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Z c ^:, ^\U 





* : 

76 Cheyne (Geo.) TreatiBe on Health and Long 
LxTB, aoiall 8to, calf, Zs MulUngarf 1787 





€> N 




R E A T I S E 

o N 


fiy GEORGE CHEYNE, M. D. F. R. S. 

'i'o which is added to this Editiok^ 
(not in any former one) 

•he LIFE of the AUTHOR. 

At ImbccillU (quo in Numero magna Pars 

Urbanorum, omnclque pcnc Cupidi Litcra- 

juin funt) Obfcrvatio major ncccffaiia crt : 

it quod vcl corporis, vcl Loci, vcl Studii 

'.\iirjdctrahit> Cura reftiiuat. Cf.Ls. 

M U L L I N G ji R: 



V . 




O N 



subscribers' names^ 


Sir Tames Nugent, Bart. 
Po3or Edward Naghten. 
Mr. Edward Nugenti 
Mr. Patrick Naghten* 


Bernard O'Reilly, Efq. 
Mr. James O'Donneil. 

Honourable Mifs Pakcnh^m. 
Mrs. PurdoHt Curridown. 

Mr. Samuel Quern. 


George Rochfort, Efq. 
Rev. Edward Reynell. 

iohn Reeves, Efq. 
dr. Andrew Rutledge. 

Oliver Shornc, Efq- 
' Robert Shore, Efq. 
Rev. Mr. Sccry. 
Morgan Scott, Efq. 
Mr. William St. John. 
Mr. John Shici. 




Mark Anthony Tuite, Ef<l. 
ilr. James Tanner, 
^klr. Jamc* Turkington. 


Mr. William Well. 
Mr. Peter Waii. 






THIS being probably the laft time 
I may trefpafs on the publick, t 
look upon myfelf in fome mea- 
fure obliged to fettle my accounts with 
the world as an author, before I make 
voy exit, by endeavouring to (he w I have ^ 
not always offended out of prefumption^ 
vanity, or wantonnefs. 

The firft time I adventured in print, 
vras on account of my great mafter and 
generous friend, Dr. Pitcairn« He thought 

b VvKw* 

ii The P R E F A C E. 

himfelf ill-iifed by fomc of his bretkren 
bf the profeffion^ who then weie at intef- 
tine waf on tte fiibjc^ of fevess^ and* 
fencied the handiomeft way to. bring 
them dbvl^n, Was to exhibit a more fpe- 
cious account of this difeafe^ than any of 
them had (hewn. His bufinefs then in 
the practice of phyfick was To great, as 
not to allow him fufficient time for fuch 
a work. Two others therefore, with 
myfeUv wete join^ to rpanage^ihe afFair : 
iii whkji he was ta c\lt anj^ carye^ aii4 to 
add the pradlical part. My province was 
the Theory. I was then very young in 
the profeflUHly ^d {Lving in the country. 
But in a few days I hroumt in my part 
finifhed, as it now appears, under the ti- 
tle of The New Theory of Fevers. The 
oilKra^^ either fupprefled or forgot tbeir% 
ana mine, without the leaft alterauon, 
but in a few words, was ordtred for the 
prefs, I could not refifi the commands 
of my friends ; but would not fuffer my 
name to he put to it, being confcious it 
wa^ a raw and unexperienced perfor* 
'mance. There ar^though fome thmgs in 
it which may be of ufe to begmners, both 
as to ttie metUod of philofophUing on the 


the P ft F A C E. Hi 

t • • 

animal economy^ and in the account of 
tiic manner of the operation of the grea- 
ter Medicines. The foundations alfo 
and the caufes affigned for accute and 
flow fevers, [ ftiU think folidandjuft, 
and piorc particular and limited than 
thofe of any other theory yet publifhed. 
But it wants fo much filing and finifhing, 
fo many alterations and additions as 
trould cofl ni'e more labour and painit 
than the writing a new treatife on the faihd 
AibjeA': fothatotit of mere latineft and 
ifiappetency, I hare thrown it by as tinw 
lipe fruit,' and fufl&i'ed it to be as if it m^ 
▼et had been. 

• My next fally was in a book of abft radio- 
ed Geometry and Al?:ebra, entitled. Me- 
thodus Fluxionumlnverfa, brought forth 
tn ambition and bred up in vanity. There 
are feme things in it tolerable for the 
time, when, the methods of quadratures, 
the menfuration of ratio's and transfor- 
mation of curves, into thofe of other 
kinds, were not advanced to fuch heights' 
as they now are. But it is a long time 
lince I was forced to forego thefe barren 
and airy fludies for more fubftantial and 

b z comr 


b The P R E F A C R 

commodious fpeculations : indulging and 

doting in thefe fo exquifitely bewitching^ 

cortemplations, being only proper foe 

publick profeflbrs, and thofe b<»:n to ef;. 

tates, and who are under no outward ne* 

ceflities. Befides, to own a great but 

grievous truth^ though they may quicken. 

and (faarpen. the invention, firengtheiif 

and extend the imaginatTon, improve andt 

refine the reafoning. faculty^ and are of, 

ufe both in the neceflary and the luxu«i 

rious refinement of mechanical arts ; yet 

having no tendency to redify the will^ 

fweeten the .temper, or mend the hearty 

they often leave a &\ffnt{Sj pofitivenefsj^ 

and fuflficiency on weak miiids, much 

more pernicious to fociety, and the inte- 

xefts of the gi eat end«o( our being, than. 

all the advantages they bring them can« 

cecompence. .^Thcy are indeed edged, 

tools, not to^ truiled in the hands of 

any, but thofe who have already acquir* . 

ed an humble heart, a lowly fpirit, and ax 

ihber and teachable temper. For in o-. 

thers they are very apt to. beget a fecret 

and refined pride, an over->weening and 

overbearing vanity, ft he moft oppofite 

temper to the true Gofpel-fpurit, which,^ 



The > R « <f A C E. t 


. without offence, F may fyppok to be the 
htft difpofition of mind) that tempts them 
16 prefume oti a kind of omnifcrente in 
refpcft ot their fellow creat^ares, that 
hare not rifen to their elevation ; and tor 
fet tip for an infallibility, or at leaft a dc- 
dfive judgment, even in matter? which 
do not admit of a more or lefs (their piro<^ 
per objeft) of which kind whatever re- 
iites to the irifinire Author of our Being 
ifioft certainly is. Upon all which ac- 

. iSountsr, confcious of my own weaknefi; 
r have long ftnCe bid them an adieu, far- 
ther than as they fervc to amufc, or 
are nf^tul m the abfolute neceffitiea of 

Tf he defence of that book agwnft the 
leatned and acute Mr. Abr. de Motvre; 
being written ii a fpirit of levity and re-^ 
ifentment, I moft fincerely; retraft atttt 
wift undone, fb far as it ia perfonal oir 
peevHh, and afk him and the world pat-^ 
don for it ; as I do for this defence^ of Dr. 
Rtcaim'S DiffcrtatioTis, and flic New^ 
Thtoty of Fcvct^, agaihJI the late learn- 
ed' mid ingenious Dr. Olipham, f-Heanily 
tiOodeirtm andf dieteil a[U perfonu^ ref)bc« 

b 3 tipna, 

n The P R E F A G E. 

tions, all nftlicious and. unmannerly; 
terms, and, all falfe and unjuft reprefen- 
tations, as unbecoming gentlemen, fcho7 
lars, and chriflians ; and. diCjprove and 
imdo both performances, as far as 
in me lies, in ever)f thing that does not 
Itridtly and barely relate to the argu- 

The firlt part of the philofophical prin^ 
cjpleSj that of natural religion, confifts 
merely of difcourfes and ledlures of na- 
turaUphilofophy,. and- of its confequences 
on religion,. oQcafionally . read ordifcourf-. 
ed to that moil noble aud gceat perfon, 
the Duke of Roxburgh, who is nQW fo, 
great an ornament to his country, and 
His high employments^ to whom they, 
were infcribed. I thought they might be- 
of life toother young gemleraen, wJia,. 
while they were learning the elements., 
of natural philofophy, might have there- 
by the principles of naturals religion in- 
fenfibly^ inftilled into tbem^ And ac* 
cordingly k has been and is ftill ufed for 
-that purpofctat both Univerfities. Upoa^ 
which aiccount, . upon proper occafions, t 
will not fail to improve icjn. all the new^ 


• % 

The F R E F.A C E. vw 

• I 


^fcoveries *in experimental phi'ofophy^ 
Qr in the final and natural caufes oF things 
as happen to be made, fo as to leave it 
as little imperfeiSlia its, kitul. as I poflibly;, 

The fecond part of the philofophical} 
principles, to >» it that of Revealed Reli- 
gion, was added afterward, to (hew,, 
^hat all our knowledge of nature, was 
by analogy,, or the relations of things oar- 
ly^ and not their real nature, fubftance^. 
or internal principles i That from- this 
niethod oC analogy (the only medium of 
human knowledge) we (hould be neieflari-^ 
ly led, to conclude the attributi!s or qua* 
lities of the fiipreme and abfolute. Infinite,, 
were indeed analogous to . the properties 
or qualities of finite beings,., but? only in. 
fiich a manner as the difference between, 
infinite and finite requires ; and! that 
therefore,. not being able to know precife^ 
ly thefc. differences, we ought implicitly 
to believe withoujt reafoning what is re- 
vealed to us concerning the nttture of the 
infimte Being -, of bring ojur rcalbn to 
fixbmit to the myfteries of faith. 

Hqw I have fucceeded is not for me t^ 

via The P R E F A C E. 

determine ; as the end vras horeft, lam fe- 
cure the great princip^^s and the funda- 
mental propofitions are true and juft. 
They may want a Htrfe farther clearing 
up and explication : but as yet I have 
roetwitb no reafon to retraft any thing 
material; elfe I (houM moft certainly 
do it. 

The Efliay on the Gout and Bath Wa- 
ters was brought forth by fticre accident. 
The firft draught being, as I there men- 
tioned, only a paper of direftions for a 
gentleman, ray friend and patient^ trou- 
bled with the gout. It was enlarged up- 
on different occafions, and publifbed to 
prevent its being pyrated ; feve ral co- 
pics having been riven out tor others in 
the fanie circumftances. I have the fa- 
tisfadtbn to know from many dif!brent 
hands, that it has benefitted great num- 
bers of infirm) and aillifted perfons : and', 
(halt therefore ^o on to cultivafce it as far' 
$s my poor abiHtieis will permit. 

I am now come to tMs my lifl'prodtac- 
tion ; wbofe origin was as caftiaJ: as that 
of my fqrnier. My good and worthy 
flriend^ the prefent' mafter of (he roHs, 

• hav 

The P R E F APE. »« 

having been laft autumn at Bath, for & 
confirmation of his health, at his depar- 
ture defired of me to draw up fome in- 
flrudtions in writing to dirtA him in the 
condudl of his health for the future, and 
iQrthe manner of fupporting his fpirits^ 
free and full,, undec the great bufinefs he 
is engaged ip. I was then in the hurry 
of our feafon, and. could not fo foon an- 
fwer his expeftaton, as. bis r^l worthy 
and my fmcerecftcem required, i thought^ 
myfelf therefore the more obliged as fooii: 
as I had; Wfure,* to exert myfelf to 
the uttecmoft in. obedience to his com*-- 
mands. . 

At firft I drew up moft of the(c rules at . 
the end of the feveral chapters v but, up^ 
on. reflexion^ thought it not refpedte*, 
nough to his good tafte and capacity to-: 
judge of the rcafons of things, to pre(cribe 
him bsire and dry diredkbns. in matters.. . 
of fo great moment. I added therefore ' 
the philbfbphical account and reafons of 
thefe rules, which make- up the bulk, of 
the chapters,^. He,^ out of hia , 
love tq nis fellow-citizens (which is one , 
thming part of his charaftcr, and which 
I ought to fuppofehas in this inftancc on- 
ly ' 

^ The P R E F A C E. 

\y impofedon hi& better judgment) dcfii^ 
ed they might be made puWick Upon 
ivhich jaecourit feverd things have beea 
fince Udded, to make the whole of more 
general ufe. If therefore any thing in. 
this treat! fe be tolerable, orir any pcrfoa 
receive benefit by it^ they owe it entire- 
ly to th^t excellent perron, upon whofc 
aCcorunt folely '^t has been undertaken^ 
and at whofc pai-ticiilar requeft it is pub- 

I have indeed long and often dbfer ved,^ 
with great pity and regret, many very 
learned, ingenious, and even religious 
perfons, who beitig weak and tender (as 
fiich generally are) have ftiflfeted to Ac 
laft extremity for wat^fofa due regimen 
of diet, arid other gpneral direftions of 
health, who had good fenfc enough to 
uhderftand the fotce and ncceflity of futh 
rules, valued health fufficientlyi anddef- 
pifed fciifual gratifications for the plea- 
fures of the mind fo far, as to be able arid 
willing to abftain from every thing hurt- 
ful, deny th^mfelves any thmg their ap- 
^petites craved, and to conform to any 
! rules for a tolerable degree of health, eafe, 
and freedom of fpiritSi stnd yet being 



ij^tiorant how to condud themfelves, from 
Mrhat to abftain and what to ufe, they 
have fuffered even to mortal agonies ; 
who, had they been better dire died arid 
mftru^ed, had pafled their lives in tole^ 
rable eafe and quiet* It is for the(e, and 
thefe only, the following treatife is de- 
iighed. The robuft, the luxurious, the 
pot companions, the loofe, and the a- 
bandoned, have .here no bufinefs \ their 
time is not yet come. But the iickly 
and the aged, the ftudious and the feden^ 
tary, perions of weak nerves, and the 
gentlemen of the learned profeffions^ I 
hope, by the divine blefling on the fol- 
iowing treatife, may be enabled to fol-- 
low their (tudies and profcflTions with 
greater fecurity and application, 'and 
yet prefcrve their heajth and freedom 
of fpirits more entire and to a longer 

I and morally certain,, had I known and 
been as well fatisfied of the nec^f&ty of 
the rules here laid down, thirty years ago, 
as I am now, I had fufiered lefs, and had 
had a greater freedom of fpirits than I 
Juve eiyoyed« But evejy tbixig \& beft 


»i tlic P R E F A C E. 

IS it has been, except the errors and fail- 
ings of our free will. 

I know no tifeful means of Health and 
Xong Life I have omitted, ndr any per- 
nicious cuflom I have not noted; and 
liave given the plaineft and mod familiar 
Tcafdhs I could urge for the rules I have 
lierc laid down, Moll of my arguments 
(as they needs muft)iiave rifen out of the 
animal fundlions and economy : and t 
liave ufed as little fubtiJty land refinement 
in my explications of thefe, .as the prefent 
date of natural philofophy coirid admit. 
I have been often contented with plain 
and obvious fadts to account for appear- 
ances^ and the cautions thence deduced ; 
when, according to the humour of the 
prefent age, 1 might' hav€ run into re- 
fined ipecutations of metaphyfics, or ma- 
themattcks ; being contented with the 
Crailb N^odp philofophari ; becaufe .we 
(hall never be able to fearch out the 
works of the Almighty to perfedtion, fo 
fo as to penetiate the internal nature of 
ihings. , . 

I have confulted nothing but my own 
experience and obfervatiou on nvy own 
crazy carcafe and the infirmities of others 



The P R E F A C E. xSi 

1 liave treated, in the foUo\ving rules^ 
iheir reafons and philofophy, (fo that if 
any thing is borrowed, it has occurred to 
me as my own) but in fo far as authori- 
ties go to (horten philofopbical accounts. 
Not but that, all fyftematick writers in 
phyfick, and many particular authors, 
have treated the fame fubjeft : but their 
rules, betides that tliey arc often inconfif- 
tent with r^afon, or contrary to expc- 
rience^ are fo general, and exprefled in 
fo unlimited and undefined terms, as 
leave little or no certainty in them 4 when 
^pplyed to particular cafes, they want 
^e necefl^y precifion and exaftnefs, and 
fo became ufelefsor perplexing : and laft- 
ly, when they come, '(whicli is rarely to 
be found among them) to give the rea- 
fons and |)hi1ofophy of their direflions, 
they have hot tlie perfpecuity and natVH 
ral way of convincing the ingenious, fick-- 
ly, and tender fufferers^ foneceffary to 
make them chcarfully and readily under- 
go fuch fevere ref^raints ; which I take 
to be by far the moft difficult part of fuch 
a work, and which I have laboured with 
my utmofi power to fupply. 

I know not what may be the fiate and 
Iccefs of this performance ^ nor am I 

xiv The P R E F A C E. 

folicitous about it, being confcious the 
defign was honeft, the fubjeft weighty, 
and the execution the beft my time, my 
abilities, and my health would permit, 
which cannot bear the labour of much 
fileing.and finifhing. Being careful not 
to incfoach on the province of the phyfi- 
cian,, I have conceale^d nothing my know- 
le;dge could fugge{^ to direft the fufFerer, 
in the beft manner I could, to prefer ve 
his health. and lengthen out his life : and 
r have held out no falfe or delufory lights 
to lead hirn.aftray, or torment him unne- 

If; it were ppfTible.aiiy fetof men could 
be offended at my performance, it might 
be my brethren of th,e profcflion, for en- 
deavouring to.leflen the Materia Morbifi- 
ca. But as this would be the moft ma- 
licious, unjuft, and unworthy refledlion 
qould be thrown on fcholars and gentle- 
men of a liberal education; fo I never 
en!;ertained the moft remote vanity to 
think.anj endeavour of niine>^puld make 
fo. confiderable a change in the nation ; 
eCpecially when the. devil, the world, and 
the flefh were on the other fide of the 
queftipn,. which haye.ftood their grpund 
even againft the rules of life and im- 


The P R £ F A*C E. xv 

mortality brought to light by the 

I cannot conclude this tedious preface 
without begging pardon of the reader for 
troubling him with m^ private matters. 
All I can fay as an apology is, that of 
whatfoever indifference my concerns as 
an author may be to him, vet thev were 
not fo to me ; this being the only place 
'and time I may have to ^djuft them ir. 
and it being the heigh th of my ambit iofik 

Nil Gonfcire mthi^ nulla pallefccre culpa* 

c ^ ^ TVXE. 



^ny anfcB Ml cupTBt m^ oftifip SW US ta >% cfljTHi IBf TBf 
cQv • 




r I I It if caiier to preferve than ~ recover 
healthy to , prevent thair to cure diff- 
. cafes . ^ P- ^ ' 

The cenfiderations that induced the au« 
thor to publifh this treatife^ and accommo- 
date it to general iife. ^ 
2. The method he is to proceed in^ ahd.thi. 
reafons for it. ibid 
3/ The foUy of an over-fcrupulous, and the 
reafons for a moderate and 4>roper care of 
our health. 5 
Adottblc advantage t>f that care. 4> 

C H A P. 1 

Of AIR. 

§ t. The nccclflSty of a careful choice of the 
air we are to live in. , 5 

tt. Proofs from nexpcrience, of th^ influence ., 
, of the air on the aniipdl. economy. .. iK , 

3* Rules to be obferved in the choice of tbt 
fitUA^ioapf a boufc. 6 j 

xviii The CON TENTS; 

4* Eafterly witids moft dangerous to health" 
in England. 7 

The time they prevail mofti and- when the 
Weflerly and. Southerly winds blow moft 
conftantly ft- 

How to prevent and remedy the ill effeds'of 
col4and moid air. ib. 

5. Whabis to be- done to avoidrthe unwhole-*^ 
fome. influence of the fog that comnsonly 
hangs over London in the winter time. ib. 

That tender pcrfons ought .to be careful of 
the healtbinefs of their families^ and alt 
that are much about them ; of cleanlinefs ^ 
and'to avoidiliigdamp rooms^ beds^ lrnen> 
&c.. 9 

C The manner of catching cpMj or howper- 
fpiration is obftrufied; ' ib. 

An obfervation concerning theefied of rich 
food and generous wines in the time of a> 

.plague. n 

Why pebpte in drink are not ready to catch 
cold. ib 

How the obilruSion of perfpiration contri-. 
butes to the prodticing vapours and all ner- 
vous and byfterick.difcirders* 12 

Rules for Hc^th and Long Life with refped 
to Air. 13 

C H A P. IL 

Of MEAT and DWNK. 

1. 1. To preferve he^Ith« the quantity and na- 
ture of our fbod^» both Meat and Drink, 
^^ l imift be proportioned to the ftrength of our 
""* diecition. i s 

The CON T E N T S irr 

The fources of chronical difcafes. ib« 

%, Three genera) rules by which the valetu- 
dinary andinfirm may judge of the feveraF 
kinds of vegetable and animal fbodj and 
find which arc mod' proper for them. i6 

The application of* thefe rules;* where is 
(hewedj that thefe vegetables and animals 
that come fooneft'to maturity are more ea» 
fily digefied.than thole that rjpen more lei* 

furely.r i? 

The fmallcft of each iund than the Urged; 


The food Qf;^ny ammaltban the animal itfelf ; 
the animals that live on vegetables, than 
thofe that live on other animals; thofe lire on food of an eafy digeftioni than 
thofe that eat ftronger food. ib« 

I^and-animals. than fiihes and^amphibious a^ 
nim^ls; 19 

Vegetables and animaU of a dry, flcftiy, fi- 
brous fubftance, than thofe whofe fubftance 
is oily, fat, . and glutinous* ibi 

Thofe of alight and whitifli, than thofe of a 
brown or reddilh colour : 20 

Thofe of a mild and foft, than thofe of (trong, 

poignant,. aromatick, orhottafte. ; ib. 

3* Tlie proper way of feeding animals and 

raifihg vegetables, fo- as they may become 

the mod whoKbme food. 21 

The cookery ftteft for that purpole. 22 

Hpw the appetite is p be preferved good and 

keen. - ^ tb« 

4. Of the quantity of meat> in general. 23 

5^ The great advantage of fpare and fin)ple 

4ktf ikewn in-fercral txam|plt« oV ^\^cyA.\ 

The C O N T'E N T S: 

* that have by thlit means lived healthj hy<l« 
great age in warm climates. ib. 

§. Inftances to the fame purpofe in cold cli- 
mates; 24 
7^ A particular determination of the weight 
of meat propereft for weak> tender^ and 
fedentary people. 26 ' 
S. The mifchiefs of repletion or living too 
fully. 27 
How to fupply the place of medicines by 
• diet; ib. 
9* Of the ufe of purgative medicines when 
one has exceeded; ilB » 
The form of an excellent medicine for this ^ 
purpofe. ib. 
Sir Charles Scarborough's advice tothcDuch- 
^fs of Portfmouth. ' 29 ^ 
JO. How {ludious pcrfons may know when 
they have eat too much. ib. 
How the appetite may become the right mca- 
fure of eating. 30 
XI.. How we may judgcby.our eye of the juft 
quantity of meat verynearly* without the 
continual trouble of weighing it. ib. 
Of pork &nd fiflir thenr unfitnefs for weak 
and valetudinary people. 31 ' 
i2. The great advantage of drinking wateCf 
in.preferving the appetitCi and llregtben- 
ing and promoting the digeftion. 32 
The pernicious cffeds of tirinking fpirits for 
thefc purpofes. 34 
There is no manner of danger in breaking 
ofFforpernicioos'a-cuftomall'atonee^ as is 
pretrended. "35 
Sir W. .Temple's lulc'ibr^drialdiij^ after din- 
rner. 36 

The C ON T E K T & «xr 

13*. The ill effefts of drinking wine plentifuN 
ly to digcft too full a meal. 37 

14. The bad confequences of the common ufe. 

of ftrong bodied wines unmixed> and the 

preference of light wines of middling 

ilrengtb>. or ftrong wines diluted with 'war 

tcr. 3.& 

15* That drinking, efpecially of fpirltuous li*'^ 
quors, to raife the fpirits in vapours and 
roelanchol/^ increafes infCead of curing the 
difeafe^ 39? 

Cordials are not eBFedual medicines that 
ilrike at the root of a difeafc ; but only 
f prcfent reliefs to mitigate continual fuiFe- 
ring, and gain time for a more effcdual 
courfe*. 40 

16. Of punchy and the milchievou^ confe- 
quences of drinking: it. 4^ 

€)£ the immoderate and indifcreet ufe of the 

acidjuices. * 45 

The caufc of the frequency of belly-aches, 

• > palfies; cranips, convullions, and other 

nervous diftempers in the Wed Indies ; 

and the cure of them. 44 

17. Theunfitnefs^ofmalt liquors for weak fto- 
machs. 4S 

18. Of the ufe and abufe of coffee, tea, and 
chocolate, and (by the by) of tobacco and 
fnuflF. ' 47 

1^ OjFthc due j>roportion of watery liquors to 
our meat, and the bed time. for. drinking 

it. . .5*' 

This quantity is to be different according as 

w« cat moftly of boilcd.or of roaftcd meat^ 


WRat tneats are filtcft to boil and what ti>' 

' Toaft. - ib. 

2D. The form of>a tordialj irbere fuch medi- 
cines are fit ^o 'be -tifed. 54: 

:©f the. proper vtUcfft if. ib. 

ilnles for healtb^and jibng life with refped to 
ineatand-drink. 5^ 

CHAP. Illi 


f: I . Of the uft and neceffity of reft ^ and Htcp 

toahrniah. 61 

Of the care we ought to take to make it found 

and refrefliirtg. ib. 

The eaiing late or ftdl fuppers froftrates the 

endsoffleep* . '6^ 

asr An accopnt of the very hurtful cfft&s of 

that praaicc. ib. 

The caofe ofunfoond'aiid difttirbed reft; 

cramps^ '. ftifF>cattohs, ft^rrings in ileep, 

and night-marcs f<!i'6fk'iicfs at ttomach in 

the morning, and hcavincfsttfll the day. 63 

T^e efffcaual means of preventing all thefe. 


3^ Theproper^foalbn for'flcep. 64. 

Thetopqrs find it more hurtful to fit up late, 

though fober^ than to go to bed half dronic 

/but early. . . ^S 

Jfi The ftrong and robuft may without danger 

fometimes ncgleft the due fcafon of fleep- 

^iffgjrytt the ^cfafcjind tender never <«n, 


The q O N T E N T «. xtm 

Vtth fafctty^ 66 

5. Such people mud go early to jbtd» and rife 
e^rlyi by which their deep w'dl be more 
reffefl|ing> and need not ha fo Iong» as if 
they went later to bed^ ib. 

$• The ill efFeds of loitering a bed.^iii the 
mornings and the advantage ofriiing ear- 

7/ A daiiy regimen for the ftudious. 4>S 

A caution about the aged and fidkly. ib. 

Kules for health and long life, ^ith. regard 

to>ilccp andiwatohing.^ 69 

C H A P. IV. 


^ :i. Eieroifeas neceflary to health noWj. as 
food itfelff whatever may have beea the 
c^fe in, the ftaic of innocence. 71 

Theeffedsofit in preferving the blood and 
other juicesffluid, the joint fupple and 
pliant* and the 6bres in a due tcnfion. 72 

2. Of the: time and occafion of allowing men 
theufc.ofi.animal food and ftrong liquors. 

The reafon why they were allowed to. them. . 

3. Of the feveral fortsofezercife in ufe; and 
of the choice of them. 75 

The reafon why children delight fo much in 
running, jumping* climbing* and all forts 
ofexercife. -7^ 

4* Several infiances of the benefit of tx^ic\^^ 

«iv The CON T E N T 5. 

on the limbs moft employed in clivers labo- 
rious em[rfoyments. ib* 

5. The ufe of this obfervationf in appropria* 
ting difleivfit >exercifes to difierent kinds 
of weakncflfes in the (everal parts of the bo- 
dy/ 77 

That there ought to be dated times of exer- 
dfes : and which are the propereft.* 7S 

6. Three conditions of ezercife that it may 
have its full effeS. ib. 

7 . The ttfefulnefs of cold 'bathing ; 

1. to keep the perfpiratioji free and open* 


2. To promote a free circulation of the 

juices through the fmalfeft veflfels. 80 

3* To prevent catching of cold, by ftrength- 

cniiig the fibres and (Iraiting the perfpi- 

ratory duds. 81 

8. How ofi^ inwhatcafesy and in what maa« 
ner cold bathing fliould be ufipd. ib. 

9. Of the flefli-bruuii and the great ufefulnefs 
of it- 8a 

An obfervation of its confiderable effeds on 
horfes* ib* 

That it ought (as well as cold bathing) to ht 
ufed on the animals whofe flelh we eat. 83 

Rules for Health and Long Life relating to 
Exercife. "84 


Tht CONTENTS, xxv 

C H A P, V. 

XJf xur EVACUATIONS and their OB- 

,1. X That the faeces in healthy people are of a 

moderate confidence. '87 

. 'The caufes of. coftive and purging ftoofsf and 

how they difcover the goodneU or badnefs 

of the regimen we ufe ib. 

Of the re^fon 4i\\y mercury purges inftead of 

falivating. 88 

"That the fame reafon will m^keeven reftrin- 

gents and opiates purgative. 89 

2. A dangerous mVftake in 'thofe that would 
grow plump and hi. ib* 

Another in the rearing up of chlfdren. 90 
The right method of begetting a proper quan- 
tity of good and fouird flc(h. ib. 

3. Loofe and purgative ftoois difcover intem* 
perate eating. ^i 

Of the prefent relief the hyfterica! and low- 

fpirited find in good eating and drinking^ 

and the mifchief that follows on it. gz 

The common caufe of head-aches, (lomach- 

achSf and cbolics. 93 

4.. The right method of bracing relaxed nerves. 


How oft healthy and tempcrat'! people goto 

fiool. ib* 

5* How long it is from the eating of a meal 

till thedifcharging the faeces of it. 94 

That the bad c£feds of an intemperate meat 

d «i^ 


»«vi The C O N T E N T S. 

are felt mod the daj the excrements of it 

are throwiwout. 9$ 

The confequeMces of this ohfervation. ib», 

4u Some aliments that 4t not cafV en the fto- 

mach may afiord; good nourifflment. ib. 
T, S. Of the feYerai forts of urine# and what 

they fignify. gtf 

,- ^hc difftrcncebcTwccn hyftcrlck Witer * aSd . 
that made in a diabetes. \g^ 

9. rthe re|;imtnj)r6pcr lor thole tfiat'iMike 
pale high-cordured or t urbid Wati^r. 98 

, }. Of the danger they are 't^ Ihat litAke dark 

.., brown or di rty fed water. ^99 

Of other kinds of water. ib* 

1 1 . Of an uncommon evaciiation bdth by'flfcge 
and urinCf * and the eaufes of it. 99 

xl. bbftruSed perfplraHon the catife of nlCft 
acute diftafesy and 'the efJfeQ of chttinical 
40ne8« roi 

'Catehirig bf ebidwhatj and how ddtfge- 
rous. 102 

A prefent and eafy remedy jgaiiift it. fb. 

The dangei' of delaying: the )cure bf tt. ib. 

14. The way to maintain free per fpi rat ion.' 103 
The coniequences oif itso&ftruSion. 104 

^An cfbferyarion cpncerning the ufe Uhd ^nal 
caufe of conv'ulfive motions^ cou'ghttag^ 
fneezing, langhkig* yawnfiigf Rretchiqigy 
&c. "lb. 

15. Of a critical falivatian liappeni«g to per- 
fons of relaxed 'fibres. I05 

The'Tegard that ought toho had tolhc:eye. in 

chronica! cafes. . *rb5 

Tho f eafon of the -apjpiMitiice of J^sp flies, 

' aCdms^ ' 

The C O.N TEN T Si «x?K 

stoms^ &e. before the eyes of hyfic^ical 
perfonsy and of their dimnefs. and.confu* 
fibneffigktw 107 

!W4ience hjfterial people haFiC the feafe of 
ohoa)cinga|id flraqglinff. ib. 

or the ufefulnefs of the hifinenttonedl.raliva- 
ti6n. 108 

Of the right waj^ of managing it. 109 

Itttlec f4^ Ut9iih,znd Long Lifo with Iftgard 
' to Eracoations. -iio 

C He A g. Vlf 

:tHc PA59IPN& 

j^ ^ The paffion's have a |j|^at i|i^fl^j^ce an 
health. ti4 

*f QVr fundmnnM) gropcStWIwpf tlM^dp^nnc 
of the paffions. ib. 

. IRrop. I. The foulrcjBcfcj. ii^. ;||^ ^grnsyter map- 
ncrin tjbc.lnywii* vt)|;r^ it pcrw^s mofions 
WQ^^i bjr. QP|:w.«i^d,qI>jpQ^, ^n4 apcprdicg 
to their impreffions excites motions jni the 

•Q^ol. With regard to the different natures 

^. ofQutward objci^s^ Pr ^hc fu,bj!q6i (hpdy or 

mind) they immediately afiPed^ the paeons 

are divided into fpiritu^ an4 ^i^iimaU i^. 

. Proipv H- Whccc.yjL the wpion oC^U. /Pljl and 

ll^y <:onfi(lflb> 115 

SiQhoif. Some laws of that union. TiS 

d 2 Prop^ 

xacvm The CONTENT S^ 

Pi op III. In fpirits there is att aSive fclf- 
motive principle. ^ ib- 

Schol. Aproof of this principle from thccxif- 
tence of motion. 1 1^ 

Prop. IV. There is in fpirits a-principle ana- 
logous to attradion* ib* 

Schol. The neceffity of this principle. 1 18 

The remainsof it in our fallen ftate. ib. 

CoroM. The nature, of fjMritual good and 
evil. 119 

Corol. II. A divifion of the paflions intoplea- 
furable and painful* viz. Love and Ha- 
tred* and *tKe dependents on titem. ib. 

2. The paffions with refped to their effeds 
on the body may be divided into acute and 
chronical* as they produce this or that kind 
ofdifeafes. X20 

The effeds of acute pa£Qn8%. ib» 

The caufe of a fi]gh. lar 

The caufe of a blu(h. I22 

The pulfe accelerated and the breath fhort^iti 

anxiety. ib* 

The effeds of ftzr and anger. ib. 

3. ' The efFcds of chronical paffions. ib. 
Of fixing the attention oa one thought or t- 

dea. ib« 

Of grief* melancholy*, unfuccefsfur love* 
pride. 123 

The eiFed of continued'aSion* in the Indian* 
Farquiers. ib. 

Of religious melancholy. ib. 

^ The tender and valetudinary ought careful- 
ly to avoid all cxccfs of pamon 9 and why. 


tTtr C O N T P N T §. xxix 

chronicaT. ib. 

'ff Tbc.diffii^ent effcds of the JH^pns on dif- 
ferent confiitutions. 125 
X . On t}u)fe of mod eUjJipk fibres. 1 26 
. ^. On thofe of ftlflPf ri^i^iibresv ib. 
3. On thofe of fluggifbf refty fibres. |b. 
61 Thar the diforders or wcaknefles of t he 
nerves employed in ihe ipentai operations 
may, in fome cafes^. be remedied, by phy ** 
fick. ib* 
7.. What fpiritiia! lovcj or charity, if. 1,27 
Tho' at firft it has the appearance of a com- 
xnPXip^ffion; yet in its perfeiSion it proves 
fhe exercife of a particular faculty in the 
XpuI proper to itlelf. I zS 
That all objeSs being to be loved in propor- 
jtign jtp their hcauty, Qod mnft be loved 
infinitely^ .and all creatures, even our- 
felves, in comparifon to him i)6t at all. 


J. yil. there ii axi .allowable and juft fclf- 
love. 130^ 

Thic.meafprcs of It; ib. 

The love of Ood.for his own fAt^ and with- 

■•••■■A ^ ^ 

.pvt regard to our own happinefs, is i)ot- 

with((and.t.n£ infeparabte in its n^ore from 

' .ojK.h^ppinefs. ib. 

. All beauty coniSfts in harmopy, .and all plea- 

-fuce U> ihe percepjtipn of that harmony, j 3 1 • 

^ The advantages of fpiritual loyc wuh re? 

.!g»jcd*Ph.caUh. *I3* 

It removes all anxiety and foiicitude. ib. 

d3 . Jt 

Mr • The C O N T E N T S. 

It bsiniflies all thofe vices that moll ruin health. 


It gives continual* joy ; which is infeparable 
from health. 133 

Rules of hiealth with regard to the manage- 
ment o£the paffions. 1 34 

c H A P. vir: 


f I. Of the differenee between acure and chro- 
nical difeafes. 135 
What may be expeded from medicine in ei- 
ther cafe. r37 
2. Why moft perfons are feized with chroni- 
cal d[ifea(bs about the meridian of life ; and 
why fonic fooner. 138 
3* ^he great number of dangerous chronical 
difeafes proceeding from^ and complicated 
with the fcurvy. 140 
Why the fcurvy is fo common in Britain* ib* 
The manner, how it Is produced. ib. 
. Why chronical difeafes are more common 
here than in the warmer climates. 141 
The reafon of the frecpiehcy of felf-murder 
in England* 142; 
.Why the fcurvy is feldbm or never perfefily 
cured. 143 
By what means it might lie cured thorough- 
ly, ib. 
What is t9 be done tb niakc life tolerable un- 

The CONTENTS, xxz 

der tt» tothofe that will not undergo the 
trouble of a perfc<5^ cure. : 144 

Seeds and young fprouts proper in this difcafc, 
becaufe thsy hare no grofs Talcs in them. 


RefteSions on the great ufe of a regimen of 
diet and exercife in the cure of chronical 
difeafes. 145 

4. Of the nature of animal fibres and their 
different fort^.- ib. 

llules to knowelaftick orTpringy> robufl and 
Stiff, weak ^ndrelaxcd fibres. 14$ 

5. The caufes and occafions of frequent mif- 
carriages. 148 

The reginKnand medicines proper to prevent 
them. 149 

^. A regimen for the tender, (ludious^ &c. 
. with regard to the different feafons. 150 
7* Ruks about cloths as to the diffisrence of 
. feafcms. 155 

The danger of keeping always warm^ and 
wearing flanneL ' ib. 

The danger of cuftomarv fweating. 154 

The difference between fweating and plenti- 
ful perfpiratlon. ib. 
S. Of the uiefulnefs of frequent (having the 
head and face ; and of wafliing and fcrap* 
ing the feet. 155 
The advantage of a full and free perfpiration 
. inthe foles of the feet. 15$ 
9^ A caution to ffudious people concerning the 
'fitted pofturc of the body in reading; and 
writing. 157 
The incoft venicncies of a wrong one. 158 

If. A 

a«xii The C O N T E N T Si 

TO* A very ncccffary t:atttion to fat and ovcr- 
gro^ people. 159 

Ti* Two important advices to the aged. i6o- 
The advantage of- removing to a. warmer cli- 
mate in old age; i6i. 
T2. The folty of cxpeding a quick cure u)f 
chronical difcafe^- ^ i52: 
The mifchicfs this varn expedation^brings on 
the valetudinary. ifij 
The original and only method x)f cute. of moft* 
chronical difeafes. ib. 
The neceffity of fubmttting to this .method. 


The efficacy of it. 1^5 

t j. Of the great ofefuteefe.of'iDpiism. 166 

. The manner of its operation. ib. 

Proofs that it operates in thatmanner. 167^ 

:How tt cures a Diarrhsea. 168 

hi what cafes opium i»of greateft ufc. • ib. 

When folid optbm^ when liquid laudanum 

is^to'bc ufed. ^ ... ^^9 

The proper vehicles for4t ii| different cafes. ^ 


The fight #ay of dofing ; k. iB. 

That opium overdbfedkillt not ib readily as 

is <:<nnmonty thought. i^ i 

14; Tlic*grcal fccret bf long- life. ib. 

Tho'the folids mud neccflaritybaidcn bydd 

-age, '{b 'aster A&p the^cireiifattton:; yet this 

may be retardediby Iccepiogtfae juioes fluid 

4)y a m^reand-driuttagdtct. x^2 

'Tlie manner of ^in^ it. ib. 

Of tfain^ and what is comm^ityt .and what 

The C O N T E N T S. xxxiii 

onght to be called, poor blood. I7S 

What is the bed blood, and for what reafcns 

it is to be accounted fo. 174 

Of the great advantages of temperance. 175 
Mifcellaneous rules of health and long lite* 


Conclufion. 179 

Life of the A\ithor. 1 83 

€oi)clufion of Author's Life 21^ 

^f^ r* ^w v^ ^^ ^ ^ ^- ^^* xJ^* 

;rx ^j# Wiji kJd /fM m> 

Ik Glartfl&ni Mhfip GfttOi Cheyxwri Tcnta- 
mtff dc* Sattitfeite & Longsevitattcv doChim 
variumque Opus miratus^ hgec cBfudit*^ 
Virtutum iliius Viri cultor iiBpeiiflffliinis* 

HUCades, o f fsevum Mcmbris arccrc Vc- 
Qui eupisy &. Morbi femina Cetra gravis. 
Sive tremens pavidufquc vldcs inftare minacent 
Scorbutum (ut videas hie Liber, e€ce t docct) 
Sive parant atras Hypochondria turgida Nubes^ 

Qus^ Mcnti oflTufs triftia fpedra darcnt ; 
Scu Monftrt quodeunque imis Penetrabilus 
Prineipium Morbi^ moz generanda Lues : 
Eccc Opifcr praBfcns^ CHEYN^US, Icnk 
In Venis fuecvrmt nee tibi Membra^dolent f 
Aut pelKt trtftis fimulacra fugaeia fpedri, 

Atque Animo prohibet.Gaudia abeflfetuo ;. 
M^turaque Opera prsvertens trlAia Fata 
^grotare vetat, nee doluiSc fintu 

Perlcgc (atattentus) cuiti DbcnmentaLibem^ 
Si Tc vcl fanem vel cupis cfli probum : 

(Arde etenim fociafa Salus fidciiter hseret 
Virtutiy Vitio ncc Comes cffc volet) 

Difce Voluptates prudcns vitare noccntes ; 
Hinc difce & vcHs innocuifque frui. 

Ut Tibi fit fomnus Lenimen dulce Laborum ; 


{ mr 3 

Qoflcque onerant Menras dulcta Fcrcia fient 
Ut vigcant ArtuSf nee faucia membra iabo- 
rent ; 
Htc Guise cffiraenit Crimina millelege. 
Chirurgi Ferrum Te» & cetrica Pharmaca tcr- . 
rent } 
Hinc difce ambobus poflc carere Malis. 


il XX mm i^-^j^ m^y^ >--= f 


T R E A T I S E 


Health and Long LrPE, 


J. I. )8f;J:^)RT IS a common faying. That 
if)> 4)> ^v^ry man pad forty is cither 

O ^ O^ ^^ ^'' ^ phyfician : It 

J'L ^ V might have been as juftly ad- 

JgT^i^Cji )5( dcd, that he was a divine too z 

For, as the world goes at 

^refcnt> rfiercts not any thing that the gcnc- 

Tality of the better fort ot mankind fo lavilhljr 

and fo unconcernedly throw away as heaith, 

^except ctenial felicity. Mod men knov 

-when they are ill, but very fcwwhen they arc 

well. And yet it is mod certain, that 'tU ea« 

fier to preferve health than torecovcr it, and to 

prevent difeafes than to cure them. Towards 

-the firft, the means are moftly in our ^>wit 

-power: little elfe is required than to bear and 

forbear. But towards the latter^ the means 

A axe 


arc perplexed and urvcertain; and for tlic 
knowledge of them the far greatcft part of man- . 
kind muft apply to others^ of whofc il^ill and 
Jbonefty they arc in a great meafure igno- 
rant> and the ben^t of whole art they can but 
conditionally and precarioufly obtain. A cra- 
zy conftitution, original weak nerves, dear- 
bought experience in things helpful and hurt- 
ful, and long oNfcrvation on the complaints of 
others, who come for /relief to this univerfal 
anfirrriary, BATH, have at laft (in fome mea- 
•Ture) taught me fome of the mod cfFcdual 
means of prcfcrving health, and prolonging 
"life in thofe who arc tender and"fickly, and 
labour ujider chronical diftempers. ^ And I 
thought I could not fpend ray Icifurc hours 
better than by putting together the mod gene- 
ral Viiles for that purpofc, apd fetting them in 
*the cleared: and ftrongeft light 1 cpuld, for the 
benefit of thofe wlio may want them, and yrt 
have not bad fuch fafvourabie opportunities to 
iiearn them. . ' 

J. 2. And that I might write with fome or>- 
der and xronne lion., i have chofen to makt 
fome obfcrvations and TcflcSions on the Non- 
jiaturals, (as they are called, poffibly bee iufc 
'that in their pfcternatural ftatethey arc emi- 
•ncntly rnjuriouo to human cionftitutions ; or 
-more probably, becaufc though they be neccC- 
faxy tothe fubfiftencc of man^ yet in rcfpefik 
x)f him, they may l< coniidered as cxternsiU 
or different irom the internal caufes that pro* 
•fiucc dtfcafes}to wit, i. The air we breathe 
in. 2. Our meat and drink* 3. Our fleep 



and watching. 4. Our cxcrcifc and reft. 5^ 
Our evacuations and t^ci^ ohftruQ ons. 6. 
The paflions of our minds, and taftly to acd 
fqmc obfcrvalions that come not fo naturally 
tinder any of thefe heads. I ftall not confi- 
dcr here how pHilofophicafly thefe diflinflions- 
are made ; they feem to me, the heft general 
heads for bringing in t'hofe obfervations and 
refledions I am to make in the following 

f. 3. The reflcQion is not more common^ 
than juft. That he who lives phyfically muil 
live mifcrahly. The truth is, .too great nicc- 

2 and exaflncfs abput every 'minute circum- 
mce thai may impair our health, is fuch a 
yoke and flavery, as no man of a generous- 
free fpirit would fubmii to. 'Tis as a Poet 
cxpreffes it, ti) die for fear of dying. And to* 
forbear or give over a juft, charitable, or even 
generous office of life, from a too fcrupulou8^ 
rcp;ard tp hfcalth, is unworthy of a man, much 
more of a Chriftian. But ihen,^ on the othcf 
hafldy to cut ofF our days by intemperance, 
indifcretion, and guilty paffions, tolivemifc- 
rably for the fake of gratifying a f^cct tooth, 
or a brutal itch ; to dre martyrs to our luxury 
and wantonnefs, is equally beneath the digni- 
ty of human nature, and contrary to the ho- 
mage wc owe to the Author of our Being. 
Without fon^e degree of health, wc can nei- 
ther be agreeable to ourfelves, nor useful to 
our friends ; we can neither relifhthe bleflings 
ofdivinc Providence to us in life, noracquit 
«ucfclvc5 of our duties to our maker, or cur 
* A a . Tvtx^Vv- • 


ncighboar. He that wantonly tranrgrcffctK-^ 
the fclf-cvidcnt rules of health, is guilty of a 
degree x)frclf-murdcr ; and an hahitual pcrfcvc- 
rance therein is direS fuicide, and confc- 
quentljr the greatcft crin^ be can commit a- 
g^inft the Author of his Being ; as it is flight- 
ing and defpifihg the nobleft gift he could* 
beftow upon him, viz. the means of making 
himfclf infinitely happy; and'atfo' as it is a 
treacherous foifaking the port wherein his wif- 
dom has placed him, and tJicreby rendering 
himfelt incapable of anfwering the defigns of 
his providence over him. The infinitely wife 
iauthor of nature has fo contrived things, 
that the moft remarkable rule* of prefer ving 
life and health are moral duties commanded" 
lis, fotrue it is, that <* Godlinefs has the 
<' promifes of this life, as well as that to- 
•^ come." 

To avoid all ufelcfs refiniement, I will lay 
down only a few plain eafily obfervcd rules,, 
which a man may readily follow, withoat any 
trouble or conftraint. 

H A R 



C H A P. L 

Of A I R. 

#?!.■ A IR being one of the moft ncccflarj • 
XjL things towards the fubfiftcncc and 
bealtb of all animals ; 'tis a wonder to me^ 
that here in England* where luxury and all 
the ^rts of living welly are cultivated even to 
a vice, the choice of air ihould be fo little con- * 

f . 2. From obfervat ions on bleeding in rhcu- 
matifms, and after catching cold, 'tis evident* 
that the air with its different qualities, can al- 
ter and ^uitc vitiate the whole texture of the 
blood and animal juices: From the patflest . 
▼ertigoes, vapours^ and other nervous affec- 
tions, caufed by damps,, mines, and working * 
on fome minerals, (f particqlarly Mercury and 
Antimony) 'tis plain, air fo and fo qualified, . 
can relax and ohftrud the whole nervous fyf- . 
tern. From the cholicks fluxes, coughs, dnd 
confumptions, produced by damp, moifl: and 
nitrous ^ir^ 'tis manifeil, that it can obftrud 

A3 and 

It v.b 

^f Vide Raai;^*Ai of ihc difeafes of tradelcaccuA. 

6 A TRE Ansa Off HEALTH 


and fpoll the noble organs. The ^lir is attraQw 
ed and received into our habits and mixed* 
with our fluids every inftant of our lives ; To 
that any ill quality in the air, (o continually 
introduced, rauft in time produce fatal cScGis 
an the animal oeconomy: and therefore it 
will bcofthc'utmoftconfcquencc to every one,, 
to take care what kind of air it is they flcep* 
and watch, breathe and ^livcin, and arc per- 
petually receiving into the moft intimate u* 
nion with the principles of life. I (hall onlj( 
take notice of three conditions of ^ir. 

§. 3. The fii-ft is. That when gentlemen: 
build feats, they ought never to, place thenr 
upon any high hill, very- near any great con- 
fluence of waterj in the neighbourhood of any 
great mines, or beds of minerals, nor on any 
fwamp^ marSiyA or moflfy foundation ; but 
cither in a champaign country, or on the fide 
ofafmall eminence, fliehcred from the North 
and Eaft' winds, or upon a light gravelly SoilJ 
The nature oPthe foil will be weirknewn fronj 
the plants and herbs that grow on iti or rather 
more fecurely from the nature of the watcri 
that fpring out of it, which ought always to bfc 
fvvect, clear j light, foft,- and taftclefs. AH 
high mountains are damp, as Dr. H^lley ob«-. 
ferved at St. Hcldna, a mountaneous place-, 
where damps fell fo perpetuairy in the nighi 
time, that he was obliged ta be every moment 
wiping his gkflbs, in making his aftronomical 
obfervations. And where the mountains are 
high, the inhabitants of them are forced to* 
fend their furniture^ inivinter^ to the valley,. 




