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H E R A L I) R \ 



{BKCTOB Of ST. HAHV'H CHL'KCH, uontuohk) 

GKORlii-: UL'RXICTT, LL.lJ.. kt.-, 










Obligation of Cadets to difference arms — Effects of the IVars of 
the Roses in England — Permanency of old families in Scotland 
— Sub-infeudation — Rise of Surnames — Few names and 
original coats in Scotland. 

Modes of Differencing — Change of tincture — Addition of charges — 
The Label — Royal Cadency in England — Arms of Prince Con- 
sort — Canton — Quarter — Escucheon — Change of Ordinary — 
Changes of Charges — Augmentations — Ecclesiastical differ- 
ences — The Bordure — Bordures of Plantagenet Princes, etc. — 
French Royal Cadency — Spanish bordures — Use of Bordure 
in Scotland — The Marks of Cadency — Difference by Quarter- 
ing — The Escucheon en surtout — Mortimer Coats — Low- 
Country families — Croy and Lannoy — Montmorency 
differences pp. 396—452 



Adoption of wife's arms — Early seals — Composed coats — Impale- 
ment by Dimidiation — Arms of Cinque Ports — Abbey of St. 
Etienne at Caen — Polish dimidiated coats — Simple Impale- 
ment — Chemin^e of the Palais de Justice at Bruges — Leuch- 
TENBERG — Spanish parti coats — Dacre tomb at Lanercost — 
Dimidiation per bend^ and per bend-sinister — Arms of 

Quartering — Grand-quarters — Percy arms — Quartering /^r saltire 
—Jus expectationis — Erb-verbriiderung — Escucheon en sur- 
tout — Low-Country usages — Arms of an elected sovereign — 
German usages — Arms of Maria Theresa — Ecu Complet of 

(ii ) 

Austrian Empire — French and Spanish Marshalling — Italian — 
Swedish — Quarterings separated by a Cross or other Ordinary 
— 1l)x^ Daftnebrog pp.453 — 512 

(section II., BY G. B. AND J. W.) 

Heraldry in the Highlands — The Escucheon en surtout — Douglas 
quartered coats — Scottish bordures — Anns of feudal dignities 
en surtout — Augmentations (G. B.) — Arms of the heiress of a 
mother, but not of a father — Issue of Morganatic marriages — 
Official arms of Ecclesiastics, etc. — Anns of Kings of Arms — 
Electors of the Holy Roman Empire — Grand Masters, etc., of 
Orders of ST. JOHN ; St. Stephen ; the Teutonic Order, 
etc. (J. W.) PP>5i2 — 527 


augmentations, (j. w.) 

Arms of Edward the Confessor — Howard augmentation — Sir 
John Clerk, and the Due de Longueville— Dunois — 
Rutland— Augmentations granted by Henry VIII. to his 
wives — Grants by James I., and by Charles II. — Later 
Military and Naval Grants — Scottish concessions — Imperial 
Augmentations — Guelphic and Ghibbeline Chiefs — French 
concessions — Papal grants — Russian Augmentations — Arms 
of SuwoROFF, Menschikoff, etc.— Prussian grants — The 
Iron Cross— Arms of Blucher, Moltke, Bismarck, etc.— 
Swedish concessions — Spanish grants — Arms of COLUMBUS, 
CORTEZ, and Vasco da Gam a ... pp. 528—547 


heraldic marks of illegitimacy, (j. w.) 

Coat armour evidence of nobility — Actual status of bastards in the 
Middle Ages — The bendlet-sinister, an early and general brisure 
for illegitimacy — Vulgar error — A bar sinister an impossibility 
— The filet en barre^ or baton pM en barre — Coi^tume de 
Lorraine — Low Country Ordonnances — The faux escu — 
Mistake of Nisbet and Seton with regard to it. 

( iii ) 

The Canton — Arms on a bend — The bordure of the legitimated 
Plantagenets — Arms of Royal bastards — Bastards of noble 
families — Venality of the old heralds — The bordure-wavy — 
Marks of bastardy in Scotland — The bordure-gobon^ — The 
bordure-wavy^ a Scotch mark of legitimate cadency — Marks 
of illegitimacy in France — Royal bastards — Burgundy and the 
Low Countries — Interesting series of brisures — Spanish and 
Portuguese bastards — Italian, German, and Scandinavian 
examples — The bend-sinister no certain mark of illegitimacy in 
Continental Armory pp. 548 — 582 


BADGES. (J. W.) 

Early heraldic devices — The badge the earliest form — General use 
of for all decorative purposes — Knots and other devices — 
Royal Badges — Th^ pianta genista — The White and Red Roses 
— The Swan — White Hart — The Falcon and Fetterlock, etc. 
— The Ostrich Feather badge — Royal badges — Livery Collars 
—Collar of SS pp. 583—598 





Crfests assumed later than Arms — Early crests— The " fan-shaped " 
crest, or ^cran — Crested helm — In England of minor importance 
—Crests not hereditary — Used to denote cadency — German 
helms — Armoiries timbr^es in France — Limitation of use — 
Materials and position of helm — The Stall Plates and Crests 
at Windsor — Use of several crested helms in Germany — Use 
in Scandinavia — In France — Spain — Portugal — Ecclesiastics, 
right of, to use Crests — Reasons for choice of Crest — Buffalo 
horns — Wings — Vol-banneret — Trompes d^h Uphant — Com- 
posed crests — Penaches, hats, the piumail — The mitre, and 
mitred crests — German anomalies— English anomalies — " Our 
crest .'"—Differenced crests — Use of more than one— Absurd 


crests — Lambrequins — Wreaths — The calotte 2Xi^ capeline — 
Feather lambrequins — Tinctures of mantlings — Contoise — The 
Crest-Coronet — Mantles, pavilions, etc. . . pp. 599 — 616 



The Iron Crown — // Sacro Chiodo — Crown of CHARLEMAGNE — 
Early English , Crowns — Development of Crowns — Coronet of 
Prince of Wales — Crown of Scotland — Closed- crowns — 
French crowns, and coronets — Crowns of Emperors — The 
Szent Korona — Russian Crowns at Moscow — Royal Prussian 
Crown — Archducal coronet — Princely Crowns — Crown of 
Doge of Venice — Coronets^ licence in use of— Ducal coronet 
— Used by Marshals of France, and Spanish Grandees — 
Coronets of Marquesses, Earls, Counts, Barons, etc. — Mortiers 
— Coronets of Dutch Admirals — British ignorance — The Toques 
of the French Empire pp.617 — 626 


external ORNAMENTS. 

Supports^ Tenans, Soutiens — Origin of Supporters — Evidence of 
early seals — Single supporters — the Unicom of SCOTLAND — 
The Apostolic Eagle — Double Supporters — Breton use — Sup- 
porters mantled — Crested Supporters — Triple Supporters — 
French Royal Supporters — Free use of Supporters abroad — 
Ordonnances des Pays Bas — Unnecessary restrictions — Pedan- 
tic attention to minutiae — Supporters with banners — Use of 
Supporters in Spain and Italy — Slavonic and other uses — The 
"beast" — Compartments — British absurdities — Inanimate 
Supporters (Orders of St. John, etc.) — Badges of Office, in 
Britain, France, Italy, Holland, and Spain — The Cordeli^re^ 
Lacs d^ Amour — Palms, etc. — Motto bands — The use of Sup- 
porters, to whom limited — Choice of new Supporters — More 
British absurdities pp. 627 — 648 





Banners of the Bayeux Tapestry — Banners and Bannerets — Bache- 
leries — Fiefs en bannilre — Ecuyer-banneret — A banneret, how 
made — Arms on Sails of Ships — Standards — Variations of — 
Pennoncelles — Guidons-— ^2X\oxi2X Flags — Battle of the Stan- 
dard — The Carroccio in Italy — English flags — The " Union 
Jack^^ — The Oriflamine — Vexilla — Le Drapcau blanc — The 
tricolor of France — Imperial Standard of Germany 

pp. 649 — 660 



Royal Arms of England — National Arms — Partitions and Curious 
Coats — Annes Parlantes — Scandinavian Names assumed from 
Arms — Conclusion pp. 661 — 674 

English Glossary pp. 676—708 

Glossary of French Terms of Blazon pp. 709 — 747 

Appendices pp. 748 — 755 

Index pp. 756 — 859 





. fueirui 

r pofje 415 


Amis of Jkan, Due cI'Albany . . . , 




 • • • • • 




, Marshalling, Dimidiation, etc. , 



Marshalling . . . . , 



^c/i(>vr7/t€7it of Maria Therrka . 



Marshalling . . . . , 



Marshalling . . . . , 



Marshalling . . . . , 



Armorial dii H^raut Gueldre . , 



WappenroUe vun Zurich . . , 



WappenroUc von Zurich , 



Illegitimacy . . . . , 



Illegitimacy . . . . , 




• • •  * • 



Crowns and Coronets . . . . , 




1 Royal Arms of England, etc. , 



Royal Arms of Great Britain, etc. , 



National Arms . . . , 



National Arms . . . , 



Partitions, etc. . . . , 



Partitions, etc. . . . , 




. II. 





Ltibel of Pbinck of 







William, Duke of 


Clarbnce . 





Edwakd, Duke of 






TjROPold, Duke of 


Albany . 





Ai)OLPHU8, Duke 

of Cambridge . 





Princess Royal . 




PrinccM Augusta 





,, Elizabeth 





„ Mary 





„ Sophia . 

42 L 



Eacucheon of Hbnri dk 







'* Ecu-Complet ** of 


Austmn Empire 





Daubeny Achievement 599 

Helmet of Sovereign . 602 

Peers . . 602 
Baronets and 

Knights . 602 
„ Gentlemen 602 

CVoum of Charlemagne . 617 
ArtMf etc., of Prince 

Putbus . . .627 

ikal of Louis, Count of 

Flanders . . . 648 
-Banner of Percy . . 649 
from Bayeux Tapestry 649 


tt tt tt 649 
of Maurice de 

Berkeley . . . 651 

Tabard or Coat of Arms . 674 











t > 




Before armorial bearings had been for a century in 
general use it was found necessary to distinguish by 
their variations, not only different families but different 
members, or branches of the same family. It came to 
be understood that the head of the house could alone 
use the pure unaltered coat Even the heir apparent, or 
heir presumptive, had no right to use the ancestral coat 
without some variation ; in common with the other 
cadets he had to bear it with a difference^ or brisure. 
This was early an unwritten but generally accepted law. 
The obligation of cadet lines to difference their arms 
was recognised over nearly the whole of civilised 
Europe in the fourteenth century ; and when, later, 
the obligation seemed in danger of being forgotten it 
was made the subject of direct legislation. 

In the treatise of Zypceus, de Notitia juris Belgici, 
lib. xii., quoted also in Men^trIER, Recherches du 
Blazon^ p. 218, we find the following: — 

" Ut secundo et ulterius geniti, quin imo primogeniti 
vivo patre, Integra insignia non gerant, sed aliqua nota 
distincta, ut perpetuo lineae dignosci possint, et ex qu^ 
quique descendant, donee anteriores defecerint. Exceptis 
Luxemburgis et Gueldris, quibus non sunt ii mores.** 
(The exception is curious. I have printed the Regu- 
lations in force in Portugal in the Appendix to this 

The choice of these brisures was, however, left to the 

persons concerned ; and there is, consequently, a great 
2 D 

( 397 ) 

variety of these ancient modes of difference which it is 
the object of this chapter to set forth in detail. 

In England, where great stringency of regulation has 
prevailed with regard to some armorial matters of small 
importance, it has (as is often the case) been accompanied 
with extreme laxity as regards other, and more impor- 
tant, ones. 

The old system of differencing was practically 
abandoned in the sixteenth century, and was replaced 
by the present unsatisfactory " Marks of Cadency," 
consisting of minute charges intended to denote the 
order of birth of a series of brothers, and themselves to 
be charged in a second generation by a still minuter 
series. Even to this limited extent the system has been 
found unworkable, and beyond a second generation 
there is not even the semblance of provision for indicat- 
ing cadency. 

In the remarks on Differences printed in the 
Appendix to Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry from an 
essay by Sir Edward Bering, circa 1630, occur the 
following just remarks : — 

"These minute differences, as they were antiently 
dangerous and insufficient, so in manner as they are 
now used they were then unknown ; neither is there 
art enough by any of our heralds' rules, though much 
refined of late, to guide one so as to know which of the 
crescent-bearers was the uncle, or which the nephew, 
and for crescent upon crescent, mullet upon mullet, etc., 
in a pedigree of no great largeness, perspective glasses 
and spectacles cannot help you ; but you must have 
Lyncean eyes, or his that ^ould write Homer's Iliads, 
and fold them into a nutshell." 

As in England so on the Continent generally brisures 
have gone greatly into disuse. It is in Scotland alone 
that the old system of differencing has never ceased to 
be in viridi observantia. In fact the most striking 


peculiarity of Scottish Heraldry is the importance which 
it has always attached to distinguishing the arms of the 
cadets of a family from those which pertain to its chief. 
It must, however, be confessed that circumstances, 
presently to be referred to, have made this an easier 
matter than it has been elsewhere. 

Anyone who has given attention to the different 
economic conditions of England and Scotland will have 
little difficulty in apprehending the reasons which have 
made differencing at once easier and more important in 
North Britain than in the southern kingdom. These 
are the permanency of the old families ; and the close- 
ness of the family and feudal tie. At an early period 
the leading families of England began to wane, not 
merely out of power but out of existence. Great 
baronial houses continually ended in heiresses and 
co-heiresses who often divided estates, and carried them 
to meaner men. The great struggle between the 
Houses of York and Lancaster known as the Wars of 
tJu RoseSy swept whole families of both the greater and 
lesser nobility off the face of the earth. Of the twenty- 
five barons appointed to enforce the observance of 
Magna Charta, who must have been chief among the 
magnates of England, there is not a male descendant 
surviving in its present peerage. It is not intended to 
imply that the present nobility of the British Empire is 
inferior in point of ancient lineage, or in any other 
respect, to the existing noblesse of any other European 
country. The foreigner, who looks simply to the date 
of the Peerage dignity of one of our nobles, is very 
liable to form an entirely false idea with regard to this 
matter. He does not know, probably he has no means 
of knowing, that a person called to the House of Lords, 
Imperante Victoria^ may be the head, or still more 
probably the cadet, of a family of untitled gentlemen 
who can trace their descent in the male line, if they care 

( 399 ) 

so to do, to a companion of the Norman Conqueror. 
Sir Bernard Burke tells us that "Wrottesley, 
a Baron of Queen VICTORIA'S reign, can establish 
what no other member of the House of Lords can 
— a male line of descent from a FOUNDER KNIGHT 
OF THE Garter," although "Vernon is sprung from 
Richard, Baron of Shipbroke recorded in Domesday Book ; 
.... and Bagot is the head of a race of gentlemen 
traceable back to the Conquest, from a junior branch of 
which sprang the celebrated house of Stafford, ducal 
under the title of Buckingham." {Tlie Rise of Great 
FamilieSy p. 33, 1873.) Still there has been a great 
extinction of once noble names. A large proportion of the 
surnames borne by knightly and noble families in the 
fourteenth, and earlier centuries, have utterly passed 
away from common ken. We find them recorded, with 
the ensigns which their owners bore, in our Heraldic 
Ordinaries and Rolls of Anns ^ but a large proportion of 
them would sound unfamiliar in the ears of modern 

On the other hand, the Scoto-Norman Barons were 
remarkable for their numerous progeny ; a physical fact 
for' which the intermixture of Celtic blood has been 
suggested as a cause. Sub-infeudation, which in England 
had been prohibited from the time of the Plantagenet 
kings, was largely practised in Scotland. The great 
baron, owner of an extensive but thinly peopled domain, 
could provide each of his sons with a fief to be held from 
him for rent, or military service. Each son divided his 
fief among his children ; and this sub-infeudation went 
on till every powerful family could count a large array 
of cadets ; many of them, no doubt, in comparatively 
obscure positions, but the tie of blood, carefully cherished 
on both sides, imparted a patriarchal character to the 
relation of superior and vassal. 

The student can hardly fail to notice the striking 

( 400 ) 

difference between England and Scotland in the matter 
of the number and variety of surnames, and arms attach- 
ing to them. Whole districts of Scotland have their 
predominating names, which are generally those of 
the old feudal families. Argyllshire is peopled with 
Campbells ; Inverness-shire with Macdonalds ; Aber- 
deenshire with Gordons, and Forbeses ; and the 

southern counties with ScoTTs, Kers, Elliots, John- 
stones and Maxwells. 

Surnames were for a long time after their introduction, 
used only by the gentry ; and when they began to be 
assumed by the lower orders, the clansman almost 
invariably took the name of his chief, considering 
himself a member of his family, at least by adoption, 
if not by a closer tie the remembrance of which tradi- 
tion had preserved. In England it was far otherwise. 
New men emerged, and founded new families ; it was 
easier to adopt new arms than (even for those who 
might possibly have succeeded in doing so had they 
tried) to trace a connection with those who had passed 

Hence it comes to pass that while in England the 
multitude of entirely distinct coats of arms is enormous, 
in Scotland the number of original coats is small; but 
the distinct and well defined insignia of the chief of the 
family are differenced in such a manner as to show 
forth, more or less clearly, his relation to the head of the 
house, and to other cadets ; and in many cases also to 
suggest his maternal descent. I have Dr Burnett's 
authority for stating that : — " In the Official Register of 
Arms from 1672 up to 1888 the entries for members of 
the families of Campbell, Hamilton, Stewart, and 
Scott, compose about a ninth of the whole ; and if we 

add the MuRRAVs, DOUGLASES, Hays, Grahams, 
Mackenzies, Drummonds, Grants, Forbeses, Cun- 
ninghams and Erasers, we have exhausted a fourth 

( 40I ) 

of the existing record of arms. In the case of the 
most numerous family, the Campbells — for whom more 
than a hundred coats are registered — by far the larger 
number have been assigned to persons either certainly 
having, or with a high degree of probability claiming, a 
connection with the head of the house." One of the 
principal duties imposed on Lyon by the Scottish 
Parliament in 1592, is the assigning of proper differ- 
ences to cadets, and the bearing of arms without such 
differences was made penal, by the statutes of 1662, 
and 1672. 

In most English heraldic books this important subject 
o{ differencing is only adverted to very briefly ; and this 
almost entirely with reference to the little regarded 
practice of modern times. One bright exception is the 
excellent work by my late friend the Rev. C. BOUTELL, 
Heraldry^ Historical and Popular ; in which there is 
a most valuable and interesting Chapter on " Cadency 
and Differencing," the materials for which are mainly 
extracted from the English Rolls of Anns, 

The Scottish Herald NiSBET treats the subject much 
more fully than his English contemporaries, in a separate 
work on Marks of Cadency^ as well as in his System of 
Heraldry ; one of the causes of the popularity of the 
latter being, I imagine, the fact that in it a larger number 
of the differenced arms of cadets were there made 
accessible to the reader than could be found elsewhere (out 
of the Lyon Register), before the publication of Burke's 
General Armory. But NiSBET was not in possession 
of historical materials which are now easy of access ; and 
his work chiefly relates to the differencing of compara- 
tively modern times. Though in Scotland Rolls of Arms 
do not exist of the early date of those which we possess 
in England (many of which have been printed within 
the last quarter of a century), the two volumes of 
Scottish Seals, edited by Mr H. Laing, supply us with 

( 402 ) 

materials equally ancient ; and are in later times sup- 
plemented by the illuminated manuscripts of the sixteenth 
century by Sir David LINDSAY ; and by the collections 
of Workman, and others, which have been made acces- 
sible to the student and general reader in the late Mr 
Stodart's volumes of Scottish Arms, 

With regard to continental modes of differencing 
contemporary information more than sufficient for our 
purpose is at hand in the admirable collections of seals 
contained in the works of Vr£e, and Demay (from 
which I have already derived materials for the earlier 
portions of this work) ; in the Armorials of the 
Heralds "GuELDRE," and Giles Bouvier, "Berry" Roi 
d'Armes ; in the works of Spener and SlEBMACHER ; 
and the several treatises of MenStrier, and La Roque ; 
as well as in Maurice's Blazon des Annoirtes de tons les 
Chevaliers de VOrdre de la Toison d'Or; and the 
Martyrologe des C/ievaliers de VOrdre de S. Jean de 
Jerusalem, by GOUSSANCOURT. 

We will now proceed to detail the principal modes 
by which Cadency was denoted. 

The principal modes of differencing hereafter to be 
described are the following : — 

1. Change of Tincture (p. 403). 

2. The addition of Small Charges to the Field ; or 

charging an Ordinary with Minor Charges 
(p. 406). 

3. The addition of the Label (p. 414). 

4. The addition of a Canton or Quarter (p. 425). 

5. The addition of an Escucheon, not efi surtout 

(p. 427). 

6. The addition (or change) of an Ordinary (p. 428). 

7. Changing the boundary lines of an Ordinary 

(p. 432). 

8. Diminishing the number of Charges (p. 434). 

9. Change of Minor Charges (p. 434). 

( 403 ) 

10. The use of the Bordure (p. 437). 

1 1. The use of the " Marks of Cadency " (p. 444). 

12. The addition of Quarters (p. 446). 

13. Augmentations, and Official Arms (p. 448). 

14. The Escucheon en surtout (p. 448). 

15. Examples of Cadency combining the preceding 

(p. 448). 
The differences used to denote Illegitimacy are treated 
separately in Chapter XVII., p. 530. 

I. Difference by Change of Tincture. — One of 

the earliest modes of difference was to preserve the 
figures, but vary the tinctures. Two families of Chandos 
bore 2l pile gules; the Herefordshire branch on a field or ; 
the Derbyshire branch (to which belonged Sir John 
Chandos, K.G., d. 1369) bore it on a field argent 
In the reign of Henry III. the Loterels bore: Or, a 
bend between six martlets sable, of which a differenced 
coat in the Roll of Edward 1 1, is that borne by Sir 
Geoffrey Loterel : Azure, a bend between six martlets 
argent. The FURNIVALS, who held lands under the 
Loterels, assumed the same bearings, but varied 
the tinctures. In the Roll of the Thirteenth Century, 
Walter de Furnival bears : ''d' Argent, un bend et six 
merloz gules ;'' and the same coat is ascribed to Gerard 

de Furnival in St. George's Roll, No. 210; which 
also contains another coat borne by Thomas Furnival 
(No. 208) : Or, a bend between six martlets gules. The 
same charges, but with different tinctures, were used by 
other feudal allies of the FURNIVALS and LUTTERELS. 
The ECCLESHALLS bore : Sable, a bend between six mart- 
lets or. The MOUNTENEYS : Azure, a bend between six 
martlets or. The Wadsleys, and WORTLEYS respec- 
tively, charged the bend gules of the FURNIVALS, with three 
escallops or, and three bezants. The TEMPESTS (temp, 
Richard II.) carried : Argent, a bend between six mart- 
lets sable. 

( 404 ) 

The Counts of SOLMS bear : Or^ a lion rampant azurCy 
which is said to indicate community of descent with the 
house of Nassau, of which the original coat was : Azure^ 
a lion rampant or. (See TRIER'S Einleitung zu der 
Wapen-Kunsty p. 6oi, note, Leipzig, 1744.) The Counts 
of SCHWALENBERG bore, GuUs, a star or ; those of 
Sternberg the reverse ; those of Waldeck, Or, a star 
sable. All claimed the same progenitor ; WiTEKIND, 
Count of SCHWALENBERG d. 1190. {^See LuCiE, 
Grafen Saal, pp. 648-662.) 

In Glover's Roll {temp, Henry III.) Richard de 
Harcourt uses : d'Or, a deux barres d^ goules (note 
these are not the French barres, but the English bars), 
and in the reign of Edward II. this coat is borne by a 
Sir John Harcourt ; and by another Sir JOHN, pro- 
bably a cousin, who carried the coat with the tinctures 
reversed. Similarly in the reign of Edward I. {First 
Nobility Roll, 1297) THOMAS MOULTON, Baron of Egre- 
MONT, bears : Argent, three bars gules. In the Roll of 
Edward III. this coat is ascribed to Lord MouLTON of 
Gillesland, while Lord MouLTON of Frankton, bears " le 
revers'' (Cotgrave's Roll), (See the Balliol differ- 
ences in the next section, p. 407.) In France HUCHARS 
bore : Argent, a luznd within an orle of martlets gules. 
The de la Planque of the same origin tinctured the 
charges sable {Armorial de Berry), 

The four sons of GiLLES DE Mailly, who bore : Or, 
three mallets vert {v. ante, p. 393), differenced by change 
of tincture ; the second, third, and fourth sons respec- 
tively made the charges, gules, azure, and sable. The 
family of DE Grol£e bore : Gyronny, or and sable, but 
the cadets in Dauphiny changed the metal to argent. 
This mode of difference was frequent in the Low 
Countries. ARNOLD, Count of Arschot, circa 11 20, 
who bore : Or, three fleurs-de-lis sable, had five sons ; the 
eldest inherited the paternal arms ; the second, GERARD 

( 405 ) 

of Wesemale, took : Gules ^ three fleurs-de-lis argent (in 
this line another differenced coat was : Or^ three fleurs- 
de-lis gules). The third, Geoffrey de Rotzelaer, 
bore: Argent, three fleurs-de-lis gtdes ; the fourth, 
Henry de RiVlfeRE: Argent, three fleurs-de-lis sable; 
the fifth, Jean de Schoonhoven : Gules, three fleurs-de- 
lis or. The Dukes of Brabant carried : Sable, a lion 
rampant or, but GODFREY, brother of Duke HENRY, differ- 
enced by bearing the lion argent. Gaultier Bertaut, 
Seigneur de MECHLIN, bore : Or, three pales gules ; his 
brother GiLLES, Seigneur de Berlaer, changed the field 
to argent. (Spener, Opus Heraldicum, pars, gen., p. 347. 
Men^tRIER, VMtable Art du Blason, c. 19., p. 352.) 

In Holland averylargenumberof familieswho bearthree 
zuilen (chess-rooks ; vide ante, p. 388) are distinguished 
solely by the change of tincture in field and charges. 

In Germany similar mutations are abundant Two 
families of BOYNEBURG bear: Quarterly, the one argent 
and sable ; the other argent and azure. Two families of 
the Counts of Spanheim use : ^Chequy, the one argent 
and gules, the other azure and or. The Counts of STERN- 
BERG, and Haymsberg, in Carinthia, who bear respec- 
tively Azure, and gules, three estoiles or, had a common 
ancestor in the Baron von Saaneck. See also Leuch- 
TENBERG in the next chapter, p. 472. — J. W.] 

[As an early Scottish instance of altering the tincture 
may be cited the family of HUME, originally a cadet of 
the Earls of March, or Dunbar, who placed the lion of 
the Earls of March in a field vert instead of gules. The 
BOYDS, whose progenitor is understood to have been a 
younger brother of the first High Steward of Scotland, 
bore the Stewart coat with a change of tincture — 
Azure, a/ess checquy argent and gules. The argent field 
of the Douglas coat is in some branches converted into 
ennine as early as 1373 ; and the descendants of the 
Douglases of Dalkeith adopted a further change by 

( 4c6 ) 

making the chief £7i/es instead of azure, A similar mode 
of differencing occurs in the earlier Lyon Register in 
other families. The MURRAYS of Culbin in the north, 
changed the asure field of their family into sa6/e ; and 
there seems reason to believe that the southern Frasers 
had originally the field sadUy the change to asure being 
adopted by the branches who migrated northwards. 
The engrailed cross of Sinclair was borne azure^ instead 
of sable^ by the Herdmanston line ; and several varia- 
tions of tincture are found among branches of the Hay 
family ; Boyne, reversing the tinctures, having the field 
gulesy and the shields argent ; Leys having the field 
ermine ; and Broxmouth retaining the argent field, but 
making the charges vert. While the alternate gyronal 
compartments of the Argyle Campbells are or and 
sabUy those of the Loudoun Campbells are ermine and 
guleSy these tinctures being taken from the bearings of 
the family of Crawford, a marriage with whose heiress 
gave them their Ayrshire lands. A change of tincture 
of the field frequently occurs in the Lyon Register in 
case of families bearing the same surname who are not 
asserted or certainly known to be descended from the 
same ancestor. — G. B.] 

II. By the Addition of Small Charges to the 

Field. — Strewing the field with small charges, called in 
the Boke of St. Aldan's ge rating ; or substituting for a 
plain field what would now be called a field senu^, — was 
a very ancient mode of differencing. Dame Juliana 
Berners enumerates nine figures as used for that 
purpose, — the crosslet, the crosslet-flory, the fleur-de-lis, 
the primrose, cinquefoil, escallop, chaplet, mullet, and 
crescent The shield of William de Romare, Earl of 
Lincoln, who died in 1 198, is adduced by Mr PLANCHl!: 
as an early example of differing by crosses-crosslet ; the 
principal charges are seven mascles conjoined, three, three, 
one ; the tinctures are unknown. We find in the Ro//s 

( 407 ) 

ofArtfts of the thirteenth, and early part of the fourteenth, 
century many instances of coats crusily, billetty, bezanty, 
and "pleyn d'cscallops," fleurette, and "a les trefoilles 
d'or." With these last Sir Edmond Dacre of West- 
moreland powdered the coat borne by the head of his 
family : Gules, three escallops or {Roll of Edward II.). 

We find in the Rolloi HENRY III. that John Balliol, 
and in the Roll of the Thirteenth Century that EUSTACE 
DE Balliol both bore : " Gulez, a un faux escoc/ieon (that 
is an orle) d' argent^' which is also attributed to ALEX- 
ANDER DE Balliol in St. George's Roll ; and the first 

y?<7// of Edward III. This is differenced by the inversion 
of the tinctures for another Alexander de Balliol. 
A William de Balliol bears: Or, an orle vair (or 
azure) with a label gules. An Ingram de Balliol uses: 
Gules y an orle ermine, with a label azure. But besides 
these is another differenced coat : Azure, crusily an orle 
or. This is attributed to EUSTACE DE BALLIOL in the 
Rolloi Henry III. (Glover's Roll, No. 40). 

In fact most of the coats- which we find se7n^ of small 
charges are, in their origin, coats differenced by gerating. 
The coat borne by the ACTONS of Aldenham, Gules, 
crusily or, two lions passant argent, is evidently a gerated 
coat of Lestrange ; for Edw^ard de Acton married 
the co-heiress of Lestrange (living 1387) who bore 
simply : Gules, two lions passant argent, {Herald and 
Genealogist, ii., p. 43.) 

The English Beaumonts bore : Azure, flory, and 
a lion rampant or, while those who remained in France, 
at Brienne in Champagne, had the field semi of billets. 
The original coat of the house of BERKELEY in England 
(Barclay in Scotland) appears to have been : Gules, 
a chevron or (or argent). The seals of ROBERT DE 

Berkeley, who died 4, Henry III.; of Thomas 
DE Berkeley, 20, Henry III.; and Maurice de 

Berkeley, who died 1281 ; all show the shield charged 

( 4o8 ) 

with a chevron only. MORIS DE Barkele, in the Roll, 
temp. Henry III., bears *' goules, a c/teveron argent'' (In 
two of the windows at Bristol, the chevron is tinctured 

or.) But Thomas, son of Maurice, who died 15, 

Edward IL, has the present coat: Gules, a cJievron 
between ten crosses pat^e argent^ while in the Roll of 
Edward II., ^^ de Goules od les rosettes de argent et un 
clievron de argent'' is attributed to Sir THOMAS DE 
Berkeley. {See my paper on "The Heraldry of Bristol 
Cathedral" in the Herald and Genealogist, vol. iv., p. 
289.) In Leicestershire the Berkeleys gerated with 
cinquefoils, an ancient and favourite bearing in that 
county. {See p. 322.) In Scotland, the Barclays 
differenced by change of tincture, and bore : Azure, 
a clievron argent between (or in chief) three crosses pat^e 
of tlie same. In the Roll, temp. Henry HI. (Glover's 
Roll, No. 108), Geoffrey de Lucy bears ''de Goules 
d trois lucies dor'' In the first Roll of EDWARD I., this 
is first differenced by the field being made crusily or, 
for Geoffrey de Lucy ; and then by a change of the 
tincture of the field, Amauri de Lucy bearing : Azure, 
crusily three lucies or. The fess between six crosslets of 
the Earls of Warwick originated in the old coat of 
Beauchamp, Gules, a fess or, gerated with crosslets 
which were afterwards reduced to six, and for which 
martlets were substituted by the Beauchamps of Powick. 
The arms of the Howards, now Dukes of Norfolk, are 
in all probability only a differenced coat of Beauchamp, 
whose dependants they originally were. La Roque 
says : " La maison de Houvard ou Havart . . . . de 
France, a le champ de son escu et la bande comme 
(celle d'Angleterre) accompagnee de six coquilles 
d'argent." [Traits de I'Origine des Noms, p. 203.) 

The Counts of Salm in the Ardennes bear: Argent, 
two salmon addorsed gules ; but this coat is borne crusily 
by the Counts of Upper Salm in Lothringen, for 

( 409 ) 

difference, and not, as used to be asserted, in memory of 
a crusading ancestor. The Counts Dernbach zu Dern- 
BACH used : Or^ three Jiearts in pairle sable^ but another 
family of Barons of the same name, dit Graul, differenced 
by a change of tincture and the addition of smaller 
charges : Azure^ billetty argent ^ three hearts in pairle or. 

It is curious to find, on the other hand, a new difference 
made by the omission of the differencing small charges. 
The original arms of the Counts of GUELDRES appear 
to have been three cinquefoils ; but Gerard IV. (1229) 
married RiCHARDE DE NASSAU, and assumed her arms : 
Asure^ billetty and a lion rampant or. Count Renaud, 
afterwards first Duke of GuELDRES, omitted the billets. 
{See Planche's Roll ; and Mr VVatson's remarks on 
it in the Genealogist^ New Series, vol. vi., p. 158.) 

These examples might be increased almost indefinitely. 
Nearly akin to this mode of gerating was that by which 
small charges were placed in orle. One of the numerous 
ways in which the coat of the LusiGNAN, or DE 
Valence, families was differenced, was by the addition 
of an orle of martlets gules to the original coat : Barrtdy 
argent and azure; as shown in cJiamplev^ enamel on the 

monument of William de Valence, Earl of Pem- 
broke (d. 1296), in Westminster Abbey; a reduced 
copy of which (affording also a pretty example of 
diaper), forms the frontispiece to BouTELL*S Heraldry^ 
Historical and Popular, This coat is also attributed to 
the Earl's son in the Caerlaverock Roll of 1300. Similar 
to this was the coat of Chaworth : Barruly argent and 
guleSy which was differenced by an orle of martlets sable. 
In the Roll of Edward II. Sir Patrick Chaworth 
bears this coat, but the bars are or and azure. On the 
original coat the martlets were eventually reduced to 
three, and so became principal charges. In England, 
in the Low Countries, and in northern France there are 
abundant instances in which the difference was effected 

( 4IO ) 

by the addition of a single charge. One of the earliest 
examples, perhaps, is afforded by the coat of DE Vere, 
borne ante 1 221, by ROBERT DE Vere, Earl of OXFORD, 
who was a younger brother of AUBREY, the second 
Earl. Quarterly gules and or ^ in tJie first a star of five 
points argent {vide ante^ p. 308). The star is made ermine 
in the Roll of RICHARD II. for Aubrey de Vere. 
BOUTELL gives, p. 203, an interesting series of the arms 
of Neville of Raby: Gules, a saltire argent, differenced 
thus by a crescent sable; a martlet gules; a mullet 
sable; a fleur-de-lis ; a rose gules ; a pellet, or annulet, 
sable; and two interlaced annulets azure, all borne 
on the centre point of the saltire. The Beauchamp 
shield {Gules, a fess between six martlets or) is similarly 
differenced by the additions of a pierced mullet, or a 
crescent, both of sable. The Radclyffes, of Win- 
marleigh, still difference their ancestral coat {Argent, a 
bend sable) with an escallop gules in tJie sinister chief. 

In Maurice, Les Clievaliers de la Toisofi dOr, we 
find many like instances ; eg. p. go, the coat of the great 
family of BORSELE {Sable, a fess argent) is differenced by 
adding a star of six points argent in the dexter chief. 
The Counts of ChAlons bore. Gules, a bend or; at p. 32, 
this is differenced by a pierced mullet sable upon the 
bend in dexter chief. (This is also the difference for 
HUGUES DE ChAlons in V Armorial de Gueldre.) 
In the arms of LOUIS DE ChAlons (Knight of the 
Order, No. Ixiv.), the bend is similarly charged with a 
crescent azure. The coat of PHILIPPE DE CRfeVECCEUR 
(Knight of the Order, No. Ixix.), Gules, three chevrons 
or, has a crescent azure on the uppermost chevron. 
Charles de Lannoy (Knight of the Order, No. cxxxvi.) 
lays aside the ancestral difference of a bordure engrailed 
gules (to which allusion is made on p. 450), and places 
a crescent gules in the centre of his coat: Argent, 
three lions rampant vert, crowned or. PlERRE DE LA 

( 411 ) 

Tr£M0UILLE, Seigneur de DOURS, differenced the 
main coat of his line, Or, a cluvron gules between three 
eagles displayed azure^ by the addition of a fleur-de-lis 
argent on the point of the chevron (p. ^6), The 
Lalains (of which family there were several Cluvaliers 
de la Toison d'Or), who bore, Gules y ten lozenges conjoined 
3> 3> 3i i> argent, charged the first lozenge with a lion 
rampant gules, from the coat of Barben^on. Jacques 
DE Brimeu (Chevalier, No. xviii.) bore, Argent, three 
eagles displayed gules, and in tlie centre point a demi-lion 
rampant of the last. 

The great family of Chatillon (of the Counts de 
Blois), who bore : Gules, three pallets vair a chief or, 
used, among other differences, a martlet sable in dexter 
chief {Armorial de Berry, No. 8i i). In the Armorial de 
Gueldre, this coat is borne by " Le Sire DE LA 
FtRE" with the difference of a lion rampant gules, in 
the dexter chief. In the same MS., "Le SiRE DE 
Melun " bears the plain coat: Azure, seven bezants 3, 3, i, 
and a chief or {v. p. 341), but HuGUES DE Melun places ' 
a niartlet sable in dexter chief (The bezants are also 
nine in number.) The most curious of these differences 
are perhaps the arms of DE Dampierre {Armorial 
de Gueldre), where the Chatillon chief is charged 
with two lions passajit affronth sable. On the seal of 
Marie, Countess of Blois, c, 1230, the chief is charged 
with eight pallets gules (Vr£e, GMalogie des Comtes de 
Flandre, plate v.). Spener {Opus Heraldiaim, p. gen., 
p. 356) shows that many German coats remain which 
bear similar charges, evidently originally assumed as 
differences, the reason of which has faded out of remem- 
brance. In Siebmacher's Wappenbuch, plates cxxiv., 
cxxv. contain four such instances among Rhenish families. 
HUND VON Salheim places a star of six points sable in 
the middle of the coat : Gules, three crescents argent ; DIE 
Knobel who bear : Argejit, an escucheon gules, have in 

( 412 ) 

sinister chief an annulet sable ; DIE Groschlag, who 
bore : Azure, three bends counter componi argent and 
gules, have between the two upper bends an open crown 
or ; and the VON LiNDAU, whose coat is Gules, a bend 
argent, add in chxci di Jlenr-de-lis azure. (In the two last 
instances the bends are drawn as bends-sinister according 
to the German practice of reversing the charges for the 
sake of symmetrical arrangement. The student should 
bear this in mind in consulting SlEBMACHER, and other 
engraved armorials of Germany.) This mode of differenc- 
ing by additional charges was often carried much further 
than by the insertion of a single one as in the preceding 
examples. In England the original coat of DE GREY 
was Barry of six argent and azure, JOHAN DE Grey so 
bears it in the Roll of EDWARD I. In the Roll of 
Edward II., as borne by Grey, Duke of Suffolk, it 
is differenced by the addition of three torteaux in chief. 
These were converted into annulets by the DE Greys, 
Lords WaI^INGHAM. (Plate IX., fig. 3.) 

At Caerlaverock the two brothers Bassett difference 
the family coat : Ermine, a chief inde?tted gules, by 
adding in the one case three mullets, in the other as 
many escallops, or. 

The seal {c. 1298) of Philip, Governor of Flanders, 
fifth son of Count GUY, has the arms of Flanders 
differenced by a bendlet charged with two escallops, one 
in chief the other in base. (Vr£e, GMcdogie des Comtes 
de Flandre, p. 75.) 

One of the best known English examples is that of 
the coat of the COBHAMS : Gules, a chevron or, in which 
the Ordinary was charged by the cadets with three 
pierced estoiles, three lions, three crossed-crosslets, three 
fleurs-de-lis, three crescents, and three martlets, all of 
sable. The Despencer coat was : Quarterly, argent 
and gules a fret or, over all a bend sable. This coat 
Sir Hugh le Despencer, in the reign of Edward II., 

2 E 

( 413 ) 

differences by charging the bend with •three mullets 
argent; for which, in 1476, HENRY SPENCER substitutes 
three escallops argent; and this coat is that now used 
by the Duke of MARLBOROUGH, and by Earl SPENCER. 
The homage seal of REGINALD Cheyne of Inverugie 
bears in 1292: Crusily fitclu^ey a bend; and one of his 
sons charges the bend with three escallops. Another 
Reginald Cheyne who signs the letter of the Barons 
of Scotland to the Pope in 1320, substitutes eagles 
displayed for the escallops. 

A number of the descendants of Sir John Stewart 
of Bonkyl charge the bend which was his difference with 
the three buckles of BONKYU 

The cadency of the Daubenys, which is given pretty 
fully by BOUTELL, contains some interesting examples 
which he has not recorded. In the Roll oi Edward II. 
they bear a fess engrailed or (a bearing which was really 
synonymous in early times with a fess of conjoined fusils, 
in which latter form the coat appears in 1300, in the 
Roll of Caerlaverock). It is, later, blazoned with in 
chief two martlets argent ; three martlets argent ; three 
escallops or; four lozenges or. Again, the fusils (three 
in number) are depicted ermine for difference, with the 
subsidiary brisure of three mullets or in chief Again, the 
three fusils argent conjoined in fess, are each charged a 
mullet pierced sable^ or with ^fleur-de4is sable;\s\^ in chief 
three martlets or. Again, the fess is of four fusils con- 
joined argent^ with in chief three martlets argent, or three 
estoiles or. {See also Fig. 92, p. 600.) 

On the other side of the Channel we find from 

MORICE {Histoire de Bretagne, Ixv. and ccxliv.), Raoul 

d'Aubign£ bearing : Gules, four lor,e7iges conjoined in 

fess argent ; and, in 1200, GuiLLAUME D'AUBlGNfi bears 

the same between six plates. 

III. — The next mode of Difference is by the introduc- 
tion into the upper part of the shield of the figure known 

( 414 ) 

as the Label (from lambeau^ a strip, or shred). In the 
earliest times it was called ay?/<?, a name which Planch£ 
connects ^\^ filiation. The Label is a narrow horizontal 
bar, or strip, placed across the upper part of the shield, 
and having dependent from it at right angles other strips, 
usually three or five, but sometimes four in mumber. 
This label is in England considered to be the brisure of 
the eldest son (except in the case of Royal princes), but in 
olden times its use was not so limited ; nor does it appear 
that any particular meaning was attached to the number of 
points, or to its tincture, the former varying even for the 
same individual, and the latter being only such as to make 
it conspicuous upon the shield. At Caerlaverock in 1 300, 
the silver label of Edward, Prince of Wales, has five 
points, but in modern practice only three points are used. 
It seems early to have been the rule in England that the 
heir, and perhaps also the heir presumptive, should bear 
his family coat differenced by a label. Abroad, as will be 
shown later, instances are numerous in which the label 
was borne by the second son, and I doubt the existence 
at any time of a regular system by which the degree 
of filiation could be indicated. In the Roll of Caerlave- 
rock the label is repeatedly referred to. Of Sir MAURICE 
DE Berkeley (whose banner borne in the siege of 
that castle is represented on a later page) it is expressly 

declared that 

" . . . . un label de asur avoit, 
Force qe ces peres vivoit." 

Sir Patrick Dunbar, son of the Earl of Lothian 
{i.e, of March), then bore arms similar to his father, 
with the addition of a label azure. On the other hand. 
Sir John de Segrave is said to bear his deceased father's 
arms undifferenced, while his younger brother Nicholas 
carries them with a label gules ; and in the case of 
Edmund of Hastings the label is also assigned to a 
younger brother. Further proof of its being thus borne 


by cadets is furnished by the evidence in the Gray and 
Hastings controversy in the reign of Henry IV., 
from which it appeared that the younger line of the 
Hastings family had for generations differenced 
the paternal coat by a label of three points ; and, as 
various knights and esquires had deposed to this label 
being the cognisance of the nearest heir, it was argued 
that the defendant's ancestors would not have borne their 
arms in this way, had they not been the reputed next 
heirs to the family of the Earl of PEMBROKE. Other 
instances are well known in which the label became 
hereditary, and an integral part of the family bearings, 
as in the case of the English house of COURTENAY (w^ho 
improperly laid it aside in modern times) : and it is still 
borne thus by the families of Babington of Rothley ; 
Radclyffe of Foxdenton ; Colvile of Duffield, etc. 

Jean de Luxemburg, one of the original Knights of 
the Golden Fleece (No. xiii.), was Count de LiGNEV, 
and younger brother of PlERRE DE LUXEMBURG, Count 
de St. Paul. He died in 1440, and his arms, as given 
in Maurice, p. 15 {A7'gent, a lion rampant double queud 
gules crowned or\ are differenced by a label azure. 
Similarly JACQUES DE LUXEMBURG, Seigneur de 
RiCHEBOURG, younger brother of LOUIS, Comte de St. 
Paul, has the same arms and difference. He was Knight 
of the Golden Fleece (No. Ixvii.), and died 147 1. Claude 
DE Neufchatel {Chevalier de la Toison d'Or, No. c), 
who was second son of Thiebaut, Seigneur de Neuf- 
chatel, bore in his brother Henry's lifetime (though 
it may be noted that the latter had no heirs of his body) 
the arms of Neufchatel {Gules^a bend argent), with a 
label azure. 

The seals of Geoffrey de Brabant, third son of 
Duke Henry, are given in Vr£e {GMalogie des Comtes 
de FlandreSy plates xxxiii. and xxxiv.). On the one the 
lion of Brabant is debruised by a label oi three points ; 


BiM-ARATioK or FiauaiEi. 
L ThoniM Pluticenat, K.O., Daks of Qloaoeater, 1395 (Si>utcU). 2. Jmd, 
I>iia in Beni, eirea 1408 {Demay). S. Jeuuie de Fnuice, Duohcu uf 
" ilj, 1S16 (Tl*). 4. Hbmj of UooMtoi, B»rl of Darb;, Heie- 

BnrntuJj- ] 
fold, ate. 

( 4i6 ) 

on the other the shield borne by his mounted figure, the 
caparisons of his charger, his ailette, and the shield of his 
counter-seal, are all consistent in bearing the label of 
/our points. 

In course of time the capacity of the label for dlfiFer- 
encing was extended by its points being drawn wider and 
charged ; the charges being made to have a genealogical 
significance. Thus ROBERT, Comte d'ARTOlS, brother of 

S. Louis of France, bore France-ancient ; and, as 

brisiire, a label of Castile ; that is, of Gules, each point 
charged with three castles or^ indicating his maternal 
descent. (^See his seal in Vr£e, G^nialogie des Comtes de 
Flandrey p. 48, where the label on his seal is of three points ; 
on his counter-seal it is of five. See also Plate I., fig. 5.) 

The Dukes of Anjou used a label gules, v. p. 537. 
The arms of the Plantagenet Princes afford us 
many examples of this extended use of the label as 
indicative of descent In the Calais Roll ( 1 347) the arms 
of Henry Plantagenet, first Duke of Lancaster, 
are ENGLAND, a label (three, or five, points were used) of 
France {See his seal on Plate XXXVL, fig. 4). He bore 
the same label after his creation as Duke, upon : Quarterly ^ 
France-ancient and England. Lionel, Duke of 
Clarence, third son of Edward III.,and Earl of Ulster 
in right of his wife ELIZABETH DE BURGH, bore a label of 
five points, charged with crosses (probably ULSTER: Or, a 
cross gules). EDMUND" Croucliiackl' after his marriage 
with Blanche d'Artois, bore England, with a label of 

Edward, Earl of Rutland, eldest son of Edmund of 
Langley, Duke of York, bore : France and England 

quarterly, with a label of CASTILE, as above described ; — 
a label per pale of Castile and of Leon (that is of 
Argent, charged with lions gules, or purpure), is also 
attributed to him. His mother was ISABELLA of Cas- 
TILLE and Leon. On his seal the sail of the ship borne 

(417 ) 

as Lord High Admiral is charged with an Augmentation 
derived from the arms of Edward the Confessor, 
impaled with his own {see Plate XXXIV., fig. 4, and 
page 474 ; the two labels in conjunction have an 
unusual appearance). This fashion had a great number 
of imitators among the high nobility of England. In 
the Calais Roll of 1348 occurs the shield of Sir Edward 
DE Montagu ; Ermine^ three fusils conjoined in fess 
gules ^ with a label of three points or each bearing an eagle 
vert (engraved in BOUTELL, Heraldry^ Historical and 
Popular^ p. 225). On the stained glass at Shrewsbury 
the coat of Charleton of PowYS bears the Powvs 
arms ((?;', a lion rampant gules), with a label vert, on each 
point an eagle or ; Charleton having originally borne 
Vert, three eagles or {Herald and Genealogist, vi., p. 1 1 9). 
The label on the first and fourth quarters of Sir JOHN 
BOURCHIER, K.G., Lord Berners in 1475, is of gules, 
each point charged with three lions of ENGLAND, his 
mother having been Anne Plantagenet, grand- 
daughter of Edward III. His brother William, Lord 
Fitzwarren, similarly bears a label of France. The 
eldest brother, HENRY BOURCHIER, Earl of ESSEX, bore 
his paternal arms undifferenced {Argent ^ a cross engrailed 
sable between four water budgets gules). 

Robert de Courtenav, second son of Hugh, first 
Earl of Devon, by Agnes St. John, charged his azure 
label with nine of the golden mullets which appear on 
the chief of his mother's coat : — Argent, on a chief gules 
two viullets pierced or. 

Sir James Audele, whose mother was a daughter of 
William de Longespee, bore : Gules, fretty or, with a 
label azure cliarged on each point with a lion rampant or 
for his maternal descent {cf Plate XXL, fig. 12). Sir 
William Lovel whose coat was : Barry nebuly or and 
gules, differenced with a label of VALENCE : barry of six 
azure and argent on each of tlie exterior points tivo 

( 4i8 ) 

martlets gules {vide ante, p. 409). Sir ROBERT DE LA 
Vache differenced his coat : GuleSy three lions rampant 
argent, with a label of Wareen, chequy or and azure. 

The two brothers, William and Thomas Latimer, 
who bore : Gules, a cross patonce or, difference in the 
^^// of Edward II. — the one with a label sable on each 
point three plates ; the label of the other is azure, each 
point c/iarged with three fleurs-de-lis or. 

Perhaps the most singular label of which we have any 
record is that said by Mr BouTELL, p. 229, on the 
authority of AsHMOLE, to have been borne both by 
Gaston de Foix, K.G., Count de Longueville, Captal 
de BuCH ; and by John de Grailly, K.G., Viscount de 
ChAtillon, Captal de BucH (created Earl of Kendal 
about 1449, though there is some doubt of the regularity 
of the creation). It is of sable with three points, each in 
the form of a cross, and charged with five escallops 
argent. The arms of DE Grailly are : Argent, on a 
cross sable five escallops of the field ; these appear in the 
Salle des Croish at Versailles for the year 1270. Now 
Beltz, in his Memorials of the Order of the Garter, has 
shown that only one Captal de BuCH belonged to the 
Order of the Garter, and he gives the arms of John DE 
'Grailly, K.G., from the Stall Plates, as above, without 
a label, and with the field or, BLANCHE DE Foix, whose 
arms were : Quarterly, i and 4. Or, three pallets gules 
(Foix) ; 2 and 3. Or, two cows gules, belled azure (B£arn) 
married jEAN DE Grailly, Captal de Buch in- 1328; 
and if he assumed his wife's arms, he may have differ- 
enced by a label of Grailly as above ; but I am not 
aware of there being any evidence to that effect, and 
humbly conclude that AsHMOLE may have been mistaken 
on this point, as he certainly is in making the arms of 
BfiARN : Azure, three garbs or, — J. W.] 

[Scottish seals of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
afford many examples of the label, the points being 

( 419 ) 

generally three in number, though in some exceptional 
instances four or five. It is borne in the great majority 
of cases by the eldest son in his father's lifetime, e.g,^ on 
the homage seals of GEOFFREY de Mowbray ; and of 
William, eldest son of Sir Malcolm, Murray, on the 
seal of Sir Alexander, eldest son of Saer de Seton 
in 1260; by Sir THOMAS Erskine, eldest son of 
Sir Robert in 1364, Patrick, son and heir of Sir 
David Graham of Dundaff in 1377, James, afterwards 
second Earl of DOUGLAS, in 1378; David Fleming, 
eldest son of THOMAS Fleming of Biggar, in 1392; 
Matthew Stewart, eldest son of John (recognised 
as) Earl of LENNOX in 1470; Alexander, Lord 
Gordon, in lifetime of his father the Earl of Huntly, 
etc. William Ruthven, Provost of Perth, eldest son 
of the Master of RUTHVEN, bore a label of four points 
in 1503. Two instances occur of a label borne by a 
powerful and ambitious younger brother. One is 
Walter Stewart, Earl of Menteith, by marriage, 
and younger brother of Alexander, the fourth High 
Steward, in 1 292 ; and we find the label again on the 
seal of his son Alexander Stewart, Earl of Men- 
teith. (Query — Has the latter not an additional 
brisurCy effected by giving an engrailed or invecked 
outline to the Stewart fess chequy ; or is this an 
attempt to combine the unknown coat of the former 
Earls of MENTEITH with the Stewart fess?) The 
other instance is Robert, Duke of Albany, younger 
brother of King ROBERT HI., who virtually wielded the 
supreme power in Scotland during part of his father's 
and the whole of his brother's reign, and down to his 
own death in 1420. Before 1403 he had substituted a 
label for the star, or mullet, which was his original 
difference. jANET Fentoun, daughter and heir- 
apparent of Walter Fentoun of Baikie, bore a label 
in 1448, and dropped it after her father's death. MAR- 

( 420 ) 

CARET Stewart, Countess of Angus in her own right, 
bore a label, it is difficult to say on what ground, in 1366. 
The most unique label in the Heraldry of Scotland, is to 
be seen on the homage seal of William Fraser, " son of 
the late Master Alexander Fraser," in which there is 
no shield, and each point of the label is the recipient of 
two of the fraises belonging to his paternal coat. Of 
the arms of the CONGALTONS of that Ilk, the label seems 
always to have formed an integral part. They are : Or^ 
a bend gules surmounted by a label of three points azure 
(sometimes placed in fess) — a coat which seems to point 
to their having been descendants or vassals of the Vaus 
family. In the late Heraldry of Scotland the label fell 
into general disuse ; almost the only instance of its use 
being by the family of Abercorn, who, without official 
sanction, carried a label of three points until, and even 
after, the extinction of the male line of the ducal house 
of Hamilton. In the early Lyon Register Sir JOHN 
Hay, heir-presumptive to the Earldom of Erroll (to 
which he afterwards succeeded) records his arms with a 
" file of three lambeaux " in chief for difference. — 
G. B.] 

[In modem English usage a label has become par 
excellence the Royal Mark of Cadency. In the lifetime 
of his brother ARTHUR, Henry, Duke of York (after- 
wards Henry VIII.) bore the label ermine. So, during 
the lifetime of Henry, Prince of Wales, Prince Charles 
Stuart (afterwards King as Charles I.) was Duke 
of York and Albany, and differenced vfitYi a label argent, 
on each of its points three torteaux in pale. This label had 
been previously used by Edmond of Langley, Duke of 

York (d. 1402), fifth son of Edward III. Boutell 

{Heraldry^ Historical and Popular, p. 240) suggests that 
this charge of the torteaux on the label of YORK came 
from the arms of the Wakes of Lydel : Or, two bars 
gules, in chief three torteaux ; whose heiress married 

( 421 ) 

Edmond Plantagenet, the youngest son of Edward 
I. ; and that through his descendants the HOLLANDS it 
came to Edmond (of Langley), Duke of York. 
According to Heylyn, the same difference was used by 

Henry, Duke of Gloucester, third son of Charles I., 

but this appears doubtful. James Stuart (afterwards 
King as James H.), followed the precedent of Henry 
Tudor, and as Duke of YORK, bore the label ennine. 

William Stuart (called Duke of Gloucester), son 

of Queen Anne, bore the silver label charged on the 
central point with a cross of St. George {gules). 

The family of GEORGE HI. bore the following labels 
of three points, all argent : — 



Fig. 80. 

Fig. 85. 


31 ^ 





Fig. 81. 

Fig. 86. 


a ^ 

Fig. 82. 

Fig. 87. 






Fig. 83. 

Fig. 88. 



;3 e 

Fig. 84. 

Fig. 89. 

RoTAL Labels. 

( 422 ) 

The Prince of WALES, the plain label argent (fig. 80). 
Frederick, Duke of York (as William, Duke of 

Gloucester) a label argent with the cross of St. 

George on the centre point. 
William Henry, Duke of Clarence, the centre point 

charged with the cross of St. George, each of the 

others with an anchor azure (fig. 81). 
Edward, Duke of Kent, on the central one the cross 

guleSy on each of the others a fleur-de-lis azure 

(fig. 82). 

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, on the 

central point a fleur-de-lis azure^ on each of the 

others a cross gules, 
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, on the central 

point two hearts in pale guleSy on each of the 

others a cross of St. George. 
Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, on the 

central point the cross of St. George, on each of 

the others two hearts in pale gules (fig. 84). 
The Princesses also differenced their arms with the 
same silver label. 
Charlotte, Princess Royal, on the centre point a rose 

of England ; on each of the others a cross of St. 

George (fig. 85). 

The Princess AUGUSTA, on the centre point a rose of 

England ; on each of the others an ermine spot 

sable (fig. 86). 
The Princess ELIZABETH, on the centre point the cross 

of St. George ; on each of the others a rose of 

England (fig. 87). 
The Princess Mary, on the centre point a rose of 

England ; on each of the others a canton gules 

(fig. 88). 
The Princess SoPHIA, on the centre point a heart gules ; 

on each of the others a rose of England 

(fig. 89). 

( 423 ) 

The Princess Amelia, on the centre point a rose of 
England ; on each of the others a heart gules. 

Prince WILLIAM HENRY, Duke of GLOUCESTER, third 
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, had a label of 
five points argent^ on the centre 2i fleur-de-lis azure ; 
on each of the others the cross of St. George. 
This label was also borne by his son WiLLlAM 

Frederick, Duke of Gloucester, who during his 

father's lifetime placed beneath it a second and 

smaller label of three points argent. 
The present Princes and Princesses of the Royal 
Family use for the most part the labels above given 
thus : — 

The Prince of Wales, the silver label (fig. 80). 
Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, as the Duke of 

Clarence (fig. 81). 
Arthur, Duke of Connaught, as the Duke of Kent 

(fig. 82). 
Leopold, Duke of Albany, and his son, on the central 

point a cross of St. George ; on each of the others 

a h^diVt gules (fig. 83). 
The Princess Royal (Empress of Germany) 

(fig. 85). 
The late Princess ALICE (Grand-duchess of Hesse) 

(fig. 86). 

(fig. 87). 

The Princess LOUISA (Marchioness of LORNE) 

(fig. 88). 

The Princess BEATRICE (Princess Henry of Batten- 
berg) (fig. 89). ' 

The Duke of CAMBRIDGE bears his father's label 
(fig. 84). 
On the marriage of Her Majesty the QUEEN to His 

late Royal Highness the PRINCE CONSORT there was 

made to him a grant of the Royal Arms of the United 

( 424 ) 

Kingdom with the difference of a label argent on tlie 
central point a cross of St. George ; to be bprne in the 
first and fourth quarters, with the arms of Saxony in 
the second and third. Her Majesty the QUEEN has told 
us in her Life of tlie Prince Consort that she herself 
discovered the precedent for this arrangement (of which 
the then Garter was ignorant or unmindful) in the 
grant made to Prince LEOPOLD of Saxe-Cobourg on 
the occasion of his marriage with the Princess Char- 
lotte, daughter of George IV. 

In Germany, Spener tells us that the use of the label 
though occasional, was not frequent : " Sicuti in Gallia 
vix alius discemiculorum modus frequentior est, ita 
rariora exempla reperimus in Germania," and he gives 
a few examples, though he is unable to assign the reason 
for its assumption as a hereditary bearing. {Opus 
Heraldicum, p. gen., p. 350.) Both houses of the 
Counts Leiningen and Dagsburg, and Leiningen- 
Westerberg, charged the arms of Leiningen (which 
appear in the first and fourth quarters of the shields of 
both lines as Azure, three eagles displayed argent) with 
a label gules in chief (Spener'S suggestion as to the 
possible origin of this label is in Parte Spec.y p. 740 of 
his work. His conjecture as to that which follows, the 
case of the Blanckenheim quarter, is at p. 243 of the 
same part.) 

In the arms of the Counts of Manderscheid (who 
bore Or^ a fess dancetty gules ; derived from their initial 
M), the second quarter contains the arms of the County 
of Blanckenheim (borne since 1443 ; but ? 1480) : Or, 

a lion rampant sable over all a label of four points gules. 

In France the label was the chief recognised mode 
of difference. The label of Artois has been already 
mentioned (p. 416). As the arms of the Dauphin were 
sufficiently differenced by the addition of the quarter of 
Dauphiny, the silver label became the difference of the 

( 425- ) 

House of Orleans, and continued so to be until the death 
of the Comte de Chambord (Henri V.) when the House 
of Orleans succeeded to the rights of the main line of 
France. But in France other modes of difference, 
hereafter to be noticed (p. 439), were adopted for the 
younger lines of the Royal House, and the only label 
which needs notice here is the sub-brisure of the Dukes of 
ANGOULfeME, who charged each point of the Orleans 
label with a crescent gules. (The later legitimated Duke 
of Angoul^ME used a different brisure. See Chapter 
XVn.) The label borne in the arms of John of Bra- 
GANZA, Constable of PORTUGAL {Chevalier de la Toison 
(VOr, No. 244) is of two points only. (MAURICE, p. 276.) 
As to the use of this label by the line of Braganza, 
see the NobiliarcMa Portugueza, cap. xxv., p. 217. The 
labels borne by the Princes of the Royal House were of 
three points, apparently of Or. 

It should be noticed that there is no ancient precedent 
for the modern ugly couped label with dovetail points. 
The top bar should traverse the whole field. 

IV. — The insertion of a Canton was a not infrequent 
English and Low-Country mode of differencing. The 
earliest instance which has come under my notice is found 
in the seal of PIERRE, called Mauclerc, son of Count 
Robert of Dreux {c 121 5); and husband of Alice, 
Duchess of Brittany, who added to his paternal coat 
{Chequy or and azure ^ a bordure gules), a canton erfuine 
for BrittanV. At the siege of Caerlaverock, in 1300, 
Jean de Bretagne, Earl of Richmond, has this 
banner, but the bordure has become a bordure of 
England, i.e. it is charged with eight lions passant 
gardant or, in memory of his mother, BEATRICE* 
daughter of HENRY III. (The ermine canton is placed 
above the bordure.) Beatrice was the wife of Jean 
DE Dreux, Duke of Brittany, grandson of Pierre, 
whose arms are described above. It was probably from 

(426 ) 

the use of the ermine canton of Brittany by the Earls 
of Richmond, that it came to be employed, as the early 
Rolls of ^ us that it was, as a frequent mode 
of differencing in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
In a Roll of Arms of the time of Henry III. Ralph 
Bassett bears, Or^ three piles gules ^ a canton ermine; 
this also appears in the Calais Roll for SiMON Bassett ; 
and in the Garter Plate of Ralph, Lord Bassett, K.G. 
In the Roll of t/te Thirteenth Century Rauff Bassett 
bears : " PaUe d'or et de gulez in un cantele d* argent 
un crois patie sable;'' and in the Roll of RICHARD 
II. the canton is charged with a griffon segreant 

These are referred to by Wyrley, True Use of Armes^ 
as proofs " that diuers did adde unto the marke of their 
owne house, some part of the deuise of that familie 
from which their mothers descended," or "some parte 
of the deuise of him who aduanced them . . . which 
served veri aptlie to distinguish them from their elder 

The arms of ZOUCHE {Gules bezanty)\ Wrotteslev, 
K.G. {Or^ three piles sable) ; Despencer {Barry of six 
or and azure)] Tateshall {Cliequy argent and gules) ; 
and many others, are all found in our early armorial 
Rolls with the addition of a canton, or quarter, 

In the Calais Roll the arms of WiLLlAM DE Warren : 
Cliequy or and azure^ are differenced by the addition of 
a canton said to be that of FiTZALAN (but really that of 
Nerford, see Chapter on Illegitimacy, p. 556), Gules, 
a lion rampant argent. The use of cantons as augmenta- 
tions will be spoken of later, but such augmentations were 
also effective differences. The use by which an heiress 
transmits to her children her own coat differenced by 
a canton charged with the arms of her husband, in the 
case of that husband having already heirs by a previous 

( 427 ) 

marriage, is a modern one ; but as far back as 1 590 the 
Harford arms : Sable^ two bends argent^ were charged 
with a canton of SCROPE : Azure^ a bend or^ and are so 
borne at the present day. 

A considerable number of coats in Belgium and the 
Low Countries are at the present day differenced by the 
addition of a canton, or quarter, charged with another 
coat ; I believe indicative in most cases of maternal 
descent. An early example is found in the Armorial 
de Gueldre in the arms of the SiRE DE Leefedael, Or^ 
three cinquefoils gules^ a quarter of tlie last tJiereon an 
eagle displayed argent, (I must again remind the student 
that the full coat is first blazoned as it would appear 
if there were no canton. In the present case although 
the first is absconded, or hidden by the canton, the coat 
is nevertheless blazoned as being charged with three 
cinquefoils.) The coat of Van Wesel in Holland is : 
Verty three cinquefoils argent^ a quarter or, tJiereon three 
pallets azure within a bordure gules, De WiLDT of 
Utrecht bears : GuleSy a bend argent^ a quarter azure, 
t/tereon three eagles displayed or, Seraing of Liige, uses : 
Gules, fleury or, a quarter of the arms of BOSSUT {ante, 
p. 181) : Or, a tressure flory-counter-flory vert, over all a 
saltire gules. Preudhomme of Lifege, Or, a bend gules, 
on a quarter of t/te last a lion rampant of t lie first, 

V. — Akin to this usage is the employment of a Small 
ESCUCHEON in the chief, of which we have an instance in 
the arms of HUGH DE Balliol, in the i^t?// of Henry HI. : 
Gules, an orle azure, in tJie dexter chief a small escuclieon (of 
Galloway) ; Azure, a lion rampant argent crowned or. 

In the Armorial de Gueldre the arms of Le Sire de 
ViLAIN, who bore : Sable, a chief argent, have the chief 
charged with a small escucheon of Van Grimberghe : 
Or, a fess azure over all a saltire gules, the composed 
arms of Perweys and Aa (see Men£trier, Reclurches 
du Blason, p. 167). The DE Balys of Bruges, who use : 

( 428 ) 

Argent^ a lion rampant gules ^ place on the shoulder of 
the Hon a small escucheon of Or, three crescents gules. 
The Van Oudenhagen of Brabant carry : Or, on a bend 
sable three viallets argent, and in dexter chief a small 
escucJuon of tlu arms ^Clutinck ; Azure, three fleurs-de- 
lis argent, au pied coup^. The Van Rieuwe of Brussels 
use : Or, a chief gules, in tJte dexter chief a smcdl 
escucluon ; Or, two bars sable. 

The addition of an escucheon en surtout containing 
the maternal arms was carried to a considerable extent 
in the Low Countries, and several examples will be found 
later in this chapter (Section XIV., p. 448). 

VI. — Differencing by the Addition of an 
Ordinary. — This mode of differencing occurs continu- 
ally in the early Rolls of Arms. At Caerlaverock 
Henry of Lancaster, brother and successor of Thomas, 
Earl of Lancaster, 

" Portait les armes son frere, 
Au beau bastoun sans label,'' 

i.e., he bore the Royal arms, differenced by a bendlet 
azure. The original Grey coat : Barry of six argent 
and azure is differenced in the Roll of Edward I. by a 
bend gules for JOHN DE Grey, at Caerlaverock this is 
engrailed. The Grandisons used : Paly of six argent 
and azure, over which is first placed a bend gules, and 
the process of differencing is carried on by charging this 
bend with escallops, eagles, or buckles, or {see p. 437). 

The Segrave coat : Sable, a lion rampant argent, is 
differenced by the addition of a bendlet or ; or a bendlet 
gules ; and the last is again differenced by engrailing 
it The Clifford coat {Cluquy or and azure a bend 
gules) is differenced at Caerlaverock by the substitution 
of a fess for the bend ; and later both bend and fess have 
sub-brisures of cinquefoils, or lions, argent. Of this 
common early mode of difference it is not needful to 
multiply examples from English Armory. 

2 F 

( 429 ) 

A bend {gules) was the brisure of FLANDERS borne by 
the Counts of Namur {vide Plate XLIV., fig. 2, from the 
Armorial de Gelre) ; and other instances of its use 
are found in Vr£e, Gdn^alogie des Comtes de Flandre. 
It is borne plain by Florent of Hainault, and by 
Philip of Flanders (both circa 1300). Guillaume de 
Flandre, Seigneur de Richebourg {c, 1290) bore the 
bend gobone argent and gules ; as did his son jEAN 
(r. 1320). The bend is ragulyin the case of Gui DE 
Flandre {c, 1335). Henri de Flandre, Comte de 
Lodes, also used the h^nA gobone {c, 1320). About the 
same time Robert de Namur makes his bend wavy 

The brisure of the Dues de BoURBON was a bend, or 
cotice, gules. The Dues de MONTPENSIER differenced 
this by charging the upper portion with the arms of 
Dauphin£ ((9r, a dauphin azure). By the Princes de 
CONDfi the bendlet was diminished into a baton alesd in 
bend (the Princes de CONTI added to this a bordure 
gules). The Comtes d*ETAMPES bore : France- 
ANCIENT, a bend coniponi gules and ermine ; and those of 
EVREUX had the bend compone argent and gules. The 
Bourbon Princes de la RoCHE SUR YON used: France- 
MODERN, a cotice in bend gules thereon a crescent argent in 
chief. The Princes of ACHAIA, of the House of Savoy, 
added a bend azure to the arms, GuleSy a cross 

With regard to Scottish Differences of this kind the 
excellent volumes of Scottish SealSy published by Mr H. 
Laing, give us a storehouse of contemporary examples ; 
and much of the following is derived therefrom. 

An early instance in Scotland of a bend used for 
differencing is in the seal of Sir John Stewart, younger 
son of Alexander, fourth High Steward, and husband 
of the heiress of Bonkil ; who, in 1296, debruises his fess 
checquy with a bend. ALEXANDER Seton, in his seal 

( 430 ) 

appended to the letter by the Scots barons to the Pope 
in 1320, not only introduces a bend, but places the three 
crescents of his paternal coat on that bend. Edward 
Keith, in his seal attached to the same letter, surmounts 
his paternal coat — a chief paly of six — with a bend ; the 
same difference being afterwards used by John, second 
son of Sir Edward Keith, Marischal. In 1358, 
William Ramsay, Earl of Fife by marriage, surmounts 
his Ramsay eagle with a bendlet engrailed ; and a bend 
charged with three crescents debruises the eagle in the 
seal of Ramsay of Dunoon. In 1368 John Hay, of 
Tillibothil, seals with his paternal coat surmounted by a 
bend indented. The Gordons of Lochinvar, in the 
time of Sir David Lindsay, and probably earlier, differ- 
enced the Gordon coat with a bend or placed between 
the three boar's heads. The seal of jAMES Eraser of 
Ferendrach, in 1402, shows a bend-sinister indented 
between three fraises ; and in 1499 JOHN Ogilvie, 
Sheriff-depute of INVERNESS, has also a bend-sinister 
with the lion passant of his family in base. 

Malcolm Sutherland in 1476 has a fess between 
his paternal three stars ; and John Rattray, Bailie of 
Aberdeen, has his coat similarly differenced in 1504. 
On the seal of the first Alexander Dunbar of West- 
field, in 1488, a fess is placed between the three cushions, 
and, contrary to the general usage, surmounts the 
Royal Tressure. Sir JOHN FouLis of Ravelston, c, 1672, 
has a fess vert charged with a primrose or between the 
three laurel leaves of his paternal coat ; a difference 
allusive to the circumstance that his wife was eldest 
daughter of Sir ARCHIBALD PRIMROSE, who settled his 
estate of Dunipace on her sons. Other examples occur 
about the same time of a fess, sometimes charged, being 
used in this way, e.g,^ HAMILTON of Cairnes, who adds 
to the principal HAMILTON coat a fess argent charged 
with a man's heart gules. The coat of the COCKBURNS of 

(43t ) 

Ormiston has already been alluded to. We find the fess 
checquy also used as a difference in later times, and with 
genealogical intent The GORDONS of Lesmoir have, 
since 1672, if not earlier, borne a fess clucquy azure and 
argent between three boar's luads or, in consequence of 
the first Laird of Lesmoir having in the sixteenth 
century married a daughter of STEVsrART of Laithers ; 
and Forbes of Echt (the older family) bore a fess clucquy 
argent and gules between their three bear's heads. 

The arms assigned at the same date to Sir John 
Falconer of Balmakellie, Master of the Mint to 
Charles II., were those of his brother the first Lord 
Falconer {Or, between three mullets azure, a falcon's Jiead 
proper issuing from a mans heart gules and crowned), 
with the addition of a chief gules charged with three 
besants allusive to his office. 

But, with the exception of the bordure, no Ordinary 
has been so much in use in Scotland for differencing 
purposes as the chevron. William Murray, of Gask 
and Tullibardine, has a chevron between the three stars 
of his paternal coat in his homage seal of 1292 ; and this 
chevron continued to be borne by his descendants until 
they obtained the royal tressure in the reign of James VI. 
Theshieldsof John Graham in 1370; Thomas Mony- 
penny of Kinkell, in 141 5 ; and Alexander Rattray, 
in 1628 ; all have a chevron introduced into their 
paternal coat. The Hays of Fudie bore a chevron sable 
between their three escutcheons from an early period ; 
and the Lyon Register is full of more modern instances. 
Thus Forbes of Monymusk places between his three 
bear's heads a chevron argent charged with a heart 
proper (the heart indicative of a maternal DOUGLAS 
descent). In like manner Oliphant of Bachilton places 
a chevron argent between his three crescents. Another 
cadet of the Oliphant family,OLiPHANT of Prinlis, alters 
the arrangement of the coat more materially by placing 

( 432 ) 

a saltire engrailed argent between his three crescents, and 
arranging them one in chief and two in flank. There 
are also cases where one Ordinary is substituted for 
another. The Leslies of Balquhain differenced the 
chief coat of their family, Argent^ on a bend azure three 
buckles ory by turning the bend into a fess. A very early 
cadet of the Graham family, Graham of Morphie, 
adopted an unusually pronounced difference, substituting 
a chevron for the chief, and at the same time changing 
the tinctures. The principal Graham coat is : Or, on a 
chief sable three escallops of t/ie field ; that of Morphie : 
Sable, a clievron between three escallops argent. Different 
branches of the Pringle family, retaining the escallops 
which are the principal charge, turn the bend on which 
they are placed into a chevron and a saltire respectively. 
(Differencing by the addition of a bordure will be 
treated separately, p. 437.) 

VII. — Changing the Boundary line of an 

Ordinary, by engrailing, invecking, or indenting, is a 
frequent expedient in Scotland, both in earlier and in 
later times. The Macfarlanes, who descend from the 
Lennox family, bear the coat of Lennox, Argent, a 
saltire cantoned with four roses gules (as in Plate XXX., 
fig. 3), but difference it by making the saltire wavy ; 
while the Napiers of Merchiston (believed to be 
Lennoxes by descent) engrail the saltire. In 1370 the 
seal of Sir NICHOLAS Erskine of Kinnoull, second son of 
Sir Robert Erskine, shows the pale of his paternal 
coat engrailed. Allusion has been made above to some of 
the various ways in which the original Pringle coat, 
Argent, on a bend sable three escallops or, has been 
differenced. The Pringles of Smailhome difference it 
in a less pronounced manner by engrailing the bend. 
On the seal of Patrick Graham, Earl of Strathern, 
jure uxor is in 1400, the chief is indented, and it is either 
indented or engrailed on the seal of ROBERT Graham 

( 433 ) 

of Kinpunt in 1433, and of ROBERT Graham of 
Fintry in 1478. At a later date the indentations in 
the Fintry coat were made deeper, and have been 
blazoned as piles, and erroneously supposed to 
have been adopted from the family of LOVEL of 
Ballumbie, whose heiress the first Sir ROBERT Graham 
of Fintry married. Doubtless the piles in the coat of 
Douglas of Lochleven {Argent^ three piles gules, t/ie 
exterior ones cliarged with a star of tlie field) had the 
same origin ; the seal of Sir Henry Douglas of Lugton 
in 1329 has what seems to be an indented chief. — ^J. W.] 
[In the Lyon Register in the time of Sir CHARLES and 
Sir Alexander Erskine the examples of this mode of 
differencing are very numerous. So far as any general 
rule of practice can be discovered, the use was to have the 
Ordinary engrailed for a second son or his descendant, in- 
vecked for a third, wavy for a fourth, indented or nebuly 
for a fifth. But the usage varied a little, and there was 
a tendency to embattle the Ordinary in the case of a mili- 
tary man, while Sir William Bruce of Balcaskie, known 
for his skill in navigation, has his chief wavy. As examples 
of the general rule, the chief engrailed is borne by Sir 
William Graham of Braco, Baronet, "descended of 
a second son of Montrose ; " the chevron engrailed by 
Walter Riddell, ancestor of the Glenriddell family, 
and second son of RiDDELL of that Ilk, and by 
Abercrombv of Fetternear, the first of which line was 
second son of Abercrombv of Birkenbog. James 
Durham, second son of the family of Durham of 
Grange, engrails the fess of his family coat, and the bend 
is carried engrailed by the Eliotts of Stobs, "descended 
from a second son of Lauriston." The older 
RUTHERFORDS of Fairnington engrailed their orlc. 
Examples of the chief, chevron, bend, orle, and pile 
being invecked, wavy, indented, and nebuly for cadets, 
seem to indicate an attempt to make these differences 

( 434 ) 

correspond with third, fourth, fifth, and sixth sons 
respectively, and their descendants ; though the difficulty 
of ascertaining the date of the extinction of intermediate 
lines makes the intention not always so obvious as in the 
case of the engrailed Ordinary. The engrailed cross of 
the SiNCLAiRS is in one instance differenced by being 
engrailed on the outer side and invecked on the 
inner. — G. B.] 

[Of the alteration of the boundary line of an Ordinary 
as a mode of difference we have examples in foreign 
coats. The French families DE LA FOREST (Marquises 
d'ARMAlLLfe, and Barons de Craon) bear: Argent, 
a cluef sable ; while the line of FOREST- Landry in 
Flanders engrails the chief. (The FORESTEL of Cambray 
yo^^x Argent, a chief gules.) The senior branch of the 
French house of La Baume bore Or, a bend azure but 
the younger line, Comtes de MONTREVEL, bore the bend 
dancetty ; while the Marquises de Pluvinel still further 
difference the MONTREVEL coat by adding an ermine 
spot in the sinister chief sable. 

VIIL — Diminishing the Number of Charges 

of the same kind is an expedient for differencing seldom 
if ever practised in Great Britain, but one of which there 
are examples in Foreign Heraldry. The Counts of 
Barcelona bore: Gules, four pales or; the house of 
Foix which descended from them, diminished the pales, 
or pallets, to three. While the house of Choiseul, 
Dues de Choiseul, bore Azure, a cross between twenty 
billets or, five in each canton ; the junior line of the Dues 
de Praslin diminished the number of the billets to 
eighteen, five in each of the cantons in chief, but only 
four in those in base. These are exceptions to the old 
French armorial rule which declares that the elder line 
is known by the simplicity of the coat : " Qui porte le 
moins est le plus.'' — J. W.] 

IX. Change OF THE Minor Charges. — [Differencing 

( 435 ) 

by the substitution of one charge for another is more a 
Scottish than an English usage. In 1476 the seal of 
Thomas Cumyn of Altyre has one garb only in place of 
the three of his family ; the two uppermost garbs being 
replaced by two cushions, and a tressure superadded. 
The mother of this THOMAS CUMYN was a sister of 
Thomas Dunbar, Earl of Moray: and the arms in 
fact are much more a Dunbar, or Moray, than a 
Cumyn coat In 15 13 William Scott, constable- 
depute of Montrose, replaces the third of the three lion's 
heads, which formed his family coat, by a rose, suggestive 
of Montrose, and so with obvious reference to his office. 
In 1515 we find PATRICK HEPBURN, Earl of BOTHWELL, 
Great Admiral of Scotland (an infant of four years old, 
but who entered on possession of his estates and office 
at once, as did the heirs of all whose ancestors had 
fallen at Flodden), adding an anchor in base to the 
Hepburn coat ; and the same was borne by Patrick 
Hepburn, of Bolton, in 1545. 

In the early Lyon Register there are about 160 coats 
in which one or more additional charges have been 
introduced to difference cadets from their chief. A few 
examples will suffice. While Lord Gray bears : Gules, 
a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed argent ^ GrAy 
of Ballengarno places an anchor or, and Gray of 
Haystoun, a writing-pen proper in the lion's dexter 
fore-paw. In a coat consisting of the same charge three 
times repeated, the difference is usually placed in the 
centre. Thus Grant of Ballindalloch, places a boar's 
head couped or, and GRANT of Carron, a dove argent 
holding in her beak an olive branch vert, between the 
three antique crowns which are the arms of their chief. 
Gordon of Knokespock places a pheon or ; GORDON of 
Glasterim a fraise argent; GORDON of Earlston a bezant; 
Gordon of Newark a billet or; and GORDON of 
Tetschie a sheaf of arrows or, between the three boar's 

( 436 ) 

Jieads or^ on a field azure, of the original coat The 
Sempill coat being : Argent, a cltevron ducquy gules and 
of tlie field between three hu7tting-/u>rns sable garnisJied of 
t/ie second (Plate XIII., No. 2), the Beltrees branch 
(whose founder, a younger son of Lord Sempill, 
married Mary Livingstone, one of the "Queen's 
Maries") added three gilliflowers^/^j(from the LIVING- 
STONE coat) for difference. The well known coat of 
Drummond, Or, three bars wavy gules (Plate XV., 
No. 10), is to a certain extent differenced in the same 
way. The Drummonds of Colquhalzie add three stars 
in chief; those of Blair charge each of the bars with 
an escallop ; and another DRUMMOND, descended from 
the Kildees branch of the Pitkellony family, has a 
singular difference, over all a naked man naiant in pale 
grasping in his dexter hand a sword, and having his 
sinister hand and feet in action all proper. In the 
majority of the instances given the difference indicated 
maternal descent, being often taken from the coat of 
the family of the wife of the first of the line. When the 
coat differenced has an Ordinary, a maternal charge of 
this kind, or an emblem of office or profession, is often 
found placed on that Ordinary. The chevron on the coat 
of the Earl of HOPETOUN is charged with a laurel leaf to 
indicate the descent of his branch of the HOPE family 
from the heiress of FOULIS of Leadhills. Colonel 
Walter Whiteford, whose father was a younger son 
of the house of Miltoun, charges the bend of his paternal 
coat with three crosses pat^e " added at his Majestie's 
speciall command." GEORGE JARDINE has the saltire 
of his coat charged with three besants, as having been 
Treasurer of the City of Edinburgh. Sir John Aytoun 
of Keppo places his official baton as Usher of the Black 
Rod on the engrailed cross of his coat. Napier of 
Culcreuch, descended from a third son, charges his 
saltire with five mullets argent, Paterson of Seafield, 

( 437 ) 

second son of the Bishop of Ross, replaces one of the 
three mullets in the chief of his paternal coat by a mitre, 
while the fourth son of the same prelate introduces a 
mitre azure between the three pelicans in the same 
coat. — G. B.] 

[Although before the Reformation it was not com- 
pulsory upon ecclesiastics, who were vowed to celibacy, 
to difference their arms, we yet find that as a matter of 
fact many did so. Thus Bishop John DE Grandison, 
of Exeter ( 1 327 — 1 369), substitutes a silver mitre for the 
one of the golden buckles upon the bend in his ancestral 
coat {vide ante, p. 428) ; WiLLlAM COURTENAY, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 1381 — 1396, whose arms were 
Or, three torteaux and a label azure, charged each point 
of his label with a mitre proper. (Bedford, Blason of 
Episcopacy, p. 44.) Bishop Edmond STAFFORD of 
Exeter, 1394 — 1419, differences his paternal coat Or, a 
cluvron gules with a botdure azure, t/tereon eight mitres 
argent; a still better known example is that of the war- 
like Henry le Despenser, Bishop of Norwich (1370 
— 1406), who differenced ^e full Despenser coat with 
a bordure charged with mitres (eight or fifteen) or 

X. Differencing by a Bordure was in former 

times practised largely in all the western countries ; and 
in Scotland it has always been a prevalent mode of 
indicating cadency. The simple bordure is, down to the 
present day, the most usual difference for a younger 
brother or direct cadet. (But see pp. 170-174.) 

The bordure has great advantages over other modes 
of differencing since it leaves the original arms intact, and 
when methodically employed points out as no other 
difference can do the exact position held in the family 
by the cadet who bears it. Moreover it admits of being 
varied for sub-cadets, and of being charged with sub- 
brisures taken from a maternal coat when there is no 
right to quarter the entire arms. When a quartered 


escucheon has to be differenced the bordure added 
surrounds the entire quartered coat as if it were a simple 
one. The Roll of Caerlaverock shows that this mode of 
differencing was in operation in England in the reign of 
Edward I. (1300), and we have already noticed one 
example therefrom in the case of JOHN, Earl of RICH- 
MOND {ante, p. 425). HUGH DE Vere, a cadet of the 
family of the Earl of Oxford, also differences the coat 
given on Plate IX., No. 2, p. 410, with a bordure indented 
sable. In Glover's Roll temp. HENRY III. the coat of 
John Fitz-Geoffrey : Quarterly or and gules has a 
bordure vair ; and that of WILLIAM Daubeny DE 
Beauvoir : Or, two clievrons gules, has also a bordure 
of the last ; and so forth. 

A number of the Plantagenet princes differenced 
with the bordure. John of Eltham, Earl of Corn- 
wall, second son of Edward II., bore the arms of 
England within a bordure of France, derived from his 
mother ISABEL. Thomas, of Woodstock, the youngest 
son of Edward III., differenced his father's arms with 
a bordure argent though his elder brothers all used the 
label. The Beauforts, descendants of John of Gaunt 
by Katharine Swynford, were legitimated in 1397, 
and from that time bore the quartered arms of France 
and England within a bordure compony of the Lan- 
castrian colours : Argent and azure, or of azure and 
ermine. From this circumstance the bordure gobony 
(though borne before this time by legitimate cadets, 
and not used by the Beauforts until after ih.€\x legiti- 
mation) carried with it ever afterwards in England a 
soup^on of illegitimacy, which was confirmed by its later 
use {see p. 443; and Chapter XVII.). Abroad it was 
always a difference of legitimate cadets {eg,, BURGUNDV- 
modern, next page). Thomas Holland, K.G., Earl 
of Kent, son of Sir Thomas Holland by Joan 

Plantagenet, tlie fair maid of Kent (who afterwards 

( 439 ) 

married the Black Prince), was permitted by his half- 
brother Richard II. to bear the arms of England with 
a bordure argent ; the other brother, John, Duke of 
Exeter, bore : England, within a bordure of France. 

The Tudor bordure was of Azure^ charged alternately 
with fleurS'de-lys and martlets or^ the former derived 
from the HOLLANDS, the latter from the Beauchamps 
of liletsho. Many English families differenced with the 
bordure {e.g.^ the MONTAGUS, and Staffords). One of 
the points decided in the SCROPE and Grosvenor case 
(1390) was that a bordure is not a sufficient difference 
between strangers in blood, but only between the chief 
and a cadet of the same family. In modern English 
practice the bordure as a difference for cadets only con- 
tinues to be used by those whose ancestors bore it in 
ancient times. Its other use as a modern mark of 
illegitimacy is treated in a separate chapter. 

In the Royal Cadency of France the Dukes of 
Anjou bore : FRANCE, within a bordure guleSy the Dukes 
of Berri, France, with a bordure engrailed gules ; the 
Dukes of Alen(;:on, France, with a bordure gules 
cltarged with eight plates ; the Dukes of BURGUNDY 
of the younger line, France, within a bordure gobony 
argent and gules (Plate XLI V., fig. 6). 

The following examples taken from the seals in VRltE, 
{GinMogie des Comtes de Flandres\ show us that the 
bordure engrailed was frequently used as a difference. 
Mathieu de Lorraine thus differences in 1323. 
YOLANTE, Comtesse de Nevers, bears BURGUNDY- 
ANCIENT with a bordure engrailed^ circa 1290 ; BALDWIN, 
younger son of the Count of FLANDERS, c, 1290, 
Flanders a bordure (or rather a filet^ engrailed ; 
Robert, younger son of Robert de Bethune, Count 
of Flanders, r. 1306, the same, etc. The same bordure 
was used by the Lannoys, vide infra, Antoine de 
Vergy (Chevalier de la Toison d'Or, No. 5) differences 

( 440 ) 

his arms : Gules^ three cinquefoils or with a plain bordure 
argent, jEAN DE LA Clite, Seigneur de COMMINES 
(Chevalier de la Toison d'Or, No. 8) adds a bordure or 
to the family coat : GuleSy a chevron or between three 
escallops argent, (This was the coat borne by PHILIPPE 
DE COMMlNES,the chronicler; therefore correct Stodart, 
Scottish Artns, vol. ii., p. 29.) 

In Germany of old the use of the bordure as a difference 
docs not appear to have been very frequent Spener 
gives only one example. The families of Flehingen 
and SiCKlNGEN both bore: Sable, ^ve plates in saltire ; 
and the latter differenced by a bordure gules (SlEB- 
MACHER, Wappenbuch, i., 118, 122). In the Wappenrolle 
von Zurich, plate ii., 36 shows us the NURENBURG 
coat : Quarterly argent and sable, with a bordure gules. 
SWANDEG (lii., 65), bears : Argent, an ibex sable, a 
bordure or ; LOUBGA.SSEN (v., 97), Or, six linden leaves 
vert, a bordure gules ; BoNSTETTEN (xvii., 391), Sable, 
three lozenges conjoined in fess, a bordure argent ; and 
about a half dozen other examples are recorded in it 

In the Armory of the Peninsula, although marks of 
cadency, in our restricted sense of the word, are almost 
unknown, the bordure, especially as indicating descent 
from a maternal ancestor, is very largely employed. 
The most familiar instance is afforded by the Royal 
Arms of PORTUGAL, in which the arms of PORTUGAL 
are surrounded by a bordure of CASTILE. The arms 
of the family of CuEVA, Dukes of Albuquerque, are 
Tierced in mantel: i and 2, Or, a pale gules ; 3, Vert, a 
dragon or. The whole within a bordure gules cJiarged 
alternately with seven aspas {i,e, saltires couped) and as 
many escuclieons of Mendoza {v, ante, p. 395 ; and 
Plate XXXIII., fig. 12). These last relate to the 
marriage of Mencia Mendoza, daughter of the Duke 

of Infantadgo, with Beltran, first Duke of Albu- 
querque (Chifflet, Ann, Gent, Equit, Aurei VelUris, 

( 441 ) 

No. 170; and MAURICE, p. 196). The arms of the 
GiRONS, Dukes of OSSUNA, have been blazoned on 
page 168, ante. In them it is doubtful whether the 
arms of Castile and Leon in chief have been assumed 
to commemorate an alliance with the Royal House ; 
or whether they are simply Coats of Augmentation; 
but Spener {Op, Her,, p. spec, p. 130) is decidedly 
of opinion that the Portuguese escucheons commemo- 
rate such an alliance. It will be obvious that these 
are rather instances of Marshalling than of Cadency 
proper, and I accordingly refer the reader to the 
following chapter for other instances of this use. But, 
besides these bordures charged with entire escucheons, 
Spanish bordures are frequently found bearing charges 
derived from those in the coats of maternal progenitors. — 

[The bordures to be found in the earliest Scottish 
seals are to so large an extent engrailed as to make it 
appear that the later rule to give the plain bordure to 
immediate cadets was not fully recognised. On the 
seal of Sir Alexander Fraser appended to the letter 
of the barons to the Pope (1320) the bordure seems to 
be engrailed. The seal of ROGER Fausyde, in 1326, 
has — a crane passant within a bordure engrailed. 
Patrick Hepburn, in his seal appended to the Act 
regarding the succession to the crown, in 1371, has 
Hepburn within a bordure engrailed. The bordure 
engrailed was also borne by DOUGLAS of Drumlanrig, 
who was of illegitimate descent; by the STEWARTS, Earls 
of Lennox (Plate XLIL, fig. i); Hay of Naughton ; 
Oliphant of Kelly, etc. Walter Stewart, son by 
the second marriage of ROBERT II., bore in 1389 the arms 
of Scotland within a bordure checquy. Hay of Tilli- 
bothil bore his arms in 1370 (according to Sir James 
Balfour) within a bordure checquy: and in 1508 the 
seal of Robert Maxwell surrounds his Maxwell 

( 442 ) 

coat with a bordure counter-compony, quartering it with 

Bordures-compony were in early times borne by 
legitimate cadets, as by Wallace of Ellerslie, and 
Hamilton of Preston. Bordures charged appear at a 
comparatively early date. The seal of Sir ANDREW 
Murray, Wallace's companion-in-arms, has a bordure 
charged with eleven roses, or cinquefoils ; and another 
Sir Andrew Murray, who signs the contract regarding 
the ransom of David II., has a bordure charged with 
what seems to be roundles. On the seal of HUGH 
Fraser in 1377 are three fraises within a bordure 
charged with nine stars ; and HUGH Ross of Rarichies, 
second son of HUGH, Earl of Ross, has on his seal of 
1351 a bordure charged with eleven escallops (? ermine 
spots). The bordure charged with eight roses of the 
Earls of Dunbar and MARCH, which occurs as early 
as 1 291, is of course not a ^difference of filiation {See 
Plate XVII., fig. 3); but in 1452 Sir David Dunbar 
of Cockburn, a younger son, differenced his paternal coat 
by substituting mullets for the roses. The Stewarts 
of Rosyth, rejecting the bend borne by most of the 
descendants of Sir John (husband of the heiress of 
Bonkyl) placed the Bonkyl buckles on a bordure. 

In the Lyon Register differencing by a bordure 
prevails largely, and is carried out somewhat more 
systematically than in earlier heraldry. As a general 
rule a plain bordure, of the tincture of the first charge, 
indicates that the bearer of it is the first cadet of his 
house : where a bordure of a different colour occurs, it 
is equally the rule that the cadet is not so; and the 
cadets of the original bearer of the bordure are to a 
great extent differenced by engrailing, invecking, etc., 
the bordure, as described in the case of other Ordinaries. 
Sub-cadets are also differenced by charging the bordure 
with figures, generally from some maternal coat, a sort 

( 443 ) 

of cadency especially in use in the case of bordures, 
which had bten already differenced by being engrailed 
or invecked. Again, the bordure may be quartered, or 
parted per pale, or per fess ; expedients resorted to 
where there are many prior cadets of former generations. 
Hamilton of Presmennan, in the Lyon Register, bears 
the Hamilton coatwithin a bordure quarterlyof z/^?/r, and 
of counter-compony tf;^i^«/and^/(?j; and HAMILTON of 
Neilsland has a bordure quarterly argent and azure, the 
first and fourth engrailed, and the second and third in- 
vecked. The doubtful legitimacy of the Avondale and 
Ochiltree Stewarts, who bore the bordure-compony 
in Scotland, along with its use by the Beau FORTS 
in England, tended latterly to bring that difference into 
disrepute in the cadency of lawful sons — yet some of the 
bearers of that bordure during the first twenty years of 
the Lyon Register were unquestionably legitimate, 
while others, as ScOTT of Gorrenberry and Patrick 
Sinclair of Ulbster, were illegitimate, or at best 
only legitimated. The light in which the bordure- 
compony had come to be regarded is shown by a Royal 
Warrant granted in 1679 to JOHN LUNDIN of that Ilk, 
allowing him to drop the coat which his family had 
hitherto carried, and, as descended of a natural son of 

William the Lion, to bear the arms of Scotland 

within a bordure-compony argent and azure. The 
bordure counter-compony is assigned to fifteen persons, 
none of them, it is believed, of illegitimate descent, and 
some expressly said to be "lineallie and lawfulie 
descended" from the ancestor whose arms they bore 
thus differenced. The idea of this bordure having been 
at any time a mark of bastardy is a very modern error, 
arising from a confusion with the bordure-compony. Of 
the bordure-checquy there are twenty examples during 
the first twenty years of the Lyon Register. — G. B.] 
[The late Mr Stodart, Lyon Clerk Depute, who was 

( 444 ) 

an able herald, particularly in matters relating to 

Scotland, had elaborated a system of differencing by 

the bordure which would have done much to simplify 

Scottish cadency. Its weak point was obviously this : 

that it could only be applied to new matriculations of 

arms by cadets ; and so, if adopted, might have 

occasioned doubt and misunderstanding in future times 

with regard to many important Scottish coats now 

existing, which are differenced with bordiires assumed, or 

granted, without reference to Mr Stod art's system. It 

is, however, clear from Lyon's remarks that he had 

adopted the main features of the system ; or at least had 

allowed Mr Stodart to act upon it to a considerable 

extent in new matriculations. 

XI. Reference has already been made to the present 

unsatisfactory use of what are known as the Marks of 

Cadency, which were intended to indicate the order of 

descent of the different sons of a family. It has been 

shown (pp. 410-412), that the occasional use of some of 

these began pretty early both at home and abroad ; but 

it was only in the reigns of the Tudor Sovereigns that 

they became systematised in English Heraldry. They 

are practically the only differences employed to denote 

legitimate cadency by the English College of Arms. 

They are ; — i. A Label for the eldest son ; 2. A Crescent 

for the second ; 3. A Mullet for the third ; 4. A Martlet 

for the fourth ; 5. An Annulet for the fifth son ; 6. A 

Fleur-de-lis for the sixth ; 7. A Rose for the seventh; 8. 

A Cross moline for the eighth ; and 9. A Double Quatrc- 

foil for the ninth, which is the ne plus ultra of provision. 

Of these the first six are given in BOSSEWELL'S Workcs 

of Armorie (1572), and the author adds: "if there be 

any more than six brethren the devise or assignment 

of further difference only appertaineth to the kingis of 

armes especially when they visite their severall provinces ; 

and not to the father of the children to give them what 
2 G 

( 445 ) 

difference he list, as some without authoritie doe 

On Scottish seals of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries t^e mullet is more frequently found than 
any of the other marks of cadency, but it is evidently 
not regarded as peculiarly appropriated to the third son. 
Before 1300, Sir DONALD of Mar (son and heir of 
Gratney, Earl of Mar, by the sister of Robert Bruce), 
bore a mullet of six points in the upper part of the bend 
upon his seal (Laing, Scottish Seals^ ii., No. 690). In 1 373 
it appears in dexter chief on the seal of ROBERT STEWART, 
Earl of Fife (afterwards Duke of Albany), second son 
of Robert II. {Ibid., i., 786), and from the beginning of 
the fifteenth century it is fairly common. Similarly there 
are examples, though fewer, of other marks. — J. W.] 

[In 1672, when the Lyon Register was instituted, the 
import of the English marks of cadency was quite 
recognised, and during the twenty years following, they 
are to a limited extent made use of. The crescent is 
assigned to sixty-eight cadets, who in most instances are 
specifically described as second sons or descendants of 
second sons. The mullet in the same way is given thirty- 
five times to a third son or his representative, the martlet 
appears eleven times, the annulet six times, t\\t fleur-de- 
lis six times, the rdse ten times, and the cross moline 
twice. There are a very few instances of double marks 
of cadency, such as a crescent charged with another, or 
with a mullet — G. B.] 

[As was remarked at the outset of this Chapter the 
results of this mode of differencing have been far from 
satisfactory. The main consequence of the practical 
supersession of all other differences by these minute 
figures has been that the duty of differencing at all hets 
been much neglected, and remote cadets bear the arms 
of the head of the house without an idea of impropriety. 
There are, however, some cases where these differences 



( 446 ) 

awarded at a time when they were coming into use, 
have become permanent in particular branches of the 
family, and where more than one has been elevated to 
the peerage we see the differences in use, e,g, the 
crescents in the coats of the Marquess of SALISBURY 
and Earl STANHOPE ; the mullet used by the Earl of 
Carlisle, the red rose in the arms of the Earl of Aber- 
gavenny. Sir William Dugdale in his Antient 
Usage of Bearing" Arms condemns the system strongly; 
and advises a return to the older and better methods of 
differencing ; and, although in Scotland this usage never 
superseded these better modes, Sir GEORGE MACKENZIE 
regrets its partial introduction, and denounces the Marks 
of Cadency as tending to confound the ancient coats, 
and to fill the modern with more crescents and mullets 
than are in the arms of all Europe besides. 

XII. Difference by Quartering. — Men^trier 

lays down that the bearing by a cadet of a quartering 
not borne by the elder line is in itself a sufficient 
difference; and this rule has been recognised in Scotland. 
When a younger son of a great house became possessed 
of a feudal lordship by marriage, or by a grant from the 
crown he not unfrequently retained the simple coat of 
his ancestors, and quartered with it the arms of his new 
possession. Thus Alexander, Duke of Albany, son 
of James II., bore the undifferenced coat of Scotland, 
quartered with the arms of March, Man, and Annan- 
dale (see Plate XXXVL, which is reduced from Michel's 
Les Ecossais en France^ etc.). The Stewarts, Earls of 
Athole, and of BUCHAN, found the feudal quarterings 
of these Earldoms a sufficient difference. In later times 
we find the Lords PiTSLIGO bearing the undifferenced 
coat of Forbes quartered with ERASER; Forbes of 
Tolquhoun bearing the same coat quartered with 
Preston ; and Forbes of Rires bearing Wemyss in 
the first and fourth quarters, and the undifferenced coat 

( 447 ) 

of Forbes in the second and third. To these cases we 
may add the well known coat of the Breadalbane 
family (the principal cadet line of the CAMPBELLS), 
as compared with that of the house of Argyll. 
Breadalbane has, equally with Argyll, the undif- 
ferenced coat of CAMPBELL in the first and fourth 
quarters ; and each became entitled to use the arms of 
Stewart of Lorn in virtue of marriage with one of the 
co-heiresses of JOHN, Lord LORN. In the Argyll 
achievement this alliance is represented by the use of the 
Lorn galley in the second and third quarters ; while 
Breadalbane has Lorn in the second, and the plain 
coat of Stewart in the third. This is a near approach 
to what NiSBET characterises as a German mode or 
differencing unknown in Scotland. 

It is, however, frequent enough abroad. For instance 
the Counts of Leiningen und Dagsburg, bore Lein- 
INGEN (v. p. 424) in the first and fourth quarters, with 
Dagsburg in the second and third (Ardent, a lion 
rampant sablCy debruised by an escarbuncle of tlie fields all 
within a bordure gules) ; and an escucheon en surtout 
for the Lordship of AsPERMONT : Gules, a cross argent. 
The Counts of Leiningen-Westerburg quartered 
Leiningen with Westerburg {Gules, a cross between 
twenty crosslcts of), and placed en surtout an escucheon, 
Or, a cross azure, which both Spener and Trier 
profess their inability to explain. (I think it originated 
in a painter's error.) 

The Barons of Frauenberg (now Fraunberg) in 
Bavaria, bore : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, a pale argent, 
Frauenberg ; 2 and 3. Gules, a Iiorse saliant argent 
bridled sable, Haag. The Counts of Haag, who are of 
the same descent, difference by transposing the quarters 
(Spener, Op, Her., p. spec, pp. 446-7). 

The arms of the two lines of LOWENSTEIN and Wer- 
THEIM, in Virneberg and in Rochefort, were identical as 


BzFLUtATioH or Fiausn. 
L Omnttf B*»l at Liraii XII. ud Fninu L (Fpfc). 2. S«^ of Edmond 
HortinMr, ISTS. 8. Sod of On; de Hodot^ Honk of 81 Qermain 
I'Aoxenoli {S^taibaek). 4. PorUrai of 9«1 of Bluiohe of CHtillB, 
Qoeeoiof Fmue (d. 1353) ( FiAJ. S. Beat of Louia, Daupbin of Fnnoe, 
1216. 6. Portioii of Seal of Mee of Holland, wife of Jean d'Aveanee, 
0. 12S0 {Vrie). 7. Seal of leabeUa, Duoheae of Albaaf, Oounteee of 

( 448 ) 

far as eight of the nine quarters were concerned, and 
only differed in the quartering at the point of the 
escucheon (Spener, p. spec, tab. ix.). 

XIII. An Augmentation of course serves very effec- 
tively as a mode of difference {See Chapter XVI.). The 
use of an official coat does the same. 

XIV. Differencing by an Escucheon en sur- 
tout — The Escucheon en surtout is sometimes used in 
Germany as a difference. In the family of the Princes 
of AUERSPERG the eldest line thus bears the arms of 
GOTTSCHEE {Argent^ a lion rampant gules crowned of) \ 
the VOLKARD line similarly use: — Argent, a rose gules, 
seeded or ; and the line of Peillenstein : — Azure, a 
crown or. It may be interesting if I here append 
a few of the differenced coats of an English family : the 
great house of MORTIMER. The main coat has already 
been given at p. i68 (Plate XVIII., No. 5), and the 
seal of Edmund Mortimer on Plate XXXVII., fig. 2, 
Barry or and azure, etc. (sometimes, as in the Second 
Rolloi Henry III. and the First Roll of Edv^ard I., 
Azure, three bars or, etc.). Raf de Mortimer changes 
the tincture Azure to Sable {i, Edward II.). Henry 
de Mortimer (i, Edward II.) makes the argent 
escucheon billetty sable, possibly ermine, which at any 
rate, was one of the MORTIMER differences, being borne 

by Roger Mortimer (2, Henry III.). William de 

Mortimer bears ''Mortimer's Arms'' with a bendlet 
gules ; and GEOFFREY, with a saltire gules, en surtout . 
(2, Henry III.). In the same Roll Joan changes the 
azure bars to gules, I close the list with a curious 
French example : MORTEMER in Poictou bore : Fasc^ 
contr^ fasce d'or et d'azur, en cceur un t^cusson d' argent A 
la bande de gueules (qui pourrait rappeler une alliance 
avec les Seigneurs d'Azay le Rideau, qui portaient 
d' argent d la bande de gueules), B0URASS£, La Touraine, 
folio. Tours, 1855. 

( 449 ) 

In the case of some of the great families of the Low 
Countries, of which a number of the members were in 
succession Knights of the great Order of the Golden 
Fleece, their arms recorded in the catalogues of Chifflet 
and Maurice afford interesting information as to the 
modes of differencing employed in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. About the middle of the fourteenth 
century Guillaume de Croy espoused Isabelle, 
heiress of Renty. Their son Jean de Croy accord- 
ingly bore, Quarterly ^ i and 4. Argent, three bars gules 
(Croy) ; 2 and 3. Argent three doloires (or broad-axes) 
tlwse in chief addorsed gules (Renty). Jean DE Croy 
married Marie de Craon and had two sons. Of these 
Antoine, the elder, on the death of his father at Azin- 
court in 1415, became Seigneur of Croy and bore the full 
arms of Croy and Rentv (Chev. No. xv.). The younger 
son, Jean (Chev. No. xxii.), bore the same arms but differ- 
enced by the addition of an escucheon en surtout bearing 
the arms of his mother Marie de Craon {Quarterly, i 
and 4. Lozengy or and gules, Craon ; 2 and 3. FLANDERS, 
Or, a lion rampant sable), which continued to form the 
standing difference of his line. He became the first Count 
of Chimay and founder of that line. Of the line of 
Antoine were several Knights of the Golden Fleece. Of 
these his grandson (No. cv.) was GuiLLAUME, Seigneur 
de CHlfeVRES, Marquis d'ARSCHOT, and Duke of SORIA, 
the celebrated tutor of the Emperor CHARLES V. He 
bore Croy and Renty, quartered, differenced by an 
escucheon en surtout ; Quarterly, i and 4. LUXEMBOURG 
{Argent, a lion rampant double queu(f gules) ; 2. LORRAIN E ; 
3. Bar. Of these coats Luxemburg and Bar w^ere 
respectively the coats of his maternal grand-parents ; 
Lorraine was the first coat of his father's mother, 
Marguerite de Lorraine- Vaudemont, the wife of 
Antoine. Marguerite's full coat (of Lorraine quar- 
tering Harcourt, and Alen^ON) was similarly borne in 

( 450 ) 

an escudieon en surtout by her grandson Ferry de Croy, 
Seigneur de ROUX (No. cxxiii.), first cousin of GuiL- 
LAUME, Duke of SORIA ; and by Ferry's son Adrian 
(No. clxiii.). 

Turning now to the h'ne of Chimay, we find that both 
the sons of John were Knights of the Order, and 
differenced their father's coat, already given, with a 
bordure azure platy. The elder son, PHILIPPE, also had 
two sons. Knights of the Order, of whom CHARLES, 
Prince de Chimay (No. civ.), the elder, discontinued the 
bordure, which was retained by the younger, Antoine 
(No. cxxxiv.). 

The differences of the knights of the house of Lannoy 
are even more instructive. 

First of their number was HuGH DE Lannoy (No. 
vii.). His father Gilbert was a younger son, and 
bore the arms of Lannoy : Argent^ three lions rampant 
vert crowned t?r, differenced by ^ filet en bordure engrailed 
gules; which was continued by HUGH. His younger 
brother GILBERT (No. xii.) added to this a label azure ; 
while the third brother, Baldwin (No. xix.), who had 
as his heritage the lordship of MOLEMBAIS, his mother's 
portion, relinquished his father's bordure and bore the 
full arms of Lannoy differenced by an escucheon en 
surtout of MOLEMBAIS : Argent^ four bars azure. His 
son Baldwin (No. Ixxxix.), similarly differenced with 
the arms of his mother, Adrienne de Berlaymont ; 
Barry of six vair and gules. BALDWIN'S son PHILIP 
(No. clxxxiii.) also differenced with the arms of his 
mother MiCHELE D'ESNE : Sable^ ten lozenges conjoined 
argent 3, 3, i. PHILIP had two wives ; by the first, MAR- 
GUERITE DE BOURGOGNE (natural daughter of Duke 
Philip by Marie Manuel), he had a son Jean (No. 
ccviii.) who quartered LANNOY and Manuel {v. p. 507), 
and placed the full undifferenced quartered coat of BUR- 
GUNDY en surtout Philip's second wife was Fran^oise 

( 451 ) 

DE Barben^on, and her son Baldwin (No. ccxxxiii.) 
differenced with an escucheon en surtout of her arms : 
Argent^ three lions rampant gules crowned or. 

In the line of GILBERT, the second son (No. xH.), 
his son Pierre (No. xcviii.) bore his father's arms with 
the bordure, and in t/ie centre point a star of six points 

Yet another h'ne of Lannoy, descending from HUGH, 
Seigneur de Mingoval, brother of GuiLLEBERT, had 
a succession of three generations of knights. Charles 
(No. cxxxvi.). Viceroy of Naples, laid aside his father's 
engrailed bordure, and differenced with a crescent gules 
in the centre point. His son Philip (No. cxcvii.), 
Prince of SULMONE, resumed the bordure. He married 
Isabella CoLONNA,and their sons CHARLEs(ccxxxviii.), 
and Horace (cclxix.), both quartered Lannoy and 
Colon N A {Gules ^ a column argent^ its capital and base or 
crowned of tJie last). 

Illustrations of most of the usages we have described 
will be found in the list of Montmorency brisures with 
which I conclude this Chapter. 

I. Or^ a cross gules between sixteen allerions asurCy is the 
principal coat of the family in modern times {see next page). 

The Montmorency de Fosseux added a star argent 
in tJie centre point (until it became the principal line in 
1570), and the lines of Courrieres and LORESSE did 
the same. 

M — Wastine : three plates upon the cross. 

M — BOUTEVILLE; andM — Croisilles: a label azure 
{? argent) ; and a lozenge or in centre point. 

M — BOURS : in chief a crescent argent. 

M — Roupy (et Nomaing) : in chief a mullet argent 
{a crescent argent in centre). 

M — DU Plessis-Cacheleu : in centre a mullet sable. 



( 452 ) 

M — D^HUBERMONT : an escucheon en surtout of the 
maternal arms of OlGNlES : ( Vert^ afess ennine). 

M — DE Maffliers : the first canton argent plain, 

M — S. l-EU (et Deuil): the first canton erfnine plain, 

M — Breteuil et BeaussaulT: the first canton 
argent^ an estoile sable, 

M — Beausant: an escucheon en surtout of Har- 
COURT, GuleSy two bars or, 

II. (Montmorency-Laval : five escallops argent on 
the cross,) 

M — L. DE MORHEM : the same ; a bordure argent, 

M — L. d*Olivet : tJie bordure sable with eight plates, 

M — L. St. Aubin, et Bois-Dauphin : a bordure 
sable with five lions rampant argent, 

M — L. ChAtillon : a canton of Beaumont, Azure, 
flory a lion rampant or, 

M — L. DE LOUE : a canton of Baussay (?). 

M — L. DE Pacy : a canton, Gules^ three lions rampant 

M — L. DE Chalouyau : a canton, Gules, a lion ram- 
pant argent, 

M — L. d'Attichy : a canton, Argent, a lion {^passant 
sable or) rampant gules, Erquery. 

M — L. DE Lezay : a phepn argent in base of t fie cross. 

Montmorency de Marly : Or, a cross gules between 
four cUlerions CLZure (the original arms of the family), the 
branch of DE LAY made the cross fretty. (Spener, 
Opus Heraldicum, pars, gen., p. 357, corrected.) 

M — DE Luxe, et de Boutteville: on the cross an 
escucheon of Bourbon-la-Marche-Pr£aux : France- 
ANCIENT, a bendlet gules cliarged with three lions rampant 
argent (this line became Montmorency-Luxembourg). 

M — Hallot : a label azure, — ^J. W.] 

Fio. 90.— EscuoHEON OF Henri de Ferrikres, 1205 (Demap), 



In the earliest days of Heraldry no one was supposed 
to have a right to more coats of arms than one, nor did 
more than one coat appear upon a heraldic seal. The 
hereditary descent of arms was from time to time 
interrupted by the bearer of a particular coat marrying 
into a family more powerful, or having larger possessions 
than his own ; in which case it was usual, whether the 
lady were an heiress or not, that he should adopt her 
family arms ; in so doing he entirely relinquished his 
paternal ensigns, as it was not thought that he could 
exhibit both together on the same shield, banner, or seal. 
But in the latter half of the thirteenth century, more 
shields than one began to be exhibited upon the same 
seal. This is particularly the case in the seals of Queens, 
and other highly dignified ladies, upon which the owner 
of the seal was delineated at full length having a shield 
on either side of her effigy, the one containing her 
husband's armorial insignia, the other her paternal coat. 
Thus, in 1263, the seal of Agnes de Faucigny, wife of 
Count Peter of Savoy, bears a female figure holding 
in the dexter hand the paly shield of Faucigny {Gules\ 
three pallets (or); in her sinister the shield of Savoy 
(Gules\ a cross {argent), (ClBRARIO, Sigilli de' Principi 
di Savoiay No. 19.) It may be worth while to notice 

( 454 ) 

here, that this seal, already bearing the arms now known 
as those of Savov, is one of the many pieces of evidence 
extant which unite in refuting the fable which declares 
that these arms (identical with those borne by the 
great Order of the Hospitallers of St. John the Baptist, 
the " Knights of St. John" at Rhodes and Malta) were 
given by the Order to Amadeus tJie Great, Count of 
Savoy (1285- 1323), in recognition of assistance said to 
have been rendered by him to the Knights at a siege of 
Rhodes, with regard to which historians differ about the 
date as to whether it was in 1308, 1310, or 1315! {See 
GuiCHENON, Histoire GhUcdogique de la Maison de 
Savoye, i., 126, etc.) 

On a seal of MARGARET Bruce of Skelton, Lady de 
ROS of Kendal, appended to a document of 1280, is a full 
length female figure, wearing a mantle lined with ermine, 
and holding a shield charged with the water-bougets of 
Ross in her right hand, and one with a lion rampant for 
Bruce in the other. (Laing, Scottish Seals, ii., No. 142.) 

Margaret, daughter of Philip III. of France, second 
Queen of Edward I. of England, had on the obverse of 
the seal her effigy, habited in a tunic on which are 
displayed the three lions passant-gardant of England ; 
on either side of this effigy is a shield ; the dexter bears 
the fleurs-de-lis of France-ancient ; that to the left 
hand is charged with the coat of her mother Marie, 
daughter of HENRY III., Duke of Brabant (Sadie), 
a lion rampant (or). The reverse of the seal bears the 
arms of England only. 

This mode of using arms seems to have been prevalent 
all over Europe. For instance, the seal of MARGARET 
of Carinthia, wife of Frederick IV., Burg-grave 
of NURNBERG in 1307, bears her seated effigy holding 
two shields : the dexter the arms of ZOLLERN : Quarterly, 
Sable and argent ; the other the shield of CARINTHIA ; 
Per pale (Gules) a fess (argent) AUSTRIA ; and (Or) 

( 455 ) 

three lions passant in pale {sable) Carinthia. 
{Monumenta Zolleranay iii., p. 279.) The custom was 
continued by all the Burg-grafins of the fourteenth 
century. {See Chapter on SUPPORTERS.) 

Similar to the seal of Lady de Ros, described above, 
is the seal in 1378 of Margaret Stuart, Countess of 
Angus by descent, and of Mar by marriage (the 
mother, by an incestuous intrigue with her brother-in-law, 
of the Douglas, first Earl of Angus) ; it bears 
the representation of a lady holding in the dexter hand 
the shield of Mar, and in the sinister that of Stewart 
of BoNKiLL, or Stewart, Earl of Angus. (Laing, 
Scottish Seals^ i., No. 792.) 

There is in the Record Office in London a fine but 
much defaced seal of Margaret Logie, second Queen 
of David II. of Scotland, on which, besides the figure of 
the Queen, are three separate shields. One bears the 
Royal Arms of SCOTLAND ; another, so much injured as 
to be hardly decipherable, seems to contain the coat of 
her former husband. Sir John Logie ; while the third, 
which had on insufficient grounds been taken for LOGIE, 
bears the coat of Drummond {Or), three bars wavy 
{gules). It may be mentioned as indicative of the light 
which Heraldry so often throws on history, that it was 
this seal which settled the re-discovery of the long 
forgotten paternity of David II.'s strong-minded Queen. 
She was daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond of 
Stobhall ; and aunt of the gentler, and more lovable, 
Queen Annabella. The late Mr Riddell {Scottish 
Peerage and Consistorial Law, p. 92) had previously 
shown that she was not, as generally supposed, daughter 
of Sir John Logie, but his widow. (See The Excliequer 
Rolls of Scotland^ vol. ii., pp. Iv. and Ivi., edited by GEORGE 
Burnett, Lyon King of Arms.) 

On the more delicately executed seals of the same 
period without effigies, we have sometimes a regular 

(456 ) 

pattern of ornamental tracery, in which are inserted 
several separate shields, that containing the principal 
family coat generally occupying the most prominent 
position. In a few cases the family badges are intro- 
duced as parts of the composition. 

The counter-seals of Louis X. of France, in 1315, as 
well as those of his brothers and successors Philip V. 
and Charles I V.,bear the arms of the kingdom (France- 
ancient) on a circular representation of the chains of 
Navarre, their mother's coat. (Vr£e, GMalogie des 
Comtes de Flandre^ plates xH., xlii.) 

