Skip to main content

Full text of "A treatise on electricity and magnetism"

See other formats

Go ogle 

This is a digitaJ copy of a book that was preserved for generatioDS on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

ll has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enler Ihe public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vmy country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other niaiginalia present in the original volume will appeal' in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from Ihe 
publisher to a library and finally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with librai'ies to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we Lue merely Iheir custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have takeD steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm aiftomated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system; If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage Ihe 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and maybe able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermaik" you see on each file is essential for informing people about ihis project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do nol remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Do not assume Ihat just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States. Ihat the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whelher a book is still in copyright varies from counlry lo counlry. and we can'I offer guidance on whelher any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume Ihat a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize Ihe world's informalion and lo make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover Ihe world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search tlirough the full text of Ihis book on the web 

at http: //books . google .com/ 











eiarenlion ^vts& ^stit& 













[ All rigiU rMtrvei J 

>}«.4.'-^ UZi- 









Properlies of » iiinf[>i«t wbcu ttcled on liy ttic earth .. I 
D(£nitii>n of Uio axU of the niiignot nnd uf (h« directioil of 

magDBtic force I 

Action of luagneU on ODD ftQotber. Lew of magnetic force .. 2 

DttGnition of nugnetio anita ntid tliotr iliuiciutiojia S 

Naturw of the ovidcocc for the law of magnetic force .. .. 4 

Hagnetiem aa a mathematical quautity 4 

TIm qnttntitieo of the opposite kiiiU» uf miigiictum in n Du^ct 

Mw alweyi exactly ciiiiil , i 

Effects of breaking a DiAgnct 5 

A niagiiet it built up of parliclM each of irhicli ia n maf^iet .. R 

Tltoory of mu^ctic 'nmttcr' fi 

U^ietiiBtioD i« of the nature of a vector 7 

Ueaning oftbe t«nn 'Mo^uelic Poluriution'.. ..' .. 8 

Propcrtiaii of A magnetic piirticic 6 

Definittona of Magnetic Moment, Intensity of IfagnettiatioD, 

and CompouGDta of MaijuetJiatiou S 

PoicDtial of a mugnetiswl dement of Tolumc 9 

Potontial of a rongnct of finito stu. Tvo cxpre-dHona fur tliia 

potential, eoiT«spODding respectively to llie theory of polar!- 

xation, and to that of mnguetic 'mutter' tO 

Invet^tigatioD of the action of one magiiclic jxtrliule on luwtber 10 

Particular casea 13 

Poti-nlial euN]g}- of a inug;n«tinsny Held of force 14 

On the miignetic moment and axis of a mrgnet 15 



391. Ivs[mn»iun of the pntcntiul of h mognel m *]>)i<-rical barmonic* 

392. Th« ccntro of » nutgoot oad tli* primary and BeotHulary axM 

through the centre .. .. .. ., I" 

393. The aorth ciul of u niugnet iu tluN IrettiKe in that which poiDba 

north, aod thv loutli encl that which points aonth. Boreal 
magDDtiam i» that which is mpposcil to exist near th« north 
pola i>f the earth and the south eud of a niUjpMt. Auflrul 
nutgDClijiiH ia that whiuli bbloDga to the Noiith pole of tiic 
earth and the north end of a magnot. Austral nuLguetifia 
i% considered poailive 19 

394. The <lir«<lion of ma^uotic force is tliat iii which aiutnil mi^ 

nctifn) tl^^d• to move, that ia, from aouth to north, and ihia 
u the positive direction of magnetic lines of force. A magnet 
l» mud to be magncLited from ita south eud tomrds ita north 
end 19i 



395. Magnetic forco defined with reference to the magnetie potential 21 

396. Magnetic force in a cjlindrie cavity in a magnet untlonDly 

magnetized parallel to the axis of the cylinder 22 

397. ApplicatioD to any magnet 22 

398. An elongated cylinder. — Miignctia force 23 

393. A thin disit, — Ma^etic iududiun 23 

100. Relation between magnetic force, mu^ctic indnction, and mag- 

netizatioD 21 

401. Ltne-int€^ral of magnetic force, ornagnetic |>ot«ntiaI ., 24 

402. Surfnc*'iot<STnl of DwgDClic induction 25 

403. Solenoidal difctriWtion of maguetic indnolion 2t; 

404. 8ur&cea aud tubca of magnetic iuduGtion £7 

405. Vector-pntential of magnetic indnclion 27 

106. Itelations between tiio tcalar and the Tector-poteiitlal 29 


UAavwnc souetoitw axd shuls. 

407. Definition of a magnolio aoleiioid .. .. .i » ... i. 3] 

408. Drfinittou of a complex ftolcnoHl and cxpnwton for tti ]»tential 
at any point 33] 


400. Tlie potonlial uf a BUgnetlc sliell at any poict is tli« product of 
its FtrcDgth raulliplwd hy tlie iiolid augle iiti butimlary Hib- 

tendfl at (be point 32 

410. Anullier mi'thud of proof 33 

411. Tbc potcntiiil at a point on the positire (d<l« of a sbcll uf 
titmi;^b <t> exceeds that on tbo nonrcMt point on t]i« nr-gativn 
W(I«by4lF* 34 

412. lAincllur iJiKtribiition of nia^uititim 34 

413. 0>inplex lamollar distribution 34 

1414. Potential of a Buleiioidal magnet 35 

415. Potcotiul of u lumrllnr muj^ii-'t .. 3S 

416. Vcctwr-potculial of a laniclUr tnfignct 36 

'417. On tbe solid angle subtended at a given point by a dosed curve 36 

418. The aotid Mxglc cxpmm^l bj- tbr kti;-lb of a curv« ou tlie s]ilier« 37 

419. Solid angle found hy tn-u line- integral ions .. 38 

420. n expreaied aa a determiuant 39 

421. The Mlid ntigte in u cyclic rniictiaii 40 

432. Theory of tlie Toctor-polential of a closed curv« 41 

1 423. Potential energy of a niaguetie slidl placed in a ua^ietic field 42 


ixbt'CKD lunxrnzATiox. 

' 424. When a body under the action of magnetic force becomes itself 

mafpietixed llie pbenomMioD is called maj^iietio induction .. 4 1 

425. Uu{{iM>tiu induction in different (ulMtaiicu 4A 

■ 42fi. Delinition of the cocHicicnt of induced ma^etiaiticin .. .. 47 

427. Ustbonmtical tlieor)' of majjucUc inductiou. Poisson's method 47 

1 428. Faraday'a Doetbod 49 

420. CitM of a ImmIjt Nurruiindcd by a ini^pttic mfdium Al 

430. Pouson'a pfaygic«l tbeoiy of the cauM of induced mflgnotiBm .. £3 



131. Tbeoryof a hollow Bphcricol abell S6 

^432. Caae when K ui large 58 

433. When i" = I 58 

134. Corresponding case in two dimeBuous. Fig. XV 09 

|<t3S. Case of a solid spbere, Ibe ooediuients uf magnet iutioi) being 

diflcreiit in difl'crcnt dircction> 00 

Tiii COITTBSTS. ^^^^^^ 

Art. no* 

436. The nine ooefBcieuts rcdaced to six. Fig. XYl 6| 

4S7. Theory of »n rllipAoid BClod on ]>y « uoiform mu(pi«tic foKC .. 

438. CiteMOf TifylUt Mid of vcT)- long c11ii>ii(ii'1it 

iS'X HlatenKut of problcois solved by Neumann, KirclthofT. Mid 

4'I(X Uclhod oFKpfwvximAtion to n nolntion of the gcnenl |>robIi 
when K is vcary atuM. Mng^ctic twditot tt-nd towards 
of most iulense magoHio force, aiul diamfi^-ndic bodies teud 
to places of maltott foroe 

4il. Ou ship's magnotism 



442. Expei-iineutA iudicatiuiT a maxiinain of moffiwtisaliOD .. 
41,'!, Wrbcr'* muthcmiktiad theory nf temitorary uioiiuiTtiznltoii 
4'I4. MotHftcation of the tlioory to account for residunl ini^fnetieatton 

446. £x|ilanation of phenomeua by the modified theorj 

4 16. UiiRDL'tijuitiou, denw^ctization, and ivmsfpieliiation .. .. 6^ 

447. EfTocts of nngnetlEatioii on Uio diiii«n*ios> of the lungnet 

448. £xi>erim«nt8 of Joule 


4. to. 



4. -(ft. 



SoBpeniioD of Ibe ma^et 

McUuhIk of otworvntion hy mirror and ecalo. Photographic 


IViocipIc of oollimatioo mnployed In the Kew muj^ietomeleT .. 
DetemiinatioD of Uie axti of a nu>gnut uid iif Uic diroction of 

the borintDtal oooipouent of the ma^etio foreo * 

Meaaorament of the morociit of a nngont and of tlM intoimty of 

the liorinonlal oomponeiit of mofpictic force 

Obwrvntioiu of tlollnxtun ,-, ' iqq 

Uetbod of tang«iUi Mid method of ainen .. „ „ ,. 102 

OhaemtMO of ribwtiona I03 

miminattOQ of the effects of mafriiettc indni-tion tU^H 

Statical mMhod of tneaBuriug the bon»>iii*l force I0^| 

Biftlar su«pen»ioti loJB 

Syiitifin of oWmliona in an ob*erv«toTj .. „ .. .. 113 
OtxonrnliuD of the dip-eirclc .. ., „ it; 

C08TENT5. ^^^m iX 

AH. f«* 

^_ 402. J. A. Broun'* in«fl)btl of ourr«ct)oa .. 11t> 

^M63. Joatc's nupeoBJon 116 

464. Balance v«rtii.'iU force magDetometer .. .. 118 









ElemcntsofUio magndic force 121 

ComliiDatioD of tUe r«sulU of tie tiiajtnetic survey of & country 1 22 
Deduction of f1i<! rxpuni^ioii of tlic mngiivtic potcutinl of tlic 

earth in f^herical liaimonics 124 

D^fiiiitiim of tlie eHitii* m«giietiii poles. They are uot at the 

extri-tniticit of the ningnctic nxia. t'alte potcK. I^iey do not 

oxUc on tbe earth's surface 124 

Gaun' calculation of tlic 24 oocfRcieDta of Ifac firftt four lior- 

mouica 12S 

Sepojution of external horn internal cauaea of mafpietic force .. 125 

The solar mid luuur viu-iutioiia 126 

The pir iodic varint long ,. 120 

The dislurtioDcea and Ibcir period of 11 yean » 127 

Ktdlexioiia on magnetic iuvestig«tiona 127 




Int Ontef* tlisco^'cry of the action of an rlcctric cuircnt on & 

BUgnet .. 129 

i7n. The apace near an electric current ia a uugnctic field .. .. 129 
^477. Action of averiicsl cnrrent i>n a onagDct 130 

ire. Proof that tlw force due to a straight cnrrenl of luileHuitely 

ETMt lengtb vurica ini-er>ely «• tlie dinlunoe 1 30 

l79. KlMtronugnctic mcseure of the current 131 


480l Potential lunetiuu tlu« to n atmiglit canviit. It u a fuactioo 

of iDnn; vnlues II 

481. The MtioD of this ewreiit compared with that of « magnetic 

Bh«ll baling ail infinite draiglit edgti and extending on one 
Mi(l(- or ihiK cdgo to infinity 

482. A nmall circuit acts at a gtvat diiilanco lilcc a magnet .. 
48$. Deduction from lluN of the action of a cloiul circuit of any form 

aitd Hixe on any point nnt in tlic current iUnlf 

484. Couiparifoii botweeD the circuit nud a muKnelic efaell .. 

485. Uagnetic poti'utltil uf a clniMid circuit 134 

486. Conditions of continuoim rotation of a mognel nl>nnt a currout 

487. Foriu of ibc magnetic etjuipoleatial iiurfaoee due to a cloiiid 

drcBiL Kg. X\TII .. .. , 

488. Untual action I»ct«eeii uij syafem of magneta and a dosed 


489. BeHctioi) on the circuit 

490. Force acting on a wira carrying a current and placed in th» 

m^ietic lield 

401. Th«orj of clectroinnguclic rotation* 

192. Action of one electric circuit OD the whole or any i>ortioa of 


493. Our method of invcftigatioo is that of Fnraduy 

494. Illustration of the method ap|ilied to parallel currvnta .. 
496. IMnienHone of the Quit of current 

496. Tlie wire ia urKvd fh>m the sido on wldcb its magnetic action 

Kircngllienii the magnetic force and tovard* the side on which 

497. ActioiU of an iufiulle straight current on any coitcnt in ita 

plane .. 

498. Rlateineut of the hwa of electromagnetic force. Magnetic force 

dne to n current .. 

499. Gnterality nf thne laws 

500. Forc« aaing on a dnmit |>Uccd in tlie magnetic field .. .. 
801 . Qectromagnolie force is a mochanical force acting on the con- 

doctor, not on the rloclrie earrsnt itaelf I4Q 


amide's avxsnoxjKUt op the MtnuAt AcnOH op BE-Bcrtl 


503. ARipfcrv'iiiBT«Eligatiouof tbe law of force twtireea tlw elemrnU 
of electric cunvula 








SI 3. 









His method of «x)ierim«titiDg 147 

Ani|>irc'M Iinluico 118 

Amptrc'fl dm exporimoiit. Equal aod opposilc ciitreiits nen- 

tnlise each oUmt 148 

Second ex|wriincnt. A cronkfitt conductor is tiquivulmt ta a 

rtrnigbt onr earn,-in» the mme current H9 

Third GXpcrimenl. The oction of a closed current a* an d«- 

nient of luaoLher current in [lerpeudiculor to that element .. 149 
Four^i cspcrinK'iil. GijuhI cnrreDts in sfEt«ius gcomctricall}' 

simitar produce etjunl forccH 150 

In all of tti«tie ex|)crimcnlii the ncling cnnvnt iit a cloned one.. 192 
Botb circuitti may, however, for mathcmntical purpoRRK W con- 
ceived as cooaistiuK of i-lciucntury porliODB, xnd the action 
of tbe oireailit u.-> tbn rcjiultnnt of the action of tlicM elemento 1 S2 
NeceKfliry form of the relations betwoen two «lemcntniT por- 

ttoiM of lines 162 

The {j^mctricnl quantities which determine their rclatire posi- 
tion 153 

Fonn of the components of their mutuul ucttou .. .. .. 154 

Ke§o)uttou uf iheiN! in three directiontc, pni'nllcl, n«[icctivcl}', lo 
the line joining them and to the elements themselves .. .. 153 

a«i>eral expression for the ucttun of a finite current on the ele- 
ment of nnothcr 155 

Condition funuahed by Amp^'s third case of equilibrium .. 166 
Theory of the directrix and tbe <]ctenniniui(j< of elcutrody mimic 

iKtion 157 

KxprcMion of the delermtDant^ iu terms of tbe CMiiponcnt* 
of the vector-potential of the cnmMit.. ^ •• •• •• "^^ 

Tlio port of th« forc«i which U indntc-rminntc can he expresse<l 

as the space* variation of a potential 158 

Complete exprcKMon for tbu octjuii between two finite ciurront* 1 59 

MntunI potential of two closoil current* 169 

Appropriateness of quaternions in this inrcdtigation .. .. 153 
DeterminalioD of tlie form of the functions hy Amptrc'a fourth 

cue of equilibrium IdO 

Tbe eloctrodynamic and electromagnetic units of currcnta .. 160 
Final expremon* for cteclromugncliu force between two elc- 

mentJi Ifll 

Four different admisaible forms of the theory Itil 

Oftbow Anp^'sb tobepreJerrod 162 


^^^^xii ^^^^f CSOKTBIITS^^^^^^^^^B 


^^^B. CHAPTER ni. 

^^^^^^ OK TRB mnvcnoji op elcotrio ctmssKn. 




^^^H 629. Tbe luuthwl of thin trcntii« fDunilLil on thnt of Fnruilay .. 





^^^^1 533. Induction hj llic motinn <>f the onrtk 


^^^B 634. Tbv i-lrctromotiva force due lo iuducUou do6B not depend on 


les 1 


^^^^ &37. Un of tli« galniDometer U determine the time-integral of the 



^^^H S39. Matbctnatical eipressioD for the total enirent of induction 



^^^H Sll. Hi« mrtlKwl of fttnting the lnw> of induction vritii reference to 


^^^H 542. Tlie luw of Lenx, and Neumauu't tlieaiy of indoetion 


^^^H 513. Hc^mlioltz'tt dninetion of induction fiYim th» Bi«^ntcal action 

^^^^P of curratta by the prii>ci]>le of oonseiratioa of energy ,. 






^^^^^^ OK niK mnicnoK or a ccokkxt ox mscF. 




^^^^ 518. Oiflervui.-« 1i«t««en tlu« caae and that of a tube eoDtaimng a 



^^^H 549. If there is motnentum it is not tbat of tbe maving et«ctricitf .. 


^^^^ 350. NerenlldnH llie pbentmienK ani exactly tukalogout to Omm oI 



^^^H Ul. An eleelric rurrent luta rner^, which nw; \m calW diwtro- 


IBS ' 

^^^^1 fM?> Thu Trait* lu In fnrm a djnaaueal tbenrv ufntortrtc carrebta.. 















LsfiTaiiKe'a metbod furaUbe§ ap]>ropriate idcu lor tho rtady of 

Uie bigbcr ilvniuDicnl adeatts 183 

Tbcw ideas tonet be tmubted from tnaUKiiiatka) into Ay- 

Bunical luiigoaga •• •. •> 166 

DegnMarfrMdom ofBeoniiMtod Nptom I66 

0(n«raUz«d meaning of rclocity 187 

Oenenliited meontDg of force 187 

Qracndixed mcanuig of momentum snd impulM I87 

Work done by « *m«II impvlM 188 

Kiu«tio«i>ergy in tonoB of momenta, (7*,) 189 

Hamillou't oqiutioiis of mutiou 190 

Kinetic energy in t«rm* of lb« velocities and momenta, {T^j) •■ 191 

Kinetic energy in terms of velocities, (T^) 192 

Itdntiont lietweeu T^ and T^, p und q 192 

Momenta ami product* of inertia nnd moliility 193 

NecesMry conditions irliich these ooellicientfi must satisfy -. 191 

Relation betTr««u ro«tli«mttt4cal, dyuuiuico], luid cltictricid idcus 195 



The cle«tnc cnrrcnt (iMiBMaM energy 196 

The current is a kinetic phonomnDon 196 

WoHc done by electromotive force 197 

The mart general esprewjoo fur tlie kiuetic energy of a i^tem 

iiidading electric eumtnta 198 

The devUicil variables do not ag^iear in this expremioa .. 199 

Mevhiuiicnl force acting on a uvitduutor 199 

Tbt part depending on. products of ordiuniy relocttica «ad 

ttreugtbd of currents does not exitt 201 

Another cxprriinentnl teit 203 

Piscufsion of tho cleclronioilim forOe 20S 

If terms iuvolviug products of Telocitics and cnrrtnts existed 

they would iutrodace electromotive forces, which are not ob- 

•erred ,. S06 



The eWlrokinetic eoetgy of a sj'stvm of linear circuita .. 
SbctramotiTv force in cnch circuit 

.. 207 
.- 208 

Xiv ^^^V OOlTTETrTS. 


880. Eloctromngnetic force 

581. OiMof two drcuito 209 

582. TLoory of induced currents 210 

583. U<«bHiiicii) action between the circuits 211 

684. All tho pliuiinmcnn of tlm mtitiinl ticttnn of two cjrcuitit dopcnd 

on a single quantit}', th» iratentinl of tbc tvo circuits .. .. 211 

cuAPTEft vm. 


683. Tbfl electrokin«tic Riom«nt<im of tlic KOCODdnz}' circuit .. .. 213 

686. Esprctaed AS a liue-iuH^ral 212 

fiST. Any ^jfitcni of i-ontiguuuK vtrcuita ia etjuivaleut Ut tbc ctrcait 

formed by Uicir extorior bounding .. .. ,, „ 213 

688. Electrokiiietic monivntTUii expressed na a surfiH:e-iiiteg;ral .. 213 

689. A cronkod portion of a circuit (-(luivalifiit to n ntnugbt [lortivn 214 
S90. £teotn>kiuetic momentani at a point expressed as a vector, 'SI .. 2 ] S 
691. Itjt relation to the magnetic inductioD, tB. £<juiiUi(iu (A) .. 215 

592. JostifiMtion of thcac naiDcM 31S 

593. Cowveulions vrith respect to the signs of tranalations and rota- 

tions 217 

59-1. Theory of a eliding piece 218 

695. R1ec!truuiotive force dac to tbc motion of a conductor ,. .. 219 

596. FJcctraniignetic force on tbe sliding piece 219 

597, Four d^rfinition* of a line of magnt'lic inilaction 220 

698. (leueml e<|uations of electromotive force, (II) .. .. ,. ., 220 

699. Aualj'iiis of (lie electromotive force 233 

600. Tbo g«ncral cquutions referred to moving axes 224 

601. Tbe ntotion of tbe axes cbanges notbiug but tbe apparent valiM 

of tbe dcotric puleotitd .. .. 225 

603. ElcctiMiMgnetic forc« oo n condnclor ,. 325 

603. Electromagnetic force on an dooMDt of a ooDduding body. 

£<|uatioitt (C) 227 



R04. Recapitulation ..> » . 

G05. E<)uaUonii of magaetixalioD, (D) .. .. 93 

60$. llotatioD l>el«TDn inngaetir force and electric current* .. .. 231 

607. Equations of electrk curreoto, (B) , .. .- 232 

608. Eqnationa of electric di>iilacciDeut, (F) S3j 

Xti ^^^^^ COSTEXTSI. 

JUt. p^ 

689. Tlie torn tding on a ptrticlo of « rahdmoce diw to its laagqct- 

inliiM) 353 

040. ElcctmowgDctic force dao to an el«ctric current {Mstog Uiroagb 

U „ 254 

641. EipluMtion of tbete tonen bj Iho liypotluus of itran in • 

mediun 253 

642. QoMral character of the itreis required to proJnee iIm: [^coo- 

raeua 2S7 

S43. WliuD there ti do magnotJuttion the stress is » tension in the 
direction of the lines of magnetic force, oomlMued with a 
[ireauire ia all directiuua at right angles to these lines, the 

magnitude of tlie teiwtou and pruMuro betBg -—• &', where 4 

is the iDAgnetic force 2fl8 

6H. Korce acting on a conductor oarrjing a ourreut 2S9 

645. TlK-ory of stKwt in a tuediuin as xtated bif Forada/ .. .. 2S9 

646. Kumcrical viduc of magnetic tcimion 260 

A|<|H-nd)i I 2CI 

A))i]Ciidix II 2G2 



647. Daflbntioti of aotureiit-slieet 263 

618. Curreat-funclion 263 

649. Electrto potential 264 

&IH). Theofy of stead)- ciim-nia 264 

est. 0ms of UDiform CDDductirity 2G4 

652. UsgnatM aetton of a curreDt-altect with ctoeod ctimnta .. .. 261 

663. MagnMlc potential duo to a citrreiit-tib<.'>:t 

664. Inductioti of currents in a sheet of infinite eoodnctivity .. 
626. Such a sheet i« i(ui>erTiou« to mafpietic actwu .. .. „ Ml 

666. Thcorjr of a iilnne camnt-sliMt • 

667. The atagnetie fnnclions vxpressod as derivattros uf a uugle 

fonetioa 2G 

658. Action of a TariaUe tnsgnette ^uleni on tiie nliMrt 27^ 

669. \^'hcn tiMre b no external action the carrenta d«ci9, and their 
nagtMtie actioo dimiiushc« as if the sboel had awved off with 

MBrtaut vslocdty A 271 

'B60. The oumnts^ excited bjr the iastantaneoiu intrrwIuetiaQ of a 
DBgnHic qrstent, prvdace an eflect eqninlriit to an image of 
that systera 37i 

^^^^^^^^^^^ COSTBNTa. ^^^^^^^ xvii 

^Rk ^^^^ Vmtn 

^HC61. This imago moves avny from its original positioo with v«lo- 

~ dly H 273 

»$62. Tnil of imugea fonnccl hf a ma^olic Bjnit«m in coDtiuuooa 

motion 272 

663. UatfaematioAl ei]>resaion for the tffcot of ibc iiiduiNxl ctirrenlM 273 

664. CaM of tlw niiifDrm motion uf ft magnetic pnio „ „ .. 273 

665. Value of the force acting on the magnetic pole •• >. .. 274 

666. Cbm of curvilinear mutiuu 275 

667. Com of motion ncnr tii<^ i^gn of the nhnot 278 

663. TheoT}- of Arago's rotating disk 275 

669- Ttuil of imajtei tu Iho form of a helix 278 

670. Splierioil cum-ntiilici'tii 279 

671. Tli« vector-potential 280 

t672. To produce a field of eonat«Dt Diaguetic force within a spherical 

%Un 281 

673. To produce a constant force on n suspended coil 282 

674. Cun«iit» iiarulld to a plane 282 

678. A {done electric circuit. A xpherical Kbell. An i:llipiiuidal 

ieheil 283 

76. A (olenoid 284 

77. A long •olcnoid 28S 

678. Force near the ends 286 

679. .\ iinir of induction ooil* 286 

680. Proper thick new of wire 287 

tendlcu solenoid 288 

6S2. Cylindrical conductors 290 

683. The cstenial imkgnetic action of a cyliudric wire depends ouly 

on the whole ciirrrnt through it 391 

684. The vector-potential 292 

6S6. Kinetic energy of the current 292 

686. Ttepulftion between tW ilirevt mid the n^tum current .. .. 293 

6B7. TbiiMou of the wiree. Amp^rv's «sperim«ut 293 

6B8. Self-induclion of a win doubled on itaelf 294 

689. OuTsnta of vM)-ing inteoMtj' in acylindric wii^e 295 

6fW. BeUtion between the electromotive force and the total current 296 

691. Geometrical mean di»tuace of two figures in a plane .. .. 298 

^692. Particular <WM 2»9 

^B93. Applicatwo of the method to a coil of insuhkl«d wires .. .. 301 
H TDL. II. b 



Art. P»» 

Il|t4. I'aUititial Ana to « xpWicnl bowl 303 

llDfi. M>liil uiiKl«mbt«Dilcil 1i,v a circloat any point 30a 

ttt>i). I'oiuLiliul energy of iwo droukrcunvaU 306 

U97. MoiTimit of tho CQuplo ndiDg botwom ttvo coila 307 

008. VftUiw of />; SO? 

tW\. Allrodioo liHumcu two]MnJI«l oireulftr vtureuta SOS 

T(lt), CnlvMlalion of iW cM>IBctrobi for n coil of finite ti-ction .. .. 308 

Till. I'liU-ntinl of two |Mmllol circles cxprvned b; elliptic intt^nis 3d9 

703. IJuonfrom' rtMiiwI n ciifuUr coi-nMit. Fig. XVIII .. .. 311 

rOS. [lilTerauliiJ «>)iitttion of tbo |>oleiitittl of two droll* 312 

TOI. Api'mxiriMtiou wlim tli»cir<^araT«iT Dcftf OMMMtber .. 313 

Pt\ fcVi-lticr u|>]>FvxinAlion 3H 

riMl. (\iil uf luiuiiuum pvlf-iwluclion 31G 

Aptw-ioUx I 317 

ApiMUtHxIl ... .. 320 

A|>|pw<lii. UI ' •• •■ S21 


KuvntoMAoxmc ncsimriatxis. 

TpT. StMid*rd gklnMOMton dad «nihiv« gthtnaaal 

TVA. i.\MlntatiMoffti«MMkideua 

n% lUMMMlftMl thpoi; 4f Uw panwoMtn- 

riix. rHMJ^ib «t U* iMfMrt giinMaitar aa4 the 

Tit. 0*K«MiM«w«Mkal^««il .. „ „ 

n». i a wiKAS »B w i fc few Mr<M i i«- .. „ .. 

nx otMiBiiii wfci^»twa... .» „ ^ 

)9««^ rh<r»tkMMi»«< Iks «*••<> I 


724. Weber's elect rod jTiaiuotneter 337 

72fi. JouIc'h cuireiit-wi-iirbcr 341 

727. Suction of nolwioiit? 342 

T28. TTniforni tone uonnal to Ku^peiid«<d coil 342 

729. Etectrodj-munumiTtcr with ttmiun-iirm 343 



OWrvation of vibnitioiDi 344 

Motiou iu a lognriUimic npirul 34S 

RMtiUncnroeciltfttioas ID a rceUtingmediuia 346 

^'aluefi of Buccesaive cEoiigatious 347 

PatA aud quieiita 317 

PonilKin of equilibrium determined from tliroe sitcccssi^-c eloD* 

^liom 347 

Dctermiuution of tliu lognritbDiJi: decrement . , . , , . . . S4S 

Wlien to ttn[> tJir cxporimont , . ,. .. .. ... .. .. 348 

Dntcrmi nation of the time of vibratioD from three transits , . 346 

Two series of observationa 349 

Com^ioti for nm}ilitud« and for dumping SSO 

Dead brat galranometcr 330 

To measare a coostaul current wilb tbc Kalvatiometer ,, .. 331 

Best an^c of ilFflcxioii of a, inn^itnt gnlvnnometa- 353 

Beat metJiod of introducing the current 352 

McaMirem«Rt of a currcut by tlie firiit elun^aliou 333 

Tu malce a »i.-H<.-!i of iilwiTvutiiiiiH uu u constant current . . . . 354 

Uctbod of multiplicutinn for fdcbtc currentH 3M 

Ut^mirrmcnt of a transient current by tint elongation , . . , 3SS 

Oari-oction for dauipiiijf 366 

Series of obw.-rTatii>nK. Ztiriiekvitrfwvii method^ 357 

Ul-cImkI of nioltipli cation 359 




752. Elocbtiml mi'Aiuremcnt fooictiraea moro accurate tbon direct 

measurement 301 

753. Deteniiination of 0, 363 

764. Delvmiination of 9, 363 

755. Determination of ll>c mutual induction of two c<h1s .. .. 3R3 

756. XX-termi nation of tlie self- induction of a coil 365 

57. CoinporiaoQ o( the self-induction of two coila 367 






758. Definition of resistance 

759. Kirchhoff'ii mHhod 368~ 

760. Weber's inctiioil by tniiMiicot cuiTcnta 37( 

701. His method of ohscrvatioD , ,. ., 37J| 

7B2. liVeWs niBlliod by (lumpinf; STI 

763. TliiimiKiii'H mi^tboil hy « rcrolviti^ coil 37| 

7G4. Mnthcninlical theory of tlie rcrolring c»il 

765. C'ttleululioD of the ruristonce 

7flii. Correi'tioOii 871 

7K7. Joule's calorimctric method , . . . 87| 




768. Nature nad imporUiic« of the invMti^tion _37d 

769. Tlic nitig of the iinito i« » velocity 379 

770. Current by convpction 380 

771. Weber aiid KoliIniusc!i'*melbod 380 

772. Tboniaou'a metliMl liy tepanit« eleolroroeM- and elcdrodyn»- 

inomrler 38^ 

773. MaxwcII's method by eombiued elcclromdrr and cledrodyoa- 

niometer 381 

774. Etectromi>fp«tic mea.iarcni«iit of the eupucity of a coudcDMr. 

Jcnkin* method .. ., 

775. Uclhod by an intermittent current . . 

776. Condcmer and AVippc ae aii una of ^VIieatstoae^B bridf|« . . 38fl 

777. Correction wtien tlie action in too mpid 3S 

778. CnpAeity of a eondeosor comporwl with th« sclf-iuductioD of a 

•oil 387 

779. Coil and Gondcnaer coubioed . , 38^ 

780. Electrootatie nioamre ot reaiiriance aMnjinml wilh itt electro* 
magnetic mtuunt S9l 



781. Compariiwn at tim imygxTli** of the «ti!ctr«iBBgn*tio mMium 
witi tbcM of the medium ia the uudulatory tbeofy of light 


■ 78*. 










C0XTRKT3. ^^^^^H XXI 

Eoei'gX or light during its propBgation .. .. 394 

Eqniilton (if propagutiuti uf nn vltxiromOiftKtic <]iHturt>auoe . . 391 

Solution wlicn tliu mrdiiim IK H non-conductor .. ., .. 396 

CharacleriBtica of trave-propagfitioD 396 

Velocity of propngution of ploi'lroiiiMfttiftiL- ilialurliances . , 397 

CompiinRon of thie velocity witli tliiit uf lt)j;1it , . . . , . 397 
The q>ecific iii(liictir<> ca|>ncity of n <licl«<ctric is tho sqasn of 

its index of rufmclJou 398 

Compnrisoti of tlu^xc qunntilicn in tlio cane of jMiiulSa . . . . 398 

Tlicorjr of plane waves 399 

Tbe electric diHpliiociueul and the magnetic dislurtiitncfl are iu 

thv plutii! of lliti wii\-i--froni, nud piTpuudiuuIur to eacb otli«r 400 

Encrgjr and 6tre»8 during nulistiim 401 

PreMurtexertt^l liy li;{)it 402 

Kquationit of niutina in a cryNlulltiscd meditiiu 402 

Propagation of plnnc waves 403 

Only two waves are prup»^t«d 403 

The iJieory agree* wilU that of Freuiel 404 

B«lfttion bctwctn electric conductivity nnd opncity. . . , . . 401 

Oompurison with fact« 405 

Tranapaineiil melab 406 

Svluliuu of thi- ciiuntionii when llin tnnHuni is a conductor . . 406 

Cnsv of an infinite medium, ttie initial slate tn-iug given . . 406 

diaracteristics uf diiTatiiou 407 

Dixlnrliaucc oftlic eUvtromngnctic field when a current be^ios 

to flow 407 

Jtapid approxiuialion to an ultimate stati! 408 



PoMitile forma of tlie ridiition between ma^etiBm and light . . 410 

The rotation of tlic! pUnc tif iioUrixaliou b)' magnetic uutioii. . 41 1 

The lawx of the pbciiomeua 411 

Venlct's discovery of ncghtive rututiou Ui ferromngnctic media 411 
Rotation produced by quartx, turpentine, &c., iudepeudeully of 

mn^netiiin 413 

Kinenial)C«l .innljfiB of the phenomeiia 413 

'Die velocity of « circularly -polurixed ray is diflcireut accordin|[ 

tif its direction of Mtotioa 413 

Ri^hl and lefl-ltHndcd rays , 414 

In iiK^ia which of IhcniMlveB have the rotatory property the 

velocity ia dificrcnt for right and left-handed eonfij^iatious 414 


lit. FH«f 

815. In media Acted od by magnetisiu (be velocity is diflermt for 

oppiiBtt« <lireoliom of robitUia 41SS 

616. Tliti lumitiii'crouii dinlvirbaiicc, mnthomnticall; conMdercd, u • 

vector 415 

817. Kiiiemutic ci]uatiuiui of ctrcuUrlj-polnrixed liglkt 41BH 

81B. Kindic piiid p[)ti:ntinl pncrgy of the modinm 417fl 

819. Couditioii of w a V6- propagation 417H 

820. The action of im^Tietiaui munt depend on tt reul rotation nlieut H 

die dirtvliiui of Uic tnAgnctic fuive nn an nxix 418^ 

821. 81itt«rin«nt of tlic results of the annlysis of tbc plieaomenoa . . 418 
832. Hypothc§ia of iuo)«ciihir rortiees 419 

823. Variation of the vortices aeconJinR to HeluilioU/a low . . . . 420 

824. Vnriiition of the kinetic energy iti the disturbed medium . . 420 
Expresaiou in terms of the current and the velocity , . . , 421 

The kinetic onerg}- in the GUM of phme w&vcB ^^^ b 

The equations of motion 4231 

Vidoi-ity of n circulaj-ly-polurixod my 422 

The magnetic rotation 423 

lt«3carches of Verdet 424 

Note on a mechanical th«ory of mulcvular vorttMu . . . . 42fi 




832. Mngnetiim i* a pWnomcnon of nioleculci it 

833. The pbenomcna of magnetic molecules nuiy be imitolecE hy 

eh:ctric currents 43 

834. DiJftT«uce Ijctween tho olcmentary theory of continuous tnagncte 

and the theory nf motccuUr cuneota 43( 

836. I^iniplieity of the electric theory 431 

836. Tbeoiy of a current in a perfectly conducting circuit ., .. 431 

837. Cu« in which the current is entirely due to indoctioa . . . . 433 

838. U'vImt'm theory of diatiwgnetiam H 

B39. Mngnccrystalli^: induction ii 

840. Theory of a perfiBct ooDdndor 433 

841. A medium containing perfectly conducting *|>licncBl molrcides 434 
812. SlechaBtiad NC4iou of DLaftuelic force on th« cunmt irhich it 

cxcrtM 43^ 

843. Theory of a molccuk with a priu)iliv« ourreut 433 

811. Modificaliooa of Weber's tfavoiy 43G 

8tlj. ConBeqacncoH of the tbeoi; .. 4SftH 




:oKiK8 or ACTioir at a putasoe. 

|lit Fkae 

846. QnnnlitJeit wliicli enter into AinjiiTd's furmutft 437 

847. B«btive motion of two electric pnrticlcii 437 

848. B«lntivi! moltou of four electric iwrtivlcvs. Fethoer's llieory . . 438 

849. Two new foroK <if Amjibrn'ii formuln 439 

850. Two difl'erciit cxprcsftioQs for the forec tictireon two electric 

particles in mulioQ 439 

831. Tlic9c Arc ilue to Guum und to \Ve))Cr resjKctivel)' . , . . 440 
8S2. All forcrs muet be coaKixtciit with ttic pnnciplo of the oou- 

»en-a(ioD uf energy 440 

|'863. Wclicr'* fomiuta ia vouMatent with tlus principle liut tlint of 

Onniis it not 440 

854. Hdufaoltx'a dt'iluctiona from Wobor'B formula 411 

85fl. Poteuti*] of two currents. 442 

866. Wcbcr'n tlwory of the induction of electric currents . . . , 44 J 

867. Segrogxling force iu a conuluctor 443 

658. Oue of moviog condudora 444 

869. Tlie formula (if flnniu IciuIh to on erroiicouM rcmtit 445 

860. That of Wchcr Bgrrrs with the phenomena 445 

861. LetKr of CauMio Weber 446 

662. Tboiffy of RicnuuiD 416 

863. Tlwwry of C, Npumatiit 446 

864. Theory of Iletti 447 

863. Repugnance to Ike idcu of a medium 448 

, 866. TIic idea of a medium cannot he got riil of . , 448 

PART in. 




871.] Certatk bmlios, as, for instance, the iron ore railed load- 
stone, the rarth itM>If, and pitices nf Bl«d witicli have been «uh< 
jcctcd to <!crt<un treattnont, are found to posdeas the fullowiug 
properti«0, and arc called Mo^uetd. 

If, near any part of the earth's surface except the Magnetic 
Polra, 8 magnet be suspended so as to turn &eely ahout a vertical 
BKis, it will in general tend to set itself in a certain aeimuth, and 
if disturbed from tliis position it will oBcillate al>ont it. An nn- 
nugnetized body haa no iuch tendency, but is in equilibrium in 
all aKimulhs alike. 

372.] It is fuund that the force which acts on the body tends 
to cause a certain line in the body, called the Axis of tlie Magnet, 
to become psialle) to a certain line iu space, called the Direction 
of the MagDctie Force. 

Let OS suppose the magnet suspended so as to be free to turn 
in all directions about a fixed point. 1^ eliminate the actiun of 
its weight we may suppose this point to be its centre of gnvitf. 
Let it come to a position of equilibrium. Mark two points on 
the magnet, and note their positions in space. Then let the 
magnet be placed in a new position of njiiilihrium, and note the 
positions in space of the tvo marked points on the magnet. 

Since the axis of the magnet coiiicidt-s with the direction of 

Iiagnetic force in both poiiitionit, we have to find that line in 
he magnet nhich oc'Ctt|iics the nme position in space before and 

after the motion. It apiM^arr, Troni tlic tlioory of the motion c| 
bodies of iDvariabli! Tom), that such a Uiw iiWayn vx'kIs, aud tbafl 
a motion Mjtiivnlviit to the kctuul motion Hii{;ht< linvv takcQ placq 
by nmple rotiitioii round thU line. I 

To linJ the tine, join the first «n<i last portions of «i«;h of the 
marked point*, niid draw pbn^ hisecting ibcuf linoK at rifiht 
anglcn. 1^0 intersection of these planes will he the line roquirvd, 
which iudiciitew the direction of the axis of the magnet and th« 
din-ctioD of the magnetic force io apace. 

The method just doBoribed is not oonvenient for the pmctic 
determination of those directions. We shal) return to tJiis aubje 
when we treat of Magnetic Meaaiiromente, 

The direction of the mag:nctic force is foand to be different 
different parts of the earth's surface. If the end of the axtti of 
the ma^et which points in a northerly direction be marked, it 
has been found that the dinoctioo in n-hich it sets itself in ^ueial 
deviates from the true meridian to a considerable extent, and that 
the marked end points on the whole downwards id the nortJMrn^ 
hemisphere and upwards in the southern. ^M 

The azimuth of the directioa of the ma^etic force, measured 
frym tlii? irue north in a westerly direction, is called the Variation, 
or tlie Thliij^iietic Ueclination. The angle between the direction of_ 
the magnetic force and the horizontal plane is called the Ma^c 
Dip. These two angles determine the direction of the mag^e 
foive, aud, when the magnetic inteusity is also known, Itio magnetl 
force is complete.'!)- determined. The determination of tlw vale 
of these three elements at different parts of the earth's surface, 
the discuwion of the manner in which they vary aceonling to the 
place and time of observation, and (be investigation of the caus 
of the magnetic force and its variatioos, constitute the science 
Tevre«trial AUgnetism. ^d 

3~3.] Let us now suppose that the axes of several magnets Iiav^J 
been determined, and the end of each which points north marked. 
Then, if one of these be freely suspended and anoUier brought 
near it, it is found that two marked ends repel each other, thi 
a marked and an onmarked end attract each oUier, and that ti 
unmarked ends repel each other. 

If the magnets are in tJie form of long rods or wires, uniformlj 
and longiludiaally magnetized, (see below, Art. 36-1,) it is fo 
tfiat the greatest a^uifentatiun of force occurs when the end o| 
one magtkci ia held near the end of the other, and tlial 



pbenoiiK-ia can be ncconnted for by supposing that like dulft of 
the magnets ivpol rach othor, that unlike eD<U attract each otiicr, 
ftoi] that tlia iuUrmcdifttc pnrt« of the nin^cte Iiave no wnsible 
nuttial aetion. 

Tbo onds of a loDg thin ningnt^t arc commoolj called its Polea. 
the can of an indelinitely lliin magnet, uniformly maifnetiEed 
throughout its IvngUi, Uie c:xtreinitio» act as centr«e oF force, and 
the niA 6i' the niugn^t apjK'-iirs devoid of inii(>notic action. Id 
mil actual nui^eUi the magnctiitation dcviut^if from uuiforrnity. so 
that no single poi»t« can be lakea an the pole*. Coulomb, how- 
ever, by i»ing long- thin rods ningnntiEcd will) aire, succeeded in 
ottobluibing tiw \aw of force between Ivro magnetic pokv*. 

Tie re/,u/iion heltcrfn Urn n<ii/nelic i>qU» h in He slral^St Cmejoiatttg 
^_ (Mem, and i» nummtaily c^iia/ fc (it product ^ ike atreitgtks <if 

^H tiie poie* d'mdvd dy the i^uare ^the duUtnte betwecH (hem. 
^B 874.] This law, of course, assumes that the strength of each 
^^lole is mefljiured in terms of a certain unit, tie magnitude of which 
^^may be deduced from the terms of the law. 

^t The unit-pole is a pole which points north, and is such that, 
Tr^irhcn placed at unit distance from another unit-pole, it rcjiels it 

with unit of forc«, Uic unit of force being dcGued as in ^VrU <j. A 

pole which points couth is reckoned negative. 

If OB, and Mj arc tlic strengths of two magnetic pol(«, I Uio 

distance Iwtwcvu them, and/ the force of repulnion, lU expressed 

numcrieally, then _ w,Wg 

/- -fi-- 

But if [«»], fi] and [f] be the concrete units of magnetic pol^ 
I and fo[G«, then 

it follows tliat 

or [».] = [£Br-'J/*]. 
The dimensions of the unit pole arc tlwrcfore J as rejpirds length, 
(—1) as rc^rds time, and } as rcgnnls moss. These dimensions 
are tlie same as those of the eleetrostatic unit of electricity, which 
is specified in exactly the sanM way in Arts. 41, 43. 

* H» KtpuniiiiinU CM BuipuUHn aitb t]lc ToraUm Bgkluicc are oonUtnvil la 
the Xtvtoirt »/ tkt AeuAmg oj Pkrrtf, 1760 9, an>l la Unt'* Traiu dt eiftlfm, 


B 3 




S7S.] Tlie ncctimoy of this law may be considered to lure 
been eatatiliiihed hy tJie expcrimcntB of Conlomb with the Toraion 
BaUnce, and cotifirim'd by Uio experiments of Gauss and Weber, 
aod of all ob.tervera in mi^nRtic obnerviiforics, who ani every day 
making n]ea8Ui«raents of magnetic i]tmiitities, and who obtain nsulls 
which wculd be incontiuit«nt with each other if the Uw of force 
had been erroneously assumed. It derives additional Miip|K>rt fro m „ 
it« conBist«ncy with the laws of electromagnetic phenomena. ^H 

876.] The quautity which we have hitherto called the stlrenijtl^^ 
of n polo may also be called a quantity of ' MagiKtiam,' iirwvjdcd h 
we attribut« no properties to 'Ma^etism' except those obaerved^| 
in the poles of ma^ets. ^^ 

Since the expresgion of the law of force between given quantities 
of 'Afannetism' has exactly the same mathematical form as the 
law of force between quantities of ' Electricity ' of equal numerical 
value, much of the muthiimatieal treatment of magnetism mustt b« 
similar to that of electricity. There are, however, other properties 
of iiiii<^cts which mtisl he bonic in mind, and whicb may thruw 
sonic light on the electrical properties of bodies. 


377.] The quantity of magnetism at one pole of a magnet is 
always equal and opposite to that at llie other, or more generally 
thus : — 

In ee^ry Magnet Ikt Mai quantity of Magneiitat (reckoned al, 
braically) U ten, 

Heooe in a field offeree which is tmiform and parallel Uirotigbout 
tliC space occupied by the magnet, the force acting on tlie marki 
end ofihe magnet is exactly cqmd, opposite aud parallel to tluit 
the nnmarked end, so that the revultant of the forces is a 8lati< 
couple, tending to place the axbi of the magnet in a determinw 
direction, but not to move the magnet aa a whole in any direetion. 

This may he easily proved by putting the magnet into a small 
TPMcI and floating it in water. The vessel will turn in a eer 
direction, »» as to bring the axis of the magnet as near ae poesibl 
to the direvtion of the curtli's magnetic forc<>, but there will be 
motion of tlMj vesael as a whole in any direction ; «> that tberc cai 
he no exMcs of the force towards the north over that towanlti i 
■outh, or the reverse. It may also be shewn from the fact Ihai 
magnetizing n piece of steel docs not ultcr iln weight. It doe« al 
the apparent position of its centre of gravity, causing it in 



Iatibi<ic3 lo sUifl along lUe ucis towHnls llic nortb. T\>e centre 
of iaertia, as detennined hy the ])li«n»in«tiii of rotation, remainn 

378.] If the middle of * long tliin miignH be vxamined, it is 
found to possess no magnetic [rroperticit, but if tfa« magnet be 
broken at that point, each of the pieces is found to Uiivc u nut^oetic 
pole at the place of fracture, and this new pole ik cxiictly equal 
nod opposite to the other pole belonging to Unit piece. It is 
impotfiiblc, either by magnetizntioti. or liy breakitig inBgni-ts, or 
by any other means, to procure a magnet whose jmjU-s arc un- 

If vrc break the long tbin mngnet into a number of nbort pict^'8 
^^vc shall obtain a series of sboi-t maj^ete, each of which hiui [xiU-s 
^n" nearly the same strength as those of the original long magnet, 
' I'his mnlliplicatioD of poles is not nwessarrly a creation of energy, 
^^or we miut remember that after brcukiu^ the magnet we have to 
^^o work to foparate the parte, in conecriucnce of their attraction 
for One another. 

379.] liCt OB now put all tbc pieces of the mngnet together 
I** "t first- At each point of junction there will bo two poles 
^^zactly equal and of opposite kinds, placed in eontac;t, so that (heir 
^Binilttl action on any other pole will be null. Tlic magneto thna 
^ffeebaill, has tbcrefon; the same projicrtics a» at first, namely two 
polca, ODc at each end, »)ual and opposite to each other, and the 
part between these pole* exhibit* no lungnelic action. 

Since, in tbiK mw, we know the long mngnet to be mode up 

of little short niogneta, and ainoe the phenomena are the same 

a* in th<' ca»e of the unbroken magnet, we may regard the magnet, 

^^ven before lieing lirokcu, as made up of small particles, each of 

^Kihich haa two equal and opposite poles. If we suppose all maguela 

^Ro be made up of such parlides, it is evident that since the 

Vmlgebraieal quantity of magnetism in each particle is zero, the 

qoantity in tbe whole magnet will also bu zero, or in other words, 

its poles will be of equal stren^h but of opposite kind. 

^H Tieory ^ ifaynetU • Mailer' 

^B 380.] Since the form of the law of magnetic action is identical 
^Hrith that of electric action, the nnie rc-a^ons which can be given 
^Bbt attributing clrctric phcnomeaa to the action of one '0uid' 
' ■ or two ' fluids' c»n alw Ix; used in favour of the cxi'^tcnoc of a 
BMgnclic nuitt«r, or of two kinds of mngnetic matt<T, lluid or 



vm 1 

Otherwise. In fact, a theory of mi^etio matter, if need in a 
purely niath«mjitic«l senw, cnnnot fail to explain the phenomena, 
provided ncir laws arc freely introduced to account for thv nctiul 

Onu of theeo new lavrs must be that the ma^ette fluids cunn'it 
jiaiw from one molecuh) or particle of the mairnet to another, I>ul 
that the proccMt of magnetization oonsixtii in eeparatia^ to a certain 
«xt«nt th« two fluids within each particle, and caurin^ the one fiaid 
to bo more concentrated at one end, and the other flnid to bo more 
conoentrated at the other end of the particle. This is the theory of 

A particle of a mnpnctizahle hody jb, on this theory, annlo-joiis 
to a email insulated conductor without char^, which on the two- 
fluid theory contjiins indefinildy Xar^ but exactly cjiiaJ qiumtitieK 
of (he two electric-itiest. When an t^lrctromotiifo fwrce acU on the 
conductor, it Mparntei' (he elect riciticn. canning them U> beooi 
manifest at opposite sides of the conductor. Iti u similar munnfti 
according to this theorjr, the magnetizing foreo OHuses llie two 
kind* of magnetism, which were originally in a neutrah'zed state, 
to W separated, and to appear at opposite sides of the magnetized 

In certain mbetancee, sttch as soft iron and those magnetic 
substances nhich cannot bo permanently magnetized, this magnetic 
condition, like the eloctrif ligation of (he conductor, disappears wfa 
the inducing force is removed. In other euh<^aDcea, such as 
Btcwl. tlic magnetic condition is produced with difficulty, and, w 
produced, remains aOer the removal of the indncing force. 

I'his is expressed by saying tliat in (he latter case there is 
Coercive Force, tending to prevent alteration in the miignetizati< 
which must bo overcome before the power of a nugnct enn 
either increased or diminished. In the case of the electrified li 
thii> would corrcjiiKUKl to a kind of electric resistance, which, imli 
the renistunce observed in metala, would bo eqoiTalent (o complete 
iaeulation fur electromotive foreca below a certain value. 

Tilts theory of mognetUm, like the corresponding theory 
electricity, is ericleiitly too large for the favta, ami requires to 
restricted by artificial conditions. For it not only givos no 
why one body may not dilfer fmni another on aecoiint nf \m 
more of both Huids, but it enabUw as lo mty wluib would be 
pn)p-riieB of a body containing an excess of one tnagnelin fl 
ii in true that a mson is gircn why such a body cannot 




but this TMmn i* Only iotrodiici^d m an ancr-tlioa^ht to explain 
UiiB partjciiliir fiict. It docs nut (jrovr out of the thcon*. 

S81.J Vi'c must thervfoix' Bcck for n moilu of i-xpression vrhich 
lull not bo atpnble of csprvMiin^ too much, and which sluill leave 
room for the introduction of now idvas ua Wietc art- duvolopcd from 
iiRW fnctK. Tbi?, I think, iva mIiuII nhtnin if vrc In-i^in by suying 
M tbul Ihc particles of a nia^not arw PoUrizi-d. 

^^^^^B Meaning of fie Urm 'Polarization.^ 

^K Wlion » particle of a body poHsesMO!* properties related to a 
" OHrtain line or direction in the body, and when tin' body, retaining 
theae properties, i§ turned Bo that this direction is revened, then 
if as regarda other bodies these prapprtiea of the i)artiole are 
reversed, the particle, in reference to these properties, is said to be 
jK-larized. and the properties are said to couetitute a particular 
kind of polarization. 

Thus we may eay that the rotation of a body about an a\i9 
constitutes a kind of polarization, because if, while the rotatidn 
continues, the direction of tlie axis le turned end for end, the body 
will be rotatinfj in the opposite direction as regards spiico. 

A oonducting particle through which there is a cnrrcnt of cloc- 
tricity may be said to be polarized, becyiusc if it were ttirmil round, 
and if the current continued to flow in the »imc din^vtion as re<;ar<.ls 

I the piirticlc, its dir«(ion in space would be rcvcrHcil, 
In short, if any muthcmaticsl or physical tjiiantity is of tJic 
Datur« of a vector, as defined in Art. 1 1, then any body or purtiole 
lo which thiit direcU'd (jiiantity or vector belongsi may I* said to 
Iw Poliiriziil *, bi'ciiiiKi' it huK opposite properties in the two opposite 
directions or )>oU>k hC the direct<-d <{imiitily. 

The poles of Mu- ciirth, for exaniph', have reference to its rotatum, 
and liave aecordinyly dill'crcnt namex. 

■ Tliii worl PolnHttlixii hM txifn iibhI in % wnit* ni>C cimdiil^^t with thi* In 
Optica. >ili«ra » T*y of ti(rli> i* nfrl to Iw p<>laiiied vhuii il luui |>r<ijii-jiJa' nlatiii); 
to it* •i'its. whith lur iileiiticnl (m nppontc tiHtn of the t*y. Thii kin'l <>( jn'taritiiii'Mi 
tVttn W aofttktT kind -f Direct-d Qiinallty, wbld) nuv bo «a11«I ■ IHpolar l)mnili[y, 
ta opficidllnii Ui tlw )urmi-i kind, vbluli iuut (hi calltul tlnlpolar. 

wiMa ■ illi'iUr i|iut>ai(y 1> liini*<I aii^ (in i>n<! it ruiiinliu llif umc u bcroni. 
TeoaiooB «n-l FmanrH in wljd l>odM*, Eitmvi.iiui, <.Viii[im»i'iiii^ >uit Diitortinn* 
Mill 11104 uf (hf D|>ti(]kl, clactriol, (md Diagnttic propenioi of ur^ratalliUHl bodlu 
an illpAltr <|iM»tiliH. 

kllji I , {fodvcod hv ninRn'tiinn in lmi>f«K»i IioJIm of t»i«liiii Ilia pliuw 

ifif )• f lliv Inti.Wil U|f!"- '' ''It* iiint:ii' lixti Itulf. It UDipulBr [-rvpoty. 

IW r..— •;.'.• ,'->.(Mrt7 nifHrml t« in .Irt. 303 it sbu uiiipolMr. 




Meaning fjfthe term ' MaynetU Poiaritalion.' 
S82.] In spcakinf? of the Rtut« of tho pnrtkW of » inftf^et as 
ms^i'tic polarization, wc imply thftt «K^h of the BniiiHcst parts 
into which ii mugnct may bo iliviilod has certuin properti<« related 
to a d«6nite dircctJon through tlio parlicl«, eallod it* Axis of 
Uagoctization, niul tliut. thn prnpertit-t) n>Iat«d to one ond of tlii* 
axis are opposittt to tlie propcrlit-n reUt^-tl to the other en^l. 

Th« pTO]x>rtic« which wo attribute to the particle are of the «amo 
kind tu> tho^e which we observe in the complete magnet, and in 
BMstiniing that the particles posses-i tliese properties, we only a«9«rt 
whul we can prove by breaking the magnet up into Binall pieces, 
for eacli of these is found to be a magnet. 


Propertiet of a Magxelized ParlicU. 
383.] Let the clement if-riiyth be a particle of a magnet, 
tot us assume that its magnetic properties are those of a magnet 
the strength of tvhosc ponitivo potc is m, and whose lengrth is ■/«. 
Then if P is any point in space distant r from the poflitire pole and 
/ from the ncgativo pole, the ma^etic potential at P will 

- due to the poritiTe pole, and , due to the negative pole, 

r''^[''-r). (I) 

If di, the distance between the polcM, i« \-er7 small, wo oiay put 
/— r = (/»eoti€, (2\ 

where * is the an^le between the vector drawn from the magn 
to P and the axis of the magnet, or 


— mdi 

MagHttle Sloment. 
b.] The product of the length of a unifonnly and longitud- 
inally inagtK-tized Itar magnet into the strength of its pu&itiTO pole 
is called W* Magnetic Moment. 

Initiuitg of Ma^lhathn. 
The intensity of magnetimtion of a magnetic particle is tlie 1 
uf its magnetic moment to itw volunw. ^Ve •liull denote it by 

■The maifnvtization at any point of a magnet may be define 
hy its intensity and ita direction. Ita direoUoD may be dennwl 
itfl direcUoo-oosinea A, fi, r. 







C«mjionrHl4 (}f Jifa^iiefhaf4on. 

the magnvtixiitioii nt a point of n inar;n<!t (boinj; a vector or 
Oirc«1<Ml quantity) muy hv cxpTc»c(I in t^rms of He throe cum- 
poa«nto rercTTiKl to the axc« of coordtoAtos. Calling tbcse A, £, C, 

A = l\. B = ItL, C= !», 
and the numerical value of / i« given by the equation (4) 

I 7/« = ^ + J!» + C». (5) 

885.] If the portion of the. magnet ivhicli we consider \» the 
difTereDital element of volume (/xi/^</;, and if /denotes the intensity 
of magnetization of this element, ita magnetic moment is Iiinl^dx. 
Suhetituting this for meh in equation (3), and rememberia^ that 

where ^, 1, C are the coordinates of the extremity of the vector r 
drawn from the point (x, y. :). we find for the potential at the point 
[it li due to the magnetized element at {x,y, t), 

{^(e*)+-B(l-y) + C(C— -)} ' 'i^'f^'l'. 


To obtain the potential at the point {(, ij, () due to « mi^et of 
6uite dimensions, we must find the integral of this expres.-ion for 
every element of volume included within the space occupied by 
the magnet, or 

L ''=///{'' (f-') + 5 {l-.y) + C(C-^)} ~ da,d,dz. (8) 

Int«grated by ports, this becomes 

where the double integration in the first tliree terms refers to the 
Buriace of the magnet, and the triple integriition in the fourth to 
the space witJiin it. 

If /, n, R denote the direction-coBincs of tlie normal drawn 
outwards from the element of surface dS, we may write, as in 
Art. 21, the sum of the first three t«rn», 

Ijk ff(lA-i-mB+ ttC) ' dS, 

where the inl^ration is to be extended over tlie whole surface of 
li« augnet. 



If we now introdace two new symbols a and p, ilelinet! Iiy the 
equations v = U ^mB+nC, 


fIB dC\ 

— — r 
the expreseion for the potential may be written 

88(i ] Thin expnwssion is identical with that for the electrii 
poti'niiiil due to a boily on the surfiici: of which there is an elc 
trifientjon whose nuHiioe-density is /t, while throughout it« substance 
tliorc IB a hwlily elect rificut ion whose volume-density is p. Hence, 
if vfv iixKumo a and p to lie Ihe mirfiice- and vol unie-densi ties of the i 
diittribtition of nn imaginary kuWUiiiix-. which we have caltedfl 
' inagnftic niatt^T,' the [lotentinl due to this imaginary distribution™ 
will lip idcRtieal with that due to the actual mn^notization of every 
element of the ma^et. 

The surfaoe-density a is the resolved part of the intensity 
magnetization / in thcdireetion of the normal to the Kurfaec drawn 
outwards, and tlie volume-density p ia the 'oonvcrgcnoe* (bm 
Art. 25) of the magnetisation at a ^iven point in the nia^et. 

lliiM method of reprebenting the action of a magnet as Am 
to a distribution of ' magnetic matt«r * is veiy oonvciiieol, but 
most always remember that it is only an artificial method of 
representing the action of a system of polarized particli's. 

;ry I 


Oh fie Action <^oite Magnelic MolecuU oh atio4ier. 
387.] If, as in the chapter on Spherical Harmonies Art. tS9, 
d d d 

we make 

dA~ dx'' "dg 



where /, m, « arc the direction-cosines of the axis i, then tli^ 
potential due to a magnetic uiolecule at the origin, whose axis 
parallel to i^, and whose magnetic moment \» Wi, is 


wlioiw A, is Ihc en«ine of thr angle between iJ, and r. 

Again, if a M<eond magnetic molecule whoxe moment b m^, i 
whose axis Is {larallel to A,, ia placed at the extremity of the radiua 
vector r, thi> jiolential energy dne to the action of tl»c one magnet! 
on the iithiT i« 











= 4i-'{*'u-3A,X,), 


mako with ench 

7«rc fij. ia the co»ine of tho angle wliu'li the nxt^a 
other, And Aj, A, are th« i^OHmca of tho auglcti which tliey make 
with r. 

»Let us next dotermme tlie moment. cT tin- cfiuiile with which the 
fint magnet tends to turn the second mund its cenlre. 
I Iiet OS 6Dppo§e t]ie eecond magnet turned throu{;h an an^le 
d^ in a plane perpendicular to a third axis ^3, then the work done 
RgaiDSt iiw magnetic forces will be ^ ^ ilip, and the moment of the 

force* 00 t)i« mngnct in this plane will be 

TTie acdtal moment aclinff on the SL-cond maffnet may therefore 
»c considered m the resultant of two coaples, of which the fintt. 
leta in a {dane iiaratld to the axes of both mnffncts, and ttMide to 
mereaAe the angle between Ihcm with a force whose moment is 

^«m(^.^.). (6) 

while the second coupU; acts in the plane passing through r and 
the axis of the second mn^^net, and tt-nds tn dminish the ang-Ie 
between these directions with u force 

■ _^-!!!sco9(r^,)8in(rAJ, (7) 

whore {riy\ (r-i,), (*,i*j) denote the angles between the lines r. 

To determine the force acting on the second magnet in a, direction 

frallr'l to a line h^, we hare to calculate 
I si's 
= — MiBi, —J—, by Art. 128ci 
= 3X,5^(^«-5M,)+3^,,'!^^'A,+ 3^"'^'A.. (10) 

If we Hup|w«o tho Bcluid force compounded of three fefw«, H, 
If, and //j, in the ilircctiona of r, i, and i^ respectively, then the 
>roe in the direction of i. i» 

AjA+fr-^//, *^//j, 




Since the direction of ^, ia arbitrary, wo mufit faave 

/I, — />J, 


The force It '\b a repulsion, tending to increase r; /T, and 
act on the eecond mngnet in the directions of Uie axes of tb« 
and second magnet rpspcctivoly. 

Tliis analyGig of Hie foru-s iictinf^ between two email tnaji^ei 
was first given in t^mas of the Quaternion Anslysis by Profeesor 
Tiiit in the Qiiarterly Mali. Jouri. for Jan. tSGO. See obo bis 
vork OD Quat^miont, Art. 414. 

Particular Po»iti<mt. 
S88.] (1) If A, and \ are each equal to 1, that is, if tlie 
of the nm^^net'S arc in one straight Hnc and in the samo direction, 
Pi^ = 1, and the force In'tween the magnets is a repulsion 



The negative b!^ indicates that the feroQ il bd itfoution. 

(2) If A, and A, are zero, and }iy^ unity, flu am of the ma^ot* 
are parallel to each other and perpendicular to r, and the force 
is a repulsion 5«,^ 

In neither of these cases is there any couple. 

(3) If A, = 1 and A, = 0, then ttj^ = 0. (1 

TT»o force on tlic second mafpt-t will be — 1-i in the dircctioi 

of its axis, and the couple will be — ^^ , tending to t*irn it parall 

to the iirst magnet. This is equivalent to a single force — \ -' 

acting jiantllcl to the direction of the axis of th« second 
and cutting r at u point two-thirds of its length from m^. 


r«. 1. 

Tims in the ligtirc ( I ) two msgnets are made to ilokt on water, i 




bein^ in the direction of the axU of nr,, hnt hitwing its nwn axu 
»t right nagiea to that of m^ , If two points. A, h, rigidly connected 
with m, and m^ respectively, are connected by moans of a string T, 
.he Bj-stpm will be in equilibrium, provided Tcuts the line m, m^ 
at right angles at a point one- third of the distance from m^ to m^. 

(<) If we allow the second magnet to tura freely about its centre 
till it comes to a position of stablo i^nilibrium, /^ will then be a 
minimnm as regards 4,, and thcri-rorc the resolved part of the force 
due to m.j, taken in the direction of ^,, will ho a muximum. Hence, 
if we wish to produce the greatest possible magnetic force at a 
iTtn point in a given direction by means of magnets, the positions 
of whose centres are given, then, in order to determine the proper 
diTct-tiuns of the axes of these magneto to produce this c9oct> we 

TQ only to place a magnet in tlic given direction at the given 
point, and to observe the direction of stable ctiuilibrium of tlic 
Axis of a second magnet when its centre 
\\» placed at each of the other given 
poiolie. The magnets must then Iw 
placed with thoirax(« in the dircclioiii 
indicated by that of the second magnet. 

Of couree, in performing tbia experi- 
ment we muMt lake nocount of terrestrial 
magnetism, if it exists. 

Let the second magnet lie in n posl- 
'tion of stable a|uilibrium nH regardit ita 
direction, tlien since the couple acting 
on it vanishes, the axis of the second magnet most be in the same 
plane with that of tlie first. Hence 

d the couple being 

-^ (sin (^1 ,*^— 3 cos (i, r) sin (r Aj)), 

we find when this ie zero 

tiUl(^,r) = 2itkU{rk^, 
tan //, M, fl = 2 tan Rm^ H.. 

a ^ ' D K 

Fig. 3. 




When thta portion has been taken up by the aecond magnet the 

value of Jtrbeoomee 






Ii«re ig ia in the direction of the line of force due to m^ at i^. 





Hence the ^vc^nd magDct will tend to more towards [Joccs «^| 
greater rM(iIt«nt forre. ^ 

Tlic furcc on thu si-cund ma^ot may be dccompoecd into a force 
R, n'liirli in this caw is nlivikys attractire towards tbe first mu^ct 
aud 11 forov 11^ jmrulli:! to ttiu iixts of the first magnet, where 

CT| lllj 




'^ -/SAif+l 
In Fig. XIV, at the end of this volume, the liuee of force and 

vquipotentiiil surfaces in two dimendons are drawn. The ma^ct* 

which produoe them arc suj'iiosi'd to be two lonf> cyliiidncnl rods^ 

the Kctioiia of which iire rcpivwi-nlcd by the circular blank sp. 

anil these rods are magnetized transversely in the direction of t 


If we remember that there is a t«n3ion alonir the lines of force, i' 

is eney to see that each maeiiet will t4-nd to turn in tlte direvtion' 

of tbe motion of the hands of a watch. 

That OD the nght hand will also, as a whole, tend t« more 

towards tlie top, and tbat on the left band towards the hoi 

of the page. 

On He Potential Ktifrpjf <^a Magnei plaevi t» a Magwtxe Titld. 

8B0.] Let V be the magnetic potential dne to any sjrstem < 
magnets acting on the magnet under considemtioD. Wu aliall call 
^the potential of the external magnetic furou. ^M 

If a small magnet whooe strength is iw, and whose leuf^th is d*^^ 
be placed so that its poisitive pole is at a point where the potential 
18 V, and its negative pole at ii jwint whore the polentJul is ¥\ tbi 
potential energy of this magnet will be w^T— f"), or, if d$ 
SMjosuml from the nc^tive pole to the positive, 

If / is the intensity of the magnctitation, and A, ^ v its dir 
tion-coeincs, we may write, 

fiiiJ* = Idxdtfdt, 

, dv dr dv dv 

and, finally, if A, /I, C are the components of magnetization. 




(.1*1 ». " ' ^"'\ > < • 


CO tliat th« exprcKsion (1) for the [lotc-iitial vni-Tgy t^ the clement 

||»f the nacgiwt Ijecomv* 

ITo obtain tlie pot«ntial encTfiy of a raagnet of finite siiw, wo 
FDUst inte^rrate tliis cxpreeaion for vxety cleroeot of the inagnitt. 
e tbue obtain 

RS th« v»Ihc of the potentiftl cnt^rgy of the magnet witli reiipect 
^^U> tbe in»gn«tic fit-ld in whicli it is pWcd. 

^B The poleiiliai energy is hero expressed in terms of the eoniponentu 
^^of millet tzutiou and of those of the magnetic force arising from 

extcrnid vituse*. 

By integration hy pnrts we may express it in terms of the 

dtstiibntion of mugcietic mattvr and of magnetic potentiaJ 

^=f}\Ai^B^^Cn) FdS-jjJF {'^ + ^^ + If) ,/W^A (4) 

where tt'h'' are the direction-cosines of the normal at tho olumciit 
of suT&ce i/^. If we substitute in this equation tlie exprossionti for 
the snrEncc- and volumc-den«ity of magnctie nuiltor iw ^vvn in 
Art. 38G, the cxprcofion becomes 

H #-= fJrffdS+ fjjypdxdydz. (5) 

H We may write equation (3) in the fonn 

H fr=~JJj(.4<t+B0-i-Cy)dxdydi, (8) 

^pvhere a^ ^ and y sae the components of the external magnetic force. 

^^^V 0» lie MagMlie Moment and Axi* of a MoffMft, 

390.] If throughout tbe whole space occupied by the magnet 
the external mngnetic force is uniform in dirt'clion and magnitude, 
the compODciitK n. j3, / will be conslaat quantities, and if we writ» 

ffjAdxdydi = iK, JJjsdtdydi = mK. jjj CJjedyd: = « A', (7) 

the int^rations being extended over the whole substance of the 
UMignet, the value of Wmay be written 

r=-A'(/a + «.^ + ay). (8) 




In this oxprcsiion A *<< ■> sre tlic jirfction-cciBinee of tho axis o\ 

the maf^i-t, HD<1 A' is tho magnetic moment of the ma^ct. If 

< is tlitt Bn^lti which the axis of the magnet makes with tlic 

diivctioD of the mitgiiutic force ^, the value of ff' may be written 

Jr=-J.^oo9f. (9) 

If the magTiet ia siiepcnded so as to be free to turn abont a 
vertical asie, as in the cnsc of an onlinar]' compass needle, let 
the azimuth of the nxis of the magnet be <^, and let it be inelinrd 
$ to the horizontal {ilune. Let the force of terrestrial magrnctism 
bo in a direction wlioi^ azimuth is 2 and dip C ^hen 

a = ^ cos f COS 6, (9 = •& cos f sin 8, y = ^ sin f ; {10) 

f = COS ^ cos ^, ffl = cos sin ^, n = sin tf ; ( 1 1) 

whence W= — Jf^ (cos f oos tf cos (♦— 6) + sin Csin 0). () 2) 

The moment of the force tending' to increase ^ hj turning the 
mngnet round a vertical axis is 


— J— =— A'^coafeo«fl8in(^— 8). 


On He Expantion ^ tie Pofmtuilofa IfaffUffl in Soliil llamonic: 

391.] Let rbo the potential due to a unit pole placed at the 
point (i, jf, C), The value of V at the point x,y, e is 

r= {(f-«)» + (^-,)« + (f-r)'}-*. (1 

Thii expression may be expanded in term« of splierical lukrmooica, 
with their centre at the origin. We have then 

r=ro+r,+r,4&e., (»; 

V^ts-,T being the dialanee of (£ *f, () from the origin, (3 
'^i pi • 




To det«nniiie the value of the potential enei^py when the magnet 
is placed in the Beld of force expressed by this poteatial, wo have 
to intes™'* *•"? expression for ff-'in equation (3) of Art. 389 with 
reapect to ^, y »n«l -". considering f. ^. fand r as crtustants. 

If wc consi«ier only ibe terms introduced by f\, f\ aui] jr 
result will depend on the following volaino.iti(egnilB, 


lK=jjJA<ltdyiz, mK^fjfsdxdsdi, nK=jjfcdxdydt; (6) 

^L=JJfJxdxdfd3, M=ffJBsdxdydi, N=fjj(kdxdyds\{7) 
P=JjJ(Si+ Cf)d^d9d^, Q =JJJ{Gf+Az)d^dydt, 
K B=fff{Jj, + 3x)dxd,dz. (8) 

We tUuR find tor the tbIoo of the poUintiul energy of the tnagoet 
j<la«ed in [)rc«(!nce of the unit polo ftt tbv [Kiiiit ((, >}, (). 


l-lf~y)+y,i(23t~?r-L ) +C{iy-l'-M)-i-3iP,iC+Qa-t-Rin) 


This €XprcenoD may also 1» rognrded as (he potcntinl energy of 
thv unit pole in presence of the nia{>iiot:, or moio Bimply u tlie 
potential iit the point f, >;, ( due to the magnet. 

I On Ai« Centre of a Magnet and U« Primary and Secondary Axe». 
392,] This expression maybe simplified by altering the directions 
of thw ooordinatea and the position of the origin. In the first 
place, ve Hhall nuke the direction of the axis of x paraU«l to the 
I, a xifl of the nm^et. This is ecjaivalent to making 
H '=1. m = 0, n = 0. (10) 

If we change the origin of cwnlinatos to the point (*',y', s"), the 
dircvtionia of th« axes rpmaining uncliang«d, the Tolurae-integrala 
IK, mK and mK will remain unehangit), but the others will be 
altered as follows : 

V=L-tK^, ir=M-mK/. N'=N-ttKA (U) 

P'=P-K(m^-i-n/). <^=Q-K{njr+U'). ir=R~K{{y-i miT). (l2) 
If we now make the direction of the axis of x parallel to thu 
ftxia of the magnet, and put 




2^^' '-JC' ' K' 
then for the new axra M and iV have their valtics imclianged, and 
lie valne of J/ becomes J (i/"+ jV). P leninins unchanged, and Q 
Jt vanish. We may tltenfore write the potcntia] thus. 


"We liavc thus fowD<l a point, fixed with respect to the magoot, 
such ihitt thi; second bvrm of the potential auumes the aioKt nimpHH 
form whi-n tlitu point ia tnken as ori^o of coordinates. Tim poi^^ 
we then*ror<> <Iclin« as the centre o( the niag;net, and tlie *xi« 
drann throufrh it in the direction fonnerly defined as the directi< 
or tlie Ris^ctic oxiii may be deliued as the principal axis of 

We may aimplify the result still more by turning the axes of jr 
and s ronnd that of X through half tlie angle whose tangent 


•^ — i,, lliis will oaaee P to 1>econie xero, and the Gnnl ft 

of the potential may bo written 


This is the simplest form of the first two terms of the potential 
of a magiiet. When Iho axes of y and x are thus placed they 
he culled the Secondary axes of the magnet. 

We may u\m duti-nnine the centre of a msf^et by finding the 
positiun of the origin of coordinates, for which the surface-integral 
of the SEiuarc of the second term of the potential, extended oye r , 
a Bpherc of unit radius, is a minimum. ^M 

The quantity which is to be made a miuimtim is, by Art. 141, ^^ 
4{L' + .ir'-i-,V^~M.V-NL-r.M) + 3(F^ + g*+S'). (16) 

The changes in the values of this quantity due to a change of 
position of the origin may be deduced from equations (1 1^ and (li 
Ilenoe the conditions of a minimum are 

il (2L—M-A')+ 3uQ + 3mlt « 0, ^ 
a«i(2JA-A'-£)+3/fl+3)iPiaO, }■ (l| 

iH{2iV-L-5[) + 3mP-t-3 I q =: 0.) 
If we assume / = 1, n = 0, m=0, these eo&ditions b«ootD« 

2 L-M—A' = 0, e = 0, A =a 0, (I 

which are the coodilioixa made vte of in the pr«TioiiB invc 

Thia inTostigation may be compared with that by which 
potential of a syatcm of f>nvitating matter is expanded. In 
latter case, the most ooDvenieat point to issumo as the ori 
is the centre of gravity of the systt-m, and the most conven 
axes are the prineipal axes of inertia through that point 

In the case of the mai^net, the point oorreM[>ondiiig to the cent 
of gravity is at an iutinitc distance in the direction of the 




Bnd the point wliicb we coll the centre of the magD«t is n point 
lutvin^ (lifTerent properties from those of the centre of gravity. 
The quantities L, J/, jV correspond to the moineutji of inertia, 
and P, Q, A to the products of inertia of a material body, except 
that L, Jtf and .Vare not necessarily positive quantitiea. 

When the centre of the ma^^net is token as the origin, the 
•phcricat harmonic of the second order is of the sectorial form, 
having its axis coinciding with that of the magnet, and this is 
irue of no other point, 

^^'hen the magnet is eymmctrical on all sides of thia axis, a« 

the case of a figure of revolution, the term involving the harmonic 
of the sGoond order disnpp<;srs entirely. 

S93.] At all part« of the earth's sarface, except some parts of 
i« Polar rc^onu, one end of a magnet points towards the north, 
^ftt Iciut in a northerly direction, and the other in a southerly 
on. In speaking of the ends of a magnet we shall adopt the 
popuhir mi'thod ol' calling the end which points to the north the 
north eiKl of the magnet. When, however, we l^pcak in the 
langtuige of the theory of magnetic (luids wo shall uho the words 

real and Auntnkt. Boreal magnetism is an imaginary kind of 
matter uipposcd to he most ahunduut iu the northern purls of 
the earth, and Austral magnetism is the imaginary magnetic 

tter which prevaiU in the southern regions of the earth. The 
nelism of the north end of a magnet ist Austral, and that of 
the south end is Uoreal. When therefore wo speak of the north 
aod sooth ends of a magnet we do not compare the magnet nith 
the earth as the great magnet, but merely express the pusition 
which the magnet endeavours to fake up when free to move. When, 
on the other hand, we wish to compare the distribution of ima- 
ginary magnetic Suid in the magnet with that in the earth wc shall 
nw the more grandiloquent words Boreal and Austral magnetism. 

894.] In Kpi-»king of u field of magnetic force we shull um the 
phraae Mognetie North to indicate the direction iu which the 
north end of a comjiaKs neetlle would point if placed in the Held 
of force. 

In speaking of a lin« of magnetic force vm Rhall always KUpjiose 
it to be traced from magnetic oouth to magnetic north, and ithall 
otll this direction positive. In the same way the direction of 
magnetization of a ma^et ia indicated by a line tirawn from the 
south end of the magnet tonarda the north end, and the end of 
tbe magnet which pointA north is reckoned the posibive end. 


■ the I 


We Bhall consider Austral magnetism, that is, the magnetism of 
that end of a magnet whiob points north, as positive. IF we denote 
its numerical valne by m, then the magnetic potential 

and the positive direction of a line of force is that in which V 




896.] Wb h«vc already (Art. 385) determined the magnetic 
tcntial at a given point <lti« to n maf^not, the tnagnetization of 
which 18 given at every point of its substance, end we hare Hhenn 
that the maUicmatical rcKult may W L-xpre«eed either in terms 
of the actual oiitguetization of every elvmctit of the magnet, or 
in terma «f an imaginary distribution of ' mngnvtic matter,' partly 
condensed on the surface of the magnet and partly dillb.tcd through- 
out its suhstanee. 

The magnetic potcati»1, as thus defined, i* found by the same 
znatlieniatical proceee, whether the given point is outside the magnet 
or within it The force exerted oo a unit magnetic pole placed 
ttt any point out«ide the magnet is deduced from the potential by 
the Ewne process of difTcrciiti^ilion as in the corresponding electrical 
problem. If the com|>oneuts of this force arc a, fi, y, 
dF . dF 4F 

H' ^=-. 

m •& ■ " ~ rfy ' ' ~ ./r *'* 

H To detcrmino tiy experiment the magnctie force at a point witJiin 

Htbe magnet we must begin by removing part of the magnetized 

^uobatance, ao a» to form a cavity within which we are to place th« 

awgnetic pole. The force acting on the pole will depend, in gei>enil, 

on the form of this cavity, and on the inclination of the widls of 

the cavity to the direction of magnetization. Uencc it is ncccMsary, 

in Older to avoid ambiguity in speaking of the magnetic force 

^^irithin a magnet, to Bi^-cify the form and position of the cavity 

^pritliin which the foroo i» to be measured. It ia monifeat that 

when the form and pn«ition of the cavity is specified, the point 

ffithin it nt which the magnetic pole is placed must be regarJi'd as 

nt 11 


no longer witbin tlie substanco of the nui^et, nnd thcitifoK Dm 
ordinaT}- methods of determtDtng; the force bccom« nt once nppltotble. 

396.] Let 119 now consider » portion of H miif^i-t in n-Iik'li the 
direction and intensify of the niii<piftiitat.ion nrv anifonn. Witliiu 
this portion let a cavity be hollowed out in the form of a cylinder, 
the axis of nhieh is parallel io the direction of magntfttzatioo, unit 
let a msgnEtic pole of unit stroiif^th be placed ftt the middle point 
of the axis. 

Sinue the gcncmtiiig line* of this cylinder arc in the dJrecUoi 
of magnvti/iitiou, there will be no snpcrfieial distribution of mstg- 
nctinn on the curved surface, and since the circular ends of the 
oylitider are perpendicular to the direction of magnetization, thertfll 
will be a unitbrra Ruperfieial distribution, of which the surfaoe-m 
density is 7 for the negati^'e end, and — / for the positive end. 

Let the length of the axis of the oylinder he ■>&. and its radios a. 
Tlien the force arising from this BUpt-rlicial distributtoQ on a 
magnetic pole placed at the middle point of the axis is that dae 
to the attraction of the disk on the positive dde, and the repulsion 
of the disk on the ne^^tive side. These two forces are equal and 
in the same direction, and tlicir sum is 

From this expression it appears tiiat the force dcprnds, not on 
the abwlule dimensions of the cavity, but on the ratio of the len^^tfa 
to the diameter of the cylinder. Hence, however small we make the 
cavity, the force arising from tJio snriiicc diBtributiun on ile wullf 
will remain, in general, finite. 

307.] We have hitJierto supposed the magnetization to be nuifonD 
and in the same direction throughout the nhole of the portion of 
the magnet from which the cylinder is hollowed out. \Vhen the 
mugnetiution is not thus rcHtTict«d, there will in general be a 
distribution of imaginary magnetic matter through tho Bubstance 
of the magnet. The catting ont of the cylinder will remove part 
of this distribution, but since in simihir solid figurrw the foreoa at 
corresponding i>oint« arc proportional to the linear dimensions of 
the figumt, the ultemtion of the force on the nagnetJo jmle due 
to thr volume-density of magnetic matter will diminish indeiinitoly 
as the size of the cavity is diminished, white the effect due to 
the surface-dcnnly on the walls of the cavity remains, in genemt, 

If, tbeiefore, we Mxume the dimensions of tins cylinder so smal' 

MACirrnc poiica re a cavitt. 





that the mn^etirjitioD of the {lurt rvmovi-d may bo rcfrarded at* 
evtirywliere parallel to the axi* of the cvliinlcr, and of constant 
mafc^itdde /, the force on a mag:Dctic polo iilucwl at the middle 
point of the axis of the oylindrical hollow will he comjioundoJ 
f t«-o forces. Tlie 6rst of tbeae is that due to the diKtrihiition 
.of magnetic matter on the outer surface of the iniig-m-t, and 
roughout itfi interior, exclusive of the ijortion hollowed oiit^ llie 
oompooeots of this force are a, fi and y, derived from the {loteutinl 
by equations (l). The second is the force R, acting along- the axis 
f the cylinder in the direction of ma^etizatiou. The value of 
ibis force depends on the ratio of the len^h to the diameter of the 
oylindric cavity. 

398.] Cate J. Let this ratio be very j-reat, or let the diameter 
of the cylinder be small compared with its length. Expanding the 

t>n for /! in t«rms of ^, wo find 


ity which vanishes when the rati" of i to a is made infinite. 
Hence, when the cavily is a very narrow cylinder with its axis parallel 
to the direction of mnf^netisnatiun, the magnetic force within ihe 
cavity in not afTi-ctod by Ihe snrfucu djutrihution on the ends of llie 
indcr, and the components of this force are simply a, A y, where 


a = — 



shall define the force within a cavity of this form as the 
magnetic force within the magnet- Sir William Thomson has 

When we have 
shall denote it 

called this the Polar definition of mngm'tie force. 
to consider this force sus a vector we 



S99.] Caae IT. Lot the Icn{»th of the cylinder be very small 
eompand with it« diamct«r, eo that the cylinder becomes a thin 

disk. Expanding the exproesion for S in terms of - , it 1)ocomcs 

« = -^|'-;nS-H 



the nltimate value of which, when the ratio of o to ^ ia made 

iDttnite, is 4x1. 

H«;nt«, when the cavity is in the form of a thin disk, who«e plan« 
Dormal to the direction of magitetizaliou, a unit taagtuetie poU 



placed at the middle of the axis experienoee s force 4*7 in tho 
tlircclioD of magnctiiatioD arising from iWe su))er(icifll tQagnetism 
on the circalar Burfaoes of the disk *. 

Siooe tho componeata of / are ^, i? and C, the oomponcDts of 
this force are ivA, i-aB, and 4ii(7. This murt \» ooin|>Qui)d«d 
with the force whose oomponcnte are a, ff. y. 

400.] Let the actual force on the unit pole be dcnol«d l>y Uie 
vector ^9, and its compODontc by a, b and c, th«D 
a = a + i-nA, \ 
b = fi + iiiB, I (6) 

AVe shall doGno the force witliin it hollow disk, wlioso plane sides 
are nonanl to tho direction of mn^netization, as the Magnetio 
Induction within the magnet. Sir William Thomson has called 
this tho Electromagnetic deJinition of magnetic force. 

Tlic three vwtorti, the magn«tixntion 3, the magnntic force ^, 
and the mugDCtic induction t8 are counncUtd by the vector oquuttoQ 


tine-Imkgral ^ Maffnttle Fone. 

401.] Since the magnetic foro^, as defined in Art. 39d, is that 
due to tho dif^tribution of free magnctiMm on the surface and through 
the interior of the magnet, and is not affi-ictcd by the suHkofr- 
mogDetism of the canty, it may be derived dinx-tly from the 
general expression f<Hr the potential of the magnet, and (he line- 
integral of the magnetic force token along any carve from the 
point A to the ]>oint B is 

'litiere Fj and /^ denote the potentials at A am) B respectively. 

* Om tht /vret ftUki* carkla o/ tiktr form*. 

I. Anx owTov cTWTMss. The Uavt atvBiiK ftoca Um MrfMc-nuq^Mlkni k 
l«r MH * ia Uiv (bsctUHi of tile aotiiial to Uu pkaa of Iha cm*mb«, wImt* « U Uw 
■ogle b«tw««a tikii uoriDkl oiul Uia dlractkn «f HtgnaUiMiga. Whan tha tnvMma 
li pMalUl to the ditoelifn of luis^ni'iinitDa Uic ruro* » ^h* anfiiotu foitv ft ; vham 
dio e r u T M ia la pnrpendicDUi u i^ directlui of nu^MtUMion Uin fonc b Uia 

miKiutio Indncci^ !&. 

H. In *a clooeiud cjliiidw, tha alia nt wikit makaa an v^U t nltti ilia 
dinolluu of uiagBHixatloo. iIm &«m< ariiias rrvoi tho tmUtn-vaipteti^ it itf ud *, 
pitpaaiicuUr l« tbt axil ia iW |iUaa ooMlaliiiqg Du Ktk and tha dkn-Usa uT 

S. In • iiltn tL» faro* afUog from ■ntboo-magnctlan la | a / la Uu dlioction uf 




Surface- littoral (^ Magnetic Iiuluctioit. 
403.] Tko magnetic iiiductioa throtigh the suriaco S U deEned 

the value of (h« inlnnal 


S co« |</5, 


J where ® denotes tlie tnsgnitude of the magnetic indaction st th« 
^•element of surface dS^ and < the angle betwoeD the direction of 
, the indoction and the normal to the element of eurfaoe. and tho 

iut^grition is to be extended over the whole surface, which may 

bo either closed or bounded by a closed curve. 

■ If a, 6, e denote the components of the magnetic indnction, and 
If M, a the direction-cosines of the normal, the eurface- integral 
may be written ^^ 

Q =jf{ia + mt>-i-uc)dS. (10) 


If we subKtitute for the components of the magnetic induction 
their values in U-rn» of those of the magnetic force, and the 
magnetization as given in Art. 400, we fmd 

q=jj{ia + mfi^nY)^Si-'iirff(lA + mB+7iC)dS. (II) 

^■extends is a closed one, and we shall investi^to the value of tho 

^■two Urma on the right-hand side of this equation. 

^1 SinoQ the mathematical form of the ri^'lation between magnetic 

^■/orce and free magncli:nn is the wime as that Iwlween electric 

force and fVee oloctricity, we may apply the n-sult given in Art.. 77 

to tho Hntt tcnn in the value of Q hy substituting a, /J, y, the 

componeiitK of magnetic foroe, for X, Y, Z, the com|)onent» of 

electric force in Art. 7", and M, the algebraic sam of the free 

ma^etism within the dosed surface, for e, the algebraic sum of 

the free electricity. 

We thus obtain the equation 


jf{ta+iii^+nY)dS=^ inM. 


Since evtry magnetic particle has two poles, which arc equal 
in numerical magnitude but of opposite signs, tho nigvbntic sum 
of tho mn>^ctism of the jiwiiciv is u^ro, Uence, those particle* 
which are entirely within the clond aurtiiee S can contribute 
nothing to the algcbiaic sum of the magnetism within S. The 


value of 31 must therefore depeod only on those magnetic particles^ 
which are cut by the surface S. Hj 

Consider a Bmall element of the magnet of lMi;rth t and trans^* 
verse section *', magnetized in the direction of it* len^h, so Hut 
the strength of its polee is m. The moment of this snoAll magne^H 
will be M«, and the intensity of ita ma(*iietization. being- the ratit^l 
of the magnetic moment to the volume, will he 


Lot this small magnet be cut by the surface S, so that the 
direction of magnetization mates an angle / with the normal 
drawn outwards from the surftce, then if i/<S denotes the area of 
thescction. l^ = dScost'. (H) 

The negative pole — m of tliis magnet lies within the snrfnce S. 

Hence, if we denote by dM the part of tlie free mag;neti*ra 
within S which is contributed by tbia little magnet^ 
dif = -m = -W, 

= — 7co9e'rf5. (ll 

To lind M, the algehnie snm of the free magnetism witliin til 
closed Hiirfiicc St wc must integrate this expression over the elc 
surface, ao that 


or writing J, li, C for the com{>onent>! of magiirtintion, mad I, m,k 
for the direct ion -cosines of the normal drown outwnrdtt, 

3twi-ff{lJ + MB^HC)d8. (1 

This ^ves ua the value of the integral in tho second t«nn 
equation (11). The value of Q in that equattOQ may therefore 
1>0 found in teTons of equations (12) and (16), 

Q = 4v3I-4v3l=0, 

or, lie turface-ittlegral tjf tit nayntlie imluction tirougk any 
titrfiin M sen. 

403.] If wo sEsiimc as the closed surfuov that of tbv ditTcrcntiai 
cli'inent of volume 4x4ydt, vre ohtiUD the equation 

da M 
d-e dg 



TI1U ia the solenoidnl condition which i« always saliaiied by tl 
ooinponeDts of the magnetic induction. 




^^ Sinrc tlic di»trit>Htion of magnotic indutitton U Golotioiilikl, the 
^H^^actTon tliruugli any «urrace lioutuletl by a closed curve de];)endft 

6n1y on tbe Torm and {Kmition of tJio dosed carve, and not on that 

of the »urriuM> itttftf. 

I40(.] Surlacea at every point of nhieh 
la + mb + ne = (lit) 

an called Surfuccs of no iDdiiction, and the intersection of two euch 
BnriaraM ix catted a Line of induc-tion. The conditiouK thiit a curve, 
9, may be a line of induction arc 

H A eyetem of lines of induction drawn through every point of a 
Bclosed curre forms a tubular surface called a Tube of induction. 

The induction acroea any section of ench a tube is the eame. 
If the induction is unity tlie tube is called a Unit tube of in- 

■ All that Faraday * eays about lines of Diagnetic force and niiig- 
netic spbondyloids is mathematically true, if understood of the 
Unee and tubes of magnetic induction. 

The mn^etio force and the magnetio induction are identical 
outside the magnet, but witliin the substance of the magnet they 
most be carefully distinguished. In a straight uniformly mag- 

■ netizcd bar the mngaetic force due to the magnet itself is From 
the end which points north, which we call the positive pole, towards 
the south end or aegatife pole, both within the magnet and in 
the spAoe without. 

Th« magnetic induction, on the other hand, is from the positive 
pol« to the negative outside the magnet, and from the negative 
pole to the iiositive within the magnet, so that the lines and tubes 
of induction are r&^entering or cyclic figures. 

The importance of the magnetic induction as a physiutl <[uantity 
will Iw more clearly seen when we study electromagnetic phe- 
nomena. When the magnetic field is explored by a moving wire, 
as in Fataday s Erp. Ret. 3076, it is the magnetic induction and 
not the magnetic force which is directly measured. 


Tie Fechr-Potdiflal qf Shffnef.ic Induetion. 

405.] Since, as we have shewn in Art. 403, the magnetic in* 
doclion throngh a surface bounded by a closed curvo deiM-nds on 
• £q^ Bet., —n«» xxtiii. 


thfi closed carve, and not on the form of the snrfivce wliicb is 
bounded by it, it most be possible to determine tito induoUoD 
tluroug^ a closed curve by a process depcaditi;; only on Uie nature 
of tliat curve, and not involving the conslrucUon of a sarlaoei 
forming: a diaphragm of the curve. 

This may be donv by finding a reetor $f related to 39, the maprneE 
induction, in such a way that the line-inUgtal of BI, extended round 
the clo«cd curve, is equal to the surfiieo-intcg-tal of 9, extended 
over a surface lionnded by the closed curve. 

If, iu Art. 24, we write F, G, U for tlie componenta of 9(, and 
a, b, c for the components of id, ne find for the relation bctwc«n 
these compouenta 




-^.- (21) 

djf ^' ' ^ m* das dy 

Tlje vector 91, whose components are F, 0, II, is called the vector- 
potential of magnetic induction. 

If a uixgiictic molecule wlioee moment is n and the direction of J 
vrho«e axi» of mngnetization is (X, ft, r) bo at the origin of 00-j 
urdinateii, the potential at a point (ir, y, t) distant r from the origin 
is, by Art. 387, 

V rfu djf <lz' r 
d* d' 

= iw(x 

didi-*-''d^. + '' 




which, by Laplace's (equation, may be thrown into the form 
d ^^d d^l d , d ds.1 

The <juaQtJtica a, b may be dealt with in a similar manner. 

From this expreesion G and // may be found by aymmeiry. We! 
thus seo Uiat the vtctor-polentlal ai a given point, due to a 
mi^r""*'*"^ particle placed at the origin, is nnroiirically equal to 
the magnetic moment of the particle divided by tlie square of tho 
radius vector and multiplied Ly the sine of the angle Ix-lweeii the; 
aria of magnetiziition mid tho radius vector, and the dinxtion of 
the voctor-iiotcntial i« perpendicular to the plane of the aiia of 




nugnetization and the radius vector, and in such that to ao eye 
looking in the positive direction alon^ the axis of magiictiziition 
the vector-potential is drawn in the direction of rotation of ttic 
handfi of a watch. 

I Hence, for a ma^ct of auv fonii in which A, B, C are the 
compoDonta of magnetization at the point xy:, the com|)onent» 
of the vector-potential at the point f r| C, are 




Fwherc p in put, for coneisenesB, for the reciprocal of the distance 
between Uie points (^, i), C) <"><! [x, y, 2), and the intogratious arc 
cxt<^ndcd over the sjwce oceu)>ied hy the magnet. 

406.] The ECahir, or ordinary, potential of magnetic force, 
BAiI. 3SS, Iwcomes when cxprcsstid in the same notation, 


Itemcmbering thai ~ = — ^, and that the integral 



' has the value —iir(A) when the point {$, ij, f ) ia included within 
tbe limits of integration, and is zero when it i^i not so included^ 
(J) being the value of A at the point {S, v, C)i ^'^ 8^*1 ''"' the value 

I of the x-component of the magnetic induction, 


The Bret term of this «3ipre<don is evidently —"Jr, or a, the 
^iRiponent of the magnetic force. 




The qiuwtitv' under the integral sign in the second term is zero 
for every fiU'mL'nt of volume except that in which the point (f, tt, () 
is included. If th« v«ltw of ^ at the point (f, »j, f ) ia (A), the 
value of Ui<; fvcond term ia easily proved to be 4t(^), when- (J) ia 
evidently zoro at all ])ointK outside the maffnet. 

We may now write the value of the ir-componest of the mn^etii! 
induction „ = a + i-!i{A), (25) 

an cqtiaUon which ie identicul with the first of thoee given in 
Art. 400. "Hie equations for 6 and e will also a^ree with tlioee 
of Art. -100. 

We have already sceu thut the magnetie force {*) ia derived firom 
the Bcatar magnetic {lotential I' by the application of Hamittoo'l 
operator V, so that no may write, aa in Art<. 17, 

*=-Vr, (26) 

and that this equation is true both without and wtttiin the maj^net. 

It nppoars fnjm the present investigation tliat the mo^pietie 
induction © is derived from the vector-potential 91 by the appli- 
eution of the itame o|>erator, and that the result is true within the 
Biagiiet as well as without it. 

The application of this o]wrator to a vector-function prodaceO) 
in general, a M^alar quantity as well aa a vector. The scalar part^ 
however, which we have called the eonveigenoe of the vector- 
function, vanishes when the vector-function satisliea the saleooidi 



dF dG . dU ^ 


By differentiating the expressions for F, 6, Jf in equationa (33), we 
find that this equation is satisfied by these quantities 

We may therefore write the relation between the magnetic 
ioductioD and ita vector-potential 

which may be expressed in worda by mytng that the magnetic 
induction is the curl of its vector-potential. Sec Art. 85. 




On PaHieutar Forma of Ma^tiel*. 

407.] Ir a longf narrow filament of TQagnetic matter like a nire 
is ma^etized everywhere io a longitudinal directiou, then the 
product of any transverse section of the filament into tlie menu 
mtcnsity of the ma^etization across it is called (he strength of 
the magnet at that section. If the filament were cut in two at 
the section without altering the uiagnetizatiou, the two surTaecs, 
when ei-parated, would be found to have eqiiid anil opposit« qtiun- 

IbitioH of Euporficial roa^vttzation, each of which is numerically 
equal to the etrength of the magnet at the section. 
A filament of magnetic matter, so magnetized that its strength 
to the mrnfi at every section, at whatever part of its length the 
section l>c made, is called a Magnetic Solenoid. 

Ifnr i« the strength of the solenoid, da an element of its length, 

r tlie distance of that eleioent from a given point, and c the angle 

which r makes with the axis of miignetizatiou of tlte element, the 

^noteotial at iJw giveu i>oint due to the element is 

^^^^tegrating tliie expression with respect to », so ss to take into 
H account all the elements of the solenoid, the potential is found 

r, being the difcianco of t'he positive end of the solenoid, and r, 
titat of the oegutive end from the point where V exists. 

Benoe the jiotentiul due to a solenoid, and coneequeuUy all ite 
maglMtio eflcctn, dei)end ouly on ita strength and the position of 

flitir COB c mdr , 

N «r*, 

■ Sw Sir W. Hiuiuoii's ' UstbgniAtiol Tbcory of Hasnctiaa,' PkU. fraM-, 1S50, 


iU ends, and not at all on it« form, w)>i'tJi«r straight or curved, 
between these pointa. 

Hence the ends of a solenoid lUAjr be oallcd in a strict eeu^^ 
its polea. ^M 

If a solenoid forms a closed curve the potential due to it is zen^^ 
at ereiy point, bo that such a solenoid can exert do ma^ottc 
action, nor can tte magnetization be discovered n'ithoal breaking 
it at some point and separating the ends. ^M 

If a mai;nct can be divided into solenoids, all of which ciihc^^ 
form clomd curves or have their extremities in the outer surGioc 
of tbe niHgnct, the magnetization is said to be solenoidal, and, 
sioce tbc action of the magnet depends entirely upon that of 11 
ends of tbo solenoids, the distribution of imaginaiy magnetic matt 
will be cnlirel}' sniHrrScial. 

Uonce the condition of the magnetizatioa being solenoidal is 

^ + 

dg ds 

where A,S,C xsq the components of the magnetization at anjr 
point of the magnet. 

40B.] A longitudinally magnetized 6lament, of which thestrcngtJi 
varies at different ports of its length, may be conceived to be made 
lip of a bundle of solenoids of different lengths, the sum of 
litrengtlis of all tlie solenoids which pass through a given aecti< 
being the magnetic strength of the filament at that section. Ueai 
any longitudinally magiietizod filament may be called a Complex 

If the strength of a complex solenoid at any section is m, then 
the potential dae to it« action is 



■■- da where m in variable, 

r^ Tf J r d» 


lliiii ahens that berades the action of the two ends, which 
in this case be of different strengths, there is an action duo to tb 
distribution of imaginary magnetic matter along the filament with 
a linear density d^ 

ifa^uetie Shell t. 
400.] If a thin sliell of magnetic matt«r is magneti»-d id 



direction ovt^rywliere iionns) to its EiirTnc*. the intensity of tlu! 
Bin^tiL'tiKiilioTi at nny pWn multiplied l>j- the thiebncsB of tJic 
,th4«l at that [i1a<:o i» callotl thu Strvn|;tl> vf tlie ms^etio bIicII 
Uiat plsoo. 

If thfl »twi»frtli rif a iih<'ll i^ cvcrywUere cqiml, it is cnlled a 

Simple CDAgiictic »boll ; if it varies from ]x>int (o puiitt it may be 

ctmccived to l>f mude up of n niimWr of simple Hlmllg saporpoeed 

and overlapping c«c-b other. It i» tb«refori; calW a Complex 

Hpia^ctic Mhcll. 

^R Let dS lie an clcmont of the xurftce of th« tthdl at. Q, nod ^ 
^Hhe strength of the Khttll, tlicn tlio potcntinl at any poiiit^ P, due 
^Bo the clement of the shell, iit 

dF= * ^ rf5 ooa t. 


wlieie e is the anple between the vector QP, or r and tlio normal 
drawn from the positive eide of the ehi-ll. 

»But if d» is the «itid »nf>le subtended by dS at the paint P 
I'dti =dS coat, 
whenee iiF= <t> dai, 

and tlicrcfore in Uic caw of a simple mngnetJo hIicII 

ir, fie poienlial due to a magnetic xhell at any point is tie prodtiel 
it* ttrengtk inla lie loiid angle tubt-tnded liy ita edge at (he 
given point*. 

410."] TTie same result may be obtained in n different way by 
■uppoRing the magnetic alicU plaoed in any ficit] of mn^netic fnrce, 
and determining the potential energy due to the position of the 

If F ia the potential at the clement dS, then the energy due to 
this element is rf/- ^y jr. , „ 

or, li« preiltiei of tie tirenglA of tie thcU into tie pari of lie 
turfacc-inltgral of V due to tie element dS qf tie tkell. 

Henoo, integrating ivilb reM]>eet to all micli elcmentN, the energy 
due to the position of the ohell tn the field ia equal to tiic product 
of the Btrengtb of the shell and the Murface-integrol of the magnetic 
iadaetioQ taken over the surface of the shell. 

Since this surface-integral is tltc name for any two surfaces which 

• Tbia UiiKtfCBi ii iliM loUkiM. GrNfmf Theory ^ Tnrttlriat M<ign<iUki.\iZ- .. 
VOU n. D 



have the same bounding edge and do not include between them , 
any centre of force, the action of the msg&etic shi^l depends on|^ri 
on the form of its edge. ^^ 

Xow rap|>oae the 6old of force to be that due to • msgnetic 
pole of gtrengtJi m. We have seen (Art. 76, Cor.) tliat the surfaoe- 
int«fn^ over a eurface bounded by a giren edgv is tho product 
of tho strength of the pole and the solid angle subtended by tb* 
edge at the polo. Honce the energy due to tho mutool actio 
of the pole and the shell ts 


and this (by Greeo's theorem. Art. lOOj is equal to the prod' 
of the atrvngtb of the pole into the i>otential due to the shell 
the p»lt^ The |K>tfntial due to the sliell is tberoforc 4>a>. 

411.] If a magnetic pole » titarttt fn>m n point on Oxe nt^ti 
aurface of a magnetic shell, aud travels along any path in spiic« so 
to come round the edge to u point olose to wIktd it started but on 
the poiiitivc aide of the shell, the «olid angle will vary continuoas), 
and will increase by 4ir during the process. Tho work done 
the pole will l>e i-a<t>m, sod the potent.iul nt any point on 
po«itive wide of the shell will except tlial at tlic neighbouring poi 
on ihc negative aide by 4ir<l>. 

Jf a magnetic shell forms a closed Kurfu<.'o, the pot«atial outside 
tho shell is everywhere zero, aud ttiat in tbc space witbin ia 
everywhere 4«4>, being positive when Uic positive side of the shell 
is inward. Honce such a shell exerts no action on any magnet 
placed either outside or inside the shell. 

412.] If a magnet can be divided into simple magnetic shells, 
either closed or having their edges on tlie suriacc of the magnet, 
the distribntioD of magnetism is called Lami'llar. If ^ is the 
sum of the strengtlu of all the shells traversed by a point 
pasving from a given point to a point xjfe by a line drawn witi 
the magnet^ then the conditions of lamelUr magnetization ar« 

^'rfp' -^-Jf ^-dT- 

The quantity, ^, which thas completely determines the inagnct- 
ixation at any poiut may be called the Potential of ^faguetizatioo. 
It must be carefully distingui^ed from the Magnetic Potential. 

413.] A magnet which can be divided into complex mag 
shells is sid to have a complex lamellar distribution of 
netism. The condition of such a distribution is that the lines 





magndimtioii niuat be such that » systotn of siirruoos citu be drana 
cutting tliem at right ungL-s. Thk condition is 03tprcs>e<l by tlie 
rell-kiiowti m{ nation 

Pormt of the Potffaiiafa of Solfno'idai atitl Lamellar Manned. 
414.] Tbo g«oeral expression for tho scalar potential of a Dtagnrt 

fwbere p denotes the potential at {3),y, i) due to a unit magnetic 
pol« plnvcd at ((, it, 0, or in othi-r worde, the rcciprooti! of the 
distaum betwran {(, ij, (), the point at which the pot«ntid is 
■neasuFcd, and (x, j, s), the jKisition of the element of the niiignvt 
.to which it is due. 

This quantity mny be iutt-gr»t«Ml by parts, as in Arte. 96, 386< 

r=fjp {Al^ Bu + Cn) dS -ffjp (g + ^^ + ^) ./.<fy^. 



wbere /, m, » are tlie direction-cosines of the normal drawn out- 
wards from dS, an element of the surface of the m^net. 

When the nui^ct iif solcnoidal tho expression under the integral 
aign ia the second tvrin is aero for every point within the magnet, 
M that the triple integral is zero, and the scalar potential at any 
p<Aiit, whether outside or inside the magnet, is given by the soriacc* 
integral in the first term. 

I The Ecuitu- potential of a solcnoJdal magnet ts therefore com- 
pletely determined when the normal component of the miignet- 
ization at every point of the surface is known, and it is iudeiienilenl 
of the form of the xolciKiids within the ma^'net. 

415.] Id the case of a lamellar magnet the mugnetizatJon is 
determined by ^, tlie potential of magncLizatioii, so that 

He expression for V may therefore he written 

Integrating this expression by parts, wc fiutl 

A = 5—1 


L = -3-- 


//*('|-|- 1)«-///* (0-^ -S)^*^'- 






Th« «fCoii<l term is stiro iitiiois Uic point (f, ij, () is included in 
the mxffno^- '" whicli cnse it licwimeji 4 57(0) where {4.) ia the «d»e 
of 4 at tho point (f, rj, (). Th« smrface-iiitcgral may be expressed in 
terms off, the line dniwn from {j.j, r) to ((, ij, f), and $ the angle 
whi<;)i tluK line makea witli the normal drawn outwards from JS, 
so that the potential may be written 


itAuiK the xefond term is of course zero when the point {(, 7, f)l 
ntft inclixlcd in tltc vubntanee of the magnet. 

The pot«-ntial, f', expressed by this equation, is continuous ei 
at the Ktirfuce of the magnet, witere ^ becomes suddenly zero, m^ 
if wo write 

a s: jj ^^ eoi lis, 

and if ilf is the value of i2 at a point just within the surface, 
flj that at a )>oint close to the first but outside the sor&oe; 

or Fg = r,. 

Tlic quantity fi is not continuous at the surfiiee of the magnet. 
The component* of magnetic induetiou are related to £1 by 

« =~ 





dx ' ' ~ rfjf ' * ~ dt 

416.] In the case of a lamellar distribution of magnetism we 
may aI>o simplify the vector-potential of magnetie induetton. 
Its x-cooipoiieiit may be written 


By integnttion by ports we may put this in the fonn of 
surface • in tegral 



ITie other components of tlii> Tectnr-i)oieiitial may be 
down from three exprasaioiut by making the proper suLstatutiona. 

On Bond jHfftet. 
417.1 We have already proved Uiat at any point P ifao [•oli^nti 




dae to s msfpietic slicll iis «qiiiil to tliu eolid »ngh siilttcnduil by 
the e<\ge of the elipll tnultipllvd by tlic >>ln-D^th of tfav slii;Il. As 
we eball have occasioa to rt-fcr to Bolid an^^leti in thv theory of 
electric currents, n'c Khali now explain how they nrny Iju mui^iieJ. 

KDefiiution. Tha mlid anisic eiibtondvd at a jg\\c(t point by n 
osed curv« is imtUiurGd by the area of a splutTiciil surfaco whow 
(Dtre is thu ipvcn |ioiiit and whose raditis is unity, the outline 
of which is tnu-'LYl by the intereuctloR of the radius viTctor with the 
sphere as it traces the closed curve. This area is to be rcckoaed 
positive or negative (ioeordiii>f as it lies on the luft or the right- 
hand of th«! path of the radius vector a« sc«q from the ^vvn point. 
J^ (f> 1) he the (^iven point, and let {ji, y, s) \w w point on 
the closed curve. The eoonlinates .r, _^, z uro functions of t, the 
len{*th of tli« curve rockonvd from a given point. They are periodic 
fuDction« of ', rtwurrin;; wheiwver » is increased by the wholo U-n^lt 
of the elOKol curv4;. 

We tnny caleulatc the solid aug'Ie m directly from the dcliiiitioa 
iJius. Usin^ iqihcriciil coordioati's with centre at (f, t), ()• ^^^ 

x—i = f siuflcoa^, j>— ij = rsialJsin^, i—^= rco«fl, 
we find the area of any carve on the sphere by infegrattng 

I w = f(l-f:os0)di>, I 
or, OBUi^ the rectangular coordiuateit, 

^vtt intention being extended rouni) the curve «. 

II If the axis of ; j>assc8 oncu thnrugh the el<ised curve the first 
Bterm ifl 2t. If Uic axis of e does not jugs through it this term 

418.] This method of calculating & solid angle involves a cboi<.« 
of axes which ta to sotne extent arbitrary, and it does not (U-pviid 
solely on the oloeed curve. Hence the following method, in which 
no snrlace is mpposed to be constructed, may be statod for the suke 
of geometrical propriety. 

Aa the radios vector from the given point traces out the closiil 

curve, let a plane passin>; through the given point roll on the 

closed curve so as to be a tan';cnt plane at each point of the curve 

^Bn sueoosston. Let a line of unit-length be drawn frotn the given 

^Boint [wrpendicular to this plane. As the plane rolU round the 




closed curve the ntTCmit}' of the pcrpcndicnUr will tnce s second 
dosed curve. IjcI the loDgDi of the second cloved curve be v, Uten 
tlie oolid angle Mubtcnded l>j the lint closed cun'o is 

This follows fron> tliu well-known theorem tli&t the am (^ s 
dosed curve on a ^hcre of unit nwliuK, togt'thiT with the circnm- 
ferenoe of the polar curve, is numerically equal to the circuDifermce 
*f ■ grent drclc of the si>here, 

This constnictton is somt-timos convenient for calculatinff the 
»>lid angle sul>teinlnl hyx n-ctilin«^iir figure. For our own purjKise, 
which is to form clear ideas of ithymciii phcoomena, the rollowiop 
mcfliod is to be pn-A-rred, as it employs no conitructions which do 
not flow from the physical datdi of tJic problem. 

419.] A dose<l curve » is given in spam, ani) we have to find 
the solid angle vulitvniled hy < at a given poiot P. 

If wo consider t)ie solid aiiglc us the potential of a magnetic shell 
of imit strength whose edge ooincidec with the dosed eurv«, we 
iDHst define it as the work done 1>y n unit magnetic pole against 
the magnetic force while it moves from an infinite dislancd to tJie 
point P. Hence, if « is the path of the )>ole as it approaches the 
point P, the potential must bo the result of a line-integnition alon^ 
this path. It must also be the result of a line-int^-gnlton along 
the dosed curve i. The pro])er form of the cjtprcssion for the solid 
angle must therefore I>e thai of a double integration with rus|iect 
to the two cur^'cs » and <r. 

Wlieii P ii at an inllnite dixtnnce, the solid angle is evidently 
zero. As the point P approaches, the clowd curve, as seen from 
the moving point, appears to open out, awl the whol« solid angle 
mny Iw conceired to be generated by the op|<«nm( nK>lton qS the^j 
diHereiit dements of the closed curve as the moving point op>^| 
proadm. ^^ 

Ah Uio point P moves from P Ui P' over the dement da, the 
element QQ' of the closed carve, which wo dciiolc by d; wiU ^^ 
change its position relntivdy to /', and the line on llie unit .^phera 
oonvsponding to QQ' will sweep over an area on the Kplivriuul 
surfara, whiuh wk may write 

r/H> ri'/x/.T. (I)j 

Til (litd II lul IIS <iti|i]i«iiu> P flxi<d while the olomd curve ia movt-dl 
parallel (o itwilf ttiroiigli a dlalunou dv etpwl to PP" tMit in titc 
uppiMilr dimi-linn. lint h-laUve nii>ti«iu of tlio {loint P will be thi^H 
sunie H» ii> I li« roul uaw, ^^ 






During th» motion the olcmcnt (^Q' will generate itn urea in 
the form of a paralliflogram whose sides are paralU-l Rail equal 
to Q(^ MMJ Pi**. If we construct a pj-ramid on thin pHralldogram 
u base with its vertex at P, the solid angle of this jiyramid will 
te the increment (/» whioli we are in search of. 

To detennine the value of this solid 
angle, let and ^ be the angles wliich 
ih and d<r make with PQ reupcct- 
ively, and let /}> be the ang^le between 
the planes of these two anglvM, then 
the ares of the projection of the 
psrallelo^ni <fj .da on a plane per- 
T to PQ or r will he 

dtda sin 9 Bin ^ sin <^, 
eioce this is equal to f^rfw, we find 

du = ndsda = -^ sin eia ^ sin <)itU da. 
n = ^ Biu$ sin ^sin tp. 



420.] We may express the angles C, 6', and ^ in termH i.f r, 
and its diflVreatial coefiieientB with roxpect to » aud a, for 


OOS0 = 


„ dr 
coa0'= T-. 



- , . ™-v = -i-. and Binflsinfl'ooa* = r -r-T 

tat dn ^ did 

We thus find the fullowing value for 11', 
"■4['-(|)']['-&']-iO'- (^> 
A third expresBioQ for ri in terms of rcctangulur eoordinute* 
may be deduced from the consideration that the volume of Hie 
pyramid whose solid angle is du> and whose axis is r iit 

Bat the volume of this pyramid may also be expressed in terms 
of the projectiotta of r, d*, and da on the axis of a, y and f, as 
a determinant formed by these nine projections, of which vre must, 
take the third part. We thus find as the value of 11, 

f-», n-», (-', 

n = A 

^. ^. i^, 

da da da 

da dif dz 

dt dt d« 








'Flits «xpre«Kion giv«jt th« yaloe of n frefi from th« ambiguity of 
ei)^i iiitniiliK'ol by ct|iiAtii>n (5). 

421.] TIk' viilui;! of w, tlic solid angle subtended by the «Io 
arvp ut Uic point /', may now be vrriiu-n 

wkcro the intrarfi^ion tnlli rus{M.'ct to « is to be extended ooinpl«lely 
round tlie cloMfd cur^'o, ood that with rv^pcct to a from A a lix«l 
|M)iul (in tbr ctirro to the point P. The constant Uq is tbe value 
of tht' colid Kiiglit at thv point ^. It is zoro if J is at an iwti uite 
distance from iiw clu«ed ourvv. 

The vnhio of u at any jtoint P is inilependvnt of (In* form' 
tlie curve between J and P prov(di.-d tlint it dws not [<asi> Ihrnii^ 
the niiiKnctie shell it««lf. If the shell be sup|>osed iiifinit^'Iy Ihio, 
and if P «i>d ^aro two ]>oiuts close tofrrther, but Poo the ixMcilivai 
and /** on th« nefjative surface of the shell, then the curves JP and] 
JP" must lie on opposite sides of the edge of the shell, so that PJi 
in a lint- which with the infinitely short line P'P forms a closed 
circuit vmbrseiuff the edj^. The nine of a* at i' exceeds tlutt nlP' , 
by it, that is, by the surfaee of a sphere of radios unity. 

llenoi-, if a closed curve be drawn so as to pass once througli 
the shell, or in other words, if it be linked ooce with the 

of tl»e shell, the value of the integral fffUtitr exteiid«d 

both euni-cs will U' Ir, 

lilts intr}^) theivftnv, eoosidered as depeadin^ only on the 
«lowd curve t and the aibitniy curve AP, k as instance ot 
ftutetton iif multipU* x'uluos, nnce, if we pom &om A \jt> P\ 
diSkrvnt |<ath« the intc^n^l will have dlflereiit values 
to th« number of tiuura which the corre XP » tviaed rouad the 
c«rt« a. 

U eM ftm of th* ranrv betw««a J a»d ? on he ttaasCamed 
nito,aw4be« fey «Mmnt>m notkat without iBtns«vtiiiy the carve 
^ tht iatagnl will h«n lh« wm vahn for both coma, hot if 
dvuir the tBHMfcnBklmt it ia l ewaeto lb dMnl cnrv a txans tlx^ 
valuMof iheibhxnlwiUJi^by 4t«. fl 

ir « aiKl • ai« aay tv)\^ ekot^ <«rm> n ^acn tka, tf Ihif air^ 
««* KeVmI h><wlhM. lh<> i«le«nJ Mtmilei eaaa immI Wtft 

If thcT an tatuvtwiOHU • \.p\-^ la t)-.v ssntr ttTr^-tk^a. th« 
of the uMig«l i» *•> h » pMwhK huwewr. fcv two 




to bo intcrtwineid alt^Tnately in op[)oiiit« tlirectionB, mo tlmt th«y 
mro inMpuruMy linked together though the value of tliv itiU'gruI 
La zero. Sw Fig. 4. 

It was tlie divcovery by Gauss of this very integral, oxiiresflitig 
the work don« on a magitetio pole while dc- 
acribii^ a iilosed curve in prt>sence of a closed 
deetric current, and indicating the geometrical 
ooniMsion between the two closed curves, that 
led liini to l»mt-nt the small progress made iu the 
(icomt'try <ii' PnHition since the Lime ui Li-iLuitz, 
Euler and Vandermondc. We have now, bow- ^' * 

ever, some progress to repori, chiefly due to Eieuiaun, Helmholtz 
and Listing. 

423.] Let Ds now investigate the result of integrating with 
nspect to a round the closed curve. 

One of the terms of n iu equation (7) is 

If wc now write for bre«ty 

"'Hi-'- "'Z;!^. "=51%^ w 

tile iot^TiilB being taken once round the closed curve t, this term 
j of n may be written rf^ (/sy/ 

the correspondtti^ term of f TlJs will be 

Collecting all the tvnoE of Xi, we may now write 
■ tit} 

'IGyn rdf 





>fO <IF. d^ 

Thin quantity is e\-idently the rate of decrement of w, the 
miigtu-lj<! jwtcntial. in passing along the curve a-, or in other words, 
it \» the ma^etic force in the direction of da. 

By a»«umiii^ da stKceesively in the direction of tho bx« of 
, y and ;, we obtnin for the values of tlie compouents of (ho 
lAiagnetic force 



rf« dU tiG^ 

_ ^/w _ ^ _ J/f 
^ ~ f/i, ~ rff rff ' 
_ rf<.> _ rfO _ ///* 
'' ^ tic di dn 
Tho quantities F, 0, //»re the components of the vector-iiotffntiil 
of ttio mafrnetic shell whose etrength i» xtnity, aad whoae ^ge it 
the curve a. Tbey are not, like the scalar potential •, function* 
having a series of raluee, but sre perfectlj detcnDioatc for every 
point in space. 

The vector-potential at a point Piae to a ma^etic shell bounded 
hy H closed curvo may be foand by the following geoatetrkalj 
oonstniclion ; 

Let a point Q tiavcl round the closed curve vrith a velocity 
nHmericnlly equal to its distance from P, and let a second point 
R start from a fixed point A and travel with a velocity the direction 
of which is alvrays parallel to that of Q, but whose magnitude is 
unity, ^Micn Q has travelled once round the closed curve join 
JH. then the tine JJt represents in direction and in numaiieal 
mngnitnde the veelor-potenlial due to the closed curve at P. 

PftrmtUit Eatrgg tfa ihfnttk SietlpUetil ta « AfofMiit Fte!4. 

438.] We hare almdy shewn, in Art. 410, that the potential 
energy of a shell of strength ^ pbced in ft magnetic Seld whose 
potential is T, is 

where f, », ■ arv the directtoa-coeuMS of the nonul to the 
drawn ftviu the ]M<»itivo side, aad the sorftoe-iuteyiiil u 
OTtir the shell. 

N'ow this swfitee^talwgnl nwy bs tzwlomed into a line-in 
by nMau of lite Teetoc>pet«aiti«l ef tlw m^petio Geid, and m 
xuKf write 


J'^-^/Cs+elfffJjA (»; 

w1h«* (be inteptntiM is exIanM «m* nMoi the chwed enrre » 
which f^>ni>« the tOite ef IIm H ii ^ iw tiu sMl the dirsetiQa of di 
being oppoeit* Xa that «t the hawls of n wntch whc« vwwid tram 
the p.iMlit>->i«Wf>f tbs>WU. 

If we iMW Mpv«e thni the B Myw He S«U is tfel Am bi 






second roogUDlio slioU wIioni> Btrong^-h is ifi', we rnny det«nniDe the 
value of /"iliroctly from the rccalto of Art. 416 or from Art. 405. 
If f, m', «' W the Oirectioii-«OKineii of tli<! nomiKl to tlie element dS' 
of tiie •ecoix) (hell, we have 


\vTe r ig the distance between the clement ilS' and a point on th« 
boondary of the first shell. 

Now this Burface-iDt«i;ra1 msy he converted into a line-integral 
ronnd tlie boundary of the second shell ; viz. it is 




Id like manner 




Snbetituting those raluea in Uie expression for Jf we find 

'whtrft the Intef^tion is cx(<-nili.-d once round * and once round /, 
Thia exprcKKion g'lvcf the ]<ot^ntiul energy due to the mutual actit>a 
of tite two shellK, and is, ajt it ought to be, the same when t and / 
are interchanged. 'Diiit expression with ita sign reversed, when the 
strength of each shell in unity, is called the potential of the two 
closed curves t and s'. It is a quantity of great importance in the 
(heory of elcyitric currents. If we write « for the angle between 
the direclionH of the elements dt and ds\ the potential of » and t 
nay be written 



It b evidently a qnantity of the dimension of a line. 



424.] Wk have hitlierto considered Hw actual (Jwtribution of 
BUkgnetiEatioH in u m&^et w given explicitly amon^ th« dita 
or the invtwtigxtion. We b»ve not made soy usttimptioD w to 
wtiPttitT lliiti iiugtKtinition is pcnnanout or t«Rii>orary, except in 
thoeo \axia of ottP Teuonin^ in which we havo £U)>iM3cfd the magnet 
broken np into Gmall purtions, or small portions remoTMl frona 
ttie inti;^itrt in such a way as not to alter the ma^uetixatioQ c^ 
•oy part. 

NW havo now to coonder the magnetization of bodies with 
mpact (o tltK node in which it tuj Im prodaoinl and changed. 
A bar n( irou It^ parallel to the diicetion of the earth's magnetio 
fovet is found to l)««onM n^netac. with its poles tamed lb« np- 
poaita way IVmu thov^ of the rartb, or the aame war a> those of 
ft compan Modh" in ^tallp c^uilitiriura. 

Any )«)cr<p nf snfl ircoi placml in a aufiMtae SeU is found to rshilni 
nayneli.- pTi^ivNiMa. IT it be phwvd in a part of the fidd wber« 
the MMKnaic fi<n« it gnai,, as bekw«ea the pnles of a honse-shoc 
— gw rt . the numwftisnii of the iron b ecppw inteiwp. If the iran 
if T<rmi^\-<^ frxMn th* t w n o t t io fwM. its mapMlM properties an 
Iffwally WYfckwM".! n* iMw uy ar eatiiv^r. If tha nagnetic properliM 
(/ the i^m A^^wi Mtlurty oft the mugMtic tmt of tk ti.-ld 
nWh tt ' and \'anuh wk<« il » noKMml &<aa thr 

it M l,N»1l•.^■ >- - -■'•^. livMS «hi<h i* aoA in th* BM^nriif) 
M ahu miA i« thr hiM«l MMMVL II w n^ to bm^ n jq^ 
il a pr n wawe*-: .«|l. Vu 

the wo*S^- SWih 







up the tnagndic state eo rcaility ne soft iron. TIjp operation of 
Uamiiicnitif, or nny oihi.T kind of vibriition, allows liari! iron uudvr 
the intiiinK'i* of magnetic force to assumo Ihe magnetic s1at« wore 
readily, and to part witli it more readily wben the taagoetixxng 
for(H4 is rcmovcf!. Iron which is nin<^ftica11y liard is also more 
•tiS'to bi-iul and more apt to break. 

The prooMMw of hammering, rolling, wire-dramn^, and snddea 
cooling tend to hardvn iron, and that of annealing' tends to 
ioRcn it. 

The miLf^etic as well as tlio mechanical dideroncee between steel 
of hard and »oft tomptr arc much greater than those between hard 
and mfb iron. Soft sU-el is almost as easily ma;;nctizi?d and de- 
niAgiietiz4.-d as iron, while the hardest Et«el is the beet material 
for magnets which we wish to bo permanent. 

Cuct iron, though it contains more carbon than steel, is not 
CO retentive of ma^etization. 

K a magnet conlil be constntctvd so that the distribution of its 
magnetization is not altered by any mugnctic force brought to 
act upon it, it might be called u rigidly mn^etized body. The 
only known body which fullils this condition is a conducting oircuit 
round which a constant electric current is mjide to flow, 

Such a circuit exhibits magnetic properties, and mu}' therefore be 
called an elect romiignct, bat tbeso magnetic properties are oot 
nffeetcd by the other magnetic force* in the 6cld. We shall return 
to this subject in Part IV. 

