the 
year 1 121, and extends from Lincoln to Torkefey j its length is eleven 

• TboroioH^s Nottingbamjh. 388. 

f DugdaU on tmhzn\i\tigt \6j» 

X I make ufe of this word, as Dr. Stukelty copje£lures this canal to have been 
originally a Ronuim work ; and that another of the fame kind (called the Carf-dike) 
communicated with it, by means of the IVitham^ which began a little below 
Wajhtnhro* three milei from Lincoln^ and was continued through the fens as far as 
FiUrb^rough. Stukelty*% Caraufiwt 129. feq. cjufd. Account of Richard oi Cinn' 
after i 50. 


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miks three quarters, the breadth between dike and dike at the 
top is about fixty feet, at bottom twenty-two : veffels from fif- 
teen to thirty ^^^Bve tuns navigate this canal, and by its means a 
confidcrabk trade in -coals, timber, corn and wool, is carried on. 
In former times, the perfons who had landed pn perty on either 
fide were obliged to feower it whenever it was choaked up, and 
accordingly we find prefcntments were made by juries in fcveral 
fucceeding reigns for that purpofe. Reach 

Lincoln, an antient but ill-built city, much fallen away from 
its former extent. It lies partly on a plain, partly on a very fteep 
hill, on whofe fummit are the cathedral and the ruins of the caftle. 
The firft is a vaft pile of gothic architcfture ; within of matchlefs 
beauty and magnificence : the ornaments are exceflivcly rich, and 
in the fineft gothic tafte ; the pillars light, the centre lofty, and of 
a furprifing grandeur. The windows at the N, and S. ends are very 
antient, but very elegant ; one reprcfcnts a leaf with its fibres, the 
other confifts of a number of fmall circles. There are two other 
antient windows on each fide the great ifle : the others, as I re- 
coiled, are modern. This church was, till of late years, much 
out of repair, but has juft been reftored in a manner that does 
credit to the Chapter. 

The profpe£t from this eminence is very extenfive, but very bar- 
ren of objeds -, a valt flat as far as the eye can reach, confifting of 
plains not the moft fertile, or of fens* and moors : the laft are far 


* The fenty naked as they now appear, were once well wooded. Oaks have 
been found buried in them, which were fixteen yards long, and five in circumfe- 
rence ; fir trees from thirty to thirty- five yards long, and a foot or eighteen inches 

C fquare. 

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Icfs extenfive than they were, many being drained, and will foon 
. become the beft land in the country j but much ftill remains to be 
done. The fens near Revejiy Abby *, eight miles beyond Homcajlk^ 
are of vaft extent ; but ferve for little other purpofe than the rear- 
ing great numbers of geefe, which are the wealth of the fenmen. 
Giiii. During the breeding feafon, thele birds are lodged in the fame 

houfes with the inhabitants, and even in their very bed-chambers : 
in every apartment are three rows of coarfe wicker pens placed one 
above another ; each bird has its feparate lodge divided from the 
other, which it keeps poffeffion of during the time of fitting. A 
perfon, called a Gozzardf^ attends the flock, and twice a day drives 
the whole to water j then brings them back to their habitations, 
helping thofe that live in the upper flories tq their nefts, without 
ever mifplacing a fingle bird. 

The geefe are plucked five times in the year •, the firft plucking 
is at Lady-Day^ for feathers and quills, and the fame is renewed, 
for feathers only, four times more between that and Mcbaelmas. 
The old geefe fubmit quietly to the operation, but the young ones 
are very noify and unruly. I once faw this performed, aqd ob- 
ferved that goflings of fix weeks old were not fpared ; for their tails 
were plucked, as I was told, to habituate them early to what they 

fquare. Thefe trees had not the mark of the ax* bat appeared as if burnt down 
by fire applied to their lower parts. Acorns and fmall nuts have alfo been found 
in great quantities In the fame places. Dugdale on embanking, 141. 

• Rin/ijhy Ahhy was founded 1 142, by W. de Romara^ Earl oijAncQln^ for Cifiir'- 
tlan monks, and granted by H. VIII. an. 50, to Ch. Duke of Suffolk. The founder 
turning monk was buried here. Tanmrf 263. 

f i. e. Goofe-herd. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. if 

were to come to. If the feafon proves cold, numbers of geefe die 
by this barbarous cuftom *. 

Vaft numbers are driven annually to London^ to fupply the 
markets; among them, all the fuperannuated geefe and ganders 
(called here Cagmags) which ferve to fatigue the jaws of the good 
Citizens, who arc fo unfortunate as to meet with them. 

The fen called the IVeft Fen^ is the place where the Ruffs and Few Birdi. 
Reeves refort to in the greateft numbers f ; and many other forts of 
water fowl, which do not require the (helter of reeds or rufhes, 
migrate here to breed ; for this fen is very bare, having been im- 
perfeftly drained by narrow canals, which interfcft it for great 
numbers of miles. Thefe the inhabitants navigate in moft diminu- 
tive Ihallow boats ; they are, in fad, the roads of the country. 

The Eaft Fen is quite in a ftate of nature, and gives a fpecimen 
of the country before the introduftion of drainage : it is a vaft tradt 
of morafs, intermbced with numbers of lakes from half a mile to 
two or three miles in circuit, communicating with each other by 
narrow reedy ftraits : they are very (hallow, none are above four or 
five feet in depth -, but abound with fifli, fuch as Pike, Perch, Ruff, 
Bream, Tench, Rud, Dace, Roach, Burbot, Sticklebacks and Eels. 

It is obfervable, that once in feven or eight years, immenfc ftioals 
of Sticklebacks appear in the Wetland below Spalding^ and attempt 
coming up the river in form of a vaft column. They are fuppofed 
to be the coUefted multitudes wafhed out of the fens by the floods 
of feveral years, and carried into fome deep hole ; when over-charged 

• It was alfo praaifed by the tntienti. CatuSdirum eJiinm veaigal: FilbmtMr 

fUiiu/dam Ucis Us mat9. Plinii lib. x. c. 22. 

t Bn Zo$l. II. No. 192. . , 

C 2 With 

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with numbersf they are obliged to attempt a change of place. 
They move up the river in fuch quantities as to enable a man, who 
was employed in taking them, to earn, for a confiderablc time, four 
(hillings a day, by felling them at a halfpenny per bufhel. They 
were ufed to manure land, and attempts have been made to get oil 
from them. The fen is covered with reeds, the harvcft of the 
neighboring inhabitants, who mow them annually ; for they prove 
a much better thatch than ftraw, and not only cottages, but many 
very good houfes are covered with them. Stares, which during 
winter refort in myriads to rooft in the reeds, are very deftruftive, 
by breaking them down, by the vaft numbers that perch on them. 
The people are therefore very diligent in their attempts to drive 
tiiem away, and are at great expence in powder to free themfelvcs of 
thefe troublefome guefts. I have feen a (lock of reeds harvcfted 
and Hacked worth two or three hundred pounds, which was the 
property of a fingle farmer. 

The birds which inhabit the different fens are very numerous : I 
never met with a finer field for the Zoologift to range in. Befides 
the common Wild-duck, of which an account is given in another 
place*, wild Gcefe, Garganies, Pochards, Shovelers, and Teals^ 
breed here. I have feen in the Eaji Fen a fmall flock of the tufted 
Ducks s but they feemed to make it only a baiting place. The 
Pewit Gulls and black Terns abound; the lad in vaft flocks almoft 
deafen one with their claniors : a few of the great Tcrns,^or Tickets, 
are feen among them. I faw feveral of the great creftcd Grebes on 

* Br. Zoo/. II. No. Zf^ In gcnemU .to avcshI vepetitiaiik tbe re«d«r h rekrttd 
to the Briiijh Zoology, for a more pa^rikular actioaat of tnioMla sUAtMned in tkt« 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 13 

t\itEa/l Fen^ called there Gaunts^ and met with one of their floating 
ncfts with eggs in it. The leflTer crefted Grebe, the black and dufky 
Grebe, and the little Grebe, are alfo inhabitants of the fens ; toge- 
ther with Coots, Water-hens, fpotted Water-hens, Water-rails, 
Ruffs, Redfhanks, Lapwings or Wipes, Red-breaftcd Godwits and 
Whimbrels. The Godwits breed near fVaJhenbrough ; the Whim- 
brels only appear for about a fortnight in May near Spalding^ and 
then quit the country. Oppofite to Foffdyke Wajh^ during fuminer, 
are great numbers oi Avofettas^ called there Telpers^ from their cry : 
they hover over the fportfman's head like the Lapwing, and fly with 
their necks and legs extended. 

Knots are taken in nets along the ftiores near Fojfdyke in great 
numbers during winter -, but they difappear in the fpring. 

The (hort-eared Owl, Br. Zool. L No. 66, vifits the neighborhood 
ci IVaJhenbrattgb along with the Woodcocks, and probably performs 
its migrations with thofe birds, for it is obferved to quit the country 
at the fame time : I have alfo received fpecimens of them from the 
Dsnijb dominions, one of the retreats of the Woodcock. This owl 
is not obferved in this country to perch on trees, but conceals itfelf 
in long old grafsj if diflrurbed, takes a Ihort flight, lights again, and 
keeps ftaring about, during which time its horns are very vifible. 
The farmers are fond of the arrival of thefe birds, as they clear the 
fields of mice, and will even fly in fearch of prey during day, provided 
the weather is cloudy and mifty. 

But the greatefl: curiofity in thefe parts is the vaft Heronry at Heronry. 
Grefi-Hall, fix miles from Spalding. The Herons refort there in 
Fehruary to repair their nefts, fettle there in the fpring to breed, and 


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14 A T O U R 

quit the place during winter. They are numerous as Rooks, and 
their nefts fo crouded together, that myfelf, and the company that 
was with me, counted not lefs than eighty in onefpreading oak. 1 
here had opportunity of detefting my own miftake, and that of other 
Ornithologifts, in making two fpccies of herons ; for I found that 
the crefted Heron was only the male of the other : it made a mod 
beautiful appearance with its fnowy neck and long creft dreaming 
with the wind. The family who owned this place was of the fame 
name with thefe birds, which feems to be the principal inducement 
for preferving them. 

In the time of AScbael Drayton, 

Herejialked the Jiatefy crane ^ as though be marched in war. 

But at prefent this bird is quite unknown in our ifland ; but every 
other fpecies enumerated by that obfervant Poet ftill are found in 
this fenny traft, or its neighborhood. 
Juki 28. Vifited Spalding^ a place very much refembling, in form, neatnefs, 

and fituation,'a Dutch town : the river Wetland paflcs through one of 
the (Ireets, a canal is cut through another, and trees are planted on 
each fide. The church is large, and the fteeple a fpire. The 
churches in general, throughout this low traft, are very handfome ; 
all are built of ftone, which muft have been brought from places 
very remote, along temporary canals j for, in many inftances, the 
quarries lie at left twenty miles diftant. But the edifices were built 
in zealous ages, when the benedidlions or maledictions of the church 
made the people conquer every difficulty that might obftruft thefe 
pious foundations. The abby of Crowland^ feated in the midft of a 



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ihaking fen *, is a curious monument of the infuperable zeal of the 
times It was erefted in ; as the beautiful tower of Bojion church, 
vifiblc from all parts, is a magnificent fpecimen of a fine gothic 

Pafled near the fite of Swine/head Abby^ of which there are not the June 29 
left remains. In the walls of a farm-houfe, built out of the ruins, 
you are Aiewn the figure of a Knight Templar, and told it was the 
monk who poifoned YAngJohn^ a faft denied by our beft hiftorians. 
This abby was founded in 1 134, by Robert deGreJUiy and filled with 
Gftertian monks. 

Returned thro* Lincoln •, went out of town under the Newport- 
Gatey a curious Roman work •, pafled over part of the heath ; changed 
horfes at Spittle^ and at Glanford Bridge 5 dined at the ferry-houfe on 
the banks of the Number ; and after a paflTage of about five miles, 
with a briflc gale, landed at HuUy and reached that night Burton- 
Conftabkj the feat of Mr. Conftabky in that part of Torkjhire called 
Holdemefs ; a rich flat country, but excellent for producing large 
catde, and a good breed of horfes, whofe prices are near doubled 
fincc the French have grown fo fond of the EngUJh kind. 

Made an excurfion to Homfea^ a fmall town on the coaft, remark- 
able only for its mere, a piece of water about two miles long, and 
one broad, famous for its pike and eels ; it is divided from the fea 

* Tbis monaftery was founded by EtbilbaUt king ofMircsa, A. D. 716. The 
ground being too marfhy to admit a weighty building of fione, he m&de a foun- 
datioDy by driving into the ground vaft piles of oak ; and caufed more compad 
earth to be brought iB boats nine miles off to lay on them, and form a more found 



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by a vtry narrow bank^ fb b m much danger of being ibme time or 
other loft. . 

The cliffs on the coaft ofHddemtfs are highland compofed of clay, 
Amber. which falls down in vaft fragments. Quantity of amber is waihed 

out of it by the tides, which the country people pick up and fell : 
it is found fometimes in large maflfes, but I never faw any fo pure 
and clear as that from the Baliic. It is ufually of a pale yellow 
color within, and prettily clouded j the outfidc covered with a thin 
coarfc coat. 
July 2. After riding fome miles over a flat grazing country, pafied through 

the village of Skipfeyj once under the proteftionof a cattle founded 
by Drugon or Drugan^ a valiant FlandrisHj who came over at the 
time of the conqueft* The Conqueror gave him in marriage one of 
his near relations; and as a portion, made him Lord of //ip^y^^. 
Drugon by fome unlucky accident killed his fpoufc : but having his 
wits about him, haftcncd to the King, and informing his Majefty, 
that his Lady and he had a great defire to vifit their native country, 
requefted a fum of ncioney for that purpofe : the Conqueror imme- 
diately fupplied the wants of Drugon -, who had fcarcely embarked, 
when advice was brought from Skipfey of the death of the Lady : 
purfuit was inftantly made, but in vain \ the artful Flandrian evaded 
all attempts to brmg him to juftice *. 

Near this village is a confiderable camp ; but I pafled it too haftily 
to determine, of what nation. 

A few miles farther is Burlington S^uay^ a, fmall town clofe to the 
fea. There is a defign of building a pier, for the proteftion of 

• M. S. at Burton-^Conftabli. 

Ihipping ; 

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Ihipping -, at prefent there is only a large wooden quay, which 
projefts into the water, from which the place takes its name. 
In February 1642, Henrietta^ the fpirited confort of Charles I. 
landed here, with arms and ammunition, from Holland. Batten^ 
a parlement admiral, had in vain tried to intercept her majcfty ; 
but coming foon after into the bay, brutally fired for two hours 
at the houfe where ftie lay, forcing her to take Ihelter, half-drefled, 
in the fields. Nor parlement nor admiral were afhamed of this 
unmanly deed ; but their hiftorian, the moderate JVbitelock^ feems 
to blufti for both, by omitting all mention of the afiair. From 
hence is a fine view of the white cliffs -of Flamborougb-Head^ 
which extends far to the Eaft, and forms one fide of the G^- 
brantuicorum finus portuofus of Ptolemy^ a name derived from the 
Brittjh Gyfr^ on account of the number of goats found there, 
according to the conjefturc of Camden. Perhaps, EwA/^ey®-, 
the- epithet which Ptolenry adds to the bay, is ftill preferved in 
Sureby^ or Sure bay '^, a village, a little north of Burlington ^ay. 
That the Romans had a naval ftation here, is more ftrongly 
confirmed by the road called the Roman Ridge^ and the Dikes^ 
which -go by Malton to Tork^ are vifible in many places,- and 

ended hferef- 

A mile from hence is the town of Burlington. The body of 
the church is large, but the fteeple, by fome accident, has been 
deftroyed, near it is a large gateway, with a noble gothic arch, 
the remains of a priory of black canons, founded by Walter de 

• CamdiMi I. 899. 

t DrMki*% Sift. TorL 34. Confult alfo his map of the Roman roads in Tork- 

^"' D Gant, 

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,8 A T O U R 

Gani^ in the beginning of the reign of Henry I. In that of jR/- 
chord II, in the year 1388, the canons got liberty, of inclofing 
their houfe with ftrong walls, to defend them from the attacks 
of pirates. I cannot help mentioning a proof of the manners 
of the clergy in early times, by relating a complaint of the prior 

^ to Imocent III. againft the archdeacon of Richmond^ who calling 

at this houfe with ninety-feven horfes, twentyone dogs, and three 
hawks, devoured in one hour, tnorc provifion than would have 
lafted the monks a long time. The grievance was redreflcd. 
IViUiam IFode^ the laft prior, was executed for rebellion in 1537. 
At that time, according to £^^i, the revenue was 682/. 131. ^d. 
according to DugdaU^ 547 1. 6 s. i d. 

This coaft of the kingdom is very unfavorable to trees, for, ex- 
cept fome woods in the neighborhood oi Burton-Conftabky there is a 
vaft nakednefs from the Hufnberj as far as the extremity oiCathnefSy 
with a very few exceptions, which fhall be noted in their proper 
July 3. Went to Flamborougb-Head. This was the FUamburg of the 

^''^'heao!'^"' Saxons^ poffibly from the lights made on it to dired the land- 
ing of Iddj who, in 547, joined his countrymen in thefe parts 

% with a large reinforcement from Germany -, and founded the king- 

dom of Northumberland. In the time of Edward the Gonfeffor, 
Flamborough was one of the manors of Harold *, Earl of the 
IVeJl SaxonSy afterwards King of England. On his death, the 
Conqueror gave it to Hugh Lupus j who^ in perpetual alms, beftowed 
it on the monaftery of IVhitby +. 

* DugdMlit Baron. L aK^ f Dugdak, Umqfi. I. ;}• 


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The town is on the north fide; confifts of about one hun- 
dred aud fifty fmall houfcs, entirely inhabited by fifhermcn, fevr 
of whom, as is faid, die in their beds, but meet their fate in 
the element they are fo converfant in. Put myfelf under the 
direftion of JViUiam Camidge^ Cicerone of the place, who con- 
duftcd mc to a little creek at that time covered with fifh, a 
fleet of cobles having juft put in. Went in one of thofe little 
boats to view the Head, coafting it for upwards of two miles. 
The cliffs are <rf a tremendous height, and amazing grandeur ; 
beneath are feveral vaft caverns, fome clofed at the end, others 
are pervious, formed with a natural arch, giving a romantic paffagc 
to the boat, different from that we entered. In fome places the 
rocks are infulated, are of a pyramidal figure, and foar up to a 
vaft height : the bafes of moft are folid, but in fome pierced 
through, and arched •, the color of all thefe rocks is white, from 
the dung of the innumerable flocks of migratory birds, which Its birdi. 
quite cover the face of them, filling every little projeftion, every 
hole that will give them leave to reft -, multitudes were fwim- 
ming about, others fwarmed in the air, and almoft ftunned us 
with the variety of their croaks and fcreams. I obfervred among 
them Corvorants, Shags in fmall flocks. Guillemots, a few Black 
Guillemots very ftiy and wild. Auks, Puffins, Kittiwakes*, and 
Herring Gulls. Landed at the fame place, but before our re- 
turn to Fkmborougb^ vifited Rabin Leitb's hole, a vaft cavern, to 
which there is a narrow paffage from the land fide j it fuddcnly 
rifes to a great height \ the roof is finely arched, and the bottom 

* Called here Pttnli. Br* ZooL No. 150. 

D 2 is 

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July 4. 



is for a confiderable way, formed in broad fteps, rcfembling a great 
but eafy ftair-cafe ; the mouth opens to the fea, and gives light to 
the whole. 

Lay at Hunmandby^ a fmall village above Fih/ Bay, round which 
are fome plantations that thrive tolerably well, and ought to be 
an encouragement to gentlemen to attempt covering thefe naked 

Filey Brig is a ledge of rocks running far into the fea, and oftea 
fatal to fhipping. The bay is fandy, and affords vaft quantities of 
fine fifh, fuch as Turbot, Soles, &c. which during fummer ap- 
proach the (bore, and are eafily taken in a coranion feine or 
dragging- net. 

Set out for Scarborough ; paflcd near the fite of Flixtotiy a hofpital 
founded in the time oi Atbelfian^ to give fhelter to travellers from 
the wolves^ that they Jhould not be devoured by them * •, fo that in thofe 
days this bare trad: muft have been covered with wood,, for thofe 
ravenous animals ever inhabit large forefts. Thefe hofpitia are not 
unfrequent among the Alps-y are either appendages to religious 
houfes, or lupported by voluntary fubfcriptions. On the fpot 
where Flixton (tood is a farm-houfe,^ to this day called the SpitaL 
Houfe, Reach 

Scarborough, a town once ftrongly guarded by a caftle, built 
on the top of a vaft cliff, by IViUiam k Gros, Earl of Torkjhire^ 
Albemarle^ and Holdernefs^ in the reign of Stephen. After the re- 
fumpcion of this, as well as other crown lands alienated by 
that prince, Henry II. rebuilt the fortrefs, then grown ruinous^ 

* Cumdtn^ Brit. Q. 90Z. 


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with greater ftrength and magnificence, inclofing a vaft area. 
From this time it was confidered as the key of this important 
county, and none but perfons of the firft rank were entrufted 
with the cuftody. Its confequence may be evinced from this 
circumftance ; that when King John had granted to his fubjeds 
the Magna Cbarta^ and placed the government in the hands of 
twenty-five Barons, the governor of this caftle was to be approved 
by them, and to receive his orders from them. 

In 1312, Edward 11. in his retreat out of the north before his 
rebellious nobility, left here, as in a place of the greateft fecu- 
rity, his minion Peers Gavejion. It was inftantly beficged, and 
taken by y^mer de Falence^^ Earl of Pembroke -, and the infolent 
favorite^ in a fhort time after, fell a viftim to the rcfentment cf 
the Earl of IVarwick. 

In the reign of Richard II. in 1378, its trade received great 
injury from a combined fleet of Scots^ French^ and Spaniards^ un- 
der the conduft of one Mercery who entered the harbour, and car- 
ried off feveral Ihips. The infult was inftantly revenged by 
Pbilpot^ a gallant alderman of London^ who fitted out a fleet at 
his own charge, purfued the enemy, and not only retook their 
prizes, but made himfelf mafter of the whole fleet. 

Richard III. added ftrength to the place by building a bul- 
wark near the ftiore at the fouth-eaft end of the town j and he 
alfo began to wall in the town*. 

In the religious rebellion, ftyled the Pilgrimage of Grace, in 
the time of Henry VIII. the leader, Robert AJk^ in 1536, laycd 

* L$Und'% Itin» I. 62» • . 


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xlok fiege to the caftle; but #as obliged to defift, after its 
governor Sir Ralph Ewers and his garrifon were reduced for twent7 
days to live on bread and water *. 

I^ ^5 57 J Thomas Stafford^ fecond fon of Lord Stafford^ with 
only thirty-two perfons, came from France^ and furprized the 
fortrefs. ' It appears that they were encouraged to the attempt 
by Henry 11. It was, probably, only the prelude to an inva- 
fion. Stafford publifhed a nianifefto againft the Queen j and ftyled 
himfelf Proteftor of England: but the Earl oi Wefimoreland^ col- 
letting fome forces, (in two days) put an end to his dignity-|-. 

At the beginning of the civil wars, the parlement committed 
this caftle to the care of Sir Hugh Cbolndey^ who foon after re- 
volted to the King. He maintained the place with great fpirit 
for two years. In 1644, he was vigoroufly befieged by Sir John 
Mtldruntj from February till the middle of Afey, when Sir Jobn^ 
in attempting to repel a fally, received a mortal wound. Sir 
Hugh kept poffcflion of it till Jufy 1645, when he furrendercd 
it on terms to Sir Matthew Boynton J. It is at prefent a large 
ruin. In the caftle yard are barracks for about a hundred and 
fifty men, at prefent untenanted by foldiery. 
Convents. Jn this town were three religious houfes and a hofpital. The 

grey friers, or Francifcans began a houfe here about 1240, which 
was enlarged by Edward II. and Roger Molendarius. The black 
friers, ox Dominicans^ had another before the 19th oi Edward I. 
whether founded by Sir Adam Say^ or Henry Earl of Northumberland^ 

• Hirhert's Henry VIIT. 478. f ^/'»i H.. 46. 

X Wbitthckf 83, 133. 146. 147. 163. 


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is doubtful. The white friers, or Carmelites'^ were cftablilhed here 
in 13 19, by Edward IL and the Ciftertians had in the reign of 
King John a cell in this town, dependent on a houfe in France^ 
to which was given the church of St. Mary^ and certain lands, 
till the fuppreffion of the alien-priories ih the reign of Edward 
IV. Leland* defcribes this church as very magnificent; with 
two towers at the weft end, and a great one in the centre. It 
was probably demolilhed in the civil wars, when Sir John AUU 
drum forced the royalifts into the cafUe -, for it lay too near that 
fortrefs to be fuffered to remain entire, to give ihelter to the 
enemy. The prefcnt church (the only one in the town) rofe from 
the ruins of the former. 

The town is large, built in form of a crefcent, on the fides of 
a fteep hill -, from whence the name, which fhews it to have 
exifted in Saxon times, Scaerburgy or the Btarg on a Scar or cliflF* 
Beneath the fouthfide of the caftle, is a large ftone pier (another is 
now building) which fhelters the (hipping belonging to the place. 
It is abfolutely without trade, yet has above ten thoufand inha- 
bitants, moftly failors, and owns above three hundred fail of 
(hips, which are hired out for freight. In time of war govern- 
ment fcldom has lefs than a hundred in pay. 

In 1359, the (hipping of this place was very inconfiderable -, for, 
to the naval armament of that year made by Ednjoard III. Scarborough 
contributed only i (hip and 16 mariners ; when the following 
northern ports fcnt the numbers here recited : 

* * Itin. L 6u 



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24 A T O U R 

Newcaftle — 17 (hips, 314 mariners. 
Barton on the Humber 3 30 

Grimjby — — 11 171 

£?/?(?» — "" '7 36' 

/fo// — — 16 382* 

The range of buildings on the Cliff commands a fine view of 
the caftle, town, and of innumerable Ihipping that are perpe- 
tually pafling backward and forward on their voyages. The 
fpaw f lies at the foot of one the hills, S. of the town ; this 
and the great conveniency of fea-bathing, occafion a vaft refort 
of company during fummer; it is at -that time a place of great 
gayety, for with numbers health is the pretence, but diffipation 
the end. 

The fliore is a fine hard fand, and during low water is the place 
where the company amufe themfelvcs with riding. This is alfo 
the fifh market ; for every day the cobles, or little fifhing boats, 
are drawn on Ihore here, and lie in rows, often quite loaden 
with variety of the bed fifh. There was a filherman on the 9th 
of A%, 1767, brought in atone time, 20 cods, 14 lings, and 8 
holibuts, befides a vaft quantity of leffer fifh, and fold the whole for 
3/. 1 5 J. It is fuperfluouS to repeat what has been before men- 
tioned of the methods of fifhing, being amply defcribed. Vol. III. 
ef the Brilijh Zoology-^ yet it will be far from impertinent to point 

• MS. Hift. of HuJh in Lord Sbelbumii library. 

f The waters are impregnated with a purgative fait (Glauher^^) a fmall quan- 
tity of common fait, and of fteel. There are two wells, the fartheil from the town 
is more purgative, and its tafte more bitter ; the other is more chalybeate^ and its 
tafle more brifk and pungent. D. H. 


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©ut the peculiar advantages of thcfe fcas, and the additional 
benefit this town might experience, by the augmentation of its 
filheries. For this account, and for numberlefs civilities, I think 
myfelf much indebted to Mr. Travis^ furgeon, who communicated 
to me the following Remarks : 

" Scarborough is fituated at the bottom of a bay, formed by 
Whitby rock on the North, and Flamborough-Head on the South ; 
the town is feated direftly oppofite to the centre of the W. end of 
the Dogger bank -, which end (according to Hammond'^ chart of 
the North Sea) lies S. and by W., and N. and by E. ; but by a line 
drawn from Tinmouth caftle, would lead about N. W. and S. E. 
Tho' the Dogger hzn\;. is therefore but i2 leagues from Flamborough- 
Head^ yet it is i6 and a half from Scarborough^ 23 from fVhitly^ 
and 3^ from Tinmouth caftle. The N. fide of the bank ftretches off 
E. N. E. between 30 and 40 leagues, until it almoft joins to the 
Long'Bankj and Jult's Riff. 

" It is to be remarked, that the fifhermen feldom find any Cod, 
Ling, or other round fifh upon the Dogger bank itfelf, but upon 
the floping edges and hollows contiguous to it. The top of the 
bank is covered with a barren fliifting fand, which affords them no 
fubfiftence •, and the water on it, from its fliallownefs, is continually 
fo agitated and broken, as to allow them no time to reft. The 
flat fifh do not fuffer the fame inconvenience there ; for when dif- 
turbed by the motion of the fea, they fhelter thcmfelves in the fand, 
and find variety of fuitable food. It is true, the Dutch fifh upon 
the Dogger bank ; but it is alfo true they take little except Soles, 
Skates, Thornbacks, Plaife, &c. It is in the hollows between the 

E Dogger 


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Dogger and the Well-Banky that the Cod are taken which fupply 
London market. 

" The fhore, except at the entrance of Scarborough pier, and 
ibme few other places, is compofed of covered rocks, which abound 
with Lobfters and Crabs, and many other fhcll fifli ; (no Oyfters) 
thence, after a fpace covered with clean fand, extending in different 
places from one to five or fix miles. The bottom, all the way to 
the edge of the Dogger banks, is a fear ; in fome places very rugged, 
rocky, and cavernous ; in others fmooth, and overgrown with va- 
riety of fubmarine Plants, MoflTes, Corallines, &c. * Some parts 
again are fpread with fand and ftiells ; others, for many leagues in 
length, with foft mud and ooz, furniflicd by the difcharge of the 
Tees and Humber. 

*' Upon an attentive review of the whole, it may be clearly 
inferred, that the fhore along the coaft on the one hand, with the 
edges of the Dogger bank on the other, like the fides of a decoy, 
give adireftion towards our fifhing grounds to the mighty fhoals of 
Cod, and other fifh, which are well known to come annually from 
the Northern ocean into our feas ; and fecondly, that the great va- 
riety of filhing grounds near Scarborough^ extending upwards of i6 
leagues from the fliore, afford fecure retreats and plenty of proper 
food for all the various kinds of fifh, and alfo fuitable places for 
each kind to depofite their fpawn in. 

** The fifhery at Scarborough only employs 105 men, and brings 
in about 5250 1. per annum, a trifle to what it would produce, 

* I met with on the ihorei near Scurhrotiibp iinall fragments of the trtoe red 


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was there a canal from thence to Leeds and Mancbefter \ it is pro- 
bable it would then produce above ten times that fum, employ fome 
tboufands of men, give a comfortable and cheap fubfiftence to our 
manufadurers, keep the markets moderately reafonable, enable our 
manufafturing towns to underfell our rivals, and prevent the hands, 
as is too often the cafe, railing infurreftions, in ever^ year of fcarcity, 
natural or artificial." 

On difcourfing with fome very intelligent fifhermen, I was in- 
formed of a very lingular phaenomenon they annually obferve about 
the fpawning of fifli *. At the diftance of 4 or 5 leagues from 
ihore, during the months of Jufy and Augufiy it is remarked, that 
at the depth of 6 or 7 fathom from the furface, the water appears 
to be faturatcd with a thick jelly, filled with the Ova of fifli, which 
reaches 10 or 12 fathoms deeper: this is known by its adhering to 
the ropes the cobles anchor with when they are fifhing-, for they 
find the firft 6 or 7 fathom of rope free from ipawn, the next 10 or 
12 covered with flimy matter, the remainder again free to the bottom. 
They fwppofe this gelatinous ftuflfto fupply the new-born fry with 
food, and that it is alfo a protedion to the fpawn, as being difagree- 
able to the larger fifti to/wim in. 

There is great variety of fifti brought on fhorc. Bcfides thofc 
defcfibed as Brifijb fifli, were two fpecies of Rays : the Whip-Ray 
has alio been taken here, and another fpecies of Weever ; but thefe 
are fubjefts, more proper to be referred to a Fauna^ than an Itine- 
rary, for a minute defcription. 

* Mr. OJheck obferved the fame in S. Lat. 35, 369 in hit return from Cbiw* 
The feamen call i( the flowering of the water. Vol. II. 72. 

E 2 Left 

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iS A T O U R 

JyLT lo. Left Scarborough^ and paffed over large'moors to Robin Hood^s Baj. 

Alum works. On my road, obferved the vaft mountains of alum ftone, from 
which that fait is thus extrafted: It is firft calcined in great heaps, 
which continue burning by its own phlogifton, after being well fct 
on fire by coals, for fix, ten, or fourteen months, according to the 
fize of the heap, fome being equal to a fmall hill. It is then thrown 
into pits and fteeped in water, to extraft all the faline particlesv 
The liquor is then run into other pits, where the vitriolic falts are 
precipitated by the addition of a folution of xhtfalfoday prepared 
from kelp •, or by the volatile alkali of &dle urine. The fuperfluous 
water being then evaporated duely by boiling in large furnaces^ 
the liquor is fet to cool ; and laftly, is poured into large calks, te 

The alum works in this country are of fome antiquity : they were 
firft difcovered by Sir Thomas Chaloner^ in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth^ who obferving the trees tinged with an unufual color, 
made him fufpicious of its being owing to fome mineral in the neigh- 
borhood. He found out that the ftrata abounded with an alumi- 
nous fait. 

At that time, the Englijh being ftrangers to the method of manage 
ing it, there is a tradition that Sir Thomas was obliged to feduce fome 
workmen from the Pope^s alum-works near Rome^ then the greateft 
f in Europe. If one may judge from the curfe which his Holinefs 

thundered out againft Sir Thomas and the fugitives, he certainly was 
not a little enraged ; for he curfed by the very form that Emulphus^ 
has left us, and not varied a tittle from that moft comprehenfLvc of 

• Vide Triftrum Sbatid^,. 


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The firft pits were near Gijborough^ the feat of the Cbaloners^ who 
ftill flourifti there, notwithftanding his Holinefs's anathema. The 
works were fo valuable as to be deemed a royal mine. Sir Paul 
PindaTy who rented them, payed annually to the King 12,500*1, to 
the Earl of Mulgrave 1,640 1., to Sir JViUiam Pennyman 600 1. -, kept 
800 workmen in pay, and fold his alum at 26 1. per tun. But this 
monopoly was deftroyed on the death of Charles I. and the right 
reftored to the proprietors. 

In thcfe alum rocks are frequently found cornua ammonisy and 
other foflils, lodged in a ftony nodule. Jet is fometimes met with Jit. 

in thin flat pieces, externally of the appearance of wood. Accord- 
ing to SolinuSy Britain was famous for this foflil *. 

The fands near Robin Hood^s village, were covered with filh 
of feveral kinds, and with people who met the cobles in order 
to purchafe their cargo : the place feemed as if a great filh fair 
had been held there •,. fome were carrying off their bargains,, 
others bufied in curing the fifli ; and a little out at fea was a fleet 
of cobles and five-men boats, and others, arriving to difcharge the 
capture of the preceding tides f. There are 36 of the firft be- 
longing to this little place. The houfes here make a grotefque 
appearance,, are fcattered over the face of a ftecp cliffy in a very 
ftrange manner,, and fill every prqjedbing ledge, one above another,. 

• Gacates bieplurimus optmu/qui eft lapis: fi deconm riquiras, mgro gemmeus^ 
finaturam aqua ardtt, oleo reftinguitur : fi ppteftatem attritu caUfa^us applicita detinet, 
atqui fuccinum* C. xxiv. 

+ From hence the fifli arc carried in machines to Derly, Litchfield , Birmingham, . 
and Worcefter : the towns which lie beyond the laft are fupplied from the Weft of ♦ 


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in the fame manner as thofe of the peafants in the rocky parts 
of China. Sand's End^ Runwickj and Staithes^ three other fifh- 
ing-towns on this coaft, are ( as I am told ) built in the fame 

The country through this day's journey was hilly, the coaft 
high. Reach 

Whitby, called by the SaxonSy Streanejhalcb^ or the bay of the 
light-houfe, a large town, oddly fituated between two hills, with a 
narrow channel running through the middle, extending about a mile 
farther up the vale, where it widens, and forms a bay. The two 
parts of the town are joined by a good draw-bridge, for the con- 
veniency of letting the Ihipping pals. From this bridge are often 
taken the viviparous Blenny, whofe back-bone is as green as that 
of the Sea Needle, The river that forms this harbour is the EJkj 
but its waters are very inconfiderable when the tide is out. Here 
is a pretty brilk trade in fhip-building ; but except that, a fmall 
manufacture of fail-cloth, and the hiring of fliips, as at Scarborough^ 
like that town it has fcarce any commerce. It is computed, there 
are about 270 Ihips belonging to this place. Of late, an attempt 
has been made to have a Ihare in tht Greenland fL^^try ; four Ihips 
were fent out, and had very good fuccefs. There are very good 
dry docks towards the end of the harbour ; and at the mouth a moft 
beautiful pier. At this place is the firft falmon-fifhery on the 

In 1394 prodigious fhoals of herrings appeared oflF this port, 
which occafioned a vaft relprt of foreigners, who bought up, 
cured the fifli, and exported then^, to the great injury of tte na- 
tives. To prevent which, the King iffued a proclamation, dircftcd 


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to the BailifFs of St. Hilda^z church, requiring them to put a ftop to 
thofe practices *. 

On the hill above the S. fide of the town is a fine ruin of St. St. Hilda's 
Hilda's church. The fite was given to that faint by Ofwy^ king of Chwrch. 
Northumberland^ about A. D. 657 ; poffibly in confcquence of a 
vow he made to found half a dozen monafterics, and make his 
daughter a nun, Ihould heaven favor his arms. At this place 
was held, before King Q/icjf, the celebrated controverfy about the 
proper feafon for keeping of Eafter. Archbifliop Colman fup- 
ported one opinion from the traditions, which the Britains had 
of the example of St. John the Evangelift -, and fFtlfrid, on the 
contrary drew his arguments from the praftice of St. Petery 
on whom the catholic church was founded, and to whom were 
committed the keys of heaven. 0/wy demanded of Colman^ whe- 
ther this was true ? who confeflcd it was. *' Then,'* fays his 
raajefty, " I will never contradift the Porter of heaven, leaft I 
*' fufFer by his refentment, when I apply for admiflion -f.** St. 
Hilda founded a convent here for men and women, dedicated it 
to St. Peter J and became the firft abbefsj. This eftablifhment 
was ruined by the excurfions of the Danes \ but after the con- 
qucft was rebuilt, and filled with BenediSineSy by William de Percy ^ 
to whom the lordfhip was given by Hugh LupuSy Earl of Chefter^ 
nephew to the Conqueror. In lels enlightened times it was believed 
that not a wild goofe dared to fly over this holy ground, and if it 
ventured, was fure to fall precipitate and perifh in the attempt. 

• Rjmtr's Fadira, VU. 788. f Bede^ Hift. EccL lib. HI. c. 25. ' 

X 0/wj was properly the founder. 


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32 A T O U R 

Went about two miles along the fhore, then turned up into 
the country, a black and dreary moor ; obfervcd on the right a vaft 
artificial mount, or ^umulus^ called Freeburgb Hill. 

At the end of this moor, about three miles from Gijborougby is a 
beautiful view over the remaining part of Torkjhire^ towards Disrr- 
ham^ Hartlepool^ and the mouth of the Tees^ which meanders through 
a very rich traft. The country inftantly affumes a new face ; the 
road lies between moft delightful hills, finely wooded, and the little 
vales between them very fertile : on fome of the hills are the marks 
of the firft alum works, which were difcovered by Sir Thomas 
GisBonovcH. GiSBOROUGH, z, fmall town, plcafantly fituated in a vale, fur- 

rounded at fome diftance by hills, and open on the eaft to the fea, 
which is about five miles diftant. It is certainly a delightful fpot ; 
but I cannot fee the reafon why Camden compares it to Puteolu 
Here was once a priory of the canons of the order of St. Aujlin^ 
founded by Robert de BruSy 1129, after the diffolution granted by 
Edward VI. to the Chaloners: a very beautiful eaft window of the 
church is ftill remaining. This priory was alfo embattled or for- 
tified in 1375, by permiffion oi Edward III. Its revenue, according 
to Speedy vr2isy 12 I. 6j. 6d. according to Dugdaky 628/. ^s. 4d. 
The town has at prefent a good manufafture of fail-cloth. 

The country continues very fine quite to the banks of the Tees 
a confiderable river, wluch divides Torkjhire from the bifhoprick of 
'Durham. After travelling 109 miles in a ftrait line through the 
firft, enter Durhamy crofling the river on a very handfome bridge 
of five arches, the battlements neatly pannellcd with ftone ; and 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 33 

Stockton, lying on the Tees in form of a crefcent. A hand- Stockton. 
fome town •, a corporation by prefcription, governed by a mayor, 
recorder, and fix aldermen-, and is one of the four ward towns 
of the county. The principal ftreet is remarkably fine, being 
165 feet broad i and feveral lefler ftreets run into it at right 
angles. In the middle of the great ftreet are neat fhambles, a 
town-houfe, and large aflcmbly-room. There is befides a large 
fquare, in which is a handfome Doric column thirty-three feet 
high. About a century ago, according to Anderfon^ it had fcarce 
a houfe that was not made of clay and thatch; but is now a 
fiourifliing place, having rofe on the decay of trade at Tarum. 
Its manufafture is a fmall one of fail-cloth ; and great quanti- 
tities of corn, and lead, (from the mineral parts of the country) 
are fent ofi^ from hence by commiflion. As the river does not 
admit of large vcflels as high as the town, thofe commodities 
are fent down to be fhipped about three miles lower. The 
port is a member of that of Newcajlky and has its cuftom- 
houfe and proper officers. The town lies at the diftance of 
fix miles from the bar; and the tide flows above eight miks 
above the bridge. 

Stockton was antiently a chapelry belonging to Norton, which 
by length of time became ruinous, and too fmall for the in- 
creafing inhabitants. In 1710, a new church was begun by 
fubfcription ; in 1712, it was confecrated by Bifliop Crm;; and, 
in 17 1 3, the place, by aft of parlement, was made a diftinft 
parilh from Norton. 

In 172 1, a charity-fchool was begun by voluntary fubfcription, 

F which 

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which fucceeded fo well, t% to m&intain at prefent a mafter, 
miftrcfs, and forty boys and girls. 

CASTit. On the weft fide of the town ftood the caftle, founded (as 

fome fay) by King Stephen ; according to others, by JehH. It 
is reported to have been a ftrong and elegant building, having 
been the fummer refidence of the bilbop of Durham. Tradition 
fays, that King John was entertained here by Bifliop Ptn£iiers\ 
and at this place figned the charter of Newcajlle. Bifhop Fam- 
ham died here, in 1257. Bifhop Kellow improved and made 
great additions to the caftle : and here Bifhop Morton took re- 
fuge, when he fled from the Scots^ in the beginning of the trou* 
bles of Charles I. It was fold by order of parlement, in 1647^ 
for 6165 /., demolifbed, and the materials difpofed of. What 
remained, is at prefent converted into a bam. The demefne 
lands belong to the bifhop, and are kt for 600/. a year. 

Bridgb. In 1762, an a<5t pafTed for building a bridge acrofs ihtTeeSj 

to form a communication with Cleveland^ which was finifhed in 
April 1769. Its breadth is eighteen feet, that of the middle 
arch feventy-two, three inches ; the two next fixty ; the two others 
forty-four. The expence of building it was eight thoufand 

The falmon fifhcry is neglefted here, for none arc taken beyond 
what is neceflary to fupply the country. Smelts come up the 
river in the winter time. 

NoRTOiTt Norton, before mentioned, lies on the way to Durham^ at a fmall 

diftance from Stockton. Here had been an antient collegiate church, 
founded before the year 1227*, for eight prebendaries, or por- 

• Tamur ii^« 


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tionifts, in the patronage of the bifliops of Durhm. The coun- 
try from the Tees to Durham i% flat, very fertile, and much 
inclofed. Towards the weft is a fine view of its highlands. 
Thofe hills are part of that vaft ridge which commences in 
the north, and deeply divide this portion of the kingdom ; 
and on that account are called by Camden the Appennines of 

The approach to Durham is romantic, through a deep hollow, Dvrham. 
cloathcd on each fide with wood. The city is pretty large, but 
the buildings old. Part are on a plain, part on the fide of a 
hill The abby, or cachcdral, and the caftlc, where the Bifhop 
lives, when he rcfides here, arc on the fummit erf a cliff, whofc 
foot is wafhed on two fides by the river Pf^ere. The walks on 
the oppofite banks are very beautiful, and well kept. They are 
cut through the wood, impend over the river, and receive a 
venerable improvement from the caftle and antient cathedral, 
which foar above. 

The laft is very old * •, plain without, and fupported within 
by mafly pillars, deeply engraved with lozenge-like figures, and 
zigzag furrows : others are plain. The fkreen to the choir is 
wood covered with a coarfe carving. The choir neat, but without 

The chapter-houfc fecms very antient, and is in the form of a 
theatre. The cloifters large and handfome. All the monuments 
are defaced, except that of Bi(hop Hatfield. The Prebendal 
houfcs arc very pleafantly fituated, and have a fine view back- 

* BegoQ ia 1093* by Bifliop Wilbam Je Canl^b$^ 

F 2 There 


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36 A TOUR 

There are two handfome bridges over the Were to the walks ; 
and a third covered with houfes, which join the two parts of 
the town. This river produces Salmon, Trout, Roach, Dace, 
Minow, Loche, Bulhead, Sticklebacks, Lamprey, the leffer Lam- 
prey, Eels, Smelt, and Samlet. The laft, before they go off 
to fpawn, are obfcrved to be covered with a white flime : they 
are called here Rack-riders^ becaufe they appear in winter, or 
r bad weather : Rack^ m the Englijh of Shakefpeare^s days, figni- 

fying the driving of the clouds by tempefts, a word (till retained 

That which is now a horfey even with a thought 
The Rack diflimnSf and makes it indiflin^ 

As water is in water. 

Jntottj and Cleopatra^ Ad iv. 

There is no inconfiderable manufafture, at Durham^ of fhalloons, 
tammies, ftripes and callamancoes. I had heard on my road many 
complaints of the ecclefiaftical government this county is fubjeA 
to •, but from the general face of the country, it fcems to thrive 
wonderfully under them. 
July 12. Saw Coken^ the feat of Mr. Car ; a mod: romantic fituation, 

layed out with great judgment : the walks are very extenfive, 
principally along the fides or at the bottom of deep dells, bounded 
with vaft: precipices, finely wooded > and many parts of the rocks 
are planted with vines, which I was told bore well, but late. The 
river IVere winds along the hollows, and forms two very fine 
reaches at the place where you enter thefe walks. Its waters 
are very clear, and its bottom a folid rock. The view towards 
Finchal^Abbt. the ruins of Fincbal-Ahhy is remarkably great j and the walk 


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I N S C O T L A N D- 37 

beneath the cliffs has a magnificent folemnity, a fit retreat for 
its monaftic inhabitants. This was once called the Defert, and 
was the rude fcene of the aufterities of St. Godric^ who carried 
them to the moft fenfelefs extravagance *. A fober mind may even 
at prefent be affefted with horror, at the profpeft from the fummits 
of the cliffs into a darkfome and ftupendous chafm, rendered 
ftill more tremendous by the roaring of the waters over its dif- 
tant bottom. 

PalTed through CbeJler-k-Sireet^ a fmall town, near which is 
LumUy-CaftU^ the feat of the Earl of Scarborough. The tra6t 
from Durham to Newcaftle was very beautiful ; the rifings gen- 
tle, and prettily wooded, and the views agreeable; that on the 
borders remarkably fine, there being, from an eminence not far 
from the capital of Northumberland^ an extenfive view of a rich 

• St. Coilric was born at WaJfolt in Norfolk^ and being an itinerant merchant, 
got acquainted with St. Cutbbert at Earn IJland, He made three pilgrimages to 
yeru/alem ; at length was warned by a vifion to fettle in the defert oiFinchaU He 
Hred an hermitical life there during 63 years, and pradifed unheard-of aufteri- 
ties : he wore an iron fhirt next his (kin, day and night, and wore out three : 
he mingled afhes with the flour he made his bread of; and, led it fhould 
then be too good, kept it three or four months before he ventured to eat it. la 
winter, as well as fummer, he paflied whole nights, up to his chin in water, at his 
devotions. Like St. Antony^ he was often haunted by fiends in various (hapes ; 
fometimes in form of beautiful damfels, fo was vi/ited with evil concupifcence, 
which he cured by rolling naked among thorns and briars : his body grew ulce- 
rated ; but, to encreafe his pain, he poured fait into the wounds : wrought many 
miracles, and died 1170. Britannia /acrat 304. About ten years after his deceafe, 
m J9r]if^/V?ivr priory of thirteen monks was founded there in his honor> by Hugh 
FmJ/ey^ ^\SLo^ of Durham* 


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38 A T O U R , 

country, watered by the coaly Tyne. Go through Gatefieadj cro(i 
the bridge, and enter 
Newcastli. Newcastle, a large town, divided from the fornner by the river, 

and both fides very ftecp : the lower parts very dirty and difagree- 
abk. The fides of the river are inhabited by Keelmen and their 
families, a mutinous race ; for which reafon this town is always 
garrifoned: in the upper parts are fcveral handfomc well-built 

The great bufinefs of the place is the coal trade. The collieries 
lie at different diftances, from five to eighteen miles from the 
river ; and the coal is brought down in waggons along rail roads^ 
and difcharged from covered buildings at the edge of the water 
into the keels or boats that are to convey it on fhipboard. Thdc 
boats are ftrong, clumfy, and round, will carry about 25 tuns 
each ; fometimes are navigated with a fquare fail, but generally 
are worked with two vaft oars. No ftiips of large burthen come 
up as high as NewcaJlU^ but are obliged to lie at Sbieldsy a few 
miles down the river, where ftage coaches go thrice every day 
for the conveniency of paflengcrs. This country is moft re- 
markably populous ; Newcaftle with Gattjhead contains near 30,000 
inhabitants ; and there are at left 400 fail of fhips belonging 
to that town and its port. The effedt of the vaft commerce, 
of this place is very apparent for many miles round ; the coun- 
try is finely cultivated, and bears a moft thriving and opulent 
JuiT 13. Left Ne^cafiU ; the country in general flat ; paffed by a large 

ftone column with three dials on the capital, with feveral fcripture 

texjs on the fides, called here Pig^% Folly, from the founder. 

A few 

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A few miles further is St4mningtm Bridge, a pleafant 
hbrpeiby a fmall town with a neat town-houfe, and a tower for the Morpbtk; 
bell near it. Some attempt was made a few years ago to in- 
troduce the Mdncbefter manufadture, but without fucccfs. Cam- 
den informs us, that the inhabitants reduced their town to aflies, on 
the approach of King John^ A. D. 1216, out of pure hatred to 
their monarch, in order that he might not find any flicker there. 
But the Chronicle of MelroSy p. 190. afligns a more rational caufe, 
by faying that the Barons of the country dcftroyed both their 
own towns and the (landing corn, in order to diftrels the King 
then on his march to punifti their revolt. 

The caftle was feated on a fmall eminence. The remains are Castli* 
little more than the gateway tower. This fortrefs Was built by 
fyilliam Lord Grayftock^ in the year 1358. It appears to have 
been entire in the days of Leland^ and at that time in the pof- 
fcffion of Lord Dacres *, who derived his right from his mar- 
riage with Elizabeth Baronefs of Grayjlock -, and in the time of 
Queen Elizabetby was conveyed into the family of the prefent 
Earl of CarliJUj by the marriage of a daughter of Thomas Lord 
Dacres with Lord H^illiam Howard of Naworth f . 

Between Morpeth and FeltoUy on the right fide of the road, Cockli Towir* 
ftands Cockle Tower^ an antient border-houfe of the larger fize, 
fortified as the fad neccflity of the times required. Mr. Grofe 
tells us, that in the time of Edward I. it belonged to the Ber- 
trams of Mitfordy perfons of much property in this county. 

This place gave birth to WiUiam Turner^ as Dr. Fuller exprefles 

^ LOoMJtlth.YU.ez^ 

i JFa/lfjf n. 299, 


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Alnwick castle. 


it, an excellent Latinifi^ Gr^cian^ Oratour^ and Poet j he might 
have added polemic divine, champion and fufFerer in the proteftant 
caufe, phyfician, and naturalift. His botanic writings are among 
the firft we had, and certainly the bed of them \ and his criti- 
cifms on the birds of Ariftotle and Pliny zrc very judicious. 
He was the firft who flung any light on thofe fubjefts in our 
ifland •, therefore clames from a naturalift this tribute to his 
memory *. 

FeUon^ a pleafant village on the Coquet^ which, fome few miles 
lower, difcharges itfclf into the fea, oppofite to a fmall ifle of 
the fame name, remarkable for the multitudes of water-fowl 
that refort there to breed. At Felton^ the Barons of Nortbum- 
berland did homage to Alexander II. King oi Scotland^ in 12 16, 
in the reign o£ King John -f. Coquet ifland was a place of 
arms for the royal party in the time of Charles I. but was 
taken by the Scots^ in 1643, with much booty of ammunition 
and cattle. 

Near Felton^ I had a diftant view of Warkwortb caftle, in old 
times the feat of the Claverings^ by defcent from Roger Fitz^ 
Richard^ to whom it was granted by Henry II. J Mr. Grofe'^ 
elegant defign of it makes me regret I did not take a nearer 

At Alnwicky a fmall town, the traveller is difappointed with 
the fituation and environs of the caftle, the refidence of the P^. 
«>/, the antient Earls of Northumberland. You look in vain for 

• He was born in the reign of Henty WILL died in 1568. 
t IVallss, 11. 356. X Idem, 351. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 41 

any marks cf the grandeur of the feudal age 5 for trophies won 
by a family eminent in our annals for military prowefs and 
deeds of chivalry; for halls hung with helms and hauberks, 
or with the fpoils of the chace •, for extenfive forefts and ve- 
nerable oak«. You look in vain for the helmet on the tower, 
the antient fignal of hofpitality to the traveller, or for the grey- 
headed porter to conduft him to the hall of entertainment. The 
numerous train, whofc countenances gave welcome to him on his 
way are now no more ; and inftead of the difintercftcd ulher of 
the old times, he is attended by a vakt eager to receive the fees of 

There 13 vaft grandeur m the appearance of the outfide of the 
caftle -, the towers magnificent, but injured by the numbers of rude 
ftatues crouded on the battlements. The apartments are large, 
and lately finifhed in the gothic ftyle with a mod incompatible 
clecrance. The gardens are equally inconfiftent •, trim to the 
higheft degree, and more adapted to a villa near London, than the 
antient feat of a great Baron. In a word, nothing, excepting the 
numbers of uninduftrious poor that fwarm at the gate, excites ^ 

any one idea of its former circumftances. 

IViUiam ^yfon, a noble Saxon, Baron of Alnwick, fell on the 
fide of Harold at the battle of Hajlings. The Conqueror be- 
llowed his daughter and fortune on Ivo de Vefci. In 13 10, a 
natural fon of one of his defendants was left under the guar- 
dianfliip of jintony Beke^ Bifhop of Durham, who betrayed his 
truft, and fold this barony to Henry Lord Percy. The caftle 
underwent two memorable fieges. In 1093, by Malcolm III. of 
Scotland, who, with his fon Edward, loft their lives before it: 

G and 

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4t A TOUR 

and in 1174, WiUiaml. after a fruitlels fiege, was defeated and 
taken prifoner near the fame place. 

The abby lay a little north of the tow;n. Nothing is left 
but the fine fquare gateway. It was founded by Eujiace FHzr- 
John J in 1147, for Premonftratenjian canons*, and at the diffo- 
lution fupported thirteen, whofe revenues were about 190 /. a 

A ftagc further is Belford^ the feat of Abraham Dixon^ Efq; a 
modern houfe ; the front has a mofl beautiful fimplicity in it : the 
grounds improved as far as the art of hulbandry can reach ; the 
plantations large and flourifhing : a new and neat town, inftead of 
the former wretched cottages •, and an induftrious race, inftead of 
an idle poor, at prefent fill the eftate. 
Bamboroucr On an eminence on the fea-coaft, about four miles from Belford^ 

Is the very antient caftle of Bamborough^ founded by Ida^ firfl: 
king of the Northumbrians^ A. D. 548. It was called by the 
Saxons^ Bebbanburh-Vy in honor of Bebba^ Ida^s queen. It was at 
firJft furrounded with a wooden fence, and afterwards with a 
wall. It had been of great ftrength ; the hill it is founded on 
is exceflively fteep on all fides, and acceflible only by flights of 
fteps on the fouth-eaft. The ruins are ftill confiderable, but 
many of them now filled with fand, caught up by the winds 
which rage here with great violence, and carried to very diftant 
places. The remains of a great hall are very fingular j it had 
been warmed by two fire-places of a vaft fize, and from the 
top of every window ran a flue, like that of a chimney, which . 

• Tamtirf 393, f Saxon Cir. 19. 



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leached the fummits of the battlements. Thefe flues feem de- 
figned as fo many fupernumerary chimnies, to give vent to the 
fmokc that the immenfc fires of thofe hofpitable times filled the 
rooms with : halls fmoky, but filled with good cheer, were in thofe 
days thought no inconvenience. Thus my brave countryman 
Howd ap Rys^ when his enemies had fired his houfe about his 
ears, told his people to rife and defend themfclvcs like men, 
for (hame, for be bad knowne tbere as greate a fmoake in tbat ball 
i^pon a Cbriftmas even *. 

Bambortnigb village is now very inconfiderable. It once was 
a royal borough, and fent two members : it was even honored 
with the name of a Ihire, which gave name to a large tradt 
extending fouthward. It had alfo three religious foundations : 
a houfe of friers preachers founded by Henry III. a cell of ca- 
nons regular of St. Auftin\ and a hofpital. 

This cattle, and the manor belonging to it, was once the pro- Bf. Crbw*! 
perty of the Forjlers \ but (on the forfeiture of Tbomas Forfier^ 
Efq-, in 17 15) purchafed by Lord Cr«e;, Bifhop of D«ri&^i», and 
with other confiderable eftates, left vetted in Truttees, to be ap- 
plied to unconfined charitable ufes. Three of thefe Truttees are 
a majority •, one of them makes this place his refidence, and 
Wcfles the coatt by his judicious and humane application of the 
Prelate's generous bequctt. He has repaired and rendered habit- 
able the great Norman fquare tower : the part referved for him- 
fclf and family is a large hall and a few fmaller apartments \ 
but the reft of the fpacious edifice is allotted for purpofes which 

• Bift. GvinHrfmilj^ 118. 

G 2 make 



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A T O U R 

make the heart to glow with joy when thought of. The upper 
part is an ample granary -, from . whence corn is difpenced to 
the poor without diftinftion, even in the deareft time, at the 
rate of four fhiiiings a bufhel \ and the diftrefled for many 
miles round, often experience the conveniency erf" this bene- 

Other apartments are fitted up for the reception of fhipwrecked 
failors ; and bedding is provided for thirty, (hould fuch a number 
happen to be call on (hore at the fame time. A conftant patrole 
is kept every ftormy night alohg this tempeftuous coaft, for above 
eight miles, the length of the manor, by which means numbers of 
lives have been preferved. Many poor wretches are often found 
on the fhorc in a Itate of inlenfibility; but by timely relief, are foon 
brought to themfelves. 

It often happens, that (hips ftrike in fuch a manner on the 
rocks as to be capable of relief, in cafe numbers of people 
could be fuddcnly aflcmbled : for that purpole a cannon * is 
fixed on the top of the tower, which is fired once, if the acci- 
dent happens in fuch a quarter ; twice, if in another -, and thrice^ 
if in fuch a place. By thefe fignals the country people are direfted 
to the fpot they are to fly to ; and by this means, frequently pre- 
ferve not only the crew, but even the veflcl ; for machines of diflfe- 
rent kinds are always in readinefs to heave (hips out of their 
perilous fituatioh. 

In a word, all the fchemes of this worthy Truftee have a 

^ Once belonging to a Dufcb frigate of 40 guns ; which> with all the crew, wa» 
loft oppoiite to the caftle about fixty years ago. 


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Tn S C O T L A N D. 45 

humane and ufeful tendency : he feems as if fcledted from his 
brethren for the fame purpofes as Spenfer tells us the firft of 
his fevcn Bead/mm in the houfc of holineffe was. 

The firft of them, that eldeft was and beft. 

Of all the houfe had charge and goyernment» 

As guardian and fteward of the reft : 

His ofice'wat to give eatertainement 

And lodging anto all that came and went : 

Not unto fuch as conld him feaft againe 

And doubly quite for that he on them fpent ; 

But fuch as want of harbour did conftraine; 
Thofe, for God's fake, his dewty was to entertaine *. 

Oppofite to Batnborougb lie the Farn iflands, which form rvvo Fark IsLin 
groupes of little ifles and rocks to the number of feventeen, but 
"at low water the points of others appear above the furface ; 
they all are diftinguiflied by particular names. The neareft ifle 
to the fliore is that called the Houfe IJkndy which lies exadly 
one mile 68 chains from the coaft : the moft diftant is about 
feven or eight miles. They arc rented for 16/. per annum: their 
produce is Kelp, fome few Feathers, and a few Seals, which the 
tenant watches and flioots for the fake of the oil and (kins. Some 
of them yield a little grafs, and ferve to feed a cow or two, 
which the people are defperate enough to tranfport over in their 
litde boats. 

Vifitcd thefe iflands in a coble, a fafe but feemingly hazardous Jui«y x5» 

fpecies of boat, long, narrow, and flat-bottomed, which is capable 

• The Rev. Thomas Bbarp$^ B. D. 


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46 A T O U R 

of going thro* a high fca, dancing like a cork on the fummits of 
the waves. 

Touched at the rock called the Meg^ whitened with the dung of 
Corvorants which almoft covered it ; their nefts were large, made 
of tang, and feceffively foetid. 

Rowed next to the Pinnacles^ an ifland in the fartheft groupe ; 
fo called from fome vaft columnar rocks at the fouth end, even at 
their fides, and flat at their tops, and entirely covered with Guille- 
mots and Shags : the fowlers pafs from one to the other of thefe 
columns by means of a narrow board, which they place from top to 
top, forming a narrow bridge, over fuch a horrid gap that the very 
fight of it ftrikes one with horror. 
Eider Ducics. Landed at a fmall ifland, where we found the female Eider 

ducks* at that time fitting: the lower part of their neft:s was 
made of fea plants ; the upper part was formed of the down 
. which they pull ofi^ their own breafts, in which the eggs were fur- 
rounded and warmly bedded: in fome were three, in others five 
eggs, of a large fize, and pale olive color, as fmooth and gloflfy 
as if varniflied over. The neft:s are built on the beach, among the 
loofe pebbles, not far from the water. The Ducks fit very clofe^ 
nor will they rife till you almofl: tread on them. The Drakes 
feparate themfelves from the females during the breeding feafon. 
We robbed a few of their nefla of the down, and after carefully 
feparating it from the tang, found that the down of one neft 
weighed only three quarters of an ounce, but was fo elaftic 

* Vide Br. ZooL II. No. 271. I have been informed that they alfo breed oa 
Jiui-Colm, in the Firth of Forth. 


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a& to fill the crown of the largcft hat. The people of this 
country call thefe St. Culbterl's Ducks, from the faint of the 
iflands -f". 
Bcfidcs thefe birds, I obferved the following : 

Puffins, called here Tom Noddies^ 

Auks, here Shouts^ 


Black Guillemots, 

Little Auks, 

Shiel Ducks, 



Black and white Gulls, 

Brown and white Gulls, 

Herring Gulls, which I was told fed fometimcs on eggs 
of other birds. 

Common Gulls, here Annets^ 

Kittiwakes, or Tarrocks, 

Pewit Gulls, / 

Great Terns, 

Sea Pies, 

Sea Larks, here BrokefSj 

Jackdaws, which breed in rabbet-holes. 

Rock Pidgeons, 

Rock Larks. 

* I moft here acknowlege my obligations to yofipb Bsnisf Efq; who, previoat 
to hit circamnavigationy liberally permitted my artift to take copies of his valuable 
collcAioB of Zoologic drawings ; amoogft others> thofe of the £/Vir Docks. 


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48 A T O U R 

The Terns were fo numerous, that in fome places it was difficult 
to tread without crufliing fome of the eggs. 

The laft ifle I vifited was the Houfe IJlandy the fequeftered ipot 
where St. Cuthbert pafled the two laft years of his life. Here was • 
afterwards eftablilhed a priory of Benedi£lines for fix or eight Monks 
fubordinate to Durham. A fquare tower, the remains of a church, 
and fome other buildings, are to be feen there ftill -, and a ftone 
coffin, which, it is pretended, was that of St. Ctabbert. At the 
north end of the ifle is a deep chafm, from the top to the bottom 
of the rock, communicating to the fea, through which, in tem- 
peftuous weather, the water is forced with vaft violence and noife, 
and forms a fine jet d^eau of fixty feet high : it is called by the 
inhabitants of the oppofite coaft the Churn. 

Reached fliore through a moft turbulent rippling, occafioned 
by the fierce current of the tides between the iflands and the 
July 17. Purfued my journey northward. Saw at a diftance the Cheviot 

hills ; on which, I was informed, the green Plovers breed ; and 
that, during winter, flocks innumerable of the great Bramblings, 
or Snow-flakes appear j the moft fouthern place of their migration, 
in large companies. 

The country almoft woodlefs, there being but one wood of any 
confequence between Belford and Berwick. Saw on the left another 
antient tower, which fliewed the charafter of the times, when it was 
unhappily neceflary, on thefe borders, for every houfe to be a 

On the right, had a view of the fea, and, not remote from the 
land, of Undesfamy or Holy Ifland, once an epifcopal feat, after- 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 49 

wards tranflated to Durham. On it are the ruins of a caftle 
and a church. Mr. Grofe has given an entertaining and ample 
hiftory of the place -, and has informed me, that the ruins are 
fine remains of the Saxon miafly architecture. Its firft bifhop 
was jlidan in 635. In fome parts of the ifland are abundance 
of Entrocbiy which are called by the country people St. Cuibbert^% 

After a few miles riding, have a full view of Berwick^ and the 
river ^weed winding weftward for a confiderable way up the 
country ; but its banks were without any particular charms *^ 
being almoft woodlefs. The river is broad, and has over it a 
s. bridge of fixteen very handfome arches, efpecially two next the 

Berwick is fortified in the modern way ; but is much contrafled Berwick. 
in its extent to what it was formerly ; the old caftle and works 
now lying at fome diftance beyond the prefent ramparts. The 
barracks are large, and confift of a center and two wings. On the 
ceffion of this place, as one of the fecurities for the payment 
of the ranfom of tVilliam I. of Scotland^ (according to the Poly^ 
cbronicm of Durham^ quoted by Camden) the caftle (now a ruin) 
was built by Henry II. That politic prince knew the impor- 
tance of this key to the two kingdoms. I imagine it had been 
little underftood before the reign of his illuftrious prifoner : for 
about feventy years preceding, Edgar^ one of his predeceflbrs, 
had prefented this place, with the lands of Coldingbanty to the 

* Tbe beautiful -banks of the T*wetd verify the old fong from Melros to 

H abby 

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$6 A T O U R 

abby of Durham *. From the time o£ its ceflion to the Scots 
by Richard I. it for near three centuries became an objed of 
contention between the two nations : but in 1482, the lafl: 
year of Edward IV. ^as finally wrefted from Scotland. By a 
convention between Edward VI. and the Queen Regent f, it 
was declared a free town, if io it could be called, while the 
garrifon and caftle re^Tiained in the power of the Englijh. James I. 
of England confirmed to it tlie privileges granted to it by Ed- 
ward IV. It remained a place independent of both kingdoms, 
under its proper jurifdiftion, till 1747, when legiflaturc annexed 
it to England. The lands belonging to it, or what are called 
Berwick Bounds^ are about 8000 acres. 

• The religious had five convents, all founded by the Scottijh mo- 
Jiarchs. Here were Matburines^ Dominicans^ and Prancijcans^ and twa 
nunneries, one of BenediSlines^ another of Cifiertians J. The church 
was built by Cromwell and, according to the fpirit of the builder 
without a fteeple. Even in Northumberland^ (towards the bor- 
ders) the fteeples grow lefs and lefs, and as it were forewarned 
the traveller that he was fpeedily to take leave of cpifcopacy. 
The town-houfe has a large and handfome modem tower to it : the 
ftreets in general are narrow and bad, except that in which the town- 
houfe ftands. 

Abundance of wool is exported from this town : eggs in 
vaft abundance collefted through all the country, almoft as 
far as Carlijie : they are packed up in boxes, with the thick 

• Anierfon'i t>ipldm. No. IV. f ^mr. XV. 265^ 

X Kiith^ 243. 270. 274. 280. 281. 


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I N S C Q T L A N D. 5t 

end downwards, and are ieat to Lonim for the ufe of fugar 

The falmon fi&crie^ here are very confiderable, and likewife Salmon Fiihery. 
bring in vaft fums 5 they lie on each fide the river, and are 
all private property, except thofe belonging to the Dean and Chap- 
ter of Durham^ which, in rent and tythe of fifh, bring in 450 1. 
fer ann.y for all the other fifheries are liable to tythe. The 
common rents of thofe are 50 K a year, for which tenants 
have as inuch fliore as ferves to launch out and draw their 
nets on fliore: the limits of each are ftaked ; and I obferved 
that the fifliers never failed going as near as poffible to their 
neighbor's limits. One man goes off in a fmall flat-bottomed 
boat, fquare at one end, and taking as large a circuit as his 
net admits, brings it on fliore at the extremity of his boundary, 
where others aflift in landing it. The beft fifliery is on the 
fouth fide* : very fine falmon .trout are often taken here, which 
come up to fpawn from the fea, and return in the fame man- 
ner as the falmon do. The chief import is timber from Nor^ 
way and the Baltic. 

• For a fuller ^iccount of thi» fifliery, vide Britijh Zoology ^ IIL No. 143. 
To it may alfo be added, that in the middle of the river, not a mile weft of the 
town, is a large (lone, on which a man is placed, to obferve what is called 
the rtcA of the falmon coming up. 

H 2 Almoft 

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Almoft immediately on leaving Berwick^ enter 


in the Ihire of Mercb^ or Mers *. A little way from Berwick^ 
on the weft, is Halydon hill, famous for the overthrow of the 
Scots under the regent DouglaSy by Edward III. on the attempt 
of the former to raife the fiege of the town. A cruel adlion 
blafted the laurels of the conqueror : SetoHy the deputy gover- 
nor -f*, ftipulated to furrender in fifteen days, if not relieved in 
that time, and gave his fon as hoftage for the performance. 
The time elapfed ; Seton refufed to execute the agreement, and 
with a Roman unfeelingnefs beheld the unhappy youth hung he- 
fore the walls. 

The entrance into Scotland has a very unpromifing look ; for 
it wanted, for fome miles, the cultivation of the parts more dif- 
tant from England : but the borders were neceflarily neglefted \ 
for, till the acceflion of James VI. and even long after, the na- 
tional enmity was kept up, and the borderers of both countries 
dilcouraged from improvements by the barbarous inroads of 
each nation. This inattention to agriculture continued till late- 
ly ; but on reaching the fmall village of Eytown^ the fcene was 
greatly altered ; the wretched cottages, or rather hovels of the 

* Boitbitts fays, that in his time buftards were found in this county ; bat 
they are now extirpated : the hidorian calls them Guftarda. De/c. Scot, xiii. 

t Kettb^ the Governor, having a little before left the place, in order to excite 
JrcbibaU Douglas ^ Regent ofScotlandf to attempt to raife the fiege. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 53 

country, were vanifhing ; good comfortable houfes arife in their 
ftead ; the lands are inclofing, and yield very good barley, 
oats, and clover ; the banks are planting : I fpeak in the prefent 
tcnfe ; for there is ftill a mixture of the old negligence left 
amidft the recent improvements, which look like the works of a 
new colony, in a wretched impoverifhed country. 

Soon after the country relapfes ; no arable land is feen •, but 
for four or five miles fucceeds the black joylefs heathy moor of 
Coldingbam : happily, this is the whole fpecimen that remains of Coldikohaii. 
the many miles, which, not many years ago, were in the fame 
dreary unprofitable ftate. Near this was the convent of that name 
immortalized by the heroifm of its Nuns ; who, to preferve them- 
felves inviolate from the Danes^ cut off their lips and nofes ; and 
thus rendering themfelves objcfts of horror, were, in 870, with 
their abbefs £^^j, burnt in the monaftery by the difappointed 
favages. In 1216, it was burnt again by King John, in an in- 
road little lefs cruel. 

This nunnery was the oldeft in Scotland. For in this place the 
virgin-wife, Etheldreddy took the veil in 670 : But by the antient 
name, Coludum*^ it fhould feem that it had before been inha- 
bited by the religious called Culdees. After its deftrudion by 
the Danes J it lay deferted till the year 1098, when Edgar founded 
on its fite a priory of BenediHineSj in honor of St. Cuthbert j and 
beftowed it on the monks of Durham^ with all lands, waters, 
wrecks, &c.+ 

• Side, lib. IV. c. 19. t ^ndir/m'% Dipl No. IV* 


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54 A T O U R 

At the end erf" the moor canrie at once in fight of the Fhfh • 
ef Fortbj the Boderia of Ptokmf ; a moft extenfive jM^ofpeft of that 
great arm of the fca, of the rich country of Eaft LotkioHy the Baft 
IJU \ and at a diftance the ifle of May^ the co^ erf the county of 
Fife^ and the country as far as Mmtrofe. 

After going down a long defcent, dine at OU CamiuSy at a mean 
houfe, in a poor village ; where I believe the Lord of the foil is 
often execrated by the weary traveller, for not enabling the tenant 
to furnifh more comfortable accommodations, in fo conMerabfe a 

The country becomes now extremely fine ; bounded at a dif- 
tance, on one fide, by hills, on the other, by the fea : the in- 
tervening fpace is as rich a traft of corn land as I ever faw ; 
[ for Eq/t Lothian is the Northamptonjhire of North Britain: the 

land is in many places manured with fea tang; but I was in- 
formed, that the barley produced from it is much lighter than 
barley from other manure. 

On the fide of the hills, on the left, is Sir John Hall's^ oiDunglas^ 
a fine fituation, with beautiful plantations. Pafs by Broxmoutb^ a 
large houfe of the Duke of Roxborough^ in a low fpot, with great 
woods furrounding it. Reach 


• Bodctria of Tacitus^ who defcribes the two Firths of Clyde and Fortb^ and the 
intervening Ifthmus, with much propriety ; fpeaking of the fourth fummer Agri^ 
tola had pa/Ted in BHtain^ and how convenient he found this narrow tra£l for (hut- 
ting out the enemy by his fortrefTes, he fays. Nam Glota (Firth of Clyde J et Bodo* 
trim, di*vtrji maris afiu per immen/um reveQl^ angufto terrarum /fatio dirimumtur. 
Vit. Agr. 

Dunbar : 

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DuNSAH : the chief ftreet broad and handfome ; the hoirics buUt Duitbar. 
of ftone i as is the cafe with moil of the towns in Scotland. There 
are fomc (hips fent annually from this place to CreenlaTtd^ and the 
exports of corn are pretty confidcrable. The harbour is fafe, but 
fmall ; Its entrance narrow, and bounded by two rocks. Between 
the harbour and the caftle is a very furprifing ftratum of ftone, in Columnar 
feme refpefts refembling that of the Giarti's Caufeway in Inland: it Rocks. 

confifts of great columns of a red grit ftone, either triangular, 
quadrangular, pentangular, or hexangular ; their diameter from one 
to two feet, their length at low water thirty, dippmg or inclining a 
little to the fouth. 

They are jointed but not fo regularly, or fo plainly, as thofc 
that form the Gianfs Caufivjoy. The furtace of fcvcral that had 
been torn off, appear as a pavement of numbers of convex ends, 
probably anfwering to the concave bottoms of other joints once 
incumbent on them. The fpace between the columns was filled 
with thin fepta of red and white fparry matter, and veins of the 
fame pervaded the columns tranfverfely. This range of columns 
faces the north, with a point to the eaft, and extends in front 
about two hundred yards. The breadth is inconfiderable : the reft 
of the rock degenerates into fhapelefs mafles of the fame fort of 
ftone, irregularly divided by thick fepta. This rock is called by 
the people of Dunbar ^ the Ifle. 

Oppofite are the ruins of the caftle, feated on a rock above the 
fea ; underneath one. part is a vaft cavern, compofed of a black and 
red ftone, which gives it a moft infeirnal appearance -, a fit repre- 
fentation of the pit oi Acherony and wanted only to be peopled with 
witches to make the fcene complete ; it appears to have been the 



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5« A T O U R 

dungeon, there being a formed paffage from above, where the poor 
prifoners might have been let down, according to the barbarous 
cuftom of war in early days. There are in fome parts, where the 
rock did not clofe, the remains of walls, for the openings are only 
natural fiflures ; but the founders of the caftle taking advantage of 
this cavity, adding a little art to it, rendered it a moft complete and 
fecure prifon. 

On the other fide are two natural arches, through which the tide 
flowed ; under one was a fragment of wall, where there fcems to 
have been a portal for the admiflion of men or provifions from fea: 
through which it is probable that Alexander Ramfay^ in a ftormy 
night, reinforced the garrifon, in fpite of the fleet which lay before 
the place, when clofely beCeged by the Englijh^ in 1337, and gallantly 
defended for nineteen weeks by that heroine black Agnes^ Counttfs 
Qi March*. 

Through one of thefe arches was a moft pidurefque view of the 
Bafs IJle^ with the fun fetting in full fplendor ; through the other of 
theik&y ifland, gilt by its beams. 

Over the ruins of a window were the three legs, or arms of the 
Ifle of Mariy a lion rampant, and a St. Andrew^ crofs. 

In the church is the magnificent monument of Sir George Hume^ 

Earl of Dunbar^ the worthieft and beft Scotch Minifter oi James VI. 

till he chofe his favorites for their perfonal, inftead of their intel- 

• leftual accompliflimenu : moderate, prudent, and fuccefsfull in 

• Buchanan, lib. ix. c. 25. The Englijh were obliged to defift from their enter- 
prize. Agnes was elded daughter of Sir Thomas Randal, of Stradonjun, Earl of 
Murray^ and nephew to Robert Bruce. She was called black jinnes, fays Robert 
Littde/ay, becaafe ibe v^as black-fldoned. 


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he management of the Scotch affairs : and, as Spot/wood remarks. 
a man of deep wit, few words, and in his Majefty's fervice 
no lefs faithful! than fortunate : the moft difficile affairs he 
compaffed without any noifc j and never returned when he was 
employed without the work performed that he was fcnt to 
do :' to his honor, he recommended the temperate, firm, and 
honed Abbot to the fee of Canterbury ^ and by his affiftance gave 
peace to the Church of Scotland^ too foon interrupted by their 
deaths. Dunbar's merit is evident -, for the weakneffes and the in- 
famy of his Matter's reign did not commence during the period of 
his power. 

The monument is a large and beautiful ftrufture of marble, 
decorated with arms, figures, and fluted pillars. The Earl is re- 
prcfented in armour, kneeling ; with a cloak hanging loofely on 
him. -The infcription imports no more than his titles and the day 
of his. death, January 29ch, i6io. 

Near this town were fought two battles fatal to the Scots. 
The firft in 1296 ; when the Earls of Surrey and IVarwick^ Ge- 
nerals o{ Edward I. defeated the army of Batiol^ took the caftle, 
and delivered the nobility they found in it to the Englijh 
monarch, who, with his ufual cruelty, devoted them all to 

The other was the celebrated viftory of Cromwely in 1650 j 
when the covenanting army chofe rather to fight under the di- 
reftion of the Minifters than the command of their Generals : 
and the event was correfpondent. Thefe falfe prophets gave the 
troops affurance of viftory •, and many of them fell in the fight 
with the lying fpirit in their mouths. Crotnwel had the appearance 

I of 


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58 A T O U R 

of cnthufiafm 5 they the. reality ; for when the artful ufurper 
faw their troops defcend from the heights from whcrrce they 
might without a blow have ftarved the whole Englijh army, he^ 
with a well-founded confidence, exclamed. The Lord hath 
DELIVERED THEM INTO OUR HANDS. Cromwcl at that inftant was 
in the fituation of Hannibal before the battle, of Cannae. The 
exultation of thfe Carthaginian was the fame, delivered jndeed by 
his hiftorian with greater eloquence ♦. 

