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Ecclesiastical Hemldry 

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Although the present volume is published indepen- 
dently, and a large portion of its contents has been in 
MS. for a considerable time, it may yet be considered as 
in some sort a continuation of, or supplement to, "A 
Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign," published 
in 1892. The reader will not therefore expect to find 
in it information which is already fully supplied in the 
larger work, and the present book is in no sense an 
introduction to Heraldry in general. On the contrary 
as it deals only with a limited but very interesting 
branch of Armorial Science it presupposes the posses- 
sion of a certain knowledge of Heraldry on the part of 
its readers ; and though it is hoped that others who are 
as yet without that special knowledge may find in the 
pages of the work many matters of interest, it is obvious 
that a full appreciation of its information can only be 
made by those who have a fair acquaintance with the 
general subject. Manuals of, and Introductions to, 
Heraldry have been sufficiently abundant. For the most 
part compilations from their predecessors, and showing 
very little original investigation or research, the cratnbe 
repetita has been dished up ad nauseam ; but more 
advanced treatises, or books like the present, dealing 
more fully with particular branches of the subject than 
is possible in a general work, have been very few and 
far between. So far as I know no work of this kind 
exists at home or abroad. The object of this treatise is 



to deal with the science of Heraldry from an Ecclesi- 
astical point of view: to give information as to the 
Armorial Insignia of Episcopal Sees, Abbeys, Religious 
Foundations, and Communities at home and abroad ; 
to indicate the various manners in which Ecclesiastics 
of different grades have borne their arms, and combined 
their personal with their official insignia ; and fully to 
describe those ornaments and external additions to the 
shield by which Ecclesiastical ranks and offices have 
been, and are, distinguished. 

Accordingly the work consists of Two Parts. The 
First deals with the general use of Armorial Insignia by 
the Ecclesiastics of the Western Church from the earliest 
times to the present. This portion contains much 
curious and out of the way information on subjects 
which have never yet been fully treated by an English 
writer. Its information and illustrations have been 
gathered not only from collections of coins, medals, and 
seals, and from many scarce works, unknown to the 
general reader, which are only accessible in Public 
Libraries of the first class, but are also largely derived 
from the extensive notes made by me in a lengthened 
experience of over thirty years' travel in Italy, Germany, 
France, Spain, etc. 

In the course of that time I have always had in mind 
a work on the present lines, and consequently have 
amassed, in an area which extends from the Peninsula 
to Poland and from Sicily to Sweden, the information 
which I have now the pleasure to make accessible. It 
is confidently hoped that the artist, and the collector of 
books, plate, seals, china, bookplates, etc., as well as the 
antiquary and student of Heraldry, will find here much 
that is useful and interesting. 

The Second Part contains an enlargement and correc- 
tion of the " Notice of the Arms of the Episcopates of 
Great Britain and Ireland, with Heraldic Notes," written 

( iii ) 

by me in illustration of a series of illuminated coats of 
arms, published by A. Warren in 1868. This book 
(of which Her Majesty the Queen was pleased to accept 
the dedication) has been long out of print, and repeated 
requests have been made to me that its letterpress 
should be reprinted. This is now done, with much 
additional historical information, with some corrections, 
and a new series of plates. 

This portion of the work also includes the arms of the 
numerous colonial Sees, and those of the chief Abbeys 
and Religious Houses, the Deaneries, and other ancient 
Ecclesiastical Foundations in England. 

The Continental portion of this section contains the 
blazon of the arms of the Popes from 1 144 to the present 
time ; an account of the great Religious Principalities of 
the Holy Roman Empire ; and much historical and 
heraldic information with regard to the principal Sees, 
Religious Houses and Chapters in Germany, Italy, 
France, Poland, and the Low Countries ; as well as the 
arms and devices of the most important religious Orders 
and communities ; and of the British and some foreign 

The number of coats of arms blazoned in the work 
exceeds a thousand. 

In the Appendices will be found much curious matter 
in the essays "On the use of Supporters by Ecclesiastics," 
and *' On the Continental Chapters, with their P reaves 
de Noblesse r and I venture here to direct the special 
attention of my readers to them, because considerations 
of space have required that they should be printed in 
smaller type than the rest of the work, and they arc thus 
in some danger of escaping notice. As much of the 
subject matter of the book should be of interest to others 
besides those who belong to my own branch of the 
Catholic Church, I have been careful in the statement 
of facts to avoid any expression which might jar upon 


the sensibilities of those who differ from me on some 
theological matters ; I trust that the confidence in my 
fairness, which induced Ecclesiastics (and others) of high 
position in another communion to take an interest in 
the progress of the work, has been fully justified. 

While I have been careful by the use of abundant 
references in the pages of the book to give the sources of 
my information with regard to matters which had not 
come under my personal observation, I think it right 
also to express here, in general terms, an acknowledge- 
ment of my obligations to the published works* on 
general heraldry of the great German armorial writers, 
Spener and Siebmacher. The outlines of some of 
the illustrations have been taken from Triers, Ein- 
leitung zu der Wapen-Kunst; and from Magneney, 
Recueil des Armes. 

In some portions of the work I have been frequently 
indebted to POTTHAST*S invaluable Wegwetser durch die 
Geschichtswerke des Europdischen Mittelalters^ and to 
Janauschek'S book Originum Cisterciensuun, 

My thanks are due to PERCEVAL LAN DON, Esquire, 
of Hertford College, Oxford, for placing at my service 
the interesting and valuable notes on the Heraldry of 
the Oxford Colleges which he is now printing in the 
Arclueologia Oxoniensis. 

The excellent Index, which adds so greatly to the 
value of a book of this description, and which has been 
a work of more than usual difficulty, has been compiled 
by George Harvey Johnston, Esquire, who rendered 
the like service in the previous volumes. 

In a work which deals so largely with names of 
persons and places, as well as with technicalities, errors 
(and not merely orthographical ones) will sometimes 
escape that which has appeared to be the closest and 
most careful vigilance. While I can hardly hope that 
my experience in this respect will be entirely different 

( V) 

from that of my predecessors, or render this preliminary 
apology altogether unnecessary, I may yet say that I 
have done what I could to make it so. And in this con- 
nection I desire to express my thanks to my friend 
the Rev. J. Myers Danson, D.D., of Aberdeen, who 
has obligingly revised most of the proof sheets, and 
has thus been of very considerable assistance to me and 
to my readers. 


" Feci quod potui, melius alter facial opus." 


MON TROSK, \ St Jan. 1894. 




Miliury Origin of Armorial Bearings — Their adoption for Secular 
Purposes — Seals, authentic and forged — Personal Effigies on 
Ecclesiastical Seals — Seals of Benedictine and Cistercian 
Abbots — Personal Arms introduced — The various kinds of 
Seals — Ancient gems— Arms of Sees and Abbeys, how com- 
posed—The Crosier, or Pastoral Staff— Ecclesiastical Founda- 
tions of the Kings of France — Arms of Italian Sees — Arms 
assumed — Preuves de Noblesse — Brisures, Marks of Cadency, 
or of Illegitimacy, in Ecclesiastical Arms — The Mitre as a 
Heraldic Charge — Series of Seals of the Benedictine Abbots 
of Molk —Arms on Ecclesiastical Vestments, etc. pp. 3 — 31 


External Heraldic Ornaments, Spiritual and Temporal — The 
Coronet, its use on the Continent— The Temporal Sword- 
Helmets and Crests used by Ecclesiastics — MiUtar)' Fiefs 
held by Ecclesiastics — The Church Militant — The Ecclesi- 
astical Hat, etc pp. 32 — 38 



Arms in a Cartouche— The Bircita^ and the Ecclesiastical Hat — The 
Chanter^s Baton — Protonotaries — Canons and Chatwinesses — 
Noble Chapters — Their Insignia -The use of the Amess, or 


( viii ) 

Amusse, at Home and Abroad — Mitred Canons and Digni- 
taries — Lay Honorary Canons — Priors and Prioresses — 
The Bourdon — The Pastoral Staff—Mitred Priors — Provosts 
and Deans— Official Arms of Cathedral Dignitaries — Clerical 
Members, and Officers of Military Orders of Knighthood — 
Chaplains of the Order of St John — Canons of St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, etc. pp. 39 — 57 



Crosier, or Pastoral Staff— Its Histor>' — The Celtic Stafi*-- 
The Bachul More, and S. Fillan'S Quigrich — The Crutch, 
or Tau-headed Staff— Mediaeval Crosiers — The Mitre — Its 
History — Anglo-Saxon Mitres — Different kinds of Mitres — 
Their Colour — Abb^s-commendataires — Custodinos — Abb^s 
Rt^gulters— The Sudarium — The Abbatial Hat — Ensigns of 
Temporal Jurisdiction —Ecclesiastical Princes and Princesses 
— The Cordeli^re pp. 58 — 78 



cial Arms, how borne — Bishops Elect — The Ecclesiastical 
Pairs de France — French Coronations — Arms of the Pairies- 
The Mantle — German, Italian, and French Usages — The 
Mitre and Pastoral Staff— The Temporal Sword — Military 
Fiefs — Helmets — English Uses — The Episcopal Hat — Tem- 
poral Dignities attached to Ecclesiastical Offices— Coronets — 
The Mitre as a Crest — Gonfanons — Advouds — Vidames, etc. 

pp. 79—107 


archbishops, legates, primates, PATRIARCHS. 

\ Pallium — Exceptional uses of it — The Arch i -episcopal Cross 
— Legates — Temporal Dignities — Primates and Patriarchs — 
The Double-traversed Cross — The Archi-episcopal Hat — The 
Patriarchal Tiara, etc pp. 108 — 133 

( ix ) 



The Red Hat, biretta^ and calotte— \Jst of Coronets — Cardinals 
from Regular Orders — Arms of Patronage — Composed Arms 

pp. 134- 149 



The Tiara — The Keys — The Triple-Cross — The ferula — The 
Pavilion de VEglise — " Cardinal Camerlengo " sede vtuante— 
Popes from Regular Orders — Supporters of Papal Arms 

pp. 150—157 



Arms of the Popes from 1444- 1894 . pp. 158-167 



Arms of En(;lish, Scottish, and Irish Sees blazoned, with His- 
torical and Heraldic Notes — Anns of English Deaneries, and 
certain Ecclesiastical Foundations pp. 171 — 228 


Arms of Colonial Sees pp.229 — 251 


Archbishops and Bishops, Electors and Princes of the Holy 

Roman Empire, and in Central Europe . pp. 252—333 



Abbeys, and other Princely Foundations of the Empire 

PP- 334-35" 


Arms of Abbeys and other Religious Houses in GREAT Britain 

PP- 352—393 


Abbeys, Monasteries, etc. in Germany, Switzerland, France, 
the Low Countries, and Styria pp. 394—411 



The Order of S. Benedict— "Black Friars"— The Cistercian 
Order — Semi-religious Military Orders in the Peninsula — 
The Bernardines, Feuillants, Trappists — Congr^galion 
de SL Maur—Les Ft lies Anglaises—CujG'iiixcs — The Car- 
thusian Order — Chartreux— /^'^ Petits Augusiins — les 
Augustins cUchauss^s — AUGUSTINE CANONS — "The Black 
Canons" — The Premonstratensians — " The White Canons' 
— The Franciscans— Minorites, Frtres mineurs — Corde- 
uers— Observantins, les ^/r^//d7j— Capuchins— TiERCE- 
lins — The Dominicans, Fr^res /'M-Z/^ri/rj- Jacobins— The 
Carmelites — Minimcs — Bonshommcs — Servites — Ma- 
thurins, or Trinitarians— The Jesuits —The Nuns of the 
Visitation— The Gilbertines— The Celestines— Order 
OF Camaldoli— Ursulines— Th]£.\tins — Oratorians 

pp. 412—425 


ARMS OF universities AND COLLEGES. 

English Universities :— Oxford — Cambridge — Anns of 
Regius-Professors at Cambridge— Durham and affiliated 
Colleges — London— Victoria University. 

(xi ) 

Scottish Universities :— St. Andrews — Glasgow — Aber- 

Irish Universities :— The University of Dublin— Trinity 
College— The Royal University of Ireland. 

Universities of Melbourne and Sydney. 

Foreign Universities -.—Heidelberg — Paris — Prague— 
Mentz — Greifswald — Basel — Gratz — Salzburg — 


— CoLN — WiEN (Vienna) — Erfurt — Bologna — other 
Italian Universities pp. 426—456 



English and Scottish Examples — Modem Instances — Foreign 
Examples — Papal Supporters . pp. 457*471 



Nobility — Its legal definition — Continental noblesse — The feudal 
system in Germany and Gaul — The Tourneys — Ebenbiirtig- 
keit — Nobility by Diploma — Freie^ und IMbei^rene — Scrvi- 
tiuni mi/it are — Miitel-freie — Semper liberi — A delige — Nobiles- 
minores — Patrician, or Burgess, families of the " Free Cities " — 
Proofs of Nobility — The German Chapters and their require- 
ments— Canonesses — Italian Chapters and Orders — French 
Chapters — Canons-Counts — Chanoinesses-Comtesses — Noble 
Chapters in the Low Countries — Dames-Che^'alit^res at 
NiVELLE — Badges and Decorations — Noble Chapters in 
Austria, Bavaria, Sweden, and Denmark pp. 472—495 

Papal Grant of Mitre to the Abbot of Kklso. p. 495 

(xii ) 


Episcopal Arms assumed — Episcopal right of mutation — What 
constitutes "authority" — GLOUCESTER — Salisbury — 
Bangor— Hereford — Durham— Wells— Canterbury— 
Roman Catholic Sees j)|). 495 — 499 

Seai^, ETC., OF American Bishops . pp. 499—500 

List of thk Sees in France at various times pp. 501—503 


[. Aran of ArchbUliops, Cardintla, etc. 
[. ., of Ahb«]r«, Buhops, anil Anihb 
[. „ of CkDODi, Abhi «i<1 Prior . 
„ of Protonoterjr til BiBNAaii, h 

'. iJrettt, BftilgM, etc. 
i. Arm of Dean of St. Orrhain l'Al'x 
Abbj l)B Tbihat . 
,. of AbbcHet . 
I. Milrn, etc.. from Ancient Seali . 


,. of l->cli*iui.ti™l 




., of Hi,.h-ii*<jrD0L,andCAH01us . 


,. of I'fiiiw-llisliop 



John, el* 


.. of A™hbi«bo|w of Bosukaux, ui<I Roi* 


„ of l-riii«..\rchl. 

<ho|w, anil Elector. 


., .'^Jw^Ld. 

1 ?;li;ctor 


.. «f Arohl.i>liop 
Dt" MKnici 


nn<l Cftr.1 


.. uf Cnnlinal. RK'H 

ELlKl- an.1 



.. of Po|*» I'lf!. IX 

anil Lko 

'illl. . 


.. of Eogliah SeeH 


.. of S«a 


„ of English Smo 


.. of Engliih Sees 


,. of Engli-li Seen 


,. of EngliBb See. 


„ of See. . 


„ of Iriih See. . 


„ o! Irieb «.i.l Soot 

wli S«e>. 


,, of See. 


.. of (.'olonisl See* 


„ of Colonial See. 


., of C'olonUI See. 


„ of Colonial See. 


„ of Colonial See< 


„ of Colonial See. 


.Vri/,, Medal, etc. . 



i^ttUmiiiml ^tvMv^. 


Military Origin of Armorial Bearings — Their adoption for Secular 
Purposes— Seals, authentic and forged — Personal Effigies on 
Ecclesiastical Seals — Seals of Benedictine and Cistercian 
Abbots — Personal Arms introduced — The various kinds of 
Seals — Ancient gems— Arms of Sees and Abbeys, how com- 
posed — The Crosier, or Pastoral Staff— Ecclesiastical Founda- 
tions of the Kings of France — Arms of Italian Sees — Arms 
assumed — Preuves dc Noblesse — Brisures, Marks of Cadency, 
or of Illegitimacy, in Ecclesiastical Arms — The Mitre as a 
Heraldic Charge— Series of Seals of the Benedictine Abbots 
of M 61k — Arms on Ecclesiastical Vestments, etc. 

It is no part of the design of this treatise to deal in 
detail with the Origin of Armorial Bearings, or to set 
out the general principles which regulate their use. 

It is sufficient to say here that arms as at present used 
are distinctly of military origin, and arose from the 
necessity of there being some means by which individuals, 
though sheathed in armour which concealed the visage, 
might be readily distinguished by their followers, in 
warfare, or in those military exercises which were its 
preparation and rehearsal. Anna sunt distinguendi 
causA, The devices adopted for this purpose, at first of 
a simple character, emblazoned upon the shield, and 
then spreading to the banner, the surcoat, and the 
caparisons of the horses, were of such evident utility for 

( 4 ) 

the purpose above indicated, that their use soon became 
general in civilised Europe ; and we may probably find 
in the gatherings of the princes and nobles of all nation- 
alities for the Crusades the motive for the adoption of a 
more definite system to regulate the use of armorial 
bearings than had prevailed in earlier times, before they 
had become fixed and hereditary. 

But armorial bearings were not only of value from a 
military point of view, they became of hardly less 
importance in civil life. The custom of authenticating 
legal documents by seals bearing the personal devices of 
the contracting parties, led the way to the adoption of 
heraldic insignia even by those to whom they were not 
necessary for military purposes. Shields of arms thus 
came to be adopted for Ecclesiastical dignitaries, for 
Bishoprics, Abbeys, and Religious Communities ; not 
merely because it often happened that, under the feudal 
system, they had to furnish for the military necessities 
of the state their quota of armed men whom it was 
needful to distinguish from others by the military 
insignia of banner or shield ; but because the adoption 
of a definite device was found both by Religious and 
Civil dignitaries and communities a very convenient way 
for indicating their status upon the seals attesting the 
authenticity of the charters and other documents to 
which they were appended. 

Not only this, but the use of seals became compulsor>' 
by law. The Statutum de apportis religiosorum (35. 
Edward I., 1307) enacts that every religious House 
should have a common-seal, which should be in the 
custody not of the abbot only, as had been the case 
before, but of four others, "de dignioribus et discreti- 
oribus," of the convent ; and that every grant to which 
this seal was not affixed should be null and void. 

This was not, as some have thought, because so few 
people in those times could write ; on the contrary, 

(5 ) 

the majority of ecclesiastics and members of religious 
houses were at least equal to a formal signature ; but 
rather because, while signatures could be forged with- 
out great difficulty, the engraving of a seal demanded 
both time and special ability of a kind not generally 
found. Not that • frauds were altogether precluded. 
Sometimes the matrices of metal were stolen to provide 
the means of authenticating forged documents. In 1 3 1 8, 
for example, some clerics excommunicated by the Arch- 
deacon of Poissy, treacherously attacked and mortally 
wounded the sigillifer of that ecclesiastic, robbed him of 
the ^' seel aux causes'' {v, p. 9) of his master, and used it 
in the fabrication of letters of absolution. (Quoted by 
Lecoy DE la Marche from the Registre du Parlevient, 
cited in the Collection des Sceaux of DOUET d'Arcq.) 

At other times, the same writer tells us, authentic seals 
were removed from the documents to which they be- 
longed, and attached to others of more importance. A 
cleric of the Diocese of Narbonne was in 1282 cited into 
the Bishop's court at Carcassonne for a fraud of this 
kind. Here the authentic seal had been, by means of a 
heated blade of thin steel, removed from its document, 
and ingeniously attached to another. 

Actual forgeries sometimes took place, as when in the 
eleventh century a goldsmith of Limoges counterfeited 
the seal of Pope URBAN II. for HUMBAUD, Bishop of 
that Sec (at the instigation of his archdeacon HftLlE I)E 
Gimel), in order apparently to authenticate certain 
forged letters of the Pope. URBAN himself detected 
the fraud on his visit to Limoges. He instantly deposed 
the Bishop, and declared the very name of the Arch- 
deacon to be infamous. The fate of the forger is left to 
our imagination — perhaps he had wisely decamped ! 
But to return ; — seals early became armorial. Moreover, 
the applicability of heraldic insignia to decorative pur- 
poses was soon perceived. 


Whether carved in stone or wood for the adornment 
of the church, or glowing in their proper colours in the 
stained glass, or woven into the hangings, or embroidered 
on the vestments, or even enamelled on the sacred 
vessels to preserve the memory of a pious donor, the 
use of armorial insignia soon assumed very considerable 
importance from an Ecclesiastical point of view. It is 
in this aspect then that we purpose now to regard them, 
and it is the object of this book to give somewhat fuller 
information than exists in the treatises which deal with 
the general subject of Heraldry, with regard to the 
armorial insignia adopted by Religious Foundations, in 
Britain and on the continent of Europe ; — to describe 
the various external ornaments by which the various 
grades and offices in the ecclesiastical hierarchy have 
been distinguished both at home and abroad, and to 
indicate the various manners in which these official 
insignia were combined with the personal arms of the 

The examination of a good collection of mediaeval 
seals will show us that at first the seals of Ecclesias- 
tics were usually engraved with their personal effig}*, 
within a band containing an inscription indicative of the 
name and rank of the person represented. These seals 
were usually, but not invariably, vesica shaped, or en 
ogive, LitBERT, Bishop of Cambray in 1057 ; and the 
Chapter of Notre Dame of Noyon, in 1 174, used seals in 
the shape of a pear. (Demav, Le Costuvie au Moyen 
Age cTapris les SceauXy p. 23, fig. 14. Paris, 1880.) As 
early as the commencement of the eleventh centur>' the 
Bishops of France had adopted great seals bearing their 
effigies. Arnouli) de Lisieux in 11 30 (being then 
only Archdeacon of Seez) reproaches the prelates for this 
mark of ostentation, as he esteemed it. On the earh' 
seals only the bust of the bishop, or his figure at half- 
length, at first appeared (as was also the case on the earl}- 

( 7 ) 

seals of the kings of France), and this custom continued 
in some dioceses up to the close of the century. In 1253 
a seal of the officiality^ or episcopal court, of Paris still 
bears a mitred bust, apparently the image of the diocesan. 
(Plate VIII., fig. 1 1.) Nevertheless the custom of repre- 
senting the bishop at full length, standing or seated, had 
been adopted concurrently with the former usage, at least 
as early as the twelfth century. (Lecoy DE la Marche, 
Les Sceaux, pp. 254, 255.) Many early ecclesiastical seals, 
especially the counter-seals of Abbeys, and the personal 
seals of the Abbots, bear only a representation of the arm 
of the abbot issuing from the flank (usually the dexter 
flank) of the seal and holding a pastoral staff paleways. 
A good example, that of an Abbot of Melrose, is 
engraved in Laing, Catalogue of Scottish Seals, ii.. No. 
1 164. The seal of oval shape bears the arm of the abbot, 
vested in. the sleeve of his habit, and holding his crosier, 
or pastoral staff, in pale. The back ground is diapered 
with a reticulated pattern, and the legend is " Manus 
Abbatis DE Melros." With this we may compare the 
small round secretum of the Capitular Seal of Melrose 
in 1292, which has a similar device with the addition of 
an estoile at the sinister side of the staff. The legend is 
"Contra Sigill. de Melros." (Laing, Scottish Seals, 
i., 1077.) It *^ somewhat curious that this bearing is 
found, generally but not exclusively, on the seals of 
abbots and monasteries belonging, like Melrose, to the 
Cistercian Order. Thus the seal of the Abbots of Byland 
in 1 186 {British Museum Catalogue of Seals, No. 2822) ; 
of Buildvvas, twelfth century (^B, Mus., No. 2753) J ^^ 
Sibton in 1193 {B. Mus,, No. 4020); of Tintern, twelfth 
and thirteenth century {B, Mus,, No. 4194) ; of Vale 
Royal, twelfth century (^. Mus., No. 4233); and of many 
other Cistercian foundations, are charged with the hand 
and pastoral staff. The seal of the Abbot of Holywood 
has the same bearings, but the crosier is backed by a 


tree. (Laing, Scottish Seals^ i., 1043.) The seals of the 
Benedictine Abbot of Eynsham, in the twelfth century; 
of Richard, Abbot of the Austin Canons at Grimsby in 
1203 ; and of WILLIAM DE Lewknor, Precentor of Chi- 
chester, circa 12 16 {B, Mus. Cat,^ Nos. 3144, 3232, and 
1484), all have the hand and crosier ; and it also appears, 
rather curiously, on the seal ad catisas of the Chapter of 
Perugia, sede vacante, (Glafey, Specimen decadent 
Sigillorumy^. 25, Lipsiae, 4to 1849.) The Benedictine 
Abbey of Saint Seyne had, in the eighteenth century, 
as its arms : dAzur h un dextrocliere de carnation^ habilU 
dune inanche large dargent et tenant une crosse dor 
pos^e en pal {Armorial Gdft^ralde France, Bourgogne, i., 
p. 152, No. 46). It may be noticed the same device 
appears on the tombstone of Abbot SUTTON, at 
Dorchester; and in several other instances (BoUTELL, 
Christian Alonuments, pp. 53-55). 

In course of time, as the convenience of Heraldic 
devices became generally recognised, a shield bearing the 
personal arms of the ecclesiastic was introduced, and it 
filled up conveniently the angle beneath the foot of the 
effigy in the base of the vesica, MrW. H. St. John Hope, 
Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, says 
that " the earliest seal on which a shield occurs is that of 
William de Luda, Bishop of Ely in 1290, who has the 
three crowns of the See of Ely beneath his feet. David 
Martyn (St Davids, 1296) also has a shield under his 
feet, but it is charged with his own arms. {Proceedings 
of Society of Antiquaries^ Feb. 3, 1887.) The BASSET 
arms, however, appear on the seal of FuLK BASSET, 
Bishop of London, 1244- 1259 {B, Mus, Cat,, No. 1909). 

I may here borrow from Mr W. H. St. John Hope's 
paper on the " Seals of English Bishops " the following 
useful information : " Episcopal Seals are divisible into : — 

(i) Seals of dignity, with (2) their counter-seals ; with 
which must be included (3) private seals, or secreta ; (4) 

( 9 ) 

Seals ad causas ; (5) Seals made for special purposes, 
such as the palatinate seals of the Bishop of Durham. 
And he appends the following note by C. S. Perceval, 
Esq. LL.D., Treasurer of the Society of Antiquaries, as 
to the uses of these various seals : — 

" While the Seal of Dignity, as we have called it, or 
Great Seal, was used for charters, and other instruments 
affecting the property or rights of the Sec ; or to 
authenticate copies {vidimus or inspeximus) of important 
documents such as Papal Bulls ; the secreium, or sigillum 
privatum, was for deeds concerning the private estate of 
the Bishop himself, the signet for sealing his private 
correspondence, both being occasionally used as counter- 
seals to the Great Seal. The seal ad causas was appended 
to copies of Acts of Court, letters of Orders, probates 
(where no special official seal was in use), marriage 
licences, testimonials, and similar instruments of a minor 
and transitory interest." {Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries, 2nd S., xi., 271, et seq.). The counter-seal 
of Richard, Bishop of Winchester in 1174 ("^t in 
B. Mus. Collection) bears the words " Sum custos et testis 

It is worthy of notice that as the earliest seals used in 
Christian times had been antique gems, usually set as 
finger rings, the use of these long continued as secrcta, 
or counter-seals. It is no uncommon thing to find a 
pagan or a Gnostic gem used as a secretum by a 
Christian prelate. The secretum of GuiLLAUME DE 
Champagne, Archbishop of Sens in the twelfth century, 
is a gem bearing a remarkably beautiful bust of Venus. 
(Lecoy de la Marche, Sceaux, fig. 8, p. 25.) 
This author remarks that these gems were sometimes 
Christianised by the addition of a legend. Thus the 
counter-seal of Nicolas, Abbot of St. Etienne at 
Caen, bore a ivinged Victory which was converted into 
an angel by the legend — " Ecce mitto angelum meum." 

( lo) 

Warriors become St. Georges by the addition of a 
lance and a dragon. The unmistakably pagan head of 
Caracalla becomes that of the Prince of the Apostles 
by the simple addition of the words o n/rpoi ! The 
Monks of Durham turned the head of Jupiter into that 
of St. Oswald by a like process ; " Caput Sancti 
Oswaldi." {Vetusta Monumenta, i., pi. xlix.) Mr 
Porter gives an even more remarkable instance. The 
Monks of Selby converted the head of the Emperor 
HONORIUS into that of the BLESSED SAVIOUR, by the 
addition of the legend " Caput Nostrum Christus 

These gems are sometimes set upon the face of early 
seals. (This is so on the seal of BONIFACE of Savoy, 
Archbishop of Canterbury in 1266, where four antique 
gems are set, two on either side of the Archbishop's 
standing effigy. This is engraved in Mr Hope's 
paper ; see also Archceologia Cantiana^ vi., 215 ; and Mr 
Porter's excellent paper on the "Seals of the Arch- 
bishops of York," in Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries^ 2nd S., xiii., pp. 45, et seq,) 

As seal engravers progressed in artistic skill more 
elaborate compositions were employed. The ecclesiastic 
was represented standing, or seated, under an archi- 
tectural canopy which was often adorned with figures of 
patronal saints, and in addition to the shield of his 
personal arms others were introduced bearing the Royal 
Arms, or those of the Abbey, or See, over which he 
presided. Walter Reynolds, Bishop of Worcester, 
1308, is said to have been the first to place on either side 
of his effigy shields bearing the arms of England. Sir 
Henry Ellis considered that the use of the Royal 
Arms on ecclesiastical seals might refer to some high 
secular office held by the ecclesiastic, but as the custom 
is not confined to such cases, it is evident that this sup- 
position is unfounded. Later, when the effigy of the 

( II ) 

bishop was moved into a subordinate position in the base 
of the shield, the shields of arms accompanied him thither. 

The arms of Bishoprics, Abbeys, etc., were often a 
composition containing the effigies, or the conventional 
symbols, of the saints to whose honour they were dedi- 
cated. Thus the Cathedral Church of SALISBURY is 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and so the shield of arms 
assumed for the See, bears : Azure, the effigy oftlu Blessed 
Virgin liolding in her arms t/ie Holy Child or (Plate 
XXV., fig. I.) The Arms of the See of London are: 
Gules, two swords in saltire proper the hilts in bast or, 
(Plate XX., fig. 4.) The sword is the emblem of the 
Apostle St. Paul to whom the Cathedral is dedicated. 
The ancient dedication of the Cathedral of Exeter was to 
SS. Peter and Paul, and the symbols of both these 
Apostles are therefore combined in the arms of the See : 
Gules, a sword in pale argent, the hilt in base or, surmounted 
by two keys endorsed in saltire of the last, (Plate XXII., 
fig. 2.) The arms of the City and See of Lisbon contain 
a boat on the prow and stern of which are perched two 
ravens. ** Tem por armas . . . huma Nao com dous corvos 
discorrendo de poupa a proa." {Nobiliarchia Portugucza, 
p. 352, 1754.) These bearings commemorate the legend 
that the body of St. VINCENT, exposed in an open boat, 
was guarded by ravens as it drifted on the sea to Lisbon 
from the Cape which now bears his name. The Church 
of Compostella in Spain has for its arms the tomb of 
Santiago, the Apostle St. James, whose body is said to 
have been buried there, having floated from Joppa to 
Padron, twelve miles below Santiago, to be discovered 
eight centuries later. 

The Abbey of S. Etienne at Dijon bore: Gules, a 
palm branch in pale or, between three flifit-stones argent. 
Here the martyr's palm is combined with the instru- 
ments of the martyrdom of the saint whose relics 
were preserved in the abbey. The arms of the 

( 12 ) 

Cathedral of S. Etienne at Auxerre are : Azure, three 
stones or. 

The arms of Abbeys, and other religious foundations, 
were often a composition from the Armorial bearings 
of their founders. Thus the arms of the monastery of 
S. Aggas, or Agatha, founded by Lord SCROPE of 
Bolton, were those of that nobleman (Azure, a bend 
or\ with the addition of a pastoral staff of t/te last in 
bend sinister. (Plate I., fig. 8.) 

The arms of the Charter-House were ; Or, three 
chevrons sable, the arms of its founder DE MANNY. The 
Abbey of RiEVAULX bore the arms of DE Roos : Gules, 
three water bougets, argent, over all a pastoral staff in 
pale or. 

It may be well to mention here that the pastoral staff, 
a staff with a head curved in imitation of a shepherd's 
crook, and originally of very simple formation {see Plate 
VIII.) is with equal propriety, and in full accordance 
with ancient English use, termed a crosier, or crozier. 

In this book both terms will be used. The modern 
use by which the term crosier is applied to designate 
the cross borne, not by, but, before a Papal Legate or an 
Archbishop in his province, is an entirely mistaken and 
misleading one. (This cross will be spoken of in a 
future chapter.) The French term crosse denotes, not 
the archi-episcopal cross, but the ordinary crook-headed 
pastoral staff; and the word crosier has not, as is some- 
times erroneously asserted, any connection with the 
French word croix or the English cross. Its real con- 
nection is with the word crook. In the contemporary 
narrative of the coronation of Richard III. (printed in 
Excerpta Historica, pp. 379 et seq.) we find the following 
passage : — " And then comyng the Crosse wt. a ryall 
procession, fyrst Prests wt. grey Amyses and then Abotts 
and Bushopes wt. meters on ther hedds & crosers in there 
hands, and the Bushope of Rochester bare the Cross 

( ^3 ) 

before the Cardinall." Here in one sentence we have 
the processional cross borne before the Clergy ; the 
Bishops who bore their own crosiers (as they ought to 
do still unless infirm in mind or body) and the archi- 
episcopal cross borne before the Cardinal-Archbishop. 

The Rev. J. T. Fowler, M. A., F.S.A., of Durham, who 
is a careful philologer and ecclesiologist, has shown that 
the terms " pastoral staff" and " crosier " are both rightly 
applicable to a bishop's crook, and that the term 
" crosier " does not, as is often imagined, properly belong 
to an archbishop's cross. ** Crosier," he says, " in the form 
croce, crosse, croche, cruche, crocere, etc., may be shown 
by quotations to have been the proper English name of 
a bishop's staff from very early times. Pastoral staff is 
the English translation of the usual Latin term Baculus 
PastoraliSy used in the Pontificals, etc. And it may be 
rightly used, no doubt, by any who prefer four syllables 
to two, and a new term to an old one. The use of it in 
England appears to date from about the time when an 
archbishop's cross began to be called a crosier. The 
earliest example of this wrong application which I have 
hitherto found is in HoOK's Church Dictionary (1842), 
where a crozier is said to be an archbishop's cross." 

Mr Fowler has printed in Archceologia, vol. lii., a 
most curious and interesting series of quotations and 
references in early writers, from 1330 downwards, which 
abundantly prove his case. He shows that the usual 
old English word for a bishop's (or abbot's) crook was 
croce, croche, or crosse. That when it was borne by 
another person for the bishop such person was called his 
crocer, croyser, or crosier ; as was also the archbishop's 
or pope's cross-bearer. Next, that the bishop's staff was 
called in the fifteenth and later centuries a "croyser 
staff, crosiers staff, crosier's staff, or crosier staff, as if 
people connected it more closely with the clerk who 
commonly carried it than with the bishop himself" 

( 14 ) 

Then the second member of the term, viz., " staff," was 
gradually dropped, and what had at first been called a 
croce, and then a crosier staff, was called simply a crosier, 
which use has continued to the present time. The 
application of the term crosier to the cross borne before an 
archbishop or legate is a modern error. An archbishop 
does not bear his cross himself, and when he pontificates 
he holds his crosier, or crooked pastoral staff, though it 
is quite true that on mediaeval seals and stained glass 
he is often represented holding his cross. 

" The blunder, once started, all at once sprang into 
astonishing vitality, as I find it adopted by even such 
vvriters as Webb, Haines, Boutell. Lee, Blunt (in 
1866, but corrected in 1884), Shipley, Marriott, 
Mackenzie Walcott, Mrs Jameson, Fairholt, and 

Dthers, also in several standard dictionaries, though not 
in that of Skeat, who knows that crosier is not derived 
from cross, and that the word has always been used of a 
bishop's crook. The false derivation, plausible enough 
to those who have not gone into the matter, has no doubt 
dad much to do with the propagation of the error. Is it 
too late to amend it ? An archbishop's cross has been 
:alled a cross from 1460 to the present time, and the 
minister who carried it before the archbishop, while the 
prelate himself held his * croce * or * crosier,* was called 
the * crossier ' or * croyscr.' It is interesting to note that 
Roman Catholic writers of the old school, unaffected by 
the Anglican ecclesiological revival, such, for example, as 
Bishop John Milner, always used the terms in the old 
English way. But Dr RocK and the younger PUGIN, 
ivhile rightly calling the archi-episcopal cross a * cross,' are 
shy of calling a bishop's staff a * crosier,' and use the term 
pastoral staff.' Dr HusENBETH in 1859 says of the 
atter, * some have lately affected to call it the pastoral 
staff,' but expresses his decided preference for crosier, as 
lallowed by long usage. In 1866 he is * aware that in 

1. Abp. de Ton;. 2. Jun de Flmndre. '-l. HuWHirt. 

4. Cud. Altiari. '''- Card. Kaiipadolo. 6. C&rd. hngo. 

10. Abl'. Storclti. U. C»lder Abbey. 12. Sec of 

( 15 ) 

Strictness the term crosier belongs to a cross, but that 
by long usage it is applied to a Bishop's crook.' He is 
aware, that is, he has been led astray by Anglican 

Hugo DE S. Victor admonishes us that in this staff 
three things are to be noted ; — the crook, the rod, the 
point, whose signification is thus given : — 

Attraho peccantes, justos rogo, pungo vagantes ; 
Officio triplici scrvio pontifici. 

Or, as set out in the following distich : — 

Attrahc per curvum, medio rege, punge per imum ; 
Curva trahit quos virga regit, pars ultima pungit. 

{Vide Spener, Opus Heraldicum^ pars, gen., cap. vii., 

p. 3330 

To return : — a singular example of monastic arms 

formed from the bearings of the founder is afforded by 

the coat of Calder Abbey, which is composed of the 

bearings of the three families which contributed to its 

aggrandisement: Argent, three escucheons : i. Or, a fess 

between two clievrons gules, iox FiTZWALTER. 2. Gules, 

three lucies Jiauriant argent, for LucY. 3. Sable, a fret 

argent, for Flemyng. (Plate I., fig. 1 1.) The Monastery 

of KiRKHAM bore the arms of Rocs, as given above for 

RiEVAULX, but substituted a bourdon, prior's staff, or 

crutch, for the crozier. A modern instance of the same 

usage is to be seen in the arms assumed for the modern 

foundation of the Abbey of MOUNT St. Bernard in 

Leicestershire. They are : Or, a crosier in pale, with a 

sudarium sable ; on a chief Azure, three lions rampant or ; 

the latter being the arms of the founder, DE LiSLE. 

Many other English examples will be found by the 

student in the list of the arms of Abbeys and 

Religious Houses in Great Britain, in Part II., of 

this book. The arms of the Abbey of St. Etienne 

of Caen are a composition from the arms of ENGLAND 

( i6 ) 

and those of the Duchy of NORM ANDY ; they form an 
interesting example of the curious heraldic arrangement 
known as dimidiation. The dexter half of the shield of 
the arms of England {Gules, three lions passant gardant 
in pale or) is conjoined with the sinister half of the arms 
of the Duchy {Gules, two lions passant gardant in pale 
or), thus three of the lions' fore-quarters appear, but only 
two of the hind-quarters. (Plate II., fig. i.) 

In France, the Sees and Abbeys of Royal foundation 
often have as the " field " of their arms, the old Royal 
bearings of the Kings of FRANCE : Azure, semt^ of fleurs- 
de-lis or. Thus, the Cathedral of Notre Dame at Paris 
bears the above coat, known briefly as France-ancient, 
and Over all tlie effigy of the Blessed Virgin, supporting in 
Iter arms the Holy Child proper, (Segoing, Armorial 
Universel, planche i8i. Paris 1679). The Canons of 
"LA Sainte Chapelle DU Roi" at Dijon bore: 
France-ancient, Overall a palm branch in pale or ; the 
emblem of the proto-martyr St. Stephen [inde supra,' ^\;^ 
and see also HOZIER, Armorial G^n^ral de France, 
G^n^ralit^ de Bourgogne, i., No. 88). The Collegiate 
Church of St. Andoche in the town of Saulieu used : 
France-ancient, Over all a crosier and sword in 
saltire argent, (The arms of the Sees of Reims, 
Langres, Laon, and Noyon, similarly composed, 
will be found later on, at Plate X.) The Cathedral 
Church of St. Vincent at Macon bears: France- 
ancient {Azure, fleury or) t/tereon the figure of St, 
Vincent, vested in a white alb, and a dalmatic gules 
sevu^ de fleurs-de-lis or, holding in his dexter hand a palm 
branch, and in the sinister the open Evangelistariutn, proper. 
The Cathedral Church of St. Vincent at Chalons 
bears : FRANCE-ANCIENT, ozfer all a sceptre gules with a 
flory /lead (HOZIER, Armorial Gt^m^ral de France, Gene- 
rality de Bourgogne, tome ii., 225). The Benedictine 
Abbey of MousTiER St. Jean bore simply: France- 

.1. Abbey "t AudUn. 

( 17 ) 

ANCIENT. By the Chapter of LiMOGES the semi of 
France-ancient is reduced to five fleurs-de-lis or, 
3 and 2 ; which coat still appears in the old stained 
glass of the north aisle of the Cathedral of LiMOGES. 
There are examples in which appear the later arms 
of France (as borne since Charles V. reduced the 
fleurs-de-lis to three in honour of the Ever Blessed 
Trinity) : Azure, a passion nail between three fleurs-de-lis 
or^ are the arms of the famous Abbey of St. Denis near 
Paris ; the burying place of the Kings of France. The 
Abbaye de St. Germain des Pr£s similarly used : 
Azure, on an escucluon argent between three fleurs-de-lis 
or, as many torteaux. 

The ancient arms of the Dues d'Orl^aNS : France- 
ANCIENT, a label argent in chief, are the field of the 
arms borne by the CHARTREUSE o'ORLflANS, charged 
with a figure of Lasarus rising from t/ie tomb argent 
(HOZIER, Arm. Gthi, de France, Gene^ralit^ d*Orl(^ans). 

Many, perhaps most, of the French Sees have no 
official arms as distinct from those borne by the Cathe- 
dral Chapters ; whereas in Germany, and in England 
(so far at least as concerns the Cathedrals of the " Old 
Foundation," i.e., those which were in existence as such 
before the Reformation), the arms of the Deaneries or 
Cathedral Chapter are different from, though often 
formed upon, those of the See {see the arms of these 
Sees and Deaneries in Part II. of this work). The 
arms of the Chapter of PoiTlERS appear to be Azure, 
a long cross botonny argent ; upon this the Bishop places 
an escucheon, Barry of eight argent and gules. Both 
coats occur with some frequency in the stained glass of 
the ai.sles of the Cathedral of Poitiers. 

The official arms of the early Bishops of Albi also, 

were identical with those which are still used by the 

Cathedral Chapter, viz. : Gules, a cross pommetty or, 

adorned with pendant chains and precious stones. It is 

(18 ) 

said that this coat originated in the dedication of the 
ancient cathedral to the Holy Cross. But BERNARD 
i)E Castanet (1275- 1308), who laid the foundation- 
stone of the present grand cathedral, dedicated to Sainte 
CECILE, bore : Gules ^ a tower argent ^ surmounted by a 
double cross ; and, after the secularisation of the Chapter, 
he and his successors took this personal coat as the arms 
of the See. 

In Italy many, perhaps most, of the Sees have arms, 
but they are not (so far as my pretty wide experience 
goes) frequently in use. While the arms of the Pope, 
and the personal arms of the Bishop or Archbishop are 
placed upon the facade, or are suspended within the 
church, the arms of the Sec are seldom or never seen. 
The curious inquirer may puzzle out at least some of 
them in the Italia Sacra of Ughelli, and kindred 
works, but unless he has a special interest in the matter 
he is little likely to learn of their existence. I give just 
one or two here. TUSCULUM bears : Gules, two keys in 
saltire tied by a cord in base or, Anagni bears : Gules, 
in chief an eagle displayed and in base a lion passant or. 
The arms of Sabina are : Gules, three sets of interlaced 
annulets between two bendlets or ; of Aquilani, Argent, 
an eagle displayed sable, crozuned or (UoHELLI, Italia 
Sacra, t. i.). 

In Germany, as formerly in England and Scotland, it 
was the custom for high Ecclesiastics to use indifferently 
their official arms, or their personal arms if they pos- 
sessed any. It was then an easy step when seals became 
more elaborate, to represent both the official and the 
personal arms on the same seal, though upon different 
shields. In Italy when any official arms were used 
they were often made to occupy the chief or upper part 
of a shield divided per fess ; the personal arms of the 
Prelate being placed in the lower part, or base, of the 

( 19 ) 

In England it has been long the custom for Arch- 
bishops, Bishops, and Abbots to impale their personal 
with their official arms, just as a wife impaled the arms 
of her husband with her own ; the ecclesiastic being 
considered viaritus ecclesice, and the official arms have 
assigned to them the dexter side, that being accounted 
the more honourable portion, of the shield. In later 
times Archdeacons and Chancellors impaled the arms 
of the See with their personal arms upon their official 

As will be shown more fully hereafter the arms of the 
Irish Sees date only from post-Reformation times. In 
Scotland, also, Bishops for the most part used only 
their personal arms, with of course the mitre and other 
external insignia pertaining to their ecclesiastical rank. 
This is still usually the case in the majority of the Sees 
of France, Belgium, and Southern Europe. In a few 
cases the personal arms of an illustrious Prelate were 
adopted by later Bishops as the bearings of the See : — 
of this we have examples in Part II. in the arms of 

Mainz, Hereford, and Worcester. 

In France the six great ecclesiastical Peers sometimes 
impaled, and other times quartered, the official arms of 
their Sees with their personal ones {vide infra^ Plates 
IX. and X.). In Germany these arms were more 
frequently quartered, the official coat of the See or 
Abbey being generally placed in the first and last 
quarters, especially when the l^ishop held but one Sec, 
and possessed no temporal lordships. But, when, as was 
in modern times frequently the case, several Sees with 
their dependent lordships were united under the rule of 
one Prelate, it was the custom to quarter all these official 
arms in the shield, and to place the personal arms of the 
Prelate in an escucheon en surtout. 

These customs will be fully exemplified as we proceed. 
Of course many Prelates had by birth no right to bear 

( 20 ) 

arms at all. Many of those who have filled the highest 
places in the hierarchy have risen from the very humblest 
origin, by their personal merit, just as NICOLAS Break- 
SPEARE, the Anglo-Saxon thrall, attained to the Ponti- 
fical throne as ADRIAN IV. As it was then, so is it still. 
The late Celestine, Cardinal Ganglbauer, Arch- 
bishop of Vienna, was a Benedictine monk, of peasant 
birth ; and on the occasion of his funeral, in 1889, the 
Emperor Francis Joseph walked by the side of the 
Cardinal's peasant brothers and nephews. Mgr. KOPP, 
Prince-Bishop of Breslau, was the son of a cotton weaver 
at DUDERSTAAT. Mgr. Binder, Archbishop of POSEN 
and Gnesen, was the son of a cobbler at ROSSEL. Mgr. 
Krementz, Archbishop of Cologne, was the son of a 
COBLENTZ butcher, and his brother kept on the old 
butcher's shop. Cardinal SiMOR, late Archbishop of 
Gran, and Prince-Primate of Hungary, was the son of 
a petty shoemaker at Stuhlweissenberg. Not long 
ago an infidel Belgian paper thought fit to sneer at Mgr. 
Lambrecht, Bishop of Ghent, as "only a peasant's 
son," and the instances noted above were, with others, 
contained in an article in reply published by a Catholic 
paper which gloried, and rightly gloried, in the facts 
stated. But although it has always been one of the 
boasts of the Catholic Church that persons of the lowest 
condition in life might aspire to the highest ecclesias- 
tical dignities, there were yet some exceptions. For 
admission into many Chapters ; and into the semi- 
military, semi-religious. Orders of Knighthood, such as 

the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, or theTEUTOXic 

Order, it was essential that the candidate should be of 
noble birth ; not necessarily titled, or of a Peerage family 
.according to the improperly restricted use of the term 
noble which in modern times obtains among English- 
speaking people only, but noble as descended from 
ancestors who were nobiles ; that is, who were entitled to 

( 21 ) 

use armorial bearings which distinguished them from the 
ignobiles, or unknown. " Nobiles," said Lord - Chief- 
Justice Coke, " sunt qui arma antecessorum suorum 
proferre possunt" (quoted in Sir James Lawrence's 
Nobility of the British Gentry, p. 17, London, 1840). On 
the Continent many Sees and Abbacies could only be 
held by persons who were able to prove this nobility of 
descent for several generations. Thus, no person could 
formerly be consecrated Archbishop of C(*)LN, or TRIER, 
or Bishop of Basel, until he had publicly exposed for 
examination on the front of his future Cathedral the 
emblazonment of his thirty-two quarterings ; that is a 
.shield combining the arms borne by all his ancestors, 
both male and female, for five generations. The thirty- 
two quarters of JOHN HUGH Orsbeck, Archbishop and 
Prince-Elector of Trier (1676- 17 ii) are given for 
example in Menetrier's treatise on Les Preuves de 
Noblesse, p. 97. 

Similar requirements, but var)'ing in the number of 
generations, were made in Germany in most cases in 
.which the Bishop or Abbot became invested in right of 
his ecclesiastical position with the temporal lordships 
which formed the endowment of the See or Abbey which 
he ruled. 

The nobles who sat in the Diets of Germany were 
much too haughty to permit that Bishops and Abbots 
should sit and vote with them in their assemblies on a 
footing of equality, still less preside over them, and 
regulate their action, unless these Prelates were them- 
selves of noble blood. Such requirements as those I 
have referred to above, originated therefore, not as is 
sometimes ignorantly asserted, in the pride of the clergy, 
but in the haughtiness of the lay nobles. It must, how- 
ever, be confessed that the clergy were often infected by 
the spirit of the age, and were, unhappily, only too often 
not unwilling to "better the example" of their lay 

( 22 ) 

brethren. Pope NICHOLAS IV. excommunicated the 
whole Chapter of TRIER for refusing to admit to a pre- 
bend a person of ignoble extraction who had been nomi- 
nated by him to that dignity. So early as 1227, Pope 
Gregory IX. was called in to decide a dispute between 
the Bishop of PoRTO who was his Legate in Germany, 
and the Chapter of Strassburc;, w^ho had refused to 
admit to a prebend the nominee of the Legate, on the 
ground that the person proposed was deficient in the 
requisite degrees of nobility. The papal decision went 
against the Chapter. (The decree ' is given in Baron 
VON LownEN\s Analysis of Nobility, pp. 170, 171. 
London 1754.) 

In our own country men of all ranks have always been 
eligible for the highest ecclesiastical positions, and on 
attaining them have often, down to the present day, 
assumed armorial bearings for use upon their seals, etc., 
though frequently the connection of the Prelate with the 
family whose arms were adopted was, to say the least, 
extremely difficult of proof. Occasionally permission 
to use their arms was sought by the Prelate from the 
head and other members of the family to which he 
desired to attach himself 

In France, and probably in other countries, it is usual 
for a Bishop to invent for himself a coat of arms, if he is 
not entitled by birth to bear one. " Anciennement les 
prelats non nobles etaient anoblis personellement par 
leur charge, et pouvaient se choisir des armcs. Cet usage 
s*est conservd, et actuellement tous les prelats, en prenant 
possession de leurs sieges adoptent un ecusson, et une 
devise quand ils n en ont pas de naissance." (Z« Noblesse 
en France, par Barth£lemy, p. 321, Paris 1858.) 
Thus the present Bishop of LiMOGES bears: Argent, 
on a cross sable the monogram of the labarum X P or. 
Usually the arms thus assumed have a distinctly religious 

( 23 ) 

and afterwards Archbishop of CANTERBURY, assumed : 
A::ure, on a cross or^ between the symbols of the four 
Evangelists^ five lions rampant gules armed and langued 
azure {Catalogue of Seals in British Museum^ No. 12 17). 
Other examples will be found later in Chapter IV. 

But though these assumptions were very general, 
there were exceptions even among high Ecclesiastics. 
Cardinal Fran(;:ois Tolkt of the Order of Jp:sus, 
" Pr^dicateur du Palais Apostoliquc " under seven .suc- 
cessive Popes, never used any arms but the sacred name 
of Jesus in cypher. Within an orle of five estoileSy all of 
gold in an azure field. Sarmiento de Mendoza, 
Bishop of Jaen, laid aside his illustrious paternal coat 
to take a simple Calvary cross, surrounded by a bordure 
charged with the words, ''Anna militia nostra:'' On 
the other hand, Gp:or(;e da Costa, Archbishop of 
Lisbon and Braga, on his elevation to the Cardinalate 
assumed : Azure, a wheel of St. Catharine or, in memory 
of the Infanta Catharina (daughter of Kdward, and 
sister of Affonso V., Kings of Portugal), to whose 
favour he owed the commencement of his great fortune. 
This coat he impaled with his paternal arms : Gules, six 
rib bones, in pairs, fessicays in pale argent. 

The use of brisurcs, or marks of cadency, seems never 
to have been general in the case of Ecclesiastics. Even 
the illegitimate sons of Royal and Noble Houses often 
used the full paternal arms without any of the ordinary 
distinguishing marks of bastardy. It seemed as if 
admission into Holy Orders entirely obliterated any 
stain which might have been supposed to attach to their 
birth. " Si illegitimus sacris fuerit initiatus, non est 
opus transversam dictam lineam paternis insigniis 
addere, cum propter sacri ordinis dignitatem legitimus 
censeatur, imo ante susccptum ordinem numero sit 
legitimandus, quare quoq : nuptiis exinde inidoneus ac 
inter steriles numeratur." (Spener, Opus Heraldicum, 

( 24) 

p. gen., p. 359.) Thus ALEXANDER Stuart, Arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews (1509-15 13), natural son of 
James IV., bore on his seal the full Royal Arms sans 
brisure supported by the Royal unicorns, and having 
the archi-episcopal cross behind the escucheon. 

Another Archbishop of St. Andrews, John Hamil- 
ton (1549-1571X natural son of James, Earl of Arran, 
bore the quartered arms of HAMILTON and Arran, 
without any brisure. His cross is placed, according to 
custom, in pale behind the shield {^Scotichronicon^ ii., 
p. 284). Similarly James, a natural son of James, Lord 
Hamilton (elected to Glasgow in 1547, and translated 
to Argyll in 1558) bore on his seal in 1 556 the quartered 
arms of Hamilton and Arran, sans brisure. (Lainc;, 
Scottish Seals, ii., i loi.) James, Earl of Moray, Prior 
of St. Andrews, and Regent of Scotland, natural son 
of James V., bears on his seal the full Royal Arms, with 
a pastoral staff behind the shield {ibid., ii., p. 156). The 
seal of George Douglas (natural son of Archibald, 
Earl of Angus) consecrated Bishop of MORAY, 157J, 
bears his paternal shield, mitred, but without any brisure 
{ibid., ii., No. 1044.) So also, ANDREW, Bishop of 
Argyll, (161 3-1636) natural son of Thomas, Lord 
Boyd, bears on his seal in 1629 the full paternal arms 
(ibid.y ii.. No. 1102). 

On the other hand Pierre Charlot, Bishop of Noyon, 
natural son of King Philip Augustus, bore the Royal 
Arms of France-ancient {Azure, sejm^ de fleurs-de-lis 
d'or\ debruised by a bend sinister argent. jEAN, Bishop 
of LifeGE, Chancellor of Flanders, natural son of Gui, 
Count of Flanders, bore on his seal in 1280 the arms 
of that County {Or, a lion rampant sable) debruised by a 
crozier in bend argent (Plate I., fig. 2, and see Vr£e, G^n(f- 
alogie des Comtes de Flandre, Plate 74). Dayid, B^tard 
de BouRGOGNE, son of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, 
was made Bishop of Terouenne, in 145 1, and of 

( 2S ) 

Utrecht in 1455. He used the paternal arms sans 
brisure^ with the coronet of a French Prince. His book- 
stamp is in GviGARD, A nfion'a/ du Bibliophile, X.oxx{(t i.,p.29. 
Similarly, Louis DE NOGARET, Bishop of MiRfePOIX 
(d. 1679), and his sister, LouiSE, Abbess of St. Glosme 
DE Metz (d. 1647), illegitimate children of Jean Louis 
DE NoGARET, Duc d'Epernon, borc on their book- 
stamps the full arms of XOGARE T, without any mark of 
bastardy. (GUKiARD, Armorial du Bibliophile, ii., 149, 

150.) Louis de Bassompierre, Bishop of Saintes, 
(d. 1676), son of Marechal de Bassompierre, used no 
brisure to denote his illegitimacy. Reynaud, bAtard de 
^^^/r/^^;/,Archbishopof NARHONNEin 1472, borc: Argent, 
a ^^;/rfe?/"FRANCE-ANClENT tlureon a fillet gjiles,s\x^YiOTX.cA 
by two angels (the usual Royal Supporters of France) 
holding palms. (PfcRE Anselme, i., p. 3 10.) The angels 
which support the Royal Arms of France have however 
azure dalmatics charged with the three golden fleurs-de- 
li.s, and not the alb only. HENRI DE BoURBON, Bishop 

of Metz (son of Henri IV. by Henriette de Balzac 

d'Entragues, bore : FRANCE a baton pM en barre 
d^argent, with the fleur-de-lis coronet of a French Prince. 
(GuiGARI), Armorial du Bibliophile, i., 31.) The arms 
of Charles, BAtard d'Orl£ans, Bishop of Laon, and 
Pair de France, arc given under Cambray. Thomas 
Stuart, Archdeacon of St. Andrews, 1443, natural 
son of King ROBERT H., bore the Royal Arms {Or, a 
lion rampant within a double tressure flory counter-flory 
gidles) debruised by a bend counter-compond argent and 
azure. The shield is supported by two dragons sejant, 
as well as by an angel which stands behind it (Laing, ii., 
No. 931). I recently noticed a fine boss in the Musee 
des Antiquitcs, in the cloister of the Augustins at 
Toulouse which bears the arms : Quarterly, I. and IV. ; 
quarterly, i and 4. Or, three pallets gules (County of 
Foix) ; 2 and 3. Or, tivo coivs gules, clarines azure (the 

( 26 ) 

County of BEarn) ; II. and III. ( . . . ) on a chief 
(...) three lozenges (...). The whole shield 
is debruised by a very narrow fillet in bend, which crosses 
the I. and IV. grand - quarters. The shield has the 
adjuncts of a crozier in pale behind its centre, on the 
dexter side of the head of the staff is a mitre ; it appears 
doubtful if there was ever anything on the other side 
of the head for the sake of symmetry, but if there was 
it has now disappeared. 

The book-stamp of Gabriel de Beauveau de 
RiVARENNES, Bishop of Nantes (1636-1667) shows 
that he bore the arms of Beauveau {Argent^ four lions 
rampant two and two gules crowned, and armed, or\ 
debruised by a baton pM en bande. (GuiGARl), Armorial 
du Bibliophile, tome i., p. 81.) 

Among a clergy bound to celibacy the ordinary marks 
of cadency were not imperatively needful ; the external 
ornaments which indicated their ecclesiastical dignity 
sufficiently distinguished their arms from those borne by 
other members of their families. In England since the 
Reformation marks of cadency have been used and 
omitted indifferently, but the arms of many Bishops 
have been differenced by the introduction of small mitres 
as charges within the shield. This is, indeed, no modern 
custom. John de Grandison, Bishop of Exeter 
(1327- 1 369) bore : Paly of six argent and azure, on a bend 
gules a mitre between two eagles displayed or ; instead of 
the three eagles which appeared on his paternal coat 
(Plate II., fig. 4.) William Courtenay, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (1381-1396) bore: Or, three 
torteaux, a label throughout azure, on each of its points a 
mitre (sometimes three mitres) argent (Plate II., 

fig- 5). 

In one of the windows on the south side of the choir in 

YORK-MlNSTER are represented the arms of Cardinal 

Beaufort: the Royal Arms (France and England, 

( 27 ) 

quarterly) within a botdure componc azure and ermine^ 
each of the azure compons being charged with a mitre 
argent, (See The Heraldry of York-Minster^ by Dean 
PUREY-CUST, plate X., p. 389, 4to, 1890.) I have not 
met with any instance of this use of the mitre in other 
"examples of the Cardinal's arms. 

Mitres also appear as differencing charges in the arms 
of Bishops Bekington (Bath and Wells), Alcock 
(Ely), Burghill and Hales (Lichfield), de l'Isle 
(Durham), Peploe (Chester), Lumley (Lincoln), 
Grey and Lyhekt (Norwich), and Carpenter 
(Worcester). They also form the charge of the 
bordures which were used as differences in the arms of 
Bishops Marshall and Stafford (Exeter), Hei- 
worth (Lichfield), Blundeville and Despenser 
(Norwich). The azure bordure of the Despenser arms 
{Quarterly^ argent^ and gules fretty or, over all a bend 
sable) is charged with eight, but sometimes with fifteen, 
golden mitres by Bishop DESPENSER. (Plate II., fig. 6.) 

The arms of John Innes, Bishop of MORAY, 1407- 
1410, still remain sculptured in the Cathedral at ELGIN. 
The coat {Argent, three estoiles azure) is differenced by the 
insertion of the head of a crozier between the estoiles. 

The series of seals of the great Benedictine Abbey of 
MOLK, or Melk, on the Danube in Lower Austria, 
which are engraved in Huher's Austria Illustrata, 
afford good illustrations of the practices which prevailed 
from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century with regard 
to the disposition of arms upon the seals of Ecclesiastics. 
The seals of Abbots Walter (1232), Gerung (1277), 
Friedrich (1292), and Ulric (13 12), bear simply their 
own seated effigies. That of Abbot Ottakar (1327) is 
the earliest which shows a shield of arms ; it is placed 
in the lower angle of the vesica, beneath the figure of 
the Abbot, and bears the arms of the Abbey : Azure, a 
key witJi double wards, or rather tivo keys united in one 

( 28) 


handle or bow, argent. The dedication of the Abbey is to 
SS. Peter and Paul. Probably the coat originally con- 
tained two keys with their wards interlaced {see examples 
under the Sees of England in Part II.). The arms do not 
appear on the seal of Abbot Heinrich (1330), but are 
engraved on the secretum of Abbot LUDWIG (1358). Per- 
sonal arms are first added on the seal of Abbot GOTTS- 
CHALK (1385). This bears the effigy of St. Benedict ; 
the arms of the Abbey appear on a shield on the right 
hand, while one charged with the attire of a stag is placed 
on the left. Abbot LuDWiG II. (1392) and Leonard 
(1432) use the double key as a device, beneath the feet 
of the ^^gYy but not enclosed in a shield. Abbots 
John (1414), Nicolas (1420), Christian (1447), and 
John II. (1458), use the shield with the Abbey arms. 
By Abbots Wolfgang (1485), and John Schonberg 
(1551) the effigy of St. Benedict is placed between 
shields containing their personal arms on the dexter, 
and those of the Abbey on the sinister. Abbots 
Michael Grien (1563) and Urban (1568) yield the 
place of honour, on the dexter side, to the Abbey arms. 
Abbot Kaspar Hoffman (1590) quarters the arms of 
the Abbey in the first and fourth with those of his 
family in the second and third, and surmounts the shield 
with a mitre. The five succeeding Abbots, whose seals 
close the series, Reiner Landau (1630), Valentine 
Embalner (1639), Edmond Luger (1677), Gregory 
MuLLER (1680), and Berthold Dietmair (1701), all 
place the arms of the Abbey in an escucheon upon the 
quartered shield of their personal arms, and surmount 
the whole with a mitre enfiling a pastoral staff. 

In modern times the Abbots of Melk bear in the ist 
and 4th quarters, Or, an eagle displayed and dimidiated 
sable armed gules issuing from the palar line; in the 2nd 
and 3rd are the personal arms ; and over all an escu- 
cheon of the arms of the Abbey, Azure, tlie double key. 

( 29 ) 

Besides their constant use on seals, and monumental 
memorials, either of glass or of stone, armorial bearings 
are frequently found embroidered on ancient ecclesiasti- 
cal vestments, and abroad this custom has never died 
out. Shields of arms thus appear embroidered upon 
the ends of the vittce, or fanons, of the mitres ; on the 
orphreys of the cope and chasuble ; on the lower parts of 
the dalmatic and tunicle ; and on the stole, where they 
appear on each side at the level of the breast. The 
stole worn by the Pope is of red silk, thus embroidered 
on each breast with his personal arms with their usual 
accompaniments, the tiara and keys. 

The arms of the donor are often embroidered on the 
vestments and altar fittings presented to churches. Even 
the corporals in CORPUS Christi College, Cambridge, 
were embroidered with armorial bearings (see Report of 
the Historical MSS, Commission^ vol. i., p. 72). A 
chasuble given by St. Louis of France to THOMAS DE 
BlVILLE, is of silk, embroidered with gold thread, and 
is composed entirely of lozenge-shaped compartments 
containing heraldic charges — \}c\^ Jicur-dc-lis of FRANCE, 
the castle of Castilk, the lion of Leon, and the eagle 
displayed of Savov - Mauriennk (sec De Caiimotit 
AbMdaire d'Archceologie Religieuse, where it is engraved 
at pp. 448-450). 

In the celebrated case of SCROPE versus Grosvenor 
{temp. Richard II.), the poet Chaucer gave evidence 
of the use of the arms of ScROPE upon vestments, 
among other things. 

On the seal of Anthony Bek, Bishop of Durham 
(1283- 1 3 10) his effigy is represented wearing a chasuble, 
on the breast of which appears the large cross moline of his 
arms {Gules, a cross /er-de'Uioline ermine). The Church 
of Durham inherited from him seven vestments, " cum 
una cruce de armis ejusdem qua! dicuntur ferrum 
molcndini." Similarly the effigy of LOUIS DE Beau- 

( 30 ) 

MONT, Bishop of Durham (i 318), as represented on his 
seal, wears a chasuble embroidered with his arms : 
Azure, fleury and a Hon rampant argent {Catalogue of 
Seals in the British Museum, Nos. 2452 and 2459). 

The orphreys of the celebrated Lyon House Cope, 
now at South Kensington, are heraldic, and contain the 
arms of England, Ferrers, Nevvburgh, Castile 
and Leon, Clifford, Despenser, Geneville, Gran- 
DisoN, Percy, Mortimer, Bassingborne, etc. 

A curious reference to armorial bearings was made on 
the tomb of the Cardinal de Palud, who was buried in 
the Abbey of TOURNUS. His arms were: Gules, a 
cross ermine. Accordingly on his tomb the Cardinal is 
vested as a priest ; the stole, maniple, and the cross of 
the chasuble, are all of ermine ; we may fairly conjecture 
that the colour of the vestment was red (Menestrier, 
LArt du Blasonjustiji^, pp. 81, 82). 

On the celebrated Percy shrine at Beverley one of 
the sepulchral effigies represents a priest of that family, 
probably about the fourteenth century. On it the chasuble, 
alb, and maniple are ornamented with a series of twenty 
different shields of arms. {See Mr LoNGSTAFFE's "Old 
Heraldry of the Percies," in Archceologia ^liana, i860; 
pp. 157, 192, etc.) 

Cole mentions an altar cloth at St. Edward's 
Church at Cambridge, which had on it a coat of arms : 
Or, a clievron nebuU argent and azure, between three 
choughs proper (probably for the family of Cromer). 
We may refer also to the Inventory of the Goods 
of the Guild of the Blessed Virgin in Boston, taken 
in 1334. "Item, an altar cloth of tawny damaske 
w' Egles standyng on bookes, w* this I're, ^ crowned, 
of the gift of m^ JOHN ROBVXSON esquyer, w' the 
armcs of the said m"" ROBVNSON in the myddes of the 
altar cloth, w* a frontcll of the same therto belonginge 
havynge the seide armes at every end of the seide 

( 3' ) 

frontell/' Other gifts of altar furnishing were made by 
the same person, and were all embroidered with the arms 
of the donor. (See English Church Furniture at the 
Period of the Reformation, edited by Edw. PEACOCK, 
F.S.A., Herald and Genealogist, iv., 169.) In Italy 
and Spain I have seen many sets of vestments, both 
for the officiants and for the altar, on each piece of 
which the arms of the pious donor are represented. 
At Wadstena in Sweden a set bears the arms of the 
great family of Sture {Or, three nenuphar leaves in 
bend sable). 


External Heraldic Ornaments, Spiritual and Temporal — The 
Coronet, its use on the Continent — The Temporal Sword — 
Helmets and Crests used by Ecclesiastics — Military Fiefs held 
by Ecclesiastics — The Church Militant — The Ecclesiastical 
Hat, etc. 

We have now to consider the several ornaments, external 
to the shield of arms, which have been in use to distin- 
guish the different grades and offices of ecclesiastics. 

They are of two kinds : those which indicate spiritual 
authority, and those which denote temporal rank or 
jurisdiction. Of the former class are : — the Papal Tiara, 
and the Keys ; the Pallium ; the Mitre ; the Patriarchal, 
Archi-episcopal, and Legatine Crosses ; the Crozier, or 
Pastoral Staff; the Bourdon ; and the Ecclesiastical 
Hat. To the latter class belong the Coronet ; the 
Princely and Electoral Hats ; the Mantlings ; the 
Helmet and Crest ; the Temporal Sword ; and the Crosses 
and Badges of Knighthood ; or of Chapteral Rank. 

The ensigns of spiritual authority which compose the 
first class fall naturally for consideration under the 
respective ecclesiastical ranks which they serve to dis- 
tinguish ; and it will only be needful to offer in this 
place a few remarks upon the use by ecclesiastics of 
those external insignia which are by custom joined to 
the shield of arms as indications of secular rank or 
temporal jurisdiction. 

Of these the most common is the coronet. This, 
though only used by ecclesiastics in our own country in 
the very rare cases in which they happen to be peers of 

( 33 ) 

the realm by descent, is in frequent use by foreign 
ecclesiastics for various reasons. We may remark here, 
that on the continent the use of coronets as heraldic 
ornaments is much more general than in these realms, 
where they are used only by princes and princesses of 
the Royal House ; by peers and peeresses ; and (according 
to modern usage but in violation of strict heraldic 
propriety) by the eldest sons (and their wives) of peers 
of the three highest grades. But upon the continent all 
the children of counts and barons use their father's 
coronet, and usually one of his titles also ; while in Italy 
even the remote cadets of great families often use their 
coronets ; add to their names such words as " dei Conti 
de . . . ," and have by general courtesy the title of 
the head of the family. 

The following extract will suffice to indicate the 
modern usage in France. " L ordonnance du 25 ao(it 
1 81 7 ^tablit la hi^rarchie des pairs, reglant que les fils 
ain^s prcndraient le titrc imm^diatement inf^rieur a 
celui du p6re, et Ics fils puin^s les autres titrcs parcille- 
ment inf^rieurs entrc eu.x." (Z<t Noblesse de France^ 
p. 75.) Thus the eldest son of the Due DES Cars, has 
the title of Marquis DKs Cars, but his uncles, the brothers 
of the Due, had respectively the titles of Comte, and 
Vicomte DES Cars. Similarly the eldest son of the Due 
DE Levis is Marquis DE Levis ; his uncles bearing the 
title of Count, and Vicomte DE Levis. (Though the regu- 
lation applied only \.o pairs de France, the custom was soon 
adopted by other nobles who had not that dignity. There 
is not, however, uniformity of practice.) 

Again, on the continent members of ancient noble 
and knightly families very generally use a coronet to 
indicate their descent, even though they may not have 
the right to use the specific title of baron, count, etc. ; this 
is seldom understood by us, where a title is, wrongly, 
thought essential to nobility. As this is so in civil life, 



it is consequently general for members of noble families 
to retain the coronet as an external ornament of their 
arms after they have been admitted into the ecclesiastical 

Again, abroad coronets are used by ecclesiastics 
whether they are of noble families or not, when, as is 
frequently the case in Germany and elsewhere, temporal 
lordships are attached as endowments to ecclesiastical 
dignities held by them. 

Again, in Germany and France, the dignity of Count, 
or Countess, was by Imperial or Royal grant, used by 
members of many noble - chapters in right of their 
canonries. And lastly the dignity of " Comte-Romaine " 
is still occasionally conferred by the Pope on ecclesiastics 
of eminence. 

Examples of the use of coronets, both as indicative 
of noble descent, and as denoting the possession of 
temporal rank and jurisdiction acquired along with the 
ecclesiastical dignity, will be given in abundance as wc 
proceed. Temporal jurisdiction, the jus giadii\ is very 
frequently indicated by a naked sword, placed in saltire 
with the pastoral staff of the ecclesiastical dignity, 
behind the coroneted shield. {See Plates V., XV., XVI.) 
Sometimes the crosier and sword, instead of being in 
saltire behind the shield, are placed paleways on cither 
side of it. {See Plate XIII., fig. 4.) 

Not unfrequently one finds a person whose knowledge 
of Foreign Armory is probably derived from a French 
elementary' book on Heraldr)% and who will dogmati- 
cally insist that ecclesiastics have no right at all to 
use helmets and crests, though he seldom is consistent 
enough to suggest their return to the use of the "Popish" 
ecclesiastical hat To such it is sufficient to say that a 
wider knowledge of Foreign Heraldry would have had the 
inevitable effect of modifying his statement as to " right," 
though he might retain, if he desired, his views as to 

(35 ) 

propriety. But, after all; it is custom that determines the 
matter. In many countries the helmet and crest are not 
used by ecclesiastics in general, but our own country and 
Germany form exceptions to the rule. The great German 
herald Spener, who discusses the propriety of the use 
of the helm by ecclesiastics, approves, but says that in 
any case, with or against propriety, practice has settled 
the matter so far as Germany is concerned. In Germany 
the use of helmets and crests by ecclesiastics has always 
been general as a result of that frequent union of 
temporal rank with spiritual dignity to which I have 
already made allusion. Abbots, abbesses, bishops, and 
archbishops were very frequently also secular princes, 
counts, or barons, holding the lands of their Sees or 
Abbeys immediately from the Crown ; and bound con- 
sequently to furnish their feudal contingent of troops to 
their Royal or Imperial Superior, so that the use of 
military insignia to denote this fact was retained by 
clerics. (On the military fiefs held by ecclesiastics in 
Germany and on their forms of investiture, see the curious 
treatise of SCHILTER, de Feudo Nobili, 1696. Extracts 
therefrom are given in BURGERMEISTER, Bibliotheca 
Equestris, ii., 990- 1015, Ulm, 1720. See also Praun, 
von des A dels Hcerschtlden, etc.) 

Again, the temporal power and possessions belong- 
ing to the Spiritual Princes : — the Elector- Archbishops 
of Mainz, Coln, and Trier ; and to the numerous 
Prince-Bishops, and Abbots of the Empire, — were so 
great that these dignities were eagerly sought, and con- 
tinually filled by churchmen who were already by 
inheritance in possession of military fiefs ; while the 
custom of placing above the escucheon a crested helm 
for each fief which conferred on its possessor the right to 
a vote in the Circles of the Empire, naturally contributed 
to the retention of these military insignia by ecclesiastics. 
It must also be remembered that in Germany the crested 

( 36 ) 

helm is not looked upon, as arfiong us, as a subordinate 
accessory to shields of arms, but is considered as being 
of at least equal importance with them. 

In our own country helmets and crests are gene- 
rally used by ecclesiastics below Episcopal rank, 
but the custom, which has not the same excuse as in 
Germany, has often, and not unreasonably, been 
denounced as a violation of strict heraldic propriety. 
Helmets and crests were intended for use in war and 
martial exercises, and there is consequently some incon- 
gruity in their employment either by ecclesiastics, or by 

Instances may indeed be found in which the heralds 
of the gospel of peace have been led to take a ver}- 
active part in offensive warfare, from the times of the 
Crysading Prelates, to our own day when, in the American 
War of Secession, Bishop Leonidas Polk led to battle 
the forces of the Confederate States. Even before the 
Crusades military ecclesiastics were found in the armies 
of the Prankish kings. GREGORY OF ToURS (lib. iv., 
cap. xliii., says) — " Fuerunt in hoc praslio Salonius et 
Sagittarius, fratres atque episcopi, qui non cruce coelesti 
muniti, sed galea aut lorica saeculari armati, multos 
manibus propriis, quod pejus est, interfecisse referuntur." 
Charlemagne, in conjunction with the Church, endea- 
voured to reform these abuses (see les Capitulaires, lib. 
vi. et vii.). An old French Historian, GuiL. DE Breton, 
mentions Philip de Dreux, Bishop of Beauvais, who 
at the battle of Bou VINES, in 1244, unhorsed, and beat out 
the brains of several of the enemy with a mace, so as 
not to break the letter of the law which forbade the 
use of the sword by ecclesiastics (f. /., p. 95). Jean de 
MONTAIGU, Archbishop of Sens, was slain in battle in 
1416. Another well-known story is that of the Pope 
who sent to demand the release of one of these martial 
prelates — styling him his beloved son. The King is said 

( 37 ) 

to have returned the coat of mail worn by the Bishop, 
with the text — " Know now, whether this be thy son's 
coat or no ! " (Gen. xxxvii., 32). {See VON LowHEN's 
Analysis of Nobility, p. 164,) So in Italy GuiDO 
Tarlatti, Bishop of Arezzo, was so eminent a warrior 
that his tomb erected in 1330 is richly sculptured with 
sixteen bas-reliefs of his battles and sieges. At the 
battle of BouviNES the Abbot of S. M£l)ARD at 
SoissONS himself led to battle a hundred and fifty of 
his vassals. In England, Henrv LE Desi»ENSER, the 
warlike Bishop of NORWICH (1370- 1406), used on his 
secrctum the shield of his personal arms, timbred with a 
mitre from which rises the crest, a dragon's head 
between a pair of wings. In the Armorial de Gelre, 
the arms and crest are given, but a helmet is inter- 
posed between the shield and the mitre. {See Plate 
v., figs. I and 3.) The seal of Bishop RICHARD 
COURTENAV, also of NORWICH (1413-15), bears a 
couche shield timbred with a crested helm. {Cata- 
logue of Seals in the British Museum^ No. 2050.) The 
use by the Bishops of DURHAM of crested and plumed 
helmets on their palatinate seals will be referred to 

Although an ecclesiastic may if he choose use helmet 
and crest, yet it is not necessary that he should do so. 
On the continent many ecclesiastics have contented 
themselves with bearing the arms of their family in 
a simple oval escucheon or cartouche. In most 
countries the use of the hehnet and crest has been 
supplanted by the adoption for all grades of ecclesiastics | 
of a flat, broad-brimmed, low-crowned hat, varying for 
each rank in its colour,* and in the number o{ \\\q houppes, \ 
or tassels, with which the ends of its cords or strings! 
are adorned. The use of the ecclesiastical hat does not 
seem ever to have been general in this country to any 
great extent, or in Germany. Accordingly, when it is 


mei with in this country on a book-cover, an engraving, 
or some work of art, it is (in accordance with the pre- 
valent ignorance of foreign heraldic matters) nearly 
always taken to be indicative of the rank of cardinal, 
and is not unfrequently so described with an amount 
of positiveness corresponding to that of the assertor's 


Cartouche — The Biretta^ and the Ecclesiastical Hat — Chan- 
ters' Batons — Protonotaries — Canons and Chanoinesses — 
Noble Chapters — Their Insignia — The use of the Amess, or 
Aumusse, at Home and Abroad — Mitred Canons and Digni- 
taries — Lay Honorary Canons —Priors and Prioresses — The 
Bourdon — The Pastoral Staff— Mitred Priors— Provosts and 
Deans — Official Arms of Cathedral* Dignitaries — Clerical 
Members, and Officers of Military Orders of Knighthood, and 
Chaplains of the Order of St. John — Canons of St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, etc. 

It has been noted above that many ecclesiastics abroad 
are content to use their family arms in a cartouche^ or 
oval shield, without any external ornaments to indicate 
their ecclesiastical status. Thus LouiS Cloquet, 
^' chanoine diacre'' of the Church of REIMS at the com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century used for his book- 
stamp an oval cartouche, encircled by a branch of olive, 
and another of palm, and bearing the armes parlantes : 
Azure, a chevron between three bells, in chief a crescent 
(.'for difference) all argent. {^Armorial du Bibliophile, 
i., 1 6 1.) The librar>' of J KAN DKS CoRDES, Canon of 
Limoges, who died in 1643, was acquired by Cardinal 
Mazarin, and the books bear the arms of the Canon 
{Azure^two lions rampant addorsedor) in an oval escucheon 
without any mark of ecclesiastical dignity. NICOLAS 
DoiNET, Canon of REIMS in 1722, bore: Gules, on a 
fess or, three canettes sable, in an oval escucheon encircled 
by palm branches. (GuiGARD, tome i., 184-185.) 

The book-stamp used by jEAN DE Sainte AndrI^:, 

( 40 ) 

Canon of NOTRE Dame at Paris, at the close of the 
sixteenth century, bears his arms {Azure^ a castle triple- 
towered argent y masoned sable , in chief three estoiles of five 
points or) on an escucheon surmounted by a full-faced 
helmet with grilles, above which is placed a biretta, or 
four-cornered ecclesiastical cap. (Plate III., fig. 2.) 
There are several other examples of the use of the biretta, 
but I know no other where it is used thus to surmount a 
helmet. One where it surmounts a coronet is given later 
on at p. 48. Pierre le Jeune, Canon, bore : Gtiles, 
a chevron between in chief a sun in splendour^ and in base 
a rose issuing from a hearty all or, the shield timbred with 
a biretta. (GuiGARD, Armorial du Bibliophile^ ii., 51.) 
Francois Robert Secousse, Doctor in Theology, 
Cure of St. EUSTACIIE in Paris, about 1750, used the 
biretta alone above the escucheon of his arms (Asurc, a 
chevron between two pierced mullets, and a garb ; in chief 
a crescent y all or, (The crescent was here not a mark of 
cadency but a regular charge — his brother, DENIS 
FraN(;ois, who died in 1754, used the same arms.) 
Melchior B. M. Cochet du Magny (d. 1791), Canon 
of the Royal Chapel (la Sainte Chapelle) at DijON, used 
the biretta alone, above the shield of his arms (Argent, 
a cock gules, (GuiGARl), i., 161.) 

Much more general was the use of the ecclesiastical hat. 
The common priest's hat is flat, broad-brimmed, of a black 
colour, and had originally on either side a cord, or string, 
terminating in a single tassel. In later times, when ecclesi- 
astics generally seem to have claimed and used something 
more than they were legally entitled to, the single tassel 
was replaced by a double one. This hat was represented 
above the shield, or oval cartouche containing the arms. 

Members of a Regular Order often impaled its 
armorial bearings, or its device, with their personal arm.s, 
giving the place of honour on the dexter side of the 
shield to the bearings so assumed. Thus, the book- 

1. Hniri BuwImu, Cuod of Pui& i Jeui de 8t AniM, Qmon of Paria. 

5. Boiut (Prior). 

(41 ) 

plate of Fr^re JACQUES RenaUD, of the Order of Friars- 
Preachers, at Lyons, bear the arms of the Dominican 
Order (v, post, p. 143) impaling his personal coat : Or^ 
a fess gules between an eagle rising in chief and a horse 
courant in base proper, 

Protonotaries and Chanters were frequently, per- 
haps ordinarily, chosen from among the Canons. The 
Chanters, or Precentors, denoted their office by placing 
behind the shield of arms the baton with which they led 
the choral music, and which they are often represented 
as holding on early seals. The seal of Henri, Chantrc 
de Troves in 1227, shows his standing effigy, holding in 
one hand a baton the head of which is a fleur-de-lis, and 
in the other a song book. (Demav, Le Costume du 
Moyen Age apres les Sceaux, p. 293.) On the seal of 
GuiLLAUME. Chanter of EVREUX in 1236. his effigy is 
similarly represented, but the baton is not floriated. On 
that of Gautier, Chanter of LE Mans, the figure holds 
a baton only. The counter-seal of the last bears a cross 
potent fitctii (Demay, Les Sceaux de la Normandie, 
Nos. 2416, 2418). 

Menestrier records {l' Usage des Annoiries, tome i., 
pp. 249-250) an example existing in his time in the 
Cathedral of NOTRE Dame at Paris, where on the 
tapestry representing the chief events in the traditional 
life of the Blessqd Virgin there were also to be seen the 
arms of the probable donor, MICHEL LE Masle DES 
Roches, Chanter, and Canon of Notre Dame at Paris, 
viz. : Argent y a chevron between three rocks sable. A baton 
surmounted by a fleur-de-lis is placed behind the 
escucheon. {^See Plate IV., fig. 2.) 

In the Chapel of the Chateau de ViNCENNES is the tomb 
of Rf:N£ DE Laulnay, Canon and Chanter, on which 
the baton is similarly placed in pale behind the shield. 

On the book-stamp of the Abbe DORSANNE (Doctor 
in Theolog^y, Canon, Chanter, and Grande Vicaire of 

(42 ) 

Notre Dame at Paris in 171 5) his arms: Argent, a 
chevron gules^ on a chief azure three mascles or (Correct 
Guigard's BlasoHy i., 186) are in an oval escucheon, 
surmounted by a coronet. The chanter's staff is in pale 
behind the shield, and its head appears between a small 
mitre, and the head of a pastoral staff, head outwards. 
On a cope at Beauvais the arms of a chanter arc 
embroidered ; in this case two batons are placed in 
saltire behind the escucheon. (MENfexRIER, les Omeviens 
des ArtnoirieSy p. 144.) 

Protonotaries used the black flat hat, but this was 
differenced from that of the ordinary priest by the silken 
cordons on either side which were made to end in a series 
of three tassels, one above two. 

In the choir of the Church of S. Jacques at Antwerp 
I have noticed the monument of JACOB Channon, 
Protonotary, who died in 17 14. His shield of arms 
(...) ^ fess wavy (...) between three goafs 
heads erased (...), those in chief respecting each 
other, tliat in base affront/) is surmounted by such a hat 
as that just described. So are the arms of the Proto- 
notary DE Bern AGE : Barry of six or and gules, on each 
piece of t/ie last Jive saltires couped argent (Plate IV., fig. i, 
and see rAnnorial Universel, planche 73, Paris, 1679) : 
and those of the Protonotary PlANELLi : Per fess gules 
and sable, a fess raguly or (Men^TRIER, M/thode du 
Blason, p. 208, Lyons, 171 8). 

Charles DE Grassalio in 1 545 says that the pro- 
tonotaries' hats were turned up with green : — " Protono- 
tarius Tymbrum addit ex pileo nigro, duplicata viridi 
colore." I have never myself remarked an example 
of this use, but the black hat had sometimes violet 
tassels appended to it. At Regensburg there is an 
example of the year 1462, above the shield of Doctor 
Thomas Pirckhaimer, Protonotary, and Apostolic 
Referendary. At Rome it appears that the seven Apostolic 



S. Le HuIe.C^on and Grand Cbuiter 

( 43 ) 

Protonotaries use a red cord and tassels {see MONTAULT, 
VAnnee Liturgique d Rome, p. 3CX)). The number of 
Iwuppes^ or tassels, is now usually three, but there was 
formerly considerable variety in the matter. I observed 
in the Cathedral at Verona the tomb of the Protono- 
tary Andreas Sbadachia, on which each cordon of the 
black hat is terminated by six houppes, arranged i. 2. 3. 
A similar arrangement appears on the seal of CHRIS- 
TOPHER HiLlNGER, Protonotary, appended to a deed 
dated 165 1. I noticed, in the Church of S. JACQUES at 
Antwerp, the monument of EMMANUEL VAN HOREN- 
BEECK, Canon and Protonotary, who died in 17 19. His 
escuchcon, which bears : Azure, three bars argent, on a 
chief . . . three hunting horns, ... is timbred with a 
hat, the cordons of which end on either side in six 
houppes, I. 2. 3. In the same church I observed a more 
modern example on the monument of J. M. DE MoOR, 
who died in 1841. His arms, which were : Or, a chevron 
gules between three Moo^s heads proper, are surmounted 
by a helmet and lambrequins, while above the whole is 
the Protonotary 's black hat with only three houppes on 
cither side. In the Church of S. Marik at Bruges I 
noted the following example. The monument of the 
Protonotary Warner Dominic DE MONGET, who died 
in 1725, bears his arms: V^air, a fess or; over all an 
escuclieon azure, three storks argent. The hat has six 
houppes on either side. 

The pretentious book-plate of M. DUBUT, Cur^ de 
Vd^OFLAV, Protonotaire Apostoliquc, Commandeur de 
rOrdre de Christ, in 1782, is engraved in French Book- 
plates (by W. Hamilton, 1892, London), and bears on 
an oval cartouche his annes parlantes (I suspect a mere 
assumption) — Argent, on a mound in base two butts or 
targets {?) proper. On a chief gules a cross argent — for the 
Order of Christ. The cscucheon is surrounded, first by a 
motto band with the words Crux Chrlsti Gloria 

( 44 ) 

Mea, and then by the red ribbon of the Order with its 
pendant cross. The escucheon, which is surmounted by 
a count's coronet, is placed upon an eight-pointed cross 
with balls at the end (which Mr Hamilton calls the 
'' Cross of S. LouzSy' but I think is only intended as the 
Commander's Star), a staff is placed behind the shield, 
and a small mitre and the head of a key appear on either 
side of the coronet. The whole is surmounted by a pro- 
tonotary's black hat, of which the six houppes on either 
side are tinctured green. (We pass by the other non- 
heraldic adjuncts of clouds and sunbeams, and the quasi 
supporters ** Faith " and " Charity.") 

That of Philippe Alexis de Baillv, who is de- 
scribed as Noble graduate, Protonotary, and Canon of the 
"ci-devant Cath^drale de S. Donatien a Bruges," and 
who died in 1810, has the shield charged with his arms : 
Azure^ three crescents or, and timbred with a hat re- 
sembling the preceding. It may be noted that the 
thirty-two quarters of this canon are arranged on the 
monument in four columns of eight escuchcons, two rows 
on either side of the main shield. 

The book-stamp of Jean Gen est. Apostolic Pro- 
tonotary and Archdeacon of Nevers, in 1614, bears 
a shield of his arms : Sable, a chief argent y surmounted 
by a mitre, and the head (turned inwards) of a pastoral 
staff ; all beneath a hat each of the cordons of which 
terminates in three tassels, i. 2. (GuiGARD, Armorial 
du Bibliophile, tome i., p. 235.) 

With regard to Canons and Canoncsses, we have 
already observed that on the continent very many of 
the chapters were entirely closed against those persons 
who were unable to furnish the requisite proofs of gentle 
blood. Aspirants to admission were only received after 
their genealogical proofs of noble descent had been sub- 
mitted to the most rigorous scrutiny. '\\i<^<>^ preuves de 
noblesse varied at different times and in different places, 

( 45 ) 

and lists of these noble chapters and their genealogical 
requirements will be found in Part II. of this book. In 
several of these chapters the possession of a stall con- 
veyed the right to the rank and title of Count, or Baron. 
In France, for example, the Canons of the Chapters of 
S. Jean at Lyons ; S. JULIEN at Brioude ; and S. 
PlERRK at Macon ; were all Counts by Royal Grant in 
right of their Stalls ; as were the Canonesses of Alix, 
Baume-les-Dames ; Poulangv ; and S. Martin de 
Salles, en Beaujolais. At Evreux the Canons had 
the title of Baron ; in Germany the members of several 
noble Chapters had similar privileges. All these placed 
the coronet of their rank above their shields of arms, and 
the shields were surrounded by a cordon or ribbon of silk 
to which was attached a badge, or eight-pointed cross of 
enamel, somewhat resembling the Cross of the ORDER 
OF S. John, but with variations in the colour of the 
ribbons, and the details of the badge. ( F. Plate III., 
fig. 3.) Similar crosses and ribbons were worn, both at 
religious services, and in civil life, by the members of 
other chapters besides those whose names arc given 
above, and fuller descriptions are given later in Part III. 
of this work. They arc still worn by the Canons of 
several Continental Cathedrals and Collegiate Chapters, 
as at S. Denis, Toulouse, Lucerne, etc., etc. 

The Canons of S. Victor also placed their shields 
upon the cross or badge, so that the arms of the latter 
projected on all sides, after the fashion originally adopted 
by the members of the Order of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem, or Malta (Plate XIII., fig. 2). The Dean and 
Canons, Counts of Lyons, also used supporters to their 
arms ; these were the same for all, viz., on the dexter side 
a griflfin argent, on the sinister a lion or. 

On Plate III., fig. 3, I have engraved the arms and 
supporters of Toussaint-Joseph Pierre de Boissel, 
Abb^ de BoiS-BoissEL, Canon and Count of LVON, 1779, 


which are : — Ermine on a chief gules a fess of mascles 
conjoined or. The shield is timbred with the coronet of 
a Count, and supported by a griffin argent on the dexter 
side, and by a lion or, on the sinister. The shield is 
further ornamented with the ribbon, from which is 
pendant the badge of a Canon-Count as appointed by 
the King, Louis XV., in 1745. 

The Canons of the Chapter of S. Denis, near Paris, 
place in the shield above their paternal coat a chief 
charged with the arms of the Chapter [v, ante^ p. 17). 
Similarly the Canons of S. VICTOR added to their arms 
a chief of the arms of the Abbey : Azure, an escar- 
huncle or. The Canons of the Church of S. DONAS, or 
S. DONATIEN, at Bruges, placed en cimier above the 
shield of their arms, a badge representing a chandelier, 
or corona, bearing eight lighted tapers, which was the 
conventional emblem of the Saint to whose honour the 
church was dedicated. {^See Plate V., fig. 4.) 

At Trent the arms of the Canons are placed upon 
their fur amesses, which are extended like mantlings 
around their escucheons. In the Cathedral more than 
forty tombs dating from about the middle of the sixteenth 
century are adorned with the arms of Canons thus repre- 
sented. I have observed several instances of the same 
usage on monumental slabs in the nave of the Cathedral 
of Santa Maria at Verona. The figures 7 and 8 on 
Plate v., engraved from my rough sketches taken on 
the spot, will sufficiently explain this curious disposition. 

The amess, otherwise called aumusse, or almuce, was a 
kind of tippet and hood, of silk or stuff" lined with costly 
grey fur, and was worn by Canons during the choir 
offices in the winter months of the year. The amess of the 
minor canons, vicars, or chaplains, was lined with calabre, 
a brown fur of a less expensive kind. The academic 
liood which has become a quasi-ecclesiastical vestment 
in the Church of England originated in the use of the 

1. Fonlhun, Biabop of Durbkm, \ 

2. Cnat of SMTwecden, > from i'ArmoruiJ lii tMre. 

3. DeapenMT, Bidiop of Nonrioh, ) 

4. iWlge ot S. Ddojul fi. Prinoe Bishop of Basel G. Count of Hootfort 

7 and 8. Aumnaei of Canona at Verorw. ft. Papd Turn. 

10. T«u Bulge, Otder of S. AnthoDf . 

( 47 ) 

amess. The material of that worn in England by 
canons was of black cloth, but that of a doctor in any 
faculty was everywhere of scarlet. At ExETER the amess 
was of black stuff, doubled and lined with red or green sar- 
cenet. At Strassburg it appears to have been of red 
velvet lined with ermine; at Besanc^ON of blue silk lined 
with red taffeta. {Cathedralia, p. 90.) In the Cathedrals 
of Southern Italy and Sicily there was considerable 
variety in the colour and material of the amesses worn 
by the canons. Mr MACKENZIE Walcot tell us {Sacred 
Archceology, pp. 14, 15) that it was of "violet at MoNTE 
Regale, Cefalu, Mazzana, and Messina ; and black 
with violet edges and ends at Otranto and PALERMO. 
[This was, however, used by the minor canons. — J.W.] 
At Langadoc {sic) "the canon's amess was purple in 
honour of martyrs, with a hood {pcenula) of lamb s fur. At 
Setabis it was of ermine ; at Syracuse, black or violet, 
according to the season; at Neti, of black silk; at 
ViENNE, in summer of green material ; and at Otranto, 
violet, with crimson edges." At the present day it is 
seldom worn, at least I have hardly ever so seen it, but 
in Italy it is habitually carried over the left arm, with the 
fur outside, as a mark of their dignity by Canons, and 
minor-canons, on their way to and from the choir. Dr 
Rock, however, says that though this is the general 
custom yet " in some churches it is still worn sewed to 
the canon s cope like a hood, and spread all about the 
shoulders." And in the appended note he adds : — " Such 
is the practice at St. Peter's, St. Mary Major's, and 
St. John Lateran's at Rome. But in some of the 
smaller collegiate churches of the Holy City, the canons 
carry upon the left arm their almucia, which is neither 
ermine, like that of the upper canons, nor grey, as is the 
one given to the minor-canons of the great basilicas, but 
of brown skins." {Church of Our Fathers, vol. ii., pp. 88, 
89. A great deal of interesting information as to the 

( 48 ) 

use of the "amice grey** will be found in Dr RoCK*s 
learned work, vol. ii., pp. 52-60. See also Catliedralia, 
by Mackenzie Walcot, pp. 89, 90.) The amess was 
also used armorially in rather a different manner from 
that depicted in Plate V., figs. 7 and 8, and described above 
as in use at Verona. The book-plate of Pierre 
SIGUIER, Comte de GlEN, and eventually Chancelier 
de France, has his arms: Argent, semd of fleurs-de-lis y 
on a mount in base a Pasc/ial-Lavib regardant proper ; 
timbred by the coronet of a Marquis, surmounted by a 
biretta. A folded amess of fur is stretched above the 
coronet, and behind the biretta, and depends on either 
side of the shield. (Sec French Book-Plates, p. 123.) 
Two instances are given in GuiGARD, Armorial du 
Bibliophile; one of the arms of Henri Francois de 
Baradeau. Canon of Notre Dame at Paris, about the 
year 1722. Here the arms: Azure, a fess between 
three roses or, are surmounted by a biretta, and by an 
amess which seems to be placed behind the cap, and hangs 
unequally on either side (Plate HI., fig. i). A similar 
example, but with the inequality less marked, is that of 
GiRARD,Chanoine de Saint Svmphorien, which is not 
dated but is apparently of the seventeenth century. 
The arms are: Argent, a stag's head caboshed sable. 
{See tome 1., pp. 71, 236.) 

The Canons of several important Cathedrals have, by 
Papal Grant, the right to use the mitre {jnitra simplex 
only, vide post, p. 67), and some other episcopal insignia, 
upon certain occasions. I have seen it thus used at 
Milan, Pavia, Pisa, Naples, etc. At Bamberg (where 
the privilege dates from 105 3, having been granted b}^ 
Pope Leo IX., Acta Sanctorum, Junii, t. iii., p. 871), 

Braga, Besan(;on, Brioude, Lisbon, Lucca, Messina, 
PUY, Rodez, Salerno, etc., all, the Canons are thus 
mitred. But in other Cathedral Chapters only the 
** dignitaries," or a limited number of the Canons have 

( 49 ) 
the right to the use of the mitre ; this is the case 

at Cologne, Compostella, Macon, Magdeburg, 
Mainz, Seville, Toledo, Trier, and Vienne. At 
Regensburg (Ratisbon), Ghent, Lavantz, and St. 

Dlt in the Vosges (granted by Leo IX. ante 1054) 
only the Provost ; at Salzburg the Provost and 
Dean, have this privilege. In all such cases we may 
be sure that the mitre was not omitted as an external 
ornament to the arms of those thus privileged. (We 
may mention here that some of the Canons of COLOGNE, 
Magdeburg, Mainz, and Treves, had the right to use 
the full robes of a Cardinal at Divine Service ; at Milan, 
Lisbon and Pisa all the Canons had this privilege. {See 
Rock, Church of Our Fathers, vol. ii., p. 112.) 

The privileges of the Canons of St. Stephen's 
Cathedral at Vienna are worthy of note. They precede 
in dignity all mitred Provosts and Prelates, but are 
inferior in rank to Suffragan Bishops. All the Digni- 
taries have the right to use the mitre. This privilege 
has belonged to the Provost since the foundation of the 
Chapter ; it was accorded to the Dean, Custos, and 
Cantor, by Pope Clement XII.; and the Scholasticus 
received the same right from Pope Benedict XIV. 

At Mainz in 1580 Wolfgang d'Alhkrg, Provost 
(afterwards Archbishop) ; George Schonenberc;, 
Dean, and Henry Stockhelm, Chanter, each timbred 
his shield of arms with two helms, the dexter being 
surmounted by a mitre ; the sinister by the personal 
crest. Sometimes the helmet beneath the mitre is 
omitted. Philip von Schwalbach, Chanter of Mainz 
(who bore the arms : Sable, three annulets in bend argent\ 
timbred his shield with a single helm bearing his crest, 
two buffalo horns with scalp and cars. 

In the great Chapters of Germany, such as Mainz, 
Wurzburg, and Bamberg, during the vacancy of the 
See, the coins, medals, and seals bore the shields of arms 


( 5°) 

(often helmed and crested), of all the Dignitaries and 
Canons, arranged in a circle around a central escucheon 
of the arms of the Chapter, or the device of the patron 
Saint of the Church {see Zepernik, Die Capitels, und 
Sedis vacansy Miinzen der Reiclisstifter, etc., Halle, 1822). 
In 1 7 19, a medal of the Chapter of Paderborn, j^rtV 
vacante, bears on the obverse the figure of Charle- 
magne, its reputed founder, and on the reverse that of 
a bishop in pontificals, holding a church. Each of these 
effigies is surrounded by a series of twelve shields of 
arms, one for each of the twenty-four Canons (Kohler, 
Miinz-Belustigung^ xi., p. 339). Similarly, in 1724, the 
Chapter of HiLDESHElM, sede vacante, struck a medal 
with the effigies of the Emperors CHARLEMAGNE, and 
LOULS (der Fromme). On its obverse are seventeen, and 
on the reverse sixteen, shields of the arms of the Canons, 
each surmounted by their coronet. {^See KoHLER, 
Miinz-Belustigimg, xi., p. 409.) 

Sovereign Princes and Nobles of high rank had 
sometimes the rank of Honorary Canons. Thus the 
Emperor was a Honorary Canon of St. Peter's and 
St. John Lateran at Rome, and of the Chapters of 
CoLN, Speier, Regensberg, Bamberg, Strassburg, 
Aachen, Utrecht, Luttich, etc. The ' King of 
France was Canon of St. John Lateran at Rome ; 
and the stall has since been assigned to the head 
of the State for the time being, to the Emperor 
Napoleon HI., and the Presidents of the Republic, 
MM. MacMahon, Thu^rs, etc. The King of Spain is 
Honorary Canon of the Basilican Chapter of Sta. Marlv 
MaG(;iore at Rome, as well as at Toledo, L?:on, and (as 
Seftor dc Viscava) at Burgos. The King of England 
was Honorary Canon of the Basilica of San Paolo 
FUORI LE Mure; and even in our own country the 
Sovereign has the rank of first Cursal Canon in the 
Chapter of St. Davh/s. The Dukes of Burgundy 

(51 ) 

had a stall at LYONS; the Dukes of BRABANT at 
Utrecht ; the Marquis of Astorga at Leon ; the 
Counts of Anjou at ToURS ; and the Counts and 
Seigneurs of Chastelus at Autun and Auxerre. The 
stall at Auxerre was acquired in 1423 by Claude de 
Beauvoir, Seigneur de Chastelus, Vicomte d'Avalon, 
etc., Mardchal de France, in a rather interesting way. 
During five weeks he defended against the English the 
town of Crevant, which belonged to the Chapter of 
Auxerre, and in recognition of its preservation the 
Chapter accorded to him, and to his successors in the 
Seigneurie, the dignity of Chanoine-honoraire^ with the 
right to occupy a stall during the offices, vested in a sur- 
plice. His arms : A cure ^ a bend between seven billets or, 
{en banniere) remained in the crypt of the Cathedral at 
Auxerre when Menestrier wrote in 1673. {U Usage 
des Armoiries, pp. 73-74.) 

Priors and Prioresses. 

It was customary for Priors to place a bourdon (/>., a 
knobbed staff) of silver, in pale behind the shield of arms. 
The black ecclesiastical hat, with three lionppes on either 
side, sometimes surmounts the shield, which is often placed 
between two palms or branches of laurel, or olive. The 
Prior de Sennkterre of S. Sauveuk in Velay, in 1540, 
thus bore his arms : Azure, five fusils in f ess argent. In 
Magnenev's Recueil des Amies (Paris, 1633) are several 
examples. Thus, on plate 32, are the arms of M. BoUTOX 
DE Chamillv, Prieur et Seigneur de Danzv, who bore : 
Gules y a fess or ; and of M. DE PucJKT, Prieur de la 
Plastriere de Lyon, who carried : Or, three pallets gules, 
on a chief argent an eagle displayed sable. In both 
instances a bourdon is placed behind the shield, which is 
accosted by two branches of olive in the former case, 
by two palms in the latter. There are no hats in these 

( 52 ) 

examples. Jean Baptiste Boisot, Prieur de la Loye 
de Lachaux, etc., who died in 1694, used his arms {Sab/e, 
three annulets argent^ on a chief Or three pallets asure) with 
a prior's bourdon in pale behind the escucheon, and a 
rosary, with its pendant cross, encircling it. (Plate III., 
fig- 5 I and see Guigard, Arm. du Bibliophile, tome i., 
p. lOI.) 

At S. Andrews, Priors Alexander Stuart and 
John Hepburn placed the pastoral staff, instead of the 
bourdon, in pale behind the shield. The remarkable 
seal of Euphemia Leslie (Countess of Ross, Prioress 
of Elcho) shows a crosier, or pastoral staff, behind the 
escucheon (Laing, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., p. 200). But 
abroad prioresses often used only the bourdon, like priors 
and surrounded the shield, or lozenge of their arms, with 
branches of olive or palm, or with a rosary, at their 
discretion. The Abb^ ScARRON as Prior placed the 
bourdon behind his shield, which bore : Acure, a bend 
bretessff or. 

Occasionally the Prior had the right, by special Papal 
grant, to use the mitre at the sacred offices. Thus 
among the MSS. of the Dean and Chapter of Ely is a 
letter of Pope Martin V. (1417-1431) to the Prior and 
Convent, in which permission is granted to the Prior 
and his successors to use the "mitre, ring, staff, amice, 
gremial, gloves, and other pontifical insignia, not only in 
the Church of ELY, but in whatever place they may give 
the solemn benediction after Mass, except in the presence 
of the Legate of the Holy See." It appears that Pope 
John XXII. had previously conferred the same privi- 
leges on Prior WiLLlAM POWCHER, but that after the de- 
position of the pontiff in 141 5, an application was made 
to Rome for a new licence, or an authoritative confirma- 
tion of the old one. {Historical MSS. Comviission, 
Twelfth Report, Appendix ix., p. 395.) Leo IX. 
granted to the Provost of the Collegiate Church of 

( 53 ) 

S. Dl£ in the Vosges, the use of the mitre and other 
pontifical ornaments as early as 1050. 

Pope Clement VI. granted to the Prior of Worces- 
ter in 1 35 1 the right to use the mitre ; this privilege was 
confirmed in 1363 by Urban V. It was stipulated that 
even in the Bishop's presence the Prior might wear the 
mitra simplex or even mitra aiirifrigiata {vj. p. 67) ; but 
the mitra pretiosa (jewelled) only in his absence. (The 
grant is given in WiLKlNs' Concilia, t. iii., 201, and is also 
printed in RoCK*S Church of our Fathers, vol. ii., pp. 1 15- 
117.) In 1386 the Prior of WINCHESTER wore the 
mitra simplex in the presence of the Bishop, and the 
jewelled mitre in his absence. In all these cases the 
mitre would also be assumed as one of the external 
adornments of a shield of arms. 

On the book-plate of HECTOR POMER, last Prior of 
St. Lawrence at NUrnberg, which was designed by 
Albert Durer, and engraved in 1591, the arms of 
the Priory: Argent, a grate, or gridiron (on which 
S. Lawrence was martyred), are quartered with the 
personal arms of the Prior : Per bend, in chief bendy of 
four gules and argent, in base sable plain {see the plate 
engraved in Mr Egerton Castle's excellent work on 
English Book-Plates, p. 32, 1892). The shield is helmed 
and crested, and there is no mark of ecclesiastical 
dignity, but St. Lawrence with palm and grill stands 
in the background — a ^//^.r/'-supporter. 

Bartholonleus Cataneus, Provost of Herzogen- 
HUR(i (a house of the Regular Augustinian Canons, 
dedicated to St. George), bore on his seal in 1552 two 
shields — one of the arms of his house: Argent, a cross 
pat^e gules ; the other charged with his personal arms. 
The whole was surmounted by the Q.^^y of S. GEORCiE 
slaying the dragon. In 1561 his seal bears the coats 
quartered in one shield, but still surmounted by the 
figure of S. George, as above. 

( 54 ) 

John Schack, Provost of S. Cross at Augsburg, used 
two shields accoUs — one of the arms of his church: 
Azure^ a cross paUe-througfiout or ; the other of his 
personal arms: Gules, three roses argent; a mitre was 
placed above the conjoined shields, and a pastoral staff 
in bend-sinister behind them (MENfexRiER, Pratique des 
Artnoiries, p. 21). On the seal of Matthew Wertwen, 
Provost of the Cathedral of St. Stephen at Vienna, 
the arms are surmounted by a mitre enfiling a pastoral 
staff (Hueber, Austria Illustrata ex Archivis Mellicen- 
sibus, plate xxxv.). The seal of Christopher Potin- 
GER, Dean of the same church in 1538, has simply 
the personal arms with a crested helm {ibid., plate 

Franvois Rapine, Prior of S. Pierre le Mous- 
TIERS, in Nivernais, aumdnier to Queen Marie de 
Medicis, bore a rather singular arrangement of his 
arms, thus: Per pale: the dexter coupt^ (a) Argent, a 
chevron ( engrailed ? ) between three escallops gules ; 
(b) Barry of four azure and argent, over all three hearts 
gules crowned with open crowns or (so that the hearts arc 
on the argent bars, the crowns on the azure). The 
sinister half of the escucheon is occupied by the arms of 
his Priory : . . . rt key in pale with its double wards in 
chief. (GUIGARI), Ann. du Bibliophile, tome ii., p. 176.) 

The arms of M. Charron i/Ormeilles, Dean of 
S. Germain L'Auxerrois, at Paris {Azure, a chevron 
betiveen two mullets in chief and a wluel in base or), are 
represented in Magneney's Recueil des A rmes, p\Rnchc 
xxviii., with a pastoral staff in pale behind the shield, 
which is surmounted by a (black) hat with six houppes 
on either side {see Plate VI., fig. 2). Segoing gives, 
\\\ the Armorial Universel, planche 75, the arms of Dean 
DE LA Have : Quarterly, i and 4. Azure, a fleur-de-lis 
or ; 2 and 3. Azure y an unicorn's head couped, in base a 
crescent argent. 

Dcah; and Abb^ Oohhrhdatiiiis. 

1. ChuTon d'OnnelllM, Dton of S. Germua VAtuerroU. 

a. ClutMubribiid, AbU de Triny. 

( 55 ) 

Charles de Becekel, de la Bastic en Brcsse, Doyen 
et Comte de Lyon, in 1650 only used his personal arms : 
Argent y on a bend gules three cinquefoils of the first y 
timbred with his countly coronet, and without any other 
indication of his dignity (GuiGARD, Arm. du Bibliophile, 
tome i.,p. 82). The shield is accosted by palm branches, 
and a pastoral staff is placed in pale behind it, but there 
is no hat. 

At Exeter the Dean, Precentor, Chancellor, and 
Treasurer had official arms which they might impale 
with their personal ones. These were as follows ; — 
The Dean : Azure, a stag's head caboslud, between t/ie 

/tarns a cross pat^e fitMe argent. 
The Precentor : Argent, on a saltire azure a fleur^e-lis 

The Chancellor : Gules, a saltire argent between four 

crosslets or. 
The Treasurer : Gules, a saltire engrailed betiveen four 

leopards heads or. 
At Bristol Cathedral is a coat, unrecorded in the 
armorials and hitherto unidentified : Azure, a saltire 
argent, in chief a portcullis or, this may be, as I suspect, the 
official coat of a dignitary. {See my Heraldry of Bristol 
CatJiedral, in the Herald and Genealogist, vol. iv., p. 289.) 

The arms of English Deaneries are printed in Part II. 
of this book. 

The Dean of Windsor, as Register of the Most 
Noble Order of the Garter ; and the Dean of 
Westminster as Dean of the Order of the Bath ; 
append to their shields of arms the ribbons and badges 
worn by them as the ensigns of their respective offices in 
those Orders. In Scotland the Dean of the Chapel Royal, 
as Dean of the ORDER OF THE Thistle, had the right 
to do the same. In Ireland, before the disestablishment 
of the Irish Church, the Dean of S. Patrick's Cathedral 
in Dublin was Registrar of the Order of S. Patrick, 

( 56 ) 

and was entitled to use similarly the ribbon and badge 
of his office. 

The Clerical Members, or Chaplains, of the great 
Order of S. John of Jerusalem, equally with the 
Knights of Justice, added to their paternal arms a chief 
of the arms of the Order {Gules, a cross argent), and 
placed the whole escucheon upon the Cross of the Order 
with, or without, its surrounding chaplet and cross. 

Thus, Louis de Fourbin de la Marthe, Abbe- 

Commendataire d*Ardenne, bears on his seal in 1672, 
the following arms : — Or, a chevron azure between three 
leopard's luads sable ; a chief of Religion, Gules, a cross 
argent. The whole escucheon is surrounded by a chaplet ; 
and is placed upon the eight-pointed cross of the 
Order. (Demay, Sceaux de la Normandie, No. 2733.) 
Similarly, RENfi Fran^ols de Froullav de Tessi^:, 
Abbd-Commendataire d'Aunay in 1725, " Chevalier non 
prof^s de TOrdre de S. Jean/' bore his arms {Argent, 
a sal tire gules, bordured engrailed sable) arranged in 
the same manner (Demay, Sceaux de la Normandie, 
No. 2741). 

Even the female religious of the ORDER OF S. John 
used the " chief of the religion ** and placed their arms 
on the Cross of the Order. See the arms of Saint 
Ubardesque DEfe Ubardini {Argent, tlie attire of a 
stag gules) engraved in GOUSSANCOURT, Martyrologe 
des Chevaliers de Saint Jean de Hierusalem, folio, Paris, 
1643, tome ii., p. 230. Those of Saint ROSELINE DE 
ViLLENEUVE {ibid., tome ii., p. 246), and Galiote DE 
GOURDON DE Genouillac {ibid., tome i., p. 317), are 
other examples of the same custom ; and the idea that 
only the Knights and Grand Crosses of the Order had 
the privilege of placing their shield of arms upon the 
eight-pointed cross, or badge, is thus clearly shown to 
be quite without foundation. 

The clerical members and officials of any Order of 

(57 ) 

Knighthood are entitled to use its ribbon and badge as 
an external ornament of their shield of arms. If they 
belong to the lower classes of the Order, and so are only 
entitled to wear the ribbon and badge at the button-hole, 
or on the left breast — then the cross is suspended by 
its ribbon from the base of the shield. But if they have 
higher rank which entitles them to wear the ribbon and 
badge en sautoir — that is by a ribbon passing round the 
neck and supporting the badge at the neck or middle of 
the breast — then they have also the right to surround the 
escucheon with the ribbon of the Order supporting its 
pendant badge, and (according to circumstances) to place 
their escucheon upon the Cross of the Order. 

Before the disestablishment of the Irish Church, the 
Dean of S. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin held the office 
of Registrar of the Order of S. Patrick, and used its 
ribbon and badge both as a personal and as a heraldic 
decoration. {^See also under ARMAGH and DUBLIN.)* 

One of the Colonial Bishops (at the present time 
Archbishop Machray of Rupert's Land) holds the 
office of Prelate of the Colonial Order of S. MICHAEL 
and S. George, and wears its insignia. He also sur- 
rounds his arms with the ribbon and pendant badge. 

The Canons of S. Georc;e's Chapel, Windsor, wore 
in grand ceremonies of the Order of the Garter 
mantles of murrey taffi^ta having on the right shoulder 
an escucheon of the arms of the Order {Argent, a cross 
gules') in a roundle embroidered with gold and silk, but 
they had no other badge at any time. 


ABBOTS AND ABBESSES. -The Crosier, or Pastoral Staff- 
Its History— The Celtic Staff— The Bachul More, and S. 
FiLLAN^s Quigrich — 1\i^ Crutch, or Tauheaded Staff— 
Mediaeval Crosiers — The Mitre — Its History — Anglo-Saxon 
Mitres — Different kinds of Mitres — Their Colour — Abbh-com- 
mendataires — Custodinos — Abb^s R^guliers — The Sudarium — 
The Abbatial Hat — Ensigns of Temporal Jurisdiction — 
Ecclesiastical Princes and Princesses — The Cordelicre. 

In ancient times the only external ornament by which 
the dignity of Abbot, or Abbess, was heraldically denoted, 
was the crosier, or pastoral staff with a crook-head, which 
was placed in pale behind the shield of arms. 

Even in later times some abbots were content to use 
the crosier only as a mark of their office, thus J BAN l)E 
MONTENAY, " Superieur general des Chanoines R^guliers 
de la Congregation de France," and Abbe de S. Genevieve 
in i69i,bore: Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or,m a cartouche, 
behind which is a crosier in pale (GuiGARD, Armorial du 
Bibliophile, ii., 1 24). J EAN DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, Abbe 
de Marmoutiers (d. 1 583), used his shield {BureU argent 
and azure overall three chevrons gules, t lie first Mnif) with 
a simple crosier behind the shield, the whole surrounded 
by a wreath of two palm branches. {Ibid., ii., 32.) 

Those who are interested in the ecclesiastical origin 
and use of the crosier will find abundant information in 
the 2nd vol. of Smith's Christian Antiquities; in 
M ARTIGNY, Dictionnaire des Antiquith Chr^tiennes ; and 
especially in a Monograph on Le Baton pastoral by 
rAbb<§ Barrault, and Arthur Martin, Paris, 1856, 
which is declared by the writer in Smith's Dictionary to 

(59 ) 

be th6 most elaborate treatise on the subject. The 
limits of the present work preclude more than a few- 
brief notes. The pastoral staff, or crosier, was cm- 
ployed as early as the fourth century as a sign of 
the episcopal dignity ; a century or so later it appears 
to be used by abbots. PUGIN seems to think that the 
use by abbots is coeval with that by bishops. 

In the life of St. C^sarius. Bishop of Arles, written 
by one of his own clergy in 502 ; we find that on some 
public occasions his staff was carried by a cleric. " Cum 
vir Dei ... ad aliam ecclesiam pergeret clericus cui 
cura erat baculum illius portare, quod notariorum officium 
erat, oblitus est, in quo ministerio ego serviebam, etc. 
(Quoted from his life in the Acfa Sanctorum, August, 
tom. vi., p. 79, by Dr RoCK, Church of our Fathers, vol. 
ii., p. 182.) We learn also from S. Isidore of Seville, 
that a staff was delivered to a newly consecrated bishop 
as a sign of authority ; and the Pontifical o^ EGBERT of 
York, as well as an Anglo-Saxon Pontifical preserved 
at Rouen, give an identical exhortation, — " Cum datur 
baculus licec oratio dtcitur: Accipc baculum pastoral is 
officii, et sis in corrigendis vitiis sieviens," etc. {See 
Martene, De Antiq. Eccl, Rit., tom. ii., lib. i., cap. viii. ; 
and Rock, loc. cit.). 

The right to use the staff as a symbol of office docs 
not appear to have been conceded to abbesses until a 
much later period. In comparatively modern times 
its heraldic use per abusum has passed to ecclesiastics 
of lower rank as will be shown later. No doubt the 
pastoral staff was originally only the walking staff 
of the venerable bearer, which supported his steps in 
his peregrinations, and on the crutch head of which 
his body rested somewhat in the long offices of 
religion. But it soon became the symbol of spiritual 

TJie earliest type of the Episcopal crosier represented 

FLATS ril. 

( 6i ) 

to his predecessor's Historical Notices of S. FillarCs 

In the Eastern Churches the pastoral staff of the 
Bishops, Abbots, etc., terminates not in a crook, but in 
a crutch, or tau, usually of the precious metals, but 
occasionally of ivory, and of elaborate workmanship and 
expensive adornment. In the lengthy Ecclesiastical 
offices of the Eastern Church the sitting posture is verj' 
rarely permitted, and the original crutch would be a 
sensible support to its user when weary. In the West the 
Tau was the badge of the Order of S. Anthony {v, p. 75, 
and Plate V., fig. 10), and accordingly was used by the 
Abbots of that Order. But its use was not confined to 
them. In the tomb of MoRAND, Abbot of S. Germain 
DES Pr£s in 990, there was found a pastoral staff, six 
feet long, topped with a Tau of perforated ivory joined to 
the hazel shaft by a copper ferrule. (Labarte, Handbook 
of tlu Arts of the Middle Ages, p. 382. A Tau-headed 
crosier is also represented on the sculptured slabs at 
Ipswich described and figured in Mr J. ROMILLY Allen's 
Early Christian Symbolism, p. 319, and fig. 116.) 

Dr Rock in The Church of our Fathers gives much 
information about the early pastoral staves in use in 
Britain. They were at first of wood, cypress, ebony, 
cedar, elder, or pear, with heads or crooks of ivory, horn, 
or metal. Later they came to be constructed entirely 
of ivory (this necessitated the introduction of rings or 
bands), or of silver gilt, while the heads were resplendent 
with gold, gems, and costly enamels. This was the 
same in other countries and gave rise to the sneering 
rhymes of the old French jester : 

Au temps passd, du si^cle d'or, 
Crosse de bois, eveque d'or. 
Mainlenant, changeant les lois, 
Crosse d'or, dveque de bois. 

Some finely carved crosier heads of ivory and others. 

(62 ) 

of enamel are preserved in the South Kensington 
Museum, the Mus^e dc Cluny, the Musee du Louvre, etc. 
The crosiers which appear on early seals are drawn on 
too small a scale to afford us much information as to 
details but they at least preserve for us their general 
form. The most ancient one engraved in Demav {Le 
Costume d'apres les Sceaux\ is that of RICHARD, Arch- 
bishop of Sens, in 1067, which is a very short curved 
staff with a full volute. In the next century the staff 
is lengthened, and the volute springs from a knob, 
as on the seal of ACHARI), Bishop of Avranches, 
1 161 to 1 170. (Plate VIII., fig. 2.) Thereafter the 
staff is increased to the full height of a man ; the 
volute becomes more elaborate and ends in a flower, 
or a serpent's head, and by degrees foliations, or 
crocketings, are added to its outline ; then a figure, or 
a group of figures, is introduced in the volute ; and 
finally the knob is developed into a scries of pinnacles, 
and architectural niches, enclosing figures of saints and 
angels, culminating in such magnificent crosiers as that 

of William of Wvkeham, Bishop of Winchester, 
which is preserved in New Colle(;e, Oxford. It 
should be said that the crosiers on mediaeval seals arc 
almost invariably treated in the simplest way. Mr St. 
John Hope tells us that it is only on the seal of Adam 
DE Orlp:ton of Hereford, 13 17, that we first meet with 

a richly wrought crook. 

A fine early crosier of bone, with a triple volute ending 
in a dragon's head but having no boss, \^ to be seen in 
the Royal Museum of Northern Antiquities in Copen- 
hagen, and it is figured (as well as the ivory head of a 
later one with a boss) in WORSAAE, Xordiske Old sage r, 
Nos. 542-543. The same work contains an engraving of 
what is called "En Abbeds Stav" of the early part of the 
sixteenth century; a disc of perforated metal consisting 
of a cross inscribed in a circle, and having in the angles 

( 63 ) 

the Evangelistic symbols (No. 617). The crosier of the 
Archbishop of LuND, of which the volute encloses a 
Paschal-Lamb, is No. 616 of the same collection. It is 
said by some that as early as the seventh century the 
use of the mitre and other Episcopal insignia had been 
conceded as a matter of favour to certain Abbots, but, as 
will appear later, this is extremely unlikely. When the 
custom arose of adding the insignia of ecclesiastical 
authority as external ornaments to the armorial escucheon, 
the mitre was naturally placed above the shield by those 
Abbots who had the privilege of wearing it. In more 
modern times instances are not wanting where it was 
used heraldically by those who had not the smallest right 
to it ecclesiastically, and examples will be found further 
on in this volume. 

Those who are interested in the early use of the mitre 
as an ecclesiastical vestment are referred, as in the case 
of the pastoral staff, to the able article on the subject in 
Smith's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities^ which is 
largely drawn from Hefele's Essay: — Inful, Mitra unci 
Tiaray in his Beitrdge sur kirchcn geschichte, Archdologie, 
und Liturgik ; and other authoritative sources. It will 
be difficult for those who read it to dissent from the 
conclusion of the writer (which is against Hefele's 
argument) that "no case at all has been made out for a 
general use of an official head-dress of Christian ministers 
during the first eight or nine centuries after Christ. 
. . . The remains of Christian art, which can really 
be considered trustworthy, furnish no evidence whatever 
for the use of such a head-dress, but distinctly point the 
other way ; ... we may still fairly say with 
Menard — *vix ante annum post Christum natum 
millesimum mitrai usum in ecclesia fuisse' {Greg, Sacr.y 


I may add that there is no allusion to them in the 

ancient Sacramentaries, Liturgies, or Rituals. Pope 

( 64 ) 

Innocent III. says that Constantine at the moment 
of quitting Rome for Constantinople desired to give his 
royal coronet to S. Sylvester, but the latter took for 
covering a round mitre with embroidery of gold (or as 
Platina says, a white mitre), but this had no distinctly 
official, or ecclesiastical, character. " Even a writer so 
late as Ivo of Chartres (d. 1115) while describing 
the Jewish mitra, makes no mention of its Christian 
equivalent There are grounds, however, for believing 
that the mitre was an ornament specially connected with 
the Roman Church, from whence its use spread gradually 
over Western Christendom, though its use had evidently 
not become universal in Ivo\s time" {^Dict, of Christian 
Antiquities, ii., p. 1216). Panuin, who died in the 
pontificate of Plus V., says — **Mitrarum usum in 
Romana ecclesia non ante sexcentos annos esse opinor." 
But after the year 1000 the references to their use 
become frequent. S. Bernard tells us that Pope 
Innocent III. received S. Malachi at Rome, taking 
off his own mitre to place it on the head of his saintly 

I may here borrow from the Article in the Diet, of 
Christian Antiquities one or two of the instances used to 
illustrate the connection of the mitre with the Roman 
See. Archbishop Eberhard of Treves received from 
the hands of S. Leo in S. Pexer*S at Rome on Passion 
Sunday 1049 the " Roman mitre." The Pope's words 
in the charter are '^Romana mitra caput vestrum insig- 
nivimus, qua et vos et successores vestri in ecclesiasticis 
officiis Romano more semper utamini." In a similar 
grant to Adalbert, Bishop of Hamburg, it is said of 
the mitre "quod est insigne Romanorum." Peter 
Damian {c, 1070) writes an indignant letter to the Anti- 
Pope HoNORius II. (Cadalous, Bishop of Parma) 
and says " habes nunc forsitan mitram, habes juxta 
morem Romani pontificis rubram cappam." In 11 19 

(65 ) 

Calixtus II. grants the use of the mitre to GODEBALD, 
Bishop of Utrecht. {^Dict, Christian Antiquities,\\.,\2\6) 
With regard to the Roman Court, Baron i US under the 
year ii 37 says: — ** Mos erat non nisi mitratos romanos 
pontifices ad audientiam admittere petentes audiri." It 
is curious to find the privilege of using the mitre occa- 
sionally conferred upon laymen. ALEXANDER II. sent 
one to Vratislav, Duke of Bohemia, in token of 
esteem ; and INNOCENT II., did the same to ROGER, 
Count of Sicily. 