Three seals given in Hueber's Austria Illustrata, 
tab. xvi. and xiv., show the aggroupement of several 
shields in 1348 before quartering had become generally 
adopted. The first is that of Louis, Count Palatine 
of the Rhine, and Duke of Bavaria ; on it three 
shields are arranged in pairle, the points meeting 
in the centre of the escucheon : (i) Bavaria ; (2) 
the Palatinate ; <3) . . . (?). The second is that 
of Albert, Duke of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia. 
Here the shields of (i) AUSTRIA, (2) Styria, and (3) 
the impaled coat of Carinthia, are placed 2 and i. 
The two first are accol^s in chief, and their base 
points rest on the upper edge of the shield of 
Carinthia. The seal of Rudolf de Losenstein in 
I337> has two shields pendant from a tree. 

It should be noted that Princes who had several great 
fiefs, carried their arms separately ; one on the shield, 
another on the banner, and others on the caparisons of 
their horses. {^See the seals of the Dukes of AUSTRIA, in 
HUEBER; those of the Saxon Dukes, in HoNN, Des 
Hauses Sac/isen Wappens und Geschlects Untersuchmgy 
Leipzig, 1704, etc. ; and that of JOHN, King of Bohemia, 
in Vr£e.) Simon de Montfort thus carried a banner 
of the arms of the honour of Hinckley. 

The seal of Elizabeth de Clare, daughter and 

( 457 ) 

heiress of GILBERT DE CLARE, Earl of Gloucester, and 
niece of EDWARD II., like many other seals of ladies of 
that date, is without inscription. The central shield bears 
the arms of ROGER d'Amori, the lady's third husband, 
who died c, 1322 {Barry wavy argent and gules a bendlet 
asure\ with three lions passant-gardant of ENGLAND, 
surrounding it. A cross of tracery around this central 
shield contains four circular compartments ; that above 
the shield of Amori bears the arms of the lady's first 
husband, John de Burgh, Earl of Ulster {or) a cross 
{gules) surmounted by a label ; that beneath the shield is 
charged with the fret of her second husband, THEOBALD 
de Verdon {Or, fretty gules) ; while the circles on either 
side bear her paternal arms of DE Clare {Or, three 
c/ievrons gules). In the four angles of the cross are 
trefoiled compartments ; two charged with the castle of 
Castile ; two with the arms of Leon, for her grand- 
mother Eleanor of Castile, wife of Edward I., whose 
daughter, JOAN of AcON, was wife of GILBERT de Clare. 

The seal of Elizabeth d'Amori, daughter and 
heiress of the above named ROGER d' A MORI, and 
Elizabeth de Clare, affords an equally interesting 
example of the usage of the time. On it a central com- 
partment of circular shape is filled with octagonal 
cuspings, on which is placed the shield of the lady's 
husband, JOHN, Lord Bardolf {Azure, three cinque/oils 
or). Around it is arranged a series of eight smaller circles 
charged with arms. In chief and base are the arms of 
Burgh, but without any label. The dexter and sinister 
flanks are charged with DE CLARE and d'Amori, as above. 
The other four circles bear the lion of LEON or the castle 
of Castile. {Cf. the seal of Jeanne de France, 
Plate XXXV., fig. 3.) 

A seal of Margaret of France (daughter of Philip 
V. by Jeanne, Countess of Artois and Burgundy ; 
and wife of Louis DE Nevers, Count of Flanders) ; 

(458 ) 

bears: FLANDERS, impaling FRANCE-ANCIENT. This 
central shield is surrounded by a series of four sup- 
porters : an angel in chief, a dragon in base, and two 
eagles in flanks, and by four escucheons alternating with 
these supporters : of these the ist and 4th are Artois 
(France-ancient, a label gules) ; the 2nd bears the 
impaled coat repeated ; the 3rd is for Nevers, or the 
County Palatine of Burgundy : Azure, billetty, a lion 
rampant or (Vr^E, Gen, Com. FL, plate L). 

Contemporarily with this aggroupement existed an- 
other usage for indicating maternal descent, or the posses- 
sion of a particular fief, by borrowing some bearing from 
the shield of the wife or mother, or from that of the fief 
in question, and amalgamating it with the paternal coat. 

An English instance of this usage adduced by Mr 
Planch£, is that of John de Mohun (temp. Edward 
I.), whose family coat. Gules, a maunch argent, has been 
already noticed (p. 376) ; but in consequence of his 
marriage with JOANNE D* Agulon, he (or his son) added 
to the maunch a hand issuing from it, and holding the 
fleur-de-lis which was the bearing of the Agulon family. 
In the Roll of Henry III., known as Glover's Roll, 
Robert de Agulon bears : Gules, a fleur-de-lis argent 
(No. 63); see also St. George's Roll (No. 182), 

Arc/uBologia, xxxix. 

Many examples of composed coats are to be found in 
Continental Heraldry, but it is in Scotland that this 
usage chiefly prevailed. 

It is well known that the marriage of Sir John 
Stewart, younger son of the fourth High Steward 
of Scotland, with the daughter and eventual heiress of 
Sir John Bonkyl, led the greater number of his 
descendants in all subsequent times to surmount their 
fess-chequy with a bend (which was doubtless his 
difference as a younger son), charged with the three 
buckles of the shield of BONKYL. We see them on the 

( 459 ) 

seal of Margaret, Countess of Angus and Mar, to 

which reference has been already made (Laing, Scottish 
Seals^ i.. No. 768). 

Immediately on his accession to the throne Robert 
II., in 1 37 1, bestowed on David, his eldest son by his 
second marriage with EUPHEMIA Ross, the earldom of 
Strathern which had been forfeited to the Crown. 
The seal of the prince, in 1374, shows that he amal- 
gamated the fess-chequy of the Stewarts with the 
chevrons which had been borne by the former Earls of 
Strathern as their feudal coat (Or, two chevrons gules), 
John, second son of Sir Alexander Cockburn, 
married early in the fourteenth century, JANET, daughter 
and heiress of Sir ALEXANDER Lindsay, and thus 
acquired the estate of Ormiston. He therefore placed 
the Lindsay fess-checquy between the three cocks of 
Cockburn on his armorial shield. 

Many other Scottish coats were formed in this way, 
and allusion has been made to some of them in the 
chapter on DIFFERENCING. 

Marshalling, however, consists strictly neither in 
the aggroupement, nor in the amalgamation, of heraldic 
bearings, but in the exhibiting of separate coats in one 
shield which is divided by lines of partition into compart- 
ments for their display. 

Among the various means adopted for this purpose 
the most important are — impalement ; quartering; and 
the escuclieon en surtout ; each of which, along with a 
few others belonging chiefly to Continental and Royal 
Heraldry, will be separately noticed. 


In impalement the shield is parted per pale^ i.e. is 
divided by a vertical line into equal portions, a separate 
coat being placed in each of the divisions. . 

I. DIMIDIATION. — In the form called Dimidiation, 

( 46o ) 

only the half (or a little more than the half) of each of 
the two coats is seen upon the shield, which is thus 
occupied by the dexter half of the one coat and the 
sinister half of the other. 

Mr BOUTELL {English Heraldry^ p. 146) considers 
that this custom was introduced into England between 
1 272- 1 307 ; there are, however, earlier instances of its 
use in other countries. The seal of WILLIAM of 
Hainault, younger brother of BALDWIN V., Count of 
Hainault (d. 1 194), bears a shield dimidiated; the 
dexter half is sem^ o{ fleurs-de-lis ; on the sinister is the 
chevronny coat of Hainault {Or and sable), the chevrons 
being here converted into bends. This seal was in use 
in 1 199 or 1200, and is the earliest instance of dimidia- 
tion which occurs to me. (Vr£e, Ginialogie des Comtes 
de Flandre, plate iv.) The seal of BEATRICE DE Baux, 
in 1258, bears, ToULOUSE dimidiating Baux. (Cib- 
RARIO, Sigilli di Savoia^ No. xv.) 

The counter-seal of DevorGILLA, wife of JOHN 
Balliol, daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway, by 
Margaret, daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, 

is appended to the charter of foundation of Balliol 
College, Oxford, 1282. It is of vesica shape, and bears 
three escucheons suspended from a tree ; the centre, and 
by far the largest shield, bears GALLOWAY {a lion rampant 
crowned), dimidiated with BALLIOL {an orle, v, p. 407). 
The smaller escucheons bear the arms of HUNTINGDON 
and Chester for her grandparents. (Laing, ii., 71.) 

The seal of Annette de Laval, Dame de Coetmen, 
in 1298, bears, MONTMORENCY- Laval {Or, on a cross 
gules between twenty allerions azure, five escallops argent) 
dimidiating CoEtmen {Gules, seven annulets, 3, 3, i, 
argent) (MORICE, Bretagvie, cxxii.). I am not able, there- 
fore, to give my entire assent to MrPLANCHfi's assertion 
that " Heraldry had existed as s^HHIPc at least two 

hundred years before anything like the present practice 
2 H 

( 46i ) 

of marshalling made its appearance. In our early 
seals the shield of arms of the husband and wife are 
displayed separately. Impalement, simply, and by dimi- 
diation, appears in the reign of EDWARD I., and quartering 
about the same period." — {Pursuivant of Amis y p. 164) 

In 1263 the counter-seal of BLANCHE DE Navarre 
bears a shield charged with Albret {Gules plain), 
impaling Dreux {Cliequy or and argent, a canton ennine). 
(MORICE, Bretagne, Ixxxi.) It must be remarked here 
that in early times impaled coats appear as a rule only on 
the seals of ladies. In opposition to modem ideas we find 
that it was the wife who impaled her husband's arms with 
her own, not the husband who impaled the wife's. The 
shield which appears on the seal of the husband usually 
contains his own arms only. 

" Usually males quartered the arms of their wives 
or ancestresses from whom they acquired their lands ; 
whilst impalements were practically the general bearings 
of married women who took an immediate interest in 
their husbands' lands by right of dower. The practice 
of husbands impaling their wives' arms, whether 
heiresses or not, probably arose near the close of the 
15th century. Even now it is laid down that the 
arms of a wife should not in general be borne upon 
the husband's banner, surcoat, or official seal." — 
("The old Heraldry of the Percies," by Mr Dyer 
Longstaffe in Archceologia ^liana, vol. iv.) 

There are indeed a few early instances in which a man 
used an impaled coat ; not however, to indicate his own 
marriage but to denote his parentage. 

Thus, about 1290, the counter-seal of Geoffroi DE 
Brabant (son of Henry, Duke of Brabant, by his 
Duchess, Alice of Burgundy), bears a shield on 
which are impaled the arms of Ithe two duchies : — Sable, 
a lion rampant or, for Brabant ; and, Bendy of six or 
and azure, a bordure gules, for BURGUNDY-ANCIENT. 

( 462 ) 

(In the last named coat the bordure is not removed at 
the palar line as in modern usage to be hereafter noticed, 
p. 474.) So also, about 1300, Louis, Count of Nevers, 
son of Robert de BEthune, Count of Flanders, by 
YOLANTE, daughter of EUDES of BURGUNDY, bore on 
his secretum a shield impaling the parental coats viz., 
Burgundy-ancient (the bordure engrailed for differ- 
ence), and Flanders (£?r, a lion rampant sable). 

This is a curious arrangement, the place of honour 
being given to the maternal coat, in which the engrailed 
bordure for difference is also worthy of remark. It 
should be noticed that in the present case the bordure is 
removed at the palar line, unlike the example quoted 
immediately above. LOUIS (DE Cressy) Count of 
Nevers and Rethel, and afterwards of Flanders (as 
Louis II.), son of the above Louis and Yolante, 
married MARGARET of FRANCE, daughter of PHILIP V. 
Her counter seals bear FLANDERS impaling France- 
ANCIENT, but on one of them France has the precedence. 
(Vr£e, G^n/alogie des Comics de Flandre, plate xcviii.) 

Sometimes quartered coats are dimidiated, in which 
case the first and third quarters of the husband's coat are 
impaled with the second and fourth of the wife's. In these 
the appearance is that of a plain quartered coat, and 
may easily mislead the unwary. Thus the seal of 
Margaret of Bavaria, Countess of Holland, and 
wife of John, Count de Nevers, in 1385 (afterwards 
Duke of Burgundy), bears a shield en banniere which 
appears a simple instance of quartering, but is really 
a dimidiated coat. The two coats to the dexter side of 
the palar line are: In chief BURGUNDV-MODERN 
(France-ancient, a bordure compony argent and gules), 
and in base BURGUNDY- ANCIENT, as above. On the 
sinister side the coat in chief is Bavaria {Bendy-lozengy 
argent and azure)\ and the one in base contains the 
quartered arms of Flanders {Qry a lion rampant sable) ; 


and Holland ((9r, a lion rampant gules)\ the pourfilar 
line dividing these latter quarters being omitted, as in 
many like instances. (See ante^ p. 247, and compare 
the shield of Queen Philippa of Hainault, wife of 
Edward III., in Westminster Abbey.) Similarly, after 
her first marriage with the Dauphin, the seal of JACQUE- 
LINE of Bavaria, Countess of Holland, has on the 
dexter side the coat of FRANCE in chief, and that of 
DAUPHINfi {Ovy a dolphin embowed azure, crested gules) 
in base ; on the sinister Bavaria, in chief over the 
quartered coat of FLANDERS and HOLLAND as above. 

The seal of Jeanne, Duchess of Brittany, wife of 
Charles of Blois, in 1369, bears a lozenge charged 
with two coats which might be described either as 
dimidiated, or impaled. The dexter side is Ennine 
plain; the sinister Ermine y within a border gules (which 
of course stops at the palar line). 

I recently noticed a somewhat similar instance in 
a modern window of the Cathedral at Tours, where the 
arms of GUY DE MONTMORENCY- Laval are dimidiated 
with those of Jeanne de Laval d'Olivet, his wife, in 
1384. (She was widow of the Constable Bertrand du 
GUESCLIN.) The arms are: Per pale dimidiated-, i. (9r, 
on a cross gules between sixteen allerions azure, five 
escallops argent; 2. The same, within a bordure sable 
charged with fifteen plates. 

In 1298, the seal of ANNETTE de Laval, Dame de 
COETMEN, has a shield of Montmorency-Laval (as 
above) dimidiating CoETMEN ; Gules, seven annulets, 
3, 3> i» argent, (MORICE, Bretagne, No. cxxii.) In 
1306 the seal of Paien de la Roche bears: Vair, 
dimidiating an eagle displayed, {Ibid,, No. ccxv.) 

It must be noticed that often only one of the coats 
impaled is affected by ditnidiation. Thus (circa 13 10) 
the counter-seal of Margaret of Hainault, third wife 
of Robert, Comte d'ARTOIS, bears'ARTOIS dimidiated 

PLATE zxxriii. 


3. BngUnd, DimidiAting FVuim. 4. Qneeti Ellttbeth of York. 

^ ■Rnni of Toughal. 6, The Cinqne Porta. 


( 4^4 ) 

impaling FLANDERS entire. Here the Artois label 
appears (probably only on account of the smallness of 
the coat) to be gobony ; and not of gules charged 
with the golden castles of CASTILE as represented on 
the seal of the Count himself. (Vr£e, GitUalogie des 
Comtes des Flandrey plate xlviii.) 

On the seal of lOLANTE DE Flanders (died 13 12), 
daughter of Robert de B£thune, Count of Flanders, 
and wife of Gautier II., Seigneur d'ENGHlEN, the 
dimidiated co^X. of Enghien {Gyronny of ten argent and 
sabUy each piece of the latter charged with three cross- 
crosslets fitcJi^e of tJie first) is impaled with the entire 
arms of Flanders (p. 462). So also on the Great Seal 
of Queen Mary the dimidiated arms of France impale 
the entire arms of SCOTLAND. 

The remarkable seals of YOLANTE DE Flandre 
(daughter of ROBERT DE Flandres dit Cassely by 
Jeanne de Bretagne) ; and wife, first of Henry IV., 
Comte de Bar ; and next of Philip, Comte d'EvREUX, 
and King of Navarre in 1344, show her own arms 
(Flanders within a bordure engrailed sable) entire ; 
while those of her husband : Quarterly, i and 4. 
Navarre; 2 and 3. Evreux (France-ancient over 
all a bend gobony argent and gules) are dimidiated ; so 
that the dexter side of the escucheon appears to be 
party per fess, as only the ist and 3rd quarters (the 
dexter half) of the quartered coat appear. On one of 
her seals this escucheon, supported by eight angels is en 
banniere (v, p. 635); it may also be noticed that the 
engrailed bordure of her own coat runs round the whole 
of it, and is not removed, as w-e might have expected, 
at the palar line. (Vr£e, G/n/alogie des Comtes de 
Flandre, plate ciii.) 

It is curious to note that a century later this same 
impalement of Navarre and Evreux appears on the 
seal of Joan de Navarre, first Queen of Henry IV. of 

( 465 ) 

England in 1463. This seal contains an impalement, 
the King's arms (of France-ancient, and England, 
quarterly) being on the dexter side ; and on the sinister 
side, per fess, in chief Navarre, in base Evreux. (It 
must be noticed that this would not be a correct 
dimidiation of her arms, in that case EVREUX would 
be in chief; Navarre in base.) 

The Royal Armory of England shows much earlier 
instances of dimidiation. The arms of Margaret of 
France, who died in 13 19, the second Queen of 
Edward I., remain on her tomb in Westminster Abbey 
as an exemplification of this mode of Marshalling 
(Plate XXXVIII., fig. 3). The arms of England 
are upon the dexter side of the escucheon ; and . this 
coat undergoes, according to the earlier and more correct 
fashion, a certain amount of curtailment, though the 
dimidiation is not complete, only portions of the hind- 
most parts of the lions being cut off by the palar line ; 
while the coat of France-ANCIENT appears also 
dimidiated to the sinister. One of the seals of ISABEL 
of France, wife of Edward II., bears her standing 
eflRgy between two shields, one of England, the other 
of her parental (not personal) arms France-ancient 
and Navarre both somewhat curtailed by dimidiation. 

BOUTELL in his chapter on Marshalling in Heraldry^ 
Historical and Popular^ gives several early examples of 
Impalement by dimidiation, which should not be over- 
looked. The seal of Edmond Plantagenet, Earl of 
Cornwall (d. 1300), bears his arms (those of Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall, and King of the Romans, v, ante, 
p. 245) dimidiating those of his wife, Margaret de 
Clare. Here only the sinister half of his bordure is 
removed, while the Clare coat {Or, three clievrons gules) 
is entirely dimidiated and the chevrons become bends, 
as in the seal of WlLLL\M of Hainault above given 
(p. 460). Both coats are dimidiated in B0UTELL*S other 

( 466 ) 

examples (WILLIAM de Valence and his wife ; and 
Alianore Montendre and her husband Guy Ferre, 
p. 148). On the seal of Margaret Campbell, wife of 
Alexander Napier, in 1531, the shield has impaled 
upon the dexter side the arms of LENOX, on the sinister 
the dimidiated coat (the sinister half of the quartered 
arms) of Campbell, and Lorn ; thus the galley of Lorn 
appears in the chief, and the CAMPBELL gyrons in base ; in 
agreement with what we have already seen (p. 465) to be a 
Continental usage. (Laing, Scottish Seals, i., No. 158.) 
The arms of Charlotte and Isabel, daughters of 
William, Prince of Orange {d. 1584), by Charlotte 

de BouRBON-Montpensier, were dimidiated by their 
respective husbands, Claude, Due de la TrIlMOUILLE, 
and Henry de la Tour d'Auvergne, Due de 
Bouillon, who retained their own arms entire. These 
are curious examples because the dimidiation of the 
arms of the ladies affected the escucheon of pretence, 
with its escucheon en surtout. It will be sufficient if I 
give the blazon of the arms of ISABEL, Duchess de 
Bouillon. Two coats impaled ; the dexter entire ; 
the sinister dimidiated : — 

A. Quarterly: i. Azure fleury or, a tower argent 

(LA Tour). 

2. Ory a gonfanon gules fringed vert (AUVERGNE). 

3. Cotic^ or and gules (TURENNE). 

4. Gules , a fess argent (Duchy of BOUILLON) 
(Spener, p. s., p. 364). 

Over all : Or, three torteaux (County of BoLOGNE). 

B. Quarterly, i and 4. FRANCE, differenced by a 

baton pM en bande gules (the upper portion 
argent charged with a dolphin embowed azure ?) 


2 and 3. Azure, billetty a lion rampant <7r (Nassau). 
On an escucheon, Quarterly : i and 4. Gules, 
a bend or (Chalon). 

( 467 ) 

2 and 3. Or, a hunting-horn azure vi rolled and 
stringed gules (ORANGE). Sur le tout du tout 
Chequy of nine or and azure (Geneva). 
The whole escucheon dimidiated. 

The seal of Anne of Cyprus, wife of Louis, Duke of 
Savoy, in 145 1, bears Savoy dimidiated, impaling: — 
Per fess (a) Jerusalem, {b) Cyprus Argent, a lion 
rampant gules crowned or {ClBKAKlo, No. 103). 

An early and interesting Irish example of this kind of 
Marshalling is afforded by a dimidiated coat of Clare 
and Fitzgerald. Sir Thomas de Clare, younger 
son of Richard, Earl of Hereford, having obtained 
in 1272 a charter of the territory of Thomond in Con- 
naught, and of whatever lands besides he could win from 
the Irish by his sword, set sail for Cork with a large 
retinue, and there fell in with and married Juliana, 
daughter and heiress of MAURICE FiTZMAURlCE FITZ- 
GERALD, feudal Lord of INCHIQUIN and YOUGHAL. He 
became possessor of the town of Youghal ; and the 
official seal of the Provosts of YoUGHAL dimidiated the 
coats of Clare and Fitzgerald. (Clare, Or, three 

c/tevrons gules ; FITZGERALD, Argent, a saltire gules with 
a label of five points in chiefs (Plate XXXVIII., fig. 5). 
(See Gentleman's Magazine, 1865.) 

Very singular examples of dimidiation are afforded by 
the arms which appear on the seals of the CiNQUE PORTS 
(Plate XXXVIII., fig. 6), and on those of the Borough 
of Great Yarmouth. In both the dexter half of 
the escucheon is occupied by the arms of ENGLAND 
dimidiated, and the sinister half is occupied by an 
azure field, charged in the case of the CiNQUE Ports 
with three ship's hulks argent in pale, and in that of 
Great Yarmouth with three Iierrings in pale argent. 
In both cases only the hinder halves of the charges 
appear, and they are united at the palar line with the 
bodies of the three lions of England. An even more 

( 468 ) 

curious case of dimidiation is afforded by the arms of 
the Abbey of St. Etienne at Caen, in which the arms 
of England and those of the Duchy of Normandy 
{Gules^ two lions passant-gardant or\ were dimidiated, 
so that in the former half three of the fore-quarters of 
the lions appear, while in the sinister half only two of 
the hind-quarters are represented. 

In German Heraldry some heraldic monsters which 
appear as charges originated in the practice of dimidia- 
tion ; and to it Mr Planch£ considers that even the 
double-headed eagle of GERMANY is due. To this 
matter attention is paid elsewhere in this book. 

The seal of ALICE, sister of William of Holland 
(elected King of the Romans), and wife of Jean 
d'Avesnes, Count of Hainault (d. 1255) bears her 
effigy standing between an eagle displayed and a lion 
rampant. On her counter-seal is a monster composed 
of the eagle and lion conjoined by dimidiation (Plate 
XXXVn., fig. 6). 

An eagle and lion, dimidiated and conjoined under 
one crown, occur on the seals of Lesek Czarny, Duke 
of Poland {c, 1255); of King Wladislaw Lokielet 
( 1 3 1 5) ; of Hedwig (i 386) ; of her husband and successor 

Wladislaw Jagellon (Ladislas V., Duke of Lithu- 
ania); of Wladislaw HI. (Ladislas VI.) 1438; and 
of Alexander of Livonia, in 1502. 

The arms of several of the provinces of Poland 
afford similar examples. The Duchy of SlERADZ, or 
SiRADIA, bore : Or^ an eagle displayed and a bear sejant 
sabUy conjoined by dimidiation^ and surtnounted by an open 
crown. The Palatinate of SiRADIA bore : Argent, a bear 
sejant sable^ dimidiated and conjoined with an eagle dis- 
played gules. The Palatinate of Breslau had the same 
bearings as SlERADZ, but sometimes without the crown. 
(Plate XXX Vn I., figs, i, 2.) The Palatinate of KlOViA 
(KlJOW) had in an azure field the still more curious com- 

( 469 ) 

bination of a mounted knight and a dimidiated bear, 
beneath an open crown. PODLACHIA had a similar com- 
bination of a knight and a dimidiated eagle, in a golden 
field {v. Spener, Opus Heraldicum, p. spec, p. 696). A 
considerable number of the noble families of Frisia bear 
arms formed by dimidiation. Usually it is the Imperial 
Eagle displayed which figures in the dexter half of the 
escucheon. The family of DOUMA bears : Per pale or and 
gules^ a deini-eagle sable^ dimidiating a rose argent The 
Counts of Cammerstein in Thuringia, bear : Per pale, 

1. The arms of the Empire, dimidiated as above; 2. Argent, 
afess embattled gules. The Barons of HiMMELBERG in 
Carinthia bear: Per pale^ i. Tlie Empire dimidiated; 

2. Gules, a bend argent. The Imperial Eagle thus 
dimidiated also forms part of the arms of several 
German cities. NUREMBERG impales it with, Bendy 
argent and gules ; MemmingEN, with Argent, a cross 
gules; Kaufbevern, with Azure, a bend gules (sic) 
between two estoiles or, etc. The Saxon family VON 
Drandorff dimidiate Azure, afess argent, with Azure, a 

fleur-de-lis gules (sic). (These two would be counted in 
England armes-fausses,) The arms of Geneva are those 
of the Empire, dimidiated with Gules, a key in pale argent, 
wards in chief. 

The Wappenrolle von Zurich contains several dimidia- 
tion examples of the fourteenth century. In No. 237, 
the Suabian family of SCHWABEGG bear: Gules, an eagle 
displayed argent ; dimidiating, Barry of eight or and gules. 
In No. 312, the family of LOCHNOW use: Or, an eagle 
displayed gules, armed sable ; dimidiating Or, afess sable. 
(Nos. 118, 119, are other examples, but are unnamed.) 
Lastly, the reigning Dukes of Anhalt still bear en 
surtout above their quartered shield, the arms : Argent, 
an eagle displayed gules ; dimidiated with tlie arms of 
Saxony {Barry sable and or, over all a crangelin vert ; 
see Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 19). 

( 470 ) 

At Bologna in the Loggia dei Mercanti I noted the 
arms of Grassi (1462) in which the arms of the Empire 
are dimidiated with those of the family : Gules, an eagle 
displayed argent, crowned or. The Angevin rastrello 
(Plate XXXIX., fig. 6, a label of four points gules, with 
three golden fleurs-de-lis between the points) surmounts 
the latter coat. This curious example combines GUELF 
and Ghibeune insignia {see p. 119). {See ScillLLER's 
Wallenstein for a fanciful account of the dimidiation of 
the arms of Egra. Act iii., scene 3.) 

II. Simple Impalement. — The curtailing of the 
charges which dimidiation involved was found to be 
practically inconvenient, as rendering the bearings on 
the coats so dimidiated somewhat uncertain. Chevrons 
were thus (as in two cases quoted above) converted into 
bends : and cantons, or quarters, were liable to disappear 
altogether. Accordingly impalement without dimidia- 
tion, though itself not free from inconveniences, was the 
usage which met with general acceptance in these lands. 
Instances have been already given which show that this 
custom had gone on concurrently with dimidiation. 

In Britain impalement was practised chiefly by 
Queens and ladies of Royal Houses, who bore their 
husband's coat in the dexter, their paternal coat in the 
sinister, sometimes on a shield, sometimes on a lozenge. 
In process of time husbands occasionally impaled the 
coat of the wife with their own, if she were an heiress, 
though in those times it was more usual to quarter the 
arms in this case. The present usage of English 
Heraldry which concedes to a husband, for his life-time, 
the privilege of impaling his wife's arms with his own 
though she be not an heiress ; and even of arranging the 
arms of successive wives in the same escucheon is a 
comparatively modern, and the latter practice is in my 
opinion not a very commendable one. 

Even when it is desirable to indicate a series of 

(471 ) 

alliances this is better done by shields accoUs than by 
impalement, which often cramps the bearings in both the 
coats thus conjoined. The general modern Continental 
usage IS in this respect much more satisfactory from an 
artistic point of view than our own. Where impalement 
is used in Continental Heraldry it usually originated in 
marriage with an heiress, but it rather takes the place 
which quartering holds with us, as it assumes a permanent, 
not a merely temporary' significance. Thus the Imperial 
Arms of AUSTRIA contain three coats impaled : (i) 
Hapsburg, (9r, a lion rampant gules ; (2) AUSTRIA, 
Gules, a/ess argent ; and (3) LORRAINE : Or, on a bend 
gules three alerions argent. So in the arms of the Duchy 
of Carinthia, the arms of Austria, just described, are 
impaled with the arms SUABIA {Or, three lions passant 
sable), (They appear on the seal of Ottakar, King of 
Bohemia in 1264. See Hueber, Austria Illustrata^tzb. 
iv. ; and post p. 454 the coat of the Burg-grafin of 
NuRNBERG.) The position of the impaled coats is some- 
times reversed {v, p. 495). 

On the Continent impalement was used in a much 
more general way than among ourselves, as will be 
readily seen by the inspection of a series of Imperial 
seals ; or by such an exposition of the Imperial quarter- 
ings as may be seen, for instance on the splendid Clieminie 
in the Palais de Justice at Bruges. On the Imperial 
seals Austria is sometimes impaled with BURGUNDY, 
sometimes with Castille ; JERUSALEM with HUNGARY ; 
Arragon with Sicily. In these, and a multitude of 
other instances, the design was obviously not to com- 
memorate any special matrimonial alliance, but to give to 
the coats thus impaled a clearer definition than would be 
obtained in a large shield of many quarters. So the 
arms of the Counties of Flanders and Tirol are very 
generally conjoined by impalement in a single escucheon, 
borne upon the great shield of the quarterings of the House 

( 472 ) 

of Austria {see fig. 91, p. 497) ; this is done merely for 
convenience, and by no means as indicative of a marriage 
between a Count of Flanders and a Countess of Tirol 
(which as a historic fact never took place), though such 
an alliance would be denoted, according to our modern 
British notions, by their impalement. 

William of Wolffenbuttel, and his brother 
Magnus II. used, after 1367, the arms of Brunswick : 
Gules y two lions passant or, impeded with t/iose of LiJNE- 
BURG ; Or, sem^ of Iiearts gules ^ a lion rampant azure. 
In later times these coats were indifferently impaled or 
quartered {see Grote, GeschicIUe der Welfisc/ien Stamm- 
wappen^ p. 47 ; Leipzig, 1863), and these impaled coats 
continued to form *'das Kleine Wappen^' of the Duchy 
of Brunswick so long as it remained independent. 

The Seal of Albert, Count Palatine of the Rhine 
in 1353, has a shield containing the arms of Bavaria 
{Bendy lozengy Argent and azure) impaling those of the 
Palatinate of the Rhine {Sable, a Hon displayed, double 
queu^ or^ crowned gules), (See Austria exarchivis Melli- 
censibus illustrata, plate xviii., fig. 10, fol. Lipsiae 1722.) 

The Dukes of Cleve often bore Cleve impaling 
Mark {see Maurice, Toison d'Or, plate 1.). 

Anothervery curious and interesting exampleis afforded 
by the arms of the Landgraves of Leuchtenburg, now 
extinct. They appear to be : Per pale Argent and azure 
a fess countercJianged ; and are often so blazoned. 
Spener, however, points out {Opus Heraldicum, pars, 
spec, lib. i., p. 214) that really we have here two coats 
united by impalement. The coat of Leuchtenburg 
was simply Argent, a fess azure ; but on the extinction 
of the family of the Counts of Hals, who bore : Azure, 
a fess argent, the Emperor Wenceslas conferred the 
fief, which had lapsed to the crown, on the kindred Land- 
graves of Leuchtenberg. (It will be noticed that these 
two coats are otherwise interesting as an example of differ- 

( 473 ) 

cncing by change of tincture, wijj^ antCy^. 405). Henceforth 
the Landgraves of Leuchtenberg bore both the coats 
united by impalement The original coat of LEUCHTEN- 
BERG alone appears in the arms of the present Dukes of 
Leuchtenberg, Princes of Eichstadt and Roman- 
OFFSKI in Russia, who are allied to the Imperial 

In these, and many other cases, impalement was really 
equivalent to quartering ; and in Foreign Armory it con- 
tinues so to be. There are a multitude of instances in 
which a Parti zo^X. is borne, and has been borne for genera- 
tions. It very likely at first commemorated a marriage, 
and the consequent acquirement of possessions; but it 
now simply has the effect of a quartered coat. (The 
Counts zu Bronchorst for generations continued to 
impale with their own quartered coat the quartered coat 
of the County of Eberstein ; part of which was acquired 
by the marriage of Count JOHN II. with SIBYLLA voN 
Eberstein.) This is especially the case in Spain, where 
impalements to denote a special marriage are rarely used as 
they are with us. For instance, the Cordovas, Marquises 
of Priego, bear impaled two of the many coats which 
appear in the escucheon of the CORDOVAS, Dukes of 
Sesa. Their arms are: Per pale : (i) Cordova, Or, 
three bars gules ; (2) FiGUEROA, Or, five fig leaves in 
saltire vert. The Mendozas, Counts of CORUf^A, 
impale Mendoza with FiGUEROA as above. The 
Mendozas, Counts de Priego, impaled : (i) Car- 
RILLO {GuleSy a castle triple-towered or) with MENDOZA 
( Verty on a bend or a bendlet gules). 

The Dukes of Gu ELDERS early united by impalement 
their own arms, Azure^ a lion rampant queu^^fourcJi^e or, 
with those of the County of Juliers, Or, a lion rampant 
sable (and, according to German fashion, turned their 
lion to the sinister to face that of Juliers, so that 
the lions appear as if combatant). 

( 474 ) 

Originally, even in England, impalement did not 
invariably imply marriage. On the tomb of THOMAS, 
second Lord Dacre, K.G., at Lanercost, is a series 
of impaled and quartered coats containing the arms 
borne by himself, and his wife, ELIZABETH, heiress 
of Greystock. (He quartered MULTON, Vaux, 
and MORVILLE: she, GREYSTOCK, Grimthorpe, 

Ferrers, and Boteler.) Of the escucheons one 
contains BOTELER impaling Vaux (the arms of two 
heiresses), another includes Greystock quartering 
Vaux. According to modern notions these would be 
absurdities, as there was not direct intermarriage. 
(See ArcficBologia ^Eliana^ iv., 149.) The coat invented 
by English Heralds at a much later period, and assigned 
by them to Edward the Confessor (Azure, a cross 
patonce between five martlets or), was not only assumed 
and impaled in the place of honour with his own 
hereditary arms by RICHARD H., but was also assigned 
by him to be similarly used, either with or without 
a difference by some of his kinsmen. Thus, THOMAS 
Mowbray, K.G., Duke of Norfolk, impaled the 
undifferenced coat ; THOMAS, Duke of SURREY, used 
it with the addition of a bordure ermine; JOHN 

Holland, first Duke of Exeter ; and Henry 
BOLINGBROKE (before his accession) both differenced 
it with a label argent, and impaled it with their own 
arms. {See also the seal of Edward, Earl of Rutland, 
p. 416, ante^ 

A remnant of dimidiation has survived in the practice 
of omitting in impaled coats those portions of the bordures 
and tressures contained in them, which would naturally 
be adjacent to the dividing, or palar, line of the shield. 
This is an early custom of which we have already seen 
examples, p. 463, but there are many instances in which 
the bordure, or tressure, is carried right round the 
coat impaled {See also pp. 462, 464). On the brass of 

(475 ) 

Alianore de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, in 

Westminster Abbey, 1399, the silver bordure of her 
husband's difference runs round the quartered coat of 
France-ancient and England, which is impaled with 
their arms : Quarterly: i and 4. Azure, a bend argent 
coticed or^ between six lions rampant of the last, 2 and 
3. GuleSy two bendletSy tlie upper or, the lower argent. 

On the seal of THOMAS HOLLAND, Earl of Kent, to 
whom as already recorded, RICHARD II. assigned the 
arms of Edward the Confessor, differenced by a 
bordure ermine to be impaled with his paternal coat ; 
the bordure of this augmentation, as well as that of his 
own arms (which were ENGLAND, a bordure argent), 
remains entire. We have the continuous bordure also 
on the seal of JOAN BEAUFORT, daughter of JOHN, 
Earl of Somerset, and Queen of James I. of Scotland, 
to whom she was married in 1424. She bore SCOTLAND, 
impaling her personal arms : FRANCE and ENGLAND 
quartered within a bordure compony argent and azure. 
(Laing, Scottish Seals, i., 44.) The seal of Beatrice 
of Portugal, Countess of Arundel and Surrey, in the 
reigfn of HENRY V., bears her arms impaled with those 
of her husband the Earl, but with her own Castilian 
bordure unbroken. The arms of CATHARINE of 
Braganza, Queen of Charles II., were also sculptured 
with the bordure entire. This appears to have been 
the Portuguese custom. The bordure of Castile 
appears entire oh the seal of LEONORA of AUSTRIA, 

wife of Emmanuel, King of Portugal, in 1497. So 

is it also on the seal of ISABELLE of PORTUGAL, third 

wife of Philip le Bon, Duke of Burgundy, in 1430. 

(Vr£e, Ginialogie des Comtes de Flandre, pp. 134, 125.) 

In Spanish coats at the present day the bordure often 
remains unbroken, even when, as in the example sub- 
joined, two bordured coats are impaled. Dabancasa 
bears : — Escudo partito, el i^ d'Azury un leon rampante de 

(476 ) 

oro^ bordadurade este metal cargada de una cadena de azur; 
el 2^ de Plata y bordadura de gueules y ocfto cabesas de 
dguila de oro (PiFERRER, Nobiliario de Espafia, No. 259). 

As for the Tressure, it was systematically dimidiated 
in the Royal Arms during the period in which the coats 
of England and Scotland were borne impaled 
{i,e, from the Union with Scotland in 1707, to the 
Union with Ireland in 1801), and the incomplete 
tressure is also to be found on the monument in 
Westminster Abbey to MARGARET, Countess of 
Lennox, grand-daughter of Henry VII., and mother of 
Henry, Duke of Albany, and of Lord Darnley, 
second husband of Queen Mary of Scotland. 
(BOUTELL, Heraldry Historical and Popular^ plate xxii.) 

On the other hand earlier usage prescribes the 
retention of the Tressure unbroken. It is entire on the 
seal just referred to of Queen JOAN BEAUFORT; on 
that of Mary of Guelders, Queen of James II.; 
also on the seal of Trinity Collegiate Church in 
Edinburgh, founded by the last-named Queen ; on her 
arms sculptured in St. Giles* Church, Edinburgh, 
impaled with those of her husband (curiously the 
tressure is incomplete at the top, see The Story of St. 
Giles' Catliedral Churchy Edinburgh, by Wm. CHAMBERS, 
LL.D. 1879, p. 9); on the painting at Holyrood of the 
arms of Margaret of Denmark, Queen of James III. 
in 1485 ; on the seal of Mary, Queen of Scots in her 
first widowhood ; and in the whole series of impaled 
coats of the Queens of Scotland in Sir David 
Lindsay's Armorial MS, of the reign of James V. 

Another armorial MS. in the Lyon Office dimidiates 

the tressure in a like series of the arms of the Queens of 

Scotland for all except Mary. In the same MS. the 

bordure gobony in the personal arms of Queen Joan 

Beaufort is left entire. In British Heraldry a widow 

continues to bear her husband's coat impaled with her 
2 I 

( 477 ) 

own, but usually places the combined coats in a lozenge, 
instead of in a shield. . 

Before leaving the subject of the combination of arms 
by dimidiation, it is necessary to point out that this 
was not only effected by impalement, but, in a few rare 
instances, by other divisions of the shield. The last 
coat emblazoned in the most valuable and interesting 
14th century MS. the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 559, 
affords an example, unfortunately unnamed, in which 
the dimidiation is not by impalement but per bend. 
The coat (No. 559) is: Per bend^ in chiefs or, a lion 
rampant gardant dimidiated gules ; in base. Bendy lozengy 
argent and azure (the arms of Bavaria). It seems to 
me exceedingly probable that this is the coat of a person 
of high, but illegitimate, descent 

In the Herald and Genealogist, vol. ii., p. 560, is 
a woodcut of a coat of arms, which appears upon 
a portrait of the year 1665, and which affords a curious 
example of the dimidiation of two coats per bend 
sinister. The coats thus treated are : in chief, Gules, on 
a chief argent three mallets pencJUs sable. In base. 
Argent, on a mound a tree proper, senestri of a stag gules 
rampant against tlte trunk, and browsing on its branches. 
In the Genealogist, new series, vol. v., p. 207 ; nearly 
a quarter of a century after attention was directed to it, I 
was able to assign the arms to two families of the name 
of Van der Linden ; the one Barons d'HooG- 
VOORST ; the other settled at Dordrecht. (Plate XLI., 
. fig. I.) Another example is afforded by the arms of 
the Barons von KiTTLlTZ which is now borne : Per 
bend sinister, in chief Or, a bull rampant dimidiated 
sable ; in base. Gules, three bends argent. This coat is 
reversed in Siebmacher, Wappenbuch, i., 29. 

One curious use of impalement also remains to be 
noticed. On the Continent the arms of an unmarried 
lady of high rank were sometimes represented in the 


sinister half of a lozenge, the dexter half being left 
uncharged. These were called Artns of Expectation 
and the dexter half was left to be filled by a future 
marriage. On the seal of Margaret of Austria, 
Duchess of BurgDndy in 1495, fiancee to Charles 
VIII. of France, her arms are on a lozenge of which the 
dexter half is left blank, the sinister being disposed thus : 
Quarterly^ i. AUSTRIA {Gules, a fess argent^ ; 2. 

Burgundy-modern ; 3. Burgundy-ancient ; 4. 
Brabant. Over all on an escucheon, Flanders, vide 
supra pp. 461, 462. (Vr£e, Gen. Com, FL, 130.) On 
the seals of Isabella, Infanta of Spain, Countess of 
Flanders, daughter of Philip II. of Spain, in 1598 her 
arms" are thus represented. What is, however, curious is 
that on the joint seal of herself and her husband, Albert, 
Archduke of AUSTRIA, in 1599, his arms are represented 
on an escucheon, while hers are still depicted on the sinister 
side of a lozenge, of which as in the previous instance, 
the dexter side is left blank. (Vr]£e, de Seghelen der 
Graven van Vlaendren, Plates xcv. and xcvii.) 

Quartering, in its simplest form, is the dividing 
the shield into four equal sections by a vertical and a 
horizontal line, intersecting each other in the middle 
point of the escucheon. 

The earliest example known to me of the use of 
quartered arms is afforded by the seal of Joanna of 
Ponthieu, second wife of Ferdinand III., King of 
Castile and Leon, in 1272. This seal bears on its 
reverse in a vesica the triple-towered castles of Castile 
and the rampant lion of Leon, repeated as in modern 
quartering. There is no separation of the quarters by a 
pourfilar line (this is a peculiarity which has already been 
noticed as existing in the early quartered coats of Hain- 
AULT five-and-twenty years later, vide ante, p. 463). The 
lion in base is contoumi, a usage which still prevails in 
many similar cases, particularly in German coats. 

( 479 ) 

Hoeping's assertion (quoted by NiSBET, ii., 86) that 
the arms of CASTILE and Leon were borne quarterly 
by Ferdinand of Castile, who espoused Sancha of 
Leon, drca 1065, is unsupported by any evidence. 
Arms were not used in Spain at so early a date. 

The quartered coat of Castile and Leon is sculp- 
tured in Westminster Abbey on the monument erected 
to Ferdinand's daughter, Eleanor, first Queen of 
Edward I., who died in 1290. Here, according to 
usual custom, the coat of CASTILE occupies the first 
and fourth quarters of the shield ; that of LEON is 
placed in the second and third. (Examples are extant 
in which this order is inverted.) 

The earliest seal bearing a quartered coat in the 
series engraved in HUEBER's Austria Illustrata is that 
of Friedrich von Azenpruk, in 1350. 

When three coats have to be marshalled, they ordi- 
narily occupy the first, second, and third quarters, and 
the first coat is repeated in the fourth. This arrange- 
ment is familiar to all in our own Royal Arms, where 
England occupies the first quarter, SCOTLAND the 
second, IRELAND the third, while ENGLAND is repeated 
in the fourth quarter. There are, however, examples of 
a different arrangement. In the escucheon of the arms 
of Elizabeth of York, Queen of Henry VII., on his 
tomb in his chapel at Westminster Abbey, the first 
quarter is occupied by the quartered arms of France 
and England, the fourth by that of MORTIMER, 
while both the second and third are charged with the 
coat of Ulster : Or, a cross gules, (Plate XXXVI 1 1., 

fig. 4.) 

Should the coats to be thus marshalled be four in 

number, each naturally occupies a single quarter of the 

shield. Thus, on the reverse of the seal of Isabelle of 

France, Queen of Edward II., each of the four coats of 

England, France, Navarre, and Champagne {Azure, 

( 48o ) 

€i bend argent coticed potenUcounter-potent or) occupies 
a single quarter of the shield. 

When more coats than four are to be represented, 
the shield is divided by horizontal and vertical lines into 
spaces, which are still called quarters^ how many soever 
they may be. For five coats the shield would be divided 
into six portions by two vertical and one horizontal 
line (or, if preferred, by one vertical and two horizontal 
lines), and the first coat would usually be repeated in 
the last quarter to make the number equal — a course 
which would not be needful if the coats to be quartered 
amounted to six. In Foreign Heraldry it is usual to 
specify the number and position of the lines by which 
the shield is divided. Thus, while an English herald 
would say simply, Quarterly of six^ and leave it to the 
painter's or engraver's taste to arrange the quarterings 
in three rows of two, or in two rows of three, a French 
or German herald would ordinarily specify the arrange- 
ment to be used in distinct terms, thus: ^^ Coupi d'un 
trait^ parti de deux autres^ qui font six quartiers ;'' or 
" Das .... Wappen besteht aus einem zweimal quer 
und einmal senkrecht getlieilten Schilde^ Provision would 
similarly be made for any larger number of quarterings. 

In modern British Heraldry the usual reason for 
quartering is to indicate descent from an heiress, or 
from more than one, who has married into the 
family. If there be but one her arms appear in the 
second and third quarters: if more than three (whose 
coats could of course be placed in a plain quartered 
escucheon), the shield is subdivided sufficiently to 
make room for all ; and the arms of the heiresses 
occupy quarters corresponding in position to their 
seniority in point of time ; though in olden days 
priority was sometimes given to quarterings indicative 
of a royal descent, or to the coat of some powerful 
heiress. If the number of divisions cannot be 

( 48i ) 

made conveniently to correspond with the number of 
coats to be thus accommodated, the difficulty is removed 
either by the omission of the less important coats, or 
by the repetition of the first quarter in the last place in 
the escucheon. Again, it may happen that one of the 
heiresses whose arms are to be quartered, herself bore 
a quartered coat, in this case the quarter appropriated 
to her contains her whole bearings, the shield is then 
said to be counter-quartered {contr^-^cartelf)y and the 
quarter itself is called a Grand quarter. 

The coat of the Earls of NORTHUMBERLAND as gener- 
ally borne, and still used by the Dukes {v, Plate XXXIX., 
fig- 3)> is an example of the old style of Marshalling. 
The coat is : Quarterly of four Grand Quarters — 

I. and IV. Quarterly y I and 4. Or^ a lion rampant azure^ 


2 and 3. Gules y three lucieshauriant 
argent, LuCY. 

II. and III. Azure, five fusils in f ess or, PERCY-ANCIENT. 
The original coat of Percy (Plate XVIII., fig. 12) was 

doubtless allusive to the name, but before 1300 it 
had been abandoned in favour of the blue lion 
on the golden field which is assigned to HENRY DE 
Percy (of Alnwick), first Baron, in the Roll of Caer- 
LAVEROCK, and appears on the seal of his letter to the 
Pope in 1 30 1. In the Roll known as Glover's Roll, 
Henry de Percy bears, d'Azur, d la fesse engrele d'or, 
and Piers Percy the reverse. (This was the ordinary 
blazon of a fess fusily at that time, v. p. 413.) 

Henry de Perci bears : Azure, five fusils in fess or, 
in the Roll known as St. George's Roll It appears in 
the Acre Roll early in the thirteenth century : and with 
some differences of tincture in other Rolls. Or, five fusils 
in fess sable are attributed to Robert de Perci ; and to 
Walter de Perci, Azure, five fusils in fess argent. 
In the Second Nobility Roll, which contains the names 



6. Angevin-ohiBf. 

( 482 ) 

and arms of the Barons, etc., summoned to the Pariia- 
ment held at London, 27 Edward I. (1299), Henry 
Percy, Baron of Topcliffe, bears the coat, (9r, a lion 
rampant azure. There can be h'ttle doubt that the new 
coat was adopted on this Baron's marriage to Eleanor 
FiTZALAN, the daughter of his Lord Paramount, JOHN, 
Earl of Arundel, whose arms were, Gules^ a lion 
rampant or. The assertions in the Peerages^ and 
elsewhere, that the change was made in consequence of 
a marriage of a JOSCELINE DE LOUVAINE to Agnes, 
a Percy heiress, is pure fable. Late in the fourteenth 
century the first Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND married 
the sister and heiress of Lord LuCY, who settled on him 
extensive estates on the condition that the LuCY arms 
should be quartered with those of Percy. The counter- 
quartered coat in the I. and IV. of the escucheon 
described above, represents this alliance ; and at a later 
date the original PERCY coat was resumed and placed 
in the IL and III. quarters. (See "The Old Heraldry 
of the Percies" by Mr LONGSTAFFE, in Arcfueologia 
^liana, vol. iv. ; and T/ie Pedigrees and early Heraldry of 
tlie Lords of Alnwick, by Tate and Longstaffe, 1866.) 

Modern English Heralds have discouraged the use of 
grand quarterings; and advised that the quartered coat of 
an heiress should be separated into its component parts, 
and each of the quarterings be made to follow in turn her 
paternal coat. There are many cases in which such an 
arrangement would be quite inappropriate ; e.g, when there 
is, as in some Scottish shields, a feudal escucheon borne 
en surtout above the quartered coats ; or, when the quarters 
virtually form one composition by being enclosed within 
a bordure, assumed as a mark of difference, or cadency. 

Very rarely quartering is effected per saltire^ as in the 
arms of SiCILY {v, p. 495), and in some other coats of 
Spanish origin (v. p. 506). The Cardonas bore two 
coats impaled: — (A) Per saltire, in chief and base, Or, 

(483 ) 

four pallets gules^ Arragon ; in dexter flank, Gules, three 
thistles argent ; in sinister flank Anjou. (B) The arms 
of the Counts of Urgel: Per saltire Arragon, and 
Ouquy or and sable for Urgel (^See Plate XL. and 
Salazar y Castro, Casa de Lara, ii., p. i68). 

In Foreign Heraldry the base of the quartered shield 
is not unfrequently cut ofif by a horizontal line, forming 
what is known as a cliampagne, and the space thus 
made is occupied by one or more coats. At other times 
a pile with curved sides runs from the base some 
distance into the quartered shield, which is then said 
to be ent^ en point {v. Plate XVI., fig. 9), and this space 
is devoted to the display of one or more quarterings. 

The main difference between British and Foreign usage 
with regard to quartering is this, that in England quarter- 
ings are usually employed to denote simply descent from 
an heiress, or representation in blood ; in Scotland they 
also implied the possession of lands. In Foreign coats the 
quarterings are often employed to denote the possession 
of fiefs acquired in other ways than by marriage {e.g^, by 
bequest or purchase), or the jus expectationis, the right of 
succession to such fiefs in accordance with certain agree- 
ments. For instance, treaties of Erb- Verbriiderung were 
common in Germany, by which two nobles agreed that 
on the failure of the line of one, the representatives of 
the other line should succeed to the possessions of that 
which had become extinct. (On these Pacta successionis, 
which conveyed the immediate right to the use of the 
arms as above, consult Kl^lVSCHlLDy de Nobilitate ejusque 
Juribus, 1693, and his other treatise, ^<? Fidei Cominissis,) 
It was by such a treaty of Erb- Verbriiderung that, in 
1632, the Counts of Waldeck came into possession of 
the County of Pyrmont (vide post, p. 490). 


Another mode of marshalling came into use some 

( 484 ) 

time after quartering, namely, the placing a small escu- 
cheon en surtout upon the centre of the quartered coat. 
In 1404 John, Count of Flanders, son and heir of 
Philip tJu Bold, Duke of Burgundy, added to his arms 
the coat of FLANDERS en surtout^ being the arms of his 
mother. He thus bore : Quarterly, i and 4. FRANCE, 
within a bordure gobond argent and gules (BURGUNDY- 
modern) ; 2 and 3. Bendy of six or and azure, a bordure 
gules (Burgundy-ancient) ; en surtout. Or, a lion 
rampant, sable (Flanders). (Vr£e, de Seghelen der 
Graven van Vlaendren, p. 30.) 

An earlier seal of MARGARET of Bavaria, wife of 
John, Duke of Burgundy, circa 1385 (Vr£e, Gindalogie 
des Comtes de Flandres, p. 60), bears the escucheon 
impaled by dimidiation, to which reference has been 
made at p. 462 ante; but with the addition of an escucheon 
per pale, on which no charges are now apparent. The 
shield, which is en banniere, is supported by a single 
full-length angel, who bears it in front of him. 

This coat continued to be thus borne up to the time 
of the marriage of Mary of Burgundy with Maxi- 
milian of Austria, in 1477. But in 1430 Philippe 
le Bon introduced into his main escucheon the arms of 
the Duchies of Brabant and Limburg, not as separate 
quarters, but by impaling them respectively in the second 
and third quarters with the arms of BURGUNDY-ANCIENT 
(cf. Plate XLVIL). The coat then read thus : — Quarterly, 
I and 4. Burgundy-modern (as above); 2. Per pale \ 
— (a) Burgundy-ancient, (b) Sable, a lion rampant 
or, Brabant; 3. Per pale (a) Burgundy-ancient, 

(b) Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned or, LiMBURG. 
Over all, FLANDERS, as above. It will be noticed that 
this arrangement illustrates what has been already said 
in the previous section about the Continental use of im- 
paled coats. Charles, Count of Charolois, eldest son 
of Philippe le Bon, before his accession to the Duchy as 

( 485 ) 

Charles le Hardij bore his father's arms differenced by a 
label, but without the escucheon of Flanders ; a remark- 
able omission. {See Maurice, Toison d'Or^ No. 24.) On 
his seal, circa 1430, Adolph of Cleves places the arms 
of his wife, Anne of BURGUNDY (a natural daughter of 
Philippe le Bon)y in an escucheon upon his quartered 
coat of Cleves and Mark. Her arms are : Quarterly^ 
I and 4. Azure, a single fleur-de-lis (^r); 2 and 3. BUR- 
GUNDY-ANCIENT ; over all Flanders. (This is a very 
noteworthy example, and it is also instructive to notice 
that their son, PHILIP DE Ravestein, placed a similar 
escucheon charged with the full Burgundian quarterings, 
without any mark of bastardy, above his quartered 

coat of Cleves and Mark.) 

Pierre de Beauffremont, created first Count de 
Charny in 1425, twentieth knight of the Order of the 
Golden Fleece (one, therefore, of the original members 
of the Order at its foundation in 1429), bore : Quarterly, 
I and 4. Vaire or and gules, BEAUFFREMONT ; 2 and 3. 
Gules, three dnquefoils or, Vergy, the latter coat being 
quartered for his mother, JEANNE DE Vergy ; but upon 
these coats he placed, en surtout. Gules, three escucJieons 
argent, which was the coat of his maternal great-grand- 
mother, GuiLLEMETTE DE Charny. He married, in 
1447, Marie de Bourgogne, another natural daughter 
of Duke Philippe le Bon, Other Low Country instances 
of the use of the maternal arms en surtout have been 
noticed in the preceding chapter. 

In England, Richard, Duke of York (d. 1460), 
father of Edward IV., bore en surtout upon his seal, the 
arms of his maternal grandmother (Joan), daughter, and 
eventual heiress of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent 
(England, a bordure argent). His own arms were : 
France and England quarterly, differenced by a label 
argent, on each point three torteaux. However, two 
English instances may be pointed out of the same 

( 486 ) 

century, in which a husband placed his wife's arms, and 
not those of an ancestress, en surtout. These are afforded 
by the Garter Plates of Sir John NEVILLE, Lord MON- 
TAGU, afterwards Marquess of MONTAGU (elected K.G., 
circa 1463), and of RICHARD Beauchamp, fifth Earl of 
Warwick and Albemarle (elected K.G., circa 1400) ; 
but it was not until about the beginning of the 17th 
century that the practice arose by which the husband of 
an heiress places his wife's arms in an escucheon en 
surtout upon his personal arms, whether his coat be a 
quartered one or not Such an escucheon acquired the 
name of an " escucheon of pretence," and is borne by the 
husband of the heiress alone ; the children who issue 
from the marriage bear the coats of both parents united, 
not in this way, but by quartering. GUILLIM, the first 
edition of whose work, A Display of Heraldry ^ was pub- 
lished in 161 1, gives his sanction to the "escucheon of 
pretence ; " but when Sir George Mackenzie's Trea- 
tise on Heraldry appeared — in 1680 — the usage was only 
beginning to be heard of as a novelty in Scotland, and is 
alluded to with disapproval. " If a man marry an Here- 
trix, he himself impales only her arms ; but his children 
procreat of that marriage quarters {sic^ them .... 
Sometimes also (says Guillims) he who marries an 
Heretrix may carry her arms in an inescutcheon upon 
his own, because the husband pretends that his heirs 
shall one day inherit an estate by her; it is therefore 
called an escutcheon of pretence ; but this way of 
Bearing is not known abroad upon that occasion." 
{^Science of Heraldry^ chap, xxiv., pp. 80, 81.) 

In the Heraldry of the Continent of Europe, it has 
long been the custom for an elected Sovereign to place 
his hereditary arms in an escucheon en surtout ^bow^ those 
of his dominions. This was the invariable custom of the 
Emperors of GERMANY, and of the Kings of POLAND. 
Thus John Sobieski (John III. of Poland) placed above 

( 48? ) 

the arms of that kingdom ; {Quarterly^ i and 4. Gules an 
eagle displayed argent^ crowned or, POLAND ; 2 and 3. 
GuleSy a knight in full annour proper mounted on a white 
/lorse^ bearing in his right ftand a drawn sword^ and on 
his left ann a shield azure cJiarged with a patriarc/ial 
cross argent, Lithuania) an escucheon of his personal 
arms, Or^ a round buckler purpure. The Kings of Sweden, 
of the houses of HessE, Vasa, and, in modem times, 
Bernadotte, have done the same (See Det Svenska 
Riks Vapnet, af Hans Hildebrand ; Antiquarisk Tids- 
krift for Sverige, 1883). The Kings of Denmark thus 
bore the arms of OLDENBURG, etc. As having obtained 
the crown by popular election the Kings of the HELLENES 
also place en surtout upon the arms of the Greek kingdom 
{Azure, a Greek cross couped argent), an escucheon of 
their personal arms. Otho, the first king, thus bore the 
Bavarian arms ; the present King GEORGE, a prince of 
Denmark, thus uses those of that kingdom. The Royal 
Arms of our own country furnish us with a similar 
example in the case of WILLIAM III., who placed the arms 
of Nassau (p. 21^) en surtout, upon the quartered coat of 
these realms. {See Plate LI I., figs. 6, 7.) Under the Com- 
monwealth the Great Seals of Oliver Cromwell and 
his son Richard as Protectors, bear a shield of arms : 
Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, a cross gules, for ENGLAND ; 2. 
Azure, a saltire argent, for SCOTLAND ; 3. Azure, a harp or 
stringed argent, for IRELAND; and upon these quarterings 
en surtout an escucheon of the personal arms of CROM- 
WELL: Sable, a lion rampant argent. After 1801 the 
quartered arms of the family of Brunswick-Luneburg, 
which from 17 14 had formed the fourth quarter of the 
Royal Arms, were placed en surtout, (See Plate LI I., 
figs. 9, 10.) 

The escucheon en surtout has also been used in other 
Royal Arms as indicative, not of election, but of descent. 
Thus, on the accession of PHILIP, Due d*ANjOU, to the 

( 488 ) 

throne of SPAIN, his arms (FRANCE, a bordure gules) 
were placed en surtout above : Quarterly^ i and 4. 
Castile ; 2 and 3. Leon ; Enti en point of Grenada 
{Argent^ a pomegranate gules leafed and seeded proper) ; 
and these are the present Royal Arms of SPAIN. During 
the brief reign of King Amadeus of Savoy, there was 
substituted for the escucheon of Anjou, the arms of 
Savoy {Gules y a cross argent^ all within a bordure azure) 
with the same intent. 

The arms of the princes and princesses of our own 
Royal House are charged e7i surtout with an escucheon 
of their paternal arms of Saxony (Plate XII., fig. 6), 
and in future reigns this escucheon will form part of the 
arms of the reigning Sovereign. 

Our arrangement of grand quarters in which the same 
coat is repeated four times, as in the arms of PERCY, Duke 
of Northumberland (blazoned ante, page 481), is 
almost unknown among the Germans (the coat of the 
Counts of Mansfeld is an exception), but when 
quarters are repeated they sometimes adopt a different 
arrangement, of which an example will be found in the 
arms of the Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont at p. 490. 
In it, and in the shield of the Counts of GlECH, both 
of which are Quarterly of nine, the quarters I and 9, 
2 and 8, 3 and 7, 4 and 6 correspond. In the arms of 
the Counts von Herberstein (Tyroff, Wappen des 
Adels des KonigreicJts Baiern, i., 47) which are : — Quarterly 
of six (in three horizontal rows of two quarters), with an 
escucheon en surtout, the quarters which correspond are 
I and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 6. In the arms of the Counts of 
SOLMS we have really two coats impaled, each being 
quartered : (A) Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a lion rampant 
azure, SOLMS ; 2 and 3. Per f ess gules and or, MiJNZEN- 
BERG. (B) Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a rose sable, WlL- 
DENFELS ; 2 and 3. Sable, a lion rampant argent, 
SONNEWALDE. If this be regarded as a single coat of 

( 489 ) 

eight quarterings, those which correspond are i and 6, 
2 and 5, 3 and 8, 4 and 7. 

To our ideas of Marshalling the coat of the Counts Zu 
Cronberg (Plate XXXIX., fig. 4) is strangely arranged, 
though it is a simple coat of four quarters (with an escu- 
cheon of the Empire en surtout as an Imperial Augmen- 
tation) Quarterly^ i and 4. (9r, a fess guleSy County of 
Hohen-Geroldseck ; 2. Two rows of F'a/V(Beffroi?) on 
a chief gules an open crown or, 3. Two rows of Vair, on a 
cJiampagne gules an open crown or (both 2 and 3 for Cron- 
BERG). But we find from Spener, Opus Heraldicum^ p. 
spec, 103 (where the Imperial diploma of Ferdinand II., 
1663, is given) that the Cronberg quarters are really a 
canting coat, " ein quartieter Schild, dessen hinter unter 
und vorder obertheil roth oder Rubinfarb, der hinterste 
ober und vorder untertheil aber weisz oder Silberfarb 1st. 
In dem hindem untern und oberen vordem jed-wedern 
erscheinet eine Konigliche goldfarbe Cron. In dem 
vordern und obern hindern theil aber vier blaue paarweisz 
neben einander in Glockengestalt gesetzte Berg," etc. 

The arms of the Princes of SCHWARZBURG are a curious 
example of German blazon. It consists, first of all, of 
two quartered coats impaled : — 

(A) Quarterly^ i and 4. Or^an eagle displayed sable^K^^- 


2 and 3. Argent y the attire of a stag gules ^ 


En surtout^ Azure, a lion rampant crowned or, for 


(B) Quarterly, i and 4. C/iequy gules and argent, HOHN- 

2 and 3. Per fess (a) Gules, a lion ram- 
pant or and (b) Barry of eight 
or and gules, Lauterburg. 
En surtout, Argent, a stag passant sable, Kletten- 


( 490 ) 

Over these impaled coats is a narrow cross of alternate 
narrow bends, Azure^ or^ and sable^ the perpendicular 
piece divides the quartered coats, and the traverse passes 
under the two escucheons en surtout. On the centre of 
the cross is a larger escucheon en surtout containing as an 
Imperial augmentation, the Imperial Arms, the crowned 
double eagle having on its breast a small escucheon, ^/« 
charged with a princely hat. The base of the whole 
escucheon is occupied by a champagne : — Or, t/tereon a 
pitchfork, and beneath it a Jiorse comb, both fesseways gules. 
These are the official arms of the Office of Reicfis Stall- 
meister, held by the Lords of Leutenberg. 

In the arms of the princely houses, and higher 
nobility of Germany, the shield is often charged with 
a number of quarterings and with an escucheon en 
surtout. This is borne for different reasons ; and it 
will be interesting to note the principal of these, and 
give an example or two of each. The quarterings are 
usually those of the several fiefs on account of which the 
bearer had the right to sit and vote in the Diets, or 
Circles, of the Empire : and often the principal, or 
original, fief of the family is placed en surtout. Thus the 
Counts of Waldeck (who received the title of Prince in 
1682 and 17 1 2) bore : Quarterly of nine, i and 9. Argent, 
a cross moline gules. County of Pyrmont ; 2 and 8. 
Argent, three escuclieons two and one gules, County of 
Rappolstein ; 3 and 7. Argent, three raven's heads 
couped at the neck sable crowned or. Lordship of 
HOHENECK ; 4 and 6. Argent, semi of billets couc/i/s 
azure, a lion rampant gules, crowned or. Lordship of 
Geroldseck. The fifth or central quarter is concealed 
by the escucheon en surtout of the arms of Waldeck : Or, 
aneight'pointed star sable, (Plate XLI.) So the Margraves 
of Baden formerly bore: Quarterly, i. Argent, a lion 
rampant gules crowned or (this lion faces to the sinister, 
in accordance with the German fashion by which in 

( 491 ) 

quartered coats animals are often made to face to 
the centre of the shield {vide ante, p. 420, and 
cf, GUELDERS, ante p. 473); Landgravate of the 
Breisgau ; 2. Azure, an eaglets wing in fess argent 
(the feathers turned to the base), with a golden Klee 
Stengel, Lordship of USENBERG (otherwise Sausen- 
BERG); 3. Gules, on a pale or three c/ievrons sable, Lord- 
ship of Badenweiler {v. Plate XLVL, fig. 2) ; 4. Per 
fess wavy or and azure; t/u latter charged with two bars 
argent, and t/u former with a lion rampant gules issuing 
from tJie partition line. Lordship of ROTELN {v. p. 221). 
En surtout an escucheon for the Margravate of Baden : 
Or, a bend gules. (See Plate XXXIX., fig. 5.) In 
later times many other quarterings were added to the 
shield, and the arms of Baden were made to occupy 
its centre quarter without being placed on a distinct 
escucheon en surtout. The great shield of the Grand 
Dukes of Baden (who attained that dignity in 1806), 
contains thirty quarterings ; but generally only the 
simple coat of Baden {Or, a bend gules) ensigned with 
a Royal Crown, and supported by a sable griffin, and 
a golden lion (both regardant and royally crowned) is in 
use. The arms of Saxony are often displayed en surtout 
in the quarterings of the several Sovereign Saxon States. 
Similarly, while the shield of the Princes of LlCH- 
TENSTEIN used to bear the quartered arms of 
Saxony, Czernabor, and the Duchies of Troppau, 
Silesia, and Jagerndorff (the last being the ent^ en 
point)', the arms of the house of LiCHTENSTEiN {Per 
fess or and gules) were placed en surtout, {See Trier's 
Einleitung zu der Wapen-kunst, p. 493.) Later the 
quarterings of the main shield were : i. SiLESiA ; 2. 

Saxony; 3. Troppau; 4. Rittberg ; ent^ of Jagern- 
dorff ; and, as before, LiCHTENSTEiN en surtout. 

So the Counts (afterwards Princes) of Metternich 
formerly bore their family coat : Argent, three vannets 

( 492 ) 

sable, en surtout above the quartered coats of the 
Lordships of WiNNEBERG and Beilstein (i and 4. 
Gules, between six crosslets or a bend indented azure ; 
2 and 3. GuleSy three hunting horns argent two and one). 
Other quarterings have been added in modem times, and 
an Imperial augmentation. (Note the Ar7nes fausses,) 

Some of the escucheons borne en surtout in Germany- 
do indicate possessions acquired by marriage ; but 
usually in times far remote from the present 

Thus the Dukes, now Grand Dukes, of MECK- 
LENBURG, still place the arms of the Lordship of 
Stargard (which are: Per fess gules and or, and 

which Henry the Lion, of Mecklenburg obtained 
by his marriage with BEATRICE, daughter of ALBERT, 
Markgrave of BRANDENBURG, in 1220), in an 
escucheon en surtout above their main coat {Quarterly 
of six in three rows of two each: i. Duchy of 
Mecklenburg; 2. Principality of the Wends; 3. Princi- 
pality of SCHWERIN ; 4. Principality of Ratzeburg ; 
5. County of SCHWERiN ; 6. Lordship of RoSTOCK). 

The Princes of Arenberg, who bear: Quarterly, 
I and 4. Gules ^ three five-leaved flowers {fleurs de n/flier) 
or, for the Duchy of Arenberg ; 2 and 3. Or, a fess 
cluquy of three rows argent and gules for the County of 
Mark ; place in an escucheon en surtout the arms 
of LiGNE ; Or, a bend gules, quartered with those of 
BarbaN(;:on : Argent^ three lions rampant gules crowned 
or. This is a curious example, inasmuch as the arms 
en surtout are those of the husband, not of the wife ; 
for Margaret, sister and heiress of the last Count of 
Arenberg, married Jean, Baron of Ligne and Bar- 
BAN(;on, who obtained the dignity of Prince of the 
Holy Roman Empire, in 1565. 

The Counts of Reckiieim, who claim descent from 

the house of EsTE, which bore. Azure, an eagle displayed 

argent ; place that coat en surtout upon their quartered 
2 K 

( 493 ) 

shield : — i and 4. GtUes^ a cross or (County of ASPER- 
MONT) ; 2 and 3. (?r, a lion rampant gules (County of 

The Princes of Lamberg descend from George Sigis- 
MUND, Baron of Lamberg, who married at the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, JOHANNA, daughter 
and heiress of John Scaliger (della Scala) and still 
bear her arms {see Plate XXXI I., fig. 9) en surtout upon 
their quartered coat : i and 4. Per pale (a) Barry of four 
argent and azure^ (b) Gules plain^ Lamberg ; 2 and 3. 
Or^ a Iwund rampant sable collared argent^ for POTTWEIN. 
In Trier's Einleitung zu der Wapenkunst^ p. 491, 
the ScALA coat in the Lamberg arms has also a 
mount in base verty on which the greyhounds and 
ladder rest, but this does not appear in the modern 

The Counts of Kesselstadt place their paternal 
arms : Argent ^ a basilisk passant gules ^ in an escucheon 
en surtout upon the simple coat of the family of 
Orsbeck (now extinct in the male line), from which 
they descend : Or, a saltire gules between four nenuphar 
leaves vert (Tyroff, Wappenbuch, i.. Band. TaC 59). 

The foregoing examples will probably be found 
sufficient to illustrate the German use of Marshalling 
with regard to coats borne en surtout ; on account of the 
possession of fiefs, by marriage or otherwise. 

On the use of this escucheon as a mark of difference, 
or cadency, see p. 448 ; as an indication of the tenure of 
an official dignity, .y^^ p. 526; and as containing special 
grants in augmentation, see Chapter XVI. 

But before leaving this part of the subject we may 
here notice that the great German quartered coats 
sometimes bear several of these escucheons en surtout. 
Thus in the great escucheon of the quarterings of 
the Royal House of PRUSSIA {Das grosse Staats- 
Wappen\ four such separate escucheons appear upon 

( 494 ) 

the palar line, bearing respectively the arms of 
Prussia; Brandenburg; Nurnberg; and Hohen- 
ZOLLERN. Plate XL. represents the achievement of the 
Empress Maria Theresa before her accession to the 
Imperial throne when she was Queen of Hungary 
and Bohemia ; and, by marriage, Grand Duchess of 
Tuscany. It is a shield of four grand quarters, each 
counter-quartered and bearing an escucheon en surtout. 
Another escucheon crowned is placed on the central point 
of the whole shield, so that the five surtouts are arranged 
in saltire. As there are twenty-nine quarterings, none 
of them being repetitions, with a very remarkable variety 
of historic interest, the full blazon is here appended. 
Quarterly of four Grand Quarters : — 

I. Quarterly of six (in two horizontal rows of three 
quarters each) : — 

1. BOHEMIA: Gules ^ a lion rampant argent ^ double 


2. Dalmatia : Azurey three leopard's fieads affrontis 

crowned or, 

3. Croatia : Cluquy argent and gules, 

4. ESCLAVONIA : ^ GuleSy issuing from tlu sinister 

flank an arm embowed proper y vested gules and 
holding a sabre argent, 

5. Jerusalem : Argent ^ a cross potent between four 

crosslets or, 

6. India : Azure, a lion rampant argent Itolding a 

cross or. 
Over all an escuclieon per pale, {a) Barry of 
eig/it argent and gules, Hungary-ANCIENT. 
{b) Gules, on a mount in base vert, an open 
crown or, issuant t/ierefrom a patriarcJial cross 

1 These are now borne as the arms of Bosnia (a part of Escla- 
vonia), as will be shown hereafter. 

( 495 ) 

II. Quarterly: — 

1. Castile : Gules, a castle triple-towered or, 

2. Leon : Argent , a lion rampant gules crowned or, 

3. Arragon : Or^ four pallets gules, 

4. Sicily : Per saltire, in chief and base Arragon ; 

in flanks Argent, an eagle displayed sable. 
Over all tlte arms of BURGUNDY- ANCIENT ; 
Bendy of six or and azure, a bordure gules, 

III. Quarterly of six (in two horizontal rows of three 

each) : — 

1. Brabant : Sable, a lion rampant or, 

2. Milan : Argent, a serpent ondoyant in pale azure, 

crowned or, vorant a child gules, 

3. Styria: Vert, a griffon rampant queiU fourcJUe 

argent; vomiting flames proper, and crowned or. 

4. Carinthia : Or, three lions passant {contoum^s) 

gules (should be sable), {See also pp. 454, 471.) 

5. Carniola : Argent, an eagle displayed azure, on 

its breast a crescent counter-compony of t/u field 
and gules, 

6. Transylvania (Siebenburgen); Per f ess azure 

and or, over all a bar gules, issuing tlurefrom a 
demi-eagle displayed sable, addextri in chief of 
t/te sun in splendour, and senestri of a crescent 
argent. In tlie base, seven towers, three and 
four, of the third. 
Over all an escucheon per pale : {a) Or, on a bend 
gules three cUlerions argent, LORRAINE ; (J>) Or, 
five balls gules two, two, one, in chief anotlier of 
larger size, azure, tlureon three fleurs-de-lis of tlie 

field, Tuscany. 

IV. Quarterly of six (in three rows of two each) : — 

I. SWABIA : Or, three lions passant gardant in pale 

^^ ^^ 


ImpetM OrowD of Aiulrik. 


QnMa at Hnti(ikr]r •ud BohetnU ; ArcbduotacM of Aiutouk ; and Onnd 

DvahMi of TuMUij. 


2. (SiLEStA : *) Azure y an eagle cJuquy gules and 

argent y crowned or, 

3. Tyrol : Argent ^ an eagle displayed gules ; crowned 

and having " Klee Stetigeln " on the wings ^ or. 

4. Bar : Azure, semi of crossUts fitcliies or^ oter all 

two barbely addorsed of tlie last 

5. JULIERS : Ory a lion rampant sable crowned of the 


6. GORZ : Per bendy in chief azure a lion rampant or 

in basCy argent two bends-sinister gules. 
Over all Hapsburg : Or, a lion rampant gules y 
crowned azure. 
On the central point of the whole shield an escucheon, 
ensigned with the arch-ducal crown, of AUSTRIA — 
Gules y afess argent. 

The plate is enlarged from Gatterer's Handbuch der 
Neuesten Genealogie und Heraldik (Nurnberg, 1763), but 
for want of space the supporters (two griffins regardant 
ory their wings and plumage of the neck sable) are 
omitted, as is also the Imperial Crown which in the 
original is placed on the top edge of the shield ; above 
this two angels hold the Royal Crown of Hungary. 
I have, however, added the crowns (apart from the 
escucheon) on the same plate (Plate XL.). 

This Austrian achievement of Maria Theresa was 
selected by the late Dr BURNETT as one of his illustra-' 
tions, and, on that account, I include it here as having 
an interest apart from its contents. For it contains 
some remarkable omissions which lead me to doubt if it 
ever had official authority. That the arms of Flanders 
and Burgundy-modern should be omitted, while the 
far less important coat of BRABANT is included, 

^ I have ventured to make a few important corrections in the 
blazon. Moreover the coat attributed to Silesia is really that of 

( 497 ) 

IS to me almost inconceivable. But there is a still more 
remarkable omission ; it is that of a coat which the house 
of Austria held in such estimation that for many- 
generations they gave it the place of honour on their 
seals. I mean the coat of Austria-ancient {see 
next page). A comparison of the shield assigned above 
to the Empress Queen MARIA Theresa, with the 6cu 
COMPLET as established by Imperial decree in 1836 







Fio. 91.- -The "Ecu-Oomplbt " Of the Austrian Empire. 

(which, while it excludes the Burgundian and Netherland 
coats, contains the arms of all the Austrian possessions, 
and of those then ruled by members of the Imperial 

( 498 ) 

House), should be of interest to the student of heraldry, 
which is truly hieroglyphic history. It will avoid 
unnecessary repetitions of the blazons if I send the 
reader back by reference to that escucheon, and the 
woodcut of the Acu Complet on page 497 will, I trust, 
prevent any difficulty arising. 

Quarterly of nine Grand Quarters (containing sixty- 
two quarters) : — 

I. Quarterly: — 

I. Dalmatia, Kingdom (M.T., i. 2). 2. CROATIA, 
Kingdom (M.T., i. 3). 

3. ESCLAVONIA, Kingdom : — Azure^ a river in fess 

vert ^bordered argent ytfureon a weasel {ox marten)^ 
passant proper^ beneath a six-pointed star or, 

4. Transylvania (or Siebenburgen) (M.T., iii. 

6). On this grand quarter is placed en surtout 
an escucheon, crowned with the Crown of St. 
Stephen, and bearing the impaled coats of the 
Kingdom of Hungary (M.T., i. surtout). 
The coat of Hungary-MODERN, if correctly 
blazoned, always begins with the colour, not 
with the metal, and is : — Barry of eight, gules 
and argent (or, sometimes. Gules four bars 
argent). The bars are said to represent the 
four Hungarian rivers — the Danube, Save, 
Drave, and Theiss ; — just as the triple mount 
symbolises the three chief peaks of the Car- 
pathians ; but all this mere supposition. The 
mount in Hungary-ANCIENT should be of 
three coupeaux ; it is so borne on a separate 
shield in the Great Seals of R£n£ of Anjou 
and his successors ; but in them is represented 
as an isolated mount, and the cross rises 
without the intervention of the crown, which 
was a later addition. {See Vr£e, Ginialogie 

( 499 ) 

des Comtes de Flandre^ plates cv., cvi. ; and 
compare the seals of the Emperor FERDINAND, 
plates cxxxiii., cxli.) 

II. Quarterly of eleven quarters (in three rows of four, 
three, and four) : — 

1. Upper Austria: — Per pale. Or, an eagle dis- 

played sable y dimidiated with : Gules, two pallets 

2. Salzburg, Duchy; — Per pale: — (a) Or, a lion 

rampant sable, (b) AUSTRIA : Gules, a fess 

3. Styria, Duchy (M.T., lii. 3): — the ''Stier'' is now 

blazoned, as a griffin ; originally the arms were 
canting ones, and the " Stier'' a rampant ox. 

4. The Teutonic Order: Argent, a cross patie 

sable, bordered of t lie field, and cliarged with a 
cross flory or ; over cdl, an escucheon of tlie last 
an eagle displayed of tlie second, 

5. Tyrol, County : (M.T., iv. 3). 

6. Trient, Principality: Argent, an eagle displayed 

sable, beaked and membered or, its breast 
traversed by a pastoral staff in fess of the last, 

7. Brixen, Principality: Gules, a Pasclial Lamb 

proper, t/te diadem or, 

8. Hohen-Embs, County: Azure, a steinbock or, 

/lomed sable, 

9. MONTFORT and Feldkirch, County : Argent, a 

gonfanon gules, its rings or {vide p. 373). 

10. Bregenz, County: Azure, a pale ermine, or 

Fur, a pcUe ermine, I have already pointed 
out (p. 73), how strangely the blazons of this 
simple coat have varied through the ignorance 
of the artists and those who employed them. 

11. Sonnenberg, County: Azure, a hill in base or, 

sunnounted by tlie sun in its splendour. 

( 500 ) 

Over all on an escuclieon: — AUSTRIA-ANCIENT 
(the arms of the Babenburger line) : Azure, 
five larks (or eaglets) displayed or. These arms 
are now assigned specially to Austria below 
t/u Ems. The BABENBURGER house became 
extinct in the male line, on the death of Duke 
Frederick of Austria,in 1 246. This escucheon 
en surtout is crowned with the Arch-ducal 
crown of Austria: — a cap of crimson velvet 
turned up with a broad band of ermine cut 
into points which are edged with gold and a 
row of small pearls. Like the coronet of the 
Prince of Wales, it is surmounted by a single 
arch of gold supporting a mound or orb, which 
is ensigned with a jewelled cross. 

III. Quarterly of five (in two rows of two quarters in 
chief and three in base) : — 

1. Moravia, Marquessate : Azure, an eagle displayed 

cliequy gules and argent, crowned or. 

This coat is mistakenly attributed to SiLESIA in 
(M.T., iv. 2). 

2. Silesia, Principality : Or, an eagle displayed sable 

crowned of tlie field, on its breast a crescent and 
crosslet argent, 

3. Upper Lusatia, Markgravate : Azure, in base a 

wall embattled or, masoned sable, 

4. TescHEN, Duchy : Azure, an eagle displayed 

crowned or, 

5. Lower Lusatia, Markgravate: Argent, an ox 

passant proper (i,e,, red with white belly and 
black horns). 
Over all, an escucheon, charged with the arms of 
the Kingdom of BOHEMIA (to which the above 
named provinces belonged) : Gules, a lion 
rampant queue fourclUe argent crowned or. 

( 50I ; 

This escucheon en surtout is surmounted by 
the Royal Crown of BOHEMIA. 

IV. Quarterly of five (two quarters in chief, and three 

in base) : — 

1. CUMANIA: Argent^ a lion rampant gules^ in the 

dexter chief a crescent y in t/u sinister an estoile, 
both argent, 

2. Bosnia: The arms attributed to Esclavonia 

in (M.T., i. 4). 

3. Bulgaria ^ : Azure, on a bend gules, bordered and 

coticed argent, a wolf passant gules. 

4. Servia ^ : Gules, a boards Juad erect proper pierced 

by an arrow in pale argent, 

5. Rascia : Azure, three fiorse shoes inverted argent. 

V. Tierced in pale : — 

1. HapSBURG, County : Or, a lion rampant gules, 

crowned azure. 

2. Austria : (" Hauswapen ") Gules, afess argent. 

3. Lorraine, Duchy: Or, on a bend gules three 

allerions argent. 

VI. Quarterly of eight (in three rows the first of two 
quarters, the others of three in each) : — 

1. Jerusalem, Kingdom : (M.T., 1. 5). 

2. Castile, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. i). 

3. Leon, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. 2). 

4. Arragon, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. 3). 

5. The Indies, Kingdom : * (M.T., i. 6). 

6. Sicily, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. 4). 

7. Calabria, Duchy : Sable, a cross argent. This 

^ As independent states Bulgaria and Servia have adopted 
different arms. 

* The lion is crowned or. It appears here among the arms 
brought to the House of Austria on inheriting the Spanish crown, 
but is not usually seen on the coins or seals of the latter country. It 
occurs first on the Great Seal of Charles VI., among whose titles 
is " Indian! : Rex." 

( 502 ) 

coat which is often quartered with Arragon 
is thus given by RiETSTAP {Annorial G^niral) 
but in the arms of Don FERDINAND d'Arra- 
GON, Duke of Calabria, Viceroy of Valencia, 
this is thus given : Quarterly^ i and 4. 
Arragon ; 2 and 3. Argent ^ a cross potent sable, 
{Chiffuet insignia GentilitiaEquitum Velleris 
Aureiy No. 161, and MAURICE, Toison dOr^ page 
192) so also Spener says: "Dicitur vero 
tessera Calabriae olim fuisse in parma argentea 
crux patibulata nigra " {Op.HeKy^. spec.,p. 237). 
8. Naples, Kingdom: France-ANCIENT, a label 
gules (the arms of the Duke of Anjou). 

VII. Quarterly: — 

1. Tuscany, Grand-duchy : (M.T., iii. surtout). 

2. Modena, Duchy: Azure, an eagle displayed 

argent crozvned or (vide infra, p. 508). 

3. Parma and Piacenza, Duchies : Or, six fleurs- 

de-lis azure (the arms of the Farnese family). 

4. GUASTALLA, Duchy : Argent, a cross pat^e- 

througlumt gules between four eagles displayed 
sable (the arms of the family of GONZAGA, 
Dukes of Mantua,. etc.). 
Over all an escucJuon Per pale {a) MILAN, Duchy 
(M.T., iii. 3) (Jb) VENICE, Azure, tlie winged 
lion of St. Mark couchant and liolding in its 
paws an open book tlureon tlie words " PAX TIBI 
Marce Evangelista Meus." These coats 
together are borne for the Lombardo- Venetian 
Kingdom and this escucheon en surtout, is 
crowned with the " Iron Crown " of LOMBARDY, 
a plain circlet of gold, enamelled with floral 
decoration and set with gems (v, p. 617). 

VIII. Quarterly of eleven (arranged in three rows; the 

first two each contain foyr quarters, but the 

( S03 ) 

base row has two only and is ente en point oi 
a third). 

1. Carinthia, Duchy : Per pale {a) Or^ three lions 

passant gardant in pale sable (as M.T., iii. 4) 
but with ip) Gules^ a fess argent. This is the 
correct form, and the absence of the nearly 
invariable impalement is one of the causes of 
my doubts as to the authority of the " Maria 
Theresa" escucheon. 

2. Carniola (Krain), Duchy (M.T., iii. s). The 

crescent is now usually chequy of three 

3. Windische-Mark : Argent, a liat sable, turned 

upy and stringed gules {vide ante, p. 374). 

4. Frioul (Friuli), Duchy: Azure, an eagle dis- 

played and crowned or, 

5. Trieste, Per fess (a) in chief, Or, an eagle dis- 

played sable crowned of tfie field ; (b) in base, 
Gules, a fess argent, t/tereon an anc/tor in pale, 
reversed sable. 

6. ISTRIA, Marquessate : Azure, a goat passant or, 

anned gules. 

7. Gradisca, County : Per fess or and azure, over 

all a cross moline argent. 

8. GORZ, County : (M.T., iv. 6). 

9. Ragusa, Duchy : Argent, tliree bends azure. 

ID. Cattaro (or Albania): Argent, a lion ram- 
pant gules. 

II. Zara, Duchy (this quarter is the one "in 
point"): Argent, a mounted knight in full 
armour his lance in pale all proper. 
Over all, the arms of ILLYRIA (Kingdom) Azure, 
an antique galley or. This escucheon is sur- 
mounted by an antique crown of golden 
rays (Plate L., fig. 13). 

( S04 ) 

IX. Quarterly: — 

1. LODOMIRIA : Azure ^ two bars cluquy gules and 


2. Cracow : Gules^ an eagle displayed argent^ armedy 

crawnedy and with " Klee Stengel " or. 

3. Auschwitz, Duchy : Argent ^ an eagle displayed 


4. Zator, Duchy : Azure, an eagle displayed argent. 
Overall an escuclieon of the Kingdom of G ALICIA : 

Azure y a fillet in r///V/" (otherwise a bar enJianced) 
guleSy between a crow sable in chief and three 
ancient crowns or in base. This escucheon is 
surmounted by a Royal Crown (Plate L., fig. 4.) 

This great shield is placed on the breast of the sable 
double-headed eagle in the golden shield of the Empire. 
Each of the heads of the eagle is royally crowned ; it 
holds in the dexter claw a drawn sword and a sceptre, 
and in the sinister the Imperial Orb, all proper. 

The shield is supported by two griffins Or (their wings 
and plumage of the head and breast being sable), and 
above it is the closed Imperial Crown. 

France. — In France the varied use of the escucheon 
en surtout does not differ widely from its use in Germany 
as already described. 

We will first give some instances of important coats 
in which the escucheon en surtout contains the arms of the 
family, while the main shield contains the quarters either 
of its feudal possessions or its most important ancestors. 

The Dukes de la Tr£mouille, who attained the 
title of " Due et Pair de France" in 1596, and who were 
already Princes de Tarente, bear their personal arms : 
Ory a cltevron gules between three eagles displayed azure, en 
surtout upon tlie shield: Quarterly, i. France; 2. SiciLY; 
3. Montmorency-Laval (p. 452); 4. Bourbon-Cond£ 

(France, a baton cdez^ in bend gules). The second and 

(SOS ) 

third quarters indicate descent from the marriage of 
Francois de la Tr^mouille, Prince de Talmont (d. 
1 541 ) with Anne, heiress of Gui, Comte de Laval, whose 
wife was CHARLOTTE of Arragon, daughter of FRED- 
ERICK, King of Naples and Sicily. The first and fourth 
commemorate descent in two lines from the royal house 

of France. 

The Dukes of Rohan-Chabot bear a shield; 
Quarterly, i. Navarre ; 2. Scotland ; 3. Brittany ; 
4. Flanders ; and place en surtout an escucheon of 
Rohan {Gules, nine mascles conjoined 3, 3, 3, or^ 
quartering Chabot {jOr, three cJiabots gules). In 1461 
John, Vicomte de Rohan, married Mary, second 
daughter of Francis I., Duke of Brittany, by 
Isabella, daughter of James I. of Scotland. Francis 
died without male issue, as did MARGARET, elder sister 
of Mary, and the house of Rohan indicated their 
supposed rights to the duchy by either quartering its 
arms, or by placing a coat bearing the arms of RoHAN 
impaling BRITTANY, en surtout above their quarterings. 
In the case of the Dukes de MONTBASON these were : 
Quarterly of eight (in two rows of four each) : i. FRANCE ; 

2. Navarre ; 3. Arragon ; 4. Scotland ; 5. Brit- 
tany ; 6. Milan ; 7. Lorraine ; 8. San Severing 

{Argent, a fess gules, and a fillet en bordure azure). The 
Dukes de ROHAN bore a somewhat different arrangement : 
Quarterly, i. FRANCE, quartering EvREUX (p. 464) ; 
2. San Severing impaling Arragon ; 3. Milan 
impaling LORRAINE ; 4. SCOTLAND. On the other 
hand the Dues de St. Simon quartered the personal 
arms of ROUVROY St. Simon {Sable, on a cross 
argent five escallops gules) with those of Havesquerque 
{Or, a fess gules) and placed en surtout an escucheon of 
Vermandois {Cliequy, azure and or, a chief of France- 
ancient), to denote their claim to a descent from the 

Counts of Vermandois. 

( 5o6 ) 

Spanish. — It is only possible here to give a few 
examples of Spanish uses of Marshalling, though there 
are many which are of interest. Quartering is, of course, 
the mode chiefly employed for indicating descent, but 
simple impalement is very frequently substituted for it ; 
and in Spanish Heraldry, perhaps more than in any 
other, the student should be on his guard against 
assuming that an impaled coat has the meaning which 
attaches to it among ourselves. 

The Mendoza coat, as borne by the Dukes of Infan- 
TADGO, has already been given (Plate XXXIII., fig. 12, 
and see p. 440). The Counts of CoruRa impale with 
this coat the arms of FiGUEROA, Or ^ five fig leaves in 
saltire vert. The Counts of Miranda and Marquises- 
of CA]^JETE substitute for the golden flanks, with their 
motto, other flanks of Gules^ on each ten panelleSy or 
poplar leaves, argent. Two golden cliains in saltire pass 
over tJte dividing lines^ and are united to two otJier chains 
fessways in chief and base. This, it will be observed, is 
an instance of quartering per saltire, I am not clear to 
what family the panelles may be traced, but I cannot 
accept the suggestion of Spener {Op. Her., p. 254) that 
they may denote a Bobadilla alliance. 

The Marquises de la Bala Siciliana, on account of 
the marriage of PEDRO GONSALEZ DE Mendoza with 
Isabella de Alarcon in the i6th century, impale 
Alarcon {Gules y a cross fleury argent^ with MENDOZA, 
curiously giving the precedence to the latter coat. The 
Counts de Priego impale the arms of Carillo {Gules, a 
castle triple-towered or) in the second place with MENDOZA 
in the first, in memory of the marriage of DiEGO HuRTADO 

DE Mendoza with Theresia de Carrillo {c 1450). 

The family of PoNCE DE LEON, Duke of Arcos, 
impale the coats of Leon and Arragon within a 
bordure azure, t/iereon eight escuc/teons of BiDAURE {Or, 
afess azurey 

( 507 ) 

The family of OSORIOS, Counts of ViLLALOBOS, bore : 
Or, two wolves passant in pale gules ; and after an 
alliance with the family of MOSCOSO, who bore Argent, 
(Spener says or, but wrongly), a wolf^s Itead erased sable, 
the OSORIOS, Counts of Altamira, impaled these coats 
(giving the precedence to Moscoso) within a bordure 
Or, c/iarged with eight escuctieons of the anus of Hen- 
RIQUEZ {tierced in mantel, i and 2. CASTILE ; 3, in base. 
Leon). The Osorios, Dukes of Aguiar, Counts 
de Trastamara, etc., bore : Per fess : — (a) OSORIO ; 
(b) Argent, three bendlets indented azure, within the 
Henriquez bordure. The present OSORIOS DE Mos- 
COSO, who have the above titles and many others, being 
thirteen times Grandees of the first class, bear: Per 
fess [A] also per fess (a) OSORIO, (b) tJu argent coat with 
t/ie bendlets; [B] Moscoso, the whole within the HEN- 
RIQUEZ bordure given above. 

The Cordovas, Counts of Figueroa, bear: (Plate 
XLI.) Tierced in fess : — 

1. Or, three bars gules, CORDOVA. 

2. Tierced in pale (a) FiGUEROA ; (b) Or, three bars 

vert, RiBERA ; (c) i and 4. MANUEL, Gules, a 
winged hand holding a sword in pale proper; 
2 and 3. Leon. 

3. Ponce de Leon, as on preceding page. 

The Cordovas, Counts de Feria, curiously omit the 
upper piece {Or, three bars gules). 

In Spanish Marshalling, as will be seen in the arms 
of the Ponce de Leons, etc., coats impaled or quar- 
tered are frequently represented within a bordure, which 
itself often indicates another alliance. The PiMENTELS 
of Spain quarter Or, three bars gules, with Vert, five 
panelles argent, and surround the whole with a bordure 
compony of Castile and LEON. The PiMENTELS of 
Portugal substitute escallops {or panelles, and their bordure 
is oi Argent, cftarged with eight aspas (saltires coxr^i^ gules. 

( 5o8 ) 

The LlANOS of Castile use: Per pale ^ i. Argent^ a 
tower proper ; 2. Or^ four bars azure ; all within a 
bordure gules ^ cJiarged with eight plates. The use of the 
bordure in this manner occasionally causes the bordure 
and the field to be of the same tincture ; thus Caro bears : 
Argent^ a cross Jleur-de-list^e sable, within a (Guzman) 
bordure of t lie first , tliereon eight cauldrons of t/ie second, 

Italy. — In Italy the modes of marshalling do not 
differ materially from those already described. The arms 
of the family are often placed en surtout, above a shield 
of quarterings representing fiefs or alliances. The old 
Dukes of MODENA used a shield divided per pale into 
three parts — Tierced in pale : — l Per f ess (a) (in chief) t/ie 
anus of t/ie Empire as an augmentation ; (J?) {in base) 
France, within a bordure indented gules and or. Duchy of 
Ferrara. 2. Gules, t/ie Papal keys in saltire wards in 
chief t/ie dexter or, tlie sinister argent, tlu bows united by a 
golden cord in base ; tlie keys surfpiounted in chief by tlie 
Papcd tiara, 3. Per fess {a) in chief Ferrara, {b) in 
base the Empire as before. En surtout, and occupying 
the whole width of the central pale, an escucheon of the 
arms of the family of ESTE ; Azure, an eagle displayed 
argent crowned or. The Papal pale was an addition to 
the old quartered coat with its escucheon en surtout. 
The later Dukes of MODENA of the house of Hapsburg- 
Lorraine used a coat : Per pale : — (a) Tierced in pale, 

I. Hapsburg; 2. Austria; 3. Lorraine ; {b) the arms 

of ESTE, but with tlu eagle holding in its dexter claw a 
sceptre, and in tlu sinister an orb of gold. 

The Dukes of Parma similarly tierced their shield in 
pale : — i . Per fess {a) in chief Var^ese, Or six fleurs-de-lis, 
3, 2, I, azure; {b) in base, AUSTRIA impaling BURGUNDY- 
ancient. 2. Gules, tlu Papal banner, tlu lance in pale 
or surmounted by the Papal keys in saltire, as in the pre- 
ceding example. 3. Per fess (a) in chief AUSTRIA 

impaling BURGUNDY-ANCIENT ; (J?) in base Farnese. 
2 L 

( 509 ) 

En surtout, and occupying the whole width of the central 
pale, the arms of PORTUGAL. The impalement of 
Austria and Burgundy denotes the marriage of the 
Duke Ottavio with the celebrated Duchess Margaret, 
natural daughter of the Emperor CHARLES V. The 
escucheon en surtout in this case denotes the pretensions 
of the Dukes of Parma, on the death of the Cardinal 
King Henry in 1580, to the crown of Portugal, arising 
from the marriage of ALEXANDER, Duke of Parma, with 
Mary (d. 1577), daughter of Edward, Constable of 
Portugal, who was younger brother of the Cardinal 
King and predeceased him. 

The Dukes of MiRANDOLA bore a quartered shield 
with in chief the arms of the EMPIRE : Or^ a double- 
headed eagle displayed sable imperially crowned proper. 
The quarterings are, i and 4. Or^ an eagle displayed sable^ 
crowned of tlie field, for the Duchy of MiRANDOLA ; 2 
and 3. Barry of six argent and azure^ over all a lion 
rampant gules crowned or, for the Duchy of CONCORDIA. 
The two quarters in chief are separated from those in 
base by a fess gules, and upon it is placed en surtout the 
arms of the family of PiCO, to which the Dukes belonged : 
Ctiequy argent and azure. 

Other examples of the separation of the quarters by an 
Ordinary are to be met with in Foreign Heraldry. The 
Counts of Hard in Sweden bear : Quarterly, i and 4. 
Azure, a lion rampant or, holding in its fore paws a silver 
buckler c/iarged with tlie cypher XII. sable ; 2 and 3. Or, 
a mounted knight proper habited argent. These quarters 
are divided by a fess argent ; cliarged on t/ie dexter side 
with a cyplier F sable, royally crowned, and on tlie sinister 
with a cliapeau gules. On an escucheon en surtout 
the arms of the family : Or, a bulFs Jiead caboshed 

The Barons of DjURKLOW in Sweden similarly place 
between their quarterings a fess pat^e argent, and on it 


2. Oinm, Duo d'Owiuuk. 

4. StMl von HoUtein. 

S. Cordon, Oonnto of Rpien*. B- Waldeck. 

( 510 ) 

en surtout^ Argent^ a beards paw sable between two liorCs 
gambs proper issuantfrom a mount in base vert, 

A somewhat s\mi\^x f ess gules masoned sable^ arc/ted or 
vout^e in base but embattled in chief is borne upon their 
escucheon by the Finnish family of FlEANDT. 

Thequarters in the Royal Arms of DENMARK have been 
for many centuries separated by the Cross of the Order 
OF THE Dannebrog : Argent, a cross patie-througlwut 
fimbriated gules, (Sometimes its arms project somewhat 
beyond the shield.) In imitation of this a considerable 
number of the principal Scandinavian families use a 
cross pat^e-throughout to separate the quarters of their 
frequently complicated coats. The quarterings in these 
are often not indicative of descent, but were all included 
in the original grant of armorial bearings {y, p. 546). 

On the centre of the cross thus used an escucheon, either 
of augmentation,or of the family arms, is placed en surtout. 

As an example I give the arms of the Barons Stael 
de Holstein : Quarterly, i and 4. Gules, two banners 
in saltire argent enfiled by a coronet or ; 2. Azure, a lion 
rampant or holding with all four feet a Danish axe argent, 
t/ie long curved handle of the second ; 3. Azure, two cannons 
in scdtire or, Tlu quarters separated by a cross pat^e- 
throughout or. En surtout an escucheon of the arms 
of Stael : Argent, eigltt balls in orle gules (Plate XLI., 

fig- 4). 

In the case of the Royal Arms^ of Denmark this 

^scMchton IS, Quarterly : i, HOLSTEIN ; 2. Stormarn ; 

3. DiTMARSHEN ; 4. Lauenburg ; and the impaled 

arms of OLDENBURG and Delmenhorst in an 

escucheon sur le tout du tout. 

In other Scandinavian coats a sdXWxe pat^e-througlwut 

is used instead of the cross to divide the quarters. In 

the arms of the Barons von BergenstrAHLE, the shield 

is tierced in pairle, and the quarters are divided not by 

a saltire, but by a pairle diminu^e and pat^e-througJwut or. 

( 5" ) 

A plain cross dividing the quarters, and sometimes 
charged, is found in the arms of some German families. 
Thus the Tirolese Counts d*ARCO bear: Quarterly, 
I and 4. Azure, three bows or.fesseways in pale ; 2 and 
3. Or, a bow in pale azure. These quarters are separated 
by a cross argent trellised azure. The Counts of 
HOHENWALDECK VON Maxelrein bear: Quarterly, 
I and 4. Per bend wavy argent and sable a bend counter- 
citanged ; 2 and 3. Sable, a lion rampant or The 
quarters are separated by a cross patde-throughout, on 
the centre of which is an escucheon en surtout ; Argent, 
an eagle displayed gules crowned or its feet resting on two 
batons in saltire of tlie second. 

Something similar to this is to be found in Scottish 
Armory. The coat of the Sinclair family was, 
Argent, a cross engrailed sable. They inherited the 
earldoms of ORKNEY and CAITHNESS through female 
descent from the Norse Jarls of the ORKNEYS. The 
arms of the Earls of CAITHNESS are thus marshalled : 
Quarterly, i. Azure, within a Royal tressure a ship with 
furled sails all or, ORKNEY ; 2 and 3. Or, a lion rampant 
gules, Spar (a family in possession of the Earldom of 
Caithness before the Sinclairs) ; 4. Azure; a ship in 
sail or, CAITHNESS ; and over all, dividing the quarters, a 
cross engrailed sable for SINCLAIR. (Plate XLIIL, fig. i.) 

It may be of interest here, as illustrative of what has 
been said in preceding paragraphs, to notice that the 
Barons SINCLAIR in Sweden (so created 1766, but 
extinct ten years later), bore the above quartered coats 
as cadets of Caithness ; but separated the quarters, 
not by the SINCLAIR cross, but by a cross patie-through- 
out ermine. In an escucheon en surtout they placed the 
Sinclair arms: Argent^ a cross engrailed sable ; and» 
as a mark of cadency, they surrounded the main 
escucheon with a bordure c/iequy or and gules. 

The Lords Sinclair, on the other hand, adopted the 

(5" ) 

less unusual arrangement of simply quartering the coats 
of Orkney and Caithness, and placing an escucheon 
of Sinclair en surtout. (Plate XLIIL, fig. 2).— J. W.] 


[Systematic Heraldry spread gradually from the 
Lowlands to the Highlands of Scotland ; and figures 
familiar upon the old sculptured crosses and other 
monuments became regular heraldic charges. Such are 
the galley, the eagle displayed, the salmon, a rock, and 
a hand holding a dagger or a crosslet fitch^e. In 
two armorial seals appended to a document of 1572 
(Laing, Scottish Seals, ii., 675, 676), those of JOHN 

Murdoch M'Alister, Captain of Clanranald, and 
his son Allan, we have a tree placed in pale between 
a hand issuing from the dexter flank, and a galley (tied 
to the tree) on the sinister. (The hand has no dagger 
or crosslet, and appears to be a sinister hand, unless 
we are supposed to see its back.) But these figures, 
and others, soon came to be borne as quarterings by 
the Highland chiefs in a way which in many cases 
indicated neither family alliances nor the possession of 
feudal Lordships. While one branch of the Lords OF 
THE Isles (Glengarry) bore the galley and the eagle 
as in Plate XLIIL, fig. 3, several branches, including that 
of Clanranald, adopted a quartered coat of the kind 
referred to. In an armorial MS. of the date 1603 (said 
to bear the stamp of authority of Sir David Lindsay 
the younger, then Lyon), the coat represented in Plate 
XLIIL, fig. 4, is ascribed to "Mackoneil, laird of 
Dunnivege and Glennes," i.e, the head of the Clan lAN 
Vor, descending from JOHN, second son of John, 
Lord of the Isles, and the Princess Margaret. 

The MS. of Stacie, Ross Herald 1663-1687 gives the 
coat of Macdonald of Slate, the ancestor of the Lords 
MacdoNALD, as : Quarterly y i. Argent , a lion rampant 


gules armed or ; 2. Azure, a hand proper holding a cross 
of Calvary pat^e sable ; 3. Vert^ a ship ennine, her oars in 
saltire sable on water proper ; 4. Partedperfess^ wavy vert 
and argent, a salmon naiant proper^ {cf. Plate XLIII., 
fig. 5, the present arms of the Lords Macdonald). 

In the record of the elder Sir David Lindsay the 
coat of Maclean is: Azure, a castle triple-towered argent. 
In the MS. of the younger Sir David {circa 1603) a coat 
with the same Highland elements as No. 4 is introduced 
(Plate XLIII., fig. 6). 

Quartered coats of the same elements are borne by 
the Mackintoshes, McNeills, M'Kinnons, and Far- 

QUn ARSONS, slight differences in the arrangement of 
the quarters serving to difference the cadets of each. 

The higher nobility of Scotland had their arms 
marshalled somewhat after the Continental fashion ; and 
as their arrangement has been somewhat misapprehended 
by those who have studied Heraldry from an exclusively 
English point of view a few illustrations may advan- 
tageously be given here particularly with reference to 
the bearing of an escucheon en surtout. The princely 
position of the Earls of DouCjLAS in the fifteenth century 
need hardly be adverted to here, the historical student 
will need little to be reminded how after the " Red " 
Douglas supplanted the " Black," the Earls of ANGUS, 
their virtual successors, notwithstanding their illegitimacy 
of descent, claimed precedence, not over Earls only, but 

^ [We may compare with this the coat borne by Marshal Mac- 
Donald, created Duke of Tarento by Napoleon I. in 1809 ; 
Quarterly, i. Argent, a lion rampant gules; 2. Or, a left hand and 
arm issuing from the sinister flank habited gules, holding a crosslet 
fit Me of the last; 3. Argent, on a sea in base vert, in which swims 
a sahnon of the first, a galley sable its pennons gules ; 4. Argent, a 
tree vert surmounted by an eagle displayed sable. On a champagne 
in base or, a scorpion sable in bend. On the centre point of the 
quarters a crescent gules for difiference. Above the quarters the 
chief indicating the dignity of Duke of the French Empire : Gules, 
senU ofestoiles {mullets) argent. — J. W.] 



1. Btnart, BmI of Lannoz. 2. Haji Harqoii of Tweaddale. 

S. StMrt. Lonl Hrthreo. 4. Ladi^ Lotd lindOTat. 

6. Bub at Home. 

( 514 ) 

over all Peers, with the right of leading the van in battle, 
and bearing the Royal Crown in Parliament. The seals 
of both branches of the house of DOUGLAS, which are 
almost unique in beauty, have a peculiar fitness for 
exemplifying the subject under consideration. 

The seal of William, ist Earl of Douglas, and by 
marriage, of Mar, appended to a document, circa 1378, 
bears the arms of DOUGLAS {Argent, a human heart 
gules, on a chief azure three mullets of the field) quartered 
with Mar {Azure, a bend between six crosslets or). James, 
2nd Earl, who fell at Otterburn in 1388, bore in his 
father's lifetime the simple coat of DOUGLAS. Archi- 
bald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, on whom the 
Earldom then devolved, added largely to the family 
possessions. He acquired Bothwell in Lanarkshire, 
and other considerable lands in Ross-shire, by marriage 
with the widow (not the daughter as has been repre- 
sented), of Thomas Murray of Bothwell. His seal, 
a mutilated example of which is figured on the frontis- 
piece of Laing's Supplemental Volume of Scottish Seals, 
bears DOUGLAS quartering GALLOWAY {Azure, a lion 
rampant crowned or) and on an escucheon en surtout, the 
coat of Murray of Bothwell {Azure) three mullets {Or). 
The accident that he thus used the MURRAY coat, while 
as will be presently shown, his son bore it as a quarter, 
has misled Mr Laing, and other writers of greater 
pretensions, into the belief that the seal of the 3rd Earl 
affords an example in the fourteenth century of the use 
of an " escucheon of pretence " in the modern acceptation 
of that term. It may be that the extent and importance 
of the inheritance which had passed into his possession, 
led to the prominent place accorded to the arms of the 
Bothwell lordship ; or it may only have been a desire 
for the maintenance of symmetry and a well-balanced 
escucheon which prompted the arrangement. 

His son Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas, who 

( 5'S ) 

succeeded him in 1401, obtained by charter from the 
Regent ALBANY in 1409 the Lordship of Annandale. 
This made a re-arrangement of the quarterings neces- 
sary ; and the escucheon on his seal is accordingly — 
Quarterly: i. DOUGLAS; 2. GALLOWAY ; 3. MURRAY of 
Both well ; 4. ANNANDALE {Argent^ a saltire and chief 
gules). In his later years the Earl repaired to France, 
where he was made Duke of TOURAINE, and Count of 
LoNGUEViLLE and Pair de France, by Charles VIL, 
in 1424, and fell at Verneuil in the same year. 

His son Archibald, the fifth Earl of Douglas, and 
second Duke of TOURAINE, dropped the quarter of 
Bothwell to make roam for a coat indicative of his 
Duchy (apparently the plain arms of FRANCE : — Azure, 
three fleurs-de-lis or^) ; this is placed in the first quarter, 
the others being: 2. DOUGLAS; 3. Annandale ; 4. 
Galloway. (Mr Laing, Scottish Sea/s,vol ii., No. 248, 
attributes this seal to the fourth Earl.) 

William, his son, the 6th Earl, during the minority 
of James II., and when he was in his 17th year, was 
decoyed into Edinburgh Castle in 1446, and after a mock 
trial was put to death along with his brother. This 
caused a re-distribution of the possessions of the house 
of Douglas. The Duclii pairie lapsed to the Crown of 
France, Annandale to that of Scotland, Galloway went to 
the EarFs sister MARGARET, known as the " Fair Maid of 
Galloway," who married her cousin WILLIAM (afterwards 
8th Earl). James, 7th Earl of Douglas, who succeeded 

* [This is remarkable, but is paralleled by the plain coat of 
France borne for the Duchy of Chatelherault by the Earls of 
Angus. Charles VII. was the first Sovereign who departed 
from the principle of conferring the "/azrrVr" on princes of the 
blood alone. Wishing to create for himself allies against the 
Dukes of Burgundy and Brittany, who menaced the existence 
of the monarchy, he conferred on James, King of Scotland, the 
pairie oi Saintonge and Rochefort in 142 1, and the county and 
pairie of Evreux on James Stuart, sire d'Aubigny. — ^J. W.] 

( Si6 ) 

his grand-nephew, was, before his marriage. Earl of 
AvONDALE. His son WILLIAM, 8th Earl of DOUGLAS, 
and 2nd of AvONDALE, for a time rose high in the 
favour of James II., who made him Lieutenant-General 
of the realm ; but entering with the Earl of CRAWFORD 
into a confederacy against the king in 1446 he was 
stabbed to death by James in a fit of passion in Stirling 
Castle. The arms on his seal are the same as those of 
his father. {Quarterly: i. DOUGLAS; 2. GALLOWAY; 
3. Murray of Bothwell ; 4. Sable, fretty or for his lord- 
ship of Lauderdale.) ' The 9th, and last Earl, made 
open war on James as his brother's murderer, but a tem- 
porary reconciliation took place, after which the struggle 
was renewed, and after the flight of Douglas to Eng- 
land, was maintained by his brothers, who were respect- 
ively Earls of Moray and Ormond ; but the battle of 
Arkenholme in 1455 settled the fate of the Black 
Douglases. The Earldom, with its vast possessions, 
was forfeited, and its strongholds of Douglas, Abercom, 
Strathaven, and others were dismantled. The Earl 
lived for many years in England ; but in 1484, having 
invaded Scotland with the exiled Duke of ALBANY, he 
was taken captive and sent to the religious retirement of 
Lindores Abbey, where he died. 

The seal of the last Earl is one of the most beautiful 
and interesting of the series. It bears : Quarterly, I. 

Douglas; 2. Lauderdale; 3. Murray of Bothwell ; 
4- Six piles (? for Brechin); and Galloway en surtout 
The arms in the fourth quarter are not easily to be 
accounted for ; if they are for Brechin, they are arms 
of pretension of a remote and far fetched kind. They 
have been blazoned both as borne by this Earl (and long 
afterwards by the 6th Earl of Angus), as BRECHIN, and 
sometimes as the coat of " Wishart of Brechin." There 
never were any " WiSHARTS of Brechin." The imagined 
connection between WiSHART and Brechin — a fancy of 

( 517 ) 

the seventeenth century — arose from the fact that both the 
ancient family of BRECHIN (descended from a natural son 
of Prince David,* Earl of Huntingdon), and the much 
more modem family of WiSHART bore the same charge 
^^ three piles in point gules'^ in their arms. — G. B.] 

[It must be noticed that the arms of the Lordship of 
Brechin, or Earldom of Huntingdon, have the red 
piles on a golden ground, and they were thus quartered 
by the Maules of Panmure. {^See the Registrum de 
Panmure,) The field of the WiSHART coat is argent, 
vide ante, pp. 147, 149. — J. W.] 

[I at one time thought that an explanation of this 
quarter might be found in some entries in the Register 
of the Great Seal of 1472, and in the Crown accounts of 
1465 and subsequent years, purporting that the rents of 
certain portions of Brechin were paid to a Countess 
JONET, wife of William, Earl of Douglas, in lieu of 
her terce. The only possible Countess seemed to be the 
above-named " Fair Maid of Galloway," widow of the 
8th Earl, who though called JONET in the Great Seal 
Register, appeared as Margaret Lindsay, Countess of 
Douglas, in the Exchequer Rolls, It seemed as if the 
** Fair Maid," divorced from her husband, the Earl of 
Athole, had re-married a Lindsay. But the dis- 
covery of further documentary evidence about this lady, 
whose name was certainly JONET, led me to abandon 
this hypothesis for another — namely, that the Countess 
in question was the widow of WiLLlAM, 6th Earl, who, 
having been beheaded at an early age, had not hitherto 
been believed to be married. My grounds for this con- 
clusion are stated at length in the Preface to Vol. VII. 
of the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, and I have not seen 
reason to alter the views thus expressed. That being 

* [David had married Maud, widow of Simon de St. Liz, Earl 
of Huntingdon ; and Henry I. invested him with the Earldom 
in 1108.— J. W.] 


SO, the pretext for assuming the BRECHIN coat is 
certainly remote. The theory maintained in the 
Douglas Book (vol. i.) that these piles (which re- 
appear in the arms of the 6th Earl of Angus) were 
stakes to represent the Lordship of Ettrick Forest 
deserves consideration, yet difficulties apply to it. 
Though piles have sometimes been identified with passion 
nails, I have not found them confounded with stakes. 
There is a well-known use of stakes as an armorial 
charge in the coat of Yair (Plate XXVIII., fig. 12), 
where they are utterly unlike piles, though they exactly 
resemble the stakes of the DOUGLAS compartment here- 
after to be noticed. Perhaps a slight argument against 
the piles denoting Brechin is, that in some heraldic 
MSS. in the Advocates' Library and Lyon Office the 
piles are verL There is also a difficulty arising from the 
number of the piles being uncertain. On the seal of 
Archibald, 6th Earl of Douglas, they are five in 
number. In the arms of the ist Marquess of DOUGLAS 
they are undoubtedly piles, and on the seal of 
his brother, Sir GEORGE DOUGLAS, are three in 
number. Is it possible that, though generally attri- 
buted to Brechin, they may be really borne for the 
Earldom of AvoNDALE? The most remarkable part 
of the seal is to be found in the two banners which 
rise behind the shield, each containing two coats quar- 
tered. In the dexter banner we have the cushions of 
Morav (to which not this lord, but his brother, asserted 
a claim) quartered with three bars (for ....?) In 
the sinister banner the stars of BOTHWELL are quar- 
tered wath {Gules) a fess ermine — doubtless for the 
Lordship of CRAWFORD. 

To pass now to the Earls of Angus, in whose time 
the connection with France affected to a still greater 
extent the development of Scottish Armory. The 2nd 
Earl bore: Quarterly, i and 4. Argent y a lion rampant 

( 519 ) 

gules for Angus ; 2 and 3. DOUGLAS ; and en surtout 
what appears to be ^ bend charged with three estoiles. 
This may possibly have been a combination of the arms 
of Douglas and Sandilands for Cavers and Lydel, 
Jedworth Forest, but it was certainly not the coat of his 
wife, who was a Hay of Yester. If we had coloured 
representations of the blazons of all the Earls of 
Angus we should be able to discover when the white 
lion of Angus in the first quarter developed itself, 
or was metamorphosed, into the Galloway coat. 
Archibald, Bell the Cat, 5th Earl of Angus, bore: 

I. Angus; 2. Abernethy; 3. {Ennine) three chevrons 
{Gules) for Liddesdale (the old coat of the SoULis 
family, from which, however, there was no descent) ; 
and 4. {Sable) fretty {Or) Lauderdale ; en surtout 
the arms of DOUGLAS. Later Earls, beginning with the 
6th, bore : L Galloway ; 2. Abernethy ; 3. Brechin 
(the piles being five in number) ; 4. Stewart of Bonkyl ; 
also with Douglas en surtout — a coat which has been 
preserved by succeeding Earls, the sole difference being 
that the first Marquess of DOUGLAS, who put the crown 
on the heart, bore also in Continental fashion a cham- 
pagne in base of the arms of AUCHINLECK : Argent, a 
cross counter-embattled sable, (Mr Laing, Scottish Seals, 
ii., 285, thought he could trace a similar base on the 
seal of the 2nd Earl of ANGUS ; if so, it could not be 
charged with the AUCHINLECK coat. On an examina- 
tion of the cast of that seal, I, however, could not detect 
the existence of the cross in question.) It thus appears 
that the DOUGLAS quarterings were arranged much more 
in accordance with Continental ideas of marshalling 
than in agreement with modern British usage. 

A few other Scottish examples, some of them of 
marshalling which remains unchanged to the present 
day, will show that the usages referred to were not con- 
fined to one great family ; and will also serve to illustrate 

( 520 ) 

the use of the escucheon en surtout without its modern 
application of an " escucheon of pretence." 

A. curious example of Scottish marshalling may be 
given in limine which indicates how little the Scottish 
lords and heralds of the fifteenth centur>' were trammelled 
by modern rules. The seal of John Stuart, Lord of 
Lorn (Laing, Scottish Seals, i., 797), the father of the 
three co-heiresses, the eldest of whom brought LORN to 
the house of ARGYLL, bears the following arrangement : 
Quarterly : i. Per f ess ^ in chief, a buckle, its pin extending 
to the dexter ; in base counter-compony ; 2 and 3. 
A galley in full sail ; 4. Per f ess, t/ie chief counter-corn- 
pony, and in base a garb. In this composite coat the 
buckle marks the paternal descent from Stewart of 
Bonkyl, while the garb is indicative of the Earldom of 
BucHAN, held by ROBERT, Duke of Albany, his 
maternal grandfather. The galley in the second and 
third quarters, though certainly intended to represent 
the Lordship of LORN, indicated, . notwithstanding, no 
descent from its ancient Lords. The late learned 
genealogist, Mr ALEXANDER Sinclair, has shown that 
the supposed descent is a modern blunder. John 
Stewart, the first Lord of Lorn of this house got the 
Lordship, not by a marriage with the DE Ergadia 
heiress, but by exchange with his brother, who was that 
heiress's husband. 