But the caftle has been the fcene of very different tranfaftions* 
In 1567 it was in pofleflion of the infamous Earl Bothwellj wha 
here committed the fimulated outrage on the perfon of the fair 
Mary Stuart : (he certainly feems to have had forcknowlege of 
the violence j and the affront fhe fuftained, was but a pignus 
dlreptum tnale pertinad. Here alfo the Earl retreated, after being 
given up by his miftrefs at the capitulation of Carberry hill ;. 
and from hence he took his departure for his long, but merited 

In this town was a convent of Mathurines^ founded by Patrick 
Earl of Dunbar and March j in 1218 j and another of Carmelites 
or white friers, in 1263. 
July i8. Rode within fight of Tantallon caflle, now a wretched ruin .. 

once the feat of the powerful Archibald Douglas^ Earl of Angus^ 
which for fome time refilled all the efforts of James V. to fub- 
due it. 
Bass Isle* A little further, about a mile from the Ihore, lies the Bafs 

filand, or rather rock, of a moft ftupendous height ; on the 

• Ptfybius^ lib. m. C 23^ 


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LOCH leve:n' castle 


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fouth fide the top appears of a conic (hape, but the other over- 
hangs the fea in a moft tremendous manner. The caftfc, which 
was once the date prifon of Scotland^ is now negleded : it lies 
clofe to the edge of the precipice, facing the little village of 
Caftkton \ where I took boat, in order to vifit thi^ fingular fpot ; 
but the weather proved unfavorable ; the wind blew fo frelh, and 
the waves ran fo high, that it was impoffible t^o attempt landing ; 
for even in calmer weather it cannot be done without hazard, there 
being a llec|) rock to afcend, and commonly a great fwell, which 
often removes the boat, while you are fcaling the precipice \ fo, in 
cafe of a falfe ftep, there is the chance of falling into a water almoft 

Various forts of water fowl repair annually to this rock to 
breed -, but none in greater numbers than the Gmnasy or Soland Garnits. 
geefe, multitudes of which were then fitting on their nefts near 
the floping part of the ifle, and others flying over our boat : 
it is not permitted to flioot at them, the place being farmed 
principally on account of the profit arifing from the fale of 
the young of thefe birds, and of the Kittiwake^ a fpecies of 
gull, fo called from its cry. The firfl: are fold at Edinburgh * 
for twenty-pence apiece, and ferved up roafted a little before 

There is to be fold, by John Watson, Jan. at his Stand at the Poultry, 
Edinburgh, all lawful days in the week, wind and weather ferving, good and frefli 
Solan Geefe. Any who have occafion for the fame may have them at reafonable 

Jug. 5. 1768. , Edinburgh Advirtisbr. 

1 1 dinner. 


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Prbston Pans. 

Battlb op 



dinner. This is the only kind of provifion whofe price has 
not been advanced; for we learn from Mr. Ray, that it was 
equally dear above a century ago*. It is unneceflary to fay 
more of this fingular bird, as it has been very fully treated of in 
the fecond volume of the Britijh Zoology. 

With much difficulty landed at North Berwick, three miles 
diftant from Cajtleton, the place we intended to return to. The 
firft is a fmall town pleafantly feated near a high conic hill, partly 
planted with trees : it is feen at a great diftance, and is called North 
Berwick Law : a name given to fcveral other high hills in this part 
of the ifland. 

Pafs through Jbberladie and Prejion Pans: the laft takes its 
name from its falt-pans, there being a confiderable work of that 
article; alfo another of vitriol. Saw at a fmall diftance the field 
of battle, or rather of carnage, known by the name of the battle 
of PreJlon Pans, where the Rebels gave a IcfFon of feverity, 
which was more than retaliated the following fpring at Cullo- 
den. Obferved, in this day's ride (I forget the fpot) Seaton, 
the once princely feat of the Earl of IVintoun, now a ruin ; 
judicioufly left in that ftate, as a proper remembrance of the 
fad fate of thofe who engage in rebellious politicks. 

Pinkie and Carberry hill lie a little weft of the road, a few 
miles from Edinburgh ; each of them famed in hiftory. The 
firft noted for the fatal overthrow of the Scots under their Re- 
gent, the Earl of Arran, on September the loth, 1547, by the 
Proteftor, Duke of Somerfet^ Ten thoufand Scots fell that day : 

Rafs ItimrMritSi I92. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. ' 6t 

and by this rough courtjbipy Mary Stuart^ then in her minority, 
was frightened into the arms of the Dauphin of France^ inftead 
of Iharing the crown of England with her amiable coufm Ed- 
ward VI. Twenty years after, Carberry hill proved a fpot ftill Carberrt Hill, 
more pregnant with misfortunes to this imprudent princefe. Her 
army, in 1567, occupied the very camp poffefled by the Eng- 
lijh before the battle of Pinkie. Here, with the profligate Both- 
well^ fhe hoped to make a ftand againft her infurgent nobles. 
Her forces, terrified with the badnefs of the caufe, declined the 
fight. She furrendered to the confederates ; while her hufband, 
by the connivance of Morton and others, partakers of his crimes, 
retired, and efcaped his merited punilhment. 

At MuJfeHmrghj crofs the EJi near its mouth. There are great 
marks of improvement on approaching the capital ; the roads 
good, the country very populous, numbers of manufafturcs 
carried on, and the profpedt cmbelliftied with gentlemen's feats. 

Edinburgh, Edinburgh •. 

A city that poflTeflTes a boldnefs and grandeur of fituation beyond 
any that I had ever fecn. It is built on the edges and fides of a 
vaft floping rock, of a great and precipitous height at the upper 
extremity, and the fides declining very quick and fteep into the 
plain. The view of the houfes at a diftance ftrikes the travel- 
ler with wonder ; their own loftinefs, improved by their almofl: 
aerial fituation, gives them a look of magnificence not to be 

* Known throughout the Highlands by the name oiDun-edin. 


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62 A T O U R 

found in any other part of Great Britain. All thefc confpicuous 
buildings form the upper part of the great ftrcct, are of ftone, and 
make a handfome appearance : they are generally fix or fevcn 
ftories high in front \ but, by realbn of the declivity of the hiU, 
much higher backward •, one in particular, called Bahel^ had 
about twelve or thirteen ftories, before the fire in 170D, but 
is now reduced to ten or eleven. Every houfc has a comnfK)n 
ftaircafe, and every fliory is the habitation of a feparatc family. 
The inconvenience of this particular fl:ru6turc need not be men- 
tioned ; notwithftanding the utmoft attention, in the article of 
cleanlinefs, is in general obferved. The common complaint of 
the ftreets of Edinburgh is now taken away, by the vigilance of 
the magiftrates *, and their feverity againft any that offend in 
any grofs degree f. It muft be obferved, that this unfortunate 
fpecies of architefture arofe from the turbulence of the times 
in which it was in vogue : every body was defirous of getting 
as near as poffible to the protection of the cattle; the houfes 
were crouded together, and I may fay, piled one upon another, 
merely on the principle of fecurity. 
Castlb. The cattle is antient, but ftrong, placed on the fummit of the 

hill, at the edge of a very deep precipice. Strangers are Ihewn a 

• The ftreets are cleaned early every morning. Once the city payed for 
the cleaning ; at prcfent it is rented for four or iiw^ hundred pounds fer 

t In thcclofes, or allies, the inhabitants arc very apt to fling out their filth, arc. 
without regarding who paffes ; but the fufferer may call every inhabitant of the 
hottfe it came from to account, and make them prove the delinquent, who is 
always poni&ed with a heavy fine. 

^ very 

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very fmall room in which Mary Queen of Scots was delivered 
of James VI. 

From this fortrefs is a full view of the city and its environs ; 
a ftrange profpeft of rich country, with vaft rocks and moun- 
tains intermixed. On the fouth and eaft are the meadows, or 
the public walks, Herriof% hofpital, part of the town overfha- 
dowed by the ftupcndous rocks oi Arthur'^ Teat and Salujbury 
CraigSy the Pentland hills at a few miles diftance, and at a ftill 
greater, thofe of Muirfooty whole fides are covered with verdant 

To the north is a full view of the Firth of Forih^ from ^een^s 
Ferry to its mouth, with its fouthern banks covered with towns 
and villages. On the whole the profpeft is fingolar, various, and 

The refervoir of water * for fupplying the city lies in the d^Jtk- 
fireet^ and is well worth feeing : the great ciftern contains near two 
hundred and thirty tuns of water, which is conveyed to the feveral 
conduits, that are proper diftances in the principal 
ftreets •, thefc are conveniencics that few towns in North Britain are 

On the fouth fide of the High-Jlreet^ is the Parlement Clofc, a 
fmall fquare, in whkh is the Parlement Houfe, where the Courts 
of juftice are held. Below Hairs is the Advocate's library founded 
hy Six George Mackenzie^ 2LX\A now contains above thirty thoufand 
volumes, and feveral manufcripts : among the more curious are the 
four Evangelifts, very legible, notwithftanding it is faid to be feveral 
hundred years old. 

^ It is conveyed in pipes from the P/«//tf/fi/ hills five miles diftant. 





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64. A T O U R 

St. Jeromis Bible, wrote about the year i,ioo. 

A Malabar book, written on leaves of plants. 

A Turkijh manufcript, illuminated in fome parts li]<e a miflal. 
Elogium in fultan Morad filium filii SoUman Turcici. Script. Conjiantino- 
poli. Anno Hegir^e, Q()2. 

Cartularies, or records of the monafteries, fome very antient. 

A very large Bible, bound in four volumes ; illuftrated with 
fcripture prints, by the firft engravers, pafted in, and colledled at a 
vaft expence. There are befides great numbers of antiquities, not 
commonly Ihewn, except enquired after. 

The Luckenbootb row, which contains the Tolboolh, or city prifon, 
and the weigh in^-houfe, which brings in a revenue of 500 1. per 
annumy ftands in the middle of the Higb-ftreetj and with the guard- 
houfe, contributes to fpoil as fine a ftreet as moft in Europe^ being 
in fome parts eighty feet wide and finely built. 

The exchange is a handfome modern building, in which is the 
cuftom-houfe : the firft is of no ufe inr its proper character ; for the 
merchants always chufe ftanding in the open ftreet, expofed to all 
kinds of weather. 

The old cathedral is now called the New Church, and is divided 
into four places of worfhip ; in one the Lords of the Sefllons attend : 
there is alfo a throne and a canopy for his Majefty ftiould he vifit 
this capital, and another for the Lord Commiflioner. There is no 
mufic either in this or any other of the Scotch churches, for Peg ftill 
faints at the found of an organ. This is the more furprizing, as the 
Dutcb^ who have the fame eftablifhed religion, are extremely fond of 
that folemn inftrument ; and even in fhe great church of Geneva the 
Pfalmody is accompanied with an organ. 


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• Imfudort vultus tut nfe/ceris pom* AnnO l62i« 
in GmrdoH*t Iti&erkiyt ti^. iii. 


Thefp heada are well engraven 



The ftn of t\it fataie eacHed St. Giks*^ church has a large tower, 
oddly terminated with a fort of crown. 

On the front of a houfe in^ the Nefber Bov9^ are two fine profile Romak Heads. 
he^ of a rtiaft attd a womart,,of i?^w^;f fculpcure, fuppofed to be 
dtt>fe <rf Sevenis and Jidia : but, ^ appears froth an infcription * 
made by the perfott Who puiJ them into the wall, were miftaken for 
Aiam »^d Eve. 

Near ^t Trone church are thfc remains of the houfe, (now a 
tavern) where A&ry SHtarf wa* confined the night after the battle of 

. At the end of the Cannongate-Jtreet ftands Holy^Rood palace, 
Originally an' abby founded by Bavid I. in 11 28. The towers 
on the N. W. fide were crc6bed by James V. together With oriicr 
buildings, for a royal refidence: according to the editor of Gww- 
den^ great part, except the towers above-mentioned, were burnt hf 
GrQmwet\ but thtf other towersj with the reft of this magnificent 
palace, as it now ftands, were executed by Sir fViltiam Brucej by 
the dire&ions of Charles II. ; within is a beautiful fquare, with 
piazzas on every fide. It contains great numbers of fine apart- 
ments ; fome, that are called the King's, are in great diforder, the 
reft are granted to feveral of the nobility. 

In the Earl of Breadalbane^s^ are fome good portraits, 

WiUiam Duke of Newcajlk^ by Vandyck ; 

And by Sir Pd-/^ L^/y, the Eluke and Dutchefs of Lauderdale^ 
and -E^^r^Earl of Jerfey. There is befides a very good head of a 

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66 A T O U R 

boy by MorriUio^ and fome views of the fine fccnes near his Lord* 
fliip's feat at Taymoutb. 

At Lord Dunmcre^s lodgings is a very large piece of Charles I. 
and his Queen going to ride, with the Iky fhowering rofes on them; 
a Black holds a grey horfe j the celebrated Jeffery Hudfon* the 
dwarf with a fpaniel in a ftring, and feveral other dogs fporting 
round : the Queen fs painted with a love-lock, and with browner 
hair and completion, and younger, than I ever faw her drawn. It 
is a good piece^ and was the work of Mytensj predeceffor in fame to 
Vandyck. In the fame place are two other good portraits oi Charles II. 
and James VII. 

The gallery of this palace takes up one fide, and is filled with 
coloflal portraits of the Kings of Scotland. 

In the old towers are Ihewn the apartments where the murther of 
David Rizzo was committed. 
CuAnt^ That beautiful piece of gofhic architedure,' the church, or 

chapel, of Hofy-Rood Abby^ is now a ruin, the roof having fallen 
in, by a molt fcandalous negled, notwithftanding money had 
been granted by Government to preferve it entire. Beneath the 
ruins lie the bodies of James II. and James V. Henry Damly^ and 
feveral other perfons of rank : and the infcriptions on feveral of 
their tombs are preferved by Mainland. A gentleman informed me, 
that fome years ago he had feen the remains of the bodies, but in a 
very decayed (late : the beards remained on fome ; and that the 
bones of Henry Damly proved their owner by their great fize, for he 
was faid to be feven feet high. 

* For a further accoant of thif little hero confult Mr. IValfoWt Anecdotes of 
Painting, 11. p. 8. 


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Near this palace is the Park^ firft inclofcd by James V. ; within 
are the vaft rocks *, known by the names of Arthur'^ Seat and 
Saluflnny*s Craigs •, their fronts exhibit a romantic and wild fcene 
of broken rocks and vaft precipices, which from fomc points 
feem to over-hang the lower parts of the city. Great columns 
of ftone, from forty to fifty feet in length, and about three feet 
in diameter, regularly pentagonal, or hexagonal, hang down the 
face of fome of thele rocks almoft perpendicularly, or with a 
very flight dip, and form a ftrange appearance. Beneath this 
ftratum is a quarry of frce-ftonc. Confiderable quantities of 
ftone from the quarries have been cut and fent to London for 
paving the ftrcets, its great hardnefs rendering it excellent for 
that purpofe. Beneath thcfe hills are fome of the moft beautiful 
walks about Edinburgh^ commanding a fine profpeft over feveral 
parts of the country. 

On one fide of the Park are the ruins of St. Antbonfs chapel, once 
the refort of numberlefs votaries \ and near it is a very plentiful 


The fouth part of the city has feveral things worth vifiting. 
Herriofs hofpital is a fine old building, much too magnificent for 
the end propofed, that of educating poor children. It was founded 
by George Herriof, jeweller to James VI. who followed that monarch 
to London, and made a large fortune. There is a fine view of the 
caftle, and the floping part of the city, from the front : the gardens 
were once the refort of the gay \ and there the Scotch poets often laid, 
in their comedies, the fcenes of intrigue. 


* According to Mait/and, their perpendicular height is 656 feet. 

K 2 





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Ii^ the cjitjrch-yard of thp Grey Frier^, is the mopument of Sir 
George Mackenzie^ ^^ rotunidai with a mujtitu4e pf other tombs» 
This is one of the few ceii^eterics tp this populous city % and from 
it is a very fine view of the caft]p, ^d thp lofty ftrcet that leads to 
that fortrefs. 
CdLLicE. The coHegp is a mean building -, it contains the houfps of die 

Principal and a few of the Prpfeflbrs : the Principal's houle is 
fuppofed to be op the fite erf that in which Henry Damly w& 
ni|arc|ered, then belonging jto the Provoft of thp Kirk of Field. 
'Jhp ftudents of the univerfity are difperfcd over the town, and 
are about fix hundred in number ; but wear no academic habit- 
Xhe ftudents are liable to be called before the Profeflbrs, who 
have power of rebuking or cjcpelling them : I cannot learn that 
either is ever exerted ^ but, as they are for the moft part vo- 
lunteers for knowlege, few of them defcrt her ftandards. There 
are twenty-two profcflbrs of different fciences, moft of whom read 
lejftures: all the chairs are very ably filled ^ thofe in particular 
which relate to the ftudy of medicine, as is evident frpm the 
number of ingenious phyficians, eleves of this univerfity, who prove 
the abilities of their matters. The M^faum has for many years beea 
ItfPiRMiiR'K. The royal infirmary is a fpacious and handfome edifice, capable 

of ppntaining t^vo hundred patients. The operation-room is parti- 
cularly convenient, the council-room elegant, with a good pifture in 
it of Provoft Drummond. From the cupola of this building is a fine 
profped, and a full view of the city. 

Not far from hence are twenty-feven acres of ground defigned for 
a fquare, called George Square : a fmall portion is at prefent built, 


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confifting of fmall but commodious houfes, in the Ei^lijb fafhion* 
Such is the fpirit of improvement, that within thcfe three years fixty 
thoufand pounds have been expended in houfes of the modern tafte, 
and twenty thoufand in the oldw 

fVatfoi^s hofpiul (hould not be forgot : a large good building, 
behind the Grey Friers church ; an excellent inftitution for the 
educating and apprenticing the children of decayed merchants; 
who, after having fcrvcd their time with credit, receive fifty pounds 
to fct up with. 

The meadows^ or public walks, are well planted, and are very 
«ttenfivc : thefe are the mall of Edinburgh^ as Comely Gardens are its 

The Cowgale is a long ftreet, running parallel with the High' 
ftreet^ beneath the fteep fouthern declivity of the city, and ter- 
minates in the Grafs-market^ where cattle are fold, and crimi- 
nals executed. On feveral of the houfes are fmall iron crofTes, 
which, I was informed, denoted that they once belonged to the 
Knights of St. John. 

On the north fide of the city lies the new town, which is planned 
with great judgment, and will prove a magnificent addition to 
Edinburgh -, the houfes in St. yindrew^s fquare coft from iXool. 
to 2000I. each, and one or two 4000 or 5000 1. They are 
all built in the n^o^ern ftyk^ and ase free from the inconveniences 
attending the old city. 

Thefe improvements are ccnnefted to the city by a very beautiful 
bridge, whofe highefl arch is ninety-five feet high. 

In the walk of this evening, I paflcd by a deep and wide hollow 
beneath Calton Hill, the place where thofc imaginary criminals,, 


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witches and forccrcrs, in lefs enlightened timei, were burnt ; and 
where, at feftive feafons, the gay and gallant held their tilts 
and tournaments. At one of thefe, it is faid that the Earl of 
Botbwell made the firft impreffion on the fufceptible heart of Mary 
Stuarij having galloped into the ring down the dangerous fteeps of 
the adjacent hill ; for he feemed to thbk that 

Women born to be controPd 
Stoop to the forward and the bold. 

The dcfperate feats were the humour of the times of chivalry : 
Brantome relates, that the Due de Nemours galloped down the fteps 
of the Sainte Cbappel at PariSj to the aftonilhment of the beholders. 
The men cultivated every exercife that could preferve or improve 
their bodily ftrength ; the ladies, every art that tended to exalt 
their charms : Mary is reported to have ufcd a bath of white wine ; 
a cuftom ftrangc, but not without precedent. Jacques du Fouilloux^ 
enraptured with a country girl, enumerating the arts which (he 
fcorned to ufe to improve her perfon, mentions this : 

Point ne portoit de ce linge femelle 

Pour amoindrir Ton feing et fa mammelle. 

Vafquine nulle, on aucan pell9on 

Elle ne portoit, ce n'eftoit fa fa9on. 

Point ntprenoit 'vin blane pour/e haigner$ 

Ne drogue encore pour four fon corps alleger •• 

At a fmall walk's diftance from Calton Hill, lies the new botanic 
garden +, confifting of five acres of ground, a green-houfe fifty feet 

• VAdoUfanet ii Jaquts du Fouilhux^ 88. 

t The old botanic garden lies to the eaft of the new bridge : an account of it 
is to be feen in the Mufeum Bal/ourianum. 


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long, two temperate rooms, each twelve feet, and two ftovcs, each 
twenty-eight : the ground rifes to the north, and defends the plants 
from the cold winds : the foil a light fand, with a black earth on 
the furface. It is finely (locked with plants, whofe arrangement 
and cultivation do much credit to my worthy friend Dr. Hope^ 
Profeflbr of Botany, who planned and executed the whole. 
It was begun in 1764, being founded by the munificence of 
his prefent Majefty, who granted fifteen hundred pounds for 
that purpofe. 

During this week's ftay at E^nbut%b^ the prices of provifions 
were as follow: 

Beef, from 5d. to 3d. i. 

Mutton, from 4d. to 3d. -r* 

Veal, from 5d, to 3d. 

Lamb, 2d. \. 

Bacon, yd. > 

Butter, in fummer, 8d. in winter, is. 

Pigeons,^ dozen, from 8d. to 5s. 

Chickens, per pair, 8d. to is. 

A fowl, IS. 2d. 

Green goofe, 3s. 

Fat goofe, 2s. 6d. 

Large turkey, 4s. or 5s* 


Coals, 5d. or Sd.per hundred, delivered. 
Many fine excurfions may be made at a fmall diftance from this 
city. Leitb^ a large town, about two miles north, lies on the Firtb^ Lbith* 

is a flaurifliing place, and the port of Edinburgh. The town is 


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dirtjr and sU boik, and chiefly mhabknl b^ ^rlorfv bat the ^\€f \% 
very foie^ and b a^ much-frequented walk* The races weve ^ this 
time on the faock, near krv^-vraccr mark : confiderifig their ykinity 
to a great cicjr and pop«ilous> countrj^ the company was- fa»r from 
nmneroQs ; a proof chat dkripadoA had hoc genei^atty iiife6)led th« 
nnumers of the iVI^r/^ BriUw. 

Craigmdlar caftfe is feated on a rocrky cmWtcnce, about two miles 
fouth of Edinburgh j is fquare, a*id has tow^ers at ea^h comet. 
Some few apartments are yet inhabited ; but the reft o# ril'is^ greac 
pik is in niins, Mary Sfttart ^meeimes mafd)! ttus pJA^e her 

Newbottle^ the feat of the Marquifs of Lothian^ is ^ pleafant 
ride of a few miles from the capital. It was once a Ciftercian 
abby, founded by David I. in 1140-, b\it, in 15911, w^ erefted 
into a lordfhip, in favour of Sir Mark Ker^ ton of Sir IValter 
Ker^ of Cefsford. The houfe lies in a warm bottom^ and, like 
moft other of the houfes of the Scotch iwbifity,- refcmbtes a French 
Chateauy by having a village or Ktde paltry town: adjacent. The 
fituation is very favorable to tueesv as appears by the vatf fize of 
thofe near the houfe •, and I was informed, thae fruit ripens here 
within ten days as early as at Chelfea. 

The Marquifs poflefles a moft valuable colledkion'- of portraits, 
many of them very fine, and almoft all very inftrudkive. A large 
half-length oi Henry Z>^^»^ reprefcnts him tall, aukwaitl and gauky, 
with a ftupid, infipid countenance ;. moflr likely drawn after* he had 
loft by intemperance and debauchery, thofc charms which capti- 
vated the heart of the amorous Mary. 

A head 

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A head of her mother, Marit de Cuife -, not Icfs beautiful than her 

A head of Madame Monpenfier^ and of feveral other illuftrious 
perfons, who graced the court of Lewis XIII. 

Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice^ in one piece. 

Some fmall portraits, ftudics of Vandyck \ among which is one of 
WiUiam Earl of Pembrokej of whom Lord Clarendon gives fo advan- 
cageous a charafter. ,^r-" 

A beautiful half-length of Henrietta^ Queen of Charles I. Her 
charms -almofk apologize for the compliances of the uxorious 

His daughter, the Dutchefs of Orleans. 

The wife of Philip the bold, infcribed Mdrga Mala^ Lodo 

Head of Robert Car^ Earl of Somerfet -, the countenance effemi- 
nate, fmall features, light flaxen or ycUowifti hair, and a very fmall 
beard : is an original of that worthlefs favorite, and proves that the 
%ure given as his among the illuftrious heads is erroneous, the laft 
being reprefentcd as a robuft black man. A print I have of him 
by Simon Pafs is authentic : the plate is of oftavo fize, reprefents 
him in hair curled to the top j and in his robes, with the George 

His father. Sir Robert Car of Femihurft. 

An Earl of Sotnerfet ? of whom I could get no account \ hand- 
fome ; with long light hair inclining to yellow : a head. 

A full length of James I. by Jamefon. Another of Charles L 
when young, in rich armour, black and gold : a capital piece. 

Lady Tufton \ a fine half-length. 

L Earl 

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Earl McrtoHy regent : half-length ; a yellow beard* 

A head of General Rutbven^ Sir Patrick Ruthven^ a favorite 
oi Gujlavus Adolpbus \ knighted in his Majefty's tent in prefence 
of the whole army at Darfaw in Prujfta^ on the 23d of Sep- 
tember 1627. As potent in the campaigns of Bacchus as of 
Mars^ and ferviceable to his great mailer in both. He van- 
quifhed his enemies in the field -, and by the ftrength of his 
head, and goodnefs of underftanding, could in convivial hours 
extract from the minifters of unfriendly powers, fecrets of |he 
firft importance. He pafled afterwards into the fervice of Charles I. 
and behaved with the fpirit and integrity that procured him 
the honors of Earl of Forth in Scotland^ and afterwards Earl 
of Brentford in England. He died in a very advanced age in 

Two very curious half-lengths on wood : one of a man with 
a long forked black beard j his jacket flafhed down in narrow 
ftripes from top to bottom, and the ftripes loofe: the other 
with a black full beard ^ the fame fort of ftripes, but drawa 
tight by a girdle. 

The Doge of Venice^ by Titian. 

Three by Morillio ; boys and girls in low life. 

A remarkable fine piece of our three firft circum- navigators^ 
DrakCj HawkinSy and Candijb \ half-length. 

The heads of Mark Earl of Lothian^ and his lady, by Sir Antonia 

Mark Ker^ prior oi Newbottle^ who, at the reformation, complied 
with the times, and got the eftate of the abby. 

In the woods adjacent to this feat arc fome fubterraneous apart- 

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mcnts and paflages cut out of the live rock : they fcem to have been Svbtirrahioui 
excavated by the antient inhabitants of the country, either as recep- 
tacles for their provifions, or a retreat for themfelves and families in 
time of war, in the fame manner, as Tacitus relates, was cuftomary 
with the old Germans *. 

Two or three miles diftant from Newbottle is Dalkeith^ a fmall Dalkiith. 
town, adjoining to Dalkeith Houfe, the feat of the Duke of Buccleugb: 
originally the property of the Douglafes ; and, when in form of a 
caftle, of great ftrength -, and during the time of the Regent Mor^ 
ton^s retreat, ftyled the LiotCs Den. 

The portraits at Dalkeith are numerous, and fome good : among 
others, the 

Firft Duke of Richmond and his Dutchefs. . 

The Dutchefs of Cleveland, 

Countefs of Buccleugh^ mother to the Dutchefs of Monmouth^ and 
Lady EgUngton^ her fifter. 

The Dutchefs and hertwofons : the Dutchefs of Tork\ her hand 
remarkably fine : the Dutchefs of Lenox. 

Mrs. Lucy Waters^ mother of the Duke of Monmouth^ with his 
pifture in her hand. 

Dutchefs of Cleveland and her fon, an infant ; fhe in charafter of 
a Madonna : fine. 

The Duke of Monmouth^ in charafter of a young St. John. 

• SoUnt it fubtirraneos fpecus aptrin, io/qui mulf infupir fimo Mirant, fuffuginm 
biimi, it nciftaculum frugibus, quia rigortm frigonm iju/moM locis moUiimt : it Ji 
^uando befits ad'Uinit apirta populatur : Abdita auttm it difoffa^ ant ingorcmtur, aut 
M iffafallmt, quod quanndafunt. Dc Moribiw Gcnnanorum, c. i6. 



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76 A T O U R 

Lord Strafford and his Secretary -, a fmall ftudy of Famfyck. 

Henry VIII. and Queen Catherine^ with the divorce in her hand \ 
two fmall pieces, by Holbein. Ama Bullen^ by the fame, drefled in a 
black gown, large yellow netted flceves, in a black cap, peaked 

Lady Jane Gray^ with long hair, black and very thicR ; not 
handfome ; but the virtues and the intelleftual perfe6Hons of that 
fuffering innocent, more than fupplicd the abfence of perfonal 

A large fpirited piftufe of the Duke of Monmouth on horfeback; 
The fame in armour. All his pidtures have a handfome likenels of 
his father. 

Dutchefs of Richmond^ with a bow in her hand, by Sir Peter 

A fine head of the late Duke of Ormond. 

A beautiful head oiMary Stuart-, the face fharp, thin and young v 
yet has a likenefs to fome others of her pictures, done before misfor- 
tunes had altered her -, her drefs a ftrait gown, open at the top and 
reaching to her ears, a fmall cap^ and fmall ruff, with a red role in 
her hand. 

In this palace is a room entirely furnifhed by Ci^ks II. on 
occafion of the marriage of Monmouth^ with the hcirels of the 

At Smeton^ another feat of the Duke of Buccleugh^ a mile diftant 
from the firft, is a fine half-length of General Monk looking over 
his fhoulder, with his back towards you ^ he rcfidcd long at DaU 
keitb, when he commanded in Scotland. 

Nell Gwinney loofely attired^ 

A fine 

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A fine marriage of St. Catherine^ by Vandyck. 

Left Edinburgby and pafled beneath the caftle, whofe height and J^^^ *4« 
ftrength, in my then fituation, appeared to great advantage. The 
country I paft through was well cultivated, the fields large, but 
moftly inclofed with ftone walls ; for hedges are not yet become 
univerfal in this part of the kingdom : it is not a century fince they 
were known here. Reach the 

SotUb'Ferry^ a fmall vill^e on the banks of tht Firthy which 
fuddenly is contrafted to the breadth of two miles by the jutting 
out of the land on the north fliore ; but almoft inftantly widens 
towards the weft into a fine and ex ten five bay. The profpeft 
on each fide is very beautiful ; a rich country, frequently di« 
verfificd with towns, villages, caftles, and gentlemen's feats *. 
There is befide a vaft view up and down the Firth, from its 
extremity, not remote from Sterling, to its mouth near May ifle; 
in all, about fixty miles. To particularize the objefts of this 
rich view : from the middle of the paflage are feen the coafts 
of Lothian and Fife \ the ifles of Garvie and Incb-Colm ; the 
town of DumfermHne -, S. and N. SlueerCs Ferries ; and Burrow- 
ficnefs fmoaking at a diftance from its numerous falt-pans and 
fire-engines. On the Ibuth fide are Hopetoun houfe, Dundafs 
caftle, and many other gentlemen's feats •, with Blacknefs caftle. 
On the north fide, Rofytbe caftle, Dunibrijfel, and at a diftance the 
caftle and town of Brunt-IJland \ with the road of Leitb, often filled 
with fliips, and a magnificent diftant view of the caftle of Edinburgh 
on the fouth. 

* Soch as Rofytbt caftle, DumfermUm towDy Lord Mmrrs^s, Lord Hcpitoutt^if 
Captain Dunda/s^s. 


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This Ferry is alfo called SiueetCs-Ferry^ being the paflage 
much ufed * by Margaret^ Queen to Malcolm III. and fifter to 
Edgar Etbeling \ her refidence being at Dumfermline. Crofs over 
in an excellent boat ; obferve midway the little ifle called Injb^ 
Garvey^ with the ruin of a fmall caftle. An arSlic Gull flew 
near the boat, purfued by other Gulls, as birds of prey are : 
this is the fpecies that perfecutes and purfues the leflTer kinds, 
till they mute through fear, when it catches up their excrements 
ere they reach the water : the boatmen, on that account, ftyled it 
the dirty Aulin. 

Landed in the (hire of Fife *, at North-Ferry^ near which arc 
Granite the great granite quarries, which help to fupply the ftreets of 
^^**^' London with paving ftones -, many fliips then waiting near, in 
order to take their lading. The granite lies in great perpen- 
dicular ftacks ; above which is a reddifli earth filled with friable 
micaceous nodules. The granite itfelf is very hard, and it all 
blafted with gun-powder : the cutting into fhape for paving colls 
two fhillings and eight-pence per tun, and the freight to London 
feven (hillings. 

The country, as far as Kinrofs^ is very fine, confiding of gentle 
rifings i much corn, efpecially Bear\ but few trees, except about a 
gentleman's feat called Blair ^ where there are great and flourifhino- 
plantations. Near the road are the laft collieries in Scotland^ 
except the inconfiderable works in the county of Sutherland. 

* Or, as others fay, becaafe (he, her brother and fitter^ firft landed there, after 
their efcapc from William the Conqueror, 
t Pa*"^ of the antient CaliJoma. 


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Knrofs is a fmall town, featcd in a large plain, bounded by 
mountains ; the houfes and trees are fo intermixedf as to give 
it an agreeable appearance. It has fomc manufactures of linnen 
and cutlery ware. At this time was a meeting of juftices, on 
a Angular occafion : a vagrant had been, not long before, or- 
dered to be whipped ; but fuch was the point of honor among 
the common people, that no one could be perfuaded to go to 
Perth for the executioner, who lived there: to prefs, I may fay, 
two men for that fervice, was the caufe of the meeting-, fo 
Mr. BofweU may rejoice to find the notion of honor prevale in 
as exalted a degree among his own countrymen, as among the vir- 
tuous Corjicans *. 

Not far from the town is the houfe of Kinrofs^ built by the 
famous architeft Sir fVilliam Bruce^ for his own refidence, and was 
the firft good houfe of regular architefture in North Britain. It is 
a large, elegant, but plain building : the hall is fifty-two feet long ; 
the grounds about it well planted ; the fine lake adjacent ; fo that 
it is capable of being made as delightful a fpot as any in North 

Loch'Levenj a magnificent piece of water, very broad, but 
irregularly indented, is aboiu twelve miles in circumference, and 
its greateft depth about twenty-four fathoms : is finely bounded 
by mountains on one fide •, on the other by the plain of Kin- 
rofs\ and prettily embeHifhed with feveral groves, moft fortu- 
nately difpofed. Some iflands are. difperfed in this great expanfe 
of water j one of which is large enough to feed feveral head of 

^ Wft. Corfica, p. 285, of the third edition^ 

cattle : 

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cattle : but the moft remarkable is that diftinguifhed by the capti- 
vity of Mary Stuart^ which ftands almoft in the middle of the 
LocH-Livm lake. The caftlc ftill remains; confifts of a fquare tower, a 
Castlb. imzM yard with two round towers, a chapel, and the ruins of 

a building, where, it is faid, the unfortunate Princefs was lodged. 
In the fquare tower is a dungeon, with a vaulted room above, 
over which had been three other (lories. Some trees are yet re- 
maining on this little fpot; probably coeval with Mary^ under 
whofe fhade fhe may have fat, expefting her efcape at length 
cffefted by the enamoured Douglas *. This caftle had before 
been a royal refidence, but not for captive monarchs; having 
been granted from the crown by Robert III. to Douglas^ Laird of 

This caftle underwent a fiegc in the year 1335 ; and the method 
attempted to reduce it was of a mott Angular kind. John of 
Sterlings with his army of Anghcifed ScolSy fat down before it; 
but finding from the fituation that it was impoffible to fucceed 
in the common forms, he thought of this expedient. He ftopped 
up the water of Leven^ at its difcharge from the lake, with a 
great dam, with ftones, and every thing that would obftrnft its 
courfe, hoping by that means to raife the waters fo high, as 
to drown the whole garrifon. But the watchful governor, Alan 
de Fipont^ took an opportunity of Tallying out in boats when the 

* HiHorlans differ in refped to the caufe that influenced him to aflift in his fo- 
vereign's efcape : fome attribute it to his avarice, and think he was bribed widi 
jewels, referved by M^ty ; others, that he was touched by a more generous paflion : 
the laft opinion is the moft natural^ confidering the charms of the Queen» and the 
youth of her deliverer, 


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befiegers were off their guard j and piercing the dam, releafed 
the pent-up waters, and fornxd a moft deftrudivc deluge on all 
the plain below ; ftruck a panic into the enemy's army, put 
them to flight, and returned to his caftle laden with the fpoils 
of the camp *• 

St. Serf*s ifle is noted for having been granted by Brudoj laft 
King of the PiSsj to St. Servan and the Culdees \ a kind of 
priefts among the firft Chriftians of North Britain^ who led a 
fort of monaftic life in cells, and for a confiderable time pre- 
fcrved a pure and uncorrupt religion : at length, in the reign of 
Dcpuid I. were fupprcfTed in favor of the church of Rome. The 
priory of Port-moak was on this ifle, of which fome fmall remains 
yet exifl:. 

The fifli of this lake are Pike, fmall Perch, fine Eels, and moft Fish and Birds. 
excellent Trouts -, the beft and the reddcft I ever faw ; the largeft 
about fix pounds in weight. The fifliermen gave me an account 
of a fpecies they called the GaUy Trout, which are only caught 
from OSlobcr to January^ are fplit, faltcd and dried, for winter 
provifioo : by the defcription, they certainly were our Char, only 
of a. larger fize than any we have in England, or WaleSy fome being 
two feet and a half long. The birds that breed on the ifles arc 
Herring Gulls, Pewit Gulls, and great Terns, called here 

Lay at a good inn, a fingle houfe, about half a mile North of 

Made an excurfion about fcven miles Weft, to fee the Rumbling July 2j, 

* SibbaltPh Hift. of Fift and Kmrofi. io8. 

M Brig 

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RuMBLiKo Brio. Brig at Gkn-Devotty in the parifti of Mucbarty a bridge of one arch, 
fluhg over a chafm worn by the river Devon^ about eighty feet 
deep, very narrow, and horrible to look down ; the bottom, in 
many parts, is covered with fragments ; in others, the waters arc 
vifible, gufliing between the ftones with great violence : the fides, 
in many places, projeft, and almoft lock in each other ; trees 
fhoot out in various fpots, and contribute to encreafe the gloom 
of the glen, while the ear is filled with the cawing of Daws, 
the cooing of Wood-Pidgeons, and the impetuous noife of the 

Cawdron Lin. A mile lower down is the Cawdron Un. Here the river, after 
a fhort fall, drops on rocks hollowed in a ftrange manner into 
large and deep cylindric cavities, open on one fide, or formed 
into great circular cavities, like cauldrons * r from whence the 
name of the place. One in particular has the appearance of a 
vaft brewing- veflel ; and the water, by its great agitation, has 
acquired a yellow fcum, cxadtly refcmbling the yefty working of 
malt liquor. Juft beneath this, the water darts down about 
thirty feet in form of a great white flieet : the rocks below widto 
confiderably, and their clifty fides are fringed with wood. Be- 
yond is a view of a fine meadowy vale, and the diftant mountains 
near Sterling. 

CastleCampbel. Two miles North is Caftle Campbell feated on a fteep penin- 
fulated rock between vafl: mountains, having to the South a 
boundlefs view through a deep glen fliagged with brulh wood : 

* In Swiden, and the North of Germany, fach holes as thefc are called Giafits 
Poiu Kalm*% Vty. \zu and Fb. TraiiT. abridg* V* 165. 


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for the forcfts that once covered the country, arc now entirely 
dcftroyed. Formerly, from its darkfome fituation, this pile was 
called the caftle of Gloom ; and all the names of the adjacent 
places were fuitable : it was feated in the parifh of Dolofy was 
bounded by the glens of Care^ and waQied by the birns of 5^- 
row. The lordlhip was purchafed by the firft Earl of Argyle. 
This caftle, with the whole territory belonging to the family of 
Argyky underwent all the calamities of civil war in 1645 ; for 
its rival, the Marquis oi Montrofe^ carried fire and fword through 
the whole eftate. The caftle was ruined, and its magnificent 
reliques exift, as a monument of the horror of the times. No 
.wonder then that the Marquis experienced fo woeful and igno- 
minious a fate, when he fell into the power of fo exafperated a 

Returned to my inn along the foot of the OtUl hills, whdfc 
fides were covered with a fine verdure, and fed great numbers 
of cattle and flieep. The country below full of oats, and in a 
very improving ftate : the houfes of the common people decent, 
but moftly covered with fods ; fome were covered both with 
ftraw and fod. The inhabitants extremely civil, and never failed 
offering brandy or whey, when I ftopt to make enquiries at any 
of their houfes. 

In the afternoon crofled a branch of the fame hills, which 
yielded plenty of oats ; dcfcended into Strath-Earn^ a beautiful Strath-Eark. 
vale, about thirty miles in length, full of rich meadows and 
corn-fields, divided by the river Earn^ which ferpentincs finely 
through the middle, falling into the tay^ of which there is a 
fight at the Eaft end of the vale. It is prettily diverfified with 

M 2 groves 

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groves of trees and gentlemen's houfes; among which, towards 
the Weft end, is Cajlk Drunmcnd^ the forfeited feat of the Earl of 

Dupplin * ; the refidence of the Earl of Kitmoul, fcated on 
the North fide of the vale, on the edge of a fteep glen. Only 
a fingle tower remains of the old caftle, the reft being moder- 
nized. The South front commands a pleafing view of the vale: 
behind are plantations extending fcveral miles in length ; all 
flourifli greatly, except thofe of afli. I remarked in the woods, 
fome very large chefnuts, horfe-chefnuts, fpruce and filver firs, 
cedar and arbor vitae. Broad-leaved laburnum thrives in this 
country greatly, grows to a great fize, and the wood is ufed in 

Fruits fucceed here very indifferently ; even nonpariels require 
a wall : grapes, figs, and late peaches, will not ripen : the win- 
ters begin early, and end late, and are attended with very high 
winds. I was informed that labor is dear here, notwithftand- 
ing it is only eight-pence a day •, the common people not being 
yet got into a method of working, fo do very little for their 
wages. Notwithftanding this, improvements are carried on in 
thefe parts with great fpirit, both in planting and in agricul- 
ture. Lord Kinnoul planted laft year not fewer than eighty 
thoufand trees, befides Scotch firs -, fo provides future forefts for 

* Near this place was the battle Qi Dupplm% 13329 between the EngUflf, under 
the command oi Baliol^ and the Scots. The lall were defeated^ and fuch a num- 
ber of the name of Hay flain, that the family would have been extindl, had not 
fcveral of their wives been left at home pregnant ? 


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the benefit of his fucceffors, and the embellifhmcnt of his coun- 
try. In refpedt to agriculture, there are difHculties to ftru^le 
with ; for the country is without either coal or lime-ftone ; fo 
that the lime is brought from the eftate of the Earl of Elgin^ 
near Dumfermline^ who, I was told, drew a confiderablc revenue 
from the kilns. 

In DuppUn are fome very good pidures ; a remarkable one of 
iMtber^ Bucer, and Catherine the nun, in the charafters of muficians, 
by Giorgiani di Cafiel franco. 

A fine head of a fecular pricft, by T^itian. St. Nicholas bleffing 
three children. Two of cattle, by Rofa di Tivoli, A head of 
Spenfer. Rubens^ head, by himfelf. A fine head of Butler^ .by Sir 
Pefer Lely. Mrs. Tofis, in the charafter of St. Catherine^ by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller. Sir George Haye^ of Maginnis^ in armour, 1640; 
done at Rome^ by L. Ferdinand. Haye^ Earl of CarliJlCy in Charles 
the Firft's time ; young and very handfome. The fecond Earl of 
KinnouU by Vandyck. Chancellor Haye^ by My tens. A good por- 
trait of Lord Treafurer Oxford^ by Richardfon. And a beautiful 
miniature of Sir John Earnly. 

But the moil remarkable is a head of the celebrated Coun- 
tefs of Defmondy whom the apologifts for the ufurper Richard III. 
bring in as an evidence againft the received opinion of his de- 
formity. She was daughter of the Fitzgeralds of Drumana* in 
the county oiWaterford% and married in the reign oi Edward IV., 
James fourteenth Earl of Befmond : was in England in the fame 
reign, and danced at court with his brother Richard^ then Duke 

• Smith's Hift. oiCork. II. 36. 



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86 . A T O U |l 

of Gloucefter. She was then a widow, for Sir fFalter Rakigb fajisr 
fhe held her jointure from all the Ezvh of. De/mond fincc thstf 
time*. She lived to the age of fome years above a hundred 
and forty 5 and died in the reign of James I. It appears that 
fhe retained her full vigor in a very advanced time of life j for 
the ruin of the houfe oi Defmond reduced her to poverty, and 
obliged her to take a journey from Brijlol to London^ to follicic 
relief from the court, at a time fhe was above a hundred and 
forty f. She alfo twice or thrice renewed her teeth ; for ^^ord 
Bacon aflures us, in his Hift. of Life and Death, ter per vices 
dentiij[fe\ and in his Natural Hiftory mentions that £he did deh^ 
tire twice or thrice, calling her old teeth, and others coming 
in their place J. 
JuLT 27. Afcended the hill oi Moncrief\ the profpe6t from thence is the 

Hill of glory of Scotland^ and well merits the eulogia given it for the va? 

riety and richnefs of its views. On the South and Weft appear 
5/rtf/i>-jE<ir», embellifhed with the feats of Lord Kinnouly Lord 
Rollo^ and of feveral other gentlemen •, the Carfe^ or rich, plaii) 
of Cowrie •, Stormont hills and the hill of Kinnouly whole vaft cliff is 
remarkable for its beautiful pebbles. The meanders oiiht Eam^ 
which winds more than any river I at this time had feen, are moft 
enlivening additions to the fcene. The laft turn it takes forms 4 
fine peninfula prettily planted ; and jUft beyond it joins the Toy §^ 

' ♦ Raleigh's Hift, of the World. Book I. Ch. V. Seft. V. ^ 

t Sir W. Ttmpli'% £flky on Health aad Long Life. Fitli his Works, Folio Ed^ 

L 276. 

X Cent. Vm. Sea. 755. 
% Taus, Taciti Fit. Agr^ 



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\^rw:RiNE ' l^n^efe^S'D^^ 

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^ whofe seftuary lies full in view ; the fca clofmg the profpeft on this 

To the North lies the town of Pertb^ with a view of part 
of its magnificent bridge -, which, with the fine woods called Perth 
Parks, the vaft plain of Stralh-Tay, the winding of that noble 
river, its iflands, and the grand boundary formed by the diftant 
highlands, finifh this matchlefs fcene. The inhabitants of Pertb 
are far from being blind to the beauties of their river-, for 
with lingular pleafure they relate the tradition of the Roman army, 
when it came in fight of the Toy, burfting into the exclamation of, 
Ecce Tiberim. 

On approaching the town are fome pretty walks handfomely 
planted, and at a fmall diftance, the remains of fome works of 
Cromwel'Sj called Oliver's Mount. 

Perth is large, and in general well-built; two of the ftreets Perth. 

are remarkably fine ; in fome of the leflcr are yet a few wooden 
houlcs in the old ftyle ; but as they decay, the magiftrates pro- 
hibit the rebuilding them in the old way. There is but one 
parifh, which has three churches, befidcs meetings for fepara- 
tifts, who are very numerous. One church, which belonged to- 
a monaftery, is very ancient : not a veftigc of the laft is now 
to be feen -, for the difciples of that rough apoftle Knox^ made 
a general defolation of every edifice that had given fhelter to 
the worlhippers of the church of Rome: it being one of his 
maxims, to pull down the nefts, and then the Rooks would fly 

The flourifliing ftate of Perth is owing to two accidents ^ 
the firft, that of numbers of CromweVs wounded officers and 


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88 A T O U R 

foldiers chufing to refide here, after he left the kingdom, who 
introduced a fpirit of induftry among the people : the other 
caufc was the long continuance of the Earl of Mar's army here 
in 1 7 15, which occafioned vaft fums of money being fpent in 
the place. But this town, as well as all Scotland^ dates its prolpe* 
rity from the year 1745 ; the government of this part of Great 
Britain having never been fettled till a little after that time. The 
rebellion was a diforder violent in its operation, but falutary in its 

Tradb. The trade of Perth is confiderablc. It exports annually one 

hundred and fifty thoufand pounds worth of linnen to different 
places; from twenty.four to thirty thoufand bolls of wheat and 
barley to London and Edinburgby and about twelve or fourteen 
thoufand pounds worth ot cured falmon. That filh is taken 
there in vaft abundance-, three thoufand have been caught in 
one morning, weighing, one with another, fixteen pounds; the 
whole capture, forty-eight thoufand pounds. The fifliery begins 
at St. Andrew*s Day, and ends Auguft 26th, old ftyle. The 
rents of the fifheries amount to three thoufand pounds per 

I was informed that fmelts come up this river in Mojf and 

PxARL. There has been in thcfe parts a very great fifliery of pearl got 

out of the frefh-water mufcles. From the year 1761 to 1764, 
1 0,000 1. worth were fent to London^ and fold from los. to 1 1. i6s. 
per ounce. I was told that a pearl had been taken there that weighed 
33 grains. But this fifhery is at prefent exhaufted, from the avarice 
of the undertakers : it once extended as far as Loch-Tay. 


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Cowrie Houfe is fhcwn to all ftrangers j formerly the pro- 
perty and refidence of the Earl of Cowrie^ whofe tragical end 
and myfterious confpiracy (if confpiracy there was) are ftill frefli 
in the minds of the people of Perib. At prefent the houfe is 
occupied by fome companies of artillery, I was fhewn the Gowrii 
ftaircafe where the unhappy nobleman was killed, the window conspiract. 
the frighted monarch James roared out of, and that he efcaped 
through, when he was faved from the fury of the populace, by 
Baily Rcy^ a friend of Cowri^h who was extremely beloved in 
the town. 

From the little traditions preferved in the place, it feems as 
if Cowrie had not the left intent of murthering the King : on 
the day his Majcfty came to Pertb^ the Earl was engaged to 
a wedding dinner with the Dean of Cuild: when the account 
of the King's defign reached him, he changed color, on being 
taken fo unprovided ; but the Dean forced him to accept the 
nuptial feaft, which was fcnt over to the Earl's houfe. 

When the King fled, he pafled by the feat of Sir lViUi£m 
Moncrief^ near Earthbridge^ who happening to be walking out at 
that time, heard from the mouth of his terrified m^efty the whole 
relation •, but the Knight found it fo marvellous and fo disjointed, 
as plainly to tell the King, that if it was a true Jlory^ it was a very 
firange one. 

Cowrie was a moft accomplifhed gentleman. After he had 
finifhed his ftudies, he held the ProfefTor of Philofophy*s chair 
for two years, in one of the Italian univerfities. 

Crofs the Tay on a temporary bridge ; the ftone bridge, which 
is to confift of nine 'arches, being at this time unfiniihed : the 

N largeft 

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largeft arch is feventy-fix feet wide; when complete, itpromifes 
to be a mod magnificent ftrufturc. The river here is very vio- 
lent, and admits of fcarce any navigation above ; but Ihips of 
a hundred and twenty tons burthen come as high as the town ; 
and if flat-bottomed, of even two hundred tons. 
SceNB, Scone lies about a mile and half higher up, on the Eaft bank 

of the river. Here was once an abby of great antiquity*, which 
was burnt by the reforming zealots of Dundee. The prefent pa- 
lace was begun by Earl Gewrie -, but, on his death, being granted 
by James VI. to his favorite Sir David Murray^ of Gofpatrie^ 
was completed by him; who, in gratitude to the King, has, in 
feveral parts of the houfe put up the royal arms. The houfe is 
built round two courts ; the dining-room is large and handfome, 
has an ancient but magnificent chimney-piece, the King's arm^, 
with this motto. 

Nobis hac inviSa miferunt centum fex Proavi. 

Beneath are the Murray arms. In the drawing-room is fome good 
old tapeftry, with an excellent figure of Mercury. In a fmall bed- 
chamber is a medly fcripture-piece in needle- work, with a border 
of animals, pretty well done ; the work of Mary Stuart ^ during her 
confinement in Loch-Leven caftle : but the houfe in general is in a 
manner unfurnifhed. 

The gallery is about a hundred and fifty-five feet long ; the top 
arched, divided into compartments, filled with paintings, in water 

• Founded by JkMmJgr L 1114, fo' caaons itgulir of St. Augnftim. 


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colors, of different forts of huntings ; and that Nimrody James VI. 
and his train, appear in every piece. 

Till the deftruftion of the abby, the Kings of Scotland were 
crowned here, fitting in the famous wooden chair, which Edward I. 
tranfported to fVeJlminJler Ahby^ much to the mortification of the 
Scots^ who cfteemed it as their palladium. Charles II. before the 
battle of Worcefier^ was crowned in the prefent chapel. The old 
Pretender refided at 5^^»^ for a confiderable time in 17 15, and his 
fon made it a vifit in 1745, 

Re-paffed the ^ay at BulliorC% Boat ; vifited the field of Lon- Lokcarty. 
carty^ celebrated for the great vi6tory * obtained by the Scots 
over the Danes^ by means of the gallant peafant /foy, and his 
two fons, who, with no other weapons than the yokes which 
they fnatched from their oxen then at plough, firft put a ftop 
to the flight of their countrymen, and afterwards led them on 
to conqueft. The noble families of Hay defcend from this ruftic 
hero, and in memory of the aftion, bear for their arms the in- 
ftrument of their viftory, with the allufive motto of Sub jugo. 
There are on the fpot feveral tumuli^ in which are frequently 
found bones depofited in loofe ftones, difpofed in form of a 
coffin. Not remote is a fpot which fupplied me with far more 
agreeable ideas; a tradt of ground, which in 1732 was a mere 
bog, but now converted into good meadows, and about fifty acres 
covered with linnen ; feveral other parts with buildings, and all 
the apparatus of the linnen manufadture, extremely curious, and 
worth feeing, carried on by the induftrious family of the Sandimans : 

* In the time of Kennttbf who began his reign in 976. 

N 2 and 

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and in the bleachcry are annually whitened, four hundred thoufand 
yards of linnen, the manufafturc of this family, and of Mr. Mar/halt 
and others from Perth. 

. The country is good^ full of barley, oats^ and flax in abundance ; 
but rifter a few miles travelling, is fucceeded by a black heath. 
Ride through a beautiful plantation of pities^ and after defcending 
an eafy flope, the plain beneath fuddenly contrads itfelf into a 
narrow glen^ The profpeft before me ftrongly marked the en- 
trance into the Highlands^ the hills that bounded it on each fide 
BiRMAM Wood, being lofty and rude. On the left Was Birnam Wood, which feems 
never to have recovered the march which its anceftors made to Bun^ 
DvNsiNANB. Jinane: I was fhewn at a great dlftance a high ridge of hills, where 
fome remains of that famous fortrefs {Macteib's caftle) arefaid yet 

The pafs into the tiighknds is awefully magnificent; high, 
craggy, and often naked mountains prefent themfelves to view,, 
approach very near each other, and in many parts are fringed 
with wood, overhanging and darkening the Tay^ that rolls with, 
great rapidity beneath. After fome advance in this hollow, a 
hioft beautiful knowl, covered with pines, appears full in view ; 
and foon after, the town of Dunkeld^ feated under and environed 
by crags, partly naked, partly wooded, with futnmits of a vaft 
height. Lay at Inver*^ a good inn, on the Weft fide of the 

CroflTed it in a boat, attended by a tame fwan, which was 
perpetually folliciting our favours, by putting its neck over the 

* iM^utr, t place where a leiTer river tuns into a greater ; or a river into a lake 
or fea, as Jitr iignifies in the Britijb* • 



July 28. 

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fides of the ferry-boat. Land in the Duke of Atbol^s gardens, 
which are extremely pleafing, waflied by the river, and com- 
manding from different parts of the walks, the mod beautiful 
and pifturefque views of wild and gloomy nature that can be 
conceived. Trees of all kinds grow here extremely well j and 
even fo fouthern a fhrub as Portugal laurel flouriflies greatly. In 
the garden are the ruins of the cathedral, once a magnificent 
edifice, as appears by the beautiful round pillars ftill ftanding; 
but the choir is prcferved, and at prefent uTed as a church. 
In the burial-place of the family is a large monument of the 
Marquis oi Aihol^ hung with the arms of the numerous connexions 
of the family. 

On the other fide of the river is a pleafing walk along the 
banks of the water of Bran *, a great and rapid torrent, full 
of immenfe ftones. On a rock at the end of the walk is a 
neat building, impending over a mod horrible chafm, into which 
the river precipitates itfelf with great noife and fury from a 
confiderable height. The windows of the pavillion are formed 
of painted glafs ; fome of the panes are red, which makes the 
water refemble a fiery cataraft. About a mile further is an- 
other Mumbling Brig^ like, but inferior in grandeur, to that near 

The town of Dunkeld is fmall, and has a fmall linnen manufafture. 
Much company reforts here, in the furrimer months, for the benefit of 
drinking goats' milk and whey : I was informed here, that thofe 
animals will eat ferpcnts -, as it is well known that flags do. 

* Rivers in Stothmd are very frequently called watirs^ 



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After a ride of two miles along a narrow ftrait, amidft trees, 
and often in fight of the 7"^, was driven by rain into a fiflier- 
man's hut, who entertained me with an account of his bufinefs : 
faid he paid ten pounds per aim. for the liberty of two or 
three miles of the river -, fold the firft fifh of the feafon at 
three-pence a pound ; after that, got three (hillings per fifh. 
The houfcs in thefe parts began to be covered with broom, which 
lafts three or four years : their in fides mean, and very fcantily fur- 
nifhed j but the owners civil, fcnfible, and of the quickeft ap- 

• The ftrait now widens into a vale plentiful in oats, barley 
and flax, and well peopled. On the right is the junftion of 
the Ttfy and the Tumel: the channels of thefe rivers arc wide, 
full of gravel, the mark of their devaftation during floods. Due 
north is the road to Blair and Fort Augujius^ through the noted 
pafs of Killicrankie : turn to the left ; ride oppofite to Cajik Men^ 
zies : reach Taymoutb^ the feat of the Earl of Breadalbane. 
July 19, &c. ^aymoutb * lies in a vale fcarce a mile broad, very fertile, 

bounded on each fide by mountains finely planted. Thofe on 
thp South are covered with trees, or with corn fields far up 
their fides. The hills on the North arc planted with pines and 
other trees, and vaftly fteep, and have a very Alpine look ; but 
particularly refemble the great flope, oppofite the grande Char- 
treufe in DauphinL His lordfhip's policy -f- furrounds the houfe, 

* Its name, in old maps, is Balloebi i. e. tl&e moath of the Loch : Bala in the 
Britifi langoage. 

t This word here fignifies improvements, or demefne : when ufed by a mer- 
chant, ortradefman, fignifies their warehoufes, Ihops, and the like. 



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which ftands in the park, and is one of the few in which fallow deer 
arc fecn. 

The ground is in remarkable fine order, owing to his Lordlhip's Walh. 
affiduity in clearing it from ftones, with which it was once covered, 
A Blafter was in conftant employ to blaft the great (tones with gun* 
powder -, for, by reafon of their fize, there was no other method of 
removing them. 

The Berceau walk is very magnificent, compofed of great trees, 
forming a fine gotbic arch ; and probably that fpecies of archie 
tefturc owed its origin to fuch vaulted fhades. The walk on the 
bank of the Tigf is fifty feet wide, and two and twenty hun- 
dred yards long ; but is to be continued as far as the junftion 
of the TiTf and the Uon^ which is about as far more. The firft 
runs on the fides of the walk with great rapidity, is clear, but 
not colorlefs, for its pellucidnefs is like that of brown cryftal ; 
as is the cafe with moft of the rivers in Scotland^ which receive 
their tinge from the bogs. The Toy has here a wooden bridge 
two hundred feet long, leading to a white feat on the fide of 
the oppofite hill, commanding a fine view up and down Strath^ 
^ay. The rich meadows beneath, the winding of the river, the 
beginning of Loch-T^ayy the difcharge of the river out of it, the 
neat village and church of Kinmorc^ form a moft pleafing and mag* 
nificent prefpedt. 

The view from the temple of yenus is that of the lake, with a Loch-Tat; 
nearer fight of the church and village, and the difcharge of the 
river. The lake is about one mile broad, and fifteen long, bounded 
on each fide by lofty mountains -, makes three great bends, which 
adds to its beauty. Thofe on the fouth are well planted, and 


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96 A T O U R 

finely cultivated high up ; interfperfcd with the habitations of 
the Highlanders, not fingly, but in fmall groupes, as if they 
loved fociety or clanfhip : they are very fmail, mean, and with- 
out windows or chimnies, and are the difgrace of Norih Britain^ 
as its lakes and rivers are its glory. Locb-Tay is in many 
places a hundred fathoms deep, and within as many yards of 
the (hore, fifty-four. 

Till of late, this lake was fuppofcd to be as incapable of freezing 
as Locb'Nefs, Loch-Earn, and Loch-Each ; tho' Loch Rannoch, and 
even Loch-Fine, an arm of the fea, often docs. But in March lyyi, 
fo rigorous and uncommon was the cold, that about the 20th of 
that month this vaft body^ of water was frozen over, in one part, 
from fide to fide, in the fpace of a finglc night -, and fo ftrong 
«^ was the ice, as greatly to damage a boat which was caught in 


Loch'Tay abounds with Pike, Perch, Eels, Salmon, Charr, and 
Trout ; of the laft, fome have been taken that weighed above thirty 
pounds. Of thefe fpecies, the Highlanders abhor Eels, and alfo 
Lampreys, fancying, from the form, that they are too nearly related 
to Serpents. 

The North fide is lefs wooded, but more cultivated. The 
vaft hill of Lours, with beds of fnow on it, through great part 
of the year, rifes above the reft, and the ftill loftier mountain 
of Benmor clofes the view far beyond the end of the lake. All 
this country abounds with game, fuch as Grous, Ptarmigans*, 
Stags, and a peculiar fpecies of Hare, which is found only 

• Br. Zool. L No. 95. 


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'^>rra/rm^a^yn. If.rf/^n or/Ae yfioo^ .^>^. /^^ 4 

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on the fummits of the higheft hills, and never mixes with the 
common kind, which is frequent enough in the vales * : is lefs 
than the common Hare ; its limbs more flender ; its fleih more 
delicate : is very agile, and full of frolick when kept tame ; is 
fond of honey and carraway comfits, and prognofticates a ftorm 
by eating its own dung : in a wild ftate does not run an end, 
but fceks flicker under ftones as foon as poffible. During 
fummer its predominant color is grey : about September it begins 
to aflume a fnowy whitenefs, the alteration of color appearing 
about the neck and rump, and becomes entirely white, except 
the edges and tips of the ears: in jlpril it again refumes its 
grey coat. 

The Ptarmigans inhabit the very fummits of the higheft moun- 
tains, amidft the rocks, perching among the grey ftones, and 
during fummer are fcarcely to be diftinguifhed from them, by 
rcafon of their color. They feldom take long flights, but fly 
about like pigeons-, are filly birds, and fo tame as to fuffer a 
ftone to be flung at them without rifing. It is not neceflary 
to have a dog to find them. They tafte fo like a Grous, as 
to be fcarce diftinguifliable. During winter, their plumage, ex- 
cept a few feathers on the tail, are of a pure white,, the color 
of the fnow, in which they bury themfelves in heaps, as a protedtion 
from the rigorous air. 

Royjion Crows, called here Hooded Crows, and in the Erfe^ 
Feannag^ are very common, and refide here the whole year. They 


Whiti Hari. 



• Br. Zo$L No. 21. 



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breed in all forts of trees, not only in the Highlands, but even 
in the plains of Murray : lay fix eggs ; have a fliriller note than 
the common fort j are much more mifchievous ; pick out the 
eyes of lambs, and even of horfes, when engaged in bogs -, but 
for want of other food, will cat cranberries, and other mountain 

Ring Ouzels breed among the hills, and in autumn defcend in 
^ocks to feed on the berries of the wicken trees. 

Sea Eagles breed in ruined towers, but quit the country 
in winter ? The Black Eagles continue there the whole 

It is very difficult to leave the environs of this delightful 
place. Before I go within doors, I muft recall to mind the 
fine winding walks on the South fide of the hills, the great 
beech fixteen feet in girth, the pifturefque birch with its long 
ftreaming branches, the hermitage, the great catarads adjacent, 
and the darkfome chafm beneath. I muft enjoy over again 
the view of the fine reach of the Toy, and its union with the 
broad water of the Lion : I muft ftep down to view the dru- 
Tay^bridgb.. idical circles of ftones -, and laftly, I muft vifit Tay-Mdge, and, 
^s far as my pen can contribute, extend the fame of our mi- 
litary countrymen^ who, among other works worthy of the 
Romans, founded this bridge, and left its hiftory infcribed in 
thefe terms : 


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viam hanc militarem 

Ultra Romanes terminos 

M. Paflfuum. cc|. hac iliac 

cxtenfam ; 

Tefquis et paludibus infultantem 

per Montes rupcfque patefadam 

et indtgnanci Tavo 

ut cernis inftratam : 

Opus hoc arduum fua folertia, 

Et decennali militum operl, 

A. ^r. X»« 173?. Pofuit G. Wadb 

Copiarum in Scotia Praefcftus, 

Ecce quantum valeant 

Regis Georoii II. Aufpicia. 

^aymoutb is a large houfe, a caftle modernized. The moft 
remarkable part of its furniture is the works of the famous 
Jamefon *, the Scotch Vandyck^ an eleve of this family. That Jaihsoic. 
fingular performance of his, the genealogical pidbure is in good 
prefcrvation. The chief of the Argyle family is placed rccum- 
bent at the foot of a tree, with a branch ; on the right is a 
lingle head of his eldeft fon, Sir Duncan Campbell^ Laird of 

* Son of an architcft at Aherinn ; ftodied nnder KuhifUt at Afttnuirp. Cbarlis L 
ikt to bim« aid prdented kim witk a diasond ring. He always drew himfelf 
witk hi« hat on. Hi« prices were 20 1. S€$ts^ or 1 1. 3 s. 4 d, Englijh^ pit head ; 
was born in 1586 ; died at Edinburgb^ 1644, ^^^ ^ further accoant, confult Mr. 
Wdfolii Anecdotes of Paintin{. 

O 2 Locbou', 

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Locbou 5 but on the various ramifications, are the names of his 
defccndents, and along the body of the tree are nine fmall 
heads, in oval frames, with the names on the margins, all done 
with great neatnefs : the fecond fon was firft of the houfe of 
Breadalbane^ which branched from the other about four hundred 
years ago. In a corner is infcribed. The Genealogie of the houfe 
of Glenorquhie Slubairof is defcendit fundrie nobil fcf worthie 
boufes. Jamefon faciehat 1635. Its fize is eight feet by five. 
In the fame room are about twenty heads of perfons of the 
family •, among others, that of a lady, fo very ugly, that a wag,, 
on feeing it, with lifted hands pronounced, that fhe was fear^ 
fully and wonderfully made. There are in the fame houfe, feveral 
heads by Jamefon \ but many of them unfortunately fpoilcd in the 

In the library is a fmall book, called, from the binding, the 
black bookj with fome beautiful drawings in it, on vellum, of the 
Breadalbane family, in water colors. In the firft page is old Sir 
Duncan^ between two other figures ; then follow feveral chiefs of 
the family, among whom is Sir Colin^ Knight of Rhodes^ who died 
1480, aged 80. At the end is a manufcript hiftory of the family, 
ending, I think, in 1633. 
July 30. Went to divine fervice at Kinmore* churchy which, with the 

village, was re-built, in the neateft manner, by the prefent Lord 
Breadalbane : they ftand beautifully on a fmall headland, projeding 
into the lake. His Lordlhip permits the inhabitants to live rent- 
free, on condition they exercife fome trade, and keep their houfes 

• Or the Great Head. 

clean r 

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clean : fo that, by thefc terms, he not only faves the expence of 
fending on every trifling occafion, to Perth or Crieff but has got 
fome as good workmen, in common trades, as any in his Majefty^s 

The church is a remarkably neat plain building, with a very 
handfome tower fteeple. The congregation was numerous, de- 
cent, attentive, ftill ; well and neatly clad, and not a ragged or 
flovenly perfon among them. There were two fervices, one in 
Englijh^ the other in Erfe. After the firft, numbers of people, 
of both fexes, went out of church', and feating themfclvcs in 
the church-yard, made, in their motly habits, a gay and pic- 
turcfque appearance. The devotion of the common people of Highland 
Scotlandy on the ufual days of worlhip, is as much to be ad- 
mired, as their conduft at the facrament in certain places is to 
be cenfured. It is celebrated but once in a year*, when there are 
fometimes three thoufand communicants, and as many idle fpec- 
tators. Of the firft, as many as pofTible crowd on each fide 
of a long table, and the elements are fometimes rudely fhoven 
from one to another; and in certain places, before the day is 
at an end, fighting and other indecencies enfue. It has often 
been made a feafon for debauchery ; and to this day. Jack cannot 
always be perfuaded to eat his meat like a chriftian f. 

Every Sunday a coUeftion is made for the fick or neceffitous ; 
for poor*s rates arc unknown in every country parifti in Scotland. 
Notwithftanding the common people are but juft rouzed from their 

* FcH-merly the facrament was adminiitered bat once in two years*. 
\ TaU of a Tubk. 


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native indolence, very few beggars arc feen in North Britain: 
cither they are full mailers of the lefibn of being content with a very 
little i or, what is more probable, they are pofTeffed of a fpirit that 
will druggie hard with necelTity before it will bend to the afking of 

Vifited a pretty ifland in Locb-Tajiy tufted with trees, and not 
far from the (hore. On it are the ruins of a priory dependent on 
that at 5^^^} founded in 112a, hy jikxander the FitA -^ in which 
were depofitcd the remains of his Queen Sybillay natural daughter to 
Henry I. : it was founded by Alexander in order for the prayers of 
the Monks for the repofe of his loul and that of his royal con» 
fort *. To this ifland the Campbells retreated, during the fucccfTes 
of the Marquis oiMontrofe^ where they defended themfclves againft 
that hero, which was one caufe of his violent refentraent againft the 
whole name. 
Jvlysi. Rode to G/(Wf-L/V» ; went by the fide of the river f that gives 

name to it. It h^s now loft its antient title ofDuiey or Blacky given 
it on account of a great battle between the Mackays and the Mac- 
gregors -, after which, the conquerors are faid to have ftained the 
waters with red, by waftiing in it their bloody fwords and fpears. 
On the right is a rocky hill, called Sbi-balleny or the Paps. Enter 
Glen'Uon through a ftrait pafs : the vale is narrow, but fertile ; 
the banks of the river fteep, rocky, and wooded ; through which 
appears the rapid water of the Uon. On the North is a round 

* As appears from a grant made by that Monarch of the iile in L^h-Taj, 
Ut Ecciifia Dbi ibi pro mi it fro Jmima SrBiLLiS RiginM ibi JefmnSa fabri* 

t This river freezes; bat the Taj^, which receives it« never does. 


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fortrefs, on the top of the hill ; to which, in old times, the natives 

retreated on any invafion. A little farther, on a plain, is a fmall 

Roman camp *, called by the Highlanders Foriingalj or the Fort 

of the Strangers : themfelves they ftile Nafian^ or dcfcendents of 

FingaL In Fortingal church-yard are the remains of a prodigious 

yew-tree, whofe ruins meafured fifty-fix feet and a half in circum- Great Yew. 


Saw at the houfe of Col. Campbell oi Glen-Lion^ a curious walking- 
ftafF, belonging to one of his anceftors : it was iron cafed in leather, 
five feet longj at the top a neat pair of extended wings, Vik^dLcadu- 
ceus ; but, on being fhaken, a poniard, two feet nine inches long^ 
darted out. 

He ahb favored me with the fight of a very ancient brotche, 
which the Highlanders ufe, like the fibula of the Romans^ to fallen 
their veft : it is made of filver, is round, with a bar crofs the 
middle, from whence are two tongues to fatten the folds of the 
garments : one fide is ftudded with pearl, or coarfe gems, in a very 
rude manner ; on the other, the names of the three kings of ColognCy 
Caspar, Melchior, Baltazar; with the word confummatim. 
It was probably a confecrated brotche, and worn not only for ufe,, 
but as an amulet. Kejjler'% account of the virtues attributed to 
their names confirms my opinion. He fays that they were written 
on flips of paper in this form, and worn as prefervatives againft the 
falling-ficknefs : 

* It poffibly might have been made daring the expedition of Severatt who peae^ 
trated to the extremity of this iiland. It was the moft sortbera work of the Rmsmi 
of iriiich I had any intelligence, 


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1041 A T O U R 

Gafpar fert Myrrham, Thus Melcbior^ Balthazar Aurum ; 
Solvitur a morbo Cbrijli pictate caduco. 

Return South, and come at once in fight of Locb-^ay. The 
day very fine and calm, the whole fccne was moft beautifully 
repeated in the water. I muft not omit that on the North fide 
of this lake is a moft excellent road, which runs the whole 
length of it, leading to Tiendrum and Iiweraray^ in Argykjhire^ 
and is the route which travellers muft take, who make what I 
call the petit tour* of Scotland. This whole road was made at 
the fole expence of the prefent Lord Breadalbane\ who, to fa- 
cilitate the travelling, alfo erefted thirty- two ftone bridges over 
the torrents that rulh from the mountains into the lake. They 
Roads, will find the whole country exccll in roads, partly military, 

partly done by ftatute labor, and much by the munificence of the 
great men. 

I was informed, that Lord Breadaliane's eftate was fo extenfive 
that he could ride a hundred miles an end on it, even as far 
as the Weft Sea, where he has alfo fome iflands. Thefe great 
properties are divided into diftridts, called Officiaries : a ground 
officer prefides over each, and has three, four, or five hundred 
men under his care. He fuperintends the duties due from each 

* Which comprehends the route I have defcribed ; adding to it, from Taym§mt^, 
along the road, on the fide of the lake, to KiUiM, i6 miles ; from thence to 
Tiendrumf 20; GUnorcbie^ 12 ; Iii*verarajt 16 ; Lu/s^ on the banks of Locb^L^ 
mondf 30 ; Dunbar to ft, 12 ; Gla/gow^ 15 ; Sterlings 31 ; Edinburgb^ hy HopeUum 
Hoafe, 35 ; a tTa£l unparalleled, for the variety and frequency of fine andinagni- 
ficent fcenery. 


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to their Lord, fuch as fetching peat, bringing coal from Crieff 
&c. which they do, at their own expence, on horfcs backs, tra- 
velling in firings, the tail of one horfe being fattened by a cord, 
which reaches to the head of the next : the horfes are little, and 
generally white or grey •, and as the farms are very fmall, it is com- 
mon for four people to keep a plough between them, each furnifh- 
ing a horfe, and this is called a horfe-gang. 

The north fide of Locb-Tay is very populous ; for in fixteen 
fquare miles are feventcen hundred and eighty-fix fouls : on the 
other fide, about twelve hundred. The country, within thefe 
thirty years, manufadlures a great deal of thread. They fpin with 
rocks *, which they do while they attend their cattle on the hills ; 
and, at the four fairs in the year, held at Kinmore^ above fixteen 
hundred pounds worth of yarn is fold out of Breadalbane only : 
which (hews the great increafe of induftry in thefe parts, for lefs 
than forty years ago there was not the left trade in this article. 
The yarn is bought by perfons who attend the fairs for that pur- 
pofe, and fell it again at Pertb^ ClafgoWy and other places, where it 
is manufaftured into cloth. 

Much of this may be owing to the good fenfe and humanity of 
the chieftain ; but much again is owing to the abolition of the 
feudal tenures, or vaflalage ; for before that was efFeded, (which* 
was done by the influenceof a Chancellor f , v^hofe memory Scotland 

* Their Lord gives among them annaally a great number of fpinning-wheeb, 
which will Toon caafe the difufe of the rock. 

t Earl oiHardwick, who may be truly faid to have given to the North Britom 
their great charter of liberty. 

P gratefully 


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gratefuUy adores for that fervicc) the Strbng opprefled the Weak; 
the Rich the Poor. Courts indeed were held, and juries called ^ 
but juries (^ valTals, too dependent and too timid to be relied on for 
the execution of true juftice* 
Ave. I. Leave Taymcutb ; ford the Li^Mj and ride above it thro* fome 

woods. On the left burfts out a fine cafcade, in a deep hollow, 
covered with trees : at a fnuU diftance to the Weft is Caftle 
Gartbj a fmall caftle feated like C^k Camphelly between two deep 
glens. Keep afcending a fteep hill, but the corn country con- 
tinues for a while: the fcene then changes for a wild, black, 

RAKHotH. and mountainous heath. Defcend into Rannocb^ a meadowy plain, 
tolerably fertile : the lake of the fame name extends from Eaft 
to Weft ; is about eleven miles long, and one broad : the 
Northern bank spears very barren •, part of the Southern finely 

PfNB FORET. covered with a foreft oi pine and birch, the firft natural woods 
J had iiben of pines : rode a good way in it, but obferved no 
trees of any fize, except a birch fixteen feet in circumference: 
the ground beneath the trees is covered with heath, bilberies, 
and dwarf abutus, whofe glofly leaves make a pretty appearance. 
Roil. This place gives Ihelter to black game, and Roes. Thefe ani- 

mals are found from the banks of Locb Lomond^ as far North 
as the entrance into Catbnefs : in fummer their hair is ihort, 
fmooth, glo0y, and red ; at approach of winter grow^ long 
and hoary, and proves an excellent defence againft the rigor of 
the Highland air. The weight of a full grown Roe is 60 lb. 
The horns of the feconcj year are ftrait, flender, and without 
any branch : in the third become bifurcated : in the fourth, 
trifurcated, and grow more fcabrous and ftronger, in proportion 


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.j^.^jfMy.^, &f^^^y -^^z 

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to their longevity. They feed during fummer on grafet and 
are remarkably fond of the Ruhu SaxatiUs^ called in the Higb^ 
landsy on that account, the Roebuck Berry. When the ground 
is covered with fnow, they browze on the extreme branches of 
the pine and juniper. They bring two young at a time : the 
fawns elegantly fpotted with white. It is extremely difficult to 
rear them \ commonly eight out of ten dying in the attempt. 
The flelh of the Roe is by fome accoimted a delicacy : to 
me it itemed very dry. They keep in fmall families of five or 

Near thefe woods is a faw-mill, which is rented from the 
Government: and the tenant is obliged to work i^o tuns of 
timber annually, paying eighteen (hillings and fix-pence per tun. 
The deal, which is the red fort, is fold in plank to different parts 
of the country, carried on horfes backs, for the trees are now grown 
fo fcarce as not to admit of exportation *. 

The lake affords no other filh than Trouts, fmall Chars, and 
Bull Trouts; the laft, as I was informed, are fometimes taken 
of the length of four feet and a half. Many water fowl breed 
in the birns or little ftreams that trickle into the lake ; among 
others, different forts of Grebes and Divers : I was told of one 
which the inhabitants call Fur-hbuacbaiUe^ that makes a great noife 
before ftorms, and by their defcription find it to be the fpeckled 
Diver, Br. Zool. 2d. ed. II. 414. No rats have hitherto been ob- 
fcrved in this country. 

This country was once the property of Robertfm of Struan, and 

* Some Pot- Afli if alfo made of the Birch Wood. 