All actual magnets, whethor mode of hardened steel or of load- 
stone, are found to be affected by any nugnetic force which is 
brought to bear upon them. 

It is convenient, for scientific purposes, to make a distinetJOB 
iMtwccn the permanent and the temporary magnetization, dclining 
the permanent magnetization as that which cxist« independently 
of the rangoetic force, and the temj>orury iniigneli/.attou as that 
wliich depends on this force. We mu«t obterve, however, that 
this diittinction ia not founded on n knowledge of the intimate 
nature of magnetizable subetances : it is only tJie expresiiion of 
an hypothe«i8 introduced for the sake of bringing caloalation to 
bear on the plienometui. Wo shall return to tlie physical theory 
of mngnetizution in Clmpter VI. 

42iS.] At present we shall inn'stigate the temporary magnet- 
ization on thr nwiimption that the magnetization of any particle 
of the mibstitnee deiwnds wicly on the magnetic force acting on 




are fouB^^ 

ttiat particle. This magnotio force may arise partly from esteroal 
cnum'ii, and partly from the temporary niugnetizatioa of neigh- 
bourinj^ partklcs. 

A liody tlius roagnctized in virtue of the aotioa of magneli' 
foroc, is wiid to be ma^otlzed by induction, and the magnetizatioiii 
ii anid to bo induced by the niagnetiziug foroe. 

'Hie inajtiiiHization induced by a given magnetizing force diflvrs 
in difli>rt^nt suhstaDoea, It is greatest in the purvet and sofleet 
iron, in which the ratio of the nuignetlzatioD to the magneUc forottj 
may reach the v&luc 32, or even 45*^. 

Other subaUuices, anoh as the metals nickd and cobalt, are 
cu)>able of an inferior degree of magnetization, and all sabstancea 
whfu subjected to a suffieieDtly tAnog magnetic force, are found 
to give indicatione of polarity. 

When the magnetization ts Id th« same direction astfae 
fi>n-e, m in iron, nickel, cobslt, &c., the eubetauce k tailed 
mitgnciio, t'erromagnctic, or more simply Magnetie. When the 
indnced magnetizatioo is in the direction opposite to the magoetie 
foioe, as in bismuth, ke^ the Eub«t»nc« is said to b« Diamagnetic. ^u 

In all these iRib«taoces the ntio of the magnetization to the^| 
magitetio force which produce* it id exceedingly entail, being only ^' 
about —tWvn >» ^^^ '^*^ ^^ bismnth, which it the most highly ^y 
diatnagnetio aubetanco known. ^M 

In ery«t«llized, »tmincd, and organiEed substances tlie directloD 
of the magnrtixalion dc<i-< not always coincide with that of the 
nwguatie forw which produces it The nJation between the 000- 
ponenU of magnettaation, referred to axes fixed in the body, and 
tht««> of the ntagnetto force, may be expnseed by a system of thm 
tin<«r equations. Of the nine coefficietito involved in these equa* 
tions «« dull shew that only six are independent The phenomena 
afbcdiaaof th» kind are classed uadcr the name of Slagnecrystallio 


Whea placed ia a field of u^inetao fbttn, nyatals ind to set 
ihewMtlvn* so that the axis «t s;ntAt^ parami^niitiii. or of kwt 
4iMas«netM. iA^KtM i« parslM la th* l»e« tf 
See Alt 4SS- 

In spft irMt the directkta of tW mnailiialiiM - u 

that of the aucavlw foR« at tha poiu. and ttt ^mB 
Iha BUgnstia foiw U« niafiw^ualiea ia aawly - 

• naUa, .Vw« Jrt« «qk .s,« jK C|«L. 11 





IAs ihe magnetic force increases, however, the □ugitL'tizatioa in- 
etoucs nore slowly, aod it woald appear rrom experimeiitti dctcribcd 
ia Cbap. VI, that there is ft limitiiij> valao of the mii^nrtuuitioa, 
bejond which it cannot p«s, whalvrcr b« the raltie of Mm 
mognt'tic force. 

In the following outline of the tbeory of inducnl magi>^i^i''>> 
we shall be^n by EUpposing the magnetization profKirtion*! to the 
magnetic force, and in tbo same line with it, 

IJkfinitum of the Cbefieteni ^ Inductd MagntiiMiion, 
426.] Let ^ be the ma^^netic force, defined as in Art 398, at 
KOj point of the body, and let 3 be the mafrnetization at that 
point, then the ratio of 3 to ^ is called the Coefficient of Induced 
Deooting this coefficient by «, the fundamoatnl tsjuation of 
indQCcd magnetism is 

3 = .«. (1) 

■ The coeRinent k \» positive for iron and {)arainagnetiu subKtancvri, 
and negative for bivniuth and diamagnt'tie substances. It reacbe* 
the value 32 in iron, and it \» »aid to be large in the case of nickel 
and cobalt, bnt in all other casefl it ia a very email quantitv, not 
greater than O.OOOOl. 

tThe force ^ arises partly from the action of magnets external 
to the )>ody magnetized by induction, and partly from the iiiduoed 
magnetization of the body itself. Both parts satisfy the condition 
of having a potential. 

^7.] Let y be the potential dae to magnetism external to the 
body, let H be that due to the induced magnetization, then if 
V is the actual potential due to both causes 

»u=r+a. (2) 

Let Uie compooenls of the magnetic force ■^, resoU-cd in the 
directions of x,g,t,\>o a, fi, y, and let those of the magnctizatioa 
3 be J,.d, C, then by equation (1), 

Multiplying these equations by dx, dy, dz teepectively, and 
adding, we find 
^ Adx-i-Sdjr+Ctl: = *{ad4S+fidjr+yJt). 




Bnt sinoR a, and y are derived &oni the poteotial U, w« maty 
writv tlie second memljer —iciiU, 

Hciive, if M is constant tbrou^hant the substanee, the Rni meml 
tniiDt ftlao be a eompl«tc difTerontial of a functioD of jt, y ukl 
which we shall call ^, and thu oqiintion bi^comcs 



A = '^, B = 



The magnet ization is therefore lamellar, as defined in Art. 412. 1 
It «'«» shewn in Art. 386 that if p is the volume-density of &ce 

which becomes in virtue of oquation* {3), 


But, by Art. 77, 


fda d0 


dy ^ is 


Henee (l + 4«)p = 0, 

vrbeooe ^ = f6) 

ihrougliout tJie substance, and the mognotiiation is therefore sc4e- 
noidal as well as Unx-llar, Sve Art. 407. 

There is therefore no free ■Qaguetism except on the boandi 
stirfnce of tlie body. If r be the normal drawn inwards from tl 
surface, the magiKtic BnrfRoo-densi^ ia 

"-% (') 

The po(<-ntial U due to this nagnptization at any point may 
therelorv be found (Wm (he mriaee-inte^nl 

The value of Q will be finite and continuoas everrwbere, and 
will Mti»fy lAplan-'s pqaatioit at emry point both within and 
without (h«< ■nrfiii'e. If wv di9tin{;ni:»b by «a aetvat the value 
of n iwt»i*le the MiHace. and if »' be Um nonoal drawn ootwnnU, 
ire have at llir suHikv 







^ + 3^ = -4ir<r. byArt.78, 

We may therefore write the surGk«c-coudttioa 

IciMic tlie determination of tliu magnetism induced !u a homo- 
geneous iMUttpic body, bounded by a surface S, and acted upon by 
external nui^nutiu forces whow potential is ?', may be reduced to 
tlie following umtliomutiuil problem. 

We mu»t find two funotioni; il and il' mitisfyingf the following^ 
conditjonn : 

Within the surface S, Cl musi be finite and continuous, and must 
Kstisfy XiHplact^'s eipiation. 

Ontxido the surfa^'e 8, Cf must be iinite and continuous, it must 
vnuiHli nt an inlinite distance^ and must satisfy Laplace's equation. 

At <f\tiy point of the surface it«i-If, H = il', and the dcrivalives 
of A, Q.' and F with respect to the normal must satisfy equation 

ThiM method of treating the problem of induced magnetism is 
due to Poit«OD. The quantity i which he uses in his mcmoiTs is nut 
tlie nme m «, hut is related to it as follows : 

*-BK{i-l) + 3i = 0. (11) 

The coefficient r which we have here used was introduced by 
J. Neumann. 

428.] The jiroblem of induced magnetism may be lrc44t<^ in a 
different manner by introducing the quantity which wo have L'slled, 
with Faraday, the ilagnetio Induction. 

tThe relation between ?*, the maguetic induction, ^, the magnetic 
Ibzc^ and 3, the magnetization, ie exprceeed by tiic cijuattoa 
« = ^ + 4ir3. (12) 

The equation which expresses the induced magnetization in terms 
of tlie magnetic force i» 







]Ieace, etiminatiDg 3, we Bod 

© = (1 + 4.,)^ (U) 

as the relation between the mftgnetio indactioD and the magnotic 
force IB Bubatanees whose magaetization is indaced by mognvtic 

In the rooiit general caw « may be a function, not only of the 
position of tbe point in the substance, but of the direction of tbc 
vector ^, bat in the case which we are now consideriag jc is a 
numerical (|uantity, 

If we next write fi = l + 4ir«, (18) 

we may define n as tJie ratio of the magoetio induction to the 
magnetic force, and we may call this ratio the magnetic indoctiTo 
cajnoity of tbe snbetanee, thus distinguishing it from k, tbe co- 
efficient of induced magnetization. 

If we write U for the total magnetic potential coropouoded of T. 
the potential due to exti'mnl csuecs, and Q for that due to the 
induced msignetization, wo may express a, 6, e, the components of 
magnotic induction, and a, fi, y, the components of magnetic force, 
as follows : jf/ 


' = ">' = -** 35" * J 

The components a,&,e satisfy the Bolonoidal conditioa 
4a d6 de 



Hence, the potential U must satisfy Laplace's equation 

d*U iPU d^V , . 

at every point where ft la oonstant, tlint is, at every point within 
the homogenoouH substance, or in empty q»w. 

At the surfiice itself, if i- is a normal tlmwn towards tbe magnetic 
euWance, and v" on« drawn outwards, and if the symbols of qnan* 
titiiMi outside the sub«tance are distjngaished by accents, the con> 
ilition of continaity of the magnetic induction ia 

dv dp dv df Ju dv 



^Kor, by eqaatioDB (16), 





do "^ dv' 
II, the coefficient of indtiotion outside the maici^et, will be uuit^ 
unless the enrrounding' medium be mttgoetic or disma^etio. 
|h If we stibslitate for U its vnlue in terma of Tand ii, and for 
H fi its value in terms.of k, we obtain the same eijuatioD (10) as we 
arrived at by Poiason's method. 

ITbe problem of induced ma^ctism, when consideri'd wi(h respect 
to the relation bctwcrcn miignctic induction and ma^ettc force, 
corresponds exactly with the problem of the conduction of electric 
enrrente thToa;fh hctero^neoue media, ae g-iv<-n in Art. 310. 
The magnetic force h derived from the magnetic potential, pre- 
cisely as the electric force is derived from the electric potential. 
The mafpietic induction is a quantity of the nature of » fli:s, 
and satieGes the same conditions of continuity as the electric 
current does. 
In isotropic media the matfnetic induction depends on the mag- 
netic force in a manner which exactly corretiponds with that in 
vrliicb the electric cnrrent depends on the electromotive force. 
^B The specific magnetic inductive capacity in the one problem corre* 
^^ xponds to the specific conductivity in the otlior, Hcnoc Thomson, 
in his Ti</>ry o/ Indnetd Miiffnntign (Itepmif, 1872, p. 48<), has called 
this quantity the permea&i/ify of the medium. 

I We are now prepared to consider the theory of induced ma^etiam 
fnmi what I conceive to be Faraday's point of view. 
When magnetic force acts on any medium, whether magnetic or 
■liaiiingnetic, or n u(ml, it produces within it a phenomenon cjilltnl 
Magnetic Induction. 

Magnetic induction ia a directed quantity of the natnni of a Bus, 
and it satisfies the same conditions of continuity as electric curreuta 
and other lltuces do. 

In isotropic media the magnetic force and the magnetic induction 
arc in the same direction, and the magnetic induction is the product 
of tie magnetic force into a quaiitity called the coefficient of 
imluctjon, which wo have expressed by i*. 

In empty space the coefficient of induction is unity. Tn bo<lii'ft 

tapable of indnced magnetization the coefficient of induction is 

l + 47R = /t, where k is the i]nantity already defined as the co* 

efficient of induced magnetization. 

Im 4S9.] Let f^ ^4' be the values of fi on opposite udes of a surface 



ccpAriiling two media, then if F, f" are the potentiiUs in tin tvio 
media, tlie iiiflgnciio forces towards the surface Id the two media 

dv . <ir 

are -r- »nd -r-r 
av an 

Tb« qimntitie« of magnetic induction through the element of; 
rarface dS utb n-j-dS and fi' -jy dS in the two media rupcct- 

ivcly reolcoiii'd towards dS. 

Since the total flux towards dS is zero, 

dF ,Ar 

Bill by the theory of Uie potential near a surface of density tr, 


'»^+M't-t = 0. 


dV dV , 

If X, is the ratio of the Bujicrficinl magnet ization to tite normal 
force in tlic first medium whose oocfGcient \t ft, we have 


Hence V, will be positive or negative BCondingf «$ it i» gTcat«r 
or le«$ than ft'. If we put n t= ivx+l and fi'= 4iric'+ >. 

In thin exprowion k and k' arc the coefficients of induoed Baag-J 
ni-tiKatioii of the fimt and second media deduced from expennentoj 
made in air, and k, is the coefficient of induced mitgnetixatioo of 
tlie tint medium when surrounded by the second moilium. 

If k' itt greater than «, theu k, is m^^tive, or the apjiareufcl 
RULgni-tiTntion of the 5ni medium is tn the oppositv direction from 
the nisgiii'ttzing foi-ce. 

lliun, if a veKHv! oontainiug a weak aqueous solution of a para- 
magnetic saii of iron is su^ndcd iu a strouger solution of the 
same salt, and a«ted on by a magnet, the vetiwl moves bx if it 
vnn magnetixed in tlto opposite direction from that in which »^^ 
magnet would set it«clf if suKpcnded in the same [i1m«. ^M 

This may be explained by tiw by^thesiM lluit the solution in '" 
tlic vo&scl is really maguetixed in tiie lainc dirwtioR aa the mag- 
nelao force, but that the solution which surrnunds the resatil is 
mi^nctizcd more slrongly in the same direction. Uenoe the vessel 
ta like a weak mngnet placed between two strong ones all m.*"! 





netizcti in the same direction, so that op])OKi(>^ poles aro in contact. 
The north pole of tlie weak taigvet p»tiit« in the same direction 
as thow of the strong- ones, but since it is in contact with (he south 
pole of u ittronj^r tna^ct, there is an excess of soutli tnii|^iieti8in 
in the neighbourhood of its north pole, whicli cau»>ii tlic small 
magnet to appear oppositely magmetii-eti. 

In Komc suhslanc-es, however, the ajiparent magnetization ia 
ne^tiv« even when they are sufi])ended in what is called a vnctium. 

If we atcume « = for a vacuum, if will lie negative Tor thcte 
sut»tances. No substance, however, has been discovered for whieli 

« ha» a negative valne numerically gi^eat«r that — , and therefore 

for nil known Habst-ances fi is positive. 

Subit«nO(« for whit-b k is negative, and therefor.) ju le«s than 

unity, arc culk-d Diama^et-ie eubgtanoes. Those for which k \* 

poaitivc, and ft greater than unity, are culled Paramagnetic, Ferro- 

mngnotic, or «'mpiy magnetic, substances. 

Wc shall conndcr the physical theory of the diamagnetic and 

jnramagnctic properties when we come to electromagnctism. Arts. 


430.] The mathematical theory of magnetic induction was flret 
givvn by Poitison *. The physical hypothesis on which he foundtNl 
his theory was that of two magnetic lluid>«, an hypothesis which 
lias the same mathematical advantages and physical difBculties 
as the theory of two electric fluids. In order, however, to explain 
the fact that, though a piece of soft iron can be magnetized by 
todudion, it cannot be charged with unctpial quantities of tlic 
two kinds of magnetism, he suppoees that the BuhstAUc<- in general 
is a non-conductor of these fluids, and that only certain Kinall 
portions of the substance contain the fluids under circumHtanccft 
in which tbcy arc fiv* to obey the forces which act on them. 
Thwc nnall magnetic elements of the substance contain each pre- 
cisely equal quantities of the two fluid", and within each element 
the fluids move with perfect fr<'edwm, hut the fluids can never pa»» 
from one magnetic clement to another. 

Tlie [iroblem then-fore in of the Winn- kind as that relating to 
a number of small coniluctom of eli'(;tricity disaemiuated through 
a dielectric in>uhiting medium. The conductors may be of any 
fomi provided they are timall and do not touch each other. 

If ibvy arc elongated bodies all turned in the same general 

• aiORMm tU rituttiut, IBM. 




** = f»i 

dirwUon, or if lliey arc erowded more in od« dtrectioc than another, 
th« mixUuia, as Poisson himself eli«we, will not be isotropic. Poiseon 
thcrefure, to avoid usoteas inlri«acy, examinee the cose in which 
L>Hi.'h mugiHitic element U spherical, and the elements are dibsem- 
ioati-d without regard to axes. Ue supposes that the whole volome 
of at) the magnetic elemente in anit of volume of the eubstanoe 
ia t. 

We have already considered in Art. 314 the eleotrio oondoctivity 
nf a medium iu which small spheres of another medium are dis- 

If the conduotivit; of the moditim is /i,, and that of the spheres 
p,, wo have found tliat the conductivity of the composite syetetn le 

Futting p, = I and Hj = x, this becomes 

l + 2it 

This <]mintity fi ii the electric condoctivity of n median eon- 
Hitrtin^ of porrectiy conducting spheres disseminated throug'h a 
m«iUum of ootidiKiivity unity, tiie aggrt-gute volume of the spheres 
in unit of volume U-ing It. 

The *yiubol fi uhni rvpmvnt* the oocfficieot of magnetic iodnctien 
of a milium, counititing of it{)herM for which the pcrmeabtltty it 
infinite, disst'miiiaU-d ihrou^ffa a mMliam fur which it is nnity. 

Hi« itjubol i. which W0 shall call INiiMon's Ma|>ncttc Coefficient, 
rtfumaata thv ratio of th« volume of the ma^etic elements to the 
whola Tolunt of tlw substance. 

Th« symbol K i» kai>wn as Neumann's Cuefficicot of Magnet- 
tsattun by IndiHtion. It ir morv coovmii-nt than I\>moo'b. 

The «yub><l >i we shall call th« OwtScicnt of Ma^faetie IndactiotL 
Ifa advanti^ is that it fiKilitatca the tnuuformati.iu of magBctJe 
probkua int» problem* retattaf to eWtridty sad h«au 

The rclaticawuf thewthrtvaymbolsarvaafBDows: 



If M ptll k - M. Ow mIm ffivM hy tUUa a* KpsuHots M 





43a] poisson's thboet of magnetic isopctiok. 55 

soft iron, we find i = \^. This, aecordiBg to Poisson's theory, 
IB the ratio of the volume of the magnetic molecules to the whole 
volume of the iron. It is impossible to pack a space with equal 
epheres so that the ratio of their volume to the whole space shall 
be ao nearly unity, and it is exceedingly improbable that so large 
a proportion of the volame of iron is occupied by solid molecules, 
whatever be their form. This is one reason why we most abandon 
Foieaon's hypothesis. Others will be stated in Chapter VI. Of 
coarse the value of Poisson's mathematical investigations remains 
imimpaired, as they do not rest on his hypothesis, but on the 
experimental &ct of induced magnetization. 



A Jfolhte SpHerieat Siett. 

431.] TuK firet cxwnple of tli* complete Kolution of a problem 
in mnpiftic iii^ductioD wan tliat given hy Poisson for the com of 
« hollow ephi.'ri<-al «hell act«d on by any magnetic force* whatever. 

For Mitnplii'ily w« Bball suppose tlw origin of the nuif^netic forcee 
tn bo in tho epftM oat6)d« the ehdi. 

If f <leuot«8 the potential <luc to the external magnetie ayat«m, 
we may expand T in a series of solid harmonics of the form 

where r is the distance from the centre of the sbdl, S( in a sarface 
b«TmAnio of order i, and C, is a coi-fficicnt. ^1 

This Bcne« will be convcrgrnl pTx>\-idL'd r is lees than the dtntauee^^ 
nf (he nvnrMt magnet of the sj-nt^m which produce* tbi« pot^ntiaJ. 
Hence. lor the hollow spherical shell and tl»e tpoee within it, &i» 
expansioii is eonTFTgmit. 

Let the external mdiue of the ehell be a. and the inner rwdins «j , 
and let the {>otential due to it« induced niagoetian bell. The form 
of llie f\inet)oa Q will in general !•« diflrrrat in the hollow vpnce, 
tn tfam substance of th* shell, and in tito space beyond. If we 
expand these ninctions in harmooie eeriea, then, confining oar 
ittmtioB to those tcnns which inralre the ntbre hannonie St,^^ 
thiill find that if il, t* that whieb comspottds to the hollti*^^ 
s)iA«> within the shell, the expnnnon tt Q, mmt be in pc«itjVB har- 
nuwic* nf ' '' ..> .f, .^ >*. becnuse the potvMal moA not beeone 
infinite n .; >)ihvTv whive ntdius iE«|. 

lo the mbaUnoo of the shell, when: r^ hm l<etw«ea «, nnd «,, | 
the wrtN BUtjr cwatnin K^th [v«iti>e wd MgMiTe po«*» oT r, 
t'f t)M> form J,^f*-f i£j5,r-e'i\ 

Outside the oWll, «Imi* • is gnmWt than ■,, auH* U» aavs 

43 1 J 




must b« ooDVCTgcnt however great r may be, wc mmt have only 
nogntivo i<owew of r. of the fonn 

The condition* wlitcli umxt be satisfiod by the function Q arc; 

rt niuttt he (I) linit«, nod (2) continuous, and (3) must vaoiwh at 

it« dixtAnre, and it must {*) cTuywliere nitisfy Lnplace's 

On norouDt of (l) ^i = 0. 
On iKxount of (Z) when r = u, , 

and when f = it,, 

On aooount nf (3) A, = n, nad the condition (I) \» KatixGcd 
everywhere, wnce the fun<-tions are hannonie. 

But, bcsidcH the«e. there are other condilioim to be iiatisficd at 
the inner and outer curfaee in virtue of eqiiatioD (10), Art. 127. 
At Die inner aurface where r t=. <7,, 

da, da, dF 

ilr dr dr 

atxl at the outer vurfnce where r = a^, 


(,+4„)'^_— . + .,,,- =0, 


B K T- = 0. 



From these conditions we obtain the equations 

and if we pot 

^. = ^ : 7-irrr. («) 

(i + 4,.)(2'+i)*4(4«<fi('> >)('-© ) 

we find 

. M-H. 

A, = ~{A^^f ,(i+ I)(l - (?1) ).V, C. (9) 

^«=-4,«.[2, + l+4ir«(.-+l)(l-(^')"*')]A'<C.. (10) 

B^ m <«i(2i+ 1) V'*'A; C|. (I I) 

S,=-ii,Ki{2i+i+i^M(i+l)){a»'*^-a,"^^)N,C,. (12) 

TheNe qnanlilie* being euWituLed in the liarmonic cxpunstons 
j>ive thi> part of the potential due to tho magnetization of the shell. 
Tlie quantity Iff '" alwayit positive, since l-f 4irK can never be 
B^ativc. Hence A, \» always nogative) or in other wordts th« 



kction of the magnetized »l>el) ou a point within it is alwayi 
poHcd to that of the cxtvnial magnetic force, whether the she 
|HiramagTietic or diumiigiK-tic. Tlie actual value of tJie resultant 
putootiul u'ithin the »hull in 

or (l+4w«)(2»+»)*jV|C!S.''- (H)' 

433.] When k is a large number, as it is in the cut of soft: iron, 

then, unlvsH tlie shell is very thin, the magnetic foree within it^i 

is l>ul a omall fraction of the external force. ^^ 

In thiK way Sir W, Tliomsoa has reudercd his marine galvano-^^ 

met«r independent of external magnetic foroe hy enchwing it in^ 

a t'Uhe of oofl iron. 

4S8.] Tlie cAne of grefltest pra<!tica1 importanee is that in wlik 

(Ml. Is this cofe 


9(l+4,r«) + 2(-U«)'(l-{^f)' 

^,— 80«)'(i-Q)').v,r^. 

J»,= I2wita,'>',C,. 

5j = -4»«(3 + 8ir.)(V-V)'V,Ci. 

The magnetic foioo within the hollow shell is in this nase 
and equal to 

C.J 3('-H") « 

9(l + ««) + 2(<w.)»(l-{a)) 

If we msh (o determine « by measnring the magnetic 
within a hollow shdl and nuuparin^ it with the external 
fortx, the limt value of tite tJiicknMs of tke ibeH nay bo Iband 
(Vom the mjuattaon 

Ihlin^Tlttfir fcnrt ia^de the shell is tbes half of its nke ontadt. 

Siui'c, in ths nan of mw, ■ i» a number between SO aad 30, 
ihii-kuMM of lb» ■btU OHfbt to l>o sUmt 1^ boiMlradth part of r 
ladius. Tlii> awtlvMl i» a)>ptiakt>le naly whui the value of « 
bry*. When it is v««> omall the value U A^ Umnn UKnnbJc' 
Moe H di^icDila on tiM *>{uar» t^ «. 




srnERrcAt, snBtL. 


For a nearljr solid epkere with a very small spherical hollow, 


3 + 4ir« 

3+4 vx 


I fron 



The whole of this inreBtigntion mig4tt have 1»en jf^aoed directly 
from that of oondnctioii through u Hjilierioal stiell, as given ia 
.312, by putting ;fj = {^\-^Avi)k^\a the exprassiona there given, 
remembering that //, and A. in thi' [iToblem of conduction are eqni- 
ralent to f^ -f- ^, and C^ -f A., in the problem of magnetic induction. 

434.] The corrcHpomling solution iu two diinensions is graphically 
represented in I'ig. XV, at the end of this volume. The lines of 
tiuluction, which at a distauoc from the centre of the figure are 
nearly horizontal, are ri^jirescnti^d as disturlx^ by a cyllndric rod 
magnetized tran)iven>ely and placed in its position of stable equi- 
Ubrium. The lines nbich cut this system at right nngliM represent 
tbe eqnipotential tiiirfacm, one of which is a cylinder. The targe 
dotted circle represent* tl)i> Kcctiou of a cylinder of a paramagnetic 
eubstance, and the dotted horizontal stmight lines within it, which 
are continuous with the external lintr-s of induction, represent the 
lines of induction within the subsbiuce. The dotted vertical tines 
represent the internal ei|uipoli>nIinI snrOiccs, iind are c<^ntinuous 
with the external syst^'m. It wilt be obeervt-d tbul tlic lines of 
iodoction are drawu nearer t^tgethi^r within the substance, and the 
equipoteatial surlaees are vepurutcd farther apart by the paramag- 
netic cyliuder, which, in Ihc language of Faraday, conducts thtt 
'Uoee of indnctioD better than t)ie xurrouiiding medium. 

Tf we consider the system of verlifjil liaes as lines of induction, 
and the horizontal syitem as ei)ui[iot<:ntiul surfaces, we have, in 
the first place, the caac of a cylinder magnetized transversely and 
placed in the poKition of unstable ei^uilibrium among the lines of 
force, which it causes t^ diverge. In the second place, considering 
tbe large dotted circle as the section of a diamagnetic cylinder, 
t}i« dotted straight lines within it, together with the lines external 
to it> represent the eflect of a diamaguetic substance in separate 
iog the lines of induction and drawing together the e(|ui potential 
sar&ccs, such a substance being a worse conductor of ma^etic 
iulaction than the surrounding medium. 




Catt of a 8pher« in teiUi (Ae G*e^!euft of MagntUMtiim are 
Dijfereni in Different Birevtitm*. 

435.] Let a, fi, y be the compDnentd oi magnetic force, and A, B, 
C those of the nia^iu'tiKatioii at a.ay point, then tite moet geoerai 
lincitr relation between theac ({uantitics \s given by the equations 
A = '■,a+;:^/3+ j,y,j 

where the eoeffieicnt* r, /», q are the nine coefficient of magnet- 

Irft lis now Bi])i»iee that theec arc the conditions of magnet- 
ization within a iiphere of ladiHti a, and that tlic magnetization at 
every point of the Niilwtanoo w uniform and in the aame directiim, 
having the components A, H, C. 

L«t ti8 aUo vu)>poK4> that the external magnetizing force ie also 
tinifonn and puralk-l to one direction, and has for its componcote 

I. y, z. 

The ralne of T is therefore 

r = -{.Vi-+f> + ^r), (2) 

and tliat of 0.', the potential of the magnetisation outside the ^herc, 
i«, by Art. 391, At a^ 

^ ^ cr=^^{^*+5^+c4 (3) 

The value of XI, the potential of the ma^etixution withia the 

Thu actua] potential within the qihore W F+ti, to that we ohall 
hnvc for tbs compoDents of the mag^otic force within the sphere 

y=Z-ivC. ) 

(l+J»rOJ+ iwp,B+ jTftC.r,X4ftr+y,2; 

Stilving then eqiuUiona, w» find 








where Ifr{^ ''1 + Ji'('-»'i-ft?j + f,r3-ft?,) + (8'')'-0. 
^P( = ft - i " (£« ?.-ft n ). 


wlwMe i> is the detvrmiuant of ihe ccx^fficients on the right nd« of 
c(|aittions (6), and 1/ that of the coefficients on the left^ 

Tho new system of copfBci«nU p. if, / will be symmetrical only 
wh«a the system p, q, r a ttymmetrical, that is, wlien the co- 
rfficienta of the fonu p aro vquui to the corresponding ones of 
tb« form q. 

436.] ^Tbemotnentof tbecoaplet«DdiDgtottin) the sphere about 
tlie axis of j from 1/ towards z is found by eonsidcrin" the foroea 011 

ton elementary volume und tidiing their sum for the whole sphere. 
The result is 
= %-.anP,'ii'-9:y^Hft'-r:)TZ+J{q,'Z~n;Y)). (9) 
If we make 
X = 0, r=Fcos0, Z=Fmn0, 
thi« corresponds to a magnetic force F in the plane of y:, and 
inclined to y at an angle 0. If we now tnrn the sphere white this 
force remains constant the work done in turning the sjihere will 

be / Ld0 in each compIet« revolution. But this is equal to 

j;r««'?-«(/V-?.')- (10) 

Hence, in order that the revolving vphorc may not become an 

ioexbaustible source of energy, /),'= j,', and similarly p/= y/ and 

These conditions hIicw that in the orig-iual iH|untioDs the coeffi- 
eieot of .B in the third equation in equal to that of C tu the second. 

> Ilk aanalitT of tbe cwBi':! hiIh p uul f limy be hIiowd oi fi'Uuwa : Lst the fonu 
Mto; oa tnn •lilioro turn it ationt » iliunrtvr irlim- (ilrwtfuu-vodinai arc K f, ' 
thfoogh Ml Nistc >f : Uicn. If W douotc tin mngj <;>f \ht iphorc, wo L>vu, by 
An. 430, 

811I if tlw KIM of cwrdlribUi bn filed In tbe iplitn wa htv« in <gii««queiioc of tbo 

B«M« v« nwv pnt 

Tlikt tlw nrolrinc «ph«n niaj' ni)t bocam* k »ource of enoiuy. tbo ciprtarion cm the 
light hmul o< llMlMt vqtutiun iiiuat b« » pnrflKt Jiiruniiiikl. Utioue. lioM A, B, C 
■fB Wninr ItndiiHu of i. Y. Z, it follow* Uot W it t> ijcuKlivCiu fanctluii uf JT, 1'. Z, 
amA 1^ rcquirad mull i> iX once ijeducwi. 

Sw >bv Kir W, TliuiiiNo'i R«i|iiiiit of Paptn tm Ettdriettjf and Majnaism, 
pp. 4S0 461.] 



and 80 on. Ueaco, the ayetem of eqnations is eymmclrioil, iind Uto 
equations become wbeo referred to the priDvipnl »xt» of m«{p- 

A = 

S = 

i + J"'-. 




C = 



llic moment of tlio couple tending to turn t)i« sphere round th« 
axis of fit 

i= JM» 

f.— f. 


In most cases the diS^encos between the cocSicient« of magne 
ixatioa in different direction* are very snuU, so th»t ne may pat 



1 0^1 



Tliio is the force tending to turn a crystalline sphere about 
asiii iif X from / toiriirdis /. It aliraj-* tends to plac« ttie axis 
greatest magnetic eoefiieient (or least diamagnetie coelRcientJ parallel 
to Ute line of magnetic forec. 

Tlie oorrosponding case in two dimensioiu Lt represented 
I-'ig. X\l. 

If we ynppose tlie upi>er aide of the figure to be towards the 
north, till' figure reprewut^ the lines of force and equipotential 
wirraeea as dinlnrbed by a trau9verM>iy magnetiied cylinder placed 
with the north side eastwards. Tlte re»uIUnt force tends to turn 
tlw cylinder from eaat to north. I'he large dotted circle repretieiits 
a aection of a cylinder of a crystalline enbstaiMe wliicli has a larger 
corfllcient of indoelioB aloof; an axis from north-«a»t to south-west 
tltau along an axw fnun north-watt to •onth-euL The dotted lines 
within lli« (Side n-pn-M^nt the lines oTindootiofi aad the e^uipotential 
cur&cea, which in this cbod are not at right angles to each other. 
The T«»uttaBt (bn» on the cylinder ia avideiiUy to turn it from east 
t*t nortli. 

497. 1 Tlte eace of an e)tips«Mit placed in a field of mufnrm and 
l«t«Uel Bta^Betic forea hm booi nlvnl in a nnr ingcniooB manner 

U r is the piitcati^ at the pmt (»,/, s^ ^M to the gnritntioii 
«i a My of My form of luufotm <hnly a 





poUittinl of tlie magnetidm of the same body if aniformly m^^ 

tuAiv^ in the direotion of « with the intennty 1= p. 

For the value oi — -j-hx at any point ie the excess of the value 

of r, the potentinl of the luidy, ahow l", the toIhc of the potential 
when the body \» moved —his in tho direction of «. 

If we sup|>o«ed tht! Imdy »iuftc<i through the di»Unee — d;r, and 
ita density chang<>d from p to — p (that is to tay, made of repulsive 

instead of attractive matter,) then — j~hi would bi' tin- i>otentiul 

doe to the two Iiodies. 

Now consider nny rlomotidirj- portion of the hody fontainin^ a 
volume hr. \\» (jiHintity is plv, and corresponding to it there is 
an element of Ihn ithilVd Wly who^e quantity ia ~ptv at a 
distance —hx. Tlic cHect of theeo two flt-rat-nta ia equivalent to 
that of a magnvt of strength pBr and length hx. The intensity 
of magnetization is found by dividing the magnetic moment of an 
element by its volume. Tlie rcEnlt i* phx. 

Hence — t- 8* ia the magnetic potential of the body magnetized 

with the intctuity phx in the direction of z, and — XT '* *^' ^^ 

the body magnetized with intensity p. 

Tliis potential may he also considered in another light. The 
body was shifted thri>ngh the ditttance —hx and made of density 
— p. Throughout that [lart of space common to the body in its 
two po«itionB the density i» zoto, for, as far as attraction is oon- 
iU!m«Kl, tho two eqoal and oppodite dcusitteif annihilate each other. 
Th«Ta remains therefore a shell i>f positive matter on one side and 
of negative matter on the other, and wc may regard the rosultsnt 
potential as due to these. Tlie thioknoM of the bbell at a point 
where tho normal drawn outwards makes an angle < with the axis 
of f is 07 COS ( and ita density is p. ITic surface-density is therefore 

/)&« coa r, and, in the cose in which the pot4>ntial '< — >~i "i^ 
surface>deoMty is p eog t. 

Id this way we can find tlie magnetic potential of any body 
uniformly magnetised parallt't to a giv<-n dircution. Now if this 
uniform magnetization is due to mugnelio induction, the mag- 
netizing force at all points witiiin the body niiul also be uniform 
ami parulleL 

Tilts force conststs of two part*, one due to external causes, and 





th« otker due to the magnetisation of the l)ody. If lln^refore th« 
exteniftl ma^etii^ force U iiaiform anil panillt^l, Iho magneliti force' 
due to the magneti]'3tion must also l>o iinifomi and panllel fi 
all {lointa within the body. 
Ueoce^ in order tliat this metliod may lead to • solution of the 

problem of magnetic induction, -fz must bo a linear fuDct)<»i of 

llie coordinate* x,y, s within the body, and therefon; F mxiai 
a quadntiv function of the coordinates. 

Now the only cases with which we are act^uainted in whiob 
is a quadratio function of the coordinates within the body are thoM 
iu which the body is bounded by a complete surface of the seed 
degree, and the only case in which such a body is of finite dimen 
KiouK is when it is an ellipsoid. We shall therefore apply tb' 
method to the case of au ellipsoid. 


be the equation of the ellipsoid, and let •t>^ denote the definite integral 
7. *Afl»j.A»iaa-i.rf,s\f^.i.Aii\ • "/ 

Then if wc make 







tlic value of the potential within the clliiwoid will be 

^=_|(i,« + Jfy+3V) + oon9t. (4) 

If the ellipsoid is magnetized witli uniform intensity / in a 
direction making angles whose cosines are /, m, m with the axes 
of s, g, :, so that the components of nia^netizatioD arc ^^ 

A=Ii, B^tm, C^Iii, ^ 

the potential due to Uiis magnetization witlun the ellipeoid will be 
a^-I{Lh!+Mmfi-NK:). (a) 

If the ext«rDal magnotitiag force is ^. and if it« componenta 
are X, i', /, iU potential will be 

■Hie oomponont* of the actual magoetiring force at any point 
within the body are therefore 

x+JA r+j?j/, z+cK (rj 

• Sot TVuMnn luul T»H"< SMniat Fhtonfig, { C23l 






The nuwt geiiCTHl relatioiui betwifen tho mngncttzalion ani) the 
nugtielixin^ force arc g^ven by thiwo linear eciuationit, involving 
nine coitffii'k-nttt. It is neoessary, lioweror, in ordor tt> riillil tltc 
condition of tho coniM^nration of energy, ttiat in the «a«e of ning'ia-ttc 
joduction tlirM of theitc shoald be equal respectively to other three, 
•0 that we shoukl bave 

c ^ K\(x+AL)+K\(r+Bi/)+K,{2+c.y).) 

From thOM! <ffunti<in£ we may determine A, B and C in terms 
of X )', Z, imd tliis will give the most general tiolution of tho 

The potential outiiide the ellipsoid will then l>e that due to the 
ougTieti/Ation of the ellipaoid together with that due ia the eictenial 
magnetic foroe. 

43B.] The only case of practical importance is that in which 

«'. = «"» = "'s = 0. (9) 

We have then 

^ = 

B = 




If the ellipsoid has two axes oqnal, and is of the planetary or 

tKl form, 






If the ellipsoid is of tho ovaiy or clon^^tcd form 

i^j, = _a,( log ) 




= -..(! -,)(f...S-0 

In the €■« of a sphere, when e = 0, 

i = Jf=iVa-Ji 




roL. It. 






Id th« cose of a very {lattened planetoid L becomes in Ibe limU 
cquul to —in, and JTand I^ bvoome — k'-* 

In the case of a veiy eloa^t«d ovoid i and Jf approxim&t 
to the value —2ic, while .V approximates to the form 

nnd vanieliOK wlu-n « = 1. 

It appours from these results that — 

(1) Wlii'ii K, the coefficient of magnetization, is very Bniall,^ 
whether positive or nc^tive, tlie induced ma^netizatioD is nearly 
equal to the magnetizing force multiplied by k, and is almost 
independent of the form of the body. 

(2) When ic is a targe poiiitive quantity, ibe magnetization depesda 
principally ou the form of the body, and is almost indepvodont c^ 
the precise value of k, except in the caae of a lon^fitodinal for 
acting ou an ovoid so elongated that A'x is a small quantity tboug 
R is large. 

(3) If the value of « could be negative and equal to — 

ahouM have iin infinite viduo of the maguctizaiion in the case of 
a miignetizing force actinjr normitlly to n flitt plnte or disk. TlHta^ 
abKurdity of (bin reitull confiniut what w« »aid in Art. 428. ^M 

Hence, ex peri men tit to determine the valac of k may be made 
on bodies of any form, provided ■ it very sniull, as it is in the CMC 
of all diamognetic bodieei^ and all nuLgoetic bodies except ii 
nicko), and cobalt. 

If, liowercr, as in the case of iron, k is a laign number, expen- 
ments mode on aphcres or flattened figuru are not suitable to^i 
determine k; for instance, in tiie case of a sphere the ratio of th^| 
magnetization to the magnetiung force is as t to 4.32 if ■ = 30^^ 
as it is in some kinds of iron, and if k weru inlinite the ratio would 
be as 1 to 4.19, so that a rery amall error in the dcterminatioa 
of the magnetization wonld introdtioe a very large one in the 
value of «. ^J 

But if we make nsc of a piece of iron in the form of a Tei^| 
dongat«d ovoid, then, as long as Ak is of modentte value com- ' 
paml with unity, we may deduce the valno of * from u determination 
of the magnetization, and the smaller tho value of ^V the more__ 
accuTutv will be the value of «. ^1 

In fact, if Nfhe made unall enough, a snuill errw in the valo^fl 






of A' itaelf will not introduce macb error, so that ne may use any 
etoDg&tcd body, hucIi as a wire or long rod, instead of an ovoid. 

Vfe mnst remember, howeii-er, Uiat it is only when the product 
Xk ia small compared with uoity iliat this Etibstitution is allonable. 
la laot the distributitm of ma^ctiem on a long cylinder with flat 
cads does not reeemblc that on a long ovoid, for the free mag- 
netism is very much concentrated towards the ends of the cylinder, 
vrb«reas it varies directly as the distaouc from the equator in tlie 
caueof the ovoid. 

The distribution of electricity on a cylinder, however, is really 
comparable with that on ao ovoid, as we have already seen, 
Art. 152. 

These results also enablo us to understand why the magnetic 
nuHnent of a permanent magnet mn be made so much greater when 
the oui^nct lias an elongated form. If wc wore to ma<;ncti7.e a 
disk with intensity / in a direction normal to its surfai-e, and then 
Imiv« it U> itself, the int«ri»r [larliclos would experience a constant 
demagnetizing force equal to 'In/, and this, if not snRicient of 
itself to d<!Klroy jmrt of the niognetixutioD, would soon do so if 
aidod by vibrations or changes of tvnqHTuturc, 

If we were l^i magnetize a cylinder trunsvereely the demagnet- 
izing force would be only 2 it I. 

If the magnet were a sphere Uie demagnetizing force would 

1m. s«/. 

In a dixk magnctlM-d transversely the demagnetizing force is 
a' ' /, and in an vlongatod ovviii magnetized longitudinally it 
ia least of all, being 4 n -^ 7 log ^ • 

Hence an elongated magnet is less likely to lose its magnetism 
than a abort thick one. 

The moment of the force acting on an ellipsoid having dJITerent 
na^etic coeSicienta for the three axes which tends to turn it about 
the axis of x, is 

Hence, if k^ and xg are smalt, this force will depend principally 
on the crystalline quality of the body and not on ite shape, pro> 
vided its dimensions are not very unequal, but if Cj and c, are 
coasideiahle, as in the case of iron, the force will depend principally 
00 the shape of the body, and it will turn so as to set it« longer 
axis parallel to the linee of force. 






If ft gufni^icntly itrong-, yet aniforoi, field of nuigTieUo force oodM 
1*c obteincnl, an Glongated isotropic diaina^netic body vould also 
set iUelf witk its longcitt dimecuion parallel to the lines of magiiietJo 

439.] Tlic qtientioD of tlie diMtribution of the tnagnetization of 
OD ellipsoid of revoliiUon under the action of any magnetic forcee 
bas been investigated by J, Neumann*. KirchhoCTt has extended, 
the Dtethod to tbe «a*e of a cylinder of infinite leof^ acted on bj 
any force. 

(Ireen, in tlie 17tli wction of 1ii» Eisay, kas given an invest 
igation of tbe distribution of magnetitim in a cylin<ler of finit 
length acted on by n uaifonn external force pantllvl to its axis. 
Though ftome of the vtepa of this invc«tigntion are not very^_ 
rigorous, it is probnble that the result repreocnts roughly tlM^| 
ncttml mngnetization in this moot important c*»e. It certainly 
vxpress^if very fairly the transition from the case nf a cylinder 
for whii'h k is a large number to that in which it is very small, 
but it Ihils entirely in the cose in which k is negative, as in 
diamagitetM substancee. 

Oreen Bnds that tbe linear density of free magnetism at 
distance x from the middle of a cylinder whose radios is a and] 
whiMo length is 2A u 

X = xxX/a -p ► 

«"■ +b"^ 
where pis* nomflrical quantity to be found from the eqitatioa 
0.a31«l>3-2log.i) + 2ii»— ^. 
The following are a few of the oorresponding- values of p and k. 









0.0 1 























• tWbkU 


t iV*,M 

•J'*" v*^^*L 




Wbea the leo^li of tlie cyliiKlcr ia great compared with its 
nditiit, tlic whole (]iuintity of free mag^nt-tism on either side of 
the middle of Ike cylinder is, lis it ought to be, 

Of this i/jjf is on the flat end of the cyliinler, and the di^tauce 
of the centre of gravity of the whole quantity M from the end 

of the crltiider w - • 

When K is vexj" small p is large, and nearly the whole free 
magnetism is on the ends of the cylinder. As k increases p 
diminishes, ami the free magnetism ia spread over a greater distance 
from the ends. When « is inflnite the free magnetism at any 
point of the cylinder is simply proportioDal to its distance fron 
the middle pointy the distribution being similar to thnt of free 
electricity on a conductor in • 6eld of uniform force. 

440.] In all substances except iron, nickel, and cobalt, the oo- 

cfEcicnt of magtietizjition is so small that the induced magnetisation 

of the Iwdy produce* only a very slight tdtcrjition of the forces in 

the magnclio field. We may therefore w^^nme, iw a first approx' 

imation, that llie actual mikgnctie force within the body is tlie same 

u if the body had not been there. The siijH-rfii:ial magnetization 

dF dV 

ot the body is therefore, as a first approximation, « t-i where 2— 

■« the tste of increase of the magnetic potential duo to the external 
magnet along a normal to tlie surface drawn inwards. If we 
now calculate the potential due to this superticial distribution, we 
may nse it in proceeding to a seeoncl approximation. 

To find the mechanical energy due to the distribution of mag- 
netism OD this first approximation we must find the surface-integral 

taken over the whole surface of the body. Now we have shewn in 
Artv 100 that this in equal to the volume-iotegral 



) A^Jydt 

taken through the whole space occupied by the body, or, if R is the 
resultant magnetic force, 

Xow since Uie work done by th« magncUc force on the body 



during a diBp1ac(>ment fi^ is Xim where .V ui the mcchiuiciil force 
in the direction of x, and «nc« 

f Xtx-hS = constoot, 

which shews that the force acting on tho body is as if every part 
of it t«nded to niovi> from places wlicr« ^ is less to places where 
it ia greater with a force which on every unit of votunto \» 

If K is negative, as in diatnanTtcttc bodies, this force is, as Farads 
first showed, from stronger to weaker parts of the magnetic 
Most of the actions observed to the case of diamugnetic bodies 
depend on thia properly. 


441.] Almost every part of magnetic science fmdtt tt« use in 
navigation. Tbc directive actton of the earth's magnetiKin on thej 
oompnes needle is the only mctiiod of lUM-erlAining the ship's cou 
when the sun and stars are bid. The declination of the needle I 
the true meridian seemed at lirst to be a hindrance to the appli- 
ration of tho eompnes to navigation, but after this drRiculty lud 
been overcome by tho constniction of magnctio chart* it appeared 
lively tbiit the desalination itMlf would assist Ui« nuiriner in de- 
termining his fhip'^t plucc. 

Ilie greatest diHiculty in navigation bad always been to ascertain 
tb« loQgitndo; but ainee (be declination is diflercnt iit dtlfcrent^H 
points on the same parallel of latitude, an observation of the de-V^ 
clination t<^ther with a knowledge of the latitude would enable 
the mariner to find his position on the magnetic chart. 

But in recent times iron is so largely used in the construction of 
ships that it bas become impossible to use the compass at all without 
taking into uceount tbe action of the ship, aa a magnetic body, 
on the needle. 

To determine tho distribution of magnetism in a mass of iron 
of any form under the influence of the earth's magnetic force^ 
even though not subjeetv<d to mechanical strain or other distur 
ances, ia, as we have aren, a very difficnlt problem. 

In this ease, bovever, Uie problem is simplifwd by tho followU 







The compass is supposed to be placed with its centre at n fixed 
point of the Bliip, and so far from any iron that the nm-jnt-lisin 
of tbr Dccdh^ docs not induce any perceptible magntdiiim in the 
ship. The rizc of the compass needle is Bup|)09ed so small that 
we may regard tli« mn^ctic force at any point of the needle as 
tbe same. 

The iron of llie ship is supposed to l>c of two kinds only. 

(1) Hard iron, mai»nrtiM'(l in n ctmstant manner. 

(2) Soft iron, the magiiotiKat ion of which i» induced by the earth 
or other magnets. 

In Htrictnees we must admit that the hardest iron is not only 
capable of induction but tiiat it may lose part of its eo-called 
pemanent magnetization in variolic way«. 

The sofleiit iron id capable of retaining what is called resUwal 
magnetization. The actual propertifs of iron cannot bo accnmtcly 
represented by fiiippoaing it compounded of the baid iron and the 
soft iron above deGned. Itut it has been found tlial when n ship 
ia acted on only by the earth's magnetic force, and not subjected 
to any extraordinary gtrees of weather, the supposition that the 
magnetism of tbe ship is due partly to permanent magnetization 
and partly to induction leads to sufficiently accurate results when 
applied to the correction of the compass. 

The equations on which tbe theoiy of the variation of the com- 
paas is founded were giren by Poisaou in the fifth volume of the 
MAaoirn dt VliitUuf, p. 533 (1824). 

The only assumption relative to induced magnetism which is 
involved in these equations is, that if a magnetic force A~ due to 
external magnetism produces in the iron of tbe ship an induced 
mag^netization, and if this induced mugnctlKiition excrLf on the 
compass needle a disturbing force whose components are A", I", Z", 
then, if the external magnetic force in altered iu a given ratio, the 
components of the disturbing force will be altered in the same ratio. 

It is Inic that when the magnetic force iw-ting on iron U vciy 
great the induced magnetisation is no lunger pmportional to th<! 
external magnetic force, but this want of proportionality is quite 
insensible for magnetic force* of the magnitude of those due to the 
earth's action. 

Hence, in practice wc may assume that if a magnetic forc« 
whose value is unity produee» through the intervention of the iron 
of the ship a diniurhing force at the compass needle whose com- 
ponents arc a in the direction of «, dia that of y, and y in that of «, 




the components of the disturbiti^ force due to « force X in the | 
dir^f^tjon of a witl he a A', (/,V, and,,ffX. 

If therefore we Assume axes fixed in the ship, m ihut x 'a loward* 
the ship's bead, g to the starboard eide, and s toiranls the Iced, 
and if X, )', X represent the componente of the earth's mag^ncttc 
force in these directions, and A'', Y', Z" th« components of the com- 
bined magnetic force of the earth and ehip on the compose needle, 

- r=r+j,T+«.i'+//+i2, [ (1)1 

W z'= z+gX+ir+kz+R. ) 

In these equations a, 6, e, d, «,/,y. A, i are nine oonstant co- 1 
efficients depending on the amount, the arrangement, and Ui«l 
capacity for induction of the soft iron of the ship. 

F, Q, and It are constant quantities depeoding on the permanent i 
moffuctization of the ship. 

It is evident that these equations arc sufficiently general if , 
ron|:;netic induction is a lint^ar function of magnetic force, for they i 
urv neither more nor less than the most general cxi>re«>ion of a 
vcvtor lU a linear function of another vedor. 

It mny also be shewn that they are nut tM> general, for, b; 
pro]K'r arrangement of iron, any one of the eocfficivnts may be 
mmlc lo vary indo[iendently of the othcnf. 

Thuii, a long thin md of iron uiMJer the action of a longitudinal 
roognetie force acquirer poles, the strength of each of which ia 
numerically equal to the cross aection of the rod multiplied by 
the magnetizing force and by the coefficient of induced ua^et- 
isation. A magnetic force transverse to the rod produces a roach 
feebler magnetization, the effect of which is almost insensible at 
a distaoce of a few diameters. 

If a long iron rod be placed fore and aft with one end at a 
dUlanee x from the compass needle, measured towards the sbipV 
b(^, then, if the section of the rod is J, and its coefficient of^j 
ntagn<!tiratii>u k, the ctreDgtli of the pole will be JkX, and, >^| 

Am — , tlip force cierted by this pole on the compass ncvdlu 

will be II .Y. Tlic rod may be supposed so long that tfae effect o^Hj 
the other pole oa the eompim may be neglected. ^H 

We have tliua oblaiuod the means of giving any inquired ralaa^| 
to the ci-effieioni it. ^M 

If we place another rnl of •eetion S with one extremity at th4^| 
■ome point, dislauL « Ironi the eum^wH toward the h^ad of ^i^| 



ship's maonettsm. 



Tttwelj and extending to starboarcl U> sucli a disUnce Ihnt llie 
distant pole produce no itonstblc i-fit-ct od the compass, the di»- 
tarbin^ force doe to tliix rod will he in the dircctiou or x, and 

equal to — ,- , or if ^ = — , the force will be jr. 

This rod therefore introtiucpa the cof flioient i. 

A third roil cxtiMnlin^ downwards from the some point will 
introduce the coelTieitint c. 

Th« coeEBwents d, e,/ may he prwlueed by th»e rodfl ertending 
to bead, to starboard, and downward from a point to starboard of 
Ui« compaea, and y, i, it hy three rods iu pAralk'l direotioDs from 
a point below the coropans. 

Henoe each of the niD« coefficients caa be ecparateiy varied by 
means of iron rods properly plwwd. 

The quantitie* P, Q, It ure eimply the compODeatl of the force 
on the oompaai arixing from thv permanent magnetisation of the 
ship logetlier with that part of the inducwi mag'ncti/ation which 
is dnc to the action of this permanent mii^nrtizution. 

A complete difcuiwion of the eqiiativn« (1), noil of the relation 
between the tme maf>nctic courst- of 1he ship and the course as 
indicated by the compass, is given by Mr. Archibald Smith in the 
Admindty Manual of tie Devialion of the C'lapant. 

A valuable graphic method of investiffating the problem is there 
giv«n. Taking a fixed point as origin, a line is drawn from this 
point repntDenting in direction and magnitude the horiKotital part 
of tbc actual magnetic force on the compass-ni.'edle. Ax the ship 
is swung round so as to bring her head into difTorent azimuths 
in saccosiott, the extremity of this line df«;ribcM a curve, each 
point of which corresponds to a particular azimuth. 

Soch a curve, by means of which the direction and magnitude of 
the force on the comjuifi^ is given in terms of the magnetic course 
of the »lii[>, is cstllfd a Dygogram. 

There are two varieties of the Dygogram. In tlie first, the curve 
is traced on a plane lixod in space as the ship turns roimd. In 
the second kind, the corvo is traced on a pluue fixed with respect 
to the ship. 

The dygogram of the Grrt kind i* the Ltma^n of Pascal, that 
ofUiK second kind is an ellipse. For the construction and use of 
tbese curves, and for many thvoremn n* interesting to the mathe- 
niatieian sw they are important to the navigator, the reader is 
referred to the Admiralty Mamiaf of (At /Mvialion t^the Compau. 



44S.] Wb h»ve seen iliat Poieson mippoeeB tho magiielization ot 
iron to c^onsist in « sepantion of the mafrnctic fluid* withiD e»ch 
SMgDMic tnoleonle. If we wish to avoid Uiv usumptioit of tiui 
psislt'iicc nf niajjni-Uc fluids, we may rt«t« ihc sam* tbeory inl 
another fonn, by Mjing lluit racli molecule of the iroii, whiin tbe-l 
ma^nrtiiiiti; furcv nets oa it, becomo* a magnet. 

Weber's tluiiiy diffcw fntm Uii» in assnmin^ that tbc molMukal 
of Lhe iron an> always nuifrneU, vvea before the application of 
the magnetising forvo, but that in ordinaiy iron tiuf magnetic 
axes of thf moleoulfti are turned indilfercntly in every direction, 
■o tliat tho iron as a «ho1« exhibits do mnf^nrtic proporliw. 

Whrn a luagnetit' force acta on the iron it tends to tarn the 
L«f tliu molecule* all in one direction, and so to cause the iron, 
I'whole, to become a majn>et. 

If the axes of all the motcculoe were eei panllal to tmeh other, 
the iron would «>xhibit the gmtan't intensity of magnetization of 
whii.'h it » r«]«b|e. Hi'neo Weber's tb«<ory impji*^ the existenee 
of a limiting iuleusity of maf^netintion, and the experimental 
rvidenoe that swh a Hmil exists is tbeivfism nere«saty to the 
tlworjr. K\peTtmieot» sh«Hria(; an appnrMch to a limiting valoe of 
BMgnelitatnm hav* tw»n made by Joule * and by J. Muller t. 

The miMcintttto nf Berta t m aleetnttjr^ iron deposited nnder 
tW action of majpMkio Rhm Awuuk Um Moot ewnpleto evidem 
of lbi» limit.— 

A filvet wiiv w«t tmmuliMl, and « x%rj mutmt lior on the 

• iMMbyn>Mk^M»,t»^m,ia»i «%&««. till. 





metal mu laid \mn by making n fiDo lonj^itiKliiuil Mnitch on the 
varnhih. The wire was tlicn immersed in n solution of a suit of 
troD, and placed in a iiiaf^nAtiv Bcid vritli the scratch in the direction 
of a line of ma^elic Force. By nutking the wire titc oatiitide of 
an electric current through the aolution, iron was <lepo»it«d on 
the narrow expojunl surface of the wire, mo1ecn1i> hy molecule. Th« 
filament of iron thns fbrRM-d wita then exHmiued maguetieally. Ila 
magnetjo moment was found to be very grout for so small a manf 
of iron, and when a powerful magnHizini^ force was made to act 
io the same direction tlio iiioroaac of temiKirary mngnettzatton was 
found to be very small, and the pcrmnncnt magnetization was not 
altered. A magnetizing force in the reverse diniction at once 
reduced the filatnent to the condition of iron magnetized in the 
oidinarj' way. 

■Weber's theory, which supposes that in this case the mn;jnetizing 
force placed the axis of each molecnlc in the same direction during 
the instant of ita deposition, agrees very well with what ia 

Beetz foond that when the electrolysis is continued under the 
action of the niagnetixing force the intensity of ma^gnetiicatioQ 
of the sabeequently deposite<l iron diminislie^. The axes of the 
molecules are probably di'fle<^ted from the line of magnetizing 
force when they are being laid down side by side with the mole- 
ciilea already deposited, so that an approximation to parallelism 
can bo obtained only in the case of a very thin filament of iron. 

If, as Weber supposes, the molecules of iron are already magnet*, 
aoy magnetic force sufficient to render their axes parallel as they 
are electroly tically deposited will bo sufficient to produce the highest 
intensity of magtietizatton in the deposited filament. 

If, on the other fuind, the molecules of iron are not magnets, 
Imt are only capable of magnetization, the magnetization of tho 
deposited filament will dejwnd on t!ic magnetizing force in tho 
famv way tn which tliat of soft iron in general depends on 
it, Tlie expcn'meut* of Bcctz learc no room for the latter hy 

448.] W« sliull now aanime, with Weber, that in every unit of 
Tolutne of the iron them are » magnetic molecules, and that the 
magnetic moment of coch is m. If the axes of all the mulecules 
were placed parallel to one another, the magnotic moment of tho 
unit of volume would l>e 

3f= ttlM, 



and this would be tho great«)>t inU-nsity of magnetization of which ' 
the iron is capable. i 

Id Hie unmagnetizod atatc of ordinary iron Wchcr oiippmcs tbc 
axes of H& iiiolei'uli;)< to bo placed indilfi^rently in all direction*. 

To ezprcsR this, we may suppotte a itpbere to be described, and 

a radiuM dratvn i'roiii the centre {WTallel to iJie direction of tlie axis 

of eaeli of tlie n molecules. The distribution of the extiemitiee of 

these radii will express that of the axes of tlie nioleculee. lo i 

tlic case of ordinary iron tiiese n jioints are equally distributed 

over every part of" the wirfac^ of the sphere, eo that the number 

of moleculeis whose axes make an angle less than a with the axis 

ofris „ 

-(I -COB a). 

and the number of molecules whoso axes make angles with that 
ofa^ between a and a + daia therefore 

- cin a^a. 

This is the arrangement of the molecules in a piece of iron which ^ 
has never been magnetized. 

Let us now supjKxse that a magnetic force X is made to act 
on the iron in the direction of the axis of x, and let as consider ' 
a molecule whose axis wah ori^iially incliDed a to tlio axis of x. 

If thit; moltTulo is perfectly free to turn, it will place itself with 
its oxiK jwrullcl lo Uic axis of x, and if all the molecules did so, 
the very itlighte«t mngnetixing force would be found sufficient 
to develojie the Yciy highest degree of nuignctizutiou. This, how- ^ 
ever, is not tlte case. H 

The moItH^ules do not turn with their axcn pnrnllcl to x, and ~ 
this is either becauae each molecule is acted on by a force tending 
to pnwrve it in its original direction, or because an equivalent! 
effect is produced by tlie mutual action of the entire system of] 

Weber adopts the former of them suppositions as the simplest, 
and suppoBi-* that each n)ol<«nle, when doRccted, tends to retnrn 
to its original ixwition with a force which is the same as that 
which a majn^etio foivv D, arting in the original diivction of it« 
axis, trould produce. 

The {Hwition which the axis artiially assamcs is therefore in the] 
direction of the ntmltaat of X and I). 

Irt-t JI'll ivpn-wiit a ni-i'iliin ul'a siihere whose mdius ivprasents, 
on a certain wuih), Uw force H. 






Ld the niiai, OP be pamllct to the uxiit of a particnUr molcculo 
in its on'giiuJ position. 

Ijet SO repreMnt on the mmv iwalo the miignctizing foroct X 
which i» Kuppcwed to Ml Trom S lovrurilit 0. Tb*D, if Ihc mokrule 
\a aut«d OD by the forw A' in the diredion SO, »n<I by a force 
I) ia » dirwtion jxirttli;! to OP, tho orifjimtl direction of it» axin, 
it« axis will fit itself in tlie direction SP, that of the re-iult^nt 
of X and O, 

Sinoc the axes of the moIeciiIeH are ori^nally in all directions, 
P may be at any )M>int of the sphere indifferently. In Fi^. 5, in 
whioh A' i* lt;M than 2), SP, the final poiiition of the axis, may be 
in any dire«tion whatever, but not indilTerently, for more of tJie 

I molecules will ha?e their axes turned towards A than towards Jf. 
In Fig. 15, in whioh X is {i;rpater than i>, the axes of the molecules 



Hence there are two dtiTercnt canes scoordiiig as X is leas or 
greater than Jf. 

II 1/et a = AOP, the oHgioat inclination of the axis of a molecule 

^B to the axis or«. 

^^^K ff = JSP, the inclination of the axis when deflected by 

^^^H the force 

^^H ft = SPO, the angle of dt-flexion. 

^^^H 80 = X, the magnetizing force. 

^^^H OP = Jf, the force tending towards the original position, 
^^f 8P = R, the resultant of A' and G. 
^K m = magnetic moment of the molecule. 

^^ Then the moment of the statical couple duo to .V, tending to 
diminish the angle 0, is 

ml. s MA'itind, 
tho moment of the couple due to D, tending to increaaa 0, ia 
mL=. mi7siaj9. 



Equaling these values, and remetubering that J3 k a—0, we find 

. . If una -,, 

tan« = T> — r, iu 

to determine the direction of tlie axia after dedexioa. 

Vfe have next to find ihe intensity of ma^uetization produredl 
in the niiiw l>y the force A', and for this puqxiae we must resolve 1 
the inaynolic nionient of every molecule in tlie directiou of s, 
add all tliL'se resnlved parts. 

Tlie reaolvod part of the moment of a molecule in the direcfaon 
of .7 is HI cos 0. 

The Dumber of molecules whose original inclinations lay botv 

a and a+ila is « 

- »in ada. 

We Uave therefore to integrate 

2 = f - cos sin ai/o, (sl 

rcRXtmbering that $ isa function of a. 

We may express botJi $ and a In terms of R, and the cxproeion] 
to be intcgtated l>ccom«8 

tlie geneml int^^ml of wlncli is 

Id the fimt ca§e, that in Tvhich .V iH ten Umn J), tlie limits of 
integration are H = J)+X and K = It -X. Id the second cosv 
in which X is greater than J), the limits anj JimX+J) and 
B = X-B. 

1= ~mn. 

When X is Ices than S, 
Wbcn J is equal to 2>, 

Wbeo X is greater than D, 

and when X becomes infinite 

According to this form of the theory, which is that adopt 
by Weber*', as ttu maguetixtDg force increosos from to i7, 

• TImm {■ wvio nibtala In Ik* Ceramk g<nai bj- Wsbcr (TVwh. Atad. Sat i. 
B. in (1613), or Pen.. Jra- Usavii. p. !«; (1812) m (ba noOl d (Us iatrgriUft. 
^•bfaorwhUsniutllTwIvUB. Bkfcnnwlaii ^ 






nmgiietization increases in tlio some proportton, Wb«n Uie mag' 
tuilizing forv« attains th« value J/, the magnetization is two-tbirds 
of ita limiting value. When tlie magnetizing force im further iit- 
creawd, the niagnetiiiation, instead of increasing indefinitely, tends 
tonarda a finite limit. 

Fig. 7. 


Tb« Uw of magnetiiation is expressed in Fig. 7, where the mag- 
netuiBg force is reckoned from towards the tight, and the mitg- 
iwtitation is expressed by the vertical ordinatt^s. Weber's own 
experiments give results in aatiafact4>ry accordance with this law. 
It is probable, however, that the value of J) ix not the same for 
all the molecules of the same piece of iron, so that the transition 
from the straight tine from to £ to the curve beyond E may not 
be 00 abrupt as is here represented. 

444.] TTkj theoiy in this form gives no account of the residual 
tnagn«ttzation which is found to exist atiter the magnetizing force 
is removed. I have therefore thought it desirable to examine the 
results of making a further assumption relating to the conditions 
under which the position of equilibrium of a molecule may b« 
permaneutly altered. 

Let UB Buppoeo that the axis of a magnetic molecule, if dcfleelcd 
throogfa any angle less than ff^, will return to its original 
position nhen the delleeting force is removed, but that if the 
deflexion $ exceeds ^g, then, when the deflecting force is removed, 
the axis will not retom to its original position, but will be per- 
tnaDently deflected through an angle /3— ^g, which may be called 
the permanent «<■/ of the molecule. 

This assumption with respect to the law of molecular deflexion 
is tM>t to bi^ regarded as founded on any oxa<^'t knowledge of the 

L intimate i<truclure of bodies, but is adopted, in our ignorance of 
tlie trtic state of tb« case, as an assistance to the imagioatiott in 
following out the «{>eculatiiia suggestvd by VVcbcr. 
Let l^JDtiafla. (9) 




then, if the moment of tli« couple ftcUof; on a molocnlo is loses tb&n 
tub, thcro will be no ponnaiii'nt dt-flcxion, but if it excpwla "w/f ■ 
there will Im! tt p(;nri»nvHt change of thi> position of i!K|uiHbrium. 

To tnice the results of tbis eupposition, dctrcribc n Hpbore whose 
centre ifi and ratlins OL = L. 

As long as A' ia less than L everything will be the same ax 
in the case already considered, but at! soon as Xoxcet^K L it will 
bcf,'in (o proda«e a permani-nt detlfxion of some of the moleculefl. 

Let ua take the case of Fig. 8, in whieh A' is greater than L 
hut leiia than D. Through S as verti^x draw a double oone touching 
the sphere L. Let this cone meet the Kpherc D'mP and Q. Then 
if the axis of a molecule in it^ original [wsition lies belweca OA 
and OP, or between OJi and OQ, it will be dellected through an 
angle less than ^3^, and will not be permanently di-floeted. But 

the axis of the molecule lie* originally between OP cud OQ, then 
a couple whose moment is great«r than £ will act uiwn it and 
will deflect it into the position SP, and when tlie forw X ecwea 
to act it will not resume its original dir«'etion, hut will be per- 
manently set in the direction OP, 

Let xa put 

L = Xsin tfj where 0„ = PSA or QSB, 
then ail those molecules wbo«e axes, on the fonner hypoti 
would have values of $ between 0^ *^ '^■'o will he made to have 
the ralne $^ during the action of the force X. 

During the action of tJio forco X, thererore, tbom nwloeal 
whose axca when de6iected lie within either xheet of tlie doubU 
cone whose semivertical angle is d« will be arranged as in th« 
fonn«r ease, but idl thorn whose axes on tl>e fonn^tr thts^ry wotild^^ 
lie outside of the*e sheet* will be pennaneiiUy deflected, so tha4H| 
their axes will form a dense fringe round that sheet of Uie cone 
whieh lies towards d. 








Aa X increases, the mitulicr of molecules belonging; to tli« oone 
about S continually iliminUbex, and when X becomes eqiiul to J) 
all the molecales have been wrenched out of their former positions 
of equilibrium, and have been forced into the fringe of the cone 
Toiind A, BO that when X becomes greater than D all the molecules 
form pari of the eono round A or of its fringe. 

When thv force A' in rcmoTcd, then in the case in which X is 
IcM titan L cvcrj'thing returns to On primitive etiito. When X 
is between L and J) tlien there ts a cone round A whoKc au^e 

and another cone round S whose angle 
liOq = 0,-p^. 

Within theae conca the axes of the moleculce are distributed 
uniformly. But all the molecules, the original direction of wbo»e 
axes Hy ouUide of both th^j^e cones, have been wrenched from their 
primitive positions and form a frinjre round the cone about A. 

If X is greater tlian I), then the cone round B is completely 
dispersed, and all the molecules which formed it are converted into 
tiie fringe round A, and are inclined nt the angle ^g-f ^y. 

446.] Treating this ca«e in tiie same way as before*, we find 

• (Tfcp nanlta gi*Bli in th« tott may ho ohXtAoci. with one lUglit raosption, by 
tile ptoeeon givon b«l»w, ihti i<l*li>iii»iit nt ihn niuUlioil thaary of Art. 414 bdng M 
fglloir* : Tha &iU of ■ nia^iMtic iiiu1k»1?, if ilvllix^liat Uiroiij^li au angle l*" (bui 8, 
will rMuni 1u ita uHifinkl noiritioii whea the dpfloitinij fiirvii <i niiii<iT*il ; but wlxn 
th* 6tB»*lMk nomli 0, tho TorHi tending to oppOH the dpfletinu givw my »n<l 
ponnila tka malcculD lo be ddlcirUd Into tbB wmc diioctiun u lliuH irhuns HcfleKJun 
u A., >ad whsn llw JitlfciJnit f<ir«a la r«mi>vc4 the ni'ilocula t.\ktm up > direciioa 
panllcl to tluti of the moliKuti) wImm dvflraioQ wu >>•■ Tlila dimclion ouy bo 
call*] tL> peniuuiunl nt of Om mukouloi. 

la (Iw our X :■ L --. D. lh« c^ptoHon / (or tbu m&gnelio momont conMnUnf tiro 
put*, tliv tint ef which !■ dun lo ths noEMulo* witkin tha oonsa A OF, HVQ and U Ui 
be found iiiwixly lu tu Act. 443, duo r^^aril h«iuit had to tho limiui of integraUon. 
BaAimag to ¥ig. 8 v* find for th* mfouiI pari, aoconKn); to ths above itatsiiuint of 

1 .en Projootioa of QP on W 
fMmenASPn = -r^^ . 

nio t«o parta i^gotliM whoa taiuc«d give tbo malt in the teit. 

Whui X > /*, tha tatcttral a|[aiu oiiuiiittii nf two inu-li. mic of whitih (• to bo takca 
OTM-tliacuna A Of a* in Art. 448. The tusoii'l puiia, l>^>((C)i 

.ct, rroiofitfon of BP oa BA 
{tnneaaJSPx — * jjk ■ 

The raluv of J En Uua Ca*^ ati«n reddMd. dtffon from tho valne gimi la tbft (eit 

In thv thud tens, vb, : w« bar* then ^ , ». iniluad '■f ~ « v ''^'" ""^^ '^ *'^ 

S JC^ V A 

oba^go im tlis taU« nf miinrrfal Tallies glrtn tn tlio toxt will be that ohr'ii X - S. 

7, If, iku tarrerpmlhijf iatu«« uf X will ba SS9, 917, DSO. TttMo ciiugoi do not 





for the intensity of the tWDpomry magnetitttion during' the iiction 
of tbe forai X. which is euppoM'd to u«t on iron wbich hm Derfr 
beforv b^ f n magnetized, 

2 X 
When A' ia lees than L, I~ -M-ft- 
' 3 D 


When A' is etjnal to L, 
Wh«n X it between h and /), 

When X \i etiual to Z>, 
Wiien X i» greot«t than 2>, 

Wluin X is infmit«. / = Jf. 


When A' is less thsn L the magnetization follons the former 
luw, and is proportional to tho magnetizing force. As »oou as X 
uxL-eeds L the magnetization assumes a more npid ntbe of increase 
on account of the molecules beginning to be troniferred from tbe 
one cone to the other. This rapid increaue, bon-ercr, soon cornea^ 
to all cntl ns the numl>er of molecules foiming the negative coBi^| 
diminishes, and at laut the magnetiiatioD reacbca tbo limiting 
Taliie M. 

If ne vera to aaaume that the valiieR of £ and t>t D are difTerenfl 
for diOiorent moleeulea, w« should obtain a rasult id vhicb tbe 
different stagn; of magnetization arc not m distinctly marked. 

Tlie nndaal inatniettxation, /', produced by the magnetiziog force 
X, and observed after the force has be«n removed, is as follows : 

When X \a leas than £, Mo residnal magnetizatioa. 

When X is between h and B, 


•Iter Iha gaiMnl fbnwiOT of llw can* «f TtMBpana; Vif— finHim givta 
^i* m)>H o( r la Uii MM «f rt(. S b 


n* nJiM »f r h tin cMB uf IV- > BUT h* laMi la tika I 




'Wbeo X it) cqutti to 2>, 

"When X w greater than J>, 

"When X is infinite, 

li we make 

J/ =1000, i = 3, /I = 5, 

we Bud tlie following values of the temporary and tlic residual 
magnetization : — 




























1000 810 

These reeult* arc laid dun-u in Fig. 10. 

. J^^^^^^Si^taiBiaiAmrlMtmMaMtm 

Kg. 10. 

The eurve of tempoiary maj^aetizatioii is at 6nt a straiglit line 




t, and™ 

from X=0 to X=:£, It then rises mom rapidly till X = J), 
nud 1L8 X iocrcAGes it uiiprotictivH it« horizontal asymplotv. 

The L'urvc of rocidual iiiii);netirjit.ion bpgins when X^L, and 
approaches an asymptoti- »i 11 iliiilanoc = .St Jlf. 

It must bo rcm(;mlj<.Tcd that tlie n.'«idit»I miif^etutn tliuB foimtl 
correspondB to tbc case in whicii, when lh<t fxtcmnl Toroc is rmioved, 
there is no domagiictizirijr force arising from t^v diotnbiition (it 
inagnetifim in tlie hody it^lf. Tlie calculationH are therefore ap- 
pltciibli- only to vory eloD|^ati-d bodiat inagiivtizvd longiUidiiiHlly. 
lu thu cam of itiiort, thick bodies the residual mn^ctism will be 
dimini«licd by the reaction of the free magnetism in tlie m&« 
way as if an external reversed magnetizing foroc were made to 
act upon it. 

446.] The acieuUfle value of a theory of \\\i* kind, in which w< 
make so nmny aKBiiinptionii, and introduce «o niuny o^uMtable 
constants, cannot be t-^tiniated merely by iIk numerical agreement 
with certain sets of expmmonts. If it liax any ralue it ix because 
it enables us to form a mental image of what talces place in a 
piece of iron during magnetization. To te«it the theory, we shall 
apply it to the c»»f in which a piece of iron, after being mibjectcd 
to B magnetizing force A'q, is again subjected to a magnetizing 
force A*,. 

If tJiv Dew force X, acts in the same direction as that in which Xg 
aoted, which we shall call the poeitire direction, then X,, if leaa 
than X„, will produce no permanent set. of the molecules, and when 
X^ is removed the rcsidtial ma^pictization will he the same as 
that prodnced by X„. If A', is greater than A'^, then it will produoe 
exactly the §amc efftvl as if .V„ had not acted. 

But let U£ suppose X, to act in the motive direction, and let us 

Xo = Zeosecilj, and X, = — ituwoetf,. 


A9 A', increase numerically, i?, dimiuishi-v. The Rrst molecniefi 
OQ which A'l will produce a permanent deflexion aru tliose which 
form the fringv of the oo»o round A, and these have an iuclinatioB 
when undcflected of 6^ 4 ^o- 

As soon aa ff,— ^^ becomes hws than ffo + ft ^^^ process of de- 
magnetization will oommence. Since, at this instant, 0t m 9„-{- 2^, 
.T,, the force required to Wtjin the demagncl ization, is )et» tJum 
K^, the force which pri>duct-d thi- majjnoliitalion. 

If the value of J) and of L were lie same for all the inolecmie 
the Bliglieat incre.i«- of X, wouM wr(-neh the whole of the frin^ 
of muleculi-s whose axea have the inclination i^+^o inln a poai. 








tioD in wlLi<;fa fheir axes are inclined ^i + ^ to the native 
axis OB. 

Tlioujjh the doronfrnettzatioD does not late place in a uinnner so 
Kiul(]«ii ii« t)ii)i, \l fjikcj^ place m rapidly as to aiTord some conlirinu- 
tioQ oflbin modo ofcxplitinm^f the process, 

Let U8 naw ««[ii)oec tlmt t>v ^iviiijif ii proper value to the reverse 
tone Xi we havt; exiiotly dt-magnctizcd the piece of iron. 

Th« axoK of the molvculcs will not now he arranged indilFer- 
enllv in ull diTvctioD!<> a« in a piece of iron which has never been 
magnetiKed, hut will form three jfroiips. 

(1) Within a cone of scminnglu 9i—0o surronndins the positive 
pole, th« uses of the molcciito; remain in their primitive positions. 

(2) Tlio tuime is the ease within a cone of semian£;lc &^—Pq 
sorroundin}; the negatix'e pole. 

(3) The directions of the axes of ull the other molecules form 
■ conical sheet Eurrounding the ncg^ative iKile, and are at an 
inclination O^ + fi^. 

When .1^ is {>rcat«'r than J) the secoud group is absent. ^Vben 
X| is f>roat«r tlian D the first group is also absent. 

Tlie stxlc of the iron, therefore, though apparently demognctizml, 
is in a different stut« from that of a pieoc of iron nliich lias never 
bevn Di»{rn(-ti£ed. 

To shew this, let lis consider the effect of a magnetising force 
X.^ acting in cither the ponitivc or the negative direction. The 
fir«t pcmiBiient i-fft^ct of such a force n'ill hu on the third gronp 
of molecules, whose axes make angles = O^-h^a with tlie negative 

If tlie force X, nets in the negative direction it wilt begin to 
produce a piTniancnt effect a« soon as (J^ + A) l>econ)es Icsh than 
tf]-fA). Uxt 18, as Koon a* .V^ becomes greater than X,. But if 
X, acts in the positive direction it will begin to remagnetize llie 
iron as soon as 0^— ;3 bi^eoraes less than 6^ + ^,,, that i^ when 
0, K flffZiS,, or while X.^ is still much less than X^. 

It iippcarn therefore from our bypothertis that— 

When a piece of iron is magneliiied by means of a force Xg, its 
ningnetiBm cannot be increased without the application of a force 
greater than X^. A rtverBe force, less than X^, is snfBcient to 
diminish ita magnetixation. 

If tbo iron is exactly dema^etizcd by the revereed force X, , tin n 
it cannot be mn}fncttiK-d in the reversed direction without the 
application oi' a force greater than .V| , but a positive force less than 




X, is sufficient to hegin to rcmagneUze lite iron in ite ongioAl 

Thccc rotiiiltK arc onneiiHtiHit with what hu been a«laa11y obMrve 
hy Riteliie*, Jncobif. Marianinit, and JooleJ. 

A very complete account of the relations of the magnet izatios 
of iron and stcrl to inagnctto forces and to mechanical strains ii 
g-ivcn by Wicilcinarin in liis Galvanitnus. lly a detailed com- 
pariKon of the effects of ma^etization with those of torsion, bfl 
shews that the ideas of elasticity and plasticity which we derivsl 
from experiments on the temporary and permanent torsion of wireaj 
can he applied nnth equal propriety' to the temporary and permanent 
magnetization of iron and steel. 

W?.] Matteuecill found that the extension of a hard iron hax 
during the action of the magnetizing force increases it« temporary 
magnetism. This has been confirmed by Wertheim. In the ease 
of soft hare the magnetism is diminished by extension. 

The permanent magnetism of a bar increases when it is extended,^ 
and diminishes when it is compressed. 

Hence, if a piece of iron is first magnetized in ono direction,' 
and then extended in another direction, the direction of magnet- , 
izatioD will tend to approach the direction of extension. If it h4^| 
compressed, the direction of magnutizatJoa will tcrnd to bccomc^^ 
normal to the direction of comprvsstun. 

This explains the tmiiU of aa experiment of Wiedemann's, 
enirent was i>a»f«d dowimani through a vertical wire. If, eithu 
during tlic |)ait»agc of tlio current or after it has ceased, the wir 
bo twistod in the direction of a right-handed screw, the lower eai 
becomes n north poU). 




Fig. 12. 

• pail. .Wo.?.. IS83. 

% Ami. Or VUmie H 4i Ptf*rf«, lUS. 

f p-ig,. akh., isai. 





Here the aownirard current majrnetizes every part of the wire 
in a tan^ntial direction, as indicated by the lettcra .V.S'. 

llic twisting of the wire in the directioo of a right-handed screiv 
the portion ASCH to be extended alonij the diagonal AC 
and coinpTcswd ulong tho diaj^onat BD. The direction of magnet- 
iuition thvrcforc tends to iippruach AC and to recede from BD, 
Rod thus tJic lower end becomes u north pole and the upper eail 
a vouUi pole. 

Effect ^ ilagnHicaiion on tie SHineniion* of the Magnvi. 

448.] Joule*, in 1812, found that an iron Imr hccomes length* 
ened when it is rendei-ed magnetic by an electric current in a 
coil which stirrouuds it. He al'terwardsf shewed, by pladng tiie 
b*i in water within a glaan tube, that the volume of the iron is 
not augmented by th» magnetization, and concluded that it« 
tisasverse dimensions were contracted. 

Finally, he paseed an electric current through the axis of an iron 
tnbe, and back outside the tube, so as to make the tube into a 
closed magnetic solenoid, the mugnetization being nt right angloi 
U> the axis of the tubu. Tho length of the axis of the tube was 
found in this auc to be xhortoned. 

lie found that an iron rod under longitudinal pressure is also 
elongstrd when it is magnetized. Wlien, liowever, the rod is 
under considi-rable longitudinal tension, the effect of niagnetizntion 
in to rfiorlen it. 

TliiM was the case with a wire of a quarter of an inch diameter 
irben the tension exceeded 600 poundj* weight. 

In the case of a hard steel wire the effect of the magnetizing 
force was in every case to shorten the wire, whether the wire was 
tinder tension or pressure. The change of length lasted only as 
long as tho magnetizing force was in action, no Hlti^rution of length 
was obecrved due to the {)crmancnt magnetization of the steel. 

Jonle found the vlong:itioQ of iron wireu to be nearly prciportional 
to the (quare of the uotual mngnetixut ion, ko that the tiriit etfect 
of a demagnetizing current wbk to Hluirten the wire. 

On ihe otiicr hand, he found that the ahortening effect on wirea 
ondcT tension, and on stoet, varied as the product of the magoot- 
iiation an<l tlie magnetizing current. 

Wiedeinann found that if a vertical wire ia magnetized with its 

" Siiuwoi'i ^niHil/ o/ Bi«lH<Uv. vol, riii. n. S19. 
^^_ t fAiC Jf(V.. \Ut. 

88 webgb's teeobt of induced maonetism. [448. 

Boutb end uppermost, and if a carrent is then passed downwards 
through the wire, the lower end of the wire, if free, twists in the 
direction of the hands of a watch as seen from above, or, in other 
words, the wire becomeB twisted like a right-handed screw if the 
relation between the longitudinal current and the magnetizing 
current is right-handed. 

In this case the magnetization due to the action of the current 
on the previously existing magnetization is in the direction of 
a right-handed screw round the wire. Hence the twisting would 
indicate that when the iron is magnetized it expands in the 
direction of magnetization and contracts in directions at right 
angles to the magnetization. This agrees with Joule's results. 

For further developments of the theory of magnetization, see 
Arte. S32-845. 






44D.] TuK principal magnetic mcaeunemoDts arc the deterniina- 
tioD or Uie nutgitctic axi« mid maf^netic moment or a inagnet, and 
that of tJie direction ftnd inti-nsity of tbo magovtic furco at a given 

Since theae meaaurcmente are made ncnr the Eiirfacu of Iho earth, 
flie magneti are alwaj-s acted on by gravity as well us by terrestrial 
mapnetisni, and iiiiiue the mugtiets are made of iAimiX tlieir mng- 
netisni ia partly pGrmanont and partly induced. Tlie permanent 
maf^etism is altenxl t>y cbaiiifes of t'em[iL>niturc, hy at.rong in- 
duction, and by violent blows ; tlic tniliin^d nia^iietisin varies with 
every variation of the external magnetic force. 

The mottt convciiient way of (>bscr\'ing the force acting on a 
magnet is l>y making the magnet free to turn about a vertical 
axis. In ordinary compaMcs this is done hy balancing the magnet 
on a vertical pivot. Tlie finer the point of the pivot the smaller 
is the moment of the friction which interferes with the action of 
tlie magnetic force. For more refined observations the magnet 
is soapended by a thread composed of a silk fibre without twist, 
either single, or doubled on itself ii xullicient number of times, and 
eo formed into a thread of parallel lilires, each of which supports 
as nearly as possible an equal part of the weight. The force of 
torsion of mich a thread is much leas than that of a metal wire 
of equal strength, and it may be calculated in terms of the ob- 
served azimuth of the magnet, which is not the case with the force 
arising from the friction of a pivot. 

The suspension 6hre can be raised or lowered by turning a 
horizontal screw which works in a fixed nut. The (ibro is wound 
round the thread of the screw, so that when the screw is turned 
the suspcosion fibre always hangs in the same vortical line. 




r thfl 

on of^ 




The snspensioii fibre cnrrit-e n small horizontal dirided iiircle 
called tbe Toreion-circlf, «nd » slirimp with an index, whtoh eaa 
he plaoi'd so that tlic iiidox cuincuk-e with any ^ven division of 
Uio toreion circle. The stirrup is so shaped that the nia^^t Ijsr 
can bo tittiM) into it with it* uxie horizontal, and with anj one 
of its four sides uppermost. 

To osL-ertuin tlic zero of torsion » non-mai^etic body of 

snme w^iffht as tie magnet ia pL 
in the stirrup, and the poi.ition 
the tnrvion circle when in e<}uilihriui 

Till" miig^net itself is a piece 
har(l.t4;miicrtil steel. According 
(lauss and Weber its length ought 
to be at Iwist eight times its greatest 
transverse dimension. This is neees- 
mry whi-n permanence of the direo- 
tion of the magnetic axis within 
magnet is the most important eoa 
sideriition. Where promptness of i 
tion is required the magnet ahonld 
be shorter, and it may even be ad- 
viauble in o1:)E«rviiig sndden altera- 
tiona in magiMttic force to ase a bar 
magnet ize<l transversely and sus- 
pended H-tth its longest dimeUfcioQ 
Tertical *. ^M 

450.] The magnet i« provided wit^^ 
an arrangement for ascertaining ita 
angular position. For ordinary pur- 
pn^i^s its ends are pointed, and a 
^' *' divided circle is placed below the 

ende, by which tlieir positions arc rend oiT by an eye placed in « 
plane through the nutipension thread ami the point of the needle. 

For more oceiimtc observations o plane mirror is fixed to the 
magnet, so tltal the normal to the mirror coincides as nearly as 
possible with the axis of magnctitation. This is the method 
adopted by Gsnsa and Weber. 

Another method is to attach to one end of the miignet a l«ns and 
to the otlier end a scale engraved on glaM, the diHtunce of tbe lens 

5m, JrimriMttr, Vor.SS. ISU. 





from tie scale being- equal to the principal focal length of the lens. 
The straight line joinings the zero of lh<? eealo with th« optical 
centre of the leas ought to coincide as nearly ti* possible with 
the msffiHitic axis. 

As these 0]>tical methods of asoeriainin^ the angular position 
of mspended apparatus are of great importance in many physical 
researches, wc shall here consider once for all their mathematical 

Theory of lie Mirror Metkoi, 

VTe shall euppoee that the apparatus whose aagul^ position is 
to bo detormincd is capable of revolving about a vertical axis. 
Tilts Kxis is in general n tibre or wire by which it is saspendi-d. 
Tltc mirror should be truly plane, so that a scale of milliractirs 
may Ix- «e<tn distinctly by reflexion at a distance of several metres 
from the mirror. 

Tlic normal through the middle of the mirror should pass through 
tbt axis of sofipension, and should be accurately horiKontal. Wc 
shall refer to this normal as the line of collimation of the ap- 

Having rotighly ascertained the mean direction of th« line of 
collimation during t)ie experiments which are to be made, a tele- 
scope is erected at a convenient distance in front of the mirror, and 
a little above the level of the mirror. 

The t«letM»j>c is capable of motion in a vertical plane, it is 
direete<l towards tlic suitjiensitm fibre just above the mirror, and 
a fixed mark is erected in the line of vitiiDn, at a horizontal distance 
from Uio object gli>s9 equal to twice the dintance of the mirror 
from the object glass. The apjiaratus iihould, if possible, be so 
arranged lliat this mark is on a wall or other fixed object. In 
order to ^eu the mark and the t>uspeni<ion fibre at the same time 
tlirongh the telewope, a cap may be placed over the object glass 
having a slit along a vertical diameter. This should be removed 
for the olh^r oboervatjons. The telescope is tlien adjusted so that 
the mark iw seen distinctly to coincide witJi the vertical wire at the 
focuH of the telcHcope. A plumb-line is then adjusted so as to 
pass close in front of the optical centre of the object glass and 
to hang below the teleiwopc. Below the teIe»cope and just behind 
the plumb-line a scale of equal parts is placed bo as to be bisvct«d 
st right angles by the plane through the mark, the suspension- fibre, 
and the plumb-line. The sum of the heights of tlic scale and the 




objed; glass should bo equal to twice the height of the mirror from 
Uio Q<ior. The telescope being now directed towurds tho mirroFj 
will see in it the reflexion of the ecale. If the pmrt of the «cal 
where the plumb-line crossee it appears to coin<;ide with the verliaii 
vire< nf the teleecope, thea th« line of collimation of the tnin 
coincides with tiie plane throiipfh tho mark nnd tho optical centre 
of the object ^lass. If the verticul wire coioeides wilil anv other 
division of the xenle, the ungtiUr po>ition of the line of oolliination 
it! to be found an followa :— 

Iji't the plittie of the paper be horizontal, and tet the various 
points be projected on this plane. Let be tJie centre of th< 
object glaa^ of the telescope, P the fixed mark : P and the vertical 
wire of the telescope are conjugate foci with re»j>eot to tlie object 
glass. Let M be the point where 01" cuts the plane of the mirror. 
Let M.\' be the normal to the mirror ; then OMS'=. is the ang\ 
which the line of collimation makes with the fixed plane. Let J/< 
be a line in the plane of OM and UN, euch that MfS = OJCVf 
then S will be the part of the scale which will be seen by reflexion 
to coincide with tho vertical wire of the telescope. JS'ow, since 



— ¥^ ^ 

jl/.V IS horizontal, tho projeefed angles 03fy and .A'JI/i$ in 
figure are equal, and OJUS=20. Hence 0S= OMiaQ20. 

We hare therefore to measure OH in terms of the divieionfi of 
the scale ; then, if i^ is the division of the scale whidi coincides with 
the phmib-line, and » the obMrred division, 

«-»,,= OMtm29, 
whence 9 may be fonod. In measuring 03f we must remember 
that if tho mirror is of gliiBS, silvered at the bdclc, the viKgal in: 
of tho reflecting eur£Ke is at a distance behind Uic front sarfni 




of the g^ass = - , vhere t ia the tJticksess of the glass, and n is 

tb« index of n>rmction. 

We must also rcmcmlwr tlint if the Hue of suepension does not 
pa^ tltrougli the point of Mlt^iioii, the position of 31 will alter 
with &. Kciice, when it is pufutihle, it i» adviwildc to make the 
centre of the mirror votncide with the line of itiui|M>n!iii>n. 

It it alao itilvisahle, espeoiall}' wlitm larf>;fi angular motions haT<! 
to be obiterved, to make the scale in the form of n concave oj-liodrio 
Rtufair, whoee axis is the line of suspension. The angles are then 
ob«erved at once is circular measure without reference to a table 
of tang«nl». The scale should he carefully adjusted, an that the 
axis of tiie cylinder coincides with the suspension fibre. The 
Dumbeni on the scale should always run from the one end to the 
other in the same direction so as to avoid negative readings. Fig. 1 G 

Fig. 16. 

represents the middle portion of a scale to he luied with a mirror 
and an inverting teleeooije. 

This method of observation is the best when the motions are 
slow. The observer sits at tlie telescope and sees the image of 
the scale moving to right or to left past the vertical wire of the 
telescope. With a clock beside him he can note the instant at 
which a given .division of the scale passes the wire, or the division 
of the scale which is passing at a given tick of the clock, and he 
oan also record the extreme limits of each oscillation. 

When the motion is more rapid it becomes impossible to read 

the divisions of the scale except at the instants of rest at the 

extremitjea of an oscillation. A conspicuous mark may be placed 

at a known division of the scale, and the instant of transit of this 

! mark maj be noted. 

When the apparatus is very light, and the forces variable, the 
.motion is so prompt and swift that observation through a telescope 


[45 q 

would be useless. Id this cum tlio observer looks at tlie scald 
(linclly, And obwervva the motiuus of thu iinag« of tlie vortical win 
throwD on the scale by n Ump. 

Tt is munifest thut iiincc thi> im&g^e of the ecale reflected by th< 
mirror anil refrat-U'il by the object glass coiocidee with the ver 
wire, the imaifc of thu vertionl wire, if suf&oientfy illuminated, will'' 
coincide with the «cnlo. To observe this the room ts darkened, and 
the ooDCGQtrah-d rays of a lamp are thrown on the vertieal wire 
towards the object glass. A brii^ht patch of li^ht crossed by the 
shadow of the wire is seen on the scale. Its mottoos can bo 
followed by the eye, and the division of the scale at which it come 
to rest can be Bxcd on by the eye and read off at leisure. If it he' 
desired to note the instant of the passage of the bright spot past a 
given point on the scute, a pin or ■ bright metal wire tnay 
placed there so ns to Ihwh out at the time of posaage. 

By substituting a small hole in a dia]>hragiii for the cross wire 
the image becomes a small illuniiuutcd dot moving to right or loft 
on the scale, and by btuhxtitiiting for the scale a cylinder revolving 
by clock work about a horizontal axis and covered with photo-^ 
graphic pajwr, the spot of light tracK« out n curve which can 
afterwards rendered vinble. Each abscissa of this curve corre«poi 
to a particular time, and the ordinate indicates the an^ 
jKisiiion of the mirror at that time. lu this way an automatio 
system of contiimouH registration of all the elements of terrestrial 
magnetism hax been established at Kew and other observatories. 

In tome «we* the teIe»cope in dixpt^nsed with, a vortical wire 
18 illuminated by a lamp placed behind it, and th« mirror is a 
concave one, which forms the imago of tlio wire on the scale a4M| 
a dark lino across a patch of light, ^H 

461.] In the Kcw portable ap|i«nitiis, the magnet is made in 
the form of a tube, having at one end a leas, and at the other 
a glass ecale, so adjusted as to be at the principal focus of the leu 
Light is admitted from behind the scale, and after passing through 
the lens it is Tiewed by means of » telesctipc. 

Since the scale is at the principal focus of the lens, rays Ironi 
any division of the scale emeigo from the lens parallel, and if 
the t«!e«e4)i>e is adjusted for celestial objects, it will shew the scale 
in optical roincidenco with the crow wire* of tlie telescope. If ; 
given division of the ecale coincides with the intersectjon of tl 
orosa wires, then the line joininer that division with the optic 
centre of the lens must be parallel to the line of oollimation oC. 

be I 


it a^ 






the tetascope. By fixing tht> magnet and moving the t«1oRCoptf, we 
may ascertaiti tbe angular value of tlie tlivisioiw of tin- kchIc, und 
(hen, when (he ni3<;net is suspended and the poaition «!' the tt'lu- 
Kope known, wv may determine the poeitioa of the mugnot at 
ony inetant by reading off the division of the scale which coiuuidee 
with the CTOfS wires. 

Tbe telescope ia aupporbed on nn ana which ia centred in th« 
line of tho suspension fibre, and the position of the tele!ico[>c is 
read off by vornicrs on tho azimuth circle of the iuatrament. 

This arrangement is snttabk- for a small portable magMctomelcr 
in which tho whole apparatus is supported on one tripod, and in 
which the oedlUtioos due to accidental disturbaQcen rapidly 

IDeUrmiHotion of tie Direction of the Axis of the Magnet, and of 
tie Direction of Terretlriat Magitelitm. 
4fi2.] Let a syntein of axes be drawn in a magnet^ of which tiie 
axiK of : is in the direction of the lengtli of the bar, and x and y 
perpendicubir ti> the itideH of the liar supposed a paratli'topipod. 

Let /, in, << and A, fj, v be the angles which the magnetic axis 
and the line of eollimution make with these axes respectively. 

Lot J/ he the magnetic moment of the magnet, let IT be the 

horizontal component of terrestrial magnetism, let Z be the vertical 

oompouent, and let fi he the azimuth in which // actM, rockoncd 

from the north townnJs the west. 

u Let f be the obscrvni axinmlh of the line of collimation, let 

^k be tho azimuth of the stirnip, and ^ the reading of the index 

"of the torsion circle, then a—(i is the azimuth of the lower end 

»of the suepenaon fibre. 
Let y he the value of «— ^ when there is no torsion, then the 
moment of the force of torsion tending to diminisli a will be 

where r ig a cocfiidcnt of torsion depending on the nature of the 

To determine \, fix the stimip m that y is vertical and up- 
wards, a to tho north und r to the weat, and observe the aKimuth 
f of the lino of collimation. Then n-move the magnet, turn it 
through an angle v about the axis of t and Teplac« it in this 
inverted portion, and observe (lie azimuth f of the line of coU 
^^imatiou when g la downwards and x to the east, 



Next, bftiig the stirrup to the suspension fibre, and place 
magnet in it, adjusting it carefully so that jt may be vertical an' 
upwards, tlieu the moment of the force tending to increase a is 

MHsia m sin (5— a— | + ;)— r(«-j8— y). (4JJ 

But if C is the observed azimuth of the line of coUimatioa 



BO that the force may be written 

J///«ni«sin{«-f+i-A)-r(C+X-^-j9-y). (i 

When the apparatus ia in equilibrium this quantity is xero for 
a particular value of f. ^H 

MTicn the apparatus never eomes to rert, but murt be observeJ^^ 
in a i>t:itc of vibration, the viiluo of ( corresponding to the positios 
of equilibrium may be calculated by a method which will 
described in Art. 735. 

When the force of torsion is small compared with tJie moment 
of the magnetic force, we may put i—(+l—K for the cine of that 
angle. m 

If we give to ^, the reading of the torsion circle, two diflcren^^ 
valuee, ^ and ^,, and if d and Ci oro the corresponding values of C 


or, if we put 

J/// sin « (C-C) = r (C,-C.-ft +^). 


— — = /, then T = Mllma mV, 

and equation (6) becomec, dividing by J/ZTsin m. 

If we now reTcme the magnet so tlint y is downwarfa, 
Okdjust the appatKUiK till f is exactly vertieal, and if C is the ne^, 
valoeof Uic aEiraulh, and ff the corresponding declination, ^M 

y-f '_/+A-t'(r-X + |-/8-y) = 0. 



= i(f+n + *''tC+r-308+y)). 







Th« reading of tlie torsJon circle should now be iidjuHtoil, ao that 
Uie coefficient of r' may l>e an nearly aa poa»ible aero. For ihie 
parposG we must clet.i.'rmiDe y, the value of a—fl when there ia no 
torsion. This may be (lone by placing a uoq- magnetic bar of the 
Eame wetfjht ae the magnet in the stirrup, and deteriuining: a— ^ 
when thcr« is ctiuilibHum. Since t is small, great accuracy is not 
requirnl. Another method is to use a torsion bar of the same 
wei);ht us the mmgaai, containing within it a very small magnet 

whcee n)af>nctic moment is - of that of tho principal ma^et. 

Since r remains tlu: itame, r' will become nr, and if ^j and (,' arc 
tJie value* of <"«« found by the torsion bur, 

»= i(C. + Q+i»T'(C, + C,'-2(5+y)). (12) 

Subtracting this equation from (II), 

2{— l)(/3 + y)=(« + ^)(f. + fn-(l+}0(^+O. (13) 

Having' found the value of j3-|-y in this way, ^, the reading of 
the torsion circle, should be altered till 

C+r-2O+y) = 0, (14) 

as nearly as possible in the ordinary position of the apparatus. 

Then, sinoc t is a very small numerical quantity, and since its 
coeffleient is very small, the value of the second terra in the ex- 
pnasioa for 2 will not vary much for small errors in the values 
of f and y, which arc the iiuautitiea whose vaJues are lea^t ac- 
curately known. 

The value of h, the magnetic declination, may be found in this 
way trith conaiderablo accuracy, provided it remains constant during 
the cx|>crimcntB, ko that n-e may a^ume E'= E. 

When gnat accuracy is required it is necessary to take account 
of the variations of S during the experiment. For this purjHiBC 
ebaervations of another suspended magnet should be ma<le at th« 
■una instants that the diflerent values of ( are observed, and it 
If, ij' ate the observed azimuths of the second magnet corresponding 
to {and (", and if 2 and 1/ are the corresponding values of &, tlieu 

Ueooc. to find the value of ft tve must add to (1 1) a correction 

The declination at the time of the first obBvrvation ii therefore 

« = i(c+c+i-t')+^'(c+r-2^-M- 


VOL. U. 




To fiud the direction of tiie magnetic uxis n-itliiD the miignct 
fubtraet (10) from (9) and add (15), i 

/ = A+HC-n-i{7-l')^4''(C-r+2X-»). (17)1 

By repeating thu tfxpcnraents nitb tUe bar on iU two «dgea, bo 
that tlie uxix of ■s in Tcrticallj' upwards and dnwntrards, we can 
find tlie value of m. If Ike axis of collicnation is capable of ad- 
jnstmvnt it ought t<i be made to coincide with the niB^etiti axis 
IIS nearly as po^naiblc, so that the error arising from the magnet not 
being exactly inverted may be as small aa poiwible*. 

On the Measurement of Ma^etic Foreei. 

453,] The most important mcasurementn of magnetic force are^ 
thoae which dt-termine M, the magnetic moment of a magnet,! 
and //, the intensity of the horizontal component of tcRCStnalj 
magnetism. This is generally done by combining the resnlts of j 
tno ex))eriments, one of which determines the ratio and the oth«r{ 
the product of these two quantiticB. 

Tha intensity of the magnetic force due to an infinitely smull 
magnet whose magiictio moment ie ^f, at a point di^tAut r from 
the centre of tlie magnet in the positive direction of tlie uxis of 

Uie magnet, ia 



and is in the direction of r. If the magnet is of finite siz« bub | 
spherical, and mngnetized aniformly in the direelion of itN axiiiij 
this value of the force will still bo exact. If the magnet ia m 
BolcDoidal bar magnet of length 2L, 

If the magnet be of any kind, provided its dirocniuonfi are alll 
small, ctnnpared with r. 

It = 2~(l+J,l+J^-^ + &c.), 


where A^, A^, &c. are eoeHiHcnts depending on the di»lributioa of 
the magnetization of the iMr. 

Let If l>o the intenftity of the horizontal part of tArmtrial 
mtignettim at any place, il it directed towards magnetic north. 
Let r l>e meastired towards m^nclic west, then the magni-lic force 
at. the extremity of r will be // towards the north and R t')warda 


• Sm ■ rapor oD ' ImjicrfsM IttTCndnii,' b* W. S»»». 
rA. Mi (1«6[^), p. }li>. 

TrttM*. a. S. Bilm 





tbe west. The resultant force will make an angle with tbe 
magnetic meritliaD, mcmured towards the weet, and such that 

B = lltao0. (i) 


Hence, to cIet«rmino -jj we proceed as follows : — 

The dir««tion of the mugnetic north having hven asecrUtned, a 
magnet, whoKC dimensionit nhould not be too givatj \a, anspendud 
aa in the former experimentit, and the dellecting magnet M ia 
placed 80 tliut \is centre is ut a disttuico r from that of the gus- 
peuded magnet, in the same horizontal plane, and due magnetic 

The axis of M is earcfiillv R<)juste<l so as to be horizontal and 
in the direction off, 

Tbe 3u»[>i-nili'd magnet \* observed before M is brought near 
and also sAer it is placed in position. If is tlie observed deilcxioo, 
we have, if we use the approximate forniuin (1), 

M T- 


or, if we use the fornnU (3), 





Here we muHt bciir in mind that though the dcHexifio can 
be ohwrved with great acciirncy. the distance r between the centres 
of the magnetH is a quantity which cannot be precisely deter- 
mined, unlv«a both magnets are fixed and their centres dellned 
by murks. 

Thi* difficulty in overcome thus : 

Tlie magnet .1/ Im plucird on a divided BMie which extends eOBt 
and west on both sides of the Eut>[>eDded magnet. Tlie middle 
point between the ends of M is re<'koned trlio centTo of the magnet. 
Thin point may be marked on the magnet and its jioifition observed 
on the scale, or the ponitiunM of the ends may lie obaierved and 
Ihe aritlimetic mean taken. Call thiit <>,, and let the line of the 
suapemiioD fibre of tJic suspended tuugnet when produced cut the 
scale at fg, then ri=*j— *„, where «, is known acouiately and a^ ap- 
pr^xiniately. Let 0, be tlie deflexion observed in this position of M. 

Now reverse M, tliat U, place it on the scale with its ends 
rrversed, then f) will be the same, but M and vf,, A^, &o. will 
have their signs changed, so tliat if dj u tJte dcllexion. 

I ff 



- - T. r,Manl»„= i_J, _+4 — _& 

2 J/ 


B 1 




'liking the aritlimi.'tica! mean of (6) and (T), 

1 U 



Now lemove M to the vest sido of tb« Euepoodwl ma^Dot, 
place it with its centre at tlie point marked 2«o— «| on the scaler 
Let the deflexion when the axis is in tho first poeition be (?,, and 
when it is in the eecond 0^, then, as before, 

Let us suppose that the true position of the centre of the ei 
peoded magnet is not «„ but Ja+<''> t-'"^ 

fi = r— ff, rjsr+o-, (10) 

and since -^ may he neglected if the measnremeats are car 

made, we are sure Hint we may take the arittimetical me*n of f)' 
and r.j" for r'. 

Hence, taking the arithmetical mean of (8) and (9), 

1 /A I 

- j^f*(tantfi— tan^j + tan^,— tantf^) = l + ^-i-+&c-, (12) 

ot, making 

j (tan(Ji~tan^+tAn^j-taD0J = D, (U\ 

464.] We may now regard J) and r as capable of exact detei 

The quantity ^ can in no case exceed 2X*, where L is half th« 
length of the ma^fuet, so that when r is considerable compared 
with Z we may ncglo«t the term in J^ and determine the nUio 
of // to M nt once. Wa cannot^ however, aasame that A^ is oqaftl 
to 2L*, for it may be \tm, and may even b« negative for a mngn«t 
whose largest dimensions arc trnnsTerae to the axis. Hie 
in vJ,, and all higher terms, may t«fely be ncglectod. 

To eliminate A.^, repeat tlw exprriment, using distances r^, fjT^ 
ftc, and let the v^ues of Ji 


2M , 1 

'ii "»• ^|i 






If we suppose tli»t. the probable errors of these equatiofui are 
e4]UAl, iiM th«y will be if thcj dopen<l on the determination of J) 
only, nod if tlierc is no unccrtuinty tiboiit r, then, by muHipIyiog 
each eqnatioD by r~^ aod ndtlJit^ the results, we obtain one e<]uation, 
and by multiplying^ eiu.-h cquntion by r''' and adding we obtain 
another, accordinj; to the general rule in the theorj- of the com- 
bination of fallible m(.'H«urc8 when the probable error of each 
equatioD is supposf^ the same. 

Let UN write 

2(01-') for /),r,-» + i>,r.-» + Z)jr.-» + 8tc., 
and uac similar oxpresxions for the sums of othi'r groups of symbols, 
Ifaea the two resultant e<iuations may be written 

2 M 



and J,{S(7>r-»)£(r~'<')-£(2>/-'')S(r-')} 

= 2 (ft-") 2 (r-«)-S (Dr-^) 2 (r-*). 

The value of A, derived from these equations ought to be less 
than half the square of tlie length of the magnet M. If it is not 
we may suspect some error in the observations. This method of 
obaer\'ation and reduction was given by Gauss in the ' First RcjKirt 
of the Magnetic Association.' 

When tbo observer can make only two series of experiments at 

distances r, and r,, the values of - . and A^ derived from these 

experiments are 

r,"— r. 

If iDy and hD^ are the actual errors of the observed deflexions 
Z>i and b^, the actiuil error of the calculatetl result Q will be 

r * r * 

If we snppoeo the errors ?7>, and ft/)j to be independent, and 
that the probable raluo of either it tl), then the probable value 
of the error in tho calculated value of Q will be S Q, wher« 

- 1" A. r "• 


If wo sapposc tbat one of thceo dUlnnccw, tay tli« smalW, ii 
<;ivi-n, the vnlue of the greater <Ii<itiiiioV may be determined to M 
t(> make bQ a minimum. TbJs couiiitJoa leads to an crjuutioii of 
the fiHh do^rcM) in r,", n-hich hu only one nsal root greaiat than 
fj*. From this the Lwgt value of'/-, Ik Tound t« be /■, = 1.318flr,' 

If ODe obsen'ation only is taken Ibe Ix-Mt distance ift wlien 

where i/> is the probable error of a measurement of defiexion, and 
br IK the probable error of a measurement of distance. 

MelimI of Sina. 

455.] Tlie method whieh we have juet deeoribed may be called 
the Method of Taoffentt!, bt'cutiec the tangent of the deflexion is 
a measure of the magnetic force. 

If the line r, . iustend of liein^^ measured cant or west, ih adjujrted 
till it is at right niiglefl with ihu uxih of the deflected ma^et, 
then S is the Kume as bi^fore, but in order that the suspended 
mag-net may remain pcqiendteular to r, the revolved (lart of th« 
force If in the direction of r miiHt be niual nod opposite to S, 
Ilenee, if is the deflexion, H = II sin 6. 

This method in ealle<l the Method of Sine*. It can be applied, 
only when /f is lf» than //. 

In the Ken- jiortable a]>paratit8 thiit method ia employed. The 
eutipeuded magnet hang§ from a part of the apparatus which 
revolves along with the telescope and the arm for the defle^-ting 
magnet, and the rotation of the whole is measured on tlio azimuth 

The apparatus is first adjusted so that tlie axis of the telescope 
coincides with the mvaii position of the Hov of coUimation of the 
magnet in iU undiirturbed nlul«. If the magnet Is vibrating, the 
true azimutJi of magnetic nortlt \» fotmd by obecrring the ex- 
tremities of the oscillation of tlie transparent acole and nuiking tb« 
proper correction of the reading of the azimuth cirelo. 

The deflecting magnet is then placed u|>on a Mtraigbt rod which 
posMS through the axis of tlio revolving apparatus at right angle«: 
to the oxia of the telescope, and is ndjuFled 6o that the axis of the 
deflt-i'ting magnet is in a line poHHing tlirougb the eent(» of the 
snspi'iidtd magnet. 

The whole of tlie revolving apparatus is then moTod till the Uu^ 
• See Mty-t Mayn^Unt. 








of ooUimAtion of the saspondwl mag^net afrain coincides with the 
axis of the telescope, and th« new azimnth rtadinf- is contctwl, 
if neeesaary, l>y the mean of the ecalo readings at the extromitic« 
c^an osnllation. 

The difTereRce of the corrected azimuths gives the deflexion, alU-r 
which we proceed as in the method of tangents, «xocpt tluit in the 
expression for 1) n-e put sin Q instead of tan 9. 

Id thia method there is no correctioo for the torsion of the eue- 
pending fibre, since the reUtive position of tho fibre, telescope, 
a&d majcnet is the same at every observation. 

Tlie axea of Uie two ma^ets remain alnays at right nn{;1ca 
in this method, so that the correction for length can he mora 
acoaratcly made. 

456,] Having thus measured the ratio of the moment of the 
deflecting m:^rnet to the horizontal component of terrestrial ma^- 
netixm, we have nest to find the product of these qiiantilies, by 
determining the moment of the couple with which terrestrial mng- 
netism tends to turn Uie same magnet when its axis is deflected 
from the magnetic meridian. 

There are two methods of making this measurement, the dy- 
samicalj in which tho time of vibration of the mngBct under the 
action of t^^-ricstrial mnguetism is observed, and the statical, in 
which the magnet is kept in equilibrium between a measurable 
statical couple and the magnetic force. 

Tlic dyniimical method requires simpler apparatus and is more 
■CGnrat« for absolute menaurement^, but takes up a considciablo 
time, the statical method admits of almost instantaneous mcasure- 
mml, and is therefore useful in triicing the changes of the inten^itj 
of tho magnetic force, but it requires more delicate apparatus, and 
is not m accurate fur absolute measurement. 

jWrAiorf «/■ Vlhratiom. 

The magnet is suspendetl with iU( magnetic axis horizontal, and 
is eel in vibration in ainall :irc». Tiie vibrations are obwrved by 
mans of any of the methmU already dtwcribed. 

A point on the scale ia chosen corresponding to the middle of 
the arc of vibration. The instant of paa.inge tlirough this point 
of tho scale in the positive direction is observed. If there is safii- 
cient time berorc the return of the magnet to the same point, tlie 
instant of juusage through the point in the negative direction is 
iihu> observed, and the process ia continued till a + 1 positive and 




» no^tive pasmf^es have been obserri'd. If th« vibrations an 
too rapid to allow of every consecutivo paamge boin^ obcerved, 
everr third or every 6Ftb passage in obwrved, oare bein; taken tliati 
the observed paessges are alternately po.iittv« and iwgiUve. 

Let the observed tiroes of passage be 
we put 1 

r,. r,, r»^„ then 

then TV,.! is the mean time of the potitive pusa^a, and oagh 
to agree with 7",,, , the mean time of the negative passagee, if tha 
point baa I>een properly chosen. The mean of theao resulta ia 
to be taken an ti\a mean time of the middle pasmgc 

After a large number of vibrations have taken jilaoe, bnt befora 
the vibrations have ceased to be distinct and regular, tho observer 
makeK another series of observations, from tvliich lie dcdnces th 
mean time of the middip pas^afr*- of the secom) series. 

By calculating the period of vibration either from the fi 
HCries of observations or from the E«cond, he ought, to be able 
be certain of the number of whole vibrations which have tak 
|>hice in the interval between the time of middle pastxage in (Jii> two 
Mtrie*. Dividing the interval between the mean timen of middle 
[WK-^age in the two series by this number of vibrations, the meua'' 
time of vibration in obtainivl. 

The observed time of vibration is then to be rcdnc«d to lJi< 
time of vibration in infinitely small arcs by a formula of the sama 
kind as that used in pendulum obttervations, and if the vibrations 
are found to diminiali mpidly in amplit«idc, there is aoolher cor- 
rection for resistance, ttee Art 740. These corrections, however, ara 
very nnall when tlie magnet bangs by a Hbre, and when the arc of 
vibration vs only a few desreois. 

Tito equation of motion of the magnet ts 

where 6 is the angle brtwi>en the magnetic axis and the direction 
of the foTOO //, A is the moment of ini-rtiu of the magnet an 
iHi*i>ended apparatus, .1/ is the magnetic moment of the magnvi 
// the intensity of Uie hori«ont«I magnetio force, mnd J/Z/r' tJi 
ooeffioient of torsion : t' ts dvlenniniHl as in Art. 452. and i« 
vciv smaH quantity. The value of tf for equilibrium is 

% = {-^j' • n ^^ «iia!l angie, 


re 01 





MU = 

Mtd the eolutioB of th« equation for small values of Uie amplitude, is 

where T in tlie periodic time, and C tbe amplitude, and 

3/7/(1-, t')' 
whetioe we lind tJie value of MU, 

Here T is the time of a poinjiletc vibration determined from 
obdervatioD. J, the ntoment ol' int-rtio, in founil once for all fur 
tbe ma^ety eiUier by wt^ghing ttnii meuKunnfr it if it iit nf » 
regular figure, or by a dynaaiieal procuss of coin[iiirisoD with a body 
wbwe moment of inertia is kuowu. 

^ Combining tlita value of M/f with that of ^ formerly obUinud, 
weget J/« = (J///){|j = y,^/*^. 

457.] We have suppoiied that // and ,1/ continue constant during 
tbe two series of experiments. Tlio flugtuatiuus of // may be 
aecertained by simiiltuiKmis observatiouH of the biRlar magnet- 
ometer to be preacntly d<.WTib^-(l, and if the magnet has been in 
use for some time, and i* nut exposed during tiie experiments to 
changes of temperature oi' to conoussion, the part of M which de- 
pends on permanent ma^ietism may be assumed to be conrtant. 
All steel magnets, however, arc capable of induced magnetism 
depending on tlie action of exti^rnal mugnetic force. 

Now the magnet when employed in the deflexion cxpcrinaent* 
i» placed with ita axU cant and we^t, to that the action of ter- 
restrial nmgnetiam is transverse to the magnet, and doc^ not tend 
to increase or diminish 31. When tbe magnet is made to vibntlv, 
its axis is not-tb and south, so that tbe action of terrestrial mag- 
netism tends to magnetize it in the direction of the nxin, and 
therefore to iDcrcaee its magnetic moment by a quantity i fl, whore 
it is a coefficient to be found by experiments on the m»}^ii!t- 

There are two ways in which this souroe of error may be avoided 
without calculating i. the experiments being arranged so that the 
magnet shall bo in the came condition when employed in deflecting 
another magnet and when iteelf swinging. 






W(! may plitcc tho d<;lloctin^ ma^ct with its »xi* potntuif; 
north, aL a. (lisUitcu r from tho centre ot tlifl etip|i#nd«d inagn«t, 
Ihv line r miiking iin iingk- wliow cosido in V j willi the magnetic 
meridian. Tlie iietion of the tlf(i«clin{r miM>Dct on tlie sii^ix^ailed 
one i» then At right unifies to its pnrn direction, tttid ia equal to 

Hera Jf is the magnetic moment when the axis points tiorth, 
RK in thir experiment of vibration, so tliKt no corfts;tion has to li^^l 
muilc for induction. ^^ 

Thi* method, however, is extremely difficult, owing to the largo 
errors wbieli would be introduced by a Blifflit dioplaeement of the 
deflecting magnet, and as the correction by levorsiiig the deflecting 
mugnct iff not uppliL-ablc hero, this method i» not to be followed 
except when the object is to determine tlie eocffieicnt of induction, 

'llie following method, in which the magnet while vibrating 
fn-od from the inductive action of terrestrial magnetism, is due 
Dr. J. P. Joule*. 

Two magnets are prepared whose imigiietie moments are 
nearly equal as possible. In the deflexion experiments these mag^J 
net* are used separately, or they may be placed simultanoousl] 
on opposite sides of the suspendnl magnet to produce a greater 
deflexion. In themt ex[H-riment« the inductive force of terrestrial^' 
magnetinm is trantiverM to the axis. ^M 

Let one of these msgiietw be suxpended, and let the other be 
placed )iaral)el to it with itit centre exactly below that of the Bits- 
ponded magnet, and witli iU »x\s in the same direction. The force 
which the fixed magnet exerts on the sospended one is in the 
opjiosite direction from that of terreatrial magnetism. If the 6xcd 
magnet 1>e gradually brought nearer to the snapended one the time 
of vibration will ineT«i.->e, till at a certain point the equilibrium will 
cease to be stable, and hi^yond this point the suspended mugne^^ 
will make oscillations in the reverse pontion. By experinicntin|j^| 
in this way a position of the fixed magnet, is found at which it ' 
exactly neutralizes Uiv effect of terrestrial magnetism on tlie iras- 
peiMled one. Tho two magnets are fastened together so as to ^__i, 
parallel, with their axcH turned Uie snme way, and at the dintanO^H 
jiiet fotind by experiment. Tliey are then suspended in tlio ueua^V 
way and made to vibrate together through small aiva. 

• Prec. PItit. S; KauAnUi, Mkrdi li>. ISOi. 




The lower maj^Det exactly neutralizes tUe effect of terrestrial 
niagnetiiira on the upper one, and since the maijTiets are of equal 
niuinent, the npper one oeutralizes the inductive action of tlie earth 
on tliG lower one. 
H The value of 3/ is therefore the same in the cxperinii'Dt of 
^^vihration a^ in the experiment of detlesion, and no corri^ction for 
induction ii* required. 

468.] The most accumtc method of asoertaininj^ the intensity of 
the horizontal magnetic force is that wliieh we have just described. 
The whole series of experiments, however, cannot lie performed with 
sufficient accnraey in much tesH than an hour, so that any changes 
in Uie intensity which take pJaoc in periods of a few minutes would 
escape oIiMTvation. lleiiw a didVrent method is required for ob- 
M.-rving' the inten«i(y of the majs^ietic force at any instant. 

The statical method eon^ists in defieeting- the magnet hy means 
(if a statical couple acting in a horizontal plane. If £ he the 
moment of this couple, M tlie magnetic moment of the m^not, 
Jf the horizontal component of terrestrial magnetism, and 9 the 
deflexion, MIIsin$z= L. 

llenoe, if L is known in terms of 9, Mil can he found. 
The oouplp L muy be generated in two waj-», hy the torsional 
ity of It wire, iix in the ordinary torsion halancv, or by the 
ight of tlie sui^pi-ndcd appnnitui;, us in the bifilar euspenition. 
In the torsion bnlancu the magnet is fastened to the enil of a 
vertical wire, the upper end of which can be turned round, and ita 
rotation mcosurvd by means of a torsion circle. 
We have then 

L = T{a—a„—0) = MllsmB, 
Here a^ is the vnhic of the reading of the torsion circle when the 
oxia of the magnet coincides with the magnetic meridian, and a is 
the actual reading. If the torsion circle is turned so as to bring 
the magnet nearly perpendicular to the magnetic meridian, no thut 






MH=T{\+\ff*)(a-a^~~ + 6'). 

By observing!}', the deflexion of the magnet when in equilibrium, 
wo can calculate Mil provided we know r. 

If we only wish to know the relative viiiue of // at diflerent 
times it is not neoessary to know either M or r. 

Wo may easily determine r in absolute meo-iure by suspending 



a non-magiietic body trom tlie mme wire and observing its time 
ortMciUiition, thc-n if A in Ibe momont of ioertia of tbts body, am 
T th« time of a complete vibration, 

4 It' .4 

Tbe tiut! objection 1o tbe luo of the torsion balance i» that tb« 
zero-reading a„ in liable to change. Under the constant twiEtinp 
fbrcv, iirii^![i(; iwm the tendency of the magnet to torn to the north, 
tl>e wire graduMly aoquiFeti a permanent twist, eo that it becomes 
noccsMry lu ili^U'rinine the zero-reading of the torsiou circle afrc»h 
at ithort iiitervatn of time. 

BiJUar Siupention. 

459.] The method of sn^tpending the magnet by two wires 
Dbrw was introduced by Gausa and Weber. As the bifilar s 
pennon is naml in many electrical iostruroents, we shall investigattt 
it mora in detail. The general appearance of the suspension ia 
shewn in Fig. 16, and 1%. 17 represents the projection of the wires 
OD a horizontal plane. 

AB and A'B' are the projections of the two wires. 

JA' and BB" are the lines joining the upper and the lower 
of the wiree^ 

a and 6 are the lengths of the lines AJ" and SR. 

a and ^ their aziniiiths. 

ff' and H'' the verti^nl comjicnenUi of the tennons of the wires. 

Q and Q" their horicontal component*. 

i llifl rerticml distance between A.f and BB'. 

Tl)e forres which act on the magnet ar^— its weight, tbe conpl 
arising l'Tt<m tcrreetrial magnetism, the UmJon of the wires (if anyj 
and their tensions. Of these the etTects of magnetism and of 
ti»«ion are of the nature of couples, lleoee the resultant of the 
tcUN<>ns nniit eonaist uf a vertical force, equal to the weight of the 
nagnet> together with m coaple. The reenlunt of the vertical 
components of the leosions ts thervfore alone the line wboM pn^ 

tioo is 0, the intersection of Jj" and BB", and either of 
lines is dividej in in the ratio of tt' to M'. 

Thi> boritoiital euinpoaents of the ttnaiou fonn a coaplo, 
are tberefont e>)iial in magnitodv and pMiQal in duMtioo. Colli: 
eitber nf them Q, the moment of the couple which th«y form ia 

when PP" is the diateaea betvaan the pwalU Uaca JM ud JTJF, 


459-] BiriLAB SUSI'BNSIOS. 109 

Tu find Lhe value ot Z vrts bave Uic cqautions of momenla 
QA=Jf'.AS = tF'.A'B', 
and the gcomctriml cc^uation 

{AB + J'li') py= ah sin (o-fl). 
wbeoc« wc obtaiD, 



Fig. ir. 

ir n ii tfao mass of the ButtpondiHl appnmtiiH, and ^ tho intciifity 
of gravity, ;r+ »"= mg. (5) 

If we also writ* r- W'=»mg, (6) 

I wo find i= i(l-ii»)«i^ ^am(a-^). (7) 

llw vsliw of X is therefore a maximum with req>oct to s wfa«n s 




is zero, that is, when the weight of the 8usi)«D(l«d muss is equally 
borne by thv two wim. ^M 

Wo may mljnst the U'Dsionx of Ihc wires lo i>quaUty l»y observingf ^^ 
the time of vibnition, mid milking it u minimum, or we may obtain ^i 
a Kclf-ucting uiljustmc^nt by uttaching the ends of Ihv wires, u^f 
in Fig. IG, to » pulley, which turns on its axis till the t«iisioiu^^ 
arc equal. 

The distance of the upper ends of lUu nuiipcniiion wires is re-j 
gulated by mCAiiti of two other pullies. Tlic dUtanee bctwoon the>j 
lower endK of Uie wires is also capable of adjuatnient. 

By this adjustment of the tension, the couple artslD^ from the! 
tensions of the wires becomes 

The moment of the coaple arising from the toraion of the wirei i 
is of the form j (y—^), 

where T is the sum of the coefficients of torsion of tlw wires. 

The wires ought to be without torsion when a = ^, we may I 
then make y = a. 