But the shape of the mitre in those early days differed 
most materially from that of mediaeval and modern . 
times. Dr RoCK in his learned work on the Church of 
Our Fatlurs, vol. ii., speaks of a kind of handkerchief of 
linen, tied with fillets and having an enclosing circlet of 
gold, as being worn by Anglo-Saxon Bishops, but his 
plate of twelfth century Ecclesiastics derived from an 
Anglo-Norman manuscript (CoTTON MS., Nero, c. iv.) 
in the British Museum, corresponds pretty closely with 
the descriptions we have of the initra Roman a which 
had been generally adopted by the Episcopate before 
that time. It was a round bonnet, usually white in 
colour, which was bound round the head by an em- 
broidered band, fastened at first (as in the MS. referred 
to) at the sides, but afterwards these became the vittce 
or infulcB vvhich had a fringe of gold and sometimes 
little golden bells, and which still depend without any 
apparent use at the back of the modern mitre. 

At the commencement of the twelfth century the round 
bonnet has begun to rise into a low lobe or horn above 
each ear. (We see the beginning of the fashion in the 
MS. already referred to.) These lobes rise higher until 
the effect produced is that of a low mitre of nearly 
the present shape, set on the head not with the points 
worn as at present, but with a point over each ear. It 
is thus that we find the mitre represented on the earliest 

( 66 ) 

Episcopal seals known to us, as on those of Pierre 
Lombard, Bishop of Paris in 1159; of Guillaume, 
and Achard, Bishops of AvRANCHES, 1161, etc.; of 
Guillaume, Archbishop of Sens, 1169 ; or in those of 
Arnould, Bishop of LiSlEUX in 11 70, and of ROTROU, 
Archbishop of RoUEN in 1175 {see our Plate VIII., 
where these are figured from Demav) ; in all of these 
the fillets fall, one over each shoulder. On the seal 
of Archbishop RICHARD of CANTERBURY (1174-1184) 
the mitre, a fairly high one, has the horns or points 
above the ears. {See also the seals of Alexander and 
Robert Bishops of Lincoln, 1123 and 1148, Catalogue 
of Seals in British Museiim, Nos. 1655, 1688, 1699, etc.) 
Towards the close of the twelfth century the mitre 
undergoes a change of form. In the Dictionnaire du 
Mobilier Franqais, tome ii., of M. ViOLLET LE Due, 
is a diagram showing how simple was its construction, 

and I reproduce it. A piece of 
damask, or other material, twice 
as long as its breadth, was 
creased down the middle, and 
across it. Other creases were 
then made from the shorter central crease to the middle 
of the longer crease on either side, the edges were joined 
with or without being bevelled off, and there roughly was 
the mitre, to which were added a band of embroidery 
(another vertical piece of the same pattern which con- 
cealed the seams) ; and then the " historical survival," 
the fringed vittce at the back. 

In England the first seal which gives us evidence of 
the new fashion of wearing the mitre by which, as at 
present, the points thereof are to the front and to the 
back, appears to be that of Hugh Pudsev, Bishop of 
Durham in 1153, but it was not until the close of the 
century that the new fashion became general here, and 
on the continent, as will be seen by our plate, the horned 

4. PierM tximbanl, _ 

Up. of ParU, use. .'i. From Seal of the Abbey 6. OuUlaiiine, Abp. of 
of a. Amanrl, IStb Cent. Botugea, 1201. 

10. Henri. AhD, of H- F™" Setl of Pari* 12. OuBIaumi, Abp. of 

RhriiS,^ OffldiUty, 1250. Sen^iafe. 

( 67 ) 

mitre continued in use up to a later date, though until 
the commencement of the thirteenth century there was 
no uniformity of practice. The seal of Hugh, Bishop of 
AuxERRE shows us that he had adopted the new fashion 
as early as 1 144 ; and that of the Abbey of S. Amand 
also affords evidence of its use in the later portion of the 
twelfth century. In the thirteenth the custom of wearing 
the mitre as at present was firmly established {see Plate 
VI 1 1., composed from the sketches in Demay). 

The material of the mitre had originally been simple 
white linen, orphreyed with embroidery ; then it was 
made of silk damask, or cloth of gold or silver ; finally 
it was adorned as at present with plates of the precious 
metals, and set with pearls and uncut precious stones. 

In the Western Church there are now in use three 
kinds of mitres — the mitra simplex^ mitra aurifrigiata, 
and mitra pretiosa. The mitra simplex is made of plain 
white linen, or white silk damask, with red fillets. The 
orphreyed mitre^ mitra aurifrigiata^ is composed of silk 
damask, or cloth of silver or gold, orphreyed or em- 
broidered but without plates of metal, or any jewels except 
seed pearls. The precious mitre, mitra pretiosa, is adorned 
with jewels (properly uncut) and the precious metals. In 
the Museum at Stockholm I recently observed a mitra pre- 
tiosa of the fourteenth centur>' from Linkoping Cathedral, 
adorned with circular plates of silver gilt enamelled with 
half-length figures of Saints ; of these both the circular and 
palar bands are composed. The mitre has two shields of 
arms; oneof Kettil Karlsson (Vasa), who was Bishop 
in 1400: {Or, the vase sable) ; and the other of the See. 
The upper edges of the mitre have also pipings of gilt 
metal. As a general rule, which however has exceptions, 
the mitra pretiosa should be worn by none who are not of 
at least episcopal rank. Pope Clement IV. in 1267 
permitted the use of the mitra aurifrigiata by exempt 
abbots, that is by the abbots whose monasteries were by 

( 68 ) 

papal rescript exempted from the canonical jurisdiction of 
the Bishop in whose diocese they were situated ; and he 
allowed the initra simplex to all others who were present 
in council and synod ; elsewhere the exempt abbot 
used whatever might be granted to him by the Papal 
See. So on the memorial brasses of Abbot Delameke 
of St. Albans, and of Abbot Estenev in Westminster 
Abbey the mitre represented is the mitra pretiosa, to 
which they probably had a right by papal grant. But in 
synod, and in the presence of the diocesan Bishop, abbots 
were ordinarily only allowed the use of the mitra simplex. 
To the present day this mitre alone is ordinarily worn in 
the presence of the Pope ; and is, for Cardinals, of white 
silk damask ; that of Bishops is of plain white linen ; 
both have red orphreys. 

As to the colour of the ancient mitres Dr RocK asserts 
that " excepting when made from hard gold, beaten into 
thin plates, or of cloth of gold, its colour was invariably 
white." His note adds, " All the old known mitres still in 
existence have a white ground." He instances the mitre 
of S. Thomas of Canterbury preserved at Bruges, and 
that of William of Wvkeham of which there are 
remains at New College, Oxford. The Llmerick mitre 
was of thin plates of solid silver studded with many 
precious stones. Dr Rock tells that the Ordo Rovianus 
drawn up by Pope GrE(;orv X. in 1271 prescribes the 
white colour for the mitre, and directs the kind to be 
worn at the various times. This his extract certainly 
does so far as the Pope is concerned, but any one who 
is familiar with the works of the early Italian painters 
ffor instance those in the Brera at Milan, or in the 
Uffizi Gallery at Florence) must have a pretty clear 
recollection of many fine pictures in which the episcopal 
mitre is coloured (usually crimson, or red), and the 
writer must confess that he is not altogether con- 
vinced by Dr Rock's argument, presently to be quoted, 

( 69 ) 

that these contemporary pictures of ecclesiastics, and 
of ecclesiastical ceremonies, are inaccurate ; or that a red 
mitre was never worn in ancient times but is a mere 
modern pictorial invention. Dr Rock says, " I am aware 
that examples, though few and far between, of red mitres, 
can be pointed out. In a sixteenth century stained glass 
window at S. Jacques, Liege, and upon a late tomb in 
Maidstone Church, Kent, a crimson tinted mitre edged 
with gold appears. Let not, however, the young student 
in ecclesiastical antiquities be led astray upon this or 
another question, touching the colour of vestments, by 
such weak authority." His objections are, in brief, that 
the window is " cinque cento " or *' renaissancel' and not to 
be trusted, he says, because works of that epoch were 
done, not by men who were ecclesiastics, but by artists 
uncontrolled by the clergy, men who cared not for the 
rules and symbolism of ritual, but aimed solely at artistic 
effect. How far Dr Rock's examples may be fairly open 
to this criticism I cannot say ; but I am sure it does not 
apply to the works of art to which I have made reference, 
which belonged to an earlier age, and which, being in 
many cases painted for the decoration of churches, can 
hardly be suspected of the inaccurate or careless treat- 
ment of important details. In the Ecclesiastical Section 
of the Mediaeval Collection of the National Museum in 
Stockholm, I have recently seen a mitre of the four- 
teenth century from the Cathedral of Vesteras. It 
has no central band but is of two colours, light blue 
and red, divided quarterly by a central, and by a hori- 
zontal dancetty line. The whole is embroidered with 
seed pearls representing the Tree of Life supporting at 
the top a pelican in piety, between in base two unicorns 
turned towards the tree. The fanons also are gobon^ of 
the two colours and embroidered with seed pearls. But 
so far as concerns late mediaeval and modern usage, no 
doubt the learned Doctor is accurate in his statements. 

( 70 ) 

In England the arms of Abbots were frequently 
differenced from those of Bishops by a slight modification 
of the position of the mitre and pastoral staff. The 
Episcopal mitre was made to look straight to the front, 
while that of an Abbot was placed a little in profile. 
Again, the pastoral staff of a Bishop was represented 
with the crook turned away from the mitre, while that of 
an Abbot had the crook turned inwards to denote that 
his jurisdiction extended only to his monastery and its 
dependencies. Probably in this custom we find the 
origin of the old erroneous idea, not yet quite extinct, 
that the Abbot or Abbess carried the pastoral staff in a 
different manner from the Bishop. Dr Rock (in The 
Church of our Fathers^ vol. ii., pp. 207-210) adduces a 
quantity of incontestible evidence in disproof of this 
mistaken idea. There is, however, no doubt that the 
custom heraldically was as stated above {znde infrtx, 
under BlSHOPS, pp. 79, 80, 92). 

This was also the case originally in France. Menk- 
TRIER says : — " Les Abbes portent la crosse et la mitre 
comme les Eveques, mais leur mitre doit ^tre tournee de 
pourfil, et la crosse devroit estre tournee en dedans, 
n'ayant jurisdiction spirituelle que dans leurs Cloistres. 
On n y regarde pas de si pr^s, et il est peu qui ne mettent 
I'une et Tautre comme les Eveques.'* 

The same writer in his Art du Blason justifi^^ p. 220, 
says (in 166 1) " Les Abbes portent une crosse, les Abbez 
mitrez y ajoutent la mitre mais un peu tournee ;" but in 
17 1 8, La Nouvelle M^thode du Blason, published under 
his name, declares " aujour d'hui par abus tous les Abbez- 
commendataires qui n'ont nulle jurisdiction portent I'une 
et Tautre." 

An Abbtf-Commendataire was one who had a Royal 
grant out of the revenues of an abbey which he was 
supposed to administer, but who was neither resident in 
it nor even a member of the monastic fraternity. In 

( 71 ) 

fact the office was usually granted as a court favour to 
courtiers or poets whom it was desired to reward without 
expense to the royal revenues. The actual administra- 
tion of the abbey was confided to ecclesiastics who were 
called custodinos ; and in the eighteenth century the 
abbh-comviendataires no longer assumed any monastic 
dress, " un petit collet et une robe noire indiquaient seul 
qu'ils appartenaient i Tordre eccl^siastique." 

Hence arose the custom of giving the honorary title 
of abbi to all French ecclesiastics, who were flattered by 
the delicate suggestion it conveyed that their merits 
must have procured them a benefice. The abuse by 
which the king took possession of the monasteries which 
became vacant, and held them en commende, until he 
chose to nominate a titular abbot, was of ancient stand- 
ing, going back as far as the ninth or tenth centuries. 
The title of abbot was then given to powerful persons 
who received the revenues of a monastery and exercised 
its seigneural rights, but left its spiritual administration 
in the hands of a monk who had the title of dean, or 
prior. Thus Henri H., Due de Guise (1614-1664), was 
made by Louis XHI. Abbt^'Commcndataire of S. DENIS, 
and S. R£my ; and accordingly placed the crozier in pale 
behind the coroneted shield of his quartered arms. It 
sometimes bore only : — Quarterly of eight, in two hori- 
zontal rows each of four quarters, in chief, i. Hungary, 
2. Naples, 3. Jerusalem, 4. Arragon; — in base, 
5. Anjou, 6. GUELDERS, 7. JULIERS, 8. Bar. Over all 
Lorraine. The whole escucheon was differenced by a 
label gules. But sometimes these quartered arms occupied 
the first and fourth grand-quarters ; the second and third 
grand-quarters being ; Quarterly, i and 4. Cleves im- 
paling Mark; 2 and 3. Burgundv-modern. (Both 
examples are given from his books in Q\3\i\\\<\^, Armorial 
du Bibliophile, ii., 80.) The arms of CllRlSTOPHE Pagot, 
Seigneur de Laulnov, Abbe- Com mcndataire of the 

( 72 ) 

Abbeys of Saint Jacques de Provins,and of Valsainte, 
are: Argent, a c/tevron azure between three eagle's heads 
sable. The shield is timbred with the coronet of a Marquis, 
to the dexter of which is a small mitre, and to the sinister 
the head of a crozier turned inwards. The supporters 
are two eagles. These lay-abbots were known as abbts 
comtes {abba'Comites\ in opposition to the abb^s riguliers. 

Hugh the Great, father of Hugh Capet, is often 
designed by early writers Hugues VAbb^ because he 
had the administration of the rich abbacies of Saint 
Denis, Saint Martin de Tours, Saint Germain des 
Pr(^s, and Saint Ricquier. It was doubtless in 
memory of these ancestral functions that in later times 
the kings of France had the title and prerogatives of 
Abbe de Saint Martin. {^Sec Cheruel, Dictionnaire 
Historique des Institutions, Mceurs, et Coutumes de la 
France, tome i., p. 5. Paris, 1855.) 

In the MtHhode du Blason are two examples, one of 
the arms of the Abbe de Camps {A sure, a lion rampant 
or, liolding a shield argent, this has the mitre on the 
dexter half of the escucheon full-faced and above the 
sinister half the head of the pastoral staff, turned out- 
wards. The other shows the arms of the Abb^ BOCHU 
*'un Abbe rc^gulier" (who bore Azure, a chevron Or 
between two crescents in chief argent and a lion rampant 
of the second in base). This has the mitre a little in 
profile and the pastoral staff with its head turned 

So also the arms of Gun.LAUME DE LA Fay ("Abbe, 
ct chef g^n^ral de I'Ordre de S. Ruf") {Gules, three 
trefoils or) are surmounted by the mitre and pastoral 
staff both turned inwards, to denote " un Abb^ r^gulier." 
In this case the staff has attached to it the sudarium, 
a small scarf or veil, attached just below the crook. 
This was considered by some a distinction between the 
staves of a Bishop and Abbot. Men^triER says: — 

( 73 ) 

** Lcs Abbez d'Allemagne attachent a leurs crosses une 
petite ^charpe ; ce , qu'on ne pratique pas ailleurs. 
Neanmoins Tamburin en fait la marque de distinction 
entre les Eveques et les Abb^z. Baculus pastoralis 
quern gestare debet Abbas, orario aut sudario ometur 
quia abbatialis est, et per longitudinem rectam cubito- 
rum trium et unciarum duodecim protrahatur." {De Jure 
Abbat,, i., disp. 22, quaest 2.) Dr RoCK {Church of our 
Fatliers, vol. ii., pp. 210, 212) tells us that the only 
formal sanction given for such an ordinance came from 
S. Carlo Borromeo, and that, whatever may have 
been the practice in Italy, it was not observed in 
England ; " neither the Roman Pontifical, nor the Cere- 
moniale Episcoporuvi , nor any decree of the Congrega- 
tion of Rites, says one word upon the subject." The 
sudarium was used by bishops and abbots, simply for 
the sake of cleanliness, and to keep the burnished staff 
from being tarnished by the clamminess of the hand. The 
sudarium is attached to the staff on the tomb of Bishop 
Branscombe in Exeter Cathedral ; and Dr RoCK^S 
position may easily be fortified by reference to many 
medic-eval seals. Mr Mackenzie Walcot is there- 
fore incorrect in assuming that the sudarium was not 
employed by exempt Abbots {Sacred A rchceology, p. 4). 

LePlaine in IJArt Ht^raldique says: "Les Abbez 
portent une Mitre pos^e en profil, et une crosse tourn^e 
en dedans vers la Mitre, sans Chapeau ; et accolent leur 
ecu ordinairement de deux Palmes, cc qui est nean- 
moins arbitraire, plusieurs mettans des supports ou 
tenans." " Ce que nous venons de dire des Abbez qui 
mettent une Mitre et une Crosse au dessus de leurs 
Armoiries se doit entendre de ceux qui sont crossez et 
mitrez, soit qu'ils soient commendataires ou R^guliers, 
les autres n'ayant pas le droit de porter la mitre ni la 
crosse." So, in Segoing's Arvioriel Universel, two 
instances are given of the arms of Abb^s Rdguliers ; in 

( 74) 

both the head of the staff is turned inward, and the 
palm branches are placed around the base and flanks of 
the shield. 

If the ecclesiastical hat were used, either in addition 
to the mitre and pastoral staff, or above the pastoral 
staff alone, it was black in colour and had six houppes 
(i. 2. 3.) on either side. In the Gallery of Pictures at 
Antwerp I noticed the portrait of the famous C^CSAR 
Alexander Scaglia, Ambassador of Spain at the 
Congress of Miinster, painted by Antony van Dyck. 
It bears the SCAGLIA arms : Argent, a cross between four 
lozenges sable. The shield is surmounted by a coronet 
(he is styled *V,i-. coin, Vernicce, Abbas Stephardice et 
Maptdanicis'') and the black hat, with its six liouppes on 
each side, surmounts the whole. When the coronet is 
used with the mitre and staff, either in abbatial or 
episcopal arms, it runs along the whole top of the escu- 
cheon ; the mitre and head of the staff appear above or on 
either side of the coronet. {See Plates VI., IX., XI.) 
Sebastien Galigai, Abb^ de Marmoutiers, in 1617, 
was content to use a hat with only three houppes on 
either side (i. 2.). His shield of arms bore : (9r, a chain 
ifi scdtire azure^ and was surmounted by a mitre to the 
dexter, and a crosier is placed in pale behind the shield 
so that its crook, turned inwards, appears above the shield 
to the sinister. The black hat is above all. (GuiGARD, 
i.,231.) The arms of Benoit B£thune des Planques, 
Abbot of S. Bertin at S. Omer in 1677, are: Afgent, a 
fess gules ^ in dexter chief a small escucheon of the arms of 
Saveuse, viz.. Gules, a bend between six billets or. These 
are in a cartouche surmounted by the coronet of a count, 
above which are visible a small mitre, and the head of 
the crosier. (GuiGARD, i., 94.) 

In Glafev's Sigilla is engraved the seal of the Polish 
Abbot Krasinski. On it the arms are timbred with a 
coronet, above which is placed the crest without a helmet, 

L De SeiTM, Bubop of Pay.lfl 

a. Haller.Bp. of TTar«^ 

(75 ) 

and the whole is surmounted by the ecclesiastical hat 
with its six houppes, on either side. 

It may be noted that occasionally the official arms of 
an Abbot differed from those of his Monastery. Thus 
the Abb^ de MarmoOtier bore : Aaure, three sceptres^ 
or bourdons^ in pale and saltire or ; while the arms of the 
Abbey were: Vert^ the mounted figure of S. Martin, 
dividing his cloak with a beggar, all proper. 

In Part II. of this work will be found a list of those 
Abbots and Abbesses who were temporal Princes and 
Princesses of the Holy Roman Empire. All these 
timbred their arms with the coronets, of their princely 
rank. The shields were frequently surmounted by 
several crested helmets {inde ante, p. 35), and the mitre 
itself was usually placed, with or without an inter- 
vening crimson cushion, upon one of the helmets 
{cf. Plate XVI.). The naked sword of temporal 
authority and the pastoral staff were placed by them 
in saltire behind the shield. 

After this fashion the Abbots of S. PETER, in Monte 
Blandino, at Ghent, used to place the sword as well as 
the pastoral staff behind their arms to denote their 
temporal jurisdiction over a portion of the city. The 
Abbot of the Premonstratensian Monastery of S. 
Michael at Antwerp placed in saltire behind his mitred 
shield his pastoral staff, and a long shafted cross, such as 
S. Michael is represented as wielding in his conflict 
with Satan. The Abbot-General of the Olivetains at 
Bologna, and the Abbot of San Geokcio Maggiore at 
Venice, had a similar custom ; the former substituting a 
branch of olive, the latter the lance of S. GEORGE, for the 

The Abbots and Commanders of the Order ok S. 
Anthony either added to their arms the tau-shaped 
cross, the badge of the saint (Plate V., ^^. 10), or (in 
more recent times) placed their shield upon the tan so 

( 76 ) 

that its arms projected beyond the shield, just as in 
the case of the members of the Order of S. John 
OF Jerusalem {cf. Plate XIII., fig. 32). 

In France, in the seventeenth and later centuries, 
Abbots frequently ensigned their arms with the coronets 
of their families ; as well as with the insignia of their 
ecclesiastical rank. Thus, Gabriel de Chateau- 
BRL\ND, Abbe de Trlsav, in 1630, placed above his 
arms {Gules ^ seme de fleurs-de-lis or) the countly coronet, 
showing nine pearls ; above which are the mitre and the 
head of the pastoral staff, the point of the latter of 
course appears at the base of the shield. Two palm 
branches surround the base and sides of the shield, 
being tied together at its foot. {See Plate VI., fig. 2.) 
Abbesses placed their pastoral staff in pale behind the 
lozenge, or shield, of their arms, which was usually 
surrounded by a cordeliere of knotted black, or black and 
white, silk, or sometimes by palms, or a crown of thorns. 
Those who were of great families usually added the 
coronet, and if of ducal rank sometimes also the mant- 
ling around the shield {see the arms of the Abbesses 

DE Lorraine, d'Espinav, de Souvr£, d'Albert, 
DE Vass£, and de la Porte, on Plate VI L). 

According to FORD, the Abbess of Las Huelgas, near 
Burgos, was a Princess-palatine, and inferior in dignity 
to no one but the Queen. She was mitred, and possessed 
the rights of a seflora de horca y cuchillo (/>., she had the 
rights of life and death, "pit and gallows"). She was 
styled " Por la gracia de Dios " and the monastery was 
exempt and extra diocesan. (I have only visited las 
Huelgas on ferial days, and so have missed seeing the 

As an example of the German use, I add here the 
description of the armorial insignia of the Abbess of 
BuciiAU, Princess of the Empire, of the house of 
K()Nlc;sECK-ROTENFELS. Per fess : — A. Per pale I. 

( 77 ) 

Quarterly, i and 4. Argent three lions passant gules ; 
2 and 3. Lozengy argent and gules ; II. Vert, a cross gules, 
in the dexter chief canton the sun in splendour, in the 
sinister a crescent figured or (BUCHAU). B. Lozengy 
bendy sinister or and gules (K(")NIGSKCK). The shield is 
supported by two golden lions rampant. The pastoral 
staff, and temporal sword are in saltire behind the 
shield, and the whole is surmounted by a princely hat, 
or coronet, of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, 
and adorned with gold. 

Often the German Prince-Abbots quartered their 
official with their personal arms ; thus in 1688 Placidus 
VON Drostk, Abbot of P'ULDA, bore ; Quarterly, i and 
4. Argent, a cross sable (Fulda) ; 2 and 3. Per bend nebuU 
icr^n^U?) or and gules (voN Dkoste). (^See K(')HLKR, 
MitnZ'Belustigung, xiv., p. 24 1 .) The Abbots of Wkkden 
appear to have generally preferred another arrangement. 
In 1698, Ferdinand, Baron of Ehreville, bore a 
shield in which the quarters are separated by a plain 
cross throughout Quarterly, i and 4. 7 he arms of the 
Empire ; 2 and 3. Barry . . . and . . . oi^er all a lion 
rampant . . . croiuned . . . ; and placed the arms of 
the Abbey : — Gules, tiuo croziers in saliii-e proper, en surtout 
on the centre of the cross. The main shield is mitred, 
and the temporal sword (head to the dexter) and crosier 
are in saltire behind it. Similarly one of his successors, 
Abbot Theodore, in 1724 used exactly the same 
arrangement except that the second and third quarters 
are charged with his personal arms \ . . . a saltire 
between four annulets . . (KcHlLER, xiii., pp. 193, 

201). But Anselm von Sonius, Abbot of Werden 
and H ELMSTADT, bore : — Quarterly of six ; I and 6. Azure, 
a cross argent ; 2 and 5. Azure, a double-headed eagle dis- 
played or ; 3 and 4. Gules, two croziers i?i saltire proper 
(Werden). Over all, Azure, a sun in splendour 

(Sonius). (Gatterer, Heraldik, p. 45.) 

( 78 ) 

In France the regular Abbots sometimes used only 
their personal arms, at others they either impaled or 
quartered with them the arms of the Abbey. Thus, 
AUGUSTIN LE SCELLIER, Abbot of Pr£montr£ in 
1656, and Claude Honor£ Lucas, Abbot in 1709, 
both impaled the arms of the Abbey with their 
own, but an intermediate Abbot, MiCHEL COLBERT, 
in 1672, quartered them with his personal coat : — Or, a 
serpent wavy in pale azure, (Demay, Sceaux de la 
Normandie, Nos. 2848, 2849.) 


BISHOPS. — Official Arms, how borne — Bishops Elect — The 
Ecclesiastical Pairs de France — French Coronations — Arms 
of the Fairies — The Mantle — German, Italian, and French 
Usages — The Mitre and Pastoral Staff^The Temporal Sword 
— Military Fiefs — Helmets — English Uses — The Episcopal 
Hat — Temporal Dignities attached to Ecclesiastical Offices — 
Coronets — The Mitre as a Crest — Gonfanons — Advouifs — 
Vidames^ etc. 

The usual external ornament by which the arms of 
Bishops are distinguished is the mitre placed full-faced 
upon the shield, and in Great Britain the use of any 
other ensign of authority is very infrequent ; though 
occasionally, but it seems improperly, two crosiers are 
placed in saltire behind the shield. (This can only fitly 
be done in the case of conjoined dioceses.) The book- 
plate of Bishop GiLHEKT Burnett of Salisbury shows 
a shield bearing the arms of the See (Plate XXV., fig. i) 
impaling his personal coat (^Argent, a hunting-horn sable 
stringed gules, in the boiv a mullet for difference, /// chief 
three burnet — apparently not holly — leaves vert). The 
shield is encircled by the Garter, of which Order the 
Bishop of Salishukv was then Chancellor. Above the 
Garter is a full-faced mitre, and a crosier and key are 
placed in saltire behind the shield. 

Abroad, the mitre and the pastoral staff are generally 
employed, the former is placed full-faced, the crosier has 
its head generally, but not invariably, turned outwards. 
On the arms of French Bishops the mitre is placed above 
the top edge of the shield to the dexter, the head of the 
crosier occupying a similar position to the sinister. As 

( 8o ) 

to the direction of the crook we find that, whatever the 
strict rule may be, it is frequently disregarded. Plate 
IX. contains the arms of two French Bishops : DK 
Serres, Bishop of Puy, to which allusion will be made 
later; and Malier, Bishop of Troyes, the latter bore: — 
Argent^ a fess azure between three roses gules, barbed 
and seeded proper, in these and the other numerous 
examples of the arms of French Bishops given in 
Magneney's Recueil des Amies, the head of the staff 
IS turned one way and the other indifferently, just as it 
was by Abbots {ik preceding chapter, p. 70). 

On some mediaeval seals the Bishop is represented 
holding a book, but without the mitre and pastoral staff. 
It may be well to remember that when this is the case 
the person represented was Bishop-elect, but had not 
received consecration. " Es de avertir que la falta dc 
mitra y de baculo . . . denotan constantamente en 
el sello de un obispo la calidad de electo y no conse- 
grado." Selios Reales y ecclesiasticos : reinados de Don 
Alfonso X, y Sancho IV. in Dorregaray's Museo 
Espaflol de Antiguedades, vol. ii., p. 541. Madrid, 1863. 
The example there given is of a Bishop-elect of Toledo. 
The Seal of Florenxe, Bishop-elect of Glasgow in 
1202, bears the figure of the Bishop without pontificals 
seated before a lectern, holding a palm branch in his 
hand as if teaching (Laing, Scottish Seals, vol. i., p. i63» 
plate XV., fig. 3, and Reg, Episc. Glasg,, plate i., fig. 3). This 
Bishop-elect was never consecrated, and he resigned his 
See in 1207. Roger, Lord-Chancellor of Scotland in 
1 178, elected Bishop of S. ANDREWS {circa 1 188), bore his 
seated effigy holding a rod and a book. A seal in 1 193 
shows that he had by that time been consecrated, as on 
it he is represented in pontificals. In Glafey, Specimen 
Decadent Sigillorum, Lipsia;, 1749, tab. ii., fig. 15 
represents the seal of Albertus " Electus Cenetensis,'* 
which I take to be Cerreto in Naples. The Bishop is 

(8i ) 

Simply habited in a gown, and holds a book before his 
breast. On the seals of Richard Kellaw, 131 i, and 
Louis de Beaumont, 13 18, both Bishops-elect of 
Durham, they are represented without pontificals, 
kneeling in prayer {^Brit. Mus, Cat,^ vol. i., Nos. 2456, 

In the Introductory Chapter I have alluded to the 
practice by which a Bishop who possessed no armorial 
bearings by inheritance, generally assumed for himself 
either a coat borne by a family of the same name, from 
which he supposed he might be descended ; or, and with 
much greater propriety, an entirely new coat, and this is 
the custom still both among Anglican Bjshops,and those 
of the Roman obedience. 

Mgr. Pie, Bishop of Poitiers in 1863 assumed the 
following personal arms : Azure, on a pedestal argent, the 
effigy of Ndtre Dame de Chartres proper. The charge is 
the representation of the eflfigy of the Blessed Virgin and 
Holy Child, both black in colour, just as it exists in the 
shrine in the Cathedral of CHARTRES. Mgr. Angebault, 
Bishop of Angers, about the same time assumed : Azure, 
a Passion-Cross and a fouled anchor in salt ire argent, 
(Both coats are engraved in Le Hcraut d' Amies, pp. 362, 
406. Paris, 1863.) FraN(;ois Boussen, Bishop of 
Bruges (1834- 1849) bore: Argent, the figure of the 
Good Shepherd proper ; and the present venerated Bishop 
Jean Joseph Faiet (consecrated in 1864) bears: 
Argent, a cross gules, on the centre poitit a heart of the last 
irradiated or. In 1891 the arms of the Bishop of 
Limoges were : Argent, on a cross sable the monogram 
XP combined or. The shield was timbred with a ducal 
coronet, between a mitre and crosier. A (legatine?) 
cross is in pale behind the shield and a hat with ten 
houppes (i. 2. 3. 4.) surmounted the whole. 

The arms of the Spanish Cardinal LOUIS, Belluga V 
MONCADA (b. 1663, created Cardinal in 17 19) appear to 



(82 ) 

be a curious example of an assumed coat of faulty 
heraldry : Purpure^ rising from and wedged into a mount 
in base a long cross botonn^e verty t/ie upper part irradiated y 
sunf{ounted in fess point by a large heart pierced on eitlier 
side by three swords proper {Roma Sancta^ No. xlviii., 

Rossi i., 289.) 

Very generally (and especially in those southern 
countries where many of the Sees appear to have no 
fixed official arms) the personal arms, whether inherited 
or assumed, are alone used by foreign ecclesiastics with 
the external ornaments of their rank. 

On the earliest Episcopal Seals in England in which 
both arms of the See and the personal arms of its 
occupant appear they were not at first combined, but 
were represented in separate escucheons. But although 
as early as 1396 the seal of Thomas Arundel, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, bears an escucheon on which 
the arms of the See are impaled with his personal 
quartered coat of FiTZALAN and Warren, I do not 
think the custom of impalement was generally adopted 
until at least a century later. Edmund Lacy, 
Bishop of Exeter, 1420, impaled the arms of the See 
with his personal coat. Azure^ three slioveller's /leads erased 
{Brit, Mus, Cat.y i., 1566) but this is exceptional. After 
the Reformation the present use became general. The 
seal of Bishop Wren of Ely (1638- 1667) bears four 
escucheons in cross which contain the arms of the three 
Sees to which he had been successively preferred : — ELY, 
Norwich, and Hereford, and, in base, his personal 
coat ; a curious example, but not worthy of imitation. 

We may remark that in a few cases the personal arms 
of a Bishop were eventually adopted as the bearings of 
the See, and as such used by his successors. Examples 
will be found later under the Sees of Mainz, Here- 
ford, and Worcester; Albi has already been men- 
tioned at p. 18. 


Abroad there is considerable variety of usage with 
regard to the use of official arms when any exist. 

Fabritius Paulutius, of FoRLi, Bishop of Prato 
gave the place of honour to his personal arms : — (Or, 
three bars sable^ on a chief gules a rose argent), when he 
impaled them with those of his See : Per pale (a) Gules, 
semi of fleurs-de-lis or (usually with the Angevin chief, 
Azure, three fleurs-de-lis, and a label gules of four points), 
(b) Or, an eagle dimidiated sable. 

The Bishops of Bruges in Flanders usually quartered 
the arms of the See with their personal arms, but placed 
the official coat in the 2nd and 3rd quarters. Those of 
the See are : Or, a lion rampant sable, collared argent, and 
having a plain cross of t/te same pendant. But Bishops 
who were already entitled to bear quartered coats by 
descent, placed the arms of the See en surtout. For 
example Bishops Hendrik van Susteren (1716-1743) 
bore : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, a cluvron between two 
stages heads in profile and a leopard's head in base or ; 
2 and 3. Azure, a wluel argent ; over all an escucheon of 
the arms of the Sec, J KAN Robert Caimo, Bishop 
(1753- 1771) bore: Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, a fess 
azure ; 2 and 3. Or, three canettes sable, with the arms of 
the See en surtout. 

These notes are taken from the interesting series of 
Episcopal arms, from 15 12 to the present time, which 
are painted around and beneath the great west window 
of the Church of St. Sauveur at Bruges. 

In the MS. Armorial du Hiraut Gueldre of the 
fourteenth century the arms of the then Bishop of 
Beauvais are emblazoned : Qiiarterly, i and 4. The 
Arms of the See : Or, a cross between four keys paleways 
wards in chief gules ; 2 and 3. . . . three leopards 
Jiecuis ; 2 and i. . . . the personal arms of the Bishop. 
The Bishop of Beauvais was one of the six great 
Ecclesiastical peers of France. The Pairs de France 


were originally only twelve in number ; six lay peers 
who were the great feudatories ; — i. The Duke of 
Normandy ; 2. The Duke of Burgundy ; 3. The 
Duke of GUIENNE or Aquitaine ; 4. The Count of 
Flanders ; 5. the Count of Champagne ; 6. The 
Count of Toulouse : — and six ecclesiastical peers, who 
were originally the immediate vassals of the Duchy of 
France, a fact which explains how it came to pass that 
with the exception of the Archbishop of Reims they 
were all simple bishops, inferior in the ecclesiastical 
hierarchy to the Metropolitans of Lyon, BoURCiES, 
Toulouse, Bourdeaux, etc These twelve great vassals, 
holding their lands immediately from the King, formed a 
High Court, or special tribunal for the trial of causes 
affecting any of their number, and took a special part in 
the coronation of the King. The six Ecclesiastical Pairs 
dc France were then ; — i. The Archbishop-Duke of 
Reims ; 2. The Bishop-Duke of Laon ; 3. The Bishop- 
Duke of Langres ; 4. The Bishop-Count of Beauvais ; 
5. The Bishop-Count of Chalons {sur Mame) ; 6. 
The Bishop-Count of NoYON. 

I. P^re Anselme makes the Pairie of the Archbishops 
of Reims (who were also legati nati of the Holy See, 
and Primates of Belgian Gaul) to ascend to the year 
1 179 when Guillaume de Champagne, Cardinal-Arch- 
bishop of Reims, crowned King Philip Augustus. 
This right of coronation was the special privilege attach- 
ing to this peerage. In the absence of the Archbishop 
the honour of officiating devolved upon the Bishop of 
SOISSONS, who was not a peer. He actually officiated at 
the coronation of Louis XIV., the See of Reims being 
then vacant. (We may note in passing that the Provost, 
Dean, Dignitaries, and Canons of Reims, made an 
energetic protest against the supposition, and assertion in 
a certain Proch Verbal, that the Bishop of SOISSONS had 
any right whatever so to officiate without their formal 


>. Falii do Tulud. Bp. Haunt uf ClulmiH 6. Henri BurwUt, Bp. Count of KoyoD 

( 85 ) 

permission (which as a matter of fact the said Bishop 
had thought it prudent to obtain), and they claimed 
for themselves and for the fabric of the Church the offer- 
ings made at the ceremony. 2. The Bishop-Duke of 
Laon bore in the coronation procession La Sainte 
AmpouUy the vessel in the form of a dove, containing the 
sacringoil — \i\s pairie dated from 11 74. 3. The Bishop- 
Duke of Langres carried at the coronation the Royal 
Sword, having been successful in a dispute for precedence 
with ; 4. The Bishop-Count of Bkauvais, whose pairie 
appeared to date only from 1189, he carried and pre- 
sented the Royal Mantle at the coronation. The other 
two peers carried respectively the Royal Signet ring ; and 
the Royal scarf and belt. If any of these ecclesiastical 
Peers were unable to be present at the coronation their 
places were supplied in order of seniority by their juniors. 
Thus at the coronation of Louis XIV., the Bishop of 
Beauvais represented the absent Bishop-Duke of Laon ; 
the Bishop-Count of Chalons represented the Bishop- 
Duke of Langres, the Bishop of Noyon represented 
the Bishop-Count of Beauvais, while the Archbishops 
of BOURGES and RoUEN filled the places of the Bishops 
of Chalons and Novon who were officiating for their 
absent seniors. 

The official arms attaching to these Fairies were as 
follows : — 

REIMS: France-ancient {A::urc, scmt^ of flairs-de- 
lis or) a cross f^iies. 

Laon : France-ancient, a crosier in pale gules, 

Langres : France-ancient, a saltire gules. 

Beauvais : Or^ a cross betiueen four keys paleways 

Chalons : Azure^ a cross argent between four fleurs-de- 
lis or. 

NovoN : France-ancient, two croziers addorsed 
paleways argent, (These are engraved on Plate X., and 


are impaled with the arms of the occupants of the Sees in 

These arms were borne impaled or quartered at 
pleasure with the personal arms, and were surmounted 
by the coronet of duke or count according to the dignity- 
attached to the pairicy and surrounded by the manteau 
armoy^ and ermine lined, which was the privilege of the 
Peers. The archi-episcopal, or episcopal, hat was placed 
above the whole. The Archbishop of Reims placed his 
cross in pale behind the shield. 

It is worthy of notice that when these ecclesiastical 
peers impaled or quartered their official coats they did not 
give them precedence over their personal arms. Thus 
Charles des Cars, Bishop-Duke of Langres in 1614, 
bore his personal arms. Gules ^ a pcUe vair in the first and 
fourth quarters ; so also BENJAMIN DE Brichanteau, 
Bishop-Duke of Laon in 1619 bore his arms, Azure, ten 
plates 3. 2. I. in the first and fourth, {See MaGNENEY'S, 
Recueil des Annes, planclie 12. The official arms are 
impaled in our Plate X.) 

The Archbishop of Sens quartered the arms of his 
See {Azure, a cross argent between four pastoral staves or\ 
with his personal arms. In the treasury at SENS is a 
silver reliquary bearing the arms of Archbishop GuiL- 
LAUME DE Melun in 1 339- They are, curiously, en 
banniere, and are : — Quarterly, i and 4. Azure, seven 
bezants three, three, one, and a chief or ; 2 and 3. The 
anns of tlu See. The Archi-episcopal cross is placed in 
bend over all, extending over the first and fourth 
quarters, an arrangement worthy of remark. (Menet- 
RIER, Recherches du Blason, pp. 252-3.) I have noticed 
the same practice of quartering in the second and third 
the arms of other French Sees, when these were used 
at all ; but the arms of JACQUES DE Serres, Bishop of 
Puy, and Comte de Velay in 163 1, engraved on Plate 
IX., fig. I, appear to be an exception. 


In Germany the use of official coats is ver>' much more 
general, and they are borne with considerable variety 
of use. The arms of the See and the personal arms of 
the Bishop are sometimes placed in two shields accoUs 
under a single mitre or hat. Thus in the Carmelite 
Monastery of FRANKFURT AM Mayn are the arms of 
Matthew Lang von Wellenburc;, Archbishop of 
Salzburg (1519-1540) who had filled the office of 
coadjutor since 1514, and was made Cardinal in 1511. 
He used two shields accoUs^ the dexter contained the 
arms of his See : Per pale (a) Or, a lion rampant sable 
(b) Gules a fess argent ; the sinister was occupied by 
his personal arms : Per pale argent and gules ^ a rose and 
a fleur-de-lis dimidiated^ conjoined^ and counter-changed. 
The archi-episcopal cross stands in pale behind the 
shields, and the hat of that dignity surmounts the 
whole. Joseph, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Prince-Bishop of AUGSBURG (1740-1768) in 1744 
arranged his arms in two oval cartouches, the dexter of 
his See (p. 88) the sinister of his family. Quarterly of 
six in three horizontal rows of two coats : — i. Argent ^ a 
cross patriarchal gules. (Abbey of HiRSCHFELi), secu- 
larised at the Peace of Westphalia.) 2. Per fess sable 
and ory in chief an estoile of the second (often argent^. 
(County of Ziegenhain.) 3. Per fess (a) Or a lion 
rampant giiles^ armed and crowned azure. (County of 
Catzenellnbogen) ; (b) Per fess sable and or, in chief 
two estoiles of the first. (County of NiDDA.) 4. Per fess 
(a) Gules, two lions passant in pale or. (County of 
DiETZ). (b) Or, three chevrons gules, (County of 
Hanau.) 5. Gules, an esaicheon per fess of the first and 
argent, between three Passion nails in pairle, and as many 
demi-nettle leaves alternately of the second. (SCHAUM- 
BURG.) 6. Argent, two bars sable. (County of ISEN- 
BURG.) Over all an escucheon of Hesse, en surtout : 
Azure, a lion rampant double queue barry of ten gules and 


argent crowned .or. Both escucheons are crowned, the 
first with the princely hat of crimson turned up with 
ermine ; the second with a landgrave's coronet and cap. 
Between and above both is a single plain mitre, while 
the pastoral staff and the temporal sword are placed in 
saltire behind them (this arrangement is also found on a 
medal engraved in KOHLER, Miinz-Belustigung^ vol. 
xix., p. 369). 

Sometimes the coat of the See was quartered with the 
personal arms ; thus John Christopher von Frey- 
BURG, Prince-Bishop of AuGSBURG (1665-1690) bore: 
Quarterly^ i and 4. Per pale gules and argent (See of 
Augsburg) ; 2 and 3. Per f ess argent and azure in base 
three bezants (voN Freyburg) with the usual additions 
of external ornaments. So Joseph Mors, Bishop of 
Chur in 1628 quartered the arms of his See {Afgent, a 
steinbock rampant sable\ in the first and fourth places. 
His personal coat Argent, a demi-Moor sable, being in 
the second and third. (KoHLER, Miinz-Belustigung, 
vol. xii.) 

Another common arrangement in Germany when 
several Sees were held by the same prelate, was that by 
which the arms of the Sees, and of their dependent 
Lordships, were quartered, and the prelate's personal 
arms placed on an escucheon en surtout. So also Peter 
Philip, of the Counts von Dernbach, Prince-Bishop of 
Bamberg (1672-1683) and of Wurzburg in 1675, as 
such Duke of Franconia {v, p. 93), arranged his 
arms thus: Quarterly, i. and 4. (Bamberg) Or, a lion 
rampant sable, over all a bend argent. 2. (Franconia) 
Per fess indented gules and argent. 3. (Wurzburg) 
Azure, a banner quarterly gules and argent flying towards 
tlie chief from a lance in bend or. Over all, Dernbach : 
Azure, billetty three hearts in pale or. In 1661, Fredrick 
William, Count von Wartenberg, Cardinal-Bishop of 
Regensburg, Osnabruck, Minden, and Verden, 


quartered the arms of his Sees (for which see the respec- 
tive names in Part II.). Over all an escucheon of 
Wartenberg : Argent^ on a fess between three torteaux, 
a hunting-horn stringed or. The pastoral staff and 
temporal sword are, as usual, in saltire behind the shield 
and a cardinal's hat surmounts the whole. (KoHLER, 
Miinz-Belustigung, xi., 25.) CHARLES of LORRAINE, 
Elector, and Prince-Bishop of TREVES in 1715, used an 
escucheon; Quarterly of six, i and 4. OsNABRUCK; 
2 and 5. Trier ; 3 and 4. Abbey of Prum. Over all 
a quartered escucheon of his personal arms {v, p. 71). 
(KcHlLER, Miinz-Belustigung, vol. xiii.) Franz Conrad, 
Baron von Root, Cardinal and Bishop of CONSTANZ 
(1750-1775) bore: Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, a cross 
gules (See of CONSTANZ) ; 2 and 3. Per pale Or, and gules 
a fess argent (...). Ente en pointe Or, two hands 
and arms in chevron issuing front clouds in base of the 
flanks and holding together a key with double wards in pale 
(Provost of ElSGARN in Austria ?) Over all an escucheon 
surtout Argent, a cross gules. The shield is supported by 
two lions rampant double-tailed. The external ornaments 
are as usual. (Gatterer, Heraldik 25.) 

On many of the seals of the Prince-Bishops of 
HiLDESHElM given in Harenberg {Hist. EccL), the 
escucheon of the personal arms of the prelate is placed 
en surtout upon that of the See : — Per pale argent and 
gules, so that the latter has at first sight the appearance 
of ^ bordure divided per pale. 

Sometimes the disposition described above was 
reversed, and the arms of the See occupied the escucheon 
en surtout above the personal quarterings. Thus Mar- 
QUARi) II. ScHENCK VON Castell, Prince-Bishop of 
EICIISTADT (1637- 1685) bore: Quarterly, i and 4. 
Argent, a stags attire gules (SCHENCK VON Ober- 
BEVERN) ; 2 and 3. Argent, two lions passant in pale 
double queuhgidcs, crowned or (ScilE-SCK VON Landeck; 


and over all the arms of the See of ElCHSTADT, Gtdes, 
the luad of a crosier in pale argent 

Occasionally the arms of the See were placed in chief 
above the personal arms, whether these were a plain or 
a quartered coat. Thus Paulinus Meyr, Prince- 
Bishop of Brixen (1677-1685) bore: Quarterly of six, 

1. Gules^ a P asclud- Lamb proper {iox the See of Brixen) ; 

2. Argent y an eagle displayed crowned or^ over all a 
pastoral staff in fess of tlie last (Chapter of Brixen) ; 
3 and 6. Gules, a pelican in piety or ; 4 and 5. Azure, an 
arrow in bend argent, flighted, or between two mullets of 
the last. Here the four lower quarters contain the 
personal arms. So also Balthazar von Promnitz, 
Prince-Bishop of Breslau in 1551 bore his official arms 
in chief above his personal ones, thus : — Per fess (A) per 
pale {a) Breslau (p. 272) and {b) SiLESiA (p. 272) both 
for his principality. (B.) Per pale (a) Gules, an arrow in 
bend between two estoiles argent, (b) Argent, two bends 
sable. On a champagne azure two lions passant in pale or. 
Similarly, the Archbishops of SALZBURG usually placed 
in chief above their personal bearings, the two impaled 
coats which formed the arms of their See {vide p. Zj\ 
Other examples of this arrangement will be found 
recorded in later pages of this book. 

An exceptional arrangement, affording an example of 
the rare quartering per saltire, was adopted by Adam 
Friedrich of the Counts von Seinsheim, Prince- 
Bishop of WuRZBURG (1755-1779, and of Bamberg in 
1757)- Quarterly per saltire, i and 4. See of BAMBERG ; 
2. Franconia ; 3. WuRZBURG (these are all given on 
p. 88). Over all a coroneted shield of SEINSHEIM, viz. : 
Quarterly, i and 4. Paly of six argent and azure ; 
2 and 3. Or, a bear rampant sable. The Supporters were 
two Bamberg lions rampant sable, each debruised by 
a bend argent. The usual external ornaments are used, 
the princely hat, sword, and crosier. 

( 91 ) 

With regard to the external ornaments employed 
heraldically to denote Episcopal rank we find that at first 
the crozier or pastoral staff was alone employed. GuiL- 
LAUME DE Brie, Bishop of Dol in 1387, has on his seal 
his arms ; — Argent three bars creneUs sable; a crosier is 
placed behind the shield. (MORICE, Histoire EccUsias- 
tique et Civile de Bretagne, Paris, 1742, tome ii., 16.) 
Geoffroi, Bishop of QuiMPER in 1365, whose arms 
Argent on a chief . . . three fleurs-de-lis . . . used 
the same (Jbid,y tome ii., cxxxiv.). [We may notice that 
in 1298 Geoffroi, Bishop of Treguier. used a counter- 
seal on which in a quatrefoil is an eagle displayed 
between two croziers of which the crooks are turned 
inwards, there is no shield. {Ibid., tome i. cxxiii., 
and our Plate XXXVI., fig. 2)]. The learned herald 
Pere Menestrier observes that in his time (1673) 
the Italian Bishops timbred their shield of arms 
with the mitre only, and that the French Bishops often 
placed the pastoral staff alone behind the escucheon. 
But he adds that both mitre and staff were used and 
cites as an early example the arms upon the tomb of 
Bishop BUCCAPADULI {c. 1414) in the Church of San 
Marcello, at Rome. In Magneney's Recueil des 
AnneSy Paris, 1633, we find a large store of Episcopal 
arms, which show clearly what were the usual external 
ornaments employed in France at that date. Many 
Bishops were content to use only the green Episcopal hat 
above the shield, but even here the tendency to assume 
a little more than was right is evident, the hat instead of 
having, as it had originally only, six houppes on either 
side (1.2. 3.) has invariably ten (i. 2. 3. 4.) like that of an 
archbishop. This tendency to assumption went on 
increasing among the clergy (just as among the lay 
nobles of the time the coronet of a higher grade was 
continually assumed) until it became — and I may add 
that in Great Britain it still is — extremely difficult in 

( 92 ) 

many cases to determine the exact ecclesiastical rank of 
a Roman Catholic prelate from the bearings employed 
upon his seal, etc. If the Bishop was a member of a 
family who used a coronet, this was interposed between 
the shield and the hat ; and this was the case also when 
a temporal dignity such as that of prince, duke, or count 
was attached to the See {vide pp. 33 and 34). Other 
Bishops who did not use a coronet, placed the full- 
faced mitre on the top edge of the shield to the dexter, 
and the head of the crosier, turned indifferently outwards 
or inwards, appears on the sinister, a small portion of 
the staff is visible in base. In Magneney's book these 
Bishops have their proper hat with the six hotippes only. 
Again there were others who used the mitre and crosier, 
and a coronet, beneath the hat. In this case the coronet 
immediately surmounts the shield, the mitre and crosier 
appear above it. Here again the head is turned indif- 
ferently in or out. We may repeat what has already 
been said in the case of abbots, that bishops and abbots 
used the crosier ritually in exactly the same way. There 
is no solid foundation for the idea that it is improper 
to represent a bishop with the crook of the pastoral 
staff turned inward, or an abbot with the crosier head 
turned outward. As a matter of fact on the earliest 
seals the staves of the bishops generally have the head 
turned inwards, an arrangement which was almost neces- 
sitated by the contraction of the vesica towards the top. 
But I have already noticed (pp. 70, 80) that heraldically 
there was in early times a custom of differentiating the 
insignia as above ; which, however, had nearly passed 
away so far as the crosier was concerned, before the 
seventeenth century. CHARLES l)E Balzac, Bishop- 
Count of NOYON, who died ip 1642, has his arms {Azure, 
three saltires couped argent two and one ; on a chief or^ 
as many saltires couped of the first) surmounted by his 
coronet of nine pearls ; to the right of it is a small mitre, 


to the left the head of the crosier turned inwards, the 
whole is beneath the green Episcopal hat (but with ten 
liouppes on either side). HENRI Baradat, Bishop of 
NOYON, d, 1600 {Azure^ a fess argent between three roses 
or barbed vert) omitted the coronet, and used the full- 
faced mitre and crosier (head turned inward) beneath the 
same hat (GuiOAKi), i., 71). The Bishop of Mknde in 
France had the title of Count de Gevaudan and claimed 
its sovereignty. The Royal letters patent of Louis VII. 
to the Bishop AUBERT, in 1160 are in Fawn (pp. 161- 
162 English edition). A sceptre of gold was carried 
before the Bishop, who used the coronet of a Count. 

The use of the Temporal Sword. 

Examples have been already given in which the 
sword of temporal authority was added by Abbots and 
Bishops to the pastoral staff and mitre as an external 
ornament of the shield. Erlang, Bishop of WuRZBURG 
(1106-1121) is said to have originated this use. The 
Emperor Henry V. desired to obtain possession of the 
Duchy of Franconia (which belonged to the See of 
WuRZHURG), in order to bestow it on his nephew the 
Duke of SWABIA. But the prelate desiring to show his 
determination to defend the possessions of his Church, 
caused a naked sword to be borne before him when he 
officiated, and this custom was retained by his successors 
(NoLDENlUS, De Statu Nobiliuvt, cap. xvii., § 31 (1619) ; 
and Praun, in BuR(;ermeister, Bibl, Equcstr,, ii., 889.) 
However this may be, many Bishops and Abbeys held 
their lands by military tenure, being bound to render 
personal service to the Suzerain in time of war. There 
is a formal Ordomiance relating to this military service 
in the Capitularies of CHARLES THE Bold. It is the 
eighth in order of those which were drawn up " in verno 
palatio'' under the presidency of Ebroin, Bishop of 


Poitiers, in the first year of Charles* reign, and is 
here subjoined : — 

"VIII. Quoniam quosdam Episcoporum ah expedi- 
tionis labore corporis defendit imbecillitas, aliis autem 
vestra indulgentia cunctis optabilem largitur quietem, 
praecavendum est utrisque, ne per eorum absentia res 
militaris dispendum patiatur. Itaque si vestra consentit 
sublimitas homines suos reipub. profituros cuilibet fide- 
Hum vestrorum, quem sibi utilem judicaverint commit- 
tant, cujus diligentia ne se ab oflficio subtrahere valeat 

" Les Ev6ques,chapitres, religieux, et clercs, qui tenaient 
terres en fief, etaient soumis au ban iet arrii^re-ban, et 
devaient Vost et la clievauclUer [La chezfaucJiee ^tait un 
service f^odal d(i par le vassal a son seigneur dans les 
guerres privies. Elle se distinguait ainsi de Vliost ou ost, 
qui ^tait le service militaire dii au roi pour les guerres 
generales. (Ch^RUEL, Dictionnaire Historique des Insti- 
tutions, etc, de la France, tome i., p. 151.)] " Us n*etaient 
point forces dialler eux-m6mes a la guerre, mais ils se 
faisaient repr^senter par leurs tenanciers." " Quand les 
ecclesiastiques entrerent par la possession des terres 
nobles dans la hierarchie feodale, ils furent, comme tous 
les vassaux, tenus du service militaire envers leurs suze- 
rains. Le plus souvent ils s*en acquittaient par pro- 
cureurs, de la Tinstitution des avoues et des vidames. 
Plus tard les ^vequcs et les monasteres se contenterent 
d*envoyer leurs tenanciers a Tost du roi, ou de payer une 
somme proportionnee 4 I'importance de leurs fiefs. Au 
XVIe siecle le clerg^ obtint la dispense du service 
moyennant une contribution d*hommes ou de Targent ; 
cctte dispense dcvint encore plus g^n^rale au siecle 
suivant, I'Eglise de France s'engageant, par contrat passe 
avec le roi, a payer une somme fixe pour subvenir aux 
frais de la guerre. N^anmoins pendant toute la dur^e 
du moyen Age, les ecclesiastiques parurent dans les 

(95 ) 

armees, ils prenaient meme souvent une part active a la 
guerre. Les 6v^ues-Comtes de Beauvais portaient la 
cotte d'armes au sacre du Roi, en souvenir de Tun d*eux, 
Philippe de Dreux, qui 6tait repr^sent6 sur les vitraux 
de la CatWdrale en surplis avec la cotte d'armes. Ce 
belliqueux pr^lat fut emen^ prisonnier de guerre en 
Angleterre, et k la bataille de Bouvines, il se servait 
d*une masse d'arnnes pour se conformer aux preceptes 
de TEglise qui defend aux clercs de verser le sang." 

La Roque has given (in his Traitd du ban et arriere- 
ban^ Paris, 1676) many ancient rolls in which were 
inscribed the names of all who owed military service to 
the King. One of these was drawn up in 12 14, at the 
time of the battle of Bouvines. The names of Arch- 
bishops and Bishops figure in these lists, as well as those 
of the lay-nobles, from all parts of France. 

The Abbeys, independently of the contingent of men- 
at-arms which they were bound to contribute to the 
King for the fiefs which they held from him, were also 
his debtors for le droit de charroy. This obligation 
bound them to supply "^ leurs frais, missions et despens, 
un certain nombre de charrcttes couvertes, de chariots, de 
chevaux, ct de sommiers, pour aider a chargier, conduirc 
et mener en ledict ost et arm^e, harnois de guerre, artil- 
leries, vivres, ct autres choses nt^cessaires pour iccllc 
arm^e." In 1431 the clerics in the Duchy of BURGUNDV 
endeavoured to get quit of this obligation, but the Duke 
PlllLlPPK le Bon enforced it in the case of all who 
would not make a liberal pecuniary composition (see 
L'Hdraut dArmes, pp. 280, 281, Paris, 1863). CLEMENT 
Vaillant in his treatise, De I'Estat Ancien de la France^ 
has seven entire chapters on the military duties which 
Bishops and Abbots were obliged to perform by reason 
of the fiefs which they held by military tenure. 

In the eighteenth century the arms of some of the 
Bishops of Durham (Bishops TREVOR, 1750; and 

(96 ) 

Egerton) are represented with the sword, and crosier 
in saltire behind their arms {Herald and Genealogist^ 
vol. viii., 166-7), but these do not appear on their seals. 
The sword was of course allusive to their Palatinate 

MENfeTRlER remarks {MMode du Blason, p. 209) that 
certain of the French Bishops were accustomed to place a 
helmet on one side of the shield, and a sword on the other. 
These were the Bishops of Cahors, Dol, and Gap. He 
adds that the Bishop of MODENA did the same thing. 
In Magnenev's Reaieil des Amies (planche 13) the 
arms of R£VEL, Bishop and Count of DOL, viz., Argent, 
three trefoils vert^ have the Archi - episcopal cross 
placed in pale behind the shield, its head appearing 
above and between a mitre, and a coroneted helmet 
(with its lambrequins) both resting on the upper edge of 
the shield. The Episcopal hat, of six tassels on either 
side, surmounts the whole. The arrangement for the 
arms of Bishop De LA RoCHE of Cahors {ibid., planche 
16) is, that the coronet of a count rests on the whole upper 
edge of the shield, and above it is placed a plumed front- 
faced helm, between a mitre on the dexter, and the head 
of the pastoral staff on the sinister. Both examples are 
engraved in our Plate XI. I have not, myself, met with 
an instance of the arms of the Bishop of Gap adorned 
with the helmet of which Pere Men^trier speaks 
above ; but in another work of the same author 
{VAbrdge M^thodique, p. 95) there is a different 
arrangement. The arms are those of Artus dk 
LlONNE, Bishop and Count of Gap {Gules, a column 
argent, on a chief cousu azure a lion passant of the 
second), (Plate XIII.) This escucheon is surmounted by 
the count's coronet, over which is the green Episcopal 
hat ; the pastoral staff and the naked sword are placed 
erect on either side of the shield upon the tassels of the 
hat, instead of being in saltire behind the shield, as is the 

2. Db Ik BocLa, Biihop of Ctii-m (lOSD). 

( 97 ) 

more usual disposition. This latter mode was used, as 
we have already seen, by the Prince-Bishops and Abbots 
of the Roman Empire ; it was also employed by some 
Italian Bishops ; e,g,, the Bishops of VERONA, and (I 
think) of Reggio. A sword and helmet were certainly 
borne before the Bishop of Reggio, and placed on the 
altar when he celebrated Mass. In the account of the cere- 
monies which took place on Nov. lo, 1 505, on the occasion 
of the translation of the Image of Notre Dame di Reggio, 
we read {Prima parte delta relatione di Alfonso Joacht) 
" In ultimo sene usci di Chiesa con maesta decente 
Monsignor Vescovo, inanzi il quale era por,tato dal 
Signor Conte Paolo Manfredi, Cavaliere di S. J ago, con 
magnifica pompa, I'Elmo e lo Stoco pererogativa di 
Vescovi di Reggio, per lo titolo che conservano I'autorita 
che habevano di Principe. Posto lo stocco e Elmo 
su'l'altare secondo'l solito suo, M. Vescovo di richissimi 
habiti Pontificali adorno sen venne a dar principio al 
Santo Sacrificio de la Messa." 

The Bishops of Lucca had, by Imperial concession, 
granted in 1121, the fus gladii et sanguinis in ViLLA 
Basilica, and to this the arms of that place very pro- 
bablyallude. They are : cJiiefa sprig of basil ^and 
in base a scorpion^ both between two swords erect paleways^ 
all proper. {Le Anni dei Municipij Toscani ; ccxliv. 
Firenze, 1864.) A sword was borne before the Bishop 
of Ely as Chief Justice of the Isle of Ely until the close 
of the Episcopate of Bishop Sparkk in 1835. 

In the Introductory Chapter arc recorded many 
instances in which the mitre has been introduced into 
the arms of English Bishops as a mark of difference. 
The following examples of the use of the mitre, or the 
pastoral staff", within the shield, are from continental 
practice, though the first is that of an Englishman. At 
the English College in Rome on the tomb of JOHN 
Shirwood, Bishop of Durham (1485-1494) were the 


( 98 ) 

following arms ". . . . /i «// cluvron charg^ (Tune 
croisette sur la pointe^ ct accoinpagn^ de trots etoiles dc 
. . . , 4 un cfief . . . rempli de la mitred Bishop 
Shirwood's arms, as given in Bedford's Blazon of 
Episcopacy^ on the authority of Cole's MSS., are . . . 
a clievron between three estoiles . . . Here both the 
chief with its mitre and the crosslet are omitted. It is, 
then, possible that the introduction of the mitre on the 
chief may be an indication that this mode of marking 
the Episcopal dignity was in use in Italy at that 

At VlTERBO in the Monasterio del Paradiso, founded 
by the Cardinal-Bishop of Porto (MExfeTRlER says 
"Porto," but I think Prato was the See) the arms 
of John de Tolet (?) an Englishman, are emblazoned 
thus : Gules, five fleurs-de-lis in saltire or; impaling Or^ 
three bendlets azure. On the partition line is placed a 
pastoral staff in pale argent. 

At Paris on the gate of the College d' Harcourt were 
the arms of the founder, ROHERT D' Harcourt, Bishop 
of COUTANCES : Gules, two bars or, over all a pastoral 
staff in pale proper {V\^.tc I., fig. 3). 

The seal of Jean, Bishop of Nantes in 1419, bears his 
arms {Argent, five bendlets . . .) supported by three 
angels, one standing behind the shield, the others kneel- 
ing each on one knee on either side. A pastoral staff is 
placed upon the shield, with its head projecting above 
it upon the breast of the angel tenant (MORICK, 
Mimoires pour Servir ci VHistoire Civile et EccUsiastiquc 
de la Bretagne, cxc). The seal is engraved in our Plate 

In the Duomo at ALESSANDRIA is an Episcopal tomb 
with these arms : Bendy . . , on a chief . . . three 
estoiles. In another chief over all is a mitre. Aymkk 
Chat, Bishop of Bologna, added to his family arms 
(. . . two cats passant . . .^ a chief charged with 

( 99 ) 

two shin hones in saltire between a mitre and a pastoral 

Above shield, mitre, and pastoral staff we generally 
find in modern times the flat ecclesiastical hat with its 
fretted and tasselled cords. This is, for bishops, of a 
green colour, and the number of tassels is properly six 
on either side, arranged i, 2. 3. In the eighteenth 
century we constantly find another row of tassels assumed 
on each side, but properly this arrangement is the dis- 
tinctive mark of the archi-episcopal hat, and in modem 
times there is a tendency in some places (it has not 
reached Great Britain) to revert to the old and proper 

Le P^re Mknktrier speaks of this use of the hat as 
a modern invention : — " Le chapeau vert que les Arche- 
veques et les Eveques mettent ci present sur les Armoiries 
est un invention de ce si^cle, on n'en verra des exemples 
aux precedens. C'est une imitation des Chapeaux des 
Cardinaux." But in r Usage des Armoiries (p. 248) he 
corrects this statement to some extent : — " L'usage du 
Chapeau pour les Archevcques et Eveques vient de 
I'Espagne, ou il est en pratique depuis long temps, et plus 
frequent que la crossc ct la mitre. Les Armoiries de 
Don Rodrigue Fcrnand de Narvaez, Evesque de Jacn, 
sont a Bae^a de cette sortc depuis I' an 1400." The 
hat appears above the arms of Bishop SuKRHOKNK at 


When, for any of the reasons already mentioned, the 
coronet is used by an ecclesiastic it is usually placed 
directly upon the upper edge of the shield, and along 
the whole of it. I have already referred to the use 
of their coronets b\' the ecclesiastical Pairs de France, 
and I have now to subjoin some other instances in which 
the coronet was used to denote a temporal dignity 
attached to the Sec. The l^ishop of Geneva had the 
rank of Prince, and bore the ducal coronet above his 

( loo ) 

shield, under the episcopal hat S. Fran(;ois de Sales, 
Bishop and Prince of Geneva in ^625, bore: Quarterly, 
I and 4. GuleSy three bends argent and a lion entravailU 
(or); 2 and 3. Azure, a cross argent between four fleurs- 
de-lis {or). Over all: Azure, two bars or, voided gules, 
between a crescent in chief, and two estoiles of the second^ 
in centre and base, (Magnenev, Reaieil des Armoiries, 
planche 12.) The Bishops of Grenoble and Viviers 
also had the title of Prince. Alphonse de la Crol^, 
Bishop and Prince of Grenoble in 1616, bore: Azure, 
a horses head couped at the neck or, on a chief cousu 
gules, three crosslets argent. 

The Bishops of Cahors, Valence, Gap, le Puv, 
Di£, Aleth, Llsieux, Llmoges, Agen, Tulle, and 
Velay used the coronet of the dignity of count attached 
to their Sees. The seal of the Polish Bishop Zaluscki 
of SUCKAU bears his arms : Gules, on a mount vert a 
ram passant argent (JUNOZSA), surmounted by a coronet 
which is placed between the head of the pastoral staff and 
the hilt of the temporal sword ; above the coronet is the 
mitre, and, crowning all, is the hat, the cordons of which 
have ten tassels l 2. 3. 4. on either side. 

to whose See the Emperor Frederick annexed the 
County of S. Leon, has, upon his tomb in the Abbey 
Church of Sant' Anastasio, his arms surmounted by 
a tiara, like the Papal one, but with only a single 

The Bishop of PiSTOJA often placed his arms on a 
kind of square mantling, charged with the arms of the 
city of PiSTOJA {Chequy argent and gules) ; impaling 
those of Prato {Gules, semt^ of fleurs-de-lis or) {ante, p. 90). 
(This coat has now the Angevin chief; Azure, three fleurs- 
de-lis or, bet wee 71 the four poi fits of a label gules. Anni dc 
Municipj Toscani, p. 32 L Firenzc, 1864.) They are 
thus represented on the gate of the Episcopal palace 

( loi ) 

at Prato, and Dr RICCIULLI informs us that the 
custom originated in disputes between the Bishops and 
the Provosts of the Monastery of Prato. The latter 
claimed to be exempt from the Episcopal jurisdiction, 
and to exercise episcopal rights in Prato. The custom 
referred to appears to have originated at the beginning 
of the sixteenth centur}\ 

The mitre of the Bishops of Durham is represented 
as rising out of a ducal coronet, assumed in memory of 
their Palatinate jurisdiction which has now passed away. 
It is not at all probable that such a mitre was ever worn 
at Durham in the offices of the church, although I 
should not deem Mr W. H. St. John Hope's objection 
fatal — **the mitre was usually made to shut flat for 
portability, which the presence of a rigid metal circlet 
would effectually prevent being done " (" Paper on Seals 
of English Bishops.'* Proceedings^ Soc, Antiq, Lond,^ xi.). 
Such things as ** standing mitres " were known ev8n in 
England. Hear the learned Dr RoCK : — "he (the gold- 
smith) wrought those two thin, though solid sheets of 
which it was to be made up, out of the precious metal 
in such a way that they not only opened and shut with 
utmost readiness by means of gimmels, or hinges, light 
though strong in their frame, and nicely adjusted at the 
sides, but so bent themselves upon the wearer's venerable 
brow as to sit with ease upon it." {Church of our Fathers, 
ii., io6, and see the notes on his preceding page. There 
is no allusion to the Durham mitres ; the remarks are 
on the general subject.) 

But on the seals of their secular office as Princes- 
Palatine the Bishops of DURHAM were represented as 
was customary in the case of great feudatories. The 
obverse of the seal had the effigy of the bishop seated ; 
on the reverse he was represented in armour on horse- 
back. The earliest known seal of this kind is that of 
Bishop Thomas Hatmkld, 1345. {Catalogue of Seals 

( ^02 ) 

/;/ t/ie British Museum, No. 2486.) On it he is seen in 
full armour with sword, and shield charged with his 
arms (Asure, a chevron between three lions rampant or) 
on his head is a helm coroneted, and surmounted by a 
mitre adorned with a panache. The bishop is mounted 
on a horse galloping to the sinister and caparisoned with 
his arms as above. His successor Bishop JOHN FORD- 
HAM (1381) is similarly represented, but the figure is 
turned to the dexter and is vested in a coat of his arms. 
The helmet is coroneted, and bears the mitre out of which 
issues the crest of an eagle rising. {Brit. Mus, Cat., No. 
2488.) In the MS. Armorial de Geldre of the fourteenth 
century, his arms are given as " L' Eveque de Durham " 
{Sable, a chevron between three crosses moline or). The 
helmet above the r<7«r/// shield has mantlings of sable lined 
with ermine, and supports a coronet of the usual size, of 
six floriations (two whole flowers and two halves being 
visible) out of which rises a mitre. Between the two points 
is a ball, on which stands the crest : an eagle rising, in 
its beak an escroll with the words ** Gloria Deo!' (I have 
engraved it on Plate V., fig. i.) The mitre is omitted 
from the crested and coroneted helms of his successors 
Bishops Skirlaw, Langlev, and Neville. (Skir- 
LA\v*s crest is a demi-angel, that of Langlev a panache, 
that of Neville a bull's head. {Brit. Mus. Cat. of Seals, 
Nos. 2489, 2491, 2492.) The subsequent bishops used 
on their palatinate seals a plumed mitre with a coroneted 
helm. But though this is so, it must be observed that 
on his ecclesiastical seals the bishop is never represented 
as wearing any but the ordinary mitre without a coronet ; 
and I incline to the opinion that we may, therefore, 
consider the coronet rather as being an adjunct to 
the helmet (in fact the ordinary crest - coronet), than 
as a portion of the mitre. The only evidence in the 
opposite direction which appears to me of any value, 
is afforded by the seals of the sheriffs of the palatinate. 

( I03 ) 

John DE Menevillk, 1339 (notice that this is anterior 
to the date of Bishop Hatfield), and Robert Laton, 
in 1385 ; on both of- these a mitre issuing from a coronet 
(above an initial or initials) is the sole charge ; they are 
engraved in Mr Longstafke's paper on the " Old 
Official Heraldry of DURHAM," in the Herald and 
Genealogist^ vol. viii., p. 1 36. 

It is worthy of remark that in the Armorial de Geldre^ 
referred to above, the next achievement is that of Henry 
Despenser, the warlike Bishop of NORWICH, 1 370- 1406, 
whose helmet is surmounted by a mitre out of which rises 
his crest of a griffin's' head and wings (Plate V., fig. 3). 
There is no coronet in this case, though one was used about 
this time with the Despenser crest (THOMAS, Earl of 
Gloucester used it in 1397, but Hugh le Despenser 
in 1385 used only a wreath (see the Cat, of Seals^ Brit. 
Mus.y ii.. No. 9280). 

The German Prince-Bishops, who used many helmets 
and crests with their shield of arms, frequently made 
the central one, or the first in dignity, to be a golden 
helm bearing a mitre for the See ; but I think I have 
rarely, if ever, seen the helm coroncted under such 
circumstances, though usually a cushion of crimson 
velvet with golden tassels is interposed between the 
helmet and the mitre. (For an example see Plate XVI.) 
But in Germany some of the most ancient and noble 
families use a mitre as a crest, and in that case the 
crest-coronet is sometimes found interposed. Thus the 
Princes of Furstenhekc; used as the crest of their 
County of Werdenherc;, a mitre gules, the orphrcys or, 
set upon a coroneted helm of gold with its lambrequins 
of red Rnd'2i'/iite. In this, and in other like cases, the 
arms to which a mitrc-crest belongs will generally be 
found to contain as the charge a gonfanon, or church- 
banner. In the FURSTKNIJERG coat quoted above, the 
arms of Werdexberc; arc: Gules, a gonfa7ion argent. 

( »04 ) 

Similarly the Counts of Veldkirch, or Feldkirch, 
bore : Or, a gonfanon gules, with a mitre gules as crest. 
The Counts of MOXTFORT (whose possessions were 
bought as early as 1375 by Leopold of Austria) 
bore : Argent^ a gonfanon gules ringed or, with the 
same crest. (Plate V., fig. 6.) The Counts of Tett- 
NANG, of the same stock as the Counts of Veldkirch 
and MONTFORT, used the same arms and crest as 
the latter. Sometimes the crest is the demi-figure 
of a man, or a woman, mitred. These bearings admit 
of a simple explanation. They were originally 
assumed to denote that the families using them were 
the hereditary advocati, vogts, or avoues, who held 
certain seigneuries as fiefs from Bishoprics and mona- 
steries by military tenure, with the obligation of 
leading to war the contingents which the ecclesiastical 
princes were bound to furnish. The mitres in such 
crests are easily distinguished from those borne by 
ecclesiastics, being usually of the tinctures of the arms ; 
or, as in some cases, charged with the arms of the 
bearers, and moreover the peaks are often surmounted 
by the tufts of feathers which are so frequently found 
ornamenting early German crests. {See the crest of 
Saarwerden, Plate V., No. 2.) Similar officials in 
France were the vidavies ; the officers generally of high 
nobility, to whom was committed also the duty of 
exercising certain of the other temporal powers of the 
Bishopric or Abbey to which temporal seigneuries were 
attached. This was considered an office of high dignity, 
and was usually hereditary in a noble family. A special 
coronet of gold ornamented at equal intervals with four 
crosses pat^es was, or might be, used by the vidames, 
I think it possible that the introduction of the cross 
patce into the Royal Crown of England by the pious 
Henry V^I. may have been intended to denote his 
devotion to and desire to protect the Church. The most 

( I05 ) 

important of the Vidames (Vice-domini) were those of 
Reims, Amiens, Chartres, ChAlons, Cambray, and 
Laon. The family of DE Preuilly, in Touraine, of 
which the head was " avou^^ et chanoine-honoraire " of the 
Chapter of S. Martin de Tours, bore for arms : Or, 
between four alerions azure a mans arm coupcd^ in f ess, 
vested gules, the hand clenched proper; pendant from the 
wrist a maniple ermine, fringed and bordered argent, and 
cliarged with a cross patee of the third, (Plate II., fig. 
2.) The dignity ol "Vidame d'Amiens" was held by 
the family of AlLLY, Marquesses of Annebaut. 

The arms of" Le Vidame I)E Chartres," Jean I. DE 
VendOme (ancient), are given in the MS. Armorial de 
Gilles le Rouvier, dit le Hiraut Berry ; (France No. 90.) 
Argent, a chief gules over all a lion rampant azure, (It 
will be remembered that this title was afterwards held 
by the Dues de St. Simon who claimed a descent from 
the old Counts of Vermandois. The author of the 
gossiping M ^moires was known by this title during the 
life-time of his father). The arms of " Le Vidame DE 
Laon " are given in the Roll of Arms of the fourteenth 
century, known as Planch£s Roll, as follows: Ouquy, 
argent and azure, on a chief or, three pallets gules (No. 
448 of Mr Greenstreet's reprint in the Genealogist, 
2nd series, vol. iv.). 

The dignity of Advocate, or Valvasor, of the Bishopric 
of Strassburg was vested in the four noble families 
of Andlau, Hohenstein, Laxdsperg, and Treger, 
out of which one person was elected to fill the oflfice. 
(SCHILTER, de Feudo Militari, % 20. See also the curious 
treatise of Ant. Matth.eUS, De Nobilitate \ , , , de 
Advocatis Ecclesice, 1686. There is an " Elenchus 
Capitum " thereof in BURGERMEISTER, Bibliotheca Eques- 
tris, vol. ii., p. 1123. Ulm, 1720.) 

In England the Lords of BERKELEY, great benefactors 
of the Church,. and {circa 1 142) founders of the Monastery 

( io6 ) 

>f S. Augustine at Bristol, used the mitre as a crest. 
Vs in many German instances, it is charged with the 
amily arms {Gules, a clievron between ten crosses paties 
\rgent\ and this mitre is still the crest of the Earls of 
Berkeley, and of the Barons Fitzhardinge of 
Jerkelev. On the carved stalls in Bristol Cathedral 
he arms of the family are supported by two mermaids, 
md surmounted by a mitre (without helmet or wreath) 
>ut the mitre is not charged with arms {see my 
' Heraldry of Bristol Cathedral," in the Herald and 
Genealogist, vol. iv., p. 289). 

Except as a heraldic ornament, the use of the mitre 
yy the Bishops of the Anglican Communion had become 
obsolete ; but of late years, it, with the use of the 
>astoral staff has undergone a revival which is gradually 
spreading. The majority of the English, Scottish, and 
Colonial Bishops use at this date the pastoral staff. 
Several English, many Colonial, and all the Scottish 
Bishops use the mitre ; some also use the cope and 
pectoral cross as well as the Episcopal ring. 

The time that has elapsed between the discontinuance 
and the resumption of these Episcopal ornaments is much 
less than is supposed. It is said that the coronation of 
George III. was the last at which the mitre was actually 
used. The use of the full wig led to its discontinuance, as 
it did to that of the cope, at Durham. But the effigies of 
several of the English sixteenth and seventeenth century 
Bishops are mitred on their tombs. Mitres of silver gilt 
were suspended over the tombs of Bishops MORLKV, and 
Mews (1684 and 1706), in Winchester Cathkdral. 
The mitre worn by Bishop Skaburv, the first Bishop of 
the now large and flourishing Epi.scopal Church in the 
United States of America, is still preserved in Trinity 
College, Hartford. 

The heraldic mitre is often extremely ill drawn ; and 
most of those worn in the Roman Church have diverged 

{ I07 ) 

greatly from the ancient and better shape. When 
revived by Bishops of the Angh'can Communion there 
has usually been a reversion to the lower and more 
artistic, as well as more ancient form, instead of to the 
often bulbous, and nearly always much too high, shape 
adopted by prelates of the Roman obedience. 

The mitre of S. Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
formerly in the Treasury of the Cathedral of SENS, was 
presented by the Archbishop of that See to Cardinal 
Wiseman. ** It is low and angular ; composed of white 
silk, embroidered with golden flowers and scroll work, 
with a broad band of red silk down the centre and round 
the margin." This mitre is engraved in DE Caumont, 
AbecMaire iVArcliMogic; and in ViOLLET LE Due, 
Dictionaire du Mobilier Fran^ais, Another still at Sens 
is of silver tissue with scroll work, and orphreys of gold 
tissue. The mitres referred to above as existing in the 
Museum at Stockholm, are moderate in height, and of 
the usual mediaeval type. 


— The Pallium — Exceptional uses of it — The Archi-episcopal 
Cross — Legates — Temporal Dignities — Primates and Patri- 
archs — The Double-traversed Cross — The Archi-episcopal Hat 
— The Patriarchal Tiara, etc. 

An Archbishop is usually a metropolitan prelate having 
under his jurisdiction one or more suffragan diocesan 
Bishops whose Sees form his province. (In the Roman 
Catholic Church an archbishop has sometimes, chiefly in 
Central Italy and Sicily, no suffragans ; e,g,^ Udine, 
Ferrara, Lucca, and Perugia have none. The Roman 
Catholic Archi-Episcopal See of GLASGOW has no suffra- 
gans.) Our present use of the title seems to correspond 
with that of very early times. But later the title appears to 
have been appropriated to the patriarchal dignity, and the 
Council of Chalcedon in 45 1 applied it to S. Leo, Patri- 
arch of Rome, as they had already given it to the Patriarch 
of Constantinople. Afterwards it was applied to the 
Bishops in most of the capital cities of the Empire. Among 
the Latins, ISIDORE of Seville is the first who mentions 
it, and hence it is concluded that the dignity did not 
exist in the West before the time of CHARLEMAGNE. 

It is the privilege of an Archbishop to confirm the 
election of his suffragans ; and either himself to con- 
secrate them, or to entrust that office to prelates of his 
nomination. He has the right to convoke a Provincial 
Council (with the Royal Licence in countries where the 
Church is not free from State control) and to preside 
over, and regulate, its deliberations. In later times 

( I09 ) 

Archbishops (and a few Bishops by special privilege, v, p. 
1 16) have alone the right to wear the pa/tium conferred by 
the Papal See (as to which hereafter). In their Province 
the archi-episcopal cross is borne before them, as a 
sign of their dignity, except in the few dioceses which 
are specially privileged, and of which the bishops them- 
selves have by grant from the Papal See the same right 
of using the cross. For instance, the Prince-Bishop of 
Bamberg was exempt from any archi-episcopal control. 
As himself " Primate of Germany " he had the right 
to the use of the Archi-episcopal or Primatial cross ; 
and also to the pallium, for which he paid fifty thousand 
livres into the Papal Exchequer ; the Bishop of DOL 
in Brittany had the privilege of using the cross in 
his own diocese, unless the Archbishop of ToURS, 
or a Papal Legate, were present. (The privilege 
was conferred by Pope Alexander VI. on Bishop 
Thomas Jarny in 1402, in memory of the fact that 
the See of DOL had been archi-episcopal until reduced 
by Pope Innocent III.) The Bishops of Pavia 
and Lucca had also the privilege of using the cross ; 
and it is employed by the Bishop of FUNCHAL in 
Madeira, as a memorial that his See was once archi- 
episcopal. The cross was, after the ninth century, the 
distinguishing mark of the Papal Legates ; later it was 
granted as a personal favour to certain Primates ; about 
the twelfth century its use was permitted to all 
Metropolitans, and the privilege was extended finally 
to all archbishops by Pope GREGORY IX. as a dis- 
tinguishing mark of their dignity, and it is placed in 
pale behind their shields of arms. Long before this, 
however, both in Britain and on the continent it was 
the custom for archbishops to use a staff headed with 
a small cross instead of the ordinary pastoral staff. 
This is the staff which appears in the shields of the arms 
of the Sees of CANTERBURY, YORK (ancient), Armagh, 

( no ) 

and t)UBLlN. (Plates XX. and XXVI.) According to 
modern usage the cross borne before an archbishop is a 
crucifix placed on the summit of a staff, and in pro- 
cessions the figure of the Saviour is turned towards the 
prelate. It must be remarked however that the archi- 
episcopal cross is not borne by, but before, the archbishop ; 
and that in the sacred offices the archbishop uses the 
ordinary crozier, or pastoral staff, like any diocesan 
bishop. But it became the custom, in and after the 
thirteenth century, to represent the archbishop as 
holding in his left hand the cross. After the year 1250 
the Archbishops of tANTERBURV are always so repre- 
sented. In the Province of YORK, Archbishop Geoffrkv 
LUDIIAM (1258- 1 265), is the first on whose seal we find 
the archi -episcopal cross. The Pope, though Bishop of 
Rome, does not at any time use the pastoral staff, or the 
archi-episcopal cross. At pontifical offices and con- 
secrations he bears ^ferula, or staff of gold, surmounted 
by a small cr os^ pati^e. (MONTAULT, VAnn^e Liturgiqiie 
d Rome. See also Rock's Church of Our Fathers, ii., 205, 
et seq., and see below in Chapter on Popes.) Some arch- 
bishops had the special privilege of using their cross even 
beyond the limits of their province. Thus the Arch- 
bishop of Nazareth had the right to use it everywhere ; 
the Archbishop of TOLEDO throughout Spain ; and the 
Archbishop of Ravenna within three miles of Rome. 

The Archbishop of CANTERBURY, as " Primate of all 
England," had the right of using his cross even within 
the bounds of the Province of YoKK. The Archbishop 
of York claimed, but vainly, to have equal rights in the 
Province of Canterbury ; and in the continual con- 
tentions for the primacy between the two archi-episco- 
pal Sees this matter of the right to use the cross is con- 
tinually cropping up. In 1279 Archbishop Pkc'KHAM 
excommunicated all who should supply provisions to 
the Archbishop of York, if the latter persisted in using 

Henri Chulca de Cunbout-Coulin, Priii<»-BUiop of Mcti, 169T-17S2. 

( III ) 

the crosier during his stay in the Province of CANTER- 
BURY. The contest for precedency, which first became 
acute in the reign of HENRY I. and gave rise to much 
unseemly disputing, sometimes led even to acts of 
personal violence between the occupants of the respec- 
tive Sees. We read of both claiming the same seat of 
honour, and of one sitting down in the lap of the other. 
An interesting summary of these early contests for 
precedence between the Archbishops of CANTERBURY 
and York, will be found in that invaluable store-house 
of facts {Notes and Queries, 2nd series, xi., pp. 64, 176). 

The contest was finally settled in 1353, the place of 
honour on the right hand of the King being accorded to 
the Archbishop of CANTERBURY ; while the Primate of 
York was allowed the seat on the left hand. In pro- 
cession their crosses were to be carried together if the 
road was wide enough ; that of CANTERBURY on the 
right, that of YORK on the left hand side of the way. 
If the road became narrow, or if on entering a building 
there was not room for both to pass together, Canter- 
HURV had the right of precedence ; as also in all provin- 
cial councils, and public ceremonials throughout the 
Kingdom. The Archbishop of CANTERBURY has the 
title of '* Primate of all England',' while the Archbishop 
of York is styled " Primate of England!" The title 
'* Anglict primas " first appears on a seal (circa 1 181) of 
Richard, Archbishop of Canterbury (1174-1184). 
In the other province the earliest known seal with the 
same inscription is that of Archbishop Walter GlKFARl) 
(1266- 1 279). {See the Catalogue of Seals in the British 
Museum, vol. i., Nos. 1 184 and 2308). A like distinction 
is made in the case of the archi-episcopal Sees of Ireland ; 
the Archbishop of Armagh being the ''Primate of all 
Ireland^" the Archbishop of DUBLIN, ''Primate of 
Ireland \ " but both Archbishops have the right to use the 
primatial cross over the whole of Ireland. 

( "2 ) 

In the preceding chapter instances have been given in 
which, in early times bishops placed the mitre and 
pastoral staff, the ensigns of their dignity within the 
shield upon their personal arms. A like custom obtained 
with regard to the archi-episcopal cross. Humbert de 
ViLLARS, Archbishop of LYONS in 1 340, bore : Bendy 
of six or and gules over all a crosier in pale azure. 
Archbishop PHILIP DE TUREY of the same See in 1400 
bore : Gules ^ an archi-episcopal cross in pale behind a sal tire 
or (Plate I., fig. i). This cross is also represented 
within the shield of arms of BALTHAZAR DE Gerente, 
Archbishop of Embrun, in 1550, as may^ be seen in his 

Recently I observed a curious instance of archi- 
cpiscopal arms in the cloister of the Church of the 
AUGUSTINS at Toulouse, now used as a Museum of 
Antiquities, where are sculptured the arms of BERTRAM) 
DE ROUERGUE, Archbishop of Tou LOUSE, who died in 
1474 ; they are : . , , on a bend . . . three roses 
all within a bordurc . . . tliereon six roses . . . 
Behind the shield stands the archi-episcopal cross with a 
single traverse ; and above, and on either side of it, is a 
doctor's biretta. The three birettas denote the Arch- 
bishop's degrees as Doctor of Civil Law ; Doctor of 
Canon Law ; and Master (Doctor) of Theology. 

In the Latin Church the distinguishing vestment of an 
archbishop is the pallium, or pall. This corresponded 
with the omophorion of ecclesiastics in the Greek Church, 
and both alike were probably derived from a reduced 
survival of the old Roman toga worn as an official badge 
by civil magistrates. In the Greek Church the omopho- 
rion formerly consisted of a long band of woollen stuff; 
it is now usually of silk, embroidered with crosses, 
and passes once round the neck, its ends falling both 
before and behind to at least the level of the knees. 
Originally worn by Patriarchs, it is now a vestment 

( "3 ) 

common to all of the Episcopal order. It was a recog- 
nised vestment as early as the sixth century ; and 
among the mosaics of that date in the Church of 
St. Sophia at Constantinople may still be seen repre- 
sentations of bishops of the fourth century wearing 
omophoria with coloured crosses. Dr RoCK, in his 
learned work Tlie Church of Our Fatlurs, vol. ii., p. 127, 
et seq.y tells us that the pall in use in the West in the 
sixth century was of the same shape, viz., "a long 
straight band, in width somewhat broader than now, 
and so put on, that being thrown loosely about the neck 
of the bishop, it hung half-way down his breast and 
back, and met upon the left shoulder in a manner that 
allowed one end to droop before, the other behind, his 
person, as may be seen on SS. Maximianus and 
ECCLESIUS, each in his day Archbishop of RAVENNA." 
Dr Rock's reference here is to the mosaics (r. 547) 
which still remain in the Church of S. VlTALE at 
Ravenna, and they are figured by him in his vol. i., p. 319. 
The writer on the subject in the Dictionary of Christian 
Antiquities considers it open to doubt whether the vest- 
ment here represented is a pallium ; but a personal 
inspection of the mosaic satisfied me that it is. (I do not 
know what else it could be.) Each has, however, but 
a single cross visible. But in any case, just such a 
pallium is worn by Pope Pasc HAL in the ninth century 
mosaic in the Church of Sta. Maria in Trastevere 
{see DiDRON, Christia?i Iconography, i., p. yy, fig. 26). 
** By the beginning of the ninth century the pall, though 
it still kept its olden shape of a long stole, began to be 
put on in a way slightly different from its first fashion ; 
for instead of both ends falling at the side from the left 
shoulder, they fell down at the middle, one in front from 
the chest to the feet, the other just as low behind on the 
back of the archbishop ; this we perceive from an 
interesting mosaic still at Rome. (The allusion here is 

( "4 ) 

to one of the mosaics in the apse of S. John Lateran. 
In it S. Peter gives a pallium to Pope Leo III., 
who, however, has one on already.) This mosaic is 
engraved in DiDRON, Christian Iconography^ vol. i., p. ^2y 
fig. 28. S. Peter himself is represented as wearing 
the pallium and having three keys in his lap. With the 
left hand he gives the standard to Charlemagne. 
That the mosaic was contemporary with the Pope and 
Emperor represented, is proved by the fact that both 
wear the rectangular nimbus ; not the circular one which 
was reserved for the departed. (Pope Pascal, who 
wears the pallium^ has the square nimbus in a mosaic 
in Sta. Cecilia in Trastevere. Didron, i., p. 26.) 
Dr Rock goes on to explain how this arrangement, and 
a subsequent one, were practically carried out. But 
eventually, instead of being made in one long straight 
band like a stole, necessitating much arranging and 
pinning, the pallium was woven in its present shape — 
*' a flat circular band, some three inches in breadth, from 
which hung down two straight bands put opposite each 
other, about a yard in length and as broad as the circle." 
At the present day the pendants scarcely exceed a foot 
in length, but formerly reached nearly to the feet of the 
wearer ; each of the pendants is weighted at the end 
with lead covered with black silk. It bore on it at 
first two crosses patties usually of bright purple colour, 
but sometimes red, at the extremities of the pendants ; 
afterwards it had four, now it has six, of black silk 
edged with cord. (The number, however, varies con- 
siderably, as will be seen by any good series of archi- 
episcopal seals ; five are visible on the pall of Arch- 
bishop William Wickwane of York (1279-1285), 
many more on that of Archbishop Alexander 
Neville, 1374 {see Mr Porter's paper on the "York 
Seals," in Proceedings of t/ie Soc, of Antiq, of Lofidon, 
1890). I counted no less than thirteen crosses incised 

( "5 ) 

on the visible portion of the pallium represented on the 
statue of Archbishop Capponi (1681) in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa. The statue of S. Gregory at Chartres 
has ?i pallium with five visible crosses. 

In the arms of CANTERBURY, York - ancient, 
Armagh, and Dublin, the crosses are patce-fitc/i^es. 
The pall was fastened to the chasuble with pins of gold 
with jewelled heads, and it has been thought that the 
crosses patie-fitcliies originated in them. This is, however, 
doubtful, and is not referred to by Dr RoCK. A curious 
survival of the ancient shape of the pallium is to be 
found in the fact that one side of the pall is single, the 
other double, which was the result of the original 
manner of folding the straight stole-like vestment. 

Much curious information as to the manner of con- 
ferring th^ pallium may be found in MONTAULT, LAnnde 
Liturgique a Rome, and in Dr RoCK's valuable work, and 
to these I refer the curious reader. T\\q palliufHy which 
was at first only given as a honorary distinction, became 
after the seventh century a badge the acceptance of 
which implied the acknowledgement of the supremacy 
of the See of Rome (sec Dictionaiy of Christian Anti- 

In the decree of the somewhat doubtful council said 
to have been held at Rome in 679, under Pope AciATllo, 
to consider the affairs of the English Church, the fol- 
lowing words occur — "quos Archicpiscopus, qui pro 
tempore ab hac apostolica sede pallii honore dccoratur, 
provehat," etc. (Given in Haddax and SXUBBS, vol. 
iii., p. 113.) 

On St. Agnes' Day in each year two purely white 
lambs are laid on the high altar of the church of S. AoNES 
fuori le Mure, near Rome, and solemnly blessed ; they 
are then carried with scrupulous care and much ceremony 
to the Vatican, where they receive the Pope's blessing ; 
after which they are entrusted to the charge of some 

( "6) 

nuns, who carefully rear them, and of their wool manu- 
facture tht pallia. These again are solemnly blessed in 
S. Peter's, and rest in a casket for a while on the tomb 
of the Apostles, after which they are laid up in a reliquary, 
ready to be sent " de corpore beati Petri " to the objects 
of Papal favour, to be worn by them on certain high 
festivals in the performance of Divine service. 

ThQ pallium is conferred upon each prelate succeed- 
ing to the archi-episcopal dignity, and (formerly at 
least) in return for the compulsory offering of a large 
sum of money {vide p. 109). By special privilege the 
right to use the pallium has been conferred on a few 
Bishoprics: — in BAMBERG, AUTUN, DOL, Le Puv 

(Clermont?), Marseilles, Lucca, Pa\ia, Verona, 

and the suburban Bishopric of OsTiA (the Cardinal- 
Bishop of which See always consecrates the newly- 
elected Pope). In the case of a perpetual privilege the 
occupant of the See assumes the pallium on conse- 
cration, but in all other cases personal application has to 
be made for it by each successive archbishop. According 
to the regulations of the Holy See its possession is now 
necessary in order to the validity of many archi-episcopal 
acts. An archbishop who has not received \\i^ pallium 
is not entitled to perform any pontifical function, to use 
the archi-episcopal cross, to confer Holy Orders, to 
consecrate churches, or to summon a council, even 
though translated from a diocese where he previously 
had the right to wear it. Except by special privilege, 
rarely accorded, an archbishop can only wear the 
pallium within the limits of his province ; and its use is 
limited to the mass of the greater Festivals, consecrations 
and ordinations, and the anniversaries of the wearer's 
birth and consecration. If an archbishop die within 
his province he is buried with the pall round his shoulders ; 
if elsewhere it is folded up and placed beneath his 
head. , 

( 117 ) 

The pallium is now conferred upon rare occasions 
upon simple bishops, as a special mark of Papal favour, 
and recognition of long and good service in the Epis- 
copate. It was so conferred on August 8, 1892 on the 
good Bishop of BRUGES, John Joseph Faiet, who had 
filled that See for a quarter of a century. The ceremony 
took place in the Cathedral, and the Bishop received the 
pallium from the hands of the Papal nuncio. A French 
Bishop, the Bishop of CLERMONT, similarly received it 
some years ago. 

The pallium appears as the principal charge in the 
arms of the archi-episcopal Sees of Canterhurv, York 
(ancient), ARMAGH, and Dublin. {See Plates XX. and 
XXVI.) In all these cases the crosses ?ix^ patties fitch^es. 

The arms of the French See of Embrun arc, Gules^ a 
pallium between a mitre and a piistoral staff proper (Plate 
I., fig. 12). The present Roman Catholic Archbishop 
EVRE of Gla.sgow has assumed as the arms of his Sec : 
Gules ^ a pallium argent fimbriated or^ thereon four crosses 
pattfes sable. These impaled with his Grace's personal 
coat : Argent^ on a chevron sable three quatrefoils or^ are 
engraved from his book-plate, on Plate XIII., fig. i . The 
external ornaments are the Cross of the ORDER OF 
S. John ; the primatial cross (with a double traverse) 
and the archi-episcopal hat, of its ancient shape. 

The arms assumed by the late Engelbert (Sterckx), 
Cardinal-Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), and 
Primate of Belgium, are a curious, perhaps unique, 
instance of the use of the pallium as a personal bearing. 
They are, (?r, a pallium accosted by tivo hearts proper. 
Over all, on a fess azure, the words " Pax Vobls," of the 
field (Plate I., fig. 10). 

By modern custom t\\Q pallium is very frequently used 
as an external ornament of the armorial bearings of arch- 
bishops. I noticed this use in several cases among the arms 
of the contributors to the cost of the mosaics of the tomb 

( ii8) 

of Pope Pio IX. in the Basilica of San Lorenzo /uon 
U Mure at Rome. In the Frauen-KIRCHE at Munich 
I noticed the monument of LOTHAIR, Baron voN 
Gebsattel, first Archbishop of the See of MUNICH- 
Freising (i8 1 8-1 846). His shield of arms {Gules, t/ie 
luad of an ibex couped at the neck argent homed sable) 
has the pallium so placed as to lie along the top of the 
shield with a pendant on either side (Plate XIII., fig. 3). 
The legatine cross (with double transverse) is placed 
behind the shield, and the archi-episcopal hat, with ten 
tassels (i. 2. 3. 4.) on each side, surmounts the whole. 
On the tomb of Philip Fontana, Archbishop of 
Ravenna, in the Church of San Bartolomeo at 
Ferrara, the pallium is arranged round the shield like 
the collar, or cordon, of an Order of Knighthood. (The 
archi-episcopal cross is placed in pale behind it, accosted 
by a mitre and by the head of the pastoral stafT.) 

Usually, th^ pallium is placed in the chief of the oval 
cartouche (in which the arms of ecclesiastics are generally 
depicted) with a pendant falling over the central line of 
the shield. The arms of the present Archbishop (Bausa?) 
of Florence {Azure, on a fess or, three roses gules 
in chief an estoile of the second) are thus depicted in the 
Duomo, with the pallium over all in chief. The cartouche 
has as external ornaments the double-traversed cross 
and the archi-episcopal hat. At MILAN the arms of 
the Archbishop {Gules, three hunting horns, 2. i. and 
a bordure or) similarly ornamented with the pallitim, 
are depicted on the front of the palace in the Piazza 
Fontana. The cartouche also bears the double-traversed 
cross, mitre, and green archi-episcopal hat. 

In the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Rome I 
observed the tomb of Cardinal Macelu, Bishop of 
OsTiA, who died in i860. His ^xvas {Per fess in chief 

. . . a hand erect proper, and in base Chequy aigcnt 
and gules) are placed within a shield ; the palliuvi is 



. Arohbiahop Eyre (uf Olwguw). 2. Knight of S. John (Chevalier d'Bitung). 

3. Archbuliii|> tiebuttel of Kreynuig Bnd Munich. 

4. de Lionue, Bi>. of Obji. 

( 119) 

spread along the top, and the centre pendant falls as 
usual on the central part of the chief. The cross, with 
double traverse, is placed behind the shield, and the red 
hat surmounts the whole. The visitor to Rome will find 
numerous examples of the like custom. But I notice 
that there are several recent examples in which the 
pallium is placed, somewhat like a motto band, beneath 
the shield of a modern prelate. (I think there was in 
1892 an example in the arms of a Cardinal fixed outside 
his titular church, Sta. Prassede.) The new arrange- 
ment is not one worthy of imitation. 

Except in Rome, where the use of coronets is forbidden 
to ecclesiastics, archbishops who have the rank of prince, 
count, etc., place the coronet above the shield of arms. 
When MENfexRlER wrote in 1673 this, so far as France 
was concerned, was a modern innovation. He says : " On 
ne trouvera pas avant cent ans qu* aucun Prt^lat en 
France ait mis la couronne sur ces Armoiries, non pas 
mesme les princes " {T Usage des Annoiries^ p. 193). 

In France, as we have already seen the Archbishop 
was also Duke of REIMS, and " Pair dc France." The 
Archbishop of Paris has had, since its conference in 
1674, the title of Due do S. Cloui), and accordingly 
timbres his shield with the ducal coronet. Under the 
old rt^gime the possession of this duchy entitled him as 
" Pair de France^' to use around his shield the ermine- 
lined mantle armoyt^e which was the privilege of the 

The Archbishops of Embkun. Arles, and Taren- 
TAISE — (the last is no longer Archi-episcopal, and the 
two former are united to Aix), had the title of Prince, 
and used the duqal coronet. As an example we may 
cite the arms of Georges d'Aubusson de Feuillade, 
who was made Archbishop and Prince of Embrun in 
the year 1649. In 1668 at the request of King 
Louis XIV. he resigned his See. The King to repay 

( I20 ) 

the obligation made him Bishop of Metz, "et lui donna 
le brevet du nom et du rang d'Arch^veque ;" (I presume 
with the sanction of the Holy See, but?). He was 
Ambassador of France in Spain, and received there the 
Order of the St. Esprit. {See La Pointe, Chevaliers 
de rOrdre du Si, Esprit, plate 4, where his shield of 
arms: Or, a cross ancrie gules, is ensigned with the 
ducal coronet, the archi -episcopal cross and hat, and 
surrounded by the grand-cordon of the ORDER OF THE 

St. Esprit. 

I may here mention that while the lay members of 
the Order of the St. Esprit were entitled to surround 
their arms with the collars of the Orders of St. Michael 
(nearest the shield) and of the St. Esprit with their 
pendant badges — the clerical members used only the 
grand-cordon of the St. Esprit, the ribbon with its 
badge. Plates XIV., fig. i., and XVHL, fig. i. There 
are, however, in La Pointe two instances in which the 
collars are substituted for the cordon, or ribbon. One is 
the case of Louis le Barrier, Chancellor of the Order 
in 1645, Bishop and Duke of Langres in 1655. His 
arms {Azure, a chevron between three crosses patce-fitche^s 
or) are surrounded by the collars of both Orders, and have 
the ducal coronet and mantle as well as the Episcopal hat. 
(La Pointe, Chevaliers de VOrdre du St. Esprit, plate c.) 
The other case is that of Hardouin DE Per£fixe 
de Beaumont, Bishop of Rodez in 1648, and Chan- 
cellor of the Order in 1661. He held the Archbishopric 
of Paris from 1 662-1671. His arms are given in La 
Pointe, plate //, and are: Azure, nine estoiles of five 
points (3. 3. 2. I.) argent: The shield is sur- 
rounded by both collars, with their badges. The archi - 
episcopal cross is behind the shield, and the archi- 
episcopal hat surmounts the whole. In GuiGARD, 
{Armorial du Bibliophile, ii., 156), his arms are thus 
represented from his book covers. The only difference 


1. Deaooublekax, Arohbiihop of BordiBUi. 

3. Hulaj.Ardibuhopof Rouen (I6S3). 

( 121 ) 

is that, in these latter, the ends of the cross are repre- 
sented properly as ending in fleurs-de-lis ^ a privilege of * 
the See of Paris. (It will be noticed that he has not the 
coronet and mantle, as his tenure of office was anterior 
to the creation of the Duchy of St. Cloud, vide, supra, 
p. 1 19). We may mention here that le grand Aumdnier 
was the first ecclesiastical dignitary of the kingdom in 
France, and Bishop of the Court ; and that the dignity of 
Commandeur des Ordres du Roi was inseparable from his 
office. He therefore might use both collars. 

The Archbishops of LYONS and ViENNE were Counts, 
and used the coronet of that rank. The Archbishop of 
Rouen placed above his shield of arms two coronets, 
that of a duke to the right, that of a count to the left of 
the shaft of the cross, whose head, double-traversed, 
appeared above them (Magnenev, plate 8, and our own 
Plate XIV., fig. 2). Fran(;:ois de Harlav so bore them 
in 1633, with the device ^^ Deo Medio'' 

The Archbishop of LucCA, as Count of the Empire, 
used the coronet of that rank. The Bishops of LucCA 
became Archbishops in 1726 ; but even as Bishops, they 
were privileged to use Xhc pallium and the cross {v. ante, 
p. 109). The Archbishops of Mainz, Coln, and 
Triers, as Prince- Electors of the Holy Roman Empire, 
used the electoral hat, or princely crown, above their 
shield of arms, and at times added the princely mantle 
around it {see Plate XV., fig. 2), and the arms of the 
Prince-Bishop of Metz, HENRI CHARLES DE Cambout- 
COISLIN in 1697 have the princely coronet and crest in 
our Plate XII. 

The seal of MAURICE Adolphus, Duke of Saxony, 
Archbishop of PllARSALIA in partibus, and Bishop of 
Leitmeritz in Bohemia (1733- 1759), bears the Saxon 
arms surmounted by the princely coronet between the 
mitre and the head of the pastoral staff. The archi- 
episcopal cross is placed in pale behind the shield, and 

( "2 ) 

the whole is surmounted by the archi -episcopal hat 
(Glafey, Sigillay tab. i., fig. 3). A rare Thaler of 
Francis Antony, Count von Harrach, Prince-Arch- 
bishop of Salzburg (1709- 1727), bears, in 1723, a car- 
touche of the following arms : — Per fess ; in chief the 
anfis of Salzburc; {ante p. 87) ; in base tliose 
of Harrach : Gules^ three ostrich feathers in pairle 
argent^ their stems united in a golden ball. The shield is 
crowned with the closed crown of a Prince of the 
Empire, above which rises the head of the cross ; the 
naked sword of the temporal power, and the pastoral 
staff are in *saltire behind the shield, and the archi- 
episcopal hat above all. (KoHLER, Miins-Bclustigung^ 
iv., 121.) 

I have observed a peculiar arrangement of personal 
and official arms employed by Archbishop Beresford. 
The personal arms and supporters are used, and 
above the shield is an oval cartouche containing the 
arms of his See, impaling the personal arms ; this 
is surmounted by an " Archi-episcopal " mitre (that is, 
according to a custom which has g^own up in these 
kingdoms since the seventeenth century, and is unknown 
elsewhere, a mitre rising out of a ducal coronet, or open 
crown). It is hardly needful to say that as a mark of 
ecclesiastical dignity there is properly no difference what- 
ever between the mitre of an Archbishop and that of a 
Bishop, and that this assumption of a coronet has 
really no sufficient authority to justify it. There is not 
the slightest authority, so far as the seals go — nor, in fact 
any other mediaeval evidence, in support of the commonly 
received notion that Archbishops are entitled to wear a 
coronet round the mitre. Throughout the whole series 
of seals and monuments, from the Norman Conquest 
to the Reformation, and beyond, the archi-episcopal 
mitre in no way differs from that of an ordinary bishop. 
(Mr W. H. St. John Hope, Assistant-Secretar>', S.A. 

( 123 ) 

Paper on the " Seals of English Bishops," Proceedings of 
Soc. Antiq,y London, 1887, xi., p. 271.) The helms 
upon which mitres are sometimes placed in German 
heraldry are often timbred with the usual crest coronet 
Usually when this is so, a cushion is interposed between 
the coronet and the mitre ; but even where it is omitted 
the coronet is an adjunct to tlu lielmet — not an integral 
portion of the mitre itself ((/[ ante pp. 102, 103). 


The dignity of Metropolitan appears to have arisen, as 
some other ecclesiastical dignities did, out of the civil 
organisation of the Empire. As in each political province 
there was a metropolis, a head city, to which resort was 
had for justice and other important affairs, and which 
usually possessed a Christian Church excelling the rest 
in opulence and ability to promote the common interest, 
it was natural that the prelate whose See was in the 
metropolis should become the president on occasions 
when Bishops were assembled in his metropolis. The 
civil metropolis became also the ecclesiastical metropolis, 
and thus (as we see from the canons of the Council of 
Chalcedon), C/ESAREA, not Jerusalem, was the seat 
of the Metropolitan in Palestine. When, as in the middle 
of the second century. Synods became matters of 
necessity, they would be naturally held in the metropolis 
and under the presidence of its Bishop. This however 
was not the invariable rule. EUSEBIUS tells us that at 
a Synod in PONTUS, the senior Bishop presided. In 
Africa, Carthage was the Metropolitan See for the pro- 
vince ; but elsewhere, as in NUMIDL\ and Mauretania, 
the senior Bishop presided, although Carthage appears 
to have had some primacy over them. In the West the 
development of Metropolitan authority was of later date. 
Even in the East, the title was not in recognised use 
before the fourth century. 

( "4) 

When the position and dignity became established the 
canonical arrangement was that the Metropolitan should 
be elected by the Bishops of the province, with the assent 
•of the clergy and laity. In the East he was consecrated 
by the Exarch, or Patriarch ; in the West by the pro- 
vincial Bishops. When the See of Rome asserted its 
patriarchal authority over the whole of the West, the 
Pope claimed to sanction the appointment of Metro- 
politans by sending them the pallium ; and as early as 
the sixth century the Pope sent to the Bishop of Arles 
a pallium as Vicar of the Holy See in Gaul. (The 
Metropolitans did not however need its authorisation ; 
and it was only at the Synod of Frankfurt, in 
742, that Boniface, as Legate of Pope Zacharv, 
obtained a decision that all Metropolitans should request 
the pallium from the Pope, and obey his lawful com- 
mands. This grew into a promise of obedience, as a 
preliminary condition of receiving the pallium. (Con- 
densed from the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities^ 

Primates and Patriarchs. 

Innocent III. declared : " Primas et Patriarcha, pene 
penitus idem sonant, cum Patriarchae et Primates tcneant 
unam formam, licet eorum nomina sunt diversa." 

Patriarch. I have condensed below from the 
Dictionary of Christian Antiquities^ the needful informa- 
tion regarding this title. The five Sees to which in its 
primary signification the title of Patriarch was attached 
were those of Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, 
Constantinople, and Rome. " This use grew out of 

the general tendency to frame the higher organisation of 
the Church on the lines which were furnished by the 
Empire. The gradations in rank between Bishop and 
Bishop which corresponded to the gradations of rank 
between city and city of the same province, came to 
exist between metropolis and metropolis of the greater 



Frinoe-AnbUi^op, uiil Kleotor, of Cologne {Ciiln] I7S3-1TS1 

( 125 ) 

divisions of the Empire." At the time of the Council of 
NlC^A the great divisions of the east were the four 
dtoeceses, Oriens, Pontica, Asiana, Thraclk, each of 
which was divided into provinces, or eparchies, and each 
of these had one metropolis or more. Egypt was 
originally part of the dioecesis OrientiSy but was made 
independent by the Council ; the Bishops of Penta- 
POLis and Libya being subjected to the See of 
Alexandria. "There were thus in the East five great 
confederations of Churches, each of which was inde- 
pendent of the others ; in the West the See of Rome 
stood alone in its supremacy." In the following century 
the Council of Chalcedon took away the independence 
of the dioecesis of PoNTUS, AsiA^ and Thrace, .sub- 
jecting them to the See of CONSTANTINOPLE. 

By a later use the title of Patriarch was " given to the 
Bishop of the metropolis of a civil dioecesis^ />., of a 
division of the P2mpire consisting of several provinces ; 
e.g., to Epiiesus. It was also sometimes given to 
Metropolitans, who had other Metropolitans under them, 
e.g., to the Bishop of Til KSSALONICA ; and to the Bishop 
of BouR(;ks (as having beneath him not only his proper 
province of A(^UITANIA-PRIMA, but also NARBONEXSIS,. 
with its metropolitan Narbonnk, and A(^UITANIA- 
.SECUNDA with its capital BORDEAUX) ; as also to the 
Bishop of Lyons; but its use in this sense was ultimately 
superseded in the west by the title * Primate.' " 

Outside the limits of the Catholic Church of the Roman 
organisation, it was adopted for the designation of their 
chief Bishop by the Vandals ; and similarly it was 
adopted by the Lombard Kings of Italy, hence the 
Bishops of Aquileia, and afterwards of Grado, were 
called " Patriarchs." The titular Patriarchate of Grado 
was transferred to VENICE in 145 1. 

Primates (whether they have the patriarchal title or 
not) have the right to use as the emblem of their dignity 

( "6) 

a cross with two bars (a double traverse). RODERic da 
CUNHA, Archbishop of Braga and Primate of Portu- 
gal, thus describes this cross in the Sixth Chapter of 
his treatise on the Primacy of his See : — 

" Ea differentia' inter Primates et Archi-episcopos 
circa crucis ante se delationem reperitur, quia Primates 
eam deferunt ante se argenteam sive auream gemino 
hastili transverso compositam, quorum inferius longius 
est, summum vero brevius, insignum majoris potestatis 
et eminentiae ; Archi-episcopi vero unico tantum bacillo 
transverso crucem gestant ; et eodem modo formatam 
crucem gemino scih'cet bacillo ante se archi-proesules 
Bracharenses gestant in signum Primatialis dignitatis, 
quam obtinere est notissimum." 

This Primatial, or Patriarchal, cross is supposed to 
indicate the union of two powers in the same person ; the 
Primate being not only Metropolitan in his own pro- 
vince but also possessing authority over other Metro- 
politans. The use of the double cross is of considerable 

The Annorial bearings of the Patriarchs of CON- 
STANTINOPLE, Venice, Damascus, and Jerusalem 
are depicted in the Book of the Council of Constance 
as accompanied by the cross with a double traverse, 
the cross patriarchal. The arms of the Patriarchate 
of Jerusalem are said to be : A sure, a cross patri- 
arcJial or between tivo estoiles in chief and a crescent 
in base argent. Those of the Patriarchate of Constanti- 
nople : Argent y a cross patriarchal between four estoiles 
gules (Favtn, Tlu^atre cT Honneur et de Chevalerie ; and 
NiSBET, System of Heraldry , vol. i., p. Ii6). I have 
considerable doubts as to the authenticity of these coats. 
The arms of the Archbishops of Mainz and CoLN, 
who had Primatial authority, are also thus dignified ; 
while ordinary Archbishops like TRIER have only the 
single-barred cross. 

( 127 ) 

The four ancient Patriarchates were those of Antioch, 
Constantinople, Alexandria, and Jerusalem 
(Bishop Beck, of Durham, was made titular Patriarch of 
Jerusalem) ; but the patriarchal dignity is attributed to 
the Archbishops and Primates of VENICE, and LISBON. 

The Patriarchate of LISBON and the INDIES, was 
instituted by CLEMENT XL in 1716. 

The Archbishops of TOLEDO, Braga, Lyons, and 
BOURGES, all claim the Primatial dignity, and use the 
double cross. Since 1085 the Archbishop of TOLEDO 
has been Primate of Spain ; but the Archbishop of 
Braga in Portugal claims the Primacy of the whole 
Peninsula, and as we have already seen, uses the cross 
with the double traverse. 

Primates are properly Archbishops who preside over 
more than one Metropolitan Province, and to whom an 
appeal lies from the sentence of the Provincial Arch- 
bishops. Thus an appeal lay to the Archbishop and 
Primate of LYONS from the Archi-episcopal Sees of 

Sens, Paris, Tours, and Rouen. 

In France the Primates anciently were ; the Arch- 
bishops of Arles (Primates of Gaul), LYONS, BOURGKS, 
Narbonne, and TRf:vKS. In course of time most 
Metropolitans took the title of Primate. In the ninth 
century Hinckmar, Archbishop of Reims, claimed this 
rank ; which had been accorded to the See by Al)RL\N I. 
The Archbishop of RoUEN styled himself Primate of 
NORMANDY. In 1079 Gregory VII. made the Arch- 
bishop of Lyons " Primat des Gaules," but several 
Metropolitans, amongst others those of RoUEN and 
Sens, protested. 

Over the west door of every church in Venice is an 
oval cartouche containing the arms of the Patriarch. 
Behind the shield stands the patriarchal cross, accosted 
by a mitre, and the head of a pastoral staff. Above the 
shield is placed the palliumy so that the pendant falls as 

( 128 ) 

already described upon the top of the shield, and the 
whole is surmounted by the archi-episcopal, or as at 
present by the cardinal's hat. I remember that formerly 
all the church porches bore the arms of the then 
Patriarch Cardinal TrevisiNATO: Per bend sinister or 
and azure ^ over all a mullet pierced argent, tlureon a rose 
proper^ a chief per pale cliarged to the dexter ivith the arms 
of the French Empire ; to tlie sinister, argent, a lion of 
S. Mark or. The hat was that of an Archbishop, the 
arms having been put up before the Patriarch was 
created Cardinal in 1863. 

The arms of the late Archbishop Dakbov of Paris, 
assassinated under the Commune in 1871, are thus 
arranged upon his seal. The shield (A sure, a cross 
argent) is surmounted by the coronet of his di<jnity as 
Due de St. Cloud {v, ante, p. 120), and placed upon a 
mantle lined with ermine fringed gold. Behind it rises 
the primatial cross with its double traverse, and the 
whole is surmounted by the green archi-episcopal hat 
with fifteen tassels, i. 2. 3. 4. 5. on either side. 

It should be noticed that the Episcopal hat had 
formerly only six liouppes or tassels, and the archi- 
episcopal ten tassels, on either side, while the cardinal's 
hat had fifteen. But in an age of assumptions, when 
almost everybody took something more than, according 
to the rules of strict heraldic propriety they were actu- 
ally entitled to (witness the general assumption of 
coronets, or of coronets of higher rank than the title 
warranted), the custom grew up of depicting the archi- 
episcopal hat with fifteen instead of ten tassels on each 
cordon, the colour being thus the sole distinction 
between it and the hat of a cardinal. So also, man\' 
Episcopal hats were painted with the number of houppes 
(ten on each cordon) properly belonging to that of an 
archbishop. Of late years there has been a tendency to 
revert to the old and more correct rule, so far at least 






1 • 



( »29 ) 

as ecclesiastical insignia are concerned, but the hat of 
the excellent Archbishop Darboy is drawn after the 
less correct fashion. 

Very similar remarks might fitly be made with regard 
to the use or abuse of the cross, whether simple or 
doubly-traversed. It has been shown that in former 
times bishops were content to denote their dignity simply 
by the addition of the mitre and crook-headed pastoral 
staff to their arms. At the present day there is hardly a 
Roman Catholic Bishop in Great Britain, etc., who has 
not replaced these by the ten houpped hat, and the 
(formerly) archi-episcopal or legatine cross. There were 
plenty of assumptions in France, but I do not think 
that this particular one occurred frequently. What 
did happen, however, with too great frequency, was the 
substitution of the cross with the double traverse (/>., 
the primatial or patriarchal cross) for the single-traversed 
cross which was their due, by Archbishops, some of 
whom had no claim whatever to Primatial or Metropoli- 
tan authority. 

The Sees which had this claim, or possessed this 
right, have been named above. It may be interesting to 
give some examples which will mark the rise of assump- 
tions. At Paris PiERRE DE Marca, Archbishop of Paris 
(d. 1672), bore the arms: Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, a 
horse saliant or (Marca) ; 2 and 3. Argent, three erviiue 
spots sable (Trescens) in a cartouche. Behind rises 
the archi-episcopal cross in pale, between a small mitre, 
and the head of the crosier. Above all the archi- 
episcopal hat of ten liouppes. Then comes Jean 
Fran(,:ois I)E Gondi (the celebrated coadjuteur oi the 
Fronde), second Archbishop of Paris (afterwards known 
as the Cardinal de Retz, he died 1679). He impaled 
the arms of his Church (^France-ancient, over all the effigy 
of t/ie Virgin and Child or), with his personal arms {Or, 
two maces in saltire sable, tied in base gules). Over this 


( I30 ) 

he placed the coronet of his dignity as Due de St. 
Cloud ; the archi-episcopal cross with a single traverse, 
its ends being fleurs-de-lis, is in pale ; and the hat of ten 
houppes is above all. 

Archbishop Francois de Harlav-Chanvallon, 
who died in 1695, did not impale the arms of his See. 
He used the ducal coronet and mantle, the cordon and 
badge of the Order of the St. Esprit ; the fleur-de- 
lis^e archi-episcopal cross, and the ten houpped hat. 

Archbishop Louis Antoine, Due de NoAlLLES, 
Cardinal-Archbishop of Paris, used the same external 
ornaments for his arms : — {Gules, a bend or.) He died in 
1729. Charles Vintimille du Luc, Archbishop of 
Paris, who died in 1746, used with his arms {Quarterly, 
I and 4. GuleSy a chief or; 2 and 3. Gules, a lion rampant 
or) the ducal coronet (no mantle) ; the archi-episcopal 
cross and hat. The hat has now fifteen houppes on 
each side. This is retained by Christophe DE BEAU- 
MONT, who died in 1781. His arms {Gules, on a fess 
argent, three fleurs-de-lis azure) are ensigned with the 
ducal coronet and ermine-lined mantle, and the cordon 
of the St. Esprit ; and for the first time the fleur-de- 
lis^e cross of the Archbishop of Paris gives place to the 
assumption of the double-traversed cross. Omitting the 
cordon of the St. Esprit the same arrangement is 
followed by Archbishop Antoine LE Clerc, Marquis 
de JUIGNfi, Archbishop from 178 1 to 181 1. {Argent, a 
cross engrailed gules, between four eagles, displayed sable.) 
Archbishop Affr£, who died on the barricades in the 
Revolution of 1848, retained the hat and double cross, 
but does not seem to have used the coronet or mantle. 
His arms were : Azure, on a sea in base a dolphin blowing 
argent, on a chief cousu gules three estoiles of five points of 
t/ie second, 

Claude d'Achey, Archbishop of Besanc^gn (d. 
1637), assumed the double-traversed cross, and bat with 

( 131 ) 

fifteen Iwuppes as the external ornaments of his arms : — 
Quarterly y i and 4. Gules, two axes addorsed paleways 
(ACHEY) ; 2 and 3. Vat r^ or and gules (Bauffremont). 
While Bertrand d'Eschaux, Archbishop of ToURS 
before 1618, ensigned his coat (Azure, three bars or) with 
a marquess* coronet, the double-traversed cross and the 
hat of (only) ten houppes (GUIGARI), Armorial du Btblio- 
phile, vol. i., pp. 52, 203). GILES DE SouvRfi, Bishop 
of AUXERRE (d. 163 1 ), used the double-traversed cross, 
as well as the mitre and crozier, and the hat with 
ten Iwuppes above his arms : — Azure, five cotices or 
{ibid,, ii., 209). This seems an extraordinary case of 

It is perhaps desirable to state that Primates and 
Archbishops are not allowed the use of the cross in the 
presence of a Papal Legate. 

A Legate is the Pope's deputy for certain purposes. 
Legates were of three kinds ; legati a latere; legati nati; 
and legati dati, Legati a latere are cardinals with 
almost Papal authority, such were WOLSEV and POLE. 
Legati nati are prelates who arc legates ex officio without 
a special creation. The Archbishops of CANTERBURY 
from 1 195 to the " Reformation " were legati nati. The 
power of conferring degrees in all faculties, which take 
precedence of ordinary University ones, is a remnant of 
the Papal privilege attaching to the Icgatine office. 
Legati dati are prelates appointed for some special 
purpose, such as the representation of the Pope on some 
great occasion ; the holding of a council, or the trial of 
some important ecclesiastical cause. All Legates had 
the right to the use of the cross like archbishops. 

A Patriarch is, it is said, entitled to wear, and 
surmount his arms with a tiara, differing from the Papal 
one in having only two crowns. I have not seen an 
instance of this use ; but a writer in Notes and Queries 
(3rd series, ii., 160), himself a respected dignitary of 


( 132 ) 


the Roman Church, states the fact from actual 

Napoleon I. attached the dignity of Count to the 
Archi-episcopal Sees, and that of Baron to the Episcopal 
ones. The following were the regulations for the use 
of the ensigns of their dignities, COMTES Archeveques. 
" Toque de velours noir,^ retrouss^e de contrc hermine, 
avec porte aigrette or et argent, surmont^e de cinq 
plumes, accompagn^e de quatre lambrequins, les deux 
sup^rieurs en or, les deux autres en argent, surmont^s 
d'un chapeau rouge ^ a larges bords, avec des cordons 
de soie de meme couleur^ entrelaces I'un dans I'autre, 
pendants aux deux cotes de I'^cu, et termines par cinq 
houppes chacun. Franc quartier d'Azur a la croix patce 

Barons Ev^ques. Toque de velours noir, retroussee 
de contrc vair, avec porte aigrette en argent; surmont^e 
de trois plumes; accompagn^e de deux lambrequins 
d'argent ; surmont^e d'un chapeau vert aux larges bords 
avec des cordons de soie de meme couleur entrelaces 
Tun dans Tautre, pendants aux deux cotds de I'ecu, et 
termines par quatre houppes chacun. Franc quartier 
de Gueules ci la croix alaish d'or!' 

These ''Franc quartiers'' were distinctive marks to be 
borne within the shield. All official ranks were thus 
severally distinguished in the brief period of the ** First 

1 The toque de velours ttoir^ was the hat substituted for the 
ancient coronets by Napoleon I. when regulating the marks of 
dignity for his new noblesse. The number of the plumes, and the 
lining varied for each rank. The use lasted only a very short time. 
Under the " Second Empire^' coronets replaced the hats. 

'^ Rouge is printed in the directions, and was correct for the Arch- 
bishop of Paris, who was a Cardinal. But it seems to have been 
forgotten, or unknown to the person responsible for the regulations, 
that verte was the colour for ordinary archbishops. 

2. Cardlnkl Hedieis. 

( ^33 ) 

The Cardinal de Bellev, Archbishop of Paris under 
Napoleon I. thus bore : GnIvs, four lozenges argent^ 
3 and \^ on a canton azure a cross patcc or. Bishop de 
Faudoas of Meaux bore : Azure, a cross or ; on a canton 
gules a cross alesce or. These examples, with the regula- 
tions given above, are taken from the official authority, 
Simon's Armorial Gthu'ral de r Empire Franqais^ tome i. 
In it these arms are engraved on IMates 25 and 53, with 
the external ornaments as ordered above. In the case of 
a bishop the toque was placed between a mitre on the 
dexter, and the head of a pastoral staff or crosier on the 
sinister side. 