P 2 was 


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Thb Pobt was granted to an anccftor of his, as a reward for taking Robert 
Graham^ the ruffian who murdered ^^^^j^-^ I. It was then valued at a 
hundred marks. He was likewifc permitted to bear in his coat of arms 
a Graham bound in chains. A defcendent of his, ftyled Mac-Rjobert^ 
was the moll potent plunderer of his days, and, at the head of eight 
hundred men, for a long time ravaged Atbol and the adjoining 
countries, in the beginning of the reign of James V. but at length 
was iurprized and flain *. The late Shruan feemed to inherit his 
turbulent difpofition. He had been in the rebellion of 1715; had 
his eftate rcftored, but in 1745 rebelling a fecond time, the country 
was burnt, and the eftate annexed to the crown. He returned a 
few years after, and died as he lived, a moft abandoned fot ; not- 
withftanding which, he had a genius for poetry, and left behind 
him a volume of elegies and other pieces, in fome of which 
he elegantly laments the ravages of war among his vaffals, 
and the lofs of his favorite fcenes, and in particular his foun- 
tain Argentine. 

The country is perfedlly highland ; and in fpite of the inter- 
courfe this and the neighboring parts have of late years had 
SupiRiTiTioNt. with the reft of the world, it ftill retains fome of its antient cuftoms 
and fuperftitions : they decline daily, but leaft their memory ibould 
be loft, I (hall mention feveral that are ftill praftifed, or but very 
lately difufed in the trad I had pafled over. Such a record wijl 
have this advantage, when the follies are quite extinft, in teaching 
the unfliackled and enlightened mind the difference between the 
pure ceremonies of peligion, and the wild and anile flights of 

* BucbaMOHt lib. xiii. c. 47. 


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The belief in fpeftres ftill exifts -, of which I had a remarkable Sfictris, 
proof while I was in the county oi Breadalbane. A poor vifionary, 
who had been working in his cabbage garden, imagined that he 
was railed fuddenly into the air, and conveyed over a wall into an 
adjacent corn-field * ; that he found himfclf furrounded by a crowd 
of men and women, many of whom he knew to have been dead 
Tome years, and who appeared to him (kimming over the tops of the 
unbended corn, and mingling together like bees going to hive : that 
they fpoke an unknown language, and with a hollow found : that 
they very roughly pufhed him to and fro; but on his uttering the 
name of God, all vanifbed but a female fprite, who feizing him by 
the Ihouldcr, obliged him to promife an affignation, at that very 
hour, that day fevennight : that he then found that his hair was all 
tied in double knots, and that he had almoft loft the ule of his 
fpeech : that he kept his word with the fpeftrc, whom he foon faw 
come floating thro* the air towards him : that he fpoke to her, but 
Ihe told him at that time fhe was in too much hafte to attend to 
him, but bid him go away, and no harm (hould befall him \ and fo 
the affair refted when I left the country. But it is incredible the 
mifchief thefe ^Egri Somnia did in the neighborhood : the friends 
and relations of the deccafed, whom the old Dreamer had named, 
were in the utmoft anxiety at finding them in fuch bad company in 
the other world : the almoft extinft belief of the old idle tales began 
again to gain ground, and the good minifter will have many a weary 

* Thefe tales of fpe^ral tranfportations are far from being new ; Mr. Auhrty^ 
in his Mtfcdlanie«, p. 13^ gives two ridic a lous relations of almoft fimilarfadb, one 
in Divtnjbtrif the other in the Ihire oiMurny. 



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difcourfe and exhortation before he can eradicate the abfurd ideas 
this idle ftory has revived. 

In this part of the country the notion of witchcraft is quite loft : 
it was obferved to ccafe almoft immediately on the repeal of the 
witch aA * ; a proof what a dangerous inftrument it was in the 
hands of the vindiftive, or of the credulous. 

Among the fuperftitious cuftoms thefe are the moft fmgular. 
UwLucKt DAY. A Highlander never begins any thing of coniequence on the day of 
the week on which the 3d of May falls, which he ftyles La Sheach- 
atma na bkanagby or the difmal day. 
BiL-TiiK* On the ift of May^ the herdfmen of every village hold their 

Bel-teinfy a rural facrifice. They cut a fquare trench on the 
ground, leaving the turf in the middle ; on that they make a 
fire of wood, on which they drcfs a large caudle of eggs, but^ 
ter, oatmeal and milk ; and bring, befides the ingredients of 
the caudle, plenty of beer and whifky •, for each of the com- 
pany muft contribute fomething. The rites begin with Ipilling 
fome of the caudle on the ground, by way of libation : on that 
every one takes a cake of oatmeal, upon which are raifed nine 
fquare knobs, each dedicated to fome particular being, the fup- 
pofed prefervtr of their flocks and herds, or to fome particular 
animal, the real deftroyer of them : each perfon then turns his 
face to the fire, breaks off a knob, and flinging it over his 

* Which waa not till the year 1736. 

t My accoiuK of thif» tokd erery other ceremoay meatioiied in tUt Joomal^ 
was eommimioated to sm b|r a genikiaaa xc&dtnl oa the ^t where they were 


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(boulders, fays. This I give to tbee, preferve thou my borfes % this 
to thee^ preferve thou myflHep s and fo on. After that, they ule the 
iame ceremony to the noxious animals : SlfoV I give to thee^ O Fox ! 
{pare thou my kmbs \ thi^ to tbee^ O hooded Crow ! this to thee^ 

When the ceremony is over, they dine on the caiidlc -, and after 
the fcaft is finifhed, what is left is hid by two perfons deputed for 
that purpofe ; but on the next Sunday they reafiemble, and finilh the 
leliques of the firft cntertainmem *. 

On the death of a Highlander, the corpi being ftretched on ^ Funiral 
board, and covered with a coarfe linnen wrapper, the friends lay Cuitomi. 
on the bread of the deceafed a wooden platter, containing a fmall 
quantity of fait and earth,* leparate and unnfiixed ; the earth, an 
emblem of the corruptible body ; the felt, an emblem of the im- 
mortal fpirit. All fire is cxtinguiihed where a corps is kept -, and 
it is reckoned fo ominous for a dog or cat to pafs over it, that the 
poor animal is killed without mercy. 

* A cnftom, fiiToring of tke Scotch Bil-teUt prevales io Gluuiftirfinrit partica- 
larly aboot NrwiMt and the neighboring pariihes, on the twelfth day, or on the 
Epipbsmj^t in the evening. Ail the fervants of every particular farmer afTemble 
together in one of the fields that has been fown with wheat ; on the border of 
which, in the moft coofpcaons or moft elevated place* they make twelve firea of 
ftrawy in a row ; aronnd on« of which* made larger than the reft, they drink a 
chearful glafs of cyder to their maker's health, fuccefs to the future harvell, and 
then returning home, they feaft on cakes made of.carraways, Sec* foaked in cyder, 
which they dame a« a rewiird for their paft labors in (owing the grain. 1 his fee^ns ^ 

to refemble a cuftom of tht antient Dams, who, in their addreiTes to their deities 
emptied, on every invocation, a cup in hopor of them. Niordi et Freja numoria 
foadis rtcokbaiurf atuma ut ipfit conimginnt feliciiaSf frugum^9 #/ nUjua: annoit^ 
mhirrimus frovintus. Worm. Monum. Dan. lib. i./. 28. 


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Latb-waki. Tht Late-wake is a ceremony ufed at funerals. The evening 

after the death of any perfon, the relations and friends of the 
deceafed meet at the houfe, attended by bagpipe or fiddle -, the 
nearcft of kin, be it wife, fon, or daughter, opens a melancholy 
ball, dancing and greeting, i. e. crying violently at the fame 
time ; and this continues till day-light ; but with fuch gambols 
and frolicks among the younger part of the company, that the 
lofs which occafioned them is often more than fupplicd by the 
confequences of that night*. If the corps remains unburied 
for two nights, the fame rites are renewed. Thus, Scytbian-Yikc^ 
they rejoice at the deliverance of their friends out of this life 
of mifery. 

This cuftom is an antient Englijh one, perhaps a Saxon. Cbaucn 
mentions it in his Knight's Tale. 

Nc how the licbe-'waki was yhold 
All thilke night. 

It was not alone in Scotland that thefe watchings degenerated into 
excefs. Such indecencies we find long ago forbidden by the church. 
In vigiliis circa corpora mortuorum vctantur chorea et cantilena^ fecutares 
ludi et alii turpes ^ fatm +. 
CoRAificH Tht Coranicbj or fingingat funerals, is ftill in ufe in fome places : 

the fongs are generally in praife of the deceafed ; or a reckal of the 
valiant deeds of him or his anceftors. I had not the fortune to be 

• This caftom was derived from their Northern anceftors. Long} ficurius mori* 
indum tjfi arhitrantur^ quam *uivinJum : puerpnia luSu^ ^uneraque fefti<uo catau^ ut 
in plurimum coneeltbrantes. Olaus Magnus. 1 16. 

t Synod. Wigom. An. 1240. c. 5. as quoted in Mr. Tyrwbith Cbauar, IV. 234. 


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prcfent at any in North Britain^ but formerly aflifted at one in the 
South of Ireland^ where it was performed in the fuUnefs of horror. 
The cries are called by the Irijh the 'Ulogobne and Hulluluj two 
words extremely cxpreflive of the found uttered on thefe occafions, 
and being of C^///Vftock, Etymologifts would fwear to be the origin 
of the oA«Ai/>«i' of the Greeks^ and Ululatus of the Latins. Virgil is 
very fond of ufing the laft, whenever any of his females are dif- 
trefled ; as are others of the Roman Poets, and generally on occa- 
fions fimilar to this. 

It was my fortune to arrive at a certain town in Kerry ^ at the time 
that a perfon of fome diftinftion departed this life : my curiofity 
led me to the houfe, where the funeral fcemed condufted in the 
pureft claflical form. 

Siuodcunque afpicerem lu^usgemitufquefonabant^ 
Formaquenon taciti funeris intus erat. 

In (hort, the conclamatio was fct up by the friends in the fame manner 
as /^/r^/7 defcribes that confequential of Dido*s death. 

Lamentis gemituque etfamineo ululatu 

Immediately ^after this followed another ceremony, fully defcribed 
by Camden^ in his account of the manners of the antient IriJh ; the 
earneft expoftulations and reproaches given to the deceafed, for 
quitting this world, where fhe enjoyed fo many bleflings, fo good a 
huftand, fuch fine children. This cuftom is alfo of great antiquity, 
for Euryalus^s mother makes the fame pathetic addreis to her dead 

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Tune illafeneSia 
Sera tne£ requies ? potuijii reUnquere folam 
Crude lis? 

But when the time approached for carrying out the corps, the cry 
was redoubled, 

Tremulis ululatibus atbera complent ^ 

a numerous band of females waiting in the outer court, to attend the 
hcarfe, and to pay (in chorus) the laft tribute of their voices. The 
habit of this forrowing train, and the negleft of their perfons, were 
admirably fuited to the occafion : their robes were black and flow- 
ing, refembling the antient Palla ; their feet naked,, their hair long 
and dilheveled : I might truely fay„ 

Vidi egomet nigra fuccinSlam vadere palld 
Canidiam ; pedibus nudis^ pajfoque capiUa^ 
Cum Sagana majore ululantem. 

Among thefe mourners were difperfed the females who fung the 
praifes of the deceafed, and were in the place of the Mulieres Prafic^ 
of the Romans^ and like them,^ a mercenary tribe. I could not but 
obfcrve that they over-did their parts, as Horace acquaints us the 
hireling mourners of his days did. 

Ut qui conduSli plorant infunere^ dieunt 
Et faciunt prope plura dolentibus ex animo. 

The corps was carried flowly along the verge of a moft beautiful 
lake, the ululaius was continued, and the whole proceflion ended 


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I N S C O T J. A N D. 115 

among the venerable ruins of an old abby. But to return to North 

Midwives give new-born babes a fmall fpoonfuU of earth and 
whifky, as the firft food they tafte. 

Before women bake their bannocks, or oatmeal cakes, they form a 
crofs on the laft they make. 

The notion of fecond-fight ftill prevales in a few places : as does 
the belief of Fairies ; and children are watched till the chriftening Fairibi. 

is over, left they fhould be ilole, or changed. 

Elf'Jbots^ i. e. the ftone arrow-heads of the old inhabitants of 
this ifland, are fuppofed to he weapons (hot by Fairies at cattle, to 
which are attributed any difordcrs they have : in order to effcdt 
a cure, the cow is to be touched by an elf-fhot, or made to drink 
the water in which one has been dipped. The fame virtue is faid 
to be found in the cryftal gems *, and in the adder-ftonc, our Glein 
Naidr ; and it is alfo believed that good fortune muft attend the 
owner ; fo, for that reafon, the firft is called Clacb Bhuaiy or the 
powerful ftone. Captain Archibald CampbeU Ihewed me one, a 
fpheroid fet in filver, for the ufc of which, people came above a 
hundred miles, and brought the water it was to be dipt in with 
them ; for without that, in human cafes, it was believed to have no 

Thefe have been fuppofed to be magical ftones or gems ufed by. 
the Druidsy to be infpefted by a chafte boy, who was to fee in them 
an apparition informing him of future events. This impofture, as 

• JFoodward't Method of Foffih, p. 30. See alfo Mr. Aubrt/% MiTccllaAiefy 
p. 128. 

0^2 WC 

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we are told by Dodor JVoodwardy was revived in the laft century 
by the famous Doftor Dee^ who called it Kisjbewftone and bolyjione^ 
and pretended, by its means, to foretell events. I find in Mont^ 
faucon *, that it was cuftomary in early times to depofite Balls of 
this kind in urns or fepulchers : thus twenty were found at Rome 
in an alabaftrine urn : and one was difcovered in 1653, ^^ ^^e 
tomb of Childeric at Toumai -, he was King of France^ and died 
A. D. 480. 
Auo. J. Left Carrie^ the houfe of Mr. Campbell^ fador for the Struan 

eftate, where I had a very hofpitable reception the preceding night. 
Went due Eaft ; paffed over a bridge crofs the Tumely which dif- 
charges itfelf out of Locb-Rannocb. Not far off were fome neat 
fmall houfes, inhabited by veteran foldiers, who were fettled here 
after the peace of 1748 •, had land, and three pounds in money 
given, and nine pounds lent to begin the world with. In fome 
few places this plan fucceeded ; but in general was fruftrated by 
the diflipation of thcfe new colonifts, who could by no means 
relifh an induftrious life-, but as foon as the money was fpent, 
which feldom lafted long, left their tenements to be poffeffed 
by the next comer. 

Saw a ftamping-mill, calculated to reduce lime-ftone to a fine 
powder, in order to fave the expence of burning, for manure. 
The Hampers beat it into fmall pieces in a trough, which a ftream 
of water paffed through, carrying off the finer parts into a proper 
receptacle, the grbfs ones being ftopped by a grate. I did not find 
that this project anfwered ; but was told, that the benefit 

• La Monumfu d$ la Monarcbii Francoifu 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 117 

the land was to receive from it, would not appear till the third 

On going up a ftecp hill, have a fine view of the lake. Where 
the mountains almoft clofe is Mount Alexander^ where Struan once 
rcfided, and which he called his hermitage : it is a moft roman- 
tic fituation, prettily wooded, impending over ^ fine balbn, 
formed by the Tumel^ in a deep hollow beneath. At the bottom 
of this hill is Argentine^ sl little fountain ; to which he gave that Arcektini. 
name from the filvery mic^e it flings up : near this are feveral 
rude but beautiful walks amidft the rocks and trees, among 
which, in clefts and chafms, I was ftiewn the hard bed of the 
poor poet, when his difloyalty had made it penal for him to 
Ihew his head. Near this the rocks almoft meet, and the river 
rufties with vaft violence between. Some outlawed McGregors were 
once furprized on the precipice, and all killed ; one, who made a 
defperate leap upon a ftone in the middle of the water, and another 
to the oppofite fide, had the hard fate to be (hot in climbing the 
rocky fteeps. 

A mile lower are the falls of the Tumel: I have feen higher ; 
but, except that of the Rbine^ never faw one with more water. 

Afcend a very fteep and high hill, through a great birch 
wood ; a moft pifturefque fcene, from the pendent form of the 
boughs waving with the wind from the bottom to the utmoft 
fummits of the mountain. On attaining the top, had a view of 
the beautiful little Straitb^ fertile and prettily wooded, with the 
river in the middle, forming numbers of quick meanders, then 
fuddenly fwelling into a lake, that fills the vale from fide to 
fide 5 is about three miles long, and retains the name of the 


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river. After riding along a black moor, in fight of vaft moun- 
tains, arrive at 

Blair *, or Athol Houfe, featcd on an eminence above a plain, 
watered by the Gary^ an outrageous ftream, whofe ravages have 
greatly deformed the vally, by the vaft beds of gravel which it has 
left behind. The houfe was once fortified, and held a fiege againft 
the Rebels in 1746; but at prefent is much reduced in height, and 
the infide highly finiflied by the noble owner. The moft Angular 
piece of furniture is a cheft of drawers made of broom, moft ele- 
gantly ftriped in veins of white and brown. This plant grows to a 
great fize in Scotland^ and furniflies pieces of the breadth of fix 

Near the houfe is a fine walk, furrounding a very deep glen finely 
wooded, but in dry weather deficient in water at the bottom ; but 
on the fide of the walk on the rock is a fmall cryftalline fountain, 
inhabited at that time by a pair of Naiads, in form of golden fifh. 
In a fpruce fir was a hang-neft of fome unknown bird, fufpended 
at the four corners to the boughs j it was open at top, an inch and 
a half in diameter, and two deep -, the fides and bottom thick, the 
materials mofs, worfted, and birch bark, lined with hair and fea- 
thers. The ftreams afford the Parry a fmall fpecies of Trout, 
feldom exceeding eight inches in length, marked on the fides 
with nine large bluifti fpots, and on the lateral line with fmall red 
ones -f-. 

No traveller Ihould omit vifiting Torke Cafcade, z magnificent 

* Or a level clear fpot of groand, a fit place for an «Dgagenent« 
t The Samlet. £r. ZmI. HI. No. 148. 


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catarad, atnidft moft fuitablc fccncry, about a mile diftant from the • 

This country is very mountanous, has no natural woods, except 
of birch j but the vaft plantations that begin to cloath the hills will 
amply fupply thefe defeds. There is a great quantity of oats 
raifcd in this neighborhood, and numbers of black cattle reared, 
the refources of the exhaufted parts oi South Britain. 

Vifit the pafs of if/7//Vrtf»^i>, about five miles South of Blair: Killicrankib, 
near the Northern entrance was fought the battle between the 
Vifcount Dundee and General Mackay, in which the firft was killed 
in the moment of viftory. The pafs is extremely narrow between 
high mountains, with the Gary running beneath in a deep, dark- 
fome, and rocky channel, over-hung with trees, forming a fcenc 
of horrible grandeur. The road through this ftrait is very fine, 
formed by the foldiery lent by the Government, who have fix- 
pence per day from the country, befides their pay. About a mile 
beyond the pafs, Mr. Robertfon\ of Fajkally^ appears like fairy 
ground, amidft thefe wild rocks, feated in a moft beautiful meadow, 
watered by the river ^umeU furroundcd with pretty hills, finely • 

The Duke of -A/^(?/*s eftate is very extenfive, and the country 
populous : while vaffalage exifted, the chieftain could raife two or 
three thoufand fighting men, and leave fufficient at home to take 
care of the ground. The forefts^ or rather chafes, (for they are 
quite nakedj are very extenfive, and feed vaft numbers of Stags, 
which range at certain times of the year, in herds of five hundred. 
Some grow to a great fize: I have heard of one that weighed 18 
ftone^ Scots^ or 314 lb. exclufive of head,, entrails and ilkin. The 


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120 A T O U R 

hunting of thefe animals was formerly after the manner of an 
Great Eajiem monarch. Thoufands of vaflals furrounded a great traft 

Huntings. ^f country, and drove the Deer to the fpot where the Chief- 
tains were ftationed, who fhot them at their leifure. The mag- 
nificent hunt, made by an Earl of Aihdly near this place, for 
the amufement of James V. and the Queen-mother, is too re- 
markable to be omitted ; the relation is therefore given as defcribed 
by Sir David Undfay of the Mouni *, who, in all probability, aflifted 
at it. 

" The Earl of Atbole^ hearing of the King's coming, made 
" great provifion for him in all things pertaining to a prince, 
" that he was as well fcrved and eafed, with all things necef- 
" fary to his eftate, as he had been in his own palace of Edin-^ 
" burgh. For I heard fay, this noble Earl gart make a curious 
" palace to the King, to his Mother, and to the Embaflador, 
" where they were fo honourably eafed and lodged as they had 
" been in England^ France^ Italy^ or Spain^ concerning the time 
'* and equivalent, for their hunting and paftime-, which was 
" builded in the midft of a fair meadow, a fair palace of 
green timber, wind with green birks, that were green both 
under and above, which was falhioned in four quarters, and 
" in every quarter and nuik thereof a great round, as it had 
" been a block-houfe, which was lofted and gefted the fpace 
" of three houfe height ; the floors laid with green fcarets 
** fpreats, medwarts and flowers, that no man knew whcre- 
*' on he zcid, but as he had been in a garden. Further, there 


Hift. ScotUndt 146. 

" were 

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" were two great rounds in ilk fide of the gate, and a great 
" portcuUeis of tree, falling down with the manner of a bar- 
" race, with a draw- bridge, and a great ftahk of water of fix- 
*' teen foot deep, and thirty foot of breadth. And alfo this 
" palace within was hung with fine tapeftry and arrafles of filk, 
" and lighted with fine glafs windows in all airths ; that this 
" palace was as pleafantly decored, with all ncceflaries per- 
** taining to a prince, as it had been his own palace-royal at 
" home. Further, this Earl gart make fuch provifion for the 
" King, and his Mother, and the EmbaflTador, that they had 
'* all manner of meats, drinks, and delicates that were to be 
*' gotten, at that time, in all Scotland^ either in burgh or land 5 
'* that is to fay, all kind of drink, as ale, beer, wine, both 
" white and claret, malvery^ mujkadel^ HippocraSj aquaviu. Fur- 
*' ther, there was of meats, wheat-bread, main-bread and gingc- 
" bread ; with flefhes, beef, mutton, lamb, veal, venifon, goofe, 
** grice, capon, coney, cran, fwan, partridge, plover, duck, 
" drake, briflel-cock and pawnes, black-cock and muir-fowl, 
" cappercaillies : and alfo the ftanks, that were round about 
" the palace, were full of all delicate fifhes, as falmonds, trouts, 
" pearches, pikes, eels, and all other kind of delicate fifhes, 
*' that could be gotten in frefli waters ; and all ready for the 
" banket. Syne were there proper fl:ewards, cunning baxters, 
" excellent cooks and potingars, with confections and drugs for 
*' their deferts •, and the halls and chambers were prepared with 
*V coftly bedding, veflfel and napery, according for a king, fo that 
" he wanted none of his orders more than he had been at home 
*' in his own palace. The King remained in this wildcrnefs, 

R '' at 

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•* at the hunting, the fpacc of three days and three nights^ 
" and his company, as I hare Ihewn. I heard men fay, it 
*' coft the Earl of Athole^ every day, in expences, a thoufand 
" pounds.** 

But hunting meetings, among the great men, were often the 
preludes to rebellion ; for under that pretence they colledtcd 
great bodies of men without fufpicion, which at length occafioncd 
an a6t of parlement prohibiting fuch dangerous affemblies. 
Aug. 3« Set out for the county of Aberdeen -, ride Eaftward over a hill 

GxiN-TuT. jj^^^ Glen-Tik^ famous in old times for producing the moft hardy 
warriors, is a narrow glen, feveral miles in length, bounded on 
each fide by mountains of an amazing height; on the South is 
the great hill of Ben y gloy whofe bafe is thirty-five miles in 
circumference,, and whofe fummit towers far above the others. 
The fides of many of thefc mountains is covered with fine 
verdure, and are excellent Iheep-walks : but entirely woodlcfs. 
The road is the nfK)ft dangerous and the moft horrible I ever 
travelled: a narrow path, fo rugged, that our horfes often 'were 
obliged to crofs their legs, in order to pick a fecure place for 
their feet; while,, at a confiderable and precipitous depth be- 
neath, roared a black torrent, rolling through a bed of rock,, 
folid in every part, but where the TiU had worn its antient way*. 
Salmon force their paffage even as high as this dreary ftream, in- 
fpite of the diftance from the fea, and the difficulties they have 
to encounter. 

Afcend a fteep hill, and find ourfelves on an Jrrie^ or trafi of 
mountain which the families of one or two hamlets retire to with 
their flocks for pafturc in fummer. Here we refreffaed ourfelves 


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with ibmc goats' whey, at a SbeeSuy or Boibay^ a cottage made of 
furf, the dairy-houfe, where the Highland fhcpherds, or graziers, 
live with their herds and flocks, and during the fine feafon make 
butter and chcefe. Their whole furniture confifts of a few horn- 
fpoons, their milking utenfils, a couch formed of fods to lie on^ 
and a rug to cover them. Their food oat-cakes, butter or cheefe, 
and often the coagulated blood of their cattle fpread on their ban- 
nocs. Their drink, milk, whey, and fometimes, by way of indul- 
gence, whifky. Such dairy-houfcs are common to moft mountanou* 
countries; thofe in fFalis are called Hafodiai^ or Summer-houfcs \ 
thofe on the Swifs Alps^ Sennes. 

Dined on the fide of Locb-Tilty a fmall piece of water, fwarming 
with Trouts. Continued our journey over a wild, black, moory^ 
melancholy trad. Reached Brae-mar f-, the country alipoft in- 
ilantly changed, and in lieu of dreary waftes, a rich vale, plenteous 
in corn and grafs, fucceeded. Crofs the D^e near its head, which, 
from an infignificant ftream, in the courfe of a very few miles, in- 
creafes to the fize of a great river, from the influx of nuqibers of 
other waters; and is remarkable for continuing near fifty miles of 
its courfe, from Invercauld to within fix miles of Aberdeen^ without 
^ny fenfible augmentation. The rocks of Brae-mar^ on the Eaft, 
are exceedingly romantic, finely wooded with pine. The cliflTs arc 
very lofty, and their front moft rugged and broken, with vaft pines 
growing out of their fiflTures. 

On the North fide of the river lies Balmore^ diftinguilhed by the 
jfineft natural pines in Europe^ both in refpeft to the fize of the trees. 




forbit ov 

^ Broi fignifiet a ftcep face of any hill. 

' and 

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and the quality of the timber. Single trees have been fold out of it 
for fix guineas : they were from eighty to ninety feet high, without 
a lateral branch, and four feet and a half in diameter at the 
lower end. The wood is very refinous, of a dark red color, and 
very weighty. It is preferable to any brought from Norway^ and 
being fawn into plank on the (pot, brings annually to the proprietor 
a large revenue. On the oppofite fide of the river is the eftate of 
Inverey^ noted alfo for its pines, but of a fize inferior to thofe of 
Dalmore. When the river is fwelled with rains, great floats of 
timber from both thefe cftates, are fcnt down into the Low 

This traft, abounding with game, was, in old times, the an- 
nual refort of numbers of nobility, who aflfembled here to pafs 
a month or two in the amufements of the chace. Their hunt- 
ings refembled campaigns -, they lived in temporary cottages, 
called Lonquhardsj were all dreflfed in an uniform habit con- 
formable to that of the country, and paflcd their time with 
jollity and good chear mod admirably dcfcribed by John Taylor ^ the 
water poet, who, in 1618, made there his Pennikfe Pilgrimage^ and 
defcribes, in page 135, the rural luxury with all the glee of a Sancbo 

" I thank my good Lord Erjkin^^ (fays the Poet) " hee com- 

" manded that I ftiould alwayes bee lodged in his lodging, the 

" kitchen being alwayes on the fide of a banke, many kettles and 

^ *' pots boyling, and many fpits turning and winding, with great 

" variety of cheere: as venifon bak'd, fodden, roft and ftu'de beefe, 

mutton, goates, kid, hares, frefh falmon, pidgeons, hens, capons, 

chickens, partridge, moore-coots, heath-cocks, caperkellies, and 

*^* termagants: 


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" termagants-, good ale, facke, white and claret, tent or (Allegant) 
*' and moft potent aquaviu *. 

" AH 

• TheFreitcbf during the reign o£ Charles IX. fccmcd not only to have made 
full as large facrifices to Diana and Bacchus, bat even thought their entertainment 
incomplete without the prefence of Femus. Jacques du Fouilloux^ a celebrated writer 
on huDting of that age, with mnch ferioufoefs defcribes all the requifites for the 
chace» and thus places and equips the jovial crew : — * L'Aflemblee fe doit faire 

* en quelque beau lieu foubs des arbres aupres d'une fontainc ou RuifTeau, li 
' ou les veneurs fe doiuent tous rendre pour faire leur rapport. Ce pendant le 

* Sommelier doit venir avec trois bons chevaux charges d'inftrumens pour arroufir 
' U gofuTt comme coutrets, barraux, barils, flacons et bouteilles : lefquelles doiuent 
' eftre pleines de bon vin ePArheiSf dt Btausatt dt Chaloa it dt Graut : luy eilanc 
' defcendn du cheval, les metra refraifchir en Peau, ou biens les pourra faire refro- 
' idir ayec du Canfre: apres il edranda la nappe fur la verdure. Ce fait» le cuiH- 
' nier s'en viendra charge de plufiers hons harnois dt gutule^ comme jambons^ Ian* 
' goes de boeuf fumees» groins, oreilles de pourceau, cervelats, efchinees, pieces 
' de boBuf de Saifon, carbonnades, jambons de Mayenct^ paftez, longes de veau 
' froides couuertes de pondre blanche, et autres menus fuifrages pur remplir le 
' boodin lequel il metra fur la nappe* 

*• Lors le Roy ou le Seigneur avec ceux de fa table eftrendront leurs manteaux 

* fur rherbe, et fe concheront de code delTusy beuuans, mangeans» rians et 

* faifans grand chere ;' and that nothing might be wanting to render the enter* 
tainment of fnch a fet of merry men complete, honefl Jacques adds, ' et 8*il y a 
' quelque femme de reputation en ce pays qui faffe plaifir aux compagnons, elle 
' doit etre allegnee, et {ti paifages et remuemens de ^t^^z^ attendant le rapport a 

* Yenir.* 

But when the great man fallies o«t to the chace of foxes and badgers, he feems 
not to leave fo important an affair to chance, fo fets off* thus amply provided in 
his triumphal car ; * Le Seigneur,* (fays Fouilloux) * doit avoir fa petite charrettej^ 
' la oi^ il fera dedans, avec la Fillette agee de feize a dix fept ani, laquelle luy 
' frottera la telle par les chemins. Toutes les chevilles et paux de la charrette^ 

* doiuent 


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,26 A T O U R 

" All thefe, and more than thcfe^ wc had continually, in faper- 
" fluous abundance, caught by faulconers, fowlers, filhers, and 
" niy Lord's (Mar) tenants and purveyors, to vidtual 
** our campe, which confifted of fourteen or fifteen hundred men, 
** and horfes. The manner of the hunting is this : five or fix hun- 
*' .dred men doc rife early in the morning, and they doe difperfe 
'" themfelves divers waycs, and feven, eight, or ten miles compaffe, 
" they doe bring or chafe in the deer in many heards (two, three, 
*' or four hundred in a heard) to fuch or fuch a place, as the noble- 
" men fliall appoint them ; then when day is come, the lords and 
^* gentlemen of their companies doe ride or goe to the faid places, 
" fometimes wading up to the middles through bournes and rivers ; 
'' and then they being come to the place, doc lie down on the 
** ground till thofe forefaid fcouts, which are called the Tinckhell^ 
" doe bring down the deer -, but, as the proverb fays of a bad 
*' cooke, fo thefe Tinckhell men doe lick their own fingers ; for, 
^* befides their bowes and arrows which they carry with them, wee 
" can heare now and then a harguebufe, or a mufquet, goe off, 
*' which doe feldom difcharge in vaine : then after wc had ftayed 
*' three houres, or thereabouts, we might perceive the deer appearc 
** on the hills round about us, (their heads making a Ihew like a 
*' wood) which being followed clofe by the TinckbeUy are chafed 

< doioenteftre garnis de flaccons et bouteilles, et doit avoir aa bout de la chanttte 

< an coffre de bois» plein dc coqs d'inde froide, jambons, langues de Boeqfs ct 
' autre bons harnois de gaelle, Et fi c'eil en temps d*hiver« il ponrra faire porter 
* Ton petit pavilion, et faire do feo dedans poar fe chaofferi on bien donner am 
-* xQup en robbc a la nymphe/ /. 35, 75. 

^* down 

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A T O U R ,27 

^ down into the valley where we lay ; then all the valley on each 
** fide being way-laid with a hundred couple of ftrong Irifli grey- 
** hounds, they are let loofe, as occafion ferves, upon the heard of 
*' deere, that with dogs, gunnes, arrows, durks and daggers, in 
^ the fpace of two houres, fourfcore fat deere were flaine, which 
** after are difpofed of fome one way and fome another, twenty or 
'* thirty miles, and more than enough left for us to make merry 
^ withall at our rendevouze. Being come to our lodgings, there 
^ was fuch baking, boyling, rolling and dewing, as if Cook Ruf- 
** fian had been there to have fcalded the Devil in his feathers.** 
But to proceed. 

Pafs by the caftle of Brae-mar ^ a fquare tower, the feat of the an- 
tient Earls ofA^r: in later times a garrifon to curb the difcontented 
chieftains ; but at prcfent unncccfTarily occupied by a company of 
foof, being rented by the Government from Mr. Farquharfon^ of In- 
^ercauldy whofe houfe I reach in lefs than half an hour. 

Invercauld is fcated in the centre of the Grampian hills, in a fertile 
vale, wafhed by the Dee^ a large and rapid river : nothing can be 
more beautiful than the different views from the feveral parts of it.. 
Qn the Northern entrance, immenfe ragged and broken crags bound. 
one fide of the profpeft ; over whofe grey fides and fummits is fcat- 
tcred the melancholy green of the pifturefque pine, which grows 
out o£ the nakcdrock^ whece one would think nature would have 
denied vegetation. 

A little lower down is the caftle above-mentioned ; formerly a- 
neceffary curb on the little kings of the country •, but at prcfent 
fcrves fcarce any purpofe, but to adorn the landfcape- 


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128 I N S C O T L A N D. 

The views from the flcirts of the plain near Iiyotrcauld^ are very 
great -, the hills that immediately bound it are cloathed with trees, 
particularly with birch, whofe long and pendent boughs, waving a 
vaft height above the head, furpafs the beauties of the weeping 

The Southern extremity is pre-eminently magnificent ; the moun- 
tains form there a vaft theatre, the bofom of which is covered with 
cxteafive forefts of pines : above, the trees grow fcarcer and fcarcer, 
and then fecm only to fprinkle the furface ; after which vegetation 
ceafes, and naked fummits * of a furprifing height fucceed, many 
of them topped with perpetual fnow ; and, as a fine contraft to 
the fcene, the great cataraft of Garval-bourn^ which feems at a 
diftance to divide the >yhole, foams amidft the dark foreft, rulhing 
from rock to rock to a vaft diftance. 

Some of thefe hills are fuppofed to be the higheft part of Great 
Britain : their height has not yet been taken, but the conjefturc is 
made from the defcent of the Dee^ which runs from Brae-mar -f to 
the fea, above feventy miles, with a moft rapid courfe. 

In this vale the Earl of Mar firft fet up the Pretender's ftandard 
on tho 6th of September 1715 ; and in confequence drew to dcftruc- 
tion his own, and fcveral of the moft noble families of North 

Rode to take a nearer view of the environs -, eroded the Dee on 
a good ftone-bridge, built by the Government, and entered on 

* The higheil is called Benj tourd, under which is a finall Lcfi, which I was 
tdd had ice the latter ehd of ytt/j. 

t t4c moft Jiftant from the fea of any place in Ntnii Britain. 


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I N , S C O T L A N D, U) 

excellent roads into a magnificent foreft of pines of many miles ex* Pine Poebit. 

tent. Some of the trees are of a vaft fize ; I meafured feveral that 

were ten, eleven, and even twelve feet in circumference, and near 

fixty feet high, forming a moft beautiful column, with a fine verdant 

capital. Thefe trees are of a great age, having, as is fuppofed, 

feen two centuries. Their value is confiderable -, Mr. Farqubarfon 

informed me, that by fawing and retailing them, he has got for 

eight hundred trees five-and-twenty ftiillings each : they are fawed 

in an adjacent faw-mill, into plank ten feet long, eleven inches broad, 

and three thick, and fold for two (hillings apiece. 

♦lear this antient foreft is another, confifting of fmaller trees, 
almoft as high, but very flender; one grows in a Angular manner 
out of the top of a great ftone, and notwithftanding it feems to have 
no other nourilhment than what it gets from the dews, is above 
thirty feet high. 

The profpeft above thefe forefts is very extraordinary, a 
diftant view of hills over a furfacc of verdant pyramids of 

I muft not omit, that there are in the moors of thefe parts, what 
I may call fubterraneous forefts, of the fame fpecies of trees, over- 
thrown by the rage of tempefts, and covered with vegetable mould. 
Thefe are dug up, and ufed for feveral mechanical purpofes. The 
finer and more refinous parts are fplit into (lender pieces, and fervc 
the purpofes of torches. Ceres made ufe of no other in her fcarch 
after her loft daughter. 

Flammifcra pinvs manibns foccendit ab ^inM. 

Ovip. Met. lib, V. 7. 

S At 

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At ^Etna's flaming mouth two pitchy pines 
To light her in her fearch at length (he tines,. 

This whole traft abounds with game: the Stags at this time 
were ranging in the mountains •, but the little Roebucks * were 
perpetually bounding before us ; and the black game often fprung 
under our feet. The tops of the hills fwarmed with Grous and 
Ptarmigans. Green Plovers, Whimbrels, and Snow-flecks f, breed 
here : the laft aflfemble in great flocks during winter, and colled 
lb clofely in their eddying flight, as to give the fportfinan opportu- 
nity of killing numbers at a (hot. Eagles J, Peregrine Falcons, 
and Gofhawks breed here : the Falcons in rocks, the Goftiawks in 
trees : the laft purfues its prey an end, and dafhes through every 
thing in purfuit ; but if it mifles its quarry, defifts from following 
k after two or three hundred yards flight. Thefe birds are pro- 
fcribed ; half a crown is given for an eagle,, a Ihilling for a hawk,, 
or hooded crow. 

Foxes are in thefc parts very ravenous, feeding 'on roes, Iheep,. 
and even flie goats.. 

Rooks vifit thefe vales in autumn, to feed on the different fort 
of berries ; but neither winter nor breed here. 

* Thefe animals are reared with great difficulty; even when taken young, eight 
out of ten generally die. 

t Br. ZooLL'S^ izi^ 

X The Ring.tail Eagle, called here the Black Eagle, I fufpea, fh)m the do- 
icription, that the Dotrel breeds httt. I heard alfo of a bird, called here Smatad^ 
na cuiritf but could not Brocnreit^ 


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I faw flying in the forefts, the greater Bulfinch of Mr. Edwards^ 
tab. 123, 124. the Loxia enucleator of Lintueus^ whofe food is the 
feed of pine cones ; a bird common to the north of Europe and 

On our return pafled under fome high cliffs ; with large woods 
of birch intermixed. This tree is ufed for all forts erf" imple- 
ments of hufbandry, roofing of fmall houfes, wheels, fuel ; the 
Highlanders alfo tan their own leather with the bark; and a 
great deal of excellent wine is extrafted from the live tree. 
Obferved among thefe rocks a fort of projefting flielf on which 
had been a hut, acccflible only by the help g( fome thongs, 
faftened by fome very expert climbers, to which the family got, 
in time of danger, in former days, with theic moft valuable 

The houfes of the common people in thefe parts are fhocking 
to humanity, formed with loofe ftones, and covered with clods, 
which they call devots^ or with heath, broom, or branches of 
6r : they look, at a diftance, like fo many black mole-hills. 
The inhabitants live very poorly, on oatmeal, barley-cdces and 
poutoes-, their drink whifky, fweetened with honey. The men 
arc thin, but ftrong; idle and lazy, except employed in the 
chace, or any thing that looks like amufement 5 arc content 
with their hard fare, and will not exert themfelves farther than 
to get what they deem neceflaries. The women are more in- 
duftrious, fpin their own hulbands' cloaths, and get money by knit- 
ting ftockings, the great trade of the country. The common 
women are in general moft remarkably plain, and foon acquire 
an old look, and by being much expofed to the weather without 

S 2 hats, 


Birch Woodi. 


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hats, fuch a grin, and contra6bion of the mufcles, as heightens 
greatly their natural hardnefs of features : I never faw fo much 
plainnefs among the lower rank of females : but the nc plus ultra 
of hard features is not found till you arrive among the filh-womea 
of Aberdeen. 

Tenants pay their rent generally in this country in money, except 
what they pay in poultry, which is done to promote the breed, as 
the gentry are fo remote from any market, Thofe that rent a mill 
pay a hog or two -, an animal fo deteftcd by the Highlanders, that 
very few can be prevalcd on to tafte it, in any Ihape. Labor is 
here very cheap, the ufual pay being fifty fhillings a year, and two 
pecks of oatmeal a week. 

Purfued my journey Eaft, along a beautiful road by the river 
fide, in fight of the pine forefts. The vale now grows narrow, and 
is filled witiv woods of birch and alder. Saw on the road fide the 
feats of gentlemen, high built, and once defenfible. Thepeafants 
cultivate their little land with great care to the very edge of 
the ftony hills. All the way are vaft mafle& of granite, the fame 
which is called in Cornwall^ Moor-ftone. 

The Glen contradb^ and the mountains approach each other* 
Quit the Highlands^ pafling, between two great rocks, called the 
Pass of Pafs of Bollitirj a very narrow ftrait, whofe bottom is covered 

with the tremendous ruins of the precipices that bound the road, 
I was informed, that here the wind rages with great fury during 
winter, and catching up the fnow in eddies,, whirls it about with 
fuch impetuofity, as makes it dangerous for man or beaft to be 
out at that time. Rain alfo pours down fometimes in deluges^ 
and carries with it ftone and gravel from the hills in fuch quan- 


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I N S C O T L A N D. ijj 

tity, that I have fccn the effcfts of thtkjpates^ as they are called, 
lie crofs the roads, as the avelenncbes^ or fnow-falls, do thofe of 
the Alps. In many parts of the Highlands were bofpitia for the 
rcecption of travellers, called by the Scotch^ Spittles^ or hofpitals : 
the fame were ufual in H^ales^ where they are ftylcd Tfpytty\ 
and, in both places, were maintained by the religious houfes : 
as fimilar Afylums are to this day fupported, in many parts of 
the Alps. 

This pafs is the Eaftern entrance into the Highlands. The 
country now affumes a new face : the hills grow lefs ; but the land 
more barren, and is chiefly covered with heath and rock. The 
edges of the Ute arc cultivated, but the reft only in patches, 
among which is generally a groupe of fmall houfes. There is alfo 
a change of trees, oak being the principal wood, but even that is 

On the South fide of the river is Glen-Muikj remarkable for a i^„ ^p Muik. 
fine catarad formed by the river Muiky which after running for a 
confiderable way along a level moor, at once falls down a perpen- 
dicular rock of a femicircular form, called the Lin of Muik, into a 
hole of fo great a depth worn by the weight of water, as to be fup- 
pofed by the vulgar to be bottomlcfs. 

Refrefhed my horfes at a hamlet called Tullicb^ and looking Weft, 
law the great mountain Lagbiny gair^ which is always covered with 

Ahnoft oppofite to the village of Tullicb is Pananicb^ noted Pananich Spaw. 
for the mineral water difcovered a few years ago, and found to 
be very beneficial in rheumatic and fcrophulous cafes, and com- 
plaints of the graveh During fummer great numbers of people 


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Hill of 


HiLL or 



afflifted wkh thofe difordert refort there to drink the waters ; and 
for their reception fcveral commodious houfcs have already been 

A little below Tullicb ride oyer the South corner of the hill of 
Culbkeny where, fbon after the Revolution, a bloodlefs battle was 
fought between KingfTilliam's forces under the command of General 
Mackay^ and fome gentlemen of the country, with their dependents. 
The laft made fuch an expeditious retreat, that in derifion it was 
called the race of ^uUicb. 

The Hill of Culbken is the South- Weft extremity of a range 
of mountains which form a deep femicircle, and enclofe on all 
fides, except the Souths a very fruitful bottom, and five parilhes, 
called Cromar. The foil, excepting fome moors and little hills, 
is good to the foot of the mountains, and produces the beft 
barley in the county of Aberdeen. Cromar is the entrance into 
the Low Countries; the Erfe language has been difufed in it 
for many ages, yet is fpoken at this time fix miles Weft in 

One of the mountains to the Weft is ftyled the Hill of A&r- 
vem^ of a ftupendous height, and on the fide next to Cromar^ 
almoft perpendicular. From the top, the whole country as far 
as Aberdeen^ thirty computed miles, feems from this height as 
a plain % and the profpeA terminates in the Gertnan ocean. The 
other great mountains appear to fink to a common fize ; and 
even Lagbin y gair abates of its grandeur. About four miles 
below Culbleen^ at Cbarles-Townj ride on a line with the Hill of 
Coulj the South-Eaft extremity of the Cromar mountains. 

A little North of Cbarles-Town ftands Moyne Caftle, the feat of 


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the Earl of Aboym^ amidft large plantations \ but his Lordlhip's 
pines in the forcft of GkM-Tanner^ yield to none in Scotlandy excepting 
thoie of Dalmore. 

Obfcrved feveral vaft plantations of pines, planted by gentlemen 
near their feats : fuch a laudable fpirit prevales in this refpeft, that 
in another half-century, it never (hall be faid, that to fpy the naked- 
nefs of the land you are come. 

Dine at the little viUage of Kincaim Oneil. Hereabouts the com- ' 

mon people cultivate a great deal of cabbage. The oat-fields are 
inclofed with rude low mounds of ftone. 

It gives me r?al concern to find any hiftorical authority for over- 
throwing the beautiful relation that the powerful genius of Shake^ 
Jfear has formed out of Boethius*s tale of Macbeth. If we may 
credit Fordm^ that ufurpcr was flain in his retreat at Lunfanan^ two 
miles North- Weft of this place. To Sir David Dairy mpWs ♦ accu- 
rate inveftigation of a dark period of the Scottijh hiftory, I am ob- 
liged for this difcovery. " Near the church oi Lunfanan^** adds that 
gentleman, "is the veftige of an antient fortrefs once furrounded by 
" a brook that runs by." This he conjedures to have been the 
setreat of Macbeib. 

Lay at a mean houTe at Banchorie. The country, from BoUitir to 
this place, dull, unlefs where varied by the windings of the river, or 
with the plantations. 

The nearer to Aberdeen^ the lower the country^ grows, and the Ave. j:. 
greater the quantity of corn : in general, oats and barley j for there 
k very little wheat fown in thofe parts. Reach 

^ Annals of ScdtloMd, p. 20^ 



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1^6 A TOUR 

AiiKDBBN« Aberdeen^ a fine city, lying on a fmall bay, formed by the 

DeCy deep enough for fhips of. two hundred tuns. The town is 
about two miles in circumference, and contains thirteen thoufand 
fouls, and about three thoufand in the fuburbs -, but the whole 
number of inhabitants between the bridges Dee and Donj which 
includes both the Aberdeens^ and the interjacent houfes or ham- 
lets. Is eftimated at twenty thoufand. It once enjoyed a good 
fhare of the tobacco trade, but was at length forced to refign 
it to GlaJgoWy which was fo much more conveniently fituated 
for it. At prefent, its imports are from the BalfiCy and a few 
merchants trade to the ff^efi Indies and North America. Its exports 
Stocking TRADi. are, dockings, thread, falmon, and oatmeal: the firft is a moft 
important article, as appears by the following ftatc of it. For 
this manufadbure, 20^800 pounds worth of wool is annually im- 
ported, and 1600 pounds worth of oil. Of this wool is annually 
made 69,333 dozen pairs of ftockings, worth, at an average 1 1. 10 s. 
per dozen. Thefe are made by the country people, in almoft all 
parts of this great county, who get 4 s. per dozen for fpinning, and 
14s. per dozen for knitting, fo that there is annually paid them 
62,329 1. 14s. And bcfides, there is about 2000 1. value of (lock- 
ings manufaftured from the wool of the county, which encourages 
the breed of Iheep much ; for even as high as Invercauldj the 
farmer fells his fheep at twelve fliillings apiece, and keeps them till 
they arc four or five years old, for the fake of the wool. About 
200 combers are alfo employed conftantly. The thread manu- 
fadure is another confiderable article, tho' trifling in comparifon of 
the woollen. 
£ALiioir» The falmon filheries on the Dee and the Don^ are a good branch 


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of trade : about 46 boats, and 130 men are employed on the firft -, 
and in Ibme years 167,0001b. of fifli have been fent pickled to 
London^ and about 930 barrels of faked fifh exported to France^ 
Itafyj &c. The fifhery on the Don is far lefs confiderable. About 
the time of Henry VIII. this place was noted for a confiderable 
trade in dried cod-fifli, at that period known by the name of Hab- 
berdyn fifh. 

The town of Aberdeen is in general well built, with granite from 
the neighboring quarries. The beft ftreet, or rzxhtr flace^ is the 
Caftle-ftrcet : in the middle is an oftagon building, with neat bas 
relievos of the Kings oi Scotland^ from James I. to James VII. The 
Town houfe makes a good figure, and has a handfome fpirc in the 

The Eaft and Weft churches are under the fame roof; for the 
North Britons obferve oeconomy, even in their religion : in one I 
obferved a fmall fhip hung up ; a votive oflfcring frequent enough in 
Pepijb churches, but appeared very unexpededly here. But I am 
now fatisfied that the fhip only denotes the right the mariners have 
to a fitting place beneath. 

In the church-yard lies Andrew Cant^ minifter of Aberdeen^ from Ahdrbw CAN'r% 
whom the Speftator derives the word to cant •, but in all proba- 
bility, Andrew canted no more than the reft of his brethren, for he 
lived in a whining age * -, the word therefore feems to be derived 
from canto^ from their finging out their difcourfes. The infcription 
on his monument fpeaks of him in very high terms, ftyles him 
vir fuo feculo fummuSy qui orbi huic et urbi eccleftajtes^ voce et vita 

• In Cbarlts the Firft's time. 

T inclinatam 

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138 A T O U R 

inclinatam reUgionem fuftinuit^ degeneres mundi mores refinxU, ardens 
et amans^ Boanerges et Barnabas, Maones et Adamus, &c. &c. 
In the fame place are multitudes of long-winded epitaphs ; bu 
the following, though fhort, has a moft elegant turn : 

Si fides J Ji bumanitaSj multogut gratus Upore candor ; 
Sifuorum amor^ amiconm charitas^ omniumque Bene' 

volenlia fpiritum reducer e pcjfenty 
Haud heic fitus effet Johannes Burnet a Elrick. 1747. 

CoLLioi. The college is a large old building, founded by George Earl of 

Marechaly 1593. On one fide is this ftrange infcriptionj probably 
alluding to fome fcoflfers at that time : 

They have feid, 
Quhat fay thay ? 
Let Yame fay. 

In the great room are feveral good pidures, A head of the 
Founder. The prefent Lord Marecbal when young, and General 
Keitb^ his brother. Bifhop Burnet in his robes, as Chancellor of the 
Garter. A head oi Mary Stuart^ in black, with a crown in one 
hand, a crucifix in the other. Arthur Jonjion^ 3, fine head, by Jame^ 
fon. -Andrew Cant, by the fame. Gordon^ of Strachloch^ publiflier of 
the maps ; Doftor Gregory^ author of the reflefting telefcope j and 
feveral others, by Jamefon. 

In the library is the alcoran on vellum, finely illuminated. 

A Hebrew Bible^ Manufcript,. with Rabbinical notes, on veU 

Ifidori excerpta ex libro : a great curiofity^ being a complete natural 


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hiftory, with figures, richly illuminated on fquares of plated gold^ 
on vellum. 

A Paraphrafe on the Revelation, by James VI. with notes, in the 
King's own hand* 

A fine miffal. 

There are about a hundred and forty ftudents belonging to this 

The convents in Aberdeen were ; one of Matburines^ or of the 
order of the Trinity, founded by William the Lion^ who died in 
1214 : another of Dominicans^ by Alexander IL : a third of 0*- 
fervantines^ a building of great length in the middle of the city, 
founded by the citizens, and Mr. Richard Vaus^ 6cc. : and a 
fourth of Carmelites^ or White Friers, founded by Philip de Ar^ 
iuthnoiy in 1350. In the ruins of this was difcovered a very 
curious filver chain, fix feet long, with a round pl&te at one 
end, and at the other a pear-fhaped appendage ^ which is ftill pre« 
fcrved in the library. 

The grammar-fchool is a low but neat building. Gordon^s hofpi^ School. 

tal is handfomc; in front is a good ftatue of the founder : it maintains Hosmtal. 
forty boys, children of the inhabitants oi Aberdeen^ who are appren- 
ticed at proper ages. 

The infirmary is a large plain building, and fends out between 
eight and nine hundred cured patients annually. 

On the fide of the Great Bleachery, which is common to the 
town, are the public walks. Over a road, between the Caftle-ftreet 
and the Harbour, is a very handfome arch, which muft attract the 
attention of the traveller. 

On the Eaft of the town is a work begun by Cromwelj from 

T 2 whence 

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Aug. S. 
Old Abirdibn* 


whence is a fine view of the fea : beneath is a fmall patch of 
ground, noted for producing very early barley, which was then- 

. Prices of provifions in this town were thefe : Beef, (i6 ounces ta 
the pound) 2 d.4-. to sd. ; mutton the fame j butter, (28 ounces to 
the pound) 6d. to 8d. -, cheefe, ditto, 4d. to 4d. 4-. ; a large pullet, 
6d. or lod. duck, the fame; goofe, 2s. 3d. 

Crofs the harbour to the granite quarries that contribute to fupply 
London with paving ftones. The ftone lies either in large nodules 
or in fhattery beds 5 are cut into fliape, and the fmall pieces for the 
middle of the ftreets are put on board for feven fliillings/^ tun, the 
long ftones at ten-pence p^ foot. 

The bridge of Dee lies about two miles S. of the town, and 
confifts of feven neat arches : before the building of that of Pertby 
it was efteemed the fineft ftru6bure of the kind in North Bri- 
lain. It was founded, and is ftill fupported by funds deftined 
for that purpofe by Bifhop Elpbinfton. The following infcription 
the buttrefs of a ruinous ifle in the cathedral of old Aberdeen informs 
us of the architeft : — ' Thomas^ the fon of Thomas French^ matter 

* mafon, who built the bridge oiDee and this ifle, is enterred at the 

* foot hereof, who died Anno 1530.' 

Vifited old Aberdeen^ about a mile North of the new ; a poor 
town, feated not far from t\it Don. The college is built round 
a fquare, with cloifters on the South fide. The chapel is very 
ruinous within; but there ftill remains fome wood- work ofexquifite 
workmanftiip. This was preferved by the fpirit of the Principal 
at the time of the reformation, who armed his people and checked 
the blind zeal of the Barons of the Meamsy who after ftriping the 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 141 

cathedral of its roof, and robbing it of the bells, were going to 
violate this feat of learning. They (hipped their facrilegious booty 
with an intention of expofing it to fale in Holland*-, but the veflcl 
had fcarcely gone out of port, but it perilhed in a ftorm with all its 
91 gained lading. 

The college was founded in 1494 by IVilliam Elphinfton^ Bifhop 
of this place, and Lord Chancellor of Scotland in the reign of 
James III. •, and Lord Privy Seal in that of James IV. He 
was a perfon of fuch eminence, that his cotemporaries firmly 
believed that his death was prefaged by various prodigies, and 
that fupernatural voices were heard at his intcrrment, as if Heaven 
more peculiarly interefted itfelf in the departure of fo great a 
charaftcr +. 

The library is large. The moft remarkable things are ; John 
3*revifa^s tTzniiztion of Higden's Polycbronicon^ in 1387-, the manu- 
fcript excellently wrote, and the language very good, for that time. 
A very neat Butch miflal, with elegant paintings on the margin. 
Another, of the angels appearing to the fhepherds, with one of the 
men playing on the bagpipes. A manufcript catalogue of the old 
treafury of the college. 

Heilor Boethius was the firft Principal of the college, and fent for 
from Paris for that purpofe, on an annual falary of forty marks 
Scots^ at thirteen-pence each. The fquare tower on the fide of the 
college was built by contributions from General Monk and the 

• Spot/wMd's Hift. Church of Scotland. 6. 
t Boithius*% Hift. of the Bilbops of Ahtriun. 


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Officers under him, then quartered at Aberdeen^ for the reception of 
ftudents ; ^pf which there arc about a hundred belonging to the 
college, who lie in it. 

In Bifhop Elpbinfton^s hall is a pifture of Bifhop Dunbar y who 
finifhed the bridge of Ite^, and completed every thing elfe that the 
other worthy Prelate had begun. Befides this are portraits of For^ 
besy Bifhop of Aberdeen^ and Profcflbrs Sandiland and Gardon^ by 
Jamefon. The Sybils: faid to be done by the fame hand, but 
feemed to me in too different a flyle to be his ; but the SybiUa 
JEgyptiaca and Erythraa are in good attitudes. 

The cathedral is very antient •, no more than the two very antique 
fpires and One ifle, which is ufed as a church, are now remaining^ 
This Bifhoprick was founded in the time of David I. who tranflated 
it from Morilick in Bamffjhire to this place. 

From a lumulus^ called TilUe dron^ now covered with trees, is a 
fine view of* an extenfive and rich country; once a moft barren fpot, 
but by the induftry of the inhabitants brought to its prcfent ftate. 
A pretty vale bordered with wood, the cathedral foaring above the 
trees, and the river Dotty form all together a moft agreeable profped. 
Thefe are comprehended in the pleafure grounds of Seatotty the 
houfe of George Mddletony Efq; which lies well fheltered in the 
North- Weft corner of the valley, and was probably the firft villa 
built in the North of Scotland according to the prefcnt idea of 

Beneath are fome cruives, or wears, to take falmon in. The 
owners are obliged by law to make the rails of the cruives * of a 

* Cruiveiy &c. ihall have their h^e two iachet wide, that Ae fry nay ptfi. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. i4j 

certain width^ to permit fifh of a certain fize to pafs up the 
river -, but as that is negledled, they pay an annual fum to 
the owners of the fifheries which lie above^ to compenfate the 

In the Regiam Majeftatem are preferved feveral anticnt laws re- 
lating to the falmon fifheries, couched in terms expreffive of the 
fimplicity of the times. 

From Saturday night till Monday morning, they were obliged to 
leave a free paflage for the fifh, which is flyled the Saterdayes 

Alexander I. cnadted, * That the flreame of the water fal be in 

* all parts fwa free, that ane fwine of the age of three zeares, well 

* feed, may turne himfclf within the flreame round about, fwa 

* that his fnowt nor taill fall not touch the bank of the water, 

* Slayers of reide fifli or fmoltes of falmond, the third time arc 

* punifhed with death. And fie like he quha commands the 
^* famine to be done.' Jac. IV. pari. 6. ftat. Rob. III. 

Continue my. journey : pafs over the bridge of Don\ a fine Aug. 9; 

gothic arch flung over that fine river, from one rock to the other ; 
the height from the top of the arch to the water is fixty feet ; its 
width feventy-two. It was built by Henry de Cbeyn, Bifhop of 
Aberdeen and nephew to John Cummin Lord of Badenocb^ who 
fufFering exile for his attachment to the faftion of the Cummins^ on 
his being reftored to his fee, applied all the profits that had accu- 
mulated during his abfence^ towards this magnificent workf. 

• ^i*!l. 

t Kii$Vs Scotch Btfi?»pu 65. This Prelate was livisgin 1333* . 


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T O U 

OF Sand. 

Ride for fomc miles on the fca fands ; pafs through Newhurgb^ a 
fmall village, and at low water ford the Tihen, a river productive 
of the pearl mufcle : go through the parifti of Furvie^ now entirely- 
overwhelmed with fand, (except two farms) and about 50o\. per am. 
loft to the Errol family., as appears by the oath of the fadtor, made 
before the court of feflions in 1600, to afcertain the minifter*s falary. 
Inukdation It was at that time all arable land, now covered with (hifting fands, 

like the deferts of Arabia^ and no veftiges remain of any buildings, 
except a fmall fragment of the church. ^ 

The country now grows very flat ; produces oats ; but the 
crops are confiderably worfe than in the prtpeding country. 

BownefSj or Bucbanefsj the feat of the Earl of Erroly perched, 
like a Falcon's neft, on the edge of a vaft cliff above the fea. The 
drawing-room, a large and very elegant apartment, hangs over it ; 
the waves run in wild eddies round the rocks beneath, and the fea 
fowl clamor above and below, forming a ftrange profpeft and An- 
gular chorus. The place was once defenfible, there having been 
a ditch and draw-bridge on the acceffible fide ; but now both are 
. deftroyed. 

Above five miles South is Slains^ the remains of the old fa- 
mily caftle, feated ftrongly on a peninfulated rock ; but demo- 
lilhed in 1594, by James VI. on the rebellion of the Earl of 
Huntly. Near this place are fome vaft caverns, once filled with 
curious ftaladical incruftations, now deftroyed, in order to be 
burnt into lime ; for there is none in this country, that ufeful com- 
modity being imported from the Earl of Elsin's works on xh^ Frith 
of Forib* 


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Here the fhore begins to grow bold and rocky, and indented in 
a ftrange manner with fmall and deep creeks, or rather immenfc 
and horrible chafms. The famous Bullers of Bucban lie about 
a mile North of Bownefs, are a vaft hollow in a rock, projeft- 
ing into the fea, open at top, with a cofnmunication to the fea 
through a noble natural arch, through which boats can pafs, 
and lie fecure in this natural harbour. There is a path round 
the top, but in fome parts too narrow to walk on with fatif- 
faftion, as the depth is about thirty fathom, with water on 
both fides, being bounded on the North and South by fmall 

Near this is a great infulated rock, divided by a narrow and very 
deep chafm from the land. This rock is pierced through midway 
between the water and the top, and in violent ftorms the waves rufh 
through it with great noife and impetuofity. On the fides, as well 
as thofc of the adjacent cliffs, breed multitudes of Kittiwakes *. 
The young are a favourite dilh in North Britain^ being ferved up a 
little before dinner, as a whet for the appetite ; but, from the rank 
fmell and tafte, feem as if they were more likely to have a contrary 
cffedt. I was told of an honeft gentleman who was fet down for 
the firft time to this kind of whet, as he fuppofed ; but after de- 
moliihing half a dozen, with much impatience declared, that he 
had eaten fax^ and did not find himfelf a bit more hungry than 
before he began. 

On this coaft is a great fiftiery of Sea dogs +, which begins the 
laft week of Jufyj and ends the firft in September. The livers are 
boiled for oil •, the bodies fplit, dried, and fold to the common 

* Br. ZoqL No. 250. f The picked Shark. Br. Z09I. III. No. 40. 

U people. 





Sba Dogs. 

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146 I N S C O T L A N D, 

people, who come from great diftances for them. Very fine Tur- 
* bots are taken on this coaft; and towards Peterhead are good filh- 
eries of Cod and Ling. The Lord of the Manor has 3 1. 6 s. 8 d. 
per annum from every boat, (a fix man boat) but if a new crew 
fets up, the Lord, by way of encouragement, finds them a boat. 
Befides thefe, they have little yawls for catching bait at the foot of 
the rocks. Mufclcs are alfo much ufed for bait, and many boats 
loads are brought for that purpofe from the mouth of the Tiben. 
Of late years, a very fuccefsful falmon filhery has been fet up in 
the fandy bays below Slains. This is performed by long nets, 
carried out to fea by boats, a great compafs taken, and then hawled 
on ftiorc. It is remarked, thefe filh fwim againft the wind, and 
are much better tafted than thofe taken in frefli waters. 

Mod of the labor on fliore is performed here by the women r 
they will carry as much fifli as two men can lift on their fhoulders,, 
and when they have fold their cargo- and emptied their baflcet,. 
w'ill re-place part of it with (tones : they go fixtecn miles to fell or 
barter their fifli ; are very fond of finery, and will load their fingers 
with trumpery rings, when they want both (hoes and ftockings.. 
The fleet was the laft war fupplied with great numbers of mca 
from this and other parts of Scotland^ as well as the army 2 I think 
near 70,000 engaged in the general caufc, and aflSfted in carrying 
our glory through all parts of the globe : of the former, numbers 
returned \ of the latter, very few. 
Hotj«B«» The houfes in this country are built with clay, tempered in the 

fame manner as the Ifraelites made their bricks in the land of 
jEgyj^ : after drefling the clay, and working it up with water, 
the laborers place on it a large jQtratum of fl:raw, which is trampled 


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I N S C O T L A N D. lO 

into it and made fmall by horfes : then more is added, till it arrives 
at a proper confiilency, when it is ufed as: a plaifter, and makes the 
houfes very warm. The roofs are forked^ i. e. covered with inch- 
aod-half deal, fawed into three planks, and then nailed to the joifts» 
on which the flates are pinned. 

The land profpeft is extremely unpleafant •, for no trees will 
grow here, in fpite of all the pains that have been taken : not but 
in former times it muft have been well wooded, as is evident from 
the number of trees dug up in all the bogs. The fame nakednefi 
prevales over great part of this coaft, even far beyond Bamff^ except 
in a few warm bottoms. 

The corn of this tradt is oats and barley ; of the laft I have fceri 
very good clofe to the edges of the cliffs. Rents are paid here 
partly in cafh, partly in kind ; the laft is commonly fold to a con* 
traAor. The land here being poor, is fet cheap. The people live 
hardly: a common food with them is fowens^ or the groffer part 
of the oatmeal with the hulks, firft put into a barrel with water, 
in order to grow four, and then boiled into a ibrt pf pudding, or 

Croflcd the country towards Ban^^ over oatlands, a coarfe fort a^^^ ,,^ 
of downs, and feveral bkck heathy moors, without a fingle tree 
for numbers of miles. See Craigjion caftle, a good houfe, once Craigstom 
defenfible, feated in a fnug bottom, where the plantations thrive Caitle. 
greatly. Saw here a head of David Lejly^ an eleve of Gujiavus 
Adolphus : a fucccfsful General againft the royal caufe : unfortunate 
when he attempted to fupport it ; loft the battle of Dunbar^ being 
forced to engage contrary to his judgment by the enthufiafm of 
the Preachers : marched with an unwilling army to the fatal battle 

U 2 ^ of 

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148 A T O U R 

of Worctfier \ confcious of its difafFcdbion or its fears, he funk be- 
neath his apprehenfions •, was difpirited and confounded : after the 
fight, loft his liberty and reputation ; but was reftored to both at 
the reftoration by Charles II. who created him Baron of Newark. 
Another head, Sir Alexander Frafer^ the Knight of Dores •, both 
by Jamefon. Paffed by a fmall ruined caftle, in the parifh of 
Kinedwardy feated on a round hill in a deep glen, and fcarcc accef- 
fible ; the antient name of this caftle was Kin^ or Kyn-Eden^ and 
laid to have been one of the feats of the Cumminsy Earls of Bucban. 
Ford the Devron^ a fine river, over which had been a beautiful 
bridge, now waftied away by the floods. Enter Bamffjhire^ and 
reach its capital 
Bamff. Bamffy pleafantly feated on the fide of a hill ; has fevcral ftrcets ; 

but that with the town-houfe in it, adorned with a nev/ fpire, is 
very handfome. This place was erefted into a borough by virtue 
of a charter from i2(?^^/ II. dated Oftob. 7. 1372, endowing it 
with the fame privileges, and putting it on the fame footing with 
the burgh of Aberdeen ; but tradition fays it was founded in the 
reign of Malcolm Canmore. The harbour is very bad, as the en- 
trance at the mouth of the Devron is very uncertain, [.being often 
ftopped by the fliifting of the fands, which are continually chang- 
ing» in great ftorms ; the pier is therefore placed on the outfide. 
Much falmon is exported from hence. About Troop head, fome 
kelp is made; and the adventurers pay the Lord of the Manor 
50 1. per ann. for the liberty of coUefting the materials. 

Bamff had only one monaftery, that of the Carmelites^ dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary : whofe rents, place and lands were beftowed 
on King's College in Aberdeen in 161 7 by James VI. 


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The Earl of Finhter has a houfe, prettily feated on an eminence 
near the town, with fome plantations [of fhrubs and fmall trees, 
which have a good efFeft in fo bare a country. The profpeft is 
very fine, commanding the rich meadows near the town, Down 
a fmall but well-built fiftiing town, the great promontory of Troop-- 
beady and to the North the hills of Rofsftnre^ Sutherland^ and 

The houfe once belonged to the Sharps -, and the violent Arch- 
biihop of that name was born here. In one of the apartments 
is a pidbure of Jamefon by himfelf, fitting in his painting-room, 
dreflfed like Rubens^ and with his hat on, and his pallet in his 
hand. On the walls are reprefented hung up, the piftures of 
Charles I. and his Queen \ a head of his own wife ; another 
head ; two fea views, and Perfeus and Andromeda^ the produdtions of 
his various pencil. 

D«jf Houfe, a vaft pile of building, a little way from the town. Duff Houie, 
is a fquare, with a fquare tower at each end j .the front richly orna- 
mented with carving, but, for want of wings, has a naked look : 
the rooms within are very fmall, and by no means anfwer the mag- 
nificence of the cafe. 

In the apartments are thcfe piftures : Frances^ Dutchefs of 
Richmond, full length, in black, with a little pidture at her breaft. 
Ml. 57, 1633, by Vandyck: was gran-daughter by the father to 
Thomas Duke of Norfolk -, to Edward Stafford Duke of Bucking- 
ham, by the mother. A Lady who attempted the very climax of 
matrimony : firft married the fon of a rich vintner ; gave hopes 
after his death to a Knight, Sir G. Rodney, who on being jilted 
by her for an Earl, Edward Earl of Hertford^ wrote to her in 


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his own blood a well-compofed copy of vcrfcs, and then fell on 
his fword : having buried the Earl, gave her hand to Ludsvk 
Duke of Riicbmond and Lefwc^ and on his deceafe fpread her nets 
for the old monarch James I. Her avarice kept pace with her 
vanity : when vifitcd by the great, fhe had all the parade of 
officers, and gentlemen who attended : tables were fpread, as if 
there had been ample provifion ; but the moment her viiitors 
were gone, the cloths were taken off, and her tram fed with a 
moft fcanty fare. Her pride induced her tx> draw up an in- 
ventory of moft magnificent prefents, flic wifhed the worid to 
believe flic had given to the Queen of Bohemia ; prefents of 
mafTy plate that exifted only on paper*. Betides this Angular 
charader, are two fine heads of Charles I. and his Queen. A 
head of a Duff of Cerfenday^ with fliort grey hair, by Cofmo 
Alexander^ defcendent of the famous Jamefon. Near the houfe 
is a flirubbery, with a walk two miles long, leading to the 
Alio. 12. About two miles Weft ofBamff^ not far from the fea, is a great 

ftratum of fand and ftiells, ufed with fuccefs as a manure. Sea tang 
is alfo much ufed for corn lands, fometimes by itfclf, fometimes 
mixed with earth, and left to rot ; it is befides oiten laid frefli on 
grafs, and anfwers very well. Pafled by the houfe of Boyne^ a 
ruined caftle on the edge of a deep glen, filled with fome good 
afli and maples. 

Near Portfoy^ a fmall town in the parifli of Foriyce^ is a large 
ftratum of marble, in which ajhefios has been fometimes found : 

• Vide WtlfQn\ Life of Jams I. 258, 259. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 151 

it is a coarfc fort of Verd di Corjica^ and ufed in fome houfes for 
chimney-pieces. Portfoy is the principal place in this parilh, and 
contains about fix hundred inhabitants, who carry on a confiderable 
thread manufadkure, and one of fnufF: there alfo belong to the town 
twelve fhips, from forty to a hundred tuns burden ; and there arc 
in the parifti fix fiftiing boats, each of whofe crew confifts of fix men 
and a boy. Reach 

Cullen Houfe, feated at the edge of a deep glen full of very large Cullen House. 
trees, which bemg out of the reach of the fea winds, profper greatly. 
This fpot is very prettily laid out in walks, and over the entrance 
is a magnificent arch fixty feet high, and eighty-two in width. The 
houfe is large, but irregular. The moft remarkable pictures are, 
a full length of James VI. by AfyUns : at the time of the revolu- 
tion, the mob had taken it out of Hofy-Rood Houfe, and were 
kicking it about the ftreets, when the Chancellor, the Earl of 
Finlater^ happening to pafs by, redeemed it out of their hands. 
A portrait oijames^ Duke of Hamilton^ beheaded in 1649, i" ^ large 
black cloak, with a ftar, by Vandyck. A half-length of his brother, 
by the fame, killed at the battle of Worcefter. William^ Duke of 
Hamlttm^ prefident of the revolution parlement, by Kneller, Old Lord 
Bamffi aged 90, with a long white fquare beard, who is faid to have 
incurred the cenfure of the church, at that age, for his gallantries *. 

• Among other piflurcs of pcrfons of merit, that of the admirable Crichton 
moft not be overlooked. I was informed, that there is one of that extraordinary 
perfon in the poileflion of Alexander Morrif on ^ Efq; ol Bagnie^ in the county of 
Bamff\ it is in the fame apartment with fome oi JamifiiH^s^ bat feems done by a 
fiqserior hand : came into Mr. Morrifin'^ pofieffion from the family of Crichtonf 
Vifcount Frendraugbty to whom CHcbtcn probably, feat it from Italy ^ where lit 
ipent the laft years of his ihort, but glorious life. Vide Appendix. 


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Not far from Cullen Houfe are the ruins of the caftle of Finlaier^ 
fituated on a high rock, projefting into the fea. It was ftrcngthened 
in 1455 by Sir JValter Ogilvie^ who had licence from James II. to 
build a tower and fortalice at his caftle of Finlafer. It continued 
in poffcflion of the family till it was ufurped by the family of the 
Gordons ; but was reftored to the right heirs about the year 1562, 
by Queen Mary, who for that purpofe caufed it to be inverted both 
by fea and land. 

The country round Culkn has all the marks of improvement, 
owing to the * indefatigable pains of the late noble owner, in ad- 
vancing the art of agriculture and planting, and every other ufcful 
bufinefs, as far as the nature of the foil would admit. His fuccefs 
in the firft was very great -, the crops of beans, peas, oats, and 
barley, were excellent ; the wheat very good, but, through the fault 
of the climate, will not ripen till it is late, the harveft in thefe parts 
being in OSlober. The plantations are very extenfive, and reach to 
the top of Binn hill ; but the farther they extend from the bottoms, 
the worfe they fucceed. 

The town of CuUen is mean •, yet has about a hundred looms in 
it, there being a flouriftiing manufadture of linnen and thread, of 
which near fifty thoufand pounds worth is annually made there and 
in the neighborhood. Upwards of two thoufand bolls of wheat, 
barley, oats and meal are paid annually by the tenants to their 
landlords, and by them fold to the merchants and exported : and 

* HisLordihip colleded together near 2000 fouls, to his new town at Kiiibf by 
ftnin^f u e. giving in perpetuity, on payment of a flight, acknowledgement, land 
fufficient to build a houfe on, with gardens and back- yard. 


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befides, the upper parts of the parifti yield peas, and great quanti- 
ties of oats, which are fold by thofe tenants who pay their rents in 

Near this town, the Duke of Cumberland^ after his march from 
Bamffy joined the reft of his forces from Strath-Bogie^ and encamped 
at Culkn. 

In a fmall fandy bay are three lofty fpiring rocks, formed of flinty 
maflfes, cemented together very difi^crently from any ftratum in the 
country. Thefe are called the three Kings of Culkn. A little far- 
ther is another vaft r^k, pierced quite through, formed of pebbly 
concretions lodged in clay, which had fubfided in thick but regular 

In this country are feveral Cairns or Barrows, the places of inter- Cairni* 
mcnt of the antient Caledonians^ or of the DaneSy for the method was 
common to both nations. At Craig Mills near Glajfaugh was a very 
remarkable one demolifhed about fourteen years ago. The dia- 
meter was fixty feet, the height fixteen 5 formed entirely of ftones 
brought from the Ihore, as appears by the limpets, mufcles, and 
other ftiells mixed with them. The whole was covered with a layer 
of earth four feet thick, and that finiflied with a very nice coat of 
green fod, inclofing the whole. It fcems to have been originally 
formed by making a deep trench round the fpot, and flinging 
the earth inwards : then other materials brought to complete 
the work, which muft have been that of an whole army. On 
breaking open this Cairn^ on the fummit of the ftony heap be- 
neath the integument of earth was found a ftone coflin formed 
of long flags, and in it the complete flceleton of a human body, 
lain at full length with every bone in its proper place : and with 

X them 


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them a deer's horn, the fymbol of the favorite amufcment of the 

About five years ago another Cairn was broke open at Kil-hilhckj 
or the hill of Burial, and in it was found another coffin about fix 
feet long with a (keleton, an urn, and fome charcoal : a confidcrable 
deal of charcoal was alfo met with intermixed every where among 
the (tones of the Cairn. By this it appears that the mode of inter- 
ment was various at the fame pef iod -, for one of thefe bodies muft 
have been placed entirely in its casmetery, the other burnt and the 
aihes collected in the urn. 

A third Cairn on the farm of Brankanentim near KH-biUock^ was 
opened very lately ; and in the middle was found a coffin only two 
feet fquare, made of flag-ftones fet on their edge, and another by way 
of cover. The urn was feated on the ground, filled with alhcs, and 
was furrounded in the coffin with charcoal arid bones, probably 
bones belonging to the fame body, which had not been reduced to 
aihes like the contents of the urn. 

A fourth urn was difcovered in a Cairn on the hill of Downy 
overlooking the river Devron, and town of Bamff. This was alfa 
placed in a coffin of flat (lones, with the mouth downwards Hand- 
ing on another (tone. The urn was ornamented j but round it were 
placed three others, fmaller and quite plain. The contents of each 
were the fame ^ afhes, burnt bones, flint arrow heads with almoft 
vitrified furfaces, and a piece of flint of an oval fliapc flatted, twa 
inches long, and an inch and a half thick. There was alfo in the 
larger urn, and one of the leflTer, a fmall flender bone four inches 
long, and fomewhat incurvated and perforated at the thicker end : 


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I N S C O T L A N D. «59 

it is apparently not human ; but the animal it belonged to, and the 
ufe, arc unknown. 

The materials of the urns appear to have been found in the 
neighborhood ; and confift of a coarfe clay, mixed with fmaU 
ftones and fand, and evidently have been only dried, and not 
burnt. By the appearance of the infide of the larger urn, it is 
probable that it was placed over the bones while they were hot and 
full of oil -, the whole infide being blackened with the fteam ; an4 
where it may have been fuppofed^o have been in conta^ with them, 
the ftain pervades the entire thicknefs. The urn was diirteen inches 

The urn in the manner it was found ; the fmall bones ; and one 
of the arrow heads (of which no lefs than thirteen were found in the 
greateft urn) are engraven from a fine drawing communicated to me 
by the Rev. Mr. Laulie, Minifter ofFardyce. 

Befides is a numerous affemblage of Cairns on the CoUon hill, 
a mile South of Birkenbogy probably in memory of the flain 
in the viftory obtained in 988, by IndulpbuSj over the Danes. 
The battle chiefly raged on a moor near C«/&», where there 
are fimilar barrows ; but as it extended far by reafon of the ♦ re- 
treat of the vanquiftied, thefe feem to be flung together with the 
fame defign. 

Not far from thefe are two circles of long ftones, called Gael- 
crofs : perhaps they might have been erefted after that battle ; and 
as Gaul is the Erfe word for a ftranger or enemy f , as the Danes 
were, I am the more inclined to fuppofe that to have been the faft. 