The mumi^ut of the couple arising from the horizontal mo^etio | 
force iH of the form 

where i is the magnetic declinafion, and $ is the azimuth of the 
tis of the magnet, Wc shall avoid the introduction of unncceeeary 
eymbols without siicriGciDg generality if we sssume that the axil of 
the magnet ia parallel lo SB", or that ji = $. 
The equation of motion then W-comes 

A ^J^ = J/// sin (8-ff) + 1 ^ «y sin (a-(Jj+r(o-»). (SjJ 

There are three principal positions of this apparatns. 
(1) When a is nearly equal to A. If 7*, ts tbe time of a complete j 
ovcillation in t^is position, then 

iv'A I ai „„ , , 

mg^T+itl/. (9) 


4 i 

(2) Wlien a ia nearly equal to 8+ir. If 7, is the time of 
complete oscillation in tliis position, the nortb end of the magar' 
being now turned towards the south, 
iii*J lab 

^ - i T "'■*■'•— *'"• *'*•) 

The quantity on the cigfat-haod of (his equation may -be m: 





^f M small as we plense by diminisliing a or i, bat it mwit not ht 
made ac^stive, or the equilibrium of the magnet will bevome un- 
Btxhle. The magnet in thia ]>oaition forms an inatrument by which 
small vanatiouB ia the dirixtion of the maj^netii; force Piay be 
rendered sensible. 

I For wbeo i~$ is nearly equal to ir, na (8—^) is nearly equal to 
0—h, and we tind 

1 l** .r»r 

By diroinishin^ the denominator of the fraction in the InH t«rin 
we may make the variation of S very large eomiiared with thitt of f>. 
We should notice that the coetHi'ieut of 8 in this expri^itsiriii is 
negative, so that when the direction of the magnetic force turns 
in one direction the magnet turnn in the oppo&itii direction. 

(3) In the third jxHjit.ion the \x\>\k:t part of the suspension- 
BplKirattn is turned round till the axis of the magnet is nearly 
pcrpendicuhir to the ma<<;ne)tic meridiao. 

If wc make 

$-h = -+(f, anil o-tf = /3-ff', 
tlie equation of motion may be written 


If tb«re is equUibriuin when II — If^ and f = 0, 



and if ff is the value of the horizontal force corretponding to a 
•mall angle S", 

H «na 

V V ^■^nysin/S+r^ 

Id order that the magnet may be in stable equihbrium it ia 
nece«MUy that the numerator of tlie fraction in the s^-ond member 
■hoiUd W poaitirc, but the more nearly it approaches sero, the 
tnon: «en«itive will be tlic inittrument in indicating changes in the 
value of the intensity of tbe horizontal component of t«'rre«trial 

The statical method of estimating the intensity of the force 
depend* upon the action of an instrument which of it«elf assume* 

(-^myc08j3 + r \ 





diflbrent positions ni* equilibrium for dilTeTent Tallies of the Toret. 
Heuoe, bj nieaaii of a mirror attacbed to tbe magnet and throning 

* 3{>ot of light upon a photographic surface moved by clockwork, 

• cun'e may be traced, from which the inteaeitj* of tbe force at uijr 
inirtimt m»y bt- dctormin(Hl according to a scale, which we may for 
tlie pr^'sent consider uu arbitrary one. 

460.] In an ub8ervat'>ry, where a continuous system of reffie* 
tratioa of decliaatioa and iutenttity is kept up either by eye ofa 
torvatioD or by tlm automatic photographic method, tJte abttolut 
valuex of the ilfcltnutioii nud of the intensity, as well as tbe positioa^ 
and moment of the magnetic axis of a magnet, may be detemuned 
to a greater degree of accuracy. ^M 

For the di>cli no meter g'wcs tbe declination at eveiy instant afTecte^H 
by a constant error, and tlieblRlar magnetometer gives tbe intensity 
at every instant multiplied liy a constant coefficient. In the ei- 
pcriments we sab«titute for $, S' + Sg where 2' is the reading of tb^. 
declinometer at the given instant, and 8^ is tbe unknown bat eon^| 
Btant error, so that i'*f ^ is tbe true declination at that instant. 

lu like manner for //, we substitute 67/' where //' is tbe reading 
of the magnetometer on it^ arbitrary scale, and C is an unknown 
but cooHtant multiplier which converts these readings into absolut« 
measure, so that CJI' ia the horizontal force at a given instant. 

Tlie experiments bo determine tbe absolute values of the quan- 
tities must be conducted at a sufficient distance from the declino- 
meter and magnetometer, so that the dilferent magnet* may not 
sensibly disturb each other. The time of every observation most 
be noted and the corresponding values of h' and //' inaettcd. Tbe 
equations are tlien to be treated so as to 6nd 6^, the constant error 
of the declinometer, and C the cot-fficient to l>e applied to the 
reading of the magnetometer. Wlien these are found the readings 
of both iustriunents may be expressed in absolute measure. The 
absolute measuremeots, however, must be freij^uently rep«Ated in 
order to take aocotutt of changes which may occur in the magoctic 
axis nod nuiiniettc momeut of the magnets. 

461.] The moihods of determining the vertical component of the 
terrestrial magnetic force have not been brongbt to the anm^ degree 
of precision. The vertical force murt act on a magnet which tnms 
about a horizontal axis. Now a body which turns about a hori- 
Kontal axis cannot be made so seasitive to the action of small forcn 
as a body which is snspeaded by a fibre and turns abont a vertical 
axis. Uesides this, the weight of a magnet is so largo compara^^ 







with tbe magneiic force exerted upon it that a emnU displocv- 
ment of the centre of iDdrtia bv unequal dilutittioa, &c. produces 
a gKAtjet cflect oa tho poeitioa of the ma^et than a confii<Ier»lilc 
ebao^ of the magnetic force. 

Uenoe the measurement of the vertical force, or the comparison 
of the vertical and the horizontal forces, ia the least periVct purt. 
of the system of ma^etio measurements. 

TTie Tertical part of the magnetic force is ^nerally deduced from 
the horizontal force by determining the direction of the total force. 

If i be the angle which the total force makes with its horizontal 
component, i is called tbe magnetic Dip or Inclination, and if ff 
is the horizontal force already found, then the vertical force is 
77 tan i, and the total force is //sec /. 

Tbe magnetic dip is found by means of the Dip Needle. 

The theoretical dip-needle is a magnet with an axis which passes 
through ita centre of inertia perjjendicular to the Tiiagnetic axis 
of the needle. Tbe ends of this axis are mode in the form of 
cylinders of small radius, the axes of which are coincident with the 
line passing through the centre of inertia. Ihese cylindrical enda 
rest on two horizontal planes and are free to roll on them. 

When the axis is placed magnetic cast and west, the needle 
is free to rotate in tbe plane of tbe magnetic meridian, and if the 
instnimeat is in perfect adjustment, tbe magnetic axis will set itself 
in the direction of the total magnetic force. 

It is, however, practically impossible to adjust a dip-needle ¥0 
tliat ita weight does not influence ita position of eijuilibrium, 
because its centre of inertia, even if originally in tbe line joining 
the centres of the rolling sections of the cjlindrical ends, will ccaec 
to be in this line when tbe needle is imperceptibly bent or un- 
eqaally expanded. Besides, the determination of the troe centre 
of inertia of a ma<>net is a very difBcutt operation, owing to tbe 
interference of the magnetic force with tliat of gravity. 

Let us suppose one end of the needle and one end of the 
pivot to be marked. Let a line, real or imaginary, be drawn on 
the needle, which we shall call tbe Line of CoUimation. Tbe 
position of this tine is read off on a vertical circle. Let $ be the 
angle which this line makes with the radius to zero, which we shall 
suppose to he boriiontal. Let A be the angle which tbe magnetic 
axis make« witlt the line of coUimation, so tliat when the needle 
is in this position the line of colliinatton is inclined $+K to the 




Lctp 1)0 the perpendicular from the cmtn; of inertia on the plaoe 
on whioh tlie axis roilii. then p will bo n function of d, n-hul«vi 
bo the Khajie of the rolling »urf<iccs. If Iwth tho rolling siAtio 
of the endH of th« axis urc circular, 

j> = e—a ein (fl + o) (: 

where a ie the distance of the centre of iaertiii from the line joininff 
the centres of the rolling eeotions, and a is the an^le whidi 
Uoe makes with the Uoe of ooUimation. 

If M is the inapietic mometit, m the maae of the ma^ot, 
y the force of gravity, / the total magnetic force, and i tho dip, th< 
by tlic conservation of onergy, when there is stable equilibrium, 

itlooB[0-i-K—i)—mgp (! 

must be a maximum with reapect to $, or 





JW/sin (ff + X— i) s— Bij^, 

= IW^flC0«(^ + o), 

if th« ends of the axia are cy)in<lnc«l. 

Also, if 7* be the time of vibration about the positioD of eqn 

librium, ■ /* V ■<»''^ /J 

MI+Mpamn{9+a)= -yj- {4 

where A i» the moment of inertia of the needle about its uda of 
rotation, and is determined by (3). 

Id det«TmiDing the dip a readiDg- u taken with the dip circle in 
tbe DUgnetic meridian and with the graduation towards the weet.^ 

Let 0, be this reading, then we have 

jl//sin(^j-f X— i)= ni^<ico8(d, + a). {i 

The instrumeDl U now turned about a vertical axis through 180*, 
so that the gnuluatton is to the east, aod if tf, is the new reading', 

J//»in (flj+A— x+i) = wyaeoa (ff(+a). (6) 

Taking (0) from (5), and remomboring that dj ia nearly equal to 
I, and 9t nearly eqtud to %—i, and that X ia a Rmall angle, such 
that rngaX may be neglected in compariaon with 311, ^M 

3fl(0i~0. + v~2i)= 2mffacmict»a. {^^ 

Now take tlic nuignot from its bearings and place it in 
deflcaioo appantua, Art. 453, so as to indicate iu own magnet 
moment by the dellexion of a suq>cndcd magnet, then 


where J) is the tangent of the deflexion. 




Nexi, reverse tbe msgnetisai of tbe needle And dctcnnine its 
Bew magnetic moment J/', by observing a new deHcxion, the tan- 
gent of which is 1/ j/'= J^V/i/, (9) 

wUenoe MI/= M'D. (lOj 

Then place it on iU bearings nnd take two readings, 0, and $^, 
in which d^ is nearly ir + t, and S^ nvarly — t, 

J/'7sin(flj + A'— IT— i) = mgaaM{e^-^-a), (ll) 

i/'i8in(dj + X'+i) = m^flco9(a« + a), (12) 

whence, as before, 

if'/(tfj— d,— IT— 2i) = 2in^(»co8icoBa, (13) 

and OB adding (7), 

Jf/(fl,-tf^+if-2i)+jl/7(tfj-fl«-ff-2i) = 0, (14) 

or J>(fl,-fl, + »-20+ jy(^,-fl4-ir-2i) = 0, (15) 

wheDco w« find the dip 


■ i?(gi-<?34^) + -P'(tf,-<i«-ir) ^ 


lere i) and i/ are the tangents of tbe dodcxioDB produced by the 
needle in it* first and second magnet ixations respectively. 

In taking obiwrvatione with the dip circle tbe vertical axis is 
carefully silju.tti<d no that the plane V'aringw upon which the axis of 
Uie magnet re^ are borixontsl in oveiy azimuth. The magnet being 
magnetized so that tlie end A dipG, is placed with ite axis on the 
plane bearings, and obdvrvati'iOB are taken with tbe plane of the circle 
in the magnetic meridian, and with the graduat«;d side of the circle 
east. Each end of the magnet is obeervi-d by means of rending 
inicroeoopes carried on an arm which moves concentric with the 
dip circle. ITie cross wires nf the microscope are made to coincide 
with the image of a mark on Mw niiignct, and the position of tbe 
arm » then read olT on tbe dip circle by means of a vernier. 

AVe thus ohlaio an observation of Uie end A and another of the 
end B when the gradnations ai-e east. U is necessary to ohsorv-o 
botli ends in order to eliminate any error arising from the axle 
of tbe magnet not being concentric with the dip circle, 

The graduated side is then turned west, and two more obscrva* 
ttona aie made. 

The magnet is then turned round so that the ends of the axle 
are reversed, and fonr more observations arc made looking at the 
other side of the magnet. 

1 3 




The mafrnetizsHoD of Ibe ma^et is then rereraed bo that the 
end B dips, the magDetio tnoniont is ascertained, and eij^ht observa- 
tions ar« takoQ \q this state, and tlio sixteea obserratioos combined., 
to determine the true dip. 

462.] It is found that in spiU) of the utmost care the dip, ns tbiisi 
dcductd from obsiTvutions muile with one dip circle, differs pur- 
eeptibly from thut di-duocd from oWrrutioiis with another dip 
eirele at tlic Mmc pliicr. Mr. Brotiii hits pointed oat the eflV 
diie to ellipticity of the benrini^ of the nxlc, and how to w>rrec 
it I>y taking observations witli the magnet mngnetiM-d to differen 

The principle of this method may he stated tku. We »h*ll 
suppose that the error of any one observation is a amiiU quantity 
not exceeding a degree. We shall uUo Hiipposc that nome unknown 
but re^^ular force aets upon the ina^et, disturbing it fhim ita 
true position. 

If X ts the moment of tliia toroe, 0^ the true dip, and 6 th« 
observed dip, then 

L = Mlsia{d~$a)> ('^ 

= MI{e-e^), (18 

sinee 0—6^ is small. 

It is evident tEiat the greater M hMomea the nearer does the 
needle approach its proper position. Now let the operation oE 
taking the dip be perforuiod twice, first with the nu^netixationl 
fs^xnA to Ml, the (ficate&t that the needle it capable of, and next* 
with the magnetization eiual to ,1/j, a much smaller value but 
Kufliricnt to make the readiu^ distinct and the error still moderateu^M 
Let 9, and 0^ be the dips deduced from these two sets of obattrva-^^ 
tions, and let L ho the mean vsloe of the unknown disturbinff 
force for the eight positions of each determination, which we shall 
auppoae the same for both determination*. Then 

If we find that several experiment* give nearly njnal values for 
L. then we may consider that B^ muitt be vety nearly the true v«lae 
of the dip. 

46S.] Dr. JohIc has recently construeted a new dip-circle, 
which the axis of the neodle, instead nf rolling on horixontnl agat 
pUnes, is slung on two (iUments of silk or spiilKr'it lUti-jid, the 

Henoe tf„s3-' 







of tlie flUmcnt* bcin^ nttnch^d to the arms of a delicate balance. 
Tb« niit of Uic ncvdle thu« rolls on two loops of silk fibre, and 
Dr. Joule ftt\t\» tliat its rrccdom of motion is much greater than 
whim it roll* on agtile plance. 

In Kip, 18, NS is the n4MdIe, CC is its axis, conn&Ung of a 
■tnight cylindrical wiru, and PCQ, P'C'Q' arc the filaments on whicli 
the uts rolls. POQ i» the 
balanoo, consistinfp of a doubl« 
bent luvor siipjiortcd by a 
wire, 00, stn'tcl>i'd horizont- 
alljr between the prongii of 
a forked piece, and liaviiij; 
a counterpoise Ji which can 
be screwed up or down, so 
that the iMtlance is in neutral 
equilibnuD) about 0. 

Id order that the needle 
may be in neutrsl equilibrium 
as the needle rolls on the 
filamcDtfl the centre of gra- 
vity must neither rise nor fall. 
Ht^nce the distance OC must 
remain ccniKtunt an the iiectllo 
rolls. This condition will be 
fulfilled if the arms of the 
balance OP and OQ are equal, 
snd if the filaments are at 
rif^ht angles to the arms. 

Dr. Joule finds that the 
needle should not bo more than 
five inchirK long. When it is ci|»ht inch«i hmg, the bcmling of th<! 
nt-nlle tind^ tu dimiiii«h thi; apjiurcnt dip by a fraction of a minute. 
The axis of the nocdle was origiiinlly of Bt«ol wire, stniighteuetl by 
Iwing liMught to a re<I lii'at while ^itn-tcht'd by a weight, but 
l)r. Joule found that with the new suspL-ntiion it is not nocwssary 
to use steel wire, for platinum and even standard gold are hard 

The batanoe is attached to a wire 00 about a foot long stretched 
horiz^Hitally between the prongs of a fork. This fork is turaod 
round in azimuth by means of a circle at the top of a trii>od whteh 
supports the u hole. Six complete observations of the dip can be 




obtained in one hour, and the aven^ vrror of n nogle obwrvattun 
is a fractioB of ft minut« of arc. 

It is proposed that the dip ncedl« in the Cambridge Pti;si«^^ 
Labontory shall be obscTvod by meanit of a double image iMlrq^l 
meat, eonsistinfr of two totally rullMting prisms pbocd an in 
Fig. 19 nod mounted on a vertical graduated circle, so that the 
pluDc of reflexion may be turned round a horizootal axis nearlj 
coinciding witJi the prolongation of the axis of the suspended di{ 
needle. The needle is viewed by means of a t«Icscope pla 
behind the prisms, and the two ends of the needle are seen togethi 
as in Fig. 20. By turning the prisms about the axis of tlie vertit 
circle, the images of two lines drawn on the nuv<lle may be ma 
to coincide. Tlie inclination of the needle is thus detennined 
the reading of the vortical circle. 


/ = 

The tots) intensity /of the toagnvtic force in the Une of dip n 
be deduced as follows from the times of vibration 7„- 7,, Tg, 
ia the four positions alrmdy deKcribed, 

The values of J/* and J/' must be found by the method of dcflcxi 
and vibmtion formerly described, and A u the moment of inertia 
the mu(^ut about its axle. 

The observations with a magnet anspended by a fibre an 
much more acearate that it is usual to deduce the total force from' 
the horizontftl force from the equation 

where / h tlio total force, Jl the horisontal force, and $ the dtp. 

404.] The procc« of detonniniug thi^ dip being a tedious one. w 
not suitable fur dct«rminiiig the continuwut variation of the mogtMtti 





force, .tlie most convenient instrument for continuous observa- 
tions is the vertioil force maf^Dctomi-tcr, wbich is simply k mag^«t 
balanced on knife ed^^s so as to be in stable equilibrium with it« 
magD<>tic axis nearly liorizoiital. 

K Z is the vertii'fll component of the magnetic force, M the 
mof^etic moment, antl the small an^le which the magnetic axis 
makes with the horizon 

JHZ = wya cos (a—$), 
where » is tlic man of thi; mag-net, ^ the force of ^mrityi a the 
distance of the centre of gmvily from the axis of suspension, and 
a the angle which the pinoe through the axis aud tlie centre of 
gravity makes with the ma^uetic axis. 

Hence, for the small variation of vertical force t2, there will be 
a variation of the angular position of the mngnot 16 such that 
MlZ= n>yaBin(a~-0)80. 

Tn praetiee this instrument is not used to determine the abtiolute 
value of the vertical force, but only to register its email variatirns. 

For this purpose it is sufiieient to know the absoluM valuL- ol Z 


when = 0, and the value of 


B The valne of Z, when the horisontal fojcc and the dip are known, 
is found from the equation Z = //tan 9„, where 6„ is the dip and 

(// the horizontal force. 
To find the deflexion due to a given vnrintton of Z, take a magnet 
and place it with its axis east mid west, und with its centre at a 
known distance r, east or west from tlie declinometer, as in ex- 
periments oil deflexion, and let the tangent of deflexion be Dy. 
H Then place it with il« axis vertical and with it« centre at a 
^ distance r^ above or below the ociiLre of the vertical force mag- 
netometer, and lot the tungcnt of the deflexion pro<Iuccd in the 
magnetometer be />;. Then, if the moment of the deflecting 

, magnet is M, 


2.v = irvi>, = 2r,»/>s- 




The actual value of the vertical force at any instant is 


Z==Z^ + 


where Z„ is the value of Z when 6= Q, 

For continuous observations of the variations of magnetic force 


at a fixed observatory the Unifilar Declinometer, the Bifilar Hori- 
zontal Force M^oetometer, and the Balance Vertical Force Mag- 
netometer are the most convenient inBtruments, 

At several observatories photographic traces are now produced on 
prepared paper moved by clock work, so that a continnous record of 
the indications of the three instruments at every instant is formed. 
These traces indicate the variation of the three rectangular com- 
ponents of the force from their standard values. The declinometer 
gives the force towards mean magnetic west, the bifilar magnet- 
ometer gives the variation of the force towards magnetic north, and 
the balance magnetometer gives the variation of the vertical force. 
The standard values of these forces, or their values when these 
instruments indicate their several zeros, are deduced by frequent 
observations of the absolute declination, horizontal force, and dip. 



465.] Ora knnwk-dcc of Terrestrial MagTietiBni is derived from 
U»e fUidy of llic dilstrilnition of miifpictk' force on the earlb's sur- 
fac« »t nnj- one time, nod of the changes in that dietributioa at 
different tinu<». 

The rDi4pii>tic force nt any one place and time is known when 
itK three courdinalog urc known. These coordia»ti.-8 may he given 
in Uie form of the dL-olinatioo or azimuth of t)ie foree, the dip 
01- inclination to the horizon, and the total iuteoeity. 

^e mcwt convenient method, however, for iDveatiguting the 
g«nend diittribtition of magnetic furce on the earth's surface i» to 
con»Jd«r the maj;niliidea of the tliree compoueuta of the force, 
A' = IIvo» h, dir.-ct«d due north, I 

y= Ntin 4, directed due west, ( (1) 

Z = Htan 0, directed rerticsllf npwards, I 
where JI denotes the horizontal force, A the declination, and 
the dip. 

If r is the maj^nctie potential nt the earth's surface, and if we 
consider the citrth a sphere of radius a, then 

a eoB I dk ir 

where I is the latitude, and X the lon^^ittidc, and r the distance 
bom the centre of the earth. 

A knowledge of Tovvr the surface of the iitrth may be obtained 
from Uie observations of horizunlul force alone as followi*. 

Let Vg be the value of F ut the true north pole, then, taking 
the line-integral alonf; any meridian, we find, 


for the value of the pot«DlJal on that meridian at latitude /. 



ThiiE the potential mair be founil for any point on ti>0 Mrtb's 
Eiirfacv provided we know thu valuo of A', the northerly oomponctit 
at cxf.ry point, nnd ^, the value of Tat thv polu. 

Sinoo tlie (onxa depend not on the absolate value of F 
on its derivatives, it ie not necesssry to 6x any particular val' 
for f„. 

Tlic value of V at any point nay be ascertained if wo know 
the value of X along any given meridian, and also that of Y 
tlie whole snrfiice. 




where the integration is performed along the given meridian from 
the pole to tlie pAiallel /, then 

r = r,-ajYcoBUk, (sj 

where the integration is performed alon^ the parallel t from tb 
(riven meridian to the required point. 

Thcso methods imply that a complete magnetic survey of th« 
earth's surface has been made, so that the ralue^c of .V or of F 
or of both are knonni for every point of tbo earth'« tur&ec at n 
given epoch. liVhal wo actually know are the magnetic com* 
poDcnts at n certain number of vtationx. In the civilized parts of 
the earth these ttatiooa arc comparatively numerous ; in other places 
there are laT;ge tracts of the earth'* siirfacc about which we have 
no dats. 

Sfaffjulic Surrrjf. 

4C6.] Let us sup{>oce that in a country of moderate size, who: 
greatest dimensions are a few hundred nJIes, obeervatioiu of tl: 
declination and the horizontal force have been token at a ood- 
siderable number of stations distributed &irly over ibv country. 

AVithin this district we may suppose the value of /' ta be 
pMsented with sufficient aocutscy by the formula 

whence X=><i + *,/+fl,A, (T) 

Let there be m statioas whose latitodes are t^, t,, ... &c and 
longitudes A,, X,, &e., and let T and F he found for each sUtioa. 



and \, = jX{X), 




/g knd Ag maj be called th« latitude and longitude of the central 
Btatiott. Lot 

Xa«-S(.T), and ToCOb/.^ - 2{rcoB0. (lO) 

thea Xg and fg are the raliiea of X and K nt tlif tmagiDary central 
HtatioD, then 

Xx=X^ + Ml~l,) + B,(\-\^), (11) 

rcoB;= l'„co»/„ + 5,{/-/„)+5,(A-Ao). {17} 

W« tiavc » MjoatiDns of the form of (11) and n of the form (12). 
If we denote llie j>roI>able error in the det*rmin«l ion of A' by f, 
»iul that of y coft I by t], then we may ntlcuiate ( and t] on 
the suppontion that they arise from errors of obserTation of // 
^ and >. 

(Let the probable error of // be ^, and that of h, d, then since 
iX = COB d .4 /I-H<iin bM, 
P (» = .*« cos" 6 + rf« //* wn" fl. 

Similarly t)> = ^' »in* 8 + </*/?' co«« 8. 

If the ruriatiouj* of .V and K from their vataes as given hy equa- 
tions of the form (H) and (12) oonsiderably exceed the probable 
errors of obeerration, we may conclude that they are due to local 
attraction!!, and then we have no rea^D to give the ratio of f to r| 
any other value than unity. 
Aoeording to the method of least squares we multiply the equa- 
tions of the form (II) by ij, and those of the form (12) by f to 
make their probable error the enme. We then multiply each 
equation by the coefficient of one of the unknown qiinDtities £,, 

IB^, or Sj and a<Id the results, thus obtaining; three e(iuution)) IVom 
whiohtofind.fl„£j, 5,. 
in which we write for conciseness, 
di=S (/»)-«/„', &, = S(/A)-«/«X„. *, = 2(X*)-«V. 
P, = 2 llX)-nl^X„ Qt = S(;rco« l)^nl,y,i^l„ 
i»,»2(AJr)-i.AoXo, Q,= S(Arco«/)-»\,j;co»/„. 
By calculating B,, S^, and B^, and substituting in equations 
' (II) and (12), we can obtain the values of X nod i'at tiny i>oint 
within the limits of the survey free &om the local dt»turbani;e9 

^ will 





which nro fonod to exist where the rock near the etation is msf;netic, 
as most igneous rockti are. 

Siirvvys of this kiud can bo nuule only ia ooontriee where mag- 
iictic in8trumeDt« can be carried ohout and set up id s gT^nt: maoy 
slations. For other parte of the world wo must be content to find j 
the dintribiition of the magnetic elements by interpolation betwoeo I 
their vahiee Ht a few stations ut (frcat distances from cacb otbor. 

467*] Li*t us now suppose that by processes of this kind, or] 
by thr cqiiividcnt gnphical process of constructin^f charts of the 
lines orc({<ial values of the ma<;oetic elements, the values of A' and 
y, and tliciice of the potential F, are known over tho whole surGic«j 
of the globe. The next stt'p is tu expand F in ihe fonn of a siTies 
of spherical surface harmonics. ^j 

If the earth were m»|rnctir.od uii i form ly anil in the tame directiou^l 
tliroujifhout ltd interior, I' woiiM lu' it harmonic "f the 6r»t degree, ' 
the mag'netic mcridinuK woulil be great circleit pa:«ting through two ^^ 
magnetic polew diametrically opposite, the magnetic equator would ^| 
he ft great circle, the hori'/ontul forco would be equal at all point* ^^ 
of the magnetic e<|uator, and if Jl^ is this constant value, the value 
ut any other point would he If = Iff, cos C, where f ia the magnetie 
latitude. The vertical force at any point would be ^= 2J7,BiD/',J 
and if 6 is the dip, tan 6 would ho = 3 Ian T. 

In the case of the earth, the magnetic equator is defined to bej 
the line of no dip. It U not a great circle of the sphere. 

The magnetic polos are defined to be the points where there is^ 
DO borizoiitat force or where the dip is 00*. There are two such 
p'jints, one in the northern and one in the southern regions, but 
they are not diametneiilly op{ioBitc, aiul the line Joining th«in 
not parallel to the maguetic axis of the earth. 

468.] The magnetic poles are the jmintc where the value of 
on the surfitoo of the earth is a maximum or minimum, ot 

At any point where the potential is » minimum the north end 
of the dip-needle point* vertically downwards, and if a compass- 
needle be placed anywhere umt such a jioint, the north end will 
point towards that point. 

At points where the potential ts a maximum the soutJi end of 
tlie dip-nwdle points downwards, and the souUi end of the ""-"p—- »i 
Di«dle point« towards the )>oint. ^M 

If there are p minima of J' on tho earth's surface there must he^^ 
^—1 other points, where the north end of tfao diji-uradle pointy, 






470.] MAQinrnc tfattius of trr EAiiTn. 12s 

downwards, l>ut whirn tho oonipiMit-nAodle, when carried in a circle 
raund the point, instead of revolviiif; i>o that iN north end point* 
cnnstantly to Ute centre, rerolves in the oppottite dirt'cttoii, so as to 
turn Bometimes ita north end and sometimes it« south end towards 
the point. 

If we call the points where the potential is a minimum true 
north poles, then these other points may be trailed false north polea, 
because the compass-needle is not true to them. If there are p 
true north poIe», there must he^— 1 fal«e north polea, and in like 
manner, if there are q true south poles, there must he f— i false 
south poled. The number of poles of the same name roust he odd, 
so that the opinion at one tJme prevjilent, that there are two north 
poles and two ."iouth poles, is erroneous. According to Gauss there 
is in fact only one true north pole and one true south pole on 
the earlli's surface, and therefore there are no false poles. The line 
joiaini; these poles is not a diameter of the earth, and it is not 
parallel to the earth's magnetic axis. 

460.] Jlost of the early inveatig-itors info the nature of the 
nrth's ma{rQ(^tiaiu endeavoured to express it as the result of the 
action of one or more har ma^ets, the position of the poles of 
which were to he determined. Gauss was the firet to express the 
distribution of the earth's magnetism in a perfectly Reneral way by 
expanding its potential in a series of solid harmonics, the coefficient* 
of which he determined for the first four degrees. These coeffi- 
cients are 2't in number, 3 for the first degree, 5 for the second, 
7 for the third, and 9 for the fourth. All these terms are found 
nraessary in order to give a tolerably accurate representation of 
the actual state of the earth's magnetism. 

Tojind villi Part oftJit Obtervfd Magnetic Force u due to Szfemal 
and what to Internal Cautei. 
470.] Let us now suppose that we have obtained an expansion 
of the magnetic potential of the earth in spherical harmonicti, 
ooniiatt^t with tho actual direction and mngnituilc i>f the hori- 
zontal force at every point on tJie earth's xurfiK'c. then GausK ha* 
shi-wn how to determine, from the ohsorvcd vertical force, whrthcr 
the magnetic forces arc duo to caused, ^iich us magnetization or 
etectric ciirn^nli, within the earth's surface, or whether any |»rt 
is directly due to cause* exterior to the earth's eurfaco. 

Let y hit the actflal potential espanded in a double series of 
I ii|)heri>ca] harmouics, • ;* 





The first eeries repreeente the part of the potentift! doe to eauttS* 
exterior to the euih, and the second serie* repMsftnta the |Nu:t 
to causea within the earth. 

The observntions of horizontal force give wa the mim of the» 
series when r = a, the mdius of the earth. The term of the order t is 

The obBcr\-a(.ionB of Tertical force give us 

and the term of the order i tn aZ is 
Hence the part due to external causes is 

^- — iTTi — ' 

and the part due to causes within the earth ia 




The expannon of T lia« hitherto been calculated only for 
m«in vala« of F at or near certain epochs. No appreciable port] 
of thin m«ui value appears to he due to causes external to tbej 

471.] We do not yet know cnoug^b of the form of tha 1 
of the solar and lunar parts of the variations of T to 
l^ Hit metAod whether any part of these variations arises from 
maffnetic force acting from without. It is oortain, however, aa 
thfl caleulatioDa of MM. Stonoy and Clianbers have shewn, that 1 
the priiK))«] part of these variations cannot ariw from any direct^! 
niH^oetic action of the sun or moon, supposing- these bodies to be ^^ 
nuignetjo *. 

473.] The principal changes in the magnetic force to which 
attention has been directed are as follows. 

• Pnibaor IlanulelD of FruiM kM dbronrol ■ pwiaje ehMgs tn tfw 
ch la S9JIS iby*, BlwaM ■lacUjr W ' 
•jnodi« rarolotioa cf llio kid, u deduoad (ruia tki o1i«mitian of >bd lyoli 

•lenrntK, ttia p<vlad of which 



S«Jia day*, >I<iu>M oMUjr mmI (o Oak 3t Ita; 

loduoad (ruiB tki olwvTation nt > bd ifoli mw U* 
MOlor. TUi nwUiodnf diieowriaK «>»* "»■« of reOtfsw of th» iiaiiii mM bdy «f 
tb* van 17 lu aflecti » IW nwffnMlo maSbt k tbe Bnt tmHaliiwnl nf Ilia r«pkjiiiMt 
bt AUrnMiHii of tU lUbt M AalrooMnr- Ahtd., Wiok, Jniw IB, 1971. Hau Prvt. 
^ s7Ko». 1», 1871. 




T. Tia more Bfgular Varlationt. 

(1) The Solar variittioos, dcpcndio^ on tLo boor of th« day and 
the time of the ycsr. 

(2) Tlic Lunitr vnrinliont!, tlppendtng on the moon's boor angle 
and on hi?r other demouts <>f portion. 

(3) Thcec variutions do not repent Ihom^^elves in difTorcnt years, 
but Ewem to be subject to a variation of longer period of aWut 
eleven years. 

(4) BeftideB tbia, tbere is a secular alteration in tbe state of tlie 
earth's ma^etism, wbicb has been ^ing on ever since ma^nutic 
obmrvationn have been made, and is producing changes of the 
magnetic elements of &r greater magnitude than any of the varia- 
tioQH of dntall x>vriod. 

II. The Disluriaacet. 

473.] Besides the more regular cbangcif, tbe magiietic eleinenU 
are subject to sudden disturbanees of greater or less amount. It 
i« found that these disturbatici-s are more powerful and frequent 
at one tjme than at another, and that at times of great disturbance 
the laws of the regular variations are masked, though they are very 
distinct at times of amull disturbance. Hence great attention has 
hetn paid to these disturbances, and it has been foun<l that dis- 
turbaaees of a j»iiicu1ar kind are more likely to occur at eertaia 
timea of the day, and at certain Ecasnns and intervals of time, 
tJtoDgh each individual diHturban<'e appears quite irregular. BcGides 
these more ordinary diflturhances, tbere are oecanionally times of 
excessive disturWuce, in which the magnetism is strongly disturbed 
for a day or tvro. These are called Magnetic Storms. Individual 
disturbances have been sometimes observed at the same instant 
in stations widely distant. 

Mr. Airj' ha^ found that a largo proportion of tbe disturbances 
at Greenwich correspond with the electric currents cullovted by 
electrodes placed in the earth in the neighbourhood, and are such 
a» would be directly produced in the magnet if the earth-current, 
retaining its actual direction, were conducted through u wire placed 
tiwderatath the magnet. 

It has been found that there is an e[Mcb of maximum diHturbanoe 
every eleven years, and that this appears to coincide with the epoch 
of maKimum number of spot^ in tbe »un. 

474.] The Beld of investigation into which we are introduced 




by tlie study of terrestrial inagnetitm is «s profound u it u CX' 

We know that the aun and moon act on the enrth'N magnetimi.l 
It has been proved that this notion cannot be exjilaiiied by «U[>-1 
poniii)* the^e Ijodies magnets. The action is therefore indirect. Is 
the cusie of the sun part of it may be tliermal action, but in the 
caite of the moon we cannot attribute it to this cause. Is it |k»- 
sible that the attraction of tJiese 1>odies, by causing: strains in tfa« 
interior of the earth, produces (Art. 447) changes in the magnetism 
already existing in the earib, and so by a kind of tidal action causes 
the semidiurnal variations ? 

Hut the amount of all these chani^ is Yory smalt compared witJ 
the great secular elianges of the earth's msgoertiani. 

IVltat cause, whether exterior to the earth or in its inner depth;* 
produces such enoroions chanties in the earth's magnetism, that its' 
magnetic poles move slowly from one part of the globe to another ?^i 
When we consider thst the intensity of the magnotizatioa of th4i^| 
great globe of the earth ts quite componble with that tvhich we 
produce with much difficulty In our atoel ma^ets, these immense^: 
changes io so large s body force us to conclude tluit wc are not yd^l 
acquainted with one of the most powerful agents in nature, tho 
bceue' of whoee activity lies in those inner depths of the earth, to 
tlie knowledge of which we have so few means of access. 





47S.] It lutd been noticed by many differeDt obaervers tliitt in 
n-rtain cnsce m^netisTa is produced or destroyed in needlra by 
electric discharjr^ through them or near them, aod coiijectures 
of various kinds had been made as to the relation between roag- 
n«tisra and electricity, but the btwe of these phenomena, and the 
form of these rvUtions, remained entirely unknown till liana 
Chri»Uui Untted *, st » private lecture to n fctv advaueod students 
it Co]><!tihBgeD, obtcrved that a wire connt'ctinpf the cuds of a 
voltaic Ixtttcry afleeted u magnet in its vieinity. This discovery 
be [MihliKhed in a trmct entitled Experimfitta cirea effectum CouJIicliit 
HUttrici in AfHm Majfutiieant, dated July 21, 1820. 

ExjX'riinento on the relation of the ma^et to bodies charged 
with elei:trieitv h^ been tried without anv result till Oriited 
endeavoured to uM-ertain the etl'eot of a wire ieated by an electric 
current. He diHcovered, however, that the current itself, and not 
tbt* heat of the wire, was the cause of the action, and that ihe 
'eleotrio conflict acts in a revolving manner,' that is, that a magnet 
placed near a wire transmitting an electric current tenda to set 
itaelf perpendicular to the wire, and with the same end always 
pointing forwards as the magnet is moved round the wire. 

476.] It appears tlierefore that in the space surrounding a wire 

* Sm nAoibaT aeoount of Ontvd'a dfacovvrr in k lottRr trtaa Pmrouar lUnaUoi la 
ths Ltfi «f F»ni4ag b; Dr. Bcmoe Jcoico, vol. ii, ji. 30fi. 

TOL. U. K 



1 oi 

transmittinf; nn electric current a [nuj>Dft i» acted on by forces 
tlcpciulciit on tlic iiosition of i\w win? und on the streo^li of ihv 
curn-nt. Tlic hi>im;i; in wliitili tliOMB foreea act may thcn-fwre W 
coneitlvred ui a magootic flelil, au<I we amy study it in tlic came 
way ft> we hnve already studit d the f\M in the neighbourhood of 
ordinary magnets, by tracing the courae of the lines of magnetic 
forco, and measuring the intensity of the force nt every point, 

477-1 ^'' ^^ begin with the case of an indefinitely long etraigb 
wire carrying an electric current. If a man were to place bimselj 
in imagination in the position of the wire, so that the cmrrent 
should flow from his head to his fcot, then a magnet suspended 
freely before him wotd<I set iteelf so that the end which gmints ttOr(J^_ 
would, under the action of the current, point to his right hand. ^| 
The lines of magnetic force are everywhere at right angleis to 
planes drawn through the v/'in, and are there- 
fore cireW each in a plane perjiendicular to 
the wire, which passes through it« centrt^l 
The polo of a magn«t which point* north, ii^^ 
carried round on« of those cireles from left to 
right, would eipericncc a force acting always 
in the direction of its motion. Ilie other 
pole of the t>amo magnet would esjierieng^^ 
a force in the opi>oeito direction. ^^^H 

478.] To comjwm thc«e forces let the wire 
be apposed vertical, ood tJic current a de^^ 
scending one, and let a magnet bo placed M^| 
an ap))aratus which is fr«e to rotate about a 
vortical axis coinciding with the wire. It 
ic found that under these cireunistancee the 
cumnt ha)i no I'lTcct in causing the rotaliuo 
of the apparatus as a whole about itoclf as oa axia. Ht^ncc tlia 
action of the vertical current oa the two pobw of the magnet is 
such that the etaticid moments of the two forces about the current 
as an axis are equal and oppont«. Let M] and ai, he the strengths 
of the two poles, r, and r^ their distances from the axis of Uie wir«, 
7*, and 7*, the inteniiiticM of the magnetic force doe to the current at 
the two ih.Ioi rfspectively, then the force on «, is m, 7",. and 
once it is at right angles to the axis its moment is m, 7*, r^. 
Similarly that of the force on lh« other pole is m^T^r^, and since 
thccu is no motion obMTVed, 

IV- SI. 



X = ~2i^, 


But vu know that in nil magnets 

M, + Mf = 0. 

Ileoce 7, r, = T^ f,, 

or the e1«ct<on)ag:n«H« force due tn a iitmig^ht ciirrent of inliRite 
len^i is perpendiouUr to the current, and varies inversi^Iy oa the 
distance from it. 

479.] Since the product Tr dejiciid* on tlio strength of the 
current it may be employwl ait a measure of Ihe current, Thi» 
method of measurement is difiercDl from that foonded upon dec- 
tro«t»IJo phirorimena, and as it depends on the magnetic phenomena 
produced l>y olpctric currunts it is called the Ki«;tromagm'tio«y>iteni 
of measurement. In the elwtriiniiignetic system if i is the current, 

Tr ='2». 

480.] If the tvire be t;iken for the axis vf :, then the rectangular 

OompODCDt« of T OTO 

Ilere Xi£r-f Tdjr+ZtU U a complete dlfferentiftl. Wing that of 

BeDM: the mognetto force in the field can be deduced from a 
potential function, ati in aevcral former instancee, but the potential 
is in this case a fnnction baviuff an infinite seriea of values whoso 
common dificronce is 4iri. Tl)e differential coefficients of the 
potential with rettpect to the coordinates have, however, definite and 
single values at every point. 

The existence of a potential function in the field near an electric 
currant is not a self-evident result of the principle of the con- 
servation of energy, for in all actual currents there is a continual 
expenditure of the electric encr;,'y of the battery in overcoming the 
reeietanee of the wire, so that unless the amount of this expenditure 
were ncc«cnt«iy known, it might be suspected that part of the 
taergy of Ihe battery may bo employed in causing work to be 
done on a ma^et moving in a cycle. In fact, if a magnetic pule, 
St, moves rotmd a closed curve which embraces the wire, work 
is actually done to the amount of 4irmi. It is only for closed 
paths which do not embrace the wire that the line'intcgraJ of the 
force vani«but. We must therefore for the precent consider the 
law of force fliid the extKtciiev of a potential as resting on the 
evidvDOO of Uifi experiment already described. 

K 3 









4S1.] If we consider the Kpatw RiirToiinding: an infinite ittraigfat 
liue we sball en tbiit it is n cvclic span^, bocansc it returns into 
itself. If we now vonoeive a plau«, or any otber surface, com- 
mencing at the Ktraiglit lino and extending on one side of 
to inlinitf, tliie etirfiico may lie regarded as a diaphra^i wbichl 
reduces the cyclic iqnce to an acyclic one. If ^m any fixed point 
lines be drawo to any other point witbAUt cutting the diaphragm, 
and tbe potcntiul bi; defined as tlie line-inte^al of the force token 
along one of Ihesu lines, the jiotential at any point will thon have 
K single dvfiuitv value. 

Tlic Diabetic field i» now identical in all respects with thai d 
to a magnetic ibcll coinciding with this snriace, tbe ntr^gth of 
the shell being t. Tliin ^ihell is bounded on one edge by the infinite 
struight line. The other part« of its boundary are at an infinite 
dii^ljince from the piirt of the field under consideration. 

482.] In ull ucttial exjiertmenta the current fonns a closed circuit 
of finite diiiifrnsions. We shall therefore compare the magnet 
aetion of a Unite circuit with that of a magnetic shell of vhiob 
circuit is the bounding edge. 

It has been shewn by namerona experiments, of which 
earliest are those of Anip&re, and the most accurate those of Weber,' 
tliut the magnetic action of a small plane circuit at distances which 
are great comp«re<) with the dimemiions of the circuit is tbe same 
as that of a magnet whose axis is norma) to the plane of tbe circui 
and whoee magnetic moment is equal to tbe area of the cireail 
inulti])lied by the strength of the current. 

If the circuit be supposed to be tilled up by a surface bound 
by the circuit and thus forming a diuphtagm, and if a moguetio 
shell of strength i coinciding with this surface be substituted for 
tbe electric current, then the mngnetlo action of the shell on all 
distant points will he identical witli that of the current. 

483.] Hitherto wo have supposed the dimensions of the circoi' 
to be smalt compared with the dist»iKe of any part of il fi 
the part of Uie field examined. We shall now suppoee the circui 
to 1*0 of any form and si&a n hatever, and examine its action at naf 
point P not in the conducting wire itself. Tbe following method, 
which has im[H>rlnnt goomctrini) applications, was introduced by 
Aiu|>^ for thin pur)>o«e. 

Cuncvive any Kurfare S botindcd by the circuit and not passing 
tlirough tJie point P. On this surface draw two sertce of line» 
srosring each other so aa tu divide il into vhmcntary poKinns, ih 

, Ul^ 





dimensioaB of which arc small compared with thc-ir iliHtonou from 
P, Aod with the radii of ourvature of the curfAco. 

Round eax\i of thaw elemfntK ooDCciv« a current of Bt.i«n{*th i to 
flow, Um direction of oiroubtioii hciii^ the samo in all tiie elements 
as it is in the orig;inal circuit. 

vMoDfT ev«iT line fonniiig; tlii> diviiiinn between two conUguous 
elements two equal currents uf Hlixnglh (' flow in opponte direc* 

Tlic effect of two oqiul and oppoaife cuirenftt in the same place 
is ahHilutely zero, in whatpver asjieet we consider the currentii. 
Hcncv tlteir ma^etic f.S\xil \s xero. I'he only portions of the 
elcnicntttry circuits which are not neutralized in this way are those 
which coincide with the original circuit. The ixital eifect of the 
elementary oircnits is therefore equivalent to that of the original 

484.] Now since each of the elementary circuits may be con- 
sidered as a small plane circuit whone diKtanoe from P is ^reat 
compari'd with its dimensions, we may substitute for it an ele- 
mentaty maffnetic shell of strength 1 whose hotinding edge coincides 
with the elemeutaiy circuit. Tlie magnetic effect of the elementary 
shell on i* is equivalent to that of the elementaty circuit. The 
whole of the elementary shells constitute a maffiictic shell of 
strength t, coinciding with the surface S and bounded by the 
original circuit., and the magnetic action of the whole shell on P 
is eqaivalcnt to that of the circuit. 

It is manifest that the action of the oircoit is independent 
of the fonn of the surface S. which was drawn in a perfectly 
arbitTsry manner bo as to fill it up. We see from thin that the 
action of a magnetic shell depends only on the form of its edge 
and not on the form of the shell itself. This tcnuU we obtained 
before, in Art. 410, but it is instructive to see how it may be 
deduced from clectToma^nctic consiilcrntioiix. 

'fbe ms^ctic foroo due to the circuit at any point is therefore 
identical in magnitude and direction with that due to a magnetic 
shell bounded by the circuit and not passing through the pointy 
the strength of tla- shell being numeriually equal to that of the 
eumnt. The direction of the current in the circuit is related to 
the direction of miignetixation of tlie shell, so that if a man were 
to stand with his ftwt on that side of the shell which wc call the 
positive side, and which tends to point to the north, the current in 
Iroab of him would be from right to left. 




485.] The m&t^otic [wt^ntiitl of th« circait, howcrer, difl«n 
from that of tho maj^otie shi-ll for thowc ])omt» wliiuli are in the 
anl^stftnco of the mngnotic »h«\\. ^^ 

If at is the solid Angle isiibtoiulotl st th« point P by t1>« nwgoetid^^ 
ehcil, rockonci] jionitivv wlien tliv jxiHitire or auxtrul «)<lv of the tihell 
ie nest to /', thvn the inngnftic |)Ot«titiat at any |ioint not in tlie 
shvll it««lf is loif), wht're <t> a lh« rtmnglli of the ithell. At any ^^ 
point ill tlie inibttjinco of the shell itwlf vie may nippofte thn «helt^| 
<livi<!<Hl intn two pnrt« ivlioiie stKiigths are 4k, and 0,, where ^1 
^, -f ^j = 41, suHi that the )>oint is on the ]M»iitive eide of ^ and 
on tJie negative side of 0j. The potential at thin point is 

On the negatiye side of the shell the potential becomeH ^(w— -I r).j 
In this case therefore the potential is eontinunns, and at ever 
point hati a Htn^le d<>terminat« value. In the case of the electrit 
vireuit, on the other hand, (lie magnetic potential at everr point 
not in the conducting nire itself is eqoal to la, where i ie the 
strength of the current, and 10 is the solid angle uihlended by the 
circuit at the point, and is reckoned positive when the current, as 
seen from P, circulat«B in the directionopposite to that of the hands 
of a watch. 

The quantity Jw is a function having an inlinite aeries of valae 
whose common difFereaoc is 4ni. Tlie diftV'reutial cueflBcients 
iw with reeprct to the coordinates, ]uve, however, single and de 
terminate valued for every point of space. 

4B6.} If n long thin flexible solenoidal magnet were pUced in 
the neighbonriKxid of an electric clrtnit, the north and south ends 
of the solenoid would tend to move in opposite directions round 
the wire, and if they were fiee (0 obey the magnetic force the 
magnet would fiually become wound round the wire in a close 
ooil. If it WfTT' powibh^ to obtain a magnet having only one pole, 
or poU'n of untinittl strength, soch a niagtii-t would be moved round 
and round the win^ continiadly in one direction, but sinoe the poles 
of ever_> magmii are i-qunl and opposite, this result can never occur. 
Faraday, however, hiut Klien-n how to produce the continuous rota- 
tion of one pole <^ a magnet round an eleetrie current by malting 
it powiiblc for one pole to go round and round the ourretit whttd 
the other pole docs not. That thin process may be repeatMl ttJ 
definitely, the body of the magnet mnsi be transferred from nam 
sitif of the ciirrciil to tin- iitlier ouce in each rcvohitioQ. IV) tM 
this nithout interrupting the Aow of electricity, llui current is aplS 




Nli U»l 

into two bnin«hc», » tlwit when one branch is opened to let thft 
taagoei poxs tho current continues to flow thron^h the otJier. 
Vami»y utcil fnr this puqmso a circuliir trough of mercury, as 
eheivn in Vig. 33, Art. 491. The current enters the troug'h through 
llie vfirc AH, it id divided at B, und after flowing through the ares 
BQP and BKP it uiiitc« at P, und leaves the trough through the 
wire PO, the eiip of mercury 0. and a vertical wire beneath 0, 
down which the eiirrent flows. 

The mngnet (not fhewii in the figure), is mounted so as to be 
capable of revolving about a verticul a>:is thtDUgh 0, and the wire 
OP revolvea with it. The body of the inngniit. pnsisie-ii through the 
aperture of the trough, one pole, say the north pole, Iteing benenth 
the plane of the trough, and the other above it. As the magnet 
and the wire OP revolve about the vertical axis, the cnrrent it 
gradually transferred from the .branch of the trough which lies in 
front of the magnet to that which lies behind it, so that in every 
complet« revolution the ntognet passes from one side of the current 
to the othiT. The north pole of the magnet revolves jibout the 
deeeending current in the dirx^-tion N.G.S.W. and if w, w' are the 
wild angle* (irre«|)ectivc of sign) subtend»>d by the circular trough 
at the two poles, the work done by the electromagnetic force in a 
complete revolution ix 

m({47r— (0— «'), 

where n is the stJ'ength of either pole, and i the strength of the 

487.] L«t OS now endeavour to form a notion of the state of the 
magnetic field near a linear electric circuit. 

Let the value of w, the solid angle subtended by the circuit, 
be found for every point of space, and let the surfaces for wlueh 

■ [TU* prolilou may be diwuand u {uUoar*- Referring tu Wig. SS, Art, 491, 
lat u t»ke OP in uit ■mailioD uui inlndurc Jmagiiuu'y bafaiiciog piiit<<dU i aloii^ 
BQ Kad a, y klaug OB. Am Ihe mngno( ntuicbotl to OP i* carried chroufh ■ 
oenploU nvolutlon nn wotk U Anixv on Ihi- inuth pule bj^ tbu cummt (. tuppoMnl to 
|ian timtiK AHOX, tli«l uola ilwc^ribini;' n i:ti)»'<1 i^iirr* which dfiw nol tinbnc* l]i« 
cuamnt. Tbr north pola howsver clHuribiui n uluMd ourra whioh don emhooci 
llio cvmmti iuhI the nrk Aowt u^od it in 4 vmi, Vfa hare now ta estimate the 
•ttwU at tbo cuTTVDta i in the circuit BFO and V in the oinmic BSPO. The 
pnlewllal uf th« tuirUi pula whicli ta bolciw the planon of thoui circuit* trill be 

— niv^'Mnytv— Bf) ami, iif tliu »">ulh, — mia', — ra)r(— •' t b'j). 
wImm t>f wkI ttf' donoto the nlid anglcn >ubteni3o] at the two |>iil«a by BOF, anil ». 
■* ikiaa mibtonied by the drculor trough. The rceultant poUmtUl !■ 

my (■> + !«')— (It ( (a>j+ ir'j). 

H«nM aa OF rcrvlvM from OF in tile dirwtion NEt^W back lu OP ■c*'* <''* 
poMntlail arlU cban^n by —(«((* + ■')• The work dcniB by the inuTWiU i* ihersfute 
Uial |{<min la th« xvxt,] 

VOt. II. 


M is oonsfant he deitoribed. Tliese aurfaces will Iw tlio ixjiiipott-ntial 
surfaces. Each of tUeee surfncea will bo boiiniiwl hy the eirrmi 
and nny two surfacea, wj and <»,, will mii-t in the oircait at 

Fiifuiw X\Tn. at the ond of thin vi>lume, represents a. Bcction 
of tbo eqnipotential eurfacM diip to n circular current The Rmall 
rarclu rt'jiresenta n section of the conducting wire, and the hori 
Mnt«1 line nt ihc bottom of the fi^ur^ ik tlie per|>endien1ar to th 
plane of the circular current through ito centre. Tlie eqnipotential 
siir&cca, 24 of which are drawn corresponding to a series of values 

arc surfocfw of revolntion, having this tine (o\ 

of «e dilfcrini* br ■ , 

their oouimon axis. 




inn ^ 



They are eridcntly oblate Ggtirev, being Bat- 
tened in the direction of the »xi». T1>ev meet nob other iii the lint 
of the circuit at angles of 1 S°, 

The force acting on a magnetic pole place«I at any point of anj 
eqnipoloiitinl MiHacw ia perpendienUr to this surface, and variMJ 
invoracly a** the di^nce between consecutive surfaces. The cln«ed 
eurvea surronndiog the section of the wire in Fig. X^^II are the 
lines of foree. They are copinl from Sir W. Thom«»i*s Paper on 
' Vortex Motion t-' See also Art. 702. 

Actum of am Elrrtrie GntiU om irny Magnetic ^H^m. 

48S.] Wfl u« DOW able to tleduoe the action of an eU^■tnl' circuit^ 
on my niagnrtio aystem in it« neighlKKirhood from \\w theory of | 
magnetie ahelbi. For if we eonstnict a magotfic i^>dl. whoM* | 
strength is nnmerically equal to the stmngth of the cunvnl, and 
whoae edge coincides in ]>oeitiiin with tha ououil, white the rheW 
itedf dow not pass thron^h any part of the magnetic system, the ' 
action of the shell on the magnetic ayvtem will be ideetieal with 
that of the electric cnrrent. 

Am«M iftXt MfmHe &f»l«m m Ika Bitirit CiftmU, 

489.] Kmm this, applyiag the prineiplfi that action and mction 
ara n|iHU and opiwsite^ w« Hiooliide that the nMdianical actieo «f 1 


B th« mftgnetio tytAeia on the electric circuit is identical witli ite 
~ acttoti on a ma^octic sbell havinsr the circuit for its edge. 

Th« potential energy of a magnetic ehell of sttength ^ placed 
in ft field of magnetic force of wbich the potential is V, is, by 

ml, m. H ua the direction-cosines of the normal drawn rrom the 
potutive ud« of the element dS of the shell, and the intogrntion 
is extended over the surface of the shell. 
H Now the suriitce-intcgral 

A'=JJ{ta + mit + nc)dS. 

where a, (, e are the components of the magoetic induction, re. 

presents the (|uantity of tnagaetio induction through the shell, or. 

in the Ituigoagc of FAradaf, the tiumher of lines of ma^ctic in- 
^daction, rackoood al^braieally, which pass throKph the shell from 
^■thtt negative to the positive side, lines which pnss through the 

shell in the oppowto direction boioff reckoned negative. 

Kememheriiig that the shell does not helong to the magnetic 

syittein to which the pot<minl V is due, and that the mngneUc 

force is tlierefore equal to the magnetic induction, we have 

a= — i- — c--'^^ 

6- ''^ 

^L^ dx' df' '~ it 

^^^^Vc may write the value of JA, 

If ftjp, represents any displacement of the shell, and .V, the force 
acting on the shell so as to aid the displacement, then by the 
principle of couEerrntion of energy, 



We have now det«rmined the nature of the force which cor- 
responds to any given displacement of the shell. It aids or reaista 
that displacemeot aocordinj;ly as the displacement increaeea or 
diminishes A', the nnmber of lines of induction which pass through 
the shell. 
Tbo same ia true of the equivalent electric circuit. Any diit- 
^jjutmeDt of the circuit will be aided or resisted accordingly an it 




inoreases or diminiehcs tho Dtimber of lines of iDduction wiiich j*u 
through the oircuit Id tho positive iliroctioa. 

We must rciDcmWr thiiL the positiri; dircct4on of a lint* o^_ 
magnetic induction is thi; ilrrection in which thu polo of n magne^^ 
which pointE north tends to movt? along thv line, and that a litte 
of induction puK»<s through thu circuit in the po«itiTC dirfctioD|^_ 
when tLe direction of the lino of induction i» related to tl>^| 
direction of the current of vitreou* electricity in the circuit as 
the loDgittidinal to the rotational Diotioii of a right-banded wcrcw^H 
ScttArf. 23. fl 

490.] It i« matiifM tliat the force corresponding to any di*- 
placement of the circuit as a whole may be deduced at once fron 
the tlicoiy of the magnetic shell. Dut this is not all. If a portic 
of the circuit iti flexible, so that it may be displaced independent!] 
of the rest, we may make the edge of the shell eapable of the sami 
kind of displaceracDt by cutting up the surface of the shell int 
a snfficieDt number of portions connected by flexible joints. Henc 
we conclude that if by the displacement of any portion of the circiiii 
in a given direction the number of lines of induction which 
through the circuit can be inereu^cd, this displacement will be aided 
by the electromagnetic forct> mtiug on the circtiil. 

Erery portion of the cinuit tben-fore i* acted on by a force 
urging it acroiw the tinea of magnetic induction m> a« lo incltidc 
a greater number of the«e lines within the embrace of the circuit 
and the work done by the force during this displacement 
namerically equal to the number of the additional line* of 
duction multiplied by the etrcngth of the current. 

Let the element d» of a circuit, in which a current of strengttf 
t is Sowing, be moved parallel to iteelf tlirough a space bx, it will 
sweep gut an area in tho form uf ii iiarallclogram whoso sides arc 
parallel and equal to </« and b» reiti>ect)vely. 

If the magnetic induction is denoted by Q, and if ita directiog 
inakcH an angle t with the normal to tlte parallelogram, the vali; 
of the increment of jV corresponding to the displacement is found^ 
by multiplying the are* of the parallel<^ram by 39 cos «. The result 
of this opemtion ia represented geometrically by the volume of a 
pnmllelopiped whoee edges represent in magnitude and direction 
6x, di, and 9, and it is to be reckoned positive If when we point 
in the«c three directions in the order here given tho pointer 
moves ronnd the diagonal of the panllelopiped in the dirccUo;! of thf 
huDd« of a watch. The volume at this pciralleIopi{<ed is equal to Xia 







If 6 is the an^le Iwtwecn tit and $, the arw of th? par!i11elo'>rain 
is tls.^ ein 0, And if i; is the »n^lp nhit-h thi.' disphicemcnt Sx 
makes with the normal to this paruJIulogrkm, the volamo of the 
paralk-lopi^ IB 
I rf* . S sin S.ixixs r} = iy. I 

Now Xix = iJ.V= fV/.SdudSJTCOSi), I 

and X = iJa . S sin fl cos jj ' 

|» th« foree which nrgee d», resolved in the direction ix. 

The dirwtion of this force is therefore perpendicular to the paral- 
lelogram, and is equal to i .ds.^Q sin 6, 

Tbis is the area of a parallelogram n-hose sides represent in maj[- 
nitude and direction idt and ®- The force acting on </» is therefore 
represented in magnitude hy the area of this parallelogram, and 
ID direction by a normal to its plane drawn in the direction of the 
loDgitudinal motion of a rig'ht-handed screw, the faimdie of which 
is turned from the dii'ection of the current icit to that of thv 
nuignetic induction ©. 

Wo may express in the language of 
Quaternions, both the direction and 
the magnitude of this force by saving \fitt 
that it is the vector part of the result 
of multiplying the vector ids, the 
viemmt of the current, by the vector 

^B 9, the mn^ctic induction. S*ua 

491,] Wc hnvc thus completely de- 

■^ termiiied tlic f'lrce which acts on any 

^P |)ortio» of an electric circuit placed in 

~ a magnetic field. If the circuit is 

moved in any way fo that, after osetiming various forms and 
jioaitions, it retuniH to its original place, the strength of the 
eument remaining ooniitjtnt during the motion, the wliolc amount 
of work done by tbe elcctm magnetic forces will he zero. Since 
this is tine of any cycle of motion* of the circuit, it follows that 

jjH it IB impossible to maintain by t-U'cironingiielic forces a motion 

^^ of eontiniioua rotation in any purt of a linear circuit of constant 
strength against the resistance of friction, &c. 

It is possible, however, to produce continuous rotation provided 
that at some part of the courwe of the electric current the current 

in, passes from one oonducl/ir whieb slides or glides over another. 

^m When in a circuit there is sliding contact of a conductor over 

^K the surface of a smooth solid or a fluid, the eincuit caa no longer 



Fig. 32. 




bo considered afi a single linear circuit of constant etr«n^h, but 
miixt be rcK'snled as a system of two or of some ^ft^ater niimVicr 
circuits of variable strength, tkc current beinj; so dtstnbut 
ftmoii|r tlium that those for which A' is incrensinf; have ciirrcn' 
in the [luKitivu direction, while those for which iVis iliminishi 
have ciirreuLd iu the negative direetion. 

Thus, in the apparatuA represenUHl in Fig. 23, OP is a mov<-abl6 
conductor, one end of which reels in a cup of mercury 0, while the 
other dips into a circular trough of mercury concentric wiUi O. 

The current t enters alon^ 
AS, and divides in the circular 
trough into two p&rts, ono of 
which, X, flows along the wc 
BQP, while the other, y, Bowb 
along BKP. Th«eo ctirrcnts, 
uniting nt P, flow along the 
moveable conductor PO an 
the elcctrwle 0^ to the zil 
end of the Wteiy. 
strength of the current ale 


OP and OZ is z+y or i. 

Here we have two circuita, AMQPOZ, the strcnglh of the ourre 
in which is x, flowing in Uie poallve direction, and ABU POX, tli 
strength of the current in which is y, flowing in the negatii 

Lot 9 be the magnetic induction, and let it be in an upwa 
(lircclion, normal to the plane of the circle. 

While Op mov«M through an angle $ in the direction oppoaitj 
to tltut of the liande of a watob, the area of the first circuit inci 
by {0P*.$, and that of the second diminishes by the Esmc quanti^. 
Since the strength of the current in the first circuit is «, the work 
done by it is | ;r . OP^. . ®, and since the strength of the second 
is — /, th« work done by it is ky.OP'.O^. The whole work done 
is therefore ^^ 

do])cnding only on the strength of the current in PO. Hence, if 
i is maintained constant, the arm OP will l»e carried round and 
round the circle with a uniform force whose moment ift \ i .OP') 
If, as in oorthem latitudes, $ acts downwards, and if the curreig 
is inward*, the n'tatioa wiU be in the DCgative direction, that w7 
in the direction I'QUS- 





^1 492.] V!e are now able in pass from tlie mutnsl aclion of 
^nnognels and currentii to the action of one current on another. 
^Kpor we know ttuit the magnetic properties of nn electric circuit (?,, 
^prith respect to any magnetic BTBtero J/,, are identical with those 

of ft ma^etic efaell iS,, ivfaose edge coincidee with the circuit, and 
Hwhose Btrength is mimerically equal to lliat of the electric cnn-ent, 
Hliet the tna^etic system J/^ be a magnetic etell S^, then the 

mntual action between S, and S. ie identical with that between 8^ 

utd a circuit (7,, eoinciJinf* with the ed^ of S.^ and eqiiiO in 

nomencal BtrcD<rth, and this hitter action is identical with that 

between C, and C,. 

Hence tb« mut^inl action between two circuit)!. C, and Cg is 

iilenlioiil with that between tbo corresponding niajfucltc shells ^ 

hnd S^. 
Viv hare alrcjuly invi'Hltgnted, in Art. -123, the mutuiil aetioo 
'two iiiagnctie shcllit whose edges are tlie cloved curvus *, and »^. 

If we make 

Jn . In 


.'o .'0 


where ( if the an^lc between tbe directions of the olementH /'#, and 
dt^, and r is the distance between them, the integration Ining 
extended onco round a, and once round «,, and if wc call M the 
potential of the two closeil curves «, and 4., then the potential 
encrj^y duo to the mutual a<^!tiun of two muj^nctic sbclU whose 
■trengths aro ij and i^ bouudctl by the two c-ircutts Is 

and tlie force X, whteb aids any displacement ix, is 

I ''•»^- 

The whole theory of the force acting on any portion of an electric 
circuit due to the action of another electric circuit may bo deduced 
^^Aom this result. 

^B 493.] Thi> method which we have followed io this chapter is 

^nbat of Faraday. Tnxlejid of beginning, as wc shall do, following 

^T Ampere, in the next chiiplcr, with the direct action of a portion 

of one circuit nn a portion of another, wc shew, firet, that a circuit 

produces llie same effect on a magnet a« a magnetic shell, or, in 

other wordic, wc determine the ualnrc of the magnetic field due 

to Uie circuit. Wc chew, Rceondly, that • circuit when plai^ in 

af magni^c field exjuirii-nccs tbe mme force ek a nuignctic ehell. 

Te thus determine the forec acting on tbe circuit placed in any 




muj^ncttc field. Lustlj, 1>y snpiKiKing the in>gi)eti« field to be 
to » «'corni electric circuit, we dftt>nnine the action of ouc ci 
CD the whole or iiiiy iinrtion of the olhfir. 

4{^.] Let iiM iipply thix method to the caee of a Rtraight current 
of inlinite length acting on a portion of a parallel straight oon- 

I^et us tFiipposi- ttiut a current t in the finl conductor is flowing 
vcrticnily downwnrdo. In this case the en<! of a magnet vrbi 
poiiitu north will point to tlie rigbt-huid of a man looking at 
from the axis of the current. 

Tb« lines of magnetic induction are therefore liorizontat circl 
haTing their oentreti in the axis of the current, and their po«iti 
direction is north, ea^t, south, west. 

Let another descending vertical current be placed due west of 
tbe first. The line^ of magnetic induction dne to the first current 
are here directed towards the north. Tbe direction of the forci 
acting on the second current is to be determined by turning t 
handle of a right-handed screw from tbe nndir, the direction 
tli« cnrrent, to the north, the direction of the magnetic induction. 
The screw will then move towurdx the cast, that is, the force acting 
on the Gccond cnrrent is directed towards the first curr«-nt, or, in 
general, sinou the phenomcnou dcpvnds only on the relative poniti 
of the currents, two iwunUel currents in Uk snnie din?ution att 
«ach otber. 

la the xame way we may shew that two parallel currents 
opposite directions repel one another. 

499.] The intcntiity of the magnetic induction at a diiitance 
from a stiaighl current of strength i is, as we have shuwn 
Art. 479, i 


Honc», a portion of a second conductor parallel to the first, 
oarr^'ing a current i" in the sntne direction, will be attracted town 
the first with a form „ . „« 

r« 2»r-i 

where m is the length of the portion considered, and r is its dist 

from the first conductor. 

SiDM the ratio of n t<t r iii a nnmerieal qnantity indepcndedf 

the olwolute \'«lue of eittu-r nf thnto Hues, the piuduct of twt) 

currents measured in the elect roniagnetic srstcm most be nf 

dioacsuiou of a forve, hence tbe diiiiennions of the unit euncnt are 

[0 = [/'»]=[j/u»r-]. 





^P mS.] Another method of dotormintiig the direction of the force 

" whioli acta on a current is to consider tli»> tclfttion of the ning^netic 

' action of the current to that of other currents and magnets. 

^m If on one aide of the wire which oarrieM Uie current the magnetic 

action due to the carrent ie in the same or nearly the same direction 

as that due to other currents, then, on tlie other aide of the wire, 

tlieM forces will be in opposite or nearly opposite directions, and 

the force acting on the wire wili be from the aide on which the 

ȣjn!ea strengthen each other to the side on which they oppoee each 
Thus, if a descending current is placed in a field of magnetic 
foroe directed ton-ards the north, its magnetic action will bo to the 
Dortli on the vroit side, and to the south on the east side. Hence 

Pthe forces strcn^hcn each other ou the west side and op]>ose each 
other on the eiut Hide, and the current will then^forc be acted on 
bjr a force from woift to «ii»it. See Fig 22, p. 139. 
^H In Pig. XVtl uttlicend of tbie volume the small circle repn-si'iits 
^^« Roction of the wire carrying a descending current, and placed 
in a uniform fivld of inagnclic force acting towards the left-buiid 

»of the figure. Tlie magnetic force i« greater below the win' than 
above it. It will therefore be urged from the bottom towards the 
top of the figure. 
Hf 487.] If two currents are in the name plane but not parallel, 
we may apply this prineii)le. Let one of the oondnctors be an 
^^ iDBnit« straight wire in the plane of the paper, supposed horizontal. 
^M On the right side of the current the magnetic force acta downwards 
^B and on the left side it acta upwards. The same is true of the mag- 
" tutie force due to any short portion of a second current in tlie same 
plane. If the second current is on the right side of the first, the 
magnetic forces will stren^^hen each other on its right side and 
op|)Osc each other on its left side. Hence the second current will 
be acted on by u force urging it from ita right side to its left side. 
The magnitude of this furce depends only on the position of the 
^_ aecond current and not on its direction. If the second current ia 
^poo the left side of the fimt it will be urged from left to right. 
' Uence, if the second current is in the same direction as the first 

it is attracted ; if in the opposite direction it is repelled ; if it 6ow8 
at right angles to the first and away from it, it is urged in the 
direction of the first current ; and if it flows toward the first eiinenfc, 
it ia urged in the din-ctioD opposite to that in which the first 
11, cnnent flows. 



In coDsiilorin^ the mnttial action or two ourreota it in not ncces- 
aar}- to b4.-ar in inini3 t.Iic roUtioiiM betwesD el«otricity and ina^cticm-^B 
wliicb wclmvv (>n<luuvourvd to iUiutrat«bymeanBot'ariglit~luuidoi^P 
Bcrew. Even if wc have forgotten tlieae relations we tbM anivo 
at vorrvcl n*itultfi, provided we adhere consiBtenUy to one of the two 
posiiiblo fnrni» of the relation. 

408.] Let us now bring- together the ma^etic phenomena 0: 
the electric circuit so far aa we have inveetirrated them. 

We may conceive the electric circuit to consist of a voltaie 
battery, and a wire connectin^^ its oxtromities, or of a therinoelectrio 
urrKngcmcnt, or of a charged Leydcn jar with a wire connecting ita 
poNitive and ne^tive coatings, or of any other arrangement for 
producing an electric current along a definite path. 

The current produces magnetic phenomena in it* Deighbonrbood. 

If any closod curve be drawn, and the line-int<rgral of the 
magnetic force t^kcu completely round it, then, if the clo«od curva 
is not linked with the circuit, the linisintGgml ix I'.ero, but if it 
IE linked with the dreuit, so that llwi current > flows through tint 

IUImSm bMnw tU alaetiw cnntrat u<l Ika Una ef nanu tic (nducUon ] 

oUwwl cam, tlw lut^integal ts 4»i, an«l » positive if the dinwtiaa' 
of integrmtion ronnd ihr elowd curre woqU coincide whh tbati 
of the hands of a watch u «M>n by a {wnvn pusiiig throogh 
in the dirw'twB in which the ^Wtric cnm-nt Bow*. To a peiw 
muTiag along Ihe clwscd curve ia the direction ^-t inUsgntiaa, i 




pnsEinf; tlirou^ the elwtric circuits Uie direction of tlie carrcnt 
would appear to be th«t of the hands of a watoh. We may oxprvnt 
thi» in another wjty by ea,yiag that the relation between thi- liiR-c- 
tioD8 of the two closed curves may be expressed by dcsoriliiii^ a 
nght*ltund«(l screw round the electric circuit and a right-hamlwi 
•crew round tlw clo«>ed curve. If the direction of rotation of the 
tlin-iid of either, aa wc pass alon$; it, coincides with the ])08itive 
direction in the other, then the )ine>iutc^tal will be positive, and 
in th« opposite case it will Iw ncjpitive. 

49!).] AWtf. — The liui^-iutc^^l 4»t depends solely on the quan- 
tity of tJtc current, and Dot on any other thing whatever. It 
doea not dcjiend on the nature of the conductor throug'h which 
the currtrnt in pitsiin^, as, for instance, whether it he a metal 
Of an electrolyte, or an imperfvel- conductor. Wc have n-iwon 
for b^lievin^ that even when there i» no proper conduction, but 
merely a variation of electric diaplacenient, ax in the f^loxs of a 
Leyden jar during char^ or diwliurge, the magnetic ofliect of tlie 
electric movement is preoiseiy the name. 

Af^in, the value of the line-integral 4;rt docs not depend on 
the nature of the mediutn in which tito closed curve is drawn. 
It is the ame whether the cloMtd curve is drawn entirely through 
air, or pasMis through a mag-net, or itofl iron, or any other sub- 
stance, whether pammagnc-tio or diamagnetie. 

500] When a cinniit ia placed in a magnetic field the mutual 
action t>etween the current and the other constituents of the (ield 
dc]*ends on the surface-integral of the magnetic induction through 
my surface bounded by that circuit. If W any given motion of 
the cin-uit. or of part of it, this surface- in (^^■gral i-au be irec/rdwrf, 
there will be a mechanical force tending to movis the conductor 
or the portion of the conductor in the given mitnner. 

The kind of motion of the cotiduetor which increases the surfncc- 
tatc^t^ >B motion of the conductor [>erpondicular to the direction 
(^the current and across the lines of induction. 

If a parallelogram be drawn, whose sides are parallel and ])ro- 

portioual to the strength of the current at any point, and to the 

magnetic indnetion at the same point, then the force on unit of 

length of the eonduetor is nuraericully equal to the arw* of this 

HI parallelogrum, and is {terpen diculnr lo it> pliiue, and aL'tn iu the 

^1 direction in which the motion of turning the handle of a right- 

^f handed acrew from the direclii>n of the current to the direction 

^ft of the magnetic induction would cause the screw to move. 

^M VOL. n. L 




Hviice WA have • new eluctromngnetic definitioD of a line 
magnetio iaduction. It is that line to which the force on 
conductor is aUvays pi^qiendicular. 

It may also he dflined as a line along which, if an electric od 
be transmitted, the conductor carrying it will experience no foroe. 

601.] It mustbeearefiilly rem^mhered, that the mechanical force 
which urges a conductor carrying a current across the lines of 
magnetic force, acts, Dot on the electrio current, but on the ood- 
duotor which cjirrics it. If the conductor be a rotating disk or a 
fluid it will move in obedieuce to this force, and this motion may 
or may not bu ni.'<'om{ianicd with a change of position of the electrio 
current which it carric*. But if the current itsEtlf bu tne to choose 
any path through a Rxed m>lid conductor or a network of wires, 
then, wlirn a eonalant miignetic foive is made to act on the system, 
the lutth of the current through the conductors is not pormancntl] 
altertid, but after certaiu transient [ihenomcna, called inditetic 
currents, have subsided, the diiitribtitii>a of tlie current will be fou 
to be the same as if no magnetic force were in action. 

The only force which acta on electric currents is eleciromotii 
force, which must be distinguished from the mechanical force whic 
is the Huhject of this chapter. 

rt( u. 

thMS riihMsMM Mm 



502] Wa have conBidered in the !aBt chapter the nature of the 
magnetic fitld produood hy an electric curreDt> and the mcehaaical 
action on a conductor carrying^ an electric current pUoed in a mag- 
iwtic fifld. From this we went on to couaider the artioa of one 
electric circuit upon aDother, by determioin^ the action on the first 
diK to the ma^riic field produced hy the second. But the action 
of one circuit u]H)n another was oriirinnlly investigated in a direct 
maniwr liy Amjidrtf almost immcdialcly aftt-r the publication of 
Orated's discovery. We shall thtTcforu give iin outline of Ampere's 
method, resuming the method of this treatise in the uest chapter. 

The iden« which guided Ampiirc belong to the eystem which 
ftdmita direct action at » distnncc, and we shall find that a ivmark- 
able course of tpcouhition and invCKtigstion founded on tbo»e ideiis 
has been oarried on by Qau^ ^Vcl>er, J. Neumann, Itirmanii, 
Bettt, C. Neumann, Lorenz, and other*, with very remarkable 
results both in the diecovery of new facts and in the formation of 
» theorj- of electricity. See Aria, 8(6-866. 

The ideas which I have attempted to follow oat are those of 
action through a medium from one portion to the contiguous 
portion. These ideaa were much employed by Faraday, and the 
development of them in a mathematical form, and the comparisi.>n of 
the results with known fact«, have been my aim in several publitlicd 
papers. The comparison, from a philosophical point of view, of the 
resalts of two methods so completely opposed in their fmt prin- 
dplefl must lead to valuabli} data for the study of the conditions 
of scientific Bpcctilation. 

503.] Ampere's theory of the mutual action of electric currents 
is founded on four experimental fucts and ono assumption. 

L a 




Ampftro's fundamfntal experiment are nil of tliem oxamplea of 
vlixt has been callt-d ihv null method of e(>ni[i«riiij> foroca. Sec 
Art. 214. losimd of m<'UKuring Uk^ forec liy th« dynamicml oITm^h 
nf commnninling motion to a body, or tlte Rt«tioal method c«^| 
placing it in equilibrium with the freight of a body or the elaslicitj 
of a librv, in the null method two forces, due to the same »ourc4>, 
arc nuide to act simultaneously on a body already in e4ui)ibnuro, 
iind 110 effect is produced, which shews that these forces are tbem- 
sclves in equilitiriiim. This method 19 peculiarly valuable for 
comparing the etlects of the «loctric current when it passe« tbrouj^h 
circuits of diSbreiit forms. By connecting all the conductors 
one oontinuous wncw, we ensure that the ftreiigth of the correntl 
is the Fame at every point of ita oourHC, and »ince the L*urT«ntj 
begins everywhere throughout its conrxc almost at the nme instiint,| 
wu may prove thitt tho forces due to its aelion on a sujipend^d 
body are in etjtiilihiiiim by observing that the body is not at all 
affected by the starting or the stopping of the current. 

804.] Anii»4re's balance consiBts of it light frame capable of 
reTolving about a vertical axis, and carrying a wire which forma 
two circuits of equal »r««, in the same plane or in parallel plauea, 
in which the current Bows in opposite directions. The object of J 
this arrangement is to get rid of the effects of terrestrial nutgDetisiti [ 
on the conducting wire. When an electric circuit is free to moreJ 
it tends to plac« it#elf so n« to embrace the largest possible number 
of the lines of indiu-tioo. If these lines are due to terrestrial 
magnetism, this |>o«itii>n, for a circuit in a vertical plane, will Im 
when the plane nf the ein-nit is Mst and west, and when tlie 
direction of the ctirrcnt is opposed to the apparent coutm of the^J 

ily rigidly connecting two circuits of eqnnl am in panillel phines, 
in which equal iiirrents mn in opposite directions, a eoinbinutioaj 
is formed whieh is nnaffi-ctcd by terrestrial magnetism, and isT 
Iherelbre called an Aitatio Combination, see Fig. 26. It is acted 
on, however, by forces ariwng fmax owrrents or magnets wtucfa 
so near it that they net dilTer^'ntly on the two circuits. 

506.] Aup^rs's Grsl ex)>enment is on the vfivcl of two cqinl 
Fwrents close lugx-lhtT in i^pposite tlin\-tions. A win> rovetvd withj 
iwutating matetiat is douhlt^d on itwlf, and pUced near one of the' 
eitvuits of tlw aslalii' halamv. When a current is made to pun 
thr\>u;;h the wirv ami Ute hatsnw, the cqnil>bnum of the Imli 
nuuiUDs untlistnttied, ahevrinit that two ninnl ourTVDtaeltM>t(^«tlier] 







in opfKMite directioDs neuLriiliRo umih otlter. If, uutMd of two 
wires tiido br side, a wire he iiwiilul^ i» tlie midillc of a rooUl 
tube, and if the curreut paas through tlie wtte and back by the 
tube, llifl action oatside the tube i» nnt only approximately but 
accurnlcly null. This principle is of great impiirtance in tJie COO- 
structioD of i-Wtric apparatus, as it atTordti the means of convoying 
ibo current to and from any f^alvanomctor or other iniilrumeDt in 
fiiclj a WHy that no clcctroma^ctic effect is proilm-c-il by the current 
on it« pagitagt! to and from the inEtrumcDt. In praclice it is gv&e* 



rally iculTicitnt to bind the wires tojjfetber, care bein^ tak«n that 
they are kept perfectly insulated from each other, but where they 
mu»t pa« ncM any sensitive part of the apparatus it is better to 
make one of the conductors a tube and the other a win; inside H. 
See ArL 6S3. 

506.] In Ampere'* s»M>nd experiment one of the wires is bent 
and crooked with a number of small Kinuosities, but so Uiat in 
every part of its courae it remains wry nt-ar the straif^ht wire. 
A current, flowing through the crooked wire and back again 
through iJie straight wire, is found to be without iutlu^uce on tbe 
■static balaooc. This proves that the effect of the current running 
through any crooked part of the wire is equivalent to the same 
current running in the straight lino joining its extremities, pro- 
vided the crooked line is in no part of its course far from the 
straight one. Hence any small element of a circuit is equivalent 
to two or nion^ component clcmcute, the rclulion brtwo^n tbe 
component elcouenu and the resultant clement being tbe same as 
tliat between eouipunent and n^sultaiit diK]>Uiccmeiit« or velocities. 

fiOT.] In the tliinl exx>eriuienl a conductor capable of moving 



only in thft direction of itx len^h is Rnbslitiiled for tb« astatio 
baUiioe. Tlie ctirrent eaten the conductor and leaves it at (iied 
points of ipatfc, and it if round thut no clnit^ circuit pla(.<ed in ■, 
the neighbourhood U able to moTC the cundactor. 


The conductor in this oxpcrimcnt is a viro in the form of a 
ciroolar arc euspvndt-d on a fnimo which is c>i]>ab1e of rotation 
about n vcrtiwd axis. Tb* circular arc it. hori/.ontnl, atwl it« centre 
i-oincidw with tho vertical axis, Twi-o Muall trough* arc filled with ^ 
nicrcur}' till the convex surlace of the mercury riiceK above t]iS^| 
level of ihe trouffhs. The tronghB ar^ placed under tlic cirwihir^^ 
arc and n4^uat(>d till th«> mer<?nry tdiiches the wire, which is of 
copper well auui1j^nuite<l. The current is made to enter on« of 
ihcM tionj^ha, to IravcrBe the port of th« circnlar an* lietweeo the 
troafHu, and to esMpc by the other trough. Thus part of the 
circular ant is traversed by tho Rurrfnt, and the arc ia at the now 
time capable of moving with eonxidcrmhle freedom in the dlree- 
tion of its length. Any closed ourrents or ma^^ncts may ttow be 
BMwle to approach tho moveable condw-lor without producing* the 
■Ughlvist tendency to more it in the direction of its length. 

soft.] In the l^^urth cxpmment with the astatie hakaea two 
rireoita are employed, each joiniUr to one of those in the 
but one of them, C. hannit dimensioDS ■ timn greater, 
other, J, m time* less. Theee an plan<J oo opposite sides of th«' 
oin'uit of the balaoKi, whtch we ehall all B, so that thrr are ^ 
similaHy pUml with rvtftvi to it, the distaoee of f from S hdl|ri| 


aod th^ 

>s or til* V 

« tiniM gnatvr than the distauoe of if frow A. Tb« drtedaaa' 




■treoglh of tiie. <nirT«nt is tbo snmo in A and C. Its direction in 
B may be the samo or op]>osil«. I'ndcr the$o (;irciitnstanci>6 it is 
foDud that Ji iaiu <^uilibrium under thr action o( A iind C, wbatpver 
be ihe forms and diatanoea of Uie throe circuits, provided thoy Iioto 
the relations igrivon above. 

Since the actions between the complete circuits may be conxiOcrcd 
to be dne to actions between the elementH of the oircniU, wt may 
use the following: method of determininj^ the law of these actions. 

Let J,, 5,, C,, Fig. 28, be corresponding elements of the three 
drctiits, and let J^, R,, C^ bo nlso corresponding elements in an- 
otlicr part of the cirenit«. Then the dttmtion of 5, with respect 
to Af is similar to tite situation of C^ with respect to B.f, but the 

distance and dimensions of (7, itnd 1i^ are it times the distitnce and 
diroenxions of B^ and A^. roxiH'Ctivoly. If th<> Uw of electromag- 
netic action is a function of the distance, then the action, what- 
ever bo it« form or quality, between H^ and A„, may be written 

and that between C, and B.^ 

wbere a. b, e are the strengths of the currents in A, B, C. But 
nB^ = C-i, nAj = B^, hBi Ag= C, B^, and a = c. Hence 

r^ n*Bi.A,f{nS^)ab, 
and this is equal to F by esperiment, so that wo havo 
tkefartt tvrta ineerteiy aa ike aqitttre of IA« dUiaHce. 




609.] It may be observed with reference to these experitaents 
that ever}' ele^ric curreDt forms a closed ci'miit. Tlie currents 
usttl by Ampere, bt-inf* producc^l by the voltaic buttery, were of 
oonrso id closed circuits. It might bo supposed that in the ess* 
of the current of dtsi-hurgv of a conductor by a spark we mif^ht 
have X current forming nn open 6nitc line, but ncconling to lb« 
news of this book even this caiti; is that of a closed circait. No^f 
(.'xiKriments on thi- mulual action of unclosed ciimrnts liavo bevg 
n1all(^ H<-n<'e no sintement about the mutual uelion of two ele- 
ment* of circuit* can he «aid (o resA on purely exjwrimental gmiinds.! 
Tt is true ne may render a portion of a circuit nioreabh-, so as to ' 
ascertjiiii the action of the other currents upon it, but thc«e eur>J 
rentH, together with that in the moveable portion, necessarily for 
closed circuits, eo that the ultimate result of the experiment is t\\t 
action of one or more closed currents upon the whole or a part of 1 
closed current. 

510.] In the analysis of the phenomena, however, we may re- 
g»td the act'ion of u closed (.-ireiiit on an i-lcmcnt of ilaelf or of 
another circuit as the resultant of a numl>er of separate forces, 
depending on the t>ei>uniti- }<urt.ii into which the fir«t ciroutt may 
be conceived, for mathematical purpowes, to be divided. 

This is a men^y mathematical analysis of tbe action, and ia 
therefore perfectly legitimate, whether tbe&e finoea can really ao^H 
separately or not^ ^ 

511.] We shall beRin by considering the purely geometrical 
relations between two lines in space representing the circuits, and 
betweeu elementary portions of these lines. 

Let there be two curves in space in each of which a Bsed point 

is lalien, from which the arcs are 
mcuMirvd in a defined direction 
along the curve. Let J, /f ht 
these poiut«. Let PQ and i^^ 
be elements of Ihe two curves. ^A 
Let AP^t. J-p-=^/, ) , ■ 


r=i.\ *" 

PQ = rfi, P'Q' 
and let the distance PP' be de- 
noted by r. Let tl»e angle P'PQ be denoted by f. and WQ* 
by tf*. and let the angle between the planes of these angles be 
denotisl by ij. 

The relative position of Ihe two elcroenia i* suffii 
their distance r and the three angles 0, jf, and ^ 



given their relative position is «» eonipletely determinnd as if tliey 
ForKKHJ part of" th« same rigid body. 

512.] If ue use rectangular coordinates and make if, g, t tlie 
fioordinatea of P, and jp*, /, / lliose of 7**, and if we deDote by 
/, Ml, n and by f, n^, »' the direetion-eosines of i*Q, and of P<^ 
respect ivuly, thi-n 


= 1, 



= tii, 

-7- = », 

= «, 

, = «, 

■ and /(a^_a) + «(/_,)+i,(-'_j)= rcos^, . 

■ '•(*'-') + «'(/-^) + «'(--'-^) = -'■cos^'. \ 
^B W + ntts' + tin = coat, * 

B whcr« 1 18 tlie angle between the directions of the elements thom- 
mItm, and 

Crts « = — co« 9 COS I?* -1^ sin sin ^ cos 7. 






= — rcoBtf. 
= — reo«(f ; 



mod diflerrntJuting t-^ witti respect to /, 

d*T dr dr 

^dtd^'^ 4t dt' 



djt duf dy dy 

= — COB t. 

We COD therefore eiprees the three angles 6, 6', and t;, and the 
auxiliary un^lv < in terms of the ditferential eoellicients of r with 
respect to I and / as follows, 




ooefl = — 

COB^s — 


coat •= — r 

nn (? 6Jn fl* COB 17 = - r 





ahpIese's theort. 

613.] AVc Bbnli next coiuiidor id whiit way il i* matlieinntinllf . 
eoncdvmblc llutt the vli-nutntM PQ nnd P'Q' might uct on «acl!^f 
other, and in doing so wt? ulinll not at first XMume that th«ir mutoaf^^ 
actiiin is nvcf^Hiril}- in the lino joining them. 

Vfe have seen that we may ttappoae each elenaeot Ksolved into 
other elements, proWded that these componente, when combined 
according to the rule of addition of vectors, produ<^e the original _ 
element as their reealtant. 

We bhall therefore consider dt as reeolred into ooe Odt = a in tK«1 

direction of r, and ein 0Jt = fi 




in a direction peqiendicular to 
r in the plane F'Pq. 

W« shall «l*o conxidcT d. 
the direetioD of r reversed 



FSk- 30. 

aa reeoWed into ta%& di =a m ttie direetioo ol r 
sin 0'coB !)<//= ^ in s direction parallel to that in whieh was 
measured, and &in ff'sin i)(^/= / in a direction perpendicular to 
«' and j3'. 

Let us consider the action 1>etween the components a and ^ oi 
the one hand, and o', f(, y' on the other. 

(1) a and a'are in the same straight line. The force beiwoeD 
them must therefore bo in this lino. Wc shall suppose it to 
SD attiractton = j^ao' ii, 

where jf ifl a function of r, and i, V arc the intensities of tlM 
current* in da am) di{ rcspcetiveljr. This expression satisBes 
condition of changing sign with J and with %. 

(2) )3 and are parallel to each other and pcrpcndienlar to 
line joining them, llie action between them may be written 

This force is evidently in the line joining j3 and f(, for it most 
be in the plane in which tJiey both lie, and if we were to measure 
/3 and 3* '« the reversed direction, the value of this expression 
would r«-miuii thv same, whii-h elicvrs that, if it repreHeots a force, 
that foren Itiia no component in the direction of ^, and must tliere- 
fure be directed along r. Let ua assume that this expression, wbeo 
positive, repTesenta au attnu'lion. 

(3) j3 and / ore perpendicular to each other and to the lino 
joining them. The only action poasihle betwM>n elrtiu-ntii ho related 
\* a couple whose axis is parallel to f. We are al prt-Bt-nt eng 
with forces, so we shall leave this oat of accoant. 

(4) The action of a and /?*, if they act on each other, most \m~- 


not lut^^ 

exproBsed by 


»i . 



Tiiff fdgn of thi> cxprc^ion is ruvcrecd if «c rcverw the direction 
|in whicli we mvaKura j^. It niii»t tlivrcforc ropresent oitlicr a (one 
'io the direction of ff', or n «r>u]>k! in the jilniie of a and ff. As we 

are not iDvestignl ing enapU-M, vc nliiill tulcc it lu a force acting 

on a in the direction of ff. 

I There is of course an c<iual force acting on ^ in tbe opposite 
We have for the same reason a force 
j Cay it 

acting; oa a in the direction of /, and a force 

ting on ff in tb« opposite direction. 

514.] Collecting our results, we find that the action on d» is 
ampoundcd of the following forces, 

X = (Aaa'+ B^a^) ii' in the direction of r, ) 

r= C(oj3'-y;3)»i' in thciiirectionof/J, | (9) 

£ = Cay'iV in the direction of /. ) 

■ u» cuppote that this action on d» is the rc«n1tant of three 
reee, Si/iitd/ acting in the direction of r, 8i\d*<l/ acting in 
direction of ds, nnd Sii'dtda' acting in the direction of dt', 
hen in tenox of 0, C, and 7, 

R = A cimDcosd'+^sinlJain^cosi}, 1 
8 =-Cco»fi', 5'=CeoBtf. i 

In terms of tlic diScrontial coi-fiicicnts of r 


^~ ^d.d/-^'d^'' 




In temu ot i,m,n, and /', «', m', 

= -(^ + 5ji(/f+Mii + iiO(/'f4-<a'.j + ti'0 + ^(i/' + «w' + «n')/ 

c!(/'f+«', + i,'f), S'=ci(/f+«i,+«<). 

whore f, ij, C arc written for a^—x, y—y, and /s respeetiTely- 

515.] We have next to calculate the fiirce witli which the finite 

current / actit on the Ruitfl current «. Tlie current a extends from 

(, whrre *=0, to f, where it hiw the value *. The current / 

extendit from A", where «'= 0, to P", where it has the value /. 





The (>oonliiiat«B of points on either current are functions of « or 
of #'. 

If F JB »ny function of th« position of a points then we BhaU n 
the stib-teript (, „] to denote the eice«« of iU valu« at P over that 
at J, thus i',..rt = >V-/'^. 

SikU fiinciions nec«Bsarily disappear when the cirrtiit is closed. 

Let llie conipoDenta of tbe total force with which A'P' acts 
AP be i/X, ii'T, and tiZ. Theo the component i>ani)lel to X of 




the forcD with whidt da' acta on itn will be tt' 


£^=*^ *'+''■■ 



Suhetitutin^ the values of S, S, and S" from (12), mnnnbering 
that ^ . dr 

r^ + m'n+H'C^r 


and arian^g the t«ntis with respect to /, in, 11, we find 


Siaee A, B, aod C are ftmcUona of r, we may write 
P=[(A + B)^d,, q^Tcir, 

tbe int«gT«tkHi b«ing tak«B betveeo r and ac becatue A, S, 

vanish when r s oo. 


1 iP 





51 61] Now WB know, by Amp^'s third otae of equiUbriuin, that 
when / is a ckwed circuit, the fom aotinfj: on Jt is perpradicular 
to tlM diroetiaa of d*. or, in other worda. the oomponent of the fi>re» 
ia tbe direetiM of dt itself is zem. Let as therefore aasome tht 
direction of theaxi» of x so as to be {larallel to dt by making' f= I, 
« M 0, a s 0. Equation ( I i) thm bvcomn 

To Gad .- , tbe focw on dt nbtnd to mut of tength, wc muiL 


[gi7.] icnoF or a closed cntcmr os as elemebt. 



tal«{>rate this exprf«sion with ri?«]wct to /, Jnttgratiag the first 
ternj by farta, we find 

^:^=iPe-Qh.0-Jj^P''-^-c)^^^. (19) 

"Wlien y U » cloaed circuit this eiprossion must be zero. The 
first term will disappear of itself. Th« Rcond tprm. however, will 
not in general liiaappenr iu the case of a clowd circuit nnleae the 
quantity under the taixn of intcfjrntion is alwny« zero. Hence, to 
satisfy Ampere's condition, wc must put 

P = rr^^+C). (20) 

617.] We can now eliminate P, and 6nd the genoial value of 

dX ( -S + Cf ... ,, -) 

■ ml - 

~c m'S~rn 




d*'. (21) 

2 r .'o 2 r 

When »' is a closed circuit the first term of this espression 
vaniuhes, and if we make 

2 r 

-c rc-n'( 





2 r 

' where the integration !a extended round the closed circuit /, we 
I nay write jx 




= »a'-//, 



The qiiantiti^ a, ^, •/ are somctimos called the di'tvrmSnanls of 
(1m! oirciiit *' referred to the point P. Their ru«iiIUint i» called l>y 
Ampiirc the directrix of the eleetrodynamic action. 

It id f^vidcnt' from the eqnation, that the force whose components 

are -^i -y-, and -j- is perpendicular both to dt and to this 

dircHrix, and is repri'4mt«d nun>cri«ally by the area of the parallel- 
, c^niffl wboJie sides are da and the directrix. 



In th« langujige of qnaternioiui, the resultant force on i/« is tlie 
vector juart of the product of the directrix multiplied by dt. 

Since we already know that the directrix is the eame thing 
the nmgtietic force due to a uoit carreot id the circuit ^, we : 
b«nceforth eiieak of the directrix as the nu^eUc force due to th 

518.] We diall now complete the cuIcuUtion of the compoaeati 
of the force acting botncon two finite currcuttt, whether clo«d 

Let f) be a new function of r, such that 



And equjitJou (1 1) become 


JE = -J««c+r~,«24..), 



With thcee valaes of the component forces, equation (13) becomes 




_^ = -co..^j+f3-5,(Q+.W^+r-^. 

m 00* 

519.] Let 


m I'm pdt, 

cr= rm'pd/. 




T^ptp qnaatitiM ban definite mines for any given point oT <|mm. 
Wti«ii live nrcuite are etowd, tbey cofw s pond to the oompotten to of 
the Yoctor-potcntials of tbo cinuits. 
Let £ be a new ftumtMn of r, fuch that 


ami let Jtf be tli« «]«ubl« int«^ntt 





wfaicli, wh«n the oircaita are closed, beootnes tlieir mutual pot«ntia], 
. then (27) may be written 

520.] Integrating, with respect to i aiul /, bvtwcoo the gives 
limittf, wo find 

IX= -j^ — ^{Ipr—ZAi'—L^'e + J'Ajr), 
^ +n~FU-F^+FA,, (33) 

whi>T« 1h« suWripts of L iuditalc the di«tsncP, r, of tvbioh tlio 
quantity £ is a function, and tlxt etibscrijitv of F and /" indicate 
ith« pointH at which their values are to be taken. 
Tlie expressions for Y and Z may be written down from thi*. 
Mnltiplying the tlirce conij>oiientfi by i/x, dy, and di respectively, 
we obtain 
Xdr+Yds + Zd: = J)M-I){Lrr-Ljp-ruf+L^j-), 
^ -{Fdx + Gdy + IId.'\^^A^, (34) 

wncre D U the eymbol of a complct* ditlbrcntial. 

Since Fdx -t-Gdy i^ Udz is not in general a complete differential of 
afttnction a{x,y, z, Jrf»+ Ydy + Zds is not a complete differential 
for currents cither of which is not closed. 

521.] If, however, both currents are closed, the temu in L, F, 
.. 0, H, r, G', 11' disappear, and 

■ X<ix+ Ydff + Zrh = DM, (35) 

^ where M is the mtitnal potential of two closed circuits carrying unit 
currents. The quantity M expresses the work done by the electro- 
magnetic forces on cither conducting circuit when it is moved 
parallel to itself from an infinite distance to its actual position. Any 
alteration of its pcMttion, by which M \» increased, will lie axtitted by 
the electromagnetic forces. 
jB It may be shewn, as in Arts, 490, 596, that when the motion of 
^"thfl circuit is not pamtlel to itself the forc(« acting on it are still 
<let«rmin«d by the variation of M, the potential of the one circuit on 
tfae other. 

522.] The only cxprimental fact which we have made use of 
in Uiis investigation is the fact cstaliUshcd by Am[)ftre that the 
action of a closed current on any portion of another current is 
perpcndicnUr to the direction of the latter, Every other part of 



tbe invnti^tion depends on purely mathematical considoratione 
depending on the properties of lines in space. The retuonin? there- 
fore limy be presented in a much more condensed snd apprupriAte 
furm by the use of the Ideas and Inngnage of tbe mathematial 
mctliod speciiiUy adapted to the cspression of such geometrical 
relations — the QHatemwm of Hamilton. 

This liaa been done by Professor Tait in the Qaart^fy Mati«-_ 
KUtHeal /ournat, 1860, and in his treatise on Qaairrnioiu, ^ 399, fyi 
Ampere's original investigation, and the titudent can t^ly adap 
the same method to tbe wmenliat mora gvnerul investigation givt 

623.] Hitherto vt« have madi- no ajsnmption with respect to tl 
qiiantiticK A, It, C, excejil that they are functions of r, the distAoe 
between the elements. We have next to ascertain the form 
the«e fuuetions, and for this purpose we make use of Amp&re'a" 
fourth case of equilibrium. Art, 508, in which it b shewn that if 
all the linear dimensions and dtstanoes of « s^'stem of two circoitt 
be altered in the same proportion, tbe ctirrente remaining th« suoh, 
the force between the two circuits will remain the same. 

Now the force between the circoita for unit cnrrents is -j— , 



Binee this i« independent of the dimennons of the system, it m 
be a numerical quantity. Hciiee M itself, tlie coefficient of the 
mutual potential of the eirciiitfi. mwil be a quantity of tbe dim 
•iouB of a line. It follows, from equation (31), tJtat p must )>c 
reeiprocal of a line, and therefore by (24), ii— Cmnst be the invei 
square of a line. But since B and C are both functions of r, B— 
must be tbe inverse square of r or some numerical multiple of it. 

524.] The multiple we adopt depends on our system of meadure- 
ment. If we adopt the electromagnetic system, so called hecauae 
it agrees with the system already established for magnetic measore- 
menls, tbe value of J/ ought to coincide with that of tbe potential 
of two magnetic m1mi11« of strength unity whose boundaries are tbe 
two circuit* respectively. The value of if in that case is, by 

A'^-*". M=(j^d,4r, (36) 

the integration Uting {lerforined round both circuits in the positive 
direction. Adopting this as the numcrieal value of if, and 
paring with (31), we find 








525.] We may now express tlie components of the force on ti» 
^tnsias fpotn the action of r// in the most general form consistent 
^with oxpcrimcntiil Satds. 

The force on ds is compounded of an Attraction 

the direction of r. 

8=: — -^ i'/iUd/ ill the dircctJoii of 44, 

tnd S'^ 

irhere Q 

: —Wdfil/ in the direction of <Ai', 



Cdr, and since C is an unknown function of r, we 

luiow only that Q is some function of r. 

536.] The quantity Q cannot he determined, without osEtitnp- 
tions of some kind, fruro exjieriments in which the active current 
Ibnns a cloited eirciiit. If we suppose with Ampere that tho action 
en the cU'menta d» ami d* is in the liuf joining them, then 
<9' must diaapjii'ar, and Q must be coiistaut, or Ecro. Tho 
ree is thon ix-duced to an attraction whose value is 

^i^dsd^. (39) 

^-^\d»d? ^' 

Ampere, who made this investigation long before the magnetic 
tryvtem of units had hvt-.n estublishcd, uees ti formula having a 
nnmerictil value half of tiiis, naniidy 

Here the strength of the current is meaitured in what is colled 

fleetrodrnamic measure. If i, t'art- the strength)! of the currents in 
leetro magnetic measure. and_;'.y the same in olcCtrodj'DUmic meu- 
ore, then it is pl&in that 
y/=2ir, or >=^/2;. (41) 

Hence the nnit current adopted in electromngnetic measure b 
greater than that adopted in electrodynamic muisurc in the ratio 
of v'S to 1. 

The only title of tho elcctrodynamic unit to consideration is 
that it was originally wlopted by .\mpiire, \\w dixcovervr of th« 
law of action between eitrn-nts, Tlic continual recurrence of •/^ 
in calculation* foundcil on it is inconvniicut, and the electro- 
magnetic system has W\e great udvuutugeof coioeidiug numerically 
VOL. ri. u 



villi all our na^«lic rormiiloe. As it is tlifficnlt for the stadetil 
to bear in mind whether he is to multiply or to divide by \^2, we 
ehall hf^nccforth uso only the ek-ctromagnetic system, as adopted b 
Weber nnd most other writers. 

Since thi- Torm itnd vhIuu of Q have do effect 00 any of the 
eicperimente hithorto made, in which the active current at least 
is always a cIokviI one, we muy, if wc please, adopt any value of 
wbicli a|ipc3r> to us to simplify the formulae. 

Tlius Ampere u^iMiiDieE that the force between two elementa 
the lin« joining llu-m. Tliia gives Q = 0, 

Gmssmann * sssumes that two elements in the nm« straight lini 
have no mutual action. This givc« 



-i .=. 

3 dh 


We might, if we pleased, oienime that the attraction between t' 
elements at a given diatanee is proportional to the ooeine of 
angle between them. In thin case 

.-, J?=^eo9.. S = -;i^. S = -^^ 

Finally, wc mig^it assume that tlte attraction and the obli 
forces depend only on tbe angles which the elements make with the 
line joining them, and then we should have 


t. S = -3 

I dr rfr 

S- 2^^ 

*=^£- (»: 

527.] Of tltme four diffrn'ttt a»stimption« that of Aii>{>^ro ii 
andoubtnlly the l*rst, since it is the only one wbioh makvs tli 
forom on the two elements not only txjual and oppoaiW but in tli 
•tnight line nhieh joins them. 

* P<«B.. Mm. lxl>. p. 1 (IMS). 



5S8.] Thi: <li»ci>v(>ry by Onttt^ of the magnetic notion of an 
electric cnrrent led by a direot prix-esa of i-easoninjj to tliat of 
ma^DetizatioD by elwrtric ourrents, and of the mechanical action 
between electric currents. It wo* not, however, till 1831 that 
Famday, who had been for some lime endeavouring to produce 
electric currents by magnetic or electric action, discovered the con- 
ditions of mngoeto-eleciric induction. The metbod which Faraday 
employed in hia researches consisted in a constant appeal to ci- 
imcnt as a means of testing the truth of his ideas, and a constant 

iltiration of ideas under the direct influence of experimenl. In 
his pnblished researehea we find these ideas expressed in language 
which is all the better fitted for a nascent science, because it is 
■oni«whnt alien from the style of physicists who have been aocus- 
tomvd to cstAblislied mathematical forms of tliought. 
, The trxpcrimmtal investiffation by which AmpJrre establivhnl the 
laws of the mechanical action between electric curn'ots is one of 
the most brilliant achievements in science. 

The whole, theory and experiment, seems as if it hJld leaped, 
full grown and full armed, from the hr:iin of the ' Newton of elec- 
tricity.' It is perfect in form, and nnassailable in accunu^y, and 
it is eammed up in a formula from which all the phenomena may 
bo deduced, and which must always remain the cardinal formula of 
el ectro-dynam ica, 

Till- method of Amp^^e, however, though cast into an iiultictive 
form, does not allow ns to trace the formation of the idotx which 
guided Urn "We can scnroely bvliere thai Ampdre mlly diiicovered 
tin' law of action by means of the experiments which he describes. 
We ore led to susp4'G4i what, indttd, ho tells uk liimself •, that he 

• TiMu dt§ PJIoMmAMi Bntndynamlfutt, p. 0. 
K Z 




(liitcoTcred Ike law by aomc ])rooe68 which be bsB not shewo uii, 
And that when bo had afVerwanls bniU up a perrcct lU-moD- 
•tntion he removed all tntces of the ecafTolding by which h« 
raiaed it. 

Faraday, on the other band, shews ua his nnsacoesaful aa^ 
aa Ilia Hiocewtibl experiotenta, and his erude ideas as well as liii 
developed ones, and the reader, however inferior to him in inductive 
(lower, feela sympatliy even more than admiration, and is tempted 
to believe that, if be had the opportunity, he too would be a dis- 
coverer. Every student therefore should read AmpJrcB rwearch 
as a splendid esnmplo of scientific style in the statement of a di 
covery, but he should also study Faraday for the cultivation of 
scientific spirit, by means of the action and reaction which 
tnko plaoo between the newly discovered facts as introduced to him 
by Faraday and the nnscent ideas in his own mind. 

It was perhaps for the advantage of science that Faraday, though 
thoroughly con«cioiis of tltc riindnmental forms of spaccj time, and 
force, wiu not a profesited mntliematiciim. Ho was not tcmpt«d 
to enter into the many iatcre»tinf> researdies in pure motbematM* 
which his discoverifs would have suggested if tlicy had 
exhibited in a mathematienl form, and he did not feel eallcd u 
eillier to rorc« hi» results into a Kha|ie acce|>tible to the null 
matical taste of the time, or to express Ihem in a form wb 
matbematiciAns might attack. He was thus left at letsore 
do his projK-r worV, to coonlinate his idea« with bia facta, 
cxprttw them in natural, untevhnical langnagek 

It is mainly with the hope of makini; the-te ideas the basts 
matbentaticiil mvtht^l that I have uudertakea this treatise. 

52f>.] We are uceuKtomed to consider the universe as made up of 
parts, and matbemalieiann ukudIIv he^in bv eonsiderin^ a si 
particle, and then conceiving iU ivbtion to another particle, and 
on. This has generally been sup)>cMctl the most natural melb 
To eoneeivc of a particle, however, nHjnirex a pn>ct»i of absttactii 
nnoe all our percepltuns ore rebted U> ejitt^ndoil bodies, so 
tlw Mm of the 41// tluit is ra our HmacioudneM) at a given 
is perhaps as primitive an idea as that of any indi\-idual 
Henee there may be a utatlieinatical method in which we pri<e 
from the whoht to the parts itistltad of from Ihe patt« to the who' 
For example, Kwlid, in his first hook, oonMives a liiw as traevd 
out by a p^int, a fMrfiK.'e as swept out by a line, and a volid m 
generated by a suifacr. Dut he alwi defines a snr&oi 




boundary of a aaMi, * line m the iHlg« vf a KurfaiM, and a point 
I tbe extremity of a line. 

In like manner we may coneeive th« potential of a material 

■ystem as a function found by a certain prooe^ of intcg^ration with 

Lreepevt to th« maaees of the bodies in the tield, or we may Hup^Kiw 

lliMO masses themselves to have do other mathematical meaning 

Ihan Ute volnme-intO|rntlK of — V**, where * is the potential. 

In electrical investigations we may use formulae in which the 

]aantit!c« involved arc the dielauces of certain bodies, and the 

^electrifications or currents in these bodies, or we may use formulae 

which involve otlior quantities, each of which is continuous through 

all epoco. 

The mathematical process employed in tJie first method is in- 
tegration along lines, over snrfaees, and throughout finite spaeea, 
thow employed in the aceond methoi:l are partial dilTcroutial equa< 
_tiona and integrations throughout all Ktinoe. 

The method of Faraday scema to be intimately related to the 
ad of these modes of treatment. lie never oonsidera bodies 
existing with nothing between them but their distauoe, and 
acting on one another according to some function of that distance. 
He eonccivc* all spiicc ns a field of force, the lines of force being 
io general curved, arnl those due to nny body extending from it on 
all sides, their dirretionn being modified by the presence of other 
bodies. He even m{ks1>'h * of the linen of force belonging to a body 
M in »ORM> tteiiMt part of itiielf, sen that in iU action on distant 
bodies it cannot be ^id to act where it is not. Tliiii, however, 

not ■ dominant idea with Faiaday. 1 think he would rather 
bavc mid- that the field of space is full of lines of force, whotv 

I arrangement depends on that of the bodies in the field, aud that 
taie mechanical and electrical action on each boily is determined by 

tiona 1 

^98 exi 



580.] 1. Muciioit hi/ Farialion of the Primary Ciirrmt. 

Let there he two conducting circuits, the Primary and the 
idary circuit. The primarj* circuit is connected with a voltai« 

• iSip. A>., ii p. 903 ; iii. p. 417 

t Bud Pandky'* JSK/nrimatal Jtofordtn, mtim I ud IL 




bntlety hy wliich thn primaiy carrent may be produced, tiiamtauiL><l, 
Ht«{>]wd, or Tovoraed. The wcondaiy circuit includea a fpil^no- 
m«Uir to indicate any ciiri«ntd which msy W formed in it. This 
galviinoRi«UT iR placed at such a dietance from all jtarts ot the 
I>riinury circuit that the primaty current hs8 no sensible direct 
iiitliwnw OH ita indications. 

Let part of the primary circiiit consist of a stTaifjlit wire, and 
part of the secotidury circuit of n strai(;ht wire near, and pnmUel to 
the first', the otlicr parts of Ibu circuit* bein^ at a ^^Jitor difitanoc 
from each other. 

It is found that at the instant of Miidin); a current through 
the straiffht wire of the primary circuit the galii'aDonH-lcr of the 
secondary circuit imlicut^-Jt ■ ciirreut in the fivondary straight wire 
iu the (tppotUe direction. Hiis in culled Uie induced current. If 
the primary cnrrenl '\* maintained L'onatant, the induced current soon 
ditapjieam, and tlio primary current appears to produce no elTeet 
on the Mi-coiiilary eiivuiu If now the primary current is stopped, 
a aeoondary current is observed, which ta in the an>« direction as 
the primary cnrreut Every variation of the primary currvnt 
produecA electromotive force in the seoondary circuit. When the 
primary current inerawco, the electromotive foroe is in tite opposite 
direction to the current. When it diminishes, the electromotive 
force is in the same direction as the current. When the primaiy 
aurrent is conttunt, there is do electromotive force. 

IImmo effectn of indudion are inereasvd by brini^ing tlte two wires 
ncanr ton^llier. They are alw iocrvoeed by forming them into 
two oirouUr or spiral coils placed doeu together, and still more by 
placing an iron rod or a buntUe of iron wires inside tfaa ooilsi. 

3. Imimetiom if Motam V Ur Primaty CinaU. 

We ba^e seen that wbm the primary enrrent is maiBtained 
vonatant and at rest tbe aeeotkdary •.-urrmt rapidly disappears. 

Now let tbe primary cum>nt be maintained constaiDt, bat let tbe 
primary' slrnight nire be made tin approach tbe seeoadary ittaigfat 
wire. IHiriiig the approach there will be a smiodaiT comnt in 
tbe vfpMtt* dit«vlii4i tkvm tbe pfiiaary. 

If tbe |>riuiary eiivall bo moved away from the svcoDdaiT', tbd* 
will be a secondary ourrvnt in tbe mmr dirvetiua as tbe prnnarv 

If tbe senudary eimni W mvn^ tba saooadb^ ettmat m 




opposite to tha priinar3r when the E««ondar)' wire U approKohin^ 
the primary wire, nad in the giimu (lircctiou when it is rocodiag 

Ktrora it. 
In nil cofca the dircc-tioii of the sccondury current is ttiie)) that 
the mechanical action between the two conductors is oppoKite to 
the direction of motion, iming u repiilHion when the wtre« are ajt- 
prouehintf, and an attmctiou when tliey nro receding. This wry 
importBiil fact vmit eetJihlixhed by Leiix*. 


4. JnduelioH by tie Behlire Motion <^ a Magnet and Ike Stcondary 

If we inih«t1itute for the primary ctrcait a ma^etic shell, whose 

ke(]g« coincides with the circuit, nhose strength is Qumfricutly c(|[uU 
ho that of the current in the circuit, and nlioae auHtml fui-o oor- 
KspoMlM \o the positive face of the circuit, then the phpnomena 
produced hy the relative motion of this shell and the gecoiidary 
circuit are the same as those observed in the cose of the primary' 

531.] The whole of these phenomena may be summeil up in one 
||>iw. When the nnmher of lines of magnetic induction which puss 
fUiroug'h the seoondary circuit in the positive direction is altered, 
in el<'elrnmotive force aet« round the circuit, which ix measured 
]ty the rate iX decreikse of the magnetic induction throu{>^h tb« 

532.] For inalanee, let the raits of a railway tn* insulated from 
^hc earth, hut connected at one terniitius tlu'ough s galvanometer, 
id let the circuit he oampleteil by the wheels and axle of a rail- 
ray carriage at a distance x from the terminus. Neglei-ting the 
eight of the axle above the level of the rails, the induction 
lirough the secondary circuit is due to the vertical component of 
the earth's magnetic Ibrcc. which in northern latitudes is directed 
lownwards. Hence, if i is the Bffluge of the railway, the horizontal 
area of the circuit is bx, and the surface-integral of the mugnetia 
iaductioD through it is Zbx, where Z is the vertical component of 
the magnetic force of the earth. Since Z i« downwanls. the tower 
face of the circuit is to be reckoned positive, nnd the positive 
direction of the circuit it*-clf \t> north, vnA-, iwuth, wcstv thai in, in 
direction of the sun's apparent diurnal mur^e. 
S'ow let tlie carriage be set in motion, then x will vary, and 

" P«|g., Am. uL 403 <1834)l 



tiiere tvill be an electromotiTe force in tlie circuit whose valoe 




If « is increa^Dg, that is, if the earring \» movingr away from 
the tcnninufl, this electromotive force is in the negative direetinn, 
or north, weet, south, east. Hence the direction of this force 
through the ax]e ia froro ri^ht to left. If x were diminishing;, tJte 
absolute direction of the force would be reversed, but since the 
direction of the motion of the carriage is also reversed, the eleotto- 
motivc force on the axle is still from rig-ht to leR, the observer 
io thff carriage being always supposed to move face forwards. In 
southern Intitudcs, where the south end of the needle dips, the 
elcctromotivu force on a moving body is from left to right. 

Hence we have the following rule for determining the eleottx>- 
motivc force on n wire moving through a field of magnetic force, 
Ftaoc, in imagination, your head and feet in tbe position occupied 
\>y Uie emlH of a coropuss needle which point north and south respec- 
tively ; turn yrmr fuet- in the fonvard direction of motion, tlicn tho 
electromotive I'oree due to the motion will be from left to right* 

S33.] As thnra dircctionu) ivlatioits are important, let us tike 
another illuKtrntion. Suppose s metal ginllc laid round the earth 

at thu «|utttor, and n mi-tiil wire 
laid along the meridian of Clrccn- 
wich from the eijtwtor to tlic north 

Let a gmt quadrantnl arch of 
metal be constructed, of which one 
extremity is pivoted on tlio north 
pole, while the other is durieJ round 
tho equator, sliding on tJio great 
girdle of the earth, and following 
the sun in his duily ooiir»e. Tht^re 
will then be an electromotive fc 
along the moving qnadranl, actio, 
fn<ni the pole towards the equator. 
The electromotive ror<« will be the saaie whether we Eoppooe 
the earlh at re*it and the ijuadnint niovpd from cant to we§t, or 
whetWr we «ippo»c llie iiuadnml ul rnst and the earth tnmed from 
west to east. If we suppose the earth to rotnte, the elcctromotiv 
force will be tlie same whatovcr \\v the form uf the part of lb 
circuit fixed in space of which 004 end touches od0 of Iho po 

here «j 


tor. ^ 






the other the equator. The cnrront in this {Hirt of tho circuit 
is from the pole to the equator. 

The other part of the circuit, which is (iscd with respect ta the 
eartli, may abo he of noy form, snd eitht-r withiu or uithoiit the 
earth. In this part the current ib from thf i-quntor bo cither pole. 

534.] The int^neityof the cktitromntivc forco of maffncto-cli^ctrio 
iutlactioD is entirely imk-peudi'nt of the nntiirv of tli4i KiiliKlance 
of th« ooDiiuctor in which it acts, nnil also of tlie nature of the 
condiK-tor which carries tho indiicin^^ current. 

To shew this> Faradsy * made a conductor of two wircK of different 
letals in«nlat«d from one another hy a silk vovurinj'', but twiiftiMl 
together, and solileied together at one end. Tlic other cods of the 
wirvs were connected with a ffalvanomctiT. In this way the wires 
were similariy situated with rcspi-et to the primary circuit, hut if 
the clet'trwmotirc ibrco were ptronffcr in the one wire than in tho 
other it would produce u current wliich woidd he indicated hy the 
gialra no meter. He fonnd, howcvir, tluit *uch a eomhination may 
be ex|>osed to th« most powerful elwtromotive forces due to in- 
ducliiin without tha galvauomcter Wing iilfccted. He also found 
that whether the two branches of the eomjiound eonductior conMsted 
of two metals, or of a niotal and an electrolyte, the galvanometer 
,»«• not aflVcted t. 

Hence the clectromotiTe force on any conductor de|iend8 only on 
tlie fonn and tlie motion of that conductor, together with the 
Htrength, form, and niotioit of the electric currentn in the field. 

r»3o.] Another negative property of electromotive force i» that 

ha» of itxelf no tendency to caui«e the niccliauioal motion of any 
ly, hut only to cause a cunynt of electricity within it. 

If it aetnaJly produces a current in the body, there will be 
mechanical action due to that current, but if we prevent the 
current from beio^ formed, there will be no mechanical action on 

e body itself. If the body is electrified, however, the electro- 
JTO force will move the body, as we have described in Electro- 

bSQ.] Tlie experimental investif^tionof the laws of the induction 
of electric currents in fixed circuits may be conducted with 
oonaiderabic accuracy by methods in which the electromotive force, 
and therefore the current, in the ffalvanometcr circuit is rendered 

instance, if we wish to shew that the induelioit of the coil 



r^ Ua.. 19S. 

t W>., WO. 



A on the «oil X is equal to tliat of B upon T, we place the fintl 
]«iir of coiU A and X at a suffic-k-nt distance from the seeoDd pair 

fig. 3S. 


B and Y. We then coniwct A and 5 wHb a voIt*ic Taltwry, ao 
that W(! CAD make the E&nu: primary current flow through A in liie 
powitivL- direction nnd thi'D tlii'oii{;h B in th*.- m-jpitivt: diri.H-tion. 
We aim connect X and }'willi ngalvanomi-lci', ho tluit tl^; Mvondary 
onrrvDt, if it eitsts, ehsll flow in the >umc direction tkrxiugb Xaad 
1' in series. 

Then, if tho induction of A on A' \* equal lo Uiat of .ff on }', 
the f^vani>nirt^M- \\\\\ tiidkatj^ no taductioD current whi-n tl 
batlprjf circuit it) «Ui«cd or bniljMi. 

The accunK-y of this method iiicn.'ai>e« with tlie ftren^tli of the 
primnry furnMit and tbi' nennilivcneja of the gmlvanomcter to iij- 
stunlaneous currcuts, and the ex|>eriin<:utN are much ninrv easily 
pcrfomied thau those relating to elect roma^tetic attrnction*, wltero 
tho conduflor ilKrlf haa to ke delicatelv nuRpendi-d. 

A very instructive series of well-devivcd esperimenta of this kind 
is de0eril(i-d by Professor l-'elici of W.^a '. 

I shall only indicate brielly some of tlic Uws vi tiicb may be proratl 
in this way. ^^ 

(1) The electromotive force of the loduotioa of one eircuit on^| 
auothcr is ittdcpendent of tlw area of the section of the conductora 
and of the malcrial of nliioli tht^y nrc made. ^l 

For wc cjin excbangv any one of tlic circuits id the experimental 
for aiiotlHT of a difTcrent section and roalcnal, but of the same fnrni, 
without altering the resall. 

• Aa*ak* it CUmU, xxiir. p. M (t8»), and Kmtn OfaiinMi ix. p. 34i (IfvV). 







(2) The indudion of the cireait A on the circuit X is equal to 
that of X upon A. 

For if we (mt .1 in llu- cr»IvaDOinet«r cireuit. and X in the battery 
circuit, Itie 4^(11 iijlirium of flovtromotiri.' force is not disturbed. 

(3) Tlte indu«tiuo is propnrtional to the inducing current. 

For if we Have aswrtaincd t}i;it the induction of J on X is cqnfti 
to that of H on }', and nliio to thiit of C on Z, wo mny make the 
battery current Unt How through .4, and then divide ittrvlf in unjr 
proportion bL-ttveeu /i and C. Tiit^n if viv. connect A' rcvcnted, Y 
and /direct, nil in «erie«, nith the galvanometer, tUo cli;ctroniotive 
force in X will balance the sum of the electromotive forces in Y 
and J?. 

(4) In pairs of ciretiitit forming systems geometrically niinilur 
the iodoctioD is proportional to their linear diuienaiona. 

For if the three pairs of circuits above mentioned are all itimilnr, 
but if the linear dimension of the first pair is the mim of th« 
oorrespondiot; linear dimensions of the second and third pairs, then, 
if A, £, and C are connected in series with the battery, and .V 
reversed, faud H are in series with the galvanometer, there will 
be equilibrium. 

(5) ITms electromotive force produced in a ooil of n windings by 
• current in a ooil of m windingrs is proportional to the product mn. 

637.] For ezi^riments of the kind we have been considering the 
galvanometer should be as sensitive as possible, and its needle as 
lif^t as poasibte, so as to give a sensible indication of a very 
small transient current. The experiments on induction due to 
motion require the needle to have a somewhat longer ]i«r!o(l of 
vibration, so that there may be time to efTccl certain motions 
of the condnctors while the needle is not far from ilK position 
of Ci(|nilibrium. la the former expi-rimoiit*, the eloctromoUvo 
forcM in the galvanometer circuit wore in equilibrium during 
the whole time, so that no currtnt panwd tliroufjh tho gnlvano- 
meter coil. In those now to be described, the elctrnmotive forces 
act lintt in one direction and then in the other, so as to produce 
in Kucccjwion two currents in oppnditc directions through the ^1- 
vanonietvr, and we have U) shew Unit the iuipulBes on the galvano- 
meter needle due to these successive currents are in ecTtaiu cases 
equal and opposite. 

llie theory- of the application of the galvanometer to the 
mcoMaremcnt of trannient currents will be considered more at 
IcDgith in Art. 7-18. At prvveDb it a sufficient for oar purpoi>« to 





observe that as lon^ se the galvanometer needle is Dear its position 
of oquilibrinm the deflecting force of the current is proportiooal 
to the current itself, and if the whole time of action of tlie current 
is small compared with the period of vibration of the needle, the 
final velocity of the magnet vUl be proportional t« th« total 
quantity of electricity In tlie current. Hence, if two currents pass 
in rapid succession, conveyinq; equal quantities of electricity in 
opposite directions, the oeoillc will be left without any final 

Tlius, to shew Mint tive induction-currents in the secondary circuit 
due to the closing nni] the breaking of the primary circuit. »re 
eqiiul in totiil ijimTitily hul' oppoxiU' in direction, wc may arriinjpt 
the priniuiy cin,'uit in connexion with the battery, »o tliat by 
touching tt ]n}y the current may be m.'ut through the primary circuit, 
or by ruitioviiig the finger tito contact may be broken at pleasure. 
If the key id preaiscd down for some time, the ^Ivanometcr in 
the Kccondary circuit indicates, at the time of making contact, a 
tr.intiient current in the opponitt? direction to the primary current. 
Ifcaiitat-t be maintained, the induction current simply pai^ses and 
disappears. If wc now break contact, another transient current 
passes in the opi>oaite direction through the eeoondary circuit, 
and the galvanometer needle receives an impulse in the opfioaite 

But if we make contact only for an instant, and then break 
contact, the two induced currents pass through the gnlvnnomete^H 
in Bueh rapid succession that the needle, when acted on by the firs^H 
current, has not time tt> move a sensilile distance from its positioo 
of equilibrium before it is stopped by the second, and, on account 
of the exact equality between the quantities of these transient^ 
cnrrents, the needle is stopped dead. 

If the needle is watcheil carefully, it appears bo ha jerked suddc 
froin one position of rest to another )io«ition of rest very 
the first. 

Ill this way wo prove that the quantity of electricity in th^ 
induction current, when contact is broken, is exactly i-qiinl an 
opposite to that in the induction current when oonlaet is ina<lK. 

538.] .\iiotlier application of (hisnu-thcNl in the following, wUk 
is given by Fclici in the second veries of his lle*ftreh/Ji. 

II is always possible lo find mnny dilTervDl positions of U 
secondary coil it, such tliat the making or the breaking of contoi 
in the primary coil A produces no induction currvnl in li. 'It 




positions of tbo two coils arc in such cases said to bo em^Kgal* to 
cnch othor. 