Ifeflr It fli-^uldrot. And 'tis common to have it 
rain or fnow on mountains> when the vallc} t« 
helow are clear, , fcrenc and dry. All great 
kills are ncfts of minerals, and covers (made 
of the promimcnt earth) for rcfervoirs of rain- 
water. The clouds arc but great fkcces of;^ 
rarefied water failing in the air,. rom<etimes not- 
jnany yards above the champaign ■ country ;-. 
and ihefe high hilU intercepting them, thcyc 
are compreiB^d into dew or rain, and are per- 
petually drilling down* the^ crannies of the^ 
mountarns imo thefe bafons^ Hence, the ori^ 
gin of rivers, and frcfh water fpringsv Bc(ide» 
that, thefe mountaneous places, are alwayr 
expofcd to high, and almoll perpetual winds^ 
Where any great concourfc of water is, the 
air muft needs be perpetually damp, becaufe 
the fun IS ptrpettTally ftraining from thefe wa- 
ters, moid dews and vapours throtigh it. All 
great ncfts-of minerals, or large mines, muft 
ncceffarily impregnate the air, with their rcf» 
pcSivc qualities. And mofly blacknefs, i» 
fome degree of putrefa£iion> as * Sir Ifaae 
Newton obfervcs. 

f. 4. Sccotrdly, the ^inds that arc mofl 
frequent, and moft pernicious in England*, 
arc the Eafterly, cfpeciaFly the North Eaft 
winds, which in the winter are the moft piercf 
ing cold, in fummer the moft parching hot. 
in Winter they bring along with them, aU 
the nitre ofriic Northern and Scythian fnowsi. 


ScfehHT<eatjle of light 'and ccAoui> 



tiiiiH of ic5c, and frozen feas tbro' which tUcj " 
coiTie ; and in fummcr, blow with all the fiery - 
particles of the perpetual day they pwifs thro*. 
From the end of January, ^till towards the end 
of May, the wind hlows almoft oerpetuallyy . 
from the eaftern and northern points, if th« 
fpring is dry ; and from thefouthcrn and wcf- 
t^rn points, if the fpring is wet, (and genc- 
ralfy from the fctting. in qf the winds, on a 
Hcw-moon, you* may predi6k the weather of 
the ff^ring) and our bodies moft certainly at- 
trsL&\n^9 the circumambient air,; and the 
fames of thofe bodies that arc next to us, it : 
will be very convenient for valetudinary, ftu-* 
diou&, and contemplative perfons, in a dry 
Spfing, or rn eafterly wind«j to change their 
bed-chambers into rooms that have weftern or ■ 
foutbcrn lights, or to (but dofc up the eaftern » 
and northern lights, or to have them but fcl« 
dom opened ; and in wet feafons^ to take the • 
contrary courfe.- And if any fuch perfon, has . 
been much cxpofed^ or long abroad, in a : 
northerly or bleakifh cafterly wind, it will be • 
very proper for him to drink down, going to •« 
bed, a large draught of warm water-groci, or • 
of warm fmall mountain-wifrc whey, as an j 
antidote againft the nitrous effluvia, fucked 
into the body, and to open the obftru^ont of :' 
the perfpiration made thereby. . 

J. 5, Thirdly, from the beginhing of No- ' 
vembcr 'till towards the beginningt>f February, , 
London is covered over with one univcrfal ni-% 
trous and fulphurous fmoak, from the muhi- 
tudc. oicosd. . fircsji theabfcncc of that material 



iKvinity the Sun^ and the confcqucncc there- 
of, .the falling of the det^s, and vapours ofthc 
night. In fuch a feafpn> weak and tender 
people, and thofc that arc fuhjcQ to nervous 
or pulmonick ditonjpcr§, ought cither to go 
into the country, or to !ic at home foon after 
fuh-fct, and to- difpcl the damps with clear,, 
ivarm fires, and chearful converfation^ - go 
early to bed, and rife proportionably fooncr iiv 
the morning; for, as the fun's remo^ fuf« 
fefs the vapours to fall and condenfc, in the 
evenings fo his approach difpels and raifes them- 
in the morning; I- i\eednot add, that it witt 
6e very fit, for thofc that arc valetudinary, ta 
have their fcrvants, children, bed<*felh)ws, and* 
aN tiiofe that approach them, with whom thcf 
live conftantty, and mix atmofpheres, to be 
a» healthy,, found and fweet as poffibly they 
can ; and, for their own fakes, to have them 
removedtill they ar^ made fo, if they are other- 
Mvife. Nor Ihall I add any prefEng inftanceSf 
to avoid wet rooms, damp beds^ and foul lin* 
nen, or to remove ordure and nuifances ; the 
luxury of England having run alt thefe rather 
into a .vice. 

J. t5. The air 18 a fluid, wherein parts of all 
Kinds of bodies fwkn as in 'water. But air 
differs from water in this, that thefirft is com^ 
preffible into a leffcr compafs, and fmaller vo- 
lume, like a fleece of wool, either by its own 
weight, or any other force, which weight or 
force being removed, the air immediately rc- 
•overs its former bulk and dimcnfions again, 
wh^re^s no force whatever can^ bring water 


into narrower boonds ; that U* air « cxtpcaicfy 

•Uftick and fpringy, but watcir is not at all fo. 
Yet the parts of air would fccm to be groffer 
than the pirts of water : for water will get 
through a bladder, and may be forced througl» 
Ihc p^rcs of gold; b^jt air will paft through 
neither. By this its claftick force, the air in- 
.fin«:ites itfelf into the patent cavities of all 
animal bodies ; atid the infant, which never 
breathed before, as foon is expofed to this 
element, has the little bladders, whereof the 
iungs con^{i(l, blown up into a perpendicular 
crcdion on the branches of the wine-pipe ; 
whereby the obflru(^ion, from the preflure of 
thp veficles (arifina; from their being compref- 
ied together, and lying upon one another)^ 
ieing in. fome meafuretake^ off, the niufcula^ 
aSion of the right ventricl'e o^ the heart is able 
to.force the blood through the lungs into the 
left ventricle. But thefe little bladders, being 
thus inflated fey an elaftick fluid, ftill prefs fOv 
far upon, and grind the groffer pirticlesof the 
blood into more GzcaMc ones, that they majt 
become fmall enough to circulate through the 
other capillary veffrls of the body. This cla- 
Hick air, preffino^ equally every way round, 
by its wciirht ind f^Kirto;, (huts diofc the ^calei 
of the fcarflkin of health v and flrong perfons ; 
fo that it denies all entrance to the nitrous and 
w.rtery mixture, contained in it, and thus 
becomes a kind of cold bath, to them ^ ^nd de- 
fends them from catching cold : But in fickly, 
fludious, and fedentary pcrvpic, and thofe of 
weak nerves, where the fpring of thecovcrlett- 
and fcaies> that deiend the mouths tpf the; 


1\ND LO^?G LIFE. 11 

'jperfpiratory du£ls is weak, the pcrfpTaiJoa 
little or next to none at all, and the blood 
poor and fizcy ; the nitrous and watery par- 
otides of the air get ^ ready and free entrance, 
by thefe duQs into, the blood, and by breaking 
the globules thertof, coagulating and fixing 
its fluidity, quite ftop the pcrfpiraticn, and 
obftrufl: all the capillary vefftls, the cutaneous 
glands, and thofeof the lungs and alinierrnry 
-paflages, when fuch bodies arf Icng expofcd 
to fuch an air : And thus begets all thefe dif- 
-orders in the body, that air thus and thus pci- 
Yoned, was (hewn capable to produce. So long 
as the perfpiratJon is ftrong, brifk, and fufl, 
it is impoffiMe any of^thefe difordcrs (liculd 
happen; becaufe the force cf the perfpiratcry 
fleams outward, is ^greater than the force 
thereby thefe noxious mixtures enter; unlefs 
the body be indifcreetly tco long expoled, or 
the aQion of the nitrous and watery mixtures 
T)e extremely violent. Hence it comes to pafs, 
that thofc who arc very (Irong and healthy, 
and thofe who have drank (Irong liquors fo. 
plentifully, as to have thereby a bri(k circu- 
lation and fuH perfpiration, (eldom or never 
catch cold. And this is the rcafon why rich 
foods and generous wines, moderately ufed, 
become fo ^excellent an antidote in infeQious 
and epidemick diftempcrs ; not only as they 
banish fear and terror, but as fhey make fo full 
and free a (learn cf perfpiration, and main- 
tain fo aQivcand briik an atmofphere, as fuf- 
fers no noxious ftcanos or mixtures in the air 
to come within it ; but drives and beats oflPt he 
cjxaxiy to a difianoc But perfons of vifco\i^> 


Acavy fluids, of poor and fizcy Juices, <^ 
Jittic or no perfpiration> fuch as. generally aH 
ftudious, and fedcntary., and fickly pcrfons arc, 
Hpt cfpecially thofc that arc fiihjcS to ncrvon^l 
d^forders mud neccffarily foffcr under thefc 
foifonous mixtures in the air, if they do not 
eautioufly and carefully fence againft them, or 
^ake not a prefcnt remedy and antidote, when^ 
tainted For bcfides the air that gets through 
the pcrfpiratory duQs into the blood, whene- 
ver we cat, drink or breathe, weare taking in- 
to our bodies, fuch air as is about us. And 
when the concoQive powers arc weak, as in 
fuch perfons, and the quantity of the food is 
too great, or its quality too (Irong for them, the 
•fhylc is toegrofsf and the pcrfpiratory matter 
is ftopped, becaufe too large for thefc fmall 
duds; and this whole mafs, which in com- 
mon health is more than double of the gro's c<-. 
vacuations, recoils in upon the bowels, and 
becomes, as it were, fpears and dartsy and 
armour to the air received from without, which 
being thus Jthatpened with the falts of the un- 
^ eoncoded food, together with its own elafliclc 
force, pierces the fides of the veffels, andget« 
into all the cavities of the body, and bctwccit 
the mu(kles and their membranes, and therc^ 
in time, brings forth hypochondriack, hyftc* 
rick, nervous, and ,vapouri(h diforders, and 
all that black train of evils fuch' confiitutionft 
iuffcr under. 

Ifliall now draw out the cautions here incul- 
ditcdinto a few general rules. 



©cncra^I Riilcs for Health and Long Lifo^ 

Of A I R. 

il atbartipaigncoi^htry, or oil the fide 
lof a ffnall eminence, on a grat^cHy foil^ with 
a Southerri or Weftetn expofitioh, -fiiehered 
from the North and EaH; winds, didant from 
any great concourfe of waters, or any great 
tninc« or beds of minerals, where the water is 
fweet, clearj lights foft, and taftclcft. 

2. Tender people on the fctting in of Eaf* 
tcrly and Northerly winds, ought to change 
their bed rooms for others of Wefterly and 

Southerly tights, and the contrary in wet 


3. Thofc who have been jmuch erpofecl 
to, or long abroad in Eafterly or Northerly 
winds, (hould drink fome thin and warm It** 
4juor going to bed. 

4. When the dar^, dull, foggy weather 
iafts at London in winter, tender people^ 
and thofc of weak nerves and lungs, ought 
either to go into the country, or keep much 
at home in wiarm rc^msj go early to bed and 
Tife betimes. 

5* Valetudinary people ought to have their 




fervants children^ and bcdfcUo^s^ or tbofe 
thoy continually approach and convcrfc ivitl)» 
found, fwcet, and healthy, or ought to re- 
move them until they arc fOg if they are 

6. Every one* in order to prefervc their 
healtbt ought to obferve all the cleannefs and 
fweetnefs in their houfes, cloaths^ and ffirni* 
tjarc^ (ttitable to their conditioa* 

•v • ■ 

f«?^:. ..-•■ CHAP. 




Of MEAT and DRIN& 

§t I- npO have our food, that is, our 
JL iTTcat and dtink, as to quantity 
and quality duly regulated, and precticly ad« 
jufted to our concoaivc powers, would be of 
the utmofl confequence to health and long life. 
Our bodies require only a determinate quanti- ' 
ty thereof, to fupply th-c expcnces of living-:* 
and a juft proportion of that to thefc would vc- * 
ry probably preferve us from acute, moft cer- ' 
tainly from chronical didempers, and enable' 
us to live, without much ficknefs and pairt, fo-* 
long as our conftitutions were originally madc^ 
to" Jaft. The fourccs of chronicaf diffcmptrJ 
arc firft vicidity in the Juices, or the ovcr- 
largcncfs of their conditiient particles, whicK'^ 
not being fufficiently broken^ by the concoc- 
tive powers, flop or retard' the^ circulation,. 
©r, fccondly, too great abundance of (harp- 
and acrimonious falts, whereby the juices 
themfelves arc rendered* fo corrofive, a^ to' 
hurft or wear out the folids ;• or, thirdly, a re- 
laxation, or want of a due force, and fpringi* 
nefs, in the folids themfelves. An excefs iit^ 
quantity begets the* firft', the ill condition of 
•i\rnieat and drink the fecond, and both to« i 

i«' A TRETATlSt? o» HEAttff 

SflifhcT, witii wamof due labourr the th'rrd*- 

J. '^ . ■ ^ . _ • 

f. 2. The meat of England is generally a- 
nimal fubftanC^fS. The anittiab* themfclvcSt- 
from epidemick caufcs, bad food, age, or o- 
ther infirmities, have their difeafes as well as 
human cfeafturos: and thefe dife«fed tkn^mzh 
can never tie proper or found' food for men. 
Adult animals abound more in urinous faitt 
tl^an young ones ;. Their parts are more clofc- 
ly compared, becaufc more forcibly united r 
and fo harder of digeftiom 'Tis truc,.riie groat, 
diflinAion pf the fitnefs or uhfitnefs of the 
fevtral forts of animals and vcgetablcff for hu- 
snan food>. depends upon their original* make j^ 
frame, and nature (and; that can be found out 
only bj experience) as alfo upon the fpeciaT. 
talie, complexion, temperament, and habits oC 
the perfon that feeds on^them. But by thchelpof 
thefe three principles,^ viz. That the (Ircngthor 
"wea^efs of coheiion of the particle,, of ftuijck 
bodtcv depend»^ u>pon their bignefsor fmallr 
nefs;^ that is, the biggcd particles . cohece 
more firmly,, than the taallcr,. becatufe more^ ; 
parts come into conlad in large bodies thaiv 
fmall, and' fo their unkm is great en Second* 
ly, that the greater the force [momenJum] is>, 
with which two bodies- meet y the ftrongcr ia. 
thair cobefion, and the moFC difficu it their fe- 
paration- Thirdly, Xhat f-rfls,. being coiur 
pjehended by plain, furfocedr. hieing Jbard*- and 
in all changes recovering their figure,, unite 
the moft firmly of ^ny bodies whatfocver :.. 
tbeir .plain furfaces bring many points into > 
•OiiU^ and union; their hardnefs and. con*- 


A:ND^ tCTNIGf' LITE. 17 

flant figure' make ihem durable and unaltera^ 
bft ; and thereby the aditc princtplcs, and 
the origin of the ^uahties of bodies ;• and when 
they approach withrn'the fphcre of one ano- 
ther's aflivity they firmly unite in cfuftcrs ; 
all which make the fepararion of their original 
particles the more difficult. ITay, from thefc 
thr^e principles, we may in general compare 
the eafinefs or difficulty of digcfting fthat is, 
breaking into fmall parts) the fe vera! forts of 
vegetabKs and animals, one^ with another ; 
atid fo difcover their fitnefs or unfitnefs for 
becomings food^ for tender and • valetudinary ' 

1; AIT other thingsf being fuppofed -equal;'* 
fhofc vegetables and animals that come to' 
maturity thefooneft, are lighted of digeftion. • 
Thus riie fpring' vegetablesr, as afpara^us»* 
ffrawrberries; and fome forts of falading, are* 
more eafily digefted than pears, apples^ peach- 
es,' and iiedarines ; bccaufe they- have lefs of' 
the folar fire in them ; their parts* are united^ 
by a weakicr heat;- that is, with lefs • velocity,- 
and abound^ tcfs in, nay fcarce have any 
ftrong and fired falts. Among the animab,- 
the common* poultry, hares, (heept kids,, 
rabbits, &c. who in the fame, or a few years 
come to their maturity (that is, to propagate 
their fpccics) are much more tenddr and rea- 
dily digeftcd thaa cows, horfes, or afles, 
iwere tlrcfe Hft in ufe for food; as they have 
ccn in famine) &c. for thfc rcafon already 
g?ven, becaufe their parts. cohere lefs firmly. 
Atidit isobfervable, of the vegetables j which' 

B 3 -^ ^>v^^ 


ai% longcft a ripcnmg^ that is^.wfaofe juices-, 
have mod of thefoUr rays in them^ that their 
fe-rnficnted juices y'reld the {lronge{l vinbut* 
fpiritS) asgrapeSy e)der-berrics» and |.he like :. 
aftd of -the animals that arelongeit in cominr 
to maturHy« that their juices yield the xnoU: 
rank and^moft foetid urinous falts. 

2. Other thingi fuppofed equat, the larger . 
and higger the vegetable or aniniaf is# in its^ 
kindi theftronger and the liarxler to digcA is- 
the food made thereof. ; Thus a large onion^. 
apple, or pear, and large beef and mutton arc 
. harder to digeft than the Icffcr ones, of the- 
fame kind; not only, as. their vcffels being 
ilronger and more elaftick> their parts aro> 
btoUght togeth^ with a grearter forec ; but a!- 
foi beeaufc' the qualities are proportionably 
mere' int^nffr iiif^roat bodies of the fame kind::: 
Thu^i other things being equal, a greater fire. 
in pfoperticttiahly more intenfefy hot, than a- 
Uffer one ; and the wine contained in a larg- 
er veffel becomes ftrongcr than that contained- 
in alciter; and confequently the juices of 
larger animak and vegetables are mere rank 
tbin the juiees- of fmaiier ones of the fame^ 

3. Other things being equal. The proper 
foochappointed tor animats by nature, is eafier 
digeftcd than the animals themfelves; thofe 
animals that live on vegetables, than thofe- 
that live on animals; thok that Tive on vege- 
tables or animals, tnat fooneft come to matu*^ 
•tit// tbaa tbofjB tfiat live on fuch as arc long- 

^ ' 


era- ripening. iPhus millrandcg?[«varc lighter* 
of digeiVii^n than the 6iik of beaift or birds; 
pCiUets and turkies, than ducks «nd- gtfefc ;• 
and partridge, and phcafant are Hghtcr than » 
woodcock or fnipe; hcoaufc t^efc fcaft, bcingp 
tertg biHedi fuck only amnaai^jurces.;, and for- 
the rcafons already given, grafs beef and mut* 
teat are Trghter than ftalt fed oxen and fbeep. 

4. Airthingsetfc being alike, fifh and fea^ 
animals are harder to digeflthan land animals ;v 
bccaufc univcrfaHy their food is other ariimak,. 
and the fah ctcment m which they live com-' 
p'aQ^s their parte more 6rm\y y falts having a^ 
ikonger power of oohefion thaii other bodies. 
And for the fame reafon, fait water fifli i».' 
Harder to digeft Hiair frefti- water. Thus th« 
fca tortorfe rs harder to digeft than the fand^tor* 
loife ; and fturgeon andtutbit^ than tr^ut or? 

«•■ • 

5. Other thfngs being equa?. Vegetables- 
and animals that abound in an oily, fat, ahd^^ 
gliitinous fubrt^nce, are harder to digeA, than 
thofe of a dry, fielby fibrobs fubftance ; bc- 
c^ufe oily and fat fuhrtanccs eliide the force 
and adion of the concoQive powers ; a nd^ 
their parts attraf^ one another, and unite more 
ftroogly than'other fubftances do, (except falts J. 
as Sirlfaae^ Newton* ob'ferves* Their foft*. 

♦Vide Sir Ifaac Ncwtoa's frll Ei^lvftv tdVCvw 
0f light aBd cahun*^ 


ntfs and humidity relaxes and weakens thcr 
force ofthc (h>mach, and the fat and oil itfelfc.^ 
i&fiiut up in little bladdcfs, that arc ^^4th dif- 
ficulty broken. Thus nut^ of all kinds pafs 
rlirough the guts, almoA untouched : olives . 
are harder to digefl than pcafe; fat fhfh meat». 
than the lean of the fame. Carp^ tench». 
falmon, ccU and turbit,- are much harder to*, 
digcft than whitings perch, trout, or Had*- 

€.' Vegetables and animals, all things elfc- 
teing alike, whofe fubftance is white, or in* 
dining to the lighter colours, are lighter te- 
digeft, than thofe whofe fubftance is redder,, 
browrner, or inclining towards the more flam- 
ing colours; not only becaufethe parts thai, 
refled whiter and the lighter colours are feflerv 
in bulk than thofe that refle£t the more flam-i 
ing colours-^; but alfo bccaufc thofe of rhCr 
more flaming colours abound mote with uri-' 
nous fatt8« Thus turnlpSi parinips, and po- 
tatoes, arc lighter than carrots, (klrrets, and^ 
beet-raves. Pullet j turkey, pheafant^ and"^ 
rabbit, are lighter than duck, geef<^, wood^ 
cock, andfnipe.^ Whiting, fldunder, perclh, . 
and foal, arc lighter than falmon, fturgcon^ 
Jferring,^ and nTackiarel. ^ Veal and iamb i» 
lighter than red or fallow deer. 


If Laftly, All other things bciiig equal, vc^' 


*^9ecthe jaft quoted aathoiv 




Vegetables aYid animaU of a ftrong, poignantf. 
nromatick and* hot tiftcj arc harder to digclV 
than thofcof a mildfr^foftcryand more infipid- 
taftc. High relifh comes from abundance ol^ 
falts : abundance oKalts fuppofes adtilt ani:> ] 
mals^i andfuchasare long a coming to matu« 
riiy ; and' where faits abound^ the pdrts are 
niore dlfficuhly feparated, and. harder to be 
dtgefled. Strong and aromatick pi&nts im« 
bibe and retain moft of the foliar rays, and 
bbcome folid fpirits> or fixed flames. And they 
iUat deaf mucb in them>fwallow fo much live* 
coars, ivhich will at laft Infiame the fluids and ' 

bVun up the folids- 

« . ■ 

fl*^. There is nothing more certam, thaar 
tliat the greater fuperiority thcconcoQive pow- 
ers hive,, oven the food;, or the flronger the: 
conco£five powers arc, in regard of the things 
to be concoacd ; the finer the chyffc will hct j 
the circulation moS^efrce, .andthc'fpirits Aior^ 
lightfqme; that is, the better wiir the health ' 
be.. Now from thcfc general' propofitions, tak,- ^ 
en in their own particular completion and 
hahits, vafctudinary/ ftudious, or contempla- 
tive pcrfoos may eafilv fi^x upon the particu- 
lar vegetable or animal food«, that are fitted 
f^r them. And if any error (houlcl be com- 
mitted,. *tis heft to- err on the faTeft fidc> and 
r^her chufc thofc things? that arc uridcr our 
concofkivc powers, than thofc that arc above 
them. Apd in the choice of animafs for our 
food, we mud not pafs over the manner of 
fattening and fitting them up for the table. 
Abowt London v:c can fcarcc have any, but 



crammed poultry^ or ftall-fcd butchers meat.^ 
it werp fumcient to difguftthe ftouteft^ftoniachi.. 
fto fee the foul^ grofs^ and nafty manner^ in 
which> andthcfetidj putridandunAvbolefomc 
materiaU, with which they arc fed. Perpe- 
tual Toulners and crammings grofs food and 
naftinefs^ we kno.w, wili- putrify the juices 
and mortify the mufcufar fubdance of human 
creatures i and fare they can do no lefs in 
brute animals^ and thus make even our food 
poifon. The fame may be faid of hot bcds^. 
and forcing, plants and vegetables. The only 
way of having found and healthful animal food^. 
u to leave them to their own natural liberty.f 
in the free air, and their own proper clctncnu 
ivith plenty of foodj andcjue clea»Iinefs« and 
a ihefter from the injuries of the weather, whea 
they have a mind to retire to it. I add no- 
thing about cookery : plain roafting and bpir* 
ing IS as high, as valetudinary^ tender, (tu>* 
dipusy and contemplative perfons,* or thofc. 
who would preferyc their health, and lengthen, 
out their days, ought to prefumc on. Made 
di(heS| rich foop>. high fauces, baking, fmeak- 
ing, fajting, andi pickling, are the inven- 
tions of luxury, to force an unnatural appetite . 
and encfcafe th^ load, which nature, without 
incentives frorn ilt habits, and a vicious pa- 
Fate, will of itfcir make more than fufficieht' 
for heatth and long life. Abftinencc and pro-" 
pw r evacuations* due fabour and eiercifc, wilt 
always recover a decayed appetite, fo long as 
there is any flrength and fund in nature 
to ,?;o upon. And 'tis fcarce allowable to pro- 
voke an appetite^ with medicinal helps, but 



vhcrc the digeftive faculties have been fpollcd 
and ruined b^ acute or tedious chronical dif- 
^empers. And asfbon as 'risrccovcrcdto any to- 
lerable degree^ nature is to be left to its own 
work, without any fpur^from cool^cry or pbyfic. 

J. 4. The next coniideration is the quanti- 
ty of food that is ncceffary to fupport nature, 
without overloading it, in a due plight : that 
is indeed various, according to the age, fcx, 
nature, firength, and country the party is of, 
and the exercife he ufcs. In thefe norihern 
, countries, the coldnefs of the air, the (Irength 
and large (lature of the people, demand Lrgcr 
iupplies than in the eaftern and warmer coun- 
tries.. Young growing pcrfons, and thole of 
Seat llrength and large (lature, rcq^ulre more 
ah the aged, weak, and flender. But ptr- 
fon$ of all forts will live more healthy and 
longer by univerfal temperance, than other- 
wife. And fome general obfervations on the 
quantity pertons of different nations and con- 
ditions, have livedon, healthy, andtoagreat 
age, may give fome affiftance to valctudinarjr 
^nd tender perfons, to adjuft t^e due quantity 
neceflary for them. 

* ■ 

J. 5. It is furprifing, to what a great age 
the -eaftern chriftians, who retired from the 
perfecutions into tlie defarts of Egypt and A- 
rabia, lived healthful on a very littJe food. 
'We are inforflicd by Caffiah, that the com* 
tnon, liieafure in twenty, (our hours, was a«* 
bpui twelve ounces or a pound,, ffo** ^K^ caT- 
tcrn pound was'but twelve ounces}' wiCt nvtx^ A 


^Icnucnt for drink. St. Anthony lived to 105 

■jrears, on mere bread and water, adding only a 

few herbs at laft. jfamcs the hermit, to 104. 

Arfeiiius, the tutor oF the Emperor' Arcadiu$t 

to 120 : 65 in the world, and 55 in thedcfart. 

iSt. Epiphauus, to 115. St. Jerome, to a* 

bout 100. Simeon S.ylites, 109. And .Ro- 

tnualdus, 120. Atld Lewis Cornaro, a Ve- 

^netian nobleman, atter he had ufed all Other 

• remedies in vain, fo»that his life was defpaired 

':of at 40, yet recovered^nd lived, by the mere 

'force of temperance, near to 100 years* 

f . 6. Our Northern climate, as! faid from 
'thc'pufity aifd coldnels of the air, which brac- 
ing the fibres, makes the appetite keener, antd 
the aSidnof'-digeftion ftronger-; andfroftj the 
Jabour and Rrength of the people, whidi 
makes the estpences oflivjng 'more, will n^- 
ceiBTaflly require a greater quantity of food* 
Yet it is Woriderfii, in what fprightlinefi, 
ftrength, aiftivity, and freedom of fpirits, a 
low diet, even here, will pfeferve thofe that 
-have habituated themfeivcs to it. Buchanan 
;informs us, of one Laurence who .prcferv^li 
*iiimfclf to 140', by-'fhe mere force oftempe- 
rencc and labour. Spotfwood mentions oiie 
Kentigern (afterwards cailed St. Mongah, x)r 
'l|}ungo, from whom the famous wellin Wallas 
is nliti^fl) who lived to i3'5 years, tho' after 
he<:^m.e tothe years otundci-tlanding, he ne- 
ver tided wine nor ftrpilg drink ; and (Icptcva 
.'ihe cold ground. My worthy friend Mr. Wefe, 
is 'ftill aliv.e.. He hy'the quicknefs of the fa-, 
ftjltie^ .^f'the foin^r and tt^: adivij:j of the 
''"■''' . r . . organ* 

^Wgftft of lw» botfy, ftcWs the gtc^ benefit o£ 
• d^ l^jw ctifcf> Rvthg aflogcthcr on vcgctabkr food 
zhi pate cfcrtiCTit. Tfrc hrftbry of -the milk * 
ISkimr 6{ GrtjydoHi wh<^ by living on miTfc 
dnly> cared frtflifblf of srir othcnrilc incurable 
dIfteWJjfcr, ti^. tfce Bpifepfy, and livfcd in 
f^f^Gt heahh for fixtcen years after, till an 
accident cut him oflF, I have already, narrated in 
fny trcatifcof the gout. Henry Jenkins a filh- 
emifeifii lived 169 years, his dicr -was coflft-fe 
and feirer, vahh h'xOxm^n iirfbrms tis, that i«> 
7»laiil0nd edoltng, ^md the air where he lived 
ibarp ahd clear, ri^i. Altnon uponSweKm 
Yoitliit'K Purr died fiicttfeft yfcais youhgei', 
viz* «t thfe if^e «^ f 5d year», 9 months; his 
diit irat otd^heeft^ milk, CbaHe -bred, fmatl- 
•b^er atid whey : afnd his hffioriaYi tmh us, Ke 
riiriglil ftvre tived a gocki wiii(e tonget> if hb 
Itfkd hot <chlii^ed his diet artd aii-, ^mirtgOtft 
ofi <sle^r, Chiti, free ttir, into the thick air 
dfLmtdm> dklld lAfter & ton(l«ht, pVih, asd 
-htmndy^rottntry tiK^, beiHg fakeft k^to a fpieh- 
did'fsrdnly^ ^htfe Ife fcd high, afid drank 
pleHtiftity<iFthebeft #ftieis, whcirrty tTifcM- 
tnnll fii«ateil8 ittf fhe ptttts yrerc Wefchargitd, 
and the habit 6f the whble body qtiite dift^r* 
dWsd ; ^ttfMMi ifhteh rhefetditid not btit fot^n 
€iif^ A diflbhstft^. t Dr. Lifter tnentidtn 
eigMfWffMs 1^ the North of England^ the 
yMtigeft of M^Meh "vims Abo'^e too years, and 
ttteUdtft 146^ 6t 4fiysi Vis to be dbferred, 

C that 

* Bee aa Eflay on the Gout and Bath W^i^v^, i 


that the food of all this mountaneaus country 

:is exceedingly .coarfc. And certainly there 

is no place in rthe world more likely to length^ 

en our life than England^ efpecially thofe 

•farts of it, that have a free open air^ and a 

gravelly and chalky foil* if to due exercife, 

ab(lemioufnefs> and a plain (impte diet were 


§. 7. I have t elfewhere oflfcred to .dettr- 
mine the quantity of food, fufiicient to keep a 
mah of an ordinary ftaturCf following so^la* 
boripus employment^ in due plight, healthy 
and vigour ; to wit, 8 ounces of fie(h meat, 
12 of bread, or vegetable food, and about a 
»pint of wine, or other generous liquef in ^ 
hours B4H the valetudinary, rand thofe em- 
ployed in fedentary profeflionsi, or intetledual 
itudies, muft lefien thts r quantity, if they* 
•would preferve their health, and the freedom 
o( their fpirits long. Studious and fendentary 
men muft of neceSity -eat and drink a great 
deal lefs, than thofe^very fame men might do, 
were they engaged in an aSive life. For as 
they want that exercife that is necefTary to- 
wards concoflion and perfpiration, and that 
their nerves are more .worn out by intellediual 
£i;udies^\ than even boidily labour would waftc 
them i if, in any wife, they indulge freedom 
of living, their juices muft neceffarlly become 
Vifcid, and their ftomachs rclncfl. He that 


^ . t See the E%>{ the Gout and Bath Watec?; 

ItUD LONG life: 27 

woufd have a elear head mtsft have a clean* 
Itomach. The neglcft of which is the caufc 
why we fee fo many hypochondriacal 9 melan- 
choly, and vapourifh gentlemen 9 among thofe^ 
of the long robe ;; the only remedy of which" 
h labour and-abftinence. 

{. 8. Moft of air the chronical difeafes, the 
mfirmities of old age> and thefliort period3or 
the lives of fingliflimeny are owing to reple- 
tion. This is evident from hence; becaufc' 
evacuation of one kind or another is nine 
farts of ten in their remedy : for not' only ' 
-copping, bleeding, blifteringi iflbes, purging, 
Tomiting, and fweating, arc manifefi evacti'« 
acions, or drains to dfaw out what has been 
fflperfluouflj' taken dtiwn; but even abdi- 
acnce, exercife, alteratives^^ cordials, bitters, 
atid alexipharmicks,' are but' feveral means to 
. difpofe the-grofs humours to be more readily 
cvacuated>by infenfible perfpiratfon ; that new 
and well concofled' chyle, and fweet com mi - 
nuted juiced, may take their place to reftdr e 
Ac habit. And therefore it were- much more ' 
eafy, as well as morefafe "and efFeSaal, to- 
prevent than- incur the ncccffit^ offuch eva-- 
cuations. And any one may lofe a pound 
©f blood,' take a purge,' or fweati by dropping 
the great meal, or abftainingfrom animal food 
and (Irong liquors, for- four or five days (in 
chronical cafes) as efFe&ually as by opening a 
Tcin, fwallowing a«doie of pilb^ or takings a 
fudorifick bpius/^- 

|. 9. Ladviic therefore all gentlemen of z, 


a8» A TR$AT^>9 flSAi'iP 

ttfe a« much .ahftinc<iae as.pofi^tc thoy .CM>. 
confident .with^bc ^x^c^vvmioaof^hekft^ 
anii fccccKun of ^cit^.: wbi^^h pugiii tQ *ibf>>p 
4oneasiboa suiJioys^d ^i)y.faeai^in0.r%» ixk^ 
quietudes^ refilefs nigbUy or i^veikfiQn 4p ^pr 
plication » either by ieflening one half of thcir^ 
iifual quantity ^aiMinal foqd^angd ftrong-^r- 

f^oAs, '4UJ fi^^btixi>e:i^$ thi^f f^B^^^.^b.^^'^'^^^^ 
cd' freedom Md indolence t or by livixig ^ xlur 

time vvbolly upon v^getaMt 4i€t| fuoh 9$ f4SQ*« 
rice:^ pudding, #i^l ifaf 'til(f« ^i^d iriftbag. 
ody a JUttle wiae.a;«4 ^'HIMM'* U^nd ^ ^b^ 
vo^ld ^prcfmre ?tbek>bfahh mA*fP«»ft>MlAwf|»' 
a0dlcnglbfBn0lUlib«i^d9j(ti; ib^ 9ipft-fitlMip 
uixighbty live Jow (or ^iQeagrejt ^s .the f roMiir. 
call it^, a day -or tt wo- isiXtxe ¥f9A i kk oacci^ 
week, forti^ghlf or 4lW»(b .latfanbtd, kokfi- 
fooie do^iefticlt -purgej ^wbieli -fliall rtquire 
neither diet, norke^ng athpaie.; but magr 
at once ftrengtbeifitiheiboweUy.aiid difchaige 
fuperSuous humoui^s, Qr.thi#:4^iRd ar^ 9«doUr ' 
(6 or .7) of the ScoH^h pills.; Wlf ^drachnvof 
the PilulcD .Stomafrhkor-^^iW .Qjummu ^itb 
three or four j^in8 of Di^ryd, mixt; (Miif. 
a di^Hm of ihe Pil.ul«e Rufl^i^^t wo ouneiss of ' 
Hiera Piera> «rilb one draEhoi of rfae (ycirp of 
Buckthorn ; ;two or thrice ounecs of Blixir Sa-* 
Iiitis ; or /what J i^r^fer -before ^Uvlbefip) this. 
preparation /0f rhubarb : 

Take the bcft rhdHafb in^powdtritv^oim?: 
ces and a half; fait of wormwood-a dv^^chaii 
orange peel half an ounce ; grated niit- 

BiQg -two -focuploftii '^ochineal^ bslf ^. 



drachm. Infufe 48 hours by a warm fire-^ 
ii^c> in a quart of true arrack. Strain it 
, off, and put it in>a well corked bottle for 

Of this two or three fpoonfuls may be taken*, 
t^o or three time» a week* or at pleafure,. 
whh great- fafeiy and- benefit^ without inlcr- 
ruption of bufinefs, or ftudies, and continued • 
even to mature old age, if found neccflary. 
So true is old Verulam's aphorifm : * * Nihil 
magis conducit ad fanitatem ^ longaevitatem 
quam crebrae & domofticse purgatioaes;^ And • 
the gentlemen of the long robe, thofe of learn- 
ed profeffions and contemplative ftudieS) muft 
oiF neceffity at laft take Sir Charles Scarbo- 
rough's ad vice, as'tis^faid, to the Duchefs of 
Portfmouth': * You muift eat lefs, or ufe more 
cxercifci . or take pbyiick, or be (ick.' 


§* 10.' Thofe who have written about health 
have given many rutcsj whereby to know 
ifhen any perfon has exceeded at meal: I 
think, there needs, but this (hort one, which 
if; it any maiY has eat ^r drank To much, as 
renders him unfit for the duties and (ludies of 
hTs profeffion (after an. hour's fitting quiet to 
c^rry on the digeftion ;) he has overdone. I 
tnean only of thofe of learned profefHons and 
ftudious lives ; for. thofe of mechanical cm- 

C 3. ploy- 

^ Nothing contfibutes more to health and loog 
fife, than freqaent family purges. ^^^^ 

3r A tTRttArriSE on HEALTH 

phyfpicif\Uimv^& Ufcctht heiijs -^he other parr 
oPthecompouiidy into iconMtratron; il-ten- 
dar pc^cuffe, 911^ th()fe t>f {oartictl frohAons 
would go by this rule, there wouW be^litcle 
ufc for phynck or phj-ficians in chronical ca-» 
fee. 'Or if they vwMftM :b«t^cntm(1y kmk jmft' 
off^immaKo^fd, ^t tkt-^reat nioaI> «fMl make 
the other t^tfo t)f 'ftgcrdrMe f«eti ; aifd •4rrfl^ 
oftly water, '*mh«* ffot^hfor^f'^ne^'^r'ifleir- 
fiTidll beer ; tte^rappetft^s wtRBldl^rfFfefEckent 
rWe to deterjftirtethe qtwwpity ^of their meat 
aflfd driwk. 'Biit 'vmety%f dRftes^^ tlie •ImLis* 
rtcKi« arcfoliM^itfjc^MAepy, ^iiivd fw^ 
Tfdh ivi»e ifter tmy btt^f'ttTe&t, ferletijgtlM^ 
o<rf tlfe tpfet4te ; the fdifdntr«<6f«fnotf)er$, atid 
the Ofe«)mm^.«ef'tntir-fes- bave'ifo Aretdicfd the 
cApsKrtties of rece'fVinjg, thfet #»eKe is nicy keja^ 
rity *r«ttif t*tea*pfp^w«^«fft)ng the better '*fett. 
^is amaaing-loHi?^ he^ ttten«<>&vdtfpH Knif* 
nefs, lazincfs, and poor con (tit ut ions, (hould 
imttgi'licJtf ht?fnfta ves'fibfc to *«carty off Idads tcfra 
high*-fe2rfen^4fd«id5, aiVd^AftamMiat^ liqvors^ 
Without ' irtjury **dr >paiin-; «*whrn Wen ••©f^tne- 
chiiniirfc ^eiti^tljHBfieiff 8, aurfd ^^rtfctfft'tJotWiPmi*^ 
ons, •«t'fe*t:ely*1$lc»to*iit»e'he»»hy<ttTd nr 
iF^cfur to itrty fg;WMrt Wfc,'^n*a*mff^,Mow,, 
srrfd ^imbft <^^etlibie*dic«. 

*f. -^ti. Srttfct 5eh#n mjr^pctws a^eMcecfit^ 
fri, ' attd •#ci^t ailii '-mtafure tFoubTefome •nid 
fingular ; we muft have recourfc to a rule in*^ 
dependent of our fenfations, and free fronti un- 
ncceflary trouble and pain. To anfwer which,. 
I know-notbiAgbut wtitopartd^drriiking^y <mr 

oye: that is« dcMfttktisgf'fi^lHof -fill cMfer'hjr 


wtigkt'tfT metfurc^-'or by- particular Mrferva- 
ti«« ofcxf^riincnt, the 'bulk> or number of 
mout4^(s ef Acfltitteatanti then umber of glaf- 
fc«»dFftr©ng liquors^ wilder -v^hich wc arebcft ; 
aiKl 'then 'by owr •eye deter mmin-g' -an eqtMil 
quan^tntyatalltiiTies'fer the iuturc :- thus thiB' 
two wwg8-rf a mreidimg.piitletj -orone wirvg 
atiU'bothUegs s thfec-ri«bs df amividling »e*k. 
ofnn^ttatij'two ^WcHiiig 'flrees of a-4c^ or 
fll«dder,'t4irowfwg'afv»ay the fat and thcifttn ; 
ftwne what '^cft -of' beef, may be {«fficico^t of 
ti^-mtiit, at'the g€»cat meal. For wearc fo 
wiAjy -contflvdd,» that- o»r' food need- not 'be 
aldjtMed to fn«thematfcal -potnt* i^afittle over 
Of trarierwi Unmake nod<flSJre«ce in- our health. 
As '»f€rr pieHc> -atid •all ilcMids of >hog:^« flefli^ I ■ 
thwVk'they^ught to^^e fofbifWen v^letudmary 
zvid ftudious peopfc, »•« they <wefc the -Jews : 
tfi«y fcc^thcfi«y^"rfanycpeattife, andthcjr 
juice* -are the Tawlceft ;, their 'firWlaiaee the 
m6^. ftitfeiting, 'artiAthey sare^he meft'-fubjcft. 
to^ootMfecMi&^ifeafes antl'putrefaaion, cf an-y. 
eretftiife; *; tnfomu^,- that in -fhe <iflrw of ^' 
pjigoc^^oT awy epfdemi'cW^ftempcr^'^thcy^arc 
BnwerfarHy '^dt^vcfyt^hy *A\ -^fc -n<rtions> as 
Uhcfeutfccm-Tpeople do'tnad'dpgs in^thchot 
mmiths. ^ThcTa-Bfje ccnftire^UhmiW.par? tifon 
all fifli. .Moftfifh live in a faltift -tfement^* 
and come pniy into frcfli water rirers, for the 
^wctxreO awd —ctrnTemcncy •^f^>rfiTgmg' foutjti^ 
tfhefiT -you^ 'nmes. This ^nxalecs •their parts^ 
inofc.'ielof^ tinittxfand hai^Ser'df-^gtfftion.. 
Bcfides, as^l have* btfore dWcrred, ^hey '{t^dt 
npon ' one -anotiTcr, and WreirTWces -^bunt^ 
wth«^firk^at tx)rra|^ blic bfood, triKHsret^' 



chronical difcafcs. And -tis always obfcrva-' 
bie» that thofe who live much on fi(h are in« 
fcSed with the (curvy, cutaneous eruptions, < 
a|id other difcaTes of a. foul blood. And every - 
body finds himfelf more thirty and heavy than • 
xifual after a full meal of fi(fa> let them be e- 
vcr fo frcfli^ and is generally forced to have " 
rccourfe to fpirits and diftillcd liquors to^car- • 
*ry them oflF: fo that it is become a proverb^ v 
among thofe that live much\pon them> that 
brandy is latin for frfti. Belidcs^ that after a 
full meal of fifh* even at noon, one never - 
fleeps fo found the enfuing night ; as is certain 
from conflant obfervation. Thefe few hints 
may fcrve the valetudinary perfon, in a grofs 
manner to judge by the eye the quantity of fo- 
Iidfle(h meat-h« takes or ought to take down: - 
fipr I judge the mentioned quantities to be ra«» 
ther a little under than over eight ounces. As- 
to broths^ foops,^ andjeHies, iT they foe ftrong> 
I^ account them equal in nourifhment and 
harder to digeft than the fame weight of foUd> 
ftefh meat ; and three or foui common fpoon- 
fuUy at^nofty make an ounce in weight in-- 
liquids ; and about double the number ofhitV 
commonly.fwaltowedat once make the hm^^ 
weight in fotid fle(h meat ; Jor«xa3ne{^ is nbt 
^ere reqUiCte. , 

f. i2^.JD>'ink 'is t^c other part of our fooil* 
The common drink here in England is either* 
-water, malt-liquorr or wtnci or mixtures of- 
thefe; for cydeir and perry are drank but in 
few places, and rather/or pleafure and variety 
Ubiza common ufe. Without all peradvcnture,. 


vnwfc im. i^UM^?^ iji^gnry^ %>it^ .?n^ air,, 

aoo^ of ^w.^MiMJif # (ai^ st^ijbnQ^ dci^k) itttcd 
for 4iUifiip«j :^Qfft&aii;g^'<fO0)iQ£ ; the qn4* 

ijt l^cfi for ihcraice^ nf^iv|:>|)4 Q^her mi^t ^pfl 
Vl4i^^4i^QF^.bad never b^ea invcnud. j,^ 

^F«1U with /wbAiM^^n^fis A«.4*'VigWrj ih«S&^ 
^*Q> ^o*<»*^Hig.frwly pffelfe:»ca^^.)^K#rai* 
3|«mh«tig htft .^i64toinCf|t9fMMe!MMC^.«9b Jj^lh* 
M^lfimcA And .iMftl^fplMffif to^^ 45r^ 9gf. 

t^C4ttirfiors6^l»f tw»aii ip^Mitstipidriitk. ^rsmr 

sHui ^pff (^eiM ibyf bj^ans, Miiib^y rip di^ 

rage IQ ithc ffjAint-rhflai'to^ ^4 lAifc thi Iw- 
ijpieiudj -gniit .iv^f€.05JLift^nd re^iona^lf il0> 
fiie.iiu:n'(:atn4 if ihAy go on> >U is nec.iinpafli- 
hlctl mayrticjM- irf u. ifiioe }audLaiium.U:J)(Tflfli» 
dy iUdken ;ioto fq^fts ^n4 niterwiigmeotsr) 4l 
down C]o.j^.i)i(b of ^pnioc-ifcack, or Sir Walter 
Raw|eifh's,fopfjcftion» wiih a Wtle of-h^tftp^ 
lick'CQrijcltAi, cu^to.:* diih.of£rjaiy-fi(h foop, ^ti^ 
<»^hj8ick Qf y««itotpa(l3(, -with •« bottk of 
hcfmitage, «r itoatey* jew* tihich tfome frrcfrr. 
to .eilhfrr.'oJF.thtm» Jl b^^vl irfPuyich. .Wmc ia^ 
now jiesomc ,as ^oAinnt^n a$ :«tater.; ;and tb» 
beteer lort foarccieycr dtlure th«*tr food wttfe. 

myfi^im tUqftm-^ iAnd w^.&ca J?3f daily i 



pcrrcncci that^issnattiniRaures will alwajs pf*'** 
duce kheir^roper efFei&s)thcir blood becomes in- 
flamed into goutyv ftoncy and rheusnatifnii 
raging fevers, pleurtfies, fmall-pox^ or mea- 
fles ; their paffidns are enraged into quarrels, . 
murder, and blafpheiny ; their juices are dried* 
up$ and- their fodds- fcorched and (briveied. 
Tiiofe whofe appetite~and'digeflioh is good and* 
entirey never want* ftrong liquors to fupply 
fpirits: fucb fpirits are too volatile and fuga-' 
tfve for any foKdor ufeful purpofcs in life/ 
Two ounces of flefii meat, well digcftcd, beget' 
a- greater ftock of more durabifc and ufeful fpi*-;; 
rits, than ten times as much flrong liquors,^ 
^bich nothing but luxury and coneupifcenfce^ 
lAakcs neceflary. Happy .thofe> whom their' 
parents, theirnatural avepfion to (Irong liquors, . 
or whom kind Providence among the better^ 
fort, has brought to the age of avaturity and - 
difcretion, without dealing in or defirmg anj^ 
great quantity of Arong liquors r^heir paffions - 
have been calmer, their fenfations more ex- 
quifite, their appetites lefs unruly, and their- 
health more uninterrupted^ than any other 
natural caufe couH have produced. And thrice - 
liSppy they, who contimie this courfe to their- 
hft minutes. Nothing is more ridiculous than 
the common plea for continuing in drinking- 
on, large quantities of fpirkuous liquors; viz. 
Becaufe they have heen .accuftomed fo to do, 
and they think' it dangerous to lea^ve itofF, all 
of a fudden. It were as reafonable for him 
that is fallen into the fire or water to lie there, ^ 
btcaufe of the danger of removing him fiud- 
icnJy. For neither clement will deftroy him- 


^Nl> LONG LIFE. 3? 