* BucioMsm, Ufa. vi. c« if* f OoAor Macfbir/on^ p. 24a 

X 2 Nor 

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156 A T O U R 

Nor is there wanting a retreat of the inhabitants in time of war ; 
for round the top of the hill of Durn is a triple entrenchment 
ftill very diftindt j the middle of (lone, and very ftrong in the 
moft acceflible place : and fuch faftnefles were far from being 
unneceffary in a traft continually expofed to the ravages of the 

The vault of the family of yibercrombies in this parifh muft not be 
paffed over in filence : it is lodged in the wall of the church, and 
is only the repofitory of the fculls. The bodies are dcpofited in the 
earth beneath •, and when the Laird dies, the fcuU of his predeceffor 
is taken up and flung into this Golgotha^ which at prefent is in pof- 
. feflion of nineteen. 
SuFiRSTiTiONi. Some fuperftitions ftill lurk even in this cultivated country. The 
farmers carefully preferve their cattle againft witchcraft by placing 
boughs of the mountain afh and honeyfucklc in their cow houfcs 
on the 2d oi May. They hope to preferve the milk of their cows, 
and their wives from mifcarriage by tying red threads about them : 
they bleed the fuppofed witch to preferve themfelves from her 
charms : they vifit the well of Spey for many diftempers, and the 
well of Dracbaldy for as many, oflfering fmall pieces of money and 
bits of rags. The young people determine the figure and fize of 
their hufbands by drawing cabbages blindfold on All-Hallows even; 
and like the Englijh fling nuts into the fire ; and in February draw 
Valentines^ and from them coUedt their future fortune in the nuptial 

Every great family had in former times its Di£MON, or Genius,' 
with its peculiar attributes. Thus the family o( Rolbemurcbus had 
the Bodacb an dun, or ghoft of the hill Kincbardine^s^ the Ipedlre of 


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01/D CASTI^Ii; OC:^DOI^l 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 157 

the bloody' hand. Gartinbeg houk was hzuntcd hy Bodacb Carting 
and Tullocb Gorms by Maug. Moulacby or the girl with the hairy 
left hand. The fynod gave frequent orders that enquiry fhould 
be made into the truth of this apparition : and one or two declared 
that they had feen one that anfwered the defcription *. 

The little fpedres called Tarans-^-y or the fouls of unbaptized 
infants, were often feen flitting ambng the woods and fecret places, 
bewailing in foft voices their hard fate. Could not fuperftition 
have likewife limited their fofferings; and like the wandering 
ghofts of the unburied, at length given them an Ely/mm ? 

Centam errant annos^ volitaot haec littora circam : 
Tarn demam admiffi ftagna exoptata revifanc 

Pafled through a fine open country, full of gentle rifings, and 
rich in corn, with a few clumps of trees, fparingly fcattered over it. 
Great ufe is made here of ftone marie, a gritty indurated marie, 
found in vaft ftrata, dipping pretty much : it is of difitrent colors, 
blue, pale brown, and reddifli ; is cut out of the quarry, and laid 
very thick on the ground in lumps, but will not wholly difTolve 
under three or four years. In the quarry is a great deal of 
fparry matter, which is laid apart, and burnt for lime. Arrive at 

Caftle Gordon^ a large old houfe, the feat of the Duke of Gordon^ Gastli 

lying in a low wet country, near fome large well-grown woods, and 
a confiderable one of great hollies. It was founded by George 
fecond Earl of Hunlly, who died in 1501, and was originally called 
the caftle of the bog of Gight. It inherited, till of late, very 
little of its antient fplendor : but the prefent Duke has made 

• Shaw's Hiftory of Moray, 306* t Mem, 307. 


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158 A T O U R 

confidcrabfe additions in a very elegant ftyle. By accident I met 
with an old print that fhcws it m all the magnificence dcfcribed 
by a fmgular traveller of the middle of the laft century. ' BogM^ 
gizth^ (fays he*) * the Marquis of Huntlefs palace, all built 
of ftone facing the ocean, whofe fair front (fet prejudice afide) 
worthily dcferves an EnglifhmafCs applaufe for her lofty and 
majeftick towers and turrets, that ftorm the air ; and feemingly 
make dents in the very clouds. At firft fight I mufft confefs, it 
ftruck me with admiration to gaze «n fo gaudy and regular 
a frontifpiece ; more efpecially to confider it in the nook of a 
nation *.* 

. The principal piftures in Caftk Gcrden arc, tlic firil Marquis of 
Huntly ; who on his firft arrival at court forgetting the ufual obci^ 
fance, was afked why he did not bow : he begged his Majefty's 
pardon, and excufcd his wantof refpeft by faying he was juft come 
from a place where every body bowed to him. Second Marquis 
of Huntly^ beheaded by the Covenanters. His fon, the gallant 
Lord GordoHy Montrofe'% friend, killed -at the battle of Auldfori. 
Lord Lewis Cordon^ a lefs generous warrior ; the plague -f of 

^ Northern Memoirs, '&c. by Richakd Franks, FhilaHthrvpus. LoiuUm 
1694. i2nio. T'hisKjentlenwn made his journey in 16589 and went throagh 
Septlaud as far as the water of Br9ra in SMtbirlmml to enjoy as ht traveled, the 
amofement of angling. 

f Whence this proverb, 

* The Guil, the Gordon^ and the Hooded Craw, 

* Were the three word things Murray ever faw.* 

Guil is a weed that infefts com. It was from the caftle of RotbiSf on the Sfty^ that 
Lord Lewis -mwit hisflandering excurfions inio Murray • 


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the people of Murray^ (then the feat of the Covenanters) whofe 
charafter, with that of the brave Montrofe^ is well contrafted in 
thcfe old lines : 

If ye with Monirofi gae» ye'l get fie aod wae enough ; 
If ye with Lord Lrwh gae^ ye'l get rob and rave enoagh. 

The head of the fecond Countefs of Hunlly^ daughter of James I. 
Sir Peter Frafer^ a full length in armour. A fine fmajl portrait 
of the jlbie de AubigfUy fitting in his ftudy. A very fine head of 
St. John receiving the revelation \ a beautiful expreflion of attention 
and devotion. 

The Duke of Gordon ftill keeps up the diverfion of falconry. Falconry. 
and had fcveral fine Hawks, of the Peregrine and gentle Falcon 
fpecies, which breed in the rocks of Glenmore. I f^w alfo here a 
true'Highland gre-hound, which is now become very fcarce : it was 
of a very large fize, ftrong, deep chefted, and covered with very 
long and rough hair. This kind was in great vogue in former days 
and ufed in vaft numbers at the magnificent ftag-chafes, by the 
powerful Chieftains. 

I alfo {aw here a dog the offspring of a Wolf and Pomeranian 
bitch. It had much the appearance of the firft, was very good- 
natured and fportive ; but being flipped at a weak Deer it inftantly 
brought the animal down and tore out its throat. This dog was 
bred by Mr. Brooky animal-merchant in London^ who told mfe that 
the congrefs between the wolf and the bitch was immediate, and the 
produce at the litter was ten.. 

The Spey is a dangerous neighbor to CaftU Gordon \ a large and 7^1 Spbt^. 
furious river, overflowing very frequently in a dreadful manner,. 



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j6o a T O U R 

as appears by its ravages far beyond its banks. The bed of the 
river is wide and full of gravel, and the channel very (hifting. 

The Duke of Cumberland pafled this water at Belly church, near 
this place, when the channel was fo deep as to take an officer, from 
whom I had the relation, and who was fix feet four inches high, 
up to the breaft. The banks are very high and fteep; fo that, 
had not the Rebels been providentially fo infatuated as to negleft 
oppofition, the paffagt muft have been attended with confiderable 

The falmon fiftiery on this river is very great : about feventeen 
hundred barrels full are caught in the feafon, and the (hore is rent- 
ed for about iiooX. per annum. 
Aug. 14. Faffed through Fochabers^ a wretched town, clofc to the 

FocHABBRs. cattle. Croffed the 5^<?y in a boat, and landed in the county of 

The peafants* houfcs, which, throughout the (hire of Bamff^ 
were very decent, were now become very miferable, being entirely 
made of turf: the country partly moor, partly cultivated, but in 
a very flovenly manner. 

Between Fochabers and Elgin on the right lies Innes^ once the 
feat of the very antient family of that name, whofe annals are mark- 
ed with great calamities. I (hall recite two which ftrongly paint 
the manners of the times, and one of them alfo the manners of that 
abandoned Statefman the Regent Earl of Morton. I Ihall deliver 
the tales in the fimple manner they are told by the hiftorian of the 

' This man Alexander Innes 20^' heir of the houfe (though very 
* gallant) had fomething of particularyty in his temper, was proud 

* and 

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and pofitive in his deportment, and had his lawfuits with 
feverall of his friends, amongft the reft with Innes of Petb- 
ywckj which had brought them both to Edinburgh in the ycir 
^576, as I take it, q" the laird haveing met his kinfman at the 
crofs, fell in words with him for dareing to give him a ciution ; 
in choUer either ftabed the Gentleman with a degger. or piftoled 
him (for it was varioufly reported), when he had done, his 
ftomach would not let him fly but he walked up and doun on 
the fpott as if he had done nothing that could be quareled, 
his friends lyfe being a thing that he could difpofe of without 
being bound to count for it to any oyn. and y* ftayed till 
the Earle of Mortune who was Regent fent a gaurd and c^ed 
him away to the caftell, but q" he found truely the danger 
of his circumftance and y' his proud ralh aftion behooved 
to coft him his lyfe, he was then free to redeem that at any 
rate and made ane agreement for a remiflione with the regent 
at the pryce of the barrony of Kilmalemnock which this day 
extends to 24 thoufand marks rent yeirly. the. evening after 
the agreement was made and writt, being merry with his friends 
at a coUatione and talking anent the deirnefs of the ranfome 
the regent hade made him pay for his lyfe, he waunted that 
hade his foot once loofs he would faine fee qt the Earle of Mor- 
tune durft come and poffefs his lands : q^ being told to the 
regent; that night, he refolved to play fuir game with him, 
and therefore though q^ he fpoke was in drink, the very next 
day he put the fentence of death in executione age him by 
caufing his head to be ftruck of in the caftle and y* pofleft 
his cftatc.* 

Y The 

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«62 A TOUR 

The other relation, ftill more extraordinary, is given in the 
fiioiH. Dineat£/^/»», a good town, with many of the houfes built 

over piazzas: excepting its great cattle fairs, has little trade; 
but is remarkable for its ecclefiaftical antiquities. The cathe- 
dral had been a magnificent pile, but is now in ruins : it was 
deftroyed by reafon of the fale of the lead that covered die 
roof, which was done in 1567, by order of council, to fupport 
the foldiery of the regent Murray, Jonftm, in his Encomia Urbim 
celebrates the beauty of £/^, and laments the fate of this noble 

Arcibus beroutn nitidis urbs cingitury intus 

Plebeii radiant^ nobiliumque Lares : 
Omnia deleffant, veteris fed ruder a templi 

Bumfpelias^ lacbrymis, Scotia tinge genas. 

The Weft door is very elegant, and richly ornamented. The choir 
very beautiful, and has a fine and light gallery running round it ; 
and at the Eaft end are two rows of narrow windows in an 
excellent gothic tafte. The chapter-houfe is an oftagon, the 
roof fupportcd by a fine fingle column, with neat carvings of 
coats of arms round the capital. There is ftill a great tower 
on each fide of this cathedral ; but that in the centre, with the 
fpire and whole roof, are fallen in, and form moft aweful frag- 

• CtUice Belle ville. In the Appendix is a full and accurate account not only 
of £/jf/», but of feveral parts of the county oiMurry, by the venerable Mr. Shaw, 
Minifter of £/^/,, aged ninety, and eminent for his knowlegc of the anUquitiesof 
his country. ' 


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I N S C O T L A N D. i5, 

mcnts, mixed with the battered monuments of Knights and Pre- 
lates. Boetbius fays that Duncan^ who was killed by Macbeth at 
JnvemefSj lies buried here. Numbers of modern tomb-ftones 
alfo crowd the place ; a proof how difficult it is to eradicate 
the opinion of local fanftity, even in a religion that aflfefts to 
defpife it. 

»The cathedral was founded by Andrew de Moray '^ in 1224, on a 
piece of land granted by Alexander the II. : and his remains were 
dcpofited in the choir under a tomb of blue marble in 1244. The 
great tower was built principally by John InneSy Biftiop of this See, 
as appears by the infcription cut on one of the great pillars : 
Hie jacet in Xto Pater et Dominus^ Dominus Johannes de Innes 
bujus ecclefia epifcopus^^qui hoc notabile opus incepit et per feptenmum 
edificavit +. 

This town had twa convents ; one of Dominicans^ founded in 
1233 or 1244, by Alexander II. ; another of Obfervantines^ in 1479, 
by John Innes. 

About a mile from hence is the caftle of Spinie \ a large fquare St m ii. 

tower, and a vaft quantity of other ruined buildings, ftill remain, 
which ihews its antient magnificence whilft the refidence of the 
Bilhops of Murray : the lake of Spinie almoft wafhes the walls 5 is 
about five miles long, and half a mile broad, fituated in a flat coun- 
try. During winter, great numbers of wild fwans migrate hither -, 
and I have been told that fomc have bred here. Boetbius % fays they 
rcfort here for the fake of a certain herb called after their name. 

* KeitVs Bijbofs of Scotland. 81. f M. S. Hift. of the Inms family. 

I Scotorum Regni Defer, ix. 

Y2 Not 

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KtNLOsi Abbt. 


Not far from Elgin is a ruined Chapel and Prcccptory, called 
Maifan Dieu. Near it is a large gravelly cliff, from whence is a 
beautiful view of the town, cathedral, a round hill with the remains 
of a caftle, and beneath is the gentle ftrcam of the Lofficj the Loxis 
of Ptokmy. 

Three miles fouth is the Priory of PkfcairMffy in a moft fijqueftered 
place ; a beautiful ruin, the arches elegant, the pillars well turned^ 
and the capitals rich *. 

Crofs the LoJ/ie^ ride along the edge of a vale, which has a ftrange 
mixture of good corn, and black turberies : on the road-fide is a 
mill-ftone quarry. 

Arrive in the rich plain of Adurray^ fertile in com. The upper 
parts of the country produce great numbers of cattle. The view of 
the Firfb of Murray^ with a full profpeft of the high mountains 
of Rofsjhire and Sutherland^ and the magnificent entrance into the 
bay of Cromartie between two lofty hills, form a fine piece of 

Turn about half a mile out of the road to the north, to fee 
Kinlofs^ an abby of CiJiercianSj founded by David I. in 1150. 
Near this place was murdered by thieves DuffuSj Kmg of Scot- 
land : on the difcovery of his concealed body it was removed ta 
Jona^ and interred there with the refpeft due to his merit. The 
Prior's chamber, two femicircular arches, the pillars, the couples 
of feveral of the roofs afford fpecimens of the moft beautiful gothic 
architefture, in all the elegance of fimplicity, without any of its 
fahtaftic ornaments. Near the abby is an orchard of apple and 

* A& I was informed, for I did not fee this celebrated abby» 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 165 

pear trees, at left coeval with the laft Monks ; numbers lie pro- 
ftrate 5 their venerable branches fcem to have taken frefli roots, 
and were loaden with fruit, beyond what could be expedbed from 
their antique look. 

Near Forres^ on the road-fide, is a vaft column, three feet ten Grbat Colviiii. 
inches broad, and one foot three inches thick : the height above 
ground is twenty-three feet ; below, as it is faid, twelve or fifteen. 
On one fide arc numbers of rude figures of animals and armed men, 
with colors flying : 4bme of the men fcemed bound like captives. 
On the oppofite fide was a crofs, included in a circle, and raifed a 
little above the furface of the ftone. At the foot of the crofs are 
two gigantic figures, and on one of the fides is fome elegant fret* 

This is called King Sumo^% ftone; and feems to be, as Mr. Gordon"^ 
conjedhires, erefted by the Scots^ in memory of the final retreat of the 
Danes : it is evidently not Danijh^ as fome have aflerted; the crofs 
difproves the opinion, for that nation had not then received the light 
of chriftianity. 

On a moor not far from Forres^ BoetbiuSj and Sbakefpear froni him, 
places the rencountre of Macbeth and the three wayward fifters or 
witches. It was my fortune to meet with but one, which was fome- 
where not remote from the ruins of Kyn-Eden : Ihe was of a fpecies 
far more dangerous than thefe, but neither withered^ nor wild in htr 
4ltire^ but fo fair. 

She look'd not like an inhabitant o' th' Earth I 
^ bin* Septtntr. 158.^ 
: Boetbius 

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i66 A T O U R 

Boetbitts tells his ftory admirably well : but entirely confines it to 
the prediftions of the three fatal fillers, which Shake fpear has fo 
finely copied in the I Vth fcene of the ift aft. The Poet, in con- 
formity to the belief of the times, calls them witches ;' in faft they 
were the Fates^ the Valbfria* of the northern nations, Gunna, Rota^ 
and Skulda^ the handmaids of Odin^ the arftic Mars^ and ftyled the 
Cbufers of thefiain^ it being their office in battle to mark thofe de- 
voted to death. 

We the reins to flaoghter gire. 
Ours to killy and oars to fpare : 
Spite of danger he (hall live, 
(Weave the crimfon web of war), f 

Boetbiusy fenfible of part of their bufmefs, calls them Parde: and 
Sbake^ear introduces themjuft going upon their employ. 

When ihall we three meet again 
In thunder, lightning, or in rain ? 
IFifg/i tbi burly^urlfi dontf 
When thi battle s loft or *u)on* 

But all the fine incantations that fucceed, are borrowed from the 
fanciful Diabkries of old times, but fublimed, and purged from all 

* From Walwr^ fignifying the daughter in battle* and Kyria to obtain by 
choice : for their office, befides feleding out thofe that were to die in battle, was 
to condad them to Valballa^ the Paradife of the brave, the Hall of Odin. Their 
numbers are different, fome make them three, others twelve, others fourteen ; are 
defcribed as being very beautiful, covered with the feathers of fwans, and armed 
with fpear and helmet. ^fV/ Bartholinus di cauf. contimpt. mortis* 5539 554, & 
mt^ifit. Stipbanii in Sax. Gra/im. 88. Sc Torfsus. p. 36, 

t Gr^J' 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 167 

that is ridiculous by the creative genius of the inimitable Poet, of 
whom Dryden fo juftly fpcaks : 

Bat S^AKifPEAR'f magic coo'd not copied be. 
Within that circle none durft walk bat he. 

We laugh at the magic of others; but Shake/pear's makes us 
tremble. The windy caps * of King £r/V, and the vendible knots 
of wind of the Finland f magicians appear infinitely ridiculous; 
but when our Poet drefles up the fame idea, how horrible is the 
ftorm he creates ! 

Though yoa untU the winds, and let them fight 

Againft the churches ; though the yefty waves 

Confound and fwallow navigation up ; 

Though bladed corn be lodged and trees blown down ; 

Though caftles topple on their warder's heads ; 

Though palaces and pyramids do flope 

Their heads to their foundations ; though the treafure 

Of nature's germins tumble all together. 

Even till deftrudtion ficken, anfwer me 


Lay at Forres^ a very neat town, feated under fome little hills, Forres. 

* King Erie was a great magician » who by turning his cap, caufed the wind to 
blow according to his mind* 

f Solebant aliquando Finnic negotiatoribus in eorum littoribus contraria ven- 
torum tempeAate impeditis, ventum venalem exhibcre, mercedeque oblata, tres 
nodos magicos non cafiiocicos loro condridos eifdem reddere, eo fervato piodera- 
mine et ubi prim urn diffhl'verint^ ventos haberent placidos ; ubi alteram^ vehemen- 
ciores; at ubi tertium /tfArai^rr/W ita faevas tempeitates fe pafluros, &c. OlausMa^' 
nut dc Gent. Sept. 97. 


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^hich arc prettily divided. In the great ftreet is the town-houfc 
with a handfome cupplo, and at the end is an arched gateway, 
which has a good effcft. On a hill Weft of the town are the poor 
remains of the caftle, from whence is a fine view of a rich country, 
interfperfed with groves, the bay of Findom, a fine bafon, almoft 
round, with a narrow ftrait into it from the fea, and a melancholy 
profpeft of the eftate of Cowbin^ in the parifh of Dyke^ now nearly 
larvMDATioM OF overwhelmed with fand. . This ftrange inundation is ftill in motion. 
Sand. i^^^ moftly in the time of a weft wind. It moves along the furfacc 

with an even progreffion, but is ftopped by water, after which it 
forms little hills : its motion is fo quick, that a gentleman aflured 
me he had feen an apple-tree fo covered with it, in one feafon, as to 
leave only a few of the green leaves of the upper branches appearing 
above the furface. An eftate of about 300 L per ann. has been thus 
overwhelmed ; and it is not long fince the chimnies of the prin- 
cipal houfes were to be feen ; it began about eighty years ago, 
occafioned by the cutting down the trees, and pulling up the 
bent, or ftarwort, which gave occafion at laft to the aft 15th G. II. 
to prevent its farther ravages, by prohibiting the deftruftion of that 

A little N. E. of the Bay ofFindom^ is a piece of land projedting 
into the fea, called Brugh or Burgb. It appears to have been the 
landing place of the Danes in their deftruftive defcents on the 
rich plains of Murray : it is fortified with foffes 5 and was well 
adapted to fecure either their landing or their retreat. 
Auo. ij. Crofs the Findom •, land near a friable rock, of whitifh ftone, 

much tihged with green, an indication of copper. The ftone is 
burnt for lime. From an adjacent eminence is a pidurefque view 


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I N S C O T L A N D. .169 

of Forres. About three miles farther is ^arnaway Caftlc, the Tarhaway 
antient feat of the Earls of Murray. The hall, called RandolpV% 
Hall, from its founder Earl Randolph^ one of the great fupporters 
of Robert Bruce^ is timbered at top like Wejiminjier Hall: its dimen- 
fions are 79 feet by 35, 10 inches, and feems a fit refort for 
Barons and their vaffak. In the rooms are fome good heads : one 
of a youth, with a ribband of fome order hanging from his neck. 
Sir IVilliam Balfour^ with a black body to his veft, and brown 
fleeves, a gallant commander on the parlement's fide in the civil 
wars ; celebrated for his retreat with the body of horfe from Left- 
witbiel in face of the King's army ; but juftly branded with in- 
gratitude to his mafter, who by his favor to Sir JVilliam in the 
beginning of his reign, added to the popular difcontents then arifing. 
The Fair, or Bontr/ Earl of Murray ^ as he is commonly called, who 
was murdered, as fuppofed, on account of a jealoufy James VI. 
entertained of a paflion the Queen had for him : at left fuch 
was the popular opinion, as appears from the old ballad on the 
occafion : 

He was a braw Gallant, 

And he played at the Gluve ; * 
And the bonny Earl of Murray^ 

Oh ! he was the Queen's Love. 

* For Gkuvi, ^ old word for a fword. 

* Thea farth he drew hit trnfty Glattfi, 

Qiihyle thonfands all arroand. 
Drawn fi-ae their iheaths glanft in the fan , 
And load the Boagilli foand«' 

Z There 

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There are befides, the heads of his lady and daughter j all on wood, 
except that of the Earl. To the fouth fide of the caftle arc lai^ 
birch woods, abounding with Stags and Roes. 

Continued my journey weft to Auldearne. Am now arrived 
again in the country where the Erfe fcrvice is performed. Juft 
beneath the church is the place where Moutrofi obtained a fignal 
viftory over the Covenanters^ many of whofe bodies lie in the 
churchy with an infcription, imparting, according to the cant of 
the time, that they died fighting for their religion and their 
king. I was told this anecdote of that hero: That he always 
carried with him a Cdefar's Commentaries, on whofe margins were 
written, in Montrofi% own hand, the generous fentiriicnts of hi» 
heart, verfes out of the Italian Poets, expreffing his comeropt of 
every thing but glory. 

Have a diftant view of Nairn^ a {mall town near the fea, 
tm a river of the fame name, the fuppofed Tuaefts di Ptolemy. 
Ride through a rich corn country, mixed with deep and black 
turberies, which fliew the original (late of the land, before the 
recent introdudion - of the improved method of agriculture. 
Reach Calder Caftle, or Cawdor^ as Shake/pear cdls it, long the 
property of its Thanes. The anticnt part is a great fquare tower j. 
but there is a large and more modern building annexed, with a. 

This Thanedom was transferred into the houfe of the Campbels 
by the theft of the heircis of Calder^ when fiic was an infant, by 
the fecond Earl of Argyk. The CaUers raifed their clan, and 
endeavoured to bring back the child, but were defeated with 
great lofs. The Eari carried off his prizt^ and married her to 


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Sir Jifhn Cm»pbeK ^^ fecood fon, fometime before the year 

All the houfes in che& parts are caftles, or at kft 4e&Dfible ; 
for till the year 1745, the Highlanders made their inroads^ and 
drove away the cattle of their defeiKrekfs neighbors. There ar-e 
faid to exift fome very old liurriage articles of the daqghtor 
of a chieftaui, in which the father prormies for lier portion, 
200 Sms naarks, and the half of a Mtcbatlmas waon^ i. e. half 
the plunder, when the nights grew dark enough to make their 
cxcurfions. There is likewife in beii^ a letter from Sir Ewiu 
Camerw to a chief in the neighborhood of the county of Mkr^ 
fvy, wWein he regrets the nxiichicf ithat had happened bctweea 
their people (many having been killed on both fides) as his cla» 
had no intention of falling on the Crants when it k£t Lpchai^f but 
cnfy to make an incurfion into Murray-land, where every man was 
free to take bis prey. This ftrange notion feeras to have arifen 
from the county having been for fo many ages a Piil^ country^ 
and after that under the dominion of the Danes^ and durii>g both 
periods m a ftate of perpetual warfare with the Scots and weftern 
Highlanders^ who (long after the change of circumftances) feem 
quite to have forgot that it was any crime to rob their neighbors of 

Rode into the woods of Colder^ in which were very fine birch 
trees and alders, fome oak, great broom, and juniper, which gave 
flieker to the Roes. Deep rocky glens, darkened with trees,- bound 
each fide of the wood : one has a great torrent roaring at its diftant 
bottom, called the Brook of jicbneem : it well merits the name of 

Z 2 Acheron^ 

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172 A T O U R 

jicberon^ being a moft fit fcene for witches to celebrate their nodtur-^ 
nal rites in. 
A Jouo. Obferved on a pillar of the door of Calder church, a joug^ 

i. e. an iron yoke, or ring, fattened to a chain ; which was, in former 
times, put round the necks of delinquents againft the rules of 
the church, who were left there expofed to Ihame during the 
time of divine fervice -, and was alfo ufed as a punilhment for 
defamation, fmall thefts, &c. : but thefe penalties are now hap- 
ScoTGH Clbrot. pily aboliflied, " The clergy of Scotland^ the moft decent and 
Gonliftent in their conduA of any fet of men I ever met with 
of their order, are at prefent much changed from the furious^ 
illiterate, and enthufiaftic teachers of the old times, and have 
taken up the mild method of perfuafion, inftead of the cruel 
difcipline of corporal puniftimcnts. Science almoft univerfally 
flourilhes among them ; and their difcourfe is not lefs improving 
than the table they entertain the ftranger at is decent and hof- 
pitable. Few, very few of them, permit the bewitchery of dif- 
fipation to lay hold of tl\em, notwithftanding they allow all the 
innocent pleafures of others, which, though not criminal in the 
layman, they know, muft bring the taint of levity on the church- 
man. They never fink their charafters by midnight brawls, by 
mixing with the gaming world, either in cards, cocking, or horfe- 
races, but preferve with a narrow income, a dignity too often loft 
among their brethren fouth of the Tweed*-. 

•Thb apology. 

Friend. * YOU, you in fiery pnrgat'ry muft (lay, 

* Till gall and ink and dirt of fcribbling day 

* Xp parifying flames ace pqrg'd away. 


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IN S C O T L A N D. 173 

The Scotch livings are from 40 L per annum to 150I. per annum ; Scotch Litiiios. 
a decent houfe is built for the minifter on the glebe, and about fix 


Travillbr. ' O tinft me dear D ^ ^ * I ne'er woald offend 
* One pious divine, one virtaons friend, 
*- From natore alone are my charaders drawn* 
« From little Bob Jerom to bifhops in lawn ; 
O traft me dear Friend I never did tliink on 
The Holies who dwell near th' Overlooker of Lincohi 
Not a prelate or prieft did e'er haunt my flumber, 
Who inftnidively teach betwixt T<witi(a and Humber ; 
Nor in South, Eaft, or Weft do I ftigmatife any 
Who ftick to their texts, and thofe are the MANY. 
But when croffing and joftling come queer men of G*d, 
In rufty brown coats and waiftcoats of plaid ; 
With greafy cropt hair, and hats cut to the quick. 
Tight white leathern breeches, and fmart little ftick ; 
Clear of all that is facred from bowfprit to poop, ftr ; 
Who prophane like a pagan, and fwear like a trooper ; 
Who ftiine in the cock-pit, on turf and in ftable, 
And are the prime bucks and arch wags of each table ; 
Who if they e'er deign to thump drum ecclefiaftic. 
Spout new fangled dodrine enough to make man fick ; 
And lay down as gofpel, but not from their Bibles, 
That good-natur'd vices are nothing but foibles ; 
And vice are refining till vice is no more. 
From taking a bottle to taking a •• • • ♦. 
Then if in thefe days fuch apoftates appear, 
(For fuch I am told are found there and here) 
O pardon dear Friend a well-meaning zeal,. 
Too unguardedly telling the fcandal I feel : 
It touches not you, let the galled jades winch,. 
Sound in morals and define you never will flinch. 
.« O Friend 

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174 A T O U R 

acres pf Und annexed. The clwrcfc allows no curat??, except 
in cafe of fickncfe or age, wlwn oiw, under the title of helper, 
is appointed ; or, where the livings are very extenfive, a mif- 
fionary, or afliitaiat is allowed -, txit fine-cures, or fine-cured pre- 
ferments, never difgrace tihc church of our fitter kingdom. .The 
widows and children are of late provided for out of a fund eftab- 
lifhed by two afts, 17th and 22d G, 11. * This fund, amount^ 
ing now to 66,000 1, >yas fornt^d by the contributions of the 
clergy, whofc widows rcoeive annuities from 10 1, ta 25 1. ac- 
cording tio what their hulbands had advanced. 

Crofs the Nairn \tht bridge large, but the ftream inconfider- 
able, except in floods. On the Weft is Kilravoch Caftle, and 
th^t of Dalcrofs. Keep due North, along the military road from 
Perth •, pafs along a narrow low piece of land, projefting far 
into the Firth , called Ardtrjitr^ forming a ftrait fcarce a mile over, 
between this county and that of Cromartie^. At the end of 
Fort GfiORoc. xki\% point is Tort George^ a fmall but ftrong and regular for- 
trefs, built fince 1745, as a flaud'armes: it is kept in excellent 
order, but, by reafon of the happy change of the times, fecmed 

O Friend of paft yoatk, let me diink of the £abk 
Oft told with ckafte mtrtii at jt^m innocent table. 
When inftru^vely ktndt wifdom's roles yon Tan o'er, 
Rela£bnt f leave yoii« iniktiate for more ; 
So, bkft be the day, that my joys will reftore.' 
* An account of the government of the church of Seotlamd wfts communicated 
to me by the Reverend Mr. BroJii^ the late worthy miniftor of Colder* Vide 
Appendix. ^ 

t Between which plies a ferry-boat* 


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afmoft ddcrted : the barracks are very handfomc, and form fevcral 
regular and good ftreets. 

Lay at Campbeliowfty a place confiding of numbers of very 
mean houfes, owing its .rife and fupport to the neighboring 

Paffed over Culkden Mowr^ the place that North Britain owes auc. i6. 
its prefent profperity to^by the viftory oi April i6, 1746. On Cullodin. 
the fide of the JMSwr, are the great plantations of CuUoden 
Houfe, the feat of the late Duncan Forbes^ a warm and aftive 
friend to the houfe of Hanovery yfho fpent great fums in its 
fcrvice, and by his influence, and by his perfuafions, diverted 
numbers from joining in rebellion ; at length he met with a. 
cool return, for his attempt to (heath, after viftory, the unfa- 
tiated fword. But let a veil be flung over a few excelTcs con- 
fcqocntial of a day, productive of fo much benefit to the united 

The young adventurer lodged here the evening preceding the 
battle ; diftrafted with the averfwn erf" the common men to dif- 
cipline, and the diflentibns among his officers, even when they were 
at the brink of deftruftion,, he fcemcd inc^able of ading^ could 
be fcarcely perfuaded to mount his horfe, never came into the 
aftion, as might have been cxpefted from a prince who had his laft 
ftake to play, but fled inglorioufly to the old tfaitor Lovat *, who, 
I was told,, did execrate him to the pcrfon who informed him that 

* HilLfntlflup wasat thatdnve expedingthecrentof t^bftttk, when a prr-^ 
&ft cane in asd informed lua, thai he fAw cbe Prince rid»g ftfll fpeed> and 



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176 A T O U R 

he was approaching as a fugitive : forefeeing his own ruin as the 
confequence *. 

The Duke of Cumherland^ when he found that the barges of the 
fleet attended near the (hore for the fafety of his pcrfon, in cafe of a 
defeat, immediately ordered them away, to convince his men of the 
refolution he had taken of either conquering or perifhing with 

The battle was fought contrary to the advice of fome of the 
moft fenfible men in the rebel army, who advifed the retiring 
into the faftnefles beyond the Nefs^ the breaking down the bridge 
of Invemefs^ and defending themfelves amidft the mountains. 
They politically urged that England was engaged in bloody wars 
foreign and domeftic, that it could at that time ill fpare its 
troops ; and that the Government might from that confideration,, 
be induced to grant to the infurgents their lives and fortunes, 
on condition they laid down their arms. They were fenfible 
that their caufe was defpcrate, and that their ally was faithlefs ; 
yet knew it might be long before they could be entirely fubdued 5 

* Regard to impartiality obliges me to give the following acconnt very recently 
communicated to me, relating to the flation of the chief on this important day ; 
and that by an eye-witnefs. 

The Scotch army was drawn up in a fingle line ; behind, at about 500 paces 
diftance, was zc^rps dt nfimji^ with which was the Adventurer, a place of feeming 
fecurity, from whence he ifTued his orders. His ufual drefs wAs that of the High- 
lands, but this day he appeared in a brown coat, with a loofe great coat •ver it, 
and an ordinary hat, fuch as countrymen wear, on his head. Remote as this place 
was from the fpot where the trifling a£Uon was, a fervant of his was killed by an 
accidental (hot. It is well known how fhort the conflid was ; and the moment 
he faw his right wing give way, he fled with the utmoft precipitation, and without 
a fingle attendant, till he was joined by a few other fugitives. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. i^y 

therefore drew hopes from the fad neceffity of our affairs at that 
feafon : but this rational plan was fuperfedcd by the favorite faftion 
in the army, to whofe guidance the unfortunate adventurer had re- 
figned himfelf. 

After defcending from the Moor, got into a well-cultivated coun- 
try ; and after riding fome time under low but pleafant hills, not far 
from the fea, reach 

Inverness, finely feated on a plain, between -the Firth of Inverness* 
Murray^ and the river Nefs : the firft, from the narrow ftrait of 
Arderfier^ inftantly widens into a fine bay, and again as fuddenly 
contrafts oppofite Invemefs^ at. the ferry of Kejfock^ the pafs into 
Rofsjhire. The town is large and well built, very populous, and 
contains about eleven thoufand inhabitants. This being the laft 
of any note in North Britain^ is the winter refidence of many of 
the neigboring gentry: and the prefent emporium^ as it was the 
antient, of the north of Scotland. Ships of five or fix hundred 
tons can ride at the loweft ebb within a mile of the town ; and 
at high tides veflels of 200 tons can come up to the quay. 
The prefent imports arc chiefly groceries, haberdalheries, hard- 
ware, and other ncceffaries from London : and of late from fix 
to eight hundred hoglheads of porter are annually brought in. 
The exports are chiefly falmon, thofc of the Nefs being efteemed 
of more exquifite flavor than any other. Herrings, of an in- 
ferior kind, taken in the Firth from Auguji to March. The 
manufaftured exports are confiderablc in cordage and facking. 
Of late years, the linqen manufafture of the place faves it above 
three thoufand pounds a year, which ufed to go into Holland for 
that article. The commerce of this pl^ce was at its height a 

A a century 

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178 A T O U R 

centiiry or two ago, when it engroflcd the exports of corn, falmon, 
and herrings, and had bcfides a great trade in cured codfiih now loft • 
and in thofc times very large fortunes were made here. 

The opulence of this town has often made it the objeft of plun- 
/ der to the Lords of the Ides and their dependents. It fuffered 

in particubr in 1222, from one GilUfpie^ in 1429, irom Akxan- 
der J Lord of the Ifles ; and, even fo late did the anticnt manners 
prevale, that a head of a weftern clan, in the latter end of the 
laft century, threatened the place with fire and fword, if they 
did not pay a large contribution, and prefent him with a fcarlct 
fuit laced ; all which was complied with. 

On the North ftood Oliver's fort, a pentagon, whofe forni 
remains to be traced only by the ditches and banks. He formed 
it with ftones purloined from the neighboring religious houfes. Ac 
prefent there is a very confiderable rope-walk near it. 

On an eminence fouth of the town is old Fori St. George, which 
Castli*. was taken and blown up by the rebels in 1746. It had been the 
antient caftle converted by General fVade into barracks. Ac- 
cording to Boetbius, Duncan was murdered here by Macbeth: 
but according to Fordun, near Elgin "^^ This, caftle ufed to^be 
the refidence of the court, whenever the Scottijb Princes were 
called to quell the infufreftions of the turbulent clans. Old 
people ftill remember magnificent apartments embcllifhcd with 
ftucco bufts and paintings. The view from hence is charming, 
of the Firth, the paflage of Kejfock, the river Nefs, the ftrange- 
fliaped hill of Totnman heuricb, and various groupes of diftant 

^ AnnHL^oi Scotland, u 


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The Tomman is cxf an ohlong form, broad at the bafe, aad Tomman. 
floping on all fides towards the top; fo that it looks like a 
ihip with its keel upwards. Its fides, and part of the neigh- 
boring plains are planted, fo it is both an agreeable walk and a 
fine objcft. It is perfeftly detached from any other hill ; and if it 
was not for its great fizc might pafs* for a work of art. The view 
from it is fuch, that no traveller will think his labor loft, after gain- 
jng the fummit. 

At Invernefs^ and I believe at other towns in ScotUndj is an 
officer, called Dean of the Guilds who, aflifted by a council, Dban or Guild* 
fuperintcnds the markets, regulates the price f of provifions ; and 
if any houfe falls down, and the owner lets it lie in ruins for 
three years, the Dean can abfolutely difpofe of the ground to the 
beft bidden 

In this town was a houfe of Dominicans j founded in 1233 by 
Alexander II. : and in Dalrymple'% coUeftion there is mention of a 

In the Church Street is a hofpital with a capital of .3000 U Hospital; 
the intereft of which is diftributed among the indigent inhabiunts 
of the town. In this houfe is a library of 1400 volumes of both 
•ontient and modern books. The founder was Mr. Robert BailHe^ a 

* Its length at top about 300 yards ; I negledled meafuriog the bafe or the 
height, which are both confiderable ; the breadth of the top only 20 yards. 

f Beef, (22 ounces to the pound) 2d. to 4d. Mutton, 2 d. to 3 d. Veal, 
3 d. to 5d. Porky 2d. to 3d. Chickens, 3d. to 4 d, a couple. Fowl, 4 d. 
to 6 d. apiece. Goofe, lad. to i4.d. Ducks, i s. a couple. Eggs, feven a penny. 
Salmon, of which there are feveral great iUherieSf i d. and 1 d. balfpeaoy ftr 

A a 2 minifter 

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i8o A T O U R 

minifter in this town : but the principal bencfaftor was Doftor Jams 
Frafer^ fecretary to the Cbelfea hofpital. 

Crofs the Nefs on a bridge of fcven arches, above which the tide 
. flows for about a mile. A fmall toll is collefted here, which brings 
to the town about 60 1. a year. 

Proceed North ; have a fine view erf the Firth, which now widens 
again from Kejfock into a large bay fomp miles in length. The hills 
flope down to the water-fide, and are finely cultivated ; but the dif- 
tant profpedl is of rugged mountains of a ftupendous height j as if 
created as guards to the reft of the ifland from the fury of the boi- 
fterous North. 

Ride clofe to the water-edge thro* woods of alder : pafs near feve- 
ral houfes of the Frafers^ and reach 
Caitle Dukii. caftk Dunie, the fite of the houfe of their chieftain Lord Lovat: 
The barony from which he took his title came into the family by 
the marriage of Sir Simon Frafer^ a little before the year 1300, with 
the heirefs of Lord Bijfet^ a nobleman of great poffeflion in thcfe 

The old houfe, which was very mean, was burnt down m ly^S ; 
but a neat box, the refidence of the hofpitable faftor, is built in its 
ftead on a high bank well wooded, over the pretty river Bewley^ or 
BeauUeu. The country, for a certain circuit, is fertile, well culti- 
vated, and fmiling. The bulk of Lord Lavat's eftate was in thefe 
parts ; the reft, to the amount of 500 1. per annumy in Siratberick. 
He was a potent chieftain, and could raife about icoo men : but 1 
found his neighbors fpoke as unfavorably of him, as his enemies did 
in the moft diftant parts of the kingdom. Legiflature has given the 
moft honorable tcftimony to the merit of the fon, by rcftoring, in 


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I N S C O T L A N D. i8i 

1774, the forfeited fortunes of the father. No patent for nobility 

conveyed greater glory to any one, than the preamble to the aft has 

done to this gentleman. His father's property had been one of the 

annexed eftates, /. e. fettled unalienably on the crown, as all the for- ^ Forfbitid 

feitcd fortunes in the Highlands are : the whole value of which EiXAXBa. 

brought in at that time about 6000 1. per annum, and thofe in the 

Lowlands about the fame fum ; fo that the power and intcreft of a 

poor twelve thoufand per annum^ terrified and nearly fubverted the , ' 

conftitution of thefe powerful kingdoms. 

The profits of thefe eftates are lodged in the hands of Truftees, 
who apply their revenue for the founding of fchools for the inftruc- 
tion of children in fpinning; wheels are given away to poor families, 
and flax- feed to farmers. Some money is given in aid of the roads^ 
and towards building bridges over the torrents ; by which means a 
ready intercourfe is made to parts before inacceffible to ftrangers *. 
And in 1753, ^ ^^''g^ ^^^ ^^ ^P^"^ ^" ^^ t7/^/>/^» projeft of efta- 
blilhing colonies (on the forfeited eftates) of dift^anded foldiers and 
failors : comfortable houfes were built for them, land and money 
given, and fome lent •, but the fuccefs by no means anfwered the in- 
tentions of the projedlors. 

Ford the Bewley^ where a fatmon fifhery, belonging to the Lavat aug. 17; 
eftate, rents at >20 1. per annum. The Erfe name of this river is 
Farar, and the vale it runs through, Glen-Jlrath-farar. It is proba- 
ble that this was its antient name, and that the Varar jEJiuarium of 
Ptolenry was derived from it, the F being changed into V. The 

* Tbe faaors, or agent! of thefe eftates aro alfo allowed all the money they 
expend in planting. 


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i8a A T O U R 

Lbirnamonach. country on this fide the river is called Leirnamonacb *» or the Monk's 
land, having formerly been the property of the priory of Bewley •, 
AiRDs. and the oppofite fide bears the name of Airds^ or the Heights. 

Pafs by fome excellent farms, well inclofcd, improved, and 
planted : the land produces wheat and other corn. Much cat- 
tle are bred in thcle parts, and there are feveral linnen manu- 
Castlb-Braan. Ford the Conan to Caftle Braan^ the feat of the Earl of S^afortb j a 
good houfe, pleafantly fituated'on the fide of a hill ; commands a 
view of a large plain, and to the Weft a wild profpedt of broken 
and lofty mountains. 

There is here a fine full length of Mary Stuarty with this in- 
fcription : Alaria D. G. Scotiit fiijfima regina. Francias Dotaria. 
Armo Mtatis Regtii 38. 1580. Her drefs is black, with a ruff, 
cap, handkerchief, and a white veil down to the ground, beads 
and prayer-book, and a crofs hanging from her neck ; her hair 
dark brown, her face handfome, and confidering the difference 
of years, fo much refcmbling her portrait by Zuccbero^ in Cbif" 
wick Houfe, as to leave little doubt as to the originality of the 

A fmall half-length on wood, of Henry Damly^ infcribed Henricus 
Stuardus Dominus Damlyj Mt. IX. M.D.LV. dreffed in black; 
with a f^Yord. It is the figure of a pretty boy. 

A fine portrait of Cardinal RicbUtu. General Mw^t, in a buff 
coat. Head of Sir George Mackenzie. The Earl of Seafmrtb^ called 

t Lhr. or Litkir^ kftd that liei on Uk fide of a river or brancbof cbe fea, and 
Monacbt a monk. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 183 

from his fizc, Kemutb More. Frances Countefs of Seafortb^ daugh- 
ter of fyiliiam Marqutfs of Powis^ in her robes, with a tawny 
moor offering her a coronet. Roger Palmer Earl oi ,Caftkmaine% 
diftinguifhed by his lady, Barbara Dutchefs oi Cleveland', and by his 
ftmple embafly to a difcerning Pope from that bigottjcd Prince 
James II. 

Near the houfe are fon>e very fine oaks and horfe-chefnuts : in 
the garden, Turkey apricots, orange nectarines, and a fmall foft 
peach, ripe ; other peaches, ne£larines, and green gages, far from 

Pafs through Dingwall^ a fmall town, the capital of Rofsjhire^ Dihgwall. 
fituated near the head of the Firth of Cromartie : the Highlanders 
call it Inner-Feorain^ Feoran being the name of the river that runs 
near it into the Firth. An antient crofs, and an obeliflc over the 
burying place of the Earls (rf Cramar tie's family, were all I faw re- 
markable in it. In the year 1400, Dingwall had its caftle, fubjedt 
to Donaldy Lord of the Ifles, and Earl of Rjofs. After that regulus 
was weakened by the battle of HarlaWj his territories were invaded ; 
and this caftle reduced to the power of the cxo^noi Scotland^ by the 
'Dvk.coi Albany. 

Ride along a very good road cut on rfie fide of a hill, with the 
country very well cultivated above and below, with feveral fmall 
woods interfperfed near the water's edge. There is a fine view of 
almoft the whole bay, the moft capacious and fecure of any 
in Greal Britain •, its whole navy might lay there with eafe,. Firth of^ 
and Ihips of two hundred tuns may fail up above two-thirds Cromartii* 
ef its length, which extends near thirty EngUJh miles from the 


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,84 A T O U R 

Suiters* of Cromartie to a fmall diftance beyond Dingwall: 
the entrance is narrow ; the projefting hills defend this fine 
bay from all winds ; fo it juftly merits the name given it oV 
Portus falutis. 

FouLEs. FeuLES, the feat erf Sir Henry MonrOy lies about a mile from the 

Firthy near vaft plantations on the flats, as well as on the hills. 
Thofe on the hills are fix miles in length, and in a very flourifhing 
ftate. On the back of thefe are extenfive vallies full of oats, 
bounded by mountains, which here, as well as in the High- 
lands in general, run from Eaft to Weft. Sir Henry holds a 
foreft from the crown by a very whimfical tenure, that of de- 
livering a fnow-ball on any day of the year that it is demanded ; 
and he feems to be in no danger of forfeiting his right by fai- 
lure of the quit-rent : for fnow lies in form of a gluciere in the 
chafms of Benwemjb^ a neighboring mountain, throughout the 

Auo. 1 8. Continue my journey along the low country, which is rich and 

well cultivated. 

Pafs near Invergordon *, a handfome houfe, amidft fine planta- 
tions. Near it is the narroweft part of the Firth, and a ferry into 
the ihire of Cromartie^ now a country almoft deftitute of trees ; yet. 


* Sutiertf or Shooters, two hills that form its entrance, proje^g confiderably 
into the water. 

t At CuIraiM, three miles from this place, is found, two feet beneath the fur- 
face, a Saturn of white foapy mark filled with ihells, and is much ufod as a 


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in the time af James V. was covered with timber, and over- run with 
wolves *. 

Near the fummit of the hill, between the Firths of Cromar- 
tie and Dornoch^ is BalUnagouatiy the feat of a Gentleman, who Ballxhaoouan. 
has moft fuccefsfuUy converted his fword into a ploughfliare -, 
who, after a feries of difintcrefted fervices to his country, by 
clearing the feas of privateers, the moft unprofitable of captures, 
has applied himfelf to arts not lefs dcferving of its thanks. He 
is the beft farmer and the greateft planter in the country : his 
wheat and his turneps Ihew the one, his plantations of a million 
of pines each year the other +• It was with great fatisfadtion 
that I obferved charafters of this kind very frequent in North 
Brilatn ; for during tlie interval of peace, every officer of any 
patrimony was fond of retiring to it, affumed the farmer with- 
out flinging oflf the gentleman, enjoyed rural quiet ; yet ready to 
undergo the fatigues of war the moment his country clamed his 

About two miles below Ballinagouan is a melancholy inftancc 

* Thefe animals have been long extinA in North Bri/asMf notwithftanding 
M. di BuffoH aflferts the contrary. There are many antient laws for their extirpa- 
tion : that of James I. parltm. 7. is the moft remarkable: '' The Schiri£Fs ^ 
Barons fuld hunt the wolf four or thrie times in the Zear, betwixt St. Marks day 
& Lamhes^ qahich is the time of their quhelpes, and all tenents fall rife with them 
under paine of ane wadder." 

f Pine, or Scotch fir feed, as it is called^ fells from four to fix fliillings ptr 
pound. Rents are payed here in kind : the landlord either contrads to fupply 
the forts with the produce of the land, or fells it to the merchant, who comes for 
it. The price of labor is 6 d. fvr day to the men^ 3 d. to the women. 

Bb of 

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,86 A T O U R 

Nbw Tarbat. of a reverfe of conducft : the ruins of New Tarbat^ once the 
magnificent feat of an unhappy nobleman, who plunged into a 
moft ungrateful rebellion, deftrudive to himfelf and family. 
The tenants, who feem to inhabit it gratis^ are forced to fhelter 
themfelves from the weather in the very loweft apartments, 
while fwallows make their nefts in the bold ftucco of fome of 
the upper. 

While I was in this county, I heard a Angular but well-attefted 
relation of a woman difordered in her health, who fafted for a fuper- 
natural fpace of time ; but the length of the narrative obliges me to 
fling it into the Appendix. 

Ride along a tedious black moor to ^ain^ a fmall town on 
the Firth of Dornoch -, diftinguilhed for nothing but its large 
fquare tower, decorated with five fmall fpires. Here was alio 
a collegiate church, founded in 148 1 by Thomas^ Bifliop of 
Rofs, Captain Richard Franks^ an honeft Cavalier^ who during 
the ufurpation made an angling peregrination from the banks 
of the Trent to John a Groat^s houfe, calls Tain ' as exemplary 

* as any place for juftice, that never ufes gibbet' or halter to 

* hang a man, but facks all their malefaftors, fo fwims them 
' to their graves.' * The place appeared very gay at this time; 
for all the gaudy finery of a little fair was difplayed in the 
fliew of hard ware, printed linnens, and ribbands. Kept along 
the fhore for about two miles through an open corn country ; 
and croffiflg the great ferry, in breadth near two miles, thro* 
a rapid tide, and in a bad boat, land in the county of Sutber^ 

• Northern Memoirs, &c. by Ricbartl Franks, Pbilantbrofus^ tondoMi 1694. 


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land^ Cam of the Highlanders j and in lefs than an hour reach 
its capital 

Dornoch, a fmall town, half in ruins ; once the refidencc DoRNocg. 
of the Bifhops of CatbnefSj and, like Durham^ the feat of Ec- 
clefiaftics : many of the houfes ftill are called after the titles of 
thofc that inhabited them: the Bifliop lodged in the caftle: the 
Dean's houfe is at prefent the inn. The cathedral was in form 
of a crofs; built by Gilbert Morayj who died Bilhop of Cath- 
nefs in 1245 : it is now a ruin, except part, which is the pre- 
fcnt church.* On the doors and window- fhutters .were painted 
(as is common in many parts of North Britain) white tadpole- 
like figures on a black ground, defigned to exprefs the tears 
of the country for the lofs of any perfon of diftinftion. Thefe 
were occafioned by the afFedting end of that amiable pair, the 
young Earl and Countefs of Sutbtrland^ who were lovely in their 
lives, and in their deaths they were not divided, for their hap. 
pinefs was interrupted by a very fhort feparation : fane ubi 
idem et maximus et honeftijfimus amor eft^ aliquando prajlat morte 
jungii quam vita dijlrabif. 

Ride on a plain not far from the fea; pals by a fmall crofs, 
called the Thane's^ crefted in memory of the battle of Embo in 
1259, between William Earl of Sutherland and the DaneSy who 
were overthrown, and their General flain, at this place ; and not far 
from thence the fpot where an unhappy creature had been burnt, 

• Sir Patrick Murray founded here in 1271 a convent oiMatburints. 
t Where a motoal and moft ardent and moft virtuous affcdion rcigna, it if 
fomctiaicf preferable to be united by death, than torn from each other by life, 

Bb2 if 

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i88 A TOUR 

if I miftakc not, in June 1727, for the imaginary crime oivoiuk- 

Crofs a very narrow inlet to a fmall bay at Porihegy or the little 
ferry, in a boat as dangerous as the laft ; for horfes can neither get 
in or out without great rifque, from the vaft height of the fides and 
their want of flips. Keep along the fhore, pafs by the fmall village 
of Golfpie^ and reach 
DuNROBiN. JDunrobin Caftle, the antient feat of the Earls of Sutherland^, 

founded about the year 1 100 by Robert^ or Robin^ fecond Earl of 
Sutherland -, fituated near the fca, and as the word Dun imports, 
on a round hill. The few paintings here are, an Earl of Murray^ 

* Thi3 18 the laft inftancc of thcfc frantic executions in the North of ScotlanJ, 
as that in the South was at Paijlj in 1697, where, among others, a woman, young 
and handfome, fuffered, with a reply to her enquiring friends, worthy a Roman 
matron ; being alked why (he did not make a better defence on her tryal, an(Wcred, 
My per/tcutors have deftroyed my honor ^ and my lift is not nonu lAJortb the pains ofdt* 
finding. The laft inftance of national credulity on this head was the ftory of the 
witches of r^^rc/J, who tormenting for a long time an honeft fellow under the 
ufual form of cats, at laft provoked him fo, that one night he put them to flight 
with his broad fword, and cut off the Itg of one lefs nimble than the reft ; on hisL 
takihg it up, to his amazement he found it belonged to a female of hb own fpecies, 
and next morjaing diicovered the owner, an old hag, with only the companion leg 
to this. The horrors of the tale were confiderably abated, in the place I heard ir, 
by an unlucky enq^uiry made by one in company, viz. In what part would the old 
woman have fuftcrcd, had the man cut off the cat's tail } But thefc relations of 
almoft obfolete fnperftitions, muft never be thought a rcfleaion on this country, as 
long as any memory remains of the tragical end of the poor people at Tring^ who, 
within a few miles of our capital, in 175 1, fell a facrificc to the belief of the com- 
mon people in witches 5 or of that ridiculous impofture in the capital itfelf, in 
176«> of» the CocA-Lane ghoft> which found credit with all ranks of people., 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 189 

an old man, on wood. His fon and two daughters, by Co. G. 
1628, A fine fuil length of Charles I. Angus IVilliamfony a hero of 
the clan Cbattan^ who refcued the Sutberlands in the time of 
diftrcfs, A very Angular pifture of the Duke of Alva in coun- 
cil, with a cardinal by his fide,^ who puts a pair of bellows 
blown by the Devil into his ear : the Duke has a chain in 
one hand fixed to the necks of the kneeling Flemings^ in the other 
he (hews them a paper of recantation for them to fign ; behind 
whom are the reformed Clergy. The cardinal is the noted 
Antbofry Perrenoty cardinal de Grandville^ fecrctary to Margaret 
of AuftriOj Dutchefs Dowager of Savoy^ Governefs of the Ne- 
therlands-^ and who was held to be the author, advancer and 
nouriftier * of the troubles of thofe countries -, and who on his 
recall into Spain^ was fuppofed to be the great promoter of the cruel- 
ties exercifcd afterwards by the Duke of Alva^ the fucceflbr of his 

The demefne is kept in excellent order ; and I faw here {lat. 58.) 
a very fine field of wheat, which would be ripe about the middle of 
next month. 

This was the moft northern. wheat which had been fown this year 
in North Britain. 

Sutherland is a country abounding in cattle, and fends out annu- 
ally 2500 head, which fold about this time (lean) from 2I. 10 s. to 
3 1, per head. Thefe are very frequently without horns, and both. 
they and the horfes are very fmall. Stags abound in the hills, there 
being reckoned not lefs than 1600 on the Sutherland e^^te^ which^ 

^ Grimfttm^sHift, NttbirUmJst 344. 349* 


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in fad, is the greateft part of the county. Befides thefe are Roes, 
Grous, black game and Ptarmigans in plenty, and during winter 
multitudes of water-fowl on the coaft. 
PiCTisH Caitlbs. Not far from Dunrobin h a very entire piece of antiquity, of 
the kind known in Scotland by the name of the Pi£iijh Caftles, 
and called here Cairn Lia\ or a grey tower: that I faw was 
about 130 yards in circumference, round, and raifed fo hio^h 
above the ground as to form a confidcrable mount: on the 
top was an extenfive but fhallow hollow : within were three low 
concentric galleries, at fmall diftances from each other, covered 
with large ftones •, and the fide-walls were about four or five 
feet thick, rudely made. There are generally three of thefe 
places near each other, fo that each may be fecnfrom any one. 
Buildings of this kind are very frequent, along this coaft, that 
of Catbnefs and of Stratbnavern. Others agreeing in external 
form are common in the Hebrides^ but differ in their internal 
conftruftion. In the iflands they are attributed to xhc Danes* -y 
here to the PiSls. Poflibly each nation might have the fame 
mode of building with fome variation, for I am told that fome 
are to be feen in places where the Danes never penetrated. 
They were probably the defencible habitations of the times. I 
muft withdraw my opinion of their having been the fuffugia 
hiemsj aut receptacula frugibus^ like thofe of the antient Germans. 
Such are not uncommon in Scotland^ but of a form very different 
from thefe. 

* An enquiry is at this time making, by means of a correfpondence in Cofen- 
bagtHf whether any fuch edifices exift at prefent in the Dmnijb dominions; and 
what was their fuppofed ufe. The refult will be given in the next volume. 


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Kept along the Ihore Northward, About a mile from the caftle Auo, 19. 
are fome fmall cliffs of free-ftone; in one is Stratb-Leven Cove, 
an artificial cave, with feats, and feveral fhallow circular hollows 
cut within-fide, once the retreat of a devout hermit. At fome 
diftance, and near the fea, are fmall ftrata of coal three feet Coal; 

thick, dipping to the Eaft, and found at the depth of about 14 
to 24 yards. Sometimes it takes fire on the bank, which has 
given it fo ill a name, that people are very fearful of taking it 
aboard their (hips. I am furprized that they will not run the 
rifque, confidering the miraculous quality it pofTefles of driving 
away rats wherever it is ufcd. This is believed by the good 
people of Sutherland^ who aflTured me ferioufly of its virtues ; and 
they farther attributed the fame to the earth and very heath of 
their county. They add too, that not a rat will live with them, 
notwithftanding they fwarm in the adjacent fhires of Rofs and 

* Some years ago I booght of the Monks, at the great BtntdiSint convent at 
Augjhurg^ fome papers of St. VlricJtt earth, which I was aflured, by Luthtran and 
Fapifty had the fame rat-expelling quality with that above-mentioned ; but whe- 
ther for want of dae faith, or negledl of atfending to the forms of the printed pre- 
icriptiona given with them, (here copied at full length) I know not, but the auda- 
cious animals haunt my houfe in fpite of it i^Venernhiks Rtliqui^r d$ Tirra SepuU 
cbrali, Jhfi de rtfiluta dtintus camt ^.XJdalrici Conf, ^ Epi/copi Augudani ; qua Ji 
honor ijic} ad inftar allarum Reliquiarum habeantur^ tf ad Dei laudem^ Difviquf Prtr/ulis 
bonoremt pium quoddam opus, *u, g, Oratio^ Jejunium^ Eliemojfynat Sec. praftttury 
mrum eftt qua poUeant efficacid^ ad profcribendos prafirtim e domibus^ fff <vicinia 
GJt'nst qui Jubfifteri minime *valent ubicunqui fimiles Riliqma cum fiducid fuerinCap' 
ptnf^ 'vel a£kr*vatie. Idqut exfptciali prarogativdf qua omnipotens DiUi infignim tanti 
Fatroni mitita perpetue miraculo ftatuk condecwari^ 



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In AJfynt^ a part of this county, far'Weft of Bunrobin^ are large 
ftrata of a beautiful white marble, equal, as I was told, to the 
Parian. I afterwards faw fome of the fame kind found at Gkn-avon^ 
in Badenocb. 

Crofs the water of Brora^ which runs along a deep chafm, 
over which is a hand fome bridge of a fingle arch. N^ar is 
a cave, where tHe falmon fiftiers lie during the feafon : the roof 
is pierced through to the furface, which ferves for a natural 
chimney. They take annually about lo or 12 lafts of fifh. 
In a bank not far from the bridge are found abundance of 

The country is very fandy, and the arable, or cultivated part, 
very . narrow, confined on the Eaft by the fea, on the Weft by 
lofty black mountains, which approach nearer and nearer to the 
water, till at length they projeft into it at the great promontory, 
the Ord of Catbnefs^ the boundary between that county and Suther^ 
land\ after which the coaft is bold and rocky, except a fmall bay or 
Hblmsdalb. Ford the very dangerous water of i/(f/w/2/^&, rapid and full of 

great ftones. Very large Lampries are found here, fifh detefted by 
the Highlanders. Beneath the ftones on the fea^fhore are abundance 
of fpotted and viviparous Blennies, Father Lafhers, and Whiftlc 
Fifli. Mackarel appear here in this month, but without their roes. 
I thought them far inferior in goodnefs to thofe of our country. 
Much Salmon is taken here. 

The grey Water- wagtail quits this country in winter; with usk 

Dined at the little village of Helmfdak ; near which arc the ruins 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 193 

of a fqu*e tower, built by Margaret Countefs of Sutherland^ in the 
fifteenth century. 

Paflfed through a rich vale full of good barley and oats, between - Ord of 
the hill of Helm/dale and the Ord, Afcend that vaft promontory 
on a good road, winding up its fteep fides, and impending in many 
parts over the fea, infinitely more high and horrible, than our 
Penmaen Mawr. Beneath were numbers of Seals floating on the 
waves, with fea-fowl fwimming among them with great fecurity. 
Obferved projedling from one part of the Ordy far below, a fmall 
and verdant hill, on which, tradition fays, was fought a fingle com- 
bat between an Earl of Cathnefs^ and a fon of the Earl of Sutber^ 
landj while their two armies looked on from above : the firft was 
killed on the fpot, the laft died of his wounds. 

The Ord was the antient divifion of Cathnefsy when Sutherland was 
reckoned part. The diftiftftion at that time was Cathenesia cis 
et ultra montem. Sutherland was ftyled then Catau^ as being more 
montanous : the modern Cathnefs^ Guaelavy as being more plain *. 

Beneath this cape are immenfe caves, the rcfort of Seals +, and 
Sea-fowls : the fides and top arc chiefly covered with heath and 
morafly earth, which give it a black and melancholy look. Ride 
over fome boggy and dreary moors. Pafs thro' AufdaU^ a little 
Highland village. Defcend into a deep bottom covered with 

* Sit David Dalrymf lis hnnzXi of Scotland. 135. 

t Daring fpring great quantities of Lamp-fiih refort here, and are the prey of 
the fealsy as appears from the numbers of their (kins, which at that feafon float 
alhore. The Seals, at certain times, feem vifited with a great mortality ; for at 
thofe times multitudes of them are feen dead in the water* 

C c alders. 

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Auc. 20» 



alders, willows, birch, and wicken trees, to Langwall^ the feat 
of Mr. Sutberlandy who gave me a very hofpitablc reception. 
The country abounds with Stags and Roes, and all forts of 
feathered game, while the adjacent river brings Salmon almoft up to 
his door. 

I enquired here after the Lavelkm^y which, from defcription, I 
fufpeft to be the Water Shrcw-moufe. The country people have a 
notion that it is noxious to cattle : they prefcrve the fkin, and, as a 
cure for their fick beafts, give them the water in which it has been 
dipt. I believe it to be the fame animal which in Sutherland is called 
the Water Mole, 

Proceed on my journey. Pafs near Berridak. On a peninfula 
jutting into the fea is the ruin of the caftle ; between it and the 
land is a deep chafm, where there had been a draw-bridge. On this 
caftle are ftationed, in the Salmon feafon, perfons who are to obfervc 
the approach of the fifli to the frefli waters. 

Near Clathron is a druidical ftone fet an end, and of a moft ftu- 
pendous fize. 

Saw Dunbetb +, the (feat of Mr. Sinclair^ fituated on a narrow neck 
of land ; on one fide impending over the fea, on the other, over 
a deep chafm, into which the tide flows : a fmall narrow garden, 
with billows beating on three fides, fills the reft of the land be- 
tween the houfe and the water. Numbers of old caftles in this 
county have the fame tremendous fituation. On the Weft fide of 

• SibSaU Hift. Scotland. Br. ZooL illuft. ciu 

t This csifUe was^ taken and garrifoned by the Marqoifi of Momrofi in 16^09 
ifflXBcdiatelj preceding his final defeat. WbittkcL 45.4. 


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thi$ houfc are a few rows of tolerable trees ; the only trees that I 
faw from Berridale to the extremity of Catbnefs *. On the right in- 
land are the fmall remains of Knackennan Caftle, built by an Earl of 
Catlmefs. From thefe parts is a full view of the lofty naked moun- 
tain of Scaraben and Morven. The laft Ptarmigans in Scotland are 
on the firft ; the laft Roes about Langwallj there being neither high 
hills nor woods beyond. All the county on this fide, from Dunbetb 
to the extremity, is flat, or at left very feldom interrupted with hills, 
and thofe low ; but the coafts rocky, and compofcd of ftupcndous 

Refrelhed our horfes at a little inn at the hamlet of Clytbe^ not 
far from the headland, called Clythenefs. Reach Tbrumfter^ a feat 
of Mr. Sinclair's. It is obfervable, that the names of places in 
this county often terminate in ter and dale^ which favors of Damjb 

The Sinclair s are Very numerous, and poffcfs confiderable fortunes 
in thefe parts -, but Boetbius fays, that they, the FrazierSy Campbells^ 
Bofwellsy and many others, came originally from France. 

Pafs through IVick^ a fmall burrough town with fome good 
houfes, feated on a river within reach of the tide -, and at a diftancc 
lies an old tower, called Lord Olipbanfs caftle. In this town lives 
a weever wh9 weevcs a fliirt, with buttons and button holes entire 
without any feam, or the left ufe of the needle : but it is to be feared 
that he will fcarce find any benefit from his ingenuity, as he cannot 

* But vaft quantity of fubterraneoos timber in all the moors. Near Dunbetb is 
an entire PiSs caftle, with the hollow in the top, and ia called the Bourg of 



AOO. 21* 




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DvNGMY Bay. 


afford his labor under five pounds a Ihirt. Somewhat farther, clofe 
to the fea, is Achringal tower, the feat of Sir Wtlliam Dunbar- Ride 
over the Links of Keitb^ on the fide of Sinclair bay. Thefe were 
once a morafs, now covered with fand, finely turfed over ; fo in this 
inftance the land has been obliged by the inftability of the fand. 
The old caftle of Keifs is feated on a rock, with a good houfe of the 
fame name near it. 

Near Frefwick caftle the cliffs are very lofty ; the ft rata that 
compofe them lie quite horizontally in fuch thin and regular layers, 
and fo often interfered by fiffures, as to appear like mafonry. 
Beneath are great infulated columns, called here Stacks^ com- 
pofed of the fame fort of natural mafonry as the cliffs ; many 
of them are hollowed quite thro*, fo as to form moft magnifi- 
cent arches, which the fca ruflics thro* with vaft noife and im- 
petuofity, affording a moft auguft piece of fcenery to fuch who are 
fteady eno\igh to furvey it from the narrow and almoft impending 

Frefwick caftle is feated on a narrow rock projedling into the fea, 
with juft room enough for it to ftand on : the accefs to it while the 
draw-bridge was in being, was over a deep chafm cut thro* the little 
ifthmus that connedled it to the main land. Thefe dreadful fitua- 
tions are ftrongly expreffive of the jealous and wretched condition of 
the tyrant owners. 

After riding near Frefwick bay, the fecond fandy bay in the 
county,, pafs over a very bad morafs, and after a few miles travel 
arrive at Dungfhy bay *, a low traft, confifting of oat-laads and 

* John a Groath honfe is now known only by name. The proper name of the 
bay is Duncaii^. 


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i • 

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grazing land : the uUima Tbule of Sir Roieri Sibbald^ whofc dcfcrip- 
tion it fully anfwers in this particular. 

^amjuxta infames fcopuli^ etpetrofa vorago 
Afperat undifonis faxa pudenda vadis *. 

The beach is a colleftion of fragments of (hells -, beneath which 
are vaft broken rocks, fome funk, others apparent, running into a 
fea never pacific. The contrary tides and currents form here a 
moft tremendous conteft ; yet, by the (kilfulnefs of the people, are 
paflcd with great fafety in the iiarrow little boats I faw lying on the 

The points of this bay are Dungjhy head and St. JohrC% head^ 
ftretching out into the fea to the Eaft and Weft, forming a pair of 
horns , from the refemblance to which it Ihould feem that this 
country was antiently ftyled Cornana. 

From hence is a full view of feveral of the Orkney iflands, fuch- 
as Flota^ IVaes^ Ronald/a, Swanna^ to the Weft the Skerries^ and 
within two miles of land Stroma^ famous for its natural mummies, 
or the entrre and uncorrupted bodies of perfons who had been dead 
fixty years. 1 was informed that they were very light, had a flexi- 
bility in their limbs, and were of a dulky color f . This iQe is 

• Quoted by Sir Riohirt from the Ittr Bakbicum oiConradus Celtes. 

f In the PhJlo/ofhitalTran/aaiofis atriJge J, vnu 705.13 an almoft parallel in- 
ftance of two corpfes^ found in a moor in Derhyjbin^ that had for 49 years refilled 
putrefafiion, and were in much the fame Hate as thofe in Stroma. In vol. xlvii« 
of the Pb. TV. at large^ is an account of a body found entire and imputrid at 
Overton in Dtvon/bire^ 80 years after its interment- 




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fertile in corn, is inhabited by about thirty families, who know not 
the ufe of a plough, but dig every part of their com land. 

Dine at the good minifter*s of Cannejby. On my return faw at a 
diftance the Stacks of Bungjby^ a vaft infulated rock, over-topping 
the land, and appearing like a great tower. 

Paffed near the feat of a gentleman not long deceafed ; the laft 
SicowD SicHT. who was believed to be poflefled of thtfecond fight. Originally he 
made ufe of the pretence, in order to render himfclf more refpedablc 
with his clan ; but at length, in fpite of fine abilities, was made a 
dupe to his own artifices, became poflefled with a ferious belief of 
the faculty, and for a confiderable numl^er of years before his death 
was made truely unhappy by this fl:range opinion, which originally 
arofe from the following accident. A boat of his was on a very tem- 
peftuous night at fea ; his mind, filled with anxiety at the danger 
hi^ people were in, furniflied him with every idea of the misfortune 
that really befell them : he fuddenly ftarting up, pronounced that 
his men would be drowned, for that he had ittn them pafs before 
him with wet garments and dropping locks. The event was corre- 
fpondent, and he from that time grew confirmed in the reality of 
fpeftral prediftions. 

There is another fort of divination, called Sleinanacbd^ or reading 
the fpeaUbone^ or the blade-bone of a fhoulder of mutton well 
fcraped. When Lord Loudon was obliged to retreat before the 
Rebels to the ifle of Skie^ a common foldier, on the very moment 
the battle of Culloden was decided, proclamed the viftory at that 
diftance, pretending to have difcovered the event by looking 
through the bone. 

I heard of one inftance of fecond fight, or rather of forefight, 
^ which 

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w/^^«^ Jt. Jtf^f^^My Je ^ 

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which was well attefted, and made much noife about the time 
the prcdiaion was fulfilled. A little after the battle of Preftom 
PanSj the prefident, Duncan Fortes, being at his houfe of CuU 
loden with a nobleman, from whom I had the relation, fell 
into difcourfe on the probable confequcnces of the aftion : after a 
long converfation, and after revolving all that might happen, Mr. 
Forbes, fuddenly turning to a window, faid, yf// thefe things may fall 
out \ hut depend on it, all thefe difiurbances will be terminated on this 

Returned the fame road. Saw multitudes of Gannets, or Soland Gawmbtk 
Geefe, on their paflage Northward : they went in fmall flocks from 
five to fifteen in each, and continued pafling for hours : it was a 
ftormy day j they kept low, and near the (hore ; but never paflcd 
. over the land, even when a bay intervened, but followed (preferving 
an equar diftance from fhore) the form of the bay, and then regu- 
larly doubled the Capes. . I faw many parties make a fort of halt 
for the fake of fiftiing ; they foared to a great height, then darting 
down headlong into the fea, made the water foam and fpring up 
with the violence of their defcent 5 after which they purfued their 

Swans refort in OSlober to the Lochs of Hemprigs and Wafler^ 
and continue there till March. Abundance of Land-rails are found 
throughout the county. Multitudes of Sea-fowl breed in the 
cliffs : among others, the Lyre \ but the feafon being paft, I neither 
faw it, nor could underftand what fpecies it was *. 

^ I have fince learned thai it is die Shearwater or Uatikt Petrel of the Br. 2Mm 
H. No. 2S&. 


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SmcLAiit Bay 
AND Castle. 

Produce op 


Went along a fine 'hard fand on the edge of Sinclair bay. On the 
South point, near Nofs-head, on the fame rock, are Sinclair and G^- 
nigo caftles ; but, as if the joint tenants, like beafts of prey, had 
been in fear of each other, there was between them a draw-bridge ; 
the firft too had an iron door, which dropped from above through 
grooves ftill vifible : this was inhabited in the year 1603 by a Sin- 
clair Earl oiCatbnefs. 

Should the chapel of St. Tayre near this caftle exift, I overlooked 
that fcene of cruelty in 1478. The Keiths and the clan Gun had in 
that year a feud ; but a meeting was fixed at this place for a recon- 
ciliation : twelve horfe were to convene on each fide. The Cruner^ 
or chief of the clan Gun, and his fons and neareft kinfmen arrived 
firft, and were at their prayers in the chapel j when their antagonifts 
arrived with twelve horfes, but with two men on each horfe, think- 
ing that to bring no more than the ftipulated number of horfes was 
jio breach of agreement. Thefe attacked the people in the chapel, 
and put them all to death, but with great lofs to their own party, for 
the Cruner and his friends fold their lives dear. I mention this tale 
to oppofe the manners of the old Catbneftans to thofe of the prefent 
hofpitable and worthy race. 

Cathnefs may be called an immenfe morafs, mixed with fomc 
fruitful fpots of oats and barley, much coarfe grafs, and here and 
there fome fine, almoft all natural, there being as yet very little 
artificial. At this time was the hay harveft both here and about 
Dunrobin: the hay on this rough land is cut with very fhort fcythes, 
and with a brilk and ftrong ftroke. The country produces and ex- 
ports great quantities oi oatmeal, and much whiflcy is diftilled from 
the barley: the great thinnefs of inhabitants throughout Catbncfs 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 201 

enables them to fend abroad much of its produftions. No wheat 
bad been raifed this year in the county ; and I was informed that 
this grain is fown here in the fpring, by reafon of the wet and fury 
of the winters. 

The county is fuppofcd to fend out in fome years, 2200 head of Catth. 
cattle ; but in bad feafons, the farmer kills and falts numbers for 
fale. Great numbers of fwine are reared here: they arc fhort, 
high-backed, long-briftled, fharp, flender, and long noied; have 
long ere£b ears, and mQft favage looks, and are feen tethered ia 
almoft every field. The reft of the commodities of Catbnefs are 
butter, cheefe, tallow, hides, the oil and (kins of feals, and the 
feathers of geefe. 

, Here are neither barns nor granaries ; the corn is thrafhed out, 
and prefcrved in the chaff in bykes^ which are ftacks in fhape of 
bee-hives, thatched quite round, where it will keep good for two 

Much Salmon is taken at Caftk-bill^ Dunet^ Wtck^ and Tburfo. Salmon* 
The miraculous draught at the laft place is ftill talked of; not lefs 
than 2500 being taken at one tide, within the memory of man« 
At a fmall diftance from Sinclair caftle, near Staxigo creek, is a 
fmall Herring fiftiery, the only one on the coaft : Cod and other 
white fifh abound here ; but the want of ports on this ftormy 
coaft is an obftacle to the eftabliftiment of fiflieries on this fide the 

In the month of November^ numbers of Seals * are taken in the St Att. 

* Sometimes a large fpecies twelve feet long has been killed on the coaft ; and 
I have been informed that the fame kbd are found on the rock Hijkift one of the 
Weftern iiles. 

D d vaft 

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102 A T O U R 

vaft caverns that open into the fea and run fome hundred yird« 
under ground. Their entrance is narrow, their infide lofty and 
Ipatious. The Seal-hunters enter thcfe in finall boats with torches 
which they light as foon as they land, and then with loud fliouts 
alarm the animals, which they kill with clubs as they attempt to 
pafs. This is a hazardous employ ; for fhould the wind blow hard 
from fea, thefe adventurers are inevitably loft *. 

Much lime-ftone is found in this country, which when burnt 
is made into a compolt with turf and fea plants. The tender 
SiRTXTVDif fex (I blufli for the Catbnefiam) are the only animals of bur- 
den : they turn their patient backs to the dunghills, and receive 
in their keifes^ or baflcets, as much as their lords and matters think 
fit to fling in with their pitchforks, and then trudge to the fields 
in droves of fixty or feventy. The common people are kept 
here in great fcrvitude, and moft of their time is given to their 
Lairds, an invincible impediment to the profpcrity of the 

Of the ten parifhes in Cathnefs^ only the four that lie S. E. fpeak 
Erfe 5 all the others fpeak EngUJh^ and that in greater purity than 
moft part of North Britain f • 

Inoculation is much praftifcd by an ingenious phyfician 

* For a fuller accooat, vide Br. ZooU iUufir. 38^ 

t I beg leave to refer the reader for a, farther hiftory of this county, and 
of Stratbnavirn^ to the Appendix ; where is inferted, the obliging communi- 
cation of the Rev. Mr. AUxamiir Pope, Minifler of Req^, the moft remote 
N. W. traa of Ifortb Sritain, which completes the hiftory of this diftant part 
cf oor iiland. 


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(Dr. Mackenzie^ of Wick) in this county, and alfo the Orkneys *, 
with great fuccefs, without any previous preparation. The fuccefs 
was equally great at Sanda^ a poor ifle, where there was no fort of 
fuel but what was got from dried cow-dung : but in all thefe places, 
the fmall-pox is very fatal m the natural way. Other difeafes in 
Catbnefs are colds, coughs, and very frequently palfies. 