Let Sj asd S, be two of these positions. If the eoil B be sud- 
denly moved from the position ^| to the position B.j, Uk al^braicnl 
sum of the transient currents iti ttio eoil fl is exactly zero, eo 
that the galvanometer needle is left at rest whuii the motion of £ is 

This is true in whatever way the coil Ji is mov«d from B, tn B.,, 
and also n-hcthcr the current in the pnmiiry coil A bo continued 
Iconstant, or mmlo to vary during the motion. 

A^in, let ]f \k any other pofition of B not ooujiigati* to A^ 
BO that the makiiif* or brvakin^ of eonfjict in A produces an in- 
duction ctirront when B a in thi.- position 7f . 
H Let the contact be mnile wht-n B is in the eonjiigale [wsition j?,, 
, there will l)c no induction current. Movp B Ut B", theio will be 
an induetJon current due to the motion, hut if U is moved nipidly 
^rto B^. and the primary contact then broken, the induction cu^-c^ut 
■ due to breaking con1iu;t will exactly nnnnl the viFeet of that due to 
the motii'ii, ho that Uie galvanometer needle will be \vh at rest. 

» Hence Ihe current due to the motion from a conjugate position 
to any other position iii ci)ua1 and opposite to the current due to 
breaking contact in the latter position. 

Since ihe effect of making cootact is equal and opposite to that 
of breaking it, it follows that the effect of making rontact when the 
coil B is in any position J? is equal to that of bringing the coil 
from any conjugat« position Bi lo £" while the current is flowing 
through A. 

If the change of the relative position of the coile Is made by 
moving the primary circuit instead of the secondary, the result is 
found to be the same. 

639.] It follows from these experiments that thv total induction 
current in fidnn'ng thesimultimcous motion of /^ from Aj to ^,,, and 
of B from Bf to B.J, while the current in A cliungM from y, to y,, 
dci>om]K only on the initial i;tatc A,, B^, y,, and the final state 
Aj, B., yj, and not at all on Die nature of the intGnnediate statea 
tiirough which the Kyxt<-m may jMss. 

Hence tJie value tif tho total induction current uiujtt be of the 

form hy^. B„ y,)->'('^i. A- Vi)- 

where /* ia a function of A, B, aud y. 
[h With reicpcct to tlie form of tins function, we know, by Art. 53il, 
^wthat when Utere is no motion, and therefore Ai= A^ and if, = //,, 



the iodueLion ctirroat » |>roportional to the primary' cunrnt 
HcDc*- y enter* simply iw a furtor, th« olh«r fnrtor l»cing a fuoc 
tion of the form and pnitition of the c-ircuito A mul B. 

Vio iilso know thnt Wvit Tulue of this ftinction <I«pcn<Is on the 
relative nod not on the nlisohito povitions of A imd B, so that 
it must be cHpiiblc of bciti^f cxprcsMd as a fonction of tttc dutAtice* 
of th« diliercnt cl«in«nt« of which the circuits nrv composed, and 
of the aii<>:l(.-)t wliieh these rlements malie with eaoh other. 

Let M be this fuiiction, thon the total induction current may 
written C{J/, y.-i^y,}, 

where C is the conductirity of the secondary circnit, and J/,, 
arc the oriffinal, and ,1/,, y^ the final \-*Iue8 of Jf and y. 

These ciprrimenU, therefore, shew that the total current 
induction depends on the chan^ which takes p1ac« in a certain 
quantity, My, and that this change may arise either from variatioa 
of the primnTy current y, or from any motion of the primary or^^ 
eecondiiry circuit which alters M. ^^ 

540.] TliceonoeptionofHiich acjtiantify. on the changes of which, 
and not on its absolute magnitude, the indtiction current depi-nitii, 
occurred to Fnnulay at an early sfugw of his iwearohcs*. He . 
ohserved that the t^ccondary circuit, when at rest in an e1«etfo*^| 
magiiclio field which rentainD of conittant intennity, doc« not shew^^ 
itny eIi-etrio»l efleet, whereas, if the Miinc xliite of the field hud V-en 
suddenly produced, there would have been a current. Again, if the 
primarj' circuit \a removed from the field, or the magnetic furees 
abolished, there is a current of the opj>o«ite hind. He therefore ^i 
recognised in the secondary circuit, when in the electroinagiietia^| 
field, a 'peculiar electrical condition of matter,' to which he gave^^ 
the name of the Electrotonic State. He ufterwaids found that he 
could difipensG with this idea by means of considerations founiled on 
the !inf> of mn^'netic force f, but even in his latest researched 
he snyK, ' Agiiin imd iigain Uie idea of an tltctrolome state § 
been Ibrced upon my mind.' 

The whole history of this idea in Uic mind ofT^raday, as shewn 
in his published researches, is welt worthy of study. By a course 
of experiments, guided by intense application of thnnght, but 
without the aid of mathematical calculations, he n-as ImI to recog^ 
nine the existence of something which we now know to be a matb&- 
taalical quantity, and which may even be called the fandameatal 

Hip. lUt, Hriei i. CO. 

t H>„ 

U. {.U2). 

t lU, 32<9. 

I lb., SO, 1114, 1<«1, 17», 17S3. 




quantity in the theory of e1ecfroina);;nettem. But ua he was led 
up to lliia conwptioD l>y a purely experimental path, he awribed 
to it a physical existence, and euppoaed it to bo a peculiar con- 
dition of matter, thotigh ho was ready to shaodon this theory at 
soon as be could explain the phenomena hy any more familiar forms 
of thought 

I Other iiivestijiratore were lonp afterwards led up to the same 
idea hy a pun?ly m:ithematio:il path, but, so far as I know, none 
of them recn(;ni6cd, in the roRnod mathcmntical iden of the polentiat 
f two circuits, FaTaday'e hold hypothesis of nu uloctrotonic state. 
Th<«e. therefore, who have approached this subject in the way 
pointed out by thow eminent in vest if^a tors who first reduced ita 
laws to it mathematical form, have sometimes found it diSicult 
to sppnctato the sricntific accuracy of the statements of laws which 
Faisdiiy, in the Gist two series of his Hr-tcarcien, has given trilh 
Buch wonderfnl oomplcti-ness. 

Ute seientilic value of Faniday'* conception of an electrotonic 

c consists in its direelintf the mind to lay hoW of a certnin 

(jiuintity, on the changY'^ of which the a<'tuiil [ihcimmcna depend. 

Without a much gn»ter degree of devel(>|iment than Kiirailay jfavo 

it, this conticptinii di>e« not easily lend jtaelf to the explanation of (ho 

!ie»om<nta We .ihall return to this eiubjeet again in Art. 594. 

S4l.] A method which, in Faraday's hands, was far more powerful 
u tliat in which he makes use of those lines of magnetic force 
which were always in hie mind's eye when contemplating hia 
magoeta or electric currents, and the delineation of which by means 
of iron filinge he rightly regai-ded * as a most valuable aid to the 

Ftiraday looked on these lines as expressing, not only by their 
direction that of the magnetic force, but by their number and 
concentration the intensity of that force, and in his later re- 
se«rchc6t he shews how to conceive of unit lines of force, I have 
explained in various parts of this treatise the relation between the 
properties which Faraday recognised in the linejg of force and the 
matlieniatical conditions of electric and magnetic forces, and how 
Faraday'e notion of unit lines and of the number of lines within 
certain limits may be made mathematically precise. See Arte. 62, 
404, 490. 

In the 6rst series of his ScManiei % he shows clearly how the 
direction of the current in a conducting cirouiti part of which ia 


■ qiui 


• e*p. ttm..sai. 

t IK 31«. 

: lb., lu 



moveable, dopendti on the mode in ivliich tlie moving parL cute 
tUrougl) the linen of tnagnetio force. 

In th« seeond Rones* he sbewa how the phenomena |>rodaMd 
by variation of the strength of a enrrent or a magnet may be 
explained, by enpposin^ the system of lines of force to exjKind from 
or contract towards the wire or magnet as its power rises or fallM. 

I am not certain with what degree of clearness he then held the 
doctrine afterwards so difilinetly laid down by himf, that the 
moving conductor, as it cuts the lines of force, sums up tJie action 
due to an area or section of the lines of force. This, however, 
appears no new view of the cose after the inTeetigrntions of the 
•ocond series J liave hcen taken into account, 

Tlic conception which Faniday had of the continuity of the lines 
of force prcchides the jirts^ibility of their suddenly startin;* into 
existence iii a place where there wore none before. If, tborcfor^H 
the number of lines which pusB throii;;h a conducting circuit ^^ 
made to vary, it can only he by the circuit moving iivroKs the lines 
of force, or elite by the line* of forre moving iicroos the rarcuit. 
In either i'usf a (.tirrent in generated in the circuit. 

The niimberortlieline«of'foree which nt any instaat patw through 
the cireuit is mathematttuilly e<iuivulent to Fanidfty'K earlier con- 
cci)tion of the eleetrotonic stat*.' of that circHil, and it is repreMrnted 
by the quantity .ffy. ^M 

It is only ainoe the definilioiw of eleetromotive force, Arta. 69. 
274, and itii mefisuretnt-nt have I>»en made more precise, that we 
am enunciate completely the true law of magneto-ele«tric induction 
in the folh)wing terms :■ — 

The total electromotive force acting iwmd a circuit at any 
instant i» mi.-«sured by the rate of decrejise of the number of lines 
of magnetic forire which pu« through it. 

When integrated with respect to the lime this statement 
comes : — • 

The tinw-integral of Oie total electromotive force acting roui 
any circuit, together with the number of lines of miig^etic for 
which pass through tlie circuit, is a constaat qnantity. 

Instead of speaking of the number of lines of magnetic force, 
may speak of the magnetic induction through Ihu circuit, or ll 
BUrface>integtal of ma;[^ctic induction extended over any anrfiicc 
bounded by the circuit. ■ 

■ £n. ifM^ S>8. t Ik, S0S3, 3037, 31U. ^H 

: lb, SIT, ftCL ^H 





We dUall rt-tuni again to this method of Kanda/. In the mean 
time we must enumerate tlie theories of induction which are 
founds! on other considerations. 

Leas'* Law. 

542.] In 1834, I^ienz* cuuueiatcd the followinf* remarkable 
niUtioo Ixrtwevn the ptieiiomcnii of the mechanical action of eloctiie 
current*. M defined by Ampferv's formula, and the induction of 
electric ciirrenls hy the n-Iiitivi- motion of conductors. An vurlicr 
utlcmpt at a statement of KU(th a rulaiion vim given by Ritchie in 
ill* PkUoMjiiieal Mugasine for January of iho Nimc year, but the 
direct ion of the induced current, viva in every cn«e stated wrongly. 
Ijtvx'* taw is as follows.— 

If a conttaxl current JfoKt in fhe primary circuit A, and i/\ bg tie 
notion of A, or of Ihf lecniidiirij/ circuit h, a current in iniluceiliu Jl,fie 
direelioH of thii induced curreitt tuUl be tac/i Hot, bjf its eleetromaguetie 
aeiioH on A, it fends to oppose tie retatice motion of the eircuita. 

On this law J. Neumann t founded bia mathematical theory of 
induction, in which he established the mathematical laws of the 
induced currents due to the motion of the primary or secondary 
conductor. He shewed that the quantity M, which we have called 
the |>ot«nt!a1 of the one circuit on tho other, is the same aa the 
eleclromaj>nctic potential of the one circuit on the other, which 
-we have already investi^tod in connexion with Ampere's formula. 
We may regard J. Neumann, therefore, as having completed for 
the induction of currents the mathemiktical treatment which Am[>£re 
applied to their meehanicul action. 

.] A ftcp of still greater Btientific important was soon nPtcr 
le by rielnihoitz in his Kitay on fie Conaervaliim oj Force ;. and 
Sir W. Thomson ^ working somewhat later, but iiidepeudently 
elRibollK. They nlH-tNX'd that thy induction of elect ric current* 
vcred by Faraday could be mathemattcally deduced from the 
ekctroougnctic actions discovered by Orstcd and Ampere by the 
appliration of tho principle of the CoiiBcrvation of Energy. 

Uelmholtx takes the cosc of a conducting circuit of reststanco R, 
in which an electiomotivo force A, arisb^ from a voltaic or thcrrao- 

• P(« , Jm. KiKi. leS (18811. 
t BaiiB Af«d.. Mih and tSI7. 

* K«ad Ului« Ui» fhyitaJ HneldT xf B^tIId, JuIj 3S, 1S47. TmuUtoa in 
Tft)ti>'> ' 8ciMitif{^ Mnmrin^* fttU ii. p. I14>. 

I Trim. lint. ia.. 184«. uia Fhit. Mtn.. Dm. ISSl. Sn klto LU jutpw on 
"IVaaiiimt Ehetrie ConcM*,' fkit Has-, IbCi- 

VOL. It. K 


MaoiraTO-ELKTrRio isDtrcriOK, 

vl«ctric An-angomcnt, nets. The current in the circuit at any 
insUiDt i* /. He Ktipposes that u magnet is rn motion in t)i« 
n«ighbourliood ol' Uie cirouit, ivtid Umt it« potontial wiUi respect to 
the conductor \» V, bo tliat, during any xuiaII inUnal or tiioe dt, tho 
encr^- communicated to the magnet \>y the eleetromitgDetic action 

Thv work done in generating heat in llie circnit is, by Jouh 
law, Art. 242, 1-Jtdt, and the work Hjicnt by the eteotrontoti 
force /f, in ntaiutaiiiing the current / during Uie time dt, ia Aldt. 
Hence, eioce the total work done must be ecjual to the work spent. 


ncc we find Uie intensity of the current 



1 = 


Now the value of d may bo what wo pleoso. Let, therefor 

A = 0, and then 

. \dV 


or. there will be a current due to the motion of the ma^et, equal 


to that due to an electromotive force ~-j7' 

The whole iudticcd current during tlw motion of tltv magD< 
from a place where its potential is T, to a place where it« potei 





/^'''=-i/^'" = i<^'-^*)- 

antl therefore the total current is independent of (he velocity or 
tli« path of the magnet, and depends only on its initial and final 

Ilelmholtz in hia original investigation adopted a system of 
units founded on tlie mcnsuremcnt of the heat generated in the 
conductor by the current. Con6i<Ienng the unit of current as 
arbitrary, tho unit of resistance is that of a conductor in which this 
unit carrcnt gnnentea unit of heat in unit of time. The ooit of 
electromotive force in (his Kviitem im (hat required to produce the 
unit of current in the oondiietor of unit resistance. The ndoptioo 
of this lyrtem of units nevcMitates the introduction into the equa- 
tions of a quantity a, which is the mcchauioal t-fjui viiU'nt of t 
unit of heat. As wc invariably adopt eitlicr the elect roxtutic 




the elcctromngnctic system of units, this factor docs not occur in 
tho <y]u»lions here giveu. 

541.] Holinholtz also deduces the current of induction when n 
condtK'ting circuit and a circuit cArryiog a conittanl current are 
made to move relntivel}' to one another. 

Let It,, /^, bs the rcaist^nceH, /,, I^ the currents, v/,, J^ th« 
external electromotive furces, and F the potential of the one circuit 
OD the other doe to unit current in each, then we have, ae before. 

If wc suppose /| to be the primniy current, and /^ so much lens 
ftlian /|, that it does not by it« induction produce sny sensible 


[•Iteration in /j, so that we may put /, = ^ 


h = 


reiiult which may be interpreted exactly as in the case of the 


A -T 

we siippouc /; to be the ]>rimary current, and /, to bu very 
Ifiiuch MUiullcr than /,, we get for /,, 

Tliis fhcwe that for eqtial currents the electromotive force of the 
' first circuit on the second is equal to that of the second on the first, 
. whatever be the forms of the circuits. 

Hclmholtz does not in this memoir discuss the case of induction 
due to the strcngtbeninp or weakening of the primnn,- current, or 
the induction of a cnrrent on itself. Thomson * applied the same 
principle to the determination of the mcchaniml value of a current, 
ind pointed ont that when work is done by the niuluul action of 
two constant currents, their mechanical value is iuen-titxt by the 
nme amount, fc that the battery hax to supply tioulle that smonnt 
of work, in addition to tliat required to maintain tJie currents 
Bgainat the resistance of the circuiu f, 

645.] The introduction, by W, \Vcber, of » system of absolute 

* MochiMkal TIifotj of Elprtnilnit. Phil. Um., Deo. 18S1. 

t NkUuT* <'ycioiHiAV>Vi «/ riiytlnil Scinet, A IMO, ArUi^ ' UsgoetUm. T>yiw 

K a 


unite for the meaBnremeut of electrical qoantitiee is one of the moEt 
important steps in the progress of the Eoience. Having already, in 
conjunction with Qauss, placed the measarement of magnetic quan- 
tities in the first rank of methods of precision, Weber proceeded 
in his Electrodynamic Metuuremenft not only to lay down sound 
principles for fixing the units to be employed, but to make de- 
terminations of particular electrical quantities in terms of these 
nnits, with a degree of accuracy previously unattempted. Both the 
electromsgaetic and the electrostatic systems of aoits owe theii 
development and practical application to these researches. 

Weber has also formed a general theory of electric action from 
which he deduces both electrostatic and electromagnetic force, and 
also the induction of electric currents. We shall consider this 
theory, with some of its more recent developments, in a separate 
chapter. See Art, 846. 



>.J Fabaday )ifl£ devoted thv ninth G«ri(>e of his Resfarciet to 
the inv«8li»»tion of a class of phenomena exhibited by the current 
in a wire which forms the coil of an eh-clixiTiiagnet. 

Mr. Jeiikin had ob«crvLHl that, Blthoii{;h it Js impossiblv to prn- 
duoe a nenxiblc shock by the direct action of a voltaic system 

teonsiftliiig^ of only one pair of plat(4, yet, if the current is made 
lo poM through the coil of an elect romagnet, and if contact is 
then broken between the extremitieif »f two wires htld one in ' ach 
hand, a smart xhoek will be telt. No «ucb nhock is felt ou making: 

t contact. 
Faraday shewed that this and other phenomena, friiich he de- 
scribee, are due to the i>ame inductive action which he had ulrendy 
observed the cnrrent to exert on neig'hbouring eomlactors. In thin 
oaae, however, the indtictive action is rxurtcd on the same uouihiclor 
which carries the current, and it is so niueh the more powerful 
ad the wire it«elf i* nearer to the diOerent elements of the current 
thaa any other wire can he. 
■ 647.] Ue obserres, however*, that ' the (IrMt thought that arises 
in the mind is that tlie electricity circulates with something like 
momentum or inertia in Uie wire.' Indeed, when we consider one 
partieuUir wire »nly, the phenomena are exactly analo^us to those 
of a pipe full of water (lowing in a continued stream. If while 
the stream la flowing we suddenly close the end of tlie tube, the 
iiHnnentam of the water produces a sudden pressure, which is mtieti 
greater than that due to the bead of water, and may ho sufGcicnt 
to burst the pipe, 

If the water has the means of escaping tbrongh a narrow jet 

• Etg. Jtm., Iffr. 




nhen the principal aperture is closed, it will be pR>jwt«d witb n 
velocity much ({reater than tbat iluu to th« head of wator, nnd 
if it can escape Uiroug:b a valvo into » chamber, it will do », 
even when the pressure in the chamber is greater thui that due 
to the bead of water. 

It is on this principle that tlie hydraulic rem \» constructed, 
by which » stRBll quantity of water may be niiiEicd to a great height 
by means of a lar|^ quantity flowing down from a much low«r 

548.] Titoc ellWts of the inertia of the flnid in ilie tube depend 
solely on the quantity of fluid running throogh the tube, on its 
length, and on ita section in diOerent parts of its length. They 
do not doiH-nd on anytliing outride the tube, nor on the form into 
which the tube may be bent, provided its len^h remains tlie 

With a wire conveying a current this is not the case, for 
if a long wire is doubled on itself tlie effect ia very small, if 
tlie two parts are separated from each other it i* preater, if it 
IK coiled up into a helix it is still greater, and greatest of all i^ 
wlien so coiled, a piece of soft iron is placed inside the coil. j 

Again, if a second wire is coiled ap with the 6tsi, but insulated 
from it, then, if the second wire docs not form a closed circuit, 
the phenomena arc as before, but if the second wire forms a closed 
circuit, an induction current i« formed in the second wire, and 
the ciTects of nelf-indocliou in tlic first wtiv are retarded. 

549.] Tlteie results shew dnHy that, if the pbeDomena arc dite 
to momentum, ihe momentum it ceHainly not that of the eleclrieityi 
in the wire, beeauw the same wire, cenvenng the nme current,' 
rxhibits eflecis which difler according to its form ; and erea when 
its form remains the Esme, the pneeence of other bodies, sncb we 
a piece of iron or a closed metallic ciieait, affects the romlt. 

530.] It is difficult, bowerer, for the mind nhich has onea 
recognised the analogy Wtwren the pbenonena of telf-inductioii 
and thocc of the motion of material bodies, to abandon aitogcther 
the help of this analogy, or to admit that it ts mtiidy mpofieU 
and misleading. The fundamental dynamical idea of matter, ae 
capable by its auitiuo of becoming the reetptent of momentum anil 
of energy, b so interwoven with oar fonna of thoogfat that, whrn- 
rver we catch a gUmp*e of it in any part uf natiuv, we fed that 
a path is beforv m leading, wooer or l^er. to tha complete under- 
vtandiaf of the aal(i«et. 



H 551,] In the case of the elwtric carrent, we fiod that, when the 
eleciromotiTC force begins to act, it does not at once produce t!ie 
^_full current, btit tbut thu current rites ^nduitUy. What is the 
^ntlcctromotive force doicig (luring- the Lime thnt the oppo&iujtr ^- 
^Bsistancc is not able to Iialunce it? It is incn^ming the electric 
^kca Trent. 

^g Now an ordinary force, acting on n body in the direction of it6 
motion, increase* it» momentum, and comQiuuieiites to it kinetic 

» energy, or the power of doin^ work on account of its motion. 
In like manner the unresisted part of tbe electronKitive force hsia 
lieen employi,-d in inorea^ing^ thfi electric current. Has the elcctrio 
current, when tlnui ]irmluoed, either momentum or kinetic energy ? 
We have already ahewn that it has something very like mo- 
^knentum, that it resists being suddt^nly stopped, and that it can 
" exert, for a nhort time, a great electromotive Ibice. 

But a conducting circuit in which a earreut has been set up 
has the power of doing work in virtue of tlits current^ and this 
power cannot be said to be Bometliing very like energy, for it 
i^j« really and truly energy. 

^B Thus, if the current be left to itself, it will continue to circulate 
till it is stopped by the resietanec of the circuit. Before it in 
stopped, liowever, it will have generated » certain ijuantity of 
heat, and the amount of this heat in dynamical measure i* equal 
to the energy originally existing in the current. 

Again, when the current i« left to itself, it may be made to 
do mechanical work by moving magnets, and thu inductive effeet 
of these motions will, by Lonz's law, stop the current eooner than 
tbe resistance of the circuit alone would have stopped it. In this 
way part of the energy of th« current may he transformed into 
mechanical work inst«ad of heat. 

552.] It appears, therefore, that a system containing an electric 
current is a seat of eoerg)- of some kind ; and since we can form 
^■no conception of an electric current except as a kinetic pheno> 
^^menon*, its energy must be kinetic energy, that is to say, the 
^^ energy which a moving Iwdy has in virtue of its motion. 
^P We have alrcAdy shewn tliat the elfctricity in the wire cannot 
fiT»e considci-ed ns the moving body in which we art^ to find this 
energy, for the energy of a moving body doi-s not dei>cnd on 
anything external to ititclf, whoreas U»e pK«enec of oUier bodie« 
near the cuircnt alters its energy. 
11^ • ITjkntUjr, Sjrp. Bo. {iSi}. 


We are th«rerore led to enquire whetber tber« may Dot be some 
motion jKoin^ oa in the space ontaide the vrire, wliich is not occnpic 
hy the electric current, but in which the electrom»gi>ctic effects 
the current are manifested. 

I Kliall nnt lit present enter on the reasons for looking in onal 
place mtlit^r tliiin another for such motions, or for regarding th< 
■DOtiotiH tut of one kind rather than anotJier. 

What I propose now to do is to examine the oon»eqaenc«a of 
tlic asaamption that the phenomena of the electric current are those 
of » moving system, the motion bein^ communicated from one part 
ttf the system to another by forces, the nature and laws of whiol^l 
we do not yet even attempt to define, because we can eliminate™ 
these forces from the tsjuations of motion by the method given 
by Lagrange for any connected system. 

In tjie next five chapters of this treatise I propose to dcdti' 
tile main strticture of the theory of t-lcctricity from a dynamical 
hypotlicsis of this kind, insind of following the path which has 
led Weber ami othor iuv<i«tignU>rs to many rumarkahle di««ovcri 
and vxperintent^i, nud to conct-ptions, some of which are aa bciiulii'i 
u tbey are bold. 1 hare chosen this method because I wixh to 
■how that there are other ways of viewing the plienomena wh 
appear to me more sati^bctory, and at the xanie time are moi 
consistent with the methodit followed in the preceding partjt of thi| 
book than those which proceed on the hypothous of direct acU' 
at a distance. 






653.] Ik tlip fourth section of tlie second part of bi« JSfAattljue 

daalyltqnc, Lagran^ has ffiven a method of reducing the ordi'nury 

dynmniral equations of tlie motion of fbo parts of a connccti-d 

ij9t«m to a number equal to that of the degrees of freedom of 

be ^if«m, 

Tbe c<)uations of motion of a connected sj'stem have been (riven 
in a diirerent form by Hamilton, and have k-d to a great cxt«.>usioQ 

^^of tbe hightT pnrt of [iiiro dj-naroics*. 

As »c iibrtll find it neecHwry, in our cndoavonrs to bring eleetrieal 
phenomena within the province of dynumicii, to haro our dynamical 
idnnn in a stxit* fit for direct nppbeation to physical qiiestioos, we 
■halt devote this chapter to an exposition of those dynamical ideas 
from a phmcal point of view. 

554.] The aim of liUgi-nn^ waa to bring dynamics under the 
power of the ealunluK. lie brgnn by csprcssiug the elementary 
dynamical relation.i in ti-rniN of the corrcKponding relutionit of pure 
algebniienl ipiantities, luid from the equation* thus obtained be 
diduct^ hi.i final e<)iiaUon« by a purely nlgebniical proeess. Certain 
i)uantiti4>» (exprwwing the reat-tionv between the parts of the .*y«t«m 
^■Called into play by '\i» phyitioni connexione) appear in the eijtiations 
^^f motion of the component parts of the svotcm, and Lagrange's 
investigation, bm mxju from a inatiieniatical point of view, i« a 
method of eliminating tkeae (|uantitie)i from tbe final cquatiou.t. 

In following the stepii of lliiH tilimituttion tbe mind is cxerei-tMl 
in calculation, and should therefore hi? kept free from the intrusion 
or dynamical xA^as. Oar aim, on tbe other hand, is to cultivate 

. • See VtvXrmar't Cajl^'i ' Ueoan on ThdONtical Djnunic*.* BrtliA Auotiittiva, 
■SAT i and TbooiMti Mid lUt'* AiMunt FUloioplkf. 



onr dynamical ideas. We therefore avail ouraiJves of tlie labour 
of the mathematiciani), and retranslate their rcfultti Troin the Ian-* 
^iig« of the calculus into the langiuf^ of dynamtcit, »o tliitt our 
words m^ call up the mental image, not of some algcbnucat 
process, but of some property of moving bodies. 

The language of dynamics has been considerably eactftnded bjr 
those who have expounded in popular t«nns the doctrine of the 
Conservation of Energ}-, and it will be seen that much of tfa« 
following statement is su^^sted by the investigation in Titoraaon 
and Tait's Natural PiUosofAj/, especially the method of beginnin g , 
with the theory of impnlaive forces, ^H 

I have a|>ptied this method so as to avoid the explicit oon-^1 
sidcration of the motion of any part of the syetcm except the 
coordinates or variables, on nhich the motion of the whole depends. 
It is doubtless important that the student should be able to trace 
the connexion of the motion of each part of the system with tJiat 
of the variables, but it is by no means necessary to do this >^H 
the process of obtaining the final equations, which are independent^^ 
of the particular form of these connexions. 



u uiese 
1 itself^^ 

Tie Fariallet. 

555.] The number of degrees of freedom of n system ts 
number of data which mast be given in order completely to 
detirrminc it« position. Dilferent forms may be given to these 
data, but thvir number depends on the nature of the xyHtem itself 
and cannot be altered. 

To Gs our ideas wc may conceive the system connected by 
of suitable mechanism with a nnmbvr of moveable pieee», caeb 
capable of motion along a straight line, and of no other kind of 
motion. The imaginary mechanism which coimeda each of th 
pieces with the vystem must be conceived to Iw free from frictioi 
destitote of inertia, and iucajathle of being strained by the artJo: 
of the applied foroos. The use of this roecliauiitm is merely ' 
Bssbt the imagination in ascribing iwwitiou, velocity, and moinentn 
to what appear, in Lagrange 'm investigation, as pure algi-braical 

Let ^denote the position of one of the moveable pieces a» define 
by its distance from a fixed point in ila line of motion. We k1: 
<li^inguish the values of ; corresponding to the diflercnt pi< 
bv the suffixes ., ,, &c. When we are dealing with a set 

!■ 3> 

quantities belonging to one piece only wc may omit the suCBz. 


iMPFiJtE AND MomnrrcM. 

^P When the taIu^s of all the varinbles (</) are given, the position 
~ of each of the moveable pieces is known, and, in virtue of the 

ima^innry mcvlioiUBiii, the coufiguratioa of the entire ayatem is 


H Jie VeloeifitB. 

H 556.] During tho motion of the system the configuration changes 
" in «>nK' tU-finiUr miinner. and BJncc the confiiiHration iit each instant 
I i« fully d<^riii>-<l \>y till- values of the varinhk'S [q), the velocity of 
^■«very part of the eystem, ns well ns its confii^uration, will he com- 
" pl«t«ly defined if we know the values of the rariablea {q), together 

with tJieir veiocitiM (^, or, according to Newton's notation,^) ■ 




The Force*. 

537.] By a proper regulation of the motion of the variables, any 
motion of tlio Ky«U>m, consistent with the nature of the connexions, 
nuiy ho produced. Id order to produce thiM motion by moving 
lie variable pieoen, forces must he apiilied to these pieees. 
We shall denote the force which must he applied to any variable 
J, by F,. The system of forees {F) ia meehanically equivalent (in 
virtue of the connexions of the system) to the system of forces, 
whatever it may be, which really produces the motion. 

(The Momenta. 
558.] When a body mores in such a way that its configuration, 
0^ respect to the foroo which acts on it, remains always the same, 
BR, for iiiKtam^, in tJiu cut^e of n force acting on a single particle in 
the line of ito motion,) the moving furce is measured by the rato 
^br tncreoKC of the momentum. If F tg the moving force, and p the 


F = 






The time^integrat of a force is called the Impulw of the force ; 
ao that we may assert that the momentum is the impulse of the 
force which would bring the body from a state of rest into the given 
Btat« of motion. 

In the caw of a connected system in motion, the configuration ix 
continually changing; at a rale depending on the v«locitic» (^), to 


th»t vrv ean no longer astmnie thitt tlie mom^-ntuin iii the time- 
integral of the force whioli acts on it. 

Dul tlio increment 2} of any vari&ble cannot be greater thin 
^it, wtierc hi in tite time duriog nhich the increment takes place, 
and ^ is the greatest value of the velocit}' during that time. In the 
cue of a system moving from rest under the action of forces ilnraj^J 
in the same direction, this is evidently the tiDal velocity. ^M 

If tbe final veloeity and configumtion of the system are given, 
we may conceive the velocity to be communicated to the system 
io a very small time tt, the origioal coaiij^uration diflcring from 
the final conOgnration by quantities 8 j,, i^^, kc, which aro leas 
than ^,B^ j,&', &c,, respectively. 

The smaller we suppose the iucrement of time it, the grenbeT 
must be the impressed forces, but the timc^integnil. or impulse, 
of each force will remain finit«. The limiting value of the iinpitliw, 
when the time is diminished and ultimately vantahos, is <Ii;linvd 
as tbe inatantaticoKi impulse, and the momentiun p, corrcfponding 
to any variable q, is dcGucd nit the impulse corresponding to that 
variable, when the system is brought instantaneously from a state 
of rest into the given state of motion. 

This conception, that the momenta are capable of being produood 
by instantaneous impulses on the systMu at rest, is introduced only 
as a method of defining the magnitude of the momenta, for the 
momenta of (he system depend only on the tnstantancotu stnt*- 
of motion of the system, and not on tlie prooe^ by which that atate 
was produced. 

In a oonncet«d syrtcm the momentum corresponding to anf 
variable is in geneml a linear function of tJie velocities of all the 
varinbicK, instead of being, as in the dynamics of a particle, simply 
proportional to the velocity. 

The impulses required to change the velocities of the system 
suddenly from ^p j,. &e. to yi', j/, &c. are evidently equal to 
Pi'—pi, fia~Pt' ^^^ changes of momentum of tho scversi variablos. 

Wori done by a Small ImpuUe. 

B30.] The work done by the force F^ during the impulse is Iha 
ftpac«-intcgral of tlie force, or 



mcREirauT OP KXTxvnc enrhqt. 

If ^,' U the givatesi and ^," tbe l«st value of tbo velocity ji 
luring tbe action of tbo force, ^' must be less tban 

ad greater tbaa 


Fdt or 

Fit or 


If we Doiv Etippose the impulse / ¥df lo be diminii^ed without 

limit, the values of ^,' and ^," will approach and ultimateiy coiucide 
with that of <y,, and we nay write /»i'— jo, = ijoj, so tbat tie work 
done is ultimately g ^-^ = ?, 8ft . 

ir, W« »ey>*-it ifoii* fiy a triy *OTaW impiihe it uUimaittjf (At prvduel 
qftic mjinltt and the veiocily. 

^M iHerement ^ tAe Kinetic Energy. 

^ 560.] When work ie done in settiuj* a conservative sj-stcm in 
jnotioii, energy ii; coramimicuted to it, iind the system hccomes 
cupshlt! of doing an eqmd iimonnt of work ugainst resistanoes 
L'bcfore it is reduced to rest. 

The energy which n syst«Ri poE6«'ssGH in virtue of its motion 
cullitd its Kinetic Encrg}', and is communicated to it in tlie form 
|of ihe work dontr hy the forces which Bct it in motion. 

If T Vmj thu kinetic eni-rgj' of the system, and if it hecomei 

^+ir, on account of the action of an inliniteKimnl iinpulte who»o 

[eomponenttt are hjp^, ip^, &e., the increment hT muit he tlie Mum 

of the <]aantilica of work done hy the components of the impulse, 

>r in symbols, ^j.^ ^,ip,^j,bp,+ko., 

= 2{?M- 0) 

The instantaneous state of the system is completely defined if 
the variables and tbe momenta ar« given. Hence tbo kinetic 
energy, which depends on the iastantaoeous state of the system, 
CIO he ex])ressed in tenns of the variables (^), and tbe momenta (p). 
This is the mode of expreesing T inti-oduced hy Hamilton. When 
T is expressed in this way we shall distinguish it by the suffix ,, 

thus. r,. 

lite complete variation of T^ is 

»n = S(^'e;>)HS(J'5,). 




1 90 KIKBTIC8. 

Tltc Ust term mny be written 

= (S*»0' 



which dimiDiBh^ with 6 1, and uUimately vanishes with it when ih^ 
impulee becomes iDBtantaneoiis. 

Hence, cqoating the cottfiicients of bp la equations (1) and (s1 
wre obtain rfT", ,. 

or, tie veioeily eorretpondit^ fo fAe tnricMe j it tie different 
efitjicient of T^ wi/i retpevt to tAe carr^tponding tnomenfum p. 

We hare arrived at this result by the consideration nf im]iuln« 
forcce. By this method we have avoided the oon.tideration of tt 
chan^ of configuration during the aefion of the forces. But th^ 
instantaneous state of the system is in all respects tlie same, whctli< 
the ^atem was brought from a state of rest to the gircD at 
of motion by the transient application of impulsive force*, 
wbctlier it arrived at that state in any manner, however gradual 

In other words, tlw variables, and the corresponding velociti4 
and momenta, depend on the actual state of motion of the system 
it the given instaut, and not on its previous history. ^A 

Hence, the equation (3) is equally valid, whether the atate <^| 
motion of the syst«m is supposed doe to impulsive foroe^ or t« 
forces aeting in any maniter w1uite%'er. 

We may now therefore dismiss the consideration of impulsive 
forces, together with the limitationii imposed on their tJm« 
actioD, and on the chnngn of coufiguratton during their action. 

HamiliiM't Eqnafiont ^ Motto*, 
&61.] We have already shewn that 

LiCt the system move in any arbitrary way, subject to the 
ditious imposed by it« connexions, then the variations of^ and q are 

hp=-H, hq^qht 












and the complete variation of T^ is 

'^- = M^*^ + 5»0- 




h~ ~ \'<d( ^ dq 
at the increment of ihc kinetic energy arises from Uio work 
Idoae by Uie impreBsed forces, or 
hT, = S(Fh^). (8) 

In these two espreesions the Tariaticn» ig are all independent of 
eooh oilier, so that we are entitled to c<|uatc the cocffioicnts of each 
of them iu the two expressions (7) and (;g). Wo thuit obtain 
' '. = #^'^' (») 

where the momentum p, and th« forci; F, belong to the variahle ^,, 
There are as many equations of thin form as there are variablcv. 
These eqnations were given by Ilnmilton. They shew that the 
force corresponding to any variable is the eum of two partsi. The 
first part is the rate of increase of the momentum of that Vkriuble 
with respect to the time. The second piirt is the rate of increuK; 
it the kinetic energy per unit of increment of the variable, ths 
other variables and all the momenta bciog constant. 

Tie Kinetic Sneryy cxj/rrxted in Tenas of the Mom^nla and 


562.] Let p^, Pg, &c. be the momenta, and j,, y,, &c. the 
rdoeitiea at a given instant, and lot i\. p^, &c., q,, q^, &c. be 
Ftnother system of momenta and velocitiex, itueh that 

Pi =«Pu qi = «y,.&«. (10) 

It i)> manifeit that the systems p, <[ will be consistent with each 
other if the systems p, q are so. 
H Now let « vary by In, The work done by the force F^ is 
I F^h<\^=i^^h■[>^ = 4^p,nhn. (IIJ 

1^ Let n incnase from to 1, then the system ts brought fmm 
A itate of rest into the stotc of motion (^qp), and the whole work 
eipOMled in prodncing tliis motion is 

Bnt /'*"'" = 1> 

aiiil tli« work fpciit in producing the motion is eqairalent to tlv 
kiuetic cni»igy. Ilcnco 

wUero 7^ cIeDot«« the kinetic cnei^ expressed in terms nf tJiu 
motnmtu and velocities, llic \-anab)cs ;, , ;,, &g. do nofc enter inl') 
UiiK cxjireftiion. 

'Die kinetic enorjfjr is tlierefore half tJie sum of ibo product* of 
till' mnmi'-nta into their corresponding velocities. 

When the kinetio energy is expressed in this way we shall denotf 
it hy UiL> symbol T^. It Is a function of the momeota aod vr)n- 
cities only, and docs not involve the vartalilcs thetnsclvett. 

DGfl.] Tht'i-o is H third method of expr(>!i!iiDg the kinetic energy, 
which \» generally, indeed, regiinhtl lui the fundaunental one. By 
wJving the (K{tutionB (3) w« may cxprtM the momenta in terins 
ofthe velooitiea^and thfn, introducing theM vnlne* in (13), wv Khali 
have au expTvoaion fur T invoK-ing only tlie velocities and the 
nriahles. When T m expr^j^ in this form vt shall indicate it 
hf tlM aymhol T^. This is the form in which the kinetic energy b 
Mtprtncd in the equations of lAgrang^ 

SGi] It is roanifftti that, sim-e T^, 7||, and T^ are three diflerfjit 
wrpnwions for the same thing, 

or i;+'*-Aft-Af,-ftc-o. (H) 

titwt. if all the tjiiaatitira ^, f, ud ^ vary. 

Ttw wriMtKws A^ »n net 
t^ •» tiat wv cKBnol at vac* 
wriatim in IW njwbiw W kva. 

IV wi — i»>> f VMnAana tf 
»lUl wv tM^ttf •^MtMhgt* 

B«t w« knov. boa 

If ud 



mobakoe's equations. 


or, tie eompweiti* ^ mcmenluim are t^ diffe/entiat coej^ienit <^ T^ 
with resfiect to He corresj^ndimg vticeiliet, 

Agaiiij by equating to i«ro tli« ooefficients of S^i, &c., 

dT, dT. „ 
^1 'hi 


or, tie differential ccejficieat of the kinetic enrrgi/ witA retpecf to any 
tarialte 7, M equal in ma/^niiuile but opposite in lign when T it 
atpreued at a Jnnetion of He velociliea iniiead <if a« a /imctictt of 
tie momenta. 

In virtnc ofequktion (18) wc may write the equktion of motion (9), 

rf/., dT^ 


' dl dq^ dq^ 



^■wbJch is the fonn in whicb tbe equations of motion wore gireo by 

^^ ^^-] ^° ^B procedioff iDvestigntion we have avoided the con- 
eideratiou of the form of tho function which expresses th« kinetic 

(enerjry in terms cither of the \-clocities or of the momenta. The 
only explicit form which we have assigned to it is 
in which it is expressed as half tho mim of the produottt of the 
momenta each into its corresponding velocity. 
We may expresa the v«Iocttien in terms of the difTcrential co^ 
ofiicients of 7*, with iesi>ect to the momenta, as in equation (3), 



This shews thut T^ is a homogeneous function of the second 

' of the momenta /J, ,/^, &c. 
We may also txprcM the moinenUi in terms of T^, and wc find 



[which shews that 7|| is a homogeneous function of the second degree 
nth rrspcct to the velocities q^, ;,, &c. 
If wc write 

P., for 44^ , &«. 

P„ for -^-i. 


^1 YOI.. II. 

For - j ~ / , &c. i 


then, siooe both T^ and T^ are functionE of tlie second dc{;re« 
^ and of p respect! vol}*, both the P'e :ind tbo Q'e will bv funrtion* 
of the variables q only, and indcp-ndcnt of the Tclocitii;* uotl t 

We thus obtain the pxprcsdous for T, 



llic motrwDt* are exprosiwd in terms -of the velocities by 
linmri-imtioM ^, = />„,-, + p,^^^+&c., ('^ 

and the relocitJes aru expressed in t«nua of the (oomcnta hy 
linear equations ^^ ^ Q„;..+ fi^+fcc. (2 

In treatises on the dynumin of a r!(>id body, the oovSivieDi 
«orrvKpiindt»g ta P„, iu whioh the HuS!s«(i tkn tlto same, arc called 
MoiDCiitH of Inertia, and Uio»o corri'»iioiidin{r to P^, in whii-li 
the Kiiffixeit are ditltTeut, arc called I'roiinetM of Inertia. \Ye may 
extend lliese names to the more gentinil problvin which in now 
before u^, in which these quantities are not, as in the cdk of a 
rigiil I'l-xly, absolute constants, but art; fuuetions of the vari 

In like n)iiim<T we may call the «oe(Bcknt« of the fonD 
Momenta of Mobility, and thote of the form 9,j, Product* 
Mobility. It w not oAen, however, that wc shall haw occowion 
to H[)fal; of the coefficients of mobility. 

S6(>.] TLie kinetic energy of the system is a quantity msential 
po«itive or zero. Hence, whether it be expnwsed in terms of 
TOlocitiw, or in terms of the momenta, the (Mxrfficit'nts mast 
vnch that no rwd valnes of the variableif can make T ncgativv. 

There are thus a wt of ncceKKury conditions which tlic rnlom 
the eooflicicnt« /' must xatisfy. TheM! conditions are a« follows: 

Thu (jnantities /'„, i'^, &c. must nil be pointivc. 

! 01 a 


Tbti M — 1 detemiinantfl formed 

iu mieccvsion from tho detci^ 







' 3i' 


■ A. 

A- A 

by tlie omission of terms with suffix l.dien of terma with either 
or 2 in tbeir suSii, and bo on, must< all be positive. 

The number of conditiotts for a variables is therefore 3 b— 1. 




I The cocfDrlrnls Q arc 8ul>j<>ct to oonditioDs of the Rime titid. 
667.] In tliia outline of Iltf runcluniontnl principles of ihe Ay- 
imic* of a oonnrt'ted nj-sU-m, we Iwvo kept out of vi«w the 
ecliaiiiiim by which the pari« of tlw syrtt^m arc connected. We 
itav« not even written doivn a »ei of eijimtions to indicate how 
this motion of any part of the xystem depends on the variation 
of the variables We have confined our attoution to the vnriahlce, 
their Telocities and momenta, and the forono whidi act on the 
pieoes representing the variables. Our only a9«iim|)tioiiK arc, that 
llie connexions of the system are eueh that the time in not explicitly 
contuined in the equations of condition, and that the principle of 
the conservation of energy is applicable to the system. 

Such a description of the metbo«U of pure dynamics is not nn- 

oeoeesary, because LajirrRDge and most of his followers, to whom 

we are indebted for tbeHc methods, have in general cou6ned tbem> 

elves to a demoDstnition of them, and, is order to devote their 

Attention to the symbols before them, they have endeavoured to 

all ideas except thoise of pore qnantity, so as not only to 

'dispense with diagrams, but even to get rid of the ideas of velocity, 

momentum, and energy, after they have been once for all eop- 

planted by symbols in the original equations. In order to be able 

to refer to Uie results of this analysis in ordinary dynamical hin- 

II g uage, we have endeavoured to retranslate the principal equntions 

^fef tlte method into lan^a^ which may be intelligible without the 

^T»e of symliols. 

Ah the development of the ideas and methods of pore mathe- 
matics has rendered it possible, by forming a uatbemntieal thcoiy 
of dynamics, to bring to light many truths which could not have 
been diseovered withotit mathematical training, eo. if vk are to 
fofin dynamieal Uteorica of other sciences, we must have our minds 
unboed with these dynamical truOis as well as with mathematical 

la forming the ideas and words relating to any science, which, 
ike electricity, deals witli forces and their effects, we must keep 
^^noatantly in mind the idea* appropriate to the fundamental Kienoe 
^■f dynamics, ao that we may, during the first development of the 
^Bcienoe, avoid inconiiHleiicy with u-hat is already establish itl, and 
^^ftlio that when our views become clearer, the tankage we have 
adopted may be a help to us and not a liindrance. 



568.] We liavo shewn, in Art. GS3, lliat, when an elcctrio omrenl 
Kiiets in a conducting; circuit, it Iihs ii i.-apacity for doin;^ b cei 
lUDOunt of mvchniiical work, unil this imicjiendeiitly of any cxtc 
elMtroinolivv foroc muintuiiiin;; tlie ctirrent. Now cakpocity ft 
performin;; work i^ nothing eivt; thun onorgy, in wbateTer wa] 
it arises, and all eactgy is the same in kind, however it may difler 
in fonu. The energy of an electric current is either of that form 
which eonsi«ta in t!ie aotual motion of matter, or of that which 
consist* in the capacity for being set in motion, arising from forces 
■ding between bodies placed in certain positions relative to each 

Tlie first kind of energy, that of motion, is caJled Kinetic eoer^, 
And when once understood it appears so Ibndaineiita] a fact of 
nature that we can hardly conceive the poutibility of resolving 
it into anything elne. The second kind of energy, that depending 
on po-iition, is called Potential energy, and is due to the action 
of what we call foccos, that is to eay, tendencies towards change 
of relativo position. With re*pcct to these forces, tbougli we may 
aoocpt their vxiElcnce as a diinoostrated fact, yet we always feel 
that every explanation of the mechanism by which bodies are set 
in motion forms a rent addition to oar knowlcd^. 

569.] The electric current cannot bo conceived except as a kineii 
phenomenon. Even Faraday, who constantly endeavoured to ei 
cipkle hii( mirul from (ho influonc« of those suggestioDS which 
words 'electric current' nnd 'electric fluid' ace too apt to carr 
witli them, speaks of tl>c electric current as * something prc^ivssi' 
and Dot a mere arrangement.' * 

• £ip. Am., 2SI. 

h th" 



H The eBecis of the current such as eIi>otroly«i8, and the translet 

of electrification from one body to anothiT, ur« all progressive 

actions which require time for their accom^ilishment, and xre there* 

fore of the nature of motion§. 

H As to the velocity of the current, we liiive shown that we know 

HliothinK' shout it, it m»y be the t«ntb of an inch in nn hour, or 

^K^undrvd thousand miles in a second *. So f«r arc we from 

HScnowtn;* its absolute value in any case, that we do not even know 

whether what we call the positive diiectioD is the actual direction 

of the motion or the reverse. 

But all that wo assume here is that the electric current involvCM 
1 of some kind. Tliat which is the cause of electric ciirrentu 
I'lMb Mllcd Electromotive Force. This name has* long been 
n»d with frrcat advanta]>e, and has never led to any inconsistency 
in the IaTi!;uft(ji' of science. Electromotive force is always to be 

•understood to act on electricity only, not on the bodies in which 
bbe electricity lesidee. It is never to be confounded with ordinary 
mechanical force, which acts on bodies only, not on the electricity 
in them. If wc ever come to know the formal relation between 
electricity and ordinary matter, we shall probably also know the 
fetation between cl<,-ctromottvo force and ordinary force. 

570.] When ordinary force acts on a body, and when the body 

yields to the force, the work done by the force is mco^tired by the 

product of the force into the amount by which the body yields. 

BThus, in the caso of water forced through a pi|>c, tlic work done 

Bat any section is nwisunH) by the Quid pressure iit the «cvtioa 

ntuUipIted into the quantity of water which crosses the xoction, 

In the sime way the work done by an clcetromotivc force is 
_faeaaure<l hy the product of the electromotive force into the quantity 
^f electricity which croxxes a section of the conductor under the 
'action of the cleclromotive force. 

The work done hy an electromotive force iM of exactly llie same 
kind as the work done by an ordinary force, and both are meamred 
hy the same Ktondards or units. 

Part of the work done by an eh-ctromotive force acting on a 
conducting circuit is spent in overcoming the resistance of the 
circuit, and Ihic part of the work ib thereby converted into heat. 
Another part of the work is spent in producing tJie electromag- 
netic phenomena observed by Ampere, in which conductors are 
modo to move by electromagnetic forces. The rest of the work 

• £fr- Hf-. >«ie- 



it spent in incmsing tlm kiD«U« energy of the carrent. and 
efteats of this [)art of th« action are ahewn in tbe pbenomoui of L 
indoction of cuminbi whwrved by Faraday. 

Wc thi'irforv know ctKXigb about electric coirents to 
in a sTEbptn of outerial conductors carrying currents, a dynami 
system which i* the eeat of eaetgy, part of which may be kin 
nnJ part {totcntial. 

Ilic Datura of th« connexions of the parts of tliis system 
nnknown to tw, but an wc have dynamical methods of investigation 
which do not require a knowledge of the mechanism of the i^atcm, 
we shall apply them to this case. 

We shall Grst examine the consequences of ossnmin^ the Ui 
^neral form for the function which expresses the kinetic eaergy 
the systcni. 

571.] Let the system oottsist of a number of conducting circuits^ 
the form aDd position of whidi arc ilctmnineal by the raluea 
a system of vflriabU>s ar, , r,, &c-, the nombcr of which is equal 
to the number of drgrvcs of fRHtlom of the system. 

If the whole kiiu-tic energy of the systi>m were llial doe to tbi 
motion of tbcso conductors, it would be expressMl in the form 

r = 1 (*, «,) i,' + &c. + (x^ jg xj ^j 4 &c., 
wlicre the symbols (a*, Xi), &c. denote tlio quantities which we ha' 
oalled moments of inertia, and (2, j-J, kc denote the pro<luct« of 

If X' is the impmsod force, tcndin^f to increase the coordinate 
whkb i» m|uircd to produeo the actual motion, then, by Lagrangv' 
equation, ^H_il— r' 

(/( di dx ~ 

When T denotes the energy' due to the visible motion only, w« 
shall indicate it by the su0ix ^i thux, T^. 

But in a Kyittcm of conductors carrying «)i-ctric currents, part 
the kinetic energy is due to the existenec of Oicw currents. 
the motion of the electricity, and of anything wliuso motitm 
goTemed by that of the electricity, b« detcrmim-d by another 
of coordinates jr, , y^, &c., then T will be a homo^uwius Uinctioi 
of squares and products of all the velocritics of the two «ct« of 
coordinate*. We may therefore divide 7' into three portions, in tJ: 
first of which, T^, the veli:idlies of the CMirdiiuilcs « only ocei 
white in the second, T„ the velocities of the ooortUnates j onl;. 
oceur, and in the third, T^, each term eoutains the pnMlitel of the 
^locities of two ooortlinutes of which ouu is x and the other >. 


of , 






We have therefor« T = T +T i-TH,, 
n, where 7, = i(»,a!,) i,* + &c.+(a,jEjjf,jrj+&c, 

B ?'* = ('.5'i)j^yi+&«- 

^ ST^-] I" tbp CPiieral ilvnaiiiiciil tUeon', tho cneffioienU of every 
I t<Tm msy be functions of all tlie coordinatcis, both j: and y. Id 
^kthfl case of electric currents, however, it is easy to see that the 

coordinates of the cln« y do not enter into the coeflicienta. 
^_ For, if all the electric ciirrentii are mnintiiin«d consliuit, and the 
^poondiictors at mt, the whole state of the field will remain constant. 
Bnt in this ease the coordinates y are variable, tliough the velocities 
jr arc constant. Hence the coordinates y cannot enter into the 
expression for T, or into any other exjirMuiou of what actually takes 

Besides this, in virtoB of the equation of oontinnity, if the con- 
ductors are of the nature of linear circuits, only one variable is 
Pe(|uired to express the strength of the current in each conductor, 
jet the velocitieA y, , ^,, &c. represent the strm^hs of the currents 
n the several eonduetors. 
All this would 1>e true, if, inatoad of electric currents, we had 
currents of an inoonijirestiible fluid running in flexible tube*;. In 
tills CTJsc the velocities of tliwc eiim-nto woidd enter into the 
expre«i(ion for T, but the coefficients would dcjwnd only on the 
vanablr« i, which detenninc the form and position of tlic tubes. 

In Ihe case of the fluid, the motion of the fluid iu one tube does 
not directly HlTeet that of any other ttibe, or of the llnid in it. 
Hence, in the value of 7"^, only the xquares of the velocities^, and 
not their products, oocur, and in 7'm„ any velocity y is associated 
ouly with those velocities of the form i^ which belong to its own 

In the case of electrical currents we know that this restriction 
does not hold> for (ho currents in different eircnits act on each other. 
Ilt'Oce we most admit the existence of terms involving- products 
of the form ^i.r,, and this invotvt« the existence of something in 
SH>tion, whose motion depends on the strength of both electric 
cartmts ^, and y,. This movinff niatler, whatever it is, is not 
confini<<I to the interior of the condiM^tors currying the two current* 
but prol»I)ly extcnils thnHighout the wImIc space surronndinf; them. 
S7$.] Let us next consider tlie form which I^agraoge's equations 
of tnotiott a«sume in this cose, het X' be the impressad force 




corr«]}onding to tlie coordinate x, one of those which determine 
the form and position of the coinln<?tin;y drcuits. Tina ia a force 
in the ordinary ^nse, a tendency uivards change of |>oeitioD. It 
it> &:iveti by Uie equation 

' lit dx ^ 

We may consider this force as the stun of three parte, corte- 
Bpondin^ to tbe three parts into which we divided the kinetic 
energy of tbe system, and we may distingaieh them by tbe aame 
suffixes. Thofl i'= JC'^ ^ X',+X'^ . 

The part A"„ is that whieh depends on ordinary dynamical con- 
nderations, and we need tint attend to it. 

Since 7*, does not contain x, the fint term of the expreciioil 
for X', is xero, and its value ia reduced to 

* dx 

This i« the expression for the raechanica] force which mnst be 
applied to a conductor to liabinoc tbe elect romngnetie force, and it 
imertit that it is measured by Ihe rate of dimtnatitm of the purely 
elect roki net ic energy duo to the variation of tbe coordinate «. Tbe 
electromagnetic force, X^, which bring« this extcnial mi-clianical 
force into play, is c<]iial and opposite to A"^ , and is therefore mejMured 
by (he rate of encreate of the electrokinctio energy corre«pontling 
to an increase of tbe coordinate x. Tbe value of .V^, »ince it depends 
on squares and produeta of the currents, reuairu the same if we 
reverse the directions of all the eanenls. 

The third part of AT' is 

I " <ff "35" dig 

The qaantity T^i contains only products of the form x^, so that 
■ j^ » a linear function of tbe sf lengths of tbe currenta j>. TTie 

first term, therefore, depends on the rate of variation of the 
elrcni;ths of the currents, and iodicntcs a mechanical force on 
the conductor, which is zero when the ctirrents are constant, and 
whieb is positive or negative according as the currents are in- 
creasing or d<.'Cii-a»ing in strength. 

Tbe second tt^rm depends, not on the variation of the canents, 
but ou their actoal strcngtlm. As it is a linear IVinction with 
respect to these currents, il chiing<-s si-^n wbi-n the cnm-ntj? chnng 
rign. Since every term involvs » v.!"citr i, it is zero when 




coitductors are at re*t. Then; iirc aUo tvmiH arising; from the tunc 

variations of the coefficients of/ in -y™ : these remarks apply tiso 

to t)i«n). 

Wc may th«Teforc iiivp«t.ig»tc Ihcse t*nat Beparately. If the 
conductora are »t rt'itt, we bnvc only the first term to deal with, 
f the currents uro condtitnt, «c liuve only tlie second. 

574.] A* it IK of groat imporlnnce to dftorniine whether any part 
of the kini-ltP rtiergy in of the form ?*,«, eonnijiting- of products of or- 
dinary velocities and strt-nf^hs of vlcetric currents, it is desimhle 
that ex[icriinciitM should W made on thin «ul}ject with ^reat cnre. 

The dctenni nation of the forces noting on bodies in rapid motion 
ia diffionlt. Let u* therefore attend to th<^ lirnt term, which depends 
on the variation of the strength of the current. 

If any part of tlio kinetic energy depends on the product of 
•n ordinary velocity and the strength of a 
current, it will pri.lmbly be moBt easily oI>- 
Mrved when tlic velocity and the current are 
in the same or in uppo»ite dinctions. We 
therefore lake a circular coil of a great many 
windings, an<l wispi-nd it hy n fine vcrticid wire, 
ao that its windingit arc horizontul, and the 
coil is capable of rotating about a vcrticid axis, 
either in the same dircetion on the current in 
the coil, or in tbe opposite direction. 
i We shall suppow the current to be conveyed 
into the coil by means of the eusjK-Dding wire, 
and, after paxsing round the windings to com- 
pleto its circuit by piwxing downwards through 

wire in the jame line with the 8UK])ending 
wire and dipping into » eup of inerenn-. 

Since tJte action of the horizontal component 
of terrestrial magnctiKm would tend to turn this 
coil round a horizontal axis when the current 
flows througli it. we ^hiill suppose that the horiEootal component 
of terreatrin) niugnrtism is exactly neulralized by means of fixed 
vatgaeU, or that the exj>erimi,-nt is made at the majjnclic pole, A 
vertical mirrorLiuttach^lotheooil to detect any motion in azimuth. 

Now let a current be made to pafs through the coil in the 
direction X.ES.W. If eloctricity were a fluid like water, flowing 
the wire, then, at the moment of etartiitg tlie eurrcut, and as 





lonar OM its velocity in increaiting, » force n-otikl rcqaiiie to ht 
supplied U> produce ihn nngiilar mnmcntiiin of tlio fliti<i in passin^f 
roiiDd the coil, and lU thi.i niiuil W Htiji|tlio<] by tlie elasticity of 
the BUBpendin^ wire, tlie coil would at firrt rotate in tbe o]>(weit4^ 
direction orW.S.E.N., and this would be detec-tod hy mcnnti of 
the mirror. On Htoppiiig the current t^crc wduld be anotbei 
inoveiuent of tbe mirror, this time in tJic mmc direction as thai 
of tbe current. 

No phenomenon of this kind hatt yet l>ocn oWn'od. Such nn 
action, if it existed, might be eonily diittin^ti«hcd from the alrouly 
known actions of the current hy the following peculiaritieii. 

(1) It would occur only when the ntrcn^lh of the current raries, 
a8 when contact b made or broken, and not when tlie current is 

All the known mfekanieat actions of the otirrent depend on the 
strength of the currents, and not on tite rate of vsriation. Itie 
electromotive action in tbe case of inditced currcntd canbot be 
confounded with this electroougnetie action. 

(2) The direction of this action would be reversed when that 
of all the currents in the Geld is reversed. 

All the known mechanical aetioiui of the curri>nt remain the same 
when »ll the aiirrentd are reverwed, siuce tliey dejiend on Kiiuares 
and products of these current*. 

If any action of this kind were (li-tcovered, we should be able 
to regard one of tbe so-catled kinds of ctectricity, either the ]>o«itivo 
or tlie negative kind, as a real xubiitance, and we should be able 
to dcAcribe the electric cum^it ii» k true motion of this substance 
in a particular direction. In fact, if elMtrical motions were in any 
way comiJarable with the motions of ordinary matter, terms of the 
form 7^ would exist, and Ihcir cxisteaoc would be manifested by 
the mechanical force X^. 

Aecording to Fechner's hypotb<«is, that an electric corrent con- 
sists of two equal currents of positive and n^ati^e electricity, 
flowing in opposite directions through the same conductor, the 
terms of tbe second class T„ would vanish, each term belonging 
to the positive current being accompanied by an equal term 
opposite sign belonging to the negative current, and tbe pbN 
Bomeoa depending on these terms would have uo existence. 

It appears to me, however, that while we derive great advan(s»^ 
from the recognition of the many analogies between the i'IpcItm 
current and a current of a material lluid, we must carefully M 




makiti(> any aasuinptioD not warrant^tl hy cxporinionlal oviilenco, 

»Rn<l that there is, aa yet, no pxperimeutat t.-vi<i«iict> i/a shew whetlier 
thf clcvtric current is really a current of a matorbl substance, or 
In double current^ or whether ita velocity is gn^t or amM aa mea- 
■ured in feet per second. 
A know]cd};r of theee thin;^ vrould amount to at least the be^D- 
DiD^ of a complete dj^amical theory of electricity, in which we 
vbould rc^rd electrical action, not, as in this treatise, as a phe- 
nomenon due to an unknown c&use, subject only to the (general 
\&vi» of dynamics, hut as the result of known motions of known 
portion* of mutter, in which not only the total efTeuts and final 
rcAilts, but tht' whok- intermediate mcclianism and details of th« 
^^ motion, aro taken ■» the objects of study, 
^B 57S.] I^iv experimental inveetigation of the second term of X,^, 

^^HlKly —j^, is more diflieult, a» it involves the observation of 

the eiTvet of foroeit on a body in rapid motion. 

The apparatus shewn in Vig. 3(, which I had eonrtmctod in 
■ iSfil, is intended to t««l the existence of » force of this kind. 





The el«ctitHiiBgnet A is capable of rotating abont tbe horizontal 
axis Blf, within a ring which itaelf revolves about a vortical 

Let J, B, C he the moments of inertia of the electromagnet 
abont the axis of the coil, the horizontal axis BB". and a third axis 
CC pespeclivply. 

Let bo the angle which CC' makes with the Tcrti<«l. ^ tbf 
azimuth of Die axis BB, and ^ a variable on which the motion of 
electricity in the coil depends. 

Then the kinetic cnei^ of the electromagnet may be written 

2T = J4'' sin' S+B4' + C4>*coaH + S{4> an 0+^)*, 

where £ is a ([uuntity which may be called tiio m»m»)t of inertia 
of the eWtricity in the coil, 

If & i» the moment of the impa-^cd force tending to locreaM 
we have, by the cquationg of dynamics, 

& = B'^-[(A-C)4fi»ia0coBO+£^txn$(4>f\n0+'if)\. 

By making 4', the imprc^xed force tending to increase ^, eq ml ,, 
to xero, we obliun ^H 

^8ind4^ = y, ^^ 

a oonxtant, which wc may consider as representing the strength o^ 
the current in the coil. 

If C is somewhat greater than A, €t will be zero, and the 
lihrium abont the axis BIf will be stable when 

This value of depends on that of y, the electric cnrrenf,' 
is positive or negative according to the direction of the current. 

The current is passed throngh the ooil by its bearings at S 
and B', which are connected witJi the battery by means of sprin^H 
rubbing on metal rings placed on the vertical axis. ^^ 

To determine the value of 0, a di«k of {uper is placed at C, 
divided by a diameter parallel to BB" into two parts, one of which 
lA pniiit<-d red and the other gra-n. 

\^')u-n the instrument is in motion a red cirde is seen at C 
when $ is positive, the radius of which iitilioate« roughly the valne 
of S. When is negntivc. a green circle w *een at C. 

By mcanic of niit« working on ecrews attached to the dec! 
magnet, the axis CC' is adjust«d to be a principal axis liavin 
its moment of inertia jnst exceeding that round tlie axis A, to 

sin 9 = 


inuk« tlic instrament very Kcuiiilile to the Action of the force 
if it itxiNtM. 

^ Tlic chief difficulty in the ex])i;rim<!iit8 arose from the ilietiiTbing 
^kction of the earth'^ ma|<;tietic f<irce, whiob caused th<- ek-ctro- 
^unagnct to itct liki> a dip-iiet'dle. 'Vha rt^ulla obtained were on this 
'iwcounl very rough, but no evideuce of any ehange in d could be 
obtaiocd even when an iron core ivas ioverted in the eoti, so as 
tu make it a |)Owitrful electromagnet. 

If, tlierefore, a m^net containii matter in rapid rotation, the 
angular momentum nf tliiii ixitatiDQ must be very umall compared 
Iwilh any <)uaDtitieii which we citn measure, and ne have as yet no 
lence of the existence of the terms 2*^ derived from tiieir 
aanical action. 
9T6.} Let us next consider the forces acting on the currents 
fof electricity, that is, the electromotive farces; 

Let }' bo the eSeetive electromotive force due to induction, the 
[cleetromotive force wliich must act on the circuit from without 
to balanoe it is y = — }', and, bv Lngrangc-'a cquntion, 

r=-r =---+-• 

ttl </^ dy 
Since there are no terms in T involving the coordinntti y, th« 
lod terra is zero, and }' is reduced U) its firxt t«rm. Hence, 
romotive force caonot exiet in a itystcm at rcKt, and with cou- 
flt«nt currents. 

Again, if we divide I' into tlireo part«, I'„, f,, and T^, cor- 
ie»l>onding to the thmc parte of T, wo 6ad that» since 7", does not 
contain y, r_ = 0. 

Weilsofind r = -~'^fi. 

' at dv 

Herw -5.- is a linear function of the currents, and this part of 

Uw eJectromotive force is etjuul to the rata of chan^ of this 
fiinelion. This is the electromotive force of induetiim discovered 
by I'liraday. Wc shall conifidcr it more at lt>iigtli afterwards. 
577.] From the i)art of 7', depending on velocities multiplied by 

currents, we find i_ = — 




dt .Jj, 

is a liocnr function of the velocities of the conductors. 

If, thcrirforc, any terms of T^ have an actual exiatenee, it woidd 
be postible to produce an electromotive force independently of all 
existiDg carreitte by aimply altering the velocities of the conducton. 




For inetance, in t,h« ca«c of the «ii«pcui]c<l coil at ArU A59, if, wIicd 
the ooil is at rest, w« suddenly met it in rotntioa nboiit the vcrticail 
lucis, nn «1l"cI roiiiotivc force woiiW U>«ill<^ into action proportional 
to tlic n«Ci^leniLi»ii of thiit motioo. It vroiild vanish whim lite 
Diotion becume tiDifonn, and be rovenod when the motion waa 

Now few a?ientilio oWrvationg can be maile with greater pre- 
cision than thai which determine* the existence or noifCxiitten<-c of 
a etirrcut by ineans nf & galvanometer. Thedelicacy of thiit method 
far i'xi^e<l.<< tluit of luoot of tlte arrangemenlK for mi-JiMiiriiig the 
mochaiiical foi-ci^ acting on a body. If, Uii>rcfore, any currents eould 
be produced in tliis way they would be detected, even if liiey were 
very feeble. They would be distinguished from ordinary carreota 
of induction by tbe following clinracterictics. 

(1) Tlii'v would depend entirely on the motions of the conductore, 
and ill no degive on the strength of currents or tnagnetic fo 
already in the tietd. 

(2) They would depend not on the abjioloto velocities of the co 
ductors, but on tlieir accelerations, and nn squares and products 
velocities, and they would change sign wlien tbe acceleration be- 
comes a retardation, though tbe absolute velocity is the same. 

Now in all the canea actually observed, the Induced currenta 
depend altogether on the strength and the variation of current* in 
tbe field, and cannot be excited in a field devoid of magnetic force 
and of cunentB. In so far as thoy depend on the motion of coa- 
doctors, the)- depend on tlie absolute velocity, and not on the chango 
of velodty of these motions. 

We have thus three methods of detecting the existence of the 
tenns of tbe torm T^,, none of which have hitherto led to any 
positive result. 1 have pointed them out with the greater care 
because it ap[>enr« to mr important that we should attain the 
greatest amount of certitude within our reach on a point 
eo strongly on the true theory of electricity. 

Sincf, however, no evidence has yet been obtained of such 
1 Ehall now proceed on the assumption that they do not cxmi 
or at least that thoy produce no sensible 00*001, an assuniptioa whii 
will oonstdembly simplifj- our dynamical theory. AVe nliall ha 
occasion, howi;ver, >n discussing the relation of ninguetism to Ugl 
to shew tlukt the motion which constitutes light may enter u« a 
lactoT into tcnni invoiring the motion which oooatitnles mu^ 





578.] Wr may now oon6ne our attention to that part of the 
EiDetic energy of the system which deponcU on wiuaree and products 
of the strenglhii of the electric currents. Wo may call tbia the 
Elcctrokinetic Knei^ of the system. The part depending on the 
motion of the conductors belongs to ordinary dynamics, and we 
have shewn thai the part depending on products of velocities Mid 

teorrents docs not exist, 
IjCt yf,, Jj, &c, denote the different conducting circaits. Let 
their form and relative position be expressed in terms of the variables 
4*1, x^, &c., the number of which is equal to the number of degrees 
of &eedom of the mechanical sj-stem. We shall call these the 
Geometrical Variables. 

Let y, denote the quantity of electricity which has CTO6ae«I a given 
, section of the conductor .(, ainoe the beginning of the time /. The 
trength of the current will be denoted byj/,, the fluxion of this 

We shall call jr, the actual omrent, and y, the integral current. 
There ifr one variable of this kind for each circuit in tho system. 

Let T denote the electrokinetic energy of the eyetem. It is 
a Itom^^-neous function of the second degree with respect to the 
,.^ rixe ngths of the currents, and is of the form 

^Brnere the ooeflicients A, M, &c. are functions of the geometrical 
l^tarlables Xi, r., &c. The electrical variables y,, y^ do not enter 
into the exprcMtion. 

We may call A,, Z.,, &c. the elnctrie moments of inertia of the 
circait« /fj, J.^, &c., and ifj^ the electric product of inertia of tlic 
two circuits J, and .4^, When wc wish to avoid tho languugi- of 





the dynamical theory, we shall call J/, Uie coefllcient orsalf-inducli 
of the circuit y/j, and J/^, the coefficient of mutual induction of i 
circuits ^, and A^. M^^ is also called the jiotenUal of lite cirLiili 
^j with ree])ect to Aj^. These qaantitics' degiend only on the form 
Aiitl relative position of the circuits. We shall find that in the 
electro magnetic system of measurement they arc quantities of the 
dimension of a line. Sec Art. 627. 

By diiTercntiatinf: Z" with respect to j^, we obtain the quantity />,, 
whieh, in the dj'naroical theory, may be called the momentum 
corresponding to y,. In the electric theory we shall call pi the 
clectrokinotie momvnlum of the circuit A, . Its ralue is 

The electrotdnetic rocroentum of the circuit J, is therefore mode 
up of the product of its own current into ita coefficient of self- 
induction, together nith ttie sum of the products of the currents 
in the othor circuits, each into the coefficient of mutual induction 
of Aj and that other circuit. 

Electromotive Force. 

579.] Let fi' l)c the impressed clectromotiTe force in the circuit A, 
an»in{> from some caoac, such as a voltaic or tliermoelectric b«tteiy, 
which would produce a current independently of mngneto-electric 

Let R be the resi^noe of the circuit, then, by Ohm's law, an 
electromotive force 7lf is required to overcome tlw resistance, 
leaving an electromotive force £—Jly available for changing the 
tnomeulnm of the circuit. Calling this force J", wc have, by the 
general equations, ^^ Jp JT 

but einoc T'doos not involve y, the laxt temi disappoors. 
Hence, the equation of clectromolivo force is 

TTie impressed electromotive force /' is then'fore the sum of ' 
parts. The first, /iyr, is required to maintain the current jr ugaii 
the redstenoe R, The second part is rcquin-ti to increaw the i 
ttomagnetio momeDtum ji. This is the electromotive fom* whict 
must bo supplied from sources independent of magtwto-elect 



induc-tion. The electromotiTe-force arising from magDCto-vleutric 
Dduction aloae is evid^Dtly — -n < or, tAe rate of decrease of the 
fUctrokinttic momentHst of the circuit. 

f Efeetroma^netic Foret. 

580.] Lrt X' be the impreBsed mecluoical fwrne arising from 
kxtvrDiil cauBC», tuid tending to increase tJie variable z. Hy the 
gencnil equations ^ 4 dT dT 

~ dt dx dx 
Sin<-e the expression for the clectrokinetic oncrgy does not contain 
th« velocity [i), the iirst t«rm of thu second member disappears, 
und wc find ^ ^f 

Here X' h lite fxt^-rnal force required to balance the forces arising 

from electrical i-itusc-s. It ie nsiial to eoimider this force us the 

resclion against the elect to tna^etic force, which we shall call A', 

^^ad which is equal and opposite to X', 





; tie elftiroinaffnelie /orcf tt-nding 'o incrfaM any rarialln iV equal 
io fit ratt of ihCTfase of the tleelrokinelic energy jtcr uiH increase of 
tiat variaiU, He cwrratte being mainlained exmttant. 

If the cnrrenta are tnaintained consljinl by a liattery during a 
displacement in which a (juantity, W, of work is done by electro- 
motive force, the eleolrokinetic energy of the system will be at tho 
Mine time increased by W. Hence the battery will be drawn apon 
for a double quantity of energy, or 2 W, in addition to that which it 
■pent in generating beat in the circuit. This was first pointed out 
ly Sir W. Thomson*. Compare this residt with the olcctroirtatio 
perty in Art. 93. 

Catt of Tko Circttite. 

681.] Let Ji he called the Primary Circuit, and A.j the Secondary 
Circuit Tbo dectrokinetic energy of the system may be written 

where L and .V arc the coo<Iicicnt« of »eir-indncUon of the primary 

> N>d>..l'« Crtop<Hili» 1/ Njoinil Stitntt, (d. 1840, Artldo, ' MignMim. Dy- 
■tmkal livUliuna «f.' 





and Eecon^MTy circuits rccpt'clivcly, iind 3f is tbfi coefTicicnt of 
mutual induction. 

Lot as suppose that no i-lcctromotive foroo *ci» oa th« second, 
dicuit except that duo to the inductioQ of the primal}* curreDl- 
We have then . 

Integrating^ this equation with reepeot to /, ire have 
If,^a + Mfj + Nf^ = C, A constant, 
vrhrrc y, i« the integral current in the secondary' circuit. 

'Hie mvttiod of nitiasuring an integral current of sliort d 
will be dviMsribed in Art. 746, and it is easy in moat cnaoii to «i 
that the duration of the secondary cmreDt shall bo very short. 

Let the values of the variable i^uantities in the equation at 
end of the time i be acccnti-d. then, if y^ is the integral current,' 
or the whole quantity of electricity which flows through a section 
of the secondary circuit during the time t. 

If the secondary current arisirs entirely from induction, its initial 
value jTf must be zero if the primary current is oonstsot, aod the 
con'luctors are at rest before the bej^innin^ of the time i. 

If the time / is sufBcieat to allovr the secondary current to dis 
awav, y/, its final value, is also Kcro, so that the equation bcvomo 

The integral current of the secondary circuit dDpends io 
on the iuitiul and (iiuil values of J/y,. 

Indueei CmrrenU. 

S83.] Let us begin by supposing the primary circuit 
or y, = and let a current y,' be eiUbli«hed io it when oont 
is made. 

The eijuutioa which delermioes the BMondary integral current i 

When the eireoib «tt pUoed side by side, and in the same direct 
tion, J/ is a positive quantity. Hence, when contact is made io 
the primary circuit, a negative current is induced in the soooodaty 

When the contact is broken in the primary circuit, the ; 
current ceases, and tlie induced current isy, where 

Hie Moondary enrrent is in this ease positive. 





If the primary current U muintaimid coostant, and the form or 
relative position of the drcuils altered so that M becomes M', the 
int^ral secondary current in^^, wh<-re 

In Div cn«c of two circuits placed side by side and in the same 
diruotion M dimiiuahes as the distance lH'tw«cn the circuits in- 
creases. Hence, the iiiducoit current is piwitive when this distuooc 
ia increased and ne^tivc when it is diminiehud. 

t These are the elementary ca«es of induced ciirreiite described in 
:t. 530. 



I • 


Mechanieat Action heltcerit Ihc Two Cireuiti. 
583.) Let X be any one of the geometrical variables on which 
i« Ibrm and relative position of the circuits depend, the clectro- 
nuignotiv foreu tending to increase x is 

dL dM , ,dN 

If the motion of the system corresponding to the variation of x 
IS Fiich that each circuit moves as a rigid body, L and .V will be 
indt^pcndvnt of x, and the equation will bo reduced to the form 



■i" = hh 


Heooej if (he primary and secondary ourrents are of the same 
sign, the force X, which acts between the circuits, will tend to 
move them so as to increase M. 

If the circuits are placed side by side, and the cnrrcnts Dow in 
the same direction, M will be increased by their being brought 
DeiU¥r together. Hence the force X is in this eai<e an attraction. 

684.] TIio whole of the phenomena of the mutual notion of two 
CircuiU, whether the induction of currents or the mechanical fore*? 
betwMn them, dejicnd on the quantify -V, which we have called the 
eoeflieient of mutuiil induction. The method of calculating this 

itity from the geometrical relations of the drenita is given in 

524, but in the inveKtigations of the next chapter we shall not 
me a knotvledge of the mathematical form of this quantity, 
sliall consider it as deduced from experiments on induction, 
for instance, by observing , the integral cuiTcnt when tlie 
secondary circuit is suddenly moved from a t,'iven poKition t« an 
lite distaote, or to any position in which wo know tliat J/s 0. 

F a 


bxpijORation of thr field by ubaxs of thb secokdakt 







«(] in 


585.] We have proved in Arts. 582, 583, 5B1 that the eleotro- 
augnetic uction botwoen the primary and the accondary oircait 
depends on tlie quantity deuoted by if, which is a fuactioa of 
form and relative position of the two circuits. 

Although this quantity ,V is in fact the same as the pot«ntii 
of the two circuits, the msthcmattcal form and proportice of whici 
we deduced in Arts. 423, 492, 521, 639 from magnetic and electro- 
mag-notic plienomena, ne shall faorc make no reference to thew 
r«Bu]tB, but begin again from ■ new foundation, without any 
assumptions except thoM of the dynamical thc<ory aa slutcd in 
Chnptcr VII. 

Tlic clei;tr»kinetic momentum of the secondary' circuit conna 
of two part* (Art, 578), one, J/<i, depending on the primary eur 
»',, while the other, ?i\, depends on tJie ttecondaiy current i',. We 
arc now to investigate the first of theae parts, which we alialt 
denote by 7», wbiTC /> = .l/t,. (l) 

We idiall alao suppose the primary circuit fixed, and the primary 
current coitxtant. The quantity jb, the electrokinetJo momentum of 
tJie secondary circuit, will in thiti case depend only on tJie form 
•nd position of the veeondary circuit, so tliat if any dosed cunre 
he taken for the iteooodaty circuit, and if the direction along this 
ctirTO, which is to be reckoned positive, be chosen, the valiM of ^h 
for this closed curve is determinate. If the opposite direction aloo^l 
the curve bad been chosen aa the positive direction, the sign of 
the quantity /i would have been reversed. 

S8€.] Sinc« the quantity p depcnda on the form and positiii 
of the cireuit, wu may sappo^ that each portioD nf the circnt 





oontributas somethinji^ to the value of p. and tHat the part con- 
bated by each portion of the cireuit depends on the form and 
ntion of that portion only, and not on the position of other parte 
of the circuit. 

This asstimpUon is legitimate, hucause we are not now considcrinf^ 
current, the pari* of which niuy, and indeed do, act on oiw an- 
other, but a mere arcntt, that ix, a closed curve alon^ wliieli a 
eurreDt nnr^ How, and thie is a puiyly ^somutrical fifj^ure, the |iart« 
of which cannot be conceived to have any physical uetton on eoelt 

We may therefore aMume that the part contributed by tlie 
element */* of the circuit i* Jd*. whi-rr / in a fjtiuntily dc))ending 
on the portion and direction of the cli-nicnt J». Henee, tbe valne 
of J) may be expTt««ed as a line-iiit«gnil 

fp=jJd>. (2) 

1ier« the integration ix to be extended once round the circuit. 
887.] We hav(^ next to determine the form of the quantity J, 
a the finti, place, if tta is reversed in direction, J is reversed in 
uga. Hence, if two cireuita ABCE and AKCD 
hare tbe arc AEC common, hut reckoned in 
opposite directions in the two circuits, the sum 

tof the values of ^ for the two circnits ABCE 
and AECIf will be e(iuat io the value of yi for 
the circuit ABCD, which is made up of the two circuits. 
For the parts of the linc-intcgrul deppndinff on the arc AEC ai« 
equal but of opposite sign in the twd partial circuits, ao that they 
destroy cndi other when the sum is taken, leaving only those {torts of 
the lino-integral which depend on the external boundary of ABCD. 
^P In the fame way we may shew that if a surface hmindcd by a 
eloeol curve be divided into any number of part.N, and if the 
bonndary of each nf thc^e jtarts be coti»idered u« ii ein^iiit, the 
positive direction round every circuit I>eing the «arae an that round 
the external closed curve, then the value of'jO for the cUibo<1 curve in 
^^qual to the sum of the values of /t for all the circuits. See .\rt. 483. 
^P 68B.1 Let ns now consider a portion of a aurfaee, the dimensions 
"of which are so small with respect tolheprinci|ial radii of curvature 
of the sarliu« that the variutioii of the direction of tbe normal 
within this portion may be neglected. We shall also suppose tha', 
if any very small circuit be earned parallel to itself from one part 
if this surface to another, the value of p for the small circuit in 

1 If 

Fig. 36. 




not aenaibly altered. This will cviilcntly be tbc cam U* tlm diuen 
aiona of the portiou of surfacu arc ridhH onoug^i eomiured wit 
ita distance from the priman- circuit, 

f arty closed carve be drawn on Mi* jiorfhit of He tvrfaee, tie 
raltre of p will 6e proportional to tV* arta. 

For the nrt-as of any two circuit* may be divided into sma 
elements all of tbo :^tmc dimenxioni*, and having the same valv 
of p. The area* of the two circuit» are as the nurobera of theM 
elements which they contftin, and the values of p for the two eircoiu 
are aL-ui in t.)ic same proportion. 

Hence, the value of ji for the circntt which hounds any elemental 
lis of a iiurface is of the form IdS, 

where / is a quantity dei>ending; on the poeition of d$ and on the 
direction of its normal. We have therefore a new expreasiOQ for jo, 




. =jjld8, 


Kg. S8. 

where th« double integral is extended over any surftce bounded b; 
the circuit. 

589.] Ijct AliCD be a circuit, of which AC is an i-lonientary 
portion, m> small tbnt it may he conHHlen^ Htruigh 
Let APH and CQB \x nmall ctjual areuit in tl 
same plane, then tbc value of p will be the MOM 
for the small circuits APB and C<i,lt, or 

p{APIi) = p{CqB). 
IIcDce p{APBQCI/) =p{ABQCD) + p{APiri, 


= p{A£CD), 
or the value of p is not altered by the substitution of the crool 
line APQC for the straight line AC, provided the area of the circuit 
is not sensibly altered. l"hia. in fact, is the principle established 
by Ampin's second experiment (Art. 506), in which a crooked 
portion of a circuit i* shewn to be equivalent to a etrsigbt portion 
providod no ]>art of the Crookeil portion is at a sensihle dist>n< 
from the straight portion. 

If therefore wc substitute for the element i/t three small elemeni 
lie, Jjf, and tl:, drawn in succession, so as to form a c«nlinuoi 
patli from the be^nning to the end of the element i/#, and 
Fdje, Gdjf, and ffdx denote the elements of tlic line-integral eo: 
tesponiling to dx, djr, and dg respeetively, then 
Jdt = Fdx-i-GdyiIIde, 


590.] Wc «re now able to determine the mode in which tbe 
quantity / (Icxwnds on the direction of the elemont ds. For, 

by (4J. 

4* <lf da 


This is the cxpnsdon Tor the resolvetl i>art', in tho direction oft/*, 
of a vector, thv components of which, rceolved in thti directions of 
the ttXCT of », ^, nnd i, mv f, (r, nud tf rcepuctirely, 

Tf this vi-ctor be denoted l>y 91, nnd the visctor from the orif^Jn 
to a point of the eirciiit by p, the (element of the circnit wiil be dft, 
^—»ud the quitemion expreaaion for Jd* will be 

■ -S3ldp. 

H Wc may now write eqiiatioD (2) ia the form 


or fi 


lie vector ?[ and its conptitiiont^ F, C TT depend on the position 

I of dt in the field, and not on the direction in whieh it is drawn, 
rhcy arfl therefore functions of «, y, t, the coordinates of d», and 
not of I, m, n, its direction-cosines. 
Th« vector 91 represents in direction and magnitude the time- 
hitcgnd of the electromotive force which a pitrticio placed at th« 
point (*, y, ;) would cuperiencc if the primary current were sud- 
denly stopped. We shall therefore call it the Electrokinetic Mo- 
mentum at tif point, {x, y, t). It is identical with the quantity 
which we investigated in Art. 403 tinder the name of the veetor- 
potvntiul of mof^ietic induction. 

The elootrokinetic momentum of any finito line or eirouit is th« 
iine-inlegnl, extended along th« line or circuit, of the resolved 
port of the eloctrokinctic momentum at faeb point of the some. 

501.] Let U!i next dt-termino the value of 
p for the elementary rectangle ABCD, of 
which the sides are Jy and dz, the positive 
direction bein;; from the direction of the 
axis of ^ to that of t. 

Let the coordinates of 0, the centre of 
gravity of the clement, be J'ofJ'u. -o- ""d '"^ 

On, Hn be the values of G and of //at thia 


Fig. W. 

lie coordinates of A, thn middle point of the first side of Uie 



rectangle, are y, and t^— - dz. Tlie correeponding value of Q '» 



and the part of the value of p which arises from the side A u G^J^-'/PyJz. (9) 

Similarly, fra JS^ B^dx^ - -r- dgdz. 

For 5, -H^dz^Y^dgdz. 

Adding these four quantities, we flod tlie valne of j> for 
rectanel»^, viz: ^if dG. , , , 

If we now Asciime three new <|aantitie8, a, 6, e, such that 
rff dc 




dm djf ' 

', ^g^ conitidfr these um the eonstitucnt* of a ncn- vcdor 9, tlien, 
TiieorDin IV, Art. 2-1, we may express the lim-int^'gral of SI roue 
any circuit iu the form of the 8tirEaec>iut£^7i>l of 3 over a »u ft'acc 
hounded by the circitit, thus 


wbere t a the angle between ?l iind dt, and ij that between © and 
the norma] to dS, wlio»e <liri>ctii)n-«otine* aru /, m, n, and T% 79 
denote the numerical vatuea nf 'Jl awd '8. 

CompunD{> this result with equation (3), it is evident that the 
qunntity / in that equation ia equal to 9 coa >}, or the resolved part 
of $ nonual to dS. 

592.] We have alimdy seen (Arts. 'I'JO, 54 1 ) that, acoordiny : 
l-Vraday's thcoiy, the phenomena of elcctroma^etio fbrea. 



indoctioa in a circuit depend on Utu vaHattoa of tlio number of 
lines of ma^etic indactioD which pass ihrouf^h the circuit. Now 
the number of these lines is exprcfsi.'d mathemHtically by the 
sarbcc-inte^ral of the maf^nctic induction throug'h any eurfnco 
bounded by tbo circuit, tlencc, wc mii«t rrfjard the vector S 
and its components a, 6, c ok representing what wc arc ulrcudy 
ucquuintcd with ue the mngtictic induction and it* components. 

In llie present investijfation we propone to deduce thi- projierties 
[of thiM VL-ctor fn)ni iho dynrtmieul principles stated in the Xust, 
|chapl«r, with -.i* few nppoiilx to experiment as possible. 

In klentifyiiig this vector, whinli has iip|}eared as the result of 
'a matliematical inveati^ution, with the magnetic iniluclion, the 

Ipropertien of which we learned from experiments on magnets, we 
do not depart from this method, for wc introduce no new lact into 
the theory, we only give a name to a mathematical quantity, and 
the propriety of bo doing is to be judged by the ngreement of the 
relations of the mathematical quantity with those of the physical 
quantity indicated by the name. 

nic vwtor 33, since it occurs in a surfaee-integml, belongs 
I evidently to the eatepory of Huxes described in Art. 13. Tho 
I vector SI, en the other huud^ belongs to the category of forces, 
^nnc« it appears in a line-integral. 

593.] Wc roust here recall to mind the conventions about positive 
' and negative qiuintities and diicctions, «otne of which were stated 
in Art. 23. We adopt the rigiit-humled syslero of axes, so that if 
a right-handed screw is placed in the direction of the axis of a>, 
aad A nut on tliis screw is turned in the positive direction of 
rotation, tliat i^ from the direction of y to that of :, it will more 
alon^ the screw in the positive direction of a*. 

■ We also consider vitreous electricity and austral magnetism as 
positive. The ]>0Bitivc direction of an electric current, or of a line 
of electric iuduction, is the direction in which positive electricity 
Imoves or tends to move, and the positive direction of a line of 
'magnetie induction is the direction in which a compass needle 
points with the end which turns to the north. See l-"ig, 24, ^Vrt. 
«8. and Fig. 25, Art. 501. 
jl^ The student is recommended to select whatever method appears 
^Kto him most elfcctual in order to fii these conventions securely in 
^Bbts memory, for it ts far more diflicult to remember a rule which 
^^det«rmincs in which of two previously indiflerent ways a stotcmecit 
ia to be made, than a rule which selects one way out of many. 




594.] We have next to dcduoe from d^amical principle* 
pxpn-sMiona for llie elct;tri>magn<)tio force actiu^ on a coadac' 
currjing an electric cuirciit tbroufi^li the mai^netic ficM, and 
the electromotive force acting on the electricity within • body 
moving in the magnetic field. The mathemiitimi method which 
we flhall adopt may be compared with the cxiwriinenlal metliod 
used hy Faraday * in explorinfr the field by meanit of a wire, and 
with what we have already done in Art. 490, by a method founded 
on experiments. What wo have now to do is to determine the 
effect on the value of p, the electrokinetie momentum of the 
secondary circuit, due to given alterations of the form of that 

Let AA', BB" be two parallel straiglit conductors coaneotcd I^ 
the conducting arc C, which may he of any form, and by a strai^t 



F<(. Da. 

conductor AB, which is capable of sliding parallel to itself along 
the conducting rails A A' and B&. 

Let the circuit thus formed he considered as the secondary 
cuit, and let the din^rtion ABC be assumed as the poativc directioi 
round it. 

Let the sliding piece more parallel to itKcIf from the postion AB 
to the position ^Jf, Wc have to determine the variation of /r, t1 
cicctrohinetic momentum of the circuit, due to this dieplaci-mcn 
of the gliding piece. 

Tlie aecondary circuit i« dian^i^ed from ABC to jtlfC, hence, b; 
Art. 587, j>{ArS'C)-p{A£C)= piAA^BTB). (i.h) 

We have tlierefore to determine the value of p for the |iaralU-I*M 
ogram AJ^ffB. If this puralielogram ia so small that wc mayH 
neglect the variations of the direction and magnitude of the mag- 
netic induction at difiV-rent points of itd pluiic, tJje value of p 
by Art. 59 1 , © 00a ij . AA'IfB, where S is the tnagnolio inductio 

• Bip. ft*, SOte lusr. 3lW. 

596.] SLinixo PiKCE. 2X9 


^bnd >) the angle <iThich it ranker with the positive direction of the 
^piormal to the parallelogram AA'lfB. 

^ We may represent the result georoetrioallj- by the volume of the 
pamllelcpiped, whose base is the parallelogram AA'JfB, and one of 
whose edges is the line AM, which ropresenta in direction and 
^maivnttiido the magnetic induction ^8. If the parallelogram is in 
Ijo plane of the paper, and \i AM is drawn upwards from the paper, 
tie Tolumc of the parallelepiped ia to be taken positively, or mora 
cnorall}'. if the direotions of the circuit AJi, of the magnetic in- 
^duetion AM, and of the displacement AA', form a right-handed 
syBtem when taken in this cyclical order. 

The volume of this parallelepiped represents the increment of 
the ^-alne of /> for the secondary circuit due to the displacvment 
>f the eliding pieci! from AB to d'iJ'. 

Sleetromolive F(»ve acting on tie Sliding Piece. 

595.] The electromotive force jirotluccd in tlie Mconduy circuit 
by the motion of the sliding piece is, by Art. 879, 

If we suppose AJ' to be the displacement in unit of time, Uiea 
iA' will represent the velocity, and the parallelepiped will rojiresent 

R^, and therefore, by equation (H), the electromotive force in tlia 

negative direction BA. 
I^L Honco, the electromotive force acting on tha sliding piece AB, 
^Kn consMitienoe of it^ motiuu through the mAgnetio Geld, is rcprw- 
^Bent«d by the volume of the pnrnlK-Iepiped, whose edges represent 
^^in direction and magnitude — the velocity, the magnetic induction, 
and the aliding piece itaelf, and is ponitive when these three direc- 
tions are in right-handed cyclical order. 


EUeli^ftagnelie Force aH'mg on the Slliiing Pieee. 

S96.] Let f, denote the current in the ecconilury circuit in the 
positive direction ABC, then the work done by the electromagnetic 
forre oo AB while it slides from the position AB to the position 
A'W is (Jf'— J/) /, 1^, where M and M' are the values of 3/,^ in 
the initial and final positions of AB. But (.V— J/)'| is e(|ual 
to p'~p, and this is rcprcwntwl by the volume of the parallclepti>ed 
AB, AM, and AA'. Hcnoe, if wc dmw a line par»Il«l to AB 


to rc])n»eot the qaantity JB.ij, th« {laralldcpiped contained 
this lino, by AM, llic mnf^oliv indnotion, SDi] by AA', Ihu displiwt- 
ment, will represent the work done during this diHpbct'invnt. 

For ii ^von dietunci' of difplaocrovnt this will be gn-ulxict when 
tlio di^placfmont i« perpendicidsr t» the pnrBllcIcigmm whom? «dw 
an- AB iwwi AAf. The electroiuagiwtic force in ihcrvfoTv rc{>n.>»fiilnl 
by the arcu of thi> pHivllelognun on Alt and A-V multiplied by ^, 
Knd i« in the direction of th« normal to thin parallelogram, drawn >o 
tliHt AS, AM, and the aonuat are in rtght-han<led cyclical order. 

Four DffinUiona of a Line of Mapietie iHduelioH. 

697.] If the direction AA^, in which the motion of the sliding 
piece takes place, coincides with AJif, the direction of the magiietfc 
indaelion, the motion of the sliding pioec will not call electmmotive 
force into action, whatever be the direction of AB, and if ^// carries 
an i-lcctric current there will be no tendency to slide along Ait. 

Again, if Ali, the sliding piece, coincides in direction with AM, 
the direction of magnetio induction, there will be no electromotive 
forru ciillt^ into action by any motion otAli, und a current through 
All will not cause AB to be acted on by mechiuiical force. 

We may therefore define a line of magnetic induction ia four 
different ways. It is a line mich that 

(1) If a oonductor be moved along it paraUe) to iuelf it will 
experienoe no electromotive force. 

(2) If a conductor carrying a current be free to move aloni* a 
line of magnetic induction it will experience no tendency to do so. 

(3) If a linear conductor coincide in direcUon with a lin« of 
magnetic induction, and l>c moved parallel to itGl^ll' in any direction, 
it will experience no electromotive force in the direction of it« 

(4) If a linear conductor carryinff an electric current coincide 
in direction with a liitc of magnetic induction it will not cxiwrtenoe 
any mechanical force. 

OenVTtil EquatiMt g/" Elteir9m«Utt Force. 
&9B.] Wo have Been that M, the electromotive foiro duo to in- 
duction acting on the secondary circuit, ia equal to — ~, where 





IN) determine the value of E, let us (liiterentiat« the quantity 
fnnder the integral sign with respect to I, remembering that if the 
|«ecoD(laT}- circuit is in motion, x, if, and s are functions of the time. 
1 "We obtain 

,rf^^ rfO^ dUdz^ 

^dt th'*' di ds"^ de d»^ 

^ = ~ J Ut di'*' dl t,"^ M T»)'^ 

_ \ c^^ ^'k. 'i^^\ ^j 

J^dx di '*' dJ dt '*' d9 ds^ di 


dy dt'^ ds^'^ dy <U' dl 
J Us tU"^ dt'di^ d: dt^dt 



-'^^s^ + ^.^.+'^^>- 



Now consider the second tcnn of the integral, and siibotitute 
ocn equations (A), Art. 501, the values of j- and -^ . This term 
|th«n becomes, 

flFdy dFdx^dx 


of 1 "' dF dx iir Of ar ai\ ax , 

"di' di'*"^di'^d^di'*"didi^Tf'^' 

TOiMic© we may write 

^df , dz dFx dst , 

Treating the tJiird and fourth terms in the same way, and col- 
dx df , dz 

ikcUng the terxns in -j-i ~, and ^*, remembering that 

J(didi'^^didt)'^' = ^di' 


therefore that the integral, when taken round the closed 

f, dz dx dG\dy, 
f,,dx dy . 



We nifty writ« tli» expression in tike Torm 



„ <fy .''' d^ *'* 

q = a 

ds das 

g_.dx d^ dif d^ 
dt "di dt di 





The tenns involving tbe new quantity * are introiluced for tin 
sake of giving generality to tbe expressions for i*, Q, S. Tbey 
disappoar from the integral when extended round the closed circuit. 
The <)uaiitity "^ ie therefore indet<irmniutc as fur aK reg-^nls tli« 
prublem now before as, in which tbe totul electromotive force round 
tbo circuit is to be determined. Wc shall tinil, howevor, that when 
we know all the circumstancca of the prohlcm, wc can asvigu a 
dcfiniU vnltio to 4*, and that it reprcM-nU, ncoording to a certain 
defmitigti, the electric potential at the pmnt (r, jr, .-). 

The ijrmntit)' under the integral nign i» etjuation (."S) r«prcsenta 
the electromotive force jicr unit length acttn|f on the element da of 
the circuit. 

If we denote by T(S, tlie numerical value of tlie resultant of P, 
Q, and li, and by *, the angle between the direction of tbia re> 
sultant and that of tbe element lU, wc may write equation (5), 

E^jmwttdt. (6) 

The vector ff is the electromotive force at tbe moving element 
d». Its direction and magnitude depend on the podtion and 
molioD of da, and on the variation of the magnvtic field, but not 
on the direction of dt. Hence we may now disregard the circum- 
stance that da forms part of a circuit, and consider it nimply aa a 
portion of a moving body, acted on by the electromotive force tf. 
The electromotive force at a jmint ha* already been dt^fiucd in 
Art. G8. It ia also called tbe reaullant elrctriea) force, Wiug th« _ 
force which would be experienced by a unit of positive electricity^ 
pluu^I at that point, We have now obtained the moet general 
value of this quantity in the ca« of a body moving in a magnetic^ 
Geld due to a variable electric Hy»tcm. ^| 

If the body is a conductor, the electromotive force will produce a ' 
current ; if it is a dielectric, the electromotive force will produce 
only electnc diq>Ucem«nt. 





^P 'ni« «)ectromotiv« force nt a point, or on a patiiclt;, must be 
carefully dUtinguUlied from the electromotive force nlon» an arc 
of a curre, the latt«r ijuftBtity being the line-intogral of the former. 

I 81* Art. 69. 

^p 599.] The electromotive force, the components of which are 
defined \>y equationH (K), depends on tliree circumstances. The firet 

I of U>ese ii the motion of the particle through the magnetic Held. 

H^e put of the force depending on this motion \e expressed by the 
first two terms on the right of each equation. It depends on this 

t Telocity of the particle transverse to the lines of magnetic iaduction. 
If IB is a vector representing the velocity, and © another repre- 
senting the magnetic induction, then if 6, is the part of the clec- 
^ tromotivo force depending on the motioo, 

P e,= r.®©, (7) 

OFi t])e electromotive force is tJie vector part of the product of the 
magnetic indiKtion multiplied by the velocity, that iti to my, the 
^ magnitude of the electromotive force is represented by the urea 
B of the parallelogram, whose sides represent the velocity and the 
magnetic induction, and its direction is the normal to this pamllel- 
ogram, drawn so that the velocity, tho magnetic induction, and the 
electromotive force are in right-handed cyclical order. 

I The third term in each of the equations (B) depends on the timo- 
variation of the magnetic field. Tliii< may bo due either to the 
time-variation of the electric current in the primary circuit, or to 
motion of the primary circuit. Let (S^ !>« the part of the eleetro- 
, motive force which depends ou these term*. Its components are 




and — 



^B mod' 

^Faad tlictte are the components of the vector, — "^ or —SI. Hence, 
^^ @, = -9I. («} 

^M The last term of rach equation (B) w due to the variation of the 
^ fanctiott 4" in diScrvnt iiar1,» ijf thi; field. \V« may write the third 
part of the electromotive force, which is due to this cause, 

m fs, — V*. (9) 

Tlie electromotive force, as defined by equations ( B), may therefore 
be written in the quaternion form. 




Om tht JfodificaticH o/tie BqaafUnt of Eketfom^t'irt FQret lehm tie 
Am* to nkich tiey are nferred are moctHg in Space. 

600.] Let a<, /, / be the ooonliQates of a point referrwi 
systeiQ of rectangular axes moving: in space, and let x, y, z be 
ODoixIinatee of the same point referred to fised axee. 

Let the componente of the velocity of the ori(;in of the roo' 
eystem be u, v, k, and those of it« angular veloc-ily w,, <■,, mj 
referred to the fixed syet^-m of axes, and let us choose the fixed 
ax«s so a» to coinoido ul the f^iren instant with the movioff odM) 
then the only quantities whieh will be different for the two syBteKl 
of axes will be those diir«rcutiitt«d witJi respect to thv time. 


r— denotes a component vciocitr of a point moTinff in rigid Ci 

nexion with the moving axes, and -j- and -y- those of any mnvin^f 

point, having the same iostantaneous position, referred to the fixed 
and the moving axes respectively, tbca fl 

with similar VfoHaui for the other components. 

By the theory of tl>e motion of a body of invariable form, 
8? = •+-»*--» J"' 

Since .F is a com]>onent of a direct«d ({aaDtity parallel to x,^ 
if -jT- be the value of -r: referred to the moving axes, it may he 

shewn tiint 


dr dVhx ^ dFhg . d¥hx -„<//■ ,,. 

dV dV 

Substituting for j- and -^ their valuM as deduced &&m the 


eqnatione (A) of magnetic induction, and reroeubering that, by {2) 
rf B* d h}f d it _ 


dt ~ dxbt'^ dxbt * 'dx it* dyit "•" S" 8« ■'' rf» U 

-^87 + 


^7 + 37* 


If we now pat 





The eqwttion for P, the component of the electrorootire forw 
parallel to «, is, by (B), 

■ ''' '^ '* is) 


dl dt dt dc 
referred to the lixed axes. Siib»1ittitinfr the tuIucs of the quanti 
^^in tis n-fernid to tJie moving axvo, uo hjivtt 



W the valac of P referred to the movin^r axes. 

601,"! It api^eara from this that the eUctroniotiTe force is c-x- 
iressed by a formula of the same type, whether the motions of tlie 
Gondactoni be referred to fixed ases or to axea movin)^ in apace, the 
only ditference bctneen the formala bein^ that in (he case of 
moving axe« the electric potential 4' must be changvd into 'i' + 'V. 

In all cat«s in vrbich a cuTreDt is produced in a condnctiu^ eir- 
loit, th« eJevtromotire forve is the line-integral 



Icen round the curve. The value of 4' disappenra (Vom this' 

ntegrai, so tJtat the introduction of 4^ ha« no influence on its 

Lvalue. Id all phenomena, therefore, relating to oIim^ eircuit« and 

he currents in them, it ia indilferent whether the axes to which we 

Er the sy«tem be at rest or in motioD. See Art. 668. 

^B O* tJie Eiairotaagndic Force aeititg on a (hndnelor kUcA cttrriet 
^B a» EUcirie Otrreni ikrough a ifagHttie FieU. 

^^^^pS.j We have aecn in the gt^nornl invc»l.i(^(irin. Art. .Sfl3, that if 
^HP> one of tlie Tariablex wbici) delf rmine tlie [M>!(ition and form of 
^Hlie secomlar}- drcnit, and if .V, is thfi force acting on the necoudary 
^circuit tending to increOM this variable, then 




Sine* fi u independent ofj*], wo may write 













and wfl have for tbe value or J 

'. = --.i,/(' 





Now IH 1)8 «uppo»! that the displaccmcDt conni4« in movins 
every point of the circuit through n distance bx to tlie dirccti 
of X, ir bcinff any oontiiiuous function of #, eo that tim difle 
parts of th<! circuit move independently of each other, while t 
ciretiit n^RiuinK continuoUH and closed. 

AW let .V h<^ the total force in the direction of dl vsting 
the part of the eirrait from * = to * = », then the (MiTt 

aponding to Uie element dt will be - Jt. We shall then have 

followinff expression for tbe work done by the force during th^^ 
dieplACi'ment, ^H 

wher^ the integration is to he extended round the closed cutvi^j 

remembering that tr is an arbitrary fanotion of*. Wo may then^^ 

fore perform the differentiation with respect to hx in the mmr 

way that we dilfercDtiatcd with respect to V in Art. 598, romcm- 

beriug that dx d^ , dt 

. = '. j'\~ = 0, and ^7^3 = 0. (j 

Wc thus find 


The la«t terra vnniehee when the intoftration is extended round 
the closed curve, and since the equation mnet bold for all fonnt 
of tbe function bx, wc must have 

-di^'-i'di-^d;)* ' 

nil ijijuntion which gives the force panllel to « on any clement 
the circuit. The forces parallel to y and ; am 

dY . , da dx\ 

dZ . /, dx dv^ 

llie reaultant force on tJie element » given in direction and 
magnitude by the ijualcmion rxpre*Hon i^Fdp^. whore f, is the 
nDn»ric*l mcauirc of the current, and dp and S are reoi 




trG])rc( th« etomcnt of tlie cireuJt and tlie magnetic in> 
duotion, and tlw mtiltiptication is to be nndorrtood m Uic Hamil- 

jtooian wn«e. 

r 603.] If the conductor in to bn treated not as n line but tus a 
bod}', we must express the force on tlie el<^mcnt of li'iigth, iintl tlie 

■ current through the complete section, in terms of K)'mbiils denoting 

'tbe force per unit of volume, and the current per unit of area. 

I^t X, }', H now represent the oomponenta of the force referred to 
unit of volume, and u, r, la those of the current referred to unit of 
area. Hien, if S represents the section of the conductor, which wi- 

|shaU suppose small, the volume of the element dt will be Sd», and 

I, dx 

Hence, cqtuition (7) will become 

= S{vc-k6), 

{Equaclont nf 




■ similarly T = ua— «c, 

and ^ = «{ — ffl. 

^ Here X, Y, Z are the components of the eleetromngnetie foroo on 

^fun element of a conductor diviiUtl by the volume of that element ; 
>, r, v arc the oomponents of the electric current throngh Uie 
element referred to unit of nren, and a, i, t arc the oomponents 
of the magnetic induction at the element, which arc itleo referred 
to unit of area. 

If the vector % reprosenbt in magnitude and direction the force 

< acting on unit of volumt- of thv couductor, and if (£ reprueents the 

^■electric current flowing through it, 

B g = r.(£S. (11) 

^^^^ft« •quMtmw (B) of An. DflS nuiy ba jinrfod by Ihe following m*thwl, derived 
ftttn ProfoMir M>i<t«S'4 HMBoir nn A [tynkmicol Theory of tbc ElcotrDiiuigtigtic 
VMd. Fkit Tnn^ ISS4. 

Tbe lime rartaUan of — ii nujr be Ukvii in two (]»rt>, imn of wlildi dopMiiU aiiil th« 
«lliv doa Bot depend on Uic motion of the irirouit. The latMr fon la deul; 


■if, ifO. ifff . 

I find the former let ua coniider >n tre It fonuins put of » dTciilt. *ni] let u* 
i-" tbie •!« t« move klong rula, which inav Iw uVnn u ;ianll*l, with velodcj * 
hoae oon^Mmcoit* m i, jf, k, the rart vF i)im i:in:ii>i livioK meanwhile (uppiieMl 
[■tolJiinBr;. We may then euppoeo Uut > mull pBnUc'ogrBin ia gUMnted bjr tb> 
[inovn^ an, Ui» ilinnlloa'Ctwioea oTtbe niunuJ to which are 

fly-mf U-n* n.J^-tfr 

*■'*''■•* nin»"" eirtn*' ».ift# 
a, Handle dfaectiau-«o*ianiifJlf and 6 Ulh«M>sUl'oliroon e uul >«. 


±0 B «ign« of X, ;i, >■ wo may put m — —1, r = t ; thejr then became 

0. 0, - ..v'j oiryht to do with a riaht-luiidwi syalcin of alee. 

Now Itit a, h, c be the componenU of magDCbio inJitclJon we then hare, due to tbc 
motluD of Ii in time Sc 

If we tuppoee eftcb put of the circuit to move in a eimilu' manner the reaultaiit 
Mt vi'lU be the uiutiun of the circuit aa a whulu, the cuireats in tlie rails forming » 
I in each case of two adjacent arcs. The tiinu varialioQ of — p due tu tlu 
of the circuit is therefore 

— y{a(nj— Biil + twosimilai tenni} dt 
taken round the tnrcuit 

—J'iry — M) dx *■ two rimilar tenni. 

The result* in Art. fl02 for tbe componente of eledramagnetic force m»y bo dedims! 
li-oni the above exprestion for tp; viz. let the arc 3( b« dinpluced in the dJreetim 
I', m', n' through a diatance ti', then 

Sji -= {^(_cla — bB)^ > similar terms} tiS»'. 

Now let £ be the :e-camponeat of tbe farce pon the arc I, tliea for unit ouirenl we 
d bj Art, fifiS, rfx dp 

dt dx 

•« cai — bn,'] 




6OI1.] Xx our UiGOTOtical tlt^cussion of «Iectro(lynamios wo lic^n 
hy assuming that a ejiiiem of circuits cnrrj-ing vItK;tnc currcnU 
is a dynamic^] syatem, in which tlie currents mtiv l>e ro^mlvd as 
velocitiea, and in which tJifi coordiuaU-s corresponding lo thvse 
velocities do not them!U>]v«« appear in the oquationti. It followi; 
irora thin that tlie kinetic energy of UKiRVHtcra, ineofarasitdopemlc 
on the currento, is a homogeneous quadratic function of the currcnUi, 
in which the coeSicients ilciwiid only on the form and relative 
position of the cireuit.H. Assuming these coefliaents to be known, 
by experiment or otherwise, we deduced, by purely dynamical rca- 
sooing, the bws of the induction of currents, and of electromagnetic 
attraction. In this investigation we introduced the conceptions 
of the elect rokinetio energy of a system of currents, of the electro- 
magnetic momentum of a circuit, and of the mutual potential of 
two cirouits. 

We then proceeded to explore the field by mcansof various con- 
figurations of the eeeondary circuit, aud were thus led to the 
couception of a vector 91. having a determiuato magnitude and 
direction at any given point of the field. We called t.Iiit! vector the 
electromagnetic momi'ntum at that jKiint. This qtmntity may be 
conHidercd as the timo-intt^gral of the t-lcctro motive force wliich 
would ho produced at that point by the utiddcn removal of all the 
currentfi from the Sold. It it! idviiticnt with the quantity alrcjidy 
tnTeetigated in Art. 405 as the vector-potential of magnetic in- 
duction. Ibt components parallel to ic, y, and z are F, 0, and //. 
The electroma^ctic momentum of « drcuit i« the Iine>integral 
of tl round tlie circuit. 

W« then, by meant) of Theorem IV, Art. 24, Irausformei tlie 









linc-iotegral of 91 into tbe sarTace-intogral of aootber vector, ^1 
vihoBe compoDbnta are a, i, c, and we found ihat the ]>henoineiu 
of induction Hue to motion of a coodtivtor, and tfaoee of elrttro- 
ma^ctic force can be expressed in t^'nus of >£. We gsre ta IB 
tiie namo of tbe Majfnctic induction, einoe it« properties are iden- 
tical witb those of tbe lines of magnetic induction as iaveetigat«d 
\>y Faraday. 

We aUo estnljIislRtl three eets of equations : tbe first set, (A), 
are those of inaguetic induction, «x])rc»8inn: it in terms of tbe elei> 
tromagnetic raoRientum. Tlio second set, (1)). aro those of electro- 
motive force, expressing it in terms of tbo motimi of the condoctor 
ucrnea the lines of magnetic induction, and of thu latv ofTariationj 
of the electrtjmagnetic moni«ntuni. The tbinl set, (C), are tbr 
cc|iiations of electromagnetic force, wcprtwsing it in terms of tbe 
current nnil the magnetic induetiott. i 

Tbe current in till tlicvc nu-cs is to be nudcrstootl as (he sctiul 
current, which includen not only the current of conductiou, but the_ 
crurrent due to variation of the cleetric diifjilacement. 

The magnetic induction 9 i^ the quantity nbiefa ire have Blreadji 
considered in Art. 400. In an unmngnet.ixed body it in identical 
with the force on a unit magnetic pole, but if the l>ody is ma^ 
m-tized, cither permanently or by induction, it io tin* force which 
wt^uld be exerted on a unit pole, ii' plaoeil in a narrow cTvvasse in 
the body, the walls of which are perpendicular to the direction of 
magnetization. Tlie components of ® are a, b, e. 

It follows from the equations (A), by which a, 6, c mw defined, 
that da di tk 

Thi* WW riuwB nt Art. 403 to be a property of tbe 
imiuction. c 

606.] We have deiined the inaguetic force within a magnet, >^| 
distinguished from tbe magnetic induction, to be the force on a" 
unit polo placed in a narrow crevasse cut parallel to the direction of 
UMignetizntion. Tliis quantity is denoted by ^, and ita compoDGOta 
by 0, fi, y. Sec Art. 398. 

If 3 ia tbe intensity of magnetization, and A, S, C its com- 
poDcntd, then, by Art. 400, 

fi = ^ + 4sJ9, J (BiuatloM of M>««Mli«Uon.} (D)' 

^ = '»- 

r defined, 


H W« iwiy cull these the equations of magrnctization, and they 
HiniltcuiU- (hat iu the electxomagiietic Bvetem the matr'ietic indwction 
V S), ciniMdiTed tts a vector, is the eum, in the [I;imiltonun sense, of 
two viH-tow, the ma^netifi force ^, and the magnetiKatioQ 3 multi- 
plied by 4it, or S9 = ^ + 4ii3. 

la oertaiu «iib»1ance«, the magnetization depends on the mai^nclie 
force, and this is expressed hy the system of equations of indtiood 
ma^iHism frivco at Arts. 42G and 435. 
—^ GOfi] Up lo this point of oar investigution we have deduced 
Be\'iTything from purely dynnmicul eouaiderations, without any 
n-feroiici; to qiiantitittive experiments in electricity or ma^ctism. 
The only nst- we have miidi.' of experimental knowledge is to rc- 
cognifc, in the nhstrjicl quantities deduced from the theory, the 
t^nctete quantities discovered by experiment, and to donoti- tliem 
I by namex whieh imliaik: their physictil relations rather than their 
[ntatbemattcal ^-ncMition, 

In this way we have painted out the exidtonee of the electro- 
momentum 31 as a voetor who:^e dinntion and magnitude 
Dm one part of njuiec lo another, and froni thin we have 
deduced, by a mathematical proce-ttt, the magnetic induction, j*, as 
a derived veetor. We have not, however, olitained any data for 
_detennining either SI or © from the distribution of currents in the 
Por this purpoi»e we must find the mathematical connexion 
rfweiMt tbne qniuitities and the currents. 
We begin by admitting the existence of permanent magnets, the 
lutiml action of which satisfies the principle of the conservation 
of energy. We make no assumption with respect to the Inws of 
magnetic force except that which follows from this principle, 
nftinely, that the force acting on a magnetic pole must be capable 
of being derived from a potential. 

We then observe the action between currents and magnets, and 
^■we iind that a cnrrent acts on a magnet in a manner apparently the 
same as another magnet would act if its strength, form, and position 
were properly adjusted, and that the magnet iict« on tlte etirrcnt 
in the same w^y as another current. These observations need not 
be supposed to be necompanied with actual m<.-ai«iireroenU of the 
foTOOB. They are not therefore to bo conBiilcn'<l a* furnishing 
ntunericsl data, but are useful only in suggesting queations for 
our consideration. 

He question these observations su^^'st is, whether the magnetic 
field produced by electric curreuta, as it is ainiUar to that [iroduced 


232 MNEBAL EQUATIOm. [607. " 

Ity permanent magneU in many respects, rettembles it abo in beinjH 
related to a ])vt«nliAl ? ~ 

The. cvkiJ«Duc tli«t aa electric cireait produces, in tlie Kpooe cur* 
rouiiiling it, magnctiv cflV-ct« precisoly the name u tfaoae produced 
by a niiign<-tic mIivII buundetl by Uie circuit, baa been »tatcd In 
Art*. 482 *85. 

W« know that in the ca»e of th« nu^iietic Bh«U there is • 
potential, which has a dt-tcrtninato value for all jioinlii oulitide tl 
«ubBtttUC« of the shell, but that th« valueit of the ]x>teutjal at twtr' 
nvi^hbouriug points, on opi>oiiit« eidea of the shell, difler by a flniu 

If the macnetic field in the neig-hbourbood of nn electric current 
rcftemliles that in the Dei^bbourbood of a tnagnetio shell, the 
tnftgnetic potential, as fooud by a line-iate^iatioD of tJie magnetic 
force, will be the same for any two Unes of integration, provided 
one of these lines can be trangformLii into the other by continuous 
motion without cutting the oleetric current. ■ 

If, however, one lino of inttf-ration cannot be transformed into 
the other without ciittinfj the current, the linc'intcf^.kl of thij_ 
magnetic force along the one line will ditfer from that along tli 
otliL-r by a quantity dependitifj wti the strength of the current, Th^ 
magnetic potential due to au electric curn.>ut is therefore a fuuctic 
having an infinite Hcrics of values with a common difTereacei, 
particular vuIik' depending on the course of the line of integratioaj 
^'ithin the siibntancc of the condiwtor, then is no such thing 
a ntngnetic jwleiitial. 

607.] Asniming tliat the magnetic action of a current has a 
mo^iiotic |)otentJal of this kind, we proceed to exprvas this rwal^^ 
tnathematically. ^M 

In the itnrt place, the line-integral of the magnetic force round 
any closed curve is zero, provided the cloised curve does not suiTonnd 
the electric cnrront. 

In the next place, if the current paeees once, and only once, 
through the closed ciirvo in the positive direction, the line*tntegnl 
has a determinate value, which may he used as a meaaure of the 
strength of the ctirrt-nt. For if Utu closed curve altera its form 
in any continuous manner without cutting the current^ the lin^ 
integral will remain the same. 

In electromagnetic measure, the line-iutegml of tlw mAgoe 
foroc round a olnsttd curve is numerically e<iual to tb« cuiraol 
tlirough the closed curve mulliplicd by iv. 


If WO take for the olostHl curvu tho psrallelo^m vrho«c niim 
are tljf and ilz, iha liue'inU-g-nil of the mag-iietic force ronud th« 

ad \{ u, e, «t aro Uie comjioncntB of the flow of electricity, the 
irrent through thp {Uiralk-lo^rram is 

Mii!ti(i]ymg this hy 4ir, and equating the result to the line- 
ategral, we ohtain the er|iintion 

dy dz 
ith tbi' similnr oquations 

4a dy 
at dx 

d& da 

■\-nw= J --i 

dx dy 

(BquBtion* of 
Bloetrio Cumntf.) 




Fhioh determine tho mafiiiitutle and direction of the electric cnrrente 
tJiu mu^nctic force at every point \» given. 
When tliere is no current, these equations are equivaleDt to the 
lition that adx\^ds->rydz=-hQ., 

>r (hat the magnetic force is derivable from a magnetic potential 
I all (mints of the lield wht-re there are no currents. 
By dilTeretitiating the equations (E) with n-spect to a-, j, and * 
rcsp«:tive)y, and adding the results, wv obtain the e([uation 

iu dv ^"^ _n 

i» that the current whose cdmpoiieiits are u, v, le is 
the eondition of motion of an iiici'mprcssihle fluid, and 
that it must nect«»irily How in closed circuitM. 

Thia equation is true only if wc take u, v, and ir as the com- 
ta of that oledfie flow which is due to the variation of electric 
displacement as well n* ti> true conduction. 

We have verj* little experimental evidence relating to the direct 
electromagnetic action of cumcDta due to the variation of electric 
diiplaoement in dielectriea, hut the extreme difliculty of reconciling 
the laws of elect romagoetjsm with the existence of electric currents 
which are not clowed i» one ncaM^n among many why we mu«t admit 
the exi.-'teQce of transient currviit» due to the variation of displuce- 
menl. Itieir importance will be seen when we come to the olectro- 

^ Tht 


etic theory of light. 


608.] We have now d«t«nnin«J the n-Utioni of th* princiial 
(|uantitiefl cx>iicemed in fhc pliouomctiu dii^ovcreil hy Orctod, Am- 
pirc, Kod Faraday. To coiinwt tlicw" with the [ilK>iinniL''na <U«cribctl 
in tlic former parts of thi» treatiNe, Home additioiuil rclutions ■« 

When electromotive force sc-Ik od a material body, it gimduce* 
in it two electric&l effects, called by Faraday Induction and Con- 
duction, the 6rst being moat conspicuous in dielectiics, and tlie 
socoiid in conductors. 

In this treatise, static electric induction is mea&ured by what we 
iutvv cuUvd the electric <!i8plaoement, a directed quantity or vector 
which wc IiavD denoted by X, and its components by J", g, h. 

In isotrupic suliatance^ the displacement is in the same direction 

0.1 the electromotive force which produces it, and is proportional 

to it, at leiut for small values of this force. This nay be expressed 

by the vquatioa , ^ . , _. . 

iT> «'fe (Eqn»U"n of Eleotno /p. 

where A' i« the dielectric capacity of the snbstanoe. See Art. 6!>. 

In «ubstanccs which ore not iiotropio, the components/;^, k of 
tlic electric displacement £ are liiieur functions of the comjwnents 
P, (2> R of the electromotive force ^. 

The form of the (^nations uf electric diaptacement is simiUr to 
thiit of the (spiationx of conduction lut given in Art. 296. 

Thene relations may be cxprevscd by xaying that K is, in isotmpic 
bodies, a scalar quautity, but in other bodies it is a linear and v 
function, operating' on the vector (S. 

609.] The other dfcct of electromotive force is oondnotion. 
laws of conduction as the result of electromotive force were esta-i 
blished by Ohm, and an> explained in the second part of Uii 
treatise, Art. 2-11. They may be summed up in the equation 

where S is the intensity of the electromotive force at the poin 
j[ is the density of tJie current of wind iicl ion, tlie oomj^neuts 
which are p, j, r , and C is the conductivity of the Bubst-inco, wbich^ 
in the case of isotropic subefances, ta a simple scalar quantity, but 
in other mbstanecs becomes s linear and vectAf function operatin]^ 
on the vector 9. The form of this function is given in 
eoordinatcs in Art. 29B. 

610,] One of the chief poculiaritien of thi» treatise is the doctri 
which it Bseeits, that the true electric currvnt (5i thnt on which 







lectromngDetio phenomena dctpend, ut not the same thing- as j^, the 
current of conduction, but tluit th« time-Tariution of 'S>, the elet^trio 
displacement, must he taken into aocount in estimating tlie total 
oiovement of electricity, so that we miiKt write, 

6 = ft + S), (BiumW uTTVub Cumiilt.) (H) 

r, in terms of the components, 



ill,] Since toth St and [D deiwnil on Uie electromotive force 6, 
twe may express tlie true current 6 in terms of the electromotive 
force, thus , 1 j ^ 


»r, in the coeo in which C and A' are constants, 

Alt dl 

612.] The volume-dcneity of the free electricity at nny point 

u fon»d from the components of electric displacement liy the 

,«l'»t'«i> df da . dA 

P-di + d^ 

+ S- 



The surface-density of electricity is 

<- = f/+ «,!f + nJi + lT + *«'/ 4- n'A', (K) 

(where i, m, n are the directioa-eosinea of the normal drawn from 
the xiirfnce into the mcdinm ia which f,g,h are the eomponenta of 
I dinpliiecnient, and V, m', n' are those of the normal drawn from 
I Burfiict- into the medium in which they arc f, y', A', 
614.] When the m^netizaticn of the medium is entirely induced 
liy the magnetic force acting on it, we may write tlie equation of 
'ioiluced magTM-tiuttion, @ = uJS, (L) 

where fi IK the coefficient of ms^etic pennouhility, which may 
bo considered a scalar quantity, or a linear and vector fnnetioa 
ittn^ on ^, according ns the medium is itotropio or not. 





615.] Tliiise may be rcgatded aa the principal reUtioos anions 
the (juanUties we have bvcn oonsidering. T1i«y may b« combined 
so a» to eliminate Aomo of tboM quantities, but our oltjcct at prwral 
is Dot to oI>t«in oompftctAeM in tbe mathenuit iuil Torniutac, \M 
to ezpren every relation of which wc have any knowledge. To 
eliminittv a quantity which ex]irc»tc:t a uovftil idea woulii b« ntber 
u lo9S ilian a gain in this stugv of our cni]uiry. 

There is one remit, however, which we may obtain by cnmhining 
equations (A) and (K), and which is of ver}' jfreat importance. Mi 

If we suppcute that no nutlets exist in the Beid except in the^ 
form of electric circuits, the distinction which wc have hitherto 
maintained between the magnetic force and the ma^E^^etic inductioa 
vauiehea. because it is only in magnetized mattor that these quan- 
tities tlifier from each other. 

According to Ampere's hypothesis, which will be esplained in 
Art. 633, tbe properties of what we call magnetized mattor are dne 
to motec-ular electric circaits, so that it is only when we regard th* 
Hubstaiico in large masses that oar tiieory of ma^etixation ii 
upplictibtc, and if our matlit'matical methods arc supposed capable 
of taking account of what goes on within the individual molocolcK, 
they will discover nothing but electric circuits, and wc ehntl find 
the magnetic force and the magnetic induction everywhere identical. 
In order, however, to be able to make uec of the olectrOKtatic or of 
the elect romagnetiu system of meneurcmcnt at pleasure wc shall 
retain the coolTtcicnt fi, remembering that its v«luc is unity in Uie| 
electromagnetic n'stom. 