"wusre certainly, before his time, than wallow- 
ing ia ftrong liquors. Ifthe quantity of (Irong 
liquors they have been accuftonied ;to, may 
^ fuppofed prejudicial to their heahh, or to 
introduce noxious humours into the habit ; 
the fooner a (lop beput^o it, the better. Ne 
man is afraid to -forbear (Irong liquors in iin 
acute diftemper, -what quantity foever he might 
have drank in bis health : and yet any fuddea "* 
change, of the humours would not only be 
more dangerous then, than at any other time.; 
-but alfo^would more readily happen and come 
"♦o paf^ in ftich Critical cafes. For the whole 
Arftem of the fluids, being in a fermentation., 
"raiall changes of errors then, would not only 
'be more fatal, but more plain and obvious. 
-And if a pcrfon be in hazard by fuch a fuddeti 
alteration, he cannot live long by taking dow« 
To much poifon. But the matter of fad is falfe 
•%nd groundiefs. For il have known and ob- 
ferved conftant good effeSs from^eavingofF 
fuddenly great < quantities of wine and flefli 
meats too, bythofe long accuflomed to both, 
am ready .toname the perfons, and never ob- 
ferved any ill conlequence from it in any cafe 
whatibever. Thofe whofe conftitutions have 
'bopn quite broken, and running into difTolu- 
?tion» have lived longer, and been Jefs pained 
in ficknefs by fo doing : and thofe who have 
had a fund in nature to lad longer, have grown 
better, and attained their end by it. I allow 
every man, that has been accufiomed to drink 
wine, or ftrong .liquois a pint in 24. bourse 
and I am well fatisned^ that quantity is fufE-> 
cicAt for Iiaikby let. their cuftomhavc beeai,^ 

w)wt i> wrtf. Tbdir fpWftmtfy ift»**tf Tfiff 
tMd t?hlc afittleat fittfy for Wtfift df fWrfetfd^a 
<ta'fck!itrtc and iirft. BfiT loW-fpirit»lfTe#i ft?f 
foch a cafc^ 1 GOtftit rto^fea^ii. And IveiiVrnj 
it for fotrrt turn, vs bb^w^tifaffy f^toWpeuM 
by the herftlxi hidbkiSc^t, aWd' fr'^c^dfti rf fj«t. 

raiiiiy of fo ij^mwafl an« trtKt\i\dif6b^ tf hi*(ft; 
It may be feffifetfcW tot tl5^ VvHb lire teftabf, 
"ftudirttis, o^ c«nteitipfia?tiv*'i t6 dniifc thH:% 
^^et of water t^hh a ft«b?rfM of i» We * tfic 
§^e^ rrtrtl. Andi d« Srr W. 'f ^rtij* Ha* if^ 
Oticidt jmtf<Afy airdtfiA- te'f your fr?<?mJsv fk 
third fiw g^btt^ hufft-ftfifar, am* 2? fduYth f» yd*f 

f. 13. A gfcaf friift«fee cfenf Aiffed ttt t^hll 
^fefr is, that Thbfk ffH^pli ihinktht dflfy reme- 
dy fof gfutteftV i^ dfuhkWhcfs-i 6i- that t'f*' 
Arfe crfa fdrfeit 6( iktit h S fuVftft 6f witiet 
tHat* which iWthii^il d3fi te fffSre Bfft, tff <?6f!^ 
trai^ *o hafiiff ; fot^ '«« ligmlfig thd caritfffc 
m l)bf h tnds. FHf/ Rfft di" ^(^ t^iHfe ahd dfl 
d»Her (!f&rfg litfu'<$f1^ §P6 Iii H^fd tcy ai|ifft, ^fitf 
r€M}re aiflf*MC»t■A6tr^df tfifc tiofncoffli?c'tW«r- 
cr/, *l'*tiflS fScSa ItWF. Tfift ft AA diJIy ^^ 
yfd^ht WJrt ftff^ea to i?aftili «f TMbSfe iW- 
tfiaefisi Wie affo fttoi Hfc^gc,- tHat »/«f A* 
|if5>fRoa^ift1c«rf^^i?^^«^ «^ MW^ fnfeH'- 
_./,' diadBc afele tli ihi SHH Bi^ aJttfll 
dMfeR «f Wffit flf^y ia«if8i dhf they tfrwt 
firolfl hqfeSrS bt^flirif ifiK!fa a^Wrt dHetM« 
^m$ n¥^y Wffdri?fi6e; WiKi' Is tVe 6d» 

xiimiTmmmmi yf hmr^m-, aM flj« 

^ mofi: 


vhoft certain dt^uter of all bodies proper for 
food ; though there arc a great many that fpi- 
rituous liquors, not only wfll not diff^lvc^ ^but 
will harden^ and make more indigcftible ; 
efpecially tHe falts of bodicsi wherem their 
ad.ive qualities, that is, thofe which can do 
mod harm to human conftitations, confift. 
And I have known men of weak and tender 
conftitutions, who could neither eat nor di* 
getl upon drinking of wine, whO| by drinking 
at meals common water heated, bave recover- 
ed their appetites and digeftion, have thriven 
and grow pi am p. It is true ftrong liquors, by 
their heat and ftimulation on the organs of con « 
■co3ion, by encreafing^the velocity of the mo- 
tion of the fluids, and thereby quickening the 
-other animal fundions, will carry c^the load 
that lies upon the ftomach, with more prefent 
•chearfulnefs : yet, befides the future damages 
of fuch a quantity of wine, to the ftomach and 
•to (he fluids, by. its heat and inflananaation, the 
food is hurried into the habit, unconcoded, 
and lays a foundation for a fever, a fit of the 
^holick, or fome chronical difeaie* 

f. 14. Another miftake I (hall obferve, it 
the extreme ^ondnefs perfons of the better fort 
here in England, have lately run into, for 
the ftrong and high country wines. I can 
think of no reafon for this, but the very ho- 
neftone the vulgar give for drinking brandy : 
that they get fooner drunk on it. For furely the 
middling hjijhter winesi inflame the animal 
ju'ccs lefs, go norecafilvo6F the ftomach, and 
•alSbrd more room Tor long converfation and 


39 A tRfiAtlSE on HEALTH 

chcarfuUnefs. Excefs in thenii giv^s Icfsparllf 

and IS fobncr remedied. But there are degrees 

in this matter. * * Nemo repeiitc fuit turptf- 

fimus.' Tbcy htg\n With the weaker wines; 

thefe by ufe and habit iNrill not do, they leate 

the ftomach fick and miawkifli, they muft fly 

to (hunger ii^ine» and ftrdnger ftilU and run 

Che f ciimaxy through brandy to Batbadort 

iRraters, and double diftilied fpirits, 'till at laft 

they can find nothing hot enough for them« 

Peopk who have any regard for their lieakh 

and lives, ought to tremble at theiirftcravtngtf 

'for fuch poifonous liquors. Strong "vmen 

Ihouid never' be taken but by the diredion of a 

phyiician, or in the agonies Of death. For 

"when perlons 'arrive at that ftate, that they be* 

'Come neceffiiry to their eafe^ aiid freedom^ 

fptrits; they maybe jii&ly reckoned amorfg 

' the dead, both as to the (hori time they have 96 

five, and the little ufe they can be of, 'either 

'to thettifdves or mankind. I i>*peak not htrcif 

' thofcifirho are tinder an siQual fit of the goui» 

i>r cholick ni the Stonlach. (We muftnotflie 

for fear of dying.) Noram I recdmmcndin{; 

four verjuice or unripe wines. But I cannot 

iieip' being Weil fati'sficd, both from redfon and 

'erpeHence, that the light wines, ofamodc-> 

rate'nreii|th, due age, and full maturity, are 

hiuch preferable for chearfulnefs -and conver- 

ration, inuCih more wholfome for human con- 



* No Ibody beeoiftis esctnemely bad ill at oate. 
f Rife hij^her by decrees* 


llitut4ons, and much more proper for digcftion 
than the hot and ilrong wines. The" richf 
ftrong» and heavy wines ought never robe 
faded without a (ufSf^ient dilution of water ; 
at lead, they ihouldbe ufed, like brandy or * 
fjnritSf for a cordjal *. * Ad fummum tria 
pocula fume/— Whatfoevef is more cometh of 
fin, and mud be. diluted with the watery of 

f. ijr i have no intention htrre to difcoii- 
tage the innocent means of enlivening convert 
filtion, promoting friendfhip, comforting the 
ferrowfi)! hearjtf, and raifing the droopiiig fpi- 
ritsy l;^y thechearful cupand the foci^I repaff. 
P^^apa^tmay like the barmlefs^ frolick, the 
warm reception of a. friend, and even, the f 
Pulce Fureire itfelf, more than I ought,; per- 
ions fobcr in the main» will reccivcTi^tic prer 
jud.icefrom fuch a fillip, when the occafions 
Happen but fetdom, and efpe^iaUy when they 
ipake itup9 hya greater degree of abftinence 
^ifterwards. but a fot is the lowed charader^ 
. in life. Pjd only the prodigate»^ the fcoun- 
4rcU, the abandoned, rvtn into thefe exceflcs,, 
■it were in v.ain to endeavour to reclaim them, 
fits it were, toftop a temped, or eahn a dorm, 
silt now that the vice is become epidemical 

Da fince 


* i. e. At i»od to take but three final! gfafles of 

t Herat. V t* Aa a^eab^ £roUck or extrava" 


fince It has got not only among mechanicks* 
and tradcfnuea^ but among perfons of the 
bcighteft genius, the fined. tafte» and the moff 
accomplilbed parts ;. and (oh that F could give 
my confcience the lye, in mentioning them 1) 
even among the firft and lead fallen part oFthe 
cceation itfelf, and thofe of them too, of the 
mod elegant parts, and the (tridicft virtue o« 
therwife;: and ivhich is ftill the mod furpri3>- 
ing of all,, even thofe too, who are in all o- 
ther refpeds blameteis. Since I fay the cafip 
h fo, it will not be amifs to (hew, to the cvi« 
dpnce of a demonftration, the folly as well as 
fruitleflhefs of fuch acourfe% A fit of the.cho- 
lick, or of the vapours^^ a family misfortune, 
a.cafual di£ippointment, the death of a child|t 
or of a. friend, with the afliftance of the nurfe^ 
the midwife, and next neighbour, often give 
file and become the weighty caufcs of (b fatat 
an eflPcQ. A little lowncfs 'requires dropi, 
which pafs readily down under the notion of 
phyfick ^ dFops bc^et drams,, and drams beget 
more drams,^ 'tilt they come to be without 
weight or meafure ; fo that at laft the mifera* 
ble creature fuffers a true martyrdom, betweeor 
Its natural mode({y> the great n^ccffity of con- 
cealing its cravings, and the ftill greater one 
of getting them (atisficd feme how. Higher 
and more fcvcre fits ofTiyftericks, tremors, 
and convulfions, begot by thefe,. bring forth 
farther ncccffity, upon ncccffity,. oJF droj^s, 
drams, and gilts, *tilf at laft a kind dropfy,. 
nervous convulfions,. a nervous attrophy, or a 
colloquative Diarrhaea, if not a fever, or a 
frenzjj fcts the pooc foul free. It has very oF«. 

ten raifed in me the mod melancholy reflcc-* 
ttonsy to fee even thevirtuous, and the fenfi* 
ble bound in fuch chains and fetters^ as no* 
thing Icfs th^n omnipotent grace, or the un«^ 
relenting grave could releafe them : they weie 
deaf to reafon and medicine, to'their own ex« 
perience, and even to the erprcfs words of 
fcripture, that fays, the ** Drunkard (hail 
^ not inherit the Kingdom of Heaven." Did 
this bewitching poifon adually cure or relieve 
them, from time to time, fomethin^ mi^ht; 
be laid to extenuate the folly and frenzy of fiicl^ 
a courfe. But, on the contrary, it heighten! 
and enrages all their fymptoms and fufieringSf 
ever afterwafdsj excepting the few moments 
immediately after taking it down ; and every 
dram begets the neceffity of two more, to curt 
the ill eSefts of the firft ; and one minutes 
indolence they purchafe with many hours of 
greater.pain and mifery ; befides the making 
the malady, more incurable. Lbw-fpirited- 
nefs in itfelf is no difeafe ; befides that thera 
are remedies in art that will always relieve it#« 
fo lonj^ as there is any oil remaining? in' tht 
lamp; and it is in vain to try to raife the 
dead|; exercifci abftinenccr and proper .eva« 
cuations;. with. time and'patience, will ^on* 
tinually make it tolerable, very often they wiU 
perfedly cure it. The rtinninc^ into drams ii 
giving up the whole at pnce ; for neither lau^ 
danum nor arfpnick will kill'more qertainly^ 
lilthough more quickly. The pretence of it^ 
being phyfick, braprjefcnt remedy* is trifling^. 
Corqialsofany kiivd, even out of the apoth<^ 
earigi fliopSr are buit reprieves for atime^ tr 

D*3' ■' 


gain a rcfpitc* 'till proper and. extirpating re*. ' 
Tiedics can take place ;, and are nev«r to bc: 
Xlfcd twiQCy the one immediately after the o-^ 
ther» but in the lad neceflScy. And Lean ho-- 
Xjeftlyfay^ Incverfailcd of relieving, fo as tO; 
make Hie; tolerable, vapourifb^ hyHerical, of. 
bypochondriacal perfons, who would be go-- 
yerned in their diet, by the ufc of other, pro- 
per means, if. there was afund in life, and no, 
incurable difeafe, complicated. with lownefs*. 
Thus ^ much the weight of the fubjefit forced; 
from me more than this>.. it^ difagreeablenefs^' 
ninders.rae to. fay.. 

. §. i& Next to drams, no liqt!or dcfervest 
imore to be.ftigmatized and banilhedthe repafta. 
of the tender, valetudinary, and (ludiousthan. 
punch. It is a compofition of fuch parts, as 
not one of them Is fahitary,. or kindly to fuch 
conftitutions,. except the pure element in it*. 
The principal' ingredient is,, rum,^ arrack,, 
brandy, or malt fpirits, as they are called,, 
all .of. thcni raifeAby the. firje,. from the fer- 
mented, jtiices of plants, brought from fou- 
therji countries,, or which have longeft bom 
the heat of the fun inour own climate :. and it 
|t obfcrvablc,. that every thing that has pafled 
t|ie fire,, fo that it has had* due time to divide 
and penetrate its parts,, as far as it poffibl^ 
can, retains a. caufiick, corrofive, and burnr 
ing quality ever afterwards. This is evident 
from the fieYy and burning touch anditafte of' 
.liiew-drawn fpirits, as alfo from thel>uming of 
lime-{{bne, which, though extinguiflied bjr 
boiling water, does ever after retain its beat- 


lAg and drying quality, as appears from the 
great ufc of lime wattr» in drying up all hu- 
ipid fores, when given inwardl'y by itfelf, or 
compounded with fudorifick woods and. roots» 
and from its foccefs in outwardapplicattcns for 
the fame purpofes. And though time may in 
(bme meafure get the better of this, in its fen- 
fible and obvious operations f yet (ince wa* 
(er is a groflcr body than fire, or flame, it nc« 
▼er can penetrate it fo fer as qifite to extin^ 
guifli its inmoft heat; efpcciafiy if we con(i- 
der, that fpirits are but an :iccumulationr 
of fine falts and fight oil, compaQeid together 
into the fmaHeft volume ; the firft whereof i» 
fo hard and foKrf, as naturally to retain their 
heat the longed, into which water cannot en- 
ter ; the other, to wit the oil, is fo inflama^le,, 
that It mod readily receives heat and fire, and? 
defends the falts from the power of the water 
over them. And in the continued didillation 
of fpirits, thfs aaionofthc fire is fo ftrong^. 
as to reduce them to liquid flames at fall,, 
which will of themfelvcs evaporate in vifiblc 
flames and fumes. The other principal part 
of the compofition is the juice of oranges and' 
lemons. And if.we confider, that a Ipmon or 
orange coufd never be tranfported half ftas 0- 
ver to us, without- rotting or fpoiling, ifga^- 
thered when wholly rtpc^ we (houfd have* no^ 
great opinion of their juices. Every Spanift 
or Portugal merchant can inform us, that ther 
snuft be gathered green, or at lead; a month 
before they arc ripe, clfe they arc not fit to be 
fcnt bcvond the feas. 'The fea air, and their 
being mutup i:U>fe», gives them that goldtn^e?^ 


low colour, we To much ad^^ir^. The jutcc' 
of a crab applcy of unripe grapes, or. gqofe- 
BerrieSf'^or even good juice of (brrel^ would 
come up at lead to their virtue of ei^tinguilhing 
tne heat of fpirits, if np( to their flavour. Anq 
how kindly a gueft fqch jutges would be to the 
fine 6bres of weak (lomachs and bowels, i 
leave every one to judge. The truth is, alf 
fermenting juices, fuch as chcfe eminently are^ 
muft^be highty injurious to weak conftitutions i 
fof meeting with the crudities in the bowels, 
they mud raife a ncw^ battle and colltidation 
there, and To mud blow up the whole cavities, 
of the human body, with acrid fumes and va- 
pours, tht great and fore enemies of fDch* 
bowels*. And in tF>e Wed Indies, whiere fron^ 
the neceility of drinking much, becgufe of the 
▼iolence ot the heat, and from the want of 
proper liquors there, they are forced ta drink 
Hiuch punchy tho' Ipmona and oranges be i^r 
their full p^rfedion, they are univerfally af-^ 
Aided with nervous and mortal dry belly- 
aches, palfies, cramps, and convulfions } 
which cut them oflf in a few days» entirely owr 
ing to this poifonous iqisturt. 

. The bath-water, is the4>oly remedy in fnA 
(tafes, whither they all haden# if they can ge^ 
ihither alivtT. And here I have been ivformr 
€d> of this fa^^ by men of the profoffion, a^s 
well as their patients^ who uniyertally afcrib^ 
jfd th^m to their drinking of punch and fpirj.- 
tuou^ li4)uors. If acid^ mgd he hz,ds withpu^ 
all peradventure, tht. vinous oipes, ar< thp 
bed and fafcft. ThP Kpm^nsj thwgh t\cy 




had the vegetable acids in perfedioTij made 
very little ufe of them but in cookery, where 
the quantity of the poifon was fo finaU, as not 
lo do fuflicient harm, to forbid their ufing^ 
them for the fake of the cxquifite rciifli they 
gave their fauces ; and the condant drink of ' 
the lower foldicry^ was vinegar and water^ 
Which they found of cxceiJent o(e, both as it 
prevented fevers, plagues, and putrefadion^ 
and alfo as it gave an energy to the unadivc 
cfeMent, and hindered it from lodging in the 
kidy. Hence alfo the great ufe of Oxymcl 
ahd Oxycratc, (that is, of vinegar with ho« 
ney and with water) among all the ancient ' 
phj^ficians And indeed, whenever they pre- 
Ahibed an acid, they very prudently joined ^ 
corredive with it, both to promote its good, 
and to prevent it^s bad eflfeds. The two re- 
aiaining ingredient s^ are fugar and water > 
and thefe I will give up to the punch drinkers, 
and allow them all the benefit of thcm> thev ' 
ean bring t6 this compofition t yet it will ftifl 
Kave niahgnity fuf&cient remaining; to be 
held in deteflation, (at lead tor any great ufe^ 
•r in any great quantity, foi fome poifons are 
ioonly by their quantity) by thofe tender and 
Valetudinary perfons, who value health and 
life. The ftrong, the voluptuous, and the a- 
biandoned, need no advice, at tcad they wilt 
take none. I coufd never fee any temptation, 
for any one in their fenfes, to indufge in this 
heathenilh Kquor, but that it makes it's votaries 
thefooneft, andalf of a fudden the deeped 
rfrunk, hofds them fongefl in the fit, and de- 
IM^ivoi them the mpft entirely of the ufe of 



their intellcdual faculties^, andboddty.oj^anf^ 
of any liquor whatfoever. It isJikcft opium* 
both in its nature^ and in, the manner of it«* 
operation, and neareft arfcnick in itV delete- 
rious and poifonous qualities: andfo-Llcayc. it> 
to them. 

^' Who knowing this wmTyet drink on 
and cKe." 

Jg. 17. As to malt liquors » they are not 
much in ure, exqeptlng fmatl beer» with any 
but mechanicks and fox hoAteij. The French, 
very juftly callrthem barley. foop» 1 am. welt 
fati&ficdt a. weak, ilomach can as readily and 
with^lcfs pain» digeftpork^ and peafe foop, s^ 
Yorkftiirc. or. Nottingham afe. They make ex- 
cellent bjrdlimc^ a:nd when fimmer'd. Tome time 
over a gemie fire^ make the moft (licking, and 
the beil plaifler», for old. (trams that can be 
ecMitrived. Eveti^ the fmall beer that is com- 
ni9n}y> dra,nk at. Londpn> if it be npt.wcll. 
bbiledt. very clcar.f and of a due age, m.oft be 
hurtful: to. pc^rfons. of weak ncrvjts, and flow, 
digeftion. For femcnting agam in the ali- 
mentary channels, it Will. {HI t,hc whole- qayi- 
tiiesof the body with windy fumts and vapoury, 
wbrch will at length pi^.y odd pranks in a crafjif 
conftitutiott. In tine,^ the valetudinary,* ftudi- 
oqs, and contemp)atLve> mufl: be conitented 
with a pint oi middling light wine a ijiya, Qt^ 
half with» and the other without water.. 

f. 18. Since the time foreign tuxury* han 
^a brought to its perfc^oahcre^ there are ^ 



%tnd of l^uors in nb among the better foft« 
'which ionic great dodora have condemn- 
ed by bdl, book* andcandie» and others have 
«s eitravagantiv commended : I mean, cofTcc^ 
Cea^ and chocolate. For my own part, I take 
^11 theii virtUjQup^ confift in cuftomf and all 
^^ their harm in excefs. As to coffee, it is a meet 
CalK, ora kindot burnt horfe bean, but lighter 
en the ftomach, and of (bmewhat abetter fla- 
vour. The Turks ufc it, and opium inflead 
lof brandy. But the plea that fome make for 
^tunning imto excefs in k, from this Mahom* 
• letan ctrftom, is altogether weak and ground* 
*1efsf ; for thofe that do ib there^ foflFer by it, 
-ms we do here: and thofe that debauch in k, 
-turn'ftupid, teebie, and paralitick by it, ef« 
pecially when they join opium with it, as they 
' frequently "do, as thofe who. wallow in thc(e 
tlo here, and areas much defpifedand expofed 
'by ferioiis perfons, a^ our topers and brandy 
fwillers are ^ here. A difli or two of coffee^ 
'With a tittle milk to feften it, in raw mr damp 
'"Weather, or on a wateri(h and phlegmatick 
*4omach, is not only innocent,- but a prefent 
relief. But it is as ridiculous, and perhaps m«re 

• hurtful, at leaftin thin and dry habits, to dabble 
' in it two or three times c^cry day, as it would 

• 1)e for fuch to drink nothing but fcalding lime- 
^ater. There are two kinds of tea in ufc, 
'^ntm and bbhea. Mr. Cunningham, who 

lived federal years in China, a very learned 
<aad J accurate -pdrfoif* informs us» that they 


• Vide Phil. CoWcet. 



are both gathered from the fame (hnsb^ but«it 
different fcafons of the yearf and that the bo- 
hea is gathered in the fpring* and is dried in 
, the fun, the green at the fire. But I fuipedf 
and not without authority, that, befidcs thefe 
. differences in drying, fome infufion of another 
plant or earth (perhaps fuch a one as that of 
Japan earth, or Catechu) muff be poured on 
fome forts of hohea tea, to give it the fofcncGsf 
flavour, andheavinefson the ftomach it has* 
whereby it becomes a meerdrug, and wants 
the natural (impiicity of green tea, which when 
light, and drank neither too ftrong nor too hot* 
I take to be ^ very proper diluent, when fof- 
tened with a little milk, tocleanfe the alimen- 
tary paflages, and wa(h ofi^ the fcorbutick and 
urinous falts, fpr a breakfaft, to thbfe who 
iive full and free ; as alfo it, oi^tea made of a 
fliced orange or lemon, is one of the bed pro- 
moters of digeflion after a full meal, or when 
one is dry between- meals, and much more 
lafe and effeSual than drams or ftrong cordials 
which are commonly ufed for that purpofe. 
Some pcrfonsof weak tender nerves, fall into 
iownefs and trembling upon ufing either 
ofthefe liquors with any freedom, from their 
too great quantity, or their irritation on the 
tender and delicate fibres of the ftomach*^ 
Such ought carefully to avoid and abdain from ^ 
them, as from drams and drops. But I. can 
never be of their opinion who afcribe the fre- 
quency of fcurvy, vapours, lowfpirjtedneff^ • 
and nervous ^diflcmpers now, to what thev 
were in the davs of our forefathers, to the cus- 
tom of drinking more frequently and freely of 



•thcfc foreign infufions. The caufe is not a* 
-dequate tothceflPed^ norindccd has any ana- 
logy to» or connexion 'withjit. We know 
that warm water, will moft of any thing pio- 
mote and affilldigcftion in weak (Umachsand 
tender nerves. And by this alone I have ieeu 
fevcral fuch -perfons recovered to a miracle, 
when: cokl^ mineral waters, birters^ cordials 
and drams* have done rather hurt than good. 
And tea is but an infufion in water of an inno- 
cent plant: innocent»*-I fay, beC^ufc we find 
' by its tafte it has neithcrpoifonous, dcletori- 
•eus nor acrimonious qualities-; and we arc 
certain frona it-s ufe in the countries it comes 
firom, (which arc larger than mod of Europe) 
that they receive no damage from k, but on 
the contrary, that it '^promotes both digeftion 
and perfpiratton. The argument from its re- 
laxing the coats of the ftomach and bowels by 
its heat, is of naforcc. >For\inlers it be drank 
^much hotter than the blood itfelf, it can do no 
hurt that way: And we fee the bath guides^ 
who dabUc in water almoft as hot as tea is e« 
vcr drank, a great part of the* 4ay, and for one 
half ofthe yearat leaft« ar^ no ways injured 
by it; except when they drink ftrong liquors, 
toofreoly to quench tlic third it rail'es. How* 
ever, I (hauld advife tfaofe who drink tea 
plentifully, not to drink it much hotter than 
Uood-wafoi-; whereby they will rrcejve all its 
benefit, and be fecure againft all the harm it 
ean poffibly do. As to- chocolate* I am of opi- 
nion, it is too hot and heavy, for valet udna- 
Ty perfons, and thofe of weak nerves. I have'^^a 
'tttfore oblcrvcd, that nuts pafs through the ^v^^^ 


tmentary paiTages untouched $ and though tliejT 
may part with fomc of their mbre voiatile par* 
^les« yet^ I »doubt if ^ they can iafibrd* much 
nourithmcnt to perfons of weak digeftionsl 
Some, ifayy chocolate gives them an appetite 4 
the meaning of which may be^ that when they** 
have a good appetite for their breakfafi^ itia 
not uniikeiy it n^ay <:ontinue all the day t Bufc* 
Lain Qi opinion^ it is a falfe and hyfterical ap. 
|>etttCf fuch as (harp winesy oAd Aarp bfi<- 
mours in.the ftomach give. For fat and oiily 
things* .fuch as all nuts are* areihard to digeft^ 
and lidong in the ftomach» for reafons I >have 
already explained ir it may lUfbricate ai^dflieatk 
againft the irritation of fait andibarp humours 
in thebowels^ and therefore may "be good iti 
4r the cholicks and gravd of thoFCe of ftrong and 
fiout digeftion ; but can never be good food Cor 
thofe et wea^ nerves and poor oonflitiutione* 
Nothing is fo light and eafv to the ftomath, 
mod oertainiy* as the farinaceous or mealjr 
vigbtaUes^ ^Tneh as peafe, beans, millet, oatsy 
barley, Tye, wheats fago» riee^ potatoes, and 
the like 4 of fome of wbicfc on reiH^ or water^ 
I "flioiiid ever advife tbt y^ietodinary^ and 
thofe ^of^es^nervesj to make t^ein* two Icflcr 
or fctoondsry. meals. Toibacco i« anmJier fo-; 
Te%n webd« imicb ia uib here in Britain S' 
tbovfgh not among the faeft, yet aintfng^ 'the 
middle and inferior ranks cif l4ie peiofte -: Sot 
tbbfeof grofs tod phtjcgmadek ^kftyftttutibas* 
who alM>«Ad!in fecousaind waeery .hun|dUllB«lyh6 - 
are fubjcft to coughs, cktai<riis> and fiifthmatiok 
indt^olitionfi^ vho iaboDriindtr violcEOtFtoorh* 
aotej ornre tsti^Msoii wak xholiffiS'^ia their 
I «yes5 

A,NJ> LONG Hf R $* 


«ye&^ >yh^< hav^ coM and waHnfii ftooimchsy 
and Jive fully asd freely^ bofb fiaotdfting aofl 

. chewing is a very beneficial evacuailoa, di^aw/? 
ing 0ff AipcrfitLious humoursj cr|id^ties» an^ 
fold pM^»m^. pro V'idcd t^y carefi^Uy avcud 

. fwailowing ihf fm^kf or ihc juice; and 
fkiiA n^l\ing, but^ Wfcnch thotr inoiHhs 
with foiK^. watery liquDF after kr ^i^d fpit 
i.t out* Eut^ ^o ihin^. meagre^ ^nd he&ieit 
^nftitutipns^. it is highly pemicioqs^ $ndApfr 
iFudivei heating .their bIpod> dryix^ ih^ir 
i^idsj .^nd defraudjing the.fe0d.of that falivar 
IvhicH is (& abfoiureiy ne^eSary Ipws^rdf oencao-. 
tiM* :.Siiuiing the ^ le^ves^ oi^ the grower e^% 
in a mor-f)ingi will readily prompltii i^n% ef 

^.rheum by the glands of the noie ;; and M^itl bti 
oC good pfcr to ctear the liead*aud eye^ 8^ 

,.tiie ridiculeus cuflom, of perpetM^Ily fucki^ 
^ia xfipphifticated powdersi^ and fithfr fcu^eigfi 
dfugs fold Fidr fnuffV cannot but be prejudici^ 

^.bpth to the eycs» and even to the Oomach >- 
at leaft, if we bdicve th^ reports of tboft ^h^^ 

'. $y .ihe^y ,hs|ye bn^^ght it up frona tfacnee. 

> > 

!• I9« I hav« endeavoured' to affiftthe te^^ 
dcr, vqith fome obierva^ions andceflcdions, to 
ciiiiyble him towards: determifiing the quantity 
and qii^i^y of his foJid.fpedy.Qeceflary either tb* 
prevei|t,jo.r cure chronical. dt^ei»pers< k (^y 
no( b<^ a^if^rhere. to makp fo^eTefie^io^s alfo*. * 
on. the fit ^rqportio.9 C|f drink proper fpr that . 
purppft : as ibefoqd isj fb inuft that b>^ va- 
rious and i|neert9ln»\ with regard to the age:i 
fize» Ja^bour, andconfiitution of the perfoit and^ . 
fc8foxM)f MlC:Xear- (hai^aoScrf^: to limit the 


quantity of ftrohg liquors, fitted to prcrcnrc 
health and lengthen out lifc in general, to a^ 
pound or pint, and that of the middling kind.' 
Butthcfickly, the aged, and thofc^who woulcfc 
cure the chronical di^cmpcf, muft even abate 
of this quantity* The only reniainin^ qucf-^ 
tion, is about thequantity of water, or watery* 
Kquori^ proper to'be- mixed with this (Ironp 
liquor, or drank by i^elft for \n thi« alfo,- 
though- in« itfelf harmi^ers and innocent, vcf 
tliere is a choice and preference ; becaufe, toO' 
much waler will on^^r lerve to diftend ancf^ 
fwdl'up the Tefiels, and wafli off fome of the 
finer and more nutritious parts of the chyle ;-i 
and too little, willnot>be fufficient ta dilute* 
the folid fopd, or to make the chyle thin and 
fluid enough, to circulate through the fine' 
and fmall veflels. LwiH'fuppofe my patieift* 
. to deal in no othtr cookery, but roafengand^ 
boiling ; and that he eats: only frelh'vncat ;-^ 
bbililig animal food, draws more of thcTank^ 
flrongi juices from it, and leaves itlcfs nu* 
tritive,.itiore diluted, lighter and eafierof di- 
gcftion. Roafting onr the other hand> leaves - 
it-fullefofthe ftrong nutritive juices, h&rder 
todigeft, ,and wanting more dilution t Thofe • 
therefore, who muft have iiill grown and adulr- 
aihmai food, ought to eat it^ii^d> and weU^ 
boiled too J if their digeftion be- bik^ weak.^ 
They who can live on young animal food,- 
( which is beft for weak homach^,) ought to-' 
cat it roafled^i but mud lefTen the quantity, in * 
refpeS of the- fame food boiled^ but they muft. * 
dilute it more r. for as roaft meat has a bet- 
ter fiavoyr and more nQuri&tnent^ ^ fa ie*^ 

■ "fes- 

iks leFs Babl^y on thc-nQmachi Mi ioet net (<> 
it^dily flip Ironijor dirappgint the a3ip>] of 
srjniling, ■ which has fomc fl^arc .ii; fli|f^>0<>> 
both prrmaix and Jpbfcquent : hut it wilt 
v*at iporc dHotioti, with 4 watcrjt mpufliUHfOa* 
toi fo&enilf .mpw rigid and" cnfp filirw. if 
thcrcfort, ihe whole weight of th? folid foojJi' 
iq.tncnty-four bcmrsj be rpppofed a pound and ' 
a,haift thea three pounds of liquor^ th4t.ii 
b^c of Aroifg lijqtiQrt and two of mme aqiieoui 
fluid, viilt iaapieifniini beruJGcic,ni«q'dil(ite 
it!'9)Hindantl}r. For thus there vi|l be two' 
particles of a fluidi tp one M'^i patticlei"- 
, ^h'lch abating the fohd parts thrayn off by' 
Scgfi,. ivill fuf&ce to nakc the chyle abundant- . 
1y t.hiq, to dcculate thrqygh aJI tjje %c ch^- 
nqlii . lybofe diamotcrti qreJarger th^n. that of 
the fotid particle, the principal cnd.of its' tliin- 
ncfs and fluidity. More than this > woaldbut- 
diftcnd tJh^ TcfTch, and oarry .off. th|; finer 
part^ of the chyle by wat^r or pcffpiratifln ; 
,_fef we^ponftanLly 6nd both theJ"c encrrafcd bj^; 
an over-dorc of fluids : aqd lefs woold npt fiif-' 
^cien^iy dilute their food.' I fbould adj^)j$ 
^fe therefore, wlio hav,e- w.eiik ftomachs, Of.' 
■ tel^jf.^d nerTfs, to mix their wi|>e lyitbtbcf-r 
. fevr tvat^ed quantify of fjoilcdwWei;, :yith $' 
hfiT9t crufl^ at fpa^Si H<fod wftrin; ^ntj to drihjc 
ftafteeth^ir meat is over, if .tV,y,?aii ip. i^' 
Tr«hie^(ip, Wlier*lian in ^Jrh? time of' rai)^:,- 
(«r-;tlac,nu(rje. fpiritiMifS a^d mol^ n^ut-il^irfjK' 
pgrts ^ thf'^'dii wiJf readily nifljpffT witiiDHt.' 
HHicfe (rilitfi9n ( -yifl tiithe gr<^(r aM 
i»rder rKpiaipjgg^part,- ■iJi^t 'lyjlj yf^pb it i^pjilU 


firtiTtheir (lomach loaded^ the food fifing, hard -.i 
belching, heart-burtjing, or much yawning, . 
ta fwill down and dilute it with milk^warm, - 
light green tea» or warin wdtcr^ rather than 
to run to dram» ax^d" cordiMs^ the ufual, bul * 
mod pernicious antidtdte tn foch cafes. And"^ 
libon great and heavy oppreffi6n, much trou- 
bfc and great ftrugglc?in thedigeftion, to have • 
recourft to carduus or cammomile flower tea» 
to bring itnjp, rather than to trefpafs in thefc • 
poilbnoiis and'^cauilick liquors, which, though 
they ^nay at prcfent Icffcfi the fuOFcring^ and« 
hurry oil thfc firft conco&ion ; yet make them 
rfearfy pay Sir it, when 'the uncoUrcoaed 'load • 
of crudltici comes to pafs by fiege or perfpira- 
tfon, either in cholick§, grtpes, vapours j and 
oppreFton of fpirits ; or By a general difabili* 

ty and rheumatick' flitches and pains.; 

■ ■ * • 

§. 20. Upon the Head of cordials mentioned* 
in one of the foregoing Article*, P^ canhbt 
forbear fctting down one, whpfe virtues and-' 
efficacy I have feng tried^ and have never- 
found it tail; when any thfng would fuccecd : 
' Andtl recommend it (to be kept by them) to- 
^ thofe, who arc Itable to Tdw fpirits, faint- 
ntQUt opprcffibns, fickncfs at the f^omacfr; head' 
, acT^s, and vapours ; and arfo to thofe who* 
wanting to exert thcfhfelVes in any bufihefs of 
confcquence, need a flow of fpirits for fomc 
ftort time,, for that purpofe t or indeed ' upoar* 
any fdrfden accident ariling of its own aecord/ 
^ut of the habit itfelP; F think it akin^ of an 
toniverfal remedy, but never to 'be ufed^ biife' 
^^gpoa fuefa occauons ;: bccaufe^ ufe ma/ wet«> 

AND LONG lite: $f: 

iQen it, if not extinguifli its virtue. It is thusi 


Take of (implc chamomile- flower water, fix 
ounces ; compound gentian, and worm- 
upood i¥aters> each an ounce and-a half ;: 

' compound fpirit of lavender, fal volatile* 
trndore of- Caftor, and gum ammoniack' 
diflfolved in fome fimplc watjcr,,each two . 
4rachmsitinQureoffnakeweed, and tinc- 
ture ofthcfpcaesdiambraejcach adrachm;.: 
the chymicaPoits' of lavender, .juniper, 
and nutmeg, each ten drops, mi^ed with 
aubit of the yolk of an eG:g, to^ nxike the 
irbole uniform ;. a(&fetida andicamphirc' 
in a rag, each hatha drachm : But thefc 
may be left out by tbofc to whom^they are. 


Twoj three or four- fpjponfulls of this is a 
Efcfent help in fuch caibs. It wiilkeep fix 
JUMitba good*:. 

- •!• .» --J • 



General; Rules for Health and Long Life^- 
drawn from die Head o( Meat and Drink*. 

i^ HF^HE great julc for eating^ and drinking^ 
. JL /for health is to adjuft the quality and-< 
^anlity o£ ocr* f ood to our digeftivc povers. 
The Quality may be judged bji the £Bljo.wing% 

t. Thofe fi]]:)fia]icQs that ectnfift pf the grofT^' 
eft parts are bardeft cf digeftton ; the eonfti-^- 
lucnt EMHitcles comimg. into more contraSs,-* 
afid confecp^eBtly adhering more firmly. 

. 3. Theiefubi[tan£c«'w|i^& farts 81% broA]ght'« 
together with the greateft force, cohere pro-* ^ 
porttonably clofer, than thofe that come togc- - 
ther With a frnftlkr % Momenctimk ' ^ 

4; Salts are very Itkrd to be feparatsd, be* 
caufe united by plAin furfaces, under whichf^ 
they are always comprehended. "And in the 
faft ftages of the circulation, where 1^is (lower, 
(hoot readily into larger ctiifters, and fo ar^ 
harder to be diivenout of the habit. From » 
thcfe we may eafily infer, that (1.) Thofe ve- 
getables and animals that come fooneft to their 
full growth are eaficr of digeftion, than thofe 
that are longer of attaining the (late of matu-* 
rity. (2.) Thofe that arc the fmallcft of their- 


ik ec Force* 


Sind, than the biggcft. (3.)Thofcofa dry, 
fiefliy, and fibrous fubftance, than tfcc oily Fat» 
and glutinous ^4 ) Thofcof a whitefubftance^ 
than thofc of a more flaming colour. (5.) Thofc 
0f a mild; fok, and fwect, than thoic ot a ftrong, 
poignant, aromatical« orhot'tafte; (6.) land* 
animals, than fea-animals. (7.) Thofe animals* 
that live on vegetables, or other light food, 
tfian thofc that live on other animak, or hard 
and heavy food. (8.) The nouriftrment nature* 
If as appointed for youn^ animaU, is lighter* 
than the fle(h of khcfe animals tbemfelves< 

5. All crammed poultry and ftall-feu cattle, 

and even vegetables forced by^ hot b^eds, tend' 

snore to putrcfadion^and* confequently are 

more unfit for human food, than thofc brought: 

:«p in 'the natural* manners 

6. Pfaiil-di^efledTood' ip eafier of digeftton, 
than what is-picklcd^ falted^* hiked, fmoaked, 
mr any way bigh-feafoncd. 

7- Stroitg men, thofc of a large ftaturc, and- 
aiuch labour, andthe inhabitants oi a coM and- 
elear air, require more food than women» 
children, the weak, the fedentary and the 
agedi ancf thofe that live in a warmer climate^ 
ergroflerain "^ '*\ 

8. Nothing eonduccs- more to health, and 
long lifcf than ab'ftincilcc and^ptiiftfopd/Witb 
due labour* 


9. Where cx«rofc Is wanting (as in flvdi'-- 


ous pcrfe^s) tbqfre is thf grcaUfcr^nieod of dhOi^ 
nence f fet tbefe^ 8 ounces of anVsiaU and i9i 
oi vcgetublt feod^. in %4 hoar<^ is fuffioiMt. 


u>. Mod cbFonical difcafea proceed fronts 
repktion i as appears kop^ tbeir being <:wq4) 
hj cvactiationi. 

II. TendcF p»ribirs^ oiiglit to ufe as muok* 
abftinence, as' they poffibl^ C2|n :. aadj. if the]f» 
negleS it, their only relief ta from fre^ucal^ 
ftomacbi<;k and* fainitify purgcii. ^ 

■ I 

^ ra. A pbiiirfula forj«dgli^o{tli< quan«- 
tity U, not u> ca( ^ irty^ a« iadifeoics Cam 

V ** 

VJ. A more fenfible and readier cj^e is, firflif 
by erpcrience to find out how much fits one, 
*- |9 as to br H|Bhtfoii|)^ and ihcaH'hy under it, 9^^^^^ 
•ver after t^j^lMt^/ t^e i|uaiitity by the cy«|s: 
nature requiring tiierein^ np mathematical ^n- 

. •• 

14. PoFk and fi|ba)ren«H5^fep()feirtiie A^ir^ 
dious and the tcnd^. 

• • ' _ 

« ^5.- W?lcf i% tbe mdOin9pov9i'M4 whole* . 
fome of aN drinks,, quickens the a|^titc, ^4- 
Arengthens the digciHon mod. 

, . , ^ • '' • . '-•■.. • 

1& Stroiig au>d fprituous liquors frcdy m^i 
dulged, become a certain, tho' a (Lqvr poifon.^ 

411 at once*; ihc play for continuing them bc-> 
ing falfeand.grovncHrAi* - 

1-8. The bc0L fl&mg If'qvor for wtak and 
ftufliotts i>eople i$ wine; .the heft ^uantiry^ « 
pint in 24 hours^; anfil the heft way of drink* 

•4ng it is, three glafles with, and three with- 

t>Bt Water. ' 

1:9. The mtddling, light wmos, fuHy ripe, 
"find of a due age, arc preferable to the ftrong 
irtfies*. N - 

». Strong rnqtfcilB do not prevent the nsif- 
cfciefs of a ftiifcit, nor carry it oflF, fo fafely 
^ water, though tkeyfeem to give prefent re^ 

ft I. The fre^ent vfe of (ptrks in drams 
^nd cordials 1$ (o far 'from coring lowfpiritcd« 
iiefs, thatit, and briiig9 on fxMre 
htsil difdrder^* 

22. And even when they arc diluted wltTi 
wattr, itipuncli, the ^aiitity taken down at 
^once, and the addition of a contoding acid^ 
produ^ equally perniciba^ efie^ in humam 

13. Malt liquors (excepting clear fmat! 
beer, of a due age) are extremely hurtful to 
tender and ftudious perfons. 

24. Coffee is only an infufion of a kind of 
calz) aiKi^ias the effeStf of an abforbcnt me- 

«% A TREATISE oil HEAtTtt 

ddctne ; and fo may be of fome fci^vicc to wa- 
tery flomachsj ifmoderateiy'iifed. 


25/ Green tea is a good diluter of the food^ 
as it is an agreeable^ warm fmall liquor : btxt 
bohea i»^oo heavy for 4he (lomach. 


^6. Chocolate (as, all nuts clfc} is fo heavy 
and hardofdigedion, that it can never be fit 
for the flomachs of weak andtcnder people. 

27. Smoaklng tobaccOf without drinking 
after it, chewing or fnuffing the grofs cut leaf 
in the morning, are Ufcful to rphlegmatick 
conftitutions ; but to dry and lean habits they^ 
are pernicious. Snuff is Juft good fornotbin^ 
at all. « 

28. The -proper ^quantity of watery liquors 
In 24 hours, to thofe that live regularly, ir 
two pints, {as that of ftmng liquor is one 
pint) whirh is bed drank warm^ and rather 
after than in the time of eating. 

29. The form ofa^cordid^ fit 'to bc'kcpt iir 

Erivate fahiilies, as a prefent and certain re- 
ef, for fudden qualms, faintnefs, ficknefs^ 
or low fpirits ; but never to be taken but ia 
cafe of^ncccffity. 

45 HAP- 


C H A P. in. 


f. t. npHE next general hcafl in oraer, is 

X our deeping and watching. AH 

bodies by their adion upon one another^ and 

by the adion of the circumambient bodies, are 

liable to be impaired and waded : and all arfi^ 

mal bodies, from an adire and fdf-movrng 

^principle within them, as wdl as from the 

rubs of bodies without them, are condanti/ 

ttirowing off fome of their fuperfluous and dc« 

cayed parts; fo that animal bodies, are in a 

perpetual flux. To redore this decay and 

wading of animal bodies* nature has wifely 

made alternate periods of labour and red. 

Sleeping and watching, neocfTary to our being ; 

the one forthe aAive employments of life, to 

proride for and take in the materials of our 

nburtdimcnt; the other^ to apply thofe mate*** 

rials to the proper waded parts, and to fupply 

the ezpences of living. And it feems as im* 

proper intrhe order of nature, to didurb the 

animal fun&ions in the time of deep, by any 

other employment, thanthat of the fecondary 

. concodions (as they are called ;} i. e. the ap-» 

plying the nouridiment to the decayed parts^ 

to recruit the blood, perfe£t the fccrctions, and 

toTay up plenty of fpirits^ or (to fpeak more 

4« A TRJE,i^T|P. oji^H^T^, 

phllolbphtcally} to reftore the weakened tone 
jofnerTQU6 fibres i that isj^i^i 4hortj to ^^eijboiie 
cbc decays of wat4::fhing ahid adion : this I (sy, 
is as improper, as it would be (were it poffible,) 
to eat or drinl^, or make proyifion for the ne- 
ceffities of life, in the time of fleeping. From 
hence tt is eyidei^, the abfqrdity of be^vy^ 
vArious, and luxurious fuppers, or of going * 
to reft 'till many hours after fuch a meal ; 
^iiic.hxx^ift.G^heFwUc bc^k,io upon the o^der 
of ^nature and the.due and aimojij^ed times of 
4e.epit\g andwatchiiig* Wncrettu;^ 1.2^Mi\1fi 
th^e valetudinary^ ttxe'.ftudiQU<ft, a^^ the. cpi^r 
templ^tive, either to nv^Ff-^. A^Ff^f^^ or.ojar. 
iy ,ot vegetable fgodi a^ to tj)]^ ^,!^. Mfl^^ 
ipr wftching^ai^cr^hcxn. 

th^( .(^bftrajSbing from acute c^f^) Qur flqep.. \s ' 
foimdi fv\(eet,and refreikiii^j ac<^^iqg,as.t{ic 
^ji^^entary organs, a^e e/aiyi f|ijiet4up^^ . 

Ifany one nqt fuilfering. u^^r any 4Ui;aGej is ' 

diilnrhedjn.bisiltexu it ascertain his flomack 
i9nlled:w;tb focdf or crudities;^ 
filled •W;rth<v((in4» <^boler, : oc fup^icfliidus cfajiLe ^ 
aiid ttv>fe.reftlc(s.^igbtf9 ^.t|ie diiS^lty: ^ 
goii^to, flecpj^ wbT^h 4pj(»!«??d^^ 
v^pou^s, aj;e- c^tifcly owv!« to tftiffi^ca^S:? 
tbough t|iey 1^ i^ot fa flfojjyi^ as..tqJ>ef^pe 
fcjifiWc:.; for, then vpain is . ^^io^yr^tf^ifM,^ 
a^iii;t}iey lire felt. Aftd.^ppft cojfl^^^^^^^ 
fuch reiUers nightijii I fu:verQacerm^^:tt{ifMI. ^ 
ci^^ui^y of i^diiigthertfpe^ \he, d^ ^ 

of tbe;precedio/;t^y, or of icmelfew <|f;Kf 4ber ; 

A^b t6T4C LIFE. <J> 

Ame error in eating ud'^rinkingx either In 
i|uanitity or omtiiy has, pToducid: them. I 
liavet)een alflohifficH to. i^e hypochondriacat 
siiid tivfterTcai people, reflfcrs all mgfit»^ tof-. 
flng^ and fumblihjp; tithte^ards mbrnixig^ tficn 
dlfdppin^'aUcep'lilHatc ho^rt^ awake ^eayj^ 
opprelfcdj and unrerremed, cohiptam bf Being 
hag-ridden^ tired and wearied, a^ 'O^^X ^^^ 
been wliipped, fpurredy. laftied, lind«' beaten 
Ihrongb tjl the watches of the nighty rife with 
febl monthsy apd white tonguesn bcIchSnjgs, 
jrwhings, cbu^hing;, f^Vt ting^^ or reach i&^ 
aj^d heavinj^j» without appetite, r|firit9 or lifer 
all tbe da^-t(ine f bcgiil to rivc and ^reaj^ie^ 
bfcome coearly 1 and Burigryf ^fibiir tm, ejc- 
▼cn, or twetvc o^clock aV night f cat 3p' heart jr^ 
▼afifiiusy and luzurioiss fupper ; drink a cheer- 
iiSg tup of. the "beft. become as m^rrj as 
cnciic^^s,. and long to ut up (ater ; at laft turn-: 
bic tob^j ifind repeat the fame farce over ^-^ 
ga^n*^ %lle reafon of aU this complaint, b the 
Foad'on the ftb'mach, ibatwin not tiiff^ 
to rett, 'till It is got off. The fiisirp and crude 
buinottrs, twitching and twinging tiic ncrvovr , 
fibres, and: coats oftbe bowels, become like fp 
manjr ! needles and pins, conftantly runniiig^^ 
through them ; though not always with renfi-- 
ble pam r the uncbnco^^ed ckyl<fe (lopping, or 
circulating' ilo^lV, ^CLinthe bowels, thuen m 
theTmalf^r veflcls, begets tbefc convuTfions,. 
flatus, night«-mares, and oppreffion of fpirits. 
So that the ieeondary digeftions are not- over 
'till next^eveninff, (hence their want of appe-^ 
>iteO and When thefe lire linifhed , their /fib- 
macfas come, and their fpirits flow ; dndW^^OL"^ 


the perpetual round i;s carried on. Did thej,- 
b.ut follow thcdiSate^ of .nature, go to bed for 
(bme.days with a tight vegetabl6, orno fuppcr. 
at all, and bear the inconveniencies thence 
arifing; their appetites would ceme in due? 
feafon,. and they would quickly find the truth, 
of the aphorifm of the Scholi . Saicrnitata. ^^ 

* Somniis ut fit levis^ fit tibi ccena brevis. 