The laft private war in Scotland was occafioned by a difpute re- 
lating to this county. The prefent Earl of Breadalban^% granfather 
married an heirefs of Catbnefs : the inhabitants would not admit her 
title ; but fet up another perfon in oppofition. The Earl, accord- 
ing to the cuftom of thofe ill-governed times, was to aflert his right 
by force of arms : he raifed an army of fifteen hundred men -, but 
the numbers, like thofe under the condu6l of Gideon, were thought 
to be too great : his Lordfliip firft difmiffed five hundred ; after 
that, another five hundred ; and with the remainder marched to the 
borders of Catbnefs. Here he thought proper to add ftratagem to 
force. He knew that the enemy's army waited for him on the other 
fide of the Ord. He knew alfo that in thofe days wbijiy was the 
NeBar of Catbnefs : and in confequence ordered a fliip laden with 
that pretious liquor to pafs round, and wilfully ftrand itfelf on the 
fhore. The directions were punftually obeyed ; and the crew in 
a feeming fright efcaped in the boats to the invading army. The 
Catbnejians made a prize of the (hip, and indulging themfclves 
too freely with the freight, became an eafy prey to the Earl, who 

* At this time a perfon was employed in the fame bnfinefi in the SbaUmd 

D d 2 attacked 


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U R 

attacked them during their intoxication, and gained the country^ 
which he difpofedof very foon after his conqueft. 
LoMc DAYS. I came here too late * to have any benefit from the great length 

of days •, but from June to the middle of Jnly^ there is fcarce any 
night ; for even at what is called midnight the ihialleft print may 
be read^ fo truly did Juvenal ^\t thefe people,. 

Minima contentoi nolle Britannos. 

Auo. 23. On my way between Tbrumfier and Dunbeth^ again faw numlwrs 

Gannits.^ of flocks of Gannets keeping due North •, and the weather being 
very calm, they flew high. It has not been obferved that they ever 
return this way in the fpring •,. but feem to make a circuit of the 
ifland, till they again arrive at the J?^, their only breeding-placcoa 
the Eaftern coafl:. 

On defce'nding a fl:eep hill. Is a romantic view of the two bridges 
BtRftiDALi. Qver the waters of Berridale and Langwall^ and their wooded glens ; 
and of the caftle of Berridale +, over the fea, where the Salmon- 
fifliers ftation themfelves to obferve the approach of thofe fifli out 
of the ocean; After a tedious afcent. up the King's road of four 
miles, gain the top of the Ord^ defcend, and lie at Helm/dale. 
Auc* 24. TO 29. Revifit the fame places, till I pafs Dingwall. Crofs the Conan 
in a boat, a very beautiful river, not remote from Ca^k Braatu 

* Befides the xnifling fo fingolar a phaenomenon^ I found that the bad weather, 
which begins earlier in the North, was fetting in : I would therefore recommend 
to any traveller, who meant to take this diflant tour, to fet out from Edttttmr^h ^ 
month fooner than I did. 

t A little up the land is the ruin of jfci cafile. 


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Was in the nelgborhood informed of other fingular cuftoms of the 

On New-year*s day they burn juniper before their cattle, 
and on the firfl: Mondcy in every quarter fprinkle them with 

In fbme parts of the country, is a rural facrifice, different from 
that before-mentioned, A crofs is cut on fome flicks, which^ -is 
dipped in pottage, and the Tburfday before Eajievy one of each 
placed over the fheep-cot, the flable, or the cow-houfe, Oji the 
iflof M^, they are carried to the hill where the rites are celebrated, 
all decked with wild flowers,, and after the feafl is over, re-placed 
over the fpots they were taken from ; and this was originally ftyled 
CloU'dn-Beltein *,.orthe fplit branch of the fire of the rock. Thefe 
. follies are now feldom praftifed, and that with the utmofl fecrecy ; 
for the Clergy are indefatigable in difcouraging every fpecies of 

In certain places the death of people is fuppofed to be foretold 
by the cries and fhrieks of Benjhiy or the Fairies wife, uttered along 
the very path where the funeral is to pafs ; and what in fVales 
are called corps candles^ are often imagined to appear, and foretell 

The courtfhip of the Highlander has thefe remarkable circum* 
ftances attending it: after privately obtaining the confent of the 
Fair, he formally demands her of the father. The Lover and his 
Friends afTemble on a hill allotted for that purpofe in every parifh, 
and one of them is difpatched to obtain permifEon to wait on tho. 






Wtbtr/Qifi introiu&hn^ &C. 166.. 


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£06 A T O U R 

daughter : if he is fuccefsful, he is again fent to invite the father 
and his friends to afcend the hill and partake of a whiflcy calk, 
which is never forgot : the Lover advances, takes his future Father- 
in-law by the hand, and then plights hi& troth, and the Fair-one is 
furrendered up to him. During the marriage ceremony, great care 
is taken that dogs do not pafs between them, and particular atten- 
tion is paid to the leaving the Bridegroom's left-flioe without buckle 
or latchet, to prevent witches * from depriving him, on the nuptial 
night, of the power of loofening the virgin zone. As a teft, not 
many years ago a fingular cuftom prevaled in the Wefiem High- 
lands the morning after a wedding : a balket was fattened with a 
cord round the neck of the Bridegroom by the female part of the 
company, who immediately filled it with ftoncs, till the poor man 
was in great danger of being ftrangled, if his Bride did not take 
compaffion on him, and cut the cord with a knife given her to ufe 
at difcretion. But fuch was the tendernefs of the Caledonian fpoufes, 
that never was an inftancc of their negledting an immediate relief of 
their good man. 

Pafs near the Prior f of BeaulieUj a large ruin : crofs the ferry, 

and again reach Invemefs. 

Ato. 30. Made an excurfion ten miles South of Invernefs to Moy-baU^ 

MoY-HALL. pleafantly feated at the end of a fmall but beautiful lake of the 

fame name, full of Trout, and Cbar^ called in the Erfe^ ^arr^ 

* An old opinion. Gifiur fays that the witches made ufe of toads as a charni» 
Vt vim cotumh'f Hi/allort in viris tollerent. Gefner de qaad. ovi. p* 72. 

t Founded about 1239, by Patrick Bijfttt^ Laird o[ Lovat, for the monks of 
i^aUii caulium. 


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dbeargnaicby and in the Scotcbj Red Weems. This water is about 
two miks and a half long, and half a mile broad, adorned with 
two or three ifles prettily wooded. Each fide is bounded by hills 
cloathed at the bottom with trees -, and in front, at the diftancc 
of thirty miles, is the great mountain of Kam-gormy patched with 

This place is called ^arflmach-nan-gafl^ or the threfliold of the 
Highlands, being a very natural and ftrongly marked entrance 
from the North. This is the feat of the Clan Chattan^ or the ^ Claw 
Mlntojhes^ once a powerful people: in the year 17 15, fifteen hun- 
dred took the field; but in 1745, fcarce half that number: like 
another Abfalomj their fair miftrefs was in that year fuppofed to 
have ftolen their hearts from her Laird their chieftain : but the fe- 
vered loyalifl: muft admit fome extenuation of their error, in yield- 
ing to the infinuations of fo charming a feducer. 

Here is preferved the fword of James V. given by that monarch 
to the captain of Clan Cbattan^ with the privilege of holding the 
King's fword at all coronations ; on the blade is the word JESUS. 
That of the gallant Vifcount Dundee is alfo kept here. The firft 
was a confccrated fword prefented to James in 15 14, by Leo X. 
by the hands of his Legate f . This antient family was as re- 
fpeftable as it was powerful •, and that from very old times. Of 
this the following relation is fufiicient evidence. In 1341 a Monro 
of Foulis f having met with fome affront from the inhabitants of 
Stratharduky between Perth and Aibol^ determined on revenge, 
coUefted his clan, marched, made bis inroad, and returned with a 

« L^ Hift. Scotiv. 353» t Conflias of the CAnv, p. 7. 



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2o8 A T O U R 

large booty of cattle. As he pafled by Moy-bdlly this threfhold 
of the Highlands, the Mac-Inlo/h of 1454 fent to demand the 
SHke Creicb or RoadCollop^ being a certain part of the booty, 
challenged according to an ancient cuftom by the chieftains for 
liberty of pafling with it through their territories. Monro ac- 
quiefced in the demand, and offered a reafonable fhare ; but not 
Icfs than half would content the chieftain of Clan Cbattan : this 
was refufed ; a battle enfued near Kejfock \ Mac-Intojh was killed ; 
Monro loft his hand, but from that accident acquired the name of 
Back'Lawigbe : and i\iu% cndtA t\\t con^iQ, oi Clagb-ne-berey. 

Boetbius relates, that in his time Invernefs was greatly frequented 
by merchants from Germat^^ who purchafed here the furs of feveral 
forts of wild beafts * -, and that wild horfcs were found in great 
abundance in that neighborhood : that the country yielded a great 
deal of wheat and other corn, and quantities of nuts and apples. 
At prcfent there is a trade in the fkins of Deer, Roes, and other 
beafts, which the Highlanders bring down to the fairs. There 
happened to be one at this time : the commodities were fkins, vari- 
ous necefTarics brought in by the Pedlars, coarfe country cloths, 
cheefe, butter and meal ; the laft in goat-fkin bags j the butter 
lapped in cawls, or leaves of the broad alga or tang ; and great 
quantities of birch wood and hazel cut into lengths for carts, &c. 
which had been floated down the river from Locb-Ntfs. 

^ Ai Neflae lacut longi quatuor et ^igUti faffuum millia, iati Juodecim luHra^ 
propter ingentia mmora ferarum ingens copia ift cervommf iquorum ind9mitormmp 
tftprioUrum it iju/mgdi ammimtium magna vis : ad bite martirilUe^ Fomimr mt nmigh 
woca/fturt wilp$tt mufttlUe^ Fibril Lutntqui incomparabili nuwuro^ quwum tergtra 
txtiragiutu odlmKum iwmenfi preth comunt. Scot. Regni Defer, ix. Hift. Scot* xxx. 


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I N S C O T L A N D, S09 

The fair was a very agreeable circumftance, and afforded a moft Hiohlakd drbw. 

fmgular groupe of Highlanders in all their motly dreffes. Their 
brechanj or plaid, confifts of twelve or thirteen yards of a narrow 
Huff, wrapt round the nniddle, and reaches to the knee^ : is often 
fattened round the middle with a belt, and is then called brecban- 
feill 5 but in cold weather is large enough to wrap round the whole 
body from head to feet 5 and this often is their pnly cover, not Only 
within doors, but on the open hills during the whole night. It is 
frequently faftened on the fhoulders with a pin often of filver, and 
before with a brotche (like iht fibula of the Romans) which is fome*. 
times of filver, and both large and extenfive ; the old ones have very 
frequently mottos. 

The ftockings are fhort, and are tied below the knee. The 
cuaran is a fort of laced fhoe made of a fkin with the hairy fide out 
but now feldom worn. The truis were worn by the gentry, and 
were breeches and ftockings made of one piece. 

The color of their drefs was various, as the word breaccan im- 
plies, being dyed with ftripes of the moft vivid hues : but they 
fometimes affefted the duller colors, fuch as imitated thofe of the 
Heath in which they often repofed : probably from a principle of 
lecurity in time of war, as one of the Scotch Poets feems to in- 

Virgata gaudent varii quae eft vefte coloris^ 
Parpuream et deamant fere cseraleumqoe colorem ; 
Vernm none plaret fafcum magis, aemula frondi 
Qtiaeque erecina adamant, at ne bz florida veftis 
Splendentis prodat recubantes inqae ericetis. 

Andrtte Mihini Tofogr. Scotia* 

E e The 

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' Tht feil'beg^ i. e. little plaid, alfo called kelt^ is a fort of ihort 

petticoat reaching only to the knees, and is a modern fubftitute for 
the lower part of the plaid, being found to be lefs cumberfome, 
efpecially in time of aftion^ when the Highlanders ufed to tuck their 
hrechcan into their girdle. Almoft all have a great pouch of badger 
knd other fkins, with taflels dangUng before* In this they keep 
their tobacco and money. 
A11M8. Their antient arms were the Locbaber ax, now ufed by none but 

the tow n'gu2ivd of Edinburgh 'y a tremendous weapon, better, to be 
expreffed by a figure than words *. . 

The broad- fword and target -, with the laft they covered them- 
felves, with the firft reached their enemy at a great diftance. Thefc 
were their antienc weapons, as appears by Tacitus f •, but fince the 
difarming aft, are fcarcely to be met with : partly owing to that^ 
partly to the fpirit of induftry now rifing among them, thfe High- 
landers in a few years will fcarce know the ufe of any weapon. 

Bows and arrows were ufed in -war as late as the middle of the. 
laft century, as liind in a manufcript life of Sir JE-^^^ Cameron. 

The dirk was a fort of dagger ftuck in the belt. I frequently faw 
this weapon in the fhambles of Invemefs^ converted into a butcher's , 
knife, being, like Hudibras^s dagger, 

A ferviceable dndgeon, , 
Either for fighting or for drudgingv 

^^ Fiji tab. xiit ift and 2d. cd. 

+ Simul confiantia^Jimul artt Britanni ingentihus gladiis ft hnvibus Cilrisf miJpBa^ 
w^TMumjvitari i/tl f^cuttn* Vjta Agricolac. c. 36. 


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The dirk was a weapon ufed by the anticnt Caledonians \ for 2)/# 
Gajftus^ in his account of the expedition of 5w^«j, mentions it under 
the name of E¥^^iSiov *, Pugio or little Dagger. 

The Mattucajhlajh, or arm-pit dagger, was worn there ready to be 
ufed on coming to clofe quarters. Thefe, with a piftol ftuck in the 
girdle, completely armed the-Highlander^. 

It will be fit to mention here the method the Chieftains took PxBitT Ctoit. 
formerly to affemble the clans for any military expedition. In every 
clan there is a known place of rendezvous, ftyled Cam a whin^ to 
which they muft refort on this fignal. A perfon is.fent out full 
fpced with a pole burnt at one end and bloody at the other, 
and with a crofs at the top, which is called Cr<?/i&-/jn>, the crofs of 
fhame J, or the fiery crofs -, the firft from the difgrace they would 
undergo if they declined appearing ; the fecond from the penalty of 
having fire and fword carried through their country, in cafe of re- 
fufal. The firft bearer delivers it to the next perfon he meets, he 

• Xtpbil tpit, Dionis. 

•f Major^ who wrote aboat the year r5iS> thus defcribes their arms : Jrcmm it 
ffgittasy lati^umtn/em cumfamjo balhert; pupontm gnffum tx fiU mm§ latirt fcindtH' 
UmtftdAcutiJfmamJubxjiiHaftmperferuiU* Timpon htlli loricam tx lor h ferrets per 
ieium corpus induunt. Lib. I. c. viii. 

X This caftom was common to the Northern parts of Europe with fome flight 
variation, as appears from Olaus Magnus, p. 146, who defcribes it thas : Bacculut 
tripstlmaris, agilioris jwvenis cur/u precipitin ad ilium njel illusm pagum feu njillam bu' 
jufmodi edido defer en4»s committitur, ut ^f 4, *vil 8 die unus, duo vel tres^ out *viritim 
omnes *vel finguU ab anno triluftri^ cum armis et expenfis 10 'vtl 20 dier'um Jub pcena 
eombuftionis domorum (quo ufto bacculoj 'velfuJpeufionis^hTKOVkU aut omnium (qua 
fune edlegato ftgneUur) in tali ripa^ W campo^ aut valle comparer e teneantwr fubHo^ 
caufam *uocati»nis, at que ordimm exicutionis Vkmiecti provineialis, quid feri debeai 

E e 2 running 

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running full fpecd to the third, and fo on. In every clan the bearer 
had a peculiar cry of war •, that of the Macdonalds was Freichy or 
heath \ that of the Grants^ Craig- Elachie \ of the Mac^ kenzies^ TulUck^ 
ard *. In the late rebellion, it was fent by fomc unknown diffaf- 
feded hand through the county of Breadalbanej and palled through 
a traft of thirty-two miles in three hours, but without effcft, 

WoMM'aDftias. The women^s drefs is the kircby or a white piece of Jinnen, 
pinned over the foreheads of thofe that are married, and round the 
hind part of the head, falling behind over their necks. The finglc 
women wear only a ribband round their head, which they call a 
filood. The tonnagy or plaid^ hangs over their fhoulders, and is 
faftened before with a brotche ; but in bad weather is drawn over 
their heads : I have alfo obferved during divine fervice, that they 
keep drawing it forward in proportion as their attention increafes ;, 
infomuch as to conceal at laft their whole face,, as if it was to ex- 
clude every external objeft that might interrupt their devotion. In 
the county of Breadalbane^ many wear, when in high drefs^ a great 
pleated ftocking of an enormous lengthy called ojfan preajfacb : in 
other refpefts^ their drefs rcfcmblcs that of women of the fame rank 
in Ef^land: but their condition is very different, being little better 
than flaves to our fex. 

SumptvahyLaw. ' This cuftom of covering the face was in old times abufed, and . 
made fubfcrvient to the purpofe of intrigue. By the fumptuary law 
of James 11. in 1457, it was exprclsly prohibited. It dircfts that 
Na woman cum to kirkj nor io mercat^ with hir face mujalled or covered^ 
tbaifcbo may not be kendy under the pane of efcheit of the caurcbie. L 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 213 

fiip5c6l much, that the head-drcffes of the ladies were at that time 
of the prefent faftiionable altitude •, for the fame ftatute even pre- 
fcribcs the mode of that part of apparel, as well as others. For, 
after direftions given to regulate the drefs of the men, they 
arc told to make their wives and dauchters in like manner be abuilzed^ 
ganand and correfpondant for their ejiate^ that is to fay ^ on their headfhort 
cttrcbes with little hudcs^ as ar ufed in Flanders, England, and other 
cuntries -, and as to their gownes^ that na women weare mertrickes *, 
Mr ktteiSj nor tailes unfitt in lengthy nor furred under ^ hot on a halie- 
day. CHARACTtm 

The manners of the native Highlanders may juftly be cxprcfled Hioh'lammrw 
in thcfe words : indolent to a high degree, unlefs roufed to war, or 
to any animating amufement •, or I may fay, from experience, to 
knd any difinterefted affiftance to the diftrefled traveller, either in 
directing him on his way, or affording their aid in pafling the dan-- 
gerous torrents of the Highlands : hofpicable to the higheft degree, 
and full of generofity : are much affeded with the civility of ftran- 
gcrs, and have in themfelves a natural politenefs and addrefs, 
which often flows from the meaneft when left expeftcd. Thro' my 
whole tour I never met with a fingle inftancc of national refleftion ! 
their forbearance proves them to be fuperior to the meannefs of re- 
taliation : I fear they pity us \ but I hope not indifcriminately. 
Are cxccfllvely inquifitive after your bufinefs, your name, -and other 
particulars of little confcquence to them : moft curious after the 
politicks of the world, and when they can procure an old news- 
paper, will liftcn to it with all the avidity of Shakefpear'% black- 
linith. Have much pride, and confequcntly are impatient of 

^Mmntki are fm of tbe Mar$i9*9 fkin. 


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214 A TOUR 

affronts, and revengeful of injuries. Are decent in their generd 
behaviour •, inclined to fuperftition, yet attentive to the duties of 
religion, and are capable of giving a moft diftinft account of the 
principles of their faith. But in many .parts of the Highlands, 
their character begins to be more faintly marked ; they mix more 
with the world, and become daily lefs attached to their chiefs : the 
clans begin to difperfe themfelves through different parts of the 
country, finding that their induftry and good'Condu6t afford them 
better protection (fince the due execution of the laws) than any 
their chieftain can afford -, and the chieftain tafting the fweets of 
advanced rents, and the benefits of induftry, difmiflcs from his 
table the rrowds of retainers, the former inftruments of his opprcf- 
fion and freakilh tyranny. 
;HioHLAKD Moft of the antient fports of the Highlanders, fucTi as 

archery, hunting, fowling and fifliing, are now difufed : 
thofe retained are, throwing the puUing-QionCy or ftone of 
Jlrmgtb *, as they call it, which occafions an emulation who can 
throw a weighty one the fartheft. Throwing the penny-^onc^ 
which anfwer to our coits. T\it Jhinty^ or the ftrikingof a ball of 
wood or of hair : this game is played between two parties in a large 
plain, and furnifhed with clubs ; which-ever fide ftrikes it firft to 
their own goal wins the match. 

The amufements by their fire-fides were, the telling of tales, the 
wildeft and moft extravagant imaginable : mufick was another : in 
former times, the harp was the favorite inftrument, covered with 
leather and ftrung with wire t, bwt at prefent is quite loft. Bag- 

• Llocb neart. 
t Maj9r fays, Pr9 mffficis iufirumaait it mufic9 xonatttH, Ljra Jjhtftrts u/unnfr^ 



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I N S C O T L A N D. 215 

prpcs are fuppofed to have been introduced by the Danes -^ this Is Baopipss* 
v€ry doubtful, but fliall be taken notice of in the next volume : 
the oldeft are played with the mouth, the loudcft and moft ear- 
piercing of any wind mufick; the other, played with the fingers 
only, are of Irijh origin j the firft fuited the genius of this warlike 
people, roufed their courage to battle, alarmed them when fecure, 
and collefted them when fcattered. This inftrument is become 
fcarcc fince the abolition of the power of the chieftains, and the 
more induftrious turn of the common people^ 

The Trump or Jew*s Harp * would not merit the mention^ 
among the Highland inftruments of mufick, if it was not to 'prove 
its origin and antiquity : one made of gilt brafs having been found 
in Norw^-^y depofited in an urn. 

Vocal mufick. was much in vogue amongft them, and their fongs 
were chiefly in praife of their antient heroes. I was told that they 
ftill have fragments of the (lory of Fingal and others, which they- 
carrol as they go along -, thefe vocal traditions are the foundation of 
the works of OJJtan. 

Leave Invemefs^ and continue my journey Weft for fome time Auo. 31. 
by the river- fide: have a fine view of the plain, the Tommatj^ the 
town, and the diftant hills. After the ride of about fix miles ttSLch^ 
cALoch'NefsX^ and enjoyed along its banks a moft romantic and 

cmjus cborJas ex are^ it non exunhnaUum intefiinis faciunt, in qua Jukijpm} modu^ 

**Probably» as an ingenious friend fuggefted, this ihould be read, ^tJoFws^ 

t Sir Thomas Brown* ^ Hjdriotapbia. p. 8. 

) This beaatiful lake has a great refemblance to fome parti of the lake of 

Lkctmtf efpccially towirdi the Baft end.. 


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ai6 A T O U R 

beautiful fcenery, generally in woods of birch, or hazel, mbced 
with a few holly, whitethorn, afpin, alh and oak, but open enough 
in all parts to admit a fight of the water. Sometimes the road was 
ftrait for a confiderable diftance, and refembled a fine and regular 
avenue ; in others it wound about the fides of the hills which over- 
hung the lake : the road was frequently cut thro* the rock, which 
on one fide formed a folid wall -, on the other, a fteep precipice. 
In many parts we were immerfed in woods ; in others, they opened 
and gave a view of the fides and tops of the vaft mountains foaring 
above : fonr^ of thefe were naked, but in general covered with 
wood, except on the mere precipices, or where the grey rocks de- 
nied vegetation, or where the heath, now glowing with purple 
bloflbms, covered the furface. The form of thefe hills was very 
various and irregular, either broken into frequent precipices, or 
towering into rounded fummits cloathcd with trees j but not fo 
clofe but to admit a fight of the fky between them. Thus, for 
many miles, there was no poflibility of cultivation •, yet this traft 
was occupied by diminutive cattle, by Sheep, or by Goats: the laft 
were pied, and lived moft luxurioufly on the tender branches of the 
trees. The wild animals that pofleflTcd this pifturefque fcene were 
Stags and Rocs, black game, and Orous •, and on the fummits, 
white Hares and Ptarmigans. Foxes are fo numerous and vora- 
cious, that the farmers are fometimes forced to houfe their Sheep, 
as is done in France^ for fear of the Wolves*. 


* It is to me matter of farprize that no mention is made, in the Poems of 
OjpOH^ of oar great beafts of prey, which mnft hare abounded in his days ; for 
tbe Wolf was a peft to the country fo late as the reign of Qaeen EUxabftb, and 


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The North fide of Loch-Nefs is far lefs beautiful than the South. 
In general, the hills arc left high, but very deep ; in a very few 
places covered with brufh-wood, but in general very naked, from 
the Aiding of the ftrata down their floping fides. About the mid- 
dle is Caftle Urqubari^ a fbrtrcfs founded on a rock projefting into 
the lake, and was faid to have been the feat of the once powerful 
Cummins^ and to have been deftroyed by Edward I. Near it 
is the broadcft part of the Ldth, occafioned by a bay near the 

Above is Glen-Morijion, and Eaft of that Slrailb-Glas^ the 
Cbifolm's country •, in both of which are forefts of pines, where 
that rare bird the Cock of the Wood is ftill to be met with ; per- 
haps in thofe near Caftle Grant ? Formerly was common through- 
out the Highlands, and was called Capercalze^ and Auercalze ; and 
in the old law-books, Capercally. The variety of the black game, 
mentioned by M. Brijfon under the name of Coq. de Bruyere piquet^^ 
was a mixed breed between thefe two birds •, but I could not hear 
that any at prcfent were to be found in North Britain. Linnieus 
has met with them in Sweden^ and defcribes them under the title of 
Tetrao cauda bifurca fubtus aJbo punctata. At Gkn-Morifton is a ma- 
nufafture 6f linnen, where forty girls at a time are taught for three 



Cock op thb 

the Bear exifled there at left till the year 1057^ when a Gordon ^ for killing a fierce 
Bear, was directed by King Malcolm III. to carry three Bears' heads in his banner. 
Hift, Gordons 1. p. 2. Other native animals are often mentionfed in feveral parts 
of the work ; and in the five little poems on Night, compofitions.of as many Bards, 
every modern Britijb beaft of ch^ce is enumerated, the howling Dog and howling 
Fox defcribed ; yet the howling Wolf omitted, which would have made the Bard's 
sight much more hideous. 

F f 


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taonths to fpin, and then another forty taken in : there are befides 
fix looms^ and all fupported out of the forfeited lands. 

Above is the great mountain Meal Fourvoumcb^ the firft land 
failors make from the Eaft fea. 

I was informed that in that neighborhood are glens and cafcadcs 
of furprifing beauty, but my time did not permit me to vifit them. 

Dined at a poor inn near the GeneraPs Huf, or the place where 
General JFade refided when he infpe6ted the great work of the 
roads, and gave one rare example of making the foldiery ufeful 
in time of peace. Near is a fine glen covered at the bottom with 
wood, through which runs a torrent rifing Southward. The coun- 
try alfo is prettily varied with woods and corn-fields. 
Fail of About a mile farther is the fall of Fyersj a vaft cataradt, in a 

darkfome glen of a ftupcndous depth •, the water darts far beneath 
the top thro' a narrow gap between two rocks, then precipitates 
above forty feet lower into the bottom of the chafm, and the foam» 
like a great cloud of fmoke^ rifes and fills the air. The fides of 
this glen aie vaft precipices mixed with trees over-hanging the wa* 
ter, through which, after a fhort fpace^ the waters difcharge them- 
fdves' into the lake. 

About half a mile South of the firft fall is another paffing 
through a narrow chafm, whofe fides it has undermined for a con- 
fiderable way : over the gap is a true Alpine bridge of the bodies of 
trees covered with fods, from whofe middle is an aweful view of 
the water roaring beneath. 

At the fall of Fober the road quits the fide of the lake, and is 
carried for fome fpace through a fmall vale on the fide of the river 
FyerSy where is a mixture of fmall plains of corn and rocky hills. 


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Gt>cA <ftAe 0^^ 

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I N S C O T L A N D. ai» 

Then fucceeds a long and dreary moor, a tedious afcent up the. 
mountain See-cbuimin or CumrnitCs Seat, whbfe fummit is of a great 
height and very craggy. Defcend a fteep road, leave on the right 
Locb-^aarf^ a fmall irregular piece of water, decked with little 
wooded i(ks, and abounding with Char. After a fecond fteep 
dcfccnt, reach 

Fort Augufius'^j a fmall fortrefs, feated on a plain at the head of Fort Avgvitvs. 
Locb'NefSj between the rivers *Taarf and Oicb ; the laft is confi- 
derable, and has over it a bridge of three arches. The fort confifts 
of four baftions ; within is the Governor's houfe, and barracks for 
400 men : it was taken by the Rebels in 1746, who immediately 
deferted it, after demolifhing what they could. 

Locb'Nefs is twenty-two miles in length; the breadth from one Loch-Nim- 
to two miles, except near Caftle Urqubarty where it fwells out to 
three. The depth is very great ; oppofite to the rock called the 
HorfeJboCj near the Weft end, it has been found to be 140 fathoms. 
From an eminence near the fort is a full view of its whole extent, 
for it is perfeftly ftrait, running from Eaft to Weft, with a point to 
the South. The boundary from the fall of Fyers is very fteep and 
rocky, which obliged General fFade to make that detour from its 
banks, partly on account of the expence in cutting through fo 
much folid rock, partly through an apprehenfion that in cafe of 
a rebellion the troops might be deftroyed in their march, by 
the tumbling down of ftoncs by the enemy from above : befides 

* Its Erfi name is Kil-ebuimith or the barial-place of the Cummi/u. It lies on 
the road to the Ifle of SkU, which is aboat 52 miles off*; but on the whole way 
there is not a place fit for the reception of man or horfe* 

Ff2 this. 

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Nbtbr prbbzei. 

Its agitations 
iR 1755. 


this, a prodigious arch muft have been flung over the Glen of 

This lake, by reafon of its great depth, never freezes, and during 
cold weather a violent fteam rifes from it as from a furnace. Ice 
brought from other parts, and put into Locb-Nefs^ inftantly thaws 5 
but no water freezes fooner than that of the lake when brought 
into a houfe. Its water is efteemed very falubrious ; fo that 
people come or fend thirty miles for it : old Lord Lovat in par- 
ticular made conftant ufe of it. But it is certain, whether it 
be owing to the water, or to the air of that neighborhood, that 
for feven years the garrifon of Fort Augujtus had not loft a finglc 

The fifli of this lake are Salmon, which are in feafon from 
Chrijimas to A^dfummer, Trouts of about 2 lb. weight. Pikes, 
and Eels. During winter it is frequented by Swans and other wild 

The greateft rife of water in Locb-Nefs is fourteen feet. The 
lakes from whence it receives its fupplics are Locb-Oicbj Locb- 
Carrie^ and Locb-^icb. There is but very little navigation on' 
it ; the ojily veffcl is a gaHy belonging to the fort, to bring the 
ftores from the Eaft end, the river Nefs being too fhallow for 

It is violently agitated by the winds,^ and at times the waves arc 
quite mountanous. November ift,. 1755, at the fame time as the 
earthquake at Lijbon^ thefe waters were afFcfted in a very extraordi- 
nary manner : they rofe and flowed up the lake from Eaft to Weft 
with vaft impetuofity, and were carried above 200 yards up the 
river Oicb^ breaking on its banks in a wave near three feet high ; 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 221 

riien continued ebbing and flowing for the fpaceof an hour: but at 

eleven o'clock a wave greater than any of the reft came up the river^ 

broke on the North fide, and overflowed the bank for the extent of 

30 feet. A boat near the General's Hut, loaden with brufh-wood, - 

was thrice driven afhore, and twice carried back again ; but 

the laft time, the rudder was broken,, the wood forced out, and the ^ 

boat filled with water and left on ftiore. At the fame time, 'a little 

ifle, in a fraall loch in Badenocb, was totally reverfed and flung 

on the beach. But at both thefe places no agitation was felt on 


Rode to the cafl:le oi^or down, 2i rock two miles Weft of Fort Sbpt.i. 
Augujlus : on the fummit i& an antient fortrefs. The face of this Castle of 
rock is a precipice ; on the acceflible fide is a ftrong dyke of loofe Tor-dowk, 
ftones ; above that a ditch, and a little higher a terrafs fupported 
by ftones: on the top a fmall oval area, hollow in. the middle: 
round this area, for the depth of near twelve feet,, are a quantity of 
ftones ftrangely cemented with almoft vitrified matter, and in fome 
places quite turned into black fcoria : rfie ftones were generally* 
granite, mixed with a few grit-ftoncs of a kind not found nearer 
the place than 40 miles. Whether this was the antient fite of fome 
forge, or whether the ftones which form this fortrefs * had been 
eollefted from the ftrata of fome Vukano, (for die veftiges of fuch 
are faid to have been found in the Highlands) I fubmit to farther 

From this rock is a view of Benki, a vaflr craggy mountain 

^ I waa informed, that at Arifaig ia an old caftle formed of the fame ma— 


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above Glen-Garrie^s country. Towards the South is the high 
mountain Coryaricb : the afccnt from this fide is nine miles, but 
on the other the defcent into Badenocb is very rapid, and not 
above one, the road being, for the eafe of the traveller, cut 
into a zig-zag falhion. People often perifti on the fummit of this 
hill, which is frequently vifited during winter with dreadful 
ftorms of fnow. 
SBPTt 2* After a (hort ride Weftward along the plain, reach Locb-Oicbj a 

narrow lake ; the fides prettily indented, and the water adorned 
GL£N-GARaiB. ^ith fmall wooded ifles. On the ftiore is G/?»-GjmV, the feat of 
Mr. M^DonalJj almoft furrounded with wood, and not far diftant is 
the ruin of the old caftle. This lake is about four miles long ; 
the road on the South fide is excellent, and often carried through 
very pleafant woods. 

LocH-LocHY. After a fmall interval arrive on the banks of Locb-Locby^ a fine 

piece of water fourteen miles long, and from one to two broad. 
The diftant mountains on the North were of an immenfe height ; 
thpfe on the South had the appearance of fheep- walks. The road 
is continued on the fide of the lake about eight miles. On the op- 

Cambrok op pofite (hore was Acbnacarrie^ once the feat of Cameron of Locbiely 
but burnt in 1746. He was efteemed by all parties the honeftefl: 
and moft fenfible man of any that embarked in the pernicious and 
abfurd attempt of that and the preceding year, and was a melan- 
choly inftance of a fine underftanding and a well-intending heart, 
over-powered by the unhappy prejudices of education. By his in- 
fluence he prevented the Rebels from committing feveral excefles, 
and even faved the city of Glafgow from being plundered, when 
their army returned out of England^ irritated with their difappoint- 



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imnt» and enraged at the loyalty that city had fliewn. The Pre- 
tender came to him as foon as ever he landed. Locbiel feeing hini 
arrive in fo wild a manner, and fo unfupportcd, entreated him to 
defift from an enterprize from which nothing but certain ruin could 
refult to him and his partizans. The adventurer grew warm, and 
reproached Locbiet with a breach c^ promife. This aflfeded him fo^ 
deeply, that he inftantly went and took a tender and moving leave 
of his lady and family, imagining he was on the point of parting 
with them for ever. The income of his eftate was at that time, as 
I was told, not above 700 1. per annum^ yet he brought fourteen 
hundred men into the field. 

The waters of this lake form the river Lochyy and difcharge 
themfclves into the Weftern fca, as thofe of Locb-Oicb do through 
Locb'Ntfs into the Eaftern. About the beginning of this lake 
xntcv Locbaier^ '9 ftop at Low-hridge^ a poorhoufe; travel over a LocsaMi; 
black moor for fi>me miles y fee abundance of cattle, but fcarce any 
corn. Crofs 

Higb-bridgc^ a fine bridge of three arches flung over the torrent 
Spean^ founded on rocks j two of the arches arc 95 feet high. This 
bridge was built by General ff^ade^ in order to form a communica* 
tion with the country. Thefe public works were at firft very dif- 
agreeable to the old Chieftains, and lefTened their influence greatly ; 
for by admitting ftrangers among them, their clans were taught 
that the Lairds were not the firft of men. But they had another 
leafon much more folid : Locbaier had been a den of thieves ; and 

^ So called from a lake not far from Fort ff^sllism, near whok banks SsM^fm 
was laid t^have beta mortheced^ 


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U R 

as long as they had their waters, their torrents and their bogs, in a 
(late of nature, they made their excurfions, could plunder and re- 
treat with their booty in full fecurity. So weak were the laws in 
inany parts of North Britain^ till after the late rebellion, that no 
ftop could be put to this infamous praftice. A contribution, call- 
Black-meal, cd the Black-mealy was raifed by feveral of thefe plundering chief- 
tains over a vaft extent of country : whoever paid it had their 
cattle enfured, but thole who dared to refufc were fure to fufFer. 
Many of thefe free-booters were wont to infert an article, by which 
they were to be releafed from their agreement, in cafe of any civil 
commotion: thus, at the breaking out of the laft rebellion, a 
M'Gregor *, who had with the ftrideft honor (till that event) 
preferved his friends' cattle, immediately fent them word, that from 
that time they were out of his proteftion, and muft now take care 
of themfehres, Barrifdale was another of this clafs, chief of a band 
of robbers, who fpread terror over the whole country: but the 
Highlanders at that time efteemed the open theft of cattle, or the 
making a creacb (as they call it) by no means difhonorable ; and 
the young men confidered it as a piece of gallantry, by which they 
recommended themfelves to their miftreffes. On the other fide 
there was often as much bravery in the purfuers j for frequent 
battles enfued, and much blood has been fpilt on thefe occafions. 
They alfo Ihewed great dexterity in tracing the robbers, not only 
through the boggy land, but over the firmeft ground, and even 
over places where other cattle had paffed, knowing well how to 
diftinguifh the fteps of thofe that were wandering about from thofc 
that were driven haftily away by the Free-booters. 

* Who aflomed the name of Gr^oflr. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. «25 

From the road had a diftant view of the mountains of Arifaig^ 
t)eyond which were Moydart^ Kinlocb^ &c. At the end of Loch- 
Sbiel the Pretender firft fet up his ftandard in the wildcft place that 
imagination can frame : and in this fcqueftercd fpot, amidft antienc 
prejudices, and prevaling ignorance of the bleffings of our happy 
conftitution, the Itrength of the rebellion lay. 

Pafs by the fide of the river Locby^ now confiderable. Sec 
Inverhcby Caftle, with large round towers, which, by the mode Invbrlocht. 
of building, feems to have been the work of the EngUJby in 
the time of Edward I. who laid large fines on the Scouh Barons 
for the purpofe of ercdling new caftles. The largeft of 
thefe towers is calkd. Cummin's. But long prior to thefe ruins 
Jnverlocby had been a place of great note, a moft opulent city, 
remarkable for the vaft refort of French and Spaniards*^ probably on 
account of trade. It was alfo a feat of the Kings of Scotland^ for 
here uicbaius in the year 790 Cgned (as is reported) the league 
oflfcnfive and defenfive between himfelf and Charlemagne. In after- 
times it was utterly deftroyed by the Danes^ and never again re- 


In the neighborhood of this place were fought two fierce 
battles, one between Donald Balloch brother to Alexander lord of the 
ifles, who with a great power invaded Lochaber in the year 1427 : 
he was met by the Earls oi Mar and Cathnefs-y the laft was fiain, 
and their forces totally defeated f. Balloch returned to the ifles 
with vaft booty, the objeft of thofe plundering chieftains. Here 
alfo the Campbels under the Marquis of Jrgyle in February 1645^ 

• Butbiuu Scot. Rcgni Defer. 4. t Bucbamm, lib. x. c 33. 

G g received 

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226 A- T O U R 

received from Montrofe^ an overthrow fatal to numbers of that 
gallant name. Fifteen hundred fell in the a£Uon, and in the 
purfuit, with the lofs only of three to the Royalifts. Sir Thomas 
Oglevie the friend of Montrofe died of his wounds. His death fup- 
prefled all joy for the victory. 

At Inverlocby is Fort ff^Uiam^ built in King WiUiam*s reign j 
as was a fmall town near it, called Maryborougby in honor of 
his Queen •, but prior to that, had been a fmall fortrefs, erected 
by General Monk^ with whofe people the famous Sir Ewen Cameron^ 
had numerous contefts. The prefent fort is a triangle, has two 
baftions, and is capable of admitting a garrifon of eight hundred 
men* It was well defended againft the Rebels in 1746, who raifed 
the fiege with much difgrace. It was alfo attempted by thofe of 
i7i5> but without fuccefs^ The fort lies on a narrow arm of the 
fca, called Lochiel^ which extends feme miles higher up the country,. 
making a bend to the North, and extends likewife Weftward towards 
the ifle of A&//, near twenty-four Scotch miles. 

This fort on the Weft, and Fort Auguftus in the centre, and 
Thi CiiAiif. Fort George on the Eaft, form what is called the cbain^ from fea to* 
fca. This fpacc is called Glen-more^ or the great Glen, which, in- 
cluding water and land, is almoft a level of fevcnty miles. There 
is, in faft, but little land, but what is divided by firth, loch, or 
river ; except the two miles which lie between Locb-Oich and Loch- 
Lochy^ called Lagan-acbadrom. By means of Fort George^ all en- 
trance up the Firth towards Invemefs is prevented. Fort Auguftus 

^ Who is faid to have killed the laft Wolf in Sc9iUnd, aboat the year i6So* 
Mcmoiia of this celebrated chieftain are given in the Appendix- 

- curbs 

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I N S C O T L A N D. aa; 

curbs the inhabitants midway, and Fort William is a check to any 
attempts' in the Weft. Detachments are made from all thefe garri- 
fons to Itruemefs Bemera barracks oppofite to the Ifle of Skie^ and 
Caftle Duart in the Ifle of MuU'^. Other fmall parties are alfo 
fcattered in huts throughout the country, to prevent the ftealing of 

Fort William is furrounded by vaft mountains, which occafion 
almoft perpetual rain : the loftieft are on the South fide ; Benevijh Bbn£tiih« 
foars above the reft, and ends, as I was told, in a point, (at this 
time concealed in mift) whofc height from the fea is faid to be 
1450 yards. As an antient Briton^ I lament the difgrace of Snow- 
don *, once efteemed the higheil: hill in the ifland, but now muft 
yield the palm to a Caledonian n[K)untain. But I have my doubts 
whether this might not be rivaled, or perhaps furpafled, by others 
in the fame country ; for example, Ben y bourd^ a central hill, 
from whence to the fea there is a continued and rapid defcent of ' 
fcventy miles, as may be feen by the violent courfe of the Dee to 
Aberdeen. But their height has not yet been taken, which to be 
done fairly muft be from the fea. Benevijhj^ as well as many others, 
harbours fnow throughout the year. 

The bad weather which reigned during my ftay in thefe parts, 
prevented me from vifiting the celebrated parallel roads in Glen-Rcy. 
As I am unable to fatisfy the curiofity of the Reader from my own 
obfervation, I (hall deliver in the Appendix the information I could 
colled relating to thefe amazing works. 

^ I was informed that coal has been lately difcovered in this ifland. What ad- 
vantage may not this prove, in eftabliihments of mannfaftoresi in a coantry jaft 
foozed from the lap of indolence i 

G g 2 The 

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2Z9 A T O U K 

Tradi op The great produce of Locbaber is cattle : that diftrift alone fend^ 

out annually 3000 head •, but if a portion of Invernefsflnre is includ- 
ed, of which this properly is part, the number is 10,000. There 
are alfo a few horfes bred here, and a very few ftieep ; but of late 
feveral have been imported. Scarce any arable land, for the excef- <»^ 
five wet which reigns here almoft totally prevents the growth of 
corn,^ and what little there is fit for tillage fets at ten (hillings an 
acre. The inhabitants of this diftrift are therefore obliged, for 
their fupport, to import fix thoufand bolls of oatmeal annually, 
which coft about 4000 1. ; the rents are about ^oooX. per annum \ 
the return for their cattle is about 7500 1. ; the horfes may produce 
fome trifle •, fo that the tenants muft content themfelves with a very, 
fcanty fubfiftence, without the profpeft of faving the left againftr 
unforefeen accidents. The rage of raifing rents has reached this- 
diftant country : in England there may be reafon for it, (in a cer- 
tain degree) where the value of lands is increafed by acceflion of 
commerce, and by the rife of provifions : but here (contrary to 
all policy) the great men begin at the wrong end, with fqueezing 
the bag, before they have helped the poor tenant to fill it, by the 
introduftion of manufadlures. In many of the ifles this already, 
fticws its unhappy efFeft, and. begins to depopulate the country ^ 
for numbers of families have been obliged to give up the ftrong 
attachment the Scots in general have for. their country, and to ex- 
change it for the wilds oi jlmerica^ 

The houfes of the peafants in Locbaber are the moft wretched^ 
that can be imagined j framed of upright poles, which are wattled ; 
Uie. roof is formed of boughs like a wigwam^ and the whole is co-r. 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 229 

wred with fods ; fo that in this moift climate their cottages have a 
perpetual and much finer verdure than the reft of the country. 

Salmons are taken in thcfe parts as late as May ; about 50 tons 
are caught in the feafon. Thefe fifti never appear fo early on this 
coaft as on the Eaftcrn. 

Phinocs are taken here in great numbers, 1500 having been taken 
at a draught. They come in Auguji^ and difappear in November. 
They are about a foot long, their color grey, fpotted with black, 
their flefli red ; rife eagerly to a fly. The fifliermen fuppofe them 
to be the young of what they call a great Trout, weighing 30 lb. 
which I fuppofe is the Gr^ *'. 

Left Fort Wtltiamj and proceeded South along the military road Sbpt. 4. 

en the fide of a hill, an aweful height above Locb-Levenf, a 
branch of the fea, fo narrow as to have only the appearance of a 
river, bounded on both fides with vaft mountains, among whofe 
winding bottoms the tide rolled in with folemn majefty. The 
fcenery begins to grow very romantic -, on the Weft fide are fomo 
woodsvcrf birch and pines: the hills are very lofty, many of them 
taper to a point -, and my old friend, the late worthy Bi(hop Pocock^ 
compared the fhape of one to mount Tabor. Beneath them is 
Glen-Co, infamous for the maflacre of its^ inhabitants in 1691, and Glem-Co* 
celebrated for having (as Ibme aflert) given birth to OJ/ian •, towards 
the North is Morven, the country of his hero Fingal. 

" The fcenery J of this valley is far the moft pifturefque of any ^f Glb^CoT 

• Jr. ZW.m.No. 

t The couDtry people have a moft fuperftitious deiire of being buried in the 
little iile of Munt in this Loch. 

t I am indebted to the Rev. Mr. John Stuart of KiJIiu for the defcription of 
tMs caridas valley, having only had a diftant view of it* 


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aso A T O U R 

in the Highlands, being fo wild and uncommon that it never fails to 
attraft the eye of every ftrangcr of the left degree of tafte or fenfi- 
bility. The entrance to it is ftrongly marked by the craggy moun- 
tain of Buacbal-etyj a little Weft of the King's boufe. All the other 
mountains of Gkn-Co refemble it, and are evidently but naked and 
folid rocks, rifing on each fide perpendicularly to a great height 
from a flat narrow bottom, fo that in many places they feem to 
hang over, and make approaches, as they 'afpire, towards each 
other. The tops of the ridge of hills on one fide are irregularly 
ferrated for three or four miles, and (hot in places into fpires, 
which form the moft magnificent part of the fcenery above Ken-^ 
Locb'Leven. In the mkidle of the valley is a fmall lake, and from 
it runs the river CoHHj or ConCy celebrated in the works of OJftan. 
Indeed no place could be more happily calculated than this for 
forming the tafte and inipiring the genius of fuch a poet. 
ANiMALf. The principal native animals on the mountains of Gkm^ 

Co are Red Deer, Alpine Hares, Foxes, Eagles, Ptarmigans, 
and a few moor-fowl. It is remarkable that the common 
Hare was never feen either here, in Glen-Crerany or Glen-Ety^ 
till the military roads were made. The Partridge is a bird but 
lately known here, and is ftill rare. There are neither rats nor 
Farmi. In Glen-Co are fix farms, forming a rent of 241 1. per annum ; 

the only crops are oats, bear and potatoes. The increafc of oats 
is three bolls and a half from one 5 of bear four or five. But the 
inhabitants cannot fubfift upon their harveft : about three hundred 
pounds worth of meal is annually imported. They fell about fevcn 


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hundred pounds worth of black cattle ; but keep only fheep and 
goats for the ufc of private families : neither butter or cheefe is 
made for fale. The men fervants are paid in kind ; and commonly 

Glen-Co lies in the united parilh of Ufmore and jlppin^ and con- 
tains * about four hundred inhabitants, who are vifited occafionally 
by a preacher from Appin.^* 

Leave on the left a vaft cataraft, precipitating itfelf in a great 
foaming fheet between two lofty perpendicular rocks, with trees 
growing out of the fiffures, forming a large ftream, called the wa- 
ter of Boan. . 

Breakfaft at the little village of Kitdocb-Leven on mod 
excellent minced ftag,. the only form I thought that animal 
good in. 

Near this village is a fingle farm fourteen miles long, which lets 
for only 35 1. per annum •, and from the nature of the foil, perhaps 
not very cheap. 

Saw here a §uern^ a fort of portable mill, made of two ftones 
sd)Out two feet broad, thin at the edges, and a little thicker in the 
middle. In the centre of the upper ftone is a hole to pour in the 
corn, and a peg by way of handle. The whole is placed on a cloth ; 
the grinder pours the corn into the hole with one hand, and with 
the other turns round the upper (bone with a very rapid motion, 
while the meal runs out at the fides on the cloth. This is rather 
prefcrvcd as a curiofity, being much out of ufe at prefent. Such 


*- Repojt of the ViiUauoo, k^ij^o.^ 

Kin LOCH* 

A Q^brk; 


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The Black 



arc fuppofed to be the fame with what are common among the Moors^ 
being the fimple fubftitutc of a mill. 

Immediately after leaving Kinloch-Leven the mountains foar to a 
far greater height than before ; the fides are covered with wood, 
and the bottoms of the glens filled with torrents that roar amidft 
the loofe flones. After a ride of two miles begin to afcend the blai^ 
mountain^ in Argylejhire^ on a deep road, which continues aboHt 
three miles almoft to the fummit, and is certainly the higheft pub- 
lick road in Great Britain. On the other fide the defcent is fcarcc 
a mile, but is very rapid down a zig-zag way. Reach the Kin^s 
houfe, feated in a plain : it was built for the accommodation of his 
Majefty's troops, in their march through this defolatc country, but 
is in a manner unfurniflied. 

Pafs near Loch-Talla^ a long narrow piece of water, with a fmaU 
pine wood on its fide. A few weather-beaten pines and birch ap- 
pear fcattered up and down, and in all the bogs great numbers of 
roots, that evince the foreft that cohered the country within this 
half century. Thefe were the laft pines which I faw growing Ipon- 
taneoufly in North Britain. The pine forefts are bec6me very rare : 
I can enumerate only thofe on the banks of Locb-Rannoch^ at Inver- 
cauldy and Brae-mar ^ at Coygacb and Dirry-Monacb : the firft in 
Straitbnavern^ the laft in Sutherland. Thofe about Locb-Layn^ 
Glen-Morijlon, and Straitb-Glas -, a fmall one near Locb-Garrie ; an- 
other near Locb-Arkig^ and a few fcattered trees above Kinlccb- 
Leveny all in Invernefsjbire ; and I was alfo informed that there are 
very confiderable woods about CaJHe-Grant. I faw only one fpecies 
of Pine in thofe I vifitcd j nor could I learn whether there was any 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 23$ 

other than what is vulgarly called the ScoUb Fir^ whofe fynonyms arc 
thefe : 

Pinus fylvejlris foliis hrevibus glaucis^ conis parvis albcntibus. Rail 
hift. PI. 1 40 1, fyn. ftirp. Br. 44.2. 

Pinus fylveftris. Gerard's herb. 1356. Lin. fp. PI. 141 8. Flora 
Angl. 361. 

Pin d*Ecoffe^ ou de Geneve. Du Hamel Traite des Arbres. II. 1 25. 
No. 5. 

Fyrre. Strom. Sondmor. 12. 

Moft of this long day's journey from the black mountain was 
truely melancholy, almoft one continued fcene of duflcy moors, 
without arable land, trees, houfes, or living creatures, for numbers 
of miles. The names of the wild trafts I pafled through were, 
Buacbil etyj Corricba-ba, and Bendoran. 

The roads are excellent ; but from Fort-JViUiam to Kinlocb-Leven^ 
very injudicioufly planned, often carried far about, and often fo 
fteepas to befcarce fur mount able; whereas had the engineer fol- 
lowed the track ufed by the inhabitants, thofe inconveniences would 
have been avoided. 

Thefe roads, by rendering the highlands acceflible, contributed Mi lit art Roads. 
much to their prefent improvement, and were owing to the induftry 
of our foldiery -, they were begun in 1723 *, under the direftions of 
Gen. TVade^^ who, like another Hannibal^ forced his way through 
rocks fuppofed to have been unconquerable : many of them hang 

• Vide p. 99. 

H h over 

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234 A T O U R 

over the mighty lakes of the country, and formerly afforded no 
other road to the natives than the paths of flieep or goats, where 
even the Highlander crawled with difficulty, and kept himfelf from 
tumbling into the far-fubjacent water by clinging to the plants and 
bullies of the rock. Many of thefe rocks were too hard to yield 
to the pick-ax, and the miner was obliged to fubdue their obftinacy 
} ^ with gunpowder, and often in places where nature had denied him 

footing, and where he was forced to begin his labors, fufpended 
from above by ropes on the face of the horrible precipice. The 
bogs and moors had likewife their difficulties to overcome; but 
all were at length conftrained to yield to the pcrfeverance of our 

In fome places, I obferved, that, after the manner of the Romans^ 
they left engraven on the rocks the names of the regiment each 
party belonged to, who were employed in thefe works ; nor were 
they lefs worthy of being immortalized than the Vexillatioh of the 
Roman legions ; for civilization was the confequence of the labors 
of both. 

Thefe roads begin at Dunkeld^ are carried on thro* the noted 
pafs of Killicrankie, by Blair, to Dalnacardocb, Dalwbinie, and over 
the Coryaricb, to Fort Augujlus. A branch extends from thence 
Eaftward to Invernefs, and another Weftward, over Higb-bridge, to 
Fort William. From the laft, by Kinlocb-Levcn, over the Black 
Mountain^ by the King's houfe, to Tyendrum ; and from thence, by 
Glen-Urqbicj to Inveraray , and fo along the beautiful boundaries of 
Locb'Lomond, to its extremity. 

Another road begins near Crieff pafles by Aberfeldy, crofles the 
^ay at Tay-bridge, and unites with the other road at Balnacar^ 

dock V 

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ioch\ and from Dalwbinie a, branch pafles through Badenocb to 

Thcfe are the principal military roads ; but there may be many- 
others I may have overlooked. 

Rode through fome little vales by the fide of a fmall river; and 
from the appearance of fertility, have fome relief from the dreary 
fcene of the reft of the day. Reach 

Tyendrum^ a fmall village. The inn is feated the higheft of any Tyendrvm* 
houfe in Scotland. The Tay runs Eaft, and a few hundred yards 
further is a little lake, whofe waters run Weft. A lead-mine is 
worked here by a level to fome advantage ; was difcovered about 
thirty years ago : the veins jun S. W. and N. E. 

Continue my tour on a very fine road on a fide of a narrow Sept. 5* 

vale, abounding with cattle, yet deftitute both of arable land 
and meadow; but the beafts pick up a fuftenance from the grafs 
that fprings up among the heath. The country opens on ap- 
proaching Glert'Urqbiey a pretty valley, well cultivated, fertile in Glbk-Urc^ii* 
corn, the fides adorned with numbers of pretty groves, and the 
middle watered by the river Urqbie : the church is feated on a 
knowl, in a large iQe formed by the river : the Manfe^ or mi- 
nifter's houfe, is neat, and his little demefne is decorated in the 
moft advantageous places with feats of turf, indicating the content 
and fatisfaftion of the pofleflbr in the lot Providence has given 

In the church-yard are feveral grave-ftones of great antiquity, 
with figures of a warrior, each furniftied with a fpear, or two-handed 
fword : on fome are reprefentations of the chafe ; on others, elegant 
fret-work ; and on one, faid to be part of the coffin of a M^Gregor^ 

Hh2 is 

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is a fine running pattern of foliage and flowers, and excepting the 
figures, all in good tafte. 

On an eminence on the South fide of this vale dv/c\h M^Nabt, a 
fmith, whofe family have lived in that humble ftation fince the year 
1440, being always of the fame profeflion. The firft of the line 
was employed by the Lady of Sir Duncan Campbell^ who built the 
caftle of Kilchurn when her hufband was abfent. Some of their 
tombs are in the church-yard of Clen-Urqhie •, the oldeft has a 
hammer and other implements of his trade cut on it. At this place 
I was favored with feveral Highland proverbs, inferted in the Ap- 
pendix. After breakfaft, at a good inn near the village, was there 
prefent at a chriftening, and became fponfor to a little Highlander^, 
"^ by no other ceremony than receiving him for a moment into my 

arms : this is a mere aft of friendlhlp, and no eflential rite in the 
church of Scotland. 

Purfue my journey, and have a fine view of the meanders of the 
river before its union with Loch- Aw : in an ifle in the beginning of 
Castli op the lake is the caftle of Kilchurn, which had been inhabited by the 
LCHURK.. prefent Lord Breadalbane\ granfather. The great tower was re* 
paired by his Lordlhip, and garrifoned by him in 174.5, for the fer- 
vice of the Government, in order to prevent the Rebels from 
making ufe of that great pafs crofs the kingdom ; but is now a ruin>. 
having lately been ftruck by lightening. 

At a place called Hamilton's Pafs, in an inftant burft on a view 

LocH-Aw. of the lake, which makes a beautiful appearance ; is about a mile 

broad, and fliews at left ten miles of its length. This water is 

prettily varied with ides, fome fo fmall as merely to peep above the 

lurface y yet even thefc are tufted with trees 5 fomc arc large enough 


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to afford hay and pafturage; and in one, called Inch-bail^ arc the 
remains of a convent *. On Fraoch-Elan +, the Hefperides of the 
Highlands, are the ruins of a caftle. The fair Mego longed for the 
delicious fruit of the ifle, guarded by a dreadful ferpent : the hero 
Fraocb goes to gather it, and is deftroyed by the monfter. This tale 
is fung in the Erfe ballads, and is tranQated and publifhed in the 
manner oi FingaL 

The whole extent of hocb-Aw is thirty miles, bounded on the 
north by Lorn^ a portion oi Argylejhire^ a fertile country, prettily 
wooded near the water-fide. On the N. E. are vaft mountains : 
among them CruacbanX towers to a great height ; it rifes from the 
lake, and its fides are fhagged with woods impending over it. 
At its foot is the difcharge of the waters of this Loch into 
Locb'Eiive^ an arm of the fea, after a turbulent courfe of a feries 
of catarafts for the fpace of three miles. At Bunaw, near the 
north end, is a large falmon fifhery ; alfo a confiderable iron- 
foundery, which I fear will foon devour the beautiful woods of the 

Pafs by Scotjlown^ a fingle houfe. Dine at the little village 
of Cladijh. About two miles hence, on an eminence in fight of 
the convent on Incb-hail^ is a fpot, called Croif-an-t-Jleucbdy or 

* The country people are ftill fond of burying here. Infular interments are faid 
to owe their origin to the fear people had of having their friends corpfes devoured 
by wolves on the main land. 

f This ifland was granted by jfUxam/er ILL. in 1267, toGillcrift M^Nacbdan and 
his heirs for ever, on condition they fliould entertain the King whenever he pafled. 
tiiat way. 

X Or the Great Heap. 






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832 A TOUR 

the crofs of bowing, becaufe, in Popijh times, h was always 
cuftomary to kneel or make obeifance on firft fight of any con- 
fee rated place *. 

Pafs between hills finely planted with feveral forts of trees, fuch 
as IVeymouth pines, &c. and after a pifturefque ride, reach 
Inv£raray. Inveraray f^ the caftle the principal feat of the Dukes oi Argyk^ 

chief of the Campbells -, was built by Duke jirchilmld\ is quadrangu- 
lar with a round tower at each corner; and in the middle rifes a 
fquarc one glazed on every fide to give light to the fliaircafe and 
galleries, and has from without a moft difagreeable efFeft, In 
the attic fl:ory are eighteen good bed-chambers : the ground-floor 
was at this time in a manner unfurniflied, but will have feveral 
good apartments. The caftle is built of a coarfe lapis oUariSy 
brought from the other fide of Loch-Fine^ and is the fame kind with 
that found in Norway, of which the King of Dtnmark^s palace 
at Copenhagen is built. Near the new caftle are fome remains of the 

This place will in time be very magnificent : tut at prefent the 
fpace between the front and the water is difgraced with the old town, 
compofcd of the moft wretched hovels that can be imagined. The 
founder of the caftle defigned to have built a new town on the weft 
fide of the little bay the houfe ftands on : he finiflied a few houfes, 
a cuttom-houfe, and an excellent inn : his death interrupted 
the completion of the plan, which, when brought to perfection, 

* Draidical flones and temples are called C/ar/&tf«> churches having often been 
built on fuch places : to go to Clacban is a common Erfi phrafe for going to 

f In the GaliCi Imur'aonu 


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O JLU> 13' V ilil*.A iiA I . 

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I N S C O T L A N D. 239 

will give the place a very different appearance to what it now 

From the top .of the great rock Duniquaich is a fine view of 
the caftle, the lawn fprinkled with fine trees, the hills covered 
with extenfive plantations, a country fertile in corn, bordering on the 
Loch, and the Loch itfelf covered with boats* The trees on the 
lawn about the caftle are faid to have been planted by the Earl of 
Argyle : they thrive greatly ; for I obferved beech from nine to 
twelve feet and a half in girth, pines nine, and a lefler maple between 
feven and eight. 

But the bufy fcene of the herring- fifhery gave no fmall improve- 
ment to the magnificent environs of Inveraray. Every evening * 
fome hundreds of boats in a manner, covered the furface of Loch- 
FinCy an arm of the fea, which, from its narrownefs and from the 
winding of its fhores, has all the beauties of a frefh water lake : on 
the week-days, the chearful noife of the bagpipe and dance echoes 
feom on board : on the fabbath, each boat approaches the land, 
and pfalmody and devotion divide the day •> for the common people 
of the North are difpofed to be reJigious,^^ having the example before 
them of a gentry untainted by luxury and diflipation, and the ad- 
vantage of being inftrufted by a clergy, who are adive in their duty, 
and who preferve refpeft, amidft all the difadvantages of a narrow 

The length of Loch-Fine^ from the eaftern end to the point of Loch-Finb. 
Lamondy is above thirty Scotch miles ; but its breadth fcarce two 
meafured : the depth from fixty to feventy fathoms. It is noted 

* Tbcfiiher^ is carried on in the nightj the herrings being then in motion* 


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240 A T O U R 

Hbrrimos; for the vaft fhoals of herrings that appear here in July and continue 
till January. The higheft feafon is from September to ChriftmaSj 
when near fix hundred boats, with four men in each are employed. 
A chain of nets is ufed (tor fcveral are united) of an hundred fathoms 
in length. As the herrings twin at very ^uncertain depths, fo the 
nets are funk to the depth the (hoal is found to take : the fuccefs 
therefore depends much on the judgment or good fortune of the 
fifhdrs, in taking their due depths-, for it often happens that one 
boat will take multitudes, while the next does not catch a fingle 
filh, which makes the boatmen perpetually enquire of each other 
about the depth of their nets. Thcfe are kept up by buoys to a 
proper pitch ; the ropes that run through them faftened with pegs, 
and by drawing up, or letting out the rope (after taking out the 
pegs) they adjuft their fituation, and then replace them. Sometimes 
the fi(h fwim in twenty fathom water, fometimes in fifty, and often- 
times even at the bottom. 

It is computed that each boat gets about 40 1. in the feafon. 
The fifli are either faked, and packed in barrels for exportation, or 
fold frefh to the country people, two or three hundred horfes being 
brought every day to the water fide from very diftant parts. A 
barrel holds 500 herrings, if they are of the beft kind : at a medium^ 
700 : but if more, for fometimes a barrel will hold 1000, they 
are reckoned very poor. The prefent price 1 1. 4 s. per barrel ; 
but there is a drawback of the duty on fait for thofe that are 

The great .rendezvous of veffels for the fifliery off the weftern ifles 
is at Cambeltown^ in Cantyrey where they clear out on the 12th of 
.September^ aiA fometimes^ three hundred buffes are^ feen there at a 

time : 

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time : they muft return to their different ports by January i jth^ 
where they ought to receive the praemium of 2 1. 10 s. per tun of 
herrings \ but it is faid to be very ill paid, which is a great difcou- 
ragement to the fifliery. 

The herrings oi Loch -Fine zxt, as uncertain in their migration as 
they are on the coaft of Wales. They had for numbers of years 
quitted that water •, but appeared again there within thcfc dozen 
years. Such is the cafe with the lochs on all this weftern coaft, 
not but people defpair too foon of finding them, from one or two 
unfuccefsful tryals in the beginning of the feafon ; perhaps from 
not adjufting their nets to the depth the fifli happen then to fwim in: 
but if each year a fmall veflcl or two was fent to make a thorough 
tryal in every branch of the fea on this coaft, they would undoubt- 
edly find fhoals s^i fifh in one or other. 

TumieSy * called here Mackrel-Stur^j arc very frequently caught in TunMin. 
the herring feafon, which they follow to prey on. They are taken 
with a ftrong iron hook faftened to a rope and baited with a herring : 
^s foon as hooked lofe all fpirit, and are drawn up without any re- 
fiftance : are very adivc when at liberty, and jump and frolick on 
the furface of the water. 

Crofled over an elegant bridge of three arches upon the Aray^ in Sept. 7^ 

front of the caftle, and kept riding along the fide of the Loch for 
about feven miles : faw in one place a fhoal of herrings, clofe to the 
furface, perfeftly piled on one another, with a flock of Gulls, bufied 
with this ofiercd booty. After quitting the water- fide the road is 
carried for a confiderable way through the bottoms of naked, deep 

• Br. Zool. m. No. 1J3. 

I i and 

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and gloomy glens, Afcend a very high pais with a little loch on 
the top, and defcend into Glen-Crow^ the feat of melancholy, feldom 
cheared with the rays of the fun. Reach the end of Locb-Longj ai*- 
other narrow arm of the fea, bounded by high hills, and after a long 
courfe terminates in the Firtb of Cfyik. 

Near this place fee a houfe, very pleafantly fituated, belonging to 
Colonel CampbeUy amidft plantations, with fome very fertile bottoms 
adjacent. On afcending a hill not half a mile farther,^ appears 
RiviiwoPTHi LocH-LoMOND. NoTtb-BrUain may well boaft of its waters i 
Lakbi. £^j. j-q 0^qj^ ^ j.j^jg 35 thirty miles prefents the traveller with the view 

of four moft magnificent pieces. Locb-Aw^ Locb-Fint^ Locb-Lof^^ 
and Locb-Lomond. Two indeed are of falt-water ; but, by their 
narrownefs, give the idea of frefh- water lakes. It is an idle obfer**- 
vation of travellers, that feeing one is the fame with feeing all of 
thefe fuperb waters v for almoft every one I vifitcd has its proper. 

Locb'Lsvm,is a broad expanfe, with ifles and cultivated ftiores.' 

Lpcb'Tay makes three bold windings^ has ftecp but floping ihores^ 
cultivated in many parts,, and bounded by vaft hills* 

Locb'Rannocb is broad and ftrait, has more wildnefs about it^ 
with a large natural pine wood on its fouthern banks. 

Locb'Tumd is narrow, confined by the floping fides of ftecp hills, 
and has on. its wcftcrn limits, a flat, rich, wooded, country, watered- 
by a moft Terpentine ftream. 

The Locboi Spinie is almoft oa a flat, and its fides much in- 

Locb'My is fmall, and Jias foft features on its banks, amidft. rude 

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Locb'Nefs is ftrait and narrow : its ihorcs abound with a wild 
magnificence, lofty, precipitous and wooded, and has all the great- 
nefs of an Alpine lake. 

Locb'Oicb has lofty mountains at a fmall diftance from its bor- 
ders ; the (hores indented, and the water decorated with ifles. 

Locb'Locby wants the ifles ; its Ihores flope, and feveral ftraiths 
terminate on its banks. 

Locb'Aiv is long and waving : its little ifles tufted with trees, 
and juft appearing above the water, its two great feeds of water at 
each extremity, and its Angular lateral difcharge near one of them, 
fufficiently mark this great lake. 

Locb'Lomondy the laft, the moft beautiful of the Cakdonian 

lakes. The firft view of it from Tarbat prcfents an extenfive fer- 

pentine winding amidft lofty hills: on the north, barren, black 

and rocky, which darken with their fliade that contrafted part of 

the water. Near this gloomy trad, beneath Craig Rofton^ was the 

principal feat of the AfGregors^ a murderous clan, infamous for 

cxcefles of all kinds -, at length, for a horrible maflfacre of the C^A 

qubouns*j or CabounSj were profcribed, and hunted down like 

wild beafls ; their very uztnc fupprcflfed by aft of council f •, fo 

* Fidi Appendix. 

t In the ift ofClmrlis L c. 30. Aere was a ftrift aA agtinft thefe people con- 
firming all former ads of coancil againft them, fof^reffing the name, and obliging 
them to make compearance yearly on the 24th of Jmlj before the coancil aftet 
fixteen years of age, to find cautiont or otherwayes if they be denounced for 
their failzy, declaring them to be intercommnned, and that none refort or 
affift them % and the aft confiitntes ieveral jnftices in that part againft them* 

li 2 la 




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that the remnant, now difperfed like Jews^ dare not even fign it to 
any deed. Their pofterity are ftill faid to be diftinguifhed among 
the clans in which they have incorporated themfelves, not only by 
the rednefs of their hair, but by their ftill retaining the mifchievous 
difpofitions of their anceftors. 

On the weft fide, the mountains are cloathed near the bottoms 
with woods of oak quite to the water edge; their fummits lofty^ 
naked and craggy. 

On the caft fide, the mountains are equally high, but the tops, 
form a more even ridge parallel to the lake, except where Ben-LA- 
mond*y like Saul amidft his companions, overtops the reft. The 
upper parts were black and barren -, the lower had great marks of 
fertility, or at left of induftry, for the yellow corn was finely con- 
trafted with the verdure of the groves intermixed with it. 
Grampjan This eaftern boundary is part of the Grampian hills, which ex- 

H1LL8. jgnd from hence through the counties of P^fby Angus^ Meams^ 

and Aberdeen.. They take their name from only a fingle hill, the 
Mons Grampius of Tacitus j where Galgacus waited the approach of 
Agricola^ and where the battle was fought fo fatal to the brave Ca<- 
ledonians. Antiquarians have not agreed upon the particular fpot; 
but Mr. Gordon -f- places it near Comriey at the upper end of Strath- 
trny at a place to this day called Galgacban Moor. But to return. 

In x66i» thb wSl was reicxndedy bat revived again in the firft ptrlement of 
William and Mary^ and the a£t recifTory annulled. Ahridg. JQ$ ofFarkmimt. 45* 
L think that the adl hat been lately wholly repealed. 

* Its height is 3240 feet. 

t ^^*^* Seftent. 39. The reafons againfi the opinioA.of. this able antiquary* 
will be given in the other volumes*. 


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- The road runs fometimes through woods, at others is cxpbfed 
and naked ; in fome, fo fteep as to require the fupport of a wall: 
the whole the work of the foldiery : blefled exchange of inftruments 
of deftruftion for thofe that give fafety to the' traveller, and a po- 
lifli to the once inacceflible native. 

Two great headlands covered with trees feparate the firft fcenc 
from one totally different j the laft is called the Point of Firkin. 
On paffing this cape an expanfe of water burfts at once on your 
eye, vdried with all the fofter beauties of nature. Immediately be- 
neath is a flat covered with wood and corn : beyond, the headlands 
ftretch far into the water, and confift of gentle rifings •, many have 
their furfaces covered with wood, others adorned with trees loofely 
ifcattered either over a fine verdure, or the purple bloom of the heath. 
Numbers of iflands are difperfed over the lake of the fame elevated 
form as the little capes, and wooded in the fame manner ; others 
juft peep above the furface, and are tufted with trees •, and numbers 
are fo difpofed as to form magnificent viftos between. 

Oppofite Lm/Sj at a fmall diftance from (hore, is a mountainous 
ifle almoft coyered with wood ; is near half a mile long, and has a 
moft fine effedt. I could not count the number of iflands, but was 
told there are twenty-eight : the largefl: two miles long, and fl:ocked. 
with Deer. 

The length of this charming lake is 24 Scotch miles ; its greateil 
breadth eight : its greatefl: depth, which is between the point rf 
Firkin and Ben-Lomond^ is a hundred and twenty fathoms. Befides 
|he fifh common to the Lochs are Guiniads^ called here Poans. 

At this time were living at the little village oiLufs the following 
perfons, moft amazing inftances of . cotemporary longevity; and 


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246 A T O U R 

perhaps proofs of the uncommon hcalthinefs of the place. Thefo 
compofe the venerable lift : 

Rev. Mr. James Robertfon^ Minifter, aged 90. 

Mrs. RobertfoHy his wife, - - - 86. 

Anne Sharps their fcrvant, - - - 94. 

Niel Macnaughtan^ Kirk-Officer, - - 86. 

Cbrijiian Gay^ his wife, - - - 94. 

TFalter MackUany - . - - 90. 

The country from Lufs * to the Southern extremity of the lake 
.continually improves-, the mountains fink gradually into fmall hills ^ 
the land is highly cultivated, well planted, and well inhabited. I 
was ftruck with rapture at a light To long new to me : it would 
have been without alloy, had k not been daflied with the uncer- 
tainty whether the mountain virtue, hofpitality, would flourifli with 
equal vigor in the fofter fcenes I was on the point of entering on^ 
for in the Highlands every houfe gave welcome to the traveller. 

On the road fide near Lufs is a quarry of moft excellent flates ^ 
and near the fide of the lake, about a mile or two farther, is a great 
heap of ftones in memory of St. Mac-Kejfog^ Biihop and Confeflfor, 
who fufFered martrydom there A. D. 520, and was buried in C<m^ 
Jtraddan church. 

The vale between the end of the lake and T>unbarton is-unfpeak- 
ably beautiful, veryicrtile, and finely watered by the great and 
rapid river Leviny the difcharge of the lake, which, after a (hort 
.courfe, drops into tne Firth of Chfde below Dunbarton: there is 
icarcely a fpot on its banks but what is decorated with bleacheries, 

* A tolerable inn on tbeborden of the lake. 


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I N S C O T L A N D^ 247 

plantations and villas. Nothing can equal the contraft in this day's 
journey, between the black barren dreary glens of the morning 
ride, and the foft fcenes of the evening, iQands worthy of the retreat 
of Armday and which RinaUo himfelf would have quitted with a 

Before I take my laft leave* of the Highlands^ it will be proper Ektrancii 
to obfervc that every entrance into them is ftrongly marked by HiYH,,^SDf. 

On the South, the narrow and wooded glen near Dunkeld inftant. 
ly Ihews the change of country. 

On the Eaft, the craggy pafs of BoUilir gives a contrafted ad- 
miffion into the Grampian hills. 

On the North, the mountains near Locb-May appear very near, 
and form what is properly ftyled the threlhold of the country ; and 
on the 

Weft, the narrow road impending over Loch-Lomond forms a^ 
moft charaAeriftic entrance to this mountainous traft. 

But the Erfe or Galic language is not confinecl within thefe li- 
mits \ for it is fpoken on all fides beyond thefe mountains. On the 
Eaftern begins at Nairn -^ on the Wcftern, extends over all 
the ifles. It ceafes in the North of Catbnefs^ the Orkneys^ and the 
Shetland iflands^*; but near Loch-Lomond^ is heard at Lufs^ at 
Buchanan^ Eaft of the lake, and at Rofenetb^ Weft , of it* 

The traveller, who has leifure, fliould ride to the eminence of 
MllegSy to fee the rich profped between Loch-Lomond and the Cfyde. 

* In the SMmid (^/ are fiill fome remaint of the N$rji^ or old N^m^gism^ 


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24S A T O U R 

One way is feen part of the magnificent lake, Ben-Lomond and the 
vaft mountains above Glen-Crow. On the other hand appears a fine 
reach of the Clyde enlivened with (hipping, a view of the pretty 
feats of Rofenetb and Ardincapel^ and the bufy towns of Port-Glafgow 
and Greenock. 

Crofs the ferry over the Levin at Bonnelj and after a ride of three 
miles reach 

DuNBARTOM. Dunbarton^ a fmall but good old town, feated on a plain near 

the conflux of the Levin with the Firth of Clyde \ it confifts princi- 
pally of one large ftreet in form of a crefcent. On one fide is the 
Tolhooth^ and at the South end the church with a fmall fpire fteeple; 
it had been collegiate, was founded about 1450 by Ifabel Qo\M\XJth 
oi Lenox andDutchcfs of Albany^ and was dedicated to St. Patrickj 
who was born in this county. The waites of the town are bag- 
pipes, which go about at nine o'clock at night and five in the 

Its Castle. The caftle is feated a little South of the town on a two-headed 

rock of a ftupendous height, rifing in a ftrange manner out of the 
fands, and totally detached from every thing elfe •, is bounded on 
one fide by the Clyde^ on the other by the Levin. On one of the 
fummits.are the remains of an old light-houfe, which fome fuppofc 
to have been a Roman Pharos \ on the other, the powder magazine : 
in the hollow between is a large well of water fourteen feet deep. 
The fides of the rocks are immenfe precipices, and often over-hangj, 
except on the fide where the Governor's houfe (lands, which is de^ 
fended by walls and a few cannon, and garrifoned by a few invalids. 
It feems to have been often ufed as a ftate prifon : the Regent 
Morton was fccured there previous to his tryal. From its natural 


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ftrength, it was in former times deemed impregnable ; fo that tlic 
defpcrate but fuccefsful fcalado of it in 1571 * may vie with the 
greatcft attempts of that kind, with the capture of the Numidian 
fortrefs, in the Jugurtbine war, by Marius ; of the more horrible 
furprizc of Fefcamp f , by the gallant Bois-rose. 

The Britons in very early times made this rock afortrefs; for 
it was ufual with them after the departure of the Romans to retreat 
to the tops of craggy inacceffible mountains, to forefts, and to rocks 
on the fliores of the fea : but Boethius makes the Scots poflefled of it 
fome ages prior to that, and pretends that it refifted all the efforts 
oi Agricoldy who laid fiege to it. It certainly may clame a right to 
great antiquity, for Bede declares it to have been the beft fortified 
city the Britons had during his days. Its antient name was jilcluid^ 
or Arcluidy or the place on the Cluid. But in after-times it acquired 
the name of Dun-Britton^ being the laft place in thefe parts held by 
the Britons againft the ufurping Saxons. In 756, reduced by fa- 
mine, it was furrendered to Edbert Yimgoi Northumberland. 

From the fummit of this rock is a fine view of the country, of 
the town of Dunbarton^ the river Levin^ the Firth of Clyde (the 
Glota of Tacitus) here a mile broad, and of the towns of Greenock 
and Port'GlaJgow^ on the oppofite fliore. The bufinefs of this 
country is the fpinning of thread, which is very confiderable. 
There is alfo a great falmon-fifhery : but in this populous country^ Fitu. 

fo great is the demand for them that none can be fpared for curing, 
Gilfes come up the river in JunCj and continue in plenty about 

• Roiert/on*s bift. ScotUmd^ II. •aavo. Gutbrie'i, VII. 331. 
t SuUfj Mmoirs, Vol. L Bwk VL 

K k twenty 


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twenty days ; and naany Salmon Trout are taken from March to 
^ July. Pbinocs^ called here Yellow Fins, come in July^ and conti- 
nue about the fame fpace of time as the Gilfes : the fifhermen call 
them the yoyuig of fome great Sea Trout. During May^ Parrs 
appear in fuch numbers in the Levin^ that the water feems quite 
animated with them. There are befides in that river, Perch and a 
few Poans *. 

Sept. 8. Pafs by the ruins of Dunglas caftle, near the banks .of the Clydcy. 

which meanders finely along a rich plain full of barley and oats, 
and much inclofed with good hedges, a rarity in North Britain. 
At a diftance are fomc gentle rifings, interfperfed with woods and 
villas belonging to the citizens of Glajgow. Croft the water of 
Kelvin at the village o£ Panic, and foon after reach 

Gla8<so3;v4 Glasgow. The bell built of any modern fecond-rate city I ever 

faw : the houfes of ftone, and in a good tafte. The principal ftreet 
runs Eaft and Weft, and is near a mile and a half long ; but un- 
fortunately, is not ftrait. The Taliooth is large and handfome. 
• Next tor that is the Exchange : within is a^ fpatious room with full- 
length portraits of all our monarchs fince James I. ; and an excellent, 
one, by Ramfay, oi Archibald T>\xkQ oi Argyle, in a Judge's robe. 
Before the Exchange is a large equeftrian ft^tue of King William. 
This is the broadcft and fincft part of the ftreet : many of the houfes 
are built over piazzas,, but too narrow to be of much fervice to 

•* At DunhartoH I was informed by perfpns of credit, that Swallows have often 
been taken in midwinter, in a torpid flate, out of the fteeple of the church, and 
alfo out of a fand-bank over the river Endricbi near Loch-Lomond*. 