616.] The components of the ma^etic induction are by e^po* 
taoDS^A), Art. 691, 

The oomponents of tho electric current are by equations (E) 
Art. 607, given by Jy 4^ 

Ja dy 




' Hx 












*»" = ^-^ 


If wo WTit« 

I may write equation (1), 


If we write 

\\iien T '\% the ilJEtance of the given ptiint from the element (jJ,^,*) 
tb« intcgratioiu arc to be extemktl over ull space, then 


The qnnntitj x di«tp])onrs from the eqiiatioiis (A), anil it \» not 

t\»iti to any phvsiotl phenomenon. If we Eiipjtojte it to he ten 

rywhcre, .' will also bft wro cvetywhoro, an<i equatioDi (5), 

litting the accmtit, will give the true ralnn of tho component* 


' lb* nogitir* flifn I* vaplojtA )i«r# in nttlar t» duJ(o oiu cxpttaMMU cgmiBleat 
*i libcw in vhicb (juatoniMH m vaifiojfL 

617.] Wo may thcrorore adopt, as a dofinitioa of $(, ihat, 
is the vector-potential of the electric current, standing: in the sam^ 
relation to the eWtric current that the scalar potential staods ta 
tJie matter of which it is the pot«Dtial, and obtained by a sinuhr 
process of integration, which may be thus deecrJbcd: — 

1-Vom a given point let a vector be drawn, rcprcsontinj^ in nttg- 
nitiide and direction a given element of an electric current, dividrd 
by the namerical value of the distance of tlie clement From t 
^ven point. Let this b« done for «very olcmont of the i 
current. Tlie rcsnltant of all the vectors thus found is the 
tial of th« wliole current. Since the current is a Tcctor qnaotit 
it* priteiittal is also n v<«tor. Sec Art. 122. 

When the distribution of electric currants is given, there is one, 
and only one, diiitribution of the values of 91, sncb Uiat !l iit ereiy- 
where finite and eontinuouf, and mtiitfieG the c<|nattODs 

V»91 = *s/*g, S.r9l = 0. 
and vnniHhe» at on infinite distance from the electric system. Tbii 
value i» that given by equations (5), which may be written 


^ = p.jjj^dxdfdt. 

QuatfrnioK Erpre«tloiu/or the EUciromagnetie EfHatioMt. 

618.] In this tnatise we have endeavoured to avoid any procew 
demanding from the reader a knowledge of the Calculus of Una- 
lernions. At the tame time we have not scrupled to introduce the 
idea of a vector when it was noceteary to do so. When vre have 
had occasion to denote a vector by a symbol, we have taetl a 
German letter, the number of dilTerant vectois being so ^reat that 
Hamilton's favourite synibots would liavc been cxhangted at ont^'. 
Whenever theraforo, a Oermao letter is used it denotes a Ilamil- 
tonian vector, and indicates not only its magnitude hut its direction. 
The constituents of a vector are denoted by Roman or Greek letters. 

The principal vectors which we have to conntler are 

Vcctw OcAiiitiiifntei 

The radius vector of a point p * f * 

The electromagnetic momentum at a pMnt M P G B 

Tlic magnetic induction B air 

The (total) electric ctirrent Q ■ v k 

The electric displacement J) f f k 

6 1 9.] oWtbhsi^^Spr^ioss^^^^^ 238 

The cWtromotivo force II P Q R 

The mectiaiiical forou % XTZ 

Tbc v«lovitj' of a point ........................ & ov p x g i 

The mu|>nctie forci<! ......iii i... ^ a j3 y 

The infousit^- of nmsnctiJiTttioo 3 ABC 

The current of oomiuclKiii ft P J ^ 

Wv have also the foIluwiDg t>t:alur fundions ; 

The electric {iot«nliiil +. ] 

Tbv tnagTietic iioteiitinl (wbovc it exiet«) 11. 

■Hie I'tcctric dciigity e. 

The <]<!nsitf of mujfiielie 'mutter' m. 
Beei<]cs these wc hnve the foIiowiD)> qiiftntities, indicating; physical 

tropertiee of tho meditim at each point : — 
C, the conductivity for electric currents. 
K, the dielectric inductive capacity. 
fi, the magnetic inductive capacity. 
Tlieee quaotitieB are, in isotropic media, mere scalar functions 
f p, but in general they are linear and vector operat«» on the 
rector functions to which they are applied. A' and n are certainly 
. always self>conjiif^te, and C ie probably bo also. 

619.] The equaUons (A) of magnetic induction, of which the 

~ dg dz 
hfl written 9J = TvM, 

Fwhero V \% the operator 

.d .d , d 
V indi«at«s tliat the vector part of the result of this operation 
' is to be taken. 

Since 91 \* i^nbject to the condition SV9I = 0, V% is a pur« 
TCetor, and the symbol V is unneccesary. 

^TIw equations (B) of electromotive force, of which the first in 
o . ,. dF d* 
^u e = r«s-«i-v+. 

no oquationa (C) of mechanical force, of which the first is 
V . J* dil 

ax dx 

^become g = FfS^-eV'i'-mVa. 


Ifl Ions (D) of magnetization, of which the first is 

a = a +AvA, 
tecome S =^ + 4Tr3. 

The equations (E) of electric currents, of which the first is 

become 47iS=: W^. 

The equation of the current of conduction is, by Ohm's Law, 

That of electric displaeemi 

The equation of the total cnrrci , arising from the variatioD of 
the electric dieplacement as well as rom conduction, is 

When the magnetization arises frcm magnetic induction. 

We have also, to determine the electric volume-density, 

To determine the magnetic volume-density, 

m = SV% 
When the magnetic force can be derived from a potential 



S20.] EvKnT clcetromajjnetic quantity may be ilelincd with 
reference to the fundiimcDtul units of Length, Mass. nnd Tirav. 
If we be^n with Uic Ht-finition of (In? unit of electricity, « {jiven 
in Art. 65, we tnny obtain definitions of tho units of every other 
electromagnetic quantity, in virtue of the equations into wliich 
they enter alon^ with quiintitie^ of olettncity. The syvtem of 
onitB thns obtained i» culk-0 the EK>ctrost»tic SyKtein. 

If, on the other hand, we hei^:in with the definition of iJie unit 
mn^etic pole, as given in Art. 374, we obtain a different syetcta 
of units of the suue set of quantities, 'litis system of units is 
not consistent with the former 8yBt«ni, and is called the Electro- 

I nweoetic System, 

■ We shall bc^^in by stating those relations between the different 
units which arc common to both systems, and we shull then form 

■a table of the (limensione of the units according to each system. 
^1.] We shall arrange the primary quantities which we have 
to conxider in jiairs. In the first three pairs, the product of tlie 
^Iwo quantities in each pair is a quantity of cncr^ or work. In 
Bihe vecoiid thn'c pairs, the product of each pair ie a quautity of 
ene^y referred to unit of volunw. 


Eleetrottalie Pair. 

Symbol . 

(1) Quantity of electricity ...... e 

(2) Line-integral of electromotive forco, or electric po- 

tential S 

rouu. B 


DINIKSIONS 0? tflfira 


(3) Quafitity or free nugoeU*!!), or strength or a pole . ■> 

(4) Mkgnctic potential 

EltrfrokiKctU Pair. 

(5) Ei«otrokmet)c momeDtuot of a circuit . 

(6) Electric current 



StxoKD Tnwa Paibs. 

EUftrOttatic Pair. 

(7) EU^nc displacement (mvararcd by KurraceMleDsity). 2) 

(8) Electromotive force at a point . . . -Si 

Maynttie Pair. 

(9) Ma^etic indiietion ■ Q 

(10) Magnetic forcx; , ^ 

ElectrokimHie Pair. 

(11) Intensity of electric current at a point . . S 

(12) Vector potential of electric currenU . . . fl 

622.] The following relations exist betveea tbe«e qi 

In Uie Gr^ place, since the dimension* of mtxgy mm ~J^ I , and 

[M ~[ 
-jnli *vfl Iuiv« the 

[*i] =[-.a] = [fC] = [^]. 
[i;s] = t«*] = [«a] = [-^]. 

Secondly, since e, p and 9( arc the time-integnk <^ C, £, and G 

"^'"''' ra=[S]=[l]=tn (« 

nirOly, since i^ Q, and j» are the lin^^.il»tegralH of (J, ^, aod M 

reepectively, rj?-] rO-i r^-i 

Fioally. since e, C, and m are tlte sorfaee-integnb or 3>, Q, and 



6!!3.] These fift««D eqnationH are not independent, and in order 

I to deduce the dimeDBions of the twelve nnita involved, we require 

one additional equation. If, however, we take either ^ or >» as an 

independent unit, we can deduce the dimenEions of tlie rest in 

r terms of either of theee. 

« ^-1 =[f]=B]- 

(3) ™i (5) [,] = W = [^] = [«]. 



m -m-{ir\ 

624.] The relations of the 6r3t ten of these qnantitiea may be 
exhibited by means of the following arniDgement : — 

<f, 3), ■§, C and a. 

m and p, ^ d, £ 

Jf IS, ©, Mand;5. 

C and li, ^, 21, c. 

The quantitiex in the first line are dcriv<'d from e by the same 
oiKTations aa the eorren ponding quniilitleM in the second line are 
derived from m. It will be seen that the order o( the quantities 
in the first line is exactly the reverse of the order in the second 
line. The Grat four of each line have the first symbol in the 
nnmerator. The second four in each line have it in the dciio- 

K minator. 

H All tho relations given above are troe whatever system of unit« 

Hw« adopt. 

^^■025.] The only eyet^ma of any scientific value are the electro- 

^HRk40 and the elL-etrontu^elic system. The clectrosbitic system is 


244 IJIMESSIOSS OP DKlTa. [626.1 

founded on the definition of tlw unit of electricity, Arts. 41, 49, | 
and niAy bt- doduoed Irani the equation 

whieh enpresaes that the reBiiltant fopcu S «t any point, d«e to tlie 
action of a quantity of electricity ^ at a dintance L, is found l>y 
dividing e by L*. Suhittitutiii^ tho oqtnition* of dimension (I) Bii<I 
(8), wcfind rUfi r e -\ r m T r If] 

in Uie elcctro^Utic system. 

The electrom^netic system is founded on a preiriKcIy fiiniilir 
definition of the unit of utrengih of a magnetic potc, Art. 371, 
leading to tho equation ta 

whence [^] = [^]- [fr^J^M" 

and [f] = [i'i/l]. W = [i*-3f *r-'], 

in the electrama^ictic system. From these results we find the 

dimcn!«i«ns of tlie other quaatittca. 

626.J Ta&U ^ Dimatnoiu, 

Diamuiant in 

Quantity of electricity .... * [f*,!/'!!'-'] £Z.*ifl]. 

Quantity of magnHism j 

Electrokinctic momentum [ . j"! [L^M^] [i^J/tr-'J. 

of a circuit ) " 

Electric current > iC ) ,,i„i„., ,. ...,„.. 

Magnetic potential} U] [i'^'?"'] [i*.W*r-']. 

Electric dieplaceroentl ~ 7Ti,,>-. ., .. ■ .. 

SnrfaccHlcn-ity } * ' " ' ® [i"*^*?"'] t^-«i/»l- 

Eleclroiootivo force at a point S [A-LV*?"-'] [Z*Jf*J^. 

Magnetic induction 89 [J^''JW^'] [-£-t.l/*r-'].| 

Magnelic force ^ [UMiT-'] [i.-*ir*r-'].l 

Strength of current at a poiat fi [^-iJ/Jr-'J [£"'jtf*7'-'l 
Vector potential V [Z-*Jtf*] [iiifir-']. 




627.] We hftve strtttdf Mnsidored llic products of the pairs of 
tbeae quantities in the order ia which tliey .it:iiid, Tlieir mtios are 
I in certain cases of scientific importance. Thns 

GlMbwUtio EteotTCma4(iiDtia 

l-j^ = cnpacity of an accumulator 

' cocAiciont of eelf-induction 
of a circuit, or oloctro 
magnetic capacity 
_ t spocific inductive capacit}* l 
Fe ~ i of dielectric J ■ 




= magnetic inductive capacity . 

j^ = resistance of a conductor . 
d _^ ( spccilic rGMstiinoe of a 1 

■ ? 




. K 


• f* 


, R 






' 63S.] If the units of length, mass, and time are the xanie in the 

two systems, the number of ek-ctrogtatic units of electricity con- 

uDed in one clcctromafjnetic unit is numerically equal to a certain 

'^velociiy, the alwoUilc value of which docs not depend on the 
magnitude of Uio rundamental units employed. This velocity is 

f important physical tjuaiitity, which wc shall denote by the 
mbol r. 

Nnmier of EUctntttatie Unitt in one Meetromagnetie Vnit. 

¥tyte,C.Q;t>,^.^ p. 

T9fm,p,E,^,f&,% .V 

For electrostatic capacity, dielectric inductive capacity, and con- 
ductivity, H. 
For electromagnetic capacity, magnetic inductive capacity, and 

siftance, -f 

Several methods of determining the velocity v will be given in 

In the electrostatie cyiiteni tlio KpeeiRc dielectric inductive capa- 
city of air IN amumcd e<]ual to unity. This quantity is therefore 

ented by -j in the eleotromagnetic system. 




In th« elect romaguotio Ej'stem the spcdfic nuigtictio inductin 
capacity of air is aseumoil equal to unity. Thin (iiianttty is tbcn^ 

fore represented by -^ in the electrostatic ttystem. 



Practical Sj/atem of EUctrie UmU. 

629. 1 or the two syxtems of units, tlie electromagnetic iti of the 
greater use to those practical electrioiaus who are oooupied with 
electromagnetic telegraphs. Jf, however, the units of length, time, 
and ma&s are those commonly used in other scientific work, soch 
■a the m^tre or the centimetre, the second, and the •^tamme, the 
units of rcsietancc and of oWtromotire foitw will Iw eu small thut 
to express the (jiiuntiticH occurrlu); in practice enormouii numluT* 
must he used, and thct units of qimntity and cttiiacity will be W 
large that only cxcwdinfily xmall fmetioiiii of them can ever occur 
in practici?. Priictiail vleotrioiaiis have tlierefore tuloptetl « «ct of 
eU^ctrical unit* deduced by the electromagnetic flynteni from u large 
unit of length and a small unit of ma:is. 

The unit of length used for this purpose is ten million of m^lnt^' 
or approximately the length of a qoadrant of a meridian of 

The unit of time is. as before, one second. 

The unit of mass is 10'" gramme, or one hundred millionth 
part of a millipnimmc. 

Tlie elci'.trimi units derived Tioni these fundamental units hav 
beCD named after eminent elt-etricul discovemri. Thus the praetif 
unit of renistance is called the Ohm, and is ivpmented by the 
rcsintanoe-coil issued by the British Association, and dencribed in 
Art. 340. It is expressed in the electromBgDetic ayKtcm by a 
velocity of 10,000,000 metres per second. fl 

The practical miit of electromotive forc« is oalled the A'^pII, and 
is not very diflcrvnt from that of a Daniell's odL Mr. Latimer. 
Clark liaa recently invented a very constant cell, whose eU 
motive force is almost exactly ].(57 Voltw. 

The practical unit of capaeity is called the Famd. The qraintitj 
of clcetrioity which flows through one Ohm under the electrorooti^-e 
force of line Volt during om; second, is equal to the charge produci-d 
in » condenser whoee cajwoity is ono Farad by an cleetnamotive, 
force of one Volt. 

The us« of these names i^ f<mnd lo be more «oDTeBient in practiii 
than the coDstant repetition of the words ' dMttonuguetic units,' 


atimer « 




with the ftdditional statement of the ptuticular fundamental unite 
on which they ore founded. 

When yery large quantitieH are to be measured, a large unit 
U formed hy multiplying the original unit by one million, and 
placing before its name the prefix mega. 

In like manner by prefixing micro a small unit is formed, one 
millionth of the original unit. 

The following table gives the values of these practical units in 
the different systems which have been at various times adopted. 



B.A. RsroBT, 




Eartk'i Quadruitt, 


10-" OramiM. 






















EleetroHatic Enetyy. 

630.] The «acrgy of the ejrsteco mxy be divided into Uie Potential 
Energy and the Kinetic Kncrgy. 

The |>ot(>ntial energy due to electrification haa been ilre&dy coB-l 
sidored in Art. 85. It may bo written 

r=}s(«*). (I) 

where e is the charge of electrieity at a p?aee where the clcctrio' 
jKitentiiil is ^, and the Kiimmution '\t to bo oxteaded to evcij y\»et 
where there is electrifi cation. 

If y. S' ^ 1*^'' ^^'^ components of the elwilric di^lncemeDtj tbaj 
quantity of electricity in the element of volnme dxdydi is 




where the integration is to be extended throughout all spaee. 

631.] Integrating this expression by parts, and remembering 
that when the distance, r, from a given point of a &aite eWtrified 
)<y)itein becomes infinite, the potential '!> becomes an infinitely small 
quantity of the order r"', and that/, </, i bwomc infinitely small 
quantities of the older r^', the expreiwion in reiluccd to 

where tbi^ integration is to be extended throughout all space. 
If we now write P, Q, R for the oomponeuts of the clectromotiTe 

i/4' ti"^ 
force, iastood of — ^ , — 



and — -i- , we find 

r = \fjf{P/+Qfi + RA)dt<fy'tt. 




[Hence, the electrostatic oncrgy of the whole 6eW will l>e the «ame 
we Biippose thjit it reeiJcs in every part of the field where fiW- 
bncnl forci." nnd ck'ctrical (lis placement occur, instead of being 
conliiictl 1o the places where free cicctricitj' is found. 

Ttw! encrpry in unit of volume is half the product of the electro- 
motive feroi- And the eU-ctric dieplaectncnt, multiplied by the cosine 
of the un^lo which these vectors incltide. 

tin Quaternion languag'u it is — 16'@£. 

Magnetic Energy. 
* 632.] We may treat the energy due to magnetization in a w»y 
ilar to that pursued in the case of electrification. iVrt. 88. If 
B, C an the components of maj^Detization and «, ft y the 
componetits of ma^etic forc«, the potential eoei^y of the eyet«m 
of magnets is then, by Art. 389, 


~\Jff(Aa+Sff+Cy) d3>dyds. 


iC integration being extended over the apace occupied by mag- 
netized niatt«r. This part of the energy, however, will be included 
in the kinetic energy in the form in which we ahall presently 
obtain it. 

633.] We may transform this expression when there are no elec- 
tric currents by the following method. 

We know that ia db de 

Henoc, by Art.97, if 

do. ^ da. da ... 

»=-.u--' ^=--df' ^=-df ('> 

if alwayB the case in magnetic phenomena where there are no 

currents, rrr , , 

i jJJ{aa + 6^+cy)d^dydz = Q. (9) 

the integral being extended tlirooghout all space, or 

^ffJ{{a + i^A)a■^(8 + ivJi)fi + {y+4l,C)y)dxJyd^^^). (10) 
Hence, the energy due to a magnetic aystem 
^kJJfi^«+^P + CY)drdyd: = ~^JjJ(<,*i-^^ + y^)djcdfds, 

• Sm Appandix 1 •! tbe and of tbij Chnfltt. 

j S60 SXBBOr AND STRESS. [634, 

^K SlfCiroJkiiutie Snerpg. fl 

F 6S4.] We have already, in Art. 578, expressed the kinetic eiMfgf 

I of a sj'fitcin of mrrenta in the form 

T^nipi), (12) 

nlivrc p is the electromagnetic motnentnni of a circuit, and i ii 
the strength of the curpcnt Jton-ing rouD<l it, nod the BOmaiatiaa 
extends to nil the circuits. 

But w'l; have proved, in Art. 690, that p majr be expressed « 
a linc-integral of the form 

where F, G, U arc the componente of the elect ramof^etio mo- 
I meutum, 91, at the point {xt/i), and the int«^mti<in is to be ex- 
tended round the closed circuit *. We therefore find 

I If H, t>, IP are the components of th« densily of the cnrrent at 

any point of the conducting: circuit, and if S 'i» the tniti«Tcr«e 
^^ Motion of the circuit, then we miy- write 

" 'S = "* '% = "- '%=•"■ ('.) 

and wc niny utso writ« the volume 

Sdi = dxdgdz, 
and we now find 

r= iJJJ(FM+Gv+fftf)dxtlfd:. (16) 

where the integration is to be extended to every part of apac* 
where there are i>lecirio currents. 

635.] Let us now substitute for u, r, v tiuAr values an given by 
the equations of electric currents (E), Art. 007, in terms of the 
compoueuts o, ^, y of the ms^ctic force. We then have 

where the integration is extended over a portion of space including 
all the currents. 

If we integrate this by part«j and remcinber that, at * gn-aL 
distance r from the system, a, 0, and y are of the order of mug- 
nitude r~*, we find that when the inta'^ntiou is ext^ndi-d tbro ngby 
oat all Bpoeci, the cxgiresston is rvdoocd to 





By tlie equations (A), Art, &91, of mo^ctiv induction, we may 
flubstitate for the quiintiticii in »mall bnickets tlic cotnponeots of 
tna^etic induction a, b, c, so tliut tlic kinetic cni>r^y may be 
written . ^,-j- 

^'^ {'^jjj{«^'rb&-\-cy)d;cdsdt, (19) 

wliero tbe inte^n^tioa is to be extended throuf^hout every part of 
>pac« in which the magnetic furce and mu^netic intlnction have 
va1u4-H differing from zero. 

'File quantity within bmckete in this «ipre:j!9ion is th« product of 
the magnetic induction into the resolved part of the mn^rnvtic focct^ 
Id ita own diix'cUon. 

In the laiiguagL' of qiiiitirnionM this may be written more simply, 

where 35 is the magnetic induction, whoee components are ft, h, e, 
and ^ is the magnclic force, whose components are o, ^. y. 

63&] The eleotrokinetic energy of the sy&tem may therefore lie 
•xpnssed either aa an inte^^l to he taken where there are electric 
currents, or aa an integral to be taken over every part of the field 
in which magnetic force exists. The first int^'gral, however, is the 
natural expression of the theory which mipjiOBcs the currents to act 
upon each other directly at a distnnecj while Ihe Bwy)nd is appro- 
priate to the theory which endeavours to explain the action between 
(he Gurrente by means of some intermediate action in th« space 
between them. As in this treatise wc have adopted the latter 
method of investigation, we naturally adopt the second exprt^ion 
as giving the most signihcant form to the kinetjc energy. 

According to our hypothesis, we assume the kinetic energy to 
exist wherever there is magnetic force, that is, in gt'nvral, in every 
part of the field. The amount of this cnergj' per unit of volume 

ig — — 5®$, and this energy exists in the form of some kind 

of motion of the matter in every portion ufupace. 

When we come to consider Fumday'it discovery of the cfTcet of 
msgnetisnt on polarized light, we shall jioint onl reasons for be- 
lieving that wherever there are lines of magnetic force, there i» 
n rotfttory motion of matter round those lines. Sec Art. 821. 

Maffvffic and Kleclroiiitetie KHtrffj/ compared. 
6S7.] We found in Art. 423 that the mutual potential enei^ 




<^ two mnguctic shells, <^ stivn^lhs ^ anJ ^', imd boiiDded hy tht 
doeod curves « and »' wepcctively, is 




where < is the angle between the directions of dt and A", and r , 

IB the distance between them. fl 

We alao found in Art. 521 that the mutual en«i^ of two cipcnit^^ 

« and /, in which current* i and i' flow, is 



le vor>1 

If i, I are equal to ^, 0' respeotivelj-, the ni«haniea! 
between the magnetic shells is equal to that between the 
res|)on<ling cleotrio circuits, and in the same direction. In the oue 
of the magnetic eliells, the force t«nds to diminish their mutual 
potential enerjjy. in the cfflsfl of the circuits it tends to increase i 
mutual energ'y, because this energy is kinetic. 

It is impossible, by any arrangement of mngnctized matter, to 
produce a system corresponding iu a,\\ respects t« an electric circuit 
for the potential of the magnetic system is single valitod at eve 
point of space, whercus that of the eU-etric s}'stcm is many-valued. 

But it is always ]>o8siblc, by n proper urningrrocnt of iutinitety 
small electric circuits, to produce a syifteni corresponding in all 
rcHi>cctH (o any magnetic sytitcm, provided the line of integration 
which we follow in calculating the pot^^ntiat iit prevented fmrn^ 
passing through any of thet« amall circuits. This will be mc 
fuliy explained in Art. 833. 

The action of maguel* at a distance i* perfectly identical with? 
that of electric currente. We tht^rcfore endeavour to trace both 
to the same cause, and since we cannot explain electrto curreat 
by means of magnets, we must adopt the other alternative, and ' 
explain magnets by means of molecular electric currents. 

638.] In our investigation of magnetic phenomena, in Part III 
of thia treatise, wo made no attempt to account for magnetic action 
at a distance, but tn-atcd this action as a fundamental fact of 
experience. We tlicreforo a«5iimcd that the energy of a mngnelio ■ 
fVKtcni is |>Dtential energy, and tluit thi« energy is dmin'uked whCB 
the parts of the system yield to the magnetic forces which aot 
on them. 

If, however, we rt^rd magnets as deriving their propertiea froai* 
eteetric currents circttlating within their moleooles, their 

AUPRRirs TnitonY op maosets. 

I kinetic, and the foitie between tliem is such that it tendii (o 
move them in a direction such that it' the strengtha of the currcntii 
^^were miiintained constant the kinetic energy would incrf.a.*e. 
^R This mode of explainin;> mat^etism requires us also to ahandon 
^Vtlio method followed in Purt III, in which we rejrarded the magnet 
^ as a continuous tmd humogx;ncous Lody, the minut4.'et pact of which 
has Diabetic projHTties of the eamu kind as the whole. 

Wo mn»t now rctjiini a itm-jrict as containing n Einit<^, tbon^h 
^ very grent, number of electric eircnit«, so that it has essentially 
HiB molecular, ax diiiting^uixluH] from a contiuiiuiis Gti'ucturc. 

If we cuppose our mathematical machinery to he so coarw; that 

Aur line of integration cannot thread a molecubr eirouit, and tliat 

•n immense number of magnetic molecules are contained in our 

element of volume, we shall still arrive at results simiUr to thoso 

of Part HI, but if we suppose our machinery of a Gner order, 

and capable of inveatigating all that goes on in the interior of the 

molecules, we must give up the old theory of magnetism, and adopt 

that of Ampfcre, which admits of no magnets except those which 

coastst of electric currents. 

H Wit must also regard both magnetic and electromagiie^c energy 

Has kinetic enci^, and wo must attribute to it the proper sign, 

Hm given in Art. G35. 

^P In whAt follows, though we may occasionally, as in Art. 639, &c., 
■ttcmpt to carry out the old thcorj' of ma^notitim, wc kIiiiII find 

•that we obtain a perfectly consist*-ut ByMt<;m only when wo abandon 
that theory and adopt Ampere's tJtcory of molecular current*, as in 
Art 1544. 

The energy of the field therefore consists of two parts only, the 
eleotroetatic or potential energy 

and the electromagnetic or kinetic energy 

' = sV//< 

4 + J ,8 + c y) rfx 1^ th. 



Forces actiitif oti a Magnetic Element. 
*630.] Tte potential enfliify of th« element itxtlfd: of a lx>dy 
ma^Detized with an intensity wliovc components arc A, B, C, and 
■ Sm ApfwaiUx II kt tli« and of tlib CbipUr. 



plnc«(] in n field of msgnotio force whoae components arc a, 

Honce, If the force urging the element to move withoat rotat 
.in tJie direction off is Xjdjrdj/dz, 

-^-■*Si + ^^ + ^^' (I) 

and if the moment of the couple tending to turn the elemoot about 
the axis of k from^ towards z is Ldjtiydt, 

Z = Sy-C0. (!) 

The forces and the momenta corresponding to the axes of f and 
t may be written down by making the proper siihstitutions. 

640.] If tlie magnefiBed body carries an elrctric current, of 
which the components are u, v, ie, tixn, by etiuntions C, Art. 603, 
there will be an additional electromagnetic force whovv components 
are J^, I'„ /j, of which S^ is ^1 

H<fi0^ the total force, X, arising from tlie nMfglMttiBlQ of tie 
mol^ale, as well as the current passing through it, it 

da ax dx 


The quantities a, h, e are the componeDta of mogDOtic inductioii, 
and are related to a, fi, y, the components of Boagnetic force, by 
the ex^natioDs given in Art. 40O, 

A = a + 4 nA, 

b = p+ivB,\ (5) 

c = y + inC. 

The components of the current, m, r. k, can be eipreased in tcrmi 
ofa, 0, Y hy tJic equations of Art. 007, 





A-aie = -f — 




By Art. m. | + | + g = o. (8) 

IklnlUplyin^ tliijt liquation, (8), hy a, and dividing- by 4 v, we may 
Ittdd the result to (7), and we find 

atso. by (2). I = ^((i-^) y-(c-y)i3). (10) 

= J_(8j,_.e), (11) 

fbere X ia the force rrfen(.'d to unit of volume i» llie directioa of 
p, iml L ill the moment of the I'ui-ces iiliout this axix. 

Om tkt Bxplanalion ofihete Foreea hi/ the Jlj/polkesU of a Medium 
in a Stale of Stress. 

64] .] Let us denote a stress of any kind rofciTed to unit nf area 
[by a vymhol of th« form /*„, where the first suffix, ^, indicate)) that 
tlie tionnnl to the enrfaec on which the stress is EUpj)i]se<I to act 
is pwrsllcl to the axtit of k, and the second stiQix, ^, indicat«s that 
the direction of the stress with which the jiart of the body od 
the positive iiidt! of the surface acts on tlie part un the negative 
nde is parallel to the flxta of k. 

The directions of h and k may bo the same, in which case the 

' stress ia a normal stress. Tliey may be oblique to eaeli other, in 

which case the stress is au oblifjue stress, or they niay be perpen- 

dicalar to each other, in which case the stress ia a taiigx^ntial 


^ The condition that the stresses sliall not produce any tendency 

^■to rotation in the etemcnbiry portions of the body in 

t tl>c< 


f» = -P». 

In the case of a majjpietized body, however, there is such a 
lency to rotation, and therefore this condition, which holds in 
tl>c ordinar)' theory of stress, is not fulfilled. 

Let OS consider the effect of the stre^see on the six sides of 
the flementary portion of tlic body dxdgds, taking the ori^n of 
eoor<iinati-« at its centre of gravity. 

On the positive face liyih, for which the value of .r is \ dx, the 



I'amllel to x, 
Fiirellel to y, 
Parallel to s, 


{P«+hA^'lx)d,ds = X,„' 



The forces acting on the opposit* side, — 1'_„ — J'_„ and —Z.,. 
may be found from tbeii« by chiiiging \\k fign of dx. We may 
exproat in the same way t!ie xyitt4'mit of thrre forces acting on e»di 
of the other fnces of the filuincnt, the dirMtion of tlic force being 
indicated by the capital Ictl^r, and the face on which it actx hy 
the KuQtx. 

If Xdxdgd: is the whole force parallel to x acting on the eleineat. 

Xdxdgd^ = Jr,.+.v^,+A-,.+x^+x^+aL,. 

,dP„ , dP„ ^ dP„.. . . 

wheuce J = ^i*«+^P^+^i>.. 



If Ldxdj/dx is tlio moment of the forces alouf the axie of a 
tending to tnrn the element from y to ;, 

Ldxdyd: = Kds{Z^,-Z.,)-\ds{T,,-Y.,). 

= {P„-PJdxdyd^, 

whcnee L = P,,~P^. (M) 

Comparing the ruhies of X and L given by equations {fl) and 

(11) with those given by (13) and (14), we find that, if we make 

'*- = o*" 

the force arising from a Hviitem of stress of which these am the' 
coiDpODeDts will be suticalty equivalent, in its eflbcts on 




Blcmcnt of tti« body, witb the f<irc«8 ariaiDg Trom tltc mngnctization 
> doctric eum-nte. 

'MS.'] Thu nature of the streas of whieh theec arc the camporXTDts 
i»y b(! rttMly found, by making the axia of j biiwct the angle 
Iwtwoen the directions of the magnetic foreo and the miij^netic 
intiiivtton, ftnd takin<; the axis a(y in the jthine of these dinictions, 
and na>a«tirc<l towards the side of tlie magnetic force. 

If we put J^ for the numerical value of thi? magnetic force, 3 for 
(hat of ibe magnetic indactioD, and 2« for the angle hutweea thoir 

a=.ftco«<, j3= ^sin*, y = 0, 1 , . 

a = ©«»(, B =-S9einf, e = 0;/ ^'^ 

P^ss — I&Jq cos ( sin e, 


P = — -— ©^ 009 e siu f. 

4 IT 

Hence, the state of rtress may he considered as compounded of — 

(I) A prwsure equal in all directions = - ^'. 

(3) A tension along the line bisecting the angle Wtwccn the 
directions of the mi^netic force and the magnetic induction 

(3) AprcMurcalong the line biitecting the exterior angle between' 
in directions = — © fi sin' «. 
r iv ^ 

(!) A couple tending to turn every element of the gubstanca in 
the plane of the two directions /><?»• the direction of magoetio 

indnctioD to Uie direction of magneUc force = —SQ^aa2t. 

VThcn the magnetic induction is in the same direction as the 
magnetic force, as it always is in Ihiidit and non-magnetized solids, 
then ( =: 0, and making the axis of « coincide with the direction of 

IUic magnetic forcc^ 
TOt. II. S 


and the tan^ntial streesce disappear. 

The stress in thia case is therefore a hydrostatic pressure — ^*, 

combined with a longitudinal tension j- © •& ^ong the linos of 


643.] When there is no magnetization, S = ^, and the stress is 

itill further simplified, being a tension along the lines of force equal 

to — ■ ^^, combined with a pretwi"-" in all directions at right angles 


to the lines of force, nume 
poaents of stress in this impoiM 


,al also to -^ 6*. The com- 

8 T 

dse are 

P„= ^{y'-^^-^^ 

P». = K = i-^^y< 



The 2!- component of the force arising from these Btresses on an 
element of the medium referred to unit of volume ia 

I I da ^dfi dy) 1 ( d$ ^da) 1 ( rfy da) 

I ,da (f/3 dy\ 1 ,da rfy\ 1 a/^^' ''"X 



da da dy 

da dy 

rfj8 da 
wh«re « is the density of austral magnetic matter referred to unit 

dx dy 




of Tolume, and v and w are the componenU of electric curronfs 
rcfi'iTcd to uoit of area perpendicular to y and z respectively. Hence, 
X= aw+ t'y— W/S, 1 

f (Equitloui of 

Simuariy r= fita+iea~uyA Elcetrommnello (20) 

P Z = ylW + KjS— CO. ) **"* 

644.] If we adopt the theories of Amii^re and Weber aw to the 
nntiirr of ma^etic and diamagnetic bodies, and assume that toAg- 
netic and diamafn^ctio polarity are due to molecular electric currents, 
we get rill of imaginary ma^otJc matter, and find that everywhere 


= 0. ""d rfa dS dy 

J- + J + J ■ ='0, 
ax ay dc 



so that the otjiiations of oWtromagnctic force become 

^^ 7=«a-uy,\ 

^W 2=ii^-va.' 

P TIkm are the components of the mechanical force rtferrcd to unit 
of volume of the substance. Tlie components of the mafjnctio force 
■re o, 0, y, and those of tlie electric current arc u, r, w. Theae 
ecjiiationit arc identical n-ith those alroudy eetabliifhed. (K({Uiitiona 
(C). Art, 603.) 

645.] In explaininfT the olectromagnHic force by means of a 
state of stresM in a nicdiiira, we are only following out the con- 
ception of Faraday*, that the lines of magnetic force t«nd to 
ehortcn themselves, and that tliey rcpttl ea<?li other when placed 
side by side. All that we have done is to express the value of 
the tension along the lines, and the pressure at right angles to 
tbem, in mathematical language, and to prove that the state of 
■tress thns assumed to exist in the medium will actually produce 
tiui observed forces on the conductors which carry electric currents. 
Wc have aseerted nothing as yet with rc8p«:t to the mode 
in whiuh this state of atrees is originated and miiintuiu«-d in the 
m^am. Wc have merely shewn that it is poK^ihle to conceive 
the mutuiil action of electric currents t" drpcud on a particular 
kind of fIreiH! in the surrounding medium, instead ol' being a direct 
aod immediate action at a dietaoce. 

Any further explanation of the slate of stress, by means of the 

potion of t;he medium or otherwise, muitt be regarded as a separate 

fed indepeudeiit part of the theory, which may stand or fall without 
aflecting our prcMMit position. See Art. B32. 
• jffjy. tia.. !!8e. 8M7. 32$S. 



Iq first part of this treatise, Art, 1 08, we shewed that lie 
obeervGd ek'ctrostatic forces may be conceived us operating- throagh 
the intervention of a state of stri^ss in the surrounding' meiJium, 
Wo have now done the same for the electromagnetic forces, ami 
it remains to be seen whether the conception of a medium capable 
of supporting these states of stress is consistent with other known 
phenomena, or whether we Ghall have to put it aside as unfruitful, 

In a field in which electrostatic as well as electromagnetic actioo 
is taking place, we must suppose the electrostatic stress described 
in Part I to he superposed on the electromagnetic stresa which we 
have been considering. 

646.J If we suppose the total terrestrial magnetic force to be 
10 British units (grain, foot, second), as it is nearly in Britain, then 
the tension along the linos of force is 0.1 2S grains weight per 
square foot. The greatest magnetic tension produced by Jonlc* 
by means of electromagnets was about HO pounds weight on 
square inch. 


• SttirgBoii'« AhiuiU of Slretrlcll;/. vd. v. p. 1B7 (1S4CI) ; or Philaiopkical Xagatlmt. 
Dec. ISGL 


[The roUoving note, derived horn a latter written by PrafHnr Clark Maxwell to 
I n«ft«Bar Clu^vla]. u iicpoiiuit in coneexlaii with Arta^ 3S9 and 891 : — 

Id Art. 389 the cnci^ <Iue to the |>rMi^nc«< of a in&f;itet whoM msg- 
DOtixntion cotnponcntu arc .f,, B,, C,, placed in a field whOM nUifiieUo 
foroe compoiK-nU are a,, ^,, j-,, ii 

-//A^.<^ + S,^ + C,y^)<ix'Ivdz, 
then the intefpvlioD is couSDed to the niugii^ in rirtue ot A^, B,, C, 
^bdug MPO evtiywhcrc else. 

Bnt ihc vholc pncrgv is of the form 

Itiie intc^mtion extending; to every part of apaee wlirre tliero an mag- 
taftimd bodiee, and A,, B,, C, denotiuj;; the components of mgpMtiutiou 
at AD}' point (otlorior to the mngiKit. 
The whole energy tlius coniiistA of four part* ;— 

-i//AA,a, + &^.)<Lrdydz. (I) 

vbicb IB constAnt if the nia^'netization of the inognet b rigid ; 

~\///i.Ka, + &c.)<Ixd,jd^ (2) 

wliieh is equal, by Qruen'M Tlicomn, tu 

-\///(A,a, + Ai:.)dxdi,d:, (8) 

awl -i///{A^a,+&c.)dxdyds: (4) 

wliich lost we Dia; 8ui>pose to arise from rigid magnetisations and therm- 
ion cooRtrat. 

BeiMc tlie rnrialilc part of Ute encrgj of tbc moveable magnet, a.s ri^dly 
il, b tlie aura of the ezpreasions (2) and (3), tik.. 

Remembering tliHt the diaplaccmunt of the mi^ict aliens the value* of 
S> i^i' Vk ^^^ "^^ IhoM of A^, B„ C„ we Cod for the component of llie 
force on the magnet in aQy direction 0— 





If instead of a rangnct wc hare a body maguetiiicd tiy induction, th* 
exprtnion for ibe for« must be the same, vi*., writing A, = ka, Ac., 
we have fi'f , dn, , ,J,^, . dy,. , , , 

In Ihi* expression a ia pnt for n, + o,, Ac, but if either the magnet ixe<! 
body be smnll or k bo small we may neglect a, in compariaoti with a,, and 
the exprenian for the furee beeumea, as in Art. 440, 

The worii done by the magnetic forces while a body of ainuU inductile 
ca|>ucily, magiietiied inductively, ia carried uff Ui infinity ic only half 
of tliat for the aiinie body rigidly nia;^etieed to the wime uriginal 
•Ireogtli, for n« tbe induced magnet ia carried off it loica iU atrength.] 


{OliJMitJuii hail liMU bikoii lu di« cxprenBion omittunnl io Art 639 ftr 
the putetitiail energy per uiiH volume of the medium arising from nwE- 
ueUc forces, for the reason that in finding that vspressioo in Art. 389 «« 
Assumed the force coinponcnta a, |9, y lo }>o di:riviibl« from a iiot^otid. 
vhcreu in Art*. 639, 6-10 tliiH is not tlie case. Tfain objectiwD extemit 
to th<! exjtrcti^Dn fur the force JT, which it the tipaoe rarititioii uf the 
tntTgy. The puqtose of this note is to bring fonrsriJ gome CMtddernliom 
tending to confirm the kccunic}' of th<^ t«xt. 

We oonmder tlicu tb<> uleuitml dxdydz isolated twvm Uic rat of tht 
medium with u current of electricity- (u, t', te) flowing tliroiigli H. 13ia 
fortna uoUn^ on the element ari»e fium two causes, vix., first, in rirtna of 
tbe element being roagnntisird, next, in virtue of ib orrjring h curtent 
The force dno to the hitter CflU»e is (X,, I',, Z^dasdt/dt, giren in (3), 
Art. 6-10, viz. X, = re— wb, etc. 

To entimate the other we oliacrve thai, if no currt-iit wen; flowtn)( 
tlirougU the eleuicDt. the tnngnetic force on th« eletni-nt would (« 
(X', 1", Z') dxdyds, where 

ax dy efa 


Jltit in widiiiou to this there will be forcea from the current of eleotriot)* 
neting on tbi- ntngncfism of tlie fjices of the element. Kuw it Is sheim in 
Art. 653 that in pasting from the negative to the poaitire side of * 
current sheet the conipoumt of th« magnetic UfK» nOTiBal to tbc shcel 
experiences no discontinuit}- ; neither doe* Uw component in th« diroctiuo 
of the current, but the componeut paniliol to the tihcet aikd nornud to (br 
current changes by 4itr, where i is the strength of the cuTreat per nnit 
Uugtb. Let us then suppose that the faces of our eleraeut which ait 
perpendicular to the axis of y in a right- handed system of ftxee an 
portions of an infinite current sheet in which there is flowing a cumnt 
parallel to tbc axis of e equal to tcdAf. There will tlicn be a nmgnctie 

force BAvtedxdyia over and itboye the force /I- - Jxdffdx previotudy 

reckoned in tbc estinmte of th« forcn* pnmllcl to dx and ndiog on the 
dxda faces. In like m&uner we ihould find an MlditiMml (breo 

acting on the dxdy faces. Vr'e have thus to add to X' • term 

X"= ii:B«>-4iTCv. 
and the total ^T'Componeiit of tlie magnetic force will 1m 





tl wUl be observed tbot tlM force (X' 





Gi?.] A cVKBEirT'SQiiitT b an iofinitely thin stratum of con> 
ductin;;: matter, bounded on both sides by iosulatinfr media, eo that 
filectric currents mny 6ow in the ahcct, but CHnnot e6ctk[K> from it 
«xccpt at (wrtnin points called Electrodes, where curreats are made 
to «nt«T or to Icavo the sheets 

In order to conduct n finite cleetric current, a no.] sheet must 
have a Unite thickness, and oug'lit thurc^fore t-o be considered m 
DOndador of throe dimensions. In many cases, however, it is 
practically convvnicnl to deduce tlie electric properticn of a real 
conducting tihcetj or of a thin layer of ooiled wire, from tliow! of 
a ourrent-shet-t it* dcltned above. 

We may therefore r^'ganl u surface of any form a« a curreut-fhcct. 
Having selected one side of this surl'ncc aii the positive side, we 
shall always eiipj>of!e any linvH drawn on the tiiirliico to be looked 
at from the positive side of the surface. In the case of a closed 
surface wo shall eoUKidrr the outttide as positive. See Art. 294, 
where, however, the diroutiun of the current ie defined a« seen from 
the negative aide of the sheet. 

Th« CttrrtHt-ZuHclion. 

6-18.] Ijet a fixed point A on the surface be chosen as origin, and 
let a line he-drawn on the surface from A to another point P. Let 
the quantity of electricity which in unit of time crosses this line 
from left to right be <^, then i^ is calUd the Current- function at 
the point i*. 

The current-function depends only on the ])osition «f Uie point P 
and is the same for any two forma of tlte Hno AP, provided this 


line MO be trnn^fonnod hy continiiouf motion from one (nna to tlii* 
ollter witliout. passing: Uiroag'h an cleotroile. For the two forms of 
tlic line uill enclose an arcu witliin wliJcli tliere in no electrode, utd 
tbererore the Game quantity of electricity wliicli cntent Ike ares iicre« 
one of the lines must issue aoroi^ the other. 

If t denote the length of the line AP, the current acrow d» from 

left to right will be -^ dt. 

If is oonstsnt for any curve, there ia no current across it, Suob 
a enrve is called a Current-line or a Streara-line. 

649.] Let yp be the electric potential at any point of the sheet, 
then the electromotive force along any ctom«nt tJ> of a curve will bo 

provided no electromotive force exists except that which arises from 
difTereDCeB of potential. 

If ^ is constant for any curve, the curve is called an Eqni- 
potential Line. 

660.] Wc may now Biippose that the position of a point on Iha 
Rheot is defined by the values of ^ and ^j/ at point. Let rf^ be 
the length of the element of the ei]uipot«Dtiul line >j/ int«rc«pted 
between the two current lines ^ and ^ + d^ and K-t dji^ he the 
length of the clement of the current line ^ intercepted between the 
two eqaipot«ntial linc« ^ nnd ip + ii^. Wc niay consider f/^, und</<,. 
as the sides of the element dipiiyj/ of the slieet- The eli>utromotive 
force —dyfi in the direction of tt», produce* the current rf-^ acroM f/i,.. 

Let thi.' Tcttistance of a portion of tlie sheet nhoae length is tU^, 
and who«c breadth i* da^, be dt, 

where a m the spocific resistance of the sheet referred to unit <if 
area, then , , di, , ^ 

1 ds, dL 

whence 4 = "^- 

651.] If the slieet is of a substance which eonduots oqnally weli 
in all directions, dtj ia perpendicular to d»^. In tlie ease of a she 
of uniform rceistanoe a in constant, and if we make ^ « o*^, wc 
sJiall have A, d^t 

and the stream-tines and cquipoteutial Uneawill ent tlu suriaaeiat 
little t>4»aro(; 




I) tit foUoirs from tUia tliat if 0, and t^i' arc conjii^nie funotinns 
(Art. I$3) or and yfi', tho curvett <^ may be strx-um-'Iinoit in the 
lebeet for which tlic curves ij'j'are the ooiivapondiii^ I'tiuipotontial 
lines, One case, of coume, in that in which 0, = ^' and t^,'= —0. 
' In tJiis case the «>ijui potential lines become curreiit-liiie^ and the 

kcuiTeDt-tines etjiii potential lines *. 
If ne have obtained the solution of the distribution of electric 
ctineDts in a nniform sheet of any form for any particular case, we 
may deduce the distribution in any other case by a proper trans- 

I formation of the conjugate funotions, according to the method given 
in Art. 100. 
65a,] We have next to determine the magnetic action of a 
cnrrcnt-«hcet in which the current is entirely confined to the sheet, 
thorn bring no electrodes to convey the current to or from the 
In this case tho current-fanction i^ has a determinate value at 
evorj' point, and the stream-lines are closed curves which do not 
intfrrsect «Bcli other, though any one stxeam-lioe may intersect 
B Consider the annular portion of the eJieet between the stream- 
^■1inc« nnd i^+hif). This [lart of the sheet is ft conducting circuit 
Hin which a current of strength &</> circulates in the positive direction 
■.round that part of the sheirt i'or which tp is greater than the given 
H Taluo, Tho nmgDetio elfoct of this circuit is the sumo as that of 
H« magnetic shell of strength S^ at any point not included in tiko 
B lubHtimoc of tho sbell. Let us suppose Utat the shell coincides with 
that part of the current-sheet for which ^ has a greater value than 
B'it has at tho given stream-line. 

H By drawing all the successive stream-lines, beginning with that 
^■for which has the greatest value, and ending with that for which 
^■it« value is least, wo slmll divide the eurrent-eheet into a Kcries 
^^of circuits. Substituting for each circuit its eorr^eponding mag- 
^Bnetio Hboll. wo find that the magnetic ciTect of the current-xhoct 
^■■t any point not included in the thickness of the sheet is the >^ne 
^L aa that of B complex magnetic shell, whose strength at any (loint 
^Bia C+<p, where Cis a constant. 

If tlie currcnt-shoet is bounded, then we must make C+i}> = 
at Ui« bounding cnrvo. If the sheet forms a clowd or an inlinite 
Mirfaoc, there is nothing to determine the value of the constant C. 

■ 8m Tlioaucin, Can^. and Dub. Math. /auni„ voL Hi. p. 280. 



053.] The magnetio potential at any poiot on either side of tbo 
current-Ehcct is given, aa in Art. 4 1 5, by the expression 


vra dJS, 

wbere r is the distance of the g^ven point from the olemeni 
sariaoe dS, and is the angle between the direction of r, and th: 
of the normal drawn from tlie poeitive sido of if^. 

This expreagion gives the magnetic potential for oil poinU 
inelutled in the thickness of the cument-slMirt, and we know 
for points within a conductor carrying a current there is no «ich 
thing ax a magnetic potonfial. 

The value of it is discontinuous at the cnrrent-aheet, for if Qi 
is its value at a point just within the current-shwl, and il^ ita 
Tolue at a point close to the first but jost ootaido the curreot'sbeet, 

where is the current-faoction «t that point of the sh«et. 

The value of the component of magnetic foroe normal to 
sheet is continuous, being the same on bi>tli sides of the sheet 
The component of the magnetic force parallel to the current-liMS 
is also continuous, but the tangential coin{>onent perpendicular 1« 
tlic current-lines is discontinuous at the slieet. If * is the length 
of a curve dran-n on the sheet, the component of magnetic force 



and for the 

in the direction of </« is, for the negative side, — - . , — .-. — ^^ 

positive side. -^ = - ^-4- ^ . ^ 

The component of the magnetic force on the positive ride tliere- 

fore exceeds that on the negative side by — 4 it --7- ■ At a given potut 

this quantity will be a maximum when da b perpendicular to the 

On He Indaedon of Blecirie Currenlt in a Shttt e/ Infiiiilt 

654.] It was shewn in Art^ S79 that in any circuit 

where E is the impn-iwe«l t-lectrorootive force, p the e1«ctro1nB 
momentum of Uie cirtriiit, li the reiustanec of the (lircuit, and i 
current round it. If tltere i« no impreascd electromotive force 1 

DO resistance, then -^ = 0, or pia ootutoai. 

" 656.] - PLANE SHEET. 267 

I Now />, ihe electrokinetic momentum of the circuit, wan dicwa 
in Art, 388 to be measured by tlie surface- integral of magnetic 
induction through the circuit. Hence, in tlio cuite of a ounent- 
she«t of no rcaietance, the surface-integral of magnetic induction 
through any closed curve drawn on the surfiice must be constant, 
ami this implies that the normal component of magnetic induction 
nimains oonstant at every point of the current •sheet. 

1655.] If, therefore, by the motion of magneto or variations of 
cunvnte in the neighbourhood, the magnetic field ia in any way 
alt4.Te(I, electric currents will be set up in the current-sheet, such 
that their magnetic effect, combined with that of the magnets or 
cuTTcntx in the 6eld, will mointain the normal component of mag- 
■ nrtic induction at every point of the sheet unchanged. If at first 
there is no magnetic action, and no currents in tlie sheet, then 
the normal component of magnetic induction will always be zero 
N at every point of the sheet, 

B The sheet may therefore be regarded as impervious t« magnetic 
induction, and the lines of magnetic induction will be deflected by 
tlic sheet exactly in the same way as the lines of flow of an ok-ctric 
current in an infinite and uniform conducting mass would bo 
ectfd by the introduction of a sheet of the same form made 
if A suhetnnw of infinite reai^ance. 

If the sheet forms a closed or an infinite surface, no magnetic 
actioiiH which may take place on one aide of the sheet will produce 
any magnetic efieot on the other side. 

TAeor^ of a Plane Cirrfnl'sieei. 

656.] We have seen that the external magnetic action of a 
cuiTent>sheetia equivalent to that of a msignetic shell whose strength 
at any point ix numerically e<iual to if>, the current-function. When 
the sheet is a plane one.n'e may exproe* all the quantities required 
for the determination of tiWtroiiiagiiclic effects in terms of a single 
funHion, P, which \a the potential due to a sheet of imaginary 
matter spread over the plane with a surface-density ^. The value 
of P is of course rrA, 

irbere r is the distance from tli« point (x, y, 2) for which P is 
calculated, to the point («'',/, 0) in the plane of the sheet, at which 
the element li^il^ is taken. 
To find the magnetic potential, «c may regard the magnetic 






Rbcll as oonKirtinf* of two enr&cee parallel to the plane of tf, tbe 
firfit, whose equation is « = )«, having the Rurfstcc^Dritj ~, and 
the Kcoond, whose eciitation in z =: — \e, having tbe sarfacesli 

TIm) potentials doc to thcM turiaoes wiD be 


and --P, 



e , 

respecttvelr, where the soffises indicate that t—- a pat 

in the first expression, and £ ■!■ - Tor ^ in Uic i«cond. Expandio^ 

these expressions hy Tnvlor's TlK-orein, addinff thtrm, and tbtn 
making c infinitely small, nc obtain for the mitgaiAic potential do^^ 
to the sheet at any point external to it, ^| 

fl= — 



657.] The quantity P is synintctrical with respect to the plane of 
tbe ahect, and is thcretorv the same when — ^ is substituted Tor £■ 
n, the magnetic potential, changes sign when —x is pnt for t. 
At the positive surface of tbe sheet 

" = -?="'♦• (= 

At the negative snrfaoe of the sheet ^j 

Within tbe sheet, if its mafrnctic effects arise from the magnet- 
ization of its substance, thi? maj;nctic potential raries ooDtinn- 
ously from 2t^ at tlie positive surface to — 2s^ at the negative 

If the sheet contains electric currents, the magnetic foiee 
within it. does not satisfy the condition of having a potential 
The magnetic force within the sheet is, however, perfectly deter- 
minate, ^i 

Tbe normal component, ^M 

da d'P ... 

is the same on both ndea of the sheet and throaghont ita aafi 

If a and p be the componentu of the magnetic force pantllel 



and to y at tbe positive suriace, and a', ^ those on tlie negative 

flarfaw, ^ „ 

- - ' (6) 

« = — $=-- 


Tho iMjuutioiiti 








dx ~ 






Within th« she«t the components vary continuously from a and 
,^ to a' and 3'. 

^^^^^P da di/ ~ dz 

which connc-ct the components F, 6, U of the vector-potential due 

Ito the curn-nt-Blieot with the sualar potential it, are satisfied if 

Itrv make Ap ,IP 

F=~, G = -^, /f=0. .(9) 

ay dx * ' 

We may also ebtnio these values by direct iDt'?^ratioii, thus for F^ 

Since tiie integration is to be estimated over the infinite plane 
tflbeet^ and since the liriit term vitiiit^lics at infinity, the cxprescion \» 
[reduced to the secund t«rm; and by substituting 

d \ . rf 1 

y~- for — T-'-' 
"S T ay r 

\*aA remomberin^ that ^ dq)enda on of and /, and not on x, jf, e, 

U obtain F=^fJ^^d^dy, 

If Q' is the niBj>netic potcntiiil due to any mng'netic or electrie 
sysbem €xt«raal to the sheet, we may write 


and wo sball tlien have 



dx ' 



for the component* of the Toctor<potential dae to this system. 




658.] Lot ii» now determine tJie electromotive Toree at w»y pointfl 
of the shfct, supposing the shwrt fixed. ~ 


, »uppoaing 
Let X and f !« the compoiienU of the eiectronwtive force paralle! 
to J and toy respectively, then, by Art 598, w« have 


If the electric resistance of the sheet is uniTorm and equal to <r, 
X=aM, r=<Tr, (H) 

whore «i and c are the components of the current, and if ^ ia thai 
current- function, J^ ^^ 

But, by equation (3), 


Tlencv, eqtiatioas (12) 

itt the positive siirraco of the current-sheet, 
and (13) may be written 

2vdydz~ dydt^ ^ ' dx 

2itda><h dxfU^ '*' ' off' 
where the values of the expressions are those corresponding tu tbt 
Iiositive surface of the sheet. 

If we differentiate the first of these equations vrith rrspect to 
and the second witli respect to y, ond add the rc«ultti, we obtain 


The only value of ^ which satisliM this equation, and is finite 
and continuous at every point of tlie plane, and vanisheA at si 
inGnite dietftsce, is \b = 0. (I9l 

Hence the induotion of electric currents in an infinite plane she 
of uniform conductivity is not uecompanied with diBcrcnoc* 
electric potential in different parts of the tsheet. 

Substituting this value of <^, and integrating equations {iGJj 
(17), weobuin „ dP dP dF ,, ,. .„„( 

Since the values of the currents in Uie nheet are found 
diffen^ntiutin^ with respect to * or y, the arliitrary runctinn ol 
and / will disfl])i>c3ir. We shall iherufore Iciive it ont of accounk 




ir we dbo write for — , the single symWl ff, wbich repmenls 
L oeitain rolocity, ttie equation bebwcca P and i^ becomea 

!>.] Let o» first suppose that there is no external mAj^etio 

actings on the current sUcot, We nrny therefore suppose 

: 0. Tiie case then becomes that of u sy«teiQ of etei^tric ciirreuta 

ih tlie sbei-t left to thcmsulves, but nirting on one another by their 

il induL-tioD, and nt the suine time losing their energy on 

aunt ol' the resistance of the sheet. The result is expressed 

by the equKtJon ^rfP dP 

the solution of which is P =/{*, y. (c + ^0)- (23) 

* llencej the value of P at uny point on the positive side of tha 
rTfbsM coord inn te.« are x, y, x, and at a time /, is equal to 
itwP tit the point *, y, (;+ Rt) at the iniitiint when ^ = 0. 
If therefore ft system of ctirrent« is excited in a uniform plane 
sheet of infinite extt-nt and then lelV to itself, its magnetic effect 
at any point on the pogittve wide of the sheet will he the same 
aa if the syntem of currents had been maiutnineil constant in the 
sheet, and the sheet moved in the direction of a normiil from ila 
negative nido with the constant velocity I{. The diminutiun of 
the electromagnetic forces, which arises from a decay uf the currents 
in the real case, is accurately represented by the diminution of the 

t force on account of tlie increasing distance in the imaginary case. 





If we suppose that at first P and P" are loth zero, and that a 
magnet or electromagnet is suddenly magnetised or brought from 
an infiuite distance, so as to <>liange the value of P" suddenly from 
into to P', then, since the time-integral in the second member of 
(24) vanishes with the time, we must have at the finrt instant 
P = —P" at the surface of the sheet. 

* rnWBqiuU(au(lQ)Bnd(S31aF«' provHltabstrueoDljriit the surhavof tlteilucl 
fcc whicib t — 0. lio csjiroMan (33) latinfln <S2) genL-nlly, uid tberdoro hIio at 
tha inrbM «f tka tbeet. It alia MiUin the iiUitv coiiditluiu uf iLo problem, uul U 
IbmGirD » aalutlon. ' Any ctbtr tuluUun mud iltlTar (run Uite by ft i^«l«in of olacad 
cimanlf, ilmndinii! ou tbe tnittkl tMa al the ilwel, dM iIu« to *i>7 aitanMl otUM 
Mid wLich tWnlore niuit iIucbv rapidly, fienn (iiMv wa wtnim* ut vtunitr or put 
tino tlin b i&c only wlutioo u( lb« problm.' Set Ftahmor CScric Muwell ■ Papct, 
lUfiU ioe. PttK., XI. pp. I90-lliS.l 



Hence, the system of tarrent* excited in the sliect hy the suiUeii 
introduction of the system to whieb P' is due is such that at tht 
surface of the sheet it exactly nentmliw-* Uie mng-aetic effect of 
this system. 

At the surface of the sheet, Ihorcfore, and consequpntly at «II 
paints on the ncf^tivc dde of it, thv initial fvxtem of cuTTnil* 
produces SLti cfftxt exiictly equal and op[>o»itc tci thiU of Uie 
magnetic system on the positive sid«. We itwy exprcM tht< by 
saying that the eflt-ct of the c-urront« \m equivalent to tliat of la 
ivutge of the mofpietic system, coiueiding in position vritli thnt 
system, hut opposite as rrgurds the direetion of its magtietiutJOD 
and of it^ electric currents. Such an imi^ is called a ntffative image. 

The clleot of the currents in the sheet at a {oint on the podtin 
side of it is equivalent to that of a positive ima^ of the ma^iMtic 
sysU'm on the npfjativc side of the «hcet, the lines joioiD^ cone- 
spondin^ points bein^ bisected at right angles hy the sheet. 

The action at a point on cither Ride of the sheet, due to the 
currents in thi; sheet, may ihert-fore he reg^flfdcd as due to an 
image of the iiiiignotic sj'stcni on tlie side of the sheet opposite 
to the poiut, this image being a positive or a negative image 
according as the point is on the poattive or the negative side offl 
tlie sheet. ™ 

661.] If the sheet is of inRnite oonductivity, 2t = 0, and the 
second term of (24) is zero, so that the image wiU represeat the 
effect of the currents in the sihect at any time. ^ 

In the case of a real Nheet, the resistance H has some fiuite v»1u«. | 
The image juat deaerihed will therefore represent the effect of tho 
currents only during the first instant after the sudden introduction 
of the magnetic system. The ourrents will inimediatfly begin to 
decay, and the effect of this decay will he accurately represented if 
we suppose the tno images to move from their original positions, in 
the direction of normals drawn from tho sheet, n-ith the oonitant 
velocity R. 

662.] We are now prepared to investigate the system of Mirrrntw 
mduced in the sheet by any system. J/, of mngneta or electro- 
nagnets on the positive »de of the sheet, the position and stnogth 
of nhich vary in any manner. 

Let P", a« before, he the function from which the direct actJoa^ 
of this system is to be dedneed hy the equations (3), (d), ftc., 

th«D -nr- it will be the function oomhtpottdiDg to the system 




presented by -jt- S'- Tliis quantity, ivhicli ia the increment of 3f 

in the time 9^ nwy be regimlLil as ititelf rqimcoDUog n maguetio 


t If we supjioEC tbut at tlto time f » positive image of the system 


-jfit ifi formed on tho nogatiro dde of the shoot, tho mo^Dt-tie 

action at any point on the positive adi- of the sheet due to this 
ima^ ^vill be equivalent to that due to tho currents in tho sheet 
excited by the change in At dnriog tho liret instant after the 
ch&Dgo, and the imitgc >vill eontiiitie to bo equivalent to the 
curreatfi in the sheet, if, lui soon as it is formed, it begins to move 
in the negative dircetion of s with the coiistnnt velocity R. 
I If we BHpposc that in every auecessive element of the time an 
inuigc of this kind is formed, and that as snnn as it is formed 
it Ijcgins to move away from the sheet with velocity E, we shall 
obtain the conception of a trail of images, the last of which is 
in process of formation, while all the rest are moving like • rigid 
body away from the sheet with velocity li. 

I 668.] If i^ di'jintes any function whatever arisiing from the 
action of the magnetic system, we may find P, the corresponding 
function arising from the currents in the sheet, by the following 
nrooew, which is merely the symbolical expression for the theory 
of the trail of images. 

. Let /', denote the value of P (the function jurising from the 
pnrrents in the sheet) at the point {a, y, i + Rt), and at the time 

t—T, and let i^ denote the value of P" (the function arising from 
jthe magnetic system) at the point («, ^, —{s+Bt]), and at the 


iet^T. Then 

dr 4ts (it ' 

d e<iuatlon (21) becomes 

d7=-sr' **'' 

id we obtain by integrating with reepoct to r from r=: tor = ec, 

tbe value of the function P, whence we obtain all the propertiM 
rtfafl eorrent sheet by ditferentiation, as in eciuations (3), (9), &c> 

664i.] As an example of the proccta here indicated, let us take 

e case of a single magnetic pole of strength unity, moving with 
miform velocity in a straight tine, 





Lcl the coordinates of the pole at the time i be 
f = u/, 1? = 0, C=: c + vol. 
TIic coordinates of the image of the pole formed at the ti 
t~T are 

€ = M{e-r}. n = (», f=-(ff+»(^-r)+i!r), 
and if r is the distanee of thia image from the point (x, g, t). 

To ohtain the potential due to the Imil of image* we have 
calenlate ^ r" dr 

~dTJ, T" 
If we write Q» = u» + (S— »)', 

_^y = -glog{Cr+u{*-uO + (fi-w)(«+*' + »01 

+ a term infmitely f^rent which however will disBf^iear on diSi 
entiation with regard to /, the value of r in thifl expreesion \m\ 
found by making r = in the expression for r fpven above. 

DifreKntinting this expression with reepect to /, and poi 
f K 0, ne obtain the magnatie potential due to the trail of i: 

^^ n>f.- + .)-u. _^,_^,^^^ 

^ Q Qr+ii»+(i?-»)(s+c) 
By differentiating this expression with respect to 2 or 
obtain the components parallel to ir or « leepcctively of the mag- 
netic force at any point, and by puttin<> r = 0, z = c, and r => 2r 
in these expressions, wc obtain the following valne« of tho CODI^ 
poneats of the force acting on tho moving pole it«clf, 

J = - 






J>! J, 


( + -K-W)) 

665.] In these expressions we must remember that the moSo 
is aapposed to have been g<»ng on for an infinite time before 
time coiuictered. Uenoe we must not take tv a positive qoantil; 
for in that case the pole must hare passed through the sheet 
within a 6nite time. 

If we make u = 0, and tp negative, X =0, and 

or the pole as it approaches the sheet is r«p«Ue<l from it 




If we make » = 0. we fin^ Q^ = u' +^, 

X = - 


and Z= --. 

The oomponent X repa'sent* n retarding force nctJD^ on the pole 
in the dirccUon opposiUr to that of its own motion. For r given 
valae of K. X is a masiinum when u = 1.27 Jt, 

When the sheet is a nou-couductor, R=ys and X = 0. 

When the sh«et x* a perfect conductor, R = and A' = 0. 

The component Z represents a reimlsion of the jmle from the 
[ elMet. It increases as the velocity increases, and tdtiniat«ly becomes 

-—-^ when the velocity is iotiuite. It has the Bame vnltie when 

a is zero. 

666.] When the magnetic pole moves in a curve parallel to the 
sheet, the calculation becomes more complicated, hut it is easy to 
see that the effect of the nearest portion of the trail of images 
is to produce a force acting on the pole in the direction opposite 
to that of its motion. The eScct of the jxirtion of the trail im- 
mediately behind this is of the t^mv kind as that of a magnet 
with ita axis parallel to the direction of motion of the pol« at 
I some time before. Since the nearest pole of this magnet is of the 
' nun« name with the moving pole, the force will consist partly of 
a repiiUion, and partly of a force parallel to the former direction 
of motion, but backwards. This may be resolved inbi a retarding 
force, and a force towards the concave side of the path of the 
nioTing pole. 

667.] Our investigation does not enable ua to solve the case 
ID which the sjBtcm of currents cannot ho completely formed, 
on aoeonnt of a discontinuity or boundary of the conducting 

It is easy to see, however, that if the polo is moving parallel 
to tfae edge of the sheet, the currents on the side next the edge 
will bo enfeebled. Hence the forces due to these currenl^t will 
be lees, and there will not only l>e a smaller retarding force, but, 
since the repulsive force is Icaxt on the side next the edge, the pole 
will be attracted towards tbe edge. 

Tieory <^ Araga't Sotating Pist. 

Arago discovered * that a magnet placed near a rotating 
metallic disk experiences a force tending to make it follow the 

T 2 



motion of the disk, altbongh when the diek is at rest there is 
no nction between it and the ma^i^npt. j^m 

This action of a rutatinf; disk was nttrihated to a new kin^^ 
of induced m^>netization, till Faraday ■* expluned it by means «f 
thtt electric cinrcntii induced iu thv disk on account of ite motion 
throogh the field of muf^netic f<irce. 

To dctcitninc Uie diiitrlbution of these induced correntd, and 
thi-ir i-fTrat on the magnet, we might mske uw of the results nlready 
found fur a conducting sh^t at rest aot^d oil hy a moving magnet, 
Bvatling ourselvM of the method given tn Art. 600 for trcatin<^ th* 
electromagnetic equatiouH when referred to mnring Gystcms of axes- 
Aa this case, however, has a special importance, wu shall treat it 
in a direct manner, beginning by assuming that the [Kilos of the 
magnet are so far from the ed^ of the disk that the effect of tb 
limitation of the conducting sheet may be neglected. 

Making use of the same notation as in Uio [ii«ceding article 
(556-667), we lind for the components of the electromotive 
parallel to x and y respectively, 

a« = 

dx J<(f 

where y in the reeolred part of the nugnetic force normal to tkc disk.] 
If we now express « and c in terms of ^, the current-functioB, 

aod if the disk is rotating about the axis of t with the angular 
«lodty w, ^_„. ^ 

^=„,, ^ = -«jr. 

Substituting these values in e<]uation8 (1 ), we (ind 
dd, d^ 


Moltipl^'ing (4) by e and (5) by jr, and adding, we obtsiii 

Multiplying (4) by jr and (5) by —*, and adding, we obtain 
d^ _ d^ diff il<fi 


/ dib (lA. d<b d<li 

df^ dy 

• £r^ Ra, gl. 




ar~- = 

It we DOW express tbeae equatioQs ja tetats of r and 6, where 

2! = r COB 9, ^ = r sin $, (6) 

hey become a -^= ymr'—r -^, (9) 

Eqaation (10) is sntisfied if we nseumo imy arbitrary function ^ 
br r and 9, and make j. __ ^X 


tibetitatin^ these values in eqimtion (9), it becomes 

Dividing by vr', and restoring the coordinates « and y, tliit 
|>eoome8 ''"x . ''^X _ " /,^i 

This is the fundamental equation of the theory, and expresses thu 
elatjon between the function, x- and the component, y, of the mag- 
letic force resolved normal to the disk. 

Let Q be the potential, at any point on the positive ade of the 
iflk, doe to imaginary matter distribut«d over the disk with the 
ar&ce^ennty x> 

At the positive stirfacc of the disk 

f = -2.x. (15) 

HflOOe tlic first m«-mber of equation ( 1 4) becomes 

di^^ df~ 2-niiz War* df-) ^"' 

Bab Mice Q ssitisfieii Iia])Iace'a equatioa at all points external 
|o the disk, d^,'PQ__d^ .... 

dx* ^ dg' ~ -'^ ' ^"f 

lud equation (H) become* 




Again, eince Q i» the potential due to the distribution Xi the 

otentiol due to the distribution A, or -}~,w)Ube -^. From this 

(19 off 

obtain for the magnetic potential due to the currents in the disk, 





. ..wortw force uoimal to tbc diik 


■ M>(Aiti*' due to external inag^et«, and 






. oaMCtic force norina] t« the disk due to 


_ -j^^oHion (18), remembering that 

y = Yi + yi' 

iiri« '"''' "^T*^ *o '' *'*^ writinj J for — . 


L^ of /" a"^ Q ^"^ expr«scd in tcnns of r i 
If '''^^^^jjwdiak, f and f two new vnriablca buc^ 
t^ J? 

the dis 
sueb tlwt 

.f =.-?., 

. j«it becotoMi '»y integration with reep«ct to f, ■ 

IV form of this cxprcwton taken in coi^unetion with lb« 
^Tj nf Art- fi^^ Bbrn'H fJiat Uic nmgnetio action of the currcnl^l 
"^ ilUk )B ^oi'">'^'>^ to thai of a trail of images of the 
" fid errteitt in the form of a helix. 

i*"^. _ggneti« iTBtem connete of « single magnetic pole of 
" . ynitr, '1"^ beWi n-ill lie on the cylinder whoso axis is 


tjve eofl» of tte helix, will I>e 2w — . The magnetic effect of 

jl „iil be the Mune a« if thi» bclix had been magnetized 

uhew '° '''^ direction of a tangent to the cylinder perpen- 

^ ' Ur to it" '^^^ ^'^^ "^ intensity such tltat the magnetic moment 

'*■ j^ftll jmriion ia namerically equal to the length of its - 

- -rttem in the form of a helix. 



""the disk. The dixtanoe, parallel to the axis between oon- 

. unitV '"'' uciii ntti iiv vu lUB uj iiuutT miHSJu aj.ta i 

***** f the di*It, ""d which parses through the magnetic pole^ 
""^ ■■ ^ij] begin at the pMition of the optical tmaiire of tli^J 



The ealeulntion of the efft-ct on the magnetic pole would be 
jmplicateJ, but it is easy to eeo that it will consist of — 

(1) A (inigging force, piirallcl to the direction of motioD of 
the disk. 

(2) A repulsive ffTce Bcting from the disk. 

(3) A force towards the axis of the disk. 
Wbon the pole is near the edge of the disk, the third of theae 

jrvGS niny be overcome by the force towards the edge of the disk, 
adicatcd in Art. 667. 
All these forces were observed byArago, and described by him in 
Annales ile CA'imk for 1826. See aUo Folici, io Tortolini's 
fyna/ji, iv, p. 173 (1853), and v, p. 35; and E. Jochmann, in Cretlta 
\jounial, Ixiii, pp. 158 and 320; and Pogg. Ann. cxiij, p. 2U 
[1864). In the latter paper the enuations necessary for deter- 
mining the induction of the currents on themselves arc given, but 
Itliis part of the action is omitted in tlie snhsequent calculution uf 
suite. The method of images given here was published in the 
^roceedinga of the Rogal Socictj/ for Feb. 15, 1872. 



Sjiheritat Cun«nt-Sieet, 

670.] Let ^ be the current-function at any point Q of n spherical 
cnrrent-sheet, and let P be the po- 
tential at a given point, due to a 
sheet of imoginarj' matter distributed 
over the sphere with BDrfacc-density 
^, it is required to find the magnetic 
potential and the vcctor-iiotontial of 
the enrrcnt-shect in terms of P. 

Let a denote the radius of the 
sphere, r the distance of the given 

int from the centre, and jn the 
reciprocal of the distance of the given point from the point § on 
the sphere at which the current-function is 0. 
I The action of the current-sheet at any point not in its substance 
is identical witli that of a magnetic shell whose strength at any 
point is numerically equal to the current-function. 

The mutual ])otential of tlie magnetic shell and a unit pole placed. 
at the point P is, by Art 410, 

Fig. S». 



Since/' is a homogeneous function of the degree — 1 in r aad it, 
da dp 

dp id , . 

Since r nod a are constant throughout the surfivce-iDtc^nttion, 

But if P is the potential du« to » sheet of imaginaiy mat 
of surface-demity A, _ rr 

and £1, the mn<>nciie [)otcntia1 of the cnrrcnt-sheet, maj be < 
in terms of i' in the form 

671.] We may determine F, the e-componont of the rectc 
potential, from the expressioa given in Art. 116, 


where f, •?. C are the coordinates of the element dS, and l,m,nue 
the direction-coBines of the normal. 
Since the aheet is a sphere, the direcUoa<oo«aes of tlie notmal an 


BI = 



so that 

~ adf a3t' 

multiplying hy ^dS, and integrating over the aurfaoe of the sphere, 
we find F-i^^y^^. 




adx a dy 

The vector SI, whose componentfi arc F, 0, U, ie cnJontly pcr- 
cular to the rntliue vector r, and to the vector whoso oom- 

jpoaents *^ j~ > -r- > ^i^ -7- ■ If we determine the lines of inter- 

[SectioDs of the sphericAl surraco whoso nidiuB is r, with tho strict of 
[ equipotontiul surfuees corrvspondJDf* to Tnlues of P tu arithmcttoiil 
tprof^rcssion, these lines will iaclicat'i by their diniction tlie direction 
of 91, and by their proximity the mnjpiitudc of this vector. 
Id the language of Quateniions, 

81 = i FpVP. 

672,] If wc assume as the value of /' within the ephere 

\ where I'f i< a Bpherical harmoQic of degree i, then out«ide the sphere 
"Die curreni-fuiiction ^ is 
The magnetic potential n-ithia the sphere is 

example, lot it be required to produce, by means of a wire 
coiled into the form of a spherical shell, a uniform magnetic force 
a within the shell. The magnetio potential within the shell is, in 
Khia CMO, a solid harmonic of the first d^ree of the form 

, where Jf is the magnetic force. Ileooe A = (d'^, and 

<f = -— 3faooB9. 

^0 current-function is therefore proportional to the distance 
I from the equatorial pbtne of the sphere, and therefore the number 
of windings of the wire between any two small circleii muHt be 
. proxwrtional to the distance between the planes of these circles. 



If jV is the wbolc Dumber of windings, and if y is the strei 
of tbc current in each winding, 

<f,= J.Vyooefl. 
Hence t]ic magnetic force witliin the coil ia 

3 a 

678.] Let us next find the method of coiling the wire in older 
to produce within the sphere a magnetic potential of the form of a 
solid zonal liarmonic of the second degree, 

Here * = ^|(Sco8"tf-J). 

If tho whole number of windings le iV^, the number between the 
pole und the polar distance 6 is \Ns\a*$, 

The windinirs aro closest at latitude 45°. At (he oqitator t! 
direction of winding changes, and in tho other hemiiipbcre t! 
windings arc io the contrary direction. 

liet y hv the strength of the current io the wire, tlicn vn 
the shell 4 « r3 

Let us now consider a conductor in the form of a plane c1 
curve placed anywhere within the shell with its plane perpendic: 
to the axis. To determine its coefficient of induction we have 

find the surface-integral of — -t- over the pbine bounded by the 
curve, putting y=l. 

Now ll=_iJi^f(^_i{^+y^), 

and J- = n " «• 

as 6a' 

Henoc, if ^ is tJte are* of the closed curve, its ooefScient of in- 

duetioo ia a. 

If the current in this conductor is >', there will be, by jVrt 563, 
a force H, urging it in tho direction of e, where 

^=yy-5^ = _A^5yy, 


and, since this is independent of r, y, t, the force is the some ia 
whatever part of the shell the circuit is placed. 
G74.] The method givm by Poisson, and dMcribed in Art. H 

UNSAS cmiREjrr-pnircTiOir. 


may bo applied io current-slieeta by substituting: for the body 
supposed to be wDiformly magnetized in the direction of s with 
intcnBily /, u cnrrcnt-sbeut having the fonu of its surface, and for 
whioh the currfiiit-fiinctiori is d> = Is. (1) 

[ The current* in tlie whuct will bo in pianos parallel to that of jy, 
and tbc strength of the current round a slice of thickness dx will be 

The mngnctic potential due to this cnrreot-flbcct at any point 

i outside it will be 


At any point inside tbc sheet it will be 

The components of the vector-potential art! 






These reeults can be applied to several cases occurring in pnotioft. 

676.] (l) A plane electric circuit of any form. 

Let r be the potential due to a plane sheet of any form of which 
the surface-density is unity, then, if for this sbi-ct we sulistitute 
cither A magnetic sheli of strength / or an electric current of 
strength / round its boundary, the values of il and of F, ff, II will 
be tltotie given above. 

(2) For a solid sphere of radius a. 

~ 4 »r a* , , , 

^ = -^ — when r i» greater than a, 

and F= -5- (3 a' — r*) when r is less than a. 


Hence, if such a sphere is magitclized parallel to ; with intensity 
I, the magnetic potential will he 




11 = -^I ~iS outside the sphere, 

D = — - /? inside the sphi-re. 

If, instead of being magnetized, the sphere is coiled with wire 
in e^nidiotAnt circles, the total strength of current between two 
small eirclci! whofc planes arc at unit distance being /, then outside 
the sphere tbc value of U is as before, but within the siihere 

fi=-^/,. (9) 

I This is the cn»e already discussed in Art. 6T2. 




(3) The case of an ellipsoid noUormty ma^etiz«) parallel to 
« giv«D lin« liiu been discussed in Art. 437. 

If the ellipitftid is coiled tvitk wire in parallel and cqnidistul 
planes, tbe magoetic force within the ellipsoid will bo antform. 

(4) A C^linilrk Magnet ttr SoUaatd. 

676.] If the body itt a cylinder hnrin^ any fonn of section ind 
bounded by pliincs ]>erpen(liGular to ii« generating lines, a&d 

if l\ ig the potential at the point («, ^, r) due to a plane area <J 
euriaci.'Hleusity unity coinciding with the pontive end of tliv 
soteuoid, and Y.^ the pot-uutial at the wanie point due to a plane am 
of snTface-dertsity unity coinciding with the negative end, then, if 
tbe cylinder is uniformly and longitudinally magnetized with in- 
tensity unity, the potential at Uie point (j, _jf, c) will bo 

n = r,-r.. (lo) 

If the cylinder, instt^d of being a magnetized body, ts nniformly 
lapped with wire, so that tbere are m windings of wire in unit 
of length, and if a current, y, is ma<le to (low tlirougb ttus wire, 
the magnetic potential outside the solenoid is as before, 

ii = «y(r,-r,), (II), 

but witbinthe space houoded by the solenoid and its plane ends 

ii = ny{-4iir+r,-r,). (la) 

Tlie magnetic potential is discontinuons at tbe plane ends of t^Hi 
solenoid, but the magnetic force is continuous. 

If r,, r,, the distanoes of the centres of inertia of the positive 
and negative plane end respectively from the point (*, y, r), are 
very great compared with the tranavene dimensions of tbe solenoid, 

we may wnte 

" \ — — . 


where A is the area of either section. 

The magnetic force ontaude the solenoid is therefore vety small, I 
and the force inside the solenoid approximate^ to a foroe parallel to ' 
the axis in the positive direction and e<iual to \xny. 

If tbe section of the solenoid is a circle of radios a, the Talue* of I 
r^ and r, may be expressed in the sertea of splierioal harmonics 
given in Thomson and Tait's }!edural PkUoto^/tg, Art. 546, £x. 11^ 




In Uiwe expTcsnoQs r » tlie distance of the point (x, y, z) fr&m 
ae centre of one of ttie circular endn of the solenoid, and the uioul 
irmonica, /*, , P^ , &c., are those corresponding to the an^le $ which 
mftlccs frith the nxie of the cylinder. 

The lint of these espressions is diseontinnous when = -^ bat 

ve must rcmetober that within the Golenoid wo must add to the 
oa^ctjo force deduced from this expression a longitudinal force 

677.] Let us now consiiler a solenoid so long that in the part 
'of space whicli we consider, the terms depending on the distance 
^Jrom the ends may ho neglected. 

H[ The magnetic induction through any closed curve drawn within 
^Rhe solenoid is ■i unyA', where A' is the area of the projection of 
^■Ihe curve on a plnne noruinl to the axis of the solenoid, 
^1 If the closed curve is outside the solenoid, then, if it encloses the 
^bolenoid, the magnetic induction through it is \TsiiyA, where A is 
^M;he area of the section of the solenoid. If the closed curve does not 
surround the solenoid, tJie magnetic induction through it is zero. 

If a wire be wound n' times round the solenoid, the ooefficient of 
ioductioQ between it and the solenoid is 

M= \isnn'A. (!6) 

By supposing these windings to coincide with n windings of the 
we find that, the coefiicient of self- induction of unit of 
th of the soleuoid. taken at a sufQcieut distanoc from it« eix- 
emities, is L = 4ir»M. (17) 

Near the ends of a solenoid we must take into account the t«rms 
Jepending on the imaipnar^' dixtribution of magnetism on the plane 
ends of the solenoid. The efFuct of these terms is to muke the co- 
efficient of induction between the i^olcnoid and a circuit which sur- 
rounds it le«>< than the value 4 n n J, which it has when t)ie circnit 
sumnndw a very long solenoid at a great distance from eitlier end. 
H Let as take the case of two circulur and coasal solenoids of the 
^^Binie length /. Let the rudius of the outer solenoid Ite c-^, and let 
it be wound with wire k» a? to hnvc i] windings in unit of length, 
let the radius of llic inner solenoid be r,, and let the number of 
indings in unit of length be n^, then the coelTicient of induction 
between the solenoids, if we neglect the eflcct of the ends, is 

U=Gg, (18) 

'wh«Te = lirn,, (I9) 


y = nc//»j. 





678.] To (Ictcniune th« oflect of the positn-c «nd of the soleooiib 
we mu»t caloulatu the cucfTicicnt of mduction on the outur sol«no«l 
due to the oircular disk which forni* the wivd of Uie iuo»r solenoi 
For thisi purpose ne take the tecond expression for F, as givei 
in ^Illation (15), and diOerentiale it with reapect to r, tb'u ^ 
the magnetic forco in the dirootiou of the radius. We then muJtipljr 
this Gxpressioa by ivr^dfi, and inti^rate it with reepeot to/i from 

u = 1 to u = - , _ ■ — . Tins {fives th« coefllcieDt of induetioa 

with T«spcct to a single winding of the oater eolenotd ut a distsncr 
t from the positive end. We then multiply this by ^h acid 
integn>t« with respect to t from i = I to « = 0. Rnally, we 
multiply tho result by Wjij, and so find the elTect of one of the 
«nd« in diminishinfj the coefficient of induction. 

We thii!! find for tlie vidno of the coefficient of mutual indue 
betwocu the two eylinder», 

c,+/— r_ 

.where a = 4 

2.4 2.3 c,*'- "t'^ 

1.S.5 1 c,*/ 1 „p,* . 6V\ 0. ISS 

where r is put, for brevity, instead of •/t^^ c,*. 

It appciars from this, that in calculating the mutual induction 
two coaxal solenoids, wo must use in the expression (20) instead of 
the true length I the corrected length ^— 2e,<i, in which a portion 
eqtial to aOj is supposed to bo cut olT at each end. When the 
solenoid is very long compared with it« external nulius, 





679.] When a solenoid consists of a number of layers of wire of 
8uch a diameter that there are n layers in unit of length, thi 
number of layers in the thiokoess Jr is ndr, and we have 


0=4-aJn''dr, and y = ■wtjn'r*4r. 

, tii^ 

If the thickness of the wire is constant, and if the induction take 
place between an external coil whose outer and inner radii are » and 
V respectively, and an inner coil whose outer and tooor radii are 
f and r, then, neglecting the edect of the ends, 

(?, = j^/V«.'('-f)U*-'')- 



iKOtrcnoif ooiL. 


^TI>at thi« may bo ft mtucimiini, x nod s I>eing given, and y 
riabl«, , -» 

• = 0-4p- (20) 

This (-qHation gives the beat rclitUon between the depths of the 
pritnary and M->ci>n<Iury coil for SD induction- machine without an 
iron core. 

If there is an iron core of mdios ;, llien Q remains oe before, but 




f ^ is 'giren, the value of t which gives the iDaximnis value of ^ is 

Vhen, as in the case of iron, « U a hirge number, z = ij, nearly. 

If we BOW make x constant, and y and : variable, we obtain the 
maximum value of Gy whea 

z : f : g : : i : 3 : 2. (30) 

The coefficient of )>clf-in<Iuction of a long solenoid wbottc outer 
Rod inner radii arc « and y, and having a long iron core whoM 
nkdins is f , is per nnii length 

4ir/"'j«;/'«'(p« + 4nKa«)rf7-+»//*V(^-f4ff«f')rfrj«»rfp, 

= §7i''/«*(j--f)»(«" + 2«y + 3/ + 2<jr«.-*). (31) 

680.] We have hitherto supposed the wire to bo of nnirorm 
thkkncxti. Wo shall now determine the law according to which 
the thiekn»N muRt vary in the dintTent layers in order that, for 
a given value of the resistance of the primary or the twcondar^' coil, 
tlie value of tiie coefficient of mtitunl induction may be a maximum. 
Let the leaistAnce of unit of lengtli ofa wire, ttuch that h windings 
occupy unit of length of the solenoid, be p»'. 
The reoEtoDce of tJie whole solenoid i* 

R^%itlj«*rdr. (82) 

Thecondition that^ with a given value of A, Onuiy boa maximum 



iG ^dR , ^. 
IS -I- = C -T-, where C is some constant. 

This givM ■* proportional to -, or the diameter of the wire of 

the exterior coil must be proportional to tJio square root of tlw 




In order that, for a g'iven ralue of S, g may be a maxinaam 

«. = C(r+i^'). (35, 

Hence, ir there k no iron core, the diameter of the wire of th« 
interior coil thould be inversely as ike sqnare root of tho ntdiu*, 
but if ttiere is a core of iron having: a hig^h capacity for magnet^d 
izalion, tho diameter of the wire should he more nearly dirvdlji 
projwrtional to the square root of the radius of the layer. 

An EndltM Soknoid. 

681,] If a solid he generated by the revolution of « plane ana . 
about an axis in ibs own phino, not cutting it, it will hare tlie fovm 
of a Ting. If this rinj* be coiled with wiro, tio that tho winding 
of thv coil are in planes jutesing: through the axiv of the ring^, then, 
if B is the whole number of wLndings, the current-function of the 


layer of wire is ^ = -— nyd, where $ is the angle of aximuth about 

the axis of the Hog. 

If £1 is the magnetic potential inside the ring and ii' that ou 
side, then £l-a'=-iint>+C = —2nye + C. 

Outside the Hng, A' must satisfy Laplace's equation, and must 
vanish at an in6nite distance. From the nature of tlie problem 
it must be a fanotion of only. Tlie only value of 12' which folGls 
these couditioDS is xcro. Hence 

C=0, U = -2ay^+C. 

The magnetic force at any point within the ring i* perpendicular 

to the plane passing through the axis, and is equal to 2 ay-, 

where r ie the distance from the axis. Outside the ring there la 
DO magnetic force. 

If the form of a closed curve be given by the coordinatee z, r, 
and of its tracing point as functions of t, its length &ODt a fixed 
point, the magnetic induction through the closed curve may be 
found by integration round it of the vector potential, the com- 
ponents of which are 






We thus find 



I ' J-* 
.'ft f as 

taken round Uie curve, provided the curve is wholly inside the ring. 



^■f the curve lies wholly without the ring', bat embraces it, the 
HvDig7>eiio iDdnction through U is 


I' tt aini 


rherc the accpnted ooordinntes rofer not to the closed carve, but to 
. singte wiiKling of the solenoid. 

Tlie magnetic induction through tmy closed curve embrftcing the 
ring is therefore the same, and equal to 2nya, where a is the linear 

rif .' J/ 
qoantitj i ^ -7-, A*. If the closed curve does not embrace Uie 

ring, the magnetic induction through it is zero. 

Let a second wire be coiled in any manner round the ring, not 
necessarily in contact with itv so as to embrace it m' times. The 
induction through this wire is 2n it'ya, and thereibre 3t. the 
coefficient of induction of the one coil on the other, 10 ^=2Hn'a. 

Since this is <|U)te independent of the particular form or position 
of the second wire, the wires, if traversed by electric curreDte, will 
rienc« DO mechanical force acting between them. By making 
fthc second wire coincide with the first, we obtjtia for the coefficient 
Wf-induction of the ring-coil 

Z = 2a*(i. 



Cylindrkat Omduetori. 

682.] In a very importimt cla&s of eltctriciil arrang«menta th« 
current is conducted tliroU):fti round wires of nearly uniform aection, 
Mild fillier straight, or mch that the radius of curvature of the axi< 
of the n ire is ver\' ^real coin|iarnd with the radius of the trstuveisA 
Mwtion of the nire. In order to be prepared to deal mathematically 
with such arrangements, we shall begin with the case in which the 
circuit couBists of two very long parallel conductors, with two pioM* 
joining their end^ and we slial) confine our attention to a part of 
the circuit which ia so lar from the ends of tlie conductors that the 
fiict of their not being infinitely long does not introduce any 
sensible change in the distribution of force. 

We shall take the axis of i parallel to the direction of the con- 
ductors, then, from the syrometr}' of the arraugements in the part 
of the field oonitiderod, everything will depend on U, the comi>oaent 
of the vector- potential parallel to :. 

The components of magnetic indactioo become, by equattona (A), 

.4J. <■) 

For tlie sake of generality we vhnT) f^ppose the co^cient t 
mugnetie induction to be fi, so that o =^a, i = p,fi, where a and 
nre the compoucnts of the magnetic force. 

The equations (E) of de«tri« carrents. Art. 607, give 



STRAIOnT vritB. 

688.] irUie outTvnt ix a fiinotiua of*-, the di»t»Doc from tho axU 
^of ;, «ud if we wrilv 

x = rcosO, and y^raaff, (4) 

I And ;S for the magiietie force, iu the direction in wliicli $ is nica»urcd 
1 pvqicudiculur to the plani; througt tLe axis of ;, we have 

--^.^. = ^^(^0. 


If C is tho whole current flowing tlirougli a section bounded by 

[s circle in the plunc xy, whose centre is tlic origin and whoso 

Tiiditis is r, f 

C= I 2Trrii)dr = \^r. (ii) 

It appears, thcreforo, thut the magnetic force iit a given point 
due lo a current nrnmged iu cyliiulrieid »trula, whose common axis 
i» the axis of i, deiwnds only oii the tuUil slreiigtli of the uiirreut 
flowing through the strata which lie between the given point and 
the axia, and not on the diiitribution of the current among the 

» different cyliudrical strata. 
For instance, let the conductor le a uniform wire of radius a, 
and let the total current through it be C, then, if the current is 
Dnifortnly distributed tJtrough all parts of the section, w will be 
oooBtant, and 6' = u len*. (") 

llie current flowing through a circular section of radius r, r being 
|l(t8B than a, is C'= itior-. Ilcnce at any point within the wire, 

lOatside the wire 

/5 = 2 



In the subetanc« of the wire there ie no magnetic potential, for 
Ewttliin a conductor carrying an electric current tho magnetic force- 
not fulfil the condition of having a potential. 
Outeido tho wire the magnetic potential is 

il=~2C0. (10) 

Let ns guppoBC that instead of a wire the conductor is a metal 
tub« whose externa] and internal radii are tij and a^, then, if C is 

Khe current through the tubular conductor, 
%« magnetic force within the tube is zero, 
tube, where r is between a, and ■>,, 

In the metal of tli« 


\ 1 




and oataide the tube, 



the same as wheo the ciirrent flows thronffh n solid wire. 

684.] The magnetic induction at any point i« ^ = n^, and siacv, 
by equation (2), rf/f 

Tb« Taloe of 11 onteide the tube is J 

A~2^,C\ogr, (uy 

nhcre ^ i^ the value of^L in tlif space outnide the tub4>, and Ai» t 
constant, tho value of which dopeuds on the pontioD of the return 

In Uic tubstanee of the tube, 

Ib the space within the tube // i* constant, and 

II=A-2^Chgc,+^C{l+^^,\os^^- (IB) 

685.] Let the circuit be completed by a return curront, flowing 
in a tube or wire {nrallol to the first, the axes of the tn-o currents 
b«ing at a dieitanei' i. To determine the kinetic cnci]gy of tht^ 
i>yst«m we have to catcuUU; the integral 

T= \jjJH«dsdyd:. (19) 

If we confine our attention to that pari of the system which lies 
IwtwMUi two planes perpendicular to the axes of the conductors, and 
distant / fron each other, the expression becomM ^ 

T=\lfJHKd^dg. (80) 

If we diKtinj^ish by an accent the quantities belonging to the 
return current, we may write this ^ 

^ =JJirti^d^dy+JJja'icdrjf + jj Bwd^dg+jJH'm'djr^/. (sip 

Since the action of the current on any point outside the tabe is 
the tame ait if Uie Kiinie current had been concentrated at th« axis 
of the tube, the mwiii value of ff for the section of the return 
current w A—'2iJyC\ogb, a»d the mi.-«n valoe of H' for the sectioa 
of the iKisitivt' current i« A'—2^„C\vgh. 



llence, io the expression for T, the first two terniB may be writt«o 

InteiiTatiii^ the two lattvr terms in the onliunry way. nn^l lulding 
tlie resulte, remembfritijy that C+C'= 0, wo obuiii t!i« valuo of 
the kiiiotic enei^gy T. Writing: this k^C^, whoru /- u th« co- 
L-fBvit-nt of solf-imluetion of the syBtem of two cmduuton, we find 
lU Die value of £ for unit of letigtb of the eyctem 

+ 1*^17^=^ + 






'1— "«- «^-<')^ 

If tbe eondtictors ftre solid wires, a.^ and ^/ arc zero, nod 

r /a 

-j- = 2^ol"8 7V' +i(M + f')- 
* a, a, 

It is only in the case of iron wires that we need take account of 
the monetae induction in calcuUtinpf thi-ir gclF-induction. In 
other casce we may make ^, ft, nud (i nil oqual to unity. The 
smaller the radii of the win^s, und tlic greater the diatttnce between 
them, the greater is the self-induction. 

To/nd (ht Sepnl^oH, X, betioeen the Two Portions o/ Win. 
08C.] By Art. S80 we obtain for the force tending to increase b, 

= 2f*ojC», (24) 

wbic^ Sf^rees with AmpireV formnta, when >/, = 1, as in air. 

<J87.] If the k-u^lh of the wires is great compared with the 
distance between tbem, we may use the coefficient of self-induction 
to<;rmi&c (h« tension of the wires arising from the action of the 

If ^ M tlii< tension, 



= C»j^.^^ + f 


In one of Ampere's experiments the pAnillcl conductors coDsiBt 
of two troughs of mercury connected with each other by a fioating 
bridge of wire. When a current is made to enter at the extremity 
of one of the troughs, to flow along it till it reaches one extremity 




of the floating wire, to pnat ioto the otb«r trou'^h through liic 
floatincf bridge, ttod »o to return tioog tfae second trough, Ibc 
flontiag bridge moves a\nng the troaghs so as to leogthfio tb« part 
of th« mercoiy traversed by the cnrrent, 

Profcasor Tmit tios simplified the electrical conditionft of thii 
cxpcnmviit hy substituting for the vrirt- a Hooting siptinn of gls» 
filled wilh morcury, eo Uiat the current flows in mercury thron 
otft ita course. 

This experiment ie sometimes adduced to prove that two clemcntA 
of A current in the same Btraight line rejicl one another, and Uidb 
to shew that Ampere's formula, which indicates snob a repulrion 
of colIincfirelemcDtd, is more correct lliunthat of Orasamann, which 
gives no action between two eiemcnltt in the tame straight line 
Art. 526. 

Bnt it is manifo^ that since the formulae both of Anipire and of 
Gmsbmann give the same results for closed cireuitii, and since n* 
have in the experiment only a closed circuit, no result of tie 
experiment can favour one more than the other of these theoriet. 

In fact', both formulae lead to the very same value of the 
repulnon as that alrouly given, in which it appears that i, tli« 
diMtiince between the parallel conductors, U an imiwrtant element. 

When the length of the conductors i« not very gn-at com 
with their divlance ajiart., the form of tlie valia- of li beooi 
tomewhat more complicated. 

688.] As the distance between the conductors is diminished, 
value of L diminisheis. The limit to this diminution is when the 
wires are in contact, or when It » a,+a^'. In this case 




I fThia IB a minimum wh«n Hj = u,', and Uicn 

K L=2l(\og4 + \). 

^^^ =2/(1.8863), 

HH 3.7726^. (27) 

V^rtiiB is the smallest \a\ac of the Reir-iDduclion of n round wire 

Hdoubled on itself, the whole len^h of the wire bein^ 2 /. 

f Since the two parts of tJie wire must he inxulal^d from each 
other, the Gelf-indnetiou can never actually reach thin limiting 
value. Ry using hrood tkt strips of metal instejul of round ww» 
the self-induction msty be diminished inde&nitely. 

Oh tie EUeiromoiive Force required to produee a Current <f Faryiny 
Intfiui^ ahiig a Cylindrkal Condactor. 

68D.] When the current in a wire is of varying intensity, the 
ive force arifiing from the induction of the current on 
' is different in different part« of the section of the wire, being' 
general a function of the distance from the axis of tlie wire 
I as well as of the time. If vre suppose the cylindrical conductor 
Lto consist of a bundle of wire« all forming part of the same circuit, 
ISO tliat Uic current it compelled to be of uniform strength in every 
part of the si^cticn of the bundle, the method of calculation which 
_ we have hitherto ui>cd would be strictly applicable. If, howcwr, 
f we consider the cylindricnl conductor as a solid ma«i« in which 
electric currents arc free U> flow in obetlience to electromotive force, 
tlie mtcnaity of the current will not be the same wt different 
didtances from the axis of the cylinder, and the clectrom<itivo fonrCK 
tlicmselvos will dt^pend on the diittribution of the current in the 
different cyiiodric strata of the wire. 

The vector-potential //, the density of the current », and the 
electromotive force at any point, must be considered as fiinctions of 
the time and of the distance from the axis of the wire. 
n Tlie total current, C, through the section of the wire, and the total 
BiJcctromotive force, E, acting round the circuit, are to be regarded 
Vm the variables, the relation between which we have to find. 
^^^Irtt US assume as the value of //, 

■K n=$+T,+ T,r' + kc. + T,r'', (I) 

'^^Sere S, T^, T„ &c. are functions of tb6 time. 
Then, Ihmi the equation 

d*H IHH , ,„, 

_. + j-^=_4,«. (2) 

we find -UK = 7', + &c-|-»'r.H-'. (31 




If p deDotw tlie specifio rciii»taDoo of the 8uh«tatM!e per mit of 
volume, the elect roniotive for«e at any jo^int in p t, und this quj- Ik 
ex)>re«iH>d in U'rmij of the «l«otric poteiitiul oiid Uie vector pot«a^ 
7/ bv cquutioDs (B), Art. 598, 



Comparing the cocffiine&ta of like powers of r in eqnatioos 

{5} and (5), 

it ^ 

* as dT„. 

^^- P dt ' 

^" pn' dl 

Hence wc mnj' write 




I ^r 



600.] To find the toUt current (7, we muet integrate to over tbe ^ 
twclion of the wire whose radius is a, 1 




Suhstitnting th« v&lue of v lo front eqnation {9}, we obtain 

C = -(7',a<+&o. + »7',fl"*). (12) 

1'^ie value of H lit any point outside iJie wire dcpendtt only oB 
the total currpnt C, nnd not on the mode in which it is Uislrihuted 
within the wire. lU'Dce we may assume that the vxliie of //at the 
nurlace of the wire is AC, where A ia ^ constant to be det«nniDed 
liy calculation from the general form of the circuit. Vatimgtt = AC 
when r = B, wc obt^ti ^ 

AC=Si■T^ + T^a* + &c. + T,a^^. (13^ 

If we now write = «, a is Uie value of tlie conductivity of_ 

anit of length of the wire, and we have 
dT 2b* rf>7" 

«o" rfT 



d'T . a' dT , . 




To eliminato T from thcae cqiuitioue wc mast Gnt reverse the 
^Beriee (14). Wo thus find 



+ rfi«'»'^-fVA«'"^f&c. 

4t ^'"rf/ '" ^/» 

W« have bJbo rroio (tl] and (15) 

Prom the la«t two eqiiationB we find 

.dC dS 


-^) + '^+*°S?-tV'^ 

dt dt 


■^^ ■ ^'^^^..^O.^ 

+ A-V*»''' rfT* 

■ If/ is the wliolu length of the circuit, R its resiiitance, and E the 
H electromotive force due to other cnuscs tliaa the induction of the 
KxorreDt on itself, dS E I 




The 6r9t term, RC, of the right-hand member of this eqaation 
expresees tlie electromotive force rei^uired to overcome the reeist- 
I aace according to Ohm's law. 

The second term, l{A + i) -^, expresses the electromotive force 


[ which nrould he employed in increasing the electrokinetae momentum 

the circuit, on the hypothestK that the current is of uniform 

th at every iKiint of the section of the wire. 

Tlie remaining terms express the correction of this value, arising 

lUw f»ct thut the current is not of uniform strength at diiferetit 

from tlic axis of the wire. The actual B3-«tcm of current* 

\h»a a greater degree of freedom than the hypothetical syrtem, 

in which the current is constrained to he of uniform streugth 

throughout the section. Hence the electromotive force required 

Bto produce a rapid change in tlie strength of the current is some* 

H what less than it would he on thix hypntlieHia. 

H The relation between the time-integral of tlie electromotive force 

H«nd the time-integral of the current is 

fEdl = njcdi + / ( J + i) c- A ^ ^ + &c. (1 9) 

IT th« cnneot before the beginiung of the time has a constant 


vaiuc C^, and ir daring the tiiufi it rises to Hic vnliic C, , and ny 
nmiDB coDNtnnt nt Ihnt vuluc, then the t«nDfi involving tite dtfler- 
ential coeflicivittn of C vanUh at both limits, And 

fEdi = R fcJl+l{A + J) {Ci-Ct), («J 

tlie cuat value of the eleL-tromotirc impolse u if the curreDt had 
been uniform Ihroujjhout th« wire. 

0« Ue Geometrifal MeaH Dislaxee y Tko Ttgarea in a Plaiu* 

fiftl.] Til oalciilaling the plectromnfrn'^tic action of n current 
flowing; in a ctriiijrlit conductor of any gircn soction on the current 
in ft purallel conductor vrhoKc locution is also given, wv bavi; to find 
the intejrral CCiT 

where Jxiiy in an ot«nient of tlie area of tbe first sectioD, i*'^ 
uo element of the second section, and r tbe distance between 
thctie eI<!Ricnt«, the integration being extended first over every 
element of tbe fint Hcctioii, and then over ever^ element of tbe 

If we now determine a ttne U, sneh that tliis integral is equal to 

A^ A^ log R. 

wbere Ax and A,^ nrx^ the areas of tbe two Reetions, tbe length of fi 
will be the «arnc tvbat'evcr unit of length we adopt, and whatever 
sytttcin of logiirithme wo use. If wo supiiOKC the Mcttomt divided 
into elements of equal nze, then tlic Ingaritlim of B, muIUptied 
hy the number of pairs of cb-menls, will be ei]ual to tlie mm 
of the logarithms of the diittaiK'eif of all tbe pairs of elements. 
Here R mny be considemd a» the geometrieal idcad of all tJie 
distances hetwcca pnirK of clement*. It is evident that the valoe 
of R must be intermediate between tbe gteateet and the least 
values of r. 

If R4 and Hg are tbe geometric mean distances of two fig1lre^ 
A and B, from a third, C, and if Rji*a is that of tbo sum of tbe twe 
figures from C, then 

{A+B) log Ra^b = J log «^ -tSlogR". 

Hf means of tbis ntlalicm we can determine R for a ofHnpoond 
figure wheo we know R for tbe parts of tbe figure. 

• Trau*. S. B. RU*., l$Tl-9. 






(1) LH R be thi- ni<>-an diKtanoc from the point' to Hic lino 
JS. Lut OP be iwrin-iiJioiiliir lo AB, tbcn 

JJi{\ogIl-H)=AP\og04 + PBhs0S+0PA'0£. 

Fig. 41. 

(2) For two lines(Pig. 42) of longtlis a nnd (> dran'o perpendicu- 
lar to the fixtnrmities of ii line of leiij^li c and on the same eide of it. 
ai{2\ogR + S) = (c»— (<!—«)*) log v'c* + («-4p + c» logc 

— *>(« — iltan-' +act«n"' - + fctiui-' -■ 

^ ' c c e 

Fig «. 

(3) For two lines, PQ and ^5 (Fig, 43), wbo»c directions inter- 

ect at 0. 

'Q.AS(2lo»/f +-3) = \ogPR{20P.ORBia'0-PS*<!o»0) 
+ \ogQS{20<i.OSmn'0~QS*eo90) 
- log PS (zOP.OSsin^ 0~PS»coaO) 

-noo [OJ^.^s-oQ^s^R-t 0R\ p'^q-os'.Ps'q}. 

Fig. IS. 



(4) For a point and » twctongle ABCD (Fig. ii). hoi 
OQ, OR, OSf be pcrpciidicularg on the aides, then 
+ 2. OR. OS l(^ OC-i- 2. OS. OP log OD 
+ OI».D'd'J + OQKjd'B 
+ OR'.Bd'C + OS'.C'd^. 

(5) It is not necessary tbut tlie Iwo figures should be dilTerent, for | 
we may find the geomotric mean of the distanoes between every [air i 
of poiotfi io the soma figtire. Thus, for a ctratght line of Ivngtli a, | 

\oeR = loga—l, 
or R — aa~t, 

S = 0.22313 a. 

(6) For • reutangle whose ddc>e are a aad 6, 

logV? = lDg>/^?T6W^' log/Y^l + ^-i^loff/^r+Jj 

^hen tlic rectangle is a square, whose side i* s, 
log J? = Iog«+l Iog2+ ^-H. 

(7) The geonuttric nicnn distancA of a point from a circular ' 
ie equal to the greater of the two quantities, its tlistance from ' 
centre of the circle, and the radiua of the circle. 

(8) Hence the Reometrio mean distance of any figure frol 
ling l>nund<-d by two concentric circles is equal to its g«ometria 
mean distance from the centre if it is entirely outside the ring, l)ul| 
if it is entirety within tJic ring 



where a, and a, ar« the outer and inner nulii of tLe ring. R is 
in this case independent of tlie form of tb« figtire within the 
(9) The geometric roesn distance of ftll pairs of points in tlw 
ig is found from the equation 

1 n 1 "a* 1 "i ,3a.'— a' 

For a circular area of radius a, this becomes 

]ogi? = logffl-i, 

or R = a«"*, 

R= 0.77«ea. 

For A circulnr line it becomes 

R = o. 

693.] In calculating the coefficient of Eelf-indoctioD of a coll of 
liform M!Ct4on, the radiiiN of curvature being grtiit c^tmparod with 
dimeiwiottt of the tnitiBTer«e section, wc first determine the 
trie mean of the distnuccs of every pair of points of the 
section by tlic method already de8eril>ed, and thcji wc cak-ulste the 
eoeffietent of mutual induction betwrn'm two linear oonducton of 
tlte given forn), phK'ed at thif distance apart. 
B This will Imi the coeffldent of Belf-induction n-ben the total cur* 
rent in the coil is unity, and the current is uniform at all points of 
^^.he section. 

^1 But if tlicre arc n windings in the coU we must multiply the 
^coefficient alre-ady obtained by »", and thus we slinll obtain the 
'floeffldent of self'induction on the supposition that the windings of 

Uie conducting wire fill the whole section of the coil. 
^K But tlie wire is cylindric, and is covered with insulating material, 
'•o that the current, instead of being uniformly distributed over the 
section, is concentrated in certain parts of its and this iooreaaes the 
ooeffioieDt of self-induction. Be«ides tliis, the currents in the 
neigfabooring wires have not the same action on the current in a 
g iyea wire as a uniformly distributed current. 
^B The oorrectiona arising from these considerations may be de- 
^Termined by the melhod of the geometric mean distance. They 
are proportional to the length of the whole wire of the coil, and 
may be expressed as numerical quantities, by which we must 
multiply the length of the wire in order to obtaio the corroctioa 
' coefficient of self-iuduotion. 





Let the diameter of the wina lie d. It is covered with iaffnlatinj; 
EDat«ri»l, ftnd wound ioto a coil. We shftll suppose that tbt 
eectioDs of the wires are in square order, as in Fi^. 4S, and that 
the distance between the axis of each wire and that of the next 
is i>, whether in the direction of the breadth or tiio depth of thr 
coil. J) ie evidently greater than d. 

Wc have first to dc^tcrmiiie the excess of eelf-iDductioo of unit of 
length of a cjlindric iviro of (liamotcr d over that of unit of len^li 
of o fquarc^ wire of side D, or 

. fl for tho square 
^ Jt for the circle 

= 2(logT- + 0.138060fi). 

The inductive action of the eight oea 
round tvires on the wire under consideration 
if loss than tlint of the corrcepondiog eight 
equarc wires on the equaro wire in the miilil 
by 2x(-0197l). 

The corrections for the wires at « greatv 
distance may bo neglected, and the total 
correction may be written 

2 (log, T- + O.I 1835). 

The fionl value of the self-induction is tlierefore 

i= ii»if+2/(log,^ + 0.Il835). 

! II ID the number of windings, and i the length of the 
3f tlie mutual induction of two circuits of the fonn of the mean 
wire of the coil placed at a dintancv R from each other, wbure £ i» 
the mean geometno distance between {lairt of pointa of the •eetion. 
J) n the distance between consecuUre wirea, and d the diameter 
of the wire. 












Fig. 16. 



Magnetic Poienlial due to a Circular Current. 

■J] The tnagnelic j>oU-ntinI nt u given point, due to a circuit 
fing a unit current, t.i iiuincrirally e<junl tn th<.- soliil aogU* «ul>- 
led hy the circuit at tliat point; see Arts. 409, 485. 
When the circuit is circular, the solid angle is that of a cone 
of the second degree, which, when the given point is on the axis 
of the circle, becomes a right cone. When the point is not oa 
the axie, the oone is an elliptic cone, and its solid angle is 
numerically equal to the area of the spherical ellipse which it traces 
on a Bphcre whose radius is unity. 

This area can be expressed in 6nit« terms bj' means of elliptic 
integrals of the third kind. Vfe shall find it more convenient to 
eapand it in the form of an infinite scries of ^hcrical harmonics, for 
the tacility with which mathematical operations may be performed 
on the ^ncral term of such a series 
more than counterbalances the trouble 
of calculating a nunibcr of terms guITi- 
^ont to on«urc practical accuracy. 
■ For the (take of generality wc shnll 
B^nie the origin at. any point on the 
sxif of the circle, that is to sny, on 
tlie line throogh the centre perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the circle. 

Let (Fig. ii) be the centre of the 
circle, C the point on the axis which 
wc assume as origin, II a point on the 

I)«!*crib« a sphere with C as centre, 
and C/l m radius. The circle will lie 

Fig. IS. 

on thia 8ph<rrc. and will form a mnall circle of the sphere of 
M^hur radiuri c. 

[[Mgumr rau 




UA CH=e, 

OC = fi = ««»tt, 
Olf = a = enaa. 

Let A be the pole of the sphere, and Z xay point oa the axis, aaj | 
let CH = .-. 

Let li be any point in epace, and letCS = r, and ACJi = 9. 

Let P be the point where CR cute the eph«re. - 

The magnetic polt'ntial due to the circnlar corrent i» equal to j 
that due to a magnetic Dht-ll of strength unity bounded bj the I 
current. As the form of th« surfacn of tlie shell is indifibnal,! 
providi-d it i« bouuded by tlic circle^ vns may auppOM it to coincide j 
with thi; 8urijivc of the «plicr«. 

Wc have sliewn in Art. 670 that if F ia the potential dne t« a ' 
etratum of inalt«r of «iirfuce- density unity, sprwd over the sar&n 1 
of the sphere within tlie small cirelA, the potential duv to a nu^ | 
Dctic shell of utrcngfth unity and bounded by the same circle is 

Wf liave in the first place, therefore, to find F. 

Lt't the g-iven point be on the axis of the circle at J?, then tbe] 
jiurt of the potential at Z due to an element dS of tlio spheric*!' 
Hurlace at /* is JS 


Thia may be expanded in one of tlie two serioa of spberictl huA 
monius, AS f a ^ i 

or :^|7>„+P,f +&c. + i»,^+&c.j, 

the first scries being convergent when 2 is leas than e, and tlie 
second when x is greater than «, 

Writing dS = — c> dp.d<^, 

and inlcgrating with respect to ift between the limits and 2ff, 
and with respect to li bettreeo the limits cosa and I, we find 


'"=2»~jy*i>„rfM4&o. + p/'i*<rf»i + otc.|. 

By the cliaracLcristic eqtiation of 7>^, 





eipression £aUs when i = 0, but since Pq = 1, 



Ax tbe function ~j~^ occurs in every part of tUis invcstigntioD iv« 

l)«U denote it by the nbbrcviatcd symbol i*,'. The values of /*,' 
oorrespondiDg to eevnal values of i are given in Art. 698. 

We are now able to writ* down the value of F for nuy point S, 
whether on the axis or not, by substituting r for :, and mnltiplying 
each term by the zoniil harmonic of of the game order. For 
/' must be capable of expansion id a series of zonal harmonics of 9 
wiih [Hoper cocfBcicnts. When $ = each of the zonal harmonies 
btfoomcs equal to unity, uud the jioint It lies un the axis. Hence 
the cocfficti-nt« are Ui« terms of the expansion of f for a point oa 
th« axis. We thus obtain the two series 

or r=2,^|l-p+&o. + i^^7r(«)7;(fl)j. (4-) 

695.] We may now find m, the inagnetic potential of the circuit, 
Ll>y the method of Art. 670, from tlie equation 

We thue obtun the two aeries 

« = -2«|l-ooa« + &c.+ ^jJ»/(«)i',(tf)+&c.jt (6) 

- «2xain»«{ l5i>,'(a)/', («) + &c.+ ^^>/f«)iJ(tf}} . (6') 

The series (6) is converf^ent for all values of r less than c, and the 
series (6') is convergent for all \-a1ues of r greater than c. Al th« 
eurfaoe of the sphere, where r = e, the two series give t)i<* Muiie 
for tt when $ is greater than a, that is, for points not 
by the miignctic shell, but when is Jess th»D a, tliat is, 
I on the muj^ctic shell, 

o.'=M+4ir. (7) 

If we assume 0, the centre of the circle, as the origin of co- 

ordinatea, we must put a = ~ , and the eerier become 


^B VOL. 

306 CTBCtrtAR CCRRSSTS. (696. 

- = -2» j • + ;-fiw+&o.+(-)'^-y^^;-'>ffp,..,,(tf)}. it) 

where the orders of all tlic hnmiunics are odd *. 

On lie Pofentiat Bnersg o/two GnuUtr Otrrenit. 

096.] Let uii begin by «]p]HMnng tlic two miij^etic dicllx wirieb 
nruoqiiivaleiit In tJie enrrents to be portions of two concentric spbem 
their radii being e^ and c^, of which e, in the greater (VSg. 47). 
Lei us also suppoKe tlmt the axes of tlw two shells coincide, and 

that O] is the nng'le subtended ij 
the radius of the firat shell, and n, 
the angle subtended by the radius 
of tbe second shell at the centre C. 
Let w, be the potential due to tbe 
first shell at any point tvilhtn it, thai 
the work rcquin-dloou-ry thosocood 
shell to an infinite distance is tiw 
value of the surfnce-integn] 


or, snbMtiluting the viilne of the mt«ignils from equation (2), Art. 694, 
J/=4«»m»a.sinS^,'ji^^A'(«.)Pi'^)+&e. + jj^^P/(aJP,'{«jj 

* Tlia TtloA of ttie nlid tagia aubttadot by • dnlo nujr b« obtained ia a nan* 

extended over the second sholl. 



• MBd 

•agjlo nibtaadad by tha ebola ai tbe point 2 in tb* kxb b «Mlly 1 

. I. I — CDMB, 

bpwding tbi< tgc|ii«>ian Id ipliivlt^ buinanla, <t« ted 

for th* «ii«uiniu or w fiir jwlnu no tbo iixl* for wbMi > ■« 1«» lli«n " or fn-*— 1 
tliui e tttftetiidj. TboB naalM eui sad/ b« ahewn to oounciil* witb Ibiao if 




= 47l'illl*0 

697.] Let Ofi next 8Uppc«e that tb« axis of on« of the sbelb itt 

jburned about C as a centre, so tliat it now makefi an an^e 6 witb 

be axis of the other shell (Fig;. 48). We have only to introduce 

the zonal harmonics off into this expression for M, and we find foi 

[the more ^-aeral value of M, 

This ix the value of the potential energy due to the mutual 

Rction of two cireulur currents of unit strciig^.h, pluoi^d so that 

'th« normalf through th« eontrvu of the i>ircU-« meet in it point C 

in «& angle 0, the di¥t«&ci» of the oircuinferencex of th« circle* from 

the pciiil C heing Cj and e.^, of which f, ia the greater. 

If any displacement (/xaitf-'r* the value 

^of M, then the force acting in the direo- 

H, „ rfjf 


tion of the displacement is X = 


For instance, if the axis of one of the 
shells is froe to l»m about the point C, 
m> as to cawHc tit vary, then the moment 

jf the force t«n<liog to increase 6 is 0, 

thtre dM 

Performing the differentiation, and remembering that 

rhcre P/ has the same signifioation as io the former equations, 
I = - 4ir" sin' o, sin* o, sin <i(* { J ^i>,'(ai,) ^/(oj) Pi'C^) + fee. 

fi98.] As the values of P' occur frequently in these ealnilationn 
'the following ttthlc of values of the first nix degrees may bt u>»ful. 
In this table h stands for cos 0, and v for sin $, 

/>,'= 3;*, 

X a 


699.] It is BomeUtuea convenient to expreaa Uie series (or Jl ia 
terms of linear quantities as follows :— 

Let a be the radios of tbe smaller circuit, b Ute dittaoco of i 
plane from the origin, and a = -/a* + A*. 

Let A, S, and V be the corres^wnding quantities for thv 

Tbe series for M may then be written, 



+ 2.3.w»~«»{(coe««-isin*fl) 

+ S.4.H' ^^^~*^^ a'{^-ia')(cos*0-|Biii'g< 

;^{»§— ^^'-H- 

ir we cuke $=0, the two circles become pAiallel otui on 
mae axis. To determine the attraction between tlieuj we ma/ 
diiJ^Tentiate M with respect to i. Wo thns find 

700.] In calculating' the effect of a coil of rectangular aecti 
WB have to inteffiate the expressions already found with res 
to A, the radius of tHe coil, and It, the distance of its plane from 
the origin, and to cxtond the integration over the breadth and 
depth of the coil. ^B 

Id some cases direct integration is the most convenient, boP^ 
there are others in which llie following method of approximation 
leads to more useful results. 

Let P be any function of « and y, and let it be roqmred to fi 
the value of P where 

In this expre«»ton F is the mean value otP witliin the limits 

Let P^ be the value of P when x = and 5 = 0, tien, exiiandic 
P by Taylor's IVorem, 

Integrating this expreasioD between the limits, and dividing- 1 
result by xy, we obtain as the vatne of i^. 







• ^ 


tie' ■' d/ 

In the c«ec of the coil, liit the outer and inner radii he A + \ f , 
land ^— if respectively , and let the distance of the planes of the 
I vrindings frum the ori^ii lie between Ji+\jj and j9— J >], then the 
! IjTCfldth of th« coil is ij, nnd its depth (, these quantities being 
[small compared with A or C. 

In order to culculntc the magnetic eSVct of such a ooil we may 
write the succcsnve terms of the scries as follows : — * 


e,= ^^{l+^. 

".— g(-A(A-.4K...i^,.)' 

/. , /2 25 35 JS ,- . 




G, = 4^^^^^"^,^^^ + ^^{C*(9S'-12A')+35A'£'(6A^-4B')} 


24 C" 


24 C 

+ ^l_.pj»C*(6a«-44^) + 63J«£'(4£«-J«)}, 

The quantities <?„, (?,, (7^, &c. belong to the large coil. The 
ralue of CM at points for which r is Icvs than C is 

The quautititw ffy^ffi' ^°* l>c]ong to the small coil. The value of 
at' ut point* for which r \a greater than c is 

Tlie potential of the one coil with respect to the other when Oie 
total current through the section of each coil is unity ig 
M = 0,y, P, W+ G.^a /•,{«)+&<!■ 

To find M iy EU'iptic IntegraU. 
'01.} When the distance of the circumferences of the two circles 
I is moderate as compared with the lodii of tlic unwller, the series 



already ^ven do not omverge rapidly. In every case, bon-cri;r,l 
may lind Uie value of 3f for two pwsUel cin:l«a by elliptic in1«^ 

For let 6 be tlie length of the line joining the ocntres of the 4 
and let tliis line bo perpendiovW to the jiknee of the two 
and let A and a be tho radii of the circles, tlien 

the integration bein^ extended round both curves. 
In this cuBo, 

Aacm (^— *') ii<t> r/<fr' 


_ 2V^ 

and /"and E are oomp1et« elliptic inte^nls to modultts r. 
From thit, remembering that 

and that c is a function of &, vre End 

If r, and r^ denote the greatest and least valoes of r, 
r,* = (J + «)* + «*, r," = (^-«)« + i*. 

and if an angle y be taken such tliat cos y = -1 1 

where /"y and fy denote tho complete dliptic integnds of the ft 
and second kind whose modulus i» sin y. 

ltA = a, w>t> = ",and 


The quantity ^ represent* the attraetion lielncen two panUlcl 
ciraalar drcnita, the current in «acfa being utity. 



On account of the importance of tlie qiuntity M in eteiHr»- 

la^Dt-tio calculatioDE tlio values of log(jI//lTrv'-irt). which is n 

ftmctioQ of c and tJiereforc of y only, have bwn tfthiilutH for 

interralB o( 6' in th« vnliio of tho tn\g\e y between 60 and 90 

fdegices. The tabi* will Ir' found in un appendix to this ehnpttr. 

SicoHd Expratiion /or M. 
An expreesion for 3f, which is Honictimce more convenient, is got 
bv makiofr c, = J — ^ , in which case 

To droK tie Lines of Magnetic Force for a Circular Current. 

702,] Tho linM of mag^nctic force are evidently in planes passing 
broug-h tbe axis of tho circle, and in each of these lines the value 
'of M \» constant'. 

Okleulato tho vaUio of £^ = t-^ p — 7= from Lueendre'e 

ablee for a saffioient number of values of Q. 
Dmw rectangular axes of x and ; on the paper, and, witb centre 
'at the point X = Ja (sin tf+ooaecfl), draw a circle with radius 
\a {c<iiec$—(aQ(i). For all points of tJiis circle the value of Cj will 

I be sin $. Uenoe, for all points of this circle, 
I .,^.„ ATT I ._.. ._ 1 -^'i. 

M =1 8iti/Aa ■ 

and J = 

Now A is the value of x for which the value of M was found. 
lenee, if we draw a line for which x = A,\X, will cut the drelo 

two points having the given value of M. * 

Giving M a, series of values in arithmetical pnjgression, the 
TaltMB of A will be as a series of squares. ]>rawing thorefore n 
series of lines parallt'l to !, fitr which x bus the values found for A, 
the points where these lines cut the circle will be the points where 
tbe corresponding lines of force cut the circle. 

f * (Tla weatoA exprcaion fat J/ iDiy b« ilvduatd from tb« fimt by mMU of Uw 
MuwIbk 'iHiiiP'Ptm*'""* In EU^dc IntegnU* : — 




or e - 









If we put m = 6sa, Jind ii = aw, then 
^ = « = «»ir#a. 

We may call n the index of tLe line of TorM. 

The forme of thcw> lines nro (fiven in Fig. X^^II at Ihc end t^ 
this volume, Thi-y arc copied from a dnning given bj Sir W. 
Thomson in hi* iiajier on ' Vortex Motion *,' 

708.] If the patition of a circle having a given axis is r^ardtil 
a« defined by i, the distance of iU centre from a fixed point od 
the axiii, and a, the radius of the circle, then M. the coeflSdm 
of induction of the cirde with respect to any ^stein whaterer 
of magneta or cnrrents, is subject to the following equation, 

da^ "*" (16* " a da ~ ■ ^** 

To piore this, let us consider the immbor of liooa of maguBlac 

force cut by the circle when a or ft is made to Tsiy. 

(I) Let a become a + la, i remaining constant. During this 

variation the circle, in exjiariding, sweeps over an unnulur sorfiwe 

in its own plane whose broiuUh it< ha. 

If r is the magnetic potential at any point, and if the axis of f 

he parallel to that of the circle, then the mognctic force perpen- 

dieular to the plane of the ring is ^ • 

To find the mngoetic induction throngh tbc annular sarfaoe we 
have to integrate p' , t?r . 

Jt dy ' 

where ff is the angular position of a point on the ring. 