Another interesting specimen of Scottish marshalling 
is afforded by the seal (Laing, ii., 948) of WILLIAM 
Sutherland of Duffus, appended to a charter of 1540 
which bears a shield Per f ess ; t/ie chief per pale {a) three 
mullets for Sutherland ; {b) three crosslets fitc/i^es for 
Cheyne of Duffus ; in the base a boar's liead for 

Another interesting seal is that of Walter Stewart, 
Earl of Athole and Caithness {circa 1420), son of 
Robert II.'s second marriage, and husband of the heiress 

(5" ) 

of Brechin, who suffered death in 1437 as an accessory 
to the murder of his nephew and benefactor, King J AMES I. 
The blazon is: i. SCOTLAND, differenced by a label of three 
points, 2. Paly of six (or) and {sable) for Athole. 3. (Or) 
three piles (gules) for Brechin. 4. (Azure) a lion rampant 
(argent) crowned (or) for GALLOWAY. En surtout (Azure\ 
a galley under sail (or) for Caithness. Of course 
according to modem ideas Brechin would have been 
borne in an escucheon of pretence. 

On Plate XLII., fig. i is the coat of the Stuarts, Lords 
of Darnley and Earls of Lennox, who bore (Laing, 1., 
798, et seq,), when they assumed the questionable title of 
Earl of Lennox (2>., circa 1490), Quarterly^ i and 4. 
France, a bordure (gules) t/iereon eight buckles (or) 
for AUBIGNY. 2 and 3. StuarT: (Or) a fess chequy 
(argent and azure) within a bordure engrailed (gules) ; and, 
en surtout (Argent), a saltire between four roses (gules) for 
the Earldom of Lennox. 

From about 1 500 down to the present day the Lords 
Hay of Yester, afterwards Earls and Marquesses of 
TWEEDDALE, have borne their paternal coat (Argent, three 
escucheons gules) en surtout on the quartered coats of 
Eraser of Oliver Castle (Azure, three cinquefoils argent), 
and GiFFORD of Yester (Gules, three bars ermine), families 
through which the Hays acquired considerable posses- 
sions (Plate XLII., fig. 2). The different cadet branches 
of the house of TWEEDDALE have borne the same 
arrangement with different bordures. 

In like manner the Earls of Sutherland, who 
descended from the Countess ELIZABETH, wife of Adam 
Gordon, were in the habit of placing SUTHERLAND en 
surtout over the quartered coat of GORDON and Seton, 
a usage which continued until they dropped the surname 

of Gordon, and bore Sutherland only. 

Henry Stuart, Lord METHVEN,who in 1526 became 
the third husband of MARGARET of England, Queen of 



1. ffiuUr, Bul<rfOiitluMii. S. LordtSiMlkii. 

8, HTtamwU of Gl«iig»n7. 4. Mukonail of Daiiiuv«)[B, etc 

( 522 ) 

James IV., bore en surtout over his quartered coat Gules, 
a lion rampant holding between his fore-paws a tower 
argent for the Lordship of Methven (Plate XLIL, fig. 3). 
Lord LiNDORES similarly used the quartered coats of 
Leslie and Abernethy with, en surtout: Gules, a 
castle triple-towered argent for the lordship of LiNDORES 
(Plate XLIL, fig. 4). 

The Livingstones, Earls of Linlithgow, bore en 
surtout, over the quartered coat of LIVINGSTONE and 
C ALLEN DAR, Azure, an oak tree or, a bordure argent, 
tlureon eigJU cinquef oils gules, for the title of LINLITHGOW. 
On the seal of David, Earl of Crawford, created Duke 
of Montrose by James IIL, an escucheon bearing the 
arms of Montrose : Argent, a rose gules, barbed and 
seeded proper, is borne en surtout for his Duchy, over his 
quartered coats of Lindsay and Abernethy. 

In the escucheon of the Lords Carlyle of Torthor- 
wald, from 1473 onwards, a coat probably connected with 
the title: Argent, a saltire azure (sometimes with the 
addition of a chief charged with mullets) is placed en 
surtout over the quartered arms of Carlyle and Crosbie 
(Plate XLIL, fig. 5). 

The first Lord Home, so created in 1473, carried 
Home {Vert, a lion rampant argent^ quartered with 
Pepdie {Argent, three papingoes vert beaked and membered 
gules) on the ground of the marriage of Hugh, one of 
his ancestors, with Mary Pepdie, heiress of the Barony 
of Dunglass.^ He acquired considerable possessions 
by his marriage with the heiress of Landell of that Ilk ; 
whose coat, however, did not appear on the escucheon of 
his grandson and successor, the 2nd Lord HOME, or 
on that of the immediate descendants of the latter. 
But it was borne by the Lord HOME of Sir David 

^ [It is curious that the precedence of the ist and 4th quarters is 
given to Pepdie on the seal of Patrick Home, Archdeacon of 
Teviotdale in 1454, Laing, i., 76.— J. W.] 

( 523 ) 

Lindsay's time, as appears from his register, and is 
displayed on the seal of the ist Earl of HOME, by whom 
it seems to have been adopted in accordance with the 
then prevailing usage, as the feudal coat of his 
Earldom (Plate XLIL, fig. 6). 

In later times it appears not to have been within the 
prerogative of Lyon to authorise the bearing of any 
feudal coat, or coats, en surtout without a special Royal 
warrant. Two instances, only, occur among later Peers 
of Scotland of the escucheon en surtout being thus 
granted. Sir Patrick Hume of Polworth on being 
created Earl of Marchmont in 1690, had in his patent 
of peerage a Royal warrant permitting him to bear en 
surtout the following coat: Argent^ an orange leaved 
proper ensigned with an Imperial Crown or. David 
Boyle of Kelburne, created Earl of GLASGOW in 1703, 
also had a Royal warrant to quarter in the principal 
place of his escucheon a coat of Augmentation : Or^ an 
eagle displayed gules y which seems to have been held to 
warrant the placing of his paternal coat {Or^ three sta^s 
lioms fesseways in pale gules) en surtout above this coat 
quartered with another coat of BOYLE, Per bend 
embattled argent and gules. 

In modern grants and matriculations of arms in 
Scotland it is not the practice to allow the use of any 
coats en surtout except the "escucheon of pretence" 
when it can be properly claimed. — G. B.] 

[The English " use " which began shortly before the 
Union of 1707 has thus been extended to Scotland. 

In both kingdoms the arms of husband and wife may 
be borne impaled, those of the husband being to the dexter 
side of the escucheon. But if the wife be an heiress or 
co-heiress {i.e. has no brothers) the husband may place 
her shield in pretence upon the centre of his plain or 
quartered coats. Some heralds maintain that the husband 
is only entitled to do this after he has issue by the heiress. 

( 524 ) 

It must be remembered that the term heiress in British 
and Scottish Heraldry now only means heiress of 
bloody and has no reference at all to possessions. 
The issue of the marriage are entitled to quarter the 
arms of the heiress mother in the 2nd and 3rd quarters 
with those of their paternal line in the 1st and 4th. If 
the paternal coat be already one containing quarterings, 
the usual mode adopted now instead of using quarterly 
quartered coats, is to place the maternal coat with 
its quarterings (if it has any) after the paternal 

In the case of a lady being heiress to her mother, but 
not to her father (which happens when the mother was 
an heiress and has no male issue by her marriage, while 
the father has male issue by another marriage), the 
modern usage authoritatively sanctioned is that the lady 
should bear only her maternal arms with the addition of 
a canton charged with the paternal coat. If she marries, 
her children (and later descendants) ought to continue 
to bear this composite coat quartered with their 
paternal one ; but they have no right at all to any other 
use of the coat in the canton — that of their maternal 
grandfather (pp. 426, 427). The use thus sanctioned 
goes back to the time of Gerard Legh, who assigns 
to a lady heiress of her mother but not of her father, the 
maternal arms with the addition of the paternal coat on 
a chiefs or on a canton^ but the alternative permitted by 
Legh is not now in vogue. 

To these examples of Marshalling we may fitly join 
one or two examples of the arms assigned to the issue 
of a legitimate but morganatic marriage. 

The Duke of Teck, issue of the marriage between 
Duke Alexander of Wurttemberg and the Countess 
Claudine von Rheday, Countess of Hohenstein 
bears : Per pale : (a) (9r, three sta^s horns fessways in 
pale sable (Wurttemberg) ; (b) Or^ three lions passant in 

2 M 

525 ) 

pale sable tlie dexter paw raised^ gules (Su ABIA). Over 
all : Lozengy in bend-sinister sable and or (Duchy of 
Teck). I have seen the impaled coats quartered, but 
do not know if this was done by authority. 

The Princes of Battenberg, who descend from the 
marriage of the Prince ALEXANDER of Hesse-Darm- 
STADT with the Countess JULIA VON H AUCKE, bear : — 
Quarterly : i and 4. Azure^ a lion rampant double queud 
harry of ten gules and argent crowned^ and fielding in t/ie 
right paw a sword proper (Hesse) within a bordure 
gobon^ of sixteen pieces argent and gules ; 2 and 3. Argent y 
two pales sable (Battenberg). 

An earlier instance is afforded by the arms of the 
Counts von Wartenberg, the issue of the morganatic 
marriage of FERDINAND of Bavaria (d. 1608). They 
bore the arms of Bavaria : Fusilly-bendy^ Argent and 
azure, charged with tlie golden lion rampant of tJie 


The Chevalier de Saxe (d. 1801), issue of the mor- 
ganatic marriage of Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony, 
bore the arms of Saxony, but with the addition of afess 
sable passing over the cranqelin^ and covering the third 
bar of sable and the third bar of or. 

Official Arms. — Archbishops and Bishops impale 
the arms of their Sees with their personal arms, the 
prelate being termed maritus eccUsice, but in British 
Armory the dexter side, or place of honour, is given to 
the official coat. Deans of cathedral and collegiate 
churches, and certain other dignitaries, Masters of 
Colleges, the Regius Professors at Cambridge and others, 
have official arms which might be borne in like manner, 
but at the present day examples of their use by such 
personages are very infrequent 

The use of official arms remains, however, constant 
among the Kings of Arms. Garter bears : Argent ^ 
St, George's cross ^ on a chief azure an open crown witfiin 

( 526 ) 

tlie Garter^ between a lion ^ENGLAND and a fleur-de-lis 
or. Similarly the official arms of Lyon are : Argent^ a 
lion sejant affrontie gules, liolding in its dexter paw a 
t/iistle proper, and in tlie sinister an escucheon of t/ie 
second; on a chief azure a saltire of t/ie first. Those of 
Ulster are : Argent, t/te Cross of St. George, on a chief 
azure a lion of Yj^G\^Kli^T>, between t/ie liarp <?/*lRELAND and 
a portcullis or Clarenceux and NORROY have also 
official coats. Clarenceux bears : Argent, t/ie cross of 
St. George, on a chief gules a lion of ENGLAND crowned or. • 
(On a seal dated 1598, the lion is uncrowned and a 
fleur-de-lis is placed in the first canton.) That of 
NORROY is : Argent, t/ie cross of St. George, on a chief per 
pale azure and gules, a lion of ENGLAND crowned, between 
a fleur-de-lis and a key erect, all or. In all cases where 
an official coat is thus impaled, the' bearer may not 
impale those of his wife in the same escucheon ; if he 
desire to use his wife's arms he may impale them with 
his own in a separate escucheon, and place the two 
shields auoUs. 

Foreign ecclesiastics sometimes quarter, sometimes 
impale, the arms of their See, or other religious founda- 
tion, with their personal arms. Sometimes these latter 
are used in an escucheon en surtout. Full information 
on these subjects, which cannot be dealt with at length 
here, will be found in my forthcoming treatise on Eccles- 
iastical HercUdry. The lay Electors of the Holy Roman 
Empire had each an official coat of arms, borne generally 
en surtout above their quarterings. That of the 
Elector of Saxony, as Arch-Marshal of the Empire, 
has already been given at page 346. The ELECTOR 
Palatine bore: Gules, an orb or, as Arch-Steward. 

The Elector of Brandenburg : Azure, a sceptre in 
pale or, as Arch-Chamberlain {cf p. 380). The Elector 
of Hannover: Gules, t/ie crown ^Charlemagne, as 
Arch-Treasurer {v. p. 380). The Counts of LiMPURG 

( 527 ) 

place a golden cup in the centre of their quartered arms, 
as Hereditary Butlers of the Empire {cf. BUTLER on 
p. 381). The insignia of the Hereditary Master of the 
Horse have been given on p. 490; and those of the 
Hereditary Standard-Bearer on p. 352. The Grand 
Masters of the Order of the Hospital of St John of 
Jerusalem quartered the arms of the Order {Gules^ 
a cross argent) with their personal ones. The Knights 
of Justice, etc., of the Order bore its arms as above 
on a chief. By the Statutes of the Grand Priory of 
the Order of St. John, in England, H.M. the Queen 
has conferred on the Knights of Justice, etc., the same 
right ; the cross being cantoned alternately with lions 
gardant, and unicorns, both passant or The Grand 
Masters of the Teutonic Order quartered its arms with 
those of their family. The Knights of the Order of 
St. Stephen in Tuscany bore the arms of that Order in 
chief, like the Knights of St. John, etc. — J. W.] 



Augmentations are additions made by the Sovereign 
to the coat of arms of an individual as a recognition of 
services rendered to the Prince or to the State ; or 
merely as evidence of princely favour. They sometimes 
take the form of additional quarterings ; but more com- 
monly consist of a chief, canton, or an escucheon to be 
borne thenceforth as an integral part of the hereditary 
coat Many of them are exceedingly interesting as 
historical memorials. 

Allusion has been already made (p. 474) to the 
assumption by RICHARD 11. of the mythical arms of 
Edward the Confessor, which he impaled with his 
own coat, and to the fact that he granted them as marks 
of special favour to his kinsmen, the HOLLANDS, Dukes 

of Surrey and Kent ; and to Thomas Mowbray, 
Duke of Norfolk. We have seen (p. 383) that 
the same monarch granted to Robert de Vere, 
K.G., whom he had created Duke of Ireland, the 
mythical coat of St Edmund ; AzurCy three open 
crowns or^ differenced by a bordure argent^ to be quar- 
tered with his personal arms : Quarterly gules and or^ a 
mullet argent. 

We have also had under notice (p. 377) the coat of 
augmentation granted to, or assumed by, the Pelhams 
to perpetuate the memory of the share taken by Sir 
John Pelham in the capture of King JOHN of FRANCE 
at the battle of Poictiers. 

( 529 ) 

Henry VIII. granted several augmentations: both 
in commemoration of prowess in the field, and as marks 
of personal favour. 

First among the former class is the augmentation 
granted to THOMAS HOWARD, Duke of NORFOLK, for 
his victory at Flodden. To his personal arms : GuleSy a 
bend between six crosses crosslet fitchy argent ^ he was to 
add an escucheon, to be placed in chief upon the bend, of 
a portion of the Royal Arms of SCOTLAND : (9r, within 
the Royal Tressure a demi-lion rampant guleSy pierced 
through the 7nouth with an arrow, argent. About the 
same time an augmentation was granted to Sir John 
Clerk, who, less than a month before Flodden, had 
taken captive LouiS, Duke de LONGUEVILLE, at the 
battle of Therouenne, known as the Battle of t/te Spurs, 
The arms of CLERK were: Argent, on a bend gules 
between three roundles sable, as many swans of the first. 
To this coat he was permitted to add, a sinister canton 
azure, c/iarged with a demi-ram salient argent armed or, 
in chief two fleurs-de-lis gold, and over all a baton of the 

GuiLLiM considers this the coat of the Duke de 
LONGUEVILLE, and he has been followed without 
protest by NiSBET, and by many subsequent writers, 
up to the last edition of F0STER\s Baronetage where the 
canton is said to be "the arms of LONGUEVILLE." 
This is of course an entire mistake, though the canton 
does contain a composition from the armorial insignia 
of the Duke. He was the grandson of the celebrated 
Jean, Comte de Dunols, bastard son of Louis, Due 
d'ORLEANS. In 1428, DUNOIS sealed with the arms of 
Orleans {France, a label argent), debruised by a 
bendlet'Sinister argent, and the shield is supported by a 
ram. Later he took as supporters the eagles which had 
been used by his father the Duke, but retained a demy- 
ram as his crest. As his second wife he married Marie, 

( 530 ) 

daughter of jAMES Harcourt, Comte de LONGUE- 
VILLE, and Seigneur de Parthenay ; and the seal of 
his son Francis, " Comte de DuNOis et de Longue- 
viLLE, Seigneur de PARTHENAY " bears the following 
arms : Quarterly, i and 4. ORLEANS, over all a bendlet 
argent; 2. {Azure f^ an eagle displayed {argent T)\ 
3. Burele argent and azure a bend gules (Parthenay). 
The shield has the eagle supporters, and the crest is a 
ram's head collared. We are thus able to account for 
the appearance of the ram's head in the coat of 
augmentation, and the other charges of it need no 
explanation. (I pointed out the mistake in Notes 
and Queries, 3rd Series, viii., p. 283, so long ago as 
1865, and showed that this augmentation was a very 
different thing from that which the books on Heraldry- 
represented it to be, viz., the assumption of the arms 
of a vanquished knight as a matter of right by the 

As a mark of personal favour, and in commemoration 
of his royal descent from Anne Plantagenet, Henry 
Vni. augmented the arms of Sir Thomas Manners, 
K.G., Earl of Rutland, with a chief composed from 
the quartered arms of France and England, and the 
arms still borne by his descendants, the Dukes of 
Rutland, are : Or, two bars azure, a chief of augmenta- 
tion : — Quarterly, I and 4. Azure, two fleurs-de-lis of 
France ; 2 and 3. Gules, a lion of England. (Sir 
George Manners of Belvoir, married Anne, 

daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas St. Leger, by 
Anne Plantagenet, sister of Edward IV. The 
title of Rutland was one of those borne by the Dukes 

of York.) 

Henry VHI. granted quarterings of augmentation 
to all his wives except CATHARINE of Arragon and 
Anne of Cleves, who both had sufficient of their own. 
The augmentation of the arms of Anne Boleyn 

( 531 ) 

consisted of the first three quarterings. She bore 
Quarterly of six : 

1. Lancaster : England with a label of three points 


2. ANGOULfeME : France-ancient ^ a label of four points 


3. GuiENNE : GuleSy a lion passant or. 

4. Quarterly : 1 and 4 Or, a chief indented azure^ 

2 and 3. Argent, a lion rampant sable, 
crowned gules, ROCHFORT. 

5. Brotherton : England, a label argent, 

6. Warren : Cliequy or and azure. 

These arms are taken from a book once in Anne's 
own possession. It will be noticed that altogether they 
form an instance of the perversion of the true historical 
spirit of heraldry of which the reigns of HENRY VIII. 
and his immediate successors are only too full of 
examples. Anne's own coat, that of Bol^yn : Argent, 
a chevron gules between three bull's /leads couped sable, 
anned or, does not appear at all ! BROTHERTON and 
Warren were quarterings taken from the coat of 
Anne's mother, Elizabeth Howard, but were borne 
here against all heraldic rule : while the two paternal 
coats of Butler and Rochfort were brought in 
equally improperly, being the arms of Margaret 
Butler of Ormond, mother of Anne's father, Sir 
Thomas Boleyn. In one way the whole affair is not 
inappropriate for it is characteristically false ! 

To Jane Seymour, Henry granted a single quarter 
in augmentation : Or, on a pile gules between six fleurs- 
de-lis azure three lions of ENGLAND, and this coat is still 
borne in memory of this alliance by the Dukes of 
Somerset in the ist and 4th quarters of their shield, with 
those of Seymour {Gules, two wings conjoined in lure tips 
downward or) in the 2nd and 3rd (Plate XXXIX., fig. 2). 

( 532 ) 

To his fifth wife, Lady CATHARINE Howard, Henry 
granted two coats of augmentation, to be borne in the 
1st and 4th quarters : — 

1. A sure ^ three fleurs-de-lis in pale or, between two 

flaunclus ennine on each a rose gules, barbed 
and seeded proper, 

2. Brotherton (as above). 

3. Howard (as above). 

4. Azure, two lions passant gardant or, tlu verge of 

tlu escucfteon charged with four demi-fleurs-de- 
lis of tlie second. 

Only a single coat of augmentation was granted to 
Queen Catharine Parr. It was: Argent, on a pile 
gules between six roses of Lancaster three roses of York 
all barbed and seeded or. This coat was quartered with 
her proper arms (2. Parr ; 3. Ross ; 4. Marmion ; 
5. FiTZHUGH ; 6. Green). 

The Wharton augmentation has been already 
noticed, p. 376 ante. 

James I. granted a lion of England, to be borne in 
dexter chief, as an augmentation to the coat of his 
favourite, ROBERT Carr, Viscount ROCHESTER: — Gules, 
on a chevron argent three stars of the first ; and also an 
additional quartering, to be borne in the ist and 4th 
places, viz.: Quarterly or and gules. 

Several English coats have received augmentation in 
commemoration of assistance rendered to CHARLES H. 
after the battle of Worcester. For his distinguished con- 
duct thereat Charles granted to Colonel Newman an 
inescucheon. Gules, charged with a portcullis imperially 
crowned or, to be borne en surtout above the paternal 
coat: Quarterly sable and argent, in tlu ist and 4th 
quarters three mullets of tlu second, John Lane, Esq., 
of Bentley, for facilitating the King's escape, had a 
grant of the Arms of England, on a canton, upon his 
paternal coat : Per fess or and azure, a cluvron gules 

( 533 ) 

between three mullets counter-changed. To the Whit- 
GREAVE coat (Plate XIV., fig. 3) there was added as an 
augmentation : a chief argent y thereon a rose ^ENGLAND 
irradiated Or^ within a wreath of oak proper. 

The coats granted to Colonel Carlos and to Pen- 
DERELL do not properly come under the head of 
Augmentations, being new grants of arms, but may be 
mentioned here ; they only differ in their tinctures. 
Colonel Carlos had, in 1658, a grant of Or^ on a mount 
in base an oak tree vert, over all on a fess gules three 
Royal Crowns of t/te first. Penderell had the same, 
but the field is argent and the fess sable. 

These augmentations and new grants are all con- 
ceived in a true heraldic spirit, which was conspicuously 
absent from the augmentations granted to our naval and 
military commanders in the i8th and 19th centuries. 
The Duncans of Forfarshire bore : Gules, a c/ievron or, 
between two cinquefoils in chief and a hunting horn in 
base argent stringed and garnished azure. The chevron 
was replaced in the arms of Admiral Duncan, the 
victor of Camperdown in 1797 (and who was created 
Lord Camperdown and Viscount Duncan), by a 
representation of the gold medal conferred on him by 
the King, surmounted by a naval crown, and below the 
medal the word Camperdown. Thus, so far as I 
remember, was created a precedent for two breaches of 
heraldic good taste, of which there were only too many 
imitations in later times, viz., the introduction of words 
into the shield, and of medals, ribbons, and other decora- 
tions, which are much more fittingly used as external 
ornaments than as charges to be perpetuated in a coat 
of arms. Even these, however, were exceeded in bad 
taste by augmentations in which the chief was turned into 
a pictorial representation of a battered fortress, with or 
without bombarding ships — or of a regular naval engage- 
ment. \See the arms of FULLER ; Lords EXMOUTH, 

( 534 ) 

GouGH, and Harris ; Sir Sidney Smith, Campbell, 
Vyvyan, and Hamilton (baronets) ; Vassall, etc.] 
Of these one example will suffice : — Lord Viscount 
Nelson, who deserved better things even of the heralds 
of his country, received as an augmentation : On a chief 
wavy argent waves of tlu sea, from which a palm tree, 
issuant between a disabled ship on tlte dexter and a ruined 
battery on t/ie sinister, all proper. (The last word lacks a 
syllable !) The coat to which this augmentation was 
made was not itself a very favourable specimen of the 
heraldic art of the time : Or, a cross patonce sable, sur- 
mounted by a bend gules, thereon another bend engrailed of 
t/ie field charged with three bombs fired proper. 

Happily the augmentations granted to the great 

Dukes of Marlborough and of Wellington are in 

better taste. To the former was assigned : Argent, a 
cross of St. George thereon an escucheon of the arms of 
France; to the latter: The bearings of the flag of the 
United Kingdom known as the •' Union fackr Both 
these augmentations are borne in escucheons on the 
honour point of the quartered shield. 

It is pleasant to note that the augmentations granted 
in later years show signs of reversion to a simpler and 
better heraldic taste. 

In Scotland the great armorial augmentation was of 
course the Royal tressure, examples of the grant of 
which have been already given. Of other augmentations 
probably the earliest is that which is said to have been 
granted to Sir ALEXANDER Seton, Governor of Berwick, 
circa 1320 ; a sword paleways azure supporting the Royal 
Crown proper. This was placed in the centre of the Seton 
coat. Or, three crescents within the Royal Tressure gules. 

James VI. gave special concessions to Sir John 
Ramsay of Wyliecleugh, created Viscount Hadding- 
ton ; Sir Thomas Erskine, younger, of Gogar, after- 
wards Earl of Kellie ; and to Sir Hugh Herries of 

( 535 ) 

Cowsland, in memory of the part they took in the 
frustration of the Gowrie Plot in 1600. 

The augmentation which was to be impaled to the 
dexter of the paternal coat of Rams AY {Argent^ an eagle 
displayed sable y artned gules ^ on its breast a crescent of t lie 
first) was : Azure, issuant from tlu sinister flank, a dexter 
arm Iwldinga sword erect in pale argent, hilled or, piercing 
a human luart gules, and supporting with its point an 
Imperial crown proper 

The Erskine augmentation was : Gules, an Imperial 
crown within a double tressure flory-counter-flory or, which 
was quartered in the ist and 4th quarters. The grant to 
Sir Hugh Herries resembled that of Ramsay, being: 
Azure, an arm in armour issuing from the dexter side of 
the shield fielding a sword erect supporting on its point the 
Imperial crown all proper An augmentation granted to 
Sandilands, Lord Torphichen was : Per fess, azure 
and or, in chief an Imperial crown, in base a thistle vert, 

Charles I. granted to Sir John Hay, Earl of Kin- 
NOULL, the following augmentation : Azure, a unicorn 
salient argent, armed, maned, and unguled or, within a 
bordure of the last cliargedwith thistles £?/* SCOTLAND and 
roses of ENGLAND {gules) dimidiated and conjoined. One 
such combined rose and thistle was granted, on a canton 
argent, as an augmentation to the arms of Sir NiCOLO DE 
Molina, Senator of Venice and Ambassador to King 
James I. (The grant is given in Guillim's Display of 
Heraldry, p. 389.) Molina's coat was Azure, a mill wlieel 

Foreign concessions in augmentation, both in ancient 
and modern times, are so numerous that a whole volume 
might be devoted to a record of them and of the circum- 
stances under which they were granted, and we can give 
only a few specimens in our limited space. 

First of all naturally come the IMPERIAL AUGMENTA- 
TIONS. A number of these are recorded in DuCANGE, 


tome vii., p. io6, but the intelligent student will at once 
perceive that credence cannot be accorded to some of the 
earlier ones. Those said to be granted by the Emperor 
Frederick I. are probably the earliest which rest on a 
foundation of truth. In 1162 he is said to have granted 
to Julio Marioni the right to use the Imperial Eagle 
in his arms, with the title of Count, and a like grant is 
said to have been made to the family of Jovio, which 
some centuries later received from the Emperor CHARLES 
V. a further augmentation in the shape of the pillars of 
Hercules {v, p. 643). 

Frederick ll.{c. 1212) granted Conrad Malaspina 
the ordinary augmentation of a chief of tlie Empire (Or, 
an eagle displayed sable). The Malaspina arms were : 
Per fess gules and or over all^ a tlwm branch vert with 
Jive flowers argent in pale. To Maffeo VISCONTI 
(vide ante, p. 274) the Emperor Adolf granted the right 
to quarter the Imperial Eagle. This was, however, to 
all appearance, only an official coat, denoting his tenure 
of the Vicarate of the Empire in Milan and Lombardy. 
Mention has already been made of the general use of the 
Imperial Eagle by officials of the Empire (vide ante, 
pp. 243, 244). 

Henry VII. granted. to Alboino della Scala of 
Verona (who bore Gules ^ a ladder of four steps in pale 
argent) the right to quarter therewith the eagle of the 
Empire ; while LOUIS, the Bavarian, permitted Can 
della Scala to place the eagle in an escucheon above 
the ladder. The Emperor Siglsmund granted to Louis 
del Verme, in 1433, the title of Count of Sanguinetto, 
and the arms of the Empire. {Quarterly : i and 4. Gules, 
three bars argent; 2 and 3. Barry of four azure and argent 
are the DEL Verme arms.) GIUSTINIANI declares that 
the four sable eagles which appear in the arms of the 
GONZAGAS, Dukes of Mantua (Argent, between four 
eagles displayed sable, a cross pate^-throughout gules), were 

( 537 ) 

granted by the Emperor SiGiSMUND to Giovanni 
Francesco, first Marquis, in 1433 ; the ducal title came 
later, in 1530. 

The same Prince had already granted a chief of the 
Empire to Francesco Giustiniani {Gules, a castle, 
triple-towered argent, tlu port sable) in 141 3 ; and, in 
1415, to Elzeas DE Sade, an eagle displayed sable, 
crowned gules, to be borne in the centre of his arms : 
Gules, a star of eight points or (These were the arms of 
Laura, wife in 1325 of Ugo de Sade, — the muse of 

The Emperor Maximilian II. granted to Alberic 
ClBO the principality of Massa, and as an augmenta- 
tion, a chief Or charged with a double-headed eagle sable. 
The ClBO arms now are : Gules, a bend chequy azure and 
argent, on a chief argent a cross gules ; this chief abaiss^ 
under another of the EMPIRE : Or, a double-headed eagle 
sable, holding in its claws a ribbon c/iarged with tlu word 

" Libert AS." 

When this prince made Cambray into a Duchy of 
the Empire in favour of the Bishop JACQUES DE Croy 
and his successors, he permitted them to add to their 
arms a chief of the Empire, with the brisure of a label 
gules (the reason of which latter is past finding out). 

The Dukes of MiRANDOLA had what appears to be a 
double Imperial grant {vide ante, p. 509). 

The Imperial augmentation of the arms of the Dukes 
of MODENA is also referred to on pp. 508, 509. 

The arms of many noble and princely families of the 
Empire were from time to time honoured with grants of 
this kind. The Princes of SCHWARTZBURG on elevation 
to that rank received an augmentation (to be borne en 
surtout above their quarterings) of the arms of the 
Empire, the eagle having on its breast an escucheon of 
the Austrian arms. 

Other instances occur in the arms of the Counts von 


L BBtaHiddnQaMcilin(»). t. L* Ocnto da KotiaicllMd (IS)- 

X Jia Oomta da Nunnr (IM). 

U(316). S. L*I>Md« 

IL La Bof ds FnuM dV 

( 538) 

Pappenheim (a chief of the Empire) ; — the Counts of 
Cronberg ; and the Dukes of Friedland (Wallen- 
STEIN), already referred to on pp. 220 and 488, both 
bore an escucheon en surtout. 

Sometimes the Imperial Eagle in such concessions 
bears upon its breast the cypher of the Emperor, either 
in or without a shield ; sometimes the grant is of the eagle 
as a supporter to the arms of the family which are borne 
on its breast; other grants are of the eagle as an additional 
crest, or as a mark of distinction between the crests. 

All these and others are referred to in Spener, Opus 
Heraldicum, pars i, cap. 2, p. 56; but probably the 
instances given will suffice the ordinary reader. It must 
be noticed that in Italy, during the contests between the 
Guelphic and Ghibbeline factions, those families which 
belonged to the latter frequently assumed, without any 
special Imperial grant, a chief of the Empire, On the 
other hand the Guelphic faction assumed with still 
greater frequency a chief derived from the arms of the 
Duke of Anjou, viz. : Azure, a label of four points gules, 
between t/te points three fleurs-de-lis or. This is the 
rastrello which meets our eyes at every turn in Florence, 
Bologna, and other cities of Italy {vide ante, p. 469, and 
Plate XXXIX., fig. 6). 

Of French grants of augmentation the most import- 
ant given by DucANGE are the following. Charles 
VI., in 1394, permitted GlAN Galeazzo Visconti, 
Duke of Milan, who had married Isabel of France, 
to quarter France-ANCIENT for himself and his heirs. 
In 1389 he granted the same privilege to his cousin 
Charles d'Albret (who bore Gules plain), 

Charles VII. granted to Nicolo d*Este, created 
Duke of Ferrara, the arms of France-modern, 
within a plain bordure, indented or and gules. 

The augmentation of the Medici arms is referred to 
on p. 192. 

( 539 ) 

One of the earliest of French augmentations is that 
which is said to have been granted by St. LouiS to 
Geoffroi de Chateaubriand {vide ante, p. 331). 

In later times the augmentation granted was usually 
a chief azure tliereon three fleurs-de-lis or, briefly 
"a chief of FRANCE." Such a chief was granted 
by Louis XIV. in 1663, with the title of Count, to 
Hannibal de ScheStedt, ambassador from Denmark 
at the court of France. (This concession seems to be 
wrongly used nowadays. In RiETSTAP's Annorial 
GMrcd, it is blazoned as : dAzur^ d trois fleurs-de-lis 
dor^ rangies en fasce; d la bordure de gueules cliargh en 
pointe de la device^ " PLUS ESSE QUAM VIDERI.") 

An augmentation granted in the present century has 
historical interest. The family of SfezE bore : Azure, 
three towers in fess between in chief two estoiles and in 
base a crescent or, but by a royal decree in 1817, LOUIS 
XVIII. authorised the Count de SfeZE, defender of King 
Louis XVI., to change these to Gules, a castle repre- 
senting t lie " Temple"^ argent between in chief two estoiles or, 
and in base sixteen fleurs-de-lis of tlie second ranged 7, 6, 3. 

The family of Faudoas-Barbazan, bearing Azure, 
a cross or, quarter (or sometimes impale with it) the full 
arms of France, a concession made by Charles VII. 
in 1434 to the Barbazan who had the title of 
" Restaurateur du Royaume, et de la Couronne de France,'' 
and was buried among the Kings of FRANCE at St 

In later times a common augmentation has consisted 
in a small escucheon to be borne en surtout, containing 
the initial, or cypher, of the Sovereign, sometimes 
surmounted by the Imperial or Royal, or other Crown ; 
sometimes the escucheon itself is so surmounted. Such 
an augmentation appears in the arms of the Princes von 
ESTERHAZY of Hungary : An escucluon sable c/iarged 
with the letter L or, and surmounted by a princely crown. 



( 540 ) 

The Bohemian Counts CZERNIN have en surtout 
a crowned escucheon of the arms of AUSTRIA, on the 
fess the cypher F III. sable. This is a type of which 
there are a good many examples. The Bohemian 
Barons Wrazda DE Kunwald bear: Quarterly, i and 
4, Azure, on a terrace vert a basilisk with wings and tail 
elevated or; 2 and 3. Gules, a bend argent. Over all 
a crowned escucheon of the Austrian Artns the fess 
charged with the cypher M T, between in chief the 
cypher F III. and in base L I. 

The Barons HOCHBURG bear en surtout the arms of 
Hungary-modern {Gules, on a mount in base vert 
a cross of Lorraine argent rising out of an open crown or). 

Analogous to this is the interesting historical 
augmentation granted in 1868 to the illustrious 
Austrian statesman, Count Beust, the pacificator of 
Hungary: Per fess {a) Or, an Imperial eagle issuant 
sable crowned proper; {b) Per pale (i) Argent an olive 
branch in bend vert, (2) the arms of HUNGARY- 
MODERN ; — over all the arms of Beust : Per pale imancli^ 
gules and argent; crowned with a ducal coronet of five 
flowers or. 

The arms granted in 1853 to M. vON Ettenreich, 
who saved the life of the Emperor Francis, are : 
Quarterly, i and 4. Or, tfte Imperial eagle; 2 and 
3 ( . . . . ). Two arms united in fess holding a 
civic crown proper, 

Polish. — Sigismund, King of Poland, granted in 
1 5 12 an augmentation consisting of the arms of that 
country : Gules, an eagle displayed argent beaked and 
membered and liaving Klee stengeln or, to be borne in the 
1st and 4th quarters ; to the family of Stafileo of 
Dalmatia whose personal coat is : Per fess gules and 
vert, a vine stalk couped in fess or, bearing in chief 
two leaves of tJu second and in base a bunch of grapes 

2 N 

( 541 ) 

Charles VII. gave Guillaume de Delmas de 
Grammont a mural crown as an augmentation to his 
arms {Argent y a cross moline gules) as a reward for being 
the first to mount the breach at the siege of Pontoise in 

The Emperor NAPOLEON 1 1 1, granted to FiALiN, created 

Due de Persigny in 1863, a concession of Azure^ sein^ 

of eagles of the FRENCH Empire to be quartered in the 

1st and 4th, with Argent^ on a bend azure three escallops 

of t/te field in the 2nd and 3rd. 

The Papal Concessions are among the most 

interesting ; good examples are found in the arms of 
the Dukes of MODENA, and of PARMA, already given at 
pp. 508 and 509. 

The Neapolitan family of MORRA (Princes of MORRA, 
Dukes de Belforte, etc.) bear in their quartered arms 
a pale (gules) cJiarged with two Papal tiaras ^ each in front 
of the Papal keys in saltire. (Their family coat is GuleSy 
two swords in saltire argent y hiltedor, between four mullets 
of the last,) 

The Marquises of Trotti-Ben VOGLIO bear Quarterly : 
I and 4. Perfess or and azure^ Trotti ; 2 and 3. Per 
bend indented or and guleSy Benvoglio. The quarters 
separated by the Papal pale of the GONFALONIERE (as 
on page 509 above). 

The Marquises of GUASTO bear the charges which 
here appear upon the pale, on an escucheon en surtout. 

The Barberini of Naples place them in chief above 
their personal arms, Azure, three bees or. The SODERINI 
of Florence, who bear. Gules, three stag's horns argent, 
place in chief the keys in saltire behind the Papal tiara. 
The Florentine GiROLAMi, who bear. Argent, a saltire 
sable, do the same. 

But the Armorials of RUSSIA, Sweden, and Prussia 
contain the greatest number of modem augmentations, 
some at least of which will be found of interest. 

( 542 ) 

I. Russian Augmentations and Concessions. — 

The arms granted to OSSIP IVANOVICH, who saved the 
life of the Emperor ALEXANDER II. in 1865, and was 
raised to nobility by the name of KOMMISSAROV- 
KOSTROMSKY, are : Or, moving from the sinister flank an 
arm proper^ vested azure^ tfu hand clutching a hydra sable^ 
winged gules ; on a chief of t/te third a sliip fully rigged 
iearing tlu Imperial Standard. 

The augmentation of the Counts Rudiger (who bore: 
AzurCy a saltire argent between four estoiles or) is a chief 
Or^ cliarged with tlu Imperial eagle issuant and crowned 
as in tlie Imperial artnSy on its breast an escuc/teon gules 
bordured or and cliarged with tfu crowned Imperial 
initial H. That of the Princes and Counts LlEVEN 
(who bore : Asure^ a bunch of three stalks of garden lilies 
leaved and each bearing three flowers argent^ is the same 
but the escucheon is Azure^ bordered and cliarged with 
tlie letter A ory which augmentation is identical with that 
of the Counts von der Pahlen. 

The augmentation of SUWOROFF, Prince ITALISKI, is 
a chief of the Imperial artns tlu eagle issuant ^ on its breast 
tlu arms of MOSCOW {GuleSy tlu mounted knight over- 
throwing tlu dragon proper). 

The Counts and Princes Orloff quarter in the ist, 
the Imperial arms, differenced by a chief azure on which 
is a third Imperial crown. 

The Princes Menschikoff have as an augmentation 
an escucheon Or^ cliarged with tlu eagles of Russia, and 
of tlu Holy Roman Empire, di?nidiated and conjoined ; 
on the breast an escucheon of the personal arms ; (?r, a 
luart gules royally crowned proper. 


Lewascheffs, and others have an escucheon en surtout 
charged with the Imperial eagle. 

II. Prussian Augmentations are very numerous 
and are of several different kinds. The first consists 

( 543 ) 

generally of a grant of the arms of PRUSSIA to be 
borne sometimes in the ist Quarter, as in that granted 
to the Counts BuLOW VON Dennewitz, who use 
Quarterly i and 4. Argent ^ the Prussian eagle, 

2 and 3. (9r, a sword argent lulted of tJie first y 
enfiled with a laurel crown vert. 
T/ie wliole within a bordure gules charged in base with 
the words "Dennewitz, 6 September, 18 13," in letters 
argent. The personal arms are quartered on an escucheon 
en surtouty and bear sur le tout du tout the BOlow coat, 
A sure^ fourteen balls 4,4, 3, 2, i, or 

The Counts of INGENHELM and Blumenthal, 
and the Barons CODEVE bear the Prussian eagle 
in the ist and 4th quarters. In the arms of the 
Counts von Dyrrhn it occupies the 2nd quarter, 
and in those of the Comtes SCHLIEBEN both the 2nd 
and 3rd. 

Sometimes it is borne on an escucheon en surtout^ as in 
the arms of DOMliARD : Quarterly, I and 4. Sable^ a 
garb or; 2 and 3. Azure, a liorse saliant argent y all within 
a bordure or, over all t/ie Royal anns of PRUSSIA. It is 
so also in the arms of the Counts GOTTER, and of the 
Counts GUROWSKI ; the latter bear : C/iequy of 6^ panes 
argent and azure, over all an escucfieon of the Royal Anns 
of Prussia. 

At times only a portion of the arms is borne, as in 
the coat of Carlowitz: Per pcde\ — (a) the anns of 
Prussia dimidiated; (b) Gules, three roses argent barbed 
vert,seededor ; or in those of Altrock : The Royal Anns 
of Prussia dimidiated, impaling. Gules a greyJtound 
rampant argent, collared or, on a terrace vert, tlie whole 
within a bordure of the third. 

Sometimes the shield is divided per fess, and the 
augmentation is placed in chief, as in the arms of ECK* 
HARDSTEIN ; Per fess (i) in chief the Royal Anns of 
Prussia ; (2) Per bend or and azure over all a fess gules 

( 544 ) 

tJureon three acorns argent. T/ie wlwle within a bordure 

In modem times the much prized decoration of the 
Iron Cross has been used as an augmentation of the 
arms, and some of the most interesting coats are thus 
treated (the Iron Cross is a cross pat^e sable y with varying 
dates and cyphers, and bordered argent). 

To Prince Blucher there was granted the following 
coat : Quarterly, i and 4. Argent , tlie eagle of Prussia ; 

2. Or, a sword in bend argent, surmounted by t/ie baton 
of a Field Mars/tal of VK[5^^1A. in bend sinister, both enfiled 
by a laurel wreath proper ; 3. Or, t/u Iron Cross proper. 
Over all the personal arms : Gules, two keys addorsed 
paleways argent. There are four coroneted and crested 
helms: i. 77^ ^a^/(? (t/" PRUSSIA ; 2. Two keys in saltire ; 

3. Tfu sword and baton in saltire ; 4. A banner of tlie 
third quarter. The supporters are two eagles of PRUSSIA 
regardant. With this we may place the arms granted to 
Count von MOLTKE : Or, tfie Iron Cross touching tlie 
borders of tfu shield (it has on the upper arm the initial 
W of silver, surmounted by the Royal crown gold ; on 
the others the dates 1861, 1866, 1870). On an escuc/ieon, 
en surtout, the personal arms: Argent, three liens sable. 
The crest is : — out of an open crown a penache of 
seven peacock's feathers charged with a disc bear- 
ing the Royal Arms of Prussia, with the escucheon 
of HOHENZOLLERN on the breast of the eagle. The 
supporters are two eagles of Prussia, each collared 
with a golden crown and bearing a French "eagle" 
with the flag all proper. Motto : ERST WAGEN DANN 


We may notice that the Prussian eagles are often 
given as supporters or crests by way of augmentation ; 
and that these of VON MOLTKE are formed upon those 
granted to Count von Wrangel, whose eagles bore 
the Dannebrog {Gules, a cross argent), the dexter flag 

( 545 ) 

charged with the date 1848 ; the sinister with 1864 ; and 
each having in its dexter canton two swords in saltire 

Frederick II., King of Prussia, in 1782, granted to 
the Earl of CLARENDON the right to bear his arms on 
the breast of the Prussian eagle. In 1791, the Earl of 
Malmesbury had an augmentation granted to him of 
A chief argent thereon the Prussian eagle^ etc., as in the 
Royal Arms of PRUSSIA. 

In the arms of Count von ROON the quartered shield 
is ent^ en pointy Argent, t/ie Iron Cross proper. 

The arms granted to Count Hardenberg in 18 14, 
resembled those of Blucher : Quarterly, I. PRUSSIA; 
2. Ory a mural crown gules between two laurel brandies 
vert ; 3. Or, the Iron Cross proper ; 4. Azure, two keys 
addorsed paleways or. Over all the personal arms : 
Argent, a boards head sable, crined or. 

The arms of Prince von BISMARCK have not been 
augmented ; they are Azure, a stemless trefoil or, in each 
interval between the leaves an oak leaf argent. 

But to these arms the following supporters have been 
joined in augmentation ; first (on being created Count 
in 1865), the black eagle of PRUSSIA, and the red eagle of 
Brandenburg (these are ornamented as in the Royal 
Escucheon, i.e., the Prussian <eagle bears on its breast an 
escucheon of HOHENZOLLERN ; the other that borne for the 
electoral dignity, viz. : Azure, a sceptre in pale or). Second 
(on receiving the rank and title of Prince in 1871), these 
supporters were made to bear banners, the dexter charged 
with the arms of LORRAINE {ante p. 501), the sinister 
with the arms of Alsace : Gules, a bend between six open 
crowns in orle or. The crest is : — Out of an open crown, 
a Royal crown between two horns per fess alternately 
argent and azure. The motto is : In Trinitate Robur. 
The achievement is surrounded by a mantle of purple, 
lined with ermine, and surmounted by the princely crown. 



2. BkdanweUer (460). 

3. Cuteln (284). 4. Name unkniiwii (636). 

( 546 ) 

A considerable number of grants have been made to 
other persons of less importance, who have had their arms 
augmented with tite Iron Cross proper on a chief argent 
{e.g. Flockher, Feldmann, Baumeister, Eskens, 
Mettler, Nachtigal, etc.); or have had it granted as 
a portion of the crest {eg, Hagen, Gundel, Hartrott, 
etc.) Crosses of the Orders of the Black Eagle, St. 
John, the Red Eagle, and that Pour le M£rite 
have been, but rarely, used in something like the same 
way. Since the institution of the Order OF THE 
Crown in 1861, a pretty frequent use has been made of 
a chief of purplish blue (the colour of its ribbon) charged 
(not with the Cross of the Order but) with a golden crown, 
by way of augmentation. 

Sweden. — Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, 
granted in 1627 to Sir Henry St. George an augmen- 
tation as follows : Argent^ a chief ctzure over all a lion 
rampant gules crowned or; on a canton of augmentation 
of t/ie last an escuclieon of tJte Royal Anns of Sweden : 
— Azure, three crowns or. 

To many of the Swedish generals, especially in the 
1 8th century, augmentations have been granted consisting 
of coats of elaborate quarterings, often separated by 
a cross pat^e-throughout, and generally lacking in true 
heraldic taste. These are the coats where one meets 
cannon, and bombs, and the panoply of modem warfare. 
A curious mode of augmentation was by the grant of 
the crowned royal cypher to be placed between the 
crests. The Barons Schmidt thus use the figures XIV. 
between two interlaced C's, beneath a Royal Crown. 
In the arms of the Barons Tawast the first quarter is 
Azure, tJie Royal CypJier G A beneath a crown and Jiaving 
within t/u G t/te figures IV. all of or. The Counts of the 
same name have a like quarter, but the cypher is of inter- 
laced C*s, enclosing the figures XIII. The Counts Ugglas, 
in 1799, have the like quarter but the cypher is G III. 

( 547 ) 

The Barons Fleetwood, of English descent, were so 
created in 1654, and had a grant of the following arms : 
Quarterly y separated by a cross pat^e-througliout argent^ 
I and 4. Argent^ a lion rmnpant gules; 2 and 3. A sure y 
a royal crown or. Over all t/ie arms of FLEETWOOD en 
surtout: Per pale nebuly azure and or six martlets counter 
changed 2, 2, 2. 

Spain. — The arms granted to CoLUMBUS show the 
mode adopted at that time in conferring heraldic 
distinctions. His first grant was, Tierced in mantle-, i. 
Castile ; 2. Leon, Argent^ a lion rampant gules crowned 
or ; 3. (in base) Azure^ representing the sea, studded with 
islands argent ^ bearing trees proper^ and the soil strewn 
with golden grains. The crest was the Royal Orb with 
its cross. Later these arms were thus amplified : 
Quarterly: — I. CASTILE ; 2. LEON ; 3. Azure, semi of 
islands and haJf surrounded by terra firma argent, all 
bearing tropical trees vert, and semi with golden grains ; 
4. Azure, five anchors in saltire OK The whole escucheon 
Enti en point ; Barry wavy argent and azure (Plate 
XXXIX., fig. I). 

Herman Cortez had assigned to him : Quarterly, i. 
Or, the Imperial eagle sable; 2. Sable, three antique 
crowns or; 3. Gules, a lion rampant or; 4. Azure, out of 
a base wavy argent and of the field t/te City of MEXICO 
rising proper. On an escucheon en surtout the arms of 
ArragoN : Or, four pallets gules; within a bordure of 
Calabria {i.e. Argent, tJureon eight crosses potent sable\ 

Sometimes grants of augmentation consisted of a 
bordure of Castile ; or a bordure compond of CAS- 
TILE and Leon. 

Vasco da Gam a, whose arms were : Cfiequy of fifteen 
(in three perpendicular rows) Or, and gules on each piece 
of t/ie last two bars gemels argent, had an augmentation 
of the Royal Arms of PORTUGAL to be borne en surtout. 



Seeing that even legitimate cadency is a matter which has 
been treated very inadequately by most Heraldic writers 
it is little wonder that the modes of indicating illegiti- 
mate descent have been passed over still more lightly. 
NiSBET (from whom Seton's remarks are, for the most 
part, condensed) MONTAGU, and PlanchIi: are the 
only British heralds who have treated it in anything 
approaching a satisfactory way, and even in their works 
four or five pages are all that are devoted to a subject 
which is both curious and interesting. 

According to the correct ideas of former times the 
possession of coat-armour was the evidence of the nobility 
of the bearer. Now, as a bastard has no legal paternity, 
being in the eye of the law filius nulliuSy the ancient 
jurisconsults were disposed to deny the right of any 
illegitimate child, however princely or noble his actual 
paternity, to the use of arma gentilitia, HOPING in his 
treatise Dejure Insignium (cap. vii., § 53) confines the right 
to those who have been formally legitimated by the sub- 
sequent marriage of their parents ; or directly by princely 
authority, and in the latter case only when the right to 
assume arms has been distinctly conferred in the letters 
of legitimacy. (Bartolus says that though this was the 
general rule it was not observed in Tuscany.) 

As a matter of fact in the Middle Ages, as Mr Mon- 
tagu well remarks in his Guide to tJie Study of Heraldry^ 
" Illegitimacy was really held as being but little deroga- 

( 549 ) 

tory. Opinion and usage were in this respect at variance 
with the letter of the law. The stern eye of the law 
looking upon the bastard as belonging to no family nor 
even to any nation, recognised in him, consequently, no 
rights either of blood or of inheritance ; while the fact 
appears to have been that in most countries of Europe the 
natural children of nobles were always reputed noble ; they 
intermarried with the highest families, and in France we 
find them sharing that invidious privilege of the nobility, 
exemption from taxes to which the rest of the people 
were subject." 

As long then as public opinion favoured the observance 
of the law which forbade the use of the arms of their 
parent to children born out of wedlock, it was their 
practice to assume, mero niotu^ or by legal grant, new arms 
for themselves ; or else to use the arms of the wives 
whom they married. 

In later times the custom became general that the 
illegitimate children of a noble {ix, of one who rightfully 
bore arma gentilitia) assumed their father's arms differ- 
enced in some striking manner, e,g, by the addition of 
some conspicuous charge to the shield ; or in some of the 
ways hereafter to be indicated. PLANCHfi is undoubtedly 
right in thinking that " no positive rule as to the 
mode of differencing was ever generally laid down, or 
at any rate attended to." The variety of the differences 
we shall presently adduce prove the correctness of this 
assertion, yet there is no doubt that in early times the 
brisure most generally adopted was the bend (or bendlet) 
sinister. The old French writer DE Varennes remarks: 
— "Que tous les H^rauts d'armes par un consentement 
general ont affecte cette seule pi^ce des escus d'armes 
que nous appellons barre" to this purpose (but see 
p. 581). 

From the position of this bendlet, drawn diagonally 
from the upper sinister corner of the escucheon to its 


dexter base, came the familiar expressions applied to 
persons of illegitimate birth, " etre de c6t^ gauche," and 
" von der lincken seite." 

We have seen (p. 133) that the French name of the 
bend-sinister is une barre, and from this circumstance 
originated the common, but utterly incorrect, expression 
" a bar-sinisterl' often used by persons who ought to know 
better. But the bar being a horizontal piece, a diminutive 
of the Honourable Ordinary the Fess, is not used like 
the French barre as a brisure for illegitimacy, a bar- 
sinister is an absurdity and impossibility. The bend- 
sinister, usually diminished to the size of a bendlet or 
baston, was then one of the earliest, and most generally 
used brisures adopted to denote illegitimacy. In later 
times, as we shall see, it was further diminished into a 
still narrower bend called a filet en barre ; and, later 
still, this was no longer carried across the whole of the 
shield but shortened at both ends into the baton-sinister, 
ox ^^ baton peri in barre. PlanchE, quoting from the 
earliest of our English Rolls of Artns (that known as 
Glover's Roll^ circa 1240-5) gives an instance of the 
baston being, as he thinks, a mark of illegitimacy. 
Richard le Fitz.Marmaduke "de goules ung fesce et 
trois papegayes d'argent a ung baston d'azure surtout" 
(The arms of Marmaduke de Tweng were the same 
without the baston.) But we must notice that the 
position of the baston is not specified as sinister^ and 
the illegitimacy of the bearer is not clear. 

The twelfth article of Les CoHtumes GMrales des trois 
Bailliages de Lorraine provides that : — 

" Les Bastards advouez des Gentilshommes seront de 
la condition des gens anoblis, pourveu qu'ils suivent 
Testat de noblesse, et porteront tel nom et titre que leur 
Pere leur voudra donner. Mais ils barreront leurs 
surnoms, etc., leurs signatures, et porteront les armes de 
leur Pere barr^es de barres traversantes entierement 

( 551 ) 

TEcusson de gauche k droit, et ne leur sera loisible ny k 
leur descendans d'oster les barres." I have not observed 
any instance in which a signature was thus " bastardised," 
though documents may exist to which such signatures 
were appended. The open way in which the appel- 
lation of " Bastard " was used in the Middle Ages upon 
seals, and in documents written or signed by persons of 
illegitimate descent, is sufficient to assure us that no 
feeling of shame would have prevented them from 
rendering obedience to such ordinances as those 

The Ordonnances which were appointed in 1616 by the 
Archduke Albert and his wife for the regulation of the 
use of arms in the Low Countries (and which form 
the foundation of Christyn'S Jurisprudentia Historica) 
prescribe : 

" Ut spurio sanguine nati, quamvis rescripto Principis 
legitimati, ipsi Bastardi et naturales, barram insignibus 
interserant ; Eorum autem liberi insignam notam quae a 
secundo genitis legitimis rite eos distinguat." Here in 
the second generation, it will be seen that some striking 
difference might replace the barre or bend-sinister. {See 
ROUCK, Den Nederlandtschen Herauld^ p. 343 ; fol. 
Amst, 1645.) 

Jean de St. Remy, Roi d'Armes de TOrdre de la 
Toison d'Or in 1463, gives the following among the Ordon- 
nances of the Dukes of BURGUNDY relating to marks of 
illegitimacy. {See MenStrier, Recherclies du Blason, 
p. 220.) " Un bastard doit porter s^s armes comme son 
Pere, avec un traverse, et prendre son surnom de la 
Seigneurie dont son dit Pere s'attitule, et point es 
surnom de son Pere, n'estoit qu*il eust tel titre et surnom 
que les dites armes. Le Bastard ne peut oster la dite 
traverse sans le cong^ et licence du chef des armes, et de 
ceux du lignage portans les dites armes si ce n'estoit qu*il 
les voulut mettre en un faux escu." From this note- 

(552 ) 

worthy statute we find that the traverse^ or bend-sinister, 
might be disused, and a less prominent difference 
substituted for it, under certain circumstances. 

Seton in his book on the Law and Practice of 
Heraldry in Scotland^ referring apparently to the passage 
quoted above, says (p. 463), " According to MENfeTRlER 
a bastard cannot cancel or alter the baton without the 
consent of the chief of the family, unless he carries his 
arms in an oval escucheon called a cartouche or false 
shield." Here Seton is clearly not quoting from 
MENfexRIER at first hand, but from NiSBET, who 
appears to have overlooked the important fact that the 
consent of the other members of the family as well as of 
its chief was requisite. Moreover Men^tRIER is speak- 
ing of the traverse^ or bend-sinister, and not of its 
modern and less obtrusive diminutive the baton. But I 
refer to this passage of NiSBET, repeated in Seton, 
mainly for the purpose of pointing out that the fatix 
escu to which the Ordonnances refer is not, as these 
writers suppose, ^^ an oral escucJuon called a cartoucJuy' 
or false shield. (In Vol. II., p. 26, NiSBET repeats 
"*faux escu,' /.^., false shield which we take for a car- 
touche." By reference to his plate i. in the first volume 
we find that this cartouche is a simple oval escucheon.) 
Such oval escucheons, or cartouches, are (see ante, p. 56) of 
frequent use in foreign Armory, especially by ecclesiastics, 
and certainly have never been in any nation a mark of 
illegitimacy. But tYiQ faux escu is simply a shield with a 
bordure. This is clear when we consider the meaning 
attached by the old heralds to the v/ovAfaux; it is equiva- 
lent to voided. Thus in Glover's Roll, JOHN DE ViPONT 
bears " de goules a six faux rondlets d'or," the charges 
being the well-known annulets. Again, ROGER BER- 
TRAM bears " de goules et ung faux escucion et croisele 
d'or," while in \hQ Roll of Anns oftlte titne of KvWARD I. 
the same arms are thus drawn, Gules, crusilly an orle or. 

( 553 ) 

There are many examples, but one more will suffice. 
The familiar coat of Balliol : Gules^ an orle argent is 
blazoned, " de goules ove ung faux escocheon d'argent." 
'Y\i^ faux escu is clearly therefore a shield with an orle, 
or bordure, within which the arms of the bastard might 
be borne. It is, however, right to add that at least one 
Continental Herald of the first rank applies the term escu 
faux — {scutum falsutn) — to the plain shields upon which 
the arms of bastards were borne in a quarter, or large 
canton, Spener, Opus Heraldicum, p. gen., p. 360. Of 
this use examples are given below (p. 574). 

Another of the Burgundian Ordonnances^ given by 
Men^trier from St. Remy, is as follows : — 

" Les fils de Bastards, nez et procreez en loyal man- 
age, si leur mere est gentil femme, doivent porter leurs 
armes ecartel^es de Pere et de Mere, ayant tousiours la 
traverse au quartier du Pere, ou si autrement les veulent 
porter sans traverse les peuvent porter toutes pleines en 
un faux escu." 

We must not imagine that therefore every coat which 
bears a traverse, or a bendlet-sinister, is necessarily that 
of a person of illegitimate descent Marks of bastardy 
were never brought under strict rules, and in early 
days there was even less attempt at systematic arrange- 
ment than in later times. PLANCHfi observes that 
"in the Roll of Edward II.'s time the legitimate sons 
bear batons and bends," whilst, to our surprise, we find 
"Sir JOHAN Lovel le bastarde'' bearing the arms of 
LOVEL : — Undie or and gules ^ differenced with un label de 
asure r' the usual mark of cadency appropriated to 
legitimate offspring. But I incline to believe that this 
appropriation of the label to Sir JOHAN LoVEL le 
bastarde is an error. It appears from the Roll temp, 
Edward I. that there were two Sir John Lovels 
living at the same time. In the Roll neither is called 
"/? bastard;'' but while one differences with a label 

( 554 ) 

azure, the other uses the bendlet sable. This is obviously 
a much more likely coat to have been borne by "/^ 
bastardl' and I accordingly think that the chronicler of 
the Roll of Edward II. has wronged the legitimate 
John in this matter. 

I have in my cabinet an impression from an. early 
seal, of which the legend is * j^igittum \M» \m\9XiX 
ilr (EixfiUtit Atmig: The coat of Clifford: CJiequy 
or and azure a fess gules^ is debruised by a bendlet 
(dexter) which, however, passes under the fess. Among 
the knights made by Edward III. at the siege of 
Calais in 1347 was "Sir .... Gkey, LeiasUrd "v;ho 
bore the arms of Grey (Gules, a lion rampant within a 
bordure engrailed argent) debruised by a baston (dexter) 
sable. In the BOROUGHBRIDGE Roll this baston is 
goboni argent and gules. 

Sir John de Warren, natural son of John, last 
Earl of the ancient house of Warren, who died in 
1 347, bore the arms of Warren : Chequy or and azure 
with a canton of (the arms of his mother, ALICE DE 
Nerford) Gules y a lion rampant ertnine (v, ante, p. 426, 
see the Herald and Genealogist, viL, 193, etc.). Two other 
illegitimate brothers of Sir JOHN are said by BROOKE to 
have borne the legitimate differences of, in one case a 
chief argent ; in the other of a bordure engrailed sable. 
{See Spener, Opus. Her., p. g., p. 360). 

The earliest instance with which I am acquainted of 
the use of arms by a royal bastard is the case of FiTZROY, 
natural son of Henry I., to whom is assigned : Argent, 
on a canton gules, a lion of ENGLAND. The Kentish 
Roll of Anns, probably of the close of the reign of 
Henry III., and erroneously called the Acre Roll, 
includes the arms of " Richard _/?£r le reyl' who appears 
to be a natural son of King John. He bears the old 
arms of NORMANDY : Gules, two lions passant-gardant 
or ; in other words, the arms of ENGLAND differenced 

( 555 ) 

l^ the omission of one of the charges. Planch£ 
engraves the seal of John DE Varenne, another 
illegitimate son of King John, which also bears two 
lions passant-gardant 

One of the ancient modes of indicating illegitimate 
descent was that by which the father's arms were borne 
in a bend on an otherwise uncharged shield. Thus the 
arms of Sir Roger de Clarendon, natural son of 
Edward the Black Prince (d. 1376), were : (9r, on a 

bend sable three ostrich featturs^ each having its quill 
fixed in an escroll argent. These were derived from the 
shield which was called by the Prince his "arms for 
peace " : — Sable^ three ostrich featliers^ tite pen of each 
passing through an escroll argent bearing tlie motto 
itj^ htSItf^ This shield, in accordance with the testa- 
mentary instructions of the prince, is placed on his tomb 
in Canterbury Cathedral alternately with his " shield for 
war " : — FRANCE and ENGLAND quarterly, with a label 

John de Beaufort, eldest natural son of John of 
Ghent, by Katharine Swinford, bore : Per pale 
argent and azure (the well known Lancastrian colours) 
on a broad bend tlu anns of LANCASTER : — ENGLAND, 
a label of France. {Cf Plates XLVIL, fig. 3, and 
XLVIIL, fig. I.) 

This John (created Earl and Marquis of SOMERSET), 
and the other children of John, Duke of LANCASTER, 
by Katharine Swinford were legitimated by Act of 
Parliament (20 Richard IL) and then substituted for the 
above the Royal Arms within a bordure compon^ of the 
Lancastrian colours. His brother Cardinal BEAUFORT 
used the same with a crescent argent in the centre point 
for difference ; and the other brother, Thomas, Duke of 
Exeter, made his bordure compon^ of ennine (instedid of 
argent) and azure. After 1417 he changed the bordure to 
argent and azure y on each pane of the latter a fleur-de-lis or. 


It will be noticed that these arms were assumed or 
granted when the Beauforts were legitimated ; and 
accordingly that the bordure gobonS was originally no 
more a mark of illegitimacy in England than it was in 
France, where it was a mark of legitimate cadency even 
for Royal Princes (z/. p. 439). Indeed, it had been so 
used in England by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 
fourth son of Henry IV., the tinctures being argent 
and sable, (ANTIGONE, natural daughter of Duke 
Humphrey bore these her father's arms with a baton 
azure^ and impaled this coat with the arms of her 
husband, Henry Gray, Earl of Tankerville.) 

The arms of the legitimated Beauforts are now 
borne by the Somersets, Dukes of Beaufort, who 
descend from CHARLES SOMERSET, created Earl of 
Worcester, a natural son of Henry Beaufort, third 
Duke of Somerset. Charles originally debruised his 
father's arms with a baton, or bendlet-sinister, which did 
not pass over the bordure. His crest and badge were 
subjected to the same brisure {Excerpta Historica, pp. 
328, 329). His eldest son relinquished the baton, and 
as if in obedience to the Ordonnance quoted at p. 552, 
assumed another insignent notam by placing the whole 
Beaufort arms on a broad fess in a golden shield. 
This, however, was soon discontinued by his descendants 
who use the Beaufort coat without any ol^tx brisure. 
We may compare this use of the coat on the fess with 
the arms borne by Jean, bdtard de Bourgogne. (See 
Plate XLVIL, fig 4.) 

Sir John de Clarence, natural son of Thomas, 
Duke of Clarence, son of Henry IV., bore a coat 
composed from the Royal Arms : Per chevron gules and 
azurey in chief two lions counter-rampant-gardant ; in base 
a fleur-de-lis or, 

Mr Montagu also gives the following extract from 

the Cottonian MS, Tiberius, E. viii., in the British 

2 o 

( 557 ) 

Museum. " The base son of a noble woman if he doe 
geve armes must geve upon the same a surcote .... 
but unless you doe well marke such coat (you) may take 
it for a coat flanched." This is illustrated by an 
example from Glover's MS. {Lansdowne MSS. 872), 
where a certain Radulphus de Arundel bears the 
coat of the FiTZ- ALANS, Earls of Arundel {Quarterly, 
I and 4. Gules, a lion rampant or; 2 and 3. Cliequy or 
and azure) debruised by a ''surcoat'' argent, the "surcoat" 
being the part of the field remaining between the 
flaunches. MONTAGU reasonably suspects that this 
Radulphus was a son of Cardinal Beaufort, by the 
Lady ALICE Fitzalan, daughter of RICHARD, Earl of 


An early instance of the baton piri en barre {t,e, t/ie 
bendlet'Sinister couped at both ends, and this is what 
NiSBET means when he speaks of a baton) is found in 
the arms of ARTHUR Plantagenet, Viscount LiSLE, 
natural son of Edward IV. by Elizabeth Lucy. He 
bore: Quarterly, i. FRANCE ^^Jr/^r;^>a5^ ENGLAND; 2 and 

3. Ulster {Or, a cross gules) ; 4. Mortimer {cf. Plate 

XXXVIII., fig. 4) and over all a baton pert en barre azure. 
In the " List of Standards and Arms " in Excerpta 
Historica, p. 167, these arms of the House of YORK are 
debruised, not by the baton, but by a bendlet-sinister 
azure. From the same MS. we learn that crests and 
badges were also subjected to marks of bastardy. The 
crest borne by ARTHUR PLANTAGENET : — The silver lion 
of March, is charged on the breast with a bendlet-sinister 
gules; and his badge, the golden falcon and fetterlock, is 
similarly debruised. He also used another crest derived 
from the old Plantagenet badges ; viz.: On a cap of 
maintenance gules, turned up ermine, and inscribed in 
front with the letter A, a genet gardant, per pale sable 
and argent between two broom stalks proper. {Excerpta 
Historica, p. 327.) 


Henry Fitzroy, created Duke of Richmond and 
Somerset, natural son of Henry VHL, by Elizabeth, 

widow of Sir GILBERT TALBOT, bore: TJu Royal Amis 
"within a bordure quarterly of ennine^ and of counter 
goboni or and azure^ debruised by a baton sinister argent. 
Over all on an escuc/ieon of pretence: Quarterly gules ^ and 
uairi or and vert^ a lion rampant argent^ on a chief azure 
a castle between two bucKs Juads silver attired or, 
{Excerpta Historica, p. 337.) The blazon given by 
Heylyn, Help to English History (Edn. of 1773) is 
somewhat different This shield affords a good ex- 
ample of the debased state of Armory in the time of 
Henry VHI. We have in it both bordure and baton 
where one alone was needed, and the complicated 
escucheon is a mystery unless we count it a further 
mark of illegitimacy. It was certainly not borne to 
denote marriage with an heiress, for the Duke's wife 
was Mary, daughter of Thomas Howard, Duke of 
Norfolk; nor can we well suppose the arms to have 
been those borne by the Duke's mother; indeed if 
they were their employment by the Duke would 
be anomalous. 

Much better heraldic feeling is evident in the 
entirely new coat granted in the same reign to 
**Sir John Stanley, bastarde'' \ — Or, three eagle's 
legs erased gules ; on a chief azure three buck's heads 
of t/ie field. Here, the stag's heads on the azure 
chief, are derived from the same bearings which 
appear on the azure bend of the Stanleys, and 
the eagle's, or griffin's, legs are also taken from a 
Stanley badge. Six such legs appear on the standard 
of the Earl of Derby in the reign of Henry 


Sir Roger Cholmeley, Chief Baron of the Exchequer 
(1546-1552), natural son of Sir RICHARD Cholmeley, 
Constable of the Tower, bore : Gules, tlie " sword of 

( 559 ) 

Justice " in f ess between in chief a fielinet^ and in base two 
garbs or. (Compare the Cholmeley coat, Plate XXXI., 

fig- 4). 

The illegitimate sons of Charles 1 1, usually bore his 

arms debruised by a baton sinister, but' the ill-fated 

James Fitzroy, his son by Lucy Walters, created 
Duke of Monmouth, in 1663, had a grant of the 
following : — Quarterly^ i and 4. Ennine^ on a pile 
gules three lions of ENGLAND ; 2 and 3. Or^ a shield 
of France within tJie Royal Tressure of Scotland. 
For this coat was afterwards substituted the Royal 
Arms, debruised by a baton sinister argent y over 
all an escucheon of ScOTT of BUCCLEUCH. The 
batons sinister used by CHARLES FiTZCHARLES, Earl 
of Plymouth, in 1675 ; and by Charles, Duke 
of Southampton, were respectively of vair, and of 
ermine. Those of Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton ; 
and of George Fitzroy, Duke of Northumberland, 
were respectively gobon^ of argent and azure ; and of 
ennine and azure. That of CHARLES Beauclerc, Duke 
of St. Albans, was of Gules^ tliereon three roses argent 
barbed and seeded vert. Mary Tudor, daughter of 
King Charles II., had a grant of the Royal Arms 
within a bordure quarterly of ermine^ and of counter- 
componi argent and gules ; CHARLES LENNOX, his son 

by Louise de Querouaille, Duchess of Ports- 
mouth and of AUBIGNY, bore the Royal arms within 
a bordure goboni gules and argent^ the silver panes 
each charged with a red rose of ENGLAND ; over 
all an escucheon of AUBIGNY, Gules^ three buckles 

The arms of James Fitz-James, Duke of Berv^ick, 
son of James II., were those of the king, within ^bordure 
goboni gules and azure charged alternately with lions of 
ENGLAND and fleurs-de-lis of France. Henry Fitz- 
James (the Grand Prior), and his sister Henrietta, 

( 56o) 
bore the Royal arms debruised by a baton sinister of 


Lady KATHARINE Darnley, daughter of James II. 
by Katharine Sedley, bore the Royal arms within 
a bordure componi of ermine, and of FRANCE. 

In later times WILLIAM GEORGE Fitz-Clarence, 
Earl of Munster, bore the arms of his father WiLLlAM 
IV. (omitting the crowns) debruised with a baton 
sinister azure thereon three anchors or. 

This closes the list of the Royal Bastards of ENGLAND 
who were acknowledged by their parents, or created 
Peers of the Realm. Space does not permit us to record 
their crests and supporters here. We may remark that 
the crests granted to them were usually formed out of 
the Royal Crest, a chapeau being substituted for the 
crown, the lion being also crowned with a parti-coloured 
coronet, and gorged with a compon^ collar. The sup- 
porters were formed similarly; and a greyhound or horse 
often replaces the unicorn. 

Having seen that the usual differences for Royal 
bastards were the baton sinister and the bordure gobon^, 
we now turn again for instances of the English practice 
to examples of less illustrious origin. The common 
difference was certainly the bendlet sinister (afterwards 
shortened into the baton sinister, the baton peri en barre 
of the French heralds), thus the Mainwarings of 
Croxton (who descend from the family of that name at 
Over Peover), in 1546 bore the arms: Gules^ two bars 
argent^ differenced by a bendlet or. There are plenty of 
similar examples, but other modes of brisure were 
occasionally employed. CUTHBERT TUNSTALL, Lord 
Bishop and Palatine of DURHAM, 15 30- 15 59 (who is 
said to have been an illegitimate offshoot of the old 
TuNSTALL family who bore : Sabky tliree combs argent), 
changed the tincture of his coat from sable to azure {See 
Tonge's Visitation of Durliam^ p. 26, Surtees Society). 

(S6i ) 

William Herbert, son and heir of Sir Richard 
Herbert (elder of the two natural sons of William, 
first Earl of Pembroke), was created Baron Herbert of 
Cardiff, and Earl of Pembroke in 1551. He bore the 
Herbert arms {Per pale azure and gules three lions ram- 
pant argent^ within a bordure goboni or and gules ^ on each 
pane of t/u last a bezant. {See Camden's Visitation of 
Huntingdonshire y 161 3, p. 17.) This bordure was dis- 
continued by the third Earl, and was not replaced by 
any other " notable mark." It would be curious to 
inquire if the assumption of the full arms of the family 
had the sanction of the College of Arms. 

In 1603, Sir Thomas Egerton was created Baron 
Ellesmere, and in 16 16, Viscount Brackley. He 
was a natural son of Sir Ralph Egerton, Lord High 
Chancellor, who died in 1616, just as he was about to 
be created Earl of Bridgewater, and this title was 
conferred on his son. He bore the EGERTON coat 
{Argent, a lion rampant gules between three p/ieons sable\ 
with the brisure of a bordure engrailed of t/ie last. Here 
we have the bordure, which is a mark of lawful cadency, 
improperly used to indicate bastardy ; and even it was 
dropped, apparently in or after 1720, when the Eger- 
TONS had become Dukes of BRIDGEWATER. 

In 1627 MONTJOY Blount, natural son of Charles, 
Earl of Devonshire, was created an English Baron ; 
and in the next year. Earl of Newport. He bore the 
arms of Blount {Barry nebuly or and sable) within a 
bordure goboni argent and gules. 

The laxity and venality of some of the old heralds 
come out in connection with this matter of marks of 
bastardy. In 1661, HOLME writes to DUGDALE on behalf 
of a young gentlewoman who was illegitimate .... 
" not to have a Batune across the Coat," but to change 
the tinctures. The fee offered is five pounds. The post- 
script to the letter is as follows : " There is an alder- 

( 5^2 ) 

mane's sone in Chester whose great-grandfather was 
base borne, whom I have been treating with sev'all tymes 
about the alteration of his coat, telling him for ;^io and 
not under it may be accomplished ; five he is willing to 
give, but not above ; if y"^ please to accept of that sume 
y^ may writt me a line or two." {Herald and Genealogist^ 
ii., 151.) 

The Byrons, Lords Byron, originally bore their coat 
{Argent^ three bendlets enlmnced gules) within a bordure 
sable. The fact is stated in FOSTER'S Peerage^ but not 
the reason why. This we find in the most valuable 
Complete Peerage of Mr COKAYNE, ''Norroy'' now in course 
of publication (vol. ii., p. 98). The family was of ille- 
gitimate descent, Sir John Byron of Newstead, and the 
n6xt two or three generations, bore the brisure\ and then 
quietly allowed it to drop. 

The Montagus, Dukes of Manchester ; and the 
Earls of SANDWICH retain the bordure sable as the 
difference of the MONTACUTE coat : Argent^ three fusils 
conjoined in f ess gules. This, it is said, marks descent from 
Simon, a younger brother of John, the third MONTACUTE 
Earl of Salisbury. But Sir Egerton Brydges (in his 
edition of COLLINS'S Peerage^ vol. ii., pp. 42-43), points 
out that there is not the slightest evidence of the 
existence of this SiMON ; and that the bordure was 
probably assumed as a mark of illegitimacy to denote 
the descent of the MONTAGUS from JAMES MONTAGU 
of Ludsdowne in Kent, natural son of THOMAS, last 

Earl of Salisbury. 

A bordure gobon^ argent and azure was the brisure 
granted with the arms of Sheffield {Argent, a clievron 
between three garbs gules) to CHARLES Herbert, or 
Sheffield, natural son of John, Duke of Normanby 
and Buckingham. 

In 1780 Mr Zachary, of Areleykings in the county of 
Worcester, obtained a patent entitling him to quarter the 

( 563 ) 

arms of SachevereLL {Argent ^ on a saltire azure five 
water bougets or) within a bordure wavy enninois. His 
maternal ancestor William Muckelow had married 
Frances, natural daughter of HENRY Sacheverell of 
Morley who died in 1620. I know of no earlier 
example than this of the use of the bordure-wavy for 
the purpose of indicating illegitimate descent, though 
in modern times it has become the special mark 
employed by the English Officers of Arms. It is note- 
worthy that DUGDALE had already granted in 1665 the 
Sacheverell arms within a plain bordure gules to 
George Sacheverell, the son of Valence, another 
illegitimate child of HENRY SACHEVERELL. 

In 1781, John Ingelby natural son of Sir JOHN 
Ingelby of Ripley, was created a baronet, and bore his 
paternal arms {Sable, an estoile argent) with the difference 
of a bordure engrailed gobond or and gules. 

The Manners arms differenced by a bordure-wavy 
gobony argent and sable were borne by JOHN MANNERS, 
of Grantham (a natural son of Lord William Manners), 
whose son WiLLIAM was created a baronet in 1793. In 
this case the crest was differenced by the addition of a 
bendlet-sinister wavy, gobon^ or and sable. The sinister 
bendlet wavy is often used in modem practice to differ- 
ence the crests of the persons to whom the bordure-wavy 
has been granted. In the crests of RICH, the Wynd- 
HAM and Eustace, and possibly in others, a saltire 
wavy or has been substituted for it, for no apparent 
reason. In another, that of Harvey, the crest has no 
mark of illegitimacy. In other cases, such as PUNSHON, 
it has been converted into a pallet wavy azure^ a very 
small matter indeed on the body of a lamb passant ! 

No object would be served by giving here a detailed 
account of the many modern instances in which the present 
brisure of a bordure-wavy has been granted. The curious 
inquirer will find sufficient examples in the plates of 

( 564 ) 

any Baronetage, There are one . or two instances in 
which other bordures, nebuU or dovetail^ have been used 
with similar intent. 

The arms of the munificent Sir Richard Wallace, 
adopted son and testamentary heir of the Marquess of 
Hertford, were a new coat derived from the arms of 
the family of WALLACE : GuleSy on a pile between two 
ostricfis /leads erased argent, each tiolding in its beak a 
Iiorse-s/ioe or^ a lion rampant of tlie field, (It is now 
understood that, though the Baronet was not of legiti- 
mate descent, he was not, as at one time reputed, the son 
of the Marquess himself.) 

We may sum up the foregoing as concerning English 
use thus : — The chief marks of illegitimacy were the 
bendlet, or baton-sinister; though sometimes the bordure, 
or faux escUy was employed. Instead of the paternal 
arms thus debruised, an entirely new coat was some- 
times granted, the charges of which had some plain 
reference to the bastard's parentage. Lat6r, the bordure- 
gobon/, originally a mark of legitimate cadency, became 
a recognised mark of illegitimacy. Since the close of 
last century the bordure - wavy has been the ordinary 
difference, or brisure, employed by the Officers of Arms, 
in England and Ireland, in grants to persons of illegiti- 
mate descent The crests of persons to whom arms 
have been granted thus debruised, are differenced, some- 
times by the use of wavy lines of partition, sometimes 
by the addition to them of wavy pallets, saltires, or 
more generally of bendlets-sinister. 

We may remark that the bordure-wavy^ now so often 
used, may be quite as fitting a mark of illegitimacy as 
the old baton, or sinister bendlet, if only its import be 
generally recognised. But as the knowledge of heraldry 
becomes more diffused, and the meaning of the bordure- 
wavy more generally understood, we may expect that 
the complaisance which caused its substitution for the 

( 565 ) 

older and better known brisures of illegitimacy will again 
devise some other less known mark, in disregard of the 
fact that armorial insignia were intended to be plain and 
clear evidence of descent, and to speak with no ambiguous 
voice as to the origin of their bearers. It seems to me 
that in the case of persons whose susceptibilities are 
too tender to permit them to bear plain and distinct 
evidence of their descent, the alternative and ancient 
plan should be adopted, and a new coat composed, as in 
the instances given of Clarence,Stanley,Cholmeley, 
and Wallace. This is a course which does wrong to 
no man ; and which seems, to me at least, more honour- 
able and straightforward than that of granting the 
paternal arms with such obscure differences as (even if 
they continue to be carried) to confound their bearers 
with the legitimate cadets of an ancient family. 

With regard to this matter, I am obliged to differ 
from my late friend Mr BoUTELL, who thinks that " this 
very ambiguity may not be the least satisfactory element 
of the existing practice" {English Heraldry^ p. 196). 
The ambiguity may, I admit, be satisfactory to those 
who desire it, but it is not so, I think, to the legitimate 
cadets. A cadet of a great house, bearing his coat- 
armour properly differenced, will hardly hear with 
satisfaction that his illegitimate kinsmen, after perhaps 
a brief use of the bordure-wavy^ have now dropped it 
altogether, and in painted glass and sculptured stone 
set up for themselves the plain arms of the family, and 
so claim a position superior to that of the lawful cadets. 

Scotland. — In Scotland at an early period distinctive 
marks for bastardy seem to have been rarely if ever 
employed ; families of illegitimate descent bore differ- 
ences which were also borne by lawful cadets. In his 
Preface to the Excfiequer Rolls, vol. i., p. cxxx., Dr 
Burnett records one case which may possibly be an 
exception to the then general rule. MARGARET, wife of 


Robert Glen, was a natural daughter of King Robert 
Bruce. One of the co-heiresses of Glen married 
{temp, Robert III.) Sir John Boswell of Balgregie 
and brought him the estate of Balmuto. Since that time 
the Boswells have quartered a coat which has no 
resemblance to that of Glen, but has been conjectured 
to be that of Abernethy, viz.: Or, a lion rampant gules, 
over all a ribbon sable. No heiress, or co-heiress, of 
Abernethy is known to have married a Glen ; and, as 
the ribbon was a general mark of bastardy, it seems 
probable that this coat may indicate descent from the 
natural daughter of Robert Bruce. 

The third and later Earls of DOUGLAS were illegitimate, 
and to the Douglas, Earls of Angus, the deeper stain 
attached of incestuous bastardy, yet they all carried the 
simple Douglas coat; and the families of Drumlanrig 
and Cavers, sprung from two natural sons of the second 
Earl of Angus, carried, the one a bordure engrailed gules, 
the other a plain bordure, for difference. On the other 
hand Sir WILLIAM DOUGLAS of Nithsdale, natural son 
of the third Earl of DOUGLAS, carried (according to Sir 
David Lindsay) Douglas debruised by a riband or, and 
quartered with Edgar, for the lordship of Liddesdale. 

The majority of Churchmen, whether legitimate or 
not, used to bear the undifferenced coat of their family. 
Bastards of the Royal House, however, even when 
ecclesiastics, had usually, though not always, some 
difference suggesting their illegitimate birth ; a bend, or 
bendlet, though also in use for legitimate differencing, 
being the most frequent. Thus THOMAS Stewart, 
Archdeacon of St. Andrews, a natural son of Robert 
II., carried Scotland debruised by a bend counter- 
compony (Laing, ii., 931). ALEXANDER STEV^ART, 
Earl of Mar by marriage, a natural son of the Wolf of 
Badenoch, bore no decided mark of bastardy, but 
quartered Or, a fess cluquy argent and azure between 

( 567 ) 

three crowns gules (a composite coat of Stewart and 
Garioch) with the arms of Mar. 

James Stewart, Earl of Moray, natural son of 
James IV., bore the feudal coat of Moray quartered 
with Scotland debruised by a bendleL 

Robert Stuart, natural son of James V., Abbot, 
afterwards Commendator, of Holyrood, bore at one 
time Scotland undifferenced. (It should of course 
be remembered that the external ornaments of ecclesi- 
astical dignity were in themselves an adequate difference.) 
His son Patrick, Earl of Orkney, quartered Scot- 
land debruised by a riband^ with the feudal arms of that 
Earldom. FRANCIS Stuart, afterwards Earl of Both- 
well, whose father, the Prior of Coldingham, was also 
a natural son of James V., had in 1665 the Royal coat 
with a ribbon ; and later bore Vaus quartered with 
Hepburn, and the undifferenced Royal coat en surtout 
The Regent Moray (half brother of ROBERT Stuart, 
Commendator of Holyrood) used ScOTl.A^T> surmounted 
by a bendlet ; his descendants in the female line adopted 
the bordure compone^ thus : Quarterly^ i and 4. Tlie Royal 
Arms within a bordure compotU argent and azure ; 

2. Or^ a fess c/iequy argent and azure^ for Stuart of 
DOUNE, husband of ELIZABETH, Countess of MORAY ; 

3. Or, three cushions in lozenge within the Royal tressure 
guleSy for the Earldom of MORAY. This bordure componi 
was borne by the Stuarts of Avandale and Ochiltree, 
on whose legitimacy doubts had been thrown, but one 
of the family, James, Earl of Arran, to assert his 
claim to legitimacy, quartered SCOTLAND undifferenced ; 
and Stuart with a label of three points. Sir James 
Hamilton of Fynnart, the Bastard of Arran^ sealed at 
one time with HAMILTON debruised by a bend, but 
later dropped the brisure and even assumed the tressure. 
Dr Burnett informed me some years ago that in later 
times the bordure - compon^ had been adopted as a 

( 568) 

brisure " by illegitimate branches of other families, and 
is still to be found in the Lyon Register in modern 
times, eg, GORDON of Caimbulg, 1811, and others, even 
in my time." But it was clearly understood to have 
no such meaning in the case of families who bore it of 
old, as the Wallaces of Ellerslie and Hamilton of 
Preston and Fingalton. Later, when the bordure componi 
had become used as a mark of illegitimacy, the Hamil- 
TONS took a plain bordure, and the Wallaces a bordure 
count er-compon^. In 1742 ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, heir 
of Ellerslie through his mother, registered the WALLACE 
coat with the ^bordure compon^y but in 1808, when Sir 
Ilay Campbell again recorded the coat, the bordure 
was altered to counter-compon^, (It is a mistake of 
SetoN that this last bordure (counter-compon/) was 
ever a mark of bastardy ; it occurs frequently in the 
Lyon Register as a mark of cadency for families known 
to be of legitimate descent.) 

The late Mr Stodart brought to my notice an 
instance in the Lyon Register of 1763 where a double 
mark of bastardy is assigned to Colonel WiLLlAM 
Campbell, natural son of Archibald, Duke of Argyle ; 
viz., a baton sinister guleSy and a bordure compon^ argent 
and azure. 

Hamilton, Lord Bargeny, who derived from a 
legitimate son of the first Marquess of HAMILTON, bore 
Hamilton quartering Arran (Argent, a ship with 
furled sail sable) all within a bordure compond argent and 
azure, the argent panes charged with hearts gules, the 
azure with mullets argent (in fact a DOUGLAS bordure). 
The Hamiltons of Samuelston who descend from Sir 
John Hamilton of Clydesdale, natural son of the first 
Earl of Arran, have a singular mark of illegitimacy : 
GuleSy a roundle cJiequy argent and azure between three 
cinque/oils of tlie second. The HAMILTONS of Blair, 
who derived from JOHN, Archbishop of St. Andrews, 


another natural son of the first Earl of Arran, bore : 
Hamilton and Arran within a bordure compotU argent 
and gules^ cJtarged alternately with saltires and buckles 

According to the present practice of the Lyon Office 
the bordure goboni retains the meaning which, as 
NiSBET says, has only attached to it by "late practices ;" 
and though in some ancient coats — for instance in that 
of the Stewarts, Earls of Castle Stuart in Ireland — 
it is still retained as a mark of legitimate cadency, it is 
also the mark which is assigned in the Lyon Office at 
the present time as the proper difference for the illegiti- 
mate child of a person entitled to bear arms. 

On the other hand the bordure-wavy, which as we have 
seen is employed for this purpose in England and in 
Ireland, is in Scotland a mark of legitimate descent 
Dr Burnett could only find for me one instance in 
which it had been granted in Scotland as a mark of 
bastardy (SHARP of Kincarrochy, in 18 13). (The bor- 
dures in the arms of Wright, Erskine of Cambo, 
and OCHTERLONY, I perhaps ought to add are English 

The bordure-wavy as a Scottish mark of lawful cadency 
is borne by GRANT of Rothiemurcus ; GORDON of 
Rusco ; Craufurd of Cartsburn ; GORDON of Railhead ; 
Campbells of Inveraw, etc. {See Nisbet, vol ii., plate 
ii.). In 1872 it was granted by Lyon to a cadet of the 
English family of ALSTON. In this case the bordure- 
wavy or charged with three fleurs-de-lis gules may not 
improbably expose the legitimacy of the wearer to 
unfounded suspicion in England. It ought not to be 
difficult, I humbly think, for the Heraldic authorities of 
the three kingdoms to agree to some uniformity of 
practice in this matter. Ulster's present practice is 
identical with that of the English College, but in 1 542 
an O'Neill differenced with a bendlet-sinister sable. 

( S70 ) 

A plain bordure gules seems to have been the difference 
assigned to some ill^itimate Plunketts, c, 1600, while 
another Plunkett descent is shown in the coat of 
Johnston : Plunkett within a bordure gobani argent 
and azure (BURKE, General Armory y 2nd edition, p. 545). 
In 1705, William Butler, natural son of James, Duke 
of Ormonde, had assigned as his difference a bend- 
sinister compan^ argent and azure. 

We now turn our attention to the practice of other 
European states. 

France. — One of the earliest instances which have 
come under my notice is the coat of PlERRE, Bishop of 
NoYON in 1 240, a natural son of Philip (Augustus) IL 
He bore France-ANCIENT, zt///7/ a bend-sinister argent. 
This was also the brisure, borne with FRANCE-MODERN by 
Henri, Chevalier d'Angoul^me, Grand Prior of the 
Order of St. John in France, a natural son of Henri H. 
Another son of Henri H., Henri de St. Remi de 
Valois bore : Argent ^ on a fess tfte artns of FRANCE 
(Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or). These arms were retained 
by his descendants of whom the last were JEANNE, 
Comtesse de la Motte (so notorious in connection with 
the story of the diamond necklace of Queen Marie 
Antoinette), and her sister Marianne. 

Charles de Valois, Due d'Angoul^me, natural 
son of Charles IX. by Marie Touchet, debruised the 
arms of France by a bend-sinister or, 

Ci«SAR, Due de VENDdME (elder of the sons of 
Henri IV. by Gabrielle d'Estr£es), bore France- 
modern debruised by a baton gules, thereon three lions 
rampant argent. This was derived from the brisure of 
the legitimate house of BouRBON Vend6me, which bore: 
France-ancient, over all a bend gules, tlureon three 
lions rampant argent; and this last-named coat was 
debruised by a bendlet-sinister argent by jEAN, Bdtard 
de VendSme, a natural son of LOUIS, Comte de Ven- 

( 571 ) 

d6me (d. 1447). The legitimated children of Louis 
XIV. bore : France-modern, debruised by a baton sini- 
ster gules {un baton pM en barre). 

The line of the Dukes of BoURBON, descending from 
the younger son of (St.) Louis IX. affords several 
interesting instances of illegitimate cadency. Jean, 
bdtard de Bourbon^ Sr. de ROCHEFORT, natural son of 
Duke Pierre I. (d. 1356), bore a plain silver shield with 
Bourbon on a quarter, or large canton {d' Argent, au franc 
quartier de FRANCE a la bande de gueules). (Plate 
XLVIII., fig. 2.) The Bourbon difference of a bend 
gules was diminished to a baton (dexter) after the reduc- 
tion of the number oi fleurs-de-lis in the Royal Arms to 
three, and this coat, Bourbon-MODERN, was borne by 
the Princes de CONDE, etc. 

Jean, bdtard de Bourbon, son of Duke jEAN I., who 
died 1444, bore: 'RoUK^Otl, over all a bend-sinister argent. 
Louis, bdtard de Bourbon, Comte de ROUSSILLON, 
Amiral de FRANCE (d. i486), son of Duke Charles I., 
bore this bend-sinister wavy. (Spener erroneously gives 
him a bend-sinister gules, Op, Her, p. gen., p. 119.) 

Mathieu, Baron de la Roche, le grand Bdtard de 
Bourbon (d. 1505), bore : Argent, on a bend tJie Arms of 
Bourbon {d* Argent, d la bande de FRANCE, d la cotice de 
gueules^ His sister Marguerite appears to have borne 
the modern arms of Bourbon, differenced by a second 
baton crossing t/ie other in bend-sinister or. 

In the Orleans line we find the following among 
others:— Z^ bdtard d' Orleans {d, 1380), son of PHILIPPE, 
Due d*ORL£ANS, younger brother of King Jean II., bore: 
France-ancient, a label gobon^ argent and gules over 
all a bendlet-sinister argent. This was borne by his 
brother LOUIS, Bishop of PoiTIERS, in 1392. 

It has been said that the arms of the house of 
Orleans were France, a label argent. The celebrated 
Jean, Comte de Dunois, bdtard d'OrUans, b. 1403, had 

( 572 ) 

these arms differenced by a bendlet (or cotice) sinister 
sable. (Plate XLVIIL, fig. 5.) Charles VI L permitted 
DUNOIS to change the position of the bendlet to the 
dexter, as if he had been a legitimate cadet. As we 
find him bearing the cotice argent (v, p. 529), the change 
of tincture was probably made on the same occasion ; 
but his descendants, the Dukes de LONGUEVILLE, 
bore : ORLEANS, a bendlet-sinister gules, A son of 
DuNOis, Francois, Grand Chambellan de France, 
bore : Orleans, with a baton coup/ in bend argent. 

In the case of the bastards of the house of Anjou (of 
which the arms were France, a bordure gules) the 
bendlet-sinister does not pass over the bordure. 

As a curious modem instance I give here the arms of 
the Due de MORNY, a notability of the Second Empire, 
and the moving spirit of the Coup d'Etat of 2nd December. 
He was understood to be a natural son of the Comte de 
Flahault by Queen Hortense. His arms were: 
Argent ^ three martlets sable for FLAHAULT, within a 
bordure^ compon/ of t/ie arms of tlie FRENCH EMPIRE 
(Azure, t/ie eagle and thunderbolt or), and of Dauphiny 
(Or, a dolphin embowed azure), 

Flanders. — Baudouin, bAtard de Flandre, and 
his sister BEATRIX, children of Louis de Cress y, 
Comte de Flandre (d. 135 1), both bore; Argent, 
on a canton (or quarter) the arms of FLANDERS 
(Sable, a lion rampant or,) Their brother Robert 
bore the same but with the field crusily sable. Another 
brother Peterkin, whose name I do not find in 
Vr£e's list, bore : Gules, a swan argent, a canton of 


Louis de Haeze, eldest of the illegitimate children 
of Louis le Male, Count of Flanders (d. 1385), 

bore: Vert, on a canton t/ie arms of FLANDERS 
(v, rArtnorial de Gelre) ; other sons appear to have 

used the field argent. One of these, LouiS LE Frison, 

2 p 

( 573 ) 

Seigneur de Praet et de WOESTINE, married Maria 
DE Ghistelles, and their son Jean de Flandres, 
Seigneur de PraEt, etc. : bore on his seal the arms of 
his mother, GuleSy a chevron ennine^ placing also the 
arms of Flanders on a quarter, for his father, and 
adding in the sinister chief point an escucheon, Argent^ 
a lion rampant gules crowned or for LiMBURG. {^See 
Plate XLVIIL, fig. 4.) 

The grandson of this Jean de Flandre was Louis, 
4th Seigneur de Pra£t, C/ievalier de la Toison dOr 
(No. clxxx.). Governor of Holland, and Clief des Finances 
to Charles V. According to Chifflet he bore 
Flanders, **bris(f dune billette d^ argent sur la patte 
droite du lyon^ But in Les Rec/iercJus des Antiquitez et 
Noblesse de Flandre it is said : " II porta de Flandres 
plein, sauf que la lyon i la premiere patte tenoit un 
anneau d'argent ; autres disent qu'il avait une espine au 
travers de la dicte patte." 

Burgundy. — The most curious and interesting series 
of brisures for illegitimate descent is to be found in the 
following notes on the arms of the principal bastards of 

Cpiristyn in his Jurisprudentia Heroica gives several 
brisures besides the baton ; lapointe coupie^ le chef coupd^ 
la pointe triangUe^ le chef tailli or tranctU^ or both ; 
esclopp^ d dextre^ et d senestre; and the Burgundian series 
furnishes us with examples of all. 

Jean, bdtard de Bourgogne^ son of Duke Jean, Sans 
peur (who died 1479), bore his father's arms : Quarterly, 
I and 4. France, a bordure gobon^ argent and gules, 
for Burgundy-modern ; 2 and 3. Bendy of six azure 
and or a bordure gules, BURGUNDY-ANCIENT; over all 
Flanders, Or, a lion rampant sable; the whole debruised 
by a pointe, or cfiampagne or (this is la pointe coupie of 
Christyn). (Plate XLVIL, fig. i.) Later in life Jean 
took Holy Orders, and became Provost of Bruges and 



1. Jmui, Bltud il« BaaiKognt. 3. FhiUipa, la Bltud, Selgnrar 

C Antoine, Seigneur de WMken S- Fbillipe, St. de Crubcqu«. 


Bishop of Cambray. His fine seal, date 1482, is engraved 
in Vr£e, Ghiialogie des Comtes de Flandre. On it both 
chief and point are couped, so that the arms are borne 
on a very wide fess (Plate XLVIL, fig. 4). They are 
Quarterly, i and 4. France-ANCIENT (intended doubt- 
less for Burgundy-modern, but there is no bordure) ; 
2. Burgundy-ancient, impaling Brabant {Sable, a lion 

rampant or); 3. BURGUNDY-ANCIENT, impaling LlM- 
BURG {Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned or). Over 

all Flanders. 

On the MS. of the Concordat of Cambray the arms 
of Jean as Bishop are blazoned differently : Quarterly, 
I and 4. Or, three lions rampant azure (See of Cambray) ; 

2, and 3. Burgundy-ancient, quartering Burgundy- 
modern, over all Flanders ; the whole is debruised 
by a bendlet - sinister which (if my memory serves 
correctly) passes under the Flanders escucheon. 

Antoine, Comte de la RoCHE, le Grand Bdtard de 
Bourgogne, Knight of the Golden Fleece, No. liv., one 
of the many illegitimate children of Duke PHILIPPE Le 
Bon, bore (according to Chifflet, and MAURICE) the 
arms of his father (Burgundy-ancient and modern, 
Brabant, Limburg, and Flanders as above), debruised 
by a bendlet-sinister argent ; but on his seal (in Vr£e, 
Gin^alogie des Comtes de Flandre, p. 126), these arms 
without the bendlet are placed on a broad bend 
(^See Plate XLVII., fig. 3). An interesting series 
of papers relating to the tournament held in 
Smithfield between Anthony Woodville, Lord 
Scales, brother of the Queen ; and his namesake 
the Bastard of BURGUNDY, will be found in Excerpta 
Historica, pp. 171-222. In conjunction with his brother 
Baudouin, Antoine led the van of the Burgundian 
army at Granson, The brothers were also present, and 
made prisoners, at Nancy. LouiS XI. held Antoine 
in high honour, and gave him considerable grants of 

( 575 ) 

land. Charles VIII. made him Knight of the Order 
of St. Michael. 

Antoine had an illegitimate son of the same name, 
who was Seigneur de la Chapelle, and is said to have 
borne the quartered arms of BURGUNDY on a broad fess, 
or coup^ en clief et en pointe, "sic duobus discemiculis nota- 
tum, sive bis ruptum," says Chrlstyn, quoted by NiSBET. 
There are, however, a sufficient number of instances in 
which a like arrangement was used by the natural son of 
a person of legitimate descent, so that I feel exceedingly 
doubtful about Chrlstyn\s accuracy in calling it a mark 
of double bastardy. This Antoine's legitimate grand- 
son Antoine, fourth of the name, was Seigneur de 
Wacken, etc., and Vice-Admiral. His seal bears his 
arms emblazoned on the sail of the ship which denoted 
his office ; and I have engraved them from it on Plate 
XLVIL, fig. S. They have the cluf coupiy and are also 
ent^ en point, 

Philippe, bAtard de Bourgogne, Seigneur de FON- 
TAINES, was a natural son of Adolph, a legitimate 
grandson of le Grand Bdtard, and was legitimated in 
1534, bore the quartered arms of BURGUNDY on a wide 
chevron in a plain shield. {See Plate XLVIL, fig. 2.) 
In this manner were also borne the arms of PHILIPPE,, 
natural son of Duke Philippe Le Bon. He was 
Seigneur de SOMELDYCK, and was elected Oievalier de 
la Toison d'Or in 1 500. He was also Admiral by sea. 
Later in life he took Holy Orders, and, having been 
legitimated in 1505, he became in 15 16 Bishop of 
Utrecht. Among the knights who accompanied 
Antoine, le Grand Bdtard de Bourgogne^ to England 
was Philippe de Brabant, Seigneur de Crubeque, 
a natural son of Duke PHILIPPE of Brabant. He bore 
a plain shield with the quartered arms of BRABANT and 
Burgundy-modern on a large canton (Plate XLVIL, 
fig. 6). 


Philippe, bAtard de Nevers, son of Philippe, Comte 
de Nevers (a younger son of Duke PHILIPPE the Bold) 
bore Burgundy-modern, debruised by a bend-sinister 
gobon^ argent and gules. 

In the painted glass of a window in the south aisle of 
the great church at Haarlem I observed the arms of a 
member of the family of SCHAGEN (now known as 
Beijeren-Schagen), which derives its origin illegiti- 
mately from one of the Bavarian Counts of Holland. 
It is, Bendy or and gules (HODENPYL, for maternal 
descent), and on a very large canton are the arms of the 
Bavarian Counts of Holland : Quarterly, i and 4. 
Bavaria ; 2 and 3. Hainault quartering Holland. 

The Counts of Walheim descended from Jean, 
natural son of jEAN, Due de Brabant. Of this family 
was Jean de Berghes, Seigneur de Walain, elected 
Cltevalier de la Toison d'Or in 148 1. He bore. Vert, 
three ntascles argent for his maternal descent from 
Bautersem, on a chief Or three pallets gules for MECHLIN, 
and over all a canton ^BRABANT. By other descend- 
ants the chief was made per pale of Flanders and 

Spain. — The Armory of Spain furnishes remarkable 
instances of heraldic brisures for illegitimacy, entirely 
distinct from those already recorded. 

Spener tells us that Tellius, Count of Biscay, who 
died in 1370, an illegitimate son of Alfonso XI., 
bore, Per saltire, in chief the arms of Castile, in flanks 
Leon, in base Argent an eagle displayed sable for SiclLY. 
Another bore. Argent, on a lozenge-througliout gules the 
castle or for Castile, each division of the argent charged 
with tJu lion of LEON. 

The great family of Henriquez, Dukes of Medina 
DEL RiO Seco, descending from a natural son of 

Alfonso XL, bore, like Don Pedro de Trastamara, 

the arms of LEON, chap^ ploy^ of CASTILE. Otherwise 

( 577 ) 

tierced en mantle, i and 2. CASTILE ; 3. Leon, as in 
Plate XLVIIL, fig. 6. 

Frederick, Duke of Benevento, a natural son of 
Henry II. of Castile and Leon, bore : C/iequy of nine, 
five of Castile, four of Leon. James of Xerica, son 
of James I., King of Arragon, by Theresia de 
Bidaure, bore: Arragon {Or, four pallets gules) 
charged with an orle of eight escuclieons of BiDAURE 
{Or, afess azure). 

Henry, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, 
natural son of Ferdinand I., was progenitor of the 
Dukes of Segorbia who bore: Tierced in pale, i. 

Arragon ; 2. Per fess Castile and Leon ; 3. Sicily. 

Don John of Austria, natural son of the Emperor 

Charles v., bore: Per pale, i. Per fess CASTILE and 

Leon ; 2. Arragon impaling Arragon-Sicily ; Over 
all Austria, impaling Burgundy-ancient. (Plate 
XLVIIL, fig. 3.) His sister Margaret of Parma bore 
the surtout only, see ante, p. 508. 

Portugal. — In Portugal the Dukes of Braganza who 
descended from Affonso, natural son of King JOAO I., 
and who came themselves to the throne in 1640, bore : 
Argent, a saltire gules tliereonfive escucheons azure, on each 
as many plates in saltire, Affonso*S sister BEATRICE 
married in 1405, Thomas Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel. 
Her seal bears the arms of FiTZALAN, quartering War- 
ren NE, the whole impaling the arms of PORTUGAL as 
now used without any brisure (the seal is engraved in 
BOUTELL, Heraldry, Historical and Popular, 480). 

The NORONIIAS descend from Affonso, Conde de 
GijiON, natural son of Henry 1 1, of Castile by 
Isabella, natural daughter of King Fernando of 
Portugal ; they quartered PORTUGAL and NORONHAS 
within a bordure componi or and vair. (Tem por armas 
o escudo esquartelado ; ao primeiro as armas de Portugal 
ao segundo as de Castella, mantelado de prata, e dous 



L Mfttthieo, "la Bnod BJttaid 

% Jean, Seigneur de BooWort. 

S. Dm> John of AnetrU. 

6. AUmM of Owtfle. 

( 578 ) 

Leoeris de purpura batalhantes, e huma bordadura 
composta de ouro e veiros — Nobiliarchia Portugueza, 
p. 31 1.) The arms of the Noronhas were therefore the 
reverse of those of the Henriquez of Spain, vide 
antCy p. 576. 

In Portugal, however, as elsewhere the bendlet-sinister 
is a recognised mark of bastardy and as such was borne 
by the Albuquerques. We find in the Nobiliarchia 
Poiftuguesa (p. 223) the following: — "Os bastardos had 
de trazer as armas com sua quebra de bastardia .... 
A quebra de bastardia he huma cotica ou risca, que 
atravessa o escudo em banda, como se wh nas armas da 
casa de Aveiro, a quem s6mente vejo observar esta ley, 
por descenderem os Duques de D. Jorge, filho bastardo 
del Rey D. Joao II." 

The family here referred to bore the title of Conde 
de Lancastro, in remembrance of the descent of the 
Royal House from JOHN of GHENT, Duke of Lancaster, 
whose daughter Philippa was wife of Don JOAO I. The 
connection was, however, remote, as that Prince was 
only great-grandfather of John II. whose bastard son 
Don Jorge, had the title de Lancastro. 
• The SOUSAS, who derive their origin from MARTIN 
Affonso Chichorro, and Affonzo Dinis, natural 
f sons of Affonso III. by the two sisters SOUSA, bore 
the following arms: the first, PORTUGAL quartering 
Leon ; the second Portugal quartering Sousa [Argent, 
( four crescents in cross (" quademas de meas Luas ") gules 
t/u points meeting towards tlu centre\ 

The family of Menesez, who descend from Don 
Alonzo Sanchez, son of Don Dionis (King Denis) of 
Portugal by Dofla Teresa Martinez de Menesez, 

bore: Argent^ a cross compon^ of nine pieces: five of 
Castile, four of Leon, between in each canton tlu 
five escucJieons — ^the Quinas Reales — from the arms of 


( 579) 

Savoy. — In the house of Savoy the bendlet-sinister 
was the usual brisure for illegitimacy, but Humbert, 
batard de Savoie, son of Count Aymon, bore the arms 
of Savoy : Gules ^ a cross argent debruised with five mufles 
de lion sable (Spener, Opus Heraldicum^ p. gen., p. 360, 
quoting from MenStrier, gives these charges as five 
crescents azure, but I think wrongly. See GuiCHENON, 
Hist, Gin^alogique de la Maison de Savoie, iii., 271). 

In a MS. description of the arms of the Chevaliers 
who were present at Rome in 13 12, on the occasion of 
the coronation of the Emperor Henry, we find a some- 
what similar coat borne. " M. Guillaume le Bastard, 
TEcu de gueules i une croix d'argent et cinq aiglettes 
de sable." The eagles of course came from the original 
arms of Savoy. 

The brisure of a bendlet-sinister was used by RfiNfi, 
bdtard de Savoie (d. 1525) son of Duke PHILIP Sansterre; 
by Anselmo, Count de COLIGNO, natural son of PHILIP, 
Prince of ACHAIA and the MOREA ; and by Antoine 
DE BusQUE, a natural son of James, titular Prince of 


It may here be noted that though the above-named 
Philip, Prince of Achaia, was the eldest of the house 
of Savoy, yet, as he did not succeed to its possessions, 
Amadeo made him and his descendants difference by 
the addition of a bend azure, as a mark of the renuncia- 
tion of the rights of seniority (GuiCHENON, Hist, de la 
Maison de Savoye, i., 146). LOUIS DE Savoie, bdtard 
D*ACHAIE, Seigneur de Raconis, living in 1433, was a 
son of Louis, Prince of Achaia, and bore as his brisure 
the azure bendlet, but sinister. His descendants, by 
permission of Louis, Duke of Savoy, turned this into 
the legitimate brisure of a bend azure. 

Bavaria. — In Siebmacher's Wappenbuch, vol. ii., are 
the arms of two Bavarian families which are apparently 
of illegitimate descent. The family of NUSBERG (or 

( 58o) 

Nussjjerg), plate lix., bear, Gules, a fess charged with 
t/ie artns of Bavaria. The family of Puntzinger 
(plate Ixiii.) used Bavaria with a chief gules. The 
Counts of HOLNSTEIN AUS Bayern bore tlie quartered 
arms of BAVARIA and tlu PALATINATE, debruised by 
a baton sinister gules over all. 

Hesse. — The Counts von Schlotheim in Hesse 
bear: Quarterly, i and 4. Hesse {Azure, a' lion rampant 
barry argent and gules), debruised by a bendlet-sinister or; 
2 and 3. Argent, an escuclieon reversed sable for SCHLOT- 
HEIM. (This is a remarkable difference from the arms 
of the legitimate Barons von SCHLOTHEIM, who bear: 
Argent, an escuclieon sable,) The Barons von SOMMERAU- 
Beck difference the arms of Hesse with a bendlet-sinister 

Nassau-Orange. — Maurice, Prince of Nassau- 
Orange (d. 1625), had two sons, WiLLlAM and Louis, 
Seigneurs of Leck. These had a coat of four of the 
principal quarterings of their father's shield, NASSAU, 
Katzenelbogen, Vianden, and Dietz, and the only 
brisure was an escucheon bearing the arms of the 
Lordship of Leck {Argent, a lion rampant sable). The 
son of Louis was Henry, Count of Nassau-Ouwer- 
kerke, Master of the Horse to William of Orange, 
who afterwards created his kinsman's son Henry, Earl 
of Grantham in 1698. 

Henry Frederick, brother of Maurice, whom he 
succeeded in the principality, had a natural son 
Frederick, Lord of Zulestein, who bore the same 
arms as the Seigneurs of Leck, but substituted for its 
escucheon, that of the Lordship of ZULESTEiN : Gules, 
three zuilen argent {v, p. 388), surmounted by a label of 
t/te same. 

In the Museum of Antiquities in the Porte de Hal at 
Brussels I noticed the interesting brass of Wilhelm de 
GoiCX {circa 1555); on it, among the escucheons denoting 

( 58i ) 

his descent, is one of Nassau plain, ent^ en point 
argenty evidently for one of his ancestors who was a 
bastard of that house. The Counts of CONROY 
in Brabant, who were illegitimate descendants of 
Nassau, bore Nassau quartering Vianden {Gules, a 
fess or\ the whole enti en point azure. 

Norway and Denmark. — The Counts of Dane- 
skiold-Laurwigen and of Daneskiold-Samsoe, who 

have the family name of Gyldenlove, are illegitimate 
descendants of the Royal House of Denmark and 
Norway. The former descend from Ulric Frederick 
(d. 1704), a natural son of FREDERICK III. They bear : 
Quarterly^ i and 4. Azure, a lion rampant argent crowned, 
holding in its fore-paws and standing on tJte long-handled 
Danish axe or (the arms of NORWAY with a change of 
tincture). 2. Per bend-sinister or and sable, 3. Per bend- 
sinister sable and or. These quarters are separated by a 
cross pat^e-throughout argent. On the centre point is a 
crowned escucheon, Gules, charged with a cross patie and 
over all two lions passant gardant in pale or, Sur le 
tout du tout an oval escucheon Gules, crowned, and c/targed 
with t/ie cypher F. III., also crowned or, (The founda- 
tion of the escucheon is SCHLESWIG, with a change 
of tincture.) The Counts of Daneskiold-Samsoe 
descend from Christiern Gyldenlove, natural son 
of Christiern V. and bear a somewhat similar coat. 
Quarterly i and 4. Gules, a swan argent crowned and 
gorged with a coronet or (Stormarn). 2. Per bend- 
sinister azure and or, 3. Per bend-sinister or and 
azure. The remainder as in the preceding coat, but 
the escucheon sur le tout du tout has the cypher C 5 

Sweden. — The Counts of Wasaborg, who descend 
from a natural son of GUSTAVUS Adolphus, bear: 
Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, two barbel addorsed gules, in 
chief a crown or, 2 and 3. Gules, a griffon rampant 

( S82 ) 

crowned or. Over all an escucheon sable, thereon a " vase " 
(or sheaf) or, debruised by a bendlet gules. 

Disregarding these Scandinavian examples, which are 
of modern date and debased style, we find that while the 
bend-sinister was the usual brisure, yet in the Low 
Countries the paternal arms were often borne upon a 
fess, canton, or other honourable Ordinary. In other 
cases, a point, or a champagne, or a chief was added. In 
the Peninsula, though the bendlet-sinister was used, a 
more frequent mode of denoting illegitimacy was by 
the assumption of a new shield composed from the 
parental quarterings. 

I must, however, remind the student that abroad a 
bend-sinister, when not used to debruise other bearings, is 
no mark of illegitimacy ; and its use carries with it no 
trace of suspicion. In Germany the custom referred to 
on pp. 135 and 220 has caused many shields bearing 
bends to appear as bends - sinister, as in the great 
armorial — SlEBMACHER's Wappenbuch — where nearly 
every plate contains examples of bends converted into 
bends - sinister, and charges turned from the normal 
position to face the sinister, the helmets and crests 
being similarly contoum^s, simply for pictorial effect. 
(All this is, however, so contrary to the pre-conceived 
ideas of the ordinary British Herald, that I have known 
amusing instances of a failure to grasp the truth on the 
part even of highly-placed officials !) In France a con- 
siderable number of the coats granted by D'HoziER, in 
virtue of the edict of 1696, contain the Barre, or bend- 
sinister, as a principal charge. (See L Armorial GM^ral 
de France, by HOZIER.) 



Before we enter upon the subject of the external 
ornaments of armorial achievements the less familiar 
subject of badges claims a little attention. 

Family badges may probably have been the earliest 
form of hereditary insignia, preceding shield, or coat- 
armory. We have already noted that on the seal of 
Louis VII. of France (i 137-1 180) the smgXe fleur-de-lis 
appears simply as a badge or device, not being included 
in a shield j Louis's successor, PHILIP AUGUSTUS, was 
the first who bore the fleur-de-lis in numbers on a shield 
{vide ante. Chapter XII., p. 328). Odo Burnard, in 
the reign of RICHARD I. sealed with a leaf as his badge, 
and afterwards with three leaves on his shield. 

In Scotland John Montgomery sealed with a fleur- 
de-lis, not enclosed in an escucheon, in 1175. (This is 
noticed as the Montgomery device in a list of English 
badges in the reign of Edward IV.) His descendants 
bore three fleurs-de-lis as arms. ROBERT Bruce, Earl 
of Carrick (the competitor for the Scottish throne, and 
grandfather of King Robert I.), who had on his shield 
a saltire and chief, the latter charged with a lion passant 
gardant, also used a seal bearing this charge as his 
badge, not upon a shield. 

William de Ynais, or Innes, had in his homage 
seal of 1295 a single six-pointed star not on an escucheon, 
his descendants bore three stars. (Other examples are 
given at p. 50, ante^ But if badges thus preceded formal 
hereditary arms they were also in high favour in the 


days of the purest heraldry. The badge was sometimes, 
as in the cases referred to above, identical with a charge 
of the shield, but this became less frequent in later times. 
Distinct as were crests and badges, the family badge 
sometimes came to be used as a crest. A badge may be 
described as a subsidiary family ensign, occasionally 
accompanied by a motto, borne not by the owner of it 
himself but by his adherents, dependants, or retainers. 
The silken hangings of beds, the tapestry of chambers, 
the caparisons of horses, as well as robes, were often 
powdered with badges. The badge was largely employed 
for all decorative purposes. In the fifteenth century, 
it was used (usually in combination with the crest) as 
a charge upon the Royal and knightly standards. 
(F/rfi? Chapter XXII.) 

At an earlier period it often formed part of the 
ornamental work of the seals of magnates of the 
fourteenth century. In this and the following century 
there was not one of the leading nobility who had not 
his ''household badge'' (SHAKESPEARE, Henry VL, 
Act i., s. i) which, like other heraldic insignia, was often 
allusive to a name, estate, or office. Some families had 
more than one badge in general use ; for instance, the 
Percies of Northumberland used as their chief badges 
the silver crescent, and a golden locket^ or pair of 
manacles. These are sometimes combined as on the 
standard of Henry, 5th Earl, where the manacles are 
placed within the horns of the crescent. But they also 
used (as on the standard of HENRY ALGERNON 6th 
Earl) a key in pale surmounted by an open crown (the 
badge of their barony of POYNINGS), the falchion of 
FiTZPAYNE, and the bugle-horn of Bryan. {See Mr 
Longstaffe's paper on "The Old Heraldry of the 
Percies," originally published in the Archceologia ^ liana ; 
and see also the "List of Standards" in Excerpta Historicay 
p. 334, etc.) The bear and ragged staff (originally two 

( 5^5 ) 

separate devices of the Beauchamps, Earls of WARWICK, 
the bear being allusive to their remote ancestor Urso), 
were united by the " King-maker," Earl of Warwick, 
and the DUDLEYS who succeeded the NEVILLES, into 
one badge, "The rampant bear chained to the ragged 
staflF." (A list of the principal badges is printed in 
Appendix G. Others will be found in the Chapter on 
Standards already referred to.) 

Knots of particular form were not infrequently used 
as badges both in England and elsewhere ; eg, the 
Stafford knot, the Bourchier knot, the Wake and 
Ormond knot ; in all these the silk is twined having 
some resemblance to the initial letter of the family name. 
In the BOWEN knot the allusion is double, it is formed 
of four bowSy or loops, and each bears a resemblance to 
one form of the Greek letter B. Knots were also used to 
unite the badges of two families which had merged into 
one ; or the badge of an office to a personal one. Thus, 
the badge of the Lords Dacre of tJie Norths was a silver 
escallop united by the Dacre knot gules to a ragged 
staff argent. The escallop was one of the charges of 
their arms {Gules^ three escallops argent\ while the ragged 
staff was said to commemorate the hereditary forester- 
ship of Inglewood, but Lord Dacre of GiLSLAND, K.G., 
who bore this badge on his standard, married ELIZABETH, 
daughter and heiress of Lord Greystock, K.G. and this 
may be the allusion. 