§* 3* The feafont for Seeping and watch- 
ing^ which nature loems to point out to us, a^ 
leaft in thcfe our climates neat the tropick, are 
the viciffitudes of day and night. Thofi^ 
damps, vaj^ucs, and exhalations, that are 
drawn- up iiito the higher, regions^, and are fo 
ranfi:ed/by the heat and adion of thefun^ as to 
become innocent or very weak in the day-time;.. 
are condcnfed; fink low, near the ftirface of 
the earth, aiidare perpetually drooping down, 
in the night Teafon , and con^quenily mud be 
injunous to thofe tender perfons, that unna- 
turally watch in that fcafon ^ and muft necef- 
faril/ obftruft the psrfpiration^ which the ac- 
tivity of Watching, and the motion of labour 
promote^. I' have already (hewn, that our bo- 
dies fuck and draw into them, the good or bad* 
qualities of the circumambient air , through 
the mouths of all the perfpiratory doSs of the 
ftin* Apd if we were to^vieir aaa nimal body 


■ I II I ■ ■ I I —»■*— — Mfc 


^i. e. Thtt yodr fleep loqrba fveet« Ut. foor 
(bpjer. b^ij^htc. 

^- ^'' • - atT 

"^jhz ]plr6ji>6r i^Iafs^ It wbutd appeal ^itli aj^ 
atfnd^here'qtiit'c round it^ like fne fteath of k 
bbiiihjrbot.' Now we may eafify dbhceive. 
what injurjr a cpnltitutio^ ndaj. receiv^ not 
tfjf^y hy dipping Ajjch a perpetual ~ difchafge of 
ffi'^erikjLi'itieSf but alfo ,b}r lorcingintb the ha-* 
Kt. by ^Kc air's weight- and pieflrure^-thorc 
noziouS;. fumes and vapours^ that ar^ perpe- 
tD'atly failing hear tiie iurface oFtlie e^artTij in: 
the night-time. Your true topers are IbTenfi- 
We of thrsj, that by pbfcry«tipn^they hayp wi- 
thered it to t)e rhbre fafe Jfor their licatth>, aKd- 
M(tter'f6r jprtilbnging their lives, to ^ct '^?runk , 
bbtimes andco Wbed, ^tfikh to £t up and. i)e 

% X- OAjftc coh>rary,.thc heat oFtbc Tuii- 
in the cfay tlnaej.Dv Its aQiop on. human $p«, 
<fie8^ tfec >ery. Tight jt aid free jiir, ".and *tKc 
il^)tioJis oF thir^f s about jiis^^dtRurbin^ .dKe. 
^iet i)T the iir, . mpR nec^rJly diforrferlttc 
Cjjuable ibouVfe of the^ jperrpiratibn, tKe t'enc^ 
oKtlie'r^coDdar^ cohco^iohs, ahdlh'e trahj'qi- 
lity jpfthe fpiritsTo heci^a'ry tp reft, and^^uiifb 
iSb tnat iio»)ingreem^s ,m^ direaiy poi'ntva 
outiio-us bjr nature^ jthah fhc jiay^ fgr la^nr^ 
aAil.fchc.nigiitfor reft: and this wifhOTt tak^ 
iag in fte €qnfiicra*tion.ot JKe iiecei&jr if the 

• f^ns's IfelitTorJthc ciWs bit jabw^ ancf.'Jprb^ 
vhling the lieciflaries bttiTe. Son(i[e antni^ft. 
that are exceeding tenfdcr* are diredea oy nl- 

■ ture-to altecnatc^fHcciods of Fatdliinlg^^nd^reil 
not twice tn 2){|. )iborSf> buttwiic^M the y^, 

. VIZ. ffummer and winter $ fuch .as XKaIIom# 
llbi^anddiany fMtsbfinfe^^^ Whofleep alt 

F 3 - vV^ 



r^cwtsKT, scd watch all the Aimmer. Sol 
cncsstmr b natures in appointing the bright- 
er ami soti cali^btened parts of ear lives for, 
26:00, and the d^r&cft and moft inclement. 
for reft. Not but that robuft conftitotions (as. 
well as anitnafs fitted bj nature for different ^ 
wavs of tiTiog) aiaj by cndom^^. get the better. 
of thele natural appointments : But I write for 
the Taletudtnarji the ftudiou^^ and. the con-. 

{. s- 1 9drik atl fuch^ .if they would . pre- 
fcrre their health and lengthen out their days^ , 
to avoid as much as is pofflble evening dews>, 
Bodumal ftodies, and unfcafonable watching;, 
in lummer to go to bed with the foui and in- 
winter to tife at ic2ift by break of day*. Thofe- 
who l;ve temperatclyt ^itt neccflarily fleep. 
hot little : but to recompence that, their fleep 
will be much more found, refreAing, and' 
fruitful of chearfutnefs and freeffpirits, than* 
that of thofe who live more freely. For as I' 
have before fatd, the quantity of fleep will a1- 
'W;ays be in proportion to the quantity of ^ eat-, 
ihg and drinking* Valetudinary, fttodiou8>. 
and coQiemplative people, ought to go to bed ' 
hy eight, nine or ten at farthtft, and rife by 
four, five, or fix, by which they will have, 
eight hours a-bcd ; and that is fufficient for. 
any perfon, not under an acute^ or the Iharp; 
fits of a chronical difiemper. 

': ^- Nothing can bt more prejudicial ' tot^ 
jcndcr conlKtutions, ftudious and contemphl- 
«|ve perfoas^ thaa 1/iag !ong a-btd, of Idlings. 

1^ • ■ . an<t 

LONa LIFE- &p 

ta^loaking in fiieetSi.any time after one it;., 
ditlindly awiake^. oc has flcpt a due and rea- 
ibnable time t, it necefTarily (hickens the, jui- 
GCSj enervates t-l^e. folids,^ and weakens the.' 
cpn(tit.utn>n. A free open air is a kind of a cold^ 
bathj'.efpecially'arter fifing, out of a warmbedf . 
and confeqviemly makes the eircptation bri^-] 
er and more compteat, and braces up the kn. 
Vids, which-Iying a oed diiToIves and foaks m, 
moifture^ The ereS poftuiie* and the afi;ivi« 
ty of watching,, make the, perfp/iration inore 
^lentiful^ . and the grofs evacuations mor^ rea- 
dily thrown off. This is evident fiom the ap-». 
petite and hunger, t.hpfe f6at rife early, feel,. 
' beyond that whjch thcy:gct by lying. long in 
bed. Add to all thefe the influence of the frelfa , 
benign, morning. air, . tjie retreating, oi all the, 
noxious damps and vapours ofthe.n ig|it,. toge«; 
ther with the clouds and heavin^fs^^^hat are:, 
thrown upon. the brsun from deep ; .^nd laftly,^ 
that chearfulnefs and alacrity that is felt Hy. 
th^ approach or prefence,' of tl^at glorious lu- 
ipinary the fon, which a^d^a new. force tP: 
(be heart, and a fpur to thefpirits. . 

f. 7. AU nations and a^es have agreed. that^ 
tlie morning ftafon is the propcir time for fpc- 
oulative ftudies^ and thofe employments that: 
2no(l require the faAilties of the roind^ For 
then the (lock of the fpirits it undiminiflsed,, 
and in its grcateft plenty, the head is clear 
and ferene, the paffions are <|uieted and for- 
got; the anxiety and inquietude that the dt^ 
^ftions beget in the nervous fyfteni, in moft 
leader oo^itution« and the hurry the fpi- 

41^ A MeatiSe x>hikxut^ 

Trih apr*ii 'under afrcrtbc graft mtil^ Wffc^^ttfe8* 

thi^e whb 4rfc df,a Wadk Whtcilttaicf iif iicrVfcs, ■ 
Whd ihffdbjta- \b hybttehoHilrUb^ or ii yflc/ 

itiiich a^ (!>tthifH*1nMft^aaa1%ct^tib, tfr Wlib 
irflto^ti ihdtllgb fpeculaftFve ftticlies^ togb early 
to 1)ed» ^nd ro rifb b^meis;.t6 ttmfi6y tlie 
iMi^in^ hbarJ in ititffc Cicrcfrcs, . ftin el&rcti 
d'tloerk, then to tale totnc ^^ree^hle breal^raft 
oif Vd^f^^t^ food ; t6 go ob Hvifti their fludici 
atfd lpi^fe%6ti8'ciH three, foiur, olr JSve as their 
rpirlti 'Jritl • h*ofd out, kntt tlicn t6 tiikc tlieiip. 
^€^ meaT^ofahirtUI Tbbd $ ^l1 the reft oT Ithe 
d^y re> throilr '6f at(.ftti(iy '^hd ttiought, Vivei<fc 
themfelves ajari'ebat>1y iii fom'ei'nboefcnt amuJe- 
iftfcht, WitliTTottie gentFe tjoaity Wertifc ; and 
as fedn is *1iic digettibii ii bveir, to rttirt and 
providefor g^ihff 16 beffi: i»it1wut ahy 'farther 
(bWlitu e?xccbt1t fee 'a gfffs tfFfeJt ^ater, or- 
#ariA Tat^-wHey. , ^\ the aged .^hd Kcklv 
miift go ibbfver to' bed^^l^e 46hg^, becault 
a^eafid'fieknefr£re^k tttt, ahd iht ftifehed 
snd hardencfStittibs '6f the attcicht 'betottie liiofe 
pliant and related by .mueh fleepu a fupitte- 
i^t^tk^ lim iVe «bxhltL bf the 1i^. ' 



Sules for HealtbancLLong^ Life drawn fron> 
the head of Sleep and Watching 

XI. rr>HE valetudinary,, the. fedentary, and 
X the ftudious (hould eat very light, or 
Yio.fupper;. if any,, it ought to be vegetable 
food ft neither oughta hey to gp foon to bed,; 
^fter any fupper ivhaUbever. 

2. Going to bed on a full- ftomachy and< 
iriiid and crudities (oinewhere in the aUmen" 
tarrpaflages, is thecaufeof the want of due.- 
retty which ii found aodTcfrefliing, always in; 
Pfoportionto thcemptinefsand. cieannefs oC 
tbefe p40ages, andcheir vaoatioo from their 
proper office of digeftion r andiifajs is the caufc- 
of the. want of kindiv and refrefliing rcfkp ixL 
hypochondriacal and hyftericai people.. 

3* Watching by nightand fleeping by day^ 
is of the moft pernicious cpnfeqoence to health 
and long life ; and plainly contrary to the in- 
dications of nature and the conftitutions of our 

4. The valetudinary, fedentary, and (hi- 
dious, ought carefully to avoid evening dews, 
nodurnal fiudies, and unfcafonable watch- 

^'>g» fS9 ^ ^^' ^y cigtit, nine, or ten, and: 
rife proportiofiably by tour, five, or fix t u»^ 
Ifefs afiually under a fit of ficknefs. 

5. Nothing is more prejudiciat to tender 
TOIifiitutioiis^ Chan I)[ing long a-bed, indulg*- 

,ing a lethargical and drowfy ileep>. or lolling 

rinch, and^att^ \df%pf^Ht^ itpbA )tJk](ng for 
and their good ftomachs^ ehearfulnef»» and' 

« . .. ' • . ' • 

^. Tbe nioft dtff)aita^otii knifnii^'fty'tht 

their time>^ on accotlHI tN^ isftWiitlktiitii iMtt 
. fiudiesf is to go early to bedi rife betimes^ 
^ labdot their 'fl^idier ViA ele^ed^ tdUng z 
tight v^etibte brtAlttft I ^fbfi^^Mfc Oimt tilt 
diKhit-ifoiir iii'tM^ttel^MMf^. tH^n^tdtfatiiRieW 
matniciioflaniiiM) ftMi^ilfd^ftef 0m tb cMfW^ 
fiby4he'i^:of ffftt^'fiM*' hf ibftfe ffifttlCi^ 

ti^e49triAle9,rf6 p^^ tb ^, «ll«^ 

iiig ifb f arthef n%1Sdftiltfeiit> ^tdept H da^l^ 
of water ^r W2|rhl 1teJI:-%^h^^/ ^Ai^ 1l4M Mfr 
particularly ufeful to thofc Who iabout und^ 

- ♦. •. :.]-^{t'} /! :: ..' 

■ f 

iV !' .' A O ;J :* ..' .;;. 



Ai$iSt iiWfij Lire. j» 

C H A P. IV^ 

•or £'X£.RCi6fi and QUiET. 

P I. ''\!I^Jilf focetAf intbe next plaee, t^. 

the confideratjonoi exerciie and 

ffoiet, tl^duitcgxi}ztionfi(which^ is almdft* 
ia&neccfiacy tcheakh and long life, as food jt^. 
fdf. Wfict^ec we wecc fo made before the 
f^Uf as 40 live ia entire hcahh^ in a figicHy. 
f^dentacy and contemplative 'lite, is a fpec^kr 
tVontpfnogceatconfcottence, nor eafily^^icter- r 
ifuncd.inxusr prefentutuj^ion^ for there is no 
ccriainumalogy between things as they now. 
are* and 4U they- might have been then. At 
these . happenedT ati entire revoliition in tm 
-comiileKioii aa^^d qualities of the minds of the 
fijcft-p^ir^ ibf to me, there abpear, tqbeeyi- 
-dent indications.of a defignea' chiiinffe and aw' 
tesation^ che-matcrial WoHdjj and the nature 
of the animals ^nd^vegetaUts which fubfift on 
thb globe, feom what they were. when.God 
poonouncedejKery thing ^oodthat he had n^de* 
JNar fcem the.ccBleftial bodies to'bave efcapf^dji/^^y regard*us« 'Whateyer be Jh tmif ' 
the.^flage where God tells Adam, * That in 

*Gea. chap.iiL?* if. 

^ A TREA^nSE on HfiAtTH 

the fweat of his brow he (ball eat breadj feeim 
to be the iDJandron of afaiutary p^iiaoce^ that 
is, not merdy a puni(hment> but alfo a re- 
medy againft the diforders his body would 
be liable to in this new ftate of^he creation, 
4nd againft the poifonous effeSs of the forbid- 
den tree he had eaten the fruit of. I am the 
more*confirmod in this "bdief, thatl obferve, 
the abfolute ncceility of labour and exercife, 
to prcferve the body any time in due plight, 
to maintain health, and Jcngthen out life. 
For, 4et whatfoev^riiiet be purf^ed^ however 
adjufted, both in ^luantity and quality ; let 
ivhatever evacuation be ufed to leflen the ma- 
lady, or any f fuccedanevm be propofed, te 
prevent the itl eiTeds^ our bodies are fo made, 
and the aaimai csconomy -now fo contrived, 
ihat witliout due labour and ezercife, the Jui- 
ces will thicken, the joints will ftiffen,* the' 
nerves will relax, and on thefe diforders, 
chronical diftempers, and a crazy old age muft 
enfue. Nor is thi6 neceflary orify in the cold- 
er climates, and where the food isgrofs, but even 
in the warmed climates, and where the food 
is ligliteft. For though the warmth of the air 
mav keep thie perfpiration free and open, or 
rather^ where it is very great* promote fweat- 
ing; yet, at the fame time, and by oonfe- 
quencc, it will thipken the fluids, and relax 
the fibres: to prevent both which, exercife h 
abfolutely neccflary 4 but in fuch a climate it 



t i« e. Equivalent. 


^ght to be gone about in the cool offhe day. 
-And though light food may, in a great mea- 
-fore, prevent the thickening of the fluids, yet 
it cannot do it fufficiently without exercife i 
^or can it at all keep the fibres induetenfion ;' 
ibi^to that puppofc exercife is afefolutcly necef- 
fary. . Nay, the joint power of warm air, and 
4ight food, cannot fupply the place of exercife, 
in keeping the joints pliant and moveable, and 
freferving them from growing rufty and ftiff* 

§ 2. I have fometimes alfo, indulged a con« 
^edure, th^it atiimal food, and made or arti- 
ircia! liquors, in the original frame of our na- 
ture, and defign of our creation, were not in« 
tended for human creatures. They feem -to 
me, neither to have thefe (Irong and. fit or- 
gans for digefting them (at lea ft fuch as birds 
and beads of prey have, wha live on flefh ;) 
nor, naturally, to hav« thofe voracious and 
bruti(h appetites, that require animal fdod, 
and ftrong liquors, to fattsfy them ; nor thofe 
cruel and hard hearts, or thofe dKabolicai paf- 
iioYis, which could eafiiy fufferthem to tear 
anddeftroy their fdlow -creatures; at leaft, 
iM>t in the firft and early ages, before every 
' nlan had corrupted his way, and God was forc- 
ed to exterminate the whole race, by an uni- 
▼erfal delugci and wa^ alfo oUi^d (that the 
globe of the earth might not, frpm the long 
lives of its inhabitants, become a hell, and a 
habitation for incarnate devils) to Ihorten their. 
lives from 900 or. 1000 years, to 70. He 
wifely forefaw> that animal food, and artifi- 
•cial liquors, woolj naturally contribute to- 

G ^«dA 




wardsvthis end I and indulged j or permitlccU 
^he generation that was to plant the earth a- 
gain after the floods the ufe of thefe for food, 
:fcnowing that though it would Ihorten the 
tlivesj and plate ^ fcourge of thorns for the 
backs of the lazy and voluptuous, it would be 
cautiouflj avoided by thofe who knew it waa 
their doty and happintfs to keep their paffions 
ilow, and their appetites in fubjedion. And this 
very •sera. of the floods is that mentioned in 
Holy Writ, for the indulgence of animal fooci 
and, artificial liquors, after the trial had been 
•tnade, how infuflicien't alone, a vegetable 
diet (which was the iirft foodappointed for ha« 
.man kind, immediately after their creation) 
was, rn the long Irves of men, to reftrain their 
3vtckediKfs and malice; and ^hcr finding, 
vthat nothing but (hortning their duration could 
poffibly prevent the evil. It is true^ there i« 
fcarcc a poffibility of preventing fhe dedroying 
Qi animal life, as things arc now conftituted, 
fince infeifts breed and heftle inthe very vegc** 
tables' themrrivcs, and we fcarce ever devoar 
a plant of root, wherein we Jo fiot dcftroy in- 
numerable animalcules. But befides wkat I 
haveMaid, of nature's being quitetalteredand 
changed from what was originally mtended^ 
there it a great difference between deftroyin^ 
and extinguiihing an ammaliffe (wfaich^ di>her'' 
wHe nvight fubfift many years) by choice and 
de^lon, to gratify our appetite;^, and indulge 
concupifcence ; and tiit ^fiaal aird isnavoida'* 
blecruikingof thoTe, wh* perhnpf, (KtherwHe, 
wofild die within the day, or at moft the year# 
aiid obtain 'but an inferior UAd of cxxftenae 


■ r 


affd life at beft» Whatever be in this conjcc- 
turc> it is evident to tKofe who underftand the 
animal eeconomy, and the frame of human 
bodies> together with the hiftory, bothofthofe 
who have lived abftemiouflyt and of thofe who 
have lived freely^ that indulging in fle(h 
ineat&j and (Irong iiqiTors> inflames the paf- 
fions, and flrortens Iffe>^ begets chronical dif-^ 
vlempers» and a decrepid age^j as th«^ hiftory 
ef the life of Q>maf Oj manifeib to a- demons 

§ 3. Of all the extreifes that are^ or rtiay 
be ufedfor health (fuch as walking, riding a 
herfe*back> or in a coach, fencing, dancing, 
playing' at biiliardsj or tennis, d^ggin^, 
TiForking at a pun>p, ringing a dumb bcllj ^€. J ' 
walking IS the moft natural, as it would be aU 
fe the moil ttfeftti, if it did not fpend too much 
•f the fpirits of the weakly. Riding is certain- 
ly themoA manly, and moft healthy, and the 
Icaft laborious, and cxpenfivc of fpirits, of* 
any ; fl:aking the whole machine, promoting 
an univcrfal' pcrfpiration and fccrction of all' 
the fluids (to which may be added, the va- 
rious changes of the air, through which they 
fe quickly pafs, every alteration of which, be- 
comes, as it were, a new bath) and thereby, . 
variouily twitching the nervous fibi-es, to brace 
:Md contraft rhem, as the new fcencs amufe 
the mind. Thofe who cannot ride, muft'be 
carried in a coach or litter, which is the beft 
cxercife for the lame and crazy, and the only 
one proper for old and decrepid peribns, as 
itaelf d& Ihofe that are fo young,, that they are 


not able (o manage their own exercife. The 
borne excrcifesy. fuch as playing at< tennis and 
billiards, dancing, ^ fencing* and the likc». 
ought to be followed only when the (cafoa 
forbids being abroad i for being in the air, con* 
tributes much towards the benefit of exercife* 
It is beautiiul to obferve that earned defirc,. 
planted by nature, in youri^ perfons, to romp, 
jump, wreftle, and run, and condantly to be 
purfuing exercifes and bodily diverfions, that 
requ're labour, even till they are ready to 
dropdown ; efpecially the healthier fort of 
them : fo that fitting, or being* confined, fecms 
to be the grcatcd punifbment they can fuffcr^ 
and imprifoning them for feme time, will much 
more readilv corred them than whipping^ 
T^is is a wife contrivance of nature ; for there^ 
by their joints are rendered pliable and ftrong ^ 
iheir blood continues I'wect, and proper for a; 
full circulation i their perfpiration is frec^ 
and theii organs ftrechedout,.by duc.degrccsj^ 
to their proper extenfion- 

f 4. It is alfo very agreeable to obferve, how 
the feveral different drga^s of labouring merv 
arc flrengthened, and rendered brawny and» 
]>crvous, as tJicy happen to be moft employed* 
in theirfcvcral vocations, let. them be other- 
wife ever fo fmall or weakly. The legs, thighs^ 
and feet; of chairmen ;. the arms and hands of 
watermen ; the backs and (houlders of porters,, 
grow thick, ftrong, and brawny by time. It 
is certain, that fpeaking ftrong and loud, 
without ovtrftraining, will flrcngthcn the 
^^Cji,, and give force to the lungs. Our 
^ naiU 

"" ATT D t;aN O L I F E. 7> 

fiatis and hair^ the more they are cut and ffiav- 
ed> the more they grow. And we may pro- 
mote any one evacuatibn fo far> as to weaken 
and (larve aH the reft. Ufing any organ fre- 
quently and forcibly, brings blood and fptrits 
into it« and fo makes it grow plump and braw- 
ny^. And, if due pams were taken by the la- 
bdur proper to them, the organs of all the ' 
fondions of the animal eeconomy might be 
flFchgthened and kept in due plight. 

I 5. Therefore, to the afthmaticfe, and 
tht>(e of weak lungs^ I (hould recommend talk- 
ing much and loud, even by themfel7es> 
walking up an eafy afcent, and when any de- 
gree ot wearinefs warns them to fit and reft, 
'till they are eafy, and then to return to their 

.walking again, and fo to encreafe it every day, 
^till they are able to walk a reafonabie diftance, 
rn^ a reafonabie time. To thofe who have 
weak nerves and digeftion, and to thofe who 
are much trouMcjd with head-aches (moff of 
all which arifefrom the ill ftateof the ftomach 
and bowels) . I ftiould recommend riding on * 
horfeback as much as poffibly they could, in. 
the cleareft and drieftair, and to change the 
air daily, if poffible. To thofe who are trou- ., 
bfed with the ftont or gravel, to ride much o-. 
yer rough caufe ways in a coach. To thofe 
that have rheumatick pains, to play at bil- 
liatdb, tennis or cricket, 'till they fweat pleh<# 
tifully, and then go immediately into a warm 

^ bed, and drink liberally of fome warm thin' 
liquor, with ten dropsof fpirit of.Sal Armo- 
Iftkic orliartS'boitii in each draughty (o tnco^^' j| 

G 3 x^'^B^'" 



rage the fwcating. To thofc who have weak- 
arms or hams, playing two or three hours at 
tennisyOr at foot -ba!l,.c very-day. Tothofewho 
have weak backs orl^reafis^rihging a bell or work . 
ingat a pump. Walking thro' rough roads, e- 
ren toUiStude, will fooneft recover the ufe.oL 
their limbs to the gouty ; tho' riding on horfc». 
back or in a coach will bed prevent the diftem- 
per. But the (ludious and the contemplative^., 
the valetudinary ,^ and. thofe of .weak nerves^. 
if they aim at health and long Hfe> mud make 
cxercife a. part of their religion,, as it is a- 
mong fomeofthc.eadem nations, with whom- 
pilgrimages,. at dated times, are an indifpen- 
fible duty, and where mechanical trades are 
learned and praSifed by men of all ranks. 
Thofe.who have their time in their, awn hands», 
ought to have dated fcafons for riding or walk- 
ing in a good air, as indifpenfiblc-as thofe. 
for going to dinner, to bed, or to church* 
Three hours for riding, or two for walking, 
the one half before the great meal, and the. 
other before going to bed, is the lead that can . 
be difpenfed with : as the fird pan begets an 
appetite, the fecond helps on the digedion. 
Thofe who arc not maders of their own time^. 
mud take it when they can; but to be fure 
they ought to let no opportunity of taking it* 

f. 6. There are three conditions of ezercifc 
to make tt the mod beneficial that m^y- be. 
Fird, that it be upon an empty dotnsich (as^ 
indeed, that is the proper time for all medt- * 
Ciaal evacuations) for thereby, the now con- 



•oScd * crudities, or thofc fupcrfluitlcs na-» 
turc would be rid of 9 and has fitted, by going 
through the proper fecrctions, for being ejec- 
ted, but cannot throw ofF without foreign af-- 
fiftan<^e, will be rcadicft difchargcd. For,.oa^ 
a full (lomach czercife would be too tumultu* 
ous, precipitate the fecretions, and throw ofF' 
the found juices with the corrupted humours* . 
Secondly, that it be not continued to down- 
right laflitude, depreflion. of^fpims,.or a melt- 
ing fweat. The firft will wear out thewgans^, 
the fecond fpend the: (Irength, and tl^e third 
will only do violence to the natural fiinSions. 
Thirdly, due. care is to be had after exercifc, 
to retreat to a warm room and proper (belter 
from the injuries of the weather^ left fucking 
into the wafted; body, the nitrous particles of 
the circumambient air, they (hould inflame 
the blood, and produce a rheumatifm, fever 
or cold. I might add a fourth condition, join- 
ing temperance to exercife, otherwife the evil 
will be as broad one way,, as- it is long the 
other. For fincc ejtercife will create a greater 
appetite^, if it is indjjjged to the full, the coif- 
eodi^e powers will- oe as unequal to the load>. 
as they were before. But I.pafs that over, 
having fuSiciently treated this.fubjedaifeady. 

§ 7. Under this head of exercife, I cannot 
forbear recommending cold-bathing ; and I 



*^Coda non crada fimt CTacaanda. Hi({Qcrt]t« 


cannot lufficicntly adnritre, how it (hould cver^ 
l>ave come into fuch difufe, cfpeciaHy among 
chriftians^ when commanded by the greateft 
lawgiver that ever was^ under the dircdion 
of God's hdy fpirit to his chofcn people, and 
perpetuated to us in the immerfion at baptifm^ . 
by the fame fpirit, who, with infinite wifdom 
in this, as in everything elfethat regards the . 
temporal knd eternal felicity of his creatures, 
combines their duty with their eternal happi" 
nefs. Firft the neceffity of a free perfpiratioir • 
to the prefcrvation of health, rs now known 
to every body, and frequent wa(hlng the body 
in water, cleanfes the mouths of the perfpira^^ 
tory du3s from that glutinous foulnefs that is 
continually falling upon them, from their own 
condenfed dewy atmofphere:, whereby the per-* 
fpiration would be foon obrflrudred, and the 
party languilb. Secondly, The having the 
circulation full, free and open, throirgh all- 
the capillary arteries, is of great benefit to- 
wards* health and long life. Now nothing pro>^ 
motes that fo much as cold bathing; tor by 
the violent and fudden ^bck it gives to the 
whole fyftem of the fluids/irom the cifcumfc-' 
fence inward towards the eentre, and thc< 
fluids (becadfe readion is always equal and" 
contrary to adion) fpringing back again front 
the centreto the circumference, a force is raif- 
cd almoft ever fufllicient to break through all 
the dams and obfirudions of the fmalteft vef« 
fels, where they moftly happen, and to cariy* 
the' circulation quite n$und. Thirdly, «©•- 
thing is fo injurious, and fo much prevents ^ 
^ of caccf eife to weak ami tender con^ - 


Aitutions, as fucking into 'their bodies ilie iih 
-(rous and humid particles of the air, that is^. 
catching of co)d% Now nothing fo efFcSualljr^ 
prevents this» as cold bathing; as the nature 
of the thing ihc9fi&, and experieivce confirms r 
tor if exercife> to attenuate the juices^ and 
flrengthen the foiids^ be added to coM bathing, 
a new ifpring and force will- be given to the 
bloody both 10 drive out thcfe foreign and nox« 
tous mixtures, and to unite the cuticular 
fcalesj which form the fcarf (Lin* fo as to- 
ftreng'then it for the future againft fuch vio* 
knt entries* 

I 8. I (hould advife t^ierefore, every ^nc 
who can aflTordyt^ as regularly to have a cold 
bath at their houfe to walh their bodies in» as 
a^bafon to wafli their hands ; and conAantly* 
two or thr-e^ times a week^ fummcr and witi* 
Icr, to go into it. And thofe t-hat cannot af- 
ford fuch convcnieney» as oftsen as they can,. 
to go into 9 river or living pond> to walh their 
bodies. But this ought never to be done under 
the adual fits of a chronical di(lemper> witlr 
a quick pulfe> head-ach, weak lungs,, or a foul 
fiomach ; nor ought they flay in till they ^re- 
over-chilled. And in winter, they ought tQ 
purfuc their exercifes immediately after they 
come out ; and thofe of tender nerves, ought 
to pour bafons of cold water on their head, or 
wafli it well with a dripping.fppnge before t key 
go in. I cannot approve the precipitant way 
©f jumping in, or throwing the head foremoft 
into a cold bath, it gives too violent a (hock 
Ho natucc,^ and rifques.too much the burfling 


fiwne of the firtallcf vcffeU. "The liatural way- 
i$, holding by a ropc> to walk down the 
ftepsas faft as one can, and when gottotlie^ 
bJDttomj bending tbeir hams (ai womenp do^ 
when they curtfey low) to (hortentheir lengthy 
>fo as to bring their head^ a*' good way under 
water, and then popping up' again to talS^ 
breath ^ and th1i« alternately for two or three 
times, and out again^ rubbing and cbrryingi^ 
well before they are drelTed. And this brings^ 
me t^ fay fomtthing: of another kind of ex» 

§ gf: Theflcfh btufh is an exercife moftiife- 
ftilfor promoting a full ancl free perfpiration 
and circulation ;.almoft every body knows,. 
%#hat well currying wil^'db to hbrfes^ in mak-?' 
ing them Oeek arid gay, lively and adive f; 
even fo much as to be worth half the. feeding*- 
This it can no otherwife effeduate, than by 
adding nature to throw off. by perfpirationr. 
the ♦recrements of the juices which' flop the. 
full and free circulationi ^and by-conftant fric- 
tion, irritation and ftimulation, to alKcite* 
Mood and fpif its to the parts mod diflant fVont 
the feat of heat ^nd motion, and fo to plump- 
up the fupdrficial mufclcs. The fame cffcQ ie 
"would produce in other animals', even human^ 
creatures thcmfclvcs, if they were managed in 
the fame manner^ with the fame care and re- 
gularity. I (hbuld think it therefore, well 


•t. Cv The gro&r paitji 



*worth the pains of perfons of weak ncrues and 

'fcdcntary liyc^f €fpcctall[y thofe threatened 

with paralytick diforders^ to fupply the want 

•of ezercife of otherkinds, with fpending ha^f 

an hour^ morning and nighty in currying 

and rubbing their whole body, more efpecially 

their limbs, with a flefli brufb. And it is n 

^wonder to me» that luxury has not brought 

«c6ld bathing and cufrying in ufe, upon the 

animals (efpecially thofe of them upon whom 

tthey can be fo readily made ufe of> fuch as ox* 

•€ii> plgsy veal, lamb, iand all poultry, which 

naturally delight in cold bathing) which are 

Jbiought to the table. For certain it is» that 

'Cleannefs and due excicife (of which, currying 

is one part) would much conttihote to make 

all animals whatfoever, without eirce|ition» 

healthier ia themfelves, fuller of juice and 

fpirits, and, confeqocBily/ "better food for hu- 

jnsai creatures. 

At to quiet# tbecondifcions of eKercife^etng 
determined^ there needs nothing to be faid 

dPf it. 


. *. 


ft<ules for Health and Long Life^ drawn 

from the Head 


«. TT7HATEVER was the original confli- 
VV tution of man^ in our prefent ftate, 
a due degree of exercife is indifpenfibly necef« 
fary towards health and long life* 

2. Animal food^ and firong liquors* feem 
not to have Hcen defigned for man in his ori- 
"^ginal make and frame ; but rather indulged* 
to (horten the antediluvian length of life* in 
order to prevent the exceffive growth of wick- 
ed ncfs. • 

3. Walking is the mofl natural and cflTec*' 
tual exercife* did it not fpend the fpirits of ihe 
tender too mucli. Riding a horeback is lefs 
labbrious* and more effedual for fuch. Rid- 
ingin a coach isonly for the infirm* and young 
children. Houfe exercifes are never to be al- 
lowed* but when the weather* or fome bodily 
infirmity will not permit going abroad ; for air 
contributes mightily to the benefit of cxercife. 
Children naturally love all Innds ofexercife* 
which wondcrtuHy promotes their health* in- 
creafes their ftrength* and ftretches out their 

4. The organs of the 1)ody that are mod 
tifcd* always become ftrongeft* and therefore 
we m^y (Irengthcn any weak organ by cxercife. 

5. Tte 

AND li'ONG LIFE. 85 

3. The lungs arc fortified by. loud talk'no^, 
^nd walking up an cafy ^fcent. The digeT- 
tion and the nerves are ftrengthenedf and 
moft head-aches cured, by riding ; the ftonc 
22nd gravel eiafcd by riding in a coach over 
rough groun'i ; rheumatick pains by playing 
It tennis, billiards, &c. 'till one fweatf and 
then going to ^ warm bed, to promote flic 
fweating ; feeble arms by playing at (hittle- 
cock, or tennis ; weak hams by football, and 
weak backs by ringing-, or pumping. The 
|;outy bed recover the ufc of their limbs by 
walking in rough roads ; but prevent the fita 
left, by riding a horfeback, of in a coach. 
The valetudinary, and the ftudious, ought to 
have dated times for cxertife, at lead two or 
three hours a day, the one half before dinner^ 
the other before going to bed. 

6. Exercife, t Should always be gone about 
with an empty ftomach ? 2. Should never be 
continued to wearinefs: 3. After it, one muft 
take care not to catch cold. And it (h«uld al- 
ways be accompanied with temperance, clfcy 
jnftead of a remedy, it will become an 

7. Cold bathiflg is of great advantage to 
health ; but (hould DOt be iifcd under a fit of 
a chronicd diftemper, with a quick pulfe, or 
with a head-ach, or by thofe that have weak 
Inngs. It promotes fcrfpiraticm,' enlarges 
Che circulation, and prevents the danger of 
catching cold. Thofc of tender nerves, 
fliottld pour wAtcr on their heads before they 

H ?* 


gp in,^ and none ough^ tojump in ft^dcnl/a 
aiid w|tb their ^4s ibremofty 

%. Tfa^ flefli bnifii if a 190S ufefql iezep»il4p, 
a^ appears by its advantage to horfesj and 
«i|gt^ not only to be qfed on human hpdjes* 
liut al(b on fefh ^f the animals wc dcQfiA. ^ 


A^l^i) 'iOV^ •L-IFTE. 9) 

a A p. if. 

X By ficg^^ bjrwafcr> a»dB/'pcrfpt- 
nfttoh. All fb^fc ihuft be dufy regiilatedy arid 
in the orddr df nature^ towards tnc prcfcrySli- 
libh oT licaTfhj aVd ^bc prbloriging 'of ^^fc. 
The fifft bii|fit to Bc'dta dtic 'cdnfiflfcncc be- 
tween both cktrtnics*,^** Oportct fan'drum fc- 
dcs cfle figurata'^. Thofe 'yihbzrcioRivc)^ 
have cit^'ci^ ovcr-htfatcd tlicir bodies Wiih 
ftrbhg trqiibrsi haye eaten ^ob 'fpVrrrigJy f 
have !oo "ffibw a rfigcftipn,^ or tKc^ pfcriftaufck 
motrph of 'tKcVr. giits arc tdb^ weal:, wTiVrcKy 
the Pood flaying t^ long a time before the 
mbiithsbf the llaScafs, Ts o^er-drained of its 
molflurc : ^hbfe wTib "bare purging ffools, 
have cittobmuclif or of things too firbng for 

H Z their 

* i. c. *rhc grofs evacuations ought to be of fn^ 
a eonddence in the healifay^ as to t^ke the imj>ter» 
fian of the guts. 


their concoSivc powers. For fuperfluous. 
»euri(hmcnt leaves too much chyle in the- 
t Fqecesj wJiich fermentitig in the gutSj fttmu^ 
lates them fo as to become a purge. I havo 
often obfervedj that a full meal of ftiong meatf» 
as fi(h,. beef, pork« baked meau. or made di(h-: 
es, in tender perfbfis^ goes off with the hurry, 
and irritation of a purge, leaving the boweU 
infiated,, cbolicked,. or griped^ and the fpiriti. 
fiink to the lad degree* The food, by its vaf- 
rious mixture, weight, and fermentation, fti* 
mutating all along from the ftomach to the 
TC&ixm,. and being fcarce ever drained of its. 
chyle^ without afibrding any nounfiimcnt to 
the body, funs^fFthus crudely, and bccomet 
equal to a total abflinence from food for a tong^ 
time. And hence we have a moft infallible*^ 
rule, *a poftertbri,. to judge if we have go- 
▼erhedr ourfelves in oir diet, in proporti- 
on to the neceffities of nature, and the 
fbrces of our concoftive powers. This is the ' 
▼cry reafon why the bark over-dofcd,. and 
g^ivcn to perfons of weak digcftion,, fo con- 
flantly purges then) j and wh)r mercury, gi- 
ycn either in^inirdly, or by firifiion, runs oflF. 
in violent purging, and cannot be raifed into 
a falivation ; to wit, the not adjufting the do-- 
fes to the flrcngth of the ftomacii anjl nervous '^ 


.fie. The food, is drained of its fiatri«. 

^ous paru. 

*^* e. After tb^ trial hat been iBade« 

flkts. For tfie bttr% nattsralfy hittis, and 
lihhrury namrilly rifes to tftt rnaft pcrViook 
g«aildy. Aha inthfs Icrifc^ I myfcif hive frci 
^[lirntfy oBfcfvttf ih weafcatid fcfofiiloui bo#- 
ds, even drafcbKKufrt, ihd veitice trciclc lA 
plifgc : w^hcreas, had the dorftil Bce» dltif 
phjporfidhcd, olr had they Bcgiin by liildfct- 
dbfihg, aticttaken a littte hAgcr tmci thciir 
cttd fitfgRt have been eflffeauaHy aftMercd i 
E^ I havt ofteir eiperhhieed tmhoift cttr iTdtl*^ 

^ t. And here'it may mit 6e sHrtFT^ ttf taSe 
liMice of a fatal miftakc thtyfe rdn intd^ whtff 
bting weakly, thin, and flendef, aim^ By aH 
itteans, and at any^ pHce, ta beeome pltami^ 
andrbtind, and" in order tb attach tftis, are 
pcrpcttiiallydevournig huge quantities of high* 
{ttong foadi and fifallo wi ng. prbporticnismlc 
ifie^ur^s of gtiferotts Tiqticrrs, not Knbwrrfg, 
that by thii very mcthoaA thet prtwitotc and 
GWtfirnr' the dife^ they would remedy ; fttr. 
hi foch ptrfbns and cafH, tfaci gtefiyRir p^ if 
tfie bioqd js conftantly of a fthiH ijazritirf^ 
and' vcty gfewy^^ stndt *Rc krtm pkjtty tfiw 
atrd watery, MiTCt i5> thr.Blbidi^ p66f afird*^^ 
s^jtfd the folrafsr or ntrvor arif loofe and' ttiSiiA 
Amf the .concoSrvt jpoWenir Betiifg huprcfpdf- 
iSctt t6 thefe two, 6r ttfidctrixcitee, tfi^ di^- 
tfoni mtifl be wtalb and* rnmerfea, ^^i^f 
fotctwtMVt t6 drffljlvt aifd-oreak an^ Qtiianfi* 
ty or Cttcti ftroi^ ttitt^ or rpirifciociip nqrors rtt^ 
rS ar proper cmfe for iioXtrHStayint And rffii 
glrc^ fba^f mutf cHhti? B«^ fitnri^ off crtfiWVt 
ivffoniT tnr^annjrATary aucnr mr iupniiinnei'a« 


Tf dikhsLTgcSf or the fmall portion, of chylf*. 
dr^vrn out of it^ being too grofs to unite ancL 
make a fimilar fluid withhthe mafscf the bloodf . 
nuiftbc precipitated through the other drains 
of the body ;. and thus the.. poor thin creature. 
iQuCl ftarve in luxuc/y. and. wafle anxidft iu- 
pcrfluity. TJie cafe is the fame with nurfes 
and parents in rearing up young children^^ 
The perpetual, gripps^, choficks^ loofenefs^. 
hard belli es^choakingsy. windy and convul- 
five (its> which torraem half the children ot 
England^ are entirely owing to the too great 
quantities^f.tooilrong fopd^.^md to^rank milk*., 
thruft down their throats by their overlaying, 
mothers and nuffes. For what elfe do thfcir* 
flimy, .their grey or chylous^ their blackifli. 
and cholerick difchargcs^ the noife and motion-, 
in their' bowels, their, wind and choakings». 
imply, but crudities from fuperfluous nou- 
rifliment ? This is fo certain^ that, they arc. 
iiniverfally, and infallibly cured by t^ftaceous . 
powders, which only, abforb (harp cruditiest, 
by rhubarb purges,. which at once evacuate, 
and (Irengthen the bowels, and by milk clyf- 
ters, iflues, and bliQers, . which are. ftill upon, 
the foot of evacuation ^ by^ cbdiaately perfift- 
ingih thefe,.andthejike (intended to evacu-. 
ate and ftrengthen the alimentary. pal&ges) 
and a thin, fpare, nutritive dieb' Nothing; 
nourilhes but food duly concpded; and, in-, 
the courre of nature, we mufi firft t>lump up. 
and extend,, and ihen..harden and ftrongthen. . 
This 18 the way venation. And« 
^kttt the animal creation, devoid of' reafon#« 
>JS^'J»e.thcir .young : .and thus even, the flJlftdC 
^ groom. 

/' * 


gfoom treats his wafted, and decayed horfe : 
and. (which, is wonderful) you (ball find a fa- 
g^cious horfe -do£^or plump up and fatten a: 
rottchy lean, broken-winded jade> and make 
him iookfleek, ga^». and liy«ly» foas tocheat 
not only the Efquire, but his brother dodor^ 
in fewer wceks^ than all the man-dodors iir 
England could rear up- their fcHow creature, 
in years^ It is true the juices of men are 
more varioufly* and more thoroughly corrupt* 
cd, and their folids entirely broken, which 
never happens to the brute creation. But the 
greateft mi( the negled of duly ob- 
rerving,. and religioufly profccuting a. proper 
regimen. This muft principally confift in a 
diet of foftf. lights tender^ cool» and mucila^ 
ginous foods, or fuch as are already become 
ohylc, either bj nature or art,, fuch are milk,, 
and milk^meats,. rice,, fago, barley, wheat,, 
eggs, broths, light' foops,. jellies, white, 
}x>ung, tender, and. well fed. pouftry, or 
butchery meat, , eatea little at a. lime, and of- 
ten, never without an appetite, nor to fatiety ;. 
joining tothefc, the other helps and affiftan* 
oes this treatife. When flefli is 
once come,, it is eafy to make it ftrong andi 
hardy, by due exercife, and a gradual adven-^ 
turing upon higher foods, and more. gcneroui. 

f . 3. L have often heard valetudinary and-^ 
tender perfons, and thofe of fedentarv lives, 
and learned ' profeffions, complain or head- 
a]ch&,.ficknefles at the ftomach^ choHcks and. 
|iripcs#^ iowncft of fgirits^^ wiiid#,aadyajpours«. 

9*- A tflfii^lSg^ otr ftBAlTR 

nnAjtf pfctcttA thty- wiefc modtfaCfe and ittlb^ 
mitfus in their caring and dfrnkm^; but, iip« 
on enquiry, I conftantly foliiid rtieft Ter^ pit*' 
fans purfnt* with purging ftootsy which wai* 
an cvidtnt proof> tu me, that they had taketr*' 
down more than fhey wanted, ot coold digcft. 
For it is univerfiaHy cerfatrii that th^^fc that" 
do not exceed, muft'httvc either c6ftiTC, or^ 
atleaft, ftooh oPa midtfle cbnflftcftee. There^ 
IS ncJthingttiorr tJdicftStbus, Chan to fee ^H*- 
der, hyftcricat artt^ vapburifh ^<i6ple, ptrpi?* 
tuaily cbm^jliiimng, aixdyetpctp*tual!y ci*2tin-' 
nifrig ; ctying.out, thty ifc rcjidy to fihk ih!^ 
to the ground, andt^irtf aw^jr,. and' yet gdi* 
bRitg d6wri the ritc^heff and'ffiro^gfcft food> tvid- 
ht^heft cordials,, to oppreft arid- dverfey them- 
Ignite. Ffefh and- generous fbod, rtfijfitig wHtt 
the ftirp humours of tHeffomach aiT*tfifc bbw« 
efe, may, for fomc fliore rirtie^ qinriifjrand ac- 
hate their irritation, af«d riifaly give a fillip t6 
tfie fltiggrfli circufetion, amd bttibme, di it 
Were, a cork to fttofhe pitpttmf fx^rhhtt *t*' 
of thefcf nOlTbus (te^m$ tfp<j:fr tfie btad' aitd^' 
brafin : binr thi^ i$ Xjiarcten rtlc firfiiKAide) as if 
one (houM go to qfcWnth tflc? ptfdffiWrt?af* 
ihrams of a cmnrtiOA-fewcf/ h^' tfiro^wtn^ 
in greater htapsiof-ordtxreandpiitnTaiice ?nto 
ir. The proper remcxfjr \rt this carft i^, Firffi 
To cleanfc the foetid abyfs, and then to pre* 
fcrve it clean by cutting off the inlets of putre- 
fitfltion. This wiir rtqpirt a Irttfcf cteuwi^r 
laBbiir, and pain i Btrt •»«' futtjfri^ erfc aij^ 
f#ectiiefe;, ^jiriif mwfc rHaif-abvttxIariffJ; Wcotfi^ 
ptncc them r for ttittt h ti6fhiftg^ rM^ ^M^ 




Exiglandy the hcad-achesf (lomach aches, «ho«> 
licks^ aad. nervous pains and diforders* uni- 
Tcrfally proceed front idlenefs and. fulnefs' of 

( 4. Thofe who eat but one moderate fieflt 
meal a day, will have regularJy once a dky ^ 
difchargjc of the remains of their food. And^ 
generally fpeaking> thofe that go oftner^ have, 
exceeded fomc how. Thofe who pretend to 
cure themfelves of nervous diforderSf dr any 
ether chronical difeafes^ or preferve them- 
fclves frontthem, or lengthen out their days» 
mud underdofe tiiemrdves ^and therefore ^aa 

Jo but once in two days) even thourh. they 
louid undergo the pain of coftiveneis. For 
it is impoffible the nerves of thofe who have 
fifppery bowels^, (hould ever be braced or 
woumi up;, for there the cur^ muft beginiJ 
wliere the evil began ; and muft be commune 
cated thence to the reft of the fyftem^ as & 
ropemaker begins the twift at one end. of the: 
rope^. and communicates it to alt the ether 
parts. Our accefs to the nerves of the ftomacK 
and bowehy is obvious and open : to the rtfSt^ 
the^ way is difficulty and far about* And fincc 
a relaxationt. weaknefs, and want of/fpringia 
the fibre&> is the origin of aH nervous diftem- 
pers^ no medicines^ but fuch as contrad» 
ftiffcn, windup^. and (horteo them, can re- 
medy this evih;. and they, muft neccflarilF 
contraS; and bind up the fibres of the ftomaca> 
and guts,, as the paits tliey firft approach and 
exert their virtue upon. And he« who with- 
QUl firiXLbowcJsi thinks to cure a nervous dif- 


94 A TmKTm on HeAK^ffi^ 

umiptfrt labours t^rnvbh hi vstiti^ irs Ifc 

woiiM kttp a 'fidditr-ilrmg (oAing hi oit mA' 
Vflter, to- tnriie it vilMifc or *pi9j 'aS a fixte 
Gompofitionof muficlu 

# 5. 'By-c*pferfen<feaitff o%fcrv«rion I have 
fouoa; rhat Jn llidfr v/k^ have Oftt tcgiilar 
diffchatgc m twcutj foUrhoufs, 'rtic time 61 ' 
the priDgi^ttf the food from the (hrniadi, YM 
h% rtmaitts- iarc thrown ^^ is three ii aloia t 
days. Atid in thoft who go biit once in two- 
da]rs, tbc time is fix natural dap. The cu« 
ti^trs m^ be i^rsfied ixrthis^ oy fwallowing' 
an almoiid^ lor any other nut^ which paffiiH 
whhcnit being. hroIctnV or making' any irrita- 
tion. The reafon is t^his^. that a m^Iltr <Q^n* 
tity of (bod is rctained^tangtr, by thriT fkm&ti^ 
atthe mouths of the hfteiah, to drain it enw 
tircly of irs'chylt, dinJits weight beknrg ttft> 
the concoflHvtr powrrt^ hate tte greater fortfe^ 
upon itv an* fa it is retained tilTit is jfttlc8L)y 
digcfttd^ and draintd of alf i^ faumiicttty ; 
whereby fuch petfple becotnfc CC^vt : i/ifl^fs'» 
in people that exceed', the - cfemfraty caufrf 

f>rtcipttate the cjtfurfe. iof the aliftxcnt^ and fe* 
cave the bowd^ alvaysr flippcty. And no- 
thing can more dcrtTOtiftratrvciy flitter an ex- 
cel^, than the hibricity of the difcharge ; antf 
I havcofitn bbfcrved in tender peifonV, and 
thofe of weak ncVvcs, when a meatftrtiexin 
only of ihofe who tat flelh Weat b\it dnfe a day) 
has been aKttfc t6o hard for the ftbttiiath, tho*^ * 
the f^irits has been M\ and free', tod itit 
health c^jual and good, by duly ptbpbrtibAMT 

^^1^ ' when 


irlieii the rrofs meal came off^.they have bern 
lldlof winaand'Vapourst their eye» dim^ and 
Cheir heads heavy, with flying rheumatick 
jpaias over the body> and cbollc^-gripes from 
whence wc may draw thcfe three corolla* 

Cored, f . It reqtiires the fame time for the 
a^nconcdSed chyle of>a grofs meal to run the 
circle of the habit, and the feculent remains 
to pafs through the guts i the firft by perfph- 
ration, and the laft by fiege. 