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I N S C O T L A N a 4^1 

walkers. Numbers of other ftrccts crofs this at right angles, and 
are in general well built. 

The market-places are great ornaments to this city, the fronts Market-places. 
being done in a very fine tafte, and the gates adorned with columns 
of one or other of the orders. Some of thefe markets are for meal, 
greens, fifh, or flefli., There are two for the laft which have con- 
duits out of feveral of the pillars j fo that they are conltantly kept 
fweet and clean. 

Near the meal-market is a publick granary, to be filled on any 
apprehenfion of fcarcenefs. 

The guard-houfe is in the great ftreet, which is kept by the 
inhabitants, who regularly do duty. An excellent police is ob- 
ferved here, and proper officers attend the markets to prevent any 

The old bridge over the Oyde confifts of eight arches, and was 
built 400 years ago by Bifliop Rea : another is now built. The 
tide flows three miles higher up the country ; but at low water is 
fordablfc. There is a plan for deepening the channel , for at prefent 
the tide brings up only very fmall vefl^bls ; and the ports belonging 
to this city lie feveral miles lower, at Porl-Glajgow and Greenock^ on 
the fide of the Firlb. 

Near the bridge is a large alms-houfe,^ a vaft nailery, a ftone- 
ware manufafture, and a great porter brewery, which fupplies fome 
part of Ireland. Within fight, on the South fide, are collieries ; and 
much coal is exported into the laft-mentioned ifland, and into 

The great imports of this city are tobacco and fugar : of the Tiadb. 
former, above 40,000 hogflieads have been annually imported 

Kk2 and 

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152 A T O U R 

and moft part of it again exported into France and other countries; 
The manufaftures here are linnens, cambricks*, lawns, tapes, 
fuftians, andftriped linnens j ibthat it already begins to rival Mz«- 
cbeftefj and has in point of the conveniency of its ports, in refpeft^to 
America^ a great advantage over it, 
CoLLBOB. The College is a large building, with a handfome front to the 

ftreet, refembling fome of the old colleges in Oxford. Charles I; 
fubfcribed 200 1. towards this work, but was prevented by the 
troubles from paying it •, but Cramwel afterwards fulfilled the de- 
fign of the royal donor. It was founded in 1450,. by James II. 
Pope Nicholas V. gave, the bully but Bilhop Turnbull fupplied the 
money. There are about 400 ftudents belonging to the college, 
who lodge in the town : but the Profeflbrs have good houfes in 
the college. Young gentlemen of fortune have private tutors,, 
who have an eye to their, conduct ; the reft- live entirely at their 
own difcretion. 

The library is a very handfome room, with a gallery round it, 
fupported by pillars. That beneficent nobleman the firft Duke of 
Cbandos^ when he vifited the college, gave 500 1. towards building* 
this apartment.. 

Meffrs. Robert and Andrew FouliSy printers and bookfcllers to the 
univerfity, have inftituted an academy for painting and engraving •, 
and like good citizens, zealous to promote the welfare and honor of' 
their native place, have at a vaft expence fornxcd a moft numerous 
colleftion of paintings from abroad, in order to form the tafte of. 
their eleves. 

* The greateft cambrick manufaftiire is now zlPoiJljt a few miles from thU. 


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The printing is a very confiderable branch of bufincfi, and has 
long been celebrated for the beauty of the types and the corrednefs 
of the editions. Here are preferved in cafes numbers of monumental 
and other ftones *, taken out of the walls on the Roman ftations in 
this part of the kingdom •, fomc are well cut and ornamented : moft 
of them were done to perpetuate the memory of the vexiUatiOj or 
party, who performed fuch or fuch works 5 others in memory of 
officers who died in the country. 

The cathedral is a large pile, now divided into two churches. Chvrchbi. 
Beneath, and deep underground, is another, in which is alfo divine 
fcrvice, where the congregation may truely fay, clamavi e profundis : 
the roof is fine, made of ftone and fupported by pillars ; but the 
beauty much hurt by the crowding of the pews. Near this is the 
ruin of the caftle, or Biihop's palace. 

The new church is a very handfome building with a large elegant 
porch; but the outfide is much disfigured by a flender fquare tower : 
and in general, the fteeples of North Britain are in a remarkable bad 
tafte, being, in fad, no favorite part of architedture with the church 
of Scotland. The infide of that juft fpoken of is moft neatly finiflied, 
fupported by pillars, and very prettily ftuccoed : it is one of the: 
very few exceptions to the flovenly and indecent manner in which 
Prcfbytery keeps the houfcs of God : reformation in manners of 
religion feldom obferves mediocrity : here it was outrageous ; for a 
place of worQiip commonly neat was deemed to favor of popery : 
but, to avoid the imputation of that extreme, they run into another; . 

* Several have been engraven by the artifls of the academy. The Provoil of the • 
Univerfity did me the honor of prefenting me with a fet. 


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SfiPT. 10. 

Both WELL 



for in many parts of Scotland our Lord fcems ftill to be worftiipped 
in a ftable, and often in a very wretched one. Many of the churches 
are thatched with heath, and in fome places are in fuch bad repair 
as to be half open at top •, fo that the people appear to worfhip, as 
the Druids did of old, in open temples. 

Went to fee Hamilton Houfe, twelve miles diftant from Glafj[ow : 
ride through a rich and beautiful corn country, adorned with fmall 
woods, gentlcmen*s feats, and well watered. Hereabout I faw the 
firft muddy ftream fince I had left Edinburgh j for the Highland 
rivers running generally through a bed of rock or pure gravel, re- 
ceive no other teint, in the greatcft floods, than the brown cryftalline 
tinge of the moors, out of which they rife. 

See on the Weft, at a little diftance from the road, the ruins of 
Bothwell caftle, and the bridge, remarkable for the Duke oiMon- 
moutb^s vidtory over the Rebels in 1679. The church was collegiate, 
founded by Archibald E2Lr\ of Douglas j 1398, and is, as I heard*, 
oddly incrufted with a thin coat of ftone. 

Hamilton Houfe, or Palace, as it is called here, is feated at the 
end of a Imall town ; is a large difagreeable pile of building, with 
two deep wings at right angles with the centre. The gallery is of 
great extent, and furniflied (as well as fome other rooms) with moft 
excellent paintings: that of Daniel in the Lion's den, by Rubens, 
is a great performance. The fear and devotion of the Prophet is 
finely exprefled by his uplifted face and eyes, his clafped hands, 
his fwelling mufcles, and the violent extenfion of one foot : a Lion 
Jooks fiercely at him with open mouth, and feems only reftrained 

Biibop PococVi mum/cript JwmaU 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 255 

by the Almighty power from making him fall a vi<5lim to his 
hunger •, and the fignal deliverance of Daniel is more fully marked 
by the number of human bones fcattercd over the floor, as if to 
fhew the inftant fate of others, in whofe favor the Deity did not 

The marriage-feaft, by Paul Veronefe^ is a fine piece ; and the ob- 
ftinacy and refiftance of the intruder, who came without the wedding 
garment, is ftrongly exprefled. 

The treaty of peace between England and Spmn in the reign of 
James I. by Juan de Pantoxa^ is a good hiftorical pifture. There arc 
fix Envoys on the part of the Spaniards^ and five on that of the 
EngUJby with their names infcribcd over each : the Englijh are the 
Earls of Borfet^ 'Nottingham^ Devon/hire^ Northampton^ and Robert 

Earls oi Lauderdale and Lanerk fettling the covenant, both in 
black, with faces full of puritanical Iblemnity. 

Several of the Dukes of Hamilton. James Duke ofHamilton^ with 
a blue ribband and white rod. His fon, beheaded in 1649. His 
brother, killed at the battle ofWorceJtcr. The Duke who fell in the 
duel with Lord Mohun, 

Fielding^ Earl of Denbigh* -, his hair grey, a gun in his hand,. 
and attended by an Indian boy. It feems perfeftly to ftart from 
the canvafe, and the a<5tion of his countenance looking up has 

* The perfon who ihewed the houfe called him Governor of Jamaica ; but that 
maft be a midake. If any errors appear in my accoont of any of the pidures, I 
ftattcr myfelf it may be excufed ; for fometimes they were fhewn by fervants ; . 
foinetimes the owners of the hoofe were fo obliging as to attend me, whom I 
could not txouble with a number jo£ queOion**, 


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256 A T O U R 

matchlefs fpirit. His daughter, and her hufband, the Marquifs of 

Old Duke of Cbatelberault^ in black, with an order about his 

Two half-lengths in black j one with a fiddle in his hand, the 
other in a grotefque attitude ; both with the fame countenances ; 
good, but fwarthy ; miftakenly called David Rizzo's \ but I could 
not learn that there W4s any portrait of that unfortunate man. 

Maria Dei Gratia Scotorum Regina, 1586. yEt. 43. a half-length-, 
a ftifF figure, in a great ruff, auburne hair, oval but pretty full 
face, of much larger and plainer features than that at Caftle Braany 
a natural alteration from the increafe of her cruel ufage, and of her 
ill health ; yet ftill with a refemblance xo that portrait. It was told 
me here, that (he fent this pidure, together with a ring, to the Duke 
oiHamiltotty a little before her execution. 

A head, faid to be Anna BuUenj very handfome, drefled in a ruff 
and kerchief edged with ermine, and in a purple gown j over her 
face a veil, fo tranfparent as not to conceal 

The bloom of young defire and parple light of Iove« 

Earl Morton^ Regent oi Scotland. 
The rough reformer John Knox. 

Lord Belhaveny author of the famous fpeech againft the union. 

Philip II. at full length, with a ftrange figure of Fame bowing at 

his feet with a label and this motto. Pro merente adfto. 

Chatblpirault* About a mile from the houfe, on an eminence, above a deep 

wooded glen, with the Avon at its bottom, is Cbatelierault ; fo called 

from the eftate the family once poffeffed in irtf/i^^: is an elegant 

^ banqueting- 

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banqueting-houfe, with a dog-kennel, gardens, &c. and commands a 

fine view of the country. The park is now much inclofcd : but I 

am told, that there are ftill in it a few of the breed of the wild cattle. Wild cattli. 

which Boethius * fays were peculiar to the Caledonian foreft, were of a 

fnowy whitenefs, and had manes like lions : they were at this time in 

a diftant part of the park, and I loft the fight of them. 

Returned to Glafgow. 

Croflcd the country towards Sterling. Paflcd through the village Sipt. ii. 
of Kyljiihey noted for a viftory gained by Montrofe over the Cove- Ktliithi. 
nanters. Thro* a bog, where numbers of the fugitives perifhed, is 
now cutting part of the canal that is to join the Firths of Forth and 
dyde. Saw the fpot where the battle of Bannochume was fought, in 
which the Englijh under Edward II. had a (hameful defeat. Edward 
was fo aflured of conqueft, that he brought with him JVilUam Bafion^ 
a Carmelite^ and famous poet, to celebrate his victory ; but the mo- 
narch was defeated, and the poor bard taken and forced by the con- 
queror, invitd Minerva^ to fing his fucccfs, which he did in fuch lines 
as thefe : 

Hie capita hie rapity hie terity bic ferity ecce dolores \ 
Vox tonat ; as fonat -, hie ruit -, hie luit \ arEto modo res^ 
Hie fecat ; hie necat ; hie doeet ; bic nocet \ ijiefugatur : 
Hie latety hie pat it ; hie premit^ hie gemit 5 hiefuperatun 

At this place that unfortunate monarch James III. was defeated 
by his rebellious fubjefts ; in his flight fell down from his horf^ 
and bruifed by his fall was drawn into a neighboring mill, and foon 

* Giffun fikt eafiiva btvts catuHdiffim^s informam Lfmsjulam hainaes, catirm 
maii/uitisfimlUmos vni adt$ftr9St &c» Defer. Regni Scotist fol. xi« 

L 1 after 

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258 A T O U R 

after aflaffinated by a Prieft called in to receive his confeflion, and 
afFord him fpiritual affiftance. 

8t. NiNiAH.. Went through the fmall town of St. Ninian*y a mile South of 

Sterling. The church had been the powder-magazine of the Rebels, 
who, on their return, blew it up in fuch hafte, as to deftroy fome of 
their own people, and about fifteen innocent fpedtators. 

Sterling.. Sterling and its cattle, in refpeft of fituation, is a miniature of 

Edinburgh •, is placed on a ridged hill, or rock, rifing out of a plain, 
having the cattle at the upper end on a high precipitous rock. 
Within its walls was the palace of feveral of the Scotch Kings, a 
, fquare building, ornamented on three fides with pillars retting on 
grotefque figures proje6ling from the wall, and on the top of each 
pillar is a ttatue, feemingly the work of fancy. Near it is the old 
parlement houfe, a vaft room 120 feet long, very high, with a 
timbered roof, and formerly had a gallery running round the infide. 
Below the cattle are the ruins of the palace belonging to the Earls 
of Mary whofe family had once the keeping of this fortrefs. There 
are ttill the jEf/J/W arms and much ornamental carving on parts of^ 
it. The town of Sterling is inclofed with a wall ; the ttrects are ir- 
regular and narrow, except that which leads to the cattle. Here, . 
and at the village of Bdnnocioumey is a confiderable manufadlure of 
coarfe carpets. 

From the top of the cattle is by far the finett view in Scotland. 
To the Eatt is a vatt plain rkh in corn, adorned with woods, and 
watered with ih&rWcv Forthy vfhoie meanders are, before it reaches 

* ApQ&kro{tht'Pi3s, fea of a Prince UihtCiimirhmBnhuMfi fnrtxtmg tko 
PJ£fs as far as the Grui^Mtm kills* Died 45a* 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 259 

the fca^ fo frequent and fo large, as to form ^ multitude of moft 
beautiful pcninfulas ; for in many parts tht windings approximate 
fo clofe as to leave only a little ifthmus of a few yards. In this 
plain is an old abby, a view oi MloUj Clackmannan^ Falkirk^ the 
Firth of Fortb^ and the country as far as Edinburgh, On the North, 
the Ocbil hills, and the moor where the battle of Dumblain was 
fought. To the Weft, the ftrath oi Menteith^ as fertile as the Eaft- 
crn plain, and terminated by the Highland mountains, among 
which the fummit oi Ben-Lomond is very conlpicuous. 

The Sylva Caledonia^ or Caledonian Foreft, begun a little North 
of Sterlings and palling through Menteith and Strathern^ extended, 
according to Boethius^ as far as Atbol on one fide, and Lochaber on 
the other. It is very (lightly mentioned by the antients * ; but the 
fuppofed extent is given by the Scottijb hiftorian. 

Lie at Falkirk^ 2l large ill-built town, fupported by the great Falkirk. 
fairs for black cattle from the Highlands, it being computed that 
24,coo head arc annually fold here. There is alfo a great deal of 
money got here by the carriage of goods, landed at Carron wharf, 
to Glafgow. Such is the increafe of tra<je in this country, that 
about twenty years ago not three carts could be found in the town, 
and at prefent there arc above a kondred that arc fupported by their 
intercourfe with Glafgow. 

In the church-yard, on a plain ftone, is the following epitaph on 
John de Graham^ ftyled the right hand of the gallant fVallace^ killed 
at the battle of Falkirk in 1298 f : 

• By Pliny ^ lib. iv. c. i6. and Eumeniusf in his Panegyric on Conftaniius^ r. 7, 
t Fought between Falkirk and Carron works, at a place called to this day 
Crabam^ Moor. 

L 1 2 Here 

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^^ A T O U R 

Here lies Sir J ohm the Gram both wight and wife^ 

Ane of the chief reikewit ScotUmd thrife. 

Ane better knight not to the world was lent 

Nor was gade Grami of trueth, and of hardiment. 
MiMti miumfui potnUf tt Vikhis&JUkis Achat t$ 
Comlitmr hie Gramas biUo inttrfi&ns ah Anglii • 
izjuliu 1298. 

Near this is another epitaph, occafioned by a fecond battle of 
Falkirkj as difgraceful to the Englijb as the other was fatal to the 
Scots: the firft was a well difputed combat ; the laft^ a pannic oa 
both fides, for part of each army flew,^ the one Weft, the other 
Eaft, each carrying the news of their feveral defeats, while the to- 
tal deftruftion of our forces was prevented by the gallant behaviour 
of a brigadier, who with two regiments faced fuch of the rebels as 
kept the field, and prevented any further advantages. The epitaph 
I allude to is in memory of Sir Roherl Monro *, the worthy chief- 


* Conditar heic qaod poterit moii 
RoBBRTi MoNBO di FomUs, £q. Bar. 
Gentis fui Principis 
Militum Tribnni : 
Vita in caftris cnriaqne Britamuca 
Honefte prodadll 
Pro Libertate seligione Patriae 
In acie honeftiffime defanda 
PropeFAtKiBK Jan. xviii. 1746. Mi. 6z* 
Virtutis confiliiqitt fama 
In Montattorum cohortii Praefediura 
Q^amdia praeliom Fomtomjevm memorabitoc 
Perduratura i 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 261 

tain of that loyal clan, a family which loft three brothers the fame 
year in fupport of the royal caufe. Sh" Robert being greatly wound. 
cd in the battle was murthered in cool bloody by the Rebels, with 
his brother Dr. Monro, who with fraternal piety was at that time 
dreffing his wounds : the third was aflaflinated by miftake for one 
who well deferred his death for fpontaneous barbarities on High- 
landers approaching according to proclamation to furrender their 

I have very often mentioned fields of battle in this part of the 
kingdom : fcarce a fpot has efcaped unftained with gore j for had 
they no publick enemy to contend with, the Scots, like the ff^elfti 
of old, turned their arms againft each other. 

Carron iron-works lie about a mile from Falkirk, and are the I»o» 

greateft of the kind in Europe : they were founded about eight years 
ago, before which there was not a fingle houfe, and the country a 
naere moor. At prefent, the buildings of all forts are of vatt ex- 
tent, and above twelve hundred men are employed. The iron is 
fmelted from the ftone, then caft into cannon, pots, and all forts of 
utenfils made in founderies. This work has been of great fervice 
to the country, by teaching the people induftry and a method of 

Ob amicitiam et fidcm amicis 
Hainanitatcm clementiamque adverfaiiU 
BencvoleBCiam bonitatemqae omnibus, 
Tnicidantibas etiam. 
In perpetaum defideranda. 
DuMCAMus Monro tie Oh/Jaii^ M. D. iEt. 53* 
Frater Fratrem linqnere fugiens, 
* Saacium curans, idaa inennis 

Commoriens cohoneftat Urnama 
'^ letting 

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tCz A T O U R 

fetting about any fort of labor, which before the common people 
had Ka cc any notion of. 

Carron wharf lies on the Forth^ and is not only ufcful to the 
works, but of great fervice even to Glafgowy as confiderable quan- 
tities of goods dcftined for that city are landed there. The canal 
likewifc begins in this neighborhood, which, when effedted, will 
prove another benefit to thefe works. 
Arthur's At a fniall diftance from the founderies, on a little rifing above 

OVEN. ^Yic river Carrorty flood that celebrated antiquity called Arthur's 

Oven, which the ingenious Mr Gordon * fuppofes to have been a 
facellumy or little chapel, a repofuory for the Roman Inftgniay or 
ftandards : but, to the mortification of every curious traveller, this 
matchlefs edifice is now no more; its barbarous owner, a Gothic 
knight, caufed it to be demolifhed, in order to make a mill-dam 
with the materials, which, within Icfs than a year, ihcNaiadeSy in 
refcntment of the facrilege, came down in a flood and entirely Iwept 
^BPT. 12. Saw near Calkndar-Houk fome part of Ant oninuj^s Wall, or, as 

Graham's it is called here, Graham*s Dyke-f-. The vallum and the ditch arc 
here very evident, and both are of a great fize, the laft being forty 
feet brOad and thirteen deep •, it extended from the Pirth of Forth 
to that of ClydCy and was defended at proper diftances by forts and 
watch-towers, the work of the Roman legions under the command 

• ///». Septentr, p. 24. tab. iv. As the book is very fcarce, I have taken the 
liberty of having that plate copied into this work. 

t bo called from Graham^ who is faid to have firft made a breach in 
this wall foon after the retreat of ikt Ritnans out o£ Briiah, ^Wide Bmhigs^ 




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T\^0 liOC!EIAB£ll AXXi8 

^^tfSwfVw/* i/ii-f. 

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I N S C O T L A N D. 263 

of LolUus UrhicuSy in the reign of Anioninus Pius. According to 
Mr. Gordon, it began at old Kirk Patrick on the Firth of Clyde, and 
ended two miles Weft of Abercorn, on the Firth of Forth, being in 
length 36 miles, 887 paces. 

Pafled thro* Burrowftonefs, a town on the Firth, inveloped in 
fhioke from the great falt-pans and vaft collieries near it. The 
town-houfe is built in form of a caftle. There is a good quay, 
much frequented by fliipping •, for confidcrable quantities of coal 
are fent from hence to London ; and there are befides fome Greeenland 
Ihips * belonging to the town. 

Ride near yf^^r(?r»,- called by Bede the mom^tvy of Abercurnig \ 
of which no mention is made in the accounts of the Scotch religious 
houfes : nor has there been for many centuries the left remains ; 
for Buchanan fays that none of any kind were to be met with even 
in his time, except the ruins of a tower belonging to the Douglafes. 

Reach Hopeton-Houk, the feat of the Earl of Hopeton , a houfe Hopbton- 
begun by S\v JViUiam Bruce, and finifhed by Mr^ Adams: is the house, 

handfomeft I faw in North Britain: the front is enriched with pi- 
lafters; the wings at fome diftance joined to it by a beautiful colo- 
nade : one wing is the ftables, the other the library. In the laft 
is a fingle piece of lead ore weighing five tuns, got out of his Lord- 
fhrp*s mines at the Lead'hills. 

• This year the whale-fiihery began to rc?iv<f ; whieh kit a fcvr years paft had 
been fb nalbccefsfu], that (everat of the adventurers had thought! of difpofing of 
their ihips. Perhaps the whales had tiH this year deftrted thofe feas ; for Mar fen, 
jx 1^5 of his voyage to Sfiixbirgen^ pemarks, " That thefe animals, either weary 
<* of their place, 01- ieii£ble of their own danger^ do often change their har« 


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The great improvements round the houfe are very cxtenfive ; but 
the gardens are ftill in the old tafte : trees and Ihrubs fucceed here 
greatly ; among others were two Portugal laurels thirty feet high. 
Nothing can equal the grandeur of the approach to the houfe, or 
the profpeft from it. The fituation is bold, on an eminence, com- 
manding a view of the Firth of Forthy bounded on the North by 
the county of Fife •, the middle is chequered with iflahds, fuch as 
Garvey, Inch Keith *, and others ; and on the South-Eaft is a vaft 
command of £^L^/&*^«, and the terminating objeft the great co- 
nic hill of North Berwick. 

The whole ride from Sterling to S^ueeifs Ferry (near Hopeton- 
Houfe) is not to be paralleled for the elegance and variety of its 
profpcfts : the whole is a compofition of all that is great and beau- 
tiful : towns, villages, feats, and antient towers, decorate each 
bank of that fine expanfe of water the Firth : while the bufy fcenes 
of commerce and rural ceconomy are no fmall addition to the dill 
life. The lofty mountains of the Highlands form a diftant but 
auguft boundary towards the North- Weft; and the Eaftern view 
is enlivened with (hips perpetually appearing or vanifhing amidft 
the numerous ifles. 

* This ifle is oppoiite to Ltith. By order of council, in 1497, all venereal pa* 
tients in the neighboarhood were tranfported there, JVir quid ditriminti res publica 
€apirit* It is remarkable, that this diforder, which was thought to have appeared 
in Eur6ft only four years before, fliould make fo quick a progrefs. The horror 
of a difeafe, for which there was then fuppofed to be no care, muft have occafion- 
ed thb attention to flop the conugion ; for even half a century after, one of the 
firil monarchs of Enrtft^ Framns I. fell a vidim to it. The order is fo carious 
that we have given it a place in the Appendix. ^ 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 26$ 

Pafs by ^ien^f'Ferry j fall into the EJinhurgb road, and finifln 
this evening, in that capital, a moft agreeable and profperous Tour. 
It was impofiible not to recal the idea of what I had feen \ to ima- 
gine the former condition of this part of the kingdom, and to com- 
pare it with the prefent ftate, and by a fort of fecond-fight make a 
probable conjefture of the happy appearance it will aflume in a 
very few years. Nor could 1 forbear repeating the prophetic lines * 
d Aaron Hillj who feemed feized with a like rivtrie. 

Once more ! O North, I view thy winding ihoref» * 

Climb thy bleak hills and crofs thy dulky moori« 

Impartial view thee with an heedful eye. 

Yet ftill by natare, not by cenfnre try. 

Muglani thy lifter is a f«y coquet. 

Whom ait enlivens, and temptations whet : 

Hich, prond, and wanton, ihe her beauty knowSf 

And in a confcious warmth of beauty glows : 

ScoilanJ comts after like an unripe fair. 

Who fighs with anguiih at her filler's air ; 

Unconfcioas, that flie'll quickly have her day. 

And be the toaft when Jlbi9n*% charms decay. 

After a few days experience of the fame hofpitality in Edinburgh Sept. 18. 
that I had met with in the Highlands, I continued my journey 
South, through a rich corn country, leaving the Pentland hills to 
the Weft, whofe fides were covered With a fine turf. Before I 
reached Crocks a fmall village, the country grew worfe : after this 
it aflTumed a Highland appearance, the hills were high, the vales 
narrow, and there was befides a great fcarcity of trees, and hardly 

* Written on a window in Ntrtb Britain. 

M m any 

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266 A T O U R 

any corn ; inftead, was abundance of good pafturage for flieep^ 
there being great numbers in thefc parts, which fupply the North 
of England. The roads are bad, narrow, and often on the edges 
of precipices, impending over the river Tweedy here an inconfidera* 
ble ftream. Reach 
MoppAT. Moffat, a fmall neat town, famous for its fpaws ; one. faid to 

be ufeful in fcrophulous cafes, the other a chalybeate, which makes 
this place much reforted to in fummen Dodor JValker^ minifter 
of the place, fhewed me in manufcript his natural hiftory of the 
weftem ijles^ which will do him much credit whenever he favors the 
world with it. 

Here the unfortunate nobleman tx)rd Vifcount Kenmure fet up 
the Pretender^s ftandard on the 12th of OSober 17 15, in fatal com- 
pliance with the importunities of the difafFefted Lowlanders. 

The country between Moffat and Lockerby is very good, a mix- 
ture of downs and corn-land, with a few fmall woods : the country 
grows quite flat and very unpleafant: but inceflant rains throughout 
my journey from Edinburgb^ rendered this part of my tour both 
difagreeable and unedifying. Croft a fmall river called the Sark^ 
which divides the two kingdoms, and enter Cumberland. 

About three miles farther crofs the EJk over a handfome ftonc- 
bridge, and lie at the fmall village of Longtown. The country is 
very rich in corn, but quite bare of trees, and very flat. Near this 
village, at Netherbyy are the ruins of a Roman fltation, where ftatues, 
weapons and coins are often dug up. 

I had not leifure to remark the feveral antiquities that Mr. Graham 
IS pofleflcd of: but out of them feleft the following, engraven in 
the annexed plate,, and in the tail piece to the concluding page. 

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I N S C O T L A N D. 267 

No, I. is a figure in a drefs with clofe fleeVes, not unlike in the 
body to a carter's frock, or what Montfaucon calls fagum claufum *, 
reaching down to the heels. On one fide is a boar, on the other a 
wheel, and beneath that an altar : in the left hand is part of a 
cornucopia. The figure is evidently Gaulijhj but the hiftory is ob- 
fcure : the boar is often an emblem of Caledonia : the wheel a 
known type of Fortune : it is alfo a concomitant of two Saxon 
Deities +, of the idol of the Sun and of Sealer i and I would chufe to 
derive it from Germany or Gaul rather than from Rome. It feems a 
Deity of fome barbarous nation, but it is a difiicult tafk to aflign it 
to any one in particular. The Gauls and Germans were neighbors ; 
they might in fome inftances have the fame objefts of worfhip. As 
the Roman armies were latterly compofed of different GauUJb and 
forcig^i nations, their Deities were introduced and intermixed with 
thofe of the Romans^ a moft fuperftitious people, ready and accuf- 
tomed to adopt thofe of every country. We need not wonder at the 
variety of figures found in this country, for it appears from an in- 
fcription J, that there had been at Cambeck^ z temple of ev^ry nation j 
a latitudinarian Pantheon, fo that every religion enjoyed a liberty of 

I conjefture that this figure was the mater DeOmj the mother of 
the gods of fome Gaulijb or German nation, probably engraven after 
their intercourfe with the Romans^ for there appears a mixture of 

* III. part. I. tab. xlvii. 

t Verfttgan. 69. ^%• Woruii Mon. Dan. p. i6« 

{ The infcription runs thus B. V. omnium Gentium Templam oliin vetafttte 

conlabfoBLjUL. PITIANUS P. P. reftituit. 

M m a emblem. 

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268 A T O U R 

emblem^ Cybek or the mother of the gods is often engraven with a 
cornucopia : and Tacitus * mentions a German people that worfhipped 
this goddefs, and ufcd the boar as the embkm of their fuperftition : 
which was an amulet^ a charm againft all dangers. They feldom 
made ufe of iron weapons, but often of clubs. It appears to me 
that what rifes above the boar is intended for an inftrument of that 
kind. The figure is deprived of its head j I cannot purfue my com- 
parifon with this deity any farther. 

No. II. is a fecond headlefs figure refembling the former, only 
that a fort of fhort clofe mantle covers the (houlders and breaft. It 
has the wheel, altar, and cornucopia ; but beneath the feet appear the 
crupeziay fuch as are beneath the feet of the celebrated ftatue of the. 
dancing Fawn. 

No. III. is a figure fitting in a chair (with large elbows), cloathed 
m garments much plaited and folded : on the lap are apples or 
fruits. Nibalenma^ a Zf^»^goddefs,Js reprefented in this attitude f ,^ 
• and her lap thus'fiUed : the habit diflfers : but this deity might have 
been adopted by another nation, who^rcflfed her according to its own 
mode. Nebalemiia was the deity of the chalk-diggers, as appears by. 
an infcription preferved by Reinefius^ p. igo. 


Ob merges rite consejlvatas 
M. Secundus Silvanus 


VS. LM. 

^ Dt moribus GtmoMonrnf c. 45. 

t Mont/aucon. II. part ii. p. 443. Kijjkr Antiq. Ctk. 236^ 


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I N S C O T L A N D. 269 

The chalk trade was very confiderable in this ifland. Pli^^ 
Tery faithfully defcribes the manner, in which in fome places it is 
worked at prefent, and adds, that it was a manure that would laft 
eighty years. As this earth fo greatly promoted fertility, it is not 
without reafon that the lap of the goddefs is filled with it, * 

No. IV. is a curious groupe of three figures ftanding with their 
backs to a long feat with elbows. They are habited in a loofe 
fagumj or fate J as the Brilons name it, reaching but little below the 
knees : that in the middle is diftinguilhed by a pointed flap, and a 
veflTel filled, whether with fruits or corn is not very evident, Thefe 
may perhaps l^ the De^e matres of the barbarous nations, and 
introduced here by fome of the German levies ; there having been 
found in Britain three altars dedicated to them by the Tungrian 
cohort. They were local deities, proteftrefles of certain towns 
and villages among the Gauls f and Germans^ by whom they were 
tranfported into Britain, which is acknowledged in two infcrip- 
tions, where they are called tranfmarin^. If they were rural 
deities,, the contents of the cup is very apt, I may remark that 
the antients in general were fond of the number THREE ; and the 
Cauls t are known to groupe their deities very frequently in tri- 
plets ; a number the moft con>plete, as it regards Beginning j Middle^. 
and End. 

The Vth figure is a fpecies of fhoe in all probability belonging . 
to the natives of this ifland ; and was found in a moor in Cumber- 

•-Lib.XVII.c. 8. 

t Arcbmiozia. Vol. UI. 

1 Gordon, tab..x3ucvi. xxxix. and xl. Ktjjlir Autif. Cob* tab* xir. 


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land. It is formed of one piece of leather ; and nicely adapted to 
the foot. The cuoranen till very lately worn by the Highlanders 
was of this nature ; the mockajins of the North American nations arc 
not much diffimilar : fo exaftly does ncceflity operate in diftant 
countries in producing the fame inventions. 

The I ft figure in the tail piece is dreffed in its fagum. On the 
right is a veflel ftanding on two high legs or fupports. The figure 
fecms going to fling in what it holds in one hand : the other leans on 
fomething that rcfcrfibles an ear of corn. This probably is a rural 
deity of ibme barbarous nation. 

No. II. is a viftory treading with one foot on a globe : in one 
hand a mural crown ; in the other a palm branch. Beneath the 
crown, Vic. Aug. or ViEloria Augujii. Mr. Horjley^ who has en- 
graven this ftone, fuppofes it to belong to the emperor Commodus. 

No. III. is alfo engraven by the fame gentleman. The upper 
figure is that of a Sea Goat, a chimera ; the other he ftyles a Pegafus, 
and has given it more exaft reprefentation of wings than are found 
on the fculpture. 

Sept. 20. ^rofs the Eden to Carlijle, a pleafant city, furrounded with walls,* 

Carlisle. ^^^^ Chejler^ but they are very dirty, and kept in very bad repair. 
The caftle is antient, but makes a good appearance at a diftance : the 
view from it is fine, of rich meadows, at this time covered with 
thoufands of cattle, it being fair-day. The Eden here forms two 
branches, and infulates the ground ; over one is a bridge of four, 
over the other one of nine arches. There is befides a profpeft of a 
rich country, and a diftant view of Cold-fells^ Crofi-fells^ Skiddaw^ and 
other mountains. ^ 


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The cathedral* is very imperfeft, Cromwel having pulled down 
part to build barracks with the materials. There remains fome 
portion that was built in the Saxon times, with very maffy pillars and 
round arches. The reft is more modern, faid to have been built in 
the reign of Edward III. who had in one part an apartment to lodge 
in. The arches in this latter building are fliarp pointed : the Eaft 
window remarkably fine. 

The manufaftures of Carlifle are chiefly of printed linnens, for 
which near 3000 1. p^ annum is paid in duties. It is alfo noted 
for a great manufafture of whips, which employs numbers of 

Salmons appear in the Eden in numbers fo early as the months 
of December and Januarys and the London^ and even Newcaftle 
markets, are fuppHed with early fifli from this river : but it is re- 
markable, that they do not vifit the EJk in any quantity till Aprils 
notwithftanding the mouths of both thcfe waters are at a fmall dis- 
tance from each other. I omitted in its proper place an account of 
tYitNewcaftkh^tVYy therefore infert here the little I could collcft 
relating to it. The fifh. feldom appear in the Tyne till February : 
there are about 24 fiflicries on the river, befides a very confidcrable 
were, and the whole annual capture amounts to about 36,000 fifli. 
1 was informed that once the filh were brought from Berwick^ and 
cured zt Newcajile '^ but at prefent, notwithftanding all goes under 
the name of Newcaftle Salmon, very little is taken there, in compa- 
rifon of what is caught in the Tweed. 

• Begun by Valttr, deputy of thefc parts, under William ^us \ but the. new 
choir was not founded till about 1354. 



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The country near Carlijle confifts of fmall enclofures; but a little 
farther on, towards Penrith^ changes into coarfc downs. On the 
Eaft, at a diftance, are ridges of high hills running parallel to the 
road, with a good inclofed country in the intervening fpace. Above 
Penrith is a rich inclofed traft, mixed with hedge-row trees and 
woods. On the South- Weft, a profpeft of high and craggy moun- 
tains. After I left Lockerly^ Mature, as if exhaulled with her la- 
bors, in the lofty hills of Scotland^ feemed to have lain down and 
repofed herfelf for a confiderable fpace ; but hefe began to rife again 
. with allthe fublimity of ^?i^/>^ majcfty. 

Pbnrith. Penrith is an antient town, feated at the foot of a hill: is a: 

great thoroughfare for travellers •, but has little other trade, except 

Antibnt tanning and a fmall manufadlure of checks. In the church-yard i^ 
a monument of great antiquity, confifting of two ftonc pillars 
eleven feet fix inches high, and five in circumference in the lower 
part, which is rounded ; the upper is fquare, and tapers to a point : 
in the fquare part is feme fret- work, and the relievo of a crofs ; and 
on the interior fide of one is the faint reprefentation of fome animal. 
Both thcfe ftones are mortifed at their lower part into a round one : 
they are about fifteen feet afunder ; the fpace between them is in- 
clofed on each fide with two very large but thin femicircular ftones ; 
fo that there is left a walk between pillar and pillar of two feet in 
breadth. Two of thefe lefler ftones are plain, the other two have 
certain figures at prefent fcarce intelligible. 

Thefe ftones feem to have been monumental, and are evidently 
chriftian, as appears by the crofs on the capital : fable fays that 
they were to perpetuate the memory of Cefamus^ a hero of gigantic 
ftature, whofe body extended from ftone to ftone : but it is probable, 


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that the fpace marked by thefe columns contained fever^l bodies, 
or might have been a family fepulchre. I muft here obferve that 
fmcc the publication of the former editions cf this book I have had 
opportunity of re-examining thefe ftones, and comparing them 
with Doftor "Todd's figures engraven in my Xlllth plate ; and 
am convinced that they are entirely fidbitious ; and fuch is the 
opinion of fome gentlemen of the place whom I confulted on the 

Not far from thefe pillars is another called the Gianl's thumbs five 
feet eight inches high, with an expanded head perforated on both 
fides; from the middle the ftone rifcs again into a Icfler head 
rounded at top, but no part has a tendency to the figure of a crofs, 
being in no part mutilated ; fo that it is difficult to judge of the yfe 
or defign of this pillar *. 

The church is very neat: the galleries fupported by twenty Cavnca*; 
floncs, each ten feet four inches high, and four feet two in circum- 
ference. On one of the walls is this melancholy record of a pefti- 
lence that wafted the country in the latter end of the reign of Queen ^ 

Elizabeth: * 

A. D. M.DXCVIII ex gravi pefte quae regionibus hifcc incu- 
buit, obierunt apud Penrith 2260. Kendal 2500, Richmond 
2200. Carlijle iig6.f 


avortite vos et vivite. 

^ FiJi tab..iii» of the ift and 2d edition^* 

t It broke out in Carlijle Oa. 3d. That city in all probability was moch more 
popnlons than Ptnritbf bat being on the borders oiScotland^ no notice of any deaths 
was taken, except tfaofe in the city and places quite adjacent. 

Nn On 


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On confulting a very old regifter kept in this parifli it appcan 
that the plague raged here for fifteen months ; from the ^^^ Sepf 
1597 to 5*11 Jan. 1598. and that only 680 perfons were buried in 
rfie parifh during that time. It feems therefore probable that 
Penrith muft have been the centre of fomc particular diftrift, and 
that the numbers recorded on the wall muft comprehend all that 
died within that fpace. Penrith now contains about 2000 fouls. 
At a medium, 63 have died annually the laft ten years, or 630 in the 
whole. In the ten years preceding the peftilence there were only 
686 funerals 5 fo that there was no great difference between the 
number of inhabitants at that and the prefent time. Some centuries 
previous to this Penrith had another vifitation of the fame nature. 
When the Scots under the Earl of Douglas in 1380 made an inroad 
into Cumberlandy they furprized this place at the time of the fair *, 
and returned with immenfe booty ; but fuffered feverely in confe- 
quence, for they introduced into their country the plague con- 
trafted in this town, which fwept away one third of the inhabitants 
of Scotland f. 
Caitlb. The cattle is at the fkirts of the town, and now very ruinous. 

It appears not to have been of a high antiquity; for in a compro- 
mifc of certain differences between Henry III. and Alexander King 
of Scotland^ it was ftipulated that Henry fhould grant to Alexander 
200 librates of land in Northumberland or Cumberland^ if fo much 
of Henry^s land could be found in any of the places where no caftle 
was fituated •, and Penrith was part of this grant. Richard Duke 
Qf Gkmcefter^ afterwards Richard III. rcfidcd frequently at this 

• UfiUinfied. 4aS. t ^utbriii Hift. Sc9th HI. 123. 


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and cither was the founder, or repaired it greatly, for there is no 
mention of it before his time. The feignory of Penrith ♦ was 
part of the great eftate he had with his Dutchefs : by his refidencc 
here and his magnificent mode of living he gained great popularity 
in the North, and he feemed to depend greatly on the troops from 
that part, for he caufcd five thoufand to march from thence to 
London to fupport his coronation. 

The cattle was difmantled by Cronrivel^ but it does not appear in 
any hiftory to havQ fuftained a fiege- 

In this town lives Mifs Calvin of exquifite (kill and accuracy in 
painting of plants and flowers : a heaven-bom genius obfcurc and 
unknown ! 

Foil many a gem of pureft ray ferene. 
The dark unfathom'd caves of ocean bear : 
Foil many a flower is bom to blnfh anfeeut 
And wade its fweetnefs in the defert air. 

Crofs over the Eimot at Eamont bridge, and enter Sipt. tu 

Westmoreland. At a fmall diflance beyond the bridge, near 
the road fide is the circle called Arthur'^ round table, confiding of Arthur's aovN» 
a high dike of earth, and a deep fofs within, furrounding an area 
twenty-nine yards in diameter. There are two entrances exaftly 
oppofite to each other 5 which interrupt the ditch, in thofe parts 
filled to a level with the middle. Some fuppofe this to have been 
defigned for tilting matches, and that the champions entered at 
each opening. Perhaps that might have been the purpofe of it •, 
for the fizc forbids one to fuppofe it to be an encampment. 

• BncVs Lift tf Ricburd UI. 

N n 2 A little 

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Clifton Moor. 


A little to the North of this, on the fummit of a fmall hill, is 
Mayborougb^ a vaft circular dike of loofe ftones : the height and the 
diameter at the bottom is ftupendous : it Hopes on both fides, and is 
entirely formed of pebbles, fuch as are collefted out of rivers. 
There is an entrance on the Eaft fide leading into an area eighty- 
eight yards in diameter. Near the middle is an upright ftone nine 
feet eight inches high, and feventeen in circumference in the thickeft 
part. There had been three more placed fo as to form (with the 
other) a fquare. Four again fl:ood on the fides of the entrance, viz. 
one on each exterior corner •, and one on each interior ; but, except- 
ing that at prefent remaining, all the others have long fince been 
blafted to clear the ground. 

The ufe of this accumulation feems to have been the fame with 
that called Bryn-gwyn at 7rer Dryw in Anglefea *, a fupreme con- 
fiftory of druidical adminifl:ration> as the Britijh names import. 
That in Anglefea is conftrufted in the fame manner with this : but 
at prefent there arc no remains of columns in the interior part. 
Tradition is entirely filent about the origin of this place : nothing 
can be coHefted from the name, which is Saxon^ and given long after 
its conftruftion. 

Almoft oppofite to Mayborougbon the Cumberland ^id^ of the Eimot 
is a vaft cairn or tumulus, compofed of round ftones, and furrounded 
with large grit ftones of different fizes, fome a yard fquare ; which 
alUtogether form a circle fixty feet in diameter. 

Crofs the Lowtber or Loder^ and in about three or four miles 
diftance pzCs Clifivn Moor, where the Rebels in 1745 facrificed a few 
men to fave the reft of their army. Reach 

Mqmo. jbfifiutt 2d ed. 90* 


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I N S C O T L A N D, 47^ 

Sbap or Heppe^ a long village with the ruins of the priory of Pri^ Shap priory. 
monjlrenfian canons and its beautiful tower placed in a fcquefte|ie4 
bottom to the North- Weft of the road. The religious of this houfe 
were originally placed at Prejton in Kendal by Thomas fon oiGofpatric\ 
and afterwards removed to this valley, which in^old times was called 
the valley oi Mary M^gdalene^ and was granted to them by Rcfterf dt 
Veteripont in the thirteenth year of King John. 

On the common near the road fide about half a mile beyond th^ 
village are certain large circles, and ovals formed of fmall ftones : 
and parallel to the road commences a double row 6f granites of Rows op 'stomis* 
immenfe fizes, x:rofled at the end by another row, all placed at 
fome diftance from each other. This alley I may call it, extended 
once above a mile; paffing quite through the village : perfons now 
living remember to have feen fome ftones that formed part of the 
lines, but now blafted in order to clear the ground. The fpace be- 
tween the lines at the South end is eighty-eight feet : they converge- • 
towards each other, for near Shap the diftance decreafes toiifty-nine 
feet ; and it is probable that they met and concluded in a point 
forming a wedge; That this monument was Hanijb may be inferred 
from the cuftom of the Northern nation of arranging their record- 
ing ftones in forms that they feemed to determine ftiould be expref- 
five of certain events : thofe that were placed in a ftrait and long 
order commemorated the emulations of champions : fquares Ihewed 
cqueftrian conflifts : circles, the interments of families : wedge- 
fiiaped, a fortunate vidtoryf. Succefs might have attended the 
Northern invaders in this place, which gave rife to their long 

* OUms Magnus de Gent. Sepcentr. lib. i. c. iS: 

arrangement : 

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^78* A T O U R 

arrangement : the fall of fomc confanguineous heroes in the affcion 
caufed the grateful tribute of the ftoney circles. 

Pafs over Sbap fells, more black, dreary and melancholy than any 
of the Highland hills, being not only barren, but deftitute of every 
pifburefquc beauty. This gloomy fcene continues for fevcral 
miles : leave on the right the narrow valley of Long Sladak^ and at 
a diftance the mountain of Kenmere fell, famous for its flate 
quarries. The profped grows more chearful within a fmall diftance 
Kbvdal. Kendal, a large town, feated in a beautiful valley prettily 

cultivated, and watered by the river Kent. The principal ftreet 
is above a mile long, running North and South : the houfes old 
and irregular, moftly plaiftered. Yet the whole has an air of neatr 
nefs and induftry without the left oftentation of wealth ; none 
appear meanly poor, or infultingly rich. The number of inhabitants 
MhuvfkQTVKu. is about fcven thoufand ; chiefly engaged in manufafturcs of linfies, 
worfted ftockings woven and knit, and a coarfc fort of woollen 
cloth called cottons^ fent to Glafgow^ and from thence to Virginia 
for the ufc of the Negroes. The carding and the frizing mills, the 
rafping and cutting of logwood by different machines are well worth 
feeing : and the tenter fells all round the town, where the cloth is 
ftretched, fhew the extent of the manufadures, which employ 
great quantities of wool from Scotland and Durham. 

Yet the place labors under great difadvantages : the country near 
it yields no corn except oats : the fuel is in general peat ; for the 
coals being brought from Wigan and other diftant places, coft nine- 
teen (hillings per tun : yet notwithftanding, it has flourilhed in ma- 
nufaftures from the time of Richard the Second to the prefent : 


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Camden honors it with this encomium, Lanificii Gloria^ et Induftria 

The church is large, divided into five ides. The moft remarkable 
tomb is one in the altar form of black marble, with various arms on 
the fide and end, fuppofed to be that of William Parr^ anceftor of 
fVilliam Parr Marquifs oi Northampton^ and his fitter Queen Catbe^ 
rincy wife to Henry VIII. 

The ruins of the caftle are on the fummit of a round hill on the 
Eaft fide of the town. It is of great antiquity ; but the founder is 
not known. It appears to me to have been built on an artificial 
mount raifed on the top of the hill, with a deep fofle round the bafe. 
The barony of Kendal was granted by fVitliam the Conqueror to 
Ivo de ^akboisy one of his followers, whofe defcendants frequently 
refided in the caftle. From them it pafl!ed by marriage to the 
RoJfeSy and from them to the Parrs : and when in their poffeflion 
Catherine afterwards Queen of England was bom here ; a lady who 
had the good fortune to defcend to the grave with her head, in all 
probability merely by outliving her tyrant. It does not appear 
that this caftle fuftained any fiege: but in 11 74 xht Scots^ under 
Duncan Earl of Fife^ entered and plundered the town,, broke open 
the churches, put all the inhabitants to the fword Iparing neither 

Take a very pleafant walk to Water-Crook^ a mile diftant, along .Watir-Crook i 
the fides of the Ken. This had been the Concangium of the Notitia^ 
a ftation on the Eaft fide of the river, whofe veftiges are almoft 
worn away by the plough. Altars, coins, and other antiquities 


* HoUBfiidU Cbr9M. 9U 


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28o A TOUR 

hare been found here. I faw in the walls of the barn of the farm 
houfe, the monumental infcription preferved by Mr. Horfely^ p. 300. 
fuppofcd by him to have been in memory of two freed-men 5 and 
that there was added the penalty of a fine on any who prefumed to 
bury in that fepulchre. Here is preferved an altar un-infcribed, 
but ornamented with beautiful feftoons : and I alfo faw the remains 
of the ftatue fuppofed of Bacchus or Silenus. 

Crofs the river, and walk over fome fine meadows. Pafs by fome 
large round hillocks, one appearing artificial : afcend to gain the 
heights above the town : leave below me near the (kirts a well called 
tht Ancborite\ probably from fome hermitage once in its neighbor- 
hood. Reach CaJiUbow hill, a great artificial mount above the 
town, and oppofite to the caftle. The fummit is flat : juft within 
its verge is a circular ditch \ and another tranfverfe, probably the 
place of the foundation of a tower. Round the bafe is a deep fo(s 
and high dike, and on the Eaft fide of the dike two baftions to 
give it additional ftrength. Immediately below is a fpot called 
,hattle place^ but tradition does not preferve the reafon of the 

Crofs the Kmy and in an hour and a half. South oi Burton^ enter 
Lawcaiter. Lancashire. Reach its capital, Lancajier^ a large and well-built 
town, feated on the Lune^ a river navigable for fliips of 250 tuns as 
high as the bridge. The oiftom-houfc is a fmall but moft elegant 
building, with a portico fupported by four ionic pillars, on a 
bc;autiful plain pediment. There is a double flight of fteps, a ruftic 
furbafe and coins 5 a work that docs much credit to Mr. GiUow^ the 
archited, an inhabitant of this town. 

The church is feated on an eminence, and commands an exten- 


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five bvrt Mt t pleftfing vicv. The csiftk is entic^^. th^ ciHirts of 
jiiftice aw bcW in ii ^ ^nd it is 9HS0 the <;owMy j^l Th« fiwrt iii 
very ha^diboir, confifts of two large aiRgular tQwerSj, witH ^ t^aad^ 
fome gateway between. 

Eleven miles farther is the village of Garftang^ feated on a fertile 
plain, bounded on the Eaft by the fellsy on the Weft by PelUng 
mofs, which formerly made an eruption like that of Solway. The 
adjacent country is famous for producing the fineft cattle in all 
the county. A gentleman in that neighborhood has refufcd 30 
guineas for a three year old cow : calves of a month old have been 
fold for 10 : and bulls from 70 to 100 guineas, which have after- 
wards been hired out for the feafon for 30 ; fo notwithftanding his 
misfortune, well might- honeft Barnaby celebrate the cattle of this 

Veni GafftoMg ubi natu 
Sunt Armenta fronte lata. 
Veni Garftangi obi male 
IntraDs forom beftiale. 
Forte vacdllando vica 
Hue ec iliac com amico. 
In Javencae dorfom roi 
Cajas corna Icfas foL 

A little to the Eaft is a ruined tower, the remains of Grenehaugb 
caftle, built, as Camden fuppofes, by "Thomas Stanly firft Earl of 
Derhyy to proteft himfclf from the outlawed nobility, whofe cftatcs 
had been granted him by Htnry VII. 

O o Haftened 

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aSa A TOUR, &c; 

Stn.zz* Haftened through Pr^ew, ff^gan^ ff^arringt^j znd Cbifter^ and 

finiihed my journey with a rapture of which no fond parent can be 
ignorant, that of being again reftored to two innocent prattlers after 
an abfcnce equally regretted by all parties. 

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P P E N D I X. 



By James Farquharson, Efq; of Invercauld. 

IT is generally believed that there are two kinds of fir trees, 
the produce of Scotland^ viz. the red or refinous large trees, 
of a fine grain, and hard folid wood : the other, a white wood- 
ed fir with a much fmaller proportion of refin in it, of a coarfer 
grain, and a foft fpongy nature, never comes to fuch a fize, and 
much more liable to decay. At firft appearance, this would readi- 
ly denote two diftinft fpecies, but I am convinced that all the trees 
in Scotland^ under the denomination of Scotch fir, are the fame; and 
that the difierence of the quality of the wood, and fize of the trees, 

O 2 is 

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18 certainly owing to circumftances, fuch as the climate, fittiatioiT^ 
and foil they grow in. Thefe fineft fir trees^ appear in the moft 
niountainoas parts of the Highlands of Scotland^ in glens or on fides 
of hills generally lying to a Northerly afped:, and the foil of a hard 
gravelly confiftence, being the natural produce of thefe places ; the 
winged feeds are fcattered in quantities by the winds, from the cones 
of the adjacent trees,, which expand in April and A&y, with the 
heat of the fun •, thefe feedlings when young, rife extremely clofc 
together, this makes them grow ftraight, and free from fide branches 
of any fize,. to the height of 50 or 60 feet before they acquire 
the diameter of a foot : even in this progrefe to height, they arc- 
very flow,, occafioncd by the pooroefs of the foil,, and the numbers 
on a fmall furface, which I may fay makes them in a conftant (late 
of war for their fcanty nourilhment, the ftronger and tailed by de^ 
grees overtopping the weaker,^ and when the winds blow they lalh* 
againft one another, this aflifts. in beating off any horizontal branches, 
that might damage the timber with knots, as well as by degrees 
crufties the overtopped trees* In fuch ftate of hoftility they conti- 
nue ftruggling until the matter trees acquire fome fpace around 
them ; then they begin to (hoot out in a more bu(hy manner at the 
top, gradually lofing their fpiral form, increafing afterwards more- 
in fize of body then height, fome acquiring four feet diameter, and. 
above fixty feet of height to the branches fit for the fineft deal 
board. The growth is ftill -extremely flow, as is plainly proved 
by the fmallnefs of the grain of the wood^ which appears diftindly 
in circles, from the centre to the bark. Upon cutting a tree overclolc 
at the root, I can venture to point out the exadt age, which in thefe 
old firs comes to an. amazingnumber of years. Ilately pitched up* 


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on a tree of two feet and a half diameter, as this is near the fizc of 
a planted fir of fifty years of age mentioned, and I counted exaftly 
two hundred and fourteen circles or coats, which makes this natural 
fir above four times the age of the planted one. Now as to planted 
firs, thefe are raifed firft in drefled ground from the feed, where they 
ftand two feafons or more, then are planted out in the ground they 
are to continue in at regular diftanccs, have a clear circumference 
pound them for extending both roots and branches ; the one gives 
too quick nouriftiment to the tree which flioots out in luxuriant 
growths, and the other allows many of the branches to Ipread hori- 
zontally,, fpoiling the timber with knots ; befides, this quick growth 
occafions thefe thick yearly circular coats of wood, which form a 
coarfe grain, of a fpongy foft nature. The juices never after ripea 
into a proportional quantity their refinous prefervative balm : fo 
that the plantations decay before the wood acquires age, at a valu- 
able fize, and the timber when ufed in work has neither ftrength, 
beauty,, nor duration. I believe the climate has likewife a great 
fhare in forming the nature of the bcft wood, which I account for 
in the following manner. The moft mountainous parts of the^ 
Highlands, particularly the Northerly hanging fituations, where 
thefe fine fir trees are, have a much (horter time of vegetation than 
a more Southerly expofure,. or the lower open countries, being 
fliaded by high hills from the rays of the fun even at mid-day for 
months together, fo that with regard to other vegetables nature 
vifibly continues longer in a torpid ftatc there than in other places 
of the fame latitude. This dead ftate of nature for fo long a time 
yearly appears to me neceflary to form the ftrength and health of 
this particular fpecies of timber. No doubt they may at firft fhow 


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286 A P P E N D 1 X; 

a gratefulnefs for better foil and more fun by (hooting out fponta^ 
neoufly, but if the plant or tree is fo altered by this luxury that it 
cannot attain any degree of perfeftion fit for the purpofes intended, 
the attempt certainly proves in vain. 

From what is faid above, it is not at all my intention to difluadc 
from planting Scotch iBr, but to encourage thofe that have the pro- 
per foil and fituation to do fo, being of opinion that where thefc 
circumftances agree, and there, planting not in lines, but irregularly 
and thicker than common, the trees will come to be of equal fize 
and value with the natural ones. In confidence of this, I have 
planted feveral millions on the fides of hills out of reach of feed 
jfrom the natural firs. 


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Of ELGIN and the shire of MURRAY. 

Bx the Rev. Mr. Shaw, Minifter of Elgin. 

THE parifti of Elgin can afFord little matter for anfwering Mr. 
Pennanf^ quaeries, and therefore I extend my view thro' the 
whole province or country of Murray^ extending by the coaft from 
the river of Spey to the Eaft, to the river of Beaufy to the Weft, 
which is the boundary of the province of Rofs: and extending to the 
South- Weft as far as the North end of Locb-Locbyy and comprehend- 
ing the countries of Strathfpey^ Badenoch^ Stratbem^ Strath-nairh^ 
and Strath-nerick^ all which were the feats of the antient Moravienfes. 
I fhall make my anfwers to the quaerics in order, and advance no- 
thing but what confifts with my perfonal knowledge, or for which 
I have unqueftionable authority. 

I. This province is naturally divided by the rivers of Spey^ Lojfy^ 
Findemj Naintj Nefsj and Beaufy. The river of Spey rifing on the 
borders of Locbaber is more than fixty Scotch miles, or a hundred 


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EngUJh in length, but too rapid to be navigable. Upon tins river 
oTcat floats of fir and birch wood are carried down to the firth ; the 
float is guided by a man fitting in a Couracby of which Solinus^ Cap. 
22. fays of the Irijh^ ** Navigof^i vimimis dvms^ quos circumdant am- 
bitione tergorum hubukrumy^ a fhort but exaft defcription of the Gw- 
rach. It is in fhape oval, about four feet long and three broad, a 
fmall keel from head to ftern, a few ribs crofs the keel, and a ring of 
pliable wood round the lip of it, the whole covered with the rough 
hide of an ox or a horfe. The rower fits on a tranfverfe feat in 
the middle, and holds in his hand a rope, the end of which is tied 
to the float, and with the other hand he manages a paddle, and keeps 
the float in deep water and brings it to fliore when he pleaies. The 
rivers of Loffey^ Findem and Nairn have nothing remarkable in them, 
but the river of Nefs is obfervable on the following accounts, viz. 
It runs from Locb-Nefsj a lake 23 miles long, and from 2 to 3 broad; 
this Loch ia fed by a river running from Locb-Eachy into which a 
river falls from Locb-Garriij into which a river enters from Locb^ 
^eicb : Locb-Ne/s and the river running from it never freeze, but 
the water is warm in the keenefl: froft. There are many other lakes 
in this province, of which one called the lake Dundelcback is re- 
markable : the inhabitants of the neighborhood told me that this 
^ lake is never covered with ice before the n[K)nth of January ^ but in 

that month and February one night's ftrong frofl: covers it all over 
with ice : this lake fl:ands in the parifli of DurriSy within two miles 
M>i Locb'Nefs. On the Eaft fide of Locb-Nefiy a large mile above 
the Loch, is the water fall of Fober^ where the river Feacb Lnt falls 
over a llccp rock about 80 feet in height ; and the water breaking 
upon the fhclv^es^ rarifies like a fog. In this province are feveral 


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thalybeat tmneral fprings* a3 at Finland in Lambride pariih^ a^ 
jiucbterblare in Butbel parifli, at Relugos in Edenkeefy parifh, at 
Mureiown in Invenufs parifh. 

II • In the parifli of Drainie there is a large cave open to the fea^ 
of a confidcrahle length, breadth ^nd height. There are nuny na^ 
tural caves in the hills, within which hunters, herds and thieves 
Cake flicker in time of fl:orm : ther^ is an artificial cave in the lands 
of Raits in Badeuoch^ in whiph fugitives and thipves. were wont to 
refl *, but it is now demoliflied in part. Of the mountains in this 
province I fliall name but two or three : the Camgorm in Strathfpgi 
is remarkable for its heighi;, an4 for the ftopes found upon it ; I 
have feen thefc ftoncs of blue, gre^n, yellow, apd anibpr colors ; • 

fomc Ip. large as to majce big fm^ff- boxes or foiall cups ^ Ippie of a 
hexagonal or pentagonal figure, and tapering to a point ^t eact^ 
end. Thefc are 90w well known to the curious, an4 to jewellers^ 
Another mountain is Benalar in Badenocby which I imagine is the 
highefl: ground in Scotland^ for waters running from it fall into the 
fea at Dundee^ at Inverkchy^ and at Garmocb in Murraj/i. On the 
Weft fide of Locb-Nefs there is a hill called Meafuarvofuy : Mr. 
Cordon the geographer wjas impofcd upon by bei^g told that it 
is two miles perpendicular above the lake, and that on the top of it^ 
there is a fmall lake which could never be founded^ and communi- 
cates with Locb'Nifs: but I can aflure you it is not near one 
mile above the Loch, an4 there is no fuch lake oa the top of ic^ 
For puSturefque fcenes, wojrth drawing, I know none except Loch* 
Nefs^ with the rocks, woods, cafcades of rills of water, and ipm^ 
plots of cora la^d, on both fides of the Lochi which make a 4er 

P p lightfid 

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lightful fcene to one failing the Loch in the King's Yacht, or in a 

III. No earthquake, that I can learn, was ever felt in this province. 
No whirlwind any way remarkable : there are feveral echoes, but 
fcarcely worth the mentioning. About the year 1733 or 4, flafties of 
lightning fo ftruck the houfe of Innes near Elgin, as by entering in- 
to crevifcs in the wall to drive out fome big ftones, likewife to rent 
a confiderable long vault, and to tofs a large cap-ftone above forty 
yards from the houfe, as the late Sir Harry Innes of that ilk told 

IV. The common difeafes in our country are fevers, rheums, 
cold, fcrofula, hyfteric and hypocondriac j bites of ferpents, and mad 
dogs. Our natural phyficians cure fevers, by making the patient 
drink plentifully of barley water or wangrefs, and when the fever 
rifcs high the patient drinks a large draught of cold water which 
brings out a profufe fweat, that ends in a crifis. For rheums, they 
twice a-day bath the part affcftcd, pouring cold water upon it, and 
after it is dried, rubbing it till it is warm, and covering it with plaid- 
ing or flannel. For colds, they keep bed for two days, drinking 
warm, and if they fweat not, they take the cold bath in a river or 
brook, which produces fweat. The fcrofula they find incurable, 
but in young perfons, by wafliing often with lime water, it cures in 
a few years. Hyfterics and hypocondriacs, in my opinion, are the 
cfFcfts of tea, coffee, floth and lazinefs, but thefe difeafcs are never 
known in our highlands. When one is bit by a ferpent or fnake, if 
he can reach the wound, he fucks the blood, covers the wound, 
and often foments the part wounded, and members round jt, with 
a dccodion of the buds and leaves of afk trees. When one is bit 


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by a mad dog, as often happens in the highlands, he with a razor 
immediately cuts out the flcfli of the part wounded, fucks the blood^ 
in plenty, and covers the wound with a handful of cobwebs : or if 
he has not courage to cut out the fleih, and thereby to prevent the 
poifon from mixing with the blood, he caufes the wound to be well fuck- 
ed, and then foments it with warm oil or melted butter. I have feen 
thefe cures performed with remarkable fuccefs. We have had, fifty 
years ago, a terrible difeafe called the Civans^ which broke out into 
blotches in feveral parts of the body, and often turned into a gan- 
grene in the face : this difeafe was brought by the military returning 
from FlanderSj and was cured only by a plentiful falivation with 
mercury, but now we are happily free from it. 

V. In the parilh of Elgin^ William Calancb a farmer died about 
the year 2740, at the age of about 119 years ; we have had many 
who lived to an 100 years ; we have fome who have two thumbs on 
each hand, or two great toes on each foot. 

VI. and VII. In this town of Elgin the number of inhabitants 
increafes, occafioned by ftrangers living in the borough and many 
poor people coming from the country into it. But in the parifti to 
landward the number appears to decreafe, by reafon of tenants 
taking up larger farms than formerly : the number now is above 

VlII. The corns raifed in this province are wheat, barley, oats, 
peas and beans, and rye. Of thefe in good years we have enough 
to ferve the country, and to export above 20,000 bolls, befides 
ferving the Highland countries. Our manufadures arc linnen in 
confiderable quantities, wool and common ftufFs, and now at Imer^ 

Pp 2 nefi 


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nefs z flourilhing fail manufaftor}', and a ropdy. Our filhcry fs 
confiderable, for of white or fea fifli there is great plenty to ferve 
the country and towns, and fomctimes to export a little. And our 
falmon on the rivers of Spey^ Fmdemy Nefs, and Biaufyy ferves the 
towns and country, and we export annually to the value of about 
12,000 1. 

IX. Near the frith, the farmers manure with fea ware or weeds, 
^hich produces richly -, in other parts they ufe marie, lime, dung 
of cattle, and in the Highlands tathing^ i. e. keeping their cattle in 
fummer and autumn within pinfolds on barren or reftcd ground^ 
that by their dung they may enrich the foil ; and in many parts 
they ufe green earth mixed with the dung of black cattle and 

X. We cultivate fome hemp, much flax, of which we not only 
make linnen for home confumption,,and have three bleaching fields 
within the province^ befxdes private bleaching, but we fell great 
quantities of linnen yarn to the merchants of Gfajgow and others. Wc 
likewife cultivate potatoes in great plenty to ferve the country. 

Xf . From the Lowlands of the province few or no cattle are fenc 
out of the country, but from the highland glens and valleys, feveral 
hundreds of black cattle, fomehorfcs, but no fwine, are annually 
fold into England and the Southern counties of Scotland. 

Xll. There are in this province feveral fmall mounts or Tnofes of 
which I cannot determine whether any of them be artificial or not • 
they generally ftand about 40 paces one from another ; I fliall 
name only the folldwing, viz. Near the town of Elgin are two little 
mounts called the fhooting buts, and two of the fame kind arc near 
the Kirk of PeUy^ I am inclined to think, that before the inventi- 

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Dn of fire arms, thefe were marks for (hooting at with bows and ar* 
rows : but that in time of Druidifm^ they were the feats on which 
the Druids met to determine queftions in law and property ; and 
they are in the Galic language called Tomavoed^ i. e. the Court hill ; 
and in the South they are called Laws^ as North Berwick Lawy 
Largo LaWy &c. I may add the Omnis terra or Mote hill at Scoon. 
We have few military entrenchments worth the mentioning, as the 
Romans encamped little, if at all, fo far North. Druidical circles 
have been very frequent in this province. The ftones were gene- 
rally about four feet in length, and eighteen inches in breadth : for 
the moft part the ftones are removed by the country people, and 
I Ihall name but one or two, viz. At Stowr/ field near Invemefs^. 
there was a large circle about thirty feet diameter, fome of the ftones 
as yet ftand. In Durris at the North end of Loch- Nefs is a Druid 
temple of three concentric circles: in all of thefe druidical circles,, 
theie was an altar ftone at the centre, but that ^t Durris is taken 
away, and near the centre is a hollowed ftone^ which either was a. 
laver to wafti in, or a bafon to receive the blood of the facrifice. 
Befides circles, there were many Druidical cairns in this country,, 
on which at their folemn feftivals, they offered their facrifices j thefe 
cah-ns 'were about five feet high, and about thirty feet in circumfer- 
ence, and hedged around with ftones pitted in the earth to prevent 
the falling out of the ftones of the cairn : fuch a cairn ftands in the 
parifii of AlveSy four miles from Elgin ; another in the parifh of 
JBirneyj two miles from that town ; and two or three near Avemore^. 
in Che parifti of Duthel in Straihfpey. From thde circles and cairns 
many churches are to this day called Clachan, i. c. a CoUeftion. 
€f Stones-, and as they ftood in time of Druidifm in groves and 



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woods, a church in JVaks was called Lhan, probably from Lhum 
a grove. There is within a half-mile to the Eaft of the town of 
Forres^ an obeliflc called Sevens'*^ (tone. The height of it cannot 
now with certainty be known, it is faid to be twelve feet funk in 
the corn field. When fome years ago it was likely to fall, the Coun- 
tefs of Murray caufed it to be ercfted, and much funk to prevent 
falling : it is about 23 feet above ground, about 4 feet broad : 
what is above ground is vifibly divided into feven parts, >yhereof 
the loweft is almoft hid by the ftones fupporting it •, the fecond di- 
vifion contains many figures, but much defaced ; in the third com- 
partment, are figures of men, and fome of beads with human 
heads ; the fourth contains enfigns and military weapons ; and in 
the fifth, fixth and fevcnth, the figures are fcarce difcernible : on 
the rcverfe, there is a crofs, beneath which arc two human figures 
of a gothic form : this feems to be a monument of a battle fought 
in that place, by K. Malcolm the II. of Scotland againft the Danes^ 
about the year 1008. There are about two or three obelifks of 6 
or 7 feet high below the Kirk of yilveSy probably as monuments 
of Ikirmilhcs and the burying of men of fome figure. 

XIII. In this province we had two bifhopricks, one abby, three 
priories, one praeceptory, and feveral convents. The firft bifliop- 
rick was that of Murtblack^ now MortUcby crefted by K. Male. II. 
An. I GIG, when he had given a total defeat to the Danes in that 
valley : the diocefe confifted only of three parifhes, and after three 
biihops had ferved there it was tranflated to Aberdeen^ An. 1142, 
As an account of it will be fully given by others, I infift not fur- 

The fecond biihoprick was that oi Murrey. In the fourth ceni- 


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tury the bilhop afFefted a pre-eminence over his fellow prefbyters, 
and an equality in many things to fovereign princes : as princes had 
their thrones, were crowned, wore crowns, had their palaces, their 
mmifters of ftate, their privy council, and their fubjefts 5 fo bifhops 
had a folium, a confecration, a mitre, palaces, dignified clergy, 
chapter, and inferior clergy. The epifcopal bilhoprick of Murrayy 
was in my opinion erefted by K. Alex^ L v and the bifhops of it 
were, in fucceflion, 

(i.) Gregoriusj who is a witncfe in a charter of K. Dav. I. to. 
DumfermlinCy confirming K. jHexander^s charter to that abby j there 
he is called Gregorius Moravienfis Epifcopus : and in the foundatioa 
charter of the priory of Scboon^ An. 1115^ Gregorius Epi/ccpus is a 
witnefs, who probably was the fame with the formerly mentioned. 

(2.) William was made apoftolic legate-^. 1159, ^^^ died 1162.. 
I find not what time he was confecrated. 

(3.) FeliXy is a witnefs in a charter by K. William^ WiUelmofiUo 
fre/ketiy de terris^ de Strabkck^ Rofoily Injhkele^ Duffus Macbare^ it 
Kintray. He died about An. 1 1 70.. 

(4.) Simeon de Toney^ Monk of Mdrofe^ eleded 1 17X9 and died 
An. 1 184, he was buried in Bimey. 

(5.) Andrewy confecrated ^/i. 1 184,, and died 11 85. 

(6.) Richard^ confecrated Idi. Mdrliij An. 11 87, by Hugo bifhop 
of St. Andrew^ Sj and died An. 1203, ^^^ was buried in Spynie. 

(7.) SriciuSj brother of William lord of Douglas^ and .prior of 
LeJfmabegOy eleded An. 1203, and died^. 1222,. and was buried at 
Spynie. He had reprefented to the pope that the former bifhops 
had no fixed fee, or cathedral, fome refiding at Bimeyy fome at 
Kinmdary and fome at Spynie \ and he obtained that Spynie fhould 



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be the bilhop^s fee : he appointed the dignified clergy and cwions, 
and founded a college of canons, eight in number. 

(8.) Andrew (fon of JVtlliam Murray o{ Duffus) Dean of Murrayy 
confecratcd An. 1223. He founded the cathedral church at Elgin^ 
added 14 canons to the college, and afligned manfes and prebends 
for them, and for the dignified clergy, and died An. 1242, 

Here it will be proper to give fome account of the cathedral 
church at Elginj for it does not appear that Briceus built any church 
at Spynie. Bifhop Andrew was not pleafed with the fituation of 
Sjynie for a cathedral, and therefore petitioned the pope that becaufc 
of the diftance from the burgh of Elgin^ which would divert the 
canons from their facrcd funftions to go and buy provifions in the 
burgh, that he might allow the cathedral to be tranflatcd to the 
Ecckfta fanSa Trinitatis p'ope Elgin : Pope Honorius granted his re- 
<jueft, and by his bull dated 4*>. Idt^. Aprilis 1224 empowered the 
Bilhop of Catbnefs^ and the Dean of Rofemariy^ to make the dcfircd 
tranflation. Thefe met at the place defired, on the 14 of the kalends 
oi Augufty An. 1224: and finding it ** in commodum EccUJide^* 
<ieclarcd the church of the holy Trinity to be the cathedral church 
of the diocefe of Murray in all times coming : it is faid that bilhop 
Andrew laid the foundation ftone of the church on the fame day 
above-mentioned, but it does not appear what the form or dimcn- 
fions of that firft church were. 

(9.) &>w^ Dean oi Murray fucceeded and died 1252, and was 
buried in the choir of the cathedral near to bifhop Andrew. 

(10.) Archibald Dean oi Murray^ confecrated ^». 1253, and died 
December 5th, An. 1298, and was buried in the choir. This bifhop 
liaving no palace built one at KinneJar^ and lived th^e. In kis 


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time TFilliam Earl of Rofs having done great harm to the parfon of 
Petty y was obliged to do pennance, and for reparation gave the landi 
oiCatboU in Rofs to the bifhops of Ahtrrty in perpetuum. 

( 1 1 .) David Murrt^ confecrated at Avignon in France ^ by Bonef^ct 
VIII. anno 1^99, and died January 20th, anno 1325. 

(12.) John Pilnore^ confecrated 3^ Kal. JfriJiSy amo 1326, and 
died at Sfynie on Mkhaelmas eve, i362, 

(13.) Alexander Bar, Doffor decreforumj confecrated by UrbM V, 
An. 1 362 J died at Sfynie, May 1397. In his time, viz. A)u J 390, 
Alexander Stewart (fon of king Robert 11.) Lord Badenoch^ commonly 
called the fFolf o£ Badenosb^ keeping violent poflollion of the bifhop's 
lands, in that country, was excommunicated in 4^ntment, in the 
Bionth of M^y, An. 1390. He with his followers burnt the to^^n of 
Forres, with the choir, of that church, and the Arch-Deacon's 
houfe ; and in Jtme that year burnt the town of Elginj the 
church of 5/. Gdles, the hofpital of Maifon-Bieu, rfie cathedral 
church, with eighteen houfes of the canons in. the €ollege of Elgin. 
For this he was made to do pennance, and upon his humble fubmi(^ 
fion, he was abfolved by Walter ^rail bifliop of 5/. Andrews, in 
the black-friars church of Perth (being firft received at 4:he door, 
barefoot, and in fackcldth, and again before the high altar in pre- 
fenoe of the king and his nobles) on condition that he would m?kc 
full reparatbn to the bifhop and church of Murray, and obtain ab- 
fokition from the Pope. Bifliop Bar began the rebuilding of the 
chAurdi, and every canon contributed to it, as did every parifh in 

(14.) William Spynie, Chanter of Aforr*^, D. I. C. confecrated at 
Avignon bf IknediS^c IX. Sept. ijtb, 1397, and died At^g. ^oth, 

Q^ q An. 


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An. 1406. He carried on the reparation of the cathedral, but the 
troubles of the times caufed it to make flow advances. On July 3, 
An. 1402, Alexander III. fon of the Lord of the Ifles, plundered 
Elgin^ burnt many houfes, and fpoiled the houfes of the canons : 
he was excommunicated, and offered a fum of gold, as did every 
one of his captains, and he received abfblution : this money 
was applied for erefting a crofs and a bell in that part of the canonry 
which lies next the bridge of JE^/»» 

(15.) John Innes^ Parfon oi DuffuSy Archdeacon oiCathnefs^ and 
L. L. D. was confccrated by Benediil the XIII. Jan. 23d. An. 1406,^ 
and ditd April 2 sthy An. 14 14, and was buried in his own ifle in 
the cathedral, where his ftatue at large ftill remains with this 
infcription, ** Hie Jace^ reverendus in Chrijlo Pater 6? Dominus 
" D. Joannes Innes de Innes, bujus ecclefia Epifcopus^ qui boa 
** notabile opus incepit^ tt per Septennium adificavit'' He built that 
ifle and a part of the great fteeple or tower. After his death, the 
chapter met and all were fworn that on whomfoever the lot fliould 
fall to be bifliop,. he fliould annually apply one third of his revenues, 
until the building of the cathedral fliould be finiflied. 

(16.) Hemy Leigbiony parfon of jD«^«j, and L. L. D. was con- 
fccrated in Valentia by Benedia XIII. Marcb 8th, An. 141 5 : he 
diligently carried on the building, and finiflied the great tower,. 
and was tranflated to Aberdeen^ An. 1425. The cathedral church, 
having been completely finiflied in the time of this bifliop, I fliall 
here defcribc that edifice, which was all in the gothic form of archi- 
tefture. It fl:ood due Eafl: and Wefl:, in the form of a paflion or 
Jerufalem crofs : the length of it 264 feet : the breadth 35 feet : 
the length of the traverfe 1 14 feet. The church was ornamented 


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with five towers, whereof two parallel towers flood on the Weft 
end, one in the middle, and two at the Eaft end : the two Weft 
towers ftand entire in the ftone work, and are each 84 feet high : 
what the height of the fpires was I do not f^nd -, probably they were 
of wood, and fell down long fince. The great tower in the centre 
of the nave flood on two arched pillars croffing at top, and was, in- 
eluding the fpires, 198 feet in height: the two turrets in the Eaft 
e«d are ftill entire, and each has a winding ftair-cafe leading to a 
channel or paffage in the walls round the whole church. The height 
of the fide walls is 36 feet. The great entry was betwixt the two 
towers in the Weft end : this gate is a concave arch, 24 feet broad 
in bafe, and 24 in height, terminating in a Iharp angle : on each fide 
of the valves in the fweep of the arch are 8 round, and 8 fluted pi- 
lafters, 64. feet high, adorned with a chapiter, from which arife 16 
pilafters that meet in the key of the arch. Each valve of the door 
was 5 feet broad, and about 10 feet high. To yield light to this 
large building, befides the great windows in the porticos, and a row 
of windows in the wall above, each 6 feet high, there was above the 
gate a window of an acute angled arch 19 feet broad in bafe, and 
27 in height : and in the Eaft end between the turrets, a row of 
five parallel windows each 2 feet broad and 10 high : above thefc 
five more each 7 feet high, and over thefe a circular window near 
10 feet diameter : the grand gate, the windows, the pillars, the 
projefting table, pcdeftals, cordons, are adorned with foliage, 
grapes, and other carvings. The traverfe, in length as above, feems 
to have been built by the families of Dunbar and InneSj for the 
North part of it is called the Dunbar's ifle, and the South part the 

Jnncs* ifle. ^, 

Q^q 2 The 

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A P P £ K D t X. 

The chapter k)Ufe, irt V^Kich tht bifliop^is privy council met, 

ftands on the North fide of the choir : it is a curious piece of 

architcftuiie cortiitiunicatihg with the choir by a vaulted Vt^ftry. 

The hoilfe is m exia oftiigOh, 34 f^et high, and thfe diagonal 

breadth within walk ^7 feet: it fe ■alAiOft a tube arched dhd Va\ilted 

at top, and the ,whote arched roof fupported by one pillar m the 

centre of the houfe. Arched pillirs from every angle tJerWiinited 

in the grand pilian^ >^hich is 9 feet in circuinferehce, crufted over 

Mrith 16 pilafters^ and 24 f<^t high : adorned with a chapiter from 

which ^rife rownd pillars that fpreiad along the roOf, and join at top; 

and rotmd the chkpiter ai^ engrWen the arms of feveral bifhops. 