The HUNGERFORDS used the badge of a sickle erect, 
the handles gules^ the bands or, {See the seal of Sir 
Robert Hungerford, where the shield is placed 
between two sickles, the blades each charged with an 
ermine spot for cadency.) Later (when Lord HUNGER- 
FORD married CATHARINE Peverel) this was united 
by a knot to the golden garb of the Peverels, taken 
from their arms, Azure^ three garbs or (on the HUNGER- 
FORD and Peverel Heraldry, in Cricklade Church, see 



a paper in Notes and Queries^ 5th Series, viii., 193-194), 
as appears on a standard of their descendant Edward, 
Lord Hastings. 

These badges which, as has been said above, were 
borne generally by the owner's dependants, must when 
possible be carefully distinguished from the personal 
devices, temporarily used by exalted persons alone, and 
not by their households, often with an occult meaning 
known only to the wearer and his mistress, or special 
friends, and which was also generally accompanied by an 
allusive motto. Mr MfONTAGU, one of the first English 
writers who directed attention to the wide subject of 
badges and devices, gives several instances which he con- 
siders to come under the latter category. These include 
the salamander in flames of Fran<;:ois I., which occurs 
so frequently at Fontainbleau and Chambord, and of 
which there is a splendid example above the fireplace of 
one of the rooms in the Chateau de Blois. (It was used 
with varying mottoes — Nutrisco et extinguo ; Jamais ne 
estaindra ; and, as at Azay, Ung seul desir^ So also 
the star of the MONTMORENCYS combined with its 
Greek motto aiuanoz; Lord Latimer's human heart 
with its legend a Dieu et A ma fiancee ; and Sir THOMAS 
Heneage'S heart-shaped knot with the motto Fast 
t/io* untied^ were eventually rather badges than devices. 
This whole subject has been very fully treated by Mrs 
Palliser in her excellent volume Historic Devices, 
BadgeSy and War Cries ^ London 1870, and to this work 
the reader is referred for much amusing and interesting 
information on the subject, though it will be laid under 
contribution in the following paragraphs, in which a brief 
account is given of some of the principal English Royal 
Badges, including personal devices. 

First in order of these is the sprig of Broom, the 
famous planta genista which gave its name of Planta- 
GENET to the great house of the Counts of Anjou, 

(587 ) 

Kings of England ; of which it continued to be one of 
the badges up to the time of Henry VIII. We 
have already seen, p. 557, that a genet cat per pale 
sable and argent^ between two broomcods stalked proper 
was the crest granted by EDWARD IV. to his natural son, 
Arthur Plantagenet, created Viscount Lisle by 
Henry VIII. A sprig of broom appears on each side 
of the throne in the Great Seal of Richard I. {British 
Museum Catalogue^ 80). The occasion of the assumption 
of this badge by the house of Anjou is entirely unknown. 
Upon his monumental t^^ in Westminster Abbey the 
robe of Richard II. is ornamented with the peascods, or 
pods of the planta genista ; the badge does not appear, 
however, to have been very frequently used in England, 
although a livery collar of broomcods, with a white hart 
as the pendant, appears on a portrait of the same prince 
at Wilton. It does not appear among the Royal badges 
upon the standards given in Excerpta Historica from the 
MS. in Coll, Arm., i., 2. 

A star between the horns of a crescent appears on the 
Great Seals of Richard I., and Henry III. {Catalogue 
of Seals in the British Museum, Nos. 80 and 100). 

Edward I. is said to have had as his badge a rose or, 
stalked proper {ViKRL, MS., 304) ; and from his time down- 
ward roses of gold, white, and red, were used as orna- 
ments on their dress and furniture by many of the 
House of Plantagenet who descended from him. 

Eleanor of Provence was the mother of Edward 
I., and Mr PLANCHfi very plausibly suggests that from 
the sunny clime of Provence we have derived, not 
merely the rose of our gardens, but the famous floral 
emblems of the rival Royal Houses of York and 
Lancaster. The tomb of her second son, Edmund 
Crouchback, Lord of Lancaster, was covered with 
red roses. To his children, THOMAS and Henry, 
descended the claim to Provence. Henry's eldest 


son, the ist Duke of Lancaster, has on his seal a 
bunch of roses. John of Gaunt married BLANCHE, his 
younger daughter and heiress, and claimed PROVENCE 
accordingly. He bequeathed to St. Paul's Cathedral 
his bed powdered with roses. 

Regarded, probably, as of minor importance to the 
white swan, the antelope, and other principal cognizances 
of the Royal House, the use of the rose was retained by 
the Sovereign, and by the older family of JOHN of 
Gaunt. Borne white by the House of YORK, the rose 
is said to have been allusive to the fair ROSAMOND 
Clifford. It came to the House of York by the 
marriage of RICHARD of CONINGSBURGH, son of 
Edmond of Langley with his second wife Maud, 
daughter of THOMAS, Lord CLIFFORD. It was 
tinctured red by the House of LANCASTER, with 
the Beaufort line of which it seems to have been 
particularly associated ; Shakespeare calls it the Badge 
of Somerset. Roses of the two colours seem to have 
corresponded to the livery colours of the Plantagenets, 
and came, not unnaturally, to be the badge of the 
contending factions. 

Both red and white roses occur on a standard of 
Edward IV., which also bears the Royal Crest of the 
crowned lion passant gardant. Another standard, of 
which the principal device is the white rose of York 
en soleily has only smaller charges of the same. A third, 
bearing the white lion of March, has only white roses. 
The standard of Henry V. has the heraldic antelope as 
its main charge, and the smaller ones are red roses only. 

Edward III. had as his special badge rays of t/ie sun 
descending front a cloud. (I notice that on the fifth and 
sixth seal of this Prince {British Museum Catalogue, 183, 
and 186), the legend on the reverse is said to be 
" preceded by a hand of blessing issuing from a cloud ; " 
was this the origin of the badge ; or is it only a mis- 


( 589 ) 

description of the badge usually described as "a cloud 
and rays " ? 

This badge appears several times on the standard 
ascribed to Edward III., in the MS. (Coll. Arm.) so 
often referred to in this chapter. (It is not asserted that 
these standards were contemporary with the Princes to 
whom they are assigned.) 

The Swan, argent^ collared and chained ^r, was a 
badge of the House of Lancaster, derived from the 
BoHUNS, whose co-heiress Henry IV. had married. 
According to Planch£ the BoHUNS had inherited this 
badge through the Mandevilles, Earls of ESSEX, from 
Adam Fitz Swanne, who held large estates in the 
time of the Conqueror. If this conjecture be correct the 
use of hereditary badges must have long preceded here- 
ditary heraldry. 

The White Hart lying down (technically lodged), 
ducally collared and chained, was a cogpiizance of 
Richard II., and has been conjectured to be only a 
rebus on his name Rich-Iiart. On the other hand it is 
asserted that the badge was derived from The Fair 
Maid of Kent, heiress of Edmund of Woodstock, 
whose badge was a white hynd (" the Whyte Hynd by 
the fay re mayden of Kent," Harl. MS., 304, fol. \2\ 
and it is certain that RICHARD'S half-brother, THOMAS 
Holland, Earl of Kent, used this, his mother's device. 
Richard II. also used the badge of a stock of a tree 
for Woodstock, and this appears on the banners of 
Henry V., etc. 

The first distribution of the badge of a white hart as 
a livery collar was made by Richard II. at the jousts 
held at Smithfield on Sunday, October 12, 1390, in 
honour of his visitor the Count d*OSTREVANT (son of 
the Duke of Holland), who was created a Knight of 
the Garter on the feast of St. Edward, the following 
day. We read that the King distributed his badge of 

( S90 ) 

the white hart, gorged with a crown and chain of gold 
pendent therefrom, to twenty-four Knights of the Garter, 
in the presence of his stranger guests. 

" On the kynges syde were the xxiv. Knyztes of the 
Garter, and they weren all of sute, here cotes, here 
armoure, sheldes, hors trappure, and all was whyte 
hertys with crownes abowte here neckes and chaynes of 
gold hanginge there uppon, and the crowne hanging 
lowe before the hertys body, the whyche herte was the 
kynges livery that he zaf to lordis and ladyes, knyztes 
and squyers, for to know his household from other 
people, and at the ferst connynge to here justes xxiv. 
ladyes ladden those xxiv. lordis of Gartour with chaynes 
of golde, and all in the same sute of hertys as is aforne 
sayde, from the toure on horsebacke thorowe the cete 
of London into Smethfelde, where the justis sholde ben 
holde." (MS. Chronicle^ ending with reign of HENRY 
v., quoted from Anstis by Beltz, History of tJie 
Order of t/te Garter^ p. 252.) He had in his ninth year 
mortgaged certain jewels a la gyse de cerfs blancs 


Tlie Wardrobe Accounts of 1399, show that " Twojaks 
volants,'' or streamers, were to be prepared for the King's 
visit to Ireland, of which one was to be worked with 
white harts. (It is curious that the crest assigned to 
Ireland (Harl. MS., 1073) was a white hart issuant from 
a castle. It not improbably dates from this expedition.) 
John of Gaunt bequeathed to his daughter, the Queen 
of Portugal, " mon meilleur cerf d'orl' and the Duchess 
of York in 1392 left to the King ^'mon cerf de perle!' 

Another cognizance of Richard II. was The Sun in 
Splendour. The second seal of Henry IV. {British 
Museum Catalogue, 301) has a background composed of 
quatrefoil spaces charged alternately with suns, and roses 
en soleiL The same badges appear on the first and fourth 
seals of Edward IV. {British Museum Catalogue^ 300, 

( 591 ) 

313), for the Yorkists always cherished the memory of 
the unfortunate king who had declared ROGER MORTI- 
MER his heir in preference to the descendants of John 
of Gaunt. Hence both these devices became in course 
of time Yorkist badges, the Sun in Splendour being 
familiar to us from the opening lines of Shakesi*EARE*S 
Ricliard III, 

The Falcon and Fetterlock is generally con- 
sidered a Yorkist badge. The falcon alone is said to 
have been used by Richard II. With a padlock in its 
mouth it was a cognizance of John of Gaunt. Edward 
IV., who had the falcon with the lock closed, ordered his 
son Richard to bear it with the lock open, and it is 
so represented on the gate of Henry VII.'s chapel at 
Westminster. Langelyn is equivalent to "bind together" 
{Promptorium Parvulorutn) ; and langele is still used in 
the north country with the meaning to hobble, or fetter a 
horse. Thus the fetterlock may have been assumed as 
a badge to denote the place Langley. Edmund of 
Langley built Fotheringhay Castle on a ground plan 
of this shape. 

Ostrich Feathers. — Of all the English Royal 
Badges that which is regarded with the most interest is 
the plume of ostrich feathers associated in legend with 
the Black Prince, and in later times appropriated as 
the special badge of the Princes of Wales. 

Its origin has exercised the ingenuity of antiquaries 
for several centuries. The romantic story which connects 
the badge with the capture of John of LUXEMBOURG, 
King of Bohemia, at the battle of Cressy in 1346, which 
first appears in Camden's Remains in 1614, must be 
dismissed as altogether fabulous. In his first edition 
that writer says "the tradition is that the Prince won 
them at the battle of Poictiers," but in the second 
edition " the truth is that he wonne them at the battle 
of Cressy, from John, King of BOHEMIA, whom he there 

( 592 ) 

slew!" Neither Froissart nor any contemporary 
historian can be appealed to in support of this tradition ; 
nor is there any evidence that the ostrich feather was 
ever the badge or device of King John of Bohemia, 
or that the motto " Ich Dien " which has for so long a time 
been associated with the badge, was ever used by him. 

The crest of King John of Bohemia, which appears 
on his seals as engraved in Vr£e {GMalogie des Conites 
de FlandreSy plate Ixiii.) was, not an ostrich feather, but 
the full wings of an eagle (being engraved in profile only 
one wing is seen on the seals), a favourite Low Country 
crest of the time. (Plate XLIX., fig. 4.) On his secretum 
the wing has several trefoil, or heart-shaped, charges 
(possibly linden leaves) which we also find of gold on the 
eagle wings borne as crests by Louis DE Namur, and 
Robert de Namur, K.G., as well as by Henri de Flan- 
dres {see Plate XLIV., fig. 2, from the contemporary, 
Annorial de Gelre) ; and this is the crest which surmounts 
the arms o{**Le roi de Boliime'' in that valuable MS., the 
leaves being there certainly linden leaves, and, probably 
so, in the Wappenrolle von Zurich^ plate i., also of the 14th 
century. An ostrich feather piercing a scroll was, un- 
doubtedly, the favourite badge of the Black Prince, but 
he had no exclusive property in it, as with variations it 
was similarly used by most of the Plantagenet princes, 
and is found upon one seal of Edward III. himself. 

Sir Harris Nicolas in his valuable paper on the 
Badge (printed in Archceologia xxxi., pp. 350-384) informs 
us that among certain pieces of plate belonging to Queen 
Philippa of Hainault was a large silver gilt dish, 
enamelled with a black escutcheon with ostrich feathers 
" vno scuch nigro cumpennis de ostrich "/ and he suggests 
that the ostrich feather was probably originally a badge 
of the Counts of Hainault, derived from the County 
of Ostrevant, a title which was held by their eldest 
sons. The sable escucheon with the silver ostrich 

( 593 ) 

feathers, not united but borne singly, arranged palevvays 
two and one, the stem of each passing through a little 
escroU bearing the motto i(i iltEttS^ is called by the 
Black Prince in his will, his shield " for Peace " ; and 
by the provisions of that testament was displayed, and 
still remains, on his monument in Canterbury Cathedral, 
alternating with his shield "for War" which bears 
the Royal Arms (FRANCE and ENGLAND quarterly), 
with a label argent, and is surmounted by his other 
motto: "boutnotlt" {Hoogh-moed, i.e.. High-minded, or 
Magnanimous). The Prince also ordered by his will 
that the chapel should be ornamented with " noz bages 
dez plumes d'ostruce^' and he disposes in it of certain 
vestments embroidered with the same device. The badge 
of an ostrich feather borne singly, appears upon several 
seals of the Black Prince, but not invariably on those 
used after Crecy. With the motto Ich dien upon the 
scroll, it is to be seen upon the seal of Edward, Duke 
of York, who fell at Agincourt. By the other Princes 
of the Plantagenet line who used the single ostrich ' 
feather the little scroll is usually uncharged, but there are 
differences in the tinctures. We learn from the Harl. 
MS., 304, folio 12, that the " Feather silver with the pen 
gold is the KlNG*S ; the ostrich feather, pen and all silver 
IS the Prince's ; and the ostrich feather gold, the pen 
ermine is the Duke of Lancaster's." The Seal of 
Henry, Duke of Lancaster, afterwards Henry IV., 
bears on either side of his helmed and crested escucheon 
an ostrich feather erect ; a garter, or belt, with its buckle 
in base, and bearing his favourite motto Sovereygne, is 
twined around the whole feather, and the escroll is omitted. 
(Plate XXXV., fig. 4.) JOHN of Ghent had before 
this placed a chain along the quill ; and his brother 
Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, had used upon his seal 
the same badge with the substitution of a garter and 
buckle for the chain. (Plate XXXV., fig. i.) 

( 594 ) 

The garter-plate of John Beaufort, Duke of 
Somerset, bears two ostrich feathers erect with golden 
escrolls, the " pens " being company argent and azure^ the 
tinctures of the bordure with which the shield is differ- 
enced. {^See Note on p. 598.) 

The shield bearing three ostrich feathers is one of 
those engraved on the obverse of the second seal of Henry 
IV. in 141 1 {Brit Mms, Cat No. 259), the others being 
a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed^ or indented, 
Boutell calls this the shield of the Duchy of CORNWALL ; 
I think it possibly the arms of Wales, as assigned to 

Rhys ap Tudor Mawr, Prince of South Wales ; the 

third shield bears (Azure) three garbs {or) for the Earkdom 
of Chester. The Chantry Chapel in Worcester Cathe- 
dral, in which lies the body of ARTHUR, Prince of 
Wales, is ornamented with Royal badges, among which 
occurs the single feather with its escroll ; but on a window 
in St. Dunstan^s Church in London, there was, within 
a wreath of roses, a ronndX^ per pale sanguine and azure ^ 
charged with the letters E.P., and between them, a plume 
of ostrich feathers argent, their pens or, passing through 
an escroll inscribed with the motto Ich Dien, and 
ensigned with the Prince's coronet. This was for 
Edward (afterwards Edward VI.), eldest son of 
Henry VIII., but who was never Prince of Wales. 
Edward appears also to have placed the badge on a 
radiant sun, in which manner it was also used by Henry, 
son of James I. Since this reign the plume of feathers 
has become the peculiar badge of the Princes of Wales. 
Henry V. used a fire-beacon ; an antelope lodged, 
gorged, and chained or ; and the white swan of BOHUN ; 
all three combined are to be seen in Westminster Abbey, 
in King Henry's Chantry. Henry VI. retained the 
antelope, but also used two ostrich feathers in saltire or 
and argent ; and a panther inflamed. Richard III.'s 
chief badge was the white boar, armed and bristled gold. 

( 595 ) 

His banner bears this device, and is powdered with 
golden suns (Harl. MS. 4632). 

The chief TUDOR badges were the golden portcullis 
with its motto Altera securitas, supposed to be, after the 
fashion of the time, a rather far-fetched pun on the name 
Tudor (Two door, or a second door) ; (the portcullis, 
however, seems rather to be a Lancastrian or BEAUFORT 
badge ; and its motto might imply that the BEAUFORT 
descent was an additional title to the throne) ; and 
the crowned rose of YORK and LANCASTER combined. 
Sometimes this rose is per pale argent and gules ; some- 
times the red rose is placed within the white, or the white 
within the red ; sometimes the flower is quarterly gules 
and argent. 

Other Tudor badges were : — the Royal Crown in, or 
above, a bush of hawthorn all proper, combined with the 
Royal Cypher; the red dragon of Wales; and the silver 
greyhound of LANCASTER (this sometimes has a golden 
collar charged with the red rose). The crown and bush 
were allusive to the story that after the battle of BOS- 
WORTH the golden circlet of Richard's helm was found 
in a hawthorn bush by Sir REGINALD Bray, and that 
with it Lord STANLEY crowned HENRY on the battlefield. 

One of the standards of Henry VH. (which were of 
longitudinal stripes of the TUDOR livery colours — white 
and green), bears the red dragon inflamed as its principal 
device, and the field is sem^ of flames. Another bears 
the white greyhound collared guleSy and the field is charged 
with red roses. Yet another has the red dragon, but the 
field bears both red and white roses. 

The standard of Henry VHI. has as its principal 
device the red dragon passant. The subsidiary badges 
are ^<^ fleur-de-lis or^ the York and Lancaster rose (that 
is the white rose inside the red one) ; and flames of 
fire. The portcullis continued to be in use as a Royal 
badge in this reign. 

( 596 ) 

Edward VI. bore the same badges, and the radiant 

Queen Mary (Tudor) had for her badge a red rose 
within a white one, impaled by dimidiation with a sheaf 
of arrows or, tied with a golden knot upon a semi-circular 
field argent and vert, the whole surrounded with rays, 
and ensigned with an open crown or. The arrows were 
a badge of the Queen's mother, Katharine of Arragon 
who inherited them from her progenitor, Queen Isabella 
of Castile. 

Elizabeth had numerous devices particularly her 
own, such as a phoenix, and a sieve. She also used her 
mother's badge of the falcon with crown and sceptre, 
besides the usual Royal badges of the crowned rose, the 
fleur-de-lis, and a harp or stringed argent, crowned of the 
first, used respectively for ENGLAND, France, and 

Under the House of Stuart the badges above named 
were used for the kingdoms ; but the roses were some- 
times white, sometimes red, sometimes united (the white 
within the red, or quartered argent and gules). Two 
Stuart badges were also in use : a lion rampant gules, 
and the Scottish thistle. The latter was often repre- 
sented in conjunction with the English rose ; both being 
dimidiated and conjoined on a single stalk, with its 
proper leaf on either side, and a Royal Crown resting on 
the conjoined flower. 

No trace seems to exist of the thistle as the badge of 
Scotland, earlier than the time of James III.; but that it 
was in use during that reign appears from an inventory 
of the jewels and furniture which at his death came into 
the possession of his sons. One of the articles named was 
a "covering of variand .... tartan browdered with 
thissels and a unicorn." BARBOUR'S poem of "The 
Thistle and the Rose" shows the former floral emblem to 
have been in general recognition as a Royal badge at the 

( 597 ) 

time of the wedding of jAMES IV. (1523), and the thistle 
figures prominently on the paper of the ratification by 
James of his treaty of marriage with Margaret of 

The present Royal badges, as settled under the Sign 
Manual in 1801, are : — 

1. A white rose within a red one, barbed, seeded, and 

slipped proper ; ensigned with the Imperial Crown, 
for England. 

2. A thistle, slipped and leaved proper ; ensigned 

with the Imperial Crown, for SCOTLAND. 

3. A harp or stringed argent; ensigned as before, for 


4. On a mount vert a dragon passant^ its wings 

expanded and endorsed gules^ for Wales. 
Livery Collars, composed of the badges or devices 
of a house, and often having the principal badge as 
a pendant, were much in use in England about the 
fifteenth century. They were often employed to denote 
political partisanship, as in the case of the collars of Suns 
and Yorkist Roses with the pendent White Boar of 
Richard III. The best known of these Livery Collars, 
the Collar of SS, was originally a Lancastrian decoration. 
The origin of the device has been the subject of almost 
interminable discussion, and is still far from clear. The 
letter S has been variously supposed to be the initial of 
the word Souverayne^ Seneschal (JOHN of Gaunt was 
Steward^ " Seneschalusl^ of ENGLAND) and Swan, The 
last derivation proposed by Mr PLANCHli, was suggested 
by the badge of a swan which appears pendent from 
the Collar of SS on the eflfigy of the poet GOWER in 
Southwark Church. I am not aware that there is any 
corroboration of this opinion elsewhere. Under Henry 
VII. the collar lost its Lancastrian associations, and 
down to the present day it has been worn as a part of 
their official costume by certain officers of State, including 

( 598 ) 

Lords Chief Justices, Kings of Arms, and the Lord 
Mayor of London. 

Evidence exists of a limited use of family badges in 
Scotland. A contemporary list of badges of the prin- 
cipal English nobles, which Mr PLANCHfi printed from 
a manuscript in the College of Arms, includes two 
Scottish examples. The badge of the Earl of DOUGLAS 
is said to be a heart gules; and that of Sir THOMAS 
Montgomery a fleur-de-lis. Figures that may be 
supposed to be badges, or devices, occur on the Great 
Seals of Scotland, and on the seals of some of the more 
considerable nobles. A stag couchant on the reverse of 
the seal of Walter Stewart, Earl of Athole, has 
been considered a personal device. 

Often, however, either the crest or some charge taken 
from the arms, seems, in Scotland as elsewhere, to have 
done duty as the badge. 

A different species of badge, unrecognised by authority, 
has gradually sprung up among the Highland clans, 
namely a leaf or sprig of some tree or shrub, usually 
carried in the bonnet which the chief wears, along with 
two eagle's feathers. 

A list of badges is given in the Appendix. 

Note. — On the Privy Seals of our Sovereigns the 
ostrich feather is still employed as a badge. The shield 
of arms is usually placed between two lions sejant 
{gardant) addorsedy each holding the feather. On the 
Privy Seal of Henry VHL the feathers are used with- 
out the lions ; and this was the case on the majority of 
the seals of the Duchy of LANCASTER. On the reverse 
of the present seal of the Duchy the feathers appear to 
be erf nine {Brit. Mus. Cat,y No. 747). On the obverse of 
this seal, and on that of George IV., the Royal Sup- 
porters hold banners of the arms of ENGLAND, and of 
the Duchy (ENGLAND, a label for difference). 

Fig. 92.— Dal'beht Achievuibnt. 



Of the external ornaments of a shield of arms the 
most important is the helmet with its crest, to which 
later was joined the wreath or a crest-coronet, and 
the lambrequins, or mantlings. 

We find from ancient seals that the armorial shield 
was in use before crests appeared upon the helms. 
The cylindrical helmet of PHILIPPE d'Alsace, Count 
of Flanders {c. ii8i), bears indeed the figure of 
a lion similar to that upon his shield, but this 
is no true crest, it is simply painted on the side 
of the helm. The earliest crested helm is that of 
Richard I. of England in 1198, it bears a lion-passant 
in the centre of a fan-shaped crest. No other example 
is known until we come to the seal of Matthieu de 
Montmorency in 1224; on it the cylindrical flat- 
topped helm has the crest of a peacock's head and 

( 6oo ) 

neck. The similar helm of Otho, Count of BUR- 
GUNDY in 1248, bears three small banners. The 
helm of Alexander III. of Scotland (c. 1307) has a 
flat top edged with a coronet, and bearing a fan-shaped 
crest (Plate XLIX., fig. 8.) The contemporaneous seal 
of Edward I. of England has a similar helm but no crest 
The oval-topped helm was soon ornamented with the 
fan-shaped crest as shown in Plate XLIX., fig. 9, from 
the seal of CHARLES, Count de Valois {c. 1295); 
and this ^cran continues to be used as the crest 
of many important German families. The earliest 
crested helm which appears among the seals given in 
Hueber's Austria, is that of Ulric DE Chapelle in 
1280; the shield is couM, and the helm is surmounted 
by a wing. On the seal of GEOFFREY d'Arschot 
{c. 1295) the helm has the fan-crest, and on either side a 
tall cock's feather (?) rises from its base, this is a type 
often repeated, and was perhaps the germ of the use of 
wings which later became so frequent A dragon 
couchant between two feathers is the crest of CHARLES, 
Count de Valois, in 1308; and, with the dragon statanty 

is that of Philippe de Valois in 1307 ; while in 13 16, 
the helm of Edward III. of England bears a lion 
statant without a crown. (Plate XLIX., fig. 2.) The 
seals of Jean d'Avesnes, and of Florent of Hain- 
AULT {c. 129s) show their helms crested with an eagle 

In England the crested helm had not the same 
importance as in Germany and the Low Countries. The 
crests are not recorded in the many ancient Rolls of 
Anns which are still extant. This may have arisen from 
the fact that in early times the crest was considered 
rather a personal than a hereditary possession ; it was 
subject to change at the caprice of the bearer, and all 
members of a family did not necessarily use the same 
crest In fact the use of a different crest was an early 

(6oi ) 

mode of denoting cadency. In SlEBMACHER's Wappen- 
buck, vol. iii., we find that no less than thirty-one branches 
of the Alsacian family of ZORN (who bore : Per fess 
gules and or^ in chief a star argent) differenced solely in 
this way. 

In German Armory the helmets are of two kinds 
only : shut, or visored ; open, or barred ; the former were 
used by the newly ennobled, and the greatest importance 
attached to the crested helm ; this was fostered by the 
regulations of the tourneys, which required the shields of 
the combatants to be exposed before the contest, /^«rA/.y 
beneath the crested helm {see Appendix C). 

In France the timbred helm came to be considered the 
prerogative of the military noblesse^ and was denied to 
nouveaux annoblis, who were only entitled to use it on 
becoming in the third generation bons gentilhommes. 
When, in 1 372, CHARLES V. conferred on the bourgeoisie of 
Paris the right to use armorial bearings, it was strenuously 
denied that they could use the timbred helm. In 1568 
an edict of Charles IX. prohibited the use oi armoiries 
timbr^es to any who were not noble by birth. 

In the Imperial patent of arms in my possession, 
granted by the Emperor LEOPOLD under his sign 
manual to Dr F. Ghibelli, the escucheon is surmounted 
by two helms coroneted but without crests. 

Originally helmets were of the same shape and 
materials for all ranks ; but in later times (when they 
had ceased to be generally worn) distinctions were made 
in depicting them, and the rank of the owner was 
denoted by their matter, shape, and position. MENfe- 
TRIER, in 1680, says the helm should be of gold for 
sovereigns ; of silver for princes and great nobles ; and 
of polished steel for simple nobles or gentlemen. 
- The old French heralds differ as to the number of the 
grilles, or bars, which should denote the various ranks of 
nobility, but I do not propose to occupy space with an 


( 602 ) 

account of these diversities, being very much of 
Planch£*S opinion that, " the various positions of the 
helmet, and the rules for its being open, closed, or barred, 
are all of comparatively modem date, and as useless as 
embarrassing." In modern British Heraldry the helm 
of the sovereign is of gold, placed full-face, and having 
golden grilles ; the helms of peers are of silver, in profile, 
with five golden grilles ; those of baronets and knights 
are of steel, full-faced with open vizor ; and those of 
gentlemen are of steel, placed in profile with the vizor 

Fio. 93. FiQ. 94. Fig. 95. Fig. 96. 

Modern "Rank" Helmets. 

The barred helm only came into general use at 
the very end of the sixteenth century. An examination 
of the interesting series of Stall-Plates at Windsor shows 
that "only one barred or tourney helm .... is 
found on the early plates, viz. : on that of RICHARD 

Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester {el, 1475). The 

helms on the early plates, though of various fashions, are 
all of the same class of tilting helms, drawn in profile ; 
and those which are antecedent to 142 1 are drawn, in 
accordance with the general custom, so as to face the 
High Altar {v, p. 134), thus those on the north side 
are turned to the sinister." {See Mr HOPE'S excellent 
paper on the "Early Stall Plates," in ArcfuBologia for 
1889.) Lord Knoll YS, in 161 5, is the first baron whose 
plate shows the barred helm ; and it was only about 
the time of the Restoration that the full-faced helmet 
became a distinguishing mark for baronets and knights. 

( 6o3) 

The crested helms which are now suspended above the 
stalls of the Knights of the Garter are affront^Sy but the 
crests are all made to range to the dexter. Now, in the 
days when helmets and crests were really worn, the animal 
used as a crest looked straight forward from the front 
of the helm. But when represented on seals, etc., as 
borne by a knight riding to the right or left ; or when 
arranged above an escucheon, the animal while placed to 
range with the helm, often had its head turned a little so as 
to face the spectator. Thus the lion passant, or statant, of 
the Crest of England became the lion statant-gardant. 
{^See Plate XXXV., fig. 4.) So far as the crest was con- 
cerned it was really not intended originally to be a variant 
from the lion passant. Accordingly no knight in ancient 
times, and no decently well-informed foreign heraldic 
artist in our own, would think of placing on a full-faced 
helm a Hon or other beast presenting its side to the 
spectator, with its head over the wearer's right shoulder 
and its tail over the left ! Yet this is how the crests are 
represented in the Chapel of the " Most Noble " Order of 
Christian Chivalry, and the c/iapeaux that support many 
of them are turned round to the side of the helm in a way 
which would be suggestive of anything but sobriety on 
the part of the wearer ! This is a matter which affords 
matter for amused amazement to the intelligent foreigner. 
{Herald and Genealogist^ viii., 366.) 

In Germany and other northern countries, where the 
crested helmet and crest are of as much importance as 
the shield of arms, several crested helms are generally 
placed above a quartered escucheon. Each formerly 
denoted a noble fief for which the proprietor had a right 
to vote in the "circles" of the Empire.^ When the 
number of the helms is even, they are arranged so that 
all look inwards towards the centre line of the escucheon, 

* No less than* thirteen were thus arranged above the shield of 
the Markgraxes of Brandenburg Anspach. 

( 6o4 ) 

half being turned to the dexter, half to the sinister. If 
the number be uneven, the principal helm is placed in 
the centre affrontt^ the others with their crests being 
toumh towards it ; thus some face to the dexter, some 
to the sinister. (In Scandinavia the centre helm is 
affront/ ; the others, with their crests, are often turned 
outwards ) One of the good points of the illustra- 
tions in FoSTER*s Peerage^ was that he had the courage 
thus to arrange many of his helmets and crests in a 
common-sense way, without regard to the modern 
ignorant custom which prescribes that, whether the 
helm be full-faced or in profile, all crests shall look in 
the same direction, i,e., to the dexter. 

In Germany when several crested helmets are used, 
two of them are often placed upon the heads of the 
supporters (as in fig. 98, page 627) ; not as permanent 
additions to them h\xt pro hac vice. The modern English 
use by which crests arc represented floating about in the 
air above the shield, without a helm, or any other adequate 
support, is not one that commends itself to the German 
herald (who very rarely dissevers the helm from the crest), 
or, indeed, to any one else who can give the subject 
intelligent consideration. In France the use of crests is 
not nearly so general as in England and Germany ; in 
Italy, and especially in Spain and Portugal, it is less 
frequent still. This has greatly arisen from the unre- 
stricted use of coronets by those who, according to our 
insular ideas, would have no right to them (z;. p. 626). 

Many writers have denied the right of ecclesiastics 

(and, of course, of women) to the use of helmet and crest. 

Spener, the great German herald, defends their use by 

ecclesiastics, and says that, in Germany at any rate, 

universal custom is opposed to the restriction. There, 

the prelates, abbots, and abbesses, who held princely fiefs 

by military tenure, naturally retained the* full knightly 

insignia. On the other hand, in the southern kingdoms 
2 R 

(6os ) 

clerics almost invariably replace the helmet and crest 
by the ecclesiastical hat. 

The early crests were frequently derived from the 
charges of the escucheon ; an examination of any 
series of ancient seals will show this, and many con- 
tinue to be borne without material change up to the 
present day. On the other hand, at least as frequently 
the crests do not correspond to the charges, and have 
been repeatedly varied at the caprice of the owners. 
Sometimes the crest assumed had reference to an office 
held by the wearer. On the seal of David Lindsay, 
Lord Crawford, in 1345, the crest is a key erect, which 
is said to have been adopted to denote the wardenship 
of the Castle of Berwick, or of Edinburgh. The Earls 
of Dunbar and March, Wardens of the Marches, had 
as a crest a horse's head bridled ; and the JOHNSTONS 
of Annandale, Wardens of the West Marches, a spur 
between a pair of wings ; in both cases the crest was 
assumed with reference to their constant readiness to 
discharge the duties of those offices (NiSBET, ii., 19). 
More frequently the crest referred to descent. Thus, that 
of the Lyons, Earls of Strathmore : a demi-woman 
holding in her right hand a thistle, and placed within 
two laurel branches proper, commemorates an alliance 
with the daughter of ROBERT IL The STUARTS of 
Traquair, as descendants of the Earls of BUCHAN, used 
a garb as their crest. Seton of Touch used a boar's 
head or^ in memory of a descent from a GORDON heiress ; 
just as in England the demi-monk, the crest of the Lords 
Stourton, commemorates a descent from the family of 
Le Moyne. The crest of the WOODWARDS — a white 
greyhound sejant on a golden crest-coronet — was derived 
from the CLINTONS of Baddesley through the marriage 
{c. 1460) of John Wodeward with their heiress 
Petronilla. The Lancastrian greyhounds {v, p. 595) 
are still the supporters of the Clintons, Dukes of 

( 6o6 ) 

Newcastle, of the Earls Fortescue (once Lords 
Clinton), and of the present Lords Clinton. 

Among the earliest crests assumed without reference 

to the charges of the shield, were buffalo, or ox horns, 

and wings. These latter if cut square at the top were 

called vols bannerets^ and were sometimes charged with 

the arms. Thus the crest of Bertrand DU Guesclin, 

on his seal in 1365, was an eagle's head between a vol 

banneret^ thereon a bend charged with his arms : Argent^ 

a double-headed eagle displayed^ debruised by a bendlet 

gules {cf. Plate XLIV., fig. i). The crest of John de 

Grailly, K.G., Captal de BUCH, was a man's head in 

profile with long asses' ears. The SoUDAN DE LA Trau, 

K.G., in 1379 used the same crest ; both appear on their 

stall-plates at Windsor, and the seal of the latter is in 

Beltz, Memorials of tlu Order oftlu Garter ^ p. 269. The 

ox-horns which appear so frequently in German crests were 

afHxed one on either side of the helm. Originally, as will 

be seen in the Zurich Wappenrolle and in our example 

(Plate XLIX., fig. i), the horns were simply curved and 

pointed. In the more florid heraldry of later times they are 

recurved, and have a mouth-piece in which are sometimes 

placed tufts or plumes of feathers {^See Plate XLIX., figs. 

5,6, 7). This latter form, not being understood by French 

armorists, received the absurd name of trompes d'iUpliant, 

or proboscides ! These horns are usually of the tinctures 

of the shield. If this be barry the horns will probably be 

so also ; if it be per pale the dexter horn will be of the 

one tincture, the sinister of the other. If the coat is 

quarterly each horn will be divided per fess, so that the 

colours appear alternately {see BOYNEBURG below, and 

Plate XLIX., fig. 6). Sometimes the horns are stringed, 

as on the seal of Marquard de Scheltenberg in 

1 3 10 (see HUEBER, Austria Illustrata^ tab. vii., 13, and 

the Zurich Wappenrolle^ plates ii., iv., ix., and xxi.). 

Sometimes one crest serves for two quartered coats, 

( 6o7 ) 

thus the crest of Bavaria was the Palatinate golden 
lion, sejant between two horns (or as many wings) charged 
with the fusilly-bendy of BAVARIA. 

The wings are usually those of eagles ; they are nearly 
as frequently found, are probably as ancient as the horns^ 
and are generally tinctured on the same principle. Thus 
the crest of the Counts zu Traun, who bear : Per pale 
argent and sable is : — out of a crest coronet or a pair of 
wings, the dexter argent the sinister sable. When a vol 
forms the crest, the whole bearings of the shield are 
often found upon each of the wings. Such a crest is still 
borne by the Duke of NORFOLK. Sable eagle's wings 
are often powdered with linden leaves of gold or silver 
{y. Plate XLIX., fig. 3, and p. 592). 

Penaches^ plumes, usually of peacock's or ostrich 
feathers, were very frequently used in mediaeval times in 
England, and are still in great favour abroad. The eyes 
of peacock's feathers are often used to adorn crests, see 
Plate XLIX., figs. 3 and 10, and Plate XLVL, fig. i. 
The crest of Austria is ^penac/ie of peacock's feathers 
rising from a golden coronet {v, p. 614). 

The human figure, which is a favourite crest in 
Germany, is usually a half-length, without arms, and is 
often habited in the bearings of the shield {v. Plate 
XLVL, fig. 2). Its arms are frequently replaced by a 
pair of horns, which gives the figure a bizarre appearance 
to British eyes. The explanation is easy ; the human 
figure was originally placed between the horns, which 
were attached to the helm. The same explanation 
suffices for such crests as that of MUMPELGARD, Plate 
XLIV., fig. 3, where the arms are replaced by fish. 

Though the use of the coroneted helm is general, 
German crests often rise from a cap, or chapeau ; and 
there are numerous examples in which a hat is the sole 
crest. The usual shape is perhaps a tall conical hat 
charged with the arms. The crest of Saxonv is a 


6, t 7, 10. I 


From Hlldabniid'i SenMiaAa MMterimA. 2. Edmtrtt III 

I. AlBikndei lU. ol & 

( 6o8 ) 

familiar example of this. Out of a coronet rises a tall 
hat charged with the arms, coroneted at the point, and 
ending in a small tuft of three peacock's feathers. From 
ignorance of its meaning this hat is often erroneously 
blazoned a " Column " (!), a term which is also applied 
to the plufnail, or tuyau, the tube out of which feathers 
sometimes rise, an ancient form of which is shown in 
Plate XLIX., fig. 7. Curious mediaeval hats, used 
with considerable frequency, are represented in Plate 
XLIV., fig. 4, and Plate XLVL, fig. 3. 

The mitre, or a mitred figure, is occasionally found as 
a crest, and has sometimes given rise to the most absurd 
explanations. It is usually borne to indicate that the 
user, or his progenitors, held the office of advocate 
(^Avou^ ; Vidaine ; Vogf) to a bishopric, or great ecclesi- 
astical foundation. (The curious crest, Plate XLV., 
fig- 3> is only a mitre in profile, with tufts of feathers at 
the points.) 

According to British ideas there are many anomalies 
in the German use of crests. Occasionally a shield 
bearing a single coat is timbred with two or more 
crested helms ; and still more curiously these are some- 
times identical. Thus, the Barons von BOYNEBURG, who 
bear : Quarterly sable and argent^ have three coroneted 
helms, each bearing a hat per pale of the colours, and 
surmounted by two buffalo horns per fess alternately of 
the same. The Counts of Marck used as crest an entire 
buffalo head, .enveloping the helm so that the mouth 
served as the visor. The head was crowned with a 
coronet of gold fleurons upon a circlet c/iequy argent and 
guleSy out of which the horns arose. The crest of the 
Royal House of France was a AouhX^ fleur-de-lis, so placed 
that from every point of view a {\x\\ fleur-de-lis was seen. 

In Germany, Russia, and Austria the Imperial and 
Prussian eagles, usually on a coroneted helm, are fre- 
quently given as augmentations. 

( 6o9 ) 

In Great Britain the crest has become the part of the 
armorial insignia most generally employed. We 
find it divorced from the helm and coat of arms, 
doing the duty of a badge on household furniture, on 
silver plate, on servants' buttons, on the panels of 
carriages, and the harness of their horses. It need 
hardly be said that all this is an entire departure from 
the original idea of the crest as the ornament of a 
knightly helm ; that the use of a crest by ladies 
(unless they are sovereign princesses) is an indefensible 
anomaly ; and that to speak (as people who ought to be 
better informed often do) of a whole achievement — 
arms, helm, crest, and motto — as "our crest^'' is as absurd 
as it would be to call a suit of clothes a tiara ! 

In British Armory crests are (theoretically) susceptible 
of differences ; the crests of the Plantagenet prijnces, for 
instance, were differenced by the labels used on their 
coats of arms ; and the same custom has been shown to 
obtain with regard to the labels used by the Princes of 
the Royal House at the present day. But the use of 
the modern marks of cadency — the crescent, mullet, etc. 
— upon their crests by persons of lower station is even 
more infrequent than their use in the armorial escucheon. 
In Scotland, where cadets and sub-cadets are very 
numerous, and the prevalent system of differencing is 
inapplicable to crests, the custom has long prevailed by 
which cadet lines are allowed to use a different one from 
that employed by the chief line of the family. (Compare 
the Continental use described on p. 6oi.) 

According to modem English practice two crests can 
only be properly borne, either when a special grant of a 
crest has been made by the crown as an honourable 
augmentation, or in virtue of a Royal licence to use an 
additional family name and the corresponding Armorial 
Insignia. In Scotland the system of change of name 
by Royal licence does not obtain, but it may be 

( 6io ) 

remarked here that before the year 1809 no instance 
can be found of more than a single crest being- 
used by an individual north of the Tweed ; and it was 
considerably later that instances of the modern practice 
began to appear in the Lyon Register in some (though 
by no means in all) cases in which a double surname 
had bden assumed ; and in a very few other instances in 
which this apology could not be made for the innova- 

The entire lack of true heraldic feeling which 
characterised the armory of the last century and the 
first half of the present, is shown nowhere more forcibly 
than in the tasteless and absurd devices granted to be 
borne as crests. Objects which it would be impossible 
to attach to the summit of a helm are frequently found, 
and of these the Lyon Register contains more than a 
fair share. Such are the waves of the sea with floating 
ships, etc., which appear in connection with the achieve- 
ments of Lords Nelson and Camperdown ; of Calder 
and DICK-CUNYNGHAM (barts.) ; the shipwreck of Lord 

ExMOUTH ; the clouds of Blackwood, Emerson, Ker, 
and Stodart ; the rainbows of Hope, Benson, and 
Edwards ; the coronets floating in the air above the 
hand of DUNBAR (bart.) ; the sun shining on a stump of 
a tree of Grant (bart) ; the bees flying about the hive 
of Lord Lansdowne, etc. Tastes of course differ, but 
the writer can hardly think that the ^pergne given to 
Lieutenant-General SMITH by his friends at Bombay 
was a fitting ornament for a helmet ; or that the fact of 
its presentation was worthy of perpetual commemoration 
in his armorial achievement {see Crests of Smith- 
GordoN, Bart.). It is quite clear that many figures 
now used would never have had official sanction had the 
origin and design of crests been duly remembered. 
Something might be done to remove present incongruities 
by more intelligent drawing, ^^., arms embowed should 

( 6.1 ) 

not be drawn in the unstable position of resting on the 
elbow ; and hands holding wreaths, etc., should issue, not 
from the heavens above, but from the helm beneath. 

Lambrequins and Wreaths. — Ancient crests were 
moulded out of cuir bouilli^ and fixed on the helm by 
a calotte or cap of the same substance. This appears 
from the old tourney rules printed in Men£trier, de 
rOrigine des Anpioiries et du Blason^ pp. 79, 80, from a 
MS. in the library of Seguier, Chancellor of France, 
printed in Appendix C. In the Zurich Wappenrolle 
there are no wreaths, and the calotte is usually of a red 
colour {see Plates XLV. and XLVL). In later times the 
line of junction was masked by a wreath of silk, the ends 
of which floated behind. Some have seen in this a 
reminiscence of the turbans of the Saracens. In a large 
nuniber of cases crest and calotte are in one piece {see 
Plates XLIV., XLV., XLVL). In the Armorial de Gelre, 
the calotte no longer fits the helm tightly, though it often 
forms part of the crest, but it has greater length behind, 
and its floating edges are scalloped ; this was the origin 
of the lambrequins. In other cases the calotte is distinct, 
and varies in colour, from the crest. It has become a 
capuchon or capeline^ and the line of junction with the 
crest is either hidden by a crest-coronet or covered by a 
hat from which the crest rises. The tortil or wreath 
occurs but seldom in the Armorial de Gelre. In many 
instances the capeline was armoy^e {v, Plate XLIV., figs. 
5, 6). On the capeline of Robert II. of Scotland are 
the arms of BRUCE. Other Scottish examples are 
found in the cases of the Sire de Sandilands, and Sir 
Gauthier Halyburton, in both of which the lambre- 
quins are armoyds. In the arms of the Due de Baviicre, 
shield, capeline^ and crest are all alike tinctured with the 
Bavarian fusils. When the crest was formed by the 
head and neck of a bird its plumage was prolonged to 
serve as a capeline, as in Plate XLIV., fig. i. There 

( 6l2 ) 

are several instances of these feather lambrequins in the 
stall-plates at Windsor. {See those of Sir HUGH 
Courtenay; Thomas, Earl of Warwick ; Sir Thomas 
Erpingham ; Sir William Arundel, etc.) In Plate 
XL v., fig. 4, from the Zurich Wappenrolle^ we see the 
scaly skin of a salmon similarly used. The mane of the 
lion, which forms the crest of Mertz ; and the hair and 
beard of the men in the case of the crests of BOHN, 
Landschaden, etc., are similarly prolonged into lambre- 
quins. The capeline was not merely ornamental, it 
discharged the same office as the puggree does on a 
modern helmet, protecting the head and neck of the 
wearer from the rays of the sun. When the helmet 
ceased to be worn, the capeline^ as depicted in painting 
or sculpture, underwent a double conversion ; first into 
lambrequins of the helmet, and then into a mantling 
surrounding the arms. The picturesque lambrequins 
have now degenerated into mere unmeaning flourishes 
and scrolls, and, whether they envelope the shield or not, 
are known as mantlings. In Germany the tinctures of the 
lambrequins of the crested helms correspond with those 
of the quartering to which they belong. When a single 
helm is used with a quartered coat the lambrequins vary 
on either side so as to correspond with the tinctures of 
the adjacent quarters. According to modern British 
usage, while the rule for the tinctures of the wreath is 
that they should be of the principal metal and colour of 
the arms, the mantlings are ol gules y or crimson, lined 
with white. This is so general that, with the usual 
official tendency to regulate that which needs no regula- 
tion, modern grants of arms distinctly prescribe these as 
the tinctures of the mantlings, instead of permitting the 
wearer to follow the old custom of using mantlings 
composed, like the wreath, of the principal tinctures. 
One of the respects in which we may expect (or at 
all events may hope for) better things as a result 

( 6i3 ) 

of the spread of a greater knowledge of heraldry com- 
bined with better artistic taste is in this matter of the 
mantlings and lambrequins. We need only look at the 
early stall-plates of the Knights of the Garter to find 
precedents for treatment of these which are both heraldic 
and truly artistic. Thus the mantlings of the arms of 
George, Duke of Clarence, are sem^ of the white 
roses of YORK. Those of Sir John Bourchier, 
Lord Berners, have their silver lining powdered 
alternately with water-budgets (the charge of his arms) 
and with his badge, the Bourchier Knot ; while the 
crimson mantling is sefni of golden billets from one of 
his quarterings. The azure mantling of HENRY V. as 
Prince of WALES is semi of the French golden fleurs-de- 
lis; and that of JOHN, Lord BEAUMONT (K.G., 1397) is 
similarly flory argenty as the field of his arms. The 
BfiTHUNES, Dues de SULLY, etc.. Princes de B£thunes 
Hesdignuel bear exceptionally a golden helm with 
lambrequins of azure^fleury or, their arms being Argent , 
afess gules. The Daubeny mantling is semi of mullets 
{see Fig. 92, p. 600). On the brass of Sir John 
Wylcote at Tew the lambrequins are chequy ; and 
the Warrens also used the mantling c/iequy or and 
azure from their arms. (Vincent's MSS. in Coll. 
Arm.) On the seals of Sir John Bussy in 1391 and 
1407 the mantlings are barry, the coat being Argent, 
three bars sable, ( Visitation of Huntingdon, pp. 6t, 68.) 

There are many exceptional cases in which the rule 
that the lambrequins should agree with the tinctures of 
the arms is not observed ; e.g,, the Swiss GULDINEN 
have lambrequins of or and argent; the Prussian 
Steinmans of /«/;^/^only ; the Gheldersons oi vert 
and azure. 

There is as great variety in the use of the wreath. 
A knight in the old tournament days on occasion 
substituted a contoise of the colours of his mistress, or a 

( 6i4 ) 

sleeve of her dress, for the armorial wreath of his own 
colours. COSSO in Dalmatia uses azure and gules; DOPF, 
sable and gules. In more cases the wreath is of three or 
more tinctures ; it is chequy on the seals of ROBERT 
Stewart, Duke of Albany, in 1389, and of his son 
Murdoch (Laing, i., 787, 789). Occasionally a wreath 
of flowers or leaves is substituted for the ordinary tortil. 
The wreath of PATRICK HEPBURN appears to be of 
roses in V Armorial de Gelre, and several German 
examples are to be found in Siebmacher. The helm 
of Engelbert, Comte de Nassau, was couronn^ d'une 
haye d'or^ and there are several examples of the use of a 
crown of thorns. The wreath of the Troutbecks is 
formed of trouts in an example in MOULE'S Heraldry 
of Fish; that of jEAN DE GUEVARA, Comte d'ARIANO, 
was of peacock's feathers. I have collected very many 
other curious examples for which my present limits 
afford no space. Among us the modem wreath is 
usually very badly drawn ; it is disproportionately large, 
and like a straight twisted bar, balanced on the top of 
the helm ! {See the funny examples at Windsor.) 

The Crest-Coronet. — TJie use of this was developed 
from the wreath. It is an open crown, usually of gold, 
and having (but not invariably) four foliations like those 
of a ducal coronet, by which name it still is vulgarly 
designated, though there is in it no reference to ducal or 
any other titular rank. It was much employed in the 
Low Countries and in Germany, where, however, it is 
properly considered an adjunct to the helm rather than 
a portion of the crest, but there are few examples of its 
use in the Zurich Wappenrolle ; one of these is that of the 
Dukes of Austria {ante^ p. 608), but there is no coronet 
on the seals of Leopold in 12 16, of Albert in 1286, or 
of Frederick in i 3 i i . The coronet is used by Rodolph 
in 1305, and Frederick in 13 13 {see Hueber, Austria 
Illustrata). Sometimes the coronet was tinctured of 

( 6i5 ) 

other colours than gold. In the Armorial de Gelre, that 
used by " le Roi de Navarre^' is actually of ermine ! The 
use of a coroneted helm is said by some writers to be 
peculiar to those who are of tourney nobility — whose 
ancestors had taken part in those conflicts. Brydson 
(^Summary View, p. 189), thought it a distinction of a 
banneret (but this it certainly was not in England), and 
he quotes OLIVIER DE LA Marche, " that none ought 
to adorn the tymbres of their armorial ensigns with a 
golden crown but gentlemen of name, arms, and cry." 

By the regulations of the English College of Arms 
no new grants of crests arising from crest-coronets, or 
chapeaux, are made to ordinary applicants. But mural, 
naval, and Eastern, crowns form part of the grant in the 
case of persons who have respectively served with great 
distinction as military or naval officers, or in the public 
service of our Asiatic possessions. These coronets arc 
figured on Plate L. Other forms of the crest-coronet 
are rarely found, that used by the Marquess of RiPON is of 
fleurs-de-lis; and that of the RiDDELLS of Ardnamurchan 
is said to be " the coronet of a French count." 

Mantles and Pavilions. — The mantles which are 
frequently drawn around the arms of sovereigns and 
great nobles must be distinguished from the mantlings 
or lambrequins of the helm ; though, as has been said, 
both were simply enlargements of the capeline, and like 
it were often armoyhs. In later times the arms of 
Sovereigns ; the German Electors, etc., were mantled, 
usually with crimson velvet fringed with gold, lined with 
ermine, and crowned ; but the mantling armoyi was one 
of the marks of dignity used by the Pairs de France, 
and by cardinals resident in France ; it was also 
employed by some great nobles in other countries. An 
early example is afforded by the arms of the Duke of 
Lorraine (Moule, Heraldry of Fish, p. 71). In 
NiSBET the arms appended to the dedications of the 


work to the Duke of HAMILTON and the Earl of 
Morton are thus amtoyhs. The mantling of the 
Princes and Dukes of MiRANDOLA was Cfiequy argent 
and azure^ lined with ermine. Other families used 
a mantling which, though not strictly armoyee^ was 
semi with one or other of the charges of their 
arms. In France the mantling of the Cluincellier was 
of cloth of gold ; that of Prhidents^ of scarlet, lined with 
alternate strips of ermine ^XiA petit gris. 

Some Sclavonic families have mantlings of fur only ; 
that of the Hungarian Chorinski is a bear skin. In 
Sweden the mantlings are specified in the patent, and are 
often curiously varied. In England the suggestion that 
the arms of peers should be mantled with their Parlia- 
ment robes was never generally adopted. In France, 
Napoleon I., who used a mantling of purple semi of 
golden bees, decreed that the Princes and Grand- 
Dignitaries should use an azure mantling thus semi ; 
those of dukes were to be plain, and lined with vair 
instead of ermine. In 1817, a mantling of azure^ 
fringed with gold and lined with ermine, was appro- 
priated to the dignity of Pair de France. 

From the use of the large mantling was developed the 
crowned canopy known as the pavilion^ of which we see 
traces on the Great Seals of the Kings of FRANCE since 
Louis XI. {^See Vr£e ; and Lecoy de la Marche. 
Les Sceaux, pp. 135-148, Paris 1890.) This pavilion of 
the King of FRANCE was of azure semi de fleurs-de-lis 
d'or. The King of PRUSSIA assumed a pavilion of 
crimson, semi of golden crowns and Prussian eagles ; 
and bearing aloft the banner of the Prussian Arms. 

Fia. 97.— Thi Cbown of CiuBLDiAasB. 



The earliest form of the crowns and coronets in use in 
western Europe is a circlet of gold, plain or jewelled, or 
ornamented with enamels. Of these the first which is 
of heraldic interest is the celebrated IRON Crown 0> 
LOMBARDY, gifted by Queen Theodolinda (died 6i6) 
to the Basilica of Monza where it is still preserved. It 
is a jointed circlet of gold about three inches in width. 
It derives its name from the iron band which runs round 
its interior, and i.s said to have been forged out of // 
Sacro Chiodo, one of the nails used at the Crucifixion. 
With it the Kings of Italy are crowned. It is used as a 
heraldic ornament in the &cu Complet of the Austrian 
Empire. (5« p. 502.) 

The crown of Charlemagne is preserved in the 
Imperial Treasury at Vienna, {See the engraving 
above, fig. 97.) This is the model on which has been 
formed the present Imperial crown of the German 
Empire, The circlet resembles that of the crown of 

( 6i8 ) 

Charlemagne, but is set alternately with crosses and 
eagles-displayed in gems, and it has four ogee arches 
terminating in the orb and cross. {See Plate LV., fig. i.) 
When the crown of CHARLEMAGNE appears as a heraldic 
charge, as in the arms of Hannover (Plate LI I., figs. 
9, lo), it is drawn in profile. 

The circlet of gold worn by our English kings was 
early ornamented with points, or floriations. The seal of 
Edward the Confessor shows the king wearing a 
crown with four rays. That of WILLIAM THE CON- 
QUEROR is a circlet which has four trefoils, or strawberry 
leaves, of which three are visible. Cuspings supporting 
a pearl, or a smaller foliation, were soon introduced, 
and this open and foliated crown is that which appears 
on the head of the sovereign in the early Great Seals of 
England, France, etc. The crown of Henry IV. has 
sm^W^v fleurs-de-lis introduced between the (six ?) conven- 
tional strawberry leaves ; small groups of pearls separate 
all the foliations. 

Henry V. was the first English king who added the 
arches (with their orb and cross) to the circlet, and 
converted the open coronet into that which is techni- 
cally known as a close crown. The arches of the 
crowns used by later sovereigns (though the open circlet 
occcisionally appears up to the reign of HENRY VIII.) 
were generally four in number, but HENRY VI. and 
Charles I. used the crown with eight arches. The rim 
of the crown of England has been heightened with 
alternate fleurs-de-lis and crosses pat/e (four of each) 
since the time of Henry VI. The cap within the crown, 
worn by Richard III., and perhaps by earlier sovereigns, 
is distinctly shown in the crown of the Great Seal of 
Henry VIII. The ogee curves of the golden arches, 
set with pearls, which appear in the crowns of CHARLES II. 
and all succeeding sovereigns, have disappeared from use 
during the later part of the reign of Queen Victoria, 

( 6i9) 

and the arches have now the simple curve which is found 
in the early examples. The actual crown worn at the 
coronation of Her Majesty (Plate L., fig. 2) differs in 
shape from the Imperial crown as represented on the 
coinage, etc. (Plate L., fig. i). The bands, which have 
nearly the shape of a right angle, are formed of wreaths of 
oak leaves in brilliants, with acorns of pearls in brilliant 
cups. (Correct BOUTELL, p. 320.) 

The crown of the Prince of Wales resembles the 
Imperial crown except that it has but a single arch 
supporting a small orb and cross. The coronet used 
by the other sons of the Sovereign is like that of the 
Prince of Wales — a circlet heightened with four 
crosses paUe alternating with as many fleurs-de-lis — 
but it is not arched-in (Plate L., fig. 3). In the 
coronets used by the princesses two conventional straw- 
berry leaves are substituted for two of the crosses paUe, 
(Plate L., fig. 6.) Their coronet, therefore, bears 
two crosses pat^e^ four fleurs-de-lis^ and two strawberry 
leaves (the cross patde occupies the central place in all 
the British princely coronets). The grand-children of 
the Sovereign use a coronet in which four crosses patie 
alternate with as many strawberry leaves. (Plate L., 

fig- 7.) 

The Royal crown of SCOTLAND is a circle of gold set 

with stones and pearls, and heightened with ten (entire) 

golden fleurs-de-liSy alternating with as many floriations 

resembling crosses fleury set with gems. Four rather 

small arches support a mound of blue enamel on which 

rests a cross slightly patie, set with an amethyst and 

pearls. (The Regalia of SCOTLAND have been very fully 

and accurately described by Messrs Reid and Brook, 

in most interesting papers printed in the Proceedings of 

t/ie Society of Antiquaries of Scotland y 1890, pp. i8-I4l) 

The Royal crowns used by most foreign sovereigns, 

whatever be their titular rank, though they differ slightly 

( 620 ) 

in details, are (with exceptions hereafter noted) of one 
general type — a circlet of gold heightened with eight 
donations between which are low cuspings supporting a 
pearl. The crown is closed in by eight pearled arches, 
surmounted by an orb and cross. (Plate L., fig. 4.) 

The use of the closed crown by foreign sovereigns (the 
Emperor being excepted) dates only from the sixteenth 
century. The arms of Queen LEONORA of PORTUGAL, 
in 1498, have only the open circlet. I think the Spanish 
crown was not generally closed in before the times of the 
Emperor CHARLES. Erik XIV. (1560-1568) was the 
first of the Swedish kings to bear the closed crown. 
Among the Danish regalia in the castle of Rosenborg, 
near Copenhagen, is still preserved the elegant open 
crown, probably made about the year 1600, worn by 
Christian IV. The closed crown appears to have been 
adopted by CHRISTIAN V. {c. 1670). 

France. — Charles VIII. is said to have assumed 
the closed crown in 1495, after the conquest of Naples, but 
it does not appear upon his Great Seal, or on that of his 
successors until the reign of HENRY II., 1547. FRANCIS I. 
(15 1 5) is also said to have used the closed crown, and it 
certainly appears on the seal of his queen, LEONORA of 
Portugal. The crown borne later by himself and his 
successors is a circlet of gold heightened with tl^t fleurs- 
de-lis (more accurately by eight demi-fleurs-de-lis), c\ostd 
by eight pearled bands which unite in a fleur-de-lis, 
(Plate L., fig. 17.) The crown of the Dauphin was 
similar, but was arched in by four dolphins embowed 
supporting with their tails the crowning fleur-de-lis. 
(Plate L., fig. 18.) The coronet of the other children of 
the king (Jes fils de France^ was a circlet adorned with 
eight {demi-) fleurs-de-lis, (Plate L., fig. 19.) That 
used by the princes, their children, was set alternately 
with four {demi-) fleurs-de-lis and as many conventional 

strawberry leaves. (Plate L., fig. 2a) 
2 s 

(621 ) 

The crown adopted by NAPOLEON, and used under 
both Empires, was a gemmed circlet of gold supporting, 
and completely closed in by, eight Imperial eagles, whose 
elevated wings united with alternate conventional palm 
branches, rising from Greek honeysuckle floriations, to 
support the orb and cross. 

The crown of the HoLY Roman Empire, the crown 
worn by the German Emperors, appears to have been 
completely closed, not merely arched, at an early date, 
probably in imitation of the diadems used by the 
Byzantine Emperors from the time of BASIL I. The 
seal of Henry I. (1002-1024) is closed in, and has also 
four rays or spikes surmounted by balls. That of his 
successor CONRAD I. has an open crown of four folia- 
tions ; but Conrad's son, the Emperor Henry H., 
reverted to the previous type, and, with variations in 
detail, this was maintained by most of his successors. 
(The exceptions known to me are LOUIS IV., CHARLES 
IV., and Rupert, who are represented with open 
crowns. See Roemer-Buchner, Die Siegel der Deut- 
sc/un Kaiser ; and Glafey, Specimen Decadetn Sigil-- 
lorum.) The vittcBy or fillets, are clearly indicated on the 
seals of Conrad, 1143 ; Frederick, 1165; and Philip, 

The crown of Wladislas, King of Bohemia, i 160, is 
shown by his Great Seal to have been of the same type as 
that worn by the Emperor at the same period (Glafey, 
tab. X., fig. 39). The type used by the later Emperors 
of Germany, and by the Emperors of Austria, is 
shown on Plate XL., as is also the celebrated crown 
of Hungary, the Szent Korona^ or crown of St. 

Russia. — The present Imperial crown of RUSSIA does 
not differ very materially from that used by the later 
German Emperors. A gemmed band rises from the 
floriated circlet and crosses the head from back to front. 

( 622 ) 

supporting on its summit the orb and cross ; the side 
pieces of the cap are sections of a sphere, as in the old 
German and Austrian Imperial crowns. 

The treasury of the Kremlin at Moscow contains 
among the regalia several most curious and ancient 
Russian crowns. Of these one of the most interesting is 
the crown of VLADIMIR {Monomachus\ which is a dome- 
shaped cap of six sections, of gold filigree adorned with 
gems. It is truncated, and the opening is covered by a 
hemisphere of like workmanship supporting large gems 
and a tall cross of Latin shape. The circlet is covered 
by a broad band of sable fur. This is said to have 
been sent to St. Vladimir in the tervth century, but is 
certainly of later workmanship. The crown of Peter 
Alexievitch is similar in general character, but has a 
circlet from which rise small pliant rods of gold topped 
with large uncut gems. The crowns of Siberia, Kazan, 
etc., are all of the general tiara, or pagoda shape, but 
are not easily described without reference to coloured 
engravings ; such will be found in the splendid work, 
T/u Antiquities of the Russian Empire^ 4to., 1849-52, of 
which there is a copy in the Art Library at South 

The Prussian Royal crown (distinct from the Im- 
perial crown of Germany) is of gold, the circlet set with 
large diamonds, and heightened with diamond rosettes 
or foliations ; it is arched-in with eight bands set with 
diamonds, and is surmounted by the orb and a brilliant 

The other European Royal crowns need no special 
mention ; generally they are used not only by the 
sovereign and his consort, but as a heraldic ornament 
by the princes of the Royal House. Thus the crown of 
the late Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the 
lamented Prince Consort of Queen VICTORIA (a 
younger brother of the reigning Duke of Saxe- 

( 623 ) 

Coburg), was in all respects of the Royal type, differ- 
ing only in minor details from that given in Plate L., 
fig. 4. 

The archducal crown of AUSTRIA is at present a 
circlet of gold set with strawberry leaves, and having a 
single arch, as in the crown of the Prince of Wales. It 
also shows the cap of crimson velvet which rarely 
appears in the present day in foreign Royal crowns. 
The crown of the Electors of the Holy Roman (or 
Germanic) Empire was, like the old archducal crown of 
Austria, provided with a circlet of ermine cut into 
points ; in the archducal crown these points were edged 
with gold and pearls (see page 500). 

The crown used by many German Princes {Fiirstefi) 
resembles the old electoral crown, having a scalloped 
circlet of ermine, a crimson velvet cap, and four golden 
arches with the orb and cross (Plate L., fig. 29). Other 
bearers of princely titles in Italy, etc., use a crown practi- 
cally identical with a Royal one. 

The Grand Dukes of TUSCANY used a circlet of gold 
set in front with a large fleur-de-lis florenqie^ the rest of 
the rim being ornamented with blades of iris leaves, and 
intermediate buds of the same flower. 

The coronet of the Doges of VENICE is represented 
in Plate L., fig. 10 ; the plain coronet of gold enclosed 
a cap of cloth of gold, or silk damask, of peculiar 

Coronets. — When we come to the consideration of 
the coronets borne by the European nobility, we must 
remark at the outset that great licence prevails, and that 
it is only in our own land that we can be certain that the 
coronet which is used as a heraldic adornment is a clear 
indication of the rank of the user. 

Even the ducal coronet (Plate L., fig. 21), which is 
common to that rank in all European countries, is 
sometimes employed on the Continent by nobles of an 



8. Prinoeof Wale 


4. BoyaL 

6. Soda of BoTeraigxi. 6. Fiini 


7. Grandaoniof 

8. Viaooantfl. 

9. Baron. 10. Dog« of Venioe. 11. Yidameu 


18. Eastern. 


14. Vallary. 

16. Nana. 


17. Kingof Fraaoe. 18. Danpbin. 10. FUa de Fxwioe. 

81. Daoal. 

82. Maiqnia. 

88. Gonnl 

25. Baran. 

86. President. 

87. MaiqniB. 


89. Piinoe. 8a Count. 

(Bdif Soman Empire.) (Oemuinjf.) 

81. Baron. 

88. MaiqueiB. 84. Earl. 

85. Ylaooimtb 

18. Nobles. 

16. MnraL 

80. Frinoe. 

84. Visconntb 

88. Noble. 

88. Marqnla. 

86. Baron. 

( 624 ) 

inferior title, without exposing them, as such an assump- 
tion would do among us, to comment or derision. The 
ducal coronet, it appears from RiETSTAP, is generally 
borne by Marquises in Belgium and the Netherlands. 
It was also borne by the Marshals of France and 
their wives. I may remark also that all Grandees of the 
first class in Spain have the right to use the ducal 
coronet, though they may choose to be known by an 
inferior title ; a Spanish grandee will frequently prefer 
to be known as the possessor of a great historical Mar- 
quessate or County than as the owner of a more modern 
Dukedom. All Spanish Dukes are grandees. Some- 
times the titles of two ranks are there borne together. 
The well-read student of history will at once remember 
that Olivarez, the Minister of State of Philip IV., was 
known as the " Conde-Duquer 

The coronet of a Marquess among us is a circlet of 
gold heightened with four strawberry leaves, and as 
many large pearls set alternately (Plate L., fig. 33). 
In other countries the number of strawberry leaves 
remains the same, but our single pearl is often replaced 
by a group of two or three smaller ones, separate or con- 
joined. (Plate L., figs. 22, 27, 32.) Fig. 27 is that which 
is most frequently used by French Marquises at the 
present day, but under LouiS XIV. the form in fig. 22 (but 
with three pearls instead of two) was just as frequent. 

The coronet of an Earl (Plate L., fig. 34) has the 
usual circlet of gold, heightened with eight strawberry 
leaves, and as many large pearls raised on high points, 
or rays. The coronet of a Count abroad is usually 
ornamented with sixteen pearls, of which nine are 
visible. In Germany these are usually placed on high 
points ; in the old French coronets they are raised very 
very little above the circlet {see Plate L., figs. 23 and 
30). Another French coronet used by Counts has the 
circlet set with four groups, each of three pearls in a 

(625 ) 

trefoil, and with smaller pearls on the rim in the inter- 
mediate spaces. The Counts of the NETHERLANDS use 
a coronet very closely resembling that which is now 
known among us as the " crest-coronet ; " but the inter- 
mediate cusping of our crest-coronet has not (or ought 
not to have) the small alternating pearl which appears 
in the coronet of the Dutch Counts ; in other words, 
their coronet much resembles that of a Marquess (fig. 
33), but has much smaller pearls. 

The Viscount's coronet is with us a golden circlet with 
twelve pearls, of which seven are visible, set close to the 
rim. (Plate L., fig. 35.) In France it had at first only 
four pearls, of which three were visible ; but later these 
were a little raised and four smaller pearls were placed 
in the intervals. (Plate L., fig. 24.) The Viscounts of 
the Netherlands have attributed to them by RiETSTAP 
a coronet set with four pearls on points, of which three 
are visible ; and the intermediate spaces are occupied by 
strawberry leaves. (Plate L., fig. 8.) 

The Baron's coronet with us has the circlet set 
with six large pearls, of which four are visible. In 
Germany, and in Italy, the coronet resembles that of a 
Count, but has only twelve pearls, of which seven are 
visible. (Plate L., fig. 31.) In France, the baronial 
coronet is a circle of gold wreathed with strings of 
small pearls. (Plate L., fig. 25.) A curious coronet 
is used by the Barons of the Low Countries created 
under Austrian rule ; it is represented in Plate L., fig. 9, 
and is a circlet of gold with a cap ornamented with 
gold and pearls. 

The coronet of a Vidame ( Vogt, Avou^^ was a circlet 
of gold ornamented with four crosses patie^ of which 
three are visible. (Plate L., fig. 11.) 

The Chancellor of France, and the Premiers 
Presidents used, instead of a coronet, a mortier^ or 
cap edged with gold (Plate L., fig. 26). 

( 626 ) 

The Admirals of the United Provinces of the Nether- 
lands adorned their escucheons with a naval crown 
composed of prows of ships. {See the monuments of DE 
RUYTER, Van Galen, and Kinsbergen, in the Nieuwe 
Kerk, and those of S WEEKS, HULST, etc., in the Oude 
Kerk, at Amsterdam.) 

Plate L. contains two figures, Nos. 12 and 28, which 
have not yet been described. They are the coronets 
often used abroad by Jonkheers, hereditary knights, 
and nobles generally, who have not the right to the 
titles of Baron and upwards. These coronets when 
they appear on carriages or visiting-cards are often 
supposed by the unlearned to mean something much 
more than they really indicate. They are on all fours 
with th^ crest-coronet, or with the circlets which appear 
in early times upon the basinets of knights, and out of 
which no doubt the crest-coronet was evolved. But by 
the average Englishman, whose idea is that there is no 
nobility apart from the Peerage, the foreign coronet is 
assumed to be the index of high noble and titled rank, 
and the ignotum is taken only too often pro magnifico 
with very little reason indeed. 

Napoleon, who had no objection to assume an 
Imperial crown for himself, endeavoured to substitute 
for the helmets and coronets of his nobles a series of 
velvet toqueSy or hats turned up with various colours, 
and ornamented with ostrich feathers. Those who are 
curious on the subject will find these all set out in 
Simon, UAnnorial GMralde V Empire Franqais^ tome i., 
but they were tasteless in design, and the new noblesse 
were not likely willingly to use insignia which marked 
them out as nouveaux annoblis ; they had consequently 
but a very brief existence. The title of Marquess was 
not conferred by Napoleon ; and is unknown in Poland 
and Scandinavia. 

Fig. 98.— Armb, Ere,, or Prince PoTBte. 



Supporters are figures of living creatures placed at the 
side, or sides, of an armorial shield, and appearing to 
support it. French writers make a distinction, giving 
the name of Supports to animals, real or imaginary, thus 
employed ; while human figures or angels similarly used 
are called Tenants. Trees, and other inanimate objects 
which are sometimes used, are called Soutiens. 

Men£trier and other old writers trace the origin of 
supporters to the usages of the tournaments, where the 
shields of the combatants were exposed for inspection, 
and guarded by their servants or pages disguised in 
fanciful attire, — "C'est des Tournois qu'est venu cet usage 
parce que les chevaliers y faisoient porter leurs lances, 
et leurs ^cus, par des pages, et des valets de pied, 
d^guisez en ours, en lions, en mores, et en sauvages," 

( 628 ) 

— Usage des Armoiries^ p. 119. The old romances 
give us evidence that this custom prevailed ; but I think 
only after the use of supporters had already arisen from 
another source. 

There is really little doubt now that Anstis was quite 
correct when in his Aspilogia he attributed the origin of 
supporters to the invention of the engraver, who filled up 
the spaces at the top and sides of the triangular shield 
upon a circular seal with foliage, or with fanciful animals. 
Any good collection of mediaeval seals will strengthen 
this conviction. For instance, the two volumes of 
Laing'S Scottish Seals afford numerous examples in 
which the shields used in the 13th and 14th centuries 
were placed between two creatures resembling lizards or 
dragons. {See the seal of Alexander de Balliol, 
1295. Laing, ii., 74.) In ClBRARIO, Sigilli de' Principi 
de Savoia^ etc., Torino, 1834, the shield of Beatrice of 
Savoy, Dauphine de ViENNOlS in 1279. is placed between 
the lacs d'amour, which were a badge of her house 
and still appear in the collar of the ORDER OF THE 
Annunciada. On the seal of Amadeus V., Count of 
Savoy, in 1309, the shield has on either side a lion's 
head ; and on the counter-seal the spaces above and 
around the shield are each charged with the same. 
The seals of Edward, Count of Savoy, in 131 1, 1322, 
etc., are similarly arranged. {See also Vr£e, Gen. Com. 
FL, plate Ixxviii.) On the counter-seal of Magnus 
(Ladislas) of Sweden, in 1275, the shield ( . . . . 
seme of small hearts, three bends-sinister, over all a lion 
rampant, crowned for the first time) is surmounted by 
an open crown and placed between two others in flanks. 
{See Hildebrand, Det Svenska Riks-Vapnet, fig. 14, p. 
23, and Scheffer, Tab. F, fig. 24.) The seal of John 
Segrave has a garb on either side of the shield. On 
the counter-seal of CHARLES of Anjou, in 1308, the 
shield of COUCY is placed between four lions rampant, 

( 629 ) 

within a quatrefoil. The seal of JOHN, Duke of NOR- 
MANDY, eldest son of the King of FRANCE, before 
1 316 bears his arms (France-ancient, a bordure gules) 
between two lions rampant away from the shield, and 
an eagle with expanded wings standing above it. The 
secretuni of ISABELLE de Flandres {c. 1308) has her 
shield placed between three lions, each charged with a 
bend (Vr£e, Gen, Com. Flandr,^ plates xliii., xliv., xcii.). 
In 1332 Aymon of Savoy places his arms {Skwoy, with 
a labei) between a winged lion in chief and a lion without 
wings at either side. Later, on the seal of Amadeus VI., 
a lion's head between wings became the crest of Savoy. 
In 1332 Amadeus bears Savoy on a lozenge {y, p. 
58) between in chief two eagles, in base two lions. 
(Cibrario, Nos. 61, 64; and GuiCHENON, tome i., No. 
130.) In Scotland the shield of REGINALD Crawford 
in 1292 is placed between tw6 dogs, and surmounted by 
a fox ; in the same year the paly shield of REGINALD, 
Earl of Athole, appears between two lions in chief and 
as many griffins in flanks (Laing, i., 210, 761). 

The seal of Humbert II., Dauphin de Viennois, in 
1 349, is an excellent example of the fashion. The shield 
of Dauphiny is in the centre of a quatrefoil. Two 
savages mounted on griffins support its flanks ; on the 
upper edge an armed knight sits on a couchant lion, and 
the space in base is filled by a human face between two 
wingless dragons. The spaces are sometimes filled with 
the Evangelistic symbols, as on the seal of YOLANTE 
de Flandres, Countess of Bar {c, 1340). The seal of 
Jeanne, Dame de Plasnes in 1376 bears her arms 
en banniere (p. 57) in a quatrefoil supported by two 
kneeling angels, a demi-angel in chief, and a lion 
couchant gardant in base. 

But though in this abhorrence of a vacuum originated 
the use of animals, etc., as quasi supporters, other causes 
certainly co-operated. Allusion has been made to the 

( 630 ) 

usage by which on vesica-shaped seals ladies of high 
rank are represented as supporting with either hand 
shields of arms {vide ante, p. 454). From this probably 
arose the use of a single supporter. MARGUERITE 
DE CouRCELLES in 1 284, and Alix de Verdun 
in 131 1, bear in one hand a shield of the husband's 
arms, in the other one of their own. The curious seal 
of Muriel, Countess of Stratherne, in 1284, may be 
considered akin to these. In it the shield is supported 
partly by a falcon, and partly by a human arm issuing 
from the sinister side of the vesica^ and holding the 
falcon by the jesses (Laing, i., 764). The early seal of 
BOLESLAS III., King of Poland, in 1255, bears a 
knight holding a shield charged with the Polish eagle 
(VOSSBERG, Die Siegel des Mittelalters). In 1283 the 
seal of Florent of Hainault bears a warrior in chain 
mail supporting a shield charged with a lion impaling 
an eagle dimidiated. Probably that which contributed 
most to the general adoption of a single supporter was 
the use by the German Emperor of the eagle displayed, 
bearing on its breast his personal arms, a fashion 
early adopted by his kinsmen and feudatories. Thus 
Florent, Count of Holland, brother of the Emperor 
WiLHELM, bore {c, 1260) the shield of Holland on the 
breast of an eagle displayed, a usage maintained by 
later Counts, ^.^., by William III. and his sister 
Margaret, wife of the Emperor Louis, as well as by 
their sons, WILLIAM, Count of OSTREVANT, Duke of 
Bavaria {d, 1377), and Albert, Count Palatine of the 
Rhine ; these two used the double-headed eagle. We 
have seen the use of the eagle in this way by RICHARD 
of Cornwall, elected King of the Romans in 1256 
{ante, p. 245), and by his son Edmund, Duke of CORN- 
WALL. In Scotland about the same date the Earl of 
Menteith placed his shield on the breast of an eagle, 
as does Alexander, Earl of Ross, in 1338; in 1345 

( 631 ) 

the shield of Sir David Lindsay is thus supported ; 
and on the seal of EUPHEMIA, Countess of Ross, in 
1394, the shield of Ross is borne on the breast of an 
eagle, while the arms of Leslie and Comyn appear 
on its displayed wings. \Cf. the imperfect seal of 

Margaret Stewart, Countess of Angus, in 1366; 

the shields remaining on the wings are ANGUS {a lion 
rampant), and STEWART {a fess chequy and label).'] In 
1370 the seal of LOUIS, Due d*ANjOU, bears his shield 
on the breast of a crowned eagle displayed, whose feet 
rest on couchant lions (Demay, fig. 260). 

On the seal of HUMPHREY DE BOHUN in 1322 the 
guige is held by a swan, the badge of the Earls of 
Hereford ; and in 1356 the shield of the first Earl of 
Douglas is supported by a lion whose head is covered 
by the crested helm, a fashion of which there are many 
examples. A helmed lion holds the shield of MAGNUS 
I., Duke of Brunswick, in 1326. (That of a successor, 
Duke Henry, in 1373 is supported by a single angel.) 
On the seal of Jean, Due de Berri, in 1 393 the supporter 
is a helmed swan (compare the armorial slab of Henry 
of Lancaster, in Boutell, plate Ixxix.). Jean IV., 
Comte d*ALEN(;:ON (1408) has a helmed lion sejant as 
supporter. In 1359 a signet of Louis van Male, Count 
of Flanders, bears a lion sejant, helmed and crested, 
and mantled with the arms of Flanders between two 
small escucheons of Nevers, or the county of Burgundy 
{Azure, billetty a lion rampant or), and Rethel {Gules, 
two heads of rakes fessways in pale or). His seal in 1382 
has a similar lion between four escucheons of Artois, 
Nevers, Brabant, and Rethel. I have engraved 
this seal (fig. 99, p. 648) from Vr£e, de Seghelen der 
Graven van Vlaendren, plate xxvi. A single lion sejant, 
helmed and crested, bearing on its breast the quartered 
arms of Burgundy between two or three other 
escucheons, was used by the Dukes up to the death of 

( 632 ) 

Charles the Bold in 1475. In Litta's splendid work, 
Famiglie celebri Italiane^ the BUONAROTTI arms are sup- 
ported by a brown dog sejant, helmed, and crested with 
a pair of dragon's wings issuing from a crest-coronet. 
On the seal of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent in 
1380, the shield is buckled round the neck of the white 
hind lodged, the badge of his half-brother Richard II. 
Single supporters were very much in favour in the 
13th and 14th centuries and the examples are numerous. 
Charles, Dauphin de Viennois {c 1355), has his 
shield held by a single dolphin. (In 1294 the seal of the 
Dauphin Jean, son of Humbert L, bears the arms of 
DauphinE pendent from the neck of a griffon.) The 
shields of arms of Bertrand DE Bricquebec, in 1325 ; 
Pierre de Tournebu, in 1339 ; of Charles, Count of 
Alen(;on, in 1356 ; and of OLIVIER de Clisson, in 1397, 
are all supported by a warrior who stands behind the 
shield. In England the seals of Henry Percy, first 
Earl, in 1346, and another in 1345, have similar repre- 

The earliest appearance of the unicorn as a supporter 
of the Royal Arms of SCOTLAND is on a gold coin of 
James III. The unicorn is single. Other Scottish 
examples of single supporters are found on the seals 

of Alexander Roxburgh, 1367; Nicolas Douglas, 
1392; Adam Forrester, 1400; Archibald, Earl 
of Douglas, in 141 8, as Duke of Touraine in 142 1 
(his wife, MARGARET, in 1425 has an angel as the 
supporter of her shield) ; of William, Earl of Douglas, 
in 1446. The arms of the city of PERTH : GuleSy a 
paschal lamb argent ^ t/ie banner azure, a saltire and royal 
tressure of t/ie second, are borne on the breast of a 
double-headed eagle displayed. {See Laing, Scottish 
Seals ; and Seton, Scottish Heraldry, pp. 269, 270.) 

The seals of Mary, Duchess of BURGUNDY, show her 
use of an angel, or of a lion, as a single supporter, and 

( 633 ) 

her husband, the Archduke MAXIMILIAN, similarly used 
a single lion sejant, crested and helmed. On the secretuni 
of Charles V. and later Kings of France, a single 
angel appears behind the shield as a single supporter 
bearing the sceptre and the main de justice, 

Ferdinand and Isabella, out of devotion to St John, 
placed the shield of the Royal Arms {Quarterly : i and 

4. Castile quartering Leon ; 2 and 3. Arragon), on 

the breast of the single-headed Apostolic eagle displayed, 
of which use there are many examples on the reja^ and 
walls of the Capilla de los Reyes at Granada, and, if I 
remember aright, at Seville also. 

In England there are a few examples of the use of 
a single supporter in later times. CHARLES I. is said 
to have granted to the lord of the Manor of Stoke Lyne 
the right to bear his arms on the breast of a displayed 

The use of DOUBLE SUPPORTERS, as at present, arose 
contemporaneously with that of the single one. In the 
majority of cases both supporters were alike, but even at 
an early date this was by no means invariably the case. 
In Brittany the supporters were usually different, and 
there is a frequent combination of the lion and the griffon, 
as on the seals of ALAIN DE BEAUMONT, 1298 ; Gui DE 
Blois, 1367; Bertrand du Guesclin, 1373; 
Clement, Vicomte de Thouars, 1378; Robin de 
Guit£, 1379; and CHARLES, Comte de Dammartin, 
in 1394. Even after the use of double supporters had 
become general a third figure is often placed behind the 
shield, and forms a connecting link with the old practice 
of filling the void spaces on seals to which we have 
already referred. On the seal of WiLLlAM STERLING 
in 1292, two lions rampant support the shield in front of 
a tree. The shield on the seal of OLIVIER RouiLLON 
in 1376 is supported by an angel, and by two demi-lions 
couchant-gardant in base. That of PlERRE AVOIR, in 


1 378, is held by a demi-eagle above the shield, and by 
two mermaids. On many ancient seals the supporters 
hold the crested helm above a concha shield. 

Instances have been given in which a single supporter 
has a mantling arnwyee. Double supporters are simi- 
larly treated, as are the eagles of Jean d'Harcourt in 
1410, the lions of HUGH DE Grammont in 1341. On the 
seal of Perronelle, Vicomtesse de Thouars, in 1378 
the mantling is of Dreux {Cliequy or and azure^ a bordure 
gules y see Demay, fig. 259). On that of Alain du 
Perrier in 1387 the lions sejant hold banners, and have 
volets apparently of vair (MORICE, Bretagne, tome ii.). 

The counter-seals of RUDOLF IV., Archduke of 
Austria, in 1359 and 1362, afford instances in which a 
second set of supporters is used to hold up the crested 
helm. The shield of Austria is supported by two lions 
on whose volets are the arms of Hapsburg and Pfirt ; 
the crested helm (coroneted, and having a penache of 
ostrich feathers) is also held by two lions whose volets 
are charged with the arms of Stiria, and of Carinthia. 
(Hueber, Austria Illustrata^ tab. xviii.) 

In 1372 the seal of Edmund Mortimer represents 
his shield hanging from a rose-tree, and supported by 
two lions couchant (of March), whose heads are covered 
by coroneted helmets with a penaclie (azure) as crest. 
{See Plate XXXVII., fig. 2.) BOUTELL directs atten- 
tion to the fact that the shield of Edmund de Arundel 
(1301-1326) is placed between similar helms ^xidpenac/us 
without the supporting beasts {Heraldry , Historical and 
Popular y pp. 271-418). 

Crested supporters have sometimes been misunder- 
stood, and quoted as instances of double supporters — 
for instance, by LOWER, Curiosities of Heraldry^ who 
gives (p. 144) a cut from the achievement of the French 
d'Albrets as "the most singular supporters, perhaps, 
in the whole circle of Heraldry/' These supporters are 

(635 ) 

two lions couchant {or), each helmed, and crested with 
an eagle au vol leve. These eagles certainly assist in 
holding the shield, but the lions are its true supporters ; 
nor is this arrangement by any means unique. The 
swans which were used as supporters by Jean, Due de 
Berrt, in 1386, are each mounted upon a bear. Two 
wild men, each a c/ieval on a lion, support the escucheons 

of Gerard d'Harchies (1476) and of Nicole de 

GiRESME in 1464. Two lions sejant, helmed and 
crested (the crest is a human head with the ears of an 
ass), were the supporters of Arnaud d'Albret in 1368 
(Demay, p. 214). 

Really curious supporters are those of the Roman 
Cesarini, Dukes de Cittanova. They are two 
eagles ; the head of the dexter bears the hind-quarters 
of a bear passant (away from the shield !), the sinister 
the fore-quarters of the same animal. 

On the secretum of James I. the Royal Arms of Scot- 
land are supported by two lions rampant-gardant ; but 
James V. changed them to two unicorns royally gorged 
and chained. Queen Mary used the unicorns, but her 
privy seal has the lions. 

Several instances of Triple Supporters have been 
already given. The shield of JACQUELINE DE B£thune, 
in 1422, is supported by four angels ; that of YOLANTE 
de Flandres, Countess of Bar, etc. (bearing en bannikre 
Navarre quartering Evreux, dimidiated, and impaled 
with Flanders a bordure engrailed) is supported by no 
less than eight demi-angels. 

The escucheon of Jean, Due de Berri, circa 1408, 
has six bears as its supporters. I have engraved this 
pretty and spirited design on Plate XXXV., fig. 2, from 
Demay, p. 216. 

The supporters of the Royal Arms in France in 
modern times were two angels habited in albs, over 
which were dalmatics charged with the Royal Arms, 

( 636 ) 

and holding banners of the same. When the shields of 
France and Navarre were borne accoUes^ as by Louis 
XIV., the dexter supporter was habited of France ; 
the sinister of Navarre. 

The French Royal Supporters were the follow- 
ing: — Philip Augustus used two lions ; Louis VIII., 

two wild boars (the supporters of the Dukes of BRIT- 
TANY) ; St. Louis (IX.), two dragons ; Philip III., two 
eagles ; Philip V., two lions ; Charles IV., two lions ; 
Philip VL, two greyhounds ; John, two swans (chained 
to the shield) ; Charles V., two greyhounds {azure, 
blesses de gueules) or two dolphins ; Charles VI,, 
Charles VII. and Louis XL, two winged stags; 
Charles VIII., two unicorns ; Louis XII., two porcu- 
pines; Francis I., two salamanders; Henry II., two 
greyhounds; Francis II., two lions of SCOTLAND; 
Henry III., two white eagles (of Poland); Henri 
IV., two "vaches de Biam de gueules ;'' LOUIS XIII., two 
figures of HERCULES. These were not borne to the 
exclusion of the angels, which were common to all the 
Kings after CHARLES VII. Louis XIV. and his suc- 
cessors used no others. (The above list is mainly from 
La Roque, Traiti Singulier du Blason, Paris, 1673.) 

The arms of the Dauphin were supported by angels 
in dalmatics, that of the dexter is charged with the 
arms of France, that of the sinister with the arms of 
Dauphiny. The other princes of the blood used angels 
in albs without dalmatics. The use of angel supporters 
was not^ as is sometimes asserted, a prerogative of the 
Royal House in France. 

In France, and indeed on the Continent generally, the 
use of supporters is not nearly so restricted as with us. 
A noble has the right to all the insignia of nobility, 
even though he be an untitled gentleman. If, as in 
Italy and Spain, he does not generally use supporters, it 
is only because fashion has made their use infrequent, not 

2 T 

(637 ) 

because he considers them the peculiar property of great 
nobles — they, in fact, use them as little as he does. Nor 
would it be thought that he needed the Royal, or any 
other, licence to assume or to change them, any more than 
to leave off their use. No doubt, in some great families 
the supporters have become practically hereditary, and 
the present representatives probably use what their 
ancestors used three or four centuries ago. Where, as is 
often the case in Germany, an armorial augmentation 
has taken the form of a special grant of supporters (t/. 
pp. 544, 545), no doubt these will continue to be used 
without change. What is meant is simply that there is 
and has been practical liberty with regard to these 
matters ; not only where (as in France) there is no 
longer a College of Arms, but in other countries where 
armorial insignia were under regular supervision. 

An attempt was indeed made by the Archduke 
Albert to restrict the too general use of supporters, as 
of coronets and titles, in the Low Countries, by the 
Ordonnances to which reference has already been made 
in these pages (p. 551). One of these prescribed: — 
" Vt nemo sibi aut alteri tribuat titulum Baronis aut 
majorem, aut secus insignia sua delatores, aut susten- 
tatores ponat, coronasve indebite assumptas, nisi haec 
sibi per litteras Principum nostrorum probet attributa, 
seu perditis per bella litteris notori^ possessa, quo casu 
aliae dabuntur litterae actis Heraldorum inscribendae. 
(Zypceus. Notitia Juris Belgici, i., xii., and MENi- 
TRIER, Usage des Armoiries, p. 215.) These Ordon- 
nances had little practical result ; and I only quote them 
here lest it should be supposed that what I have said 
above was written in ignorance of their existence. In 
early times there is no doubt whatever that supporters, 
like crests, had not a hereditary character, nor was 
their use even in England confined to peers, or other 
great nobles. Even now a good many untitled families 

( 638 ) 

bear them by prescription ; such are the HiLTONS of 
Hilton, Trevanions of Cornwall, the Fulfords, Lut- 
TRELS, etc. As their assumption was unrestricted, so 
was their use. A noble family, for instance, which had 
become accustomed to use golden lions as supporters 
would have them drawn or engraved with a variety of 
attitude which would shock the pedantic notions of 
many people now-a-days who think they know all about 
Heraldry. At one time the lions would look towards 
the shield ; at another would be affrontis ; at another 
regardant; at another they might even be en barroque; 
so that the supporters were two golden lions, that 
was enough. Nor was it required that they should be 
absolutely unlike those borne by any other family. It is 
only in modern times that the over-regulation of what 
really did not need restriction has checked artistic fancy, 
and under the pretence of forbidding licence has limited 
lawful liberty. 

Now-a-days, it would appear that every minute detail 
must be specified in the blazon, down to the colour of a 
sailor's neck-tie, the number of buttons on his jacket, or 
the fact of* his shoes being either buckled or tied. 
Learned gentlemen (with and without tabards) warmly 
debate such highly important matters as whether 
a leopard supporter must show one ear or two! 
It may somewhat appease any who, after having read 
this, are inclined to denounce me either as an ignoramus 
or as a radical innovator, if I remind them that I only 
express the views of one who certainly was neither the 
one nor the other — my late learned friend, John 
GOUGH Nichols. He quotes with approval, from 
so old and usually pedantic an authority as BOSSEWELL, 
a passage declaring the needlessness of specifying 
such minuticBy and says, ** It is agreeable .... 
to come across instructions so rational as these, which we 
venture to regard as more in correspondence with the 

( 639 ) 

simple and homogeneous blazon of still earlier days than 
with the minute technicalities of our own, which the 
irreverent are sometimes bold enough to stigmatise as 
the 'jargon of Heraldry.'" {^Herald and Genealogist^ 
ii., 109.) 

In the Netherlands, and especially in Belgium, the 
use of supporters which also hold erect armorial banners 
is not infrequent. The possession of lands which were 
once fiefs en banniere may sometimes be thus denoted ; 
but I think that where, as is often the case, the arms on 
the banners do not coincide with those on the shield, 
their use may be a kind of Marshalling, and the banners 
may commemorate an important line of descent. 

In Spain the infrequency of the use of supporters by 
the high nobility is probably due to the fact that the 

Regulations of the Order of the Golden Fleece 
permitted no supporters, and only one crested helm, to a 
shield surrounded by the collar of the Order. The 
finely carved achievements of the Velascos, which are 
supported by savages, in the glorious Capilla del Condes- 
table in the Cathedral at Burgos, are exceptional. 

In Italy the use of supporters was very infrequent in 
late mediaeval times, and is still very far from general. 
In Germany their use is somewhat more in accordance 
with our own, but the fashion of placing the arms of 
princes, and counts of the Empire, on the breast of an 
eagle displayed is still not unfrequently seen. {Cfi 
Arms of Earl of Clarendon at p. 545 ; though the 
eagle is there the Prussian one.) Instances are met 
with, chiefly in German and Slavonic Heraldry, in which 
the shield is encircled by a serpent, or dragon. Of this 
fashion I have a dozen or more instances, but one will 
suffice. The Barons von Wartenberc;, who bear Per 
pale or and sable^ have the shield encircled by a dragon 
which holds its tail in its teeth. In the Griinenberg 
Armorial the shield of the Count of COSSENTANIA has 

( 640) 

around it a serpent with a female head. Single sup- 
porters are occasionally met with in modern Continental 
use, but, like the preceding examples, belong rather to 
the curiosities of Heraldry. Siebmacher'S Wappenbuch 
contains several examples. The Counts VON HOCHE- 
NEGG in Austria (who bore Cliequy argent and sable^ a 
quarter gules) have the shield supported by a man-at- 
arms in profile, turned to the dexter, holding in his right 
hand a halberd, and having on his head a helm crested 
(out of a coronet two wings as the arms). Wappenbuch^ 
i., 35. The arms and crest borne by the modem Counts 
are entirely different, but a man-at-arms is still used as 
the supporter. The Barons Neu use a single knight ; 
the Barons van de MoER, in Holland, a single bear; 
the Prussian Sternemanns, a Roman warrior. The 
Counts von BoiNEBURG, whose arms are Quarterly sable 
and argent^ bear them on the breast of a double-headed 
eagle displayed Quarterly argent and sable^ the heads 
crowned proper. 

The Arms of the Swiss Cantons are frequently repre- 
sented with a single supporter; thus the Arms of the 
Canton of Berne {Gules, on a bend or, a bear passant 
sable), are as often supported by one bear as by two ; and 
those of Zurich {Per bend-sinister argent and azure) by 
one lion rampant brandishing a sword as by two. 

A still better known example is afforded by the Arms 
of the United States of America : Paly often (some- 
times of thirteen) gules and argent, on a chief azure as many 
stars (of five points) argent as there are States in the 
Union. These are supported by an eagle displayed 
proper, holding in the dexter claw a laurel wreath, in the 
other three silver arrows. The motto (generally held in 
the eagle's beak) is E Pluribus Ununu (Plate LI V., fig. 2.) 

The Lombard Counts da MULA use two supporters 
but place them both on the sinister side of the shield. 
They are ; a ^ea griffin per fess or and vert, supporting 

( 641 ) 

on its head a naked woman with extended arms, her 
sinister hand holds the shield ; the dexter, a laurel 
wreath all proper. 

On some early seals the arms are represented not on 
a shield but on a banner, usually held by a " beast," or 
single supporter. Thus on the seal of HENRY PERCY, 
eldest son of the Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND in 1445, 
the arms (of Percy quartering LuCY) differenced by a 
label, are displayed on a bannqr supported by a lion 
sejant-gardant. {Archceologia ^lianay vol. iv., p. 185.) 
In the hall of Naworth Castle the arms of Dacre, 
MULTON, Grimthorp, and Greystock are thus 
depicted on banners held by "beasts." The seal of 
Walter, Lord Hungerford, K.G., has in 1432 the 
arms {Sable^ two bars argent, in chief three plates) 
differenced by a label, placed between the Heytesbury 
sickles, while on either side of the crested helm rises a 
banner: the dexter of HEYTESBURY {Per pale indented 
gules and vert, a c/ievron or) ; the sinister of HUSSEY 
{Barry of six ennine and gules), both are differenced by a 

The Lombard family of MiLLESlMO, Marquises de 
Savon A, who bear Bendy or and gules, place the escucheon 
on the breast of the Imperial Eagle, which rests its claws 
on a triumphal car drawn by two lions passant argent 
crowned or This very curious arrangement brings us 
naturally to the consideration of what are known as 
Compartments. This term is one peculiar to Scottish 
heraldry and denotes the architectural panel, a figure of 
no definite form, on which the shield and supporters are 
often made to rest. It is also applied to the ground or 
terrace, upon which these supporters stand in ancient 
seals, and in modern continental practice. Our own 
custom by which supporters are represented balancing 
themselves with 'unstable footing upon a thing resembling 
the scroll of a gas burner ; or with even less comfort 


upon the edge of the motto ribbon, is one which is 
almost peculiar to ourselves, and is ludicrous in the 
highest degree. 

Abroad, the supporters are much more reasonably 
represented as standing usually on a piece of solid ground 
{see fig. 98, p. 627) (though in the case of angels, or fish, 
clouds, or waves of the sea are occasionally employed). 
Many of the escucheons in FOSTER'S PEERAGE have the 
supporters thus sensibly supported. 

Our own departure from the common sense practice 
of ancient times has led to the compartment, when 
retained in use, being supposed to be a peculiar mark of 
high dignity or royal favour. The seals of the Earls of 
Douglas from 1434, have in the base a "pale of wood 
wreathed," supposed to represent the forest of Jedburgh. 
The same device appears on the seal of GuiLLAUME DE 
BAVlfeRE, Comte d'Ostrevant in 141 2, on which the 
shield of arms (v, pp. 462, 463) is held by a single lion 
sejant on a mound enclosed by wattled pales with a gate, 
said to represent the palisade with which he blockaded 
the citadel of Hagenstein and the chateau of Everstein. 
( Vr£e, Gen, Coin. FL, i., 368). His daughter JACQUELINE 
DE BAVifeRE (wife successively of the Dauphin, the 
Dukes of Brabant, and Gloucester, and of Francis 
DE Borsele) used this same device of the hedge. The 
compartment used by the Drummonds, Earls of Perth, 
is a green mount, semioi caltraps. The appropriate motto 
is Gang Warily. The MACFARLANEShave a wavy com- 
partment with the words. Loch Sloy. 

The arms of Ogilvy, baronets of Inverquharity, 
are supported by two savages who stand on as many 
serpents nowed and spouting fire, the whole being 
arranged upon a mount, or compartment. The arms of 
the Barons von LOBENSTEIN {Or, three bars gules) are 
supported by two golden lions regardant, who tread 
under foot a serpent bent into an oval, proper. 

( 643) 

The term compartment is often improperly applied to 
other bearings which would be more fitly described either 
as devices, or supporters. Such are the salamander of 
Douglas, the star of Seton, the chained savage of 
Robertson of Struan ; all placed beneath the respective 
shields of arms. 

On the seals of JOHN Landel {c. 1224), and 
the counter-seal of MALCOLM, Earl of LENNOX in 
1292, the shield is placed between the attires of 
a stag's head caboshed ; as it was also by the 

Inanimate Objects are sometimes used to fill the 
office of supporters. Of these the best known example 
is afforded by the " Pillars of Hercules," assumed as 
supporters with the motto, Ne plus ultra by CHARLES V. 
After the discovery of America the ne was omitted. The 
PlOSASCO family of Savoy, who bear : Argent^ nine juart- 
lets sabhy use as supporters "due torni o cilindri, col 
motto, Qui, Qui,'' {See the Teatro Araldico of Tettoni 
E Saladini ; 8 vols. 4to, Milan, 1841. RiETSTAP oddly 
misreads the blazon, and gives the supporters as bulls !) 
Akin to these are the military trophies, the banners, 
weapons, etc., which are not unfrequently found in use in 
Continental Armory as adjuncts to the shield. The 
ACHARDS of Poitou have the shield thus accosted by four 
halberts. The Dalzells of Bins had in 1685 the grant 
of a pair of tent-poles to be placed one on either side of 
the shield. The shield of the Marquises Alberti is 
accosted, or embraced, by two lighted flambeaux. The 
Breton family of Bastard have the shield accosted by 
two swords, points in base. The SCHEPERS of Holland, 
and the BiLLES of Denmark, place two anchors in saltire 
behind the shield. I have collected a considerable 
number of examples of the use of banners in this way : 
e,g the TOLEDOS, dukes of Alva, surround the shield 
with twelve Moorish Standards ; the Bazans have 

( 644 ) 

twenty-eight ; the'^CORDOVAS sixty-four. Several German 
families have a trophy of arms, similar to that used as 
a background for his achievement by the Earl of Bantrv. 
The Brandolini of Italy had the right to crown their 
arms, and to place on either side of them a naked sword. 
The motto was Pour loyauU maintenir^ and the whole 
was a concession of a King of Cyprus. 

With this class of External Ornaments we may group 
the collars, crosses, ribbons, and badges of Orders of 
Knighthood, the latter of which are not only suspended 
beneath the shield but in many cases the shield is placed 
upon the cross or star ; as by the Members of the Orders 
OF S. John, Aviz, the Teutonic Order, etc. We 
may also refer, though we can do so but briefly, to some 
of the marks of office which accompany the shields of 
great Officers of State. The Lord Chancellor of England 
places two maces in saltire (or one in pale) behind the 
shield, and the purse of the Great Seal beneath. The 
Earl Marshal uses in like manner two golden rods tipped 
with black enamel. The Lord High Chamberlain might 
use two golden keys in saltire (MORGAN, Sphere of 
Gentry^ iv., p. 82) and the Lord Chamberlain of the 
Household a golden key in pale, etc. In Scotland the 
Lord High Chamberlain used the two golden keys ; the 
Great Master of the Household, two batons gules, sevii 
of thistles and surmounted by the Crest of Scotland ; the 
Justice General, two naked swords. The Duke of 
Argyll as possessing these two dignities places a baton 
and a naked sword in saltire behind his arms ; the Earl 
Marshal, two batons ^/pj, sevi^ of thistles or. 

In the Museum at Brussels is the portrait of FERDI- 
NAND DE BOISSCHOT, Comte d'Erps, Chancellor of 
Brabant {d, 1649). His arms ({?r, three fers de moulin 
azure) are placed upon the cross of Santiago, two 
golden maces are in saltire behind the shield, and the 
whole is surmounted by his coronet. 

( 645 ) 

In France, the Admiral placed two anchors in sal tire 
(and the Vice- Admiral one in pale) behind the shield ; 
the beams are AzurCyfleury or. The Marslials used two 
similar batons ; the C/iancellor, as many maces ; the 
Grand Esquire, two sheathed and belted swords {azure^ 
fieury or) in pale ; the Grand Master of Artillery, two 
mounted cannon ; the Grand Constable (like the Grand 
Master of the Order of S. John), two arms in armour 
issuing from clouds at the base of the shield holding 
a naked sword paleways on either side. Under the 
Empire, the Vice Conn^table similarly used the swords, 
but sheathed, and semis of golden bees. The Grand 
Chamberlain had two golden keys in saltire (the imperial 
eagle in the bows) ; and the batons of the Marichaux de 
France were semis of bees instead o{ fleurs-de-lis. 

In Italy the Duca de Savelli, as Mars/ial of the 
Conclave, hangs on either side of his shield a key, the 
cords of which are knotted beneath his coronet. 

In Holland Admirals used the naval crown {ante, 
p. 626), and added two anchors in saltire behind the 
shield, as on the monument of Van Tromp in the Oude 
Kerk at Delft. 

In Spain the Admirals of Castile and of the Indies 
placed an anchor in bend behind the shield. 

The CordelierCy or Lacs d' Amour, a knotted cord 
with tassels, was often placed around the lozenge, or 
shield of arms, by widows and abbesses in France ; 
while the use of garlands, or palm branches, about the 
escucheon was never thought to need the intervention of 
any heraldic authorities. On Plate XXXVI., the arms of 
the Duke of Albany are represented ornamented with 
the Collar and Badge of the ORDER OF S. MICHAEL. 

Occasionally arms are found improperly surrounded 
by a motto band after the fashion of the ORDER OF THE 
Garter ; more usually the motto is placed in a riband 
below the shield, or in a listel above the crest 

( 646 ) 

By the understood English use supporters are at 
present borne by all temporal peers, including those who 
have life peerages, but not by bishops as such. (This 
is a modem restriction without ancient precedent or 
authority, or rather in defiance of it, but as to this I 
refer the reader to my forthcoming work on Ecclesiastical 
Heraldry,) They are also borne as personal distinctions 
by Knights Grand Crosses of the Several Orders, and it is 
considered that there is precedent for their use by certain 
great officers of the Royal Household. (As a matter of 
fact the precedents have to be sought in times when 
the use of supporters was not so strictly limited 
by custom as It is now.) The right to use supporters 
has been occasionally conceded by Royal Warrant, 
and a modern example is recorded in Appendix D. 
A few of the persons to whom these warrants have 
been granted are baronets, but baronets as such have 
no right to use them. These eldest sons of peers above 
the rank of viscount, and the younger sons of dukes 
and marquesses, generally use the supporters of the 
family, but this modern return to a less restricted use 
of them has not the approval of the English College of 
Arms. The use of supporters by prescription in the case 
of some old English families has been already alluded to. 

In Scotland the use of supporters is less restricted. By 
custom they are employed by the chiefs of the more im- 
portant clans, and the representatives of all minor barons 
who had full baronial rights prior to 1 507. The baronial 
status implied, in theory at least, the right to sit in Parlia- 
ment until that year when parliamentary representation 
was finally established. There is no foundation for the 
oft-repeated assertion that Scottish baronets are, as such, 
entitled to supporters. In some cases they bear them by 
virtue of the baronial qualification ; or as being chiefs of 
important families; but in various cases when application 
has been made for them they have been refused. It has 

(647 ) 

often been laid down that Lyon has the power of con- 
ferring supporters ex gratia on persons who would not be 
considered as having a claim to them by the strict 
heraldic rule of modem times. Mr Seton expresses 
considerable doubt as to the existence of any such 
power ; and though I do not take quite the same strong 
view as is held by him upon the subject, I must admit 
that, except at one not very glorious period in the history 
of the Lyon office (1763- 1820), the power has been spar- 
ingly used, and usually on fairly satisfactory grounds. But 
any further remarks on this subject may be deferred until 
the time when I may be able to print Dr Burnett's 
chapter on the Lyon office, for which I caYinot find space 
in these volumes. In Ireland, according to Sir BERNARD 
Burke, the heads of the different septs assert their right 
to use supporters ; but there is no instance of their 
registration in Ulster's office, by an Irish chieftain in right 
of his chieftaincy alone, and without the possession of a 
peerage dignity. In Wales, the Barons of Edeirnion 
in Merioneth, who enjoyed baronial rights in their 
domains, and who had these rights specially confirmed 
after the subjugation of the country, have always used 
them without question. 

In the selection of the supporters for new peers a 
little better taste might well be exercised. Where the 
new peer is a descendant from a family which bore sup- 
porters, one or both of these may fairly be assumed, with 
or without difference as may appear desirable. But a 
fashion has sprung up of clogging modern supporters 
with escucheons pendent from the neck, which would 
make free motion difficult, if not impossible, to the living 
beast. This fashion is now in great favour ; and the sup- 
porters granted to nearly all peers of new creation afford 
instances of it. {See those of Lords Ardilaun, Belper, 
Grantley, Hatherton, Lamington, Lathom, etc., 
etc.) These escucheons are often charged with bearings 


indicative of descent ; but the Low Country use, to 
which reference has been made, of supporters hold- 
ing banners, is a much more suitable and truly heraldic 
way of denoting this. Supporters are often, not im- 
properly, chained with a mark of cadency ; but to affix 
to the shoulders of Lord RoMlLLV's greyhounds a 
"lily slipped proper "(?), or to charge the bodies of Lord 
EVERSLEY's talbots with the mace of the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, are incongruities which in my judg- 
ment are as faulty artistically as they are heraldically. 

Other supporters, in which this lack of artistic taste and 
of true heraldic feeling is conspicuous, are what we may 
call "chintz supporters," in which the body of the beast 
is covered with a pattern (!) (See the supporters of the 

Fro. 99.— Skal o* I.OUIB, CODKr of Flakdbbs. 

Fig. 100.— Banner o 



The earliest banners with which we are concerned are 
those which appear on the Bayeux tapestry, examples of 
which are figured here and in Plate XXXV. 

Of the thirty-seven pennons borne on their lances by 
the Norman soldiers, twenty-eight are represented as 
terminating in triple points, or streamers, and we may 
therefore conclude that this was the usual form at the 
period. In the British Museum Catalogue of Seals, ihc 
lances borne by the effigies of William the Conqueror, 
and William Rufus, are said to have triple streamers 


(Nos. 1 5 and 22). The number of points was, however, by 
no means constant, nor were the streamers always 
pointed. In both these respects there was considerable 
variation in later times, and the pennon which fluttered 
at the end of the lance was as often triangular, or 
swallow-tailed. A Saxon banner in the Bayeux tapestrj' 
is triangular, with four streamers issuing from the lower 
edge. (French, Banners of the Bayeux Tapestry, xvi., 


If we turn to the other contemporary source of informa- 
tion, we find that on early seals the owner was frequently 
represented bearing a lance, to the head of which was 
attached a flag, often of considerable size. The lance of 
Raoul, Comte de Vermandois, in 1 1 16, has a square 
banner, charged probably with the chequers of VERMAN- 
DOIS, and having attached to its edge three attenuated 
streamers. (Demay, p. 158.) The seal of WILLIAM, 
Count of Flanders, in 1122, shows a long banner split 
throughout nearly its whole length, and pointed at the 
ends (Wree, de Seghelen, plate vii.). That of BALDWIN 
v.. Count of Hainault (d. 1 194), is of similar character; 
neither of these have any distinguishable device. The 
seal of Leopold, Duke of Austria, circa 1199, is 
swallow-tailed. His seal three or four years later has 
the flag simply divided towards the extremity into two 
unpointed but fringed tails. Other seals in 12 16 and 
1231 have three such tails ; in 1217 the banner is charged 
with the stier of Styria {v, ante, p. 499). This arrange- 
ment alternates with the banner proper for a long time 
after the general adoption of the latter. (HuEBER, 
Austria Illustrata,) The lance of Jean DE CHALONS, 
Comte de BOURGOGNE, in 1239, has at its head a small 
square banner arvioy/e {Asure, a bend or\ and having 
four narrow tails, or bannerols. The well-known brass of 
Sir John Daubernoun (1277) at Stoke d'Abernon, in 
Surrey, represents him with his lance, to the head of 

(651 ) 

which is attached a small pennon with a single point, 
bearing his arms, Asure, a clievron or. 

The Banner which was used eventually by knights- 
bannerets, barons, and all persons of higher rank, was a 
rectangular flag, usually square, but often oblong in 

Fio. 105.— Banner or Maurice de Berkeley. 

shape, and attached to the staff by one of the longer 
sides. This was emblazoned over its whole surface 
with the arms of tiie wearer. {^See fig. 105, the banner 
of Maurice de Berkeley, from the Roll of Caer- 
laverock,) Demay gives as an example the banner of 

Mathieu de Montmorency in 1230. In Vr^e, the 
earliest seals with the banner-proper are those of Henry 
I. and III., Dukes of BRABANT (r. 1230 and 1260). 
Ottakar, Duke of Austria, is represented on his seal 
in 1264, bearing a shield with the Austrian fess, and 
having a lance with a banner of Styria (Hueber, tab. 
iv., No. 4). By a later fashion a long bannerol, pointed 
or cleft, was attached to the upper portion of the external 
part of the " fly." But in earlier times, when a knight 
was to be raised to the rank of banneret on the field 01 
battle, the ceremonial consisted in the cutting off of the 
points of the pennon, so that it was made to assume the 
square shape of a banner, exactly or approximately. 

(652 ) 

Under the feudal system knights were of two classes : — 
Bachelors and Bannerets. A bachelerie was a noble 
fief inferior in importance to that held by a knight. 
Sometimes two or three bacluleries sent only a single 
man at arms to the army between them. The chevaliers- 
bacheliers bore the lance with a pennon, and fought 
under the command of a knight-banneret. A knight- 
banneret was one who held 2^ fief en banniere^ investiture 
of which was given by the delivery of a banner by the 
prince, or superior; he was obliged not only to give 
personal military service, but also to provide as many 
knights as his fief contained knightly fees, and these 
fought under his banner. Until he had received the 
rank of knighthood, though his banner was displayed 
and knights followed it, he was styled un ^cuyer- 
Banneret^ and received only the pay of a chevalier, 
instead of the double pay to which a chevalier-banneret 
was entitled. Men^TRIER gives the following from an 
old MS. : " Quand un Bachelier a grandement servy et 
suivy la guerre, et que il a terre assez, et qu'il puisse 
avoir Gentilshommes ses hommes et pour compagner sa 
Banniere, il peut licitement lever Banniere et non autre- 
ment. Car nul homme ne peut, ne doit porter ne lever 
Banniere en bataille, s'il n'a du moins cinquante hommes 
d'armes tous ses hommes, et les Archers, ou Arbalestriers 
qui luy appartiennent ; et s*il les a, il doit a la premiere 
bataille oil il se trouvera apporter un Pennon des ses 
armes, et doit venir au Connestable, ou aux Mareschaux, 
ou a celui qui sera Lieutenant de I'Ost pour le Prince, 
requerir qu'il porte Banniere, et si luy octroyent, doit 
sommer les Heraux pour t^moignage, et doivent de- 
couper la queue du Pennon, et alors le doit porter, et 
lever avant les autres Bannieres au dessons des autres 
Barons. {RecJurcJus du Blason^ pp. 15, 16.) 

In Flanders the required number of men at arms seems 

to have been only twenty-five. At the siege of Caer- 
2 u 

( 653 ) 

laverock in 1 300 this also seems to have been about the 
proportion ; there was a banner to every twenty-five or 
thirty men. MENfeXRlER gives, from OLIVIER DE LA 
Marche, an account of the way in which LOUIS, a 
cadet of the family of ViEUlLLE, and himself holding the 
lands of Sains, a terre en bannibrcy was raised to the rank 
of banneret. " Si bailla le Roy d'Armes un coQteau au 
Due et prit le Pennon en ses mains, et le bon Due sans 
oster le gantelet de sa main senestre fit un tour au tour 
de sa main de la queue du Pennon, et de Tautre main 
coupa le dit Pennon : et demeura quarr^ : et la banniere 
faite le Roy d'Armes bailla la banniere audit Messire 
Louys et luy du : Noble Chevalier, recevez Thonneur 
que vous fait au jour d*huy vostre Seigneur et Prince, et 
soyez au jour d'huy bon Chevalier, et conduisez vostre 
banniere k Thonneur de vostre lignage." 

The banner was the sign of a command, and all 
persons who would now be called general officers had the 
right to its use whatever their civil rank might be. 

On the tomb of Sir Lewis Robsart, K.G., Lord 
BOURCHIER, d. 143 1 ; in the Chapel of St. Paul in 
Westminster Abbey, a banner annoy^e is placed at each 
corner of the slab, those at the bottom are supported 
the one by a lion, the other by a falcon. Compare with 
this the use of a banner artnoy^e, held by the lion sejant 
gardant on the seal of Sir HENRY Percy, ante p. 641. 

The use of banners held by the supporters used in 
Belgium has been already noticed, p. 641. Somewhat 
akin to the use of the banner was the custom of display- 
ing the arms upon the large square sail of the mediaeval 
ship by the Lords High Admirals. Instances of this are 
found not only in the pictorial illustrations which remain 
of battles, etc., but on the seals of these high personages. 
As an example we give on Plate XXX., fig. 4, the sail 
of the Earl of RUTLAND from his seal. 

Standards. — In and after the reign of Edward III., 

( 654 ) 

a large flag known as the Standard came into use, it 
varied in size according to the rank of the person using 
it, but does not appear to have been allowed to any who 
were not knights. The H arleian MS., No. 2358, written 
about the time of Henry VIII., gives the length of these 
standards ; the king's eight or nine yards, a duke's seven, 
an earl's six, a baron's five, a banneret's four-and-a-half, 
and a knight's four yards long. The Lansdowne MS. 
255, makes the standard of a Marquis six-and-a-half 
yards in length, and that of a viscount five-and-a-half. 

These standards all contained in the nearly square com- 
partment close to the staff, the red Cross of St. George 
on a silver field, the rest of the standard, which tapered 
gradually, was generally divided into two or four longi- 
tudinal stripes usually of the owner's livery colours. 
On these stripes were placed the various badges or 
devices, separated from each other by slanting slips 
containing the motto of the bearer. The standard was 
split a little way from the end, and the divided pieces 
were rounded into a semi-circular shape. Fig. 100, at 
the head of this chapter is the standard of HENRY PERCY, 
sixth Earl of Northumberland (1527-1537). It is 
divided into four horizontal bands, the upper being 
russet, the two central ones yellow, and the lowest tawny. 
The whole is powdered with silver crescents and "lockets," 
or manacles, and also contains the Percy blue lion 
passant ; a silver key crowned, the badge of POYNINGS ; 
a blue bugle-horn unstringed garnished gold, that of 
Bryan ; and a falchion, hilted or and sheathed sable^ 
for FiTZPAYNE. {^Heraldry of the Perezes, p. 21 1.) 

Several of the Royal standards of the same type have 
already been described in a previous chapter. 

Besides th^s^y pennoncelles, or "pencils," were also used 
in considerable numbers ; they were of smaller size than 
the standard but somewhat similar in shape, though 
shorter and unsplit, they also contained the Cross of St. 

( 655 ) 

George, and usually only a single badge without motto 
bands (eleven of these as used by the PERCYS are 
engraved in the article already referred to, and one is 
represented on Plate XXXV., fig. 3). 