Coroll. 2. We may likewife gather from 
Whence, a confirmation of that apbocifm of the 
phyfipian^i that the errors of the firft concoc- 
tip.nsj are never mended in the fiibfequcnt^ 
unleTs the^csife to be mentioned in the next 
paragraph be an exception to it. For "the gr ofs : 
meal gave rather more uneafineftf, when it 
came to be thrown off by perfpiratioii. 

t!!broI). 3. From hi^nbe we may alfo lee, the 
ridiculournefs of the vulgar opinion, afcribiitg 
univerfally the pain "they fufer, or rtrcjreUrf 
tfaey.&xd^ totte laftme^oi mcdrcinc. 

§ 6, There are fonfp ibits of food wMdk 
ffeiay opnrefs and load theitomach and alhnen* 
iarj docks in the firft concpftion* whteh may 
At very bit and btnign inthe (iibfequent oai^t. 
jj^r iii(hnct» dieeie, eggs, mRk-meats, andl 

5« A TREATISE on HE;tt.TH 

4i]imcntary paflTages of fome perfons (and jet 
<lrinking of water wiN always remedy this m- 
conveniency) : But thefe neitlier having their 
parts ftrongly united^ nor abounding in (harp 
urinous Talts, when tliey become fufficiently 
diluted with a watery menflruum, ordiflblved 
into their component parts, and their parts be* 
ing Sill fmaller than the fmalleft veuels, and 
their union conftantly leis, than the force of 
4hc coi^codive powers, in perfons who haye 
any remaining fund of life in them ; will 
thereby yield a fwcet, thin, and eafily circu- 
lating chylcf in the after concoSions become 
benign and falutaryj. and afford no materials 
fer^chronical diftempers. And the wind thence 
generated, not being pointed and armed with 
Aich (harp falts, as thofe of fle(h meats, or the 
corrolive juices of fpirituous liquors, will be 
as innocent and fafe^ as. the clement we. 
breath in. 

: $. 7. The fecond evaouatioii is by water, 
vhofe circumflances and condition, tho' little 
adverted to, niay be of great fervice to difcover 
both the ftate of our conditution, and the pro- 
portion of our diet. Some people-are frightened 
ivhen they £nd their water .turbid# broken, and 
full of brick- dud fediment ; whereas that is the 
bed fyfliptom it can have. For tho' it fuppo- 
fes the blood loaded with urinous faltf and cru- 
dities ; yet 'tis ftill better they (hould pafs oflF 
than continue in the habit. On the contrary^ 
when th|9fe that live freely, have quantities of 
pale, limpid and fwect water, it is a certaia 
^un that the perfpiration it ftopped ; that nei' 
^ ther 


AikD ^pNTS LIFE. ff^ 


'^fr the firft nor the fccondary concodbns ' 
^iiave been duly performed; that the chy4e had 
not been fufficicntly broken, • nor the finer fe- 
cretions duly, made by^ the lofler drai n» ; and 
that the urinous fahs are ilill retained in' the 
iiabit. Upon which muft needs cnfue oppref^ 
lion of fpiritSf chills upon the extremities, dy- 
*ing rheumatic paina over the body, bead- 
achesj cholicks and gripes. And here it niay 
not be amifs, to take notice of the difference . 
of the pale water oC hypochondriacal and hyf- 
lerical perfonsj irom that of thofe who labour ^ 
under a true diabetes, the apprehenfion of 
which terrifies fo often the low and difpirited 
perfons of the firfl- clafs. The water of both 
has the (ame.appearance,;k)th in quality and 
quantity ; atlesdt, in the 4irfk inftance, they 
are both attended witfa^hfe fame inking 4nd 
difpiritednefs* ; But in a^'lrue diabetest ibere 
is a conflant thii^fty a low^ot quick pulfe, the; 
water is much fweeter, ^d continues longer 
to come off in profufe <|uafntitieSf infomucb^ 
that fometimes it is fo violent as to rundown 
'the party in a few days* In hypechnndriacal 
and hyllerical perfons, there is little* or no 
third, never a^quick pi^fe, but rather too low 
and flow a one, the flux foon -flops of itfelfj or 
by any little diapboretick medicine, and they 
are cold upon the extremities^ which the 
others are^oot. 

§ 8. That blueifli and Tariegated Simp 

which fometimes looks like oil and fat fwim* 

oning on the water of fcorbutick and cachee- 

^^.perfonsj is nothing .but the congregated 


fiilts wMch are crowded fo thick tegeibet^ thai! 
4bey are ready to (boot imochx(Mri> AHScb lite 
the, film of a fLizivium^ when l^andifii^ ^ 
the crjftallizatiDn of fixed faks. The mM6i 
which bai a light cloud hangisig almoft front 
tlie lop tethe J^tfom^ is of a bright amber CD* 
lourt and abovt three <|iia]tert of the liqiior 
taken dowm^ liT beft» and a ceitaifi fign of a 
due concofiion* a juft prpponioiiof food, and 
a tetal.abfti^ of refletkm and crudity. And 
thofe vho U^^ ^nDpcratcly,. ufe doe eftcrctfe^ 
and enjoy a pttkA fiate^of bstkht altiwya 
make ftich 

\$ 9* Tfaofe who are fotsjeA tn great ^tn^ 
titke of limpid 4ndi pale wiacer« ought tb em^ 
<^dej,tbat their food has heen too liea^y in 
'quality^.or toomadtfinfpiantiiyfbrtheir coli<- 
QO&iYe. powers^ ordieir labour too liltie$ and 
that therefene^ they tsiiglrt to propoittOR hoth^ 
f<K the. fttt«re^ wtd^mopecantiotiattd cxaA^ 
x^fdk bry Jiviiig law for (bme tine^ or tffing 
xmnc: «B0fctfec And io ftop tlietr flua of pate 
VfmtTk they ought 410 take a liltk Gafeoign^a 
piowder^. confedwn of iMkermesy or Sir Wal^ 
ttr Rajeiigjh'j ^oidiil at nighr> and driiA t!bt*^ 
rally of faiaU wami fadb wbey^ widra fkft- 
dropi af ^irit of Hait Vhani v td fetthte P^^\ 
ration: in order agat». iWe,. on tbt othtr 
handj who make high coloured^ fettt» afbd M*'' 


JkKD-.fJ&wa LIFE. 99 

^turbid wifter in fisialier quantitiesy hare ei- 
ther inflamed their Mood too much withijf^iri* 
fuous ljq,uoPf>^ or loaded it with too gnm z 

gKiiitiiy of AAinaal dilts. To prevent tkere-' 
re^ diforders and diiea£»r they muft Jeflbts 
Mio^qamity oftbeir fleib mtaty^ and temper 
the li$«t of tbeir wtne With water. RUe they 
^ill lay the foimdation of fqine oocute inAam* 
^liitoryy or dftttgerotM chtonieat diftempor. 

~ § )0k The worft kind of warer of all, fs 
fi^ of o dack bfown' or dirty rdr ^A'^ ioiall 
^Mamity» and mitbonir a»y fcdiiDcnt^ Tiiit 
Wd of water> uiaccitedifaafo»f ahsays nKfi<* 
«ilte$4nfiiperabfe teriidi^^ high nifidiTMMtmii 
Heiidtng^ tQfwocdt morltficatiofiy and « di^ilg. 
t&M^iior in natoee. And in perfbm lidMoring 
under no vifiUe ditfempcr at die time, an al^ 
aioft total deUIity of the conoofl^ve poiwrtt 
an infeimraUe muoaof the ^oomftitoent pmmi 
9f the bloody the btgbeft degree of crndhyr 
and a deadi^f^ in> al^the animal ftrnfttons: 
JifSii if preceded By lon^ continual evceflfcfti . 
(C^oirea the advice of a phyfician. I (haH fisiy 
nothing of. ooflFee-cobored^ bloody » 'wheyifti^ 
or porulent water, e^ that with white gmrel, 
(Ima^ ragSf or inu of br<)Iten ntembfancs* 
"lAbey are well known to be nq>hritickV^ 
firmptoms ofaBuicerfeme whwe m lAie ntiaa* 
j^ paflpK^M^ . 

§ II. There happens alTo an evacuation 
Both by fiege and nrtne, to fome weak pcrftm$ 
of relaxed nerves, that extremely alarms, the 
fatientr ^mmI* is not ^ readtfy acooomcd for m jj^ 

foo A:- treatise: ^i^MLTH 

oaon* JflEtllogy, It is when cither a whit* 
traarparenty vifctd fubftancc^ like jelly, ir 
eonftantly ▼oided by the bewrk, .more or lefs f < 
•r when a white, milky, glewy fiibftancet 
like cftam or laudable matter, fettles in the 
iprater : both jthefe appaaranccs arc- commotily 
a&ribedto an ulcer in the guts, or in the ki(P 
neys, the very apprehenfion of' which is al* 
moft.fufEcient, in feme low perfons^ to brin^ 
on the difiemper feared : and yet, I am very 
certain^ there is neither ulcer nortrue master 
m either cafe, as I prof^ofe them. For where 
there is vioteiit and acute paiii, or matter 
of different colours or mixtures^ there, ve^y 
poffibly, may be, nay, certain there 'is^ air 
ulcen But in the cafe I hereintend,.there is ve-* 
ry little or no pain ;.nd hedical paroxyfms, 
which always/ attend an inward ulcer ; no 
bloody or faniotte mixtures,: which always 
bttray the inwardlbre ; no fetid fmell to imply> 
corruption. For the cafes I put at prefent^, 
happen to perfons the lead; capable of inflam* 
{nation- or impofthumation, viz. to paralytick 
perfons^ or thofe of a natural tenden'cy thair 
way^ to c^ld^ vapouri(h perfons of low fpirits 
and weak nerves, whofe pulfe is low andilow, 
and their natural fun6lion« weak and languid ; r 
aU which evidently fliew^ that thefe difchar* 
ges cannot? come from aa.uloer. The firft; 
€ale iitakc either an obftrudion of feme 


^vThtt piirt oCiPbyfic which teaches ih< C«ttCe» 

jftVfW ^ D N a 1- IF E. tw 

of the ladcals^ whereby tlie chyle cannot be 
carried oflPinany fufficient quantity^ butpaf- 
fing through the gntSj^ and' its more watery 
part being emaporated^ it becromes thick and 
gelatinous^ and is thrown ofFat faS with the 
remains ot the food. Effe it ipuft be an ob« 
ftrudion oFthofe glands of the guts^ by whicli 
a viicid matter for lubricating oftbem^ is com- 
monly fc;cerned; by the imprironment and 
eyaporation of which mdtter^ it thickens and 
turns tike a jeHy (as it does by cold; or ovcr- 
ftbedingf in the gtaiids^ of the mooth^ throat 
and windpipe*) andi at hfk, by the fqueezin^ 
oftfaegtrts^ is thrown off. And in the fame 
manner^ I take that milky fubftance fubfidtn^ 
in the water* in&ch at^afe as T have menti- 
oned« to arife fi*om a relaxation of the glands 
of the kidneys and bladder^ and other urinary 
paiTages ; and that both, are to be cured the 
fame way other nerv«us diftempers arecuredf 
viz. by a proper regimen ofdret>anda courfeof 
oontrading^.ftrengthcutngf and voiatite me« 

f 12. The infenfiMe perfpiration. Is the 
third evacuation to be confidered. The (hiti*- 
cat chair invented by San£torii|Sj for examin* 
ingtjie quantity c^ the pelrfpiratio^, bovver 
ingenious and defighthit in fpeculation, istOQ 
cumberfome and laborious to beef any gteat 
Ufe in common life. 'Tis certain', howeyeri 
that the free and fult flowing of thh evacuati* 
on# is as neceflSry to health as any of the grofs- 
cr, iince in quantify it is at lead equal to both 
Ihe foremcntionedit ^nd an obftruction Ihere-^ 

I 3 <& 


ofj IS generally the fourcc of all acute difcafcs^ 
Its it Ua confequence of all chronical ones. And 
therefore, I advife thofe who^rc much abroad 
in Eafterly and Northerly winds (which mod 
of any obftruS. pcrfpiration) and have fluxes 
of white, and p^le water, to a ready Antidote, 
to prevent the beginnings of thelc obllrudi* 
ons. V 

f 13. Dr. "* James Kfeill has made it out,, 
t^eyond all pombility of doubting, that catch- 
ing of cold is nothing but fucking in^ by the. 
paflages of pcrfpdration^. large quantities of. 
moid air and nitrous faks,. which; by thicken-, 
ing the blood am) juices (as is evident from^ 
Ueedlng aftercatching.cold) and thereby ob- 
firiif^ing,^ not only the perfpiration, but alfo. 
all the other finer f^cretions, raifes immediate- 
ly a fmatl fever and a tumult in the whole ani- 
mal oeconomy ; and,^ negieded, lays a foun.* 
dation for confumptions,.obftrudions of the. 
Kreat Yifccra,,and univerfal Cachexies. The. 
tender therefore and valetudinary ought cauti- 
oufly to avoid all occtfions of catching cold, 
and it they have been fo unfortunate as,to get 
one, to fet about its cure immediately, before. 
it has taken too deep root in the habit. From 
the nature of the cliforder thjus defcribcd, thp 
remedy is obvious ; to wit, lying much a bed, 
drinking plentifully, of fmall warm fack whey, 


His Staiica Bfttaiu>ic«« 


i4th^^ f^w drops of fpirit of harts- horn, poffct- 
4rinkt water'gruelr. or any other warm fmall 
liquors^ a fcruple of Gafcoign's powder mor- 
ning and night> Living low upon fpoon- 
meats 9 pudding, and chicken, and drinking;^ 
every thing warm r in a word, treating it at^ 
£r(l as a fmail fe.ver, with gentle diaphore* 
ticks ; and afterward, if any cough or fpit- 
ting (hould remain (which this mcthbd gcnc^^ 
rally prevents)-by fofteaing the BVcaft with a. 
little fugar candy, and oil of fweet almonds,, 
cr a folution of gum ammoniac,, an ounce to 
a quart of barley water ,r to make the cxpedo--- 
cation eafy ; and going cautiopfly and welt, 
cloathed into the ^ir- afterwards. This is a 
much more natural, eafy and ed^edual me- 
thod, than the pradices by balfams, Hnfius's,. 
peSorals, and the like trumpery in common, 
ufe, which fervc onlv to fpoil the ftomach,, 
opprefs the fpiritsj ana hurt the. conftttution. 

§ 14* T^ht fpreft way of maintaining and.* 
promotmg a. due perfpiration, is, to take 
down no more food'^ than what the conco^ive. 
powers are fufficient to reduce into a due flui- 
dity, and theexpences of living require^^ to 
profecutc neceflary exercife,. and. ufe the other 
afllftances advifed in the' fbregoing-. Chapters., 
Want of due reft, and the refrelhment that 
follows^ upon It, ftartinj,tof&ng,.: and tumb- 
ling a bed, are certain ngns that tKe perfpira- 
tion is not duly carried oa in the night feafoa. 
And therefore, in order- to remedy ahisj a. 
greater proportion of exercife, a greater degree 
of abftinencci/prfome gentle domcftic. purge,, 


\ 104. A T^REATISR on HEALT* 

jfioft be had recottrfe to the next day. Cho^' 
Kcal pains,- gripes and purging, much erufia* 
tion and bekhing of wtnd,^. lo«r fpiritcdnefs^ 
fawning and flrctcbiiig,-are infaltibfelignsihair 
me perfpiration flows not freefy and- plentiful* 
ly then^ Aiid therefore >the fame remediet- 
ougi^t to be proiecut¥d> asfoonas an opportu* 
nit^ offers; elfe jthe party wilt fuffer at laft. 
Wind, as Sandorius ob^enres and demon- 
flrates, is nothing but obftrufied perfpiration :: 
and yawning and ftretchtng,' arrbut convulsi- 
ons of the proper mufcles and organs appointed* 
by nature^ the one for pumping up wind from- 
the bow<Os> tt^c other for preffin^upon thr 
excretory duQi in the ffiii^, to force out the 
fluggifb perfpiraMe matter. And it is beautt- 
fijl to obfcrve,. how wifely nature has contriv- 
ed the fpafms, cratnps and convulfiotts of tlic 
proper organs, to expel every noxious and ex^ 
tranecftis body out of the habil. Thus coughs 
i|ig is a convulfion of the dta4>hragmy and mgf. 
des^ of the fareaft>^. to throw out vifeid 
phlegm ;. vomiting of the fbmaeh, (aftfied* 
by tbediaphraj;m and mufcles of the abdomen)- 
to throw up its crudities, and thofe of the bow- 
els ; or to expel f and or ^nes from the kid- 
neys. The throws of labouring women, $u^ 
to bring oflTtfie burden* Sneezing »s an effort 
of the proper niofcles to ejed fome noxiour 
partidesfromthcbrgans offmelBng^ Shiver- 
ttkg and' ffretching to^ aSft* perfpiration ; and' 
ya^ytpff to jpump up^ hoxioue wind. An4' 
nt£ laughittg itndf, is an eflxxrt t>f the muf- 
cfes of the whole trunk, to throw off fomerhinc' 
..that kMlbttcate nicmtauicf caimot bear. An<^ 
1^ laftly^^ 


Blftly« hyfterical fits and conYuIfioos^ both iji 
infants and perfons come to maturity^ are bat 
violent efforts^ ftruggics^ workings, cramps 
and fpafms of aU the mufclibs of the whole body 
together^ to ezpeffs fqueeze and preis out tha 
iharp acrimonious wind^ fumeSf and'vapourt 
from the cavities of the whole machine. 

f 15. There is ai^ evacuation incident to 
perfons of weak nerves , which could not coi)* 
venientlv come in under the general divifion^. 
becaufe it happens toa feldom to-make a ncM^ 
member oi it. It is a^ifcharge of thin rheum 
from the glands* of the mouth,, throat and &m» 
snachf and is called by fomCf a nervoiis or 
fco^butick fpHting. It rifes fomettmes tB (he 
heighth of a )>etit flux d^ Bouchey. as the 
French call it, and threatens feme tender per* 
fons, as they apprehend, with a confumpti^*^ 
on, though it' imply nothing, Jt(s» We majp 
obferve fome, who are ftruck with a deep pal- 
fey, to -flow at the mouth, and /drivel dowis 
their tj^reafts ; infomuchi that* the afflided of* 
this fort,^ whg^ are advanced in years, can 
fcarcc^fpeak intclligibly.fcr the flur, 'tiH they. 
have firftempiicd and* cteancd their mouths. 
And this arifes to fo great a heighth^. ix^ foiho 
much broken paralytic perfons,. that, upon;: 
the (lighted oeoaQonsf either of joy or griefs 
they are apt to run into a profufion of tears,, 
fighs and fobbingsi And fome forts of Ideots,.. 
and thofe hyfteriraliy 4nbiuped, and' mod of 
thofe who fufler from relaxed and weak nerves,, 
are more or Icfs fuhjcS to thefcfalival difcharg- 
es,, cfgeciaily after excei&s ia diet.. ,HcncQ 




tbe £rft fort receive the appettarion ef Tsii^ 
fersor drivellers* And the difSeuttj of tlie: 
mre of all tbe difeafcs of weak nerre* dopendi^ 
much on the quantity a«d- eonftitvtioil ctf ibio 
lux. For Qmch aAd kmg fpttting afid nm- 
img off of diift rheimiy impNet a total rcknm** 
tion of the whole nervous fyftem, and (kewa 

_iieither the firflr nor fecond concodions have 
been ddiy performed^ 1 have frequently had^ 
•ecafioR to fliew^ iSow eiLcefles in the ooantity 
or quality of the feod> in perAmt of relaxed* 
and weak nerves^, begot a vifcid and grofb 

f fhyle, of whioh that pan,. wMeb could not gcf 
tbro' the bideals, fay dermentinf and putrifyini^ 
m tbe alimentary paflages^. begot winds, grtpeo 
asid chelieksy. andat bft wrought itfeif off Mce 
a purge ;. ai»d that pjHt^ whieh got tbreuglr 
Ihe niAeak^ and was received within the K- 
mils of the circniation, berng too grofs an# 
gkwy to be mixed with the old mafs of the 
fluids, to eircidata ikrough tbe fmalleft veflels^ 
Md to enter the -fine perfpiratory grands, woulA 
-wcceffiMrily be thrown into the wider,, more 
fjpongy and loofe (alivary glands^ which arc 

' appointed by nature to feeern the more giutv- 
nous parts o^ the fluids. And from thenee 
liiis falivary inundatiHon proeeeds^ The faft 
is^ wheh thoie of weak- nerves^ eommit habi- 
tual exeeflks in their diet^ the glands anA 
fmall vefiels of all the body are tumified, (well- 
ed and obftrudied thereby^ as they needs muft 
be. Audit is from the preflure of thefe enlarge 
ed glands, and the ohftruded capillary veflela^ 
' on the nerves, and patent blood veffcts, that 
Mfft o£tbe evile the; fuffer under proceed. But 


31N:B' tOTiO LIFE- T&! 

iftpedMf^ nrtiht gl^Mls appointed to draw 
•off tiic mwt Vi(c\i ferotts part of tlic blood, 
^bftroSied aod tamified thereby. Upon which 
^cooantj as^ Barii^i advifes^ lo cnqaire weft 
into the Hate 'of the tongtie and moi|ph| in or« 
4er to difcover the condition of the ftonia;;db« 
guts and beweh i fo Ithinlc it is highly reaf6D- 
abiet in a chrdnieai cafe^ to havie great ft^gard* 
to the coffoKtion .of the eyes; and if a dead 
cold langnor ht oUerrcd in the hue or water 
^ofthem (a« Jewellers fpeak cf diamonds} and 
more efptcially if the lachrymal gland in tb^ 
•corner next the noft't wMch I always narrowly 
infped; \f, I fay, this gland be toond harder^ 
or larger than ordinary^ (wdled and tamitied, 
it muft certainty be concluded, whatercr effe 
be in the cafe, ^here muft be a relaxed ftate df 
nenres, much trapours, weak natural fundi- 
onsy and a mifmanaged reghnen. And it li 
from the oMrudion; and firaling of this and 
the other giind^, in and abttutthe eyes, and 
their preffiiire upon the o^cal nerves, aa#'' 
fine blood veflUs, that t^e fpott, flies; 
atoms, dhnnefs^ darknefs^ and tonfufion dP 
fight> in v^ofurifii and hyfterica! people pr6« 
ceed. For tfris gland (hews, that the wliidte ' 
ferous gtMdsr in the upper regions of the bodv 
are, in proportion, ttmirfied and fweHed with 
vUbid humonrs through escxnefs of dieti; unlefs 
the perfotihiave fufFeird thtre-hy accident, ^ 
labonrs under fome natural difordcrs of the 
eyes. From the obftrudioa and fwclliog.of 
the (alivary glands in the mouth, throat and 
gulldt^ proeosd adfo thofe chqakingi, g«ilpin|f. 
and ftraoglingt that byftcrkk pcrfons fo trfteit' 


complain of. The wind and crudities lodgdi 
^n their flomach and gutsi^and the reft of the 
cavities of the body> prej^Sing to get vent up- 
wards, are rcfifted arid ftopped in their paiTagt 
by the diaphragm, whereby the infpiration is ^ 
4trcightncd, and; by the bulk of thefe gland« 
throughout thcgiillet the way is intircly ftopp'd ; 
which raifesfuch a tumult andftruggle, as pro- 
duces t^e mentioned fymptomsr; which >I have 
not leifure to detail here jnore minutely. Now 
-this falivation or difcharge of the thinner 
rheum« and that coughing and hawking of 
more vifcid phlegm, commonly called a ner- 
vous cough, as alfo the ohincough of chil-. 
dren, and all inch .difcharges of (harp ferum 
in perfons of weak and relaxed nerves, is an 
cFort of nature, to xelieve them. And, if dif- 
creetly managed^ add duly heeded, would 
prove a criiis to their diforders and quite frcc^ 
them from their prefent * paroxyfms, and fet 
the circulation and perfpiration, and confe- 
-quently the fpirits, at /recdom and Hberiy 
again. 'Some perfens mod diftradedly run 
to drams and cordials to remedy this evil, to 
ftop the violence of this deluge, and to raife . 
their drooping fpirit«. .But it £erves pnl v to 
thicken the phlegm, (hut up the mouths or the 
faliVary glands clofer, and .fo to perpetuate . 
the evil ihey mean to cure. Others devour 
iarge ijuantities of high and generous foods* 


)^ The ftaFpcft part of the Taffctbg fit df « 


■fcccaufc they find a Httlc relief to their fpiritst 
from the firft mn of the fweet, thin, and fpiii- 
^uous chyle ; but this is only adding fuel to 
the fire^ and running on in a perpetual round 
oflownefs and ilavering. Whereas^ Would 
they fuffcT nature to aS her own way, to car* 
ry on this critical difcharge asFarasit will 
go, without offering in the lead either to 
check or promote it ; but by thin, light food> 
and cool liquors, in moderate, or rather un^ 
der-dofed quantities, fupport her' in the man- 
ner the conoo6ti?e powers arc fufficient for ; 
after (he had difcharged all the crudities from 
the mafs of the fl^uids^ by thefc cmunftory 
glands, and thereby given a free paflage t» 
the wind to efcape the way it tends, the faliva- 
tion would ieflen gradually, and at laft flop of 
itfelf. And if then towards the decline, agen- 
tk vomit, to pUmp up the flow and vifcid re- 
mains of the wind and phlegm in the upper 
part of the alimentary paflages, and after- 
wards a gentle ftomachick warm purge, to 
foourthe lower part of thefe tubes, were care* 
fully adminiftered ; the patient would foon 
find a clear head, iightibme fpirits, eafe and 
freedom from pain and eppreffion ; the cir- 
culation arid perfpiration would be foon 
brought to their natural and found flate, and 
health and cheerfulnefs reftored together ; un- 
lefs a mortal or habitual fpilting was the 
cafe, which I have fometimes obferved, as fa- 
tal and incurable as a true dropfy, or invete- 
rate diabetes; all which, owe their being to a • 
deep fcurvy, whereby the globular part of the 
blood is intirely broken, and the fcrum made 
a u^ccr lixivium or lye. 


iC Bright amber coloured water > witb ^^ 
light fediment lifing toward the top, amount*' 
Jng to three quarters of what is drank^ is a 
fign of good drgeftion. 

17. Great quantities of pale water proceed 
from excefs in the quantity of food, and want 
of cxcrcffo. The cure of it is performed' by 

' eating lefs, ufing more exercife^ and taking 
fome dtaphoreticksj to fet the perfpiraiioAr 


18. High coloured turbid- water in fmaft 
quantity, ihews abundance of animal falts in 
'tfco' hsbfty-or the immoderate ufc offpirituous 
iiqiiors ; -and muft be cured by vegetable foodi 
«nd watery <)r other fmall drink; 

19. Dark brown water, or ofadirty rcd^ 
.is extremely dangerous, both in acute cafes^. 
end in thofe'tiiiat fecm at prefent to ail no- 

to. Bloody purulent water, and full of^ 
(iUns, ' is > a fign of nephritick' ailments, Clone 

2x: The vifciid matten tike jeffy, in- the 
Aobls; and-the- vifcid milky fubftance, fome- 
sivhat like matter, in the urine of fome people 
of weak nerves, proceed from a corruption of 
the liquor ?rf^>he' mucous glands of the intef- 
tines, and ef%h€h bladder^ and other unnary* 

'... *'- '' 2^. Ob- 


AK0 tO»<? LIFE, xyj 

22. ^bftruQion of pcnpiration is one fource 
of acute difeafes^ and aconfequenceofchroni* 
eal ones. 

23. Catching of cold is an: obftnifiion of 
perfpirationr by the I^umid and nitrous par- 
ticles of the air. It (hould be cured by gentic 
diaphoreticks, and not by balfamick pcdo-* 
ral8> which do no good but la the end of the 
cure^ to promote expefioration from the longs^ 
it there be a^nj occa^pn for it« ^ 

^ Ptrfpiir of weak nerves^ lidTe often a 
critical flux of rheum from the gl^mds of the 
iBOV^h.apd throaty to a very large quantity^ 
4»hiclu if not tampered wi^» brings thqoi 

iPCff ,C«,4jr- 

■< -v ' 


- > 



Of' the PASSIONS. 

f I. T Come ncm, in the ordkr of my firft 
,1 propofcd mcthodj te treat of the paffi- 
pn$ ; which have a greater influence on Health 
and long life,. tha« moft people are aware of. 
And that I may proppfe my fcheme with the 
greateft clcarnefs I can, I will'Tay.dbwn fome 
propofirions or axioms, as the ground-work on . 
which it is founded. 

Prop. I. The foul refides eminently in the 
brain, where all the nervous fibres terminate- 
inwardly, like a mufician by a well-tuned in- 
ftrumem, which has keys within, on which 
it may play, and without, on which other 
perfons and bodies may alfo play. By the in- 
ward keys, I underftand thofe means by which 
the thoughts of the mind afTcGt the body ; and 
by the outward, thofe whereNy the adions or- 
fenfations of the body afFeft the mind. Both 
thefe affedions may be called paflions in a ge- 
neral view, as either part of the compound 19 
afied upon. 

holjum. Ais^aman is compounded of two dif- 
^ prmdples^ foul andi)ody > and as there arc 



two difFercttt kinds of outward objtjQs, by whick 
thefc two different principles maybc-aded up- 
en ; to wit» matter and.^irit ;. the paffions ia 
rhcfc two- different, views may be divided into 
fpiritual and animal. As to the firft branch 
ot this divifion, fince fpirits (iF I may be al- 
lowed there are any fuch beings) may be fup- 
pofed to ad upon one another, without the 
mediation of organical bodies (fuch perhaps 
was St. Paul's extafy, when he was wrapt up 
in the third Heavens ; fuch was Mofcs's com- 
merce with his Maker, when he fpoke to God 
face to face ; fuch muft the influence of the 
Divine Grace befuppofed;. and all who allow 
of Revelation, admit, that the foul may be 
ferene and tranquil, while the body is in dif- 
trefs and pam ; and even all the Aoick philo- 
fophy is grounded on this diftindion) it muft 
have a real exigence in nature. And the 
ether branch muft alfo be allowed by all *hofe, 
who cannot think brute animals mere ma- 
chines, and who obfervc, that we have im- 
prcflions made on our bodily organs, wh ch 
afFcft us, fometimes,. very deeply, even in 
our flcep. However thefe things be, it is fuf- 
ficient for my purpofe, that man is allowed to 
be a compounded being, on which outward 
objeds may zSt, to abftrad the conGderation 
of the impreflions made on the fpirit, from 
thofe made on the body. 

Propi II. The tinion of thefe two princi- 
ples in the compound, Man, feems to confift 
m laws pre-eftabliflied by the author of na- 
rure> intfac coi|unonicatio2i« ^between bodies 


«fid fpiritt, as there are^ no doubt, lavs ttm^ 
Miflied for fpirinv* in their :Commer9e and adir- 
^ns upon one aaprher. For every one knoiva 
ihere arc laws of nature, eftablilbcd hy iai 
author, for the afi»ions af bodies vpon oaier 

Scholium. Thefe )awsof«fae afiions of the 
fcul on the hodft and of the bodj upon the 
foul, are never to be known taut« but by then* 
eflfbA^I as the la\n tiF nature in the aSions of 
i»odies upon one anorher, were fir ft dtfcovered 
hj experiment, a«id afterwards reduced into 
.^general prppofitions. -Qae taw of the aQion 
tff the foul on the body^ tfoe. viceverfa, fecmt 
to be, that upon fuch and foch motions pro* 
duced in the mufieal inftrament of the body^ 
fuch and fueh ienfations fitould arife in the 
snind; and on fuch a«d fudi adionsoftbe 
foul, fuch and fucfa iootions in tlie body 
fhould enfue ; tnuft like a fignal agreed to i>e- 
tween two Generals, the one within, the 
other without a eitadd, which (hould %nify 
ito one another what they have before agrcfd 
coj and cftablHbed iktween them r or fike the 
"key of a c^^pher, w4iitfh readily explains the 
otherwife uainteHtgibie writing. Beudes thefe 
ps^ons and ffffc&ions, wliieh^are tnvolontarjr- 

Prop. ' III. As bodies are ^rely pafllve, and^ 
jare aaed upon by other bodies, confarma- 
We to rtie fettled, kuvs of nature ; and fpiMtual 
Hbeings, on the contpaiEjr, there is 4n aftifvfer 
*jGelf'motive, fefMctermining prinoipliQy. by 
i#Efcli-4t d i wfti "aii d ^tsmtrngm fitfetf ^itb «e- 



fzfd not only to its own felf^ and its own fcn^- 
timents ; but aifo to its adions and infhjcnce 
on other beings without it, and their anions 
and influence on it. And this is the founda> 
rionof liberty* or freiewiily in rational and iiv- 
telligent beings. 

Scholium. That this faculty or principle 
really exifts, and is eflential to fpiritual be- 
ings, is as certain, as that there is motion in 
the univerfe, or that body and fpirit are efien- 
fially different. For, that motion is not ef- 
fential to bodies, is as certain as that bodies 
are impenetrable; and that the cpiantity of 
motion in the univerfe, may be, and is daily 
increafed, is as much demon flrat ion as any 
Propofition rn Euclid. And if motion be, is^ 
or may be increafed, it muft arife from fpiri- 
tual beings. And he who can deny this, on^ 
ly (hews himfelf ignorant of the principles of 
all true and jufl; phylofophy, and of the firft 
elements of the fyfVem of material and fpiritual 
beings. For further conviction of. this, ancU 
clearing up aH poffible objcdions and difficuU 
ties, I refer the reader to .the learned and in- 
genious Dr. Clarke, in his anfwer to the tn> 
quiry into liberty, and his letters to Mr. Leib* 
nitz, where be has treated this matter with tbe 
greatcft pcrfpicuity and juftnefs. Befides thcfe 
now mentioned principles. 

Prt>p. IV. As in bodies there is a principle 
•f gravity or attraSion, whereby, in Vacuo-, 
rhey tend to one -another, and would unite* 
according to certaia laws and limitations eilar 



UUhcd by the Author of Nature i b there U 
an anatogous pr&nciple in fpirits^ wherebj 
they would as certainly^ in their proper va«^ 
cuity^ be aHraded by> lend to, and unite 
with one another^ and their firft author, cen* 
tre, and the rock out of which they wer^ 
hewn (to ufe a fcripture phrafe) as the pla- 
B^t would to one another, and to the fun. 
And this is nothing etff hut what m fcripture 
is^ cgjled charity. 


Scholium. This propofition is as certain 
ns the rules of analogy, are, which, in my 
ttpittiott, are the foundatioir of all the know* 
kdge we can have of nature, while we cas 
fee only a few links of the umrerfal chain^ 
and but a few disjointed parts of the grand 
fyftem of the Univerfe. The Author el Na«- 
tare, who could create intelligent beings onlj 
ki order to make them happy^ could not lea vt 
them to ib many diflferent attradions, with* 
out imphntiag into their cflfirnce and fuh- 
ftance, as an antidote to fuch vartetv of dif* 
tradtoas, an infinite tendency, bent and 
bias towards beings of the fame nature, and 
towards himfelf, who was the caufe and 
objed of their ftJicity. And even in this our 
lapfed and iorlom eftate, there remain evi* 
dent footOeps of this principle yet uneffaced» 
Such are the checks of confctence, natural 
aflTcdion, and the univerfal defire of immor- 
tality> and dread of annihilation • whjt the 
world calls the feeds of honour and renown | 
all that concern and regard paid mere flx>man- 
U^ keroes i and the woxihip bttewed by aU 



ttstionty who are not funk into mere brutalky^ 
4m (bme foperior and invifible powers. Thcfe 
are remains oi this principte, and iu work« 
ings» fufficient to Chew its reality a pofteriori; 
as the laws of analogy* and the nature and 
attributes of the firft Beings fliew it a priori* 
Thofe who admit of revebtion> cannot doubt 
of it for « moment ; £or * Mofes calls it, a 
law engraven on the heart of man, and t St. 
Paul, the greateft pcrfedion of human nature. 

Coroil. I. Hence the true nature of As- 
premc fpiritual good and evil may bcdifcovcr- 
cd. For if there be imprefled on fpiritual be- 
ings, an infinite tendency bent and bias, t# 
be re-united with their Divine ori^pinal, and 
the place in the Divine fubftance out of whiek 
they -were formed (if I may (jpeak fo in a. figu- 
rative fenfe) then their being finally united^ 
with this their Divine original, is the fu- 
preme fpiritual good, and their feveral ap- 
proaches toward this union, anc inferior fpiri* 
tual goods ; as the being finally feparated from 
it, is the fupreme fjpiritual evil, and the ieyc- 
ral fteps toward this feparation, inferior fpirU 
tual evils. And the means of this uiuonandl 
feparation, arc moral good and evil. 

G>rolI. 2. By Schol. of Prop. i. the moft 
general divifiom of the paffions, was into fpiri- 


* Deut. xzx. H*. 
1 1 Cor. xiii. nit. 



tiid and animal. As, in the firft fenfcj ptf** 
iioii may be defined^ the fentimcnts producodi 
on the foul .by external objeds^ either fpirituai 
ones immediately* or material onesj by the 
noediation of the oigans of the body ^ fo, in 
the fecond fenfe* paffion may be defined^ the 
ctk& produced by fpirits or bodies* immedi-> 
ately on the body. And (ince outward ob- 
jcSs may be jcon^dered as goods or evils* the 
mod natural divifion of the paffions (whether 
' fpirituai or animal) as they regard thcfe ob- 
jeds* is into the pleafurable and the pain- 
fei ; which exhaufls their whole extent. And 
in this knCc aN the paffions may be reduced t« 
lave^and hatred* of which joy and forrow* 
hope and fear* &c. are but different modifica- 
tions or complexions* as they may be called. ^ 
I do not defcend to a more particular account* 
joot intending an accurate treatife on the paf- 
fions* but only to lay a foundation for fome 
general obfervations on them* as they regard 
afid influence health and Jong life. 

§2. Iii relation to the organical inftru- 
ments of the bodv* and the effeds wrought 
•a thcnif or the diforders brought upon them* 
Che paffions may be divided into acute and 
chronical* after the fame manner* and for th 
fame reafon* as difeafes art. The^ cute paffi- 
•lis* whether pleafurable or painful* have 
much the fame effed* and work much after 
the fame manner* as acute difeafes do. They 
cffed a brift and iivtiy circulation of the flu- 
ids* crifp up andconfirid the folids for fome 
flmt time. Thus fuddcn gufts of joy or grief* 
" . l>Ica- 


picafurc or pain, ftimulate and fpur the ner- 
vous fibres^and the coats of the animal tubes^ 
and thereby give a celerity and briiker m'otioa 
to their induded fluids, for the fame time. 
And the fundions of the heart and lungs be- 
ing involuntary, they have their more imme- 
diate efTeds upon them.' Thus both fudden 
joy. arid grief, make us hreathe fliort and 
i]uick, and make our pulfe fmall and frcqOent. 
The retaining our breath for fome time (for fo 
far our breathing is voluntary) to rcflcft more 
intcnfely upon the painful objcS, fortes at laft 
a ftrong expiration, which becomes a (igh. 
Thus a fudden painful idea, makes a quicker 
circulation of the blood, and thereby throv\r- 
ing a greater quantity thereof upwards,. thro* \ 
the proportionally larger branch of the aorta, 
makes it appear in the fuperficiai veflels of the 
face, neck and bread, and fo produces a blu(h> 
which, when longer continued, and being 
very Arong, i& difperfed over the whole fur- 
face of the body. Hence the obfervation of 
blufiiing at the back of one's hatid ; and the 
rcafons why we (igh upon fome occafions^ 
and blu(h upon others, depend upon the dif- 
ferent ftrudure of the organs of pulfation and 
refpiration. A quick furprifing pain of mind 
ads upon the heart, becaufe the motion of 
the heart is altogether involuntary ; fo that a 
fudden conftrudion takes place there immedi- 
ately to increafe the pulfe. Whereas we have 
fome power over the breathing ; we can (Ipp 
or fufpehd it for a time; and when we are 
thinking intenfely, our attention partly makes 
lis hold our breath ; and hence enfuet fighing 

L V«^^62L\ 


rather than Uofliiiig. For the pam ham% 
1km f quickens the poUe nyott gradoaDy : Bat 
if it continues kmgy both aAions of both or- 
gans are refpcAiveijr produced ; and hence it 
comes to paf>, that upon anzictvt concern^ 
and earneft exoeAation, the poHe is found 
qotck and fmall, and the breath qakk and 
difficoh, as experience ihews. The' fame 
principles will account for the effcds of fear 
and angCTf which make us change colour, 
and look red or palCf as the blood is accelerate 
ed or retarded >n its courfe. The fudden 
gufts of thcfe paffions being thus accounted 
totf when they become extreme, they drive 
about the blood with fuch a hurricane, that na- 
ture is overfet, like a mill by a €ood : fo that 
what drove it only quicker round before, now 
intirel/ (lops it, and renders the countenance 
pale and ghafily. Sudden and great fear and 
ttficfi do fo convuife the nervous fydem, that 
iomctimes the^ aher the pofition of the parts, 
and fix them in a new one. Thus the hair 
iUnda on e&d in a fright, and the whole fyf- 

tcni of the nerves becomes fo rigid and (tiff, 
i\% to lofe their clafticity ; whereby the animal 
iundlons are (lopped at once; and fainting, 

and fomctimcs death, enfues* 

^ 3. The chronical paffions, like chroni* 
cal difeafesi wear our, wafte and.deilroy the 
nervous (yftem gradually. Thofe nerves Which 
arc ncceuary for confidering, brooding over, 
and fixing lucha fet of ideas on the imagina-* 
tion, being conftantly employed, arc worn 
Otttj broken find impaired. The reft by dif- 



iHc, become rcfty and unaftiTC, lifclcfs and 
deftitute'of a fuflScieni flux of warm blood and 
due nourifliment.. And thus the n^hole fyf- 
tcm )angui(hes and runs into decay. Thu« 
Sow and long grief, dark melancholy, hopc- 
Icfs natural love, and overweening pridcy 
({Which is an outrageous degree of felf lov^)* 
impair the habit, by making the proper fca- 
fons of ncceffary food and due labour be nc- 
glededjandthercbydeprivingthe natural func- 
tions of their wonted fupplies, ovetworking^ 
feme part of the -nervous fyftem, and leaving 
Hit other^aTttil, and beeomc r^fty for want or 
«fc^ Some of thdfe paffions, as love, grief 
and pride, when very intenfe andlong hidtilg- 
ed, terminate even in madncfs. The reafon 
U, is I htkrt %een faying, becaufe loifg and 
ioirftmt habits, df fixing one thiitg ^n the 
imaginatioa^ Ijegetsa ready diTpdifitToTi in tfiir 
nerves to produce again. the fame image, 'till 
tfhc thought of it beeome fporttatreous irnd na- 
tnsra!, like breathing, or the rhotton of the 
l*eart, which the machine perfitjnrnn without 
tlie confcnt of the will; and- nlfo a drfibifitr 
or * tetanus cnfues on the other parts, juft 
as the Faqaiers in India, fix one or both hands 
by lon^ holding them up, fo as that they can- 
not bnng them down again. There is a kind 
of melancholy, which is called religious, be- 
caufe it is converljant about matters of rcKgi- 

h 2 on; 




c» } alchoDgb, often the perfons fo diflempcp- 
cd have little folid pict j. And this U merelT^ 
a bodily direafcy produced by an ill habit or 
€onftitution>, wherein the nervous fyftem i» 
broken and difordered, and the juices are bc-^ 
come vifcid and glewy. This melancholy, 
arifps generally from a difguA or difrclilh of. 
worldly amufements and creature comforts^ 
whereupon the mind turns to rcKgion for con- 
folation and peace : but as the perfon is in » 
very imperfed and unmortified (late, not du- 
ly inftroded and difciplined, and ignorant 
how to govern hjmfelf> there enfues fluduati- 
on and indocilityj^ fcrupulofity^. horror and 

f 4. Since the .mind refides,. as has beea 
bidf in the common fenfory, like a ikilfuL 
tmifician by a . well tuned inilrument; if the 
organ be found, duly tempered, and exaGklj, 
adjufted^ anfWering and correfponding with> 
the adiens of the muiician, the mufick will 
be diftin£U agreeable and harmonious. But 
if the organ be fpoiled and broken, neither 
duly tuned, nor juftly fitted up, it will not 
anfwer the intention of the imificianj nor 
yield any diftinS found, or true harmony. 
Thofe therefore who arc tender and valetudi- 
nary, lead fedentary lives,, or indulge con-r 
templattve (tudies, ought to avoid. cxcefTcs of. 
the paflions, as they would cxccfTcs in high 
food, or fpirituous liquors, if they have any 
regard to health, to the prefervation or in- 
tegrity of their. intellc3ual faculties, or the 
bfiriilv organs of them. As the paffionsj when 



fbw and cofitinuedf relax» unbend^ and dif- 
folve the nervous fibres ; fo the fudden and 
violent ones fcrew up^ Aretch and tend them, 
whereby the blood and juices are hurried about 
with a violent impetuofity, aitd all the fecre- 
tionsy Mt either ftopped by the conftfi&ions, 
tramps and convulfions begot by them« or are 
precipitated^ crude and unconcoded^ and fb 
oeget» or, at leait, difpofe toward inflammati- 
ons^ feversi^ or mortifications. Hatred> fot 
example, anger and malice, are but degrees 
of a frenzy,- and a frenzy is one kind of a 
raging fever. From all which it is plains the 
violent and fudden paffions, are more dange- 
rous to health, than the flow and Continued, 
as acute difcafes are^ more deArudive thait 

f 54 To fiiew yet farther, the influence 
of the paffioni on the animal oeconomy, let us 
confider the different conftitutions of men. 
Thole who have very fpringy, lively, and 
elaftick fibres, have the quickeft fenfation^, a 
weaker impulfe producing a ftronger fenfatiois 
in them. Thefe generally excel in the animal 
faculty of imagination. Henoe the Poetj 

•*-^* Genus irritabile Vatnm. 

And thereforcy your men of imagination arc 

L 3 generally 

t . A 

li in 1 ' irfiitr 

**F<icts are (aira frofokdL 



generally given to fcnfual pleafure, becaufe 
the objeOsot fenfc yWd them a more delicate- 
touch* and a livcfier fcnfation, than tbcy de- 
•i-hers. But if thev happen to live fo long 
(which is hardly poffible) in the decline of life 
hcf pay dearly for the greater bodily plea- 
sures they enjoyed in the youthful days of 
iheir vanity. Thofc of ri^id, AifFandun- 
t-yiclding fibres, have lefs vivid fenfations, be- 
.'caufc it requires a greater degree of force to 
overcome a* greater refiftance. Thofe cxcd 
moft in the labours of the underftanding, or 
the intellcQual faculties, retain their imprcP- 
fions longed, and purfue them fartheft ; and 
are moft fufceptible of the flow and lafting 
vpaffions, which fceretly confume them, as 
chronical difeafes do. And laftly, thofe whofe 
organs of fenfation are (if I may fpeak fo) un- 
claftick, or intirely callous, refty for want of 
cxcrcifc, or any way obftruded> or naturally 
ill formed, as they have fcarce any paflions at 
all, or any lively fenfations, and are incapa- 
ble of lafling impreflions ; fo they enjoy the 
. firmeft health, and arc fubjeS to the feweft 
difeafes : fuch are ideots, pcafantsand mecha- 
nicks, and allthofe we call indolent people. 

f €. Wc have Before fliewn, that weak 
limbs, and all the bodily organs, may be 
ftrcngthencd and repaired by proper exercife. 
And there is no doubt to be made, but the 
prgans of fenfation, and thofe the mind ufes 
in its..intelledual operations, may be likewife 
improvcd,^. ftrengthened and perfcfted by con* 
ftant ufcj. and proper application* Andif by 



excefFes^ an originat bad con format ion ^ or any 
accident> thcfc organs come to be (polled, or 
by the bad ftatc of the juices, they be weaken- 
ed in their funSions i then the medicinal and 
chirurgical arts may take place, and come in 
play. But if the paffions be raging and tu^ 
xnuJtuous, and'Conflantly fuelled nothing leb 
than He, who has the hearts of men in his 
hands, and forms them as a potter does his 
clay, who ftills the raging ot the fcas, and 
calms the tempcfts of the air, can fettle and 
quiet fuch tumultuous, overbearing hurri- 
canes in the mind, and animal oeconomy. 
Without fuch a miracle^ (incc^ the foul and^ 
body ad mutually upon one another, and the 
tabernacle of clay is the weakcft part of the 
compound, it mud at lafl be overborn and 
llirown dawa. 


f 7. In fuch a wretched cafe I know no 
remedy, but to drown alt other paffions in that 
fpiritual one of the love of God. Thc.rcafon- 
a^lcnefsand juftnefs of which proceedmg» and 
(what may fccm a paradox) the ufefulivefs of 
it to health, and its benign influence on the 
animal oecononvy^ I (hall endeavour to demon- 
ftratc. Spiritual love is that principle analo- 
gous to attra£lion^9 fpoken ofinhProp. iV. It 
is the tendency ,^ bias or impulfe of the minds 
of men: and other fpirits^ toward the moft 
amiable objcAs, comnuinicated by their Crea- 
tor in their original formation, by virtue of 
which, they conftantly tend, prc& and urge 
to unite (and, if obftacles were removed^ 
WM^unitp) wit}io9P another^ andbc all un^- 


led with their origin. This prtitciple indeed^ 
in this lapfed cftate ofman (where it is over* 
Idid and buried under rubbiOi, involved in i# 
many other attradfons» and ftified with fuch 
fetts and contrarieties, that its aSion is fel^ 
but juft enough to know that it isr, and wants 
to be awaked with laboor, and excited with 
violence^ as the fcripture mentions, thetak>- 
fng the kingdom of Heafven bv# force) on its 
Hrfl developement and erpannon, and in itc 
firft ezercifes, may be called a fpirituil pafli«- 
cn, as it is the firft motions, endeavours and 
vclleities towardthc love of God or charity. 
But in its advances, and final perfedion and' 
tonfummation, it difcovers itfelf to be a fa- 
culty, Quality, oi inherent power in the fouif 
whereby it will ^d without foHcitation, mo« 
tive or direiSion. As a ftone in a wall, faften- 
cd with mortar^ comprcffed by furrounding 
ilbnes, and involved in a million of other at- 
tradions, cannot falT to the ear(}i, nor fenfi-. 
biy exert its neural gravity, no, not fo much 
as:to difcover there is fuch a principle in it ; 
juftfo, the intcHrgentfour, tn thi« her lapfed 
efiate, being dfowtied in fenfe, chained and 
fettered by ignorance and'perverfenefi, drawn 
and' hurried away by the devil, the world and^ 
the flcfh, is difabfed from ererting this tnhe^ 
Tent and innate principle of re-utiidn, and 
wants fufficicnt light on the underftanding, 
and a right torn x)f the wMl, to be pot in a 
Capacity of cgcercifing it. But in its proper 
▼acuity^ iand being freed from thefe letts dad' 
itnpcdtments, it would mount tdwiard!» its oni* 
mitkii, Itfce aa,*cagfe towtrd^hefiHli AfMn^ 
* toy^ 


Yfty, pulchritude or beauty* is as much the 
|yeculiar and proper objeS of this aflFedion of 
the mfird, as itght> or a fuminous body, is of 
vifion ; for deformity, as fuch, can never be 
Joved. And beauty or perfc£tion, is, in rca- 
Hty and juft phitefophy, nothin;g but analogy^ 
order, or }uft proportion. From hcnrcc it ne- - 
cefllirily follows, that in the fcalc of beings, 
all obje£t8 ought to be loved in proportion to^ , 
their d^ree of beauty, fymmetry or perfeSi- 
on. And-confeqtiently, the higheft pcrfeSi- 
en ougkt to be toyed ^ith the highefl degree 
of love, and the feveral fubordinate degrees of 
perfedion, with proportionate degrees of this 
aflTedion of themind. And (in^e finite, ivheit 
compared with infinite, vaniAies quite, or be- 
comes nothing; it follows neceflarity (fince 
there is, andean- be, but one objed that is^ 
infinite, good and perfed, and all others ard 
but created, and finite goods ; that is, in 
comp-rrifoir they are nothing) that, according 
to the eternal and immutable hws of analogy, 
the one fupFeme good, endued with infinite 
peifedion, ought to be loved with a love infi- 
nitely fuperror to our aiFedions for other 
things, or (which is the fame thin^ in other 
words) that, in comparifon^ cnir love to the 
Author of our being, ought to be infinite ; and 
that to ourfelves and other objeds, as being 
finite creatures, none at all. This is the 
true philofophy of this matter, and as much a 
demonftrition, as any thing in nmnbers or 
geometry poffibly can be ; however it may be 
received by jnen of fcif love and carnal minds. 