There is a large Window in each of feven fides, the eighth fidexrOm- 

municating, a^ wai faid, with the choir; and in the North w^l are five 

ftalls rut m nrtches for the biftifop^s mmifters of fl:ate, viz. the dean, 

chapter, archdeacon, chancellor, ahdtreafurer, the Dean's Stall rz\kd 

a ftep higher thxn the other four. This ftrndbure of the cathedral 

came to decay in the manner following, viz. The Regent Earl of 

'Murrirjf bemg obliged to levy fome forces, and being ftraitned in 

hroney, aippointed by his privy council February 14, 1567, 8, the 

flieriffs of Jbirde^ and Mirray^ with Other gentlemen, to take the 

lead, thatch or covering off the cathedrals oi Aberdeen atnd Murrayy, 

and to fell it for paying the trOops, which Ivas done, and fhipped. 

i6t^Hdla)fd\ bdt the fhip foon after launched in the fea, funk with 

the lead, ^hich it is thought was done by a fuperfl:itious Roman ca* 

tholic, who w^ captain of it. Of this wliole edifice, the chapter 

hoUfe, the Avails of the choir, the Weftern fteeples, and the 

Eaftern turrets remain as yet entire, but the fide walls of the 

nave and the traverfe are moft part fallen, and P^tf« 5ir^tfy, 


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An. ^^\l^ the great tower or fteeple in the mtddk feii from the 

The cathedral ftood within the precind of the college, near the 
river fide of L^^; this precinA was walled round with a ftrong 
ftofie wall, and was about 1000 yards m ciroianfcrence, a part of 
the walls ftill remains entire^ it had four gates, every one of whicfa 
|>robably had (^ is apparent the Eaftern had) an iron gate, a port- ^ 

cuUis, and a porter's lodge ; within the precincSt the dignified <:tergy 
and aH the canons had houfes and gardens, and without the precinft, 
towards the town of Elgin^ there was a ftnall burrow with a crols, 
where the church nien purcbafed their provifions. The bifhop's 
palace ftood at Spyme^ a large mile from Elgin : when it ftood entire, 
it was the moft ftately I have feen in any diocefc in Scotland. The 
jwea of the buildings was an oblong fquare of 60 yards ; in the 
South- Wdft c-orner ftood a ftrong tower vaulted,the wall 9 feet thick,, 
with an eafy winding ftair-cafe, a cape houfc at top^ with a battlenaent 
round it. In the other three corners are fmall towers with narrow 
rooms. In the South fide of the area, there was a chapel and tennis 
couri : and in otherparts were tables and all neceffary offices. The 
gate or entry was in the middle of the Eaft wall, iecored by an iron- 
grate and a port-cuUis : over the gate ftand the arms of bifliop John 
BmcSy and the initial letters of his name, which aflbrds a conje6bure, 
that he was the firft who built any part of this court. Around the 
ipalace was a fpaciousprecinft, with gardens, and walks, and which 
jiowpay twelve pounds ftertmg to the crown. The \ax\As^oi Spynie- 
and the precindt were granted by the crown to one gentleman after 
another till the revolution, and fince that time, the precinft con- 
tinues in.thecfown, and the lands -belong to Mr. Bredie of Sfyme, 


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mow oiBrodie: hut the iron grate, the roof, the joifts, and all the 
timber work were carried oflf by the former leflees, and now all is in 

The diocefe of Murray comprifed the counties of Murroy and 
Naim^ and the greateft part of the counties of Bamff znd Invcmefs^ 
.and had 56 paftoral charges. What the revenue of this biflioprick 
was before the reformation cannot now be well known -, for Patrick 
Hepburn^ the laft popifli bifhop, fewed and fold at leaft a third part 
jof the lands of the biflioprick, including what he was obliged to 
give to the Regent of Scotland^ An. 1568, for harbouring his inter- 
communed uncle James Earl of Botbwelly who married our unfor- 
tunate Q^ Mary J An. 1563, when an account of all dignified 
clergy's revenues was called in- by the parliament, the revenues of 
the biflioprick of Murray^ as then given up, were as follows ; viz. 
In money, £»i6\g : 7 : 7 Scots : wheat, 10 bolls : barley, 77 
chalders, 6 bolls, 3 firlots, and two pecks: oats, 2 chalders, 8 
bolls : falmon, 8 laft:s : poultry, 223. Befides the emoluments of 
the regality of «^wV, and of the commiflaries of Spynie sind Invemefsj 
and the great teinds of the paiifli of Elgin^ and of St. Andrew's \n 
J^rray, Ogjlony Laggon^ and the bifliop's fliare of the revenues of the 
•common kirks. 

The only abby we had was that at Kinlofs^ which ft:ood in what 
is now called the parifli of that name. It was founded by K. David h 
10^^ Kal. Januariiy An. 11 50. The abbot was mitred, and had a 
feat in parliament : the monks were of the Cijlercian order, called 
Monachi Albi. K. David endowed it, as did K. William^ with 
many lands. Afelinus was the firfl: abbot, and Robert Reid Was the 
Jafl;. The revenues of the abby, yf». 1561, were found to be, in 


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money, £. 1152 : i : o, Scots: barley and meal, 47 chalders, 11 
bolls, I firlot, and 3 pecks: oats, 10 bolls 3 firlots: wcdders, 
34; geefe, 41 : capons 60: and poultry, 125. The abbot had 
a regality within the abby lands : Mr. Edward Bruce was made 
commendator, and afterwards lord of Kinlofsy An. 1604: from 
whom Alexander Brodie of Lethen purchafed the lands of Kinlofs^ 
and the fupcriority of the other abby lands. The ruins of the 
building are fo fmall, that it cannot be known what it was when 
entire ; for. An. 165 1 and 1652, the ftones of it were fold, and car- 
ried to build CromwePs fort at Invernefs^ and nothing now remains 
but confufed ruins. 

The oldeft priory we had in this province was at Urquharty three 
miles Eaftof jE^». It was founded by K. David I. An. 11 25, in 
honor of the Trinity. It^was a cell of Dumfermline with Benedi£line 
monks. K. David endowed it liberally. The revenues thereof 
were, not given up in An. 156^^ and fo I can give no account of 
them. The priory lands were erefted into a regality, but no veftige 
of the buildings now remains. In 1565, Alexander Seton-wzs mzdc 
commendator, and 1591, created Lord Urquhart^ and An. 1605 
Earl of Dumfermline \ but the honors being forfeited in 1690, Seton 
of Bams claimed the lordfliip, and about An. ly^ it was purchafed 
by the family of Gordon. 

The next priory was at Piufcarden^ founded by *K. Alexander III 
An. 1230, and named Vallis San£li Andrea. It was planted by 
Monacbi Vallis Caulium: None but the prior and procurator were 
allowed to go without the precinft ; the monks becoming vicious 
were expelled, and other monks brought from Dumfermline. The 
lands o£ this priory were very confidcrable, and they had a Grangia 


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304 A P P E N I> I X. 

and a cell of monks at Grange bilL The revenue of this prioiy^ 
given up Jn. 1563, was in money £525: 10: i-J-, Scofs: wheat, 
* I chalder, i boll, 2 firlots : malt, meal and barley, 51 chalders^ 

4 bolls, 3 firlots, I peck : oats, 5 chalders, 13 bolls : dry multures, 
9 chalders, 1 1 bolls : falmon 30 lafts. The buildings ftood 4 
miles S. W. from the town of Elgin, in a warm valley called the 
glen of Flufcarden. The walls of the precindl make a large fquare, 
,and arc pretty .entire. The church ftands about the middle of the 
fquare, a fine edifice in the form of a crofs, with a fquare tower, all 
of hewen aftilar. The oratory and refeSoryjoin to the South end 
of the church, under which is the dormitory. The chapter houfc 
is of curious work, an oStagonal cube, vaulted roofs fupported by 
one pillar, all as yet entire. They had a regality in the priory lands 
and a diftind regality in Grang€ bill, called the regality of Slantfore- 
fioon. At the reformation Sir Alexander Seton was. An. 1565^ made 
commendaton TJie lands of Plufcarden and Old A£Jns near E^i9 
paffed through feveral hands, and are now the property of J^mes 
Earl of Fife. 

The third priory was at Kingufie^ founded by Geopge Earl of 
Huntfy, about An. 1490. Of what order the monks were, or what 
ivcre the revenues of the prk>ry, I have not learned. Theft^pir lands 
belonging to it being the donation of the family of Huntfy^ were at 
the reformation re-affumcd hy them, and continue to be their 

There werelikewife within this province feveral com^nts of rdi* 
gious orders. In the iown of Elgin were Grey Frisrs, Black Friars^ 
JUd Friar$9 Templars Hmfes^ and a Nunnery of the religions x>f St. 


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Katberine of Sienna. There were other convenu at Forres and In- 

Clofc by the town oi Elgin ftood the prasceptory of Maijbn Dieu. 
It was a hofpital for entertaining ftrangers, and maintaining poor 
infirm people. The buildings are now gone to ruins. They had 
confiderable lands in the parilhes of Elgin^ Lanbride, Knockando^ and 
DunJurkuSjSiW which were by K. James VI. and Charles I. granted to 
the town of Elgin^ and now hold few of them. 

In this province we had four royal forts j.the firft ftood on around 
hill that overlooks the town of Elgin ; and fome of the walls, all of 
run lime, do as yet remain. The Earls of Murray fince the year 
1313 were conftables of it, and had confiderable lands for their (a- 
lary. Their office continued till 1748, when heritable offices were 
annexed to the crown, and now they have no more but the hill 
tolled Lady i»i/, which yields a fmall rent annually. Another fort 
ftood in the town of Naim^ but no veftiges of it now remain. 
Mr. Campbell of Calder (and formerly the Thanes of that ilk) was 
conftable, and in 1 748 was paid a compenfation for that office. The 
third fort was at Ihvemefs^ of which the Earls of Rofs were formerly 
conftables; and after their forfeiture, the Earl of Hunily obtained 
the office of conftable, with very confiderable lands as a falary, and 
continued to be conftable till 1629. I need not here fpeak of 
Cromwer^ fort at Invemefs^ of which no doubt others will give a 
full account. The fourth fort was at Urqubart^ on the Weft fide of 
Loch-Nefs:^he buildings were pretty large, and in a great part as 
yet ftand. In the time of David II. Alexander Boes was governor 
of this fort; afterwards, Cbifolm of that ilk was governor: but^ 
fince the middle of century fifteenth I do not find it had any go- 

R.r. vernor^. 

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-vernor, and now the lands of Urquhart are the property of Sir Ludo- 
wick Grant of Grant. Befides thefe forts we had many old caftles 
within this province commonly called Fortalicia. One flood at 
DuffuSj three miles North of Elgin, and was the feat of the chief of 
the Moravienfes as early as the eleventh century, Thecaftle ftood 
on a green mote, on the bank of the Loch of Spynie : it was a fquare, 
the wall about 20 feet high, and 5 feet thick, with a parapet, a ditch, 
and a draw bridge : within the fquare were buildings of timber for 
accommodating the family, and alfo neceflary offices. The walls 
are as yet pretty entire. Such Fortalices were alfo at Balveny in the 
parilh of Murtticb^ at Abernetlrf in that parifli, at Lochindorb in the 
parifti of Crtmdil^ at Raet in Nairn parifh, and at Ruthven in Kingu/te 
parilh. All which were large fquares, and many rooms built with 
^timber within the walls. 

I fliall give no account of the modern forts of Fort George at 
\Arderfeir, or Fort Augujlus at the South end of Locb-Nefsy and fhall 
only defcribe a promontory in the parifli ofDuffus^ four miles from 
Elgin. Our hiftorians call it Burgus, it juts into the frith, and rifes 
above low water about fixtcen yards. To the Weft and North it 
is a perpendicular rock, to the Eaft the afcent is fteep but grafly, 
to the South towards land the afcent is more eafy. The area on 
the top is near a redlangular figure, in length about 100 yards, 
and in breadth about 50, After the Danes had defeated the Scots 
army at Forres about An. lOoS, they fent for tlieir wives and chil- 
dren, and made this promontory an afyhm tb them and a place of 
arms. It was at top furrounded with a ftrong rampart of oaken 
logs, of which fome are as yet digged up : by a trench cut on the 
fiouth fide they brought the fea round the promontory, and within 


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this, had other trenches, and they fortified it to the Eaft. The 
trenches are now filled up. After the battle of MortUch in the year 
loio,, the Danes abandoned it, and left the country of Murray^ 
To return. 

(17.) Columba Dunbar fucceeded, and died Jn. 1435. 

(18.) John fVincbefteTy L. B. and chaplain to king James II. was 
confecrated, 1438, and died 1458. In 1452, the king ere£^ed the 
town oiSpynie into a free burgh of barony, and ercfted all the lands 
of the bifhoprick into the regality of Spynie. 

(19-) J^mes Stewart^ dean, confecrated 1458, died -^». 1460. 

(20i) David Stewart y parfon of 5]^w>, fucceeded in 146 1, built 
the high tower of the palace, and died jliu 1475^ 

(21.) Wiltiam Tulloch^ tranflated from Orkney^ An. 1477, was 
Lord Privy Seal, and died 1482. 

(22.) Andrew Stewart^ Dean oi Murray and Privy Seal, fucceeded 
An. 1483, and died 1498, 

(23.) Andrew Forman^ commcndator of Dry Burgby fucceeded, 
An^ 1 501, and was tranflated to St. Andrew's^ An. 15 14. 

(24.) James Hepburn {uccecded, and died^. 1524. 

(25.) Robert Shawy fon of Saucby^ and abbot of Pai/fy^ was confer 
crated 1525, and died 1528. 

(26.) Alexander Stewart^ fon of the Duke of Albany^ fucceeded, 
and died An. 1535. 

(27.) Patrick Hepbumy uncle to James Earl of Bothwell^ and 
commendator of Scoon^wzs confecrated An. 1537. He dilapidated,, 
fewed, or fet in long leafes a great part of the church lands, and 
died An. 1573, on the 20th June. 

1 have feen fcvcral catalogues of the popifh bifhops of A^urrof^ 

R r 2 both. 


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both primed and manufcript, but all impcrfed ; comparing thcfe 
with the writings o£ Sir James Balrympky Sir Robert Sibbald^ Bifliap 
iJ&r/)&, the chartulary of Murray^^ and the chronicle of MelRofs^ the 
above catalogue n^^y I think be depended upon. To return to the 

XIV. There are in this province nianufcript hiftories of fcveral 
families, which might be of fome fcrvice in compiling a general 
hiftory ; as of the families of Dunbar j JnmSy Srediey Calder^ KiU 
ravocky M^IntoJh^ and Grant. With regard to antient weapons, 
I have feen in the houfc of Gmnty of Kilravoci^ and in other 
houfes^ ftecl helmets, habergeons, and coats of mail, and of buff 
leather. Adder ftones, glafs beds, &c. are but amulets not worth 

XV. I know not one pifture worth regarding, except a pidurc 
of the Virgin Mary in the houfc of Ca^le Grant. 

XVI. No battle in the parifh of Elgin, but many within this 
province, as at Forres, about Jn. 1008, betwixt the Scots and Danes ; 
at Mortlicb, An. loio, between the fame; at 5/^-mouth, An. 1078, 
the King againft the Moran)ienfes\ again. An. mo, againft the fame 
people ; and. An. 1 160, on the Muir of Urqubart, king Malcolm IV. 
againft the hmt Moravienfes % at Ceanlochlochie, An. 1544, betwixt 
the Frazers 2ixid M'' Donalds •, at Glenlivot, An, 1594, the King againft 
t\it¥.ZTh oi Huntly, Errol, and Angus-, 2it Auldearn, An. 1645, the 
Covenanters z^zm^Mcmtrofe', sitCromdel,An. i6go, the King's troops 
againft the Highlanders-, and ztCulloden, An. 1745, the Duke of 
Cumberland againft the Rebels. 

XVII. Druidifm having been the form of religion in this coun- 
try before Chriftianity, the people ftill retain fome fuperftitious cuf- 


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toms of that Pagan religion. As Beh-tein : on the firft of May the 
herds of fereral farms gather dry wood, put fire to it, ami dance 
three times Southways about the pile. In the middle of Jum 
farmers go round their grounds with burning torches, in memory 
of the Cireatia. On Hallow even they have fcveral fuperftitbus 
cuftoms. At the full moon in March^ they cut withes of the mifle- 
toe or ivy, make circles of them, keep them all year, and pretend 
to cure hefticks and other troubles by them. And at marriages 
and baptifms they make a proceffion around the church, Deafril^ u e. 
funways, becaufe the fun was the immediate objeft of the Druids 

XVIII. Their fports are hunting, firing at marks, foot-ball, club- 
ball, &c. And the only annual feftival they obferve is Cbriftmas^ 
fpent more as the Saturnalia were of old, than as CJbrift*s birth ought 
to be. 

XIX. We have no true marie in this country, nor any ajbefius x 
but we have gtanite, talcum, lapis fpecularis, and ztStadtfield withil 
four miles oi Elgin there was lately found lead ore, and in Glen-garry 
they have for feveral years had an iron forge and made pigs of iron^ 
likewife about 40 years ago, a company from England fct up a miH 
and forge for iron in Abemetby in Stratbfp^^ and made very good 
bars of iron, but through their own extravagance they abandoned it% 
There is through all this province great plenty of iron ore. I have 
often feen the ignis fatuus^ which is a piece of rotten birch wood^ 
lying in a mire, and fhining in a dark night, like a flame of firs : 
likewife igms lambens^ which is an unftuous vapour falling upon a 
man's wig, or mane of a horfe, which fhines bright, but by a flight 
rub it is extinguiflied. 

XX. Great 


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XX. Great plenty of the particulars in the 2oth quaery may be 
found on the fea coaft in this province ; if any will take the trouble 
tacoUedt them. 

XXI. I know no fpecies of wood remarkable, and peculiar to 
this province, except Red Saugby or fallow, which is no lels beaur 
tiful than mahogany, and is much more firm and tough, and not fb 
brittle •, it receives a fine poli(h,^and in color refembles light-colored 
mahogany -, it grows in rocks, and is very rare. But we have great 
forefts of firs and birches : and as the Grampian hills divide in 
Aihol into one branch running Northward, and another Eaftward 5 
in the former branch are great woods of fir and birch in Breadalbanc^ 
Ramocbj Strathfpey^ Badenocb^ Gkn-morijion^ Stratbglafs^ and Stratb- 
carron in Sulberland-^ and in the other branch are fuch forefts in 
Braerfnar^ Glen-muikj Glen-tanner^ &c. I am inclined to think that 
thefe are the remains of the anticnt Syha Caledonia. Among other 
vegetables, we have in great plenty, in the heaths and woods, the 
following berries, viz. wild rafps, wild ftrawberries,. blueberries, bug- 
berries, m)a urftf^ &c. And we have one root I cannot but take 
notice of, which we call Carmele : it is a root that grows in heaths 
and birch woods to the bignefs of a large nut,, and fometimes four 
or five roots joined by fibres •, it bears a green ftalk, and a fmall 
red flower. Dio^ fpeaking of the Caledonians^ fays, ** Certttm ciH 
*' genus par ant ad omnia, quern fi ceperint quantum eft unius fabse 
*' magnitudo, minime efurire aut Jitire foknt.^^ C^far de Bel. Civ. 
lib. 3***^' writes, that Valeriuses foldicrs found a root called Chara^ 
'^ quod admiftum la£le multam inopiam levaiaty id ad JtmiUtudinem 
panis efficiehant.^^ I am inclined to think that our Carmele (i. e. 
fweet root) is Z)/Vs Cibi genus y and Cafar's Cbara: I have often 


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feen it dried, and kept for journeys through hills where no provifions 
could be had : 1 have likewife feen it pounded and infUfed, and 
when yeft or barm is put to it, it ferments, and makes a liquor more 
agreeable and wholefome than mead. It grows fo plentifully, that a 
cart load of it can eafily be gathered, and the drink of it is very 

XXII. Sea fowl in this province refort in winter to lakes and 
lochs, as Loch of Spynie^ Loch-Nefs^ Loch Nadorb^ &c. Eagles 
and Falcons breed in high rocks and inacceffible mountains, as 
Scorgave in Rothemurcbus. There are fome fpecies of fowls^ if not 
peculiar to this province, at leaft rare in other countries : fuch as, 
the Caperkyfyj as large as the domeftick Turkey ; it frequents the fir 
woods, and perches in the top of very tall trees, but the hen breeds 
in the heath. Another fowl is the Black Cocky which frequents birch 
woods in hills, is of the fize of a capon, of a fhining blue color : it 
is by fome authors called Gallus Scoticanns. A third fowl is Tarma- 
^^», of the fize of a Partridge, haunts the high rocky hills, is of a 
color fpotted brown and white. Thefe three fowls are very harm- 
lefs, and make delicious food. 

N. -ff. In anfwering quaery IV. it is omitted that our natural 
phyficians, when they find a toe or a finger hurt, and beginning to 
corrupt, they ftrike it off with a chiflcl and fere the wound with a 
hot iron, and foon cure it. Inftead of bleeding by lancets, they 
fcarify the flefli about the ancle, and they take blood from the nafal 
vein by cleaving the quill of a hen and binding it into four branches, 
and fcarifying the noftrils thereby. For vomits, they ufe a decodtion 
of groundfiU, of the bark of the fervice tree, and a decoftion of 
Holborn faugh; and for purgatives, the decoiStion of fervice 



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bark and a decoftion of mugwort boiled in new whey. In anfwer- 
ing qgxry I. I omitted to fay, that the river of Bewly was antiently 
c^WtdFarar: it rifes in the hills towards Glenelg^ and runs through 
Gknjiratbfarar \ and I am inclined to think that in Ptokmfs Geo- 
graphical Tables the Murray frith is called Mfiuarium Vararis from 
the river Farar (changing the F into V) that falls into the head of 
it. And the river was called Bewfy when. An. 1230, a priory of the 
monks Vallis CauUum was fettled there, who called their feat BeauUeu^ 
I e. BeUo l$co \ and then the old jiame oi Farar was difcontinued^ex.- 
cept among the Highlanders.. 


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gnilhed by nothing but a monnd and imperfeft moat. 

Sf in 

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A P P £ K O 1 X, 

m t)ic (hire of Pertb^ in the year 1^51. He was taught his grammar 
at the fchool of Pertb^ and his philofophy at the univerfity of St. 
Andrews'^ under Mr. John Rutherford \. He had hardly attained 
to the 20th year of his age, when hi had run through the whole 
circle of the fciences, and could fpeak and write to perfeftion in ten 
different languages ; but this was not all \ for he had likewife im- 
proved himfelf to the utmoft degree in riding, dancing, finging, and 
'playing upon all forts of ihftruments. 

HaVir% thus accdrtpli&ed himfelf itt hdhnte^ his parents *lit him 
abroad to accomplifh him further by travelling. And coming to 
Ptfw, it is not to be imagined what confternation he raifed in that 
famous univerfity ; as we have it from an eye-witnefs, who gives us 
thrs account of it i : " lliefre caftfe,*' ftyls he, " to the colfege of 
^ NavarrCy a young man of 20 years of age, who Was perfedly 
** well feen in all tlie fc^ences^ as the moft learned matters of the 
^ univerfity ackfiowledgfed : ih vdc»l ttnd inftrumefital mAfic none 
'* could exdel him, in painting ind drawing in colors none could 
" equal him •, in all military feats he was moft expert, and could 
" play with the fword fo dexteroufly with both his hands, that no 
** man could fight him ; when he faw his enemy or antagonift, he 
^ would throw himfelf xjpon him at one jump of «o or 24 feet 

'^ Vid. Aid. Manut. Bpift. i>ed. Paradox. Cicer ; t)i£L Critiq. & Hiflor. par 
M. Bajfei D^ciiipftcr Hift. Ecckf. p. 1876. Joan, inipcrialis Muf.Hiftor. p. 241. 
Sir Thomas Urqubart^^ Vindication of the Sects Nation, &c. 

t Aldus calls CricbtoH firfl coufin to the King, and fays that he was educated. 
alcWfe VHh his Mijcfty under BuchitfOii, Hiptrntn, H^i^rifia, atid itmhitford. 

t Stcjph.^frafcTu Difquif lib. 5.. cap* z^. 

^ diftance : 

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A P P E N P I X. 

" dift^nce : He was 2^ m^ftcr of arts, ^nd disputed with ys in the 
" fchools of the college upon medicine, the ciyil and canon law, 
** and theology J and although we were above fifty in number, be- 
*' fides above three thoufand that were prefent •, and fo pointecjly 
** and learnedly he anfwered to all the qqeftions thjit were propofed 
" to him, that none but they that were prefent can Mieve it.* He 
'' fpake Latin^ Greeks Hebr^w^ and other languages moft polipely : 
*' he was likewife an excellent horfeman, and truely if a man ftould 
*' live an hundred years without eating, dripKing or fleeping, he 
" could not attain to this man's knowledge, which ftruck us with a 
*' panick fear ; for he knew more than human nature could well 
*' bear ; he overcame four of the doAors of the church ; for in 
" learning none could conteft with him, and he was thought to be 
" Jntichrijir 

Sir Thomas Urqubart of Cromarty giving an account of this dif- 
pute, fays, that Cricbton^ when he came to Paris^ caufed fix pro- 
grams on all the gates of the fchools, halls and colleges belonging 
to the univerfity, and on all the pillars and pofts before the houfe3 
of the moft renowned men for literature in the city, inviting alj 
th<rfc who were well verfed in any art or fcience, to difpute with 
Jiim in the college of Navarre^ that day fix weeks, by nine of the 
clock in the morning, where he fhould attend them, and be ready 
to anfwer to whatever fiiould be proponed to him in any art or fci- 
ence, and in any of thefe twelve languages, Hebrew^ Syriack^ Ara- 
incky Greekj Latin^ Spamjh^ French^ Italian^ EngUJhj Dutch, Flemijb 
or Sclavoniatiy and that either in verfe or profe, at the difcretion of 
the difputant ; and during all this time inftead of making a clofs 
api^ication to his ftudies, he blinded nothing, but hunting, hawk- 

S f a ing, 


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ing, tilting, vaulting, riding of a well managed horfe, tofling the 
pike, handling the mufket, and other military feats, or in houfc 
games, fuch as balls, concerts of mufic vocal and inftrumcntal, 
cards, dice, tennis, and the other diverfions of youth ; which fo 
provoked the ftudentsof theuniverfity, that they caufed write beneath 
the program that was fixt on the Sorbonne gate, " If you would 
*' meet with this monfter of perfeftion, to make feardi for him ei- 
ther in the tavern or bawdy-houfe, is the readied way to find 
him." Yet upon the day appointed he met with them in the col- 
lege of Navarre^ and acquit himfelf beyond expreflion in that dif- 
puce, which lafted from nine till fix^ of the clock at night : At 
length, the Prafes having extolled him highly, for the many rare 
and wonderful endowments that God and nature had bellowed upon 
him, he rofe from his chair, and accompanied by four of the 
mod eminent profeflTors of the univerfity, gave him a diamond ring 
and a purfe full of gold, as a teftimany of their love and favor,, 
which ended with the acclamations and repeated huzza's of the 
fpedlators. And ever after that he was called. The Admirable 
Cricbton. And my author fays, that he was fo little fatigued with 
that day's difpute, that the very next day he went to the Louvre^ 
where he had a match of tilting, an exereife in great requeft in thofc 
days, and in the prefcnce of fome princes of the court of France^ 
and a great many ladies, he carried away the ring fifteen times on 
end, and broke as many lances on the Saracen. 

The learned M^duLauny^ in his hiftory of the college of iVin^^rr^, 
finding the hiftory of this difpute recorded in a MS. hiftory of the 
college oiNavarrCy and the like account of a Spaniard in Trithemiusi, 
confounds the two together, and robs our author of the glory of 


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this aftion, and places it in the year 1445, whereas it fhould be in 
the year 1571, as we have reafon to believe, from the authority of 
thofe that were cotemporary with him, and knew him, and have 
recorded this of him; but we need not be furprized at M. dtiLaufiy\ 
denying him the glory of this aftion, when we find M. Bailkt^ an- 
other learned Frenchman^ denying there ever was fuch a man as our 
author *, notwithftanding that Aldus Manutius dedicates his book 
oi Cicero* s paradoxes to him in the year 1581, and that the moft of 
the eminent men in Laly in that age were acquainted with him, as 
we (hall fhow in the remaining part of the hiftory of his life. A- 
bout two years after his difpute at Paris^ Trajano Boccalini in his 
advertifements from Parnaflus, tells us, that he came to Rontci 
Boccalini being then at Rime^ himfelf, and by a placad which lie 
affixed upon all the eminent places of the city, he challenged all 
the learned men in Romej in the following terms, Nos Jacobus 
Crichtonus Scotus^ cuicunque rei propojitie ex improvifo refpondebimus. 
That is to fay, he was ready to anfwer to any queftion that could 
be propofed to him, without being previoufly advertifed of it- 
Upon which the wits put a paper in Pafquin's + hand, endeavour- 
ing to ridicule him •, but that noways difcouraging him, he came 
at the time and place appointed by his placad, and in the prefence* 

• Hiil. dcs Enf. Celeb. 

f The pafqainade was to this tffc€tf written beneath the challenge, AaJbt that: 
nvi/I/ee it let him go to the figne of the Faulcon and it Jball he Jbe<wa, This, fays. 
Boccalinif made fuch an imprefiion on Cricbtont that he left the place where he 
was fo grofly affronted as to be pat on a level with jiigglers and monnte-- 



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of the pope, many cardinals, bilhops, doftors of divinity, and pro- 
*' feflbrs in all the fcicnces ; he gave fuch furprizing inftances of his 

univerfal knowledge, that they wcreno lefs furprized with him, than 
they had been at Paris. 

From Rome he goes to Venicey where he con traded an intimate 
friendfhip with Aldus Manutius^ Jjiurennius Maffa^ Speron Speramus^ 
and feveral other learned men, to whom he prefented feveral poems 
in commendation of the city and univerfity, and among the reft, 
one to Aldus Manutius J which we have ftiil cxunt in t\it HeUtue 
Poetarum Scotorum *. This poem gave him a very agreeable fur- 
prize, being prefented by a ftrangcr, whom he judged by the per* 
formance to be a perfon of an extraordinary genius ; but when he 
came to difcourfe with him, he was ftruck with admiration, and 
iinding him known in every thing, he brought him to the acquaint- 
anceof all the people of learning of note that were in Vetuct^ and 
all of them were fo furprized with him, that they thought him, as 
he really was, the wonder of the world, and never fpoke of him 
but with admiration ; at length being brought before the doge and 
fenate, he made a handfome fpeech to them, which being accom- 
panied with all the graces and beauties of eloquence and nature i* 
that appeared in his perfon in their utmoft luftre, he received the 
thanks of the fenate, and nothing was talked through the whole 
city, but of this prodigy of nature. Having -ftayed for fomc time 
at Venicij he went to P^idua to vifit the learned men that were at 
ihat famous univerfity 5 and he had no fooner arrived there, but 

^ Delidae Poet. Scot, nbi fopnu 
t Joan. ImperitL ubi fopra* 


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there was a meeting of all the learted men in tbe citf , in the houfe 
•f Jucohus Moyfifu CcmeHus^ to wait upon him, and converfe with 
him : He opened .the aflcmbly with an extemporary poem in praife 
<rfthe city, univerfity, and the aflcmbly that had honored him with 
their prefcnce at that time; and after fix hours of adifpute, which 
hef fuftained againft them, in whateirer they could pfx>pofe to him 
in all the fciences, he concluded with an eKtcmporary oration in 
praife of ignorance, that jUdus Mam^ms * iays that they all diought 
that they were in a dream, and that he had almoft perfuaded 
them that it was better to be ignorant, than learned and wile. 
Some time after this he fixed a paper on the gates of St. Jcim 
and St. Paul^^ churches, wherein he ofl^rod to prove before the 
univerfity, that there was an infinite number of errors in Jrif- 
Mk's phibfophy, which was then only in vogue, and in all his 
commentaries, both in theological and philofophical matters, and 
to refute the dreams of fcveral mathematicians : He likcwifc made 
an ofier to difpute in aH the fciences, and to anfwer to whatever 
Ifaould be propefed to him, or objeAed agamft him, eicher in the 
common logical way, or by nund)ers and mathematical figures, or 
in a hundred forts of verfcs as th^ pleafcd. 

jiUtis ManutiuSj who was prefent at this 4ifpute, fays f , that he 
performed all that he had promifed,.to their grcateft amazement : 
And he tells us iikewifeof another difpute that he had before a 
great concourfe of people in the bifhop oi Paduah houfe, without 
miMitioning the occafion or particulars of it ; but Joannes Inf^erialisi 

•■ Aldus Man. Prsef. in Cicer. Parade 
t. Ubi fopra. 



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tells us *, that he was informed by his father, who was prefent at 
this difpute, that it was with one Archangellus MercenariuSy a fa- 
mous philofopher, upon philofophical fubjefts, in which he acquit- 
ted himfelf fo well, that his adverfaiy owned before the aflcmbly 
that he had overcome him. 

From Venice he went to Mantua -, at this time there was a gladi- 
ator at Mantuay who had foiled in his travels the moft famous 
fencers in Europe^ and had Jately killed in that city three pcrfons 
who had entered the lifts with him-, the Duke of Mantua was high- 
ly offended that he had granted this fellow his protedion, fince it 
had fuch a fatal confequence : Crichton being informed of this, of- 
fered his fervice to the Duke, to rid not only his dominions, but 
Italy of this murtherer, and to fight him for fifteen hundred pif- 
toles : though the Duke was unwilling to expofe fuch a fine gen- 
tleman as our author, to fuch an hazard, yet reljring upon the re- 
port of his performances in all warlike atchievements, it was agreed 
to ; and the time and place being appointed, the whole court were 
witncfs to the performance. In the beginning of the combat, 
Crichton was upon the defenfive, and the Italian attacked him with 
fuch vigor and eagernefs, that he began to grow faint, having over- 
afted himfelf; then our author attacked him with fuch dexterity 
and vigor, that he run him through the body in three different 
places, of which he immediately died. The huzza's and acclama- 
tions of the fpeftators were extraordinary upon this occafion, and 
all of them acknowledged, that they had never feen art grace nature, 
jior nature fecond the precepts of art, with fo much livclinefs as 

• Ubi fopra. 


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they had feen that day •, and to crown the glory of this adioni 
Cricbton bcftowed the prize of his vidlory upon the widows 
who had loft their hufbands in fighting with this gladiator. 

Thefe, and his other wonderful performances, moved the Duke 
* of Mantua to make choice of him for preceptor, to his fon Vincent 
de Gonzagua^ a prince of a riotous temper, and diflblute life. The 
court was highly pleafed with the Duke's choice, and for their di- 
yerfion he eompofcd a comedy, wherein he expofed and ridiculed * 
all the weaknefles and failures of the feveral employments that men 
-betake themfelves to ; which was looked upon as one of the moft 
ingenious fatires that ever was made upon mankind ; but that 
which was moft wonderful and aftoniftiing was, that he himfelf 
perfonated the divine, philofophcr, lawyer, mathematician, phyfi- 
cian, and foldier, with fuch an inimitable grace, that every time 

T t he 

^ The unhappy effe£k that this humour had on two maids of honor is admirably 
told by Sir Thomas Urqubart^ a fecond RaMais, and the beft tranflator of that 
extravagant author. 

" They heard in him alone the promifcuous fpeech of fifteen fereral adors, by 
** the various ravifhments of the excellencies whereof, in the frolicknefs of a jo- 
" cound ftraine beyond expedlation, the logo-fafcinated fpirits of the beholding 
. •* hearers and anricnlarie fpedtators, were fo on a fudden feazed upon in their 
« rifible faculties of the foul, and all their vital motions fo univerfally affedted in 
<« this extremitie of agitation, that, to avoid the ineviuble charms of his intoj^i- 
** eating ejaculations, and the accumulative influences of fo powerful a tranfporta- 
** tion, one of my LaJj Dutcbi/s chief maids of honor, by the vehemencie of the 
** ihock of thofe incomprehenfible raptures, burft forth into a laughter, to the 
^' rupture of a veine in her body ; and another youpg lady, by the irrefiftable 

" violence 

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}te appeared upon the theatre, he feemed ta be a difierent perfon % 
but from being the principal adkor of a comedy, he became the 
woful fubjeft of a mod lamentable tragedy, being moft barbarouC 
ly tnurthcred by his pupil, which happened thus : 

One night as he was walking alongft the ftreets in the time of 
the carnavaU ^d playing upon his guittare, he was attacked hy 
half a dozen people in mafks ; but they found that they had not 
an ordinary perfon to deal with, for they were not able to ftand 
their ground againft him, and having difarmed the principal perfon 
amon^ them, he pulled off his malk, and begged his life, telling, 
him, that he was the prince his pupil. Cricbtony who immediately 
knew him, fell down upon his knees, and told him that he was 
forry for his miftake, and that what he had done was only in his^ 
own defence, and that if he had any defign upon his life, he might 
ahvays be mafter of it^ and then taking his own fword by the point, 


** Tiokaoe ef the plcaforc oiuiwsm infiifedy where tke tender receptibilitie of het 
^ too too tickled fancie was left able to hold oat, fo onprovidediy was forprifedr 
<' that, with no Icii impetoofitie of ridibuodal paffioa then (as hath been told) 
«< oc^afioned a fradore in the other young ladle, ihe» not able longer to fapport 
'* the well beloved burden of fi> exceffive delight, and iBtraniing joys of fuch 
^* JfiETcma/exhiliratioiu through the inefihble extafie of an over maftered appre- 
" hfn£oB, fell back in a fwoon, without the appearance of any other life into 
'* her, then what by the moft refined wits of theobgical fpeculators is conceived 
*' to be exerced by the pureft parts of the feparated tntthchies of blefled Saints in 
** th«ir fubliroeft conversations with the celeftial hierarchies : this accident procured 
" the incoming of an apothccarie with rdftoratives, aa the other did that of a fnr- 
** geon with coaiblidaiive medicaments.'' 

Vindicationof the honor of Si^tlaad, &c« p. 1 1 1| t ii« 

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he prefented him with it ; which the prince taking in his hand, and 
not being able to overcome his paflion for the affront that he 
thought he had fuftained, in being foiled with all his attendants, he 
immediately run him through the heart. 

What moved the prince to this ungenerous and brutal a£kion, is 
varioufly conjectured •, for fome think that it was jealoufy, fufpeft- 
ing that he was more in favors with a young lady whom he paffion- 
ately loved than he was. Others fay, that it was only to try hit 
valor, and the effeft of a drunken ramble ; but whatever was the 
caufe of it, 'tis certain that thus he died, in the beginning of the 
month of Jufyj in the year 1583, in the thirty-fecond year of his 
age, or, as Impmalis fays, in the twenty-fecond. 

His death was extraordinarily lamented by all the learned men 
in Europe^ and from thefe Italian writers, who knew, and were co^ 
temporary with him, it is, that I have moft of all that I have faid 
of him. Joannes ImperiaUsj a doftor of medicine oiVicenza in Itafy^ 
who has wrote our author's life, and who could not but know the 
truth of all, or mod of what he has faid of him, fince he lived upon 
the places in which they were afted, and who had them from his 
father, who was an eye and ear witnefs to them, fays *, " That he 
** was the wonder of the laft age, the prodigious produftion of na- 
*' ture, the glory and ornament of Pamaffiis in a ftupendious and 
" an unufual manner, and as yet in the judgement of the learned 
*' world, the Phanix of literature, and rather a fhining particle of 
^ the Divine Nature and Majefly, than a model of what human 
** nature and induftry can attain to. And what can be more,'* 

* Mu&um Ififtor. p. 244. 

T t 2 continues 


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A P P E N D I 3C. 

continues he*, "above our comprehenfion, than in the 21ft year 
of his age to be matter of ten languages, and to be perfeftly well 
"Teen in philofophy, mathematicks, theology, the belles-lettres, 
" and all the other fciences ; befides, was it ever heard of in the 
whole compafs of this globe, that one with all this, Ihould be 
'* found expert to admiration, in fencing, dancing, finging, riding, 
" and the other exercifes of the gymnaftick art ? Befides all this, he 
" is faid'to have been one of the mofl: beautiful, and one of the 
*' handfomeft gentlemen the world ever faw, fo that Nature had 
" taken as much care about his body, as (he had done^bout his 
*' mind j and in one word, he was the utmoft that man could come 
*' to.'* M. Bayk fays -f-, that he was one of the greateft prodigies 
of wit that ever lived ; and F^elix Afiolfus that he had fuch a prodi- 
gious memory J that he retained more books upon his mind, than 
any of his age had read ; "Plures lihros memoriter tenehat quam quif- 
quam ea atate legerat. 

And Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty^ having infifted on all the 
particulars of our author's life in a fi\ftian and bombaftical ftrain, 
tells us, that in the comedy which he compofed, and was an a6bor 
in before the court o{ Mantua^ in the fifth and laft aft, he himfclf 
perfonated no lefs than 13 different charafters ofperfons and em- 
ployments in their different habits. 

And in his charafter of him, he tells us, that he gained the efteem 
of all kings and princes, by his magnanimity and knowlege -, of all 

• Mufaeum Hiftor. Impcr. Joa. ibidem, Vcnetiia apud Juntas 1650, in 410. 

t Bib. Crit. 

X Officina Mill. p. 102. 


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noblemen and gentlemen, by his courtlinefs and breeding; of all . 
knights, by his honorable deportment and pregnancy of wit ; of all 
the rich, by his affability and good fellowfhip ; of all the poor, by 
his munificence and liberality ; of all the old, by his conftancy 
and wifdom ; of all the young, by his mirth and gallantry •, of all 
the learned, by his univerfal knowlegc ; of all the foldiers, by his 
undaunted valor courage ; of all the merchants and artificers, 
by his upright and dealing and honefty -, and of all the fair fex, by his 
beauty and handfomenefs ; in tvhich refpeft, he was a mafter-piece 
of Nature. " The reader,^* fays he, " perhaps will think this wonder- 
ful, and fo would I too, were it not that I know, as 5ir Philip 
Sidney fays, that a wonder is no wonder in a wonderful fubjeft, 
and confcquently not in him, who for his learning, judgment, va- 
lor, eloquence, beauty and good fellowfhip, was the perfeftefl re- 
fult of the joint labors of Pallas^ Apollo^ Mars^ Mercury^ Venus 
and Bacchus^ that harh been fince the Adiys oi Alcibiades \ and he 
was reported to have been enriched with a memory fo prodigious, 
that any fermdn, fpeech, harangue, or other manner of difcourfes 
of an hour's continuance he was able to recite without hefitation, 
after the fame manner ofgeflureand pronunciation in all points, 
wherewith it was delivered at firfl ; and of fo flupendious a judge- 
ment, that nothing efcaped his knowlege;" And for the truth of 
all this, he appeals to above two thoufand witnefles, that were ftill 
alive, and had known him. And fpeaking of his death, which he 
attributes to an amour, he tells us, that it was in the 32d year of his 
age ; that the whole court went in mourning for him ; that the epi- 
taphs and elegies that were compofed upon his death, if coUefted, 
would exceed the bulk oi Homer* s works, and that his pifture was 


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ftill to be fccn in the mod of the bed-chambers and galkries of the 
Itatian nobility, reprefenting him upon horfcback, with a lance in 
the one hand, and a book in the other *. 

Dempjler^ who was cotemporary with him, and a profeflbr of the 
civil law at Bononia in Italy^ agrees as to the moft of what we have 
faid of him i but he tells us f, that he was for fome time at Geneva^ 
as he was on his travels to Italy^ and that they offered him a conli- 
dcrable falary, if he would remain with them j but that he refufed 
it, and that no man offered to detradl from his juft praifes, but 
Trajano Boccalini ; but that he being a perfon of no erudition, it 
was rather a glory than any difgrace upon him to be fo treated by 
a perfon of his charafter. Yet the fame Dempjitr blames our au- 
thor very much, not for his boafting of the endowments of his 
mind, but for his affirming that he was defcended from the royal 
family of Scotland. Many poems and epitaphs were compofed up- 
on him, but I (hall only infcrt that of our countryman. Dr. John 
Jobnfton^ in his infcriptions upon our heroes, who makes him die 
in the year 1581. 

• The print prefixed to this life was taken from a piaore in pofleffion of 
Lord Eliockt Lord of Scffions, copied from an original belonging to Mr. Graham 
cf Airtb. I am told that there is a very fine portrait of this celebrated perfon 
the property of Mr. Morrififrnf B§gujf, which was fent from bafy by Crichfu 
a (hort time befi>re he was killed. 

t FCft. Ecdef. Gen« Scot, nbi fupra. 


N U M- 

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VUfiamm farit$r iu hhrtu Ahmmmt^ mmhu imJhMit^ iffis miam ItJis mdmirmUlis, 
Mmomm m Duds Maxtuam MPffmrms injurs occifiu ift^ Jbuu Cbrifti 1581. 

ET genus ic cenfam dat Scotia, Gallia peftai 
Excolit: admirans Itala terra viram 
Ambit* & efle fanm velleti gens aemnla yitam 
Abftulit ; an fatis hoc dicat at ilia foam 
Mantua habet cineres fcelus execrata nefandunit 
At tomuli tanto gaudet honore tamen* 

I have nothing of this author that is extant, but two poems, 
one in praifc of the city of Venice^ and the other addrcffed to Aldus 
Manutius*. Both which are in the firft volume of the DtUtU 
Poet arum Scoticemm. 

* Cricbton replies to one of the Kmads of the Pd who appcir«4 to him on hit 
mrrival at Vimct: 

■ Fateor m«, candide Natas^ 

Promeritum ^uaecunqae fero : nee turpis egeftaa 
Infandumve fcelus fervi mea pedora vexat. 
At me quis miferum magna cognofcit in urbe 
Ant quis ad zquoreas flentem folatur arenas ? 
The Naid direds him to Jldui : 

Hunc pete, namque regens filo veftigia caeca^ 
Diriget ille tuos optato in tramite greflus. 
Inde via pendet. Sequere hunc quaecnnque jubentem* 
Sic te Diva monet (xvam quae Gorgona geftat^ 
Qsias plerumque tuis prefens crit opti^ vocis* 


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Bempjier gives us the followfng catalogue of his works, where it 
plainly appears, that he makes three books out of that placad 
which he affixed upon the gates of St. John and St. Paul's churches 
in Padua. 

The Catalogue of his Works. 

I. f\P'^ ^^ Laurentium MafTam plures. 

^« V-/ Laudes Pauvinx, Carmen cxicmporc efFufum, cum in Jacob! Moyfii 
Cornelii domo experimentom ingenii coram tota Academiae freqoeotia non fine 
maltorum ftupore faceret. 

III. Ignorationis Laudatio» extemporale Thema ibidem redditufii poll fex 
-borarum difputationesy ut praefentes fomnia podus fovere quam rem fe veram 
videre affirmarint^ ait Manutias. 

IV. Dc appolfu fao Venetias. Delitiae Poet. Scot. Vol. I. p. 268. 

V. Odac ad Aldum Manutium. Del. Poet. Scot. Vol. I. p. 269. 

VI. Epiftolae ad Divcrfos. 

VII. Prsefationes folemDes in omnes fcientias facras k profanas. 

VIII. Judicium de Philofophis. 

IX. Errores Ariftotelis. 

X. Armis an Literae pracftant, Controverfia oratoria. 

XI. Refatatio Mathematicorum. 

XII. A Comedy in the Italian Langaage. 


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Of the murder of a LAIRD of INNES, 


JOHN Lord Imes^ having no children, fettles his eftate upon his 
next heir and coufin Alexander Innes of Cronr^y and feems to 
fufFer him to enjoy his title and poffeflions in his life time. Robert 
Innes of Irmermarky^ another cadet of the family, is difgufted to fee 
Innes of Crowy endowed with fo much power and preferred to him. 
He alarms Lord Jobn^ and makes him repent fo far of what he had 
done, that he joins in confpiracy with Innermarhy to affaflinate his 
coufin Alexander. The author fays, '* John being brought over to 
his minde (viz. Innes^s of Innermarky) there wanted nothing but 
a conveniency for putting y' purpofe to execution, which did offer 
itfelf in ye month of Apryle 1580, at wa tyme AleXr being called 
upon fome bufines to Aberdeen was obliged to flay longer there then 
he intended, by reafone that his only fone Robert a youth of 16 yeirs 
of age hade fallen fick at the college, and his father could not leave 
the place untill he faw q* became of him. He hade tranfported him 

* U u " out 


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out of the old toune, and hade brought him to his own lodgeing in 
the new toune •, he hade alfo fent feveral of his fervants home from 
tyme to tyme to let his Lady know the reafone of his ftay, by means 
of thefe fervants it came to be known perfeftly at Kimardy in q* cir- 
cumftance Alexander was at Aberdeen^ q' he was lodged, and how 
he was attended, which invited Innerntarky to take the occafione. 
Wherefore getting a confiderable number of affiftants with him, he 
hade^ Laird John ryde to Aberdeen : they enter the toun upon the 
night, and about middnight can^ to Alexander's lodgeing. 

The outer gate of the clofs they found oppen, but all the reft 
of the doors fliutt •, they wer afraid to break up doors by violence, 
leaft the noife might alarm the neighbourheed, but choifed rather to 
ryfe fuch a cry in the clofs as might obleidge thofe who wer within 
to oppen the door and fee q* it might be. The feuds at that tyme 
betwixt the familys of Gordone and Fcrbes wer not extinguifhed, 
tiierfor they ryfed a ery, as if it hade been upon fome out fall among 
thefe people, crying help a Gordon^ a Gordon^ which is the gathering 
word of the friends of y^ familie. 

Alexander^ being deeply interefted in the Gordon^ at the noife of 
the cry ftarted from his bedd, took his fword in his hand and op- 
pened a back door that led to y* court below, ftept down three or 
four fteps and cryed to know qt was the matter. Ifinermarig wha 
by his word knew him, and by his whyt fhirt decerned him pcrfeft- 
ly, cocks his gun and fhootts him through the body in ane inftant. 
As many as could get about him fell upo» him and butchered him 
barbaroufly. Innermarky pcrccaveing in the mean tyme y* Laird 
John ftood by, as either relenting or terified, held the bloody dag- 
ger to his throatt that he hade newly taken out of the murthurcd 


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body, fwcaring dreadfully y* he would ferve him the fame way if he 
did not as he did, and fo compelled him to draw his dagger and 
ftab it up to the hilts, in the body of his neareft relatione, and the 
braveft that boare his name* After his example all who wer ther 
behooved to do the lykc, that all might be alyke guilty ; yea in 
profecutione of this, it has been told me that Mr. John Innes^ after- 
wards toxtoune^ being a youth than at fchooU, was ryfcd out of his 
bcdd and compelled by Imermarhf to ftab a daggar unto the dead 
body, that the more might be under the fame condemnatione \ a 
very crafty cruelty. 

The next thing looked after was the deftruftione of the fick youth 
Robert^ who hade lyein y* night in a bedd by his father, but upon 
the noyfe of q* was done, hade fcrambled from it, and by the help 
of one John of CuldreafinSj or rather of fome of the people of the 
houfs, hade got out at ane unfrequented bak door into the garden, 
and from yt into a neighbour's houfs, q' he hade (haltered ; the 
Lord in his providence prefer veing him for the executing vengencc 
upon thefe murthurers for the blood of his father. 

Then Innermarky took the dead man*s fignet ring, and fent it to 
his wife, as from her hufband, by a fervant whom he hade purchafed 
to that purpofc, ordering her to fend him fuch a particular box 
q*^ contained the bond of Tailie^ and all y* hade followed thereupon 
betwixt him and Laird Jobn^ whom the fervant faid he hade left 
wt his m' at Aberdeen : and y' for difpatch he hade fcnt his beft hors 
with him, and hade not taken leafure to writ, but fent the ring. 
Though it troubled the woman much to receave fuch a blind mea- 
fage, yet her hufband's ring, his own fervant and his horfs, prevailed 

U U 2 fo 


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fo with her, togither with the man's importunity to be gone, that 
fhee delivered to him q^ he fought, and let him go. 

There happened to be then about the houfs a youth related to the 
family, who was courious to go to the lenth of Aberdeen^ and fee 
the young Laird who hade been fick, and to whom he was much 
adided. This youth hade gone to the liable to interceed with the 
fervant that he might carrie him behind him, and in his difcourfs 
hade found the man under great reftraint and confufion of minde, 
fometyme fayeing he was to go no fiirther than Kinnardy (which in- 
deed was the truth) and at oy' tymes that he behooved to be imme- 
diately at Aberdeen. 

This brought him to be jealous, though he knew not q*, but 
further knowledge he behoved to have, and therfor he ftept out a 
little beyond the entry, watching the fervant^s comeing, and in the 
by going fudently leapt on behind him, and would needs either go 
alonges with him, or have a fatisfieing reafone, why he refuflcd 

The conteft became fuch betwixt them, that the fervant drew 
his durk to ridd him of the youth's trouble, q*^ the other wrung 
out of his hands, and down right killed him w^ it, and brought 
back the box w^ the writs and horfs to the houfs of Innes (or Cromie^ 
I know not q*=^) 

As the lady is in a confufione for q* hade fallen out, ther comes 
aneother of the fervants from Aberdeen^ who gave ane account of 
the (laughter, fo that fhee behooved to conclude a fpeciall hand of 
Providence to have been in the firft pafage. Her next courfs was 
to fecure her hufband's writts the bell (he could, and flee to her 
friends for flialter, by whos means fhe was brought w^ all fpeed to 


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the king, befor whom (hee made her complaint. And qt is heir 
fet doun is holden by all men to be true matter of faft. 

The Earle of Huntly imediatly upon the report of the (laughter 
concerned himfelf becaufs of his relatione to the dead, and looked 
out for his fon, whom he inftantly carried to Edinburgh^ and put 
him for fhalter into the family of the Lord Elphinjioune^ at that tyme 
Lord high Treafurer of the kingdome. 

Imtermarky and Laird John^ after the flaughter, came back to the 
Lord Saltoun^s houfs, who leived then at Rothimay^ and is thought 
to have been in the knowledge of qt they hade been about, for 
certainc it is they wer fupported by the Abernethys^ ay untill the 
law went againft them. From Rothymay they went with a confi- 
derable party of horfs, and repofceft Laird John in all the parts of 
the eftate of Innes. And Innermarky^ to make the full ufe* of q^ he 
hade fo boldly begun, did upon the feventein Mali 1580, which 
was 5 weeks after the (laughter, take from Laird Job?; a new dif- 
pofitione of the eftare of Innes. 

By what is faid Inncrmarky may appeir to have been a man fiill 
of unrighteoufnefs, craft and cruelty; yet fome fay for alleviatione of 
his faft, that he having his chiefF^s favour hade got the firft difpofi- 
tion of his eftate failieing airs of himfelf, but that Cromy had taken 
a pofterior right and hade fupplanted Innermarky^ for qch he in re- 
venge had killed him, &c. But falfnefs of the allegance (mean as 
it is) is plaine paft contradidlione, from the above narraitted writ^ 
qch was given to Inncrmarky but 40 days after the flaughter of 

For two full yeirs Innermarky and John hade pofleft the eftate of 
Innes^ ftrenthening themfclfs with all the friendfhip they could ac- 



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quyre •, but being in end declaired out lawes, in the 3^ yeir Robtri 
Laird of InneSy the fon of Ale^^ came North with a commiffion a- 
gainft them and all others concerned in the flaughter of his father. 
This Robert was a young man weil endued w* favour and undcr- 
ftanding, which had ingaged the Lord Treafurer fo far to wedd 
his intereft, that he firft weded the young man to his daughter, and 
then gott him all the affiftance requifit to pofltfs him of his eftate^ 
q*^ was no fooner done but he led waft the pofleflions of his cne- 
mies ; burning and blood Ihed was afted by both partys with ani* 
mouOy enough. 

In the mean tyme Laird John had run away to feek fome lurking 
place in the South, q' he was difcovered by the friends of the Lord 
ElpbinftounCy and by them taken and fcnt North to the Laird Ro- 
bert j who did not put him to death, but took him bound to various 
forts of performances, as appears by the contraft betwixt them in 
Anno 1585 : one grofs was, y* he fhould deliver up the chartor 
chift, and all the old evidents, q^** he and Innermarky had feafcd^ 
and which I doubt if ever he faithfully did, els this relation hade 
been with lefs pains and more fully inftrudted. 

As to Innermarky^ he was forced for a while to take the hills, 
and when he wearied of that, he hade a retreat of a difficult accefs 
within the houfs of Edinglajfy^ q' he fleeped in little enough fecu- 
rity V for in September 1584, his houfs was furpryfed by Laird Robert^ 
and that reteiring place of his firft entred by Alexander Innes^ after- 
wards of CottSj the fame who fome yeirs before had killed the fcrvant 
who c^me from Innermarky with the falfe tokin for y* writs, and 
who all his lyfe was called Craigg in peirill^ for venturing upon 
htnermarhf then defperat, and whos cruelty he helped t9 repay it 


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A P P E N D 1 X, . 335 

in Its own coine 5 ther was no mercy for him, for flain he was, and 
his hoar head cut off and taken by the widdow of him whom he 
hade flain, and caried to Edinburgh and caften at the King's feett, a 
thing too mafculine to be commended in a woman. 


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By the Rev. Mr. Alexander Pope, Minifter of Reay. 

AS the Pi£ls pofleffed the Northern parts of Scotland of old, as 
they did the moft fertile parts of the South, and were expelled 
in the year 839, we have very little of their hiftory : what preferves 
the remembrance of that people is only the round buildings wherein 
they dwelt, of which there are numbers over all the North, parti- 
cularly Sutherland^ Cathnefs^ and Orkney. 

It is obfervable in thefe buildings, that there is no mortar of any 
kind, neither clay nor lime; nor had they any notion of calling an 
arch. They confift of the beft ftones they could find, well laid and 
joined j the wall was fometinles 14 feet thick, and the great room, 
which was quite round, 22 feet diameter -, the perpendicular wall 
>^ feet high ; and the roof was carried on round about with long 


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ftonesy till it ended in an opening at the top •, which ferved both for 
light and a vent to carry off the fmoke of their fire. Where the 
ftones were long and good, they had fmall rooms for fleeping in the 
thicknefs of their wall. The door or entry was low, 3 feet for 
ordinary, fhut up by a large broad ftone. There, is one of them 
entire in the parifh of Lotb^ which the bilhop of 0^^ vifitedand 
examined. It is the only one that is fo, as far as I could find, ex- 
cepting one at Suijgil in the parifh of Kildonnan. It is to be obferved 
that where the ftones were not flat and well bedded, for fear the 
outer wall fhould fail, they built great heaps of ftones to fupport it, 
fo that it looks outwardly like a heap without any defign, which is 
the cafe at Loth ieg in the parifli of Lotbis. At the dcfirc of the 
Bifhop of OJfory I meafured feveral of them, and faw fome quite 
demolilhed. We found nothing in them but hand-mills, or what 
the Highlanders call ^emsj which were only 18 inches diameter, 
and great heaps of deer bones and horns, as they lived much more 
by hunting than any other means. 

Figure i. in table XLVI. reprefents the feftion of an entire build- 
ing. The thicknefs of the wall is about fourteen feet ; the diameter 
of the area about twenty-two ; the height to the fpring of the arch 

Figure 2. in the fame plate, is the ground-plot with a view of the 
entrance ; and of eight lodging-rooms of an oval form in the middle 
of the wall. 

Figure i. in plate XLVII. (hews a double houfe of the fame kind 
in the valley ofLoib. 

Figures 2. and 3. are what are ^y\td foreft or bunting boufes \ for 
they are fuppofed to have been ufed by the antient inhabitants for 

X X retreats 


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retreats in the hunting countries. They confift of a gallery, with a 
number of fmall rooms on the fides» each formed of three large 
ftones, viz, one on each fide, and a third by way of covering. Thde 
are made with the vaft flags this countty is famous for. At the ex- 
tremity is a larger apartment of an oval figure, probably the quarters 
of the chieftam. The paflage or gallery is without a roof; a proof 
that they were only temporary habitations. Their length is from 
fifty to fixty feet. Thefe buildings are only in places wher^ the 
great flags are plentiful. In Gkn-Loch are three, and are called by 
the country people Uags. 

I beg leave to make a few more remarks on the round edifices.' 
They were large or fmall, according to the fize or goodnefs of the 
ftones in their neighborhood. The ftones that formed the roof were 
placed thus : the largeft lay loweft, the remainder grew fucccflively 
fmaller and thinner to the top; fo that there was no danger of its 
falling in by too great a preflure. The builders took great pains to 
bed their ftones well ; and where two met, they were wont to band 
them above by another, and to pin them tight to make them firrn^ 
The doors were always on the Eaft fide, and only three feet wide at 
the entrance,, but grew higher within, and were clofed with a great 
flag. They, ufually introduced water into thefe houfcs, where they 
formed a well, and covered it with a flag ftonc, A deep ditch fur- 
rounded the outfides of many of thefe buildings. The dead were 
interred at fome diftance from the houfes. The cemiteries were of 
two kinds. In fome places the deceafed were placed within great 
circles of ftones of a hundred feet diameter, and the corpfes covered 
with gravel. In other places, they were interred in cairns of a fugar- 
loaf form : fometimes bones have been found in them, (bmetimes 


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qrns with a(hes, a proof that burning and the conunon fpeciea of 
interment was ufual. Sometimes the remains of iron weapons have 
been found, but fo corroded that their form could not be diftin* 
guiihed. In one was found a brazen head of a fpear nine inches 

If thefe buildings were the work of the PiBs^ they originally ex- 
tended over many parts of Scotland fouth of this country. The laft 
have been fo long in a ftate of cultivation, that it is not furprifing 
that we fee none of thefe houfes at prefent, the ftones having been 
(ipplied to various ufes. Even in thefe remote parts, they are con- 
tinually deftroycd as farming gains ground, they offer a ready quarry 
to the hufbandman for making inclofures, or other purpofes of his 

From the extirpation of the Piils to the year 1266, Scotland was 
harraffed by invafions from the Norwegians and Daoes^ particularly 
the North part 5 for Harold the fair, Kingof iViTrw^, feized Orkney 
in the latter end of the gih century. From Norway fwarms came to 
Orkney^ and the paffage being fo fhort, all the North of Scotland was 
continually in arms. As nothing can be expedled in that period but 
fighting, bloodfhed and rapine, we cannot look for improve- 
ments of any kind, and for that reafon it is needlefs to attempt any 
particular hiftory of it. It is true, Torf^eus gives us fome account 
of that time, which is all that we have. 

As to the family oi Sutherland^ they have poffeffed that country 
fince the expulfionof the PiSls^ and have continued as Thanes and 
Earls to this time. That they are originally of German extradion, 
is evident from their arms. Do<ftor Abercrombie^ in his Hiftory of 
the Scots Heroes, mentions Donald Thane of Sutherland married to 

X X 2 a niece 


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a niece of King Kenneth 11. May that good family continue and 
profper ! 

Lord Re^^^ family derive their original from Ireland^ in the 12th 
century, when King WiUiam the Lion reigned. The occafion of their 
fettling in the North is mentioned by Torfaus^ as captains of a num- 
ber of warriors to drive the Norwegians OMt of Catbnefs. 

The Sinddirs Earls of Catbnefs are only of a late date. The fa- 
mily oi Rojlin is their original m Scotland r but their coming into 
England is as early as the year 1066: for I find them mentioned 
among the commanders in the army of William the Conqueror, in 
the roll o{ Battel abbey. They were firft Earls oi Orkney^ then Earls 
of Catbnefs^ and ftilt continue in the perfon of William Sinclair of 
Ratter^ who carried the peerage before the Britijh parliament this 
prefent year 1772.. 

As for the hiftory of thefe parts, I (hall begm witft. 

E D R A C H I L I S. 

This pariflv, which belongs, to the family ofReay^ is all foreft and 
V rocks, little arable, and fcarcely any plain ground, excepting the 
town of Scoury. The pafture is fine, and plenty of red deer, but the 
country at fome diftance looks as if one hill was piled upon another. 
The firth that runs far into the land abounds with good fifh, and 
herring in their feaibn. 

Torfaus mentions a. bloody battle fought in this firth, at a place 
called Glen duy by two pirates ; one of them he calls Odranus Giltius^ 
the other 5««i«^,. wherein the latter was viftorious. There is like- 
wife a tradition of fome bloody engagements betwixt the Mackays and 


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Parish of D I U R N E S S. 

This parilh was of old a grafs room or (healing to the Blfhop of 
Cathnefs^ and was difpofed of to the family oi Sutherland by Bp. An* 
drew Stuart^ and the family oi Sutherland gzy^ it to Lord Reafs fa- 
mily. Two pieces of antiquity are to be feen in this parilh : ift. 
Dornadilla^s tower or hunting- houfe,. which Hands in Strathmore ; a 
very ftrange kind of building,, well worth the feeing*. It is certain 
that the fineft pafture is in the hills of Diurnefs^ which rendered it 
the bed foreft in 5rd?//j»i of old. Our antient Scots Kings hunted 
there frequently, and it appears that this was a cuftom as far back 
as the time of King DomadiUa. 2d. There is on the fide of a hill 
called Buifpinunn^ a fquare piece of building, about 3 feet high and 
12 fquare, well levelled, called Cam nriy or King's earn, which pro- 
bably was the place where his Majefty fat or ftood,.and faw the fport, 
as he had from hence an extenfive profpedb. Torf^eus mentions that 
one Suenus from Orkney waited on the King of Scotland^ he was di- 
verting himfelf ia the hunting feafon ia the hills of Diumefs. This 
fliould be in the days of Malcolm 11.. 

At Loch-eribol^ on the North fide, there is a plain rock which is 
ftill called Lech vuaies^ where they fay that Hacon^ King of Norway ^ 
flaughtered the cattle he took, from the natives in. his return to 
Orkney J after the battle of Largis in the year 1263. ^orfaus gives a 
journal of that expedition, and mentions Y^wi^Hacori^ landing there. 
But there is a tradition that a party of iVl7rttz^^/tf«x, venturing too far 

^ Afwrtbcr aocoimt of* this tower will be giren in tbe Tbar and Voytge ofi 


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into that country^ were cut to pieces ; and that the place is called 
Strath arradakj from the name of the Norv^egian commander : a 
cuftom very common of old. 

The greateft curiofity in this parifh is a cave called Smow. It is 
a ftupendous arch or vault, and runs under ground fo far that the 
extremity of it was never found. Donald Lord Reay^ the firft of 
that family, made an attempt, and we are told he proceeded very far, 
•meeting with lakes, and pafling through them in a boat : but, after 
.all, was obliged to fatisfy himfelf with feeing a part. 

Here are feveral caves that run far under ground, but Smow is the 
moft remarkable. I am told that of late they have difcovered in the 
manor or mains of DiumefSj a hole of great depth : it was of old 
covered with large ftones, but thefe it feems have mouldered away. 
So that it is the conjefture of many, that there are numbers of cavities 
of great extent, underground, in this parifh. 

This parilh is all upon the lime ftone, and abounds in marble ; 
the part called ftridtly Diurnefs^ is a plain, the foil good, and the 
grafs incomparable, therefore capable of the highcft improvement. 
The lakes are ftored with the fineft filh, and full of marie. The hill^ 
afford the bell pafturage for iheep, and the fcas are well ftored with 
fiih. But the great difadvantage to this country is, that it is expofed 
to the North- Weft ftorms, which drive the fand upon it, and have by 
that means deftroyed feveral good farms, and threaten more harm 

In this parilh is a firth called Locb-Eribol •, ^orfaus calls it Goas- 
fiord^ or the firth of Hoan^ an ifland oppofite to it. This is one of 
the fineft and fafeft roacjs for Ihipping in Ei^ropc \ t^ nviy of 
Great Britain can enter into it at low water, and find good anchoni^. 


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It IS a lofs that this incomparable bay has not been furveyed, and 
the difFerent anchoring places marked. It would be a mighty 
bleffing to mariners, being fo near Cape Wrath^ one of the moft 
ftormy capes in the world. For it would be a fafe retreat to veflcis, 
in time of ftorm, either failing towards the cape, or to thofe that had 
the misfortune to receive any damage off it. Gape Wrath is alfo in 
the parifli oiDiumefs. 

Parish of TONGUE. 

The antiquities of this parilh are few. There is an old Danijb 
building upon the fummit of a hill, called Caftel varricby or Barr 
cattle : for the Banes or Norwegians poflefled that country for fome 
time. Tongue is the featof I^ord Reafs family. This parifh is 
rather better for pafture than tillage, but what corn ground they 
have is extremely good. Of old there was a fine foreft in it, and 
there is ftill plenty of deer. The aneeftors of Lord Rea/s family 
drove the Danes from thcfe parts. 

In this parifh is a loch, called Locb-Haeon \ in it an ifland, called 
Elan Locban Hacon^ in which there is the ruin of a ftone building 
with an artificial walk in it, called Gxianany becaufe dry and expofed 
to the fun. From which it appears that Earl Hacon^ who pofTefTed 
Orkney and Catbne/Sy had a hunting houfc in this ifland, and lodged 
there with his warriors, in the hunting feafon. The fca-coaft for the 
greateft part is all rock, of a rough granite, or what we call wbin. 
Here is a promontory or cape, called Wbifen bead^ very ftormy when 
it is a hard gale. 

There was formerly a chapel in an ifland near Skerray \ the com- 


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mon people call it the Iflc of Saints •, it goes by the name of jyiand 

Another ifland, called Illan na nroan^ all a high rock, but good 
* land, and plenty of water and mofs. It might be rendered impreg- 
nable. Bothtbefe iflands are in the parifti of Tongue. I have been 
in Ulan comb. If the fand had not over-run a part, it would be a 
charming place. 

A bloody battle was fought in this parifli, of old, by one 
of the anceftors of Lord Reayy againft one ^ngus Murray^ a 
Sutherland man, wherein the Sutherland men were cut to pieces. 
The field of battle is called Drim na coub. And in the fame 
place there was a (kirmilh betwixt Lord Reaf% men, and a num- 
ber of Frenchmen that were on board the Hazard floop of war, 
in 1746: fome of the French were killed, and the reft taken 

This parilh is remarkable for an exccHent ebb, where they have 
the fineft cockles, mufcles, fpout filh, and flounders or floaks ; 
which is a great blcfling to the poor, and no fmall benefit to the rich. 
And in the firth oi Tongue there is a fine ifland, abounding with rab- 
bets, called Rabbet Ijle. It has many lochs, or frefh water lakes, full 
of the fineft trout and felmon. 

Parish of FAR. 

The whole of thefe four parlfhes* was of old called Strathnavcr^ 
from the river Navar^ which was fo called, as fome think, from the 
name of one of King Kenneth the Second's warriors. It is a noble 
body of water, well ftored with falmon, having many fruitful and 


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beautiful villages on the banks of it, and is fo inhabited .for i« 

At a place called Langdale there were noble remains of a Dnddical 
temple, being a circle of loo foet diameter, and furroundcd with a 
trench, fo that the earth formed a bank : in the midft of it a ftonc 
was ere<fted like a pillar, where the Druid ftood and taught. The 
country people have now tnenched or delved that ground, and fown 
it with corn. There was in that town a large round building, and a 
place where they buried of old. 

This parifli is of great extent, rather a country for pafture 
than tillage. A great battle was fought of old at a place called 
, Harald or Haral^s field or plain, betwixt Reginald King 
of the Ifles, and Harald Earl of Orkn^ and Catbnefs. Harald 
was well drubbed •, and the iield of battle is full of fmall cairns, 
where the flain are buried, and fome large ftones erefted like 
pillars fhew where perfons of note were interred, ^orf^eus tells 
a long (lory about this affair; it feems that they had bloody 
Ikirmifhes at , and near the manfe of Far^ as appears 

from the number of cairns in both xhefc places. There is a 
moft curious fepulchral monument in the churchyard of Far^ 
which may be of that date ; it is of bard hill granite, well cut, 
confidering the aera of it. But what the meaning of the fculpture 
is, we know not. Only we may guefs, that the perfon for whofe 
fake it was ereded, was a Chriftian, becaufe of the crofs upon the 
ftone ; and that he was a warrior, becaufe we fee a (hield or target 
upon it. I have taken a draught of it. 

In this parifh, in old times, was a chapel at a town called Skail^ 
upon the river Naver \ another in the extremity thereof, at Moudale% 

Y y and 


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and another at Stratbie^ the molt beautiful and fertile part of the 

Betwixt Far and Kirtovty^ in this parifti, is a moft Angular cu- 
riofitjr, well worth the pains of a traveller to view^ being rfie 
remains of an old fquare building or tower, called B^rve^ ftand- 
ing upon a fmall point joined to the continent by a narrow 
neck of land not ten feet wide. This point or head is very 
high, confifting of rock, and fome gravel on the top ; on both- 
fides is very deep water, and a tolerable harbour for boats^ 
This, tpwer i^ems to be built by the Norwegians -, and the tra- 
dition* is, that one ^borkel^ or ^orquil^ a warrior mentioned by 
^arfitus^ WJI& the perfon that built it. They fpeak likewife of 
a lady that wa& concealed there, fhe is faid to be an Orknrf 
woman, and ^borkel was an Orkney man. But what is moft cu* 
rious, is, that through the rock upon which the tower ftands, 
there is a pafiage below of 200 feet in length, like a grand arch 
or vault, thrQugh which they row a boat. The writer has been 
one of a company that rowed through it. The paflage is fo 
long, that when you enter at one end, you fancy that there is no 
poflibility to get out at the other, et vice imfa. How this hard 
rock was thus^ bored or excavated, V cannot fay ; but it is 
one of the moft curious natural arches, perhaps, in the known 

In this parifh there is alfo a promontory, called Stratbybead^ 
P/^Zflory. the Geographer calls it Fervadrumj as he calls Cape 
fFrafby Tarvedrumj and Dungjbey bead^ Berubium. Thefe three 
promontories^ run in a line, from N. W. to Northj and jut far 
out into the, fea, haying moft rapid tides upon them. In Stratby 


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htad is a (lately cavC, called Uai nei^ or cave where they End 
driven wcmxI or timber. The entrance into this cave is very 
grand, the natural rock almoft forming itfelf like the Tway of 
an arch : the writer hereof has admired the beauty of. it. This 
promontory is the fineft pafture for fheep and goats in the North of 

To the North-Eaft of Strathy there is a ftone erefted near the 
highway, with a crofs upon it, which (hews its antiquity as a fe- 
pulchral monument. Erefted ftones were the diftinguilhing marks 
of the graves of perfons of note in time of Paganifm. And 
after Chriftianity was planted in this kingdom, the diftinftion of 
Pagan from Chriftian was, that a crofs was cut upon the fepulchral 
monuments of the latter. I have feen many with this diftinguifliing 

No doubt there are mines in this country, if peribns of ikill 
examined our fhores and rocks; as yet no pains have been 
taken. I have been told that there is at Locb-Eribd plenty of 
iron ftone, and fomething like a tin mine. As I do not under- 
ftand thefe things, I chufe to pafs them over. As for fea*fifh and 
fliells, we have none extraordinary. It is true, in CatbnefSj John a 
Groat*s buckies are v6ry curious and beautiful, of which we ffaaU 
take notice in the parifii o( Canmfb^. 

Parish of R E A Y. 

Some part of this parilh lies ih the (hire of Sutherland^ but 
the greateft part in that of Cathnefs \ that part in Suiherland is 
called Stratb-HaUadakj from HaUadha Earl of Orknty^ a Norwe- 

Y y 2 gian^ 


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348 A P E P N D I X. 

giavj fldn in battle in the beginning of the. loth century. The 
field of battle is full of fmall cairns, or heaps, of ftone. The 
commander in chief, and principal warriors flain in that action, 
are buried in a place apart from the field, of battle : I have 
frequently feen the place. The tradition is, that HaUadha is 
buried in a fpot enclofed with a circular trench jo or 12 feet 
wide, and that his fivord lies by his fide. There was a ftone 
crefted in the middle of this circle, part of which ftill remains* 
Near the field of battle ftands a little town, called Dal HaUadha^ or 
Halladha^s field. A river runs through StratB-HaUadaky which is 
rather pafture ground on the fides. of it, for the eleven is 

The boundary betwixt Sutherland and Catlmefs\ to the North, is 
called Drim Halliftin. Cathnefs is a flat plain country, having few 
hills; the foil good,. and producing great quantities of corn in 
fruitful feafons ; it lies upon quarries of a black flate kind, and 
perhaps no country on^earth excells ittfor fmooth thin flags or flates 
of great dimenfions. As thefe flags may be feen in. all parts of the 
country, it is needlefs to.defcribe them. The foil not being deep, 
and. the coimtry flat, renders our highways very, deep in winter, 
and very dry. in. fummer. That part of the parifh oi Reay in the 
fliire of Cathnefs J is excellent corn ground through the whole of iu 
It appears that many battles have been fought in it in former times, 
but we have no tradition concerning them.. In later times fomc 
bloody flcirmiflies happened betwixt M^Kay of Strathnaver^ and 
Keith Earl Marefchal -, and alfo betwixt the Cathnefs and Strath- 
naver people. 

The following chapels ftood in this parilhof old} St. Marfs at 


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Lyhfier\ St, Magnus's at Shebjberr, one at Sbail^ another at Baillie^ 
and a third in Shurerie -, befides the parifli kirk dedicated to St. 
Colman^ at Rarf. There is an old caftle at Duttreay^ and modern 
houfcs both at Bigboufe and Sandfide. 

Lead mines are frequent in Catbnefs ; but the country is fo flat, 
that there is no working them for water. The mod promifing mine 
is at Sandfide^ being in the face of a rock near the fea. It might 
prove of value,, if proper pains were taken to work it. The high- 
way runs near it* 

It feems that the Saxons^ in the 5th century, plagued this coun- 
try V and it is probable that Tburfo is fo called from Horfa the 
5tfx^»' general, who landed in the river ofThurfo^ ov Inver-Horfa^ 
the landing-place of Horfa, And when the Saxons plundered Cath- 
Tufsj it feems they had a bloody conflift with the natives. In this 
parifli there is a place called I'out Horfaj or Horfd'% grave, where 
they fay that ibme great warrior was flain and buried ; in the place 
is a great fl:one ereiled. Probably he was one of Horfcfs captains. 
TJiisis the tradition* 

Parish of T H U R S O: 

^burfa^ or Inver-Aorfa^ fo called from the* Saxon general, is a 
town of an old date ; we find mention made of it as a populous 
place in the II th century, and from it the parifli is denominated. 
Formerly a ftrong caftle ftood in it, called Caftrum de Tborfai 
but no veftige of it is now extant. The Earls of Catbnefs had 
a fine fquare at Tburfo Eafi now demoliflied. The Bifliop of 
Catbnefs had a ftrong caftle at Scrabfterj near Tburfo^ called the 


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caftlc of Bunifide^ built in the 13th century, by Gilbert Mttrr^^ 
Biflipp of Catlmefi : the ruins arc ftill extant. Another cattle 
ftood at Qrmlf, near Tburfo\ lately demoliflied. At Murkily to 
the Eaft of ^burfo^ there were great buildings of old 5 it was a feat 
of the late Earl of Catbnefs^ and at Hamer he had a modern houfe. 
An old tower, ftill extant, ftands at Brines^ three miles Weft of 

As for chapels and places of worfhip, one ftood at Crofs Kirk^ 
one at Brines^ another at GwiCy and a fmall chapel ftood in the 
parks of Tburfo Eajty where Earl Harold the younger was buried. 
The walls arc fallen down-, but Mr. Sinclair of U^fter^ very 
generoufly is determined to enclofe that fpot, becaufe that young 
•nobleman is interred there. The church oifburjb was the Bilhop's 
chapel •, and when he refided in Caibnefsy he often preached there. 
I was told by the late Earl of Catbnefs^ that there was a nun- 
nery in anticnt times near his feat at Murkil. The country 
people call the place the Gkfters •, but no veftigc of the build- 
ing is extant, excepting the remains of the garden wall, which 
enclofed a rich fpot of ground. Tcrf^eus fays that a Queen rf 
Norway lived fomctime at Murkil. He relates that Harold the 
bloody, fon to Harold the fair, was baniftied for his cruelty, 
with his Queen ; and that his brother Hacon fucceeded to the 
throne : but after Harold the bloody was flain in England^ his 
Queen returned to OrJbuy, and refided fome time at Murkil in 

The fame author mentions great battles fought in this parifh ; 
one in the nth century, on the plains of *Tburfo Eafi^ betwixt 
^borfiim^^2x\ of Orkuey^ and one Karl or Charks \ he calls him 


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King of Scotland, or a General of the Stofs army. Another bloody 
battle at Claredon, near Tbur/o Eaft, betwixt the Earls Harold thi 
elder and younger. I have already told that Earl Harold the 
younger is buried near the field of battle, and a chapel eredled over 
his grave, which is now to be enclofed by Mr. Sinclair of Uttjier^ a 
moft promifing youth. 