The ancient guidon is said to have been a smaller 
standard with a swallow tail. It was charged with a 
cognizance or badge. 

National Flags. — Besides the banners and standards 
referred to above, which were peculiar to individuals, a 
separate flag was used as the National Emblem. This 
was often of large size, so large as to require to 
be transported upon a carriage. This usage seems 
to have been derived from the Saracens **in the 
midst of whom was a wagon drawn by eight oxen 
upon which was raised their red banner" {see TURPlN's 
Life of Charlemagne in DUCANGE, Glossarium ; sub voce 
" Carrocium "). The battle fought between the English 
and Scotch in 1138 at Northallerton, was called The 
Battle of t/te Standard from a consecrated standard 
thus brought on the field in its carriage. The pole was 
surmounted by a pyx bearing the Sacred Host ; and 
from the shaft floated the banners of St. Cuthbert, 
St. Wilfred, St. John, and St. Peter. At the 
Battle of Bou vines in 12 14, the Imperial Standard was 
thus borne : — " Aquilam deauratam super draconem 
pendentem in pertica longa erecta in quadriga." 

Frequent allusion is made by the Italian historians 
and poets to the Carroccio, on which the standard 
of the republics of Florence, Milan, or Pisa, etc., was 
borne, e.g^ Tassoni says, 

" Ecco il carroccio uscir fuor della porta 
Tutto coperto d'oro." 

— La Secchia Rapita. 

Two of the poles of the Carroccio of Florence, taken 
at the Battle of Monte-aperto in 1260, are still fastened 


to the columns of the cupola of the Cathedral of 

The national banners borne in the English army at 
Caerlaverock in 1300 were; first, that of St. George, 
given above ; next, that known as the banner of St. 
Edmund : Azure, three croivns or ; and lastly, that which 
has been more than once noticed as containing the arms 
of Edward the Confessor (these two are mentioned in 
the Wardrobe Accounts of 1299). To these later was 
added a banner containing the well-known device of the 
Trinity ; and the four, with another of the Royal Arms, 
were those borne at Agincourt. {See paper "On the 
Banners used in the English Army." — Retrospective 
Review, 2nd series, i., p. 90.) 

The banner of St. George in combination with the 
banner of St. Andrew of Scotland formed the first flag 
known as the " Union Jackr The latter was Azure, a 
saltire (or cross of St. Andrew) argent ; and on the 
union of the crowns the red cross of St. George — 
fimbriated argent, both as a reminiscence of its original 
field, and in order to prevent a breach of the rule which 
forbade colour to be used on colour — was placed upon the 
Scottish flag. This Union Jack was declared to be the 
national ensign of Great Britain in 1606, and it continued 
so to be until the Union with Ireland in 180 1. At that 
time the charge of the flag which was supposed to 
represent the last-named kingdom : Argent, a saltire 
gules, was added in such a way that the " Union Jack " 
now consists of a blue field on which are conjoined the 
silver saltire of St. Andrew, and the red saltire of St. 
Patrick (the latter fimbriated or bordered argent where 
it touches the azure field), and, over the whole, the red 
cross of St. George with its white fimbriation. 

The banner of St. George, with the " Union " placed 
in the first canton is known as the " White Ensign," and 
is the flag of the Royal Navy, and of a few privileged 

( 657 ) 

yacht clubs. A blue flag with the " Union " in the upper 
corner is known as the " Blue Ensign," and is flown by 
the ships -connected with the Naval Reserve, and by 
some yacht clubs. A like flag, but of red, is the " Red 
Ensign" — the flag of the British Mercantile Marine. 
These three flags were up to 1864 the distinguishing 
ensigns of the three squadrons of the British Navy, but 
these divisions no longer exist. 

The celebrated Oriflamme of France is said to have 
originated in the Chape de S, Martin^ which was the 
banner of the Abbey of Marmoutiers. The vulgar 
tradition was that this was part of the actual blue 
cloak of the Saint which he divided with the beggar of 
Amiens, as in the well-known story. But the word 
''capa'^ or *^ capsa sancti Martini'^ rather denoted the 
reliquary in which certain remains of the saint were 
enclosed. This was the vexillum^ which the Counts of 
Anjou had the right of taking to battle with them in the 
belief of thus obtaining the assistance of the saint in the 
conflict. A MS. of the Church of S. Martin, treating of 
the prerogatives of the Counts of Anjou in respect of 
the abbey, says : — " Ipse habet vexillum beati Martini 
quoties vadet in bello." Dr Reeves has shown that 
"the Irish vextlla^^r^ boxes," — reliquaries, or portable 
shrines — and, following in his steps, Dr Joseph 
Anderson, in the sixth of his Rhind Lectures for 1879, 
on Scotland in Early Christian Tifnes, has given us 
excellent reasons for believing that the celebrated 
vexillum of the Brecbennoch, of which the custody was 
confirmed by WILLIAM THE LlON in 1211-1214, to the 
newly founded monastery of Arbroath (Aberbrothock), 
was a similar reliquary containing relics of S. Columba, 
and is in all probability the casket now known as the 
Monymusk reliquary. Its identification was long 
delayed by the common, but entirely erroneous, idea 
that vexillum necessarily denoted a banner. There seems 


to have been a similar confusion of ideas in France ; and 
at any rate the unlearned transferred to the Cliape de S. 
Martin^ which had become a banner bearing his image, 
the same reverence which had formerly been paid to the 
vexillum in the forme of a c/iasse, or reliquary, which had 
once been the chief treasure of the church of S. Martin 
of Tours. The vexillum was borne by Clovis in 507 
against Alaric at the battle of Vouille; and three 
centuries later was the palladium of CHARLEMAGNE at 
the battle of Narbonne. 

It seems probable that the precious relic having thus 
come into the royal keeping was not restored to the abbey 
but preserved in the royal palace, while the abbey had 
to content itself with the embroidered coverings which 
had enclosed the shrine, and from which possibly the 
oriflamme as a standard was first manufactured. The 
Counts of Anjou, who were governors of Touraine, 
claimed for themselves the office of hereditary standard 
bearers of la Chape de 5. Martin; but the Kings of 
France having fixed their residence at Paris their 
devotion to S. Martin was insensibly transferred to S. 
Denis, who thus became the patron saint of the realm ; 
and the Cliape de S, Martin ceased to be the oriflamme 
of France. It is difficult to determine at what period 
the Church banner, or gonfanon, of the Abbey of S. 
Denis, became in its turn the chief of those under which 
the French kings fought. The Counts of the Vexin, as 
chief feudatories of the Abbey, bore by hereditary right 
the banner of S. Denis, but Philip I. appears to have 
transferred to the crown the rights of these turbulent 
vassals on the death of SiMON, last Count of the 
Vexin, without issue in 1088. It is not easy to say 
whether the celebrity of the Enseigne de Saint Denis is 
anterior to this reunion or not, but it was already known 
as the oriflamme. PHILIPPE MOUSKES in his rhyming 
chronicle of France, says : — 

< 659 ) 

'' Si a fait bailler esraument 
L'oriflambe de Saint Denise." 

As to its form and colour there is no doubt that it 
resembled the banners already described under the title 
gonfanon, having three points : and that it was composed 
of crimson silk with green fringe and tassels. " Oriflamme 
.... d'un vermeil samit a guise de gonfanon a trois 
queues, et avoit entour houppes de soye verte." {Chronique 
de Flandre,) It was not charged, and the common idea 
that it was semt^ oi fleurs-de-lis is as entirely erroneous as 
the other one that it derived its name from golden flames 
similarly used. It was preserved in the Treasury of S. 
Denis, apart from the lance and cross beam, and in 
time of war was taken from the altar by the King 
himself after a solemn service. Its presence in the army 
denoted that of the sovereign also ; the battle of Agin- 
court in 1415 is said to be the only instance in which 
the oriflamme was raised in the absence of the King ; in 
that case its bearer was made prisoner and died of his 
wounds, and the after history of the oriflamme is quite 
unknown. M. Rey, in his Histoire du Drapeau de la 
Monarchie Franqaisey to which I am indebted for a 
great part of the above notice, patriotically insists that 
as Pere Anselme declares LouiS XI. to have received 
the oriflamme at S. Denis in 1465, it must have been 
preserved and restored. We may, however, be quite sure 
that if the old oriflamme were not forthcoming a substi- 
tute would be provided. 

The royal flag of France was white, — "& drapeau 
blanch The origin of the Tricolor of France, with 
its vertical division into blue, white, and red, is found 
in the union of the drapeau blanc with the colours 
of the City of Paris {v, p. 369). In 1789, July 14, 
it was determined that a garde civique of 40,000 men, 
should be raised, to be called the Parisian militia ; 
that its colours should be those of the city, blue and 

( 66o ) 

red, to which on the proposal of M. DE LA FAYETTE 
the white from le drapeau blanc was added ; together an 
ensign which, in La Fayette's own words, "devait faire le 
tour du monde" {Memoires de La Fayette, ii., p. 286). On 
the 17th, Louis XVI. returning to Paris, was presented 
by the Maire with a tri-coloured cockade, and placed it 
in his hat as having become, as Bailly said, " the dis- 
tinguishing symbol of Frenchmen." Under the Empire 
the staff of the flag as used in the army was surmounted 
by the Imperial Eagle. 

The Imperial Standard was the tricolor, sem^ of 
golden bees, and bearing the Imperial Eagle crowned in 
the central compartment, i.e, on the white portion of the 

The Imperial Standard of Germany is of yellow 
silk fringed with gold. It bears the German single- 
headed eagle, displayed, on its breast an escucheon of 
the arms of Prussia {y, p. 543) with the inescucheon 
of HOHENZOLLERN {Quarterly argent and sable). The 
main escucheon is surrounded by the collar of the ORDER 
OF THE Black Eagle. The German Eagle is of sablcy 
beaked and membered gules, and is surmounted by the 
Imperial Crown as described at p. 621. 



Thls concluding chapter contains some matters which, 
had our limits permitted it, would have been treated 
much more fully. They are : — 

I. The Royal Arms and Supporters of England. 
II. National Arms of the chief European Countries. 

III. Curious Partitions, and a few remarkable Coats. 

IV. Amies Parlantes, or Canting Coats. 
V. Conclusion. 

I. Royal Arms and Supporters. — On Plates Ll.and 
LI I. are arranged the Royal arms of ENGLAND, and of 
the United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND. 

The Norman kings who bore arms used only the 
present arms of England (Plate LI., fig. i). With 
these the Plantagenet kings after 1340 quartered the 
arms of FRANCE-ANCIENT in the first and fourth places 
(Plate LI., fig. 2). With this quartered coat RICHARD 
II. combined by impalement the mythical arms of 
Edward the Confessor, as in Plate LI., fig. 3. From 
1405 to the close of the reign of Elizabeth in 1603, 
the coat of the English sovereigns was : FRANCE- 
MODERN, quartering England ; as in Plate LI., fig. 4. 
(There are a few examples, as on the south porch of 
Gloucester Cathedral, in which ENGLAND has the pre- 

The supporters used were as follows (the early ones 
are doubtful) : — 

Edward III. A golden lion and silver falcon {HarL 
MS., 1073, Brit. Mus.). 


1. NoRUB King* OlM-lMO). 2. PlMit)«(iiwti (Utfr-lWO). 

3. BidiMd n. (U77-U9a). 

. Omrj IT.— Ei«b«tb tXWB-MWJ. 5. Honie of Sturt (ieW-1688). 

( 662 ) 

Richard II. Two white harts (?) {Vincent's MS,, 
Coll. Arm.). 

Henry IV. A golden lion, the white antelope of 
BOHUN (before his accession he used two swans 
holding ostrich feathers in beak) ; the antelope 
and swan. 

Henry V. The lion and antelope as above. (?) 

Henry VI. Two antelopes (of Bohun) ; the lion 
and antelope ; the lion and heraldic tiger. 

Edward IV. The lion of England, and black bull 
(of Clare) ; two silver lions (of March). 

Edward V. The white lion and white hart 

Richard III. Two silver boars, armed or. The lion 
of England, and a boar. 

Henry VII. The dragon {gules) of Wales. A 
silver greyhound (of BEAUFORT). The lion 
of England, and the dragon of Wales. Two 
greyhounds argent 

Henry VIII. The dragon and greyhound (as above). 
Two greyhounds. The lion and dragon. The 
antelope and stag {Exchequer Seal). 

Edward VI. The Hon and dragon. The lion and 

Mary. The lion and greyhound. The lion and 
dragon {or), 

Elizabeth (as her sister). The dragon and grey- 
hound. On ExcJiequer Seal, the heraldic ante- 
lope and stag, gorged and chained. [The ante- 
lope appears like a goat on Exchequer Seals of 
James II. and George I. {Brit, Mus, Cat,).] 
On the accession of James VI. of Scotland to the 
throne of England the arms became : Quarterly i and 4. 

France and England quarterly. 2. Scotland. 
3. Ireland. This coat was borne by all the Stuart 
Sovereigns. (Plate LI., fig. 5.) William of Orange, 
as an elected Sovereign, placed upon it en surtout his 

(663 ) 

arms of NASSAU : Azure^ bilUtty and a lion rampant or. 
(Plate LI I., fig. 7.) The supporters were the lion of 
England, and the unicorn of Scotland. Instances 
of other supporters are to be met with. On the ExcJuquer 
Seal of Charles I. they are an antelope and a stag both 
ducally gorged and chained ; and on his seal used at the 
Session in S. Wales, the supporters are a dragon and 
heraldic antelope. On the Privy Seal of ] AMES II., and 
on that for the Duchy of Lancaster, the arms of the 
Duchy are supported by two greyhounds sejant addorsed, 
each holding an ostrich feather. On the Seal of Common 
Pleas of James I., Charles II., and George I., the 
supporters are a griffin and a greyhound. Anne used 
the lion and greyhound. 

After the union with Scotland in 1707, the arms are : — 
Quarterly, i and 4- ENGLAND, impaling Scotland ; 2. 
France-modern ; 3. Ireland. (Plate LI I., fig. 8.) 

On the succession of George I. in 1714, his arms as 
Elector of Hannover were introduced into the Royal 
shield. These were: — Tierced in pairle reversed; \. 
Brunswick : Gules, two lions passant gardant in pale or. 
2. LuneburG: Or, semi of Jiearts gules a lion rampant 
azure. 3. (In point) WESTPHALIA : Gules, a horse courant 
argent ; and over all, for the electoral dignity. Gules, the 
crown of CHARLEMAGNE or (v. p. 6 1 7, fig. 97), and the 
Royal arms consequently were(Plate LII.,fig.9) Quarterly, 

I. England impaling Scotland ; 2. France ; 3. Ire- 
land ; 4. T/ie Hannoverian quartered coat (as above). 

After the union with Ireland, in 1801, the arms of 
France ceased to be employed, and the Royal arms up 
to the death of William IV., in 1837, were: Quarterly, 

I and 4. England ; 2. Scotland ; 3. Ireland. Over 

all the Hannoverian escucJuon. (Plate LI I., fig. 10.) 

On the accession of Queen VICTORIA, in 1837, the 
Hannoverian escucheon was removed, and the Royal 
arms assumed their present form. 



6. WQUmi m. ud Hut a. (16B»-ieM). 7. WUliun m. (16M-1T0S). 

10. HooM of Huwm (1801-1897). 


( 664 ) 

The supporters since the time of James I. are thus 
blazoned : Dexter^ a lion rampant gardant or^ crowned 
with the Imperial crown. Sinister^ a unicorn argent ^ 
armed, unguled and maned or^ gorged with an open 
crown of crosses paUe and fleurs-de-lis^ and chained of 
the last. These supporters are sometimes represented 
holding banners. On the Great Seal of James I. the 
dexter banner is charged with a cross patonce, the sinister 
with the arms of Edward the Confessor. On later 
Great Seals the banners bear respectively the crosses of 
St. George and St. Andrew {see also p. 598). 

The Royal crest is, on the Imperial crown a lion 
statant gardant, also crowned with the Imperial crown. 

The motto, Dieu et man droits said to have been 
assumed by EDWARD III., appears to have been first 
used by Edward IV. On the Great Seal of Mary I. 
the motto is Teviporisfilia Veritas ; on that of ELIZABETH 
the motto is Pukhrum pro patria pati ; but that which 
seems to have been most in favour with her was Semper 
eadem^ afterwards used by jAMES I. and by Queens Anne 
and Mary II. James I. is said to have used Beati 
pacifici. Under the Commonwealth the motto was Pax 
quceritur bello, WILLIAM III. sometimes used the 
Nassau motto — Je maintiendrai. 

The arms of Queens Consort were supported on the 
dexter side by the lion of England ; on the sinister by 
one of the supporters of their personal arms. It will be 
remembered that the Royal s^rms have always been borne 
within the Garter with its motto Honisoit qui inal ypense 
since the foundation of that Order by Edward III. 

II. National Arms. — The Arms of the Austrian 
Empire are given on Plate LI 1 1., fig. i. The double- 
headed eagle with golden beak and claws, holds in its 
right claw a golden sceptre and a drawn sword ; in the 
left, the Imperial Orb. Each head is royally crowned. 
On the breast is the escucheon : Tierced in pale: i. 

( 665 ) 

Hapsburg; 2. Austria; 3. Lorraine. Around it 
are the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece ; 
and the Grand Cordon of the ORDER OF Maria 
Theresa. On the wings and tail of the Imperial Eagle 
are eleven crowned escucheons : — i. Hungary (Ancient 
and Modern impaled) ; 2. Esclavonia ; 3. Austria 
above t/ie EnnSy impaling Austria below the Enns ; 4. 

Salzburg ; 5. Styria ; 6. Tyrol ; 7. (at top of sinister 
wing) Bohemia ; 8. Illyria ; 9. Esclavonia ; 10. 
Moravia, impaling Silesia ; 11. Carinthia, impaling 
Carniola. (These are all blazoned on pages 494, 495.) 
The Imperial Crown is placed above the crowned heads 
of the double eagle. 

When supporters are used they are : — Two griffons Or, 
the plumage and the breast and wings sable. 

The Arms of the German Empire are already de- 
scribed at page 543, and are shown on Plate LI V., fig. i. 

The Arms of Russia (Plate LI 1 1., fig. 2) are borne 
on the breast of the crowned Imperial double-headed 
eagle (with red beaks and claws) the right claw 
holds the Imperial sceptre, the left the Orb. The 
central shield contains the shield known as the Arms of 
Moscow : GuleSy tlu mounted effigy of St. George slaying 
the dragon all proper. Around it hangs the collar and 
badge of the Order of St. Andrew. On the dexter 
wing are four escucheons : i. Kazan : Argent , a dragon 
sable winged gules crowned or ; 2. POLAND {v. p. 254) ; 
3. Tauria, Or, a double-Iteaded eagle displayed sable on 
its breast a shield : A sure y tliereon a cross triple-traversedy 
within a bordure or; 4. Tierced in pairle, KIEV, 
Novgorod, and Vladimir. On the sinister wing 
are : — i. ASTRAKAN : Azure, a royal crown, surmounting 
a scimitar fessways proper ; 2. SIBERIA : Ermine, two 
martins (or sables) counter-rampant, supporting a royal 
crown ; behind them two arrows in saltire, and a bow in 
fess gules; 3. Quarterly: Kabarda, Iberia, Kartalinia, 


1. ABIU or AOBfUAH Bmpibk 

2. Aun OF BmuAN Ehpiu. 

( 666 ) 

and Armenia; ent^ en point of Circassia, over all 
Georgia* ; 4. Finland : Gules^ se^n^ of roses argent, over 
all a lion rampant crowned or, brandishing a sword and 
holding in its sinister paw t/te scabbard proper. 

The Imperial Crown is placed above the crowned 
heads of the eagles. 

Baden : {v, p. 491) Or, a bend gules. Supporters, 
two griffins regardant sable, crowned or, 

Bavaria : {v. p. 525) Supporters, two lions ram- 
pant regardant queue fourcliie proper, crowned or, 

Belgium : Sable, a lion rampant or. Supporters, two 
crowned lions rampant or, each liolding a banner tierced in 
pale sable, or, and gules. Motto, V Union fait la force, 

Bulgaria : Gules, a lion rampant or, 

Denmark : Or, semi of luarts gules, three lions 
passant gardant in pale azure. Supporters, two savages 
with clubs, wreat/ud proper. Motto, Dominus mihi 
adjutor. Generally the full shield is used : Quarterly, 
separated by the Cross of the Dannebrog, argent 
bordered gules {v, p. 510) ; i. Denmark ; 2. Iceland {v, 
p. 271); 3. Gules, a dragon crowned or, Vandalia ; 4. Or, 
two lions passant gardant in pale azure, Slesvig. Over 
all an escucheon. Quarterly \, HOLSTEIN : Gules, an 
escucluon per fess argent and of the field, between three 
demi-nettle leaves and as many passion nails in pairle of 
t/ie second ; 2, Stormarn, Gules, a swan argent royally 
gorged or ; 3. DiTMARSCHEN, Gules, a mounted knight 
proper ; 4. Lauenburg, Gules, a horse's Jiead argent. 
Sur le tout du tout OLDENBURG {Or, two bars gules\ 
impaling Delmenhorst {Azure, a cross patie alesie or), 

Greece : Azure, a Greek cross couped argent. 
Supporters, two savages (of DENMARK). 

' In the plate Georgia alone appears (this is often the case 
when the arms are depicted on a small scale). Or, S. George 
proper, mounted on a horse sable, slaying a dragon of the third 
winged vert., 

( 667 ) 

Hesse (v. ante, p. 525). Supporters, two lions queue 
fourcJi^e or, 

Italy : Gules, a cross argent. 

LUXEMBURGH : Barry of ten azure and argent over 
all a lion rampant gules crowned or. 

Netherlands : Azure, sem^ of billets, a lion rampant 
crowned or, /lolding in its dexter paw a naked sword, and 
in tJu sinister a bundle of arrows proper. Supporters, 
two lions crowned or. Motto, fe maintiendrai. 

PORTUGAL: Argent, five escucJieons in cross azure on 
each as inany plates in saltire, all within a bordure gules 
t/iereon seven castles or. Supporters, two dragons proper 
liolding banners of the Arms. 

ROUMANIA : Quarterly i. Azure, an eagle displayed 
Jiolding a sceptre, sword, and cross, in dexter chief a sun or 
(Wallachia). 2. Gules, a bulUs Jiead cabos/ied, between 
its horns a star, and i?i sinister chief a crescent or 
(Moldavia). 3. Gules, on an open crown a lion rampant 
crowned and holding a star or. 4. Azure, two dolphins 
affrontis, lieads in base, tails in chief Over all HOHEN- 
ZOLLERN : Quarterly, Argent and sable. 

Saxony {v. Plate XII.): Supporters, two lions 
regardant, crowned proper. 

Spain : Quarterly, CASTILE and LEON, ente en point 
of Grenada. Over all an escucheon of France- 
modern. Supporters are seldom used, but are two 
golden lions holding banners of tlie Arms. 

Sweden and Norway. The shield is divided into 
three parts by a golden ^z\x\^ patde-throughout ; I. (in 
chief) Sweden, Azure, thi-ee open crowns or. 2. 
Norway, Gules, a lion rampant crowned or, Jiolding 
a long-handled Danish axe argent. 3. GOTHLAND, 
Azure, three bends-sinister wavy or, over alia lion rampant 
gules. Over all the personal Arms of the King ; Vasa, 
impaling PONTficORVO: — I. Vasa, Tierced in bend azure, 
argent, and gules, over all a s/ieaf or. 2. PONTliCORVO, 


LBMB or Obmar EiinBi. 

Auni or Uhited Statb or Ansmcu. 

( 668 ) 

Azure^ in chief ttu eagle of tlu French Empire Or; in base 
a bridge of three arches towered, and passing over a river 
all argent, 

Servia : Gules, a cross argent between four fusils 

Monaco : Fusilly argent and gules, 

Montenegro : Gules, a double-Juaded eagle displayed 
argent crowned or, and holding sceptre and orb ; on its 
breast an escuc/ieon A sure , in base a mount vert, tlureon a 
lion passant or, 

Switzerland : Gules, a cross couped argent. 

Turkey : Gules, a crescent decrescent, and an estoile 
within its lioms argent, 

Wurttemberg : Or, three sta^s attires fessways in 
pale sable, impaling Or, three lions passant in pale sable, 
t/ieir right paws icorcJi^s gules (Swabia). Supporters, 
a lion of tlu arms crowned or, and a stag proper, 

III. Curious Partitions, Etc. — Foreign and 
especially German Heraldry contains many curious 
coats formed by partition lines unknown to British 
Armory. Of these some examples have been already 
given in Plates V., VI., VIII., and XXIX., but a few 
more are added in Plates LIII. and LIV., and I here 
append a French or a German blazon of these coats. 
These, it is hoped, will not only be interesting and 
instructive to a student, but may be made useful as 
exercises. It will tax all his powers to describe them 
succinctly in the terms of English blazon. 

Plate LV. 

1. Lang von Langenau : Von Silber und roth in 

vier Reyhen geweckt, oben mit einem Lincks 
angestuckten giildenen Winckel. 

2. ROSDORFF : Losange d'argent et de gueules k une 

cnchaussure senestre de gueules. 

2 X 

( 669 ) 

3. Eyfelsberg zum Weyr : Fasc^ de quatre pieces, 

de gueules, d'azur, d'argent, et d'or, un lion d'or 
brochant sur le tout. 

4. Stauffeneck : De gueules, k trois fasces d'argent, 

le champ chaperonn^ du second. 

5. Marschalck von Stuntsberg : In rothen schild 

einen nach der lincken Seiten gelegten silbernen 
Sparren {chevron couc/i^). 

6. POLMAN : D'or, au sautoir ^chiquetd de deux tires 

d'argent et de gueules, auquel manque le bras 
supirieur k dextre. 

7. GOLDEGGER: Ein Rechts-getheilter silberner Schild, 

hinten mit funf nach der Lincken aufsteigenden 
rothen Spitzen. 

8. SCHROT : De sable, a une fleur-de-lis d'or pos6e en 

bande, mouvante d'une enchaussure senestre du 
mdme ^mail. 

9. KiRMRElTTER : De sable a une dquerre d'or. 

10. AltorF; Coup^ en chef, faille en taillant, recoupe, 

retaille, et encore recoup^, de sable sur argent. 

11. Helckner: Ein roth und silberne Schild mit 

zweyen offnen und ineinander gefugten Nachen 
in zvvei Theil getheilt. (Taill^ de deux c6tes 
en forme de gueule de lion de gueules et 

12. Leuberstorf: Mi-tranch^, failli en taillant, et 

retranche vers senestre, d'argent sur gueules. 

Plate LVI. 

1. Orzon : D'Argent, a deux cantons de sable en 

chef, et une pointe du second 6mail mouvante de 
la base de I'ecu. 

2. Tappe : Durchgeschnitten : — Die lincke Helffte 

von cinem ablangs durchgeschnitten doppelten 
schvvarzen Adler, im gUldnen Schild. 


1. Uug i>. Laogenau. 2. RoBdorff. 3. BjfilsboTj. 

L Stenffeiwcik. 0. MuMhalok. 6. FalmMi. 

7. aoUtgger. 8. Sohrot. 9. KinnreiHsr. 

10. Altnf. 11. Hdokiur. 1^^ Lenbentorf. 

( 670 ) 

3- RUESDORFF : De sable au pal retrait en chef 

4. LowENSTEIN : Eiti mit schwarz und gold viermal 

ablangs gegenstreiffter Schild, mit einem iiber- 
gelegten schvvartzen Quer-Streiff. 

5. Eggenberg : In silbernem felde drei schwarze 

Adler, welche mit den schnabeln eine guldene 
Crone in der Vertieffung halten, und in Form 
eines Schacher-Creutzes schvveben. 

6. Squarciafichi : De gueules k la croix potencee, 

repotencee en bande i Textr^mite senestre du 
bout superieur, en barre au bras dextre de la 
croix, et en bande et en barre aux deux cot^s du 
pied de la croix, le tout d*or. 

7. Obernburg : Einen silbemen und schwartz scchs- 

mal lincks-gestreifften Schild, wovon der obere 
aufsteigende schvvartze und untere abstcigende 
silberne Streiff abgekiirtst sind. 

8. PiLAWA : D'Azur, a une croix al^s^e de trois 

traverses d'argent, a laquelle manque le bras 
inftrieur a dextre. 

9. LiNDECK : Im blauen Schild eine aus dem untern 

rechten Winckel aufsteigende, und unter sich 
gekriimmte guldene Spitze. 

10. Kauffungen : Mi-tranche au dessus du canton 

dextre de la pointe, failli en remontant vers le 
canton dextre du chef, et retranch^ vers le flanc 
senestre de I'^cu un peu au dessous du chef, dW 
sur gueules. 

11. Heyerling ZU Winkhl: Coupe, au i, d'Or a 

deux pointes accost^es de sable ; au 2, d'Or 
a une pile de sable. 

12. DOLENGA : D'Azur au fer de cheval vers^ d'argent, 

somm(§ d'une croix pat^c d*or, et accompagne 
entre ses branches d'une fl^che tombante et 
empennec du deuxi^mc email. 

( 671 ) 

IV. Armes Parlantes. — Nothing is more certain 
than that by far the larger number of the arms 
assumed in early times were phonetic in character — 
armes parlantes — allusive to the name, title, or office of 
the bearer. 

The notion at one time current in this country that 
such arms belonged to the degenerate days of heraldry, 
and were a sign of debasement, is thoroughly refuted by 
an examination of our own Rolls of Anns ^ and a reference 
to the Wappenrolle von Zurich, and other early foreign 
authorities. In them the canting element is preponde- 
rant ; and proves to be so more and more as we investi- 
gate the changes which have taken place in the French 
and other languages within the last six centuries, and 
the varying names of animals and other charges in 
provincial dialects. Many armorial allusions which in 
early times were obvious are now entirely lost, or require 
much research for their discovery. Heraldry was in its 
beginnings intended more for use than for show ; it was 
addressed as much to the unlearned as to the learned, 
since its primary object was to enable soldiers to readily 
recognise their leaders at a time when, as has been 
shown in the early chapters of this work, the defensive 
armour worn caused a difficulty in distinguishing them. 
The examples selected from the Rolls of Anns ^ etc., in 
illustration of the earlier portion of this book will show 
how very largely the bearings selected played upon the 
names of the wearers. Mr Ellis's view was that in the 
case of many families it is impossible to say whether 
they took their names from their arms, or vice versa ; an 
opinion in which he stands almost alone among critical 
investigators of the subject. It is in Scandinavia only 
— where the adoption of surnames under GUSTAVUS 
Adolphus was long posterior to the use of armorial 
bearings — that we find any warrant for the idea that 
the name was derived from the bearings of the shield. 


( 672 ) 

In Scandinavia a large number of family names were 
thus derived ; not only where the name is that of an 
animal, but there are very many instances of such 
appellations as Lejonhufvud (lion's head), HjORTS- 
noRN (stag's horn), Sparre (chevron), Stierna, Cron- 
HJELM. Gyllenskjold, Gyllensparre, Gyllen- 


derived from the bearings of the shield. 

But in the southern kingdoms the reverse was the 
case, and the examples I have selected from the Armory 
of all the Continental nations abundantly prove this 
position. Some of the allusions may seem to us very 
far-fetched, but a pun was dear to the mediaeval mind. 
" Tout ce qui, dans la nature ou dans les arts, pouvait 
donner naissance a une Equivoque ^tait mis a contribu- 
tion." I have engraved on Plate XXXVI I., fig. 3, from 
Eysenbach, a seal which, though not armorial, is an 
excellent instance of the taste of the time. It is that of 
Gui DE MUNOIS, monk of St. Germain I'Auxerrois. 
The cowled ape in the sky, scratching its back with its 
hand, was a hieroglyphic in which all might read: 
Singe-air-main-doS'Serre^ — Saint Germain d'Auxerre ! 

I have now to bring to a conclusion a work which has 
been to me a labour of love ; and which I trust may be 
found of some interest and value to the increasing 
number of students of Heraldry. It has been a matter 
of regret to me that I have had of necessity to leave out 
much valuable and interesting matter, and to deal some- 
what superficially with subjects which I have ample 
materials for treating more fully and systematically. 
But, as it stands, the work embodies the collections of 
many years ; and I trust that, apart from the absence of 
literary graces, to which it makes no pretension, its 
faults — of which no critic can be better aware than the 
writer — may be found rather those of omission than of 

( 673 ) 

commission. I have not, as my abundant references will 
show, been slow to acknowledge the sources of my 
information, and it would have been a valuable addition 
to the book if (as I had purposed) it had been possible 
to include in it a full catalogue of the multitude of 
works which have been put under contribution in the 
course of its compilation. I shall count myself no mean 
benefactor to my brethren if I increase their interest in a 
very important branch of archaeology. To myself for 
many years it has afforded a great deal of that rest 
which is produced by a change of labour ; it has given 
increased enjoyment to foreign travel, it has acted as an 
incentive to the study of history, and has led me to some 
knowledge of many out of the way but most interesting 
collateral subjects. 

The value of heraldry is becoming more and more 
generally recognised, not only in respect of its poetic 
associations, and of its decorative capacities, but as a link 
between the present and the past. In the past it has been 
a faithful chronicler of the history, alike of Royal dynas- 
ties and of private families. It, in fact, constituted a 
thorough system for distinguishing not only family from 
family, but one branch of a family from another. Every 
change in the hereditary succession of a kingdom ; every 
fresh accession of territory ; every union of houses by 
marriage, occasioned a corresponding change in the coat 
of arms, so that it became a record whose nice distinc- 
tions asserted, briefly but clearly to those who understood 
its language, a number of facts regarding its owner. 

And in the present, though the crested helm and the 
emblazoned shield have no longer all the significance 
which they once possessed when they were in actual use, 
they have still strong hereditary claims upon our recog- 
nition. Although it be the boast of our gentry, or lesser 
nobility (as well as of our greater nobility or Peers), that 
they receive into their ranks with open arms the eminent 

( 674 ) 

and the meritorious, whatever be their origin and lineage, 
the possession of insignia gentilitia is still the legal test 
of gentility, and one of the duties still delegated in our 
country by the Sovereign to the Kings of Arms is that 
of assigning appropriate bearings to those who have 
acquired a social importance that entitles them to take 
a place among the gentlemen of their country, and 
which may serve as a bond of union to their family and 
hand down their name and memory to their descendants. 

Fio. 106.— Tabakd, OB Coat oy Asms, 


(N.B. — The Reader is advised also to consult the Index,) 

Abased — Applied to an Ordinary, or other charge, which occupies 

a lower position than usual in the shield. 
Abatements — Certain marks of disgrace invented by the old 

heralds, but whicU naturally never came into use. 

MENfeTRiER justly calls them ^^soitises AnglaisesJ* 

The marks of illegitimacy are the only abatements 

in use {see Chapter XVII.). 
Accosted — Placed side by side. When used of animals the 

F. equivalent is accost^; but when of shields accoli, 
Addorsed (F. adoss^) — Placed back to back. 
Affront^ — A synonym for gardant; also see Combatant, 
AlLE, or AiSLi— Winged. 
AiLETi'ES — Small square wings attached to the shoulders of knights 

in armour (v. Plate XXXIV., fig. i). 
Alant — A mastiff with short ears. 
Allerion (F. ai^rion) — A young eagle without beak or feet 

(p. 258). 
Amethyst — The gem employed to designate the tincture /i/^j>f/r^. 
Amphisbcena — A serpent having a head at each end of its body. 
Ancred, or Anchored (F. ancr^) — Having extremities ending in 

figures resembling the flukes of an anchor (p. 158). 
Angenne — A flower of six petals. 
Angled (F. angU) — Having figures in the angles. 
Annulet (F. anneiet^ see also Vires) — A plain ring ; one of the 

modern marks of cadency, used for a fifth son (p. 444). 
Antelope (Heraldic) — A beast with nearly straight and tapering 

horns ; it has a long lashed tail, and a goat's beard 

{v. p. 236). 
Appaum^ — Describes the open hand showing the palm. 

2 Y 

( 677 ) 

Arched — Curved, usually a synonym for embowed (but see 

Plate X., fig. 5). 
Argent— Silver. 
Armed (F. ann^) — The term applied to the horns, hoofs, beaks, 

and talons, of beasts or birds of prey when they differ 

from the rest of the body. 
ARMOVi — Applied to lambrequins^ ailettes^ Mantlings^ and capari- 
sons charged with armorial devices {v, pp. 6ii and 615). 
Arrach^ — A synonym for erased^ which see. 
Arrondie— Rounded. 
Aspersed (F. semi^ — Sprinkled, or strewed. 
Assis — Seated ; a synonym for sejant. 
AlTiRED {cf, F. somm^y or rami) — Used, instead of armed^ for the 

horns of deer, etc., when differing from the rest of the 

Attires — The horns of stags, etc. (F. ramure^ a single horn demi- 

ramure). ^ 

AVELLANE — Applied to a cross whose arms resemble a filbert in 

its husk (v, antey p. 162). 
Aylets — Cornish-choughs {v. p. 264). 
Azure (F. asur) — The colour blue^ probably from lapis lazuli^ is 

usually of a darker tint in British than in Foreign 



BaillonN]^ — Applied to a beast which holds a staff in its teeth. 
Balls (F. boules de . . . ) — The colour must be specified. 
Banded (F. bandi^ Hi) — Encircled with a band, applied to garbs 

when tied of another colour {v, p. 342) ; {jsee also Cintr^^ 

and SangU), 
Bar— A diminutive of the fess (v. p. 125). 
Barbed — Said of flowers, showing a leaf between the petals. 
Barnacles — A twitch for compressing the nostrils of a horse (?'. 

Barrulet (F. bureli) — A diminutive of the bar (v. p. 1 28). Cf. the 

French Glossary, Fasce en divise. 
Barruly (F. bureU) — Covered with ten or more barrulets. 
Barry (F. fasci) — Covered with bars (v. p. 92). Barry-pi ly 

(p. lOl). 
Barry-bendy — Divided into lozenge-shaped pieces by horizontal 

and diagonal lines intersecting. 
Bars-GEMELS {T.jumelles) — Barrulets borne in pairs. 


Bar-wise — Placed in a horizontal direction. 

Base — The lower part of the shield. 

Basilisk— (F. p. 293). 

Baton— (5^^ Chapter on Illegitimacy). 

Battlements (F. creneaux) — See Embattled, 

Beacon {F./anaf) — A fire grate set on a pole against which a 

ladder leans. It is generally shown lighted, or inflamed 

{v. p. 352). 
Beaked (F. becqtU) — Having the beak of a different tincture from 

that of the body. 
Belled — Said of cows (F. clarin^\ hawks {griliet^\ or other 

creatures to which bells are attached. 
Bend (F. *£i«/if)— Oneof the Ordinaries {see Chapter III., p. 129). 
Bendlet — A diminutive of the bend (7/. p. 131). 
Bendwise (F./^w^)— Said of mallets, helmets, etc. 
Bendy (F. band^)— Cow tr^A with bends {v. p. 94). 
Bevily (F. ///<?r/d»V)— Dovetailed (z/. p. 77), a partition line. 
Bezant — A gold plate, or fiat piece of gold without impression {cf. 

Figured ^n^ v, p. 189, and Plate XIX., fig. 2). 
Bezanty, or Bezant^e — 5^w/, or strewed, with bezants. 
Bi-CORPORATE — Having two bodies. 
Billet (F. billette) — An oblong rectangular charge ; a Sub- 

Ordinary {v. Chapter V., p. 186, Plate XIX., fig. i). 
Billetty (F. billet^) — 5^/;//, or strewn, with billets (v. p. 112). 
Bird-bolt — A short arrow with blunted head (z/. p. 350). 
Bladed — Having leaves differing in tincture from the rest of the 

Bordered (F. bord^y liserd) — Edged of a different tincture 

BORDURE (F. bordure) — A border applied to the shields ; one of 

the Sub-Ordinaries {see Chapter V.). 
Boterol — The metal end of a sheath or scabbard {v, p. 321). 
Botonny (F. treJU) — Applied to crosses, crosslets, etc., whose 

arms end in a trefoil shape (z/. p. 160, Plate XIV., fig. 11). 
Bouget (F. bouse) — {See Water-bouget^ v, p. 355). 
Bourdon— A pilgrim's staff (t/. p. 375). 
Braced — Interlacing ; usually applied to chevronels (z/. p. 140 

and Plate XIII., fig. 12). 
Branched (F. tigd\ 
Bretess^ (F. br^tessd) — Having embattlements on both sides 

opposed to one another. 
Breys (F. broyeSy and morailles) — {See Barnacles above, and p. 357). 

( 679 ) 

Brigantine — A coat of mail. 

Brisure — A mark of cadency (v. Chapter XIV., etc.). 

Broad Arrow — The head of an arrow having two smooth barbs 

detached from the shaft (v. Pheon, from which it 

differs, see p. 350). 
Brogue, or Shambrogue— A kind of shoe (v. p. 392). 
Budding (F. boutonn^). 
BURGONET— A steel cap. 

Caboshed, or Cabossed (F. caboss^) — Is the term applied to the 

head of an animal {cf. F. massacre) borne affronts and 

showing no part of the neck. 
Cabr^ — A term applied to a horse saliant {cf. Rampant). 
Cadency, Marks of (F. brisures) — Figures introduced into the 

shield to distinguish the cadets of a family from its 

head, and from one another {v. Chapter XIV., p. 396). 
Caltrap (F. chausse-trape) — A ball of iron with projecting spikes 

(v. p. 352). 
Calvary-Cross — A "long" cross, mounted on steps (v. p. 152). 
Canting- ARMS — (F. armes parlantes) — Are those which have a 

punning reference to the name of the bearer (7/. p. 671). 
Canton— One of the Sub-Ordinaries (t/. p. 165). 
Cantoned (F. can fonn/) —Said of a cross placed between objects 

which occupy the corner spaces of the field . 
Caparisoned (F. bartitf, kouss/f). 
Carbuncle (F. rat's des carbuncles) — ( V. Escarbuncle). 
Cartouche— An oval shield (v. p. 56). 
Cat- A- mount — A wild cat (always ^ar^w/). 
Catharine-wheel — The instrument of the martyrdom of Saint 

Catharine, a wheel having sharp curved teeth on the rim. 
Centaur — A mythological animal having the bust and arms of a 

man conjoined with the body of a horse {v, p. 298). 
Cercel^e — ( V. Resercelde). Applied to a cross denotes that its ends 

are curled on each side into circular figures (z/. p. 160). 
Chamber — A short piece of ordnance. 
Cham FRONT — The armour-plate for the head of a horse. 
Champagne — A narrow piece cut off the base of a shield 

(z/. p. 311). 
Champaine— Nisbet's term for Urdy, 
Chapeau — A " cap of maintenance," v. infra. 

( 68o ) 

Chaplet (F. chapelef)—^ garland of leaves and flowers. 
Charge — ^A figure borne on the field in a coat of arms. 
Charged (F. chargi) — Is said of a field, ordinary, or other bearing, 

upon which a charge is placed. 
Chequy (F. ^chiquetiy cf, iquipolU) — Divided into rectangular 

pieces, usually squares, of alternate tinctures (z/. p. 99, 

Plate XVII., fig. 6). 
Chess-rook (F. roc d^^Mquier) — The " castle " used in the game 

of chess (p. 387, ante). 
Cheval-trap (F. chausse-trape) — {See Caltrap), 
Chevron — One of the Ordinaries, or principal charges of 

Armory {^vide Chapter IV., p. 135). 
Chevron, Per (F. divisd en chevron)— { V, pp. ^^ and 88). 
Chevronel — A diminutive of the chevron (z/. ante^ p. 139). 
Chevronny (F. chevronnd) — Divided into pieces shaped like a 

Chief (F. chef) — One of the Ordinaries, or principal pieces, in 

Heraldry (t/. ante^ Chapter IV., p. 116). 
CHiMiERA (F. chimhre) — A mythological figure (z/. p. 294). 
Chough (F. choucas) — (See Cornish chough). 
Cinque-foil (F. Quintejeuille) — A herb of five leaves (z/. p. 322). 

CiRCULAR-BORDURE— (K. p. 1 73). 

Civic-crown — A wreath of oak leaves and acorns. 

Clarichord, or Clarion— (5^^ Chapter XIII., p. 386). 

Close (F. clos) — Said of a bird whose wings are not expanded. 

Closet — A diminutive of the bar (7/. p. 126). 

Cockatrice — (See Basilisk^ p. 293). 

Collared — i. (F. colleU) Having a collar round the neck ; 2. 
{accoli) Said of the shield, when ornamented with the 
collar or ribbon of an Order of Knighthood. 

Combatant (F. affronti) — Fighting ; said of two lions or other 
beasts rampant face to face (z/. p. 220 and Plate XXII., 
fig. i). 

Compartment — A term applied to the ground or other object on 
which the shield and its supporters rest, as distinct from 
the scroll or " gas bracket " ornament applied by herald- 
painters to this purpose in the days of debased 

Complement, In her— A term applied to the full moon {v. F. 
Lune, pleine). 

CoMPON^ COMPONY (F. compon^) — Formed by a single row of 
rectangular pieces of alternating tinctures. 

(681 ) 

Conjoined— United (v. Plate XX., fig. 5). 

CONJOINED-IN-LURE — Is said of two wings united (F. vot)^ the 

tips being downwards {v. Plate XXV., fig. 5). 
CONTOURN^ — Is applied to animals which face the sinister side of 

the shield {v. p. 220). 
Corded — Said of a cross, or saltire, of which the parts are bound 

together by cords. 
Cornish Chough (F. choucas) — A crow with red beak and legs. 
COTICE — A diminutive of the bend {v. p. 131). 
COTICED {J, colicky cotoyi; cf, accompagni) — Placed between two 

cotices. This term is also applied to the fess, chevron, 

etc. Thus, a fess between two barrulets, or a chevron 

between two chevronels, is said to be coticed (Plates 

XII., fig. 10 ; and XIII., fig. 6). 
Couch ANT (F. couchant^ gisant) — Lying down, but with uplifted 

Coucni — A shield is said to be couch^ when it is suspended with 

the sinister angle uppermost, as in many ancient seals 

and armorials {see PlateSsXLIV., XLV., and XLVI.). 
Counter-changed (F. de run d Vautre; de run en T autre) — 

Having an interchange of tinctures {tu Plate XIX., 

fig. 4). 
Counter-compony — Formed by a double row of small squares 

of alternating tinctures {see Plate XVII., fig. 5). A'.^. 

— See contre compon^^ for which this is not always the 

Counter-embattled (F. ^r^/^jj/)— Embattled on both sides, so 

that the battlement, or merlon, on the one side is 

opposed to the embrasure on the other. 
Counter-em BO WED — Bent in the reverse direction. 
COUNTER-FLORY — When an Ordinary, an orle or tressure, is flory 

on both sides (cf, Plate XVII., figs. 10 and 12). 
Counter-passant— Proceeding in opposite directions {v, Plate 

XXII., fig. 2). 
Counter-saliant — Leaping in opposite directions. 
Counter-trippant, or Counter-Tripping— Is said of beasts of 

chase passing each other. 
Counter-vair (F. contre vair) — Is an arrangement of voir by 

which the bells of the same colour are arranged base to 

base and point to point {v, Plate IV., fig. 8). 
CouPED (F. coup^) — Cut clean off by a straight line, as distinct 

from erased in which the line is jagged. 

( 682 ) 

Couple-close — The diminutive of a chevronel {v, p. 140). 

COURANT (F. couranf) — Running. 

Coward (F. couard) — ^A term applied to an animal which has its 
tail between its legs. 

Crampette— (5^tf Boterol), 

Crampons — Hooks used in building, usually borne singly abroad, 
in pairs in British Armory. 

Crancehn — A wreath of peculiar shape (v. p. 131, and Plate 
XII., fig. 6). 

CRENELLlfe — Embattled {cf, Bretessi), 

Crest-coronet — The little crown out of which some crests 
rise (cf. Ducal Coronety infra). 

Crested (F. criU) — Is said when the crest or comb of a cock, 
cockatrice, etc., is of a different tincture to the rest of 
the body. 

Crined (F. cheveUy said of a human being ; crini^ of an animal)— 
when the colour of the hair or mane is to be 

Cronel, or CORONEL (F. roc) — The blunted head of a lance 
used in tournaments {cf. Chess-Rook and p. 387). 

Cross (F. croix)—Om of the Ordinaries (see Chapter IV.). 

Crosslet (F. croisette) — A diminutive of the cross (see Chap- 
ter IV.). 

Crowned (F. couronni^ cf, diadem^, and distinguish). 

Crozier (F. crosse) — A pastoral staff, with a crook or curved 
head, used by Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, and 
Abbesses. The later use, which would confine the 
word to the cross borne (not by^ but) be/ore an Arch- 
bishop as a sign of dignity, is inexact (^see Pastoral- 

Crussily, or Crusily (F. crusiU) — 6Vw/ of small crosses, usually 
cross-crosslets ; if not, the shape of the crosslet requires 
to be named (e.g,^ Crusily-fitchy, Plate XXVI., fig. 

Cubit- ARM (F. avant-bras) — The hand and the arm cut off at the 


Curved (t/. F. anchi^ vouU^ affaissi^ courbi^ in French Glossary). 


D ancettA, or D ANCElTY (F. danchiy cf, F;Vr<^)— The larger form of 
indentation, of which the points do not exceed three in 

( 683 ) 

number {jsee partition lines of the shield, Chapter III., 

PP- 75, 76). 

Danse, or Dancette — The term used in old writers for a bar 
indented^ or dancetty. 

Debruised — Is the term employed when a bend, fess, or other 
Ordinary is placed across an animal or other charge. 

D ECKED — Ornamented. 

Decrescent (F. contounU) — The term applied to a moon when 
in its last quarter, having its horns turned to the sinister 
side of the escucheon {v. p. 307). 

Defamed (F. diffam^) — Said of an animal deprived of its tail. 

Degraded— Said of a cross of which the arms end in steps. 

Degrees {F.j^'css) — Steps (of a cross-calvary, etc.). 

Dejected — Thrown down. 

Delve — A square turf or clod of earth {v. p. 187). 

Demembered, or Dismembered (F. d^membr^^ cf, momi)^\s 
said of an animal or charge, from which portions are 
severed, and removed slightly from the main body of 
the charge, but so as to preserve the general shape of 
the figure {^see Arms of Maitland, Plate XXL, 
fig. 8). 

Demi — The half. In Armory the upper or foremost half is the 
one used (unless the reverse be specified), except in the 
case of coats united by dimidiation, when the division of 
the dimidiated charge is made by a perpendicular line. 
In this case a demi-eagle or demi-fieur-de-lis would 
be the dexter or sinister half of the bird or flower, 
applied to the line of partition. 

Detriment — A term applied to the full moon when borne of a 
sable, or red, colour as if eclipsed. 

Developed — Displayed. Said of a flag or banner unfurled. 

Dexter — The right hand side. 

Diamond — The jewel used to indicate sMe in the fanciful way of 
blazoning by precious stones. 

Diapered (F. diapr^) — Covered with fretwork or floral enrich- 
ment of a colour slightly differing from the rest of the 
bearing (p. 114). 

Differenced— (5r^ Brisures^ or Marks of Cadency, Chapter 

Dimidiated— Divided into halves. 

Disclosed — With wings expanded ; the equivalent for displayed in 
the case of birds which are domestic, or not birds of prey. 

( 684 ) 

Dismembered — {See Demembered). 

Displayed (F. ^ployd) — The expanded wings of a bird of prey are 

described by this term. 
Distilling (F. iUgou^/ani)— Letting fall drops (c/. Plate XVII., 

fig. 9). 
Distinction (F. diffirence) — {See Brisure). 

Dormant — Sleeping ; it differs from couchant^ as the head of the 
animal is not raised, but rests on its fore-paws. 

Double Quatrefoil — The brisure for a ninth son in the modem 
system of Differences, 

Double Queu6 — Having two tails {see Queue fourchde\ 

Double Tressure (F. double tricheur)—Ont tressure within 
another {v, Sub-Ordinaries, Chapter V.). 

Doubled (F. doubli) — The term applied to mantles and lambre- 
quins, lined of a different tincture, or with fur. 

Dovetail (F. mortaisi) — One of the lines of partition {^ide p. ^^\ 
seldom used as the bounding line of an Ordinary except 
in very modem coats. In the Arms of Cowell and 
of PiCKFORD the chief is dovetailed (Nisbet calls 
this partition pai^e,) The Coat of LuCAS, Baronet, is : 
Per bend argent and gules^ a bend dovetailed between 
six annulets all counter-changed. 

Dragon — An imaginary monster; in British Heraldry it is a 
quadruped {see Chapter X.). 

Dragon's Head, and Tail — Were the terms respectively applied 
to tenn^ (orange) and sanguifie (murrey) in the mode of 
blazoning by the planets {v. ante^ p. 65). 

Ducal Coronet — The term applied by custom, but quite errone- 
ously, to the small coronet out of which many crests are 
represented as rising. Crest-coronet^ first suggested by 
Mr BOUTELL, is a term as easily understood and much 
more correct (2/. ante in the Chapter on External 
Ornaments, s,v. Crest, p. 614). 

Duel PER — An old name for a cap of dignity. 

Eastern Crown — A band of gold from which arise pointed rays 

(v. page 615, and Plate L., fig. 13). 
Eclipsed (F. ombre de soleil) — The sun is said to be eclipsed if 

represented of a red, or sable, tincture {v, p. 306). 
ElGHTFOlL — The same as the double quatrefoil, q.v. 

( 68s ) 

Electoral Crown--(K Chapter XX., p. 623). 

Elevated— (F. Arv/)— The term applied to wings raised above the 

Embaitled — (F. crenelU^ britess^^ bastilliy which see, pp. 75, 76) 

— Having battlements like the wall of a fortress ; the 

pieces projecting upwards are called merlons^ the inter- 
vening spaces embrasures, 
Embowed (F. courbi) — Bent. When applied to arms and legs the 

elbow or knee is to the dexter. 
Embrasure — ( Vide supra^ Embattled). 
Embrued — Stained with blood {cf. F. ensanglanii). 
Emerald — The stone used to indicate the tincture vert, 
Enaluron — A fanciful old term applied to a bordure charged 

with eight birds ; now obsolete. 
Endorse— A diminutive of the Pale i^v. Chapter IV.). 
Endorsed~( V, Addorsed), 
Enfield — An imaginary animal of very rare occurrence, having 

the head of a fox, maned ; the fore-legs are those 

of an eagle, the body and hind-legs those of a 

greyhound, and the tail that of a lion ; (the crest of 

O' Kelly). 
En filed (F. enfiU) — The term applied to a sceptre, sword, or 

lance, which passes through a ring, wreath, or coronet ; 

also to a weapon which pierces a head, heart, or portion 

of a body. 
Engoul6 — {See Glossary 0/ French Terms), Is applied to the 

extremities of Ordinaries, etc., which enter the mouth of 

an animal (Plate XII., fig. 5). 
Engrailed (F. engrile^ cf, ickancr^^ and distinguish) — A form of 

the partition line (v. ante^ pp. 75, and 77). 
Enhanced (F. haussi) — The term applied when an Ordinary, or 

other charge, is raised above its usual position. (The 

converse oiabaissi.) 
Ensigned— Adorned. 
Ent6— Grafted. 
Ent6 en Pointe— (K ante^ Chapter IV.). A division of the 

shield (Plate XVI., p. 9). 
Entoyr6 — An obsolete term for a bordurt charged with eight 

inanimate charges. 
Enurney — An old fanciful term, now obsolete, formerly applied 

to a bordure charged with eight animals. 
Environed — Surrounded, enveloped. 

( 686 ) 

Equipped (F. ^quipi) — Fully armed and caparisoned ; rigged. 
Eradicated (F. arrack^) — Tom up by the roots ; applied to trees 

and plants (Plate XXIX., figs. 2 and 3). 
Erased (F. arrach^) — Forcibly torn off, so as to leave the severed 

part jagged, as distinguished from couped. 
Erect (F. haut) — Set in a vertical position. 
Ermine, Ermines, Erminois— (5^r^ Furs, Chapter III., and 

Plate IV.). 
Escallop-Shell (F. coquilUy cf, vannef) — A common charge of 
' blazon showing the outside, as distinguished from 

Vannet^ which see. 
Escarbuncle — The term applied to a bearing which originated 

in the iron bands radiating from the centre of an 

ancient shield, and serving to strengthen it (z/. cmte^ 

p. 45, and Plate I.). Per saltire argent and gules^ two 

gry photos heads erased in fess^ and as many escarbuncles 

in pale all counter-changed^ is the coat of Lampson, 

ESCUCH EON— Points of, are described at p. 59. 
ESCUCHEON OF PRETENCE— The Small shield borne upon the 

centre of his own achievement by a man who marries 

an heiress, or co-heiress, and containing her Arms (z/. 

Chapter XV. on Marshalling, p. 486). 
Esquire (F. giron) — A term applied to a gyron {see Chapter V., 

and Arms of Mortimer, Plate XVIII., fig. 5). 
Estoile — A star ; its mode of delineation, as distinguished from a 

mullet, is discussed ante, p. 307. 
Expanded (F. ^ploy^ of wings, ^panoui of flowers, oiruert of fruits) 

— Opened or displayed. 
Eyes — Express tincture by F. allumdj ammd for birds, etc. 

False (F. faux, fausse) — A term applied to things voided (7/. 

p. 552). 
Fan — In British Armory is a winnowing fan for blowing away chaff. 
Faulchion (F. badelaire) — A sword with a broad blade. 
Feathered (F. empenni) — The term used to describe the fact 

that the wings of an arrow differ in tincture from the 

shaft. (A synonym of Flighted^ 
Fer-de-Fourchette — The term used (but rarely found) for 

crosses, etc., which end in a forked iron. 

(687 ) 

Fer-de Moline — The mill-rind^ or iron in the centre of a mill- 
stone, through which the shaft passes. 

Fermail — A buckle. 

Fess — One of the Honourable Ordinaries^ or principal charges, of 
Armor)' {v. ante^ Chapter IV.). 

Fess, Per (F. coup6)—{V, p. 79). 

Fess Point — The central point of the escucheon (v. p. 59). 

FessWays (F. en abime . . . , en coeur) — In the direction per- 
taining to a fess. 

Feitered— ( V. Spancelled). 

Feiter-lock— A shackle with a lock (v. p. 591). 

Field (F. champ) — The surface of the shield upon which the 
charges are depicted. 

Figured (F. Jigurd) — A term applied to the sun, crescents, coins, 
etc., when they contain a human face ; and to bezants or 
plates stamped like a coin. 

File (F. lambel) — An old term for the label. 

Fillet — A diminutive of the chief. A fillet en bordure is a 
diminutive of the bordure. 

Fimbriated (F. bordi) — Having a narrow bordure. 

Fire-ball — A grenade. 

FlRM^ — A term applied to a cross-paUe-througkout^ /.^., reaching 
the edges of the escucheon {v. p. 153). 

Finned (F. lorr^^ cf. FierU in French Glossary). 

FiTCHi, or Fitched (F. fich^) — Applied to crosses, etc., which 
have a point whereby they can be fixed in the ground. 

Flanches, or Flaunches ij, Jlanqu^ en rond) — Sub-Ordinaries 
{see Chapter V., p. 185). This bearing has been granted 
pretty frequently in recent times, e.g,^ see the coats of 
Bagge, Lawes, and Savory, Baronets. 

Flanks {F.Jlancs) — The sides of the escucheon. 

Flasques — Diminutives oi Flaunches {v» p. 185). 

Fleuretty, Fleury {F lohy) {F. ^eur-de-lis^) — A term applied 
to a surface sent/ oi fleurs-de-lis, 

Fleury (F. fleur/^ fleurettie) — Ornamented with fleurs-de-lis 
(7/. cross-fleury^ p. 117). 

Flexed — Bent or bowed (cf. vout/y aflaiss/). 

Flighted (F. empenn/) — {See Feathered). 

Flory, Floretty— (5<r<f Fleury). 

Flotant — Floating ; said of banners, etc. 

Flowered (F.yJ^wrO— Said of plants. 

Foliated — Leaved. 

( 688 ) 

FORMY, or FORM^E— (5<?^ Pattys or Patie). 

Fountain — Conventionally represented by a roundle wavy argent 

and azure (Plate XIX., fig. 5). 
FouRCHjfe (Jt, fourch^^ faurchetii) — Forked {see Cross-fourMe^ 

p. 161). 

Fracted (F. brisi^ and cf. fail It) — Broken. 

Fraise, or Fraser — A cinquefoil in Scotland {v, p. 323, Plate 

Fret (F. frette) — A Sud- Ordinary (v. Chapter V., p. 181) 

(v. Treillis^ in French Glossary ^ and Plate XIX., fig. 11). 
Fretted (F./r^///)— Interlaced {cf. Plate XIX., fig. 11). 
Fretty — Covered with fretwork or interlacings {v, Treillissi ). 
Fructed {Y.fruiU^ and cf Englanti) — Bearing fruit. 
Furchy— (5<»^ Fourchi). 

Furnished i^Jquip^) — Equipped, or provided with sails, ropes, etc. 
Fusil (F. fush) — A narrow lozenge (a Sub-Ordinary, v. pp. 

116, 182). 
FusiLLY {T.fuseU) — Covered with fusils {v. Chapter III., p. 100). 
Fylfot — The Gammadion, an ancient symbol composed of four 

Gammas (F) united in cross. 

Galley (F. navire and galore) — A ship propelled by sails and 

oars {see Lymphad). 
Gal-traps (F. chausse-trape) — {See Callrap). 
Gamb (F. metnbre de lion) — The whole fore-leg of a beast, as 

distinct from a paw. 
Garb (F. gerbe) — A wheat-sheaf (if composed of any other grain 

the fact must be specified) {v. p. 340). 
Gardant — Full-faced {v. Lion). 
Garland — A wreath of flowers and leaves. 
Garnished — Ornamented {cf lisM). 
Garter — ^An old term for a diminutive of a bendlet. 
Gauntlet (F. gantelet) — A glove of steel plates. 
Gaze, At (F. affrontd^ ox gardant) — Used of a beast of chase. 
Gemells (Bars-Gemels) (F. jumellcs) — Small barrulets borne in 

pairs {v. ante^ p. 128). 
Gem-ring — An .mnulet set with a precious stone. 
Genet — A small animal like a weasel. 
Gerated — Differenced by small charges {v. p. 406). 
Gimmel-ring — Two annulets interlaced. 

( 689 ) 

GiRON, or Gyron— A Sub-Ordinary (v. p. 167). 

GiRONNY, or Gyronny (F.gironfuf) — A division of the field (v. 
antey p. Z^)' 

Gliding (F. ondoyante) — Applied to reptiles or fishes moving 
forward with undulations of the body. 

GOBONY, or GOBON^ — {See Compony). 

GOLPES — The obsolete name applied to roundles of purpure (v. p. 
190, Chapter V.). 

GONFANON — An ecclesiastical banner described at p. 372 (see also 
Oriflamme^ Chapter XXII.). 

Gore, or Gusset — One of the old fanciful Abatements. 

Gorge (F. bouse) — A water bouget, q.v.^ p. 355. 

Gorged (F. colleU) — Wearing a collar. 

Gorges, or Gurges {Y,gouffre) — A whirlpool represented conven- 
tionally (Plate XIX., fig. 6, and see p. 193). 

GOUTTE, a drop. 

GouTi'^E, Gutty, Guttle— 6>«*<f with drops {see Chapter III.). 

Graded — Having steps (A Cross-graded, F. croix perronn^e). 

Gradient — Applied to a tortoise walking. 

Grafted — A term sometimes used for ENTlfe, g.v. 

Greaves — Armour for the legs. 

Grices — Steps ; (also the appellation of the young of the wild 

Grieces (F. marcassins^ cf, sangiier) — (K Grices), 

Griffon — A chimerical animal, the fore part that of an eagle, the 
hinder that of a lion ; the " male grifibn " has no wings. 

Gringoly, or Gringol^e — The term applied to crosses, etc., 
whose extremities end in the heads of serpents (7/. Plate 
XV., fig. 6). 

GUARDANT — {V. Gardant), 

Guidon — A kind of banner with a semi-circular end. 

GuiVR^ — {V, Gringoly), 

Gules (F. gueules) — The colour red. 

Gun-stone — The old name for a pellet or sable roundle {v, p. 190). 

Gurges — ( F. j. Gorges), 

Gusset {¥ . gousset) — A pairle without the top opening. 

Gutty, or Guttee— 5^;«/ of drops. 

GuzES — The obsolete name given by the old armorists to roundles 
o{ sanguine or blood colour {v, p. 190). 

Gyron — A Sub-Ordinary {v. F. Giron), 

Gyronny (F. gironnd) — {See Gironny), Very occasionally Ordi- 
naries are gy rotted— e.g. ^ Voir on a chevron gules three 

( 690) 

bezants; a chief gyronny Or and sable^ is the coat of 
HoziER, Baronet. 


Habergeon— A coat of mail. 

Habited (F. A^;^///)— Clothed, vested. 

Hackle (F. broie) — A hemp-break. 

Haie— A hedge. 

H albert — A pole-axe. 

Hames — Part of the equipment of a horse. 

Handled {?,futd) — Said of spears, etc. 

Harpy — A mythological creature (?/. Chapter X.). 

Hart — A stag in its sixth year. 

Harvest-Fly— A kind of butterfly. 

Hatchment — A term for Atchievement ; the representation of 
the full armorial bearings of a deceased person, fixed 
upon his house, or in a church. 

Hauberk — A coat of chain-mail. 

Hauriant — ^Applied to fish in a perpendicular attitude, or pale- 
ways (v. p. 268). 

Hauss^ — Said of a charge placed higher in the escucheon than its 
usual position. 

Hawk's Bells and Jesses (bells, T.greiots or grillets)—Th^ bells 
are globular in form and are affixed to the hawk's legs 
by small leather straps called jesses. 

Hawk's Lure — A decoy used by falconers to recover the hawk. It 
is composed of two wings conjoined with the tips down- 
ward (hence wings so represented are said to be in lure^ 
or conjoined in lure) ; they have also a line attached, 
ending in a ring, by which the falconer waved the lure 
in the air. 

Hay-fork — A name for the /a// or fiairle in Scotland 

He.\ds — Of men, beasts, etc, are drawn in profile unless the blazon 
specify that they are aJfronUs^ or gardanL 

Hemp-brake (F. broie)— See Hackle or Heckle. 

Hill, Hillock (F. mont) — The latter term is used if more than 
one appear in a coat, unless the charges are separated 
by an Ordinary. 

HiLTED {Y, garni) — Is used to describe the tincture of the hilt of 
a sword if it differ from that of the blade. 

Hind — The female stag, usually tripping. 

(691 ) 

Hooded (F. chaperonni) — Wearing a hood, applied both to human 

figures and to hawks. 
Hoofed — Having the hoofs of a particular tincture (distinguish from 

unguled which applies only to beasts with cloven feel). 
Hooped (F. cercU), 
Horn, Hunting (F. cor de chasscy grelier, kuchet; See French 

Horn, of a Stag (F. demi-ramure\ 
Horned (F. amU) — Having horns of a special tincture but 

compare attired, 
HUIT-FOIL — An eight foil {qjv.\ or double quatre foil. 
HUMMETTY — Couped at the ends, said of an Ordinary which does 

not touch the edge of the shield. 
Hurst (F. bois^forSt) — A clump of trees. 
Hurt — A roundle of an azure colour {v. p. 190). 
Hydra — A mythological monster {v. Chapter X., p. 296). 


Ibex — An antelope with straight horns in British Armory, the 
horns project from the forehead and are serrated. In 
Foreign Armory the charge is drawn au naturel. 

Icicles — Are gouttes reversed. 

Imbrued— {See Emdruedj' F. ensanglant^ ). 

Impaled — Coats conjoined pale ways, that is by the shield being 
divided into two parts by a perpendicular or palar line 
and having one coat placed on each side thereof, are 
said to be impaled {see Chapter on Marshalling). 

Imperial Crown — Differs not from a Royal Crown in general. 
The crowns of specific empires however differ from one 
another {see Plate L., and Chapter XX. on Coronets 
AND Crowns). 

In Lure— (5^^ Lure), 

In Pride (F. rouant) — Said of a peacock with expanded tail. 

In Splendour— Said of the sun irradiated (Plate XXVIII., fig. i). 

Incensed — Is the same as inflamed. Said of animals which have 
flames issuing from mouth and ears. 

Increscent (F. croissant-toumi) — Said of a crescent whose 
horns are turned to the dexter side of the shield. 

Indented (F. danch^^ denteU^ endentS) — A partition line with 
small indentations {v, p. 75). 

Indorsed— (K Endorsedy cf, F. Adossd), 

< 692 ) 

INESCUCHEON — A small shield borne en surtouty usually containing 
the arms of an heiress or some feudal charge in British 
Heraldry, but used with different meanings in Foreign 
Armory {see Chapter on Marshalling). 

Inflamed (F. ardentyJlambant)—{See Incensed diXid AllunU), 

INK-MOLINE— (K Per de Moline)—^ mill-rind. 

Interlaced (F. entrelctci) — Linked together. Said of annulets, 
the bows of keys, crescents, etc. 

Invecked, or INVECTED (F. canneU) — One of the partition lines, 
the reverse of engrailed {v, pp. 75, 76) than which 
it is much less frequently employed. 

Inverted (F. z/^rj/)— Reversed. 

Irradiated (F. rayonn^^ cf, herissd), 

IssUANT, or Issuing (F. issant). (For the distinction between this 
and ncdssant v. ante^ p. 221, and Plate XX 1 1., figs. 4, 5.) 


Jelloped — Said of the comb of a cock or cockatrice. (Wattled.) 

J essant— Shooting forth. 

Jessant de lis — Said of a leopard's face with 2l fleur-de-lis passing 

through the mouth (z/. p. 225 and Plate XXI I., fig. 11). 
Jessed — Having straps or thongs. 
Jesses — The straps of hawk's bells (v. p. 261). 
JowLOPPED — ( V, Jelloped). 
Jupiter — The planet signifying azure in the old blazon by 

heavenly bodies (v. p. 65). 

Knotted — Of trees, F. noueux; of a cord, or a snake, nou^. 

Label (F. lambel) — A mark of cadency, also in occasional use as a 

charge {v, pp. 188 and 414). 
Ladder (Scaling) (F. /chelle d^escalade) — A ladder with hooks ; 

occasionally of a single piece with short traverses {v. 

ante, p. 364). 
L.\MB, The Paschal (F. agneau pascal^ or Agnus Dei)— Is 

described anie^ p. 236. 
Lambrequin — The mantling of a helm {v, p. 610). 
Langued (F. lampassi) — The term used to denote that the tongue 
2 z 

( 693 ) 

of a beast or bird is of a different tincture from the rest 
of the charge, or from that usually employed. 

All birds and beasts are langued gules unless they 
are themselves of that tincture, in that case they are 
langued azure^ unless the blazon distinctly express that 
the tongue is to be of some other tincture. If the 
general rule given above is followed there is no need to 
mention that the animal is langued at all. 

Larmes — Gouttes of blue tincture, tears. 

Lattice— (5^^ Trellis^ p. 97). 

Leash (F. longe) — The line by which falcons are tied to the hand, 
or by which hounds are retained. 

Leashed (F. longi). 

Leaved {Y,feuilUy cf,pampri\ 

Leg of an Eagle (F. main itaigU), 

Legged (Membered) (F. membr^) — Is said when the legs of a bird 
differ in tincture from the rest of the body. 

Leopard — The lion passant-gardant in French Heraldry'. 

Leopard- LiONN^ — {See French Glossary) a lion rampant-gardant. 

Leopard's Face — Is used when the head is represented tiffront^ 
or gardant, no part of the neck being visible. 

Leopard's Head — Is used either when the head is in profile, or 
affronU if part of the neck, either couped or erased, is 

Lever — The name given to the bird (really the eagle, the 
evangelistic symbol of St John) in the arms of the city 
of Liverpool ; now drawn as a cormorant. 

Lighted, or Inflamed (F. cUlumi), 

Lined — Attached to a line or cord ; is also said of mantles, caps, etc. 

" Line;s of Partition" — Are described in Chapter III, 

Lioncel — A young lion ; sometimes used by pedantic hera^ds to 
denote the beasts when several (more than three) are 
borne in the same field. 

Lochaber-axe — A pole-axe whose top has a hook. 

Lodged (F. couchd) — Is said of a hart, and other beasts of chase, 
when lying on the ground ; distinguish from couchant 
applied to beasts of prey. 

Lozenge (F. losange) — One of the Sub-Ordinaries (t/. 
Chapter V.) ; also one of the forms of the escucheon 
(?/. pp. 58, 631, and add that English examples of this 
use occur on early seals of Furnival and Pavnell). 

LoZENGY (F. losangi) — Covered with lozenges (v. p. 100). 


Lucy — An old name for the pike fish. 
Lure — {See Hawl^s Lure), 

Lymphad (F. galore) — A galley propelled by oars but also having 
a mast and square sail {v, p. 367). 


Maintenance, Cap of — A cap of dignity ; usually of crimson or 
azure velvet " turned up " or lined with ermine or other 
fur, or stuff of a different tincture. Often used to 
support crests in mediaeval times. 

Manche, or Maunche (F. manche-mal tailUe)—1\\& old-fashioned 
sleeve of a lady's garment ; its full form is maunche mal 
tailUe (v. p. 376 and Plate XXXI I L, fig. i). 

Maned — Having a mane of a different tincture from the rest of 
the body. 

Mantel (Tierced in) — A division of the shield (t/. Chapter III., 
p. 88). 

Mantel^ — {See above). 

Manticora, or Man-tiger — A fabulous beast. 

Mantle, Mantling — The cloak or robe placed around a shield 
of arms {see the Chapter on External Ornaments). 

Mantlings (F. lambrequins) — The coverings of helmets cut into 
foliage shape. 

Mars — In blazoning by planets represents ji^/fj. 

Martlet (F. merleite) — A martin or swallow, without legs, but 
with the tufts of feathers at their junction with the body 
{v, anle, p. 266) ; the mark of cadency for the fourth 

Mascle (F. mdcle) — A voided lozenge {see Chapter V., page 184). 

Masculy (F. macU) — Covered with mascles. 

Masoned (F. maqonni) — Divided by lines, usually of sable, to 
represent the mortar between the stones of castles, 
bridges, and other buildings. 

Maunche— ( V. Manche). 

Membered (F. membri) — The term used to describe the legs 
of a bird if of a different tincture from the rest of 
the body. Some armorial writers think the term 
includes the beak, which is certainly not the case in 
French Armory. 

Mercury — The planet used to denote fiurpure. 

Merlion (F. meriette) — ^A synonym for the martlet. 

( 695 ) 

Merlons — The pieces of an embattlement between the em- 

Metals — Or and Argent 

Mill-pick — A tool with sharp head and short handle, used to 
dress mill-stones. 

Mill-rind — {See Fer de Moline^ and Anille), 

Miniver — A fur ; a corruption oi menu-vair (ta ante^ p. 69). 

Mitre — The cap of an abbot, bishop, or archbishop. 

MoLiNi, Cross — A cross with arms, like the ends of a mill-rind. 
It resembles a cross ancree^ but the hooks at the end of 
the arms not so acute. It is used among the modern 
marks of cadency as the difference for an eighth son. 

Morion — A steel cap. 

Morse — A sea-lion. 

MoRT — A death's head, or skull. 

Mortar — A piece of ordnance ; a druggist's bowl. 

MoRTNi, or Morn 6 — A French term for a lion without tongue, 
teeth, or claws. 

MoiTO — A short sentence, accompanying armorial bearings, 
usually borne on a separate listel or ribbon, sometimes 
in the coat itself (^'. p. 395, and Plate XXXIII., fig. 12). 

Mound {monde) — An orb or globe of sovereignty, usually ensigned 
with a cross. 

Mount — A hill in base of the shield. In Foreign Heraldry is 
often drawn conventionally with three coufieaux or 
domes {cf. Plate XXVIII., figs. 8, 9). 

Mounted — Applied to a horse bearing a rider. 

Mounting — Rising ; (F. montcmt^ of a crescent). 

Mourn6 — Blunted {morn4\ applied to spears. 

Mullet — A star usually of five straight points ; if of more the fact 
must be specified. It is taken for the rowel of a spur, 
and is then pierced. (On the distinction between 
mullets and estoiles^ v, ante^ p. 307.) 

Mural-crown — A coronet of gold, with battlements along its 
upper edge (Plate L., fig. 16). 

Murrey — The colour Sanguine. 

Muschetours (F. mouchetures) — The tail of the ennine without 
the three hairy spots usually drawn at its top. 

MusiMON — A fabulous beast, ram and goat combined. 

MusiON — A mouser, a domestic cat (v. ante^ p. 97). 

Muzzled (F. emmuseU) — Applied to bears and other beasts which 
have the mouth tied with bands. 

( 696 ) 


N AIANT (F. nageant) — Swimming ; applied to fish borne fesseways, 
or horizontally (distinguish from hauriant). 

Nailed (F. c/ou/)—{V, Treiih's, and p. 97). 

Naissant — Rising out of the middle of a fess or other Ordinary. 
The distinction between this term and issuani is 
explained anie^ p. 221. 

Narcissus— A sex-foil. 

Naval Crown — A coronet of gold, ornamented on its upper edge 
with alternate stems and sails of ships {see Plate L., 
fig. 15, and pp. 615 and 646). 

Nebulae, or Nebuly (F. tiebuU) — ^ line of partition {v, 
ante^ pp. 75, 76). This line is infrequent in ancient 
coats either as a partition line, or as the bound- 
ing line of an Ordinary ; but in modern times it has 
been pretty frequently employed as a difference, and in 
some cases not inappropriately, to indicate a possible 
but doubtful descent from a family bearing arms. 

Nerved (F. nerv^) — Said of the leaves of trees on which the fibres 
are drawn of a different tincture from the rest of the 

Nill^ — Formed by slender traces or narrow lines. 

Nombril — One of the points of the escucheon {v. ante^ p. 59). 

NOWED (F. nouff) — Knotted, also said of the tails of reptiles. 

NUAG^— (5^tf NebuUe), 


Ogress — An old name for a gun-stone, pellet, or roundle of sable 
{v. p. 190). 

Ombr^— Shaded. 

Ondy, or Ond^E {Undyy undtfe)— Wavy {v. p. 75). 

Opinicus — A fabulous animal of rare occurrence, resembling a 
gryphon winged, and with a lion's legs, and short tail. 

Oppressed— (5^^ Debruised). 

Or — The metal gold. 

Orb (F. monde) — {See Mound). 

Ordinaries — Certain heraldic charges of most frequent occur- 
rence {see Chapter IV.)- 

Ordinaries, Sub — Heraldic charges also of frequent use, but 
not so important as the preceding {see Chapter V.). 

( 697 ) 

Oreiller — A cushion, or pillow (7/. anie^ p. 377). 

Organ-rest — A "clarion" or rest {v, ante^ p. 386, and Plate 
XXXI II., fig. II). 

Orle — ^A narrow border within the shield but removed from its 
edge ; one of the Sub-Ordinaries, Chapter V., p. 175. 

Orle, In — Charges arranged in a circular form, or following the 
outline of the shield. 

Orl)^ — An old term for bordered. 

Over-all — The term used when a charge or an Ordinary or an 
escucheon is placed upon others. The French equiva- 
lent is en surtout (2/. pp. 483, etc.). 

Overt (F. ouveri) — Open ; applied to gates, and to the wings of 
birds expanding for flight. 

Owl (F. hibou^ cf. Oiseau-duc) — This bird is always drawn full- 

Pale — One of the Ordinaries {see Chapter IV.). 

Palisado, Crown, or Vall.ary — A coronet of gold ornamented 

on the upper edge of the rim with golden palisades 

(7'. Plate L., fig. 14). 
Pall — (i.) An Archiepiscopal vestment of white wool, shaped like 

the letter Y, and bearing five crosses paiies fitch^es 

sable (originally the pins fastening it to the chasuble). 

(2.) One of the Ordinaries (t/. pp. 150, 375 ; Plate XVI.). 
Pallet — A diminutive of the Pale. 
Palmer's Staff (F. bourdon) — A pilgrim's walking-stick (7/. 

p. 375). 
Paly — Divided into perpendicular divisions like pales. 

Paly-bendy — Divided into lozenge-shaped pieces by lines pale- 
ways and bendways (7/. p. 100). 

Panther {Y . panthilre) — In heraldry is drawn conventionally, and 
with fire issuing from mouth and ears (7/. p. 226). 

Papilonn^.— A form of vair (7/. pp. 71-73 and Plate VIII., fig. 6), 
covered with scales like butterfly's wings. 

Partition lines ( K p. tj). 

Party (per bend^ pale^fess, etc.) — Are the phrases used to denote 
that the field or charge is divided by a line drawn in 
the direction of the Ordinary named. 

Paschal Lamb (F. agneau-pascal ; Agnus Dei) — (Is described at 
p. 236). 

( 698 ) 

Passant — The heraldic term for a beast walking and looking 
straight before it (of the lion, F. lion leopard^). 

Passant-counter-passant (F. passant-contre-passant) — Is said 
of two or more animals walking alternately in opposite 
directions — the first to the dexter, the second to the 
sinister, the third as the first, etc. (?/. Plate XXII., 

^Z' 2). 
Passant-gardant — Denotes that the beast is walking forward 

but that its head is affronU^ or full-faced {cf. lion). 
Passant-regardant — Walking forward but with the head looking 

backward (Plate XXL, fig. 6.) 
Passant-rep ass ANT — The same as the preceding. 
Passion Cross — A name for the long cross {see fig. 47, p. 164). 

It differs from the Calvary Cross in not having steps. 
Passion Nail (F. clous de la passion) — A long spike with a 

quadrangular head. The Ordinary known as the 

Pile is sometimes, but erroneously, called by this 

Patonce — A floriated form of the cross {see p. 157, and fig. 56, 

p. 164). 
Patriarchal Cross— (6V^ p. 152 and fig. 50, p. 164). 
Paity, Pati^e (Formy, Form6e)— a form of the cross, each arm 

expanding from the centre and terminated by a straight 

line (t/. p. 154). 
Patty-throughout — Means that the bearing is carried right out 

to the edge of the shield (Plate XIV., fig. 5). 
Pavilion — A tent. It is also the name given to the canopy under 

which the arms of sovereigns are sometimes represented 

(v. Chapter XIX., p. 615). 
Paw (F. palle)^-ThG foot of an animal, couped, or erased at the 

first joint ; distinguish from Gamb, 
Peacock {Y,paon) — Is drawn passant unless it is blazoned a 
Peacock in its pride {V,paon rouant) — It is then drawn with 

tail expanded in a circle. 
Pean — A form of ermine, a fur with a sable ground and golden 

Pearl — The precious gem used to denote silver or white. 
Pearled (F. grHi) — Adorned with pearls. 
Peel (F. pelle) — A baker's instrument. 
Pegasus — The winged horse of mythology (z/. etnte^ Chapter 

X., p. 298). 
Pelican — In Armory is drawn conventionally ; usually with 

( 699 ) 

expanded wings, with neck embowed vulning its breast 

whence drops of blood distil for the nourishment of 

her young ones which are placed beneath her in the nest ; 

she is then said to be a 
Pelican in her piety — {See above). 
Pellet — A sable roundle (see Ogress^ Gunstone^ and p. 190). 
Pendent — Hanging down. 
Penon, or Pennon— A small oblong flag. 
Penoncelle, or Pencil — A diminutive of the pennon. 
Penny-yard-penny — A silver penny. 
Per — Through, or by means of {see Party, above). 
Perclose — The half of a buckled garter. 
Perforate {?, perd^ cf, ajour^) — Pierced. 
Petronel — An early form of the pistol. 
Pheon — The broad head of a dart or javelin {see p. 350). In 

English Armory it is borne with the point towards 

the base, in French coats the reverse is usually the 

case {v. Plate XXXI., ^g, 7). 
Phcenix — A mythological bird represented like an eagle in the 

midst of flames. 
Pierced (F. fierc^y ajouri) — Is the term when a cross, mullet, 

or other charge has a perforation through which the 

fleld is visible. 

The form of the piercing should be expressed except 

in the case of mullets where it is always circular 

{v, p. 307). 
Pile— One of the Ordinaries {see Chapter IV. and Plate XVI.). 
Pilgrim's Scrip — A wallet or bag (2/. p. 375). 
Pilgrim's Staves — Bourdons (p. 375). 
PL.ATE — A flat roundle of silver {v, p. 189). 
Platy, or FhATtE—Sem/ of plates. 
Playing Tables — A backgammon-board. 
Ploy^ — Curved, or bent {v, p. 137). 
Point, In — Is said when piles, swords, etc., are arranged in the 

form of a pile that is approaching each other in the 

base of the shield. 
Pointed (F. aiguisi; cf. Fichi), 
Points — The pendants of the label. 
Points of the Escucheon— (5^?^ p. 59, figs. 15 and 16). 
POMEis — Green spherical roundles resembling apples (p. 190). 
POMELLED — Describes the knob, or pomel, at the end of a sword 


( 700 ) 

OMMELLY, or POMMEITY (F. pomtftetU) — Is said of a cross whose 

arms end in balls. 
Popinjay (F. papegaye) — An old name for a parrot. 
Portcullis (F. herse sarasttte) — A strong grating let down to 

close the passage through a castle gate ; it usually 

has spikes in its base, and chains attached to its 

upper beam (7/. p. 365). 
Pos6 — The same position as statanL 
Potent — An old name for a crutch. The name given to a fur 

composed of crutch-like or T-shaped pieces (really only 

a form of vair, vide pp. 70, 71, and Plate IV., figs. 1 1 and 

12). It is sometimes termed 
Potent-counter-potent — (F. p. 71). 
Potent, Cross— (5^^ page 156). 
Potent^, or Potency — A partition or dividing line of the field 

seldom used (t/. p. 177). 
Powdered — The old phrase for sem^. 
Pretence, Escucheon of (F. ^cusson sur letout) — {See Escucheon, 

p. 486). 
Pride, In (F. rouant) — See Peacock^ also applied to a Turkey 

cock with tail expanded. 
Proper — Borne of its natural colours (F. au naturelj of flesh, 

carnation^ v. p. 102). 
Purfled — Bordered (bordi), 
Purpure — The heraldic name of the colour purple. 
Pyot — A magpie. 


Quadrate — In the form of a square. When a cross-potent has a 
square projection in the centre it is said to be a cross- 
potent-quadrate, as in the arms of Lichfield (Plate 
XIV., fig. 7). 

Quarter (F. franC'quartier)—K Sub-ORDinary {v. Chapter V., 
p. 166). 

Quartered (F. dcarteU ) — Divided into quarters or quar- 

QUARTERINGS, or QUARTERS (F. tfcartelures)— Different coats, 
not necessarily only four in number, combined in one 
escucheon to denote descent, etc {see Chapter XV. on 

Quarterly (F. dcarteU) — The division of the shield by a perpen- 

( 701 ) 

dicular and a horizontal line into four nearly equal parts 

called quarters. 
Quarter-pierced— ( V, Plate XIV., fig. 3). 
QUATREFOIL— A herb with four leaves. 
Queue — The tail of a beast. 

Queue Fourch6e— Having a double tail (Plate XXL, fig. 9). 
QuiSE, k LA (for d la cuisse) — Said of the leg of a bird erased at 

the thigh. 


Radiant (F. rayonni) — Shining with rays. 

Raguled, or Raguly (F. raguU^ cf. Ebranchi and Ecoti) — Like 
the stem of a tree from which the branches have been 
lopped. It is also, but very infrequently, used as a line 
of partition, and is drawn with regular projections, as in 
p. 75, fig. 24. Ordinaries are not often formed by this 
line, except the cross and the saltire. But exceptionally 
the coat of Knotshull is, Azure gutty iteau, a chevron 
raguly between three crescents argent. In a few modem 
grants the fess is raguly j e,g,^ Jessel, Baronet, bears : 
Azure^ a fess raguly ennine^ between three eagles heads 
erased argent j in the centre chief point a torch inflamed 
paleways proper. There is a modern use of the raguly 
line as a partition in the coat of Sir Frederick Leigh- 
ton, Baronet, P.R.A., which is: Quarterly^ per fess 
raguly or and gules^ in the second and third quarters a 
wyvem of the first. 

Rainbow— Conventional {v. Plate XIX., fig. 7). 

Rampant — Standing upright on the hind legs {cf F. accul/^ 
of a rearing horse). In Foreign Heraldry this is the 
normal position of the lion, and does not need to be 
expressed. UAzur^ au lion dor is Azure, a lion 
rampant or, A bull rampant is said to h^furieuxj 
a horse, effar^, or cabr^ {cf F. Grimpant, applied to 
a stag). 

Rampant-gardant— Standing up on the hind-legs, but with the 
face affrontie (of the lion F. leopard-lionnd) {v. Plate 

Rampant-regardant — Standing up upon the hind-legs, but with 
the head looking backwards {v, Plate XXL). 

Rampant-sejant— Sitting in profile, but pawing the air. 

( 702 ) 

Ravissant (see French Glossary) — Is the term applied to a beast 

of prey carrying off an aninial in its jaws. 
Rayonnant (F. r<iy<?««/)— Adorned with beams of light {v. Plate 

X., fig. 8). 
Rays — Of the sun, in number are sixteen. 

Rebated {cf. F. en retrait) — Having a portion of the end removed. 
Recercel^e — Having the ends curled back in circular form 

(applied to the cross, v, p. i6o). 
Reflected, or Reflexed — Bent back ; usually said of the line 

or chain attached to the collar of an animal, and bent 

over the back of it. 
Regardant — Looking backward (v, Plate XXL, fig, 3). 
Reindeer — In Heraldry, is a stag with two sets of attires. 
Rere-mouse — A bat. 
Rest (F. claricorde) — {See Clarion), 
Retorted — Bent, or twisted back. 
Retranch^— ( V, French Glossary). 
Riband — A diminutive of the bendlet. 
Rigged (F. equippd, habilU), 
Rising (F. essorant) — Preparing for flight ; said of birds only 

(t/. p. XXV., fig. 7). 
ROMPU — Fracted or broken (2/. p. 139). 
Rose — In modern cadency is the difference used by the seventh 

son {see p. 444). 
Rounded — (F. arrondi), 

Roundles— Sub-Ordinaries {see Chapter V., p. 189). 
Rousant — Said of swans with wings endorsed and preparing for 

Ruby — The gem used to denote gules in the system of blazoning 

by precious stones. 
RUSTRE (F. ruste) — A lozenge with a circular piercing {v, p. 185). 

Sable — ^The tincture black. 

Sagittary — A centaur, armed with bow and arrow {v, p. 299). 

Saliant (F. cabrS^ or effar^, cf. Rampant) — Leaping ; of a horse 

on its haunches. ' 

Saltire (F. sautoir) — The Ordinary shaped like an X. 
Saltireways (F. en sautoir) — ^Arranged in the form of a saltire. 
Saltorels {T,Jlanchis^ Spanish aspas) — Small saltires 
Sans-NOMBRE — Synonym for Sem^, 

( 703 ) 

Sapphire — The precious slone used for azure in the system of 
blazoning by gems. 

Saracen's Head — The head of a Moor, usually borne wreathed 
of two colours. (Plate XX., fig. 4.) 

Sarcell^ {Recercelde)—{ V. p. 160). 

Sardonyx — The gem representing Sanguine in the blazon of 
arms by gems. 

Satyr — A mythological figure, half man, half goat, homed. 

Scaled (F. ^cailU), 

Scallop (F. coquille^ vannef) — {V, Escallop), 

Scarpe — A diminutive of the bend-sinister, very seldom used. 

SciNTiLLANT (F. itincellant) — Sparkling, or emitting sparks. 

Scrip — A pilgrim's purse. 

Scroll — A ribbon charged with a motto (^v, Escrolt). 

ScRUlTLE — A winnowing fan. 

Sea-dog (F. chien-de-mer) — A seal, drawn conventionally with a 
beaver's tail, a finned crest along the whole back, with 
web feet and a scaly body and legs {v. p. 300). 

Sea-horse (F. cheval-vtarind) — A monstrous animal ; the head 
and forebody of a horse, with webbed feet joined to a 
fish-like tail. 

Sea-lion (F. lion-marini) — As the preceding, with the substitu- 
tion of the head and mane of a lion. 

Seeded — Applied to roses, indicating the colour of the seed- 

Segreant — Applied to wyverns and gryphons when represented 
rampant with endorsed or expanded wings {v, Plate 
XXVI I., fig. 5). 

Sejant (F. assis^ accroupt) — Sitting. 

Sejant- AD DORSED — Said of two beasts sitting back to back. 

SEMi — Strewn, or powdered regularly, with small charges {v. 
Plate VIII., figs. 8, 9, 10, and p. 112). 

Sengreen — A house-leek. 

Seraph (F. s^raphin) — A child's head between three pairs of 
wings, the two uppermost and the two lowest crossed. 

Shack-bolt (F. ceps)—A fetter. 

Shafted — Handled ; said of a spear or pike. 

Shake-fork — Pi^pall^ ox pairle^ with chevron-pointed ends. 

Shambroughs— A kind of slipper. 

Sheep — (Grazing, F. brebis; passant, F. niouionX 

Shivered (F. /^/a//)— Broken irregularly. 

Sinister — The left-hand side. (Bend-sinister, pp. 133, 582.) 

( 704 ) 

SiNOPLE — The French term for vert^ or green. 
Siren — A mermaid. 
Skene— A Scottish knife. 

Slashed — Ornamented with slashings ; apertures cut in a vest- 
ment to allow the lining or under garment to be 

Slipped — Having a slip or stalk torn off from the stem ; applied 

to leaves and flowers. (Plate XXX., figs. 4, 8, 10, 11.) 
Spancelled — Is said of a horse whose fore and hind legs are 

hobbled together. 
Sphynx — A mythological creature, described under Monsters 

(Chapter X., p. 295). 
Splendour, In — A term applied to the sun irradiated and having 

a human face. (Plate XXVIII., fig. i.) 
Spotted (F. moucheU ; of insects, mirailld^ bigarri^ inarqud\ 
Springing — Equivalent of rampant for stags and smaller 

Staff — (Of a bishop F. crosse;^ of a pilgrim F. bourdon). 
Standard— (5^^ Chapter XXII.). 
Staple — An iron fastening. 

Star— {5^^ Mullet, and Estoile, and Plate XXVIII., figs. 5, 6, 7.) 
Starved (F. effeuilU) — Denuded of leaves. 
Statant {F,pos^y statant, arrets) — Standing. 
Stock (F. chicot, estoc). — Of a tree. 
Stellion — An old name for a lizard or snake. 
Stringed (F. cordd) — Said of a musical instrument with cords or 

strings ; also of the cord or belt of a bugle-horn, or of a 

SUFFLUE — An old name for a Rest, or Clarion, q,v, 
Surcoat — The portion of the field of an escucheon lying between 

a pair oiflaunches^ or Jlasques {v. p. 557). 
Surmounted (F. surmonte) — A charge upon which another is 

placed is sometimes said to be surmounted by it. 
SURTOUT, SuR LE TOTJT—Over till, said of an escucheon of 

Sustained — An English phrase for soutenu, for which see the 

Glossary of French Tertns, 
SwEPE — A synonym for the balista or mangonel {v, p. 365). 
Swivel — A name for a handcuff, or locket ; two rings connected 

by a bolt {see under Badges, p. 584). 
Sykes — A fountain drawn conventionally (t/. p. 193 ante, snd Plate 

XIX., fig. 5). 

( 705 ) 

Tabard — A surcoat, embroidered or painted with armorial 
bearings, now used by officers of arms (fig. io6, p. 674). 

Tailed — (Of comets, etc., F. caucU^ and comeU ; of animals, 

Talbot — An old English hunting dog. 

Target — A circular shield. 

Tau — A cross in the shape of a T (fig. 61, p. 164). 

Tawny, Tenn^ — The tincture of Orange. 

Terrace (F. terrasse) — A ^^ champagne'*^ (or narrow mount in base 
bounded by a straight line). 

Thoye — An old name for a lynx. 

Thunderbolt (F. foudre) — Conventionally represented- as a 
twisted bar inflamed at the ends ; winged, and having 
issuing from its centre four forked and barbed darts in 

Tiara — The triregno^ or Papal mitre. A white cap of oval shape, 
rising from an open crown ; encircled by two other 
coronets, and surmounted by a small orb with its cross. 
The tiara has infulce^ or pendants, embroidered with 
gold, and fringed. 

Tierced (F. tiered)—- Divided into three approximately equal areas ; 
applied to the field. (For the different modes of 
tiercing see pp. 86, 87 and Plate VI.) 

Tilting -Spear— A blunted lance {v, cronel). 

Timbre — A French term for the helmet with its wreath, lambre- 
quins, and crest. 

Tincture — Heraldic colour. 

Tirret, or Turret — A manacle or swivel. 

Toison d'Or — The badge of the Order of the Golden Fleece. 

Topaz — The precious stone used to denote or^ or gold, in the 
fanciful system of blazoning by gems. 

TORQUED (F. tortilU)—VJrQ2X)\t^ or twisted (Plate XL, fig. 6). 

Torse — ^An old term for the crest-wreath. 

TORTEAU — A flat cake ; in English Heraldry tinctured gules (?'. 
ante^ p. 190). 

TORTOILY — An old word for semd of torteaux. 

Touching (At the points) — (C/! F. appointi^ abouU). 

TouRN^— Regardant 

Towered (F. donjonrU) — Having turrets. 

Transfixed — Pierced through. 

( 7o6 ) 

Trans FLUENT— The term applied to a stream passing through the 

arches of a bridge. 
Transposed — Removed from its ordinary position. 
Trefoiled (F. treJU) — As applied to a cross, denotes that its arms 

terminate in trefoils ; as applied to another Ordinary, it 

denotes that it is edged with trefoils ; as applied to the 

field, it is an abbreviated expression for setfU of trefoils. 
Treill^ (F. treillisiy or trellised) — Latticed, as distinguished from 

fretty (v. p. 97). 
Tressure (F. tr^heur) — A diminutive of the orle («/. p. 175). 
Tressure-flory (F. trkheur-fleur-de-lisi) — ^A small single orle 

ornamented with fleurs-de-lis^ all the heads of which 

point outwards, and the stalks inward. 
Tressure-flory-counter-flory — The same as the above, but 

with the difference that the heads (and stalks) point 

alternately outwards and inwards. 
Tressure-flory-counter-flory (Double) — The Royal Tres- 
sure of Scotland (t/. p. 176). 
Tricorporate — Having three bodies united in a single head 

(7/. Plate XXL, fig. 10). 
Trident — A long handled fish-spear with three prongs, or teeth. 
Triparted— Divided into three. 
Trippant, Tripping — The term applied to animals of the chase 

in thepassanff or walking, attitude. 
Trononn^ (F. trongonnS) — Dismembered ; divided but preserving 

the general outline. 
Truncated, TRUNKED—Said of trees cut smoothly off at top and 

Trunked (F. affuU) — Having the trunk of a specified colour. 
Trussing (F. empiitant) — The term applied to a bird of prey that 

has seized with claws and beak another animal {v, p. 262). 
Turned-up (F. rebrassS) — Said of a cap of which the edging or 

lining of a different colour is shown. 
Turreted (F. donjonni) — Having small towers. 
Tusked (F. amU) — Having teeth or tusks (F. of tusks, defendu) ; 

used when these differ from the ordinary colour, or from 

that of the body. 


Umbrated (F. ^w^r^)— Shadowed. 
Und^e, Undy (F. ^«^)— Wavy (v. p. ^^), 


( 707 ) 

Unguled (F. ongle) — Having hoofs ; applied to stags, unicorns, 
bulls, etc., whose cloven feet are of a different tincture 
from the rest of the body. 

Unicorn — A fabulous animal, having the general form of a 
horse, but with a twisted horn proceeding from its 
forehead, the beard of a goat, cloven feet, and a lion's 

Urchin (F. hdrisson) — An old name for the hedgehog. 

Urd^e, Urdy — {See partition lines, p. Tj\ 

Urinant — The term for a fish paleways but with its head in base ; 
the reverse of hauriant. 

Vair — One of the heraldic furs (see p. 69, and Plate IV.). 

Vair6 — Vair of other tinctures than the usual blue and white {see 

Plate IV., fig. 13, and page 71), 
Vallary Crown — The crown of palisades {v, Plate L., fig. 14). 
Vambrace — Armour for the arm. 
V AM BR AGED — Wearing a vambrace. 
Vamplate (F. arret de lance)— Th^ circular plate of steel fixed on 

a tilting lance to protect the hand. 
Vannet — An escallop shell without ears, and showing the inside 

of the shell. 
Venus — The colour vert in blazoning by planets. 
Verdoy — An old term for a bordure charged with flowers, fruit, or 

Vert (F. sinople) — The VvazXyxx^ green, 
Vervels, Verrules, Verrels— Small rings, or ferules. 
Vested— Habited, 
Vigilance — The stone held by a stork or crane in its uplifted foot 

is thus called {y. p. 263). 
Vigilant — In an attitude of watchfulness. 
Vires— Annulets («/. Plate XIX., fig. 10). 
ViROLED (F. viroU) — Ornamented with rings or verrels (Plate 

XXXIII., fig 10). 
Vizor — The movable part of a basinet (the ^^ garde-visure^). 
Voided (F. vid^) — Is said of an Ordinary of which the interior is 

removed leaving the field visible within the narrow 

outlines (7/. Plate XIV., figs. 4 and 8). 
Voider — A diminutive of the Sub-Ordinary the Flaunchesy rarely 

used in practice {v, p. 186). 

( 7o8 ) 

Vol — ^A pair of wings conjoined (Plate XXV., fig. 5). 

Volant— Flying. 

VORANT (F. engoulant) — Devouring, or swallowing whole (Plate 

XXVII., fig. 4, cf, Empidtanty and distinguish). 
VUL^IANT, VULNING — Wounding ; said of a pelican (p. 264). 
VULNED— Wounded. 


Water Bags, or Water Budgets— (5^^ Chapter XIII., p. 355). 

Wattled (F. barbd) — A term used for the gills of a cock, or 
cockatrice, when the colour has to be expressed 
{cf. Plate XXVII., fig. 9). {See Jelloped.) 

Wavy — {V. Undy\ A line of partition (p. 75); when said of a 
rough sea (F. mer agiU), 

Weel — A fish-pot of ozier work. 

Weir, Wear — ^A dam of wattles interwoven. 

Wervels — V, Vervels. 

Whirlpool— J^. Gurges, 

Winged (F. aiU) — Having wings. 

Woodman (F. sauvage) — A savage. 

Wreath (F. tortil; bourlet ) — The twisted bands of silk round the 
base of the crest. Also any chaplet or garland. 

Wreathed (F. cabU; tortilU) — Having, or wearing, a wreath ; 
sometimes said of an Ordinary (z/. Plate XL, fig. 6). 

Wyvern — A monstrous animal (t/. Chapter X., p. 292). The 
wyvern of British Heraldry, a dragon with only two legs, 
and resting on a nowed tail, does not differ from the 
dragon as generally depicted in Foreign Heraldry 
(2/. PlateXXVII., fig. 8). 

3 '^ 



(N.B. — 77/^? Reader is advised to consult the Index 
for further references.) 

ABAisst — This term is applied — (i.) To an Ordinary or other 
charge occupying a lower place in the shield than that 
which is usually assigned to it. Thus, a chief is said to 
be abaissi when it does not reach to the top edge of the 
shield ; or again, when two chiefs appear in the same 
coat {v, Plate X., fig. 4, and p. 119) the lower is said to 
be <i^«/jj/ beneath the upper. The fess and the chevron 
are sometimes found abaissis. — (2.) To the wings of an 
eagle, or other bird {au vol abaiss^\ when their points 
are directed to the base of the shield. — (3.) To a sword, 
or other weapon, held with its point downward. 

Abime (v. Coeur) — Is the name given to the centre point (p. 59, 
fig. 16) of the shield. A charge occupying this position 
is said to be en abime; but if it be the sole charge its 
position is not expressed. De Clisson : dAsur^ d 
trois molettes d argent et un croissant du mime en abime. 
{Azure^ a crescent between three mullets argent.) 

About^ — Is the term applied to lozenges, and other like charges, 
which touch each other by their acute points. When 
the points of piles, etc., have a charge (as a rose) at the 
end the same term is used. The ermine spots in the 
arms of Hurleston of ^England : Argent^ four ermine 
spots in cross sable ^ are thus blazoned : d Argent, d 
quaire queues dhermine en croix et abouties en coeur, 
because the upper points of the spots touch each other 
in the centre of the shield. 

( 7IO ) 

Accol6 — This term is used — (i.) Of two escucheons placed side 
by side so as to touch each other, as in the case of the 
arms of husband and wife when borne in separate es- 
cucheons. Louis XIV. bore the Arms of France and 
Navarre thus accoUs {see Chapter on Marshalling). 
— {2.) Of mascles, lozenges, and other charges, which 
are conjoined or touch each other. Thus in the arms of 
Rohan (p. 185) the mascles are accol^es {de Gueuies, d 
neuf macles (Tor accoUes et aboutees de gueules). — (3.) Of 
shields, surrounded by the collar, or ribbon, of an Order 
of Knighthood. — (4.) It is also used erroneously for 
colleU^ q,v. 

AccOMPAGNife DE — This term is employed when an Ordinary, or 
other principal charge occupying the middle of the 
shield, has other charges accompanying it (distinguish 
from Accosts). ESPARBEZ: d^ Argent^ d, la fasce de 
gueules accompagfi^e de trois merlettes de sable {Argent^ 
afess between three martlets sable), 

Accorn6 — This is said of animals whose horns are of a different 
tincture from that of their bodies ; (St. Belin : d'Azur, 
ci trois rencontres de belter d" argent^ accom^es d*or). 

AccoST^^This term is used — (i.) Of charges placed side by side. — 
(2.) Instead of Accompagni {see above) when the charges 
run in the same direction as the piece which they 
accompany. Thus the sword in the arms granted to her 
brothers in memory of Jeanne d'Arc is accosts by the 
fleurs-de-lis. Argent^ a pale between six annulets gules^ 
would be blazoned : d^ Argent^ au pal de gueules accosts 
de six annulets du vthne^ if the annulets were placed 
paleways. (This is one of the niceties of French blazon.) 

ACCROUPI — This is the equivalent of our sejant^ as applied to lions 
and other animals. Our wyvem is thus drawn (Plate 
XXVII., fig. 8). (Pascal-Colombier : d" Argent^ d un 
singe accroupi de gueules^ 

Accul6 — Is the phrase employed — (i.) When a horse, or other 
animal, is represented rampant, but thrown back on 
its haunches. (It is sometimes used for Accroupi,) 
— (2.) When two cannons are represented in the same 
line, with their breeches opposed to each other. — 
(3.) When two crescents are represented, the one with 
its horns upwards, the lower with its horns towards the 
base of the shield. (Ronchaux : d'Azur^ d deux 



(7" ) 

croissans accuUs cTargent^ accompagnis de quatre bezans 
en croix.) 

Adextr6 {cf. SenesM) — This is said of— (i.) A charge which is 
accompanied by another charge placed upon its right 
side. (Note, that the position of this secondary' charge 
may also be in chief, or in base, which fact must then 
be noted.) — (2.) A shield which is charged with a pale 
united to the dexter flank is said to be adextrd, (This is 
really a partition.) 

Adoss^ — The equivalent of our addorsed; is used of animals, 
birds, fishes, wings, axes, keys, and other objects placed 
back to back. (Cluny : d^Asur, d deux cles d*of 
adossis en fial^ les anneaux entrelacis.) {Cf, Ajffront^^ 
and see Plate XXIX., fig. 9.) 

Affaiss6 — Is the term applied to a fess, or bend, curved in the 
direction of the base of the shield. (It is the opposite 
of VouU, g.v.) 

Affront^ — Is the reverse oi Adossi^ being used of charges which 
face each other. (Chiavaro : de Gueules, d deux clis d*or 
affront^es en pal.) {See also Plate XXII., fig. i.) 

Affut^ — This term is applied — (i.) To the carriage of a piece of 
ordnance when it differs from the tincture of the 
cannon. — (2.) It is also applied to the trunks of trees. 

Agit6 — Is said of a sea with curling waves. 

Agneau-Pascal — This is a lamb, usually passant, having a 
nimbus around its head, and bearing a banner or 
bannerol of argent charged with a red cross (Plate 
XXIV., fig. 4). 

AlGLE — When the eagle is borne in profile, and in its natural form, 
it is termed une aigle de profit; otherwise the aigle of 
Heraldry is always represented in the form known as 
displayed^ and this fact does not therefore need to be 
specified. In French blazon aigte is always of the 
feminine gender. In early German examples the eagle 
is always represented au vot abaissi (v. Hildebr.\ndt, 
Heraldisches Musterbuch^ 4to, Berlin, 1872), and not, 
as in more recent times, with the tips of the wings 
raised above the head of the bird. The development 
of the eagle is well marked in Hildebrandt's plates. 
Though in the 15 th century the wings reach the level of 
the head, it is only at the close of the i6th, or early in 
the 17th, that they begin to rise distinctly above it. 

( 712 ) 

AiGLE, Main d' — This is the technical term for an eagle's leg in 
French blazon. 

AiGLONS, AiGLETTES (AlGLlAUX, obsolete) — These are terms 
employed by heraldic purists for eagles when more 
than one appear in a shield, unless they are separated 
from each other by a fess, bend, or other Ordinary. 

AiGUitRE — A water- vessel used in religious ceremonies. 

AiGUis6 (4/C FicIU) — When a pale, or cross, etc., has one of its 
ends (usually the lowest) sharpened, this is the phrase 
used to denote the fact. (Bouton, Nouveau Trcdti de 
Blasorty pp. 196-7, distinguishes between 2ipalfich^ and 
a pal aiguisi^ considering that in the latter case both 
ends are pointed. This is a mistake.) 

AlLt — Birds with plumage, or insects with wings, or windmills 
with sails, of a different colour from the body, are said 
to be aiUs of that tincture. So also, hearts, hands, 
swords, animals, and other charges which have not 
naturally wings, are said to be aiUs of such and such a 

Aire — This is the technical name of the nest in which a pelican 
and her young are represented. 

Ajour6 (Pierced) — Is the term applied — (i.) When the windows 
of a tower or other building are of a colour differing 
from that of the charge. (Note, that the gate is not said 
to be ajour^e, but ouvcrte.) — (2.) It is said of openings, 
usually square, in the field ; e,g,y VON Uberacker in 
Bavaria bears : de Gueules^ ajourd en chef d*une seule 
pihe d'or. (The opening commences at the edge of 
the shield.) — (3.) A cross with an opening in the centre 
is also said to be ajour^^ the shape of the opening being 
specified (z/. PerU\ (Viry : de Sable^ d, la croix 
ancr^e d^argent ajourie en carre — Sable^ a cross tnoline 
square pierced argent ; and cf. Plate XIV., fig. 6.) 

Ajout6 — This word is used in the rare cases in which the battle- 
ments of a chief cr^neU differ in tincture from the rest 
of the Ordinary. 

Ajust6 — Is said of an arrow placed on the string of a bent bow. 

ALAlst, Al6s6, ALEZt — These words are used to express the fact 
that the Ordinary to which they are applied does not 
touch the edge of the shield with one (or more) of its 
extremities. The term is the synonym of rcu:courci {see 
also retrait). (Plate LVL, fig. 8.) 

( 713 ) 

Alcyon— A chimerical bird represented of a swan-like form, 
sitting on its nest, which floats on the waves of the 

Al^rion — This is the name given to eaglets, when represented 
without beaks or legs. They are not borne singly. 

ALLUMlfc — Is the term indicating — (i.) The flame of a torch, 
candle, grenade, or other burning matter, when it 
differs in tincture from the rest of the charge. — (2.) It is 
also used to indicate the colour of the eyes of birds and 
other animals. (La Fare : cPAsur^ d troix flambeaux 
(Tor allum^ de gueules,) 

AMPHlPrfeRE {Amphist^re^ Bouton, Nouveau TraiU de Dlason) 
— A winged serpent (t^. p. 294). 

Amphisbene — {jCf, Amphisbcena in English Glossary), 

Anch6 — A term applied to the curving of a scimitar ; the horn of 
a stag, a bend, etc. (VON MOLSBACH : d^Azur^ a une 
demi-ramure de cerf anchee et cheinlUe de six cors 
d^ argent.) 

Ancolie — An imaginary flower of three petals, its slipped stalk is 
always upwards. 

ANCRfe — Said of crosses and saltires whose arms divide into 
pieces like the flukes of a grapnel (7/. Plate XV., 
fig. II). 

Angemme, ou Angenne — A flower of heraldry very rarely met 
with, and with regard to which heralds differ as to 
whether it be a quatre- or a cinque-foil. BoUTON makes 
them of five thin separate petals with a small round piece 
in the centre. The Counts of Tancarville bear : de 
GueuleSy d Ptfcusson d^ argent^ d Porle d^angemmes d^or 
{Nouveau Traits de Blason, p. 391. As used by the 
English Tankervilles, temp. Edward L, they did 
not differ from the ordinary cinquefoils). 

Angl6 — Said of a cross, or saltire, which has rays or other figures 
in its angles. The Florentine Machiavelli bore : 
Argent^ a cross azure angU with four nails of the same. 
(Note that this differs from between four nails, the latter 
are in saltire in the M.\CHIAVELLI coat.) 

Anille — A French form of the mill-rind, or fer de moulin; it is 
formed by two semi-circles addorsed and connected by- 
two horizontal bands which thus leave a nearly square 

Anill^e (Croix) {cf Nill^e) — A cross anillde has the appear- 

( 714 ) 

ance of being formed out of two anilles^ one in pale the 

other in fess. 
Anim6 {cf, Alluind) — A term applied to describe the tincture of 

• the eyes of animals. 
Annelet — The equivalent of our annulet^ a ring of metal of equal 

width all round. 
Antique, A. la — A term used to denote a fashion no longer in 

general use ; a couronne i Pantique is the rayed, or 

Eastern, crown (Plate L., fig. 13). 
Appaum^ — Said of a hand extended and showing the palm. 

Waroquier : cPAzur^ d une main dextre d'' argent 

appaumie et posde en pal. 
Appoint^ — Is said of chevrons, lozenges, swords, and other 

charges which touch each other at the point {v, p. 148. 

Aquin, and Plate XVI., fig. 3). 
Aquilon {cf. Borie^ etc.) — A conventional representation of the 

north wind, as the head of an infant with inflated 

cheeks {v, p. 311). 
Arc en Ciel — The conventional colours by which this is repre- 
sented in Foreign Armory are : or^ gules^ vert^ argent. 

Any others require specification {see Plate XIX., fig. 7). 
Arche de Noe — Is drawn like the toy of our infancy, but in some 

Polish coats has a high prow and stem ending in lion's 

heads (v. p. 371). 
ARCHiiiRES — These are the slits, or apertures, usually cruciform, 

made in the battlements, or walls, of a fortress to admit 

of the passage of arrows. 
Arct6 — Curved in an arc, an old phrase of Petra Sancta. 
Ardent — Said of a glowing coal. The coat of CARBONNifeRES is : 

d^Asur^ d quatre bandes d^argent charg^es de charbons 

de sabky ardentes degueules. — Azures/our bendlets argent 

charged with coals sable inflamed gules. {Inflamed 

scarcely conveys the correct idea.) 
Argent— Silver. 
Argus, TIte d' — Is represented in the form of a human head sem^ 

of eyes. It is the charge of the arms of Santeuil 

{v. p. 201). 
ARMi — Is said — (i.) Of the talons of animals ; — (2.) Of the heads 

of arrows, spears, etc., when these differ in tincture from 

the rest of the bearing. It is also used of a man 

wearing armour. 
Armes-pleines— The term for the undiflferenced coat of arms 

( 715 ) 

which, in theory, belongs to the head of a family 

Arrach6 — A term equivalent both for our eradicated and erased 

(de Launay : d* Argent^ d, un arbre de sinople arrack^; 

Groin : d^ Argent^ d, trots tites de lion arrach^es de 

gueules couronn/es d^or). 
Arrets (Pos6) — Standing still, equivalent to statant, 
Arrets-de-Lance — Vamplates, to protect the hand holding a 

lance in the tourney. 
ARRlfeRE-MAiN — ( V. Contre-appaumni^e), 
Arrondi — Curved into a circular form. 
Assis — The term equivalent to sejant^ applied to dogs, cats, 

squirrels, etc. 
AVANT-BRAS — The arm from below the elbow. 
AVANT-MUR — A small piece of wall attached to a tastle, or tower, 

in some coats (?/. p. 362). Oriol : d^Azur^ d, une tour 

senestrie d^un avant mur d^ argent. 
AZUR — The colour asure^ or blue. 


Badelaire — A faulchion. 

Baillonn^ — Is said of any animal represented holding a baton, 

or stick, between its jaws. 
Bande — The Ordinary known as a bend. 
Bande, En — Is said of a charge or charges placed bendways, or 

in the direction taken by the bend. 
Band6 — (i.) Divided into bends (of equal number). — (2.) 

Band6-Contre-band6 — Bendy, counterchanged per bend- 
Banneret (vol) — ( V, Vol-banneret). 
Banni^re — A flag of a square shape, the distinctive ensign of a 

chevalier banneret {v. pp. 57, 640, 652). 
BANNifeRE, En — ^A form of the escucheon {^v. p. 57). 
Bar — The fish known as barbel^ generally borne in pairs, addorsed 

paleways (Plate XXVI., fig. 9). 
Barb]^ — Bearded, of animals ; wattled, of cocks, dolphins, etc. 
Bard6 — Caparisoned in armour ; said of a horse. Riperda : de 

Sable, au chevalier d^or le cheval bard^ d* argent. 
Barre — K bend-sinister {?\diXe XII., fig. 12). Hence comes the 

common mistake as to a "bastard bar." A "bar- 

( 7i6 ) 

sinister" is an absurdity, the bar being a horizontal 
piece, and as much dexter as sinister (z/. pp. 126 and 582). 

Barr£ — Covered with bends-sinister in equal numbers. 

Barroque, En — A term applied to supporters, when they are 
drawn as if emerging from behind the shield. 

Basilic — The basilisk (v, p. 293, anfe). 

Bastill^ — Embattled on the lower edge. Belot : d* Argent^ A 
irots lozenges (Pazur, au chef cousu bastilU iPor, — 
Argent, three lozenges azure, a chief embattled {cousu) 

Bataill6 — When the clapper of a bell is, as often, of a different 
colour from the rest of the charge, it is said to be 
batailli. Bellegarde : d*Azur, h une cloche d argent 
batailU de sable {Azure, a bell argent the clapper 

Baton — (i.) A stick. — (2.) A cotice couped at the ends. In the 
coats of the later French princes it was used as a mark 
of difference in the case of those who had been 
legitimated {see Chapter XVII., p. 572). 

Baton d'esculape — A rod and a serpent intertwined. 

Baton fleur-de-lis6 — A rod ending in a fleur-de-lis, often 
arrach^, having roots at the end as in the coat of 
Delbene : Azure, two batons fleur-de-lis^e and 
eradicated in saltire argent. 

DECQui — Indicates the colour of the beak of a bird. CoLlGNl : 
de Gueules, d Vaigle d argent, couronn^, becqui, et membr^, 

Beffroi — Vair of the largest size {v, p. 69). 

Belier-militaire— A battering ram. 

B^QUILLE DE St. Anthoine— a term for the cross-lau (^.v.)- 

Besant — Coin of gold or silver, usually without stamp. If the 
head be depicted it \sfigur^, 

Besant6 — Sem^ of bezants. 

Besant-tourteau — A roundle partly of metal, partly of colour, is 
always placed on a field of colour {if, Tourteau-besant), 

BiGARR^ — Said of a butterfly's wings of divers colours. 

Billet^— 5^/«/ of billettes. 

Billette — A rectangular figure with elongated sides ; always 
borne perpendicularly unless otherwise specified ; when 
placed horizontally it is said to be couch^e, 

BisSE — Name of a serpent when twined into knots {cf Guivre), 

BocQUET — ^A lance, or pike-head. 

( 717 ) 

BcEUF — The ox has a pendent tail ; distinguish from taureau, 

Bonnet-Albanais — A pointed hat bent in the form of a semi- 

BoRDi — Edged ; said of Ordinaries having a bordure of a different 
colour ; also of the shield if it has a very narrow 
bordure {cf. Filet en bordure). 

Bordure — One of the Sub-Ordinaries (t/. Chapter V.). 

BoRiE — ( V. Aguilon), 

Boucl6 — (i.) Buckled. — (2.) Said of the ring in the nostrils of an 
animal {v. p. 235, cf. Buffle). 