Hut this quantity repi'csvnts the variation of M doe to the 

variation of a, or -;— ia. Henoe 

da .'(, djf 


(2) Let h beoonu i+ti, while a remains constant. During thi«j 
variation the cittl* BWWpf over a cylindrio sorface of ladius a andi 
length it' 

The magnetic force perpendicular to this snrGuK at any point iB<i 

-J— , where r i* tbc distance from the axis. Uenoe 

DifTcrentiMinp equation (2) mtli reapcct to «, and ($) with 
respect to b, we get 

• JViM. &. S. Biiii-. y<H. xxT. p, sir (1889). 



da* J„ dy .'a 









Coegiwnf of Induction i^Two Parallel Cirelfi icien the J)i»l,iii£i itf- 
tm^en He Arcs ia tmall compared with the Uadiim </ eithtr Circle. 

1704-] We might deduce tlic value of M in this ciise from the 
ex))anBion nf the elliptic integrals already given when their modulus 
ia nearly unity. The following method, however, is a more direct 
ap{)1icat.ion of electrical principles. 

IFirtt Approximation. 
Let a and a-f it be the radii of the circles and l the distance 
between their plane):, then the shortest distence between tbeir 

circumfcreuces is given by 

p r = Vc" +i«. 

"We have to find the magnetic induction through the one circle due 
to a unit current in the other, 
^ft We shall begin by eu]>[)OMing the two circles to be in one plane, 
H^Coneider a small element hi of the circle whose radius is a + c. At 
B a point in the plane of the cirole, <listAnt /> from the centre of ht, 
B measured in u direction making an angle $ with the dircotiou of 
it, the magnetic force i» perpendicular to the plane and equal to 





To c*lcwl*tc the snrfaee int(^ral of tht» force over the dpoee 
which lies witliin the circle of radius a we must find the value 
of the integral /•*• j^i sin 

where r^, r^ are the roots of the equation 

H-2(a + f)Binflr+c» + 2a<?= 0, 
tiz. »i «■ (ii+c)8infl+\/((i + c)*sin'^— tf*— 2a<', 

^1= («+c)Bind— N/(fl + f)' sm-0—<^—2ac, 
. ,„ «^ + 2ac 


'When e n smalt compued to a wc may pot 
r, — 2a 811) 9, 

Intc^atiDg with regard bi p wc liavc 

28*/ log( — sia'0J.an6d6= 2i«(lo(f— — 2), rnjarlj. 
We thus find for the whol« induction 

3/„ = 4«(log^-2). 

Since the magnetic force at any point, the fliBlantM of wliicb 
from a curved wire iei small compared with the radius of curvature, 
is Dearly the »ame as if the wire had been etmight, n-e can calculate 
iha dilferencc between the induction throng'k the circle vrhote 
nuliufi ta a~e and the circle A by the formula 

^f«A-M^= Jirff {logc-lo^rj. 

Hence we lind th« value of the induction between A and a to be 1 
Mao = ina {log 8a— log r— 2) 
approximately, provided r is small compared with a. 

70£i.] Since tbo mutual induction between Iwo windings of till 
same <,-oil is a very important (juantity in the calculatinn of (.-x-l 
porimental resuIU, I vhall now describe a method by which the 
approximation to the value of M for this caae can be carried to any 
required dCjErree of accum<^. 

We shall assume that the value of M is of the form 


where A = 

*•. ,'S^ 



+ &C. 

5 = -2J + J?,«+ J?,"^ +J»j'^ + 5,^ +i?3'^ + 8te.. 

where a and a-\-as are the radii of the circles, and y the distance 
between their phinca. 

We hare to di*termino the value* of the ooeffioients A and li. 
It is manifest that only even powers of ji ean occur in these quan- 
thiee, because, if the ngn of g n reveraed, the value of M nia»l 
ntnain the same. 

Wo get another *et of conditioru fVom the reciprocal property 
of tlwj ooefEcient of induction, which remains the same wliichi'vi-r 
circle we take as the primary circuit. The value of hi mufit then 



[fore renaiD the same wh«n ve sabstitute a+x for a, and — « for a 
in the above npreedoii. 

We thus fiml the following conditionx of rociprocity by cqiialing 
[the (MMjfficwnU of similar coinbinatioDs of jd and y, 

J, =— ^ —jf, 5, = i— i^,+^ — 5g — £,, 

l-rA,^A,+i«~3)A,+ ^'*-^l^^-'h , + &e. + A., 

From the ^neral cjiiatioQ of il/, Art. 703, 

n-e obtain another Bet of conditions, 

iA^ + 2A'f + 6A, + 2A\=2A,i; 

{«-l){«_2K, + «(«-l)J'„,+ 2.3^. + 2.3^',^, = (II-2M/, 

4^,+ .1, = 2^3 +25',- B, = 4-^3, 
6^,+ 3^= 2^,+ 65a-f2/rg= eJ'a + SJ'j. 

= «(i.-2)£,+(»+l)«7?,^,+ I.2^.+ I.2i?',,,. 

Solving ilieso equations and eubstitating the values of the co- 
efBei«ntc, the s«rieB for .V becomes 



m Sj?— y «*— Gayi* 


• Sic.j. 

" [Tliii molt may be obuboil dlrtctly bj- the method rnggorttd in Art. 7M, 
*{l. by tha apuudo'n* of tlii] »t1I|>tk InlCKrali in tha eiiiiMubui fot Jf fuauri in 
fcAit. 70t. SMO»yU7'a£'WiJ(ic/'uiwf(o>u, All, 75] 




Jb find tie form of a coil for Kiiei ti« coefficient <^ «j^-»- 
duetiott 14 a naximum, tie total Ict^ih and IHeknen ^ ikt 
teire being given. 

706.] Omitting' the corrcctionB of Art. 705, we find by Art. 67S 

where n is the number of windings of the wire, a is the mcBn 
radius of the eoil, and A is the geometrical mean distance of the 
transverse section of the coil from itself. See Art, 690. If Uiii' 
section is always similar to itself, R is proportional to its linear 
dimensioits, and n varies as S^, 

Siooe the total length of the wire is Zvan, a varies in' 
as n. Hence 

dn dR 


and we find the condition that L may ho a maxioiiun 

If the transverse section of the coit is circular, of radins e, tlwD, 
by Art, 692, R 

and log — = V» 

, da dR 

and — = — 2 -=- > 
a R 

whuace ii = 3.22e; 

or, the mi>an radiuii of the coil should be 3,22 times the radint of 

the traDsvente section of the coil in order tluit HUch a coil may Iiave 

the greatest coefficient of self-induction. This nsult was found by 


If the cliunncl in which the coil ia wound has a square tnuisrerse 
section, the mcim diameter of the coil should be 3.7 times the side 
of the square »ectioD. 

Wttht, QMtiiigMi MUtion, lee?, vol T. p, tn. 




HV Taiie iff the vaXutt ^ 

^l:^ ^' 

_ fkt* Vftl \ 

^tn^Aa ' '■ 

60" <y 


L« * . 

Log " - 


T- 490 4 7 83 

63" ac 


67' 0' 




























64' 0' 




























61" </ 




68° 0' 

























T.73 13609 



65" 0' 





























t. 6486660 




62' 0' 




69° 0' 






























1.668801 1 

66" 0' 















f. 67067 72 


















63= 0' 




70" 0' 






















i. 7841762 










1 318 ^^^H 





Leg * . 

L» * 

I^B 7^^=^ 


TO" Si/ 


75° C 


79" SO* 









1 -7953709 






1-7981 745 











71" 0' 




80' (/ 





















I -8 150423 


i -9452246 





76° 0' 





i -8206836 























72' 0' 




81' 0' 









T ■8370093 



















77° 0' 









■1294 778 



















73= O' 




82' 0' 




























78' 0' 




























74" 0' 




83' 0* 





















1 ■9009298 







79* 0' 













•04 78098 





















Lo.- ^ 

1 ju. 

Ug- — 


"W ;=^ 

"°S r 

84" 0' 


86" or 


88° 0' 

■4 38 S 4 20 























































85' 0' 


87" 0' 


89° 0' 








































42' -4160138 





48' -4233022 





54' -4308053 




In the very imiMrtant case of two circular coaxal coils Lord fiayleigli 
has BUggeeted ia tlie uso of the foregoing tables a very coavenietit 
fommla of appro simatiou. The formula, applicable to auj number of 
vonables, occurs in ^Ir. Kerrificld's Report on Quadratures and Inter- 
polation to the British Association, 1880, aud is attributed to tlie lal« 
Mr. H. J. Purkiss. lu the present instance the number of variables is 
Let n, n' be the uoinber of windings in tbe ooUb, ~ 

a, a' the radii of their oentzal windings. 
b the distance between their oeutree. 
2A, 2h' the radiftl breadths of the ooils. 
2k, 2U the axial breadths. 
Also let /(a, o', h) be the coefficient of mutual indnction for the central 
windings. Then the coefficient of mutual induction of the two coils is 
^f{a + h,a',b)-\-f{a~k,a',h) 
+/(«, »'+A', h)-{-f{a, a'^h", b) 
+f{a,a',b + k)+f{a,a',b-k) 
+ f{a,a',b+k')+f(a,a',b^k') 



Self-induction of a eircutar coil of rectangutar aecHon, 

If a <1(innt« the menti rmlius of u coil of n windiujts vrhnnc nxud 
brnulth i« t> and radial brcndth is o, then the tclf-intluctlon, m calculated 
by meam of the eeiies of Art. 705, may be thrown into the form 

L = -lwn*{Xa + ~ + &c.). 
K = log.8«-2- - ^ i\og,C- ^)-^ -(log.ft~-) 

32' ' 96" '*"*' 96" ' 32' 96 A* 



. * «'yi '37. 1 fi* , . 137. 



120 P' 

1 «*„ 1-17. 16',, . H7. 

+ 240 ft»^'^"- "60">-2l0 ? tl-^*- 60-> 

-2^0 (^-•^'' + ^'^'4*> ('"« ^'^^~ W> 
*24 6 c*12 ^ « 4' 120 « b 


TOL. U. 




707.] A Galvasombter U ua instrument by mesiaH of nhich nn i 
electric currt^nt is indiottvil or moiieureti by its muj>nctic nvtion. 

When thv iustruni«nt U int«D(U-<l to indic«tv the nctMU-iieu of a 
fix'tiU* current, it ix called a Sensitive Galvanometer. 

When it !» intended to measure a current witli llie greatest 
aecuracy in terms of standard units, it is called a Standard Galva- 

All galvanometers are founded on the principle of Sdiweigger'a 
}ktulliplier, in which the current is made to pass thmuf^ a wire, 
which is ooiled so aa t« pass many times round an open space, 
within wliicli a magnet is suspended, so as to produce within thi» 
space an electromagnetic force, the intensity of which ie indicated 
by the magnet. 

In sensitive galvanometers the coil is bo arranged that 
windings occupy the poritionB to which their infliwuce on 
magnet is grcat(«t. They are therefore packed closely togvtli 
in order to be near the magoot. 

Standard galvanonictcre are constructed so that the dinH!R»ions 
and relative positions of oil their fixed port* may be aocurati-ly 
known, and that any small uncertainty about lliv podlion of the 
moveable part« may introduce the nnalluit possible error into the 
calculations. fl 

In conntructing a sensitive galvanometer we aim at malring tho^ 
field or electrooiagiietic force in which the magnet is suspended oa 
intense as possible. In designing a standard galvanometer wc 
wish to make the field of elect romagnctie farc« near the magnefr^ 
as unifonn as {Kigsililo, and to know its exact tntaosity in tvr 
of the Btrength of Uic current. 








On Stanttard GalvaHometers. 

708.] In a standai'd giilvauonieter tlie etrenglh of th« current 
1)Ss to be determinod from the force which it coerls oa the boa- 
led ma^et. Now the diHriljutioii of the mn^edsm within 
Ae magnet, and the position of its centre when suspended, are not 
capable of being determined with any great degree of accuracy. 
Hence it is necessary that t!ie coil should be arranged so as to 
produce a field of force which is very nearly uniform throughout 
the whole space occupied by the magnet during iU possible motion. 
The dimensions of the ooil muat therefore in general be much larger 
than those of the magnet. 

By a proper arrangement of several coils the field of force within 
them may be made much more uniform than when one coil only 
i» used, and the dimensions of the instrument may be thus reduced 
and it« sensibility increased. The errors of the linear measurements, 
however, introduce greater uncertainties into the values of tlie 
electrical cotistants for small inatnimcnts than for large ones. It 
is tbereforo bust to dot.erraine tlie dectricftl constants of smull 
instrmnenta, not by direct mr'Osuremcnt of their dimensionM, but 
by an electrical coinpnrisun vrith a large standard instrument, of 
which the dimensions are more uci^urately known; see Art. 752. 

In all standard galvanometers the coils are circular. The channel 
in which the coil ia to be wound is carefully turned. Its breadth 

tig. a. 

is made equal to some multiple, n, of the diameter of the covered 
WLie. A hole is bored in the aide of the channel where the wiro ia 

T a 

to enter, ood one tni of the corcrod wire is pnabed oat throngb 
tbit iiole to form the inner oonnexioo of the coil. Tbe channel U 
plaoed-on s lathe, sad a wooden axis is listened to it ; see I-^g. Of, 
The end of a long ttring is nailed to the wooden axis at the mma 
part of the circumfcrmoc as the entrance of the wire. The whole 
is then turned round, and the wire it emoothljr and regularly laid 
on tiw bottom of the channel till it is completely covered by m 
windings. Doring ibis procen the siring has been woaad m time* 
roond the wooden axis, and a nail id drivm into the string at the 
Nth turn. Tlie w-tudingit oT the Mtring xliould be kept exposed 
so that tbey can miily l>e counted. Tlie ext^mul circumference 
of the first layer of windings is then measured und a now layer 
is begun, and so on till the proper nnmber of layers has been 
wound on. 'Flie use of (be string is to count the number of 
windingK. If for any reason we hare to unwind part of the coiL 
the string is also unwound, so that we do not lose oar reckoning 
of the octnal number of wiDdtngs of tlie ooiL The nails serve 
to dialinguieh the nnmber of windings in each layer. 

llie measure of the circumference of each layer furnishes a t««t 
of the regularity of the winding, and ennblee ns to caleulate the 
electrical constants of the coil. For if we take the arithmetic mean 
of the circumforencee of the channel and of the outer layer, and 
then add to this the circumferences of all the intermediate layeTS, 
and divide the sum by the nuin1>er of layers, we shall obtain the 
moan circumference, and from this we con deduce the mean radins 
of the coil. The oircumference of each layer may be measured by 
means of n steel tape, or twtter by means of a graduated wheel 
which roils on the coil as the coil revolve* in the process of 
winding. The value of the divisaonc of the tape or wheel must 
be a«ccrtainod by comparison with a straight ttcale. 

709.] The moment of the force with which a unit current in 
the coil ftct« upon the suspended apparatus may be expreasod in 

**» «"" ff,^, sia S+ G,9t sine P.'(0) +&c, 

where the ooefBcients refer to the coil, and the coefficients g to 
the suspended apparatus, B beiiig the nngle between the axis of 
the coil and that of the suspended appaiatue ; see Aii-. 700. 

Wlien tlic suspended apparatus is a thin uniformly and longi- 
tudinally mognetixed bur nuignot of length 3 /and strength onity, 
saspended by its middle, 



The Tiiluos of the coefficient for a ma^et of length 2/ magnetized 
b^in aoy other way arc smaller than when it is magnetized uni- 

710.] When the apparatus is usod ae a tangent galvanometer, 
Ithe cot) is fixed with its plane vertical and parallel to the direction 
[of the earth's maffnetic force. The equation of equilibrium of the 
^magnet is in this eaMC 

My,ffcoBfl = my8in^{(?,^i+ffjj?,;i','{()) + &c.}, 

l^rhflTo wj7, is the magnetic moment of the magnet, Jl the horizontal 
i>mpoaent of the terrestrial magnetic force, and y the strength 
^of the current in the coil. When the length of the magnet is 
■mall oompurcd with the radius of the coil the terms after the first 
^bn G and g may he neglected, and wc find 

y = 7T- cot 0. 


The angle usually measured is the deflexion, 8, of the magnet 
which is the complement of 9, so that cot 6 = tan h. 

The current is thus proportional to the tangent of the deviation, 
and the Jnittninient is therefore called a Tangent Galviinometi'r. 

Another mctliod is to make the whole apparatus moveable about 

a vertical aii^ and to tum it till the magnet is in equilibrium with 

its axis imnillcl to the plane of the coil. If the angle between the 

,e of the coil and the miLgnctic meridian is 6, the equation of 

brium i« 

iBy,ffsin* = wy {G,y,-f C,^,+&C.}, 
U . , 

^m Since the current is mea&ured by the sine of the deviation, the 
^Binxtrument when used in this way is called a Sine Galvanometer. 
^M The method of sines can be applied only when the current is 
Bbo steady that we can regard it as constant daring tbo time of 
adjusting tJie instrument and bringing the magnet to equi- 

^P 711.] We have next to consider the armngement of the coils 
of a standard gal vn no meter. 

The simplcjit form is that in which there is m single coil, and 
lio magnet ia suspended at its centre 
Let A \h> the menu radius of the ooil, ( its depth, ij its breadtll, 
n the number of windiogn, the values of the coetEcients ar« 





becomes 1 — 3-^=. 

0, = 0, &c. 
Th« principal correction is that ansiaff from G^. The aeri«a_ 

The factor of correction nill differ most from unitrf when th« 
magnet is imifonnlj magnetized and Trben d = 0. In this cose it 

It vant»he!i when tail 0=2, or whvn tho de-^| 

flexion 18 lan'i, or 20*34'. Some obstfrvers, therefore, arrange 
their experiments bo as to make the ohwrvtHl deflexion as near 
this an^le as jioasiblo. The hest method, however, is to use a 
magnet so short compared with the radios of tho coil tlist 
com-ction may be nlUigether neglected. 

The suspended msg^net is carefully adjnsttd «o tliat its cent 
shall coincide as nearly ss posiiilile with the centre of the ooil. 
however, this adjustment is not perfect, and if the coordinates o! 
1 ho centre of the ma^et ivlative to the centre of tlte ooil are x, y, i, 
t being measured parallel to the axis of the coil, Uie factor of 

correction is ( I + s '^ ) ■ 

"When the radiiiti of the coil is large, and the a<Ijui^tmcnt of tlii 
magnet carel'iilly made, we may assume that thi» correction is 

Gatiyain's Arrangement, 

712.] In order to ^t lid of the correction depending on O^ 
Gangain con»tnictcd a galvanometer in which this term was ren- 
dered 7^ro by «u«iiending the miigmet', not at the centre of tlie 
coil, but at a point on the axis at a disbinoc from the centre equal 
to half the radius of the coil. Tlie form of G^ is 

and, HJnce in this amngement S = iJ, G, = 0. 

Tliis arrangement would W an improvement on the first form 
if we could be sure that the centre of the suspended magovt ii 








exactly at the point thus dotinotl. The position of the centre of the 
ma^et, however, is alwa};! uncertain, aud this uncortuinty iHtro 
duces a factor of correction of unknown amount dqtondin^ on G.^ and 

of the form (l — J -j), where z is the unknown excess of distance 

I of the centre of the msgnet from the plane of the ooiL This 

COTTcctioD depends on the tiret power of -j . Hence Gaugain's coil 

with ecccntriciitly EUgpcnded ningnct \% subject to for greater un- 
l^cerUinty than the old form. 

HelinAoUz'a Arrangement. 

713.] Helmboltz converted Gaugain's galvanometer into a trust* 
vorthy instrument by placing a ^cond coil, equal to the first, at 
an equal distance on the other side of the magnet. 

By placing the coils symmetrically on both aides of the magnet 
we get rid at once of all terms of even order. 

Let A be the mean radius of either coil, the distance bctwcpn 
their mean planes is made equal to A, and the ma^^nut is sui^penilud 
at the middle point of their common axis. The cocfficicnte are 

16,r«l, eS 

G- = 0.0612 



(31 f ^-36 A 

G.= 0, 

Cj= — 0.73728 

where n denotes the number of windings in hoth coils together. 

It appears from these results that if the section of the coils be 
rectangular, the depth being f and the breadth rf, the value of 
&,, as corrected for the 6nite size of the section, will be email, and 
will vanish, if (^ ie to t}' as 36 to 31. 

It is therefore quite unnecessary to attempt to wind the coila 

! upon a conical surlitce, as has bovn done by some inetrumunt. makers, 

for the eonditioDH may 1>e satisfied by coils of rectansuUr Mction, 

which can he con«t.Tucted with far greater accuracy than ooiU 

wound upon an obtuse cone. 

The arrangement of the coila in Uelmhottz's double galvanometer 

repreaented in l^g. 53, Art. 723. 




The field of force due to th« double ooil i* irprcsonted in Bection 
in Fig. XIX nt tlio Liid of tltis volume. 

Galvanometer tf Four CoiU. 
714.] By combining four coiU we mfty get rid of the co«fBd«nt» 
0^, &,, and 6'^. For by any symmetricAl combinations 

C, G. 

s> "ai 

we get rid of the coefficients of even orders. Let the four coils 
be parallel cirtles belonging to the Esme sphere, iMrresponding' 
to angles 6, 4>i ""^j ^^d it— ^. 

Let the nnmber of windings on tbe first and fourth coil be «, H 
and the number on the second and third pn. Then the condition 
that Cj = for the combination gives 

aein*^P,'(fl)+ji«an»0i's'(*) =0, (I) 
and the condition that G^ = o gives ■ 

«sin>flf;(^)+;.f.8in**P/(^)= 0. (2) 

Tutting sin'd = jf and ain*ip=f, (3) 

and expressing /*' and P^' (Art. 698) in terms of these quantities, 
the e<^uatious (l) and (2) become 

8»- 28«' + 21 a:^ + 8/.y-28/)y + 21/^ = 0. 
Taking twice (4) from (5), and dividing by 3, we get 

Hence, from (4) and (t>), 

x5x-i ar'7x-6 


J> = 

and we obtain 


P = 

32 7*— 6 

Both X and y are the squares of the stnea of angles and most 
tbcrefbrc lie between and 1 . Henoe, either * is between and f , 
in which com y is between f and I, and p between 00 sod |f, 
or else x is between 3 and 1, iu which case y ia between and 
f, and p betwoon and J{. 

Galvanometer (f Tkrae CoUt. 
715.] The most convenient arrangenHnt is that in which x =s 
Two of the coils then coincide and form a great circle of the ^here 
whose radius is C. The number of windings in this eoinpound 
coil is 64. The other two coils form small eiroles of the sphere. 
The radius of each of them is s/}C, The distance of either ul 




' tbem From the plane of the first is </• C. The number of wmdiuge 

^OD each of these coils is i<i. 

Tho Tftlue of ff, is — ^ . 


This ammgemeat of coils is represented in Fig. 51. 

Fig. GO. 

Since in this three-coiled ^Ivanometer the first term nfler G, 
[■which has a finite value is G, , a lar^ portion of tho sphere on 
^whoso surface the coils lie forms a field of force sensibly uniform. 

If we could wind the wire over the whole of a Hphcrioal surface, 
^M dwcrihed in Art, 672, we should obtain a field of perfectly 
tunifonn force. It is praetically impossible, however, to distribute 
rtlie windiDgi on a spherical surface with sufficient accuracy, even 
if saeh ai coil were not liable to the objection that it forms a closed 
[ aurfacc, RO thnt its interior is inaccessible. 

By puttinfr the middle coil out of the circuit, and making the 

|eurT?nt How in oppOEit« directions through the two side coils, we 

obtain a fa-Id of force whioh exerts a nearly uniform action in 

tthe direction of the nxis on a mngnet or coil suspended within it, 
with its axis coinciding with that of the coils ; see Art. 673. For 
in tbie can all the ooeffieienU' of odd orders disappear, and since 
Hence the exprcftnon for the majpietJc potential near the centre 
of the coil becomes 




On He Proper Tkieknw of lli* Wire ^ a GalvanomeUr, tke Ezftmal 
Besulanct being ffwm. 

716.] Let the fonn of the channel in whioh the ^IvanometerJ 
coil is to bo wound Le f-iven, and let it be required to determiiM, 
whi-ttivT it ought to be lillcd with a long thin wire or with a sbor 
tbi<rk wiro. 

Let I bo the len^lli of the wire, y its radius, ^4-^ the radius 
of the wire when covcrod, p its speciBc resistance, g the vnloo of 
G for unit of leugUi of thi,- win', nnd r the part of the resistoooe 
whioh is in(le]iendent of the gat van o meter. 

The resistance of the gftlvunomctdr wire is 

p I 

It = 


The volume of the coil is 

The elect romagnetio force is y 0, where y is the strength of the 
current and 6 = gl. ■ 

If £ is the eleotrotnotiTe force acting in the circuit whose 
resistance k R + r, E = y{R+r). 

The electromagnetic force due to this electromotive force is 


which we have to make a maximum by the variation of; aad /. 
Inverting the fraction, we find that 

is to be mode a minimum. Hence 

If the volume of the coil remains coostani 

= 0. 


Eliminating dl and t/y, we obtain 
P y + i ' 



Hence the thickness of the wire of the gs]Tanomot«r should be 
such that the external resistance is to the misUuiw of the gal- 
viitiomcter coil as the diameter of the oovcrod wire to the diameter 
of the wiio itMir. 



On Sensitive Galvanomeffrs, 

717.] In Uie construction of a eensitive galvanometer tlie aim 
of erery part of the amngeinent is to produce tho grftatest pnesible 
deflexion of tho magiiet by means of a given siiiall electromotive 

I force actiuff between the electrodes of the coil. 
The current through the wire produces the greatest eflect when 
it is placed as near as possible to tho auspended magnet. The 
magnet, however, must be left free to iiscillnle, and therefore there 
is a cerlaiu spnc<' which must be left empty tntliin the coil. This 
dffinifs the tut«nial boundary of Uie coil. 
^m Outside of this space Oiioh wiudiug must be placi'd so as to have 
^^tlie greateHt possible effi'ct on tlve magnet. As the number of 
^■windings incn-iises, the most advantageous positdoiiB become tilled 
^^□p, so that at lust the increusiil resistance of it uew winding 
diminishes tine effect of the curn-nt iu the former windings more 
[than the new winding itself adds to it. By making the onter 
pindingd of thicker wire than the inner ones wo obtain the greateixt 
letio eiTeet from a given electromotive foree. 
718.] We shall euppoue that the windings of the galvanometer 
are circles, the axis of the galvanometer jiassing through the centres 
of these circles at right angles to their planes. 

Let raiaO bo the radiuK of one of these circles, and rcosO the 

distance of its centre from the centre of the galvanometerj (hen, 

if / ia the length of a portion of wire coinciding with this circle, 

y the current which flows in it, the 

foree at the centre of the gal- 

"'Wn(MBet«r resolved in the direction of 

the axis is gjn & 

If we write 

H = *» sin 0, 



this expression becomes y -^ ■ 

Heuec, if a surface bo constructed 

umtlor to those represented in section 

is Fig. 51, whoso polur equation is 

/^ = ii'naO, (2) 

wberc r, is any constant, a given length 

of W)r«? bi-nt into the form of a circular 

Kit 51. 
arc wdl produce a greater magnetic 

effect when it lies within this sar&oe than wh«a it lies oiit«vi)K \^. 



It fallows (rom this that the outer surface of any la^r of wire 
ought to have a conBtant vainc of ar, for if « is greater at one place 
thitit another a portion of wire might be traosferml from the Stst 
place to thu second, so as to increase the force at the centre of the 

The whole force due to the coil is yCr, where 




the int(>gTation being extended oTer the whole length of the wire, 
X being considered as a function of /. 

719.] Let 1/ be the radius of the wire, its tniDsrerso »ecttoQ will 
be isj^. Let p be the specillc resistance of the material of which 
the wire is made referred to unit of volume, then tlie reustance ofa 

length / is ~4r • an^ the whole resistance of the coil in 


p fdl 


wliere f is considered a function of i. 

Let r* be the area of the (luadrilateral whose angW arc tlui' 
BectJonfl of the axes of four neighbouring wires of the ooil by a 
plane through th<^ axis, then T^l is the volume occupied in the ooil 
by a length / of wire together with its insulating covering, and 
including any vacant ajtace necessarUy left between the windingt 
of the coil. Hence the whole volume of the coil is | 

r=fT^di, (5) 

where J' is considered a function of/. 

But sinee the coil i« a iigure of revolution 

r= 2it f J r^aaedrde, (6) 

or, expressing r in terms of x, by equation (2), 

Now 2ii / {aiifffidd ia a numerical quantity, call it^, tlwn 

where V^ is the volame of tlie interior apace lefl for 

Let us now eonaidcr a layer of tho coil contained between 
surfaces x and x-^dx. 



The volume of this layer ia 

[tvliore dl is the length of wire in this layer. 

Thi^ giv<s us dl in tonus of dz. Substituting: this in equations 
f(3) anil (4), we fmd ^^ ^^dn 



rhere dO and dR represent the portions of the mlucs of G and of 
' due to this Uyer of the coil. 
Now if M be the given electromotive forcCi 

rliere r is the reeistanco of the external part of the oircsit, in* 
ei)eDdent of the giLlvunometer, niid the force at the ceotie is 

We have therefore to make -p — at nuudmum, by properly ad- 

Justinf* the section of the wire in each layer. This also neccfisarily 
tvolvee a variation of Y because ¥ depends on g. 
Lot Go and li„ be the vidues of G and of fl + r when the given 
flayer is excluded from thu calculation. Wc have then 

g _ gp + rfg 
R-i.r~ Ra + dR* 
to make thia a maximum by the variation of the value of j' for 
I given layer we mual have 







Since da is very small and ultimately vanishes, ■— will be 

iibly, and ultimately exactly, the same whichever layer is ex- 
Eoludcd, and wo may therefore regard it as constant. We have 
hereforc, by(10)and(ll), 



If the method of covering the wire and of winding it ti Mch 
that the proportioD between the space occupied by the metal of 


the wire boars the same proportion to the apoice between the wires 
whclLer the wire is thick or thin, then 

y d^ _. 

and we must make botli jr and Y proportional to x, that is to nr, 
the diameter of the wire io anjr lajrer must be proportional to the 
linear dimension of that layer. 

If the thiclcncss of the insulating oovenng is constant and equal 
to {>, and if the wires are arraDg«d in si]uare order, 

Y=2(jf + i>). (15) 

and the condition is 

^to:i) = co«rta»t (16) 

Tn this case the diameter of the wire increases tnth the diameter 
of the layer of which it ibrms part, bnt not in »o hiph a ratio. 

If we adopt the first of these two li^^iothcaee, which will be nearly 
true if the wire itwelf nearly lills up the whole epnve, tfaOD we may 
put n = ax. y = ffy, 

where a and p are constant numerical qnantities, and 

lt=N^ ' 

tsaa the sise and form of th« frcti^ 

where a is a constant depending upon the Aae and form of the free 
space left inside the coil. 

Honco, if we malce the Ihidtness of the wire %'at7 in the nune 
ratio as x, we oblain very little advantage by increa»in^ tlie ex 
tenuil size of the coil after the external diDieusiona have beooow 
a larffc multiple of tlie internal dimensiona, 

720.] If inen««o of resKtanoe i> nnt roganlcd aa a defect, 
when the external reaiatancie i* far gri>ater than that of the gaW 
vanometer, or when our only object ia to produce a field of intense 
force, we may make >/ and Y constant. We have then 

= ;^1(«— ), 




where a ia a oonrtant depending on the vacant upace inside the^ 
coil. In this case the value of Q increases uniformly as th^f 
dimensions of the coil are incnnued, to Uial tJiere is no limit t^^ 
the value of G except the labour and expense of making the coiL 

«». Wj 


Oa Suspended CoiU. 

721.] In ih« ordinary gnlvannmeter a suspended magnet v» Mted 
on by a ftsed coil. Hut tithe ooil can be tuupended with sufilcieDt 
delicacj, we may determine the action of the magnet, or of another 
coil OD the suspended coil, by its deflexion from the position of 

We cannot, however, introduce the electric current into the coil 
unless there is metallic connexion between the electrodes of the 
battery and those of the wire of the coil. This connexion may he 
made in two different ways, by the Bidlar Suspension, and by wires 
in q>posite directions. 

T!Tie bifilar saspension has alresdy been described in Art. 459 
as applied to magnets. The arrangement of the upper part of the 
snspcnsiott is shewn in Fig. 54. When applied to coils, the two 
fibreti are no longer of silk hut of metal, and since the torsion of 
a metal wire capable of supporting the coil and tmnsmittioi; the 
current is much greater than that of a silk fibre, it must be taken 
Bpecially into iiccouat. This suspension has been brought to great 
perfection in the iiiHtrumL'nts constnieted by M. Weber. 

The other method of suspension is by means of a single wire 
which is coiim'cttil to ouc extremity of the coil. The other cs- 
treniity of the coil is Cfinnectcd to another win: which is made 
to bang down, in the sanie vi^rtical straight line with tbc first wire, 
into a cup of mercury, as is ^hewn in ¥\g. 36, Art. 720. In certain 
cases it. is convenient to fasten the extremities of the two win.'S to 
piece* by which they may he tightly strtitchcd, care being taken 
tliat the line ()f these tvires passes 
Hitough the centre of gravify of the 
coil. The apparatuii in this forcn 
may be use<l when the axis is not 
vertical ; see Pig. 52, 

72^.] The suspended coil may be 
used as an exceedingly sensitive gal- 
vanometer, for, by increasing the in- 
tensity of the miiirnetic force in the 
field in which it hangs, the force due 
to a feeble current in the coil may 
be greatly increased without adding 
[ to the mau of the coil. The mag^ 
nctio foroe for tliis purpose may be 
produced by means of permanent magnets, or by electromagneta 

Fy. &2. 




excited by an auxiluMT cuircat, and it may be powerfully^ coDcen- 
trated on the stispeiulod coil bj meAiM of soft iion ansatures. Thus, 
in Sir W. Thonnfon's ntcordiof^ nppamtuii, Fi^, B2, th« cnil is sus- 
pended betwot-n the opposite polos of the cloctromagnvte A' mi S, 
and in order to conccntr»t« the lineH of mngnctie fon-o on the ver- 
tioal sides of thi> coil, n piece of Bofl iron, D, t» IiximI brtnreen the 
poles of the magnets. This iron becoming inii<^etizc<(l by iodao- 
tion, prodnccs » verj- powerfiil fiold of force, in the inlerrals between 
it and the two magnettt, throug^i which the vertical sides of tJie 
coil are free to move, so tliat the coil, even when the current 
through it is vety feeble, is acted on by n eonsidenible force 
tending to turn it about its rertioal aicia. 

723,] Another application of the suspended coil is to dctcnnine, 
by comparison with a tangent galvanometer, (he horizontal coi 
poni>nt of terrestrial magnetism. 

The eoil is fiuepcaded eo that it is in stable eqailihriiim whi 
its plane is parallel to the magnetic meridiaD. A current y is 
posted through the coil and causes it to he deflected into a neir 
porition of equilibrium, making an angle with the magnetic 
meridian. If the suspension is bifitar, the moment of tho couple 
which produces this deflexion is FeinO, and this must lie vqual to 
HygKOSiO, where //is the horizontal component of terreKtrial ma^ 
Detism, y is the current in the coil, and g is the sum of the areas of 
ati the windings of the coil. Hence 

/7y = ^tantf. 
If A is the moment of inertia of the coil about ita axis of sua- 
pension, and T the time of a single vibration. 


and we obtain 

^y = 5^tantf. 

If the same current passes through the coil of a tangent gal' 
meter, and deflects the magnet through an angle 4^ 

where CistheprincijMdcoDstantof the tangentgalTanom6tcr,JVrt.710, 
From these two equations we obtain 

as of 





V /a tan tan ^ 

=tV — 0^ — 

f tan^ 
This method wbs given by P. Kobbauscb *. 



t,] Sir William Thomiton has conrtmclixl a sing-It instrnm^nt 
hy meaQS wf wliieh (In; oliKt-rviiUon* roqiiiretl t* (kh-rmiiie // and y 
he taadc ftiinulhtni-oimly hy th« wm# observer, 
ooil is jiuii]H;iKlo(t BO ni! to W in <^iiilibrium with its [>iiin« 
the ntagnetjc mcriiliMn, and is dcfl«ct«d from this position 
the current IIowb tliroug-li it. A wry nmttll mngiR-t is sup* 
at the c«ntrv of the wil, and in deflated by the cnrrent in 
the direction ftppoaite t« tliat of the dcHexion of thu coil. Let th« 
deflt^xion or tho eoil be 0, and that of the toni^net 0, then tlie 
jnnablt! jiiirt of the energy of tho system is 

//yysinfl + my GBin(tf— ^)— i/mco8i^— /'costf, 
Biflereutiating with respect to and ip, we obtain the equa- 
Wona of eqniUbnum of the ooil and of the muf^et respectively, 
Uy$eoit$ + myGco8(0—<f)+FanO = 0, 
—myG <:oe($—4>) + Ilm sia^ = 0. 

From th(«e equations we find, by eliminating ZT or y. a quadretie 
^uatioD &om which y or II mny be found. If m, the ma^ctie 
noment of the suspendod magnet, is very unall, we obtain the 
followinff appTOsimate values. 

y = YW-t 

— .ifeiu^ein^ 



M Rin 



(i^ COB fl cos (9—0) ' g ciwtf 

In these expressions G and g are thi> principal elcctiic contitJintM 
of the coil. A its moment of inertia, T its time of vibration, m the 
mBgnetiG moment of the magnet, // the intensity of the horizontal 
ma^etic force, y the streugftli of the etirrcnt, B the dellcxion of ihe 
coil, and ^ that of the mn^net. 

Since the deflexion of the coil is in the opposite direction Ui the 
deflesion of the magnet, thcBc values of II and y will uUvays be 


Weber's SieefroitytaiKometfr. 

7S5 ] In this instmroent a small coil is anspended by two wires 
within a krger coil which i» fixed. ^Vhen a cnrrent is made to 
flow ihrmigh both coils, the suspended coil tends to place itwlf 
parallel to tlie fixed coil. This tendency ia counteracted by the 
mumcnt of the forces itrittin); from the bifilar suspension, and it, is 
also atfocted by the nelion of terreBtriul ma^etism on the «u«< 
^iwnded coil. 




In the ordiasry uso of the invtrarnvnt tiic i>Ianos of the two oolh 
aro nrarl)' nt right angles to vnch other, so tliat tlic madial action 
of the currents in the voiU may bo ns grvat ii< puwfibU-, aod thr 
pldoe of th« (UEpendod coil is ncnrl)* »t right nnglm to tlic nui<picUc 
Di«ridiui, so ttiut the action of tcrroxlriid tua^ctinn may be t» 
small as jKJBsible. 

Lb-t the magnetic oximutli of the piano of the fixed coil ba a, 
and let the angle nhicli the axie of tfao snspoDcled coil makes with 
the plane of the fixcul cuil be 0+fi, where is the value of thi 
anijiio whon the coil is in ivjuililirium and no current ie flonnnj 
and is the deflexion due to the current. Tlic <^()^4ltioa of «q 
Ubrium is 

''yyty!<'oe(tf+^)-//?Vii«in{tf+j9+ft)-/'*intf = 0. 

Let us suppose that the ioHtrumcnt is adjusted so that a uui 
are both very small, and that Jf^fi is utaail compared with 
Wn have in this case, approximately, 

If the deflexions when the >«igns of y, and y, are changvd 
as follows, 0^ when y, is + and y, + , 

"i " ^ It ^1 

^» .. + » — » 

*4 " — t» +• 

then we find 


If it is the same current which flows through both coita we may put 
y, y, = y'. »nd thus obtain the value of y. 

When the currents are not very constant it is best to adopt thb 
method, which is called the Method of Tangents. 

If the eurrmt* arc so constant that we can adjust ff, the utg] 
of the torsioD-ticad of the instroment, we may get rid of thi 
correction for terrestrial magnetism at once by the method of siimb. 
In thiit method /3 is adjusted till the deflexion is zero, so tlist 

If the signs of y, and y^ are indicated by the suffixes of fi 
be fort!, 

/"sin^, m ~F»ia^ = — Gffy^y^^ 11 gy^ sin «, 

i*sinj3, = — /'«n^4» — Gy)r\yj,— //jry^sino. 
and ri/t =- j(i^(Binj3,+Binft-Bin ft-sin ft). 



Fk. f.8- 

7. a 



Thia is th<; method nduptcd by Mr. Ij»tiinrr Ckrk in his nw 
of the iustniiiiisnt constructed by the El«»trioal Committal! tif 
British As»<M.-ititi»n. We nre )D<lebLed to Mr. Clark for the drawin 
of th« rlecti'odynamftmottr in Figure 53, ia which II«Imbultx 
nrrxngvmcDt uf two coiU is a(lo[)te(l both for the fixed and for U: 
Kitspcndt'd i-nil* The torsion^hnad of the iuBtrumetit, by which 
thu bifilur «u»ik'iision is atljueted, ia represented in Fi^. S4. T1i» 


iHfiiality of thfi tension of the tiispension wires ts ensured by their 
beang atlndied to the extremities of n sitk thread which fwmx ov«r 
a wheel, and tht'ir distitnco is reguliiti4 by two guide>whecls. which 
con be sot At the proper distsnco. The sti^x^nded coil can Ix! oiovitl 
Tertically by means of n screw iieting on the suspension-wht-cl, 
and horizontiklly in two directiona by the sliding pic<vs sliewn 
the bottom of t'ig. S4. It is adjusted in azimuth by menns of III 
torsion -screw, which t»ma the |oniion-h»id round a vertical nxi 
(see Art. -159). Tlie aximuth of the suspended coil i* aseertaimil 
by oboervinj^ the reflexion of a scale in Uie mirror, Hlietvn just 
beneath the axis of the siiiipi-ndcd coll. 

■ Ib ttw K^tnl inalniinmt, th« virM Aumr'ng Ihr carnal to ■nil fhini tka i 
an not ^nad oat t* di>[<l»t4 in the Hfure. bol arr kipi n* cIme logniiet «■ ; 
liUe. ■> M to utatntloo «m1i uUior'* ckulroBupictH: kctina. 






The intrtninwnt originntly cinwtTOctfd by Weber is described in 
his Eteitrodjfmimivri'' M-tiftheithnmuufW'- It wne intended for the 
mcMurcnwnt of smaU oiirrent«, and Uien-forv both the fixi<d and 
the suspended ooiIk i:'oneixt4Hl of many windings, and the enspended 
coil occupid] II UrgiT juirt of the ^ystv*: within the fiscd coil than in 
xXk intttninii-nt nt \\\f IlritiNh Assoeiut.i(>D, w)iich wiis primarily in- 
tcndt^l a* a Mtandiird inslnimeiit, with which mnrv ecinisilive inxtru- 
metitM might be coniparE>d. 'Ilie exjierim«nt8 which he mode with 
it rumixh the most coniplcf* ex|xirimpntal proof of the acoiirafy of 
Ainp^re'n formulu ks^ a|>{>It<-d to cltiacd currents, and form an im- 
portant part of th« rettearehea by which We)>er has raiitixl the 
iiimit?riciJ determination of electrical quantities to a very high rank 
as regards precision. 

Weber's form of the electrodynamometer, in whioh one coil i* 
suspended within another, and is acted on by a couple tending 
to turn it almut a vertical axis, is probably the best tttted for 
absolute measurements. A method of calculating the constants of 
sach an arrangement ia giien in Art. 6'J7, 

726.] If, however, we wish, by means of ■ feeble current, to 
produce a ooosideiable electromagnetic force, it is better to placo 
the snsjiended coil parallel to the fixed ooil, and to make it cnpabtc 
of motion to or from it. 

The siis|iended coil in I>r. Joule's 
current- weigher. Fig. S.'S, is horizontal, 
and eapabto of vertical motion, »nd the 
force between it and the fixed coil is 
estimated by the weight which must 
be added to or removed from the coil 
in order to bring it to ibe snmc ri'lative 
position nith rBs|M>ct to the fixed coil 
that it has when no current jiiuescs. 

The snspendod coil may alxo Im 
to tJie extremity of the hori- 
Sontol arm of a torsion-balance, and 
nuiy W pUoed Wtwcin two fixed coils, one of which nttiacls it, 
while the other re[ieU it, as in Fig. 3tf. 

By nrraiiging the wnla as described in Art. 729, the force acting 
on tlie K\ii>t>ended coil may be made nearly uniform within a small 
distance of the position of equilihrium. 

Another coil may he fixed to the other extremity of the arm 
of the toTsioD-bslancG and placeil between two fixed coils. If tbtt 

Fl|t. S6, 


two fa«peiM)e<l coils are BuniUr, but wilU the oorrent flovriti^ in 
oppofite directioiu, the effect of temxtrial raa^etum on the 


pocition of tlw ami of th« lomion-balance will be coin]>letelj' 

727.] If tho »u»pcnd«d cml b in tlie shape of a lonff solenoid, 
and IK uipiilile vf nioring jnrallf^l to its axia, so as to jiniis into 
tlie interior of a lai^r lixed solenoid having: tl>^ same asiit, then, 
if the cun*nt is in tiie same direction in l)oth eolenoid*, Uie ww. 
[tended solenoid will be siickeil into the Bxrd one by a force nhicli 
will be nearly uniform as long as none of the extremititw of the 
Bolenoide are near one another. 

728.] To produce a uniform lor^ritwlinal force on a Hmall coil 
placed between two equal ooiU of much lurgor dimcnsioua, we 
should mnko the mtio of the diameter of the 1ar|^ coil» to Oie dis- 
tauuG between their plantti that of 2 to V^3. If no Kcud the eame 
currmt througih these coJU in oppoeito directions, then, in the ex- 
prcwion for m, the terms involving odd powers of r dis^pear, and 
«incD kin' a = 4 and eon' a = i, the temi involving r* disappnrt 
nlw, and we have n* the variable ]>art of u 

which indicateH n nearly uniform force on a email siifpeuded coil- 
The armnf^-Rient of the coils in this case is that uf Ihtt two outer 
coils in the gulviinometor with three coils, described at Art. Tlfi. 
See l'1{f. at}. 




7S9.] If we wish to BUspend a coil between two coiU pla<^ 
6o near it tlmt llie distance between the mutuatly xcting u ires U 

» email ooTnjiiired with the radius of the ooils, the moat unirorru ion-n 
is obtained by tnukiii^ the radius of either of the outer coil.i exceed 

;hat of the middle one by --= of the distance between the planes 


of the middle and oot«r coils. This followg from the expression 
(proved in Art. 704 for the mutual induction bctwvcn two circular 
I currents. 

So mnny of the m«i6nromont« of ol«!tri«iI qtuntitin ' 
ilepend on obeiTvationi) of t)ii! motiou of a vibrntin^ body IJiat we , 
shall devote some atk'Dtion to the nature of this tDOtion, and tb*^ j 
best nn'tliods of obeorviny it. 

The small oscillationH of a body iibout a position of irtable «qm- 
Hbriiiiu are, iu- gcnrml, Himilar to those of a jioint act«d on by 
II forc^e varying din-cily lu tb<^ ditttaooe from a fixed point. In 
the «iu« of tbo ribrating' Iiodies id our experiments tli<-re iR alao 
a reitiHtnoce to tlie motion, depending on a variety of causes, suoh 
a» the viccotiity of the air, and that of the sufpcnaion fibre. In 
many electriejil intitriimeutH there is another eause of reatstance, 
namely, the refiex action of eurrents induced in condueting oircuita 
placed near vibrating magnets. These currents are indoced by ttie 
motion of the magnet, and their action on the magnet is, by the 
law of Lenz, invariably opposed to its motioD. This is in many 
eases tho principal part of the resistance. 

A metallic circuit, called a Damper, is sometimes phiecd dc 
a magnet for the eipress purpose of damping or deadening it 
vibrations. Wo tthall theroforu speak of this kind of resis 
as Damping, 

In the COM of alow ribrnttOD*, such as can bo ca»ily obMrvedJ 
the whole reiiistaace, from whatever causes it may nriec, appears] 
to be proportional to the velocity. It is only when the velocity] 
is much greater than in the ordinary vibrations of clectronuigneti' 
instruments that wo have evidence of a rcsiHtance pro[>ortional U 
the square of the velocity, 

W« have therefore to investigate the motion of a body tmhjr 
to an attraction varjing as thi! dixtanee, and to a tvuslance nryiiij 
as the velocity. 




731.] Tbe following application, by IVifes^or Tnit •, of th« 
principle of the Ilodojrrapii, eoalilps us to invcati^t« thi* Iciud 
of motion in a very simple manner by means of the e<juiangular 

Let it be required to End tbe acceleration of a particle which 
ilcEcribce » logarithmic or equiangular spiral with uniform angular 
Telocity u about tJie jKile. 

The property of this spiral is, that the tangent PT makes with 
the mdiug vector PS a constant angle a. 

If V IS the Teloci^ at the point P, then 

t> . sin a = 09 . SP. 

Henoe, if we draw SP' parnllcl to PT ani oqual to SP, Hie velocity 
at P will be given both in magnitude and direction by 




^Hence P* will be a point in the bodograph. But Sf is SP turno) 
tbrongh a constant angle n — a, so Unit the hodograph described 
[Ijf P" is the same as the original spiral turned about its pole through 
[an angle t— a. 

The acceleration of P is represented in magnitude and direction 

by the v«loeity of P" multiplied by the name fun-ior, -. — • 

UcDCC, if we porfonn on SP" the Bome <^cration of turning it 

• Pfoc S. 8. ^tiL, Da«. Ifl, 1SB7. 





Uirou^li an vmgh «— a into tbc poffltmn SP^, the aoceleraiioo otP 
will hn c<|uul ID inuj;nitud« itii<l (HrvctiuQ to 

Bin* a 


where SP" IB etjuttl to SP turned tbroof^h nn wngle 2ir— 2(1. 

If wo dnw PF cqtui nnd parallel to SP", the occ-vlerntion will W 


i'/| whi«h we may n^olve into 

Sin' a 

PS and —.- PK. 

The Tint of tbcM coinpon«nt8 is a central force towards 8 ptv- 
portionnl to t)ic iliitlanoo. 

The KCvoiii] 16 in a diroction opponte to the velocity, and einoe 

sin a GOB a 


PA" = 2oOBaP'S=— 2 
this force may \tv wriH«n 


The acceleration of tlit- particle is lliorefote compounded of tw 

part-f, the tirnl uf ivhicli J* iin uttniclive force (ir, directed towards ^ 

and pro|H>rtionul Iri the distance, and the cceond is —2kv, a resist* 

anee to the motion proportionul to the velocity, where 

ui* , , co*« 

11 = -. -. , and * = to -r^ • 
Bm*a BIO a 

If in these cxjiressionB we make = 41 the othit heoomes a ciicls^ 

and we have ^ = u^, and k = <i. 
fienoe, if the law of attraction renuuns the same, ft e ja,, and 

U ^ Wq SID o, 

or the angular velocity in diflerent spiraU with the anme law of 
nllntction ie proportional to the sine of the angle of the spiral. 

732.] If wc now consider the mutioa of a point which la Uw 
projection of the moving point P on the horiaonia) line XY, we] 
itliiill find that its distance from f and its velocity are the hnriKODtel] 
compunentB of those of P. Hence the acceleration of this point is 
ttlxo an attraction tonnrds S, equal to n timee its distance ttma $A 
lo^tboT with a retardation equal to 2k times iti< vdiicity. 

We have therefore a complete construction for the recttline 
motion of n point, snhject to an attrnetion praportjona] to 
dit-tance from a hiced point, and to a re«i«taneo proportional l>i 
the velocity. The motion of such a point is tnmply thu horixont 




]inrt of the ]noti<Mi of another point which moves with unifonn 
angular velocity in a logarithmic 8]>iral. 

»733.] The filiation of tbe spiral ia 

To <I«t«r[nin<; the horizontal motion, wc ]>nt 
ft ^ ss wf, a: = a + rem^, 

where a is the value of a? for the point of equilibrium. 

If we draw BSJ) making an nnfjlc a with the Vertical, then the 
tangents SX, 3)T, GZ, &c. will be vertical, and X, Y, Z, &c. will 
\>e the extremities of suceet»ive oEcillationfi, 

1734.] The observations which are made on vibrutin;; bodicM are — 
(I) Tlie neat e- reading at tlio stationary points. Tlieee arc culled 
(2) The time of passinf* a dcRnito division of the ecnli! in the 
positive or ncgjitive dircetion. 
(3j The scaie-reitding at certain definite timeB. Observationa of 
this kind are not often made except in-the case of vibratious 
of long period *. 
The quantities which we have to determine are — 

(1) The scale-reading at the position of erpiilihrium. 

(2) The logarithmic decrement of the ^-ibrations. 

(3) The time of vibration. 

»To deiemine tie Seadiiig af Ike Potillon of E^itiiiirium frvm 
Three Comecuthe Elongal'wnK. 
735.] Let it,,Z2, *■, bo the observed scale -readings, eonvqiODdin^ 
to the elongations X. }', Z, iind let a be the reading at the ponition 
,gf equilibrium, S, and let r, be the raluc of S£, 
^k jTj— IT = r, sina, 

HProm tl 
"when . 

thcce values nc find 


a = J'l'^II^A 

'When X, does not ditTer ranch from f, we may ase as an ap- 
Bioximatv formula 

• Se« Gmh, SemlUUt du MagnetltehtM Ytrttai, 1830. II. 


7'o ileferniiu lAe Logtirilkmic SttrtmviU. 

736.] Tlic lognritlini of the rgtio of the amplitude of .a vibiatiwi ] 
to tliut of tli« ni-xt follott-in|> is calloJ th« Logarithmic DecremeDt. 
If we write p for tliis rutio, 

P = 


^ = %»P. A = log, p. 

Z ie called the common lo^rithniic docremeat, And A the Napienu 
lo^ritbmic decrement. It is innnifcal that 
\ = L log, ] = n cot a. 


a = oot~' - > 

wliicli <lc1ermin»i the angle of the lo^rtthmic spiral. 

In mnkin^; a spodiil dote rmi nation of A wc allow the body to 
perform a consideralilc niimlHT of vibrations. If c, is the amplitodp 
of the first, and '■„ that of the «"■ vibration, 


If vre suppose the accuracy of observation to be tlic sunic li^ ' 
small vibrations as for large ones, then, to obtain the best value 
of A, we should allow the vibrations to subside till lh« ratio of c^toj 
e, becomes tnost Dearly equal to i, the base of ibc Napi« 

logarithms. Tlii.i gives n the ncarent whole number to - -t- I . 

Since, however, in most csks time ik vatoabV, it is bi^irt. to take 
the second Hit of obncrvalions bufore the iliiiiinutiou of amplitud^j 
bo* proceeded so far. H 

737.] In ocrluiii ni^es wo may havo to determine the poettion' 
of eqnilibriiim from two eoii«evutive elotigatioiis, the logarithmic 
decrement being known from « special e>Li>criment. We have tJicn 

l^mf of FU/ralion, 

738l] Having detcrminMl the ecalo-readiog of the point of cqui 
librium, n coni^iicitous mark ix pbiec<l at that point of the suli 
or as near it as powiblc, and thv limrN of the piuuigt* of llua 
are noted for several successive vibrations. 

Let na suppoae that the mark in at an iitikuown bat very 
distance f on the tiaiitive n itli- of tJie point of equilibrium, aai 


1^ JN the obwrvcd tJin« or the first tnneit of the mark in tb« positive 
I direction, ami f., t^. Sic. the time;; of the followiufr tniDsita. 

If T be the time "f ribrotton, iin<l /'(, P.^, P^, &c. the times of 
I transit of the true point of rquilibrinm. 


»here r,, t',, &o, are the successive velocities of transit, which we 
ay suppose uniform for tho very small distance x. 
If p is the ratio of th« amplitude of a vibration to th« next in 




^— r, 



^B Tlie liiue of thv eccund ])aes3^> of the true point of equilibTium ia 

^^ Three transits are suSicient to determine these three qimnlitieei, 
b«t •ny preat«r niiniber may bo combined by the mcthoil of least 
(Kjuares. Tlius, for five transits, 

Tlie lime of the third transit is, 

739.] The anme method may be extended to a series of any 
number of vibrations. If the vibrations are so rapid that the time 
of every transit cannot be recorded, we may record the time of 
every third or every fifth transit, taking care that the directions 
of suceetisiye trantdte are opposite. If tho vibrations continue 
re;tutar for a lougr time, we need not observe during the whole 
time. We may beofin by observing a snllicicnt number of tran»it.t 
to determine approximately the period of vibntion. T, and the time 
of llie middle transit, /', noting whether this traiinit ih iu tlie 
positive or the n^^attve direction. Wo may then either go on 
countinir the vibrations without recording the 1itn<'* of transit, 
or we may leave the ap]>arat«s uiinittelicd. \\c iheii oliser^'e a 

If three transitd are observed at tiroes fj, ^, /,, we find 
The period of vibration is therefoie 

je oft 

^ = lV2'» + '4-'.-2M-A('i-2^ + 2',-2'.+'J~|(2--fjTs)- 





mtnaA tarn* at ttamti, sad dedoee the Hate of ribTatioB T ai 
Uw ttBe gf anddk tna«t l". Botu^ the iinetion of this tnneil. 

If T sad V, the pgriodi of vibtatioa aa dedncid fnim (lie l«i> 
■eU of obamBtinfM, are nckriy e^oal, «e m^ proceed to n nun 
acmralc drlcrmtBadoD of the petiod b^ cMabining' the two sebn 
of obMmtioiuL 

Piriding P'—P bjr f . the qnotint oc^t to be vetj ataiij 
ut iDt«ger, even or odd according as the tnuxita P and P' are 
in tb«! tuae or in opponte dirrctMAS. If thi« i* not tbe case, tbe 
iieneii of olwervationa is wortUesi, bat if tbe niatilt ia very aearij 
a whole narober «, we divide f—P h-j a, and thai Gnd the wko, 
\-alae of T for lh« nholt? time of swinging. 

740.] Th« time of vibration T thna fimnd is the actual m«aB 
time of vibration, and is sabject to oorreetionii if Wf wish to dMlore 
from it the time of vibration id infinitet; amaU arcs and withnit 

To reduce the obaerred time to the time in infinitclj email am, 
we observe that the time of a vibration of lunplitude c is in gti>cnl 
of the form r=y,(l+«c*), 

where « is a oooffic-ient, which, in tbe ciseof the <»n]inaiT pendolu 
is ^i- Now the amplitudes of the Ruocessive vibimtioDS are rJ 




.cf^-', so that the whole time t^jn vibratioDs is 

where Ti* the Umt* dedaoisl from the obMrvations. 

Hf^nvc, to (ind the time Ti io infinitely small ores, we 

To lind the time T„ when there is no damping, we have 
7; mT,ana 

741.] TliP pc|iiation of the rectilinear motion of a body, attrncle^H 
to a fixed jioint and ri-siftted by a force varying u tho velocity, ^^ 

wbrrp T is till- coordinatf of tUp body at tlwj time /, and a u thq 
eoonliuute ul' the point of et|iiilibriuni. 




To solve this i<quation, leb 

w—a = tf-*'y; 

the solution of wbich is 



y = CcfM{ •/at' ~ifl+a), wheni is less than w; (i) 

y = A-^ £/, wlicn i is ecjunl lo w ; (5) 

and J- = C'ci)s^(s/^— fci*/ + o'), when £ is greater than u. (6) 

The vmluc of « nwy lie ohtoinetl from that of ^ by equation (2). 
Whcji k i$ li'!W than to, the motion consists of an infinite series of 
o^Ilutionit, of oonstunt [H^riodic time, hut of continually dwreasin^ 
am[ilitudit. As A increases, the iwriodic time tK'comes longer, and 
the diminution of amplitude becom«it more rapid. 

When i (half the coefficient of resiNtaiiie) hwomes equal to or 
jireater than u, (the square root of the acoek-nttiou at unit ilistftnco 
from the point of equilibrium,) the motion ceases to be oscillatory, 
and during- the whole motion the body can only once pass through 
the point of equilibrium, after >vhi<;h it n-achetf apoxitioii of greut^wt 
donation, and then returns towards the point of c(|uilibntim, con> 
tinoally »pproacbin^, but never rea^^hin^ it. 

Galvanometers in vhieh the resistance it) so groat that the motion 
IB of this kind arc called deatt deaf- gatvanometerH. They are useful 

tin many experiments, but especially in telegraphic signalling, in 
which the exiatcnco of free vibrations would quite disguij^e the 
movements which are meant to be observed. 
H Whatever be the values of i and w, the value of a, the scale- 
' reading at the point of equilibrium, may be deduced from five scale- 
readings, j>, q, r, t, t, taken at equal intervals of time, by the formula 
fc q(r'i—qf) + ripl—r')+»(qr~fi>) 

■ net> 

■ to t 
H eurr 


Ok tie OiservalioH of the Galntnomelir. 

742.] To mi°a»ure a constant current with the tangent galvano- 
meter, the instrument is adjusted with the plane of ita coils parallel 
to the magii.tic meridian, and the zero reading is taken. The 
eurreot is then made to puss through the coils, and the deflexion 
of the magnet corresponding to it« new portion of equilibrium ib 
observed. Let this be denoted by ^. 

llien, if y/ is the hoiizontal mii^nctic foreo, G the coclficieut ol 
Iht! fpilvjDometer, and y the stronffth of the current, 


tan f , 


jn-RcmoMAosino ob8bhvatioit». p'45. 

If tbe coofficient of torsion of the suspeasion fibre is TMJI{tee 
Art^ 452), w<! must use the corrected formala 

y = ^(tan* + r^«OC*). W 

Setf- falve of the Ikfit^on. 

743.] In some gulvniiorneteri the number of windings of Uie 
coil tlirouf^h which the current flows can be alterwl at plearank 
In others u known fraction of the current can he dirertecl front thr 
galvanoRietvr by a conductor called a Shunts. Id either case t)ie 
value of O, the eifect of a onit>outTent on the magnet, '\» maik 
to vary. 

Let UK determine the value of Q, for which a given error in the 
otwervation of the deflexion correapond^ to Uie smaUeei error of the 
deduced value of the Rtreiigth of the currenL 

Diirerviiliating equation (1), we Bad 



Eliminating G, J~ ~ n~ **" ■*^' (*^ 

This ia a maximum for a given value of y when the deflexion it 
45". The value of should thprofore he ndjtwtwl till (Jy is a* 
nearly e<|Uid to ^ bk in pottifihlo ; wi Ihat for strong currents it ii ] 
better not to ukc too sensitive a gatvaiiomi'ter. 

On tie Bat Method of applying the Current. 

744.] When the ohMtver ig able, by ntoatis of a key. to make or| 
break the conncxioss of the circuit at any instant, it is advisable io\ 

crate with the key in snch a nnr as to make the magnet arrive 

~ftt itK i>OKition of r<iailihrittm with the least possible vcloci^. Thfta 

lulluuiug metJiod was devised hy Gauss for this purpose. f 

SuppuM- that the nutf^et is in its position of rqailibrium, and thai 
there is no current. The observer now makes contact for a sliorbj 
time, so that tliv mugnct is set in motion towards its new posit 
of ecjuilibrium. Ho th«'n breaks outjict. Tho force is now towa 
the origitml position of i-cjiiitibrium, and tho motion \* retarded, 
this is so managed that the magnet comi-H to rei>t exactly at thi> 
new position of equilibrium, and if tJie observer again makes* con- 
tact at thai inslant nnd maintains the contact, tlie magnet wilt 
remain at ivst in its uew jio^ition. 

a sboft^ 
ded. ifl 


B If we neglect tb« effect of the resistance* nnd also the iD«qn»lity 

^bT the total force acting in the new and the old positions, thon, 

^^nnce we wish the new force to generate as much kiiit^tic enei^ 

daripg the time of ita first action as the original forci^ dcBtroys 

while the circuit is broken, we must prolong tlie Sr^t action of the 

^rfnrrent till the magnet has moved over half tJte digtanoe from the 

^prst position to the aeoond. Then if the original force acts while 

the magnet moves over the other half of its course, it will exactly 

Btop it. Now the time required to pass from a point of greatest 

elongation to a point half way to the position of equilibrium is 

one-sixth of a complete period, or one-third of a single vibiatioo. 

The operator, therefore, having previously ascertained the time 
of a single vibration, makes contact for one-third of that time, 
breaks contact for another third of the same time, and then makes 
contact again during the continuance of the experiment.. The 
magnet is then either at rest, or its vibrationB ar« eo small that 
observations may be taken at oni?e, without waiting for the motioD 
to die awny. For this purpose a metronome may be adjusted so a* 
to beat three times for each single vibration of the magnet, 
^1 ^e rule is somewhat more complicated when the resistance is of 
sufficient magnitude to be token into account, but in thitt case the 
Tibrations die away so fast that it is unnecessary to apply any 
corrections to the rule. 
When the magnet is to be restored to its original position, the 
jit is broken for one-third of a vibration, made again for an 
time, and finally broken. This leaves the magnet at rest 10 
former position. 

If the reversed reading is tobetuken imme<liatelyaiUr the direct 
le, the circuit is broken for the time of a single vibration and 
then reversed. This brings the magnet to rest in the reversed 

Meatnrement by tie Firtt Swing. 
745.] TVhcn there i« no time to make more than one obscrvatioa, 
the ciirrcnt may he measured by the extreme elongation observed 
in the first swing of the magnet. If there is no resistance, the 
permanent deflexion ^ is half the extreme elongation. If the re- 
nstonce is such that the ratio of one vibration to the next is p, and 
if fly is the zero reading, and ff, the extreme elongation in the first 
swing, the deflexion, 0, corresponding to the point of equilibrium is 

^ = 




la this way tbe deQcsion may be calculated wiUiont wuting f«r 
the magnet tn come to rest in its positioa of cquilibriom. 

Ih mah a Strie* pf Oiaervathus. 

746.] The best way of making a coDeidemble namber of meaniitf 
of a conaUint eurrent is by obaenring three elongations while tJuj 
current is in the positive direction, then breaking contact for about 
the time of a Ginglo vibration, so as to let the magnet swing 
into tbe position of Degutive <l<.>flcxion, then revcr«in|> the coTreat 
and observing three succesEivv elongations on the negntive oAv, 
thou breuking conUct for the time of a nnglo vibnition and iv- 
pcflting the observations on the pottitivA Hide, and m on till a soffi- 
cient number of observutionB have been obtained. In this way tbe 
errors which may arise from a change in the direction of the earth'* 
magnetic force during tbe time of observation are eliminAtod. The 
operator, by carefolly timing the making and breaking of contact, 
can easily regulate tho extent of the vibrations, .w a^ to make Uiem 
snfBviently small without being indistinct^ Tho motion of the 
magnet is graphically represented in Fig. 59, where the nliirii 
rpproscnts the time, and the ordJnato the deflexion of the maglMt. 
If flj ... (1( be the observed elongations, the deflexion is given by the 
equation 8^ = tf, + 2tfg+fl,-tf4-2tfj— tf,. 


Kg. ss. 

Melkoil 0/ MnUipticatiwt. 

747.] In certain cases, in which the deflexion of the galvanometer 
magnet is very small, it may bo advisable to increase Uio visible 
efi^ by reversing the eurrent at proper intervals, so as to set 
np a Ewinging motion of the magnet. For tliia purpose, 
ascertaining tbe time, T, of a single vibration of tlie magntt, tb 
corrent is sent in tbe poative direction for a time T, then in tfaj 
reversed direction for an equal time, and so on. When the motiod 
of tlio magnet has become visible, we may make the reversal <ii \ 
current at the observed times of greatest elongation. 

Tjct the magnet Ixt at the positive elongation fl,,, and let 
current hn wnt through tbe coil in tbe negative direction. 1 







lint of equilibrium ib then — ^, and the magnet tvill swing to a 
ne^tive doagmtion 0^, such that 

Similarly, if the current is now made positive while the magnet 
swings to 0j, p^i =— l'i + 0>+ 1}^. 

or />*fl, = fl« + (p+l)'*; 
>nd if the cnrrent is reversed n times io sucoceeion, we Gnd 

rhenoe we may find ^ in the form 

* = («--/>""^o) 


p+l 1-p- 

If M is a number so great that p'" may be iK^lectcd, tlie ox- 
^reeaion becomes p^i 

= ff„ 



The application of this method to exact measurement requires an 
accamtc knowlrdgo of p, the ratio of one vibration of the magnet 
to the next under the influeticc of the resistances which it expe- 
riencex. The unceTtainties ariEiiig from thu iliniculty of avoiding 
irregiiUritien in the value of p generally outweigh (he advantagoa 
of the large angular elongation. It is only whitre ^ve witili to 
establish the existence of a very omall eiirreut by oauKing it to 

(produce a visible movement of the needle that this method in really 
On the Meaturement of Tramienl CurrenU. 
748.] When a cnrrent tasta only during a very small fraction of 
the time of vibration of the galvanometer-magnet, the whole <]uaa- 
tity of eJeotticity transmitted by the current may be measured by 
the angalar velocity communicated to the magnet during the 
pas»ige of the current, and this may be determined from the 
elongation of the first vibration of the magnet. 
^H If we neglect the resistance which damps the vibrations of tbo 
^■magnet, the investigation bfcomos very simplo. 

Let y bo the int«nsity of the current nt any instant) and Q tliw 
quantity of electricity which it tranvniitv, then 



A a z 




Let 3i be the magnetic momettt, and A the moment of inerta at 
the uu^et and suspended sppamtos, 

A^ + MII»ae = ,Vffyoo«*. (J) 

If the time of the passage of the current ia very small, wc na; 
JDtegnite with respect to / during this short time withoat r^ionlii^ 
the change of S, and we find 

A^=MG<ioa0oJyJl + C = 3fGqoM9^ + C. (3)' 

Thig sheirs that the passage of the quantity Q prodnoee an aagolar 
momentum StGQ cios 0^ in the magnet, where $„ is the valoe of t 
at tti« intitant of lujsago of the current. If the magnet is initiallj 
io ei]uilibrium, we mnj make 0^ = 0. 

The magnet then swings freely and reaches an elongation tf, . If 
there is no reoistance, the work done against the magnetic Ebrce , 
during this swing is Jfi7'(l— costf,). 

The energy otanmttnicated to the magnet by the current is 


Equating these qnantides, we 6ad 


= 2-^(l-C0Bfl,), 




sin \0^ 

= ^Qby(8). 


Bat if 7 bo the time of a single ribration of the magnet, 
and wc find 


It T 


where B is the horizontal magnetic force, G the coefficient of the 
galvanometer, 7* the time of a single nbmtion, and 0, the firrt 
elongation of the magnet. 

749.] In many actual experimente the elongation is a 
Ka^V; and it \s then ensy to take into acoonnt the effect of restst- 
anoe, for wc may treat the equation of motion as a linear equation. 

Let the magnet be at rest at its position of equilibnnm, let 
angular velocity c be communicated to it instantaneooaly, and 
its first elongation be $x. 

\ firrt J 



!I1ie equtttioD of moUon U 

^ = C»,Bec^fl--t'»"flco8(«,(;+^>. (9) 
■When t = (i,$ = 0,MA.~ = Cu^ = p. 
When «,(+/9=|, 

tf = CrfH'"''cos^ = (l,. (10) 

Now -^— = <u' = co,'sec*A (12) 

tanja = -. w,= ^, (13) 

•=-^«. (14) 

H«oo .. = f:^.->-^^ 


[whkh giYo the first elongation in terms of the quantity of elec- 

pcatj in tho trnnEieot current, nod convtrrsely, wliero jT, is the 

. tioM! of a eingle vibration as affecteil by the actual resigt- 

BDM of damping. When K is sniiiU we may use the approximate 

fonnula rr t 

Q = ^lil + h>^)9,. (17) 

Method of RteoiL 
750.] The meUiod gntfa above EnpposeH the magnet to be at 
TMt in its position of Cfiuilibrium when tlio transient cuircnt it 
paaaed through Uie coil. If we wish to repeat the experiment 
we must wait fill the magnet is again at reat. In certain caeea, 
however, in which we are able to produce transient currcnte of 
equal intensity, and to do so at any desired instant, the following 
metbod, described by Weber *, is the most convenient for making 
.tinned aeries of observatjons. 

* JlavUtUt iri MajiuiUAm Vm{Ht, ISS8, p. W. 



Suppose that wc set the mnfpiet Biviagin^ hy means of a trmsiait 
current whose valao is Q„. If, for brovity, wii writ« 

6 ./¥+l^ _.i,^'. 

-e • 

= jc; 


M r, 

then the first elongstion 

fl, = JfQ„ = fli(My). (13) 

The Totocity instantaneously coinnimiicat«d to the mugoei il 
Btartinff is MG . ,^„, 

When it returns through the point of c<]uilibri(im in a negaiin 
direction its velocity will be 

», = — or-*. (21)] 

The next negative elongation will be 

0, =-«,*-* = 5,. (SJ) 

Wlien the magnet returns to tJie point of eqnilibriom, its veloci^ 
will be „^-j,^^it\ (23J 

Now let an instantaneous current, whose total quantity ia — Q, 
be transmitted through the coil at the instant when the magnet is 
at the zero point. It will change the velocity v^ into r,— c, wbeie 


V = 




ir Q is gwtteT than Qo^~^^> ^^^ '■^w velocity will be negative and ' 
CHual to iffi 

The motion of the magnet will thus be reversed, and the next 
elongation will bo negative, 

<?,=-ff(Q-(2„r») = e, = -JS:c+^r^\ (25; 

The magnet is tlien allowed to come to ita poaitive elongatioa 

e^ = -«,*-* = <*, = *-* {A'Q-«,«-**). (26) 

and when it again reaches the point of eiinilibnum a poativ«S 
current whose qoantity is Q is transmitted. Tbia throws ihg' 
magnet back in the positive direction to the positive dongation 

$,=KQ-e^e-»'-; (27) 

or, calling this ihe first elongation of a second scries of four, 

n,= A'efl-e-") + fl,(-'\ (28)' 

Proceedbg in this way, by obecrving two elongations + and 
then sending a pontive current and ohscrting two alonga 




— and +,tben Bcuding » positive current, and bo on, we obtain 
K aeries consisting of sets of four elongations, in ea«h of wliieli 


= «-*. 



If n series of clongntione have been observed, then w« find tbe 
logarithmic di-orement from tlie equation 

and Q (Vom tbe equation 

= S.(a-i_c + d)(l +B-**)_(^.-a,)-('/,-«,)*-«\ (32) 

The motion of the magnet in tbe metbod of recoil is graphicaily 
represented in Fig. 50, where tbe aliscissa rcpreacnU tbe time, and 
the ordinate the deflexion of the magnet at that time. See Art. 760. 

Jlfg/ioil of Miilliplication. 

751.] If wo make the transient current pass ercry time that the 
magnet pacvcw through the zero point, and always so bjs to increase 
the velocity of the unngnct, then, if tf,, tf^, &c, ore the successive 
elongations, e^=—KQ-e-%, (33) 



The ultimate value to wiiicb tbe elongntion lends aft^r a great 
vibrations is found by putting $^ = ~^ii-ii whence we find 

If A is small, Uic value of the ultimate elongation may be large, 
iMit «iue* Uiis involves a long continuwl cxi-n>riinent, and a careful 
determination of A, and since a small error in A introduces a large 
enxpr in tlie determioatioD of Q, this method is rarely useful for 

I enxpi 

tJbs tiiae of th« p«ss^ of the g nrrat vick sBttv. 




Erperimmfal Dttfrmina/ion of the EUdrkal ComtanU 
^a Onl. 

752.] Wb hnve eeen in Art. 71 7 that in * sensitiTe walvanomeUr 
tlie coils ebould \k of small radtus, and should contain many 
windings of the wire. It would b« extremely diflScult to determine 
the electrical constants of such a coil by direct measurement of iti* 
form and dimensions, even if we could obtain access to every 
winding of the wire in order to measure it. But >n fiict th« 
grcntvr number of the windinf^ arc not only completely hidden 
by the outer windings, but we are uncertain whether the prvscnre 
of the outvr windings may not have altered the form of the inner 

I ones after the coilinpr of the wire. 

It 18 bettor therefore to determine the electrical constants of the 

^Coil by direct dectrieal comparison with a standard coil whose con- 

, stunts are known. 

Since the dimensions of the standard coil must be determined by 

I actual mea«ureinent, it must be made of t'oosiilerable size, so that 
Uie unavoidable error of measurement of its diameter or circum- 
ference may be as small as jioBsiblc compared with the quantity 
measured. 'Hie channel in which the coil is wound should be of 
rectangular section, and the dimensions of the section sboald be 
•mall compared with the radius of the coil. This is necessary, not 

I M mnch in order to diminish the correction for the size of the 

I ae«tion, as to prevent any uncertainty about the position of those 

[windings of the coil which are hidden by the external windings*. 

Large Uupat nhMKcnoUn w* tniiutlniM made with * aUigl* oirculkr Mo. 
dnctliif ring of ecmuhnble IhicknEw. whioh i« fufnciutUr Uitt t« luiiiUuD itii fonn 
sithnit KliT *ii|>pi)rl, Thii ii not > good plsn for * ttiuiiiiuil tontnlDettt. The cU»> 
tribulMti u( tlia eiURSt niUiiii Um conductor ilqiwiib du lb* r « h i ti ?o coiidaotMtj 



Tlic principal poDKtante which we trah to det<>nnin« u«— 

(1) Tho magnetic force at the ci-ntrc of the coil due to ■ imtt- 
current. This is the quantily douotod hj G, in Art. 700. 

(2) The magnetic moment of the coil due to a anit-rormit. 
Tliis is the quantity (f^. ^ 

753.3 ^** dfiermitu O,. Since the cofla of tlw worlciog' gn]«-' 
nometer are much smaller than the ittandard coil, we place Um 
galvanometer within the standard coil, so that their centres coincide, 
the planes of both coils being vertical and parallel to the earlb's 
magnetic force. We have thus obtained a diflerential galvanometer 
one of whose coils is the standard ooil, for which the value of 6', 
is known, while that of the other coil is C/, the value of which w* h 
have to determine. H 

The magnet suspended in Uie centre of the galvanometer coil 
is acted o» hy the eurrcntri in both coils. If the strength of thr 
current in tlie titandard coil is y, and that in the galvknomctcr coil 
y, then, if these currents flowing in opposite directions prodooe a 
defleiion t of the magnet, 

J/tani = G,V-<?iy, (I 

where J7 is the horizontal magnetic force of the euih. 

If the currents are so arranged as to produce no deflexion, w« 
may find G^' by the equation 






We may determine the ratio of y to / in several ways. Since the 
value of f?! is in general greater for the galvanometer than for the 
standard coil, we may arrange the circait so that the whole current 
y Bows through the standard coil, and is tJieit divided so that }^| 
flows throug)) the galvanometer and resistance coils, the combined 
resistance of which is It,, while the remainder y— y' flows through^ 
uiotlier set of resistance coils whoee combined re«istanc« is S,. 

of ba vsrknM'pvlj. UniM »aj wniMabd flkv fai iIm CODtioatty at tb« MStol 
a«M th* nuia itnun o( el«<rtnrit7 to Sow nititvr tlem» lo lb* «M4Ua «* doM to 
ImUt of thn circDljLr ring. Tbu tho tno paik of tbe oumM Wmm* ttnoarula. 
BmUn thK wbea tbe curmM flow* oolj taiM rooBd the tinU, <i|i«oiKl taiv h 
■CMBHij (« ftraU MDj AcUan oc the nutfuAei nrngnct daa ia Oi» cmtmit o« Im 
way lo or tKtu Uw tinit. If ■iiim th* cuR«)tl In U« elecUndM U oqiud t« tLat to 
tba dido. In Iji* otautiwiUaii of maay hntnuntBU Uio anloB ol tlui put of Ua 
comnt •••nw (n ki>r« Bm •ItogKlHr tort a/fla i>t. 

Tba iDo«t ptifpct molliod U to nwik« mw of tbo elwtnxl** in t^ (ami <f • nwi 
tnba, and lb* odm » win oortrod whli bniklinc nuttrial, urf |UMtd InM* 
(ab« ^id eooMMfie frith II, TIiaoxl«nuJ kM)an«f theelBeUoilaiwhimtliua 
b UN^ bjr An M3. 



We hare then, by Ait 276, 





is Mny unceHainly nboiit the nctiial resistance of the 

iet«r coil (on account, Kny, nf itn uncertainty as to its tem- 

peratore) we may add resistance coils to it, so tliat the resistance of 

e galvanoinet«r itself forms but a small part of 7?i, and tUos 

introduces but little uncertainty into the final result. 

754.] To determine ^, , the magnetic moment of a small coil due 

a unit •current flowing through it, the magnet is still suspended 

il tliv centre of the etnndard eoil, but the small coil is movod 

lid to itself along the common axis of both euils, till the same 

current, flon-ing in o)i|iosit« directions round the coils, no longer 

deflects the magnet. If the distance between tbe centres of the 

coils is r, we hiivc now 

By repeating the experiment with the small coil on the opposite 
of tbe standard coil, and measuring the distance between tbe 
ptions of the small coil, we eliminate the uncertain error in tbe 
lination of the position of the centres of the magnet and 
' the email coil, and we get rid of the terms in g^, ;«, &c. 
If the standard coil is so arranged that we can send tbe current 
[.tbrough half the number of windin<^, so ae to give a dilTerent rnltic 
&,, we may determine a ncvr vnlue of r, and thus, as in Art. 431, 
we may eliminate the term involving y,. 

Il \» often poEKible, however, to determine j^ '^y direct meanirc- 
it of the small coil witli sufltcient accuracy to make it available 
caloalating tbe value of the correction to be applied to ;, in 

lie equation 




y,= — -ira»(6a' + 3f'-27'), by Art. 700. 

ComparitOH i^Coej^eitnU oflndnetion, 

75S.] It is only in a small number of eases that the direct 
GalculatioD of tbe coefBcieDts of iDdnction from tbe fonn and 

poKitton of the circuito can bo easily porfoniUMl. In order to mttaia 
a sufficient decree of aoRuracy, it is neoesMry that tbe dtstaimJ 
botwwn the oircuita should be capable of exact measurement.' 
But whiii the distance between the circuits is eufficient to present 
errors of measurement from introdacing Ibi^ errors into tho result, 
the coefficient of induction itsdf i» uecowarily very much reduced 
in rouf^nitudc. Now for many eipcrimeots it in ncocsHiry to make 
the ciwfficient of induction larg«, and we can only do bo by bringing 
the eirouitit close togitther, lo that tlie method of dir»ct mcAsufv- 
mcnt becomeo impossiblo, and, in order to dctftmune the cocfScient 
of induction, we must compare it with that of a pair of ooiU ar* 
rang«d so that their coefficient may be obtained by direct meuure- 
ment and calculation. 

This may be done as followt: 
Let .-( and a be the standard l 
pair of coils, B and b the ooila to 1 
be compared with them. Con- 
nect .-f and B in one circuit, and { 
place the clcetrodc« of tlic gal- 1 
vanomcter, G, tA P and Q, eo I 
that the resistance of PJQ is 
B, and that of QBP is S, S 
}imag the renKtanoc of the ga^ 
Tanometer. Connect a and i in 
one circuit with the battery. 
Let the current in ^ be ir, 1 
that in B, /, and that in the gdnaemlbn, nfr— jr, that in the battery 
circuit being y. 

Then, if J/, is the coefficient of induction between 4 and a, and 
iff that between B and 6, the integiitl induction current tfarongb 
the galTan<nnet«r at breaking tlie lottery circuit is 

By adjusting the resistances S and S till there is no cnimi' 
through tho gnlvanometi.^r at making or breaking tJie batte: 
oircnit, tho ratJo of i/^ to if, may be determined by measuring ihsA 

Fig. do. 



H * [Tho expTMeion (8) may be proved aa follows : Let i^,j^, A'&nd 
BT be th« coeffiviente of self-induction of the ooils A, S, ai and the 
Kgalvanomctcr respeotivelf. The kinetic energy T of th« Hyst«m i« 
HthCQ up proximately, 

H The dissipation function F, i.e. half the r]tt« at which the energy 
Hof the currents is wasted in beating the coils, ie (see Lord Rayleigh't 
BlW^ o/S<fUnd, i. p. 7S) 

Vwbere Q is the resistance of the battery and battery coilf- 

H The equation of currents corresponding to &iiy varisble * ifl then 

B~of tlie form j 4T ^T dP 

wkece f w the oorreiiponding electromotive force. 

IHenoa we bavA 
i,* + r{«-jr)+ jr,y + .ff* + A-(i-» = 0, 
iJI-r(i-sf) + af,y+5^-A'(*-^) = 0. 
These equations can be at oncti integ:rat«d in regard to t. 
Obfltmng: that T., x,y,y, y are zero initially, if we write x—y = z 
we find, OD eliminating y, an equation of the form 

■ AS+Si+Ci=D-y + EY. (8') 

H A short time after battery contact the current v ^1 have become 
^Ll^^y and the current i will have died away. Hence 

H This gives the expression (8) above, and it shews that when the 
^ total quantity of electricity passing through the galvanometer is 
zero we must have jE = 0, or i/,ff— JJ/,5 = 0. The equation (8') 
further shews that if there is no current whatever in the galvano- 
meter we must also have i> = 0, or if^.^)— JfiX^ = 0.] 

Com/>an40* of a CofJ^eni <jf Srff-iiuluiTlioK teith a Co^jKurBtaf 
Mutnal jHilnction. 

756.] In the branch AF of 'Wbcaitstone'a Bridge let a coil he 
inserted, the coefficient of self-induction of which we wish to find. 
Let OS call it L. 

• [Tlie iarMttekUan b KjnMebrMkets, IjiIw-h ttoia Mr. Fltaihio'iiiotwoTrD/iwat 
Cteffc M&ivcU'i XMtuN^ pOMiMM M Diotuiii.'hi'ly iiiiumt m Muz pMt nf tb« Ual 
iMturs dclir<T«l bv thn Profcaaca. Id Mr. FlMnlag'* notw tha (Jiu «f tiw coEpari- 
BMot dlffcn ftoat thai ^voa In lh« Uit in hiring th« batuny and gslvanorndter 




Id the oonnectinff wiru betwceo A and tlic bstii^ry another Mil 
is iDfiert«d. The covllicicnLt of nmtuiit iiMluotioo between Uiix coil 
and the coil in AF in M. It may be meaaared hj tlie metliod ^ 
described in Art. 753. fl 

If the cuiTCnt from Fiax, and that from J U> JliBjff th«t ~ 
from 2 to A, through S, will he t+j. 
The cxtcrnul clcctromutivo force fron 

\ A-F=P.^lpM(^.±).p) 

The external eleetromotive force 

alonff All is 

J-Jr= Qy. (10) 

If the galvanometer placed betw«w 

F and U indicates no currvot, either 

truH«ii.-Dt or iwrmanent, then by (9) 

and (10), siBCc U—F= 0, 

Pr=.Q.y: (11) 


Fis- 61. 






Since/' i» always posilive, jV muet be negatircnnd tbereforo the 
current must flow in ojipoKito directions through the coils plnved 
in P and in B. In making the experiment we mfty either begin 

by adjusting the resistances so that 

PS=qR. (H) 

which is the condition that there may bo no permoiuint curreat, 
and then adjuxt tliii di»t«iice between tlio coil* till the galvanometer, 
ceetca to indiciite a. transient current on making snd breaking the 
batteiy connexion ; or, if thin distance is not capable of adjuitmeot, 
we may get rid of tlie transient current by altering the restslAooes 
Q and S in such a ^ay that the ratio of Q to 5 remaina constant. 

If ihis double adjuntment is found too troublesome, we may adopt 
a third method. Beginning with an arrangement in which thel 
tnuuieiit current duo to sclf-inductton is slightly in exoees of that 
due to mutual induction, we may get rid of the inequality by in- 
Betting a conductor whose resistanoe is T between A and Z. The 
condition of no pi-nnanent current through lhi> tn>lv.tnomebor is not 
aficct«d by the introductioa of ff' Wo may therefore get rid c^ 


a ci 1 

757-] SBLF-IKDrCTION. 367 

the traniiiciit current by ndjaetiDg the ro-Ul^tce of ft' ftlooe. Whoa 
liii! w douc the vnluo of L is 


CoMpariaon of the CofJJieiaili of Seff-mlnclion of Two Coil*. 

757.] Insert the coils in two adjacent branches of WheatBtone'fl 
Bridge. Let L and N be the coefflcieots of self-induction of the 
o(»1b inserted in P and in R respectirely, then the condition of no 
g»!T8nomet«r current is 


PS = QS, for no permanent current, 

-^ = -=■, for DO transient current. 
r it 


I Hencf^j by a proper adjustment of the resistances, both the per- 
nuuient and the transient current can be got rid of, and then 
the ratio of £ to iV can be deti^rmined by a oomparisou of the 




In the connectiDg wire bctwoen A nnd tlu> Hstteiy 
a inserted. The ooefficiont of miitmil induction br 
and tho coil in AF is JA. It ma; be mtiiutuTei* 
described in Art. 756. 

If the current from A\o FUx, and tUat fr 
from SSUt At thr 
The external c' 




The . 
t« along / 


w . 




Since L \» aI\Tay 
current must t!i ^ 
in P and in B. 
by adjosting tf 

which IK tl 
and then n' 
ceases to i 
batterr c 
we nius 
tC antl 
a thit 

*^ «rtor is defined as tlie ratio of thr 
, live force to that of the cuitenl 
,.jotor. The determination of tit 
tf- -.ruiiffociie nieaHure can be made by 

vMr, when we kooiv the value of the 
.. determination of the vnltic of tht 
□lEciilt, as the only cniw in wliich ire 
. J,' is when it arise* from tlic relative 
..-•■^■i-ct to a knoTvn magnetic Hj-vtem, 
^^Btion of the ri}«i»1an«c of a wire in 
«ai made by Kir«hhoir*. He employed 
•^ J.and Af, and calculate thoir coefTiciest 
of mutual induGlion from the geo- 
^ metric*] datA of their form and 

apoation. "Hieee coils were jiUced 
a in circuit with a (^vanonietor, G, 
= and a battery, B, and two potntc 
\ oftho circuit, /*, between the coils, 

.^■' and Q, between tlie battery and 

[galvanometer, were joined by the 
^ |C^ was to be measured. 

^''wly it i§ divided between the wire and 

. imd produces a certain permanent de- 

r. If the coil ji, is now removed quitikty 

iinbbM- •1i« iDlnulUit Mocirtor tlrlcniailiw 



(h lie J)«iefmiiuition of fie HetUUtnee of a CoU in Sleetn- 
magneik iteature. 

768.] TiiK reRiHtance of a conductor in deGned ae the ratio of I 
numerical value of the clcetromotivi' force to that of the 
which it produces in the conductor. Tlie dGtenninatJOD of 
value of the current in elcdromagnetio measure can be matle 
means of a standard galvanometer, when we know the ralue of 
eartli'e magnetic foroe. The determination of the vslne of 
electromotive force is more difficult, as the only case in whidi wf^ 
can directly calculate its value is when it arises from the relative 
motion of the circuit with respect to a known magnetic tystcin. ^ 
759.] The first determination of the reastanoo of a wire ifl^ 
electro maniple tic measure was made by Kirchhoff*. He employed 
two coils of known Ibnn, ^j and A^, and calculated their coefficient 

of mntual induction from the geo- 
metrical data of their fonn and 
position. These coils were placed 
in circuit with a galraDompter, G, 
and a b«ttery, S, and two point« 
of the ciicuitj P, between tho coils, 
and Q, between the butU^ry and 
galvanomDlcr, were joined by the 
wire whose resistance, R, mu to be measured. 

When the current is rtoady it is divided between the wire 
the galvanometer circuit, and prt^uces » certain iwrmanent 
lloxion of the galvanometer. If the coil Ai \a now remorcd quickl^ 



■ • BaitimnaiB dtr OctutentM tod wslohar din IbMuUH bdadtttf •UtirliB 
SbNlineaUiiMfl.' i'oyjp. daik. )»ri (April 1M»>. 


Ota A^ Aiul placed in a position in which tlic coefilciont of mutuftl 
[induction between A^ and A^ is zero (Art. 53S}, a current of induc- 
bioa i* produced in both oircuita, and the galvanometer needU 
ivw an impulse which produce* a certain tmneiient deflexion. 
The rcsiiitnDce of the wire, H, ia deduced from a comparison 
etween the permanent deitexlon, dae to the steady current, and th^ 
Dsti^nt deflexion, due to the current of induction. 
Let the resistance of QG-i,/" be A", of PA^BQ, B, and of PQ, R. 
Let X, M and A' be the coefGoients of induction of A^ and Aj . 
Let i be the current in G, and y that in £, then the current 
from P to Q is i—^. 

^Lei E be the electromotive force of the batter/, tlien 
(^K+B)x-By+~(U+My) = 0, (I) 


~Bi+iB+Ii)y + ^(Mx+Ny)=E. 



When the currents are constant, and everything at rest, 

(ir+i?)A-fly = 0. (S) 
If M now snddenty 1>ei?oraes z^ro on account of th« separation of 
Ai from Ja« t''*'*') intt'gratiug with respect to t, 

(K+Il)x~Ry-My = G. (4) 

-Rx+(B+S)y^3fi =JEdl = 0; (5) 

Substituting Uie valoe of^ in terms of « Irom (S), we find 

x_M (B^Il)(K+Ii) + B'> ,. 

i~ B {B+B}{K+B)-B' "' 


'When, ns in KirchhofT's experiment, both B and K are large 
punxl will) B, this (-quation it reduced to 

i R ^*' 

thiM quantiticd, x is found from the throw of tlic gah-aoomctcr 
) to the induction current. Svc Art. 718. The permanent cur- 
rent, A, i* found from the ])vrmAncnt dcHcxion due to the eteiuljr 
cumeDl; mw Art. 746. M w found cither by direct caliiilntion 
from tiro geometrical data, or by a comparifion with n pair of coiU, 
for which this cadculation bae boon made; see Art. 75S. From 

■VOU 11. B b 




tbwe three quantities R can b« dctorminod in eloctronuigo«tic 

TI10BC mcthoda involve the determmatioD of the period of ribra- 
tion of the gah-anometei ma^aet, and of the logaritlimic dvcranu-nt 
vritM oscilUtions. 

freier's Method iy Traiu!fHt Currentt*. 
760.] A coil of considerable etze is mounted on an axle, so as to 
be capable of revolving about a vortical diameter. The wire of tbu 
coil 18 connected with that of a tan^nt ^Iv&nometer so as to fonn 
■ nng'le circuit. Let the reeistance of this circuit be It. Let the 
large coil be placed nith ita positive face perpendicular (o the 
mogDctic meridian, and let it be quickly turned round half a 
tulton. There will bo an induced current due to the earth's 
Di^tic force, and the total iiuimtily of ck'ctrieity in this curre nt il 
electromagnetic miusure will be 

where ,7, is the magnetic moment of tiie coil for unit current, whi* 

in the catso of A large ooil may be dctcnnined dirMtly, by nten-^ 

euring the dimeaaioas of the coil, and calculating the sum of the 

areaa of it« winding*. // is tlie horixoutal oomponoDt of borrcstria) 

ma^ctiem. nnd R is (he rpHistance of the vireuit formed by the 

ooil and giilviinomcter together. This current sets the magnet of 

the galvanometer in motion. jH 

If the magnet ia originally at rest, and if the motion of the coil^ 

occupies but a Kmall fraction of the time of u vibration of the 

magnet, then, if we neglect the resistaaoc to the motion of the 

magnet, wo have, by Art. 740, 

// T 
Q = -^-2mn\0, (25 

where is the constant of the galroDometer, T » the time of 
vibration of tlie magnet, artd $ is tbe obMTved eloogaljon. Prom 
these eqaationH we obtain 

The value of U docs not appear in tlus remit, provided it ia 
same at the poeitien of the coil and at that of tJie galTanotnetcf 
This ehould not be asauuied to be the case, but abonld be tested 
comp&ring the time of vibration of the asame magnet, flr«t at one of 
tfacco places and then at tbe other. 

* £Ml. lUaa.: at Fogs., •^"- ^'^='^- >>' (1851). 








701.] To mnlw n »crie« of observation)) Wcbcr began with the 
vriil jKintllel to the magm-tic miTiiHan. Hu tin-n turned it with its 
|Kj(iitive face nortli, Hiul observed llic (iret eloni^tion due to the 
negative current. He ttien observed the second olongution of (Iio 
fn>eiy g^^ini^ing magiict, and on tLe return of the magnet through 
the point of equilibrium he turned the coil with its positive fnou 
Kouth. This eauned the magnet to recoil to the positive side. Tho 
eeries was contiuiicd as iu Art. 750, and the result corrcuted for 
feAistauce. In this way the value of the resi^tunce of the conibinccl 
circuit of the coil and galvanometer was ascertained. 

[n all Biich exporiments it is neceaaary, in order to obtain «n0i- 
tiently large deflexions, to make the wire of copper, a metal which, 
though it is the best conductor, has the disadvantage of altering 
conaiderahly in wsistaui'e with alterations of temperature. It is 
also very difficult to aeccrlain the temperature of every part of the 
apparatus. Hence, in ortlcr to obtain a result of permanent value 
from such iin experiment, the rcKistuncc of the experimental circuit 
ebould he compared witii that of n cttrefully constructed reeistance- 
ooil, both before and aftc^r eJich vxperimi.'nt. 

fFeber^t Method b^ ohervhiif the Decrement of the Otcillations 
of a MaifHtt. 

762.] A magnet of considerable magnetic moment ie suspended 
at the centre of a galvuuomuttr eoil. The period of vibration and 
the logarithmic decrement of the oscillations is ebserveil, firnt with 
the circuit of the giilvanonmUT open, and then with the circuit 
cloaed, and the conduL-tivity of the galvanometer coil is deduced 
ftom the effect which the currents induced iu it by the motion of 
tiie nttgnet have in resisting that motion. 

If 7' is the obiterved time of a single vibration, and A the Na- 
pierian logarithmic decrement for each single vibration, then, If we 
write ff ,,. 

and a = y (8) 

I the equation of motion of the magnet is of the form 

^ = Ce-*' eos {i»l+ 0). (3), 

[Thi* expresses the nature of the motion as determined by obser\';i- 
ftioa. We mu»t compare this with Uic dynamical equation of 

D b 3 



Let M be tbe coiifficit.'iit of induction between the galvanometer 
coil and tlic Ku${>codud mngnct. It is of the form 

where (?,, &,, &c. are coefficients belonging to the coil, ^,,^, ft«. 
to the magnet, and P\{6), 1*,{fi), &e. uv zonal harmonics of the 
angle betweea the ax<>s of the coil and the magnet. Si>e Art. 700, 
By a proper arrangement of the coiU of the gulvanometcr, and by 
building ap the suspended magnet of several magnet* placed side by 
side at proper distances, wc may canso all the ternu of M »n«r t' 
lirst t(j become insensible comxHirod with the first. If we uW |i 

^ =: 9~^> ^^ ^^3 writ« 

11= Gm»m^, (5) 

whore is the principal coeffiirient of the galvanometer, m \t 
taagnctic moment of the magnet, and lit the angle between 
axia of the mugnet and tlic plane of the coil, whicli, tu this 
periment, ik always a small angle. 

If J, in ilie coetflcieiit of seir-inductioii of tli« coil, and R 
resistance, and y the current in tlie coil, 

^(£7 + ilf) + fi). = 0, (I 

or 2-^+J?y+(?jfflC08<6-:^ = 0. t 

at at * 

The moment nf the force with which the currrent y acts on 11 

mag^Dct is y -^ , or Gm y cos ^. The angle ^ ia in this experime 

Ki small, that we may Mippose cos ^ = I. 

Let us BuppoM titat tJio equation of motion of th« mag^nefc ' 
the vireuit is broken is 


^^-^'^?^^* = 0' 


where A is tlte moment of inertia of the suspended apparatus, B 

expresses the resistance arising from the viscosity of the air an 
of the suspension fibre, &c., and C^ oxprwnMs the moment of the 
fon-e arising from the nuth's magnetism, the torsion of the sua- 
pcnsion nppnraius, Stc. tcniling to bring the magnet to its poaiti< 
of equilibrium. 

The equation or motion, u affected by the tnirrcut, will be 








To d«tennuie the motion of the magiiei, we have to combine ttiU 
oijiuition with (7) and eliminate y. The resnit is 

linear difiercotial equation of the third order. 
Vie hnve no occnsion, however, to solve this equation, liecauM 
the (Iiita of the problem are the observed elements of the motion 
of the magnet, and from these we have to determine tlie valae 

Lot 00 and wg he the values of a and w in equation (3) when the 
ircuit i» broken. In this cnso S is intinito, and the eqnation is 
doccd to the form (8). Wo Ihtu find 

Solving^ equation (10) for ^, and writing 

j7=— (a+iw), where i = •/—!, 





Since tbc value of w is in general much greater than that of a, 
the beet value of R in found by equating the terms in f m, 

& = 



W« maj also obtain a value of £ by equating tbfi termH not 
Iving I, but as theee terms are small, the equation is useful 
Hjr M a means of testing the accuracy of the observations. From 
tfaeae equations we find the following testing equation. 

Since LAn^ is very small compared with G^m*, this equation 
id equation (t4) may be written 

In this expression G may be determined either from the linear 
messnremcnt of the BJilvnnometcr coil, or better, by comparison 
with a standard coil, according to the method of Art^ "53. /( i« 
the moment of inertia of tbc magnet and its suspended apjuratu^ 
which is to be found by the proper dynamical method. <u, o,,, a 
ad Og, are given by obocrvntion. 


The detenninntion of the valne of m, the magnetic momcat ef 
tlip euspcnded magnet, is the moit difficult part of the invcstigatioii, 
becAUfre it ib iiffect«d by temperature, by the dtrtLV ma^tivtJc force, 
and by mL-chantcal violence, so that ^n?at cnro must be taken br 
measure this quantity when the mugnet u in the vcty same ctreuiQ- 
stances as when it ig vibratiug. . 

The second term of H, that which inToIvw L, in of teat import- I 
ance, as it te generally xmall compared with the first term. Tbt 
va\u6 of L may be determined either by ejilculation from the koown 
form of the ooil, or by an esperiaient oq the extra-current of to- 
ductioD. See Art. 756. 

Tiomion'a Metkod f^ a Sevolviiig CoiL 
768.'] This method was suggetited by Thomson to the Committee 
of the British Aiisociation on Electrical Standards, and the ex- 
periment was made by MM. Balfour St«wart, Fleeming' JeDldo, 
and the author in 1863* 

A circular coil is made to revolve with uniform velocity about a , 
vertical axis. A Bmall magnet is eosponded by a silk fibre at the 
centre of the coil. An electric current is induced in tiic coQ by 
tho earth's magnetiEm, and also by the suspended magnet. This 
current is periodic, flonnng in opposite dtn.ictioR8 through the wir« 
of the coil during dif^rent parts of each revolution, but the effect of I 
the current on the Kuwjiendcd magnet is to produce a deflexion from] 
the magnetic meridian in the direction of the rotation of the ooil. 

764.3 Let Jl be the horizontal component of the earth's nu^J 

Let y be the strength of the current in the coil. 

ff the total area inclosed by all the modiDgs of the wire. 
G the magnetic fotce at the centre of the ooil due to uoitr^ 

Z the coefficient of self-induction of the coil, 
il/thc magnetic moment of the suspended magnet. 
the angle between the plane of the coil and tho magnetio 

meridian . 
^ the angle between the axis of the «a«peadcd magnet andJ 

the nu^nctio meridian. 
A the moment of inertia of the suspended magnet. 
ifffr the coefficient of torsion of the suspension fibre. 
a the azimuth of the magnet when there is no torsion. 
S tho resi«t«nc« of the coiL 

• 8m Jbpori (/ At nMA AmtUOon/wr IMS. 




I The kinetic f acr<;^ of the system la 
The firet term, \Ly^, expresses the enei^y of the current lui 
dependiD^ on the coil itself. The second term depends on the 
mutual nction of the current itnd terrestrial tDagnetism, the third 
on thftt of the current und the magnetism of the saepended magnet, 
tJie fourth oil that of the magnetism of the suspended magnet and 
ifrrestrial mngrictijim, and the Inst expresses the kinetic energy of 
tbc matter eomposing the magnet and the suspended apparatus 
which moves with it. 

The }»otential energy of the suspended ftpporatus arising from tlie 
torsion of the fibre is 





The electromagnetic momentum of the current is 

jj = .p = Ly-IIg sin 6-MG sin («-*), («) 

Pud if S is the resistance of the coil, the equation of the current i« 


, Mnce $ = iot, 

(B+JL-^) y~ nso)C09$ + 3fG{u—i))cos{6—it>) 

765.] It is the result alike of theory and obeerratton that 4>- ^hc 
azimuth of the magnet, is subject to two kindu of periodic variations. 
One of these is a free oscillation, whose periodic time depends on 
e intensity of terrestrial magnetism, and is, in the experiment, 
seconds. The other is a forced vibration whose period is 
that of the revolving coil, and whose amplitude is, as wu shall 
insensible. Henoe, in determioiDg y, vtv may treat ^ tut 
eennbly constant. 
We Uius 6nd 


S^ + L'^* 

{Scos0 + LoiBin0) 




+ C/ 


The last term of thix exprcsuoa soon dies away when the rot«- 
ioQ is continued uniibrm. 




The equation of motion of the Huapended magaet is 
d^ T dT 


dV _ 


wbeooe A^—MQyQOi{0~^)+MII{faa4t-^r(^—a)) = 0. (11) 
Substitutiog: the value of y, and arranging the tcrmti ncconling 
to the functions of multiples of 0, then we know from ol>*erTati' 

^ = ^„ Jrbe-" cos 11/+C cos 2 (tf— (3), {\i 

where ^^ ifi the mean value of ^, and the second term expnwi 
the free vibrations gradnally decaying, and the third the forced 
vthrationa arising irom the variation of the deflecting current. 
Soginning with the terms in (ll) whiob do not involve 0, 
which must collectively vanish, we find approximately 

-g^^ J77^ (^ cos *o + /,» sin *,) + 0J«| 

= 2J/Zr(8in4o + r{^-o)). (1$) 

Since L tan </><, is generally small compared to 6g, th« »olati(m rf 

tlic quadratic (13) gives approximately 




A = 





-(^Vdf-')'--*.}- (M) 

If we now employ the leading term in this expreesion in cqua^ 
tionR(7), (8), and(l]), weshall find t at the valitoof « in cciuatioD 

(12) is A/ ~7~ scc^o- That of c, the amplitade of the force^^ 

vibrations, is i-^sin^g. Hence, when the coil makes m«Qr 

revolutions during one'frcc vibration of the magnet, Ihc amplitnde 
of the forced vibrations of the magnet ie very email, and we ma; 
neglect tJie tenns in (1 1) which involve c. 

766.] The roBistanco is thuK determined in electromagnetic m< 
sure in terms of the velocity w and tb« deviation ^. It is n< 
neceeeary to determine H, the horizontal tcrroitrial magnetic foreej 
provided it remains constant during tbc viperiment. J 



To determine js we must make use of the suspended magnet to 

deflect the magnet of the magnetotneter, as de-scrilx-d in Art, *54. 
lu Ibis experiment M should be aaaall, 00 Uut thia correcUou, 
comes of Bcoondaiy importance. 



For the other corrections required in this experimeDt see th« 
1 ^the BnVuh AteoeiaHon/or 1863, p. 1B8. 

■Joale'a Calor'meiric Method, 

767.] The beat geDeratod by a current y in possinj; through ft 
leoDductor whose resistance is £ is, by Joule's law, Art. 242. 

i = j-fRfdt. (I) 

where J is the equivalent in dynamical measure of the unit of heat 

Hence, if It is constant during tlie experiment, its valae ia 


This method of determining R involves the determination of i, 
[the heat generated by the current in a given time, and of /, the 
square of the stren^rth of the current. 

In Joule's experiments *, A was determined by (he riae of tem- 
eniture of the water in a vessel in which the conducting wire was 
It WHS corrected for the effects of radiation, &c, by 
ltd experiments in which no current was passed through the 

The etrength of the current was measured by means of a tangent 
IvBOomotcr. This method Involves the determinatioa of the 
intensity of terrestrial magnetism, which was done by the method 
in Art. 457. These meiisurt^ments were also tested by the 
. weigher, described in Art. 720, which measures y* directly. 

be most direct method of measuring i y^ dty however, is to pass 

the current through a self-acting eleotrodynamometer (Art. 725) 

vitJi s scale which gives readings proportional to y, and to make 

Itiie observations at equal intervals of time, which may be done 

'approximately by tatinjj the reading at tlie extremities of every 

vibration of the instrument during the whole course of the esperi- 


• Report of ih* JlritUb JMtortatien far IS67- 


ooiErXKBON of the electrostatic with tub electro* 
magnetic ukit8. 

Determination of the Nnmher of EUdroitaiic Units of Etectrieitg 
in one Eleelromagnetic Uitit. 

768.] Tub absolute magnitudes of the electrical aaits id Wtb 
^steins depend on th« units of length, time, nod maM whicit we 
adoptj and the mode in wliich thoy tk-pcnd oh these units i« 
different in the two systems, so that the ratio uf the (tiectrical nnitt 
will be expressed by a diSeront number, ncoording to the different 
units of length and time. 

It appears from the table of (limenKions, Art. 628, that the 
mimlK'r nf electros t^itic unite of electricity in one electromaignetic 
unit variett inversely as the magnitude of the unit of length, and 
directly as the ma^itiide of the unit of time which we adopt. 

If, therefore, we determine a velocity which is ropreeentcd nn* 
merically by this number, then, even if wo adopt new unit* of 
length and of time, the nomher representing thiw velocity will still 
bo the number of electrostatic units of electricity in one <;Iectro> 
magnetic unit, iMcording to the new system of measurement. 

This velocity, therefore, which indicate* the relation betw< 
electrostatic and electromagnetic phenomena, is a nataral quaoti 
of definite magnitude, and the measurement of this quantity is one 
of the most important resoarcbes in electricity. 

To shew that the quantity we are in search of is really a velocity, 
we may observe that in the case of two parallel currents the attzac- 
tion experienced by a length a of one of them is, by Art. G86, 


' where C,C *n tine numerioal values of the eorrenta tu 

tro- I 




I magnetic mensiire, itnd b the distance between them. If we make 
is=2a, then jp_ CC'_ 
Now the quantity of electricity transmitted by (hi' current C 'm 
the time / is Ct in olectroma^Detio measure, or nCl in electrostatic 
meiisure, if n is the number of electrostatic units in one clectro- 
uagiietic unit. 
Let two smail conductors be charged with the ^uantitaec of 
electricity tmngniittcd by the two currents in the time t, KoA 
placed at n distance r from each other. The rejiolsion between 
thetn will be CC'k*t' 

F' = 


H Let the distance r be so chosen that this repulsion is e^ual to the 
H&ttractioD of the currents, then 

■Hence r=«(', 

Bor the distance r must increase witli the time i at the rate n. 

Hence ft !b a velocitj*, the absolute magnitude of which is the 
—^siunc, what«vcr units we asaiime- 

H 769.] To obtain a phytrical conception of this velocity, lot uh inuf 
■^ne a piano surface charged with electricity to the clcctrosUitic snr* 
■ faoc-dcnsity (t, and moving in its own plane with a velocity r. Thia 

moving elwitrificd surface will be equivalent to an electric current- 
Kvhcct, the Rtrcngth of the current flowing through unit of breadth 



lof the eurJace being av in electrostatic measure, or - trv in elec- 

magnelic measure, if n ia the number of electrostatic units in 
one eIet:troma^netie unit. If another plane surface parallel to the 
first is eleotrilied to the surface-density a, and moves in the same 
direction with the velocity r', it will be equivalent to a second 

He electrostatic repulsion between the two electrified surfaces is, 
Hby Art. 12i, 2ir<ro' for every unit of area of the opposed surfaces. 

The electromagnetic attraction between the trto curreut-shceta 
is, by Art. U53, 2irMK' for every unit of urea, w and a' being the 
surface-densities of the currents in eleelromagitctic meuKure. 



and w'= -irV, so that the attraction ia 

The ratio of the attraction to the itrpuldion U ocioal to th»i of 
vv' to n'. Il^noe. tiinoc tliu attraction nod tho ropulaiuii are qoan* 
titles of the same kind, n muNt W a ()tinDtitj' of ttie same Icitit] mi r, 
tliat is, a velocity. If vif. Dow HupjiuKe tlic velocity of esch of Ibe 
niDvlQ^ planes to be e^uai to », tlic attraotion nill l>e erjtml to the 
repulsion, and there will bo no RMtclianical action between tltem. 
Hence we may define the ratio of the electric unita to be a velocity, 
such that two electrified surfaoes, moving- in the samo direction 
with this velocity, have no mutual action. Since this velocity ii 
about 288000 kilometrcB per second, it is impossible to nuike ihit 
experimeut above described, 

770.] If the electric surface-density and the \Trlocity cao bo made 
so great that the magnetic force is a measnrablo iinantity, we may 
at least verify our supposition that a moving I'lcGtrifivd body it 
equivalent to an ciccti'ic current. 

We may assume * that an electrified sarihec in air n'ottld 
begin to discbarge itself by sparlcs when tho electric fonoc S«« 
reaches the value 1 30. The magnetic force due to the currenL-aheet 

is 2jr(r -■ The horizontal magnetic force in Britain is about 0.1 T5. 

Hence a surface tloctrified to the highest decree, and moving with 
a velocity of 1 00 metres per second, would act on » magnet with a 
force equal to about one-four-thousandth part of the enrth'e hori- 
zontal force, a quantity which can be measured. Tlic eloetrified 
surface may be that of a non>conductiDg disk revolving iu the plam 
of the magnetic meridian, and the magnet may be placed «Iom to 
the ascending or descending portion of the disk, and protectwl frnm 
its eloctroatatic action by a screen of metal. I am not aware Uiat 
^^ tlii:< experiment has been hitherto attempted. 

^^P I. Comparison <^ Uniii of EfedrieUjf. 

W 771.] Since the ratio of the electromagnetic to the electrostatic 

I unit of electricity is represented by a velocity, we sliall in future 

I denote it by the symbol o. Tlie first numerical determination of 

I this velocity was made by Weber and Kohlraosch t. 

■ Their method was founded on the measurement of the same 

■ quantity of electricity, first in electrostatic and then in electro- 
I magnetic measure. 

I The quantity of electricity measured was the charge of a Lcydei 

^^^ jar. It WM nieuured in electrostatic measure as the product of 




* Sir W. TlwmBca, & 8. Pme. ovB«pcfat, Atf. alx. 

t f MArMfyMMMe MaaA^ntmmtm i and Pogg. Aim. Mix (Avf . 10, H 





capacity of tho jar into ttic difforenoc of potential of its coatiogs. 
The. cjijuwjity of thejiir was di-termiiicii by compiirisDi) with that of 
a sphtire BUBjwiidrtl in an o|icu s]iace lit n ilistuncc from other 
Iwdios. The capacity of hiioIi a sphere is cxjin-ased in electrostatic 
m>>aEiirc hy it« radius. Thus the capacity of tlic jar lany be found 
Knd cxpn^^ed a^ a certain leu^.h. See Art. 2S7. 

TIic dilTerenci' of the potj^ntials of tJte coatings of the jar was mca- 
cured by connecting the coatings with the plectrodcs of un electro- 
meter, the constants of which were carefully determined, so that the 
differenee of tJie potentials, E, became known iu electrostatic measure. 

By multiplying this by c, the capacity of the jar, the chu^ of 
tlie jar was expressed in electrostatic meosarc. 

To determine the value of the charge in electromagnetic measure, 
the jar was discharged through the ooil of a galvanometer. The 
; of the tranfiient current on the magnet of the galvanometer 
unicated to the magnet a certain angular velocity. The 
maginet then swung round to a certain deviation, at which its 
Telocity was entirely destroyed by the opposing action of the 
earth's magnetism. 

By observing the extr«me deviation of the magnet the quantity 
lof electricity in the current may be determined in electromagnetio 
easare, aa in Art. 748, by the formula 

rhere Q is tJie quantity of electricity in electromagnetic mMson. 
^e have therefore to determine the following quantities: — 
//, the intensity of the horizonljil oomponeul of terrestrial mag- 
aetism; see Art. 4 S6. 

0, th« principal constant of the galvanometer; see Art. 700. 

T, tbc time of a tingle vibration of the magnet ; and 

$t the deviation due to the transient carrent. 

The value of v obtiuned hy MM. Weljcr and Kohlrausch was 

T = 310740000 metres per second. 
The property of solid dieleetrios, to which the name of Electric 
Absorption has been given, renders it difficult to estimate correctly 
'the c«pacity of a Leyden jar. The apparent capacity varies ao- 
ooidtng to the time which clap^^cs between the charging or dis- 
charging of the jar and the miAsiircmont of the potential, and tJte 
longer the time the greater is the valno obtained for the capacity of 
lie jar. 



HoDCO, eiuce the tim« occnpiod in o1>Uiniag a reAdiog- of tin 
elcctroiueter is large in comparison witti l.lie time during- which the 
diidiargv tUroup^h the galvanometer takes ptace, it is probable that 
the estimut« of the dicchargo in electrostatio measure is too h^,l 
and the vuluc of v, derived rrom it, ih probably alao too high. 

IL » txpretsed as a SeaU(anM. 
772.] Two other methods for the detenaination of v load to an 
cxprcKsion of its value in terms of the reaistance of a g:iven con- 
ductor, whieb, in the electromagnetic sjrstem, is also expressed ae a 

In Sir Willium Tliomson's form of the experimeoit, a ooDstaot 
current is made to flow through a wire of great reeistonoe. VIm 
electromotive force which urgeit the current through the wire is mea- 
sured electrostativally by connecting the extremities of the wire with 
the eleetrodcH of an absolute electrometer, iVrts. 217, 218. Ute , 
strength of the current in the wire is measured in eloctromagnctic M 
measure by the deflexion of the suspended coil of an elcctrodyna- " 
ntomotcr through which it passes, Art. 72S, The resistance of tJi* 
circuit is known in electromagnetic measure by comparison with a 
standard coil or Ohm. By multiplying the strength of the current 
by thin resistance we obtain the electromotive force in clcctro- 
niftgnetic measure, and from a comparison of this with the elcctio- 
stutic mcasun^ the vuluc of v ts obtained. 

ThU method rdiuircs the eimoltaneous determination of two 
forces, by means of the electrometer and clcctrodyoamometer re- 
spectively, and it is only the nitio of these forces which appears in 
^ the ivsult, 
^^P 77S.] Another method, in which these forces, instead of being 

^^^ separately mciistirt^'d, are directly opposed to each other, was em- 

■ ployed by the present writer. The ends of the great rcsistjince coil 
I are connected witli two i>arallel disks, one of which is moveable. 
B The same difference of potentials which sends the current through 
H the groat resistance, also causes an attraction between these diaka.! 

■ At the nme time, an electric current which, in the actual experi- 
H ment, was distinct from the primary currents <>■ tent through two 
B coils, fastened, one to the Ijnck of the fixed disk, and Uio other to 
B the l>sck of the moveable didc. Tlie current Bows in oppgsit^ 
B directions through these coils, to that they repel one another. By 
B adjusting the distauoe of the two disks the attraction Is exactly 
^^^ balanced by the rcpolsion, while at the same time another ohBenrer, 




ipy BMftDS of a difTtTODtial f^Ivanomef«r with shunts, tlet^rmines 
the Tttlio of the primary to tho secondary cumnt. 

In this experiment tlio onlymcasiiromeut which most ho roferrod 
to a material irtandurcl in that of the g^reat resistance, which must 
be detcTmiDed in ahsoluto meiisnre hy comiiarison with tlic Olim. 
The other meaaurGmcnts are required only for the deti;rmiiiution of 
ratios, and may therefore be determined in tcmis of any arLiitrary 

Thus tile ratio of the two forces is s ratio of eqnnlity. 

The ratio of the two currents is found by a comparison of r«i(iHt> 
ancea when there is no deflexion of the dtiferential galvanometer. 

The attractive foroe depends on tlie stguare of the ratio of the 
diameter of the disks to their distanee. 

The repulsive force depends on the ratio of the diameter of the 
coiU to their distance. 

The value of v is therefore expressed directly in terms of the 
rttsistance of the great coil, which is itself compai'ed with the Ohm. 

The value of c, as found by Tliomson's method, was 28.2 Ohms * ; 
by MaxwtU'g, 28.8 Ohmsf. 

III. Elecfrotlalic CujiacUy in EUetromagnelio Measure. 

774.] The capacity of a condenser may he nsct-rtaiued in electro* 
aetic meaoure hy a compariiiOD of the electromotive force which 
liKes the charge, and the quantity of electricity in the current 
' discharge. By means of a voltaic battery a current is maintained 
'through a circuit containing a coil of gnuit resistance. The con- 
denser is oharged by putting its electrodes in contact with those of 
the resistance coil. The current through the coil is measured by 
tlie deflexion which it produces in a galvanometer. Let ^ bo this 
deflexioB, then the current is, by Art. 742, 


'here If is the horizontal eompooont of terrestrial magnetism, and 
I'C ia the principal constant of the gnlvanometer. 

If A is the resistimoe of the coil through which this current is 
to flow, the ditTereace of the potentials at the ends of the 

■ Btjiori t4 Hn'tUh Anwialimi, 1 fiflO, p. 4S1. 

i PhU. TtaM., ISeS, p. 61S ; Mxl £qwn of BriMi Aitoeialion. 18S9, p. tS«. 

coupARisoH or oyiTS. 

and tlie charge of electricity produced in the condeaser, wluw 
cApacitj in electromagnetic m«iieiirD is C, will be 

Now let the electrodes of the condenser, und then those of Hw 
^Iranometcr, be disL-ooDocU'd from the circutU, and let the magnet 
of the galvanomotcr he hroiight to rest at its position of equili- 
brium. Then let the electrodes of the condenser be connected witb 
those of the gnlvanomeb.>r. A triinsicnt current will flow tbron^fa 
the galvanometer, and will oause the ma|*nct to swinff to an ex- , 
trcmc deflexion 0. Tlien, by Art. 743, if the dtMhargv \a equal to I 
the chm-jje, }£ f 

We thus obtain as the value of the capacity of the coodi 
electromagnetic measure 

_ T 1 2m\\& 

^ ^S ^~- ^^ ^ ■ • 

T It tan <t> 

The capacity of the condenser is thus dctennined in terms of th« 
following quantities '— 

T, the time of vibration of the magnet of the fralvanometer &om 
rest to rest. 

J?, the resistance of tho coil. 

6, the (Txlreme limit of the ifwing produced by the discharge. 

0, the conKtant deflexion due to the current through the coil R. 
This methoil was employed by Profeinor Flecmiufir Jcnhin in dflt«r- 
minin^ the ca[)acily of condenaent in electroma^ctic meaaorc*. I 

If c be the capacity of the same condenser in electroetatic meo- ^ 
sure, as determined by comparison with a condeu^er whose capaci^ 
can be calculated from \U geometrical data, 

T ism\0 
T!ie quantity v may therefore be foond io this way. It depends I 
on the determination of R in electromagnetic measure, but as it " 
involves only the square root of i?, an error in this determination 
will not alTect the value of f so mnch as in the method of Arts. 
772, 773. 

Inlrmiilcnt Current. 

776.] If the wire of a battery-circait be broken at any point, and 

• fi9M ofStkiA Jbtotiatiim. ie«7. 




tli« broken eii^a connected with tti« oU'c^trodot of it coiiKlpn«cr, tin- 
I current will flow into the condonwer with a «treng:th which dimin- 
isliee as the diSerenoe of the pot«ntiuU of tbv vondcneer incrciucs, 
so t]iat when the condvnser luw roceivcd the fiiU chikrj>o com- 
spondin^ to the electromolivv force acting on the wire the current 
I oeBMfl ontirelr. 

If the electrodea of the condeiuvr btc now disconnected from the 

ends of the wire, and then again connc^et^Hl with them in the 

■i reverse order, the condenifer will <Iiii«tiar^ itself thiwigh the wire, 

and will then become roe)iurg«d in tho opposite wnj-, eo that a 

traosietit current will flow through the wire, tlie total quantity of 

* which is equal to two chitrgCH of the condenser. 
By menns of a piece of inechnnijim (commonly called a Commu- 
tator, or KJppe) the operation of revcning the connexione of tb« 
condenser can he repeated at regular int«rvaU of time, each interval 
being equal to T. If thia interval is sufTiciently long to allow of 
the complete diw^hargo of the conden^r, the quantity of electricity 
tnin«nitt«d by the wire in each interval will Ik* 2 KC, where E k 
iho electromotive force, and C is the ciijnwity of the condenser. 

■ If the magnet of a gj1vunometerinclud«<l in tlic circuit is loaded. 
BO as to swing eo slowly that a great many discharges of the eon- 

I denser occur in the time of one free vihrntion of the magnet, the 
Bnccession of discharges will act on the magnet like a steady current 
whoee strength is 2/.'C 

If the condenser is now removed, and a resistance coil substituted 
for it, and adjusted till the §teady current through the galvano- 
meter produces the same deflexion as the succession of discharges, 
and if i? is the resistance of the whole circuit when this is the case, 

m. ^^1^. Ml 

■ yUe mt 
B motion to 

R = 


id- P") 

We may thne compare the oondenser with its commutator in 
* motion to a wire of a certain electrical rcBistanec, and we may make 
use of the different methods of measuring rcBistance described iu 
Arte. 315 to 357 in order to determine this rcsisfanoo. 

776.] For this purpose we may suhstitutv for any one of the 
wires in the method of the Differential Galvanometer, Art, 340, or 
in that of Wlieatstone's Bridge, Art. 347, a condenser with it* com- 
mutator. Let na suppose that in either case a sero deflexion of the 

VOL tt. C C 




galvanomoter lias bcvn ol>t«tn(i], firsl with the cotvleoaer and com- 
tDutfttor, and then wiUi a ooil of rvtirtancc R^ io its place, tl 

tli« qtiautity —^ will bo measured by the renstaooe of tlio circui 

which thf coil /?, forma part, aiid which in oom))l(rt«d by the n- 
tnaiodcr nf thfi oonducting system including tho battery. Uma 
tli<! rcBistanw, If, which we have to ealcuinte, i* wjuaJ to 7?,, tint 
of the n-KiittAnce coil, together with H^, the re^isltuice of th« 
mainder of the system (including the battery), the extroinitjef 
tliv ri'»istiiDCe coil being taken as the electrode* of the oyKtvtn. 

In the cases of the diflercntinl gah-anumet«r ii»d Wbentcl 
Bridge it is not neoeaaary to make a second experiment by su 
tuting a resislanoe coil for the coudcnscr. The value of tlic Tv»i 
auoe required for this purpose may be found by calculation (nta 
the other known resistances in the system. 

Using the notation of Art. 347, and supposing the condenBTf 
Aod oommutntor substituted for the coaductor JC in WheatMt<me'ii 
Bridge, and the g»1 vniKuncti-r inserted in 0.^, and tltal the dtiflt'xion 
of the giitvuuomctcr is xcro, (lien we know that the resistance of 
coil, which placed in AC would give s zero deflexion, is 

The other part of the resistance, R^, is tliat of the sj'^tem of co' 
ductors AO, OCf A£, BC and OB. the points A and C being- con- 
sidered as the electrodes. Hence 

g __ ;i(o + a)(y4a) + w(y + a) + ya(g+a) 
* (c + a)(y+o)+j9(fl + a + y+a) 


In this exprettsiion a denot«s the internal rvviKtitnee of the bftttery 
and its connexions, the valne of whieh cannot be detormined with 
crrtuinly; but by m;)king it small comiwrcd with the other re«i»t> 
ances, tliis uncertainty will only uligbtly afTiwl the value of &^, 
The value of the capacity of the condeniier in eluclromagn 
measure is "p 

777.] If the condenser Itas a lai^ capacity, nod tlie commutator 
is veiy rapid in its aotioo, tlie conden«er may not bo fully discbai;g^U 
The equation of the electric current dorii^ t^lfll 


at each reversal, 
discharge is 

« + ^C^?+.jSC«0, 


where Q b the charge, V the capacity of the cotulenBcr, It. tl 



reoistaDoe of the rest uf the system betn-e«n the vlt^ctrodos of the 

ooDdoiiser, and E the eleetrouaotivo force due to the cuniivxiouH 

' with the battery. 