CARDTNALS. — The Red Hat, biretia, and calotte — \]s^ of 
Coronets — Cardinals from Regular Orders — Arms of Patron- 
age — Composed Arms. 

The Cardinals were originally the incumbents of the 
principal churches in Rome. In later times they were 
divided into three classes ; Cardinal-Bishops, Cardinal- 
Priests, and Cardinal-Deacons ; and were appointed 
respectively from the Suffragan Bishops of the Roman 
patriarchate ; the priest-incumbents of the city ; and the 
deacons of the chapels of the hospitals. 

In 1585 SiXTUS V. fixed the number of Cardinals, 
previously unlimited, at seventy ; in allusion to the 
number of the Jewish elders. Accordingly, when the 
Sacred College is complete, which rarely happens, it 
consists of six Cardinal-Bishops ; fifty Cardinal- Priests, 
and fourteen Cardinal-Deacons. 

This distinction, is, however, a merely nominal one, 
and is the cause of much misapprehension among those 
who are not fully informed. There have been instances 
of Cardinal-Bishops who were only in Deacon's Orders ; 
and of Cardinal- Priests who were not in Holy-Orders at 
all (except perhaps minor ones). On the other hand the 
class of Cardinal-Priests always includes many Arch- 
bishops and Bishops ; and the higher rank of the priest- 
hood is often found among the Cardinal-Deacons. In fact 
the rank of Cardinal is not, strictly speaking, an ecclesi- 
astical one ; it is merely a dignity of the Court of Rome. 
(On the dignity of Cardinal see Cartwright's admirable 
book ''On the Constitution of Papal Conclaves I' Edinburgh, 

( 135 ) 

1 868.) Celibacy is the only absolutely indispensable 
qualification for it, though a lay Cardinal requires the 
Papal sanction before he can divest himself of his ecclesi- 
astical character and return to secular life. Ignorance of 
the facts stated above has led Protestant controversialists 
to make unfounded charges of licentiousness and de- 
bauchery against men like the late Cardinal Antonelli, 
because they had sons and daughters. No doubt these 
were, strictly speaking, " illegitimate," but their existence 
was no proof of the grave charges of immorality often most 
unscrupulously made. No Cardinals who have not taken 
Orders can, however, vote in a conclave, except they 
have a special Papal dispensation ; and, though there have 
been exceptions (or at least one), all Cardinals who have 
not previously taken Orders do so as a matter of course 
in modern times before being admitted to a conclave. 
At the request of Pope Pius IX., all the lay Cardinals 
(among whom was his chief Secretary of State the famous 
Antonelli) took Deacon's Orders before his death : 
and I believe that at present there are no lay Cardinals 
at all. Cardinal-Deacons, although in Priests' Orders, 
cannot publicly celebrate mass. Cardinal-Priests, even 
if they be not Bishops, use all the Episcopal ornaments : 
mitre, pastoral staff, and pectoral cross, when officiating in 
the Church in Rome which gives to each his " title." The 
use of the mitre was permitted to Cardinal-Priests before 
II 30, and to Cardinal-Deacons in the year 1192. A 
Cardinal-Deacon, even if he be a layman, has precedence 
of all Bishops. In solemn ceremonies the Cardinal- 
Deacons wear the dalmatic ; Cardinal-Priests the 
chasuble ; and Cardinal-Bishops the cope ; all are 
mitred, but in the Papal presence only the initra 
simplex may be worn. Pope BONIFACE VIII. in 
1299, conferred on the Cardinals the right to wear 
the princely purple, as Princes of the Church and 
participating in the regal power of the Supreme Pontiff. 

( 136 ) 

The title of Eminence^ still used, was given them by 
SiXTUS V. in 1586. 

The use of the red bireita was granted at Lyons in 
1245 to the Cardinals who were not members of Regular 
Orders ; and in 1 592 the privilege was extended to those 
Regulars, who previously had worn the head-dress of 
their respective Monastic Orders. When a new Cardinal 
is resident in a foreign country he usually receives the 
biretta from the hands of the Sovereign, or Chief of the 
State, to whom the Pope sends it. The red calotte, or 
skull cap, is, under these circumstances, sent direct to the 
new Cardinals. In Rome the ceremonies are much 
more elaborate. The flat red hat which is now so 
intimately associated with the Cardinal's dignity is very 
rarely sent to a new Cardinal ; it is usually conferred by 
the Pope himself in a Consistory. This hat is said to 
have been first given by INNOCENT IXTto the Cardinals 
at the Council of Lyons in 1245, to remind them of their 
duty to be ready to shed their blood if needful in defence 
of the Catholic faith ; a warning considered appropriate 
in a time when the Roman Church was menaced by the 
hostility of the Emperor FREDERICK. This idea is 
maintained in the address given by the Pope to the new 
Cardinal when he places the hat upon his head. " Ad 
laudem omnipotentis Dei, et Sanctae sedis Apostolicae 
ornamentum, accipe galerum rubrum, insigne singularis 
dignitatis CardinalatOs ; per quod designatur quod 
usque ad mortem et sanguinis effusionem, pro exaltatione 
Sanctai Fidei, pace, et quiete populi Christiani, augmento 
et statu Sacrosancta; Romanae Ecclesiae, te intrepidum 
exhibere debeas. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus 
Sancti. Amen." Contrary to popular notions, this hat 
is never again worn by a Cardinal ; it is only placed 
upon his bier at his funeral, and is afterwards suspended 
to the vault of the chapel or church, above, or near, 
the place where his body is interred. These are the 

( 137 ) 

red hats so often seen dependent from the roof in 
Italian churches. The red hat, however, with its 
knotted cords each ending in a pyramidal fret of 
fifteen tassels (i. 2. 3. 4. 5.), is always placed above 
the representations of the arms of a Cardinal, as an 
ensign of his dignity. This custom appears to date from 
the early part of the fourteenth century. On the tomb 
of Bernard, Cardinal de LoNCiUiSEL, who is interred 
at Orvieto, having died in 1290, neither hat nor mitre 
is represented above his shield of arms ; and on the 
tombs of Cardinals who died at an earlier date their 
effigies are mitred only. On the tomb of Jacopo, 
Cardinal CoLONNA, in the basilica of Santa Maria 
Maggiore at Rome, about the close of the thirteenth 
century, the mitre only is placed by the side of the 
armorial shield. At SlENA, the hat is placed within the 
shield of RICHARD, Cardinal Petroni (d. 1313). The 
tomb of Matteo, Cardinal Orsini (d. 1341), bears three 
escucheons, two of the personal arms of the cardinal, 
the third (which is placed between the other two) 
contains a cardinal's hat, with plain strings knotted 
together, without tassels. The earliest known examples 
of the use of the hat surmounting the shield are 
to be found on the tombs of Arm and, Cardinal 
de ViAS, nephew of Pope John XXII. at Avignon, 
date 1328; of AUDOIN, Cardinal d'Albert ; and 
PlETRO, Cardinal de MoNTERONE, nephews of Pope 
Innocent V. 

At first the number of liouppeSy or tassels, of the strings 
of the hat, now settled at fifteen on cither side, was 
varied at pleasure ; sometimes, as in an instance recorded 
above, none were used. This was the case also on the 
monument at Rimini of Cardinal BONITO, Archbishop 
of PiSA, where the hat has two simple strings. But in 
the case of his contemporary WiLLlAM, Cardinal 
Philastier, of Mans (1427-8) whose tomb is in the 

( 138 ) 

church of S. Chrysogonus, the hat has fifteen tassels 
on each side arranged as at present (i. 2. 3. 4. 5). 

In the church of Sta. Maria in Trastevere, the arms 
of Philip, Cardinal d'ALEN(;:0N (d. 1402) ; and William, 
Cardinal de Stag NO (d. 1455) were surmounted by 
hats having on each side only six tassels (i. 2. 3). 
On the pavement before the choir of the Cathedral of 
Verona, I noticed that the slab which covers the grave 
of AuGUSTiNUS Valerius, Cardinal-Bishop of Verona 
bears his arms beautifully inlaid in marble mosaic ; viz.. 
Per fess or and gules an eagle displayed counter-changed, 
crowned of the first. The cardinal's hat above this shield 
has only six tassels on each of its cords. 

The seal of Zacarias, Cardinal Delfini, 1565, 
bears his arms {A sure) three dolphins naiant ifi pale {or) 
timbred by a hat which seems to have six tassels on one 
side, seven on the other, probably an error of the artist. 

Between the red hat and the shield is placed the 
coronet, if the Cardinal has a right to one, and the head 
of the cross which is placed behind the shield if the 
Cardinal is an Archbishop, or has been a Papal legate. 
This was the strict rule in former times but amid the 
assumptions of later ones, the double-traversed, or patri- 
archal, cross is frequently assigned to Cardinals. Jean, 
Cardinal de Bellev (d. 1 560) appears to have used the 
double cross and cardinal's hat with his arms : Argent, a 
bend fusilly gules between six fleiirs-de-lis azure. Jean, 
Cardinal de Fleury, minister of LOUIS XV., who bore : 
Quarterly, i and 4. Azure, three roses or ; 2 and 3. Per 
fess gules and azure, in chief a lion naissant or, used in 
France, the ducal coronet, the double-traversed cross, 
and the cardinal's hat. 

Cardinal La Grange d'Arquien (d. 1707) bore in 
France the same external ornarr.ents to his arms : Azure, 
three stags trippant or ; En surtout. Sable, three leopard's 
/leads or, a brisure for the branch of Arquien. 

( '39 ) 

Fran<;ois, Cardinal de Bernis, Secretary of State, 1760, 
bore : A sure ^ a bend and in chief a lion rampant or^ 
the escucheon ensigned with the double cross and 
cardinal's hat. 

Armand de Rohan, Cardinal de Soubise, Prince- 
Bishop of Strasburg (d. 1756) used an abbreviated 
form of his arms (ROHAN, Gules, nine mascles conjoined 
3- 3- 3- or; impaling BRITTANY, Ermine plain) surrounded 
by the cordon of the St. Esprit and the ducal mantle, 
and ensigned by the ducal coronet and the double- 
traversed cross ; the temporal sword and spiritual crosier 
are in saltire behind the shield, and the cardinal's hat 
surmounts the whole. 

On the other hand, Cardinal Mazarin was usually 
content with the cardinal's hat alone, though sometimes 
his arms {Azure, the Consular fasces and axe in pale or, 
banded and bladed argent ; on afess gules three stars of 
five points of the second) are also surmounted by the 
ducal coronet. Cardinal TALLEYRAND DE Pf.RlGORD, 
who was also Archbishop of Reims, bore : Gules, three 
lions rampant croiuned or, the cartouche crowned with 
the coronet of a marquis only, and surrounded by the 
ducal mantle ; the double-traversed cross is in pale 
behind the shield, and the cardinal's hat above all. 

In Rome itself, the use of coronets is strictly 
forbidden to Cardinals by a bull of INNOCENT X. There, 
whatever be their birth, all are equal as Princes of the 
Church, and no secular dignity is allowed to give even 
an appearance of superiority to one over another. The 
cross of the ORDER OF S. John, the badge of an Order 
which is religious, as well as military, is used even in 
Rome as involving no breach of the rule. Away from 
Rome the case is different ; the Cardinal apart from his 
brethren may add to his arms any coronet, or other 
mark of dignity, to which he is entitled. Thus the 
great Cardinal-Duke de RICHELIEU (Armand du 

( MO ) 

PlessiSt) bore his arms {Argent, three elievrons gules) 
surmounted by his coronet, and surrounded by the ducal 
mantle charged with his arms, and lined with ermine. 
The anchor, which was the badge of his office as " Grand 
Amiral de France" was placed in pale behind the 
escucheon, around which also was disposed the cordon 
bleu with the badge of the ORDER OF THE St. Esprit. 
{See Magneney, Recueil des Amies, planche i. and our 
Plate XVIII., fig. 1.) Ecclesiastics who were Chanceliers 
de France placed the maces of their office in saltirc 
behind the .'-hield. 

We have already remarked that the collars of the 
Orders of the St. Esprit, and of S. Michael, were 

not generally used by ecclesiastics who were members of 
either of those Orders. But Louis de Vendome, Due 
de MerC(EUR, Cardinal in 1667, appears to have used 
both collars around his shield, just as the lay knights 
did. His shield is also ensigned with the coronet of fleurs- 
de-lis, and the princely mantle of PVance. Other 
examples of the use of the collars are the following, 
Louis de Barbier, Bishop and Duke of Langres, 
Pair de France in 1645 (A- 1670) and Hardouin de 
Beaumont, Archbishop of Paris in 1662 {see de la 
PoiNTE, Ordre du St. Esprit, planches c, and n\ The 
Cardinal-Dukes of Mazarin, and Bouillon, similarly 
used the mantle armoy^, the ducal coronet, and the 
cordon of the Order of the St. Esprit. Antonio, 
Cardinal Barberini, Archbishop of Reims in 1667, bore 
his escucheon {Azure, three bees or) upon the white Cross 
of the Order of S. John of Jerusalem, and ensigned 
with a ducal coronet. The cordon bleu of the Order of 
THE St. Esprit, with its badge, surrounds the shield; 
behind which rises the double-traversed cross. The 
cardinals hat and a mantle armoy^e enclose the whole 
(La Pointe, planches c, and n). The arms of 
George, Cardinal d'ARMAGNAC, and Legate in 1580, 

Cahdihaui (Fnnch). 


( 141 ) 

are at Avignon, with the mantle annoyce. {f Usage des 
Armoiries, p. 239.) 

Cardinals who belong to those Spanish or Italian 
families which by custom or grant surround their shields 
of arms with banners, or other military trophies, do not 
cease to use them as ecclesiastics. Curious instances of 
this custom are afforded by the arms of GiROLAMO, Car- 
dinal Colon N A ; and later by those of CARLO, Cardinal 
Colon N A (created 1706). They placed the arms of 
their family {Gules^ a column argent crowned or) sur- 
mounted by the crest {a mermaid ivith two tails proper)^ 
but without a supporting helm, and with six banners on 
each side of the shield, upon a larger escucheon gules. 
The whole beneath the cardinal's hat. See also the 
Colon N A medals in Litta, Famiglie Celcbri Italians 
A medal of GiROLAMO, Cardinal COLONNA, Archbishop 
of BOLOC.NA, has the shield surrounded by eight swallow- 
tailed flags charged with crescents. The same arrange- 
ment appears on his tomb in San Barnabo. {^See CONLIN, 
Roma S a net a, Iviii. ; and Rossi, Effigies^ Insignia, etc.y 
Pontificum et S. R. E. Cardinalium defunctorum^ ab 
anno MDCVIII., pi. 11 and 105, 2 vols., fol. Romai, n.d.) 
LouLS, Cardinal Puerto-Carrero, 1669- 1709, has 
thirteen flags around his shield. 

Cardinals taken from a regular Order usually quarter, 
or impale, the arms of that Order with their personal 
arms ; or else place its device oa a chief, or oval 
escucheon, either within the shield, or above and outside 
it. Of these customs examples are sufficiently numerous. 
The earliest which has come under my notice is that of 
Cardinal Bona, of the Order of the Reformed Bernardins 
in Italy (1669- 1674). He quartered the arms of the 
Cistercian Order (FRANCE-rt!;/r/V;//, an escucheon of 
BUR(;UNDV - ancient), with his personal ones : — 
Gules, a lion rampant or, on a chief azure three roses 
argent, and over all, on an escucheon of pretence, the 

( 142 ) 

RosiaoLlOSi arms as " arms of patronage," being those 
of Clement IX. (Rossi, L, io8). 

Juan Everaru, Cardinal NiDARDUS (1672-1681) 
bore : Quarterly, i and 4. Per pale or and argent, an eagle 
displayed sable ; 2 and 3. Gules, on a chevron argent, 
a rose of the first. Over all an escucheon of pre- 
tence, crowned, and charged with a long cross stand- 
ing on a mount of three coupeaux. In the chief 
of the main shield is a small escucheon, Or, charged 
with the monogram (I.H.S. ?) (Rossi, i., 121). GIOVANNI 
Baftista, Cardinal Ptolom^EI (17 12-1726) of the 
Society of Jesus, placed the badge of the Jesuit 
Order (the sacred monogram I.H.S. in chief, and 
three passion nails pileways in base) on a roundel, 
or oval, in the chief of his shield above his personal arms. 
Azure, a fess between three crescents argent. (CONLIN, 
Roma Sancta, xxxii. ; and Rossi, 261.) 

But Giovanni Baptista, Cardinal Salerno, created 
1719; and his contemporary Alvaro, Cardinal ClEN- 
FUEGOS, both of the Society of Jesus, placed the badge 
just described in a roundel, or oval, above the top line of 
the shield (not within it), below the cardinal's hat {Roma 
Sancta, Nos. li. and liii. ; also in Rossi, i., 292). In 1628, 
the French Cardinal Berulle (who bore Gules, a 
c/iet'ron between three mullets of six points pierced or), 
placed between his shield and the hat of his dignity the 
badge of the Congregation of the Oratory, founded by 
him in 161 1, viz. a small crown of thorns encircling the 
words "Jesus Maria." {See our Plate XVIII., fig. 1, and 
Magnenev, Recueil des Armes, planche 5.) In the same 
work (pi. 13) arc engraved the arms of Bishop LE Clerc 
of Glandevez ; and d'ATicHV of Riez, who both, in 
1630, made a similar use of the badge of the Minimcs, 
the word Charitas within the crown of thorns. 

Antonio, Cardinal Barberini, brother of URBAN 
VIII., bore above his [xirsonal arms {Azure, three bees, 

( 143 ) 

2 and I, or) a, chief charged with the device of the 
Franciscan Order {Argent , the Saviour^ s cross sur- 
mounted by two human arms in saltire^ both bearing t/ie 
stigmata {tlie one in bend being that of tlu Saviour naked ; 
ttie sinister that of S, Francis habited proper). (Plate I., 

fig. 7.) 

The like device was used on an escucheon in chief 

above his personal coat {Asure^ two barrulets between 

three mullets of six points or) by FRANCISCO MARCO, 

Cardinal Casino (Rossi, i., 258). 

Lorenzo, Cardinal CozzA, General of the Franciscan 

Order, created Cardinal-Priest in 1726, bore: Per pale ^ 

1st tlie full arms of Pope Benedict XIII., as arms of 

patronage. 2nd. His personal arms viz. Per fesSy in 

chief , , , a bird . . . / and in base Barry of ten . . . 

and . . . He also placed a small escucheon of the 

arms or device of the PVanciscan Order above the shield 

and partly upon it {Roma Sancta, Ixiii.). Similarly, 

Lorenzo, Cardinal PORZIA, so created in 1728, Abbot 

of Monte Cassino, used the following arms : Per pale 

1. The full arms of BENEDICT XIII. {vide infra, p. 165). 

2. His paternal coat, Azure, six fleurs-de-lis, and a chief 
or. In chief, above and partly upon the shield, a small 
escucheon of the arms of MoNTE Cassino, viz. . . . 
a mount of six coupe aux 1.2.3. ^^' base, surmounted by a 
double cross, with tl^e word PAX upon the lower traverse 
{Roma Sancta, Ixxxvii.). As the arms of Patronage 
included the arms of the Dominican Order, and those 
of Benedict XIII., these two examples are worthy of 
special notice. 

Agostino, Cardinal PiPlA, General of the Dominican 
Order, created Cardinal in 1724, used a shield per fess, in 
chief the arms of the Order of S. Dominic {Argent, 
chapi sable, on the first a dog holding in its teeth a torch 
with which it illuminates an orb crossed proper) in base 
his personal arms. In like manner ViNCENZO LUDOVICO, 

( M4 ) 

Cardinal GOTTI, created in 1728, bore the Dominican 
arms on a chief above his personal coat. 

Cardinals, and other Ecclesiastics, who are members 
of the Order of S. John of Jerusalem, have the right 
to place in chief, above their personal coat the arms of 
the Order: Gules, a cross argent. The shield itself is 
placed upon the white eight-pointed cross of the Order 
(</. Plate XIII., figs. I and 2). The arms of Franc^'OIS 
and Antoine, Cardinals Barberini (nephews of 
Urban VIII.) are thus given in IS Armorial Ufiiversel, 
pi. 201 {vide ante, p. 40). (But in modern times the chief 
is usually omitted, and in the Roma Sancta there is no 
.instance of its use. See the arms of Cardinal Pamfili, 
infra, p. 148, and thosQ of Archbishop EVRK on Plate 
XXXVI.) \ 

The cross of the Teutonic Order was similarly used 
by German Ecclesiastics ; an example may be cited ; — 
Damianus Hugo, Cardinal ScHr)NBORN, placed the 
shield of his arms upon the white cross patth^ fimbriated 
sable, of the Teutonic Knights. {Roma Sancta, No. 

Section B. 

Arms of Patronage used by Cardinals. 

The Cardinals of the Roman Church very frequently 
join to their personal arms those which were borne by 
the Pope to whom they owe their elevation. (Some 
examples of this custom have been already given in the 
previous pages.) This, it will appear presently, was 
done in a variety of ways, but the ordinary and original 
way of bearing these " arms of patronage " was that of 
impalifig the two coats ; the dexter half of the shield, as 
the more honourable, being assigned to the Papal arms. 

The earliest instances of this custom which have as 
yet come under my notice are the following : — Arm.vnd, 

( 145 ) 

Cardinal de VlAS (1334); and PIERRE, Cardinal de 
MONTERONE, impaled with their personal arms those of 
their maternal uncles Popes John XXII., and INNO- 
CENT VI. (The arms of the Popes are in Part II.) 
RODERIGO, Cardinal Lenzuolo (1456), nephew and 
adopted son of Calixtus III., took the name of BORGiA, 
and impaled the Papal arms with his own. GIOVANNI 
SalefenatI, Archbishop of MILAN, being created 
in 1484 added to his personal arms the Papal oak tree 
on a point in chief (a '^ point in chief is a triangle 
formed by the top line of the shield, and two lines drawn 
diagonally from the ends of the same until they meet 
each other). Of the Cardinals created by JULIUS II. 


Alidosi quartered the Papal arms, and Faccius 
Sanctorius, Bishop of VlTERBO, impaled them. 

The arms of Leo X. (Medici 1513-22) were impaled 
by Cardinals PUCCI, RUBEL Cajetan, Cesi, and 
Rangoni ; by Seripandi to the sinister (7^ Ciaconius, 
p. 1 181); quartered by Cardinals Tarlati, Salviati, 
and RODOLFI ; placed on " a point in chief' by Cardinal 
Sylvio Passerino, and compounded with their family 
coats by Cardinals Numani, and Armellini. 

Under Pope Paul III. (1534-1550) the Farnese 
arms were added to their personal bearings by no less 
than seventeen Cardinals (Gambara, Sforza, Pucci, 
Cacci. Makkei, etc.). Of these Umbkrto, Cardinal 
Gambara, who bore the arms : (?;-, a crayfish in pale 
gules, and a chief of the Empire, placed the six azure 
fleurs-de-lis of the Pope around the crayfish of his own 
coat. Giovanni, Cardinal Gambara, nephew of the 
preceding, created in 1565 by Plus IV., made a similar 
use of the Medicean /rt//^. In general this manner of 
'* compounding" the Papal and personal coats was only 
employed when the field of the two coats was of the 

( 146 ) 

same metal or tincture. (The arms of Cardinal Geori, 
to be given presently, form an exception to the rule,) 

The arms of Maximilian, Cardinal von Hohenems, 
Bishop of Constance (i 561 -1589), appear on a coin 
struck by him in 1573, and are an interesting example. 
Quarterly^ I and 4. Tin arms of Patronage (those of his 
uncle, Pius IV., Medici); 2 and 3. . . . ^ cross 
. . . impaling^ Azure^ a steinbock rampant or, homed 
sable (Hohenems). Over all, on an escucheon Argent, 
a cross gules (See of Constance). The whole 
shield ent^ en pointe of the arms of the Abbey of 
Reich EN AU . . . ^ cross flory . . . The shield 
is surmounted by the Cardinal's hat ; and the temporal 
sword and pastoral staff are placed in saltire behind the 
whole. (The escucheon is engraved in KoHLER, Miinz- 
Belustigung, xi.) The arms of Plus IV. were also 
added to their own by Cardinals BORROMEO, Gesualdo, 
etc. ; those of Julius III. (1550) by Cardinals l)E LA 
CORNE and SiMONCELLi ; those of Plus V. (1566- 1572) 
by Cardinals Mafeeo, Santorio, Cesi, Gallo, and 

BoNELLO. Gregory XI 1 1. (BuoNcoMPAGNi, 1572-1585) 

similarly gave his arms to Cardinals LA Baume, 
Vastavillano, Birague, and Riario. 

On the tomb of Cardinal Gaddi in the Church of 
Santa Maria Novella at Florence, I noticed that the 
arms of Pope Plus IV. were quartered as arms of 
patronage in the first and fourth quarters, with those 
of Gaddi : Azure, a cross flory or, in the second and 

Under Cle.ment VII. (Aldobrandim, i 592-1605), 
GlOV. Bapt. Portuensis, Cardinal Deacon in 1599, 
impaled the Aldobrandini arms with his own, three 
crescents; GvMNAsius DK Castro Bononiense, 1604, 
placed the Papal arms in the upper part of a shield per 
fess, above his personal arms ( . . . ^ hand holding 
compasses, beneath the Angevin rastrello atid fleurs-de-lis) : 

( 147 ) 

while Carlo, Cardinal PlO, Bishop of Albano, used a 
still more remarkable arrangement : Quarterly^ i and 4. 
Gules^ a cross argent^ t/ureon a saltire of the first ; 2 and 3. 
Gules^ two bars argent. These quartered coats are 
separated by a pale of the Papal arms (thus making the 
shield tierced in pale), and the whole is surmounted by 
a chief of the Empire, a portion of the paternal coat. 

The arms of the Cardinals created by Urban VIII. 
(Barberini, 1 623- 1 644) afford instructive examples of 
the varied modes in which arms of patronage were 
borne. By Giovanni, Cardinal Altieri (who bore, 
Azure, six estoiles, 3. 2. i. or\ the Papal arms are placed 
on a circular plate, half within half without the shield 
(Plate I., fig. 4). Francesco, Cardinal Rapacciolo, 
quartered the Papal arms {Azure, three bees or), his own 
(Azure, a turnip leaved proper) being in the second and 
third places (Plate I., fig. 5). Cardinal Roccius impaled 
the Papal coat with his own : Per fess, in chief or, an 
eagle displayed in base, three bunches of grapes proper. 
The Spanish Cardinal LuGO placed above his own arms 
(Or, issuant from waves of the sea in base, three isolated 
mounts argent, out of each a laurel branch proper, the 
Papal arms on a segmental chief), (Plate I., fig. 6.) 
Lastly, Angelo, Cardinal Geori, sometimes impaled the 
Papal arms (Plate I., fig. 9), but sometimes compounded 
them with his own (Or, a laurel wreath in chief, in base 
a mount of three coupeaux proper) the Papal bees being 
placed within the laurel wreath in the latter case. 

Under INNOCENT X. (Pamfili, 1644-1655) Cardinals 
NicoLO LuDOVisi (d. 1688) and Francisco Maidal- 
CHINI, impaled the Papal arms with their personal ones ; 
Carolo, Cardinal GUALTIERI (d. 1673) placed the 
Papal coat above his personal arms in a shield divided 
per fess, (For LUDOVISI arms see GrE(;orv XV., p. 169). 
Those of Maldalchini were : Azure, a wall embattled, 
masoned sable, in chief three estoiles or; and of GUALTIERI 

( 148 ) 

bore : Barry azure and or, in chief three bezants (other- 
wise, Azure, three bars or, in chief as many bezants). 
Of the Cardinals created by ALEXANDER VII. (CiiiGi, 

1655 - 1667) GiROLAMO BUONCAMPAGNI (d. 16721, 

Antonio Bichi (d. 1691), Cesare Rasponi (d. 1765. 
jACoro NiNi (d. 1680), and CcELio Piccolomini 
(d. 1664) impaled the Papal arms (DELLA RovERK 
quartering Chigi) with their own. VOLUMNIO Ban- 
UINELLI (d. 1667), quartered this Papal coat with his 
own {Or plain, differenced by a roundle in chief thereon 
a mounted knight). 

The arms of Cardinal Bona, created by CLEMENT 
IX. (ROSPIGLIOSI, 1667-1670) have already been given 
on p. 141 ante, and afford an instance of the Papal arms 
as arms of patronage being placed on an escucheon of 
pretence. -^MILIO, Cardinal Altieri (d. 1676) similarly 
placed the ROSPIGLIOSI arms in chief on a small 
escucheon. (The Altieri arms here have the bordure. ) 
But Cardinals SiGlSMUNDO Chigi (created in 1667), and 
Francisco Nerli (1669-1670) impaled \h^ Papal arms. 

Of the Cardinals created by Clement X. (Altieri. 
1670-1676) three: — P*ELICE Rospi(;Liosi, and FRAN- 
CESCO Nerli, both created in 1673 ; and Allessandro 
Crescenci created in 1675, impaled the Altieri arms ; 
but Mario Alberici added them in a small escucheon 
in chief to his paternal coat. 

Under INNOCENT XI. (Ol)ESCALCHI, 1676-1689) his 

arms were impaled by Cardinals Raimondo Capi- 
zuccHi (d. 1691); Giovanni Baptista Luca (1681- 
1683), and Stefano Forli (d. 1883.) But the arms of 
Benedict, Cardinal Pamfili, created in 1683, afford a 
very curious example: Tierced in pale ; i Pamfili ; 
2 {patronage) Odescalchi ; 3 Aldobrandini. The 
shield is placed upon the cross of the Order of 
S. John of Jerusalem, of which he was a member. 
Two Cardinals created by Alexander VIII., (Otto- 

( M9 ) 

BONI, 1 689- 1 69 1 ) /w/rt;/^^/ his arms; FERDINAND, Car- 
dinal Abdua, Archbishop of MILAN ; and GIOVANNI 
Baptista, Cardinal RUBINI, both created in 1690. 
I have no note that the Cardinals created by Inno- 


(Albani, I7CX>-I72i) used the Pontifical arms as arms of 
patronage, and had any done so I think the fact could 
hardly have escaped my observation. But under INNO- 
CENT XIII. (CONTI, 1721-1724), Alessandro, Cardinal 
Albano, impaled the Papal arms; and under his 
successor Benedict XIII. (Orsini 1724-1730) besides 
the Cardinals COZZA, and PORZIA, whose arms have 
been given already (p. 143) the Papal arms were im- 
paled by nearly all the Cardinals of his creation, e.g,^ 
Cardinals PROSPER Marekusco, Vincenzo Pietra, 
Nicolo Coscia, and NicOLO Judice (created 1725). 

These arms of Patronage appear to have been often 
discarded (one would think somewhat ungratefully) after 
the decease of the Pope in honour of whom they had 
been assumed. 

It may be added that these assumptions or grants 
were not always confined to Cardinals or other Eccle- 
siastics. In 1621 GrE(;orv XV. by a Papal Bull per- 
mitted Counts of the Lateran, and other Roman nobles 
thus to use his arms (MenAtrier, Origine des 
Anuoiries, p. 305). The Major-Domo of the Papal 
Household still always assumes the Papal arms, and 
conjoins them with his own in one or other of the ways 
already described, and retains them after his elevation 
to the rank of Cardinal. (MoNTAULT, L'Anm^c Litur- 
gique a Rome, p. 268). So far as my own observation 
goes I think that in the case of other Cardinals the 
custom is falling into abeyance. 

The arms of the Cardinal ** Camcrlengo," sede vacante, 
are referred to in the following Section. 


The Tiara — The Keys — The Triple-Cross — The ferula — The 
Pavitlon de PEglise — ** Cardinal Camerlengo " sede vacanie - 
Popes from Regular Orders — Supporters of Papal Arms. 

The external ornaments with which the escucheons of 
the Popes are ensigned are : — the Tiara ; the " keys of 
S. Peter," and sometimes the cross with triple bars. 

Usually the Tiara is placed above the escucheon ; and 
the keys (of which the dexter is of gold, and the sinister 
of silver), are placed in sal tire behind the shield which 
bears the Pope's personal arms. 

The tiara is a cap, or mitre, of thin metal, or cloth of 
gold and silver. It is not cleft like the present form of 
Episcopal mitre, and it is encircled with three open 
crowns of gold, foliated, and adorned with pearls, so as 
to resemble somewhat the coronets used by Marquesses 
in the British Peerage. The top is surmounted by an 
orb, or mound, on which is set a cross /^//^. 

The principal tiaras are four in number. The first 
was given to Pope Plus VII. by Napoleon I. in 1805, 
and weighs nearly eight pounds. It is richly jewelled. 
The emerald which supports the cross is valued at over 
;£^6oo, and the whole tiara is said to be worth above 
;^9000. The second tiara dates from the pontificate of 
Pope Gregory XVI. It weighs about three pounds, 
and is valued at about £lZo. The third tiara, and the 
most valuable, was the gift of Queen Isabella of 
Spain in 1854; it is of about the same weight as tlic 

( 'SI ) 

last, but is thickly strewn with diamonds, to the 
number it is said of 18,000; its estimated value is over 
;^i 2,500. The fourth was the gift of the Palatine 
Guard in i860, and is worth about ;t850. I saw at 
least one other of very great value among the Jubilee 
presents in the Vatican in 1888, but I have no note 
of its donor or value. The tiaras are ranged on the 
altar when the Pope pontificates. A curious picture 
by DES Prez in the Gallery at Stockholm represents 
the Pope (Benedict XIV.?) officiating at Mass at 
the High Altar in S. Peter's at Rome, in the presence 
of a Swedish Prince (King FREDERICK of Sweden?) 
in 1740. The tiaras are arranged on the altar upon 
raised stands. 

There is much uncertainty as to the time when the 
coronets were added to the original infula, the simple 
mitre of the Bishops of Rome. The usual account is 
that the first was sent to Rome by Clovis, King of the 
Franks; the second added by Pope Boniface VIII. 
(1294-1303); and the third either by BENEDICT XIII. 
or Urb.\n V. I recently remarked that on the tomb of 
Pope Boniface in the basilica of S. John Lateran 
the tiara has but one coronet. This is so far as I am 
aware the first appearance of it in connection with the 
Papal arms. The statue of Pope GREGORY the Great at 
Chartres represents him as wearing a high conical cap or 
mitre, surmounted by a ball. The border, or rim, is a 
circlet with very small floriations. (DiDRON, Christian 
Iconography, vol, i., p. 448. The statue is said to be of 
the thirteenth century.) 

The pictures of early Popes by CiMA DI CONEGLIANO, 
in the Brera Gallery at Milan, show that the tiara was 
not originally ornamented with a floriated coronet, the 
border being quite different in shape. The colour is 
sometimes white, sometimes red ; but much importance 
must not be attached to this variety of colour, which 

( 152 ) 

may have been, and probably was, at least in some cases, 
dictated by artistic considerations. 

Various mystical meanings have of course been attached 
to the triple crown. When even the /anons of an ordinary 
mitre, by which it was originally tied on the head, were 
supposed to refer to "the literal and spiritual interpreta- 
tions of Holy Scripture," it is certain that so important 
an object as the tiara of the Supreme Pontiff would give 
rise to many mystical suggestions {{/e Insig.^ cap. 3, 
sect. 5.) Spener says, " Perhibetur vero haec ipse 
corona esse quam Imper. Anastasius cum titulo Patritii, 
Regi Franciai Clodoveo, jam converso, misit. Hie vero 
non magni donum faciens Symmacho Papae obtulit. Nc 
vero mysterium in triplici corona desidcretur cavit, 

M. Gilbert de Varennes, 4, p. 330, allcgans eam 

triplicitatis rationem, quia potestatem acceperit super 
ecclesiam militantem, laborantem (in purgatorio), trium- 
phantem." {Opus Heraldicuin, pars gen., cap. vi., 
p. 314) The coronets are considered by some to 
allude to a union in the Pope of the Royal, Priestly, and 
Prophetical Offices. Others think that they have merel)' 
a secular bearing, and denote the old kingdom of the 
Heruli, the Exarchate of Ravenna, and the kingdom 
of LOMBARDY. Most probably the view expressed in 
the exhortation of the officiant as he places the tiara on 
the head of the new Pope is the correct one, and the 
crowns (if they symbolise anything of a religious 
character at all) allude to the triple character of Father, 
King, and Vicar of Christ. " Accipe tiaram tribus 
coronis ornatam ; et scias te esse Patrem Principum et 
Regum, Rectorem Orbis, in terr^L Vicarium Salvatoris 
nostri Jesu Christi, Cui est honor et gloria, in sa^cula 
saeculorum. Amen." (For further information on the tiara 
and its mystical meaning see DUCANGE; Ferrario ; 
and Fesch.) 

It seems probable that many of the early Popes made 

( 153 ) 

little if any use of their family arms. The tomb of Pope 
Clkment IV. (d. 1 271) at Viterbo has a shield charged 
with fleurs-de-lis, but these do not appear to have been 
his personal arms, and may have been allusive to his 
French origin ; though, probably by error, the tinctures 
are inverted. {^See the List of Papal Arms from 1 144 
to the present day, in the following Chapter.) 

The keys, the symbol of S. Peter, seem to have been 
first employed heraldically upon Papal banners. Frois- 
SART, speaking of the militant Bishop of Norwich, says : — 

" Faisoit TEvesque de Nordwic devant luy porter les 
Armes de TEglise: la Banniere de Saint Pierre de gueulles 
a deux Clefs d*Argcnt en sautoir, comme Gonfalonier du 
Pape Urbain, et en son Pennon estoient ses Armes." 

In the Chapel of S. Martial, built by Pope Clement 
VI., at Sens, remain two escucheons, on one of which are 
the keys, on the other the trtregno, or tiara. (MENfeTRIER, 
r Usage des Annoiries,^. 253. Paris 1673.) Leo III. is 
said to have sent keys (in which were filings from those 
of S. Peter), and a banner to Charlemagne, disAvou^ 
of the Church, and Protector of Rome. (Menetrier, 
de rOrigine des Arvioiries, p. 292-4.) Escucheons of the 
keys also remain at AviGNON of this date. In 1357 the 
Papal Legate Albornoz put them up in the com- 
munes of the Papal States. 

When employed in conjunction with the Personal 
arms of the Pope they (like other ecclesiastical insignia 
of which we have seen examples in previous chapters) 
were often in early times included in the shield. In the 
Basilica of Sax Giovanni in Laterano, I noticed that 
on DoNATELLO's splendid bronze tomb of Pope Martin 
V. (1417-1431), the arms of the COLONNA are surmounted 
by a chief bearing the cross keys beneath the tiara. 
Popes Urban V. and VIII. and Alexander VII., 
also thus used them at times. Nicolas V. seems 
to have used only the cross keys in an escucheon 

( 154) 

crowned with the tiara. Menetrier says that examples 
of this Pope's escucheon were to be seen on the gates 
of the Churches of S. Paul, S. Theodore, and St. 
Laurent, in Rome. Later it became the custom to 
place the keys en citfiier, beneath the tiara, and above 
the shield. INNOCENT VI., Paul III., and Paul IV., 
thus used them. They are thus represented on the 
tomb of Pope Plus IIL (Piccolomini) in Santa Maria 
DELLA Valle at Rome ; and on his picture by PlNTURlc- 
CHIO in the Duomo at Siena. {See also LiTTA, Celebri 
Faviiglie Italiane, vol. iv.) The keys and tiara are thus 
represented on the tomb of Pope SiXTUS IV.,in the Church 
of Santa Maria Maggiore at Rome. Similarly 
the arms of Pope JULlU.s II. (della Rovere), are 
depicted on the tomb of ASCANIO, Cardinal Sforza, in 
Santa Maria del Popolo, the keys being in saltire 
beneath the tiara, above the shield. So are they on the 
tomb of Pope Leo X. (Medici), in Santa Maria 
Minerva ; and on those of Popes Clement VII. and 
Leo XI. in S. Peter's, at Rome. \See Spener, Opus 
Heraldicum, p. gen., p. 315 (who quotes from Fescii, 
de Insig, c. 3, n. 5), and Menetrier, Pratique des 
Annoiries, cap. 8. See also the gold coins of Pope Plus 

II. (Piccolomini); of Alexander VI. (Borgia) ; and 
the medals of Calixtus III., 1455 ; and Innocent VIII., 
1484.] An early example of this usage was to be seen 
in the case of the arms of Pope Innocent VI. (1352- 
1362), which were thus arranged at the Chartreuse de 
Villeneuve, near Avignon. Many modern examples of 
this custom could be cited. I recently saw the arms of 
Pope Pius VI. thus depicted in the church of Sax 
Giovanni in Laterano. Pope Adrian VI. (1522) 
placed the keys in saltire behind the shield ; and this 
usage, and the precedent, are those which have been 
retained by his successors up to the present date. 

It appears to be the custom at the funeral ceremonies 

( 155 ) 

of a deceased Pope to represent the Papal arms crowned 
with the tiara, but without the keys ; and the same 
custom appears to have been followed in the case of 
deposed Popes. The keys are not represented on the 
tombs of Gregory XII. at Siena, and of John XXII. 
at Florence. At the head of the latter monument is a 
circle containing the COLON N A column. Over this is a 
tiara, above the crossed keys, for Pope MARTIN V. As 
the keys are omitted from the escucheon of a dead Pope 
so they appear in salt! re above the shield and beneath 
the pavilion de V^glise upon the coins struck by the 
** Cardinal Camerlengo," the chief depository of the Papal 
authority, during the vacancy of the Papal throne. The 
pavilion de t^glisCy is a canopy, or umbrella, usually of 
red and yellow silk in alternate stripes. 

For instance, in 1667, on the saidi of ANTONIO 
Barberini, "Cardinal Camerlengo" sede vacante \ his 
arms are placed in an oval cartouche upon the eight- 
pointed cross of the Order of S. John of Jerusalem of 
which he was a member (the small cross of the Order is 
pendant beneath the base of the shield) ; the lej^atine 
cross is placed in pale behind it, and the Cardinal's hat 
surmounts the whole. Immediately above the hat are 
the Papal keys in saltire, the cordons of the hat being 
brought (according to custom) through the bows of the 
keys ; and the large open pavilion de P/iglise, surmounts 
the whole. (KoHLER, Mnnz-Bclustigung, vol. x., p. 49.) 
Other examples are on the gold five scudi pieces, sede 
vacante in 1846 ; the silver scudi of the same date ; and 
the gold '' doppia'' of 1823. In Italy at the present day 
families which have produced a Pope often place the 
keys and oiv.brcllo above the shield, or sometimes in a 
little escucheon within it, in memory of the fact. Thus 
the Ottoboni (whence came Pope Alexander VIII.) 
place the Papal keys and ombrello above the escucheon, 
beneath the mantling. 

( iS6 ) 

These cases must be distinguished from those in which 
the Papal arms have been granted as an augmentation, 
as in the case of the EsTES, Dukes of Ferrara, 
MODENA, etc. 

It should be noticed that some of the Popes have 
retained after their accession to the Papal throne, the 
arms or devices of the Regular Order to which they 
belonged, and which as Cardinals they had combined 
with their own. Thus Benedict XIII. bore in chief 
above his personal arms, those of the Dominican Order 
{vide supra, p. 143). The arms of (p. 165) BENEDICT 
XIII. thus arranged were impaled as arms of Patronage 
{see preceding Chapter) by Prosper, Cardinal Lam- 
BERTINI, who had been raised by him to the Car- 
dinalate, and who was elected Pope under the title of 
Benedict XIV. on the decease of Pope Clement 
XII. in 1740. It is curious to observe that even as 
Pope he retained the use of the full arms borne by 
Benedict XIII., and impaled them in the place of 
honour with his own. Popes CLEMENT XIV., PlUS 
VII., and Gregory XVI., all combined with their 
personal arms those of the Regular Order to which they 
belonged {vide infra. Chap. IX.). 

The Papal arms are frequently depicted with angel 
supporters, each of which bears in its exterior hand the 
Papal cross with triple bars. 

On a gold coin of Pope PlUS 11. (PiCCOLOMlNl, 1458- 
1464) the Papal arms are supported by figures of the 
Apostles SS. Peter and Paul. The shield is sur- 
mounted by the tiara, above which is also a cross potent 
perhaps the head of \\\e ferula, p. 110. (KoHLER, 
MnnZ'Belustigufig, vol. xviii., p. 385.) 

On the seal of the Dominicans in Newark, Leicester 
CiSth century) S. Clement, Pope, is represented holding 
in his hand the triple-barred cross. {Cat. of Seals in 
B, Mus, i.. No. 3453.) The Pope does not use the ordinar\' 

( 157 ) 

crosier, or crook-headed pastoral staff, unless he happen 
to be in the Diocese of Triek, or Treves. The reason 
assigned for this on the authority of Pope INNO- 
CENT III., is the legend that " S. Peter the Apostle 
sent his staff to EUCHARIUS, Bishop of TRfeVES, whom 
he appointed with Valerius and Maternus to preach 
the Gospel to the German race. He was succeeded in 
his bishopric by Maternus, who was raised from the 
dead by the staff of S, Peter. The staff is, down to 
the present day, preserved with great veneration by the 
Church at TRfcVES." But the Jesuit writer Cauier 
shows that there is some reason to think that the Popes 
did use the pastoral staff up to the eleventh century, 
and gives a figure of Gregory the Great thus repre- 
sented from a miniature of the thirteenth centur>'. 

Other representations of S. GREGORY however, depict 
him as bearing a staff surmounted by a cross ; one from 
the Hierolexicon (which as well as that referred to from 
Cauier is to be found sub voce " pastoral staff," in the 
Dictionary of Christian Antiquities ^ ii., 1556, shows S. 
Gregory bearing a staff with a head resembling a cross 
patt^e. The saint is represented with the rectangular 
nimbus, which shows that he was alive at the time the 
drawing was made. {^See Didron'S Christian Icono- 
graphy^ vol. i., p. 76, et seq.) 

On a statue of the thirteenth century at CllARTRES 
Pope Gregory the Great is represented holding in 
his hand a staff surmounted by a long cross, archi- 
episcopal as wc should now term it. (DiDRON, vol. i., 
p. 448.) 

MiGNE, Dictionnaire dc FOrfevreriCy denies that the 
Popes ever used the pastoral staff properly so called, i.e., 
one having a crook. But we have already remarked that 
the crook was not essential to the pastoral staff, and 
that the earliest had simply a knob or a crutch. 


P <} F E S. 
Arms ftfihe I'opes from 1 144- 1893. 

1144. I.c;<*n;s H.^CAccrA-MnMrNi). 

(fules, a bear rampant proper. 

1145. Ki;c;KNri;s III. rpAc;ANELLi). 

Ardent, a crescent azure, in chief a label gules. 


Perfess, in chief, Or, tivo lions rampant affronth 
vert ; in base, Bendy or and vair. Over all a 
fess gules. 

1154. Adrian IV. (Breakspkark). 

(Arms unknoivn.) 

M5<;. Alexander III. (Bandinelli). 

Or, plain. (This coat is often diapered, as in 
S. John Latcran.) 
llHl. I^ucius III. (Allikinc.ola). 
Losengv, azure and argent. 

11H5. Urhan III. (Crivelli). 

Quarterly gules and argent, in the centre point a 
sieve in ptvfile or. 

1187. (iREliORV VIII. (Mc)RRA). 

(iUles, tuuf su*ords argent in saltire, the hilis in 
chief or, between four mullets of the last. 

llS;. Cl.KMENT III. I^St'OLARl). 

( hequy argent and gules, a chief of the Empire 
llt)l. C I I.ESTIN III. vOrsinO. 

/u'udy gules and argent, on a chief of the second 
a pvse of the /irst : the chief soutenu by a 
dirise »»/\ thereon an eel naiant azure. 

( 159 ) 

1 198. Innocent III. (dei Conti de Segni). 

Gules ^ an eagle displayed cluquy or and sabUy 

crowned of t/ie second, 
1 2 16. HONORIUS III. (Savelli). 

Per f ess argent and or, oi^er all a fess vert; in 

chief a rose surmounted by a martlet, and 

supported by two lions rampant gules, in base 

three bends of the last, 
1227. Gre(;ory X. (DEI Conti de Seg^, vide supra, 

Innocent III.). 
1 241. Celestin IV. (Castiglione). 

Gules, a lion rampant argent, /lolding a castle 
triple-towered or, 

1243. Innocent IV. (Fieschi). 

Argent, three bends azure (or Bendy argent and 

1254. Alexander IV. (dei Conti de Segni, vide supra, 

Innocent III.). 
1261. Urban IV. (Langlois). 

Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a fleur-de-lis azure ; 
2 and 3. Azure, a rose or, 

1261. Clement IV. (Gros). 

Or, six fleurs-de-lis azure, in orle. (His family 
arms were : Or, an eagle displayed sable, on a 
bordure gules ten bezants (RiETSTAP, i., 835). 

1271. Gregory X. (Visconti). 

Per fess embattled gules and azure (but ?). 
1276. Innocent V. (Tarentaise?). 

Azure, three pallets or, on each as many fleur- 
de-lis of the field, {J) 
1276. Adrian V. (Fieschi, as Innocent IV. above). 

1276. John XXI. (Julian }), 

Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, three crescents gules ; 
2 and 3. Sable, two pallets or, 

1277. NICOLA.S III. (Orsini, vide supra, Cele.s- 


( i6o ) 

1281. Martin IV. (MoMPixifc). 

Per /ess gules and ot% in chief a human arm, 
issuant from the sinister flank proper, vested 
and manipled ermine, 
1285. HONORIUS IV. (Savelli, vide supra, HONORIUS 

1287. Nicolas IV. (Masci lyAscoLi). 

Argent y a bend between two {or three) estoiles 
azure ; on a chief of the last three fleurs-de-lis 

1292. Celestin v. (Angelario del Morrone). 

Or, a lion rampant azure over all a bend gtiles (/) 

1294. Boniface VIII. (Caetani). 

Argent, two bends wavy azure, 

1303. Benedict XI. (Bocca.sini). 

Gules, a pale embattled counter-embattled argent, 
a chief azure (?) 

1305. Clement V. (Couth, or de Got). 

Barry argent and gules (?) 

1306. John XXII. (d'Euse). 

Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a lion rampant azure 
between six hurts ; 2 and 3. Barry gules and 
argent (?) 

1334. Benedict XII. (Novelli). 

Azure, an escucheon argent. 

1342. Clement VI. (Roger de Beaufort). 

Argent, a bend azure between six roses in orle 

1352. Innocent VI. (Aubert). 

Gules, a lion rampant argent, debruised by a bend 
azure ; on a chief of tlie field, soutenu by a 
divise of the last, three escallops of the second. 

1362. Urban V. (Grimoard). 

Gules, a chief dancetty or. 

1370. Gregory XI. (Roger de Beaufort, vide supra, 
Clement VI.). 

( i6i ) 

1378. Urban VI. (Prignani). 

Or, an eagle displayed azure. 
1389. Boniface IX. (Tomacelli). 

Gules, a bend chequy argent and azure. 

1404. Innocent VII. (Miliokati). 

Or, on a bend coticed azure an estoile irradiated of 
t/u field (?) 

1406. Gregory XII. (Correr). 

Per fesSy azure and argent, a lozenge counter- 

1409. Alexander V. (Filargi). 

Azure, a sun in splendour between eight estoiles 
in orle or, 

1410. John XXIII. (Cossa). 

Per f ess, in chief Gules a human leg proper ; in 
base, Argent, three bends {sinister ?) vert ; all 
within a bordure or ; (or indented argent and 

1417. Martin V. (Colonna). 

Gules, a column argent crowned or. 
I43I. EUGENIUS IV. (Condolmieri). 
Azure, a bend argent. 

\AA7' Nicolas V. (Parentuccelli). 

Argent, two bends wavy, the one in chief gules, 
the otiier azure, 

1445. Calixtus III. (Borgia). 

Or, on a mount in base vert, a bull statant gules ; 
on a bordure of the third eight flames of the 

1458. Pius II. (Piccolomini). 

Argent, on a cross azure five crescents or. 

1464. Paul II. (Barbo). 

Azure, a lion rampant argent, over all a bend or. 
147 1. SiXTUS IV. (della Rovere). 

Azure, an oak tree eradicated or, its four branches 
interlaced in saltire. 

( i62 ) 

1484- Innocent VIII. (CiBo). 

Gules, a bend chequy argent and azure ; on a 
chief tlu arms of GENOA: Argent, a cross 

1492. Alexander VI. (Borgia, vide supra, Calix- 
TUS II.). 
Borgia, impaling Lenzuolo ; Barry or aftd 

gules. Isabella Borgia, sister of Calix- 

Tus III. married LoFFREDO Lenzuolo, 

and their son RoDERIGO assumed the 
Borgia name and used the arms of 

his mother's family conjoined with his 
paternal coat. He became Pope as Alex- 
ander VI. 
1503. Pius III. (Piccolomini, vide supra, Pius II.). 

(Cardinal TODESCHINI took the name and arms 
of his uncle PlUS II.) 
1503. Julius II. (della Rovere, vide supra, Six- 

TUS IV.). 
1 513. Leo X. (de' Medici). 

Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of 
tlie arms ^France {viz,. Azure, three fleurs- 
de-lis or ; granted by LOUIS XI. in 1465). 

1522. Adrian VI. (Dedel). 

(Arms doubtful. Quarterly, i and 4. Or, three 
tent hooks vert. 2 and 3. Sable, a lioft rampant 
azure {? argent) crowned or. (A^. and Q., 
6th S., vi., 82, 354-) Sometimes the hooks 
are sable, and the lion or. 

1523. Clement VII. (de' Medici, vide supra, Leo X.). 

Though of illegitimate birth he used the full 

arms of the Medici. 
1534. Paul III. (Farnese). 

Or, six fleurs-de-lis azure, 3. 2. i (this coat has a 

bordure on the monument in the Church of 

the Ara Cceli). 

( i63 ) 

1550. Julius III. (del Monte). 

Azure ^ on a bend gules ^fimbriated aftd between 
two olive wreat/is (sometimes of laurel, but 
still) or, three mountains, each of as many 
summits, of t/ie last, 
1555. Marcellus II. (Cervini). 

Azure, on a terrace in base vert, a stag lodged argent, 
between six wheat-stalks or. (RiETSTAP says 
bulruslus, and is probably right ; cf Ps. xlii.) 
1555. Paul IV. (Caraffa). 

Gules, three bars argent, 

1 559. Pius IV. (de* Medici, vide supra, p. 162). 

He appears to have assumed the unaugmented 
coat : Or, six balls in orle gules. 

1566. Pius V. (Ghislieri). 

Or, three bends gules, (Sometimes depicted as 
Bendy of six or and gules.) 

1572. Gregory XIII. (Buoncompagni). 

Gules, a dragon issuantfrom the base, winged or, 
1585. SiXTUS V. (Peretti). 

Azure, a lion rampant or, holding a pear branch 
fruited proper ; over all on a bend gules, a comet 
in chief of tlie second, and a mount of three 
coupeaux in base argeyit. 
1590. Urban VII. (Castagna). 

Bendy of six or and azure, on a chief gules, soutenu 
by a divise argent, a chestnut leaved of t lie first. 

1590. Gregory XIV. (Sfondrati). 

Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, a bend embattled 
counter-embattled, between two mullets of six 
points azure. 2 and 3. Or, on a mount in base a 
tree vert, between a flash of lightning in bend 
issuing from the dexter chief ; and in the 
sinister chief the conventional symbol of t/ie 
wind in bend-sinister proper. (See N, and Q„ 
6th S., xii., 142.) 

( i64 ) 

1591. Innocent IX. (Facchinetti). 

Argent y a nut tree eradicated and fruited 

1592. Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini). 

A sure ^ a bend embattled counter - embattled 
between six estoiles or, 

1605. Leo XI. (DEI Medici, vide supra, Leo X.). 
1605. Paul V. (Borghesb:). 

Azure, a dragon (sometimes a demi-dragon) or, 
a chief of the Empire. 

162 1. Gregory XV. (LuDOvisi). 

GuleSy three bends r^traites in chief or. (These 
are sometimes wrongly drawn embowed ; but 
the mistake only arises from the appearance 
of the bends on the common convex car- 
1623. Urban VIII. (Barberini). 

Azure, three bees or, 2 and i. (Usually the bees 
are not volant, but close.) 
1644. Innocent X. (Pamfili). 

Gules, a dove argent, in its beak an olive branch 
proper ; on a chief cousu azure two pallets 
gules between three fleurs-de-lis or. (The 
chief is a survival of the Angevin bearings 
so common in the coats of the Guelphic 
families of FLORENCE, BOLOGNA, etc.) 
1655. Alexander VII. (Chigi). 

Quarterly, i and 4. Azure, an olive tree eradi- 
cated its four branc/tes interlaced in saltire 
argent (della Rovere) ; 2 and 3. Gules, in 
base a mount of six coupeaux or, and in chief 
an estoile of tlie same (Chigi). Sometimes 
the Chigi coat is used alone. 
1667. Clement IX. (Rospigliosi). 

Quarterly or and azure, in each quarter a 
lozenge counter-changed. 

( i65 ) 

1670. Clement X. (Altieri). 

Asurey six estoiles argent A bordure, indented 
of tlu tinctures^ is sometimes added. There 
is no bordure on the tombs of the ALTIERI 
Chapel in Sta. Maria sopra Minerva {See 
my paper, " Arms of the Popes," N, and Q,^ 
6th S., xii., 142), but it appears on the papal 
escucheon in S. Peter's, and was so borne 
in the contemporary arms of patronage used 
by his cardinals {vide ante^ p. 147). 
1676. Innocent XI. (Odescalchi). 

Vair^ on a chief gules, a lion passant argent ^ this 
chief abaissi under another of the Empire, 
(On the variations of this coat as given 
on the Pope's monument in S. Peter\s, 
etc., see my paper in -A^. and Q., 7th S., 
vi., 205.) 

1689. Alexander VIII. (Ottoboni). 

Per bend azure and vert, over all a bend argent, 
A chief of the Empire. 

1691. Innocent XII. (Pignatelli). 

Or, three pignate (drinking pots with handles) 
sable, 2 and i. 

1700. Clement XI. (Albani). 

Azure, afess between an estoile in chief, and in 
base a mount of three coupeaux, all or 

1721. Innocent XIII. (CoNTi). 

Gules, an eagle displayed chequy argent and 
sable, crowned or, 

1724. Benedict XIII. (Orsini). 

Per pale ; i. Orsini {vide ante,^. 158) impaling 
2. Vert, a castle argent tlu port azure (Duchy 
of Gravina). Over all in chief the arms of 
the Dominican Order {vide p. 143). 
1730. Clement XII. (Corsini). 

Bendy argent and gules, over all afess azure. 

( i66) 

1740. Benedict XIV. (Lambertini). 

Per pale, two coats ; i. T/ie full anns of BENE- 
DICT XI IL as above, (borne as arms of 
Patronage) ; 2. Or, four pallets azure. 
(Lambertini of Bologna) 
1758. Clement XIII. (Rezzonico). 

Quarterly y i. Gules, a cross argent ; 2 and 3. 
Sable {? azure) a castle with a central tower 
argent ; 4. Gules, three bends sinister argent 
{over all on an escucheon Or, a double-lieaded 
eagle sable crowned proper). 

1769. Clement XIV. (Ganganelli). 

Azure, afess between three estoiles in chief and 
a mountain of three coupeaux in base or. In 
chief the arms of the FRANCISCAN Order 
{inde p. 143). 

1775. Pius VI. (Braschi). 

The full arms of the Pope were : Quarterly, i 
and 4. Tlie Empire ; 2 and 3. Azure on afess 
between two fleurs-de-lis argent three estoiles 
proper. Over all on an escucheon. Gules, a 
lily slipped proper, in dexter chief tJie con- 
ventional symbol of the wind blowing on the 
lily ; on a chief argent three estoiles or. This 
escucheon was often used alone. 
1800. Pius VII. (Chiaramonti). 

Per pale, two coats ; i. Azure, a mountain of three 
coupeaux in base, thereon a patriarchal cross, 
its arms pat^es or ; over all the word PAX in 
fess sable (for the BENEDICTINE Order). 

2. Per bend or and azure, on a bend argent three 
Moor's heads couped sable wreathed of the 
third ; on a chief of the second three estoiles 
argent, i and 2. 
1823. Leo XII. (della Genoa). 

Azure, an eagle displayed argent. 






1. Pope Leo Xtll 

2. rop« Plij) IX 

( i67 ) 

1829. Pius VIII. (Castiglione). 

Gules, a lion rampant argent liolding a castle 
triple-towered or, 

1 83 1. Gregory XVI. (Cappellari). 

Per pale, two coats ; i. Azure^ two doves argent 
drinking out of a chalice or, in chief an estoile 
of the second (being the arms of the Camal- 
DOLI Order). 2. Perfess azure and argent, 
over all on a fess gules three mullets or, in 
chief a hat sable (Cappellari). 

1846. Pius IX. (Mastai-Ferretti). 

Quarterly, i. and 4. Azure, a lion rampant 

crowned or, its hind foot resting on a globe of 

the last (Mastai). 2 and 3. Argent, two 

bends gules (F^RRETTI.) (Plate XIX.» fig. 2.) 

1878. Leo XIII. (Pecci). 

Azure, on a mount in base a pine tree proper ; 
between, in sinister chief a comet, or radiant 
star, argent, and in base two fleurs-de-lis or. 
Over all a fess of the third (Plate XIX., 
fig. I.) (The rays of the comet are usually 
in bend-sinister. The pine tree is generally 
drawn like a Cyprus. For an account of the 
variations of the Pecci arms see Notes and 
Queries, 6th Series, vii., pp. 488, 489.) 

PART 11. 


Arms of English, Scottish, and Irish Sees blazoned, with 
Historical and Heraldic Notes. 

The earliest Episcopal seals bore only an effigy of the 
Bishop usually standing vested in pontificalibus^ holding 
his pastoral staff, and with his right hand raised in the 
act of benediction. 

Later the seal often included representations of the 
patron saints of the Bishop, or those of his cathedral 
church, arranged under an architectural canopy ; the 
bishop himself being represented on his knees in the base 
of the z/^i'/r^-shaped seal. In the beautiful and elaborately 
engraved seals of the Middle Ages, the effigies of the 
patron saints were inserted in the niches of the archi- 
tectural canopy under which the bishop was represented 
standing or seated, while shields bearing the assumed 
arms of the See, and those of the bishop's family were 
added upon either side of his effigy, or were placed in 
the lower angle of the vesica. 

Remains of the architectural canopy, mutilated almost 
beyond recognition, may still be traced in the armorial 
bearings of several Sees ; e.g. TUAM, SODOR and Man, 
Moray, and Aberdeen. In others the canopy has 
disappeared, and the ^^^y of the saint alone remains, 
e.g. Salisbury, Chichester, Lincoln, and Ross. 

In England the use of armorial bearings appropriated 
to the See is of considerable antiquity. These were, as 
all other armorial bearings were originally, assumptions 
only, and at very varying dates, although after the 
institution of the College of Arms the arms in use 

( 172 ) 

were authoritatively confirmed ; and in the case of Sees 

of later erection a regular armorial grant was made. 

The use by which the arms of the See were impaled 

in the place of honour, with the personal arms of the 

Bishop has been noticed elsewhere (Part I., pp. 19 and 


Provinxe of Canterbury. 


A sure, a crosier or Episcopal staff in pale argent 
ensigned with a cross patie or^ surmounted by 
a pall-throughout of tlu second^ edged and fringed 
goldy and charged with four crosses form^es-fitcliies 
sable (Plate XX., fig. i). 
These arms appear first on the seal of Archbishop 
Simon Islip (1349-1366). {Cat. of Seals in Brit, Mus.y 
No. 1223.) On the seal of a successor SiMON of SUD- 
BURY (1375-1381), a pastoral staff, with the crook turned 
towards the edge of the shield, is added on each side of 
Xh^ pallium ; but this arrangement appears to be unique. 
{Ibid,y No. 1225). On th^ pall or pallium, vide ante^ 
pp. 112-119. His personal arms were impaled with 
those of the See by Archbishop Thomas Fitzalan, 
son of Robert, thirteenth Earl of Arundel (1397- 
1414). {Ibid,, No. 1238.) 

The See of Canterbury was founded by S. Augus- 
tine in 596, the city being the capital of the dominions 
of Ethelbert, King of Kent. Precedence over the 
more ancient archi-episcopal See of York was granted 
to it by the Pope GREGORY VII. in 1073. In spite of this, 
disputes for precedency continued for .some centuries 
and sometimes resulted in personal conflicts between 
the attendants of the archbishops {inde ante, p. 111). 
After the conquest of Ireland the Archbishops of 
Canterbury who had already asserted authority over 
the remains of the ancient church in Wales claimed 
jurisdiction over the Irish Sees ; but this ceased on the 

( 173 ) 

creation of the • Archbishoprics of Armagh, Dublin, 
Cashel, and Tuam, at the Synod of Kells in 
1 1 5 i-i 1 52. The Archbishop is now Primate and Metro- 
politan "of all England," and the first peer of the Realm. 
He has precedence of all the great Officers of State, and 
of all Dukes who are not of the blood-royal. He has 
the title of " His G racer 

The following is a list of the Suffragan Sees of 
the Province of CANTERBURY : — 

London, Winchester, Bangor, Bath and Wells, 
Bristol, Chichester, Ely, Exeter, Gloucester, 
Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, Llandaff, Nor- 
wich, Oxford, Peterborough, Rochester. St. 
Albans, St. Asaph, St. Davids, Salisbury, South- 
well, Truro, Worcester. 


Gules, two swords in saltire argent, the hilts in 
base or (Plate XX., fig. 4). 

The arms are allusive to the dedication of the 
Cathedral to the great Apostle S. Paul, whose effigy 
first appears on the seal of Bishop Fitzneal (i 1 89-1 198). 
The coat as given above is found for the first time on 
the seal of Bishop Ralph Stratford in 1348. 

London was the chief of the three Archbishoprics 
which existed in early British times. Its Bishop Resti- 
TUTUS was present at the Council of Arles, in the year 
314. On the re-introduction of Christianity into England 
by the Roman mission under S. Augustine, it was 
made the See of a Bishop in 596. It now has pre- 
cedence next to Canterbury among the Sees of the 
southern province, and next to York among those of all 


Gules, two keys endorsed in bend, the upper or, the lower 

( 174) 

argent^ tluir rings interlaced in base ; between t/tem 
a sword in bend sinister of tlie thirds the point in 
chief, hilted gold {V\^t^ XX., fig. 6). 
The division of the Wessex diocese into the Sees of 
Dorchester and Winchester was attempted unsuc- 
cessfully by King Cenwalch about the year 660. Its 
division into WINCHESTER and SHERBORNE took place 
in 704-705. 

The Cathedral of WINCHESTER, founded by Kenegil, 
King of Wessex, appears to have been originally dedi- 
cated to S. Amphibalus. It was afterwards placed 
successively under the invocation of S. PETER and 


The effigies of SS. Peter and Paul appear on the 
seal of Bishop Richard Toclive (1174-1188), of 
Bishop William of Wykeham (1367-1404) and (with 
S. SwiTHiN) on that of Bishop WiLLlAM of Waynflete 
(1447-1486). In these facts we may find the origin of 
the arms as at present borne, which combine the sword 
of S. Paul with the keys of S. PETER. 

Bishop Waynflete\s seals have a shield charged 
with a sword in bend, and with^a key (or keys) in bend 
sinister; and in the chief a mitre. In the hall of NEW 
College, Oxford, is a similar shield in painted glass 
with the field of the shield azure. This may possibly be 
of earlier date than Waynflete's seal, but the tincture 
of the field is, so far as I am aware, unique. Whether 
the keys be drawn in bend or in bend-sinister the one 
which lies above the blade of the sword (be it higher or 
lower than the other) is the golden one. On the shields 
which adorn the vaulting of the nave of Winchester 
Cathedral ; on a doorway in the south aisle of the nave ; 
and in the vaulting of the south aisle ; all of the 
early part of the fifteenth century, the keys are in bend. 
Similar examples occur in the Lady Chapel {c. 1490), 
and others in the vaulting of the choir {c, 1525). A like 





of o. 

Bisnop vv.. 

"^ in bcnu, 










(I. Wlnrhnter. 

( 175 ) 

shield in Tromond's Chantry in WINCHESTER College 
(f. 1425) has the addition of a mullet in the base point. 

But there are two shields in the vaulting of the nave 
which bear the sword, not the keys, in bend. Several 
like examples impaling Bishop Langton's arms, are in 
his chapel (1505) and there are others of the time of 
Bishop Fox, and in Bishop Gardner's Chantry. The 
same arrangement is also apparent on a shield in the 
vaulting of the College tower {c, 1480). 

The Bishop of WINCHESTER is Prelate of the Most 
Noble Order of the Garter ; as such he places the 
Garter round his shield of arms. His badge is worn at 
the neck by a ribbon of garter -blue, and is of gold 
enamelled with the arms of the Order {Argent ^ a cross of 
St. George gules) ; surrounded by the Garter, and sur- 
mounted by a mitre of gold. He has precedence next 
to the Bishop of DURHAM. The County of Hamp- 
shire, the Isle of Wight, West Surrey and the Chainnel 
Islands (formerly part of the Diocese of CoUTANCES in 
Normandy) are in the jurisdiction of this See. 


Gules, a bend or, gutte de poix between two mullets 
pierced argent (Plate XXL, fig. 1). 

This is the present, but probably not quite correct, 
blazon of these arms. Older blazons make the bend 
argent; and both the Parliament Roll of 15 12, and 
Cole's MSS., charge this bend with larmes, or azure drops. 
The origin of the coat appears to be quite unknown ; it 
is found on the seal of Bishop MERRICK (1559-1566) 
impaled with his personal arms. The jurisdiction of this 
See includes Anglesey,and parts of Carnarvon, Merioneth, 
and Montgomery. 

The Cathedral is dedicated to S. Daniel, or Deiniol, 
who was Bishop of the Principality of GwYNEDD in 5 16, 
and died in 584. Herveus, a Breton, was the first 

( 176 ) 

foreign bishop forced upon the See in 1092, but in 1 109 
he was driven from it, and translated to Ely {see 
Haddan and Stubbs, i., p. 299, 304 et seq.). In 11 20, 
David, a Welshman from the Scotch Abbey at WuRZ- 
BURG, was presented to the See by Griffith, Prince of 
GwYNEDD, and was consecrated at Westminster. 
being the first Bishop of this See professing canonical 
obedience to the See of Canterbury. Between 1161 
and 1177 Bangor probably had a bishop yielding 
allegiance to the Irish Church {see Haddan and Stubbs. 
»•» 345» 375. etc.). 

Bath and Wells. 

Asure, a saltire quarterly-quartered or and argent 
(Plate XXL, fig. 2). 

These are the arms of the See of Wells alone, and 
are a modem variation of the cross of S. Andrew, to 
whose honour the Cathedral of Wells was dedicated. 

The arms of the Abbey of Bath are. Azure, tivo keys 
endorsed in bend-sinister^ the upper argent^ t/ie louder or^ 
their wards in chief; en filed by a sword in bend of the 
second^ tlie hilt in base gold. This should properly be 
impaled with the coat of Wells ; unless there be a 
reversion to the old coat described below. The original 
dedication of the Abbey was probably to S. Peter, as 
his name alone appears on its first seal (1 159-1 175), but 
the effigy of S. Peter is accompanied by that of 
S. Paul on the Chapter seal of 1530, and, as in the case 
of Winchester, the arms are allusive to both saints. 
The seal of Bishop Robert Burnell (1275- 1292) has 
on one side of the Bishop's effigy the keys of S. Peter ; 
on the other the saltire of S. Andrew. Bishop 
Montagu (1608-1616) placed a saltire or for Wells 
between the keys and sword of Bath ; and in so 
doing appears to have partially followed the example 
of Bishop Bekington (1443- 1465), who placed a 


I. B*th and WelU. 

( 177 ) 

pastoral staff in pale behind the saltirc, the keys in the 
dexter^ and the sword in the sinister flank. This coat 
appears frequently in WELLS Cathedral. {See Appendix.) 
The Wessex Bishopric was divided in the year 705 
into the Sees of Winchester and Siiekhokne. {See 
HADi)ENandSTUBBS,iii.,275.) TheDioceseof Somerset, 
with Wells as the cathedral city, was separated from 
Sherborne in 909. The Bishop's throne was removed 
to Bath in 1122, without the consent of the Chapter of 
Wells, and much strife arose between the monks of 
Bath Abbey and the Canons of Wells in consequence. 
But in 1 137 Bishop ROBERT got the controversy settled 
by arranging that both parties should have a voice 
in the Episcopal election, and that a Bishop's throne 
should be in both churches. Thus the title of the 
diocese became "Bath and WELLS," but the Cathe- 
dral of Bath was suppressed under Henry VIII., 
and since 1542 the Chapter of Wells has been the 
sole chapter of the Bishop, though the title of the See 
remains unchanged. The See comprises all Somerset- 
shire, except the parish of Bedminstcr which is attached 
to Bristol. 


Sable, three open croivns in pale or (Plate XXL, fig. 3). 

The origin of these arms is unknown to me. Mr 
Mackenzie Walcot's suggestion that they are the 
coat of King EDMUND THE Elder, buried at Puckle- 
CHURCH, near Brlstol, is entirely without foundation. 
Possibly they may refer remotely to the dedication of 
the Cathedral to the Ever-Blessed Trinity. The same 
charges appear on a field azure on old stained glass 
in the choir. {See p. 198.; 

The See of Bristol was erected by Henry VI 11. in 
1 541, and was united to GLOUCESTER in 1836. It is 
now awaiting division therefrom, but the separation had 

( 178 ) 

not taken place at the date of the pubh'cation of this 
book, and the arms of both the Sees are borne impaled 
by the present Bishop. 


A sure ^ Our Blessed Lord in glory seated on a throne 

proper^ vested argent, girdled or, his dexter arm 

raised in the act of benediction, Issuant from his 

mouth fessways toiuards tlte sinister a sword proper, 

{T/ie wIwIa between two golden candlesticks with 

candles illuminated proper^ (Plate XXI., fig. 6.) 

These bearings occur as the devices on the seals 

of Bishops Richard de la Wich (1245-1253), and 

John Clipping (1255-1262) ; Bishop Seffrid II. 

(l 180-1204) appears also to have used them, but his 
seal is not described in the Brit, Mus, Catalogue, They 
are evidently derived from the Book of the Revelations 
(i., 16.; ii., 12-16; xix., 15-21); and were adopted from 
the early seals as the regular arms of the See. 

On the seal of Dean William Grenefield (1296- 
1299) the figure is evidently that of the Blessed Saviour, 
though the sword is omitted {Cat, of Seals in Brit. Mus., 
No. 1478). On the Chapter seal ad causas, in 1422, the 
Saviour is represented with the sword, but the candle- 
sticks and candles are replaced by the letters Alpha 
and Omega. {Ibid., No. 1473.) 

In more modern times the origin of the arms was 
entirely forgotten ; and, as a consequence, the blazon 
has undergone a perversion almost unique in its absur- 
dity, and unparalleled even in the history of Heraldry. 
The coat is still blazoned, I regret to say, with the 
authority of the College of Arms (and although its true 
meaning has been pointed out independently by the 
late Precentor of Chichester, the Rev. Mackex/je 
Walcot, and myself) as follows : 

'' Asure, a Presbyter-fohn sitting on a tombstone, his 


( 179 ) 

right Jiand extended^ all or^ with a linen mitre on his Iiecui 
and in his mouth a sword proper " 

As so blazoned it was a puzzle to heraldic students, 
and many suggestions were made as to the reason of the 
selection of the mythical mediaeval personage known 
as " Prester John " for the arms of the South Saxon 
Bishopric ; for the " tombstone " on which he is seated ; 
and for the sword, wrongly drawn as piercing the jaws 
instead of issuing from the mouth. A quarter of a 
century has elapsed since the true explanation was 
pointed out, but so great is the vitality of error that 
probably another quarter of a century may elapse before 
the correction is authoritatively adopted ! It seems to 
be the business of nobody at the Heralds' College to 
put right an error, however patent, if only it be con- 
secrated by precedent. Meanwhile seal-engravers and 
compilers of heraldic manuals go on doing their best 
to stereotype the error, in spite of its incongruity and 

" Prester John," once regarded as a mythical King 
of Ethiopia, or Abyssinia, seems now to be thoroughly 
identified with Yelin Tashi, the founder of the realm 
of Kara Kitai, who after his conquest of Eastern and 
Western Turkistan, became known by the title of 
Gurkhan, and had his capital at Bala Sa(;un (in the 
valley of the Tchu). A full account of the legend of 
Prester John, and of the modifications which it under- 
went, will be found in the interesting work of Dr 
AU(;USTIN Oppekt, '' Der Presbyter Johannes in Sage 
und Geschichter (See also Yule's Cathay, pp. 173, 
182; and his second edition of Marco Polo, vol. i., pp. 
229-233; and ii., pp. 539-543.) Professor Bruun of 
Odessa, in his article on '* The Migrations of Prester 
John'' (Odessa, 1870), propounds with some force a 
theory that he was Prince OkHELLAN of Georgia. 
(See ScilUVLER, Turkistan, vol. ii., p. 122, note.) 

( i8o ) 

The jurisdiction of the See extends over the County of 


Gules, three open crowns, two and one, or (Plate 
XXII, fig. I). 

These arms, which appear on the seal of Bishop 
William de Luda (1290- 1298) are those attributed to 
the foundress of the original monastery- in the Isle of 
Ely, S. Etiielreda, wife of Egfrid, King of North- 
umbria ; and to her, in conjunction with S. Petkr, the 
present Cathedral is dedicated. The coats of arms 
assigned to the Saxon Kings are inventions of a \Q.xy 
much later age than the date 673 assigned to the founda- 
tion of the monastery. 

The See was created by Hexrv I. in 1109. The 
Bishops had the jurisdiction and rights of Counts Pala- 
tine» but the Act of Parliament 27, Hexry VIII, cap. 
35, swept away nearly the whole of their privileges. 
The present jurisdiction of the See comprises Cambridge- 
shire, the counties of Huntingdon and Bedford, and a 
small piece of Sufifolk. 


Gules, a siuord erect in pale argent, the hilt in base or, 
surmounted by tivo keys endorsed in saltire of the 
Azi-/ (Plate XXII, fig. 2). 

The present dedication of the Cathedral is to S. Peter 
only, but the figures of SS. Peter and Paul occur on 
the seal of Bishop WALTER Broxscomh (1258- 1280), 
and were continued by several later Prelates, and in the 
seals of other diocesan officials. The arms are a com- 
bination of the emblems of both Apostles. The first 
instance of the use of a regular coat armorial for the See 
seems to be found in the seal of Bishop Stafford 
( 1 395-1419) on which two keys are represented in saltire 

( i8i ) 

with an indistinct object in the base of the shield. 
On the seal of his successor, Bishop EdmuM) Lacy 
(1420- 145 5) the keys and sword were placed in saltire, 
as in the arms of Bath and WiNXHKSTEK. 

The present arrangement appears first on tl.e seal of 
Bishop John Boothe (1465- 1478). 

In Exeter Cathedral the arms of the See are repre- 
sented with considerable variations. In the ancient east 
window of the north aisle the keys appear endorsed and 
erect, the bows being interlaced. Elsewhere a single 
key and sword are placed in saltire ; two keys in saltire 
without the sword, are also used ; and in Bishop 
Oldham's chantry the keys are in saltire, with a sword, 
either in pale or in fess. 

It is worthy of note that the arms of EXHTER 
College, Oxford, are those of its founder Walter 
DE Stapeldon, Bishop of Exeter (1306- 1329), who 
added to his paternal arms {Argent, two bars nebulise 
sable) a bordure of the last charged with eight keys or. 
This bordure is sometimes blazoned gules, sometimes 
azure, and the latter form is that employed at Oxford. 
( Vide post, p. 23 l) The jurisdiction of the See extends 
over the whole of Devon, except five parishes which 
belong to Truro. 


Azure, two keys in saltire, wards in chief or (Plate 
XXII., fig. i\ 

The Abbey Church at GLOUCESTER was originally 
dedicated to S. Peter, but afterwards to SS. PETER 
and Paul. {See Seals of fifteenth century, />. Mus. Cat., 
Nos. 3195, 3202.) The Pauline sword was then added in 
pale to the keys of S. Peticr {New Monasticon, i., 542), 
but in later times has dropped out of use in the armorial 
bearings of the See. It remains, however, with the hilt 
in chief, upon a shield which is sculptured on the south 

( i82 ) 

porch ; upon the bells ; and upon encaustic tiles of the 
Cathedral, as well as upon the Conventual Seal. 

It is to be hoped that it may be restored to its old 
place ere long. 

The See of Gloucester was founded by Henkv 
VIII. in 1541. It was united to BRISTOL in 1836, but 
preparations are making for the dissolution. At present 
its jurisdiction consists of the County of Gloucester, 
Bristol, and portions of Somersetshire and Wiltshire ; and 
the arms of the United See at present are those of 

Gloucester impaling Bristol. 

Gules y three leoparcT s faces reversed^ tiuo a7ui ont\jessant 
de lis or (Plate XXII., fig. 4). 

These are derived from the personal arms of S. 
Thomas de Cantilupe, who was Bishop from 1275 to 
1282. The See was originally subject to the British 
Bishopric of S. David's. The dedication of the Cathedral 

is to S. ETII ELBERT. 

The original arms of Cantilupe were : Gules, three 
fleurs-de-lis only. Bishop Cantilupe bore three leopard's 
luads jessant fleur-de-lis ; the reversal for the Sec may 
have been intended as a "difference." The jurisdiction 
of the See comprises the County of Hereford, and parts 
of the counties immediately adjacent thereto. 


Per pale gules and argent^ a cross potent and quadrated 

between four crosses pati^es all counter -changed 

(Plate XXII., fig. 5). 

The origin of these arms is unknown, but they have a 

certain resemblance to the arms of Jerusalem. This 

resemblance was stronger when, as formerly, the crosses 

patees on the argent half of the shield were painted or. 

As a mere conjecture I suggest that there may be a 


( i83 ) 

connection between the cross which was worn by the 
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, and the supposed deri- 
vation of Lichfield from an ancient field of the dead, 
or cemetery. The earliest seal on which the bearing 
appears (at least in the British Museum collection) is 
that of Bishop WILLIAM BOOTH (1447-1452) in which it 
is described as a " cross potent," only. Mr MACKENZIE 
Walcot thinks the coat may have been given by 
Bishop Clinton, the Crusader, in memory of his visit 
to the Holy Land. (A^. and Q., 5th S., ii., p. 462.) 
In Froissakt's Chronicles, tome iv., cap. Ixiii., a 
banner borne by Richard II. on his expedition to 
Ireland, is said to have been ** Une croix potenc6e d*or 
et de gueules a quatre colombes blanc au champ de 
I'escu." (Planch£, Pursuivant at Anns, p. 213.) 

I notice that the seals of Bishops RICHARD SCROPE 
(1386- 1 398), and William Smith (1493- 1496) have on 
them a shield charged with an eagle, the charge in the 
reputed arms of the kingdom of Mercia. This would 
refer to the See of Coventry. {Cat. of Seals in tlie 
British Museum, Nos. 1640, 1643.) The eagle also 
appears on the seal of Bishop Richard Sampson 
(1543- 1 5 54), but is not included in an escucheon {ibid.. 
No. 1645). • 

The variations of the Sec are briefly as follows : See 
of Mercia, founded 656. Bishopric of LiCHFlKLD, 669. 
Archbishopric, 786. (HiGHKRT was the only Archbishop 
of Lichfield.) Bishopric only, 799. Throne removed to 
Chester, 1075 ; to Coventry, 1085. United Bishopric 
of Coventry and Lichfield, 1385; of Lichfield 
and Coventry, 1661 ; of Lichfield alone, 1836. The 
dedication of the cathedral is to the Blessed Virgin 
(whose effigy carrying the Holy Child appears 
upon the early seals) ; and to S. Chad. The juris- 
diction of the See comprises Staffordshire, and part of 


( i84 ) 


GuieSy two lions passant guardant in pale or ; on a chief 
azure the effigy of the Blessid Virgin, seated, 
crowned, and sceptred, and holding the Holy Child ^ 
all of the second (Plate XXII., fig. 6). 
Up to 1496 the Episcopal seals usually contain the 
effigy of the Blessed Virgin with the Child ; but 
on the seals of Bishop WILLIAM SMITH (1495- 
15 14) the shield of arms at present used appears. 
As the throne of the Bishop of the See, formed 
by the union of the ancient Bishoprics of DOR- 
CHESTER and SiDNACESTER, was placed at LIN- 
COLN in 1075 by VVlLLlAM the Conqueror, the 
arms borne by him (or at least by his successors, 
kings of England and dukes of Normandy) may 
have been used to commemorate the founder. The 
suggestion that the arms may have originated in 
the fact that Geoffrey Planta(;enet (natural 
son of King Henry II. by Fair Rosamond) was 
Bishop-elect, though without consecration, from 1173 
to 1 182, docs not now appear to me so probable 
as at one time it did. The dedication of the Cathe- 
dral is to the Blessed Virgin, and All Saints. The 
jurisdiction of this See consists of the County of 


Sable, tii'o pasto7-al staves endorsed in sal tire, the dexter 
or, the sinister argent. On a chief azure three 
vtitres, with their infulai, or. (Plate XX III., fig. 2. } 

On the seal of an early bishop (whose name I am 
unable to give) in my cabinet, the arms arc : A 
sivord in bend, above a key in bend-sinister. Bishop 
Marshall (1478- 1496) bore two keys in bend sinister 
enfiled by a sword in bend, with the chief charged as at 


( i85 ) 

The Cathedral is dedicated to S. David. The See was 
founded for the principah'ty of GwKNT by DUBRICIUS 
(d. 612), perhaps even earlier by S. Teilo. The counties 
of Monmouth and of Glamorgan, excepting the district 
of Govver, are in the jurisdiction of this Sec. 


Acure, three mitres, tivo and one, or (Plate XXIII., 

fig- 5)- 
These arms appear in 1351 on the seal of Bishop 

William Bateman (1344- 1355), and may possibly refer 

to the union in the See of Norwich of the Bishoprics of 

ThetforI), DUNWICH, and Elmham. The dedication 

of the Cathedral is to the Ever-Blessed Trinity. 


Sable, a fess argent, in chief three ladies crowned with 
open crowns proper, vested of the second, couped below 
the breasts. In base an ox of the second passing a 
ford barry wavy argent and azure. ( Plate XXIII., 

fig- 6.; 

This Sec was founded by Henry VIII. in 1541. The 
base contains the punning arms of the city. (The ox 
and ford appear in the base of the thirteenth century 
Seal of the Carmelites at Oxford. (^Cat. of Seals in 
Brit. Mus., No. 3812.) Probably the heads in chief 
should be rather of kings than of queens, and they, 
like the crowns in the University arms, may refer 
to the Royal Founders of the University. Since the 
Royal Castle of Windsor with the Chapel of S. Gkorge 
has been included in the Diocese of OXFORD, the 
Bishop has held the high office of Chancellor of the 
Most Noble Ordfr OF THE Garter. As such he 
surrounds the shield of his arms with that illustrious 
ensign ; and wears the badge of his office : — a golden 
medal surrounded by the Garter, and enamelled on the 

( i86 ) 

one side with the arms of the Order (^Argent, a cross 
gules), on the other with a red rose. The badge is worn 
at the neck from the ribbon of garter-blue. This office 
was originally attached to the See of Salisbury, in 
which diocese Windsor was situated. The present juris- 
diction of the Sec comprises the counties of Oxford, 
Berkshire, and Buckinghamshire. 


Gules, tzvo keys addorsed in saltire, between four crosslets 
fit eludes or (Plate XXIV., fig. i). 

The See was founded by Hexrv VIII. in 1541. The 
dedication of the Cathedral is to S. PETER, andthe keys are 
iillusive thereto. The seal of the Abbey (consecrated in 664) 
appears to have borne only the Petrine keys, without the 
crosslets,in the thirteenth coxxXyxxy {^Catalogue of Seals in t/ie 
Brit.Jlfus.yNo.iS^o. 5d'ralso theseal of Richard AsHTON, 
Abbot (l438?),/^/V/.,Xo.3838.) The counticsof Northamp- 
ton, Leicester, and Rutland are in the jurisdiction of this See. 


Argent, on a salt ire gules an escallop or T Plate 
XXIV., fig. 3). 

The Cross of S. Andrew in these arms alludes to the 
dedication of the Cathedral to that saint. The escallop 
may possibly refer to the oyster fisheries of the diocese. 
(The early seals of the Priory bear the effigy of S. Andrew 
on the cross, v.Brit.Mus. G7/.,Nos.39i9,3920.) Ithamar, 
of this See, consecrated in 664, was the first English 
Bishop in the land. The jurisdiction of the Sec consists 
of parts of the counties of Kent and Surrey. 

St. Albans. 

Azure, a sal tire or, surmounted by a szcord in pale 
proper, above the point thereof in chief a celestial 
croivn of the second (Plate XXI\\, fig. 4;. 
At the erection of the See in 1877 ^he arms blazoned 


( i87 ) 

above were granted to it. They are composed from the 
old arms of the Abbey : Azure^ a saltire or ; and the 
sword and celestial crown refer to the martyrdom of the 
patron saint. {^See the following letter from the Bishop of 
RoCHESTKK, first Bishop of S. Albans to me. ** Henley, 
Feb. 12, 1877. Dear Sir, — We take for the coat of the 
See of St. Alban s the old arms, the saltire cross, and pass 
through the centre of it the sword with the point upwards 
and the celestial crown over it. This I think is what you 
would recommend. — Yours faithfully, T. L. RoFFEN.") 

The jurisdiction comprises the counties of Essex, and 
Hertfordshire, and North Woolwich. 

St. Asaph. 

Sable, two keys endorsed in saltire ivards in chief 
argent (Plate XXIV., fig. 5). 

These arms appear on the seals of Bishops ROBERT 
Lancaster (1411-1433) and William Hughes (1573- 
1600). But on the seals of Bishop JOHN TREVOR (i 395) 
and in the Procession Roll of 15 12, the key in bend is 
surmounted by a pastoral staff in bend-sinister. This 
arrangement also appears on the seal of Bishop JOHN 
Wynne (1715-1727). S. Kentigern probably founded 
this See of Llanelwv for the Principality of Powvs, 
early in the seventh century, and left it in charge of his 
disciple S. ASATH. It was the last British See which 
held out against submission to the See of Canterbury. 

The jurisdiction of this See comprises the counties of 
Denbigh, and P'lint, with parts of Carnarvon, Mont- 
gomery, Merioneth, and Shropshire. 

St. Davids. 

Sable, on a cross or, five cinquefoils of the field (Plate 
XXIV., fig. 6). 

The origin of these arms is unknown to mc. It has 
often been asserted that in British times there were 

( i88 ) 

three Archi-episcopal Sees, London, York, and Caerleon, 
and that on the advance of the Saxon power the See of 
Caerleon was removed to Menevia by S. David 
(d. 6oi), from whom the place takes its present name. 

Although a kind of primacy was claimed for the 
Bishop of S. Davids in the eighth and ninth centuries 
"there is no real evidence for the existence of any 
Archi-episcopate at all in Wales during the Welsh 
period, if the term is held to imply jurisdiction admitted 
or even claimed (until the twelfth century) by one Sec 
over another." (IlADDEN and Stubbs, vol. i., p. 148.) 

The claims to Archi-episcopal authority first advanced 
by Bernard, Bishop of S. Davids (1115-1148), and 
afterwards by GirAldus, were made with the object of 
gaining not rule over Wales, but freedom from Canter- 
BURV, and in the latter case, from English nominees to 
Welsh Bishoprics. (Haddkn and Stuhbs, vol. i., pp. 

The jurisdiction of St. Davids consists of the 
counties of Pembroke, Cardigan, Caermarthcn, Breck- 
nock, with parts of Radnor and Glamorgan. 


Aci/ri\ tJie Blessed V it-gin standing croiuned, vested 
and Jiolding in her arms the Holy Child all or 
(Plate XX v., fig. I). 

The Cathedral is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and 
to this dedication the arms allude. The figure of the 
Virgin and Child at full length but seated, appears first 
on the seal of Bishop RiCHARD MlTFORD Ti 395-1407). 
And in this manner it had been previously represented 
on the seals of officials of the See, the Dean and Chapter, 
and Archdeacons of Berkshire ; the earliest example 
being found in the counter-seal of Adam, the Chancellor 
in 1239 {Brit. Mns. Cat, of Seals, No. 2233). But a half- 
length figure of the Virgin and Child appears on the 

( i89 ) 

small counter-seals of Bishop Robert Bingham (1229- 
1246), and of Bishop Robert Wickhampton (1274- 
1284.) The seated figure is the main device on the seals 
of Bishops Robert Hallam (1407- 14 17), and Richard 

Beauchamp (1450-1481) ; and, but half length only, in 
the upper portion of that of LORENZO, Cardinal Cam- 
PEGGI (1525-1534). 

The earliest seal in the British Museum Collection 
which contains the figures enclosed in a shield as 
heraldic charges is that of Bishop BENJAMIN HOADLEV 
(1723- 1 724), where the coat is impaled to the dexter 
with his personal arms : Quarterly, Azure and or, in the 
first qiiarter a pelican in piety argent. The shield is 
encircled with the Garter and badge of the ORDER OF 
the Garter, the office of Chancellor of that Illustrious 
Order being at that time attached to the See of SALIS- 
BURY {vide ante, p. 79). The See has jurisdiction over the 
whole of Dorsetshire, and the greater part of Wiltshire. 


Sable, three foioitains proper (i.e. harry zuavy asi/re 
and argent), a chief tie reed per pale ; {a) Or, a stag 
coHcJiant proper; (b) Gules (? A:;ure), the figure (or 
denii-figure) of the Blessed Jlrgin and Child (as 
in the arms ^LINCOLN) ; (c) Or, two staves raguly 
in cross, vert (Plate XXV., fig. 3). 

This See, which has under its jurisdiction the counties 
of Derby and Nottingham, was founded in the year 1884. 


Argent, on a sal tire gules a key, guards upward in 
bend ; sunnounted by a szuord, hilt in chief, in 
bend-sinister, both or ; in base a fleur-de-lis sable. 
All within a bordure of CORNWALL, viz., Sable 
fifteen bezants. (Plate XXV., fig. 4.) 

The red saltire, the cross of S. Patrick, is taken as 

( I90 ) 

the heraldic symbol (in modern times only) of the 
ancient Celtic Church. The sword and key in saltire are 
taken from a shield in the church of S. Germans, the 
old Episcopal seat. The fleur-de-lis is assumed to denote 
the transference of the See to the church of St. Mary 
at Truro. The bordure is composed from the arms of the 
Duchy of Cornwall. The See was founded in 1877. 
Its jurisdiction is the County of Cornwall, the Scilly 
Isles, and a few parishes of Devonshire. 


Argent, ten torteaux in pile (Plate XXV., fig. 6). 

The arms of the See of Worcester, like those of 
the See of Hereford, are assumed from the personal 
arms of one of its bishops. Bishop GiFFARl) (1268- 1302) 
bore the arms given above. 

The first known Episcopal Seal on which these appear 
as Diocesan arms is that of Bishop THOMAS Peverell 
(1407- 14 1 9). They are there impaled with his j^ersonal 
coat. The jurisdiction of the See comprises the counties 
of Worcester and Warwick, and some small enclaves 
in the counties of STAFFORD and OXFORD. 

The Province of York. 

comprises the following Sees : — 

York, Durham, Carlisle, Chester, Liverpool, 
Manxhester, Newcastle, Ripox, Soder and Man, 
and Wakefield. 


Gules, tii.H) keys addorsed in saltire, the iiuirds upn'ards 
avi^ent, in ehief a royid crozun proper (Plate XX., 

The old arms of the Archi-cpiscopal See of York 
seem to have been identical with those now borne 
for Canterhurv; but the present bearings appear as 


2. Sofloraiul Man. 



( 191 ) 

early as the seal of Archbishop ROBERT Wal1)BV(i397- 
1 398), though the crown is more properly the Papal tiara. 
Another seal of the same Archbishop has, however, 
the ancient arms impaling his personal coat. The seal 
of Archbishop BOWET (1407- 1423) bears the modem 
arms, although on a window in the Cathedral his arms 
appear impaled with the ancient coat, of which curiously 
the field is guleSy not azure. 

Both coats appear, on separate shields, upon the seal of 
Archbishop Sava(;e (i 501-1 507) ; but it is the ancient one 
which is impaled with the personal arms of the prelate 
(Plate XX., fig. 2). The seal of Archbishop Edward Lee 
(1531-1544), is, so far as I am aware, the latest upon which 
the ancient coat is found. On the seals of Archbi.shops 
Waldbv and Lee, Xhepallium is charged \w'\thfive crosses 
patces Jitchi^eSy^nA this may have formed a distinction be- 
tween the arms of the Sees of YORK and CANTERBURY, 
as it does in the parallel case of DUBLIN and Armagh. 

The arms at present borne refer to the dedication of 
the Cathedral to S. Peter. 

The Archbishopric of YORK is the most ancient in 
England, and dates from the first introduction of Christi- 
anity into this land. " Eborius Episcopus dc civitate 
Eboracensi provincia Britannia," was one of the three 
British Bishops present at the Synod of Aries in 314; 
and a Bishop of YORK was present at the councils of 
Niccta, Sardica, and Ariminum, after the conquest of 
Britain by the Pagan Danes and Saxons, and the con- 
sequent obliteration of Christianity in all but the moun- 
tain lands of Wales, Cumberland, etc. (where the original 
British Church still survived under bishops owning 
no allegiance to the Sec of Rome). On the re- 
introduction of Christianity by the Roman Mi.ssion 
under Saint AuciUSTINE, it was again made an Archi- 
episcopal Sec, and claimed jurisdiction over the Scottish 
Sees. ( Vide infra, pp. 216, 224.) 

( 192 ) 

The precedence of CANTERBURY was long con- 
tested by the Archbishops of YORK, but the claim 
of the latter was established by Papal authority, 
though the Archbishop of YORK was permitted to 
bear the title of " Primate of England," which he still 
retains, and he, also, is designated ''His Grace!' In the 
Table of Precedency the Lord High Chancellor alone 
intervenes between him and his brother of Canterhurv. 


Azure^ a cross or between four lions rampant argent 
(Plate XX., fig. 5). 

The earliest Episcopal seal in the British Museum Col- 
lection on which this coat appears, seems to be that of 
Bishop Robert Neville (1438-1457), but on the shield 
representing the arms of this prelate in the east window 
of Leek Church (a liberty belonging to him) the cross is 
the cross patonce, which also appears on the seal of 
Bishop Lawrence Booth, official for the sequestrator, 
in 1474 {Catalogue of Seals in British Museum, i., No. 

This bearing, cantoned with the four silver lions, is 
commonly known as the "Arms of S. CUTHBERT;" and 
is attributed to the monastery of Durham. The plain 
cross appears on the seals of Bishops DUDLEY (1476- 
1483) and VVhxlvm Sever (1502-1505), but on that of 
Bishop Ruthall (1509-1523) it is replaced by the cross 
patonce. This form, impaling RUTHALL, is in the dining- 
room of Auckland Castle, though on his palatinate seal the 
coat with the plain cross is similarly used. {Herald and 
Genealogist, viii., 156.) The plain cross is the one im- 
paled by TUNSTALL, in Auckland Castle {ilud., p. 160). 
Bishop Wn.LL\M Dudley made the lions passant. 
{Cat. of Seals, Brit. Mus., No. 2477.) It may be noticed 
that the plain cross with the lions is to be seen on a 
fifteenth century seal of the Vicar-General of the diocese. 

( 193 ) 

On a seal of Bishop TUNSTALL (1530-1559) the Cuth- 
bertine coat is impaled with his personal arms, but on 
another seal (in the Brit.Mus. Collection^ No. 2483) I gather 
that the plain cross was used. The plain cross is employed 
by both Bishops RUTHALL and Tunstall on their Pala- 
tinate seals ; and this was the form used pretty generally 
by the later bishops. Instances are to be found in which, 
but probably by mistake only, the lions are blazoned 
or. As Counts Palatine the Bishops of DURHAM used 
seals on which they are represented in full armour, 
and mounted, brandishing a sword, and wearing a 
coroncted helmet surmounted either by a plumed mitre, 
or by their personal crests {vide ante^ pp. loi, 102). 
Their personal arms are borne upon the shield and the 
caparisons of the horses. The mitre rising from a 
coronet is still used as a heraldic ornament, although the 
palatinate jurisdiction was finally abolished (1835- 1836) 
by the Act of Parliament (6 Wm. IV., cap. 19). The 
union of the temporal and spiritual power was also some- 
times indicated, as in Germany, by the sword and pastoral 
staff being placed in saltirc behind the shield. The Bishop 
has precedence next after the Bishop of London. 


Argent, on a cross sable, a mitre witJi labels ^r (Plate 
XXI., fig. 4). 

These arms arc said by Mr Mackenzip: Walcot 
(.V. a7id Q., 5th S, ii., 462) to be those of the Priory. In 
the Parliament Roll of Edward VI. (1553) the arms of 
the Sec appear impaling the personal arms of Bishop 
Robert Aldrich (1537-1556), and a royal crown 
replaces the mitre on the centre of the cross {see Bed- 
ford, Blazon of Episcopacy, p. 115). The See was 
founded by HENRY I. in the year 1 133, and then con- 
sisted of the lands won from Scotland in 1092, which 
had previously been under the jurisdiction of the See of 

( »94 ) 

Whithorn, or Galloway. The northern portion of 
Lancashire, ** beyond the sands," was added to Carllslk 
in 1847, when the Diocese of Chester was divided, and 
the See of Manchester created. 


Gules ^ three mitres with labels^ two ami one or (Plate 
XXL, fig. 5). 

The coat is said to have been borne for the Prior)' 
before the erection of the Post- Reformation See. 

This See was one of the six founded by King Henrv 
VIII. in 154L Before this the County of Chester had 
had been included in the Diocese of Lichfield, but 
the throne of the Bishop of the See was at Chester 
from 1075 to 1085 {i\ ante, LICHFIELD, p. 182). 

The County of Lancaster, and portions of Yorkshire, 
with Cumberland and Westmoreland, were originally 
included in the Sec, which now consists simply of the 
County of Chester. 


Argent, tlu eagle of S. JOHN the Evangelist, with its 

wings expanded sable ; beaked, armed, and nimbcd 

or, liolding in its dexter claw an ancient ink-horn 

of the second. A chief per pale azure and gules, on 

the first an open book or, inscribed ivith the words 

** Thy Word is truth ;" on the second an ancient ship 

of three masts gold. (Plate XXIII., fig. i.) 

The arms of the See of Liverpool, founded in 1880 

contain the Eagle of S. JOHN which appears on the 

ancient seal of the borough. This in modern times has 

been wrongly considered to represent the mythical 

*' liver," a bird of the cormorant sj>ecies, with a sprig of 

laver (or seaweed) in its beak, from which the city was 

erroneously supposed to derive its name. The ship on 

the chief is a fitting hieroglyphic of the immense com- 

( 195 ) 

merce of the port. The open book was introduced at 
the urgent request of the first Bishop (Ryle) ; but these 
texts in minute characters rather complicate, and so 
spoil, what would otherwise have been a simple and 
appropriate design {cf. KiLDARE, p. 209). 

The eagle holds the penner and ink-horn of the Evan- 
gelist, in accordance with the old legend which declares 
that S. John was constantly attended by an eagle bearing 
his writing materials. The real cause of the attribution 
of the eagle to S. John as his peculiar symbol was, of 
course, widely different. The first charter of the borough 
was given by King JOHN. 


Or, on a pale engrailed gules three mitres labelled of the 
field. On a canton of the second three bendlets 
enhanced, also of the field, (Plate XXIII., fig. 3.) 

The canton in this coat is allusive to the bearings of 
the city of MANCHESTER, which are : Gules, three bend- 
lets enhanced or, on a chief argent a ship in full sail proper. 
These arms (without the chief) were borne by the family 
of Greslet, Grel£, or Grellev, feudal barons of 
Manchester in Norman times. The engrailed pale in 
the arms of the See is said also to be allusive to the 
name of this family. The See was founded in 1847, and 
consists of the southern portion of Lancashire, formerly 
comprised in the See of Chester. 


Gules, three castles argent, on a chief azure the cross 

ofS. Cuthbert or (Plate XXIII., fig. 4). 
The base of the arms contains the bearings of the city 
of Newcastle. The chief commemorates the fact that 
the See was formed out of the ancient Diocese of 
Durham. The cross of St. Cuthhert is that which 
was found on the breast of the saint in 1827. 

( 196 ) 


Argent, on a saltire gules , tiL*o keys in saltire wards up- 
wards or. On a chief of tlu second a Paschcd- 
Lamb proper. fPlate XXIV., fig. 2.; 

The Paschal-Lamb on the chief is probably derived 
from a seal of the Abbey of Saint Wilfrid at Ripon, 
in the twelfth century. The keys are probably from the 
arms of the See of York, out of which the new Sec took 
its origin in 1836; it includes also the Yorkshire portion 
of the old Diocese of Chester. RiPON seems to have 
been a Bishops See for a few years in Anglo-Saxon 
times, but was merged in York on Wilfrid's restora- 
tion in 686. (Haddan and Stuhbs, iii., 165.) 


Gules, between two pillars argent, the Blessed Virgin 

standing luith arms extended, vested croivned and 

nimbed, holding in her right hand an ancient 

church all proper. In the base of the shield the 

charge of the arms of^the Island of Man ; three 

legs in armour, flexed and conjoined in pairle, proper, 

garnished and spurred or, (Plate XXV., fig. 2.) 

The figure in these arms is more probably that of 

S. German US, who was left as Bishop in Man by 

S. Patrick, in 447. The pillars are only the remains 

of the architectural canopy under which on the ancient 

seals the effigy of the bishop, or patron saint, was 

placed. {See the Seals of Bishops MARK, 1275, JOHN, 

1408, etc.. Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., Nos. 2529-2531.) 

The See originally included the Hebrides, as well as 
the island of MAN. The old Xorsc name for the 
Hebrides was the Sudreys, or Sudreyar, the southern 
islands; and from this word is derived the title of SODOR, 
which is still retained, although the Hebrides now form the 
Scottish diocese of "THE IsLES," having been separated 
from Man for some centuries. While under Norwegian 

( 197 ) 

rule the See was suffragan to the Archbishop of 
NiDAROS or Trondhjem, by whom the bishops were 
for the most part consecrated from the time of the 
erection of the Metropolitan See of NiDAROS in 1154 
up to about the middle of the fourteenth century. The 
Archbishop of YORK, however, always protested that 
Man was under his jurisdiction, and sometimes conse- 
crated the Bishop up to 1 226. (See The Chronicle of Man — 
Chronica Regum Mannice et Insularuvi, edited by Professor 
Munch, Christiania, i860.) ALEXANDER of Scotland 
subdued Man in 1266; in 13 14 it became subject to the 
crown of England, and Edward 1 1 1. gave the title of King 
of Man to MoNTACUTE, Earl of Salisbury. In 1341 
the Earl of Northumberland had this dignity, but on 
his attainder King Henrv IV. granted it to Sir JOHN 
Stanley. It was long held by the Earls of Derby, 
from whom it came by descent to the Duke of Atholl 
in 1735. From him the Sovereign rights were purchased 
by the State in 1765 ; and^all claims on the revenue, etc., 
were extinguished by a further payment in 1829. The 
Bishop of Sodor and M.\N has a seat, but no vote, in the 
House of Lords, because the Isle of Man has a separate 
legislature of its own in which the Bishop has a share. The 
jurisdiction of the See consists only of the Isle of MAN. 


Or^ a fleur-de-lis azure^ on a chief of the saitic, three 
celestial crowns of the first (Plate XX\\, fig. 5). 

The arms of the See (created in 1888) are based on 
the arms of the city of WAKEFIELD which are : Azure, 
a fleur-de-lis or. 

The jurisdiction of the See comprises parts of the 
West Riding of Yorkshire. 

** Suffragan Bishops " (or Chorepiscopi), appointed 
under the Acts, 26 Henry VIII., and i Elizabeth, 
use only their personal arms, ensigned with the mitre. 

( 198 ) 

Arms of English Deaneries. 

Canterbury. Azure ^ on a cross argent, tlie monogravi 
i sable, 

London. Tlie anus of the See ; in chief the letter D or. 

Winchester. The arms of tlu See, in chief the letter 
V> or. 

Bangor. Argent, an abbot in pontificals proper, 

Bristol. Sable {but ? Asure), three open croivns in 
pale or (v. p. 177). 

Chichester. In 1422 the seal of the Dean and 
Chapter ad causas bears the figure of the Saviour, as 
in the arms of the See, but between the Greek 
letters a and a In 1428 and 1523 these are omitted, 
but the Saviour holds an open book {Cat. of Seals 
in Brit. Mus., Nos. 1473, 1469, and 1478). 

Ely. Gules, three keys erect or. In S. Andrew's 
Church, Ely {if. Gent. Mag, April i860). Brass to 
Dean Tyndall, Ely Cathedral. Glass in East 
window, S. Andrew's Church, Cambridge. Seal of 
Patrick, fifteenth century {B. Mus. Cat., No. 1585). 

Exeter. Azure, a stag's head caboshed, between the 
lioms a cross path-fitcMe argent {vide ante, p. 55.) 

Gloucester. Argent, three c/ievrons gules between ten 

Hereford. Gules, five chevrons or {Cat. of Seals, B. 
Mus., Nos. 161 8, 1620). 

Lichfield. The arms of the See, on the cross the letter 
D sable. 

Lincoln. The arms of tlu See, in chief the letter D or. 

Norwich. Argent, a cross sable. 

Peterborough. Gules, two swords in saltirc, beticeen 
four crosses patdes argent {B. Mus, Cat., No. 2144). 

Salisbury. The arms of the See, t/ie letter D in chief. 

St. David's. The arms of tlie See, but with reversed 
tinctures {z'. p. 1 87). 

( 199 ) 

Wells. Probably, Azure, a saltire or, only (as on tomb 
' of Dean HusEE in 1305); but the keys of S. PETER, 
and the sword of S. Paul are generally placed erect 
in either flank {cf, the arms of the See, p. 176, ante.^ 

Worcester. The arms of the See, and(?)^« a cantongules 
the Blessed Virgin with t/ie Holy Child proper, 

York. The modern arms of the See, but with a mitre in 
chief or. Gules, two keys addorsed argent, between in 
chief a royal crown, or ; in base and flanks three 
plates, (These may possibly be Hosts. See the 
elaborate work on the Heraldry of York Minster, by 
Dean PuREY-CusT.) 

Durham. A rms of the See, with the letter D sable in centre. 

Carlisle. Argent, a cross sable (?). 

RiPON. Argent, on a saltire gules the letter D of the field. 

Arms of Certain Ecclesiastical Foundations. 
The Chapel-Roval of S. George at Windsor. 

The arms of the Order of the Garter, viz. : Argent, a 

S. George's cross gules. The shield is encircled 

by the blue Garter, with its motto — '' Honi soit 

qui mal y pense!' 

The See of Westminster (1540-1550). (Now often 

used for the Abbey.) 

Asure, the reputed arms of Edward the Confessor, 
viz. : A cross patonce between five martlets or, on a 
chief of the same, between two double roses of 
Lancaster and York, barbed and seeded proper, a 
pale charged with the Royal arms (viz., Quarterly 
of France and England). 
The Abbey of Westminster (modern). 

Azure, on a chief indented or, the head of a pastoral 
staff and a mitre gules. 

The Collecje of Middleham. 

The Royal Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. ENGLAND ; 2. 

Francp:-ancient ; 3. Ireland. 

( 200 ) 

The Chapel-Royal, Savoy. 

Argent, on a cross gules an ostrich featlur, its escroll of 
the first thereon tlu motto iclt dim, between in chief a 
sword, in base a fleur-de-lis above an ink-moline, in 
dexter flank a house, and in sinister flank a lion pass- 
ant, ail or. On a chief paly of four azure and of the 
second a P aschal- Lamb couchant proper, between two 
bezants, each ensigned with an Imperial crown, and 
charged with a double rose ofY OKK and LA^iCASTEli. 
This escucheon is supported on the breast of an 
eagle displayed sable, quilled, beaked, and crowned 
with an Imperial crown, or. (N.B. — The eagle 
should not be placed in an escucheon, it supports 
the shield by the guige held in its beak.) 


At the creation of the four Archbishoprics of Armagh, 
Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam, by the Synod of Kells 
in 1 1 5 1- 1 1 52, Ireland had thirty-two dioceses. The inde- 
pendence of the Irish Church was acknowledged at this 
Synod ; and the jurisdiction previously claimed by the 
Archbishop of CANTERBURY over Ireland was given up. 

In later times several of the Sees were held together. 
At the time of the passing of the " Church Temporalities 
Act" in 1833, there were four Archbishoprics and 
eighteen Bishoprics existing. But by that Act the 
Archbishops of Cashel and TUAM were to be abolished 
on the decease of the then Archbishops, and the number 
of the Suffragan Sees was similarly to be reduced to ten 
by the union of certain of them to other existing Sees. 

The Irish Church was disestablished bv Act of Parlia- 
ment in 1871, and since then the Bishopric of Clogher 
has been restored as a separate See, having been sepa- 
rated in 1886 from Armagh, to which it had been 
united on the death of Lord ROBERT TOTTENHAM, in 
1850, according to the provisions of the Act of 1833. 

( 20I ) 

It must be noted that most, if not all, of the arms at 
present used for the Irish Sees are of Post-Reformation 
assumption ; most of the old Irish Episcopal seals bear 
simply the eflfigy of the Bishop, or of the Patron saints 
of the diocese (v. ante, p. 171). 

A RM AG H. Archbishopric. 

Suffragan Sees: — Meath ; Clogiier ; Derry and 
Raphoe ; Down, Connor, and Dromore ; Kilmore, 
Elphin, and Ardagh ; Tuam, Killala, and 


Dublin. Archbishopric 

Suffragan Sees : — OSSORY, FERNS, and Leighlin ; 
Casiiel, Emly, Waterford, and Lismore ; CORK, 
Cloyne, and Ross ; Killaloe, Kilfenora, Clon- 
FERT, and KiLMACDUAGii ; Limerick, Akdfert, and 


Azure, an Episcopal staff in pale argent, ensigned ivitli a 
cross patt^e or, sunnounted by a pall-tJirougJiout 
argent, edged and fringed gold, charged with four 
crosses formce-fitcht'es sable (Plate XXVI., fig. i). 

It will be seen that these arms are identical with those 
of Canterbury. The seal of Archbishop OcTAViAN 
DE Palatio (1480-1513) {see Ware's Irish Bishops, 
sub voce) bears two shields ; one charged with two keys 
in sal tire, which was probably borne for the See ; the 
other bearing a fess, perhaps the personal arms of the 

The See was founded by S. Patrick about the year 
444, and became archi-episcopal under Bishop Gelasius, 
who received the pallium from Pope EUCJENIUS IV. in 
II 52. The Archbishop is "Primate of ail Ireland." 
The office of Prelate of the most Illustrious ORDER OF 

( 202 ) 

S. Patrick was attached to the See on its institution in 
1783 ; and the light blue ribbon of that Order, with its 
motto ** Quts separabtty' placed round the archi-episcopal 
arms, served as a sufficient difference from the arms of 
the Archbishopric of CANTERBURY. Since the dis- 
establishment of the Irish Church the office of Prelate 
of the Order of S. Patrick has ceased. 


Sable, three mitres argent, two and one (Plate XXVI., 

fig- 3). 
This diocese is composed of several ancient Sees 

(Trim, Kells, Ardbraccan, Slane, etc.), which were 

consolidated with the Bishopric of Clonard before 1 152. 

Clonard was founded by St. FiNlAN as a school 
of the prophets about the year 520, but, though Ware 
calls him Bishop, it is probable that he was only of 
Abbatial rank. To the Bishopric of Clonari) the Sees 
of Kells and Dulef:k were afterwards conjoined. The 
three mitres may thus be allusive to these three Sees. 

The field of these arms has sometimes been tinctured 
vert {see Kent's Banner Displayed, p. 578). Ware blazons 
the arms : Sapphire {asure) three mitres with labels Topaz 
{or) but his cut is sable, {Irish Bishops, p. 135.) 

The Bishop of Meath has precedence over all Irish 
Bishops, and the title of ** Most Reverend " is borne by 
him as a mark of this dignity. The Bishopric of Clan- 
MACNOIS, founded by S. KlARAN (a pupil with 
S. COLUMBA of S. FiNIAN at Clonard), but in his 
time (he died in 549) probably only an Abbacy, was 
united to Meath in 1568. 


Azure, a Bisliop seated in full pontificals proper, in the 
act of benediction, and holding his pastoral staff in 
the left hand (Plate XXVI., fig. 5). 



6. Cork. Cloyiie, an<l Rom. 

( 203 ) 

This is probably a survival of the device on the old 
Episcopal seal, and not properly speaking a heraldic 
charge. {See my remarks on pages 216, 217.) The 
See, united to Armagh in 1850, was restored to a 
separate existence in 1886. It was originally founded 
by S. Macartin (?) who was a disciple of S. PATRICK, 
and died in 506. 

Derry and Raphoe. 

Gules y two swords in saltire proper, the hilts in base or ; 
on a chief \,h^ arms of IRELAND : azure, a harp or, 
stringed argent, Derrv. 

Ermine, a chief per pale azure and or ; the first charged 
with a sun in splendour of the last ; the second with 
a cross patt^e gules, Raphoe. 

These coats are usually borne impaled (Plate XXVII., 
fig. 1). 

In the last edition of BURKE's General Armory, 1878, 
the ancient arms of the See of Derry are said to have 
been a church p7'oper. This appears to be only the remains 
of the architectural porch, or canopy, under which the 
bishop, or patron saint, was represented on ancient seals. 
Sable, three mitres or, were the arms confirmed to the 
Sec by Carney, " Ulster ; " but, apparently in conse- 
quence of their similarity to those of Meath, Bishop 
King, of Derry (1690-1702) had the arms changed to 
those at present borne. 

The second half of the chief of Raphoe is often 
blazoned argent, but I now think wrongly. Ware in his 
[rish Bishops, p. 269, makes this \\?\{ gules and the charge 
or in his blazon, but his cut is correctly as above. 

The Sec of Derry was originally founded at Ard- 
kr.vtii, but was removed to Maghera, and thence in 
1 158 to Derry, where the Abbot Flaithhheartach is 
said to have built the Cathedral in 1 164. and to have 
been consecrated Bishop. 

( 204 ) 

The See of Raphoe, united to Derry in 1834, appears 
to have been founded before the close of the ninth century, 
as in 885 MOEL Brigid, its Bishop, was translated to 


Down, Connor, and Dromore. 

A en re, two keys in sal tire the wards in chief or, stir- 
mounted in the f ess point by a lamb passant proper 


Argent y two keys in sal tire the wards in chief, gules ; 
surmounted by an open book in fess proper, between 
two crosses patt^es-fitc/i/es in pale sable. Dromore. 

These arms are usually borne quartered (Plate XXVI I.» 
fi^r. 2). 

The See of Down, of uncertain foundation, was 
restored by St. Malachi I. (Morgair), who resigned the 
Archbishopric of ARMAGH in 1134, to become Bishop of 
Down. It was enlarged by John I)E Courcv, the 
Conqueror of Ulster, in 1 183. He substituted regular 
Monks of the Benedictine Order from the Abbey of 
S. Werburgh at Chester for the secular Canons, and 
dedicated the church to S. PATRICK, instead of the Holy 
Trinity. The tomb of S. PATRICK was in the Cathedral ; 
and to it, according to COLGAN, the bodies of S. BRIDGET 
and S. COLUMHA were afterwards brought. {See also 
Bishop Reeves, Ecclesiastical Antiquities of DOWN and 

Connor, p. 224.) 

The See of CONNOR, having been united to DOWN 
in 1441, long before armorial bearings were used on 
the seals of Irish Bishops, has no special arms of 
its own. 

On an old seal found in 1789 in the County of Clare, 
is thefigure of theBlcssed Virgin Marv and the Holy Child. 
Under this is the bust of the Bishop, and at the foot is a 
shield charged with a cross between four quatrefoils. 
The legend reads ; " Sigillu . . . enecs (?) dci. gra. 

( 205 ) 

dromorenc. epi. ;*' probably it was the seal of Bishop 
Florence, Mac Donegan (1309- 1369) (?) 

The arms given above for Dromore were borne by 
Bishop Lambert (1717-1726); but Bishop Maule 
(173 1- 1 744) used : Argent y sein^ of trefoils slipped vert, 
a cross patee gules ; on a chief azure the sun in splendour 
or (Sometimes the trefoils are in orle only.) Dromore 
was annexed to DOWN and CoNNOR in 1842. It was 
founded by S. COLMAN, circa 556. Bishop JEREMV 
Taylor held it with Down and Connor (1661-1667). 

KiLMORE, Elphin, and Ardagh. 

Argent y on a cross azure a pastoral staff enfiling a mitre y 
all or. KiLMORE. 

SablCy two pastoral staves in saltire or, in base a lamb 
couchant argent, Elphin. 

Or, a cross gules between four trefoils slipped vert, on a 
chief sable a key erect of the first. Ardagh. 

These arms are usually combined thus. The shield 
Per f ess, in chief KiLxMORE ; in base. ELPHIN impaling 
Ardagh. (Plate XXVI I., fig. 4.) 

In consequence of the ignorance of painters and 
engravers, and of a laxity with regard to the proper 
registration of changes in Episcopal arms in " Ulster's" 
office, there is very considerable difficulty in deter- 
mining the correct blazon of the arms of the Irish 
Sees, and this is the case with regard to all of the three 
coats above given. The bishops varied their arm^ at 
pleasure. With regard to KiLMORE I have adhered to 
the blazon I gave in my original volume, and have made 
the cross azure (although in the last edition of Burke's 
General A nnory \ find it blazoned sable). In so doing 
I have followed Archbishop Beresford's opinion, and 
the arms arc thus represented in old Peerages, etc. 
I have in my possession a letter from the Lord Primate 
Archbishop Beresfori) to the Bishop of KiLMORE ; as 


( ^o6 ) 

follows : " My dear Lord, — In Ware's Bishops the arms 
both of Ardagh and KiLLALOE are given as somewhat 
different from what they now are. Instead of five they 
have only one trefoil Emerald in each quarter. In 
KiLLALOE the cross is Ruby, in Ardagh Sapphire. 
The cross of KiLMORE is Sapphire. The arms were 
changed by Bishop Godwin (1713-1727), before that 
KiLMORE bore, Pearl, a cross Ruby between twenty 
trefoils slipped Emerald,^ Of KiLLALOE and Ardacjh 
the arms now appear to be the same. — Yrs. truly, 
M. G. Arm.\gh." 

The beautiful seal of Thom.\S, Bishop of Elphin 
( 1 581), the matrix of which is now in the Royal Irish 
Academy, bears the then arms of the See : . . . three 
mitres, two and one ... In the General Armor}' in 
1878, a mitre is placed in chief above the pastoral staves ; 
but this appears to be quite a modern addition. With 
regard to Ardagh I have departed from my former 
blazon in favour of that given in the General Armory. 
l(**Arma sunt distinguendi causa*' it is surely undesir- 
able that there should be duplicate bearings in so small 
a group as that formed by the arms of the Irish Episco- 
pate, though I doubt whether the arms given by Sir 
Bernard Burke after the disestablishment had any- 
thing of official authority. In any case it would be 
better that ARDAGH and KiLLALOE should not have 
identical bearings. ( Vide infra, p. 214.) 

The See of Ardagh is said to have been founded by 
S. Patrick about the year 450. The See was united to 
that of KiLMORK at the Restoration of CHARLES II. in 
the year 1660. In 1692 the Sees were again separated, 
and Bishop BuRCill was appointed to ARDAGH,but as he 
died very shortly after, the See was in the same year re- 
united to KiLMORE. Ardagh was disjoined in 1742, 
and was held in comviendam by the Archbishop of Tu.\M 
> See Seal of Bishop Wetenh.\ll (1699-1713). 

PLATS xxrii. 

5. Umeriek. G. Onoi7, Fenu, and Leighlin. 

( 207 ) 

until 1 84 1, when it went back to KiLMORE. The See of 
KiLMORE was at first near a place called Brefine ; but 
in 1454 Bishop Andrew MacBradv, "Bishop of 
Triburna " erected the Cathedral and from it, the 
KiLMORE or great church, the See took its name. The 
See of Elphin is one cf those which claim S. PATRICK 
as its founder, but its early history is unknown. It 
was united to KiLMORE and Ardagh in the year 

Tuam, Killala, and ACHONRV. 

Azure, beneath a triple architectural canopy three figures, 

in tlie centre the Blessed Virgin Mary holding in her 

anus the Holy Child, between on the dexter the figure 

of a Bishop (S. Jarlath) in pontificalibus and in 

the act of benediction ; and on the sinister S. JOHN 

supporting with his left arm a lamb argent, each in 

proper vestments or, the hands, feet, and faces 


Here again is evidently a reproduction of the old 

unheraldic Episcopal seal to which allusion has frequently 

been made. At present no other coat is borne. (Plate 

XXVIII., fig. I.) ACHONRY has never had any arms. 

Those of the See of KiLLALA, are : Gules, a crosier, or 

pastoral staff, in pale, over it in the fess point an open 

book all proper (Plate XXVIII., fig. 2). The tincture of 

the field in this coat is frequently represented azure. 

The See of TuAM is reputed to have been founded by 
S. Jarlath early in the sixth century, and to him the 
Cathedral was dedicated. The See of Mavo founded 
by S. Gerald, a monk of Lin disk arne about 668 was 
annexed to TUAM in the year 1559. 

TuAM was raised to the dignity of an Archbishopric 
in the tw-elfth century, and Edan O'Hoisin received 
the pallium from Cardinal Paparo, the Papal Legate, in 
the year 1 152; but it is probable that some of his prede- 

( 2o8 ) 

ccssors had already held the dignity without receiving 
the pall. The Archbishop was Primate of CoN NAUGHT. 
In 1839 TUAM ceased to be an Archi-episcopal See, 
and the Diocese of Ardagh reverted, as has been stated 
before, to its old sister See of KlLMORE. The United 
See of Kill ALA and AciioXRV was then joined to 
Tuam : an union which continues. The Sec of KiLLALA 
was founded by S. Patrick, who, about the year 440, 
made his disciple MURIKKH its first Bishop, The 
Diocese of AcHONRY is of uncertain foundation, but the 
Church of AciL\r), its old name, seems to have been 
founded by S. FiNlAN of Clonard {q.v.). The old 
Bishops were often called Bishops of LiNV from the 
Baron V in which AcHONRV was situated. MiLER 
Macgratm, Archbishop of Casiiel, who had been a 
Franciscan monk, was made Archbishop of Cash EL in 
J 57 1 t)y Queen Elizaheth, and held in commendam the 
Sees of AcHOXRV and Knj.ALA from 1607 ""til his 
death in 1622. Thereafter the last-named two Sees 
remained united until in 1834, when they were united to 
Tuam, by the provisions of the Clinrcli Temporalities Act. 


Azure^ an Episcopal staff in pale argent en signed with a 

cross patt^c or, over all a pall-througliont argent^ 

bordered and fringed or , thereon five crosses pat/es 

fitchces sable (Plate XXVI., fig. 2). 