BOULES — In German Armory nearly all the roundles are thus 
globular, and are shaded accordingly (?/. p. 190). 

Bourdon (de p^lerin) — A pilgrim's staff, usually balled at the 

Bourdonn^ {cf, Pommetty) — Said of a cross whose arms terminate, 
like a bourdon, in balls. ROCHAS : tTOr^ ct la craix 
bourdonn^e de gueules au chef d^azur chargS d*unc 
itoile d^or, 

BOURLET — The wreath of a crested helm. 

Bouse — The water-bouget. 

BOUTEROLLE — The end of a scabbard, somewhat in the form of a 
linden or nenuphar leaf. 

BOUTOIR — The snout of a boar ; used in describing the position of 
the head when exceptionally it is placed pale ways, or in 
bend, le boutoir vers le chef ou vers Vangle droit ^ de 

BouTONNi— (i.) Having buds.— (2.) Buttoned. 

Branch^— Branched (7/. Tigi). 

Br^BIS — A sheep grazing (distinguish from Mouton). 

BRfeTESst — Is said of Ordinaries embattled on both sides, so that 
the merlon on one side corresponds to the merlon on 
the other {v, arms of Scarron, p. 130). 

Br6tess6 {contr^) — Embattled on both sides, but with the merlon 
on the one side corresponding to the embrasure on the 

Bris d'huis — The long hinge of a door {v. Vertenelle). 

Bris^ — (i.) Broken ; said of lances, chevrons, etc., Violle : d^Or^ 
ci trois chevrons brisks de sable, — See romfm and ^cijft^^ 
and distinguish. — (2.) Differenced by a brisure. 

Brochant — Is said of charges which are placed upon other 
charges so as to pass over them {see Arms of Torsay 
on next page ; and Plate XI 1 1., figs. 5 and 9). 

( 7i8) 

Broyes {cf. Morailles) — (i.) A twitch for horses. — (2.) A hemp 

BuFFLE — An ox-head with a ring in the nostrils is blazoned as a 

tcte de buffle^ as in the arms of MECKLENBURG. 
BuRi:LE — A diminutive of a bar — a barrulet. 
Burel£ — Barry of ten or more pieces, equal in number. Torsay : 

BureU d*argent et (Pasur^ (i la bande de gueuies 

brochante sur le tout. 

CABLife — Wreathed {v, Tortillt^\ is said of Ordinaries wreathed like 
a cable. 

Caboch^ — Caboshed (7/. p. 233). 

Cabr6 — {Cf. Effcir^). Is said of a horse thrown back on its haunches. 

Caduc^e — The rod of Mercury, winged at the end, and having 
two serpents entwined around it. 

Calatrave, Croix de — ( V. p. 1 58). 

Calvaire, Croix— (K p. 152). 

Canette — A duck without beak or feet like a vierlette. (Some 
writers, however, make the distinction that canettes 
have beaks and feet while nterlettes have not.) 

Cannel^— Invecked {v. p. 76). 

Canton — A diminutive of iht franc-guartier. 

Cantonn^ — Said of a cross, or other charge, along with which one 
or more charges are borne in the cantons of the shield. 
Thus Brunsvelt in Holland bears : Azure^ a cross 
couped argent^ cantonn^e oifour roses of the same. We 
should simply say "between." — It is also used of four 
charges placed 2 and 2. 

Capuchon — ( V. Chaperon). A hood. 

Carnation — The "proper" colour of flesh. 

Carreaux — Cushions, usually en lozenge. 

Caud6 — Said of a star or comet's tail. 

CeintrI^ — A synonym for voutc^. 

Ceintr6 — Said of an orb of sovereignty, banded. 

Cep de Vigne — A vine shoot. 

Ceps — A handcuff. 

Cercl^ — Hooped. 

Chabots — Chubs, borne hauriant. 

Champ— The field of the shield. 

Champagne, or Plaine — The base of the shield cut off by a 

( 719 ) 

straight line ; distinguish from a mound which is made 
by a curved line (fig. 36, p. ^^^ and see p. 311). 

Chandeliers de l'Eglise — Have three branches. 

C HANTANT— Crowing. 

CHAPi — A division of the shield by two .straight lines issuing 
from the middle of the top line of the shield to the 
dexter and sinister base (Plate VI., fig. 8, and p. 88). 

CHAPi-CHAUSSife — The combination of chap^ with chaussd {see the 
latter term below). 

CHAP^-PLOYlfe — The same formed by curved, or concave lines 
(Plate VI., fig. 10). 

Chapelet--(i.) a rosary. — (2.) A wreath. 

Chaperon — (i.) A hood.— (2.) The hood of a falcon. 

Chaperonn^ — (i.) Wearing a hood. — (2.) A diminutive of chafi/ 
(p. 89). {See Plate LV., fig. 4.) 

Charge — Charged. 

Chateau — A castle, flanqued with towers (distinguish from 
tower^ V. p. 359). 

Chatel^ — 5^;«/ of castles {cf, Plate VIII., fig. 10). 

Ch AUDI ERE — The cauldron ; a frequent Spanish charge. 

Chauss^ — The reverse of chap^^ that is, the lines start from the 
middle of the base and end in the extremities of the 
top line of the shield. When the shield is both chap^ 
and chaussd both forms undergo some diminution, and 
the field takes a lozenge shape, chap^-chaussd thus 
becomes the same as vitu^ see p. 89. (For even a greater 
diminution see p. 89, Arms of Santapau.) 

Chauss^-PLOY]^ — Chauss^^ but with cur\ed lines {see p. 88). 

C h AUSSETR APES— Caltraps. 

Chauve-SOURIS — The bat ; it is borne displayed like an eagle. 

Chef— The Chief. 

Chef de France — A chief azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis 
or (in early coats semi de fleurS'de'lis\ {v. p. 539). 

Chef de l'Empire {Gennanique) — Un chefd^ord une aigle eployie 
de sable (z/. p. 536-538). 

Variations not known in British Annory are these : — 

Chef-chevron — The union of the chief with the chevron without 
any dividing line. 

Chef-dextre — A chief formed by a line proceeding from the 
sinister end of the top line of the shield, and crossing 
the shield to the point where the line forming the chief 

( 720 ) 

begins, thus making a long giron, or triangular bearing, 

with its base on the dexter flank. 
Chef- PAL — The union of the chief with the pale (v, p. 120). 
Chef-senestre— The reverse of Chef-dextre ; the partition line 

starts from .the dexter end of the top line and crosses 

to the sinister flank (Plate LV., fig. i). 
Chef-triangulaire — Is formed by two lines starting from the 

extremities of the top line of the shield, and uniting in 

the honour point. 
Chef-vout6 — Is a chief formed by an arched line instead of by a 

straight one (Plate X., fig. 5). 
Ch^rubins — ^Angel's heads with two or six wings (7^ p. 201). 
Chevel^ — Is said of human heads which have the hair of a 

special tincture named. 
Chevill6 — Is used when it is desired to give the number of 

"points" (cors) on a stag's attire (^yC Arms of Molsbach 

on p.' 7 1 3). 
Chevron — The Ordinary so called may be adaiss/j a/ais/y drt's/, 

coup/y couchdy icimiy ploy^^ versd^ vuidd^ toum^, 

Chevron, Divisi en— Parti per chevron {v. p. 81). 
Chevron, En — Is said of objects arranged in the form taken by 

the Ordinary. 
Chevronn6— Covered with chevrons (Plate VII., fig. 5). 
Chicot— ( K Ecoi). A thick knotted stick. 
Chim^RE— (K Chimceray p. 294). 
Choucas — The Cornish chough. 
Chouette — The great owl, always borne affronUe, 
CiMiER— The crest 

C1NTR6 — Banded ; said of the Monde {q.v,\ or Orb, 
Clairevoies — The lozenge - shaped spaces within a fret or 

Claricorde — The name for the English charge known as a rest^ 

suffluCy clariofty etc. {v. p. 386). 
CLARiNi — ^This term is used when it is desired to describe the 

colour of the bells of cows or sheep. 
Clech^e — Said of a cross the arms of which are shaped like the 

handle of an ancient key. The Cross of Toulouse is a 

cross-clech^e {v. Plate XV., fig. 7, and p. 161). 
CLOUfe — Is said when the heads of nails appear on trellises {v. p. 97), 

horse-shoes, etc. 
Clous-de-la-Passion — Passion nails, having a triangular or 

( 721 ) 

square head. (Chausnes : (PAzur^ au cke^'ron (Tor 
accompagnd de trots clous de la passion du meme.) 

CcEUR, En {en abime) — In the centre point of the shield. 

Collet^ — Collared ; said — (i.) Of a dog or other animal. — (2.) Of 
a spur attached to the collet or collar. — (3.) Of a wild 
animal seized by the neck or ears by a hound (vulgarly 
" collared "). 

COLONNES — (i.) Architectural charges. — (2.) The name some- 
times given to the zules {zuylen) or chess-rooks, in Dutch 

COMBLE — A diminutive of the chief, and half its width. 

CoMfexE — The comet is represented in Foreign Armory as an 
estoile of six or eight rays, one of which is prolonged 
into a wavy tail, usually in bend but not always ; the 
position must therefore be specified. Caud^ is the term 
applied to the tail. 

C0MET6 — Having a tail or termination like a comet. 

COMPON — One of the rectangular pieces of which compony is 
made up. 

COMPON6 — Is said of a bordure or other Ordinar>', divided into 
one row of rectangular pieces alternating in colour 

(PlateXVII., fig. 4). 
CONQUE-MARINE — The conch shell borne by a triton. 
CONTOURN^. — Turned to face the sinister side of the shield. In 

the case of a crescent both horns are towards the 

sinister (7/. p. 307). 
CoNTRE-APPAUMi — Said of a human hand placed so as to show 

its back (rarely employed). 


FASCfe, Contre-pal6 — All these are terms which 
indicate that the field is covered with bends, bends- 
sinister, chevrons, fesses, or pales, and that it is also 
divided by a line on the two sides of which the metal 
and colour are alternately placed. Thus the coat of 
Horbler is : Parity et contre bandd d^or et de gueules. 
Here the coat bendy or and gules is also divided by the 
palar line, so that the bend which is or on the dexter 
side becomes gules on the sinister, and so on alternately 
throughout. Meirans : Contre pal^ d^ argent et d'azur 
^ la fasce d^or. Here the pallets are counter-changed 
on each side of the fess {see also p. 96). 
CONTRE-COMPONNlfe (Counter-compony) — Made up of compons 

( 722 ) 

arranged alternately. The Counts Seva : Fasce (Por et 

de sable d la bordure contre-componnde de mime. (Here 

the compons of or are at the ends of the sable bars, 

and vice versa.) 
Contre-6cartel6 (Counter-quartered) — Is said of quarterings 

which are themselves quartered (j^^ Plate XXXIX.,fig.3). 
CONTRE-FLAMBANT — Flaming on opposite sides. 
CONTRE-HERMINE (Ermines). — A fur of which the field is sable 

and the spots white (Plate IV.). 
CONTRE-PASSANT (Counter-passant) — Said of two or more animals, 

arranged paleways, and proceeding in opposite direc- 
tions (v. Plate XXII., fig. 2). 
CONTRE-VAiR — Vair so arranged that in any two rows the panes 

of the same tincture are conjoined by their bases, or by 

their points, as in Plate IV., fi%. 8. 
CONTRE-VAiRt — The same arrangement as in counter- vair, but 

with tinctures other than argent and azure. 
COQUERELLES — A group of three filberts in their cups arranged 

one in pale and two fesseways. 
COQUILLAGE — ( V. Cotique-marinc). 
COQUILLE — An escallop shell, placed to show the convex side of 

the shell {cf. Vannet). 
COR-DE-CHASSE — A hunting horn ; in French Armory is always 

stringed {cf. Grelier and Huchet\ and the lip piecC, as 

in English (but not in Scottish) Heraldry, is to the 

sinister side of the shield. 
CORDife — Said of bows ; or of hunting horns or harps whose strings 

require specification. (Arpaiou : d^Azur, d une harpe 

cordde dor.) 
CORDELifeRE — A knotted cord placed in a circular form round 

the escucheon or lozenge of widows. 
CORMORAN — A cormorant, usually drawn proper. 
CORNES — The horns used in crests, especially in Germany. 
CoRNi^RE — The handle of a cauldron. 
CORS — The points of a stag's attire (v. Molsbach, p. 713). 
COTICE — A diminutive of a bande, or bend, of which it is onl)' 

the third part. 
CoTiCE-EN-BARRE — The like diminutive of the bend-sinister. 
COTIC^ — (i.) Is said of a field divided into bendlets of at least the 

number of ten. — (2.) Cotised ; said of an Ordinary (fess, 

pale, bend) placed between its diminutives, as in Plates 

X. (fig. 11) and XI. (fig. 12) {c/. Cotoy/, infra). 

( 723 ) 

COTlc£-EN-BARRE— Bendy-sinister often or more pieces. 
COTOYi — Is said of a bend or bend-sinister placed between two 

charges which take the same direction as the Ordinar>-. 

{Cf. Accostd 2jA AccompagTid^ and note the difference.) 
COUARD — Coward ; said of a lion or other beast drawn with its 

tail between its legs. 
Couch6 — Couchant ; said — (i.) Of an animal lying down, but not 

asleep, with the head in the air (distinguish from 

Dormant). — (2.) Of billets placed horizontally {%>, p. 

490) — (3.) Of a chevron {v, p. 137, and Plate LV., 

fig. 5). 

COULEUVRE — A serpent, usually drawn in pale and with undulat- 
ing body. 

CoULiSSi — Said of a castle whose gateway shows the portcullis. 

COUP^ — (i.) Parti per fess (Plate V., fig. 3). — (2.) Coupedj said of 
parts of animals cut smoothly off, as distinct from erased. 
— (3.) Of 2l fleur-de-lis divided horizontally. 


C0UPE.\u — Name for the summits of the conventional hill ; usually 
drawn de trots coupeaux — that is, with three rounded 
summits like inverted cups (v. p. 311). 

COUPLE-DE-CHIENS — ^An instrument of the chase serving to couple 
two hounds in one leash. 

CouPLfo — Is said — (i.) Of hounds thus united. — (2.) Of other 
things tied together. 

COURANT — Courant, running. 

C0URB6 — Curved, (i.) Said of the dolphin, etc. — (2.) Equivalent 
of vouU, as applied to a fess, etc. 

COURONN^ — Surmounted by a crown or coronet. 

COURTINE — (i.) A curtain of masonry uniting two towers. — (2.) 
The side pieces of a pavilion or mantling. 

Cousu — Is the term used to indicate that the law forbidding the 
use of metal on metal, or colour on colour, has been 
intentionally disregarded. This frequently happens in 
the case of the chief ; less frequently in that of other 
Ordinaries {v. ante^ Bastilldy arms of Belot). The 
violation of the rule occurs but seldom in the coats of 
the old French noblesse; frequently in those of towns 
and corporations secular and religious. 

COUVERT — Said — (i.) Of a cup or chalice having a cover. — (2.) Of 
a tower, or building, with a pointed roof. 

Crampon — A cramp or hook of iron used in building. It is a 

( 724 ) 

perpendicular piece, with a hook at each end on the 

opposite sides. 
Cramponn^ — Is said of the cross (and other figures) of which an 

arm, or traverse^ ends in a crampon^ or hook. 
Crancelin — A figure derived from German Heraldry ; a bend 
• curved and ornamented on the upper edge with leaves 

and pearls like a coronet. The arms of Saxony {see 

Plate XII.). 

Cr^MAILLIERE — The ratchet hook of a cauldron ; a charge 
frequent in the Armory of some parts of Germany 
{v. p. 390). 

Cr£n£AUX — Is the French term for the merlons^ or portions pro- 
jecting upwards, of an embattlement. In Italy the 
form of the battlement indicated the political party of 
the owner of the building. The Guelphic battlement is 
the ordinary rectangular one ; the Ghibbeline has 
an angular or swallow-tail notch in the upper line. 

Cr^NEL^ — Embattled on the upper side (Plate XL, fig. 4). La 
Lande : (VArgenty d lafasce crineUe de gueules, 

Cr6quier — A wild cherry tree, drawn conventionally, as in 
Plate XXIX., fig. 4 ; and, better, at p. 344, fig. 72. 

Cr^te — The crest of a cock, dolphin, or other animal. (N.B. Not 
of a helmet, which is cimier,) 

Cr&t^ — Having the crest of a special tincture. 

Cri-de-guerre — A motto placed in a listel above the crest. 

Crin6 — ^Word used in indicating the colour of the hair. 

Croc, or Crochet— A hook. 

CROisi — Charged, or ornamented, with a cross. 

Croissant — A half moon, drawn conventionally montant^ or with 
^its horns upwards. (Note that any other posi- 
tion requires specification ; and see tourrUy vers^^ 
contoumdyfigurd^ and lunels.) 

Croissettes — Small crosses. 

Croix, En — Arranged in the form of a cross. 

Croix, PASst en — Is said of two lances, or other charges, placed 
the one in pale, the other crossing it fessways. 

Cyclamor— An orle. 


Daim — A deer ; it has broader and wider antlers than the cerf. 
Dalmatique — Is the name of the tunicle with short sleeves, often 
3 B 

( 7*5 ) 

armoy^e^ worn by angels over their long flowing robes 
{see French Supporters, pp. 636-7). 

Dauphin — This animal is usually drawn embowedy or courd/ 
en pal — />., with its head in chief, and its body 
cur\ed towards the sinister side of the shield, and its 
tail beneath the head ; in fact, like a Oj C reversed 
(Plate XXVI., fig. 7). When drawn naiant (fessways 
in pale), the body is not so much curved (Plate XXVI., 
fig. 8). When drawn hauriant the curvature is still less. 

De l'un a l'autre— De l'un en l'autre— Counter-changed. 
The coat of Rodes is : Per pale sable and argent ^ thir- 
teen estoiles in three palar rows, 4, 5, 4, counter-changed. 
The French blazon shows the difference of the two 
phrases : — Parti de sable et d^argent^ d treize itoiles 
rang^es en trois pals^ les cinque du milieu de Pun d 
r autre y et les quatre de chaque flanc de Pun en r autre. 
A nicety of French blazon. 

DicAPiT^ — Having the head removed. 

D^FAILLANT — Is said when a cross or other charge is deficient in 
some portion. The blazon must indicate the position 
of the deficiency ; thus a cross deprived of its right arm 
would be said to be d^faillant h dextre^ etc. 

D^FENDU — Tusked ; is said of an elephant, or wild boar. 

DEFENSES — Are the tusks of a wild boar or elephant (a porcu- 
pine in a ball is styled en defence). 

DteouTTANT {De sang) — Distilling drops of blood. 

Dejoint — Is said of an Ordinary severed in the middle and dis- 

D 6m ANCH 6— Without a handle. 

D^MEMBR^ — Without members ; said of birds. 

Demi-ramure — Is a single horn of a stag {cf. ramure), 

Demi-vol — A single wing, as vol means both wings. 

DenchI^:— Indented {cf, DenteU), 

Denchure— A filet in chief indented. 

Dent6 — Toothed, same as 

Dentel6 — Indented, but with more and smaller indentations than 
Dench^y q.v, 

D^pouille — The name of the skin of a lion or other animal. 

DisARMi — Disarmed, without claws or talons. 

Devise— A motto. 

Dextre — The right side of the shield, opposite to the beholder*s 
left hand. 

( 726 ) 

Dextrochere — The whole right hand and arm {cf. avani-bras^ 

which distinguish ; and SenestroMre). 
DiADEM]^ — Is said of Imperial eagles whose heads are surrounded 

by annulets, or glories. 
Diapr6 — Diapered {v. p. 114). 
D1FFAM6 — Deprived of its tail. 
DiMiNU^ — Is said of charges, or Ordinaries, borne of a smaller 

size than usual. 
DiViSE {v. Fasce en divise) — {See Plate X., fig. 6). A barrulet 

borne in the chief of the shield. (PoisiEU : de Gueules, 

d deux chevrons d* argent, somin^s dune divise de mitne.) 
Divis^ EN CHEVRON— Parti per chevron. 
Dolce — A kind of fox ; an animal found in Italian coats. 
DOLOIRE — A broad axe (v. p. 449, arms of Renty, and p. 348). 
DONJONN6 — Equivalent to "towered with a single tower" {cf. 

Sommd), Prunier : de Gueules^ h une tour donjonn^e 

Doublets — Gnats drawn in profile. 
Dragon — The French dragon has usually only two legs, and is 

like our British wyvern (7/. Chapter X., p. 292). 
Dragon-monstreux — Is a dragon with a human head, bearded 

with serpents (7/. p. 293). 
Dragonn^ — An epithet applied to animals which are drawn as 

monsters with a dragon's tail. Bretigny : d^Or^ au 

lion dragonni de gueules, arnii^ lampass^, et couronn^ 

Due — Le hibou-duCy a small kind of owl, always drawn affrontij 

found in Low Country crests. 

Ebranch^ — Is said of a trunk of a tree deprived of its branches. 
EcAlLLte— Scaled. Said— (i.) Of a fish.— (2.) Of an Ordinary 

covered with scales like those of a fish, as in the arms 

of the Counts Tattenbach of Bavaria : d* Argent, d une 

bande dcailUe de gules {cf, Papelonn^, which is probably 

the same bearing, and v, p. 72). 
Ecartel^ — (i.) Divided into four approximately equal parts by 

the palar and the fess line. — (2.) Is said of a shield 

divided into four or more quarterings. 
Ecartel^ en ^querre is described at p. 82 {see also Plate V., 

fig. II). 

( 727 ) 

ECARTEL^ EN SAUTOIR— Parti per saltire (Plate V., fig. 12). 

ECARTELURES — Quarterings. 

ECHANCR^ — Is like engraiiedy but has much wider and deeper 
indentations {cf, caneli\ 

EcH^LLES d'escalade — Scaling-ladders — (i.) Of two side pieces, 
each having a hook at the top. (2.) A single pole, 
hooked, and having short traverses, or steps. 

ECHIQUET^ — Chequy ; in Foreign Modern Armory, is of thirty-six 
panes, when the whole field is chequy. 

EciMi — Is said of a chevron whose top is cut straight off (7/. p. 138, 
Plate XIII., fi%. 9). Distinguish from Brisi and 
Rompu (Plate XI 1 1., figs. 10 and 11). 

ECLAxi — Splintered ; is said of spears and lances. 

EcORCHi — Is said of animals whose paws are tinctured gules (cf. 
the lions in arms of Wurtemberg). 

ECOT — Is equivalent of Chicot ^ a piece of the branch of a 

Ecot£ — Is the old style of raguly^ having projections as if boughs 
had been cut off. Lecheraine in Savoy : (TAzur^ d la 
bande dcoUe de gueules, 

ECOT^ Contre — Counter-raguly ; said of a field so divided. 

ECRAN — Is the French name for the fan-shaped crest so frequently- 
found in German Heraldry. Usually it is octagonal, 
but sometimes of fewer sides, having a plane surface 
often charged with the arms of the shield, the edge 
echancr^y and the points ornamented with little balls, or 
tufts of feathers (?'. p. 600, Plate XLVL, fig. i). 

ECREVISSE — Usually drawn in pale, head in chief. 

IiCU, De l' — A term used in blazoning crests and mantlings in 
which the charges of the shield are represented just as 
they are on the shield. 

]£cu EN Banni^re — Said of the square shield used by bannerets, 
and by some families descending from ancient ban- 
nerets {v. anie^ p. 57). 

^cusson en Abime — An escucheon in the centre of the shield ; 
sometimes has arisen from an undue enlargement of the 
bordure. GuleSy an escucheon en abime argent was quite 
probably originally : Argent^ a bordure gules, 

tcussON, Faux — Name for an orle, or an inescucheon having a 
bordure {v, p. 553). 

tcussON SUR LE TOUT — ( V. En surtouty p. 448). 

Effar^ — Is said of a horse (?/. Cabr^, and Forcend). 



( 7*8 ) 

Effarouch^ — A useless term of blazon, used for rampant by some 
authors for cats, unicorns, etc. {v, Furieux), 

Effeuill^ — Deprived of its leaves. 

Elanc6 — Is a term applied to a stag saliant, or springing forward. 

Email — (i.) Colour (plural Emaux). — (2.) Was used for the small 
enamelled cscucheons of their master's arms, worn upon 
the breast by the ancient heralds. 

Emanche — ^A figure formed of two or more pile-like pieces con- 
joined, and issuing from the point or flanks of the shield 
(Plate XVI., fig. 8, and Plate LV., fig. 9). 

Emanch^ — Is said when these piles are of greater length in pro- 
portion to their breadth, reaching nearly across the 
shield (Plate VI 1 1., fig. 2). Parti-emanch^ (V argent et 
de gueules is the coat of Hotman. This may also be 
formed in the other ways — coupi^ tranchi^ or tailli. 

Emanchure — Is the name of one of the small triangular sections 
when the field is chap^. 

Embouch^ — Is said of horns, etc., whose mouthpiece is of a 
different tincture from the rest of the charge. 

Embout6 — Is said of batons, etc., which have a piece at the end 
differing in tincture from the rest. 

Embrass6 — Is the equivalent iox parti per chevron when the lines 
forming it rise not from the base points, but from the 
extremities of a flank. It may, therefore be einbrassi d, 
dextre, or d senestre^ and this particular needs to be 
specified {cf, Plate VI., fig. 12, which is embrassi 

Emmanch^ — The term applied to denote that a charge has a 
handle of a different tincture. 

Emmusel^ — Is said of an animal w^earing a muzzle differing in 
tincture from the rest of the beast. 

Emouss6 — Is said of the point of a spear, or other weapon, blunted 
at the end. 

Empenn^ — Flighted; is said of the feathers of arrows, etc. 

Empi^tant — Is said of a bird of prey holding in its beak and 
talons another creature {cf, Ravissant), 

Empoignant — Holding in a closed fist. 

Empoign^e — Is said of a bunch of arrows, spears, etc., held in the 
fist, and spreading in various directions. 

En Forme — Said of a hare couchant. 

Enchain^— Chained. 

ENCHAUSSi— (K Chauss^y 

( 729 ) 

Enchaussure — The name of one of the angular sections, two of 
which make the partition chauss^ (Plate LV., figs. 2 
and 8). 

Enclave — Is said when, in a coat divided per pale per fess per 
bend, a piece (usually square in form) intrudes into the 
opposite colour. 

Enclos— Enclosed ; is said of a charge within an orle, or tressure. 

Enclume — A mallet. 

ENCOCHi {v. Ajusti) — Said of an arrow and string adjusted to a 
bent bow. 

Endent^— Indented {cf. DenM). 

Enfil^ — En filed ; said of a sword, lance, or other long-shaped 
charge, around which coronets, wreaths, annulets, etc., 
are placed. 

Englant^ — Said of an oak bearing acorns (Plate XXIX., i). 

Engloutissant, or Engoulant — Swallowing whole (Plate 
XXVII., fig. 4). 

Engoul^ — Is said of the arms of a cross, or saltire, or the extremi- 
ties of a bend, etc., which, as in many Spanish blazons, 
enter the mouth of a dragon, or lion, {y, Plate XII., 

fig. 5). 
ENGRfeL^ — Engrailed. 

ENGRfeLURE — A very narrow bordure engrailed. 

Enguich6 — When horns, etc., have the mouthpiece and bell 
environed with rims of metal, etc., this term is used 
{v. Plate XXX 1 1 1., fig. lo). 

Enquerre, a, or A ENQU^RIR — Is Said of certain artfus 
fausses to which a legend is attached. 

Ensanglante — Said of an animal stained with blood. 

Ent6 — A partition line, resembling undy^ or the old form of nebuly 
(but see Pointe infra). 

Entravaill^— Interfaced {cf Entrelacd). Vertamy : d*Asur^ d 
irois fasces d* argent^ et un chevron d*or entravailU (the 
chevron is sometimes argent like the bars). Is also 
said of fish and other animals, fretted or interlaced with 
bars, bends, etc. Gules, two bars wavy azure with two 
barbel addorsed or, entravaillis in the bars, is the coat 
of Riviere de St. Denis des Monts {v. Moule's 
Heraldry of Fish, p. 76). 

Entrelac^S— Interlaced (Plate XIII., fig. 12) said of annulets, 
chevrons, crescents, etc. 

Entretenus — Is said of the bows of keys, etc., interlaced. 

( 730 ) 

£OL£ — Like BoREAS, the conventional symbol of the wind. 
Epanoui — Opened, or expanded ; said of flowers, and especially 

of the Florentine Wly^Jloreng^e, 
Eploy6 — Displayed ; said of the eagle. 
Equerre — ^A mason's or carpenter's square. 
Equerre, Ecartel6 en {v. Plate V., fig. ii, and p. 82). 
Equip6 — Is said of boats, ships, etc., rigged. 
Equipoll^ — Is said of a large form of chequy (Plate VII., fig. 8). 

Chequy of nine pieces azure and argent would be 

blazoned : Cinq points (Pazur iquipolltis d quatre points 

(P argent, the coat of St. Gelais. 
Escarre — Is the name of a small filet, sometimes placed on the 

edge of a franc-quartier, or canton, which is of the 

same tincture as the field, in order to prevent the arms 

becoming armes fausses, 
ESSONIER — A synonym for tressure. 

ESSORANT — Soaring, or taking flight (Plate XXV., fig. 7, v. p. 262). 
EssORi — Is said of the pointed roofs of castles, etc., when differing 

in tincture from the rest of the charge. 
EsTACADE — A palisade. 
ESTOC— ( V. Chicot). 
Etai (Estaye)— a chevronel. 
ETtT^— ( V. Ddcapit^ ). 
Etincelant — Sparkling, or shooting out sparks, like the flints in 

the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece. 
Etoile — (On this charge, v, ante, p. 307). 
EVAS^E, EviD^ — ^Voided. Hulsen bears : Or, a pile reversed in 

bend-sinister, voided gules, 
EviRi — Without the attributes of sex. 

Failli — Is said of a chevron one of whose sides is fractured 
(specify which) ; or of a pale which does not quite 
reach the border of the shield (specify whether in chief 
or in base). It is also said of those partition lines which 
in some German parted coats are only carried a portion 
of their distance {see Plate LV., figs. 10 and 12). 

Falot — A torch, or fire-grate. 

Fanal — A beacon. 

Fasce — A fess. 

Fasce, En — Placed in the direction of a fess. 

( 73^ ) 

Fasc6 — Barry of six pieces usually, if of four or eight specify the 
number (Plate VII., fig. 2). 

FASc6-C0NTRE-FASClfe — Is said of a shield per pale, and barry 

FAUX-tcu — A shield charged with an escucheon whicli has a 
bordure {v. p. 553). 

Fer-de-lance — Sometimes pointed, sometimes blunt {emouss/) or 
a cronel {v. p. 387). 

Fer-de-moulin — ( F. Anille), 

Fermail — A buckle ; its form requires to be specified. 

Feuill6— Leaved. 

Feuill^ de Scie — A term sometimes applied to bars indented on 
the bottom edge only. Coss^, Due et Pair de Brissac, 
bore : de Sable ^ d trots feuilles de scie d^or; otherwise, 
de Sable ^ d trots fasces d^or denchies par le bos. 

FiCHi, FlTCHY — Having a point to fix in the ground. 

FiERT]6 — Is a French term applied to the whale, when its teeth, 
tail, and fins are tinctured gules, 

FiGURlfe — Is said of the sun, crescents, moons, and besants which 
have on them the delineation of a human face. 

FiL — A file, or label. 

FiLET — A narrow band, a diminutive of the bend, or bend-sinister. 

Filet en bordure — ( V. Fililre.) 

Filet en croix — A cross formed of very narrow pieces. 

FlLl^RE — A diminutive of the bordure. 

Flambant— Inflamed. 

Flambant, Contre — Inflamed on both sides. 

Flanchis — The name given to saltorels^ or diminutive saltires 
(Plate XV., fig. 12). 

Flancs — The flanks, or sides, of the shield. 

Flanqu6-en-rond — (Plate XVIII., fig. 6). The French blazon 
of our Flaunches^ e.g,^ d^Azur, d trois fleurs-de-lis d^or 
en pal^ flanque^s en rond d"^ argent (Azure, three fleurs- 
de-lis in pale or, between two flaunches argent), the coat 

Fleur-de-lis6 {flory) — Said of a cross, etc., whose extremities end 
\n fleurs-de-lis {v. p. 117). 

FLEURi:, Contre — Having fleurs-de-lis arranged alternately on 
both sides. 

Fleur]&, Fleuret6, Fleuronni^ {flory) — Terms applied to 
Ordinaries bordered flory. 

Fleuri — Flowered, applied to plants. 

( 732 ) 

Florenc£e — A term applied (i.) To i\\^ fleur-de-lis as borne in the 

arms of Florence (t/. Plate XXX,, fig. 7), and budding 

iorih fleurs-de-lis. — (2.) As applied to a cross, etc., it is 

the equivalent oi fleur-de-lis^, q.v. 
Foi — The name for two arms issuing from the flanks, clenching 

the hands in the centre of the shield {v. p. 205). 
FORCEN^ — Equivalent for Effar^y and CabrS, q,v. 
Forces {forces d tondeur) — Shears with square ends. 
FoUDRE — ^A thunderbolt (masculine gender in blazon). 
FouRCH^ — Said (i.) Of a lion's tail — (2.) Of anything else forked at 

the end, e,g.y the arms of a cross. 
FoURCHET^ — Same as FourM. 
FOURRURE — Fur au naturel {v. p. 73). 
Franc-quartier— The Quarter or Canton, v. p. 165. In 

Foreign Armory it is usually charged. 
Frette — The fret is almost peculiar to English Heraldry (z/. 

p. 181, Plate XIX., fig. II). 
Frett^ Fretty — ( F. TreilliSy etc.) French heralds make fretty of 

six pieces only, three in each direction. 
Fruit£ — Said of trees the colour of whose fruit is to be specified. 
FURIEUX — Synonym for Effarouch^, is said of bulls, etc., rampant 
Fus£e— A fusil (Plate XVIII., fig. 11). 
FUSEL^E, FusiLLY— (Plate VII., fig. 10). 
Fusil — ^A steel for striking fire, as in the Collar of the Order of 

THE Golden Fleece. 
Fut6 — Is said — (i.) Of the trunk of a tree when of a colour different 

from the rest of the charge. It is used also — (2.) of the 

staves of pikes, lances, etc. 

Gai — Is said of a horse without harness or trappings. 

Galere — A lymphad or galley (v. Plate XXXII., figs. 11 and 12). 

Garni — Is said of swords and other arms, equivalent for our 

hilled and pommelled. 
G^RION, TfeTE DE — A head formed of three human faces, cf. 

Arms of Morrison (Plate XX., fig. 5). 
Giko^—Pl gyron {v. Plate XVIII., fig. 4). 
Gironnants — Is said of gyrons curved in the form of a scroll or 

volute (7/. Plate VIII., fig. 4). 
GlRONN^ — Divided regularly into girons (Plate VI.). 
GlRONN]^ EN Croix — Is said when the lines forming it are not 

( 733 ) 

those of regular gyronny, but two issue from each edge 

or border of the shield. 
GiRONNE, Mal — When the girons are fewer in number than 

eight {v, Plate VI., fig. 3). 
GlROUETT^ — Adorned with girouettes^ attribute of castles, etc. 

{v. pp. 358, 359). 
GiSANT — A synonym for CouM. 

Gonfalon, or Gonfanon— A church banner (v. p. 372). 
Gorg6— (K ColleU). 

GOUFFRE — PLgurgeSy or whirlpool {v. Plate XIX., fig. 6 and p. 193). 
GOUSSET — A pairle not opened in chief. 
GOUTTES — Drops, synonym for Larmes ; modem heralds make 

this distinction, the Goutte has a straight tail the 

Larme a wavy one. 
Grappin — Is a grapnel, drawn with four flukes. 
GR^Llfe — ^Adorned with pearls set close, and not raised on points. 
GR&LIER — A hooped or circular hunting-horn of large size, without 

cords or attachments. 
Grelots, Grillets— Hawk's bells (Plate XXV., fig. 8). 
Grenades — Pomegranates, usually drawn slipped with a couple 

of leaves and having a little crown of leaves on the top ; 

when they show the seed they are ouverts. 
Grenades de Guerre — A modern bearing usually drawn inflamed. 
Griffon — The gryphon, or griffin {v. Chapter X., p. 286). 
Grilles — The bars of a helmet 
Grillet— ( V. Grelot). 

Grillet)^ — Having grelots, or bells, attached to it. 
Grim PANT — Equivalent oi rampant as applied to a stag. 
Gringol^ — Applied to a cross, the extremities of the arms of 

which end in heads of serpents {v. Plate XV., fig. 6). 
Grue — The crane is represented with uplifted foot holding a stone 

— its vigilance (7/. p. 263). 
Gueules {Gules) — The heraldic name for the colour red. 
Guidon— A split bannerol (Chapter XXII., p. 655). 
GuiVRE — A large snake engloutissant, or vorant, a child (Plate 

XXVII., fig. 4). 
GUM^NE — The cable of an anchor. 


Habill^ — (i.) Habited.— (2.) Rigged and fitted with sails. 
Hache-Danoise — Has a long curved handle {v, p. 510). 

( 734 ) 

Hachemens — Lambrequins. 

Halisant — ( V. Engloutissant^ and Vorant). 

Hameyde — The name given to three bars coupes arranged in pale. 

Hardi — Said of a cock with uplifted head and right foot. 

Hauss6 — The term applied to Ordinaries, etc., placed higher in 

the shield than their natural position (reverse of 

H6riss6 — Is said of itoiles which have little rays between the 

larger ones. 
H^RiSSONNife — Or the preceding is said of a hedgehog, or of a cat, 

whose quills, or hairs, stand erect. 
Hermin^, Croix d' — Cross formed of four ermine tails, the spots 

in the centre of the shield {cf, AbouU\ 
Hers6— (K Coulisstf). 
Herse-sarasine— A portcullis. 
Hie — A rare charge, a paving rammer. 
Homme-marin— A Triton. 

HONNEUR, Point d'— The honour point of the shield. 
Houssi — Capari soned. 

HUCHET — A hunting horn without bands {v. Cor de Chasse), 
HURE — The head of a wild boar or fish. 


Immortality — The name for the fire out of which the phoenix 

ISOL^ — Said of a mount or hill separated from the ba^e of the 

Issant — {IssuantyCf. Naissant), Sind see Plates XXII., 3, 4, and 

XXIV., fig. 8). 


Janus, T^te de — A man's head with a double face. 
JUMELLES — BarS'gemels (Plates IX., fig. 6, and XL, fig. 1 1). Cae- 
TANI : d' Argent^ d unejumelle oncUe {Pazur^ en bande. 

Lambel — A label (7/. pp. 188 and 414). 

Lambrequins — The mantling of a helm, usually in floriations as 

distinct from the capeline^ or hood. 
Lampass^ — Langued ; applied to the eagle and to quadrupeds ; but 

( 735 ) 

Langu6 — Is said of other creatures, whose tongues require speci- 

Larmes — ( F. Gouites). 

L^GENDE — A motto. 

LiOPARD — A lion passant-gardant. 

LtOPARD, TfeTE DE — Is always affront^e. 

L6opard-Lionn6 — A lion rampant-gardant. 

LEvi — (i.) Said of a bear rampant (upright). — (2.) Of wings with 
their points upwards. 

Levrier — A greyhound, usually collared. 

Levron — A greyhound without a collar. 

Licorne — The unicorn. 

L16 — Tied, or banded. Gondi : (TOr^ cL deux masses d'armes en 
sautoir de sable ^ lUes de gueules. 

LIMA90N — The snail ; always drawn out of its shell and showing 
its horns. 

Lion — Usually drawn rampant; this is understood unless the 
contrary be expressed (Plate XXL, fig. i). 

Lion de S. Marc — The evangelistic symbol {v, p. 219). 

Lion, Ombre de— ( K ante^ p. 223). 

Lion-l6opard6— A lion passant (Plate XXL, fig. 4). 

Lis-de-JARDIN — The lily as distinct from \^^ fleur-de-lis. 

Lis 6r6 — Bordered. 

LiSTEL — The ribbon of a motto. 

Longe — The line by which hawks were held. 

Long 6 — Having a line attached. 

Lorr6— Term used to indicate the colour of the fins offish. 

Losange — A lozenge. 

L0SANG6 — Covered with lozenges. 

L0SANG6 EN bande — Is said of lozenges arranged in bend. 

L0SANG6 EN BARRE — Is the Same in bend-sinister. 

Loup — The wolf, is distinguished from the fox by having its tail in 
the air. 

LOUP-CERVIER — An imaginary animal. 

LUNE — The full moon with a human face. 

LUNELS — A bearing found in Southern Heraldry, consisting of four 
crescents arranged in cross, all the horns being directed 
towards the centre of the shield (7/. p. 579). 

Macle — A mascle. 

Macl6 — Masculy. 

( 736 ) 

Ma^ONN^ — Having the divisions of the stones (or mortar lines) 

indicated in a different tincture. 
Maillet — A mallet of a peculiar shape, having a broad head and 

short handle. Often it is placed bend ways on a chief or 

other Ordinar>', and is then said to be penM, 
Main d'aigle — The whole leg of an eagle, including the tufts of 

the thigh. These have developed into a wing attached 

to the leg, in the arms of Manuel (z/. p. 507). 
Main-benissante — ^A right hand of which the thumb and first two 

fingers are erect, the others bent into the palm. 
Mal-gironne— ( V. Gironni), 

Mal-ORDONn6 — Said of charges placed one and two. 
Mal-taill6 — A term applied to a manche. 
Manche-mal-tailli£e— ( V, ante, p. 376). 
Manipule — An ecclesiastical vestment which appears attached to 

some examples of the dextrochlre. 
Mantel^ — (i.) Mantled. — (2.) A division of the shield, a small 

point in base. 
Marcassins — The young of the wild boar. 
Marin^ — Said of animals converted into monsters by the addition 

of a fish's tail. 
Marmite — A cooking-pot with a handle on each side, and three 

Marqu6 — Spotted, said of dice. 

MARQUETi — Said of the body of a butterfly {cf. Miraili^), 
Martinet — A martlet. 
Masqu6 — Hooded. 

Massacre — The horns or attire of a stag united by the scalp. 
Masses d'Armes — Maces {v. Arms of Gondi, p. 735). 
Masur^ — Said of a castle, etc., in ruins. 
MiDUSE, TiTE de — Head of the Gorgon. 
Melusine — A mermaid in a tub has this name {v. p. 303). 
Membre d'Aigle — The leg of an eagle, claws uppermost. 
Membre de Lion — A lion's leg. 
MEMBRt — The term applied when the legs of a bird are of a 

distinct tincture. 
Menuvair, Miniver — The smaller size of vair {%', p. 69). 
Menuvair^ — Said of a field of menuvair when other tinctures 

than argent and azure are employed. 
Merlette — The martlet, borne without beak or feet {cf. Canette 

and Martinet). 
M^taux — Or and argent. 

( 737 ) 

Meubles — The designation of all charges. 

Mezail — The front, or middle, of a helm. 

Midas, T£:te de — The head of a man with an ass's ears. Herda, 

in Saxony, bears : Gules^ the head of Midas sable. It 

appears also in some of the crests of the Low Countries 

{see Chap. XIX., p. 606). 
Ml-PARTI — Said of dimidiated arms, and of an Ordinary parti 

per pale. Salignon : cPAzur^ au cheifron mi-parti 

(Tor et (Targent {cf. Ml -Tranche). (Plate LV., 

fig. 12). 
MiRAiLL^ — The term used to indicate the markings on the wings 

of butterflies {cf. Marquet^). 
MOLETTE — The wheel of a spur, abroad usually of six rays. It is 

said to be collett^e when it is attached to the iron of the 

Monde — The Orb of Sovereignty, cintr^ et croisd. 
MoNSTRUEUX — Is said of an animal with a human head. 
Montant — Said of a crescent in its proper position {e.g.^ with 

horns upwards), when borne with others which have not 

that position. 
MORAILLES— A twitch {v. Broyes, and Plate XXXII., fig. i). 
Morn£ — Said of a lion disarmed and diffamedj />., without 

claws, tongue, or tail ; also of an eagle without beak 

or claws. 
MoRTAisi — Dovetailed. 

MORTIER — The cap worn by French judges (Plate L., fig. 26). 
MoucHET^— Spotted. 

MOUCHETURES — The tails in ennine^ and ermines, etc. 
MOUTON — A sheep. (Compare Brebis, and note difference ; the 

Mouton has its head erect.) 
MoUTON A PiLOTER — A pile driver. 
MouvANT — Said of animals, or other charges, which seem to 

proceed from the borders of the shield, or the edge of 

an Ordinary (Plate XXI I., fig. 4). 
MuR — A wall (7/. Avant-mur), If crdneU it should be specified. 


Nacelle — A small boat, flat bottomed, is the charge in the arms 
of the Polish herba of LODZIA (7/. ante, p. 370). 

N .\GEANT— Art/a«/. 

Naissant — Is said of the upper part of an animal rising out of the 

( 738 ) 

midst of an Ordinary, etc. (distinguish from Issant^ 
and see ante^ p. 221, and Plate XXII., figs. 3, 4, and 5). 

Naturel, Au — Proper J of the natural colour. 

Navire — A ship ; specify the number of masts {cf, Vaisseau). 

NEBULife— Nebuly (v. Plate VII., fig. 3). 

Nenuphar, Feuilles de — The leaves of an aquatic plant, some- 
times blazoned as hearts, scaraboei {v. ante, p. 321). 

NERVjfe — Nerved, said of the leaves of plants which have the lines 
in a different colour. 

NoMBRiL — ( V. points of the escucheon, ante, p. 59). 

Nou6 — Knotted ; said (i.) Of the tail of a lion. — (2.) Of cords. — (3.) 
Of a fess which has one or more enlargements. 

NoUEUX — Knotted, as applied to branches, staves, trunks of trees, 
etc. {cf, Raguld\ 

NOURRI — Is said oi fleurs-de-lis ^^ au pied coupd^^ />., of which the 
lower piece is removed. 

Nuag6 — A synonym for Nebula, 

NuAes — In early blazon the clouds are usually indicated by nebuly 
lines. In later instances they are drawn less conven- 
tionally. The puffings at the shoulder of the arms 
which appear as charges in some Foreign coats were 
ignorantly turned into clouds, and are at present 
so drawn and blazoned (z/. p. 205, arms of Mecklen- 


Om BELLE — A pavilion, or umbrella, which replaces the standard in 
certain Papal augmentations (cfl p. 508). 

Ombre de Lion— K Lion, 

Ombre du Soleil— V, Soleil, 

OMBRt — Shaded. 

Ondoyant — Is said of a serpent whose body undulates. 

Ondy — Undy or Wavy {v. p. 77). 

Ongli£ — Having talons of a specified tincture. 

Or— Gold. 

Orange— The colour Tenn^, 

ORElLLt — Is said — (i.) of Vannets, which have oreilles, the small 
projections at the hinge of a scallop shell. — (2.) Of ani- 
mals, having their ears of a specified tincture. 

Oreillers — Pillows, or Cushions. 

Orle — A small bordure detached from the edge of the shield. 

( 739 ) 

Orle, En — Said of figures arranged around the escucheon near the 
edge within the space which would be occupied by the 
bordure {cf. Plate XVII., fig. 9). 

Orl^ — Bordured (obsolete). 

Otelles — (K ante^ p. 154). 

OUVERT — Open, is said — (i.) Of a pomegranate showing its seeds. 
[2.) Of a castle gate. — (3.) Of the wings of birds. 

Pairle— A/^l//, ox pairle {v. Plate XVI., fig. 10). 

Pairle, en — In pairle (i.e.y occupying the position taken by a 

Paissant — Feeding {v. Brebis), 

Pal — A pale. 

Pal, En — Said of charges arranged vertically. 

Pal6, Paly — Covered with an equal number of pales, usually six ; 
if not, specify the number (v. Plate VII., fig. i). 

PALi, CONTRE — (K Contrey ante, p. 721). 

Paliss£ — Is a division of the shield by sharpened pallets counter- 
changed. It is also the term used to denote an enclo- 
sure of pales, as in the coat of the town of Derby. 

Palme — A palm branch. 

Palmier — A palm tree. 

Pam^ — Is said of a dolphin with its mouth wide open. 

Pampr^ — Is the term used when it is desired to express the tinc- 
ture of the leaves of a vine shoot, or bunch of grapes. 

Panach6 — Plumed. 

Pan-de-Mur — A piece of wall attached to a tower {cf. Avani-mur), 

Panelles — Is the name given to poplar leaves. 

Pannes — Furs. 

Panneton, or Penneton— The blade, or head, of a key. 

Panthere au NATUREL — Only occurs as a supporter. 

Panthere-h^raldique — In some Styrian coats has the form of 
a Griffon, inflamed at the mouth and ears. The 
original coat of Styria was, however, a Stier, and the 
ignorance of the artists has been the sole cause of the 
conversion of the horns of the harmless ox into flames, 
as of equally ridiculous transmutations in other coats. 

Paon — The Peacock, is said to be rouant when it shows its tail in 
a circular form. 

Papegay — A popinjay, or parrot. 

( 740 ) 

PAPELONNi (Plate VIII., fig. 6) — On this bearing see Chapter 

III., pp. 71-73, and cf. EcailU^ p. 44. 
PARfe— Vested {cf. HabilU). 
Parti — Divided per pale (Plate V., fig. i). 
Passant — Walking with the fore-foot raised (one of the hinder ones' 

is often slightly raised). 
Pass6 (en Croix, en Sautoir) — Is said of lances and other long 

charges arranged in cross, or in saltire. 
Pat6e— Patty {v. ante, p. 153). 
Paten6tre {Croix) — A cross of small beads. 
Pavillion — (i.) The opening of a horn opposite to the mouth- 
piece. — (2.) The tent-like mantling or baldachino which 
is often drawn surmounting the arms of sovereign 
princes {v. p. 615). 
Peautr^ — Indicates the colour of the tails of mermaids and fishes, 

if that requires to be specified. 
Pench6 — Said of Mallets or Helmets, placed bendways. 
Pennon^A small flag, triangular in French Armory ; applied also 

to a large banner (or shield) containing quarterings. 
Perc 6— Pierced, or voided. 
Perch t — Perched, said of birds. 
PiiRi EN BANDE — Is said of a baton placed bendways. 
PiRi EN BARRE — Is said of a baton in bend-sinister (Plate XII., 

fig. 12). 
Perron6, Croix — One whose four arms end in steps. 
PHiON — A pheon, drawn point upward in French coats (7/. p. 350). 
Phcenix— ( V. p. 298). 

PifecES H^RALDIQUES — The Ordinaries in Armory. 
Pi6t6 — (K Pelican, in English Glossary, and p. 264). 
PlGNATES—Small jugs. 
PiGNON — A pyramidal heap of stones, or steps, in the base of 

P1GNONN6 — {Tranch^-cr^nele) is per bend embattled, so that the 

crdneaux take the form of small steps. 
Pile — Kpile, an Ordinary descending from the chief to the base : 

the reverse of the pointe. 
Plaine — A diminutive of the Champagne, and only half its size, 

occupying the base of the shield (7/. p. 311). 
Plein — Said of a field of one tincture when uncharged {v, pp. 66, 67). 
Pli6 — Folded. — (i.) Said of bird's wings close, — (2.) Of Ordinaries, 
or other charges, slightly bent out of a straight line {cf, 
Vout^e, AffcUss^e, Ploy/, etc.). 

(741 ) 

Pli6 en rond — Said of reptiles bent in a circle, the head biting the 

Plomb, a — Is said when the lines of the merlons in an embattled 
bend or sal tire are drawn in pale, and not at right angles 

' to the line of the Ordinary. {V, Plate V., fig. 5.) 

Ploy6— (K Chappy etc., %k Plates V., fig. 5, and XIII., fig. 4). 

Plumet^— (Plate VIII., fig. 7, v, ante, p. 72, Chapter III.). 

Point du chef— -The central point in the chief (j^^ B, Fig. 16). 

Point d'honneur— The point K in Fig. 15. 

PoiNTE — (i.) The point, or lower part of the shield. — (2.) The con- 
verse of the pile (pile reversed) issuing from the base, 
and diminishing towards the chief (^^^ Plate LVI., fig. i ). 
(For a pointe enUe, v. Plate XVI., fig. 9.) 

P0INTS-6QUIPOLLES — (K EquipolUs), 

POMMES-DE-PIN — Have the stalk upwards. 

POMMETT^E— Pommelly or pometty (Plates XIV., fig. 12, and XV. 

fig. 7). 
PORTlLLfe — A term used to specify the colour of the gate of a 

house, etc. 
Posi — (i.) Statant. — (2.) Placed in a certain position. 
POTENCE — A figure shaped like a T. 
Potency — (i.) Charged with potences. — (2.) Said of a cross with 

the arms like potences {^see Plate LVI., fig. 6). 
POURPRE — ^The coXonr purpure. 
Proboscides — The horns in German crests are erroneously termed 

proboscides in French blazon (z/. Chapter XIX., Crests). 

Quartefeuille — A quatre-foil. 

Quartiers — Divisions of the shield containing different coats of 

Queue- fourch^e — Having a forked tail (Plate XXI., fig. q). 
QuiNTEFEUlLLE — A cinque-foil {Jeuille de peruancke), 


Rabat — The turn-back of a collar, or cuflf {cf, Rebrassi). 

Raccourci — Synonym oi Alais^, 

Rais — The rays of estoiles, or escarbuncles. 

Ram£ — Branched, said of a stag's horn. 

Rampant — The distinctive attitude of a lion erect on one foot. 

( 742 ) 

Ranchier — ^A term uncertainly applied to — (i.) Rams (Bouton, 

Nouveau TrcUti de Blason^ p. 349). — (2.) A deer 

(GouRDON DE Genouillac, p. 1^o) {cf. Renckter), 
RANGlfe — Arranged in a certain form, or direction, e,^,y rang^ en 

chefy en croix^ etc. 
Rangier — A reaping hook without a handle. 
Ravissant — Carrying off its prey (v. p. 228, and cf, Empi^tani). 
Rayonnant— Irradiated (Plate X., fig. 8). 
Rebattements — An obsolete term for parted coats. 
Rebrass^ — Said of cuffs, etc., turned back {cf, Rabats and 

Recercel^ — Said of a cross-ancrde with larger circles and more 

convolutions (2/. p. 160). 
Recoup^ — When in a shield divided per fess a piece is again 

divided per fess. ( V, Plate LV., fig. 12.) 
Redorte — A branch of a tree bent into a double saltire circular 

or oval shape (Plate XXIX., fig. 6). 
Refente — The space between the petals of a trefoil, quatrefoil, 

etc. {cf Arms of Bismarck, p. 545). 
Regardant — Said of animals (i.) Looking backwards — (2.) Gazing 

at a star in chief. 
Rempli — Is said of an Ordinary voided, and filled up with another 

tincture, thus Montfort : cP Argent^ d trots rustres de 

settle remplis d^or, 
Renard — A fox drawn like a wolf but with a pendent tail. 
Renchier— A deer (Men^trier, MMode du Blason^ p. 631.) 
Renchier — ( V, Ranchier), 

Rencontre — The head of a lion placed affronts {cf Caboshed), 
Renvers^ — Is said of the chevron, and other charges, borne in a 

reversed position {cf Plate XIII., fig. 5). 
Repotenc^ — Is said of any piece potenc^e^ which has another 

potence at the extremity of the potences {see Plate 

LVI., fig. 6). 
Resarcelj^ — Is said of a cross, or other Ordinary, which is 

coticed ; also of a cross which has a bordure running 

round it at a little distance from the edge. The figures 

are practically identical. 
Retrait — Is said of an Ordinary which only touches one edge of 

the shield, and does not proceed very far towards the 

other. Un chef retrait is one about half its proper 

width (7/. Raccourciy and Alaisi), (Plate LVI., fig. 3.) 
Re-tranCH^— Again divided in bend {cf Recoups), 

( 743 ) 

Retrouss^ — Turned up, or bordered. 

Roc — A cronel of a lance (v. p. 387). 

Roc D'^CHIQUIER— The rook or castle at chess. 

ROMPU — Broken. Said of a chevron of which one or other of the 

pieces has a break in it (Plate XIII., fig. ii\ cf. Bris^ 

which refers to a chevron when the break is at the point, 

(Plate XIII., fig. 10). 
ROUANT — Said of a peacock in its pride. 
RouE DE St. Catherine— a wheel having blades upon its 

RUSTE, RusTRE— A rustre (?/. Arms of Montfort, p. 185). 

Sable — The colour black. 

Saffre — A sea eagle, or osprey. 

S.AILLANT — Said of animals of the chase, horses, etc., in the 

attitude of leaping forward. 
Sangl^ — Is said of an animal girt with a band whose colour is to 

be specified. Glaubitzer : d'AzuVy aupoisson d* argent 

enfasce^ sangli de gueules. 
Sanglier — A wild-boar {cf, Marcassin). 
Sautoir — A saltire. 
Sautoir, En — Is said of charges arranged in the directions taken 

by the Ordinary. 
Sautoir, P.\ss]£s en — Is said of swords, or other charges arranged 

Sem6 — Powdered ; covered with small charges of indefinite 

number, but arranged with regularity according to 

modern usage. On old seals {e.g.^ those of Sweden 

where the field is sem^e of hearts) the small charges 

point irregularly in all directions. 
Sem£ de France — Sem^ oi%t^A^n fleurs-de-lis, 
Senestre — The left hand side of the shield, opposite to the right 

hand of the beholder. 
Senestr^ — Is said of an Ordinar>' or charge, which has one or 

more subordinate charges to the left of it. It is also a 

partition of the shield in which the sinister side of a pale 

touches the sinister edge of the shield {cf, Adextri), 
Senestrochi^re — The whole left arm issuing from the side of 

the escucheon {cf, DextroMre^ and distinguish from 

Avant-braSy pp. 204, 205). 

( 744 ) 

SiNOPLE — The colour green. 

SiRiiNE — A mermaid {v. p. 301). 

Soc DE Char RUE — A plough-share. 

SOLEIL — The sun (with a human face, and irradiated with sixteen 

rays alternately wavy and straight). 
SOLEIL, Ombre de — The sun eclipsed ; tinctured gules^ or sable, 
SOMMi— (i.) Said of a castle towered ; Castillo : (TOr^ d une touf- 

somm^e de trots tourelles de gueules {v, Donjonni), 

— (2.) Said of a charge which supports another (7/. p. 43, 

Arms of PoisiEU). 
Soutenu — Said of an Ordinary or charge which is supported by 

another, as a chief hy a divise^ etc. 
Sphinx — A fabulous animal {v, p. 300). 
Stangue — The stem of an anchor {cf. Trade). 
Supports — Animals used as supporters (distinguish from tenants). 
SuR LE Tout du Tout — Is said often of an escucheon placed en 

surtout upon another which is itself en surtout. 
Surcharge — Is said of a charge which is itself charged. 
SURMONTt — Is said of a charge above which another is placed 

without touching it (distinguish from sommi where the 

pieces touch — a refinement not always observed). 
Surtout, or Sur le Tout— Over all, en surtout. 

Tachet6— Spotted. 

Taf — A synonym for Tau^ q.v. 

Taill6 — Divided per bend-sinister. 

Tar 6 — Describes the position of a helmet, e.g.^ tard de fronts de 
profile^ etc. ; equivalent of Pos^. 

Tau — The Cross of St. Anthony (7/. p. 161). 

Tenants — Human beings, monkeys, or angels, acting as supporters 
(distinguish from supports). When the shield is sup- 
ported both by a tenant and by a support^ both are 
known by the latter name. {See Chapter XXI.) 

Terrasse — A terrace ; diminutive of the champagne {v. p. 311). 

Terrasse-isol^e — The terrace is so named when it is detached 
from the borders of the escucheon. 

Terrass^ — Placed on, or growing out of, a terrasse. 

Tertre — A small mount, usually of three coupeaux in the base of 
the shield (7/. p. 311). 

Tierce — Tierced. A partition of the shield into three equal or 

( 745) 
approximately equal portions, e,g,^ TlERC^ EN pal, 

MANTEL, etc. 

TiERCE-FEUiLLES — Trefoils without the tail or stem. 

Tierces — Barrulets borne in threes, 2J& gemelles are in pairs. 

TiGE— The stem of a plant. 

Tioi — Is said when the stem differs in colour from the rest of a 

Tigre-h6raldique — The conventional tiger {v. p. 208). 
Timbre — The crested helm, with its wreath and lambrequins. 
TiMBR^ — Ornamented with helm, etc. 
Tire — A row of panes, or points, in chequy. 
ToisON — The fleece and head of a sheep, as in the badge of the 

Order of the Golden Fleece. 
TORTIL — A wreath of silk of two or more colours. 
T0RTILL6 — Wreathed with a twisted band ; said of Moor's heads, 

also of the bands of a sling {cf. Wreathed^ English 

Tour — A tower ; distinguish from the castle, which has two or 

more towers connected by a wall, or curtain. 
Tourn6 — Is said of a crescent whose points are turned to the 

dexter side of the escucheon {cf, Contoum^, where 

they are turned to the sinister). 
TouRTEAUX (E. torteaux) — Discs of colour on a field of metal, or 

TOURTEAUX-BESANTS — Discs composed partly of colour, partly of 

metal, and placed as charges on a field of metal or fur 

(7/. BesantS'tourteaux), 
T0URTEL6 — An obsolete term for semd of tourteaux. 
Trabe — The traverse, or beam, of an anchor (v. Stangue), 
Trait — Equivalent for Tire {q,v,), 

TRANCHE— A division of the shield. Parti per bend {cf. TailU). 
Trangles— A synonym for Tierces. 
Tr^CHEUR — The diminutive of an orle. TTie tressure is often 

borne flory, but more frequently is double, and flory- 

counter-flory {v. ante, p. 175). 
Trefle — A trefoil, three leaves and a wavy stem ; distinguish 

from Tierce-feuille {q.v,). 
TREFLi — Ornamented with trefoils (Plate XIV., fig. 11, and see 

also Plate XXIX., fig. 11). 
Treillis — A trellis {v. ante^ p. 97). 
Treillisse— Trelliced. (Rietstap thinks it a fretty of thinner 

( 746 ) 

pieces, and more than six in number; but this is not 
the distinction, which is pointed out on p. 97.) As 
a curiosity I add the arms of Narischkin of Russia : 
Gules^ a/ess of the same trellisedor. 

Triangle — A triangle, sometimes pierced, or voided. 

Triangle — Covered with triangles ; that is, the field is divided by 
horizontal and diagonal lines (both bends and bends- 

Trompes — The horns used as crests. 

TRON^ONNi — Cut, or broken into fragments, but preserving the 
general outline of the charge {cf. Plate XXL, fig. 8). 

Vache — Has its tail along the flank as one of its distinguishing 

Vair — One of the furs. 

Vair-antique — The old form of vair {see Plate IV.). 

Vair-en-pal— ( K Plate IV.). 

Vair-ond6— ( V, Plate IV.). 

Vair6 — Term employed when the vair is of other tinctures than 
the usual argent and azure, 

Vaisse.\u — A ship with three masts (cf, Navire), 

Vannets — Escallops turned to show the inside, and usually with- 
out oreilles (cf, Coquiile), 

Vergette — A pallet ; a diminutive of the pale. 

Vergett6 — Covered with pallets. 

Vers6 — Inverted ; synonym of renvers^, and used of a crescent 
whose horns point to the base of the shield. 

Vertenelle — The hinge of a gate. 

VfeTU — A field chap^-chaussi (v, ante, p. 719, and see Plate VI., 

fig. II). 
VfeTU EN OVALE — Having a bordure which leaves the field of an 

oval shape. 
VfeTU EN RONDE — Having a circular bordure. 
VlDi— Voided. 

Vigilance — ^The stone carried by a stork or crane. 
ViLEN^ — Having the virile parts of a specified tincture. 
Vires — Concentric annulets, usually three in number. 
ViROLi — Is said of the bands of metal encircling a hunting-horn. 
ViVRi — Dancetty, 
VOGUANT — Sailing ; equivalent for Flottant, Castelli : d*Azur, d 

( 747 ) 

un vaisseau voguant sur un mer^ le tout au nature/^ 

accompagni en chefcTune dtoile if or. 
Vol — The two wings of a bird. 
Volant — Flying with expanded wings. 
Vol- BANNERET — The term for the wings of a bird used as a crest, 

when they are represented as cut off square at the upper 

ends (?'. Plate XLIV., ^g. i, and p. 606). 
Volet — A small mantling, or capeline^ attached to a helmet 

(7/. Plate XLIV., figs. 5, 6). 
VotllTE— Arched {v, Plate XL, fig. 7); contrary oi Affaist^. 

( 748 ) 





" De par le Due de Calabre, Lorraine, Bar, Gueldre, etc. . . . 
Nous avons ^t^ dQment averti que plusieurs de nos sujets, tant 
natifs de nos pays que venus d'ailleurs, se sont de tant avanc^s par 
subtilit^, connivence, tolerance de nos Officiers et autres moyens 
illicites, qu'ils ont tich^ d'usurper et s*attribuer les titres et qualit^s 
de Noblesse ; . . . et, qui plus est, les dits anoblis, pour se 
d^guiser, ou faire dgarer la connaissance de leur race et basse 
condition dont ils sont nouvellement descendus, changent et 
alt^rent les surnoms de leurs aieux et famille, des quels ils ont pris 
la source et origine de leur Noblesse, par adjonction k leurs 
sumoms de cette vocale : /«, de^ /?, du^ ou de quelque Seigneurie 
forg^e k leur fantaisie ; en sorte qu'aujourd'hui il est forte difficile, 
voire presque impossible, de reconnoitre ceux qui sont extraits 
d'ancienne famille de Noblesse, ou par Nous et nos prdd^cesseurs 
d^cor^s d'icelle entre tels ; . . . k quoi pour rem^dier et obvier 
k de tels abus, avons inhib^ et ddfendii, inhibons et d^fendons k 
toutes personnes, quelles elles soient, quMls n'aient k se qualifier ni 
de titres, ni de qualitds de Noblesse, ni d'autres plus grands titres 
et qualit^s, si done ils ne sont extraits de Noblesse et quality ou 
prerogative qu'ils s'attribuent, et si d^fendons aux anoblis et issus 
de Nobles qu'ils n'aient k soi par adjonction vocale le^ la^ du^ ou de^ 
et semblables mots qui ne servent que pour obscurcir la famille 
dont ils sont sortis, k changer ou k altdrer en fagon que ce soit leurs 
sumoms, ains se contenir ou arreter k celui de leurs aieux, grand- 
pfere ou p^re, qui aura obtenu de Nous ou de nos Pr^d^cesseurs 
titre de Noblesse, et aux quels par cette concession leur Noblesse 
et quality aura pris source et origine, et sans qu'il leur soit loisible 
ajouter et prendre plus grande quality qu'il ne leur appartient, si 
done ils n*en ont concession et privilege particulier de Nous et de 
nos pr^d^cesseurs, et ce k peine d'amende arbitraire. . . . 
Mandons k notre procureur gen«^ral, et k ses substituts qu'ils y 

( 749 ) 

tiennent tellement le main et fassent rayer, tant des reg^stres des 
causes judiciaires comme ailleurs, ceux qui se sont ing^r^s et 
voudront ing^rer de prendre et usurper les dits qualit^s de Noble 
adjonction de ces vocales : le^ la^ de, ou du, et attribution d'autres 
plus grandes qualit^s qui ne leur appartiennent, dont ils ne seront 



Differences of Arms {v. p. 396). 

" O chefe de linhagem he obrigado a trazer as armas direitas, sem 
differen9a, ou mistura de outras algumas armas. E sendo chefe de 
mais que huma linagem, serd obrigado a trazer as armas direitas 
de todas aquellas linhagens de que sor chefe, e sem mistura, em 
seus quarteis. Os otros Irmaos, e todos os otros da linhagem, as 
had de trazer com differen9a. E assim poderao trazer ate quatro 
Armas, se quizerem, daquelles, de quem descenderem,esquartelados, 
e mais nad. E se quizerem trazer somente as armas da parte de 
suas mays, podelo had fazer. E os bastardos had de trazer as armas 
com sua quebra de bastardia. A differenqa que hao de trazer os 
filhos segundos, Ihe ha de ordenar o Rey de Armas, a quem 
pertence ; costuma assentarse no canto do escudo, e ha de ser 
huma flor, huma estrella, ou hum passaro, ou outra cousa semel* 
hante. £ aqulle espa90, em que se poem a differenga, se chama 
BricaJ^ — {Nobiliarchia Portugueza, p. 223). 


and Crest, drawn up by r6n6. Due d'Anjou, Roi 
DE S1CIL6 ET Jerusalem. 

"Vous tous Princes, Seigneurs, Barons, Cheualiers, et Escuyers, 
qui auez intention de tournoyer, vous estes tenus vous rendre €% 

( 750 ) 

heberges le quatri^me jour deuan le jour du Toumoy, pour faire de 
vos Blasons fenestres, sur payne de non estre receus audit Toumoy. 
Les armes seront celles-cy. Le tymbre doit estre sur vne piece de 
cuir boiiilly, la quelle doit estre bien faultrde d'vn doigt d'espez, ou 
plus, par le dedans : et doit contenir la dite piece de cuir tout le 
sommet du heaulme, et sera couuerte la dite piece du lambrequin 
armoyd des armes de celuy qui le portera, et sur le dit lambrequin 
au plus haut du sommet, sera assis le dit Tymbre, et autour 
d'iceluy aura vn tortil des couleurs que voudra le Toumoyeur. 

" Item, et quand tous les heaulmes seront ainsi mis et ordonnez 
pour les departir, viendront toutes Dames et Damoiselles, et tous 
Seigneurs, Cheualiers, et Escuyers, en les visitant dVn bout k autre, 
la present les Juges, qui meneront trois ou quatre tours les Dames 
pour bien voir et visiter les Tymbres, et y aura vu Heraut ou 
poursuivant, qui dira aux Dames selon Tendroit oil elles seront, le 
nom de ceux k qui sont les Tymbres, afin que s'il y en a qui ait 
des Dames m^dit, et elles touchent son Tymbre, quHl soit le lende- 
main pour recommandd" — (MENfeTRiER, DOrigine des ArmoirieSy 
pp. 79-81O 


THE Discoverer of the Sources of the Nile. 

"Victoria R. — Whereas we, taking into our Royal considera- 
tion the services of the late John Manning Speke, Esquire, 
Captain in our Indian Military Forces, in connection with the 
discovery of the sources of the Nile, and who was, by a deplorable 
accident, suddenly deprived of his life before he had received any 
mark of our Royal favour ; and being desirous of preserving in his 
family the remembrance of these services by the grant of certain 
honourable armorial distinctions to his family arms : — Know ye 
that we, of our princely grace and special favour have given and 
granted, and by these presents do give and grant unto William 
Speke, of Jordans, in the parish of Ashill, in the county of Somer- 
set, Esquire, the father of the said John Hannen Speke, our 
Royal Licence and Authority that he and his descendants may 

( 751 ) 

bear to his and their armorial ensigns the honourable augmentation 
following : that is to say, — On a chief a representation of flowing^ 
water superinscribed with the word Nile ; and for a crest of 
honourable augmentation a crocodile ; also the Supporters follow- 
ing : that is to say — on the dexter side a Crocodile, and on the 
sinister side a Hippopotamus, provided that the same be first duly 
exemplified according to the Law of Arms, and recorded in our 
College of Arms, etc. 

"Given at our Court of St. James's, the 26th day of July 1867, 
in the thirty-first year of our Reign. 

" By Her Majesty's Command, 

"Gathorne Hardy." 

The arms to be augmented were : Barry of eight azure and 
argent y <yifer all an eagle displayed with two heads gules (Plate 
XXV., fig. 2). The crest, a porcupine. It is worthy of notice that 
per incuriain^ the grant is to all the descendants of V^i\AAPi.yi Speke. 



" Nous, Haman, Comte de Deux-Ponts et Sire de Bitche, k tous 
ceux qui ces pr^sentes lira ou entendront lire savoir faisons : que 
le vol coup^ d*argent et de sable que nous portons en cimier nous a 
€i€ octroy^ et conc^d^ en fief pour notre vie durante par notre cher 
oncle le Comte Jean de Sarrebruck. En t^moignage de quoi, nous, 
sus dit Haman, Comte de Deux Ponts, Sire de Bitche, avons 
appendu notre seel aux pr^sentes qui ont ^te donn^es le premier 
mardi qui suit le jour de Quasimodo de Pan, depuis la naissance 
de Dieu, mil trois cent soixante et cinq" (/.^., April 22, 1365) — 
Le H^raut d^Armes^ p. 208. 

{ 752 ) 



It is only possible to give here, in fulfilment of the promise made 
at p. 67, a few of the multitudinous instances in which the law 
requiring colour on metal and metal on colour is disregarded. 
The following are from Siebmacher's IVappenducA .—Grunberg : 
Gu/es, a fess vert (i., 57) — VoN Breitenbuch : Azure^ two chev- 
rons gules (i., 94) — Von Waldau : Azure^ three crescents^ those in 
chief ciddorsed^ the third reversed gules (i., 54)— VON GORLITZ : 
Per pale argent and or, two hatchets addorsed in pale counter- 
changed i^,^ 156) — Grasse : Azure^ ten stars guleSy i, 2, 3, 4 (iv., 69) 
— Grefen : Argent^ a saltire couped or (i., 153) — VoN Fridung : 
Argent^ a pallet between two wings affrontds paleways or (iii,, 105) 
— Berger : Azure^ two bars sdble^ over all a chevron counter- 
compone argent and gules (iii., 149) — HiLTPRANDT : Bendy 
{sinister) sable and azure^ over all a lion rampant or (ii., 50). 

The others are from various sources : — Bubenhauser : Per fess 
gules and azure^ a fleur-de-lis counter-changed — The Counts Leon- 
berg : Gules, a bend azure — Ulf : Azure, a fess gules — DORO : 
Argent, a lion or — DOTTENSTEIN : Azure, an eagle displayed gules. 
The very earliest coat of the Montmorencys was : Or, a cross 
argent — Adelsbach bore : Per fess gules and azure, a lion counter- 
changed — Henema : Or, a boar rampant argent — Krogedantz : 
Purpure, two reindeer horns gules — Merkman : Argent, three 
fleurs-de-lis or — Caboga : Azure, a bend gules — Camplionch : 
Gules, a pale azure — Egilsberg : Sable, on a cross gules a sun or 
BORDOLO : Gules, a cross vert — CiMANi : Azure, three bends gules 
— Albachsen : Gules, on a bend azure three crescents or — Sand- 
berg : Or, a chevron argent between three trefoils vert. 

Here are a couple of dozen instances, taken at random from the 
Armory of Germany, Denmark, Italy, and Spain, and out of a very 
considerable number which I have recorded. It is quite possible 
that one or other might be suspected of being erroneously blazoned, 
but this will not get rid of the multitude that remain . I therefore 
humbly think I have proved my case, and that future compilers of 
books on Heraldry should "gang warily" if they are to avoid the 
imputation of ignorance when they talk of the arms of Jerusalem, 
etc., as " the only instance " of the violation of rule. 

{ 753 ) 



Acorn (slipped) — Arundel. 

Anchor (or) — Lord High Admirau 

Annulet — Clifford ; Neville. 

Barnacles, or Breys — St. Leger. 

Bear, and Ragged Staff— Earl of Leicester ; the bear sadie, the 

staff argent^ Earl of Warwick ; the Earl of Kent the 

reverse (v. pp. 584, 585). 
Bear's Head (muzzled) — Lord Morley. 
Boar («/Ai/^)— Lord WINDSOR ; Courteney, Earl of Devon ; 

blue^ Vere, Earl of Oxford. 
Bouget («7v^r)— BOURCHIER ; Roos ; Trusbutt. 
Buck— Lord Montacute. 
Bucket— Lord Welles. 
Buckle— Pelham (v. p. 377) ; Willoughby. 
Bull {blacky homed or) — Clarence ; dun, Neville. 
Bull's Head (/j/^<?«/)— Wharton ; gules^ Ogle ; sable^ gorged 

with golden crown, Hastings. 
Cinquefoil — Astley. 
Crampet — Delawarr. 
Dragon {red) — Cumberland ; blacky Clifford, Burgh ; green^ 

Eagle— Cambridge ; with child in nest. Stanley. 
Eagle's Claw— Stanley {v, p. 558). 
Elephant— Beaumont ; Sandys. 
Escallop— Scales ; Dacre {v. p. 585). 
Faggot— Courteney. 
Falcon— St. John ; La Zouche. 
Fetterlock— Suffolk. 
Fire Beacon— COM PTON. 
Fish-hook — Neville. 
Galley (j«^/^)— Neville. 
Greyhound— Mauleverer ; Clinton ; Rich. 
Griffin — Lord Wentworth ; head only, Fiennes, Lord Dacre. 
Hedge-hog— Sydney. 
Helmet— Cholmondeley. 
Horns (j//wr)— Cheney. 


Horse {white) — Fitzalan. 

Horse-collar — St. John. 

Horse-shoe — Ferrers. 

Lion {gold) — Suffolk ; white^ Howard ; crowned and gardant, 

Lion's Head (erased) — Brandon. 
Maiden's Head — Buckingham. 
Maunch — Hastings. 
Mennaid — Berkeley. 

M ill-sail — Wl LLOUGH BY. 

Mulberry (leaf and fruit)— Mowbray. 
Ostrich — DlGBY. 
Pelican — Cromwell. 


Pepper-sheaf— PEVERtLL {v, p. 342). 

Raven — Cumberland. 

Rudder— WiLLOUGHBY de Broke 

Saracen's Head — Cobham. 

Ship — Neville. 

Ship's Buoy — Neville. 

Sickle — Hungerford {see Peverell, v, p. 585). 

Spear-head — Pembroke. 

Staples — Neville ; Stapleton. 

Star — Sussex ; Fitzw alter ; Vere. 

Stump of Tree— Woodstock ; Bedford. 


Talbot — Shrewsbury ; Montacute. 

Unicom — Windsor. 

Wheat-sheaf— Burleigh ; Cecil ; Exeter. 

Wings (of bat) — Daubeny. 

Wolf («r^<r/i/)— Mortimer. 


^ To all them wch shall see or heare this present lettre, Thomas 
Grendall of Fenton, cousin and heyre to John Beaumeys, sometime 
of Sawtre, greeting. As the armes of the ancestors of the said 

( 755 ) 

John, since the day of his death, by lawe and right of inheritance, 
are escheted unto me as to the next heyre of his linage, know yee 
that I, the aforesaid Thomas, have given and granted by these 
presents the whole armes aforesaid, with theyr appurtenances, unto 
Sir William Moigne, Knight, which armes are Argent, a cross 
azure, five garbes or, to have and to hould the said armes, with 
theyr appurtenances, to the said Sr William and his heyres and 
assignes for ever. In witnesse whereof, I have to these present 
letters set my seale. Given at Sawtre the 22 day of Novembr. in 
the 1 5 yeare of King Richard the Second." — ( Visitation of Hunting- 
don^ p. 16.) 

Another curious armorial transaction, as late as 1777, is recorded 
in Stodart, Scottish Arms^ ii., 306 ; in which Neil Grant (who 
claimed to be representative " of the family of Grant of Auchemack, 
chieftain or head of the Clan Allan ") professed to divest himself of 
his " coat of arms and ensign armorill," and transfer them to his 
" near and beloved cousine. Doctor Gregory Grant, physician in 


A lacui99e^ 701. 

AA, VANDBR, arm*, 94 ; 148, 427. 

AACHEX, anas, 283. 

AAVAILLE, anH4, 185. 

AbaUai, 119 ; 709. 

ABARCA, amu, 892. 

ABARIA, anas, 89. 

Jbaseil, 076. 

AbateiiienlM, 670. 

ABBATI, arnm, 121. 

ABBENBROEKS, arm», 392. 


ABEL, ann*, 190. 

„ ,, aacribed to, 23. 

ABERBROTHOGK, Monasteiy of, 657. 
ABBRBURY, antt«, 124; PI. XL, fig. 4, 

_p. 124. 
ABBRCORN, Family, label, 420. 
,, Stronghold of, 516. 

ABERCROMBY of Birkenbog, 433. 

,, of Fettemear, brUure, 

ABERDEEN, City of, arm*, 179 ; PI. 
XXXIL, fig. 5, p. 301 ; 
*«al of, 179. 
,, Earl of, ann*, 180. 

ABERGAVENNY, Earl of, ro«e, 446. 
ABERNETHY, arm*, 106, 183, 519, 522, 

566 ; Pi. IX., fig. 6, p. 108. 
ABERNONS, d', arm*, 136. 
ABIC I, arm*, 894. 
ABILLON, arm*, 186. 
Abime, 709. 

ABINGDON, Earl of, arm*, 352. 
ABLEIGES, ComtM d*, arnu, 239. 
Abouti, 705, 709. 

ABOYNE, CHARLES, Earl of, ai-niA, 
Earl of, arm*, PI. XVIL, 

flg. 12, p. 172. 
ABRT, Duca d', arm*, 118. 
ABSPERO, arm*, 89 ; PL VL, fig. 10, p. 84. 
AeeoU, 686, €76, 680, 710. 
Aeeonvpagnf, 109, 681, 710. 
ACCORAMBONI, arm*, 289. 
Accomi, 710. 
Aeeo*U, 109, 676, 710. 
Aceo9ted, 676. 
Aecroupi, 708, 710. 
AecuU, 701, 710. 
AGH AIA, JAMES, Titniar Princo of, 579. 

„ LOUIS, Prince of, 679. 
PH I LI P, Prince of, 579. 

., Princes of, bi-mn-t of, 429. 

AGUAIUS, fictitious King of the Dal- 

riaiiic SCOTS, 176, 336. 
ACHARD, gupporter*, 643. 




arm*, 848. 
ACHTOW, Abbot of, 371. 
ACON, JOAN of, 457. 
Aeom (slippedX as a badge, 753. 
Aeorn*, 340. 

ACQUAVIVA, arm*, 214. 
ACRE Roll, 481, 554. 
ACTIUM, Battle of, 277. 
ACTON, EDWARD DB, arm*, 407. 
ADALBERT, ai-m*, 178. 
ADAM, arifi*, 195. 

„ „ ascribed to, 28. 

,, as A charge, 195. 
ADAMOLI, arm*, 195. 
Adder nowed, PL XXVIL, fig. 1, p. 288. 
ADDERBURY, arm*, 124. 
Adder*, 273. 
Addor*ed, 220, 676. 
Addo**i*, 220. 
ADELSBACH, oniu, 752. 
Adtxtrh, 711. 

ADLERSTJERNA, ar^nM, 309. 
Admiral, Castile, mark of oflloe, 645. 
French, mark of office, 645. 
Holland, mark of ofllce, 645. 
Lord High, badge, 753. 
of the Indies, mark of office, 645. 
ADOLF, Emperor, augmxAiatitni, granted 
by, 536. 

„ of NASSAU, eouM <^, 246. 
Aao**t, 270, 676, 711. 
ADRIANI, arm*, 235. 
AdTocates' Library, Heraldic MSS. in, 

ABLST, VAN, arm*, 841. 
AIolu*, Head of, 201. 

iESCHACH, arou, PI, XLV., flg. 4, p. 539. 
iESCHYLUS, Description of devices on 

shields, 29. 
AJTai***, 125, 682, 687, 711, 740. 
AFFAITATI, arms, 289. 
AJTenartig, 198. 
AFFENSTEIN, anti*, 240. 
AFFLECK, aryn*, 127. 
,, son of JOAO I., King of 

Affront^, 603, 604, 676, 680, 688, 098, 701, 

AfTute, 706, 711. 

AGINCOURT, BatUe of, 598, 659. 
Agite, 711. 

Afjneav. p<'jtcal, 692, 697, 711. 
AGNELLI, Marqnis, arms, 235. 
Affnu* Dei, 692, 697. 
AQOULT, Marquises d", arnu, 228. 
AG RAIN, EUSTACHB d', Prince of 

Sidon and Ciuiiarea, arm*, 118. 

( 757 ) 

Apricultural impUmtnt* as ctiarguM, 893. 
AGUIAR, Dnkoe of, anu«, 507. 
AGULON, arm*, 458. 

„ JOANNE d*. 458. 

„ ROBERT, finiM, S31. 

AHEIM, aruit, fttf0. 
AHLEFELD, 9upiM>rtera, 231. 
AigU, 711. 

„ Main tV, 712. 
AigUtiu, 712. 
Aigliaux, 712. 
Aigloruff 712. 
Aigniire, 712. 
ili^t^u^. 128, 699, 712. 
Aiffui*f€, CivM, fig. (K), p. 104. 
AIKEN HEAD, arnu, 840. 
^i/#, 676. 
-<4i«, 70S, 712. 
AUettes, 676. 

AILSA, Maninises of, anm, 163. 
-(4ir*, 712. 

AIRLY, EaH of, anna, 216. 
AitU or ^t7«, 676. 
-<4jott>-^, 158, 699, 712. 
AiouU, 712. 
AM^tf, 712, 729. 
^toiV, 712, 742. 
A LAM AM, amis, 05. 
.^tanf, 676. 
ALARGON. nnnM, 506. 

ALARIC, 658. 
ALBACH8EN, an»««, 752. 
ALBANIA, arnu, 508. 
ALBANY, ALEXANDER, Duke of, aniu, 
Duke of, 516. 

„ arnu, 645. 
Dnkes of, ^rreatk, 614. 
HENRY. Duke of, 476. 
liiiABELLA, Ducheim of, «m/, 

PI. XXXVII., fig. 7, p. 447. 
JEAN, Due d', ur,M, Pi. 

XXXVL, p. 445. 
JOHN. Duke of, ISO. 
LEOPOLD, Duke of, label, 
423 ; Fig, 88, p. 421. 
,, Regent, 515. 

„ ROBERT, Duke of, 17S, 520 ; 

bi-isurf, 445 ; Inhtl, 419. 
A LB ASTER, aruui, 349. 
ALBEMARLE, Earl of, arms, 273; Garter 

Plate, 486. 
ALBBRGHI, anas, 73. 
ALBERICI, anM, 73. 
ALBERT, Archduke, 246; Ordonnnncfs 
of, 551, 637. 
Count PALATINE of the 
RHINE, seal of, 251. 
„ Eni})ei'<>i', ariiLs, 247. 

PIERRE I)', 10. 
ALBERTAS. Marquig d', arms, 22-1. 
ALBERTI, aruu, 355. 

,, Marquiaes, supporters, 643. 

ALBRET, arms, 66, 461. 

ARNAUD D'. supporter, 635. 
CHARLES D', augment at ion, 

„ supporters, 684. 
ALBUQUERQUE, arms, 440, 578. 

BELTRAN, First Duke 
of, 440. 
Alcyon, 718. 





• » 

ALDAM, aruis, 130, 146. 
ALDENBUR6, VON. aniis, 86. 
ALl^GRE, Marquis de TOURZBL, arm*, 

ALENCON, anus, 449. 

,, CHARLES, Count of, sup- 

porters, 632. 
„ Comte d', arnu, 140. 

,, Dukes of, arms, 439. 

„ JEAN IV., Comte d', sup- 

porter, 681. 
AUrimt, 258, 676, 718. 
Alesf, 712. 

ALESSANDRI, Counts, arms, 236. 
ALESSO. Marquis d'ERAQU Y. aruu, 279. 

IL, King of SCOTLAND, 

92 ; seal of, 177. 
1 1 L, King of SCOTLAND, 
209; crest, 600; PL 
XLlX.,fig.8, p.607; 
seal of, 177. 
III., Vo\», 40, 66. 
IV., Pope, anus, 256. 
VIL, Pope, anus, 319. 
arms, 21. 

arms, PI. IX., fig. 11, 
p. 108. 
„ Earl of STIRLING, anm, 

,, JOHNof Kinglaasi«,anMJ, 

„ Lord of the ISLES, stal 

of, 367. 
ALEXANDROWICZ, Counts, arvu, 851. 
ALEXIUS I., Biogniphy of the Oi«ek 

Emperor by his daughter, 26. 
AJezt, 712. 
ALF, arms, 850. 

ALFONSO XL, King of SPAIN, 576. 
ALICE. Princess, Grand Duchess of 

HESSE, label, 428 ; Fig. 86, p. 421. 
ALIGHIERI, DANTE, arms, 126. 
ALINGTON, Lords, arms, 18C. 
ALKEVEDERS, aruu, 240. 
ALKMAAR, VAN, arms, 140. 
ALLAIRE, arms, 280. 
ALLAN, Chief of Clan, 755. 
ALLEMAN, AYMAR, arms, 52. 

EUDES, Seignenr dea 

CHAMPS, anus, 51. 
GUI, anus, 62. 
ODO, ania, 52. 
of Arbent, arnu, 52. 
of Uriage, amis, 52. 
of VHulK>nnoi8, arms, 52. 
SIBOUD, BUhop of GRE- 
NOBLE, arms, 52. 
ALLEMAN DS, aniu, 870. 
ALLEN, ar^iu, 124, 294. 

,, J. ROM ILLY, Oirisiian Sym- 
bolism in Great Britain and Ireland, 
Allerion, 258, 676. 
ALLEYN, anil*, 156. 
Alligator, The, 277. 
ALLOIS, arMM, 181. 
Atlnme, 693, 686, 718, 714. 
ALM, VON DBR, aruu, 121. 
ALMOND, arms, 145. 
A LOST, Seigneur d', anus, 118. 
Alphaljet, Letters of the, as charges, 894. 





( 7S8 ) 

ALPHONSO of Caatile, Mai of, 244. 
ALSACE, aniu, 545. 

„ PHILIPPE, d'.Conitede FLAN- 

DERS, «a/, 86, 48 ; hHitut^ 599. 
ALSTON, bordure^ hm. 
ALTAMIRA, Counts of, a^tnjt, 507. 
ALTDORF, ConnU von, ft)-ww, 218. 
ALTEXBURO, Burg-gravate of, a)iiu, 

ALTHANX, Barons, anm, 394. 
ALTORF, a)iM*, 069; PI. LV., fig. 10, 

p. 669. 
ALTROCK, an)M and augiaMntaii(n\j 543. 
ALT8TBTEN, arww, 93. 
ALVA, Duke of, 99. 

„ ,, a)'iit«, 100. 

„ „ tupporterSi 643. 

ALZON, anuM, 97. 
Amaranth or Columbine colour, 61. 
AMBESACE, arms, 387. 
AMBLISB, Princes d', arms, 113. 
AHBOISE, armt, 91. 
AHBOIX, amis, 317. 
AMELIA, Princess, laf>el, 423. 
AMELOT, 12. 
AMERICA, Disoorery of. 648. 


Kupporter^ and motto, 640. 

artiU, 124. 
Anulhjf»t, 65, 676. 

AMICI,' arms, 87 ; PI. VI., fig. 5, p. 84. 
A3fIRAT0, amu, 93. 
AMORI, D', ai-ms. 93, 457. 

„ ELIZABETH D', »enl, 457. 
„ ROGER D', aruis, 457. 
Amphipttre, The, 294, 713. 
Amphislfine, 713. 
Amphisboma, 676, 718. 
Amphisltre, 713. 
AMPURIAS, arms, 93. 
AMSTERDAM, City of, ana», 146, 2S3. 
„ Nieuwe and Ouile Kerk 

in, 626. 
AMUNDEVILLE, arnu, 122. 
AmMfemeiU, InstrumeHts of, as charges, 

Anatiait 841. 
ANAUT, arms, 818. 
ANCASTER, Duke of, ai-ms, 852. 
ANCE, Comte d', et de 3IAQUSAC, 

supposed arms of, 46. 

arms, 298. 
ANCH16, 682, 713. 

Anchor as a badge, 753 ; as n charge, 370. 
Anchored or Ancred, 676. 
Anchors as supporters, 643. 
Ancolie, 713. 
ANCftAM, arms, 871. 
.,<ncr^ 676, 713. 
Ancred, 676. 
..4Mcr/^, Cross, 158. 

ANDELOT, Marquesses d', arms, 257. 
ANDERSEN, arnu, 120. 
ANDERSON, arms, 233. 

„ Dr JOSEPH, Scotland in 

Bnrlv 0tristian Times, 657. 
ANDERTON, arms, 854. 
ANDLAU, Barons, aniu, 141. 

ANDR^, D', Seigneurs de MONTFORT, 

ANDREE, Dncd', arnu, 806. 

ANDUSE, Seigneur d', 12. 
ANFREVILLB, see GU\OT, 844. 
Angel suppoi-ter, 681, 632, 638, 635, 686. 

,, DeiMi, as supporters, 635. 
Angemme, 718. 
Angenne, 676, 718. 

ANGERS, Cloister of ST. AUBIN at, 
„ DU PLESSI8, anus, 71. 
Angevin rtistrello, 470. 
Angli, 676, 718. 
Angled, 676. 

ANGLERIA, Lordship, 274. 
and ESTOGES. ar^ns, 113. 
,, LesSaladi>isd',\\^. 

ANG0UL£ME, arms, 531. 

,, Duo d', arms, 570. 

,. Dukes of, laJbel, 425. 

HENRI, Chevalier d', 
arms, 570. 
ANQRIA, Duchy of, amis, 821. 
ANGUILLARA, anus, 120, 272. 
ANGUIVARIA, Lordship, 274. 
ANGUS, ARCHIBALD, Bell the Cat, 5th 
Earl of, arms, 519. 
„ anns, 519, 631. 
„ Countess of, laJtel, 420. 
,, ,, seal, 455, 631. 

,, 2nd Earl of, arms, 518. 
,, „ seal, 519. 

„ 6th Earl of, arms, 516, 518, 519. 
„ Earls of, arms, 179, 322, 455, 518, 

515, 518, 519, 566. 
„ „ crest, 294. 

,, Margaret, Countess of, seal, 459. 
„ of tlie ISLES, seal of, 367. 
,, nUite lion of, 519. 
ANHALT, arms, 67. 

„ Dukes of, arms, 821, 469. 

Anille, 781. 
AnilUe (croix), 718. 
Animate charges, 194, 208, 242. 
Anim^, 686, 714. 

ANJORRANT, Marquises of, anns, 334. 
ANJOU, anns, 483; PI. XXXIX., fig. 6, 
p. 481. 
CHARLES, Conite d*. seals of, 
829, 628. 
„ Comtes d', arms, 261, 657, 658. 
,, ,, badge, 586. 

,, Dues d', arms, 104, 439, 502, 538, 
Dukes' of, lafHl, 416, 470. 
LOUIS, Due d', arms on Eagle, 

NAPLES, anm, 258. 
PHILIP, Due d', and King of 
SPAIN, o)-»u, 487. 
, , REN£, Due d'. Tourney Regula- 
tions, 749. 
„ ,, of, seal, 498. 

„ ««i<of MARIE D', 57. 

GENBT, Count d', 48. 
ANNANDALB, arms, 144, 878, 446, 515. 
a^-ms, 144. 


( 759 ) 

ANNE, Qneen of Englnnd, artmi, PI. LIT., 

fig. 8, p. 663 ; luoUo of, 4*21, 664 ; ««/'• 

porter t on MtU, 663. 
AnwUt, 67 a, 714. 
ANNESLEY, antu, 91. 
AnniHe, 713. 
ANNS, arwtji, 806. 
AnnuUt, 676, PI. XIX., fig. S, p. 192. 

,, as a badge, 7o3. 

„ for fifth son, 444. 

Sttnufl, PI. XIX., fig. 9, p. 193. 
2IAI)A, Of 
ANREP, anuM, 891. 




ANREP-ELMPT, Gonnto, ann*, 392. 
ANSBLME, P^re, 669. 
ANSTIS, Agpilogia, 628. 

,, quoted by BELTZ, .•>90. 
ANSTRUTHER, ariH», 147, 149; PL XVI., 

fig. 2, p. 146. 
ANTELMI, amu, 849. 
AnUlopet The, 236, 676; PI. XXIV., 
fig. 5, p. 236. 
,, aa a 6a</9f , 588, 594. 

ANTIOCH, Princiiiahty of, amis, 141. 
Antiquarian Society, Roll qf Aitum qr\ 

Antviiiarie* of Seotlawl, Proceeding* of 

Society of, 619. 
AntiquarieHy Society qf, London, 63. 
Anti^ltu, f'l r, 713. 

Antifivaritk Tid$ln-iftf6>' Sterige, 52, 487. 
ANTOING, arm*, 213. 
ANTONELLI, anut, 197. 
AnU, 284. 

ANTWERP, arui*, 283, 361. 
ANVERS, D', 17. 
ANVIN.avHM, 186. 
ANWICKE, ann*, 152. 
A08TA, Duchy ol, ann*, 214. 
APCHIER, Marquises d', amu, SCO. 
Ape, The, 240. 
APELVOI8IN, ariM, 366. 
APFALTRER, Barons, «>•»«, 317. 
Apollo, Winged }ior*e of, 298. 
i^ppareZ, Wearin*/, as charges, 392. 
>4ppa}'nt^, 204, 676, 714. 
APPELBOOM, anus, 317. 
Appendix A, 748. 

B, 749. 

C, 749. 

D, 760. 
B, 761. 

F, 762. 

G, 763. 
„ li, 754. 

APPLEGARTH, orww, 340. 

APPLEGH, amis, 240. 

Apple*, 340. 

APPLETON, a)-)»w, 340, 341. 

Appointe, 705, 714. 

APREECE, ann*, 848. 

Aqiiilon, 714, 717. 

AQUIX, an}is, 14S, 714. 

AQUINO, Duos de CA80LI, anus, 05. 

ARBALE8TES, Vicomtes de MELUN, 

arm*, 349. 
ARBOUVILLB, MarqniH d', arm*, 9.'?. 
ARBROATH, Monastery of, 6.>7. 
ARC, Brothers of JEANNE I)', anux, 

.H31, 710. 
Arc en ciil, 714. 
Archooloi/ip, ("3, 70, 252, 458, 502, 602. 


• I 

• I 

ArcJueologia JEliana, 461, 474, 482, 584^ 
641; PI. XXXIV., fig. 3. 

,, Cuntiana, 78. 

Ai'clntoloffieal A**ociation, Journal of the 

Biitiah, 291, 386. 
Arohaaology, Heraldry imiwrtant brancU 

of, 672. 
ARGHAMBAULTS, an}ui, 57. 
Archbishops, ai-w*, 626. 
Arche de Ifoe, 714. 
Arched, 677. 

ARCHEL, L', arm*, 871. 
ARCHER, artn*, 363. 
ARCHERS, ariH*, 350. 
Arche*, 363. 

ARCHIAG, Marquis d*. arm*, 2lU). 
Archiire*, 714. 

ARCO, Counts d*, ann*, 349, 511. 
ARCOS. Duke of, arm*, 506. 
Arct^, 714. 

ARCY D*, ar)»M, 174. 
Ardent, 092, 714. 

ARDILAUN, Lord, tupporter*, 647. 
ARENBERG, Duchy of, arm*, 492. 

„ MARGARET, sister and 

heiress of the last Count- 
of, 492. 
„ Princes of, arm*, 492. 

ARENSBERG, County of, anti*, 256. 
ARE8EN, arm*, 229. 
ARFBTTI, oriM*, 19S. 
ARGELO, D', anjM, 318. 
ARGEN80LA, ornw, 341. 
Argent or Silver, 60, 65, 677, 714 ; PI. III., 
fig. 2, p. 60. 
„ nletn, D', 66. 
ARGB^TEUIL, Comte, arm*, 184. 
ARGENTINE. D', aw#ui, 881. 
ARGOTE DE lAOl^l^sKNobUzadelAndii- 

Inzia, 353. 
Argu*, Head of, 201. 
,, THe d\ 714. 

„ arm*, 83, 84, 368, 447, 644. 

„ House of, 520. 

ARGYLLSHIRE names, 400. 
ARIANO, Comte d', ^rrtaih, 614. 

,, ,, ar^n*, 213. 

ARIQONIO, on»«, 813, 864; PL XXXII.^ 

fig. 8, p. 868. 
Arithuictieal figure* as charges, 394. 
ARKEL, arm*, 99, 124, 127; Pi. XI.^ 

fig. 9, p. 124. 
ARKBNHOLME, Battle of, 516. 
ARLOTT, arm*, 225. 
Ar%n, Htiman, 204. 
Arma inf/uirentla, 108, 729. 
ARMAGH, arm* of See, 375. 
ARMAGNAC, Connto of, arm*, 213. 

*eal of JEAN, Comte d\. 


ARMATLLti, Marquises d', ann*, 434. 
ARMANE8, Marquises of BLACOX^ 

arm*, 93. 
Ai-me, 677, 691, 706, 714. 
Amied, 211, 227, 257, 677. 
ARMELLINI, arm*, 140. 
ARMENIA, arm*, 666. 
ArtM*fa%u»cs, Leg, 752. 

parlantea, 661, 670, 670. 

-pleine*, 65, 66, 714. 

povr eu'iuhnr, 103, 729. 
Armi dei Municipj Totcani, Le, 350. 


( 76o ) 





Armorial &«annp«, Object for adoption 

of, 45. 
on coin*, 44. 
on monnments, 48. 
on ahieldB, 45. 
, , playing upon nftmes of 
wearen, 671. 
combats, 88. 

de Berry, 109, 898, 894, 404, 411. 
de Otlrc, or de Geldre, 34, 55, 165, 
109, 228, 254, 881, 838, 857, 
802, 878, 893, 410, 411, 427, 
429, 572, 598, 611, 614, 615; 
Pi. XLIV., p. 587. 
„ Intignia, Origin of, 19. 
Annoriata, Ignorance of old, 02. 
A rmory, Souroet of information rcigarding, 

Armour, Norman, 68. 
A rtiu>y^,6l 1, 615, 684, 650, 658, 654, 677, 725. 
Arm»t Pi. XX., flg. 10, p. 198. 

„ and Crest, Tourney regulations for 

the exposure of, 749. 
„ Earliest period to which use of can 

be traced, 32. 
„ Gifts and assignations of, 85. 
,. Kings of, coUur, 598. 
,, qf expectation, 47«. 
„ of Kings of Arms, 525, 526. 
„ Official, 525. 
„ on a banner, 641. 
„ Pictorial, 812. 

„ Portuguese regulations as to the 
bearing of differences of arms, 
„ Rolls o/,'357, 600. 
,, Transference of right in, 754. 
ARMSTRONG, anns, 206. 
de MAG US AC, supposed armt of, 46. 
ARNEEL, ar?i(«, 272. 
ARNIM, Counts, arm$, 126. 
quises de BUSSY d'AMBOlSE, amu, 
ARNSTADT, anm, 489. 
ARNSTEIN, Counts von, antiM, 98. 
ARPAIOU, arm$, 722. 
ARPAJON, Dncd', arnu, 3S4. 
ARQUINVILLIER8, atnoi, 72. 
ArraefU, 677, 686, 715. 
ARRAGON, amu, 122, 15G, 471, 488, 495, 
501, 502, 505, 500, 547, 577, 
633; PI. X.,flg. 9, p. 118. 
CATHARINE of, 530. 
CHARLOTTE of, 258, 505. 
of CALABRIA, aniu, 502. 
, , K ATH A RI NE of, badffe, 596. 
ARRAGON-ttlCILY, arnu, 577. 
ARRAN, anus, 308, 568, 570. 

,, Earl of, amis, 108, 567, 56S, 569. 
ARRAS, ariHS, 872. 

,. Bee of, ai*iH«, 240. 
ARREAU, aintis, 850. 
Arrtt dt lance, 707, 715. 
ArrtU, 704, 715. 
Arriirt Main, 715. 
ARRIPE, D', arms, 837. 
Arrondi,ertl, IQrl, 715. 
AiTOW, PI. XXXI., flg. 6, p. 846. 

„ Broail, 350. 
Arrovn, 849. 







Arroas in btijulUs, 850. 

„ Shea/ of, as a badge, 596. 
ARBGHOT, ARNOLD, Count of, armi 
„ GEOFFREY D', erest, 600. 
„ Marquises d', arnis, 127, 449. 


„ VAN, arms, 837. 

ARTHUR, King, aniM 0)i 21. 

„ Prince of WALES, 420. 

Artiihokts, 344. 
Artillery, Grand Master, French, mark of 

office, 645. 
ARTOIS, amis, 458, 468, 681. 
,, BLANCHE D', 416. 

JEANNE, Countess of, 457. 
label, 424, 404. 
ROBERT, Comte d', 468. 

„ „ amis and 

{abel, 416. 
„ D', PL IL, fig. 5, p. 44. 
ARUNDEL, amis, 260. 
badpe, 758. 

BEATRICE, Countess of, 
setii, 475. 
„ Earl of, 577. 

,, anus, 567. 
EDMUND DE, shield, 684. 
JOHN, Earl of, arms, 482. 

RICHARD, Earl of, 557. 
„ Sir WILLIAM, lanUnrequin, 

ASBACH, amis, 186. 
ASCHAU, amis, 61. 
ASGILL, crest, 295. 
Ash colour or Cemlrie, 61. 
ASHLEY, erest, 295. 
ASHMOLE, quoted, 418. 
ASH WEED, anns, 240. 
ASLOWSKI, amis, 93. 
A spas, 702. 

ASPENELL, amis, 276. 
ASPERG, arms, 378. 
ASPERMONT, County of, aruis, 493. 
„ Lordship of, arms, 447. 

Aspersed, 677. 
ASPINALL, amis, 320. 

,, Lordship of, arms, 141. 

Ass, The, 287. 
Afsis, 677, 703, 715. 
Aster, The, 380. 
ASTI, Dukes of, arms, 214. 
,, Lord, arms, 322. 
ASTON, ar^ns, 81 ; PI. V., flg. 8, p. 80. 
ASTRAKAN, arms, 005. 
Attronomical charges, 305. 
AT AIDES, arnu, 95. 
ATH, h', 17. 

ATHLONE, Earls of, arms, 127. 
ATHOLE, orwi*, 521; Pi. VII., flg. 1, 
p. 90. 
Dukes of. anas, 207. 
Earl of, 517. 

,, badge, 598. 
,, seal and ar^is, 520. 
Earldom of, arms, 90. 
Earls of, aruis, 368, 446. 


( 76i ) 

ATHOLE, REGINALD, Earl of, mp- 

porters. 689. 

D', bruurej 452. 
Attired, 232, 677. 
Attires, 282, 677. 
ATTLBY, bculge, 758. 
ATTON, arms, 158. 
Aunaturel, 700, 732. 
Aupied coupi, 788. 
AUBER, arms, 178. 
AUBERD arnu, 67. 
AUBIGNjg, GUILLAUME D', arms, 418. 

RAOULD', ariiu, 418. 
AUBIGNY, arnu, 124, 521, 559. 
,, DucheM of, 559. 

„ Sired', 515. 

AUBRAIS, DES, anm, 871. 
etc., arms, 159. 
„ Due de la ROANNAIS, 

arms, 159. 
AUGHENLECK, arnu, 127, 142, 519. 
AUCHMUTY, antu, 347. 
AUDELB, Sir JAMES, arnu, 417. 
AUDBLEY, arnu, 9e. 

„ Lord, grants arnu, 35. 

,, Lords, anus, 136. 

AUERSPERG, Princes of, ai-nu, 284, 

AUFFRECK, arnu, 207. 
Augmentation, Chief, used a« an, 119. 
,, Difference btf an, 44S. 

Aug^netitations, 528, 655. 

„ Imperial, 535. 

AUGUSTA, PrincesB, label, 422 ; Fig. 86, 

p. 421. 
AUGUSTINS,w*»ii, 137. 
AUNOY, GUILLAUME D", ar^,u, 118. 
AURBERG, arnu, 88 ; PI. VIIL, fig. 8, 

p. 100. 

AUSCHWITZ, Dnchy, aruu, 504. 
AUSSONNE, Marquises d', arnu, 816. 
AUSTIN, ai-Jiw, 152. 

Austna ex archiris Mellicensibxu illxutraia, 

472 {see UUEBEll fur other references 

to this book). 

AUSTRIA, achierenients of Empress 


,, ALBERT, Archduke of, seal, 

„ Duke of, seal, 456. 
„ of, 246. 
ANCIENT, arms, 497, 500. 
Arch-ducal crown, 500, 623. 
ar%M, 247, 258, 454, 456, 471, 
478, 499, 508, 509, 587, 
540, 577, 664, 665. 
cr«t, 607. 

crest as augmentation, 608. 
eroicn of Emi)erorB of, 621. 
Don .10 UN of, arms, 577 ; PI. 

XLVIIL, fig. 8, p. 677. 
Duke FREDERICK of, 500. 
Dukes of, arms, 456. 
EmiMrors of, artfu, 258. 
*^ Havuwapen," arm*, 128, 472, 

Imperial aniu, 471. 
Imperial seals, 471. 
LEONORA of, seal, 475. 












FREDERICK, Dukes of, 614. 

„ LEOPOLD, Duke of, banner, 


MARGARET of, Duchess of 

BURGUNDY, seal, 478. 
MAXIMILIAN of, 484. 
-MODERN, arms, 258. 
Old Imperial crowns of, 622. 
Original arms of Emperors of, 

OTTAKAR, Duke of, seal and 

banner. 651. 
ICK, Dakes of, erest-coronrt, 
RUDOLF IV., Archduke of» 

two sets of supporters, 634. 
seal of LEOPOLD of, 243. 
supporters qfarms, 288, 684. 
The "]6cu Coroplet" of, Fig. 
91, p. 497. 
„ UPPER, arnu, 499. 

AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, arnu, 497, 6(i4 ; 

PI. LIIL, fig. 1 . 
p. 665. 
„ ,, suppm'ters of, 665. 

AUTENRIED, Barons yon, wrmis, 94. 
AUTROCHE, anM, 277. 
AUVERGNE, anM, 466. 

„ Comtes d', arms, 360, 373. 

„ Dauphin, d', 269. 

Due de BO U ILLO N , arm», 
„ ROBERT v.. Count of, 873. 

AUX, Marquis d', arnu, 388. 
Arantbras, 682, 715, 726. 
Avant-mur, 715, 787. 
AVAUGOUR, D', ax-xus, 118. 
AVAZZI, arm*, 280. 
AVBLAND, Lord, artM, 192. 
Avd.lane, 677. 

,, Cross, 162. 
AVB8NES, D', seal of ALICE, wife of 
fig. 6, p. 447. 
„ JEAN D', Count of HAIN- 

AULT, 468. 
,, „ crat, 600. 

AVILLIERS, D', ani«, 170. 
AVOGLl, Counts, arnu, 231. 
AVOIR, PIERRE, supporters, 688. 
AVONDALE, Earldom of, arms, 51S. 


Earls of, 516. 
AroxU, 625. 

bHsure, 451. 
Axe, 848. 
„ BtUtU, 848. 
„ Lochaber, 348. 
AYDIE, Marquises de RIBERAG, nntu, 

AYLESFORD, Baris of, aniu, 289. 
Aylets, 677. 

AYLMER, Lords, arms, 265. 
AYSCOUGH, ai-ms, 237. 
AYTOUN of Keppo, Sir JOHN, brisuir^ 


( 762 ) 

AZINGOURT, Battle of, 449. 
Azur, 677, 715. 

„ pWn, d\ 66. 
Azure or Blue, 60, 62, 65, 677 ; PI. III., 
fig. 4, p. 60. 

„ Bbield, pliiin, 66. 

BAAD, arnu, 370. 
BABBNBURGBR, aritu, 500. 
BABINGTON, anus, 108 ; PI. IX., fig. 9, 
p. 108. 
„ of Rothley, label, 415. 

BaehelerU, 652. 

Baekgammon-boardi aa obarges, 387. 
BACON, oruM, 227. 
BACQUBRB. arnu, 22S. 
BACQUEVILLB, DB, arm», 393. 
Badelaire, C86, 715. 

BADBN, amu, 129, 491, 666 ; PI. XXXIX., 
fig. 5, p. 481. 
„ Grand Dukea of, arms, 212, 221. 
„ „ Great Shield of, 49 1 . 

,, Margravate of, artns, 490. 
Badenoch, Wolf of, 566. 
BADENWEILEH, Loidship of, ariHB, 491 ; 

PI. XLVr., fig. 2, p. 545. 
BADGER, arnu, 239. 

„ The, 239. 
Badge*, 583, 753. 
BADLESMBRB, arm», 128. 
BAEZA, Capture of, 143. 
BAGGB, anna, 687. 
BAGOT, anus, 139. 
„ family, 399. 

,, Dnkes of BUCKINGHAM, 890. 
BA6RATI0N, Princes, arms, 8S4. 
BAIBEL, arms, 302. 
BAIGNEAU, ariiis, 176. 
BAIGNI, arnis, 82. 
BAILLETS, DE», amis, 133. 
BAILLEUL, anns, 78. 
BAILLIB of I^mingtoD, arms, 308. 
BaUUmvi, 677, 715. 
BAILLY quoted, 660. 
BAIRD, arms, PI. XXIII., fig. 1, p. 228. 

,, of Auchniedden, anus, 227. 
BAISNE, arms, 364. 
BAKER, arms, 268. 
BALA SICILIANA, Marqniaes de la, 

arm*, 506. 
BALBI, arms, 230. 
„ Family, 16. 

„ -PORTO, anHS, 125; PI. XL, 
fig. 7, p. 124. 
BALGKBNSTADT, Counts von, a,-ms, 94. 
BALFOUR, arwa, 238. 

„ Bir JAMES. 441. 

BALINCOURT, Marquis de, arms, 220. 
BALIOL, amis, PL XVIL, fig. 8, p. 172. 
Balista as a charge, 365. 
BALISTB, arms, 849. 
BALLENSTEDT, Counts von, arms, 94. 
,, ,, seal, 628. 

arms, 460, 553. 
EUSTACE DE, anux, 407. 
HUGH DB, anns, 427. 
INGRAM DE, arnu, 407. 
JOHN, 460. 

,, arms, 407. 
„ King of SCOTLAND, 
nniw, 174. 
WILLIAM DB, aii»«, 407. 





BalU. 677. 

BALMANNO, arms, 142. 
BALNBO, arnu, 82. 
BALY8, DE, arms, 427. 
BALZAC, Marquis d'ENTRAGUES, anus, 
,, BANASTRE, antis, 153. 
BANBURY, Earl of, arnu, 160. 
BAND, Sir WALTER, arms, 260. 
Bandf, 94, 677, 678, 715. 
Bande, 129, 678, 715. 
Baiidi-contre-baHdi, 715. 
Bande, En, 715. 
Banded, 350, 677. 
BANDEIRA, anus, 8.'>2. 
BANDINELLI, arms, 66. 
BANDINI, arms, 192. 
BAN DON, Earl of, o»-mu, 273. 
BANBSTER, antis, 140, 157. 
BANESTRB, arms, 157. 
BANGOR, Viscounts, aniu, 157. 
Bannatyne Cltd> Miscellany, 233. 
Banner, 651. 

armoyh, 653, 654. 
Church as a charge, 872. 
from Bayeux Taiiestry, PI 
XXXIV., fig. 2. 
Bannei-ei (vot), 715. 
Banneret's &an?ier, 651. 

,, stafidard. Length of, 654. 

BANNBRMAN, ania, 351. 
Bannerol, 651. 
Banners, 649. 

OS supporter's, 643. 

Military, 851. 

National, of English Army nt 

of the Bayeux Tapestry, 650. 
used in the Snglishr'Anuv, 656. 
Marquis de PUYGIRON, armit, 
Banniii-e, 715. 

,, Bn, 715. 
BANTRY, Earl of, arms, 644. 
Bar, 677, 715. 

.,, and Canton, joineil, 167. 
,, -sinistei; a misnomer, 126. 
,, The, 125, 270. 
„ Varieties of, 127. 
,, 'icise, 678. 

BAR and MONTBELIARD, seal of 
THIERRY IL, Count of, 47. 
„ ornu, 270, 800, 449, 496 ; PL XX VL, 

fig. 9, p. 266. 
„ Countess of, seal, 629. 
„ ,, supporters, 635. 

„ HENRY IV., Comte de, 464. 
BARA, Le Gra-kul Slason d'Antioirio, 2. 
BARBANCOIS, Marquis de, artu*, 22'>. 
BARBANCON, arms, 223, 492. 
BARBANI, anns, 203. 
BARBARANI, Counts, 213. 
BARBAZAN, Restaurateur du R-yauu,e 

et de la 0)uronnede France, 539. 
Barbi, 708, 715. 
Barbed, 325, 849, 677. 
Barbel, The, PL XXVL,fig. 9, p. 206; 270. 
BARBBNCON, aniu. 411. 

„ FKANgOISB DB, ariJi', 

BARBENTANB, Marquises de, ai-uu, 



( 763 ) 

BARBEBINI, (umi* nnd augituntcUion, 

BARBIER, LE, Marquisea da EERJAN, 

arou, 120. 
BARBONIANI, aniur, 203. 
BARBOTTE, amu, 67. 
BARBOUR, rA« ThUtle and the Roh, 506. 
BARBU, LB, aniu, 146. 
BARBY, CountB of, 270. 
BARCELONA, Counts of, arnix^ 122, 484. 
BARCLAY, aniu, 154, 407, 408. 

,. of Touob, tttiiu, 172; PI. 

XVIL, llg. 6, p. 172. 
BanU, 679. 715. 
BARDOLF, ar^M, S22. 

,, JOHN, Lord, amu, 467. 
BARENSTEIN, a.iiu, 229. 
BARESTIJN8, amu. 138. 
BAREY, t€ BARR]^. 
BARGE DB VILLE, DE LA, axmu, 66. 
BAROENY, Lord, ai-iiu, 568. 
BARIN, artttj, 280. 

BARING, Earl of Northbrook, arvu, 230. 
BARI80NI, ariiM, 72. 
BARKELE, M0RI8 DE, arvu, 408. 

ColUctimi; Sm. 
Barley, Ear» of, 341. 
BARLOT, aruu, 57, 155. 
BamacUs, 357, 677 ; PI. XXX I L, fig. 1, 
p. 358. 
„ turn btulgf, 753. 

BARNAKE, amis, 357. 
BARNARD, amu, 229. 

anut, 170, 171. 
Baron ChrHicit, Prtniitr, 11. 
BARONCELLI, amu, 93. 
Baronets, htbn of, (302. 
Baron's 6an7iei', 051. 
,, cormiet, 625. 
„ ctantiait^, length of, 654. 
BAROZZI, amu, 123. 
BARR, amu, 839. 

„ WILLIAM DE, 210. 
Ba»Te, 133, 715. 
Barri, 716. 
BARRR, an>u, 134. 

BARRlS DE B.AREY, I^rons, arm*, 95. 
BARRINGTON, VIbcuudu, tupportas, 

Bari'oqvLt, En^ 716. 

£ornt/<«, 126, 128, 677. 
BarrtUy, 677. 

Barry, 92, 677 ; PI. VII., fig. 2, p. 90. 
„ -bendy, 100, 677. 
,, 'neburly, 93 ; PI. VII., fig. 3, p. 90. 
„ -pily, 101, 677; PI. VIIL, flg. 2, 

p. 100. 
,, vary, 93. 
BARRY, DE, amu, 231. 
BARRYMORE, Earln of, amu, 93. 
BARRYS, Earls of BARRYMORE, amu, 

Bars, PI. XL, flg. 8, p. 124. 
„ counlei'-anbattlcd, PL XL, fig. 9, 

p. 124. 
,, -geiiuU (jfOHells), 128, 677, 6S7 ; PI. 

XL, fig. 11, p. 124. 
„ iravy, PI. XI., fig. 10, p. 124. 
BART, DE, aruu, 94. 



BARTON, arvu, 227. 
BAB, arms, 294. 
BASGLE, LE, amw, 184. 
ifcue, 678. 
„ Dexter 1 59. 
„ Middle, 69. 
„ Sinister, 59. 
BA8F0RD, amu, 801. 
BASIL L, BYZANTINE Emperor, crown, 

Basilie, 716. 
Baailieus, 294. 
^(uUuit, 298, 678. 
BASING, arms, 160, 169. 
BASEERVILLE, arnu, 192. 
BASSET, amu, 93, 128. 
BASSETT, anii«, 93, 147, 412. 

RALPH, Lord, uivu, 426. 
RAUFF, anns, 426. 
„ SIMON, amu, 426. 
BASSEWITZ, Counts von, arrns, 227. 
BASSING BOURNE, amu, PL VI., flg. 2, 

p. 8i. 
BA8SINQFORD, o)1im, 191. 
BASSOMPIERRE, Marquis de, arms, 

BASTARD iupporUrs, 643. 
BasiilU, 685, 716. 
BatailU, 374, 716. 
BATH, Earl of, a)7>u, 886. 