The Biftiop of Catbnefs^ fince the reformation, lived in a fmall 
houfe at Scrabftcr, which is ftill extant^ and belongs ta the crowm 
He had a grafs room in the Highlands^ called Doraryj where ftood 
a chapel, called Gavin*s Kirk, or Temple Gavin ; the walls are ftiU 
Handing. The river of Tburfo abounds with falmon, ten and eleven 
kfts of fiQi have been caught. 

Parish of O L R I G. 

A fine com country, two miles and a half in lengthy and a mile 
broad, or thereabouts* Nothing memorable in it. 

Parish of D U N N E T. 

The Northerly winds have covered a great part of this parilh withr 
fand -, a large traft of ground is ruined and not likely to be reco- 
vered. In this pariih ftands Dunnet bead, or what Ptolemy calls Bt^ 
ruhiumj a large promontory, with a mod terrible tide on the point 
of it. A hermit in antient times lived upon it, the ruins of his 
cell are extant. It is a fiAe flicep pafture. The pariih itfelf is an 


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,y Google 

A P P E N D I X, 

An ifland belongs to this parilh^ called Stroma^ in which there i^ 
a vault where they bury, built by out Kennedy of Carnmuch. The 
coffins are laid on ftools above ground. But the vault being on 
the fea edge, and the rapid tides of the Penlland firth running by it, 
there is fuch a faltifli air continually, as has converted the bodies 
into mummies j infomuch, that one Murdo Kennedy^ fon of Cam- 
fHucbj is faid to beat the drum on his father's belly. 

-Paris*! of WICK. 


An excellent corn country, and a fruitful fea ; 2000 barrels o? 
herrings were caught here in the year 1771. There was a chapel 
near Caftle Sinclair^ called St. Tay^ another at Ulbfter^ and a third 
2X'KilmiJler. The caftle of Gimigo is the oldeft building in this 
parifti. I cannot find out by whom it was crefted. It is probable 
fome ftrong building ftpod here before the prefent ruinous houfe 
was ereded. It ftands on a rock in the fea. Near it ftood Caftle 
Sinclair y built by George Earl of Catbnefs ; a grand houfe in thofe 
days. Not far from it ftood i^e caftle of jikergily built by Keith 
Earl Marejchal: but this place is now rendered a moft beautiful 
and convenient feat, by Sir tViUiam Dunbar of Hemprigs^ the pro- 
prietor. In the old tower is the largeft vault in the North of Scot- 
land, beautified with elegant lights and plaiftering, by Sir fVilliam\ 
fo that it is now the grandeft room in all this part of the country. 

The town of Wick is a royal burgh, now rifing fince the herring 
fifliery has profpered. To the South of it ftands 'an old tower, 
called Lord Oli/ant's caftle. A copper ore was difcovered there, 

Z z and 


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and wrought for fome time, but I do not find they have proceeded 
in it. 

In this parifh there is a haven for iiihing boats, called fFboB^ 
which is a creek betwixt two high rocks. Though the hei^ic of 
one of thefc rocks is furprizing, yet the country people lunre OMMte 
ftcps by which they go up and down, carrying heavy burdens mk 
their back ; which a ftranger, without feeing, would fcarcdy be- 
lieve. This is a fine fifliing coaft. 

There was a battle fought at Okl Nanurkcb^ in 1680, betwizfi 
the EUrl of Catbnefsj and Lord Glenurchy. 


Eighteen miles long ; partly pafture, partly com ground It^^ 
a chapel at Eafttr Clytby and another at the water of Dukbuab^ be* 
fides the parifh kirk. 

At the loch of Sttmftir^ in this parifli, ftands a famous DruUical 
temple. I have viewed the place r the circle is large, above 100 
feet diameter; the ftones are large and ereft; and tofiiew that the 
planetary fyftem was obfcrved by them, they are fet up in this 
manner, i: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7. Then the iaxtit courfe b^ins again ; 
1: 2: 3: 4: &c. Few of the ftones aie now fallen. Near the 
temple there is a ruin, where the Anb-Bruid^ it feems, refided. 
I find no fuch large Druid temples in the country ; as for fmall 
ones, they are generally found in many places. 

Upon a rock in the edge (rf the fea, in Eafter Clph^ there is an 
old building, called Cruner Gimrfs caftle. This gentleman of the 
name of Gunny was Coronater or Juftrciary of Catbnefs : he was 


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bafely murthercd, with fcvcral gentlemen of the name, and of other 
names, in the kirk of St. Teay^ near Caftle Sinclair^ by Keith Earl 
MarefcbaL The ftory is told at full length in the hiftory of the 
family of Sutherland. This happened in the 15th century. At 
Md Cfytb there was a large houfe, built by Sir George Sinclair of 
Clftb. At Nottingham there is an elegant new houfe, built by Capt, 
Sutherland of Farfe: near this is the parifh kirk. There is a ftrong 
old caftle at Dunbeath ; and near Langwall is a ftrong old ruin, 
faid to be Ronald Cbei/s caftle-, he lived in the 14th century, and 
was a great huntei* of deer, as will be told when we come to fpeak 
of the parifti of Halkirk. He had a third part of Cathnefs in pro- 
perty : his great eftate was divided betwixt his two daughters •, one 
of which became a nun, the other married the anceftor of the 
Lord Buffos. 

There is an old building at Latbrone^ called Harold tower, (aid 
to have been built by wicked EsirlHaroldy in the 12th century. 

We read of bloody encounters in this parifti, betwixt the Cathnefi 
men, and Hugo Fre/kin Earl of Sutherland: and likewife many con- 
flids betwixt the two countries in after-times. Torfieus fays that 
King WiUUm the Uon marched into Cathnefs with a great army, 
and encamped at Ou/daleSf or Eijkenjdale. This expedition of his 
Majefty*s, was to drive out wicked Earl Harold the elder, who had 
(lain Harold the younger. The King feized Cathnefs as a conqueft, 
then Earl Harold fubmitted himfelf to him. 


A fine corn country \ much harra(red of old by the Danes j or 

Z z 2 Norwegians. 

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356 A. p P- E N rr I X., 

Norwegians. In it are St. NiniarCs chapel at Navidak^ John tbr 
Baptiji's at the river Helmifdale^ St. Inan'% at Eafter GariiCy and St.. 
T'rullen's at Kintradwel, befides the parifh. kirk. The caftlc o£. 
Helmifdale was built by Lady Margaret Bailliey Gountefs of Suther- 
land: and there was a fquare or court of building at Craiag, crefted. 
by Lady Jane Gordon f Countefs of Sutherland -^ no veftige of it now 

There is-finc fifliing in the rivers of Helmifdale and LotL The 
latter has a very high cataraft, where the water pours from a high 
rock, and falls into a terrible gulph below. If this could be re- 
moved, this river would afford excellent falmon fifhlng. The hills 

in this parilh were of old famous for hunting. At there is 

a hiinting houfc, probably built by the PiilSj confiding of a great » 
number of fmall rooms, each compofed of three large Hones. Thefe 
buildings prove that a tribe lived here^ in the hunting feafon. Near 
it ftands a large Piilijh caftle, called Carn Bran, It feems that this? 
Brany or Brian^ was fome great man in thofe days, and that all 
thefe accommodations were of his building. The quarry from 
whence the ftoneswere carried tcbuild this caftle, is ftill to befeen, 
and the road for their carriage vifible, being like a fpiral line along, 
the fide of the hill. 

I read of no battles in this parifli : fome bloody confliAs are told 
us, and thefe are to be feen in the hiftory of the. family of Sutherland. 
Near the miln of Loth beg is the entire PiSfs houfe, which the Bifliop, 
of OJfory entered. There is a fine cafcade as you travel along the 
(hore under Loth beg^ wJaich makes a charming appearance when^ 
there is any fall of rain, or in time of a keen froft. 


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A' P P E N D r X. 257 

Parish of CLYNE. 

Partly corn ground, and partly fit for pafture. There was a 
chapel at Dok called St. Mabon. No confidcrable buildings in 
this parifh. Sutherland of Clyne had a good houfe ; and Nicolas ' 
Earl of Sutherland had a hunting feat in the Highlands, called 
Gajlle Uain^ but now demolilhed. 

There is a tradition that a battle was fought at Kilalmkill, in thisJ 
parifh, wherein the country people routed the Danes: The com- 
mon marks of a battle are vifible there, viz, a number of fmall 
cairns, Another bloody battle was fought at Clyne Miltony betwixt 
the Sutherland and Cathnefs men ; the flaughter was great, and the 
cairns, flill to be feen there, cover heaps of flain. 

The river of Brora affords a fine falmon fifhery : it falls into 
the fea at Erora. Within two large miles is the loch of that name, 
which abounds with falmon. From the loch the river lies to the 
Weft; and at a place called Achir-na-hyly is a moft- charming caf- 
cade : here alfo they fifh for pearls. On the top of a fmall hill, 
near the houfe of Clyne^ is a lime-flone quarry ; and in the heart of 
the flone, all forts of fea fhells known in thefe parts are found. 
They are frefh and entire, and the lime-flone within the fhell re- 
fembles the fifh. The Bifhop of OJfory employed men to hew out 
mafles of the rock, which he broke, and carried away a large quan- 
tity of fhells. Near the bridge of Brora there is a fine large cave, 
called Uai na Caiman. The Bifhop of OJfory admired it, and faid 
there were fuch caves about Bethlehem in Palejline. The coal work 
and fait work are obvious here. But at Strathleven^ near the lea, 

there ^ 

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there is a hermit's apartment, cut artificially in the natural rock, 
well worth a vifit from any carious traveller. 

I need not mention the artificial ifland in the loch of Brora^ 
made by the old Thanes of Sutherland^ as a place of refuge in 
dangerous times. Near that loch ftands a high hill or rock, called 
Creig haw ir^ on the fummit of which there is great fpace. This 
rock is fortified round ; and as the neck that joins it to another 
rock is fmall, it feems that when they were invaded by enemies, 
they fled to this ftrong hold, and drove their cattle likewifc into it 
for fafety. Others fay it was a place for keeping of a watch. 

Parish of GOLSPIE. 

This IS a fine corn country. The p^rilh kirk was of old at 
CulmaSe ; and at Golfpie the family of Sutherland had a chapel of 
cafe, dedicated to St. Andrew the Apoftle. In this parifli ftands 
the feat of the Earls of Sutherland^ at Dunrobin\ but during the 
Danijb wars, they lived at a greater diftancc from the fea. This 
parifh affords no other great buildings % nor is there any tradition 
concerning any battles fought in it : fmall fkirmilhes have happened 
here; particularly in the year 1746, when the Earl of Cromarty 
was taken prifoner. Moft remarkable is the devaftation done by 
fand ; large trafts of corn ground have been quite fpoiled thereby, 
and more mifchief is threatened yearly. 

Parish of DORNOCH. 

In this parilh ftands the cathedral church of Cathnefs. The 


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Norwegians having murthcred Bifhop John at ScrahfteTy and Bifhop 
Adam at Halkirk^ in the year 1222 ; Gilbert Murray^ the fucceeding 
Bilhop, built the cathedral at Domocby which was, when entire, a 
neat compadt building. It was burnt in troublefome times, and 
never fully repaired. The Biftiop had a fummcr refidence at 
Skiho ; but in winter he lived in his caftle at 'Dbmoch^ the ruins of 
which arc to be feen. There was a ftately fabrick of a church, 
built in that town, in the i ith century, by St. Bar^ Bifhop of 
Cathmjs \ but Bp. Murray thought it too fmall : it ftood where the 
council houfe now ftands. We are told that the dioccfe of Cathnefi 
was not divided into parifhes till the days of B^. Murray j and that 
he tranflated the Pfalms and Gofpels into the Irijb language, or Scots 
Galic. The dignified clergy had houfes and glebes in Dornoch 5 
thefe made up his chapter when there was occafion to xrall one. It 
is a lofs that we have none of their records •, nor indeed is it a great 
wonder, confidering the daily invafions of the Danes^ which ended 
not till 1266. 

In Bp. Murrafs time, there was a bloody battle fought at Hilton^. 
near Embo v he and WiUiam Earl of Sutherland fought there againft 
the Danesy and cut them to pieces.. The Danijh General was killed, 
and lies buried m Hilfon. There was a ftone ereftcd over his grave, 
which the common people called Ree crofs, or crofs in Riy or 
King's crofs, fancying that the King of Norway was there buried. 
A brother of the Bifhop wai alfo killed in this battle ; his body 
lies in a ftone cofRn in the Eaft ifle of the cathedral, above ground, 
near the font. The heWn ftone erefted to the Eaft of Bomochy. 
\% a trophy of this viftory. It has the Earl of Sutherlanc^% arms 
on the North fide, ftill very vifible,. and the Bilhop of Cathne/s's 


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35o APPEND! X^ 

arms on the South fide, but the heat of the fun has quite deftrpjned 
the fculpture. 

The driving of fand is very hurtful to this parifli, and threatens 
. ftill more harm. The only old buildings in it, excepting thofe al- 
ready mentioned, is Skibo. Hugo Frejkin^ Earl of Sutherland^ gave 
thefe lands to Bp. Gilbert Alurray, then Archdeacon of Murray in 
1 1 86. It pafled through feveral hands, till at laft it 
Duffus's^ and now it returns to the family of Sutherland- It was .a 
great pile of building, furrounded with a.ranipart. The prefent 
modern houfe is ftill habitable. The fituation is moft beautiful, 
and a fine houfe there would have a noble effcA. Cyder ball is only 
a modern houfe. The plantations here, and at Skiboj are the moft 
thriving in this parilh. At the latter place a houfe was lately built 
in a very elegant tafte. Embo is an old building, the feat of the 
Knights of Embo. .It is a pity that it has neither plantations nor 
policy about it. 

Parish of C REICH 

Has no great buildings in it. Pulcrojft is the beft. The great 
cataraft at Inverjhin is a grand fight. Such a large body of water 
pouring down from a high rock, cannot mifs affording entertain- 
ment. The river of Shin abounds with large falmon, and fturgeons 
are often feen there. In the nth or 12th century lived a great 
man in this parifli, called Paul Meutier. This warrior routed an 
army of Danes near Creich. Tradition fays that he gave his daugh- 
ter in marriage to one Hulver^ or Leander^ a Dane \ and with hcr^ 
the lands of Strahobee \ and that from that marriage are defcended 


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the Clan LandriSy a brave people, in Rofsjhire. The gentlemen of 
the nanne of Gn^ pofleffed Mertil-Creicbj of an old date; and at 
Mrydol there was a good houfe and orchard, which I believe are 
Aill extant. I find no other memorabilia in the parifh of Creicb. 

Parish of LARG. 

The moft remarkable thing in it is Loca-Shiriy which is computed 
to be iS miles long, with fine pafture ground on each fide of it. 
What fkirmifhes have happened in this parifh are mentioned in the 
hiftory of the family of Sutherland. 

Parish of ROGART. 

Confifts of good pafture and good corn land. A bloody battle 
was fought here, near Knocbartol^ in the days of Countefe Elizabeth. 
Tradition fays, that upon the field of battle fuch a number of 
fwords were found, that they threw numbers of them into a loch ; 
and that in dry fummers, they ftill find fome of them. There is a 
place in this parifh called Morinefs^ and Ptolemy the Geographer 
places there a people called the Morini. He alfo calls the river 
HelmifdaU^ Ileas\ and the natives call it in the Galic^ HUej Auin 
Me J BunlUie, StraHlie. 

Parish of KILDONNAN. 

Confifts of a valley, divided into two parts by the river Helmifdale^ 
or Illie^ Qnly fit for paflure. The parifh kirk is dedicated to 

A a a St. 

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36% A P P E N D I X. 

St. Dman. A tribe lived here called GtmnSj of Nortpegian cxtrafti- 
en : they have continued here upwards of 500 years, and contri- 
buted to extirpate the Danes out of Sutherland. They were in all 
times SatelHtes to the Earls of Smberlmd. Their chirfuin is lately 
dead, and reprefcntcd by two boys \ it were to be wifhed that fome 
generous perfon would take care of their education. The moft re- 
markable piece of hiftory relating to this parifh, is what Torf^eta 
mentions, viz. That Helga Countefi of Orhneyy and her fitter 
Frauhaurk^ lived at Kinbrafsy and fupported a grand family there. 
, This lady had a daughter called Margaret^ who was educated ia 
ihefe defarts, and there married Maddadius Earl of Jsboky uncle's 
fon to King David I. of Scotland. Thefc buildings were burnt^ 
4nd reduced to heaps,, fo that we cannot difcern what their model 
has been •, at prefent,. they are called Cam ftmith And Torfigus 
iays that one Suenm burnt and demolifhed them. 

What fmall Ikirmiflies have happened in this parifh, are not 
worth mentioning, excepting what l^arfoHS mentions relative to 
Kinbrafi^ betwixt Suenus an Orkney man, and jimher Rofta^ captain^ 
of a guard, which an old wicked lady, calkd Fraubaurk^ kept to. 
defend her. This lady, we are told, had ordered a party to go 
and murder Olafus^ the father of Suenus^ at Dungjbey;, which party 
Julver commanded. They came to Dungjhey, and burnt that brave 
man, and fix more with him, in his own houfe. 'Luckily the lady 
of the houfe was abfcnt, being invited to an entertainment in the 
days of Cbrtftmas. Her fon Gunnius^ the anccftor of the GunnSy 
was with her, and Suenus was alfo abfent. After many years 
Suenus comes with a party, attacks Julverj and after a fmart en- 
gagement defeats him, fo that he fled, and as many as could made 


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their dcape with him. Suenus^ after this, bums Frauhark^ and all 
her family, and made a heap of the buildings. And though the 
ruins are great, yet no man can tell of what kind they were j that 
is, whether round like the Pi^yb houfes, or not. This happened 
in the i2th century. 

Parish of HALKIRK. 

Partly corn land, partly pafture. Many places of worfliip have 
been in this parifli *, fuch as the parifh kirk of Skitmany the hofpital 
of St. Magnus at Spittal^ the walls of the church belonging to it 
being ftill extant. The chapel of Olgrim beg. The chapel of St. 
Troftin^ at, JVefifuld. The chapel of St. S^eran, at Stratbmort. 
Another chapel at 'Diked. And as the Bifliop of Cathnefs lived of 
old at Halkirk^ his chapel was called St. Katbrin^ of which there is 
no veftigc left but a heap of rubbifti. 

The Norwegian Lords that were fuperiors of Catbnefsy built the 
cattle of Braal Here lived Earl Johny who is faid to have caufed 
the burning of the Bifhop of Cathnefs. This Bilhop, whofe name 
was Adamy lived near the place where the minifter's houfe ftands^ 
too near the bloody Earl. It is faid he was fevere in exadling tithes^ 
which made the country people complain : whereupon the Earl 
told them that they fhould take the Bifhop and boil him. Accord- 
ingly they went on furioufly, and boiled the Bifhop in his own houfe, 
together with one. Serlo a monk, his companion, in the year 1222. 
King Alexander II. came in perfon to Cathnefs^ and, it is faid, exe- 
cuted near 80 perfons concerned in that murder. The Earl fled, 

A a a 2 but 

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but was afterwards pardoned by the King; However, fomc time aF- 
ter, he was killed in the town oiThurfa^ by fome perfons whom he 
defigned to murder. At Braal there was a fine garden, befidc 
.which they catch, the firft falmoR from the month of November 
to the month oi Augujt. The fituation is mpft beautiful, very 
well adapted for the feat of a great man. The caftle of Diked was 
built h^ Sutherland oi Bilred^ defcended from the family of Sutber^- 
land.. It is a fmall building. on the top of a rock. His fon, Akx- 
ander Sutherland^ forfeited his eftate ; and thefe lands were given to 
the anceftor of Lord iJ^^j^;, but now belong to Mn Sinclair of Ulb* 

Up the river ftands an old ruin, called Lord Chein\ or Ronald 
Cbein'Sj hunting houfe.^ He was the Nimrod of that age, fpending a 
great part of his time in tliat exercife. The houfe flood at the outlet 
of a loch, called Loch-morey the fource of the river oiThurfOy which 
abounds with.falmon. Ronald Cbein had a cruive on this river, with 
a bell lb conftrufted, that when a fifli tumbled in the cruive the bell, 
rang. The tradition is, that all thefe Highlands were then foreft and 
wood, but now there is fcarccly any wood. This loch is about half 
a mile long, and near that in breadth, and is the beft filR pond in 
Britain y many latts are caught every year on the fliore of this loch,, 
by the country peopje. Sixty nets are -for ordinary fhot on it ia a 
flight, and filh in every one. Many gentlemen clame a property in. 
it, for which caufe it is a common good to the country in general. 

There is in the town of North Colder bltx old ruin, called TuUocb. 
Boogie, Torfaus fays that Ronald Earl -of Orkney was treacheroufly 
rtiurdercd there by a ruffian he calls Thiorbiornus Klerkus^ and a 
ffnari fkicmifh enfued* Thiorbidrnus fled, and being hotly purfued^ 


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A P P E N D I X. 365 

was burnt in a houfe where he took flielter, and eight more with hint. 
This was in the 12th century. Two battles were fought by the 
Dapes in the dales of the parifli of Halkirk. One at Tofiin-gak^ the 
grave of the foreigners. A Scots nobleman, whom Tarf^eus calls 
€omes MagbragduSy commanded on one fide; and 3, Norwegian^ called 
LiotuSy on the other. Uotus was mortally wounded, and buried at 
Sten hou^ near the kirk oi IVaiten, The other battle was fought at 
Halfary, The large ftones ere<5ltd 2X Rangag' ?iX\di thereabout, are 
fcpulchral monuments, where perfons of note are buried. There 
was a battle fought in the i6th century, by xhtGunm and others,^ 
at a place called Blarnandofs^ near Harpifdale^ wherein the Gunns were 
routed. The beautiful river of Tburfg runs through this parifli, and 
numbers of falmon are caught in it. PiUiJh houfes are very nume- 
rous along the fliore, but all fallen down. It is a moft beautiful 
parifli, and muft have of old abounded with game and fifli, whicli* 
invited people to fettle in it. Mr. Sinclair of I/lifter^, is proprietor 
of one half of it. 

Parish OF BO WAR.. 

Here the Archdeacon of Cathnefs refided. The Pope of Rome^ 
was, of old, patron. I have in my pofleffion, two prefentations 
from his Holinefs to the Archdeacon of Bowar. It was antiently 
a very extenfive parifli, but now fFatUn is part of it. I know of 
no other place of Worfliip^ befides the parifli kirk,, excepting the 
chapel of Dun^ where a clergyman officiated, before the ereftion of 
the parifli of fFatten. I know of notliing memorable concerning it. . 
If. there ever were any grand buildings in it, no veftiges of thent 


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now remain. Torf^us mentions a great man that lived here in the 
X2th century, named Maddan : one of whofc fons was ftiled Magnus 
the Generous, the other Count Ottar of Thurfo. His daughter 
Helga married HaroJJ the Orator, Earl of Orkney. Another marri- 
ed Liciusy a noble Dane^ that lived in Sutherland. And the third 
was married to a Dane that lived in ' in Orkney. 

Parish op WAT TEN. 

A country fit for both tillage and pafture. The chapel of Dun 
ftands now in it. Here are no buildings but of modern date. The 
only memorable thing in this parifti is the grave^ oiUotus^ Earl of 
Orhuy. At Sten-bouj near the kirk oiWatteny ftands a great rock 
upon a green fpot of ground, which is faid to be the fcpulchral 
monument of this Earl. The Monkilh tradition is, that St, Magnus 
converted a dragon into this ftonc. This is as true as what they 
relate of his croffing the Pentland firth upon a ftone, and that the 
print of the Saint's feet is vifible on the fame ftone in the kirk of 
Burricby in South Ronaldftiaw in Orkney. 

N. B. In the hiftory of the family of Sutherland^ mention is 
made of one Sir Paul Menzies, Provoft of Aberdeenj who difcovercd 
a filver mine in Sutherland^ and found it to be rich, but death pre- 
vented his working it. It fecms he covered the place where he 
found it, and no perfon of (kill has obferved it fince that time. It 
h probable that. Cr^jf nargod is the place where this mine may be, 
and that this. difco very was the caufe of this appellation : for I can 
fee no other reafon for that name or defignation. Perfons of fkill 
ought to examine thefc bounds. Creign airgidy or the filver hill, 

is dbovtCuUmaHc. 


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A P P E K D I X, 357 


The life of Sir EWEN CAMERON^ 

THIS mtiooij*, (b deftripcife •( the mamien of the tfanevr tnd die wild war 
earned on between the Hero of the fnece, and CfiMNiWt people, was oomiii»> 
nicated to me by a gentleman of Lochaiir. It merits preservation not folelf 
on account of its cnriofity ; bat that it may prove an inilrafiive leflbn to the 
prefent inhabitants of that extenfive trad, by fhewing the happinefs they may 
enjoy in the prefent calm, after the long ftorm of war and affaffination their 
Inrefittbers were corfed with* 

SIR Ewen Camertm wzs bom in FAruary^ \Siq. He lived with- 
his fbftcrfathcr for the firft fevcn years, according to an old 
cuftom in the Highlands, whereby the principal gentlemen of the 
clan are entitled to the tuition and fupport of their chief's children 
during the years of their pupillarity. The foftcrfathers were allb' 
frequently at the charge of their education during^that period \ and 


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"when the pupils returned home, thefc fathers gave them a portion 
equal to what they gave their own children ; as the portion confided 
in cattle, before they came to age it incrcafcd to a confiderablc 

Before his years' of pupillarity expired, he was put under the 
charge and management of the Marquils of Argyle^ the fame who 
was executed foon after the reftoration. The Marquifs, intending 
to bring him up in ,the principlesof the Covenanters, put him to 
fchool at Inveraray under the infpeftion of a Gentleman of his own 
appointment. But young. Locbiel preferred the fport of the field 
to the labours of the fchool. Argyk obfcrving this, brought him 
back to himl'elf, and kept a watchful eye over him, carrying lym 
along with him whercvei he went. 

After the defeat of the Royal ids at PhiUphaugby in i645, itJiap- 
pencd that as the parliament fat at St. y4ndrew\ on the trial of the 
prifoners of diftindion there feized, Locbiel, who went there with 
the Marquifs, found means to pay a viUt to Sir Robert Spot/wood^ 
one of the prifoners, a few days before his execution. Then and 
there it was he received the firll intelligence concerning the ftate 
and principles of parties in Scotland. Sir Robert, happy to fee his 
young vifitant, the fon of his old acquaintanceship Cameron^ took 
the opportunity to relate in an eloquent manner, the caufes of the 
prefent rebellion, and its Jiiftory from its firft breaking out, with a 
view of the tempers and charafters of the different faftions that had 
confpired againft the Crown. He explained the nature of our 
conftitution, infifted n^uch on the integrity and benevolence of the 
King, but inveighed bitterly againft his Scotch enemies ; and con- 
cluded with expreOing his aftoniOiment how Locbiers friends could 


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^ut him under the charge of ArgyUy and conjuring him to abandon 
chat part as foon as he could. This difcourfe had fuch an im-^ 
preflion on the mind of Locbiel^ that it continued all his life time. 

Some time after, y^gyU addreflled his pupil in a different tone, 
but had little influence over him : he never could be fatisfied why 
fo many brave fellows were executed, as he heard no confeflions of 
guilt, as thieves and robbers are wont to make ; but dying with 
the courage and refolution of Gentlemen. After this, Locbiel was 
anxious to return to his country, inflamed with a defire of exerting 
himfelf in the Royal caufe, and of joining Montrofe for that end. 
Upon the application of his uncle Breadalbane^ and the Camerons^ 
Argyle parted with his pupil ; and he returned to Locbaber^ to head 
his clan in the i8th year of his age. 

An opportunity of ading the Chief foon occurred. GUngarj 
and Reppocb^ Heads of two numerous tribes of the AfDonaldsj re- 
fufed to pay Locbiel certain taxations for fome lands they held of 
him : Locbiel armed a body of the CameronSy with a view to compel 
them ; Glengary and Reppccbj finding him thus bold and refolute, 
thought proper to fettle their affairs amicably, and gave him no 
further trouble for the future. By fuch determined conduft, Locb- • • 

^^ enjoyed a profound peace for fome little time, while the whole 
of Scotland befides was a fccne of war and bloodflied. 

In 1651, Locbiel was honored with a letter from King Cbarles II. 
inviting him and his clan to ufe and put themfelves in arms, for the 
relief of their country and fovereign ; in confequence of which, 
early in fpring 1652, after colleding his men, he was the firft who 
joined Glencairn^ who had juft then fet up the Royal ftandard in the 
Highlands. In the different encounters his Lord&ip and the 

B b b Royalifts 

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Roytlifts had with LiUmme^ MorgaHy and others, Ldcbiel difpkytd 
more conduft and vigor than could be expe£ted from one fo youn^ 
and as yet unexperienced in the art of war. He diftinguUhed hira- 
felf in a particular manner in a ikirmilh which happened betweea 
Glencaim and Col. Ulbumej at Brearmar^ where he was polled at a 
pafs, which he defended with great fpirit, till Glencaim and his 
army retreated to a place of fecurity. UUmrne^ in the meaa time, 
getting between Locbitl and the army, and finding it impoflible to 
draw out the General to an engagement, made a violent atuck uj^ 
on Locbieli Locbiely after making a bold refiftance for fome time, 
at laft retreated gradually up the hill, with his face to the enemy, 
who durft not purfue him, on accouat of the ruggednefs of the 
ground, and the fnow that then covered it. Gkncamfs army was at 
this time full of fadkions and divifk>ns \ occalioned by the number 
of independent chiefs and gendemen in his army, who would not 
condefcend to fubmit to one another, either in opinion or a&ioo. 
Locbiel was the only perfon of diftinftion that kept himlelf difen^ 
gaged from thefe fadions ; for in order to avoid them, he always 
chofe the moft diftant parts, where his frequent fuccefles had en- 
deared him to the General, who recommended him in a ftrong 
manner to the King, as appears by die following Letter his Majefty 
fent him. 

" To our trufty and well beloved the Laird of LochUl 

" Trufty and well beloved, we greet you well. We arc infbniK 
•* ed by the Earl of Glencaim with what notable courage and 
^ affcdion to us you have behaved yourfclf at diis time erf tryal, 


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•* when our intereft and the honor and liberty of your country 
** is at ftake; and therefore we. cannot but exprefs our hearty fenfe 
** of fuch your good courage, and return you our princely thanks 
*' for the fame ; and we hope all honcft men who are lovers of us 
*• and their country will follow your example, and that you will 
** imite together in the ways we have direfted, and under that au- 
** thority we have appointed to conduct you for the profecution of 
** fo good a work, fo we do affure you we fhall be ready, as fbon 
** as we are able, fignally to reward your fcrvice, and to repair the 
*' loffes you fhall undergoe for our fervice, and fo we bid you fare- 
** well. Given at Cbantilfyy Ncv. 3. 1653. In the fifth* year of 
^' our reign.*' 

When Gtncvdl MiddletoH czmc fvom Holland^ 1654, to t^ke the 
command of the King's troops in Scotlandy Locbiel joined him with a 
full regiment of good men, while many of the other heads of clans 
made their peace with General Monkj who had marched into the 
Highlands at the head of a fmall army, giving another compo- 
fed of horfe and foot to General Morgan. Many trifling conflifts en- 
fued between thefc two generals and the Highlanders ; but Locbiel 
being of the party who had oppofcd Morgan^ an aftive and brave 
officer, run feveral hazards, and encountered many difficulties j but 
his prefiaiceof mind and refolution never forfook him. 

Monk left no method unattempted to bribe him into a fubmiffion. 
Thcfepropofals werefoengaging, that many of his friends importuned 
him to accept of them ; but he defpifed them all, and would not fubmit. 
Monk finding all his attempts ineffeftual^ refolved to plant a garrifon 
at Inverlochy^ vihercFori JViUidm now flands, in order to keep the country 
in awe, and their chief at home. Locbiilh^ng informed of this defign, 

B b b 2 thought 


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thought the moft advifable plan would be to attack the enemy on 
their march from Invemefs^ imagining they would come from that 
place or that way \ but the fuddcn arrival of the Englijb at fea dit 
conccrted all his meafures. They brought with them fuch plenty 
of materials, and were in the neighhorhood of fo much wood, that 
in a day's time after their landing. Col. BigaUy their commander, and 
the governor of the new fort to be eredted, had fecured his troops 
from 'all danger. 

Locbid faw all their motions from a neighboring eminence, and 
feeing it imprafticable to attack them with any probability of fuc- 
cefs, retired to a place three miles Wcftward, to a wood on the 
North fide of Locbiely called Achdalew -, from this he could have a 
full view of his enemy at Inverlocby. All his men he difmiilcd to 
remove their cattle farther from the enemy, and to furnifh them- 
felves with provifions: excepting about 38 perfons whom he kept 
as a guard. He alfo had fpies in and about the garrifon, who inr 
formed him of all their tranfaftions.. Five days after their arrival at 
Lruerlochy^ the governor difpatched 300 of his men on board of two 
veffels which were to fail Weftward a little, and to anchor on each fide 
of the fhore near AshddUw. Lochiel heard their defign was to cut down 
his trees and carry away his cattle, and was determined if poffible to 
make them pay well for every tree and every hide -, favored by 
the woods, he came pretty clofe to the (hore, where he faw their mo- 
tions foperfedbly that 'he counted them as they came out of the Ihip, 
and found the number of the armed exceed; 140, befidcs a number 
of workmen with axes and other inftruments. 

Having fully fatisfied himfelf, he returned to his friends, and alked 
their opinion. The younger part of them were keen for attacking 5 


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but the older and the more experienced remonftrated againft it, as a 
nioft rafti and hazardous entcrprife. Locbiel then enquired of two 
of the party who had ferved for fome time under Montrofe if ever 
they faw him engage on fo difadvantageous terms j they declared 
they never did. He, however, animated by the ardor of youth, or 
prompted by emulation, {{or Montrofe was always in his mouth) in- 
fitted in a fhort but fpirited harangue, that if his people had any re- 
gard for their King or their Chief, or any principle of honor, the 
Englijh ihould be attacked : " for," fays he, " if every man kills his 
man, which I hope you will do, I will anfwer for the reft.'* Upon this, 
none of his party made further oppofition, but begged that he and 
his brx)ther Allan Ihould ftand at a diftance from the danger. Locbiel 
could not hear with patience the propofal with regard to himfelf, 
but commanded that his brother A^an fhould be bound to a tree, 
and that a little boy fhould be left to attend him •, but he foon flat- 
tered or threatened the boy to difengage him, and ran to the conflift. 
The Camerons being fome more than thirty in number, armed 
partly with mufquets, and partly with bows, kept up their pieces 
and arrows till their very muzzles and points almoft touched their 
enemies* breafts, when the very firft fire took down above 30. 
They then laid on with their fwords, and laid about with incredible 
fury. The Englijh defended themfelves with their mufquets and 
bayonets with great bravery, but to little purpofe. The (kirmifh 
continued long, and obftinate : at laft the Englijh gave way, and 
retreated towards the fliip, with their faces to the enemy, fighting 
with aftonifhing refolution. But Locbiel^ to prevent their flight, 
commanded two or three of his men to run before, and from behind 
a bulh to make a noife, as if there was another party of Highland- 

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crs to intercept their retrekt. This took fo efFcdtually, that they 
Hopped, and animated by rage, madnefs, and defpair, they renew- 
ed the Ikirmifli with greater fury than ever, and wanted nothing 
but proper arms to make Locbiel repent of his ftratagem. They 
were at laft, however, forced to give way, and beuke themfelves 
to their heels ; the Camerons purfued them chin deep in the fea ; 
138 were counted dead of the EngUJh^ and of the Camerons only five 
were killed. 

In this engagement Locbiel himfelf had frveral wonderful e-' 
fcapes. In the retreat of the Englifl>^ one of the ftrongeft and braveft 
of the officers retired behind a bufti, when he obferved Locbiel pur- 
fuing, and feeing him unaccompanied with any, he leaped out, 
and thought him his prey. They met one another with equal fury. 
The combat was long, and doubtful. The Engli/h gentleman had 
by far the advantage in ftrength and fize ; hutLocbiel exceeding him 
in nimblenefs and agility, in the end tript the fword out of his hand: 
upon which, his antagonift flew upon him with amazing rapidity -, 
they clofed, and wreftled till both fell to the ground in each other's 
arms. The Engli^ OSiccr got above Locbi^U and preflcd him h$rd; 
but ft retching forth his neck by attempting to difengage himfelf, 
Locbiel^ who l^ this tin^ had his hands at liberty, with his left hand 
feized him by the collar, and jumping at his extended throat, he 
bit it with his teeth quite through, and kept fuch a hold of his grip, 
that he brought away his mouthful ; this, he faid, was the fweeteft 
Hie be ever bad in bis life time. Immediately afterwards, when con- 
tinuing the purfuit after that encounter was over, he found his men 
chin deep in the fea ; he quickly followed them, and obferving a 
felk)w pa deck aiming his piece at him, plunged into the fea, and 


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eObaped, but fo narrowly that the hair on the back part of his head 
was cut, and a little of the (kin ruffled. In a little while a fimilar 
attennpt was made to (hoot him : his fofterbrother threw himfelf be- 
fore him, and received the ihot in his mouth and breaA, preferring 
hh Chief's life to his own. 

In a few days afterwards, relblving to return to Gen. ASMetm^ he 
ordered all his men to aflemble and join him ; but while he waited 
for their return, he cut off another party of the garrifon foldiers, 
who were marching into the country, at Aicbentcre, within half a 
mile of the fort, killed a few, and took feveral prifoners. His 
former engagements with the General obtiged him at laft to join^ 
which he did, with a great number of his chn ; but was not long 
with him when he had certain information, that the Governor of 
JnverhcJby SLvsalcd hitn{k]£ of LocbuTs abfence, by making his troops 
cut down the woods, and colled all the proviiions in the country. 
His return to Locbaber being nsctSkry^JMSdMelM agreed to it, upon 
condition he would leave the greatefl: part of his men behind him. 
This he did, and fet out privately for his country with only 150 
men. He foon found his information was too true : ia order to 
obtain redrefs, he polled his men, early in the morning of the day 
after his arrival, in different parts of a wood called StronmvifSy 
within a mile of the garrifon, where the foldiers ufed to come out 
every morning, to cut and bring in wood. Four or five hundred 
came in the ordinary manner. Locbiely obferving them from a con- 
venient part of the wood where he refted, gave the fignal at a proper 
time. His men foon made the attack, the enemy were foon 
routed, and a great flaughter made ; 100 fell upon the fpot, and 
(he purCuit was carried on to the very walls of the garrifon. It is 



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remarkable, that not an officer cfcaped, they being the only aJtiyA 
perfons, that made refillance. Thus continued Locbiel for fomft 
time a peft to the garrifon, frequently cutting off fmall detachments, 
partly by ftratagem, partly by force ; but his name carried fo much 
terror with it, that they gave him no opportunity for fome time of 
doing them much harm. 

Gen. Middlcion being at this time extremely uftfuccefsful in fome 
of his adventures, particularly in an adbion fome of his troops had 
lately with Major Gen. Morgan^ at Lochgarrj^ where they were to- 
tally defeated, fent an exprefs to Locbiel^ fupplicating his prefence, 
that mcafures might be concerted how to conclude the war in an 
honorable manner. Locbiel refolved to go at the head of 300 men, 
and made the proper preparations for his journey with all imagin- 
able fccrecy ; yet the Governor gets notice of his intended expedi- 
tiofi, and orders Morgan if poffible to intercept him. Mddleton 
was at Brae-mar^ in the head of Aherdeenjhire^ between which place 
and Lochaber there is a continued range of hills for upwards of 
100 miles. Over thefe did he travel, fleeping in fhellings, (huts 
which the herds build for fhelter when in the mountains) on bed$ 
of hedder with their crops turned upwards, without any covering 
but his plaid. In the courfe of this expedition, he was like to ht 
furprized by the adivity of Morgan once and again -, but getting up 
to the tops of the mountains, he always cfcaped the enemy, but 
frequently not to their profit, as his men often run down the hill, 
and after difcharging a few pieces or arrows among them, would aj 
eafily afcend. 

Soon after his junftion with Mddleion^ the war was given over, 
.MidMuUUfon retired to France^ having prefented Locbiel with i 


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moft favorable declaration, figned at Dtmvi^un^ in 5^, March 31. 
1665. But though the war was thus given over in general, and 
many of the nobility and heads of clans had fubmitted to Monk^ 
upon getting their eftates reftored, Lochiel ftill ftood out, not aM« 
to bear the infoknce of the troops quartered in a garrifon fo near 
him. For the governor, encouraged by the departure of Mddletan^ 
and taking the advantage of LocbieVs abfence in ^, ufcd to allow 
his officers to go out frequently in hunting parties, well guarded 
with a good number of armed men, deftroying the ganK. Locbid^ 
on his return, having learned this, foon put a flop to their infolence ; 
for convening a party of the Camerons^ he watched one day at a 
convenient place, while he faw one of thefe hunting parties com- 
ing towards the hill whereon he fat, and having divided his men, 
and given them proper inftruftions, the attack was made with fuc- 
cefs : moft of the party were flain, and the reft taken prifoners. 
The lofs of fo many officers afforded new matter of grief and aflo* 
nilhment to the Governor, and prompted him to make fome at- 
tempts to obtain rcdrefs, but they were all in vain. He, however, 
by this time became acquainted with the fituation and manners of 
the country, and procured a number of mercenary defperadoes 
around him, who gave hhn exaft intelligence of whatever happened. 
This obliged Lochiel to flit his quarters to a farther diflance from 
the fort, while he employed fuch of his clan as continued' faithful, 
as counter-fpies near the garrifon •, and by their means, the refolu- 
tions and plans of the Governor were not only made public, but 
many of his fpies were detefted and apprehended, whom Lochiel 
ordered to be hung up, without any ceremony or form of trial. 

C c c Soon 


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Soon after his encounter with the hunting party, an exprefs came 
to him from the Laird of M^Naughtin^ a true Royalift in Cowal^ a 
couatry oppofite to Inveraray in Argylejhire^ acquainting him, that 
there were in that country three EngUJhj and one Scotch Colonel, 
with other Officers, who were deputed by Gen. Monk to furvcy the 
forts and forfeited places in that part of the Highlands •, and that 
it was poffible to feize them with a few ftout fellows. Locbielj re- 
joiced at this intelligence, picked out lOO choice Camerom^ with 
whom he marched for Cowal^ ftill keeping the tops of the moun- 
tains, left his defigns (hould be difcovered and publilhed. There 
he met his friend M^'Naughtin^ who informed him that the Officers 
lay at a certain inn, well guarded with armed foldiers^ Upon 
which, he gave the proper orders to his men, who executed them 
with fo much expedition and {kill, that the officers, fcrvants, and 
foldiers were all apprehended, and carried, almoft without halting, 
, to a place of fecurity, before they well knew where they were. 
This place was a fmall ifland in Locb-Ortnicky a firefk water lake 
12 miles in length, about lo miles North of Imjtrlochy. 

The prifoners, though terrified at firft, were foon undeceived 
The horrible executions which Lacbul's men made in the feveral 
rencounters they were engaged in, made his enemies believe him to 
be cruel and fanguinary in his difpofition ; but the gentle treatment, 
and the great civility the prilbners met with, foon convinced them 
of the contrary : he omitted nothing that could contribute to their 
happinefs •, but particularly he propofed and exhibited feveral hunt- 
ing matches, which gave them great fatisfaftion. During their im- 
prifonment, they took the liberty now and then to reprefent to 


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Locbiel the expediency and the prudence of a treaty with the Gene- 
ral. He at firft rejedted the motion, and fcorned the advice-, but 
being often repeated, he began to give way to their reafonings, but 
ftill faid, that no wife man fhould truft his fafety in the hands of 
Itheir pretended Proteftor, whofe whole life was a continued fcenc 
pf ambition, rebellion, hypocrify, and cruelty ; and that though he 
was able to do little for the fcrvice of the King or his country, yet 
would he always prcferve his confcience and honor unftained, till 
perhaps a more favorable opportunity of reftoring the King might 
offer. Thefe conferences being often renewed, brought Locbiel to 
declare himfclf in a more favorable manner. For the truth is, that 
he diffembled his fentiments at firft, wanting nothing fo much as an 
honorable treaty ; for his country was impoverilhed, and his people 
almoft ruined. He ftill, however, protefted, that before he would 
confent to difarm himfelf and his clan, abjure his King, and take • 
oaths to the Ufurper, he would live as an outlaw and fugitive, 
without regard to confequences. To this it was anfwered, that if 
he only fliewed an inclination to fubmit, no oath ftiould be required, 
and he ihould have his own terms. 

In confcquence of this affirmation, Locbiely with the advice of his 
friends, made out a draught of his conditions, which were tranfmit- 
ted to Gen. Monky by Col. Campbell one of the prifoners, he having 
given his word of honor he would foon return. Upon receipt of 
this, the General made out a new fet of articles, of much the fame 
nature with the draught fcnt, which he returned to Locbiel^ fignify- 
ing to him, if he agreed thereto they would ftand good, otherwife 
not. After making fome fmall alterations, Locbiel confcnted, and 
the Marquifs of Jrgyle became his guarantee. This treaty was 

C c c 2 burned 

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burned in a houfe of Lochid% which was confumed by accident. 
However, the moft material articles arc preferved in Monk^s letters 
to him, and are a» follows. 

' No oath was required of Locbiel to CrOmweHy but his word of 

* honor to live in peace. He and his clan were allowed to keep 

* their arms as before the war broke out, they behaving peaceablj^ 

* Reparation was to be made to Locbiel for what wood the Governor 

* of Inverhcby cut on his grounds. A free and full indemnity was 

* granted him for all riots, depredations, and crimes committed by 

* him or his men preceding the prefcnt treaty. Reparation was to 

* be made to the tenants for all the loffes they fuftaincd from the 

* garrifon foldiers. The tithes, cefs„ and other public burdens 
^ which had not been paid during the wars, were remitted^ on con- 
*• dition they fhould be paid afterwards, with feveral others of the 
^ like nature.* All that was demanded by Mot^ of Locbielj was,, 
that he and his clan fhould lay down their arms in name of King 
Charles II. before the Governor of htverkcbyy and take them up 
again in name of the States, without mentioning the Protc6h>r ; that 
he would afterwards keep the peace,, pay publick burdens, and 
fupprefs tumults, thefts^ and depredations. 

Thefe articles being agreed to, and fubfcribed by Monk and 
LochieU the prifoncrs were difcharged,. but Locbiel begged they 
would honor him with their prefence at the ceremony of laying 
down their arms, which they complied with. Having convened a 
relpeftable number of his clan, he ranged them into companies,, 
under the command of the Captains of their refpedive tribes, and 
put himfelf at their head. In this manner he marched to Inverhcby^ 
in the fame order as if going to batde, pipes playing, and colors flying. 


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The Gpvcwaor drew out the foldiers, and put them in order on a 
plain near the fbrt^ placing them in two lines oppofite to the 
Cameram. Lachiel and the Governor firft f;iluted each other as 
friends. The articles of the treaty were then read, dnd the cere- 
mony of laying down and taking up the arms performed. Both 
parties afterwards partook of a fplendid entertainment, prepared by 
the Governor for the occafion to the great fatisfaftion of all prefent. 
Thus did Locbiel^ the only Chief in the Highlands that continued 
to fupport the Royal caufe after it was agreed the war ihould be 
given over, at laft fubmit in an honorable way. Advnk fent him 4 
fetter of thanks for his chearful compliance, dated at Dalktitb^ 
Sjune 1655. 

During the remaining part of Otivir^s life, and the reigns of 
King Charles IL and JaM£8 II., Locbi^l lived chiefly at home, in^ 
a broken kind of tranquility, occafioned by the diftra6kions of the 
times, and the pretenfions of neighboring Chiefs and Lairds to 
parts of his eftatc : but be always fhewed fo much prudence and 
courage on every emergency, as gained him the friendfhip of the 
great and the efteem of all. He was held in particular favor by the 
two brothers Charles and James, and received from them many 
marks of their royal regard. It may not be unworthy the attention 
of the curious to narrate the following incident.^ 

Lschiel and the Laird oi M^Inia/b had a long difpute concerning 
Ibme lands in Locbaber. M^IntoJh claimed them in confequcnce of 
a grant of them he had from the Lord of the IJks^ afterwards con- 
firmed by K. David Bruu: Locbicrs plea was perpetual poffcflion. 
The contcft was often renewed, both at the law courts and by arms. 
Many terms of accommodation were propolied to the contending 


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parties, but in vain. King Charles II. himfclf woirid needs be 
the mediator ; but nothing but fuperior force would prevail. In 
1665, M^IntoJh^ with his own clan and tht M^Pber/onSy convened 
an army of 1500 men, with which he fets out for Locbaber* 
Locbiely zxdtA by iht McGregors ^ raifes 1200, 900 of which were 
armed with guns, broad fwords and targets, and 300 with bows 
and arrows. (It is remarked, this was the laft confiderable body of 
bowmen that ever was feen in the Highlands.) Juft as they were 
in view of one another, and almoft ready to fight, the Earl of 
Breadalbane, who Was Coufm German to both, arrived at the head of 
300 men, and immediately fent for the two Chiefs. He declared 
whoever fliould oppofe the terms he was to offer, he fliould join the 
contrary party with all his power, and be his foe while he lived. 
Accordingly propofals of agreement were made, and fubmitted to 
by both parties. Locbtel continued in pofleffion of the lands ; for 
which a fum of money was given to M'IntoJhy to renounce all 
claims for the future. The articles of agreement were figned 20th 
September 1665, about 360 years after the commencement of the 
quarrel ; and next day the two Chiefs had a friendly meeting, and 
exchanged fwords. The leading Gentlemen of both dans performed 
the fame friendly ceremony. 

It muft appear ftrange, that now not a bow is to be feen in the 
Highlands, nor any propenfity towards that kind of armour. Oiie 
might imagine, when the difarming a<ft took place, bows and arrows 
would have been a good fubftitute for guns •, and, if I recollect 
right, there is no prohibition of bows in the aft. 

At the revolution. Sir Ewen^ who was always prepoflcflfed in 
favor of the hereditary right, and particularly for James, whofe 


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friendfeip he had often experienced, and was refolded to fupport his 
caufe, as far as he could, at all hazards. In this refolution he was 
confirmed by .a letter he had from James, dated 29 March 1689, 
then in Ireland^ foUiciting his aid, and that of his friends. Upon 
receipt of this letter, he vifited all the neighboring Chiefs, and 
wrote to thofe at a diftance, communicating to them the King's 
letter, and calling a general meeting to concert what meafures 
ihould be taken. They aflemblcd on A% 13th, near his houfe, 
and mutually engaged to one another to fupport his Majefty's.intercfl: 
againft all invaders. When Vifcount Dundee got a commiflion 
from King James to command his troops in Scotland^ Locbiel 
joined him with his clan, notwithftanding that Gen. M^Kay made 
him great offers, both in money and titles, to abandon James's 

He made a diftinguiflied figure at the Ikirmifti of Killikrankie^ 
under Lord Dundee^ againft Gen. M^Kay^ though then above the 
ageof fixty-three. He was the moft fanguine man in the council 
for fighting 5 and in the battle, though placed in the centre oppofire 
to Gen. M^Kafs owa regiment, yet fpoke he to his men one by one, 
and. took their feveral engagements either to conquer or die. Juft 
as. they began the fight,, he fell upon this ftratagcm to encourage 
Jiis men : He commanded fuch of the Camerons as were ported near 
him to make a great (hout, which being fcconded by thofe who 
flood on the right and left, run quickly through the whole army, 
and was returned by the enemy. But the noife of the mufquets and. 
cannon, with the echoing of the hills, made the Highlanders fancy 
that their fhouts were much louder and brifker than that of the 
enemy, and Locbiel crkd out,/* Gentlemen, Take courage, the day 

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" is ours : I am the oldcft Commander in the army, and have aU 
" ways obferved fomething ominous and fatal in fuch a dull, hollow^ 
" and feeble noife as the enemy made in their fhout, which prognof- 
" ticates that they aie all doomed to die by our hands this night; 
*' whereas ours was brifk, lively, and ftrong, and fliews we have 
" vigor and courage." Thefe words fpreading quickly through 
the army, animated the troops in a ftrange manner. The event 
juftified the prediftion : the Highlanders obtained a complete 
viftory. The battle was fought, 1 689. Lochiel continued for fomc 
time with that army ; but being diflatisfied with the condud of Gw- 
non and fome of the principal Officers, retired to Lochaber^ leaving 
his fon in his place during the reft oi the campaign. 

When terms of fubmiffion were offered by King William to the 
outftanding Chiefs, though many were glad to accept of them, yet 
Lochiel and a few others were determined to ftand out, untill they had 
King James's permiffion, which was at laft obtained, and only a few 
idays before King William's indemnity expired. 

There is nothing elfe memorable, in the publick way, in the lift 
of Sir Ewen Cameron. He outlived himfelf, becoming a fecond 
child, even rocked in a cradle ; fo much were xhc faculties of his 
mind, and the members of his body, impaired Hedied^.D. i7i8« 


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Of the massacre of the COLQUHOUNS. 

IN the Baronage of Scotland^ by Sir Robert Duglas^ it appears that 
in the years 1594 and 1595, the clan of McGregors with fome 
of their lawlefs neighbors, came down upon the low country of 
Dumbarton/hire^ and committed vaft outrages and depredations^ 
cfpecially upon the territories of the Colqubouns. 

In 1602 Humphry Colquhoun raifed his vafTals and followers to 
oppofe them, and was joined by many of the gentlemen in the 
neighborhood. Both parties met in Glenfrom^ where a bloody con- 
flidt enfued. They fought with great obftinacy till night parted 
them, and many brave men were killed on both fides, but the 
Colquhouns appear to have been worfted. The Laird of Colquhoun 
efcapcd, and retired to a ftrong caftle •, but was clofely purfued by 
a party of the enemy 5 they broke into the caftle, and found him in 
a vault, where they inftantly put him to death with many circum- 
ftances of cruelty. In the month of February it was that this 
Humphry Colquhoun was fiain ; at which time the young noblemen 
and gentlemen who were at fchool at Dumbarton came as fpeftators 

Ddd to 

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to fee the battle of GknfronSy but were not fuffered to approach near 
the danger, but were fhut up in a barn by the Colquhouns^ for fafety. 
The McGregors prevailing, arc faid afterwards to have barbaroufly 
put them all to death. 

This is the account given by the hiflx)rian of the family of Lufs^ 
but Mr. Buchanan * aflcrts that the Laird oiLufs efcaped from the 
battle, and was afterwards killed in Benachra Caftle by the M^'Far- 
tams^ thro* influence of a certain nobleman whom Lm/s had diC 

Let thefe fafts ftand as related by the paftizans of each houle^ 
but from the various adls of council, and the great fcverity of them,, 
and by the frequent confirmation of them by afts of parliament for 
near fjxty years afterwards, under different princes and different 
influences^ the necefllty of the fuppreffion of this unhappy clan, foe 
the common good, is fully evinced^ 

The humanity of the prefent Icgiflaturc did the laft year repeal 
thefe fanguinary a^s ; alledging, thai the caufes indtOHve of them 
far fuppreffing the fume of Gregour or M'Gregour, are mm Uttk 
known and have hng ceafed* 

^ Somamet of duis, p. 148^ 


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appendix: sir 


I N E R A R Y. 


2 1 Chcfter, Deonna^ Devana^ Ptol. Deva^ AntoH* Rav. Choroc. 

Devaj colonia legio cretica vicejima Valeria vidrix^ R. C. 
X 8 Northwich) Condate^ R. C. 
8 Knutsford, 

12 Macclesfield, 

10 Buxton, 

13 Middleton, 

1 1 Chefterfield, 
16 Workfop, 

12 Tuxford, 

8 Dunham Ferry, on the Trent, ^rivona fi. R. C. 

D d d 2 10 Lincoln, 

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lo Lincoln, Undum, Ptou Anton. Rav. Choroo.R. C. 

6 Wafhenbrough and back to Lincoln^ 

12 Spittle, 

12 Glanford Bridge, 

2 2 Barton, 

Humbcr River, y^ms^ Ptol. R. C. 
8 Hull, 

8 Burton Conftable, 
22 Burlington Quay, 

Its bay„ Gabrantuicorumportuofus/tHUSy Ptol. PortusfaGx^ 
R* C. 

5 Flamborough Head, Brigantum extrema^ R. C. 
lo Hunmanby, 

lo Scarborough, 
13t Robin Hood's Bay^ 
6i Whitby, 

13 SkcUin Dam,. 

9 Gifborough, 
12^ Stockton, 

Tees River, ^ifisfl. R. C. Its mouth, Bunumftms, Ptol. 
20 Durham, 

Were River, Vedrafl. R. C. 

6 Cheftcr-le-Street, Epiacum^ R. C. 

9 Newcaftlc, Pens Aetii^ Notit. Imp. 

Tyne River, Vedrafl. Ptol. r/Vw/ R. C. 

14 Morpeth,. 
• 9 Fclton^ 

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Googllp .__ 


10 Alnwick, Alaunaj Rav. Chorog. 
16 Belford, 
16 Berwick, TueJ^s^ Rav. Chorog. 

Tweed River, Alaunus^ Ptol. Tueda^ R. C. 


16 Old Cambus, 

10 Dunbar, Ledane^ Rav. Chorog. I)«» afmall hill, and bar 

a point of any thing. 

6 North Berwick, 

14 Prefton Pans,. 
8 Edinburgh,. 
9^ South Ferry,. 

Firth of Forth, Eoderia. 
2 North Ferry, 

Fife County, Horeftii^ 

15 Kinrofs, 

20 Rumbling Brig, Caftle 
13 Caftle Dupplin, Buabli) 
8 Perth, Orrea^ R. C. 
Tay River and its moui 
R. C. 
I Scone, 
I Lunkerty,, 
13 Dunkeld, 
20 Taymouth,. 

w DaU 


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15 Carrie on Loch-Rannoch, 
20 Blair, 

35 Through Glen-Tilt to Invercauld,. 
18 TuUoch, 
15 Kincairn, 
9 Banchorie, 
18 Aberdeen, 

Dee River, Diva ft. Ptol. R- C. 
Ythen River, liunafi. R. C. 
25 Bownefs, 
27 Craigfton Caftle, 
9 BamfF, 

Devron River, Celniusfl. R. C. 
8 CuUen, 
22 Caftle Gordon, 

Spey River, Celniusfl. Ptol. Tu^iSy R. C. 
8 Elgin, -^'/tfTWJ^, Rav. Chorog. 

10 Forres, 

1 1 Tarnaway Caftle, Calder, Fort George, 

Firth of Murray, Tu<e. Mft^. Ptol. Varar Mft. R. C. 

12 -Invernefs, PterotcUy caftra alata^ R. C. 
10 CaftieDuni^, 

18 Dingwall, Foules, 

Firth of Cromartie, L$xa.fl. R. C. 

RofsQiire, Creones^ R. C. The fame writer places at Gfcw- 
nerj in this county, Arafimum Imp. Rom. 
15 Ballinagouan, 

6 Tain^ 

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6 Tain, Caftra alaia^ Ftol. 

9 Dornoch. Its Firth, Vara Mft. Ptol. Abona /. R. C. 

Sutherland County, Logiy R. C. 
9 Dunrobin Caftle, 
18 Helmfdale, 

Ord of Cathnefs, Ripa alta^ Ptol. 

Cathoefs County, Camabii^ Caitim^ R. C. Virubium promonto- 
rium, R. C. 
8 Langwall, 

15 Cly the i Cly thcnefs, Virvedrum prom. R. C. 

8 Thrumfter,. 
3 Wick, 

Wick River, Ileafl. Ptol. 

16 Duncan's or Dunglby Bay, and John a Groat's Hpufe, 
Dunglby Head, Berubium promontorium^ Ptol. Caledonia 

extrema^ R. C. 
Stroma IQe, Ocetis Infula^ R. C. 
2 Canefby, and back the fame road to 
137 Invernefs, 

Invernefs County, Cakdonii^ R, C. 

17 General's Hut, 
15 Fort Auguftus, 

Loch luochy ^Longusfl. R. C. 
28 Fort William, R. C. places £^2M^ near it 
14 Kinloch-Leven, 

9 King's Houfe, 
ig Tyendrum, 

It Dai- 

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12 Dalmalie, 
1 6 Inveraray, 
22 Tarbut, 

Loch-Lomond, LincaUdor LacuSy R. C. 
8 Lufs, 

12 Dunbarton, theodofiay R. C. 

Firth of Clyde, Glota^ Taciti. Clotta jEft. R. C. 
15 Glafgow, CUdum^ Rav. Choroc. 
24 Hamilton, and back to Glafgow, 

13 Kylfithe, 
18 Sterling, 

8 Falkirk, 
15 Hopeton Houfc, 


18 Lenton, 

18 Bild, 

18 Moffat, 

18 Lockerby, 


21 Longtown in Cumberland, 

Netherby, Caftra expkratorum^ Anton. Aefica, Rav. 
9 Carlifle, Lugavallium^ Anton. 
1 8 Penrith, Bereda, Rav. Choroc. 


1 Shap 

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1 1 Shap in Wcftmorcland, 

15 Kendal, Ct^«ri»f|y«w, NoTiTilMPf 

1 1' Burton, Coccium^ R. C. 

1 1 Lancafter, LongGvicus^ Notxt. Imp. 
Lune River, Ahnnajl. R. C. 
'II Oarftang, 

II Prefton, 

18 Wigan, 

13 Warrington, 

21 Cheftcr, 

a I Downing in Flintfliirc, 

THE mtleat ntmet of plteei mtrked R. C. are borrowed from the latt 
Dr. Stuhl^^s accouAt of Richard ot Cirntifiir^ with hit aatient Map of Rjmam 
"Brittatn aad the Itinerary thereof, publiflied in 1757. The reft ftom Mr. H9rjff% 
Remarks on tuUnq^ Jtumntt lHnirwry% N§i$t$a iw^h tad KmfimmHi BritMmim 


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t 394 I 


D E X. 




aBERCROMBIES^ their BenevsJBj higher than Smwd$n^ 227 

•" Golgotha, 156 Berridalij 194, 204 


136 Berwi$k on Tweedy its Salmon 
140 fiflicry, 
Advocate's Library in £^»^»r^^, 63 ■ Bounds 


Alnwick Caftle,. 

Alum Works in Yorijhire^ 


Apolo^ to the Englifi Clergy^ 

jhpiuims of England^ 

ArgenUhiyStruarCh favorite foun- 

Arfhur^ Oven, 

■ Round Table^ 

Athol Houfe, 

Augufluiy Fort^ 



Aw^ Lochy 



Balfour J Sir William^ his piSure 
and charader, 

Bamborougb Cai^Ie, well regu- 
lated charity there, 


Bannockbourniy battle of 

Bafs Ifle, 

Beggars, few in Scotland 






249 — — North, ^ 

40 Birch tree, its great ufe, 

28 Birds, of Lincoln/hire^ 

if) m ■■ I Flamborough Head^ 
172 ■> Farn Iflands, 

35 Bimam Wood,. 

Black mealy a forced levy lb called, 224 

117 Blair Houfe, 118 
262 Bpdotria of Tacitus^ 54 
275 Bollitiry Pafsof, 132 

118 Botanic Garden at £^//«i»r^i5, 70* 
219 Bowar Parifh, 365 
170 Bownefs Cattle, its ftrange fitua- 

13 tion, 144 

6 Braan Cattle, 182 

Brae^mary .123, 

215 Brany fine cafcade on. the, 93* 

Brotche, 103- 

169 Buckinghanty Henry Stafford 

Duke of, his fate, 4. 

43>'44 fiulfinch, Greater, 131 

148 Bullers of Buchany 145 

257 Burghy the, in Murrajy a Danijb 


58 ttrength, 168, 306 

102 Bterlingtott Quay and Abby, 16,17 

42 Burrowjlonefsy 26j 

Bel'tcin^ a lingular fuperftition> no Buxtcn, its falubrious waters,. 5^. 


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Digitized by 



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I N D E X, 



curious near Bamff^ 


'Ider^ or Cawdor Caftlc, 
— its Thanedom, 
^amiusy Old, 
lamtr9n of LochUl, amiable cha' 
rafter of. 

Sir Eweriy his life. 





'^ampbelly Caftle, 

^annejby Parifli, 

Oanty Andrew y his epitaph^ 

Carberryj Battle of, 


Carron Iron Works, 

Camuli^ the orobus tuber ojusj 310 

Cfithneftj 193*200 

» account of, hj the Rev. 

Mr. Pope^ 
Cattle, Wild, 

Cawdrortj Lint a cataraft there, 
Ctrealiaj imitation of the an- 
, tient. 

Chain, the, what, 
jCbe/ierj its fmgular ftreets. 
• Hypocauft, 
■ battle of, 


Churches, flovenly in Scotland^ 25 
Clagh^na-hereyj conflift at, 
Clan-Chattafty or M^InUjhet^ 
Clergy, the antient Englijh^ 
their fondnefs for field 
fportSf 18 

Qcrgy, Scotch^ commendable 

conduft of, 172 

Chfn$ Pariiby 357 

Coal of Sutherhfid^ its miracu- 
lous quality, igi 
Coble, a fmall boat, 45 
ibid. Cock of the Wood, 217 
54 Cotirij its romantic ikuationy 36 
Cockle Tower, 3^ 
Columnar rocks at Dunbar^ 55 
Coldingham Moor and Abbyi 53 
Colquhaunsy Maflacre of, 385 
Cojuet Ifle, 40 
Coranich^ or howling at fune* 

rals, lis 

Coryaricb Hill, 222 

Cottages, wretched in the 

Highlands, 131 

Craigfton Caftle, 147 

Crane, now unknown in Eng* 

336 landy 14 

257 Creicb Parifh, 360 

82 Crichton, the Admirable, bis 

lift, 31 J 

309 Cromar^ diftrift in Aberieenjbln^ 134 

226 Cromartiey Firth of, , *ft 

. I Crows, Roy/iofiy or Hooded, q/f 

ibid. Cry of War in the Highlands, 212 

2 CulbUen Hill, 134 

Cullen Houk and Town, 151,152 





7 UuUej 

id. ■ I ■ ' 

fingular rocks near, 
CuUoden Houfe and Moor, 
Cuftoms, fingular ones in tl^e 

Highlands, no 

Cutbbert'Sy St. Ducks, 47 

DdUeithj Piftures there, 75 

Dalmore^ fine Pii^e foreft» 123 

Days, long in Catbtufs^ 204 

Dean of Guilds what, 179 

J}fa moires^ 268,260 

£ e e 2 DeafnU 


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N D E X. 

\ ; 

Diafoily ajuperftitious rite, 


Deiamere Foreft, 
Demons^ once belonging 

every great family, 
Dtfmond^ Countefs of, her bif-* 

Dingwall Town, 
Diurnefs Parifli, 
Dogger Bank, great Fiihery 

Dorij its Bridge, by whom 


i Parifli, 

DrugoTiy the Flandrtatty his 






£arl of, his monument 

and charafler, 56, 57 

Battles of. 

Dunbarton Caftle and Town, 


Dung/by Bay, 

/>«;s/V Caftle, 


Dunnet Parifli, 

Dunrobin Caftle, 


Dupplifij Pidures there, 



EaracbilisVzn{h\ • 
£/^r Ducks,. 

Edinburgh J its lofty fituation, 
I ■ incoaveniencies,, 

■ ' Refervoir, 

•— TT— Univcrfity, 


Page Page 

309 £/^/V, a good tdwn 162 

2 — its Cathedral, ibid^ 

— — hiftory of, by the Rev. 

Mr. Shawj 287 

Erfe language, where fpoken, 247 

Fairies, belief in, ti5 

Falcons, ^59 

Falkirk^ great Cattle fairs • 
there, 259 

■ Battles of, 259,260 

Far Parifli, 344 

Fam Iflands, 45 

Fajkally^ its beauties, 119 

Fafting Woman, extraordinary 

cafe of, 18& 

Fen, Eaft, its fi(h and birds 11,12,13, 
Fiery crofs, what, 21 1 

Fincbal Monz&cryj . 36^ 

57 Finij Loch, its Herring fifliery, 040 
248 FinlateTj Caftle of, 152- 

194 /&/Fi^^rdf(^& Head, its birds, 18,19 
196 Flixton^ 20 

180 Fachahers^ 16a 

. 92 Forfeited eftates, how applied 181 
351 Forres J great column near^ 167 

188 Fofs'dykey 8 

22 Foulis^ Meflrs. their Academy, 252 
5 Fraoch'Helany the Hejperides of 
35 the Highlands, 237 

Freeburgh Hill, a large Tumulus^ 32 
98 Frefwick Caftle, horrid fltuation 
340 of, X9& 

46 Funeral cuftoms, . 112 

61 Furviej overwhelmed with fand, 144 

62 Fyersy Fall of, 218: 
6j G- 
68 Oannet^ 59^1999204. 

II j Garjiang^ 281 


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N D 



. • Page 

Gecfc, how often plucked, lO 
Genealogical Piduret curious 

at Taytnoutbj 99 

Gi9rge^ Fort, Old, 178 

*—.— New, 174 

GiJb$rough^ 3^ 

Clafgow^ its magnificence, 250 

GUn-Coy .229 

.- — — defcribed, ibid* 

Glen-Muiky fine cataraft, 133 

GUn-Royj ftrange roads there,. 227 

GUn-Tiltj a dangerous Pafs,. 1 22 

Glen-Vrqubie^ 235 

Godrtcj St, his aufteritics, 37 

Golfpie Parifh, 358 

Gordon C^Mt^ ^ I57 

Gowrse*s Confpxracy, 89 

Graham^ John de^ his epitaph, 259 

Graham!% Dyke, 262 

Grampian Hills, 244 
Granite Quarries at North 

Ferry, ?« 

^ — Aberdiinj 14O 

Gre-hound, die Highknd„ 159 

GreafSj J$Bn tf^ houfe> J96 

Gull, Ar£iic^ 78 


Halkirk Parifli, * 3^1 

Halydon Hill, Battle of, 52 

Ifamiltonj Pifturcs there,. 254 

Hares, White, 97 

Heronry, a great, 13 

Herring fifhery, 240 

Hirriot's Hofpital, 67 

High-bridge, 223 
Highlands, aweful entrances 

into, . 247 

Highlanders, drefs of the men, 209 

■ ■ . -■—women, 2I2 

arms, 210 

• Page 
Highlanders, charafterof, 21 j 
i ■ ■■ Sports and amufe- y 

ments of, ^ 214 

Hilday St. . 31 

Holy'RaodHouCe, Piftures there, 65 
Hopiton Houfe, 263 

HomeJeOj ^ ^5 

Huntings, magnificent In old 

times, rio, I2i» 122 
James ill. where kill^ 257 
Jamefon, the Painter, 99 
fine Piaure o( his at 

Taymoutby, ^ ibid. 

■ other Pi£hires ofhis, 151 
Ida lands zX Flamborougby 18 

Jet, where found,- • 29 

7«£>*s Harp, found in an urn, 215 
/ffn/*/ Family, tragical relation 

of, r 160 

I I another, 3^9 
Inoculation, pra^fed as fac as^ 

Sbetlandj 202 

Inveraray, Town and CaftFe,. 238 

Invercauld, its magnificent fitu*- ^ 

. ation, 127 

InverUcby CafHe 225 

i battles ofy ibid. 

Iwuermfiy t^p 

— — Fair,. 208 

Toug, what,. 172 

Itinerary, , 3*7 . 

Kendah giea( Woollen Mana<- 
faauretiiere, 278 

^ Caftle, -29 

KilchumCT&ky: 2^ 

JS/iiMnurii Parim^ 

KiUkrMkii^ Pa6 of, ; m 


Digitized by 



IGnguJte Priory 

N D 


'LiVin^ 231, 233 

i(7«fo/x Abby, "^ 164, 3O2 

Klnmore Chufch, decent con- 



grcgatidrt ther^ 
Kittiw^ke^ a fort of Gull, 

Labor^ its price in 5ffl//a«^j 84>>i32 
Lakes, rcvievr of^ , 14^ 

Lancajier^ ' ^80 

jL^r^ Parifli, 361 

Late wake, a ftrange funeral 

cnftoin, 112 

Lathrone Parilh, 354. 

Lavellan^ the Water Shrcw- 

Moufe, 194 

Ligh^ Perkin tr, his epitaph, 4 

Leithy 71 

hefUyy General, his charafter,' 147 
Lincoln^ its bcautiftil Cathedral, 9 
Livings, Scotch^ value of, 
Lochaberj 223, 

Lochiel^ his feat, 
— — ^— : — its Fifji and 6ird$, 

■ • ' fiege of its Caftle,. 
Loch' Lomond J its cnarms, 
Loncariy^ Battle of, ' 
Longevity, great inftances ;of, 
Lojfu River, 
Loth Parifli, 
Lothian^ Eaft, its fertility, 


Macclesfield^ 3 

Mac-Gregors^ a murderous dan, 243 

■ ^ farther account of 
Ithem^ 385 






E X. 

Mackrcl-Sfiire, %j£^ 

MuC'Nabbs^ an antient family 

of Smiths, at6. 

Mac-Robert^ a noted plunderer, 10$ 
Marble, White, . 194: 

Marriage Cuftom^ fingular, ^^ 
Mayborough\ a curious anti- 
quity, 2yB 
Michaelmas Moon, what, 171 
Moffaty 26*' 
Moncrief^ Hill of, its fine view, 86 
Monro ^ Sir Robert ^ his epitaph, 260 
Morpeth J 5^ 
MorverHj high hill in Ahtriem- 

Jkircy 134 

Mountain, the Black, 231^ 

Moy-hally ' 2I66 

Mummies, Natural, i6y 

Murray y County of, ks hiftorf, 207 

— — ilarl of, the bonx^^ 169 

■ ' ' ■■ Bifhoprick of, j^ 


Nehalennia^ the Goddefs, 

?f^/. Loch, 

Agitations of, in 



215, 219 


Netherbyy Antiquities there, 

Newbottlcj Pi€bxrts there, 

Newcq/lle on Tyne^ 

■ its Salmon 

fifliery, 271 

Ninfan^s St. Church blown up, 258 





Ochii mih. 

Officers, Half-pay, their lauda- 
ble purfuits in North Britain^ 


Digitized by 




Ord of Cathnefs^ a high, pro- 
montory, 193 
Orkney Ifles, 197 
Ofwyj his anfwer to St. C^lman^ 31 
Ouzels, Ring, 98 


Pananich Spaw, . 133 

Pardon for fins, its pricCj. 4 

Pearls, 88 

Pmrithy the Pillars at^ %jz 

Caftle, a74 

Perthy a fine town^ . 8? 

i— -. its trade, 88 

Phinocs, a fpecics of Trout, 229 

Pi£tifl) Caftles, 190 

^*- — Houfes, 336 
Pines y Obfervaticms on their 

Growth^ 283 



J?ines, vaft plantations of^ iiJ5 

Pinky^ battle of, 60 

Pkgue atP^wnVA, ' 274 

Pre/ion Pans^ battle of> 60 

PtufcardnrtPMiyj^ 164 

Proverbs, Erfe^ 23^ 

Provifions, prices of, at £<//«- 
burghy -ji 

\ VLt jfberdceptyijfo 

' ^Invernefsy 179 

Ptarmigans,. 97 

Quern, a hand-mill^ 

Rannoch^ Loch,. Pine v foreft 

near, 106 

Rats, will not live InSuiberlandy 191 
Reay, Parifti of, 347 

Rents, how paid in the High- 
lands, * 132,185 

— raifing of, ill efFefts of, 228 

Richmond^ France s^ Dutchefs of, 
her charafler,. 149 

Page Page 

Roads, the Military,, 232 

Robin Hood's Bay, 28 

Roc' Bucks, 107 

Rogari Parifli, 361 

Royfton Crows, 9^ 

Rumbling Brig near QUn^ 

Devon^ 82 

— ., ■ i near Dunkeld^ 93 

Ruthvettj General, his pifturc 

and character, 74 

Sacrament,^ fometlmes inde- 
cently received in North Bri^ 
tain^ lOP 

Sailors and Soldiers, attempt 

to colonize, ii& 

Salmon fifheries, antient laws 

to preferve, 14J, 

' ■ ■■III in Englandy 51 

■ in Scotland^. 160^201 

Salt pits at Nortbwichy 3 

Sand, inundations of, 144,168 

Scarboroughy 20 

-^ — — — its Fifheries^ 25 

Sconey 90 

Scotlandy unpromiiiog entrance 

into,. 5jt 

Seals, 201 

Secoiid fight,. 198 

Sheetings, or Summer Dairies, 123 
SkipJfyC^Uy • 16 

&hgp rriory, 277 

— curious range of ftoaes^ ibid. 
Shoe, antient,. 269 

Shin's Caftle,. 144 

Snow flecksy 130 

SolandGctk^ videGznntX.. 
South Ferry y its fine view, 77 

Spalding^ 14 

Spedlre ftory, 109 

Speyy a vioteit river, 2 59 



Digitized by 



i N D ex; 

Sjrinie Caftle did LakCy 



Stiie Creichj what. 

Stocking Trade in Aberdeen^ 



Strathnavery its hiftory, 

Stroma Ifle, 

Struanj Robert/on of y a Poet, 

Stuart y Maryy Pifhircs of. 

Sumptuary Laws, 
SHTibyy a Roman Port, 

hiftory of, by 








Rev. Mr. Pope^ 
Swinejhtad Abby, 
Sybillaj Queen, where buried, 
Syha CaUdonioy 

Taltiy capital punifhment once 

ufed there, 
TantalUn Caftle, 
Tarnaway Caftle, 
■ Piflures there, 

^araruj a fpecies of fpedlre. 
Toy Loch, 
•— never frozen till the 

182, 256 








— — Ifle, and Convent on 

it, 102 

Tay-bridgiy Infcription on it, 99 
Tay-mouthy its beauties, 94)95 

Tayre^Sj St. Chapel, cruel maf- 

facre there, 200 

Theft of Cattle, once held not 

difhonorable, 224 

T'Awr/i P^rifh, 349 

Tongue Parifh, 343 

Tcrdown Caftle, its Angular 



Tumelj the Falls of» 


Tunny, 241 

Tumerj Dr. William^ the Na- 

turalift, 39 

Tweedy 49 

Tytndrumy the higheft feated 

houfe in Scotland^ 23S 


Ulricy St. hiscarth, 191 

Urns, 154 

VrquhartCl9\cy 217 

■ Priory, 303 

V • 
Venereal patients, where former- 
ly connned, 264 
War, laft private in Scotl^dy 203 
JVater^Crooky the old Concan* 

gtumy 279 

flatten Parifli, 366 

fFerej itsfifh, 36 

fVbitbyy 30 

" great herring fishery 

there formerl/, ibid. 

Wicky 19s 

' Parifh, 352 

TVilliamy Fort, 226 

Witches, where burnt, 6g 

■ Macbeth' Sy 165 
— — of Thurfoy X 88 
Wolf of Badenochy 297 
Wolves, how long exifting in 

Scotlandy 226 

Women, the common, hardly 
treated in North Britainy 146, 202 

I o 

Yew tree, a great, 105 

nri^Cafcade, 118 

Ythen River, 144 

I N 

I S. 

Digitized by 


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Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by