These arms are only distinguished from those of 

Canteruurv and Armagh by the number of the 

crosses patties. Sometimes as a slight difference the 

staff of Dublin is all or. Until the disestablishment 

of the Irish Church the Archbishop (who has the title of 

Primate of Ireland) was Chancellor of the Order oe 

St. Patrick, and surrounded his arms with the ribbon 

and motto of the Order {v. ante, p. 201). This office is 

now held by the Chief Secretary for Ireland. 

( 209 ) 

The See of KiLDARE was united to DUBLIN in 1846. 
Its arms are : Argent^ a saltire engrailed gules on a chief 
azure, an open book proper, (The text thereon is " The 
Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by 
Jesus Christ" (John, i., 17), but usually the shield 
blazoned is too small in size for these words to be legible.) 

The arms appear on the seal of Bishop COBBE (1731- 
1742). On the seal of Bishop Lank, in 1495, one shield 
bears a pastoral staff and key in saltire, presumably for 
the See. The saltire is sometimes blazoned sable, but 
erroneously. The saltire of the FiTZGERALDS of 
KiLDARE is gules ; and probably that of the See is 
related to it. 

The See of DUBLIN was founded by S. PATRICK in, 
or about, the year 448, and was raised to the rank of an 
Archbishopric in the year 11 52, at the same time as 
Armagh, Cashel, and Tuam. The Sec of Glanda- 
LAGH, founded by S. Kevin early in the seventh century, 
was united to Dublin in 1214; and that of Kildare, 
as mentioned above, in 1846. KiLDARE is said to have 
been founded about the close of the fifth century. The 
Cathedral was dedicated to S. Bridget, who received 
the veil at KiLDARE from S. PATRICK in the year 
467, and who founded a nunnery here before 484. 
It is doubtful when the regular succession of Bishops 

OssoRY, Ferns and Leighlin. 

Azure, a Bishop in pontificals betweeii two pillars 

argent, in his left liand a pastoral staff, in his 

right a closed book, the Bible, or. OssORY. 
{Gules) a ciborium, or closed chalice, between five crosses 

patt'es fitch^es or, FERNS. 
Sable, two pastoral staves addorsed in saltire surmounted 

on the f ess point by a mitre or. LEIGHLIN. 

There is considerable doubt with regard to these coats 

( 210 ) 

(Plate XXVII., fig. 6). That attributed to OssORY is 
obviously derived from the old unheraldic Episcopal seal, 
and the columns (as in the case of SODOR and Man, 
antiy p. 196), are the remains of the architectural canopy. 
The coat given above seems to have been quite dis- 
used in modern times, and was only resumed by Bishop 
Walsh in 1887, or ^888. The second coat with the 
tincture gules, is assigned to OssORY as its modern 
arms in BURKE's General Armory ; but I think on no 
better authority than that of Ware, whose cuts and 
blazons are seldom in accord. Ware gives, Azure, two 
keys in sal tire and in fess point a mitre or, for Ferns ; 
and says that no arms have been borne for LEIGH LIN 
since the union of the Sees. 

But on the seal of Bishop Maguire of Ferns (1490- 
15 12), beside the Annunciation, two angels support a 
chalice and host in chief, and I am not sure at all that 
here we may not have the origin of the ciborium; or 
that I am wrong in attributing the coat in which it 
appears to Ferns. The idea that the ciborium is 
a cup assumed from the BuTLER arms seems to 
me void of any probability. The seal of Bishop 
Comyn of Ferns (1509- 15 19), bears two shields, 
one of which is charged with a key and pastoral staff 
in saltire. Mr MACKENZIE Walcot gives the arms of 
Leighlin as I have blazoned them ; and attributes to 
Ferns, Azure, two keys in saltire surmounted by a mitre 
(Jn fess point) argent. 

By this time the reader is in a position to understand 
the force of my remark on p. 205. I do not expect my 
own blazons to escape criticism ; but there is absolutely 
no certainty attainable, and those given are probably as 
correct as any others which exist. 

The See of OssORY was founded before the coming of 
S. Patrick ; probably about the year 400. It was at 
first situated at Saiger, and in the eleventh century 

( 211 ) 

was removed to Aghavoe, and thence to KILKENNY. 
The united diocese of Ferns and Leighlin was joined 
to OssoK^Y in the year 1835. Ferns and Leighlin 
were united in the year 1600. The early history of 
the See of Ferns is obscure, but Leighlin is said to 
have been founded as early as 628. 

Cashel, Emly, Waterfori), and Lismore. 

Gules^ two keys addorsed in saltire, t/ie wards in chief 

or. Cashel. 

A sure, a Bisliop in pontificals holding before him a 
crucifix argent y tliereon tlie figure of the Redeemer 
proper (sometimes the whole is Or\ Water- 
FORD. (Plate XXVI., fig. 4.) 

There can be no doubt whatever that the coat given 
for Waterfori) is derived from a not uncommon way 
of representing the Ever - Blessed Trinity, such as 
occurs on the Seal of the Priory of the Blessed 
Trinity, DUBLIN, as w^ell as on many Scottish Seals: 
— the Eternal Father seated, in front of Him the 
crucified Son ; the Holy Spirit overshadowing both. 
(^See Did RON, Iconographie Christ ienne, vol. ii., pp. 69-72. 
Bohn's Edition.) The dedication of WATERFORI) 
Cathedral is to the Trinity. Bishop TRENCH in 
1 802, changed the position of the " Bishop from the 
sitting to the standing posture." Bishop Fry of 
Waterford (1691-1707) had a grant of these arms: 
Vert, two keys in saltire or, betiveen in chief a lion 
passant gardant argent ; in the dexter flank a bible 
open ; in the sinister an annulet of the second, and in 
base six cloven tongues proper. These were not used 
after 1802. Bishop TRENCH resumed the older and 
simpler bearings. 

No arms are used for Emly (united to CASHEL in 
1568) ; or for LiSMORE (united to Waterford in 1363). 
Archbishop Edmund Butler (1527-1550) natural son 


( 212 ) 

of the Earl of Ormonde, bore on his seal a pastoral 
staff and cross in saltire, for Cashel. (On the seal of 
the Bishop of Emlv in 1 380, one of the shields bears a 
plain cross.) 

The date of the foundation of the See of Casiiek. 
and the succession of its early Bishops, are shrouded in 
great obscurity. It became an Archbishopric in 11 52. 
and the Primacy of MuNSTER belonged to it. The See 
of Emlv, which claimed S. Patrick as its founder, was 
united to it in 1568 ; and the conjoined Seesof Watek- 
FORD and LiSMORE were added by the provisions of the 
Church Temporalities Act, Of these Sees LiSMORE was 
founded in the former half of the seventh century, and 
included the ancient Bishopric of Ardmore. But 
Waterford does not appear to have been the seat of a 
Bishop until towards the close of the eleventh centur)*. 
Waterford and Lismore were united, under Bishop 
Thomas le Neve of Waterford, in the year 


Cork, Clovne, and Ross. 

Argent, a cross pat^e gules, thereon a mitre enfiling a 

pastoral staff or, CoRK. 
Azure, a mitre proper labelled or, between three crosses 

pat^es fitchces argent. Cloyne. 
These arms are generally borne on a shield divided 
per fess ; CORK /;/ r///>/, Clovne in base (Plate XXVI., 

fig- 4). 

No arms are borne for the See of Ross, which was 

united to CORK in 1582-1583. 

The cross in the arms of CoRK appears rather to be a 

plain cross coupt^ zuith the ends pate'es. This cross seems 

to be intended for that of the Templars. The lands of 

their preceptory of S. JOHN in CORK were incorporated 

with the Cathedral lands for choral purposes. On the 

quartered arms of Bishop STEPHEN BROWN of Ross in 

( 213 ) 

I402, a mitre appears as a charge, and Dr CaulFIELD 
suggests that this is the origin of the mitre on the cross 
of Cork. {See Dr CaulfieliVs paper in The Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Historical and Archceological Association 
of Ireland, 4th S., vol. ii., p. 329, 1875.) 

The date of the establishment of the See of Ross is 
doubtful, but it appears to have originated in a monastery 
founded by St. Fachnau, or Fachtna (who may have 
been of the Episcopal order) in the Isle of Dar Enis 
near Youghal, and who probably died about the close of 
the sixth century. 

The See was united under Bishop WiLLlAM Lyon in 
1583, to the conjoined Sees of CORK and Clovne. Of 
these Clovne is said to have been founded by St. Col- 
MAN, a follower of S. FiNBAR, Bishop of Cork, at the close 
of the sixth century. In 1430 Cork and Clovne were 
united under Bishop JORDAN, and remained so until 
1638. During this period of Union Ross was added, as 
above stated, but in 1678 CLOVNE was disjoined and 
remained a separate See until 1835 when it was once 
more united to Cork and Ross. As to Cork, the 
foundation of the See is attributed to S. FiNBAR (or 
FiNNBHAR, otherwise Barry), whose Christian name 
was LocilAN, and who established a school at Corcach- 
Mohr of Munster, the " marshy place where Cork now 
stands." After an Episcopate of seventeen years he died 
in 630, or 633 (Bishop FoRBKS, article in the Dictionaty 
of Christian Biography). 


Argent^ a cross azure (or guies) between four {or twelve) 
trefoils slipped vert, on a chief of the second a key 
in pale or. K ILLALOK. 

Azure, two pastoral staves addorsed in saltire or, 

( "4 ) 

Argent y a rose gules barbed and seeded proper ^ on a 
chief sable three mullets or. KiLFENORA. (Plate 
XXVII., fig. 3.) 

The arms generally used at present are arranged thus : 
Per f ess ; in r///r/'KlLLALOK, in base Clonfert. I do 
not know why KlLFENOR.\ is omitted. No arms are 
known for KlLMACDUACH, which was united to CLON- 
FERT in 1602. 

The arms borne by Bishop WiTTER of KiLLALOE 

(1669- 1 674) were: Quarterly, i and 4. . . . rz 

chevron {gules) betiueen three crescents . . . ; 

2 and 3. . . . on a salt ire engrailed . . . five 


Dr CaulfielI) suggests that the last quartering may 
be the true arms of the See, since on a chapter seal of 
1697 the charge is a plain saltire coupt^ . . . thereon 
five fleurs-de-lis. The former identity of the arms of 
KiLLALOE with those of Ardagii has been already 
noticed {ante p. 205). But in 17 13- 17 16 Bishop Carr 
bore tlie red cross between four trefoils, and thus avoided 
confusion. In 1839 Bishop TONSON used three tre- 
foils in each canton ; but in 1801 the seal of the 
Dean and Chapter reverts to the type of Bishop 
Carr. In the last edition of Burke's General 
Armory the tincture of the cross has been changed to 

The Sec of KiLLALOE is said to have been founded 
by S. MOLNA as a monastery over which he pre- 
sided ; and he was succeeded by his pupil St. 
Flannan, who obtained the Episcopal dignity, being 
consecrated at Rome by Pope Joiix in 639. He is 
called Episcoptis Luanensis, but all this appears only x^vy 
doubtful. The ancient See of ROSCREA, which is said 
to have arisen in the seventh century, was joined to 
KiLLALOE about the close of the twelfth. The See of 
KiLFENORA, as to the foundation of which we know 



( 215 ) 

nothing with certainty (although St. Fachnan, to 
whom the Cathedral is dedicated, may have been its 
founder), was held in covimendam by the Archbishops of 
TUAM after 1660 until its union with KiLLALOE. The 
See of Clonfert grew out of an abbey founded there 
in 558 by St. Brendan, who probably was its first 
bishop, though that honour is sometimes attributed to 
St. Moena, who died in 571. The See of Kilmac- 
DUAGH, founded by S. COLMAN in the seventh century, 
was held in commendam by Bishop ROBERT LYNCH 
after his translation to Clonfert in 1602, and never 
again had a separate existence. 

Limerick, Ardfert, and Aghadoe. 

Azure, two keys endorsed in sal tire tlie wards upwards ; 
in the dexter chief a crozier paleways, in the sinister 
a mitre, all or, LiMERlCK. (Plate XXVI I.» 

fig. 3.) 
The arms were thus borne by Bishop SMYTH in 1695. 

The blazon given in BURKE's General Armory \^ slightly 
different ; the keys are there described as being in base ; 
an arrangement by which more room is made in chief for 
the other charges. No arms are recorded for the other 

The Cathedral, and probably the See, of LiMERiCK 
had as founder DONALD O'Brien, about the commence- 
ment of the twelfth century. At the beginning of the 
next century the old See of In is SCALLERY founded by 
S. Patrick, or at least a portion of it, was united to 
Waterford. The Sees of Ardfert and Aghadoe, 
which had been combined from very ancient times, were 
handed over to LiMERiCK in 1667. Aghadoe near 
KiLLARNEY, had an ancient Cathedral, dedicated to 
S. Finnan, of which some remains are still extant. 
Ardfert was formerly known as the Bishopric of 

( 2i6 ) 


There are fourteen Sees in Scotland which are now 
governed by seven Bishops : ABERDEEN, Argyll, 
Brechin, Caithness, Dunblane, Dunkeld, Edin- 
burgh, Galloway, Glasgow, The Isles, Moray. 
Orkney, Ross, St. Andrews. These are thus united : 
Aberdeen and Orkney ; Brechin ; Argyll and 
The Isles j Edinburgh ; Glasgow and Galloway : 
Moray, Ross, and Caithness; St. Andrews, Dun- 
keld, and Dunblane. 

The Archbishop of York formerly claimed primatial 
authority over the Scottish Bishops (the province of 
York certainly extended to the Forth, as the kingdom 
of Northumbria did ; and since the churches of Lothian 
were under the See of St. Andrews, as those of Teviot- 
dale were claimed by the See of Glasgow, there was so 
far some ground for the assertion of supremacy by the Sec 
of York (Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii.), but this ceased 
when the Sees of St. Andrew's and Glasgow were 
raised to the archi -episcopal rank in 1470 and 1491 
respectively. The Papal Bull of Innocent III. which 
acknowledged the independence of the Scottish Church 
names only nine Sees, no mention is made of Argyll, 

The Isles, Edinburgh, Galloway, and Orkney. 
Argyll was at that time included in Dunkeld; Edin- 
burgh was not founded; GALLOWAY (or Whitherne) 
was suflFragan to YORK ; while Orkney and The Isles 
yielded obedience to the Norwegian See of NiDAROS, or 
Trondhjem. The adherence of the bishops and clerg)^ 
to the House of Stuart resulted in the formal abolition of 
Episcopacy in Scotland by WiLLIAM of Oran(;e ; but in 
spite of Penal Laws (which made the assembly of more 
than five Episcopalians for worship an offence punishable, 
on the first conviction by imprisonment, and if repeated 
by transportation) the old attachment to the Church was 

( 217 ) 

not extinguished in considerable districts, and the Sees 
above-named have (with the exception of ARGYLL and 
The Isles), retained a regular succession since the early 
part of the eighteenth century, although the dioceses 
have been from time to time diflFerently arranged. 

The arms of the Sees, like those of the Irish dioceses 
and of the Sees of the old foundation in England, 
originated for the most part in simple assumption. The 
successive occupants of the Sees varied the figures upon 
their seals at pleasure, and several of the coats now used 
can scarcely be said to belong to the Sees. 

Before the Reformation the seals of British and Irish 
Bishops bore at first only the figure of the Bishop in ponti- 
ficals, and in the act of benediction. In process of time to 
this was added a representation of the Blessed Trinity, or 
of the patron saints of the Bishop and his Cathedral church. 
These were usually arranged under an elaborate architec- 
tural canopy, and the Bishop himself was often repre- 
sented kneeling in the base of the vestca-shsLped seal. 

Remains of this canopy, although mutilated almost 
beyond recognition, may be traced in the arms now used 
for the dioceses of SODOR and Man, Moray, and TUAM, 
and in the old arms of OssORV. The present arms of 
the Sec of Waterford are evidently derived from a seal 
which, like those of many of our early Scottish Bishops, 
bore simply a representation of the Ever-Blessed Trinity; 
while the effigies of the saints which appear on the 
present arms of the Sees of Moray, Ross, Galloway, 
Orkney, and The Isles are no doubt remains of the 
custom to which I allude. 

In Scotland, as in Ireland, the arms used upon 
Episcopal seals of a date anterior to the Reformation are, 
ordinarily, the personal arms only of the bishop to whom 
the seal belonged ; and in both countries the arms now 
assigned to, or assumed for, the Sees are for the most 
part of a date posterior to the Reformation. 

( «i8 ) 

Several of the Scottish Episcopal seals of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries bear, however, shields which do 
not contain the personal arms of the bishop ; but which, 
though not regular diocesan arms, were yet obviously 
borne to indicate the territorial district over which his 
authority extended. Thus the seal of Bishop PiLMORE of 
Moray (1326- 1 362) bears two shields, one of the arms of 
Scotland ; the other charged with the arms of the Earldom 
of Moray. (Laing, Scottish SedlSy i., No. 905, p. 506. ) 

The seal of Bishop RociER of Ross ( 1 284- 1 304) has 
two shields of the arms of that Earldom ; and a similar 
arrangement is to be found on the seal of Bishop Alex- 
ander (1357-1370) (Laing, ii., p. 182 ; and i., 161). 

On the seal of Bishop Thomas Murray of Caith- 
ness and The Isles (1348- 1360) are two shields ; one 
of his personal arms, the other charged with a lymphad 
within the Royal Tressure ; this latter Laing assigns ^o 
the Sec of the Isles but I think it much more likely to 
represent Orkney, or Caithness. (Laing, ii., p. 184.) 
In all these cases the arms of the territorial Lordship in 
which the See was situate, are borne as quasi diocesan 
arms ; and this happened when, as was afterwards the 
case, the arms of the temporal Lordship of Brechin 
were assumed as the arms of the See, though the Episcopal 
seal still bore the old representation of the Trinity. It 
was only in the time of Sir Charles Erskine, Lyon 
King of Arms (the framcr of the Act of 1672, by which 
the Lyon Register was made " the unrepeatable rule of 
all arms and bearings in Scotland") that the practice 
was introduced into Scotland by which the arms of the 
See are impaled, according to the custom long obtaining 
in England, with the personal arms of the bishop who 
presided over the diocese. In the Lyon Register in 
1672 the arms of most of the Scottish Sees are recorded 
(it is not stated that a formal grant was given, but the 
previous assumption was authorised). BRECHIN, Aber- 

( 219 ) 

DEEN, and Glasgow, however, do not appear there, and 
the arms used for them were perhaps thought those of 
the cities rather than of the Sees. It seems nearly 
certain that a regular grant was made to Edinhurgh 
on the establishment of that See. 

Aberdeen and Orkney. 

Azure in the porch of a church S. NICOLAS in pon- 
tificals^ his right hand raised over three children 
in a cauldron surrounded by flames ^ in the left hand 
a pastoral staff all proper. Aherdeen. 

Argent, the figure of S. MAGNUS in royal robes, crowned 
and sceptred proper. ORKNEY. (Plate XXVIII.. 

fig- 4.) 

The coat borne of late years for ABERDEEN, origin- 
ated in the seal of that Royal Burgh. The representa- 
tion of S. Nicolas restoring to life the three children 
boiled at Myra, appears on its fine common seal of the 
date 1420. 

It is curious that in the grant, or rather confirmation, 
of arms made to the Royal Burgh of ABERDEEN by Sir 
Chas. Erskine of Cambo, Lyon King of Arms, in 1674, 
the reverse of the seal is ordered to bear : Azure, a 
Temple, Argent, St. Michael (Nicholas) standing in 
the porch mitered and vested propper (sic) with his Dexter 
hand lifted up to Heaven, praying over three children in a 
boyliug cauldron of the first, and holding in the sinister a 
Crozier Or. (In the patent it is " S. Nicholas," Sir 
G. Mackenzie is, therefore, in error, and was copied by 
Seton, Nisbet, Lainc;, and myself) *' Michael" is 
of course a slip of the pen. The " temple " is a vestige 
of the old architectural canopy above the saint. (.SV^' 
the Burgh Seals, engraved in Go\<\)0^'*> '' Description of 
Aberdeen,'' Spalding Club, 1842 ; — and LAlNCi's Scottish 
Seals, vol. i., plate 29.) 

The figure of S. Nicolas appears on a seal appended 

( 220 ) 

to a document in 1357, the legend of the seal being 
** signum beati Nicolai Aberdonensis." S. NICOLAS, as 
the patron saint of sailors, was naturally associated with 
the important seaport of ABERDEEN. In England most 
of the churches dedicated to him are in seaport towns. 
But the figure of S. NICOLAS does not appear on the 
seals of the pre-Reformation Bishops; while the effigy of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Holy Child does 
repeatedly. For this reason the late Bishop SUTHER of 
Aberdeen and Orkney (1857-1883) placed on his seal 
the effigy of the Virgin and Child, and in the base a 
mitred shield of the arms of the city of Aberdeen 
{Gules y three castles triple-towered^ two and one^ within a 
Royal tressurey all argent). 

On the seal which I had the pleasure to design for 
the present Bishop (DoUGLAS) I reverted to the old 
ecclesiastical type, placing the Blessed Virgin and the 
Holy Child in the centre compartment of an architectural 
canopy, the side niches of which have the figures of 
S. COLUMBA, and S. Magnus, who (as on the old Epis- 
copal and other seals) bears a long sword. The Bishop's 
paternal arms are, mitred, in the base of the seal. 

The earliest notice of the See of Aberdeen is found in 
a memorandum in The Book of Deir^ in which the 
refoundation of the Church of Deir by the Mormaer 
of BUCHAN is declared in a charter which is witnessed 
by Nectan, Bishop of ABERDEEN. The tradition 
which placed the Bishop's scat originally at Murthlac 
is only supported by some spurious documents in the 
Chartulary of ABERDEEN ; the date of the removal is 
said to be 1125, which is pretty clearly false. The 
Diocese of ORKNEY was anciently attached sometimes 
to Scotland, sometimes to Norway. In 1396 the Bishop 
of Orkney was present at the coronation at Calmar 
of Eric. King of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The 
See was made suffragan to St. Andrews in 1472. 

( 221 ) 

It was dormant from 1757 to 1864 when it was revived 
and united to Aberdeen. 

Argyll, and The Isles. 

Azure, two pastoral staves addorsed in saltire, beneath a 

mitre in chief, all or, ARGYLL. 
Azure, on waves of the sea in base S, Columba kneeling 
in a coracle (sometimes holding in his hand a 
dove), all proper, and looking towards a blazing 
star in the dexter chief or. The Isles. (Plate 
XXVIII., fig. 5.) 
The arms of Argyll as here given only appear, so far 
as I am aware, on the seal of Bishop ARTHUR Ross 
( 1675- 1679) impaling his personal arms. (Laing, Scottish 
Seals i., p. 169.) 

On the seal of Bishop Andrew Knox of Sudor (/>. 
The Isles) (1606- 1 622)the figure in the boat holds a book- 
in his left hand and points over the sea with his right. 
On that of Bishop Wallace (1661-1669) the bishop is 
rowed in a boat by three men. (Lainc;, i., pp. 169, 170.) 
It has been thought probable that the coat really 
contains the arms used for Man, not for SODOR ; and that 
the saint is S. Mauchold, not S. CoLUMliA, with refer- 
ence to the legend of his committing himself to the 
waves to find a sphere for his mission work under the 
guidance of God. (Baring-Gould, Lives of the Saints, 

I have already spoken of SODOR under the heading of 
SoDOR and Man {ante, p. 196). With regard to Argyll, 
the diocese is said to have been separated from DUN- 
keld in 1200. Dr Skene assents {Celtic Scotland, vol. 
ii., p. 408), but adds that Canon Mylne of DUNKELD 
tells us that the diocese was divided by JOHN "THE 
Scot" elected Bishop of DuNKELD in 1 167. The seat 
of the Bishopric seems to have been at first at MUCKAIRN 
on the south side of Loch Etivc. About 1235 it was 

( 222 ) 

removed to LiSMORE. In 1236 the Bishop of Moray 
received the Papal mandate, directing the separation of 
the Church of LiSMORE from the See of The Isles in 
order that a new bishopric might be formed there, and 
the LiSMORE Cathedral Chapter was created (c. 1249). 
After the Revolution the See of The Isles was united 
to Moray and Ross, but in 1845 was joinei to Argyll. 


Or, three piles in point gules, BRECHIN. (Plate 
XXVIII., fig. 6.) 

In the introductory remarks to these arms of Scottish 
Sees {ante, p. 218), I have mentioned that the arms of 
the See of Brechin are the arms of the temporal Lord- 
ship of that name. They are undoubtedly the arms 
borne by David, Earl of HUNTINGDON (i 199- 12 19), on 
whom his elder brother King WiLLlAM the LlON, con- 
ferred the Lordship of BRECHIN ; and they appear on 
the seals of David, and on that of his legitimate son 
John "le Scot," Earl of Chester (1231-1244). Sir 
David Lindsay's Manuscript of 1542 gives to "The 
Lord Brechin of Old," the coat, " Or three piles gules I' 
the piles not being arranged in point ; but at plate 606, in 
which the arms of the Lordship of BRECHIN are quartered 
by the ErsKINES, the piles are depicted in point. 

David, Earl of Huntingdon and Garioch, gave the 
Lordship of BRECHIN to his natural son Henry, who 
was accordingly styled of that place, and bore the arms. 
Or, three piles in point gules. 

At the forfeiture and execution of his descendant 
David, Lord of Brechin, in 1321, King Robert the 
Bruce gave the Lordship of Brechin to Sir David 
l^ARCLAY who had married a daughter of the forfeited 
lord. From the Barclays the Lordship passed to their 
heirs the Maules of Panmure, who accordingly, 
quartered in their shield the arms of Brechin. 

( 223 ) 

(Douglas, Peerage of Scotland, i., 245; ii., 351.) At 
the latter reference the tincture of the field is errone- 
ously changed from Or to Argent, a change which made 
the coat identical with that borne by the family of 
WiSHART. But NiSBET correctly observes that "the 
similitude of the Lord Brechin's bearing with that of 
the name of WiSEHART has led Sir GEORGE MAC- 
KENZIE " {^Science of Heraldry, p. 3) (and through him 
more recent writers), " into the mistake of calling the 
Lords Brechin the Wisharts . . . whereas none 
of that name ever were concerned with the Lordship of 
Brechin, or used that title." I was therefore quite 
wrong when, in my Introductory Notice of t lie Arms of t/ie 
Episcopates of Great Britain and Ireland, I wrote " The 
arms are those borne by WiSHARTS, formerly lords of 
Brechin." This fact was pointed ou: to me, immedi- 
ately on the publication of my little book, by my dear 
friend and diocesan the late Bishop FORBES, who had 
become convinced of the error into which Sir GEORGE 
Mackenzie's mistake had led us. He had however 
used the Kxvns, Argent, three piles gules, for so long a time 
on his Episcopal seal, and caused them to be carved and 
emblazoned on stained glass, etc., so frequently, that he 
was unwilling himself to revert to the correct blazon, but 
expressed the hope and belief that his successors would 
do so. The older blazon is now pretty frequently used. 
The See of Brechin was founded by King David I. 
towards the end of his reign, about 1 1 50, probably out 
of the remains of the old Pictish See of Abernethy. 
It was in Stratherne, in the northern part of Angus, 
and in the Mearns, that the Pictish population remained 
longest distinct from the Scots. Samson, Bishop of 
Brechin, witnessed the charter granted to the Church 
of Deir in the last year of David's reign. (Skene, Celtic 
Scotland, ii., 396, 397. See also the Book of Deir, edited 
for the Spalding Club, by the late JOHN Stuart, LL.D.) 

( 224 ) 


Azure ^ a saltire argent^ in t/ie centre chief point a mitre 
oftlie last gamislud or (Plate XXIX., fig. i). 

These arms, impaling his personal ones, appear on 
the seal of Bishop Alexander Rose, 1688. (Laing ii , 
170.) The See was founded by King Charles I. in 
1633, ^"d Jts Bishop, as Chancellor of the Metropolitan 
See of St. Andrews, was to have precedence next to 
the two Archbishops. 

The Counties of Peebles, Roxburgh, and Selkirk 
were transferred from the Se<e of Glasgow to that of 
Edinburgh in the year 1888. 

Glasgow and Gallowav. 

Argent^ in base a tree issuing from a mount, an old church 
bell pendant from a bough on the sinister side y on the 
top of the tree a robin ; upon t/ie trunk of tlie tree a 
salmon lying fessways back downwards, all proper, 
liolding in its mouth an annulet or. Glasgow. 
Argent, S. NlNL\N in pontificals, holding a pastoral staff 

proper, Gallowav. (Plate XXIX., fig. 2.) 
The See of Glasgow was founded in the sixth centur}- 
by S. MUNGO, or Kentigern. It was restored by Earl 
Davh), brother of King Alexander, about 1115. In 
the See thus reconstituted was included the district of 
Teviotdale, which had been part of the Diocese of 
Durham. This was one of the grounds upon which 
was based the claim of supremacy made by the Arch- 
bishop of York ; which was firmly resisted. 

The rights of the See of York were, however, admitted 
in the case of the See of Galloway, or Candida Casa, 
which had been founded by the English Kings of North- 
umbria in the eighth century. GALLOWAY, though civilly 
part of Scotland, thus belonged ecclesiastically to England. 
In 1491 Glasgow was raised to the dignity of an Arch- 
bishopric, and Galloway was made suffragan to it. 

r . . 

: V 

(J.-.: 1 


a. DunbUne. 6. St. AndrewB, Dunkelil, Dumbluie. 

( 225 ) 

The arms of the See of Glasgow, are really those of 
the city, and first appear in their present form on the 
seal of Archbishop Cairncross, 1684. His successor 
Archbishop Paterson bore them with the head of 
S. MuNGO on a chief. The bird, the fish, and the ring 
had, however, been used as accessories on the seals 
of the aiicient Bishops. They relate to the miracles 
attributed to S. MUNGO, who was said to have restored 
to life the pet robin of S. SERF after its head had been 
wrung from its body. The salmon and ring refer to a 
story of the recovery by S. MUN(;o of a lady's ring the 
loss' of which had caused her chastity to be impugned. 

The arms assumed for GALLOWAY appear on the seal 
of Bishop Paterson (1674-1679), impaling his personal 

Moray, Ross, and Caithness. 

Azure ^ S. GILES mitred ; standing within a church 

porch ; holding in his dexter hand a Cross, and in 

the sinister a book, all proper. MORAY. 
Argent, S. BONIFACE, //v/^rr, habited gules ; and a 

Bishop iyi pontificals proper, vested purpure. Ross. 
Azure, a crown of thorns or, between three crosses of 

S. Andrew couped argent. Caithness. 
At present these bearings are usually borne thus : 

/// chief Moray impaling Ross ; and Caithness 
/// base (Plate XXIX., fig. 3). This is an unusual 
arrangement, and hardly so satisfactory as quarter- 
ing would be. The first two coats afford good illus- 
trations of the remarks which I have already made 
in the introductory paragraphs to the arms of the 
Scottish Sees (p. 217). The saints and the ** church 
porch" are all derived from the non-armorial seals of 
media-'val times. The charges on the so-called arms of 
Moray are without any authority, and are simply 
derived from the Burgh seal of ELGIN. (Laing, Scottish 

( 226 ) 

Seals, i., p. 211.) S. Giles does not, I believe, appear 
on the old Episcopal seals. 

The seal of Bishop PiLMORE of Moray (1326- 1362) 
bears the usual representation of the Blessed Trinity, 
and two shields, one charged with the Royal arms of 
Scotland, the other bearing the arms of the Earldom of 
Moray, doubtless to indicate the territorial extent of 
the See {ibid., i., 506.) Generally the personal arms of the 
Bishop are alone represented, with the effigies of the 

On the seal of Ross the saints are probably S. Peter, 
and S. Boniface. The seals of Bishop Roger (1284- 
1304) (LAlNG,ii., 182) and Bishop Alexander (1357- 1370). 
{Ibid., i., 161, No. 931), both bear two shields charged with 
the arms of the Earldom of Ross, used as in the previous 
case of Moray to indicate the extent of the See. 

The arms of Caithness are a modem assumption. 

On the Seal of Bishop Thomas Murray of Caith- 
ness and The Isles (1348- 1360) (Laing, ii., p. 184) are 
two shields, one of his personal arms, the other bearing a 
lymphad, ox galley, within the Royal Tressiire, This latter 
Laing attributes to The Isles, but it may have been 
borne for CAITHNESS. It may be remarked, however, 
that the Earls of Ross, who were Lords of TilE Isles, 
quartered a lymphad in tlie first and fourth quarters, with 
Ross in the second and third, both coats without the 
tressure, {Ibid., ii., Nos. 536, 540). 

The See of Moray is said to have been founded by 
King Alexander in i i 15. A charter granted by King 
David to the Monks of Dunfermline between 1 128 and 
1 1 30, is witnessed by (among others) GREGORY, Bishop 
of Moray, and Makheth, Bishop of Rossmarkvn. 
(Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. ii., p. 377.) DORNOCH was 
organised as a Cathedral chapter soon after the appoint- 
ment of Gilbert Murray to the See, circa 1190. 
{Ibid., vol. ii., p. 384.) 

( 227 ) 

St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane. 

Quarterly^ i and 4. Azure ^ a saltire argent, St. ANDREWS. 

2. A rgenty a Passion • Cross sable between two passion-nails 

gules. DUNKELD. 

3. A rgent, a saltire engrailed azure. Du NBLANE. (Plate 

XXIX., figs. 4, 5,6.) 
The See of S. Andrews is said to have originated 
with the introduction of Christianity into this country, 
and the legend relates that some relics of the saint were 
brought from his grave at Patrae by a Greek monk. 
The ship which bore them being driven ashore near the 
site of the present city, the Pictish chief of the district 
founded a church under the invocation of the Apostle, 
and S. Andrew thus became the patron saint of the 
Picts, while the saltire cross which was the instrument of 
his martyrdom became the badge of the realm. As a 
matter of fact the Scottish Church founded by KENNETH 
M*Alpin, was placed under the rule of the Abbot of 
Dunkeld (878-889) by King GiRlc. In 908 the 
primacy was transferred to St. Andrews from Aber- 
NETHV, the Culdees of which Church had had the 
right of electing the Abbot of DuNKELD. The line 
of ancient Bishops of Alban at St. Andrews ended in 
FOTHAD in 1093, ^^^^ ^^ S^^ remained vacant for 
fourteen years. In 1107 TURGOT, Prior of DURHAM, 
was appointed by King ALEXANDER, and in his days 
all the rights of the Keledei throughout the whole kingdom 
passed to the Bishopric of St. Andrews. The appoint- 
ment of TURGOT brought about the claim of the 
Archbishop of York to supremacy over the Scottish 
Church ; a claim founded on Pope Gregory's com- 
mission to S. AuciUSTlNE, by which all churches north 
of the H umber were placed under the rule of the See of 
York ; and this was fortified by the convention between 
the Archbishops of YoRK and CANTERBURY in 1072. 
But the right had never been recognised ; and the only 

( "8 ) 

substantial ground on which it could be based was ver>' 
similar to that on which the claim of the English King 
to exercise civil supremacy over Scotland was founded. 
But, as has been noticed, the province of York certainly 
extended to the Forth, as did the kingdom of North- 
umbria ; and since the churches of the Lothians were 
subject to the See of St. Andrews, as those of the 
English See of Galloway or Whithern were (so it 
was asserted) to the See of Glasgow, there was so far 
some ground for the assertion of the claim of supremacy 
by the See of YORK (Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. ii., 
p. 376). St. Andrews became an archbishopric in 
1472. Since 1842 it has been held in union with the 
See of Dunblane and Dunkeld. 

Dunblane was founded towards the close of King 
David's reign. Laurence, Bishop of the See, witnesses 
a charter granted by MALCOLM IV. (between 1 160- 1 162) 
to the monks of DUNFERMLINE. (Sken E, Celtic Scotland, 
vol. ii., p. 396.) It, with the See of BRECHIN, was pro- 
bably formed out of the remains of the old Pictish Bishopric 
of Abernethy. The arms assumed for Dunblane are 
borne quartered in the second and third places, with those 
of Douglas (simply a heart) in the first and fourth, by 
Bishop Robert Douglas in 1684. Another seal of the 
same bishop has the coat impaling the full arms of 
Douglas (Laing, Scottish SealSyVoX. ii., Nos. 1062, 1063). 

A church was built at DuNKELi) by Kenneth 
Macalpin, and a portion of the relics of S. COLUMBA 
was transferred to it. The abbot became the first 
Bishop of the Pictish Kingdom. His office passed into 
the hands of a line of lay abbots from which descended 
the Royal line of Scotland. King Alexander founded 
the See in 1 107. The credit of this is erroneously 
assigned to David I., who according to Skene, super- 
.seded the keledei, and created a Bishop with a college, or 
chapter, of secular Canons. {Celtic Scotland, vol. ii., p. 368.) 



The arms assumed for Colonial Sees, and even those 
which were the subjects of regular grants from the 
Heralds' College, are not for the most part remarkable 
for heraldic beauty, or propriety. The inventive powers 
of the designers did not reach further (as regards the 
early colonial seals at least) than the juxta-position of a 
key and a pastoral staff ; a bible and a crown. Some of 
the assumptions in which landscapes are introduced are 
striking examples of heraldic impropriety ; and are, we 
would hope, to be replaced at an early date (say at the 
next vacancy, or subdivision of the diocese), by com- 
positions in better armorial taste. 

The establishment of Ecclesiastical provinces with 
Metropolitan Sees, which has become pretty general of 
late years, has in the case of several provinces led to the 
adoption in the arms of the suffragan Sees of a charge 
indicative of this common bond of union, and this 
deserves commendation. At the First General Synod 
of the Canadian Church, held at Toronto in September 
1893, under the Presidency of the Metropolitan, the 
Bishop (Machrav) of Rupert's Land, the Provincial 
Organisation of that Church w-as formally completed. 
It was decided that a Primate of all Canada should be 
elected, and that two provinces should be at once formed 
(a third, to be composed of the Sees of Britlsh- 
COLUMIUA, being for the while in abeyance) the Metro- 
politans of which should be Archbishops of the Provinces. 
Accordingly, Bishop Machray was elected by the House 

( 230 ) 

of Bishops, Primate of all Canada, and Metropolitan of 
the Province of Rupert's Land, with the title of Arch- 
bishop ; and Bishop Lfavis of Ontario, Metropolitan 
of that l^rovince, also with the archi-episcopal title and 

Province of Lower Canada. 

Fredericton ; Nova Scotia ; Quebec ; Tor- 
onto; Montreal; Huron; Ontario; Algoma; 
and Niagara. 


Arms : Gules, a pastoral staff in pale surmounted by two 

keys addorsed in saltire or ; on a chief of the last 

a Paschal' Lamb with its flag, all proper (Plate 

XXX., fig. I). 

The See was formed out of the Diocese of Nova 

Scotia in the year 1845. '^ comprises the whole of the 

Civil Province of New Brunswick, an area of 27,174 

square miles. 

Nova Scotia. 

Arms : Or, a Paschal-Lamb bearing its flag {the fack 

thereof azure a saltire argent) ; on a chief azure a 

pastoral staff and a key in saltire of the first 

(Plate XXX., fig. 2). 

This, which is among the earliest of Colonial Sees, was 

founded in 1787. It includes Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, 

and Prince Edward's Island. 


Arms: Gules, a lion of ENGLAND supporting a key 
erect or ; on a chief cousu zuaiy sable an open book, 
across it a pastoral staff in bend proper. On a 
canton argent, a cross between four crosses patties 
gules. (Plate XXX., fig. 3.) 

( 231 ) 

The Diocese of Quebec was founded in the year 
1793. Its territories are Quebec, the districts of Gasp^ 
S. Francis, and Three Rivers. 


Arms : A sure, a pastoral staff and key in saltire^ 
betiveen in chief an Imperial croivn or ; in flanks 
two open books ; and in base a dove with an 
olive branch in its mouth, all proper (Plate XXX., 

fig. 5). 
The Bishopric of TORONTO was founded in 1839; 

and though it still has an area of over 9000 miles in the 

Province of Ontario, five dioceses have been carved out 

of the original See. 


Arms : Azure, a pastoral staff and key in saltire or, 

surmounted by an open book in fess point, between 

in chief a star of six points, and in base an anclwr 

argeftt (Plate XXX., fig. 6). 

This See was formerly included in Quebec, and was 

divided from it in the year 1850. Its area is about 44,000 

square miles. 


Arms : Gules, two swords in saltire argent Jiilted or ; in 
chief an Imperial crown proper (Plate XXX., 

fig- 7). 
The dedication of the Cathedral is to S. PAUL. The 

See was founded in the year 1857. Its territory includes 

the southern part of the Province of Ontario, and contains 

an area of over 1200 miles. 


Arms : Argent, on a cross gules an open book proper 
(Plate XXX., fig. 8). 

( 232 ) 

The Cathedral is dedicated to S. George, to this the 
arms are allusive. The Diocese of Ontario was created 
in 1862, and includes an area of about 20,000 square 
miles of the Province of Ontario. 


Arms : Azure^ a pastoral staff and key in saltire or, 
sunnounted in fess point by an open book, between 
in chief an Imperial crown and in base a sprig 
of maple of three leaves proper (Plate XXX., 

fig- 9). 
Until lately this was a missionary district but it has 

now become a settled diocese. It includes an area of 

about 50,000 square miles in the civil districts of 

Algoma, and Thunder Bay, Muskoka, and Parr}' 



Arms : Tierced in fess : (a) A representation of the Falls 
of Niagara ; (b) Argent, a cross gules ; (c) Vert, 
three maple leaves conjoined proper (Plate XXX., 
fig. 10). 

The See of Niagara was founded in 1875, it com- 
prises six counties in the Civil Province of Ontario. 


Arms : Argent, on a cross between four crosses pat^es gules 
an Imperial crown or. On a chief azure a Paschal- 
Lamb couchant, with its flag proper, ( P late XXX.. 

fig. 4.) 
The dedication of the Cathedral is to S. JOHN THE 

Baptist, who is often figured with the Lamb. 

This is an independent Diocese not included in the 
Province of Canada. It was formed out of the Sec of 
Nova Scotia in 1839. Besides the Island of New- 
foundland (which is about 42,000 square miles in area), 



2. Navt Seotift. 3. Quebec. 

4. Newf oaDdluuL 


8. OntariOL 9. AlBon 

I. ColninbU. \i. Ckledoni*. 

( 233 ) 

the See also includes tlie Island of Bermuda, in the 
Atlantic ; and about 160,000 miles of Labrador. 

Proposed Provinxe of Columbia. 
(As yet independent Dioceses.) 

Columbia (Metropolitan), 1849. Caledonia, 1879. 
New Westminster, 1874. 

Columbia (hereafter to be called Vancouver). 

Arms : Argeftt^ a cross patt^e quadrate in the centre 

gules ; on a chief the amis of COUTTS quartering 

Burdett {vis,. Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, a stag's 

head erased gules ^ between the attires apheon azure; 

all within a bordure embattled of the last charged 

with four buckles or, CoUTTS. 2 and 3. Azure, two 

bars or, on each three martlets gules, BURDETT). 

(Plate XXX., fig. 11.) 

The See was founded in 1859, by the munificence of 

Miss Angela Burdett-Coutts (created Baroness 

Burdett-Coutts, 1871). {See Cape Town, p. 244.) 

The territory includes Vancouver, and the adjacent 



Arms : Azure, a saltire argent, surmounted by a pastoral 

staff or, over all in the fess point a?t open book 

proper. On a chief bar ry wavy of the first and second, 

a salmon nai ant proper, (Plate XXX., fig. 12.) 

The arms are allusive to the title of the See {vide ante, 

St. Andrews, p. 227). 

The chief refers to the natural products of the diocese. 
The See was formed out of the preceding in 1879. ^^ 
includes the north part of the mainland of British 
Columbia, and the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

.( 234 ) 

New Westminster. 

Arms : Asure, a cross flory between five martlets or ; 

On a chief dancetty or^ between two roses gules a pale 

ermine, tlureon a mitre proper (Plate XXXI., 

fig. I). 

The arms are composed from those of Westminster 

{vide infra, p. 199). The diocese, which includes the 

southern mainland of British Columbia, was founded in 

the year 1 879. 

Province of Rupert's Land. 

Rupert's Land (Metropolitan) ; Moosonee ; Sas- 
katchewan ; Mackenzie River ; Athabasca ; 
Qu'Appelle ; Calgary ; Selkirk. 

Rupert's Land. 

Arms : Ermine, a cross gules, on a chief asure a pastoral 

staff in bend, surmounted by an open book proper 

(Plate XXXI., fig. 2). 

This great diocese includes a district of over 200,000 

square miles, comprising the Province of Manitoba, and 

parts of the territories of Ontaria and Keewatin. 


Arms : Per fess in chief azure the aurora borealis ; 

in base on waves, in front of two islands each 

bearing a pine tree, a canoe manned by three rowers, 

all proper {VXdite XXXI., fig. 3). 

This is one of the landscape coats in bad heraldic 

taste, to which allusion was made in the introductory 

remarks on p. 229. The district was separated from the 

See of Rupert's Land in the year 1872. It contains the 

eastern division of Rupert's Land, including the whole 

basin of Hudson's Bay, and reaches northward to the 


( *3S ) 


Mackenzie River (formerly called Athabasca). 
Arms : {Azure ?) Argent, sem^ of ears of maize slipped, 
in chief an open book, and in base a pair of snow- 
shoes in saltire, all proper (Plate XXXI., fig. 7). 
The former Diocese of Athabasca was divided in 1 883 
into two parts of which the southern retains the original 
name of the See, but the northern part was thenceforth 
to be known by the name of MACKENZIE River. 


Arms : Vert, on afess zuavy argent, between in chief a 
key and a pastoral staff in saltire, and in base a 
garb, an Indian in a canoe, all proper. 

The arms allude to the situation of the diocese upon 
the River Saskatchewan, the garb in base to the 
cornlands of the district (Plate XXXI., fig. 5). 

The See of Saskatchewan was divided from that 
of Rupert's Land in 1872, and is united at present to 
the See of Calgary which is as yet unendowed. Its 
own district is the Province of SASKATCHEWAN and a 
piece of territory being to the north-east thereof in 
North- West Canada. 


Arms : Ermine, a Passion-Cross gules ; on a chief azure 

the SU71 rising irradiated proper {?\3Xq XXXIV., 

fig. II). 

This See which comprises the District. of ASSINIBOIA 

in the North-VVest Territory, with an area of 96,000 

miles, was founded in 1884 out of parts of the Dioceses 

of Rupert's Land, and Saskatchewan. 


Arms : Or, a tuft of rushes between three sykes proper; On 
a chief wavy azure, a dove volant argent holding in 
its beak an olive sprig vert (Plate XXX IV., fig. lO). 

( 236 ) 

The See of Athabasca contains only the southern 
portion of the original diocese of that name. In 1883 
the northern portion became the independent See of 
Mackenzie River {vide supra). The present See has an 
area of 250,000 square miles in the North-West Territory. 


(Arms at present undecided.) 

This See contains an area of about 100,000 square miles. 
Itwas separated formally from the See of Saskatchewan 
in the years 1887- 1888 ; but being as yet unendowed it is 
.still administered by the Bishop of that See. Its territor}- 
is the District of ALBERTA, in the North-West Provinces. 


Arms : Per fess vert and argent, over all an open book 
betiveen in fess pine trees, and in base a bear 
passant, proper {?). 

This See was founded in the year 1891. 

Province of Calcutta. 

Calcutta (Metropolitan) ; Madras ; Bombay ; 
Colombo ; Rax(;oon ; Lahore ; Travancore : 
Chota Nagbore. 


Arms: Per fess indented erfnine and gules ; in chief a 

mitre in front of a bunch of palm leaves ; in base 

a crosier in bend, surmounted by an open book, all 

proper (Plate XXXI., fig. 6). 

This See was founded in the year 18 14, and comprised 

all India. It now consists of Bengal ; the North-West, 

and Central Provinces; Assam; Central India; and 

parts of Rajputana and Oude now handed over to the 

See of Chota Nagpore. 

( 237 ) 


Arms : Argent on a cliampagne in base a banyan tree 
beneath it a tiger a?td lamb {? leopard and kid) 
couchant proper. On a chief azure a dove volanty 
bearing an olive sprig proper, between two crosses 
pat^es ermine, (Plate XXXI., fig. 4.) 
(The arms are obviously allusive to Isaiah, xi. 6.) 
The diocese was founded in 1835. It includes the 
whole Presidency ; and also Mysore, Coorg, Hyderabad, 
and Berar. 


Arms : Sable, a crosier and key in sal tire, between two 
Eastern crowns in chief and base or (Plate 
XXXI., fig. 8). 
(Bishop Douglas used only his personal arms). 
Separated from Calcutta in 1832 this See com- 
prises all the Presidency (except Sinde) ; parts of 
Central India and Rajputana ; as well as Aden on 
the Red Sea. 


Arms: Afgent, a serpent coiled in base and transfixed 

by a Passion-Cross proper. On a chief azure, a 

dove volant hearing in its beak an olive sprig 

proper (?\dite XXXI., fig. 9). 

The arms are allusive to the triumph of Christianity 

over heathenism ; while the dove in chief refers to the 

name of the Sec. The Island of Ceylon was constituted 

a separate diocese in 1845. 


Arms : Argent, on a champagne a palm tree proper. 
Affixed thereto is a shield bearijig the arms of 
the See of WiNX'HESTEK. (Plate XXXI., 
fig. 10 ; and Plate XX., fig. 6, for the escucheon.) 

( 238 ) 

This See, which includes the whole of BuRMAH, as well 
as the NicoBAR and Andaman Isles, was established 
in 1877, chiefly by the liberality of persons resident in the 
English Diocese of Winchester. 


Arms : A::ure, on a fess ermine {between in chief tlie 

sun rising behind a snowy mountain chain ; and 

in base five bars wavy argent^ a sword and pastoral 

staff in saltire proper (Plate XXXI., fig. 1 1). 

The arms are intended to allude to the position of 

the diocese, beneath the Himalayas, and in the district 

of the Punjaub, />., the five rivers. A little heraldic 

knowledge might easily have been employed to make a 

good coat out of this landscape. The See was founded 

in 1877 for the Punjaub and Scinde. 


Arms : Azure^ a saltire or^ over all an Indian spear 
palewaySy t/ie blade argent, beneath an Eiistern 
crown in chief of the last. 
This See was founded for the States of Travancore 
and Cochin in the year 1879 (Plate XXXI., fig. 12). 


The Arms of this See are not yet settled. 

Province oe Australia. (New South Wales). 

Sydney (Metropolitan); Tasmania; Newcastle; 
Melbourne; Adelaide; Perth; Brisbane; Goul- 
BURN ; Grafton and Armidale ; Bathurst ; 
Ballaarat ; North Queensland ; and Riverina. 

The original Diocese of AUSTRALIA, originally an Arch- 
deaconry of Calcutta, was founded in 1836, and 
included New Zealand and Tasmania. 



4- Mftdru. 5. Swkatcbswan. C. Calcutbi. 

7. (AtliBbaacaJ 
row Jlatkciiiie River 

S. Bombay. 




I. L>liore. 12. TraTUWore. 

( 239 ) 


Arms : Azure, four stars of eight points in cross argent 
(Plate XXXII., fig. 8). 

These stars represent the famous constellation of the 
Southern Cross, and appear in several of the coats of 
arms of the Sees of this province. This See was founded 
in 1847; ^"d the Bishop created by Letters- Patent 
Metropolitan of Australia and Tasmania. 


Arms : Azure, a pastoral staff and key^ in saltire or, 
between four stars of eight points argent (Plate 
XXXIL, fig. 9). 
This See was created in 1842. It includes the whole 
island of Tasmania. 


Arms : Azure, an open crown enfiling a pastoral staff in 

pale or. On a bordure sable twenty-four billets 

argent, (Plate XXXIL, fig. 10.) 

This See was formed out of the Diocese of Australia in 

1847. It contains about 14,000 square miles, and includes 

the central part of the east coast of New South Wales. 


Arms : Azure, on a clievron argent, between in chief a 
crosier and a palmers staff and scrip paleways ; 
and in base four stars of eight points in cross of t lie 
second, an open book proper (Plate XXXIL, fig. 1 1). 

^ The arms assumed for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of 
Melbourne were : Perfess azure and argent, in chief four estoiles 
{mullets) argent ; in base a crosier bendways behind an open book 
luhich supports a heart infamed proper. 

The arms assumed for the Roman Catholic See of Sandhurst 
were identical with the base of the previous coat, but the crosier 
was in bend-sinister, in saltire with an arrow in bend. {Notes and 
Queries, 5th S., xii., 63, 64.) 

( 240 ) 

This See was founded in 1847. ^^ ^^^ ^in area of over 
43,000 square miles, and includes the eastern half of the 
colony of Victoria. 


Arms : Argent^ on a cross between four estoiles gules, a 
mitre enfiling a pastoral staff in pale or (Plate 
XXXII., fig. 12). 
This bishopric was formed out of part of the Diocese 
of Australia, and includes the colony of South Australia. 
The Episcopal charge of the Territory of North Australia 
is also at present included in it as a temporary arrange- 
ment ; so that the See extends right across Australia 
from north to south. 


Arms : Azure, two pastoral staves in saltire argent^ 

headed or, between four estoiles of the second (Plate 

XXXIII., fig. I). 

This diocese was divided from the See of Australia 

in 1857. ^^ embraces the colony of West Australia, 

having an area of over a million of square miles. 


Arms : Azure, t/ie figure of the Saviour (as the Good 
S/iepherd), proper {?\KtQ: XXXIII., fig. 2). 

The See was founded in 1859, on the separation of 
Queensland from New South Wales. A new 
diocese, that of RocKHAMl»TON, is in process of forma- 
tion out of its territories. 


Arms : Gules, a Pasctuil-Lamb passant upon a mount, 
above it an open book with seven seals proper. On 
a chief or, between two doves each holding a sprig 
of olive in its beak proper, a pale azure charged with 
four estoiles in cross argent. (Plate XXX 1 1 1., fig. 3.) 

( 241 ) 

This See was formed out of that of Sydney in 1863. 
It includes the south-eastern part of New South 

Grafton and Armidale. 

Arms : Azure^ at tlie intersection of the arms of a 
Passion- Cross argent; an open book, in chief a dove 
volant beak downwards proper (Plate XXXIII., 

fig- 4). 
This See, which contains the north-east part of New 

South Wales, was formerly contained in the Diocese of 

Sydney. Part of it was included in Newcastle in 

1847 J but the present See was created in 1865. 


Arms : Azure, two pastoral staves in sal tire proper 

between four estoiles argent ; in chief a Paschal^ 

Lamb of t/ie second (Plate XXXIII., fig. 5). 

The Diocese of Bathurst was formed out of portions 

of the Dioceses of Sydney, Newcastle, and GouL- 

hurn. Its territory is the west part of New South 



Arms : Ermine, a mill-rind sable ; on a chief azure a 
celestial crown or (Plate XXXIII., fig. 6). 

This See was formed out of that of MELBOURNE in 
1875. ^ts territory is the western division of the colony 
of Victoria. 

North Queensland. 

Arms : Azure, a Paschal-Lamb proper, between three 
' cross-crossletsftc/i/e argent (Plate XXXIII., fig. 7). 

As its name indicates, the See includes the northern 
division of the colony of Queensland, an area of 250,000 
square miles. 



( 242 ) 


Arms : Azure, four bars ziHny argent, c^.^er all a PassL-'r- 

Cross or ; on a canton of tJu second, a rn^'ipsuui 

sabU Plate XXXIV., fig. lo,. 

This See was founded in 1884 by the miin:fjce::ce rt' 

Mr Campbell ^commemoiated in the cantor: of the 

arms^ It contains the western part of New SDuth 

Wales, an area of jofxxy square miles. 

Provinxe of New Ze.\land. 

CllRiSTCllURCH <Metropolitany : AucKL.\xr» : Nel- 
son ; \Val\pl' : Wellington; Melane>l\ : and 



Arms : A sure, on a cross argent the monogram x sable ; 

in tlu first canton three estoiles^ one and two, of the 

second (Plate XXXII., fig. i). 

This Sec was founded in the year 1856. Its 

Bishop was in 1868 elected Primate of the Province. 

Its territory includes Chklstchurch, and part of 

Westland, an area of 20,000 square miles. 


Arms : Azure, three estoiles, one and two, argent 
(PlateXXXII., fig. 2). 

Auckland was the first of the New Zealand Sees ; 
and its arms (three of the stars of the Southern Cross) 
appear in most of the other provincial coats. This, 
founded in 1841, was the original Diocese of New 
Zealand, out of which the other Sees have been 
carved. It includes the northern part of the North 
Island of New Zealand. 



aal il ' 50^ 

.-> ^ 

4. WellinKtoD. 3. Wkiapu. G. MetuieaU. 


7. Ehinedin. 8. SjidneT, M. 9. Tbuouub. 

10. Nemutle. It. Melboaroe. l^i. Ail^ 

^ ( U3 ) 


Arms: Or, a rross-Ca/vary azure ; on a canton the arms 
0/ Auckland (as above) {Plate XXXII., fig. 3). 

This diocese was founded in 1857. It consists of the 
north part of the Southern Island of New Zealand. 

I Wellington. 

Arms : Argent, a cross gules, in tlie first quarter tlu 

arms of AUCKLAND ; Asure, three stars, one and 

two, of the first (Plate XXXI!., fig. 4). 

The Diocese of Wellington was founded in 1S58; 

and contains the province from which it takes its name, 

and a portion of the district of Taranaki. 


Arms : Asure, a saliire argent, on a canton the arms of 
Auckland (Plate XXXII., fig. 5). 

(The arms allude to the fact that the See is a district 
originally settled by Scottish colonists.) 

The See includes the eastern district of the West 
Island of New Zealand, and some outlying islands. It 
was founded in 1858. 


Arms I Asure, a Passion-Cross or, in chief three estoiUs, 
one and two, of the second (but ? argent) (Plate 
XXXII., fig. 6). 
The Diocese was founded in 1861 for the Western 
Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. 

Dunk DIN. 

Arms: Gules, S. Andrew holding his cross before 

him proper. On a canton the arms of AUCKLAND 

(PlateXXXII., fig. 7). 

The See, founded out of Christchurch in 1866, 

includes OtagO, and SOUTHLAND. (The district, like 

Waiapu, was settled by colonists from Scotland.) 

( 244 ) 

Province of South Africa. 

Capetown (Metropolitan) ; Grahamstown ; St. 
Helena; Bloemfontein ; Maritzburg; Zululand; 
St. John's, Kaffraria ; Pretoria. 


Arms : Quarterly, asure and sable, in tlie first atid 

fourth a lion rampant argent, in the second and 

third three open crowns paleways or ; oi'er all on a 

cross of the last an anclior of the second in the f ess 

point ; and in the honour point an escucheon of the 

anns of BURDETT-COUTTS (vide ante, p. 233), 

(PlateXXXIII., fig. 8). 

This rather complicated coat was composed out of the 

arms of the Sees of DURHAM and Bristol, with which 

the first Bishop GRAY was connected. The anchor is 

the symbol of good hope, and the escucheon records 

the munificence of Miss Burdett-Coutts, the founder 

of the See. This was the first South African Bishopric, 

and was founded in 1847. It now includes only the 

western district of the Cape Colony. 


Arms : Argent, a cross gules, t/iereon a sword in pale 
t/ie blade wavy proper, i?i the dexter canton an 
anchor sable (Plate XXXIII., fig. 9). The arms 
formerly used were : Argent (sometimes aztire), a 
saltire gules, oi^er all an anchor sable. 
The Cathedral is dedicated to St. Gkorgk. The 
anchor refers to the Metropolitan See. 

St. Helena. 

Arms : Azure, in base on waves of the sea, wherein ai-e 
fishes, an ancient galley of three masts, sails furled, 
all proper. In chief a crescent, and a star of eight 
points argent. (Plate XXXIII., fig. 10.) 



10, St. Helena. 11. BloemlonMn. 13. Hkritibmg. 

( 245 ) 

This See was founded in 1859, and includes the islands 
of St. Helena, Ascension, and Tristan d'Acunha. 


Arms : Azure^ a saltire argent ^ over all a flaming sword 
erect in pale proper {?\^,te XXXIII., fig. 11). 

The dedication of the Cathedral is to SS. ANDREW 
and Michael ; so the Cross of the Apostle, and the 
sword of the Archangel compose the arms. The See 
was founded in 1863. I* comprises the Orange Free 
State, Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Griqualand West 


Arms : Per f ess; in chief, A sure y a saltire argent y above 
it an estoile or; in base. Argent y on waves of the sea 
a ship proper {y\dX^ XXXIII., fig. 12). 
The first coat is that of the original Diocese of Natal, 
founded in 1853. 

Zulu LAN I). 

Arms : Sable, a wooden cross proper, on a cliampagne in 
base vert an anchor {or ?). In chief on a canton 
azure an estoile argent. (Plate XXXIV., fig. i.) 
A piece of false heraldry. The cross is said to repre- 
sent that which was erected over the grave of Bishop 
Mackenzie of Central Africa, in whose memory the Sec 
was founded in 1870. 

St. John's, Kakfraria. 

Arms : A sure, the figure of the Apostle and Evangelist 

S. John (Plate XXXIV., fig. 2). 
The See was constituted in 1873 out of the Dioceses 

of Grahamstown and Maritzburg. 


(No arms are recorded at present.) 

( 246 ) 


Arms : Tierced in fess guleSy argent^ and azure. In 

chief the lion of ENGLAND supporting a banner of 

St. George ; /;/ base an anchor of t/te second. 

(Plate XXXIV., fig. 3.) 

These arms I composed for the See out of the old 

Dutch colours ; with the lion of England in chief, and 

the anchor of Capetown in base. As given in Crock- 

FORD, it appears to be borne with a bordwe vert ; if it 

be so used the later addition has not improved the coat. 

Province of the West Indies. 

Guiana (Metropolitan) ; Jamaica ; Barbados 
and Windward Isles ; Antigua ; Nassau ; Trini- 
dad ; and HONDURAS. 


Arms : Argent^ on a cross azure a Passion-Cross or. 
On a chief gules a lion of ENGLAND holding a 
pastoral staff, (Plate XXXI V., fig. 4.) 
This See was separated from that of Barbados in 


Arms : Gules y a pastoral staff and key in salt ire sur- 
mounted by an open book in fess point or, betiveen 
a lion of ENGLAND in chief and a pineapple in 
base proper {?\zXg XXX IV., fig. 5). 
This diocese was created in 1824. It formerly 
included the Bahamas, now in the See of Nassau ; and 
the mainland settlements of Honduras. 


Arms : Azure, a pastoral staff and key in saltin\ 
between in chief the Imperial crown or, a?id in 
base an estoile argent (Plate XXXIV., fig. 6). 

( 247 ) 

This See was founded in 1824. It was divided in 
1842, and the Dioceses of Guiana and Antigua separ- 
ated from it. It consists of the Island of Barbados. 

Windward Isles. 

Arms : A sure y three galleys under sail^ two and anSy 
argent ; on a chief of t lie last a cross gules (Plate 
XXXIV., fig. 7). 

This See was formerly part of that of Barbados, and 
is temporarily administered by the Bishop of that See. 


Arms : Argent y a Passion-Cross gules between a serpent 

erect y and a dove proper ; on a chief of the second 

a pastoral staff and key in saltire beneath the 

Imperial crown y or (Plate XXXIV., fig. 8.) 

This See was formed out of that of BARBADOS, as 

stated above, in the year 1 842. 


Arms : Argenty a landscape y in base on a rock an open 

bible at the foot of an lona Cross ; behind it tlie 

open seay thereon a ship sailing to tJie sinistery and 

a pcdm-covered land. 

The Archdeaconry of the Bahamas was separated from 

the See of Barbados in 1861. The Sec includes the 

Turks and Caicos Isles. 


Arms : A device composed of a long cross flory incor- 
porated with the ancient triangular symbol and 
legend of the Blessed Trinity : in base tlie letters 
Alpha and Omega. 
This See, founded in 1872, includes the Islands of 
Trinidad and Tobago; the latter was recently trans- 
ferred from the Windward Isles. 

( 248 ) 

dloceses,not comprised in provinces, but holding 
Mission from the See of Canterbury. 

Newfoundland (and Bermuda). 

Arms : Argent, on a cross between four crosses paths 
gules an Imperial crown; on a chief azure a 
Pasclial'Lamb coucliant proper (VXdXc XL, fig. 4). 

The dedication of the Cathedral is to S. John the 
Baptist, who is often figured with the Lamb. 

This is an independent diocese not included in the 
Province of Canada. It was formed out of the See of 
Nova Scotia in 1839. Besides the Island of New- 
foundland (which is about 42,000 square miles in area), 
the See includes the Island of Bermuda, in the Atlantic ; 
and about 160,000 miles of Labrador. 


Arms : Argent, a Hebrew inscription between two 

estoiles in chief, and a dove with its olive branch in 

base, ail proper. On a chief {per pale) gules {and 

argent, in t lie first) tlie lion of ENGLAND {in the 

second, the PRUSSIAN eagle). 

The original chief referred to the united foundation 

of the See by Great Britain and Prussia in 1841 ; but 

the See has no present connection with Prussia, and the 

chief, of gules or\ly, contains the British lion. 


Arms : Per f ess indented gules and argent; in chief a 
pastoral staff and key in saltire or, upon them a cross 
patie (or Maltese cross) of the second. In base, on 
a rock proper, a lion (t/EnglAND holding a Passion- 
Cross of the first, (Plate XXXV., fig. i .) 
The See of Gibraltar, founded in 1842, includes 
Malta ; so probably the original cross-patt^e in the chief was 
intended by the designer to represent the eight-pointed 
cross of the ORDER OK S. JOHN of Jerusalem, which 
is not a cross-path. 



L Zulu Lud S. St John'i.Ea. 3. Pretoria 

4. Qutank 6. Junkica 8. B>rb«do« 

8. Antigua 9.K 


D. Athftbuoa. n. Qa'Appelle 12. E. Sqnaton*! Afrua 

( 249 ) 

Victoria (China). 

Arms : Gules ^ between in clUefan Eastern crown ^ and in 
base an escallop shelly all argent^ a pastoral staff 
of tlu second luaded or, and a key in saltire, sur- 
mounted in the fess point by an open book (Plate 
XXXV., fig. 7). 

This See which includes the island of Hong-Kong, and 
the South China Missions, was founded in the year 1849. 

Sierra Leone. 

Arms : Argent , a lion couchant in front of a serrated 

rock proper; on a chief gules two trumpets in saltire 

mout/is upwardy of the first (Plate XXXV., fig. 3). 

The Bishopric was founded in the year 1852. Its 

territories are : Sierra Leone, the Settlements on the 

Gambia River, and on the Gold Coast. 


Arms : Barry wavy of ten argent and azure , a pastoral 
staff and key in saltire thereon an open book in fess 
pointy between in chief a celestial croivn and in base 
an anchor, all proper (Plate XXXV., fig. 2). 

The See of Mauritius, which includes the Seychelles 
and adjacent islands, was founded in the year 1854. 

Sin(;apore, Labuan and Sarawak. 

Arms : Per fess, in chief a saltire {?). In base a pastoral 
staff in pale surmounted by two keys addorsed in 
saltire. (Plate XXXV., fig. 5, but doubtful.) 

The arms borne for the See of Labuan in Borneo 
were: Or, a cross per pale gules and sable, derived from the 
arms of the Rajah (BROOKE) of Sarawak. The See 
of Labuan and Sarawak was created in 1855 ; and in 
1869 the British Colony of the Straits-Settlement (includ- 
ing Singapore, Malacca, and Pcnang) was placed under 
its jurisdiction, and the name of the See was accordingly 


( 250 ) 

Central Africa, i86i. 

Arms : Sable, on a cross argent a roundle of the same, 
tlureon tlu monogram, CA. (Plate XXXV., 

fig. 12). 
This missionary See was founded by the Universities 
of England in 1861, for Zanzibar Island, and the adjacent 


Arms : Per f ess gules and azure, in chief two keys in 
saltire addorsed argent ; in base a cross-moline of 
tlu same (Plate XXXV., fig. 10). 

This See embraces the Hawaian, or Sandwich Isles ; 
and was founded in the year 1861. 

Niger District. 

A landscape in base ; to the dexter a rock, thereon a 
palm tree, on the sea, out of which the sun is rising, 
a ship in full sail — all /wproper. (This See was founded 
in 1864.) 

East Equatorial Africa. 

Arms : Sable {f Gules) a cross pat^e-fitch^e argent ; on a 
chief wavy ermine a tent of tlie second, between two 
7nill-rinds sable (Plate XXXIV., fig. 12). 

This diocese was founded in 1884. 


Arms : Gules, two keys in saltire, wards downwards, 

argent ; on a chief of the last an anchor sable. 
The See was founded in (1891 l). 


Arms : Azure, a cross-Calvary or (Plate XXXV., 

fig- 4). 
The See was established in the year 1874. 

PLATS zxxr. 

1. Gibralter 2. Stauritini S. Sierra Leone 

1X1 ^^K 

i. Singmpore.&c. 6. J»imn 

7. Vietorin 8 , North China 9. Hid-Chiiu 

la MonolulQ 11. Pnlklaad IiUndi 12. Central Africa 

( 251 ) 

Falkland Isles. 

Arms : Per f ess ; in chiefs Argent a plain cross gules ; in 
base, Azure a map of S. America (Plate XXXV., 
fig. II). 

This Diocese, which has the charge of the English 
churches in S. America, was founded in 1869. 


Arms : Gules, a cross-vtoline or (Plate XXXV., fig. 8). 

The Diocese of North-China, as at present con- 
stituted for the six northern provinces of China, was 
founded in 1880. 


Arms: Azure, on a fess wavy argent {put of which in 

chief emerges the rising sun) a dove volant holding 

in its beak a sprig of olive proper ; in base a 

pastoral staff and key in saltire or (P\dite XXXV., 

fig- 9). 
The See was founded in 1880. 


Arms : Argent, a cross gules ; on a chief barry wavy of 
six of the first and azure the sun rising or (Plate 
XXXV. fig. 6). 

The See was established in 1887. 


Arms : Gules, semd of leaves a cross- moline or, all 
within a bordure wavy argent {cf N. CHINA). 

This See, which embraces the Kingdom of Corea, and 
the Province of Shing King in Manchuria, was founded 
in the year 1889. 


Archbishops and Bishops, Electors and Princes of the Holy 
Roman Empire and Central Europe. 

Mainz (Mayence). 

Arms : Gules, a wluel of six spokes argent. 

The Elector, and Prince-Archbishop of Mainz, was 
Arch-Chancellor of the HoLY Roman Empire in 
Germany ; he was also Dean of the Electoral College, 
and presided over it on the occasions when it deliberated 
upon the choice of a prince to fill the vacant Imperial 
throne. He had the titles of Obrister Ckurfiirst (which 
appears in a diploma of the Emperor Maximilian I.), 
Kur-Erzkansler, Metropolit, und Primas von Deutschland, 
According to Megenfried, a monk of FuLDA, who wrote 
in the tenth century, the See is said to have been founded 
by Crescens, a disciple of the Apostle S. Paul. It 
was originally suffragan to Trier. The first rcall}- 
historical personage who occupied the See was S. 
BONIFACK, who held it from 747 to 755, being placed 
over it by Pope Zacharias, who confirmed its authority 
over the cities of CoLN, Speier, Tongern, Utrecht, 
and Worms, and indeed over all the district in which 
S. Boniface had laboured. The Pope also conferred on 
the See the Metropolitical dignity. Under Pope JoilN 
XXII. (1316-1334) the See of Mainz had fourteen 
suffragan Sees: — AUGSBURG, CnUR, Constaxz, Eich- 
sTADT, Halberstadt, Hildesheim, Olmutz, Pader- 
BORN, Prag, Speier, Strasburg, Verden. Worms, 

( 253 ) 

and WuKZBURG, thus about half of the whole German 
Empire was subject to it. 

Of these it lost in 1343 Olmutz and Prag, the latter 
of which became at once an Archbishopric, a dignity 
which OlmOtz also attained in later times. The Sees 
of Halberstadt and Verden were lost, and their 
possessions secularised, at the Peace of Westphalia. 

The Bishopric of FULDA was made suffragan to Mainz 
in 1752, and that of CORVEY in 1785. The Archbishop 
WiLHELM (954-968) a natural son of the Emperor 
Otto, received from his father the dignity of Arch- 
Chancellor of the German Empire for himself and his 
successors. His predecessors, since LULLUS the successor 
of S. Boniface, had held the title oi Archicapellan. As 
Elector, and Arch-Chancellor of the Empire in Germany, 
the Archbishop had precedence over all Princes and 
Prelates of the Empire. If the coronation of the 
lilmperor, as King of the Romans, took place in his Arch- 
diocese he was the officiant ; and when it took place else- 
where, even in the Arch-diocese of COLN, he had the 
right to officiate alternately with the Archbishop of 
CoLN. This right, which seems to contravene the pro- 
visions of the Aurea Bulla, was established in 1657. 

Like the Emperor himself the Elector had his heredi- 
tary great officers of state. The Landgrave of Hesse 
was his Grand-Marshal ; the Count of Veldentz, the 
Grand- Master of his Household ; the Count of SCHON- 
BORN, his Grand-Steward ; and the Count of Stolberg, 
his Grand-Chamberlain. These great personages dis- 
charged the duties of their offices by hereditary deputies, 
who in the eighteenth century were respectively the 
Counts of Heusenstam, and the Barons of Greiffen- 
klauExN-Volrath, Cronberg, and Metternich. For 
the better maintenance of their great dignity the 
Electors in later times often held the Prince-Bishopric 
of Wurzburg in commendam, {Vide post, p. 331.) 

( 254) 

The many privileges attaching to the dignity of Arch- 
Chancellor are set out at length in Spener, Opus 
Heraldicum^ pars spec, pp. 265-268 ; among them was 
the office of Postmaster-General of the Empire. Among 
the possessions of the See was the County of K()NIG- 
STEIN, given in 1581 by the Emperor Maximilian to 
Archbishop DANIEL Brendel von Homburg. 

After the French Revolution the territories of the 
Electorate were overrun by the French invaders, and a 
great portion of its possessions were incorporated by 
Napoleon in the short-lived Confederation of the Rhine. 
The then Archbishop and Elector, Carl Theodore von 
Dalberg (elected in 1802) ceased to be Arch-Chan- 
cellor of the German Empire in 18 10. He had been 
made Prince of Regensburg in 1804, and Archbishop 
of the same place in 1806. NAPOLEON made him 
Primate of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1810, and 
he became Grand-Duke of Frankfurt-am-Mavn in 
181 3 ; he died in 18 17. NAPOLEON reduced the See of 
Mainz to the rank of a bishopric ; and it is now 
suffragan to the Archbishopric of Freiberg in Breisgau. 

The arms refer to the well-known story of Archbishop 
WiLLIGIS (975-101 1), whose father was a millwright. 
That he might find in the constant remembrance of his 
humble parentage a protection against the temptation to 
arrogance, the Archbishop is said to have had the walls 
of his chamber painted with the device of a mill-wheel 
and the motto " Willigis recolas^ guts es^ et unde venis^ 
Of this the common versions in Germany are 

" Willigis ! Willigis I gedenck von wannen du kommen bist ; " 


" Willigis ! Willigis ! deiner Ankunft nicht vergiss." 

The device in later times became the charge of the 
Archi-episcopal arms. It must however be noted that 
the arms of the City of Mainz are : Gulesy two wheels 

( 2S5 ) 

connected by a cross argent. These are said to be derived 
from those of the Archbishopric. This may possibly 
have been the case. On the other hand the reverse has 
been thought equally probable ; and it has been supposed 
that the charges had a more prosaic origin in the floating 
mills which still utilise the current of the turbid Rhine 
at Mainz. But "Herr Hofrath Estor will mit der 
gemeinen Erzehlung von des Willigis Rade in Mayntzis- 
chen Wapen nicht zufrieden seyn, sondern halt es vielmehr 
mitdem Herrn geheimden Justitien Rath Grubern vor 
das Typarium, oder Reichs-Siegel." (TRIER, Einleitung 
zu der Wapen- Kunst, pp. 334» 335-) 

The Elector quartered the arms of the See of Mainz 
in the first and fourth places, with his personal arms 
in the second and third ; but when, as was frequently 
the case in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
other Sees were held in commendam^ their arms, and 
those of their dependencies, were borne quartered 
with those of the Archi-episcopal See, and the personal 
arms of the Elector were placed in an escucheon en 

The shield was surmounted by golden helmets, of 
which the central one bore a mitre on a crimson cushion ; 
the others were timbred with the crest of the See of 
Mainz {on a princely liat of crimson^ turned up ermine^ 
a wluel argent^ as in the arms) ; the crest or crests of the 
other Sees held by the prelate ; and his personal crest 
or crests. But the shield was often adorned with a 
mantle of crimson velvet lined with ermine, and sur- 
mounted by the Electoral hat, or crown ; the helmets 
and crests were then omitted. But in either case the 
primatial cross with a single traverse was placed in pcUe 
behind the shield ; while the union of temporal with 
spiritual authority was denoted in the usual manner by 
the naked sword (point downwards), and the crozier or 
pastoral staff, placed in saltire behind the escucheon. 

( 256 ) 

The examples given by Spener (tab. xi.) are as 
follows: — 

John Philip von Schonborn, Archbishop and 
Elector, 1647- 1673, ^tlso retained the See of Wurzburg, 
to which he was elected in 1642, and that of Worms, 
which he acquired in 1663. He bore : Quarterly of 
stXy in two horizontal roivs, I. Duchy of Franconia 
(^- P- 330 5 2 and 5. Mainz; 3 and 4. See of Worms 
{y, p. 330) ; 6. See of WiJRZBURG {y, p. 267). Over all 
the personal arms, Gules, a lion passant crowned or, upon 
three rocks, or points, in base argent. Six helmets and 
crests were used. Beginning from the dexter side, they 
were arranged, i. WuRZBURG ; 2. Franconia (p. 267) ; 

3. Mitre ; 4. See of Mainz ; 5. Worms ; 6. Sch(')n- 

BORN {between two horns per f ess gules and argent a demi- 
lion rampant crowned or). 

To him succeeded LOTHAIR Friedrich von Mkt- 
TERNICH (1673- 1675), who also held the Sees of Speier 
and Worms. His arms were: Quarterly, \ and 4. 

Worms ; 2 and 5. Mainz ; 3. Speier {v, p. 322) ; 

4. Abbey of Weissenburg {y, p. 322). Over all the 
personal arms: Argent, three escallops sable. Crests, 
I. Weissenberg ; 2. Worms ; 3. Mitre, etc. ; 4. 
Mainz ; 5. Speier ; 6. The personal crest : Out of a 
coronet tlu head and neck of a swan proper. 

His successor, Damian Hartard von der Leven 
(1675- 1678), ^as also Prince-Bishop of Worms, and 
accordingly bore : Quarterly, i and 4. Mainz ; 2 and 3. 
Worms ; over all his personal arms, Azure, a pale 
argent. The crests were four: — i. WORMS; 2. MiTRE, 
etc.; 3. Mainz; 4. Leyen. Tlu liead of a greyhound 
argent, between two wings azure sem^ of silver linden 
leaves. This Elector used Supporters, two white grey- 
hounds. (He and his predecessors had also the usual 
arrangement of the primatial cross, the sword and 
pastoral staff.) After another Metternich (1679}, 

( 257 ) 

Anselm Franz von Ingelheim held the See from 
1679 to 1695. His sixty-four quarters are given in 
Spener, Op. Her,, p. spec, p. 745. He bore : Quarterly y 
I and 4. See of Mainz ; 2 and 3. Ingelheim, Sable, a 
cross counter-compond gules and or. The lulms and crest 
are three ; i. Mainz ; 2. the MiTRE ; 3. Two wings each 
cluirged as t/ie Ingelheim quarter ; being the personal 

On our Plate XVI. we give from TRIERS, Einleitung 
zu der Wapen-Kunst, the arms of JOHAN Friedrich, 
Count von Ostein, who was elected in 1743, and died 
in 1 763. (He held the See of Worms in covimendavt from 
1756.) The arms are : — Quarterly, i and 4. The See of 
Mainz ; 2 and 3. The arms of Ostein : Azure, a grey- 
hound springing or, collared gules. 

The crests are three, on golden helms. The centre 
supports the mitre on a crimson cushion. The dexter 
bears the silver wheel of the See upon an Electoral hat ; 
and the sinister, the personal crest a demi-greyhound 
as in the arms. The archi-episcopal cross is in pale, and 
the temporal sword and crosier, in saltire, behind the 
shield, which is surrounded by an ermine-lined mantle 
of crimson velvet fringed with gold. 

Trier (Treves). 

Arms : Argent, a cross gules. 

According to ecclesiastical legend the See of Trier 
derived its foundation in the year (^ from SS. EUCHA- 
Rius, Valerius, and Maternus, disciples of S. Peter, 
and successively bishops of the See. This tradition 
has no solid foundation, and the earliest historical 
bishop appears to be Agritius, or Agroetius, on 
whom the archi-episcopal dignity is said to have been 
conferred by Pope SYLVESTER, and who flourished in 
the early part of the fourth century. The title of Arch- 
bishop really appears for the first time two centuries later. 


( =58) 

LUDOLF of Saxony. Archbishop from 994 to 1008, 
is said to have been the first Elector of Trier, but the 
secular eminence of the See as an Electoral principality 
appears to date from the times of Archbishop Baldwin, 
Count of LUTZELBURG (who held the See from 1307 
to 1354), since there is some doubt as to the exact time 
when the right of electing the Emperor became restricted 
to the seven princes, three ecclesiastical and four secular. 

The Archbishop of TRIER held the second place in the 
Electoral college, and voted first at the Imperial elections 
held under the presidency of the Elector of Mainz. 
He used the titles, " Von Gottes Gnaden Erzbischof zu 
Trier, des heil. rom. Reiches, und des Konigrciches 
Arelat, Erzkanzler und Kurfiirst;" "S. Romani Imperii 
Archi-Cancellarius per Galliam et Regnum Arelatcnse." 
As to the empty title of Arch-Chancellor of the Empire 
in Gaul, etc., we find that the Archbishops of ViENNE 
had the office of Arch-Chancellor in the Burgundian 
kingdom at Aries, during the reign of the Emperors of 
the house of Suabia. 

The Elector had his principal residence at COBLENZ. 
To him belonged the strong fortress of EiiREN- 
BREITSTEIN, which commands the Rhine at this point. 
and is said to have been founded by Archbishop 
HiLLiN, who held the See from 1 152 to 1 169. 

The Abbacy of St. Maximin near Trier was an 
adjunct of the Archi-episcopal See ; and in his quality of 
Abbot the Archbishop was Arch -Chaplain of the 
Empress. The princely Abbey of Prum in the 
Ardennes, which had been long coveted by the Arch- 
bishops, was finally united to the See in the year 1576, as 
the Provostship of Weissenburg had been in 1545. 
The three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun were 
suffi-agan to Triers until the conquest of the territory 
by the French. At the Peace of Lu NEVILLE France 
was left in possession of the territories on the left bank 

( 259 ) 

of the Rhine, those on the opposite bank were given to 
Nassau, and the Elector was indemnified by a pension 
of icx),ooo florins. The Concordat of 1801 established a 
new ecclesiastical organisation, in consequence whereof 
Trier lost its Archi-episcopal dignity and was made 
suffragan to MECHLIN. In 1815 Trier became a 
possession of the Prussian Crown, and the See was 
vacant until 1824. It is now suffragan to COLN. 

Charles Caspar von der Leyen, who filled the 
See from 1652 to 1676, bore (according to FURST, 
Wappenbuch, iii., 3), the arms following : Quarterly ^ 
I and 4. Argent, a cross gules (TRIER); 2 and 3. Azure, a 
pale argent (his personal coat) ; Over all, on an escucheon, 
the arms of the Abbey of PrUM : Gules, on a mount in 
base vert a Paschal-Lamb passant regardant argent, 
holding a banner of tfie last c/iarged with a cross of the 
first. (Siebmacher in the Wappenbuch, i., plate 13 
assigns to Prum a different coat : Per fess azure and 
gules, in chief three fleurs-de-lis or ; but the reason does 
not appear, and the coat previously given is certainly 
that usually borne for the princely abbey.) The Elector 
Charles Caspar used three crested helms of gold; of 
these the central one bore on a crimson cushion the 
archi-episcopal mitre. The helm on the dexter side was 
surmounted by the Electoral hat, and bore the crest of 
the See, an octagonal fan charged with the arms thereof, 
and bearing in the centre an escucheon of the arms of 
Leyen. The points of the fan are ornamented as 
usual with small tufts of peacock's feathers. The helm 
on the sinister side is timbred with an open crown, 
out of which rises the Leyen crest already described 
at p. 256. 

His successor the Elector JOHN HUGO VON Orsbeck, 
who filled the See from 1676 to 171 1, was also Prince- 
Bishop of Speier (elected in 1675) and retained that 
See with his Electorate. Accordingly he bore the follow- 

( 26o ) 

ing arms: Quarterly, i. Trier, as above; 2. Prum, as 
above ; 3. Weissenburg {y, p. 322) ; 4. Speier, Azure, 
a cross argent ; and over all an escucheon of his personal 
arms : Or, a saltire gules between four nenuphar leaves vert. 
The helms and crests are five in number ; the central one 
bears the mitre, those next on either side have respec- 
tively the crests of Trier and Speier {see p. 322 ), the 
outside helm to the dexter bears the crest of Weissen- 
burg, Out of a crest-coronet or, a pair of eagle's wings 
gules, charged as the anns ; z/. p. 322 ; and that to the 
sinister the personal crest of Orsbeck, tJie /lead of a 
/lorse argent bridled gules. Here, as in all other German 
examples, the helmets have lambrequins of the chief 
metal and colour in the coats to which they belong. The 
arms of the Elector Charles of Lorraine, in 1715, 
are at p. 89, ante. The Archbishops of TRIER employed 
the usual arrangement of their archi -episcopal cross, 
temporal sword, and spiritual crosier, as external adjuncts 
to their shield of arms. It is worthy of notice that in 
the Wapenrolle von Ziirich, taf. xxv., the banner of Trier 
is depicted as Sable^ a cross argent, of which the reason 
is not evident. ' 

The Electors of Trier had a splendid nominal list of 
great officials: The Dukes of LUXEMBURG, Marshals; 
Barons of ISENBURG, Marshals of the Palace ; the Electors 
of Brandenburg, Cupbearers ; the Barons of Helfen- 
STEIN, Stewards, etc. The actual officials were, the 
Barons of Elz, Marshals ; the Stewardship was hereditar}'- 
in the family of Leyen ; the Chamberlainship in that of 
SOTERN ; the Butlership in that of ScHENCK, all of 
Rhenish nobility. 

The arms of the Dom-Capitel of Trier were 
the arms of the See with the addition of a demi- 
figure of S. Peter issuing from clouds, holding in the 
dexter hand two keys in saltire and in the sinister an 
open book. 

( 26i ) 

CoLN (Cologne). 

Arms : Argent^ a cross sable. 

The authentic list of occupants of the See of COLN 
appears to commence with S. Maternus, who was 
present at the Council held at Rome in 313. His 
successor EUPHRATES was a member of the Council of 
Sardica thirty years later. S. CUNIBERT who held 
the See for about forty years (623-663 Vj appears to have 
held the titie of Archbishop as a personal distinction, and 
the See was not really an archi-episcopal one until the 
time of HiLDEBRAND (785-819) though some writers 
place its erection in the times of S. Agilolf who was 
martyred in 717. Under Archbishop HiLDEBRAND the 
suffragans of CoLN were BREMEN, LiJTTlCH (LifeGE), 

OsNABRUCK, and Utrecht. Qf these Bremen was 
united later to the Archi-episcopal See of HAMBURG 
{y, Bremen, p. 271); Utrecht became itself a Metro- 
politan See in 1559, while MiNDEN was secularised in 
1648. The Emperor Otto III. is said to have added 
the dignity of Elector to the archbishopric in the time of 
Hekibert, Count of Rothenburg, who held the See from 
999 to 102 L The Archbishop also claimed the dignity of 
Arch-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire throughout 
Italy {Erzkanzler des Apostolischen StuJUes und des 
heiligen romischen Retches deutscher Nation), which is said 
to have been first held by Pelegrinus, Archbishop from 
1 02 1 to 1036; though others consider that Friedrich, 
Marquis of Friuli, who held the See from 1099 to 1 131, 
was the first who possessed this dignity. At the 
Imperial Elections CoLN voted second. The Arch- 
bishop had the honour of crowning the Emperor if that 
ceremony took place in his diocese; otherwise he 
claimed to exercise the right alternately with the Arch- 
bishop of Mainz {v. s. p. 253). Like the other great 
Ecclesiastical Princes of Germany the Elector had a grand 

( 262 ) 

official Household in which the principal places were 
held by the Prince of Akemberg, Grand Cupbearer ; 
the Count of Manderscheid-Blanckenheim was 
Grand-Master of the Household ; and the Count of 
Salm-Reifferscheid, Marshal. 

The arms borne by the Elector were as follows : 
Quarterly, i. Argent, a cross sable, for the See of CoLN ; 
2. Gules y a horse salient argent, for the Duchy of 
Westphalia. This part of Saxony was seized and 
held by Imperial authority by PHILIP VON Heinsberc; 
(Archbishop and Elector from ii 67 to 1191) when 
Henry the Lion was put under the ban of the 
Empire by the Emperor Frederick (Barbarossa) in 
1 1 80. 3. Gules, three (Juart-sliaped) nenuphar leaves or, 
for the Principality, or Duchy, of Engern, which came to 
the See under the same circumstances as Westphalia. 
4. Azure, an eagle displayed argent, armed or, for the 
County of Arnsperg. This county was sold in 1 368 by 
its last possessor GOTTFRIED voN Arnsperg (who 
had no longer hope of posterity by his wife Anne of 
Cleve), to Cuno, administrator of the See of COLN, for 
behalf of the church. Upon this quartered escucheon 
the personal arms of the Archbishop and Elector were 
placed en surtout. The archi-episcopal cross in pale, 
with the naked temporal sword and spiritual crosier in 
saltire, appeared in the usual manner behind the shield, 
which was further supported by two golden lions rampant, 
or by a golden griffin on the dexter side, and the lion 
on the sinister. {See Plate XV., fig. i.) 

In the sixteenth and following two centuries the 
Electors often held other Sees in comviendam with their 
own, and their arms were therefore combined with those 
of the Archbishopric of CoLN. 

As a notable example we give (Plate XV., fig. 2) the 
arms of Clement Augustus, Duke of Bavaria, Arch- 
bishop and Elector from 1723 to 176 1. He also held at 

( 263 ) 

the same time the Sees of HiLDESHElM, MtJNSTER, 
OSNABRUCK, and Paderborn, and the Grand Master- 
ship of the Teutonic Order. The oval shield is 
separated into four Grand Quarters by the cross of the 
Teutonic Order, Sable, bordered argent (slightly /o/Zif 
at the ends), thereon a cross flory or. 

I. The arms of the See of COLN and its dependencies, 

as already given above, viz. : Quarterly , i. COLN ; 

2. Westphalia ; 3. Engern ; 4. Arnsperg. 

II. The See of HiLDESHElM, Per pale argent andguleSy 

III. Per f ess (a) {in chief) Quarterly, \ and 4. Gules, a 
cross or (See of Paderborn); 2 and 3. Argent, a 
cross-moline argent (County of Pyrmont, vide post, 
p. 309) ; (b) {in base) Argent, a wheel of six 
spokes gules (See of Osnabruck). 

IV. Quarterly of six (in two horizontal rows each of 
three quarters); i and 6. Per f ess argent and gules 
in chief three martlets sable (Burg-gravate of 
Stromberg) ; 2 and 5. Azure, a fess or (See of 
Munster) ; 3 and 4. Gules, three balls, two and 
one, <?r (Lordship of BORCKELOHE). 

On the centre of the Cross of the TEUTONIC ORDER, 
and forming a part of it, is a shield of the arms of 
Germany : Or, a single-headed eagle displayed sable. 
On its breast is placed an escucheon of the personal 
arms of the Elector, viz. : Quarterly, I and 4. Fusilly in 
bend-sinister argent and azure, Bavaria ; 2 and 3. 
Sable, a lion rampant or, crowned and armed gules. 
Palatinate of the RHINE. The archi-episcopal cross 
in pale, conjoined with the naked temporal sword, and 
spiritual crosier in saltire, are placed behind the shield, 
which is mantled with crimson velvet, lined with ermine, 
and surmounted by the Electoral hat. 

Maximilian Friedrich, Count of Konigseck- 
ROTHENFELS, Princc-Archbishop and Elector of 
Cologne, Bishop of Munster, 1761-1784, bore: 

( 264 ) 

Quarterly of eight (in four horizontal rows each of two 
quarterings) ; i. Argent, a cross sable (COLN) ; 2. Gules, 
a Itorse saliant argent (Westphalia) ; 3. Gules, three 
hearts or (Engern) ; 4. Azure, an eagle displayed argent 
(Arensberg or Arnsperg); 5. Azure, a fess or 
(MONSTER); 6. Per fess argent and gules, in chief three 
birds sable (Stromberg) ; 7. Gules, three balls or 
(Borckelohe) ; 8. Argent, tl^ee fleurs -de - lis gules 
(. . .?). (?z/^r ^/ (KoNIGSECK) : Lozengy in bend 
sinister or and gules. The shield is surmounted by the 
Electoral hat ; and the crosier and temporal sword arc 
in saltire behind the escucheon. The Supporters are the 
usual griffin and lion (z/. p. 262). 

Archbishops and Bishops, Princes of 

THE Empire, etc. 

I. Augsburg. 

Arms : Per pale gules and argent. 

The traditional origin of this See ascends to the third 
century when S. Narcissus and his deacon S. Felix 
are said to have preached the gospel in the neighbouring 
country. The list of the early Bishops of the Sec goes 
back to the sixth century ; but S. WiCTERP, or Wi(}1u:rt, 
who occupied the throne from about 737 to 'j6'^, is the 
first really historical personage connected with the See. 
Its possessions appear to have been largely increased 
by Bishop SiMPERT (778-809) ; he was a Prince of 
Lorraine, nephew of the Emperor Charlemagne, and 
had been Abbot of MuRBACH. The See, at first suffragan 
to Milan, was afterwards under SALZBURG, and in the 
ninth century was transferred to Mainz. Bishop Bruno. 
a duke of Bavaria, who occupied the See from 1006 to 
1029, was the first of the Prince-Bishops of AUGSBURG. 

The principality, which included the counties of 
Geisenhausen and WiTZLINGEN with many lordships. 

( 26s ) 

was secularised in the year 1802, and on its restoration 
by the Concordat of 18 17 the See became suffragan to 
the new Archbishopric of Munchen-Freysing. 

Prince-Bishop from 1665 to 1690, are given by Spener, 
{Opus Heraldicuniy p. spec. ; plate xxxii.) They are : 
Quarterly^ i and 4. Per pale gules and argent (See of 
Augsburg) ; 2 and 3. Per fess argent and azure, in tlu 
last three bezants (otherwise balls of gold), (Barons von 
Freyberg). The Episcopal mitre on a crimson cushion 
is placed on a golden cherub's head above the centre of 
the shield. On either side is a golden helmet, properly 
mantled, of these the dexter bears the crest of the See : 
On an open crown or, a fan crest (of twelve points) of 
tlu anus of tlie See, with the usual little balls and tufts 
of peacock's featlters at the angles. The sinister is the 
crest of Freyberg, In a crest-coronet or, a panache of 
five ostrich feathers argent. The temporal sword, and 
the spiritual crosier, are placed in saltire behind the 

John Francis Schenk von Staufenberg, was 
Prince- Bishop of AuGSBURG from 1737 to 1 740 (he 
had been coadjutor of AuGSBURG since 1714, and of 
Constanz since 1694). He bore the following arms: 
Quarterly, i. Argent, a cross gules (CONSTANZ) ; 2. (AUGS- 
BURG); 3. Aigent, a cross gules (Abbey of Reichenau); 
4. Argent, two hands issuing from clouds in flanks and 
holding in pale a key with double wards (Abbey of 
. . .). Over all an escucheon of his personal arms : 
Argent, a fess gules between two lions passant azure. 

The shield has the usual crosier and temporal sword 
placed in saltire behind it, and is also supported by two 
lions regardant ; the whole is surrounded by a mantle 
surmounted by the crown of a Prince of the Empire. 

Franz Conrad, Freiherr von Rodt, was Bishop 
of Constanz from 1750 to 1775. He bore : Quarterly, 

( 266 ) 

1. Per pale : Argent {? Or) and gules, a fess argent, the 
personal arms of the Barons RODT ; 2 and 3. Argent, a 
cross gules (See of CONSTANXE) ; 4. Or, two hands issuing 
from clouds in flanks and holding in pale a key with double 
wards (Abbey of ElSGARN (?) v. p. 89). 

The arms of the Dom-Capitel are : Per pale gules 
and argent, over all the effigy of tlu Blessed Virgin holding 
the Infant Saviour. 

2. Bamberg (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Or^ a lion rampant sable, over all a bend 

This See was founded in the year 1007 by the Emperor 
Henry II. at the request of his wife Cunegunda. 
The Emperor endowed the new See with the entire 
County of Bamberg, which had lapsed to the Crown ; 
Lauenthal and ViLLACH in Carinthia ; and other 
possessions, including Abach, near Ratisbon, the place 
of his birth. The first bishop of the See was the Chan- 
cellor Eberhard, nephew of the Emperor, who held it 
until his decease in 1041. The Bishop had archi- 
episcopal honours, being entitled to use the archi-episco- 
pal cross and pallium, and he held his See immediately 
from the Pope. He ranked as the first Prince-Bishop of 
Germany, and claimed precedence over the Grand 
Master of the Teutonic Order. His dignity may be 
estimated by the fact that the four secular Electors did 
not disdain to hold the honorary hereditary offices of his 
household. The Elector of Saxony was Grand-Marshal ; 
the Elector of Bavaria, Grand-Steward ; the King of 
Bohemia was Grand-Cupbearer; and the Elector of 
Brandenburg his Grand-Chamberlain. LVMXCEUS 
says " Hesitavi aliquando affirmare Electores esse Offici- 
narios Episcopatus Bambergensis ; nunc autem dubio 
plane solutus sum, legi enim in literis investitura^ datis 
anno 1475 die Martii post Festum Michaelis, a Philippo 

( 267 ) 

Episcopo Bamb. Albertum Electorem Brandenb. inves- 
titum fuisse de officio supremi Camerarii EpiscopatOs 
Bamberg, et omnibus ejusdem pertinentiis, etc." (See 
Praun, von den Heer Schilden des Teutschen Adels, etc.) 

The Electors however discharged their duties by 
deputies who were respectively members of the families 
of Ebnet, Pommersfelden, AufsAss, and Roten- 
HAN. (BURGERMEISTER, BibUotheca Equestris, Pars. 
II., p. 832.) 

The possessions of the See were secularised in 1802, 
and Bamberg became an Archbishopric with ElCH- 
STADT, Speier, and WiJRZBURG, as its suffragans. 

The arms, etc., of Peter Philip von Dernbach, 
Prince-Bishop from 1672 to 1683, are given in Spener, 
Op. Her. p. spec, p. 387, tab. xv., and have been 
blazoned already at p. 88. Over the escucheon (which 
has the usual accompaniments of archi-episcopal cross, 
temporal sword and pastoral staff) are arranged five 
crests — the centre (which is placed on the escucheon 
without the intervention of a helm) consists of the 
Imperial Crown. (This according to Triers, Einlei- 
tung zu der Wapen-Kunsty p. 394, was an Imperial 
Augmentation.) The other crests have golden helms 
and proper mantlings. Next to the centre on the 
dexter side is the crest of BamberG: On a crimson 
cushion an octagonal fan charged with the artns and 
tufted ; to the sinister the crest of F'RANCONIA : Out of 
a crest-coronet or two horns per fess indented gules and 
argent. The external crests are, to the dexter WiJRZ- 
BURG : Out of a princely hat a panache of three ostrich 
feathers y a white one between two others^ blue and redy tlie 
whole placed between two lances with their banners as in 
the arms. The last helm on the sinister side bears the 
personal crest of Dernbach : Two eagles wings charged 
with the personal arms. 

The arms of Adam Friedrich, Count of Seinsheim, 

( 268 ) 

Prince-Bishop of Bamberg, etc., in 1757, have been 
blasoned at p. 90, ante. 

Bishop Friedrich Schreiber, elected Bishop of 
Bamberg in 1875, bore: Quarterly, I and 4. Or, a lion 
rampant sable, over all a bend argent (See of Bambkrc;) ; 
2 and 3. Azure, two pens in saltire between four stars of 
six points argent. Upon the top edge of the shield {cf Plate 
XIII., fig. 3) lies the pallium which is the great privilege 
of the See. It is cliarged with nine crosses pat^es sable. 
The head of the patriarchal cross with its double traverse 
appears behind the shield between the mitre and the 
head of the crosier, and the whole is surmounted by the 
Episcopal hat. (The crosses of the Bavarian Orders of 
Merit, of the Crown, and of S. Michael are appended 
by their ribbons beneath the shield.) 

Basel (Basle). 

Arms : Argent, tlie head of an ancient crosier gules. 

This See was originally situated at AUGST {Augusta 
Rauracaruin) but in 450 that place was destroyed by 
the Huns, and the See was removed to Basel, which is 
in the same neighbourhood. The first really historic 
Bishop was Ragnachar, who lived at the commence- 
ment of the seventh century, though the first Bishop 
Justinian is said to have been present at a reputed 
synod held at Cf')LN in 346 against the Arians ; and 
at the Council of Orleans held July 11, 511, by 
command of Clovis, Adelphius Bishop of Basel is 
said to have been present. After Ragnachar, Walan 
who lived in the time of GREGORY II. {circa 715-731) is 
the next in the list who has a certain existence. In 
1004 the Emperor Henrv II. conferred on the Bishop 
Adalbero II. the right of hunting in the Forests of 
Elsass, etc., a permission which was extended four 
years later to other districts in Switzerland. In 1271, 
the Counts of Pfirt sold to the See of Basel nearly the 

( 269 ) 

whole of their county ; but in 1361 Bishop JOHN Senn 
VON MiJNSlNGEN again sold the county to RODOLPH, 
Duke of Austria, who had married the daughter of 
Ulric, last Count of Pfirt. Apparently some rights 
were reserved to the See, inasmuch as when by the 
Treaty of MONSTER the County of Pfirt and the rest 
of the Suntgau were ceded to France, the then Prince- 
Bishop made energetic protests in the Diet, but in vain. 

The See of Basel was made suffragan to Besan<;:on 
at the commencement of the eighteenth century. At 
the Reformation the Chapter of the Cathedral, which 
had fallen to the Protestants, had removed to FREIBURG 
IM Breisgau ; since 1677 it has shifted to Arlesheim and 
Dellemont. After the French Revolution Basel was 
included in the Confederation of the Rhine, but at the 
Restoration in 1815 the territories were for the most 
part included in the Canton of Bern. By the Concordat 
and Papal Bull of 1828 the See of Bern is declared to 
be held immediately from the Roman See, and the seat 
of the Bishop is in the Chapteral church of SS. Urs and 
Victor in Solothum. 

As concerns the arms of the See (Plate V., fig. 5), there 
was long much uncertainty as to what the charge really 
was. The very learned German Herald Spener, has the 
following paragraph in his Opus Heraldicum ; pars gene- 
ralis, p. 302. " Anchoram etiam vocat Basil iensium 
5f(7/ita Freherus, ob piscatoris munus quod ab imperio 
teneat ; sed CI. Seb. Feschius, de Insig., c. 8, n. 14, 
mavult esse nauticum instrumentum ^cu fahr-stachel" by 
which I suppose is meant a boat-hook. But an exam- 
ination of the fourteenth century manuscript known as 
the Wapenrollc von Ziirich, taf. xxv., fig. 568, shows that 
the ancient banner of BASEL was charged with a crosier, 
or pastoral staff, gules on a white field. The staff has 
been shortened till nothing remains but the crook and 
the socket by which it was attached to the staff. I have 

( 270 ) 

myself carefully examined the seals of the early bishops, 
and the tombs which remain in the Minster at Basel, 
many of which bear in sculpture the arms of the See, 
and I have come to the conclusion that the charge is 
certainly as I have blazoned it above. The German 
Heralds usually give the tincture of the charge as sable. 
This is its tincture in the arms of the City and Canton, 
but not (anciently at least) in those of the See. 

The arms of JACOB SiGiSMUND von Reinach-Stein- 
BRUNN (1737-1743) were: Quarterly of six, in two 
horizontal rows : — I. and VI. The arms of the See ; II. 
and V. Or, a lion rampant double queue gules, and hooded 
azure; III. dind IV, Or, Iwo bends gules . . . There 
are four golden helms, of which the two in the centre 
support respectively the mitre and the princely hat. The 
outer helm to the dexter bears, Out of a crest-coronet of 
gold a demi-lion or, whose back has a ridge, or crest 
ichancr^, tufted with peacock's feathers. The sinister 
helm bears. Out of a coronet or a demi-wolf proper. 

BiSANTZ (Besan(;on) (Archbishopric). 

Arms : Gules, an eagle displayed or. 

The line of Bishops of BiSANTZ is said to commence 
with S. Ferreolus towards the close of the second 
century. S. Celidonius, or Chelidonius, was certainly 
.set over the See by S. Hilary in 444. Bernuinus, or 
Bernouin, is said to have been its first Archbishop in 
about the first quarter of the ninth century. As the See 
with the rest of the Burgundian kingdom was absorbed 
by the Empire under Henrv I. the Archbishop became 
Arch-Chancellor of Burgundy, and Prince of the Holy 
Roman Empire. The Suffragan Sees were AvENCHES, 
now Lausanne ; August a-Rauracarum, now Basel; 
WiNNiCH, now Constance; and Nion, now Bellev. 
With regard to the last-named See wc may note 
here that it was transferred to Bellev about the 

( 271 ) 

middle of the sixth century. The date of its erection at 
NOYON is unknown .ViNCENTlUS "episcopus Belli- 
censis" was present, in 555, at the second Council of 
Paris. Among the later occupants of the See was 
Boniface of Savoy, elected in 1233, who in 1240 became 
Archbishop of CANTERBURY. In 1802 Metz, Verdun, 
and TOUL were made suffragan to BesaN(;on. After 
the French Revolution there was a long vacancy in the 
See ; but it was called back into life by the Concordat 
of 1817. 

BiSANTZ fell under Hispano-Burgundian rule in 1651 ; 
but Louis XIV. seized the Franche-Comt^ in 1674, and 
the Treaty of NiMEGUEN in 1679 confirmed France in 
its possession. Despite the change of Sovereigns the 
Archbishops continued to hold the title of Princes of 
the Holy Roman Empire. 

As to the arms, it is doubtful whether they were 
assumed with reference to those borne by BYZANTIUM ; 
or whether they are allusive to the Apostolic symbol of 
the Evangelist S. JOHN, who, with S. STEPHEN, appears 
to have been co-patron of the church. 

Brandenburg (Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules, two keys in cross argent. 

This See, founded by the Emperor Otto the Great 
in 949, was first a suffragan of Mainz, and later of 
Magdeburg. The last Catholic Bishop, Joachim, 
Duke of Munsterberg, resigned the See in 1560 to the 
Elector JOACHiM II. of BRANDENBURG. The crest of 
the See was : Out of a mitre two crosiers, each having a 
bannerol of the arms of the See. 

Bremen (Archbishops of Bremen and Hamburg). 

Arms : Gules, two keys addorsed in saltirCy and in chief 
a crosslet patde-fitcJu^e argent. 

( 272 ) 

The Bishopric of BREMEN was founded on July 14, 
788, by the Emperor CHARLEMAGNE, who appointed 
S. WiLLEHAl) its first Bishop. It was made suffragan 
to C(')LN. 

The Emixiror Lou is (der From f fie) in 834 (May 15), 
erected the Archbishopric of Hamburg, and set over 
it S. Ansgar, a monk of CORVEY, who in the year 849 
also became Bishop of Bremen. In 858 Pope Nicho- 
las I. formally united the Sees. Anskar and his 
successors took up their residence at Bremen, but it 
was only in 1223 that the definite removal of the archi- 
episcopal throne to Bremen took place, and that the 
See took the name of that city alone. The See reached 
its greatest extent in the years between 936 and .1072. 
Under the Archbishop Christopher of Brunswick- 
LUNEBURG (also Bishop of Verden), who filled the 
See from 151 1 to 1558, the Chapter became Protestant. 
Thereafter, the See was nominally filled by five German 
princes, under the last of whom, Friedrich, Prince 
(afterwards King) of DENMARK, its possessions were 
finally secularised in 164&, and pledged to the Swedish 
Crown in payment of a war indemnity. 

Breslau (Wratislav, orWROCLA\v)(Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, six fleurs-de-lis argent 
(Breslau); 2 and 3. Or, an eagle displayed sable, 
having on its breast a crescent argent (Silesia). 

Founded probably about the commencement of the 
eleventh century its first historical Bishop was Jerome 
who held the See from 105 1 to 1062. At the close of the 
thirteenth century its possessions were so extensive that 
the lands were erected into a Principality of the Empire, 
and its Bishops received the titles of Prince of Neisse, 
and Duke of Grottkau. The See was at first sufl'ragan 
to Gnesen, but in 1354 it was relieved from this sub- 
ordination, and was held immediately from the Roman 

( 273 ) 

See as it is at present. Political changes have occasioned 
the division of its possessions, and, though most of the 
lands are included in the Prussian monarchy, a portion is 
still under Austrian dominion. The See was under a 
Vicar-apostolic from 1817 to 1 823 when the bishopric 
was reconstructed. (The tinctures of the coat quartered 
in the 1st and 4th, are sometimes given as Asure and Or.) 
The arms of Balthasar von Promnitz, Prince-Bishop 
in 1551, are given at p. 90, ante. 

Joseph Chrlstian, Prince Hohenlohe-Walden- 
hurg-Bartenstein, who had been coadjutor-Bishop 
since 1 789, held the See of Breslau from 1795 to 18 17. 
His shield was. Quarterly of six, in two liorizontal rows 
each of three quarters ; I and 6. Argent^ two lions passant 
gardant sable (HOHENLOHE) ; 2 and 5. {Azure?) six 
fleurs-de-lis or, 3. 2. i. (Breslau) ; 3 and 4 Per f ess : 
(a) Sable, a lion passant crowned or ; (b) Qy, fmr lozenges 
conjoined four and four in two rows sable (LaNGENBERG). 
Over all an escuc/ieon, Azure, a lion rampant argent, 
crowned or (Gleichen). (This coat is sometimes 

The escucheon is surmounted by a princely hat between 
the head of a crosier and a mitre ; and is supported to 
the dexter by a lion rampant or, crowned with a princely 
crown ; and to the sinister by a lion rampant sable, crowned 
with an Eastern crown or. The whole is surrounded with 
a princely mantle, and surmounted by a princely hat. 

Brixen (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules, a Paschal- Lamb passant regardant argent 
diademed or, and holding by a golden cross staff its banner 
of the second charged with a cross of the first. ( 1 1 is some- 
times depicted improperly as standing on a terrace vert 
in base, as in SlEBMACHER, Wappetibuch, vol. i., plate 
ii., where also the lamb is not regardant. Some have 
seen in the arms of the See an allusion to S. Agnes, 


( 274 ) 

whose head was said to be included among the relics of 
the Church of Brixen.) 

This See was originally founded at Seben {Sabiona;, 
where S. Cassian is said to have been its first Bishop 
about the middle of the fourth century, and it was prim- 
arily suffragan to the patriarchal church of Aquileia. 
A more probable first Bishop is S. INGENUIN, who 
lived at the close of the sixth century; but the series 
of bishops becomes historical only towards the close 
of the eighth century, in Alim, or Altheus, who was 
living about 804. About the year 798 the Bishopric 
was made suffragan to Salzburg. It is not quite 
clear at what date the transference of the See to 
Brixen took place, but in all probability it was during 
the Episcopate of S. Albuin, who lived at the close 
of the tenth century and died in 1006. The See 
had the honour of furnishing a Pope to the Roman 
Church in the person of POPPO, or WOLFciANG, elected 
Bishop about 1039, Patriarch of Aquileia in 1042, and 
Pope in 1047, when he took the title of Damasus II. 
The possessions of the See were secularised in 1802, 
but the title of Prince-Bishop in the Austrian Empire 
was restored to it in 18 18. It had as its hereditary 
officials the Dukes of Bavaria, Carinthia, Meran, 
and SUABIA, as Marshal, Chamberlain, Butler, and 

With the arms as given above those of the Cathedral 
Chapter are often borne impaled ; they are : Argent, an 
eagle displayed gules y crowned and anned or, across its breast 
a pastoral staff in f ess of the last. (TRIE RS, Einlcitung zu 
der Wapen-Kunst, p. 397.) These are evidently the arms 
of Tirol differenced by the addition of the crosier. 

The banner of Brixen depicted in the Wapenrolle 
von Zurich, taf. xxiv., has the eagle placed with its 
head towards the staff, and the crosier is of azure 
not or. 

( 275 ) 

The crest used was, Out of a crest-coronet of gold a 
pentagonal (? hexagonal) fan crest, its points ornamented 
in the usual way with little tufts of peacock's feathers ; 
the fan is of silver and charged with the eagle and 
crosier of the Chapteral arms. {See TRIERS, Einleitung 
zu der Wapen-Kunst, p. 398.) Spener, Opus Heraldicunty 
p. spec, plate xxvi., gives the arms of Bishop Paulinus 
Mayr, 1677-1685. These have already been described 
at p. 90, ante. 

Camin (or POMMERN) (Bishopric). 

Arms : GuleSy a cross-moline argent. 

This See was founded in 1133 by Pope INNOCENT 
II. who made the See of Stettin and Pommern 
suffragan to the Archbishopric of MAGDEBURG. The 
Pomeranian See was first situated at JULIN, in the 
island of Wollin ; and its first Bishop was Adalbert, 
the coadjutor of Otto of Bamberg, by whom Pome- 
rania had been won to Christianity. In 1176 Bishop 
Conrad removed his throne to Camin, and the 
See became suffragan to the Polish Archbishopric 
of Gnesen. Pope Clement III. made it one of 
the bishoprics held immediately from the Papal 

Erasmus Manteuffel, i 522-1 544, was the first 
bishop to favour the opinions of the Reformation. His 
successor BARTHOLOMEW SWAWE resigned his See in 
1540 on entering into the married state. 

In 1648, after the See had been nominally filled by 
six Dukes of POMERANIA in succession, it was finally 
secularised, and by the Treaty of OsNABRUCK became 
a secular Principality of the Electorate of BRANDEN- 
BURG. The coat above given contains the arms as now 
blazoned among the quarterings of the great shield of 
Prussia. In Siebmacher's Wappenbuch i., 12, they 
are: Azure^ a digavima or. 

( 21(» ) 

Cammkkicii X'AMBkAVy < I Vi nee- Bishopric, afterwards 

The first authentic Bishop of Cambrav whose name 
apfxrars in the h'st of the occupants of the See seems 
to be S. VKliAST, who was first set over the Church of 
Akkas (Atrebatum) by S. Rkmigius in the year 510. 
In 1093 AkkAS was separated from Cambrav. Cam- 
brav was suffragan to Reims up to 1559. in which 
year Poj>c Paul IV. raised it to the rank of an arch- 

On the extinction of the old line of the Counts of 
Cambrksis, the P2mi>eror Hknrv I. gave the county to 
the Sec, and with it the rank of Prince of the Holy 
Roman Kmpire. Bishop Jamks of Crov was created 
Duke of Cambrav in 15 10. The arms of the See were. 
Argent^ three lions rampant, two and one, gules, to these 
there was often added a chief of the Empire, which some- 
times was attached to the personal coat. 

William ok Bkrc.HES, fourth Archbishop of 
Cambrav, who died in 1609, t>ore his personal arms : Per 
fess ; A (in chief), Per pale (a) Sable, a lion rampant or, 
Brabant, (b) Or, three pallets gules, MECHLIN. B (in 
base), \\*rt, three mascles or, Bautersem. l^ie whole 
beneath a chief of the Empire, the eagle charged on the 
breast with a label gules. The only external ornaments 
were the archi-cpiscopal cross and hat. Joseph de 
BeR(;aIc;NE, Archbishop (1645-1647), quartered CAM- 
BRAV {Argent, three lions rampant gules) in the first and 
fourth ; with, in the second and third, his own coat : 
A::up'e, on a bend gules, bordered argent, three roses of the 
last). Above the quartered coats a chief of the Empire, 
This is a remarkable arrangement, and there is appar- 
ently no label. The ornaments are a ducal coronet ; 
and the archi-cpiscopal cross and hat. Charles de St. 
Al.BIN, /uitard d^Orlt^ans, son of the Regent PlHLirrE, 
filled the See of Cambrav from 1723-1764. He bore 

( 277 ) 

on an oval cartouche the arms of the Kmpire, and on 
the breast of the Eagle his personal coat : Orl1?:ans 
(Franck-MOOERN, a label argent) debruised by a baton 
gules pt^ri en barre. The cartouche is ornamented with 
a princely crown of fleurs-de-lis alternating with straw- 
berry leaves ; the sword and crosier are in saltire, and 
the archi-episcopal cross with a double traverse, in pale, 
behind the escuchcon, which is mantled ; and the hat 
with fifteen houppes on each side, surmounts the whole. 
His successor LtoPOLD Charles de Choiseul 
(d. 1774) bore his personal coat : Azure, a cross between 
twenty billets or (five in saltire in each quarter) ; aug- 
mented with the Chief of t/ie Empire, On the cross an 
cscucheon en surtout of Cambray. The external 
ornaments were the sword and archi-episcopal cross in 
saltire behind the mantling, which is surmounted by the 
Crown of a Prince of the Empire. 

Cambray has since become an Archbishopric of 
France, with Arras as its si^ffragan. 

ClllEMSEE (Bishopric). 

Per pale : i . Or, a lion rampant sable, 2. Gules, a 
crosier in pale argent. 

The first bishop of this See, which was suffragan to 
Salzburg, was Rudiger von Rodeck, Provost of the 
Monastery of S. Hin»OLVTUS at Zell in the Pinzgau, 
who was nominated by Archbishop Kberhard at the 
division of the See of SalzbuR(; in 1215. 

The Bishop and his successors lived in the monastery 
in the Isle of Hcrren-Chiemsee, and in Salzburg ; 
but in 1446 the Archbishop Friedrich Truchsess 
appointed the parish church of S. JoHN in the Leukenthal 
to be the Cathedral of the diocese. In 1805 the portion 
of Tirol in which ClllEMSEE was situated became part 
of the possessions of Bavaria. The See was suppressed, 
and the Bishop SlGMUND, Count of Zeil and Trauch- 

( 278 ) 

BURG, pensioned at the foundation of the See of MUNICH- 

SiGMUND Christoph, Count of VValdburg-Zeil, 
Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee, 1 797-1 805, bore the arms 
of his See on a cYn^i per pale (a) Or, an eagle displayed 
sable; (b) Gules, the liead of a pastoral staff, or. Beneath 
this chief were placed his personal arms : Quarterly, I 
and 4. (7r, three lions passant in pale sable (Suahia) ; 2. 
Azure^ three fir cones or (Waldhurg) ; 3. Azure, a sun in 
splendour above a mount in base or (SONNENHERG). 

In the Wapenrolle von Zurich, taf. xxv., the banner of 
Chiemsee is : Per pale, l. Or, an eagle displayed dimidi- 
ated gules. 2. A rgent, a pastoral staff in pale azure. 

ClIUR (Coire) (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Argent, a steinbock springing sable. 

The foundation of this Bishopric is of great antiquity, 
and is by some carried back even to Apostolic times, 
and ascribed to S. PETER. S. AsiMO, its Bishop, was 
present at the Council of Chalcedon in 450. It was 
originally suffragan to Milan, but in the year 843 was 
transferred to Mainz. Since about 1 171 the Bishops 
had the title of " Fursten des heil. romischen Reiches 
deutscher Nation " (which Bishop Egino received from 
the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa), and sat in the 
Swabian circle. In I404 MODESTUS ViscONTi of 
Milan gave the Valtelline to the See. 

The possessions of the See were secularised in the 
year 1 802- 1803, ^"^ ^he bishop removed his residence to 
Meran. Pope Pius VII. made the See to depend only 
on the Chair of S. PETER. In 1823 the Catholic portion 
of the Canton of St. Gall was united to CiiUR, under 
the title of the See of CuiJR and St. Gall ; but in 1836 
they were again divided, and in 1 846 St. Gall was 
refounded as an independent See. 

The arms of St. Gall were formed from those of the 

( 279 ) 

Abbey : Argent^ a bear rampant sable^ collared of t/ie 
field ; and were, Or^ a bear erect sable y on its shoulder a 
raguly staff proper. 

The Cathedral is dedicated to S. LUCIUS, who is said 
to have been a British prince. In it I noticed the 
following examples of Episcopal arms. First, on the 
gravestone of Johannes Flug von AsPERMONT(elected 
1601, resigned the See in 1627) ; the arrangement is 
as follows : Quarterly, I and 4. The arnis of the See, as 
above (the steinbock is contour nt^ in the first quarter); 
2 and 3. Per f ess (a, in chief) Sable, afess argent (ASPER- 
MONT) ; (b, in base) Azure, three heads and necks of swans 
argent, beaked gules (Flugi). On the tomb of his 
nephew of the same name, elected 1636, died in 1661, 
the arrangement is different, and somewhat curious : 
Quarterly, I and 4. Flugi ; 2 and 3. AsPERMONT ; 
Over all, in an esaicheon en surtout the anns of tlie See of 
Chur. Beneath in a smaller escucheon are the arms of 
Werdenburg : Gules, a gonfanon argent, ringed or (this 
coat was usually borne by the family en surtout above 
the quartered coats of AsPERMONT and Flugi). 

The shield is surmounted by a mitre and behind is 
placed the pastoral staff in pale. On either side of the 
mitre is a helm, crested and mantled. The dexter crest 
is that of the See : A hexagonal fan, having tlie usual tufts 
of peacock's feathers, and charged with the anns of the See; 
the sinister is the crest of AsPERMONT ; Out of a crest- 
coronet or, two horns sable, each charged with afess argent. 
The arms of Bishop JOSEPH MOHR (1627-1635) have 
already been printed at p. 88. 

CONSTANZ (Constance) (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : {Argent, a cross gules). 

The first Bishops resided at WINDISCH (Vindo- 
nissa) in the Aargau, where the See was erected, it 
is said, in the fourth century. Maximus was Bishop 

( 28o) 

circa 580, and in his time Clothair transferred the 
See to CONSTANZ from Windisch which had been 
destroyed in a German invasion. It was originally 
suffragan to Mainz, and the Bishop held the rank of 
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, having his seat 
between the Bishops of Strasburg and AUGSBURd. 
It seems probable that the princely dignity was attached 
to the possession of the great Benedictine Abbey of 
Reich EN AU. This was founded in the year 724 by 
S. FiRMiN, and after much disputation united to the Sec 
in 1538, by MARK DE Knoringen the fifty-ninth abbot, 
John von Wesa being at that time the occupant of the 
See. In spite of some diminution at the Reformation, the 
See was so vast in extent that it included three hundred 
and fifty religious houses, seventeen hundred and sixty 
parishes, and seventeen thousand priests and religious. 
In 1802 the possessions of the See were secularised, and 
incorporated either in the Grand-Duchy of Baden, or in 
Switzerland. Thereafter the diocese was administered 
by a Vicar-general. (The arms of Reich EN au also 
were : Argent ^ a cross gules.) 

Corvev (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Per f ess or and gules. 

The celebrated Benedictine Abbey of CoRVEV on the 
Weser (not to be confounded with the French Abbey of 
Corbie near Amiens), was founded under Louis Ic 
Debonnaire in 822. In 844 the Emperor LoTUAlR 
endowed it with the island of RUGEN. In 1783 Pope 
Pius VI. converted the Abbacy into a See ; and, in 1793, 
the Emperor Francis II. confirmed it. It had but a 
short existence. The Prince- Abbot Theodore von 
Brabeck was preconised as its first Bishop in 1792 ; the 
second and last was Ferdinand von Luning in 1795. 
In the general upturning in 1802 the possessions of the 
See were secularised, and given to the Princes of Nassau 

( 28i ) 

{vide posty FULDA, p. 285). The diocese was included 
in that of Paderborn in 1821. The crest of the 
Abbacy was, Out of a coroneted helm two (sometimes 
three) crosiers proper. 

CujAViA (Leslau, or Wladislaw) (Bishopric). 

Arms : 

In the tenth century the first seat of the CujAVIAN 
Bishopric is said to have been at Kruschwitz. Pope 
Innocent II. in 1 133 made it suffragan to Magdeburg. 
Bishop ONOLl),who lived circa 1 160, transferred his seat 
to Leslau, and it, later, became suffragan to Gnesen, 
the Polish Archbishopric. The See in the twelfth 
century included all the eastern part of Pomerania. In 
1806 there commenced a long interregnum, and in 181 8 a 
portion of the See was united with the Diocese of CULM. 

The Bishop, styled of Wladislaw, was, in 18 18, 
placed under the Metropolitan See of Warsaw. 

Culm (Lobau) (Bishopric). 

Arms : Argeut^ within a narroiu ring gules touching the 

edges of the shield ^ a cross coupcd sable ^ bordered argent. 

In 1243, ^hc "Prussian Bishopric" was divided by 

Pope Innocent IV. into the four Sees of Culm, 
Ermelani), Pomesanien, and Samland. In 1245 
the Pope appointed Albert (Archbishop of Armagh 
in Ireland, and administrator of the Diocese of LUBECK) 
to be Archbishop of PRUSSIA, LivoNiA, and ESTHONIA, 
with the oversight of the new Sees. Later CULM, under 
the designation of LoBAU, was suffragan to RIGA, and 
afterwards to Gnesen. 

DORPAT (Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules, a sword in pale traversed by a key in 
fess argent. 

Albert von Buxiioveden, Bishop of Riga in 12 10, 
appointed Theodoric, Abbot of the Cistercian Mon- 

( 282 ) 

astery at DiJNAMUNDE, Bishop of ESTLAND, and his act 
was ratified by Pope INNOCENT III. But the lands 
were overrun by King Waldemar of Denmark, and 
the Bishop slain. Bishop Albert filled up the See by 
the appointment of his brother Herman, who had been 
Abbot of S. Pauli in BREMEN, and placed his residence 
in the town of Leal. After the Teutonic Order had 
firmly established itself in Livonia, HERMAN, in 1224, 
removed to DORPAT. The See was suffragan to Riga. 
Its existence ended in 1558, on the seizure of DORPAT 
by the Russians. 

ElCHSTADT (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules, a crosier in pale argent (usually with the 
sudarium entwined around the staff). 

This See was founded in 746 by S. BONIFACE, Arch- 
bishop of Mainz, who placed over it S. Wilibald, son 
of his sister BONA. WiLIBALl) had, at first, only his 
monastery, and the half of the County of Herschberg, 
which, with the permission of the Duke of Bavaria, had 
been given to it by the Count SuiTGAR, a donation con- 
firmed by Count Gebbard the last of his line. The 
monastery was built on the banks of the river Altmuhl ; 
around it there soon grew up a little town, which took 
its name of ElCHSTADT from the oak forest in its neigh- 
bourhood. The Bishop of ElCHSTADT held the first 
rank among the suffragans of the See of Mainz, and 
was Chancellor of its Cathedral. In the fourteenth 
century the dignity of Prince of the Holy Roman 
Empire was attached to the See; and the Bishop took 
the ninth place on the bench of Spiritual Peers in the 
College of Princes of the Empire, having his seat 
between the Bishops of WORMS and Speier. 