,, Marquess of, amu, 94. 
Bdtou, 136, 678, 716. 
„ d^Bseulape, 716. 
„ Jteur-de-tisf, 716. 
,, p<ri tfii 6arre, 660. 
Baton, sinister, 660; PL XII., fig. 12, 

J). 180. 
BATTENBERG, (tniu, 526. 

„ Princes of, amu, 526. 

„ Princess BEATRICE, 

Princess HENRY of, label, 423. 
BatUring ram^ 362; PL XXXL, flg. 8, 

p. 346. 
Battle-axe, PL XXXL, flg. 3, p. 346. 
Baitleiuents, 678. 
BATTUTI, amu, 874. 
BAUDRAC. amu, 296. 
BAULANDE, amu, 181. 
BAUME, LA, amu, 434. 

„ Counts do ST. AMOUR, amu, 
BAUMEISTER, aupmentotion, 646. 
BAUSSAY, Canton of, 452. 
BAUTERSEM, amu, 676. 
BAUX, M-ms, 99, 460. 

„ BEATRICE DE, seal, 460. 
„ Duo d'ANDREE, amu, 308. 
BAVARIA, amu, 57, 67, 100, 251, 456, 
462, 468, 472, 477, 625, 576, 
680,611, 666; PL VIL, flg. 
11, p. 90. 
„ ALBERT of. Count of 

etc., 57. 
,, erest and amu, 607. 

„ FERDINAND of, 526. 

„ JACQUELINE of, Countess 

of HOLLAND, seal, 463, 
„ LOUIS, Duke of, seal, 466. 

( 764) 





BAVARIA, MARGARBT of, Conn ten of 

««a<, 68, 462, 
484. . 
,, Meal and 

Harks of illagitiniacy In, 579. 
aeal of Dake WILLIAM of, 
„ WILLIAM, Dnke of, arm* 

on «agle, dSO. 
,, „ of, Conite d' 

OSTREVANT, neat, tupporUVt and 
compartment, 642. 
BAVARIAN, coiju of the Emiieror 

LOUIS THE, 251. 
Bajreux Tapwtry, 29, 58. 54, 291, W7, 649. 
, , banner from PI. XXXI V. , 

Ug. 2. 
„ Description of, 80. • 
„ „ jitnnons from, Figs. 101- 

104, p. 649. 
BAYNARD, arm*, 137. 
BAY8SE, arms, 68. 
BAZAN, tunportert, 648. 
BAZENTIN, arm*, 881. 
BAZIN, aniu, 169. 
Beacon, 678. 
Beacon*, 352. 
BEACONSFIELD, VirooiinteaB, arm*, 

Beaked, 678. 

„ as applied to birds, 257. 
Bean cod*, 848. 
Bean*, 848. 

Bear, 229; PL XXIIL, fig. 4, p. 228. 
„ and ragged staff as a badge, 584, 753. 
„ as a eupporter, 640. 
„ Polar, 229. 
Beard, The, 208. 
BEARN, attu*, 418. 

,, Counts of, arm*, 122, 234. 
„ *eaU of Ck>nnt0 of, 5t>. 
BEARN, Viscount of, *eal* to contract of 
marriage of OUILLELMINE, dtr. of 
Bear'* head as a badge, 753. 
Bean' head*, 229; PI. XXIIL, fig. 5, 

p. 228. 
Beaet*, 308. 
B<ati pacijlci, 664. 
BtiATON, arm*, 185. 

„ Cardinal, 185. 

BEATRICE, daughter of JOAO I., King 
of PORTUGAL, 577. 
„ Princess, Princess HENRY 

of BATTENBERG, Utbtt, 428; Fig. 
89, p. 421. 
BEAUCHAMP, amu, 123, 408, 410 ; PI. 
XL, flg. 1, p. 124; PL 
XV., flg. 4, p. 144. 
Earls of WARWICK, amm, 

„ ,, batlge, 585. 

of Bletsho, 439. 
of Powick, arm*, 408. 
„ RICHARD, Eari of WAR- 

Plate, 486. 

ALBANS, ar^M, 559. 
BEAUFFREMONT, DE, arm*, 71, 485. 
„ Dacs U«, aniu, 70. 











de CHARNY, arm*, 485. 
BEAUFORT, anm, 488, 656. 
badge, 595. 
bordwe, 448. 
Cardinal, 557. 

„ arm*, 555. 
Duke of, arm*, 556; 9\ip- 

pf<rter*, 226. 
Greyhound ot, 662. 
HENRY, 8rd Duke of 

JOAN, *e<U, 475. 
JOHN DE, arm*, 555. 

Marquis of BO- 
MERSET, amu, 
„ Dnkeof SOMERSET, 
Cfarier Plate of, 594. 
line, bailge, 588. 
Queen JOAN, seal, 476. 
THOMAS, Dnke of EXE- 
TER, artM, 555. 
BEAUGENCY, RAOUL DE, teal of. 47. 
BEAUUARNAIS, Marqniaes de, arm*, 


ami*, 57, 186. 
BEAUMEYS, JOHN, arm* transferred, 

„ ,, of San tray, arm*, 

BEAUMONT, ALAIN DE, supporter*, 
arm*, 91, 127, 139, 145, 215, 
407, 453; PL XIIL, 
fig. 11, p. 186. 
bad lie, 753. 

JOHN, Lord, mantling, 
„ ROBERT DE, Earl of 

LEICESTER, arm*, 322. 
of, 48. 
SUR 018E, *^ai of 
MATHIEU III., Count of, 4S. 
BEAUREPAIRE, arm*, 136. 

bnsure, 452. 

brisure, 452. 
BEAUVAU. DE, arm*, 219. 

„ Seigneur de, 

anns, 51. 
*ef DAUBENY, 438. . 
Bearer, The, 239. 
BEC, arm*, 159, 160, 808. 
„ CRfiPIN, DU, anu*, 100. 
„ DU, Marquises de Vardes, arm* and 
*upporter*, 303. 
B&CHB, DE LA. 17. 
BECKET. THOMAS A, Archbishop of 

CANTERBURY, aruu, 264. 
Becaui, 257, 678, 716. 
BEDFORD, 6a</<7«, 754. 

Blaton of Epitcopaey, 487. 
Duke of, antu, 107. 






( 765 ) 

B^DOYERE, DE LA, ariiu, 187. 

BEE, ai-m*, 281. 

BEEBEE, anM, 281. 

BeekireM, 284. 

BEBRVELT, VAN, oni«, 127. 

Bee$, 281. 

„ Golden, 281. 
BBE8T0N, anm, 281. 
Batroot, The, 343. 
B^roi, 716. 

„ (voir), 69. 
BEHR, anus, 220. 

BBILSTEIN, Lordship of, aviM, 492. 
BBJARANO, arnw, 270. 
BEKE, arm*, 159, 160. 
BELASYSE, an»*, Fl. X., fig. 11, p. 118. 

arm*, 123. 
BELCHER, arru*, 70. 
BELE»ME, antu, 139. 

„ PHILIPPE DE, arm*, 140. 

BBLFILE, a}-vu, 189. 
BELFORTE, Dukes of, arms and au^- 

m«)ita/ion, 541. 
BELGIUM, aruui, 6ti6. 

coronet of Mai^quisas in, 624. 
wotto of, C66. 
Use of cannon in, 427. 
,, ,, iupporter* in, 639. 

BHUy-militaire, 716. 
BEL IN, ai-iM, 236. 
BELL, arms, 374. 
BELLAFII.LA, an>M, 128. 
BELLARM I NE on origin of doable-headed 

eagle, 249. 
BELLCH AMBER, ami*, PI. XXV., fig. 8, 

p. 260. 
Belled, 235, 67S. 

„ applied to Falcon, 261. 
BELLEGARUB, antu, 716. 
BELLEGARSE, Comtes de, anti*, 37 L 
BELLENDEN, quoted, 233. 
BELLE RO, ami*, 277. 
BELLEVILLE, DE, an)i*, 85. 
BELLE VO IBS, arm*, 202. 
BELLEW, anm, 96. 
BBLLINCIONI, arm*, 173. 

LEICESTER, arm*, 322. 
Bell* as charges, 373. 
BELLUOMI, arm*, 213. 
BELLY, arm*, 191. 
BELOT, arnui, 716, 723. 
BELPER, liord, *upporter*, 647. 
BELS, arnu, 374. 
BELSCHES, an/w, 70. 
BELSUNCE, Marquises de, arm*, 296. 
BELTZ, Mtmorial* of the Order of Uu 

Oarter, 324, 418, 590, 606. 
Bend, 78, 678; Fig. 39, p. 116; 129; PI. 
XII., fig. 1, p. ISO. 
,, Charye* on a. Pi. XIL, fig. 3, p. 
130; PI. XIL, fig. 4, p. 130. 
eotisal, PI. XIL, fig. 10, p. 130. 
emJbattUd a plomb. Per, Pi. V., fig. 
5, p. 80. 
„ etnlKiltled, Per, PI. V., fig. 4, p. 80. 
entfoulee, 131 ; PI. XIL, fig. 6, p. 

en-mine, PI. XIL, fig. 2, p. 130. 




„ • Parted per, 80 ; Fig. 31, p. 77, 
„ *mi*ter, PI. XIL, fig. 11, p. ISO. 

Bend-*ini*Ur-fiUMe, Per, PI. V., fig. 7, 
p. 80. 
,, „ Parted per, SO ; Fig. 32, p. 

„ „ Pa-, PI. V. fig. 6, p. 80. 

,, „ The, Fig. 40, p. 116, 133. 

„ Varieties of, 130. 
BENDBR8, arm*, 302. 
BetuUet, *ini*ter, 560. 

„ The, 181, 135, 678. 
BendUU enhanced, PI. XIL, fig. 8, p. 180. 

,, toavy, PI. XIL, fig. 7, p. 180. 
Bendvag*, 108 ; Bk XIL, fig. 9, p. ISO. 
Bendwi*e, 678. 
Bendy, 94, 678. 

,, pei- pale counter-changed, 96. 
„ wavy, PL VII., fig. 4, p. 90. 
BENE, DEL, arm*, 832. 

arm*, 577. 
BENEWITZ, arm*, 176. 
! BENIGNI, anil*, 133. 

BENNERAYE, DE LA. arm*, 240. 
' 222. 

BENNS, arm*, 238. 

BENOIT, OJMM, 204, 371. 

BENSON, crest, 610. 

BENSTEDT, arm*, iJ2. 

BENTHEM, aruui, 148. 

BENTINCK, Dukes of PORTLAND, an»», 

BENTOUX, arms, 183. 
BENVOGLIO, an»w, 541. 
BENZON I, an/w, 72. 
Biipdlle de St. Anthoine, 716. 
BERANGER, arms, 86. 


BERBERICH, annas, 302. 
BBRBISSY, arms and *apporter, 302. 
BERENGUER, anti*, 188. 
BERESFORD, arm*, 229. 
arms, 95. 
BERGEN OP ZOOM, arm*, 382. 
BERGENSTRAHLE, Barons von, antu, 

BERGER, arms, 752. 
BERGUES, JEAN DE, Seigneur da 

WALAIN, arm*, 576. 
BERINGTON, arm*, 66. 
BERKELEY, ar^n*, 136, 407. 
„ badpe, 754. 

,, Earls of, arms, 154. 

„ *eal of M AU RICE DE, 407 ; 

banner, Fig. 105, p. 651. 
„ *eal of ROBERT DE, 407. 

„ seal of THOMAS DB, 407. 

Sir MAURICE DE, labd of, 
„ Sir THOMAS DE, arms, 

,, supporter* and badge, SOS. 

„ THOMAS, son of MAUR- 

ICE, DE, amu, 408. 
BERLAER, Seigneur de, arms, 405. 

BERLO, Counts of, arms, 126. 
BERM INGHAM, anns, 180. 
BERMUDEZ, anns, 853. 

( 766 ) 



BERN, antu, 134. 

BERNADOTTE, Honae of, arms, 487. 
BERNALEZ, arms, 872. 
BERNARD, amu, 229. 

anns, 156. 
„ Earl of B ANDON, wiiu, 278. 

BERNBACU, armt, 271. 
BERNE, Canton of, amu and twpporters, 

BERNERS, aniu, 81. 

Dame JULIANA, Boke qfSt. 

Albaiu, 19, 86, 151, 406. 
Lord, arms, 417. 
,, luantlinff, 613. 
BERNSTEIN, arms, 288. 
BERRI, Dukes of, an)u, 439. 

„ JEAN, Due de, seal, FI. XXXV., 
fig. 2, p. 415 ; supporters, 631, 
„ seal of, 57. 
BERRY, BiietfeUtpitaiia Heraldica, 151. 
„ Aoi d'^nfM-A, Aiiiioriais of, 113, 

161, 402. 
BBRSTETl', Barons, arms, 213. 
BBRTAUT, 6AULTIER, Seignear de 

MECHLIN, arms, 405. 

BERTIE, arms, PI. XXXI., fig. 8, p. 846. 
„ Earl of Abingdon, etc., arms, 
BERTRAM, ROGER, arms, 552. 
BBKTRAND, aruu, 91. 
BERWICK, Castle of, 605. 

„ Duke of, antu, 559. 

Besant, 190, 716. 
Bemnli, 710. 

Btaants-tourteaux, 716, 745. 
Besom, as a charge, 890. 
BESOYEIN, arms, 145. 
BE88B0R0UGH, Earl of, arms, 391. J 

BESSON, arwM, 198. 
BESYNGBURGH, arms, 167. 
BETHUNB, arms, 185. 
B^THUNE, Dues de SULLY, arms, 123. 

porters, 635. 
„ ROBERT DE, Count of 

FLANDERS, 462, 464. 

DE, Count of FLANDERS, 
brisure, 439. 
B^THUNES, Dues de SULLY, lambre- 
quin, 613. 
„ HBSDIGNUEL, Prlnoee 

de, lambrtfjuins, 613. 
BEUCHLINGEN, Counts von, an}is, 93. 
BBUST, arms, 540. 

,, Count, augmentation, 540. 
BEUVILLE, arms, 68. 
BEVERWIJCK, anus, 145. 
BEVILACQUA, Prinoea of, arms, 260. 
BEVILL, arms, PI. XXIV., fig. l,p. 236. 

,, of Gwamack, ama, 234. 
B^ltf, 678. 

BEYER, DE, arms, 374. 
Btsant, 189, 678. 
BexanUe, 678. 

i^ezanto, PI. XIX., fig. 2, p. 192. 
J?«an(y, 678. 
BIANCHETTI, anns, 95. 
BIBER, arms, 239. 

BIBRA, Barons, anns, 289. 
BICCHIERI, antis, 882. 
BICHI, ar»u, 275. 
Bi-eorporate, 678. 
BIDAURE, arwi*, 506, 677. 

„ THERESIA DE, 577. 

BIEDMA, arvis, 121. 
BIEDERMANN, Baron, anfis, 822. 
BIEL, Barons, arms, 348. 
BIELSRI, Counts, arms, 847. 
Bifforri, 704, 716. 
BIGOT, aniu, 141. 

„ Counts of ST. QUINTIN, anm, 

„ DE LA CHAUMI^RE, arms, 
BILLES, sitpporters, 643. 
BitUt, 117, 165, 186, 678 ; PI. XIX., fig. 1, p. 

BilUte, '678, 716. 
BUUtte, 678, 716. 

BUUlty, 112, 678 ; PI. VIII., fig. 11, p. 100. 
BILLICHS, arms, 240. 
BILLY, anns, 186. 
BILQUBS DE ORCION, amis, 306. 
BIORN, arms, 229. 
BIORNSBN, arms, 141. 
BISCHOFF, arms, 371. 
BISCIA, arms, 864. 
Bird-bolt, 678. 
„ -6o;<<, 850. 
„ 0/ Paradise, 207. 
BIRON, or»u, 129, 132. 

„ Due de, arms, 81. 
BISCAY, TELLIUS, Count of, ami*, 676. 
BISE, amis, m. 
BISHOPS, anns, 525. 
BISMARCK, Counts yon, anns, 820, 742. 
„ Prince, 320. 

,, ,, Ton, amu and ttt^j- 

porters, 545. 
Bisse, 716. 

BISSET, arms, 138, 191. 
BIS8I, arms, 275. 
BISSY, Marquis de, anns, 278. 
BITSCH. Lordship of, arms, 169. 

d'ANJOU, arms, 261. 
BLACK EAGLE, Cross of the Order of 
the, 546. 
or Sable, 60, 65. 
Prince, 439, 591. 

,, boilffe of the, 592, 693. 
Prince's shield for peace, 593. 
„ „ shield for war, 593. 

BLACKADDER, amis, 325. 
BLACKSTOCK, arms, 318. 
BLACKSTONE'S definition of Esquire, 

BLACKWOOD, erest, 610. 
BLACON, Marquises of, arms, 93. 
Blailat, 678. 
BLAKET, arms, 137. 
BLANCHAERT, arms, 186. 
BLANCHE of CASTILE, seal of Queen, 

829 ; PI. XXX VII., fig. 4, p. 447. 
BLANCKENHEIM, County of, arms 

and label, 424. 
BLANDIN, arnu, 187. 
BLANKENBERG, arms, 234. 
BLANKFRONT, arms, 169. 
BLARU, Marquise de, amis, 881. 
BLASERE, DE, amu, 887. 



( 767 ) 

BlaxoHf French, 109. 

„ J. Goagh NiohoU'a Rttlw of, 

,, SuU* oft 101, 105. 
BLBNCOWB, amu, 165. 

„ ADAM OF, amu granted 

to, 85. 
BUuing hand^ A, 204. 
Bleu-dUsle, or light bine, 01. 
„ du eUlf or light blue, 61. 
BLIX, aiTM, 311. 
BLOm, CHARLES DE, 58, 403. 
„ Gh&teau de. 586. 
„ Counta de, amu^ 411. 
„ GUI DE, tupporters, 688. 
,, MARIE, Countess of, $tal, 411. 
BLOM, amu, 83%;. 
BLOME, Counts, artns. 241. 
Blood colour or SangvAne, CO, 65. 
BLOSSEVILLE, Marquis de, arms, 840. 
BLOT, Comtas de, anns, 214. 
BLOUNT, amu, 93, 859, 561 ; PL VII., 
lig. 8, p. tfO. 
„ Earl of DEVON, amu, 93. 
„ MOUNTJOY, Earl of NEW- 
PORT, arm», 561. 
BLGCHBR, Prince, drvu and augmenta- 
tion, 544. 
Blue-bottUt, 337. 

„ Light, or BUu-ciltite, 01. 
„ or Azu,rt, 60, 62, 65. 
BLUMENTHAL, CoiinU of, aHgitunta- 

tion, 543. 
BLUMERT, anru, 837. 

CHESTER, amu, 341. 
BLUNT, arnu, 859. 
Boar, PI. XXIII., fig. 1, p. 228. 
„ as a badge, 758. 
„ The Wild, 227. 
„ WkiU, as a badge, 594. 
Boars as supjwrters, 636. 
Boards head, 227. 

„ ,, as a crest, 605. 
Boars' heads, PI. XXI II., fig. 2, p. 228. 
Boats as charges, 869. 
BORADILLA alliance, 506. 
BOCK, Die KUinodien des Bcil. Riimischen 

Beiehes, 244, 245, 248. 
BOCQUET or UOQUET, amu, 66, 716. 
BODENHAM, an,u, 38S. 
Bauf, 717. 

BCEUVRES, amu, 68. 
BOGAERT, VAN DEN, amu, 816. 
BOGUSLAWSKi, amu, 371. 
BOHEMIA, amu, 218, 252, 494, 065. 

CHARLES IV., King of, 

JOHN, King of. seal, 456. 
King of, 591. 

,, counter-seal of, 252. 
Kingdom, arms, 500. 
OTTAKAR, King of, seal, 
,, Queen of, achievement, 494. 

„ Royal Crown of, 501. 

BOHN, crest, 612. 

GLOUCESTER, amu, 476. 
aniu, 262. 
Oadge, 5S9, 594, 754. 




BOHUN, HUMPHREY DE, supporter, 
„ White antelope of, 662. 

BOINEBURG, Counts VON, anus, 640. 
Bois, 691. 
BOIS, arms, 68. 

LAVAL DE, brisure, 452. 
„ DU, amu, 240. 

„ GEFFROY, Marqius of artns, 280. 
„ YVON, amu, 140. 

D'ERPS, amu, 644. 
BOISSIEU, arms. 223. 
BOJANOWSKI, Barons, amu, 236. 
COLN, arms, 160. 
BOLE BBC, Barons, anns, 214. 
BOLESLAS III., King of POLAND, seat 
of, 630. 
,, setU of. King, 254. 

BOLEYN, ANNE, amu and augtatnta- 
tion, 580. 
„ arms, 531. 

„ Sir THOMAS, 531. 

BOLLORD, antu, 2S0. 
lK>LOGNA, Loggia dei Mercanti in, 470. 
BOLOGNE, Count of, 373. 

,, County of, amu, 460. 

BOLTON, amu, 350. 

,, Blements qf Anuorie, 2. 

BON, amu, 870. 
BONACOLSI, amu, 128. 
BONAR of Kiuimerghaiuc, ar>Hs, 346. 
BONELLI, Marquises, amu, 95. 
BONES COMBES, amu, 207. 
BONI, arms, 78. 

BONIFACE VIII., Pope, arms, 182. 
BONKYL, amu, 458. 
„ buckUs, 418. 

„ Sir JOHN, 458. 

BONNEFOUX, Barons, amu, 388. 
Bonnet- A Ibanais, 717. 
BONNEUIL, Marquis de, aruu, 306. 
BON NITRES, Dues de GUINES, at-ms, 

BONO, amu, 871. 
BONSTKTTEN, amu, 440. 
BONVICINI, amu, 119, 
BONVILLE, an»M, 79. 
BONVINO, amu, 66. 
BOOTH, amu, 227. 
^oot« as charges, 892. 
BOQUET or BOCQUET, aruu, 66. 
Bordi, 678, 687, 700, 717, 7-12. 
BORDEAUX, amu, 66. 
Boi-dereii, 678. 
BORDOLO, on>M, 752. 
Bordure, 116, 165, 170, 678, 717 ; PI. XVII., 
fig. 1, p. 172 ; PI. XVII., fig. 2, 
p. 172; PI. XVIL fig. 3, p. 
checqay, PJ. XVII., fig. 6, p. 172- 
chxular. 173. 

componi, 555; PI. XVIL fig. 4, 
p. 172; 564,569. 
„ and counter-compoH^, 
, , counler-compony, 448 ; PI. X VII. , 

fig. 5, p. 172. 
,, Difftrtnct by a, 437. 
DoubU, 178. 





( 768 ) 

f I 

Bordure of CASTILE, 172; PI. XVII., 
fig. 7, p. 172. 
of ENGLAND, 172. 
of FRANCE, 172. 
Treatment of, in impaleit coatf 

„ Um of, in Scotland, 170. 
„ Varietiw of, 171. 
„ irary, 564, 669. 
Borduret-componyf 442. 
BOREAS, Heml of, 201, Sll, 7.S0. 
Botif, 714, 717. 
BORGUARTS, aniu, 148. 
BORGHESE, anus, 292. 
,, Princes, 16. 

BORIAS, antiM, Sll. 

artMy 232. 
BORMANS, DB, arnu, 874. 
BOROLLA, anuM, 08. 
BORSAN, ar»u, 96. 

BORSELB, arms, 410; Pi. XLIV., fig. 4, 
p. 637. 
„ FRANCIS DE, 642. 

BORTHWICK, Lord, amis, 328. 
B08GAWEN, Admiral, sapj^rter*^ 800. 

artM, 324. 
BOSE, Connta of, arms^ 61. 

DE, arnu, 44. 
BOSNIA, anM, r>01. 

„ and 8BRVIA, Czar of, 251. 
BOSSENSTEIN. aruu, 66. 
BOSSEWELL, ArtHont of Honor, 2, 444, 

B088U, Comte de, arms, 129. 
BOS8UT, anns, ISl, 427. 
B08WELL, arms, 566. 

„ of Balgregie, Sir JOHN, 566. 

BOSWORTH, Battle of, 595. 
BOTELER, amt4, 125, 168, 474. 
BOTELERS, Lords 8UDELET, arms, 

Boterol, 678. 
BOTH, arms, 870. 
BOTHELIER, arms, 387. 
BOTHELL, armx, 837. 
BOTH MAR, Counts, arms, 370. 
BOTHMER, anus, 370. 
BOTH WELL, Earl of, arms, 567. 
,, ,, bHsure, 485. 

„ seal of AGNES, Countess 

of, 869. 
,, «<ar« of, 518. 

BOTILHER, arms, 881. 
BOTON, annst 121. 
Botonnie, 160. 
BoUnin^t 678. 

„ Cross, 160. 
BOTREAUX, anus, 278. 
BOTVILLE. anus, 94. 
BOUCHAGE, anuM, 71. 

,, Count de, aruis, 289. 


BOUCHOUT, VAN, amis, 141. 
BOUCIQUAUT, Marechal de, on*w, 254. 
Boueli, 717. 





BOUDOYBR, anus, 98. 
BOUDRIC, anus, 781. 
Bouget, 678. 

„ AS a btufge, 758. 
BOUILLON, Count of, 878. 

Duo de, anus, 123, 185, 860, 

Duchy of, anus, 466. 
GODFREY DB, 47, 243, 873. 
„ ISABEL, Duchess de, arms, 

BOULA DB MAREUIL, arms, 191. 

„ Counts, anus, 127. 

BOULENGBR, amu, 191. 
Boules, 677, 717. 
BOULOGNE, Counts of, aitus, 192, 878. 

Bouquet, A, 839. 
Bouiiuethui, 232. 

BOURASSE, La Touraine, 189, 448. 
BOURBON, anus, 571. 

-CONDE, 259. 

„ anus, 504. 
Dues de, benil, 429. 
Duke CHARLES L of, 571. 
Duke Jean I. of, 571. 
Dukes of, 571. 
House of, 67. 

JEAN, hdtard de, amis. 571. 
anus, 452. 
„ LOUIS, bdtard de, arms, 571. 
„ MATHIEU, le grand Bdtard 

de and his sister MAR- 
GUERITE, arms, 571 ; PI. 
XLVIII., fig. 1, p. 577. 
-MODERN, anus, 571. 
MONTPENSIER, amis, 466. 

DB, 466. 
PIERRE L, Duke of, 671. 
„ „ sup- 

porters, 803. 
„ VBND6ME. anus, 570. 

BOURCHIER, iMdffe, 753. 

HENRY, Earl of B8SEX, 

anas, 417. 
knot, 585, 613. 
Lord, toiuh of, 658. 
Sir JOHN, Lord BER- 
NERS. anus, 417. 
„ Sir JOHN, Lord BER- 

NERS, mantlinff, 613. 
Bourdon, as a chai-ge, 875, 678, 697, 
„ (de PiUrin), 717. 
BOURDON, arms, 375. 

„ DU PLESSIS, arms, 875. 

Bourdonn^, 717. 
Botmlons, 717. 
BOURG, LE, arms, 272. 
BOURGHIELLES, anus, 68. 
BOURGOGNE, ADOLPH, grandson of le 
Grand Bdtard de, 575. 
„ ANTOINE, U Graml Bdtaiit 

de, anus, 674, 575. 
BAUDOUIN, bdtarti de, 574. 
Comte de, banner, 650. 
Duke PHILIP DE, 450. 
JEAN, batai-d de, 556. 

I. ti arniJ, 573; 

PI. XLVIL, fig. 1, p. 573. 






( 769 ) 


„ MARIE DE, 485. 

„ PHILIPPE, UUai\l d<, aruUj 

BOURKE, 17. 

BOURLEMONT, ConnU de, arms, 118. 
BourUt, 708, 717. 

BOURN AZ EL, Marquiaes de, amu, 31d. 

BoMt, 356, 678, 689, 717. 

BOUTELL, Chriitian Monumcntt, 44, 
Engluh HtraUlry, 4H0, 566. 
HercUdry, Historical and Pojiu- 
lar, 76, 114, 187, 401, 409, 410, 413, 417, 
418, 420, 4C.5, 476, 677, 694, 619, 681, 
634 ; PI. XXXV., «g. 1, j.. 416. 
Boiderolle, 717. 

brisurCf 461. 
Boutoii\ 717. 
BOUTON, yoiivtau Traite de Blcuon, 

288, 712, 713, 742. 
BoutonrU, 717. 

brisure, 462. 
BOUVIER, GILLES hE,ArmoHalqf, 113, 

161, 402. 
BOU VINES, Battle of, 246, 665. 
BOVILE, anM, 81. 
Bote, PI. XXXI., fig. 6, p. 346. 
BOWEN, knot, 585. 

BOWES, arms, PI. XXXI., flg. 6, p. 346. 
,, of Streatham, ar7M, 340. 
„ Lords, anus, 349. 
Bows, 349. 

„ Cross, 349. 
BOYD, arms, 405. 

BOYLE, arms, 80, 523: PI. V., flg. 4, p. 
80; PI. XXIIL, fig. 12, p. 
of Kelbume, antu, 234. 

,, DAVID, a»t>w, 623. 

BOYNE, Viscounts, stipporters, 802. 
BOYNBBURG, anns, 405. 

,, Barons Von, arms and 

crest, 608. 
BOYSLEV^, Marquis d'HAROUE, arms, 

BOZON, RALPH DE, arvis, 350. 
BRABANT, ALICE, daiightorof HENRY 
I., Duke of, 378. 
„ arms, 401, 478, 484, 495, 496, 

674, 676, 570, 631. 
,, Chancellor of, mark of office, 

Duchy of, arms, 214, 484. 
Duke PHILIPPE of, 675. 
Dukes of, ariiui, 405, 642. 
GODFREY, brother of Duke 

HENRY, arviA, 405. 
GEOFFREY DE, arms, 401 ; 

sffil and labtl, 415. 
HENRY I. and IIL, Dukes 

of, seaJs and banners, 651. 
HENRY, Duke of, 415, 461. 
.JEAN, natural son of JEAN, 

Duo de, 576. 
Lion of, 415. 

MARIE, daughter of 
HENRY III., Duke of, arms, 464. 








• I 





GRUBEQUE, ar>ns, 576. 
BRAGG HE, supporters, 294. 
Braced, 140, 678. 

BRACKENBURY, arms, 96, 140. 
BRACKLEY, Visoount, arms, 661. 
BRADBURY, arms, 224. 
BRADSHAW, ai-ms, 181. 
Dukee of, ann*, 677. 
House of, label, 425. 
JOHN of, label, 425. 
BRAHE, anns, 120. 
BRAITEAU, Vioonites de, ai-ms, 2S0. 
Branch, Linden, 818. 
„ Olive, 817. 
,, Palm, 319. 
Branchi, 717. 
Bratichetl, 678. 
BRANCHELEY, arms, 156. 
GRAVES of , Ae/iM, 
arms, 844, 494. 
BEATRICE, daugh- 
ter of ALBERT, 
Death of JOHN, 
Elector of, arms, 


arms, 255. 
(PriiBsia), arms, 67. 
Jted eagle of, 645. 
BRANDIS, anm, 814. 
BRANDOLINI, anus and motto, 644. 
B RA N DON , badyt, 764. 
BRANDT, Barons, arnui, 814. 

CounU de M ARCONN^, arms, 
BRANT I., Polish Clan of, arms, 314. 
BRAOSE, a^^M, 213, 215. 
BRASCHI, Dukes of NEMI, ar^ns, 311. 

amis, 188. 
BRAUNBERG, Barons VON, arms, 126. 
Braunsckweiffer Chronicle, 41. 
BREADALBANE, arms, 868. 

, , Earls of, amu, 84, 447. 

Bream naiant, PI. XXVL, fig. 6, p. 266. 

„ The, 268. 
BREAME, arms, 268; PI. XXVL, fig. 5, 

p. 266. 
Brebis, 703, 717, 737, 739. 
BRECBENNOGH, VtxiUum of the, 657. 
BRECHANB of Auld, Lonl of, arms, 149. 
BRECHl5f, ani«, 149, 616, 517, 518, 519, 

521; PI. XVL.fig.S, 
p. 146. 
City of, arms, 147. 
Heiress of, 521. 
Lordship of, 147, 617. 
,, See of, arms, 147. 

BRECKNOCK, Baron of, arms, 71. 
BREDA, Lordship of, arms, 146. 
BREDOW, Counts, anus, 866. 




( 770 ) 

Breeche* as charges, 892. 
BRBGENZ, antu, 78. 

„ Connty, amu, 400. 

BREHNA, Connty of, arms, 821. 
BREI3GAU, Landgravat« of, arnUf 491. 
BREITEN6ACH, aimt, 189. 
BREITBNBUCH, VON, tt»w<, 752. 
BREMEN, arm$, 283. 
BRENT, (U'uu, 2S9. 
BRESLAU, Palatinata of, armt, 46S ; PI. 

XXXVIIL, flg. 2, p. 468. 
BRET, LB, ami*, 68. 
BRETAQNB, ALICE, Duchess of, 55. 
arnu, 91, 342. 
CO NAN, Count of, 80. 
JEAN D£, Earl of Rich- 
mond, arms, 425. 
JEANNE DE, 464. 
ual of JEANNE DE, 58. 
BRETE8CHE, Marquis de la, amw, 155. 
BreUui, 124, 678, 681, 682, 685, 717. 

„ line, 76. 
BRETBUIL, Cointes de, ami*, 262. 


britnrt, 452. 
BRETIONY, a»wM, 726. 
BRBT8LA, nitM, PI. XLVL, fig. 1, p. 545. 
BREUBERQ, arvu, 808. 

„ LonUhip of, aniu, 126. 

BREU8, amt4, 215. 
BREWES, ami$, 215. 
BREWSE, an>t«, 214. 
BREWYS, ar»«, 218. 
Brt!f», 357, 678. 

, , as a badge, 758. 
"RVLtZt, Gomtes de MAULEVRIER, 
an)u, 164. 
,, Due de, 164. 

BRIAN BOROIHME, Hai-p of, 384. 

poi-ter, 632. 
BRIDGE, arnu, 362. 
Britiffes, 362. 
BRIDGEWATER, Dnke and Earl of, 

BRIERLEY, arnu, 162. 
BRIESEN, an,i», PI. VL, fig. 0, p. 84. 

„ VON, arms, 88. 

BRIEY, arnu, PI. X., fig. 12, p. 118. 

,, Counto de, arni^, 123. 
Brigantint, 679. 

BRIM EN, JACQUES DE, arnu, 411. 
BRIORDE, GERARD DE, arnu, 130. 
BRIQUEVILLE, arms, 91. 
BRI8 DE HOUAR^B, LA, arnu, 27. 
Bru d'AiiW, 717. 
5,-t*/, 138, 688, 717, 748. 
BRI88AC, Dnc de, amu, 731. 
BRISTOL, BUTLER, Bishop of, ca-nu, 
City of, amu, 312. 
Earl of, aruu, 331. 
Marquess of, aniu, 320. 
,, See of, amu, 379. 
BriMurt, 396, 679. 

BRITAIN, eorontt of a Marquess in, 624. 
,, coro7M^« of children and grand- 
children of the Sovereign of, 
Form of ithUld in, 56. 
GREAT, amu, 56, 237 ; PI. 

LI I., p. 663. 
helmets for different ranks, 602. 
Impalement in, 470. 






BRITAIN, Kings of GREAT, nsing m- 
eucheon en surtout, 487. 
Royal amu, 479. 
Tincture of mantling in, 612. 

„ wreath in, 612. 

WILLIAM III., King of, 
arm*, 487. 
British Museum CSatalog^u qf Seals, 87, 210. 
830, 884, 587, 588, 590, 594, 598, 662, 
BRITTANY, ALICE, Duchess of, 426. 
anus, 425, 505. 
eantoti of, 426. 
Death of GEOFFREY 
of, 40. 
Duke of, 515. 
Dukes of, amu, 68. 

,, supporters, 636. 
lurs common in arnu^y of, 
„ JEANNE, Duchess of, seal, 

„ MARGARET, daughter of 

FRANCIS I., Duke of, 
MARY, daughter of FRAN- 
CIS I., Duke of, 505. 
BRIXEN, Principality, amu, 499. 
BriKul arrotc, 679. 
BROADHURST, amu, 97. 
Brochant, 717. 

„ sur U tout, 109. 
BROCK, ar^iu, 239. 
BROOKE, arms, 182. 
Brog as a charge, 363. 
BROGLIE, arms, PI. XV., flg. 11, p. 
„ Dues de, oi'nu, 145. 

Brogue, 679. 
B^-oi, 690. 
BROME, amu, 79. 
BROMFIELD, anm, 131. 

EDMUND, Bishop of 
LLANDAFF, amu, 217. 
BROMLEY, Barons MONTFORD, anns, 

,, Counts ZU, aruu, 473. 

BRONCKHORST, CounU of, arms, 192. 
BRONKHORST, VAN, amu, 127. 
BROOK and RE ID, Description of 

Scottish Regalia, 610. 
BROOKE, 554. 
Broom as a b<ulge, 586. 
BR0S8E. Vicomtes de, amu, 842. 
BROTH ERTON, amu, 531, 532. 
BROTIN, (tiuu, 71. 
BROUCHIER, amu, 359. 
BROUILLART, amu, 186. 
BROUILLI, DE, Marquises de PI^NNE, 

supporters, 298. 
BROUN, anil*, 333. 
Brown colour, or Briinatre, 61. 
BROWN, amu, 338. 

„ of Colstonn, amu, 331. 
BROWNING, amis, 98. 
Broue», 678, 718, 737. 
BROYES, Seigneurs de, amu, 357. 

SIMON DE, wof of, 47. 
BRUCE, arms, 212, 611. 


ISOBEL, 177. 

Lion rami)ant for, 454. 


( 771 ) 






BRUCE, Lord of AN NAN DALE, annit, 
MARGARET, of Skelton, Ka/, 

of Annandiile, annt, PL XV., 

flff. 10, p. 144. 
of RiilcMkie, urma, 144. 

„ 8ir WILLIAM, 

6)'i«ur«, 483. 
of Kinroas, antu, 144. 
ROBERT, 144. 

Earl of CARRICK, 
badge, 583. 
„ King of SCOT- 

LAND, SS, 84, 
177, 178, 87S. 
„ sikter of ROBERT, 445. 
BRUCKNBRS, ainn», 8<)2. 

armg, 892. 
BRUERE, Sir WILLIAM, attil, ROl. 
BRUGES, Palais de Justice at, 471. 
BRUHL, aiTTU, 136. 

BRUIMXGK, Barons de, »upportev», 297. 
NOCK, anus, 71. 
BRUMMER, anM, S74. 
BrunAtre, or Brown colour, 61. 
BRUNNBR, Annala Boici, 40. 
BRUN8VELT, a>nii», 718. 
BRUNSWICK, a^M, 214, 472, «63. 
Dnkes of, ni-in*, 234. 
-LONEBURG, wnnn, 487. 
Dukes cf, mpporter, ASl. 
BRUSSELS, City of, nr^M, 190, 283. 

„ Mnseum of Antiquities at, 

080, 644. 
BRUUN, armt, 200. 
BRUWERE, Sir WILLIAM, teal, 801. 
BRUYN, LE, armt, 170. 
BRYAN, arwM, 147. 
bcuipf, 654. 
Buglt-ham of, 584. 

LINS'S Peeiagt," 562. 
BRYD80N, Summary Vitf, 615. 
BRYRERLEGH, arms, 160. 
BRZ0ST0W8KI, Counts, arwM, 857. 
BUBENHAUSER, arnu, 752. 
BUBNA, arms, 8S8. 
BUCCAKOCO, aniw, 201. 
BUCH, Ca]jtal de, ere»t, 606. 
„ „ label, 418. 

BUCHAN, anu9, 367. 

Earl of, arms, 342. 
Earldom of, 520. 
Earls of, 605. 

aviHt 446. 
BUCHANAN, mnM, 179. ' 
BUCHBG, anns, 325. 
BUCHIIEIM, County of, at-ms, 842. 
BOCUNER, Dr ROEMER, Die Seiijclthr 
Deuisehen Kaiser, 248, 244, 247, 248, 
252, 253. 
Buck as a badge, 758. 

BUCK, arms, 101 ; PI. VII., flg. 12, p. 00. 
Bucket as a badge, 758. 
Burk-le as a bafige, 763. 

JOHN, Duke of, 562. 
badge, 754. 
Duke of, aruis, ISO, 348. 


• I 


f BUCKINGHAM, Dukes of. 899. 
. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, Earl of, 185. 
i „ Earls of, an.n 

Buckles', PL XXXIIL, fig. 2, p. 876. 
, , as charges, 877. 
„ loxenge-shaped, PI. XXXIIL, fig. 
8, p. 376. 
Bucks, 231. 
BUCKS, bailge, 754. 
BUCQUOY, Prinoee de, arms, 95. 
BudiUng, 679. 
Budget, Water, 355. 
Bt^tHe, 718. 
BUGGE, arms, 151. 
Bugle-horn as a badge, 584. 

„ as a charge, 385. 

BUISSONS, DE, arms, 816. 

„ Marquises d'AUSSONNE, 

arms, 816. 
BULGARIA, arms, 501, 666. 
BULGARINI, a^-ms, PI. XIIL, fig. 5, p. 
,, Counts, aiTHS, 18S. 

Bull, PI. XXIV. flg. 1, p. 286. 

,, as a badge, 753. 
Bulls, 234. 
BuU's head, PL XXIV., fig. 2, p. 286; 235. 

„ as a badge, 753. 

RULING, arms, 350. 
BO LOW, «»•»»«, 121, 643. 

arms and augmentatvm, 543. 
BUNBURY, arms, 130; PL XIL, flg. 3, 

p. 130. 
BUOCAFOCO, omu, 201. 
BUONACORSI, arms, 189. 
BUONAROTTI, aj-m*, 632. 
BUONCOMPAGNI, Princes, arms, 293. 
BURDON, arms, 375. 
-Burtfi', 94, 677, 718. 
Burele, 718. 
BURGH, arms, 457. 
,, badge, 753. 

DE, 17. 
„ „ Earl of ULSTER, ai-m«, 

arms, 457. 
Burgonet, 679. 

BURGOS, Cathedral at, 689. 

„ -ancient, arms, 57, 253, 4?t9, 

462, 478, 484, 485, 49'), 
461, 462, 508, 578, 674, 
ANNE of, arms, 485. 
arms, 450, 471, 509, 575, 631. 
County of, amis, 631. 

„ PALATIN Eof. anitx, 
Duchess of, seal, 478. 
Duke CHARLES, the bold, 

Duke JEAN of, 578. 
Duke of, 515. 

,, ai-ms, 253 ; PL 
XLIV., flg. 6, p. 537. 
Duke PHILIPPE, Le Bon 

• I 







of, 574. 
the bold of 

Dukes of, alius, 439. 

( 772 ) 


BUBOUNDY, DnkM of, OixUninanee*t 

JEANNE, CoontflM of, 
„ Diiohe« of, 
ual, PI. XXXV., fig. 8, 
p. 415. 
JOHN, Duke of, 402, 484. 
Marks of illagitimaoy in, 

MARY, Duohen of, tup- 
perter, 682. 
„ of, 484. 
modern, aiTtu, 57, 462, 478, 
484, 496, 578, 574, 575, 
OTHO, Ck>aDt of, erettf 

PHILIP LB BON, Duke of, 
„ tke Bddf Duke of, 
PHILIPPE, natnral son of 
BON, anuiy 575. 
aaltirein, 148. 
teal of HUGH IL, Duke of, 

„ YOLANTE, danghter of 

EUDES of, 462. 
BURKE, Oetural Armory, 860, 401, 570. 
Sir BERNARD, 047. 

„ The Mi$e of 

OreaJt Jhmt/tM, 899. 
BUHLAY, arm», 101. 
BURLEIGH, badge, 754. 
BURNABY, aii>M, 270. 
BURNARD, ODO, bodgt^ 588. 

„ ,, Ma< and aniu, 50. 

«, of Faringdon, hoX and oxxm, 

BURNETT, a^-nui, 319. 

„ Dr GEORGE, Lyon King of 

Arms, 51, 
158, 400, 496, 
565, 567, 560, 
„ „ Lyon King of 

Amu, wmu, 
„ „ Lyon King of 

Arms, edits part of Bz- 
chtquer Roll9 of Seotlandt 
455, 565. 
„ of Kemnay, arm$, 51. 

„ of Leys, omit, 50. 

BUROS8E, amu, 887. 
BU8G, amu, 261. 
BUSCH, arnu, 818, 816,891; PI. XXIX., 

ilg. 5, p. 818. 
BuMh ami Crown ai a badge, 595. 
BUSH, amu, 815. 

BUBQIJE, ANTOINE DE, artnt, 579. 
BU88NANG, Barons Ton, arms, 98. 
BU8SY, D'AMBOISE, Marqnisesde, arm$, 
„ Sir JOHN, mantling and amn, 
BX7TBN, VAN, arms, 285. 
BUTERA, Princes de, arms, 89. 
BUTKENS, System of lines representing 
oolonr, 64. 

,, Trophiee de Brabant, 61. 

BUTLER, arms, 118, 168, 581. 


BUTLER, Bishop of DURHAM and 
BRISTOL, arm*, 881. 
„ Earls of LANE8B0R0UGH, 

arms, 881. 
„ of Ormond, Margaret, ar^nt, 

„ WILLIAM, bend tlnister, 

BUTLERS of Ormonde, arms, 881. 
Butterjliee, 280. 
BYDANT, amii, 272. 
BYE, arme, 281. 
BYRES, arm*, 288. 
BYRON, arm*, PI. XII., ilg. 8, p. 180. 
„ Lord, arm*, 182. 
„ Lords, arm*. 562. 
,, of Newstead, Sir JOHN, anm, 
BY8SHB, Sir EDWARD, Notes on, De 

Situiio MilitaH, 19, 88. 
BY8TRZ0N0WSKI, Counts, arm*, 237. 

CAARTSN, ann*, 887. 

Oabbtue, The, 848. 

GABELLIG, anu*, 156. 

Oaberfae, 288. 

CObli, 125, 708, 718. 

Oaboehi, 718. 

OABOOU, arm*, 762. 

Caboehed, 283, 679. 

Oabo9»i, 679. 

CaJbo**ed or Oxboehed, 288, 679. 

Cabri, 679, 701, 702, 718, 727. 

CABRERA, arm*, 235. 

CADE, JACK, 846. 

CADENAT, arm*, PI. XXXT., fig. 11, p. 

Cadency, Mark* of, 444, 679. 
„ ur D\ffere7%eing, 396. 
„ Principal modes of, 402. 
„ Royal mark of, 420. 
CADENETS, aniit, 854. 
GADEROUSSE, Dncs de, arm*, 214, 298. 

GADRODHARD, arm*, 280. 
Cadueie, 718. 

artM, 468. 
CAERLAVEROCK, National hanners of 

English Army at 
siege of, 425, 656. 
„ Roll, 409, 418, 414, 

488, 481, 651. 
CJSSAREA, Prinoe of, arm*, 118. 
CABTANI, arm*, 132, 784. 
CAITHNESS, arm*, 869, 611, 512,521. 

Earl of, arm*, 142; PI. 
XXXII., fig. 12, p. 858; 
PI. XLIIL, flg. 1, p. 521. 
Earl of, ««a<and arm*, 520. 
Earldom of, 511. 

„ arm*, 868. 
Earls of, arm*, 869, 511. 
,, tupportert, 288. 
*eal of JOHN, Earl of, 

„ *eal of THOMAS MUR- 

RAY, Bishop of, 869. 
CAIXAL, arm*, 208. 

CALABRIA, Duchy, arm*, 156, 501, 
,, Duke of, arm*, 502. 



( 773 ) 

OUaU Roll, 416,417, 42«. 
„ Sooond, 166. 
CALAIS, Siege of, 167, 554. 
Calatrata, Ct-ou qf, 158, 718. 
CalaUmre^ Croix de, 158, 718. 
C ALDER, achieveiHeiUf 610. 
CALDORA, arms, 81. 
CaUlron, The, 275. 

Caldront, PI. XX XI 11., fig. 8, p. 376. 
OALEROI, Prinoes of, anta, 95. 
GALL, arms, 886. 
CALLEXDAR, arnu, 186, 522 ; PI. XIX., 

fig. 1, p. 192. 
OaMtt^ 611. 
Caltrap, 852, 679 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 9, p. 

CALVADOS, Church of St. Pierre de Dive 

in, 254. 
CoUvairtf Croix, 718. 
Calvary-Crou 152, 679 ; Fig. 49, p. 164. 
CaJLvtM, 284. 
CAMARA, at-nw, 861. 
GAMBAGERBS, le Due, 15. 
CAMBI, arm*, 78. 

GAMBRAY, Dnke of, auffouniaJtion, 587. 
„ MS. of the Concordat of, 574. 

,, Mol and arvM of JBAX, 

Bishop of, 574 ; PI. XL VII., fig. 4, p. 
RICK, Duke of, laJbtl, 
422 ; Fig. 84, p. 421. 
hculge, 753. 
badge of RICHARD, 

Earl of, 824. 
Duke of, laJbtl, 428. 

arfHj, 825. 
CAMDEN, 35. 

„ Marquig, aiiiu, 231. 

„ on Nobility, 4, 7, 8. 

,, Retnaiiu, 591. 

,, Vi»iiaXion qf Huniinffdon- 

»hir€, 206, 363, 561. 
„ WILLIAM, ariM, 163. 

Camel, The, 281. 
CAMEL, anm, 231. 
GAMBRINO, Dukes of, arms, 71. 
CAMERON, armi, 127. 
GAMIN, Principality of, amu, 159. 
CAMMERSTEIN, Counts of, arm*, 469. 
CAMOENS, aniut, 294. 
ai*mg, 568. 
„ arms, 78, 447, 466 ; PI. VI., 

fig. 1, p. 84. 
, , ariiu in Lyon Office Register , 

400, 401. 
Bart., anm, 584. 
Col. WILLIAM, arms, 568. 
Dnke of ARGYLL, arms, 

83, 84, 406. 
arms, 84. 
„ E»irl8 of CAWDOR, arms, 

Earhi of LOUDOUN, arms, 


arms, 84. 
MARGARET, teal, 466. 
., of Ardkinlaa, snjtpm-ters, 







CAMPBELL of Argyle, arm*, 406. 

,, of Glenorchy, arnu, 84. 

„ of Inveraw, bordwrt, 569. 

„ of Loudoun, amu, 406. 

,, of Straohur, arm*, 84. 

„ Sir I LAY, arm*, 568. 

CAMPERDOWN, ackiecatient of Lord, 

„ Lord, arm* and av^f- 

mentatim., 533, 610. 
CAMPLIONCH, ann*, 752. 
CAMPORELLS, ar^n*, 98. 
CANABRI, arms, 121. 
GANALI, arms, 121. 

,, Count*, arms, 186. 
CANDAV6NE, a^-^M, 49. 
Candles as oiiaigee, 872. 
CANDOLLE, Marquises de, aims, 81. 
Caneli, 727. 

GANETE, Marquises of, artn*, 506. 
CanetU, The, 266, 718, 786. 
GANIVET, NICOLAS, arms, 180. 
CANIZARBS, amu, 174. 
GANNEOIETER, anm, 382. 
OawneU, 138, 692, 718. 

,, line, 76. 
CANNING, arms, 200. 
Cannon as charges, 366. 
GANG, Barons de MEGHEM, arm*, 860. 
CANTACUZENE, arms, 818. 
CANTALUPO, Princes de, arms, 128. 

CANTELU, MICHAEL DE, artiw, 73. 
CANTELUPE, arm*, 225, 333. 

THOMAS DE, Bishop of 

WILLIAM DE, ar%M, 331. 
CANTERBURY, arms of See, 150, 875 ; 

PI. XVI., fig. 11, p. 
Cathedral, 598. 
bishop of, 142. 

bishop of, amu, 152. 
Archbishop of, armt, 
NAY, Archbishop of, arms, 437. 
Canting-arm*, 679. 

Canton, 116, 165, 166, 167, 679, 718; PL 
XVIII., fig. 1, p. 190 ; PI. XVIIL, 
fig. 2, p. 190. 

and Fess, PI. XVIIL, fig. 8, p. 19a 
,, or Bar, joined, 167. 
, , Difference by the xixseri ion of a, 425. 
Cantoned, 679. 
Cantonni, 679, 718. 
Cap or Mortier, 625. 
Caparisoned, 679. 
CAPEGI, orHM, 214. 
Capeliyie, 611, 612, 615. 
CAPELLO, ar»is, 874, 392. 
CAPET, HUGH, Duke of FRANCE, etc., 
,, Line of, 283. 
CAPLENDORP, Counts von, arms, 90. 
CAPPELLI, arms, 874, 392. 
CAPPERS, aruu, 892. 
CAPPONI, a)i»«, 80. 



( 774 ) 

CAPRINI, amtc, 277. 
OijM as charges, 892. 
„ q^ mainlenanee u oliaiges, S9S. 
OftpuehoH, tfll, 718. 
GARBONNIBRES, ar iju, 714. 
OnrbuneU^ 679. 
GARDEN, at*m«, 865. 
CARDIGAN, Barl of, ann», 392. 
„ Prince of, aruut, 212. 

Gardinak in France, tnanHing armoyit 

GARDON, arms, 885. 
CARDONAS, arm», 385, 482; PI. XLI., 

Og. 8, p. 509. 
GARDOZO, aniu^ 889. 
Cbrdt as chanes, 887. 
GARENCT, Princes de, artM, 121, 319. 
CAREW, arm, 228. 
GARILLO, amu, 506. 
GARINTHIA, ALBERT, Duke of, teal, 
„ Duchy, aniu, 454, 455, 456, 

471, 495, 503, 684, 665. 
„ MARGARET of, ual, 454. 

GARLAVEROCK, Siege of, 278. 
GARLINQFORD, Lord, supporter, 232. 
GARLISLB. Earl of, mulUt, 446. 
CARLOS, Colonel, arni$, 583. 
CARLO WITZ, amu and augmentation, 

GARLSSON, amu, lOl. 
CARLYLE, amu, 157, 522; PL XLIL, 

fig. 5, p. 513 

„ Lord TORTHORWALD, amu, 

142 522. 
GARHIGHAEL, amu, 125, 127; PI. XL, 

fig. 6, p. 124. 
Carnation, 700, 718. 

„ or naked flesh colour, 62. 
Oamatioiu, 887. 
CARNEGIE, Earls of SOUTHESK, amu, 

GARNIOLA, Duchy, amu, 247, 256, 495, 

CARO, amu, 508. 
CAROLATH-BEUTHEN, Princes, arms, 

OAROUGES, JEANNE, Dame de, moZ of, 

STER, arm* and auffinentation, 582. 
Carreaux, 878, 718. 
GARRICR, Barl of, badge, 583. 
CARRILLO, amu, 473. 

„ THERESIA DE, 506. 

CARRO, amu, 878. 
CARROLL, arms, 162. 
CarroU, 844. 
GARR'S MS., 366. 
CARS, Dues des, amu, 121. 
CARTIER DTVES, Barons, amu, 188. 
Cartouche, 679. 

Cartulary of St. Pere de Chartra, 10. 
CARTWRIGHT, anns, 810. 

,, arms, 368. 

CASOLI, Dues de, arnu, 95. 

amu, 129. 
CA8SANT8, oitM, 284. 
CASSILIS, Earls of, amu, 163. 
CASTANBDA, amu, 93. 








CASTELAIN, antu, 289. 
CASTELLANS, DE, amu, 858. 
CASTELLBTS, amu, 360. 
CA9TELLI, arms, 746. 
CASTELN, ar»ii, 222 ; PI. XLVL, fig. 8, 

p. 545. 
XLVIIL, fig. 6, p. 577. 
arnu, 168, 268, 806, 829, 858, 
891, 416, 441, 457, 464, 471, 
478, 479, 488, 495, 501, 507, 
547, 576. 577, 578, 633, 667. 
VIIL, King of, 329; $eaL 
PI. XXXVIL, fig. 4, p. 
bordure of, 172, 829, 440, 475, 
507; PL XVIL, fig. 7, p. 
ELEANOR of, 457. 

„ monument, 479. 

FERDINAND of, 479. 

IIL, King of, 
label of, 416. 

Queen ISABELLA of, badift, 

„ teal of ALPHONSO of, 244. 

amu, 471 ; PL XXXII., fig. 8, 

p. 358. 
DB, Maiquis de CHENOISE, 

tupportert, 803. 
Marquises de CHENOISE, 
anjts, 358. 
„ SANCHO, Infant of, $eaU to 
contract of marriage of, 46. 
CASTILLO, anns, 744. 

CASTILLON, Marquises of, amu, 858. 
CattU, 357; PL XXXIL, figs. 8 and 6, 
p. 358. 
„ with other build ingt, 862. 
CASTLE STUART. Earl of, arttu, 569. 
CASTRIES, Due de, amu, 141. 
CASTRO DB, annt, 192. 
Cat, 97, 226. 

„ Gen^t, as a badge, 557, 587. 
dU-a-mount, 226, 679. 
CATANEI, anus, 72. 
Catapult as a charge, 865. 
CATENAS, arms, 860. 
Catharine-wheel, 679. 
CATHCART, amu, 807; PL XXVIII., 

fig. 4, p. 808. 
CATTARO, amu, 50S. 
Cattd4, 705, 718. 

GAUDREL1ER, LE, arms, 266. 
Cauldron an a charge, 889. 

„ Ab^cidaire d^Arckiologie, 

2S7, 293, 299, 301. 
CAVALLI, arms, 237. 
CAVAN, Earl of, artus, 828. 
CAVE, arms, 96. 

amu, 233. 
CAVILL, anns, 124. 
CAWDOR, Earls of, anns, 81. 
CEBA,ar»«j», 72. 
CECIL, badge, 754. 
„ Lord ROOS, 17. 

( 775 ) 

OtirUri, 718. 
CtUry^ 344. 
CELLEi), arf*i», 133. 
Cendrie or a«h ooloiir, 61. 
CKNNINO, armt, 204. 
OtMeri M uhargM, 372. 
C€iUa%r, 298, 679. 
„ Feiuale, 2P8. 

CENTELLB8, a)-)M«, 100. 

C5m<r«, le (abime) ; **en ectur," 50. 

Cepde Vitme,71S. 

CEPBDES, oitiu, 879. 

Cepi, 703, 718. 

CBRAMI, Princaa of, anna, 810. 

CerOenu, 304. 

Ctretlii, 679. 

C<rcf^, 691, 718. 


tuppoi-tertt 685. 
CETRACINi, arvM, 99. 
CETTNER, Connto, anm, 852. 
CEVA, Barons, artni, 98. 
CHABAN, Oomte de, amit, 2S1. 
CHABOT, 12. 

,, aiiiu, 505. 
Chabots, 718. 
GHADWICK, amu, 175. 
GHAI, arifM, 68. 

CHAILLU, DU, ramo- ^j^, 367. 
GHAILONS, aritu, 202. 
(7AaJ)w, 853; PI. XXXI., fig. 10, p. 346; 

PI. XXXI., fig. 11, p. 346. 
CHALANGE, arms, 806. 
Chali''e as a charge, 872. 
CHALMERS, anm, PL XXII., fig. 4, 

Inocraig, arm», 221. 
CHALOX, aniM, 129, 466. 
CHALONS, ConntB of, ai*m<, 410. 
„ HUOUBS DE, ariM, 410. 

JEAN DE, Comte de BOUR- 
GOQNE, banner, 650. 
„ LOUIS DE, ann*, 410. 


LAVAL DE, brUure, 452. 
ChaMbei; 679. 

Cbamberlain, Grand, French, mark of 
office, 645. 
,, Lord High, of England, 

mark of oflioe, 644. 
,, Lord High, of Scotland, 

mark of office, 644. 
„ of the Honsebold, Lord, 

mark of office, 644. 
CHAMBERS. Wm., The Stm-y of St. OiU*' 

Cathitdrai Church, Edinburgh, 476. 

amu, 93. 
CHAMBORD, Comte de, 425. 
ChameUrm, 277. 
Chamfr<mt, 679. 
Cfutniois, 232. 
Champ, (>S7, 718. 
Champagne, 811, 488, 679, 706, 713. 

„ PaHed per, fig. 86, p. 77. 

CHAMPAGNE, amu, 479. 

,, Orawl Capitulaire of, 10. 

„ teai of Coiinta of, 48. 

CHAMPERNONS, aniu, 186. 
CHAMPNEY, onjM, 184; PI. XVIII., 

fig. 11, p. 190. 
CHAMPREDONDE, arvu, 337. 


de, ariHM, 61. 
CHAMPSDIVERS, amu, 136. 
GHANAC, amu, 79. 
Chancellor, French, mark of office, 645. 
Chandetiert de CBgLite, 719. 
CHANDOS, anna, 146, 408; PI. XVL, 
fig. 1, p. 146. 
Sir JOHN, K.G., 408. 
ChanUKnt, 719. 
GHANTRELL, amu, 264; PL XXV., 

fiff 12 D. 260 
aap?,*^,*88, 7ll), 741; PL VL, fig. 8, 
p. 84. 
„ -chavMi, 89, 719, 746. 
„ ployi. 719 ; PL VI., fig. 10, p. 84. 
Chapeau, 679. 
Chapel, 368. 
Chapelet, 680, 719. 

CHAPELLE, ANTOINE, Seignenr de, 
anna, bib. 
„ DE LA, anna, 97, 868. 

„ ULRIC DE, crai, 60O. 

Chaperon, 718, 719. 
Chaperonnk, $9, 691, 7 It*. 
Chaplet, 680 ; PL XXX., fig. 9, p. 332. 
Chapleta qfteavea orjlotcera, 336. 
CHAPPELL, amu, 370. 
CHARBONNEAU, amu, 865. 
CHARDOIGNB, anna, 187. 
CHARDON DU HA VET, anna, 386. 
Chargi, 680, 719. 
Charged, 680. 

Chargea, Anitnate, 194, 208, 242. 
,, Aatronoinical, 805. 
„ Cotnmon, 102. 
„ Di^'o'enc* by adtlUion of ^tmall^ 

„ „ changt qf the minor,. 

„ „ diminiahinff the 

Hutnber of, 434. 
„ Different kinds of, 101. 
,, Inanimate, 305. 
„ Military, 345. 
„ MiaeeUaneoua, 345. 
CHARLEMAGNE, 176, 658. 

adopts the Bagle as hia 

enaign, 242. 
arma, 21. 

crown of, 264, 526, 


Fig. 97, p. 


„ „ as a chaise, 


CHARLES I., King of BRITAIN, 420, 

421, 536, 688 ; amu, PI. 
LL, fig. 5, p. 661 ; crotr?i, 
„ aupportera on Exchequer 

Seal of, 663. 
IL, King of BRITAIN, 146. 
181, 816, 481, 475, 6S'2, 
659 ; amu, PI. LL, fig. 5, 
p. 661. 
„ „ King of BRITAIN, CTioim, 

,, „ aupportera on Seal qf 

Common Pleaa of, 668. 
IV., Emperor HOLY ROMAX 
EMPIRE, crown, 621. 
„ „ King of FRANCE, wp- 

portera, 636. 





( 776 ) 









CHARLBS IV., King of FRANCE, $mI, 

854, 450. 

and BOHEMIA, 252. 
„ „ aeal of the Emperor, 248. 

v., Duchen MARGARET, 

daughter of Emperor, 
509, 577. 
„ Emperor, 440, 578, 577, 620. 
,, ,, aiiffvientationM 

granted br, 584}. 
„ Great Seal of the Em- 
peror, 258. 
„ „ King of FRANCE, 601. 

„ Edict of, 

II «*!'• 

porter, 688, 686. 

M II *«!»- 

poi-ten and nwtto, 648. 
,, VI., Aurea Bulla of the Em* 

peror, 258. 
„ „ King of FRANCE, aug- 
mentation granted by, 
„ „ King of FRANCE, tup- 

porters, 686. 
„ „ of SPAIN, dreat Seal of, 

,, VII., auffinentation granted 
by, 588, 541. 
King of FRANCE, 57, 
118, 250, 881, 515, 
530, 572. 
King of FRANCE, ntp- 
porters, 686. 
„ „ sett I of the Emperor, 
VIII., 575. 

„ King of FRANCE, 478. 







„ sup- 

porters, 686. 
„ IX., „ FRANCE, 570, 

„ arms, 817. 

„ EMANUEL, King of SAR- 
DINIA, sup}x>rter of, 244. 
„ Emiieror, as King of SPAIN, 

crown, 620. 
„ RoU, 850, 857, 877, 878, 879. 
,, THE BOLD, Duke of BUR- 
GUNDY, 89, 485. 
CHARLETON, arms, 212, 417. 

,, of P0WY8, arms. 417. 

CHARLOTTE, Princess, daughter of 
King GEORGE IV. of 
ENGLAND, 424. 
„ Princess Royal, label, 

422 ; Fig. 85, p. 42L 
CH ARNY, Count de, arms, 485. 


amts, 484. 
CHARTERIS of Kinfauns, arms, 179. 
CHARTERS, arms, 128. 
Chasse or Relionaiy, 658. 
CUASTELLUX, Marquises de, anns, 186. 
CHA8TRE, DE LA, anns, 851. 
CMleau, 719. 







CHAtEAU MELIAND, arms, 127. 
CHATEAUBRIAND, anns, 112, 880, 841. 


aufrmentation, 589. 
,, iuotto, 881. 

OHAtELAIN, arms, PI. XXXIL, fig. 6, 

p. 858. 
CHATELAINS, arms, 859. 
CHATELHERAULT, Dnchy of, arms, 

CHATILLION, Duos de, arms, 257. 
CHATILLON, arms, 4U. 

EUSTACIA DE, seeretum 

of, 54. 
DE, brisure, 452. 
„ Visoonnt de, label, 418. 


artus, 817. 
CHATTERTON, arms, 156. 
Chaudiere, 719. 
CHAUMELLS, anns, 814. 
CHAUMONT, arm, 118, 814. 
CHAUSNES, amis, 721. 
Chaussi, 88, 719. 

-ploife, 88, 719 ; PI. VI., fig. 9, p. 

•trape, 852, 679, 680, 688. 
„ -trapes, 719. 
CHAUTONS, arms, 278. 
Chauve-sonris, 719. 
CHAUVIGNY, arms, 214. 
CHAWORTH, tmM, 180, 409. 

Sir PATRICK, arms, 409. 
CHAYLAU, a;r%ns, 202. 
CHAYTOR, arms, 822. 
Chectiuy, PL VII., fig. 6, p. 90; PI. VII., 

fig. 7, p. 90. 
Chtf, 117, 680, 719. 
„ -chevron, 719. 
„ C0U9U, 104. 
,, c/« France, 719. 
„ de rBinpbx (Geimanique), 719. 
„ -ilextre, 710. 
,, le canton dexlre du, 59. 
„ „ sinestre du, 59. 

„ le point du, 59. 
„ 'pai, 720. 
„ -senestre, 720. 
,, 'tiHnngulaire, 720. 
,, -vouti, 720. 
CHEMILLI^, CI nui, 72. 
CHENEY, badge, 758. 
CHENOISE, Marquises de, anns, 858. 

„ ,, supporters, ^iS. 

CHEPSTOW, anns, 364. 
CHBPY, Marquises of, amu, 128. 
CUquy, 09, 680. 
CH^RINS, arms, 201. 
Cherries, 841. 
Cherub, 201. 
ChtrubiriK, 720. 
CH^RUEL, Dietionnaire Historique des 

Institutions, etc., de la France, 209. 
GHESNR, DU, arms, 840. 
CHESNEAU, DU, ni-ms, 136. 
Chess pieces as charges, 387. 

„ -i-ook, 680. 
CHESTER, anns, 46a 

( 777 ) 



GHE8TBR» B^rl of, aniu, S41, 842. 
,, Earldom of, amw, 594. 

CHE8TERFIKLD, EarLs of, arm*, 81. 
GHBTTLES, armj, 281. 
CHETWODE, ama, 100 ; PL IX., fig. 12, 

p. 106. 
Cheval-marinf, 708. 

,, traPf 852, 680. 
OHEVALERIE, ai-ms, 287. 
ChevaUert-bachtlien, (*52. 
CkevcUiert-bannerett 57, 652. 
Ckertli, 682, 720. 
GHBVERELL, anns, 228. 
Cheveron, The, 185. 
Ch€vilU, 720. 

Chevron, 78 ; Fig. 41, p. 116 ; 185, 680, 720 ; 
n. XIII., fig. 1, p. 186. 
,, braced or iiUerUueetif 140. 
„ broten or JitutedflSS. 
„ Chargf tm a, PI. XIII., fig. 8, p. 

„ cktcquy, PL XIII.. fig. 2, p. 186. 
„ cotietd, 140; PL XIIL, fig- 8, p. 
JHvit^ en, 720. 

An'Nii, 188; PI. XIIL, fig. 9, p. 
,, Bn, 720. 
„ faiUi, 139. 

„ fracM, PL XIIL, fig. 10, p. 18(3. 
„ Parted per, 81 ; Fig, 34, p. 77. 
„ Per, 680 ; PL V., fig. 8, p. 80. 
„ plo^y PL XIIL, fig. 4, p. 136. 
reversed, PL XIIL, fis. 5, p. 186. 
rompu, 139; PL XIIL, fig. 11, p. 

„ Van'etiea of, 187. 
Chevrontl, 139, 680; PL XIIL, fig. 7, p. 

Chevronni, 98, 680, 720. 
Chevronny, 98, 680 ; PL VII., fig. 5, p. 90. 
CKevron$ interlaced, PL XIIL, fig. 12, p. 

CHEYNB, anuM, 163. 

,, of DaflTiis, aniM, 520. 
„ REGINALD, anM«, 418. 

CHIAVARO, ai-m», 711. 
GHIGHE8TER, Bnrls of, badge, 877. 
,, See of, anm, 194. 

Bishop of, arms, 152. 
ChUot, 704, 720, 727, 780. 
CHIDIOK, 8ir JOHN, om«, 176. 
Ckitf, 116, 117, 680 ; PL X., fig. 1, p. 118. 
„ arched, PI. X., fig. 5, p. 118. 
„ Dexter, 59. 
„ Ohibbeline, 119. 
,, Quelphic, 119. 
„ indented, PL X., fig. 2, p. 118. 
„ MiddU, 59. 
„ Napoleonic Ducal, PL X., fig. 3, p. 

„ pale, 120. 
,, «tnt«<«7', 59. 

„ used as an augmentation, 119. 
Chien-de-mer, 703. 

GHI^VRES, Seigneur de, nrm», 449. 
Oentilitia Sfjuituin Ordini* Velltri* 
Aurei, 282, 440, 449, 502, 573, 574. 
GHILDERIC, snppoeed tomb of, 281. 
Chinxctra, 294, 680, 720. 





GHIMAT, GHARLES, Prince of, amu, 
„ GonnU and Princes of, arms, 

127, 848, 449. 
,, PHILIPPE DE, amu, 450. 
Ckimh-e, 680, 720. 
GHINA, Imperial Ihvgon of, 292. 
Ckiodjo, n Saero, 617. 
GHISHOLM, anus, 520. 
GH I VALETS, ai-ms, 287. 
GHIVERS, arm*, 167. 
CH0I8BUL, Dnca de, ami*, 484. 

„ „ PRA8LIN, arm, 

GHOLMELET, arm*, 559, 565. 

„ SirRIGBARD, 558. 

„ Sir ROGER, amu, 558. 

GHOLMONDBLET, aniw, 342, 849 ; PL 

XXXL, fig. 4, p. 
ftod^, 758. 
Marqnises, 842. 
GHORINSKI, mantling, 616. 
Chouca*, 680, 720. 
Chotutte, 720. 
Chough, CbmitA, 264, 680; PL XXVL, fig. 

1, p. 266. 
CHRIST, arm* ascribed to, 20. 
Ghristian Names, 0. 

erotcn, 620. 
v.. King of DENMARK, 

erotcn, 620. 
definition of Esqnire, 8. 
,, Note* to Blackttone, 8. 

DEN LOVE, natural son of, 581. 

„ Juriipnidentia Heraiea, 551, 

Chronicon Turontn*e, 89, 40. 
Chronicuni Belgieum Magnum, 41. 

to Cbr., 9. 
GHt)B, anu*, 878; PL XLV., fig. 8, p. 

Chuixh banner, 658. 

,, candle*tiek as a change, 872. 
CB17TE, an}i*, 847. 

CIBO, ALBERIG, arm* and augtnentatioH, 
„ arm*, 587. 
CIBRARIO, Sigilli de' Prineipide Sawia, 

458, 460, 467, 628, 629. 
GIMANI, €(rm*, 752. 
Cimier, 720, 724. 
CINIor CINTI, arm*, 61. 
CINQUE PORTS, ami*, 467; PL 

XXXVIIL, fig. 6, p. 463. 
CiiViue'/oil, 680, 822. 

„ as a bwtge, 758. 

CinqutfoiU, PL XXX., fig. 1, p. 882. 
GINTI, or GINI, arm*, 61. 
Cintrf, 720. 
GIOLEK, arm*, 284. 
GIOLI, at-ua, 136. 
CIPRIANI, arm*, 275. 
CIRGA8SIA, arm*, 666. 
Circular-bordure, 680. 

DE, ami*, 167. 
GISTERNA, Princes DELLA, arm*, 298. 

( 778 ) 



CUia M chaxfM, 368. 

CITTANOVA, Dakea de, suppoHen, 685. 

CSvic<roim, GBO. 


DEUIL, aiDU, 221. 
CLAIRAUNAY, arm$, 297. 
Claire voum, 97, 720. 

VILLB, arm*, 100. 
CLANCARTY, Earl of, $HpfH)rUri, 648. 
CLANRANALD, Captain of, anus, 512. 
CLAPS, antiit 811. 

GLARE, anns, 146, 457, 4H5, 467; FI. 
XIIL, fig. 7, p. IStt. 
„ Black bull of, 662. 
„ Earl of GLOUCESTER, badge, 

„ Earls of GLOUCESTER, 189, 457. 
„ ELIZABETH DB, ual, 456. 
„ GILBERT DE, Earl uf GLOU- 
CESTER, 457. 
„ Lords of GLAMORGAN, 386. 
„ MARGARET DE, ann*, 465. 
„ Sir THOMAS DE, 467. 
CLARENCE, ami*, 565. 
baiige, 753. 
Dnk« of, arm* and label, 

GEORGE, Duke of, mant- 
ling, 618. 
Sir JOHN DE, illegitimate, 
arm*, 556. 
„ THOMAS, Dnke of, 556. 


of, labeL 422 ; Fig. 81, p. 421. 
CLARENCEUX, King of Arms, ann*, 526. 
CLARENDON, Earl of, arm*, 183, 630. 

„ „ augmentation, 545. 

Sir ROGER DE, illegiti- 
mate, arm*, 555. 
Ctarietunrd, 680. 
Clariehord* as charges, 886. 
Claricorde, 702, 720. 
ClaHni, 285, 678, 720. 
Claricn, as a charge, 886. 

„ or Clariehord, 680; Pi. XXXIIL, 

fig- 11* P- 876. 
CLARKE, arm*, 122. 
OLAVER, arm*, 113. 
CLAYHILLS of Invergowrie, arm*, 61. 
CUchee, 720. 
CLELAND, arm*, 237 ; PI. XXIV., fig. 7, 

_p. 236. 
CLEMENT IV., Pope, arm*, 43. 
CLEMENT, Mar^Lal de France, ann*, 

CLJ^RAMBAULT, arm*, 94. 
CLERK, arm*, 5i». 

„ Sir JOHN, augmentation, 529. 
CLERMONT, Loi^, *upporlfi; 232. 

„ NESLE, ar»jw, 270. 

GLEVE, Dnkes of, arm*, 472. 
CLBVELAND, Dnkes of, tupporter*, 288. 
CLEVES, ADOLPH of, Mai, 485. 
ANNE of, 530. 
arm*, 485. 
,, Dnkes of, arm*, 354. 

arm*, 428, 554. 
badge, 753. 

Fair Rouimviul, 824, 588. 
„ MAUD, danghter of Lord, 




I CLIFFORD, MAUD, daughter of 
THOMAS, Lord, 588. 
CLINTON, badge, 758. 

„ Dake of NEWCASTLE, arm*, 


M >i II <ttP- 

porter*, 605. 

„ Lord, tupporter*, 606. 

,, of Baddeslev, arm*, 888. 


heiress of, 605. 
CUSSON, DE, arm*, 700. 

OLIVIER DE, *eal and *hUld 
of, 56. 

^ „ tuipporier, 632. 

CLITB. JEAN DE LA, Seigneur de COM- 

MINES, ar>A*, 440. 
CLOCK, onjM, 874. 

armM. 341. 
CLOGS, NICHOLAS, Grant of Nobility 

to, 5. 
CLOOT, annt, 191. 
Cto*, 680. 
Clou, 680. 
„ applied to Fklcon, 261. 
„ Roll 1252, 209. 
CUmt, The, 126, 680. 
CUmd*, 810. 
Clou^, 696, 720. 
doui*, 97. 

Clou* de la pa**ion, 698, 720. 
CLOVIS, King of the Franks, 281, 826, 

„ the same as LOUIS, 827. 
CLUN, arm*, 118. 
CLUNY, arm*, 711. 
CLUSBAU, DB, amw, 167; PI. XVIIL, 

fig. 4, p. 190. 
CLUTINCK, ar)u», 428. 
GLUTTON, arm*, PI. XIIL, fig. 8, p. 186. 

tecU, 554. 
Coat*, Parteil, 74. 
COBHAM, ai-m*, 136, 412. 

,, Visoonnt, arm*, 273. 

Cbckatriee, 293, 680 ; PI. XXVll., fig. 9, p. 

COCK BURN, arm*, 265. 

„ JOHN, seoond son of Sir 

,, . of Ormiiion, ft**, 480. 

CoeL-a*h, Tlie, 299. 
Cock*, 205 ; Pi. XXVI., fig. .S, p. 266. 
COCKS. Earl SOMERS, arm*, 284. 
COCQ, LE, Counts de HUMBBKB, arm*, 

CODEVE, Barons, augiaentation, 543. 
COELEN, artn*, 343. 
COBLHO, NICOLAO, arm*, 238. 
COETIVY, Princes de MORTAGNE, arm*, 

COETMEN, arm*, 400, 468. 

„ Dnme de, Hal, 460, 463. 

C0£TQUEN, Marquises de, arm*, 95. 
Ooeur, Bn, 721. 
CCEURET, Marquis de NESLE, arm*, 

CGSURVERT, artn*, 202. 
Cohort Ensigns, Figs. 5 and 6, p. 19. 
COIONE, ai-m*, 68. 

( 779 ) 

GOING, anHM, 222. 
Coins, Heraldic Devices on, 24, 44. 
COISLlN, Dacs de, annj, 128. 
C0I8PEL, anN«, 279. 
COKAYNE, at-nu, 2d5 ; PI. XXVI., flg. 8, 
p. 266. 
,, Complete Peeragt. 662. 

COKE, Sir EDWARD, on Nobility, 4. 
COKER. nrvu, 892. 

de, antu, 275. 
„ Marqnis de SEIGNELAY, 

a>*>/M, 275. 
„ MupporleVf 297. 

COLE, arm$, 277. 
COLIONI, arau, 716. 
GOLIGNO, AN8ELM0, Count de, amu, 


arms, 267. 
COLLALTO, Princes of, amu, 81. 
Collar of 8S, 597. 

„ of Snns and Roses, 697. 
Collared, 68a 
Collar$, Lively, 697. 
College of Arms, 287, 646. 

„ „ M8., 680, 698. 

COLLEONI, CounU, ortiM, 208. 
COLLET, aruiM, 160. 
a>lUU, 680, 689, 721, 788, 787. 
COLLINS'8 Pea ape, 662. 
COLLONGUE, arnu, P8. 
COLOGNE, amw, 238. 

„ Prince- Archbishops, Electors 

of, armt, 141. 
QOLOHBIER, ann«, 186. 
COLOM BIERS, DE I^, anne, 88. 

„ „ X<( ScleiuxHiroi' 

que, 2, 28, 190. 
Colonia Nemausensis, 277. 
COLONNA, oniM, 802, 451 ; PI. XXXIL, 
flg. 7, p. 868. 
Princes, 16. 

etc, aT-nii, 363. 
OoUmiut, 721. 
Colour on Colour, etc, 10*2. 
Colour* represented by lines, etc., 64. 
, , , , i)lanettt and precious 

stones, 65. 
,, u*ed in Ileraldrv, 60. 
COLQUHOUN, arwi4, i4S. 
COLSTON, arnut, 270. 
COLT, arnu, 237. 
out. The, 237. 

Columbine or Amaranth colour, 61. 
COLUMBUS, arme and aumnentation, 
312, 647; PI. XXXIX., flg. 1, p. 
Column, PI. XXXIL, fig. 7, p. 358. 
Columns, 868; PI. XXXlt., fig. 8, p. 

COLVILE, am*, PI. XIV., flg. 6, p. 
., of Diiffleld, label, 416. 

COLVILLE, arm*, 167, 169. 

,, of Ochiltree, anus, 169. 

Combatant, 220, 680. 
Combats, Armorial, 88. 
COMBAUT, DE, Dues de COISLlN, arm*, 

Oomble,' 721. 
COHBOURG, Counts, arm* 95. 


Comb* as chaiiges, 891. 

Comet, The, 810. 

OomeU, 706, 721. 

Comile, 728. 

COM INS, arm*, 842. 

C0MMBNGE8, OounU of, arms, 164. 

,, *eat of. Count BER- 

NARD v., 164. 

Commonwealth, motto of, 604. 
COMNENA, ANNA, biography of her 

father, 26. 
COMNENI, ai-nu, 874. 
COMPAGNI, at-nu, 180. 
CompartiHent, 680. 
Compartment*, 641. 
Oomplemient, 680. 
Compon, 721. 
Oompo^ii, 680, 721. 
Company, 680. 
COMPTON, badge, 768. 

„ of Catton, arms, 226. 

COMYN, arm*, 681. 

„ Earl of BUCHAN, arnu, 842. 
CON AN, Count of BRET AG NE, 80. 
Conclave, Master of the, Italy, mark of 

oflloe, 646. 
CONCORDIA, Duchy of, arm*, 509. 
CONDjg DE COBRNEY, ariM, 876. 
„ Princes de, amu, 671. 
,, „ beml, 429. 

CONG ALTON, arm* and /a6e;, 420. 
CONGREVE, ann*, 848; PI. XXXL, 

flg. 8, p. 346. 
CONIGAN, Barons de ROZ, arm*, 151. 

II I. Earl of 

CAMBRIDGE, badge of, 824. 
Cotsfoined, 681. 

,, m lure, 260, 081. 

ARTHUR, Duke of, label, 
423 ; Fig. 82, p. 421. 
CONNISBURGH, *eal* and arm* of GIL- 
BERT and WILLIAM, 60. 
Conr/ue-marine, 721, 722. 
CONRAD I., Eniiieror, HOLY' ROMAN 
EMPIRE, cromi, 621. 
,, IL, teal of the Empsror, 828. 
CON ROY, Counts of, arm*. 681. 
CONSiniNE, orji«, 175. 
Comttable, Grand, French, mark of office, 

CONSTABLE, aruu. 98. 
CONSTANTINE XIV., Bmiieror of 

ConstellatifmA, 809. 
CONTARINI, anil*, 1?2. 
CONTI, Princes de, bend, 429. 
Contoiee, 618. 

Contoumi, 220, 681, 683, 721, 746. 
Contri, 717. 
Contre, 789. 

•appaunii, 721. 
•Oande, 721. 
•ban-e, 721. 
„ 'Chevi-onnf, 721. 
-eomponne, 721. 
'Karttle, 722. 
-J'aece, 721. 
•JlamOant, 722. 
•kerminf, 72?. 
'pali, 721. 

• I 




( 78o) 

Contrt-ptMaHtf 723. 
„ 'Vair, 681, 722. 
„ -roH-rf, 722. 
CONTRIZAKIS, amu, 66. 
CONYERS, arms, 876. 
Cookinff-pot aa a chHrge, 275, 889. 
COOLE, anns, 848. 

,, DB, (tniUf 34S. 
COOLMAN, amu, 843. 
COPE, arms, PI. XXX., flg. 4, p. 832. 

„ WILLIAM, armtt 825. 
Ctoped, 88. 
Ooquerellat 722. 
Cbquiliofftj 722. 
C;i)9«a^, 686, 708, 722. 
Cbr de ehaau, 691, 722. 
CORBET, t€xiU and aniu of ROBERT, 
„ THOMAS, amu, 264. 
CORBOLI, aniM, 264. 
Cordi, 704, 722. 
Cm-deU, 681. 
Cordelikre, 646, 722. 
CORDOVA, arnM, 128, 478, 507. 

„ Dukes of 8E8A, amut, 473. 

„ MarquiaeB of PRIEGO, anm^ 

„ Oonnto de FERIA, amit, 

„ Counts of FIGUEROA, anm, 

507; PI. XLL, fig. 5, p. 
,. tupporteri, 644. 

CORKE, arms, 222; PI. XXII., Hg. 9, 

p. 222. 
Cormoranf 722. 
CORNAIS, DES, aitiu, 181. 
CORKEILLAN, Counts de, armt, 264. 
CORNEILLE, ai-na, 106, 264. 
Comet, 722. 
CORNET, art)u, 886. 
Comjlowersy 387. 
CtontAt/^ MagcLziru, 246. 
Ctomii»-€, 722. 
ComuA ckouffh, 681. 

CORNWALL, Earl of, arm$, 257; PI. 

XVII., flg. 1, 
p. 172. 
,, $eal, 465. 
EDMUND, Dnke of, arnu 

on Eagle, 030. 
JOHN of Eltliam, Earl of, 

briturtf 488. 
RICHARD, Karl of, amu, 
172, 465 ; ai'itis on Eagle, 
630 ; »eal of, 245. 
„ thield of the Dnchy of, 

CORNWALLIS, amu, 264; PI. VIIL, 
fig. 12, p. 100. 
„ Marqnesees of, atttu, 114. 

Ooronel or Cronelf 682. 
Corontt, Dueal, PI. L., fig. 21, p. 623. 
Cwrmut <if Baron, PI. I^, fig. 86, p. 623. 
„ Baron of Belgium, PI. L., fig. 9, 

p. 628. 
,, Baron, of France, PI. L., fig. 25, 

p. 628. 
,, Baron of Oemaany, PI. L., fig. 

81, p. 628. 
„ Count qf France, PI. L., fig. 23, 
p. 623. 












Coronet qf Count qf Germany, PI. L., fig. 
80, p. 62.S. 
Doge qf Venice, PI. L., fig. 10, p. 

Bart, PI. L., fig. 84, p. 628. 
FlU de France, PI. L., fig. 19, 

p. 628. 
OrandMn* of Sovereigns, PI. L., 

fig. 7, p. 628. 
Marquis, PI. L., figs. 27, 32, and 

88, p. 623. 
Marquis of France, PI. L., fig. 

22 p. 623. 
Xoble ofQemiany, PI. L., flg. 28, 

p. 623. 
Nobles, PI. L., flg. 12, p. 628. 
President, PL L., flg. 26, p. 

Prince of France, PI. L., flg. 20, 

p. 628. 
Princesses, PI. L., flg. 6, p. 628. 
Sons of SoctrtigTU, PL L., flg. 5, 
p. 628. 
„ Vidame, PL L., fig. 11, p. 628. 
Viseount, PL L., flg. 85, p. 

Viscount of France, PL L., flg. 
24, p. 623. 
, , Viscounts qf Netherlands, PI. L., 
fig. 8, p. 4(28. 
CorontU, 617, 623 ; PI. L., p. 623. 
„ as charges, 879. 
„ attempt to restrict use of, 687. 
Coipus Christi College, Oxford, arms, 

CORRARO, arms, 89, 182. 
CORRER, amu, 132. 
Coi», 282, 722. 
CORSANT, amu, 168. 
CORSBY, amu, 141. 
CORSICA, amu, 200. 
CORTEZ, HERMAN, amu and augm/enXa- 

iitm, 312, 363, 547. 
CORTI arms, 202. 
C0RU5f A, Connto of, a)iiM, 506. 
COSSE, Due de BRISSAC, arms, 781. 
COSSENTANIA, Count of, amu, 639. 
COSSINGTON, amu, 824. 
COSSO, Vfreath, 614. 
COSTA, DA, ar»u, 206. 
COSTANZO, ariHS, 206. 
COSTE, DB LA, arms, 876. 

„ DU VIVIER, DE LA, arms, 
COTGRAVE'S Roll, 404. 
Cotice, 131, 182, 681. 
„ en baii-e, 722. 
„ Varieties of, 188. 
Cotiei, 96, 681, 722. 
„ en ban-e, 728. 
Coliced, 12R, 681. 
COTONER, amu, 838. 


Ootoy^, 681, 728. 

COTTEBLANCHE, anas, 892. 

COTTERS, amu, 277. 

(k>ttes as chaiges, 392. 

Cotton plant, 2SS, 

Otttonian MS., 556. 

CowM'd, 682, 723. 

Cowhant, 217, 282, 681. 

OouehL 138, 600, 634, 681, 693, 723, 783. 

COUCI, amu, PL VII., flg. 2, p. 90. 

( 78i ) 


GOUCT, amu, 48, 70, OS. 

BNGUERRAN. DB. wal and 

$hitld of, M. 
mottOj 92. 

Queen MARIB DB, 9^ 
teal, 48. 
„ tupporUTM, 628. 
COUDENBERG, aniu, 861. 
COUE, aitns, 183. 
Qmleumt, Une, 276, 728. 
Couli$»i, 728, 784. 
Connt, coronet of a, 624. 
„ Senator of the French Empire. 
badffe, 276. 
Counter-changed 1 109, 681. 
„ -eempony, 681. 
„ -eiHbattled, 681. 
„ •ciH^icn/, 681. 
„ ./ory, 681. 
„ -fMUMnf, 220, 681; PI. XXII., 

fig. 2, p. 222. 
„ -rampant, 220. 
„ -mlm^U, 681. 
„ 'trippant, 681. 
„ •(}*tpptn(r, 681. 
C&unterpolnit, PI. IV., fig. 12, p. 62. 
Oountervair, 681 ; PI. IV., fig. 8, p. 62. 
Coupi, 79, 123, 681, 687, 728, 728. 

„ altemativement, 728. 
C&upeau, 723. 
Ooupeaux, 311. 

COOPER, Lonl, supporters, 298. 
Ooupleelose, 140, 682. 
„ •de-chiens, 728. 
Climp{^«, 723. 
C9um>U, 232, 682, 728. 
Oaurbi, tl82, 685, 728. 
GOURCELLES, arms, 81. 


supporter, 680. 
COURCY, DE, 17. 

,, „ Barons of Kingaale, arms, 

COURLAND, Dnke of, arms, 215, 800. 
Cburonni, 682, 728. 
COURRAN, arms, 185. 

brisure, 461. 
COURTENAY, arms, PI. XIX., flg. 8, 
p. 192. 
M>el, 415. 

ROBERT DE, label, 417. 
Sir HUGH, lambrequin, 

„ WILI.IAM, Archbishop 

of CANTERBURY, anns, 487. 
COUBTENBY, aruts, 192. 
„ badge, 753. 

„ Earl of DEVON, badgt, 

Oourtine, 728. 

COURVOL, Marquises de, arms, 159. 

Connts, ai-ms, 205. 
C0U8TIN, 12. 
Cbtott, 723. 
OMtrert, 728. 

COVERDALB, amis, 81. 
Cbirart/, 682. 
COWDREY, arms, 112. 
COWB, arm«, 188. 





COWELL, arms, 684. 
Cows, 284. 

,, as supporters, 686. 
CRAB of Rohslaw, arms, 273. 

CRACOW, arms, 860, 504. 
CRAI6MYLE, aniu, 51. 
Crampet as a badge, 758. 
Cyam|M(t«, 682. 
Otimpon, 728. 
Cramponni, 724. 
CVwnpofu, 682. 
Oafuxfm, 181, 682, 724. 
Crane, The, 263. 
CRANE, ai«m«, 80. 
CRANSTOUN, Lords, anju, 208. 
CRAON, arms, 100, 484, 449. 

„ MARIE DB, arms, 449. 
CRAUFURD of Cartsbum, bordure, 560. 
CBAUFURD'S Peerage, 88. 
Craupaud,** Sobriunet of " Johnnie, 278. 
CRAVEN, Earls of, arms, 168. 
Lord of, 51. 
aiiiu, 406. 
DAVID, Earl of, seal, 

Barla of, arms, 170, 257, 

Lord, cre^, 005. 
Lordship of, arms, 518. 
REGINALD, snpporteis, 
, , Kal and amu of Sir DA VI D 

LINDSAY, Lord of, 5L 
,, Sir GREGAN, 288. 

CRAW KURD, arms, 124, 282. 
CRAYEN, arms, 264. 
Crajiflsh, 278. 

CRAYN, Duchy of, amu, 256. 
CRECY, Battle of, 598. 
C>'hnailliire as a chargv, 390, 724. 
Crhuaux, 678, 724. 
CrhieU, 124, 724. 

„ line, 76. 
Crenelle, 682. 685. 
Criiiuier, 818, 724; PI. XXIX., flg. 4, p. 

CREQUY, arms, 318 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 4, 
p. 318. 
,, Dues de, amu, 318. 
Crescent and Star as a badge, 587. 
„ as a badge, 584. 

Ci-oss and, PI. XXVIIL, fig. 4, p. 

•decrescent, 307. 
for second son, 444. 
,, -increscent, 806. 
Crescents, PI. XXVIIL, flg. 2, p. 808. 
CRESPIN, anus, 206. 
CRB8SY, antis, 337. 

Battle of, 591. 

LOUIS DE, Conite de FLAN- 
DRB, 752. 
„ Count of NEVER8, 
Crest, 599. 

„ -coronet, 599, 614, 682, 
Crestetl, 682. 

CRESTIENNOT, amu, 840. 
CresU, PI. XLIX., p. 607. 

Derivation of early, 605. 
German use of, 608. 




• I 

( 78a ) 

CiruU, Materials of which they were made, 

„ Right of eccleslaetice to nse, 604. 

„ Right of women to nee, 604. 
CriU, 0S2, 724. 
CrHe, 724. . 
CR^IENTB, First four Barons of the, 

CRSVANT.Marqvisd'HUMI^RES, aniM, 

CRiVECCEUR, arms, 189. 

„ PHILIPPE DE, arms, 

CREWES, ami, 213. 
Cri-de-guerre, 724. 

CRICHTON of Frendranght, arm*, 212. 
CriekeU, 284. 
CricUade Chnreh, 585. 
Crini, 682, 724. 
Crinetl, 682. 
CRISPIN, arms, 206. 
CROATIA, Kingdom, arms, 494, 498. 
Croe, 724. 
Ooehet, 724. 
Crocodile, The, 273, 277. 
CROEI^, amu, 870. 
GR0B8EN, ormM, 382. 

., Vioomtes, arms, 882. 
CROFTS, JAMES, an,i9, 146. 
Crowuieg, SalU des, 10, 12, 71, 117, 168, 
170, 212, 218, 221, 887, 842, 846, 873, 
898, 418. 
Croiiii, 724. 
CrouetU, 682. 

briture, 451. 
CroUmnt, 806, 724. 

eontoumi, 807. 
'toumi, 806, 691. 
„ -r«-«^, 307. 
Croi*$ette«, 724. 
CWnx, 682. 
„ bourdonriie, 160. 
,, Mn, 724. 
„ Paui en, 724. 
„ perronie, 689. 
CROIX, LA, Dnc de, CASTRIES, amu, 

CROMWELL, aniu, 214, 487. 

OLIVER, Wat Seal, 487. 
,, RICHARD, (?rca(Srai, 487. 

CRONBERG, anus, 489; PL XXZIX., 
fig. 4, p. 481. 
„ Counts of, augmentation, 

„ Counts ZU, arnie, 489. 

CVviut, 682, 705, 781. 
CroneU, 847. 

CRONENBURG, Barons de, arms, 187. 
CRONSFELD, Connty of, w-ms, 192. 
CROSBIS, nrtns, 522. 
Ct'OM, 682 ; PI. XIV., fig. 1, p. 140. 
„ aiguisie, 162 : Fi?. 60, p. 164. 
„ ana-ee, 158 ; PI. XV., flg. 2, p. 144. 
„ and Crescent, PI. XXVIlL, fig. 4, p. 

„ arellan/e, 162. 

botonn^e, PL XIV., fig. 11, p. 140. 
botonny, 160. 

M Jft'hy, 160. 
Ch/rary, 152 ; Fig, 49, p. 164. 




Cross, ooupetl, 158. 
„ eresUet-filchy.ieH. 
„ crosslets, PI. XV., fig. 4, p. 144. 
„ „ Jltehie, PI. XV., fig. 5, p. 

„ JUur-de-lisie, 158; Fig. 57, p. 164; 

PI. XIV., fig. 10, p. 140. 
„ Jfeuretti, 158. 
„ JUny, PI. XIV., fig. 9, p. 140 ; Pig. 



58, p. 164. 
or Fuury, 157. 


cUehet, 161. 

,, flurty, 158. 

„ /0T7np, 158. 

„ fourefue, 161. 

„ fourchetti, 161. 

„ fourehy. Fig. 59, p. 164. 

„ Greek, 158 ; Fig. 48, p. 164. 

„ grinf^, 161, 276 ; PI. XV., fig. 6, 
!>. 144. 

,, auivre, 161. 

„ KumxMtty, 158. 

„ Latin, 152. 

„ long, 152. 

„ MtUtese, 155 ; Fig. 55, p. 164. 

„ m/oUne, 158 ; Fl. XV., fig. 1, p. 144. 

„ „ for eighth son, 444. 

„ „ square pierced, PL XIV., 
fig. 6, p. 140. 

„ „ voidetl, PI. XV., fig. 3, p. 144. 

„ of Calatrava, 158. 

,, „ JerusaLem, 156. 

„ „ Lorraine, 152 ; Fig. 52, p. 164. 

„ „ the Pauion, 151, 152; Fig. 47, 
p. 164. 

„ „ Toulouse, 161; PL XV., fig. 7, 
p. 144. 

,, or a'ossed croulet, 162. 

,, paJtie eheequy, PL XIV., fig. 5, p. 140. 

•I II fornife, 168. 

„ peUonee, 157 ; Fig. 56, p. 164. 

„ „ voided, PL XlV., fig. 8, p. 

„ patriarchal, 152 ; Fig. 50, p. 164. 

•I l>a«y, 158 ; Fig. 58, p. 164. 

„ „ Jitehy, 155 ; Fig. 54, p. 164. 

„ pimmeU]f,\60. 

„ pommetty, 160. 

,, potent, 156 ; fig. 51, p. 164. 
II Jitchy, 156. 

„ ,, -fiuadrale, 700; PL XIV., 

fig. 7, p. 140. 

„ quarter pierced, PL XIV., fig. 8, 
p. 140. 

,1 raguly, PL XIV., fig. 2, p. 140. 

,, recereellee, 160. 

„ retranchie, 162. 

„ ,, and pommettie, PI. XIV., 

fig. 12, p. 140. 

„ sarceUy, 160. 

„ (((u, 161, Fig. 61, p. 164. 

„ The, 116, 141, 151. 

„ urtUe, 162. 

„ Varieties of, 142. 

„ Victoria,\'>5. 

„ wary roidnl, PL XIV., fig, 4, p. 140. 
OxwM, 682, 704. 
Crosslet, 6S2. 
CrossleU, 162. 
CROSSLEY, o»iiu, 162. 
CR0U8NILH0N, anns, 156. 
CROVILLE, arms, 142. 
Ci'ov:, The, 264. 
Croten ami B^ish as a badge, 59.'. 

„ closed, 620. 

( 783) 

Oovn, Daupkin'Mf PI. L., fig. IS, p. 623. 
„ Bfutem, PI. L., fig. 18, p. 623. 

. »» 

Au(€i*n or antique m a charg«, 879. 
Imperial f PI. L., fig. 1, p. 628. 
King nf Franct**^ PI. L., fig. 17, p. 

Mural, PI. L., fig. 16, p. 628. 
Saval, PL L., fig. 15, p. 623. 
Of CHARLEMAONK, m ft chftrg«, 

of Italy, CroM of the Order of, 244. 
Order of the, in Pnuela, 546. 
Prince of Holy Roman £Mpire'$f 

PI. L., fig. 29, p. 628. 
Prinre nf (Fatea', PL L., fig. 8, p. 

Boyal, PL L., figs. 2 and 4, p. 628. 
Koyal, as a charge, 880. 
„ Vallary, PL L., fig. H, p. 628. 
Cromud, 662. 






Ooifiu, 617 ; PL L., p. 623. 
p. 876. 


Antupie, PL XXXIII., fig. 5, 

„ aa charges, 879. 

J>uco/, PL XXXIII., fig. 4, 


p. 876. 
HfThomMj 887. 

Type of Foreign Royal, 619. 
r, ADRIAN JJE^oniM, 450. 





ANTOINB DE, nrnut, 449. 
Bishop JACQUES DE, avLgvuenia- 

Hon, 537. 
Gointes de CHIMAY, ai-nu, 127. 
FERRY DE, Seigneur de ROUX, 

c(nn«, 450. 
Duke of 80RIA, etc., amu, 449. 
JEAN DE, ar^M of, 11, 449. 
Marquises d'ARSCHOT, ai-nu, 

Princes de, arm*, 127. 
„ „ de CHIMAY, cniu, 127, 

Ci'ozier as a charge, 871. 6S2. 

ann$, 575; PL XLVII.,fig. 6, p. 578. 
CRULLS, arvu, 276. 
Crusade, Second, 81. 

„ Third, 82, 86. 
CnuiU, 682. 

Crutily or Cruuily, 112, 682. 
CRUBSOL, Due d'USBZ, anm, 94. 
CRUYCKENBERO, Counts de, ann«, 136. 
CvMt ann, 204, 682. 
CUcu»i5er«, 844. 

ariM, 440. 
CulTtrin as charges, 366. 
CUM AN I A, an^i9, 501. 
CUMBERLAND, fnulpe, 753, 754. 

Duke of, laJljel, 422. 
CUMYN of Altyre, THOMAS, ual, 435. 
CUNNINGHAM, oriiw, 150; PL XVL, 

fig. 12, p. 146. 
„ amu in Lyon Office 

Register, 400. 
Citpt as charges, 381. 

„ covered, PL XXXIIL, fig. 7, p. 376. 
Curved, 682. 
CUSA, Cardinal NICOLAS DE, arms, 

Cuskimu as charges, 377 ; PL XXXIIL, 
fig. 9, p. 876. 




CUSTANCE, aitiM, 185. 
CUSTINB, Marquises de, arms, 182. 
Cyelainor, 724. 
Cfnnbals as charges, 888. 
CYNAN, MERQ^U AP, arms, 199. 
CYPRUS, ANNE of, seal, 467. 

„ aitiu, 467. 

,, King of, 644. 

seal, 468. 
CZERNABOR, arms, 4P1. 
CZERNIN, Counts, augmentation, 540. 
CZERWNIA, arms, 66. 

DABANCASA, arms, 475. 
DACHS, arms, 239. 
DACHSBERO, Counts ron, anus, 289. 
DACRE, arms, 278, 641 ; PL XXVI., fig. 
12, p. 266. 
tnotj 585. 
Lord, badge, 758. 
of GILSLAND, badge of Lord, 

qf the North, badge and arms of. 

Lord, 585. 
Sir EDMOND, anns, 407. 
„ THOMAS, second Lord, tovnb, 
DADVISARDS, Marquises de TALAI- 

RAN, anus, 838. 
DAGSBURG, Counts, arms, 744. 
„ ,, laM, 424. 

Daim, 724. 
DAISIE, arms, 836. 
Daisy, The, 836. 
DALBIAC, anns, 277. 

DALHOUSIB, Earls of, arms, 123, 147. 
DALINQRIDGE, arms, 142. 
DALLAWAY, Rot. JAMES, Iwpiiry into 
the Origin and Progrtss qfHemtdryin 
England, 24. 
DALLINGTON, arms, 217. 
DALMATIA, arms, 494. 

„ Kingilom, arms, 498. 

Dahnatinne, 724. 
DALRYMPLB, anns; PL XV., fig. 9. p. 

DALZELL, PL XX., fig. 1, p. 198. 

,, of Bins, supporters, 648. 

DALZIEL, arms, 197. 
DAM, Viconitee von, anns, 862. 
DAMAS, 12. 
DAM lOLI A. amu, 95. 

supporters, 633. 
DAMPIERRB, DE, arms, 411. 
DANBY, arms, 847. 
Danceiti, 682. 
Dancetty line, 76 ; Fig. 23, p. 75. 

„ or J)ancette, 682. 
Dancki, 682, 691. 

„ line, 76. 
DANE, ai-ms, 155. 


of, arms, 581. 
-SAMSOB, Counta of, 
arms, 681. 
., suppmters, 281. 

DANIEL, Book of, 196. 


( 784) 


DANIEL in Heraldry, 196. 
DANIBLI, oriM, 196. 
DANIELS, ai-M», 196. 
Danish, Jtepalia, 620. 

„ Crou of the Order of (he, 

510, 666. 
Datue^ 683. 
DANTE ALIGHIERI, arm*, 186. 

„ JHvinaOotHmeUia; VJt\femOt2d9. 
,, quoted, 275. 
Danube RiTer, 408. 
DANVBR8, 17. 
lyARCT, amu, 828. 

„ Lord of, caini, 476, 5Sl. 

DARTMOUTH, EARL of, amu, 283. 

„ „ 9upportein,6iS. 

DARWIN, omw, 278. 
DASBOURO, oniu, 165. 
DAUBENBY, nrnu, 124. 
DAUBENY, aehUrnMnt, Fig. 92, p. 600. 
arnu, 849, 418, 488. 
batiptt 754. 

arnit, 488. 
„ manUinff, 618. 

DAUBERNOUN, Sir JOHN, arnu and 

pennon^ 650. 
DAUBIGNY, anM, 124. 
DAUN, Counts of, arnu, 96. 
DAUNEY, an/w, 292; PI. XXVIL fig. 7, 

p. 288. 
DAUNT, arnu, 852. 
DAUPHIN, arnu of the, 424. 
emviut of the, 269. 
eroten of the, 620. 
The, 269, 725. 
.11 *u-pporter8, 686. 
DAUPHIN^, arnu, 424, 429, 468, 672, 632, 
8hUld of, 629. 
DAVID, 12. 

arnu, 21, 884. 
I., King of Scotland, 288. 
IL, „ „ 84, 442, 


DAWRE, at-nu, 281. 
DAWSON, arnu, 155. 
DAWTREY, arnu, 188. 
DB GAUMONT, AbieMaire dTArehMoffU, 

De, definition of term, 8. 
„ Uae of term, 10, 11, 12, 18, 14, 15, 16, 

17, 18. 
De run A Cautre, 681, 725. 
„ en Fautrt, 681, 725. 
DEATH, 17. 
Debrui$ed, 688. 

debschUtz de SCHADBWALDE, 

Barona, arnu, 820. 
DieajdU, 725, 780. 
Decked, 6SS. 

DEGKEN, Connti van der, artiu, 890. 
Deereteent, 688. 

and Inere$eent, PI. XXVIIL, 


f I 


fig. 8, p. 808. 
DEDNAM, amu, 167. 
DEBGHBROODT, arnu, 814. 
D^aiUant, 725. 
Defamed, 683. 
D^ftndu, 227, 706, 725. 



DifenuM, 227, 735. 
Digouttant, 684, 725. 
Degraded, OSS. 
Degree*, 688. 

DEIGHSLBR8, amu, 150. 
DBISIE, orrtu, 886. 
Deeded, 683. 
Dejoint, 725. 

DBLAFIBLD, arnu, 342. 
DELAHAY, ar%n», 146. 

amu, 182. 
Barons, aif/u, 842. 
„ Lords, supporter*, 288. 

DELAWARR, badge, 753. 

Earls of, arm*, 124. 

„ •tt;iporeer<, 294. 
Lords, 17. 
DELBENB, amu, 882, 716. 
DELFT, Oade Kerk at, 645. 

arm*, 819. 
LAUMB, amu and augmentation, 541. 
DELMENHORST, arnu, 510, 666. 
Delve, The, 186, 187, 688. 
Dhnanehi, 725. 

DBMAY, 681, 684, 650, 651 ; PI. XXXIV., 
fig. 1, p. 388 ; PL XXXV., 
fig. 2, p. 415. 
,, Le Costume, d^aprk* le* Seeaux, 
87, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54, 56, 57, 58, 208, 
254, 803, 328, 356, 869, 402, 685. 
Demembered, 688. 
Dimembri, 683, 725. 

Demi, 683. 
„ -lion, 220. 
„ -ramwe, 677, 091, 725. 
„ -vol, 260, 725. 
DEMMIN, }Veapms of War, 46. 
Denehi, 725, 729. 
„ line, 76. 
Denrhure, 725. 
DENHAM, (u-)ju, 191. 
,. shield, 648. 
DENIS, amu, 202. 
DENMARK, 379. 

amu, 118, 272, 666; PI. 

MIL, fig. 9. p. 100. 
Ensign of Prince of, 208. 
Kings of, using escuchecn en 

surtout, 487. 
MARGARET of, amu, 476. 
Marks of iUegitimacy in» 

motto of, 666. 
Royal Arms of, 610. 
Royal House of, 581. 
Pvrtraii of MARGARET of, 

„ supporter* of, 666. 

DENNIS, a^-nu, 226. 
DBNNI8T0N, amu, 442. 
DBNNI8T0UN, on«#, 180. 
Dtnti, 725. 
DtnteU, 691, 725. 
„ line, 76. 
DBNYS, ar»M, 226. 



( 78s ) 


DefMolU Collection, 888. 

J)ipouaU, 735. 

DERBY, m-nu of town, 739. 


MOILLB, CoanteM of, 258. 
Earl of, 324. 

Earlt of, amUf 71, 207, S5d. 
FERRERS, EarU of, 52. 
HENRY, Earl of, mo/, PI. 
XXXV., fig. 4, 1). 415. 

„ itarulard of liarl of, 558. 
DERIKO, BM»ay by Sir EDWARD, 307. 
DERNBACH, Coanto of, amu, 202. 

„ ZU DERNBACH, Coiinte, 

arm§t 409. 
DERVAL, Barons, arnu, 126. 
DERX, arnu, 28L 
Ditarmi, 725. 

DESPALaU, amu, 863. 
DESPENCER, aruu, 412, 426. 

Sir HUGH LE, arva, 412. 

NORWICH, hrUvLrt, 487. 
DttrivMnUy 688. 

DEUX PONTS (Zwei-BrQcken BltecheX 

oonceMion of a omit to HAMAN (or 

HANNEMANN), Comte de, 751. 
Jkvelopedy 088. 
DtviU, 808. 
LiviHy 725. 
DEVON, Earlfl of, arvu, 93, 214. 

,, „ bodfftt 758. 

,, HUGH, Earl of, 417. 

,, Dnkw of, amu, 288. 


»eal, 460. 
Dexter, 6S8. 

„ tide of thield, 59. 
Dexirt, 725. 

Dextro^h'ert.^Q^, 726, 786, 748. 
DEYBROOT, arvu, 814. 
DBYN, amu, 160. 
Diademi, 682, 726. 
Diamond, 65, 688. 
Diapered, 683. 
Diapering, 114. 
Diapr^, 683, 726. 
DIAZ, arm; 138, 214, 810. 
DIBBITS, anm, 336. 
Dice as eharras, 387. 

DICK-CUNYNGUAM, achievement, 610. 
DICKSON, arm*, 309. 
DIDIER DE MORTAL, arme, 203. 
DIDRON, Jnnalee Archaoloffviuee, 294. 
DISK, ai-m*, 281. 
DIBNHEIM, arm$, 120. 

„ VON, arm^, PI. X., fig. 6, p. 

DIETRICH, arnu, 156. 

„ DE DIEDEN, Barons, amu, 

DIETZ, anne, 580. 
Dieu et man di-oit, 664. 
Dizain/, 688, 726. 
Ditfamed, 219. 
D^ertnce, 684. 

Dijjference by a bordure, 487. 

„ by an augmentation, 448. 


by an eMcucheon en mrtaut, 448. 
by addition itfa label, 413. 

„ an Ordinary, 

„ ,, Mark of Cadency, 

„ „ email ehargeg, 406. 

„ „ „ eeetuheon in 

cki^, 427. 
„ by change of the minor charget, 

,, ,, tincture, 408. 

„ „ the boundary line 

of an ordinary, 432. 
„ by dinUnithing the number ^ 

charges, 484. 
„ by quartering, 446. 
„ by the insertion qfa Cdnton, 425. 
Diff'erenced, 6S8. 
D\fereneing or Cadency, 896. 

„ Principal modes of 402. 

DIG BY, badae, 754. 

., Earl of Bristol, arms. 881. 
DIGHTON, ojTia, 237 ; PL XXIV., fig. 5, 

DIJON, amu, 288. 

P. 286. 
„ Stained glass of Notre Dame at, 


«ler, ciniu. 145. 
DILLINGTON, arms, PL XXL,flg. 7, u. 

Dimidiaied, 688. 
Dimidiation, 459; PI. XXXVIIL, p. 468. 

,, per bend, 477. 

Dimbiui, 726. 
DIONIS, King of PORTUGAL, 578. 
Disclosed, 683. 

Dismembered or Demembered, 217, 683. 
Displayed. 259, 684. 
D'utiUing, 684. 
Dtffin«(ion, 684. 

DITMARSHEN, arms, 510, 666. 
Divise, 119, 126, 726; PI. X., flg. 6, p. 118. 
Divise en chevron, 81, 680, 726. 
DJURKLOW, Barons of, arms, 509. 
DOBRZBNSKY, Barons, arms, 268. 
DOES, 281. 
Dog, The, 240, 632. 
„ „ Sea, 800. 
DOGGE, arms, 268. 
DOIGNON, MaiqneaMsGUIOTDE, amu, 

Dolce, 726. 

DOLENGA, ai-ms, 670 ; PI. LVL, fig. 12, 
p. 671. 
„ Counts, arms, 8.^. 

DOLFINI, arms, 270 ; PI. XXVL, fig. 8, 

J). 266. 
DOLKS, arms, 272. 
DOLL, arm*, 272. 
Doloire, 726. 

DOLOMIEU, Marqais de, amu, 289. 
Dolphin, 268 ; PI. XXVL, flg. 7, p. 266. 

„ as supporter, 632. 
Dolpfdns, PI. XXVL, flg. 8, p. 266. 

„ a» fupporters, aSd. 
DOMAIGNE, amu, 96. 
Domesday Book, 399. 
Domestic Charges, 389. 

( 786 ) 

]X)MKY£RS, amiM, 891. 
DOMHARD, amuand augtMnUUiont 543. 
Jkminut miki aeljutorf 666. 
DONATI. aniu, 79. 
DONATO family, 16. 
Do^fonni, 705, 706, 726, 744. 
DOKODEI, arms, 386. 
DONOP, Barons tod, armtf 865. 
D0NZ6, arnii, 72. 
DONZBL, arm», 72. 
DOORS, amu, 281. 
DOFF, lerecUA, 614. 
DORAND, arm<, 124. 
DORB, amu, 28L. 
DOR6BLO, amw, 318. 
DORIA, arm, 256. 
„ familj, 16. 
Dornuint, 217, 684. 
DORNBERO, Baroiu von, arnu, 87. 

„ D£ HBRTZBERG, Barons, 

anu$, 78. 
DORNHEIM, aruu, 271. 
DORO, arnu, 752. 
DOTTBNSTBIN, aniu, 752. 
JMmbU, 684. 
J>otU»U-quatrtfoU, 684. 
„ 9tt«tc^, 684. 
„ <r&;Aettr, 684. 
„ titMmrtt 684. 
A>«5(ed, 684. 
DOUBLET, annij 138. 
i>Du6;eto, 726. 
Jkmgltu Bookf 518. 
DOUGLAS, 1st Earl of, 202. 

„ ,, $upport€r, 681. 

„ Ist Marqaess of, armSy 518, 

and MAR, WILLIAM, 1st 
Earl of, aeal, 514. 
„ JAMBS, 2nd Earl of, amu, 

>» »» »» »i Utoelf 

„ ARCHIBALD, 8rd Earl of, 

seal and 
annjs, 514. 
„ „ 4th Earl of. 

taU and 
artUM, 514. 
„ „ 5th Earl of, 

anntf 515. 
6th Bnrl of, 

MeeUy 518. 
Duke of 


Earl of, teal, 
„ LordofOAL- 

LOWAT, teai and arms, 
ai-nw, 178, 202, 405, 514, 615, 
510, 518, 5 1», 506; PJ. XX., 
fig. 12, p. 108. 
amu in Lyon Office Register, 

bordure, 568. 
Conntess JONET, wife of 

WILLIAM, Earl of, 517. 
Earl of Angus, 455, 566. 
„ crest, 294. 
badge, 598. 
MORAY, 516. 















DOUGLAS, Earls of ORMOND, 516. 

ANGUS, 455, 566. 
anns, 178, 515. 
MORTON, oruM, 
„ seals and compart* 
nunt, 642. 
JAMES, 7th Earl of, 515. 
„ 9th Earl of, MoJ and 
amu, 515. 
Earl of AVON- 
DALB, 615. 
MARGARET, Ck>ant6M of, 

,. '*Fair Maid 

of Galloway," 516. 
NICOLAS, seal, 682. 
of Caven, amu, 566. 
„ Dallcelth, anns, 405. 
„ Drnmlanrig, anus, 566. 
„ ., bordure, 441. 

,, Lochleyen, anus, 488. 
„ Lugton, Sir HENRY, seal, 

„ Nith^e, Sir WILLIAM* 

arnu, 6664 
SeUaiuander of, 648. 
Sir GEORGE, an^u, 618. 
Sir JAMES, 202. 
Stronghold of, 516. 
WILLIAM, 6tli Earl of, 516, 
8th Earl of, 516, 
„ seal 

and arms, 516. 
Earl of, seal, 632. 
DOUGLASES, "Red" and " Black," 518, 

DOULLE, arnu, 279. 
DOUMA, amu, 469. 
DOURS, Seigneur de, amu, 411. 
Dove cots, 863. 
Doves, 267. 
Dovetail, 683. 

Dovetailed line. Fig. 26, p. 75, 77. 
DOWNE, Earl of, arm, 290. 
DOWNES, amu, 282 ; Pi. XXIIL, fig. 10, 

p. 228. 
DOWNSUIRE, Marquis of, supporter, 

DRACHENFELS, Barons von, amu, 

Draco, 291. 
Dmconrs, 291. 

DRAEGK, Barons de, amu, 292. 
DRAGE, arms, 292. 
DRAGHO, amu, 292. 

„ DE, amu, 292. 
DRAGOMANNI, arnu, 292. 
Dragon, 290, 684, 726 ; Pi. XXVII., flg. 7, 
p. 288. 
as a badge, 768. 

f I 

f f 







„ as a erest, 600. 

„ inonstreux, 293, 726. 



Red, as a badge, 595. 
shirld encircled by a, 689. 

Dra^nni, 726. 
Dragon* as supporters, 686. 
Dragon's liead, 65. 

„ and tail, 65, 684. 


( 787 ) 




DRAKE, an<a, SOS; Fl. XXVII., flg. 8, 

DRAKELOWB, armt, 200. 
DRANDORFF, VON, artn$, 460. 
Drave River, 4V8. 
DRAYTON, amu, 142. 

„ MIGHABL, armi, SOS. 

Dreaden China, Red tircrdt on, S47. 
JDreM, ArticltM of, m cbaiigM, 875. 
DREUX, arnu, 461, 684. 


Dnke of BRITTANY, 425. 
Connta de, amu, 170. 
PIERRE DE, MoZ and fteretum 
* of, 55. 

•on of Count ROBERT of, 
arms. 485. 
,, KtU and »ecr€tum, of ROBERT 
II., Comte de, 5ft. 
DRIE8CHE, VAN, amu, 186. 
DrinHng gtaua aa charge*, 882. 
DROGOMIR, amu, 207. 
Drvnudary, The, 231. 
DROUALLEN, amu, 280. 
DRUAY8, amu, 68. 