Hence q = {Q„-i- BC)e'^-EC, (7) 

whore <?„ is the initial value of Q. 

If T i& the time during which eontaet is maintained during each 
dtBchorge, the quantity in each discharge is 

q = 2Ec 

i-t 1^ 


1 + ^ «.c- 
By makings e and y in equation (4) large compared with ^, a, or 
tt, the time represented by Rfi may be made so email compared 
with r, that in calculating the value of the exponential expreseion 
we may use the volne of C in equation (5). We thus find 

where B, is the reeistance which must be substituted for the con- 
deoficr to produce an equivalent effect. R^ ia the resistsnce of the 
reat of the system. T is the interval between the beginning of n 
dischargu and the beginning of the next discharge, and r is the 
duration of contact for each discharge. We thus oUtaiu for the 
] corrected \-aIue of (7 in electromagnetic measaro 

1— fl *» '^ 

IV. Gmparitm of t/ie Efeetroatalie Capaeiiy <f a Cond<m<-r with 
lie EUetromagnftk Capacity of Sflf-inductitm of a Coil. 

|_ .J76.] If two points of a conducting 
circuit, between which the rc«iHtnace is 
S, are connected with the electrodw of 
a condenser whose capacity is C, then, 
when an electromotive force act« on the 
cironit, part of the current, instead of 
passing through the resisluncc R, will 
be employed in charging the condenwr. 
Tie carrent through R will tlierefore 
rise to its final value from iMtro in a 
I gradual manner. It appears from the 

athematical theory that the manner in which the current tJirough 





cosTPABisos OP fjwra. 

It rises from ziyro to its fina] value is czprcMcd by a fononla U 
exactly tbe sunv IcinO u« tbat which vxpri-^se* tbo value of a cur* 
rvnt urfreU by a uoQKtunt electrroniutive (otou tbrougli the doU of aa 
el«ctromii{^nct. Henoe vie may plncc a condenser uad nn electn>- 
tnftgnetr oti two opposite mtMnbers of Wheatslone'ii Hrid^ in exh 
a wuy tUal. the current thraogh the galvanometer in alMniys xen, 
even lit Uu- iuptmit of making or Itrealcing tlic buttery circuit. 

Id the 6giire, let P, Q, R, $ be the resistaDces of the four mcin- 
bere of Wbeatetone'e Bridge respectively. Let a coil, wIiom- &» Hi- 
cieut of 8clf-induetion is L, be made part of the member AI/, wImv 
resistance is Q, and let the electrodes of a condeneer, whose capacity 
is C, be eonuected by pieces of small resistaoce witb tbe iMiinU F 
and Z. For tlio sake of simplicity, we shall assume that there in on 
current in the ^galvanometer G, the elec-trodee of which are con- 
nected to F and //, We have therefore to determine tbe condilioo 
that the potential at /' may be equal to tbat at II. It is only when 
we wish to estimate the degree of accuracy of the method that we 
require to calculate the current through tbe galvanometer wh^a 
this condition is not fulfilled. 

Let « bo the total quantity of electricity which haa pancd 
through the mcmlicr AF, and e that which has passed through FX 
at the time /, then x—: will be the charge of the condenser. Tlie 
electromotive force acting between the electrodes of tbe eonden«ci 

is, by Ohm's taw, R jr , so that if the capacity of the oondenscr 



Let y be the total quantity of electricity which has passed throng 
the member A/l, tbe eicctfomotive force from A toll must be wjtial 
to that from A to /', or 


^tie^^dt' ^ dt 

Since there is no current through the galvanometer, tbe quantify 
vhioh has patu.ed through ///must be abo^, and we find 


Substituting in (2) the value of r, derived from (t), and com- 
paring with (3), we find as the condition of no current through Ibu 





The conilition of no 6nni cumeiit is, as in tlie ordinary form of 
I Vh^aUtone's Bridge, Qg _ $p_ /^\ 

The condition of no current at making and breaking the battory 
oimexioD ia /: 

•^=XC. (6) 

Here V. and AC arc th« timc-coiisUnts of the merabem Q and R 

respectively, and if, by varying Q or H, we can adjust the members 
of Wheatstone's Bridge till the galvanometer indiciit«M no iiirrent, 
cither at making and breaking the circuit, or when tliB current ia 
steady, then no know tliat the time-constant of the coil is equal to 
that of the condenser. 

The coefficient of wif- induction, /, ojin be determined in electro- 
magnetic mensiire front a compiirison with the coefficient of mutual 
induction of tiro drcait«, whose geometrical data are knowD 
(Art. 7oG). Tt is » (juantity of the dimensions of n line. 

The eajmcity of Ihtj eoi)den:«er can be determined in i-lcctro^latic 
mcftKUrc by comiiarison with a condenser whose geometrical duia 
are known (Art. 229), This quantity is also n length, e. The vioc- 
troinagnctic mcaoure of tiie capacity is 




■ Subatitnting this value in equation (C), we obtain for the value 

where e is the capacity of the condenser in electrostatic measure, 

»/. the coefficient of self-induction of the coil in electromagnetic 
meaiiure, and Q and II the resistances in electromagnetic mca«uru. 
ITie value of r, as determined by this method, depends on tho 
determination of the unit of resistance, as in the second method. 
Arts. 772, 773. 


V. QmliinttfJoH of tie BUcfro^attc Capacity (f a C<md<nur teitk 
ike EUeffomagK^ie GipaciSy of Srlf-indtietitni of a CoU, 

779.] Let C he the capacity of the condenser, the *urfaces of 
which are connected by a wire of resistance R, In thii: wire let the 
coila L and L' be inserted, and let L denote the xum of their ca- 
pacities of self-induction. The coil L' is bung by a bitiUr snspen- 
sioa, and consiste of two coils in vertical planes, between which 




pn^cfi a vi-rticnl axis which carries the tnagnet 3f, the axis of wbiek 
roTolvog in a horizootal [ilaae between the coils L'//. The coil I 
hoe a large coefficient of yclf-inductian, and is fisetl. The eik- 

pended coil L' is protected from th* 
currents of air caused by fbe rota- 
tion of thv nuLgitct by encloeing tb 
rotating yaii» in a hollow esse. 

Till,' motion of the mog-uet 
ctirrent« of induction in the ^-oil, and 
tilt-He are acted on by the 
so that the plane of ike si 
coil is deflected in the direction of 
the rotulion of the magnet, lirt 
us determine the Klrcngtli of tic 
induced currents, and the mitgnit 
of the detk'xioD of the 8wpei>«]< 

Let X he the charge of electricity 
on the npper Btirface of the condenser C, then, if £ is the electro- 
motive force which produces this charge, we have, by the theory of 
the condenser, g — crjf. (j 

Hg. •}*. 



We have also, by the theoiy of electric currentR, 



where 1/ is the electromagoetic momttntum of the circnit I/, when 
the axis of tlie magnet is normal lo the plane of the coil, and in 
the angle between the axiei of the magnet and this normal. 
The equation to determine x is tlierefore 

aP at at 

If the coil is in a position of cquilihrinm, and if tlic rotation 
the magnet is uniform, the angular velocity being a, 

e = n(. (4) 

The exprowion for the current consists of two parte, one of wbidi 
is in<te|>cndei)t of the term on the right-hand of the equation, 
iiod diminislieM acoording to an exponcutial function of the time. 
The other, which may be called Hiv forced curroot, depends entirely 
on the term in 0, uud may he written 



Finding llie values of A ami £ by »uWtilutiou in the wiUJitton (3), 
pe obtain JtCnco9d-(l-Cf.n^«a0 

Tb« momtrnt of thv force with which the magnet acts on (he coil 
V, in wliicli the currvnt m it flowing, heinf* the reverse "f that 

KDg on the mu^oet Ibe coil bcini* by supposition fixt-d, i« 

Intpgrating this expression witli respect to ( for one revolution, 
kod dividing by the time, we find, for the mean value of 0, 

= -l 


If the coil has n considerable moment of inertia, its forofd vibra- 
tioaa will be viiyemiiU, and its mean deflexion will be proportionui 

Lut i)|. i>j, D^ be the observitl deflexions corrcfrponding to nn- 
iikr velooitius n, , n^, Wj, of the mngTiet, then in gcnenil 

P~ = (^-C£ny + R'C\ 


[where Pisa constant. 

Eliminating P and R from three equations of this form, wo find 



«»' ">*«.* »i 


If «ig is «ueh thnt CLti^' = 1, the valne of -^ will be a minimum 

Ifor this vnliic of ii. The other vnlucs of a should be tnken, one 
Igrvater. und the other Ivss, than i«^. 

value «f Cf/, determined from this c^tmtion. is of the dimca- 
I of the Kqitare of a time. Let u« call it t', 
IF C, he tlie elect rusLitic measure of tho capaeity of the oon- 
r, and L„ the electromajrnetic measure of the self-induction of 
» coil, both C, and X„ are lines, and the product 

C,£. = ^C.L. = v'C^L„ = v't'; (H) 

tr= —s—i 



whew r* ifl the value of C*£*, determined by this experiment. Th« 




experiinetit here so^i^fibtd as n method of drlermmin^ r is of tlw 
aatntt luitur^ as odo dcecribed by Sir W. R. Grovp, Piil. H/^^ 
March 181)8, p. 184. S«e also rcmurks on tliul *.-xi>unmvQt, by 
ynteat writer, in the ntimbcr for M»j I8G8. 



VI. Elffctro$ia(ic MeaMrettttttl of ItetiifttHCf. (See Art. 385.) 

780.] Lt't u condenser of capactly C be (lisctiarged t-hron^b a 
conductor of remittance R, then, if « is tlie diarge at aujr iostant, 

Hence » = Xf,e *-'. 

If, hy any method, we can make contact for a tihort time, whJvli 
i» accarat«ly known, so as to allow the current to flow throug'h 
conductor for the time I, then, if Eg and £, are tlie readings of . 
electrometer put in connexion with the condenaer before aod 
the operation, IiC(iog. S^- log. A',) = t. (3) 

If C is known in electrostatic meamirt! as a linear <)uantity, X 
may be fonnd from this equation in electrostatic meawirv an the 
reoiprooal of a velocity. 

If jK, i» the numerical value of the resiiiUnco as tlius detorniinod, 
aocl Ifm ^he numerical value of the resistance ia elect roma^etie 
measure, ff ^^ 

Since it is noceesary for this exporimcnt that S shoold be very 
great, and since H most be small in tho electroma^etic experi- 
ments of Arts. 7li3, Sic., the es|)criinei)t« must be made on e«|i*Tuti) 
conductors, and the rceistaneo of these uoodugtors compared by tho 
ordinary methods. 



■ be at 


78).] Ik WvithI parts of this trentie? aa attempt lias beffn rand« 
explain «U>ctroniii^i'tic ph«nomeiia by means of mfichanicRl 
Ktion trntiMiiittAiI fr«m one tMnJy to another by meimii of n mL-tUiim 
oceupjing Uik ajiaw between tiwm. The UDdiilutory theory of liglit 
alHO aiisuincs the existence of a medium. Wo have now to Hhvw 
tliat the pro[ierttes of iJic clectrom noetic medium are identical 
with thoBe of the luminifiTOti* mt^diiim. 

I To fill all space with a new medium whenever any new f\te- 
nomenon is (o be eitplniiiiil ih by no mcitOK philosophical, but if 
Uie study of two diQeriMit branches cif ecienoo bax inde{>endently 
Buggeated the idea of a medium, and if tlie propcrtitw which nauat 
be attributed t-o the minliiim in order to iKVount for eleclro- 
etie phenomena are of the Hnmc kind ns tlioae which we 
ttribute to the luminiferous medium in order to account for the 
phenomena of liffht, the evidence for the physical existence of the 
medium will he considerobly stren^hened. 

But the properties of bodies are capable of quantitatirc meaflnro- 
meoti We tJmefora obtain the numerical value of oome property of 
the medium, sueh ae the velocity with which a disturbance is pro- 
pagated thron^h it, which can be catculnted from electroma^iictio 
expcrimentfi, and aleo observed directly in the ease of light. If it 
should be found that the velocity of propagation of electromagnetic 
dietorbancee is the same as the velocity of light, and this not only 
fn air, but in other transparent media, we shall have strong reasons 
for believing thiit light is an electromagnetic phenomeuou, and the 
uombinatioD of the optical \^ ith the electrical evidence will prodiic* 
a conviction of the reality of tJte medium similar to that which we 
obtain, in the case of other kinda of matter, &om the combined 
evidcBCtt of the Kcmn's, 




782.] When light is omiUed, a oerUin amouui of coerg; 
exitendod by the luminous body, and if lh« liglit im aUxorbcd 
another body, tliiit body heoom^a heated, ahewiD^ tiuit it hu 
ceived energy from without. Durio}; the interval of time afi«r 
light left the first body and before it reaebed the second, it 
have cxist«d as oner^* in tho intervening space. 

According to the theory of emiFsion, the tranMmieHion of on 
U effected by the actual tranHfercnec of ltght-cor}>nKCu1ca from 
luminoue to the illuminiited body, currying with tlivm tlieir ki: 
encrjjy, tfsctber with any other kind of energy of which they 
be the rt'cepfaclcs. 

Accoi'<lin<7 to the theory of undulation, there is a material medim 
which fills the space between the two bodies, and it is by the actiw 
of contif^oiis parts of this medium that the energy i« paaeed on. 
from one portion to the next, till it renches the illuminat«d body. 

The lumiuiferous medium is therefore, during the poMRgc of ligbt 
through it, a rcceiitacle of energy. In the uudulatory thtwr}', » 
dvveloi>ciI by Huygciis, Frcsncl, Yonng, Green, Sec., this euerg;' 
is suj)])OKcd to be partly potential and purtly kinetic. Tlie potential 
energy iK Hup[)u«ed to bo due to the distortion of the eltmcnlMj* 
portions of the medium. We must therefore Tiegaid the mediutn h 
ebisliv. The kinetic energy i$ jitippoMHl to be due to the vibratory 
motion of tlio nicilium. We mu«t therefore regard the medium a * 
having a 6nite density, ^M 

Id the theory of electricity and mtgnettmn adopt4>d in llii^^ 
treatise, two forms of energy are recognised, the e)eetruiitatie antl 
the electi'okinvtic (see ArU*. 630 and 636), and tlieae are suppotHul 
to bare their mat. not merely in the electrified or magnetized 
bodies, but in every part of the surrounding space, where electric 
or magnetic force is observed to act. llenoe oar theory agrees 
with the unilnlatory theory in assuming the existence of a medjiun 
which is capable of becoming a receptacle of two forms of energy*. 

783] Let ns next determine the conditions of the -|>ro]ngMtion 
of ail electromagnetic disturbance through a uniform medium, which 
we shall suppose to be at re«t, thut is, to have no motion except th: 
which may bo involved in cloctromagiKtic distnrbftnce*. 


* ' Far my own )>*rt. coiialdnriiii; lliK rHtilioli •>t k vicunin (o Om majpieUc fi 
sad lliQ KuUHral cltkmrtiir i>f iiiunistio phuianuak •xt(<rti>il to Ihv ina|MI, I un 
inclinad to tliv antiiiu tliitt ia tha truumiBiiMi of tho forca Ihera u asdi wi tetiaa, 
•xMfittt la the ma^rt. thui that cbn •ffocto a(« iuanl;r aHtxi i na sad itfmUaa ■> > 
dUtWNo. Stub sn action nmy bu a (nuutluD ^ Uie nlbcr ; W U U a»t M ■!! nnlikei* 
Ihul, IT iian ba ka Mthrr, It ilioiilil lixvn oUiw met tbu Ktiofilf ik* cuiiBjiataoe td. 
ndiMSuiu.'— PmmI>^'b I'^f^malal /ionircAct, 9»i6. 



Lot C be the specific conductivity of the medium, K its speciGe 

[capRcily for cloctrostjitic induction, and n its mai^netic 'pcnne^ 


To obtain the general <>>{iiut Ioiik of cIcotromafTDctic disturbance, 

Ifte shall exprcM the true current G in terms of the rector potential 

fil and the electric potential 4*. 

The true current 6 is made up of the coniltiction current j^ and 
the variation of the electric displacement Ti, and since both of these 

I depend on the electromotive force @, we find, as in Art. 611, 
But since there is no motion of the medium, we may express the 
:electromotive force, as in Art. 599, 
I g=_a-U1'. (2) 

H«,o. 6 = -(c + ±;.|)(f+v*). ■ (3) 

I But we may determine a rehition between S and SI in a diOVrent 
way, as is eIicwd in Art. 616, the equations (4) of which may W 
twritten 4ir*iS = 7»?I+ W, (4) 

. . iiF dG dii 

Combining equations (3) and (4), we obtain 

^(4«C+A'^)(2^ + V*) + V*a + V/=0, (6) 

rhioh we may express in the form of three equations as follows— 



dt^^dl ^ ds- 

Ihwp arc the g<'ncral M{n»tions of elwtromagnetic di:sturbaiieoa. 
If we difTerentiate these equations with reiipect to jt, y, and t 
recpeetivcly, and aM, wn ohlain 

H^ If tltc medium ia a non-conduct<Mr, C = 0, and 7'^, whieh is 

^'proportional to the volnmo-denjtity of free electricity, b indejiendent 

gf t. Itence J must be a linear function of /, or a constant, or zero, 

and we may therefore leave 4 and '\ out of account in concddering 

eiiodic disturbances. 





Propanatioit ^ Unduiatioiu in a Non'<:imdtielittg Medium. 
7&4.] Id this case, (? =: 0, And the cxiujitions become 

The etiuatioDs in thia form ar« similar (o those of th« motiou of 
an elastic solid, and when the initial conditions an* {^iven, tbp, 
solution cao be exprtwed in a form gircn by Potsson *, uud appliedl 
by Stokes to the Tlieory of Diffraction t- 

' (10) 

Let us write 




If tb« vnluea of f, O, ff, and of j- . 

.,- t T7 are giT«a at erVjl 

point of space at the epoch (/ = 0), then wo can determine theii] 
TaluM nt nny eitV>sc[|ucnt time, /, as folloWB. 

Lot be the point for which wo wish to detrnninc the valae 
of /"lit the time /. With as centre, and with radius ft, dt-wrilie 
a sphere. Find the initial value of /'at every point of tlie oplu-riral 
surfaa.', and take the Huan, F, of ail thofo values. Find aivo tbo^j 

initial value:* »f 


the mean of these values be 

at cvcrj' point of the spherical surfiico, and lebl 


Then the vnlue of /'at the point 0, at (he timo ', ix 








785,] It appears, t]>eTief<>re, that the condition of thing* at tb€ 
point at any instant de{iends on the c<»idition of thing* at 
distance Vt and at an interval of time t ptevioosly, so that anj 
disturhance is propagated through the medium with the velot-ity 

Let us suppose that when t is zero the quantities ?I and 31 

■ MtM. dr TArtot.. Una. Ul, p. IM. 

■t- UamhrUtgt rnmtattiotu, vol. ix, {>. 10 il830>. 



■nttocnr of i-TGrrT, 

esce|vt tritbin a cerUin Rpace S. Then tKeir vu1uk« at at 

tlie time ' will be usero, unless the spherical surfiK'e duHi'tilied aliout 

lO as centre with Tsdius Fl lies in whole or tn part withia the 

I ^. If is out«ide the space S there will be no disturbance 

■t until n becomes equal to the shortest distanee from O to the 

B|)a«e S. The disturbance at will then beg'in, and will go on till 

\Fl is equal to the {rreatest distance from to any part of S. The 

Idisttirbancc at will then coase for ever. 

786,] The qtiantitr F, in Art. 784, which expresses the velocity 
of propa^tion of electromagnetic disturbances in a non-conducting 

Kxnediuui is, by equation (9), e<iual to 


If the medium b air, and if we adopt the electrostatic system 
it meaanrcmeat, K = I and fi = — , so that T = », or the velocity 

of propagation is numerically equal to tlic nninber of electrostatic 
■unite of electricity in one electromagnetic unit. If we adopt the 

eU-ctromagnetic system, A'= -y and (4= I, so that tlie equation 
r= II ie still true. 

On the theory that light is an electromagnetic disturbance, pro- 
pagated in the same medium through which other electromaffnetio 
action* lire transmitted, F must be the velocity of light, a quantity 

Illio vuluv of which haa been estimated by several methods. On the 
other haud, v is the number uf electrostatic unita of electricity in 0D« 
electionuif^ctic unit, and the metliiidG of determining this quantity 
bave been described in the lust cha[>ter. They are quite inde- 
liendcnt of tJie methods ol' iindiug the velocity of light. Hence 
the agrocmont or disagreement of the values of Tand of v furnishes 
a te«t of the electromagnetic theory of light. 

787.] In the following table, the principal results of direct 
observation of the velocity of light, either through the air or 
through the planetary spaces, are compared with the principal 
results of the comparison of the electric units :— 

Vslvdtj oT Li|[)it (iiilitrw par Hoomt], 

Kzeau 314000000 

Aberration, &c., and ) 

Sun's Parallax J'" 
^'oDcault 298S6O00O 

. 308000000 

FUUo at Eloctric Vnitn. 
Weber 310740000 

•Maxwell... 288000000 

•Thomson... 282000000 

[Tic nperimenU of (b« ComiDiUv* Of Um Dril^h AvMUtion fur thq Jcttr- 
(ID of tlw uiut of raiMtanM ia abtolut* UMuun ban) natndj bMO irpeatoJ 



It is maniPcgt tlmt the velocity of light and the ratio of (Jw* 
nri> <|uim(itii-« of tho samo order of magnitude. Neither of i 
can 1)0 »iul ti be detcrtniacd us yet with such a de^ee of ac 
M to CDRhle tis to assert that the one is greater or Ices than 
other. It is to Iw hoped that, by further ex{)criinents the relttk 
between the mitgDiiudcs of the two quaiititici) niuy bo more 
CQnt«ly deLermininl. 

In th<> meantime our theory, which assertit that thcso two qoaa* 
titles are equal, and ossig^DH a physical reason for thin cjiinh'ty, ii 
certainly not coutnulicled by the corapurison of these results rodi 
aa they are. 

788.] In other media than air, the velocity f i» inversely pro- 
portional to the (iquarc root of the product of the diflcetric and the 
ma^etic tnduotive eapaciliex. According to tlie undulutor^' theoij*, 
the velocity of light in difTcrent media is inversely proportiooa] to 
their indioee of refraction. 

There are no transparent media for which the magnetic cn|Micilj' 
diSers fi'om that of air more than by a very amall fraction. Uence 
the principal part of the dilferenee between these media muat depend 
on their dielectric capacity. According to our theory, therefore, 
the dielectric capacity of a transparent medium should be equal to 
the square of its index of refraction. 

But the value of the index of refraction is different for light of 
different kinds, being greater for light of more rapid Tibi»tioi)& 
We must therefore select the index of refraotion which correeponda 
to waves of the longest periods, because theae are the only wavea 
whose motion can be compared with the slow processes by which 
we determine the capacity of the dielectric. 

789.] Tlie ooly dielectric of which the capacity has been hitherto 
determined with sufficient accuracy is paraffin, for which in thu solid 
form MM. Gibson and Barclay found * 

K= 1.975. (12) 

Dr. Gladstone has found the following values of the index of 
refraction of melted paraffin, sp. g. 0-779, for the lines A, D and i?: — 

54 '€ 



1. 4499 





ti Dr. KchiuM' Kt til" CkVMdliA l^ihunl/nj. wMk tb* 

, . , , , ^t" eont, (mailer thui it *<■ iutuiiifed Uihr. Ttw afbet 

IBpOk tb iattt of Uie t^eeuiu nnlu ■■ fi*ca bj M«i*rdU uul Tbanuna woalil 
mini's tibta lij t»t pe> cnnt.] 
• mi. Tnuu..lS7l, p. SJi. 






which I fiii^ ttiat iim index of ttfnwtioii for wave* of iiirmiU 
ig^h w<iul<l bo ubotit t.432. 

e square root of K is l.*05. 

c (linVrenot bct.wittin thoMO nunibeni in greutiiM- thttn can be ae- 
>uated for by errors of observation, and shew^ Hint our thoorit* of 
e structure of bodies must be much improved before we .can 
deduce their optical from their electrical properties. At the same 
tim«, I think that the agreemeDt of the numbers is such that if no 
greater discrepancy were found between the numbers derivetl from 
ihe optical and the electrical properties of a considerable nimiiier of 
lubstauces, we should be warranted in coocludinjf that the square 
root of K, though it may not \te the complete eipression for th« 
iodex of refraction, is at least the most important terra in it *. 


Pittne ffaoet. 

790.] Let us DOW confine our attention to plane waves, the front 
of which we ehatl suppose normal to the axis of s. All the quan- 
ties, the variation of which constitute)) such waves, arc functions 
of s and i only, atid aro independent of x aud y. Hence the equa- 
tions of ma^K-tic induction, (A), Art. 391, are reduced to 




-J-. 6=jr' '^ = 0. 



br the mat^nctic dirturbanco is in the plane of the wave. This 
agrees with what wc know of that difiturbanoe which constitutes 

Putting' po, fi,S and ny for a, (i and e respectively, the eqnattona 
;l«Gtnc currents. Art. 607, become 


d*F ^ 

iv^^ = --^=- — 


i^^p= _=__, 


Hence the electric disturbance is also in Ihe plane of the wave, and 
if the magnetic disturbance is confined to one direction, ray that of 

* pn ■ iMHr md to the Rojal Booitty on Jane li, 18TT, Dr. J. UepUnam givM 
i« ronlti or expcrimonla dihIo for tha purpoM of detPnniDtng tile ipoelfic ItiiiiK^tiro 
itir* otruioot kind* of sfi^. TticM renilM do not vurlfy tli« ibmndli-al ouii- 
oliMMu urliti) hi III Uio text, liiii valii* of K Mtix in •oir'h ram in "lora at Uial of 
Uio aqiiani of tlm r»rnul!v<> !i»li». In * mlmwiurat jnyn to thu KnykI i^-ialy, Ra4 
on Jkn €. tfisl, Dr. Hopkimixi find* tiuit. if tim dmolc the Jn-jci of Tefr.iction bv 
«a«H of iiifinhv Unc^, [lien K • fi'w fbr hydnoarLoiiL but for uJuul and <cDvUl>la 




r.tiie electric tlisturbanoc la confiaed to the perpcmliculnr dii 
or that of jr. 

Dut vre may citlculitte tho electric disturbaooe in auotber 
for ify, j/, i UTC the coiiipoDCnt« of electric displacement in a 
couilactin^ mt^liiun, 

d/ df M 

1£ P,Q, R an) tliv compooentit of tli« electromotive force, 
A' K ^ . K 

•^=n^' '=4^«- 



and Kince there is no moUoD of the medium, equations (B), Art. 59^1 




O- ^^ 




K d*G 

CMuparin^ these r»)ii«e with those ^ven in eqnatioD (11), wv Gwl 
d^F .. d'r 
dz^^^" de ' 
^G .. d»G 

Q = K,i 


The Grst and fiec^ind of these equations are the equations of 

pagatioQ of a plane nave, aod their wlc 
tiou is of the welUkuown form 




The solution of tlic third equation is ■ 
Jl^A + Bt, (21) 

where A aud Ji are functions of ;, // to 
therefore either couatant or varies directly 
with the lime. In neither case ean ij 

(die part in the proportion of waree. 

791.] It appears frotn this that the 
directions, both of the ma^ettc und tlie 
cloi'tric ditAurlMWOH, lin in the plane u: 
lhi> wave. The malhvmaticnl fonn of 
diKtiirhattcc therefore, Of^rrnF wi(li thai 
the disturbance which concliluleii light, 
being transverse to the direction of propagation* 

Fig. GS. 


If we suppose G = 0, the diaturbauoe will correspond to a plniic- 
slarizi'd ray of light. 

The magnetic force is in thia case par&Ilel to the axia of y aiid 

1 IP 
vaa\ to ~ -^, aiid the «lcclromotivc forco in parulU'I to the axis of 

^aod equal to — -^. The magnetic force is therefore in a plane 

Ipcrpvitdiciilur to Lhitt which contains the electric force. 

The value:* of the ina^Detic force and of the electromotive force 

1 itt a ^iveti inhalant at different points of the ray are represented in 

rig. 65, for the case of a simple harmonic disturbance in one plane. 

This corresponds to a ray of plane- polarized light, but whether the 

plane of polarization corresponds to tho plane of the magnetic 

Lirbance, or to the plane of the ck-ctric dieturbaoce, remaing to 

kteen. See Art. 797. 

Energy and Slreta of PaJialion. 

79~2.] The electrostatic energy per unit of volume at any point of 
ie nave in a nou-oonducting mediuu] is 



lie cloctrokinclic energy ut the same point is 


8;r inp, ivfi dx 

virtue of equation (20) these two expressions are eqaal for a 
single wave, so that at every point of the wave the intrinsic energy 
,of the medium is half electrostatic and half electrokinetic. 

Lct/> be the value of either of these quantities, that i«, cither the 
Blectrostatic or the electrokinetic energy per nnit of volunie, then, 
^in virtne of the elec-tro^tatic etat« of the medium, thert- \<s a U-n«ioD 
whoMi magnitude is p, in a direction parallel to x, combined with a 
priwsnre, also equal to/), pamllcl to j/ and :. See Art. lOr. 

iln virtue of the electrokinetic state of the medium there is a 
cnKJoD equal to /i in a direction parallel to j', combined with a 
treffiure e(]uiil to p iu directions parallel to x and .*, See Art. 643. 
Henoc the combined effect of tlie electroKtalio and the clcctro- 
[inolic rtlrecws is a pramre equal to 2p in the diixction of tho 
iropAgation of the wave. Now 1p also expresses tho whole enCi^ 
R unit of volume. 
HencL- in a medium iu which waves are propugaletl tlieie ia a 
VOL. 11. D d 

lOirenC THEORT OF uonT. 

pressure in Uie direction nonnal to thv warcKj adiI untni 
equal to the enerj:)- in nnit of volume. 

793.] Thas, if in strong eunligbt the energy of the light «hi«4 
fftlle on one eqaare foot ie 83.4 foot pouiidit per second, the mtn 
ener^' in one cubic foot of sunliglit is nhoot 0.00000008^2 of a fix* 
pound, and the mean prcsauro on a Kiuare foot is 0.0fl0oo00d83af > 
ixinnd weight. A flat bodjr exposed to sunlight would cx|tenMtt 
this pressure on its illnminalwi side only, and would th<'refore tt 
lepcUcd from the side on wliit-h the light falls. It is prol>ablc thil 
a mnch gn-nt^-r energy of ntdiiition might W obtained by mems at 
the oonct-atrat^-d rays of tlw vlectric lamp. Such rays falling on a 
thiu oiflaliicdisk, delicately suspended in a Tacuum, might |>erhai>t 
produne an obstTvabU; mechanical eOect. When a diatarbane* of 
any kind eonniits <^ terms involving aiiies or cMioes of angtn 
which vary with the time, the maximum energy is double of Um! 
mnui energj'. Hence, if /* is the mazimnm electromotive force 
and ii the uaximnnt in^>n«tic force which are calkKl into pby 
during the propagation of light. 

— P^ = -— 3* = moan energj" in unit of voluniei, 
8 ff Hit 


With Pouillft's data for the energy of siiulight, as quoted by 
TliomsoQ, Tmat, H.S.E,, 1854, this givej in electromagnetic m' 

P = 60000000, or aboat COO Daniell's cells per rodtre ; 

j3 = 0.193, or rather more than a tenth of the hotizoutal 
netio force in Britain. 

ru 111 

PropaffaiioH vf a PlatK Ware in a CiytfalliuJ ifediam. 

7M.] To calculating, from data ruriiish<;d by ordinary electr 
magnetic esperimonts, the electrical phenomena nhieh would result 
from periodic distDrlumoes, millionii of millions of which occur io 
second, we have already put our theory to a vert' severe test, eve 
when the medium is supposed to be air or vacuum. Itut if 
attempt to extend our theory to the case of dense media, we U 
involved n<tt only in oil thi' onlinsTT difficulties of molecular tbcorii 
but in the deeper mystery of the relation of the molecuU-s to 
elcctromagnctio medium. 

To cviidr tlii'si* diflicidlics, wc fhall assume that in cerl^iin mtilij 
the specific cnpucity for elvclTostntic induclion is ditrenml in dif 
ferent dlrecttouB, or in otlier words, the ekotric diephiccnieat, it 


■d of bein^ in the same direction as the; electromotive force, un<l 

proportional to it, is related to it hy a system of linear c-(|UiitioDS 

limilar to those given in Art. 297. Il may be shewn, tw in 

Lrt. 436, that the systi'm of «oefncients must he symmetrical, so 

Itnt, by » projier choioe of axes, the eijuatioiis become 


5 = Aa;«2, i = ~K,s, (1) 

pwbere ^|, K^, and Kj »re the principal inductive capacities of the 
medium. The equations of propagation of disturbances are therefore 
d^J^ ^ d^G 

tfiG d*G 
dx' dy* 


dUI _ ,d^F d^*. 
= ^■f' ( rf^ - d^J 


= ^^^Kdfi~A.dV' 

dydx djrdy ■' ^dfi Jydi 
dzdx dylf: ~ "*" W/* d£dt> 



795.] If /, m, n are the direction -cosines of the normal to the 
I wuve-front, and V the velocity of the wave, and if 

h^my-^-nz— Vl = w, (3) 

knd if w« write f", 0", //", +" lor th« second different ial ooeffi. 
[ei«nt« of f\ Q, II, ♦ nspcetively with resjiect to v>, and put 

^iM = ::5' ^j'* = ^. A*)fi = 3' 

I wh«rc a, h, e are the three principal velocities of propagation, the 
' equalionc become 

(«a+„E_ ^) r'-i»icr-nm"~ r*"^ = o, 


-ImF" -i (»» + ;»- ~) ff'-mnir- f*^ - = 0, 

-«//"'-«nG"+(/»+M»-^)fl''-r*"^ = 0. 

796.] If wc write 

1^ «* •« 






' wc obtain from these ecjuatiouH 

rV{VF''-i^') = 0, 


Uenee, eitb«r Fss 0, in wbicb caee Uiu w«ve is not propagated ut 






all ; or, V= 0, which leads to ILc cciuntion for f g-ivon hy FresofJ ; 
or the quantiUn within briirkcU vaninh, in whioh caiw th« vector 
whose componcntv arc t", O", H" U nnrnial to the wavo-fronl and 
proportioniil (o th« electric volume-density. Since the medium is 
a non -conductor, the electric density at any given point ia con^toiit, 
and tlicn^forc the disturlmnee indicated by these equations i» not 
periodic, and cannot constitute a ware. We may therefore con«d«r 
•V'= in the investigation of the wave. 

797.] The velocity of the propa^tion of th« wave is therefi 
complett'Iy determined from the equation P = 0, op 




= 0. 


There arc therefore two, and only two, values of f^ correspoodio, 
to n {fivcn direption of wave-front. 

If A, fi, r are the direction^oosines of the electric corrent wl 
component* are «, v, «p, 

then ;A + m;t + iif = O; (1 

or the carrcnt is in the plane of the wave-front, and its dinctioi 
in the WKvc-front is dfrtcrmined by tlie equation 

These equations are identical with those given hy FresncI if we 
dftltne the plane of polarization as a plane tlirough the ray per- 
pUHJicular to the plane of the electric disturhaitce. 

According^ to this electromagnetic theory of double refraction the 
wove of normal diKturf>anoe, nhielt conctitutex one of the chief 
(lifficnlties of the ordinary theory, do<M not exist, and no new 
aaaiimption is required in order to account for tite fact that a ray 
polarised in a principal plane of the crystal is refracted in the 
ordinary manner*. 

Refatitm ielwcm S?«irie ConducticUf aitd Opaeif)/. 

7^.] If the medium, irutead of being a perfect insulator, ia 
conductor whoso conductivity per unit of volame is C. the di 
turbonce will consist not only of electric displocemcnte but of 
cnrreat* orcondnclton, in which electric energy is transfoTmod into 
heat, to that the unduliition is abfiorb^d by the niedinm. 

* S«t SlolMa' ' Itcpoet on Double RrfbaUen.' Brii. J^te. Btrot*. ISOi, p. US. 




ir the distarbaBc« is expressed bj- it circular function, we nuy 
write /?= «-"«.«(«(- J.-), (1) 

for this n-ilt Katisfy ttie ei|iuit)OD 

d^f „d^F , „dF 

Bridcd y"-/)* = p.Kn\ (3j 

[ud 2jt7 = 4irjxC7«. (4) 

The Telocity of propagation is 

and the coefficient of abaorptiOD is 

p=2ii^Cy. (G) 

Let R be the resistiince, in elcctromagnolic measure, of a plate 
whose length \b t, bresidth 6, and thickauss ;, 

The proportion of the incident light wliieh vrill be tniusniitted by 
tlii« i)Ule will be 

799.] Mo»t transparent solid bodies are good insulators, and all 
^ood comluc'lors are rery opaque. There are, however, many ex- 
cq>t!ofU( to the Uw that the o]>acity of a body is the greater, the 
grcat^tr ilti conductivity. 

Kleotrolytes allow an electric current to pass, aud yet many of 
them are transparent^ We may supjmse, however, that in the oase 
of the rapidly alternating forces which come into play during the 
propagation of light, the electromotive force acts for so short a 
time in one direction that it is unable to eOect a complete sejiaration 
between the combined molecules. When, during the other half of 
the vibration, the electromotive force acts in the oppoiite direction 
it simply reverHca what it did during the first half. There is thus 
no trne conduction through the electrolj-te, no loss of electric 
energy, and consequent!}' no absorption of Hgbt. 

SOO.] Gold, silver, and plitttinmi are good conductors, and yety 
hen formed into very thin ptuten, they attow light to pass through 
th«ni. From experiments which I have made on a pii-ce of gold 
leaf, the icsixtanee of which was deU^rmiiuHl by Mr. Hockin, it 
appeuv that its tranitpareQcy is very much greater than is cou- 
nrtcDt with our theory, unless we suppose that there is less loss 



of Anergy when the dectron)otiv« forces are reversed for every seoi- 
vibretioQ of lig'ht than when they aot for sensible timeis, u bi osr 
ordinary experiments. 

801.] Let ua nest consider the aise of a nie<Iium in which lh< 
conductivity is Inr^ in proporfion to the iniluctive capacity. 

In this case we may Iottv<- out tht; term involvinjj K in the eqii»- 
tions of Art. "83, nrnl they tlion hecoine 


Each of these equntions is of the seme form M the equation of 
diffusion of heat frivcn in Fourier's Traifede Oaietir. 

803.] Takini; the firet as an example, the eomponent /* of 
vector- potential n-ill vary according to time and podlion in the skta 
way na the tnnpcrahire of u homoireneoiis solid varies according 
to time nnd position, the initial nod tho sarface conditions beinfj^ 
made to corresptrnd in the two csokx, and the quantity 4xiiC bein: 
numerieully equul to the reciprocal of the thermomctric corulitctivit 
of the inihftliincc, that is to say, the numitr of unit* of r-ofnmt 
tht tuhitance teiUi would (tf^ ieaUd one degree iy tie heal tchu-h /Mittt 
through a ittiit eiihe of ike tuLifanee, Iteo ofipotitefaeet o/" which differ 
bjf one degree of temperature, wiUg Ihs other facet are imfiemeable to 

The diiferent problems in thermal conduction, of which Fou 
hnx given the solution, miiy be tnuififormed into problem* in 
diifuiiion of electromngnet ic quantities, remembering that /', O, ff 
are the componeiila of a vector, whcreu« the tcmpemture, in Fouricr'i 
problem, is a wahir (juantity. 

Let UK t«ke one of the case« of which Fourier has given a com- 
plete volution t, that of an infinito mMlium, the initial state of 
which is given. 





[ nf Btat, p. ISS Snrt adkloD, p. 2ii tmrlli »JUkn. I 

An. asi. Tlin •<|UMi«) wbiMdvUnBiMa 111* (oNpontanh ' 
r a tima ( In t«niui Dr/(a, 0. y>, tik* isitial tsmpcmtaMafeJ 

• 8«a UmwiOI'* Theory «/ Btat, p. ISS Snit adkloD, p. aOA tmrlli »aUkn. 

1- TroiU it. la CAdl'ur. An. 881. ~ . - 

*, M ■ |">fut <j-, y, i) alWr i 
tbc pgitti (a. «, 7), !■ 

wbtn i !• Uie iharawm*tria MnlocUTity. 



The stslo of any point of the meilium at th« timo i it fonod 
by takiD" the average of the state of every part of tlii> mediant, 
ifche wci|^ht assigned to each part in taking the average being 


where r is the distance of that part front thepcHnteonsidered. Tbia 
average, in the case of vector-quantities, ia niost ooiivenicaUy taken 
iby considering each component of the vector separatt^ly. 

803.] We have to remark in the first plaoe. tliat in thi* problem 
the thermal conductivity of Fourier's medium is to be taken in- 
Tetsely proportional to the electric conductivity of our n»ediuitt, 
00 that the time rL^plirvd in order to reach an a.iiii^'iteil vta^ in 
the procees of diffusion is greater the higher the electric conduct- 
ivi^. This statement will not appear paradoxical if we remi'mhcr 
the result of Art 655, that a medium of infinite condiietivity fi)rmn 

^a complete barrier to the process of diffusion of ma^etic force. 

H In the next place, the time re<iuisit'> for the production of an 

Vsasigned stage in the process of diffusion is proportional to the sijuara 

Bof the linear dimensions of llio system. 

B There is no determinate velocity which can he delincd as the 
velocity of diffusion. If wo attempt to meusurc this velocity by 
ascertaining the time requisite fur the production of a given amount 
of disturbance at a given distance from the origin of disturbance, 
wc find that the Miiiillcr llie Kelcetcd value of the disturlwince the 
greater the velocity will apiK-ar to Ihs for however great the distance, 
and however small bhu limi;, the value of the diaturbance will differ 

I mathematically from xoro. 
This peenliarily of diffusion disfinpruishes it from wave-propaga- 
tion, which tukcx ptace with a definite velocity. No disturbance 
take* place at a given point till the wave reaches that point, aud 
wlien the wave Iiasi passed, the disturbance oeasca for over. 

801.1 Let tis now investigate the process which takes place when 

tan electric current begins and continues to flow through a linear 
circuit, the medium surrounding the circuit Wiug of finite electric 
DOlulootix'ity. (Com|>nro with Art. OGO.) 
When the current begins, its timt effect i» to produce n current 
of induction in the parts of the mt-diuni close to the wire. The 
direction of this current in opposite to that of tJie original current, 
and in the first instant iitt total quantity is equal to that of the 
original current, so that the electromagnetic effect on more distant 
,rU of the medium is initially aero, and only rises to its final 



vilite sm the induction-current die^ away on accoant of tbe el«etra 
reHiiitance of the muJinin. 

But aa th« ii)i]»c1 lon-cnrrent close to the win dies away, a tie* 
induction-citrrent in ^nerated in the medium heyond, so that the 
•pace oocupiod by the induotion-current is continually becoming 
wider, while iU intensity is continually diminUhiR]*-. 

T\m diiliuion and decay of the induction-cnrrcot is a plirao- 
menon precisely anatcg^ous to the difTusion of heat from a part of 
the medium initially hotter or colder than the n^t. We most 
remember, however, that since the current is a viTtor qoaulity, 
and since in a circuit the current is in opjMUto directions at op- 
posite points of the circuit, we must, in <4tlcuUling any ^iren com* 
poDcnt of {he iiiduction-current, compare the problem n-itb oae 
in which equal quantities of Heut and of cold are diffusod bam 
neighbourin'^ places, in which rase the effect on diiitant points viJI 
be of a smaller order of ma^iitude. 

805.] If the current in the linear eircnit is maintained oonstaat, 
the induction current*, whieli depend on the initial chanf^ of state, 
will g:radua]ly be diffused and die away, leaving tbe medium in its 
perninnent state, which ist auato^us to the permanent state of tbe 
flow of heat. In thiti statv we have 

throughout the medium, except at the part occupied by the cireoit, 
in which vt/-^4,^ 

rtO=<„r. I (3) 

Tlicsi! cquntions are snffieient to delOTmine the vatnes t>{ P.G.M 
throughout the medium. They indicatr that Ihi-rc arc no cunvots 
exoej)t in tJio circuit, and that the mngnctic force* nre simply those 
due to the current in the eircnit aecor<lin^ l« the onliniiry theory. 
TTic rapidity with which this permanent nUiU- i» csdihlishcd is go 
ffrcat tliat it oould not be measured by our ex|«erimenl«l methods, 
exwpt perhapii in the case of a very brge mas* of a higlily con- 
diicling medium nuoh as copper, 

NoTK — In a paper puldishcd in PogrsendorlTs Annals, June 1867. 
M. Lorenr. luw dedooed from Kirebhoff's equation of cli-etrir cur- 
TvnU (I'offg. ./«»,cii. 185G), by the addition of certain tcnu* which 
do not nflWt any experimental rcstilt, a new set of e(]uati<ins, tiMli- 
cating that the distribution of force in the electromagnetic 6cld 
may be Coticeirml as ari»ing from tbe mutual action of contignoua 





jplements, and that waves, consietiDj* of transverse electric carnmt*. 
ay be propagated, mth a velocity eomparaWe to that of light, in 
^non-eondtictini* mcdiii. He tbcrcforo rc^rds the digtiirbanoe wlitcb 
^ COD eti tilt es It^ht ns identical with these electric oiirrents. and he 
[ shews that condiioting media must bo opaque to such radiations. 

ThcHi' conehisions are cimilar ffl those of this ohnpter. thoiif^h 
Fobtaincd hy an entirely diflVTeiit tncthfxi. The theory given in 
this etiapter wns fir«t published in tbc PMt. Trant, for 1803. 



806.] The most important step in establishing a rclatioii between 
electric snd magnetic pb«nDmet)a unci thoBO of liffht must be th* 
discovery of some instance in which the one Get of phcnomeoft » 
afTvctfid by the other. In the search for such phi>nomenn wo must 
be guiJctl by any knowledge wc may bav« uliyjuly obtainetl with 
r«N[ioct to the mathciDaticiLl or geomi-tricul form of th« qoantitie* 
which wp wish to compare. Tliu», if we ftndciiTour, as Mr*. Sonutr- 
ville did, to magnctixe « needle by nKonit of light, wc must re- 
member tliuL tlie didinction 1>etween magnetic north and itoutJi it 
ft mere matter of direction, and would be at onee rereraed if 
reverse certain eonventiona about the use of matlieiuatical eigaa. 
There is Dothiug in magnetism annlof^us to those phenomena 
chK^rulysis which enable us to diatiiiguieh positive Irom negative 
rloctricily, by obscrvins that oxygfin appears at one pole of a cell 
and liydnigi-n ut the other. 

Hence nc must itot cxpoc-t that if wo make light fall on on« end 
of a needle, that end will become a pole of a ixTtain naniv, for thu 
two poles do not differ as lit;ht docs from dnrknecs. 

"Wo might expect a bctt«r result if we cauMil circubrly polariz<MLi 
light to fall on the needle, right-bandit light falling on om^ end 
and Ieft<lianded on the other, for in some reepecte these kinds of 
light may be said to be related to each other in the same way as 
the poles of a magnet. The analogy, however, is faulty even here, 
for the two rays when combined do not neutralize each other, but 
produce a plane polarized ray. 

Famday, who was ac^iuainted with the method of studying thit 
strains produced in transparent solids by means of polarized light, 
made many cxporimenta in hopes of detecting some action on polar- 
i£<-d light while passing through a medium in which electrolytic 
conduction or dielectric induction exists *. He was not, iiowever, 

■ StftHtrntaf Stmrdim^kdlH smI SSI6-2nO. 




(o d«tect an}- adtoD of this kind, thoug^h the experimenU were 
nged ia the way b«st adapted to di§oorer effects of tension, 
!« elei-tric force orciirrent being at right anglofl to the direction 
the ray, and at an angle of forty-five degrees to the plane of 
polarization- Farsdar varied these experiment* in many waya with- 
out discovering any action on light due to eWtrolytic ourrenta OP 
to static (.'leclrie induction. 

I! lie succeeded, however, in eetabliahin;* a relation between light 
^od mignetisra. and the experiments by which he did so »re <1e* 
■scribed in tlie nineteenth eeriee of hifi Experimentai Bc*Mr<^Jir». Wo 
•hall tak« I^raday'a dieooTery as onr etarting-point for further 
investi •Ration into the nature bf ma^etiem, and we ehatl tborcfon) 

I describe the phenomenon which he obeervcd. 
807.] A niy of plane-imlarizod tight ie transrDitt4.'tI through a 
traiivjinrcnt diumiignctic medium, and thv plane of its polarizjition, 
wIh'H it emerge* from the medium, is ageertain^'d hy obftcrving the 
position of an unuljRcr when it cuts off the my. A magnetic force 
is thi-n made to at-t to that the direction of the force within the 
tranHjiar^'iit medinm coin<-id«! with the direction of the ray. The 
liglit at once rcapt>o(int, but if the auiilysiT i» turned round through 
■ certain angle, the h'ght is ngnin cut off. This iihen^ that the 
eflVet of the magnetic force is to turn the plane of jwlarizal ion, 
round the direction of the ray as an axin, through a ei'rtain angle, 
im>a«ur('d hy tlte angle through which the analyser must be turned 
in order to cut off the light. 

80H.1 The angle through which the plane of polarization is 
turned i« projiortional— 

(1) To the diftance which the ray travels within the medium. 
Hence the plane of polarization change* continuously from ita posi- 
tion at incidenne to ita poaitJon at emergence. 

(2) To the intensity of tbe resolved i<art of the mngnetio force in 
tlie direetion of the ray. 

(3) The amount of the rotation dejwnda on the onturo of the 
medium. No rotaljoa Itaa yet been observed when the medium is 
air or auy other gaa. 

These tiiree statements are included in the more general onv, 
that the angular rotation is nnmerically equal to the amount by 
which the magnetic potential increases, from the point at which 
the ray enters the medium to that at which it leaves it, multiplied 
by o eoeflieient, which, for diamagnetio media, ifl generally positive. 

SOd.J In diamojfnetic aubetanoea, the direction in which the plane 



of polariution h miwle to rotate ts the same as the direction in viaA 
a pocitive current must circulate round the ay in order to pi 
a magnetic force in the same direction aa that which actually rniU 
in tlie medium. 

Verdet, however, disooTered that in oertnin fcrroma^trtio medi^ 
as, for instance, a strong solution of percliloridc of iroo in wm^ 
spirit or ether, the rotation is in the opposite direction to the eujntf 
wfaieb would prodaoe the ma^Dctic forc«. 

This shews that the diSerence between rerromn^ctic and dia- 
magnetic i-iibstanecs doi!« not arise merdy from the ' nm^ctic per- 
mcnbility ' Wioff in the first case greater, and in the twoond l«as, 
than that of air, hut that the pioperttn of the two claaws of bodies 
arc really opposite. 

TIr- powtrr acijuirwl hy n Kubstanco under the actioa of magnetic 
foroc of Totatinff the plane of ]>olariz»tion of light i^ not enutlyfl 
proportional to its dianiagnetic or ferromagnetic magiiiitimilnlity. ^ 
Indeed there are cxeet)tion!i to the rule that the rotation in ixwilive for 
diamagnetic and negative for ferroiaagitutie aubstanoca, for neutial 
chromate of potash is diamagnetic, but produces a n^ative rotatloB. 

810.] There are other substances, which, independently of tbt . 
application of magnetic force, cause the plane of polariEation to'fl 
turn to the right or to the left, aa the ray travels throu;^ the sub- 
vtance. In some of these the property is related to an axis, as in 
the case of qaartz. In others, the property is independent of 
direction of the ray within the medium, as in tnrpentinc, soluti' 
of sugar, Jtc. In all these substant-cs, however, if the plane 
polarization of any ray is twisted within the medinm like u nt;ht> 
handed screw, it will still be twistwl like a rig'lit-hunded si^n-w if 
the ray is transmitted through the medium in the oppositft direction. 
The direction in which the observer has to turn his analyser in order 
to oxtingiiisb the ray aAer introducin<^ the medium into ita path, 
is the same with reference to the observer whether the ray coroe^^ 
to him from the north or front the south. Tlie direction of thefl 
rotation in space in of courw reversed when the direction of tltc ray is '' 
reversed. Bnt when the rotation is produced by magnetic action, its 
direction in spooc is the same whether the ray l>e tmveUiug north 
or sonth. The rotation is always in the same direction as that of 
the electric current which produces, or would produce, the acinal 
magnetic state of the field, if the medium belongs to the (lOsitJTO 
elaas, or in the oppoaitc direction if the medinm bvloug» to the 
negative cbus. 

IS m 

3 olH 




^B It follows from this. Unit if tlic nty of lij^ht, alter passing throug^h 
^BJi« m«diiim from norlli to Month, is ri'llocti'd hy a mirror, eo ns to 
^Bvtiini through the mpiliuin from eoulh io north, tho rotatiou will 
^H^ doubled wh«n it re^ilbt from magtu-tic iiclion. When thi; rota- 
Htion dqipo'l* on tho nntiiix- nf t hu ineilium aloiu*, as in tiirpoi»tiii«, &v„ 
Hthc ray, whtii rcflcctitl bai.k throiif^h the mwiium, emerges in Hut 
^HuM plnD« la it entered, the rotatinn during thu lintt poMOgft. 
^Hhroiigl) the medium having been exaetlj' reversixl (lurio^ the 

^B 811.] The phy«ioal esplanntion of the phenomenon present* con- 
siderable diflicultics, which can hardly be said to have been hithi;rto 
overcome, either for the magnetic rotation, or i'ur that which 
certain media exhibit of themselvefl. We may, however, prejxirt! 

the way for such an explanation by an analyeia of the observed 
It is a well-known theorem in kinematics that two uniform cir- 
ular vihrutions, of the same amplitude, having the same periodic 
lime, and in the same plane, but revoh-ing in opposite directions, 
are equivalent, when compounded together, to a rectilinear vibra- 
The periodic time of this vibration is equal to that of the 
Pcircular vibrations, its amplitude is double, nud it« direction is in 
ithe line joining the pointii at which two. particles, dt^'Scribing the 
Bironlar vibrations in opposite directions round the same circle, 
rould meet. Hence if one of the circular vibrations has it« phase 
lecclerated, the direction of tlte rectilinear vibration will be turned, 
the same direction as that of the circular vibration, through an 
angle equal to half the acct-Iomtion of phase. 

It can also bo proved by direct optical csperintcnt that two ray« 
of light, cimilarly-polNT7zed in opjwsite directions, and of the same 
intensity, become, when united, a plane- polarized ruy, and that if 
by any means the phase of one of the cireHlarly-polarized rays is 
accelerated, the plane of polarization of the remiUaut ruy in turned 
mind half the angle of acceleration of the ph«»c. 

812.] We may therefore express the phenomenon of the rotation 

of the pinue of polarization in the following manner: — A plano- 

> my fallo on the medium. This is equivalent to ttvo cir- 

bnlarly-polarixcd ravK, one righi-handed, the other tefl-handed (as 

(ganin the olmerver). After juiasing through the niediuni the ray 

I still plane-polarized, hut the plane of polarization is turocd, eay, 

I the right (a.* reg;ird=i the observer). Hence, of the two circularly- 

rized rayo, that which is right-handed muat have had its phase 

Kisnnc AC 



to the 

obDok IIS- 



In iOhKT wsiia, th* ri gh l-lMMJrf i^ bas perfbroMd a giwbf 

BHobn tf libntiMH. 



wit^B tbc Brdioat, tkaa tfce hft l—iM nr which baa Um 

Tlua BHid* of (Utia^ what takes plaee im qait« iailffpeikdeat tf 
aay tivMrf of 1%^ for tkoagk w* am toA Ions as wsn-lea^ 
cnrnlar^polafiiatiaB, ke., wbidi onj bi aapoented in oar ntadi 
with a i«rti«dir Smm of tk« nada l atoty Xheorj, the rgaaoaiiif » 
iaiepadMA of thu Mwciition. aod depends unljr on fiwrts pnnd 
by cxpRUBvnt. 

SIS.] lit i1 iiiaiiidnr tiir irraligTmliT nf rrnr iiniiiiiii iiji 

st a gimi iartant. Anv Bntlolatian, the tnotiaD of which at mth 
point is areolar, mxj W rapnaeBtcd by a beGx or aemr. If Uw 
■ovw is made to nrolTC about its axis witbovt anr longitnltiul 
aoUoii,caelt particle will deanibe a ciide; and at the mmt tunstlM 
ptopagatsoa of tfas aod d at io a will be fcpw aeBte J by tb« appannt 
lawitudiasl notion of tbe nmilariy HtaBted pBCts of tbe tbraad of 
the screw. It t* easy to see that if tb« screw is rigfat-iiandnl, aad 
th« obsenr«r is placnl at that end towards which the undoUtioB 
tiarel^ the motaoo of the senw will appear to him left-I 

that is to say, in the opposite i 
rectioD to that of the baods ■ 
wsfe^ Hsaee such a ray bas 
beeo called, onginally by Fmuih 
writei*, bat non lij the whole 
eeieotifie worid, a lefi-ba 
colarly-pobrized rsy. 

An^bt-hiuided nrcoUrly-i 
ized ray is rrpreseoted in 
natiDrr by a left-haodifd 
In t^. 66 the right- luln■l*^i K 
J, oa the rigbt-hiinil or Uie H^fi': 
represents a left-luuided ny, luul 
tbt^ left-handed hrlix /Aon thr li-(l' 
band, repraeats a right-bawled 

814.] Let us nun- rfiaaider two 

KOt-h Tvyt which bar* the same 

Tbey wv i^eometaually aUka in. 

-h— de^_l 

ods4>f ^^ 

ware-leagth within the nedinm. 





fall rc¥p<.-ct«. oxcc'i)! that one is t1i« pervernon of the other, like it« 
uma^o in x luokiiig-gIii»s. Ouu of thom, hou-ev«r, siiy A, baa a 
uliortcr period of rutntion thnii the other. If the motion is entirely 
rau0 to the forces culled iato piny hy the displacement, thJa ebetvs 
kbkt greater forces are cnllcd into play hy the same ilitplaeement 
hrfa«n the configiimlioit is liki^ A than when it is like B. Ilenco in 
Blii* ouc the le(V-huiided ruy will be aroclerated with rE«|>ect to the 
pight.'hitnded ray. and thi* will be tlio case whether the rays are 
hraveUiiig from S to S or from S to A'. 

1 This therefore is the explanation of the phenomenon av it is pro- 
Muccd by turpentine, &e. In these media the displacement caused 
my n circularly-polanzed ruy calls tnl^ plav grcjiti^r forces of resti- 
Itution when the onli^uration is like A than when it Js like B, 
The forces thus defiend on the eoiifig-uration alone, not on the dir«c* 
tion of the motion. 

But in a diamagnetie medium acted on hy magnetism in the 
direction S/V, of the two screws A ami B, that one always rolales 
with the greatest reloeity whose motion, as seen by an ey« looking 
from S to y, appears like that of a watch. Hence for rays from S 
no X the right-handed ray B will travel quickest, but for rays 
from N to S the left-handed ray A will travel quickest. 

816.] Confining our attention to one ray only, the helix B has 

[exactly the eame configuration, whether it reprcHints a ray from S 

isK one from N to S. But in the first instsncu tho ray travels 

^ftod thervfonc the helix rotates more rapidlj-. Ilcnee greater 

forces are called into play when the helix is goin^ round one way 

tluiD when it is going round the other way. The fbrct*, tlierefore, 

I do not depend solely on the configuration of the ray, but al«o on 
the direction of the motion of its individual parta. 
816.J Tlie diatiirbance which constitutes light, wliatever it» 
physiml nature may be, is of the nature of a ve<;tor, perpendicular 
lo the din«tioii of the ray. This is proved from the fact of the 
interference of two rays of light, which under certain conditions 
producea darkmiiu, combined with the fact of the ood interference 
of two rays polarized in pinnee perpendicular to each other. For 
since the interference depends on the angular position of the planes 
of polarization, the disturbance mnst be a directed quantity or 
Te<)tor, and since the interference ceases whi'n the planes of polar- 
ization are at right angles, the vector representing the disturlmuce 
must be ])erpendieular to the tine of ioWnoction of these pbnes, 
m tliat is, to the direction of the ny. 




817.] The disturbance, hemg & rector, can bo resotved into cna 
pon«ats pamllel to x and jf, ihn txis of 2 bein^ |>ara)I«I to 
diivcttoD of tbe my. Ix.-t ^ and 7 b« tlwse componi-uU, then, lo^ 
case of a my of homo^neous circuUrly-poUrized ligrht, 

f = r cos tf. If = r Ein 0, 
wborc = Ht—q:i-a. (ij 

III tkft^e espreasions, r denotes the loa^Uudc of tfa« vector, wij 
6 the angle which it Duike« with the direction of Uie axis of*. 
The ]H;rii>dic time, r, of tbo disturbance k snch that 

iar = 2ff. (X| 

Tho wavc-leo^tb, k, of the disturbance is such that 

;A = 2ir. [4| 

The velocity of projMigation is - • 

The phiute of the didrtiirbancc nheo t and r are both zero is a. 

The circularly-polariziKl light i» rigrht-handcd or lvlY-handi:J 
uec'oiding aa q \» wgalivc or jioKitivc. 

Its vibrations are in tb« positive or the negative direction of_ 
rotation in the plane of [x, y), according as a is positive or n^aliv 

Tlie light \» propag-.ited in the prisitire or tho negative direction 
of the axiH of f, uccording as n and j are of the Game or of opposite 

Id all media n varies when q varies, and y- it ain'ays of tlie same 

Ei^ with -■ H 

Henee, if for a given Dtimtrical value of a the valu« of - is 

greater when it is positive than when * is motive, it follows that 
for a vahiv of q. f>tven both in inx^iitiidc and sig^, the posittva 
value of a will be gr(«(«r than the nt-gative value. 

Now this is what is observed in a diamaguetic medium, aeted on 
by a magnetic forcff, y, in the ilircction of ^. Of the two circularly. 
p»lariz«d mys of a given periud, that is avcelfmti>d of which tli^j 
direction of rotation in the plane of (•b, ^) is positive. Hence^ o( 
two circiilurly-iiolartiti-d rays, both left-handed, whose wave lengtl 
within the medium iK the mme, that has the ahortsst period wl 
direction of rotation in the phtne of ty is positive, that is, the raji 
which is pro|)Mguted in the pokitive direction of e from south till 
north. Wc have therefore to account for the fact, ttiat when in thaj 
equations of the syntcm j and r are given, two values of m 





SBtisff the equatioDs, one poiitire ami the other oe^tive, the 
positive raluc beinjS' oumerically g^reater than tho nej^ative. 

818.J We may obtain the et^iialioRH of motinn from a conaidera- 
ioD of tbo potentifti and kinetio ener^es of the medium. The 
]>ot«ntiul energy, r. of the system depends on iU confii»uration, 
tlint is, on thv relative poeition of its parts. In so far as it d^peods 
on the dii^litrhanoe due to circularly- polarized lig:ht, it must be a 
fuDctioii of r, the amplitude, and ^, tbo coclficii'Dt of tonion, only. 
It muy h(- diirtTont for positive and ne^^tivo values of f of oqnal 
Dumerieal value, and it probiihly is so in the catw of mudi« which 
of themselve* rotate the plant- of polarization. 

"Hie kinclie energy, T, of the system \» a homogeneous function 
of the second degree of the velocities of the systflm, the eoelficienta 
of the different terms heing fiinctioiis of the coordinates. 

8IO.3 Let us voiLsider the dynamiuil condition that the ray majr 
Ite of constant intensity, tJiat if, that r may b^ constant. 

Itfgrange's et^uatJon for the fort^e in r become* 

41 dr df^4lr~^' 

ISioee r is conrtant, the 6rst term vanishes. We have thrrt^fore the 

'in which q is supposed to be j^iven, and we are to determine the 
value of the an^Ur velocity 6, which we may denot* by its actual 
value, n. 

The kinetic enert;y, T, contains one term involving n' ; other 
terms may contain prodacts of n with other velocities, and tho 
re«t of the terms are independent of n. The potentiid energy, /'. is 
entirely iDdcpcndcnt of «, The equation is therefore of the form 

AKfl + B»^C=(i. (7) 

This Wing a quadratic equation, gives two valnos of n. It 8p{>E-nr(t 
from exjieriment that both values are i^al. that .ono is positive mid 
I the other negative, and that the positive value is aumericidly the 
greater. Hence, \^ A w positive, botli B and C are aegativc, for, 
if K, and «, are the roots of the equation, 

J(a, + >4)+/t = 0. (8) 

The coeflicient, ?, tJiorHorc, is not zero, at least when magnetic 

force a«tK on the medium, We have therefore to consider the ex- 

[presaion Bn, which is the part of the kinetic energy involving the 

[finA power of n, the angular velocity of the disturhanoo. 

VOL. It. £ e 

meiTETic Acnov or uobt. 


820.] Every term of 7 ia of two dineiuiioQe u rOf^rds Teloctl]| 
ileacv tbe t«nn> iDvolrmg^ n must iaTolve Mino other vdt 
TTiis Telocity cuutot be »■ or j, becauie, io the cmtK we consider, ' 
r and ; are coiutaDt. Uenoe it u m velocity wbivh exists in tbt 
medium independentlT of (hat motion which cotutitattv light. It 
roust also be a velocity related to x in such a way tluit when it ii 
multiplied by • tbe resnlt i» a scalar (|aanlity, for only mxlar ^van- 
titics can occur as temu in tbe valoe of T, which i« itMlf ecsltr. 
Hence this veloci^ must be in the same direction as «, or in tb» 
f^poeite direction, that is, it mt»t be an anyutar veiocity nboot tlit 
axis of t. I 

Again, thif velocity cannot be independent of tbe ma^otic force, 
for ir it were related to a direction fixed in the medium, the phe- 
nomenon would be different if we turned tbe medium end for end. 
which is not the caae. 

We are therefore led to the eonclusioa that thin velocity is an 
invariable accompaniment of tbe magnetic force in those media 
which exhibit the ma^^netic rotation of tbe plane of polarization. 

831.] We have Ik«q hitherto obliged to ose language which \t 
perhape too euggeetive of the ordinary hypotheeis of motion in the 
nndnlatorii- theory. It is easy, however, to state our reenit in a 
form free from this hypothesis. 

Whatever tight is, at each point of space there ir something 
going on, whether displacement, or rotation, or sometbin^^ not yet 
imagined, but which io certainly of the nature of a vector or di-^ 
reoted quanti^, the direction of which is normal to the dirccliooH 
nf the ray. This is completely proved by the phenomena of inter- 

In the cnM of drenlarly-polanzed light, the magnitude of this 
Ti-ctor remains always the same, but its direction rotates round tbe 
direction of tbe ray so as to complete a revolution in the periodic 
time of the wave. Tbe uncertainty which exists as to wbethf r this 
vector is in tlie plane of polarisation or perpendicular to it, docs not 
extend lo our knon'Iedge oflhe direction in wbiob it rotates in rif>ht- 
faandcd nnd in Icft-hnmled circularly-pobrixed light respectively. 
The direction and tbe angtilar velocity of this vector are perfectly 
known, though llie physical nnluro of the vector and its absolute 
direction at a given iniilant are uncertain. 

When a my of oircularU-'poiarized light falls on a medium under 
the action of magnetic force, its propagation within the medium 
is affected by the ralation of t> '' *>od of rotation of the light to 



lie direction of Lbe mag^tiv^tic force. From thi> we conclude, by tlic 
>ning of Art. 817, Uiat in the medium, when under th« action 
'^of magnetic force, some roUtory motion ia going i>n, tlie axis of ro- 
tation heing in the direction of the magnetic foroea ; and tliat the 
rate of propagation of circnlarly-polarized tight, when the direction 
of its vibratory rotation and the direction of the magnetic rotation 
of the medium are {he same, is dificrent from the rate of jtropaga- 
Uon when these directions are opposite. 

The only reseiublance which we can trace between a medium 

iroogb which circularly-polttnzcd light is propagated, and a me- 

linm through which lines of magnetic force pass, is that in both 

Ifre is a motion of rotution about an axis. But here the rct>cm- 

cc HtojiH, for the rolut.ioQ in the opticjil phenomenon is that of 

be vector which represents the disturbance. This vector is »1wny« 

erpcndicular in the direction of the ray, and Totate^ abotit it a 

'known number of times in a sicoud. lu the magnetic phenomenon, 

that which r(>t»tes has no properties by which its eides can he iia- 

tingut«he(i, (to that we euiinot determine how many times it rotates 

^_ in a iteeond. 

^K Thera is nothing, therefore, in the magnetic phenomenon which 
^Hcorresponda to the wave-length and the wave-propagation in the 
^■optical phenomenon. A medium in which a constant magnetic foroe 
^iis acting is not^ in consequence of tliat force, filled with wnvc« 
travelling in ojie direction, 8s wlien light is propagated through it. 
The only resemblance between the optical and the magnetic pheno- 
menon is, that at each point of the medium something exists of 
I the nature of an angular velocity about an axis in the direction of 

itbe magnetic force. 

On lie Ifypo/Jifti* <jf Moleeuiar Fortiea. 

822.] The contti deration of the action of magnetism on polarized 
light hsds, iu> we have set-n, to the conclusion that in a medium 
iiuder the action of mngnctic force Kometbing Iwlonging to the 
nme mathemntical clans as an angular velocity, whose axis is in the 

■direction of the magnetic force, forma a part of the phenomenon. 
Thia ang:ular velocity cannot he that of any portion of the me- 
dium of RCHHible dimeuMona rotating us a whole. We must there- 
fore conceive the rotation to 1>e that of very small portions of the 
Itncdinm, each rotating on ita own axis. This ie the hypothesis of 
molecular vortices. 
The motion of these vortices, though, as we have shewn (Art. 576), 
Be z 




it doBB not aseiblT kSect tbn vinbli- motinna of large bodies, bs; 
W swh as to afcot that vibntory motion on wbJdi tbe propagatmi 
of fiflrtt a eetr Sia g to the nsdalatory tbeoiy, dopends. The Aa- 
flMCBteato of the nxdiam, diinng tbe propoi^tioti of light, trill 
prafaw a £Btoriaii« of the Torti«c% and the vorlioes when m 
distanlicd wmj raaei on the medium m u to affect the mode o( 
fnfu e a tix ta of tlie ny. 

8StS.] It is inpoMable, in oor pnwDt ttato of t^oranoe aa to the 
natitre of the Tortices, to awign the form of the law which oonnectt 
tbe dufilaoeakent of tli« mediom with Uic viuiatioii of the vortices- 
We shall tbeieTore assome that tbe Tariution of the rorticea caoud 
bv tbe disf U<«nKat of the medium U subject to the same conditioiui 
whM-h Ilelmbottz, ia his great memoir on Voitex-motion *, hu 
efaewQ to regulate the Tariation of the vartioca of a |M>Tfcct liqoid. 

Ilelmholtz's law may W stated as foUows : — Let P and Q be t«o 
Deighboaring particles in the axis of a vortex, tlicu, if in oona^ 
^Beaee of tbe motion of the fluid tlwae parttcles arrive at the 
poiat* ^^, the line P^Q" will represent the oew direction of the 
az» of the Toitex, aad its strength will be altered ia th« ratio of 

Ilence if a, p, y denote the components of the strength of a Tor- 
lex, and if (, ih C denote the displacements of the medium, tlic valiu 
of a will become 



We now aasome that the same condition ia satisfied during thoj 
amall displacements of a medium in which a, ^, y lepreaeut, not 
the component* of the strength of au ordinary vortex, but tb« 
components of magnetic force. 

824.] The com|ionen(« of the angular velocity of an element o( 
t}iQ medium are , il /4C dn>. 


• CnlU't Ja-ntml, ToL 1*. (IS^S). Timiuktwl bj 1UI. PIUL Mag . Jul; , 11167. 



The next ntcp in our Iiypollicsis is tbe assumption that tliv 
kinetic enei^ of tbe medium contuins n term of Ok' form 

l!nitt is eqniTalciit to supposing that the anf*u1ar velocity acquired 

by the element of Ihc medium during tho proi>a<fation of li^hl ia a 
[qoMttity whieh mAv enter into combination with that motion by 

which nugnetic pbcnomona are rxplninod. 

Id order to I'nrm thu ei|iiat.ions of motion of the medium, we must 
[expreBs its kinetio energy in tLTm» of the velocity of its parts, 

the components of wliich are f, i], C We therefore integral* by 

parts, and find 

[2C J Ij {a»j + fin^+yoif) dx dy d» 

= cff{r,-H)di,dz^cff{aC-yt}dzdz-^cff{pi-<in)ds<}y 

The double intt^rals refer to the bounding surface, which may 
tie mippOHMl at an infinite distance. We may therefore, while in- 
vextigatin^ what takes place in the interior of the medium, confine 
our attention to the triple integral. 

825.] The part of the kinetic energy in unit of volume, expressed 
by tliis triple iatej^nil, may bo written 

I iilC{imi-rtv + («y, (5) 

where «, r, w are the components of the electric current as given in 
equations (E), Art. G07. 

It appears from this that our bypotlieais is e([uiTalent (o the 
imption that the velocity of a particle of the medium whose 
poncots arc ^, ^, f, is a quantity which may enter into com- 
bination with the elcctrie current whose components are », w, w. 

826.] Returning to the expression uuder the sign of triple inte- 
gration in (4), substituting for tbe values of a, )3, y, those of 
w'ljS', /, as given by equations (l), and writing 


Tk ^" ":&+' 


^■tbe expression under the sign of iutegratiou become* 



the cau of waves in planes normal to the axis of < the displace- 




tatfata sre fiuictions of * aod t otiljr, so that ~ = y — ^ ami Uw 
expieesioB is reduced to 



The kinetic energjr per unit of volome, so &r as it d«p«nda « 
the vrtocitiei of dtsplaoement, may now be written 

wlwre f> is tb« density of the mediom. 

827.] The <y)mpoii4'ntd, X and }', of the inprfntcd force, refemd 
to unit of Toliune, may be deduced from this by LdgniQ^'s ecjos- 
tioDa, Art. 561. We observe tbat by two suecewiTe int^catiaw 
by partd tti regard to ;, and the amission of the double int«j^k at 
tli« boundiog surface, it may be shewn that 


Tlie cxprcwioD for Ute forces are therefore given by 

^icse forces arise from the artion of the remainder of (lie mcdiam 
on the element nnitcr consideration, bik] muat in the ease of 
isotropic medium be of the form indicated by Oauchy, 

J = J.^+^,J|+*C 

,^+.*.^ + &C (13) 

828.] If we now take the owe of » circularly-polarized ray for 
which f = r oo« (»/— yr), 7 = rsin(i»(-yr), ()^H 

we Bod for the kinetic enei^y in noit of Tolume ^^ 

r= ipr'H'—CYf'fM; 
and for tlie potential energy Jn unit of volume 

vrbeie Q ia a funotioo of ^ '. 




The oondilion of frw j»roj)iigalion of the my givuti in Art. 820, 
equation (6), in df _dT . . 

which gives p»*-2Cyy''» = Q, , (XS) 

whrace tlie value ofn may be found lu terms of j. 

But in the cnse of a ray of ^iven wave-[ieriod, «ct«d on by 

I maeiiclic forci^ what we want to determine ia the value of -^ , when n 

da "* 

■e constant, in t«rms of j^> when y ie conatant. DiiTerontiatinff (18) 

{%^*—2Cyq^)dn—{J^-^'iCyqH)dq-2Cq^Hdy = ^. (13) 

We thus find J- = - ^'i'; , % . (20) 

829.] If A is (he wave-length in air, and t the corresponding 
index of rcfmclion in the medium, 

q\ = 2-!ti. H\ = 2ffF. (21) 

The ohaijge in the vahie of q, due to magnetie action, is in every 
I an exceedingly email fraction of its own value, so that we may 
it*! dq 

? = ?o + /j,y. (22) 

where fo U the value of q when the magnetic force is sero. The 
LIMgI<-', 0, through which the jihme of jiolarizntion jg turned in 
sing through a thii-kness c of the medium, is half the sum of 
the positive and negative values of jc, the nign of the retmlt heing 
changed, becauiie the sign of q ia negative in equations (14). We 
thus obtain 

' dy 



' FpA 

The second term of the denominator of thia fraction is approx- 
imately equal to the angle of rotation of the plane of polarizntion 
during its passngu through a thickoesv of the medium equal to half 
a wuvo-len^h. It is therefore in all actual ciuen a quantity which 
wo may nirglcvt Jii com]>unson with unity. 

Writing 1^=01, (25) 


we may call m the coefliuiunt of roftgnctie roUtion for the medium, 

a quantity who»ie value muxt he detenu iuMl by observation. It is 

found to be positive for most <riuDiugnetie, and nt^tire for some 




panunagnetic luedia. 

Viv hare thervforc u tlie Goal 

result of xm 

9 = MCy'l{i-X^), (26) 

where is Uie aiif[tilAr rotation of the plane of polarization, » ■ 
oonsUnt determioed by obaerration of the metiinm, y the intensi 
of the iBag:nebc foree resolved in the direction nf the ray, c 
length of the ray within the raediam, A th» wavc-lcngUi of 
light in air, and > ite index of refraction in the medium. 

830.1 The only test to which this theory has hitherto heen ffl 
jectcd, i« that of comparing the valnes of for difTvn-nt kind« 
light passing through the same medinm and acted on by the eame 
magnetic force. 

This has been done for a oonnderable nnmher of media by 
Verdet*, who has arrivc^l at the following results : — 

(1) TIk' magnetic rotations of the planes of polarization of 
TKyt of diflVtrent cuK>un> follow approximately the law of the invi 
squan' of thv wnre^lejigth. 

(2) The exact taw of the phenomena \» alwa}-e such that ihti pro- 
duct of the TotatJon by the leqnare of the wuvc-loiigth increaacs from 
the le«»t refrangible to the most refrangible end of the spectrum. 

(3) The aubstances for which thia increase is most seoaiUe are 
also thuRc which have tlie greatest dispervive power. 

He also found that in the eolation of tartaric ncid, which of itself 
produces a rotation of the plane of polarization, the mi^netic rotation 
is by no mt-ans proportional to the natural rotatiou. 

In an addition to the same memoirf Verdet has given the results 
of very careful experiments <m bisnlphide of carbon and on cn»fiote, 
two snbstaoces in whioh the departure from the law of the inrervG 
square of the wave-length was very apparent. H« has also cmn- 
p«rc<i tJiese results with the numbers given by Ihne difiereut foi^ 

(I) «-«.y^(,-i^); 

(II) '' = -yjJr('-^^)i 

{III) $ = mcy 


The first of these formula^ (I), is that which we have already ob- 
tained in Art. 829, e<iuation (26). The seooad, (II), is that which 

• B*cti«rdMt lur Im pNtiritftA optlqun il><Telopf^(B 6aiu Iw ooorp* tn4u|iM«Ui 

par l^uUoii <1u nuffndiJim^ «** putJaL Cvnptn lUndui. X. t>L p. «M (4 Apifi, IBM). 

-t Cempla OhmNw, IrU. p. «» (19 Oc*.. 18«>. 




' Tcralte from substituting in tho cquuUoiui of motion. Art. 826, cqua- 



tions (10), (U), tenns of the form ~^and — '^~, mst«ad of ^-rj. 

I am not aware tlint this form of th« equalioti bus 

suggested by any pbysical theory. The third fortnuta, (III), 
reeulU from the pbysicul thi'ory of M. C. Noumaon'*, in which the 

equatioDs of motion contain terms of the form -p- aud — jrt. 
' lii III 

U IB evident that the values of given by the forniuU (III) nrp 
'not even nppr^ixiniati-ly proportional to tho invert gquure of the 
wavf-lcnglh. Those ^iven hy the f'lnnulti- (I) and {II) satisfy this 
condition, mid give vahies of fl which agree tok-nibly well with the 
< obccrrwl vidut-s for media of moderate disiiersive power. For hi«nil> 
' |>hide of OJirbon and creosote, however, the vnlues given by (II) differ 
very much from those observed. Those given by (I) agree better 
' viHh observation, bnt, though tho agreement ia somewhat close for 
bisulphide of carbon, the numhera for creosote still differ by quan- 
tities much greater than con be accoauted for by any errors of 

Mojfneiie liolafion "/ the Plane cf 'Polarization (from Frrdef^. 

Buulphido or Cnrboa at Sl'.UC, 

Llnca of tti* •{HK-tmtn 





Obaorvod rnlatiun 






CUauUtod by 1. 


















1 Kotation of ths i*j . 

K - as'.ss". 

CnonMt at !t 


-Linca of tho nptctrum 






^DbaWTod raUtiao 






CUcutalolby 1. 



















RotKtdon ol th* n>; E •• SIDES'. 

* 'Enluwre tontiilur quomcKlo lUt at lucii pluium pol&rilatiotiii par vlret oloo- 
triow *cl DU^eticM diplinttur.' Ilali* Sajri'iiini. i^iS. 

t Tb«« ihrot form* of tho uqi)»tiniiii iif million vtrn- finl iniitB"ttfit liy Sir O. H. 
Alij {Pim. Mail., June I<i40) u x uiiWiiH of muljiin); tlio iilioSdiiiuiion Ihi-ii r*n-RtIy 
diMDvamI by Fanulny. Hsu Cull*^ pnrioiiiilj' tu^gwiwl vquMiona ooutaiuing 

of tlw fbnn is ordsr M rtpraunl niBtlininftlicaUy the pheaomnis of nnutK. 

Him* •quktiunii mm oiTarwl hy Mm Cullu^h utA Airj'. *iinl m |,'i<^iig s mecibMiiaal 

nplMMlim of lh« pbvnoiiieru. but •■ ■h«<rui)' tbM tba phenamcnii mity b* njilftinvd 

bj aqusliaiw. trhioa equuiotw Sppoar to be *uch m ralgbt poailily be deduiwil (ivm 

t plsiiMbJo mtcluidGBl wBumplloiL ftltliauirlt no iiioh BMiuiipticui Iua i4t boon 






Wi) lire 80 little acquainted n-ith the details of the molecukr 
coDutitutioD of bodies, that it is not probable that any satislaeton 
theory can be formed relating to a particular phenomenon, wich u | 
that or the magnetic action on lif^ht^ until, by an induction foumlftl 
on a number of difTerent cases in which visible phenomena are fonod ' 
1o dcpcn<l upon actions in wbtch the molecules are concerned, wt 
leant something more definite about the pro{)crties wbicli must bt 
attributed to a molecule in order to satisf^' the conditions of eb- 
«rved fiwts, 

Tiic tli<.>ory proposed in the procedinf; V^f!^ >" evidently of a i 
proviKioniil kind, re^in;; as it does on unproved hypotheaee relatio^fl 
to the nature of molecular vortices, and the mode in which they are 
afFccU'd by the displace m<.>iit of the medium. We must therefure 
regard any coincidence with observed facts as of much lees adeiitific 
value in the theory of the magnetic rotation of the plane of polari- 
zation than in the electromagnetic theorj'of light, which, though it, 
involves hj-potbeses about the electric properties of media, does do 
t-p<rulute ax to the constitution of their molecules. 

831.] N'oTB.— The whole of this chapter may be rcigarded as an' 
expimMou of the exceedingly important remark of Sir William 
Thom«m in the ProeeediNSi o/the Reyal Socirty. June 1856 : — 'The 
magnv'tic influence on light difcovered hy Faraday depends on the 
direelion of motion of muviug particles. For instance, in n medium 
possessing it, parf.iclfw in n utraight line {nrallcl lo the lines of 
mn^uetic force, displaced to a helix rviund this line us axis, and then^ 
projected tangentially witli siicb velocities as to di^scribc eircles,fl| 
will have ditrt-rent velocitien according an their motions are ronnd 
in one direction (the aime u» the nominal direction of the gidvanic 
current in thi- magnetizing coil], or in the contrary direction. But 
the elastic reaction of the medium muat be the Ksme for the same 
displacements, wltatevor be the velocitieH and directions of the irttt- 
tides 1 that is to say. the forces which are balanced b; centrifugal 
foroe of the circular motions are equal, while the luminiferouafl 
motions are unequal. The ab§olute circular motiooB being there- 
fore either equal or such as to transmit eq<uil centTifugul forces to 
the pnrtielee initially considered, it follows that the luniiniferous 
motiims are only components of tJio whole motion ; and that a less 
luminifirrouji component in one direction, Compounded with a mo- 
tion existing in the medium \vlw(i franitmitting no light, gii'cs aa 
cqiuil rt-Kultunt to that of a greater himiniferoun motion in the oon-J 
tnry dinxtiou compounded with the same non-luminr>u.> i>iiili.iti.f 




I think it is not only impoHiibIc to coniseiro any other than this 
; dyniitnicnl tixjiliinntiun of thv IwH: that circularly-polarizml Hg^hi 
.^ransinittt'd Uinnigh mftgnctizeil glass pantile! to the linos of maff- 
netixiiig lori,'!', with the aame qnality. right-huiiOcd iilways, or h-fk- 
handed alwnya, ie propiigate<) at dilferent mios ucconlinf* as its 
coumc is in the direction or is contrnry to the direction in which a 
north magnetic pole is drawn ; but I heli^ve it can be demon«l ruled 
that no other explanation of that fact ie possible. Henee it appears 
that P'araday's opUeoI discovery affords a demonstration of th« rfr- 
altly of Amp^r«>'8 explanation of the ultimate nature of magnetism ; 
and gives a definition of msgnetization in the dynamical theory of 
heat. The introduction of the principle of moments of momenta 
("the conservation of areas") into the mechanical treatment of 
Mt. Bankine's hypothesis of*' molecular vortioeti," appears to indi- 
cate a line perpendicular to the plane of reatiltant rotatory nio- 
mentam ("the invariable plane") of the thermal motions as the 
magnetic axis of a magnetized body, and suggests the resultant 
motneot of momenta of these motions as the definite measure of 
the "magnetic moment." The exphination of all phenomena of 
viectrotnagDetio attmction or repulsion, and of electromagnetic in- 
dnotion, is to be looked for simply in the inertia and pressure of 
the matter of which the motions constitute heat. Whether this 
matter is or is not electricity, whether it is a continuous fluid inter- 
prrmeating the spaces between molocnUr nuclei, or is itself mole- 
cularl}' grouped ; or whether all matter is continuous, and molecular 
hcterogcucoutinesH consists in finite vortical or other relative mo- 
tions of contiguous parts of a liody ; it is impossible to decide, and 
porfaapn in vain ti> spi'eulate, in the present state of (icicncc' 

A theory of moiccuhir vorti(«8, which 1 worked out at consider- 
able length, was published in the PAH. Mag. for March, April, and 
May, leci, Jan. and Feb. 1802. 

I Utink we tiavc good evidence for the opinion that some pheno- 
menon of rotation is going on in the magnetic field, that this rota- 
tion is ]ierformed by a great number of very nniull portions of 
maU«r, each rotating on its own axis, this axis being parallel to the 
direction of the magnetic force, and that tlie rotations of these dif- 
ferent vortices are made to depend on one another by means of some 
kind of mechanism connecting tliem. 

The attempt which I then made to imagine a working mode] of 
this mechanism mnet be t«kea for no more than it really is, a de- 
munetralion that mechanism may be imagined capable of producing 



B connt^sion mechanicallj eqcivalent to tlie actual conaexion of tbe 
jiarte of the elcctroma^Gtic fiold. The problem of determining' the 
mecbanism required to establish a given species of connexioo be' 
tween the motions of the parts of a system always admits of an 
inGnite namber of fioIatioQE. Of these, some may be more clniDiy 
or more complex than others, but all most satisfy tbo eonditions of 
mechanism in general. 

The following results of the theory, however, are of higher 
valne : — 

(1) JIagnetic force is the effect of tbe centrifugal force of the 

(2) Electromagnetic induction of currents is the effect of the 
forces called into play when the velocity of the vortices ie changing. 

(3) Electromotive force arises from the stress on the connecting 

(4) Electric displacement arises from the elastic yielding of the 
connecting- mecbaniEm. 



0» EUelromagnetic Theoriet of MaffaetUm. 

832.] Wb have seen (Art. 380) that the action of magnets on 
one another can be accnratt-Iy reprcsfntt'il W the attractions and 
repulsions of an imiiginary sitbstuiicu called ' mti^nctlc inatt«r,' 
We have shewn the reasons wliy wo mii«t not suppose this ma^etio 
matter to move from one part of a inng^iiet to another through a 
wnsikk) dirtancc, as at fintt et^ht it a[)]«ars to do when wo msg- 
DVtue a bar, and we were led t" Poissou'a liypoUieHis that the 
SiagDCtie matter is strictljr confined to single muleoulfts of the mag- 
imUo iubstAnci-, so that a raa^uetized molecule is one iu wliich the 
kinds of mugnvtie matter are more or less seipnratod to- 
wards opposite ))olcs of the molecule, but so that no part of cither 
can ever bo actually separated from the moU-c-ule (Art, 430). 

These arguments complctt^ly establish the fact, that magnctiza- 
tton is H phenomenon, not of large masses of iron, but of molcculea, 
that is to say, of portion* of the subsfancc so small that we cannot 
by any mcebanical method cut one of them in two, so as to obtain a 
north pole separate from a south pole. But the naturo of a mag- 
Detic molecule i» by no means determined without further invcsti- 
g*tioD We have seen (Art. 142) that there are strong reasons for 
bdieving that the net of miignetixiug iron or sUx) does not consist 
in imparting magnetization to the molecules of which it in eom- 
pose<l, but that these molteules are already magnetic, even in un- 
magnetised iron, but with their axcx placed indifferently in all 
directions, and tliat the act of magiK-tixation consi^a in turning 
the moleeule« so that their axo* are cither rendered all parallel to 
one direction, or at Uast are deflected towards that direction. 


8S3.J Still, bowwur, wo hkvo arrived mt do cxpUnatioQ nf U>v 
nature of a magavtiit molociil*?, limt i«, wo have not rocognized tu 
likeness to nny other Uiing of which we know more. Wo \tan 
thei-efore lo oonsider the li}'j>(>tlie«is of Aini)^rA, lliat the m»gnetim 
of the molecule is due to an electric current constantly cinmlattng 
in some closed path within it. 

It is possible to produce an exact imitation of the action of nay 
magnet on points external to it, by means of a aiiecX of clwtric 
currents properly distributed on its outer eurfooe. But iJie action 
of the magnet on points in the interior ia quite dilTercnt froin the 
action of the eltctrio currents on corresponding points. Henco Am* 
pdre conolnded that if magnetism is to be cxplaiiu'd by mvniM nf 
electric currents, these currents must circuluttt within the molvculc» 
of the ma^et, and must not flow from one molecule to anotJief. 
Ah we cannot experimentally measure the magnetic action at a 
point in the interior of a molecule, this hypothea> cannot be di»> 
proved in the same way that we can disprove the hypothesis nf 
currents of sensible extent within the ma^et. 

Desidea this, we know that an electric current, in passing (Vom 
one l>nrt of a conductor to another, meets with resistance and gene- 
nit<* bwit ; so that if there were currents of the ordinary kind round 
pnrti'iiis <if the magnet of sensible size, there wouM be a constant 
expenditure of energy required to maintain tliem, and a magnet 
would be a perpetual source of heat. Dy confining the circnita to 
gthe molecules, within which nothing is known about renstanoe, we 
Day assert, without fear of contradiction, that the current, in cir- 
culating within the molecnie, meets with no resistance. 

According to Ampere's tbeorj', therefore, all the phenomena of 
magnetism are due to electric currents, and if we could make ol>- 
siTvaliona of the magnetic force in the interior of a magnetic mole 
cule, we should 6nd that it obeyed exactly the same laws as the 
force in a region surrounded by any other electric circuit 

831.] In treating of the force ia the interior of magnets, we bavi 
Bupposed the measurements to be made in a small crevasse hollowed 
out of the substance of the magnet, Art. 395. We were thus led 
to oOQsider two different quantities, ihe magnetic force and the. 
magiuitic induction, both of which are snpposod to be obeerved in 
ft space from which the magnetic matter it removed. We were' 
not imppoaed to be able to penetrate into the interior of a 
wHic molecule and to obeenre the force within it. 

If we adopt Ampire^s theory, wc consider a magnet, not as 




ntinnoiw sabetonee, tlio mn^ctization of which varies rrom point 
point acoonliii^ t<i in>an- msily c(>ni.'cive<l law, but ns n tniiliittide 
of inolcciilui, within ciich of which circulutcs ii Kjirtoni of electric 
Current)!, tjivin^ rise to a dielributioH of mBgoetii- force of CKtrcmo 
complexity, the direetioTi of Iho fori-e in the interior of a inoleetilc 
\mag generally' the rever»e of that of the average ioroe in ita neigh- 
bourliood, and the magnetic potential, where it ex'iaU at all, Imiiig 
a function of as many degrees of multiplicity as there are molecules 
in the miiKm't. 

835.] But we shall find, that, in spite of this apparent complexity, 
which, however, arises merely fiom the coexistence of a multitude 
of simpler parts, the mathematical theory of ma^etism is greatly 
Bimplilied by the adoption of Anip&re's theory, and by extending 
our mathematical vision into the interior of the molecules. 

In the firet place, the two deGnitions of magnetic force are re- 
duced to one, both hecomlDg the samo as that for the ^ncc outside 
be magnet. In the next place, the components of the magnctio 
everywhere satisfy the condition to which those of induction 
luhject, namely, da d/i _ dy _ ^ 



'di = '- 


In other words, the distribution of magnctio force is of the 
same nature as that of the velocity of an ineompre.i.tihle fluid, 
or, as we have expressed it in Art. 23, the magnetic force has no 

I Finally, the three vector functions — the electromagnetic momen- 
torn, the magnetic force, and the electric current — become more 
simply related to each other. They are all vector functions of no 

nvergcnce, and they are derived one from the other in order, by 
thi^ Niinic prociiits of taliin<f the space- variation, which is denoted 
by Hamilton by the symbol V. 

886.] But we are now considering magnetism from a physical 

lot of view, and we must enquire into the physicul proportic* of 
tlte molecular currents. We assume that a currunfc is ciiculatiog 
io a molecule, and that it meebt with no resistance. If £ is the 
coefficient of aelf-induction of the muleeuhtr circuit, and ^the co- 
efficient of mutual induction between this circuit and some otlicr 
cirvait, then if y is the current in the raolwul«, and y' that in the 
other circuit, the e<|aatiou of the current y i« 

^iLy + 3ty') = ~Ry: 




and sinoG by the hypotliesis there is do reaistAiicv, i? ^ 0. Bod «« 
get hy int^ratioa 

IiyTify'=: constant, = Ly^, say. ( 

l>ct us Giifipose tlint the area of the projeclioa of the tnolscnlu 
circuit oil a place perpendicalar to the axis of th« molcculo is J, 
this axis heingf defined as the normal to the plane on wbldi iht 
projection ia greatest. If the action of other ciimnt« prodocec ■ 
magnetic force, X, in a direction n-hose inclination to th« uxia of 
the molecule i§ $, the qaantity My' becomes XA cos 8, and we haw* 
as the equation of the current 

Ijyi-XAe<M0 = Ly„, (' 

whore ya is the value of y when J* = 0. 

It appc^'nrs, therefore, Uiat the strvn^b of tbc molecalar cnrrent 
depends entirely on its primitive value yg, and on the intensity of 
the magnetic force due to other current*. 

837.] If we supimse that there i* no primitive currunt, but tiiat 
the current is entirely due to induction, then 

y = — -y- cos tf . (5 

Tha se^tivo sign shews that the direction of the induced cur- 
rent is oppoiiitu to that of thi- indueicj; current, and its magnetic 
action is such that in the interior of the circuit it acts in the up* 
posite direction to the ma^rnctic force. In other words, the mole* 
cular current nnU lilic a Kmall ma^et whose poles are turned 
towards the poles of the iianie nume of the inducing magnet. 

Now this is an action the reverse of that of the molecules of iron 
under msj^uetic action. Tho molecular current* in iron, therefore, 
arc not excited by indtietion. But in diamu^^etic suhstances an 
action of this kind is observed, and in fact this is the explanation of 
diamagnetic polarity which was lirst given by Weber. 



Weiert Tieorjf of Liamagnetitm. 

83B.] According to Weber's theory, there exist in the moleeules 
of dianiaguctie substancea certain channels round which an elertri' 
cumnt can circulate without reaistance. It is manifest that if 
snpiKwc tlicse channels to traverse the molecule in every directi< 
this amounts to making the molecule a perfect conductor, 

Be{>inning with the assumption of a linear circuit within the m 
Iccule, we have the strength of the eurruat given by c<[uutioD 



The mn^Detio momcut of tke current ie tJie product of iU strength 
by the aroa of the circuit, or yA, aud tlie resolved part of this in the 
direction of tlw magnetizing force is yd cos 0, or, by (5), 

_^co8«tf. (e) 

If there arc i such molecules in unit of volume, and if their axes are 
distributed inditlercutly in all directions, then the averat^ vnlac of 
txm'0 will be i,nDd the intensity of magnotiscation of the substance 
will be ^ nXA' .. 

Neumann's coefficient of magnetization is therefore 

The magnetization of the substance is therefore in the opposite 
directioQ to the magnetizing force, or, in other words, the substance 
is diamafpietic. It is ftlso exactly proportional to the ma^etizmg 
foroc, and does not tend to a finite limit, as in the case of ordinary 
ma^etic induction. See Arts. 442, &c. 

8S9.] If the directions of the axes of the molecular channels are 
arr«nj^>d, not indifiertrntly in all directions, but with a preponder- 
ating uumber in certain directions, then the sum 

oxtmded to all th» molecules will have different values according 
to the direction of the line from which is measured, and the dis- 
tribution of these valueti in different directions will be similar to the 
ditttributioQ of the values of momeuts of inertia about axes in dif- 
ferent directions through the same point. 

Such a (tistributioa will explain the m.-ignelic phenomena related 
to axes in the body, described by Pliicker, which Faraday has called 
Magne-cry stall ic phenomena. See Art. 435. 

840.] Let us now consider what would be the effect, if, in^trad 
tile electric current beiiit; confined to a certain chanmd nithia 
! molecule, the whole molecule wertt stippimod a poriV-cl conductor. 
Let us begin with the case of n b(tdy the form of which is acyclic, 
that id to say, which is not in the fonn of a ring or |«i 
body, and let us suppoM that this Uxiy i* everywhere surrouuded 
by II tliin ahcll of perfectly conducting matter. 

We have pwvcd in .^rt,654, that a ilused sheet of perfectly coq- 
^—^ '"tter of any form, originally free ^m ounente, becomes. 




when exiwsec] to external magnetic torve, a cnrrest-sheet, the artion 
of which on every point of the interior is Euch as to nuke thr 
magnetic foroe Tero. 

It may ai«ist as in understanding tJiis case if we obeerre that 
the distribution of magaeiac force io the neighboorhood of aacfa ■ 
body 18 similar to the distribution of velocity in an iDcompresdUe 
fluid in the neighbourhood of an impernuus body of tb« same farm. 

It ia obvious that if other coiiductia}> shelU are placed within 
the first, since they are not exposed to mu^^netic force, 00 cnrrentf 
will be excited in thenL Hence, in a solid of purfoctly conducting 
materia), the effect of magnetic force is to fp'ncratc a system of 
currents which are entirely conBncd to the siirfncc of the body. 

Sll.] If the conducting body i* in the forui of a inhere of nuiita 
r, its magnetic momeot may he shewn to be 

and if a number of such spherce are distributed in a mediam, «> 
that in unit of volume the volume of the conducting matter is V, 
then, by putting *, = I, i, = 0, and p = f m equation (l 7), Art 
314, we find the coefficient of magnetic permeability, taking it as 
the reciprocal of the rcsistunce in that article, viz. 

2-2 i' 

f = 





whence we obtain for Poisson'a magnetic coefficient 

4 =-♦*-, 
and for Ncnmann's coefficient of magnetizatioiHjy induetion 

3 ^ 

Sinee the mathematical conoeptioD of perfectly condttcting bodies 
leiuls to nwulta exe«cdingly different from any phenomeoa which 
we ran observe in ordinary conductora, let ua pursue tlie subject , 
BOmowhat further. M 

842.] Returning to the case of the conducting channel in th^^ 
form of a closed curve of area A, as in Art. 83f>, we have, for tha 
moment of the electromagnetic force tending to increase the angle 9, 

m ~~p- siaOcoa0. /13) 

Tliifl force is positive or negative according as ^ is lest or great 
than a right angle. Hence the cffcet of magnetic force on a per 
leotly Donducting chanr.L-l tr-i:!-i tn lura it with its axis at ligbi 




aaglM to thv lin« of magrwtic forc«, that is, so tlmt tlie plane of the 
ohannel bocomes punillcl to the lines of foKtf. 

An efr«ct of n simikr kind may be ohserved hy pWiog a pt-nny 
or a copier ring bcttvoen the pnleti of an elect roinig^ot. At the 
instant that Uie inignct in ezoil«d tJio ring turns its plane towards 
ihe diniction, \nil thiti tbrce vnniiithfg ax soon as tho ourrtrotK 
are deadened by the resistance of the copper *. 

843.] ^Ve liave hitherto conHidered only the owe in which the 
molecular currents are entirely excited by the oxterna) magbetie 
force. Let u» nt'Xt examine the bearing of Weber's theory of the 
magneto-electric induction of molecular currenta on Ampere's theory 
of ordinary magnetism. According to Ampere and W^iber, the 
moleuular currnnttt in magnetic substAnces arc not excitM by the 
external magnetic force, but are already there, and the molecule 
itself is acted on and deflected by the elect roma^ietio action of the 
magoetie force on the conducting circuit in which the cmrent flows. 
When Amjiirw devised this hypothesis, the induction of electric cur- 
n-Dtx was iiol known, and ho made no hypothceis to account for the 
existence, or to determine the strength, of the molecular currents. 

We are now, however, bound to apply to these currents the same 
laws that Weber applied to big currents in diamagnetic molecules. 
We have only to Biippose that the primitive value of tbe current y, 
when no magnetic force acts, is not zero but Vq. The strength of 
the current' when a magnetic force, .V, acta on a molecular current 
of area A, whose axis is inclined to the line of magnetic forcei, is 

XA „ 


and the moment of the couple tending to tnm the molecule so as 

to iucreosc fl is „ X^A* . , . 

~y^XA aintf + -—^ sin 2 0. (16) 

Hence, putting . A 

i*y„= m. 


= S. 


inibc investigation in Art. 443, the equation of equilibrium becomes 
Xtiia0-BX*mn0C960 = Ds[a{<t-9). (17) 

Tbe resolved part of the magnetic moment of thv current in the 
direction of A' is 

yAco»9 = YtfAcosff j-~coif9, (18) 

= tHCm&(l—SXoot$). 
• 8oe Fkndjiy, Krp. Ha.. 2310, Jtc 


438 StStnftlC TltKOBT OP 3UG!7EnS3r. [84^ 

844.] Th«e comlitionii difier from those in Weber's tiiooij of 
nugnoUe indnctioD hj the terms involving- the confficifnt S. IT 
BX u nnall oumjiared with unitj*, the results will approxioulv U 
1ho«c of Weber's theoiy of ma^etism. If £X is large oompORd 
with unit}-, the results will approxinwte to those of Weber's tbooiy 
iff iiaBiigoistJxm. 

Now the greater y^, the primitive vslae of the moIeeuUr current, 
the HmiilliT will B become, ntxd if £ is also larffe, this will aUo 
dimituMh B. Now if the cnrrent flows in a ring ohaanel, the vahie 

of £ depends on log ^ , where S is the ndius of the mean line of 

the channel, and r that of its section. The emalter therefore ihf 
section of the channel compared with it« an-a. the greater will be I, 
the coefficient of self-induction, ftnd the more nosrly will the plie- 
nomcnn agree with Weber's origiiiul <licr>rj'. There will be tbu 
ditferencc, however, that us X, the magn*aixtiig force, increases, the 
temporary magnetie moment will not only reach a maximnm, but 
will afterwards diminish as X increase*. 

If it should ever be experimentally proved that the t«tnporaiy 
ma^etizatiun of any snWtanoe Btst inereaseii, and then diminii)h«a 
as the ma^etizing force is continually increased, the evidence of 
the existcncu of these molecular currents would, X think, be mised 
almost to the rank of a demanstration. 

845.] If the molecular currents in diama^etic mbetODon are 
conGnod to definite channels, and if the molecules an capable of 
being deflected like those of ma^etie subetanoes, Uiuii, as the mag- 
netising force increnscH, tlie diamagnetic polarity will alwavs increase, 
bat, when the force ti« great, not quite so fast oa the ma^^etiziojf 
force. The small abwolute value of the diamagneticcoeflidentBbewB, 
however, that the di^Recling force on each molecule must be small 
compared with tJiat exerted on a magnetic molecule, so that any 
result duo to ihia deflexion is not likely to be perceptible. 

If, on the other band, the moleoular currents in dinm^netic 
bodies are fre« to flow through the whole sabstance of tlie molecules, 
the diamagtivtic polarity will be strictly progwrtional to the mag^^ 
nctizing force, ant) its amount will lead to a determination of th^| 
whole space ocoipie*! by the perfectly conducting maates, and, if we 
know th« number of the taolecnlai^ to the determination of ihi 
of each. 



On tie Explanation of Ampir^a Formu/a ykn Ij/ Oaiui and Wehtr. 

846.] The attraction between the element* dt and d/ of two 
circuite, carryiog- electric curreut^ of intensity i and i', is, by 
Ampdre's formula, 


itdsd^ . d'r 

dr dr-^ 

the curreatfl being estimated in electromag'netXc unit*. See Art. 526. 
Hw quantittea, whose meaning as f hey appear in theee expreaeiona 
we have now to interpret, ace 

dr dr , d'r ' 

*~'' .UT/' ■""• d^' 
lud the most obvious phenomenon in which to seek for an inter- 
pretation founded on a direct relation between the curronbs is the 
relative velocity of tlic electricity in the two elements. 
I 847,] Let 03 therefore consider the relative motion of two juir- 
ticlea, moving with constant vclociticE r and v' along the ek-menta 
ds and d^ respectively. The square of the roktivo velocity of iheiie 

particles IB tfi= i>*-2vtfco9t+i^i 

[ ftnd if we denote by r the distance between the particles, 
<*f dr . dr 










vrbere tlie symbol d indicates that, in the qtuatity OifTor^ntiatei 
the cootdinates of the particles are to be expressed in t«nne of the 

It appears, therefore, that the terms involvioi; tKe product rf' i^j 
the eqoationa (3), (5). and (6) contain the (^nantities occurring i^H 

Wu thcrcrore cnd^avoaT t« 

But in order to 

(l) and (3) which we have to intor]>ret. 
exprow(1)nnd (2) in termaof a", jr\ , and ^. 

do so we must gtrt rid of the first and third tcrm» of co^ili of thcM 
cxpreaaioDf^ for Ihcy involve quiintitit-s which do not ap{>cAr m tli« 
rormiifai of Aiin)Jre. Ht^nce we cannot esjilain the electric currenl 
ns a tjnn»rer of electricity in one direction only, btit we must coi 
hiae two opposit« streams in each current, so that the oombi 
etTecl of the tcnns involving e* and r^ may be zero, 

848.] Let us thcrof<»re rappo»c tltat in llic first clement, tit, we 
have one electric purticle, f, moving with velocity r, and another, r, , 
moving with vctoeity t',, and in the same way two particW, ^ ani 
f'l, in da', moving with velocities v' and u', respectively. 

The tcnn involving r* for the combined actJon of tJiece partici 

Similarly 2 (v'W) = {v'^/ , r'.V,) (* + e,) ; 
■nd 2(cp'</) = (w + Pie,){»'«'+f',/,). 

Id order that £(r'tt'] may be zero, we must have either 






e'+/, = 0. 


'< + r, 

V, = 0. 

According to Feehncr'a hypothesis, the electric current oonsis 
of a current of positive electricity in the positive direction, com- 
bined with a current of ne^^tivo electricity in the nefr-itive direc- 
tion, the two current* being exactly equal in numerical magnitude, 
both as respects the quantity of electricity in motion and the velo- 
city with which it i* moving. Henee both tlie oonditioos of (10) 
arc sstiKfiecl by Kechner's hypothesis. ^^ 

But it is sufticicnt for our purpose to assume, either — ^| 

That tlie quantity of positive electricity in each element la on- 
merically equal to the quantity of negative clectricitj-; or — 

That the quantities) of tlie (wo kia<ls of elcctncity are invcrecl;^ 
a» the wjiiarce of their velocities. 

Now we know that by charging tli« second conducting wire at 
whole, wi- can make tf'+«'| either iKKtitivo or negalirc. Such a 
cbari^ wire, even without a cun«at« according to this formal^ 
would act on the first wire carrying a carrcnt in whicfa ^t-i-t^ 




haB ft valiw difieriog from zero. Such an action has never been 

Therefore, since the cjuantitye'-ftf'i maybe shewn experimentally 
not to be always zero, an<] since tb« quantity i^e + v'^e, is rwt 
capable of betnf^ experimentally tcslwl, it is better for these specu- 
lations to aasume that it is the latter (juantity which invariahly 

840.] \Vbat«ver bypothivis we adopt, ther« can be no doubt that 
the total translVr of electricity, ruckooed algebraically, along the 
first circuit, is rvprctii.'nt«d by 

p<+r,e, = «'(/*; 
where i; is the numlx-r of units of elatical electricity which are 
transroitted by the \init electric current in the unit of time, so that 
we may write equation (9) 

X(r^r^) = cHi'^ift»'. (11) 

HcDfie the earns of the four valui.'g of (3), (5), and (6) become 

2(^b2) =_2c*HV*.i«'co««; (12) 




and we may write the two expressions (t) and (2) for the attraction 
Wtween d^ and (// 

-■-[?(:'i':«(l^)')]- (■•) 

650.] The ordinary* expression, ia t^e theory of statical elcctri- 
city, for the repul^ion of two electrical particles e and / is -^, and 


h gives the electrostatic repulsion between the two elements if 
they are charged as wholes. 

Hence, if we assume for the repulsion of the two particles either 
of the modified expressions 

we may dedocc from them both the ordinary cIrctro»lnttc force*, and 
the forces acting between cnrrents as determined by Ampere. 




851.] Th« first of these expremoita, (18), wiw dUoovered \ff' 
Gauss* in Ja)y 1835, and iDt«Tpret«d by him as a runilameiital b* 
of electrical action, that ' Two elementit of electricity in a state «f j 
relative motion attract or repel one another, but not in the 
way as if they are in a state of relative rest.' "niiit discorcry «» I 
not, »o far as I know, puhliiibed in the lifetime of Uaaa», m that tlttj 
aecond espreesion, which was discovered independently by W. Weber.! 
and published in the first part of his celebrated E/eJtltvJfaamutie' 
.ifa/islpfi/immiiu^eti t, was the first resolt of the kind made known j 
to the scientific world. 

S52.] Tlte two expressions lead to precisely the same rvsult whai < 
they are applied to th« detemiination of the mecfaaoica) force be- 
tween two electric carrents, and this reeolt is identical with that ; 
of ArapSre. But when they arc considered as exprewnonM of tlie , 
physical law of the action betw(«n two electrical particle*, we ate . 
led to enquire whether they are consistent with other known bcU ' 
of nature. 

Both of tbeee expressions involve the relative velocity of the! 
particles. Now, in establishing by mathematical reasouing- 1h« 
well-known principle of the conservation of energy, it is generally 
asMnmed that the force acting between two particles is a function of I 
tlie distance only, and it is commonly stated that if it is a rnnctiOB] 
of anything else, such as the time, or the veloci^ of the particli 
the proof would not hold. 

Hence a law of elcrtricid action, involving the velocity of 
particles, has sometimes been supposed to be incoosisteDt with, 
principle of the conservation of onerpy. 

(i53.] The fonnula of Gau«8 is inconsistent with this principle, 
and muit therefore be abandoned, as it leads to the conclusion thai 
energy might be indefinitely gmeratevl in a finite system by phystoal 
means. This objection docs not apply to the formula of Weber, for 
he has shewn ] that if we asHume as the potential energy of a system 
coosistiDg of two electric jttrUeles, 


tthe repulsion between them, wbioh is found by difiVrontiating this j 
i|nantity with respect to r, and cfaanging the sign, is tltat given hyj 
the formula (19). 


• HM»(0llttlMM«dWin.inT),*nLr.B.«18. 
+ JU. ZfOafM. Oa, Lriprif (1M«>. 
: A«y. Amn^ luUL |>. Sir(l«8). 




Ilence the worh done on a moving pitrticle hy tlie repnUioa of A 

partide is ■f'o— Vi> vhcre ^„ imd ^, arc tiic vuIdck of ^ at the 

Dning aad at the end of its ]jat,h. Now ^jl il(-[)cnd« ouly on th« 

nee, r, and on the velocity re«rtlve(i in thu direction of r. If, 

therefore, the particle desi'ribea any cloacd path, so that its position, 

velocity, and direction of motion are the same at the end as at the 

bffpDnin;;, ^, will be equal to i/f^, and no work will be done on tie 

vvholc dnring the cycle of operations. 

H HenO! an indcfiaite amount of work atnnot be generated by a 
Bporti«le moving in a periodic manDer ondvr the sctioa of tbe force 
Kmiumed by Weber. 

854.] But HcImholtE, in his v«y powerful memoir on the ' Eqni^ 
tiona of Motion of EU-etricity in Conductors at lU-st*/ while htt 
shews that Weber's formnla is not inconsiiitent with the principle 
of the conservation of energy, as re^rds only the work done during 
a complete cyclical otH^ration, points ont that it leads to the conclu- 
sion, tkftt two electrified particles, which moTC accordinj? to Wcher's 
law, may have at first finite velocities, and yet, while still at a finite 
di«lanc« from each other, they may acquire an inRnite kinetic ent-rgy, 
and nay perform an infinite amount of work. 

fc'To till* Weber t replies, that the initial relative velocity of the 
rticlM in Hdmholtz's example, though finite, is greater than the 
locity of light ; and that tlio distand.^ at whieh the kitietio energy 
beoomcs infinite, though finite, is gmaller than any magnitiidt; which 
weoan pcTX<eive, *o that it mny be physically im|)o^ib1e to bring two 
moleeulea so near together. The ej[ami>le, therefore, cannot be teated 
by any experimental metliod. 

Uelmboitz { has therefore stated a eaite in which the distanoea an 
not too small, nor the velocities too great, lor experimental verifioa- 
ioil. A fixed non-conducting spherical surface, of radius a, it ani> 
armly cliarged with electricity to the siirrocc-density <r. A particle, 
Eof miuB M and carrying a charge r of ckvtricity, mores within tiw 
sphere with velocity v. The cicctrudynamic potential calculated 
trom tlie formula (20) is 

4«r««(l-^), (21) 

and is independent of the position of the ]iartivle within the sphere. 
Adding to this f, the remainder of the potential energy anting 

I • CrtUr-M Jouinal. 72 (1870). 

I f BIrAlr. Maatk. inArwrnittr* Aler Jat Prinrip Jrr Brlnjlanff ihr JEiwrpfe. 

I t UerhH JU(.aa(<brKcU. April 1872 i I'kU. Mag., D«a. 1672, J^mv. 




from tlic nction of otJier forces, and i imp', th« kioetio etier|*7 o( ti« 
portidr, wc find as the equation of ener^ 

1 («_ J '^) v*+ i wa<Te+ r= cotatL (S») 

Siac« ihc ecooix] tvnn of the coefficient of t>* taaj be tocreand id- 
dvfiDiUily \>y inffri-n»in^ a. the radius of the sphcro, while the aarhcf 
daoflty a remuins constant, the coefficient of i^ may be mnde nfigstiv*. 
Accelurotion of the motion of the particle would then corrcspuoJ to 
diminution of its m n'tvi, and « body moving in a closed path and 
a£t4Kl on by a force like friction, always oppo«it« in direction to il* 
motion, would continually incrouM in velocity, and that withoot 
limit. This impossible reault iit n necefmry oontMiucnm oraaMiminii 
uny formula for the potential which introduces negative terms iato 
the coefficient of v^. 

855.] But wo have now to conaider the application of WeWa 
thcor)' to phenomena which can be realized. We have seen how it 
gives Ampere's expression for the force of attractioD between twa 
elements of electric currents. The potential of one of these ele- 
ments oQ the other is found by talcing the sum of the valoes of tlie 
potential ^fr for the four combinations of the positive and oegativt 
currents in the two elements. The result is, by equation (20). taki&K 

the sum of the four vulue« of ^-7 


— » Mat - -7- TT' 

riti d* 


and the potential of one closed current on another is 

-»'//;£^*'^'="'^- H 

M=jf'^dtd^, ac in Art*. ^23, 524. 

In the case of closed currents, this expru«non agrees with t 
which we have already (Art. 524) obtained •. _ 

ffW/» The«ry oftAe Muetim 0/ Electric Currentt. " 

85fi.] After deducing IVom Ampfire's formula for the KctJnn 
lietwecn the elements of currents, his own fonnuU for the action 
between moving electric particles, Wcher proceeded to apply hte 
formula to the explanation of the production of electric corrents by 

• In the Bbolii of Uib iDTMiiijpiiIoii Wotxr •dopt* tbe dtElndynamln ■jnuui of 
unlu. In tU> tnuiae <*« dwajr* um (h* •IwitronMciiBtio tjttuta. Tha ^mtUo mH- 
lullc mih M cumoi b to tha deatrodjwmlr oali In lltr Tstla of VI to 1. Art. RSB 



P>nfl^cto^f«tric induction. In this he wag cminontly ctcppssTiJ, 
and we shsll ittdiratc tlie method l>y whinh th« lawi: of indiicccl 
currcntec may lie deduced from Weber's formuU. But vie must 
oUterro, tlint the oireumstance that a kw d«d»crd from the pheuo* 

Mmcnii discovered by Ampere is abt« alito to uccautit for the ph«no< 
mens afterwards discovered by Faraduy doi-s nnt ^v^ ko much 
additions) weight to the evidence for the physicul truth of thv Uw 
as we mig-ht at iiret sappose. 

For it has beeu shewn by HelmholtE and Thomson (see Art. 543), 
that if the phenomena of Ampere are true, aud if the principle of 
th« coQBcrvatioo of energy is admitted, (hen the phenomena of in- 
duction discovered by Faraday follow of necessity. Now W'eber'a 

^law, witJi the various assumjitioos about the nature of electric 

^RUTTent« which it involvee, lends by mathematical traafiformatioos 
to the formula of Ampere. Welder's law is also consistent with the 
principle of the conservation of energy in so far that a potential 
rxists, and this is all that is required for the application of the 
principle by Ilelmholtz and Thomson. Uence we may assert, even 
Ixiforo making any calculations on the subject, that Weber's law 
will explain the induction of electric currents. The fact, therefore, 
that it is found by calculntioo to explain the induction of currenta, 
leaves the evidence for the physical truth of the Eaw exactly where 
it was. 

On the other hand, the formula of Gnuss, though it explains the 

phenomena of the attraction of currents, is inconsistent with the 

inciple of the conservation of energy, and therefore we cannot 

< that it will explain all the phenomena of induction. Id factj 

' it Gul« to do so, OS we shall see iti Art. 8S9. 

857.] We must now consider the electromotive force tendinji* to 

Bproduce u curTcnt in the element i/V, due to the current in ih, when 
i/* is in motion, and when the current in it is variable. 

According to Weber, Uw action on ^c material of the conductor 
of which lit" is an element, is the sum of all the actions on the 
electricity which it carries. The electromotive force, on the other 
hand, on the electricity in ///, is the ilifferenne of the electric forces 
aotiDg on the positive and the n<^tive electricity within it. Since 
all these force* act in the line joining the elements, the electro- 
motive foi«e on ii»' is also in tliis line, and in order to obtain tho 
electromotive force in the direction of lU we must iwsolvc the force 
in that direction. To apply Weber's formula, wo must cu1cu!at« 

L^e varioQB terms which occur in it, on the supposiliou that the 


elemvnl. //« ia in motion relsttvely to i«', aad that the cottnU . 
both rlcmcots vmiy with the time. The expicaawma tfaos fMiot 
will contain tenns tnToliiDg r*, r/, ^, r, v', end temM not invn'-- 
iD^ c or P*, bU of which are multiplied bv ar*. Bxaminin^, %& •^^ 
did before, the four tkIucs of tarh t'.Tm, ooii cottGideriagr firet ' 
mechanical forc« which artsr« fnin the mm of th« Foar Talnes, '' 
find that the onlv t«nn which we murt take into account is iL> 
iovolring the product rr'«'. 

If wr then coaader tlie force tending' to prodooe a canvnt in Uu 
epcond etcraent, artwog from tlie diflerenoe of the action oftlK Snt 
element on the po«itive and the nt^tire electricity of the stcond 
dnnent, vrc find that the only term which we have to examine ii 
that which iavolvea vf^. We may write the four termt indnded a 
S(r«/). Uitu 

e'(«+P,e,) and «',(w-fc^«i> 

Since /+/| = 0, the mechanical force arising front tluwe temu it 
z«ro, but the L-lcctroRiotive force acting^ on tlie poaitire electricity i 
is (rr + r, «,), and that acting on thfl negative electricity /, u eqiul 
and opposite to this. 

858.J Let UB DOW snppoM that the first element dt ia moving 
relatively to </«' with velocity f in a certain direction, and let w 

dwiote by f'd* and fdt', the angle* between the direction of Taad 
tlioae of d* and of Ha reepectircly, then the tquare of the rdatiTe 
velocity, a, of two electric- particles is 

a*Bt» + t>'' + n-2pc'co»e+2ri;co«/^-2r«i'coe;^'. (2SJ 

The term in rr' ia the tame as in equatioa (3). That tn v, oo wbidi 
the electromotive force depends, is 


We have also for the valu4- of the time*Tariation of r in this case ' 

ir <fe .dr dr 


vhere r-^ refers to the motion of the electric particle*, and -jr 

that of the niatcrial conductor. If we form the sqoare of this qoan- 
litv, the term invwlring re', on wliicli the mechanical force dcpcndu, 
ia the same as before, in e^joation (A), and that involving P, on which 
the electnKBOtive force depends, is 

i* dt 





DifilTcntiatinfT (26) vrith respect to t, we 6ad 




^o find that the t«rm involvings vi^ i« tho huiwi u before in (6). 

Utrm whose sti'ii alters with that of v is -7- j- • 

at as 

8B9.] If w^ now calculate by th« formula of Oiiuiiii{c(iuatian(18)), 

Ite reetiltant electrical forco in the direction of the vecond dement 

f, aaiiiag from the action of the Srat element <U, we oblAio 

^tiid/ir(2cwrdt~3c<MrrcMrdt)mar^tl/, (38) 

iAb in this expression thero is do t«nn involvini; tho mt« of ro- 
of the current 1, nnd sinoo wo know that the vnnation of 
ihe printary nirrcnt prodocett an indactirc action on the Mcondaiy 
circuit, we cannot accept the formula of Oaa« i» a true expreMioo 
,of the action between electric partielea, 

860.] If, however, we employ the formula of Weber, (19), we 


drdr d 



we iot^iBte tbia op rc M J on with raipect to t and /, we obtda 
tbe eleetioinotive force 00 the weoad eircait 

d .fCXdrdr . .^ 

Now, wbeo the Gut ctretiH ii dond, 

riJrJr. CAdfir 





M, bf Art*. 429, 62i, 

Baace wa oajr write tiw daetsDMotin lone «■ IW 

which apcca with wkat we hare altaady flrtaMH^ad ty 






Om Weifr'i Formula, ex>MMidered at rfnUit^from an AeSitm trtm*mlit4 
from ome Etectrie Particle to tAt otier «itA a Cotitlaitt FeUcttj, 

861.] In a vory int«n>9iting leUcr of Gatips to W, Wel«er* l» 
refers io the eleclrodytiainic specuIatioDs with wbich iu- had been 
occupied Ion; before, and which he would h^re puhlulu'd ifbecoaU 
tlien have estahlitJied that n-liich he considered the rc«l kefttow 
of electrodynamics, namely, the deduotion of tb« force- uctioff be- 
tween electric particles io motion from the considcntion of no actiiw 
l)«twe«n thorn, not instaotaaeoiis, but propagated in limr, ra a 
aimilar manner to that of li^ht. tie had not tiacoeedt-d in makiit^ 
thi« deduction wh«n he gave up his electrndyoamic rcAf«rtihet^ tuA 
he hud a subjective conviction that it would be necessary in the 
firiit place to form a ooDnEtent representation of the manner in 
which the propagation takes place. 

Three emtnent malhematicimiB have endeavoured to s«p|d; thij 
ltcy>.loiie of elect rodyoamics. 

B(I2.] tn a memoir present«d to tlie Royal Society of Gottingen 
in 1»S3, but afterwards withdrawn, and only published in PoirgeB 
durfl"<i Anna/en in 16t>7, after the death of the author, Bcrnhaid^ 
Biemnnn deduces the phenomena of the induction of electric 
rent* from a modified form of Poiason's equation 

d*F rf»r rf«r I jtF 

s? + ;v '^^ +*"'' = ?5ii"' 

where f is the electrostatic potential, and a a velocity. 

This equation is of the same form as those which espresa tt 
propn^tion of waves and other distnrbances in elastic media. Hie 
author, however, seems to avoid making explicit mention of anj 
medium throug^h which the propagation takes place. 

The miitbentatical investiffation given by Riemann luia been ex* 
amincd by Clausioat, who does not admit the soumlne*^ of the 
mathematical processes, and eltews that the hypothesis th»t potential 
is propagated like light does not lead cither to the formula of Weber, 
or to the known lawn of electrodynamics. 

863.J Ctausius ha» also examined a far more elaborate investifpi- 
tion by C. Neumann on the ' Principles of Electrodynanuoa {.' Neu< 
mann, however, has pointed out ^ that his theory of the tranemiGsion fl 
of potential from one electric [larticle to another is quite different V 
fnim that proposed by Oaun, adopted by Riemann, and criticized 

• M>rdi IP. IWS. WtHM, U. r. t». 



thy Clansius, in which th« propagatioa is like that of U^btL There 
as, on the oontntry, thv grvaleBt possible difference between th« 
nnsmissioQ of potential, accordiu;^ to Neumann, and the propaga- 
tioD of li^htk 

A luminotis body tciwh forth hf>bt in all directions, the intensity 
of ivhich dvpends on tho luminous body alone, and not on the 
presence of tliv body which is cnlif^htencd by it. 

^An ele<-tric particle, on the other hand, sends forlh a polcntinl. 





■ at 

be value of which, — , depends not only on «, the emitting particle, 

hill on <^, th« r«cnving particle, and on the distance r between the 
particle* at lAe irutant of^tMum. 

In the case of light the intensity diminiahea as the li^t is pro* 
''pogftted further from the luminoua body ; the emitted potential 
flows to the body on which it acts without the slightest alteration 
of its original value. 

The lig;ht received by the illuminated iKdy is in ^neral only a 
'raction of that which f;ill9 on it; the potential as received by the 
attracted body is identical witli, or equal to, the potential which 
arrives at it. 

Bf-siiles this, the velocity of transmission of the potential is not, 
like that of li^bt, constant relative to the aether or to space, but 
nther like that of a projectile, constant relative to the velocity of 
the emitting particle at the instant of emission. 

*It appears, therefore, that in order to understand the theory of 
Neumann, we must form a very different representation of the pro- 
cess of the transmission of potential from that to which we haro 
been accustomed in oonsideiing tJie propa^fation of light. Whether 
it can ever be accepted as the ' eonstruirbar Vorstellung ' of the 
process of transmission, which appcjired necessary to Gauss, I cannot 
say. but I have not myself been able to construct a oonsieteDt 
mental representation of Neumann's theory. 