In 1802 the Principality was secularised ; the then 
Bishop, Joseph, Count von Stubenberg, was elected 
Archbishop of Bamberg in 1821, and held it with his 

( 283 ) 

See which was reconstituted by the Concordat of 

Like the other great bishops, the Prince-Bishop of 
ElCHSTADT had his hereditary court officials. The 
Count of Castell was Marshal; the Count of ScHAUM- 
BURG, Chamberlain ; the Count of Leonrodt, Master of 
the Household ; and the Baron of Eyb, Steward. 
Several princes held fiefs from the See ; among them the 
Duke of Saxe-Gotha. The Bishop was ex-officto 
Chancellor of the University of lN(iOLSTADT. 

Franz Ludwig Schenk, Baron von Castell, was 
Prince-Bishop of the See of ElCFLSTADT from 1725 to 
1736; and his arms were thus arranged: Quarterly^ 
I and 4. Argent, two attires of a stag united by the scalp 
gules ; 2 and 3. Argent, two lions passant in pale gules, 
crowned or. Over all in an escucheon en surtout tlu arms of 
the See of ElCMSTADT, Gules, the liead of a crosier argent 
(cf p. 89, ante). The escucheon was surmounted by four 
crested helms : — L (to the dexter) Out of a crest-coronet tlu 
charge of the first and fourth quarters ; 2. A mitre upon a 
cushion proper (for the See) ; 3. A princely hat, from which 
rises an arm habited argent, the cuff or, the hand holding a 
crosier in be nd -sinister, proper {^xovo'^X.^x'^ of Oeningen); 
4. Out of a crest-coronet the bust of aft old man habited 
gules, turned up and buttoned argent (this and the first 
crest belong to the personal arms of the Prince-Bishop). 

The crosier and temporal sword were arranged in 
saltire behind the shield, which was also supported by 
two lions rampant, crowned or. 

The arms of the Dom-Capitel were : Gules, three 
lions passant in pale or. 

Ermland (Bishopric). 

Arms : A cure, a Paschal- Lamb passant proper. 

The Bishopric of ErmlanI) was constituted by Pope 
John VI. in 1250, and made suffragan to Riga. {See 

( 284 ) 

under CULM.) After the Reformation the former 
Diocese of Samland was included in its jurisdiction ; 
and in 1821 some portions of the former Diocese of 
POMESANIA were added to it. 

Freiburg (Archbishopric). 

Arms : Or, a cross gules. 

The Arch-diocese of FREIBURG IM Breisgau was 
created in 1827, in some sort as a successor to the See 
of CONSTANZ {vide ante, p. 280). Its jurisdiction is 
composed of fragments from the former Sees of Basel, 
Mainz, Speier, Strasburg, Worms, and Wurzburg. 

Freising (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Argent, tlu bust of a Moor sable, habited gules, 
and crowned with an Eastern crown or. 

The See of Freising was established by Pope 
Gregory III. in 730, for the Regionar>' Bishop S. CoR- 
BINIAN, one of the coadjutors of S. Boniface. It was 
suffragan to Salzburg. The Bishop was a Prince of 
the Empire, having the fourteenth place on the bench of 
spiritual princes. This dignity probably dates from about 
the year 1 140 when the Diet of Ratisbon confirmed the 
purchase for the church by the then Bishop, Otto, 
Markgrave of AUSTRIA, of the rights of government of 
the lands surrounding Freysing which had belonged 
to the Count of Schiren and Wittelsbach. In 1802 
the possessions of the See were secularised, and after the 
death of the Bishop, Joseph Conrad von Schroffen- 
BERG in 1803, there ensued an interregnum which lasted 
until 1818 ; when a new See — to be known as that of 
Munich, or Munchen-Frevsing — was created with 
archi-episcopal rank, having as its suffragans the Sees 

of Augsburg, Passau, and Regensburg (Ratisbon). 

FULDA (Prince-Bishopric). 
Arms : Argent, a cross sable. 

( 285 ) 

This celebrated abbey was founded in 744, being one 
of the four erected by S. BONIFACE ; the others were 
Fritzlar (afterwards a bishopric), Harnemburg, and 
Ordorf. After several translations the body of S. BONI- 
FACE found its last resting-place at FULDA in Hesse. 

The abbey was one of the greatest of the early 
schools of learning in Germany. It had the title of 
Primas, or first of all abbeys, which was conferred 
on it by Pope JOHN XIII. about the year 968. In 
1 1 33 the Emperor LOTHAIR II., gave to the Abbot, 
Bertholomew de ScilLiz, the dignity of Arch- 
Chancellor of the Empress, with the right to place the 
crown on her head at a coronation. The Abbot also 
used the title of ** Primate of Germany and Gaul," and 
claimed precedence immediately after the Archbishop of 
Mainz, before all other prelates. But in 1 1 84, Archbishop 
Philip von Heinsberg of Coln, at the head of four 
thousand armed men, vindicated his own precedence at 
a Diet at Mainz, and the Emperor FREDERICK conceded 
his claim. In the Imperial Diet the Abbot had place and 
voice after the Bishop of Chur. The abbacy was raised 
to the rank of a bishopric, Oct. 5, 1752, and the eighty- 
first Abbot, Amani) von Buseck, who had been 
Prince- Abbot since 1737, became the first Bishop of the 
See in 1752. He held it for the brief period of four years. 
The See was one of those suffragan to the Archbishopric 
of Mainz. In 1802 the possessions of the See were 
secularised, and handed over to the princes of Orange- 
Nassau, as compensation for the loss of the hereditary 
office of Stadthalter of the Netherlands ; and the Bishop- 
Abbot received a pension until his death in 1814. From 
this time up to the year 1829 the See was governed by a 
Capitular and Apostolic Vicar, who had the spiritual over- 
sight of the Electorate of Hessen-Cassel. Thereafter 
the See was newly constructed, and it is now suffragan to 
the Metropolitan Church of FREIBURG IM Breisgau. 

( 286 ) 

The crest of Fl'LhA was: On a crest -^oronit or, the 
sabU cross of t/u anns. The Dom-Capitel of FULDA 
impaled a coat the reverse of that borne by the See '\-iz.. 
Argent, a cross sable ^ with Argent, on a mount in base 
three lilies proper. Sometimes the arms were placed 
in two escucheons accoles. 

Gexf ^Geneva, *; Prince- Bishopric^. 

Arms : Per pale ^a^ tlie amis of tlu Empire dimidiated ; 
■hj Gules ^ a key paleivays argent, wards in chief. 

The arms of the modern See are : Gulcs^ two keys in 
saltire argent, wards in chief 

The list of Bishops of Geneva goes as far back as the 
latter part of the fourth centur>', but the earliest names 
have no historical support. In the year 450 the Pope, 
Leo I., made the See suffragan to ViEXXE. It was in 
the year 11 54 that the Emperor Frederick 1 1. Bar- 
barossa) raised the Bishop to the rank of Prince of 
the Holy Roman Empire. At the Reformation the 
Prince-Bishop, PlERRE DE LA Baume, removed his throne, 
first in 1534 to Gex, and a year later to Annecv. In 
1802 the possessions of the See were completely secu- 
larised. In 1 8 19 the spiritual jurisdiction was transferred 
by the Pope to the Bishop of Lausaxne, resident at 
Freiberc; (Switzeriand), with the title of Lausaxxe- 
Gexeva. In 1864 the district around the city was again 
erected into a distinct See, and M. Mermillod became 
its Bishop. 

GXESEX (Archbishopric). 

Arms : Azure^ a sword in pale, hilt in chief and two 
keys in saltire, wards in chief, argent. 

The archbishopric is said to have been erected in 966 
and WiLIHALl) is named as the first occupant of the See, 
but it is only in the year 1000 that we find in authentic 
history the name of Gaudentius as archbishop. 
Gnesen had as suffragans the Sees of Breslau, 

( 287 ) 

Camin, Colberg, Cujavia, Cracow, and Lebus. 

In the year 1133 Gnesen with Breslau came 
under German rule, and was made for a while suffra- 
gan to the Archi-episcopal See of MAGDEBURG. At 
the beginning of the thirteenth century the Arch- 
bishop Henry obtained for himself and his successors 
in the archbishopric the dignity o{'^ legati naW of the 
Holy See. In 1416 Archbishop NICOLAS Tromby be- 
came Primate of POLAND with the right to crown the king. 
Later on the archbishops had the office of administrators 
of the kingdom in the interregnum between the death of 
one king and the election of his successor. 

The fall of the kingdom of Poland necessitated new 
ecclesiastical arrangements. After 1809 the archbishops 
had the title of Gnesen-Posen, but resided at the latter 
place, and administered Gnesen with the assistance 
of a coadjutor- Bishop. The present Polish Sees are 
Warsaw (Archbishopric) ; KiELCE ; LUBLiN ; POD- 
LACHLV ; Plotzk ; Sandomir ; Seyna ; Wladlslaw. 
Cracow is directly subject to the Holy See. 

G(")RZ (Prince- Archbishopric). 

Arms : Per pale: (a) SabUy a cross with three traverses 
botonny argent ; (b) the arms of the County of GOVCA 
viz,: Per bend ; (i) Asure^a lion rampant or ; (2) 
A rgent, two bends sinister gules. On a chief Or, a 
single-headed eagle displayed, sable, on its breast the 
arms of AUSTRIA, on the wings the letters M. T., 
and F. \.,gold. 
In 1751 the Patriarchate of AquILELV was divided by 
the Pope into the Archbishoprics of GoRZ and Udine, 
with COMO, Pedena, Trient, and Triest as suffragan 
Sees. But changes were soon made, Gradlsca being 
erected into a bishopric, and Laibach into an arch- 
bishopric {vide infra, p. 291). Gradisca had the rank 
of co-Cathedral with G(*)RZ. The arms of Gradlsca 

( 288 ) 

are : Per f ess Or and azure ^ aver all a cross-moline argent. 
But though the title of the Sec is still GORZ and 
Gradisca the Bishop's throne is at the former place, 
which is now the Metropolitan See of the Illyrian king- 
dom ; and its occupant has the title of Prince- Arch- 
bishop of the Austrian Empire. The suffragan Sees at 
present are Laibach, Veglia, Parenzo and Pola, 
Triest and Capo d'Istria. (Arms of Veglia: Argent, 
S. QUIRIXUS in pontificals proper) 

GURK (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Per pale : (a) Or^ a lion rampant sable croivtud 
of tlu field ; (b) Per f ess gules and argent. 

The See was erected in 1071 by the Emperor Henrv 
IV. and Pope ALEXANDER II. ; it was, and is, suffragan 
to Salzburg. Since 1787 the bishop has had his 
throne at Klagexfurt. He is a Prince of the Austrian 
Empire. The arms are obviously derived from those of 
the See of Salzburg {q.v., and cf, Lavant, p. 292). 

Halberstadt (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Per pale argent and gules. 

The date of the erection of this Bishopric is unknown. 
It was probably founded by Charlemagne, and its 
original seat was at OSTERWIK, where he erected a fine 
church from which the place took its name of Seligen- 
STADT. Thence it was removed to Halberstadt. It 
was suffragan to Mainz. 

In 1542 the reformed doctrines began to find favour 
here, and the See was administered by a succession of 
Princes of the houses of BRANDENBURG and Bruns- 
wick. At the Peace of Westphalia the Principality with 
its dependencies (part of the County of HOHNSTEIN, 
and the Lordships of LORA and Klettenkekg), was 
finally given to the Electorate of Brandenburg. 

The crest of the Bishopric, as born by the Princes of 
the Brandenburg house, was : Out of a golden crest-coronet 

( «89) 

an arm embowed in armour holding a palm-branch ; but 
this may very possibly be a late assumption, and not 
really attached to the See. 

Havelberg (Bishopric). 

Arms: A sure y two crosiers in sal tire y in chief a cross 
couped jitcliie argent ; but some authorities give 
the arms : Sable, a cross argent, and SlEBMACHER, 
Wappenbuch i., plate 1 1., makes this cross slightly 
patie at the ends. 
On the conversion of the Wends to Christianity 
Otto the Great founded this See, May 9th, 946. It 
was at first suffragan to the Archi-episcopal See of 
Mainz, but was transferred in the year 968 to the Arch- 
bishopric of Magdeburg. After the death of the last 
Bishop, BUSSO VON Alvensleben, in 1522, the Elector 
of Brandenburg took possession of the temporalities of 
the See, in disregard of the protestations of the Chapter. 

Hildesheim (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Per pale argent and gules {v. ante, p. 89). 

The original seat of this bishopric was at Elze, where 

Charlemagne is said to have founded a church in the 

year 796, and dedicated it to S. PETER. In 8 14 Ludwk; 

der Fromme transferred the See to HiLGENSCHNEE, 

which afterwards took the name of HiLDESHElM. 

GUNTHAR who ruled from 815 to 834 appears as its 

first authentic bishop. The new See included the 

whole of OSTPHALIA, and was suffragan to Mainz. 

The twentieth bishop, BERN HARD VON ROTHENBURG 

acquired, " per revelationem ac admonitionem familiaris 

cujusdam spiritus (quem Chronica Saxonum k rustico 

pileo, quo tectus incedebat, ^udibin vocant)," the County 

of WiNZENBERG, deserted by its Count, who suddenly 

disappeared, after having slain a Saxon. {^See Luc.€, 

GraffeU'Saal, pp. 780, 781.) 

The Counties of HOMEL'RG and Be^'N. with other 
Wdships, were acquired by succeeding bishops ; and its 
poftsesAions and wealth were so great that in 1 5 19 Bishop 
Joif X, Duke of Saxe-La'cEXBL R»i. had the temerity to 
make war on the Dukes of Brun>wick, and the Prince- 
Bishop of MlM^EX. On this account he was put under 
the ban of the Empire b\- the Emperor Charles \'.. and 
the See was denuded of a great portion of its possessions 
which was transferred to Brux<\%'ICK bv the Treatv of 
Qt'EDLIMBLRO in 1 523. 

In 1629, Feri>IXAXD. Prince-Bishop and Elector of 
CoLX, who also held the See of HiLDESHElM /"// 
commendani 'he was brother of Maximilian', Elector 
of Bavaria^, obtained from the Diet of Spever a 
sentence restoring to the See its former possessions. 
The Princes of Bruxsnyick had at first to vield, but 
later a compromise was effected, and confirmed by the 
Treaty of MUXSTER in 1648. The Prince-Bishopric, 
which for nearly two hundred years from 1 573-1761) 
had, with the exception of a single Episcopate, been 
held in covimendam by the Elector of CoLX, was finally 
secularised in 1802. Its possessions fell first to France ; 
then, in 181 3, to Hanover; and finally, in 1886, to 
Prussia. The Sec was restored, so far as spiritualities 
arc concerned, in 1824, The Bishop of HiLDESHElM 
also administered the Diocese of OsnabrCck from 1824 
to 1857 {vide infra, p. 308). HiLDESHElM is now 
exempt from any archi-cpiscopal jurisdiction, being held 
immediately from the Holy See. 

The crest of the See is : Out of a crest-coronet the figure 
of the Blessed I ^irgin holding in her arms the Holy Child — 
between tiuo lances with banners of the arms, S I E B %L\C H E R , 
Wappenbuch i., plate 10, gives as arms to HiLDESHElM : 
Quarterly, gules and or, but wrongly. 

To the Deanery, or Dom-Propstei the following arms 
arc attributed : Per bend, argent and gules (a difference 

( 29^ ) 

from the arms of the See), and the crest, Out of a crest- 
coronet six lances with banners (of the arms ?) proper, 

K()NIG(;rATZ (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : 

This See comprises a portion of the Bishopric of 
Leitomischl erected by the Emperor CHARLES IV. 
in 1344. In 1660 the Emperor LEOPOLD I. made 

Matthew Ferdinand Zoubek, Abbot of S. Nicolas 

in Prague, first Bishop of a new See of KoNlGGRATZ; this 
was confirmed by the Pope in 1664, and the Emperor 
conferred on the occupant of the See the title of " Prince 
of the Holy Roman Empire," but without seat or vote 
in the Imperial Diet. KONIGGRATZ was, and continues 
to be, a suffragan See to the Archbishopric of PRAGUE. 

Laibach (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Or, the eagle of the Austrian Empire, diviidiatedy 
and conjoined with the azure eagle of CarnioLA 
having on its breast a crescent gobonny argent and 
gules ; a crosier or upon the palar line. 

This See was founded by the Emperor FREDERICK III. 
in 1462. It was to be held immediately from the Holy See, 
the Emperor reserving to himself the right of Patronage. 
P'or a short time Laibach had the status of an Arch- 
bishopric and Metropolitan Church ; dignities conferred 
on it in 1787 by Papal Bull, and the Sees of Zengg, 
MoDRUS, Gradisca, and Trieste were suffragan 
to it. Twenty years later changes were made by 
which Laibach reverted to its old position of a bishopric 
holding immediately from the Holy See. Since 1830 it 
has been suffragan to the Archbishopric of GoRZ and 
Gradisca {q.v.). The title of Prince, which was con- 
ferred by the Emperor FERDINAND I. in 1533 on the 
second Bishop, Christoph Rauber, and his successors 
in the See (and which was lost in 1807 when the See was 

( 292 ) 

reduced from the archi-episcopal rank), was again con- 
ferred on it by the Emperor FRANCIS I. of Austria in 

Lausanne (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Per pale gules and argent two ciboria in fess 

The legend that this See was founded by S. Beatus, 
who was sent by S. Peter to preach the gospel in 
Switzerland, is unhistorical ; but there is no reason to 
doubt that as early as the first half of the fourth century 
an Episcopal See existed at WiFFLlSBURc;, or Avenches 
{Aventicum)y and that it was removed to Lausanne by 
Bishop Marius towards the end of the sixth century 
(593 or 594). It was suffragan to Besan(,on. Sebastian 
I)E Montfaucon, who occupied the See from 1517 to 
1560, was the last prelate who resided at Lausanne. 
In consequence of the spread of Protestantism in his 
diocese he had to remove to Freiberc;. In 18 19 a new 
diocese was formed by Papal Authority under the title 
of Lausanne-Geneva, which was to be held immediately 
from the Roman See. 

Since the year 1 125 the Bishops of Lausanne had the 
title of " Fursten des h. romischen Reiches deutscher 

Lavant (Bishopric). 

Arms: Per bend; (a) Or a lion rampant sable; (b) 
Gules, a bend-sinister argent. 

This was one of the Sees into which Archbishop 
Eberhard of Salzburc; divided his diocese {see 
Chiemsee, and Seckau), it was founded in 1228. In 
the year 1786, when the dioceses were re-arranged, the 
Bishop's throne was removed to St. Andreae in 
Carinthia, and a portion of its jurisdiction was transferred 
to the Bishopric of Seckau. The boundaries of the Sec 

( 293 ) 

underwent a further re-arrangement in 1859, and at 
present it is suffragan to SALZBURG. The arms are, 
obviously, only a different arrangement of those of 
Salzbuk(;. (But Per pale sable and or, (n>er all a 
fess guleSy also appears in my notes ; perhaps for the 
Chapter.) Marhurcj is the present place of the See. 

Lebus (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Or, the heads of two boat-hooks (?) in salt ire and, 
in chief an estoile argent y the whole within a bordure 
gules, (SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, vol. i., plate 1 2.) 

The arms are somewhat doubtful. The charges are 
two staves in saltire, each headed with a fleur-de-lis of 
which the interior leaf is wanting. Towards the 
lower end of each of the staves is an annulet on the 
exterior side. I suspect that these boat-hooks are only 
a depravation of two crosiers {cf Basel). 

The town of Lebus, where this Bishopric had its 
original seat, is in the Prussian Province of BRANDEN- 
BURG, a little to the north of P'raxkfurt on the Oder. 
BerxharI), who died a little before 11 50, is the first 
historical name on the roll of bishops. The last was 
John of Hornburg who died in 1555. His quasi- 
successor w^as JOACULM FREDERICK, Markgrave of 
Brandenburg, who laid aside the title of "Prince- 
Bishop of Lebus" on his succession to the Electoral 
dignity in 1598. 

Leitmeritz (Bishopric). 

Arms : 

Leitmeritz is situated in Bohemia, on the river Elbe. 
The See was founded by the Emperor FERDINAND III. 
in 1655, with the approval of Pope ALEXANDER VIL 
Its boundaries have since undergone a re-arrange- 
ment. The See is suffragan to the Archbishopric of 

( 294 ) 

Leitomischl (Bishopric). 

Arms : 

The Abbey was founded 1098, but this Bohemian See 
was erected in 1344 by Pope Clement VI. and the 
Emperor CHARLES IV. At the same time the See of 
Prag was made archi-episcopal, and to it Leito- 
MLSCHL w^as suffragan. The See came to an end in the 
Hussite troubles of the fifteenth century, and is now 
comprised in K()NIGGRATZ. 

Leuben (or Leoben) (Bishopric). 

Arms : 

This bishopric, situated in Styria, was founded in 1786 
by the Emperor Joseph II. with the sanction of Pope 
Pius VI. It had only one bishop, Alexander, Count 
VON Engel, who died in 1800. Thereafter the Prince- 
Bishop of Seckau united the See to his own. 

Llmburc; (Bishopric). 

Arms : 

The See of LiMBURG-on-the-Lahn (in the Prussian 
province of Hesse), was only erected in the year 1821 
by the Bull ^^ Provida solersque.'' It is suffragan to the 
Metropolitan See of FRElBURCi LM Brelsgau. 

LiNZ (Bishopric). 

Arms: Per f ess: {^ A zui'c, a cross botonny argent ; (b) 
Giiles, two pallets argent. 

This See was erected in 1784 by the Emperor Joseph 
II. with the approval of Pope Pius VI. Its territories 
were taken out of the Bishopric of Passau, and include 
the Archduchy of Upper Austria. The See is suffragan 
to the Metropolitan Archbishopric of VIENNA. The 
arms given above may possibly be those of the DOM- 

( 295 ) 

LUBECK (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : 

These as given by Spener, Opus Heraldicum, p. spec. 
h*b. iii., cap. xii., are : Azui'e, a cross couped or^ the 
upper arm surmounted by a mitre of the lasty and to this 
agrees Triers, Einleitung zu der Wapen-Kunst, Leipzic, 
1744, p. 403. The Crest is three banners charged with 
these arms. SlEHMACHER wrongly makers the coat to be 
Or, a cross gules (see IVappenbuch, vol. i., plate 1 1., where 
the arms of the cross are sWghxXy patees at the ends). 

This See was originally placed by the Emperor 
Otto I., its founder, at Aldenhurg, or Oldenburg, in 
Holstein, in the year 967. The Bishop Reginbert 
moved his throne to Mecklenberg. In 1052 Archbishop 
Adalbert of Hamburg divided the See of Olden- 
burg into three bishoprics ; OLDENBURG, Ratzeburg, 
and Mecklenburg. In the Slavonic uprising of 1066 
Bishop Esso of Oldenburg had to flee, and the See was 
void until the consecration of ViCELiN in 1 149. 

In 1 163, at the entreaty of Bishop GERALD, the See 
was transferred to the new and flourishing city of 
LuBECK by Henrv the Lion, with consent of the 
Emperor FREDERICK I. Henrv the Lion endowed 
the See with possessions given to it under his pressure 
by Adolk, Count of Holstein. Luthcranism began to 
make itself felt under the fortieth Bishop, Heinrich 
BoCKHOLT (1523-1535) who discouraged it; but his 
successor, Detlew VON Reventlow favoured it, and 
so did the following six bishops up to J OH AN A DOLE, 
Duke of HOLSTEIN-GOTTORP, who was also Archbishop 
of Bremen, and was nominated Bishop in 1586. He 
was succeeded by his youngest brother, JOHN FREDERICK, 
whose influence averted the secularisation of the Sec, 
when that fate befell so many ecclesiastical foundations, 
by the Treaty of MuNSTER. In recognition of his good 
offices, the Chapter elected to the Bishopric six princes 

( 296 ) 

of Holstein in succession. Bishop Johan Adolf (1586- 
1607) was the first married prelate. The See was finally 
secularised in 1802. In the Diets of the Empire, the 
Prince-Bishop of LUBECK sat next to the Prince-Bishop 
of OsNABRUCK ; but, after the establishment of the 
Reformation, neither had place on the bench of the 
Spiritual Princes. 

LUTTICH (LifeGE) (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Quarterly^ i. Gules ^ a column standing on a 
quadrangular base argent^ its capital or^ Bishopric 
of LlfeOE ; 2. GuleSy a fcss argent. Duchy of 
Bouillon ; 3. Argent, three lions rampant vert 
{armed gules), Marquisate of Franchlmont ; 
4. Or, four bars gules y County of LooS. 

The See of LlfeOE was originally founded at 
TONGERN ; it is said that S. Maternus was its first 
bishop in the year 130. The original See comprised 
both Trier and Coln. In the fourth century we 
find S. Servatius as Bishop, a name which appears 
to be authentic. The See was first transferred to 
Maestricht, and then to LlfeoE, by its Bishop 
S. Hubert, in the year 709 ; but the title of ToNGERN 
was not at once relinquished. Up to the time of 
Charlemagne Tongern was the only See suffragan 
to the Archbishopric of CoLN. 

The bishopric was a Principality of the Holy Roman 
Empire ; and the Prince-Bishop belonged to the Circle 
of Westphalia. In the Diet he and the Prince-Bishop 
of Munster had alternately precedence one of the other. 

The Prince-Bishop had also the titles of Duke of BOUIL- 
LON, Marquis of FRANCHLMONT, and Count of Loos, the 
reasons of which will be stated presently. In 1794 the 
French seized the principality ; in 1815, the Congress of 
Vienna confirmed its secularisation, and handed over its 
territory to the kingdom of the Netherlands ; but the 

( 297 ) 

Revolution of 1830 transferred it to the new kingdom of 
Belgium. Since 1801 it has been suffragan to the 
Archi-episcopal See of MECHLIN, but the See was 
vacant between 1801 and 1829. 

The Duchy of Bouillon in the Ardennes was sold 
by Duke GEOFFREY, with the consent of his brothers 
Eustace and Baldwin, to Bishop Obert, or Osbert 
(1092- 1 1 17), for the sum of six thousand marks of pure 
silver, in order to raise his equipment for the Crusade in 
the course of which he became King of JERUSALEM. (He 
reserved the right of redemption on his return, but this 
never took place.) The ducal title appears to have 
been first used by Bishop JOHN VON Heinsberg, who 
occupied the See from the yeax 14 19 to his resigna- 
tion in 1455. This adoption was probably less a 
piece of ecclesiastical pride (as would probably be 
at once assumed in modern times) than a means of 
asserting strongly the undoubted rights of his See. For 
we find it stated that in the fifteenth century "ce Duch^ 
entra dans la Maison de la Marck en 1552 par la protec- 
tion du Roi de France." Triers says {Eitiieitung zu 
der Wapefi'Kunst, p. 405) " Im funfzehenden Scculo ward 
Bouillon Roberto, Grafen zu der Marck, wegen eines 
gcthancn Vorschusses versetzet." It seems difficult to 
ascertain the truth about the matter. Spener, who is 
generally full of information, says : " Quo jure vero 
delatum sit Bullionum ad Marcanos non aeque expressum 
ullibi legi." I conclude that the ** right of the strong 
hand " was all that the Counts of Marck had ; for by 
the Treaty of Cambray the Duchy was restored to the 
Bishop of LliCGE, but only to be again seized by the 
King of France, and given with Franciiimont and 
Loos to the house of La Tour d'Auvergne, as repre- 
sentatives of the Counts of Marck. 

The Marquisate of Franchimont appears to have 
been in possession of the See in the eleventh century, 

( 298 ) 

when the Bishop vindicated his right to it against 
the claim of the Duke of Lorraine. 

The County of Loos is said to have been granted to the 
See by its Count Louis in 1202, to be held therefrom by 
his successors as a fief of the Church, and to revert to it 
on the extinction of his male line ; this took place in 1336. 
Others say that it was pawned to the See by ViNXENT, 
its last Count, apparently in articulo mortis. But the 
county was claimed and occupied by THIERRY; sister's 
son of the last Count ; and a strife ensued which lasted 
until 1 361, when a pecuniary payment was made by the 
bishop in satisfaction of any claims possessed by the 
Counts of HKiNSBKR(;,as heirs of Thierry ; and the See 
entered into full possession of the county. The County 
of Horn was also claimed by the See ; and in 1568, at 
the death of the last Count, was handed over to it by the 
Duke of Alya, Governor of the Netherlands for PHILIP 
II. of Spain. 

Of the arms borne by the Prince-Bishops of Llfe(;E 
(LUTTICII) some examples may be given. The quar- 
tered arms of the See were usually arranged in an oval 
escucheon : i . Gules ^ a column ou a stepped quadrangular 
base argent crowned or. See of LlEGE ; 2. Gules, a 
fess argent. Duchy of BOUILLON ; 3. Argent, three lions 
rampant vert, Marquisate of Franchimont ; 4. Or, 
four bars gules. County of Loos. The last two coats 
are ente en pointe of the arms of the County of HORN, 
Or, three hunting horns gules vi rolled afgent. Upon the 
main e.scucheon is the personal coat of the bishop. 
(Thus Franz Anton, Count of Mean de Beauyieux, 
Prince-Bishop (1792- 1795) bore: Argent, on a mount in 
base an oak tree proper ; an eagle sable, crowned ivith an 
antique crown and supported by a tr angle held in its claivs, is 
brochant over the stem of the tree.) The main escucheon 
has the spiritual crosier and temporal sword in saltire 
behind it, and is adorned with an ermine mantle 

( 299 ) 

and a princely hat. The supporters are two h'ons 
regardant. (His personal supporters were griffins hold- 
ing banners.) 

In the case of Bishop GEORGE Louis, Count von 
Berghem (1724- 1 743), the supporters are two lions 
rampant, and his personal arms are included in the 
escucheon en surtout. An earlier Prince-Bishop, JOHAN 
LUDWIG VON Elderen (who held the See from 1688- 
1694), used a similar arrangement ; the main shield is 
quartered, but the ent^ en pointe of the County of HORN 
was not at that time included in the escucheon. The 
personal arms of this Prince-Bishop were ; Argent^ a fess 
hauss^ or, between nine pieces of vair, four in chief five in 
two rows (3 and 2) in base, (A briefer blazon would be 
Beffroi, a fess hauss^ vair.) The main shield has neither 
sword nor staff, but is supported by two ibexes collared, 
and is surmounted by a princely hat. 

Eberiiard von der Mark (de Sedan) Prince-Bishop 
(l 506-1 538), used two white griffins as supporters to the 
quartered coat, on which the personal arms. Or, a fess 
chequy argent and gules, are placed en surtout. 

Spener {Opus Heraldicum, pars specialis, lib. iii., cap. 
viii.), tells us that on the coins of the bishopric the 
column was surmounted by a cross. 

Magdeburg (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Per fess gules and argent. 

The Archbishopric of MAGDEBURG was a foundation 
of the Emperor Otto I. The first Archbishop was 
Adalbert (who had been a monk of Weissemberg, 
and a missionary in Russia), elected to fill the See 
in 968. The Pope sent him th^ palliu'fn in 970; and 
conferred on him equal religious rights and privileges 
with those enjoyed by the Archbishops of CoLN, Mainz, 
and Trier. Like them, he was a Prince of the Holy 
Roman Empire, but he did not attain to the dignity of 

( 300 ) 

Elector. The Sees suffragan to Mac;deburg were : 
Brandenburg, Havelberg, Meissen, Merseburg, 

POSEN, and Zeitz. S. NORBftRT, Bishop from 1 1 26 to 
1 1 34, followed the Emperor Loth air into Italy, and 
received the title of Primate of Germany. In 1539 
the Archbishop was Albert, Markgrave of BRANDEN- 
BURG, who also held the Bishopric of Halberstadt. 
and the Electorate of Mainz. He permitted the exercise 
of the Reformed religion to his subjects at Magdeburc^ 
and Halberstadt. He was succeeded by two other 
princes of the line of BRANDENBURG; of whom the latter, 
Frederick, elected in 1551, died in 1552 without having 
received the pallium (the price of which was thirty 
thousand pieces of gold). To him succeeded three other 

Bbanden BURG princes: SiGisMUND, JOACHiM Frede- 
rick, and Christian William. The first of these 
embraced Protestantism, and the second handed over 
the cathedral and monastery to the Reformers. On 
the death of the Markgrave Christian William 
in 163 1, there was a vacancy in the Sec until 
1638, when Augustus, Duke of Saxonv, was made 
"administrator" of the diocese. At his death in 1680, 
the possessions of the See, with the rank of a duchy, 
were incorporated with those of the Elector of BRAN- 

The crest borne by the Princes of the House of 

Brandenburg for Magdeburg was: Out of a golden 

crest-coronet a pelican in Iter piety argent. This, however, 
does not appear in the achievement of Duke Augustus 
of Saxony as Administrator of the Diocese (znde supra) 
which is given by Spener in the plate accompanying the 
" Prolegomena " of his Opus Heraldicum (pars specialis). 
It is probable, therefore, that the crest was assumed 
somewhat later on the incorporation of the Duchy 
with the Brandenburg possessions. The arms of 
the Cathedral Chapter are : Per bend gules and argent. 

.) of Hexham. 2. Seal of liishoii oflVegiiier. 
."anlinal Cainerlengu, aetie vtunnte^ IK^i. 
•Jean, KUhop of NnntcH, in 1410. 

( 30I ) 

Meissen (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules, on a mount in base a Paschal-Laiub 
holding its banner proper. 

The See of MEISSEN was founded October 19, 967, by 
the Emperor Otto THE Great, who appointed his 
chaplain BURCHARD as its first bishop. Its erection 
was confirmed by Pope JOHN XIII. in the following 
January. It was at first held immediately from the 
Holy See, but was soon made suffragan to the Arch- 
bishopric of Magdeburg. The Bishop had the rank of 
Prince of the Empire. The Reformation caused the 
destruction of the Sec ; the last bishop was JOHANN VON 
Haugwitz, elected in 1555. He resigned his office in 
1 581. The possessions were secularised, and are included 
in Saxony. 

On the seal of Bishop NicolXs ZiegenbOCK 
(1379- 1 392) are two shields, one of the See; the 
other of his personal arms \ , , , an open 
pair of tailors shears in bend having a pair of wings 
attached. (Glafev, Specimen, tab. xii., fig. 9.) On the 
seal of Bishop JOHANN VON KiTTLlTZ, elected in 
1393, the arms of the See are in the first and fourth 
quarters ; the others contain the personal arms of 
the Bishop, which appear to be the head and bust 
of a man, looking to the sinister ; the head conjoined 
with that of a beast, perhaps a wolf The Bishop 
died in 1408, having resigned his See in 1398. He 
was succeeded by Thimo VON KOLDITZ, whose 
arms appear to have been : Bendy of siXy sable and 
argent, on a chief or a lion naissant gules. These 
arms (without tinctures) appear on one of three 
shields which are engraved on his seal. The others 
contain, one the arms of the See, and the other a 
lozengy coat. 

On all these seals (which are engraved in Glafev, 
Specimen Decadem Sigillorunty plates lii. and xii., Leipsic, 

( 302 ) 

1749) ^he Paschal' Lamb is regardant, and is not 
placed on a viount ; but on two other seals of Saxon 
princes who administered the possessions of the See 
{ibid.^ figs. 19, 20), the Lamb looks forward, and 
stands on a mount in base. Siebmacher's blazon : 
Per pale Or and azure, a fleur-de-lis counter-changed 
{Wappenbuch, i., 12) appears to be quite without 

MeRSEBURG (Bishopric). 

Arms : Or, a cross sable. 

The first Bishop of this See, founded by the 
Emperor Otto, about 967, was Boso, a monk of 
S. Emmeran's in Regensburg, who was consecrated 
in 968. His successor was * GiSELKR, consecrated 
in 971. GiSELER was also Archbishop of Magde- 
burg, and under him a new distribution of juris- 
diction took place, the diocese being split up into the 

Sees of Halberstadt, Magdeburg, Meissen, and 
Zeitz. Henry H. renewed the See about the year 

At the time of the Reformation, SiGlSMUND vON 
LiNDENAU (i 535-1 544) was the last prelate who com- 
bined the ecclesiastical and temporal jurisdictions. At 
the last date, AUGUSTUS, Duke of Saxony, assumed 
the administration of the temporalities, and they 
were soon absorbed in that state. The Congress 
of Vienna, in 1815, transferred a large portion to 

Metz (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Argent, a lion rampant sable, crozvned or. 

The coat : Gules, a cross argent, is sometimes given, 
and may be the arms of the Chapter. 

This See has a double traditional origin, being said 
to owe its foundation to S. CLEMENT, disciple of 

( 303 ) 

S. Peter, and to Patiens, a scholar of S. John. The 
first of the long list of bishops to whom we can assign 
a historical date is Hesperius, who was present at the 
Council of Clermont in 535. The bishop had the title 
of ^' Fiirst des heiligen roiniscJien Reidies deutscher 
Nation;' In 1552 the French under Henry II., con- 
quered its territory, and "the three Bishoprics" (Metz, 
with the adjacent Sees of TOUL and Verdun) were 
ceded to France by the Treaty of CHATEAU Cambresis ; 
though they remained suffragan to TRifiR. In 1802 
they were made suffragan to BesaN(^*ON. Since the 
Franco-German War the See of Metz has been held 
immediately from the Papal throne. 

Minden (Prince- Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules^ two keys in saltire argent^ the wards in 

This See was founded early in the ninth century. Its 
first bishop Herumbert, or Erkanbert, the traditional 
baptiser of WiTEKlNi), filled the See from 803 to 
813. From the first it was suffragan to COLN. Under 
Bishop LUDWIG, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, the 
Emperor LUDWiG IV. in 1339 raised the possessions of 
the See to the rank of a free Duchy of the Empire. It 
was secularised in 1648, and by the Treaty of MuNSTER 
came into possession of the House of BRANDENBURG, 
as an equivalent for VOR-POMMERN ceded to Sweden 
along with Halberstadt as a war indemnity. In 
1807 MiNDEN was included in the new kingdom of 
Westphalia; and in 18 10 formed part of the 
French department of Haut-Ems ; but in 1814 it was 
won back by Prussia. The district is now included 
in the See of Paderborn. The crest used, since it came 
to the House of Brandenburg, is : Out of a golden crest- 
coronet, a demi'lion rampant guleSy holding two keys in 
saltire argent. 


( 3o6 ) 

This See was founded by the Emperor Otto I. in the 
year 968, at Zeitz ; whence it was removed to Naum- 
BURG between the years 1028 and 1032, on the re-arrange- 
ment of the See of Merseburg {vide ante, p. 302). 

The bishopric came to an end on the death of Bishop 
Julius Pflug, consecrated in 1541, but dispossessed 
in 1546, and again restored in 1547. The administra- 
tion of its temporal possessions afterwards passed to 
the House of Saxon v. Since 1815 the territories have 
been included with those subject to the Prussian Crown. 

Oesell (Bishopric). 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. . . . tJie eagle of S, John 
rising ; 2 and 3. ... ^7 Paschal- Lamb, on a 
champagne in base two Passion crosses, one in bend 
tfie other in bend-sinister. 

This island was conquered, and its inhabitants forcibly 
converted to Christianity, by an army which crossed the 
frozen sea at the instigation of Archbishop Alhhrt von 
Buxhoveden, of Riga, on Jan. 27, 1227. 

The island was made into a bishopric under GOTT- 
FRIED, elected in 1227. In 1238 King Waldemar of 
Denmark seized it, but confirmed the Bishop in his office. 
Somewhat later it came under the dominion of the 
Teutonic Order. At the time of the Reformation Bishop 
John Monchhausen sold his rights to Frederick, 
King of Denmark, for 30,000 thalers, and it was there- 
after administered by MAGNUS, Duke of ScHLESWlG- 
HOLSTEIN, Frederick's brother, In 1721 Oksell was 
united to Russia by the Treaty of NvSTAD. 

Olmutz (Prince-Bishopric, Archbishopric). 

Arms: Per f ess : (a) Gules, four piles issuing towards 

t/ie chief argent ; (b) Gules, two piles issuing 

towards the chief argent. 
After the introduction of Christianity into Moravia by 

( 307 ) 

its apostles Cyril and Methodius, the latter was, in 
the year 868, appointed by the Pope Archbishop of 
Moravia and Pannonia, with his throne at Wele- 
HRAD, the then capital of Moravia. After the extinc- 
tion of the See in the tenth century the Archbishop 
of LORSCH had the spiritual oversight of the country. 
But the See was refounded about the year 960, and 
Sylvester, who died in 966, was its first Bishop, and 
placed his throne at OlmOtz. After the foundation of 
the Archbishopric of Prag that See had the ecclesi- 
astical supervision of the territory from 911 to 1063 ; but 
Pope Alexander III. refounded the See of Olmutz, 
and gave it as suffragan to Mainz. In 1344 it was again 
made subject to Prag. In 1777 Olmutz was raised to 
the rank of an archbishopric, and the newly erected 
bishopric of Brunn was given to it as a suffragan See ; 
an arrangement which is still operative. 

The Bishop was temporal Prince of OlmOtz and its 
vicinity, with seat and vote in the Diet. His title was, 
" Herzog des heiligen romischen Reiches, Fiirst und Graf 
der Koniglichen bohmischen Kapellc." 

The arms of the See as given in SlEBMACllER's 
Wappenbuch, appear above. They are differently given 
in later times ; as by JACOB Ernest, Count of Lichten- 
STEIN, elected Bishop in 1778. He bore: Quarterly^ 
1 and 4. Gnles, a fess from which proceed four piles 
towards the chief and as many towards tJie base, argent 
(See of Olmutz) ; 2 and 3. Or, an eagle displayed sable, 
on its breast a crescent argent (SiLESiA) ; Over all his 
personal arms. {See KoHLER, Miins-Belustigung, xiv., 
107.) The arms now used appear to be : Quarterly, 
I and 4. The Empire, on the fess of the Austrian 
escucheon the letters M. T. ; 2 and 3. The coat as given by 
SlEBMACHER abovc. (The Dom-Capitel use a key and 
a sword in saltire, the hilt of the sword in chief, the wards 
of the key in base. 

( 3o« ) 

OsXABRUCK (Prince- Bishopric). 

Arms : Argent, a wJuel of six spokes gules. 

Many ecclesiastical writers make WiHO, the first 
Bishop of this See, and place his nomination about the 
year 783, but this is ver>' doubtful. The first authentic 
Bishop appears to be Meixhart, who died in the year 
829. John Hoet, who fills the fort>-first place in the 
list of bishops, and who governed the See from the year 
1349 to 1366, was raised to the dignity of Prince-Bishop 
of the Empire by the Emperor Charles IV. 

In 1625 the Chapter of OsxabrCck, elected the 
Cardinal Francis William, Count of Wartenburg. 
But the Swedes, having seized the territories, made 
GUSTAVUS, Count of Wasaburg, a natural son of King 
GUSTAVUS Adolphus, (nominal) bishop in 1633. This 
dignity he appears to have retained until his death in 
1648. Then Francis William was restored, by the 
provisions of the Treaty of MuNSTER, on payment of 
160,000 livres ; and it was arranged that, for the future, 
the See should be possessed alternately by a Catholic 
and by a Protestant prince. The latter was ahvavs to 
be the youngest prince of the line of Duke George of 
Brunswick-Luneburg, at that time general of the 
Swedish troops. On the failure of this line the right 
was to pass to that of AUGUSTUS, Duke of WOLF- 
FENBUTTEL. It was in consequence of these provisions 
that Frederick (afterwards Duke of York) the newly- 
born son of King George III. of Great Britain and 
Ireland, was made Prince-Bishop of Osnabruck on 
Februar}' 26, 1764, and held what seemed to English 
Protestants that very odd title until the final secularisa- 
tion of the See in 1802. After that time the spiritual 
administration of the diocese was generally in the hands 
of the Bishop of Paderborn (but see pp. 290 and 305). 
In 1858 the Bishopric was formally reconstructed, and it 
is now held immediately from the Papal See. 

( 309 ) 

Paderborn (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, a cross or. See of 
Paderborn ; 2 and 3. Argent, a cross ancred 
gules. County of Pyrmont. 

The church at PADERBORN was founded by CHARLE- 
MAGNE about the year JJJ, and erected into an Epis- 
copal See, with the spiritual oversight of a portion of 
Middle Saxony, in the year 795. In 1 187, WiTlKIND, 
Count of SCHWALENBURG and Waldeck (being in need 
of money for his outfit as one of the Companions of 
Frederick Barbarossa on the projected Crusade) 
sold to the Bishop the temporal lordship of PADERBORN, 
which his ancestor had received from the Emperor 
Charlemagne as "advocate" of the See. The price 
paid was 300 marks of pure silver. The temporal 
possessions of the See, which already included the town 
and district of Warpurg, increased greatly after this 
time. In 13 12 at the death of the Count of Stoppel- 
BERG that county was divided between the See of 
Paderborn and the Counts of Lippe. 

The Bishop was a Prince of the Empire, with seat 
and vote in the Diet, and precedence between the 
Bishops of HiLDESHELM and Freysing. He had the 
first place in the Circle of Westphalia. Like other 
ecclesiastical princes he had a large household of 
hereditary oflficials. 

The See was suffragan to Mainz up to the year 1803. 
On 23rd November 1802 the possessions of the Bishopric 
were secularised, and e^iven to the Kingdom of Prussia as 
a hereditary Principality. A Papal Bull re-founded the 
See in 182 1, and made it suffragan to CoLN. 

As to the arms of PVRMONT, which are quartered with 
those of the See, the following is the explanation of their 
assumption. On the death of PHILIP VON Spiegel- 
BERC;, last of the Counts of Pyrmont (who had acquired 
Pyrmont from the Counts of Schwalenberg-Wal- 

( 3»o ) 

DECK), Herman Simon, Count of Lippe, husband of 
Philip's sister, Ursula, claimed the succession to Pyr- 
MONT; though Rembert von Kerssenbrock, Bishop 
of Paderborn (1547- 1 568) declared that the right of 
succession in default of male heirs had been transferred 
by purchase to his See. But his successor in the 
bishopric was JOHN, Count of HOYA ; who being a 
cousin of Herman Simon of Lippe, arranged that the 
latter should hold the county as a fief of the See of 
Paderborn, to which it should revert if the direct male 
line failed. Accordingly, on the death without issue of 
Philip, Count of Pyrmont (son of Herman Simon) in 
1583 the county should have reverted to Paderborn ; 
but the Counts of Gleichen, as heirs in the female line, 
claimed it, and with the assistance of Philip, Duke of 
BrUNSWICK-Grubenhagen, repelled the efforts of the 
then Prince-Bishop, Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg, to 
occupy the county with his troops. On the extinction 
of the Gleichen line, the Counts of Waldeck took 
possession of PYRMONT. In 1629 the See of Pader- 
born was held m commendam by a very powerful prince, 
Ferdinand of Bavaria, Prince-Archbishop and Elector 
of COLN, who invaded the county. After much fighting, 
in which each party was alternately victorious, an agree- 
ment was made by which the Counts of Waldeck were 
left in possession of Pyrmont, with a reservation to 
the See of Paderborn of the right of succession 
thereto, if the male line of the Counts of Waldeck 
should fail. 

The crest of Paderborn is, On a princely helm (without 
a coronet), a red cushion supporting a plain black cross. 
That of Pyrmont is : On a coroneted helm a column 
topped until a coronet or^ out of which rises a panache of 
peacock's feathers ; the column is pierced in bend-sinister by 
an arm of the Cross of PYRMONT, having a pointed lower 
end. The "column" of the crest of PvRxMONT, though 

( 311 ) 

generally so described, is really nothing but a tall hat 
as in the cases of the crests of Saxony, BRUNSWICK, 

Passau (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Argent^ a wolf springing, gules. 

This See was an outcome of the Bishopric (or Arch- 
bishopric) of LORCH. About the year 738, in con- 
sequence of an invasion of the Avars, Bishop ViVlLO 
transferred his throne to Passau, and it was in 739 
designated by S. BONIFACE as one of the four Sees into 
which Bavaria was to be divided. For some time the 
See was suffragan to Salzburg, but, in 1728, Pope 
Benedict XIII. decided that it should be held immedi- 
ately from the Papal throne. 

The bishop's title accordingly was thenceforth 
" Exemter Bischof und des heiligen romischen Reiches 
Furst zu Passau." In the Imperial Diet he sat between 
the Bishops of Regensburg and Trient. On February 
22, 1803, the possessions of the See were secularised, and 
transferred to the Electorate of Bavaria. At the present 
day the See is suffragan to the modern Archbishopric of 

Joseph Dominick, Cardinal and Count of Lamberg, 
who had been Bishop of Seckau in 17 12, became 
Bishop of Passau in 1723, and held the See until 1761. 
His arms were : Quarterly, i and 4. Per pale : (a) Barry of 
four argefit and azure ; (b) Gules plain (Lamberg) ; 
2 and 3. Or, a hound salient sable collared of the field 
(Potwein) ; over all two escucheons accolh en surtout ; 
I. Passau See (the v^oM contournf) ; and II. Gules, on a 
mount in base vert two greyhounds rampant argent 
supporting between them a ladder of four bars or (Scala), 
both these escucheons are ensigned with the same mitre. 
The main escucheon was surmounted by a princely hat, 
and placed on the breast of a double-headed Imperial 

( 312 ) 

eagle sable ^ armed ^ beaked^ and diademed or ; over the luads 
is tlu Imperial crown proper. 

The arms of the See of Passau {the wolf con tou mi) were 
placed on a chief above his personal arms by the Prince- 
Bishop, Thomas, Count von Thun und Hohensteix, 
who filled the See in 1795- 1796. He bore: Quarterly, 
I and 4. A sure, a bend or ; 2 and 3. Per pale : (a) Argent, 
an eagle dimidiated gules; (b) Sable, a/ess argent; Over 
all, on an escucheon en surtout. Gules, a fess argent 

The Dom-Capitel of Passau used as arms : Out of 
a coronet an arm in pale holding in the hand a ball or loaf. 

POMESANIA (Bishopric). 

Arms : . . . tlu Evangelistic symbol of S. JOH N , an 

eagle rising, between two pastoral staves erect 

paleways, luads turned inwards. Sometimes the 

arms are . . . the ea^le, and a chief thereon a 

plain cross , , . 

The cathedral of this See was at Marienwerder in 

the province of East Prussia. The Bishopric was founded 

in 1243, ^"d w^s suffragan to the archi-episcopal See of 

Riga. After the defection of Bishop Eruard von 

QUEIS, in 1524, the Bishops of CULM assumed the title 

and jurisdiction of POMESANiA, which were confirmed 

to them by Papal Bull in 1601. 

POSEN (Bishopric). 
Arms : 
This See was founded by Duke MiECiSLAUS of 

Poland (d. 992). Its first bishop was Jordan us, 
elected in 968. The Emperor Otto I. made the See 
suffragan to the Archbishopric of MAGDEBURG ; but it 
afterwards in the eighteenth century, came under 
Gnesen {vide ante, p. 287). 

( 313 ) 

Prag (Prague) (Prince-Bishopric, and Archbishopric). 

Arms : Sable, afess or. 

The first Bishop of Prag was DiETMAR, a Benedictine 
of Magdeburg, who was nominated by the Emperor 
Otto, in the year 973. The See was at first made 
suffragan to the Archbishopric of Mainz ; but in the 
year 1344 Pope CLEMENT VI., at the request of the 
Emperor Charles IV., erected the See into an arch- 
bishopric, with the new Sees of Olmutz and Leit- 
OMLSCHL as suffragans. During the Hussite troubles 
the See was vacant from 1431 to 1561. The Arch- 
bishop had the rank of Prince of the Holy Roman 
Empire, and used the title: — '*Legatus natus per 
Bohemiam, Bambergensem, Misnensem, et Ratisbonen- 
sem dioec : Primas regni Bohemici ; Cancellarius 
perpetuus Universitatis Pragensis, necnon studiorum 

The Sees which are now suffragan to this archbishopric 
are BUDWEIS, KoniggrAtz, and Leitmeritz. 

WiLHELM Florentine, Prince of Salm, held the 
Archbishop of Prag from 1793 to 18 10; and placed its 
arms : Sable, a fess or, in chief above his personal coat ; 
Quarterly y i and 4. Sable, a lion rampant gardant argent 
(WiLiXJRAVE) ; 2 and 3. Or, a lion rampant gules, 
crowned azure (Rheingrave) ; Over all an escuc/ieon. 
Quarterly, i. Gules, three lions rampant or (County of 
Kvrburg) ; 2. Gules, two salmon embowed and addorsed 
between four cross-crosslets argent (County of SaI-M) ; 

3. Azure, a fess argent (Lordship of HiNSTINGEN) ; 

4. Gules, a column argent, crowned or (Lordship of 
Anholt). The whole escucheon, which has the usual 
marks of spiritual and temporal dignity, was supported 
by two savages wreathed and bearing clubs proper. 

The arms of the Archbishop of Prag : Sable, afess or, 
have usually the pallium included in the shield in chief. 
Above the escucheon appears the head of a patriarchal 

( 314 ) 

cross between a mitre and the head of a crosier. This is 
surmounted by the green archi-episcopal hat, and the 
whole is surrounded by a mantle topped by the princely 
crown. Frederick Joseph, Prince of Schwarzen- 

6ERG, and Duke of Kruman, who had been Bishop 
of Salzburg since 1835, was elected Archbishop of 
Prag 1 849- 1 850, and was cardinal in 1842. He bore the 
arms of PR AG {Sable^afess or), with the pallium arranged 
in the chief of the shield. On an escucheon en surtout, 
surmounted by a princely crown, were his personal arms : 
Quarterly, i. Paly of eight argent and azure (Seins- 
HEIM) ; 2. Per fess dancetty argent and gules, {Coup^ 
emanc/t/ d" argent sur gueules, le gueules brochant par trois 
pikces sur Pargent, is a more accurate blazon) (SULZ) ; 3. 
Argent, a staff raguly in bend sable, inflamed at the top 
proper (Brandts) ; 4. Or, a raven perched on the luad of 
a Turk and picking out his eye, all proper. The head of a 
patriarchal cross appears in pale behind the shield, 
between a mitre and the head of a pastoral staff. This 
is surmounted by the mantling, and princely hat ; and 
the cardinal's hat and tassels surmount the whole. 

Ratzeburg (Prince?) (Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules, a fess dancetty the centre point conjoined 
with a cross argent. Another coat bears a tower 
surmounted by a mitre and having behind it a 
crosier and sword in saltire. 
This See was formed by Archbishop Adalhkrt of 
Hamburg, who, in 1052, divided the Diocese of Alden- 
BURG into the three Sees of Aldenburc;, Mecklen- 
burg, and Ratzeburg. 

The last Catholic Bishop, Chrlstoph von Schu- 
LENBERG, resigned his See in 1544, embraced Pro- 
testantism, and became the ancestor of the line of 
Counts of that name. The lands of the See were appro- 
priated by the Dukes of MECKLENBURG ; but in 1864, 

( 315 ) 

Ratzeburg, as capital of Lauenburg, was ceded to the 
Crown of Prussia. In the first coat described above I 
have given the arms attributed to the See by SlEBMACHER 
{Wappenbucli, vol. i., plate ii), but in the MECK- 
LENBURG quarterings the arms of the secularised princi- 
pality are given as : Gules^ a cross couped argent (to this 
some of the Dukes added a mitre or upon the upper arm). 
The same quartering was borne in the eighteenth century 
in the full shield of the Prussian monarchy, along with 
the other MECKLENBURG quarterings, to denote the ''jus 
expectationisl' — the right of eventual succession. 

As borne by the House of MECKLENBURG the crest 
of Ratzeburg was : Out of a golden crest-coronet seven 
lances, with banners floating, three to the dexter, four to the 
sinister, (According to general use, these crest-banners 
are charged as the arms.) 

Regensburg (Ratlsbon) (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Gules, a bend argent. 

The traditional date of the foundation of this See is 
about the latter part of the fifth century, but the first 
authentic name in the list is that of Gaubald, or Geri- 
BALD, appointed about the year 739, by S. BONIKACE of 
Mentz. Up to the year 1817 Regensburg was 
suffragan to the Archi-episcopal See of SALZBURG, and 
its Bishops were Princes of the Empire, with precedence 
next to the Prince-Bishop of Frevsing, and above him of 
Passau. In 1805 the Sec was raised to the rank of an Arch- 
bishopric, under Bishop Carl Theodore von Dalberg, 
but its tenure of that rank was brief ; the Archbishop died 
in 1 8 17 {see mention of him under Mainz, afUe p. 254) and 
had no successor in the dignity ; and the See, reduced to 
its former rank, became one of the suffragans of the newly- 
created Archbishopric of Munchen-Frelsing. 

For the arms of WiLHELM, Cardinal Wartenberg, 
Bishop of Regensburg, etc. (1649-1661) see pp. 88, 89. 

( 3i6 ) 

Spener gives {Opus Heraldicum, p. spec, p. 678), and 
Plate XXX., the arms of Albert Sigmund, Duke of 
Bavaria, who was Bishop from 1668 to 1685. He was also 
Bishop of FRElslNG,and his arms are therefore : Quarterly, 
I and 4. The See of Freisinc; {ante p. 284) ; 2 and 3. See 
of Regensburg (as above), Over all an escucheon of his 
personal anns : Quarterly^ i and 4. Fusily-bendy argent 
and azure (Bavarian ; 2 and 3. Sable ^ a lion rampant or, 
crowned and anned gules (Palatinate of the Rhine;. 
The shield has as external ornaments a (legatine?) 
cross in pale, and also the pastoral staff and temporal 
sword in saltire behind the shield. There are no crested 
helms ; but on the top of the shield is placed, to the 
dexter, a mitre ; to the sinister, a ducal hat, one on either 
side of the head of the cross. 

Reval (Bishopric). 

Arms : . . . two Passion-crosses in saltire aigent ; 

but the coat, as given in SlEBMACHER {Wappen- 

buchy i., 12), is: Gyronny of sixteen or and azure, 

over all an escuclieon argent. 

The creation of this See probably took place about 

the close of the twelfth century. FULCO, Bishop of 

ESTHONIA, is said to have been the first to fill the 

Episcopal throne. Others consider Wescelin, who 

appears in the list as his successor, really the first bishop. 

In 1 347 Reval came with Esthonia under the dominion 

of the Teutonic Order. Originally the See was suffragan 

to LUNI), but in 1 374 it was transferred to the Arch-diocese 

of Riga. Towards the close of the sixteenth century the 

Bishopric came to an end in consequence of the spread 

of Protestant opinions in the Baltic lands. 

Riga (Archbishopric). 

Arms : Gules ^ a sword and pastoral staff in saltire or. 
(Sometimes quartered with (2) a cross co24ped; and 
{l) a fleur-de-lis ; the arms of the Dom-Capitel). 

( sn ) 

Towards the middle of the twelfth century Christianity 
made its way into Livonia, and the Augustinian Monk 
Meinhard was appointed Missionary-Bishop about the 
year 1 190. He and Berfold, his successor in that office, 
both resided at Uexhiill, but the third Bishop, ALBERT 
VON BUXHOVDEN, transferred his seat to the new city of 
Riga. Under his successor Nicolas, the See of Semi- 
(;allen was united to Riga ; w^hich two years later was 
made an archbishopric by Pope ALEXANDER IV. 
Archbishop SCHONUNG was the prelate (1528-1539) 
under whose primacy the doctrines of the Reformation 
spread in Livonia ; and the last of the holders of the 
dignity was WiLHELM, Margrave of BRANDENBURG, 
who had been his coadjutor since 1529, and succeeded in 


ROTTENBURC; (Bishopric). 

Arms : Sahle^ a cross or. 

This See was founded in 1821, and embraced in its 
jurisdiction the whole kingdom of WiJRTTEMBERG. It 
is suffragan to the Metropolitan See of FREIBURG IM 

S. POLTEN (Bishopric) vide infra, Wiener-NeuSTADT. 

Saint Gall (Bishopric) vide Chur, ante p. 278. 

Salzburg (Prince- Archbishopric). 

Arms: Per pale : (a) Or, a lion i-ampant queue fourclUe 
sable; (b) Gules, a fess argent (the arms of 

S. Rupert, Bishop of Worms, is the traditional 
founder of the See of SALZBURG, and has the title of 
•* Apostle of Bavaria." At the desire of the Prince 
Theodon, whom he had converted to Christianity, 
Rupert is said to have built a church in the town of 

( 3i8 ) 

JUVAVIA (the Roman Colony o{ Juvavum\ which, from 
its situation on the river Salza was afterwards known as 
Salzburg. The first of Rupert's successors having 
regular diocesan authority was Bishop John, who was 
set over the See by S. Boniface in the year 739. 
Bishop Arno, Bishop in 787, was the first to attain the 
dignity of Archbishop, being so created in 798 by Pope 
Leo III., with the consent of Charlemagne, and held 
the See until his death in 82 L Towards the close of 
the eleventh century Archbishop Gebhard, Count of 
Helfenstein in Suabia, in consideration of the services 
he had rendered to Pope GREGORY VII. in opposition 
to the Emperor Henry IV., obtained for himself and 
his successors the dignity of Legatus natus of the Holy 
See throughout the whole of Germany. 

Archbishop EberharI) von Truchsen created 
the Bishoprics of Chiemsee, Lavant, and Seckau 
(which see) out of the See of Strasburg, early in 
the thirteenth century. At the close of the fifteenth 
century the Sees suffragan to SALZBURc; w^ere : Brlxen, 
since 798; Chiemsee, since 121 5; Frelsing, since 
724; GURK, since 1070; Lavant, since 1221 ; Passau, 
since 737 ; Regensburg, since 697 ; and Seckau, since 

The possessions of the See were secularised in 1803. 
In 1 81 2 the district came into possession of the Bavarian 
crown, and in 18 16 it was restored to AusTRL\. Its 
present suffragans are Brlxen, Gurk, Lavant, Seckau, 
and Trient. 

Under the Empire the Archbishop of Salzburg and 
the Elector of Bavaria had alternately the presidency 
of the Circle of Bavaria. At the court of the Emperor 
the Archbishop dined at the Imperial table even in the 
presence of the Empress. Other princes only had that 
honour when the Court was absent from Vienna, and 
when the Empress was not present. The Emperor 

( 319 ) 

Francis I., conferred on the Archbishop in 1750 the title 
of Primate of Germany. 

The Archdukes of Austria were the hereditary- 
advocates or protectors of the See of SALZBURG ; 
and the hereditary officials of the Archbishop's 
court were Counts of Khuenburg, Cupbearers ; 
the Counts of Thanhausen, Stewards ; the Counts 
of Ladron, Marshals ; the Counts of Thoring, Cham- 

The arms of LEOPOLD Antonv, Baron VON FiR.MlAN, 
who held the See from 1727 to 1744, are given by 
GlaKEY {Spemnen Decadetn Sigillorum, Leipsic, 1749) 
and are : On a chief the arms of the See as given above. 
The rest of the shield is: Quarterly ^ i and 4. Barry of 
six gules and argent ^ on the bars of gules six crescents 
reversed^ three, two, one, oftlie second, their points touching 
the bars of argent (FiRMlAN) ; 2 and 3. Azure, a demi- 
st ags attire in bend, with four points each supporting an 
estoile or (Metz). Over all, Argent, an open crown or on 
a cushion gules, tasselled of t/ie second (CHATEAU of 
Leopoldskron). Behind the shield are the archi- 
episcopal cross in pale, and the crosier in saltire 
with the naked temporal sword. The Archi-episcopal 
hat with six tassels on either side surmounts the 

Samland (Bishopric). 

Arms : , . , a crozier and sword in saltire {hilt in 
chief) proper. 

This bishopric was founded in the thirteenth century. 
Its first prelate was HENRY VON Stretberg. Its 
cathedral was at Konigsberg, and the See was suffragan 

to Riga. The last Bishop George VON Polentz, 

elected in 1518, embraced Protestantism and gave up 
the possessions of the See to Duke ALBERT of Prussia 
in 1525. 

( 320 ) 

SCHLESWIG (Bishopric). 

Arms : Per pale gules and azure, two keys in saltire 
argent, wards in chief . (SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch 
i., 1 1., gives the arms, Gules, a beetle (?) in bend or.) 

S. Anskar built a church in Hadeby, the port of 
SCHLESWiG, early in 848, but it was a centur>' later that 
the Emperor, Otto the Great, founded a bishopric here by 
the advice of Archbishop Adaldag of HAMBURG. Up 
to 1 1 04 SCHLESWiG was suffragan to the last-named 
See, but it was then transferred to the Archbishopric of 
Lund. The last Catholic Bishop was GOTTSCHALCK 
VON Ahlefeldt, who governed the See from 1507 to 
the year 1541. 

ScHWERiN (Mecklenburg) (Bishopric). 

Arms : Per fess gules and or, over all tivo pastoral 
staves azure, headed argent. (The arms given by 
SlEBMACHER, i., 12, Azure, a griffin segreant or,, 
are rather those of the County of SCHWERIN.) 
First of the bishops of the See of Mecklenburc; 
(composed out of the See of Aldenburg, vide^ 
Lubeck) was John, nominated in 1052 and murdered 
in 1066. Thereafter the See was vacant, but in 11 58 
Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony refounded it. Its 
first bishop was Berno, and the See was removed to 
SCHWERiN in 1167. It was always suffragan to 
Hamburg. Bishop Magnus, Duke of Mecklenburc;, 
who filled the See from 15 16 to 1520, was the last 
Catholic Bishop. After him the See was administered 
by Princes of MECKLENBURG or of HOLSTEIN up to 
1648, in which year the possessions were completel}' 
secularised, and transferred as a temporal Principality to 
the House of MECKLENBUR(i. Its crest is, Out of a 
crest'Coronet a griffin issuant or. (To the See of 
Mechelburg, SlEBMACHER assigns: Azure, a lion 
rampant crowned or, Wappenbuch, \., 12.) 

( 321 ) 

Seckau (Prince-Bishopric.) 

Arms : Gules, a dextrochere issuing from sinister flank 

proper, habited argent turned up or (SlEBMACHER, 

Wappenbuchy i., 12). (Sometimes the field is 

argent, sometimes gules, sometimes per fess of 

these tinctures.) 

The Bishopric of Seckau was erected out of the 

Diocese of SALZBURG by Archbishop Eberhard in 

the year 12 18. It was not a Prince-Bishopric of the 

Holy Roman Empire, as it held from the Dukes of 

Austria ; but it has now that title in the Austrian 

Empire. It is still suffragan to SALZBURG. The arms 

of the Dom-Capitel are : Gules, a chief of fur au 


Semigallen (or Curland) (Bishopric.) 

Arms: ( . . . ^ a Paschal-Lamb passant proper. 
In the year 12 17 Bernhard, Count of LiPPE (father 
of Archbishop Gebhard of BREMEN) was made Bishop 
of Semigallen, having his seat at Selburg. It was 
transferred to CURLAND in 1246. The bishopric became 
extinct at the Reformation. Its last bishop was MAGNUS, 
Duke of HOLSTEIN, who was also Bishop of Reval 
and Oesell, and died in 1583. 

Sitten (or Sign) (Prince-Bishopric.) 

Arms : Azure, a trefoil on a spray in base gules, in 
chief two stars each of six points or. 

This See was founded in commemoration of the 
martyrdom of the Theban Legion in 302. Its original 
seat was Octodurum, the present town of Martigny, in 
Switzerland. It was thence removed to S. MAURICE, 
then back to Martigny ; and finally in 580 to SiTTEN, 
or Sign, where its bishops resided in an unbroken 
succession in the old Castle of Majoria until its 
destruction by fire in the year 1788. The first regular 


( 3^2 > 

blsbop was THEODORE whose exact date is uncertain. 
He appears to have died about the \'ear 390. Charle- 
MAGXE bcston^ed on the See the Counrv of Wallls 
'ValaiS; with fiill sovereign rights, which it exercised 
until the occupation of the Valais by the French in 
1798, but the title of Prince- Bishop of the Holy Roman 
Empire is still retained. 

SlOX was originally suffragan to MlL.\N, then to 
LVOX, thence it was transferred to ViENNE EX 
DaUPHIXE, and about the middle of the eighth centur\- 
to MOUTIERS EX T.\REXTAISE. Since 15 13 it has held 
immediately from the Holy See. 

Speier ^Spires;^ Trince-Bishopric^. 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Azure , a cross argent, the 
arms of the See ; 2 and 3. Gules, a castle ivith tzvo 
towers argent, pierced by a fastoral staff in bend of 
tlu second, in chief an open crozi'n. Abbey of 


The origin of this See is lost in the obscurity- of 
antiquity. It was probably founded by King Dagobert 
who died in 638, and who is said to have nominated 
AthaxaSIUS as its first bishop. It certainly existed 
as an Episcopal See in the middle of the seventh 
century, when the names of Prixcipius and Dago- 
Bf>DO appear as successive and authentic bishops. The 
occupants of the See have held the rank of Prince- 
Bishops of the Holy Roman Empire since the twelfth 
century. They occupied the fifth place on the bench, 
sitting between the Bishops of ElCHSTADT and 
BURG. The See was formerly a suffragan to the 
Archbishopric of Mainz, but afterwards was trans- 
ferred to Bamberg. Its possessions were lost at the 
Reformation, and their secularisation completed in 
the year 1802. The See was restored in spirituals in 

( 323 ) 

The Benedictine Abbey of Weissenburg founded by 
Dagobert in 629, and of which the abbot was made 
Prince of the Empire by Charles IV., was incorporated 
with the See of Speier by Abbot Philip von Flers- 
HEIM. He was elected Bishop of Speier in 1529, and 
obtained the consent of the Pope Paul III. and the 
Emperor CHARLES V. to this incorporation. The 
Chapter of SPEIER bore : Azure, a cross pat^e-througlwut 
argent ; over all the Blessed Virgin Mary with t/ie Holy 
Child proper, issuant from a crescent of the second, 

Damian August Philip Carl, Count of Limburg 
Styrum, filled the See of Speier from 1770 to 1797. 

His arms were rather curiously arranged in a series 
of three oval escucheons, two and one. The first con- 
tains the arms of the See : Azure, a cross argent ; the 
second those of the Abbey of WEISSENBURG : Gules, a 
castle argent, masoned sable, through the gate of which 
passes a crosier in bend or, an open crown of the last in 
chief. The lowest oval contains the personal arms of the 
Prince- Bishop : Quarterly, i. Argent, a lion rampant 
gules, crowned or (LiMBURG) ; 2. Gules, a lion rampant 
crowned or (Bronckhorst) ; 3. Or, two lions passant- 
gardant in pale gules (WlSCIl) ; 4. Or, three torteaux 
(Borculo or BORCKELOHE, V. ante, p. 303) ; Over all. 
Or, on afess gules three pallets argent (Ghemen). 

A princely hat is placed above the group of escucheons, 
behind them are the crosier and temporal sword in saltire; 
and the whole arrangement has as supporters a savage 
man, and a savage woman, wreathed and resting on clubs 
held in the exterior hands all proper. (These supporters 
were those of the personal arms of the Counts of 


Strasburg (Bishopric). 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, a bend argent, for the 
See of Strasburg ; 2 and 3. Gules, a bend 

( 324 ) 

lioving at either edge an engrailure of small trefoils 
(resembling the adornments of the Crancelin of 
Saxony) Landgravate of Lower Elsass. 

The earlier portion of the long catalogue of the early 
Bishops of Strasburg is quite untrustworthy. Out of 
the first score of names only two or three are to be 
recognised as those of historical persons ; of these the 
first is probably that of S. Arbogast who lived before 
the middle of the seventh century. It is only with WlN- 
OERN, or WiTGERN, who lived about a century later (r. 
728) that the succession becomes continuously historical. 
Originally the See was suffragan to Mainz, then to 
Trier, then again to Mainz. In modern times the See 
as included in France has been under Besanc^oN ; since 
1802 under FREIBURG IM Breisgau, and is now (since 
the reconquest of Elsass by Germany) held immediately 
from the Holy See. The bishops had the title of 
" Furst-bischofe von Strasburg, Landgrafen vom Elsass, 
und des heiligen romischen Reiches Fursten. 

The Landgravate of Lower Elsass was acquired for 
the See by Bishop JoilANX, Baron von LicilTENBERG, 
who in 1357 purchased from JOHN, last Count of 
Oettingen, the upper portion of the Landgravate, and 
re-united to it the other fiefs which the Count held from 
the Chapter. 

The crests used were (i, in the centre) On a princely 
lulm of gold t/te Episcopal mitre. To the dexter (2) A 
like lulmy thereon a princely hat of crimson velvet, doubled 
with ermine and surmounted by a wing gules charged ivith 
a betid argent ; this was the crest of the See. To the 
sinister (3) a crowned Iielm^ thereon a mitre out of which 
rises a female figure vested gules , crowned and holding in 
t/ie dexter hand a ring or, the crest of the Landgravate 
of Elsass. 

The cathedral establishment of Strasburg was one 
of the most famous in Christendom. It consisted of 

( 325 ) 

two parts, the High Chapter and the High Choir. The 
High Chapter was composed of twenty-four Dom-Herreriy 
or Canons. The High Choir had at first seventy-two 
Capitular Prebendaries (afterwards reduced to twenty- 
two), they had their own lands and corporate seal. 

Tarkntaise (Archbishopric). 

Arms : 

The date of the foundation of this Archbishopric, the 
seat of which was MOUTIERS EN Tarantaise, in Savoy, 
is unknown. Bishop Sanxtus, or Sanctius, was, how- 
ever, present at the council of Epaone in the year 5 17, at 
that time the See was suffragan to ViENNE. CHARLE- 
MAGNE made it archi-episcopal, and the name of 
Andreas appears in 828 as that of its first archbishop. 
SlON was suffragan to it, as was later the See of AOSTA. 
Formerly the Archbishops had secular jurisdiction as 
Counts of Tarentaise. In 1792, the archbishopric 
came to an end, but a new bishopric was created in 
1825 ; it is now suffragan to Chambery. 

ToUL (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : AzurCy a stag's head caboshed, having a cross 
between its antlers or^ all zuithin a bordure 

The first historical Bishop of this See known to us is 
S. AUSPICIUS, who lived in the middle of the fifth 
century, but it is only a couple of centuries later that we 
have the commencement of a regular and authentic 
list of the succession of bishops. 

From the middle of the twelfth century the Bishop 
held the title of *' Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, 
and Count of TouL." Pope PlUS VI. in 1777 divided 
the See into three : S. Di£, NANCY, and ToUL, and 
made the two latter suffragan to TRIER ; they were, 
however, held together by the succeeding prelates, and 
in 1821 were formally united as the See of Nancy-Toul. 

( 326 ) 

This, with the Sees of S. Dl£ and Verdun, was made 
suffragan to Besan^oN. 

Trient (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Argent, an eagle displayed sable armed or, seme 
of flames proper, and having on its wings Klce- 
Stengeln of the third. 

Christianity, it is said, was first propagated in the 
district of the Tridentine Alps by the teaching of 
S. Hermagoras, Bishop of Aquileia in the first 
century, when the ancient city of TRENT was made the 
seat of a bishopric. But the first historical holder of 
the See is Abundantius who was present at the 
council of Aquileia in 381. Charlemagne endowed 
the See with considerable possessions, to which the 
Emperor Conrad in 1207 added the town of Botzen, 
and made its district a Principality of the Empire. The 
Bishops retained the princely title until the close of the 
Germanic, or Holy Roman, Empire ; and are still Princes 
of the Austrian Empire. When the Dukes of Austria 
became Counts of Tirol they accepted the office of 
Advocates of the See of Trient. The Counts of Thun 
were its hereditary Cupbearers ; the Barons of FlRML\N 
held the office of its Marshals. 

As to the arms, Spener makes the eagle, giittt^ de 
sang instead of semd of flames {Opus Heraldicum, pars 
spec, cap. xxxviii., p. 717) ; and SlEBMACHER substitutes 
a crescent gules for the Klee-Stengeln ( Wappenbuch, i., 1 5). 
Up to 175 1 Trient was a See suffragan to Aquileia. 
It was then, in 1752, transferred to GoRZ. I.ater it was 
held immediately from the Roman See, but it is now 
suffragan to SALZBURG. 

Trieste (Bishopric). 
Arms : 
Traditionally the See of Trieste was founded in the 

( 327 ) 

first century by Hyacinthus, a disciple of Herma- 
GORAS, patriarch of Aquileia. Frugifer, who filled 
the See about the year 524, appears to be the first 
historical bishop. TRIESTE was a See suffragan to 
Aquileia until the extinction of the latter in 1752. It 
was then made suffragan to the newly-founded Arch- 
bishopric of GoRZ. Later it was held immediately from 
the Holy See, but is now suffragan to the united See of 
GORZ and Gradisca. 

Utrecht (Archbishopric). 

Arms : Per fess or and gules ^ a cross flory counter- 

The first authentic Bishop of the See of Utrecht 
was S. WiLLlBROD who was consecrated in the year 696, 
and ruled it for forty-three years. In 748 Pope Zacha- 
RAIS made the See suffragan to the Archbishopric of 
Mainz, from which it was transferred to COLN {See 
Appendix). The Emperor CONRAD III. in 1145 gave 
to the Chapter of UTRECHT the right of electing the 
bishop. In 1559, PAUL IV. made the See an arch- 
bishopric, and gave to it the five newly-created Sees of 
Deventer, Groningen, Harlem, Leuwarden, and 
MlDDLEBURG, as suffragans. 

The arms of these Dutch Sees were, of — 

Harlem : Gules, a sword in pale surmounted by a 
plain cross coupe d in chief, all between four estoiles, one in 
each canton of the shield argent. 

Deventer : Or, the Imperial eagle beneath a crown. 

Groningen : Or, the Imperial eagle sable, on a chief 
azure three mullets argent. 

MlDDLEBURG : Gules, a large castle or. 

Leuwarden : Azure, a lion rampant within a narrow 
bordure argent. 

But the revolt of the Netherlands from the yoke of 
Spain ( 1 573- 1 579) and the establishment of Protestantism 



in the United Provinces, caused the extinction of this 
arrangement, and from 1602 until 17 18 the spiritualities 
of the Dutch Sees were administered by a Vicar- 
Apostolic. Cornelius Steenhoven, consecrated in 
1724, was the first Jansenist Archbishop; and the suc- 
cession has been maintained up to the present day in 
independence of the See of Rome. 

There is also a modem Roman Catholic Archbishopric 
of Utrecht, with the four suffragan Sees of Bois-LE- 
Duc, Breda, Harlem, and Roermond. 

Verden (Bishopric). 

Arms : Azure, a bend counter-compony gules and 

Of this See, founded about the close of the eighth 
century, the first authentic bishop appears to be 
Haruch, who was present at a Synod in Mainz in 
829. The See of Verden was originally suffragan to 
Hamburg, but later was placed under the Arch- 
bishopric of Mainz. The Reformation early found a 
footing in this See, and the Catholic succession ended 
in 163 1. In 1644 Sweden took possession of the 
bishopric, and, by the provisions of the Peace of West- 
phalia, retained it as a secular Duchy of the Empire. 
In 1720 Verden fell to Hanover ; in 18 10 it was incor- 
porated with the kingdom of Westphalia; in 181 3 it 
reverted to Hanover, and since 1866 it has been included 
in the possessions of the Prussian monarchy. 

Verdun (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Sable, a cross argent (SlEBMACHER, Wappen- 

buchy vol. i., p. 12, makes it slightly /^/d^<^ at the 


The first authentic bishop of this See (of which the 

traditional foundation goes back to the early part of the 

fourth century) was S. FiRMIN, who filled the throne from 

( 3^9 ) 

486 to 502. The bishops had the title of Prince of the 
Holy Roman Empire, and Count of VERDUN. The for- 
tunes of the See resembled those of the other Austrasian 
Bishoprics of Metz and TOUL ; at one time it belonged 
to the Empire, at another it was incorporated with 
France. In the latter case it was suffragan to Besan- 
(j'ON, and so remains at the present time. 

Vienna (VVien) (Archbishopric). 

Arms : Gules, a fess argent ensigned with a cross pat^e 
of t/ie same conjoined to tlie upper edge of the fess, 
(The arms are sometimes blazoned, but errone- 
ously, as, Gules, a cross argent, thereon an escuc/ieon 
of the arms ^AUSTRIA ; Gules, a fess argent.) 

In 1468 Pope Paul II., at the desire of the Emperor 
Frederick, erected the Collegiate Chapter of Vienna 
into a bishopric and severed the city and district from 
the See of Passau. Leo, Count of Spaur, was nomi- 
nated by Pope SiXTUS IV. first bishop of the new See in 
1471. It was always an exempt See, holding immedi- 
ately from the See of Rome. In 1722 Pope Innocent 
XIII., raised the See to the archi-episcopal rank, 
and gave to it as suffragans the Sees of St. POLTEN 
(otherAvise known as Wiener-Neustadt) and LiNZ, 
and this arrangement still continues. 

The Archbishops of VIENNA sometimes impale the 
arms of the See in the first place, with their personal 
arms in the second, according to English custom. 
Thus, Josef Othmar, Cardinal Rauscher (Bishop 
of Seckau in 1849, Archbishop of VIENNA in 1853, and 
Cardinal in 1855), bore the arms of the See, impaled 
with, Per bend, azure and or, a river wavy in bend argent, 
between two estoiles counter-changed, A predecessor, 
Archbishop Christoph Anton, Count VON MiGAZZI. 
von Waitzen und Sonnenthurn ; elected 1757, 
created Cardinal in 1761, died 1803, placed the arms of 

( 330 ) 

the See on a chief above his personal arms : — Quarterly 
sabUy and argent ^ on a bend azure three fleurs-de-lis or, in 
the first and fourth quarters {respectively aboi^e and beloiv 
tlie bend) a sun of the third ; in the third and fourth 
quarters a castle sable. Both used the escucheon mantled, 
and crowned with a princely crown ; behind it the archi- 
cpiscopal cross; the whole surmounted by the proper hat, 
with its cordons on either side. 

Wiener-Neustadt (Bishopric) (St. Polten). 

Arms : Gules, a castle with two towers argent, in chief 
a cross-cross let or, (The arms of S. PoLTEN are, 
A sure, a letter Y of ancient shape or.) 

Pope Paul II. founded this See by a Bull dated 
Jan. 1 8, 1468, but which only came into operation in the 
year 1476. It was originally held immediately from the 
Holy See ; but, on the creation of the Archbishopric of 
Vienna in 1722, it was made suffragan to that See. In 
1784 Pope Pius VI. at the desire of the Emperor 
Joseph II. transferred the See to the town of 
St. Polten. 

Worms (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms : Sable, a key in bend argent, betzueen eight plain 
crosses-crosslets or {four in chief, as many in base, 
arranged f ess-ways, two and two). 

Bishop Rupert, who was living in the year 697, 
appears to be the first historical bishop of this Sec. 
Nothing is certainly known of his successors until the 
name of Erembert appears. He was consecrated in 770, 
and held the See for nearly a quarter of a century. 
There is however a weird legend that originally Maixz 
itself was suffragan to WORMS, and that Gerold, 
Archbishop of WORMS was slain in battle by a Saxon 
Prince. Gerold's son,GEWlLlEB or GERVlLlus,who suc- 
ceeded his father in the See, is said to have avenged his 

( 33T ) 

death by the assassination of the Saxon Prince with his 
own hand. Thereupon he was deposed by GREGORY 
III., and the archbishopric transferred to Mainz, to which 
Worms was made suffragan. 

The See was early made a Principality of the Holy 
Roman Empire, and in the seventeenth and following 
century was usually held in cominendam by the Arch- 
bishop-Elector of Mainz. It had very considerable 
possessions, but its position on the frontier exposed it to 
continual dangers. In 1688 it was overrun by the French 
armies, and never recovered the ruin they brought in 
their train. In 1792 it was again seized by the French 
republicans. In 1803, being thoroughly secularised, it 
fell to Hesse Darmstadt ; and, after a brief possession 
by France in 18 14, was restored to that principality by 
the Congress of Vienna. In spirituals it appears now 
to be included in Mainz. 

The crest of the See was : On a princely helm a crimson 
cushion supporting a fan-crest of hexagonal shape ^ cluxrged 
with the arms of t/ie See^ and adorned at the points with 
little golden knobs w/ience spring small tufts of peacocHs 

WtJRZBURG (Prince-Bishopric). 

Arms: Quarterly, i and 4. Per f esse dancett^ gules 
and argent. Duchy of Franconia ; 2 and 3. 
Azure, a lance in bend or, with its banner Quarterly 
gules and argent floating towards the chief, See of 


This See was founded by S. BONIFACE, Archbishop 
of Mainz, who, with the consent of the Pope, and of 
Carloman, Duke of Austrasia, nominated as its first 
bishop his relative the Englishman S. BURCHARD, in 
the year 741. Pepin considerably augmented the 
possessions of the See; and (as the Bishops in later times 
asserted) even conferred upon it the whole Duchy of 

( 332 ) 

Franxonia, in recognition of BURCllARD's assistance in 
placing him on the throne. The Bishop had the rank 
and title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire as early 
as the twelfth century; but the first who appears to have 
assumed the title of Duke of Franconia, and put it on 
his coinage, etc., was Bishop GOTTFRIED, Count of 
LiMPURG, who filled the See from 1443 to 1445. This 
title was disputed at the Diet of Worms in 1521 by the 
Electors of Mainz, Saxony, and Brandenburg, and 
by the Bishop of Bamberg, all of whom held portions of 
the Duchy of Franconia, but the Emperor Charles V. 
accorded the title to the Bishop of WURZBURG alone. 
{See the Imperial Confirmation in Unrath's Treatise 
" de Jurisdictione Ecclesiastica Nobiliuin Immediatoruniy 
Sec, xx-xxvi., 1646; and NOLDENIUS, de Statu 
NobilitatiSy § 32, " Episcopi non habent plenarium 
Franconiae Ducatus jus, sed tantum nomen et inscrip- 
tionem Ducis.") But as early as the commencement of the 
twelfth century Bishop Erlung, Count of Calw (i 106- 
II 2 1), had caused the naked sword to be borne before him 
in processions, to indicate his temjx)ral jurisdiction in the 
Duchy of Franconia. This Duchy the Emperor Henrv 
IV. had seized, and wished to give to his nephew CON- 
RAD, Duke of SWABIA, in order to punish the bishop 
for his adherence to Pope Paschal II. Thenceforth 
when the Bishop of WiJRZBURG celebrated Mass the 
naked sword was held upright during the office by the 
Grand-Marshal, an office hereditary in the Counts of 
Dernbach. The Counts of Stolberg were Hereditary 
Grand-Chamberlains ; the Counts of Wernburg Grand- 
Stewards; and the Counts of Castel, Grand-Cupbearers 
of the See ; but except on great state occasions they all 
performed their duties by deputy. 

The arms of Peter Philip, Count of Dernbach, 
Prince-Bishop of WURZBURG, etc., in 1675, are given 
at p. 88 ; and those of Adam Friedrich, Count of 

( 333 ) 

Seinsheim, Prince-Bishop in 1755, 'are described at 
p. 90. 

The crests borne by the Prince-Bishops of WURZBURG 
in addition to the mitred helm, and their own personal 
crest or crests — were, for the Duchy of Franconia ; Out 
of a golden crest-coronet two horns ^ each per fess dancetty 
gules and argent; and for the SEE: A princely hat 
thereon a plume of three ostrich feathers blue, white y and 
red, between two golden lances with banners (as in the 
arms of the See). 

TheWiiRZBURG crests vary somewhat at different times. 
In 1519 the following was used: Out of a crest-coronet 
or, two horns with banners of t/ie arms of the See in their 
mouths y and behind them three ostrich feathers y gules , argent, 
gules. In 1 540, the crest, arising from a crest-coronet or, is 
the bust of a man vested gules, the hat turned up argent 
and bearing the feathers as above; the wliole between two 
horns per fess indented, alternately gules and argent. In 
1544 this crest is divided into two ; one helm bears the 
horns ; the other the banners without a crest-coronet. 

The possessions of the See were secularised in the year 
1802, in the Episcopate of GEORGE CHARLES, Baron 
VON Feciienbach. Before this the See was suffragan 
to Mainz, but since its resuscitation in 181 7 it has been 
made suffragan to the Archi-episcopal See of BAMBERG. 


Abbeys and Other Princely Foundations 

OF the Empire. 

Berchtesgaden (Provost Prince of the Empire). 

Arms : GuIeSy two keys addorsed in saltire argent. 

This monastery of Regular Augustinian Canons was 
founded in the Diocese of Salzburg by Beringer and 
CUNO, Counts of SULTZBACH, and by their mother 
Ermengarde. They built it in 1008 and richly endowed 
it Its first Provost was Eberhard, afterwards Bishop 
of Salzburg. The monastery is exempt from all 
jurisdiction, ecclesiastical or secular, that of the Pope 
and the Emperor alone excepted. The Prior had the 
sixth place among the Abbots and the Princes of the 

As to the arms, Triers {Einleitung zu der Wapen- 
Kunst, p. 396), notices that in the Nurnbergische Wapen- 
Kalendar^^o, xxvii., p. 13 — the key in bend-sinister is of 
gold. Triers thinks this a mistake. He also notices 
that the then Provost and Prince, Cajetan Anton, 
Baron VON Nothaft, elected 1732, bore the following 
arms : — Quarterly, i and 4. The arms of the Provost ship ^ 
as above ; 2 and 3. Azure ^ six fleurs-de-lis argent ; 3. 2. i., 
the arms of the Founders, the old Counts VON 
Sultzbach. (The field is gules in SiEBMACllER, 
ii., 1 1.) Over all. Or, a fess azure, the personal arms 
of the Counts and Barons NOTHAFT (SlEBMACHER, 
IVappenbuch, i., 78, etc.). 

( 335 ) 
CORVEV (Princely Abbacy) {vide ante, p. 280). 

EINSIEDELN (Princely Abbey). 

Arms : Or, two eagles rising {to sinister^ in pale sable. 
This ancient and celebrated abbey, in the Swiss canton 
of SCHWEIZ, was founded near the hermitage of S. Mein- 
RAD by a monk of the Abbey of Reichenau near 
Constance. HiLDEGARDE, granddaughter of LOUIS le 
debonnaire, built a chapel for the hermit who received 
the crown of martyrdom in 863. Eberhard, Provost of 
Strasburg, retired to the Hermitage in 934, and was 
followed by others. Thus the hermit's cell became the 
nucleus of the large and flourishing monastery. Praun 
asserts that the abbot first received the title of Prince in 
the year 1274. (Praun, von Adelichen Europa, und dem 
Heer-Schilden des Teutsclien Adels; in BURGERMEISTER, 
Bibliotheca Equestris, ii., p. 835.) As, since the acknow- 
ledgement of the independence of Switzerland, EINSIE- 
DELN was beyond the limits of the Empire, I suppose that 
(as in the case of S. Gall), the princely rank was merely 
titular, and conferred no right to a voice in the Diets of 
the Empire. 

Augustan, Abbot in 1618, bore: Quarterly, i. EIN- 
SIEDELN (as above) ; 2. Gules, on a mount in base of three 
coupcaux vert edged or, a plain cross argent between two 
estoiles of six points of the third ; 3. Azure, two boat poles 
(for punting), in saltire proper, t/ie head (like a cronel) 
argent ; 4. Or, a cockatrice vert. Above the shield, in 
place of the crest, is an irradiated oval containing the 
effigy of the BLESSED VIRGIN Marv, and the HoLY 
Child. This coat is in the collection of painted glass 
in the South Kensington Museum. As borne by Abbot 
Henry (1846- 1 874) the arrangement differs somew^hat : 
Quarterly, i . Gules, on a mount in base vert a liainmer {or 
pick ?) argent, between two fleurs-de-lis, and surmounted by 
an estoile or ; 2. Or, three lions passant gules ; 3. Or^ a 

cockatrice vert ; 4. Azure, tlie boat stai'es (as in No. ; 
above). Over all the arms of EiNSIEDELN. 

Elwangen. (Provost. Principality of the Empire). 

Arms: Argent, a mitre or. (This is not "false 
heraldry," gold being the proper colour of ths 
milra preciosa. ) 

This was a Benedictine Abbey in Suabia, in ths 
Diocese of AUGSBURG. It was founded about the yeai 
764 by two brothers, Habiolphus and Erlolphus 
who were consecutively Bishops of Langres. The 
Duke of WtJRTTEMBURG was its Protector, or Advocate 
and the Provosts were made Princes of the Holy Romar 
Empire, by the Emperor Henry H. In 1460, in tht 
time of the 48th Provost Johan von Hernheim, th< 
Provostship was secularised with the approval of Pope 
Pius II. (It appears to have been held in commendati. 
by one of the Prince- Bishops.) It held the third pla« 
among the " Abbots and Princes." 

FULDA (Princely Abbacy, afterwards Bishopric) {vitii 
ante, pp. 77, and 284). 

HeiderS)IEIM (Principality). 

This was held by the JoHANNITER Mei-STER; tht 
Master of the ORDER OF S. JOHN in Germany. Hi; 
arms were : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, a cross argent, tht 
arms of the Order of S. John ; 2 and 3. His persona 
arms. The shield was placed upon the eight-pointec 
cross of the Order (known as the Maltese Cross) 01 
gold enamelled white {vide ante, p. 144). 

Gatterer {Heraldik) gives the following example: — 
Franz Josef von Schauembekg zu Herleshetm 
Bailiff, and Commander of BlLLINGEN, etc.. Master o 
S. John in Germany. Prince zu Heidersheim, etc. 
bore : Quarterly, i and 4. The " arms of the Religion ' 

( 337 ) 

as above ; 2 and 3. Per f ess; (a) Chequy argent and gules ; 
(b) Or^ plain. Over all an escuchcon^ Argent, two bars 
azure (f Azure, three bars argent, SlEBMACHER, Wap- 

The Grand Prior, or Master, of S. John, had his seat in 
the Diet next after the Prince-Bishops since the time of 
the Emperor CHARLES V. The escucheon was usually 
surmounted by three princely helms, of which the central 
one bore the princely hat, the dexter one was timbred 
with a fan-crest of the arms of the Order, the sinister 
with \h^ personal crest of the JOHANNITER-MEISTER. 

The MeisterVON MERVELDTbore: Quarterly, i and 4. 
T/te artns of the Order; 2 and 3. His personal coat: Azurey 
three c/ievrons interlaced or, two issuant from tlie base, t/te 
other from the chief The escucheon, placed on the white 
eight-pointed cross of the Order, had three crested helms; 
the dexter, a fan-crest, Gules, a cross argent ; the central 
one was surmounted by a princely hat ; the sinister (the 
personal crest of the Prior), an escucheon of t/ie arms 
between two ostrich plumes azure, on tlie dexter three bends- 
sinister, on tlie sinister as many bends or). The arms 
were supported by two ostrichs. The Count VON 
Reinach, Master 1777- 1796, used a golden lion, and a 
wolf proper as supporters ; these were derived from the 
crests of his personal arms. 


Arms : Argent, a cross patriarchal {sWghtXy pat^e), the 
bottom point flory, gules. 

This celebrated Benedictine Abbey was founded 
about the year 763 by S. LULLO, on the site of the 
hermitage which had been the home of S. STURM. 

It was one of the four monasteries which had the title 

of Imperial, viz., MURBACH, Weissemburg, Fulda, 

and HiRSCHFELDT. Its possessions were increased by 

Pepin, and Charlemagne. The abbey was secularised 

( 338 ) 

at the Peace of Westphalia ; and handed over to the 
Landgraves of Hesse-Cassel as a compensation for their 
losses in the " Thirty years " war. Thereafter it had the 
rank of a Principality {v, ante, p. 87.) 

The crest borne for it by the Hessian princes is : Out 
of golden crest-coronet a panaclie of peacock's feathers 

Kempten (Princely-Abbey). 

Arms : Per fess gules and azure, tlie bust of a ivoman 
issuant from tlie base, habited sable, veiled argent, 
and crowned with an Imperial crown proper. 
The Benedictine Abbey of Kempten in Suabia was, 
it is said, founded in the year TJj, by HiLDEGARDE, 
daughter of HiLDEBRAND, Duke of SUABiA, and wife of 
the Emperor Charlemagne, who endowed it so munifi- 
cently as to have the credit of its foundation. It 
owed its origin really to Amelgar, daughter of CHARLE- 
MAGNE'S sister, who founded it in the year 752. The 
abbacy was held immediately from the Roman See and 
was one of the four " Imperial Abbeys." Its abbot had 
not only princely rank (which was originally conferred by 
the Emperor CHARLES IV. in 1380 on the then abbot 
Heinrich VON Mittelberg), but held the office of 
Grand-Marshal of the Empress, an office confirmed after 
a long desuetude by the Emperor LEOPOLD in 1683. 
The Abbot wore the Ecclesiastical habit only up to noon ; 
thereafter he appeared as a Secular Prince. He had a 
splendid court, and included ^mong his hereditary 
officials the Elector of BAVARIA, as Grand-Master of the 
Household ; the Elector of Saxony, as Grand-Cupbearer; 
the Count of MONTFORT, Grand-Marshal ; and the Count 
of Werdenstein as Grand-Chamberlain ; offices which 
were of course discharged by deputies. (The last-named 
office was, it was said, rightly attached to the Dukes of 
Austria by reason of the Landgravate of Nellenburg, 

( 339 ) 

held by them as a fief of Kempten.) The possessions 
of the abbacy extended to three hundred and thirty-six 
square miles, including the County of Kempten, in 
right of which we may presume the princely rank was 
conferred. But the city of Kempten purchased its 
freedom from the Abbot SEBASTIAN Breitenstein, in 
1523, for sixty-four thousand livres, and embraced 

The female figure which is the charge of the arms is 
said to represent the Empress Hildegarde. 

In the Diets of the Empire the Prince- Abbot had the 
second place on the bench of his Order, having seat and 
vote immediately after the Prince-Bishop of FULDA. 
Anselm, Baron vON Meldegg, was elected Prince- Abbot 
in 1728, and bore: Quarterly^ i and 4. (The arms of the 
abbey as given above) ; 2 and 3. Gules, on a fess argent 
three annulets of the field. Over the shield are three 
princely helms of gold. The dexter bears, on a crimson 
cushion, the abbatial mitre enfiling a crosier in bend. On 
the centre is, what is presumably the Crest of the Abbey 
— the figure of a Moor in a long black cloak, bordered and 
girdled with silver and sevu^ of silver flames ; holding in 
the right hand a sword and in the left a sceptre. (This 
seems to have been originally simply the figure of the 
princely founder.) 

The third helm is surmounted by the personal crest of 

the then Abbot, tivo horns gules on each a fess charged with 

an annulet of the first. {See TRIERS, Einleitung zu der 

Wapen-Kunst, p. 403, and SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, v., 

plate 178.) 

Kreutzlingen (Abbey). 

Arms : Per pale. Argent a cross gules ; impaling. Gules, 
a pastoral staff ivith its sudarium argent. 

This Augustinian monastery, which is in proximity 
to the city of CONSTANZ, was founded in the year 1 120 

( 340 ) 
by IDALRIC, Count of Kyburg ; and Ulrich, Count of 

DiLLiGEN, Bishop of Constance. 

MURBACH AND LuDERS (United Princely-Abbacies). 

Arms: Per pale : (a) Argent^ a hound saltan t sable ^ 
collared or, ringed gules. Abbey of MURBACH ; (b) 
Gules, issuing from the base a aibit arm in pale^ 
habited in a sleei*e of ashen grey, tlie hand proper 
in tlte Act of Benediction, Abbey of LuDERS. 

The Benedictine Monaster}^ of MuRBACH in Upper 
Elsass (one of the four " Imperial " Abbeys, v, p. 337), 
is said to have been founded by Eberhard, Duke of 
SUABIA, ancestor of the family of the GUELPHS. The 
dignity of Prince of the Empire appears to have been 
conferred on the Abbot by the Emperor FERDINAND in 
the year 1548. Although the Treaty of MUNSTER. 
handed over Elsass to the F'rench Monarchy, it was 
expressly stipulated that the Abbeys of MuRBACH and 
LUDERS should continue to be fiefs held immediately 
from the Empire. 

The Abbey of Luders was founded by Queen Bert- 
HILDIS, of Burgundy, and enriched by Clothair of 

Since the union of the abbeys, though both retained the 
princely title, the Abbot, or administrator, had only a 
single vote in the Diet. The precedence of the Abbot was 
next to the Provost of Elwangen (who had the third 
seat on the abbatial bench), and above the Provost of 
Berchtesgaden. The precedency claimed (futilely) 
was next after FULDA. 

The crests, borne with the arms above given (which 
were frequently quartered instead of being impaled), 
were as follows: — Three princely helms of gold properly- 
mantled, on the central one the abbatial mitre upon a 
crimson cushion ; on the dexter (for Murbach) out of a 
crest-coronet or^ a demi-hound saliant sable (according to 

(341 ) 

German custom both in the crest and the arms, the hound 
faces the centre helm, or the central line of the shield 
(see A Treatise on Heraldryy pp. 220, and 604.) The 
sinister crest is, Out of a golden crest-coronet an ann and 
blessing handy as in the arms of LUDERS. 


Arms : Or^ on a mount vert an ox gules issuant from a 
house on the sinister proper^ roofed of t/ie third. 

This Benedictine Abbey in the old Diocese of CON- 
STANCE was originally founded by three brothers, Barons 
of WOLFHARTSCHWEND, as a cell of the Abbey of 
S. Blaize. In 1420 Pope Martin V. made it an inde- 
pendent Abbey. The Abbot occupied the third place 
among the prelates who voted in the Swabian circle, but 
the Abbey was not princely. 

Petershausen (Abbey). 

Arms : Per bendy azure and argent y in the first a keyy in 
the second a fishy both bendways and counter- 
The Benedictine Abbey of S. GREGORY at PETERS- 
HAUSEN, near CONSTANCE, was founded in 983 by 
GebharI), Bishop of that See. The Abbot had the 
twelfth seat among the prelates who voted in the circle 
of SUABIA ; but was not a Prince. 

Prum (Princely- Abbey). 

Arms : Gules y on a mount in base vert a Paschal-Lamb 
regardant and holding its banner proper. 

The Benedictine Abbey of Prum in the Ardennes was 
founded by the widowed Bertrade, and her son 
Caribert, Count of Laon, in 720. King Pepin 
married Cari BERT'S daughter, also named Berthe, or 
Bertrade ; and he and his successors largely endowed 
it. The Abbots were Princes of the Empire, but in the 

( 342 ) 

year 1579 the Abbey was united to the Electoral 
and Archi-episcopal See of Trier {inde ante^ 
p: 258). 

ROGGENBERG (Abbey) (or Rockenhurg) (not Princely) 
Arms : Gules ^ on a mount in base vert, a distaff in pale 

or^ entwined with flax argent. 
The Premonstratensian Abbey of Roggenberg (or 
Rockenburg) was founded in the year 1226 by Bert- 
HOLD, Count of BiBERICH ; and his wife, a Countess of 
Zollern. It was a Daughter- House of the great Abbey 
of WiSPERG, and was situated near to Ulm. 

Salmansweyer (or Salmonschweiler) (Abbey). 

Arms : Sable y a bend counter-coviponc gules and argent 
bordered or {Orig, Cist.y i., p. 50). 

This Cistercian Abbey, a Daughter- House of MORI- 
MOND, was founded in the year 1137 by GONTRAN, 
Baron of Adelsreutte. Its possessions were much 
augmented by the splendid benefactions of the Emperors 
Conrad III. and Frederick II. Burchard, Arch- 
bishop of Salzburg and Papal-Legate, was counted its 
second founder. This was not a Princch' abbe}'. 

Stablo and Malmedy (united) (Princely Abbeys). 
Arms : Per pale^ (a) Or^ on a mount in base, and in 
front of a tree vert, a lamb passant argent ^ holding 
with its foot a crozier, or pastoral staff, in bend 
gules y Abbey of Stablo. [But see Rudolph i, 
Heraldica Curiosa^ p. 32, folio, N urn berg, 1698: 
" Die Abtey de Stablo fiihrt einen beladenen 
Wolffe, welcher von dem Erbauer solches Closters, 
an statt des Esels, der bey solchem Bau gebraucht, 
und von dem Wolff verzehret worden, der Bau 
Materialien zuzutragen soil verdanunt, und auch 
deswegen zum Wappen solcher Abtey angenom- 

( 343 ) 

men werden seyn " (Bechman, Exerc, it,, de In- 
signibus, % 68)] ; (b) Argent, on a mount in base 
vert, a dragon wings expanded sable. 
The Benedictine Abbey of Stablo, or Stavelot, in 
the Diocese of LlfeGE,and forest of Ardennes, was founded 
about the year 650 by SiGEBERT, King of AUSTRASIA. 
He was also founder of the sister abbey of SS. PETER 
and Paul at Malmedy, distant from it only about two 
leagues. The Abbeys, which were sometimes distinct, 
sometimes under one head, were finally united in 1128 ; 
although Stablo was in the Diocese of LifeOE, and 
Malmedy in that of Coln. The Abbot was a Prince 
of the Empire ; having, however, only one vote for the 
conjoint abbeys. He had also the title of Count DE 
LoGNE. The Monks of Malmedy had abundance of 
oak bark from the forest of the Ardennes, and 
possessed some of the most flourishing tanneries 
in Europe. 

Weingarten (Abbey) (Princely-Abbey). 

Arms : Azure, semt^ of nenuphar leaves argent, over all 
a lion rampant or. 

The Benedictine Abbey of S. Martin was founded in 
the year 1053 by GuELPH I., Duke of Bavaria. 

Weissemburg (Princely-Abbey). 

Arms : Gules, a castle reaching across the shield argent. 
The Benedictine Abbey of SS. PETER, Paul, and 
Stephen in Lower Elsass, was founded about the year 
623 by King Dagobert. It was one of the four abbeys 
(with Fulda, Kempten, and Murbach) which had the 
title of " Imperial." Its Abbots were created Princes of 
the Empire by the Emperor CHARLES IV. ; and it is 
said were counted of ducal rank — but this appears 
doubtful. The abbey was secularised in the year 

( 344 ) 

Andlau (Princely- Abbacy). 

Arms : Argent, a bend wetz'j' couped sable, (Plate II., 

fig. 3) 

The famous Benedictine Abbey for women was founded 

about the year 880, by the Empress RiCHARDA of Scot- 
land, the repudiated wife of CHARLES le Gros, She retired 
to it, and died there in 894. Pope Leo IX. visited it 
in 1049 and consecrated the church, newly built by 
the Abbess Mathilda, sister of the Emperor Conrad. 
The Abbess, who was a member of the circle of the 
Upper Rhine, received from the Emperor CHARLES V. 
in 1 52 1, the title of Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, 
and voted'by her deputy in the Diets. (On the Chapter, 
vid£ infra. Appendix B.) The charge of the arms is 
described in French blason as " tin crochet de sable!' 

Baindt (Princely- Abbacy). 

Arms : Or, a bend wavy couped sable. 

The Cistercian Abbey of the Holy Trinity of Baindt 
was founded in the year 1241 by CONRAI) ScHENCK of 
WiNTERSTETTEN, nephew of Heinrich of Tanne and 
KusSENBERG, Bishop of CONSTANZ, in whose diocese 
it was situated, not far distant from the Abbey of 
Weingarten. The Abbess had the rank of Princess of 
the Empire, occupying the last place on the Roll of 

Buchau (Princely- Abbacy). 

Arms : TVr/, a cross cousu gules, in tJie dexter canton the 
sun, in the sinister a crescent figured, both or. 

The Benedictine Abbey of Buchau in Suabia was 
founded at the close of the ninth century by Adelinda, 
daughter of HiLDEBRANi), Duke of SUABiA, and sister 
of Charlemagne's second wife Hildegarde. Ade- 

( 345 ) 

LINDA built the monastery near BiBERlCH on the Lake 
of Constance in memory of her husband Otto, Count of 
Kesselburg, who, with his three sons, was slain in battle 
with the Huns. The Abbess had the rank of Princess of 
the Empire. She had a vote among the abbesses of the 
Circle of the Rhine, though the abbey was in Suabia. 
In public ceremonials the naked sword of temporal 
dominion was borne before the abbess. (On the Chapter, 
vide infra, Appendix B.) The proof rec(uired was of 
sixteen quarters of Princely or Countly Nobility. 

Elten, in the Duchy of Cleves, was founded in 970. 
The abbess had the title of Princess, and the proof 
required was of sixteen quarters. 

Essen (Princely- Abbacy). 

Arms : Argent^ a bend wavy couped sable. 
The Benedictine Abbey of EsSEN, or AssiNDE, in the 
Duchy of Berg and Diocese of COLN, was founded in the 
year 860 by Altfried, who had been a monk at FULDA 
and Corvey, and was Bishop of HlLDESHElM from 
847 to 874. The Abl;)ess was a Princess of the Empire. 
In its palmy days the abbey was so rich that it supported 
fifty-two nuns, and twenty canons. Subject to it were the 
daughter convents of Relinckhausen and Stockem- 
BERG. (On its Chapter, vide infra, Appendix B.) The 
proof was of sixteen quarters of Countly or Princely 
Nobility at EssEN ; but at RELINCKHAUSEN and 
Stockemberg, though sixteen quarters were shown, 
only eight o{ Noblesse Militaire had to be proved. 

Gandersheim (Princely-Abbacy). 

Arms : Per pale sable and or. 

This Benedictine Abbey for women, situated in the 
Duchy of Brunswick, was founded in the year 852 at 
Brunshausen ; and was thence removed to Ganders- 

( 346 ) 

HEIM in the See of Hildesheim, by LUDOLPH, Duke 
of Saxony, and his wife Oda. Their three daughters 
consecutively held the office of abbess. The Abbess 
had the rank of Princess of the Empire. At the 
Reformation the abbey became a noble Chapter of 
Protestant canonesses {vide infra^ Appendix B.). The 
proof required was sixteen quarters of Princely or 
Countly families. 

GUTENZELL (Princely-Abbacy). 

Arms : Argent^ a bend counter-compony of the first ami 

This Cistercian House was founded in the year 1330, 
near the city of Ulm, by two sisters, Countesses of 
SCHLOSSBERG. It had at one time a population of 
nearly two hundred choir-sisters, and as many serving- 
sisters. By the eighteenth century these had dwindled 
to under a dozen of each. The Abbess was Princess of 
the Empire, and was included in the Circle of Suabia. 
(On the Chapter j^^ Appendix B.) {Qrig. Cist,, i., p. 57.) 

Heggenbach, or Heckbach (Princely- Abbacy). 

Arms : Sable y a bend counter-compony argent and gules. 
The Cistercian Monastery for women at HEGGEN- 
BACH in the Diocese of CONSTANCE was founded by two 
B^guines, one of the family of RosEMBURG, the other 
of that of Laudenburg, in the year 1233. \\, one 
time it had as many as a hundred and twenty nuns. 
The Abbess, who had a seat in the Circle of Swabia, was a 
Princess of the Empire. 

Herford (Hervorden) (Princely-Abbey). 

Arms : Argent^ a f ess gules. 

The foundation of this Benedictine monastery, which 
is situated in the County of Ravensberg, is attributed 
to Louis le Debon?iaire about the year 822. Others 

( 347 ) 

ascribed it to Valdger of DORENBKRG who descended 
from a secretary of WiTEKlND. The Abbess had the 
rank of Princess of the Empire, and a vote among the 
Prelates of the Circle of the Rhine. At the Reformation 
in the sixteenth century the abbey (which apparently 
had ceased for some centuries to be governed by the 
strict Benedictine rule) became a Protestant noble Chapter 
{vide pasty Appendix B.). The proofs required were 
sixteen quarters of Princely or Countly families. 

LlNDAU (LiNDAW) (Princely- Abbey). 

Arms : Gules, a right /land appaum^ in pale proper. 
This abbey followed the Benedictine rule for nuns, 
and was originally built in the year 841 at NONNEN- 
HORN on Lake Constance. Its founders were the 
Counts Adalbert, Mangold, and Udalric. The 
original foundation was for an abbess and twelve nuns. 
The monastery at NONNENHORN was ruined by the 
Huns in the tenth century ; and a new home was found 
on one of the islands at LiNDAU, around which a town 
soon sprung up. The Abbess had very early the rank 
and prerogatives of a Princess of the Holy Roman 
Empire, and the naked sword of temporal jurisdiction 
was borne before her on solemn occasions. The arms 
are usually represented with the figures of the BLESSED 
Virgin and Holy Child above the shield. (On the 
Chapter of LiNDAU vide post, Appendix B.) 

QUEDLIMBURG (Princely-Abbacy). 

Arms : Gules, two pruning knives in salt ire argent 
handled or. 

This Benedictine Abbey for women was founded by 
the Emperor Hhnrv, tJu Foivler, in recognition of his 
successes over the Huns. It was completed by his wife 
Matilda. Their son the Emperor Otto largely 
endowed it, and his sister Matilda became its first 

( 54S ) 

abbess. The Emperors of the Saxon line were its 
advocates or protectors ; a dignit}' which probably 
passed on their extinction to the house of AXHALT- 

The Abbess had the rank of Princess of the Empire, 
and held immediately from the Emperor. The confession 
of Augsburg was adopted by the then Abbess AXNW vox 
Stolbekg. ("On the Chapter, vid€ infra. Appendix B. 

The Abbess Sophia, a Princess of the Palatinate, who 
ruled the abbey from 1645 to 1680, bore her arms in a 
lozenge : Quarterly, per saltire : i. (In chief) Sable ^ a lion 
rampant or, erowned j^les (the PaL-\TIX.\TE) ; impaling 
Bavaria, Fusilly bendy argent and asure, 2 and 3. (In 
flanks) Argent, a lion rampant azure, crou*ned or (County 
of Veloextz). 4- (In base) Chequy argent and gules 
(County of Sp.WHEIM). Over all, in an escucluofi en 
surtout tlie arms of OuEDLlMBUkG, as above. The 
crosier is placed in pale behind the shield. 

Nieder-Muxster (Princely- Abbey;. 

Arms : Gules, a crosier in pale argent surmounted /// 
fess by tlu letter N. 

This monastery at Ratisbon (which must be distin- 
guished from the NlEDER-Mux.STER,or Bas-Moustiek, 
in the Diocese of Strasburg) is said to owe its founda- 
tion to Judith, daughter of Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, 
and wife of Henry, Duke of B.waria, son of the 
Emperor HENRY, the Fowler. The Abbess had rank 
among the Prelates of the Lower Rhine. 

Ober-Munster (Princely- Abbey). 

Arms : Azure, nine fleurs-de-lis or, three, three, three. 

The Upper Monastery at Ratisbon was founded 
about the middle of the ninth century, by Emma, wife of 
the Emix^ror CHARLES, le Gros, and of LOUIS, the: 
German. Like the Abbess of NiEDER-MuNSTER, the 

( 349 ) 

Abbess of this foundation had a seat among the prelates 
in the Circle of the Lower Rhine. 

ROTHEN-MUNSTER (Princely-Abbey). 

Arms : Gules, a column or between two horns of a stag 
pcUeways, each of six points (the scalp sometimes 
appears below the column). 

This Cistercian Abbey -for women took its origin from 
a small religious house named HoHENMAUREN, near 
ROTWEIL in the Black Forest, where some pious women 
lived in community under the authority of an abbess, 
who is variously named WiLLiBURGA, and Emma, wife 
of a Baron of WiLDENWERCK. About the year 1126 
she was warned by a heavenly voice to remove her 
house; and committing herself to the guidance of the ass 
on which she rode, they finally stopped at HOLBEINS- 
BACH, where" she purchased the site for a new reli- 
gious house from the Canons of St STEPHEN of 
Constance. The Abbess had her place among the 
prelates of the Bench of Suabia. 

Remiremont (Princely-Abbey). 

Arms : 

This abbey was founded in the year 620 by S. ROMA- 
RIC, a noble of the Court of Clothair. He had 
divided nearly all his possessions between the poor and 
the Abbey of LUXEUIL ; and finally consecrated to the 
service of GoD his own chateau in the Vosgcs, which he 
converted into a double monastery, under the Rule of 
S. COLUMBAN. It became Benedictine in the reign of 
Louis le Debonnaire. The nuns were divided into 
seven courses, each of twelve sisters, and they kept up a 
perpetual service. The abbey was afterwards converted 
into a Noble-Chapter of chanoinesses, to the number 
of ninety-eight, who were only bound by vows so long 
as they were resident. The Abbess had the rank 

( 350 ) 

of Princess of the Empire since the year 1290. (On 
the Chapter, vide infra. Appendix B.) Remiremont 
is in the Vosges on the river MosKLLE in the Diocese 
of St. Dl£. 

S. Haimeran, or S. Emeran (Abbey). 

Arms : Quarterly of eight (in two horizontal rows each 

of four quarters) ; i and 8. Or, an eagle displayai 

dimidiated and conjoined to the palar line sable ; 

2 and 7. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis argent ; 3 and 

6. Argent, a palm branch in pale vert ; 4 and 5. 

Gules, a key in pale, wards in chief {duxd turned to 

the exterior of the shield) argent. (SlEBMACHER, 

Wappenbuch, i., 12.) 

The Monastery of S. Haimeran at Ratisbon was 

founded about the close of the seventh century in 

honour of the patron saint of the city. A small 

chapel which contained the relics of the martyr was 

converted by Duke THEODORE of Bavaria into a 

church, around which the monastery gradually grew up. 

Here the seat of one of the four Bavarian Bishops was 

originally placed, but it was afterwards transferred to 

the Church of S. STEPHEN. The possessions of the 

monastery were held immediately from the Emperor ; 

and consequently Praun appears to assign to the 

Abbot the dignity of Prince of the Empire ; SlEBMACHEK 

places S. Haimeran among the " Befiirste und Befreyte 


The same plate contains the arms of two Comman- 
deries, the first those of FC'RSTENFELl) voN M0LLIN(;. 
Per pale ; (a) Gules, a plain cross argent, the arms of the 
Order of St. John ; (b) Sable, a cross-moUne afgcfit 
(perhaps intended for the cross of the Order). 

The other is the coat borne for the Commander>' of 
Lech von Sontag in the Teutonic Order. It 
consists of the full arms of the Order, viz. : Argent, a cross 

(351 ) 

sabUy t/iereon a narrow cross flory or^ on an escuclieon en 
surtout of t/ie last, an eagle displayed of tlu second (the 
arms of th6 German KINGDOM). 

Ecclesiastical Principalities in Poland. 

Cracow (Principality) and S£vtRiE (Duchy). 

In 1243 BOLESLAS V. conferred the rank of Prince on 
the Bishops of Cracow, as a reward for the services 
rendered by Bishop Prandota DE Bialoczew during 
the invasion of Cracow and Sandomir by CONRAD, Duke 
of Masovie. In 1443 Zbigniew Olesnic^ki, Cardinal 
and Prince-Bishop of Cracow, bought for his See the 
Duchy of S£v£rie from the Duke of Teschen. 

The County of KOZIEGLOWV was also the property of 
the Bishops of Cracow. 


The Principality of Lowicz was conferred on the 
Archbishop of Gnesen, and his successors, by Duke 
Conrad II. of Masovie, as an expiation of the- murder 
of the Chancellor Jean Czapla in 1240. 


The Bishops of Plo^K were Princes of PuLTUSK. 


This Principality was the appanage of the senior 
Canon of the Cathedral of PlO(;k. 


This Bishopric, erected in 1241, held the secular 
Principality of the same name. 


Arms of Abbeys and other Religious Houses 

IN Great Britain. 

The list of arms here subjoined, as borne by Monastic 
Institutions in England, makes no pretence to complete- 
ness. In the case of many of the less important 
foundations no satisfactory' evidence of their use of 
regular arms can be adduced. 

Abbotsbury (Dorsetshire) (Benedictine Abbey). 
Founded c, 1026, dedicated to S. Peter. 
Arms : Azure ^ three sets of two keys addorsed paleways^ 
bows interlaced^ wards in chief. 

Abingdon (Berkshire) (Benedictine Abbey). 

Arm's : Argent^ a cross patonce between four martlets 

sable. (Seal of WILLIAM, Abbot in 1371. On 

that of John Sante, D.D., Abbot, Ambassador 

from England to the Roman See, the cross in the 

arms is pat/e.) {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., Nos. 

2544, 2545.) 

The abbey was dedicated to S. Mary, and is said to 

have been founded by CiSSA, as early as the year 675, at 

Shrovisham which aften\'ards was called after the abbey. 

In 947 King Edred rebuilt CisSA's Abbey and set over 

it S. Ethelwold, afterwards Bishop of Winchester. 

Alvingham (Lincolnshire) (Gilbertine Priory dedicated 
to S. Mary). 

Arms: Argent, three bars gules, oi^er all a crosier in 
betid of the first lieaded or. 

( 353 ) 

Amesbury (Wiltshire). 

Benedictine Monastery for women, founded towards 
the close of the tenth century by Queen Elfrida, in 
expiation of the murder of her step-son Edward in 
978. Arms. ? 

ASHBRIDGE (Bucks) (Augustinian Friars). 

Founded by Edmund, son of Richard Earl of 
Cornwall, in 1283. 

Arms : GuleSy on an altar ^ a Pascfial- Lamb proper resting 
its foot on an orb or; in base a lion rampant, . . . 
(See Cat, of Seals, Brit, Mus,, No. 2569.) 

Athelney (Somerset) (Benedictine Abbey). 

A seal of the abbey given in Cat, of Seals in Brit. 
Mus., No. 2571 bears two shields of arms \ (di) , , , a 
bugle liom between three crowns . . . / (b) Quarterly^ 
I and 4. . . . three crowns in pale . . . ; 2 and 
3. . . . « cross patt^e-througkout, . , . (DUGDALE, 
Mon. Angl,, vol. ii., p. 402.) 

Atherston (Warwickhire) (Friary). 

Arms : Or, three piles in point gules, a canton ermine ; 
the arms of Bassett. 

AXHOLM (Lincolnshire) (Carthusian Priory). 

The seal of the house bore the arms of Thomas 
Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, afterwards Duke of 
Norfolk, 1395 : — Gules, a lion rampant argent. In the 
base on a separate shield the coat of Broth ERTON : — 
England, a label argefit {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus,, 
No. 2574.) 

Aylesford (Kent) (Carmelite Priory). 

Arms : Those of the founder Richard Lord Grey of 

CODNOR 1240, Argent, three bars azure. (Pro- 
2 A 

( 354 ) 

perly, Barry of six argent and azure,) (^CaL of 
Seals in Brit, Mus., No. 2577.) 

Banbury (Leper Hospital of S. John). 

Arms : . , , a cross-patriarchal fitcli^e, 

Bardney (Lincolnshire) (Benedictine Abbey). 

This house was already existing in the seventh 
century. Its importance was increased by the enshrine- 
ment there of the body of S. Oswald, killed in 642 
in battle with the Mercian King Penda. The relics 
were given by OsFRiDA, niece of S. Oswald, and wife 
of Ethelred, King of Mercl\, who, after a reign of 
twenty-seven years, himself embraced the monastic state 
and became Abbot of Bardney. The Abbey was 
sacked and destroyed in 870 by the Danes, who are said 
to have put to death 300 monks. The relics of 
S. Oswald were removed to the Abbey of S. Peter at 
Gloucester. BARDNEY was 'rebuilt by WILLIAM the 


The arms, which appear on several seals of the abbots 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, were: {Gules) 
a cross patie (or flory) between four lions rampant (or). 
(Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., Nos. 2582, 2586.) These are 
attributed by mediaeval Heralds to S. Oswald, King 

of Northumberland. (They are those of Nostell.) 

Barking (Essex) (Benedictine Nunnery). 

This house is said to owe its foundation to S. Erkon- 
WALD, in the year 665, who made his sister S. Ethei.- 
BURGA its first abbess. In later times the house was a 
double foundation (for monks and nuns). It was sup- 
pressed by Henry VIII. 

Arms- A sure ^ in chief three lilies, in base as many roses 
two and one, argent ; all within a bordure gules sevu^ 
ofbe^sants {or plates). (Edmondson, Heraldr)'.) 

( 355 ) 

Barnstaple (Devon) (Cluniac Priory of S. Mary 

Arms : Gules ^ a bend or, in chief a label argent, 

Basingwerk (Flintshire) (Cistercian Abbey). 

Founded in 1131 by Ranulph, Earl of CHESTER. 
Arms : Argent, on a cross engrailed vert five mullets or 
{Harl. MS., 1928-35) {Orig. Cist, i., p. 99). 

Battle (Sussex) (Benedictine Abbey of HOLY 

Arms : Argent, on a cross gules a mitre between two 
royal crowns in pcUe and as many orbs in fess proper. 
(Four swords appear to have been sometimes 
substituted for the orbs.) 

Beaulieu, Bewley, Beauly (Hampshire) (Cistercian 
This monastery was founded in 1203 by King JOHN, 
and dedicated in the year 1249 to the honour of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary {Orig. Cist,, i., p. 210.) 

Arms : Gules, a crosier in pale enfiled with a royal 
crown or, all within a bordure sable, billet ty of tlie 
It must be noted that the bordure docs not appear on 
the seal of the priory in the fifteenth century {Cat, of 
Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 2621). Tanner makes the field 
Quarterly argent and gules; and charges the bordure 
with bezants. 

Bec (Norfolk) (Hospital of S. Thomas at Billing- 
Arms : Those of WILLIAM DE Bec, its founder temp. 
Henry HI. {Gules), a cross-moline {ermine) {Cat, 
of Seals in Brit, Mus.,yio. 2625.) 

( 356 ) 

Beigham, or Bayham (Sussex) (Premonstratensian 
Abbey of S. Mary at Lamberhurst.). 
Arms: A seal of Abbot JOHN Cheteham in 1426 
bears a shield charged with in chief a lion 
passant^ in base a crosier^ on tJie sinister side 
two lozenges in pale, {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus.^ 
No. 2630.) 

Bermondsey (Surrey) (Cluniac Abbey of St. Saviour). 
This house was founded by Alwvn in 1082. 
Arms : Per pale^ gules and azure, a bordure argent. 
Sometimes there is added to this : Over all a lion 
passant {gardant) liolding a pastoral staff enfiled 
with a mitre or^ and tlie bordure is cliarged zvitli 
eight letters P sable. 

Beverley (Yorkshire) (Benedictine Abbey). 

The Abbey was founded abput the commencement of 
the eighth century by S. JOHN of Beverley, who 
became Bishop of HEXHAM and Archbishop of YORK, 
and finally retired to the abbey where he died. It was a 
double foundation, i.e., it had religious of both sexes. 
The abbey was largely enriched by the patronage of 
Henry V., who attributed the victory of AoiN- 
COURT (Oct. 25, 141 5), to the aid of S. JOHN of 


Arms : Argent^ a crosier in pale sable enfiled with a 
royal crow7i or; all within a bordure of the second 
bi Hetty of the third (Edmondson's Heraldry 
makes the bordure bezantec, and probably cor-* 

Bn.EiGH (Essex). 

Arms: According to Tanner this priory bore: 
Azure, six fleurs-de-lis, three, two, and one, argent. 

( 357 ) 

BiNDON (Dorset) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

This house was founded about the year 1172 by Wm. 
DE Glaston ; and, later, by Robert de Newburgh 
{Orig, Cist, i., p. 167). 

Arms : Or, a cross engrailed sable (the arms of 

Birkenhead (Chester) (Benedictine Priory). 

Arms : Quarterly gules and or, over all a crosier erect 
proper, in the first quarter a lion of ENGLAND. 

BiTLESDEN, BiTTLESDEN, or Betlesden (Buckingham- 
shire) (Cistercian Abbey of SS. Mary and NiCOLAS). 
Founded by Sir ARNOLD DU BOLS in the year 1 147. 
Arms, those of the founder : Argent, two bars and a 
canton gules, (According to the Cat, of Seals in 
Brit Mus., No. 2657), this coat is wrongly given 
on a fourteenth century seal as difess and quarter. 