4 s. x^. 


(8. Yet I wpuld not b^ To underftood, at 
if I condemi|^ all fubordinate ^nd duly pro-r 
{K>rtioned regards for aurfclvcsy ai|d olh^r ob* 
jeds about u«r that are necefiary for.opr fup^ 
port and ^iccommodatioH in pur prefent (late. 
No I there is a juft and laujlable feif lovCf a» 
Melt ^s a falfc and' vici{i|i« one. If we love 
ourfclves^ as. we love our neighbours $ ifw4 
toyeourfervcs ^sQ^ loves us f if we love our- 
(elves as we deferve (o be loved by the infi* 
nitely perfed Being ; if we loveourfclves with- 
a juftly proportiqneda and 4uly fpHordinate 
love : .that isi if wc loverourrelv^s* with a finite^ 
|tnd Him with im rnfinito lovOf or a lov« in* 
freai>n^. andgoing op in infinitttmf that hat 
Dcitb^r lifpits nor end s then we love our- 
61 vet at wt ought r This Mf love is juA 
and |au4^bte» and hai its due and proper de-* 

gte of irc^Nty.ami exiftence> in the nature of 
in^s. Perfe^oDf. or an .objefi perfe& in 
'fts:)cindf or one tliat we think fipk, is the pro» 
perebjeftof our bve. And as in due analo- 
gyt proportion and order, infinife perfedionr 
requires infinite fove, or the higheft degree of 
Tove we can give it ; fo all other objeds are ta 
beloved with a degree oFlove proportioned. to 
their perfeSion. And iinee a Being of infi* 
nite perfedion can be but one, and all other 
beings can have but a finite degree of perfeSi' 
on, we muft' love them but with a finite love ;. 
or, the proportion of our love to Him and 
Ihem, ought to be, as infinite is to finite. 
That is', comparatively we ought to love them 
with no love at all ; but abfolutely (or, with* 
out comparing created things, totheihfihitefy 
fetfed, .Being! with their proper degree of 


£nlce love« according to tbtir rank in the fcalc 
<>f beings. 

Corotl. Though from the natufc of the 
demonilration I have given 9 that God is tabe 
loved) it is evident he is' to be loved infinitely 
forHimfelfj and his own infinite peffcdions^ 
4b(lraSing from all other confiderations^ even 
chat of our own happinefsf in the enjoyment 
off or union with Him i yet it is certain^ 
thefetwOf our love to God, and our own hap- 
pinefsy cannot be aSually feparated. Plea* 
fure confifts inthts, that the foul and body ar(( 
^fft&cd, by the obje3s that produce it, with 
an harmonious and commenruratc adion or 
touch; for in their origin^ and uncorrupted 
make, as they came from the hands of their 
Creator, both feparatel^, and each by them-* 
felves, and alfo in their actions on one ano** 
ther, all was harmony and concord. As to 
the body ; as nothing but a mufical or com« 
menfurate toucji, can afied it with pleafurcj 
and as a difcordant ahd uncommenfurate (Iroke 
creates a jarring, grating and obftrudioni 
which is pain i^thts is - evident in hearingt 
where the agreeable fenfationS of fonorous bo-* 
dies, are attogether harmonious; Sir Ifaac 
Newton, has made it plain in vifion ; and» 
no doubt, it is fo in aH the other fenfcs) (m 
likewifp as to the foul ; truth, and beauty of 
perfedion^ are the onJyobjeds that give |Mell« 
lure to the uhderftanding and wiilf its tw^ 
•cardinal facuhies. And thefe are nothing b^ 
liafmonyj or iuft proportion in the refpeSive 
objeSs; And wc have (hewflj that the union 


^of the foul and'tody (or lif^ the fo much co- 
veted good) con(i(ls in a kind of harmonia 
preftabdita (though a kind very different from 
Mr. Leibnitz's) whereby an harmonious touch 
or aClion upon either of them, produces a plca- 
furable fenfation. Now as beauty or perfcfli- 
oh gives ples^furc to both the parts of the com- 
poundy and as nothing but the higheft degree 
of perfeSion or beauty, can give the greateft 
pleaijure, i. ,e. happincfs ; it neceffarily fol- 
lows, that fpiritual love, or the love of Gdd, 
as it is the only means of uniting us with the 
one Being, who is infinitely perfed, is alfo 
ifthe only means of making us infinitely happy. 

$9- As to the fecond thing^propofed con- 
cerning fpiritual love, however foreign thefe 
metaphyfical fpcculations concerning it may 
feem, to a difcourfe about health and long 
life; yet, if fteadily believed, anc^ their natu- 
ral confequences reduced to praSicc, they 
would not only become the moft effcSual 
means to prevent difcafes, but alfo, the mod 
of any thing, promote health and long life. 
For, firft, werc^ our love proportioned to the 
erder and analogy of things.; were our love to 
the fupreme good infinite, and that to others,^ 
in com pari fon, none at all; we (hould have 
but one fingle view in all our thoughts, words 
and adtions, viz: The promoting and raif- 
ing that fupreme love, to its due degrep and 
elevation : whereby all anxiety, carking care, 
and folicitude about other things (the fource of 
all our miferies, and of many bodily difpafesj 

would be icut off- all ^at once. Stcondly^ fince 
X ;.^ i ::.■.» .'. ... ' • ' ' • love 


%v€ always begets refemblance of manners ; 
ii«ccthe obje& ot this lov€ 16 infinitely perfed ^ 
if we loved hi«n in the fapremc degree, wc 
ihould infinitely endeavour to refembie him i 
whereby hatred and malice, luxury and lewd- 
iiefs, lazinefs^ and aU the t)ther feeds of bodi- 
ly difeafes, would be altogether deftroyed. 
Thirdly, fince fpiritual love is not only the 
nobleft^ but a(fo the mod joyful and pieafant 
^fiedjonsofthe mind^ (incethe objeS of out 
fupreme love (as an infpired poet exprefTes it) 
lias f^lnefs of joy in his prefence, and rivers 
of pleafures ^t his right hand for ever ; and 
^nce dur joy and happinefs will always rife in 
' proportion to bur love ; the placing our fa- 
preme love on the fupreme good, would ren- 
der us infinitely joyful, ferenej calm and. 
pleafed; than which certainly, no man can 
imagine a mope etfcAual means of health an4 
Jong life. 


i/i «17LES 


drawn from tfac Head 


t. ^TT^HE paffions have a greater influence 
M, on healthj than mod people are a* 
ware of. 

2. A?l violent and fudden paflions^ difpoGc 
to, or adually throw people into acute dif- 
eafcs ; and fome times the moft violent of them 
bring on fudden death. 

3. The flow and lading paffions, 1>ring on 
chronical difcafes > as we fee in grief> and 
languilhing hopelefs love. 

4. Therefore the fudden and acute paflions 
are more dangerous than the Hon or chronical* 

5. Men of lively imaginations and great 
vivacity, are more liable to the fudden and 
violent paflions and their effeds. 

6. Thoughtful people, and thofe of good 
underflanding, fuffer mod by the flowj and 
fecretly confuming paffions. 

7. The indolent and the thoughtlefs, fuf- 
fer leaft from the paflions : the ftupid and ide- 
ots, not at all. 

». The 


t. The difcafcs brought on by the pafS- 
•nsy may be cured by nvedlcinc^ as welt as 
thofe proceeding from other caufcs, when once 
the paffi«ns themfelves ceafe, or are quieted. 
But the preventing or calming the paffions 
themfelves, is the bufinefs^ not of phyfick^ 
but of virtue and religion. 

9. The love ef God, as it is the fovereign 
remedy of all mifcries, fo, in particutar, if 
cffcdually prevents all the bodily diforders the 
]iaffions introduce, by keeping the paffion^ 
^hemfelveai within due bounds ; and, by the 
unfpeakable joy, and perfe^ calm, ferenity 
and tranquility it gives the mind, becomes 
the mod powerful of all the means of health^ 
amd long life. 

Ili r C H A F. 

t jf ii TREATISS on HEAJLT9 

G H A p. VII. 

CoBt^ming OBSERVATIONS^ tha» aamt 
not naturally under the for egging Heads. 

I I. KJI ENtlON hsviiifp bean fo oft«» 
I V I made of chronical^ and fome- 
timet of aeute diftempers , it may be convenii« 
cm here, to fugged to the readcrii as clear ais^ 
account of their nature and diflferaneo, ail: 
poffibly can. Acute diftompers^ then, ara 
underftood, fuch as within fame iliort limited 
time have their periods, either of a perfcA < 
crifis, and fubfcqucnl recovery, or of putting 
an end to the diilcmper and life both together ;. 
and are therefore called quick, (harp or acute 
diftempers, whofe fymptoms are more violent, 
their duration Ihortcr, and their periods more 
quick, either of fiiddcn death, or a glorious 
viSory over the difcafc. Thefe are generally 
limited within forty days. And thofe that 
run out longer, turn into chronical diftem* 
pcrs, whofe periods are more flow, their- 
fymptoms lefs fcvcre, and their duration lon- 
ger. They too (if new fuel were not admi- 
niflered to them) would, by the courfe of na- 
ture and the animal oeconomy, have their 
periods, and terminate at the la(K The vifci- 
dity of the juices, and the flaccidity of the 
fibres, would; in a great meafure, and to 
fame; ver;^ lK>lcrablc degree^ by proper reme- 
">' k ■' ' .diesjt 



afTcSf and a due regimen» be rcnioved> and 
the party recover in thefe> as well as acute 
tafes. But this requiring long time, much 
care, and great caution, unwearied patie;)ice 
and perfeverance, and fo long a courfe of fclF 
denial, as few people are willing toundergo^ 
it is become the reproach- of phyfick and phyfi- 
cians, that acute cafes cure thcmfelves (or ra- 
ther nature cures them) and chronical cafes are 
never cured. But both the branches of the 
reflexion are equally falfe. In the firft, art 
and cure, judiciouily applied, will always al- 
le\Mate the fymptoms and fufFcring, will help 
on nature to the relief (be points out, and 
quicken the crifis, which it will con(!ant- 
ly bring about, . if the diftemper is not too 
ftrong for the conftitution. And even then it 
will mitigate the pain, and lay the patient 
gently and eafily down. But in the laft cafe, 
if due care be had» to follow timeoufly the ad- 
rice of an hortcft and experienced phyfician, 
a period certainly may be brought about to 
mod chronical diftempers, where the great 
▼ifccra are not fpoiled and deftroyed. The 
failing is in the patient himfelf, who will not^ 
or cannot deny himfelf for a timefufficient to 
bring about the pure. , Some chronical di(lem<«. 
pers indeed are fuch, cither by having gone 
too far, or by being hereditary, and interwo- 
ven with the principles of life, as never to be 
totally overcome. And then it is a piece of 
great wifdom, to kuQw how^ far tbcfr conilitu- 
tion will go, and fit down contented wit,h that 
weafure of health their original frame will ad- 
jnit of. But of this I am morally certain, if 
'^c rules and cautions laid down in this irea« 


f$i% A treatise: on HEAL^riT 

tifcy he carefully, Acadifyy and coitflantly ob^ 
fcrvcd, tew chronical diftempers but will re- 
ceive fuch relief) and alleviation by them, a»- 
to make life tolerably eafy, and free from 
grievous fufTctings: and in the mentioned 
cafe, that is ail that is left for art to do. But 
in other chronical didempers taken in due 
time, where the vifcera arc not quite fpoiled^ 
they would Hnfallibly bring about a final period^ 

" and pcrfeft cure. The moft certain diftin* 
guifhing mack of an acute diftemper, is, to 
have a quick putfe ; that of a chronical, to 
have a (low one. The firft 'wiU exhauft the 
fluids, and wear out the folids in a fliort time ; 
"whereas the faft will require a longer time to 
produce the fame cfTcd. Some chronical dif- 
tempers^ efpeciatly towards the laft and fatal 
period, turn acute. And fonve acute ones 
terminate in chronical difteippers. But thiS' 
mark will not only keep there diftind ; but 
affo point out, when acute diftempers have 
chronical remiffions or inter miffions, and when 
chronical didempers have acute fits or pa* 

• roxyfrns* 

J 2. Some pcrfonsi, 'who are extremely 
healthy and found during their younger days,, 
about, or foon after the meridian of life (that * 
is, about thirty-five or thirty-fix, according 
to the obfervation of an infpired King) fall into 
chronical diftcmpers, which cut them off in 
few years, or make them ro^ferable all the reft 
o^their lives. Thus confumpt'ons prove mor- 
tal to fomc about that time. Thus flone and* 
^avcl» gout and rhcumattfmj fcurvy an^ 


A WD LOWa LIFE: 13^. 

d^pfy, king's-CTrt and <kin difeafes cither 
make their "firft appearances^ or fhew thcm- 
feWc» m their true type aboirt thw time of 
life. The reafon is* whiFc the juices are 
fvreety fufi^cientfy thin and Buid^ hut cfpcciaU 
ly while the iolid organs, the meml)rtnes and 
fibres, are yet but unfolding, ffretchtng and 
drawing out to-thefr full dimenfions ; any 
aerimony, (barpneTsf or corroding humour, 
can afFed tNem no other way, than by mak- 
ing them vibrate, and fo extend themfclvet^ 
farther and farther. For as pain, (6 thcfe 
(harp (alts by their twitching and irritation on 
the teildtr fibres, make them only contraft, 
and fo draw at both extremities, and thereby 
tmfold and extend thcmrdvcs farther. So 
while the original foldings and comphcations of 
tife foiids arc not yet quite extended, this ir- 
ritation ferves only to draw them out, and 
does not hurt them, *till they are arrived at 
their full extent, which generaHy happent 
about fi-ve-and-twenty. It takes a due time 
after that for thefc (harp humours to exalt 
themfelvcs to their utmoft acrimony, to cor- 
rupt and potrify the juices, and aHb fomc 
inorc time to wear out, to obAru^ and break 
the great organs, and thcit fmallcr capillary 
vcfltls. The font of aff which, brings the 
periods of the great attacks of thcfe diftempers 
to the mentioned time of fife. Thofe in 
whom the original taint is more deeper and^ 
more radicated, and the naturaf conflitution 
weaker, fuffer under thcfe attacks fooncr. 
And thofe in whom it is (lighter and more fn- 
perficial> and whofc complexion is ftronger 


and more hardy^ hdid out longer. But' 
llic gcncralrty fuffcr firft, eminently, about 
the meridian of hfel Henec the common ob- 
fervation of tb^fe that die of a genuine con- 
fumption-, that they begin to feel it firfl: be- 
fore tbiFty-fiz^ 

^4. There is no chronical difiemper what- 
foever, more univerfal, more obftinate, and ^ 
more fatal in Britain, than the fcurvy, taken « 
in its general extent. Scarce any one chro* 
fi4cal diftemper but owes its origin to a fcorbu- 
tick cachexie, or is fo complicated with it, . 
that it furniihes its mod cruel and moft obftinate 
fymptoms. To it we owe all the dropfies that ^ 
happen ^terthC' meridian of life, aH diabetes^ * 
afthma's, confumptions of feveral kinds, many - 
forts of cholicks, and diarrhoea's, fome kinds -• 
•f gouts and rheumatifms, all palfiesy vari- 
ous kinds of uTcers, and, poffibly, the can- 
cer itfelf, and mo(1- cutaneous foulaeflcs, weak- 
ly conditutions, and bad di^eftions, vapours^., 
melancholy, and almoft alt nervous diftem- 
p^rs whatfoever. And what a plentiful fourcc 
•f miferies thefe J ad are, the afflided heft ban 
tell. And fcarce any one chronical diftemper 
whatfoever, but has fome degree of this evil, 
faithfully attending ih The reafon'why the 
fcurvy is fo * endcmick a diftempcr, and fo 
fruitful of mjferies, is, that it is produced by 
caufes moftly fpecial and particular to this if- 


V'FccaJiar to ibU Cona^^^ 


lindf to wit, the indulging fo mnch in ani- 
mal food, and ftrang fcriricnting liquors, in 
contemplative flvxdies, and fcdentarv profefli- 
ons and employments (and thence the want of 
dqcfabour and cnercife)togcther with the nitrpus 
snoiAure of an ifland, anq theinconftancy and 
inclemency of the fcafons thence arifing. I have 
had many occafions to ftiew, how fucn caufe* 
muft necefTarily and naturally produce fuch ef- 
ftOii, I wilt here only touch ! he matter flightly, 
to point out the connexion. Animal foogs and 
ftrong liquors to excefs, and with continuance, 
mud load and charge the fluids with their 
fktts. Want of due cxereife muft fuflfer thefe' 
to unite in cluders, and increafc then- bulk in; 
the fmaH -vcflcls. Their Urgcr bulk, and 
greater acrimony, thence arifing, muff in- 
creafe the vifcidity of the ftuids, ny brcakin|f 
the^ blood globules, and fo coagqfatirig the 
mafss, and at lad obftrud the finer pipes, and 
all the fmaller glands : whereby the tone of alf 
the elaftick fibres muft be interrupted and bro- 
ken, and their 'vlbrationt ftopt at every ob-' 
ftruded gland and capillarv velTel, apd an' 
univerfat diforder produced in the whqfe ani- ' 
mal oeconomy. And this diforder will ope- 
rate, and Ihew itfelf in fymptoms fpeciaf and 
particular, according to the fpecial and par- 
ticular make and conformation of the parts^ 
the weaknefsof the ftfcngth of the organs, the 
particular mifmanagements, and precife ftate 
of the air the party lives in. And the detail 
of thefe general caufes applied to particular 
perfons, muft produce the refpcSivc difeafci 
mentioned. In 4 word, the fcurvy is a kind 


•Fcathelick diftemper herr in Britain, arifing 
from conftant and general caufes, froqp the 
cufloins of the people, and from the nature oF 
the climate, which renders the ferous part of 
the blood too thick and glcwy, breaks and di- 
Tidcs the union of the globutous partSji. ob- 
ftrudsthe fmall veffels, and deftroys the fprin- 
ginefs and elafticity of the fibres. So that 
moft chronical diftempers^ can be little el fc,. 
6ut branches and cions from this root, which 
(like Pandora's box) is fo fruitful of variety of 
mifchiefs. And its arifing from the climate 
and cuftoms of the people, is the reafon why 
chronical diftempers are fo frequent in Britain^ 
to what they are in warmer climates (which,. 
by a free pcrfpiration and lighter diet, not. 
only prevent thofc difcafes in their own inha- 
bitants, but univerfally cure thofc of our if- 
lisind who are afflided with them, if they flee, 
tothofe regions any reafonable time before na-- 
ture be quite worn out). For though the in- 
habitants of Britain, live, for the moft part as. 
long, or rather longer, than thofe of warmer 
climates ; yet fcarcc any one, cfpscially thofc 
of the better fort, bat becomes crazy, and fuf- 
fcrs under fomc chronical diftcmper or other^. 
before they arrive at old z<rc, T?tc fame rea- 
fon is to be afli^ned finr the frequency of fclf-. 
murders here, in England especially, beyond 
any other country.. For *few have e;race and 
rcfignation enough,, to fuffer patiently the laft- 
ing pains of a chronical dtftemper, or the yet 
more torturing and crucifying anguifti of a. 
perpetual difperitedncfs ; though t have ob- 
ftrvcji Sfnerally, and have good reafon ta.v 



ocmclude univcrfally, that all fc!f-murdcrcr« 
arc firft di(lra3ed and diftempered in their in^ 
telleftual faCulti^. Notwithftanding the dif- 
fulivencfs and univcrfality of this difeafc, fo 
that fcarcc a fingic individual of the better fort is 
altogether free from it ; yet I never once in ray 
life, faw it totally extirpated in thofe who had 
h to any dcgiee, fo as to be inti rely free from 
it all the reft of their lives after; but that it 
flill appeared, and fprang up again in fome 
fymptom or other, and at laft brought fortk 
that grand one^ which put a final period t* 
all their fuffcrings. One good reafon for this 
is, that it requires a regimen and condud fo 
intifely contrary and pppoiitcto the natural 
habits and cufloms, and the univerfal bent and 
appetites of the inhal)itantsof this ifland, that 
it becomes a kind of perpetual felf-denial t« 
them ; which the Britifli nation, in general^ 
does not mightily admire. Another reafon !$« 
that fine folks ufe their phyficians, as they 
do their laundreiTes, fend their linen to thent 
to be cleaned, in order only to bejdirtied again. 
Nothing lefsthan a very moderate nfc of ani- 
mal food, and that of the^kind wklch abounds^ 
lead in urinous falls (as moft certstinly th^ 
young and the lighter coloured do) and a more 
moderate ufe of fpirituous liquors, due labour 
and exercife, and a careful guarding againft 
the inconftancy and inclemency of the feafons^ 
can keep this hydra under. And nothing elfe 
than a total abftincnce froni animal foods, and 
ftrong fermented liquors, can totally extirpate 
it. And that too, muft be begun early ; b^^t^ 
liKc;, orfoon nfter the nicridian oC Vv&\ ^"^^^flB 


there Will remain too little cil in the lanqi^ 
Che fpirits will fink too far^ ever to be rcco* 
vered again ; and the remaining part of lifet 
will be too (hort for fo total a change as mud 
be made. So that thofe who fuffer greatly 
. under this Bntifli diflemper, mud be content- 
ed to bear and forbear a little, and muft ex- 
ped no greater degree of healthy than theif- 
time ot life, the nature of their difeafe, and 
the (late of their conftitution will admit of. 
But • ftill a great moderation in animal foods^ 
and fpirituous and fermented liquors, doe ex- 
ercife, anda care to fence againft the injuriet 
of the weather, will make life tolerably eafy ; 
•fpecially if fome gentle domeftick purges be 
interfperfed. The feeds and young fjprouts of 
TcgctaHes,have fcarce any grofs, faxed, or 
cflcntial faits at all in them. This is not only 
evident from the reafons formerly given (be« 
caufe they are young, or the nouriihment ap* 
pointed by nature for young vegetables ; for 
the earth is only a proper neft or matrix for 
them ; and the fun's heat ferves them inftead 
of incubation) but upon * trial and eiaminati- 
M, they yield none, being too light and thin 
to\:a1cine and incinerate, and the falts too 
volatile (and confequcntly> finall and fit to 
pafs by perfpiration, and thereby can be no 
way injurious to human conflitutions) to en- 
dure the fire i which foil grown plants, their 


* See Iiowth. Abri4g« of PhiL TranC v. a. page 

ift.ND LONG LIFE. t« 

T!alks and wood readily do. And in unfer- 
-mcntcd liquors^ the faltb arc (o enveloped^, 
that they cannot unite to torm a fpsrit, and 
are folheathed, by particular coatsof the ma- 
terials of the vegetable, that they can fcarcc 
do any harm (excpt when they exceedingly 
abound) to animal bodies. Hence it comeis 
to pafs, that a vcgetaUe' diet for a few weeks 
or months, together with drinking water or 
unfcrmented liquors (fuch as tea, coffee, bar- 
ley-water, liquorice-water, teas made of oran- 
ges, or other feeds and plants) will faftei! the 
teeth when dropping out, from a confumption 
of the gums by fcorbutick falta, cure any cu- 
taneous foiilneffes or eruptions, and even any 
fprcading ulcer, if it is not fcrofulous, when 
no medicine on the face of the earth will touch 
it. Hence the grand maxim in the cure of all 
ulcers is, by diet to bring them to the ftate of 
a wound, and then they will cure of thcm- 
felves. And, as I have elfewherc obfcrvcd, 
there is fcarce a thin, confumptivc, hyfterick, 
or hypochonclriack, and weakly conftitution 
in ^ngland, which has not for its parent, a 
latent or manifeft fcorbutick cachexy, except- 
ing that which arffcs from a fcrofula. From 
tl^e whole we may gatlier, how much a proper 
regimen of diet, and due excrcife, with the 
other helps and remedies already mentioned 
in this treatife, is able to do in mod Britifk 
chronical diftcmpers, 

§ 4. Having had fo often occafion to fpcak 
of weak and relaxed nerves, it will not bcamifii j 
to fuggeft^ fomc of the outward and owid ^^xi* w 


£ble figns and charaders> thereby it may^fK; 
maniFcfty whether one's felf, or any particu- 
lar perfon he is concerned forj be of this male 
and conftituticm^ before fome chronical dif*.. 
iemper» or other difmal fymptom has made it 
plain ; in order to prevent thefe as far as poffi- 
ble. To which purpofc we muu obferve, that 
the nerves are bundles of folid» fpringy, and 
eladick threads or filaments (like twifted cat- 
guts 9r hairs) whofe one extremity is termina- 
ted at the common fenfory in the brain* where 
the foul is fqppofei to refide ; the other is in- 
terwoven into every point of the frarf ikjn, the ■ 
membranes, the coats of the vcflcls, the muf7 
cles^ and the other fcnfible (blids of the body« - 
in order to convey the motions^ adions» vi- 
brations* or impulfes pf outward obje&s.tothe 
foul. 'Thefc threads or filaments are highly 
elartick or fpringy, as we may fee from their 
hardened fubftancest fuch as wh^ebone, ivo- 
ry, horn, and cartilegcs, which are more 
ertiincntly fo, than any other bodies known. 
Some pcrfons have their fibres very quickf 
readily vibrating, highly fpringy an^ clafticki, 
•fo as to tremble and (hake violently, by the 
Icaff impulie. Others have more rigid, firm, 
and ftrctchcd fibres, which yield not but to 
ftrong imprcffions, and mqyc flowly, but move 
for a long time. Laftly, ihcre are thpfc who. 
have weak, loofe, ilender, and relaxed fibres, 
which though eafily moved, and yielding to., 
the weakeft impulfe^ yet communicate only 
imperfed, languid and faint impceflipns .and 
▼fbrations to the (oul, and have all their other 
animal rundionis of the fame laoguflkiiig. na- 

AND tpNG LIFE. ifj 

rure. And it is of thcfc laft, 1 have been all 
along fpeaking. And we may readily cilfcover 
thcihy by thefe outward chara^ers and figns. 
1. THofe who have haturaJly f6ft,'thin, fmall» 
and fhbrt h^ir, ^re of a loofe, flabby^ and re- 
laxed ftate of nerves. For the hair feehis to 
be foiiie of the flcfljy fibres,, only lengthened 
outwards and hardened. At lead like the 
fibres, they confiR of a great many leiffcr fila- 
ments, contained m a comihoh membrane, 
arc folid, trahiparcht and elaftick : aiid as 
diefe hairs are in ftrength and bulk, fo\gene- 
Tally the fibres of th<; body are. 2. Thofe of 
the faireft hair> arc oT the loofeft fibres (bther 
things being equal) Wcaufe the falretl arc 
niofc rare, pQroiis, and' fungous ; and . t>er a 
t^iifc hddics of the Fighter colours, copfift of . 
rmailer pVrb,. than' thofe of the more flanriiiig 
colours! as has been formerly bbferyed. , ^. 
Thbfe of Targe, or (as they arc callied) maftiff 
mufcles, and of big bones, arc generally of a 
firmer ftate of nerves, than thofe of little muf-- 
cles and bones : becaufe the mufcles and bones 
being fimilar to their fibres, as is highly^^ pro- 
bable, and thefe being bigger, and cbnfe- 
quently ftronger, fo muft thofe be; and, on 
the contrary, 4. Soft, yielding, pappy flelh, 
is a furc fymptom of loofc fibres ; whereas 
hard, firm, and unyielding mufcles, are the 
oonftant fign of firm fibres. 5. A white, fair,- 
blanchedi br athen -colon red complexion 6r 
(kin, conftantly indicates a weaker and more . 
relaxed ftate of fibres, than a ruddy, frcfli, 
dark fallow, or black hue; for reafons already 
5Jve|i». & A. Fat corpulent or ^phlegmaticlJfP 



con^litoliony is always attended with loofirk 
flaSbr and relaxed fibres, by their being dif- 
fol%~cd and ovcrfoaked in moiflure and humi' 
duj. And, on the contrary, thofe of a dry.^ 
dean and firm make, haveflrong, firm^ ana. 
fenle fibres. 7.Tho?ewhoarefdbje^ to evacua- 
tions oft^ any kind, in any degree greater than 
what is natural ; and. thofe who by any acci- 
dent, hare fuffcred long by any preternaturaT 
cracuation whatfcever, are, or become of 
loofc, tclaxed fibres and nerves. Thus thofe 
who frequently run into purging, or floods of 
j»ile water, flow at the mouth or nofe, or melt 
into protufe fweats ; thofe who any way have. 
loft much blood, have had a diarrhaea, have 
recovered of a fever, and thofe of the fex who 
have punfied Unger or more than is ufual ^ 
allofthefe are originally, or become accidental- 
ly, of weak and relaxed nerves and fibres. 8. 
Ilaftly, thofe who are of a cold conflitution^^ 
are apt to run into coldneiTes on their extremi- 
ties, or ready to catch coJd, are alfo of weak 
and loofe fibres and^crve^ ; bccaufe thefe arc 
figns of a flow and interrupted circulation. 
and perfpi ration ; which manifefls a weak, 
fpring in the fibres of the coats of the vcf- 
fefs, the fibres of the mufcles, and a weak-- 
nefs of the fpring of the fcales of the fcarf— 

§ 5 On this occafion of rchearfihg the 
figns of weak nerves, I cannot omit apprifing 
thofe of the breeding part of the fex, and thofe 
who are concerned in them, ef their readinefs 
#C mifcarrying^ unlcfs duly tended and ma- 


uttiii: L 6 N d life. 149 

xiagcd, cfpecially thofc of them of tender and 
\7cak nerves, or of too, delicate a confticution. 
The figns I have now laid down, will always 
make it evident^ if any particular perfon is fo or 
not. And it upon erarnination they be found 
to be fuch, they will be apt, upon the flighted 
occa(ion> to run into frequent mifcarriages ; 
whereby a great part pf their pofterity will be 
dcftroycdi arid tncy themfelvcs expofed to 
di*op{ies or conruitiptions, or (which is worfe 
than either) perpctuail lowncfs pf fpirlts, va- 
pours arid other hyfterick difordcrs. And bjr . 
this misfortune alone, a (ionfiderabte part p( '.. 
the better fort here in. England, peiith and are' 
Ibft. Nature Has formed the generality pf the 
ftx, ot a fofi, Aender and delicate make* 
Want of due exercife^ a full table, indifcrect^ 
nurfe^, over-fond mothers, and hereditary. 
ItTarpneiTes, piake them much more fo. And 
if by neglcd or accident, they once begin ta 
niifcarry, every 6rft mifcarriagc paves tbc^ / 
way for a fccond, and a third, and fooii, ^'till, 
ihc poor, pretty creature, has neither blood ' 
nor fpiritS; appetite nor digeftion .left. For 
one mifcarriage, weakens the conftitutipn, 
b'reaks and tears tKc nervous fyftem more, tha^, 
two mature births. iF ever this, is to bf fccpr*, 
cd or prevented eflPedually, it is tp be done, 
ac Icaft attempted j in the firft infl^nce, if 
pof&Sle, at_ leaft as foon. as may be, before ^ 
tPtalTelazaiion and di£(btytion of the ncrvqui^ 
fyftem is brought en. The giddinefs romp« 
ingand gadding a1>out oFthe yoilkng creattirt 
herfclf, is often the caufe of her mifcarriagc- 
Bdl oftner the forwardnefs and indifcretion of ^ 

• N ^ &x- if 


furgeons and midwivcs, by bleeding on every- 
Ifttic threatening fymptom, without confidcr- 
ing the conftitution. Blcedirig may do well' 
enough in fanguine^ robufl, and ' plethorick 
conditutions : but it is death and certain ruin 
to thofc of (lender and weak nerves, and the 
furcft way to caufc the mifcarnagc it is dcdgn- 
cd to prevent, by relaxing the nervous fibres ; : 
which bleeding docs as certainly, as it lefTens 
the quantity of the biood. The mod efFeflual 
method I have ever found to prevent fuch mis- 
fortunes, is, to or^der thofe in fuch ctrcum- 
ftances, to drink plentifully of Briftol water, 
with a very little red wine, for their con- 
ftant drink ; to lay the plaifter ad herni- 
ain, with oil of cinnamon, and London lau- 
danum, in a due proportion, to their reins;. 
to keep them to a low, lightj cafily digeft- 
cd diet, efpccially of the farinaceous vege- 
tables, and milk meats ; to (Irengthen their- 
bowels with drafcordium and toaded rhubarb^ 
if they become too flippery ; to air them once 
or twice a day, in a coach or chair, and to 
keep them cheerful, and in good humour, as' 
much ns may be. This mcihod will fcarcc 
ever fail, unlcfs a latent fcrofula, or fome- 
other hereditary fharpneiTes in their juices*^ 
deftroy the birth. 

§ 6. The tender, fickly, and thofe oF" 
weak nerves, ought to have a regard in the* 
cbnduS of their "health, to the different fea- 
fonsof the year. Ihfivc clfewhcrc obfcrved, 




rtiat fuch *.conftitutions begin to (Tnk, droop-, 
and languifti, about Cbriflmas or Midwinter, 
go on from worfe to worfc, 'till the Spring is. 
over, get up a little, as the fan goes higher, . 
and ftron^eri arrive at their meridian- altitude- 
of health and ftrength about Midfummer, and' 
hold it out folong as the fun warms them, or 
the ftrength they have acquired- lafts. Thofc 
"who have very weak nerves, fail fooner, tvcn- 
about the Autumnal Equinox : but they get 
up fooner, becaufc their weaker nerves make- 
lefs refinance. The fun new ferments, rari- 
jfies, and exalts their vifctd juices : fo that the- 
circulation is better performed^ more full,, 
free and univerfal. The pcrfpiration is alfo 
thereby much incrcafed and promoted ; and' 
the load' being drawn ofT, by the force of the 
fun*s heat; therr appetite is (harpcned, and^ 
their digeftion mended : to which the ferene 
warm and clear air, and the greater libe-ty of 
cxercife and bufinefs contributes. I fliould' 
advife fuch therefore, rcliecioufly to follow the 
indications of nature, and to take thefe bene- 
fits it offers then^ as a certain fign of their be- 
ing beft and fitted for them.« After Chriftmas, 
and in the beginning of the Spring, milk, 
eggs, and fpring herbs, as afparagus^ fpinage 
and Tpr outs come- in firft:- of which I advife 
thera to make the grcaleft" part of'their diet 
then. As the- Spring advances, lamb and 
veal, greenpeas and fallading abound. AfteF 
the vernal equinox, chicken and rabbit, young 
tufkics^,. and early fruit come in fcafon. A- 


■ ■ mm^mmmmmmmmmm''mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmr 

Ethy on tbc Gouti 



boot Midfommer^ mutton and partridge, col*- 
liflower and artichoak may be bad. And Au- 
tumn brings in beef and venifony turnip and 
carrot. Ai^d it will be found, the concodive 
powers o( weak perfons, and thofe of relaxed' 
nervesf rife and fortify graduaUy, as thcfc 
ftronger foods come in feafon. By fcafon, T 
mean not, thofe earlier days> that luxury in* 
the buyers, and avarice in the fellers about 
London, have forced the feveral kinds, of ve- 
getables,^ and animals in. But by the feafov 
I' mean, that time of the year, in which by 
nature, common culture, and the mere ope- 
ration of the fun and climate, they are in moft' 
jAcnty and perfedion in this country. But' 
the principal point T would urge is, th«it fuch 
perfons, would regularly begin to correfpond 
with nature, in both leflfening the quantity,' 
snd lowering the quality of their food, as the 
feafons indicate, and Providence provides rhe. 
proper food in the greateft plenty and perfcSi- 
on. By which they will preftrve the ballancc 
of their health pretty near equal all the year 
r^und, have the lighted and lead food, when 
their concodive powers are leaft, and their 
nervous fibres weakeft ; and rife in the food, 
in proportion as thefe rife. Add tothefe, that 
as winter is heft for home exercifes, fummer 
is fitted for thofe without doors. And as the 
day lengthens, their labour and exercifes 
abroad ought to be lengthened out. Neither 
Sydenham nor Fuller, have been able to tell * 
the half of what ohftinate exercife will do, lA 
low, cachcdick, confumptive cafes. 

••— Labwr* 


*" ■ - Labor omnia vincit 

Improbus.— — Horat. 

i 7. The Germans have a proverb, that 
Tvifc men ought to put on their Winter deaths 
early in Autumn^ and put them oflF late in the 
Spring. By which they would infinuate, that 
people ought always to go well cloathedi 
Whatever may be in this, as to perfons that 
drink hard, and require- a plentiful difcharge 
by the (Kin, thofe who are fober, or who 
would render thcmfclvcs hardy> ought to ac- 
cuftom themfelves to as few cloa^hs,, both in 
fummer and winter, as is poflible. Befidea 
the general rules, of having as few neceffarics 
as may be ;, much and heavy cFoaths, attra^ 
and draw ipo-much by perfpiration ; as Do6tor 
Keill proves, in his mcd. (latic Brttann. ten- 
der and debilitate the habit, and weaken the. 
ftrength. The cuftom of wearing flannel, i» 
almod as bad as a diabetes. Nothing can en- 
feeble and drain>- weak and tender perfons. 
more. To make this clear, we muft diftin- 
guifli between perfpiration and fweating ;, 
which differs as widely, as the daily natural 
emptying our bowels, and a loofenefs pr di- 
arrhaea. And as no body in their fenfcs>. 
much lefs the tender and weakly, would en- 
deavour to encourage this laflf no more ought. 



^ q. d. Unwearied cxerctfc will oveicome anj, 
ehrouical diftemger. 


they that other of fWcatift'g. For as promot- 
kig ilippcry boweFsA^^ wduld alway$ keep thft 
fibres of the alimentary paflages relaxed ; b 
\pould perpetual fweating, thofe of the iftin,. 
And as the moiftureand damp's that 'flannel pec» 
petually keeps the ikin ih^ and its growing lb 
readily drity^fhews what a flux of peifpi ration it 
pronidtb^ thei'e > fo the perpetual fridion pro* 
diiced by it> gives the reafoli. If oti'e lays ih- 
a fuperflaous load offtrong Hqtiord, it is happy 
fbr him nature dtfchargeis the oceafn-^hy how ;.* 
fbt he had better fweat^ than: burn in a fever. 
But for temperate, tender and fickly perfons^ 
the more firm and tight alt the organs of Itfaeir \ 
evacuations be (if, they be hot totally obftnid- 
ed) the. better it will be for them, the more it 
Will ftrengthcri thelf hcfves^ arid harden theiif 
OOAftitDtion^ Nothing biit fuperfluity in fooil 
or ftrong> liquor^, requires fweating; and that 
is the rcafon, the Germans run fo much upo& 
it. So far, that^Tfchirhhaus, iverjr learn- 
ed and ingenious gentleman o^herwife, re«^ 
folves the cure of almod all diftempers into- 
fweating, upon obfen^iiig its fu^cefs in their 
bottle-fevers. They drink much thin (harp, 
wirie, which padef every way; and when it 
comes through the tkm, both the confli£l and' 
the danger is over. But for thofe inhal>i- 
tants of our ifland^, ^ho arcl fobcr becaufe 
thty are tcndcrj or would preferve their 

health f 

^; In his Medidoa Meatis 8c Corporis*. 


-health-; the lighter apd fewer thcircloathsare^^ 
both by night and by day, in fummer and. 
winter^ the. hardier they, will grow. Th6 
more open the whole body is to the air, pro- 
vided it be benign^ the more fluid, and the. 
n7ore adive* will the. animal juices be ; and^ 
hy confequencej the raore full and free wiH. 
the perfpiration be. For right tempered air, 
is beneficial and medicinal to the animal jui*. 
ces : and a. great heap of doaths, only can- 
•dcnfes our own excrementitious atmofphcris 
about iis, and flops the kindly, influence of 
this beneficial element. As to catching cold, 
lie that lives foberly^ and avoids nitrous, that 
is, moift or frofty air, will either not readily 
^atch cold, or if he. does, will foqn get rid of 
it. It is only, air thus conditioned, that thicjcr 
ens and coagulates our juices, ajid gives pain- 
ful and dangerous colds. It is inward he^t on- 
ly, which deftroys us. No fobcr perfons ever 
fufFcrcd by cold, unlefs tt were extreme, or 
that they expoCe th^mfelves. o|)(linately to it«; 
againfl: fenfe. and reafon. 

§ 8^ Another mean of he^jith, to the ten- 
der, ftudious and. fedentaryy is m.uph and 
often (having the head a^d-facit, and waiting,^ 
fcraping: and iparing their feet ahd toes. The 
great benefit (befid^s th.e pleafuce) to the head^ 
eyes and ears, by often (having the head. and, 
face, and w^Qiing then? daijly.iifi, cold watert 
with a few drops of the^compounjl fpjrits of la** 
vender, er huiigary water, is beft underSood, 
by thofc chat have felt it. The ciitling off; 
thqhjiir aa4; ft*Yi»fc thi;, hftad^wUU itk tW 



firft inftan'cc, fcarcc fail to cure a hcad-acf^ 
a fluxion^ or even a nervous wcakncis of ihc 
eyes. Any one evacuation, will not only Icf- 
feil the whole mais ; but if encouraged, will 
make that evacuation 'more ample and full- 
The more and oftncr the hair is ftiavcd, the 
fader and thicker it wiU grow. So that thui 
(having the head and face frequently, will be 
like an iffue, or perpetual blifter on thefe 
parts. BcGdcs the wahimg with warm water 
and foap, and fcraping the (kin with a razor, 
will cleanfe the mouths of the perfpiratory 
duQs, from that morphew ^nd fcurf that ad- 
heres to them, and will extremely encourage 
the pcrfpiration from thefe parts, and give a 
full and free vent, to the fumes on the head 
and brain. And waQiing well, and dipping 
in cold water afterwards, will (hut the fcales ^ 
^fthe fcarf (kin^ and fecures againft catching 
•did in the licad, which is frequently a heavy 
grievance, to tender, (ludious and fedentary 
pcrfons. Therefore I (hould advifefuch, to (hare 
their head and face every day, ereVeiy other 
day, or as often as they poffibly can, andwa(h 
them well in cold water afterwards. What fliav- 
ingdoes to the upper parts, the fame do wa(h« 
ing and fcraping the feel, and paring their nails 
to thelowerJ We know by the tickhftinefs of the 
foles, what a multitude of fine nervous fibres 
terminate in them. Walking, (landing and 
threading, render them callous, and the (kin 
thick and hard ; which much injures the pcr- 
fpiration, and hinders the derivation of the 
Wood and fpirits into them. And it is a com- 
tBon obferration^ that nothing is a furer (ign of 



firong and rank healthy than a kindJ^ heat 
and ^ profuic pcrfpiration on the feet. It (hews 
a full and free circulation in the fmall vtffcts^ 
at the grcateft diftancc from the fource of hc^t' 
and motion; than which nothing can more 
plainly indicate great and good health. On 
the contrary, weak and tender pcrions, arc 
always cold in the legs and feet, and firft of ail 
feel cold there in frofty weather. Let the ten- 
der therefore, and the weakly, duly once a 
"week, wafti in warm water, rub fcrapc and 
pare their teet and nails. Which will likewifc 
prevent corns, hardnefies, and the unnatural 
tendency of the nails into the flefh. Thcfc 
are, it is true, but low and feemingly trifling 
oblervations towards health; but it is in this 
cafe, as it is in a more momentous one ; he 
that deipifcth little things, (ball pcriih by little 

and little. 


§ 9. Thbfc tender and valetudinary peo- 
ple, whofc ftudies and profeflion oblige them 
to read and write much, ought, as far as they 
poflibly can, to (land in an ertSt pofture^ 
bending their head and breaft^ as little as may 
be, leaning only on a (loping de(k, and con- 
tinuing their ex^rcife in that poUure, untit 
they grow weary ; then reft and be at it 
again. Cuftom and pradicc, jobftinately pcN 
filled in, will at len^h render the pofture ea- 
fy to them. And it is inconceivable, hour 
many and great advantages it will bring to thcf 
confcitution. Sittiii^, bending and leatiing 
low, comprefs fome, if not many of the vef- 
felfi of the Jbod^ ; jknd fo Qop' and retard the 

O ^vt- 


circulation of the bidod and juices through 
them ; which makes a more ready flux thro' 
the other more patent and pervious ones. 
Whence that fleepinefs and difability to moti- 
on in the limbsf 'till the blood and ipirits^ by 
ai proper pofluie, get a free admittance into 
them. From this aifo> there enfues an une- 
quable and fubfuUory circulation of the juices^ 
and an unequable fecrction in the glands; and 
confcquently^ an unequal growth, flrength 
and vigour, of the organs and parts. 
Which is the caufe pf rickets in children i 
careiefs nurfes, negleding to rock, dandle 
and tofs them fufHcientlyf that the circulati- 
on of the juices and fpirits may be equally 
promoted every where. And to avoid this 
inconveniency, feems to be the reafon why 
the Romans and the Eaflern Nations, lay 
along, at their great meals and feafts, and 
when they were obliged to continue long in 
one pofture. Beiides, that in writing or 
reading, if one fits, there is a condant preflTure- 
on the cavity of the bread ^nd (lomach, which 
muft ncceflarily weaken their fundions; and 
t^efe are commonly the organs which firft de- 
cay in clerks and under fecretaries. And 
hanging down the head, is the ready way to 
raife fumes and vapours to it : whereby fuch 
will be expofcd to lownefs of fpirits, and pcr- 
(japs confumptions ; all which are, in a great 
ifjjre, avoided by an ereft pofture : for 
^ all the organs will be in their natural 
Many of the mufcles will be in ac- 
{di fo prefs on the blood vefTefs, to fa- 
the circulation. But chiefly, by this 


trcBt pofturc, the juices will have the advan- 
tage of their own gravity » to defccnd with the 
greater velocity, to warm and cherifli the low- 
er parts, which arc remotcft from the fource 
of motion ; and the grofTer evacuations will 
be more readily promoted, and thereby prc- 
ferve the upper regions clear and fcrcne-: 
which will bring great advantages towards 
health 9nd long li&. But this pradice will 
never become eafy, unlcfs to thole who begin 
young. Thofe who difiate or confult, ought 
to do them (landing or walking ; which would 
relieve both body and mind.^ 

f 10. The unwieldy, fat and onrcrgfownj 
befides the rules already laid down, I advife, 
in particular, as much as is poffi^le f^.them, 
to abftain from drink of 'all kinds. No on©- 
rule or condition, ever was contrived, or can 
be,- of fo great ufe, to prefer ve and lengthen 
the lives of fuch, as an ohftinate aiid univec- 
fal abflinence from all kinds of liquors. If the 
dodrine be true (as it is highly probable) that 
the mafs of all the bodies of vegetables and ani- 
mals, is only pipes and vafcular tubes, form- 
ed all at once, in their firfl rudiments and 
feeds; then growth and increafe of bulk, Js 
only filling and plumping up, dilating, and 
unfolding thefc pipes with liquors. We know 
from Kirchcr's and Dr. Woodward's experi- 
ments, to what bulk vegetables will thrive, 
by mere element alone. Two pigs of the 
fame litter, were fed upon an equal quantity 
of milk; only, to one of them, the milk was 
mixt with the fame quantity of water. After 

O z amonth^a 


ii&ofith's feeding, they Were both kiHcd, and * 
that which had the w^ater, ivas found m«cb 
larger and fatter than the other. Dropfies (at 
leaft an^farca's) have been Cured by an obfti- 
nate forbearance of drink. And lethargies 
proceed from the moifture of the Brain. And 
Ihcic are the two diftempers, unwieldy^ fat 
.and overgrown perfons are mod fubjeft to. 
'Therefore, futfa ought to avoid drinky as 
^thofe do, who bavc the • hydrophobia, or arc 
bit by a inad dog. Which they may eafi|y 
t)ring about,* if they feed only on young ani- 
mal, and moid and coot vegetable food. But 
whenever I fpeak of vegetable foodj I mean 
tbat wKicTi is^ArtlTcd by fire. 