1864.] ProfesMT Betti *, of Pisa, has trented the Buhject in n 
iffercnt way. He supposes the closed circuits in which the electric 
orrents Sow to consist of elements each of which is polarized 
periodically, that is, at equidistant inter%'nl8 of time. These polar- 
ized dements act on one another as tf they were little magnets 
wbow sxoi are in the direction of the tang«nt to the circuits. 
The )>eriodic time of this polarixulion is the same in all electric 
«ircuit«. Betti aujipowK the action of one polarized oleineut on 
* .Vnom Ctmmlo, civU (IMS). 



MiothOT at a distance to take place, not instantaneoosly, but ttfia 
a time proportional to ihe distance l)etwe«n the elemeats. In (in 
way he obtains espreaeioos for the action of one electric circuit ua 
annthor, which coincido with thoee which ore knowD to be true. 
ClauNintt, however, has, iu tliis caec also, criticized eouie parts of 
tlie mnthcmaticiil calcuhitionti into which vrc Hhall not here enter. 

865.] Tlicre nppmrs to he, in the minds of these eminent mo, 
some prejudice, or i priori ottjectioa, againitt the hypotiieds of ■ 
medium in which the phenontena of radiation of light and bnt 
and the eleotric actions at a distance take place. It is truo that at 
one time those who speculated ox to tlic miM-ii of physical pheno- 
mena were in the hahit of accounting for each kind of action at ■ 
distance by moans of a Hpecia] lethereal fluid, wfaoM function and 
projierty it was to produce these actions. They filled all spsw 
three and four times over with tHhers of difTereut kinds, the pro- 
perties of which were invented merely to ' save apitearances,' so that 
more rational enquirere were willing' rather to accept not only Nov- 
ton'si definite law of attractinn at a distance, hut even the dogma of 
Cotes*, that action at a distance is one of the primary properties of 
matter, and that no explanation can be more intelligible than this 
fact. Hence the undulatory theory of li^ht has met with much 
oppoeition, directed not againtit its failure to explain the pbeno- 
mena, but against its assumption of the existenoe of a medium in 
which light is propagated. 

866.] We have seen that the mathematical expresaionB for electro- ^ 
dynamic action led, in the mind of Ganas, to the conviction that 
theory of the propagation of electric action in time would be foundl 
to be the very keystone of electrodynamics. Now we arc nnablflj 
to conceive of propagation in time, except cither as the flight of 
material substance through space, or as the propagation of a con-"| 
dition of motion or stress in a medium already existing in apac«. 
In the theory of Neumann, the mathcmatkal conception called 
Potential, which we are unable to conceive as a material substance. 
is supposed to be projected from one particle to another, in a manner 
which is quite independent of a medium, and which, as Neumaaa 
has hiniself jwintcd out, is extremely differcot from tliat of tlie pro.i 
pagation of light. In the theories of Rieniunn and Betti it wonldl 
appear that the action is Bup[iosed to h« propagated in ■ mannuj 
aomewhut more similar to thai of light. 

But in all of these theories the question naturally oocnrs : — I 
• Vitlaoi to HewMn'* Primofia, &id AUiioa. 




•otnethiriff is transmitted from one particle to another at n distance, 
what is its condition an«r it has IcFt the one particle and bcrorv 
it has reached the other ? If this Komitthing i>; the potential energy 
of the Iwo partietes, as in Neumann's theory, how are wc to eon- 
ceivc tlii» cncffiy as existing in a point of upace, coinciding neither 
with the one paHicK> nor with the other ? In fact, whenever energy 
it tmnHniitl^ from one hody to another in time, there inuxt he 
a laedium i>r Kub^tance in which the ener^ exists after it tt-avef 
one hody and before it reaches the other, for energry, as Torrieelli * 
remarked, * is a quintessence of so suhtile a nature that it cannot he 
contained in any vessel except the inmost sahstanoe of material 
things.' Hence all these theories lead to the conception of a 
medium in whiuh the propufjation takes place, and if we admit 
this medium as an hypothesis, I think it ought to occupy a pro- 
minent place in our investifjationii, iind that wc ought to endeavour 
to coattriict a mental representation of all the details of its action, 
and this has been my constant aim in this treatise. 

• L^tmi Aeeadmtcht (Fir«iu«, tTK), p. S9. 

VOL. 11. 




^fc'iBFtios. cl<ctric, 63. 227, 828. 

— of liglit. 788. 

AocumuUlun or onndcnnmi, M, S:2a-SSS, 
Action at ft diUanM, 103, 641-640, 816- 

Aayelio region, ID. US. 
^ibet, T82 n. 
Abr. SbG. B., 4S4, S30. 
Am|W«^ Aulnf Muis, 483, 90S-5SS, 

e»S, «8T, 833, 84S. 
Aoion, 337. 
Anodes 33". 
Anson lUill, fiSil. 6M. 
AaUde bkUnoii, SOI. 
Atn»it[divric •■•ctririt]'. 221. 
AUnution, elnotric, 27. 3». 103. 

— ctpliJnod bj lUtB in a malluiii, I0&. 

Bu^lsf and UilxHiii, 9!P, 789. 

Batten, vcluuc, 331 

lhcU.W,. 26S. aeS. 4)1 

Battt. E., 173, KOI. 

Bifilar uuMiMioii, tit. 

BbmuUi, 415. 

Borf*. J. C, S. 

Bowl, fliheriial. i:*-I8t. 

BrLit-. »Vi"*t*unM->», 84T, 7SB, 775, 7T8. 

>— •Icotmtiilit, 2r>3, 

BriEbt, (TlrC. and aark. SSI. U7. 

Bio^e, Sir a (.'., 36U, 

firoun, Jolm Allan, 182. 

Bnub. !>a. 

lufT, Hdnrtuh, 371, 368. 

(dMtiMtMio), GO, S36. 
VeMkdMiaM, 60, 87, 1D3. IQS, S37- 
771, 774-71W. 

GiiHtclty, calciilalliiri of, 10^ iSA. 

— uiivuiirviiiPiit of, 227-22S. 

— In (itectnunoLiiDlLc Iitaa*B». 774, 

Cufmdty (eleotronugnotlc) <il k omi. fOt, 

760, 778, 779. 
OUh.>tl». S37. 
Cation, 237. 
Cauohy, A. L., S27. 
Cantuliih. lloory, 88, 7*. 
(^;1ef , A.. aS3. 
Ceutrulmric, t>8. 
UtruuitM. alKtric E7e-fiS4. 
Ciroular «UTr«nla, 694-70G. 

— wlid Angle (ubt«id«d by. dSS. 
dutrgo. (tcctric^ >l. 

Ciarii. iMiautT. 8SS, 62P. 71i. 
QwHllioLliiMi uf iilootrio*3 iluantitiw, 1130- 


Clauiiuf. R.. 70, 2SS, 8$3. 
C«iH)«iont* of elsctrnaUttic cajiaclty and 
(niluclton. 87. BO. 102. 

— tif iKiUititial. H7, UO. 

— nf r«ti*Unvi> ami oHniluvUrity, 267, 

— of indund ma^fiiDtuation, 436. 

— of «lcctnnna^otic inducUcpn, 7S6, 

— »r Mlf.iniliK^Cion. TStf, 7i7. 
V-orfomt ri)««, 421, 44(. 
l^oiU ranittuiiw. 33G-3II. 

— «l«DtnHiugnetic. 691 706. 

— mcvMuremont of. 708. 

— cniuparliun af, 763-767. 
C<iiii|i*ri«n iif eiinuille*, 229. 

— ..fc"il>.75S JS7. 

— ornlHrlniiiKiliia fomM, 3S8. 
— . of rMUtADCC*. 3l(i-3CS. 

Connntntion. 26, 77. 

Condtnter, fiO, 226-SS8, 

Sir CIiuIm WtiivutMno, in Iiit pH|Vr on 'N*w luatrnmont* and CivceBn,' I'iSl. 
PM, 1813. btmiijbt tbit att*n^inonl intb I'libtic nolioa^ villi ilua acknonlfit-^ment 
ot Um orijjiul icvrnl'ir. >lr. S, II iinter Cbri<ti<^ nbu liad dMsribwI it i» I'U l-tprr mi 
■ladsMd CuiHDia.' Pkii. Tmn:, 1833. no'ler ILq name of a IKfffirTiiIisl Arnuig*- 
Bicnl. Sm tlw rnuarlu of Ur. tMirant Clark In the Sttittf <^ Tttegmfk t'a^latm, 
May », U:i 





«rtl««nfcdlU N. 

fcffciM. U7-1M, US. 



pri-^d. -f » Ma. 7M, Tsa, 

I «( CMIT, »^ 3U; 3«X M3. 
C«iUatt fara^ tic 

CMi*«tM. ss, ssai u*. 

Cotvv, ftl, S«h S«S, ;«i. 

Codnodv C. A, Sa, 71. 315, S3. 373. 
GMlMib1*lMr, ;».W. 
Cryul. oMdMte li, WT. 
— WH***^ iniMHkB at. 435, 43(, 4S3. 
■ T W f^fWioa <f %)it ia Ik 7>i-;S7. 

CwnM, ikctricv ISO. 

— bM MMkod «(a{^fln(, T4L 

— iadacwiSSl 

— •t«dy, S»2. 

— tkcnu*l«(rtri«, U»3H. 

— MMenl, 331. UO. KM, U7, SS3. 
748. 748. 780, 771, 77». 

Camat-atajghar, 7M. 
C^Ma npoa, U. 113, 481. 
Cjlind^, deetriftMtlao o( IM. 

— iMgMtiMUaa oT. tM^ 43^ 43>. 

— tmnwBMM ik. <H2-«»0. 
CjtlBdrle oculi, <76-<3l. 

Itaa>p«l TibntiMv 783-713, 7*1 
Owi|Mf', 78*. 
Dc^ bcu piT— cM«l«r, 74 1. 
Dtcnmoit, loguiUiaic, 79C. 
MUilo^ 4S3, 743. 
MUanln, J. IL J.. 3. 
I)«lluuuii>. I'., SSI. 
UEiwity, cbxtrio. Bl, 

— 111 A cuncnt, 3sy 

— nouaraaunt << 313. 
IHaMsMtwD, tV. 440. S3S. 
IHMMiric, a& 103, HI, 339, S35 381, 

HHi^.37<t, 7SI. 


Willi ■111. •teAw. M. ;s. 71. lU. 
»-»«, «oe. 733, 7*1. 

IteA, 1 i^iiiiw ■< iC3-47l. 

Xll. X3S, 3«e, 95, »*.l 

•0, 73, 7«, til, 
SS4, MS; 7<3, 7)1. 

— M>K7 M. 

— I»«-,6S. 

— !LlacttB«.S«. 

— tMidM«.M7. 
iinHMfal 70 

— .faA,B7. 

— waiba, 4S. B9, 107. 108, ni. 

— • 

ghafrwiy—fe ijatf of i 

BiBB ttl yna ww l T. 73S. 
nMtDlp&i, 330, SS5-373. 
BaBtraljtav SS7. 3SS. 
Klac«nMM anHhiCFiMn, 3S3-27^ 

— pobrbuk^ Se7. W4-373. 
Bkemtaacaaiw fotn^ 475, &S0. S83. 

— OMMOnauBl. 40S. 

— ■■■u^lBm. »S5. 

— Bta mati aai^ 730-780, 


' unI Jntti iwu tk anllB MauM«4 

— raUlLa, 491. 
Ei«em«aaEthin, djmnieal (1im*t «C 

Elaetranwtcn, 311-320. 
ElMtfDOMiiv run*. 49, S3. IJl, 

34«-3S4. at. SOS, t». 
EUcuut-hom, 309. 
eUc<i<>«»p«b 33, 814. 
EbotnalalH lamnnaiiwto. 21i-B 
~ pofarisiaon. B&. 111. 

— sUncUon. 103-111. 
rjtuai of iBiUiv ^, A«> 

Eloctrutouk *UI<^ 540. 
I£ttas>i>u<>. 734. 
Bli|i««l. IM, 303. 137, ISO. 
KUtptio inltrnk 140, 137. 70I_ 
BMfgj', 0, &, 03O ««, 7'-*^ 7ine. 


HSqiia^uua of ooniluctiTity, 39$, 609. 

Glut, 51, ^^H 

^t-- of coiiibuil;, 85. 

Glov, oleotric, 55. ^^^^H 

^K~ of cbctrio ouRoiU, 007. 

Grawuuum. H., 526, 687. ^^^1 

^^- ot (oUl eumnlii, 910. 

Grating, electric clTMit of, 903. ^^^H 

^m — 0r«l«lr<Ha«4[n'^>o fweo, 603. 

Gmri, UeorEiv 70, 84, 318, 439. ^^H 

^ — of aUobQiDoliia tator, 693. 

Gnoti'a function, 9S. ^^^^| 


~ tiuanm, 96. ^^^^| 

^L^of nagnctiMtloD, 41)0, dOB. 

Gtoovo, elwtdo «a*ot of. 199. ^H 

^^~ of mnatiello Induction, G9t. 
■ — of PoJMn, 77. 

Gran, Sir W. R.. 372. 778. __^M 

Glinnl-ring. SOI. 217. 2'J6. ^^^H 

V— of r«ii«taii(w, 397. 

GulU-pen-'hH, 51, 3U7. ^^^H 

EijuUilriuni, poinUoT, 113-11*. 


lluiiiluai. Sir W. Rowui, 10. 561. ^^^| 

VunilHy, Al„ liiit diionvnric^ 53, Sn, 23G, 

Hani imii, (34, ^^^H 

Harri». .Sir W. Sitow, 36, 218. ^^H 

2S6, S30, SSI, S3<, 646. 668, SOS. 

Uent, ootnluotii-Q of, SOI. ^^^^1 

— hii experimmu, 3S. 4i!9, 930, S68. 

— gcnenlcd by the ourrviit, 342, 2SS, ^^^^| 

— tai tnnbodi. »7, !3. I±i, i03, 528, 


&2», fill. £»'i, r.0(. 604. 

— «pMdfltvofolMtridt;, 213. ^^^H 

— Li* •ju-uUliuM, S4, 60, S8, 107, 109, 
US, 439, £03, £10, S<7, 569, 615, 762. 

H«iliO, I3R, 140. ^^H 

Helix, &1S. ^^^1 

F»d, 6'ifl. 

Helmholti. U., 30^ 431. 543, 713, 833, ^^H 

Foctuur. G, T, 3S1, S74, 6(8. 


roltd, R., S36-&>g, 669, 

Hnlcriotallc electrnmiolen, 818. ^H 

teirwnn^ 138, HO. 
KTcnoaugnatfc, i^, 139. S44. 
^ IVW, olectriti, ■*). 

Hix^kin, C'liarlct, 353, 36u. 800, ^^^1 

ItctU. W,, olotOiicail mMhiDO, 313. ^^^H 

Ilotnitein, Kairi, 471n. ^^^^| 

— deolmiiiagiictic', 5SS-61I>. 

Huygoni. Chri-tian, 783, ^^^^| 

— of onirarm fmea, U7'i. 

KyilntiiHe ram, 5S0. ^^^^| 

Pirn (wjng. 7(5. 

HyjKjwliie, 151. ^^^^H 

iriBoa. H. L., 787. 


^L flaiiL aleoUio, 36, 3*. 
H>^ inociiiit>T«OTi1<lc^ 61, 111, 2E>5, S29, 331. 
^ — m«<Mllc, 3S0. 


IdlnnUitlc cIrctroiDobin. 318. ^^^^H 

\-ai»tt^ elmtdc, llll, 155-181, 189. ^^^H 
— uin^Mic. 318. ^^^H 

Farc«. cUatmtni^cticv ITS, 580, GS3. 

— niovinj;, 663. ^^^^H 

~ dKlnimolivo, t». Ill, 333, S4J, iMO- 

Inmgitikrjr magnctlo mBtbr, 380. ^^^^| 

364, ZiS. 569, 379. 5uA, 608. 

loduool cnrrtaita, 528' 553. ^^^H 

^•^ nechuiical. 69, US, KlS-tll, 174, SSO, 

- In a plana ebecl, fiSOdtfO. ^^^H 

■ 602. 

— WoMr'n tboorjr of, ^56. ^^^^| 

^H — luiaiiiiruiiiont </, (1, 

IqiIocoI ■na|{n»tia>tiDii, 4S4-4I8. ^^^^| 

^K — acting >1 * iliiUniv, 103. 

IndaoUon, vleclnvlaUr, 36, 75, 76, tlL ^^^H 

m _ Bnwtt 83, 117 123, *0(. - 

— nu^eticv 400. ^^^^| 

Foomuli, L., 767. 

luertll^ olcolrio. 550. ^^^^| 

Foumr, J. B. J,, £., S4L 33-2, 333, SOI- 

- mmnunU and iirodiicti <£, 56S. ^^^^| 

H W5. 

Ini-iUUn, 31>. ^^H 
InvrreioD, 'loctric, 16^161, IM, 314. ^^^H 
Ion, 337. 255. ^^^| 

GitraMOMUv, 210. 707. 


^ •- diOnUkl. 3(6. 
K -- Muiilinv 717. 
■ — •Imk1u<1,708l 

poicliloTld* of, 800. ^^^H 

IrroauiuiUablo outvc% SO, 421. ^^^^| 


— ohMTvMfon oC 7(I~7SL 


Gasov otMrln* iliictiarge in, 36-77, 370. 

Juobi. Kl. H., 336. ^^H 

— iwiiMOM of, 36S. 

Jonklni, Winiam, 546. Sto Phil. Uoj., ^^H 

Churfe*. J. P, C7. 

1834, III. SI, |9l 351. ^M 
Jcnkhi. rlwiiiini/, 763, 77*. ^H 

OmHStla, J. M., 3<6, 712. 

OBIItc* «Ue4naH4«r, 318. 

Jcichnuinii, K, iAS, ^H 

OaoHt C. >'., 16, 70, 131, HO, U«. 400, 

Joiilo. J. p., 344 363. 448, 4fi7, 468, 796, __^M 

421. 45(. 45», 470, 706, 733, 744, 851. 


Gcomcttic nioan di«*ate^ 691-693. 


G«o)nob[7 of iHxilluD. 431. 


Olbwa aod Iluv-Ui, S39, 76». 

■K«}rien«ufdMt(oajraaii>lM,'Ml- ^^^M 


KInetiw, 969-565. ^^^1 



KtTcliliolT, CxtUv, 282. Sie, 439. 7M. 
KoblnuKh. Ituaolpb. 3a&. 965, TU, 7f 1. 

Urnf. G.. 17. Ml. 
LunGllaf rMAot, 412. 
[jiplaco. P. a. 70. 
LopUon'i conlKciunti, lSft'146, 

— «<ioatiOD, Se, J7, SOI. 

— MpuiBon, I3S. 
LaBsndn's cMlItoient. 13&. 
L^nlu. G. W.. Id, 4!t. 
L«iu. E.. :iijG. a;<<>. fits. 

Uglit, «lrt;lr.iiu»ftnr|jc tIit>Di7 of, 7Sl -SOB. 

— - and iiu>L:t»'Li.<ir>. 80^^31. 
IiiniMlQiuiiv. 04, SI. 

— •intognl. lA-30. 

^ oT electric tbieo. tH, tli. 

— of iiuicnalc rnn'*, 401. 4S1, 4D8. 1U». 
5»0, 800, 60T, 633. 

Linn orequOiliriutn. 112. 
~ or flow. 33.203. 

— of •loctrio IndndlaD. 82, 117-123. 

— of niMipiMic lailucUun, 4(14, ifV. It'i, 
641L5S7, 702. 

LituiBUB, C, 23, 
liouvillc. J.. KS. 17S. 
LiKlntr. J. B.. 18, 23, 421. 
IiOmii, L., SOG n. • 
LoKhliiidl. J-,i. 

Maitiwci7>it«Ulc (ihenDQieiui, 4'JS, 43G. 

Ma((iiv(, lU |inip<atliM, 371. 

— (lir*clH>ii vt BiU, 872- 31*0. 

— nt^vlio iniiniriil ^f. 384, 390. 

— MOtrv Bad priDcip*! mlm, 353. 

— pcrteniiril anergj of, 380. 
Mutictic kctton uf llsht, fiOO, 

— itiaturbniiDC^ 473. 

— (orw, law of, 374- 

(Itnolian of, S7t, 493. 

Inlcnrity of. 4U. 

~ Iniliicliuii. I<i(>. 
M^^tio ' nialtur,' 350, 

— mvMurBiuciili^ 44(i-4<14- 

— p«lc>. 4SS. 

— wjircy. 488. 

— varUll'ino. 472. 
HafiMiiHii ofiiliipfv 441. 

— (vrrwLrial, KJA-174. 
Mwwtintkii, coiuiiDaeolB oC 881. 

— UidiMed. 424'43U. 

— Aiop^'« iLeory of, 883, 333. 

— P<4wnn'ii IhoiBy of. 4SR, 

— Wawr". Ofirj of. 442, 338. 
Uairna*' ((>^ 1*«, 251 
Uanco'i, IlcBry. nut'i-'l. SG7. 
MaltblMBii. Aui-.. 3.V2. SBO. 
MoMiiiviHvnl, Xinxtrj of, 1. 

— (if riistria l(«otv is. 

— orolMtraaUdo etfmMn, SSB-SSO. 

MeanmmMit nf DteotonnotiviB fona 
potcBlul, 818, S&S. 

— of naiiilanci!, X3G-3S7. 

— i)f oiinHtMil vurnaU. 748. 

— «( tniwlfinl oiiirtBU. 748. 

— ofooii.. 708, 75»-7a7. 
» magnecic, 449 VH. 
Mnliuni, eltctfomafiictic, S98. 

I uiiiiiiifcr(,iiiii. 6CI9. 
Mlireiiry, rntiiUnot of, ML 
.M rula. KwtUooe of, 383. 
MjohoU. John. 3«. 
MlUoT, W. n.. 28. 
Mirror OMthod, 430. 
MoWulu' cliar)(« «r tloclricily, S59. 

— (lunnilii, 633, 

— ■Unilarda. 9. 

— vortlMf. 832. 
MolaeuU*. liaa <£, h. 
~ alMlrie. 300. 

— magnvlU-, 430. 893 34K. 
Moraont. ma^tUo, 334. 

— of liwnia. 589. 
Moiaaiitliin. 3. 

— alvcinikiiiDllc. 578, S8S. 
MottcUi. <i. V^ 6± 
Motion, «if iiatiiHU of, M3-945. 
Movins kin, 300. 

— ooadu«(«n, COS. 

— tRu«ai. ees. 

MnltI|>lo cniiducKoi^ 3T8. S14. 

— FuiHTtiiaif, P. 
Mullipliotiaii, MMMI oC 747. 7M. 

Naatuann. F. %, eodBotcat of aa^aUiia- 
UoD, 4,10, 

— niagnatimtion id «Ilfp«rid. 4SB. 

— tiiODrjr of indund concaiU, 943. 
NamuMui. C. G . lUO^ S30. 383. 
Ntehoban'i [t«n>lTln|f Dovbkr. 20ft. 
Niokal, 429. 
Una lottho!'^ 114. 348, SOS. 

f)iwud. a C «*», 47S. 
OI><i>.l^.?t-. 241.338. 

Ohm. Uw, ■.iii, 340, 9S». 
OpMilr. 788, 
OTatj- sllitwiia. 153. 

Puling, A.. 304. 
Parabulaiiit, oonGical, 154. 
Panmusnxfc (lanie aa FnrannvMilo);, 

439. 428, 844. 
PdUor. A., 248. 
Poriiidj,! niBcUue). 8. 
Poiplanrtio Tttfim, ti, 118. 
Pnmu*l>ilitt, iiBii{wtk>, 428. ni. 

pbimp*. a L, 342. 

Phn of Ui* Ttmiiw, 99. 
Piano curTMt.alw(4, 894-««l. 
llaKUiy oUlraoU, 131. 


PUtymetfff, clcetrcp-, 22P. 

Rloiniuiii. BemhitriJ. 431, SII3. ^^^^| 

Pincl[<T.J"llu». S3l'. 

itijflil uiJ 1nft-haiiil*d ■ytt««iu of SM* ^^^^H 

PdIuIh of ti]ulUbriiim. 112. 


P«i-»on. S, J>-, !.'..'.. 431, 487. «74. 

— ciTa<iiiulr'|><ilaria«d nyi, 613. ^^^^| 

FauaoD*! equKtioD, 77, 1 49. 

Rilohie, W.. Hi. ^^H 

Paiawn's tiEiMrjr of laagiivUim, 137, 430, 
431, 441, S3S. 

BiiCot'i ^J. W.) SctDDFlary Pile, S71. ^^^H 

DntaUoii of pliuiu of pDlarimCian. 808. ^^^^H 

■ — iheary of vavo-prnpayatjon. 7SI. 

— ma^utlinii, a iiliiiiiuiunuan of, 631. ^^^^H 

PoUr diUuiliiin uf uutEiielio (urou, 3I>S. 

Klltilniaiiii. K.. 37i>. ^^^^| 

Poliuil;. 381. 

RiiIp ol clooljomiigiiatio dlraoUtm, 477, ^H 

PoLiriattiDti. dwtTiMtttCio. M. III. 

li>4, 196. ^^M 

•~ •kotfolvtio. 3:>T, ^4-2;2. 
— mMtwdo, 3»I. 


— -f IlKhl, SSI. 791. 

ficaiar. ^^^M 

— oiiwilw, SI 3, 

Sc^ln f<tr HLirror iilTHHrrati^rni, 450. ^^^^^| 

Pol«* «f a magnst, 373. 

Sn-torial li.iimoDic, 133, ISS. • ^^^H 

■ — magiwiie of Uib urth, 469. 

Hcebeck. T, J . 350. ^^^H 

PodliTd and motive. liiiDTflntiani about. 

Selenium, CI. 363. ^^^M 

K 2S. ST, an, 37. 63, t!H'81. 231, 374. 'i^i. 
■ 417. 489. 498. 
~ Piiieotial. 16. 

ti<.'K-[ii<tucti»u. 7. ^^^^H 

— miuftimiiniii (if, 75S, T7A, TTtt. ^^^^| 

— coil ofiuuiiuuin, 700. ^^^^H 

— vkMrio. «5, TO. SiO. 

SL-niJti« gntoiiuiiieter. 717. ^^^^H 
Sixic* of otHorratitnidi, 74U, 750. ^^^^H 

^ — aasMUc, 3«3. 391. 
^r— oCtwu ciivuita. 4'J^). 

KImU. mntpcilc, 409, 4S4. 485. 806. tH, ^H 

070, 094. 0W«. ^^M 

— of tun <M«*. a9S. 

Sl-iri«ni(, (;. W.. 33fi. 361. - ^^^H 

Potential, voctw, 40B, 48!, 590, 617, 

Sinn, nit^tliinl uf, (55, 710l ^^^^H 


Sin^tar poinla, 139. ^^^^H 

Prini^|<«l axca. 29S>. 303. 

Slope. 17. ^^^B 

Prublnnu, •IwUflntadc, ir>t-SOS. 
H— •iMArekiotiiliiLi':, 3<9H.;1SS. 
^P^-nu^stie. 131-441. 

Silvio. A.. 372. ^^^M 

Stiiilh. AnhitnU. 441. ^^^H 

Smith, Vi'. K.. 1S3. 316. ^^^H 

— (iMtromagnttio. <J4T-706. 

>kvp bubble. 125. ^^^H 

Proof of tha law of tlw lavatw Squiin, 

Sa1«ioiii. iragncllo, 407. ^^^^^H 

H 74. 

~ aUcttiolnn<rn''l'c. 070-6^1. 727. ^^^^| 

■ PnK>rpEanv,233. 

ttolMlDldal dirt n Initios. 21. $S. 407, ^^^H 


Solid Mf-I*. 400. 417-4S3. 4S5. 69K. ^^^H 


SpawvariatioQ, 17. 71. 639. ^^^H 

Spatk. 57, 170 ^^H 

Qoailric uirfKOT. 147-1G4. 

SpcfiiAc induetlra oapadtj. 53, 59; 94, ^^^H 

Quaiitit)'. axpcwdMa Iwrm phjrukal, 1. 

111, 32V. 32S, 334. 637. 763- ^^H 

QuaatitiM. «l*iinliuMi«a of elcatnmu^ 

— oonductiTiiy, 27^ 637. ^^^H 

Brticeao «29. 

— midanot^ 277. 637. ^^^^| 

Qaatembma, 11. 303, 490. S2S, HIS. 

^ baat of eloctririt;, 2Si. ^^^^H 

QuJuke,G., 316 1.. 

Spherv, lis. ^^^H 

Sphcdnal oanij union, 145. 146. ^^^^| 

SplnricHl Lanuimioi. 128-146. 391. 481. ^^H 

Badialian. faroM anovmed In, 799- 

Spin], lomriihiiitc. 781. ^^^^M 

IUiildoe.W.J.M.. 115. CSI. 

tJtMliliifl vlectruniftn-, 317. ^^^^H 

BayordoctruiiwfftinEicdldurbanoa, 791. 

— gftlvanomotiT. 708. ^^^^^H 

Bacipneal propuliL o, vlKtmalktic. 86. 

StokM. G. G.. 24. 115, 761. ^^^H 

— BlMlTDhilWInntio. set, SIS. 

filuoar. Q. J.. ^^^H 

— DtoKDacKv 4'il, 423. 

Stntiflvd cniMliiDinn. 319. ^^^^| 

•— dtcirnuui^Detie. 538, 

iStrMi. rlKtrvoUtio. li>5 HI. ^^^H 

— kinollc Mi. 

— dwlrokiuetic, «i 1. «I5. 016. ^^^H 

ItaoAX iiiolliiid «f. 750. 

Suult, Hon. J. W.. 103, SOS. ^^^H 

Rfaianal cUiyK 3S7-43I. 

SaiUee InloHnl. 15. 21, 75, 402. ^^^M 

— ilu^atix*li"D, 444. 

d«n>ity, 64, 223. ^^^H 

Bcfiltaiitfaer. SIO. 

Hiirfnur, iKiutiiDUvlial, 48. ^^^^| 

BoiiUtuw of cuDiluctani, SI, 4TB. 

— •leotriHnl. 78. ^^^H 

~ t^lo* of, 362-300. 

Suipoidod coil, 721';29. ^^^H 

— MDnlioiin of Sn7. 

Supciudan. brtiLar, IS9. ^^^^| 
— .laalc'i, ^^^H 

— unit «f, 758-767. 

— «lM<iiM(atia mcaaura of. 353. 780. 

— TbonuDD'a, 721. ^^^H 


— untfilu, ^^H 


^^H 1W)lM«feaefB(iMitoarfto«IL 700l 

TtatriMl MnMli. S33, SaO. 5W. Ot. 

^^m _ ti dtniNuicMu, i2ueat. 

Mt. 74^ 76S, 760, 771, 778. _| 

^^^H — of •UctronintJVB (bret^ 858. 


^^^B _ of mjgnulic rnUliun, 8S0. 

■ —of ^Mi^1»aa^ MS-8dS. 

— tfam *—■'——'-'. 8. ^^^1 

■ — of vrlodty cf Ugbt utd of •laotrao^ 

— ikriTod, 8. ^^H 

■ natfe dUtarbuM*. 7S7. 

— obctn-bami. 83S. ^^H 

H — of l«M(KtV]r •ail nddiud n^stUiB- 

~ n«ii»tick 374. SS5. ^^H 

■ tkm. Hi. 

■ T^t. P. G.. a. »1. SST. 5SS, 067. 7»1. 
H l^ncDDi ^TMiaiiMMr. TIO. 

— eloctndjrnaiBk. S9S. ^^^H 

■ TuRanu, BedMd cS. 4S4. 710. 

— lOMtlol, <S». ^^H 

■ Td«Knf>l> <*>>H SSS, SS». 

— of i«iMn««k 7Ba-7«7. ^^^ 

■ TiMfoiy m^MtiHttloo, Ut. 

^k VandoK. •botratatu^ U. SB. 107, 108. 

— nik* of Iha tvo i^nK^au, ;88-78«. 

^^H — olaHwignBlift MS. ei«. 


^^H T«irMtrUlBWfiiotu«, 403-174. 

Tari»tkaorB»|iB*4i«*hnMBb^«;2. ■ 

^^^ Tlnlkn, T«Um RoIniI, 43U. 

VaHoy, C. V., 310. »7I, 882. X0. ■ 

■ Tlwcm. 0*«tn'i, 98. 

Vtetar, 10. ■ 

■ — Ewnduwy 11*. 

VMtof pototUL 40&. 4S1 S»0,817. <ST.^ 

■ ~ CkNilenb'ii. 80. 
^^^ — TboauoD'a, 100. 

mUmmn, 888, 828, 7&S. 

^^B — Omm'. 400. 

br Um ntio «f >leotri« DalUL TU. 

^^^1 TlwMj ofamfluld. S7. 

760. _| 

^^H — of two fluids 3S. 

— ofd«cWoaMgMacdiatiirituc*,784. ■ 

^^^B — of MMgnetio aMtor, SSO. 

— oriigbt,787. ■ 

^^^ — of mpinr molotiBlm, 4S0, a33-815. 

— oflha cleetrio buiumI. S60. ■ 

Vttdx, ILS, S0«, 8S0. ■ 

^^_ — of iual«ca)v voUcim, Vi-L 

VTbnlk., timt of, 43«. 7SS. ^^| 

^^K _«f KtM««lmab«MH94l03,a41-«U, 

Voll, 639. ^^H 

^^P S4S-SH. 

Volte, A., 24«. ^^H 

Toltunour, 337. ^^^| 

^^H IlKaMin. EHrWUMii. 

Vortfa^ MelwuUr, 83S-8S1. ^^H 

^K — fInUk imMcn, 41, ISt. 166-tSl. 


^V 178 

Water, miMaaoa of, $<5. ^^H 

V — «XMriw«>l*, 51 . S7, 248. SO. 77^ 

VTaic prop^Blion. 7S4, 78S. ^^^H 
Wcbor. W, Ull, S3S, 8«>. ^^H 

K •- Imwobmbu, 127. -201. SIO, 311. SIS- 

■^ to, S73. 7SS. rS4. 

^^1 — mmrtliB, SIS, SMt, 4M, 407-41 1^ 

— Muotd napwUtm. 443-448. 838. ■ 


— cmU ofmtoamcw, 780-;e3. ■ 

^^l — MMtaBM^ 888. SSI. SS8. TS3. 

— niU»«f clMtm mitt. £37. 771. ■ 

^^M — it>Miio.«lMttti9l7, 907, 341. 349. MS. 

— cleeirDdnMDic fonfcaU, M0-$61^^^^| 


W«(llM4in. W . 447- ^^^1 

WhaaiaiMMTx RHiW 347 ^^H 

V — tk«or7 of dectrieily, V, 37, «», 831, 

— p|~:t™«aiif. »is, 758. 7T5, 77«. ■ 

■ S»«. 

Wl>c«(ll, W.. 337. ■ 

^fc — vortax notion. 3)\ 487, 70S. 

WledeaHm. d, S38, S78l **$, MT. ■ 

^1 ThaOMOD Md Tfttt'i Nfttitnl PbOoay 

Wind, docttfe. U. ■ 

■ ptij. 128, 1S9. t4U. 181, SCO, ii», 870. 

Wi|» 779. ^^ 
Wccii, 8. ^^H 

■ Timm.pnMOBatTibtMiim.iSe.TiS. 

■ Ibio-nUvral. B41, 568. 


■ TodlxiMr. lU, 140. 


K ToRlodl^ BTMitolMiv H8. 

Zaro Ta»!!)w, 735. ^^^| 

Zonal hMHinio. 138. ^^H 

1 i 

BSO. ^^^M 


VOL.1 1. 

^■: i 

/■fajotfl'iSS^ctn.-.-ii'/^. Fol.JT- 

FiO HV. 
Art 388. 

Av CyUruiers nu^mttxmi trtuwt^sefy. 

fiir Uie Del^aUs of the CUrmdon Prtss. 







,' ' I 

■a I 


I : 


vf-.-»i,>-»i-..-.--r, ^r/T-.T-V I,: ..^ 

Tro, XV 
Art 434 

: = 









_-- 4— 




, .1^1 1 1 








■^- — 1 











f — h ^J^JT'-'£j^xx^*^ry^...- 










{{] lit ' 

m4l '\ \':\ 


'- 'TTxfciil ' 










,._ _i 


\^''^\ ' '^<j x 





N^^^Vf "^>f"'""t "'~~Z1^ 

N^ /\ 

e /T--i/ 


1 I V^^A''^^^ \^^^^ ^ ■ * 







t — 1 \ \ 

















.'S/ .'"<- ,Ai;\;jLf'.'' ■■'* ;(,.: V.iTr.d..;!. i-T?,;s 








— ^ 

— 1 

\ \/\ ^tK X-Vti 1 

^\-<^A. i^^Sf3<t-9tX4H- - 


A / -y^ ■"-^^•%^A''Tl^\ 1 





. _ 

' ~ JuJpVi^V^^V^'.^' i 


_\ \ ^"r^A^ y>_ L i-^^*^ 

~ " 

" \ p^-V^^t^^" \^N \ 

I i T-A'\j. A'\ \ ^A — \ 


— t- 


1 1 I L-A— A V,--T^\ J . 



^L Q/iJtdfr m/tynt^re^ trof^tTrttr/f pi^trrd ^n«/ and ft'i^l 




ATt. 496 

dfMilvn (V«3S 

H ^^^1 


H AH ^^H 







^^CSoOvx.'OcycS' ^so^v^ 



. x^v/SQjTK^ 

j4ThP* ^"j^^ jOttw 


' 1 

1 \X 





^^^^^^H "' tht DdiKNiUs :^ Vst Qarrn^en. PitAx 


.jfefwltih. Pttjs 



fiC XV! 
An 436 



— 1 



\ \ v'''^-'' - ■"^^iT , V^^jk*\ ~\ \ 













1 L-— *r^^r7\i J^"*^ \ >^, ■\J^^^ \ 




1 1 1 1 -y^ y X^^'X ^^^ V I 

1 / i 


1 \ L^i>''V^ V-^^Y^ \ ' ^J^— 






J - 



FtG 3twr 
Art. 496 

^.» -Jiaiindan/ fYue 


'■^Jj'^jf^f/.'^Jl'^.r/'':-:-:^. r^-'j/. 

Flo xvin. 

Art 467, 702 

CircuUw Current^. 

'/•■■ IVLyittfS i-j' !Jic i'/'in-'l.i<.i r^ 

A« 715 

7m> Ct-rcutar GirrenlJ 









^ =^^ 














— ^ 






-1 — "^ 1 \ i — t""'' 




_i 1 — 1—4 — \ T \ -i 

— z^^^ 

^^K CtrmUar Cur/vnt 


Jtilj tBS6. 

ClarenlTon ^Jress, ©xforli 








\Evtry iMi it teimJ in iJmA, untat Mhtraiiie JitiriitJ.J 


Anglo-Saxon. — An An^/i>-Saj:^n Diclienary, based on the 
MS. CoUMtioQi of Ihe iBie Joic-ph Ilosworth. D.D.. Prnfeuot of Anglo-SiEoii, 
Oxford. E(Ul«a anil riiliui:»l l>y Prof. T. N. Toller. MA. (To be comulcled 
dJu. A-I - " 

b foUT norta.) 
I j/. <a<^. 

r«iU I U(l 

H\VIt>TLlAN(pp.ri,£r6), iSS). 410. 

By James 

ClIlNF-SF..— .^ Haiidhock of the Ch'tneu Language. 
SDRimcri. itiGj. Sua- half bniind. 1/. S/. 

English. — A New Iinglish Dictionary, on Hisl&rieal Priii- 
i S< idMctIjiU collccttil by the PhlloloukAl Society, 
iiiray. LL1)„ PfCTiileiit of ihc Philoliitkal Society 
ly Sthotut )Lnd inen of Sdcnce. Part I. A — AN' 
P»(t IL ANT— BATTEN (pp- w". 3SJ-(«*)> Imperi'I 

liplti: foaniled mainly on 

VAUeA by Jnnic« A. H. Miiiray. i.L.U„ Prcaitlciit of ihc Fhiiolotte!"! Society ; 

villi llie aniitancc oFmany Sthotanand inen of Sdcnce. Part I. A — ANT 

(pp. x*i, 3S)>. 
410. III. td. each. 

An Etymological Dictionary of t/ie English Langnagt, 

By W. W. Skcal. M.A. Stt^nd EJitian. 1884. 4to. 1/. 4/. 

Supplement to the First Edition of the above. 1884, 

4to. 11. W. 
■ A ConcUe Etymological Dictionary of tfu English Lan- 

gtagt. By W. \V. Skcal. M.A. S/tmJ EJilim. 1885, Croun S™. 51. W. 
G R E EK . — A Greek- English I. (xitott, by H en ty G corge 

Liddcll, D.D.. and Robert Scott, D,D. Scvtatb EtUtloo, Rerifcd and Aug- 

mciiled thtoughoul. iSSj. 410. il.t6s. 

A Greek-English Lexicon, abridged from Liddcll and 

ScotI** 4la. edltioD. chiefly for the qm of S^oob. Twenly'fiiil Edition. 
1884. Square itmo. 71. Ci/. 

A copious Greek-English Vocabulary, compiled from 

klhebcttauthotitiea. iSjo. utoo. it. 
- A Practical Introduction to Grtek Accentuation, by H. 
W. CbAodlcr. M.A. Second Edition. 18S1. 8to, ia/.6./. 


Hebrew.— TAir Bwk of Hebrew R&ots, by Abu 'I-Walld 

Marvin ibn jBnih.otbeiwUccitllcfi Rabbi Vfmkh. Now firetcdilod, withu 
Apptndli. bv Ad. Nculitucr. 1875. ^lo. il. ji. 6J. 

A Trtatixe oh tkt usi of the Tenses in Hebrew. By 

S. R. Drfw, D.D. Scocnil Etlitloo. tSSi. Exlr«fc*p.Sw. ;<. M. 

Hebrew Aceenluatwn of Psaints, Proverbs, and Job. 

Ky Willuia Wickri, D.D. iSSi. Uciity 8vo. slifFcovpn, 5/. 

Icelandic. — An teclandie-EngUsh Dietienary, based on the 

HS. colleclionK of tb( laic Ricluid Clcuby. Ealu^d u»d completed ^)' 
G. Visfdaon. H.A. With an Intre^nction. uid Lifc ot Rlchud Cleubj. bj 
G, Webbe Duent, D.C.L. 1SJ4. ^lo, j/. j/. 

A List of Englisk Words tfu Efymolcey of tvhieh is 

HluitrMtd fy tamfttriifiB witi Ittlaitjir. t^jwrcit In the ionn of U 
ArntHnixiolhtatMrt. Bjr W. W. Skol, M.A. 1S76. »tiichc<l, ». 

An Icelandic Primer, with Giammar, Notes, and 

GloXKtry. By Henry Su-td, M.A. Eilra («p. Sto. 31. W. Jntt PiMuitd. 

Aa Icelandic Prose Reader, with Notes, Grammar and 

Glotarr. by Dr. Gudbtmnd Vigfuuoii uid f. Vo«k Powell, M.A. iS;g. 

Extra fcnp. 6to. io». i4. 
Lattn. — A Latin Dietitmary, founded on Andrews' edition 

of KicDitd't Liun Dicilonar}'. KviKd. ealiirgtil. and in grot pun trwiiiKn 
brChiulinnT, Lewia, Fb.D., aiulCliirlesithori, L.L.D. i8;i) 4(0. 1/51 

Mei,ANES7AN.— T"**^ Melanesian Lar^nages. By R. H. 
Codiintjton. D.D., oftbe MdnnFiinii Mbtioii, 8n>. iSj. 

Sanskrit. — A Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Lanffuage, 
arrMif^l with rtfcrcnce lo the Cluneal luignaget of Earope. for tbc we of 
EuglithSluiknli. byMonivtWilliinu, M.A. Fontth Edition. 1877. Gvo. t>;i. 

A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymolo^cally and 

ogicallj anan£cd. wiih ipcdal refcrtttoelnGre^, Latin, Geraui, Anglo. 
, Eng;Iub, ana other cofjnilv Ii'd<i-HurO{«ui Langpaca. By Montel 
^>. M.A. 1871. 4I0. 4/. \^i. dJ. 

NaUp^ihydnam, Story of Nala, an Episode of the 

U*hi-BhiinlB: the Suiikric Im. u-itba copioiuVocabnluy. oaduiinproml 
vereion of Dein Milman'i Tnndation. by MonJo Willuuni, M.A. Second 
Ediiion. Rciiicd and Ini|iror<d. 1879. 8vo. is*. 

—^ Sal-untalil. A Sanskrit Drama, in Seven Act*. Edited 
by Mf>iiicr Willumt, M.A. Second f^liioii, 1371S. 8to. Hi. 

SVRIAC. — Thesaurus Syriacus : coIlejjeruntQiiatrcmirc, Bcrn-j 
■ttin, Lonbach. Anioldi. Aenll, FUM, Koedivcr: cdjdit R. Payne Sfnilh,! 
S.T.P. F««c I-VL iSW-Sj. UD, fol. cacb, i/. i«. 

Vol- I. (ODtauiing Foic. I-V, int. foL $/. fs. 

Fasc. It'll, m. fol. tl. 1 u. 6J. Juii /\Uiiie<J. 

The Bookof Kalllahand DintHah. Translated from Artbi'c 

into Sjriac Edited by W. WriEhl, LL.D. ■SS4. 8to. 1x1. 




OBEEK 0I.AS8I08, &0. 

Aristophanes: A Complete Concordance to the Comedies 
>nd FnxgniciitJ. B)r Ilcnfy Donbar, M.D. 410, 1/. 1/. 

AristotU : T/te PoUlUs, translated into English, with Intro- 
<)dcIioii. Miit;tna1 AniLl;riU. Kolit, and IiuilMt, hf B. Jowett. M.A. Metlium 
8vo. I vcili, tu, 

HeracUH EphesH Reliquiae. Kcccnsuit I, Bywatcr, M.A. 

Ai)ptDi3ic» loco nddiUc sunt Diogenii Lacrtii Vits lictncliti, Pulieuloe llip- 
p(>aBIci De Diacta Lltiti Piimi, EplttoUc Ilcrxliteac. iS;7. Svo. (b. 

HtrculoHeHsiunt Voluminum Partes 11- 1834. Svo. iw. 

Fragntenla Heradattettsia. A Descriptive Catalog^uc of the 
Oxford copEn of the Hervnlaiican HoIU, touttlicr witb lh« («ats of wvcrnl 
papyri, accompanicti bjr facsimiles. Editn] by Wa1t«r Scotl, M.A., Fellow 
of Mcrton Colfi^, Oiford. Royal Svo. cltl^, iij. 

Homer; A Complete Concordance to the Odj-s-iey and 

HjiTtnt of Homer : to which U added a Concordance to the PantlUl Pauafiet 
taUwUUd.Oclxuoy.andHyniiit. l!yHcni7Dunbar,M D. iSSo. 

Scholia GraKa in Iliadem. Edited by Professor W. 

Dindorf, after n new eolUiJon of the Venetian MSS. by D. B. Monro, M^., 
Provott of Oriel Coltcge. 4 ratt. 8vo. i/. loj. Voli.VandVI. In tii Pnil. 

Scholia Graeca in Odysstam, Edidit Guil. Dindorfius. 

Tomill. 1835. Sro. 1^. 6if. 

Plato : Apdogy, with a revised Text and English Notes, and 

Digctt of riatonic Idiom*, by Junes RIddcU, M.A. 1878. Si-o. 81. 6if. 

Philebus, with a'rcvised Text and Englisli Notes, by 

Edsand Potte. M.A. 18A0. Svo. ;i, fiif. 

■ Sophistes and Politicus, with a revised Text and English 

NotM, by L. Campbell. MA. 1S67. 8ro. 18/. 

Theattetus, with a revised Text and English Notes, 

b; L CumphcU. M.A. Second Edition. Svo. to/.&f. 

—^ The Dialogues, translated into English, with Analyses 
and InlrtuJuctlcni, by It. Jowcit, M.A, A ntw Edition in 5 voluina, nipJimn 
8»o. i8;s. j/, leu. 

The Republic, translated into English, with an Analj-ais 

and Introduction, by B. Jovett. MA. Mediant Sio. im. W. 

Thucydides : Translated into English, with Introduction, 

Mugitul Anolytit. Notei, and Indice*. By B. jowelt, M-A. t Tolt. tBSi. 
Medium Svo. I/, lit. 

B 1 


Stv-dia BiBi.iCA.— Essays in Biblical Arcli.xology and Critl. 

clfin, uut kindred lutjectL B]r Mcnbcn of the Vntvrnlt)' of Oxford. Sto. 
i<u. 6)t, 

English.— 7".*^ ffefy BiiU in the earliest English Verstws, 

made Ham Ihe Latin Vulnte by John WyttilS; kihI hii lotloven : cdiRd \f} 
tbcRevJ. Fonhallud Sit F. Madden. 4Vot*. 1S50. Rojil 410. 3/.3J. 
rA)*9 r«pTint«d fMBi ih« ftbov*, with Introduotloo kod Qloaauy 
br W. W. SkMit, H.A. 

Tht Books of Job, Psahns, Prairrbs. EeclesiasUs^and tki 

Skk "/ Salemiin : to^arrWnf, (0 tat WycttRitu Vcn:oa msv\t by Nicbolii 
de Hercroii). atioui A.a. 13^1, ftiid Rented bj Jobn pDtT«y.ab«)il AJi.ljSt. 
Eilta fcsj). Svo. 3». 6rf. 

T/u New Testament in English, according to the VcrMon 

liy Jolm WycUITc, about A.n, i jSo. and Reiiacd \iy John Purvry. aliont *.ii. 
1388. Extra fcap. 8to 6/.> 

•^— Tfie Holy Bible: an exact reprint, pape for page, of the 
ADthorisnl Vcniun publiahfd intlicyeai 1611. Demy 4ta. halTbouw], 1/. U> 

The Psalter, or Psalms of David, and eertain Cantieiej, 

vllh » TMnitatioii nod EipcHition m Enelub. by Kkhud RoUc of lUmpalc. 
Edited In II. R. Riamley, M.A.. Fellow of S. M. Alacdileii Collq^, OtTonL 
Willi an liilroduction an<! Glottaty. Deniy S>i>. i/. ti. 

^^— Lectures on Erclrsiasles. D(.-li\'(.rcd in Westminster 
Abtity by ihc Very Kcv. (Jcvrgc GisaTillc IJradlqr, D.D,, Dan of \S'nt> 
mioitcr. Ctown Sio. 4/, 6r/. 

Gothic. — The Gospel of St. Mark in Gothic, according to 

the tinniUtion mnde by Wntfila in the Founh Ccniaiy. L'Sii^:') irilh a 
Gmmmtilical Introduction and Gloiurial IdAvx by \S. VV. &ktiX, M.A. 
Kxira fcap. iyo. 41. 

Greek. — TVftM Testantenlum ex Versione Septuaginta Intcr- 

nrtCnai truuiidum ciciiiplai Vatitauuin Kucot* tditum, Aoccdtl potior varietal 
Codicil AlcMixlRiii, Toaii HI. Kdilio Alttra. iSiao. tSj. 

Origenis Ihxaplorvm quae supcrsunt ; sive, Vetcnim 

Inldpretun GnKoicin in lotntn Vetu* Tctlamonluoa FitKmata. EdidU 
Fti..1ctku( FUld, A.M. » tqU. tg;^. 41(1. xf }i. 

— The Book of Wisdom: the Greek Text, the Latin 

Vulval*, and lh« Authorited Eurlbh Vcnioo : wilb an latNidvctkiii, Ciilical 
Apfajatiu.andaCamni<n1ai;. By WtlUam J.Deuae.Mjl. Small^to. tti.tJ, 

Novum Testamentum Gracee, AntiquisstmorumCodieum 

Tcxtui in o(din< parallelo diipotiti AonditciillaiiuCoilicitStailticl. EdUll 
F. 11-HuiteU.S.T.B. ToMltll. iHi. 610. balfmofgaio. Piioc rtdnctd 


Grbbk. — AVwiOT Ttstatntnlum Graece. Acccduiit parallcla 

S.Scfl)>lurac locn, etc- Wi<Iil Cirolu* LIoji!, S-T-l* K. i9ni<i. v 
On writina psper, with wi<l« maigin, lo/. 

Novum Tfilamcntum Grtuce juxti Exemplar Millianum. 

tSoM, M. 6J. Oa wrilins papor, wllh wide mni^m. yj- 

Evaugflia Sacra Grattf. Fcap. 8vo. limp, ts. 6d. 

Tfu Greek Trstmnrnt, with the Readings adopted by 

the Rcviivri of ihe Aulhotiwil Version : — 

(l) Pic* type, with MniginnI Kcfcccncci. Demjr Bvo. 1M.6/. 

(i) Long rrimci lype. F&ip. Svo. 4>. 6if. 

{]) ThtMine, «n vtilinj* {Uijicr, «il)i ulil« miri-iQ, Ijt. 

— TAi* /"drtj/flr/A'^-if TVjtawww/, Greek and EnKlish; bcinp 
ih« AnilioiiKd Veision. iGi i ; lh« Ktviscd Vcmion, iftSi ; and the Greek 
Tal (ollowetl in ihc Revised Version. Svo. i ji. W. 

7"*/ Rniud ftrium is lit joint firrfirly o/lit UnivtriUiti ef Oxford imdCamirMgi. 

- ' Canon Afuralorianus : the earliest Catalogue of the 
Book* of llio Xrw Tcvtuncnl. tailed with Nu(» ami a Kauaimile of lh« 
US. to the AmbiMian Libniy *t MiUn, b>- S. 1'. Tre^ellci, LL.D. 1667, 

— Outlines of Textual Criticism applied to tlte New Testa- 
■WW/, ^-j C E. lUiiiiiioiid, M.A. Fouilb Ediiion. Exua tatp. 8ro. J*. W, 

Hebrrw, etc. — T/te Psalms in Ilebreio without points. 1879. 
Crown Svo. 3J. td. 

A Commentary ok the Book of Proverbs. Attributed 

lo Abraham tba Em. Edited fiom a MS. m. the Bodlciui Libtarf b; 
S. R. Driver, M.A. Crown Svo. paper coven, j/. 61/, 

' The Hock of Tobit. A Chaldee Text, from a unique 

MS. ill the Bodlrfin LibniT ; with oilier Kalihiiiicsl Tcxti, I'^ii(:Iiih Tiansla* 
lioDi. and the IiaU. Etlitnl by AjU. Ncutiiser, M.A. 1878. Crovrn Svo. 6f. 

Horae Hebraicae et Taimutliene. a J. Lightfoot, A new 

Edition, by R. Gandell, M,A, 4 toIi. 18J9. 8vo. 1/. 1*. 

Latin. — Libri Psalmomm Vcrsio antiqua Latina, cum Fara> 
pbttui Anglo.Saxi»nie«. Edidit B- Thoipc. F.A.S. 1S35, 8to. 10/, W, 

OUULatin Jiiblieal Texts: No. I. The Gospel according 

to St. Matthew from ihe SI. Germain MS. (s,). Edited with lalroducllon 
and Appendices by John Wofdiuotth, M.A. Small 4(0., •illT conn, 6/. 

■ Old-Latin Pibiieat Texts : .Vo./f. Portions of the Gosjicls 

aixoi<lliij> In Si. Milk uiil Si. Mmthew, fioin Ihe Ki;htilu MS. (V). n'w iiunr- 
btml O. VII. ij III Ihc Naii&Dal I.tbnry U Tuiiii, etc. Eilhcd wiib two 
Faciimllc* by John Wc>nl»wuith, D.D., Ri^op of Saliihnry, W. Samtay, M.A., 
and U. J-liVTiitc, M.A. Small 4I0,, niffcmer. jij. Just Ptimtktil. 

OLl>-FRENCi(. — Libri Fsalmorum Vcrsio antiqua Gallica e 
Cod. MS. in Bibl. tJodlciana adKrvato, onix cum Veriione Mcdica iilii«|iie 
Monumcnlli pcrvcinitit. Nunc piiinuin dcicripijt c( edidit Fnuiciseiii Michel, 
Phil. Uoc III63. Svo. iw. 6i/. 


St. Atkanasius I Historical Writings, according to the Bene- 
dktioe T«x1. Witk an lAUoduclion bj WiUi*m Bricbl. D.D. tSSi. Cran 

Orations against Ike Avians. With an Account of his 

life \.i William lJrl£bi. D.D. 1873. Crown Sio. 9/. 

St. AugusttKf : Select Anli-PdagioM Treatises, and the Acts 

orUio SkodiI CooncU of Oniogo. Wilh »o Inuoductios bj WUliaa Brigk, 
D.D. Crown 8»». 9/. 

Cd/riMiJ of the First Four General Councils of Nicaca, Coo- 

UMttinopl^ Ephcni. ind Qukcdoa. 1S77, CmwbSto. ii. &/. 

■ yVo/w OH Ike Canons of l/u First Four General Councils. 
By Wiillim Briehl. D.D. t8«i. Ctown St«. ^. M 

Cyrilli Arckiefisecpi Alexandriui in XII Propheias. Kdtdit 

P. E. Putey. A-M. Tomi II. 186S. Bro. cloth, tl. u. 

— in D. Joattnis Evangelium. Accedunt Fragmcnta varia 
nccnon TnuUlot id Ttbcnuin Dluomim diw. Etililil jimI Aiibcitum 
P. E. PuKT. A.M. Totni III. i8}i. 9ro. t/, ^. 

■ Commentarii in Lueae Evattgelium quae supcrsunt 
Srriaoc. £ MSS. apuil Mut. BriUA. «didit R. Pttfac SnlUu A.M. iSjtI. 
4to. 1/. :«. 

Translated by R. Payue Smith, M.A. % vols. 1859. 

8to. ifi. 

Ephraemi Syri, Rabulae Episcopi Edesscni, Balaei, aliorura- 

nucOpcraSclrcta. ECodJ.Sinads MSS. in MuMoBritumidoctKlillochtca 

dlci^na &u<mtU ptimui 

an acts 
dil J. 

J. Ovniicck. )Sd|. 8va. \l.M. 

Eusebiu^ hcclesiastical History, according to tlic text of 
Bulon.witb ka Intioducliooby WUlUa Brighl, D.D. l89i. Crown Sto. 

Irenaeus: The Third Book of St.Irenacus, Bishop of L>-ons, 
aj>a!i>it Htreik*. Will, iboirt Note* knd %, Gloaury by H. De»«, aj). 
I»74. Cromi Svo. %s. 64. 

Patrum ApostoHcarum, S. Clcmentis Romani, S. Ignatii, 

S. Poljrotrn. tjuM Mipenat Kdidil Giiil, J*cob*oa, iTJJt. Toai IL 

Fonnb tAaion, il6j' Sto. 

■ /. ■/. 

Socrates' Ecclesiastical History, according to the Text of 
Hoscy, with Ml latioilKtMD ^J WiilUra Brieht. U.D. tSvS. Ciowa Sro, 
7«. W. 


AHcitnt IMitrgyoflkc Qmrch of England, according to the 
nKSoISjmim, York. Hereford. uidBisi^, uil ibc Knmiin Lilni|:r inRnccd 
in panlltl coltigniia, with pichoe utid noKf. By Wlliiuu MuIecU, j£a. 
Thiiil Eilition. iS8(. S*o. \y, 

Bofdae Histcria Etdesiaslica. Edited, with English Notes, 

VG. K.5Iobettr,U.A. iSSi. Crown S.o. ioi.U. 

Bright ( If.). Chapters of Early Bnglssk Chttreh Hislffrjr. 

|8;8. 8vq, Ml. 

Burnet s History of the Reformation of the Chureh of England. 
A new Eililiaa. Care/ully rciucd. and the Kecoiiit colloted wltb the ungiiialt. 
by N. focock, M.A. 7 volt. 1S65. 8ro. Prut reJmtJU jl, 101, 

Councils and Eetlesiastical Docutuents relating to Great Britain 
uicl Irclaoit. I-Miiol, afict Spclnun and Willtinii. by A. W. Hutilu, B.D, 
and W. Sinblin, M.A. VoU, 1. Mid III. 1869-71. MtdinmSi-o. each l/. 11. 

Vol. U. pMi L 187J. Medium Svo. tw. &/. 

Vol. II. P]irt II. :878- Church of Ireluid ; M«m«ri>b of Si. Patrick. 
Stiff coven, y. 6J, 

TamiltOH {yohn. Archbishop of St. Andren's), The Catechism 
of. Edited, witb Inlrodubtion ud Gtumiy, by Thomu Gibtcs Law. Willi 
t Pm^mc I^ the Righl tlsoi. W. E. GUdilonc. Svo. 1 %i. &/. 

Hammond (C- E.). Liturgies, Eastern and Western. Edited, 
with Introduction, Nolo, andLirargicalGlouaiy, 1S78. CrownSvo. 101, W- 

As Appesdlz to tho aboTa' tS;ji. Crown Svo. pai^r coven, 1/. id. 
y&itn, Eishop of Ephesus. The Third Part of his Ecete. 

liulUai Uisltry. ]fa Syrioc] Now bnt edited by William Coieton, M.A. 
iSfj. fto. 1/. iir. 

— Translated by R. Payne Smith, M.A. 1 860. Svo. loj. 

' Leofrie Missal, Tlie, as tiscd in the Cathedral of Exeter 
during Ibc E|'ucu|ialc of Ita ftrtl Kihop, A,t>. 1050-1071 ; tt^clHer with aouic 
Account of the Kcd Bool: of Drrby, the Miual of Kotrcn oijumiii^t, and a 
tew otbcT cariy HS, Serricc Books of tbe Kngliih Church. Uililcd. with In- 
IroduclSon and Koto, by P. E. Wuien, 6.D- 410. half morocco, 311. 

tmenia Ritualia Ecclesiac Aagtieantu. The occasional 

OHicn of the C-iiuxh of England icconllng to the old uic of Sillabury, the 
Ptymer in Eiiul'th, and other iiraycri and Cormi, with iliucilation* and notn. 
Sy WiltUm Mnskell, M.A. beooml Edition. iSS*. 3 voU. 8*0. a/, lor. 

Records of tlte Reformation. The Divorce, I5«7-I5.^.1. Mostly 
BOW (or the tirti time piioled from MSS. in the ilnluh Muieum and other libra- 
lio. Collected aad kiruficd b]-^^ Poco«k, M.A. 1S70. avols. Si<o. i7. i6r. 

SltirUy ( \V. IV.). Sowe Accoitiit of the Church in Ike Apostolic 

Age. Second Edition, 1874. Fcap, Bvo. Jj. 6</. 

Stuhbs ( W.). Registrum Sacnim Atigliiomim. An attempt 

10 eshibit (heeouise of Episcop«l Snccessionin England. 1858, Small 410, 
8(. M. 

Warren {f. E). Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Ckurch. 
iSSi. Svo. 14T. 

Butler's Works, with an IndeK to the Analogy. 2 vols. 1874. 

^™- "'■ AUo separatoly, 

Sermons, $s. 6d. Analogy of Religiott, 5s. 6d. 

GresweUs Harmonia Evangelka. Fifth Edition. 8vo. 1 855. 
91. Oi/. 

Heurtley's Harmonia Symbolica: Creeds of the Western 

Church. 1858. 8vo. 6j. dd. 

Homilies appointed to be read in Churches. Edited by 
J. Griifiihs, M.A. 1B59. 8vo. It. 6d. 

Hooker's Works, with his life by Walton, arranged by John 
KeLle, M.A. SJith Edition, 1874. 3 vols. Bvo. 1/. lis. 6<f. 

the text as arranged by John Keble, M.A. i vols. 

1875. Sto. Hi. 

Jewefs Works. Edited by R. W. Jelf, D-D. 8 vols. 1848. 
8vo. 1/. lot. 

Pearson's Exposition of the Creed. Revised and corrected by 
E. Burton, D.D. Sixth Edition, 1877. 8yo. \ot. 6d. 

Waterland's Review of the Doctrine of the Eucharist, with 
R Piebce by the iate Bishop of London. Crown 8vo. 63. 6d. 

Works, with Life, by Bp. Van Mildert. A new Edition, 

with copious Indexei. 6 voU. 1856. Svo. 2I. 1 11. 

Wheatly's Illustration of the Book of Common Prayer. A new 
Edition, 1S46. 8vo. 5/. 

Wyclif. A Catalogue of the Original Works of John Wyclif, 

by W. W. Shirle>-, D.D. 1865. Bvo. 3/. 6rf. 

Select English Works. By T. Arnold, M.A. 3 vols. 

1BC9-1B71. Bvo. 1/, IS. 

Trialogus. With the Supplement now first edited. 

By Gotlhard Lechler. 1869. Svo. it. 


British Barrows, a Record of the Examination of Scpiilclirai 
MooiKii in varioni paili of Kiiutanil. Kv Gfeenwr!!. M..V. F.S.A. 
Togrtbtr »-iih DEicri[ilioii of Hgaret of Skulli, Ccncisl Remarlu on PfC- 
Uiroilc Crania, bdiI la Appendix bj- Gcotg« Kollnlon, M.D., F.RS. 1B77. 
HMIiun Sto. i^. 

Britlcn. A Treatise upon the Common Law of EfiglanJ, 
compotcd by orJer of Kiiij; EilwBfil 1. 'Hic Freoch Tc»i carefully tevUwl, 
whli no EnclUh Trwulntkiii, InlioJuctJon, and Nol«,by F. M. Nlc^oli. M.A. 
tttAu iWij. KoyalSvq. 1/. 16/. 

Clarendon's History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in 
Ensland, ;raU. 18J9. iSmo. 1/. tt. 

Clarentlon's History of tlu RtbtUion and Civil Wars in 

Englind. Alio hii I.tfo, wciitcn by himictf. in wliicti U included r Con- 
tisuotion of hi> Hiniuiy of tli« Grand RcbcllioQ, With cojiioui Indcxea. 
In <in« volume, royal Svo. 1S41. I/. ». 

Clintons Epitome of the Fasti Hellemci. 1 85 1 . 8vo. fij. W. 

Epitome of the Fasti Romani. 1854. 8vo. ^t. 

Cprpvs Potticvm Boreale. The Poetry of the Old Northern 
ToDSoe, from the Eaiticti Tifnet to tbr 1'iiirivcnth Ccixiiiy. Eililed, du* 
dfic^ and tnntilatol. wilb Inlroduclion. Excimui, and Notn. bj Gudbnad 
ViEfAMoo, M,A., Mid F. York PowcU, M.A, j vols. 188^. 8to. 4J/. 

' Freeman {E, A.). History of the Norman Conquest of Eng- 
laitd; iu Ciusct and lUiiilU. In Six Voluinn. iso. %!. 91. t><i. 

YFreemoH (E. A.). The Reign of William Ruftis and tht 

AccMMOn of llcnijr Ihe Fiiit. t voIk. Hvo. U. lAr. 

Gaseoi^ne's Theological Dictionary ("Liber Vcritatum"): 
SclccUd PuMn, illu»<iatin(> Ihe cunililton of Church and Staif, (4OJ-145S. 
With kO tnlrodiKtion by Jam«< K, Thorold Rogm, M.P. Small 4I0. iw. o^. 

^ Magna Carta, a careful Reprint, Edited by W. Stubbs, M.A. 

rS^l- 4t'>-«itcbtd. I*. 

Passio et Miracula Beati Otaui. Edited from a Twclfth- 

Cmtuy MS. In the Llbraiy of Cor|n» Ctiri»ll ColUgc, Oifoid. wiih ui In- 
trtulucttuit ani! Nottti, by Fmlrrick Mttnirt-, M.A.iimall 4I0. Mifl' cover*, 6r. 

Protests of the Lords, includin;^ those which have been ex- 
puiiKcd, from \(<n 101874; u-ith llistori-rnl Ii'troductioiii. Ediltil by Juqm 
E.'nioiDldRoscis. M.A. I9ji. jroU. 

\ Rogers {y. E. T.). History of Agriculture and Prices in 
EnxUnd. A.i>. iffji-iT^j. 

Voli.IuuIIl(tij9-i4co). 1866. Svo. tl.ii. 
VoU. in and IV (ifoi'isSi). iBSi. Sto. a/, tai. 



Saxon ChronicUs { Tivo of iht) parallel, with Supplementary 

E:itixcU frnni the Olhcn. Edited, wilb InttodDClkin, Note*, Add « Gl«- 
uiial Indn, by J. Kktie, M.A. 1S65. Sto. i6f. 

Sturltmga Saga, tncludttif^ the Islcndinga Saga of Lawnun 

Simla Thorduon uid olhct woiki. Eilitod b; Ur. Oudbnad VlgfAuM- 
In ) voli. iS^. Sio. }/. J^. 

Kwjfr Plays. The Plaj's performed by the Crafts or Mysteries 

or York on tlic il*y or Cwpui ChiLkll in Ike i^lh. ifUi, and t6ih ocntvite*. 
Novrmipriiitol fioin (hr unique muiuiotiiC in the Ubniry oj Lord Atkbam- 
ham. Edited villi lattodnction Mid Gioeuiy by LucyTontmla Snilh. Sto. 

Statutes made for the University of Oxford,and for the Colleges 

and IU1I> iheieln. by the Uiuverui; of Oxford CoouDiiacinen. l89i. tn. 
III. (tJ. 

Statuta Utiivcrsitatis Oxoniensts. 1885. 8vo. 5*> 

The ExamtHation Statutes for the Degrees of B.A., B. ifus., 

B.C./...aiiJ£M. KtVofi lo Ttinily Tenn. i88(. 8vo. vi-ncA, li. 

The Students Handbook to the University and Colleges 9f\ 

Ox/enl. Extra (cap. Svo. v. €d. 

The Oxford University Calendar for the year i88<S. Crown' 

(tvo. V ^■ 
The jimenl Edition iocluilco nil Clan Liili and othci Uniioniiy di*Cinctla«n lor 
the five ycxn eodiag with l$89. 

Alio. iuppUin»ntar7 to tiM abovo; ptiem Ka. (pp. 600], 

The Honours Register of the University of Oxford. Acomplctel 

Reconl of Univenily Honoan, Officcn. DiiiinclionK, acd CUn LitU: of the' 
Head* of Collccct, Sc, dec, Tiom the Tbicteenth Ccntiiiy to 1 SM^ 


Aeland (//. Jf., M.D.. F.R.S.). Synopsis of the Pathet^cat 
Seriei in tkt Chifird MKitum. iSfi;. 6to. ». &/. 

De Bary {Dr. A^ Comparatim Anatomy of the Vegetative 

OrgaHl t/tki Phantrtctaii and /Viiu. TraKilalta asd Anuolalol by V. O. 
Bower, Sl.A., FL„S.. and D. II. Scoll. M.A, Ph.D.. K,I„S- Wiib two 

hundrcil and (otly-Mw voodcutt and la Index, 
i/. w. W. 

Royal SroL, half nMrocoo, 



Mailer {y.). On eertam Variations in the Voeal Organs of 

tlU PanttiS tint iatv hUinrta ti^aftJ ntiin. TraMl*tod In P. J. BcIL B.A-J 
and e<llted. «lib oa A)>|iaKliiL, by A. H. Oarrod, M^.. F.RJi. Willi mtca.] 
1S78. 4to, popcT curen, -ji. 6rf. 

Price {Barthoiemew, Af^.,K/?.S.). Treatise on Infiaitesiuial 

Vol. I. DiffeTtntUl Calculus. Stoond ]ullti«a. %-m. X^M. 

Vol. U. Inleeral Calcolnt, Caloittu of VMUiiou, and Differential Equalion*. 

Scmnct Edition, iMj, Svo. iS/. 
Vol. III. Stntici. iacludicg AtlrKlioDi; Dj^uimics of ■ Malcrul Particle. 

Scwmd Edition. iM8. 8vo. i6i. 
Vol.IV. D^lmlci of Malcritl Syitemi; togelhec villi a chapter on Thto- 

kAkm\ I))-n»mie», by W. F. Donkb. II.A,, K.R.S. i86j, 8vo. i<«, 

\j*ritehard (C />./?.. FJi.S.). Uranometria Nova Oxomettsis. 
A PhoeomMric ddenniiuiliao of the magnllndci of nil Slan tidble to Ihe 
(inkcil est. (irora (he Pole Ut ten dfcKct Miiih of the I'^uator. iKHi. Kov*! 

— Astronomieal Oiservafians made at the University 

Obatrvjitory. O^foid. cndci the diiection of C. Pritchoid, D.D. No. i. 
1B78. Kor^ 8ro. paper coiccv Ji, 6d. 

Riband's Corrtspondenee of SetentijU Men of the lyb Century, 

^with Tabit of Contcnlt hv A. de Moiean. : ' " ' ' ' ~ 
M.A. 1 ttA*. 1841-1SO1. 8to. lii. 64. 

with TabIt of Content* hy A. dc MoiROn. and Index by the Rev. J. Rluaud, 

tolUstoH (George, M.D., F.R.S.). Scientific Papers and Ad- 

drtiiti, KntiiSfA and Edited br wnliam Turaet. M,B., F.R5, With a 
Biogiaphlcal .Sketch by Edward Tylot. F.K..S. Wilh Poitralt. PUte*, and 
WoodcBlk. » vol*. 81a, )/. 4/. 

Wcstu'cod {y. O., M.A., FJi.S.). Thesasirus Entomchgicus 

JlfftioHiu, 01 a D«c;iption of the nut&t Intecl) In the Collection given 10 
^the Univtnjty l>y the Kcv. WiUiam Hui>c. WItb 40 Plaiet. \%^^. Small 
'plio, balfmojoccot jt.lvi. 

^bt ^citlf iSoolis ci tU Tca%t. 

o ev VABI01-; Oiieital SciiouAt. and editso n 
F. Max MCuJtit. 

[Demy 8vo. eloth.] 

fVol. I. The Upanishads. Translated by F. Max Mulkr. 

Part 1. ThrATindogii.upaniiliB'l.The Talavitini'iipiiaiihid. The Aitareya- 
iunnyaka. The Kauililtaki-biihcnajiia-niianitkid, aadTbc VSfiuancyi4aiiihlu- 
upaniiJiaii. t<u.6il. 

Vol. 11. The Sacred Laws of the Aiyas, as tau^t in the 

SciioaU of A«utaiiilM,Gi»ilam_B. Vluih/4a,aiidBaadhilyiina. Traiulatid by 
^m IW. C«or][ UuUa. Pail 1. Ajmnamba and Gaaiuna. i<w. dt. 

Vol. lU. The Sacred Books of China. The Texts of Can- 

teci»'^tim- Tnt»Jattil br lamctUcef. Pajl I. The Sb£l King, The K<li- 
gima porlica) or Lh« Shib Kins, aad The Hiilo Kins. I U, 6d, 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. Translated by James I>armc- 

ttelo. P»rll. TleVendldfid, t0i.6J. 

Vol. V. Tlie Pahlavi Texts. Translated by E. \V. West 

Paul. TbcUoiKUliu, Balinuin Yiul, ui<l Shi^ait U-tfal)Ut. txi.6J. 

Vols. VI and IX. The Qur'An. Parts I and 11. Translated 

by E. H. ['almpr. *U. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vish//u. Translated by Julius 
Vol. VIII. The BhagavadgUA, with The Sanatsi^^aitya, and 

Tbc AneglUt. Tianilxltd b; Kiihtu&lli Trtmlolc TcUaj;. ten. 6J. 

Vol. X. The Dharamapada, translated from Pili by F. Max 

Mullcr: uidTbcSuiU.NiDiu.tnn>hted fram PSli brV.K>i»Ix>]); Uaf 
Cananio] BooLs of tbc ItuoiUilnx. im. 6J. 

Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. Translated from PAli by T. W. 

Khyi Daiidh i. Tbc Mahaiarinibtiijin iiiitunU ; t. He DbaDi>a4*kka- 

Tcn^ - _ ' " '1 

tt*. IOI.6J. ^M 

piwtaltsna SatU: 3. The Ter^m SnllanU; 4, Tli« AkaAkhvvva SntU; 
S. TbcAilakbiUSuIU) 6. ThcMitbi-tuilauuiaSatlaiiU; ;. The SnIiUnn 

Vol. XII. The .Satapatha-Br4hmaffa, according to the Text 

of Ibe Midhnndina ScbooL Tniutalc<l by Juliui t);j^tu>c* I*>'t '■ 
liookituui II. 121.6J. ^^ 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. Translated from the Pili bj 
T. W. Rbyt Davldi and lltnnana OldcnbetE. T»tt L Tbc PltbnokUo. 
Tbe M>hAtig),-«. 1-IV. toi.6d. 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Arj'as, as taught in the 

Schoob of ApostmiilKi. GanUniA, VjUith/^n uwl BABdhlyant. TrauUlcd 
bji Ceots Biililcr. Paxil. VidtluAa Bad BautlUyana. iai.6J. 

Vol XV. The Upanishads. Translated by F. Max Mijllcr. 

r«( II. The Ka/ia^Dpanbhad. The MivbAka-QiNinuhad. Th* TaiiiiilyKlia 
apanUhad, Tbc Bnliadlranyaka-Djaiiitbad, Th« .S^vtaJvatua-upuiUfcad, Thi 
PrAi^a-upMBbad, and llio MaitiiyaMa-llrilunam.«p«niafaad. loi. tJ. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. The Text* of CoO' 

fuciaattm. Tninilalcd b^ Jamti Lcggc. Pan II. Tbc Yl Kirj-. Im. &/- 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. Translated from the Pali by 

T. W. Bh)* Davidt ami Htnnann OklenbcTs. Part IL The BUUnan, 
V-X. Tbc A'uUava^i^, 1-tU. Iw.W 


Vol. XVIII. TahUvi Texts. Translated by E. W. West. 
Part IL The Dlif^llii-I Dlctk ooil Tlic ICi'istlea of M&ntU<Khat. i ». t)tl. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-kioK. A Life of Buddha 

bj AfTXGtKMtu llodhtuiltva, imntlaled from Soniktit into Cb'mnc by Dluu- 
natikiim, a.i>. ^n, uh! from CttiooK into Enjjiith by Stiiiuel Utal. loi. tJ. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. Translated from the P:\Ii by T. W. 

Rbyi Dttiids aa4 Uennaao Oldcnbctg. Put III. Tie Au!I«i>»gE«. IV-XII, 

Vol. XXI. TheSaddharma-puffi&rika; or, the Lotus of the 

True [.aw. Tnnklatod b? H. Kcre. Hi. 6d. 

Vol. XXIL (yaina-Satras. Translated from PrSkrit by Her- 

nattei jicoU. Part I. The Aiiriifia-Siliis. The Kalfa-Suiia, loj. 6i. 

Vol. XXIIL The Zend-Avesta. TransUted by James Dar- 
noiltter. Part II. The StrfiMhs, Vwts, "id NySyb. tw. W. 

' Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. Translated by E. W. West. 
FMtlU. Dfat) Molnfig-t Kbind. Sikand-KQmaDlk. and S»1.D«. t<u.«/. 

Socond Son OS. 

\\. XXVI. The .?atapatha-Bralima«a. Translated by 
JuUu* I^gellne. Part IL i)i. 6il. Jitif Puhlishid. 

;Vols. XXVII and XXVIII. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texu cf CoofucUnlun- Trai»late<l by Janict Lees«' PoiK HI and IV. 
The iX K\, ot CoUcdlon of Trealltn uu ibe Kolts of ftopriciy, ot Ceremonial 
Uiapt. *ii. Jmsi PuMiiitf. 

The folloKln); Volaine* an in the Fcew:^ 

: Vol. XXV. Manu. Translated by Geo^J Biihler. Vol. I. 
' Vols. XXIX and XXX. The G*-(Tiya-Satras, Rules of Vcdic 

DgmoiJc Cernnonies. Tnmtlated by HmtuDn OMeiibei£. Putt I and IL 

Vol. XXXI. Tlic Zcnd-Avc8ta. Part III. The Yasna, 
VUpoinil, Afitntiftn, an>l Glht. Traiulalcd bj the Rev. I- II. Uillt. 

[Vol. XXXIL Vedic Hymns. Translated by F. Max Muller. 

Put I. 

' Vol. XXXI IL NSrada, and some Minor Law-books. 

TnniUied by Juiiot Jolly. [/V^^an'i^.] 

I Vol. XXXIV. The Ved4nta-Siitra$, with 5ai\kara's Com. 

tncnuiy. Tniiu1ale<1 by C Thlbaut. [/Vi^paWirf.] 

*a* Ti* StttnJ Stria viU ttmifl ^ Twi^^FtiT tVkma. 



€hxtx^m ^rcss Scries 

I. xnaLisH. 

A First Reading Booh. By Marie Eichens of Berlin ; and 

edited by Anne J. Clough. Eitr* ft»p. 8vo. lUfl corera, ^. 

Oxford Reading Book, Part I. For Little Children. Extra 

fMp. 8ro. itiff covert, 6</. 

Oxford Reading Book, Part 11. For Junior Classes. Extra 

fcapi. Svo. illlT co'cn. 64. 

An EUmtntary English Grammar and Exercise Bock. By, 
O. W. TftDcock, M.A. Sccood Edition, tjtra Tcap. 8to. \t.6d. 

An English Grammar and Reading Book, for Lower Formal 

in Cluneal ScIi«o1j. Hy O. W. TUioock, M.A. roiirth E^tMn. Extw] 
fctp. Svo, 3/. Srf, 

Typical SeUetiont from the best English Writeri, with Intro* 
dncloi7 Notice*. &c4>nd Editkni. In Tiro Volunm. Extra Icxp. Rvo,. 
ji. &/. e»ch. 
Vol. L Litinei to Beriw)e>-. Vol. It Pope to MmmUj. 

Skair* (y. C, LL.D.). Asfeels of Poetry; being Lectures 

deUvcrtd at Oxford. Crown Svo, iw. 6d. 

A Bfiok for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon. By John Earle, 

M.A. Third Edition. Exln rcaji. Svo, 1/. U. 

An Anglo-Saxon Reader. In Pposc and Verse. With Gram- 

iiiaiical Inlrodnclion, TCoIr*, uid Glotniy. Bjr Htnty Svcct, M.A. Fouith . 
Edition, K«T)ic(l Hid^cil. Eittx fcnp. Svo. Bt. id. 

An Anglo-Saxon Primer, with Grammar, Notes, and Glossary^ 

By the tune Author. Sccocd Edition. Eilra feap. Sro. u. 6rf. 

Old English Reading Primers ; edited by Henry Sweet, M.A* 

I. SeUtttd llooMatiXMAc. TMnte*\>. Svo., Uiff cover*, ti.tii/. 

II. Extnctt fioin .Mlnd'i Oioriui. Ettt* fop, Sto, >tilT«o*tn, 1/. td. 

First Middle English Primer, with Grammar and Glossary.\ 
By the UDie Author- Eilia fcap. Svo. i/. 

The Philology of the English Tongue. By J. Karlc, M.A.| 

Third EdiUoa. Extra fckp. Sto. ■;!. 6d. 

A Handbook of Phonetics, including a Popular Exposition of 

ihePnndplMoISpctUngKtlomi. By H.!)«ecI.M,A. Extr* rcaji. Hto. ft. MJ 

Elementarbnch dei Gtsproehenen Englisth. Grammattk, 
Tciic end Clotui. Von tleory Swc«t. Extra kap. 8vo„ ullT oovtn. ti. td. 



The Ormutum; witli the Notes and Glossary of Dr. R. M. 
White. Edilcd by R- Holl, M.A. [S;s i volt. Kiira fcip. fCvo.Jii. 

English Plant Natws from the Tenth to the Fifteenth 
Centnrr- By J.E.irIe, MA. Small ftap, Hvo. ji, 

S/tcimens of Early English. A New and Rcvisctl Edition, 
With Inlroddcliaii. Notn. and Glonvist Inik^- By R. MorrU, LLD- aad 
W. W. Ske»l. M.A. 
Pari I. FtomOTfl Kn(;1i>h Hooiilim to Kiii^ Horn (JLu. UJOIoAJ). Ijoo). 

Second Edilion. Exln fcnp. 8*0, gj. 
Put II. From Kobrrt of OloncFtter to Gdwct (A.I>. II9S to A.D. 1393). 
Second Edition. Extra fcip. 8vo. ■}!. 6rf. 

I Spetimens of English Literature, from the ' Ploughmans 

Crede' to tae ■ Shei-htiidci Cileoder' (a.d. 1J54 to a.i>. 1579). With Intro- 
duction, Xoid. uid Ulouarlal Index. B; W. W. .Sknl, M.A. Extra fcap. 
8v«. ;/. <id. 

Tfu Vision of IVilliarn ct^icfrning Piers tke Plowman, by 
Winimn l.tnf:lAiid. Edited, with Notei. by W. W. Sknt, M.A. Third 
Edtttan. I^tra f<Bp. Svo. 4>. 6^ 

Chaucer. I. /"Air Prologue to Ikt Canterbury Talfi; the 
Knightei T«Ie: The Nonne Pmtn Tnle hyiiHr<t by K. Morrii, Editor of 
.SpccuDcnt of Eiuljr Englub, &c., die. l-'ift]r'6rBiTbou>uid. Extra fcap^ ftfo. 

ir. The Pricresset Tale; Sir Thopas; The Monkes 

T»1j 1 Th* Clrrkra Tale ; The Scjulctw Tale, &c Edited by W. \V. Sktai, 
M.A. Stcodd Edition. Eilra fcap. Svo. 41. d'. 

III. The Tale cf the Man of Law. The Pardoncrcs 

Talc; The Sccoad Noune* Tale: The Chanonni Vcirmnnci T^le, Bj tbe 
■amc Editor. Second Edition. Eltnt leap. Svo. 41. dd. 

Gamrlyn, The Tale of. Kdited with Notes, Glossary, &c., by 

W. W. Skeat. M.A. Eiirn (cap. Hvo. Stiff eovers i». W. 

Spenser's Faery Quetne. Books I and 11, Designed chiefly 
Tor lh« DM of Sdiuolk With Introduction. Notes, and Gtocury. By G. W. 
KttchiiiL D D. 

Book I. Tccith Edition. Extra fcap. Svo. u. W. 

Book II. Sixth Edllion. Eitrn fcap. Sro. it. M 

Hooker. Eeelesiastieal Polity, Book /. Edited by R. W. 
Church. M.A- .Scconi! Edition. Extra leap. 6to. u. 

Marlvve and Greene. Marloive's Tragical History of Dr. 
F^uttm. and G'Mtttt HtitmraUt Hitmj tf Friar fiana <md Friar Btattay. 
Edited b)' A. W. Ward, M.A. 1878. lUica fcap. firo. 51. &/, Iii *hlle 
Pnichtnent, 61. 

Marlowe. Edward IT. Wth Introduction, Notes, &c. By 
O. W. Tancodi, M.A. Extra fcap. 6to. ^ 


Sftaktifieare. Select Plays. Edited by W. G. Clark, M.A., 
•nd W. AtditWiigbt. M.A. Extm fotp. 8to. itiffcoi-cn. 

Tbe Merchant of Venice, u. Micbetli. is. 64. 

Richarxl the SecoDil. I/. 64. Hunlet. t>. 

Kdi:«I by W. Aldis Wright, Rr.A. 

Tlic Tcinpcft. li. M. MKtsummn' Nljht's Dmn. u. U. 

Ax You Like It. u. 6J. CorioJanui. n. 64. 

Jiitttii Cxur. u. Henry the Finb. u. 

Richjrd the Third. 31.64. Twelfth Nijht. it. 6^ 

Kin^Lear. tt.64. King Joha. tt.64, 

Shaktspeart as a Dramatic Artist; a popular Illustration of 
Bacon. I. Advamfpunt cf Learning. Edited by W, Aldi» 

Wtisht.M.A. S«co(ul Edition. Eilni fcap. Svo, 4/. &/, 

^— n. The Essays, With Introduction and Notes. By 
S-II.RejnoWa.M.A-. lite Fellow of Bnwnoit College. In f^tftirtwi. 

S4Uton. I. Arfcpagitica. With Introduction and Notes. By 

John W. Hain, M.A. TVinl Edilion. Eitn roi|>. Hia, ji. 

. 11. Poems. Edited by R. C. Browne, M.A. a vol*. 

Fifth Edition. Extra r{ap.Biro.&.&^ Soldtqunldy, Vol. !.«(.; Val.U.Jf. 

la pftper 00 vera :— 

Lycidas, yi. L'AIIckto, %d. 11 Pcn«eTo», 4^ Coonis, W. 

Sanuon Agoniiics, &/. 

III. Samson Agenistts. Edited with Introduction aad 

Notes hy John ChoftOM CoUim. Extti fuf. Svo, itiff coven, i/. 

Clarendm. History of the RebctUoN. Book VI. Edited 

wlUi laUodudiOD uiil Ii^Mcs by T. Aniokl, H^. Extra fo[>. Sra. 41. Ctt. ^^ 

Bunyan. I. TJi^ Pi^rin^s Pr^ess, Grace Abounding, Rtla-^^ 
tun ^th* Im^iiemmtta »f Mr.Jahn Buh*ah. EdiletLwilb ttkifiniiliiod^n 
iMradactioo ud Noies. by E. Vnublea, M.A. 1879. Extra (cmp. 8ix>. fj 
In «nuiiienta] Pftrduneot, M. 

II. Holy War, Sr-c. Edited by E. Vcnables, M.A, 


Dryden. Select Poems. Stanxas on the Death of Oliv 

Cfomwcll; Aitne* Redai; Annas Mltitiilit; Ahaiata and Acklutiliel; 
Keli][i4 Laid i Tha lUnd and the Panthcc. Edited b]r W. P.Chrii(i«, BlA. 
Second Edition. Extra roj>. Hto. y. M. 

Lode's Conduct of the Understanding, Edited, with Int 

duclio«,Noie«,&c,l>7T.FowIer,U.A. Second EditioB. Kitrafeip.8ta 

Addison. Selections from Papers in the Spectator. Wj: 
Note*. By T. Aincid, MJV. Exln fcap. Sna. 41. 64. la onaiBciual 
Pardunm, 6/. 


StetU. Seltcthns front t!u Tatltr, Spfctator, and Guardian. 
Eililnl b]r AuUin Dotoon. lUtni fcap. Sio, 41. (tJ. lu while farchmtnt. ^i.bJ. 

Pope. With Introduction and Notes. Ky Mark Pattison, B.D. 
\ I. Essay en Man. Extra fcap. 8vo. li. iS</. 

II, Satires and EpisiUs. Extra fcap. 8vo. is. 

Pamell. Tfte Utrmit, Paper covets, ^d, 

' yohjsfin. I. Rasselat; Lives of Dryden and P<^. Edited 
by Al&ti) Milncs, M.A. (Lendon). Eiln fcip. Svo. V-M, or /.iMf y 
Vrjiitn and Ftft only, itiR oven, u. &/. 

— 11. Vanity of Human Wishes. With Notes, by E. J. 

pBjoe, MA. Taper coven, 41/. 

I Gray. SeUetod Poems. Edited by Edmund Gosse, Extra 

fcap. Sto. Sliff covin, 1/. 6rf. In wbite ritchment, 3/, 

Elegy and Ode on Eton ColUge, Paper covers, %d. 

Goldsmith. The Deserted Village. Paper covers, 2d. 

[CoiL'Per. Edited, with Life, Introductions, and Notes, by 
H. T.Crifl'ilh, HA, 

I. yA^ Z>t(/«c/ii:/'cf»«jtf/' 1782, with Selections from the 

Minor I^ccn, A.D. 1779-17S3. Kxtrafcap, Svo, 3/. 

— II. The Task, with TirociHium, and Selections from tlie 

Mlnoi Pomu. AM. l^9l^-l^^q. Second Edition. Eiln Tc-ip. t'vo. 3/, 

Burke. Select Works. Edited, with Introduction and Not<s, 
br E. J. Payne. U.A. 

I. Thoughts on t}te Prrsmt Discontents ; tJie tivo Sfeeehes 
ttt jlmtriio- Ixcunil EditLoii. Kxiia fi^p. H10. ^i.6J. 

I II. ReffectioHS OH the Fnnck Revolution. Second Edition. 

Extra f<Dp. Svo. %t. 

III. Four Letters on the Proposals for Peaee xotth the 

Rck'^''* Dirrclory «f France. ScDomd Edition. Extra fcap. Svo. |/. 

^ Keats. Hyperion,-BooV \. With Notes by W.T.Arnold, B.A. 

P^I'Cr voien, ^(1. 

Byron. Childe Harold. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 

bj H, F. ToKT, M.A. Extra fcap. Svo. li. &/. la whilf Parehrocnt. is. 

[Scott. Lay of the Last Minstrel Edited with Preface and 

Notes by W, Minlo. M.A, Witt Map. Extra fcap. Svo. Stiff coveis, )/. 
Oisuncnlol Parchment, 31. 6J. 

— toy of the Last Minstrel. Introduction and Canto I., 
vttll mfacc and Notes, by tbc euuc MAWvs. 6J. 





Rudimtnta Latina. Comprising Accidence, and Exercises oT 

■ Tttf Klcincnlmy Clinrsclct, fnr ttic uk of BeKioDCK. i^ John 6<ria» 
Allen. M.A- Eitii fcap. Sto. ». 

^« EUmentaty Latin Grammar. By the same Author. 

Fortf-KCond Tboaiand. Exin fcagi. Svo. tf.M. 

A First Latin Exertise Book. By the same Author. Fourth 
Edition. Exti> fcap. Svo. tt. &/. 

/I Second Latin Exereist Book. By the same Author. Extra 
fcaji. 8»i>, jj. w. 

Rtddfnda Aftnora, or Easy Passages, Latin and Greek, for 
Uiunn Truislnlion. Foi llic u*f o( Isomer Fonai. CocnpoKd Had mIccI«4 
by C. S. ittrxm, M.A. Extra {up. f-ro. u. bJ. 

Aifglict Reddcnda, or Easy Extracts, Latin and Greek, for 
Uoiccn Tran^lailon. Jif C. S. Innia, M^. Tbiid Edition. KcvHtd «D< 
Enlarg^ed, Exiii Tcap. Bto. if. M. 

Passages for Translation into L.atiti. For the use of P.i3smcn 
ud olhort. ScUcud b/ J. V. S»ccnl, M.A. Fifth (Ml tlon. Extra (cap. 
%xo. II, 6J, 

Exercises in Latin Prose Composition: with lutroduction, 
Notn. uid Patnns of Graduatiril Difficully far Tnntlation into L^lic. By 
G. G. R«nuay, BI.A., LL.D. ^coad E^tnn. Extra fcap. Sto. 41. 6/. 

Hints and Helps for Latin Elegiacs. By H, Lee-Wamcr, M.A.. 
Ute Fellow of St. Jr>hii't College, CMBbndee, Anluuil Mutei U Kp£by 
School. Kuln (rani. Svn. 31. 6J. 

First Latin Reader. By T. J. Nunns, M.A. Third Edition. 

Extm ftip. Svo. )/. 

Caesar. The Commentaries (for Schools). With Notes and 
Maps. By Cllariek E. Mobcrly, M.A. 

P4itl. 71r<^/./j;f ff'or. Stcond e<lilion. Eiln fcap. B>0. 4*. <rf. 

rmll. ne CMt War. Extra fc*ii. Sro. jf. &f. 

7^ Cjki7 IfAr. (look 1. Srcotul Edition. E\tra fcap. Svo. u. 

Cicero. Selection of interesting and descriptitv passa_^es. Wil 
Kotd. By Uenr>- Wilford, M.A. In Ihrtc Piru. Extra fca(.. Svo. <f . d/. 

E*ch P«H ic]i«»tcly, limp, i». W. 
pul [. Anecdocn from <.'Ri:ia& axA Roan Hklory. ThIrJ EdhloB. 
Pulll. OaieniandDicamc BraalldofNotuie. Third EOHlMt, 
PullII. Rome'* Rule of bet llovlncot. Tbitil Edition. 

Cicero. Selected Letters (for Scliools). With Kotcs. By the 
Ut« C. E. IVIchinl, M.A^ acd E. R. Berniud, MJ^. Senuid ^Itjoa. 
EiUa leap. Sto. )> . 



Cittro. Select Orations (for Schools). In Vcrrcm I. Dc 

Inperio Gb. Pompeii. Pro Arabia. Phllippica IX. Wlih InUoduclion *nd 
Kou« by J. K. King, M.A. Second Kdilioti. Extia fcip. Svo. u. id. 

Comrlius N^pos. With Notes. By Oscar Browning, M.A. 

Snond Kdiltoii. Exln fcap- Svo. )4.M. 

Livy. 5cAr//c«j (for Schools). With Notes and Maps. By 

H. Ln-Wuucr, M.A. Extra f<ap. Svo. In Parti, limp, each !>.&/. 
r>rt I. The Caudine Diuttcr. 
Pail II. Hantiibal't Campaljp In Italy. 
Put IlI-TlM UMcdanwi War. 

Zrpy. Books V-VIl. With Introduction and Notes. By 
A, R. Cltirr. B.A. F.\lra fop. Svo. Jj. &/. 

LHy, Boolcs XXI. XXII. and XXIII. With Introduction 
atidNotci. ByM.T.Taihain.M.A. Extii fcap.Svo. 41. W, 

Ovid. Selections for the use of Schools. With Introductions 

and I^otes, and an Appn;<tti on the Roman Calendar. By W. Ramsav. M.A. 
Edited hy G. G. Rainmy, M..\. Thin) Edilion. Eura leap. Svo. 5/. 6J. 

Ovid. Tristia. Book I, The Text revised, with an Intro- 

duclion anil Nolfii. By S. G. Owen, B.A. Kit« fi-ap. 8vo. j/. (hI. 

Plautus. The TrinHmnms. With Notes and Introductions. 
Intended for llie Higbcf Forma of Public SchooU. Bjr C E. Freeman. H.A., 
and A. Slocnnn. M.A. Kxlta fcip. 81-0. j>. 

Pliny. ScUcled f.ellers {{oT Schools). With Notes. By the 

late C. E Ptii^hatd, M.A.. and E. R. Bernard, M.A. iur^eiiid bdilion. KittA 

(Wp. StOi, J/. 

Saliusl. With Introduction and Notes. By W. W. Capes, 

M.A. EiCrn fcap, Svo. 41, 61/. 

Tacitus. The Annals. Books I-IV. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Nolti (01 the me of Sehooli aiid Junior Siuilcnti, by II. rumeam, 
M.A. lAtrn fcap. Svo. 5». 

7'erencc. Andria. Willi Notes and Introductions. By C. 
E. Freeman, M.A,, and A. Slonian, M.A. Ijitra tcai>. 8to. J*. 

Virgil. With Introduction and Notw. By T. L. Papilion, 

Sf..\, Twfl vol*. Crvwa 8r«. iw. M, The Text tqwrately. 4^. 6./. 

Catnlli Veromnsis Libtr. ttcnim rccognnvit, aripanttum cri- 

liuum prolCBomtQa appendieei addidil, RobinHxi Elija. A.M. iS;S. Demy 
8»#. 10(, 

A Commentary on Catullus. By Robinson Ellts, M.A. 

i5;<. [>einy Svo. i&. 

C t 



CatuUi Vtrotieasis Carmina StUeta, secundum rcct^nitioncm 

RoUnicai FJUt, AM. EUn leap. Sto. p. 6J. 

Cicero de Oratffrt. With Inlroductioo and Notes. By A. S. 
WUkist, &i jv. 

Bookl. 1S79. Sto. 6/. Boole 11. iSSi. Sro, 5^. 

— - Phii^pU Oralims. With Notes. By J.R. King,&LA. 
Second EUtion. 1879. Svo. iw. £^. 

Select Letters. With Enf^Ush Introductions, Notes, and 

ApfiMdica. Bf Albert WiiuiD. M..\. Tbird EcUtion. iSSi. DcmrSTo.tSL 

SeUel Letters. Text. By the same Editor. Second 

Editiiui. Eitni fop. Sto. \i. 

pro Ouentio. With Introduction and Notes. By W. 

RMDMy, U.A. Edited l>;C.G.IUin«iy.M.A. SecoDd Edliion. Exinfcsp. 
8n>. y. td. 

Horace. With a Commentary. Volume I. The Odes, Carmcii 

SccnUrr, uul Epoda. By Edwud C. Wkkhasi. UA. Second EdilMD. 
iSjy. I>cnySixi. lu. 

A reprint of th* above, in a size suitable for the use 

of Sc&oolt. Extn reap. Sro. y. 6J. 

Livjr, Book I. With Introduction, Historical Examination, 

snd Notes. By J. R. Scclcjr. M.A. Seoood EdiUoo. iSSi. Svo. &i. 

Ovid. P. Ovidii Nastmis Ibis. Ex Novis Codicibus edidit, 

Sdiotin Vetera Conmcntariiuii coxa Vic\cffiaxcai* Aiipcndicc Indicc *ddidit. 
R. Elllt, A.M. 8vo. tw. 6<f. 

Pertius. The Satires. With a Translation and Commentary. 
By John Coninctota, U.A. Edited bj Hesrjr NeUlcdup^ kt.A. ScMad 
£dilioo. 1S74. Sto. 71. &f. 

Tacitus. The Annals. Books I-VI, Edited, with Intro- 

docIUB and Note*, b; H. Foiseau, M.A. S10. ittf. 

Nettlfsftip {^11.. Af.A.). Lectures and Essays on Subjects con- 
Dceicl wiili Latin Scholonhlp and Litcraiiue. Crowa Si-o. 7^.^. 

Tfie Roman Satura : its original form in connection with 

itt titerarr derelDpincnt. Sto. wwed. u. 

Ancient Lii-es of VergiL With an Essay on the Poems 

of VcTgil, is ccaocction wttb hit life acd Tlnei. Sio, tevei), ti. 

PapiUon{T. i., MA^. A it mual of Comparative PkHoiegy. 
ThiH Eclitiao, Rented and Conected. iSSi. Cruwn Rto, b. 

Pindtr {JVortA, fif.A.), Selections from t/u lets htmrn Latin 
Poftf. lS6g. Bto. 151. 

Sfllar ( IV. v., M.A.). Roman Poets of the Augustan Agt, 
' Roman Potts of the Refublu. New Edition, Revised 

■DdEclirstd. iSKl. 810.14/. 

IVordsivorth {J., M.A.). Fragtntnts and Specimens of Early 
I^Un. With Itiuoduclitiiu and Nolm. 1S74. 8to. lb. 


A Grtfk Primer, for the use of beginners in that Language. 
Bv the Kight RcT.ChailciWontBiracili.U.CX- Seventh Edition. Kiliafcap. 

Craecae Grnmmatteae Rtuiimtnta in uimm Scholarum. Auc- 

toreC*n>IoWordawoith.D.CL. Ninclccnlh Edit Eon, iSS). timo. 4/. 

A Grffk-F.nglish Lexicon, ^x\A%tA from Liddell and Scott's 

J to. ciliiiw). chiclty for the nac of Scliool*, Twenlj-first Ultion. 1884, 
quale iimo. It.fjj. 

Greek Verbs, Irregular and Defective; their forms, meaning, 

aaA qoAiititjr: upbnuing all the Tchks used by Creek wiitcn, with icfcFeMCi 
■o th« potugo in nhldi Ihey nre ToDnd. By W. Vcilch- Fouitli Edition. 
Crown Sro. lOi.CJ. 

The Elements of Greek Accentuation (for Schools} : abridged 
ttom hit larger worli l>y l\. W. ChanJlcc, M.A. Extra fcap. 6to. tt,6d, 

A Serie;; of Graduatf.d Greek Readers: — 

First Greek Reader. By W. G. Rushbrooke, M.L. Second 
Eililion. Extra (cap. Rto. u, 6if. 

Stamd Greek Reader. By A. M. Bell, MJl. Extra fcap. 
Bto. ji- fi"'- 

Fourth Greek Reatier ; being Specimens of Greek Dialects. 
With Inttoductiool iiid Notcj. By W. W. Ueny. M,A. Extra fup. 8vo. 

Fifth Greek Reader. Selections from Greek Epic and 

Dramatic Fortry. with Inttoductiona anitNotct. liy Evetjn Alibott, M.A. 
Extra (cap. Gvo. 4J. 6^. 

The Golden Treasury of Awient Greek Poetry: being a Col- 
lection of the 6nes( pMMgei in tbc Greek Clajne Poeti.vith InlroiiiiciorT 
Noticeonil NoW*. far R. S. WritEbl. M.A. Extra (cap. 81-0. 8t. id. 

A Golden Treasury of Greek Prose, being a Collection of the 
fipcit pasJUFM til the principal Grecli I'roie Wtitcit, with Intioduclory Xotieea 
indNota. By R.!>. Wri|;ht,aiJ^,Mid J.L.L.Sliadw«ll. U.A. Exlrafcap. 
8vo. 4/. id. 

Aeschylus. Prometheus Bound (for Schools). With Tntroduc- 

lion nnJ Notes, by A.O. I'rictard, MA. Second Edit ioa. Eilrafcap. 8vo. ii. 

Agamemnon. With Introduction and Notes, by Arthur 

Sidgwick, M.A. Second Edition, Extra fcap. 8vo. 3/. 

- — — Clwephoroi. With Introduction and Notes by the same 

Edilor. Extra fcap. 8vo. ,V, 

Aristophanes. In Single Plays. Edited, with English Notes, 
Introductions, Sic, by \V. \V. Merry, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 

I, The Clouds, Second Edition, aj. 
II. The Achamians, n. III. The P'rogs, n. 

Cebcs. Tabula. With Introduction and Notes. By C. S. 

Jerram, M.A. Eilra fcap. Svo. is. (td. 

Euripides. Akestis (for Schools). By C. S, Jerram, M.A, 
Eitra fcap. B»o. is. dd. 

Helena. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Critical 

Appendix, tot Upper and Middle Koims. By C. S. Jerram, M.A, Eilia 
fcip. Svo. 3/. 

Iphigenia in Tauris. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, 

and Critical Appendix, for Upper and Middle Forms. By CS. Jcnara, M.A. 
Extra (cap. 810. cloth, 31, 

Herodotus, Selections from. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, 
and a Msp. by W. W. Merry. M..\. Extra fciip. Svo, u, &/. 

Homer. Odyssey, Books I-XII (for Schools). By W. W. 

Merry, M.A. Twenty-seventh Thousand. Extra fcap. Svo. ^s. 6d, 
Book II, separately, u. 6d, 

Odyssey, Books XIII-XXIV (for Schools). By the 

same Editor, Second Edition, Extra fcap, Svo. jr. 

Iliad, Book I (for Schools). By D. B. Monro, M.A. 

Second Edition. Extra fcap. Svo. it, 

Iliad, Books I-XII (for Schools). With an Introduction, 

a brief Homeric Grammar, and Notes. By D. B. Monro, M.A. Extra fcap. 
Svo, 6t. 

^— Iliad, Books VI and XXI. With Introduction and 

Notes. By Herbert Hailstone, M.A. Extra fcap, Svo. 11. 6d. each, 

Lucian. Vera Historia (for Schools). By C. S. Jerram, 

M,A. Second Edition. Extra fcap. Svo. \s.(id. 

Plato. Selections from the Dialogues [including the whole of 

the Apohgy snd Crito\. With Introduction and Notes by John I'urves, M.A., 
and a Preface by the Kcv. U, Jowetl, M..\, Extra fcap. Svo. bi. fid. 



Sophoelts. For the use of Schools. Edited with Intro- 

iliKtUm axA Ijisliih NoIm By Lcwii Cim^hcll. M^, and Knlfii Abbott, 
M.A. MttP attJ Htvh<d Mditivn. i VoIl £jtrA fop. Sro. loi. &/. 
.SoM iciianitcly. Vol. I. Tcil, 41. 6J. ; VoU II. I'.xpluixtocj Nolet, 6t. 

Sopktfflfs. In Single Plays, with English Notes, &c. By 
Lcnii Campbell. M.A., vkI Ei«l]'n Abbott, M.A, Eilni fcap. 6vo. limp. 
Octlipn) Tyramiui, riillocldei. Xew ind Rcviird Edition, ti. eMh, 
AntiBoDc. u. 91/. each. 
Ttadilniae, ti.neb. 

DindorTs Text, with Notes by the 
E.ttra fcap. Svu, liiap. i<. 6J. 

With Notes. By H. Kynaston, 

Ocdipm Colancm, 
AJM, Elcclra. 

— Oedipus Rfx: 

ptuenl Biihop oFSl. DnridV. 
Tkfoeritus (for Schools). 

U.D. (ble Snow). Third lidition. EHio fcap. 8»o. 4>. W. 

Xentfhon. Easy Seleelhiis. (for Junior Classes). With a 
Voctbnluy, Noirt, utd Map. B; J. S. rhiUtiatli,fii.C.L..BiidC.S. JctiUD, 
M.A. Tbitd Kililion. IUn« fcsp. 810. 3^. W. 

^— Selfctims (for Schools), With Notes and Maps. By 

J.S. PhiII|ioll..U.C.I- rounh Edition. Ext.jfcap.Svo. j». W. 

Aiiabaiis, Rook I. Edited for the use of Junior Classes 

■nd Priralc }>tiulciit». Willi Iitlrodudlon, Noie*, u'l Index. By J, Mu- 
ihftll, M..\., Kcctor of the Kuynl Higb School, Edinburgb. Extra fcap, 6v». 
II. &/. 

Anabasis, Book II. With Notes and Map. By C. S. 

Jcmin.M..\. dtrafc*p.8vo. Jf. 

Cyrcpatdia, Book.s IV and V. With Introduction and 

Kote» by C. Biia;, 1>.0. EsWa fiap. Svo. w. 61/, 

Aristotle's Plenties. By W.L.Newman, M.A. [In tht Press.'] 

Aristotelian Studies. I. On the Structure of the Seventh 
Hook orthcNicomnchetiD Ethics. ByJ.C. Wllwn.M.A. Sv0.sliir.5j. 

Aristotrlis Elhiea Nicmnachca, ex recensione Inmianuclis 
Bckkcti Ciowti tivo. y. 

Demosthenes and Aeschines. The Orations of Demosthenes 
t^a^ if-lichtnn on the Ciown. Wiih lDttodu«la>y EMajt and Notes. By 
C. A. Siacoi. M.A., am! W. []. Siincox. M.A. 1S71. Sio, tu. 

Hi(ks{B. L.,M.A.). A Manual of Greek Historical Inscrip- 

tieni. Detnr Svo. tot. W. 
HoiHtr. Odyssey, Books I-XII. Edited with English Notes, 
Aj'i'cnilicci, etc. By W. \V. Meny, M.A.. Mid the Ul« Jaair. Kidddl. M.A. 
18S*. Second Kdltloij. Demy 8*0. »(u. 

Homer. A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. By D. B. Monro, 
M.V. DemySvo. loj. &/. 

SepJwctes. The Plays and Fragments. With EnglUb Notes 
BDt] IntrodnctioDs, by Lcwi^ Cuopbcll. M.A. a »ols. 
Vol. 1. Oedipus TyiBiiEis. Oedipcs Coloneus. AntieODe. Second 

Edition. 1879. 8vo. i6j, 
VoL n. Ajax. Eleclta. Ttachmiu. Philoclefra. Frogintnts. iBSi- 
Svo, 161. 


Braehefs Etymological Dictionary of the French Language, 
wltti a Ptetacc on the Principles of French ElsTDology- Traoii»lnl iot* 
EnglUh by G. \V. Kilcbin, D.D. Third Edition. Ciown 8ro. Is. 61/. 

Historical Grammar of the French Language. Trans- 
lated into Ejtgli^h by G. W. Kitchin, D.D. Fourth Ejliliaii. EtUs fc^ 
8»o. i<. W. 

Work! bj- QEOBGE 8AINT8BUR7. M.A. 

Primer of Freitek Literature. Extra fcap, 8vo. is. 

Short History of French Literature. Crown 8vo, icxr.6^ 

Sffcimefis of French Literature, from Villon to Hugo. Crown 
8vo. {W. 


Corneill/s Horace. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 
George Saintsbnry, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Molih-e's Les Pr^cieuses Ridicules. Edited, with Introduction 

and Notei, by Andrew Lang. M.A. Extra fcap. Sto. ii. 61/. 

Beaumarchais' LeBarbier de Seville. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by Aoslin Dotxon. ^tra (cap. Svo. it. 6<i. 

Voltaire's Mh-ope. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 
George Sainttbnry. Extra fcap. Svo. doth, ii. 

Mussel's On ne badine pas avec T Amour, 3.n6 Fantasia. Edited, 
with Prolegomena, Notei, etc, bj Wallet Hemes Pollodi. Extra fcap. 

Sainte-Beiive. Selections from the Causeries dti Lundi. Edited 

by George Saintsbnry. Extra fcap. Svo. ai. 

Quillet's Lettrcs d sa Mh-e. Selected and edited by George 

S-iicIibniy. Extra fcap. Svo. n. 


V&loque»<f de la Chaire et de la Tribune Fratt^aiies. Edited 
b* Paul Bknct, B^. (Vniv. Cnllic). Vol. I. French Sacred Uralwy 
&tra leap. Cvo. a/, hd. 


Comeill/s Cinna. With Notes, Glosssrj-, etc. Kxtra fcap. 8vo. 
ckth, it. SiilTcovcit, M.dd. 

LeuisXIV and his Cenlemporarits ; as described in Extracts 
frcon the bni Mcmoin of the Sevoiitnrith Cciiluiy. With Kiigliih Xotc*. 
Gcntftlogioil 1'abln, &c. Extra (cap. %\o. ti. 6d. 

Maistrf, Xax'ur dc. Voyage autour de ma Chambrt. Ourika, 
b; MtJatKt df Dtirai: La Dot dc SuieUc, by FiJvJt; I.c* Jameiux de 
\\\htt\Q(ifjxtA\e.\ff Edmtnd About; MeuveiilurMd'un Kgdf/fkt 
Tefffrr. !>cc(>iid Kiltiion. Exit* fc«p. Bro. n. M. 

Afolih'/s Le$ Fourbertes de Scapin, and Ratine's Alhalit. 
With Voll>ir«'s Lift of Malifre. Extra fcap. Sra. u. 6J. 

Molihv's Lfs FourberUs de Scapin. With Voltaire's Life of 

Moli^. Extra fcap. S«o, stiff cartn, ii. W. 

Motive's Lfs Femmes Savantts. With Notes, Glossary', etc. 

Extta fcdp. Svo. lialh, is. StiCf oovaiv "■ ^' 
Racine's Andromaque, and Comeille's Le Menteur. With 
LouU Raciiif 't Life of lii& FatltR. Extra fetp. Svo. %i. ftd. 

Rtgnard's Le Joueur, and Bruiys and Palaprat's Le Grandeur. 

Kilnftjp 8«o. u, W. 
Sfvign/, Madame de, and her chief ConUmporarits, Selections 

fnm Ikt Cm-rttfttidenn ^. lalendod tnort upccialljr for 0<tl>' Schoob. 

EKini fcap. 3i«. y. 

Dante. Selections from the Inferno. With Introduction and 

Notes. IV H. B, Collenll. B.A, Extra fcap. Svo, ^s. W. 

Tassa. La GerusaUmtnc Liberata. Cantos i, ii. With In* 

IroductioD and Xo(ei. 1))' tbe ^amc Editor. Exlni fcap. Svo. i$. 6J. 

Severer f W.). A History of German Literature. Translated 
from the Thiid C«ni»n I'Milion by Mre. F. CoDybcare. Edileil by t'. Max 
HttUei. J ToU Sto. >ij. 


The Germans at Home; a Practical Introduction to Gennan 
Connriaiion, with an Appendix eonlainlng the EwcDtinli at GetniaiiGiatiUMr. 
Second Edilion. Svo. W. W. 

The German Manual; a German Grammar, Reading Book, 
and a Handbook of Gcinum Coaivriatlon. Sro. 7r. 6>/. 

Grammar of ike German Language. 8vo. y. 6d. 

This ' Gmmmnr' is a reprint of ilic Grammar conuined in 'Tte German Maonat,' 
and. in Iliis sepanlc (orm, is intended foi tbe use of Sludenls who wish to make 
ihemwlvQ acqnoinied vntii German Gimnmor chiefly foi the purpose of bent 
able lo nrad German booki. 

German Composition ; A Theoretical and Practical Guide to 
the An ofTraniiliLLing English Prose into German. Sio. 4*. 6J. 

Lessirijfs Lnokoon. With Introduction, English Notes, etc. 

By A. Ilamann, Phil, Doc, M.A. Extra fcap, 8vo. 4/. fui. 

Schiller's Wilhcim Tell. Translated into English Verse by 

E, Miasie, MA. E»lia (cap. Svo. fj. 

Also. Edited by C. A. BOCHSEIUt, Phil. Doo. 

Coelhe's Egmont. With a Life of Goethe, &c. Third Edition. 
Eitra, fcBp. 8vo. y. 

Iphigenie aiif Tatiris. A Drama, With a Critical In- 

Irodoclion and Notes. Second Edition. Extra fonp. 8vo. 31. 

Heine's Prosa, being Selections from his Prose Works. With 
Edgiisb Notes, etc. Eilia fcnp. 8vo. ^l. dd. 

Heine's Harnreise. With a Life of Heine, a Descriptive 

Sketch of the Han, and ui ladeit. Extra fcap. S»o, clalh, u. &/,, stiff 
cover, 1 1, fii/. 

Lessing's Minna von Bamhelm. A Comedy. With a Life 

of Lessing, Critical Analysis, Complete Commentary, &c. Fourth Edition. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. 31. 64/. 

• Nathan der Weise. With Intrpduction, Notes, etc. 

Extra fcap. 8vo. 4X. td. 

Schiller's Hlstorische Skizzen; Egmonl's Leben und Tod, and 

Bclaqtruns von Anivitrptn. Third Edition, Revised and Ealaiged. With 
a. Map. Extra fcap. Svo. is. 6d. 

Wil/ielm Tell. With a Life of Schiller; an his- 

toricnl and critical Inttoduclion, Arguments, and a complete CommetiEarj, 
and Map. Sixth Edition. Extra fcap. Svo. y. 6d. 

- Wilhelm Tell. School Edition. With Map, Extra fcap. 

8vo. ti. 

Modern German Reader. A Graduated Collection of Ex- 
tracts in Prose and Poetry fiom Modern Gei man writers : — 

Part I. With English Notes, a Grammatical Appendix, and a complete 

Vocabulary. 1-ourlh Edition. Extra fcap. Svo. 
Part II. With Eijglisli Notes and an Index. Extra fcap. Svo. 11. Od. 
Part III in I'rep.iration. 

Bf I.EWI8 HBiraLBT, H.A. 

■ures maiti- Easy : a first Arithmetic Book. Crown Svo. M. 

Attsuvrs to the Examples in Figures made Easy, together 
vitli two tbouuBiJ additional Examples, with Autscrt. Ccuwn 8vo. ■/. 

Tk< Scholar's Aritbmtlic ; with Answers. Crown Svo. 45. &/. 

Tlu SeAotars Algehra. Crown 8vo. ^s.M. 

Bayaes {R.E.,M.A.). Lessens on Tkermedynamics. 1878. 
Crown %tt>. IS. 6J. 

Chambtrs (C. E., F.R.A.S.). A Handbook of Descriptive 
jtittmenj: T&inl F.<!lt>on. 1R7J. Demy Svo. »S». 

Clarke (Col. A. R.,CB.,R.E.). Geodesy. 1880. Svo. ijj. 6rf. 

Cremotia (La(^i). Elements 0/ Projective Geometry. Trans- 
litctl bf C LcudcflorT, M_A.. 8vi>. lli. 6^. 

Ponkin. Acoustics. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

Euclid Rei'ised. Containing the Essentials of the Elements 

tii Plnnc (''(omFlr^ ai civcn bi- Luclid ju hit 6nt SU Books. Kdilcd by 
K. C. J. Niion. M A. Ciowo Svo. j/. &/. 

— — Books I-IV. By the same Editor, Crown Svo. 31. 6tt. 
Gallon {Douglas. CJi., F.R.S.). The ConstrtKtuin of Healthy 

PtnUiHjp. ricmy 8io. 

Hamilton {Sir R. G. €■), and J. Rail. Bo^k-keeping. New 
&nil ciilacfjcd Lililioa. ICalra (cap. Svo, liiii]> cloth, i/. 

Jiarcourt {A. G. Vernon, M.A.). and //. G. Madan, M.A. 
Extrtiiti in {"raifieal Ch<miitry. Vol, I. Klcmentary Lxctcist*. Tliinl 
FJiiion. Ctown %\o. 9*. 

Maelaren (Archibald). A System of Physical Education : 
Theoretical and Piicticol. Eiitra KBp. Sto. 'J3. id. 

Madan {H. G., M.A.). Tables of Qualitative Analysis. 
Laig« 4(0. impcr. ^i. 6J. 

Maxwell (y. Clerk, MJi.,F.R.S.). A Treatise on Electricity 
amt Afa^ittlisin. Second lulition, a vols. Demy Svo. 1/. iii. 6J, 

An Elementary Treatise on Electricity. Edited by 

WUIiam Gamelt. 5I.A. Demy Sra. p. 6J. 

MincAin (G. M., M.A.). A Treatise en Statics with Applica- 
tion* lo VUnK*. Tlurd Editioa, Con«<ted and Eatoiged. 
VoL ]. £fiiitil>rium ifC^imar F»r(ts.%Ho. 91. 
Vftl. 11. Suuiii. 8to- IW, Jmu f^tlitht^. 



Mifu/tin (C Af., Jif.A.), Umplanar Kinemalks of Solids and 

Flnidi. Crown 9,vo, 71. 6J. 

PhiUips {John. M.A., P.R.S.). Geology of Oxford and tht 

ViUltyt/lhi Tkitmti. 1871. Sro. Itr. 

■^—' Vesuvius. 1869. Crown 8ro. lOf. 61/. 

Prestiaick {Jostpft, M.A... F.R.S.). Geology, Chemieal, Physical, 
and Straiigraphiial. Vol. I. Chemical and Phpical. Kuyal Svo, iji, 

RcUtston's Forms of Animal Life. Illustrated by Descriptions 

and Drawini^of Diueciicni. New Rdllion In the Preii. 

Smyth. A Cycle of Crleslial Objects. Observed, Reduced. 
»i)DlwaMt<lbyA[lmin1W.H.Sm;t)i.K N, Kcv<m>I, cendcDWd gndKraaUr 
eoUiged b)r G. F. Chamben, F.R.A.S, 18S1. 8ro. I'rix rtJiniJ la \u. 

Stewart {lialfour, LL.D., F.R.S.). A Treatise on Heat, with 

nuineroD* Wooilculi and Diagnuiu. Fourtli Editioa. Extra fcip. Sro. }i.<U. 

Vemott-Harcourt {L. F., M.A.). A Treatise on Rivers and 


Canalf, rc1»ltii£ to ihe Contritt flnd ImpcuTFinciit of Klnri. and lb« Dcs^cd, 
Conilniclion, and DcitlopmcDl of Can^li. J veil, (Vol. I, TnL Vol. II, 
riatts.) 8vo. HI. 

Harbours and Doeks ; tlieJr Physical Features, History, 

Cund J action, t>in!pinenl, and MalnKiiaacs; with StatHIIci aa to tktirConi* 
■ncruinl UcvelopiTiml. * voU. Sio. Jgi. 

Watson (//. W., MJi.). A Treatise on the Kinelie Theory 
e/Caiii. 1876. Svo, jr. 61/. 

Watson (//. W., D. Se., F.R.S.). and S. H. Burlmry, M.A. 

I. A Trtatiit tn fie Af^it^ha of CtnrraliuJ CMnliMtet U tie Kinesia *f 

» MiUtriat SfHem. 1879. Svo. 6(. 
n. ne .XfalJiem^iaii Theory efEkftHril/aiiJAfagiutinH. Vol I. Electro- 

Matlci. ito, KU.6J. 

Williamson (A. W.. Phil. Doc., F.R.S.). Chemistry for 
SttuitiUi. A new Ldition, willi ^iolutioiu. i8;s. Extra (cap. Sva. ii. id. 




BUtntsehli {J. K.). The Theory of the Stale. By J. K. 
BluntKhU. late Piofeuor of Pulltical Sclencci in tbe irnivctiitjr of HeKU- 
be^. Aolhoilwil Rnj-liih TtanklatiOD btm tbe &inh Gennan EdUU*. 
llcmy Svo. balf bound, 1 v. 4^. 

Finlay {George. LL.D.). A History of Greece from its Con- 

qiMtl l>7 Ibe Komani lo the procnt tunc, a.c. i4l> l» A.d. tHAf. A erw 
Edilioti. Teiitcd lli(ou|>!)out, and in iMtt K-wriltoi, with cootiilerabte ad> 
dilioni, b]r the AuthM, anil edited b; ll. V. Toter, M.A. ; roU. 9ro. 3^ lof. 



ForUicue (Sir yohn, Kt,). The Governance of EnglatiH: 
Mhcrwlu 1,-311^1 The Dlffcronw tictwNn on AIma>Iuic toil t. I.Imilcil Mos- 
uch^. A Krtiinl T«i(. Eilitdl. wiib iRtioducItem, Notes, ami Apjisudicc*, 
by Cbaikt Piommci. M.A. 8vo. hali bound, iii. («/. 

Freeman {E.A., D.C.I-.). A Short History of the Norman 

Cen^mif ff Bn^atni. Secojul Edilion. Eitia fcip. Bvo. t/.trf. 

—— A History of Greece. In preparation. 

George f //. B.,M.A .). Genealogical Tables illustrative of Modern 

i/itlery. Stcontl Editioa, Rcvuctl uid Entugctl. Small 410. III. 

Ho4gkiH {T.y Italy and her Invaders. lUiLitrnted with 
PUlct ind Map*. Voli. I. uid I]., A.D. l,'fi-^^^. 8va. 1/. lu. 
Volt. III. and IV. Th< Oitngalhit lnvatitn, and Tiit 7mftri^ fftiUnUuH, 
8vo. 1/. i6t, 

KiUhin{G. W.,DJ).). A History of France. With numerous 

Mapt, rUi», and Tables. In TLrec Volumes. Setvnd EMisH. CtoirBBvo. 
<«cti toi. Cii. 

Vol. I . Donn to Ihe Ve»r mj. 

Vol. 1. Fiom t45j-iCi4. Vol. 3. From i$)4-i793. 

/'tfj-w (£■. 7., J/.^.). .^ History of the United States of 
AmtrUa. In the I'm!. 

Ranke (£. mw), >4 History of England, principally in the 
Savmtrcnth Ctntury. Truulated by RciiiJcnl Mnnbcn of Ihe Unin^nil)' o( 
Oxford, under the Miperinlendcnce of G. W. Kitchin, D.D., and C. W. Bo*(c, 
M.A. 187s. 6 vol*. 8yo. y. J/. 

RawltHson {Gtorge, M.A.). A Manual of Ancient History. 

Second I^ilion. Demy S*o. 14J, 

Select Charters and other Illustrations of English Constttutiotial 

Hitlory. Trom the Eailicsl Timu to tbe RcigQ of Edwatd I. Amtniied ind 
edited by \V. Sluhb>, D.D. Fifth I-ItUtlon. 1S83. Crown Svo. ^.td. 

Stuhbs ( If., Z?./?.). 7** Constitutional History of England, 
ia iU Ori|^n and DcielojiRinit. Library Edition. 3 volt, dcniy Svo. Ml. it. 
Aloo in 3 ToU. crowD Svo. priM 1 w. each. 

Seventeen Lectures on the Study of Medieval and 

hlodeni Diuoty and Kindred Subjcctt. 8va. half boond, loj. iJ. Juil 

IWellesUy. A Selection from the Despatches, Treaties, and 
oibei Papen o( ihf AUninni Wcllnler. K.G,. duruf- hit Covetamenl 
ollodia. Edited b} S. J, Oircii, M.A. 1877. Svo. i/. 4t. 

Wellington. A Selection frotn the Despaielies, Treaties, and 
othei Papen fctatiag to India of Ficld-Matihal the Duke of \VelUn|>loa, K.G. 
Edited by S. J. Ovi-en, M.A. 1880. Svo. 141. 






Vm. LAW. 

Alberifi GcntUh, LCD., I.C. De lure Belli LJbri Trcs. 

Edi-HtT. E. Ilotlaad. LCD. iS;;. Small ^to. half (nwr