Bodmin (Cornwall) (Benedictine Priory of SS. Mary 
and Peter). 
Arms : On a seal of the priory in the fifteenth century 
the arms are : . . . three fis/ies naiant in pcUe 
. . . (CV?/. of Seals in Brit. Mus,, No. 2677), 
but the coat usually assigned to it is : Or, on a 
chevron azure between three lion's heads vert {pur- 
pure according to Edmondson) as many annulets 
of the first, which appear to have been borne by 
the Priory at S. GERMANS. 

ftoLTON (Yorkshire) (Priory of Carmelites). 
Arms : Gules, a cross patoncc vair. 

BORDESLEV (Worcestershire) (Cistercian Abbey of 
S. Mary). 
This abbey was founded in 1138 by the Empress 
Matilda, daughter of King Henry I., and widow of 

{ 358 ) 

the Emperor Henry V. .''She afterwards married GEOF- 
FREY Plaxtagenet, Count of Axiou.) Richard I. 
increased its |X)ssessions. 

Arms : These are doubtful, but on a seal of Abbot 

William Halford about the year 1465, app>ears 

a shield of arms described in Cat, of Seals in Brit. 

Mus.^ Xo. 2684, as bearing : Quarterly^ i and 4, 

Fr-ce crosses-crosslets in saltirc ; 2 and 3. Enx.LAND. 

Another shield bears the arms of Beauchamp : 

GuUs^ a fess between six crosses-crossiets or. 

If this be correctly given the arms which appear in the 

first shield may possibly be those of the foundation. 

I have not myself seen the seal, but I have a suspicion 

that the crossUts in the first and fourth quarters are 

only badly drawn or worn impressions oi fleurs-de-lis^ 

and that the shield may simply be. Quarterly of France- 

ANCiENT and England. 

BOXLEY (Kent) (Cistercian Abbey). 

Founded {c. 1 145) by William iVVtres, Earl of 
Kent (Janauschek, Orig, Cist., i., p. 91). 

Arms : Argent, three {ox five) lozenges conjoined in bend- 
sinister gtdes, on a canton of the last a crosier in 
pale or. 

Bridlington (Yorkshire) (Prior>' of Augustinian 
Canons dedicated to S. M.\RV). 
Arms : Per pale sable and argent, three letters B counter- 
changed, two and one. 

Bromer, Bromere or Bromme (Hampshire) (Priory of 
Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : G idles, a sword in pale proper, hilt in base or^ 
surmounted by two keys in saitire, wards in chief 
the dexter of tlie second, the sinister argent. 

( 359 ) 

Bromholme (Norfolk) (Cluniac Priory of S. ANDREW). 
Arms: Argent ^ on a cross {^patriarchal^ within a 
bordure or^ a similar cross sable, 

Bruton (Somerset) (Augustinian Abbey). 

Arms : Gules ^ a maunch ertftine^ issuant tlterefram a liand 
proper liolding a fleur-de-lis or, (Otherwise, Or^ a 
cross engrailed sable ^ MOHUN.) 

BUCKENHAM (Norfolk) (Priory). 

Arms : Argent, three escallops sable. 

This house was founded about 1 146, by WILLIAM 
d*Albini, Earl of Arundel, and his wife Queen 
Adelina, widow of King Henrv I. 

BuCKFASTRE, or BUCKFASTLEIGH (Devon) (Cistercian 
Abbey of S. Mary). 
This house was founded in 1 136 {Orig, Cist.y 1., p. 103). 
Arms : Sable, a pastoral staff in pale or, enfiled by a 
buck's head caboshed argent (or of t/te second), 

BUCKLAND (Devon) (Cistercian Abbey of SS. Mary 
and Benedict) {Orig. Cist,, i., p. 261). 
Arms : Per pale (otherwise Quarterly) argent and gules, 

a crosier in bend or. 

On a fifteenth century seal {Bp'it. Mus, Cat,, No. 2749), 

the shield bears : Or, a lion rampant azure, being the 

arms of Amicia de Redvers, Countess of Devon, who 

founded the abbey in 1278. (She was the daughter of 

Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester). Her 

'daughter ISABELLA DE FORTIBUS, Countess of ALBE- 
MARLE, enlarged in 1291 her mother's foundation. 

BURCESTER (Oxford) (Augustinian Priory of St. 
Arms: Barry nebuly of six , , . and . . . (See 
Cat, of Seals in Brit, Mus,, No. 2773.) 

( 36o ) 

BURNHAM f Buckinghamshire; ;Augustinian Abbey of 
S. Mary . 

Arms : Or (ox gules\ on a chief argent three lozenges 
gules. (See Cat, of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 2776.) 

BURSCOUGH (Lancaster) (Prior>- of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Per f ess indented . . . and . . . in chief 
two crosiers between three annulets . . . 

Burtox-ON-Trext (Staffordshire) (Benedictine Abbey). 

This house was founded about the middle of the 
eleventh century by WiLFRIC, servant of King 

Arms : Or, on a cross engrailed azure five mullets 
pierced sable. 

Burtox St. Lazarus (Burtox Lizars) (Leicester- 
This was the chief Hospital of the Order of S. Lazarus 
in England. 

Arms : Per pale (a) Gules, a lion rampant argent ; 
(b) Argent, a cross gules. The dexter impalement 
commemorates the founder, Roger de Mowbrav 
(^Brit. Mus. Cat. of Seals, No. 2789). 

Bury St. Edmuxds (Suffolk) (Benedictine Abbey). 

This abbey was founded about the year 1020 by King 
Caxute in honour of the martyred St. Edmuxd, King 
of the East Angles ; and replaced the little wooden 
church which had been built over his grave. 

Arms : Azure, three open crowns, each enfling a pair of 
arrows in saltire, or. 

On the seal of Richard de Ixsula, Abbot (1223- 
1234) only one crown enfiling a single arrow appears 
(Cat. of Seals in Brit, Mus., No. 2803). On that of 
SiMOX DE Luton, Abbot, 1257- 1279, No. 2804, there is 

( 36i ) 

only a single arrow surmounted by a crown. On that 
of John Melford, Abbot in 15 17, is a shield with 
three crowns. On the seal of JOHN MUNK, Receiver of 
the Castle Ward in 1 438, a shield of arms bears two 
arrows in saltire, enfiled by a coronet of fleurs-de-lis and 
pearls; while on that of Receiver THOMAS Edon in I454 
the shield is charged with the arms of St. Edmund, three 
crowns (without the arrows) within an engrailed bordure 
{Brit. Mils. Cat. of Seals, Nos. 2808, 28 1 5). 

Byland (Yorkshire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 
This Abbey was founded in the year 1 134, by ROGER 

DE Mowbray {Orig. Cist., i., p. 104). 

Arms : Gules, a lion rampant argent (MoWBRAY) 
de bruised by a crutch, or pilgrim's staff, in bend. 
(See The Herald and Genealogist, ii., p. 193.) 

Calder (Cumberland). 

Arms: Argent three escuclieons ; i. Or, a f ess between 

two chevrons gules (FiTZWALTER) ; 2. Gules, three 

luces Jiauriant argent (LuCY) ; 3. Sable, a fret 

argent (FLEMING). 

These coats are those of the families who contributed to 

the aggrandisement of the abbey {See MOULE, Heraldry 

of Fish., p. 54 ; and Plate I., fig. 1 1, of this book). 

Campsey (Suffolk) (Augustinian Nunnery of S. Mary). 

Arms: Per pale : (a) . . . a cross lozengy . . . 

(b) . . ; {diapered,or lozengy?) a chief dancetty 

. . . (See Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 


This Nunnery was founded in 1199, by THEOBALD 


Canterbury (Benedictine Abbey of St. Augustine). 
Arms : {Azure) two keys in saltire {or). (See Cat. of 

( 362 ) 

Seals in Brit, Mus., No. 2846.) Otherwise : Sab/e, a 
cross argent^ in t/ie first quarter the pallium and 
staff from the anns of the See. 

Canterbury ; St. Gregory. 

Arms : Per c/ievron sable and argent in chief two 
mullets pierced of tlu second ; in base an open 
crown proper (otherwise a cliough proper), 

Canterbury ; Black-Friars. 

Arms : Asure, on a cross argent between four mitres or 
tlu Utters i (but ?). 

Canterbury; Christchurch (now Cathedral) (Bene- 
dictine) {v, p. 198). 
Arms : Azure, on a cross argent tlu letters ^ sable. 
Founded in 597 by S. Augustine. 

Carlisle (Priory) {See Bishopric of CARLISLE, ante 
p. 193 ; and Deanery y p. 198). 
Arms : Argent, a cross sable, 

Carmarthen (?) (Priory). 

Arms : Azure, a dove holding an olive branch proper, 

Cartmel (Lancashire) (Priory of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Per pale or and vert, a lion rampant gules. 
The arms of the founder, BiGOT, Earl Marshal. 

Castle- Acre (Norfolk) (Cluniac Priory of S. Mary). 
Arms : Argent, a cross chequy of tlu field and azure, 
between twelve crosses-crosslets fitcli^es sable, 


Arms : Argent, two long billets in saltire, the one gules ; 
the otlur azure. 

( 3^3 ) 

Cerne (Dorset) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. Mary, 
Peter, and Benedict). 
Arms : Azure, a cross engrailed or, between four garden 
lilies argent slipped proper. (See Cat. of Seals in 
Brit. Mus., No. 2893.) 

Charley (Leicestershire) (Priory). 

Arms : Azure, a saltire between two open crowns in 
chief and base, and as many mitres in flanks, 
labelled or. 

Chertsey (Surrey) (Benedictine). 

Arms : Per pale or and argent, two keys addorsed in 
bend-sinister, their bows interlaced in base, the 
upper gules, tJie lower azure, enfiling a sword in 
bend proper, kilted gold. 

Chiche, or St. Osyth's (Essex) (Priory of Augustinian 
Arms : Or, three open crowns gules. (See Cat. of Seals 
in Brit. Mus., No. 2949.) 

Cirencester (Gloucester) (Mitred Abbey of Augus- 
tinian Canons). 
Arms : Argent, on a chevron gules three lamb's heads 
argent. EOMONDSON gives : Gules, on a clievron 
argent three ram's heads couped and affronts 
sable, armed or, in dexter chief canton two lions of 


Cleeve (Somerset) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 
Arms: . . . seven lozenges, i.'^. i. {Se^ Cat. of Seals 
in Brit. Mus., No. 2960.) {Orig. Cist., i., p. 202). 

CoBHAM (Kent) (College of S. Mary Magdalene). 
Founded by John de Cobham in 1362. 
Arms : Gules, on a chevron or, three lions rampant 

( 364) 

The arms of the founder {Cat, of Seals in Brit, Jllus,; 
No. 2970). 

COGGESHAI.L (Essex) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

This Abbey owed its foundation to King STEPHEN in 
1 1 39 (Janauschek, Orig. Cist., i., p. 105). 

Arms : . . . three cocks . . . {Cat. of Seals 
in Brit. Mus., No. 2972). 

Colchester (Essex) (Mitred Abbey of Benedictines). 

The Abbey was dedicated to S. JOHN the Baptist. 

Arms: On its seal in 1422 the arms are given thus: 
{Argent) a cross {gules) within a bordiire {or\ over 
all an escarbuncle {sable) {Cat. of Seals in Brit. 
Mus., No. 2980, 2981). 

Combe (Warwick) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

Founded in 1 1 50, by WILLIAM DE Camville {Orig. 
Cist, i., p. 121). 

Arms : England, in chief a label of five points. On a 
thirteenth century seal the shield is supported by 
two lions {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 2989). 

COMBERMERE (Chester) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary 
and S. Michael). Founded in 11 33. {Orig. Cist.^ 
i., p. 100.) 
Arms : Quarterly or a fid gules, a bend sable, over all a 
crosier of the first in pale. 

COTTINGHAM (Yorkshire) (Priory of Augustinian 
Founded by Sir THOMAS Wake of Lydel, in 1332, 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin, and SS. Peter and 
Paul. The seal (described in Cat. of Seals in Brit. 
Mus., No. 3004), has on it three shields : One Barry of 
twelve . . . and . . . ; another of the arms of 
the founder : Or, two bars gules, in chief three torteaux ; 
and another ; . . ., a cross patonce . . . 

( 365 ) 

COVERHAM (Yorkshire) (White Friars). 

Arms : Or, a chief indented azure (BUTLER). 

COVENHAM (Lincoln). 

Arms : GuleSy a saltire argent (NEVILLE). 

Croxden (Staffordshire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

Founded by Bertrand de Verdon about the year 
1 176, and endowed by HENRY II. {Orig, Cist,, i., p. 176). 

Arms : {Or), fretty {gules) {Cat, of Seals in Brit, Mus., 
No. 3014). 

Croxton (Leicester) Premonstratensian Abbey of S. 
John the Evangelist. 
Arms : Or, a bend between six martlets sable (LOTEREL). 

Croyland (Lincoln) (Benedictine Abbey of S. 


This celebrated abbey was founded early in the eighth 
century by Ethelbald, King of Mercia, in honour of 
the hermit S. GUTHLAC, who had predicted his attain- 
ment of the regal dignity. The abbey was burnt by the 
Danes in 870, but was restored by Edred's Chancellor, 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, three knives pale- 
ways in fess argent, liandled or ; 2 and 3. Azure, 
three scourges paleways in fess, each having three 
las lies or. Or : Gules, a cross flory or, within a 
bordure azure, thereon eight crosses-crosslets argent, 

Darley, or Derley (Derby) (Augustinian Priory). 
Arms : Argent, six horse -shoes sable, nailed or, 


Dereham, or West Deerham (Norfolk) (Premonstra- 
tensian Canons of S. Mary). 
Arms : Azure, three crosiers, two and one, each enfiled 

( 366 f 

hy a ddiT i hiJbi caihssJud or. Bot the seal of 
JOHX DE RocHAW, Abbot in 1329. has on rt two 
or three shield.'* i Barry ardent ami azure an 
^yrU of martlets jpUes, dimidiating S. POL : Gules^ 
three feUlets vmr on a chief or. 2 Or^ a mamnch 
i^ules ' H.v.>TI\G> . In base ? in a shield a stages 
/uad cabcshed for DeerhaM. Cat. of Seii/s in 
Brit, Mus.^ No. 3054. 

DIEULACRE.S Staffordshire^ Cistercian Abbe>- of SS. 
Marv and Benedict . 

This abbev was founded, ^rr^j 1155, at PULTOX, bv 
Robert the Bltler, in order that prayers might be 
made for the deliverance of his master Ranulf, Earl 
of Chester, at that time held in prison by the King. 
Ranulf increased its possessions and transferred it to 
DiEULACRES. 'Orig, Cist., i., p. 142. 

Arms : Sable (? Azure), three garbs or, crcer all a pastoral 
staff proper, 

Dover (Kent; (Benedictine Prior>' of S. Martin;. 
Arms : Sable, a cross (argent) beti^een four leopard's 
luads or, {See the seal of Robert, the Prior, in 
1345, Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 3068.) 

pRAX (York; (Priory of Augustinian Canons of S. 


Arms : Argent, on a fess gules beticeen three drakes 
proper a rose of tlie first (or or). 

DUNKKSWKLL (Devon) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Marv). 
Arms: ((iu/es), tzuo bendlets wavy {or), for William 
Hkiwkrk, the founder, in 1 201 {Orig. Cist., i., 
p. 206) {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 3078.) 

( 367 ) 

DUNMOW (Essex) (Priory of Augustinian Canons of S. 
Arms : Sable^ a cross argent between four mullets or 
(? argent), {Cat, of Seals in Brit, Mus,y No. 3082.) 

Dunstable (Bedfordshire) (Priory of Augustinian 
Canons, dedicated to S. Peter). 
Arms : Argent, on a pile sable a /torse-shoe fastened by 
a staple to its centre point or, 

Easby (Yorkshire) (Premonstratensian Abbey of S. 

Arms : Azure, a bend or (SCROPE) ; over all a pastoral 
staff in bend-sinister proper (Plate I., fig. 8). 

Edington or Hedington (Wiltshire) (Priory of 
Augustinian Friars). 
Arms : Or, on a cross engrailed gules five cinquefoils 
{or roses) argent (otherwise of tlie field). 


Arms : Gules, three escallops argent (arms of Dacre). 

Elsyng (London) (Priory and Hospital, Cripplegatc). 
Arms : Gules, a lion rampant barry argent and sable, 

Ely (Cambridge) (Benedictine Nunnery of S. Ethel- 

Founded in 672 by S. Ethelreda, a Princess of the 
East Angles, as a double monastery {i.e, for both sexes). 
It was destroyed by the Danes in 870, but was rebuilt 
a century later by S. Ethelwold, Bishop of WIN- 
CHESTER. The See of Ely was founded in 1 108. ( Vide 
ante, p. 180.) 

Arms : Gules, three open crowns or. 

The arms of the Priory are given as : Or, three keys 
erect azure, two and one, zuards in chief {v, p. 198). 

( 368 ) 

Evesham (Worcestershire) (Benedictine Abbey of 
S. Mary, and S. Ecgwine, Bishop). 
This abbey was founded before the year 718 by 
S. Ecgwine, Bishop of Worcester, whose name was 
afterwards joined in the dedication. 

Arms : Asure, a chain in clievron couped and padlocked 
at one endy between three mitres^ all argent. 

EWELME (Oxford) (Hospital). 

The common seal bore the impaled arms of the 
founders : (a) Azure ^ a fess between three leopard's 
faces or, for WILLIAM DE LA Pole, Duke of 
Suffolk; and (b) . . . a lion rampant queue 
fourchi^e for (ALICE Chaucek ?) his wife, 1437. 
(See Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 3120.) 

Faversham, or Feversham (Kent) (Benedictine 
Founded in 1 148 by King STEPHEN, confirmed and 
enlarged by Henry II. and his successors. 

Arms: ENGLAND dimidiated, and impaling: Azure y 
three ships without masts, also dimidiated argent 
(being together the arms of the CiNQUE-PORTS), 
differenced by a crosier proper on the palar line. 

Flixton (Suffolk) (Augustinian Priory of SS. Mary 
and Catharine). 
Arms : Azure (or Gules), a Catharine wheel with a 
cross- Calvary projecting from it in chief argent. 

Fountains (Yorkshire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Marv). 
Founded about the year 11 32 by S. ROBERT, and 
other Benedictine monks of York. About ten years later 
the Cistercian rule was adopted. {Orig. Cist., i., p. 37.) 
Arms : Azure, three horse-shoes or. (A chevron, 
sometimes charged with crosses-patties, is occa- 
sionally inserted in the blasons of this coat.) 

( 369 ) 

Frithelstokk (Devon) (Augustinian Priory). 
Arms : Vairy argent and sable. 

FURNESS (Lancaster) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 
Arms : Sable, on a pale argent a crazier of tlu first, 
(Another coat, Sable , a bend cluquy argent and 
azure, is given in TONGE, Visitation, etc. Surtees 
Society. The last tincture is probably gules 
{cf, p. 414). 
The abbey was founded by King STEPHEN in 1127, 
when still Earl of MORTAGNE and BOULOGNE. 

Garendon (Leicestershire) (Cistercian Abbey of 
S. Mary). 
Founded in 1133 by ROBERT DE MONTFORT, Earl 
of Leicester (Janauschek, Orig. Cist., 1., p. 30). 

Arms : Gules, a cinquefoil ermine (the arms of the 
County of Leicester), over all a pastoral staff in 
bend or. MONTFORT bore : Gules, a lion rampant 
queue fourcli^e argent. 

Gloucester (Mitred Benedictine Abbey of S. Peter). 
Founded in 680 by Ethelbert, King of Mercia. 
{See Bishopric, ante p. 181). 

Grimsby (Lincoln) (Abbey of Augustinian Canons). 

Founded by King HENRY I. 

Arms : {Gules), on a chevron between a royal crown, and 
a lion of ENGLAND in chief {or), and in base a 
crosier issuing from the base . . . three fleurs- 
de-lis . . . {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., 
No. 3230.) 

Glastonbury (Somerset) (Mitred Benedictine Abbey 

of S. Mary). 

This monastery claimed Joseph of Arimathea as 

its founder in the first century, but the date of its 
2 B 

( 370 ) 

foundation is lost in the mists of antiquity. It pretty 
certainly existed in the fourth century. 

Arms : Vert, a cross treflie (or flory) argent {between 

four open crowns or\ on a canton of tlu second the 

Bless?:d WlKGl'S, holding t/ie HOLV CuilA), proper, 

GuiSBOROUGH (Gisborne) (Yorkshire) ( Prior>^ of 
Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Argent, a lion rampant a sure, over all a bend 

Hales-Owen (Shropshire) (Premonstratensian). 

Arms : Azure, a clievron argent between three fleurs^c- 
lis or. 

HalteMPRISE, or Haltemprice (York) (Priory of 
Arms : Sable, a cross patonce (or flory) argent ; other- 
wise, Sable, a cross patonce quarterly argent aud 

Haverford (Pembroke). 

Arms : Gules, a dragon argent winged or, on a chief 
azure three mullets of the last. 

Hayles (Gloucester) (Mitred Cistercian Abbey of 
S. Mary). 
Founded in 1246 by RiCHARi), Earl of Cornwall 
and King of the ROMANS {Orig, Cist., i., p. 246). 
The chief relic, and the one which added to its fame and 
popularity, was a reputed vial of the Holy Blood, 
which was obtained for it in 1272 by Edmund, Earl 
of Cornwall, son of the founder. 

Arms (those of the founder): Argent, a lion rampant 
gules within a bordure sable bezant^e, differenced 
by a crosier in bend or (passing over the lion). 

Hedingham, vide ante, Edingham. 

( 371 ) 

Hertland (Devon) (Abbey of Augustinian Canons of 
St. Nectan). 
Arms : Gules, a bend between three pears or. Another 
coat is : Argent, a crosier in pale or, enfiled by a 
sta^s /lead caboshed sable attired of the second, 

Holland (Lincolnshire). 

Arms : Azure, fleury and a lion rampant argent (the 
arms of Holland) debruised by a bend gules, 
tliereon three keys or, wards uppermost, 

HOLME-CULTRAM (Cmiiberland) (Cistercian Abbey of 
S. Mary). 
Founded in the year 1151 by David I., King of 
Scotland. The English Kings, Henry II., Richard, 
and Henry HI., confirmed the grants of land, and 
increased the possessions of the abbey {Orig, Cist,, \„ 
p. 130). 

Arms : Asure, a cross-moline or ; impaling. Or, a lion 
rampant sable. 

Holme, or Hulme (Norfolk) (Mitred Benedictine 
Abbey of S. BENEDICT). 
Founded by Canute in 1036. 

Arms : Sable, a crosier in pale, between two open 
crowns in fess or. (Sec Cat. of Seals in Brit, 
Mus., Nos. 3304, 3305.) 

HuLTON (Stafford) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

Founded by Henry Audeley in 1223 {Orig, Cist,, \., 
p. 223). 

Arms (those of its founder) : Gules, a fret or, (See 
Cat. of Seals in Brit, Mus., No. 3306.) 

Hyde (Hampshire) (Benedictine Abbey of S. PETER at 
Arms: Argent, a lion rampant sable, on a chief of the 
last two keys addorsed paleways, the bows inter- 
laced of t lie first. 

( 372 ) 

Ingham (Norfolk) (Priory of Redemptorists, or Trini- 
Arms : (Those of the Order) Argent, a cross pat/e, the 
pale s^ules, the fess azure ; but the arms of the 
house appear to have been those of Sir MiLES 
STAri.KTON, its founder, circa 1360 ; Argent, a lion 
rampant sable. (See Cat, of Seals in Brit. Afus., 
No. 3314.) 

IXWORTir, or Ikesvvorth (Suffolk) (Priory of Argen- 
tinians of S. Mary). 
Arms: Lozengy or and sable ; being those of Blund, 
its founder. {Cat. of Seals in Brit. ATus., No. 


Jervaux, or JOREVAL (Yorkshire) (Cistercian Abbey of 
S. Mary). 
This abbey was founded in the reign of King STEPHEN 
(i 1 35-1 1 54) {Orig. Cist., i., p. 1 19). 

Arms : These appear to have been those of its founder, 
viz., Or, three chevrons interlaced in base gules, a 
chief vair, St. Quentin. (See Cat. of Seals in 
Brit. Mus., No. 3315.) 

Kenilworth (Warwickshire) (Priory, afterwards Abbey, 
of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Argent, on a cJiief azure two mullets or, pierced 
gules (the arms of CLINTON). 

Kevnsham (Somerset) (Abbey of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : {Gules) six clarions or rests {or) (See Cat. 
of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 3346.) 

Kirkby-Beller (Leicester) (Augustinian Priory). 

Arms : Per pale gules and sable, over all a lion rampant 
argent crowned or, the arms of Beller. {Cat. 
of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 3358.) 

( 373 ) 

KiRKHAM, or Kyrcham (Yorkshire) (Priory of Augus- 
tinian Canons of the Holy Trinity). 
Arms : Gules, three water-budgets, over all a pastoral 
staff in pale, or. 

KiRKSTALL (Yorkshire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 
Founded by HENRY DE Lacy in 1147 {Orig, Cist,, i., 

P- 93)- 

Arms : Azure, three swords points in base argent, 

hilted or. 

KiRKSTEAD (Lincoln) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 
Founded in 1139 by HUGH BRETON {Orig. Cist., l, 

p. 55). 

Arms : . . . three crowns . . . {Cat. of Seals 

in Brit. Mus., No. 3377.) 

Knaresborough (Yorkshire) (Priory of Trinitarians, or 
Arms : Argent, a lion rampant gules, croiuned or, a 
bordure sable bezantie (CORNWALL). 

Knoll, or Knole (Warwick). 

Arms \ .... a rose en soleil . . . (Cat. of 
Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 338 l) 

Lambourne (Berkshire) (Hospital). 

Arms : Bendy wavy of six argent and sable ; for JOHN 
EsTBURY, the founder. (Cat. of Seals in Brit. 
Mus., No. 3392.) 

Lande (Leicester) (Priory of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Or, three pales gules, a bordure azure bezant^e ; 
arms of RICHARD BASSET, the founder. {Cat. of 
Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 3394.) 

Lanercost (Cumberland) (Priory of Augustinian 
Arms: Or, two flaunc/tes gules. 

( 374 ) 

Langdon (Kent) (Premonstratensian Abbey of S. 
Arms : Azure, two crosiers in saltire proper ^ tlie sinister 
headed sable. 

Langlev Rkc;is (King's Langley) (Hertford) (Priory^ 

of Black Friars). 

Arms : . . . on a bend engrailed . . . , between 

six fleurs-de-lis . . . , three crosses-crosslets 

fitchi^es . . . {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus.^ 

No. 3408.) 

Languest (Denbigh), ** Valle Crucis" (Cistercian 
Founded at close of twelfth century by Madoc ap 
Griffith {Orig. Cist., i., p. 205). 

Arms : Gules ^ on a lion rampant between three crosses- 
crosslets fltc/ufes argent as many bars sable. 

Latton (Essex). 

Arms : G ides, five mullets, 2. 2. i. or on a canton of last 
(or ermine) a griffin segreant sable. 

Launceston (Cornwall) (Augustinian Priory). 

Arms : Argent, gutt^ de sang, a cock {sable, or gules) ^ on 
a chief gules three roses of t lie field (or or\ 

Ledes (Kent) (Priory of Augustinians of SS. MARY and 


Arms : Argent, a cross voided gules (Edmondson says 
the field is or). Or, a cross-moline gules. 

Leicester (S. Mary de Pratis) (Abbey of Augus- 

tinian Canons). 
Arms : Gules, a cinquefoil ermine. 

( 375 ) 

Lkigh or Lees (Essex) (Priory of Augustinians). 

Arms : Sable (or azure), three plates, on each as many 
piles in point wavy of the field (or gules), 

Lenton (Nottingham) (Clugniac Priory of S. Saviour). 
Arms : Quarterly Or and azure, over all a cross- 
Calvary of the first, fimbriated and stepped sable, 

LiN(;Ff ELI) (Surrey) (College of S. Peter). 

Arms : (Those of COBHAM, the founder) Gules, on a 
chevron or, three {lions rampant) sable, 

Llanthony (Gloucester) (Priory of Augustinians.) 
Arms : Argent, on a chevron gules between three Cornish 
choug/is sable as many crosiers or (the arms of 

Lynn (Norfolk) (Carmelite, or White Friars). 

Founded by Bishop HERBERT DE LosiNGA, in the 
reign of WILLIAM RUFUS. 

Arms : Azure, three conger's heads erased and erect, 
each holding in the mouth a cross-crosslet fitchy or, 
(the congers are sometimes called sea-dragons), 


St. Anthony's. 

Arms : Or, a cross tau (ST. ANTHONY'S Cross) azure, 

S. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

Arms : Per pale argent and sable, a chevron counter- 

Charter-house (the old Carthusian Monastery). 
Arms : those of Sir WALTER DE MANNY, the founder, 
viz., Or, three cluvrons sable. 

( 376 ) 

Christ's Hospital. 

Arms : Argent, a cross, and in dexter canton a s%vord 
in pcde gules (City of LONDON); on a chief azure 
a double rose of YORK and LANCASTER, betiveen 
two fleurs-de-lis or, 

S. Katharine's Hospital. 

Arms : Per f ess gules and azure, in chief a siuord fess- 
ways, in base a demi- Katharine's wheel argent, 

S. Mary's Hospital (without Bishopsgate). 

Arms \ , . . a cross-moline voided , , . for the 
founder, Brune {Cat, of Seals in Brit, Mus., No. 
3541). but S. Mary's Bishopsgate is otherwi.^ve 
said to bear : Per pale argent and sable, a cross- 
moline counter-clianged, in the dexter canton ti 
martlet of the second (but gtiles according to 

St. Mary Graces (Eastminster). 

Arms: Per pale, {di) Per f ess, . . . in chief a /ion s 
face; in base . . . a fleur-de-lis ; (b) . . . ^ 
crosier in pale. 

S. Mary Oyery (Southwark). 

Arms : Argent, a cross lozengy gules, in dexter chief a 
mullet {ox according to EdmondsoN a cinquefoil) 
of tlu last. 

St. Thomas of Acre (or of Acon;. 

Arms : Azure, a cross patde per pale gules and argent. 

Maiden Bradley (Wilts, and Somerset) (Priory of 
Austin Friars). 
Arms ', , , , an escucluon . . . within an oric 
of martlets, . . . 

( 377 ) 

Macclesfield (Cheshire). 

Arms : Gules, a mitre between three garbs or. 

Maidstone (Kent) (College of S. Mary). 
Arms : Azure, three bars or, 

Malmesbury (Wilts.) (Mitred Benedictine Abbey of 
SS. Mary and Aldhelm). 
Arms : Gules, two lions of ENGLAND, on a chief argent 

a mitre between two pastoral staves azure (?). 
Founded before 675, in which year S. Aldhelm, 
afterwards Bishop of SHERBORNE, became abbot. King 
Athelstan was buried here. 

Malton (York) (Gilbertine Priory). 

Arms: Argent, on three bars gules a pilgrim's crutch 
in bend sable, (See Tlu Herald and Genealogist, 

vol ii., pp. 192, 345, 406) {cf SEMPRINGHAM). 

Malvern (Little) (Benedictine Priory). 

Arms : Argent, on a fess between three cock's lieads 
erased sable, wattled gules, a mitre or. The arms 
of Bishop John Alcock, of Worcester and Ely, 
a benefactor. {Cat, of Seals in Brit. Mus,, 
No. 3605.) 

Margam (Glamorgan) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Marv.) 
Arms : Gules, three clarions or, and, Or, three clievrons 
gules, Clare. (Both shields are on the seal of 
the abbey in 1 525. {Cat. of Seals in Brit, Mus., 
No. 3608.) 
The abbey was founded in 1 147 by Robert de Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester {Orig. Cist., \., p. 107). 

Maxstoke (Warwick) (Priory of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Argent, on a chief azure two mullets or. 

( 378 ) 

pierced gules, the arms of Clinton of Max- 

Melford (Suffolk) (Trinity Hospital). 

Arms (of Sir WiLLlAM CORDALL, Master of the Rolls, 
founder, temp, Elizabeth). Quarterly, I and 4. 
Argent, a clievron ennine between three griffin's 
/leads erased gules ; 2 and 3. . . . rt clievron 
between three lions passant gardant . . . (Co/, 
0/ Seals in Brit. Mus„ No. 3625.) 

Mendham (Suffolk) (Clugniac Priory). 

Arms : Or, on a f ess gules three plates (arms of WlLLlAM 
DE HUNTINGFIELD, founder, on seal of 1307. (See 
Cat. of Seals in Brit, Mus., No. 3626.) 

Melsa or Meaux (Yorkshire) (Cistercian Abbey). 

Arms : Gules, a cross patonce vair betiveen four martlets 

Founded in 1 1 50 by WILLIAM, Eari of ALBEMARLE, 
or AUMERLE, Lord of HOLDERNESS ; and confirmed by 
King John {Orig. Cist., i., p. 124). 

Merevale, Murivalle — "DE MiRA Valle " (War- 
wick) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Marv). 

Founded c. 1 147 by ROBERT, Earl Ferrars {Orig. 
Cist., i., p. 1 14). 

Arms : Vaire or and gules (arms of the founder). 

Merton (Surrey) (Priory of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms: Or, fretty azure ; on t lie joints six eagles dis- 
played argent. 

Mettingham (Norfolk) (College of Secular Priests first 
at Raveningham, then at Norton Soupecors). 
Arms: Per pale azure and gules, a lion rampant argent. 

( 379 ) 

Milton or Middleton (Dorset) (Benedictine Abbey 
of S. Mary). 

Founded by King Athelstan in 933. 
Arms : Sable, three baskets of cakes argent, 

MISSENDEN or Messenden (Buckingham) (Abbey of 
Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Ennine, two bars wavy sable, over all a crosier, 
in bend or. 

MiCHELNEV, or Muchelney (Somerset) (Benedictine 
Abbey of SS. PETER and Paul). 
Arms : Argent, two keys in bend enfiling a sword in 
bend-sinister gules. 

Monk-Bretton (York) (Clugniac Priory). 

Arms : Sable, in chief two covered cups, in base a cross 
pat^e argent. 

Nantwich (Chester). 

Arms : Per pale azure and gules, t%vo palmer's staves 
in saltire or. 

Neath (Glamorgan) (Cistercian Abbey of the Trinity). 
Arms : Gules, three rests, or clarions, or. 
Founded in 1130, bySir Richard Granville, and 
Constance, his wife {Orig, Cist., i., p. 98). 

N f:\vark (Leicester) (College). 

Arms : ENGLAND, a label ermine (?) for HENRY, Duke 
of Lancaster. (See Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus,, 
No. 3450.) 

Newburgh (York) (Abbey of Augustinian Canons of 
S. Mary). 
Arms : Gules, a lion rampant or, debruised by a palmer's 
staff (or crosier^ in bend-sinister of the last. (See 
Tlie Herald and Genealogist, vol. ii., p. 192.) 

( 3«o ) 

Newcastle ('Northumberland^ Carmelites. 

Arms: . . . crusily . . . three lions passant in 
pale , . . (? BVKEk). ('See Cat. of Seals in 
Brit. Mus., No. 3686.) 

Newenham (Bedford) fAugustinian Prior of S. Paul;. 

Arms : On the seal of WlLLL\M DE VVOKETON, Prior 

in 1427, are two shields, one . . . a lion 

rampant . . . ; the other . . . a cross 

patonce . . . (Sec Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., 

No. 3693^. 

Newenham (Devon) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Marv). 

Founded in 1246 by REGINALD l)E MOHUN {Ori^. 
Cist., i., p. 246). 

Arms: The seal of Abbot LEONARD HOUNDALLER, 
about 1 406, has two shields ; one {Or), a cross 
lozengy (meant probably for the engrailed sable 
rre?jj of MoHUN) ; the other . . . three pierced 
mullets . . . (See Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus.^ 
No. 3695.) 

Newstead (Nottingham) (Abbey of Austin Canons). 
Arms : Same as See of Lincoln {ante p. 184)* 

Norton (Chester) (Priory of Austin Canons). 

Arms : Gules, a pale fusilly or. To this is sometimes 
added, a bordure azure thereon eight mitres of the 
second. {See Leland, Collectanea, i., 53.) 

Northampton (Augustinian Priory of S. James). 

Arms : Per pale argent {?) and gules, over all an 
escallop or. 

Norwich (Benedictine Priory, afterwards Cathedral). 
Arms : Argent, a cross sable. (See Cat. of Seals in 
Brit, Mus,, No. 3768.) 

( 38i ) 

NOSTELL (Priory). 

Arms : Gules, a cross between four lions rampant or. 
(See The Herald and Genealogist, vol. ii., pp. 

Nottingham (Carmelites, or White Friars). 

Arms : Barry of eight argent and azure, a label of 
five points gules, for the founder, REGINALD, Lord 

Grey de Wilton, 1276. 

Olveston, Owston, or Ossulveston (Leicestershire) 
(Priory of Austin Canons). 
Arms : Argent, three bars azure, a bordure gules, 

Osenev (Oxford) (Abbey of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Azure, two bends or. 

Ottekv (Devon) (Collegiate Church of S. Marv). 

F'ounded by John de Grandison, Bishop of 
Exeter, in 1337. 

Arms (Those of the founder) : Paly of six argent and 
azure, on a bend gules a mitre proper betiveen two 
eagles displayed or. 

Pentney (Norfolk) (Priory of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Gules, three covered baskets or. 

Penwortham (Lancaster) (Benedictine Priory). 

Arms : Argent, on a chevron between three water-bougets 
gules two pairs of keys in saltire or. 

Pershore (Worcester) (Benedictine). 

Arms : Sable, on a cfievron between three ant-hills or, 
charged with ants proper ; as many holly leaves 
vert. {Or ... a cross raguly . . .) 

( 3«2 ) 

Peterborough (Medehampstead) (Benedictine Abbey 
of S. Peter, now Cathedral). 
Was founded, about the year 655, by Penda, King of 
Mercia. It was rebuilt in the tenth century. The See 
was founded by HENRY VIII. in the year 1541. 

Arms : The arms of the abbey were : Gules, tTvo keys 
in saltire or, {See those of the Bishopric at 
p. 186, ante,) 

PiPEWELL (Northamptonshire) (Cistercian Abbey of 
S. Mary, De Diyisis). 
Founded in the year I I43by RAl)ULF,Earl of Chester ; 
and William de Buteville {Orig, Cist., i., p. 76). 

Arms : Argent, three crescents gules ; impaling. Azure, a 
crosier in pale or. 

Plympton (.Devon) (Prior)' of Augustinian Canons of 
SS. Peter and Paul). 
Arms : Gules, two keys addorsed in bend or, enfiling a 
sword in bend-sinister proper. 

POLLESHOO, or PdLSLOE (Benedictine Prior>' of S. 


Arms : Gules, a sword between three Catharine wheels 

Pollesworth (Warwick) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. 
Mary and Edith). 
Founded near the forest of Arden, in the middle of the 
ninth century, by King Ethelwolf, for S. Modwenna 
the instructress of his daughter Edith. 

Arms : Gules (Edmondson says Azure), a /ess coticcii 
between six crosslets or. 

PONTEFRACT (Yorkshire) (Clugniac Priory of S. JOHN). 
Arms : Quarterly or and gules, a bend sable, over all a 
label of five points in chief argent. 

( 383 ) 

Ramsay (Huntingdonshire) (Benedictine Abbey of 
S. Mary, etc.). 
Founded about the year 972 by S. Oswald, Bishop 
of Worcester, and Archbishop of YORK. The dedica- 
tion was to S. Mary, S. Benedict, and all Vir.cjins. 
Arms : Or, on a bend azure three rams heads couped 
argent. (See Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus.y Nos. 
3876, 3878.) 

Reading (Berkshire) (Mitred Benedictine Abbey of 
SS. Mary, John, and James). 
This Abbey was founded in 1 126, by King HENRY 1., 
who presented to it its chief relic the hand of S. James ; 
and who was himself buried within its walls. The 
monastery, one of the grandest in England, is said to 
have contained two hundred monks. 

Arms : Azure, three escallops or, (See Cat. of Seals in 
Brit. Mus., No. 3886 ; seal of Abbot JOHN 


Richmond (Yorkshire) (Grey Friars, Priory of S. 
Arms : Gules, two bars gemels, a chief, and over all a 
crosier in pale or. 

RiEVAULX (Yorkshire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

Founded c. 11 27, by Walter Lespec {Orig. Cist., i., 
p. 22). 

Arms : Gules, three water-budgets argent, over all a 
crosier in pale proper (ROOS, difiTerenced). 

Rochester (Abbey). 

Arms : Argent, a sal tire gules. 

ROYSTON (Hertford) (Priory of Augustinian Canons of 
SS. Nicolas, and Thomas of Canterbury. 
Arms : Per pale two coats; (a) Argent, a f ess gules; (b) 
Chequy argent and azure. 

( 384 ) 

RUFFORD (Nottingham) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

Founded in 1 148 by GILBERT, Earl of LINCOLN. 

Arms : Azure, flory, a lion rampant or [Orig, Cist.^ i., 
p. 1 1 2). 

RUSHEN (Isle of Man) (Cistercian Abbey). 

Founded by Olaf I. in 1 147 {Orig. Cist., \., p. 10 1). 
Arms : Argent, a cross sable fret ty or. 

RusHWORTH (Norfolk) (Collegiate Church of S. JOHN\ 
Arms : ... on a bend . . . three roses. 

St. Albans (Hertford) (Mitred Benedictine Abbey). 

This celebrated abbey was founded, about the year 793, 
by Offa, King of Mercia, in expiation of the murder 
of S. Ethelbert, King of the East Angles. It was 
built on the place of the martyrdom of S. Alban, the 
protomartyr of England, where a church had been 
already raised to his honour, but destroyed by the 
invading Danes. The abbey became a Cathedral 
Church in 1877 {vide ante, p. 186). 

Arms : Azure, a saltire or {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus.^ 
No. 3944). 

St. Bees (Cumberland) (Benedictine Priory). 

Arms: (those of the Earls of NORTHUMBERLAND, 
viz.) : Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a lion rampant 
azure (Percv-ancient, or LOUVAIN) ; 2 and 3. 
Gules, three lucies hauriant argent (Lucv). 

Sallav, Sawlev, Sallev (Yorkshire) (Cistercian 
Abbey of S. Mary). 
Founded in 1147, by William de Percy, under the 
title of Mount Saint Andrew {Orig. Cist., \., p. 109). 
Arms (of the founder) : Azure, five fusils in fess or. 
Otherwise, Argent, on a pale sable a crosier or. 

( 38s ) 

Saltrey, Sawtre, or Soltre (Huntingdon) (Cister- 
cian Abbey of S. Mary). 
Founded in 1 147, by SiMON St. Lis, Earl of North- 
ampton ; and MALCOLM, King of Scotland (as Earl of 
Huntingdon) {Orig, Cist., i., p. 95). 

Arms : Argent, two bars gules fretty or. 

Selby (Yorkshire) (Benedictine Monastery of the 
Blessed Virgin, and S. Germain d'Auxerre). 


Arms : Sable, three swans close argent, two and one, 

beaked and meinbered or (See The Herald and 

Genealogist, vol. ii., p. 193). 

Sele (Sussex) (Benedictine Priory of S. Peter). 

Arms : On the fifteenth century seal are two shields, 
one of England with a label ; the other bears 
a fess nebuly with a demi-lion issuant in chief 
between two cross-crosslets. (See Cat. of Seals in 
Brit. Mus., No. 3986.) 

Sempringham (Lincoln) (Priory). 

Arms : Barry of six argent and gules, overall a palmer s 
crutch in bend {sinister) or. (See Tlie Herald and 
Genealogist, vol. ii., p. 345) {cf. Malton). 

Shaftesbury (Dorset) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. 
Mary and Edward). 
Founded, in the tenth century, by Elgiva, wife of 
King Edmond, grandson of Alfred the Great. 
Arms : Argent, on a pale coticed sable three roses of the 

Sherborne (Dorset) (Benedictine Abbey of S. Mary). 

Arms : Gules, a cross argent, over all a crosier in pale 

to the dexter side of the shield proper. 
2 c 

( 386 ) 

Shrewsbury (Shropshire) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. 
Peter and Paul). 
Arms : Azure, a lion rampant, debruised by a crosier in 
bend, all within a bordure argent (or or\ 

Slapton (Devon) (College of S. Marv). 

Arms: {Pr\ three piles in point {gules ; the arms of 
the founder, Sir GUY DE Bryan). {See Cat. of 
Seals in Brit, Mus., No. 4032.) 

SOUTHWICK (Hampshire) (Priory of Augustinian 
Arms : Argent, on a chief sable two roses of tlu first. 

Stanley (Wiltshire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

Founded by the Empress Matilda at Lokeswell ; 
transferred to STANLEY by King Henry H. {Orig. Cist., 
L, p. 125). 

Arms : . . . crusilyfitchy , . . a bend ermine (?). 
(See Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 4082.) 

Strata Florida (Cardiganshire) (Cistercian Abbey of 
S. Mary) (Janauschek, Orig, Cist., i., p. 157). 
Founded by Rhys ap Gryffydd in 11 84, rebuilt under 
the patronage of Edward I., in 1288. 

Arms : Sable, a crosier in pale enfiled by a stags /lead 

St. German*S (Cornwall) (Benedictine Priory). 

Arms : Or, on a clievron azure between three lions heads 
erased purpure, as many annulets of the first. 

Stratford Langthorne (Essex) (Cistercian Abbey). 
Arms : Or, three clievrons gules (Clare), over all a 
crosier in bend argent (founded c, 1 1 35). 

( 387 ) 

Sudbury (Suffolk) (College). 

Arms (of SUDBURY): Gules, a talbot sejant within 
a bordure engrailed or. 

Tamworth (Stafford) (Collegiate Church of S. Edith). 
Arms : Sable, on a fess argent between three pheons or, 
a stag's head caboshed of t/ie field between two 
pellets (the arms of Parker). 

Tanregge (Surrey) (Priory). 
Arms : Gules, three bezants, 

Tateshalle or Tattershall (Lincolnshire) (Colle- 
giate Church). 
Arms : Quarterly, I and 4. {Argent) a chief {gules) 
over all a baton (for Sir RALPH CROMWELL the 
founder) ; 2 and 3. Chequy {or) and (gules) a chief 
ermine (Tattershall). 

Tavistock (Devon) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. Mary 
and RUMON). 
This abbey was founded in the tenth century 
{c, 961), by Ordgar, Earl of Devon, father of Queen 

Arms : Vairc or and azure, on a chief of the first two 
mullets (sometimes pierced) gules. Otherwise, 
Vair, on a chief or, two pierced mullets gules. 

Tewkesbury (Gloucestershire) (Benedictine Abbey of 
S. Mary). 
Founded by Oddo and DODDO, two pious nobles of 
Mercia, in the time of King Ethelred. 

Arms : Gules, a cross engrailed or, within a bordure 
argent. (Note, the engrailure takes the form of 
one large indentation on either side of each 

( 388 ) 

Thame (Oxfordshire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. MaryJ. 

Founded, in the year 1138, by Sir Robert Gait, 
with the aid of ALEXANDER, Bishop of LINCOLN. 

Arms : Argent, on a chief sable two crosiers or. Other- 
wise, Sable, on a chief argent two crosiers (?) 
. . . {Orig, Cist,, i., p. 46). 

Thetford (Norfolk) (Clugniac Priory of S. Mary). 
Arms : Per pale or and vert, a lion rampant gules (arms 
of Bigot, Earl of Norfolk, Earl Marshall). 

Thetford (Norfolk) (Canons of the Holy Sepulchre). 
Arms : Chequy or and azure (for Warenne). (See 
Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 4162.) 

Thoneston, or Thompson (Norfolk) (Collegiate 


Arms : Argent, on a cluvron gnles between three cross- 

crosslets fitctiies azure, an estoile for difference 

(?or); for the founder, Sir Thomas Sharde- 


Thorney (Cambridge) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. 
Mary and Botolph). 
Was founded early in the seventh century (c. 604) by 
Sebert, King of the East Saxons. It was rebuilt in 
970 by Ethelwold, Bishop of WINCHESTER, with the 
help of King Edgar. 

Arms : Azure, three crosiers, two and one, between as 
many cross-crosslets, one and two, or. 

Thornholm (Lincoln) (Priory of Augustinian Canons 
of S. Mary). 
Arms: . . . fretty . . . a canton . . . (See 
Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 4172). 

( 389 ) 

Thornton on Humber, or Torrington (Lincoln) 
(Abbey of Augustinian Canpns of S. Mary). 
Arms : Azure, two crosiers addorsed in pale or (or argent). 

Thurgarton (Nottingham) (Priory of Augustinian 
Canons of S. Peter). 
Arms : Argent^ three keySy two and one^ sable, wards in 
chief (Edmondson gives the reverse). But 
in the Cat, of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 4190, is 
the seal of WILLIAM BiNGHAM, Prior 147 1- 1477, 
which bears a shield charged with the arms of 
the founder, RALPH d'Ayncourt : Azure, billetty, 
and a fess dancetty or. 

TiLTEY (Essex) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 

Founded in 1152 by ROBERT DE FERRERS and 

Maurice de Tiltey. 

Arms : Argent, on a cross gules five fleurs-de-lis or. 

TUTBURY (Stafford) (Benedictine Priory of S. Mary). 

Founded, at the close of the eleventh century, by 
Henry de Ferrers, for the repose of the souls of 
William the Conqueror, and Queen Matilda ; and 
for the souls of his own wife and parents. 

Arms : The fifteenth century seal given in Cat. of Seals 

in Brit. Mus., No. 4218, bears two shields; one 

of Az7ire, a salt ire vairy or and gules, between 

four crescents argent, for the Priory ; the other of 

Vairy or and gules, the arms of the founder. 

Torre (Devon) (Premonstratensian Abbey). 
Arms : Gules, a fess between three crosiers or. 

Tynemouth (Northumberland) (Benedictine Priory of 
SS. Mary and Oswin). 
Arms : Gules, three open crowns or. (See The Herald 
and Genealogist, vol. ii., p. 192.) 

( 390 ) 

Tywardret, or Trewardreth (Cornwall) (Benedic- 
tine Priory). 
Arms : Gules, a sal tire between four fleurs-de-lis or, 

Ulverscroft (Leicester) (Prior)'' of Augustinian Canons 
of S. Mary). 
Arms : Gules, seven mascles, 3. 3. i., argent. 

" Valle Crucis" {vide ante, p. 375). 

Vale-Royal (Chester) (Cistercian Abbey.) 

Arms : Gules, three lions passant gardant or (ENG- 
LAND), debruised by a crosier in pale gules ^ the 
head sable, all within a bordure of t/u last 
bezantie {Orig, Cist., i., p. 259). 

Waleden (Saffron-Walden) (Usscx) (Benedictine 
Abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary and S. 
Founded in the year 11 36 by Geoffrey de Mande- 
viLLE, Earl of Essex. 

Arms : Azure, on a bend gules, coticed and between tivo 
mullets or, three escallops argent. 

Walsingham (Norfolk) (Priory of Augustinian Canons 
of S. Mary). 
Arms: Argent, on a cross sable five billets (otherwise 
five garden lilies) of the field. 

Waltham (Essex) (Abbey of Augustinian Canons of 
Holy Cross). 
Founded by Tovi and HAROLD in the ninth (?) 

Arms : Argent, on a cross engrailed sable five cross- 
crosslcts fi tehees or. {Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus.^ 
No. 4250.) 

( 391 ) 

Wardon, or DE Sartis (Bedford) (Cistercian Abbey 
of S. Mary). 
Founded in 1135 by Walter l'Espec {Orig, Cist, 

>M p. 43)- 

Arms : Azure, a crosier between three warden pears or. 

{Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., No. 4259.) 

Ware (Hertfordshire) (House of the Franciscans). 
Founded by BALDWIN DE Wake. 
Arms : Or, two bars gules in chief three torteaux, the 
arms of the founder. 

Warsop (Nottinghamshire) (Abbey). 

Arms: Argent, on a bend between six martlets gules 
(arms of Furnival) a crosier or. 

Welbeck (Nottingham) (Premonstratensian Abbey of 
S. James). 

Arms : Gules, three lozenges conjoined in fess argent, on 
each a rose of the first. 

Wenlock (Shropshire) (Clugniac Priory of S. MlL- 

Probably founded about the seventh century, rebuilt 
in the twelfth. The Abbess MiLBURGA was niece of 
Pen da, King of Mercia. 

Arms : Azure, three garbs or, over all a crosier oft/ie last. 

Wendling (Norfolk) (Premonstratensian Abbey.) 
Arms : Azure, three crosiers or, over all on a fess gules 
as many Hosts, each stamped with the monogram 
I. H. S. 

Westminster (Mitred Benedictine Abbey of S. 

Arms : Gules, two keys in saltire, wards in chief or. 

(See Cat. of Seals in Brit. Mus., Nos. 4305, 4309, 

and 43 11). 
Founded in the seventh century by Sebert, King of the 
East Angles ) ; restored by Edward THE CONFESSOR. 

( 392 ) 

Whalley (Lancashire) (Cistercian Abbey of S. Mary). 
Arms : Gules, three whales hauriant.froin tlu mouth of 
each the Jiead of a crosier issuant or {Orig. Cist,, 
i., p. 167). 

Whitby (Yorkshire) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. Peter 
and Hilda). 
Arms : Azure, three snakes coiled argent. (Ammonites, 
the fossils of S. HILDA). 

Wilton (Wilts.) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. Mary and 

Founded, in 800, by Egbert, King of Wessex, and 
his sister Alburga, wife of WULSTAN. It was rebuilt 
by King Alfred towards the end of the ninth century. 

Arms : 

WiNCHCOMBE (Gloucester) (Benedictine Abbey of SS. 
Mary and Kenelm). 
Founded in the year 798 by Kenulf, King of 

Arms : Those of MORTIMER, the inescucheon charged 
with a cross gules for differefice, 

Winchester (Hampshire) (Hospital of S. Cross). 

Arms : Argent, five crosses-patties argent, 2. 2. i. 

WiNGFlELD (Suffolk) (Collegiate Church of SS. Mary, 
Andrew, and John Baptist). 
Arms : Argent, on a bend gules three pairs of ivings 
conjoined in lure of the first, the arms of Thoma.s 

Worcester (Priory). 

Arms : Those of the See (?) {v, ante, p. 190) on a canton 
gules, the figure of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

holding the HoLY QWVLD proper. 

( 393 ) 

WOBURN (Bedfordshire) (Cistercian Abbey). 
Arms : Azure^ three bars wavy argent. 
The abbey was founded in 114S, by HUGH DE BOLE- 

BECK (JANAUSCHEK, Orig, CtSt., i., p. 83). 

Worksop (Nottingham) (Wirkesop, or Radford) 

(Priory of Augustinian Canons). 
Arms : Or, a lion rampant per f ess sable and gules (the 
arms of DE LOVETOT ?). 

Wootton-Waven, or Walwaynes (Warwick) (Bene- 
dictine Priory. 
Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a c/ievron gules (Staf- 
ford) ; 2 and 3. Or, in a maunch a hand proper 
gules, holding a rose of the second, slipped vert. 

York (S. Mary). 

Arms : Sable, three birds, two and one, argent ; other- 
wise, Argent, on a cross gules a bezant figured or 
{and in tlie dexter canton a key). (See T/ie Herald 
and Genealogist, vol. ii., p. 193.) 


York (Holy Trinity) (Benedictine Priory). 

Arms : Gules, a cinquefoil argent {?), for RALPH Pay- 
NELL, the founder. 

York (College of S. William, Archbishop). 

Arms : Gides, seven mascles, 3. 3. i. or (the arms of the 
Archbishop) (otherwise nine mascles). 


Abbeys, Monasteries, etc., in Germany, 

Switzerland, etc. 

The monasteries of the Cistercian Order very generally 
use as part of their arms the reputed coat of S. Bernard ; 
Sable ^ a bend counter-compony argent and gules (but see 
p. 415). Sometimes the bend is converted into a bend- 
sinister ; occasionally it appears as a dievron. 

WURMSPACH (near Rapperschwyl). 

Founded in 1259 by Rudolph IV., Count of Rappers- 

Arms : Quarterly^ I and 4. Gules, on a bend argent three 
serpents gliding azure ; 2 and 3. Sable, a bend 
counter-company argent and gules, 


(Nunnery founded in 1 245. Canton of Lucerne). 

Arms : Quarterly, I and 4. Argent, a trefoil vert ; 2 and 
3. Sable, a bend-sinister counter-compony (or cluquy) 
argent and gules. Or, Quarterly, I. Argent, a 
demi-figure of tlie BLESSED Virgin Mary and 
t/ie Holy Child proper; 2 and 3. as above ; 4. 
Argent, a trefoil vert, (Or, Or, a mullet sable.) 


Nunnery founded in 1 244 by RUDOLF DE Glattburg, 
and increased by the Counts of TOGGENBURG and Haps- 

Arms : Quarterly, l and 4. Asure, tite BLESSED VIRGIN 
Mary with tJie Holy Child, and lilies, all proper; 

( 395 ) 

2 and 3. Argent y a dove volant with an olive spray 
in its mouthy proper. Over all^ Sable^ a bend 
counter-compony argent and gules, 

S. Urban, in the Aargau in the Canton of Lucerne, 
founded about 1 148 {Orig, Cist., i., p. 200). 
Arms : Per pale; (a) Sable ^ a bend counter-compony 
argent and gules ; (b) Per fess, azure and argent ^ 
over all^ a lion rampant . . . 

Salamansweiler (near Oberlingen). 

Founded in I137 by Gontran, Baron voN Adels- 
REUTE ; and increased by the piety of the Emperors 
Conrad and Frederick (Barbarossa), and lastly by 
the gifts of BURCHARD, Archbishop of SALZBURG, which 
are commemorated ,by the inclusion of the SALZBURG 
arms in the coat of the abbey (Orig, Cist,, i., p. 50). 

Arms : Quarterly ^ I and 4. The arms of the Cistercian 
Order ; 2 and 3. SALZBURG {y. p. 87). 


Arms : Argent ^ water in base proper, 

Banz (near Lichtenfels) (Benedictine, founded 1096). 
Arms : Or, a cockatrice vert (or gules) crowned of the 

CoLN (Mommersloch). 

Arms : Or, afess dancetty sable, 


Arms : Per f ess gules and argent, in base two arm-bones 
fessways proper, 

Bellelaye (Premonstratensian). 
Founded about 1 140, near D^l^mont. 
Arms : Argent y a capital letter B sable. 

( 396 ) 


Arms : AzurCy a chevron^ engoule in a lion's mouthy 

Creuzlingen (Augustinian). 

Founded 1120, by IDALRIC, Count of Kyburg, and 
Bishop of CONSTANZ. 

Arms : Per pale; (a) Gules ^ a cross botonny argent ; (b) 
Sable, a crosier paleways argent, 

Dalheim (Mainz) (Cistercian) (" Sacra Vallis "). 

Arms \ , , . a cross tau, in front tlureof two keys iti 
saltire, wards in chief , . , (JANAUSCHEK, 
Orig, Cist,, i., p. 60). 


Arms : Argent, two wings affrontes sable. 

Erlach (Cistercian ?). 

Founded by a Bishop of Basel in twelfth century. 
Arms : Gules, a bend argent, 

ESCHENBACH, S. (Cistercian). 

Founded in 1294 by WALTER, Baron of EsCHENBACH. 
Arms : Argent, a cross recerceUe sable. 

Feldbach (Cistercian). 

Founded in 11 52, near Constance. 
Arms : Sable, billetty {couc/l^s) or, over all a lion rampant 
{? argent). 

Fraubrunnen, or Frauenbrunn (Cistercian). 
Founded in 1 309, near Bergedorf. 
Arms : Gules, a bend between two lions rampant or. 


Arms : Or, three crampons gules. 

( 397 ) 


Arms: Gules y a fess argent; impaling Vert, a griffiw 
rampant argent inflamed proper. (AUSTRIA im- 
paling Styria.) 


Arms : Gules, on a mount in base a trefoil vert. 

Hermetsching (Switzerland). 

Arms : Azure, a serpent ondoyant in pale argent, crowned 

Heilsbronn (Cistercian). 

Founded in 1132 (JANAUSCHEK, Orig. Cist., i., p. 27). 
Arms : Gules, a fountain or, jetting water proper. 


Arms : Chequy vert and gules (!). 


Arms : Gules, on a pale or three chevrons sable. 

Heinrichau (Cistercian) {Orig. Cist., i., p. 229). 

Arms : Argent, a cross-moline gules on the centre a plate 
charged with an eagle displayed sable. 

Kaisersheim (Cistercian) {Cesarea). 
Founded in 1 133 {Orig. Cist., \., p. 32). 
Arms : Or, three bars azure, a lion rampant gules. 

The shield is borne on the breast of an Imperial 

eagle crowned proper. 

Katharinen Kloster (Frankfurt A. M.). 
Arms : . . . three frogs in bend. 

LlEBFRAUEN Stift (Frankflirt A. M.\ 
Arms : . . . a river in bend. 

( 398 ) 

Heiligen Kreuz (Cistercian) {Orig, Cist, i., p. 36). 

Founded, circa 1134, by LEOPOLD, Markgrave of 

Arms : Azure, a cross argent, over all two crosiers in 
salt ire proper. 


Arms : Paly of six, argent and gules. 

Interlacken or Lac de Joux (Premonstratensian). 
Founded in 1133 by Seilger, seigneur d'OberhofiFen. 
Arms : Argent, a deini-ibex sable, 


Nunnery founded by Elizabeth of Carinthia, widow 
of the Emperor Albert L 

Arms : Gules, on a mount in base vert, a cross patriar- 
chal patde argent. 

Laach (Benedictine). 

Founded in 1093, suppressed in 1802. 
Arms : Per pale ; (a) three tall towers fessways ; (b) a 
dimidiated eagle. 


Arms : Argent, a wild man with an uprooted pine tree 

Luneburg (S. Michael). 

Arms : Gules, S. MICHAEL transfixing the dragon, all 

Lutry (Switzerland). 

Arms : Per f ess gules and argent. 


Arms : Gules, on an eagle displayed argent crowned or, 
four bars sable. Also, Argent, on waves proper, a 
boat gules therein a demi-girl naked affrontee. 

( 399 ) 

MUNSTERLINGEN (Switzerland). 
Arms : Argent, a cross gules, 

Marchthal (Premonstratensian, an Imperial Abbey). 
Founded in 1170 by HUGH, Count of TUBINGEN. 
Arms : Gules, a key and sword in saltire, in chief a 
cross-crosslet argent. 

Xeustadt (Cistercian) {Orig, Cist,, i., p. 276). 

Founded by Friedrich III., King of the Romans, 

Arms : Gules, a fess argent, a cross pat^e {sable ?) ofi 
t/ie edge of t lie fess a mitre proper, 


Arms : Gules, two dolphins embowed addorsed argent. 

La Part Dieu (Carthusian, near Bulle) (Switzerland). 

Arms : Gules, a stork with its vigilance argent. 

Founded in 1307 by GuiLLEMETTE DE Granson, 
widow of Pierre, Count de GRUvfeRE. 


Arms : Gules, a ciborium or. 

Reichersberg (See Orig, Cist., i., p. 87). 

Arms : Per pale gules and argent, tivo wings affront^s 

RUTI (near Rapperschweil, Premonstratensian). 

Founded in 1208 by LuiTPOLD, Baron DE ROGGENS- 


Arms : Argent, a capital R sable, 

St. Blaisien (Benedictine, near Basel). 
Founded in 963 by the Emperor Otho. 
Arms : Or, an ibex rampant sable. 

( 400 ) 

Salzburg (S. Peter). 

Arms : Or, two keys in sal tire sable, 

SCHAFFHAUSEN (Benedictine). 

Founded in 1052 by Eberhard, Count of Nellen- 


Arms : Or, a ram proper, issuant from a house in sinister 
flank gules. 


Arms : Gules, on a mount in base vert, a pole crossed by 
a staff raguly in bend argent. 

Steinfeld (Benedictine, afterwards Premonstratensian). 
Arms : Argent, a luart giUes pierced by two arroivs in 
saltire proper. 


Arms : Gules, tzvo " morning stars " in saltire or. 


Arms : Barry of four gules, sable, or, gules. 


Arms : Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or. 


Arms : Azure, a crosier in pale or, traversed by a key 
and siuord in saltire ardent. 



Arms : Argent, a stag passant, having a lighted candle 
between its horns, all proper. 

NURNBERG (S. Sebald). 

Arms: Gules, a f ess argent ; overall S. SeI'ALD as a 
pilgrim holding a church, all proper. 

( 401 ) 


Arms : Argent, a distaff proper. 

Maulbronn (in Wurtemberg, Cistercian). 
Founded in 1138 {Orig. Cist., i., pp. 56, 57). 
Arms : Or^ a bend-compony of five pieces, three of gules , 
two of argent. 

Werden-Helmstadt (Abbey). 

Arms : Quarterly, of six in two rows each of three 
quarters ; I and 6. Azure, a cross argent ; 2 and 
5. Azure, a double-headed eagle argent; 3 and 4. 
Gules, two crosiers in saltire argent. On an 
escuclieon en surtout the personal arms of the 
abbot. (These were, for Abbot SONNIUS, 1757- 
1774; Azure, a sun in splendour or; and for 
Abbot BiRNBAUM, 17801797, Argent, on a 
mount in base a tree vert, {See also p. yj.) 
The sword and crozier are placed in saltire behind the 
shield, and it is surmounted by three crested helms. Of 
these the dexter is ; Out of a crest-coronet Or a double- 
headed eagle argent. The central helm bears a mitre on 
a crimson cushion ; and the sinister helm is timbred 
with the personal crest of the abbot. (This for Abbot 
SONNIUS was, Out of a crest-coronet the sun in splendour 
or, between two wings argent ; for Abbot BiRNBAUM the 
crest was Out of a crest-coronet or, a mount vert thereon a 
tree proper between two wings argent. 

S. ViNX'ENT AU Bois (Augustinian Abbey). 

In the Diocese of CllARTRES, founded by GEOFFREY, 
Bishop of Chartres in 1066, enlarged by Hughes DE 
Chateauni^:uf in 1130. 

The arms of Alen(j:on\ viz., Azure, three fleurs-de-lis 

or, on a bordure gules eight plates. 
2 D 

( 402 ) 

FfiCAMP (Benedictine). 

Founded in 658. It was the richest, and most mag- 
nificent in Normandy. 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. FRANCE ; 2 and 3. Gules, 
two lions passant gardant or, NORM AN DV. Over 
all . , , three mitres proper. Sometimes the 
arms in the surtout are used alone. 

JUMlfeGES (Benedictine). 

Founded in 655 by S. Philibert; rebuilt by ROBERT, 
Archbishop of CANTERBURY ; consecrated in 1069 by 
the Archbishop of RoUEN in the presence of William 

THE Conqueror. 

Arms \ . . . a cross . . . between four keys 


Arms: Argent, two bends gules ; Or, three f nolle fs 
gules; Argent, three mallets gules. 


Arms : Or, two crosiers addorsed in pale argent, zvithin 
an orle of rats following exterior line of shield sable. 

Arras (S. Vaast d'Arras) (Benedictine). 

Founded in 658. 

Arms : Or, a cross ancr^e gules. Jean, Abbot in 1483, 
bore : Quarterly, i and 4. . . . /? crown 
. . . ; 2 and 3. . . . ^ bend . . . The 
shield is soutenu by an angel, and supported b>' 
two rats (for Arras). (Demav, Sceaux de la 
Normandie, No. 2640.) 

Mont St Quentin (Benedictine). 

Founded c. 644. 

Arms \ . . . a crosier in pale between on t/ie dexter 
a crescent surmounted by a fleur-de-lis ; on the 
sinister an estoile. (Demav, Sceaux de la Nor- 
mandie, No. 2695.) 

( 403 ) 

St. Bertin (Benedictine). 

Founded about 6oohy S. WiNNOCK, near St. Omer. 

Arms : . . . tzvo crosiers in sal tire . . . between 
four hunting horns. Later it appears that the 
arms were three lions rampant, (Demay, Sceaux 
de la Normandie^ Nos. 2704, 27 1 1 .) 

Notre Dame d'Onan (or d'Onnans) at D61e 
(Cistercian). Founded in 1595. 
Arms : Sable, a cross argent, 

MoNT-BfiNOlT (Augustinian Abbey). 
Founded in 1 141. 

Arms: Azure, the figure of S. AUGUSTINE in pontifi- 
cals or. 

Beau ME (Abbaie Royale de). 

Arms ; Azure, two keys in saltire or, and S. PETER 
seated proper, 

Trois-Rois, or Lieu Croissant (Cistercian Abbey in 
Franche Comte). 
Arms : Azure, three Eastern crowns, two and one, in 
chief a star of eight rays argent {prig. Cist., \., p. 33). 

Am BIN AY (Abbey). 

Arms : Azure, a clievron or, between two crescents argent 
in chief, and a lion rampant of the second in base, 

S. Andoche d'Autun (Benedictine Abbey). 

Founded about the close of the sixth century under 
the patronage of Queen Brunehaut. 

Arms : Azure, the BLESSED VIRGIN proper. 

Notre Dame d'Autun (Collegiate Chapter). 

Arms : Azure, three keys, two and one, ivards in chief 

( 404 ) 

XOTRE Dame dk Bois Thazev; ^Cistercian j. 
Founded c. 1 155. 

Arms : Azure, the Blksskd VlkCilN Marv hainng in 
front of her a shield : A sure, on a chei^ron between 
three estoiles or. as many eseallops gii/es, 

V^\RENHON (Chapter;. 

Arms : Azure, a mitre or, between two ermine spots sable, 

BouRc; EN Bresse (Chapter of Xotre Dame;. 
Arms : Azure, two keys in saltire or. 

Chalons (Cathedral Chapter of S. Vincent). 

Arms : Azure, fleury or. oi'er all the royal sceptre ^yd/es. 

Clunv (Chief Abbey of the Benedictine Order, near 
Founded in 910 by William IX., Duke of Aquitaink, 
destroyed by the revolutionists in 1793. 

Arms : Gu/es, a siuord in pale, point in chief, and two 
keys in saltire argent. 

La CHASSAKiNE EN Bresse (Cistercian Abbey\ 
(X. D., de). 

Founded in 1 145 and 1 151 by Etienne l)E ViLLARS 
on setting out and returning from the Crusade. 

Arms : Bendy of six or and gules {Orig. Cist., \.. p. 147). 

MONTLUEL EN Bresse (Collegiate Chapter). 

Arms : Gules, two keys in sal tire, wards in chief argent . 

TOURNUS (S. Philibert de) (Benedictine Abbey between 
M^con and Chalons). 
This is said to have originated in a small religious 
house founded in the second centur}\ 

Arms : Gules, a crosier or, and a sword proper, accosttfs 
in pale. 

( 405 ) 

LUXEUIL (Benedictine). 

Founded in 590 by the Irish Missionary COLUMBANUS. 
Arms : Azure, the figure o/S. BENEDICT or. 

Grace-Dieu (Besan^on) (Cistercian) {Orig. Cist., i., p. 57). 
F'ounded c. 1 139 by RicllARD DE MONTFAUCON. 
Arms : Or, three bars sable, on the first two cross-cross/ets 

ACEV (Notre Dame d') (Cistercian). 

F'ounded c. 1137 by Renaud III., Comte de BoUR- 

ciOGNE (Janauschek, Orig. Cist., i., p. 40). 
Arms : Gules, a cross argent. 

S. Vincent de Besan^on (Benedictine). 

Founded in 1092 by HUGUES, Archbishop of 

Anns : Azure, a crosier in pale between the letters S. 
and V. or. 

BuiLLON (Notre Dame de) (Cistercian). 
Founded in 1 133 {Orig. Cist., \., p. 1 10). 
Arms : Or, two roses in chief gules, and a trefoil in base 

La Chariti^: (Cistercian Abbey, near Besan^on). 

Founded in 1133 by Alavs de Treva {Orig. Cist., 
i., p. 30). 

Arms : Or, a pelican in its piety gules. 

CHERLIEU (Notre Dame de) (celebrated Cistercian 
Abbey) {Orig. Cist., \., p. 19). 
Founded c. 11 27 by S. Bernard. It bore, like 
MoLAisE, Bi;ssii:RE, Citeaux, Maizi^re, Dijon, and 
other Cistercian Abbeys, the old shield of FRANCE 
charged with the arms of BURC.UNDV-ANCIENT, Bendy 

( 4o6 ) 

of six or and azure, a bordure gules. Sometimes BUR- 
(;UNDY alone is used by the Cistercians {v, p. 415). 

GOAILLE (Notre Dame de) (Augustinian Abbey, near 
Founded in 1207. 
Arms : Or, a sal tire gules, 

St. Claude (ancient and illustrious Benedictine Abbey 
in Mt. Jura). 
Arms : Argent, two staves ragtily in sal tire gules, and a 
bar coup^ in /ess vert, in chief a trefoil of t/te last, 
in base a crescent of the second. Otherwise : 
Azure, the figure of S. CLAUDE in pontificals or 
(but these were the arms of the Chapter). 

La Fert£ sur Gr6ne (Cistercian). (Notre Dame dc.) 

Founded about 1113 by the Counts of Chalons). 

Arms : Per pale argent and gules, in the latter a castle 

of the first, from its port a hand issues and holds a 

crosier in pale upon the argent, (Sometimes the 

whole field is gules.) (Orig. Cist., !., p. 3.) 

PONTIGNY (Cistercian). 

Founded about 1114 by TlllBAUT, Count DE CHAM- 
PAGNE {Orig. Cist., I, p. 4). 

Arms : In base a bridge of three arches, out of it a tree 
in pale between two fleurs-de-lis, on the tree a bird, 

Gembloux (in Brabant) (Benedictine). 
Founded in the tenth century. 

Arms : Sable, three keys argent. (Its Abbots had title 
of Count.) 

Affligem, or Afflix(;hem (Benedictine) (in Brabant). 
Founded about 1085. 

Arms : Gules, tiuo keys in saltirc surmounted by a szuord 
in pale argent. 



Arms : Or, the seated figure of the BLESSED VIRGIN, 
liolding tlie HOLY CHILD, all proper. 

CORSSENDONCK (Augustinian Nunnery). 

Arms : Or, tlie figure oftlte BLESSED \v^0\^, standing 
and liolding tlie HOLY QWYLD proper. 

Den Grooten Bigarde (Benedictine Nuns). 

Arms: Per pale (a) Gules, a crescent argent; (b) Or, 
three chevrons sable, 

Antwerp (Premonstratensian Abbey of S. Michael). 
Arms : Gules ^ a cross argent^ angled with rods or sceptres, 
topped with fleurs-de-lis of the same. 

ViLLERS (Cistercian) {Orig. Cist., \., p. 87). 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Vert, a Paschal -Lamb 
proper ; 2 and 3. Or, a lion rampant sable. 

PuiTS d'Orbe (Cote d'Or) (Benedictine Nunnery of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary). 
Founded by RAYNAUD, Sire DE MoNTBAR, c. 1120. 
Arms : Azure fleury or, a bordure compon^ of six pieces 
argent and of the first, all within anotlier bordure 
gules. (HoziER, Armorial Ghidral de FRANCE ; 
GMralite de Bourgogne.) 


Arms : Azure, two crosiers in sal tire or. 

Marcilly (Cistercian Nunnery known as Notre Dame 
do Bon-Repos). 
Founded in 1239 by BURET DE Preis, Chevalier, and 
Marie d'Anglure, his wife. In 1460 the nuns were 
replaced by Cistercian monks {Orig. Cist., \., p. 278). 
Arms : Sable, a bend or ; impaling Azure, three roses 

( 4o8 ) 

Pralon. Notre Dame de (Cote d'Or; (Benedictine 
Founded in 1 149 by Gui DE SOMBERNON. 
Arms : Acure, three bars or. 


Founded in 1088. 

Arms : Azure, a crosier or. 

Palleau Priory (Buri^ndyj. 

Arms : Per pale (a) Azure, three eagle's legs and claws, 
two and one, or ; (b) Gules, a crosier in pale, sur- 
mounted by a mitre argent. 

Flavignv (Benedictine Mitred Abbey). 

Founded in the eighth centur>', now Dominican. 

Arms : Azure, three towers argent, two and one. (A sure, 
S. Stephen or, is also assigned to the " Abbaye 
de Flavigny" in HoziER's Armorial G^nircU de 

Moutier-Saint-Jean (Benedictine Abbey of celebrity, 
styled " I'abbaye royale de" M. S. J.). 
Arms : France-ancient. 

Val-Croissant (Cistercian), near Valence. 
Founded in 11 88 {Orig. Cist., i., p. 188). 
Arms : Gules, the figure of the BLESSED VIRGIN Mary 
(Xotre Dame de I'Assumption) proper, cantoned 
with four crescents or. 

Chatillon-sur-Seine (Augustinian). 

Founded before 1 1 38 in the Diocese of Langres. 
Here S. Bernard studied. 

Arms : Azure, the figure of the BLESSED VIRGIN Mary 
argent between two towers of the same. 

( 409 ) 

S. Marcel (at Ch^lon-.sur-Sa6ne). 

Founded about 580 by a son of K. Clothair. Here 
AhElard died in 1 142. 

Arms : Or, four bends sinister gules (according to 
HoziKR, but ?). 

S. Martin (at Autun). 

Arms : Gules, a sivord and a crosier accosts s in pale 
proper, on a chief azure tiuo fleurs-de-lis or, 

Semur (en Brionnois) (Chapter of). 

Arms : Azure, the figure ofS. NizlER in pontificals or. 

S. SULPICE EN Bresse (Cistercian Abbey, originally a 
Clugniac Priory). 

It was given before 1 140 to the Cistercians b}' 
Amadeus III., Count of Savoy {Orig. Cist., i., p. 27). 

Arms : (of Savoy) Gules, a cross argent. 

Bar-sur-Seine (Collegiate Chapter of). 
Arms : Gules, a dragon or. 

Fontenay, Notre Dame de (Cistercian Abbey, near 
Vezelay) {Orig. Cist., i., p. 8). 
Arms : Gules, three bends or ; over all two barbel 
anbowed and addorsed proper, in chief a fleur-de-lis 
of the second. 

J^'ONTMOIS, also bore the same. {\\o'l\YA<, A nnorial de 
France, GtWralittUle Bourgogne). 

NuiTS (Chapter of S. Denis at). 
Arms : Azure, three cinquefoils or. 

( 4IO ) 

Beaune (Chapter of the Collegiate Church). 

Arms : Azure, the BLESSED VIRGIN Marv, seated and 
holding in her arms tlie HOLV CHILD. 

Dijon (Collegiate Chapter of S. John the Baptist). 
Arms: Azure, the figure ^ S. JOHN THE Baptist, 
holding in his arms a lamb proper. 

Tart, Notre Dame de (celebrated Cistercian Abbey). 
Founded in 1135, under the invocation of Notre 
Dame de TAssomption, by Arnolf Cornu and his 
^wife Emmeline, with the aid of HUGH, Duke of 


Arms : Azure, " the Assumption ''proper. 

Religious Houses in Styria. 

Siebmacher gives in the Wappenhuch (vol. iii., y^ , 
the following arms of religious houses in Styria. 

Fahra (Provost ry) ; Per fess ; (a) in chief. Azure, 
a group of The Incredulity of S. Thomas ; (b) in base. 
Argent, an eagle's leg in fess conjoined with a iving sable. 

Goss ( " Aptey des Frauen Closter zu Goss " ) ; Or, a 
Iwrse-shoe sable. 

Neuburg (Aptey); Azure, a cross trefle-fitc/Ue or, 
surmounted in base by a horse -shoe of the second. 

PALLA (Provostry) ; Per fess ; (a) Tie reed in pale : i. 
Gules, the demi-figure of a saint {? The Satfiour) ; 
2. Argent, an eagle displayed gules ; 3. Gules, a demi- 
figure of the Blessed Virgin holding the Holy Child proper ; 
(b) Sable, a horse {?) courant to the sinister argent. 

Quadmundt (Abbey) ; Per pale argent and gules tu»o 
fusils'throughout, conjoined and counter-changed. 

( 411 ) 

Rhein (Abbey) ; Asure, a large German letter M the 

centre lines in tlie forvi of a cross cantoned with A.R.I.A., 

making {with the enclosing M) the name of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary, the wliole Or, and crowned with an open 

crown of the same. 

ROTTENMAN (Provostf)') ; Azure, three balls or, 
I and 2. 

Saint Lamprecht (Abbey) ; Azure, a capital letter L. 

Seggau (Provostry) ; Gules, a chief of fur {au naturel) 

Stain TZ (Provostry) ; Gules, a heart-shaped leaf 
reversed argent. 



Arms and Dkvicks of Rkc.ular Rkligious 


MlCNTlON has been made of the custom by which Bishops, 
CarcUnals, and Popes, sometimes retain, or combine with 
their armorial bearings, the arms, or devices of the 
reh'jjious orders or communities to which they have 
belonged. Accordingly, a notice of the chief of these 
is here given with a brief record of their foundation. 

Thk OkUKk OF St. Benkdict. 

This is the most ancient of the Monastic Orders of the 
west. It was founded in 530 by S. Hknedut of Nursia. 
Its cradle was the celebrated Abbey of Montf: Cas.sino 
in the kingdom of Naples. The majority of the French 
monasteries followed the rule of this Order. To it 
belonged the great Abbeys of Sx. GERMAIN DF:s Pkfes, 

St. Denis, St. Martin de Tours, Jumieoes, Mar- 
Mof TIER, St. Watdrilee, etc. The great Abbey of 
Clunv, near MAcoN, was the chief house of the Order in 
rVance ; and was founded in 910, by GuiLLAUME IX., 
Duke of Aquitaine, under the headship of Bernon, 
Abbe of Gigny. At his death S. Ol)0 succeeded to the 
abbacy, and made it the head of a '* Congregation '* of 
dependent houses (v.i.). Cluny was dedicated to 
SS. Peter and Paul, and accordingly, its arms (adopted 
of course in later times) were allusive to this dedication. 
They were : Gules^ (ico keys in sa/tire luanis if* chief or^ 
in front of a sword in pale proper ^ the hilt in base, (Like 

( 413 ) 

those of the See of Exeter, Plate XXII., fig. 2.) But 
the Order of S. Benedict was never a united body under 
one head, so that it had no distinct arms (Menktriek, 
Recherches citi Blason, p. 177), and many of its houses 
simply used the effigy of the founder on their seals. 

In England the Order was commonly known as **///^ 
Black Friars',' and was the most important of the 
religious communities. To it belonged the Monasteries 
of Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, and Peter- 
BOROUOH, which afterwards became cathedrals ; besides 
many others of almost equal splendour and importance, 

e.g.. Battle. Croyland, Glastonbury, Milton, 
Pershore, Ramsey, Selby, Sherborne, and Tewks- 
BURY. In Scotland we may mention COLDINGHAM, 

Dunfermline, and Tyningham. 
The Cistercian Order. 

This was a reformation of the Benedictine Order which 
originated with S. ROBERT, Abbe de MOLESME, in the 
Diocese of Langres. He with other monks seceded and 
in 1098 founded a monastery at CiTEAUX, near Dijon in 
Burgundy. Its most noted daughter-abbeys were: 
Clairyaux (of which S. Bernard was the first abbot). 
La F'erti^:, Pontigny, and Morimond. From these 
" les quatres premieres filles de Clairvaux " originated an 
infinite number of abbeys ; and certain semi-religious, 
semi-military, Orders of Knighthood, all under the 
Benedictine " rule." The celebrated Orders of Alcan- 
tara, Avis, Calatrava, and Montesa, established in 
the Peninsula to defend church and state against the 
Moorish invaders, were all of the filiation of the Cistercian 
Abbey of MoRlMOND (Janau.schek, Orig. Cist,, i., p. 5). 

The Cistercians were often known as Bernardines 
from S. Bernard who reformed the **rule." The arms 
adopted for all the Cistercian houses were : FrancE- 
ANCIENT, thereon an escucheon of BURGUNDY-ANCIENT 

( 414 ) 

(i.e., Azure, sem^ of fleur-dcrlis or ; an escucheon en 
surtout : Bendy of six or and azure, within a bordure 
gules). The Bernardine houses used : Sable, a bend 
counter-compony argent and gules ; probably the coat of 
the ancient Counts of Troyes, who founded and endowed 
Clairvaux. These coats seem to be common to the 
whole of the Cistercian foundations. The Abbeys of 
CiTEAUX, Dijon, Lieu-dieux, Molaise, etc., bore the 
former only. But other houses adopted different 
arms ; eg., the Abbey of BussifeRE, and the Priory of 
S. John the Evangelist at Auxois, near Semur, both 
bore the arms of BURGUNOY-ANCIENT only. At N6TRE 
Dame DE Balerne, near Besan^on, the arms were : 
Per pale (a) Azure, billetty a lion rampant or (BURGUN DY- 
COUNTY) ; (b) Gules, an eagle displayed or (BesaN(;'ON). 
The Abbeys of FONTMOis, and N6tre Dame de 
FONTENET, near Semur, both used : Gules, three bends 
or, over all two barbel addorscd in pale proper, in chief a 
fleur-de-lis of the second. 

In England the first of the Cistercian houses was 
founded at Waverley, in Surrey in the year 1129. By 
the time of Edward I. there were no less than sixty- 
one. Fountains, Tintern, Kirkstall, Furness, 
Beaulieu, Scarborough, Byland, Netley, and 
RiEVAULX ; in Scotland, Melrose, Balmerino, 
Cupar, Culross, Sweetheart, Glenluce, Deir, 

KiNLOSS, etc., all belonged to this Order. 

In France, the Feuillants and Trappists, are both 
reforms of the Cistercians. The Feuillants origi- 
nated in Jean de la Barri^re in 1578, and took their 
name from an abbey at Toulouse. The Trappists were 
so called from the Abbey of La Trappe in which a 
reform was instituted by Armand Jean le Boutillier 
DE Range, Abb^ in 1663. The Congr£gation de 
S. Maur (near Paris) was another offshoot. It had for its 
device the word PAX between a fleur-de-lis above, and 

( 415 ) 

three Passion nails beneath, all within a crown of 
thorns. Les Filles Anglaises of the Benedictine rule 
founded a house in Paris in 1620. 

The Clugniacs were, as has been stated above, a 
reformed Order of Benedictines who, under S. Bernon» 
Abbe de Gigny, built a monastery at Cluny, on the 
Stione in 912. Its first principal priories were La 
CiiARiTlt: (sur Loire) ; S. Martin des Champs, at Paris; 
SOUVIGNY, SOUCILANGES, and Lewes. Meaux and 
Vezelay, in France ; Castle-Acre, Bermondsev. 
THETFORD,and Wenlock in England ; Cross-RAGUEL 
and Paisley in Scotland ; were all houses of this 
Benedictine reform. 

The Carthusian Order (Chartreux). 

This Order, a reformation of the Benedictine rule, was 
founded about 1086, by S. Bruno, of Cologne, a Canon 
of Reims, who established himself with his six disciples 
in a wild and picturesque district near Grenoble, where 
he built the monastery, now known as la Grande 
Chartreuse, on land given by Bishop HUGUES DE 
Ciiateauneuf. In 1170 Pope Alexander took the 
Order formally under the protection of the Holy See. 
The arms of the Order, are : Argent, an orb azure, banded 
and surmounted by a cross or. 

These seem to have been derived from the following 
story. Pope BENEDICT VIII. gave to the Emperor 
Henry II., an Imperial orb, which he sent to the Abbey 
of Cluny, saying that it could not be in better hands 
than in those of men who had renounced the pomps and 
vanities of this wicked world. The Carthusians adopted 
it as the charge of their arms to denote a like renuncia- 
tion. The Order was established in England where they 
had the foundation now known as the CHARTERHOUSE 
(a corruption of Chartreux), SKENE in Surrey, and 
Mount Grace. 

Order of S. AL<;rsTi\ Austin Friars, or 
*• Erkmites." 

This monastic Order dates from 1256, when Pope 
Alexander IV. united into one "congregation" 
hermits of different institutions, under the name of 
'* Hermits of St. Augustin." These are not to be con- 
founded with the '• Regular Canons " of S. Augustin 
which follow. 

They were divided into four provinces : France^ 
Germany, Italy and Spain. The monks were called 
•* les grands Augustins " to distinguish them from 
"^ Us petits Au^istins, or GuilUmites an Order founded in 
Italy by a Frenchman, GuiLLAi.'ME DE Malaval, in 
1157, and who had a monastery at Montrouge near 
Paris. These became e.xtinct in 1680.^ ^" Les grands 
Augustins'' were one of the four mendicant Orders. In 
1 588 SiXTUS v., subjected them to reform, and the new 
Congregation was called ""les Augustins " dtrhauss/s ^ " 
or " Petits /*cres " dc la Mort^. 

Menetrier tells us that this Order had no fixed 
arms ; but that he had seen used in some places : Argent^ 
a chief sable, in base a heart gules ^ inflamed on the chief 
proper. Sometimes the heart was pierced with two 
arrows azure. The convent of the Augustins at PoN- 
TARLIER, bore : Or, a heart inflamed gides, pierced in 
bend by an arrow sable, the feathers and head argent ; 
that at Saint AMOUR, in Franche Comte, did the same. 
At Gr.W, the heart was pierced by two arrows in 
sal tire or. 

In Italy the arms were : Per fess, sable and argent, over 
all a pastoral staff, round ivhich in base luas wrapped the 
cincture of S, Monica, sable. 

The convent of the Augustins dMiausses at Brou, in 
Burgundy, bore : Gules, St. Augustin or. Those at 
MONTCROISSANT : Argent, a St. Augustin proper, liabited^ 
etc., purpure. 

(417 ) 

Les Filles de la Conception ^ known as les Dames 
AnglaiseSy followed the rule of S. Augustin and had a 
house in Paris established in 1633. 

The Augustine Canons. 

Regular Canons of S. AUGUSTINE ; these, commonly 
called ''the Black Canons^' were an Order of con- 
ventual Canons who followed the rule of S. 
Augustin (less stringent than that of S. Bene- 
dict). They came into England in c. 1 105, and were 
only second to the Benedictines in wealth and power. 
They possessed the Priory of CARLISLE, and the 
Abbey of S. AUGUSTINE at BRISTOL, both of 
which were made Cathedrals by Henry VIII. They 
also had the mitred Abbeys of CIRENCESTER and 

The Premonstratensians. 

These, known in England as the " White Canons'' 
from the colour of their habit and cloak, were Canons 
who adopted the rule of S. AUGUSTIN as revised by 
S. Norhert of Cleves, Archbishop of Magdeburg. In 
I 120 he founded a monastery in the Diocese of Laon 
known as Pr^montre, from a legend that a certain 
meadow had been indicated by an angel as the site of 
the proposed building. HONORIUS II. gave them his 
sanction in 1 1 26, and they were introduced into England 
about the year 1 140. The Abbot of Welbeck was head 
of the Order here. ToRRE, East Dereham, and 
Halesowen were English Monasteries. Dryburgh 
and Ferne were the chief houses in Scotland. In 
F'rance the arms of the Order (given, it was said, 
by S. Louis) were : France - ancient, over all 

two crosiers in saltire or ; but the house at Auxerre 
bore : Aziire^ a crosier in pale between two fleurs-de- 
lis or, 

2 E 

( 4i8 ) 

Franxiscans (Minorites). 

This celebrated Order was founded by S. FRANCIS of 
Assisi, in 1206. Its monks were called Cordeliers^ from 
the cord round their waists; and '' Freres-mineurs^' 
because they claimed inferiority to other religious Orders. 
The Order was reformed in the fifteenth century by 
S. Bernardino of Siena : and became divided into two 
sections, Observantins and Conventuels; of whom 
the first adopted the reform, while the latter did not. 
About the close of the same century, another reform took 
place in Spain, where those who adopted it were known 
as Recogidos ; which, translated into French, gave another 
name to the reformed Order — ies Ricollets. Lastly, in 
1525 the reform of Matteo Baschi, approved by 
Clement VII. in 1528, produced the C.\puchins, so 
called from the long hood of their brown habit. The 
Franciscans were one of the four mendicant orders ; the 
others were the Augustins, the Carmelites, and the 

The religious houses of the nuns known as Capucines 
were under Capuchin direction. They followed the 
strict rule of Sancta Clara, and were also known as 
** Ies Filles de la Passion^ 

The arms of the Franciscan Order are : Argent^ a cross 
of Calvary traversed by two human arms in sal tire {some- 
times issuant from clouds in base\ one in bend naked^ 
representing the arm of our Saviour, the other in bend 
sinister Itabited in the dress of S, Francis, both bearing t/u 
stigmata. (The Franciscan CordelUrc is sometimes 
knotted round the shield.) 

The arms were borne in chief above their own by 
Pope Clement IV. and by Antonio, Cardinal Bar- 
HERINI, brother of Pope URBAN VIII. {ik ante, pp. 143, 
166). The Franciscan monastery at BesaN(^'ON made 
the field of the arms ^ules, the cross or. That at 
Bourg-EN-Bresse had the field azure. 

( 419 ) 

The TiercelinSy or Penitents of t/ie Third Order of 
S. Francis, often bore as device the dove of the Holy- 
Spirit above a heart inflamed, or dropping tears. 

The Dominicans (" FRtRES Pri^xheurs," " Friar 
Preachers," "Jacobins," " Blackfriars "). 

S. Dominic (de Guzman), Canon of Osma in Old 
Castile, founded this Order in 1205. I^ was confirmed 
by Pope Innocent III. in 1216. It followed the rule 
of S. AUGUSTIN. In the year 1221 the first English 
house of the Order was founded at Oxford. In 1276 a 
large monastery was built at London, whence the locality 
of Black-Friars takes its name. Bishop CLEMENT of 
Dunblane, who was himself a Dominican, introduced 
them into Scotland in 1231. LAURENCE, ANDREW, 
David, and Finlay, Bishops of Argyll between 1261 
and 1420, were of this Order. The Dominicans, as has 
been already said, were a mendicant Order. 

In Paris their house was in the Rue S. JACQUES, 
whence they obtained the name of '' Jacobins r (From 
their new house, built in the Rue St. Honor^, the cele- 
brated political club which held its meetings in it at the 
time of the French Revolution, took its name). The 
well-known arms of the Order are: Argent, chap^ sable 
(the colours of the habit). To this simple coat additions 
were aftenvards made : In base a hound couchant, holding 
in its mouth a torch blazing proper ; in chief a palm branch 
and a branch of lilies proper, issuing out of an open crown 
proper, and surmounted by an estoile or. These arms were 
borne, with their own, by Popes BENEDICT XIII. and 
XIV. {vide pp. 143, 165, 166). 

Mrs Jameson says, in her Legends of the Monastic 
Orders, p. 376:— "Before he" (S. DOMINIC) "was born 
his mother dreamed that she had brought forth a black- 
and-white dog, carrying in his mouth a lighted torch. 
When his godmother held him at the font she beheld 


( 420 ) 

a star of wonderful splendour descend from heaven and 
settle on his brow. The colours of the habit, black over 
white, which form the field of the arms, were said to have 
been determined by the Blessed Virgin herself, in a 
vision seen at Orleans by a monk of the Order. It is 
black and white, the white denoting purity of life, the 
black mortification and penance. Hence, when the 
Dominicans are figured as dogs {^Domini canes)^ a 
common allegory, they are always white, with patches 
of black." 

The convent of Dominicans at MONBOSON,en Franche 
Comte, registered their arms as : " d* Argent, cliapide sable ^ 
d deux ^toiles dor en chef, et un chien coucJu^ de sabie en 
pointe, tenant en sa gneule un flambeau de inane allujue 
de gueules!' 

The convent of Jacobine nuns in the town of Chalon- 
sur-Sa6ne used as its arms : Argent, S. Doiuinic, 
habited sable ; those at Semur and Beaune : Azure. 
S. Catharine of Siena {argent, at Beaune ; or, at Semur). 
Those at AUTUN had 5. Catharine proper on a shield 
argent. ( H OZ I E K , A rn to rial GMral de France^ 

The Carmelites. 

This Order took its name from Mount Carmel, where 
there was an Order of monks some of whom came into 
Europe during the Crusades. It was recognised by 
Alexander III., 1170. 

The nunneries of this Order were reformed by 
S. Theresa of Avila, in Spain, in 1568 ; and, under her 
counsels, the like reform was initiated among the monks 
of the Order by S. Jean DE la Croix. Those who 
accepted the reform were known as Cannes dechausscs, 
because they went barefoot. The original arms of the 
Order were : Sable, inantcle (or chap^), argent ; to this 
were afterwards added three estoiles counter-changed. 
The Cannes DMiausscs made the sable point in base 

( 421 ) 

terminate in a cross pate^e on the argent chief. The 
Carmelites were one of the four mendicant Orders. 


This Order was founded by S. Francis de Paule in 
1440, and confirmed by Pope SiXTUS V. in 1473. Its 
device was the word "Charitas," usually divided into 
three syllables, on an azure field, and enclosed in an oval 
of golden rays. There were also at Abbeville nuns of 
this Order who took the name of Miniinesses, They 
followed the Franciscan rule. 

Servites ("Servi B. M. Virginis"). 

The Order of the SERVITES, or Serviteurs de LA 
Vli:RGE. It was founded at Marseilles in 1252. They were 
commonlv known as les B/ancs Manteaux. Their device 
was on an azure field a monogram of the letters S.M., 
out of which springs a plant of seven lilies. They 
followed the rule of S. AUGUSTINE. 


The Order of the Mathurins, or Trinitarians, 
was founded in 1 198, by jEAN DE Matha, for the release 
of captives taken by the corsairs of the Mediterranean. 
Their name was derived from the Church of S. Mathurin 
in Paris, which was granted to them. They bore : 
Argent^ a cross patee, the perpendicular gules ^ the traverse 

The Jesuits. 

This Order, which has played so important a part in 
affairs both ecclesiastical and secular, was founded in 
1534 (and approved by P. PAUL III. in 1540), by a 
Spaniard, INIGO LoPEZ DE Recalde, better known as 
S. Ignatius Loyola. Its device was the golden name of 
Jesus, in an azure oval, surrounded by golden rays, as at 

( 422 ) 

Bourg-en-Brkssk and Macon ; or more commonly as 
at Besanvox, Pontarlier, Gray, and Vesoul, the 
cypher I.H.S., the H surmounted by a cross ; and beneath 
it three passion nails, within the oval, and all surrounded 
by the rays. Examples of the use of this device, but 
without the rays of gold, by Cardinals of the Jesuit 
Order are given ari/t\ p. 142). 

A reference to HoziER's Armorial G^m^ral de France 
shows that some houses of the Order bore different 
devices ; at Dijon : Azure^ the names Jesus, Maria, or ; 
at Parav : Azurt\ the name Jesus or. At Salins the 
larger device was blazoned on a field gules. 

The Nuns of the Visitation of St. Marv. 

This Order was founded at Annecy by S. Francis DE 
Sales, Bishop of Geneva, and Madame Jeanne 
Fran^oise, widow of Chrlstopher Rahutin, Baron 
OE Chantal. It was approved by Pope Paul V. in 
16 19, and was very widely spread in France. It was 
under the rule of S. AuciUSTlN. Its device was: Or^ 
within a crown of thorns proper, a heart gules sunnatmteei 
by a cross sable, and pierced by two arrows, feathered and 
pointed argent. The heart is usually charged with the 
sacred name Jesus in golden letters. At Avallon, 
Bourbon-Lancey, and some other places, the field of 
the shield appears to have been azure. 

The Gilbertines. 

These were Canons instituted by S. GILBERT at 
Sempringham in Norfolk in the year 1 148. The 
rule was in the main that of S. AUGUSTINP:. (The nuns 
were Benedictine.) The arms of SEMPRINGHAM appear 
to have been : Argent, two bars gules, over all a crutched 
staff in bend azure (or or\ These arms were borne on a 
chief above his personal coat : Or, a bend between tivo 
bull's heads couped sable; by ROBERT HoL(;ate, Prior 

( 423 ) 

of WOTTON, Bishop of Llandafk in 1537, Archbishop 
of York in 1545. {See also Alvingham, p. 353, and 
Malton, p. 378.) 

The Celestines. 

This was a Benedictine Order founded at Sulmone 
in 1254 by PiETRO DE MoRONE, afterwards Pope as 
Celestine V. It was sanctioned by Urban VIII. in 
1264, The first monastery was at Monte Majella in 
Naples. Philippe le Bel introduced them into France 
in 1300. They were secularised in 1776 and 1778 by 
Popes Clement XIV. and Pius VI. Their arms were : 
Azurey a Passion-Cross argent ^ entwined with the letter 
S, for Sulmone. In France a fleur-de-lis was placed 
on either side of the cross. 

Order of Camaldoli. 

This was an Order of Reformed Benedictines, founded 
by S. ROMUALD in 1012, at Camaldoli near Arezzo in 
the Apennines. Their arms were: Azure, a chalice or, 
out of which drink two doves argent , in chief an estoile of 
the second, {See the arms of Pope GREGORY XVI. ante, 
p. 167.) 

The reformed Camaldolese of MONTE CORONA, near 
Perugia, bore : Argent, a inou?ttain of three coupeaux 
supporting an open crown proper 


These nuns who followed the rule of S. AUGUSTINE, 
established themselves in Paris in 1608. The Congrega- 
tion was founded by Marie l'Huillier, Dame de 
S. Beuve, approved by Pope Paul V. They occupied 
themselves chiefly in the education of young women, 
and had a great number of houses in all parts of the 
country. Their device consisted of the words jESUS 
Maria in Roman letters, on a roundel, or oval. The 

( 424 ) 

tinctures varied in different places. That most frequently 
used was azure, with the words in gold ; as at AuxONNE, 


POXTARLIER this device was surmounted by a crown : 
at Orxaxs the words were placed beneath a crown or, 
and above an estoile argent. At AVALOX the field w^ls 
gules, the words or ; this was reversed at Parav. At 
Saulieux the field was argent, at Flavi(;xv or, the 
words in both cases sable. At MAcox and BOURBON- 
Laxcev the field was azure, the names were surmounted 
by a cross, and in base were three passion nails. A 
number of houses bore the effig>' of S. Ursula. At 
Semur-ex-Auxois, Bealxe, Bellev, etc., this was 
Or, on a field azure ; at XOYERS, Or, on a field gules ; 
at Bourg-EX-Bresse, Argent, on a field gules. 

The Ursulixes at Beaugencv bore : Azure, a golden 
lily among thorns ; those of Chartres, the golden lily 
alone ; those of Clerval, Arbois, and XoZEROY used : 
Acupe, a lily proper issuing from golden thorns, as did 
those of S. HiPPOLYTE but on a field gules. 


This Order was founded in 1524 at Chieti (otherwise 
called Theati, whence came the name) by Cardinal 
Macello Gaetaxi of Viccnza; and PiETRO Caraffa, 
Bishop of Chieti, who was afterwards Pope as PAUL IV. 
Their badge was a cross- Calvary on a mountain of 
three coupeaux. 


The ** Congregation of the Oratory " was founded in 
Italy in 1558 by S. PHILIP Neri. Its device was a 
demi-figure of the Blessed Virchx Mary, issuing from 
a crescent. 

The Congregation of the Oratory in France was 
founded on the model of that in Italy by Cardinal DE 

(425 ) 

B£rulle in i6i I, and had the sanction of Pope PAUL V. 
in 1613. Its badge was the names of "jESUS" and 
*' Maria," surrounded by a crown of thorns. The 
tinctures of these devices varied ; for instance, at Beaune, 
Dijon, Macon, Besan(;on, and Orleans, the ground 
was azure, the names and crown gold. At Chalon- 
sur-Sa6ne the ground was argent, and the rest sable. 
At Salins the ground was gold, the words azure, the 
crown vert. At POLKJNY the ground was gules, the 
words or, the crown vert. At PARIS the first house of 
the Congregation was in the Faubourg St. Jacques ; it 
was afterwards removed to I'hotel du Bouchage near the 
Louvre. Its chapel is now a Protestant meeting-house 
still called VOratoire, 

In 1852 the Congregation was re-established at Paris 
under the title of rOraioire de rivunacuUe Conception. 


Arms of Universities and Colleges. 

The University of Oxford. 

The honour of founding the University of OXFORD is 
usually attributed to King ALFRED, but the arms seem 
to be based on those attributed in mediaeval times to 
the Saxon King S. Edmund, viz. : Azure, three open 
crowns or. This coat with the addition of an open book 
has been in use since the middle of the fifteenth century. 

As now borne the arms are : Azure, between three 
open crowns or, an open book proper having on the dexter 
side seven golden seals, and bearing the words " Dominus 
illuminatio mear The opening words of S. JOHN*s 
Gospel ; the motto " Sapientia et Felicitate ;'' and others, 
have sometimes been substituted for these. The shield 
is sometimes represented with the six University maces 
laid in saltire behind it, sometimes with angel supporters. 
The supporters in the east window of the Bodleian 
Library are : Dexter, a lion rampant or ; sinister, a 
Paschal' Lamb, holding its banner, and having a key 
pendant from its sinister fore-foot. I believe that the 
origin of these will be found in Rev. v. 5,6. The " lion 
of the tribe of Juda ;" and the Lamb with its seven 
horns and eyes, which had the power to open the book 
with the seven seals. 

The coats of arms now borne for the several Colleges 
are, as will hereafter appear, mostly assumed from those 
borne by their respective founders. It does not seem 
that they were ever the subjects of authoritative grants 
from the College of Arms, from whose jurisdiction the 

( 427 ) 

University was exempted by a special Charter of 
Henry IV., and accordingly in the several Visitations 
of Oxford in the years 1566, 1574, and 1634, no entries 
of these arms are to be found recorded. (This suffi- 
ciently accounts for many variations and irregularities.) 

Mr Bell (writing in Notes and Queries^ 6th S., xii., 
p. 446) tells us there is strong evidence that in the 
year 1574 no College bore arms as a corporate body ; for 
in the church notes compiled in that year by RICHARD 
Lee, Portcullis y though most of the arms now used 
are given from the stained glass of the chapels, etc., in 
each case it is the family name of the founder which is 
attached to the shield, and in no case that of the college. 
On the other hand it is distinctly stated in the late Dean 
Burgon's notes on the Anns of the Colleges at Oxford 
(4to, 185s), that the arms of Brazenose were confirmed 
by Lee in 1574 ; though Mr Bell says, and I incline to 
think correctly, that the mode of blazoning " Tierced in 
pale " was not in use in England at that time. 

University College 

Is said to have been founded by King ALFRED, 
but really owed its origin to WILLIAM, Archdeacon of 
Durham, about the year 1249. The arms used are: 
Azure^ a cross patoncc between five martlets ^ or doves ^ or. 
This coat was traditionally ascribed by mediaeval heralds 
to Edward the Confessor, but without the smallest 
foundation in fact. Dean BURGON suggests that the 
arms should rather be those of WILLIAM of DURHAM. 
And in the windows of the chapel the founder's coat 
appears to be : Or^ a fleur-de-lis azure, on each leaf tliereof 
a mullet gules. 

Balliol College 

Was founded by JOHN Balliol of Barnard's Castle, 
Yorkshire, father of the claimant of the Scottish crown, 

( 428 ) 

and his wife DEVOKCilLLA, daughter of ALAN, Lord of 
Galloway. Balliol died in 1269, but Devorgilla 
carried out his wishes. 

The Balliol arms are : Gules, an orle argent , and these 
are sometimes represented as dimidiated, and impaled with 
Galloway : Azure, a Hon rampant argent crozvncd or. 
But if we refer to the counter-seal of DEVORGILLA as 
appended to the Foundation Charter of the College in 
1282, we find, that the arms of Galloway and Balliol 
(the latter dimidiated) are conjoined, Gallowav being 
to the dexter. This is quite in opposition to modem 
notions, according to which the arms of the husband 
occupy the place of honour on the dexter side. The 
seal and counter-seal of DEVORGILLA are described 
in LAINci's, Catalogue of Scottish Seals, vol. ii., p. 14, 
and depicted in Plate V. of the same excellent 
work. In AsTLES Account of t lie Seals of tlie Kings^ etc. 
of Scotland, 1792, the seal is also engraved, and the lion 
of Galloway appears to undergo a slight diminution 
(much less than dimidiation), but that this is incorrect 
seems clear from LaiN(;'s plate. If the College is not 
content with the arms of Balliol only, I think it 
would do well to use the conjoined coats as they appear 
on Devokgilla's seal, and not correct (?) them to suit 
modern ideas. 

Merton College 

Was founded in 1264 by WALTER DE Merton, 
Bishop of Rochester, Chancellor of England in the 
reign of Henry III. Its arms are: Or, three chez^rons^ 
the first ami third per pale gules and azure, the second 
per pale of the same tinctures inverted. The patron of 

William de Merton was Gilhert de Clare, who 

bore : Or, three chevrons gules, and the MERTON coat 
is, therefore, an instance of a dififerenced coat borne as a 
sign of dependence or patronage. 

( 429 ) 

Exeter College 

Was founded in 1316, by Walter Stapleton, 
Bishop of Exeter ( 1 306- 1 329). The arms are usually : — 
Argent, two bendlets nebtiU sable within a bordure 
of the second charged with eight pairs of keys addorsed 
and^ the bows interlaced or. The number of the keys 
varies, and the bordure has been sometimes depicted 
azure, sometimes gules, and the bends drawn wavy, but 
the coat as first given is said to have been " confirmed " in 
1574 (? vide ante). The arms of Sir WiLLLWl Petre, 
Secretary of State, temp. Henry VIII., are sometimes 
impaled with the above, but are often incorrectly drawn. 
If used at all, the coat granted to Sir WlLLL\M, which 
is described hereafter under Wadham College, is that 
which should be employed. 

Oriel College. 

The date of its foundation is variously given as 1323 
and 1326. The arms are the Royal arms of ENGLAND : — 
Gules, three lions passant gardant or, differenced by the 
addition of a bordure engrailed (sometimes invecked) 
argent These were commemorative of King EDWARD 
II., to whom, and to ADAM DE Brome, the College 
owed its foundation. The name of the College is said 
to be derived " from the motto on the sign of a 
Spaniard's house, who taught Hebrew there when the 
College was founded, ^«n«, Deus illuminatio mea, from 
whence the University motto was afterwards derived," 
(Mr Macray in Notes and Queries, 8th S., iv., p. 405, 
from Bodl. MS., Rawlinson, D. 912, f. 249). 

Queen's College 

Was founded in 1340 by ROBERT DE Eglesfield, 
Confessor of Queen Phillippa, wife of EDWARD III. 
The arms are : Argent, three eagles displayed gules, armed 
or, on that in dexter chief a mullet of six points pierced 

( 430 ) 

of the third, for difference (a mark of cadency which 
appears to be often forgotten). 

New CoLLKCiK. 

This College was founded by WiLLlAM of WvKEHAM, 
Bishop of WiNCHKSTER, in the year 1375. The College 
bears the arms of the founder, viz., Argent, two cfici^rons 
sable betiveen three roses gules, seeded or, barbed z^ert. The 
idea that these chevrons were made double to denote the 
Bishop's double foundations is unfounded ; they appear 
on the Bishop's seal as Archdeacon of LINCOLN. (See 
Herald and Genealogist, vol. v., pp. 226, 227.) 

These arms are borne impaled on the sinister side, 
with those of the See of WiNCHKSTEK {vide ante, p. 174). 
to the dexter. The whole is surrounded with the Garter, 
and en.signed with a mitre. 

Lincoln College. 

This College owed its original foundation to HUGH 
Flemyng, Bishop of Lincoln in 1429. Thomas 
Scott, Archbishop of York in 1479, is counted as 
its second founder. The arms borne by the College 
are commemorative of both its benefactors ; they are 
Tierced in pale (a) Barry of six argent and azure, in 
chief three lozenges gules, on the second bar of ardent a 
mullet pierced sable, for Bishop Flemync; ; (b) Or, on 
an escucheon the arms of the See of LINCOLN {x^idc 
ante, p. 183) surmounted by a mitre proper; (c) Vert, 
three stags trippant argent, attired or, for Thomas Scott 
or RoTHERAM, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and Arch- 
bishop of York in 1480. 

All Souls College 

Was founded in 1437 by HENRY ClllCHELV, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. The College accordingly bears 
the arms of the founder : Or, a chevron betiveen three 
cinquefoils pierced gules. 

( 431 ) 

Magdalen College . 

Was founded in 1459 by WiLLlAM of Waynflete, 
Bishop of Winchester, under the name of Win- 
chester College. The arms are those of the founder. 
Lozcfigy (or x^\\\itx fusilly) sable and ermine; on a chief of 
(he first three garden lilies argent^ t/ie stamens ok (The 
chief contains the old arms of Eton College.) 

Brazenose, or Brazen Nose. 

The date of the foundation of this College is probably 
1 5 12, though some authorities say three years earlier, or 
as many later. Its first founder was WiLLlAM SMITH, 
Bishop of Lincoln, and its later benefactor Sir Richard 
Sutton. The name is probably derived from Brasinium, 
mediaeval Latin for a brew-house, which formerly occu- 
pied a portion of the site of the College. 

The arms at present used are said by Dean BuRGON 
to have been confirmed by Lee, Portcullis, in 1574, but. 
as already pointed out, this seems very doubtful. They 
are : — Tierced in pale (a) A rgent, a c/tevron sable betiveen 
three roses gules seeded or, barbed vert, the arms of Bishop 
Smith ; (b) Or, on an escuclieon surmounted by a mitre 
proper, the arms of the See of LINCOLN {vide ante, p. 183) ; 
(c) Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, a chevron between three 
bugle horns stringed sable, iox SUTTON. 2 and 3. Argent^ 
a clievron between three cross-crosslets sable, Sainsbury. 
(There appears to be some doubt if these coats were 
really borne by Sir RICHARD SUTTON ; but as used 
now they are intended to commemorate the benefactors 
of the College.) 

Corpus Christi College 

Was founded by RICHARD Fox, Bishop of Win- 
chester in the year 15 16, and afterwards enriched by 
Bishop Hugh Oldham. The arms are: Tierced in 
pale (a) Azure, a pelican or, vulned proper, for RICHARD 

( 432 ) 

Vo\y the founder ; (b) AfXi'nt, an escucheon charged 
with the arms of t/te See of WINCHESTER (vtWe ante, 
p. 1 84), and surmounted by a mitre proper : (c) Sable^ 
a eheiiron or, between three o7v/s ardent ; on a chief of t/ie 
second as many roses gu/es, barbed vert, seeded gcM. These 
are the canting arms {Oii*/dhB.m) of Bishop Oldham. 

Christ Church, 

F'ounded by Cardinal WoLSEV, and completed by 
Henry VIII. It was originally called Cardinal's 
COLLEC.E, and on its seal as such arc the arms (of 
WOLSEV) as at present borne, but supported by two silver 
griffins, each holding a golden column, or staff. {See 
DuciDALE's Monasticon, p. 11, pi. 10.) The arms are: 
Sable, on a cross enf^railed argent a lion passant gules 
beticeen four leopards faces azure ; on a chief or, a rose of 
tlu third, barbed vert, seeded gold, between two Cornish 
choughs proper. Modern ingenuity has traced the origin 
of these bearings (which arc very likely of WoLSEV's own 
design), to his place of birth, and other circumstances. 
Thus the cross engrailed on a sable field vmy have been 
assumed allusively to his birth at Ipswich in SuflTolk. 
(The Earls of SUFEOLK bore : Sable, a cross engrailed or) 
The rose of EncjlanI), etc., may be allusive to his 
office under the crown ; and the choughs, derived 
probably from the arms of S. Thomas of Canterbury 
{Argent, three Cornish choughs sable, beaked and legged 
gules), may have been allusive to his own Christian name, 
and patron saint. 

Trinity Cc)lle(;e 

Was the first founded after the Reformation, 
and owed its existence in 1554 to Sir Thomas Pope. 
The arms used are those of the founder: Per pale 
or and azure, on a chevron betivcen three griffin^s 
/leads erased four fleurs-de-lis all counter-changed. Dean 

( 433 ) 

BURGON tells us, on the authority of the then President, 
that the Asure had been changed to Vert ; but if this 
were so it appears that the original and proper tincture 
has been resumed. 

St. John's College 

Was founded by Sir THOMAS WHITE in the year 
1557, and bears his arms: Gules, ofj a canton ermine a 
lion rampant sable ^ all zuithin a bordtire of the last charged 
with eight cstoiles or. On tlie honour point an annulet or. 
Probably the annulet was originally a mark of cadency 
(as e.g. in the arms of Earl of Bantrv), but in some 
White coats it is the principal charge. 

Jesus College 

Owes its origin to Dr Hu(;h Price, or ap Rice, 
who obtained a charter for its foundation from Queen 
Elizaheth in the year 1571. The arms now borne, 
and which were probably intended to commemorate the 
founder, are really those of Archbishop ROTHERHAM 
{ff. Lincoln, p. 430). They are : Vert, three bucks 
trippant argent, attired or, and appear to be without any 

Wadham College 

Was founded in 161 2 by NICHOLAS Wadham, 
and his design was carried out after his decease by 
his widow DOKOTHV Petre. The arms now used 
by the College are an impaled coat intended to com- 
memorate both these persons : Per pale (a) Gules, a 
chevron between three roses argent, barbed vert, seeded 
or. Wadham (b) Gules, a bend or, between two 
escallops argent, Petke. There is, however, considerable 
doubt whether these arms were those borne by the 
lady. Dean BURGON says they are certainly not those 
used by her father. He had obtained from Henry 

2 F 

( 434 ) 

VIII. an augmentation to the arms of Petre which 
consisted of a chief or, charged with a rose between tzco 
dcini lilies gules, and moreover the bend was charged 
with a chough sable between two cinquefoils gules. (It 
seems too that the tincture of the field of the coat borne 
by him was azure, while the escallops were ^r.) The 
arms ivith tlie augmentation, etc., appear on the lady's 
tomb in ILMINSTER CHURCH, Somersetshire, but as 
the escucheon has probably been repainted it cannot be 
appealed to as decisive of the question. 

Pembroke College (originally Broadgates Hall) 

Was founded by Thomas Tesdale of Glympton in 
the year 1624. The arms are a composition from the 
arms of the Herberts, Earls of Pembroke (Willl\m 
Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, being Chancellor of the 
University at the date of foundation), and are : Per pale 
azure and gules, three lions rampant argent ; a chief also 
per pale or, and of the third, the dexter charged with a rose 
^England, the sinister ivith a thistle vert. 

On this it is only necessary to remark that the thistle 
in chief should really be a teazle, being taken from the 
armes parlantes of the founder, which were : Argent, a 
chevron between three teazles vert, 

Worcester College 

Was founded by Sir Thomas Cookes, Baronet of 
Norgrove and Bcntley in Worcestershire, under the title of 
Gloucester College, in the year 17 14. The arms as 
now borne are : Or, two cluvrons gules between six martlets 
sable, with the Baronet s badge of the arms of Ulster : 
{Argent, a hand palezvays gules?) But it appears from 
Mr Grazebrook's Heraldry of Worcestershire that the 
arms of the CoOKES of Bentley were: Argent, t%vo 
chevrons gules between six martlets of the last. Edmoni:)- 
SON attributes to CoOKES of Norgrove : Argent, tzuo 

( 435 ) 

chevrons gules between six martlets sable ; so that in any 
case the field of the arms now borne appears to be 
incorrect. The arms borne by COOKES seem to have 
been assumed from the JEXNETTS, whose co-heiress 
Anne had espoused William Cookes. The original 
arms of CoOKES were apparently : Barry of six argent 
ami sable, in chief three mullets gules. 

Herteori) College 

Was incorporated as a College in 1874 having 
been previously known as Macidalene Hall. Its 
history appears to be that Bishop Wavnelete, the 
founder of MAGDALENE COLLEGE, erected the Hall 
as a provision for students previous to admission to 

the College. Herteord College, which dated 
from the times of Edward I., was originally and for 
many generations known as Hart, or Hert, Hall 
{Aula Cervina). It was incorporated as HERTFORD 
College in 1740, but was insufficiently endowed, and 
in 1805 there being no Principal and only one Fellow 
remaining, the College fell into decay. The corporation 
was dissolved by Act of Parliament in 1822, and the 
endowment was appropriated, in part to the foundation 
of the Hertford Latin Scholarship in 1834, and in part 
(in 1833 on the death of the surviving Fellow, Rev. 
Richard Hewett), to Magdalene Hall, a foundation 
which dated from 1602. 

The arms used for HERTFORD CoLLECJE are those 
which are said to be the original bearings of Hert 
Hall (and the arms of Eli AS DE Hertf*ORD), viz. : 
(rules, a harfs head caboshed argent, attired or, between 
the attires a cross pat^e-fitclu^e of the last. 

Keble College was founded in 1869. 

The arms are those of the Rev. JOHN Keble, the 
author of the " Christian Year,'' in memory of whom the 

( 436 ) 

College was founded. They arc : Argent, a c/iez*ron 
engrailed gules, on a el lie f azure three mullets or. 

Thk Umvkksitv of Camhkiixik. 

The thirteenth century is usually assi<jncd as the 
date of the foundation of the University of Cam- 
uriih;!-:. Its senior Colle*;e, Pktkr-IIOUSE, dates from 
1257, but it had probably been a place of learning 
long before that, though it is not necessary- to 
endeavour to rival the antiquity of the sister Univer- 
sity of Oxford by carrying the date of the foundation 
back to 631, and assigning the honour of its institution 
to SlOHKRT. King of the East Angles. 

The arms borne by the University are : Gules, on a 
eross ermine between four lions of ExciLAND {i.e. ^passant 
gardant or) a book of the first, edged and clasped gold. 
This appears first on the present seal of the Universit\* 
which bears the date 1580. I may here say that for this 
piece of information, and for others incorporated below, I 
am indebted to the excellent papers read in 1885 by 
W. H. St. John Hopf, Esq., M.A., E.S.A., Assistant 
Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, before that 
learned Society, and since printed in its proceedings. 

The earlier seals, dating from before 1291 and 1420 
respectively, are not armorial but bear representations of 
the Chancellor seated beneath a canopy, arrayed in 
academicals, and between two disputing scholars (com- 
pare these with seals described hereafter under 
S. Andrfws, Paris, and Heidflhfrc;}. 


This College was founded in 1257 by HU(;iI DK 

Balsiiam (Bishop of Elv, 1257-1286}, and the arm.s 

are commemorative of the founder. They are Or, 

four pallets 7^' i thin a hordure gules, thereon eight open 

( 437 ) 

crcrwns of the first. This coat was granted by ROBERT 
Cooke, Clarencieux, King of Arms, in 1 575. The arms of 
Balsham appear to have been Or, tliree pallets gules : 
the bordure is allusive to the arms of the See of ELY — 
Gules, three open crowns or {vide ante, p. 180). Randle 
Holmes, in his Store House of Armory and Blazon, 
describes another seal which bears the ^^^y of S. PETER, 
holding a closed book which supports a church, and in 
the other his keys. These bearings may have been 
derived from an ancient seal, but no impression is known 
to exist. 

Clare Hall 

Was founded in 1338 by ELIZABETH, daughter of 
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Here- 
ford, by Joan, daughter of King EDWARD 1. The 
arms of the College are Per pale (a) Or^ three chevrons 
gules ; (b) Or, a cross gules ; all within a bordure sable, 
guttt^e dor. They are thus the arms of CLARE, im- 
paling those of Elizabeth's first husband John de 
Bi RGII, son of the Earl of Ulster, who died vitd patris 
in 13 13. Mr HOPE plausibly suggests that the sable 
bordure bedewed with golden drops arc allusive to Eliza- 
beth's widowhood and grief for her first hu.sband. It 
will be noticed that here, as in the arms of Balliol, the 
arms of the lady occupy the place of honour in an 
impaled coat, contrary to the practice of modern times. 
Elizabeth's seal, bearing the arms of Clare, impaling 
DE BURCill, and having the bordure guttee, was used by 
her in 1353. It also bears roundels charged with the 
arms of her other husbands : THEOBALD, Lord Verdon 
and Sir RociER Damorv (See Cat, of Seals in Brit. 
Mus., ii., No. 7940). Elizabeth's foundation occupied 
the place of UNIVERSITY HALL founded in 1326 by 
Chancellor Richard de Badew but burnt down some 
years later. 

( 438 ) 

On the monument in the Church of S. Edward at 
Cambriixjk, of Samuel Blvthe, D.D., Master of 
Clare Hall, 1690, the arms of the College are placed 
in chief above his personal coat : Argent, a chevron g^les 
between three lions rampant sable. 

Pembroke College 

Was founded in the year 1347 by Mary de St. 

Pol, wife of Amyer de Valence, Earl of Pem- 
broke, and the arms of the College are those of the 
founder, viz., DE VALENCE, RureU argent and azure, an 
orle of martlets gules ; impaling St. Pol-Chatili.ON : 
Gules, three pallets vair, a chief or, both coats dimi- 
diated and conjoined. 

Trinity Hall— "the Hall of the Holy Trinity of 
Norwich " — 
Was founded in 1350, by WILLIAM Bateman, Bishop 
of Norwich (1344-1355). The arms are : Sable, witkin 
a bordure engrailed, a crescent ermine. They were granted 
in. 1 575 by CoOKE, Clarencieux (See Archceologia ^liana^ 
May 1859). In S. Edward's Church, Cannbridge, 
Trinity Hall impales Balling : Ermine on a bend 
sable three acorns or. 

Corpus Christi College 

Was founded in 1352 by the CAMBRIDGE guilds 

of Corpus Christi, and of the Blessed Virgin. 

The arms, which were granted by CoOKE, Clarencievx^ 
in the year 1570, are: Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, a pelican 
in her piety argent ; 2 and 3. Azure, three garden lilies 
argent, slipped proper. 

King's College 

Was founded by King HENRY VI., February 1440- 
144 1, and enlarged by the same prince two years later, 
Mr St. John Hope tells us that its original coat, up 

( 439 ) 

to 1448, bore : two garden lilies in chief, and in base a 
mitre enfiling a crosier ; a chief per pale azure and gules, in 
the first a fleur-de-lis ^FRANCE, in the second a lion of 
England. But in January I448-I449the King issued 
letters-patent under the Great Seal granting arms to his 
Colleges at CAMBRIDGE and Eton ; and of these the 
grant to King's College. Cambridge, is a new one. 
The bearings in base are converted into : Sable, three 
roses argent, but the chief of FRANCE and ENGLAND is 
retained unaltered. 

Queens' College 

Was founded in 1448 by Queen Margaret of 
Anjou, to whom Henry VI. gave the College of 
S. Bernard and its possessions, with permission 
to refound it as a new College under the name 
of " Rcginale Collegium Sancte Margarete et Sancti 
Bernardi." This was accordingly done on April 
15, 1448. The arms are those of the Queen, viz.: 
Quarterly of six ; ( I ) Barry of eight, gules and argent 
(Hungary) ; (2) Azure, sevid of fleurs-de-lis or, a label 
gules (Naples) ; (3) Argent, a cross potent betiueen four 
crosslets or (JERUSALEM) ; (4) Azure, seme de fleurs-de- 
lis or, a bordure gules (Anjou) ; (5) Azure, two barbels 
addorsed between four cross-crosslets or (Bar) ; (6) Or, 
on a bend gules three allerions argent (LORRAINE) ; tlie 
whole ivithin a bordure vert, for differetice. This coat 
was granted by ROBERT CoOKE, Clarencieux, in 1575. 
In Jerusalem the crosslets were wrongly vcid^de potent). 
At the fall of the House of Lancaster Queen Eliza- 
beth WiDViLE, wife of Edward IV., took the College 
under her patronage in 1465. Hence it is that by some 
the College is known as QuEENs', not Queen's. 