; J 11. Tofbe ^ged, and thdc wbtsare paf- 
■"fing off the' Rage of Irfc, 1 have onlv twtr 
'things to jrecbmmend, if tbcy would make the 
laft hour, as eafy, indoVent andfr^e from pain . 
as maybe. The fiifl: is, that they wouUt 
avoid the injuries uf tire weather, as much a»- 
ever they can. The blood of t^e aged is ever 
hioft certainly poor arid viTcid. Their perfpi- 
ration hftit or none at afl ; and their concoc- 
fivc' powers weak. And confequently they 
jinuifl be fubjedcd to, and fuffer by the weak- 
|ctt injuries of the weather. Therefore I ad- 
vife foch, to keep hnme, provide warm rooms 
and beds, and good fires, wh^en ever the iky 


^j. c. pread of Water ; a dHeafe To callftd,. 
Jpfoccediag from tbcbite jbSa mad dog. 


fowrsy winds blow, or the air is (harp. Such 
are not to expe& to raife, improve^ or exalt 
their conftitutions or health. Freedom from 
pain^ to prevent the vital flames being extin- 
guifhed by accidents*'^ and to have it burn as 
clear, and as long as nature, at their age, 
has defigned it (hould, is all they ought to aim 
at. Exercife is onljr to purge ofFfupcrfluities. 
If thefe therefore, be careful not to exceed^ 
they will want none, nor woiitcf it ititich corf- 
tribute to their eafc. For in old men the 
bones petrify ; the cartilages and tendons 
turn into bones r and the mufcles and nerves, 
into cartilages and tendons. And all the fo- 
fids lofe their elafticity, and turn, in a great 
meafure, into that eairth they are going to be 
diifolved into; So that the folids wanting 
clafticity, exercife can do but little to (hake off 
the load, ft will therefore be enough for fuch, 
to air thcmfelves when the fun lights them, 
and the fummer breezes can. refre{h them. 
Or, if they would lengthen out their days, to 
remove to a warmer climate, by which they 
may live as long as the crow. The fecond 
thing I would advifc fucH, is, to le(ren their 
diet gradually, a^ they grow older, before 
nature has forced this diminution 'iipon thchti. 
This is a powerful means to make their ofd 
age green and indolent, and to prefervc the 
remains of their fenfes to the very la(l. By 
this alme, Cbrnaro lengthened out his day6, 
and preferved his fenfes, in a great meafure, 
intire to a hundred years. He gradually lef- , 
fened his diet fo far, that, as his hiftorian in* 
tarmt us, he came at laft to live on the yoke 

oj '-^^ 


4>fan£gg three days. . I will^not take upoanir 
to advife others^ m what .meafurei .either of 
time or ^antity of foody .they ought to dimi- 
niQi. But this, I think, th^y ought lo.confi- 
de^ that fince it is certain aged perfons be- 
xome children^ .as to the weakness of.their dl« 
geflions^ they ought to diminifh, as childteit 
incrcafe in their food^ from weaker to weak- 
er, and from lefs to lefs. For as their folidt 
jare unelafti)ck, their concodive ^wers Aveal^ 
^tbeir perCpiration littU, and the expences of 
living fcarce.any, their repairs (not «to ovep- 
lay the fpark.ot hfe remaining) ought. to leflcR* 
«proportionaU.y. And it is to the inegicd of 
thi^, .in aged perfons that thofe rheums,* 
tarrbs, wind and cholicks, lofs of mamerjr 
and fen.fes, thofe aohcs and ,pains, «and alf 
that difma) and black train of miferies, that 
wait on long life, is moilly. owing. WbicI)^ 
by a.difereet and timeous leflening their diet. 
. mijht, in a great .meafurc, be pr^.cnted. ' 

5 i^«,nomiflake more. fatal in. the 
^cnre of chronical diftcnrper^* incident. to the 
.weak and tender^ than the vain and unjuff 
expedation they entertain rof a fuddcn 4ind 
.quick cure, or even of a fonfible relief. Xbt9» 
.with their inconftancy, and in^patience of be- 
ing confined in tbetr appetitesi^ makes them 
fither throw oiF. all remedies, and reftraints .in 
jdefpair, and give.themfelves up to an habitual 
indulgence in alt thofe things that brought on 
.or ezafperated the diftenrper^or run about 
,Krom Dodor.toJDoSor, 'till they end with. a 
^^pitck^ or die under thcbands of a mounte* 
^^t bank» 


hank, and are fooled out of their lives anA 
jmoney at once. It .is furprifing, that reafon- 
abie men can imagine^ that iti any fmall trrae^ 
any poQible methods or medicines fhould cure> 
or even fcnfibly reficve a, that per- 
haps was brought with them into the world,, 
and interwoven with the principles of therr 
being, or» at lead, may have been ten or 
twenty years a breeding., by excdTes, or ^fi regimen. I know no fitter fin^ili- 
tude of the cafe^ than the annual income of 
an eftate juft fuflicient to keep one in deceive 
.necelTanes, and due plenty and cleannefs. If 
one that has fuch an edate, run out .every 
year, for ten or twenty years, and then fet 
rdboutto retrieve, before he become to ftarving 
.or a gaol, woiild we not cpunt him mad, if he 
thould imagine, by retrcncfhing, management 
or favin^, even joining to thofe day-labour, 
that a few months or years would lecover aH, 
and bring his eftatc to its firft condition ? No.t 
he mud taboui:» abftain ^nd manage for feve- 
,Tal years ; and the time required, will be al- 
ways in a proportion compounded of the rate 
of his former expences, and his prefent ^v- 
* ing. ^hat is, if his expences were but fmall, 
.3nd his favings great, the time will be the 
.fliorter* in rcfpeft df the time he continued 
his overfpending. If he gives over faving, 
he mud at ladrmgd certaix^ty darve or go to 
|;aol ; and if. he begins to favc in, due timc^ 
he will certainly retrieve alt; but, the whole 
c«nfids in labour an4 faving for a due time. 
JExcedes and ap undue regimen, is running 
.•Ht.of oAe^s'^hedlth ; tvhich, *witfaoirt a proper 


rcmcdyr as labour and abftincnccy will neccG' 
farily bring a man to dlfcafcs or death. And 
thcfe mull be continued a time proportioned 
to the greatncfs of the exccffcs, with regard 
to the labour and abdinence. MoS chronicaf 
diftempers have for their parents, corrupted 
fluids, and broken forids, as has been (hewn. 
A bad (late of the (lomach and aHmentary or- 
gans, either beget thcfe or accompany them. 
Stippofe^ for example, the cafe be a fcorbuticfc 
habit, (hewing itfcff with blotches and a wate- 
ry icho^, or humps,, with yellow or blacfc 
fpotsonthe ikin, a thick, vifcid', rheumatick 
blood, an obfiruded Hver, and a conftanC 
ovcrflowmg of the gall, oppreffion of fpiritSj 
want of appetite and drgeftion, and thereby a 
wafting, laflitude, inquietude, &c. which T 
have often met with in your bon vivants, and 
y©ur free-livers, who have been born healthy^ 
vigoious and lively ; I know no way in na- 
ture to relieve and effedually cure tnis cafc,> 
but by often repeated, gentle vomits and fto- 
mach purges, as the cholcr (^which certainly 
degenerates into phlegm, before the cure be 
brought about ; for phlegm is but cholir more* 
diluted, or the groflcr part of the ferum only^ 
as choler is that of the whole arterial' ffuid; 
and when choler is come to phlegm, the cure 
is half carried'on, one part of the fluids beings 
already purified, and" the liver free and open ; 
At the choler, I fay,) and the phlegm rifcf 
and loads the alimentary paflages ; bitterst 
aromaticks and fteel varied and' prefcribed^ 
according to the ffrength of the patient, and* 
one kind a« another haa loft its virtue ; cha- 


lybeal and mineral waters, conftant labour an4 
excrcifc ; a ceol, light, (pare diet, and con- 
ftant proper regimen, lo*ig and obftinatdy 
perfiftcd in. The patient will often comptain, 
what 1 vomits and bitters, galiopping and 
fafting for ever \ vomits only relieve for a few 
» "day^, but do not cure : we grow as bad as ever 
again, and in fome months perfeverence, find 
eurfclvcs juft where we began. Ntw do3or» 
muft be had, and they muS cither be cafliicr- 
cd if they purfue the fame intentions fwl^ich 
if they be honcft men they muft do) or dfc 
mud: write things that can neither do good nor. 
harm, orthofe which witi aS-ually hyrt, for 
their fees (for there is no inedi«i«i) ^till the 
miferable perfonhas rvn through the whtAt Itr 
ruhy, and at 4ftft got into the Charlatan trifae^ 
Jz is certain, that when nature has begun tB 
throw the grofs atid vifcid parts of the jttk)C8 
on thofe loofe and fpungy gla-nds, it witl con^ 
tinpe fo to do, ^ill it has dephte^oiated the 
•irhdie mafs^ and every new vomit will snako 
Toom for another ; and there is no other reixic^ 
tly as long as there is any vi/cid hoinour rth 
.inainiT\g, nor can the decline of the tivfearfe be 
difcovered To certainly by any thing, ashy the 
leflening of the tjuantky excerned, and the 
lengthening of the tntervrfs : as in a veffei df 
oil and water incorporated, a furc way to fe- 
parate the oil from the water is, to fkim it off 
as it comes to the top. Now as long asthere •*$ 
any oil rcniaining, it wiH fwim, if yeu bat 
give it time to extricate itfelf from the embra- 
ccs of the water, and then you may feparate 
ihe vifcid mixture intird-y. No great pur- 



pofc in life was ever brought about , but by 
time and patience^ and by cbnftantly purfu- 
ing the moft natural and bed approved meant 
that lead towards that end. Nature works not 
by fudden jumps and (larts, but goes on ftea« 
dily 'fortement & doucenKntf'and it is nature 
that IS the true phyfician i art only removes 
obdaclcs, checks violences^ and gently foil'- 
cits nature the way flie tends. This reqniret 
time and patience. Tempus edax Rerum. k 
snoft certainly confumes clironical difeafes^ if 
not fuelled and fed; nothing elfe can. 

$ 13. In fine. Providence has been kind 
and gracious to us beyond alt expreffion, in 
furnifhing us with a certain rclief,^ if not a re- 
medy, even to our moft tntenfe pains and 
extreme miferies. When our patience can 
hold out no longer, and our pains are at lad 
come to be infupportable, we have always 
ready at band a medicine, which is not only a 
prefent relief, but, I may fay, a (landing 
^nd conftant miracle. Thofe only who have 
wanted it moft, and have felt its friendly ami 
kind help in their tortures, can bed tell its 
wonderful cfFcSs, and the great goodnefs of 
Him who has beftowed it on us» I mean opi- 
um, and its fotution laudanum, which, when 
properly prefcribed, and prudently managed,, 
tsa moft certain and fudden relief mail exquU 
fite and intenfe pain. The manner of its ope* 
ration may be gathered, from the obfervations 
I have made in the preceding treatife. Paul 
cpnftrids, crifps up, ftiortens and contraAs 
-akiimat fibres* It ads like a wedge in tearing, 
tt*:; , , . " ^ rcndiiig 

AND Long life. i*r 

rending anddividihg thefe fmall filaments ; it 
does to them in a JWing body^ what the points 
of iaits do to ail animal fubilanccs^ which are 
to be preferved for food^ viz. hardens ftiflfent 
and contraSs them. The fibres of live ani- 
mals being contradile^ tonick and fpringy^ 
when a hard pointed body enters them (which 
is the cafe in all bodily pain) the parts^ by 
their contradile nature, fly from, recede, 
and (hun, as much as pofRbly they can, the 
wounding indrument. This appears in the 
large gafti of a wound, made acrofs the fibres 
of a mufcle ; in the continual bending tow- 
ards the other fide, when any part of one is 
pained; in the cramps and convulfions, nay» 
and fometimes fevers, produced by intenfe 
acute pain. Pleafure, on the contrary, re- 
laxes the fibres by a gentle, foft, and bland, 
or (as the mathematicians fpeak) a eommen- 
furate and harmonious touch. It ads on the 
fibres as two umfon and concordant muiical 
inftruments ad on one another, and by flroak- 
ing, foftning and fmoQthing, comes at lafl 
intirely to relax and unbend them. The 
parts of the fibres run after, follow and pur- 
(ue, and at lafl break their union in fome de- 
gree, to reach fuch a demulcent touch. Some 
perfons have had the faculty to ^allay pain, by 
gently fmoothing the afHided part with their 
hand ; which in fome meafure was true of the 
touching dodor. Soft oils, and emollient 
herbs, with gentle warmth, by relaxing the 
crifped fibres, will allay pain. Soft beds and 
cloaths, and tepid baths will relax and weak- 
en the whole habit. Now fince ^\ix to c;t\- 


tainly crifps upj Conftriflt and conlraQi ani- 
mal hbrcE, and fince opiates infallibly, if duly 
dofed, relieve and eafc pain, lean iev nopof- 
-£blc way It can cfFe3 that, but by iclaxing 
and unbending thcfe fibres aa much, or near 
as much) a& pain coMn&t and draws them 
op. And tbai this ia the real fad, wc may 
obfervc from many cfFeds of opiates. :. No- 
thing is (o powcriul, or To certain a diaphore- 
tick as an opiate. Nothing caufcs fuch plen- 
tiful fwcating, efpecially if joined with voU- 
tilc8( and promoted with plentiful drinking 
fmall, warm ]iqu<>rs. This it can do only by 
relaxing the fibres of the fkin and perfpiratory 
glands. 2. Nothing fo much palis the appe- 
tite, and weakens the firit digeftions, as the 
frequent ufe of opiates; infomuch, that moft peo- 
ple, after a liberal dofeof them, feldom fail to 
reach, and never care for food for a confide- 
fable time alter; 'till their tffc&i are wrought 
dF; which are the conflant fymptoms of a 
relaxed (tomach and guts. 3. Nothing fo 
much promotes the eruption of the fmall-poz 
■nd meades, the expullion of' the Aone.and 
fcetus, the monthly, and the after-birth purifi- 
cations of the fex, as opiates j infomuch) that 
in difficult birthf, they arc now (he only re- 
fourw of the midwife phyficiani; and, when , 
joined with volatile*, will bring on the raoft 
()«wcrful and vigorous throws, in the oiol^ 
ak and languilhing conflilutions. Tfacfe 
•.€ta they can produce only by relaxing 
' 6brcs pain has contraSed and Tcodcred 
ick in fomc me«f«rc. 4. Nothing qui- 
flops crampt, coBTvlfioni and hyfte- 

AN"© LONG L I F E. i«9 

rick fits^ fo fuddcnfy and certainty as opiates 
« do- And every one knows thelc arifc from 
violent contradlons, ajidcrifping up of the 
mufcular fibres. ■ AH thefcj and. many more 
fuch^ffcQs, opiates produce, T>y unbending, 
loofening, and relaxing tbofe fibres violent 
and acute pain had coiiiliidedandcontradedj 
and by giving a refpitc and. reprrcvc from its 
tortures, and thereby allowing nature'(the on- 
ly true phy£cian) to. go undidurbed about its 
own work. The way it ftpps purging, and 
cures a diarrhaea, I take to be b^ carrying off 
the (harp and watery humours in the bowels 
by perfpiration, which opium exceedingly pro- 
motes ; by quieting thbfe fpafms and convul- 
lions, and allaying thofe fiimulations excited 
by purging ; and fettling and calming the vio- 
.'lence of the periHaltick motion of the guts, 
"which hurries off the contents. I will not; 
take upon me iiere, to determine the proper 
cafes for opiates, or their dofes. That is the 
bufinefs of the phyfician. But in general I 
may fay, wherever pain is acute, intolerable^ 
and pad enduring, where it may endanger 
<:onvul(ions, a fever or inflamrnatita ; after 
,premi(in^ the proper . uniyerfal evacuations 
(fuch as oleeding, bliflering, cupping, purg- 
ing, or gliflering, as the x:afe requires, or 
vyill bear} opiates, tbeti .will moil certainly re- 
lieve, and may be fafiely admrniftered. If the 
•cafe is attended "with vomiting, folid opium 
Tvill do bed; becaufe it will be in a fmaller 
'Volume, and will not be fo readily rejc3ed« . 
.If fpeedy relief be required where there is no 
-ivomitingf then laudanum will difperfe fooneft 


through the habits becaufc liqutdy and joined 
with a fptrituous vehicle \yiIIfooneft cflfedthe 
defign^ raife the opprefTed fpirits more» and 
penetrate deeper and quicker. In common 
cafesf a vinous vehicle will be fufiicienty be- 
caufe opium is bed diflblvcd in wine, remake 
laudanum. There are four cafes, in which it 
is abfolutely and eminently ncceflary ; the 
choiick, the (lone, the hard labours, after- 
bifth, and monthly fluggifli purifications of 
the fexj efpecially if attended with violent 
pain, as is common in fuch cafes ; and in the 
gout and rheumatifm. In the firft, it ought 
always to be given with fome ftomach purge, 
as elixir falutis, or tindure of hiera picra, 
vi'iih f) rup of buckthorn, and in thofe of^more 
tender bowels, with t injure of rhubarb; ef- 
pecially if the cholick is in the lower bowels, 
and attended virith no vomiting ; in which cafe 
an artificial vomit is to be prcm'ifcd, if cir- 
cumdances forbid it not. In the ftone it oagbt 
to be given with oil of fweet almonds, or in 
ioxiie foft emulfion, to lubricate the parts. In 
the two laft cafes, it ought always to be given 
with proper volatiles, antihyftericks and atte-. 
nuants, In violent and acute pain, tbe 6rft 
dcfe ought to be large, at leafl; from thirty to 
forty-five drops of liquid laudanum, or its 
equivalent in opium, from two grains and a 
half, to three and a half; and afterwards to 
be incrcafed by fifteen drops of liquid, or half 
a grain of folid laudanum every half hour, until 
the pain begin to remit ; and then an entire 
p is to be put to its adminiflration. And 
ith^ ^d will be obtained without any fear 


•f over doling. And the truth is, there is Icfa 
hazard ot that, than perfons are aware. For 
fbofe who die of an over-dofe of laudanum in 
the opinion of the worlds would have lived 
few days without it. For there are thole that 
by cuftom> have brought therafelves to two 
drachms of folid^ that is, near (ix ounces of 
liquid laudanum a day. And I know a gen- 
tleman who took near three ounces at once, 
inftead of elixir falutis»andhad never taken any 
m his life before; who (though it extremely 
weakened his (lomach for fome time> and that 
he dofcd almoff a month under it) yet did well^ 
and, for ought I know, is alive jtill, though 
it be many years fince. If the preceding^ 
dote be reje&ed by vomiting, about a third 
part may be fuppofed to fiay ; and then 
the fubfeaucnt dofes may be proportioned 
accordingly. The difference of conftituti- 
ons will make no great alteration here, iinee 
▼ery weak pcrfon* feldom fufFcr very violent 
pain, which is the only cafe I am here con(i- 

§ 14. To draw towards a conclufion. The 
grand fecret, and fole means of long life, is, 
to keep the blood and juices in a due ftate of 
thinnpfs and fluidity, whereby they may be 
able to make thofe rounds and circulations 
through the animal fibres, wherein life and 
health confid, with the fcweft rubs, and lead 
refiftance, that may be. In fpite of ali we 
can do, time and age will fix and ftifFcn our 
folids. Our original frame and make ren- 
ders this, unavoidable and ncccffiix'^* 6w^'\xv 


the greater worlds the * quantity of the Said^ 
»s datfy Icffcnjcg and decreafing ; fo in cor !cf- 
fcr world after a fimitcd times the appetite and 
concodions failing, the fluids are lellened and 
fpent on the continual repairs of the faLds» 
and thereby lofe their nature^ and become firm 
and hard. For by infinuatingthemielTcs into 
all the pores of the fofids^ and the interfficcs of 
their parts, and (Iraitening and damming up 
the fmall vefTcls, which carry in nourifliroent 
to the internal fuhilance of the foKds, and (a 
depriving them of their inoiftbre and liibricat- 
sng juices, thefe folids come at laft to harden^ 
ftifTen, and £x, and thereby lofe their elafti- 
city and fpringinefs. Here the procefs is me- 
chanical and necefTary. Aig^e and time, by 
ireakening the concodions, impairing the na- 
tural heat, which confifts in a brilk and ex- 
tended circulation of the juices^, by the tora« 
jng thofe juices intofolid fubftances, and there- 
by fixing and hardening thcfe folids, and de- 
priving them of their due elafticity, .the 6uids- 
eirculate with IcTs vclcfcity*and 'force/* and fcl-.' 
dom reach the extremities and fmalleft vcflcls» 
but pafs through the more potent and larger 
vcflcls, by their higgcftlarerial branches. And* 
if with all thcfe unavoidable and irremediable- 
circumflances, both the nutritious and ferous 
part of the blood, and the globular, become 
▼ifcidj thick and glewy, the circulation muft 


Ukac Newton's Priocip. 


flbp at laft» and come to an end; Now it is 
certainly in a great meafurc in oor power to 
maintain the juices in a due (late of fluidity 
and thinnefsy and to render them fuch, if 
they are not corrupted to an extreme degree^ 
fo that the remaining part of life be not toO' 
Ihort for fuch a tedious work. We certainly 
miy dilute and thin any fluid, that has an in- 
let and outlet. And the more fluid a circu-> 
lating liquor is» that is the fhfiallcr and finer 
its parts are, the'lefs force it will require to* 
fet it a goingj and' to continue its motion* 
And in animal bodies, the thinner and more 
fluid the juices are, they will not only circu- 
late by the lefs force, and with lefs refiftance 
(i. e. pain) but alfo they will preferve by their 
circulation, the folids the longer from ftifFen- 
ing and hardening. There is not a more mif- 
chievous, nor greater miilake, than the com- 
mon oncj that thin Mood is poor blood> which 
' the vulgar and herd' of mankind are as terribly 
^flTnghted for, as outward poverty and want* 
For, on the contrary, the thinneft and moflr- 
fluid blood is the richeft, that is, the bed blood 
(if rich and good mean the fame thing). For 
in hydropical, anafarcous, cacheAick, and 
(corbutick perfons, both the ferous and gfobu- 
lar part of the blood is thick, glewy and acri- 
monious, fo that it can neither get through* 
flie fmaH veffels, nor can it be long contained 
in them, but corrodes and frets them j' and fo 
{Mis (at lead the thinneft part of it) into ther 
cavities, and begets a dropfy ;.< or (U ps in an^ 
0bftru8s thefe fmall veuets, and fo becomes 
ainanafarca or fcufvy. In all which cafcs^ 

P 3 , \Vt; 


the ferous part is overloaded with urliionri 
hits,, and becomes a perfed lixivium ;. fo that. 
by its groflrnefs it cannot run. into globules, to 
facilitate the circulation, through the ^capilja- 
rics (for thcfe fmall .ela{lick.gIobules>. by^toro«> 
ingoval or oblongs, wonderfully .facilitate the* 
circulation of the juices through the fmall paf- 
fages) and the red or globular part becomes a. 
mere cake of gjcw ; aud thus^the quantity of* 
ferum is increafed, and the quantity of the i 
globular part gradually leflcned. And in this, 
ftnfe (of a greater proportion of ferum] this ^ 
fiate of the blood may be called thin.;. but it 
can in no fenfe be called good, blood. The. 
thinneft and mod fluid blood, is ever to .be* 
looked upon as the beft blood, as cofififting of > 
fined and fmalleft parts, which mod readily, 
tuns into red globuJes, and mod eafily circu^ 
lates through the capillary vcflfels, which is^ 
the mod folid foundation of goodubealtb and. 
long life. Now as nothing but indulging in. 
ftrong high foods, if.^ich the concoSive Pow- 
ers cannot break and divide into part^miallf 
enough to run into ved globules^ or circulate* 
through the fmall vefTels, but overdock tlien^ 
with urinous falts, which run into ctuder«». 
and fird obdruS, and afterwards break thefe 
fmall vedels, and in wallowing in drong It-^ 
guors, which parboil and eat out, the tender! 
^nd delicate fibres of the folids ; I fayV- as no- 
thing but fuch an indulgence^ and fuch ex- 
cedes long continued, and obdinately perfift-* 
ed in, can beget fuch a date of the fluids and 
fofids, and fo bring on a cachexy, which may 
end ia a dropfy# or fome other fatal chronical 
' } didem- 

Atl-b t CfM O LIFE. IT5: 

fllilompery according to the habits and particu- 
lar make and conftitution of the party (for no '. 
perfon that lived lo^ and meagre, and drank- 
only fmall and thin hquprs, ever became hy- 
dropicaly^ if his folids , were originairy firm,- 
and his fluids not tainted with fome hereditary 
fliarpncfs) fo Iknow nothing under the fun,; 
that can folidly and fully e£Fe£tutate the con- 
trary ftate of the blood and juices^ to render 
^em thin, fweet, and in a condant flowing 
condition^ but taking the contrary meafures^. 
and keeping to a flrio; regimen of a thin, flu- 
id fpare and lean diet. . We have ho pofliblc; 
way to attenuate, clean 'and dilute a veflTcI- 
fullofgrofs, glcwy, and four mixtures, that^ 
has only a fmall inlet and outlet, but by pour- 
ingintoit a thin>.;^clearj inflpid fluid, and by 
ihaking it often arid much. It is much thc- 
fame with an animal' body. No voluptuous 
nor lazy perfon^, UHlefs'lic bashad'an original' 
conftitution oi brafs,' was ever a long liver. 
And even theny as his life hte been^more mi'* 
fery and, pain, than ever a fober. galty^flave 
endured, his end, and the latter 'part of his 
days has been rack ^nd torture^, horror, and 
defpair. And though he has not hjatd the hope 
nor confolation of a martyr," vet, his fuffcrings 
Bavc been far more exqui(ite and exYreme. 
All thofc who have lived long,, and- without 
much pain, have livedabftcmioufly, poor and 
meagre.. Cornaro prolonged his^ life, and 

Keferved his fenfes, by almoft (larving in his 
tter days;, and fome otbern have don^ the 
like- They have indeed thereby, in fome 
mcafure^ weakened their natural firength, 



» ^ 


and (]^ua1i(iedthe fire and flux of their fpiritst 
but they have prcfervcd their fenfeSf weaken- 
ed their pains^ prolonged their days, and pro- 
cured themfelves a gentle and quiet paflage 
into another ftate. Gentle doroeftick purges 
frequently repeated^ due exercife* and the 
life of the other means prefcribed in the forego- 
ing treatife^ will mightily contribute toward* 
this end. But the ground- work muftbe laid, 
carried on^ and finifbed in abftemioufnefs ;' 
and though not in abfolute fading (for that is 
no ways required^ and would be prejudicial}* 
yet in a thin^ poor» low» light and meagre 
diet. All the reft will be in fufEcicnt without 
this. And this albne^ withoi|t ihefCj witf 
fufHce to carr.y on life, as long as by its natural 
frame it was made to laft, and will make the 
pafTage eafy and calm^ as a taper goes out foi^ 
want of fuel. 


1. r^lHRONICAL difeafcs laft long, wear 
V^ out the conftitutioji leifurely, 9nd are 
accompanied with a flow pulfe ; whereas acute 
ones foon terminate either in death or rccoTcry^. 
and are joined with a quick pulfe. 

2. The fcurvy is the root of moft chronical 
dlifeafes of the Britifii nation ; and is a nccef- 
fary confequence of their way of living alAioflf 
wholly on animal food^ asd drilling fo muck 
Itrong li^ju^rs. 


5. Soft, thin, fmaII,.fliort, fair hair, flen- 
cTer mufcles and bones ; foft flefli ; a white, 
fair, blanch^d'or a(hcn- coloured complexion ; 
^ fair, corpulent, phlegmaticl^ cold confli- 
tution J chiltincfs, cfpecially in the fctt^a" 
readinefs to catch cojds ; and being fubjed to 
immoderate evacuations of any kind, are cer- 
tain (igns of loofe, ' flabby, or relaxed ntrves. ' 

4. Women of weak nerves arc very fubjcflf" 
to mifcarriages. Their danger is increafed' by 
high living, and indifcreet bleeding. The 
only remedy for them, is ddnking Briftol wal- 
ler and red .wine,, ^vi^ith a low and light diet». 
going' abroad' to get air, and ufing.aflrihgent^ 
fitters, .and other proptr medicines to corro-. 
koratc their bowc^s. 

5. The weak and fickly fas their concofiTve 
powers fail, in winter, and recover in fum* 
itier) fliould carefully proportion the quantity 
and quality of their food, to the (Irength «f 
them in th^ feveral feafons. 

6. The fewer cfoaths one ufes, the hardier* 
he. will be. Flannd and great ioadjs of ploathf. 
by day and night, relax the fibres, and pro- 
mote only (wearing, inflead of the iiaturai and. 
Vtfhtficfal perfpirationt 

7. The weak, fedentary tndfludrous, fbould' 
frequently (have their head and face, walh- 
and fcrap^ their . feet, and pare the naib of;, 


8. People that read and write much, ought 
to do them {landing, or in as cvcQt a pofture 
as they can. And thofe who can go about 
any part of their fludies walking, (hoirid do it. 

9. The fat, unwieldy and^vergrown, ought 
to avoid all manner of drink,. Arong and fmall^ 
and even water itfelf,. as much as poffible* 
And if their food be vegetables and young ani- 
mals, they will have little ocqafion for any' 


10; The aged^ (hould (r) careliilly guard 
againft all the injuries of the weather i and 
(2) lelTen the quantity ,^ and lower the quality 
of their food gradually, as they grow older f 
even before a manifcil decay of appetite forcc^ 
tfaem to it. 

11. As chronical difeafes are not brought o» 
all at once ; fo they cannot be quickly remov- 
ed. A gradual corruption, mud be gradually 
remedied, it is contrary to the nature of chro«^ 
nical difeafes to be quickly cured. 

12. In all acute and vehement pain, opi- 
vmisthe fovcreign relief, particularly In the 
cholick, ftonc, gout, rheumatifm, and hard 
labour of women. Ft operates by relaxing and 
vtrScnding the fibres, overftretcbed and crifp- 
•d up by. pain. 


The great fecret of health and long life^ 
ing the blood (and confcquently the 


TO conclude, without taking the benefit 
of revelation, which, in a fenfc relat- 
ing even to our mortal bodies, has brought 
life and immortality to light ; if but the pre- 
cepts of the Pagan philolophers were obfervedt 

Servarc Modum, Fincmque tueri, Na- 
turamque fequi. ■ ■ 

If men would but obfcrvc the golden mean in 
all their paffions, appetites and detiresi if in 
all their thoughts, words and adions, thejr 
would but mind, I will not fay the end of their 
being and exiftence ha e, but the end to which 
their thoughts^ words and adtons naturally 
tended in their laft relbrt ; and, daftly, if in. 
the gratifications of their appetites, paflions 
and defires, they followed the unccH-rupted 
didates of nature, and neither fpurred her on 
beyond her craving, nor too violently reftrain- 
ed her in her innocent bias ; they would en- 
joy a greater meafurc of health than they do ; 
have their fenfations more delicate, and their 
pleafures more exquifite ; live with lefs pain^ 
and die with lefs horror. For had it not .been 
for the lewdnefs^ Juzury, and intemperate 
gratifications ot the paflions and appetiteif 
which firil ruined and fpoiled the conftitution 
of the fathers, whereby they could communi^- 
eate only a difeafed, crazy and ^intuneabte 
^arcafs to their fons, fo that with the world'n 
decay, vicious fouls and putrified bodies, have 
in tliis our age» arrived to thck higheft and 


ito A TREATIS&on HEALTH, &c*, 

tnoft exdted degrees ; I fay, had it not. bees 
ilfor thefe evilsj there nev\cr. had happened (• 
much ficknefi^, pain and niifcry» fo unhappy 
4ivcs, and fuch wretched ends, as we now 
behold among men. But even in' this our 
iapfedcflate and condition , hadthe didates of 
nature and reafon, nor to fay religion, been 
ioUowed^ we might have pafTed our days in 
indolence (at kaft from chronical diftempcrs^ 
if not innocent pleafures, arrived at a good old 
age, with our fenfes free, and our rational fa- 
<:ulties clear^ and at lafl; departed* in peace, as 
a lamp goes out for want of oil. And let the 
gentlemen of wit and iire^ of banter and fneer^ 
■hug themfelves ever fo much in their boadcd 
tranquility anrffccurityV gratify their paSions^ 
^ppetitesand humours to the fulU and defpife 
futurity and whining; I dare prom ife when 
the farce is ended, and the laft minutes arc 
drawing on, they would prefer a life thus Ic4, 
^nd an end fo calm, to afl the pleafures of 
lewdnefs and fenfuality, and the bounces of a 
H).[c and ignorant fecurity. 

R r N I s. 


O R, 

LIFE of the AUTHOR. 




I • 

, :r' 





f It T WASbornofhealthjrparentif in the 
JL prime oF their diyif wt dirpofed to 
corpulence i by the whole raee of one fide of 
my {emily. I pafled my yonth in ctore &udjp 
•ndftlmoftconftAnt application to the abftrca- 
ed fciences, fwhcrcin my chief pleslfure con- 
fiilcd) and confcquently in great temperance 
and a fedentary life ; yet not fo much but that 
tfomctimcs kept holiday, diverted myfelf with 
tlfc works of imagination^ and rou fed nature 
fay agreeable company and good cheer ; but» 
upon the flighted ezcefles, I always found 
flippery bowels, or a fpitting to be the crife ; 
whence afterwards^ onrefleSionj I concluded, 

Q^ 2 that 


chat my glands were naturally lax^. and mj 
folids feeble ; in which opinion I was confirm- 
ed, hj an early (baking of my hands, and r 
difpobtion to be eafily ruffled on a furprize. 
Upon my coming to London , Tail of a fudden 
changed my whole manner of living ; I.found 
the bottle-companions, the younger gentry, 
and Free-livers, to be the maft eafy *oF. accej^^ 
and mod quickly fufceptible of frlendOfip and 
acquaintance, nothing being neceflary for that 
furpofc, but to be able to eat lufttly, and 
fwallow down much liquor ; and being natu- 
rally of a large fize, a cheerful temper^ and 
tolerable lively imagination, and having, in 
my country retirement laid in (lore of ideas 
and faAs, by thefe qualifications I/oon became 
€are(red by thcm^.and grew daily in bulk, 
and in friendfhip with thefe gay gentlemen 
and their acquaintances : I was tempted to 
continue this courfe, ro doubt from a liking, 
as well as to force a trade, which method I had 
chferved to fuccecd with fome others ; and 
thus conftantly dining and Tupping in taverns, 
and in the hoafes of my acquaintances of taftc 
and delicacy, my heahh wa^ in a few years 
brought into great diftrefs,. by fo fudden and 
violent a change. I grew exccffively fat, 
fliorth-breathed, lethargick and lifUefs. 

i 2. The firft fcnGbIc (hock I had, was an 
autumnal intermittent fever; this I conquered 
in a few weeks with the bark, which at that 
time, I found exceeding fre(h, thin, cinna- 
Hfion^coloiired, and curled : this fort (as I know* 
^ -• tricnce) greatly contributing to- 


TH E A U TH O R. 185 

the fpecd and certainty of the cure of fuch dif- 
tempersy being more eafily digc{led> and en- 
tering more readily into the mafs of blood, 
while the ftomach is fpoilt by a difeafe^ and 
the juices under a prseternatural ferment. For 
one year I went on tolerably well, tho' as it 
were jumbled and turbid, and neither fo clear 
in my faculties, nor fo gay in my temper: 
But next autumn I was fuddenly feized with 
a vertiginous parozyfm, fo extremely frightful 
and terrible, as to approach near to a fit of an 
apoplexy, and I was forced in it to lay hold 
on the pods of my bed, for fear of tumbling 
out, as I apprehended. After immediate bleed* 
ing and vomiting (whereby its violence was 
tbated) I thought it might be owing to an ano- 
malous fit of my relapfing inmittant, and 
thereupon took about four ounces of this fine 
bark in 48 hours, but without any fenfible be- 
nefit or injury. I found after this, fomc fmall 
returns of my vertigo (in bed efpecially) on 
lying on a particular fide, orprefling upon a 
particular pact of my head ; but by degrees it 
turned to a violent head-ach, giddinefs, low- 
nefs» anxiety and terror, fo that I went about 
like amalefador condemned^ oroiie who ex- 
pedcd every moment to be crufhed by a pon« 
derou^ inftrument of death, hanging over his 
head. At thistimel leftoflFfuppersofaltkinds, 
tod have never refumed them, fince; then, 
even at dinner, catiiig but a fmali quantity of 
animal food, and drinking very little ferment- 
ed liquor^ well knowing, that difeafc;^ mud 
always be cured by their contraries. On this 
dccafion, all mybouncing> protefling;, com- 

i86 T H E L I F E OF 

panions forfookrae^and dropt oflFlikc automnal 
leaves : they could not bear,, it. feetns, to fee 
their companion in fuch misery and diftrefs, 
but retired to comfort themfclves with a cheert- 
tipping cup> leaving me to pafs the- mcTancho- 
ly moments with my own appreheniions and 
remorfe. Even thofe who had (hared the beft 
part of my profufions,. who,, in their neceffi- 
ties, had been affifted by my falfe. gcnerofityj 
and in their diforders relieved by my care, did 
now entirely reltnquifh and abandon me ; fo 
that I was forced to reHre into the country 
quite alone, being reduced to the ftatcof Car-, 
dinal Wolfey, when he faid, that if he had 
ferved his Maker as faithfully and warmly as 
he had his Prince, he would not have forfaken 
him in that extremity ; and fo will every one 
find, when union and friendfhlp is not Found- 
ed on folid virtue, and in conformity to the 
divine order, but in fenfual pleafures and mere 
jollity. This filly circumftance I. mention, 
becaufe I thought then, it had fome Ihare in. 
my fucceeding melancholy. 

f 3. I retired, I fay, to the country^ into a 
fine air, and lived very low.: I had a feton 
made in my neck, which I carried about fer 
many months; I took frequent vomits, and 
gentle purges, tryed volatiles, foetids, bitters> 
chalybeats, and mineral waters, and had the 
advice of all my phyfical friends, but with lit- 
tle or no fenfible benefit ; my headach, giddi- 
nefs, watchings, lownefs, and melancholy 

* er increafing on me. I had by chance 
* jjl the great benefit, which one of my 


•j; H E A U T H O R. »«i 

particular acquaintances had reaped from fome 
adivc mercurial fuedicinss (though prcfcribed 
by a very infufficicnt praftitioncr) in a violent 
ftupifying head-ach> which I had reafon to 
believe came by the fame intemperance ; thcfc 
I rcfcved to try- I firft took twenty grains of 
what is called the princes powder, which gave 
me twelve vomits, and near twice the number 
of (loots ; and I had certainly perifiied under 
the operation, but for an over-dofe of Lauda- 
num after it. In two or three days more,. I 
took twelve grains of turbith-mincraU which 
had not quite fo violent an cfFeS ; after that 
I took ten grains of Calomel, twice a day, for 
about ten days together ; thi^ put me into a 
petit flux de bouchc : after which in three 
weeks time I got abroad Hghtfomep indeed, 
and lefs confufed, though ftilivcry bad, and^ 
fcarce any thing better, but not worfe ; but 
two months after that> I found an extream 
fickncfs in my ftomach, which obliged me to 
take frequent vomits, thefe now pumping up 
oceans of cholcr, which they had never done 
in any degree before : whence I concludcdi, 
that the ponderous remedies I had taken,, had 
opened my obftruficd liver, gall bladder,, and 
porus biliarius, and broken the cohefion of the 
vifcid juices* 

J. 4. While I was thus (as Ihavc faid) for- 
faken by my holiday friends, and my body 
was, as it were, melting ^way like afnow-bafl 
in fummer, being dcjeded, melancholy, and 
much confined at home, by my courfe of mi- 
neral medicines,, and country retirement, I 


had a lor. 3^ feafon for undifturbed meditatim 
and rcfledion (aiy facuitic* being then as clear 
zxid q jick as ever) which I was the more rea- 
d:!y !cdin»Oj that I<:onduded myfcif infalKbij 
entering into an unknown ftate of things. 
ILiV^ing had a liberal and regular education, 
iv\\h the inilrudion and ezampk of pious pa« 
rents (who, at 6r{k, had defigned mc for the 
church) I had prcferved a firm perfwafion of 
the great and fundamental principles of all 
viitue and morahty : viz. the exiftenceofa 
fupre:ne and infinitely perfed Beings the free- 
do:n of the will, the immortality of the 
fpirits of all intelligent Beings, and the cer- 
tainty of future rewards or punifliments. Thefe 
Dodrines I had examined carefully , and had 
heen confirmed in, fromabftraded reafonings, 
as weM as from the bell natural pbilofophy» and 
f -'cclc5:^rr knowlcdg^e of the material fyftem 
c : ihe McIJ in general, and the wifdoni, fit- 
re s end beautiful contrivance of particular 
r.;:v;$ opimitcd and inanimatcd ; fothat the 
i'v:\\ rnd neceflity cf thefe principles was fo 
ri\e»ed in me (which may be feen by the firft 
f . I:ion cf my philofophical principles^ pub- 
r.kcd feme years before that happened) as ne- 
ver afier to be f.v.ken m all my wanderings 
ar: J follies : and I had then the con fetation to 
rcfleS, ili.n in my Icofed days, I had never 
pi.iiped to the vices cr infidelity of any, but 
V.-3S sl'^ays a determined adverfary to both. 
Kiit I fourd that thefe alone were not fufficient 
to qi'xet my mind at that junfiure, cfpeciallj 
tvhen I be^n to refled and confider ferioufly, 
" ' ' not (through carclc£Gicfs and 


THE A U T H O R. rt^ 

felf-ftrfficicncy, ▼cluptuoufncfs and love of. 
fenluality, which might have impaired my 
fpiritual nature) have negleded' to examine 
with fuflicient care : if there might not be more 
required of thofe^ who had proper opportuni-- 
tics and leifure ; if there mighlnot» I fay^ be 
higher, more noblcj and more enlightening 
principles revealed to mankind fomewhere ; 
and if there were not more encouraging and 
enlivening motives prppofed* to form a more 
extenfive and heroic virtue upon* than thofe 
arifing from natural religion only (tor then I 
had gone little farther than- to have taken 
Christianity and Revelation on truft) and la(b> 
ly, if there were not likewife fome clearer ac- 
counts difcoverable of that (late I was 4hea 
(I thought) apparently going into* than could 
be obtained from the mere light of nature and 
philofophy. Such were ray refledioM ia thir 
iny melancholy retirement, and.this led me ta 
call to mind, which, of all my numerous and. 
various acquaintances, I could wifh^o relem- 
ble mod, now in thefe my (to me feemingly) 
approaching lad moments ; and who among 
all thofe of my particular acquaintances, was 
he, who being of a found natural, and duly 
cultivated parts* hadmoft ftri&ly and con* 
{Tantly lived uf> to their convifiions, under, 
the commonly received principles, and plain, 
confcquences of Chriftianity. In a word, whO' 
it was 1 could remember to have had received^ 
and lived up to the plain truths and precepts 
contained in theGofpels, or more particularly 
in our Saviour's Sermon on tlie Mount. At 
that time among many whom my memory 

t^o THE LIFE. O V 

fog^fledT to me, I fixed en one, 9 worthy and 
iearocd'clcrgyinaii of the Chordiof Englandr 
AiflicieiitlylniowiianddiftingwflMdiiithe phi« 

lofophical and theological world (whom I dare 
not name, beeanfe he is fiili lilting, tho^ now 
extremelj old} ; and as in ftodying oEiathema- 
ticks, and in fanning orer (as I was able) Sir 
Ifaac Newton's phi lofophical works, Phadal* 
ways picked out, and marked down the authors 
and writings moftly ufcd and recommended bj 
thofe others* and by him, becaufe I thought 
they could beft judge of fuch ; fo in^ this cafe 
the more quickly to fettle my mind, and quiet 
my eonfcience, I refolvcd tor purchafe ftudy^ 
and examine carefully fuch fpirituaF and dog« 
matic authors, as I knew tliis venerable man 
did mod approve and delight in. lii this ma^* 
ner I colleded a fct of religious books and wn* 
ters, of mod of the firu a^es (ince Ghrif- 
tiinity, recommended by himi- with a few 
others of the mod fpiritual of the moderns^ 
which have been my ftudyt delight and enter* 
tainment in my retirements ever fincefand 
on thefe I have formed my ideasi principtet 
and remiments: fo as, under alt the varieties 
of opinions, feSs, difputes arid controverfies,. 
that of I'i'^e, and fincc the carjieft- ages, have 
been. caiiv^iTcd and bandycd in the world, I 
have fen rcc ever firiGc been the Icaftlhakcn, or 
tempted to my fcntiments or opinions, 
or fomuch as tohcfitctc in any material' point. 
ThJ3 tedious,, perhaps iinpcrtinei^t circum- 
ft^r:cc I mention, hccaurc the fright, anxiety, 
drev:J and tcrroi^ which, in mind^ ofTuch a 
turn' as mine (cfpccially under a broken and 



taclieSick conflitutionj and in fo attrocious a 
nervous cafe) znfcs, or^ at leaftj is exafpera- 
ted from fuch relefiions^ being once fejttled 
and tjuietedj that after becomes an excellent 
cordial^ and a conftant fource of peace^ tran- 
quility and cheerfulnefsy and fo greatly con- 
tributes to forward the cure of fuch nervous 
itlifeafes : for I never found any fenfible tran- 
quility or amendment^ 'till I came to this firm 
and fettled refolution in themain» viz. ^' To 
neglcA nothing to fecure my eternal Peace, 
snore than if I had beeil certified I (hould die 
within the day : nor to mind any thing . that 
my fecular obligations and duties demanded of 
xne lefs, than if I had been enfured to live fifty 
years more/' This, tho* with infinite weak- 
fiefs, and imperfedion, has been much my 
fettled intention in the main fince. 


f 5. The fpring following I was advifed and 
preiTed bv all my friends, and the phyficians I 
t:onfultea, to try the Bath waters. I went 
there accordingly, for the firfl: time, as a pa- 
tient j and, for many weeks, was much re- 
lieved both in mj ftomach and fpirits by them : 
and tho' in the opinion of the world, I lived 
Very temperately, yet by increafin^ the quan- 
tity of my animal focxi, and ftrong liquort (my 
appetite being now drongtt and more traying, 
and my fpirits briflcer, from the drinking of 
the waters) in the fpace of four or five naofiths, 
I was heated fo^ as to apprehend a hcAic. I 
theii changed the Baih for the Briftol waters^ 
retrenched ttiy diet, and increafed my daily 
riding and ex«rcile# and continued fometimes 

19S T H E L I F E OF 


^ntle vomits : by which I paiTed that jar 
better than the former> though tar from wdli 
buty on the return of the next fpring, fome 
fymptoms were ezafpcrated, tnfomuch that 
their feverity^ the continuance of my mifericSf 
and the conftantcomplaintSy common to hvp- 
pi(h peopl«9 made life a burden to myfclff and 
a pain to my friends. I accidentally met with 
a clergyman^ who told me of a wonderful cure, 
wliich Dr. Taylor of Croydon had wrought 
<yn himfelf in an epileptick cafe* by a total 
mifk diet. This hint accidentally dropr, 
wrought fo on me, that I began to recoiled a 
great many things, that before had efcapcd 
me without much refledion. I had read in 
Dr. Sydenham, that in violent and oWftinate 
hyftertck fits and cholicks, he had, with great 
fucccefs, prefcribed a total milk diet^ at the 
iad and fureft remedy. Dr. Pitcairn, my 
mailer and friend, iiThis didatcs had recom- 
mended it as the only infaUible cure in an in* 
veteratc fcurvy, cacochiray and totally vitiat- 
ed juices : and I myfelf knew it to be the only 
remedy ta the gout, a confirmed he&ic and 
eonfumption, and had feen miracles wrought 
by it in fuch cafes ; befides, I knew nervousdif- 
tempcrs of all kinds, diflFered only in degrees* 
All thefe confiderations determined me, ne3(t 
day, in the middle of winter, to ride to Croy- 
don to advife with Dr. Taylor perfonally. I 
found him at home, at his full quart of cow's 
milk (which was all his dinner.) He told 
me he had had the advice of all the moft emi- 
nent phyficians of his time about London^ and 

^'^I^W^*^^^ mcdi€mci# wdall he, had 


THE A U T H O >R. 193 

«vcr read or heard of, for his cpJIepfy, but 
. "With fo little fucccfs, ihat he ufed frequently 
to be feized with it on the road« while he was 
riding in the country about ttie bfulinefs of hi$ 
profcmoAf fo that dropping from his horfc, 
he remained fenfelefs, till by the nett wag- 
goner or paflengerhe was carried to the near- 
eft houfe; and that both his Ufe and faculties 
had been in the utmoft danger hy it ; but that, 
on reading Sydenham, he had firfl: dropt alt 
fermented liquors, ^whereby his fits became 
lefs violent and frequent, and then, by de- 
grees, he had given over all animal food, liv- 
ing entirely on cows milk, with which, at 
firftv he ufed only to take a few drops of Sal 
volatile or Harts-horn, or a fpoonful of com- 
pound pseony water, to prevent ks crudting ; 
that in a year or two his fits had entirely left 
him : and that now, for feventeen years, he 
had enjoyed as good health as human nature 
was capable of, except that once in a damp 
air and foggy weather, riding through EiTex, 
he had been feized with an ague, which he 
got over, by chewing the bark. He told me, 
he could then play fix hours at cricket on 
Banflead-Down, without fatigue or lownefs,* 
and was more adive and clear in his faculties 
and fenfes than ever he had been in his life 
before. He informed me alfo of a great man/ 

Eerfons he had cured of inveterate didemperF 
y this diet, and particularly that he had re^ 
moved thebarrennefs of Tome great families b\ 
it, who before had wanted heirs. 

§ 6. Having thus fully fatisficd all n-. 

192 T H E L I F E Fi 


grcntit vomits: by which I paflf 

better than the former, though. V\ 

but, on the return of the v " -.. 

fymptoms were exafpcratcr « : '^. 

their fevcriv, thecontinu : 

and the conuantcompla 

pilh people, made lifer 

a pain to my friends. 

a clerg\ man, who t*^ * 

whichr'Dr. Ta}lof -. .- (i* "! 

on himleit m ar «.;„.,, «„« 

.,. , .. r«. given over 

1^ rought to on ^ ^ ,^1^ ^^^^^ ^„ 

great many at way at night, tho' 

nie without getablcs.) I ufcd feeds, 

Dr. Svder *^ t r ' • i -n 

, rt ■ , J, and fruit with my railk 

fJccccfs **"g ^^^"^ ^" *^° ^^ P^^"y """^ 

lad an *^^^^ ^"^ ^'^^* ^^ foods : milk 

mailer '^'^^ immediately cooked by ani- 

mend *^*^ organs, and direSly (v/ithout 
vctc- circulation) drawn from their chyle, 
J J an emulfion of vegetables in the ilo- 
' I thought fcarce any grown pcrfon 
o delicately framed by nature, or that I 
1^ not reduced to fuch extreme wcaknefs, 
jt f«ch fmall errors, could do great hurt ; 
.„J therefore I continued all thefe, for a little 
,-.iri-ty, left I fnould be cloyed by only one 
^'itid o\ food ; and ever Cncc have ufcd and 
prercribeJ milk and vegetables indifFerently, in 
extreme low and dangerous cafes only, 
when fufliciently prepared by culinary heat 
and organs, and am perfuaded they differ lit- 
tle in their nature. In five or fix months I was 
conliderably recovered ; only uix>n the glands 



being loaded^ and^he peccant matter of the 
old habit being thrown upon the chyliferous 
dufl, and the conftantly enfuing opprcfEon 
and reftlefsnefs thereupon ; I was forced to 
cieanfe them often by by a gentle vomit, or 
an aloetick pilU which gs condantly reAored 
me to my ufual clear and free fpirits^ and to a 
good appetite for my then food- 

§ 7. By this time I had been extremely, re- 
doced in my flefii, and was become iank, fleet 
and nimble, $ but ftilU upon any. error even 
tn. this low diet^ Ifoqnd more or lefs oppref* 
fiqn and loWncfs. Next fpring tho' I began tO| 
feci a conftaht pain, fixed in, the pit of my 
fi^mach which I miftook for a, , pulmo- 
ns^ry caff^^ and therefore became (lill more 
temperate aild abftemious even in this na/ 
milkaj^d feed diet. During all th'ts timci I 
generally rode a horfebacfk ten or fifteen milc9 
a day St both fgmmeir and winter on the Oxford 
road from Lbii^don. I began more frequently 
then to take an aloetick pill once in ten or 
fourteen days, (for Rhubarb never agreed 
with me) which always gave me grc^t prcfcnt 
relief in my ftomach', arid confequently in my 
fpirits. All this time I followed the buiinefs 
of my profcffibii, with. great diligence and at- 
tention, in fummer at Bath, and in, winter at 
London, applying myfelf more particularly tor 
chronical^ and cfpecially to low and nervous 
cafesi they feeming more immediately to con- 
cern myfcif, and offering more frequently at 
Bath, where all of that kind, in -both iflands^ 
arrive firfi or laft, wbe can afford it. 

Ra ^%.^\vt:^ 



§ 8. The paiii in' the pit of my ftomaefi*. 
being now conftant» violent'j and feemtng t9 
increafe^ I began to think of Dr. Taylor'f 
chewing^ the bark to cure his agoe ;. and know- 
ing it to be fb forereign a remedy in ftomaclr 
and nervous cafes, I got fome of the fineft^ 
and chewed about half a drachm ef it twice or 
three times a day>^ on an^ empty ftemach ; and 
in ten days or three weeks at moft, I found fo 
wondeiful a' change on my whole mtntf as to 
fpiritSf chearfuihefs> ftrength and appetite^ bjr 
it» that I thought it enehantment^ and could 
fcarce believe I was myfelf ^ and had I- beei» 
much enthufiaftically given» would have ac* 
counted it miraculous> being naturally one of 
Ihefe quicb-thinkerSf who have a great fcnfibi-^ 
lity either of pleafure or pain. My juices be- 
ing thiuj fweet and fluid by the diet, itfeemsr 
there was nothing wanting ta the perfiefiing- 
Jsealth, but the winding up and /bracing the 
folidsy for which the bark wa» fpecific. From 
that time forward I encreafed in fpirits*. 
ftrength, appetite and gaiety, till I began to- 
find a craving and infufferable longing for 
more folid^and toothfome food, and for higher 
and ftronger liquors ; but being well ppprifed 
of the danger of too fuddcn and quick a tranfi- 
tion, from a low to a high and fuller diet ; I 
proceeded at firft with great caiition and wari- 
ncfs, eatihg only the wing of a fmall chick, and 
drinking but one glafs of white wine (for t 
found all red, and erpeciaHy French, by a 
grating on my lax ftomach and guts, keep roe 
^^ri^ three or four hours in the night) all that 
.Ufltfac next winter, (which I pafled^ 
[S^ at 


at London) I cnJQycd pcrfe6k good health and 
fpirits, though I had ufcd little or no cxcrcifc ; 
but nolwithdanding all my caution^, I had 
certainty gon^ too fad and too far into this new 
animat diet; for the fpring following I was 
feized with adepufatory fcvcr, which notwith- 
(landing all the fkill and care of my brethren^ 
the phyueiansj laded above twenty days, and 
the medicine (after the untvcrfal EvacutionsJ 
that had the gtcat^fl (hare in my recovery^ 
n^as, I thtnk» large draughts of warm barley 
water or rmalj fack whey^ acidulated with CJas 
Sulph, which wds advifcd by Dr. B^ynard» 
towards the Utter end of my fever ;^^ thisj at 
laft, threw roc inta a profufe fweat, which 
tafted above three or four d^y?, and reduced 
me fo extremely low* that for feme time I liv- 
ed ohiefiy on French Claret, with water and 
toaded breadj ,this being the onfy food I could 
reiiih ; and though t never ex<:eieded half ^ 
pmty or at mod a pint of wine a day,, mixed 
with water,, yet having ufcdrayfelf to fo little 
for a great while before^ this fmail quantity 
kept me perpetually hedicai and redlefs for 
many weeks,^ even after the crife : fo that I 
began tathink I had dtoe wrong before, m 
ufingmyfelf to fo little tvine ; and therefore to 
(ectire agiiind fucb an^ acefd^ent for the future, I 
bcg2m(»ter nky perfeS recovery) to inure my- 
^fcit by degrees to more wine, gradually drop- 
ping or leflening the quantity of mv milk and 
vegetables, andbyfloW degrees ancr in' mode-' 
rate quantities, (irinr dniy on the lighted and 
tendered animal foo«l for fome time, and at 
HA gradttdlj wentmto commpii iifcj with 

R 5 ^^^ 


great rrecdoia> bat ezad commoa. tempe^ 

J 9. But the the long and' TioJcnt dcpura- 
tory fever, which I' did not get over entirely 
, in left than fit ntonths, had fo drained, 
drenched and wafted- mc, that upon my total 
recovery, niy appctito being infatiablcf I 
fucked up and retained the juices and chyle ot 
my food like a rponge, and thereby fuddenly 
grew plurnpi fat, and hale to a wonder; bu^ 
indeed too fad. However, for near twenty 
yean, I continued fobcr, moderate, and-plain 
in my diet, and in my greatcll health drank 
not above a quart, or three pinta at moft, ot 
wine any day, (which 1 then abfurdly thought 
necelTary in my bu)kand flowage, though cer- 
tainly by far an over dofe) and that- at dinner 
only, one half with my mtap, with water, 
the other after, but none more that day^ ne* 
ver tafting any fupper, and at breakfaft no- 
thing but green tea, without any eatable i 
but by thefe means every dinner neccflarily 
became a furfeit and a debauch, and in ten 
or twelve year*, I fwelled to fuch an enormous 
Czc, that upon my hft neighing I exceeded^ 
thirty-two ftone^ My breath became fo-fhort, 
that upon Oepping into my chariot quickly,, 
and with fomc ethn, I wai ready to faint a- 
way, for wint «f breath, and my face turned 
black. At Aiahoe (waiting on the hte ho- 
tourable Mrs. C3rtwn5ht)and going oponly 
to pair of ftairE, with h^ ftepi» haftily, b^ 
hiog mf ' breath a tittte loo violently, tt». 
ffraoafet thofe thtt -were lullowiiic* I. 

i- WJI^ 


was immediately feized with a convulfive afth-*^ 
naa» returning by repeated and ftrong infpira- 
tions, fits and fmall intervals, which hided 
above a quarter of an hour, fo that I thought 
to have died on" the fpot ; but by evacuations* 
and low living, I got rid of this difbrder alfo^ 
in fome degree, though after that, I was not 
able to walk up above one pair of Aairs at 3^ 
time, without extreme pain and blowing, be-^ 
ing forced to ride from door to door in a cha*- 
Fiot even here at B^th ;. and if I had but an? 
hundred paces to walk, was obliged to have a. 
fervant following me with a ilool to rcil;om. 

J 10. About this time (twelve year^ after 
my firft recovery) my legs broke, out. all over 
in fcdrbutick ulcers, the ichor ofwhich CK)rrod* • 
ed the very Ikin, where it lay any time, and: 
thefc^re parts of both legs w«rc one continued, 
fore. I had the advice and oarc^ of many, of 
the mod eminent furgepns in England^ none 
of whom could' heal them up even in three 
years. Tire^outat laft, L took £t hi ops mi* 
neral for four months, in the midft of. winter:* 
half an ounce .at leafl; twice a day,, and a. 
purge with twelve grains of calomel once a, 
week,, obferving a much lower diet than; be- 
fpre; I found that the mercury had not only 
coloured the money m my pocket> and the 
buttons in my (hirt ; but to all my obfepvation,. 
the very fubd^ncc of the ^thiops was traaf. 
ptred upon the plaifler> every day>.wh«n my^ 
legs were drcfled,. viz. towards the end» oE 
the cure; at lead, the appearances feemed to« 
IM# QU the jpiaidcrst like a ficam or fmoke.- 


from fulphar and mercury, and was quite dif- 
ferent from what it had been before I began 
that courfe : this I was perfedly aflured of, 
though I did not then think of making fuch a 
critical obfervatiofi, as that this inftancc might 
fcrve as a proofs that the ^thiops paflfed thro^ 
the habit ; thoagh I am certain fince^ fron» 
repeated obfervations, rh)t every preparatrbfi 
of mercoryy and even the crude ttfeif, in ttme^ 
and in fome latt habits, will falivate m fomc 
degree t^r another : and that mercur y, in its^ 
minuted particles and infenfiMc fteams^ does 
penetrate the folid parts of all living anrmafsy 
as inflammable fpirits mod certainly do* After 
this courfe, my legs heated perfedHy, with 
common dreffings, and have continued found 
ever iince ; my health was iikewife very good 
for four or five years after. But continuing^ 
the fame fulU thoitgh (commonly accouifted)' 
temperate diet, and ufing little or lio exercife^ 
I became at lail heavy^ dull, and Lethargick 
to an extreme degree, efpecially after dinner ;: 
and the midfummer 172^3* I was fetsed with^ 
a fevere fymptomatick fever, which terminat- 
ed in the mod viofent Erifipeias, and with the* 
larged and fulled bliders all over ray thighs, 
that I had ever feen* I fuffcred extremely iw 
the fymptomatick fevel-, by violent head-aches, 
great ficknedfesaud finkmg.t and having late- 
ly had two fult-bodicd patients, who h^died^ 
of mortifications frond that dKdeitificfrf I wa^' 
much firightcned at miti«* My blood wa«* 
thtup t foondi^ mitf coiitinued rmpenetrabte 
ftjf^JMdmf Erifijpelatoi]^ inflammai* 
' ^ l# (iiiMNttOdikM^i^ich low« 

T H E^ A U T ft O R. aar 

nefs^ finking and inquietude) ^ reduced mc 
ta the very laft degree of miCjcry- 5 Ihad always 
refolvedj upoii any great ch^inge in my health,. 
to return ta my old friends, no+lk and vegeta- 
bles, and to abflain from wine in a great mea- 
ftire, provided I had but fufficient warning by 
any chronicat ilhiefis. I then made x bn^ 
journey in a coach, and lived on milk and 
white meats, drinking Briftol water, and only 
a pint of wine a day, by which 1 was fome>- 
%hat relieved, though notfo. m«ch a& to con- 
<}uer my tears or n^y fuffcrings ; io that having 
continued this n>ethod for two months^ Irbegaa 
gradually to leiTen the quantity of my animal 
food (liH more, and at lad, to live entirely on^ 
milk and vegetables: this> in .fomc '^tim^^. 
made rAy fpirits vaftly better ; but flrith* for 
two years> I was iregtdarly and periodical!]^ 
fei^ed every third nK>nth, almoft to a day, with> 
this Erifipelas, the fymptoms of which were 
indeed not To grievous as at fkflr, though ftWh 
attended wkh violent head-aches, afympto^ 
roatick fever for forty eight hours before the 
eruption, large bliders fuH of feorbutick ichor,, 
and great lownefs for the fpace of a week ; af- 
ter which I recovered my prtiKne fiate. But X^ 
was always obliged to von^it before the errup- 
tiouft topufli It out : andretieve the- head -aciv 
and fever, and to purge after it was over^ Thua 
I wer* on for feven or eight months, wafting 
daily, but at the fame time recovering fpirits, 
adivity, and the uTe of my limbs. I had alt' 
that winter had a flight pain in die back ten^ ' 
don of my left leg, reachi ng db w n t6 my heel, 

wjiicb La March toUo wing tecminated in a re- 


golar fit of the^ goaty la the joiot of mj htg 
toe ; this confined me a fortnight or three 
weeks, and it had no fooner left that place^ 
than it feized my flionlder joints^ where it 
cominned for above a month. I paffed the 
reft of the fummer pretty tolerably, but for thefe 
periodical returns of that Erifipclass which 
continoed very regular, about two years. 
About the Michaelmas of that fummer, I waa 
feized with fuch a perpetual ficknefs, reach- 
ing, lownefs, watchfulnefs, eruSation, and* 
melancholy, continuing fix or eight months: 
that life was no longer f«ppor(able tome, and 
my mifery was almofl eztrenK. 

f ti. At laft, my fufferings were not to be 
ejcpreflcd, and I can (carce defcribc-, or refleS 
on them without horror. A perpetual anx« 
ictt and inquietude, aofieep nor appetite, a 
conftant reaching, gulping, and fruitlefs en- 
deavour to pump up phlegm, wind, dr ch6- 
ler day and night : a conftant choiic, and an 
ill tatlc and favour in ray mouth and fton^ach^ 
that overcame and poifoned every thing I got 
down; a melancholy Fright and pannick» 
where my reafbn was of iio ufe to me : fo that 
1 s>>u!d fcarce bear the fight of my patients, 
or act|u.iintancts, that had not been daily a- 
bout me, and yet could not bear being a mo« 
tnent alone, every inftant cxpeding the lofs of 
my faculties or life; and/urely nOthir. but 
Almighty power preferved them both, fuchaa 
ihrv Are. I had a conftant violent pain in th^ 
neck of my flonach, and was obliged aimoft 
tytnrw|rik<iO't>fce a flnmg emetlck, without 

"*■ ^ ODJaj a ikMmiient*s eafe, bc- 



fides daily urging with my finger, or chewing 
tobacco* I had rccoiirfc to my old friend the 
Qainquina-in fcvcral (hapes, but to no purport. 
I arank Bath waters without IcnfiWc relief. I 
went out in my chariot, in thccoldcft winter 
weather, for tour hours every day ; but no- 
thing mitigated my fuffcrings. At laft 1 tried 
the Fo^tids, the Gums^ the Volatilcs and 
Vipers powders (not indeed regularly and ftea- 
dily) but all in vain. In Gne, I had recourfe 
to Opiates, which Ikncw were a^owpoifon; 
but one will ftick at nothing for even a moments 
refpite in fuch extremities. This, inflead of 
relieving, aggravated my miferies ; for fofocn 
as the ftupi^ing and confounding effc^s of 
them were over, my anxiety and (inkii>g was 
fo extreme after, that I la^as forced tOTcpcat 
thcmfo often, and in fo large dofcs, that I 
was juftly afraid, left by their becoming fo fa- 
miliar they would, at laft, lofeevcn the poor^ 
diftraSing^ uncomfortable reUef they afFqrded 
me ; yet all this time, I attended indeed (in 
a manner) the bufinefs of my profeffion, and 
took air and cxcrcife regularly in the day time ; 
but in fuch a wretchedi dying condition, as 
was evident to all that faw me. I had n^any 
different and contradiSttry advtces, from my 
friends and acquaintances, who obfcrved my 
n^ifery ; but I neither could, from the nature 
of my diflemper, nor from the iH^flPeSs the 
fn;i^left trials of any thing propbfcdy were at- 
tended with^ cpnttnue them any tifne. I weH 
knew my cafe was the gouty and ^rifipelatous 
matter retired, and drawn inta my ftdmach 
and bowels : I likewife kitevn^ that if I todk 

- V 


hot and ftrong medicines aiid cordials to drhrc 
"them out {as is ufual) I (hould thereby lofe all 
Jhc pains I had taken, and the benefit of t^c 
abflinence I had gone through, to thin and 
fweeten my blood and juices, to open the cb- 
flru6tions, and to obtain an extirpative cure^ 
if poffibic there might be time enough remain- 
ing For it 9 but the word was, my flomach 
would not retain any medicine, for they had 
a prefent ill cffeS, by making my fufFerings 
lUQre intenfe i however, I was perfuaded then 
to take a little (Irong warnii wine made with 
fpices, and to have bread and this wine mixed 
for my dinner : continuing tea, with boiled 
milk, and teafled bread for breakfaff, but all 
this time I had no fenfible relief. My family 
preffed me extremely to go for London (where I 
had not been for many years) to pafs the dead 
of the wiater among my old acquaintances and 
friends, foramufemcnt and diverfion only : but 
to this I was extremely averfe, apprehending 
I might be teized to change my regimen, and 
fncered at by the free livers; and being con- 
vinced, from former experience, that if my 
life was to be faved, it was only by this regi- 
men, at lead, if my time of difloluticn was 
come, I knew I (hould die under lelsmifcry by 
it, than by any other means. 

J 1 2. However, at laft to prevent friendly 
teizing, and the charadcr of obftinacy, Ipro- 
mifed to be paHive, and to be govefrned by 
them; fo in the beginning of December 1725, 
I fet out, and with great difficulty got to Lon- 
don. Next day after my arrival, I ifent to the 


"HE AUTHOR. 205 

^ ^•^. "'US, my very worthy friendsj 

."^ "^ Dr. Broxholm> who, at 

^' ' ,- "h them Dr. Mead and 

.-.|^S^ ^ '• Dr. Douglas and 

>^ \. ^ ^ ii of great learning, 

<^^' "'rw/N^ They unanimoufly 

'^ ' •.._■' ^ ^ .i chalybcat cIcQuary, 

■*> ■ > '< J ' . andby ail means to drop 

. '^, J to cathartics, which were 

" •^ ^ ^ fo exceedingly funk and ruf- 

•, . was. a] ways dying under them. 

' ad being reafonable and juft, I foU 

me time, continuing tho' the fame re- 
a of diet : and though fome of thofe gen« 
.nen and others thought I might have then^ 
.vith fafety, changed my diet, very flowly, 
at lead, yet having paflcd through the fame 
courfe twenty years before, and having fuflfer- 
ed to Aich extremity, and in a younger and 
more vigorous part of my life, and run the ut- 
mod hazzard, even by a very (low and gra- 
dual change; And knpwing the danger others 
had undergone by the like change ; I was firm- 
ly refolved to continue my regimen, happen 
what would I and indeed when all this was re- 
prefented to thefe gentlemen, and my other 
. friends* none had the courage to prefs it ;^ 
fiiuch lefs to urge it, in fo infolent and fneering 
a manner as fome, who ridicule ^all ihame and 
truth, have thought .fit falfely to reprefent it. 
I have once or twice, in nine or ten years, 
been tempted to eat an ounce or two of young 
tender animal food, but with fuch fenfible fuf- 
■ fering and oppreffion after, that I have refolv- 
ed never more to make the trial ; and I have 

S ' Vws^Ti. 


known others much younger than I, on whom 
a potched egg, under fo long and ftriA a ve- 
getable diet, for an epileptick cafe, has had a 
difagreeafole eSc6t. As the winter advanced} 
meeting with fome true fyiphium to join 
with thefe other medicines, I became fome- 
wbat eafierand more 'chearful by the fpring, 
chough almoft every month I was forced to 
bave recourfe to a ftrong vomit to clear the 
glands : but by thefe warm chalybeat medi- 
cines, and the vitriolick waters, and drink- 
ing near half a pint, or rather a gill of port a 
day, I had, by the May following, forced out 
fuch a fit of an erifipelas, as the bed and moft 
experienced furgeons (who then treated me) 
had never Teen the like : the whole leg, thigh, 
and abdomen being tumified, incrufted, and 
burnt almoft like the (kin of a roafted pig : And 
fuch a quantity of ichor ifiued from it^ as was 
not to be expre0ed ; at laft it ended in a fi- 
nuous ulcer in my leg, which confined ine 
near two months, and the (inking eflfeds were 
not quite worn oflF in almoftfiz; however I 
paiTcd the next winter again in LfOndon much 
better, and in the fpnng was extremely eafy, 
a3ive and gay ; for from the time of this la(l 
and moft fevere eriiipclatous paroxyfm, . I rec- 
kon I mended daily : for this had the fame ef- 
fcft upon my whole conftitution now, as the 
dcpuratory fever before-mentioned had thcn> 
both being the crife and penod of my diftem- 
per, and the beginning of my perfed recover 
ry. This was above fix years bnce, though I 
became not perfedly well till the fpring follow- 
t^^. ^.^ indeed not ^folutcly fo tiil about 

TH E A U T H O R. acy 

f 13. Upon the whoTe> 21s in my nervous and 
fcorbuticat diforderf I had continued my milk, 
feed and vegetable ditt^ with proper evacua^- 
tionSf for above two year$f before I obtained 
a complete recovery, fo in this fait illnefs, I 
had jobferved the fame regimen near twice a» 
long, before my health was perfedfy edablilh* 
cd ; being in the lirft cafe twenty years youn- 
ger than in the I^ft : tho' my excefTes were 
much more violent in the time preceding my 
firft itlnefs, than between that and the laft, . 
having, during all that interval, /carce once 
been heated with wine, and never esitingani- 
m^I food but once a day. But my exceeding 
bulk and want or inability of nece{{ary exer- 
cife, and a continued, though temperate fuF- 
nefs, with the difference of twenty years in 
my age, concurred to make the parozyfhn^ e- 
Ten mt^e diflrading and painful> as well as 
more durable in this lad cafe. And after alf I ' 
have faid of my excefles, efpecially in liquor, 
if it be confidered, that I was near thirty years 
old befor I drank fcarce any thing flrong, at 
kaft, for a continuance : and that for near 
one half of the time fincc, viz. from thir- 
ty to (ixty, I fcarce drank any ftrong li- 
quor at all : it will be found, that upon the 
whole, I drank very little above a pint of winc^ 
or at mod, not a quart one day with another, 
iince I was near thirty : and I was never fix 
times in my life overtaken with wine, and 
fcarce ever tafted any diffilled' liquors, but as 
a medicine, however mixed or brewed ; al- 
ways believing them to be adual cauteries, 
aadalmoft direS poifon to an animal habitr 

S 2 \\Q«V 


from their nature^ and the delicacy of the ani- 
mal machine : and during that whole tirae^ I 
fcarce ever ate animal focd at>o?e once a daj. 
But temperance is a mere relative thing ; and 
by much obrervation I find* that notwithftand- 
ing my large (izc, I was not made to bear a- 
xiimal food and fermented liquors in any quan* 
lity without fuffering to the lad degree. But I 
believe none will ever be brought to fuch a re- 
gimen as mine is now, without having been 
Irft extremely miferable ; and I thinks con^ 
mon life» with temperance, is beft for thege* 
nerality» elfe it would not be common. But 
extreme cafes require extraordinary remedies* 

$ 14. I found I never began to recover ful- 
ly and lafiin^ly, either firft or laft> till my 
blooc'. had entirely loftltsfize (which I came to 
know by aa accidental occafion for opening d 
vein} and all the former habit (except the 
mere organical mcRihranes and Tolids) wa» 
wafted, wore away, and difcharged. by eva- 
€uation»» diet, and excrcife ; for I had waft* 
cd and loft of rov former fize and bulk, in this 
lad illnefs, almoft one third in weight and 
meafure : and had palled throug a ftate of en- 
tire bodily purification, and a true cyius me- 
tatVncrltieus, both firft and laft, before. I be- 
^an to recover and fill up again. Vomits 
were the firft evacuations that with any relief, 
or without infinite ruffling, I could bearr 
and fo foon as I could endure gentle ftbmach 
]ica» I began already to mend; but no 
recovered any degree of eafe and 
mj appetite and^ digcftion . re- 


rurned to their ufual flint towards my new 
foodj and vomits were no longer neceflary^ 
nor indeed ufeful J they being only required 
to fquceze the internal glands^ open obftruc- 
tionsf and^ pump up the wind cholerj and 
phleghm from the alimentary tube when lodg« 
ed there. - 

f 15. Upon any accident^ diforder or any 
greater oppreflion or anxiety than ordinary^ 
arifing naturatiy in the courfe of the cure^ t 
found that living even much lower under my 
milk and vegetable diet for two or three daya 
at leaftj would alwajrs help me out again» and 
reftore me to my ufual fercnity and freedom,* 
(for I found temperance necefiary even in this> 
as well as a higher dier> though exceflfes were; 
not attended with fuch extreme fuffering) and 
ibarce any time lefs than three days would do 
it ; for though all my fymptoms were tefs fe- 
vere under itj yet F found by indulging a falfe 
appetite, or a liquorifli palate even in it, that 
I^exafperatedthefe milder fymptoms, at lead to 
fuch a degree, as was fuflicieni to convince 
me, that the ftbmach and digeftive organs 
were the primary and principal delinquents, 
fufferers, and pati«its> in moH, if not in all 
nervous fymptoms, thoughthis was not always 
fenlibh: and manifeft : and that by ufing them 
tenderly, and ab(lemiou£[y> all the reft of the 
animal fondions' were propertionably relieved-r 
And, I think, I* never once departed from the 
fimplicity of the alimentary gofpel, and in- 
dulged in onions andgarlick, viz. the poignant^. 
liard> fpicyf or unduous vegetables, with 

S 3. iaufi.W 

aia T H E L I F E OF 

much butter or oil«. or in a greater quaniUy 
than ufual, even o£the common x)n£s for any 
time, but that I fuffered pains and penalties ia 

§ i6. I found all my redlefsnefs, watchings^ 
and want of tranquitity or found flcep, to be 
owing entirely to inflation, ftored up wind and 
flatulence^ condantiy urging and ftimulating 
as it were with its fpring,. elafticity and points^ 
the tender fenfible membranct of the fiomach 
and guts, and the whole glands and mem- 
branes of the abdomen ; for upon fading fome 
time, eatii<g very little, or very thin> light 
and foft food, or on ufing a great deal of more 
exercife, to urge the perfpiration» and to throw 
ofF and difcharge this wind, vapour, or Iharp 
fteams, I found niy flecp return in agreatec 
decree ; and I am bold to fay,, where no ma- 
nifeA fever, acute pain, interrupted circula* 
tion, or fpoiled organ is the cafe-, that want of 
fleep and natural red proceeds from the difor- 
dersof the alimentary tube, continually, tho^ 
perhaps not feniibly, (limulated by this va-^ 
pour. And hence it is, that afla focteda, vo- 
btiles, foetid gums, gentle diaphoretics and 
•opiates, procure ilecp ; merely by encreafing 
and promoting perfpiration, and expelling^thi^ 
twitchingr vapour or (leann for which tbejf 
ought chiefly to be ufed ; and this ferves to 
(hew the necrfiity, and infinite preference of 
exercife to all anodyne medicines whatfoever^ 
and even to cordials, diaphoreticks and vola* 
tiles^ eacopt as a prcfcnt relief, whip or fpur 

f 17. Want 



;f 17. Want of appctijtc and digcftion moft- 
procccds from the thickncfs, groffncfs, and 
vifcidity, ot the juices and of the whole mafs 
of blood ; every vein and artery thereby be- 
coming like fo many hiack-puddings, or lea* 
thcrn pipes, ilufFed with a glewy or tenacious 
fluid : by which all the fecrctions being more 
fcanty, and lefs being expended by themy 
lefs can be received through the laSeals into 
the blood; which (hews the neccflity and 
preference of the ponderous and deobftruent 
medicines to procure an appetite and digedion^ 
even to bitters, cordials or chalybcats them- 
felves 2 whofc efficacy principally^ lies in 
ftreng^hening the folids, and winding up and 
contraSing the fibres, to make them play, and 
comprefs with greater f^rcc the circulating 
fluids, which can never folidly anfwcr, the in- 
tention of digedion and appetite. And ac- 
cordingly, by quickfilvcr, aethiops, cinnabar, 
but efpecially by mercurius alcalifatus, and 
other mercurial preparation^, I have been al- 
ways able to cure the diforders of the alimenta- 
ry tube, inappetcncy, ^nd even chol res, when 
fcarce any other tnethod or medicine could 
cfFea it. And feeing, by a thiii, cool milk 
vegetable diet long continued, I found my ap- 
petite full as good as before, an.d likewife my 
ftrengtfa, .^divity, jifefli, and complexion, and^ 
every power, organ and faculty redored to as 
great a degree as I coiild juftly exped at my 
time of life, had uo fych diforder cyer happen- 
ed ; it appears thar the fluids are chiejfly and 
primarily the feat of diforders : and thfit when 
the/ arc f|i$cicntly fwcetciied and diluted^ 

iia THE L r F E OF 

they generally Ictve the folids with a fufficienr 
force and fpring to play Hich fluids off, and' 
circulate them fully and freely ; and then alf 
the animal fundions, and the czercife of the 
EacuHles will again be plcafantiy and' regu- 
larly performed^ as in pcrfeS hcaUh r for good 
health fuppofcs this ilate; which doei not de- 
pend on tiie kind' of the dicti though mechanical^ 
flrength docs. So that fuch a diet is only pro- 
per for the thinking, f^culativei and fcden- 
tary part of mankind, and not fw the adivCf. 
laborious, and mechanical: 

f l8i After r b^an to recover, F found fif- 
tle alteration from oold or heat, wet or dry^ 
fummcr or winter reafoni) erpecially ai to mr 
Appetite,, fpirits or flecp ; at lead not near &■ 
much as I ufually fbund in my bdl Health on> 
thcfe occalions, under a full animal and fer- 
mented liquor diet; fo that tcan fit, and' 
walk, and be abroad' in alt wcatheri, feafon*^ 
or times of the year, day or night, withoot* 
much di-ead or hazard of cold, and with little^ 
difFerence of clothing, providing 1- keep my 
£omach and chyllfcrous tube clfear and clean *; 
which often put me in mind of the laying of S' 
Roman Emperor, who affirmed, that fpittlng*- 
cqughing, excretion, cruflaCion, yawning,. 
and' theliEe, were lymptwnr and' cS^fts 06 
BKKUzEaefi Snd.lbzar^. 

[UIJ- After I had perfcQIy' recovered, oK- 

tliat tlill, on liquid, flippery ftools,. 

Tming I was fomewhat Icfi lively and' 

and rather more griped 'Xad'tiiflatcdt 


^kft 19. Aft 

THE AUTH,OR., aij 

I r^folvcd to change? my half pint, or gill of port 
at dinner^ into the fame quantity of Florence, 
thinking it more, binding and aflringent. I 
cat at the farhe time a good deal of more but- 
ter with my vegetableSf and plenty oi old rich 
cheefe ; and liking nuts extremely, I {)rocur- 
cd from abroad and at home, great plenty of 
all kinds as filberts, walnuts, chefnuts, al- 
monds, &c. eating them in gre^t quantities 
after dinner, by wa:y of dcfert. I went" on all 
wntcr, and for eight or ten months in this 
regifhen extremely wcjl ; and out of waiiton- 
nefs, to try what my conftitution could now, 
bear, I indulged freely (though in ihcfe'oniy) 
together with my ufual mi]k.and vc;gctabic diet. 
Bdt after my common, flight, vegetable fit df 
th^ gout, (which I ftrll. have in tfic ipriiijjf^^ 
without neccffary confinement, though fdr sOi' 
hofjT, or altering either regimen or clbthin"g, 
cr'any othtfrcircumftancc, but a larpei^cis for ' 
a few days) I had firft a touch of nij erifipdgs^ 
on my leg J after that I feeniingly catchcd coldi* 
and began to be lick at mv fiomach, reaching^ 
3nflated,low-fpirited, cholicked arid with reftlcTs 
nights, and almoft all thofc difmal fymptpms 
I had gone throygh in my late long illnefs. I 
foon found my error, and that my cbnflitution 
could not bear even that flight alteration with^ 
out fevere fufi'erings. I had a violent humour- 
ous cough, and threw up great quantities of 
grefs vifcid phlegm, which I knew to be 
the nufs, not fo fufHciently digefled and at- 
tenuated, as to become thin enough to circu- 
late freely through the fmallveflcls; but were 
thrown off and, defpumated upon the larger 



emundory and open glaoch. In a wordt E 
fuffered all.the kind of mifery l had formerly, 
though not with quite fo much vibfcnce and 
duration. I went through the former tcfler 
purgation again-' repealed vomits, took fre- 
quent (tomach purges, chewed bark, returned 
to the fimplicity of my. former regimen, ieflen- 
ing their quantities, and drinking no wine 
jfwhich I now have dropped for ever, but as 
others ufe fpirits, foTaeordial, if wanted)and 
drinking Br& BriAol andthcn Bath, and after 
Pyrmont water, as the dcflurion abated ; by 
thefc means I got c^uite well in about three 
months, viz- in the Augufl after ; and fince 
liiat time, I thank GOD, I have gone on in 
one confEant tenor of diet, and enjoy ac good 
heahh, as, at ray time of liFc (heing now fixty) 
I, or my man, can reafonably . ezpeS i. and 
have Fearncd, that young, tender,, animal 
lood is lefs dangerous, in a fmall quantity, thaa 
bard, hot, ffncy, andoily vegetables. 

I 20. I know not if it be worth the men- 
tioi^g, that during my recovery, about four 
yetri ago, I was ll)rovHi, or rather threw my- 
felf, out of my chariot (upon the fbre-horfes 
being frighted, and the coachman beingthrown 
«n his box) and falHng on my head, was ta- 
ken up dead and fenfclcfs, being wounded in 
my temple, and the wheels of the chariot hav- 

ftirely Ihaved my cye-hrow. But on be- 
nded, I found my fpirits and Aomaclt 
afFedcd with it. I grew, for Tome 
mc, low, feeble, and loft my appetite; 
two or three 'monthi recovered to a mi- 


racle. from what would have killed another 
With bad juices, and have continued perfedl/ 
well ever fince« 

§21. My regmrcn, at prefent, is milk, 
with tea, coffee, bread and butter, mild 
cheefe, falladin, fruits, and feeds of all kinds, 
with tender roots (as potatoes, turnips, car- 
rots) and, in (hort, every thing that has not 
life, dreffcd, or not, as I like it $ (in which 
there is as mudh, or a greater variety than ia 
animal foods:) fo tliat the ftomach need ne- 
ver be cloyed. I dritik no wine, nor any fer- 
mented liquors, and am rarely dry, mod of 
my food being liquid, moift, or juicy ^ only, 
after dinner, I drink either coffee or green tea, 
but feldom ix>th in the fame day, and fome- 
times a glaft of ibft fmall cider. The thinner 
my diet is, the eafier, more cheerful and^ 
lightfome I find myfelf ; my deep is alfo the, 
founder, tho' perhaps fomewhat Ihorter thai( 
formerly under my full animal diet : But then 
I am more alive tharf ever I was, as foon as I 
awake and get up. I rife commonly at fix^ 
and go to bed at ten. The order I find in this 
diet; from much experience, is, that milk is 
the lighted and beft of all foods, being a me- 
dium between animal fubftance and vegeta- 
bles ; dreffed vegetable, lefs windy and grip- 
ing, than raw ; ripe fruit than unripe ; the 
mealy roots more than the fibrous ; and the 
dry than the crude vegetables. I find much 
butter, cream, fat and oily vegetables, and 
efpecially nuts both hard of digeftion, (luffing 
and inflating.. When I am dry (which is rare- 
ly) I drink Batb^ Bri(lol# or rymtont wa.t^ic« 

2i6 THE L 1 F E O F 

5 22. I am heartily afhamed, and hum&ty 
beg pardon of my polite end delicate readers 
(if any fuch (hould deign to look into this fow 
tattle> contrary lo my intention.) . I know 
how indecent and (hocking Egotifm \s, and for 
an author to make himfelf the rubjed of his 
words or works^ efpecially in fa tedious and 
ctrcumftanciated a detail : but fo various and 
contradiQ-ory have been the . reports oO and 
fnccrs on my regimen, cafe and fentiments, 
that I thought thus much was due to truth, 
and neceiTary for my own vindication ; and 
perhaps it may not be quite ufelefs to fome low, 
defponding, valetudinary, over-grown perfon, 
whofc cafe may have fome refemblanceto mine: 
which every^one's has in fome degree, that 
has a mortal tabernacle, fubjed to and afflid.ed 
with nervous diforders, by a miftaken regi- 
men, or hereditary misfortune : and I have on 
that account, written this in a plain narrative 
flile, with the fcweft terms of art poffible, 
without fuppofing my reader, 'or fhewing my' 
felf, to have looked ever into a phyfical book 
before ; thinking this manner and ftyle might 
be moft inftrudive and beneficial to common . 
valetudinary readers : and tho' fome may not 
have quite my bulk and natural jftrengthj or 
have run intofuch excelTes, or have not. begun 
to manage fo early in life as I did firft, yet 
they will only for that require leffer oil greater 
dofesofthe fame method, n^edicines and ma- 
nagement ; and if it have not quite fo full 
and pcrfed an eflFed:, as, under God, it has 
had with me, (though, perhaps, the worft 
fubjeft aj:d the moft difficult cafe poffible, for 


T H E A UT HO R. 21^ 

*fo abfi^uttA cui«) yttit'Way., witvwill ^ays 
Ijave a better than ^anjr other m^fapsl (J mean 
Ofily in4bxkpiorableaodt«iccf'49oiaiiAg a-c^e a^ 

miiie was) and if k camnot (Cur.Cy it w^U- cer- 
tainly repricYC, indimak^ the fuffcTtngs of all 
ftieh mift^flfble^perfetis morjp tollicn$ble,.as j]havc 
expericficod.<on0e^nd agaftdfij- in-lbc oioft cmi*' 
ncnt degrees : who, from the moft cxtrcoic 

-mifery, do now enjoy as pcrfeft health, as 
muehiaftivky andscheactulnef^, ;^^h ]i(l|ic ;6jjU 
free and perfed ufe of my faculties : a JFacility 
of ftudy> and of going about the buiinefs of 
myprofcffion; and in-fliort, of every rational 
funftion of life, as I was ever capable of in my 
beft days: and indeed of every thing worth 

* living tor as a free and rational intelligence ; 
every thing I fay, except that I cannot eat 
and drink (o highly andiroluptuoufly as I have 
formerly f and, if I know my heart (which I 
am fure I do not fully) though I were to be e- 
temal and unaccountable, I ihouki live (at 
lead wUh to live in the main and as to diet) 
as I now do, and would not willingly and de* 

. liberately go through the fame mifery, for the 

.mere gratification of my fenfes only; no, not 
to obtain the dominion of our .fydem, and all 
the glories and pleafures in it. What I may 
happen to do, God only knows ; I am toooldt 
I hope, to make any new trials and changes in 
this my bodily regimen ; and indeed to what 
purpofc ? being as well as any r and much better 
than mod are at my time pf day^ and there* 
fore, with God's grace, if my health, fenfea 
and love of virtue continue mth m^ the fame» 
XAitll^ I hope^ go on in th^^x^faod now dc- 


5arJ>«dU cni lire, JDEid» I bopc» die m coi« 
tistasu. ^liJttJifiL » die beftof Bcingi^ wiio> bf 
^m ^ci!-cTiAiw poyw fcm ce, and^ as it were, 
bf acrt i^adeuu ftiaacs, far beyond the reach of 
my p<ssecs«'Jon» btt intfiftibly (as I fliould 
^mait itrt^ m I Itk not my own liberty) di- 
scard t3c fitst jfisps of By life and health hi- 

liucrkocdos Danim in cftemttin canubo- 


THE ^ U T H O R^ ax9 



AFTER all the paint I have taken, I have 
not yet got fo large a (hare of enthufiafnir 
as to hope by thefe my poor labours, to do 
good to any, except perhaps, to a few poor, low^ 
valetudinary, dying, mifcrable creatures, who 
have not the courage nuignanimouily and glo- 
rioufly to fuflFer, pinc^ and putrify. The brave, 
the bold, the intrepid, the heroic,^ who value 
not pain, who can fuffer for diverfion^ &Tcf 
who prefer death witii a bcrunce,- to life, on: 
fuch conditions as I propofe : and choofe ra- 
ther to extinguifh now, than forty or- fifty years 
hence, will heartily defpife and pity me and 
my lucubrations. Nunquam* perfuadebis c- 
tiamfi' perfuaferfs. You (hall never convince 
though you^ convi6l me. I; have heard of a 
great modern philbfopher, celebrated for his 
wit, wealth, and high livings who ufed, in 
the^ funfbine of his days, to boa ft, that if tem- 
perance and abfttnence could make a man live 
half. a century longer,'*^ in gaiety and mirth, it 
were worth the while then to deny pnc's appe- 
tites ; but for ten or a dozen of years more, 
k was but a poor purchafe j and yet I have 
been toldj that the fame hero, when iii^ time 

T Z ^itoR^ 

220 T H E L I F E Ol ^ 

came». would have partcd^^with his great eftatr 
for a reprieve of afew years. Lown I am one 
of thofe poor mean-fpirited wretches^, who am 
contented to live as long as nature defigncd 
me to la(l» and dffire to fubmic with the ut- 
moft peace anc{ refignation' I can arrive at' 
when that period is expired ; but for paiof 
ficknefs^ and trpcclaliy for cpprcfliony anzietj 
and lownefs avoidable^ they are my inortat^ 
averfioHj and no means would I refufe to avoid- 
tfaem, but tho/e^ which 1 am conyiacedt- 
would infallibly bring me into great er-mifery 
and fufieiring ; and yet, if I niiftake not my 
own nature, I have the appetites, paffions^- 
and feelings common to other men ; and I u- 
fuallj afk myPtlf the queftion, and look into 
my own heart for an anfwer, to any thing 
pr^qoofcd concerning human appetites> paf- 
nom And feelings that are natural and Inot forc- 
ed : and give little credit to what others fay 
contrary tofuchfentimencs. It istrue indeed, 
there are as many and as different degrees of 
ftnfihility or of fcclling as there are degrees of 
intelligence and perception in human crea- 
tures ; and the principal of both may be per- 
haps one and the fame. One (ball fuffer more 
from the prick of a pin» or needle, from their 
extreme fenfibility, than others from being 
-nfc through the body ; and the firft fort, feem 
to be of the clafs of thefc quick-thinkers I have 
formerly mentioned ; and as none have it in 
rheir option to choofe for themfclves their own 
)»articular frame of mind, nor conftitution of 
body ; /d none can choofe his own degree of 
fen&Lilicy. That is given him by the Author 



eihis Nature^ and is already dclermined ; and 
both are as various as the faces and forms of 
mankind arc. I imagine therefore^ there mufi 
be required a particular make and frame^ both 
of mind and bodj^ to determine any one to 
receive heartily and purfue fteadily this (as it 
were) material metaphyiics of a regimen. 
There feems to be neceifarv^ previous to a 
convidion^ tbe.benefic and neceffity of fuch 
a (late of poriiication, a;Je ne fcai quoi^ to 
make men comprehend^ embrace, and profe- 
cute this felf-denying dodrine, for the fake 
of fuch in&nfible trifles^ as heakh^ clear facuU 
ties^ chearfttlnefs> aSivity^ and length of days^ 
"when they are in danger. If this corporal 
fenfibility^ .as well as intelleSual delicacy is 
wanting,, they wilK prove but fliort-Iived, diffi- 
dent and daftardly material fpirituaiifis^ and 
fall away in the time of trial ; though he that 
hatb ears to hear wUI hear: and good and 
found threfliing, great and extreme mhry^ 
f9i\n, lownefs, and anxiety^ will go a great 
way to beget this fenlBbility, and convidion ; 
for the means ufed by infinite wifdom and good- 
nefs towards reclaiming his wandering crea- 
tures. Teem pnlv to be either love or punifh- 
ment : that thoie whom love willnot draw and 
allurcj puniihment may drive and force ; bqt 
neither frame, difpofition, organ, nor faculty 
can make their ob]c3s^ or alter their nature^ 
which are things-given and determined. The 
immutable laws of nature, and the relations 
of things are confbnty and wiU fubfift in their 
order,; notwithflandingour errors, miftakrs^ 

or prejudices^ And it will be eternally true» 

?>^^ T3 to 


': >rr 52 wf ri7- .'rch rcdrc«, that enfy teni- 
p:-iZ'^z sjzz arn'^crrrr, lir, cxcrcirej diet, 
Iri ?-rrc^ ct2:3:::cc* can rretcrTc life. 
zzx :r. ini »^;". cr cure ctrronkra! difeafes : 
I ^rx-: .- sTscn: sri :r :hc main ; and the 
c:r:-^i** ^ I z.^ij* drirc^T them ; and that 
z'zj -^J. cTrr inurirj'.y espel one another, 
! ^r 'Z't sr^s wacrr. Hren Homer, three thou- 
r:i-i -r-cL-K 3 re, cnH cb'.erre, that the Ho* 
zi: £ i*5 :""t^c P..:':r5r^:T5ns, ihefc milk and 
%t£"rr3*i'e riitr?' ^rrt the longeft lived and 
^ir.:c:: of mrr^. Mlk and honey was the 
: :r:7^ f 1 rn cc the : led or" promife, and vegeta- 
!-.;< :hr a « o: the P&raditraca} flate : and Cncc 
!';>r* a dirt w 1: ./.: any thin^'^ certainly cure, 
^ - :hc rcnfcffi^n cralf phy£cians, learned and 
•j**?i'n?d. 3r.c:er.: or n:caem, high or low- 
*• :b£ ccHt* tV.c coniumption, and the 

^ni fuch like attrocious, other wife 
:^.JU'.♦^:r3^.d n:ortaI ditlcmpcrs; it will be c- 

rue a!:b, qu J potcll- majns poted 
, or that, what will do to the greater, 
vr:l. do :he ^cfs oi the fame kind : And let 
t'^e brave and !K»Id, the free-living and free- 
thiaknz profcllbrs f neer or rail as they pleafe, 
there muft bean eaficr, f.mplcr, and more na- 
tural iray of prcfer%'ing heahh andchearfulnefs, 
of lengthening life and curing diftempers, 
than that founded on deep refearches, tedious 
details, ftudied ingenuity, atad finei&ng, e^fc 
the poor, the illiterate, the laborious, and 
the iblitary, (the far mod, if not the lead 
corrupted part of our fpecies) would be of all 
men, the moll miferabte when fick. And ac- 
cordingly it is obfcf vablcj that Hiippocrate«, 


• i ?• 

4^4 .4 ^. 



Gailen^ Celfus^ and others of the primitive 
fathers of phyiick cured by air> excrcifc, diet, 
and evacuation mo{lly,.> if not only^ even a&> 
fuccefsfully, -(though not qqitc fo Toon perhaps) 
as we by all our mathematicks^ natutar^ philor 
fophy, chymiftry,, anatorav, knowledge* of- 
materia medica^ and animal oeoonomy^ Far- 
be it from me, to lef&n the val^ and necef&ty^ 
now, of thofc divine fcienccs ; for fince our 
luxury has kept pace with our knowledge : 
the obftinacy and violence, the number and^ 
degrees of our difeafes have increafcd propor- 
tionally; and therefore he that would honeftfy 
and fuccefsfully pradife phyfick, on the pa^ 
tients and difeafes now as they are, ought to ^ 
know all thefe mentioned fctences^ totho* 
greateft degree he can poffib^y, to enable htme- 
ven to alleviate,xni tigatcleflfen or cure thefe un« 
natural and infernal diftempcrs now extant ; 
and that phyfician will never arrive at true, 
natural and beautiful fimpKcity, either of the 
theory or prafiiice of phyfick> who has not paff- 
ed thro' endlefs multiplicity in ftudy, obferva- 
tion, and experiment in thefe fciences; fuch 
a iimplicity is the greateft contradidion to lazi- 
nefs, fereign ftodies, negligence, incuriofity 
and ignorance in the profeffion ; but fuch a 
iSmplicity (produced by rcjcfting necd-not's) 
when (if ever) attained, is worth a million of 
thefe little falfeand foreign arts fometimes ufed 
to rife in it ; for it is, in truth and reality^ 
an eminence of tight and tranquility. 

Defpicere, unde queas alios paffirnqne videre, 
£rrarc atque viam palantes quaerere vitae. 

F I K \ ^. 




r »5. ] 


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. . • •• 



Lettera from tlie Marchioncfs de Sevignr> 
lo her daughter the Countcfs de GrignaiK 
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She ftrikes each point with native force of miod'y 
While pazzl'd learoiog blanders &r befaiod* 
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Uer breediog finiihM» and her temper fveet ; 
When ferious, eafy ; and when gay difcreec ; 
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•■'.s «