St. Catharine Hall 
Was founded in 1473 by Robert Woodlarke, 

( 440 ) 

Provost of King's Collk(;e. Its arms are, Gules^ a 
Catharine ivlieel or. 

Jesus* Collh(;k 

Owes its foundation in 1496 to John Alcock, Bishop 
of Kly (i486 to 1500). Its arms are, Argent, on a /ess 
betiueen three coclcs heads sah/e, crested and luattled gules^ 
a mitre or, all unthin a bordnre of the third, thereon eig^/it 
{or ten) open croiuns of the last. These are the arms of 
the founder, with the addition of a bordure derived from 
those of the See of IClv, as in the case of Peter-HOUSK. 

Christ's College. 

A college known as Goi/s House was founded in 
1442 by William Byncjiiam, priest of the church of 
S. John Zachary in Cambridge. This was refounded 
and enlarged in 1505 by Margaret Beaufort, 
Countess of Richmond and Dekhy, the mother of King 
Henry VII. The arms are those of Beaufort, viz. : — 
Quarterly, France-modern and England, all ii^ithin 
a bordure-conipony argent and azure. 

St. John's Colle(;e. 

This College owes its foundation to the munificence of 
the same lady, by whom the old hospital of S. JOHN 
was in 1511 converted into a College under that dedi- 
cation. The arms appear to be identical with those of 
Christ's College given above. 

Ma(;dalene College 

Was originally founded by EDWARD STAFFORD, Duke 
of Buckin(;ham in 1512, under the name of Bucking- 
ham COLLECiE. It was refounded as Magdalkn 
CoLLECiE by Thomas, Lord Audley in 1542. Its arms 
are those of the later founder, viz. : Quarterly, per pale 

( 441 ) 

indented or and azure, in the second and third quarters 
an eagle displayed of the first ; over all on a bend of the 
second a fret between two martlets gold. 

Trinity College 

Was founded in 1546 by Henry VIII., who combined 
for that purpose MICHAEL HOUSE (which had been 
founded in 1324, by Hervey DE Stanton, Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, who held Canonries in the Cathedrals 
of York and Wells, besides the Rectories of East 
Dereham and North Creke) ; King's Hall, a founda- 
tion of Edward III., dating from 1337, and some small 

Its arms are : Argent, a chevron between three roses 
gules, seeded or, barbed vert ; on a chief of the second a lion 
of England between two books paleways of the third , 


Gonville Hall had been founded in 1348 by 
Kdmond Gonville, Rector of Terrington and Rush- 
worth as the Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. John Caius, M.D., refounded and 
enlarged it in 1558, desiring that it should henceforth be 
known as GoNViLLE and Caius College. 

The arms are those of the founders impaled, with 
the addition of a bordnre-compony argent and sable; 
thus : Argent, on a chevron cot iced {indented) sable, 
three escallops or for GONVILLE, impaling: Or, seme 
of gillyflowers {?) in the midst of the chief a sengreen 
resting on the heads of tivo serpents in pale, their tails 
uowed together all proper, and resting upon a square stone 
vert, between them a book sable, for Caius ; the whole 
within a bordure-compony argent and sable. The latter 
coat was a grant by D ALTON, Norroy King of Arms, 
who accompanied it with an elaborate explanation of 
its symbolical meanings. (The curious will find it 

( 442 ) 

given in Boutell's Heraldry, Historical and Popular, 

pp. 363, 364.) 

Emmanuel College. 

Sir Walter Mildmay founded this house in 1584. 
Its arms are : Argent, a lioti rampant azure , holding in 
the dexter paw a wreath of laurel vert ; in chief a scroll 
sable inscribed with the name " Emmanuel" or, 

Sidney-Sussex College. 

I" 1595 ^his College was founded in accordance 
with the will of FRANCES SYDNEY, widow of Thomas 
Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex. The arms borne by the 
college contain the impaled coat of the Countess : 
Per pale : (a) Argent, a bend engrailed sable, for Rad- 
CLIFFE ; (b) Or, a pheon azure, for SIDNEY. (The 
seal of the Master bears a lozenge charged ivith the 
eight quarters of the Countess, and ensigned with her 

Downing College. 

This College was founded in accordance with the will 
of the Right Hon. Sir GEORGE DOWNING, Bart., who 
died in 1749, but it only received its charter of incor- 
poration in 1800. 

Its arms are : — Barry of eight (or teri) argent and zfcrt^ 
a griffin scgreant or, ivithin a boj'dure azure, thereon 
eight roses of the first, barbed and seeded proper. These 
are the arms of the founder, with the addition of a 
bordure for difference. 


This College was founded in 1882. 

The arms are those of the late Bishop Selwyn 
formerly Bishop of New-Zealand, afterwards of LlCH- 
FIELD. The arms of the latter See are represented 

( 443 ) 

impaled with the arms of the Bishop, thus : Per pale, 
tivo coats ; (a) the arms of the See of LICHFIELD (p. 
182) ; (b) Argent, on a bend coticed sable, three annulets 
or; all within a bordtire engrailed gides, in chief a crescent 
of the last for difference (Selwvn). 

Official Arms of the Regius Professors in the UNIVERSITY 

OF Cambridge. 


Gules, on a cross ermine between four martlets argent 
a book of the first, garnished or. 


Purpure, a cross-moline or ; on a chief cousu gules, a 
lion passant of tlie second, charged on the body with the 
letter L sabk. 


A^ure, a fess ermine between three locenges or ; on a 
chief cousu gules, a lion passa7it of the third, on its body 
the letter M sable, 


Argent, the letter n sable, on a chief gules a lion 
passant or. 


J^er clievron argent and sable, in the first the letters 
A and 12 in the second a grasshopper, all counter-changed, 
on a chief gules a liofi passant or, on its shoulder a text (•> 
sable, (These arms are in S. Giles Church, Cambridge, 
on a monument to NICHOLAS Carre, Regius Professor 
of Greek, 1569, they are impaled to the dexter, with 
. . . to the sinister, viz.: Per chevron . . . and 
. . , tJiree unicorn's heads erased counter-changed, 

these, however, were not his personal arms, these, which 
are on a separate escucheon, are {Gules) on a chevron 


( 444 ) 

(ttr/^t'Mt) //nvt' mulUts • sable) ; in chief as many fleurs-de- 
lis . . 

Xote, — Though in all cases above the lion is blazoned 
as a lion passant, the lion of ENGLAND is intended, and 
it should probably be Aq^xqX^A passant gardant. 

The University of Di^riiam. 

The University of Durham as now constituted was 
founded in the vear i8;3. Cromwell, as Lord Pro- 
tector had previously founded an University there in 
1657 but it was dissolved three years later. The arms 
now used are: Argent, S. ClTHBERT\s cross {/orfn^e- 
quadrate) gules ; on a canton the arms of Bishop HAT- 
FIELD: A sure, a chrcron or, betiveen three lions rampant 
argent. ;See The Herald and Genealogist, vol. viii.) 

University College 

Bears : Azure, betzceen four lions rampant argent a 
cross or (being the arms of the See of Durham) ; on 
a chief of the second a cross formi^e-qu ad rate gules betiveen 
two mitres proper. This College now includes Bishop 

CosiN's Hall. 

BisHor H.vtfield's Hall. 

The arms are those described above as being in the 
canton of the University arms : {A::ure, a chei'ron or, 
betwccpi three lions rampant argent}. 

BisHor Cosin's Hall (now included in University 

Bore the arms of Bishop CosiN : Azure, a fret or. 

The College of Medicine at Xewcastle-on-Tvnk 

Is affiliated to the University of DURHAM, and bears : 

Argent, S. CUTHHERT\s cross gules, a chief tierced in 

pale ; (a) the arms of Bishop H.\TFIELD, as above; (b) 

Or, the rod of Esculapius in pale proper ; (c) Gules, 

( 445 ) 

a castle argent, derived from the arms of the city of 

University oe London. 

The University of LONDON was founded in 1826, and 
had its home in Govver Street ; it was known as Uni- 
versity College from 1836 up to 185 l The 
governing body known as the University of LONDON 
had then its seat at Somerset House. As now consti- 
tuted the University dates from i8sl Its arms are: 
A rgent^ on a cross gtiles a rose of the first, crowned with 
an Imperial Crown, and irradiated, or ; on a chief azure 
a book open proper. • 

King's College, London 


Was incorporated in 1829. Its arms were thpse of the 
then reigning Sovereign, KingGEORCJE III. The motto 
is Sancte et Sapienter. 

SiON College, London. 

Argent, on a chevron between three gri fin's heads erased 
sable, a leopard' s face or. Founded in 1630. 

The Victoria University, 

Situated at MANCHESTER, was founded in 1880. It in- 
cludes Owen's College, Manchester; University Col- 
lege, Liverpool ; and the YORKSHIRE COLLEGE, Leeds. 

Its arms are : Per pale argent and gules, a rose counter- 
changed betiucc7i, in chief a terrestrial globe sevu^ of bees 
volant, and a Golden-Fleece ; and i?i base a cormorant having 
in its beak a bunch of I aver {seaweed) proper. The motto 
is Olim armis nunc studiis. The charges in the arms 
are allusive : — the red and luhite rose to the counties of 
Lancaster and York, for whose special benefit the 
University exists ; the globe, bird, and Golden-Fleece are 
derived from the arms of the cities of MANCHESTER, 
Liverpool, and Leeds. 

( 446 ) 

University Collkge, Liverpool, 

Incorporated in 1881, bears: Ajyure, betivcen three 
cormorants, each having in its beak a sprig oflaver, an opett 
hook argent, thereon the words FlAT Ll X. The motto is : 


The Scottish Universities. 

The University ok St. Andrews 

Was founded in 141 1 by Bishop Henrv Wardlaw, 
and contains the Colleges of S. MARY (the original college 
of Bishop Wardlaw. enlarged by Archbishops James 
and David Beaton and Archbishop Hamilton) and the 
now united Colleges of S. Salvator and St. Leonard. 
Of these, the former was founded by Bishop Kennedy 
in 1458, the latter by Prior HEPBURN in 1532, and 
bears in the centre the figure of S. ANDREW on his 
cross, in the base. 

The University seal bears beneath a canopy the 
seated figure of the Chancellor, or other instructor, 
lecturing to a class of eight students, of whom seven are 
seated at a table and one on the floor. Upon the 
canopy are three shields, the centre one on a chief a 
crescent reversed . . . supported by two angels ; the 
dexter bears the arms of ScoTEAND ; the sinister the 
|xrrsonal arms of the founder, viz. \ ... on a /ess 
hetiveen three jnascles . . . three cross-crossiets . . . 

The seal of S. Salvator's College bears t/u effigy of 

the Redeemer in the act of benediction and holding an open 

book. A mitred shield contains the arms of Bishop 

Kennedy : Argent, a chevron between three cross-crossiets 

ftchce ail n'ithin a double tressmr flory connter-flory^ gnies. 

The University of Glascjow 

Originated with Bishop TURNHULL (1448- 1454) who 
obtained a charter of foundation from James H. in 1443 • 

' ( 447 ) 

and the Papal Bull of Pope NICHOLAS V. confirming it 
and establishing the University given in 1450. 

The seal of the University is vesica-sha,ped and 
bears a //iace between tlie tree supporting a bird 
{robin) and fish {salmon) which occur as charges in 
the arms of the city. In chief is a dexter hand hold- 
ing a book open and charged with the luordSy Via 
Veritas via (? vita) (Laing, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., p. 201, 
No. 1 144). 

The University ok Aberdeen 

Was founded by Bishop WILLIAM Elphinstone 
(1483-15 14), who obtained a Papal Bull from Alex- 
ander VI. for that purpose in the year 1494, and 
himself obtained or provided the necessary endow- 
ment for the College erected almost under the shadow 
of his Cathedral in Old Aberdeen. The old common 
seal of the University bears a vase or pot in which 
are arranged three garden lilies , the eviblevi of tlie Blessed 
Virgin ; on the front of the vase are three fishes arranged 
in a fret. In chief a hand reaches dowmvards in 
pale and holds an open book. King's COLLEGE was 
originally known as S. Mary's COLLEGE, and this 
accounts for the assumption of the lilies of the Blessed 
Virgin Marv. From this seal were derived the arms of 
old KlN(;'s COLLECiE ; Azure, a bough pot or, containing 
three garden lilies slipped, the pot charged with as many 
fishes in fret ; from the centre chief issuing dowmoards in 
pale amid rays of the sun a hand holding an open book all 
proper; but these arms were not formally granted, or 
recorded in the LvON office. Marischal COLLEGE 
was founded in New Aberdeen in the year 1593 ; and 
endowed by GEORGE Keith, fifth Earl Marischal, 
under the sanction of an Act of Parliament, with the 
status and privileges of an University. This position it 
maintained independently of the University of Old 

< 448 > 

Aberdeen until i860, when, in accordance uith the 
provisions of the *' Universities Scotland Act " of 1858. 
the two were united in one University to be called 
thenceforth the University of Aberi>KEN. and to take 
rank among the Universities of Scotland as from the 
date and erection of KiX(;*s College and University', 
ijt. 1494. 

In 1888 the Senatus Academicus under the presidencj- 
of the much honoured Principal (now Sir} William 
Geddes, LL.D., petitioned Lyon King of Arms for a 
grant of armorial bearings for the University*, and 
on September j6 of the same year a formal grant was 
made of the following: Quarterly^ \. Azure^a hou^h pot 
or, charj^ed luitli three salmon fishes in fret proper^ and 
containing as many lilies of the garden tlu dexter in hud^ 
tlu centre full-bloiun, and the sinister half-blou'n^ also 
proper flowered argent ; issuant downward froffi the 
middle chief amid rays of the sun a dexter hand holding^ 
an open book likewise proper ; 2. A rgent, a chief paly of 
six or and gules ; 3. Argent, a cliei^ron sable between three 
boars heads erased gtdes, armed of tlu field and langued 
azure ; 4. Gules, a tower triple-ton^ered argent, mttsoned 
sable, windows and port of the last. In an escrol below 
the shield is placed this motto, ** Initium Sapieniiit 
Timor Domini^ It will be seen that these four quarters 
contain : first, the arms assumed for the University 
and KlX(;'s C()LL?:ge, Old Aberdeen, as already given 
on the page preceding (the new blazon is not beyond 
criticism). The second quarter contains the arms of 
the founder of Marischal Colle(;e and University. 
In the third quarter are the undifferenced arms borne 
by Bishop VViLLlAM Elphixstone, who obtained the 
Papal Bull for the University of Old Aberdeen and 
endowed S. Mary's (afterwards King's) College there- 
in. The fourth quarter contains a portion of the arms 
of the Royal Burgh of Aberdeen (Gules, within a double 

( 449 ) 

tressure flory- counter -flory argent^ three towers triple- 

towered of t/ie last). 

Edinburgh University 

Was founded by Royal Charter of James VI. granted 
in 1582. 

The arms borne by the University are : — Argent, on a 
saltire azure an open book, in chief a thistle slipped proper ; 
in base on a rock tlu castle of Edinburgh as represented 
in tlu arms of that city, 

The University of Dublin 

Was founded in the year 1591 by Queen ELIZABETH, 
and a new charter was granted by James I. in 1609. 

The arms are : Quarterly azure and ermine, in tlu 
first quarter a book open proper, clasped or ; in the fourth 
quarter a castle argent, inflamed proper ; over all in centre 
point the harp of Irelatul royally crowned of tlu third. 

Trinity College 

Was founded on the grant by Queen ELIZABETH of 
the Augustinian monastery of All Saints in 1591. It 
received a new charter in 1637. 

Its arms are: Azure, a book closed, clasps to dexter, 
between in chief on tlu dexter a lion passant-gardant, and 
in tlu sinister a harp, all or. In base a castle with two 
towers domed, each surmounted by a flag floatant to the 
flanks of tlu shield, the dexter charged with the cross of 
S. George ; tlu sinister with tliat ofS, Patrick. 

The Royal University of Ireland 

Was founded in 1880, and incorporates Queen's 

College, Belfast ; Queen's College, Cork ; Queen's 
College, Galway ; (all these were founded in 1845). 

2 G 

( 450 ) 

The arms granted to it arc : Per saltire ertnine and 
ermines. In tJu centre point an open book surmounted by 
an Imperial Crown proper, between four escucluons : (a, in 
chief) Vert, a harp or, stringed argent ; (B, in base) A sure, 
three antique crowns or ; (c, /// dexter flank) Or, a cross 
gules, thereon an escucheon argent charged with a dexter 
hand erect coupM gides ; (I), in sinister flank) Per pale (a) 
Argent, an eagle displayed sable dimidiated and conjoined 
to the palar line ; (b) Azure, an arm embowed issuing 
from the dexter flank and holding a dagger erect proper. 
Of these escucheons the first contains the modern arms 
of Ireland ; the second, the ancient arms ; the third 
has the arms of ULSTER ; and the fourth those of 


University of Melbourne and of Sydney. 
University of Melbourne. 

Azure, between four mtdlets of eight points {argent\ tlu 
figure t?/* Victory, winged and habited proper^ /lolding in 
tlie extended right hand a laurel wreath or. Motto : 
Postera crescam laude. 

University of Sydney, N.S.W. 

Argent, on a cross azure an open book between four 
estoiles of eight points argent, on a chief gules a Hon of 
England. Motto : Sidere mens eadem mutate. 

University of Heidelberg. 

The arms of the University are : Sable, a lion rampant 
or, crowned gules, holding in its paivs an open book in- 
scribed semper apertus proper. The University seal bears 
the effigy of S. Peter seated under an architectural 
canopy, between two figures of the Elector Rupert, 
and his son, each kneeling on one knee and supporting 
a shield, the former bearing the arms of Bavaria : 

(451 ) 

Fusilly in bend- sinister^ argent and azure; the latter 
those of the PALATINATE OF THE RHINE : Sabk^ a lion 
rampant or, crowned gules. The legend is S. univer- 
sitatis studii heydelbergensis. 

The seal of the Rector bears (within the cuspings of a 
sexfoil) the arms of the University. The legend is S. 
rectoratus studii heidelbergensis. 

Each of the faculties in the University has its special 

seal. The seal of the Faculty of Catholic Theology, 

founded in 1627, is oval in shape and bears the seated 
^ffi^y ^f S. Augustine in pontificals. The legend is 
*'Sigill. facult. theolog. univers. heidelberg." 


is round, and bears an open book inscribed " Ad legem et 
testimonium." The legend is ** Sigillum facultatis theo- 
logicae Academiae heidelb." 

The circular seal of the FACULTY OF Law bears on a 
mount in base the Palatinate lion, not crowned, holding a 
pair of scales. The legend runs **Sigill. facultatis juridical 

The Faculty of Medicine has a circular seal 
bearifig a shield charged with the standing figure of t lie 
winged lion ofS. MARK. The legend is " Sigillvm facvl- 
tatis medicai acad. heidelberg." 

Protestantism, founded in 1576, bears, under a 
baldachino, a figure in doctor's robes seated behind 
a table, before him is an open book each page bearing 
the letters SS. Below him are two demi-figures of 
students each having a book with the same letters. 
The seal has no legend. 

The Catholic Faculty of Philosophy, esta- 
blished in 1627, has a seal which bears the image of 
S. Catharine, with her attributes of martyrdom 
the sword and the wheel. It also has on it a 
shield charged with the arms of the University as 

( 452 ) 

before given. The legend is " Sigill. philosophic^ facuU 
tatis heidelberg." 

The small seal of the University is charged with the 
arms, but the lion is uncrowned. There is no legend, but 
its place is filled by a close laurel wreath. (See Heide- 
LOFF. Gedenk'blatter der Universitaten Heidelberg. 
N urn berg, s,a^ 

University of Paris. 

The seal of the University in 1292 is a large 
circular one. The principal compartment is divided 
into three portions of which the upper one occupies 
the half of the compartment, and contains under an 
architectural niche the crowned figure of the Blessed 
Virgin, seated and having on her left knee the Holy 
Child. Beneath this the lower half is divided into 
four smaller niches ; in the two upper ones, which arc 
arched, are two doctors seated, in profile, rieading^ their 
books ; in each of the two lower ones are seated two 
scholars, similarly occupied. The smaller compartments 
on either side of the great central one, contain, on the 
dexter, the full length figure of a Bishop in pontificals, 
holding his crosier in both hands; in a small niche 
beneath his feet a seated female figure : on the sinister 
the compartment contains S. Catharine holding a 
palm branch in one hand and a book in the other. The 
small niche at the bottom is said by M. Lecov i>e la 
Marche to contain //;/ tH)ique a genoux, but this I 
cannot make out. (The obverse of the seal is engraved 
in M. Lecov de la Marciie's Sceaux, Paris, n.d. p. 263.) 
The reverse of the seal contains a seated figure holding in 
one hand a dove, as the emblem of the Holy Spirit, and 
in the other a fleur-de-lis. The inscription appears to be: 
" S. Universitatis, magistror. et scolariv. parisius." The 
arms of the University in later times were those of 
Franxe {Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or), differenced by a 

( 453 ) 

hand issuing from clouds in chief and holding a closed 
book^ all proper. 

The " Nation of England " in the University of PARIS 
had its special seal, on which, above the figures of a 
doctor teaching two scholars, is represented a group of 
saints in three stages ; the lower contains S. Martin of 
Tours dividing his cloak with the beggar ; above arc 
two saints, S. CATHARINE and another ; and above all is 
the representation of the coronation of the Blessed 
Virgin, patroness of the University (Lecoy DE LA 
March E, Sceaux, p. 264). 

University of (Prag) Prague. 

Argent, the wall of a city liaving a gate flanked with 
two towers gules, in chief an arm issuant in pale, vested 
azure, holding a book (closed) proper 

This University was founded by the Emperor CHARLES 
IV. in 1348. Its seal bears the effigy of S. Wenceslas 
bearing a large curved heater-sliaped shield charged with 
the Imperial Eagle, he holds in tlie right hand a square 
banner, with a pendant, similarly charged. The Emperor 
is represented kneeling, and receiving a book from the 
saint. There are two small shields ; one charged with 
tJie single-headed Eagle of Germany, the other with the 
rampant lion of BOHEMIA. Each faculty has a special 
seal. That of the THEOLOGICAL FACULTY bears, the 
double-headed eagle of the Empire (with the " heiligen- 
scheine ") ; on its breast is t lie figure of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary supporting the Holy Child. Behind this is a large 
anchor, having no cross beam. Above the eagle's head 
is the monogram I.H.S. (with a cross above the H.) in 
a circle irradiated. The legend is, " Sigil. facultat. 
theologicae Universitatis Pragensis." 

The seal of the F'aculty OF Law bears the Imperial 
double-headed eagle holding sword and sceptre, and 
having the " lieiligen sclieine." On its breast is a shield 

( 454 ) 

charged with a female figure which holds a book and points 
upwards. The legend is ** Sigillum facultatis juridica: 
Universitatis Pragensis." 

The seal of the Faculty of Philosophy and Arts 
is similar in character to that of the THEOLOGICAL 
Faculty, but on the breast of the eagle is the fi^^re of 
S. Catharink ivith her wheel and a palm branch. The 
legend runs : (Sig) " Facult. Philosophicce et Artium 
Universitatis Pragen." 

The seal of the Faculty ok . Medicine has the 
double-headed eagle as above but without the anchor, 
or the sword and sceptre. On its breast is a shield 
charged with the figures of two saints bearing the 
palm branch of martyrdom. Above the shield is 
a full-length figure of S. JOHN the Baptist. The 
inscription is ** Sigillvm facvltatis medicae Universitatis 

University ok (Mentz) Mayence (1476-1798.) 

Arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, a wheel gules (arms 
of the See) ; 2 and 3. Argent, two bars sable. 

University ok Greikswald or Grvphiswald, 

(Pomerania) founded in 1456. 
Arms \ . . , a griffin rampant to sinister , 

University ok Basel (Basle), founded in 1460. 

The seal of the Rector bears an arm issuitig^ from 
clouds in chief afid holding a book in pale ; before 
the latter is a small shield of the arms of BASEL 
(7\ p. 268). 

Each faculty has a distinct seal with appropriate 
devices combined with the arms of Basel. 

University ok GrAt/, in Styria, founded in 1585, 
by the Emperor FERDINAND I. 
Arms : Tierced in fess : (a) {Azure ?) the sacred mono- 

( 455 ) 

gram I.H.S. ensigned with a crosSy beneath it three passion 
nails in pile tlie whole irradiated ; (b) Argent ^ two amis^ 
one issuing from either fiank^ tlie hands holding in t/ie 
centre of the shield a closed book paleways ; (c) Vert, a 
griffin argent inflamed at its mouth and ears, proper ; 
the arms of Styria. 

University of Salzburg, founded 1623, suppressed 
in 1 8 10. 
Arms : Azure, on a mount in base a lion rampant double- 
tailed argent. On a chief tlu arms of SALZBURG ; viz., 
Per pale (a) Or, a lion rampant sable ; (b) Gules, a fess 

University of Nurnberg. 

The seal bears, a female figure holding in one liand 
a laurel branch, in tlu otlier an open book. It also 
contains two shields of the NuRNBERG arms ; A. Per 
pale (a) Or, t/ie Imperial Eagle dimidiated proper ; (b) 
Bendy of six gules and argent, B. Azure, a liarpy dis- 
played crowned or, t lie face and breast proper. 

University of Breslau, founded 1702. 

Arms : Per pale (a) Gules, a lion contournd argent 
crozuned or. (b) Or, an eagle dimidiated sable. Over all 
a chief c/iarged with tlie Imperial Cyplur L. I. The 
shield is borne on the breast of an Imperial eagle, 
over the heads of which, on a circular cartouclie is 
the Jesuit device of the Sacred monogram I.H.S. 
(the H. ensigned with a cross) above three passion nails 
ifi pile. 

University of Besanc^on, founded in 1691. 

Azure, an open book argent, between three fleurs-de-lis or. 

University of Caen, founded in 1437. 
{Gules), a hand issuing from tlu chief in pale holding a 

( 456 ) 

book ; on achief fleury a lion passant gardant, (Demay, 
Sceaux de la Xormandie, No. 2571.) The shield is 
supported by an angel. 

University of Valence, founded in 1452. 

A book between a fleur-de-lis^ and a dolphin^ in c/iief 
the doi'e irradiated representing the Holy Spirit. 
(Demay, Sceaux de la Xormandie, No. 2577.) 

University of Cologne (C()LN), founded in 1388. 

Argent^ an arm issuing from the sinister flank proper 
vested azure^ holding a closed book gules ; on a cliief of 
the last three open crowns or. 

University of Vienne (Wien), founded in 1365. 

Gules, a fess argent, t/iereon an arm issuing from the 
sinister flank and holding a book proper. 

University of Erfurt, founded in 1379. 

Gules, a demi-whecl argent, on a chief azure an ann 
issuing fessways from the dexter flank, vested of the 
second and holding a closed book in pale proper. 

University of Bologna, founded in 1088. 

Gules, two keys argent in sal tire. On a chief azure a 
closed book paleways or. 

At the present day the Italian Universities appear to 
seal their diplomas, etc., with seals bearing only- the 
Royal Arms of Italy. 



Although the armorial use of supporters by Ecclesiastics appears 
to have become almost obsolete in Great Britain and Ireland, except 
in the very infrequent case of one who is also a secular Peer of the 
realm, an examination of a good series of Ecclesiastical seals will 
show that in the fourteenth and later centuries, down even to the 
last, it was sufficiently common both at home and abroad. 

1 am not able to say that the custom had its origin in decorative 
architecture, but at any rate when armorial sliields were placed, as 
was not unfrequently the case, upon the bosses at the intersection 
of the vaulting, or to help in filling up the void spaces in spandrils, 
these shields were often supported by an angel. In mediaeval times 
the arms of clerics are very frequently represented on their secreta^ 
or private seals, with a single angel standing or kneeling behind 
the shield, and acting as its supporter. 

The pretty counter-seal, or secreium^ of Gilbert Greenlaw, 
Bishop of Aberdeen (1390- 1424) bears his shield of arms 
(...) rt chei.fro?i (...) between three water-budgets 
(...) supported by an angel with expanded wings (Laing, 
Descriptive Catalogue of Scottish Seals^ vol. i., p. 1 54). This is 
also engraved in the second plate of seals given in the second 
volume of the Regis trum Episcopal us Aberdonensis, published by 
the Spalding Club, in 1845. 

The seal of WiLLL\M Fouler given in Laing's second volume 
at p. 65 has a similar arrangement, the shield supported by the 
angel, bears . . . a rose . . . between three crosses-crosslet 
Ji tehees ... At page 27 of the same volume is recorded the 
armorial seal of Thomas Bullyn, Canon of Glasgow, who in 
1460 bore a shield charged with a bulfs head caboshed^ and sup- 
ported by an angel. It does not appear to be positively certain 
that Robert Guthrie of Kimblethmont was an Ecclesiastic, 
although it is very probable that such was the case. On his seal 

( 458 ) 

(described in Laixg, vol. ii., p. 77\ the arms . . , a bulPs head 
liiboshed^ between three }^arbs . . . ) have an angel supporter. 

Upon the seal ad causas of ROBKRT Neville, Bishop of 
Durham (1438-1457), an angel holdsa shield charged with the per- 
sonal anns of the prelate : * {Gules\ a salt ire {argent), chargeti ivith 
two annulets interlaced in fess^ for difference {Catalogue of Seals in 
the King^s Library^ British Museum^ vol. i., p. 406. London, 1887). 
The shield is in the base of the 7rj/Vrt-shaped seal. {See also 
SrRTKKs, History of the County of Durham^ vol. i., plate iii.. 

From this original use of a single supporter it was an easy and 
natural step to the adoption of double supporters ; and these were 
frequently, but as we shall see by no means invariably, angels. 
Bishop John Fordham of Durham (i 382-1388) has on his privy- 
seal a shield bearing his arms : {Sable\ a cheztron betiveen three 
crosses patonce {or\ thus supported. {British Museum Cata/ogue 
of Seals, vol. i., pp. 403-404 ; and SVRTKES, Durham, vol. i., plate 
v., fig. 4.) 

Archbishop Hknry Howkit of York (1407- 1423), has upon the 
base of his seal ad causas his own effig>% half-length, in the act of 
prayer, and bearing his crozier ; in front of him is the shield of his 
anns : {Argent)^ three stag's heads caboshed {sable), supported by 
two angels. {British Museum Catalogue, vol. i., p. 374.) 

In Scotland early examples of the same use are not wanting. 
In 1360, John de Ga.mery, Canon of Caithness, has upon his 
seal, a shield charged with a chei>ron between in chief a mullet^ and 
a cinq uef oil, and in base a lion^s head affronte. The shield has two 
angel supporters CLainc;, Scottish Seals, vol. i., p. 175, from the 
Halnagowan Charters). The ^rrnV//;;/ of James Kennedy, Bishop 
of St. Andrews (1440- 1446) bears his arms : {Argent\ a cheztron 
{gules \ between three cross-crosslets fitclu^es {sable) the whole iLnthin 
a double tressure fiory counter-fiory {of the second). The shield is 
timbred with a mitre, and is supported by two kneeling angels 
(LAiN(i, vol. i., p. 146). Simihirly the circular seal of Robert 
COLQUHOUN, Bishop of Argyle (1473-1495) bears a shield of his 
arms {Argent), a saltire engrailed {sable) with two kneeling angels 
for its supporters. 

The seal affixed in 1477, used by John Laing, Bishop of 
Glasgow (1473- 1482), has in its base a shield of his personal 
arms : Quarterly, i and 4. . . . <^ pale ....,* 2 and 3. 
. . . three piles . . . (Laing, vol. i., p. 166, plate xvii., 

^ The tincture* are not indicated on niediwval seals ; here and elsewhere when ther 
are supplied from other sources they are placed within brackets. 

. ( 459 ) 

fig. 3. It IS also engraved in Archbishop Eyre's Monograph on 
the Episcopal Seals of the Ancient Diocese of Glasgow ^ plate iii., 
fig. II. Glasgow, 1891 ; and in the Registrum Episcopatiis 
Glasguensis^ vol. ii., plate iii., fig. 3, published by the Maitland 
Club. In this last it is erroneously ascribed to Bishop Cameron, 
who held the See from 1426 to 1446.) 

Bishop Andrew Forman who held the See of Moray from 
1 501 to 1 5 14, when he was translated to St. Andrews, used in 
1502, a circular seal in the base of which are engraved his personal 
arms : Quarterly, i and 4. {Azure\ a chevron or^ between three fishes 
hauriant argent; 2 and 3. Sable, a cameVs head erased and contoumd 
or, collared and belled (of the last). The shield is timbred with a 
mitre and is supported by two kneeling angels (Laing, Scottish 
Seals, ii., p. 176). The arms of Thomas Ruth all. Bishop of 
Durham, 1509- 1523 {Per pale azure and gules, a cross engrailed 
or, between four doves of the last collared sable ; on a chief quarterly 
ertnine and of the third, two roses of the second, barbed and seeded 
proper) appear at Auckland Castle with the angel supporters 
{Herald and Genealogist, vol. viii., p. 165). The latest instance of 
angel supporters to Anglican Episcopal arms with which I am 
acquainted is afforded by the seal of Bishop William Knight, of 
Bath and Wells (i 541-1547), who was employed as Ambassador 
to the Emperor Maximilian, and Secretary of State. His arms, 
granted in 15 14 by letters-patent, are a curious example of the 
overcharged style of the times, and are as follows : Per f ess, or and 
gules, in chief the double-headed eagle of the Empire sable, and in 
front thereof a rose of England gules, barbed and seeded gold, both 
dimidiated per fess; in base a sun in splendour proper dimidiated 
and conjoined to the charges in chief The shield is supported by 
angels. (See British Museum Catalogue, vol. i., p. 202, where the 
coat is wrongly blazoned.) I have followed the ordinary mode in 
which the Bishop's arms are depicted, but the blazon now given 
from Burke's General Armory, 2nd Edition, p. 572, would lead 
us to believe that the Imperial Eagle should properly be borne 
whole, and not dimidiated per fess. ^^ Per f esse, or and gules, an 
eagle with two hecuis displayed sable, having on its breast a demi- 
rose and a demi-sun, conjoined into one, counter-changed of the 

So far the choice of angelic beings as the supporters seem to 
lend an air of Ecclesiastical propriety to their assumption, but we 
soon find that the use of mundane creatures, birds, beasts, and 
even fishes, was not less frequent. 

Bishop Thomas de Hatfield of Durham (1345-1381) has on 

( 46o ) 

his secretum his arms : {Azure), a ckn^ron {or) behveen three lions 
rampant {arf^ent). The supporters are two lions sejant -giiardant, 
each beneath the base of a small tree. (Above the shield is a half- 
length fijjure of the Blessed Virgin crowned and holding in her 
right arm the Infant Saviour, in the left hand a sceptre topped with 
a fleur-de-lis. (See British Museum Catalogue, vol. i., p. 403 ; and 
SURTEEs' Durham, vol. i., plate v., fig. 3.) 

The secretum of JOHN DE B.\RNET, Bishop successively of 
Worcester 1361, Bath and Wkli^ 1364, and Ely 1366, bears 
his anns {Ari^ent), a saltire, and in chief a leoparcT s head {f) {sahle). 
The shield is supported by two griffins. Bedford in his Biaxon 
of Episcopacy, p. 18, No. 14, gives the blazon as above on the 
authority of Wharton's Anglia Sacra: and with it agrees the 
description of a secretum or signet of Bishop Barnet in the 
Catalogue of Seals in the British Museum, vol. i., p. 201, No. 1425, 
in which, however, no mention is made of the existence of the 
supporters. But Mr W. H. St. John Hope, Assistant Secretary 
of the Society of Antiquaries, in an excellent paper on the seals of 
the Bishops of Bath and Wells, blazons the charge in chief of 
the Bishop s amis as a coronet with three fleurons. He considers 
that the saintly effigies which occupy the upper portion of the seal, 
indicate that it was engraved for John de Barnet, while he was 
yet Archdeacon of London, and before his election to the See of 
Worcester in 1361. 

Two lions support the shield of anus { . . . ) on afess ( . . . ) 
between three mascles { . , . ) as many cross-crosslets ( . . . ), 
which appears on the seal of Walter Wardlaw, Bishop of 
Gl.\sc;ow in 1368-1387; Cardinal of the Holy See in 1385, 
died 1387 (Laing, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., plate x., fig. 4 and 
p. 185.) 

The secretum of Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York 
(1374- 1 392), bears his shield of arms : {Gules\ a saltire {ar^cnt^^ 
differenced by a crescent {sable). The shield is timbred with a helin 
bearing the crest of a bull's head, issuing from a crest-coronet ; and 
is supported by two griffins segreant. {British Museum Catalt^guc^ 
vol. i., p. 373) 

The counter-seal of Walter Trail, Bishop of St. Andrews 
(1385-1401), has his personal anns : {Azure), a chei*ron bet^veen 
two mascles in chief {or), and a trefoil slipped in base {argent)^ 
surmounted by a figure of the Blessed Virgin with the Holy Infant, 
and is supported by two lions rampant gardant. (Lainc;, Scottish 
Seals, vol. i., p. 146, No. 869.) 

On the Privy Seal of Thomas Arundel (son of Robert Fitz- 

( 46i ) 

ALAN, thirteenth Earl of Arundel), Archbishop of Canterbury 
(1397- 1 4 14), his armorial bearings are finely engraved. The shield 
is couM^ and bears the arms : Quarterly, i and 4. {Gules\ a lion 
rampant {or\ armed ^ etc, {azure\ Fitzalan ; 2 and 3. Chequy {or 
and azure\ Warren ; the whole within a bordure engrailed 
{argent), for difference. It is surmounted by a helm which bears 
the crest, out of a crest-coronet a griffin's head or, between 
two wings sable. The supporters are two lions sejant -gar dant. 
{British Museum Catalogue, vol. i., p. 168, No. 1239). The 
lions are seated on mounts, and at the fore feet of each is a trefoil 
on a stalk. 

In the Collection of Seals in the King's Library of the British 
Museum there is also an imperfect impression (No. 2050) of the 
seal of Richard Courtenay (son of Sir Philip Courten.\y of 
Powderham), and Bishop of NORWICH (141 3- 14 15). On it the 
personal arms of the Bishop {Or\ three torteaux, in chief a label 
{azure\ each point charged with three bezants for difference are 
represented on a couche shield surmounted by a crest-coronet. 
The crest itself, and the dexter supporter have both been destroyed, 
but the sinister supporter is a lion. The coat of Peter Courtenay, 
Bishop of Exeter, 1478, and of Winchester, 1487-1492, is 
supported in Winchester Cathedral by two dolphins. (On 
another use j/'^? Moule, Heraldry of Fish, p. 19.) In S. Alban's 
Abbey the Chapel of Abbot Ramrydge contains his arms, 
supported by rams. The arms are a saltire couped. The rams 
have collars charged with the letters rydge, making a rebus of 
the name. (Plate LXXVII.) {See Boutell, Heraldry, Historical 
and Popular.) 

The secretum of John Stafford, Bishop of Bath and Wells 
(1425- 1 443), and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury (1443- 
1452), bears his personal arms. Or, on a che%fron gules a mitre, 
proper, all within a border engrailed sable, for difference. The 
shield is supported by two eagles. {Catalogue of Seals, 
British Museum, vol. i., p. 201.) Mr St. John Hope considers 
that the eagles are borne in allusion to the Bishop's Christian 

John Cameron, Bishop of Glasgow (1426-1446), used on his 
fine round seal (the first of this shape in the Glasgow Series), 
a shield bearing his personal arms : {Or), three bars {gules) 
supported on either side by a salmon, holding in its mouth a 
golden ring. (For the origin of these, see p. 225, ante,) The seal 
is engrcived in Laing, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., plate ix., fig. 2. {See 
also the Monograph on the Seals of the Ancient Diocese of 


( 462 ) 

Glasgow, by Archbishop Eyre, p. 12. Glasgow, 1891.) The 
arms thus arranged, but with the addition of a mitre above the 
pastoral staff, were also sculptured on the tower of the Episcopal 
Palace at Glasgow. 

The fine round seal of Jam us Stuart (second son of King 
Jamus in.), Duke of Ross, Archbishop of St. Andrews (1497- 
i$03> bears the Royal Arms of Scotland (Or, a lion rampants 
within a double treasure flory-counter-flory gules) ensigned with a 
ducal coronet and the archi-episcopal cross, and supported by two 
unicorns, which are without collars and chains. This and the follow- 
ing are early examples of the use of unicorns as supporters by the 
Royal House of Scotland. (L.\IN(;, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., p. 169.) 
Alexander Stuart, natural son of James IV., who was made 
Archbishop of St. Andrews in 1509, Lord Chancellor in 151 1, 
and was slain at Flodden in 1513, bore the same arms and sup- 
porters as the preceding, but omitted the coronet. (This seal is 
engraved in Lainc;, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., plate ix., fig. 5.) 

The anns of Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen (i 518-1523) : 
Argent, three cushions within the Royal tressure gules, are repre- 
sented in one of the illuminated letters from the Episcopal Epistt^- 
lare, engraved in the first volume of the Registrum Episcopntus 
Aberdonensis published by the Spalding Club of Aberdeen, in 1845. 
The shield is timbred with a mitre, and is supported on either side 
by a dun bear, chained or, a canting allusion to the Bishop's family 
name. The Bishop does not appear to have employed the sup- 
porters upon his seal. The learned authors of the Lacunar 
Basciliccp Sancti Macarii Aberdonensis (the Heraldic ceiling of 
S. Machar's Cathedral in Old Aberdeen), published by the A>a/ 
Spalding Club in 1888, say that the good Bishop does not seem to 
have had any right to supporters. It will, however, be admitted that 
our judgment as to this must depend, not on modern notions, but 
on the custom of the time. I think there is abundant evidence 
of what that custom was, and that the Bishop has a ver>' good 
answer to the charge of "vain glory" made against him above, and 
elsewhere in the work referred to 

On Durham Castle the arms {Azure, three combs or) of CUTH- 
bert Tunstall, who was translated from London (which See he 
had filled from 1522) to Durha.M in 1531, are supported by cocks, 
a well-known badge of his family. At Auckland he appears to have 
used both angels and cocks. {See the interesting papers on the 
Old Official Heraldry of Durham, by W. H. Dyer Loncistaffe, 
in The Herald and Genealogist, vol. viii.) 

Once more— Bishop David Cuningham of Aberdeen (1577- 

( 463 ) 

1603) bore his arms : (Quarterly, i and 4. Argent^ a shakefork sable ^ 
in chief a mullet for difference ; I'SiXiAy . . . two garbs . . . 
Mure of Rowellan), with the canting supporters two conies. 
(Lai NO, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., p. 175.) 

Nor was this use of supporters by any means confined to such 
dignified Ecclesiastics as were of high rank, secular, or Ecclesi- 
astical. This has already been shown in the use of a single 
supporter, and the secretum of JOHN DE Barnet, Archdeacon of 
London, has been already referred to at p. 460. 

The fine seal of Thomas Stuart, Archdeacon of St. Andrews, 
natural son of King Robert IL of Scotland, and bears in 1443, 
a shield of the Royal Anns of Scotland : Or, a lion rampant 
within a double tressure fiory - counter -flory gules, debruised 
by a bend counter-compony (argent and azure?) as a mark of 
illegitimacy. The seal affords an example of the use of triple 
supporters ; an angel with expanded wings stands behind the 
shield, while a dragon sejant supports it on either side. (Laing, 
Scottish Seals, vol. ii., p. 155, where it is engraved.) 

William Cairns, Vicar of Glamis, in 1455, bore his arms 
{ . . . a mullet of six points . . . on a chief . 
three birds . . . ) supported by two lions sejant gardant ; while, 
according to a type of which we have already noted other 
examples, the Blessed Virgin holding her Holy Child appears 
standing behind the shield (Laing, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., p. 27). 
Patrick Home, Archdeacon of Teviotdale, bore in 1454 upon 
his seal the quartered arqis : i and 4. {Argent), three popinjays 
{vert) for Pepdie ; 2 and 3. ( Vert), a lion rampant {argent) Home, 
supported by two parrots or popinjays (Laing, i., 76), and in 1478 
James Lindsay, Dean of Glasgow, used a seal on which his 
family arms : Gules, afess chequy argent and sable, differenced by a 
mullet in dexter chief, are supported by two lions sejant gardant. 
(Lainc;, Scottish Seals, vol. i., p. 99, No. 519.) 

Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1414-1443, is said 
to have employed two silver swans, ducally gorged and chained, as 
his supporters. 

The supporters used by Cardinal Wolsey are given at p. 432, 
ante. On Plate XXXV L, fig. i, are engraved the arms, etc., of 
the Right Rev. THOMAS WILKINSON, Bishop of the Roman 
Catholic Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle: Azure, a fess 
erminois between three unicorns passant argent. The Bishop has 
resumed the use of angel supporters. 

The Right Rev. J. R. Alexander Chinnery-Haldane, as 
Bishop of Argyll and The Isles most properly retains the use 

( 464 ) 

of his supporters, two eagles proper. His arms are : Quarterly^ 
I and 4. Argent^ a scUtire engrailed sable ^ Haldane ; 2. Argent^ a 
saltire between four roses gules^ barbed and seeded or^ LENNOX ; 
3. Or^ a bend chequy sable and argent,, Menteith. Oi^er all an 
escucheon Azure^ a chevron crtnine between three lions rampant or. 
On a canton Vert a harp ^IRELAND, Chinnery. 

Foreign Examples. 

The use of supporters by Ecclesiastics was even more coninion on 
the continent, that is in those portions of it where supporters were 
used by lay nobles, for in Italy and the peninsula of Spain and 
Portugal supporters were not in general use at all. 

I noticed recently in the cloister of the old Augustinian mona- 
stery at Toulouse which is now employed as an archaeological 
museum, a boss from the vaulting of some large church which 
bears a shield finely carved with the quartered arms of Foix and 
Bearn. (Foix, Or, three pallets gules, Bearn, Argent, tivo cows 
passant in pale gules darings or.) The shield is supported by two 
angels, and ' its early date may possibly be deduced from the 
curiously shaped hat which surmounts it. This has no brim but 
curves outwards from the top to the rim. It may possibly be a 
souvenir of Pierre de Foix, Archbishop of Arles. 

The seal of Jean, Bishop of Nantes in 1409, bears his arms : 
(^Argent, five bendlets gules), supported by three ang-els, one 
standing behind the shield, the others each kneeling upon one 
knee. A crosier is placed paleways upon the escucheon but its 
crook is projected upon the breast of the standing angel. This is 
a very curious and uncommon arrangement. (The seal is engraved 
in Morice, M^moires pour servir de Preuves d, PHtstoire £ccl/' 
siastique ct Civile de Bretagne, tome ii., fig. 190, folio. Paris, 1742 • 
and see our Plate XXXVI., fig. 4.) 

Revnaud, ''bdtard de Bourbon,'' illegitimate son of Charles 
Due de Bourbon, used in 1472, as Archbishop of Narbonne, the 
shield of his arms, Argent, a wide bend of France-ancient (i.c.. 
Azure, senuf de fleurs-de-lis or) charged with a filet in bend pules. 
The shield was supported by two angels holding palm-branches, 
derived from the Royal supporters of France. (P^re Anselme, 
tome i., p. 310.) 

In the choir of the beautiful and very interesting Cathedral of 
Albi, in the south of France (very little known to or visited by 
English travellers, but most worthy of the trouble of a detour) I 
noticed in the marvellous choir several examples in which the arms 

( 465 ) 

of Louis I. of Amboise (Bishop of Albi, 1473-1502, and Cardinal), 
which were : Paly of six\ or and gules ^ are carved with two winged 
stags as supporters. (These were also used as supporters by Kings 
Charles VI., Charles VII., and Louls XI. of France, the last 
of whom died in 1483. We may therefore conjecture that as the 
Bishop held his See during the life of the last-named Sovereign, 
their use by him may have been a special mark of Royal favour). 

On the seal of Jean, bdtard de Bourgogne^ Provost of St. Omer 
in 1482 (afterwards of Notre Dame at Bruges), natural son 
of Duke Philippe le Bon of Burgundy, his arms are sup- 
ported by two rampant lions. The arms are : Or, on a very broad 
/ess the quartered coat of BURGUNDY : — Quarterly, i and 4. BUR- 
GUNDY-MODERN : Azure, sem^ of fleurs-de-lis or (this should be 
within a bordure gobon4^ argent and gules, but the bordure is 
omitted, perhaps intentionally). 2. Per pale (a) BURGUNDY- 
ancient : Bendy of six or and azure , within a bordure gules : (b) 
Brabant, Sable, a lion rampant or. 3. Per pale (a) Burgundy- 
ancient as in 2; (b) LiMBURG, Argent, a lion rampant gules 
crowned or. Over all, Flanders : Or, a lion rampant sable. 
The shield is ensigned with a priest's broad hat having only a 
single tassel on each side. (The seal is engraved in Vree, G^m^- 
alogie des Comtes de Flandre, tome i., p. 128, see also tome ii., 
p. 406, folio. Bruges, 1642.) (On the modes of denoting illegiti- 
mate descent 1 may be permitted to refer the reader to my chapter 
on the Marks of Illegitimacy in vol. ii. of A Treatise on Heraldry, 
British and Foreign, by JOHN WOODWARD, and George Burnett. 
Edinburgh, 1892.) 

The tomb of Archbishop Bric^'ONNET, at Toulouse, bears his 
arms : Azure, a bend compon^ of five pieces or and gules, on the first 
compon of gules an estoile of the second ; the safne charge is 
repeated in the sinister canton of the shield. The shield is supported 
by a single lion, and surmounted by a hat having six houppes 
or tassels on either side. 

The arms of Tristan de Salazar, Archbishop of Sens, on the 
Hotel de Sens at Paris, were supported by two eagles ; and those 
of FranCj-OIS d'Inteville, Bishop of Auxerre {Sable, two lions 
passant gardant in pale or), were depicted over the gateway of his 
palace there, " dans un €q\x en banni^re " (rather curiously), and 
supported by two mermaids. 

The arms of Claude de Seyssel, Bishop of Marseilles 
(i 509-1 517), were supported by two griffins. His arms were: 
Gyronny or and azure, and were differenced by the addition 
of a torteau in the centre point. The pastoral staff was placed 

2 H 

( 466 ) 

in pale behind the escucheon, and a mitre surmounted the whole. 
(The arms are thus represented in a manuscript edition of 
Thucydides, which formed part of the library of Seguier, 
Chancellier de France.) Pere Mknktrier justly considers the 
arrangement a singular one. {L Usage des ArpnotrieSy pp. 220, 221. 
Paris, i2mo.) Writing in the year 1673, the same learned and 
accurate herald says that a century earlier *Ma plus part dcs 
Prelats et des Ecclesiastiques titrez mettoient des supports h leurs 
Armoiries" . . . "Aujour d'hui il y a peu d'Eccl^siastiqucs 
qui mettent des supports h leurs Armoiries." I suspect, however. 
that at the date when MenP/irikr penned these words the use of 
supporters by the French nobility in general had begun to decline. 
It certainly revived again later, as the examples presently to be 
given will show ver>' clearly. 

Speaking of the use of angels as supporters to arms, he says, 
** Celles de plusieurs Prelats et de plusieurs Ecclesiastiques sont dc 
cette maniere en diverses Eglises. Ainsi il est vray de dire qu*il 
n'y a jamais eu de regie pour cela ; comme il est vray qu'il n'y a 
jamais rien eu de fixe et de deteniiine pour les supports, que Ton a 
changez autant de fois qu'on a voulu." {L Usage ties Arfnoiries^ 
p. 217.) He tells us also that the arms of Charles, Cardinal de 
Hoi'RBON, remained in the Cathedral at Lyons, and were thus 
depicted : — the shield of arms {Azure^ three fleurs-de-lis or^ {n*er all 
a bendlet gules\ was supported by a lion rampaptt behind it, and 
the head of the Archi-episcopal cross also appeared above the shield. 
All this was placed under a pavilion semt^ of cyphers of the 
Cardinal's name, and sunnounted by the tasselled red hat of his 
dignity. The curtains of the pavilion were drawn back to allow 
the shield to be visible, and were supported by two human arms, 
each wearing a maniple, and issuing from clouds — each hand held 
a fiery sword. The tassels of the Cardinal's hat were made to fall 
over the lion's shoulders. (This very curious and interesting 
example is engraved in Mknkstrikr's little volume, DUsa^c des 
ArmoirieSy at p. 216.) 

In the very interesting Church of S. Bertrand de Comminoes, 
near Luchon in the Pyrenees, I noticed carved on the stall of the 
abbot an escucheon, charged with a lion rampant, and supported 
by a man and a woman. 

Leonor d'Estampes, Abbe of Bourgeuil en Anjou, after- 
wards Bishop of Chartres, and who died as Archbishop of 
Reims in 165 1, bore his arms {Azure^ two piles in che^'ron or^ on 
a chief argent, three open cro7vns gules\ supported by the lions 
rampant of his family. 

( 467 ) 

The Dean and Canons of the Cathedral Church of S. Jean, at 
Lyons, all of whom were Counts in right of their canonries {vide 
(intCy Chap. III., p. 45) not only used the coronet of that rank but 
added to their personal arms supporters ; on the dexter a griffin 
segreant argent^ on the sinister a lion rampant or. These sup- 
porters were obviously derived from the arms of the Chapter, which 
were : Gules^ a griffin argent^ and a lion or, rampant-combatant 
These Capitular arms had their own supporters, viz., two angels 
proper, but they were sometimes placed upon the breast of the 
single-headed eagle displayed (the Evangelistic symbol of S. John, 
to whose honour their church was dedicated). A curious example 
is afforded by the book-stamp of Antoink de Feurs, "doyen et 
chanoine-comte " of the Church of Lyons, about the year 1 500. 
On it his arms {Lozengy or and sable) are supported, not in the 
usual manner by ih^ griffin and lion, but by the eagle of S. John 
on the dexter side, and by the lion on the sinister (GuiGARD, 
Armorial du Bibliophile, tome i., p. 214.) 

Claude de Fougeres, Dean and Count of the Church of 
S. Jean at Lyons, in 1507 bore his arms : Azure, a chief lozengy 
or and gules, supported by the official supporters, a lion to the 
dexter, a griffin to the sinister, and timbred with the coronet of a 
count, but without any other indication of his Ecclesiastical dignity 
(Guigard, Armorial du Bibliophile, tome i., p. 224). So also, 
Charles-Emmanuel Froullay de Tesse, Canon and Count of 
Lyon, who was also Abb^ of Saint Maur, used the official 
supporters, the griffin to the dexter, the lion to the sinister. 
(Guigard, i., 228.) 

Michel Edouard Colbert, Dean of the Cathedral of Orli^ians, 
in 1735, and Abbe- Commendataire of the Royal abbeys of Saint 
Mesmin, and of S. Michel en Thierache, used his escucheon 
{Or, a serpent ondoyant in pale azure), supported by two unicorns 
regardant, and timbred with a ducal coronet above which are 
the mitre and the head of the pastoral staff of the Abbd- 
Commendataire. (Guigard, Armorial du Bibliophile, tome i., 
p. 169.) The supporters are personal, not official. 

In 1749, Jacques de St. Pierre, Abb^- Commendataire de 
Tr1\P0RT, bore on his seal an escucheon : . . . a cheifron between 
three cinque/oils . . . with the external ornament of a coronet, 
mitre, and pastoral staff. The shield is supported by two lions 
rampant. A little later, in 1768, Jean Jacques, Comte de LlGNl- 
ville, Abb^-Commendataire de TrIcIPORT, bore on his seal his 
arms : Lozengy or and sable. The arms are ensigned with a 
coronet, and have the mitre and staff arranged above it in the 

( 468 ) 

usual manner. The supporters are the ordinary ones borne by the 
family, viz., two savages. {See Dem.xy, Les Si'fttu.x' de IVormandie^ 
Nos. 2890, 2891.) 

Another Ecclesiastic, Rkne Henri desCarbonnieres in 1781, 
sealed with the arms : Azure^ on three bends art^^ent (more properly 
liendy of cif^ht argent and azure) {eight or eiei'en) ^lenuing coals 
proper. This escucheon was supported by two savag^es proper, 
and surmounted in the usual manner by coronet, mitre, and the 
head of the crozier. (I)emav, Sceaux de Normandie^ No. 2873.) 
On his book-plate, the escucheon of I. F. Seguret, Canon of the 
Cathedral Church of St. Alais (which bore his arms : Quarterly, 
I and 4. Azure^ a castle , . . on a chief . . . three estailes 
; 2 and 3. Cru/es, a chei'ron between tivo mullets in 
ihief . . . , and a . . . in base\ is supported by a Hon 
passant -regardant en baroque^ and by another contourn^ sejant- 
regardant. {French E.v-LibriSy by Wai.ter Hamilton, p, 106, 

Charles d'Orleans, Abb^ de Rotheun, who was son of 
Henri d'Orleans, Marquis de Rothelin (a descendant of the 
celebrated Jean, Comte de DuNOis, bdtard d'Orl^ans, bom in 
1403), bore the following arms : Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a hend 
gules (Baden-Hck HUER(;). 2 and 3. Or, on a pale ^ules three 
cherrons argent (Neufchatel). 07'er ally Azure^ three Jleurs or^ 
a label argent, icith a baton {gules) Pt^ri en bamle (Orleans) : 
used as supporters two angels (derived from the supporters of the 
Royal arms of France), and timbred the escucheon with the 
coronet of a French Prince (strawberry leaves alternating with 
demi fleurs-de-lis). Johanna, daughter and heiress of Philip, 
last Margrave of Baden-Hochberg, Comte de Neufchatel 
(who died in 1503), married Louis d'Orl^.ans, Due de Longue- 
viLLE. Their younger son FraN(^:ois, Marquis de Rothelin 
Comte de Nkufchatei., was father of an illegitimate son also 
named Francois, from whom descended the Abb^ de Rothelin 
named above. 

The student who is curious with regard to the ancient modes of 
distinguishing illegitimate descent by a change of tincture will 
notice an example here in the Neufchatel quarters. The proper 
arms of Neufchatel as borne by the House of Bai>en were • 
GuleSy on a pale or, three che^'rons sable. I may refer the reader to 
what I have already written on this subject in A Treatise on 
Heraldry, Ancient and Modern, vol. ii., chap. xvii. 

If the use of supporters by Ecclesiastics was, as has been shown 
in the foregoing examples, sufficiently frequent in France for 

( 469 ) 

several centuries, it was even more general among Ecclesiastics of 
high rank in the Holy Roman Empire. By the three Ecclesiastical 
Prince-Electors, as well as by the other Prince-Hishops, and Abbots 
of the Empire supporters were habitually employed. 

The official supporters of the Electors and Prince-Archbishops 
of COLN (Cologne) were formerly two liotis rampant or; but 
commonly in more modern times a griffin was substituted for the 
lion on the dexter side. The arms of the Elector Maximilian of 
Bavaria, who was the Prince-Archbishop from 1650 to 1688, arc 
engraved in Siebmacher's Wappenbuchy vol. i., plate iii., and are: 
Quarterly, i. Argent^ a cross sable (See of Cologne) ; 2. Gules^ a 
horse saliant argent (Duchy of Westphalla) ; 3. Gules, three 
nenuphar teases or (Duchy of Engern) ; 4. Azure, an eagle 
displayed argent (County of Arnsper(;). Over the whole an 
escucheon containing the personal arms of the Prince-Elector, viz. : 
Quarterly, i and 4. Fusilly bendy argent and azure (Bavaria) ; 
2 and 3. Sable, a lion rampant or, crowned gules (Palatinate of the 
Rhine). The shield is mitred, /« /^/r behind it rises the archi- 
episcopal cross ; the crosier or pastoral staff, and the naked 
temporal sword are placed in saltire. The supporters are the 
griffin and lion rampant, both or. 

The arms of Damian Hartard von der Leven, Elector and 
Prince-Archbishop of Mainz are given at p. 256 ante; the escucheon 
is supported by two greyhounds argent. (In this case, and in the 
following, the supporters are personal, and not appropriated to the 
See.) A similar arrangement was used by John Frederick 
Charles, Reichsgraf von Ostein, who was Elector and Prince- 
Archbishop of Mainz. His personal arms : Azure, a greyhound 
springing argent collared gules, were placed upon the quartered 
shield of the arms of his Sees ; and the supporters were two grey- 
hounds collared as in the arms at p. 257. I have followed Triers 
in making the greyhound or; the Counts of Ostein at present 
bear the greyhounds argent. 

In 1708 the Abbess of Buchau, Princess of the Empire, bom 
Countess of Koni(;seck-Rotenfels had her arms {Fusilly in bend- 
sinister, or and gules) supported by two golden lions. 

On the seal of Joseph, Abbot of Lamspring in 1730, are two 
shields, one contairting the arms of the abbey : Azure, on a terrace 
in base, a lamb passant, holding a crozier proper ; the other charged 
with the personal coat of the abbot : Argent, a che7fron between 
three birds sable. The shields are supported by the figures of two 
saints, on the dexter by S. George (.^), on the sinister by S. Denis, 
decapitated and holding his head in his hand. {See Harenrerg, 

( 470 ) 

Historia Ecclesiit Gamlcrsheimensis.) It is obvious that the use of 
supporters in this case is official, not personal. 

The tomb of Ferdinand of Brunswick-Harburg (d. 1753J, 
Canon of the Church of S r. Havon, at Ghent, is adorned with his 
shield bearinj: the amis of Linkberc; : (9r, senf^ 0/ kr€ir'ts guUs^ a 
lion nifuftartt azure ' Brinswick) ; Gules^ two iions passant in pale 
or (Ebkrstkin' ; Azure^ a lion rampant argent crowned or (HOM- 
151' RG) ; Gules^ a lion ratnpant or^ within a bordure gt^bon^ argent 
and azure ; etc. The shield is surmounted by his coronet, and 
priestly hat, and is supported by two lions regardant {or/\ 

The arms of Adam P'rederick von Seinsheim, Prince-Bishop 
of WCrzburc; in 1755, who also became Bishop of Bamberg in 
1757, are given ante p. 90. The shield is supported by two of the 
Bamberi: sable lions rampants each charged with a bend passing 
from the head to hind feet argent. This is a very curious example 
of ihe use of official as distinct from personal supporters. 

The arms of Raimind, Count von Strasoldo, Prince- Bishop 
of EiCHSTADT from 1757 to 1781, on the other hand are supported 
by two Moors —derived from the personal arms — of these the 
dexter holds the temporal sword, the sinister the crosier of spiritual 
dignity. The arms are : Quarterly, i. (V, a double-headeti eagle 
iiis/»layed sable, armed gules, each head crowned and diademed 
proper, for the Empire ; 2 and 3. (?r, the bust of a Moor proper, 
wreathed argent, collared gules ; 4. (V, a plume of Jiite ostrich 
feathers alternately sable and argent. Over these arms is usually 
lx>rne an escucheon, Barry of six sable and or, but in the example 
before us this personal coat of Strasoldo is replaced by an 
escucheon charged with the arms of the See of Eichstadt : 
Gules, a crosier or pastoral staff in pale (usually with an entwined 
sudarium) argent (?'. ante^ p. 282). 

Visitors to StrasbuR(; may still see on the pediment of the 
mansion erected by him in la drande Rue de I'Eglise the finely 
sculptured arms of Emmanuei, Theodose de la Tour d'Au- 
vergne, Cardinal de Bouillon (d. 171 5). These are : Quarterly, 
I and 4. Azure, sem/ de fleurs-de-lis or, a tower argent^ ntasoned 
sable {\.\T0V\C)\ 2. Or^ three torteaux gules {l\0\:iX>0'S¥j) ; y Cotice 
in bendy or and gules (Ti:renne» ; ih'er all an escuchet^n^ P<^r pa/c : 
(7i) Or, a gonfanon gules, fringed vert (Auvergne) ; (b) Argrnf a 
f ess gules (Bouillon). A labels for cadency, runs in chtef abtrj^e the 
first two quarters. The shield is surmounted by a ducal coronet 
which is enfiled by the patriarchal cross with its double traverse. 
The cardinal's hat, with fifteen houppes on either side is placed 
above the coronet ; and the shield is supported by tTvo griffins 

( 471 ) 

regardant^ each of which is charged upon the shoulder with the 
gon/anon, the charge from the quarter of Auvergne. 

The Papal arms are often represented with angel supporters, 
each holding the Papal cross with its triple traverse. On a gold ducat 
of Pope Alexander VI. (Borgia) the shield of arms (?/. p. 162) 
is supported by two angels, issuing from clouds, and is surmounted 
by the keys crossed in saltire, beneath the Papal triregno or tiara. 
{See also p. 156 ante.) 

Examples of the continental use of supporters might be multi- 
plied almost indefinitely, but I have selected out of a much larger 
number examples which, for one reason or another, seemed to be 
interesting, and probably more than sufficient have been adduced 
to refute the statement which appears in some modern books of 
heraldry that Ecclesiastics have no right to supporters. Of these 
one of the most recent is the book of M. Gourdon de Genouil- 
LAC, entitled PArt H&aldigue^ published at Paris in 1892, and 
forming part of the Biblioth^que de PEnseignement des Beaux Arts. 
At p. 160 the author says, "Cependant, retenons une r^gle qui a 
toujours ^te observ^e. Les femmes et les eccl^siastiques ne 
portent pas de tenants." I distinctly traverse both these state- 
ments, even as regards French armory ; but it is curious to 
notice that, so far as Ecclesiastics are concerned, the assertion 
referred to is in distinct contradiction to one made on only the 
previous page where it is said (quite correctly, as we have shown in 
these pages), that " tous les Comtes de I'Eglise Cathddrale de Lyon 
ont pour supports un lion et un griffon qui sont les figures des 
armoiries du chapitre ! " 

The examples given of a heraldic usage, which we have shown 
to extend over five centuries, and which has not yet entirely died 
out, are probably authority sufficient for my statement that any 
Ecclesiastic at home or abroad, who would have the right as a 
layman to bear his arms with supporters, need not suppose that his 
ecclesiastical position deprives him of the privilege, or that there is 
any lack of precedent for his continuing the use of all that heraldic- 
ally belongs to him. It seems to me, moreover, that any Bishops 
who now chose to assume supporters would be as fully entitled so 
to do as were their predecessors of centuries ago. A heraldic 
right does not appear to me to be lost, because (as a result of the 
ignorant misstatements of professional heralds, and heraldic books) 
it has fallen into abeyance. 

( 47* ) 




Kkkkkkn'CK has already been made in these paj^es to the dct that 
admission to many of the continental Chapters was confined to 
persons of noble birth, who were required to produce proo£i of 
their descent which were submitted to the most rigorous scrutiny. 
This was the case in the ;^reat religious houses for either sex. The 
" Preuves de Noblesse " \'aried at different times even in the same 
Chapter, but the tendency was always to increase the strictness of 
their requirements, (jcrmany was the land where these require- 
ments were exacted with the greatest rigour; but even there, as 
will be presently shown, there was considerable variety in the 
qualifications expected, both as regards the kind of nobility requited, 
and as to the antiquity of it. 

First of all, it is necessary to say that the general British idea of 
nobility is a very different one from that which it obtains on the Con- 
tinent of Europe. With us it is for the most part connected, most 
erroneously, with the dignity of the Peerage, and a seat, either 
present or prospective, in the House of Lords. The idea of the 
existence of an untitled nobility is one which has yet to dawn on 
the minds of a large portion of our people, who flatter themsel\*es 
that they are well instructed. 

Even in France in modern times our insular idea be^an to be 
adopted, and evoked the following protest : — 

" La noblesse, on ne le sait pas assez, quoique ce soit une v^rit^ 
aussi banale que possible, est parfaitement ind^pendante des titles, 
qui ne sont en quelque sortc qu'un omement, une decoration 
ajoutec h la noblesse meme. Leur ddfaut n'empeche pas une 
famille d'etre d'unc aussi ancienne extraction que celle qui a Ac 
plus favorisee par la fortune ou la faveur du prince. Le monde se 
figure maladroitement le contraire, et croit d'ordinaire que la 
noblesse ne peut exister sans la presence d'un titre ; c'est une 
grave erreur. {La Noblesse en France^ par E. DE Bartheleaiy 
p. 78. Paris, 1858.) 

Hut the legal definition of nobility, as put forth by Sir Edward 
Coke, Lord Chief-Justice (d. 1634), is this: — "Nobiles sunt qui 
arma gentilitia antecessorum suorum proferre possunt." The 
foreign " noble " is in fact the equivalent of our ** gentleman by 
birth," who bears legally the ensigns of that rank in the shape of 

( 473 ) 

an armorial escutcheon with its proper accompaniments. In the 
continental sense of the word our British gentry are as truly entitled 
to the appellation and rank of " noble " as are those by whom it is 
borne abroad. But the ignorant restriction of the term to those 
who sit in the Upper House of Parliament, and the consequent 
disclaimers of nobility in foreign courts and other places, even by 
those who were most fully entitled to its privileges, has led to the 
erroneous continental idea that our British noblesse is a thing of 
small importance, since we ourselves speak of a man who may 
have been made a Baron in the reign of Queen Victoria, as having 
been " ennobled," whereas the fact may very probably be that he is 
theheadof afamily of u|[ititled nobility, who can trace their descent 
and have held their lands from the time of the Plantagenets, or 
even of the Conqueror and his sons. 

Under the feudal system in Germany and Gaul nobility was 
attached to the possession of the soil. Besides the large districts 
held from the Crown by the nobles who were the comites^ or 
companions of the Sovereign (hence the title of Count), other lands 
of less extent were held immediately from the Crown, and were 
the rewards of military service in the past, as their possession 
was the condition of military service in the future. The holders 
of all these noble fiefs had their tenants who held lands from 
them, and not from the Crown immediately, by payment of rent, 
etc. ; and there were also besides these the burghers of towns, and 
in the countr>' large masses of population who were serfs, adscripti 
* glebce. Originally only a man who could prove his nobility, or 
descent from noble and free ancestors, could hold a noble or 
knightly fief ; in later times the purchase of such a fief by a man 
free, but not noble, was held to confer nobility. But the original 
nobility of Germany and Gaul was distinctly military in its charac- 
ter, and the military insignia of arms and crest were the outward 
and visible signs of noblemen. These only were admitted to 
take part in the chivalric exercises, the tournaments and jousts, 
which were the delight of the populace, and the opportunities for 
the exhibition of the personal prowess of the nobles in times of 
peace. Before a knight could take part in them his shield of arms 
and crest were exposed for days to official and to a not less 
stringent public criticism ; any one who should offer himself as 
a combatant without being able to prove his descent from four 
** noble" ancestors, that is from four grandparents entitled to bear 
coat-armour, was made to ride the barriers of the lists amid the 
jeers and hisses of the populace — sometimes was in danger of fine 
and imprisonment as the fit reward of his presumption. The arms 

( 474 ) 

of these four grandparents were exposed in a quartered shield, 
and hence came the technical heraldic term of '^quarters.'' 

In later times, when the Sovereign had no longer knightJy 6els to 
bestow, those who distinguished themselves in war or in the cxmiii- 
cils of the state were rewarded by being raised to noble rank 
independently of their possessions. 

In the fifteenth centur>' the descent required was carried back a 
generation further, and eight quarters were usually demanded. In 
the preuTfs of ARNOLD DK (*EL'n*'KRT, who petitioned for recep- 
tion as a Canon of Lik(;K in 1494, Ulric de Wolfersdorf, one 
of the f/mainsy or official witnesses to the truth of his genealogical 
assertions, declared that he had seen the father of the candidate 
take part on several occa.sions in the Tourneys of Germany, where 
only gentlemen of eight lines were admitted. " In publico no- 
bilium more tomcasse, et hastiludiasse saepius, et quod in Ger- 
mania non admittuntur ad hastiludium, nisi nobiles ad minimum 
ex octo lineis." ( 'SiK^v^T RiKR, PrfU7'fs dt XMfsse, Paris, 1683 
p. 13.; Hy the old Saxon laws no one, whatever his rank or con- 
dition, could contract marriage with a person of lower station than 
his own except under the penalty that his progeny should descend 
to the condition of his bride. Thus a count who espoused a woman 
of baronial rank only left progeny of that rank, and a nobleman 
who married an ignoble wife forfeited thereby the privileges of his 
nobility, so far as his posterity were concerned. Even now the 
rules which restrict the alliances of princes and princesses of 
reigning Cierman Houses to those who are ebenbiirtig are the cause 
of those peculiar arrangements known as morganatic marriages, 
in which neither wife nor offspring have a right to the husband's 
or father^s rank, title, or domains. 

In spite of the Gospel declaration that in the Catholic Church of 
Christ the distinction of " bond and free " should not exist, many 
of the more important of the religious foundations only admitted to 
their fraternity the free born. This at first implied that not only 
the candidate himself but his ancestors had always been *' /^y/-." 
But when, as has been shown above, the word had undergone a 
change in its significance, the chapters extended their requirements 
to meet that change. Henceforth no one was admitted who could 
not prove a descent from four grandparents of free descent. The con- 
venient proof of this was the exhibition of their armorial bearings 
since the right to use them was confined to the free and nobly bom. 

Later, when the Emperors conferred the privileges of nobility by 
diploma on those whom they considered deserving, the Chapters 
in many instances extended their requirements, at one time raising 

( 475 ) 

the number of quarters to eight, at another to sixteen ; or again 
stipulating that all the quarters should be those of families who 
bore the title of Prince or Count, or Baron, etc., etc. Of these, 
examples will be given as we proceed. 

We have seen that the ancient people of Germany belonged to 
one or other of two classes, the free and the servile— y>r/> und 
leibeigene. From the first class another emerged in course of time 
the adelige^ who were entitled to a voice in the national council, 
and both these classes, whether they were militares or not, were 
designated ingenui. The union of the free and of the servile in 
marriage was strictly forbidden. If a free man married a servile 
girl he and their offspring became of her condition. The Lex- 
Salica decreed : " Si quis ingenuus ancillam alienam in conju- 
gium acceperit, ipse cum ilia in servitium implicetur" (tit. 14, cap. 
6). Even when a fief was held immediately from the Crown, but 
not by the seri'itium mtlitare^ if there were any condition of the 
tenure which had a ministerial or servile character, the holder sank 
into an inferior grade called mitiel-freie; and his family sank with 
him, because each of them might be the inheritor of the obligation, 
and the over- lord, if he mortgaged the fief, included these his minis- 
terial es^ and their prospective services, in the obligation. The 
writer of an interesting paper on this subject in the Gentleman^ s 
Afagazine of Dec. i860, to which I desire to acknowledge my obli- 
gations, gives as an instance the case of the family of M.\LTITZ, 
fairly entitled to be counted "gentle," and ranked among the 
fiobiles minores; one of its members, Elizabeth von Maltitz, 
had actually been married to the Markgrave Heinrich von 
Mkissen, in 1272. Hut it was afterwards discovered that the 
family held lands for which they owed some ministerial service to 
the Emperor, and accordingly in 1278 a formal letter of emancipa- 
tion was obtained from the Emperor Rudolf von Hapsburg, 
declaring the existing and future issue of the marriage " as noble 
and free as if they had been bom oi 2i/ree mother." 

In process of time many slaves obtained their liberty, with or 
without the good will of the owners of the soil to which they had 
been adscripti. Some settled in the cities which were springing 
u]), and obtained the rights of burgesses. These were called 
tiberii^ or gefreite^ and afterwards they called themselves yrr/> and 
frei-geborne^ and claimed to rank with the ancient free families of 
the Empire, who, however, would not admit their claim, and 
excluded them from the tournaments, and usually from the Chap- 
ters. Accordingly we find in the old books of German juris- 
prudence such epithets as immerfrcie^ vbllig freie^ semper liberie 

( 476 ) 

Jibtri puri^ and the like, used to distinguish families which had 
no taint of servile commixture. These semper iideri and the 
militares eventually claimed the title of adelige^ which had been 
earlier appropriated by the families whose head had a voice in the 
national councils ; and these latter, the original oife/ig^e^ similarly 
called themselves crlaucht^ or illustrious. This came to be the 
distinguishing epithet of those Counts and Barons who had a 
hereditary seat in the Diet ; the iidelige beinjj the nobiles ntinores 
who had no parliamentary privileges ; while the appellation freif. 
which had formerly been the distinguishing epithet of the most 
ancient nices, was conceded to the burgesses of the Free Cities (a 
title assumed in the fourteenth centur>'), and others who had 
l>ecome enfranchised. As to the " patrician families " of the free 
cities, such as AUGSBURC, NuRNHERc;, etc. (who are sometimes 
spoken of by ill-informed writers in England as if they were rather 
above than below the general run of German arfnigcri or nobiUs\ 
the fact is that while they claimed the right of rankings themselves 
with the other free families of the Empire, the latter altogether 
repudiated them, excluded them from the Tourneys and Chapters, 
and so late as 1754 refused recognition to their claims of social 
equality. Some indeed were of noble descent, as at AUGSBURG, 
where the families of Langknmanteu Rehlinger, Welser, 
Herwardt (or Horwarth), Ravenspurger, and Ii^ung were 
of ancient nobility, and their quarters had been in olden times 
admitted in the Chapters. Hut, later, the statutes made to exclude 
the boiitxeoisie, and the creation by diploma of a large number of 
new patrician families (no less than fifty-four were created by the 
Senate of AuGSHUR(i, with the approval of Charles V., and 
fourteen were added later), caused the exclusion of the whole of 

Regular "proofs of nobility'' are not found before the thirteenth 
century, because up to that time all the nobles were a military- 
class, accustomed, as has been shown, to marry only among them- 
selves, so that it was only necessary for persons to prove that 
their parents belonged to the military nobility for them to be 
received into the Chapters and Colleges. And this "military- 
nobility" was understood to date from time immemorial. There 
was in those days no means by which a man of ser\-ile descent 
could rise into the ranks of the free, the equivalent of the knightly 
and the noble. 

The Chapters where the requirements were of the strictest kind 
were Mentz, Munster, Trier, Worms, Speyer, Osnabruck, 
Paderborn, Hildesheim, and Bamberg. In these the investi- 

( 477 ) 

gation as to nobility of descent was so strict that an armorial 
quartering once admitted by any of them was received without 
further question by other Chapters. 

At Mentz there were forty-two Canons of whom the Dean and 
twenty-three senior Canons formed the Chapter proper, out of whose 
number the Prince-Archbishop and Elector was chosen. The other 
eighteen were ^'domicellaries." For admission to this Chapter 
sixteen quarters at least were required ; that is, the applicant had 
to prove his descent from four grandparents, all of whose grand- 
parents on both sides were free and noble, members of families 
of name and arms, and who had been admitted to the tourneys. 
Later, a further limitation was made, and none were eligible who 
were not possessors of a noble fief in the circle of the Upper 
Rhine ; and at last thirty-two quarters, sixteen paternal, and as 
many maternal, were required. 

At MuNSTER the Chapter consisted of forty Canons. Pope 
Boniface IX., in a Bull dated in the loth year of his pontificate 
(/>., in 1399) confirmed the statute which provided that only 
gentlemen of ancient knight families should be received : " Personas 
nobiles aut saltern militaribus parentibus procreatas ex utroque 
parente." Pope Julius II. confirmed the same statute in 1504. 
Up to 1576, therefore only four quarters were required, and the 
oath administered was in these terms : " Les quatre families icy 
nommees sont les quatre plus proches Families de pere et de mere, 
et d'icelles (un tel) est venu en droite ligne de legitime Mariage, et 
elles sont toutes de bonne Chevalerie, qu'ainsi Dieu m'aide, et ses 
Saints." A further limitation was made later with the object of 
excluding the patrician families of the city itself; and an educational 
qualification was required to the extent that the candidates must 
have studied at least a year and nine months in the University 
of Paris. 

At Trier (Treves) there were forty Canons, of whom sixteen 
formed the Chapter, the others being Domicellaries. Here also 
ancient nobility originally sufficed but in process of time the sixteen 
quarters were increased to thirty-two. 

At Spever (Spires) the Chapter consisted of fifteen full Canons 
and twelve Domicellaries. They had to prove sixteen quarters, 
eight paternal, and eight maternal. Similarly at Paderborn, 
sixteen quarters were necessary, and the candidates must have 
studied in one of the universities of France or Italy. 

At HiLDESHEiM, where there were forty Canons ; and at Bamberg, 
where there were twenty, with fifteen Domicellaries, sixteen quar- 
ters were required for admission to the Chapter. At Bamberg the 

< 47S > 

Emperor held an honorary- canonr\. It was required that a newh* 
clected Canon should not fail of attendance at Mass on a single day 
during the tirbi two years of his tenure of his stall under penalty of 
the loss of two years seniority. Here also the Bishop elected fnxn 
the Canons was usually a baron or gentleman noble « rarely a 
prince cir count. 

At Kit H>TAi>T and at Fri.i»A. sixteen quarters were needfiiL 
This was the case also in some of the great Chapters of Canonesses 
hereafter to be mentioned. 

Some Chapters were less strict and only required the proof of 
eight quarters ; that is, the applicant had to prove that all his eight 
great - grandparents were of undoubted free and noble descent 
This WIS the case at Kkmpikn where the Chapter consisted of 
twenty Capitulars, besides expectants), and it was also the usual 
qualitication for the Chapters of Canonesses, such as those of 
S. Makia in Capitolio at Cologne, Rheintorf, Sl'sterex. 
Wil.K H, MUNSTKRIUI.SKN ; and the great abbeys in the Low 
Countries, such as NivhlJ.K, MONS, MaI'BEI'OE, etc. 

At Ai<;>iiUK<;, Basku Brixkn, ChCr, Coxst.vxck, Elwax- 
<;kn. Lik<;k, Passav, RKOKNSBrRc;, and Trent, the Chapters 
were not so exclusive, but while exacting the gentilitial qualitication 
from a portion of their members they also admitted a certain 
number of jjersons who had graduated as Doctors in one or other 

At AL'«iSJ;UK(; where the Chapter consisted of twenty Capitulars, 
and as many Domicellaries, not only Doctors but licentiates were 
received, so also at HklXEN there were eighteen Canons, of whom 
half were nobles, and half were Doctors or at least licentiates. But 
these liberal Chapters were the exception. There was a continual 
tendency rather to strengthen than to diminish the exclusiveness of 
the Chapters, either through increasing the number of quarters bv 
requiring another generation to be added ; or else by stipulating 
that the nobility proved should be of higher quality, or should be 
taken from the noblesse of a certain district. 

For instance, it appears that the original qualification for admis- 
sion to the Chapter at CoLOdNK, as in many other places, was that 
the aspirant should be descended from four grandparents who were 
free and noble. After the year 1450, the requirements were carried 1 
generation farther back, and eight quarters were demanded • this 
extension was confirmed by Papal authority, and not only was the 
number of descents thus increased, but a new condition was 
inserted ; viz., that every one of them should be not merely of 
knightly rank, but of ancient knightly rank which demanded the 

( 479 ) 

proof of the nobility of their grandparents, and was of course 
equivalent to the requirement of at least thirty-two quarters. 

But in process of time even this was not thought adequate. The 
statute of 1 617 demands "sixteen ////^^ quarters," that is, that all 
the quarters shown should be those of families who were princes, 
counts, or barons holding immediately from the Emperor. It does 
not appear that this statute ever received Papal sanction, and 
it could therefore only bind the Chapter by mutual agreement ; as 
to the Pope he held himself free to disregard these later require- 
ments whenever the patronage of a stall fell to him through the 
decease of a Cardinal, Canon, or in other ways. It is, however, 
necessary to say that the Chapter consisted of twenty - five full 
Canons, and of as many Domicellaries, and that eight of the full 
canonries were set apart for those who could not prove the nobility 
required from the others, but who were Doctors of Theology, or of 
Law ; the latter of whom ranked as knights in Germany. Except 
these the Chapter soon came to consist only of those who belonged 
to princely or countly families. 

The Chapter of WuRZBURG, consisting of twenty-four full Canons, 
and of twenty-nine Domicellaries, at first demanded the proof of 
sixteen quarters, but afterwards raised it to thirty-two. In order to 
exclude all but natives of the district it further required that all the 
quarters approved should be those of families whose ancestors had 
been admitted to take part in the tourneys of Franconia ; and 
this stipulation virtually restricted eligibility to fill the WuRZBURG 
canonries to the members of a very few families. In this Chapter 
there was the following curious custom. The person to be admitted 
was stripped to the waist, and obliged to pass before the Canons 
who were armed with rods and gave him blows at their pleasure. 
It was understood that this custom was instituted to keep out of the 
Chapter princes and counts, who would not submit to the indignity 
of a blow. As in the list of the later Bishops of WuRZBURG we 
find such names as those of the Counts voN Gleichen, and vON 
SCHOXBORN, it is pretty clear that, if this were the object of the 
usage, it was only very partially successful. 

At Salzburg the chapter consisted of twenty-four Canons, who at 
first proved eight qtiarters, but afterwards it seems that thirty-two 
were required, and to be all of countly families, or barons at least. 

As has been stated, when the nobility of a far back progenitor 
had been accepted and recorded in one of the great Chapters, it was 
received without further question, not only in that Chapter but in the 
others. But with the newer quarters which required proof, the descent 
of the aspirant had to be asserted and confirmed on oath, not by 

( 48o ) 

themselves only but by independent witnesses who were themselves 
of ancient descent. Thus LoTHAiR Revextl.\w, Doctor of Medi- 
cine, wishing to serve as one of the witnesses for an aspirant to a 
canonr>' in S. Lambkkts at Lik(;K, declared that he was duh- 
qualified so to act, bein^^ himself of noble and knightly descent on 
both the paternal and maternal sides : ** Se qualificatum esse, juxta 
tenorem et consuetudinem ecclesiic Leodiensis, ad deponendum, et 
se ex nobili militari genere procreatum esse ex utroque."^ In the 
second statute relating to the reception of Canons at Liege, 
confirmed by Pope Martin V. in the year 1423 it is thus provided: 
** Nobilis recipicndus si sit prH.*sens, juret per se; si absens per pro- 
curatorem legitime constitutum, quod ipse recipiendus de utroque 
parente, de nobili vel saltern militari genere procreatus existaL" 
In the original statutes it had been provided that the aspirant should 
declare **Juroquod sum de libero genere et legitimo matrimonio 
procreatus,*' and this requirement was confirmed by Clement UL, 
and by a Bull of Innocent IV., but the second statute required 
the oath to run thus : ^'Juro quod ego sum de utroque parente, 
de nobili vel saltem militari genere." Menestrier understands 
by ** nobili genere" in this place ////f// noblesse. {Pretties de 
Nob/esse, p. 15.J But the requirement is more clearly expressed in 
the third statute of 1568, by which nouveaux annoblis are directly 
excluded : '' Titulo stemmatis et nobilitatis recipiendus debet esse 
honestiu vitx* ct moribus probatis. Item, habere vel habuisse 
patrem et matrcm, avum, aviam, paternum, patemam, matemunt, 
maternam, legitimo matrimonio natos. FriEterea nobiles antiqui 
et militaris ordinis, et qui vulgo semper apud nobiles et alios pro 
talibus habiti et reputati forent vel fuissent. Item, si avus, patcmus 
vel maternus, alioqui non sufficienti familii seu genere natus« 
Pontificia, Impenitoria, RegiA, aut alii quacumque authoritate 
nobilitatis, vel etiam Equitis titulo, jure et prajrogativA donatus 
esset ; is ad Canonicatum et Proebendam hujusmodi sub nobilitatis 
titulo nuiiatenus recipiatur." The proof of eight quarters was 
appointed <it Lik(;f: in 1614, but even in 15 13 the witnesses of 
Gerard van Groksheck, who aspired to acanonry declared that 
he was ^* nobili militari prosapia ortus, gerens insignia militaria 
octo quarteriorum utriusque parentis." In 1503 Jean van Groes- 
HECK had already proved four descents : Groesbeck, Rooinck- 
HAVEN (.^Rodenhausen), Floi>orp, and Hamal-Elderen, "de 
optima antiqua militia, pra.*potentioribus militaribus quarteriis." 
(The Counts van Groesheck still bear : Argent^ a fess ent^e 

The best proof of the possession of ancient nobility was made 

( 48i ) 

when the aspirant could trace an indisputable descent from an 
ancestor who had taken part in a tourney to which none were 
admitted who could not prove their eight quarters. Thus in the 
proofs of Arnold de Geltwert, received as Canon of LifecE in 
1494, Ulric de Wolfersdorf, one of his witnesses, declared on 
oath that he had often seen the father of the aspirant taking part 
in a tourney. " In publico more tomeasse, et hastiludiasse saepius, 
et quod in Germanid non admittuntur ad hastiludium nisi nobiles 
ad minimum ex octo lineis." 

These attestations were sometimes made by Cities, represented 
by their magistrates. Thus Pierre de Holay of Tungern, being 
an aspirant for a canonry at Liege, the City of Tungern gave a 
formal certificate that Walter de Holay, grandfather of the 
aspirant had the rank of knighthood. Pierre Fries, Esquire, 
made affirmation that the mother of the aspirant was of the 
knightly house of Betwe. 

At Susteren (where eight quarters were required), on the 
admission of a Chanoinesse^ the following was the oath taken by 
the witnesses of the aspirant. " Je N.N., jure devant Dieu et sur 
les saintcs Evangiles ; avec les doigts dlevez, que la presente 
Demoiselle est n^e en legitime manage, et qu'elle ne descend 
d'aucune bdtardise ny bourgeoisie, ny d'aucun ^tat qui ne jouisse 
pleinement de la Noblesse, et qu'elle n'a point d'armes emprun- 
tees ; car elle est sortie d'une bonne et ancienne Chevalerie." At 
S. Quirinus de News (where eight quarters were demanded), the 
oath was in almost identical terms : — the sentence about the 
aiTnorial bearings being somewhat amplified — "que ses armoiries 
ne sont ny emprunte^s d'ailleurs, ny inventeds k plaisir, mais qu'elles 
sont dans leurs couleurs v^ritables." 

The Chapters of Canonesses which required sixteen quarters 
were Elten, Essen, Gandersheim, Gernerode, Hervorden, 
Langenhorst, Notelen, Quedlemburg, Relinckhausen, 
Utersen, and S. Ursula at Cologne. 

Nearly all the others were content with eight only. At first sight 

it may seem that an infinity of trouble and research must have been 

required before any person, male or female, could have obtained 

admission to such close corporations by proving the nobility of his 

ancestors for four or five generations back. As a matter of 

fact this was by no means the case. Not only was much more 

attention paid than is the case among us, to accurate records of 

descent in a country where genealogical studies were not merely 

matters of sentimental interest, for their neglect of them would 

imperil privileges and advantages which were very real and matter 
2 I 

( 482 ) 

of fact ; but the*>c canonries formed so desirable a provision for the 
younjfer or unmarried children of the nobility, that in the course of 
a few centuries neariy ever\' noble family had, over and over again, 
some of its meml>crs in these noble foundations. Where this was 
the case a quartering once proved, especially if in one of the greater 
Chapters, was admitted with little or no questioning ; the aspirant 
had, so far as th<it particular quarter was concerned, only to prove a 
regular and legitimate descent from the family to which it belonged. 
Cicnerally most, if not all, of his quarters could thus be traced with 
but little difficulty ; and an official attestation from other chapteral 
authorities to the effect that each quarter had been duly proved 
there under such and such circumstances, was all that would be 
required. The greater Chapters did not so easily accept the cer- 
tificates of less strict ones. The form of such an attestation, with- 
out further examination, may be of interest. It was given in 1649, 
at the secularised house of Moumif:r sur Sambre, in proof of the 
five quarters of Fenal,, Barlemont, Brecht, and 
Walthui.ser, and ran thus :— " Nous, Marie de Vaha de 
Vacc^uemont, Dame et Abbesse Seculiere du Noble et Illustre 
College de Moustier sur Sambre, au Comt^ de Namur, et les 
Dames Chanoincsses dudit, capituliairement assembles certi- 
fions et attestons par cette h tous ceux qu'il appartiendra, que 
les quartiers do Fenal, Senseilles, Barlemont, et Hrecht oni 
cstd prouvez et rcceus pour Nobles dans ce College en la 
reception de Mademoiselle Marie de Fenal, presentement Dame 
de Haren, ct Chanoinesse dudit Moustier." "Certifions outre 
les quartiers de Walthuiser avoir est^ prouvez Nobles aux 
receptions de deux Demoiselles de Hil presentement encore 
Chanoincsses de ce College ; en t^moinage de quoy, nous avous 
fait cachcter de nostre grand Cachet ordinaire, le 16 Juillet 
1649. {Preu7'cs de NoHesse^ pp. 30, 31.) When, however, a quarter 
had not received «in attestation of this kind from any Chapter 
it was usual in the Chapters of the Low Countries to require proof of 
the nobility of the great grandfather and of the great great-grand- 
father of the applicant this was done at Ll^GE, and in the "Factum" 
of the Chanoincsses of MONS against the Marquis de Varignies it 
is declared that this is one of their statutes, as it was also in the 
case of the MousriER sur Sambre referred to above. We read 
also that on one occasion at Munsterbilsen the reception of a 
lady, a member of the now well-known Austrian noble family of 
.\LTHANN, was deferred because it had not been proved that one 
of her quarters (Strein DE Schwartzenau, now Barons and 
Counts), had been previously admitted in any Chapter or College. 

( 483 ) 

Some Chapters did not receive the members of families who were 
of mediate nobility, that is who held their noble fiefs not imme- 
diately from the Emperor himself, but from some inferior prince or 

On the whole I have found the Chapters of Chanoinesses much 
greater sticklers for purity or superiority of descent than the male 
ones. In some of them the rank of Chanoinesse conveyed, and 
still conveys, the secular rank of Countess. The Reformation 
even where it was accepted did not at first cause the suppression of 
these very useful provisions for the unmarried or widowed daughters 
of noble families : they were long continued, and here and there one 
still exists in a modified form. But with the change of religion 
there was a laxer rule of life — in some cases there was none at all, 
for in some of the Protestant Chapters even marriage was permitted, 
but the genealogical requirements remained untouched, as in many 
cases did the comfortable pecuniary position. Thus the Chanoin- 
esses of the (Catholic) Chapter of Denain, near Arras, proved 
their sixteen quarters of nobility, but took no vows at all. Those 
at POUSSEI, near TOUL, were in the same position. 

Illegitimate descent from however distinguished a source, was a 
complete disqualification for any quartering in the preuves of 
(Germany and of the Low Countries, until at least as many genera- 
tions had elapsed as would enable the aspirant to declare a suffi- 
cient number of noble progenitors in the direct line without 
including the illegitimate ancestor. In the year 1555 the Conseil 
de Brabant ordained that a certain Chapter should not refuse 
admission to the daughter of Henry d'Yve, chevalier, on the 
ground that the mother of her maternal grandfather had been an 
illegitimate daughter of a noble of high descent, Messire Jean, 
Seigneur DE Berghes (who was himself an illegitimate descend- 
ant of the Dukes of Brabant). The Conseil gave judgment 
against the Chapter on the ground that, though the Emperor 
Maximilian had in 1495 confirmed the privileges of most of the 
Chapters of Canonesses in the Low Countries, he had expressly 
stated the limitation, which was that the aspirant should prove her 
own legitimacy and nobility on four sides paternal and maternal 
{noble femmc de quatre cStez de pere et de fnere procrdes en loyal 
mariage). The proof demanded by the Chapter was excessive, as 
the alleged and admitted descent from an illegitimate ancestor 
was beyond the limits of the Imperial conditions. 

There was, in some Chapters, a custom by which, though only a 
certain number of quarters were required to be strictly proved^ 
another generation, or even two, had to be shown — thus doubling 

( 484 ) 

or quadrupling the requirements. This is one reason why there is 
sometimes an app«irent discrepancy in the statements made b}' 
different authors as to the number of quartering s required for 
admission to a certain Chapter. An example may be found in the 
case of Coi.Oc.NE, the statute of 1450, confirmed by the Pope, only 
demanded as a qualification the proof of eight quarters, or four 
degrees of generation. But, as all these were required to be of 
" ancienne Che valeric," the aspirant needed to be able to show 
thirty-two quarters (/.a, six generations, or more). It was not. 
however, re(|uisite that the female quarterings in excess of the 
stipulated eight should be of ancient knighthood. 

It is not, perhaps, needful that I should further enlarge upon 
these genealogical proofs, but I ought to say that some of the 
minor Chapters were ver>' sensibly satisfied with lesser require- 
ments ; and, while desiring that those who were to be their dailv 
associates should be of gentle birth and education, were content if 
the aspirant could prove that both parents were descended in the 
direct male line for three or four generations from gentlefolk of 
name and arms, without strictly requiring that there should be no 
trace of a female ffu'saliiance. 

In Italy the Chapters were freely open to men of all ranks. The 
old struggle between the (lUEi.PHS and the Ghibellines contri- 
buted to this. The nobles were mostly on the side of the Emperor, 
from whom they or their ancestors had probably received their fiefs 
and their titles ; and it was the policy of the Popes therefore to 
take the side of popular interests. The Cathedral Chapter of 
Milan was, so far as I am aware, the only Italian Chapter in 
which nobility of birth was ever a requisite for admission, and 
even there by the seventeenth century this condition had almost 
ceased, the archbishopric alone being reser\'ed for a man of noble 
birth, and I believe that even this reservation no long^er exists. 
In some Neapolitan convents only ladies of noble rank were 
eligible for admission. Probably in ancient times the require- 
ments were stricter. The Abb^ UOHELLl speaking of the election 
and confirmation of an Abbess of Salerno in the year 1 163, and 
describing the necessary qualifications says, it must not be omitted 
to inquire if the person to be confirmed as Abbess be of noble and 
legitimate birth : — " Ut generis etiam et ortus quaestio non pneteie- 
atur. Nobilioribus orta est natalibus, et legitimis nuptiis procreata." 
The Italian Language of the Order of S. John ; and the Orher 
OF S. Stephen, in Tuscany, of course required proofs of nobility 
from their members. 

In France the number of Chapters in which preuves de nod/esse 

( 48s ) 

were required before admission was considerable. A list of the 
most important is appended here, and it is interesting to note how 
varied were their requirements. 

The Chapter of S. Julien de Brioude, Here the King of 
France was the Premier Chanoine Honoraire. The twenty-two 
Canons had, by Royal grant, the title of Count, and ensigned their 
arms with the coronet. The proof required of them was sixteen 

The arms of the Chapter were : — Azure^ the capital Utter B, sur- 
mounted by a Royal crown^ or. 

The Chapter of the Cathedral of S. Jean at Lyons, 
as early as the fourteenth century, admitted to their number 
none but gentlemen of eight quarters. In 1372 Elzias Albert, of 
the Seigneurs de BouLBON, was an aspirant, and his thnoins 
made the necessary affirmation that his father, grandfather, and 
great-grandfather, and their wives, had all been de genere militari. 
The statutes of this celebrated Chapter had already been con- 
firmed by Popes Martin V., Leo X., and Gregory IX., were 
still further confirmed by a special Bull of Clement V^II., pro- 
mulgated in the year 1 532. (The text of this Bull is given at length 
in the Preface to MenIitrier's scarce little volume on Les Preuves 
de Noblesse^ published at Paris and Lyons in 1632.) The Bull 
is too long for reproduction here, but it bears that it has been 
issued on the special petition of Francis, King of France, as 
Premier Chanoine Honoraire, It records that the customs of the 
church have been the same from time immemorial, indeed from 
the foundation of the church : -r" ipsique Canonici ex tunc Comites 
in signum ipsius nobilitatis nuncupati fuerint, et de pra;senti nun- 
cupentur." It stipulates that in future none shall be received into 
that noble company, or hold any Canonry, Prasbend, or other office 
therein, "nisi de nobili genere ex utroque parente procreatus, et 
cujus nobilitatis absque ignobilitatis commixtione ad quartum 
gradum ascendendo per Testes nobiles, et alios omni exceptione 
majores, in Capitulo dicti Ecclesia? probata," etc. 

The Canons were thirty-two in number. Their armorial privi- 
leges in the use of coronet, supporters, and badge, have been already 
referred to at pp. 45 and 467. 

The Chapter of S. Pierre at Macon consisted of thirteen 
Canons who had the title and insignia of Count. They made proof 
of thirty-two quarters. This Chapter was secularised in the year 
1557. It was originally a Benedictine foundation of the year 696. 
It then became a house of Augustinian, and finally of secular 

( 486 ) 

The Chapter of S. Pierre de St. Claude was comfjosed of 
eighteen Canons who proved sixteen quarters. It was secularised 
in the year 1742. 

The Chapter of S. Pierre de Baume. Here the Abbot and 
ten Canons were required to make very strict proof of sixteen 
quarters. The date of its secularisation was 1759. 

The Chapter of S. Pierre de Vienne. This was originally 
a monastery of the Order of S. Benedict, and the year 515 is 
assigned as that of its foundation. It was secularised by Poj>e 
Paul V. in the year 161 2, but in 1781 an union was effected 
between it and the ancient abbey of Saint Chef. The thirty-two 
Canons had to make proof of nine generations of direct noble 
descent on the paternal and on the maternal side. It will be noticed 
that this was a different kind of proof from the ordinary one of so 
many quarterings. It took no account of the nobilit>% or the 
reverse, of the wives. The only woman whose nobility required 
proof was the mother of the aspirant. 

The Chapter of S. Louis de Gigny (at Saint Claude). Here 
the fourteen Canons had to prove eight paternal quarters, but only 
four maternal ones. The Chapter was secularised in 1757. 

The Chapter of S. Victor at Marseilles. This was 
originally a very ancient and illustrious Benedictine abbey. It 
was founded in, or about, the year 413 by Jean Cassien, priest of 
Marseilles. This pious person founded two monasteries, one for 
men, of which the church was called the Basilica of SS. Peter and 
Paul; the other for women, under the invocation of the Blessed 
Virgin and S. John the Baptist. In the former the body 
of S. Victor, who afterwards gave his name to the monastery, was 
said to repose. The abbey was enriched by the gifts of Pepin, 
Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and Lothair, and became the 
mother-house of many other monasteries, some by its own founda- 
tion, some by affiliation. The abbey was secularised by a Bull of 
Pope Clement XII. in the year 1739, which wasconfinncd in 1751 
by Royal Letters-Patent which founded a "noble Chapter." Louis 
XV., in the year 1774, erected the prebends into dignities bearing 
the titles and privileges of Counts, and declared that the Chapter 
should consist of an Abbd'Commendaiaire ; three Dignitaries — the 
Provost, Precentor, and Treasurer ; sixteen Canons-Counts, and six 
aspirants. The members of the Chapter had to prove that their 
fathers were of Proven9al birth, and of six degrees of nobility in 
direct paternal descent. {See the Nobiiiaire du Departement des 
B ouches du Rhone ^ p. 193. Paris, 1863.) {See also p. 492, infra.) 

The Chapter of St. Die in the Vosges, originated in an abbey 

( 487 ) 

founded in 669 by S. Deodatus, Bishop of Nevers. It followed 
originally the rule of S. Columbanus, for which the Benedictine 
rule was substituted in later times. The abbey was secularised as 
early as the year 954, and became a celebrated Chapter of Canons, 
which became a Cathedral-Chapter on the foundation of the 
bishopric by Pope Pius VII. in 1777. Out of the number of its 
twenty-six Canons, twenty-two had to prove nobility in the direct 
male line for eight generations ; the other four stalls were reserved 
for graduates without the genealogical qualification. 

The Chapter of Notre Dame d'Amboise consisted of twelve 
Canons who were required to prove noble descent for a century. 

The Chapter of S. Martin d'Ainai (Lyon), was composed 
of a Provost and nineteen Canons who were required to prove a 
century of noble descent, modified to the proof of the nobility of 
the grandfather of the aspirant, which was practically much the 
same thing. 

The Female Chapters in France had equally various require- 
ments as will be seen by the following examples. 

The Chapi'ER of Alix (Diocese of Lyons), founded in the 
twelfth century was composed of forty-one Chanoinesses^ who all 
had the title and insignia of Countesses. Before admission they 
were required to prove noble descent for eight generations in direct 
male descent on the paternal side, and for three generations on the 
maternal side. {See also p. 493.) 

The Chapter of Neuville les Dames, en Bresse (also in 
the Diocese of Lyons), had fifty-eight Ckanoinesses-Comtesses^ who 
were required to prove nine generations of direct nobility on the 
paternal side, and also that their mothers were of noble descent. 
This Chapter was secularised by the Pope in 175 1, and effected in 
the year 1755, and thenceforward consisted of a Doyenne, Chantre, 
Secretaire, twenty full Chanoinesses, and some expectants {vide 
post, 493.) 

The Chapter of Poulanoy, in the Diocese of Langres, con- 
sisted of twenty-two Chanoinesses-Comtesses^ who, as at Neuville, 
proved nine generations of paternal nobility, but only four on the 
maternal side. 

The Chapter of S. Martin de Sallrs (in Beaujolais) had 
forty-three Chanoinesses-Comtesscs who were required to prove 
eight generations of direct male nobility on the paternal side, and 
the nobility of their mothers. 

But in some F'rench Chapters the more stringent requirements of 
(so many) quarters, were made. Sixteen had to be proved at 
BouxiERES AUX Dames, in the Diocese of Nancy (originally a 

( 488 ) 

Benedictine nunner>' founded in 930, by GOSLIX, Bishop of TOUU 
but secularised in the eighteenth centur>'X and the same was the 
case at LoNS lk Saulnier, as well as at Denain and Poussei 
(7'. pp. 483 and 494). Ei^ht quarters were held to be sufficient at the 
Benedictine abbeys of Notre Dame de Ronxerav (known as La 
Charit/ ties Xonnains) at Anc.eRS, founded in 1028 ; at EsTRUN, 
near Arras in the Pas de Calais, founded, or (as some say) 
restored, about the year 1085 ; and of AvESXES DE BAPAUMf:, 
also near Arras. The proofs of eight generations of direct noble 
descent were required from the thirty Chanoinesses^ unfettered by 
vows, who lived in community and replaced the Benedictine nuns, 
at Maubeucje, in the Diocese of Cambr.w. (But Men^trier tells 
us that eight quarters were required in 1545 ; and gives as an 
example those produced in that year for the Demoiselle Fix)RENXE 
DE Dave, daughter of Messire Warmer de Dave, Chevalier, 
Seigneur de Mkrlemon r, and of his wife Dame Maximiuenne 
DE ROMANCOURT. This nobility was affirmed "sur leur foy et 
honneur," by the Uhnoins of the young lady.) Eight quarters were 
also required at NOTRE Dame de Coyse en Largenti^re, where the 
Chanoinesses reached the large number of eighty. 

At the Chapter of Liec.nieux (Lyon) (?'. p. 493), the forty-five 
Chanoinesses were required to prove the nobility of their mothers,and 
five direct noble descents on the paternal side. At MoNTFLEURV, 
near Grenoble, which was founded in the year 1342, the proof uf 
four direct noble descents was held sufficient, and this also sufficed 
in the Benedictine Abbey of Bi.esle in the Diocese of St. Flour, 
founded before 910 by Ermengardf; Countess of Auvergne. In 
the Benedictine Abbev of Notre Dame de Bourbourg in the 
north of France (founded about the year 1099 by Clemence 1>e 
Bourgo(;ne, wife of Robert, Count of Flanders), the nobility 
of the aspirant had to be proved as far back as the fourteenth 
century. In 1742 Queen Marie ANTOINETTE, accepted the title 
of premihe Chanoinessi\ and the Chapter, nineteen in number, the 
designation of "la Chapitre de la Reine" (7'. p. 494). 

I append here some brief notes of a similar character with 
regard to the noble Chapters in Alsace and Lorraine, which have 
l>een French but which are now re-included in the Germanic 

The Chapter of S. Jean at Besan<j:on (Bisantz) consisted of 
four Dignitaries, four ^^personna/s" and thirty-eight Canons. Here 
sixteen quarters were strictly required, except in the case of a few 
canonries which were reser\-ed for graduates who were the sons of 
nobles or of graduates, and who underwent an examination before 

( 489 ) 

election, provisions which made it easy to exclude those who were 
in any way unacceptable. 

The CHAFfER OF Notre Dame at Strasburg. Members 
of the High Chapter {vide ante, p. 325) had to make proof of eight 
generations of noble descent both on the paternal, and on the 
maternal side. The statutes of 1687 required of the French 
Canons that their ancestors on both the paternal and the maternal 
side, should have borne for four generations the title of either 
Prince or Duke. 

The Chapter of S. Etienne at Toul consisted of thirty-six 
Canons, from whom three descents of nobility on the paternal side 
were strictly exacted. 

Thi: Chapter of S. Etienne at Metz had (besides eleven 
dignitaries) thirty-eight Canons out of whom seventeen had to prove 
a direct noble descent for three generations on the paternal side. 

The United Chapters of Luders and Murbach {vide ante, 
p. 340) consisted of twenty-one Canons who all proved sixteen 

The Chapter of Baume les Dames or Lf^ Nonnains, arose 
from an ancient nunnery of the Diocese of Besan^on, founded in 
the fifth centur>' by two brothers, S. ROMAiN and S. LUPICIN. In 
it Saint Odille, the patron saint of Alsace, was brought up. It 
was at first an independent house but came under Benedictine 
rule, about the year 789. Since its secularisation it consisted of 
sixteen CAa/toi»esses-Com/esses who were required to make proof of 
sixteen quarters. They were permitted to introduce as aspirants 
to the like dignity one or two nieces from whom of course the same 
Preuves were required. 

The Chapter of Chateau Chalon in the Jura, about six 
miles north of LoNS le Saulnier, in the Diocese of BESAN90N, 
but afterwards in that of St. Claude, was founded in the year 670, 
and was under the Benedictine rule. Later it was secularised, and 
became a noble Chapter of twenty-eight Canonesses, who all 
proved sixteen quarters. The like preuves were required from the 
Chapter of Migette (Besan^on), where eighteen ladies were pre- 

The Chapter of Montigny, also in the Diocese of Besan^on, 
was originally a monastery of " Urbanistes," women of the Order 
of Ste. Claire, and was founded in 1286. After its secularisation it 
required the preuves of eight quarters from its twenty-six Chan- 

In the Low Countries were several monasteries of note where 
preuves were required, some of them have already been men- 

( 490 ) 

tioned incidentally, but we must include one or two others of 

ANDKNNKjin the Diocese and County of Namur, half-way between 
Namur and Huy, was an ancient nunnery of the Benedictine 
Order, founded about the year 690 by S. Begga, daughter of 
Pkpin i>e Laudkn and sister of S. Gkrtrude of Nivelle. The 
Abbey was destroyed by the Northmen in the end of the ninth and 
early in the tenth centur>', but was rebuilt. The Counts of Namuk 
held the office of A7'oueSy Advocati^ of the Abbey, but misused 
their power and alienated its lands to their own advantage. The 
Emperor Henry obliged Albert, Count of Namur, to a restora- 
tion, but allowed him to retain the Advocacy of the Abbey as a 
fief of the Empire. Henceforth the position of the Counts was 
rather that of Abhi's-Cotumendataires^ than of Ai'oues. The 
Chapter consisted of a DamePr&i'dte^ a Doyenne^ thirty Canonesses, 
and ten Canons, nominated by the Counts of Naml'R ; from all the 
preuves of eight quarters were required, the families to have been 
recognised as noble from time immemorial. 

The Ahi{|:v ok Sainfe Vaudru de Mons, was a Benedictine 
nunnery founded in the year 640 by the Saint whose name it bears, 
who was sister of S. Aldec.onda and daughter of W albert, a 
prince of Thuringia. Sigebert, King of Austrasia, soon 
increased its possessions, built a new church dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin, and instituted thirty prebends for as many noble 
ladies ; while in the former church, under the invocation of 
SS. Peter and Paui^ he placed a number of monks to perfonn 
the divine offices. In the tenth century Archbishop Bruno oi 
Cologne, with the Papal authority, transformed the nuns of 
Si'E. Vaudru into Canonesses, and the monks of S. Pierre into 
secular Canons. 

In 821, the Advocacy of the Abbey was conferred on the Counts 
of Hainaui.t, who were its vassals for certain fiefs. When the 
Netherlands were held by the Kings of Spain they held the 
office referred to as successors of the Counts of Hainault, and 
exercised the right of nomination to the canonries in " le Chapitre 
Royale des Chanoinesses de Sainte Vaudru." The ladies thus 
nominated were required to mfike proof of eight quarters. JOSEPH 
Pelicer, in his genealogy of the Spanish Sarmientos, gives the 
pedigree of Leonora de G.\nd drawn up in order for her recep- 
tion as a Canoness of St. Valtrude, and says that it was 
necessary that the quarters of nobility proved should be those of 
families of four hundred years standing or more, in fact the com- 
mencement of the nobility should be in times immemorial. 

( 491 ) 

Maubeuge. This convent in the Diocese of Cambray was 
founded in 66 1, by Saint Aldegonda. It was originally Bene- 
dictine, but was afterwards secularised, it then became a Noble 
Chapter of Chanoinesses who were required to make proofs of 
eight quarters of immemorial nobility, and who enjoyed their 
prebends untrammelled by any vows. 

NiVELLE. This famous Benedictine nunnery was founded in 
the year 645 by Iti'a, wife of Pepin, maire du palais of Sigebert, 
King of AusTRASiA. Their daughter S. Gertrude was the first 
Abbess. The Abbey held immediately from the Empire although 
it was completely surrounded by the lands of the Duchy of 
Brabant. About the year 1200 the Emperor ceded to the 
Duke of Brabant certain lands which included the Abbeys of 
S. Servais and Nivelle, but the Abbess appealed to the Diet 
and was successful. But the Dukes of Brabant often acted as 
Commissioners for the Emperor in the instalment of the Abbess, 
and gradually the sovereignty became vested in them. The Abbey 
was called PAbbaye Ducale de S, Gertrude^ and the election of the 
Abbess received the confirmation of the Duke of Brabant. 
Nevertheless the Abbess claimed and received the empty title of 
Princess of the Empire, empty inasmuch as she had apparently 
neither seat nor vote in the Diet. The proof required was of 
eight quarters of immemorial nobility. 

In this Chapter the Canonesses were all formally knighted on 
admission to their canonry. The aspirant, properly habited, was 
led by the PrH'dte into the midst of the choir, attended by the four 
senior Canonesses, and there caused to kneel before the officiating 
knight, who was always a person of high dignity. He then gave 
her the accolade with his drawn sword, touching her three times 
upon the left shoulder with the words "Je vous fais Chevali^re de 
Sainte Gertrude, par St. George au nom de Dieu et de Vierge 
Marie." He then held the cross-hilt of his sword to the lady, who 
kissed it, then rose and saluted the knight, and retired with the 
other members of the Chapter. 

These noble Chapters, both of men and women, had usually a 
special cross or decoration worn round the neck, or on the breast, 
like the badge of an order of knighthood, suspended by its proper 
ribbon. Usually the badge was a cross of gold enamelled, re- 
sembling in general shape the eight-pointed cross of the Order 
OF S. John of Jerusalem, but with variations of ornamentation 
and of colour. 

Thus the Canons-Counts of the Chapter of S. John at 
Lyons had by Royal Letters- Patent granted in March 4, 1745, 

( 492 ) 

registered in Parliament April 7, the privilege of wearing a golden 
cross of eight points, enamelled white, and having a golden fleur- 
de-lis in each of its four principal angles. Each arm of the cross 
terminated in a little golden coronet (that of a Count) ornamented 
with pearls, or silver balls ; and on a circular plate in the centre of 
the badge on a tield of red enamel there was depicted the figure of 
S. John the Baptist within a motto-band bearing the legend 
^^ Prima sedcs GalliarumP The reverse bore the effigy of the 
proto-martyr S. STEPHEN, vested in a dalmatic and holding a 
palm-branch, within the circular band bearing the legend '''' EccUfia 
Comitum LugduniP The ribbon by which the badge was sus- 
pended on the breast was of flame-coloured silk with a light blue 
border. Their shields of arms were also ornamented with this 
surrounding ribbon and pendant badge (?'. Plate III., fig. 3). 

In 1750 the King, by his Letters-Patent, conferred on the 
Canons of S. Claude en Franche ComU a decoration to be 
worn instead of the ^//o^'episcopal cross which they had pre- 
viously used. The new decoration was a Greek cross -f (/./.. 
having equal arms) of gold, coticed with golden f1eurs>de-lis, and 
engraved with the effigy of their patron, St. Ci^\UDE. The whole 
badge was enclosed in a thin golden circle. Its ribbon was of 
black silk. The Abbey was erected into a Bishopric, and the 
monastery into a secular Chapter in 1742, and the old decora- 
tion which had been a cross similar to that used by Bishops but 
engraved with the effigy of S. Claude was replaced by the Greek 
cross described above. The preuves required for admission into 
this Chapter were those of sixteen quarters. 

By Letters- Patent granted in March 1760, the King granted to 
the Provost, Dignitaries, and sixteen Canons, Counts of the noble 
Chapter of S. Victor at Marseilles, the right to wear an eight- 
pointed cross of gold enamelled white, each point terminating in a 
little golden ball ; in each of the four principal angles of the cross 
was a golden fleur-de-lis. On the circular medallion in the centre 
of the cross was enamelled the figure of the Patron Saint, 
S. ViciOR, mounted on horseback and piercing with his lance the 
dragon overthrown. The motto band round the medallion bore 
the legend, ^'' Divi Victoris MassiliensisP Its reverse was 
enamelled with a representation of the old Church of S. VICTOR, 
surrounded by the device ^*^ Alonumentis et Nobilit<Ue insignisr 
The whole badge was, after 1774, crowned with the coronet of a 
Count. The ribbon by which it was suspended from the neck was 
of flame -coloured watered silk. The Canons placed round the 
escucheons of their arms a motto band as on the obverse of the 

( 493 ) 

badge, and the cross was suspended thereto, as well as placed 
behind the escucheon {v. ante^ p. 45). 

Badges resembling the Crosses of Orders of Knighthood are 
still worn by the Canons of the Cathedral of S. Denis, Notre 
Dame at Paris, and some other French Cathedrals ; at Lucerne, 
and elsewhere. 

In imitation of this custom Frederick the Great in 1755 
gave to the Chapter of Brandenburg consisting of a Dom- 
Probst, six Dom-Herren, and as many Canons, the right to wear 
an eight-pointed cross of gold, enamelled violet, having in the 
principal angles the Prussian eagle. In the centre of the cross 
was a round golden medallion bearing the Royal Cypher. 

The Chapter of Neuville les Dames en Bresse {v. ante, p. 487) 
had in 1755 ^^ grant of a badge resembling that of the Canons of 
S. Jean at Lyons described above but bearing on the obverse 
the effigy of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and on the reverse 
that of S. Catharine ; the ribbon was of light blue silk with 
flame-coloured borders (/>., the revferse of that of the canons). 

By Royal Letters-Patent, granted January 1755, ^^ King granted 
to the Chanoinesses-Comtesses of Alix {vide ante^ p. 487), the 
right to wear a golden cross of eight points, enamelled white, and 
having four golden fleurs-de-lis in the principal angles. 

The obverse bore on a circular medallion of gold in the centre 
of the cross the effigy of S. Denis, decapitated, within a band 
bearing the legend ''''Auspice Ga/liarum Patrono" The reverse 
had the figures of the Blessed Virgin and Holy Child, surrounded 
in like manner by the words " Nobilis insignia voii?^ The whole 
badge was surmounted by a count's coronet and its ribbon (worn 
en ^charpe over the right shoulder) was of flame-coloured silk. The 
ribbon and badge were placed around the escucheon of the arms. 

In 1757 the "Chapitre Noble de S. Marie de Liegneu" (z/. 
p. 488) similarly obtained the Royal permission to wear a cross 
resembling that just described except that the central medallion 
bore on the obverse the effigy of the Blessed Virgin, and on the 
other that of S. Benedict, with the legend "Louis XV. en a 
honord le Chapitre en Pan 1757." The ribbon was of white silk 
edged with blue, and was worn and used armorially as in the 
preceding case. 

At Denain, near Valenciennes, the eighteen Chanoinesses had 
all the title of Comtesse d'Ostrevant. They wore a white habit 
(with in choir a surplice of fine linen), and a mantle bordered with 
plain white ermine — that of the abbess was spotted. This was an 
ancient independent abbey founded in 764 for both sexes by Adel- 

{ 494 ) 

BKRT, Count of OsTRKVANT, and Rkgxia, his wife. After a time 
it cmbraceil the Henedictine rule, but in 1029 it resumed its former 
constitution, as a colle^fc of noble Canonesses. The abbess, who 
was selected by the King from a list of three candidates elected by 
the Chapter, alone took the vows of a rcjfular nun. 

The Canonesses of BoURBorRG {vidv aute^ p. 488) had a decora- 
tion consisting,' of the usual gold cross of eight points enamelled 
white, and with golden fleurs-de-lis in the angles, bearing in the 
central medallion on the obverse the cffig>- of the Blessed Virgin ; 
on the reverse the portrait of the Queen. I have no note of the 
colour of the ribbon. 

In Bavaria and in Austria noble Chapters still exist usually 
without vows, as a provision for upmarried ladies of noble families. 

At Prague the Abbess of the noble Chapter is always an Arch- 
duchess of the Imperial family, and resigns her dignity on her 

The Bavarian Order of S. Anne was founded in 1784 by the 
Elcctress Maria Anna Sophia for ten single ladies and a 
Doyenne, who were to prove sixteen quarters and live in com- 
munity. Later the number of ten was raised to eighteen. But in 
1802 the obligation to the common life ceased. The number of 
members is now twenty-five in the first class, and forty-two in the 
second, who have respectively pensions of ;^8o and /40. The 
titular Abbess is always a princess of the Royal family, and on da\-s 
of ceremony wears an ermine hood, in addition to the black dress 
with velvet mantle, common to all the ladies of the Order. The 
badge is a gold cross fiaUe-arrondie of white enamel bordered with 
blue, in each angle a golden ring. The circular centre of white 
bordered with blue bears on the obverse the figure of the Blessed 
Virgin and on the reverse that of S. Benno of Bavaria, On the 
arms of the cross are the words, Suh tuum prcpsiiiium • on the 
reverse. Patronus nosier. 

The Order of S. Ann at Wurzburg for Franconian ladies is 
similar, and its members, who originally lived in community proved 
sixteen quarters, as the higher class oipensionnaires^ or C/ianoin^sses 
still do. The badge nearly resembles that already described but 
the border is of red, not blue ; and the figure in the centre is that 
of S. Anne, and the words, "//i ihren edlcn TocAterrt" The 
ribbon is of red silk, with a double line of silver near either edire. 

At Wadstena in Sweden was a noble Chapter, founded for women 
by Queen Louisa ULRiCA(of Prussia), the mother of Gustav us III 

In Denmark the noble Chapter of Valloe was founded by 
Queen Madalena as late as 1738. The ladies rank as, but after 

( 495 ) 

Countesses, and before the wives of Counts* eldest sons. They 
have annual allowances varying from £60 to ;£i2o. 

Other 4ioble Chapters in Denmark were Gisselfeld, of which 
the eldest daughter of the House of Danneskiold was bom 
Abbess ; and Vannetofte, founded in 1785 by Prince Carl 
(brother of Frederick. IV.) and his sister Princess Hedwig. 

At Itzehoe in Holstein the Abbess was a Princess of the Royal 



Pope Alexander III. in 1165 conferred this privilege on John, 
Abbot of Kelso, and his successors. The grant is as follows : — 
Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei, dilecto filio Johanni, 
Abbati de Calkou, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem : Devo- 
tionis tuae sinceritatem, et quern circa nos et ecclesiam Dei geris 
affectum, diligenti studio attendentes, et quod ecclesia tua^ guberna- 
tioni commissa Romanae ecclesia? filia specialis existit, nihilominus, 
considerantes honorem et gratiam tibi, et eidem ecclesias tuas in 
quibus cum Deo possumus libentius exhibemus, et prompto animo 
quantum honestas permiserit honoramus. Inde siquidem est, 
quod ad postulationem tuam, usum mitrae tibi, et successoribus tuis 
duximus indulgendum, auctoritate apostolica statuentes ut ad 
honorem Dei et ecclesiae tuii? decorem, in solemniis missarum ea 
congruis temporibus utendi in ecclesia tua, et in processionibus in 
claustro tuo, et in concilio Romani Pontificis facultatem habeatis. 




At p. 171 I have stated that the arms of the English Sees "were 
originally assumptions only . . . although after the institu- 
tion of the College of Arms the arms in use were authoritatively 
confirmed ; and in the case of Sees of later erection a regular 
armorial grant was made." The passage quoted contains three 
distinct assertions, of which the first is indubitably correct ; in this 
respect the custom in this country differed not from the custom on 

( 496 ) 

the Continent, and the amis borne were assumptions only at the 
will and pleasure of the occupant of the See. The third assertion 
that a rej;ular armorial grant was made to Bishoprics of kiter erec- 
tion must, I believe, be limited to the case of the Sees erected in 
the present century. The Post- Reformation Sees of Brlstou 
1542 ; C.l.oi'CKsiKR, 1541 : Chkster, 1542 ; OXFORD, 1 542 ; and 
!*ktkrboroi'<;h, 1541 ; had not, so far as I can discover anv 
formal j-rant of arms at their foundation ; and neither in their case 
nor in the arms of the elder Sees do I find that there were ever 
formal confirmations by the authority of the College of Arms. If 
there were this is a point on which I shall cordially welcome cor- 
rection. In the case of the older Sees a long continuance in their 
use may have given a prescriptive authority to the arms usually 
employed (the earliest inst.ince of the use of official arms on an 
Episcopal seal seems to be afforded by that of William, Bishop 
of Ely, 1 2(^0-1298, as recorded at p. 180 an/e\ but this pre- 
scriptive right must clearly have been subject to the will and 
pleasure of the occupant of the See for the time bein^. In many 
cases, perhaps in most, he went on bearing what his predecessors 
had used ; but the m<iny variations of arms which meet us in the 
case of the arms of several of our most important bishoprics, /"^i, 
ExKTKR, WiNCHESTKR, YoRK, Wklls, ctc, show that the bishops 
retained and exercised the right of mutation, and it is only the 
most profound ignorance of the facts which can lead a person to 
say, e,^i^.^ that the coat lx)rne by Bishop Bekinton of Wells, and 
certain of his successors, is the one only true and authoritatii'e 
coat, and is stereotyped for all time coming, while the one assumed 
and borne by later Bishops, as at present, is " entirely wanting in 
authority.'' We may prefer the older coat, we may hold that the 
present coat is a development not entirely according to knowledge, 
but it has at least as much authority «'is its predecessors. With 
regard to York, Winch kster, Exeter, Lichfield, and others, 
I have noticed some of the chief mutations ; I have only here to 
append a few other examples in the case of other Sees. 

As concerns (Gloucester, I have noted, at p. 181, the omission 
of the Pauline sword in later times ; but I have omitted the faa 
that the original arms of the See are said to have been those of the 
Clares, the old Earls of Gloucester (Or, three chetfrons gules\ 
and that this coat was borne as recently as by Bishop Fowler, 
1691-1741, with the added difference of a mitre argent on the 
centre chevron, in fess point. 

Salisbury.— The seal of Bishop Robert Hallam, 1407-1417, 
bears in the upper part of the vesica the effigy of the Blessed 

( 497 ) 

Virgin and her Babe, which is now the charge in the arms of the 
See ; but it also contains in base two shields, the one for the 
Bishopric charged with either two keys, or a sword and key, in 
sahire ; the other of his personal arms (Sable\ a cross engrailed 
ermine^ in the first quarter a crescent {argent), {Catalogt^e of Seals 
in British Museum^ i., No. 2206.) 

Bangor. — In the Procession Roll of 15 12 the bend appears to be 
argenty charged with larmes. 

Hereford. — The coat, Gules, a bezant between three open 
crowns or, said in Cole's MS. to have been borne before the adop- 
tion of the arms of Cantelupe, and probably the coat attributed 
in mediaeval times to S. Ethelbf:rt, seems to be utterly without 
authority (Duncumb's Herefordshire makes the arms of the 
Deanery ; (9r, five chevronels azure). (Bedford, Blazon of 
Episcopacy y p. 51.) 

Durham. — It is worthy of notice that the arms of Bishop Bek 
(1283-1311), as Patriarch of Jerusalem, are in the west window of 
the north aisle of Howden Church, Yorkshire, and form perhaps 
the earliest instance of an Episcopal coat in which the official are 
impaled with the personal arms. The dexter half contains what is 
probably intended for a cross-patriarchal, the head is a cvoss-pate'e, 
touching the upper border of the shield. The lower limb of the 
cross is supplied by the staff, from which lower down two arms of 
a crosS'pattfe emerge. The cross is of rose colour, "on a tawny 
pink ground," perhaps for Or. The sinister half of the shield is 
occupied by the dimidiated coat of the bishop, who bore : Gules, a 
cross-recerceU ermine. {See the interesting paper on The Old 
Heraldry of the Percies, by W. H. Dyer Longstaffe, in Archce- 
ologia ^ liana, i860, p. 167 ; and the papers on The Old Official 
Heraldry of Durham, by the same able writer, in The Herald and 
Genealogist, vol. viii. p. 54.) 

Wells. — The earliest arms borne for the See of Wells were pro- 
bably a saltire only, the badge of its Patron S. Andrew. Azure, a 
salt ire or, may well have been the original coat, but we are singularly 
unfortunate in not finding on the seals of the mediaeval bishops which 
remain to us in the British Museum collection any instance of the 
use of an official coat. That to which reference is made above 
and on p. 176, as being used by Bishop Bekington (1443- 1465), 
is said, by a writer in N, and Q., 7th S., ix., 144, to be carved in 
stone in the chantry chapel of Bishop BuBWiTH (d. 1424), and may 
therefore have been used by that prelate ; but of this there is, I 
believe, no other evidence. But we also read that this coat appears 
on the tomb of Dean Gunthorpf., 1478 ; of Thomas Cornish, 

2 K 

( 498 ) 

Provost of Orikl, who, as titular Bishop of Tenos, in parHkui, 
presided over the affairs of the See from i486 to 1513, while its 
occupants were employed as ambassadors abroad, or as great 
Officers of State at home. The writer referred to states that the 
coat also appears on the monument of Bishop Creyghton and on 
a lectern presented by him, ns well as on the monument of bishop 
Hooper in 1727. But, if I remember rightly, the coat at present 
used is th<it which is inserted in the east window of WINCHESTER 
Cathedral, in connection with the arms of the other Sees succes- 
sively filled by Bishop Fox, 1492-1494. GuiKLiM assigns it to 
Bishop MoNTAOU, 1 608-1616 (but see p. 176) ; it was used by 
Bishop Laki-:, 1616-1626, and it was probably used by Bishop 
Wynnk in 1729, in which year the saltire appears alone on the seal 
of the Archdeacon of Taunton. {Catalo^rue of Seals^ British 
Museuffi, No. 1449.) It has been employed by all the bishops 
without exception, from Bishop Moss, 1774, to the present vener- 
able occupant of the See. Bishop Bagot (^845>i854), with great 
propriety quartered the coat of Bath with that of Wells. It is 
therefore simple nonsense to speak of the present coat as being 
'' without authority,'' because a different one was borne at some 
other times. Numerous examples of such variations are recorded 
above. Even if it be admitted that the present coat originated in 
a misconception, and if it could be clearly traced to an instance in 
which the original plain saltire was, according to a g^eneral custom, 
represented in carvings as coped, or ridged, there would still be all 
the ** authority " needed for its continuance in use at the pleasure 
of the Bishop ; and I am rather inclined to advise its retention, 
either impaled or quartered with the coat of Bath, than to approve 
of a reversion to the coat used by Bekintox, which is not only 
somewhat overloaded, but on which the Bath charges are in such 
distinct subordination to the Wells saltire. 

It should be remarked that Bishop ROGER, 1244, was the first 
who, in obedience to the Papal command, assumed the designation 
of Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

Canterhurv. — I may perhaps anticipate a criticism by saying 
that I have been asked on what ground I have given the tincture 
of the pallium in the arms of the Archbishops of England and 
Ireland, as argent^ inste<id of leaving the pcUlium of its natural 
colour white. The answer is, because argent is its invariable tinc- 
ture in all the blazons which have come under my notice. Had 
the pallium been " proper " it would of course have been tinctured 
white, but the pall in the arch-episcopal arms is not a ^ pailium 
proper ;" and, moreover, the vestment would not in that case have 

( 499 ) 

a golden border and fringe, nor would the crosses at the present 
day be paties fitMes. 

The arms lately assumed by Cardinal Archbishop Vaughan are 
Gules y an Archbishops cross in pale or, over all a pall proper. 
The Archbishop's eminent predecessors, Cardinals Wiseman and 
Manning, were content to use only their personal arms, and had 
no idea of assuming a coat, which (since no tinctures are marked 
on the archi-episcopal seal) appears to the ordinary observer to be 
a direct annexation of the arms of the archi-episcopal See of 
Canterbury ! It is curious that even the appearance of such a 
thing should have had the sanction of an officer of the College of 
Arms. Up to the present time Roman Catholic prelates in 
England have very rarely adopted official arms. The present 
Bishop of Salford has lately assumed Azure, a seated figure of 
the Blessed Virgin {crowned, sceptred and having in her hand a 
scapular) supporting the Holy Child proper. 


A considerable number, perhaps all, of the American Bishops 
employ official seals, but, though in the majority of cases these are 
engraved with appropriate ecclesiastical devices, the assumptions 
are often wanting in heraldic fitness. There are, however, in some 
cases attempts at more regular armorial design ; and, as these are 
worthy of all encouragement, I very gladly comply with a special 
request to include in this volume some examples, in the hope that 
they may contribute to the formation of a better taste in future 
assumptions. The following are selected from a number of 
American Episcopal Seals, which were described in Notes and 
Queries, 6th Series, vii., pp. 484 and 502, by "H. W." (Henry 
Wagner, Esquire) in June 1883. 

Alabama (1830). Argent, a key and pastoral staff in saltire, sur- 
mounted by a Latin cross in pale. 

Arkansas (1871). Or, on a cross-patee-throughout, but couped in 
base, a human heart. 

Buffalo. Azure, a rainbow in fess proper, between three crosses 
patdes ; in base a crosier and key in saltire. 

Carolina (North) 18 16. Two keys in saltire, wards in chief, and 
a pastoral staff in pale, over all an open book, thereon the 
letters A, and 0. 

( 500 ) 

COLORAIK). Or. a cross, thereon a roundel between four cross- 
crosslets fiichecs and charged with the inon€>gnun XP 
between the letters A, O. 
Connecticut 1783:. Sable, a key and a crosier in saltire or. 

Easton fiS6S. ... A pastoral staff, and a long cross in 
saltire, between a mitre in chief, and an escroll in base, 
thereon the words Esto Fidelis. 

Florida (1838 . The figure of S. John the Evangelist, between 
six palm trees (three on either side), in chief seven stars, in 
base an eagle displayed holding a cactus branch. 

Kansa.s (1854;. A cross botonn^e. 

LON(;-lsLANi) 0868). A pastoral staff and key in saltire, sur- 
mounted by a sword in pale, in chief a niitre. 

Louisiana (1838). A Latin cross coupe. 

Maink (1820). The Saviour holding a star and an orb, and walk- 
ing between the seven candlesticks ; three in chief two in 
either base. 

Massachussets (1781). A cross patonce, in chief a mitre. 

MiNNi->iOTA (1857;. A Latin cross, in base a calumet and a 
broken tomahawk in saltire. 

.Missouri (1839;. A crosier and olive branch in saltire, in chief a 

Nebraska and Dakota (1868). A Latin cross in pale, sur- 
mounted by a pastoral staff and key in saltire. 

New York (Central) (1868). A sword and key in saltire, hilt 
and handle in chief, surmounted by a crosier in pale. 

Rhode Island (1790). Gules, a Latin cross argent. 

Texas (1849). Two keys in saltire, wards in base, in chief a 

X'ermont (1790). Two pastoral staves in saltire between a mitie 
in chief, and a chalice in base. 

Virginia (West) (1877). A key (wards uppermost) and a crosier 
in saltire, in chief a mitre. 

It is obvious that nearly all of the above might be made into 
perfectly regular coats by the application of a very little heraldic 
knowledge. At present the tinctures are usually wanting. But 
all these are better by far than those assumptions in which the 
arms (and crest) of an English family have been appropriated • in 
one case the entire arms of a British peer, with crest and sup- 
porters, were thus annexed. The writer of this book would vcrv' 
gladly give his assistance, when desired, in the formation of regxilar 
coats, which, while not departing from ancient precedent, might 
yet retain some national or provincial character. . 

( 50I ) 


Before the revolution there were in France sixteen archbishoprics, 
of which (with their suffragans) a list is subjoined. Those included 
in brackets were suppressed by the Concordat of 1801. 

1. Aix, Archbishopric, with five suffragans, viz. : 

(Apt) Fr^jus, Gap, (Riez, and Sisteron). 

2. Albi, Archbishopric, with five suffragans : 

Cahors, (Castres), Mende, Rodez, (Vabres). 

3. Arles, Archbishopric, with four suffragans : 

Marseille, (Orange), (St. Paul -Trois- Chateaux) 

4. AUCH, Archbishopric, with six suffragans : 

(Lu(^:on), P^rigueux, Poitiers, la Rochelle, (Saintes, 
and Sarlat). 

5. BOURGES, Archbishopric, with five suffragans : 

Clermont, Limoges, Le Puy, St. Flour, and Tulle. 

6. Cambrai, Archbishopric, with four suffragans : 

Arras, (St. Omer), Namur, and Tournai. 

7. Embrun, Archbishopric, with six suffragans : 

DiGNE (Glandeves, Grasse, Nice, Senez, and Vence). 

8. Lyon, Archbishopric, with six suffragans : 

Autun,(Chalons-sur-Sa6ne), Dijon, Langres, (Macon), 
St. Claude. 

9. Narbonne, Archbishopric, with eleven suffragans : 

(Agde, Alais, Aleth, BifeziERs), Carcassonne, (Lod^ve), 
Montpellier, NImes, Perpignan (S. Pons, and Uzfes). 
TO. Paris, Archbishopric, with four suffragans : 
Blois, Chartres, Meaux and Orleans. 

1 1. Reims, Archbishopric, with eight suffragans : 

Amiens, Beauvais, (Boulogne), Chalons-sur-Marne 
(Laon, Noyon, Senlis) and SoissoNS. 

12. Rouen, Archbishopric, with six suffragans : 

(Avranches), Bayeux, Coutances, ^vreux, (Lisieux) 
and Seez. 

13. Sens, Archbishopric, with three suffragans : 

Auxerre, Nevers, and Troyes. 

14. Toulouse, Archbishopric, with seven suffragans : 

(Lavaur, Lombes, Mirepoix), Montauban, Pamiers, 
(RiEUX, and St. Papoul). 

( 502 ) 

15- Tours, Archbishopric, with eleven suffragans : 

Angers, (Dol), Le Mans, Nantes, Quimper, REXNts 
St. Brieuc (St. Malo, St. Paul de LfeoN), (TRfcuiER , 
and Vannes. 
1 6. ViENNE, Archbishopric, with six suf&agans : 

Die (Geneve or Annecy), Grenoble, (Mauriehne. 

Valence, and Viviers. 

Metz, Toui^ and Verdun; "/« trots EvSchds^ which had 

been united to France in 1552, still belonged ecclesiastically to the 

Archi-episcopal See of Trier (Treves) ; as did Strasburg to 

that of Mentz (M avenge). 

The boundaries of the Sees were changed and they were 
re-grouped by the Concordat in 1 801, as follows : — 

1. Paris, with five suffragans : 

Blois, Chartrf^ Meaux, Orleans, and Versailles. 

2. Cam bray, with its suffragan : 


3. Lyon and Vienna, with five suffragans : 

AuTUN, Dijon, Grenoble, Langres, St. Claude. 

4. Rouen, with four suffragans : 

Bayeux, Coutances, Evreux, S^ez. 

5. Sens and Auxerre, with three suffragans : 

MOULINS, Nevers, Troyez. 

6. Reims, with four suffragans : 

Amiens, Beauvais, Chalons-sur-Marne, and Soissons. 

7. Tours, with seven suffragans : 

Angers, Le Mans, Nantes (Quimper, Reknes, St. 
Brieuc, and Vannes). 

8. BOURGES, with five suffragans : 

Clermont, Limoges, le Puy, St. Flour, Tulle. 

9. Albi, with four suffragans : 

Cahors, Mende, Perpignan, Rodez, 
I a BOURDEAUX, with six suffragans : 

Agen, Angoul£:me, Luc^on, La Rochelle, PfeRicuEvx 

11. AUCH, with six suffragans : 

Aire, Bayonne, Tarbes. 

12. Toulouse, and Narbonne, with three suffragans : 

Carcassonne, Montauban, Pamiers. 

13. Aix, Arles, and Embrun, with six suffragans : 

(Alger, vj.. No. 16), Ajaccio, Digne, FRifejus, (and 
Toulon), Gap, Marseille, Nice (since its Cession). 

( 503 ) 

14. Besan^on, with six suffragans : 

Belley, (Metz), Nancy and Toul, St. Di6, (Strasburg), 
Verdun. (Metz and Strasburg were lost in the 
Franco- German War.) 

1 5. Avignon, with four suffragans : 

Montpellier, NImes, Valence, Viviers. 

In more recent times : — 

16. Algiers, with two suffragans {vide supra^ No. 13) : 

Constantine, and Oran. 

17. Chamb6ry, with three suffragans : 

Annecy, St. Jean de Maurienne, Tarentaise (as a 
result of the Cession of Savoy by Italy). 

18. Rennes (Archbishopric restored, vide ante^ No. 7), suffragans : 

Qui M PER, St. Brieuc, and Vannks. 


AACHEN, The Emperor Honorary Canon 

of, 60. 
ABACH, 266. 
Abba>comite8, 72. 
Abbe-Coiumemlataire, 70. 

„ Honorary title uf, 71. 
Abb^ conites (abha-comiteji), 72. 
,, r^gulien, 72. 
,, ,, arnuioi, 73. 

Abbess, Dignity of, denoted by crogier or 

pculorul itaff, 5S. 
AbbMses, also ten)|)orHl Princesses of the 

Abbeys, amns adoptetl for, 4. 

„ conipoHition of arttu of, 11. 
in GERMANY, 394. 
in GREAT BRITAIN, arm*, 352. 
,, Lands of, held by military tenure, 

,, of the EMPIRE, amut, 334. 
Abbot, Dignity of, df noted by crosier or 
jnulornl xlaff", 58. 
,, Grant of mitre to, 495. 
,, Official arm* of an, differed from 
thoee of his Monastery, 75. 
Abbots, some addeil temporal nrwd to 
ptutortU Htajf and mitre, 93. 
., altto temporal Princes of the 

,, and AbbesseH, 58. 
,, ensigned their armn with their 
family coronet*, 76. 
in ENGLAND, (vm* of, 70. 
,, Military dntien by, 95. 
„ of ROMAN EMPIRE, mode of 

nsing t*cucheon, 97. 
,, Pojttornl *tajfof, 61. 
,, Use of mitn conceded to certain, 
ABBOTSBURY (Dorsetshire), Benedic- 
tine Abbey, urmn, 352. 
ABDUA, FERDINAND, Canlinal, Arch- 

bishop of MILAN, arm*, 149. 
ABELARD, 40i*. 

ABERDEEN, Bishop DOUGLAS ot.ieal, 
,, Chartnlary of, 220. 

,, City of, arm*, 219, 220. 


Bishop of, arm*, 462. 
of, arm*, 447, 448. 

of, arm* and »eal, 462. 
Bishop of, seal and arms, 457. 

ABERDEEN, NECTAN, Bishop of, 220. 
,, Royal Bnrgh of, ami$ and 

»tal, 219. 
See of, 216, 218, 220. 
,, arm*, 171. 

fig. 4 p. 214. 
The Heraldic ceiling of 
S. MACHAR'S Cathe- 
dral in Old, 462. 
UNIVERSITY, arm*, 447. 
and ORKNEY, Bishop 

SUTHER of, seal, 220. 
and ORKNEY, See of. 
arm*, 219. 
Aberdontnsis, Lacunar Ba*eiliae Sancti 
Macarii, 462. 
,, Registrum Episcopate, AbT, 


„ Bishopric of, 228. 

ABINGDON (Berkshire) Benedictine 
Abbey, atin*, 352. 
JOHN SANTE, D. D., Abbot 

of, *enl, 352. 
WILLIAM, Abbot of, stal, 
ACEY (Notre Dame d') Cistercian Abbey, 

annx, 405. 
ACHAT), Church of, 208. 
ACHARD, Bishop of AVRANCHES, seal, 

AC HEY, arm*, 131. 

CLAUDE D', Archbishop of 
BE8ANC0N, arm*, 130. 
ACHONRY, See of, 201, 208. 
Acta Sanctorum, 59. 

received Homan mitre, 
„ Count, .347. 

ADELAIDE, See of, 288. 

,, ,, arms, 240. 

II »» t« PL XXXII., 

fig. 12 i». 242. 
ADELINA, Queen of ENGLAND, 3.'>9. 

of, 342, 395. 

MONTEFELTRO, anrw, 100. 
ADRIAN I., P(.pe, 127. 
IV., Po|)e, 20. 

arm*, 158. 
V. Poi)e(FIESCHI), arm*, 159. 
VI., Pope, 154. 

VI., Pope(DEI)EL), arm*, 162. 
Brabant) Benedictine Abbey, amu, 

• I 


( 5o6 ) 

AKFON»K> v., King of PORTUGAL, 

AKPKK, Arehbi>hap of Paris, armM, ISO. 
AFIIICA, Ilioom of CENTRAL, amu, 

II 'I II nryUf 

PI. XXXV., fi(. 
12. n. 250. 
TolilAL. nnMji. 'i-'tO. 
Ht)UTH, 244. 
AOATIIO, Pupe, 115. 
AOUK, .Se«of, M)I. 

ACiBN, Ui«bop uf, saw Coont't eorofut, 
Hw of •'i02. 
AfiVlADOE, Mncimt Catliednl, 215. 
H«w of, 201,215. 
„ ,, artH*, 215. 

ACillAVOE, 211. 
AGINCOURT. Rattle of. sr^i. 

HiMlio|i uf HC1ILIC^SW1U, H20. 
hel'l diguity of "VIDAMB D' 
AIRE. See of, .002. 
AIX, Arclihi»ho)iric of, lli», 602. 

wiUi aufTragaa Smb. 
AJACCIO, Heeof, 502. 
ALABAMA, Bishop of, Mai, 4W. 
ALA IS, H«e uf. 501. 
ALBAN, Bif4ioiw of, at Kt. ANDREWS. 

ALBANI, ariHM, 1(15. 

ovum, 149. 
CARLO, Car<iinal PIO, 
Binhop of, nriMf, 147. 

BUS, Coonteaa uf. 850. 
LIAM. Earl of, 87N. 
ALBERG, WOLRJANG D', Prorost at 

MAINZ, ariHJi, 4l». 
ALBERICI, MARIO, Cardinal, annf, 

ALBERT, Abbem l)\ nr,M>, 76. 

II i» II xi. Vll., 

tig. 4, i>. «K). 
AUI>OIN, Cardinal V',totHb, 
„ Riahop. SSI. 

„ I.. Kiii|»eror. St^S. 

ALBERTA, Dintrict of, 23«i. 
ALBERTU8, BiHhop, ntai, HO. 
ALBl, Archbinhopric w ith autfragan See*, 
.001, 502. 
„ Bialiop and Chapter of, ar»u, 17. 

Catliedral uf, 4(^. 
., LOUIS I., of AMBOISE, Biabop 

of, aniu and aupporUit^ 4tf5. 
,, Sec of, ariHM, 82. 

DEL, S5t). 
ALBORNOZ, PaiMtl Legate, 153. 

AIXIOCK, JOHN, Riahop of ELY, amui, 

27. 440. 
„ Biahoi) of WORCES- 
TER, anuM, 377. 


, ALDENBURG, 8m off, SM, 330. 

, ALD(»BRA.ND1X1. arms, 146, l«s 1«4. 
LISLE, f rHk«, l!i3. 

j ALEN<,X)N, arMU. 401. 

PHILIP, Caniinal d', 
ALESSANDRIA, Doouo at. tomk, 96l 
ALKTH, Biabop of, nmd Comatt 
coronet, 100. 
Bee of, 50L 
ALEXANDER, King off SeoClaad, UT, 

224, &?«, 227, M8. 
1I-. Pope, «&, ssa. 
111., Ptope (BAKIH- 
NELLir aOC. 4J0. 
496; «rMML 158>. 
IV., Fmm /OKI 005TI 
DBSBOKIX 317,415. 
416; armm^ ISBl 
^., Po|i« <FILABGDl 

arm*, 161. 
VI., iVipe (BOBGU). 
1<». 162. 447: mH 
102; cold ooiaa d 
1«, 4TL 
l&S, sso, 148: «pw. 
VIIL, Pope (OTTO- 

BOXl). lis; mnmM, 

148, ld5. ^^ 

ALEXANDRIA, Fatriarcbato of l-»4 If; 

8Mof,12&. • ' 
LAND. 385, SM, 426, 427. 

ALGER or ALGlEIbi, AtchbUboprie, 50S. 

ALGOMA, Seeof, 230. 

ariHM, 2S2. 

PL XXX., §g.9. 


p. 282. 


• » 


arm*, 145. 


of, waa al» a Coanta^ 45. 4W. 
„ CaDoneaam of, 45. 

Chanoineaa i w-Comtaaaca of 4fiA 
„ Chapter of, 487. ' 

ALL SOULS' COLLEGE (OxfordX ^trm», 

C^rUtian SpMbotimtH^ 61 * 

ALLUCINGOLA, arm*, 15& 

Atmnet, 4 A. 

ALTHANN, Family of, 4S2. 

ALTIERI, amu, 148, 165. 

,, Cliapel, tombm in, 166. 

GIOVANNI, Cattiia^ mma. 

147 ; PI. I, fif. 4. p. ^xr^^ ^^ 

ALVA. Dtike of. Si>8. 

of HAVELBriRG. 2«9. ' ""***** 


(LinooInahireX Gilbartine 
Priory of, otmu, 852. ^ "»*«»»wne, 

ALWYN, 856. 

AM BIN AY, Abb^of, anu*^ aosl 

AMB0I8E, LoffiS 1. of, Biriiop of 

ALBI, OTMM, 465. "^ 

AMERICAN BISHOPS, acol* ^ 499 

( 507 ) 

AMBSBURT (Wiltohire), Bcnedietine 

MonasMry of, amu^ 863. 
Anu*Sf 46. 
Amice, Orty, 48. 
AMIENS, 280. 

„ anns, 402. 

,, Hee of, &01, 502. 
„ Vidaroe of, 106. 

ANAGNI, 8ee of, aiiHM, 18. 

annn, IAS. 
ANDBNNE, Abbey of, 490. 
ANDBR80X, Dr J., SeotUiiui in Mwrly 

ChrUtian Time*, 60. 
ANDLAU, Abbeaa MATHILDA of, 844. 
„ Abbey of, unn*, PI. II., fig. 3, 

u. Ifi. 
„ Family of, Advooatea or Val- 

vaMra of 8TRA8BURO, 105. 
„ Prinoely- Abbacy, arm*. 844. 

ANQEBAULT, Mgr., Biabop of 

AN6ER8, an/M, 81. 
of, an)u, 81. 
See of 502. 
ANGjLoSAXON,' PonUfioal at ROUEN, 

ANG0UL£:ME, See of, 502. 

AN HOLT, Lordahip of, aamu, SIS. 
ANJOU, ann*, 71, 439. 

„ Countfl of. Honorary Qkoona at 
TOURS, 51. 
Connt of, 858. 
ANNEBAUT, Marqueeaea of, held dignity 

of " VI DAME D'AMIENS," 105. 
ANNECY, 286. 

„ See of, 502, 50S. 

ANSELME, P^RE, quoted, 25, 84, 464. 
ANTIGUA, See of, 246, 247. 

„ ttr»u, 247 ; PI. XXX IV. , 
fig. 8, p. 248 
ANTIOCH, Patriarchate of, 124, 127. 
Antiquarie*, EDINBURGH, Museum qf 
the Socittp etf, 60. 
„ LONDON, Proc. of Society 

o/, 8, 9, 10,114, 128. 
Antifiuitirs, aee Dictionary Christian, 
ANTONELLI, Cardinal, 135. 
ANTWERP, Gallery oi Picturea at, 74. 
,, Pi-emonatratensian Abbey of 

8. MICHAEL, ortM, 407. 
AOSTA, See of, BiiflTragan to Archbiahoprio 

of TARENTAISE, 825. 
APT, See of. 501. 
AQUILANI, See of, arm*, 18. 
AQUILEIA, BRIXEN suffragan to, 274. 
Con noil of, 326 
HERMAGORAS, patriarch 
of, 327. 

Patriarchate of, 287. 

Patriarch of, 274. 
Biahop of, 326. 
,, Title of Patriarch given to 

Biahop of, 125. 
„ TRIENT, suffragan to, 826. 

„ TRIESTE, anffragan to, 




of, 404, 412. 
„ or GUIENNE, Dnke of, 

Pair de France, 84. 
AQUITANIA-PRIMA, Province of, 125. 
„ •SECUNDA(nietropoUtan), 

ARA-CCELI, Church of, monument in, 

ARBOIS, Artn* of URSULINES at, 424. 
Arckarologia, IS. 

„ Miana, 80, 488, 497. 

„ Cantiano, 10. 

ARCHBISHOP, Archi- episcopal cross 
borne before the, 109, 110. 
, , and Elector had precedence 

over all Princes and Prelates of the 
EMPIRE, 253. 
Archbishops^ 106. 


EMPIRE, etc., 264. 
„ not allowed to use cross, 

in presence of PAPAL 
LEGATE. 131. 
of the HOLY ROMAN 
EMPIRE, 252. 
,, Pallium worn by, 100. 

,, some used cross beyond 

limits of their pro* 
vinoe, 110. 
„ Use of cross granted to 

all, 100. 
Arch-CbaDcellor, privileges of attaching 

to dignity, 254. 
ArehieapeUan, Title of, 253. 
ARDAGH, arms, 206. 

Bishop BURGH of, 206. 
See of, 201, 206, 207, 206. 
„ anns, 214, 205. 
,, ,, ,, PI. A X \ 1 1., 

flg. 4, p. 206. 
ARDBRACCAN, See of, 202. 
ARDFERT, formerly known as Bishopric 
of KERRY, 215. 
„ See of, 201,215. 

,, ,, arfn«, 215. 

ARDMORE, Bishopric of, 212. 
AREMBBRG, Prince of, Grand Cup- 
bearer of COLN, 262. 


of, tomb of, 87. 
Bishop of, seal and arms, 458. 
„ and THE ISLES, See of, 
anns, 221. 
ANDREW, Bishop of, 419. 
ANDREW BOYD, Biabop of. 

arm*^ 24. 
arms 221. 
Bishop ARTHUR ROSS of, 

seal, 221. 
DAVID, Bishop of, 419. 
crosier in poeseesion of Duke 

of, 60. 
FIN LAY, Bishop of, 419. 
of, arm*, 468. 
of, amUf S4. 



( 5o8 ) 


• t 

• t 

ISm of, 216, 217. 

„ arvu, PI. XXVIIL, fig. 
A, p. 214. 
ARIMINUM, Council of, 191. 
ARK A NS AH, Biahop of, moI, 499. 
ARLBS, Archbubop, wm alao Prince of, 
ArchbUhopof, ami Prinutto, 127. 
Archbbhopric, with Mifftagan 

He*, 601, 002. 
Bishop of, palliuiH tteni to, 124. 
Conncilof, 173. 

PIERRE UE FOIX, Arcbbi«hop 
of, iM. 
„ 8T. C.ESARIUS, Bishop of, 

I^fe of, 69. 
,, Bynudof. 191. 
ARLESHEIM, Chapter uf BABEL Ca- 
thedral reiuuvwl u>, 209. 
ARMAGH, 204. 

ALBERT, Archbishop of, 281. 
Archbishop OEIJkSIUB of, 

Archbishop OCTAVIAN DE 
PAL Alio of, *^, 201. 
,, Archbishop of " Primat« of all 

Ireland,'^ 111, 201. 
„ Archbishopric, ITH, 191, 200, 

201, 203, 204, 
,, ,, arMM, 115, 117, 

201 ; PI. 
XXYL, fig. 
1. p.202. 
„ „ «t<urappearsin 

xhieUl of, 109. 
„ Prelate of the Order of BT. 
PATRICK, 201. 
ARMAGNAC. GEORGE, Cardinal d', 

(I nut, 140. 
ARMELLINI, CardlnsI, arms, 145. 
Armi th' MuniripJ Tmctini, 100. 
ARM IDA LE. See of, aruu, PI. XXXIIL, 

fig. 4, p. 244. 
Armorial liearings, Military Origin of, S. 
AnnoiHal du Hn-aul (wueldrt, 37, 83, 102, 
,, Grnrral tie FiVLnrf, 8. 
Unittrtil, L\ 42, 144. 
A I'm*, Monastic, derived from cu-m* of 
founder, 12. 
,, of Regular Onler impaled with 
iiersonal tinn*, 40. 
ARXOUIJ). lii»h«pof LISIEUX.sro/, 6«. 
ARNHPERO, nnuM, 2«J3. 

,, (bounty of, nrmn, 2ri2, 469, 

ARQUIEN. arui*, 1S8. 

„ LA GRANGE I)', C^&rdinal, 

ARRAGON.anM*, 71. 
ARRAN, aniiM, 24. 

JAMEB, Earl of, 24. 
ARRAS, unM, 402. 

,, Church of, 270. 
„ JEAN, Abbot of, nnn*, 402. 
„ (8. VAAST DtARRAS), Bene- 
dictine, ariiU, 402. 
„ See of, 501, 502. 
„ Huffragan to CAM BRAY, 277. 
of, 4(K). 
„ Thirteenth Earl of, 172. 

ARUNDEL, THOMAH, Airbbiabop <d 
82; mo/ and armji, 4«)i 

ASOOLl, MUSCI D*, arma, I«a 
ASH BRIDGE (BackaX Anfaatiuaa 

Friara, arms, S&3. 

BOROUGH. aro/. 18«. 
ASIA, independence Uiken tr%tax Dkwac. 

125. ^^ 

ASIAN A. Diooeee, 1S5. 
A3PBRMONT, arau and rrr«#, 879. 


ASSINDE, Abbey of, 345. 
A8SIN1BOIA, District of, 236. 
ASTLB'S Actount of tAe SeaU nf the Kimm, 

tU., ofScnUand, 428. 
ASTORGA, Marqaia of, HooonLrr OiHfn 

at LEON, 51. 

See of, 234, 2S5, 230; araaa. 235: 

PL XXXL, fig. 7, p. 238 : PL XXXIV.. 

llf. 10, p. 248. 

ATHBLNBT (Sonaereet), BeD«li«taw> 

Abbej, aruu, 353. 
ATHELSTAN, King, 877, 379. 

ATHBRSTON (Warwickahii«X Friarj, 

ama, 358. 
ATHOLL, Duke of. King of MAN, IW. 
ATICHY, Biabop d*, of BIEZ, arti*, 142. 
AU, Abbey of, orMa. 395. 
AUBERT, amu, 160. 

„ Biabop, Royal letten to. 93. 
AUCH, Archbishopric with aaftn^ 

Seea, 501, 502. -«•« 

AUCKLAND See of arms of. 242. 248; 

PI. XXXIL. fig. 2, p. 242. 
AUDBLEY, HBNRY, arms, 371 
AUDLBY, THOMAS. Lord. 440* 
AUFSASS, Family of, 267. 

amu^ 265. 

Bishop of, 280. 

^ o* **'^'"*^ Biahopa of the 
See, 264. 

BRUNO, fl^ prtnce- 

Biahop of, 264. 

Chapter of, 266, 478. 

Coadjutor of. 20.1. 

Prinoe-Biabop of 235 - 
artM, 88. . *«» . 

Pnnce-BiahoD of ^wm^^ 

265. ^rmm, 

JO'SEPH. Prinoe-Blrfiop 

of, arm*, 87. ^ 


„ S<^!f?'L?***'"»^°''^ 

;; Senate *of7V7«^'*^^-*«- 

SEMPKRT. Biabop of, 264 

•uffk««a& to Mainz. 252. * 

saffragan to M UNICH. 284 

AUOST (Atiffusta MauraearumX m. 



( 509 ) 



BASEL, See, 270. 
AUGUSTINS, Church of the, at TOU- 
LOUSE, Aruhi-epiflcopal arm» in, 

Earl of, S78. 
AUM6nIER, LE grand, the flrat 
ecclesiaj»tical dignitarj in France, 
AiimugM, 46. 
A urea Bulla, 253. 
AUSTRALIA, Diocese of, 288, 240. 

Province of, See in, 238. 

AUSTRIA, 318. 

,, Archdukes of, hereditary ad- 

vocates of the See of 8ALZ- 
BURG, 319. 
titiM, 287, 817, 329, 307. 
Dukes of, 321,838. 
LEOPOLD, Margrave of, 898. 
OTTO, Margrave of. Bishop of 
„ RODOLPH. Duke of, 269. 

AUTUN, a. WW, of URSULINES at, 424. 
Bishop uses t\\^ pallium, 116. 
Convent uf Jacobine Nuns at, 
arm$, 420. 
,, See of , 501, 502. 
AUVERGNE, arm*, 470. 


of, 488. 
AUXERRE, Archbishopric of, 601, 602. 

VILLE, Bishop of, an'iiu^ 
Bishop of, arm*, 131. 
„ HUGH, Bi»liop of, ttal, 67. 

,, Monastery, 417. 

AUX0I8, Priory of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, atiM, 414. 

AVALLON, 422. 

AVALON, aniu of URSULINES at, 424. 
„ VICOMTE, D', Honorary Canon 
at AUXERRE, 51. 
See at '^9'^ 

Bene<lictine Abbey of, 488. 
AVIGNON, 158. 

„ Archbishopric, with suffra- 

gan Sees, 508. 

mitre, PI. VI I L, flg. 
2, p. i^^. 
„ Bishop of, Mai, 62, 6<). 

of, mitre, PL VI I L, 
flg. 3, p. 66. 
See of, 601. 
AX HOLM (Llnoulnshire), Carthusian 

Priory, aral, 353. 
AYLESFORD (Kent), Carraelita Priory, 
ariMf 863. 





Bachul Afore, 60, 
Ba^euluM paatorali*, 60. 
BADEN, Grand-Duchy of, 280. 

HOCHBERG, armn, 468. 

grave of, 468. 
House of, aitiu, 468. 
Batlges of Chapteral Rank, 32. 

,, Knighthood, 32. 
BAGOT, Bishop of BATH and WELLS, 

Canon and Protonotary of S. DONA- 
TIEN (BrugesX arm», 44. 
BAINDT, Princely- Abbacy of, arrM^ 

BALA SAG UN, 179. 
BALLAARAT, See of, 238. 

,, ,, arms, 241 ; PI. 

XXXIII., flg. 6, p. 244. 
BALLIOL, arm*, 428, 437. 

„ COLLEGE (Oxford), arm, 

„ JOHN, 427. 

BALMERINO, Abbey of, 114. 
BALSHAM, arm*, 437. 

HUGH DE, Bishop of ELY, 
arm*, 436. 
of NOYON, arm*, 92. 
ETTE DE, 25. 
BAMBERG, 322, 477. 

of SEINSHEIM, Prince- 
Bishop of, arm*, 90, 267, 
Archbishopric, 267. 
arm*, 88. 
Bishop of, 332. 

, , liad archi-episoo- 

pal honours, 266. 
Bishop used tlie pallium, 

Chapter of, 476, 
Coins etc., during vacancy of 

See, 49. 
County of, 266. 
CreM of, 267. 
EBEBHARD, Chancellor, 

first Bishop of, 266. 
Electors at, discharged duties 

by deputies, 267. 

Bisliop of, ann*, 268. 
Household of Bishop of, 266. 
JOSEPH, Count von 
STUBENBERG, Bishop of 
EICHSTADT, and Arch- 
bishop of, 282. 
Lion* as supporters, 90. 
Mit^t used at, by Canons, 48. 
OTTO, Bishop of, 275. 
DERNBACH, Prince- 

Bishop of, arm*, 88, 267. 
„ Prince-Bishop of, "Primate 

of GERMANY," 109. 
,, Prinoe-Bisliop of, privileged 

U) OM erou Ka^paUium, 109, 116. 








( 5IO ) 

BAMBERG, See of, (Prince- BUhopricX 

ann*, »0, 26*), 268; ertut, 267. 

„ The Emperor Honorary 

Canon of, 50. 

Wt'RZUURG, sninragan to, 


BANBURY (I.ei>er Hospital of 8. JOHN). 

anil*, 3'U. 
BANDINELLI, a.-w*. 158. 

VOLUMNIO, Cardinal, 
armA, 148. 
BANGOR, DAVID, Bithop of, 17(i. 
Deanery, ann*, 198. 
HERVBU8, Bishop of, 175. 
MERRICK, Biiihop of, mo/, 

„ See of, 178. 

,. „ arm*, 175, 41»7 ; PI. 

XXI., Hg. 1, p. 176. 
BANTRY, Ear] of, ann*, 433. 
BANZ (near LiclitenfeUX Benedictine 

Abbey, ann*, 8i)5. 
BAR, aj-wM, 71, 439. 

arm*, 93. 
arm*, PI. III., fig. 1, 



p. 40. 


Canon, arm*, 48. 
BARBADOS, See of, 240, 247. 

„ arm*, 24C ; PI. 
XXXIV., fig. 6, p. 248. 
BARBBRINI. arm*, IH4. 

ANTOINE, Canlinal, 
ami*, 142, 144; PI. I., 
ftg. 7, p. 14. 
ANTONIO, Canlinal, 418. 
,, Canlinal, Arch- 
bishop of 
*huld, 140. 
,, „ "Cardinal Ca- 


9cudi of, 


FRANCOIS, Cardinal, 

oriii*, 144. 

BARBIER, LOUIS. DE, Bishop and 

Duke of LAN- 
GRES, arm*, 
,, ,, ,, Bishop and 

Duke of LANG RES, thicld, 140. 
BARHO, onM, 1»)1. 
BARDNEY (Lincolnshire), Benedictine 
Abbey, arm*, 354. 
,, Abbots of, *eal*, 354. 

ETHELRED, Abbot of, 

BARKING (Emcx), Benedictine Nunnery, 
ann*, 354. 
of. 354. 
BARNET, Bishop, iifrr(t¥m of, 400. 
JOHN DE, 4fiO. 
,, MM Archdeacon of 

LONDON, *fcre- 
turn, 463. 
, MM Biithop of BATH 

and WELLS, atcrtttuu and ann*, 460. 

BARNET, JOHN DB, Biahop of BLT. 

secrrC«i«s and 
ttnnM, 400. 
M .. M Biahop of WOR- 

CESTER, tftrttum and arwut, 4^. 
BARNSTAPLE (Devon) (Clnniao Priory 
of S. MARY MAGDALENKX <trwwi> 
BARONIUS, quoted, 65. 
BARONS, Canons becoming, in ri^t of 
their stolLs, 4.5. 
EVftQUES, 132. 
BARRADAT, HENRI, Biahop- Count of 

NOYON. arm$, PI. X.. flg. 6, p. 84. 
BARRAULT, I'Abb^, U Baton ptutaml, 

BARSUR-9E1NE, Collegiate ClMptor of, 

arm*, 409. 
BURG, Bishop of BRESLAU. otnm 

Frtince, 22, 472. 
BASEL or BASLE, 268. 

ADALBKRO II., Bishop of. 2«8. 
„ ADBLPHIUS, BUbop of. 268. 
„ Banner of, 269. 
,, Bishop of, 896. 

M f> niust bo of noble birth. 


Chapter of, 478. 


GEN, Bishop of, 2rtp. 
JUSTINIAN, Biahop of, 2«8. 
Prince-Bishop of, arirtjr, PL* v 

fig. 6, p. 4rt. * 

RAGNACHAR. Bishop of, 268 
8eai* of early Bishope an*l tomb*, 

in Minster at, 270. 
See of, 208, 269, 284. 

,, arm*, 270. 

,, made snffVagan to BE- 
SANQOX. 269. 

„ Uncertainty conoemins 
arm* of, 2t»9. '^^ 

UNIVERSITY, arjjui, 454 
WALAN, Bishop of. 2«8. ' 
BASING WERK (FlinUhire) (Cistercian 

Abbey), arm*, 355. 
BAS-MOUSTIER, Abbey, .S48. 
BASSET, arm*, 8, 353. 

FULK, Bishop of LONDON 
ttal, S. • 

RICHARD, arm*, of, 378. 
BASSINGBORNE, onn*, 30. 

of SAINTES. arm*, 

BATEMAN, WILLIAM, Bishop * 'i^ 


>t M Biahop of 

NORWICH, *tal, 185. ^ 

BATH Abbey, Monks of, 177. 
,, of, ann*, 170. 
Cathedral of, 177. 
ROGER, Bishop of, 498. 
Bisliop of, arms, 27 ; teat, 176. * 




( S'l ) 




AGU of, Mtal, 
„ „ „ Bishop ROBERT 

»etU, 176. 
„ Bishop ROBERT 
of, 177. 

NET, Bishop 
of, teeretum 
and arvM^ 460. 

Se9 of, 178. 

„ anus, 176, 
181 ; PI. XXL, 
flg. 2, p. 176. 

Strife uetweeo, 

1 ^7 

„ „ „ WILLIAM 

KNIGHT, Bishop of, »eal and amm, 
BATHUR8T, See of, 238, 241. 

„ ,, antu, 241 ; PL 

XXXIIL, flg. 5, p. 244. 
BATTLE (SuHsex) (Benedictine Abbey of 

HOLV TRINITY), anm, 35y, 413. 
BAUFFREMONT, aruis, 131. 
BAUME, LA, Cardinal, ar,n$, 146. 

„ -LES-DAMES, Canonesses of, 

„ „ or LE.S NON- 

NAINS, Chap- 
ter of, 489. 
„ PIERRE DE LA, Prince-Bishop 
of GENF, 28«i. 
(BAUSA'O Archbishop of FLORENCE, 
anns, 118; PL XVIL, fig. 1, p. 
BAUTERSEM, nriM, 276. 
of, ariii^, 316. 
an*M, 263, 316, 348, 450, 469. 
ARNULF, Duke of, 348. 
BRUNO, Duke of, 264. 
Circle of, 318. 

Duke of, Arclibitthop and 
Elector of COLN, arms, 
262; PI. XV., p. 124. 
„ Duke of, 282. ^ 

,, „ Marshal to the See 

of BRIXEN, 274. 
Elector of, 318. 

,, Grand-Master of 

the Household 
of the Abbot 
,, Grand • Steward, 

of the BiHhop of BAM- 
BERG, 266. 
FERDINAND of, Prince- 
Archbishop and Elector of 
COLN, 310. 
GUELPH I., Duke of, 843. 
HENRY, Duke of, .348. 
MAXIMILIAN, Elector of, 


,, „ Prince- Arch- 

bishop of arms, 469. 
THEODORE, Duke of, 350. 
BAYEUX, See of, 501, 502. 
BAYONNE, See of, 502. 




BEARN, Antu of, 464. 

,, Count J of, anns, 26. 
bishops of ST. ANDREWS, 446. 
BEAU CHAMP, Anns of, 358 

RICHi^RD, Bishop of 
SALISBURY, seaJ, 189. 
BEAUFORT, arms, 440. 

,, Cardinal, arms, 26. 

„ MARGARET, Countess of 

BY, 440. 
ROGER DE, a)-»u, 160. 

at, 424 
BEAULIEU, Abbey of, 414. 

shire) (Cistercian Priory), amu, 355. 
BEAUME, Abbaie Royale de, arms, 403. 

bishop of PARIS, shield, 
FIXK DE, Bishop of 
RODEZ, nrnis, 120. 
,, LOUIS DE, Bishop of 

DURHAM, secU and arms, 29, 81. 


„ Chapter of the Collegiate 

Church, anas, 410. 
„ Convent of JACOBINE 

Nuns, at, anas, 420. 
Bishop 0>unt of, anus, 

PL X., flg. 8, p. 84. 
Bishop of, arms, 83. 
Bishop-Count of, carried 
Royal Mantle at coron- 
ation, 85. 
Bishop-Count ot. Pair de 

Franct, 84. 
Cope with aniis at, 42. 
Oflicial arms of, pairie, 85. 
Bishop of, in battle, 86. 
„ See of, 501, 502. 

BEAUVEAU, anas, 26. 

RIEL DE, Bishop of NANTES, arms, 
BEaVvIBUX, see MfcAN. 
II II II Honorary 

Canon, at AUXERRE, 51. 
BEC (Norfolk) (Hospital of S. THOMAS 
at BILLINGFORD), arms, 855. 
„ WILLIAM DE, anas, 355. 
BECHMAN, Excrc. ii., de Insiynibva, 348. 
BECK. BUhop of DURHAM, tituUr 

Patriarch of JERUSALEM, 127. 
BEDFORD, Blaxon of BpUeapacy, 98, 198, 

460, 497. 
BEGGA, STE., 490. 

of, seal, 356. 
„ or BAYHAM (Sussex) Pre- 

monstratensian Abbey of S. MARY, 
at LAMBERHURSTX aniu, 356. 




( 5»* ) 

BKINWIL, nri.!*, 3i»r». 
Mi-til and tti-M*, '2\*. 
„ liUhopof DUUIiAM. Patriarch of 
.TEKL'rtALEM. .ir.H*, 497. 
liKKINtiTON, Uii.liop uf WELIA 497. 

HATH anil 
WELI>. firm*, 27, 4W. 
Hii»liop of BATH and 
WELW, Mtnl, 17f.. 
ItEMni'M. A,'„i* of 8«e* in, 19. 
nVA.L, Mr, quott^i. 4'J7. 
HELLELA YE (Preuumttratennian), an#M, 

HEI.LEH, .4r*i^4 of, :C2. 
HELLKY, .4iw-of l:R^4UUXESat, 424. 
,, Cardinal de. Archbishop of 

PAKIS, nr,H*, 123. 
., JEAN, (Tanlinal de, arni$, 138. 

See of, .'.on. 

i-opUH," 271. 
HELlAciA Y MONCADA, Caniinal 

Lor IS, «.»M, M. 
IJENEhKT Vm., Pui>e. 41.'). 

XI., Poi>e (BOCCA8INI), 
at nut, ItK). 

XII., Pol* (NOVELLl), 

tli'lHM, llK). 

Xm.. Pojh; (ORSINI), 149, 
l.M, :ill ; nnn4, 143, i:>«, 
lO.'), IM, 419. 
XIV., Poi« (LAMBER- 
TINI), KM, 15«); annt, 
\M, 419. 
, , granto nse of ui itrr to iSohoIaa- 

tioiwofST. STEPHEN'S, Vienna, 49. 

vtmt of, 334. 
,, Monastery, ariHs, 

., Provmttf of, 334, 

BERESFORD, Archbishop, Utter front, 

,. ,, Peculiar ar- 

rangenient of |>ereonal and official 
nr„i* bj, 122. 
BER(}, Duchy of, 84.'). 
BER(iAIGNE. JOSEPH DE, Archbishop 

of CAM BRAY, (inn*, 27«}. 
von. IJiiihop of Ll'TTICH, ariM, 
BERGIIKS, JEAN, Seigneur DE, 483. 

WILLIAM DE, Archbiahop 
of CAM BRAY, arm*, ?7rt. 
of. cre*t, 100. 
,, Earlrt of, cnat and armf, 

,, Lords of, lued mitrt aa 

niKl, 105. 
BERMONDSEY, Priory of, 41.''). 

,, (Surrey) (Cluniac Abbej 

of St. Saviour), artH4, 85rt. 
BERMUDA, Dioc-ese of, ann*, 248. 
BERN, Canton of, 2t;0. 

„ See of, 2r.9. 
BERN AGE, DE, Protonotjiry, of 8. 
JACQUES, Antwerp, arum, 42; PI. 
IV., fijr. 1, p. 42. 
BERNARD, Bbhop of S. DAVID'S, 188. 

Bernardine Houaes, arms, 414. 
Bemardineia, Ci«t«rci«na known a». 411 
BKRNIS, FRAN\X)l8.Catdin*ld*,onw, 


BERRY, /* lir.aut, ^rmoriai df GUta h 
Boarifr, 10Z». 

BERTH1LD18, Queen, of BURGUNDY. 

BERULLB, Cardinal DE. 42.V 

X\ III., flit. 2. j>. 140. 
BESAN<.X>X (or III8ANTZX 422. 

Am^^MM at, 47. 

Archbiahop of , beaune Aidi- 
Chancellor of BURGUN- 
DY and Prince of tbt 
PIRIC. 270. 

Archbishopric with sofl^- 
gan »«ea of, ifi», 292, 30J, 
.S24, 321.. 329. 503. 

Anhbi«ho|ia of, hold title 
of Princea t»f the HOLY 

«»*.#«, 270, 414. 

Ari»Lt of ORATORIAN3 at, 

UlN, firat Archbiahop of. 

Biahope of. 270. 

BiKhop of, 271. 

biahop of. a*-w*«, 1«l 
DioceM of, 4SJ». 
Franciacan Monaatetr at, 

nrtHjt, 418. 
"UGUES, Archbiahop of. 





• ♦ 



• I 

^'r*V,*??* *t. bjCanona, «. 

LIDONIUS, Biahop of, 




See of, 271 

UNIVERiil-n- arm* 4i5. 
BETWE, Honae of, 481. ' * *^ 

BEVERLEY. PERCY Shrine at. 90 

S. JOHN of, 366. 

.^, ^^'**«^'?"'*>» Benedictine 

Abbey, ann*, 300. 

BEYN. County of, 2tK). 
BEZIERS. Seeof, .'.01. 

„ BERTHOI^D, Count of S4* 

BlCUr, ANTONIO, Cardi^ anL- 1« 
BIGOT, Earl Marahnll. .W2. * * 

„ Earl of NORFOLK. 388. 
BILEIGH (Em«x) Priory, nnns, 356. 

niamler of, anM, 33U. ' 

BINIK)N (Dorset) Cistercian Abber «r 
8. MARY, armA, 357. ^ ^ 

BURY, coMntfr^it.(iL, ISV 
WILLIAM, Prior of THUR- 
G ASTON, wo/ of, 389. ' " ^ n 

BIRAGUE, Cardinal, ann*^ 140. 
B'ivttta above »kidd, 40. 

or four-cornered ecdeaiaetical hat. 



( 513 ) 








Birettn anrmonnting a Ae/m«(, 40. 
BIRKENHEAD (Chester) Benedictine 
Priory, antu, S67. 
? Bishop, Peraonal anm of a, adopted aa 
* bearings of the See, 82. 

Bishoprics, Anns adopted for, 4. 

„ Coni|M>sition of, amu of, 11. 

Biahopa, some added tftuporal svot'U to 
jHUtmtil stajr and mitre, 93. 
„ archi-rpi$enpal crou borne before 
' some in their Diocese, 109. 

„ aritm of, liow borne, 79, 80. 
[ „ Colonial, use mHrt^ lOt). 

„ use peutoral staff, 106. 

Copt nsed by some, 106. 
English, use luitre, 10(5. 

„ use poMtoral Haff, 106. 
Epinropal rinp nsed, 106. 
Italian, mode of using e$euehe<m, 

Lands of, held by military ten- 
ure, 93. 
Military duties of, 95. 
Mitrf introduced into amm of 

English, 97. 

262, 2i'»4. 
Patlium worn by some, 109. 
PoMtoral alnff ot, 61. 
Pectoral aont used by some, 106. 
Scottish, use mitit, 106. 

„ use peutoral ttnJF, 106. 
some French, placed helmet on 
one side of shield and ttroM 
on other, W. 
who poestfssed no armorial bear- 
ings by inheritance assumed 
ann$, 81. 
., Seals of American, 499. 
,, some U8e«l only green Episcopal 
hot above shield, 91. 
LESDEN (Buckinghamshire), Cis- 
tercian Abbey of SS. MARY and 
NICOLAS, arms, 357. 
BIVILLE, THOMAS DE, Chasuble given 

to, 29. 

BLESLE, Benedictine Abbey of, 488. 
BLOEMFOXTEIN, See of, 244. 

„ onM«,246;Pl.XXXin., 

flg. 11, p. 244. 
BLOIS, See of, 501, 502. 
BLUND, arms, 372. 

arms, 27. 
BLUNT quoted, 14. 
BLTTHE, SAMUEL, D.D., Master of 

CLARE HALL, mnnHtiUHt, 43S. 
BOCCASINI, ai-ms, 160. 
BOCHU, Abb^, a^M, 72. 

LtBECK, 295. 
BODMIN (Cornwall), Benedictine Priory 
of SS. MARY and PETER, arms, 357. 
BOHEMIA, King of, Grand Cupbearer 
of Bishop of BAMBERG, 
,, Lion of. 453. 

VRATISLAV, Duke of, 
mitre granteil to, 65. 
BOIS, Sir ARNOLD DU, 857. 

2 L 



BOIS-BOISSEL, Abb^ de, arms, 45. 

BOI8-LE-DUC, See of, 328. 


62; PI. IlL.ilg. 5, p. 40. 
BOISSBL, Canon-Count of LYON, arms, 
PL III., flg. 3, p. 40. 
Canon and Count of LYON, arms, 
45, 46. 
BOLES LAS v., 861. 

arms, 98. 
OIROLAMO, Cardinal CO- 
LONNA, Archbishop of 
medal, 141. 
Gnelphic families of, 164. 
UNIVERSITY, amis, 456. 
BOLTON, Lord SCROPE of, anus, 12. 

„ (YorkshireX Priory of Car- 
melites, arms, 357. 
BOMBAY, Bishop DOUGLAS of, o/tjix, 
„ See of, 230. 

„ „ an«*, 237; PL XX XL, 

flg. 8, p. 288. 
BONA, Cardinal, ai-ms, 141, 148. 
BONELLO, Cardinal, arms, 146. 

135, 151. 
„ arms, 160. 

,, on/iJi, 161. 
Legate. 124. 
of SAVOY, seaf, 10. 
Pope, tomb of, 151. 
BONITO, Cardinal, Archbishop of PISA. 

monument, 187. 
TRO, aitns, 146. 
HAM, seal, 192 
„ WILLIAM, Bishop of LICH- 
FIELD, seat, 188. 

seal, 181. 

anus, 264. 
ri-est, 305. 

JOSSE, Lord of, 805. 
„ Lordship of, arms, 263, 

304 323. 


bishop of, aiiHS, PI. XIV., fig. 1, p. 

Abbot of, seal, 858. 
,t (Worcestershire), Cister- 

cian Abbey of S. MARY, antu, 857. 
BOROHESE, anus, 164. 
BORGIA, 145. 

arms, 161, 162. 
BORROMEO, (Ordinal, arms, 146. 
BOSTON, Inventory of Guild of Bleved 

Virgin in, SO. 
BOTZEN, 826. 

BOUILLON, Cardinal-Duke of, shield, 





( 514) 

• » 

BOUILLON, Dnchy of, 297. 

«ir»u, Wi'i, 2W, 470. 
Puke of. 296. 



VKRONE, Canlinal d«, 

ariHM, 470. 

,, Ni>tre l)iiiu« de, CUtercUn, 

nrms, 406. 


D«ur il«*. 48.'). 
BOULOGNE, ontut, 470. 
,, 8e« uf, ftOl. 

STEPHEN, Earl of, 309. 
BOURBON, CliARLK.S, Cardinal de, 

niuiu, 4<i6. 
,, Diicde, 404. 

II FN K I DE, Bishop of 

METZ, ariu*,25. 
LANCEY, 422. 
„ ,, ariHM of UR8U- 

LINES of, 4 J4. 
KEYNAUD, BiUrd de 
Ari-libiBhop «f NARBONNE,ai-»#<«, 2J. 
BOUKHOURG, CHnon«MeMof, 494. 
BOURDEAL'X, MetropoliUui uf. S4. 

,, Archbiahoiiric, with snf- 

f ragan 8t«M, 602. 
B'ntnlOH, l.'>, 32. 

., or knobbed staff. 51. 
,, niw of, by prior* and priitrewiea 
abroaii, .'«2. 

onn* of URSU- 

LINES at. 424. 

,, ,, Chapter of Notr«9 

Dame, nitHt, 
,, ,, Franciscan Monaa- 

t<frv at, rti'iiw, 418. 
BOUlKiES, Archbishop of, and Primate, 
S5, 127. 
Arohbiiihopric, with suffra- 

(ran Sees. 501, 502. 
GUILLAUME, Archbishop 
of, mitit, PL VIIL, flg. «, 
p. W. 
., Metru[H)litan of, 84. 

., Title uf Patriarch given to 

Bishop of, 12.*). 

D'ESTAMPES, AhW of, ar/ii*, 4rtd. 

DAVID. BAtard de, Bisliop 
nrmn, 24. 
JEAN, BAtard de, Provtwt 
of St. OMER, geal and 
an/M, 4fi.5. 
RENAUD IIL, Comte de, 
m)USSEN, FRANVOIS, Bishop of BRU- 

(JF.S, ariitM, 81. 
BOUTELL, Chrittian Monuutnit*, 8. 

,, Ilnaldrff, Hittoricol and 

Popviar, 442, 401. 
,, qnoted, 14. 


JEAN LE, 414. 
Bouvines, Battle of. 3fl. 37, Po. 

BOWETT, HENRY, Archbishop of York, 
$«al and an<M, 191, 458. 

BOX LEY (KentX CiateroUn Abbey, mrms 

nmu, 24. 
THOMAS, Lotd. 34. 
BRABANT, aruia, 27<S, 4«5. 

„ Dakea of, 488, 401. 

at UTRECHT, 51. ' 

of CORVKY, 280. ^^ 

BRAOA, Archbiabop €»i, in rbrtapl, 
claioia Primnaj of wbole 
Peninanbt, 127. 
bisbop of, nratu, XS. 
„ Mtfrf, naed bj Oanooa at, 4& 


Archbishop of, quoted, IM. 

MarksxmT« of, 30a 
M Biahopric, armM, f7. 

C>iapter of, 493. 
LIAM, Arehbidbop 
Prince of. 300. 
Daohj of, 900. 
<rf, 271. 
.. of. 289, 300. 



II ,, of, Giaod- 


Electorato of, 277, »!. 

Klecton of, C«|»- 
]j!?»rw. of TRIBR, 

biahop of IIAGDB- 
gURG, Prince of. 

JOACHIM, Eteke of 
Biabop of, 271. 

RICK, Arohbiahoit 
Prinoe of, 300. 

''^wSH'^ FREDE. 

HICK, Biabop of 

LEBUS. MarkJ^Te 

of, 293. 
Princes of tbe Hove 

of. 288,308. 
1 rnaaian Pit>Tiiice of 

See of, auffracan to 


^. .**'» wiffraian to 
MAINZ. 27ir 

Str^ of MAQDE- 
BUr6. Prince of. 

erav^nf^ir ^^^'^LM. Mar- 

grave or, 317. 

BRANDIS, <in#u, 314. 

to,Hbot,7i. ^ FASTER, 

BRASCHf, arm», 166. 

(S'5 ) 

DBAZBNOaE, orMJ, *«. 

LEQE (Oirord), nrru. 411. 
fittBAKSPKAKE, tir.«i, liUt. 

BIIEOHIK. DAVID, Loid at, iH. 
.. Lordttiip uf. 2f2. 



of KEMPTEtJ, „.. 
URBHEN <ind HAKbURO, Arobbiihopi 



Bliboiicio of, i: 


I, Priootof DEN- 
MARK, Btikop of , 371. 


8, "asSGAR monk of COR- 
VBV, *lu Bl>h(>ii of, 17!. 

H. WILLEHAD, ftnt Biibou 

Ste of, itl. 

',', tmiwd lo S» of 'hAHBURO, 



Bnn Oilln-ju MILAN^. plstnm Id, 151. 



inula ■□ffngsn lo HAODE- 

BURO, iS7. 
tSgr. KOFP, PriDOB-Biihop 

of, *V0. 
Piinu-BJBhDprlc, nmu, Hi. 

", „ 'inffnijiuitoaNENEN, 

„ UXIVER81TY. oniu, tii. 

BRVtoS, QUIL. DE, quoWd. SH- 


BUhop'Dukf of 
LAOS. ni-.«,SB. 


id an^ in6. 
loikabitt), Prloij of 

[lutlDlftn CuiDDfl dKU«t«d tc 

Anrutlnln Ct 

MA^V, orm, s;_. 
BttlB, aulLLAUHE DE, Blihini of 

DDL, o.iw, 01. 
BRIG ID, HOBL, Bbliop of lUFHOE, 

BBIOUDB, Jlfili* DMd bj Cuon* of, 

BRI8BASB, 8«of, 2SS. 

Cmligdral, tufad lUlli In, 
Cithidrml, UnldooUfled eoat 

8. AUGU8T1NE')J Mooutorr 

aj, a, p. 179. 

BRITAIN', Bovonkn of, Cnml Cwum > 

Ch.iiMr of STrT>AVlDB', 60. 
lir<lTl»<ll COLUMBIA. S«* uf, 219, 

n, », s", M, HI, M, 101, iM,' lb 

111, lie, ITS, J7g, 181, ISS, 185. IB 
188, IBa. iVi, IW, IBB, 85*. 1M,3S 

9, BM, JBl, ^sr, 

BBliju't ud trot of, IT4. 

Bella in Cfanrcbof, '^79. 
Dnke of BAVARIA. Uanhal 

vWt Dl'cARINTHIA, Ch»ia- 

Dnke of h'eRAN, Bntltt of, 

Dukt of 8UAB1A, Cartn of, 


Blihop of, anu, 90, 175. 

Pri™.'Blilioptlo, aria, K8L 
S. ALBUm, Blihopof, Z74. 
B. CABSIAfJ, BWWl.ot, S74. 
8. INGEKUIN, Bi^p of, 27t. 
8»of, 274. 

.. , . heredltarj offlqfHli, 374. 

., ,. mffnnn to CbDroh of 

Af^lLEIA, 374. 
•Qffitfui to 8ALZ- 



(Eimpaliirs) Prlorf of Ancutlnlui 




BU0NCK110R8T, Conni GIHUERT of. 

,, J<»88E, Coani of, 

BR(>Nl»C()MB, WALTER. Bbbop of 

EXETER. »»/, 180. 
BROOKE, Rj^jah of UARAWAK, aruut, 


BROU, Convent uf ^MyMJltat <1e<kau*»r% 

at, nr,H». 41G. 
BR(»WN. 8TEPHEN, BUhop of ROS8, 

anMJi, 21S. 
BRUGES, Bi^hol)•of, amiii, 83. 


hop of, firf#i«, 81. 
Bikhott of, hi'mu^ tui. 
hop of, oriMJt, 83. 
hop of, jmllit'tH conferred on, 
,, See of, nriH«, 83. 

BRUNE, aniM, 37«. 
BRUNEHAUT, Qneen, 403. 
BRUNN, Huffragan to OLMCTZ, 807. 
BRUNO. ArchbMhop of COLOGNE, 400 

tVe*«of, 311. 
Dukeii of, '2V0. 
•6 R U B E N H A G E N, 
PHILIP. Duke of. 810. 
NAND, Canon of the 
Churcli of ST. BAVON, 
toin't and »hieht, 470. 
TOPHER of. Archbiri- 
hop, aluo BiHhop of 
VERDEN, 27i». 
of, 308. 
Bishop of M INDEX, 
Duke of, 303. 
„ Princen of, 28^, 2iK). 

BRUTON (Soniernet) Augustinian Abbey, 

nriH*, 369. 
BRUUN, ProfeMor, The Mirrratioru of 

Prenter John, 179. 
BRYAN, Sir GUY DK, anns of, 3Srt. 
BUBWITH, Bishop of WELLS, 41»7. 
BUCCAPADULI, Bishop, an.tM, iU. 
BUCHAX, Mornmer of, 2*20. 
BUCHAU, antiM, 77. 

,, Abbess of, arm*, 7(J. 

,, ,, Countess of KON- 

,, ,, had rank of Prin- 

cess of the EMPIRE, M:k 
„ Princely- Abbacy of, cnu*, 

BUCKENHAM (Norfolk) Priory, amtit, 

(DeTon)CisterciAn Abbey of S. MARY, 
arw*, 369. 



Dakeof, 440. 
BUCK LAND fUeTnn) dmlmrvimn Abbey 

of 88. M Aft Y ana BBNEDICT, ar^ 

BUDWEI8, Sw of, SIS. 
BUFFALO, Biahop of, amf, 4¥9. 
BU1LDWA8 Abbbta U, mnl, 7. 
BUILLON. Ciaiernan, n»-m^ »T, 405. 

GOW, sra/ and a*-«M«, 457. 
BUONCOMPAGXI. «..--, 16S. 

,. V lilROLAMO, Car- 

dinal. nrmn, 14<. 

BURCE81'BR (Oxford) Aoputiaisa 
Priory of 8T. E1>UU RG A. ar»*L S3*. 

BURDETT, ai-H«, 23S. ^^ 

„ COUTTS, arMji, 244. 

>f tf Mias ANGELA. 

233. 244. "*!--, 

BURGERMEISTER, BiOl^tkefm &»«■ 

fris, 85. M, 105. 2«-.7. 335. 
BURGH, Bishop of ARDAGH. aO«. 

,, JOHN DK, €wu^, 437. 
arm*t 27. 

®^^S.%» ^»-«w qr the CW/eprji «l OX- 
FORD, 4J7. 431, 433. 
BURGUNDY, a.-M« of. 406. 4^ 

-AXCIKXT, arms, 141, 401. 

4I.H, 414, 4«5. 
•COUXTY,a.«*. 414. 
Diid) J of. Cl«rica in, M. 
Dnka of. Pu*r de Fntmrt, 

Duke* of, HononuY CasoBa 

at LYOX8, 50. 
HUGH. Dakeof. 410L 
-MODERX. or»u. 71 4*5. 
PHILIP. DukHf ,24. 
PHILIPPE. U sin D«ka 

BURI^E,'8ir'BERXARD, Gmtrmi Jr- 

215"^459"******* ^^' ^^' ^^ **^ •**" 


and WELLS, ttat, 176. 
HeraUtry, Briti^ nmi 

tiirr^^r ^^^®-^»T. BWlopofSALIS- 
BURY, artMy 79. 

BURNHAM (Bnckinghiunafain)) Anna- 
tinian Abbey of 8. MARY. arMM. M>. 

BURSCOUGH fLancaater) PriSJy rf 
Angiistinian Canona, arms !MSO 

BURTON-ONTRENT (8Udfoni»hiT«> 

Benedictine Abbej. arms, SAa 

Vt^ JJ< ,,^^RU8 (BURTON 
LIZARS) (Leic«aterabii«) HoniitaL 
arw**, 860. 1— — ♦ 


Abbot «.f, 
ar«/. 361. 
I X 8 U L A, 
TON, Abbot 
of, aMil, 300. 

Abbey, oi-mji, 3iK>. 

f I 



(517 ) 


Bishop uf FULUA, 285. 
liU88l£:RE, Abbey of, aruia, 414. 

., Ciatercinn Abbev of, 405. 

BUTLER, avMA, 210, 365. 

EDMUND, Archbishop, m<iI, 

bishop of RIGA, 306. 
of RIGA, 281,317. 
BYKER, aruis, 340. 
BYLAND, Abbey of, 414. 
,, Abbots of, stal, 7. 

,, (Yorkshire) CisterciaD Abbey 

of 8. MARY, ami*, 3rtl. 
BYZANTIUM, amu, 271. 

CACCI, Cardinal, arm*, 145. 
CACCIAMEMIM, arm*, 158. 
CADAL0U8, Bishop of PARMA, 64. 
Cadenetf, Mark* of, not generally used by 
EkM^lesiastios, 23. 
,, Use of, among English Ecclesi- 
astics, 20. 
CAEN UNIVERSITY, arm*, 45,'i. 
CAERLBON, 8ee of, 188. 
CESAR E A, Metroi>olis of, 123. 
CAETANI, arm*, 160. 
CA H IE R quoted, 157. 
CAUOR8, Bishop of, tisM Count's 

comnet, 100. 
„ »nteUi, 96. 

DB LA ROCHE, Bishop of, 
ami*, 96; PI. XI., fig. 2, 
J). 96. 
Sutfrsgan Sees of, 501, 502. 

HRUOE-S, arm*, 83. 

ann*. 463. 
MURRAY, Bishop, itat, 
218, 226. 
arm*, 226. 

Canon of, *€ttl and arms, 
or ORKNEY, See of, 218. 
See of, 216. 
,, arm$, PL XXIX, 
flg. 3, p. 224. 
CAIUS, arm*, 441. 

„ COLLEGE (Cambridge), anus, 

„ JOHN, 441. 
CAJETAN, Cardinal, ar»,i*, 145. 
Cat ah It fur, 46. 

CALCUTTA, Archdeaconry of, 238. 

,, (Metropolitan) See of, 236. 

,, See of, arm*, 236 ; PI. 

XXXI., ftg. 6, p. 2:i8. 
,. Sees in Province of, 286. 

CALDER ABBEY (Cumberland), arm*, 

361 ; PI. I., fig. 11, p. 14. 
CALDES, ami*, 312. 
CALEDONIA, See of, NEW, 233. 

„ „ arm*, 233; PL 

XXX., fig. 12, |>. 232. 
CALGARY, See of, 234, 235, 236. 






CALIXTUS IL, Pope. 65. 

I IL, Pope(BORGIAX H5,162. 
„ „ arm*, ICl. 

,, ,, medaU of, 154. 

CALW, ERLUNG, Bishop of Wt)RZ- 

BURG, Count of, 332. 
C AMALDOLI, ORDER OF, artn* ,167, 428. 
CAM BERG, arm*, 396. 
CHARLES DB, Prince • Bishop of 
METZ, aiTHii, 121 ; PL XIL, p. 110. 
CAM BRAY, Archbishopric of France, 
,, Archbishopric, with snflVa- 

gan See, 502. 
Bishop JAMES of CROY, 

Duke of, 276. 
Bitihop of, S76. 
,, E*cuch«on of, 277. 

Arch bishop of, arm*, 276. 
CHOISBUL, Bishop of, 
arm*, 277. 
LI^BERT, Bishop of, uaJ, 6. 
S. VEDAST, Bishop of, 276. 
See of, 276, 488, 491. 
,, arm*, 276. 
„ guj'ragan to REIMS, 
Treaty of, 297. 
Vidante de, 105. 
Archbishop of, ami*, 276. 
CAMBRESIS, Counto of, 276. 
CAMBRIDGE, Arm* of Regius Professors 

in University of, 443. 

Professor of DIVINITY'S, 

ami*, 443. 


arm*, 443. 


arm*, 443. 

,, ,, LAW'S, <U7N«, 

arm*, 448. 
, , U N I VERSIT Y, arm*, 436. 

CAMERLENGO, Cardinal, 155. 

,, ,, medal of, PI. 

XXXVL, fig. 3, p. 300. 
GOW, teal and arm*, 459, 461. 
CAMIN, ADALBERT, Bishop of. 275. 


Bishop of, 275. 
Bishop CONRAD of, 275. 

Bisho]) of, 275. 
(or POMMBRN), Bishopric, 
arm*, 275. 
„ See of, filled by six Dukes of 
„ suffragan to GNESEN, 
275, 287. 
Bishopric, afterwards Archbishopric, 
arm*, 276. 
CAMPBELL, Mr. 242. 
CAMPEGGI, LORENZO, Cardinal, seal, 

CAMPS, Abb^ de, ami*, 72. 

• I 



CUfPSEV aaatlkV Aarw 

TA.fAbA, PrUuto " ■■ — 

'SiwaC ProTiBc* nit LOWER, 

AiuhUabm at, titl( of 
frilvid s^ all Kaf- 

IknnliutlD* AblKT ol 


ArchlildMU oTi-n 

•ir.p ftum"ui!!'La <^ 

Aruhliii^htni of, J^p- 

PrvTlna'af, ilO. ill. 

of. «n(. *.l. 111. 
IIOUEKT, AnlibUhan 

Sl.lf ai^ 


b-h-. a*. -.«. ITl 


thoxas ABnmtt. 
TBo JuSnnALAs; 

nARbbiibay if. vu 

of, anai. Jl. 

viLliax coon- 

Nat. Airikbubcf a 

i.UMOSDO. Clu«uf, 

CARAPPA, «n», 1. 




J^ «'. Ml, ooe. 

^«a<I (a BM »,'>., 


IHpltr of. IM. 
Priati, IM. 

■llond to BM .:,.- 

'._Di._k. of, CI»mb.rt»iB % 

ttMaHotBRlXsW, S74. 

( 519) 




of, avnu, 103. 
,, Deanery, amm, 100. 

Prior J and Cathedral of, 417. 

„ arm*, 362. 
See of, 100. 
„ „ artM, 103; PL XXL, 

fig. 4, p. 17t5. 
CARMARTHEN (?) Priorj, ann», 362. 
CARMELITES, The, anoM, 420. 
CartHfJi tUckaiut^M, anus, 420. 
CARNEY, ULSTER King of Arms, 203. 
OARNIOLA, Eoffle of, 20L 
CAROLINA (North), Bishop of, $eal, 400. 

ctitM 27. 
CARR, B'ishopof KILLALOB, etc., anM, 

CARRE, NICHOLAS, armji, 443. 
CARS, CHARLES DES, Bishop- Diike of 
LANORES, anM, 86. 
„ DE8. Does, etc., 33. 
CARTHAGE, Metropolitan See, 123. 

The, aritm, 415. 
CARTMEL (Lancashire) Priory of Augus- 

tinian Canons, artu*, 362. 
CARTWRIGHT, On the Comtitution of 

Papal Oo net are*, 134. 
CA8HEL, Archbishopric of, 178, 200, 200l 

bishop of, 208. 
See of, 201, 212. 

„ aniui, 211; PL XXVI., 
tig. 4, p. 202. 
dinal, arm*, 143. 
CASSEIN, JEAN, Priest of MAR- 
SEILLES, 486. 
CASTAGNA, orut*, 16.1. 
CASTEL, Counts of, Grand-Cnpbearers of 
See of WCRZBURG, 332. 
,, Count of, Marshal to Prince- 
Bishop of EICHSTADT, 283. 
Bi«hop of EICHSTADT, 
Baron von, ann*, 283. 
CASTIGLIONE, anan, 160, 167. 
CASTILE, nrm*, 30. 

,, Castle of, 20. 

CASTLEACRE (Norfolk) Cluniac Priory 

ofS. MARY,an»«,86:?. 
„ Priory of, 415. 

CASTLE, Mr EGERTON, EuiflUh Bool- 
Plate*, 63. 
CA8TRE8, See of, 601. 

▼oet, Mfi/, 63. 
Cathedral Chapters, ana* of, differing 

from those of Sees, 17. 
Cathedrals, Canons in important, have 

right to use mitre!, 48. 

ann*, 87. 
CAULFIELD, Dr, quoted, 213, 214. 
CAUMONT, DE, AberMaire d' Archiologie 

RfligUuf, 2i>, 107. 
CBFALU, Aim** at, 47. 

antu, 160. 
v., Pope (ANGELARIO 
DEL MORONE), arm*, 
CBLESTINE V., Pope, 423. 

CBLESTINBS, The, an»i«, 423. 
CENWALCH, King, 174. 
CeremoiiiaU Bpuuxr}>o)'vm, 78. 
CERNE (Dorset) Benedictine Abbey of 
DICT, arm*, 863. 
CERVINI, ami*, 163. 
CBSI, Cardinal, ann*, 145, 146. 
CHALCEDON, Canons of the Council of, 

„ Council of, 108. 125, 278. 

CHALONS, Bishop-Count of, bore Jtoyal 
Siffnet Ring at Coronation, 
„ Cathedral Chajiter of 6. 

VINCENT, anM, 404. 
,, Counts of, 406. 

Bishop-Count of, arm*, PI. 
X., flg. 6, p. 84. 
,, Official anu* of pairif, 85. 

(SUR MARNE), Bishop- 
Count of, Pair dt Fi'anet, 
(SUR MARNEX See of, 502. 
-8UR-Sa6NE, Ar,M ot Oru- 

torians at, 425. 
-SUR-8A6NB, Convent of 
Jacobine Nuns at, anu*, 
„ -SUR-SAONE, See of, 501. 

„ Vidame of, 105. 

CIIAMB^RY Archbishopric with suffra- 
gan Sees, 503. 
„ TARENTAISE suffh^pin 

to, 325. 

DANZY, an»w, 61. 
CHAMPAGNE, Count of, Pair de FraHCt, 

bishop of SENS, tcrt- 
turn, 0. 
dinal -Archbishop of 
REIMS, 84. 
„ THIBAUT, Count DE, 

Chanctlier* de France, 140. 
CHANNON, JACOB, Protonotary of S. 

JACQUES, Antwerp, arm*, 42. 

TIN, Baron DE, 422. 
Chanters, Arm* of some, 41. 

,, placed baton behind ann*, 41. 
CHAPEL ROYAL, Dean of, in Scotland, 

as Dean of the 
THISTLE, adds to 
his arm*, its rtdfroit 
and badge, 56. 
SAVOY, arm*, 200. 
Ckapieral Jtant, Cro**€* and Badge* of, 32. 
CHARITY, LA, Cistercian Abbey, ar»n*, 

( 5»o ) 

• t 

• » 

rilARITlg, LA (rar Loire), Priory of, 

CHARLBMAONB, Bmperor, 30, 106, KM, 

S72, 288. 2ft*. 2M. 
304, 309, 318, SiS. 
3i5, 82rt, 837, 138, 
344, 4S6. 
,. Atitiur fiven to, lU, 

Figure of, on medtdf 

TAIX, 208. 
IV., Emperor. 291, 2W, 304, 
306, 313, 323, 338, 343, 
v.. Emperor, 290, 323, 8S2, 
337, 344, 47«». 
,. V. King uf KnuBoe, aruui, 

VI., 4«l*>. 
VIL, 4<V5. 

CAKPAR, Elector, 259. 
,, le Oro*, Biiiperor, 344, 348. 

of LOKRALNE, Elector, 260. 
THE WOLD, 98, 94. 
(CHARLEY (I/eiceHtersliire), Priory, a*'uu, 


at' MM, 24. 

arum, 12. 

(LomlonX the ol«l 
Cartlnuian Moniuterj, tirmt^ 375. 
CHARTRE8, ar,H» uf Ur«alin«s at, 424. 
('athednil of, 81. 
Diooew of, 401, 501, 502. 
(JEOFKREY, DUhop of, 

lAt Vidame DE, JEAN I. 
I)E VEXD6ME, aru*», 
UiHhop of, arin$y 4(H1. 
,, Stattif At, 157. 

67r.f«*? of S. GREGORY at, 
,, Vidjiiue de, 105. 

IhmtrcUMc, La GraHtU, Monastery of, 


cian Abbey, anitt, 404. 
CIIASTKLUS, CountM and Seigneurs of. 
Honorary Canons at AUTUN and 

annji, 98. 
CIIALON, Chspter of, 4SP. 
Abbe de TRISAY, anun, 76; PI. VL, 
flff. 2, p. 54. 

HUGUES DE, Bishop, 


f » 

CHATILLON-SUR SEINE, a^ugustinian, 

a mm, 408. 
CHAUCER, ALICE, rir»w, 368. 

the Poet 29 
CHERLIEU (Notre Danie de), Cistercian 

Abbey, anus, 405. 
CHERUEL, JHctionnaire IlUtonqut dti 




ImMU ut tm n s Mormtrm «C C9utumki9 4» Im 
Fmnet, 71, M. 

CHBRT8BY (SonvyX Bearficy— Ab>y, 

urmM^ 908. 
CHB3TER, Gotinty of, 1»4. 

MooMtery of. 4 IS. 
PBPLOR, Biabop of, «rw, 

RAXULPH, Barl of, 3». 

iki6, S83. 
8«o of, 1«8, 190, 194, 40& 
„ .. arMJt, 194; PL XXL. 

flf. 5, p. 17tf. 

HAM, am/, S5(t. 
CHIARAMONTI. m-mM, 16«. 
CHICHE or ST. OSYTH'S (EwezX Prioy 

of Angnstinhuk Ouiooa. oruu. MS^ 
CHICHBLY, HBXRYrArchwihoi. «f 
^NTERBDRV. *MHi>porU^m, 


FIN'G «if, sert/, 178. 

I-A WICH ot, »«', 

Bishop 8EFFR1D IL 

of, sea/, 178. 
Biahop 8HBRB0RNB 

*t, nrmm^ 90. 


am/. 178. 
Ueanery, nrmu, 198. 
Precentor of, 178. 
See of, 173. 
" M 'TWM, 171. 1T8; 

PL XXL, llg. «, ^ 


NOR, Precentor of. sea/ 8 
CHIEMSEE, 277. *"* '^^ »' 
Bnnner of, 278. 
Bishopric of, 818. 

Bishop of, 277. 

BURG, 277, SI* 
SIGMUND, BUAopof an 


CHIGI, rtrw*, 148, 164. 

8IGI8MUNDO. Qudiwd, «.^ 





CHINA, Diocese of MID-, arms, 251 


See' of MID-, aA»- prXXxV 
fig. 9. p. 250.^ ^'- ^^^^-^ 

XXXV^Iigt p^^2g>™' --^ "■ 
CH INNER Y, armn, 464. 


ANDER, Bishop of ARGTLlS 

THE ISLES, oriw. 46!C 

Bishop of CAMBRil^ „^^^ '^*' 
CHOTA-NAGPORK, See erf, ««* ««: 

armty 432. ^ '««■'•#» 

( 5" ) 



CHRIST CHURCH, M. 8ae of, «n>w, PI. 

XXXII., fig. 1, p. 
„ „ (Metropolitan), See 

of, 242, 248. 
,, ,, See of, arms, 242. 

ChHstian AntufuititM, Dictionary of, 124. 
CHRIST'S COLLEGE (Cambridge), amu, 
„ HOSPITAL (London), a/ww, 
CHtJR (COIRE), BUhop of, 285. 

„ ,, removee to MERAN, 

Biiihops of, title of, 278. 
Chapter of, 478. 
EG I NO, LM»hop of, 278. 
JOSEPH MORS, Bishop of. 

nri}^, 8S. 
S. A 81 MO, Bishop of , 278. 
See of, 252, 278. 

,, arM»^ 278, 279. 
,, a-tit, 270. 
Biiffriigan to MILAN, 278. 
„ to MAINZ, 278. 
Chu)-rh Temporalitim Act, 212. 
CIACONIUS, quoted, 145. 
CIBO, annj, 162. 

ihitlil, 142. 
CINQUE PORTS, ttrnts of the. 868. 
CIRENCESTER, Abbey «.f, 417. 

„ (Gloncettter), Mitred 

Abbey of Augustinian Canons, aruu, 
CISSA, 352. 

Cistercian Houses, anm adopted for, 
„ ORDER, 413. 
,, „ a nun, 141, 394, 305. 

Cistercians often known as BERNAR- 

1)1 NES, 413. 
CITEAUX, Abbey of, arwf, 414. 

,, Cistercian Abbey of, 405. ' 

,, Monastery iit, 413. 

Civil dignitaiies and Couinmnities, Ami* 

adopted by, 4. 
CI.AIRVAUX, Abbey of, 418, 414. 

8. BERNARD, Abbot of, 
CLANMACNOIS, Bishopric of, 202. 
CLARE, arvi* of, .S77, 386, 437. 
County of, 204. 

ELIZABETH, daughter of GIL- 
BERT DE, »tnL, 437. 
GILBERT DE, Earl of 
and HERE- 
FORD, 350, 437. 
,, ,, aruu, 42l>. 

HALL (Cambridge), arnut, 437. 
ROBERT DE, Barl of 
CLEEVE (Soiuenet) Cistercian Abbey of 

S. MARY, anri*, 863. 
,, III., ntuut, 158. 

IV., Pope (GROS), 67, 418. 
IV., aniM, l.'iO. 
IV., tomb of, 153. 
v.. Pope (COUTH or DE 
GOT), arm*, 160. 









BEAUFORT, 58, 153, 294, 
VL, an***, 160. 

DINIX 146, 418, 485. 

avma 162. 
VII., to»t6, 154. 

DINI), oriM, 164. 
- 142,148. 
IX., ami*, 164. 
X., Pope(ALTIERI), 148. 
X., nrtH*, 165. 
XL, Pope (ALBANI), 127, 

XL, arm*, 165. 
XII., Pope (CORSINI), 156, 
,, XII., arm*, 165. 


artH*, 166. 

XIV.* a^iM, \b^, 166. 
CLERC, ANTOINE LE, Archbishop, 
Marquis de JUIGN^, ut-uu 
LE, Bishop of GLANDEV^Z, 
arm*, 142. 
CLERGY, Assumption of marks of dlgnitj 

by, 91. 
CLERMONT, Pallium received by the 
Bishop of, 117. 
,, Council of, SOS. 

„ See of, 501, 502. 


CLBVE, ANNE of, 262. 
CLEVES, anti*, 71. 
CLIFFORD, arm*, 30. 
CLINTON, arvis of, 372. 

„ Bishop of LICHFIELD, 183. 

of 'MAXSTOKE, arm*, 878. 

TER. mt/, 178. 
CLOG HER, See of, 200. 201. 

„ „ aM*«,202;Pl.XXVL, 

flg. 6, p. 202. 
CIX)NARD, Bishopric of, 202. 

,, S. PINIAN of, 208. 

of, 215. 
See of, 201,215. 
„ ann*, 218, 214; PI. 
XXVII., flg. 3, p. 206. 
CLOQUET, LOUIS " chanoine diacre" 

of RHEIMS, arm*, 39. 
CLOTHAIR, King of FRANCE, 280, 340, 

849, 409. 
CLOVIS, King of the FRANKS, 157, 

CIX)YNE, See of, 201. 

„ „ arm*, 212, 218; PI. 

XXVI., fig. 6, p. 202. 
CLUGNIACS, Tlie, 415. 
CLUNY, Abbey of, 412. 

,, (irm*, 412. 

Chief Abbey of the Benedictine 
Order, near MACON. ami*, 404. 
COBBE, Bishop of KILDARE, teal 



( 5" ) 

COUHAM, ar,H». H75. 

JOHN i)K. sea. 

(K«iit) Collegv of 8. MARY 
MAGDALENE, arms, .?(». 
COBLENZ, Principal reaidence of the 

Elector uf TiUER. 2^ 
B.M., Canon of Hojnl Clm))el at 
DIJON. ariMs, 40. 

(U-MI4, 8A8. 
COOGESIIALIiCEMex) Cistrrcian Abbey 

of 8. MARY, anM4, 8tS4. 
COKE, Lonl Chief Jiutice on " SobUts, 
„ bir EDWARD, Lord Chief -Jus. 
tice, 472. 
COLBERG. Huffragan to GNE8EN, 2H7. 
COLBERT, Abb<v, antu, PI. III., fig. 4, 
i». 40. 
MICUEL, Abbot, m-MM, 7«. 
Coiumendataire of the 
AbbeTof 8. MICHEL EN 
THIERACHE, a«.<u, 4«7. 
Conimendataire of the 
Ablwy of ST. ME8MIN, 
ariMji, 467. 

of the Cathedral of OR- 
LEANS, ariH*, 4(C 
COLCHESTER (E«MX) Mitretf Abbey of 

Benedictine*, at-Mji, 3i)4. 
rOLDIXGHAM, Abbey of, 418. 
COLE'H .\tSS. quotwl, itO, i»8, 17J, 4»7. 
COlAiAN quoted, 204. 
Collegeit, anun of, 426. 
COLN (C< > L(H J N K), 296. 

ArchbiBh<»|> BRUNO of, 490. 
,, Archbinhop of, 2*)H, 21)9. 
., ,, aviu*, 126. 

, . , , a« Prinoe- Electors, 

ornMj, 121. 
,, ,. claims dignity of 

of the HOLY 
PIRE, tbrongh- 
out ITALY, 261. 
,, ,, had honour of 

crowning Em- 
|>eror, 2tW. 
,, ,, must be of noble 

birth, 21. 
„*, 261, 263, 264, 469. 

Chapter of, 478. 
,. City of. 2:)2. 

BAVARIA, Archbishop and 
Elector of, or,nM, 262. 
Bishot) and Elector of, annt, 
PI. XV.. p. 124. 
,. Count of MANDBRSCHEID- 
Master of the Household of, 
.. Connt of SALMRBIFFER- 

8CHEID. Marehal of, 262. 
,, Elector- Archbishop of, 8A, 290, 
arm*, 282. 


C6LS EUPHRATKS. Bialiop of. »L 
Prinoe- Archbishop and Kkdar 
of. 290. sia 

HILDEBRAXD. ArehbWiop of. 


Coant uf K6NI08ECK- 
and Rloctor of. tu-mM^ tea. 

Mitrt need at. bj CaatHM. 4P. 

aloiuiueraloch). arM*^ »J>4. 
ooeeignenr KRBMBXTZ. Areh- 
iMahop of. 20. 
Ofllcial Uouaebold <»f Etoetor of, 

PBLEOR1XU8, Arvhhiabon of. 


Archbishop and Elwtor of. 
262, 385. 

Prinoe-Artthbiahopa, 4a9. 

Prince of ARBMHERO, Onad 
Cupbearer of, 2f52. 

S. AGILOLF, Artrh bishop of. S6L 

See of, 253. 261, 262, S4S. 34S. 
artuM^ 262, 2«S. 

1 1 


,, List of Oocapanta. 961. 
„ ST. CUNIBERT. Archbishop of. 




ST. MATERXU8, Bishop of. 261. 

Srnod at, 268. 

The Emperor Honorary Canon of, 

UNIVERSITY arm*, 456. 
Use of fall robes of Cardinal by 
by some Oanuns of , 4i«. 
COLOMBO, See of, 286. 

t> .. o»-«*i*, 237 ; PL 

XXXI., fig. 9, p. 238. 
COLONIAL Sees. Arm* of, 229. 
COLONNA. arm*, 153. 161. 

CARLO. Cardinal. «*•*«, 141. 
co/mmh. 155. 

GIROLAMO, Cardinal, Arch- 

bishop of 

m«t<(t/, 141. 

t, Cardinal, arm*, 

JACOPO, Cardinal. #©«*&, 137. 
,, ui^lnUf 141. 

COLORADO, Bishop of. «^a/. 500. 

ARGYLE, Meat and armn, 458. 

COLUMBIA rMetropoIiUn). Soe of, 23S. 
Proposed Province of, *23S. 






See of, arms, 233 ; PL XXX., 

%. 11, p. 282. ' 

COMBE (WarwickX Cistercian Abbey c>f 
8. MARY, armn, 864. ^ 

a)MBERMERE (Chester), Cistensian 
Abbej of 8. MARY and S. M ICH AElT 
armtf 364. "* 

COMBERTAULT, aruu, 407. 

COMO, See of, 2d7. 


«rjH», 11. * 

,. Mittt used at, by 

Canona. 40. ' 

Comto-Romaine, Title of. 84. 

( 523 ) 



♦ I 

Comtet-Archevdqne*, IS2. 
COMYN of PERNS, Biahop, aeal, 210. 
CONDOLMIERI, armt, 161. 

early Popra by, 151. 
CONLIN, noma Sancla, 141, 142. 
OONN AUGHT, atnis, 450, 

„ Primate of, 208. 

CONNECTICUT, Biaiiop of, $eat, 500. 
CONNOR, See of, 201, 204. 

„ „ onw, 204 ; PI. XXVIL, 

fig. 2, p. 20tf. 
CONRAD, Emperor, 826, 344, 895. 
,, III., Emperor, 327, 842. 

anuir, 89, 265. 

Bishup of, held rank of 
Prince of the HOLY 
Chapter of, 478. 
City of, 839. 
Coadjutor of, 265. 
Council of, 126. 
dinal and Bishop of, 
antiM, 89. 
Bishop of, amui, 265. 
GEBUARD, Bishop of, 

HEINRICH, Bishop of, 

IDALRIC, Bishop of, 896. 

of, 280. 
Bishop of, aiiM, 146. 
MAXIM US, Bishop of, 279. 
Old Diocese of, .H41. 
Prince* Bishopric, anaa, 279. 
See of, 284, 346. 
,, artHS, 146, 266. 
,, transferred from 
WINDI8CH, 279, 280. 
suffragan to MAINZ, 252, 

,, URICH, Count of DILLI- 

GEN, Bishop of, 840. 
CONSTANTINB, Enii»eror, 64. 

„ See of, 508. 

CONSTANTINOPLE, Patriarch of, 108. 
II II a»iu«, 

, , Patriarchnte of, 1 24, 

„ „ an,u, 

„ See of, 125. 

CONTI, arm*, 165. 

DE 8EGNI, DEI, atiH*, 159. 

COOKE, ROBERT, aareruneux, 487, 488, 

COOKES of BENTLEY, amiu, 484. 
of NORGROVE, annit, 434. 
Sir THOMAS, 484. 
,, WILLIAM, 435. 
COPENHAGEN, Ct-onerin Royal Museum 
of Northern Antiqnitien in, 62. 




CORBIE, Abbey of, 280. 
CORDALL, Sir WILLIAM, arms, 878. 
CwiftlUrif 418. 

MOGES, an)M, 39. 
CORBA, Diocese of, artm, 251. 
CORK, etc. Bishop JORDAN of, 218. 
„ 8. FINBAR, Bishop of, 218. 
„ See of, 201, 213. 

„ anws, 212; PI. XX VL, 
flff. 6, p. 202. 
CORNE, DE L^, Cardinal, amu, 146. 

tom5, 497. 
M If titular Bishop of 

TENOS, 498. 
CORNWALL, aniM, 873. 

Bordure of, 189. 
Duchy of, anM, 190. 
EDMUND, Earl of, 870. 
RICHARD, Earl of, 353, 


Cnrtmet, 82, 119. 

„ added by some Bishops, above 

their «At«M«, 92. 
,, used with mitrt and sfn/f, 74. 
Coronet* forbidden to iBcdesiastics in 
ROME, 119. 
„ placed by some Canons above 

thitliU, 45, 467, 485. 
„ Use of, 88, 119, 485. 

bridge), artnn, 
„ „ COLLEGE (Cam- 

bridge), arvM on 
rorptrrait of, 29. 
ford), arm», 481. 
CORRER,nn/M, 161. 
CORSINl, a}»M, 105. 
CORSSBNDONGK, Augnstinian Nun- 
nery of, amu, 407. 
CORVEY, Abbacy, nr,nji, 281. 

ALTFRIED, Monk at, 345. 
Bisliop of, 280. 
,, Prince- Bishopric, ann*, 280. 

Princely Abbacy, 280, 385. 
„ See of, 253. 

Bishop of, 280. 
C08CIA, Cardinal NICOLO, ann*, 149. 
COSIN'S HALL (Durham), Bishop, mi/tJ, 

COSSA, annji, 161. 

COSTA, GEORGE DA, Archbishop of 

LISBON, anM«, 23. 
COTTINGHAM (Yorkshire), Priory of 

Angustinian Canons, anns, 864. 
COTTON, 3/5., 65. 
Countesses, Canonesaes becoming, in right 

of their stalls, 45, 493. 
Counts, Some Canons became, in right of 

their sUlls, 45, 492. 
COURCY, JOHN DB, Conqueror of 

ULSTER, 204. 
COURTBNAY, Archbishop, aniw, PI. II., 

fig. 5, p. 16. 
PETER, Bishop of EX K- 
TER, anus, 461. 
,, PETBR, BUhop of WIN- 

CHESTER, arvu, 461. 

'oZZA. L<<ttENZ> 
CKAO'IT. lli4lL„is 

/B[>;MEW . •1LE9MVKI. ^-..w„t.„ 

as th> B>w 

r. Bbku ja: 


Afcjey «* *■ «"■■ 

I Cr-W*' li. 

(.Bills, Al.F" 

r RDM EH. 1 

I. luidbTthtrMM. r>T. 

•nVnau to UNBSEN. 


CULM, BI^«J-T7si- ■ ^ 

I .. ILOBAl), B,i^rtt-.«.-M 
.. Sh or. •^r.«u to OXESCV, 

Rlfik, E^L 
_ mrQENBY 

CUXilA.~RODItR|c Da .-i- ^-.— -. 

Sl"l , . 
ABKBDKBy, a „, 

rUPAR. Atihij of, Jit. 
Cl'RI^SD, El, 
CVRIU ApcMl*. 3»r 

DACRfi, Ani^ of. l«r. 

iJA<ioD&RT. King, aas, a« »44_ 

I1AEOTA, BUiBKof. tr^l ano. • 

tor. iS. 

(525 ) 


Grnnd • Duke of 
AM-MAYN, 254. 
Primate of the Cunfederation of the 
RHINE, 254. 
DALLINO, arum. 438. 
DALUEIM (at Mainz), Cistercian, (o-mix, 

DALTC)N, Norroy, 441. 
DAMASCUS, Patriarch of, ar,,t*, 12(5. 
DAMA8US, Pope, 274. 
Dame Pr^rfite, 490. 
J)avk€* Anglaisfi, Lf», 417. 
DAMIAN, PEl'ER, quoted, e4. 
DAMORY, Sir ROGER, amm, 437. 
DANNESKIOLD, House of, 495. 

Prior at, artM, 51. 
DARBOY, Archbishop of PARIS, Due 

de ST. CLOUD, anns, 128, 129. 
D'ARCY, DOUET, Collection de» Seenvx 

DARLEY or DERLBY (Derby), Angiw- 

tinian Priory, antm, 3tf5. 

„ WARNIER DE, Seigneur de 
DAVID, Earl, 224. 

„ I. , King of SCOTLAND, 226, 228, 
Jk Jure Jbbat., 73. 
De ieUutf. anhnarum, 304. 
Dean, Use of mitre by a, 49. 
DEANE, annt, 375. 

Deaneries, Arrnt of, differ from thone of 
Dees, 1 i . 
,, English, arhi», 198. 

Deans nsing iupportei-t, 45. 
DEDEL, arms, 162. 
DEERHAM, ariM, 36<V 
DEIR, Abbey of, 414. 

„ Church of, 220. 
Dfir, Book of, 220. 

Memorial brn*$ of, ti8. 
DELFINI, ZACARIAS, Cardinal, seal and 

ar»M, 188. 
DBLLEMONT, Chapter of BASEL Cathe- 
dral removed to, 209, 
DEMAY", Le Costume du Moyen Ape 
apres les Sceaux, 6, 41 , 62, 66, 67. 
,, SeeaMX de la Iformondie, 41, 56, 
78, 402, 403, 456, 468. 

Nuns, arms, 407. 
DENAIN, near ARRAS, Chapter of, 483, 
Abbey, 4«.»3. 

Bishop of BREMEN, 272. 
DERBY, Earls of. Kings of MAN, 197. 

Countess of, 440. 
Abbot of, sent, 866. 
„ Monastery of EAST, 417. 

(Norfolk), Premonstratensian Canons 
of S. MARY, arms, .S65. 
DERN6ACH, anus, 88. 

Crest of, 267. 


DERNBACH, CoanU of. Hereditary 
Grand • Marshal of 8«e 
of WCRZBURG, 882. 
of Wt^RZBURG, Count 
of, arms, 88, 383. 
of. Prince Bishop of BAMBERG, 
artus and crest, 267. 
DERRY, 203, 204. 

„ Abbot and Bishop FLAITH- 
BHEARTACH of, 203. 
and RAPHOE, See, arms, 203. 
,, „ See of, 201. 

,, Bishoi), King of, arms, 203. 
„ See of, 203. 

„ „ ai-ms, 203; PI. XXVIL, 

flg. 1, p. 206. 
Descent, Nobility of, necessary in certain 

Chapters and Orders, 20, 21, 472. 
DEAUX, arms, PI. XIV., flg. 1, p. 120. 
DESPEN8ER, an,is. 27, 80. 

„ HENRY, Bishop of NOR- 

Bishop of NOR- 
WICH, crest, 
PI. v., fig. H, 
p. 46. 
Bishop of NOR- 
WICH, seal, 
„ Bishop of NOR- 
WICH, secre- 
turn, 37. 
„ HUGH LE, seal, 108. 

DEVENTER, See of, 327. 

„ ., anns, 327. 

Countess of, arms, 359. 
„ ORDGAR, Earl of, 387. 
Dietiormrtf of Christian Antiquities, 64, 65, 

113, 157. 

DIDRON, Christian Iconography, \\^, 

114, 151, 157, 211. 

DIE, Bishop of, uses Count's coronet, 100. 

See of 502. 

MOLK or MELK, seal, 28. 
DIETZ, County of, arms, 87. 
DIEULACRES (Stalfoidshire), Cistercian 
Abbey of 8S. MARY and BENEDICT, 
ai'ms, 866. 
DIGNE, See of, 501, 502. 
Dignity, KpisoouAl seals of, 8. 

„ Use of Bi>isoopal seals of, 9. 
DIJON, Abbey of. anus, 414. 

Arms of Oratorians at, 425. 
Cistercian Abbey of, 405. 
CoUesiate Chapter of S. JOHN 

THE BAPTIST, arms, 410. 
DU MAGNY, Canon of Royal 
Chapel, arms, 40. 
,, See of, 501, 502. 
STANCE, Count of, 840. 
BINDER, Monseigneur, Archbishop of 

POSEN and GNESEN, 20. 
Doctors of Lairs, of knightly rank in 

GERMANY, 479. 
DODDO, 387. 

arms, 89. 




( S«6 ) 

IM )I«, Biahopuf , privileged to OM erocf, 100. 

Rifthup, turn the jmlliHut, 116. 
., UUIU.AUME DE BRIE, Bieho|> 
uf. nrmif tfl. 
REVEL, Bishop luid Count of, 
luiHM, )Mi ; PI. XL, fig. 1, p. M. 
., See uf, i09, JOS. 
I)(*iuicellaiie«. 47*.*. 

IN)MINICAN ORDER, ai-M«, 41, 163. 
Dominicans in NEWARK, uttU and Uf-MW. 

IM, 41tf. 
lH»NATELLO. 153. 
1N)RCI1BSTER, See of, 174, 184. 

ToHJb of Abbot SUT- 
TON at, 8. 
DOR PAT, 282. 

Biahupric, arnut^ 281. 
HERMAN. Bivhop of. 282. 
See uf, suff^ngan to RIGA, 282. 
Seizure of, 2>2. 
IHIRREGARAY'S Mumo EijHiHol *l( 

Ant'iQuethidt*, 80. 
DnRSANNE, Abbe. Canon and Chanter 

of NOTRE DAME (I*aria), rt. vmj, 41. 
lM)U<iLAS, «nrt4i, 228. 

Bishop uf ABERDEEN, unl, 
BOMBAY, a.tM, 
GEORGF. Bishop of MORAY, 
fi'iMii, 24. 
,, Pr* nifit of Stvtlamd, 22S. 

ROBERT, Bishop of DUN- 
BLANE, 228. 
DOVER (KentX Benedictine Priory of 8. 
.MARTIN, ai.,iM, .3*J. 
ROBERT, l*rior of, $ml, 3*5. 
DOWN, Bishop of, 204. 


of, vrua, 204. 
See of, 201, 204. 

.. or..**. 204; PI. XXVIL, 
fig. 2. p. 20«. 
8T. MALACUI L, Bisiiop of , 204. 
arm*, 442. 
SiriiEOHGE, 442. 
DRAX (Yorit), Priory of Auguatinian 

Canons of S. NICHOLAS, ri<-««<«, 306. 

VAIS. in battle. 30. 
DROMORE, LAMBERT, Bishop of, anxj, 
,, MAULE, Bishop of, <»#•»*«, 

See of, 201. 

„ ar.rt4r, 204, 20.» ; PI. 
XXVIL. fig. 2, p. -iO^i. 
FULDA, al^/a, 77. 
,, VON, ar)#K, 77. 

DRYBUIUJH, Monastery of, 417. 
DUBLIN, Archbishop of, title of Pniuatc 
of Jrtland, 111. 
Chancellor of ORDER OF 8. 

PATRICK, 208. 
Priory of Blessed Trinity of . 211 
See of, 173, 101, 200, 201, 209. 




DUBLIN', 8m «f, an^, 115, 117, «8; PL 

*e^f appeals ia ^aH 
CNl VEIU$rTT, HTM, 44ft. 
DUI1RICIU8. 186. 

notaira Apoatoliqa*. «irM«. 43. 
DUO, M. VIOLLET LE, IHctimumift A 

• Mobiiier FrtKmrnU, 0<L 107. 
DUCANGK qaotMl, I5i 
DUDLEY, Bishop of DURHAM, »«L 
M WILLIAM, Biabop o# DUE- 

DUG DALE, Momtuiie^wi AuglieaMs^ 

353. 867, 432. "^ 

DULEEK, 8ae of, 203. 

Biah<^ of EST LAX D, 282. 

DEEX, nrmm mnd. j**tl, 4«12L 
Bkaiop CLEMENT of. 41*. 
LAS of, <u-Mu, 228. 
LAUREXCE, Bkbop at 

8et» of, 216, 228. 
_»• ^, f. ^«r*Ma, PL XXIX.. 

S; Li*- J?* • ^*- XXIX.. 4f. «.^ 

224 227 22S ^^ 

DUNCUiVs HirtfordAiit, 497. 
DUNEDIN. Sm of, 242. 

»» tt artMJ*. 24S • PI 

XXXII., fix. 7, p. 242. 

DUNFERMLlS'E, Abbej of, 41S. 

•« Monka of. 2215 *<* 

DUNKELD. Abbot of 227 

•n^DUNBLAXE. Sat ol. 

^on M YLXB o«. 221. 

Cbnrcb at, 228. 

JOHX *• THE 800T.- 

Bishop of. 221. 
SMof, 2Itf. 

VVf'r « **. **^»»*. 227: PI. 

J. it ;: 55i ""^ P- 224: PL XXIX. 
Of. », p. 224. 

DUNKBSWELL (DeTooV CteteitisB 
Abbey of 8. MA^Y. e^t- awT^ 

DUNMOWc&jex). Priory ofAoSitiirf- 
Canons of 8. MARY, ana* m?^^ 

DUN0I8, JEAN, Comte do^S^' 

DUNSTABLE (BadfotxUhliaV PH«rr „# 

DURHAM. A^^t^dlocosegr^.^, 

497. *'"' '"'' «n«rS 

®^2S-.J5?^'^. of. tltslsr 
LEM,'?^. "' "R^^ 
of ^1. 192. 
of, 175. 

• » 



( 527 ) 

• > 

DURHAM Bishop RUTHALL of, »cal, 

192 193. 

of, »ml, 192. 

of, Meal, 192. 
Bishops of, arm*, 95, 

„ as Counts PaU- 
tine of, $€aU, 
101, 198, 
,, mitre of, 101. 

Cope at, lOit. 

Bishop of, arm*, 4H2. 
OE LISLE, Bishop of, 

arm*, 27. 
Deanery, arm», 199. 
E(iERTON, Bishop of, arm*, 

HUGH PUD8E Y, Bishop of, 

M(U, 66. 

Sheriff of Palatinate of, 

9eal, 103. 

of, »eaJ, 102. 

of, seal and arm*, 458. 

of, cre*t, PI. v., fig. 1, p. 


of, tomb and arin*, 97, 98. 
LANOLEY, Bishop of, *eal 

and erett, 102. 

Bishop of, Hal and arm*, 


Bishop-elect of, *eaf, 81. 
Mitrt worn at, 101. 
,. Monastery of, 192. 

Palatinate, *ral* of Bishops 

of, 37. 

Bishop-elect of, koI, 81. 
ROBERT LATON, Sheriff of 

Palatinate of, *eal, 103. 

of, *eal and arin*, 102, 

See of, 190, 244, 497. 

„ arm*, l'J2, 444 ; PL 

X.X., &g. 5, p. 174. 
SKIRLAW, Bishop of. *eal 

and ereMt, 102. 

Bishop of, *eal, 101 ; tecrt- 

turn and arm*, 459. 

Bishop of, arm*, 459. 

Bitthop of, *eal, 193. 
TREVOR, Bishop of, arms, 

TURCOT, Prior of, 227. 
T U XST A LL, Bishop of, »ea/, 

192 193. 
UNIVERSITY of, arm*, 444. 
WILLIAM, Archdeacon of, 

„ WILLIAM, Archdeacon of, 

nrmM, 427. 

BASBY (Yorkshire) Premonstratensian 

Abbey of S. AQATHA, arm; 867. 

anti*. Pi. XXXIV., flg. 12, p. 248. 
BASTON, Bishop of, teal, 500. 
„ Archbishop of TREVES, 

received Roman mitrtf 64. 
EBERSTEIN, arm*, 470. 
EBNET, Family of, 267. 
EBRION, Bishop of POITIERS, 93. 
Ecclesiastical dignitaries. Arm* adopted 
for, 4. 
. , digni ty shown by a pa*tm-al 

*tajr, 84. 
,, Foun<lations, Arm* of cer- 

tain, 199. 
JIat, 87. 
Eoclesiaiitics of illegitimate birth often 
nsed arnu withont Ifri- 
*ure*, 23. 
On the use of supporters by. 






EDGAR. King, 388. 


ROSE of, »eal, 224. 
„ See of, 216. 

, ,, ann*, PI. XXIX., 

flg. 1, p. 224. 
UNI VERSITY* an/M, 449. 
shire). Priory of Augustinian Frian, 
arm*, 367. 
EDMOND, King, 385. 
EDMONDSON'S Heraldry, 354, 856, 857, 

363, 874, 376, 382, 389, 434. 
EDON, THOMAS, «ra/, 361. 
EDRED, King. 852. 

EDWARD I., King of ENGLAND, 4, Z8i\, 
414, 435, 4.S7. 
IL, King of ENGLAND, 429. 
IIL, King of ENGLAND, 197, 

429 441. 
IV., King of ENGLAND, 489. 
VI. , King of ENGLAND, 193. 
King of PORTUGAL, 23. 

ENGLAND, 391, 427. 
ENGLAND, m-m*, 199. 
EGBERT, BUhop of YORK, PontiAcal 
of, 59. 
,. King of WESSBX, 892. 

BGERTON. Bi^opof DURHAM, an>M.96. 
EGLESTON, arm*, 867. 
EHRENBREITSTEIN, Fortran of, 258. 

*hieltl, 77. 
EICHST DT, 282. 

Bishop of, 282, 822. 
,, Bishop of, was ex officio 

Chancellor of University 
of ING0I-8TADT, 288. 
„ was Prince of the EM- 

PIRE, 282. 
„ Cliapter of, 478. 

DOM-CAPITEL of, arm*, 

SCHENK, Baron vun CASTEL, 
Prince-Bishop of, arm*, 288. 

( 5»8 ) 

BICHSTADT, IlerediUry ooart offloiala 
of Prinoe-Buhop of, 28H. 
JOSEPH Count von 8TU- 
BENU£UQ, Biabop of, 
M A R Q U A R D 11. 

TE LL, Prince- BUhop uf, 
nrmM, 89. 
., Princ« - Bishopric, arm*, 

„ RAIMUND, Coant von 

8TRASOLDO, Prlnce- 
Bi«hop of, annM, 470. 
H. Wl LI BALD, Bishop of, 

Hee of, 207. 

,, ar)HM, 90, 283, 470. 
Several princes held fiefs 

from See of, 283. 
Siiffi-agan See of, 252. 
suffragan to MAINZ, 282. 
EINSIEDELN, arnu, 335, 336. 

AUGUSTAN, Abbot of, 

anna, 335. 
U EN R Y, Abbot of, amii, 
„ Princely Abbey, antiit, 

EISQARN, Abbey of, 260. 
,, Provost of, 89. 


of, »eal, 52. 
Prince-Bishop of LtTTICH, aruM, 
PI RE, 252. 
„ had hereditary great ofilcert 

of stote, 253. 
ELFRIDA, Queen, 35.3, 387. 
ELGIN, Cathedral at, 27, 2S, 

208, 433, 449. 
ELLIS, Sir HENRY, quote<l, 10. 
BLMHAM, Bishopric of, 185. 
ELPHIN, See of, 201, 207. 

arniM, 205; PI. XXVII., 
fig. 4, p. 20<i. 
„ THOMAS, Bishop of, »eo/, 


ai'niM, 447, 44S. 
ELSASS, VorvntA of, 268. 

Landgmvate uf, ere*t, 324. 

LOWER, S24. 
,, „ arinn, 

UPPER, 340. 
EI SE 289 
ELSYNG (London) Priory and Hoepit^il, 

Cripplegate, nnn*, 307. 
ELTEN, Abbess of, liad title of Princetts, 
Abbey of, 345. 
arnu, 390. 
,, Chapter of, 481. 
ELWANGEN Abbey, arum, .3.36. 
,, Chapter of, 478. 

HEIM, Provost of, aruut, 830. 
ELWANGEN, Provost of, 340. 
ELY, Bishop of, Sironl borne before, 






ELY, Bishop WREN of, $^al, 82. 
„ Brass to Dean TYNDALL of. 

„ (Cambridge) Benedictine Nannery 

of 8. ETHELREDA, arMt, »«T. 
„ Deanery, anuM, 198. 
„ HERVEUS, Bishop of, \7*\. 
„ HUGH DE BALSHAM, Uiahop of, 

artuM, 430. 
„ JOHN ALCOCK, Bishop ot, aruiM, 

27, 877, 440. 
„ JOHN DE BARNET, BUhop of, 

Mt^ittuiH and anuji, 400. 
,, Priors of, had right to luitre, etc., 

„ Priory of, arm», 307. 
„ See of, 173, 307. 

„ a.»M, 8, 82, 180, 487, 440; 
PI. XXH., fig. 1, p. 182. 
„ SPARKE, Bishop of, Sicot-d borne 
before, 97. 
WILLIAM, Bishop of, tea/, 496. 
WILLIAM DE LUDA, Bishop of, 
ittal, 8, ISO. 
ELZ, Baron of. Marshal of TRIER, 


MOLK or MELK, «<rt/, 2S. 
EMBRUN, Archbishop, was alao Princ« 
of, 119. 
Archbishopric, with anff^mgan 

Sees, 501, 502. 
RE NTE, Archbishop of. 
antut, 112. 
FEUILLADE, Archbishop 
and Prince of, antts^ HP. 
„ See of, anus, 117 ; PL I., fig. 

12, p. 14. 
Rninetire, Title of, 136. 
BMLY, Seeof, 201, 212. 

,, ,, arm*, 211. 


anii«, 442. 
Emperor, The, a Honorary Canon of ST. 
at ROME, etc., 50. 
EMPIRE, Archbishops. Bishop*, nml 
Princes of the. 264. 
„ ami* of the, 77, 270, 307. 


Bishop of LEUBEN, 294. 
ENGERN, ann*, 203, 264. 

„ Duchy of, arm*, 262. 460. 

ENGLAND, Archbishops of , 498. 

ami*, 15, 10, HO, 190. s:..M. 
858, 804, 308, 879, SlH) 
,, Ann* of Sees In, 18. 

,, Royal mmi* of, 429. 

,, Earliest Episcopal sea/« in 

82. * 

, King of, Honorary Canon of 

MURE, at ROME, 50. 
Lion of, 280, 246, 248, S*'9 
377, 436, 439, 441, 444. 
Ro*t of, 432, 484. 
Shield of, 385. 
English College (Rome), tnmb in. 97 
BPAONE, (Council of, 825. 

( 529 ) 

BPBRNON, Duo D', 29. 

EPUESU8, Title of Patriarch giren to 

Bishop of, 125. 
Kpiaco|)al teals, Divisioiu of, 8. 
ERIC, King of NORWAY, 220. 
BRFURT UNIVER8ITY, or»«, 466. 
BRLACH, Cifttercian, aniu, 896. 

thieldj 98. 
ERMLAND, Bithopiic, arm», 283. 

,, „ autfragan to RI- 

GA. 283. 
ERM ELAND, See of, 281. 
ER8KINE, ar,M, 221. 

„ Sir CI I AH LBS, Lyon King of 
Arm*, 218, 219. 

of TOURS, ttn»«, 181. 
E8GUENBACU, GisterciMn, antu^ 890. 

„ WALTER, Baron of, 

E8PEG, WALTER L', 391. 
SaPINAY, AbbeM D', amu, 76; PL 

VIL, fig. 2, p. 60. 
B88EN, AbbeM of, PrincMs of the EM- 
PIRE, 845. 
„ Chapter of, 481. 
ESSEX, Princely- Abbacy of, amu, 845. 
VILLE, Earl of, 890. 
ESTAING, Chevalier D', Knight of S. 
JOHN, artM, pi. XIIL, fig. 2, p. 
a)-uw, 466. 
LEONOR D', Archbiahop of 

RIIEIMS, anit«i466. 
LEONOR ly, Biahop of 
CHARTHES. cw»m, 466. 
EST BURY, JOHN, aniu of, 378. 
E8TBNEY, Abbot, memorial hra»»ts^ 68. 
ESTE, D', Pa])al artus granted as augmen* 

tation to the family, 156. 
ESTUONIA, ALBERT, ArohbUhop of, 
„ came nntler dominion of 


„ PU LCO, Bubop of, 816. 


Dt'NAMt)NDE, Bi.hop of, 282. 
ESTRUN, near ARRAS, Benedictine 

Abbey of, 488. 
ETHELBALD, King of MERGIA, 865. 
ETHELBERT, King of KENT, 172. 

MBRCIA, 869. 
ETHELRED, King of MERCIA, 854, 

300, 387. 
ETHELWOLF, King, 882. 
ETON COLLEGE, an,i», 481, 489. 

artM^ 158. 
IV., Pope (CONDOL- 

MIERI), arni», 161, 201. 
EU8E, 1)', anM, 100. 
EUSEBIUS qnoted, 123. 

DUS, oniw, 142. 
EVESHAM (WorceeterahireX Benedictine 

Abbey of S. MARY and S. ECGWINE, 

Bishop, an^M, 308. 
BVREUX, Canons of, 45. 

„ „ were also Barons, 45. 

2 M 





$eal, 41. 
„ See of, 501, 502. 
EWELME (Oxford) Hospital, $eal, 868. 
Bxcti'pta Hisiorica^ 12. 
BXETBH, Amtu at, 47. 

Bishop JOHN BOOTHS of, 
teal, 181. 

TRY, 181. 
COMB of, MO/, 180. 
Chancellor of, anuti, 55. 
COLLEGE (Oxford), artiu, 181, 

Dean of, annt, 55. 
Deanery, arm*, 198. 
EDMUND LACY, Bishop of, 

aruu, 82. 
*taL 181. 

Bishop of, arum, 26, 381. 
,, MARSHALL, Bishop of, arwM, 


of, anna, 401. 
Precentor of, arm*, 55. 
See of, 173, A9^^. 

„ ax^iiA, 11, 180, 418; PI. 
XXII., fig. 2, p. 182. 
STAFFORD, Bishop of, arnu 

and teal, 27, 180. 
Treasurer of, armM, 55. 
Bishop of, arm$, 181, 429. 
EYB, Baron of, Steward to, Prince-Bishop 

of EICHSTADT, 283. 
EYNSHAM, Abbot of, mU, 8. 
EYRE, Archbishop, arm*, 144. 

SpUeopal Seal* of the 
Ancient Diocete qf 
Gla*{M>tP, 459, 461. 
of GLASGOW, ann*, 
117; PL XIIL, fig. l,p. 118. 





FACXJHINETTI, arm*, 104. 
FAHHA, Provostry, arm*, 410. 
BRUGES, arm*, 81. 

„ Pallivm conferred on, 117. 

FAIRHOLT quoted, 14. 
FALKLAND li<LAND8, See of, arm*, 
PI. XXXV., fig. 11, p. 250. 
„ ISLES, Diocese of, amu, 

FARNB8E, arms, 145, 102. 
FAUDOAS, Bishop de, of MEAUX, arm*, 


Bene<lictine Abbey, arm*, 368. 
FAVYN, Theatre d'Honneur et de Cheva- 

terie, 98, 120. 
FAY, GUILLAUME DE LA, arm*, 72. 
FECAMP. Benedictine, arm*, 402. 

Baron VON, 333. 
FELDBACH, Cistercian, arm*, 396. 
FELDKIRCH, Counts of, arm*, 104. 
FENAL, 482. 
FERDINAND, Emperor, 340. 

„ I., JEEm|)eror, 291, 454. 

,, III., Emperor, 298. 

FERNE, Monastery of, 417. 

( 531 ) 




FRANCE, Some Canons styled Count* or 
Jiarons, 45, 485, 486. 
„ Titles in, 33. 


„ Marqnisate of, 296, 

„ „ ann$, 

296 298. 
FRANCIS 1., Emperor, 292, 319. 
„ II., Kmperor, 280. 

„ JOSEPH, Emperor of AUS- 

TRIA, 20. 
„ King of FRANCE, 485. 

Franciscan Order, Aruu of, 143, 166. 
FRANCISCANS (Minorites), anuM, 418. 
FRANCONIA, arnut, 88, 90. 
OrcMt of, 267. 
Duchy of, 93, 332. 

„ wiiu, 256, 331. 

,, cr(»t, 256, 267, 


of, arum, 88. 
Tourneys of, 479. 

D ALU ERG, Grand- 
Duke of, 254. 
,, -AM-MAYN, Monastery 

of, 87. 
„ Synod of, 124. 


Cistercian, antu, 396. 
FRAUENKIRCHE (Munich), vionwnaU 

in, 118. 
FREDERICK, Emperor, 100, 136, 285, 
I., Emperor, 295. 
II., Km])eror {Bbrbaroua), 

262, 278, 286, 842. 895. 
III., Emperor, 291. 
IV., King of DENMARK, 

306, 495. 
King of SWEDEN, 151. 
THE GREAT, 493. 
FREDERICTON, See of, 230. 

,, „ arms, 230; PL 

XXX., fig. 1, p. 232. 

Archbisho)) of, 254. 
Archbishopric, ai-nu, 284. 
diocese of, 284. 
„ BREISGAU, Chapter 
removed to, S69. 
(Sv^itzerland), 286. 
of, annx, 816. 
Bishop of, was a Prince of 

the EMPIRE. 284. 
Bishop of, 284. 
OTTO, Margrave of AUS- 
TRIA, Bishop of, 284. 
Prince-Bishopric, arms, 284, 

See of, suffragan to SALZ- 
BURG, 318, 284. 
PR&JUS, See of, 501, 502. 
FRENCH Sees, practice of quartering 
armSf 86. 








Frirts-mitieiirs, 418. 
FREYBERG, Barons von, anus, 265. 
crest, 265. 

VON, Prince- Bishop of 
AUGSBURG, anus, 88, 
,, VON, arnuif 88. 


Archbishop GEBSATTEL 
of, anus, PI. XIII., fig. 3, 
p. 118. 
„ Prince-Bishop of, 809, 315. 

«c« MtyNCHEN. 
Friars. The BUick, 413. 
FRIEDRICii III., King of the ROMANS, 

FRITHELSTOKB (Devon), AugusUnian 

Priory, <t)'w«, 369. 
FRITZLAR, Abbey, 285. 
FRIULI, FRIBDRICH, Marquis of, 261. 
FROISSART'S Chronicles, 153, 183. 
EMMANUEL, Canon and Count of 
LYON, 467. 
FRY of WATERFORD, Bishop, amis, 

FULDA, 281, 285, 340. 

„ Abbacy raised to Bishopric, 285. 
,, Abbey had title of Primas, 285. 
„ Abbey of, had title of "Im- 
perial" 343. 
ALTFRIED, Monk at, 345. 

and Bishop of, 285. 
arms, 77, 284. 
Bishopric of, 253. 
Chapter of, 478. 
Ci'tst of, 286. 

DOM-CAPITEL of, arms, 286. 
Imperial Monastery, 387. 

Abbot of, ani*9, 77. 
Prince-Bishop of, 389. 

,, nrvis, 284. 

Princely Abbacy, afterwards 

Bishopric, 386. 
DE, Abbot of, 285. 
„ Bufihigan to FREIBURG IM 

„ suffragan to MAINZ, 285. 
PUNCH AL in MADEIRA, Bishop of, 

privileged to use cross, 109. 
FURNESS, Abbey of, 414. 

„ (Lancaster), Cistercian Abbey 

of S. MARY, anns, 369. 
FURNIVAL, nniu of, 3i»l. 
FURST, Wajypenbuch,'lb^. 
FtjRSTENBERG, Princes of, nest, 108. 
mandery of, aruu, 350. 

GADDI, Cardinal, anus, 146. 

J, „ touth, 146.' 

GAETANI, Cai-dinal MACELLO, of VI- 

CENZA, 424. 
GAIT, Sir ROBERT, 388. 
GALEN, anu*, 396. 

MOUTIERS, arms, 74. 




( S3» ) 

GALI.O, rnrtiinal, an^t, 14«'i. 
»eo(, 22S. 
DEVOKGH.LA. danghter 
uf ALAN, I^rd of, hoI, 
or WHfTHERX, Hee of, 
IM, 2lrt, -JSS. 
,, »« of, ar»tt, I'lT, 41M ; PI. 

XXIX.. tiK. -i, p. 2:!4. 
UAMBARA, (iloVANNI. CMrdiiMl, armM, 
UMUEKTO, CardlDAl, nmu, 
GAMKRY, .lOlIX I)E, Canon of CAITFI. 

NE.S8, »eat and fiifm, 458. 
GAND. I.EON'nRA I)K. Canoocw of 8T. 

GA.NDERhllElM, 84.'». 

AbbeM of, had rank of 
rrinoM of the KM- 
PI RE, 840. 
„ niapter of, 481. 

Princely - Abbacy of, 
arm*, :<4.'i. 
(JANGANELIJ. />r.M«, }M. 
GAN(;LHArER. Canlinal. -JO. 
GAr, ARTUS I)E LIO.N.NE, Biahop and 
Connt of, nrm», Ih; ; Pl. XIII., 
flg. 4. }>. 118. 
„ Biahup of, friH*, 9f*. 
„ ,, naed Count'a cofY»i<(, 100. 

shir hi, tHi. 
H4N* «if bOX !iCr* 

Chantry. 17.'». 
GARENFX)N (Lcicwterahin?), Ciatercian 

Abbey of H. MARY, nn,tJi, 3«1». 
GAR.STKN, or.tiM, :ii»7. 
GARTER, ORDER OF THE, 55, 57, 7P, 

175, la'i, iMt. 

,, ,, arum, \V9. 

GAITERER Ihunhtik, 77. 80, 836. 
GEHHARI). Count. 2S2. 
ArohhUhopof MUNICH- 
FREISING. nr,M, 118; 
PI. XIII.. flg. 3. p. 118.' 
„ LOTH AIR. Banm VON, 

MftHViHtnt, lis. 
GEIHENHAUHEN, Countr of. 204. 
GELAHirs. BiHhop of AR.MAGH. 201. 

LifcGE, 474, 481. 
Gema, Antiiine, uned aa »^"h, I». 
GEMBLOLX (in Biabant), Benedictine 

Ablwy, ornt», 406. 
Geiunlnnint, lO'i. 
GENEHT, JEAN. Pmtonotary and Arch- 

dtsaron of NEVERS, armM, 44. 
GENEVILLE. «nii#, 30. 
<JENK ((JENEVA) (GENEVE), BUhop of, 
alao a Prince, W. 
,, Birthop of, raiaed to rank of Prince 
,, Lint uf BiwhopB of, 2m".. 
,, Modem .See, o