DRUMMOND, amu, 128, 486, 455 ; amu 
in Lyon Office Regiiter, 
400; PI. XL, llg. 10, 
p. 124. 
Earl of PERTH, Compart- 

vunt and motto, 642. 
JAMES, Sculptured Monu- 
menu qf lona and the 
Wut Highland*, 867. 
of Blair, briture, 486. 
,, Colqahalzie, brisurt, 486. 
„ Conoraig, amu, 70. 
„ Kildiee, arm», 190. 
„ ,, brUurt, 486. 
„ Pitkellonj, hruurt, 486. 
Qneen Annabella, 455. 
Sir MALCOLM of Stobball, 
]>rum» aa charges, 883. 
DRYLAND, arm», 124. 
DU CANGE, 89, 250, 585, 588. 

„ Ditaertatio de Ir^eriorie 

jEn SumiimcUibu*, 248. 
„ DiuerUUicn tur Vhutoire tie 

St. Louie, par de Joinville, 
,, Oloeeariwn, 655. 

DUBLIN, arme of See, 375. 
„ Citj, (urme, 861. 
,, Marqnen of, arme, 888. 
DUBOIS, arms, 315. 
DUBUISSON, aiint, 166. 
Ihie, 726. 

Ducal coronet, 684. 
DUCAS, amu, 141. 
Dueiper, 084. 
DUCKINFIELD, arme, PL XIV , flg. 4, 

p. 140. 
Duckling, The, 266. 
Ducte, 267. 

DUCKWORTH, erett, 300. 
DUCLAU, Barons, arme, 277. 
DUDLEY, Earl of WARWICK, badge, 
,, Lord, amu, 218. 
DUDZEELE, Van, arme, 142. 



• I 


DUFF, Earla and Duke of FIFE, arme, 

DUG DALE, Sir WILLIAM, Anltfnt Ueagt 

qf Rearing Amu, 446, 561, 563. 
DUGUID, amu, 155. 
DUINEN, amu, I.H6. 
DUIVEN, arme, 136. 
Duke's standard. Length of, 654. 
DUNBAR, ALEXANDER, of Weatfield, 
feee, 480. 
arme, PI. XVII., flg. 8, p. 172. 
creet, 610. 

Earls of, arme, 171, 405. 
„ bordure, 442. 
„ creel, 605, 610. 
Earls of MORAY, arme, 878. 
of Westfleld, amu, 378. 
Sir DAVID, of Cockbnm, 

brieure, 442. 
Sir PATRICK, label of, 414. 
DUNCAN, Admiral (Viscount), arme and 

augmentation, 688. 
DUNDEE, CitT of, arme, 334. 

,, Earl of, 140. 
DUNGLAS8, Barony of, 522. 
DUNKELD, See of, amu, 152. 
DUNNING, amu, 162. 
DUNOIS, FRANCIS, Comte de, eeal, 580. 
„ JEAN, Coiute de, amu, 571 ; PI. 

6, p. 577. 

•I II II •fo'i 520. 

DURANT, amu, 162. 
DURFORT, amu, 120. 
Durham, Vieitation of, 866. 
DURHAM, BUTLER, Bishop of, anas, 

Bishop of, anue, 560. 
Earl of, amu, 2.S5. 

a)*iiu, 154. 
JAMES, brieure, 483. 
„ of Grange, 488. 

DUROY, Barons, atiMii, 68. 
DUBRANT, amu, 162. 
DUSSEAUX. amu, 124. 
DYMOCK, amu, 345. 
DYRRHN, Counta Ton, augmentation, 

DYSON, om*, 806. 
DZlULl, arme, 276. 

Sagle, 242. 

Apostolic, 633. 

amu on breaat of an, 680, 630. 

aa a badge, 758. 

as a creet, 600. 

as a euppcrter, 640. 

-demi, aa supporter, 684. 

displayed, PI. XXV., flg. 1, p. 260. 

Double headed, 248. 

German, 660. 

Imperial, PI. XXV., flg. 8, p. 260. 



Two-headed, Pi. XXV., fig. 2, p. 
Eaglee as tuppwtere, 635, 636. 



( 788 ) 

BaffUMj Imperial and Iranian, aa ertittt 
„ Parta of, 859. 
BagU'a claw aa a baxlgt^ 753. 

„ head, PI. XXV., fig. 4, p. 200. 
„ „ a« a crt9tt 606. 
„ Ug9, 260. 
„ wing*, 259. 
Eaglet, 259. 

EAM, Sir HENRY, arm», 221. 
Barl Manhal of BNGLANI), mark of 

office, 644. 
„ SCOTLAND, mark of 
ofBoe, 644. 
Earl's coronet, 624. 

„ statuiard, Length of, 654. 
Bartk vwrm, 279. 

East, oniu of Emperora of the, 249. 
JBiutem cTtucn, 684. 
Batables aa charges, 891. 
EBERSPERO, Barons Von, amu, 227. 
BBERSTEIN, Counts of, arvu, 214. 
„ Connty of, arnu, 473. 

SIBYLLA VON, 473. • 
branch f, fOl, 726. 
AmUU, 703, 726. 
BearteU, 700. 
BearteU, 81, 726. 

„ en hiyurrt, 82, 726. 
„ en tautoir, 82, 727. 
J&cartefurea, 700, 727. 
ECCLES of Kildonan, arm$, 848. 
ECCLBSHALL, arm*, 403. 
SeeUgin*tie(tl thi-ng* a* charge*, 371. 
Bchaneri, 685, 727. 
„ line, 76. 
^A«<^« d^escalade, 692, 727. 
Aftt9u«l<>, 99, 680, 727. 
ieimf, 138, 727. 
ECK(X)ORD, ai-m», 299. 
ECKHARD8TEIN, amu and augmenla- 

timi, 543. 
J&i<U<f, 708, 727. 
Belipged, 684. 
JSK>rcA^, 727. 
ieot, 720, 727. 
An><^, 701, 727. 

„ centre, 727. 
fyetU line, 76. 
£(Tan, 600. 
Scran, 727. 
Eerevi*8e, 727. 
iSctt, Xte i', 727. 
„ en 6annt^e, 727. 
„ {a pointe de r, 59. 
„ It nombril de, 50. 
.£cu«f0n, 169. 

„ en abiine, 727. 
„ Faux, 727. 
„ «ttr le tout, 700, 727. 
J^yn'-SaKno'eC, Un, 052. 
EDEIRNION, Barons of, guppcrten, 047. 
EDGAR, amu, 660. 

ATHELING, arm* assigned to, 




InUl, 423; Fig. 81, p. 
arm* in St. Giles' Church 

in, 476. 
Caatle of, 605. 
City, arm*, 860. 
Trinity Collegiate Church 
in, *eal, 476. 






EDMOND80N, Complete Body of Heraldry, 

EDMONSTON, arm*, 307. 
EDMON8TONE, arm*, 178. 
EDMUND (Cronohhack), Earl of LAN- 
CASTER, monument of, 114. 
„ son of RICHARD, Earl of 
CORNWALL, etc., arm*, 245. 
EDNOUAIN, arm*, PI. XXVIL, flg. 2, p. 

„ Loid of LLYS BRADWEN, 

arm*, 274. 
EDWARD, arm*, 364. 

I., Ring of ENGLAND, 84, 
50, 70, 128, 170, 322, 377, 887, 
404, 421, 4SS, 454, 457, 458, 

465, 479, 482, 713; arnui. 
Pi. LL, fig. 1, p. 661 ; badge, 

323, 587; helm, 600; Jioll, 
408, 412, 428, 448, 652, 553 ; 
*eal of, 330. 

II., King of ENGLAND, 128. 
257, 404, 408, 412, 448, 457, 

466, 479; and his Queen 
ISABEL, 438; arm*, PL, 
LL, fig. 1, p. 661 ; JtoU of, 
260, 403, 407, 408, 409, 412, 
413, 418, 553, 554 ; teal of, 

IIL King of ENGLAND, 221, 

324, 357, 416, 417, 420, 438, 
468, 554, 592, 653; arm*, 
PI. LL, fig. 2, p. 661 ; badge, 
588, 593; ere$t, 600; PI. 
XLIX., fig. 2, p. 607 ; foun- 
dation of ORDER of the 
GARTER by, 664; motto 
of, 664 ; PHILIPPA,Queen, 
of, 257; Roll of, 287, 289, 
404, 407 ; *tal of, 824, 330 ; 
*tandard ascxibed to, 589 ; 
supporter* of, 661. 

IV., King of ENGLAND, 167, 
308. 485, 530, 567, 553, 587 ; 
arm*. Pi. LL, fig. 4, p. 661 ; 
badge, 501 ; motto of, 664 ; 
MeatoreUion qf, 17 ; Axst and 
fourth *eal* of, 500; *tan'' 
dard of, 588 ; tupporter* of, 
v.. King of ENGLAND, arm*, 
PI. LL, fig. 4, p. 661 ; eup- 
porter* of, 662. 
VL, King of ENGLAND, 884 ; 
arm», PI. LI., fig. 4, p. 661 ; 
badge, 594, 596; supporter* 
of, 662. 
„ CONFESSOR, King of 
ENGLAND, 30; arm*, 44, 369, 417, 
474, 475, 528, 656, 661, 664; erovm, 
EDWARDS, cre*t, 610. 
BE, VAN DER, arm*, 894. 
EECKHOUT, VAN DEN, ann*, 143. 
Eel, The, 272. 
Eel-tpears as charges, 393. 
EESE, VAN DER, arm*, 237. 
EESEN, arm*, 163. 
Mffar^, 701, 702, 718, 727, 732. 
^trar<mche, 728, 782. 

^euilU, 704, 728. 




( 791 ) 




ESCLIGXAC, D', or»M, 213. 
EHGOBAR8, arui*, 390. 
E8COCE, LB ROY I)', omw, 177. 
ESCORNA, artM, 174. 
ESCORNAIX, arw*, 181. 
Jbeucheon, 169, 68(3; Fl. XIX., fi;. U, 
p. 192. 
en tuHoutf 459. 

,, Difference by an^ 
English and French, Point$ of^ 

Figs. 15, Itf, p. 59. 
in chiff, Difftrenct bjf addition 

o/nnall, 427. 
t^fpretence^ 686. 
or Jneiieucheon, 169. 
mrUmt, Th«, 483. 
BSEL, ariMjr, 237. 
ESBNDORF, VON, onM, 82. 
E8KEN8, aumuentation, 546. 
ESME, anMi, PI. XXII., flg. 5, p. 222. 

„ Sir HENRY, anm, 221. 
BSNE, MICHBLB D*. anns, 450. 
BSPAONET, MarqniMs d', aruu, SSS. 
B8PARBEZ, omu, 710. 
S»nuire^ 686. 

„ definitions of terra, 7. 
SSgUIROU DE PARIBU, artat, 120. 
E88ARTS, 8eigii«nr de«, 12. 
B88CHEDE, artM, 379. 
E8SEX, Earl of, anm, 417. 

„ „ snpposedeflig7of,45,115. 

„ Earls of, 589. 
„ „ ttniM, 81. 

Suonier, 730. 
Btmorant, 259, 702, 780. 
BMori, 730. 
JBataeadf, 780. 

E8TAMPE8, ann*. PI. X., fig. 4, p. 118. 
Chevalier d', Baflli de 
VAI.BNCB, ariM, 119. 
„ D', amu, 146. 

Bttaye, 730. 
E8TC0URT, ai-nw, US ; PI. X., fig. 2, p. 

BSTE, House of, 492. 

„ arm*^ 256, 50S. 

arm* and augmenttUitm, 538. 
,, Princes Von, augitienta- 

tion, 539. 
ESTIS^SAC, an)U, 91. 
Atoe, 704, 780. 

E8T0GE8, Counts de, arm*, 113. 
BttoiU, 808, 686; PL XXVIII., fig. 6, p. 

ESTON, M^u*, 299. 

BSTOUBLON, Marquises d', arww, 284. 
E8T0UTEVILLE, ar7»«e, 94. 
E8TRtiE8, GABRIELLE D', 570. 
Jtot, 730. 
ETAMPES, Comtes d*, ann*. 429. 

„ Dues d', amui, 342. 

ETGHINGHAM, arm», 96, 182. 
EtfU, 780. 
ETHELRED, King of WE8SEX, fonm 

assigned to, 156. 
fAinceUant, 703, 730. 
Elnile, 730. 

anMy 334. 


Btrnacan Vmos, Figorea on, Figs. 1, 2, S, 

4, p. 18. 

ETTBNRBICH, M. Ton, arm* and aug- 

tMntation^ 540. 
BTTRICK FOREST, Lordship of, omw, 

BU, tomb of Comtes d', 8S2. 
BUBING, oniu, 89, 182. 
Buc<Uwi¥.» frrancA, 839. 
BUGfiNIE, Brnprev of FRANCE, 890. 
BUGEN1U8 III., Pope, 40. 
EURIPIDES, description of devices on 

shields, 29. 
European countries, naiianiU arr»t of 

chief, 661. 
EUSTACE, ci*M(, 568. 
EVA, aimt, 196. 
EVANS, amur, 833, 389. 
EVANS' tour Thra^tgk Botnia and tke 

Nerzeporina, 251. 
Bvasie, 780. 
EVE, anuM ascribed to, 23. 

„ in Heraldry, 195. 
BVBRBUX, D', 17. 
EVERSLEY, Lord, auppm-ttrM, 648. 
BVBR8TB1N, ch&teau of, 642. 
Bvide, 780. 
JfrW, 219, 780. 

CE8TBR, annn, 79. 
„ ar%n*, 464, 465, 505, 635. 
„ Comtes d', bend^ 429. 
„ Conntj and PahHe of, 515. 
„ PHILIP, Comte d', 464. 
BWIG, ann*, 320. 
Bxcerpta Hittorica, 6, 201, 292, 556, 557, 

558, 574, 584, 587. 
Exchequer KolU qf Scotland, 465, 517. 
EXETER, badife, 754. 

„ Dnlte of, arm*, 439, 474, 555. 


of, wvUf 437. 

Bishop of, 5ri4mre, 437. 
See of. arm*, 871 ; PI. XXXIIl., 
fig. 6, p. 376. 
EXMOUTH, ere*t of Lord, 610. 

,, Loi-d, arm*, 588. 
Expanded, 686. 
Expectation, Ann* of, 478. 
External ornament*, 690, 617, 627. 
EYCK, VAN, an»j», 123, 148, 840. 
Bye, PI. XX., fig. 11, p. 198. 

„ Human, 201. 
Bf/e», 686. 

PI. LV., fig. 8, p. 669. 
BYRE, SIMON, an>M, 239. 
EY8ENBACH, Hi*toire du BUunn, etc.. 

88, 46, 673; PI. 
XXXVII., fig. 3, p. 
„ on hereditaiy arms, 87. 

BYTZENRIET, arm*, 106. 
BZE, VANDER, arm*, 68. 
EZEKIEL, Bookof, 253. 
BZEL, ami*, 864. 

FABBRT, artn*, 141. 
FABYAN'S ChronicU, 17. 
FACCHINETTI, ai-m*, 318. 
FADA, arm*, 294. 
Faggot as a badge, 758. 
FAGNANI, arm*, 256. 

( 792 ) 


FAHRBEGK, arm*, 120. 

FfUUi, 1S9, 688, 730. 

FAIRFAX, ornu, 107 ; PI. IX., fig. 7, p. 

FALAISE, 9eal of, 838. 
FtUehion as a badffe, 584. 
FaUon and Fetirrlork as a badgt, 591. 
„ aa a badm, 7&8. 

rMii»(f, Fl. XXV., fig. 7, p. 260. 
The, 261. 

with crown and sceptre as a badge, 

FALCONBRIDGE, aniu, 212. 
FALCONER, Lord, ann*, 481. 

of BalmakeUie, Sir JOHN, 
anat, 431. 
„ of HawkentoD, RICHARD, 

9tul and arm* ot, 50. 

d'ANJOU, artM, 261. 
FALEBOWSKI, armn, 871. 
Falkirk Roll, 175. 
FALI/OWES, ar>M«, 231. 
FALMOUTH, Earls of, amw, 824. 

,, Visoounta, »\Lj>porter9, 800. 

FaM, 780. 
/h/t^, 686. 
Families, List of eminent, who never nee 

particale, 12. 
Fan, 686. 

Fan-sha}ied crt»t, 599. 
FanaJ, 678, 780. 
FANCHON, on/w, 181. 
FARE, LA, artM, 713. 
FAREMOUTIERS, *eal of Abbey of, 829. 
FARNE4B aniM, 502, 50S. 
FARQUHARSON, arm, 212, 518. 
/ruc^, 92, 677, 781. 

,, -c(mirt'fa»ci, 781. 
Faice, 128, 780. 
AX 730. 

\\ en diriM, 126, 677, 726. 
,, rfmtee, 125. 

FAUCHE, PIERRE DE LA, aeal of, 58. 
FAUCIGNY, AONES DE, seat, 458. 
,, arm*, 458. 

, , Princes de LUCINOE, amu, 

FAUCONBBRO, amu, 212. 

„ Earls of, arm», 128. 

FAUDOAS-BARBAZAN, avw* and aug- 

wentaiion, 539. 
/Viu/^Afon, 584, 680. 
FAULQUEZ, Marqais of, anm, 186. 
Faun, 304. 
FAURE, DU, ami9, 197, 879. 

„ „ Ahrigi Mithodique de la 

Science Heraldifjut, 2. 
FautM, 686. 

/iniuiifii, j>« ariM^ff, 752. 
FAUSYDE, ROGER, ^^ea^, 441. 
^aiu;, 686. 

„ -ecu, 564, 731. 
FAVELETTE, omw, 145. 
FA VERGES, arm*, 140. 
FAVlfeRES, ann*, 844. 
FAVYN, TAedtrtf d^Uonneur et de Cheva- 

lerU, 134. 
FAWKES, aiiM, 184 ; PI. XVIIL, fig. 8, 

p. 190. 

PAYDIT, 12. 

FAYETTE, M. DE LA, 659. 

„ MetHoireM de la, 660. 

Feathered, 849, 686. 
Feaikere, Ottrich, as crest*, 592, 607. 

„ Peaenck, as ere«t«, 607. 
FBATHER8TONB, arm*, 222. 
FECHENUACH, Barons von, arm*, 279. 
^(tft, Nuiuan, 206. 
FELBRCDGE, odmji, 217. 
FELDKIRCH, Cunnty, a)*m«, 878, 499. 
FELDMANN, augtHentatUm, 546. 
FEND, an<M, 802. 
Fennel, 344. 

FENTOUN, JANET, danghter of WAL- 
TER, laibel, 419. 
FENWICK, antu, 266 ; PI. XXVL, fig. 4, 

p. 266. 
Fer-de-fowrchetU, 686. 
„ -fance, 731. 
„ -moline, iW7, 692. 
„ 'moulin, 781. 
FERDINAND I., King of Simin, 577. 

,, II., Imperial diploma of, 

„ and ISABELLA of Spain, 

arm* on e.igle, 683. 
„ EmiMror, *tal, 499. 

F^RE, LE SIRE DE LA, ar%H*, 411. 
FERIA, Counto de, on/u, 507. 
Fermail, 687, 781. 
Fennaux as charges, 877. 

FERNANDEZ, arm*, 853. 
BELLA, natural daughter of King, 
FERNE, Sir JOHN, Blami of Gentrie, 

19, 22, 97. 
FERN LAND, ai-m*, 112. 
FERON, JEAN LB, U Oraml Blazon 

d'Armoiriet, 2. 
FERRAGUT, arm*, 856. 
FERRARA, Duchy of, arm*, 508; arm* 

and augnuntation, 538. 
FERRE, GUY, 466. 
FERRERA, arm*, 128. 
FERRERS, arm*, 184, 355, 856, 474. 
„ badge, 754. 

,, Earl, arm*, 165. 

„ Earls of DERBY, 52. 

,, ,, ,, arm*, 


FERRET, arm*, 354. 
FERRETTE, Counts of, arm*, 271. 
FERRI, arnu, 846. 
FERRIER, o/'MU, 356. , 
FERRI^RE DE TESS^, arm*, 178. 
FERRI ERE, LA, arm*, 356. 
FERRIERES, HENRI DE, arm*, 856. 

e»curheon of. 
Fig. 90, p. 
„ „ tecUnndthield 

of, 54. 
FERRONAY, arm*, 257. 
Ft**, 78, 123, 687 ; Fig. 88, p. 116 ; PI. 
XI., flg. 1, p. 124. 
„ and canton Joined, 167. 
„ archett, PI. aI., flg. 7, p. 124. 
,, betieeeen chevron*, PI. XIII., flg. 6, 

p. 136. 
„ eheequy, PI. XL, flg. 5, p. 124. 



( 793 ) 

Ftu, cotited, PI. XI., fig. 12, p. 124. 

„ dancetUe, PI. XI., fig. 2, p. 124 ; PI. 
XL, fig. 8, p. 124. 

„ onbattled, PL XL, fig. 4, p. 124. 

„ Farted per, 79 ; Fig. 29, p. 77. 

„ Per, 687 ; PL V., fig. 8, p. 80. 

„ pomt, 69, 087. 

„ to}-tUU, PL XL, fig. 6, p. 124. 

„ Varieties of, 124. 
Fe$ncayn. 108, 687. 
FETTERCAIRN, Thanet of, 818. 
Fettered, 687. 
Feiiei'Aock, 687. 

„ ttA% badge, 758. 
FETZER, ai-M*, 184. 
FBUILLADE, Gomte de la, ann*, 159. 
FevkUU, 698, 781. 
Feuille de pei'vanehe, 741. 
Feuille de »cie, 781. 
FBUQUERAY, artM, 142. 

FEZENSAC, arms, 213. 

,, Marqnis de, arm*, 191. 

FIALIN, Dnc de PEBSIGNY, arm» and 

auffinentatian, 541. 
FIASCHI, Marquises, amu, 882. 
Fiche, 687, 699, 712, 731. 
FIGHTERS, amu, 226. 
FIDELER, a}-vu, 182. 
FIEANDT, an}is, 610. 
Fi^f-en banniire, 652, 639. 
FIEFVBT, oj-ww, 128. 
Field, 686. 
Field* of a single metal, tincture, or fur, 

FIENNES, arm*, 99, 218. 

,, Lord DACRE, badge, 762. 

FIERAM08CA, arm*, 280. 
Fierti, 272, 687, 781. 
FIE»CUI, 16. 

„ ami*, 95. 

FIE8QUE, DE, 16. 
FIFB, Earl of, bentl, 430. 

„ „ ftrMiire, 445. 

„ Earls and Dukes of, ar%n*, 812. 
FIGUEIREDOS, ai-nu, 820. 
FIGUEROA, amu, 478, 506, 507. 

„ Counts of, arm*, 507; PL 

XLL, fig. 5, p. 509. 
FIGUER0A8, aimu, 820. 
Fiffuri, 687, 731. 
Flgureil, 687. 
FU, 781. 

FUe, 187, 414, 687. 
Ji'i<«<, 781. 

,, en bordure, 781. 

„ en erour, 78L 
/?«i*rtf, 731. 

FILIOLA, Princes de, amu, 140. 
FiUet, 110, 133, 687. 
Filum, 187. 
FIM ARGON, Dues de, arau, 218. 

„ Marquis de, arm*, 129. 

Fimb}Hated, 687. 
FINCH, Earls of AYLESFORD, am*, 

Finrhe*, 267. 

FINCHPIELD, a7-m*, 128. 
FINDBRNE, amu, 156. 
FINIEIiB, amu, 201. 
FINLAND, an»w, 666. 





Finned, 687. 
FIOLO, arm*, 145. 
Fircone*, 841. 

„ tree, 816, 817. 
Jire, 814. 
„ -ball, 687. 

,, -6eacoi» as a badge, 594, 768. 
,, -wm* as charges, 893. 
FIRENZUOLA, amu, 224. 
FIRMAS, aniw, 68. 
FintU, 687. 

/i'trvt A'obility Boll, 70, 404. 
FI8CHL, oni«, 239. 
Fi»h, 268. 
„ head*, 272. 
,, -hook as a badge, 753. 
„ „ as charges, 898. 
„ iaiM, 272. 
„ The Cock; 299. 
Fuhe* in pairle, 271. 
Fitek^, 128, 687. 
FiUhed, 687. 
ii^Ay, 781. 

FITZ-ALAN, arm*, 94, 118, 213, 677. 
bodge, 754. 
ronton, 426. 
Earl of ARUNDEL, ai-ms, 

CHRISTIAN, grand- 
daughter of WALTER, 
Lady ALICE, 667. 
THOMAS, Eari of ARUN- 
DEL, 677. 
„ -ALURED, arm*, 128. 

Eari of MUN8TER, arm*, 660. 
„ -GEOFFREY, JOHN, arm*, 438. 
„ -HENRY, arm*, 142. 
„ -HUGH, amu, 140. 
„ -ROGER, arm*, 218. 
„ -SIMON, JOHN, amu, 170. 
„ -SIMONS, ann*, 188. 
„ -8WANNB, ADAM, 689. 
„ -URSE, arm*, 229. 
,, -WARINB, oniu, 82. 

PLYMOUTH, amu, 559. 
FITZGERALD, amu, 467. 

„ Duke of LBINSTER, mp- 

porter, 240. 
„ Lady HENRY, 17. 


ICB, JULIANA, dtr. of, 467. 

etc., arm*, 148. 
FITZHUGH, arm*, 682. 
F1TZJAME8, HENRIETTA, aim*, 559. 
„ HENRY, the Grand Prior, 

ai'ttu, 659. 
„ JAMBS, Duke of BER- 

WICK, arm*, 669. 
FITZPAYNE, badge, 654. 

,, Falchion of, 584. 

UMBERLAND, amu, 569. 
ai-nu, 669. 
„ Duke of RICH- 
a^in*, 668. 
JAMES, Duke of MON- 
MOUTH, arm, 669. 



( 794 ) 

FITZROY, natana ton of King HENRT 

I., arnuf, 554. 
FITZ8YM0N, arww, 887. 
FITZ WALTER, omu, PI. XIII., fig. 6, 

p. 186. 
„ btulge. 754. 


FITZWILLIAM, arnu, 886 ; PI. VIL, fig. 

9, p. 90. 
FIZE, DE, arms, 894. 
FIZBAUX, arms, 66. 
Flags, 649. 

„ Sational, 655. 
FLAHAULT, an,is, 572. 

„ Comte de, 572. 

Flambant, 692, 781. 

„ contrt, 781. 
Flamli^aux a« supporters, 648. 
Flane dextre, U, 59. 
„ stHfstre, It, 59. 
Flanelus, 687 ; PI. XVIIL, fig. 6, p. 190. 
Flanchis, 702, 7S1. 
F/anc«, 687, 781. 

FLANDERS, a^-nw, 58, 212, 247, 251, 449, 

458, 462, 463, 464, 471, 478, 

484, 485, 496, 505, 572, 578, 

574, 576, 631, 6.S6. 

„ BALDWIN, son of Count of, 

brisure, 439. 
„ brisure of, 429. 

„ Count GUY of, 412 ; helmet, 

Count* of, Mo/ji, 45. 
County of, €inHs, 471. 
i)« in, 16. 
Efllgy of WILLIAM, Coant 

of, 48. 
lOLANTE DE, seal, 464. 
ISABELLA, Couute«a of, 

seal, 478, tii9. 
JOHN, Count of, arms, 484. 
LOUIS II., Count of, 462, 
„ van Male, Count of, 
sipnet of, 681. 
Marks of illegitimacy in, 

PHILIP I., Count of, seal, 
20, 82, 86, 47, 
,, Oovemor of, arms, 

„ of, beiul, 429. 
ROBERT DE, 464. 
seal of Count ROBERT of, 
„ WILLIAM, Count of, ban- 

fur, 650. 
Flandre, Chronique de, 659. 

„ Les Kecherches ties Antiqmtez ei 
Hoblessi de, 578. 
FLANDRE, BAUDOUIN, Mtarrf de, and 
Ills sister BEATRIX, arms, 
GUI DE, btnd, 429. 
„ HENRI DE, crtst, 592. 

„ „ Conita de 
LODES, btnd, 420. 








FLANDRE, JEAN DE, bend, 429. 

„ „ Seigneur de 
PRAKT, amis, 673. 
JEANNE DE, seal of, 70. 
LOUIS, Comte de, 572 ; seal. 

Fig. 99, p. 648. 
PETERKIN, b&tard de, arms, 

ROBERT, bdtard de, arms, 

YOLANTE DE, Countess of 
BAR, seal, 464, 629. 
„ YOLANTE DE, Counteas 

of BAR, supporter's, 685. 
Flank, dexter, 69. 
„ sinister, 59. 
Flanks, 687. 

Flanqve en rotui, 687, 781. 
Flasque, The, 117, 165, 185, 687. 
Flaunch, The, 117, 165, 164, 687. 
Flax plant, 888. 
Fleas, 285. 
FIJ^CHIN, Maxquis de WAMIN, arms, 

badge of the, 665, 745 ; collar of the, 
665, 780, 732; regulations of the, 
FLEETWOOD, Barons, arms and aug- 
mentation, 547. 
FLEHINGEN, arms, 440. 
FLEMAL, amu, 148. 
FLEMING, arms, PI. XVI I., fig. 10, p. 
„ DAVID, son of THOMAS, 

label, 419. 
MALCOLM, aims, 178. 
of Biggar, arms, 178. 
Sir MALCOLM, 178. 
Flesh colour or Carnation, 62. 
FLETCHER of Saltonn, arms, 158. 
FUur-tle-lis, 826, PI. XXX., fig. 5, p. SS2. 
and leopard's j'liee, 888. 
as a badge, 588, 595, 596, 598. 
fiortneie, PI. XXX. fig. 7, p. 

for sixth son, 444. 
supposed origin of, 826. 
FUur-de-lisi, 687, 731 ; Pi. XXX., fig. 6, 
p. 832. 
„ cross, 158 ; Fig. 57, p. 164. 

Fleuri, 687, 781. 

„ contre, 781. 
FUuretf, 781. 
Fleurett^, Cross, 158. 
Fleurettee, 687. 
Fleuretty, 687. 
Fleuri, 687, 781. 
Fleuronne, 731. 
FUury, 112, 687. 
„ CV<M«, 157. 
Flexed, 687. 
Flies, 280. 
Flighted, 849, 687. 
FLOCKHER, auptMntatum, 546. 
FLODDEN, Battle of 435, 529. 
I FLORENCE, anus, 283, 830, 782; PI. 
I XXX., fig. 7. p. 882. 

Carroccio of, (V>5. 
Church of San Lorenio in, 

eoiiM of, 827. 
„ standard of, 655. 

Florencie, 780, 781. 






( 795 ) 

FLORBNT v., Count of HOLLAND, 

Mcrttum of, 245. 
FlOittttf or Flory, 687. 
/Yortn, The, 327. 
Flory, 112, 687, 731. 

„ Ch-ma, 157 ; Fig. 58, p. 164. 
FMant, 687. 
Floirertd^ 687. 
Flotcert, .SI 6. 
Fluvty, CtoM^ 158. 
/Yufe as a charge, 387. 
Foi, 205, 732. 

FOI DE ST. MAURICE, amui, 206. 
FOIX, BLANX'HE DE, artiM, 418. 
„ ConnU of, ann*, 122, 418, 484. 
„ GASTON DE, labtl, 418. 
,, Prince de, (fmui, 1211. 
„ ffo/i of Countii of, 56. 
Foliated, 687. 

FONTAINE, DE, ana*, 170. 
arum, 575 ; PI. XLVIL, fig. 2, p. 573. 
FONTBNAI, arjiM, 01. 
FONTENAV, Murquise* de, aniM, 202. 

arnu, 301». 
FORABOSCill, a;'»M, 118. 
FORBES, aruvt, 229, 446, 447 ; PI. XXIII., 
fig. 5, p. 228. 
„ arhm in Lyon Offict Register, 

„ of Echt,/e«i, 48L 

„ Monymusk, cA«t'ron, 431. 
,, Rires, aniu, 446. 
„ „ Tolouhonn, amu, 446. 

FORBESES in Abertleen, 400. 
FORCE, Duck de la, 12. 
Forceni, 727, 732. 
Force*, 732. 

„ a toiuieur, 732. 
ForeM, 316 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 6, p. 318. 
FOREST, DE LA, arm*, 316. 

,, ,, MarqniMS d'AR- 

MAILLE, arvu, 434. 
„ -LANDRY, brisure, 434. 
FORESTEL, arum, 434. 

Forf^, m\. 

FOREZ, Counts of, arm*, 212. 
FORMANOIRS, ainn*, 202. 
Forme€ or Fomiy, 688. 
Formy, 688. 

,, Cro**, 153. 
FORNARA, onM, 98. 
FORREST, arww, 315. 
FORRESTER, ADAM, *eal, 682. 

„ Lonl, of Corstorphine, anjw, 

,, of Carden, arms, 385. 

FORSYTH, arui*, 289. 
FORT, Baron le, arms, 231. 
FORTESCUE, Earl, ann*, 138. 

„ „ supporter; 606. 

FORTIGUIERRE, aruu, 79. 
FORTUNATI, ar»M, 66. 
Fortuiu, Personification of, in Heraldry, 

FOSCART, arms, 166. 

sure, 451. 
FOSTER'S Baronetage, 83, 84, 529. 

„ Peerage, 83, 84, 194, 562, 604, 


Fotheringhaj CMtle, fl9l. 
FOUCAULD, arms, 212. 

„ Seigneur Ue la ROCHE, 

FoHilre, 705, 782. 

FOULIS, arms, 810 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 8, p. 
„ of I^adhills, 436. 
„ Sir JOHN, of Ravelston, fees, 
Fountam, 193, 688 ; PI. XIX., fig. 5, p. 


„ arms, 240. 

Fowrchi, 214, 688, 782. 

„ Cross, 161. 

Fourreheli, 782. 
FourehHti, 688. 

„ Cross, 161. 

Fourehy, Cross, Fig. 59, p. 164. 
FOURNILLON, ar%M, 336. 
Fourrure, 732. 

t'OUSKARNAKI, arwi*, 195. 
Fox, The, 230. 
FOX, Bishop, anns, 264. 
Fox(* cosLnUrsalieM, PI. XXIII., fig. 6, p. 

FOY, DE LA, ai-tus, 206. 
Fractetl, 688. 
Fraise, 323, 688. 

Fraist*, Pi. XXX., fig. 2, p. 832. 
' Fi'ane-wnton, 166. 

„ //wortier, 1(», 700, 732. 
FRANCE-ANCIENT, ar»u, 112, 329, 354, 

369, 416, 429, 452, 
456, 458, 462, 464, 
465, 475, 502, 505, 
538, 570, 571, 574, 
629,<161; P1.\1IL, 
fig. 8, p. 100 ; arm*, 
PJ. XLlV., fig. 5, 
p. 587. 
„ Jleurt-itc-lis of, 454. 
aniM, 104, 146, 171, 830, 489, 
463, 464, 466, 479, 484, 485, 
488, 504, 505, 515, 521, 529, 
530, 534, 5.W, 555, 557, 559, 
570, 572, 573, 593, 635, 636, 
662, 663, 710 ; PI. XXV., fig. 
3, p. 260; PI. XXX., fig. 5, 
p. 332. 
augmentations in, 538. 
badge, 596. 

bordure of, 172, 488, 439, 560. 
cap of ChanouUor of, 625. 
cap of Premiers Presidents in, 

eki^fot, 539. 

coronet of a baron in, 625. 
„ of a count in, 624. 
„ of a viscount in, 625. 
„ of marquis in, 624. 
coronets of " Its fits de, 620. 
cre*ts in, 604. 
crotens of, 620. 
DAUPHIN of, 642. 





fig. 7, p. 266 ; 269. 
ke of, 11. 

Early Qreat Seals of, 618. 
Form of »kield in, 5f(. 
FRANCOIS, Grand Chambel- 
Ian de, arms, 572. 

( 796 ) 










FRANCE, Great Seals of Kinp of, 
Imperiid Standard of, 660. 
ISABEL of, mo/, 465, 479. 
Isle de, 11. 
JBANNK DB, $eal of, 457 ; PI. 

XXXV., fig. 8, p. 415. 
King JOHN of, 528. 
label of, 416, 417. 
" Le draptau blane" at, 660. 
LOUIS, Dauphin of, mcU, PI. 

XXXVII., fig. 5, p. 447. 
manUinff for princes, duket, 
etc., in, 616. 
,, of the (^ianeelliert 

„ of the Pritident*, 

MARECHAUX DE, emrmut, 

in. of, mily 454. 
„ of, ortM, 465. 

„ „ sea/, 457, 462. 

Marks of illegitimacy in, 570. 

„ office in, 645. 
•MODERN, amu, 429, 538, 

570, 571, 661, 663, 667. 
OriJlaMfne of, 658. 
Origin of Tricolor of, 659. 
Pain de, tnantUnff armoyi, 

Pavilion of Kings of, 616. 
Residence of Kings of, 658. 
Rhyming Clironicle of, 658. 
Jtoyal amu, 112. 
„ cadency of, 439. 
„ flags of, 659. 
„ House of, 505. 
,, „ cretty 606. 

„ eupportere, 6.*)5, 686. 
TotfiieM denoting different ranks 
in, 626. 
„ Use of eMcueheon en ntrUmt in, 

„ ,, laf*el in, A24. 

„ „ fuppartcrit in, 636. 

FRANOHI, anna, 79, 86 ; PI. VI., fig. 4, 

p. 84. 
FRANCIOTI, arm*, 288. 
FRANCIS L, King of FRANCE, erovm, 
620 ; device of, 294 ; moZ of, 
329, 884; PI. XXXVII., fig. 
1, p. 447 ; tvpfwrtern, 686. 
„ II., King of FRANCE, mp- 

portert, 63C. 
„ Emperor, 540. 
FRANCOIS I., badge, 586. 
FRANCONI, artiut, 72. 
FRANCQUART, in Belgium, system of 

lines representing colour, 64. 
FRANGIPANI, antu, 891. 
FRANKFURT. City of, amu, 255. 
FRANKS, CLOVIS, King of the, 826. 
Pirater or Praise, 688. 
FRASER, anm, 828, 406, 446 ; PI. XXX., 
fig. 2, p. 382. 
„ aruM in Lyon Office Xegitter, 

„ HUGH, bordure, 442. 
,f JAMES of Ferendiach, bend, 

,, of OliTsr Csstle, amu, 621. 
„ Sir ALEXANDER, mo^ 441. 








ANDER, label, 420. 
FRAUENBERG, Barons of, amu, 447. 
FRAUNBERG, Baron, amu, 121, 447. 
FRAUNHOFEN, Baron, antu, 121. 
of SWABIA, 244. 
,, I., Emperor, auffitientatUme 

granted by, 586. 
„ II., Emperor, 208. 

,, auffmentationn 

granted by, 


„ 6annerii of , 245. 

III., King of DENMARK 


FREDERICK, nat son 

of, 581. 

IV., Bnrg-graTe of NCRN- 

BERG, 454. 
Emiieror, HOLT ROMAN 

EMPIRE, aotcn, 621. 
Prince of WALES, 423. 
FRENCH Armory, hebiut in, 601. 
blazoti, 109. 
EMPIRE, antu, 572. 
,, Eagle* of, 541 

„ Staffof fi^, 660. 

G. J., On the Banner* of the 
Bayeux Tapestry, 149, 291, 
Gloasary, 709. 

Revolution, effect of, on Her- 
aldic, 25. 
FREPPELS, anju, 284. 
FRERE, aniu, 186. 
FRE8NAY, amu, 71. 
FRESTEL, anuM, 96. 
Fret, 116, 165, 181, 688; Pi. XIX., fig. 11, 

p. 192. 
FRITTEL, amu, 96. 
Prelte, 688, 782. 
I Frttti, 688, 732. 
Fretted, 688. 
Frettr, 96, 683, 782; PI. VIIL, fig. 6, 

p. 100. 
FREVILLE, arm*, 157. 
FRIBERG, amu, 184. 
FRIDUNG, VON, amu, 752. 
FRIEDLAND, Duke of, arm*, 220. 

„ „ augtiunlation, 

FRIES, amu, 295. 
FRIOUL, Duchy, an»u, 508. 
FRISIA, Dimidiatum in, 469. 
FRIULI, Duchy, artM, 508. 
Fi-offs, 274, 278. 
FROHBERG, Counts von, supporter*, 

FROISSART, 85, 878, 59Z 

„ amu, 127. 

FROSCH, arm*, 279. 
FROSCHAMMER, arm*, 279. 
FROSCH AUEU, amu, 279. 
FROSCH L, amu, 279. 
Frvxtid, 688. 
Fruiti, 688, 782. 
Fi-uiU, 815. 339. 
FRUMBS8EL, anas, 287. 
Frying pan* as charges, 890. 
FUCH8S, Counts, arm*, 230. 
FUENSALDA, ai-wM, 198. 
FUGGER, amui, 881. 

( 797 ) 


FUGOER, SpUfftl der SknH da Bau»e» 

Of«t<n*etcA, 247. 
FULFORD, Mupporten, 088. 
FULLER, aniu, 5S8. 
FULLKRTON. arnu, 239. 
FUMEZ, MarquM de, hi-mu, 148. 
Funky, 088. 
FuHtux, 701, 728, 732. 
FumiMhetl, 688. 
FURNiVAL, a)f)i«,403. 

GERARD DE, arnu, 403. 
THOMAS, anuM, 403. 
„ WALTER DE, antu, 408. 

Furs, 68; PI. IV., p. 62. 
„ in Heraldry, iiappoMd origin of, 22. 
., Use of in ditferont countries, 74. 
FUR»TENBURO, CounU of, iinttt, 126. 
FURSTEXUAUER, antu, 158. 
FtJRSTENWARTER, Borona von, at-nu, 

Futeau, 184. 
Fu*ee, 184. 
Fu*^, 688, 732. 

FUSEE DE V0I8EN0N, artns, 184. 
FiutU, 100, 688, 782. 
FUSELIER, LE, artM, 184. 
FutU, 182, 183, 6SS, 782; PI. XVIIL, fig. 

11, p. 190; Fig. 46, p. 116. 
Fiuilly, 100, 185, 688, 782; PI. VIL, 
fig. 10, p. 90. 
„ in beml, 100; PL VIL, fig. 11, 

p. 90. 
FutiU conjoined, Fl. XVIIL, fig. 12, 

p. 190. 
Futi, 6P0, 782. 
Fylfot, 82, 688. 
FYNDERNE, artut, 156. 

OABRIBLI, Princes, 16. 

GAETANI, amis, 182. 

Oai, 732. 

GAINSBOROUGH, Eiirle of, arms, 96. 

GAL, LE, arttu, 98. 

GALBA, nudal of, 828. 

GALEN, VAN, iaoHument of, 626. 

GALEOTTI, aniu, 128. 

GaUre, 688, 694, 782. 

G ALICIA, ariiui of kingdom of, 372, 504. 

GALISSONI^RE, MarquLs d« la, aiiM, 

OalUy, 688. 

„ AS a b<u1ffe, 753. 

„ ai a charge, 867. 
GALLOT. anag, 140. 
GALLOWAY, ALAN, Lord of, 460. 

anM, 427, 460, 514, 515, 

516, 519, 521. 
Fair Maid of, 515, 517. 
„ Lordship of, arm$, 214. 

Oal-trapM, 688. 

GAM, Sir DAVID, amu, 848. 
GAMA, VASCO DA, anaa, 100. 

„ ,, armt and augmentti- 

turn, 547. 
GAMAGHES, Marquises of, arnu, 118. 
GAMARAGE, Comte de, arnu, 819. 
Oa%nb, 222, 688. 
GAMIN, arms, 101. 
Oammadion, 82. 
GAND, BAUDOIN DE, Seigneur d' 

ALOST, artns, 118. 
GANOALANDI, arnu, 82. 
GANGES, Seigneurs de, 10. 
G AN NAY, arnu, 140. 




OanieUt, 688. 
Garb, 688 ; PI. XXX., fig. 12, p. 832. 
„ as a badge, 585. 
„ asaerMf, 005. 
GARBETT, arnu, 85S. 
Garbs, 341. 

GARGIAS, arms, 268. 
GARCIN, arms, 276. 
GARCINI, arms, 276. 
Gardant, 688. 
GARDNER, arnu, 188. 
GARIOCH, arms, 567. 
Garland, 688. 
GARLAND, amw, 886. 

„ GUI DE, seal of, 48. 

(?ami, 690, 782. 

GARNI ER, Comte de GRAY, arnu, 118. 
Gamishtd, 884, 688. 
GARRAULT, aitns, 296. 
Oartrr, 688. 

GARTER, oi-uM of ORDER OF THE, 141. 
„ crested helms above the stalls 

of the Knights of the, 603. 
„ King of Arms, arnu, 424, 525. 

motto, 664. 

skUlds of Knighto of the, 63. 
Stall Plates of the Knights of 
the, 63, 184, 602, 612. 
GARVINE, arnu, 268. 
GASOELIN, arms, 112. 
GASCQ, 12. 

GA8T1NBLS, arms, 364. 
Gates as charges, 808. 
GATTERER, Handbxiehder NeiustenGen- 

ealoffie und Heraldik, 496. 
GAUNT, JOHN of, 488, 555, 578, 588, 590, 

„ „ badge, 591, 598. 

Gauntlet, 688. 

GAVENOR, arnu, 280. 
WALL, arnu, 257. 
GAWDEY, arms, 277. 
Gate, J t, ^2, 688. 

GAZET DE BRANDAY, arms, 279. 
GAZZARI, aniu, 298. 
Ged, The, 271. 
GEDDE8, arms, 271. 

„ W. D., and P. DUGUID, Heral- 

dic Ceiling or' Aberdeen CtUfiedral, 84. 
GEBSDORP, VAN, arms, 183. 
Geese, 267. 
GELENIUS, system of lines representing 

colour, G4. 
GELIOT, La Vraie et Perfect Science des 

Armoiries, 2. 
GBLLHEIM, Battle of, 946. 
Oetn-ring, 688. 

GEMELL, Barons, amu, 198. 
GEMELLI, arms, 198. 
Gemells, 6S». 

OENDRON, arms, 165, 200. 
Genealogist, The, 62, 131, 409, 477. 
GENBSTET, arms, 802. 
Genet, 688. 
GENEVA, anns, 467, 469. 

,, Counts of, amu, 99. 
GENEVILE, Lords, arins, 357. 

GENBVILLE, DE, arms, 47. 

( 798 ) 




aiiMJ, 867. 
„ . SIMONDE, arm, 357. 
QENICEI, anus, 98. 
GENXEP, VAN, arms, 337. 
GENOA, ami*, 288. 

„ Republic of, ami9, 141. 
GENT, VAN, aj-nw, 161. 
Gentlemen, helm of, <501, 602. 

„ Use of term, 6. 

6e7Uleman:» Magazine, 20, 246, 467. 
GEORGE I., Elector of UANNOVER, 
arms, 668. 
„ King of BRITAIN, arm*, 
PI. LIL, flg. 9, u. 663; 
Bxeheqwr Seal of, 662; 
tupportert on Seai o/ Com- 
viou Pleat of, 663. 
II., King of BRITAIN, arms, 

Pi. LII., fig. 9, p. 663. 
III., King of BRITAIN, arms, 
PJ. LIL, figs. 9 and 10, p. 
663 ; labeU of bis family, 
„ IV., arm*, PI. LIL, fig. 10, p. 

663 ; seal of, 598. 
GEORGES, Four, Kings of BRITAIN, 

arms, 237. 
GEORGIA, arm*, 666. 
GERARD, arvu, 143. 
OercUetl, 688. 
Gerbe, 688. 

G4rion, Tite de, 200, 732. 
GERLINGTON, arms, 288. 
GERMAN Armory, htliiuUin, 601. 
eagle, 660. 
Electons, arms, 615. 
Emperor's cnnen, 617, 621. 
EMPIRE, arnu, 254, Mb; PI. 
LI v., fig. 1, p. 667. 
„ PrinoeH (Fiirsten), crovm, 628. 
GERMANY, arms of Emperor on Eagle, 
,, coronet of a Baron in, 625. 

„ Count in, 624. 
crest as augmentation, 608. 
crested helm in, 600, 603, 604. 
a-ovn, Bmperon of, 621. 
donble-headed eagle of, 468. 
Emperor of, anus, 252. 
Emperors of, using escucheon 

en surtout, 486. 
Imperial croien of, 622. 

„ standaM of 660. 
mode of diflfei'encing, 405. 
old Imperial cromis of, 622. 
„ Princess Royal, Empress of, 

label, 423. 
„ standard of the Empress of, 

Tinctures of lantbrequiiu 

in, 612. 
Use of bordure in, 440. 
„ label in, 424. 
„ „ supporters in, 687, 

GEROLDSECK, Counts of, arnu, 215. 

,, Lordsliip of, anus, 490. 

GERVIS, anns, 352. 
GlfeVRES, Due de, 13. 

„ „ supporters, 294. 

GEYER, anns, 261. 
0EY8S, (urms, 299. 






GHELDERSON, lambretiuin, 613. 
GHENT, anns, 283. 

„ JOHN of, Duke of LANCAS- 

TER (see GAUNT). 
GHERARDINI, arms, 128. 
OHIBELINE, ehi^, 119, 470, 588. 
GHIBELLI, Dr, Intent of arms granted 

to, 601. 
GHIGI, aj-ms, 819. 
GHISELIN, anns, 280. 
GHISI, arms, 88. 

GHISNE8, INGELRAM DB, arms, 71. 
GHISTELLES, anns, 136. 

,, MARIA DE, 578. 

GIACINTO, amis, 888. 
GIBBON, 167. 

GIBELLINI, supporters, SOS. 
GIECH, Counts uf, arms, 488. 
GIEDE, aniu, 271. 
GIELIS, amis, 398. 
GIFFARD, anns, 97, 188, 216. 
GIFFORD, anns, 857 ; PI. XXL, fig. 4, p. 

,, of Yester, anns, 621. 

GUI ON, AFF0N80, Conde de, 577. 
GILLART, anns, 296. 
GILLES, iSeigueur de BERLAER, arvu, 

Oillxfloicers, 837. 
Oimm^l-ring, 688. 
GINKEL8, Earls of, ATHLONE, arms, 

GIOLFINI, antu, 72. 
OIOVANELLI, Princes, arms, 370. 
GIRESME, NICOLE DE, supporters, 685. 
GIROLAMI, antu tind aufftnentation, 541. 
Giron, 167, *^ii, 689, 78"^. 
GIRON, amu, 168. 

„ Duke of OSSUNA, etc., arnu, 
I 167, 441 ; PI. XLL, fig. 2, p. 509. 

I GiroHiUints, 732. 
I Oironne, 83, 689, 732, 736. 
I „ tn Croix, 732. 

„ ^fal, 738. 
Oironny, 689. 
GirouetU, 368, 788. 
Gisant, 681, 733. 

GISE, arwM, 101 ; PL VII L, fig. 1, p. 100. 
GISSEY, aniu, 372. 
GIUDICI, antu, 87. 
GIU8TI, anns, 79. 

„ FRANCESCO, arnu and 

augmentation, 6.S7. 
GIUSTO, arms, PI. V., flg. 8, p. 80. 
GLADSTONE, anas, 175. 
G LA FEY, Specimen decadan Sigillorum, 

243 328 621. 
OLAMORUAN, Lords of, 886. 
LAY, antu, 843. 
GLANVILLE, anns, 145 ; PI. XV., flg. 12, 

p. 144. 
GLASGOW, City and See of, anns, 816. 
„ City of, anns and supporters, 

„ Earl of, arnu, 234, 523. 

GLAUBITZER, anns, 748. 
GLAVENAH, arnu, 153. 
QLEDSTANES, anns, 175, 199 ; PI. XVII. , 

flg. 9, p. 172. 
GLEGG, arms, 220 ; PI. XXIL, flg. 2, p. 


( 799 ) 



OLBIGBBN, ConnU of, amu, 214. 
GLEN, oni«, ^6. 

„ MARGARET, wife of ROBERT, 
Glulinff, 274, «S9. 
GLOGAU, Dnkes of, mitu, 255. 
GlOMsary, Engluh, 676. 

„ Fi-ench, 709. 

dniighter of Duke 
amui, 556. 
badgty 754. 

Ducheos of, ariiui, 475. 
Duke of, 642. 

„ ar»H«, . PL 

XVII., fig. 4, 
p. 172. 
,, helm^ 602. 
Earl of, 457. 

,, ai<m«, 79, 257. 
,, badffty 386. 
EarU of, a^tiu, 189. 
HENRY', Duke of, 

InM, 421. 
of, ai'iMf 
„ Duke of, 

boi'fhire, 556. 
THO.MA8, Duke of, 
bH'tftf, 593; Meal, PI. 
XXXV., fig. 1, p. 
WILLIAM, Duke of, 

Duke of, 
InJM't, 428. 
Diike of, 
hUjel, 423. 
Duke of, labtl, 421. 
GLOVER'S Orditiary oj A^-m*, ISS, 14S, 
169, 557. 
„ jRo/f of An>m, 198, 208, 264, 

265, 331, 876, 357, H79, 404, 407, 408, 
438, 458, 4M, 550, 552. 
Glovtn a« charged, 392. 
GOATLEY, ere$t, 295. 
QoaU, PI. XXIV., fig. 3, p. 236. 

„ and OoaVn heattn, 235. 
GOBBI, arnu, 231. 
Qobleis as charges, 882. 
(ioltonk or Ooltony, 689, 721. 
GODEFROI, on/i*, 113. 
GOESHEN, anjw, 202. 
GOETHE, anwf, 308. 
GOFFE, anm, 188. 
GOGH, VAN, ariM, 374. 
GOHAING, arm*, 14.S. 
GOICX, WILHELM DE, brass of, 580. • 
Oold or Or, 60, 65. 

,, shield, plain, t6. 
GOLDEGGER, an»M, f69 ; PI. LV., fig. 7, 

p. 669. 
GOLDINGTON, arnu, 130. 
G0LDI8BURGH, arms, 160. 
OolpeM, 190, 689. 
GONDI, fir»»M, 736. 
GONDRECOURT, ConnU of, ariM, 214. 






GONDY, arm$, 785. 

Gonfalon, 783. 

GONFALONIERS, F^pal pale of the, 

Got^fanon, 058, 659, 689, 7SS. 

,, AS a charge, 872. 

GONTAUT, Duo de BIRON. arms, 

GONZAGA, Dnkes of MANTUA, arm, 
94, 259, 502, 536. 
1st Marquis of MANTUA, auffmenta- 
tion, 537. 
GONZALl^S, uriM, 861. 
GORCKEN, arnu, 290. 
GORCUM, VAN, arms, 203. 
GORDON, ariMt, 227. 485, 486, 521. 
ADAM, 521. 
ALEXANDER, Lord, laJbtl, 

family, ami*, 180. 
heiress of, 605. 
of Caimbiilg, arms, 568. 
„ Enrlston, brisure, 435. 
,, GlMSteritu, brisure, 485. 
„ Hall bead, bordure, 569. 
,, Knokespuck, brisurt, 435. 
,, Lesnioir, /eM, 431. 
„ Ix)ch invar, bend, 480. 
,, Newark, brisure, 485. 
,, Rusco, bordure, 569. 
„ Tetscbie, brisure, 485. 
GORDONS in Aberdeen, 400. 
Gore, 689. 

GORE, Earl of ARRAN, arnu, 168. 
Gorpe, 193, 689. 
GoTfff, 788. 
Gorffed, 689. 
Gorges, 689. 
GORGES, anns, 193; PL XIX., fig. 6, 

p. 192. 
GORKE, arms, 290. 
GORLITZ, VON, nniur, 752. 
arms, 186. 
„ Princes of the HOLY 

ROMAN EMPIRE, an^u, 136. 
GORTERB DE, arms, 140. 
G()RZ, County, arms, 496, 503. 
GOSCHEN, arms, 92, 202. 
Goshairk', PI. XXV., fig. 6, p. 260. 
GOSNOLD, arms, 80. 
GOSPATRIC, ttPi»«, 191. 
GOTHLAND, «n»M, 667. 
GOTSCHEN, VON, arms, 92. 
GOTTER, CotinCB, arms, 186. 

,, ,, aug^Htntatiofn, 548. 

GOTTSCHEE, a^m, 448. 

GOTTSTEIN, Counts von, mpportert, 

GOUDELIN, Vicomtee de FhtBtVEL, 

arms, 346. 
GOUDIE, arms, 278. 
Govffre, 669, 783. 
GOUGH, Lord, arms, 584. 

„ ,, mon%imtnts, 57. 

„ Viscount, supporter, 292. 
GOUJON, mimu%fitnt by, 164. 

741 ; L'Art HeraldUiue, 829. 
GOURNAY, ttJ-WM, 67. 
GOURNBY, arms, 142. 

( 8oo ) 


DE, bri$ure, 451. 
OOUSSANCOUKT, Mart2frologede$ Cheva- 
liers de t'Ordre de S. Jean de Jet'u- 
»aleta^ 365, 402. 
GovMet, 689, 733. 
GoutU, 114, 689. 
(^vtitM, 113, 689, 733, 735. 
GOUVIS, arms, 71. 
GOVABRTS, amu, 184. 
GOWER, oni«, 167. 
„ poet, 597. 
Gowrie Plot, 535. 
GOYER, DE, amu, 184. 
GOYON, 12. 

Dues of VALENTINOIS, armt, 
„ Vioomtesde, amui, 214. 
GRAgAY, aniUy 213. 
GratUd. 689. 

GRADENIGHI, amur, 365. 
GRADENIGO, Cooiits, antu, 865; PI. 

XXXIL, fig. 10, p. 358. 
Gi-a^iienl, 689. 

GRADISCA, Conntc of, amu, 159, bOH. 
GRAFENEOG, Counts von, artnt, 182. 
Ora^fUd, 689. 
GRAFTON, Dnke of, arm», 559 ; PI, XI 1., 

fig. 12, p. 130. 
GRAHAM, ami9, 432. 

ann» in Lyon Ojfflce ReoiHer. 

Dnke of MONTROSE, arm*, 

JOHN, ehtvron, 431. 
of Bracu, Sir WILLIAM, 
briiure, 433. 
„ „ Diindair, PATRICK, son of 

Sir DAVID, /a6ci, 419. 
„ Fintry, Sir ROBERT, 483. 
„ „ brintre, 433. 
„ Garvock, arms, 178. 
„ Inchbrackie, arms, 363. 
„ Kinpnnt, ROBERT, 6rt- 
sure, 432. 
„ „ Morphie, antis, 432. 

„ PATRICK, Earl of 8TRATH- 

ERN, brisure, 432. 
GRAILLY, DE, arms, 418. 

„ JOHN DE, Captal de BUCH, 

erest, 606. 
„ „ label, 418. 


HUGH DE, lUms annay^, 

see DELMAS, 541. 
Dues de, arm*, 214. 
GRANADA, arms, PI. XXX., fig. 10, 
p. 332. 
„ Capilla de los Reyes, 633. 

GRANATA, arms, 339. 
Grand Capitulaire of Champagne, 10. 

, , Bscuyer, French, mark of office, 645. 
GRAND PRE, Conites de, aruis, 94. 

arms, 280. 
GRAND IN, arms, 339. 
GRANDI80N, arms, 428. 

JOHN DE, Bishop of 
EXETER, brisure, 437. 
GRANDORGB, arms, 841. 
GRANGE, arms, 339. 
GRANGER, arm*, 339. 
GRANIER, amu, 339. 








GRANOLLACHS, arms, 279. 

Grant of Augmentation, etc., to WILLIAM 

SPEKE, 760. 
GRANT, ar^Hs, 380; PI. XXXIIL, fig. 6, 
p. 376. 
a)nns in Lyon Office Register, 400. 
crest, 610. 
Dr G REGORY, arms transferred 

to 755. 
NEIL, transfers arms, 755. 
of Anchemack, 755. 
„ Ballindalloch, arm*, 351. 
„ „ brisure, 435. 

„ Carron, brisure, 435. 
,, Rotlneraarcns, bordwre, 569. 
GRANTHAM, HENRY, Earl of, 580. 
GRANTLEY, Lord, suvporUrs, 647. 
GRANTMESNIL, an;w, 121. 
Grants of Nobility, 5. 
GRANTZ, arms, 386. 
GRANULLA8, anus, 201. 
GRANVILLE, arms.- PI. XXXIIL, fig. 11, 
p. 376. 
,, Earls of BATH, arms, 386. 

„ Lords of NEATH, 386. 

Grapes, Bunch (^f, as a charge, 391, 339. 
Grappin, 733, 
GRASSE, arms, 212, 752. 
Orasshnppers, 284. 
GRASS I, arms, 470. 
GRaTET, arms, 289. 
GRAUL. 400. 

GRAVENECK, Connts von, artns, 182. 
GRAY and HASTINGS Controversy, 416. 
,, Conite de, aniM, 118. 


arms, 550, 
Lord, arwn, 174, 485. 
of Ballengamo, brisure, 435. 
„ Hayatoiin, brisure, 435. 
„ Bowick, amis, 215. 
GREAT BRITAIN, ertstsin, 609. 

ti M /toy a/ ar»M of, 661. 

YARMOUTH, arms, 467. 
Oreavfs, 689, 
GREECE, arms, 153, 487, 666. 

GEORGE, King of, arms, 487. 
OTHO, King of, arms, 487. 
supporters, 666. 
Greek Cross, 153 ; Fig. 48, p. 164. 
Gretn or Vert, 60, 65. 
GREEN, arms, 582. 
GREENE, arms, 232. 
GREFEN, arms, 752, 
GREGORY IX., Pope, arms, 256. 
„ XII., Pope, arms, 293. 

G REIPFENSTEIN, Barons von, aniw, 289. 
GREIFFN, arms, 289. 
TER, arms, 132. 
GREINDL, Barons von, amu, 341. 
Grfle, 698, 733. 
Grelier, 691, 738. 
Grelot, 733. 

Grelots as charges, 373, 690, 783. 
GRENADA, an«w, 488, 667 (tee 
,, Kingdom of, arms, 339. 

Grenades, 733. 

„ de Guerre, 733. 
QRENDALL, THOMAS, of Fenioan, 
grants anns, 35. 




( 8oi ) 

ORBNDALL, THOMAS, tranifen arm, 

ORBNEE, LA, anrui, 140. 
OREXIER, anM, 8S9. 

Biahop of, antit, 52. 
ORE8HAM, ci'€*t, 285. 
GRE8LEV, anm, 71. 
GREY, 17. 

and HASTINGS Controversy, 820. 
badfft, 754. 

DB, amu, 192, 412, 428, 554 ; PI. 
IX., fig. S, p. 108. 
Lord WALSIXGHAM, amit, 









of, ai'iiUj 128. 

Duke of SUFFOLK, amu, 412. 
Lady JANE, artM, 192. 
JOHAN DB, anm, 412. 
JOHN DB, aniu, 42S. 

Sir , L€ Bculanlf aniur, 554. 

Ortffhoitnd as a iMuiye, 763. 

WhiUf BB a badgt, 595. 
,, as a crut, 005. 
„ The, 241. 
OrfvhoundH ^s rupporters, 6M. 
GREVS, Earls of STAMFORD, anns, 92. 
6REYSPACH, artiu, 93. 
GREYSTOCK, amu, 188, 474, 041. 

Baron of, ann9, S3t$, 878. 
ELIZABETH, dtr. of 
Lord, 585. 
,, heiress of, 

aiitiK, 474. 
JOHN, Baron of, arww, 44. 
WILLIAM, Baron of, 
grants anuji, S5. 
GRIB, anus, 287. 
Orices, 683, 689. 
Orieeen, 689. 

GRIENEN8TEIN, anna, 93. 
GRIESENBERG, annt, 98. 
GRIFFA, an)M, 288. 
GRIFFENSTEIN, arms, 289. 
Oriffln as a badge, 768. 

,, or Orifon, or Orypfion, The, 286. 
Sea, 290. 
,, as a mpporUr, G40. 
Sffrreant, PI. XXVII., fig. 5, p. 2S8. 
GRIFFIN, Monsire de, orou, 287. 
Cn'^rt'i elates, 286. 
tfpi7. 287. 

A^oti, 289; PI. XXVII., fig. 6, 
p. 288. 
GRIFFITH, Princes of CARDIGAN, etc., 

antm, 212. 
GRIFFITHS, aniu, 833. 
Griifon, see Or\fin, 689, 733. 

„ as Mupportev, 632, 688. 
GRIPFONI, amu, 80. 
GRIFONI, an»M, 99. 
GRIGNAN, Gomte de, anan, 132. 

,, Coiutesse de, 132. 

GRIGNON, Marquis de, 12. 
GRIGNY, Marquis de, antu, 165. 
Qrillagt, 98. 
GriUe», 601, 602, 788. 
OrilleU, 678, 733. 
GrlUeU, 690, 788. 

arnut, 284. 
GRIMALDI, oniur, PI. VII., fig. 10, p. 



GRIMALDI, Princes of MONACO, arm, 

GRIMBERGHB, VAN, amu, 427. 
GRIMMINCK, amu, 241. 
Griuivant, 701, 783. 
GRIMTHORP, armt, 641. 
GRIMTHORPE, ariM, 474. 
GRIND ALL, anM, 157. 
GringoU, 689, 738. 

,, erou, 161, 276. 
Qringoly, 689. 
GRIONI, arm*, 285. 
GROBBENDONCK, ar»u, 187. 
GROENENDYK, amu, 838. 
GROIN, anwii, 715. 
GROL^E, DE, arm*, 404. 
GROONENDYCK, on*M, .370. 
GROSCHLAG, DIE, ann*, 412. 

„ and SCROPE Case, 841, 

„ annir, PI. XXX., fig. 12, p. 

, , Dukes of Westminster, onM, 

GROTE, Qe»chichte der W€{fl*cken Stamm- 

vnppen, 472. 
GROUCHES, Marquises of CHEPY and 

GRIBAUVAL, ami*, 128. 
GRUBBN, ann*, 390. 

Grve, 733. 

GRUNBERG, an>i«, 752. 
Griinenberg AnnoricU, 689. 
GRUTEL, arm*, 71. 
GRYF, herba of, ann*, 289. 
GRYNS, arm*, 201. 
OrypJion-marini, 290. 

„ The (see Griffin), 286. 
GrypUhty, 287. 
GRZYMALA, Counts, amu, 850. 

,, herba of, amu, 850. 

GUALTBRI, arm*, 182. 
Gvaniant, 689. 
GUASCHI, omu, 80. 
GUASTALLA, Duchy, 602. 
GUASTO, Marquises of, augmentation, 

GU^, DU, Vicomtes de M^USSUAUME, 

GUELDERS, Dnohy of, arm*, 99, 491. 

„ Dukes of, arm*, 409, 

„ MARY of, »€al, 476. 

" GUELDRB," ^mM>ria(» of the Herald, 

GUELDRES, Connte of, arm*, 409. 

„ GERARD IV., Count of.< 

arm$, 409. 
„ RENAUD, Duke of, an^u 

GUELF, 470. 
Gnelphic cki^, 119, 538. 

I. It 11 arm* 254: 

fig. 1, p. 
I, II 11 crt*f, 606. 

,1 II >. ifvppoi-ter^, 

GUESPBREAU, amu, 284. 

( 802 ) 


anntf 72, 858. 
6ue%Ue$, 689, 788. 
„ pleitif 64. 
GUBVARA, ann$, 182. 

„ JEAN DE, Comta 

d'ARIANO, wi-eath, 614. 
GUI DB MUNOIS, monk of St. G«rniRin 

rAnzerrois, ariMt 672. 
GUIDE RT, arms, 849. 
GUIGCIARDINl, arm*, 886. 
GUICHE, Duos de, armn, 214. 

,, LA, arms, 148. 
GUICHBNON, Hiatoirt Oinialoffique de la 
MaUon de Suvoye, 454, 579. 
„ quoted, 629. 

GvuUni, 655, 689, 788. 
GUIENNE, aniiM, 581. 
GUI LLANO, arttu, 68. 
GUILLAUME, DB, Seignenn de MONT- 
„ Diike of 80RIA, 450. 

le Butard de SAVOIB, 
arms, 579. 
GUILLIM, Ditplajf of Heraldry, 2, 22, 28, 

64, 188, 225, 486, 529, 535. 
GUINAND8, ami», 277. 
GUINES, Conotaand Dnketof, aniu, 71. 
GUIOT DE DOIGNON, Harquesaes, 
artnM, 265. 
„ „ PONTBIL, Connta, arm*, 
GUIPU8COA, arm* of Province, 866. 
GUI8CARD, 12. 

GUIT^, ROBIN DE, *uproi-ter», 683. 
GUITON, Viooratee de, arm*, 8S8. 
GUITTARDI, artfu, 883. 
GUITTON, antu, 888. 
Ouivre, 788. 
Ouivr4, 689. 

„ cro**, 161. 
GUIZOT, M., arm*, 126. 
GUJANS, anm*, 202. 
GULDINEN, latulfreiiuin, 618. 
GuU* or Red, 60, 62, 65, 689 ; PI. III., flg. 
8, p. 60. 
„ shield, plain, 66. 

Ovmene, 783. 

Gt^NDBL, auffmented crest, 546. 
GUNDRICHING, anta, 91. 
GUNNING, arms, 866. 
OHU'Stone, 190, 689. 

of the EmiMror, 248. 
. GUNTMERU8, quoted by DUGANGE, 
0ur{^«, 193, 70S; PI. XIX., flg. 6, p. 192. 

,, or Gorges, 689. 
GURNET, arms, 142. 
GUROWSKI, Counta, arms and aug^Mn- 

tation, 548. 
GURWOOD, arms, 186. 
Gnsset or Gore, 6*9. 

8WEDEN, 546, 581. 
GUTAK0W8KI, Connta, ai-ins, 856. 
GUTHRIE of Halkentonn, arms, 216. 
GCTINGEN, arms, 825. 
Gntti d^eau, PL VIIL, fig. 12, p. 100. 
Gnitie or OmUUe, 689. 

Gutty or QoutU, 114, 689. 
GUVOT D'ANPREVILLE, a^-ms, 344. 
OvM9, 190, 689. 

GUZMAN, arms, 275, 890, 508; Fl. 
XXX III., fig. 8, p. 376. 
„ Counta of TEBA, arm*, 
Dukes of MBDINA-8ID0NIA, 
arms, 890. 
GWENT, Princea of, arms, 212. 
GWRGANT, JE8TYN AP, arms, 140. 
GWYN, arms, 169. 
GYLDENHOFF, Barona, 314. 

LEN, anus, 581. 
,, Counta of DANES- 

KIOLD-SAMSOB, aniM, 581. 
I GYNES, INGELRAM DE, anns, 71. 
Gyrmi or Oinm, 165, 167, 689; Fig. 44, 

p. 116; PI. XVIIL, fig. 4, p. 190. 
Oyronny of eight, PI. VI., fig. 1, p. 84. 
„ six, PI. VI., fig. 8, p. 84. 
„ twtlte, PI. VI., fig. 2, p. 84. 
„ or Gironny, 83, 689. 
Oyrons, PI. XVIIL, fig. 5, p. 190. 

HA AG, Connta, arms, 121, 447. 
HAARLEM, at&lla in the Cathedral of, 

HAAS, arm*, 288. 
HABERSTOCK, arms, 298. 
i HabUU, 690, 702, 788, 740. 
I HabUed, 690. 

Ha£he Danoisf, 783. 
HACHE, DE LA, anns, 142. 
Naehemens, 734. 

HACKE, aruis, PI. XIX., fig. 7, p. 
„ Baron, antis, 310. 
llaei'le, 690. 
HADDINGTON, Viaoount, augmentation, 

584, 585. 
HADELN, Barona, arm*, 390. 
HADRIAN, coin of, 328. 
HABFTEN, Barona von, arm*, 119. 
HAEHNEL, ar^ii*, 806. 
H AER80LTE, Barona van, arm*, 140. 
HAEZE, LOUIS DB, amu, 572. 
HAGEN, amu, 162. 

„ augmented crest, 646. 
HAGEN8TEIN, citadel of, 642. 
HAHN, Counta, ortM, 265. 
HaU, 690. 
H AIG, arms, PI. IX., fig. 5, p. 108. 

,, of Bemersyde, ivrms, 106. 
Count of, 57. 
ALICE, Connteaa of, 468. 
onM, 58, 460, 576. 
„ of Queen PHILIPPA 
of, 247. 
BALDWIN v.. Count of, 


»» »» »» o*» 

banner, 650. 
Counta of, arms, 98. 
„ , badge, 692. 
„ early quartered co«U« of, 





(8o3 ) 

HAINAULT. FLORERT of, btnd, 429. 
tt M CTtitf 600. 



MARGARET of, mo<, 463. 

PHILIFPA, of, 692. 

Qneen PHILIPFA of, 
»kield of, 468. 

ual and ann* of BALD- 
Count of, 48. 

Mol and artiu of MAR- 
GARET, GonntflM of, 

Mol of FTX)RENT of, 630. 

WILLIAM of, mo/, 460, 

' HANAU, Connto of, arnu, 189, 109. 
Hai%d, A BltBtinff, 204. 

HALBER8TADT, Principality of, arms, 

Haiuiu, 848, 690. 

„ as sujjpcrtergy 643. 

Pi. VI., fig. 7, p. 84. 
HALES, anm, 849, 850 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 

6. p. 846. 
HALEWIJN, arm*, 223. 
Halitant, 784. 
HALKBTT, anuM, 147. 
HALLOFTE, amu, 188. 

HALPENY, oj-nw, 278. 
HALS, Coiinta of, annj, 472. 

bre'/uin, 611. 
Ham, 228. 
HAM, arms, 228. 
HAMBROEK. VAN, arm», 123. 
HAMBURG, arm*, 288, 861. 

a9iM, 271. 
HAMELYN, arm*, 97. 

Home*, 690. 
Hameyde, 784. 

HAMILTON, aruM, 323, 368, 567, 568, 
570 ; PI. XXX., ilg. 1, p. 
arm* tn Xyon CU^ce Rtyi*ttr\ 

Bart., ann«, 484. 
Dake of, mavXling armoyS, 

family, 420. 
Lord BARGENY, arm*, 

Marquess of, 568. 
of Blair, arm*, 568. 
„ Caimes,/eM, 430. 
„ Clydesdale, Sir JOHN, 

„ Colqnot, arm*, 186. 
„ Fynnart, Sir JAMES, 

arm*, 567. 
,, Neilsland, ami*, 171. 
„ „ bordurt, 443. 

,, Presmennan, bordure, 

„ Preston and Fingalton, 
arm*, 568. 
,, „ bordure, 442. 

„ „ Samuelston, arm*, 568. 

HAMING, arm*, 374 
Hammer* as charges, 393. 
HAMNER, arm*, 270. 













human, 204. 

*ini*ter, PI. XX., fig. 7, p. 198. 
Handled, 690. 

arm*, 290. 
HANNET, Barons, anus, 161. 
HANNOVER, arm*, 618. 

„ Elector of, arm*, 287, 380, 

„ Bouse of, arm*t PL LI1., 

figs. 9 and 10, p. 663. 
HANNOVERIAN quartered coat, 068. 
HAPSBURO, antu, 247, 471, 496, 508, 
Counts of, arm*, SI 2. 
County, arm*, 501. 
-LORRAINE, House of, 
HARCHIES, GERARD D', suppmia^ 

HARCOURT, arm*, 126, 449; PI. XL, 
fig. 8, p. 124. 
JEAN D', eagles armo^, 

MARIE, dtr. of JAMES, 
Comte de LONGUE- 
VILLB, 529. 
„ RICHARD DE, arm*, 404. 

.. „ Sir JOHN, arm*, 404. 

HARD, Counta of, arm*, 509. 
HARDBEANE, arm*, 848. 
HARDENBERG, Count, arm* and auo- 

mentation, 545. 
Hardi, 734. 
HARDING, HUGH, Grant of arm* to, 

83, 34. 
Hare, 287 ; PI. XXIV., fig. 7, p. 286. 
HARELUEKE, arm*, 137. 
HAREWOOD, Earls of, arwMt, 157. 
HARFORD, arm*, 427. 
HARLAND, Sir ROBERT, arm*, 299. 
HARLEIAN MSS., 66, 148, 167, 188, 875, 
386, 887, 587, 589, 590, 598, 595, 654, 
HARLESTON, arm*, 128 ; PI. XL, fig. 12, 

p. 124. 
HARLEWIN, oniwi, 112. 
HARLEY, arm*, 122 ; Fl. XIL, fig. 10, p. 
„ Earl of OXFORD, arm*, 182. 

HAROLD of England, 30. 
HAROU£, Marquis d', aniu, 145. 
Harp as a badge, 596. 
HARPE, LA, arm*, 884. 
HARPEN, arm*, 884. 
HARPENY, anM, 278. 
HARPHAM, artrut, 384. 
Harp* as charges, 388. 
HARPSFIELD, ai^M, 884. 
Harpy, 690. 

The 296 
HARRINGTON, arm*, 181; PI. XIX., 

fig. 11, p. 192. 
HARRIS, Lord, arm*, 534. 
HARSDORF, Barons, arm*, 800. 
HARSICK, artH*, 118. 
Hart, 690. 

„ White, as Kbadge, 589. 
HARTROTT, augmented ere»ij 546. 
Hart*, 231. 

( 8o4 ) 




HARTZHEIM, VON, aniu, 82 ; PI. V., 

ng. 12, p. bO. 
Harttnt-tlp, 090. 
HARVEY, crrM, 568. 
HASEXBERG, Barons, a>iN«, 183. 
HASTINGS and GRAY Controveny, 415, 
oriJM, 376; PI. XXXIII., 

fig. 1, p. 370. 
badge, 753, 754. 
Battle of, 80. 
DE, 16. 

armx, 876. 
£arls of PEMBROKE, anm, 

EDMUND of, label of, 414. 
EDWARD, I»nl, BtaMard 

of, 586. 
HENRY DE, ar»w, 376. 
„ labtl, 415. 

Hoi 9LAtL cre»t, 608. 
,, Cardinal as a cliarge, 374. 
Hatchet* aa chargiss, 394. 
Hatrkiufnt, 690. 

Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex, 30S. 
HATHERTON, Lord, supi)ortir$, 647. 
Hats as charges, 892. 
HATTON, Earl of WINCHELSEA, arms, 

Hauberk, 690. 

HAUCKE, Countess JULIA VON, b%'>. 

arm*, 183. 
HAULTBPENNE, Baron d', ar„is, 331. 
Hauriant, 268, 690. 
Haut, 686. 

Hausse, 120, 182, 685, 690, 7.'54. 
HAUSSONVILLE, Conites de, anus, 160. 
HAUTEN DE, amis, 88. 
HAUTIN, amis, PJ. VI., fig. 8, p. 84. 
HAUTOTS, artns, 227. 
HAUTPENNE, Barons de, amis, 112. 
HAVERING, an,is, 214. 
HAVESQUERQUE, arms, 505. 
Uaick as supporter, 633. 
HAWKER, an««, 202. 
Haick's bells and ^cmm, 090. 
„ „ PI. XXV., fig. 8, p. 260. 

„ lure, 690. 
HAWLE, anus, 80. 
HAWLEY, ar,iis, 80. 
Hay-fork', 690. 

HAY, ar/)w, 170, 406 ; PL XIX., fig. 12, 
p. 192. 
„ amis in Lyon Offlre RtffisUr, 400. 
„ JOHN, of Tillibothil, btml, 430. 
„ Marquis of TWEEDDALE, amis, 

PI. XLIL, fig. 2, p. 518. 
„ of Boyne, amis, 406. 
„ „ Broxmonth, amis, 400. 
,, ,, Fudie, chevron, 431. 
,, ,, Leys, amis, 400. 
„ ,, Naughton, bo)ilure, 441. 
„ „ Tillibothil, bordure, 441. 
„ „ Yratar, 519. 
„ ,, ,, ljorx\, amis, 521. 
„ Sir John, Earl of KINNOULL, 

aufrmfittation, 535. 
„ „ labti, 420. 

BAYA, EVA, ixrife of WILLIAM DE, 

HA YE, JEAN DE LA, amis, 805. 


HAYMSBERG, Counts of, arutt, 405. 

HAYNIN, ami*, 142. 

HAZELRIGO, amis, 819 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 

7, p. 818. 
Head, Human, 199. 

„ Moor's, 200. 

„ Saracen's, l90. 

„ Savage's, 199. 

„ 0/ Jiolus, 201. 

M >i Aryus, 201. 

„ „ Boreas, 201. 

„ „ Janus, 201. 

„ „ Midas, 201. 

,, „ St. JJenis, 201. 

„ „ St. John the Baptist, 201. 
Heails, 690. 

„ conjoined, PI. XX., fig. 6, p. 198. 
HEARNE, arms, 336. 
Heart, PI. XX., fig. 12, p. 198. 

,, as a badge, 598. 

„ Human, 202. 

HECKE, VAN DEN, amis, 99 ; PI. VII., 

tig. 8, p. 90. 
HECTOR, umiH, 21. 
Hedge, PI. XXVIIL, fig. 12, p. 308. 
Hedge-hog as a badge, 753. 

„ The, 239. 
HEDWIG, seal, 468. 
HEDWORTH, arms, 140. 
HE EC KEREN, Barons, arms, 141. 
HEERDT, Counts, arww, 130. 
HEERNE8SE, see GL0EP8, 841. 
HEIUEGK, armji, 265. 
HeUiiiei\scheitie, 244, 263. 
HEIM, VON DBR, amis, 280. 
HEIN, arms, 217. 
HEINBURG, Barons, arms, 128. 
HELCK, VAN DER, arms, 277. 
HELCKNBR, amis, 669 ; PL LV., fig. U, 

f. 669. 
ENA, Princess of SCHLESWIO- 
H0L8TEIN, label, 423; Fig. 87, p. 
HBLKENSTEIN, Counts Ton. amis, 280. 
HELLEMM£!S. amis, 71. 
HELLEN, VAN DER, arms, 872. 
HELLENES, Kings of, using ««cucAf(m «n 

sui'tout, "iS". 
Helm ur //t/me(, 599; PL XXXL, fig. 4, 
p. 346. 
„ as a batige, 753. 
„ in French Armory, 601 
„ of Baronets, 602 ; Fig. 95, p. 002. 
„ „ Gentlemen, 001, 602; Fig. 96, 

p. 002. 
„ „ Knights, 002. 
,, „ Nobles, 001. 
„ „ Peers, 602 ; Fig. 94, p. 602. 
„ ,, Princes, 601. 
„ „ Sovereign, 601, 602; Fig. 98, 

p. 602. 
,, „ Right of ecclesiastics to use, 

,, „ „ women to use, 604. 
„ „ timbred, 001. 
HelmeU, 36, 349. 

„ in German Armory, 601. 
, , for different ranks, 601 , 002 ; Figs. 
93-96, p. 602. 
Hemp-brake, i>90. 

HEMPTINES, Barons d', arms, 857. 
Hen, The, 265. 

( 8o5 ) 

HENDERSON, arm*, PI. XVI., fig. 5, p. 
140; PI. XXIV., fig. 12, 
p. 286. 
„ of Fordel, arnu, 148. 

HENEAOE, Sir THOMAS, baJfje, 586. 
HEN EM A, ana*, 752. 
HENLINGTON,an»w, 188. 
HBNNEBERG, Connto of, ann*, 265. 
UENNIN, Coiut« lie B0S8U, amt*, 129. 

„ Counts, anM, 870. 

HENRI I., King of FRANCE, eroten and 
aeefHt-e of, 828. 
„ II., King of FRANCE, 164, 570 : 
crotrn, 620; Dmth of, 40; 
MoZ of, 49 ; Kupportft'*, UtfC. 
„ III., King of FRANCE, «Hp- 

portrrs, 686. 
„ IV., King of FRANCE, 13, 570 ; 

mpportrr*, 686. 
„ v.. King of FRANCE, 425. 
HENRION, Baron de PAN»EY, arm*, 

HENRIQUEZ, arm*, 507, 578. 

,, Dnkw of MEDINA DEL 

RIO SEGO, arm*, 576. 
EMPIRE, eroirn, 621. 
„ „ King of ENGLAND, 121, 

617, 664. 
„ ,, tffU of the Emperor, 828. 

II., Bmi>eror HOLY ROMAN 
„ „ EMPIRE, fjwrn, 621. 

„ King of CASTILE and 

LEON, 577. 


44 ; arm*, PI. LI., fig. 1, p. 


„ III., Dnke of BRABANT, arm*, 

„ „ EmiMror, ftal of, 248. 
„ „ King of ENGLAND, 29, 79, 
122, 198, 208, 245, 291, 331, 
846, 403, 404, 407, 426, 48^, 
448, 664; arui*, PI. LL, fig. 
1, p. 661 ; Great Seal of, 6S7; 
Moil* 0/ Ann* ot, 170, 407, 408, 
426, 427, 448, 46H. 
„ IV., King of ENGLAND, 171, 
416, 464, 656, 6S9, 698 ; arm*, 
PL LL, fig. 4, p. 661 ; croicn, 
618 ; Gifts, etc., of arm* 
daring reign, 85 ; »tal of, 880 ; 
•ecoml *€al of, 590, 594 ; gup- 
porter* of, 662. 
v., King of ENGLAND, 209, 
883, 476 ; arm*, PI. LL, fig. 4, 
p. 661 ; Ixulge, 694 ; banner 
of, 689 ; cmirn, 618 ; mant- 
ling, 613 ; proclamation about 
ana*, 86 ; *tandard of, 688 ; 
*uT(^ioH«r* of, 662. 
„ VL, King of ENGLAND, 5, 
326, 834 ; artti*, PI. LL, fig. 
4. p. 661; badffe, 594; a-otcn, 
618 ; Gifts, etc., of atm* dar- 
ing reign, 86 ; *upporler» of, 
„ VIL, Emperor, auipMntatlon* 
granted bv, 636. 
„ King of ENGLAND, 107, 
325, 476, 697; arm*, PL LL, fig. 
4, p. 061 ; badge and Ktatulard, 
292, 595; 9upporter» of, 662; tomb, 








HENRY VIIL, King of ENGLAND, 285, 
376, 384, 420, 529, 630, 631, 
I 568, 694, 664 ; ann*, PI. LL, 

fig. 4, p. 66! ; ba^ipe, 5S7, 
I 595 ; coin* at, 44 ; eroirn, 618 ; 

I Frity Seal of, 598 ; *tandard 

of, 292, 595 ; tupporter* of, 
„ Cardinal King, 509. 
„ Coronation of the Emperor in 
1812, 579. 
DE RIVI£:RB, a}*Mi4t, 405. 
Prince of Wales, 420. 
THE FOWLER, 41, 42. 
HEPBURN, arm*, 137, 567. 

WELL, brUure, 

bruiure, 436. 
*eal, 441. 
wreath, 614. 
Herald, Dnties of, 1. 
Herald arul Geneatogut, 5, 407, 408, 417, 

477, 556, 562, 603, 689. 
Heraldry, Designations of, osed bj Tarions 
authorities, 2. 
,, Imperfection of many treatises 
on, 67. 
Primary object of, 671. 
Reviving interest in, 25. 
Valne of, 678. 
Jlfraldrv qf the Percy*, 654. 
HERAUT, arm*, 136. 
Herba or Clan, in Poland, 289. 
HERBERSTEIN, Connte von, arm*, 136, 

HERBERT, arm*, 561. 

Earl of PEMBROKE, etc., 

arm*, 224. 
of Cardiff, Baron, arm*, 5iSl. 
arm*, 562. 

Sir RICHARD, 661. 
WILLIAM, Earl of PEM- 
BROKE, arm*, 561. 
HERBESTEIN, ConnU of, arm*, 186. 
HERCULES m *nppm'ter, 686. 
„ in Heraldry, 197. 

„ Pillars of, as tvpporUr*, 643. 

HERD A, ann*, 133, 737. 
HEREFORD, ADAM, d', *hMd, 46; PL 
IL, fig. 2, p. 44. 
bailge of Earls of, 631. 
HENRY, Earl of, teal, PL 

XXXV., fig. 4, p. 415. 
PUREFOY, Bishop of, 

arm*, 206. 
RICHARD, Earl of, 467. 
Seeof, ariM, 333 ; PL XXII., 

fig. 11, p. 222. 
LUPE, Bishop of, 225. 
„ Viscount, mpporter, 232. 

HERGOTT. Monumenta Amtria, 243. 
H BRING AUD, arm*, 268. 
H^RIPONT, arm*, 129. 
Beri*se, 692, 784. 
H^RISSB, LE, arm*, 239. 
Hrri**'yn, 707. 

H Frisson, arm*, 239. 

Hfri**onn^, 784. 
HERKLOTS, arm*, 197. 
Hei-mine, OmUre, 68; 68. 








( 8o6 ) 

HennifUy d', 68. 

HenniiU, Ct-oix tT, 734. 


related by, 271. 
Heroriy The, 268. 
HEROX, artM, 2(33. 
HERON DON, aniu, 2(». 
HERRENBERO, aruis of ConDte of, 

HBRRERA, ami*, SflO. 
HERRI B8, aruu, 239 ; PI. ZXIV., fig. 10, 
p. 286. 
„ of Cowftland, Sir HUGH, aug- 
mentatioH, 634, 535. 
Ikrrinff, The, 268. 
H<n'iM)n, PI. XXIV., flg. 10, p. 236. 
HERSCHEL, Sir JOHN, ar,M, 310. 
Nrra^, 784. 
Htr$e as a charge, 365. 

„ mrrunne, 885, 700, 734. 
HERSTRATEN, amu, 82. 
HERTBNSTEIN, Counte von, amut, 66. 
HERTFORD, MarquesB of, 564. 

HERVEY, ami*, PI. XXIX., fig. 10, 
p. 318. 
„ JOHN, anns, 320. 

„ Miirqaeas of BRISTOL, ami*, 
HERWEGH, ami*, 134. 
ami*, 136. 
Marqula of NETTANCOURT, 
ariti*, 186. 
HESHUYSENS, ami*, 201; PI. XX., 

fig. 11, p. 198. 
HESMB, antu, 152. 

HESSE, ALICE, Grand Dncheflsof, label, 
ANDER of, 525. 
,, ,, mpportei'g, 66(5. 

„ Grand Dtikee of, arto*, 219, 4b7, 

525, 580. 
„ Marks of illegitimacy in, 580. 
HEUSCH, DE, ami*, 360. 
HEUVBL, VAN DEN, ami*, 145. 
HEVTLBR, ami*, PI. XLV., fig. 2, p. 


LVL, flg. 11. p. 671. 
HEYLBROUCK, VAN, ay,M, 138. 
HEYLYN, Help to BnglUh HUtory, 421, 

HEYTESBURY, *iekle and ami*, 641. 
HEYTON, ami*, 155. 
Hihou, 697. 
HICKMAN, ami*, PI. V., flg. 2, p. 80. 


Earls of PLYMOU 

, p. e 


HICKS, ann*, 360. 

Hie, 784. 

Highland bndpfn, 598. 

,, cliiefs, ann*, 814. 

JtU* Vapnet, 52, 879, 388, 487, 628. 
HILDEBRANDT, Htraldi*,he* Mu*ter- 

bweh, 844, 711 ; PI. XLIX., p. 607. 
HILDESHEIM, Principality of, ami*, 78. 
HILINGBR, ami*, 821 ; PI. XXIX., flg. 

11, p. 818. 

Hill, 689; PI. XXVIII., flg. 9, p. 308. 
HILL, arm*, 806. 
mitock, 690. 
Hilled, 690. 
HILTON, ami*, 836. 

„ of Hilton, tuppnrter*, 688. 
HTLTPRANDT, ann*, 752. 
HIMMELBERG, Barons of, ami*, 469. 
Hind, 690. 

„ ami* on white, 682. 
HINDER, DIB, ami*, 271. 
HI ml*, 281. 
HINSBERG, ami*, PI. XXVIII., flg. 9, 

p. 308. 
Hirondelle, 266. 

HIRSCHBBRG, Barons Ton, anti*, 282. 
HIRSCHMANN, ar<)ui, 232. 
Hi*torical MSS. Coniuii**ion, Report of, 

HITCHCOCK, arm*, 277. 
HITROK, ami*, 346. 
HOBART, ami*, PI. XVIII., flg. 6, p. 
„ Earl of BUCKINGHAM- 
SHIRE, ami*, 185, 259. 
HOBILLIONS, ann*, 319. 
HOCHART, anil*, 226. 
HOCHBURG, Barons, aHg%aentaiion, 540. 
HOCHENEGG, Counts VON, arm*, 640. 
HOCK REUTERS, antu, 298. 
HODENPYL, ana*, 576. 
HOEDE, ann*, 336. 
HOEGHOLM, Barons of, ami*, 304. 
HOEGKS, Barons of HOBGHOLM, wnn*, 

HOENS, Barons, ami*, 188. 
HOEPING, 479. 
HOETIMA, ami*, 113. 
HOHENECK, Lordship of, ami*, 490. 
HOHENEMBS, County, ami*, 499. 

„ -GEROLDSECK, County of, 
ami*, 489. 
HOHENHAUSBR, arm*, 217. 
HOHENSTEIN, Countess of, 524. 

Counts of, anti*, 511. 
HOHENZOLLERN, arm*, 81, 254, 880, 

494, 660, t{67. 
,, e»cucheo^i of, 544, 

HOHNSTEIN, ami*, 489. 
*re THUN. 
HOLAND, Earls of KENT, etc., arm*, 

216. (See HOLLAND.) 
HOLBEACH, anu», 186. 
HOLBERG, an»M, 295. 
Count of, 57. 
ALICE, sister of WILLIAM 
of. *eal, 468 ; PL XXXVII., 
flg. 6, p. 447. 
ami*, 58, 101, 212, 215, 216, 
247, 251, 468, 576; PL 
VIIL, flg. 2, p. 100. 
Bavarian Counts of, ami*, 

Countess of, koI, 462, 468. 
Duke of, 589. 
tn*ipn of Counts of, 208. 
family, 421. 




(8o7 ) 

• I 



HOLLAND, FLOREXT. Count of, anuM 
on EHgl«, 630. 
JOAN', dtr. of THOMAS, 

anii», 485. 
JOHN, Duke of EXETER, 

arnit, 43P, 474. 
Lion of, 245. 
Marks of office iu, 645. 
mode of differencing, 405. 
gtfU and anus or MAR- 
GARET, Cuuntew of, 58. 
nfcttmn of FLORENT V., 
Count of, 245. 

CoanteM of, 247. 
Sir THOMAS, 488. 
THOMAS, Earl of KENT, 
amiM, 438, 439, 682. 
Earl of KENT, 
bfulgt, 589. 
„ „ Earl of KENT, 

»«/, 475. 

WILLIAM III., Count of, 
245 : nrni* on Eagle, 630. 
HOLLANDS, Dukes of SURREY and 

KENT, aufrMnitation, 528. 
HOLLIS, Earl of CLARE, a.»«, 146, 147. 
HOLI.OtTE, ariM, 183. 
HOLME, 561. 

„ RANDLE, 101. 

ariHM, .'»80. 
HOLSTEIN, arvu, 610, 666. 

„ Me STAEL. 

HOLTSLER, amm, 874. 
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, arm* of the 

shalship of 
the, 346. 
ci'oicn at 

Electors of, 
621, 623. 
eapU of, 242. 
fiuiipn of Arch- 
of the, 380. 
„ „ „ Lay Electors 

of, nmi», 526. 
HOLYROOI) HOUSE, nltarpiece at, 834 ; 

Htal of ABBEY of, 233. 
HOMBURO, Lordship of, anna, 358. 
HOME, Ist Earl of, mal, 523. 
,, Lord, ariM, 522. 
2nd Ix>rd, 522. 
ami*, 214, 26'>, 522. 
Earls of, nr,»x, 175; PL XLIL, 









flg. 6, p. 513. 
HUGH, 522. 

PATRICK, Archdeacon of 
TEVIOTDALE, neal, 522. 
HOMER, Odymu, 300. 
Hmmne-utarin, 734. 
HONUT, DE, ar)M, 241. 
Honi ttoit qui mat ^ prriMe, 664. 
HONORIUS, PojMJ, 245. 
HONN, I)e« Havft* SttchMtn JTapperw und 

G^Mlihchti UtUerttuchung, 450. 
ffonnfur, Point d\ 734. 
HOO, Lords, (trnui, 81. 

,, ,, fuppovters, 295. 

,, Viscount, ttupportera, 302. 
Hooihd, 691. 
Hoofed, 691. 


HOOGVOOR8T, Barons d', amu, 898 477. 
HOOLA, ar,m, 188. 
HOOP, Barons van der, aniu, 370. 
Ifoopfd, 691. 
HOPE, amiB, 191. 
cnM, 610. 

Sarljf Stall Plate*, 63, 602. 
EMhlrm of, 370. 
„ family, 436. 
HOPETOUN, Earl of, brimre, 4.^6w 
HOPING, Df Jure Iiutiyniunij 548. 
H6PITAL DB VITRY, Marquises de 1', 

arwji, 265. 
HORACE, de Arte Poetica, 300. 
HORBLER, arui», 721. 
HORBURY. Sir JOHN, or»M, 128. 
HORENBERG, aruu, 385. 
Uoiii, Hunting, 691. 
„ of a stag, 691. 
HORN, Count of, 99. 

„ Princes of, ar,ti», ^i!^. 

aruut, 385. 
Hortietl, 691. 
Horn* as a badge, 753. 
,, as charges, 8S4. 
„ Bujgi'alo, as crest*, 606. 
„ Ojt, as o-eAtii, 606, 607. 
HORNUNG, aritis, 836. 
Horse, 237 ; PI. XXIV., flg. 6, p. 236. 
,, as a badge, 754. 
,, -eollnr as a badge, 754. 
,, -shoe as a badge, 754. 
„ The &a-, 299. 
Horseman, PI. XX., flg. 3, p. 198. 
HORSEMAN, a»iiM, 858. 
Horse's head as a crtst, 605. 
Horseshoe, 355. 
HORTENSE, Queen, 572. 

HOTMAN, ar>tis, 148, 728. 
HOUBLONS, aniM, 819. 

anus, 183. 
HOUDETOT, Marquises de, oj-»jm, 227. 
HOUGHTON, antis, 127. 
Household, Great Master of the, Scotland, 

mark of office, 644. 
Houses, 363. 
Hoiisse, 679, 784. 

HOUTHEM, Barons van, oniu, 69.  
HOUVEN, Baron von der, arm*, 882. 
HOVEN, VAN DER, ar„u, 856. 
HOWARD, anns, 532 ; PI. XVIL, fig. 11, 
p. 172. 
badge, 754. 

Duke of NORFOLK, arm*, 408. 
ELIZABETH, anns, 531. 
Laily CATHARINE, ann* and 

aufpnentation, 532. 
MARY, «ltr. of THOMAS, 

Duke of NORFOLK, 558. 
aumnniUUion, 529. 
HOWTH, Earl of, supporter, 802. 

,, Earls of, er€*t and supporter, 

HOZIER, 14. 

,, ann*, 090. 

„ D', coats granted by, 582. 



( 8o8 ) 


briturf, 452. 
HUCUAR8, anm, 404. 
Jittchet, 691, 734. 

HUCHTENBROBK, VAN, at-nu, 145. 
HUEBER, Awttnn /Uuxtrata, 456, 471, 
472, 479, 600, 606, 611, 012, 614, e84, 
650, 651. 
HUGHES, annt, 218. 
Buit-foil, 691. 
HULLES, artM, 146. 
HUL8B, anM, 147; PJ. XVI., fig. 7, 

p. 146. 
Ht^LSEN, aniu, 780. 
HULST, iiumument of, C26. 
„ VAN, anil*, 820. 
„ VAN UER, ariM, 319. 
Huuian anu. The, 204. 

„ body, Parts of, in Heraldry, 199. 
„ <iff. The, 201. 
„ yet, 206, 207. 
,, jtgure aa a ov*t, 607. 
„ „ The, 194. 

„ hawl, The, 204. 
„ htail, 109. 

„ „ with ass'i ears im a a-est, 635. 

„ htart, 202. 
„ leg$, 206. 
,, ri6 6<m«A, 206. 
HUMBEKE, CotintBile, an«u, 265. 
HUMBERT I., 682. 

III., Dauphin de VIENNOIS, 
HUME, anM, 214, 265, 405. 

„ of Pol worth. Sir PATRICK, an«*, 
HUMIl^RES, ami*, 96, 129. 

„ Marquis d', arm*, 81. 

HUMMELS, aiiM, 283. 
Hum met t If, 128, 691. 
HUND VON S.\LHEIM, arm*, 411. 
HUNDESCOTE, antu, 170. 
HUNDT, Barons, arm*, 241. 
HUNGARY-ANCIENT, 471, 494, 408, 665. 
CHARLES IV., King of, 252. 
croien of, 621. 

•MODERN, wtM, 494, 498, 
540, 665. 

,, Queen of, tiehitvfmfnt, 494. 

HUNGERFORD, badpe, 585, 754. 
Lord, 585. 

Sir ROBERT, teal of, 

„ WALTER, Lonl, teal 

and anant, 641. 
HUNS DON, bftdge, 754. 
HUNTER, arms, PI. XXXIIL, flg. 10, 
p. 376. 
„ of HunterstOD, arytui, 885. 

HUNTERCOMBE, amu, 128; PI. XL, 

fig. 11, p. 124. 
Huntingtion, Vinitatum of, 368, 613, 755. 
HUNTINGDON, arm*, 460. 

DAVID, Earl of, ar^ii*, 

E^Idom of, arms, 517. 
Earls of, arms, 876. 
MARGARET, dtr. of 

DAVID, Earl of, 460. 
MAUD, widow of 
SIMON, Earl of, 517. 
„ Prince DAVID, Earl of, 






HvMtiing-hom, PI. XXXIIL, flg. 10, 
p. 876. 
„ as a charge, 3S4. 

HUNTLY, Earl of, 419. 

,, Marquess of, 180. 

Hurt, 227, 272, 734. 
HURLBSTON, arm*, 709. 
Burnt, 816, 691. 

Hurt, 190, 691. 
HURTLE, artM, 191. 
HURUS, arms, 267. 
HUSSEY, arm*, 93, 142, 802, 641. 
Hvacinth, 838. 

HYDE, arms, PI. XVIIL, flg. 7, p. 190. 
„ Earl of CLARENDON, arm*, 

Hydra, The, 296, 691. 

IAN VOR, Chief of Clan, 512. 

IBANEZ DE SEGOVIA, anas, 141. 

IBERIA, arm*, 665. 

Jbex, 691. 

ICELAND, arm*, 271, 660; PI. XX VL, 

fig. II, p. 266. 
ICH INGHAM, arm*, 96. 
Icicle*, 691. 

I DDE3LEIGH, Barl of, anus, 108. 
I FIELD, arms, 341. 
IGELSTROM, anm, 279. 
ILCHESTER, Earl of, supporter*, 648. 
ILE ADAM, le Sire de L' 11. 
nUgitimaey, PL XLVIL, p. 578; PL 
XLVIIL, p. 577. 

Heraldic marks of, 548. 

in Bavaria, marks of, 570. 

,, Burgundy, marks of, 573. 

„ England, marks of. 564. 

,, Flanders, marks of, 572. 

„ France, marks of, 570. 

„ Germany, marks of, 580. 

„ Holland, marks of, 576. 

,, Ireland, marks of, 569. 

,, Portugal, marks of, 577. 

,, Savoy, marks of, 570. 

,, Scandinavia, marks of, 

,, Scotland, marks of, 569. 

,, Spain, marks of, 576. 
ILLYRIA, Kingdom, arm*, 503, 665. 
IwJbrntd, 691. 
Imrnortaliti, 734. 
Impaled, 691. 
Impultment, 459, 470. 

,, of quarttred shields, A'Ql. 

Imperial crown, 691. 
In Lure, 601. 
In Pride, 691. 
In Splendour, 691. 
Inanimate chargt*, 805. 

,, objects in place of supporter*, 

IN AYS, seal of WILLIAM DE, 50. 
Incen*ed, 691. 

INCHIQUIN, Lord of, 467. 
Increscent, 691. 

„ Benxseent, PI. XXVIIL, fig. 8, 

p. 808. 
Indented, 691. 
I „ line, 76 ; Pig. 19, p. 75. 

INDIA, an»M, 494. 
INDIES, Kingdom, The, aruu, 501. 
Indorsed, 691. 




( 8o9 ) 


Jndwttrial Implfi»mU at cbargos, 393. 
/rttnetwheon, The, 116, 165, 169, 692. 
INFANTADGO, Duke of, 440. 

,, ,, anM, 895, 506. 

JnjlanuU or Lighttd^ 0P2, 693. 
Jnfulf, 705. 
INGELBY, JOHN, or«w, 563. 

,, of Ripley, Sir JOHN, aruur, 

INGENHEIM, Counta of, auffiHtnlationf 

IKGHAM, an»M, 157. 
INGI.EBY, ari/w, 309; PI. XXVIII., fig. 

6, p. 308. 
INGL^HORPE, aruui, 142. 
InL--moline, 692. 
INNES, aniu, 50. 

,, Anr Account of the Faniilie of^ 50. 
WILLIAM D£, 6a(/{^e, 583. 
INNOCENT II., Poije, 40. 
in., „ 40. 
,, ,, aruu, 256. 
IX., „ an<M, 318. 
/iMeet«, 280. 
Insignia fffntilitia, Poeaeaaion of, legal test 

of gentility, 673. 
Jnltrlacnl, 692. 
Jnvccktily 692. 

„ liw, 76 ; Fig. 20, p. 75. 
Inrtettd or Jnvecktd, 692. 
InvfrUti, 692. 
IRELAND, antu, 383, 479, 662, 663. 

„ „ during commonwealth, 

„ bfutge, 596, 597. 

DiiHuliation in, 467. 
Duke of, ai'iMj 383. 

,, augnitntation, 528. 
auppoHern in, 647. 
IRIARTE, aniu, 853. 
/rw, The, 333. 

Iriah marks of illegitimacy, 569. 
IRON CROSS, Tlie, 544. 
Irradiated^ 692. 
IRRIBERI, ariM, 171. 
IRVINE, anHJt, 319. 

„ of Drum, an)M, 319. 
ISABEL of France, 538. 
ISABELLB, heiress of RENTY, 449. 
I8ENBURG, Lordshi]) of, aruu, 126. 
ISHAH, ar»M, 148; P). XVI., fig. 4, p. 


., JOURDAIN, L', ariM, 161. 
ISLES, ALEXANDER, Loitl of the, ttad 
of, 367. 
„ ANGUS OF THE, ttal of, 367. 
„ JO U N, son of J OH N, Lord of the, 

„ Lords of the, 368. 
,, ,, ,, antut^ 178. 

„ „ „ (Glengarry branch). 

arm*^ 512. 
,, Loriship of, ariM«, 367. 
„ jva/ of JOHN, Lord of the, 367. 
ISNARD, an>M, 337. 
holt, 734. 
hmnt, 692, 734. 

IS80UDUN, Town of, nnag, 150. 
luuant, 221, 692, 734 ; PI. XXI L, fig. 8, p. 
222; PL XXIL, fig. 4, p. 222. 





Iiunnno or /Mifanf, 692. 
ISTRIA, Marqnessate, artiu, 503. 
ITALY, aniut, 6t6. 

„ corontl of a Baron in, 625. 

,, creHt In, 604. 

„ (/e in, 16. 

„ Form of $huld in, 56. 

„ Fura common in Anaary of, 74. 

„ Introduction of Hereditary AriA* 
into, 52. 

,, Marks of office in, 645. 

,, Marshalling in, 508. 

,, Use of tmpjxtrtrrii in, 636, 639. 
IVAN AP CADI FOR VAWR, aniw, 288. 
of Grand Duke, 250. 
IVANOVICH, OSSIP, antu, 542. 

JABLONOWSKI, Counts, aniM, 359. 

Jarinthf 65. 

JACQUEMINOT, Counts, arnu, 888. 

JAGENSDORFF, artuM, 379. 

JAGERNDORFF, Duchy of, arMs, 491. 

JAGOU, an/w, 280. 

JAMES I., King of ARRAGON, 577. 

„ BRITAIN, 384, 532, 
535, 594 ; ann*^ PI. LI., fig. S, 
p. 661 ; Grtat Stal of, 664 ; 
tiiotto of, 664 ; supportrrt on 
SukU qf Common Pleat of, 
„ King of SCOTLAND, 233. 

475, 521 ; fupporterg^ 635. 
II., King of BRITAIN, 421, bb\\ 

56C ; aruut, PI. LL, fig. 5, ) . 
6<)1 ; Exehetiucr Seal of, 66i* ; 
iupportera on Pi-ivp Seal of, 
„ „ King of SCOTLAND, 446, 

476, 515, 516. 

„ HI., King of SCOTLAND, 179, 

476, 622, 632; ba^igt, 5i>6 ; 

coin*, coverlttf and portrait 

of, 334. 

„ IV., King of SCOTLAND, 522, 

567 ; boftgt, 597. 
„ v., King of SCOTLAND, 170. 
ISO, 835, 476, 567 ; supporta-^, 
„ VI., King of SCOTLAND, 180, 
431, 584, 662 ; ann$, PI. LL, fig. 5, p. 
JAMIBSON, artM, 371. 
JANER, arm*, 201. 
JAN IN A, htiiMi of, ann$, 851. 
JAN1SZEW8KI, ar*n*, 857. 
JANSDAM, armJt, 188. 
Janm, Head of, 201. 

„ THe del 734. 
JARDINE, arm*, 144, 146. 

„ DE LA, arm*, 71. 

GEORGE, brUturtt 436. 
JARSDORFF, ariti*, 74. 
JASTREZBMBIBC, arms, 856. 
JATSKOW, artM, 226. 
Jaw bone, The, 203. 
JAWORSKI, arm*, 891. 
Je mainliendt'ai, 664, 667. 
JEAN II., King of FRANCE, 571. 
,, DE, 10. 

„ „ SCHOONHOVEN, arm*, 405. 
„ SanS'Pcur, Duo de BOURGOGNE, 

(8io ) 



JEANXE D'ARC, aniMof brotbenof, 710. 

„ Dame de PLASNBS, anm, 57. 
JEDBURGH, Fornt of, G42. 

,, Lordii of, aruM, 305. 

JELITA, aniw, 347. 
JdUtpffl, 265, 692. 
JENYN'S Collection, 375. 
JERMYX, Earl of 8T. ALBANS, amu, 

JERXIXGHAM. arm*, 377; Pi. 

XXXIIL.flj?. 3, p. 376. 
JERUSALEM, arnui, 467, 471, 494; PI. 
IX., fix. I, p. 108. 
TOM n/, 156. 
First CbrUtian King of, 

Kingdom, a}*}iM, 103, 501. 
Order of ST. JOHN, arm*, 
119, 141, 527. 
,, -RI^N^, Koi de, Tourney 

regulations, 749. 
Jemant, 692. 

„ de lu, 225, 602 ; PI. XXIL, fig. 11, 
p. 222. 
J<Me(t, applied to Falcon, 361, 692. 
JESSEL, ariM, 701. 
JESSES, 692. 

JESTYN AP GWRGANT, antu, 140. 
JEZ, antut, 239. 

JEZIERSKI, Connto, nnM, 351. 
JOAf) I., King of PORTUGAL, 577. 
JOERG, OJ-irtu, 195. 
JOGHE.MS, ar}}U, 848. 
JOHN IL, Kinsrof PORTUGAL, 578. 
„ King of BOHEMIA, bwlgt and 
crfMt, 592; PI. XLIX., fig. 4, p. 
607 ; nealj 456. 
„ King of ENGLAND, 173, 303, 
554, 5.')5 ; arnia, 82 ; PI. LL, fig. 
1, p. 661 : wtt/, 87. 
„ King of FRANCE, Capture of, 

377 ; (tupporlfrn, 636. 
„ Lord of the ISLES, etc., »tal of, 

„ *tal oi, Prince of ENGLAND, 210. 
JOHNSON, Origin of name, 10. 
JOHNSTON, arjMJ, 144, 145, 878, 570. 

,, crent, 605. 

JOHNSTONES in south Scotland, 400. 
JOINVILLE, or»M, 47. 

„ Seigneun de BROYES, 

ariUM, 357. 
JONES, aniut, 348. 
JONG, DE, ann*, 322. 
Jonklieera, coronet of, 626. 
JORGER, an)M, 195. 
JOSEPH, ar,M aacribed to, 2.S. 
JOSEPHINE, Empress of the Frencb, 

266, 283. 
JOSUA, Dnke, an<«(?X 21. 
JOURDAIN, I/ISLE, firMW, 161. 
JOUSSEAUME, Marquis de la 

BRETESCHE, antu, 155. 
JOVE, artiut, 395. 
JOVIO, nugmtntatiojif 536. 
JOWETT, ariu*, 369. 
JoKlnppeti, 265, 692. 
JOYEUSE, Conites de, aiiMic, 296. 
JUDAS MACHABEU8, «r«M(?), 21. 
JULBACH, Cotints VON, aruu, 78. 
JULIE RS, antw, 496. 

„ County of, amUy 99, 478. 

,, Duchy of, ann*, 212. 

JULIUS CiESAR, cu-«MOf), 21. 

JumeUet, 128, 677, 688, 734. 
JUNGINGBNS, artiu, 392. 
Jupiter, 65, 692. 
JiiA fxiieftntionU, 483. 
mark of ofllce, 644. 
LORD CHIEF, collar, 598. 
JUT1>HAAS, VAN, antu, 148. 
JUYA, aruut, 91. 

KABARDA, antui, 665. 
KAISER, antut, 380. 
KALP, oj-iiix, 296. 
KALFF, ftrtn*, 235. 
KALITSCH, Barons Ton, ai-nu, 228. 
KAMAROWSKI, Counts, aniu, S42r 
KARA HISAR, Fort of, 250. 
KARTALINIA, artiu, 665. 
KATCHENEVSKI, ar»w, 343. 
KATZEXELBOOEN, arnu, 580. 
KAUFBEVERN, ami*, 469. 
KAUFFUNGEN, ann», 670; PI. LVL, 

fig. 10, p. 671. 
KAUNITZ, Princes Ton, aniu, 821. 
KAZAN, (uiM, 665. 
„ eroirn, 622. 
KEATE, artM, 226. 
KEATS, artM, 226. 
KECK, anu«, 138. 
KEITH, aruui, 179 ; PI. X., fig. 10, p. 118. 

„ Earls MARISCHAL, artiu, 122. 

„ EDWARD, bend, 430. 

,, JOHN, second son of Sir 
EDWARD, bfiul, 430. 
KEKITMORE, ann*, 894. 
KELDON, nnti*, 150. 
KELK, arniM, 133. 
KELLIE, EnrI of, auffMtiUation, 634, 

KELVERDON, arni*, 150. 
K EM ELS, ariM, 231. 
KEMP, ann*, 188,206. 
KENDAL, Earl of, label, 418. 
KENOENICH, amut, 139. 
KENNEDY, ami*, 178. 

Karld of GASSILIS, etc., 
ann*, 163. 
KENNETH Uh, King of Scotland, 197. 
KENSINGTON, Lord, Hupporter, 282. 
KENT, Dukes of, auginentation, 528. 

„ Earl of, ann*, 216, 438, 489, 682. 

„ „ badi/e, 589, 753. 

„ ,, »eiU, 475. 

„ EDWARD, Duke of, laUl, 422; 
Fig. 82, p. 421. 

„ Fair Maid qf, 438, 589. 

„ JOAN, daughter of THOMAS 
HOLLAND, Earl of, arww, 485. 
KENTISH Koll of Arm*, 554. 
KENTY, antu, 297. 
KEPPEL, Earl of ALBEMARLE, ann*, 

KER, crfMt, 610. 

„ I»rdM of JEDBURGH, arm*, 805. 
KERANOUEN, ann*, 219. 
KERBESCAT, arm*, 219. 
KERBOURIOU, arm*, 218. 
KERCK EM, arm*, 112. 

„ Biirun de WYER, arm*, 881. 

KERFORD, anuK, 2S0. 
KERGROAS, arm*, 155. 
KERJAN, Marquises de, arm*, 126. 
KERLECH, arm*, 98. 

( 8" ) 

KEROULLE, nr}M, 341. 
K£R» in south Scotlnnd, 400. 
KER8BEKE, 1)E, nn,iA, 187. 
KESSELSTADT, Countit of, araui, 493. 
KESTEVEN, Duke of, armn, 852. 
KETELHODT, Baron, ar»u, S49. 
KETHEL, rtiwM, 121. 
KETTENHEIM, VON, art,i*, 120. 
KETTLER, Dak« of COURLAND, arm», 

Kcjf at a badge, 584. 
,, ,, ertMt, 605. 
KtvM, PI. XXX III., fig. 6, p. 876. 
KEYS, ROGER and THOMAS, Grant of 

N6bility to, 5. 
KEYSER, amis, 880. 

Barons, artM, 150. 
KIB8, ariM, 203. 
KIEV aruut, 065. 
KIJOW, Palatinate of, ami*, 408. 
KILDARE, EarU of, amut, 148. 
KILGOUR, amiM, 178. 
KILLING WORTH, ar?,M, 864. 
KILPEC, amis, 845 ; PI. XXX I., fig. 1, p. 

KIL3YTH, Viscount, ami», 887. 
Kintf (Chos) as a charge, 888. 
KINGDOM, amu, 852. 
Kings of Arms, amu, 525, 526. 
King's ntantlard, Length of, 654. 
KINGSALE, Barons of, annit, 258. 

„ ,, nui>portrr», 297. 

KING8C0TE, amut, 166; PI. XVIIL.flg. 

2, p. 190. 
KIN(i8LEY, ami*, 885. 
KINNAIRD, Edtate of, 258. 
KINNOULL, Earl of, auguumtation, 

KIN8BERGEN, nwnniufntot, 626. 
KIOVIA, PaUtinate of, ariM, 468. 
KIP, amut, 266. 
KIPPBNHEIM, arm», 271. 
KIRCHNER, ami», 868. 
KIRKE, ami», 182. 
KIRKPATRICK, ami*, 144. 
KIRMREITTER, ar,m, Pi. LV., fig. 9, p. 

KlRTON,an*M, 188. 
KITTLITZ, I3aron8 von, «»•»<«, 477. 
KUf-SUnpfln, The, 844, 491. 
KLETTENBERG, ami*, 489. 
KLING8P0R, BaUisehtM Wappenbuck, 

?67, 297, 892. 
KLOCKBL, amu, 874. 
KNATCHBULL, amu>, 132, PI. XIL, fig. 

9, p. 130. 
Knight as a supporUr, 640. 

„ Banneret, Creating of a, 651. 
,, ,, Duties of a, 652. 

Kniffkt (Chess) as a charge, 888. 
KNIGHT, nmiA, 170, 171. 
Knights, lulm of, 602. 

,, Hereditary, coi-otiet of, 626. 

,, under feudal system, 652. 
KNIPSCHILD, d( Fii/ei CbuuaiMui, 488. 

,, de A'obilitate cjiur/ite 

JuribuM, 488. 
KNOB, ami», 296. 
KNOBEL, DIE, ami*, 411. 
KNOLLYS, Earls of BANBURY, amu, 


KNOLLYS, Lord, helm, 602. 

Kitot* as badge*, 585. 

KNOTSHULL, amu, 701. 

KnoUt'f, 692. 

KNOWLES, arm*, 160 ; PL XV., fig. .3, p. 

KNOX, Earl of RANFURLAY, artu*, 175. 
KOEUNE, Kotict »ur U* Se<aux ti 

Amioii'ie* dt la RuMie, 251. 
KOUARY, Princes of, amut, 218. 

KOMOROWSKI, CounU, ann*, 284. 
KONARSKI, Connto, ann*, 289. 
KONIG, anM, 880. 

„ Barons, arm*, 880. 

,, „ von, ami*, 260. 

KONIGSTEIN, Lords of, amu, 212. 
KONINCK, arww, 879. 
KONING, ana*, 888. 
KORAB, ai MM, 871. 
A'oran, reference to, 271. 
KORBLER, ann*, 96. 
KORESSIOS, arm*, 2:.l. 
KORNKOOPERS, on»«, 818. 
KOSKULL, Barons, ami*, 821. 
KRAIN, Duchy, amu, 503. 
KRANZ, arifu, 836. 
Knimltin, 131. 
KRAUTERS, arf)«, 298. 
K RECH W ITZ, ami*, 271 . 
KREYTSEN, Counts, ami*, 120. 
K ROC HER, ami*, 231. 
KROGBDANTZ, arMu, 752. 
KRZYWDA, ami*, 856. 
KUCJLER, ami*, 804. 
K U M PST H O FF, an«Jt, 843. 
KUNIGL, ami*, PI. V., fig. 7, p. 80. 

,, Counts von, arm*, 81. 

KYLE, ami*, 372. 
KYNASTON, ami*, 136. 
KYNDER, an«ui, 364. 
KYRKE, an»*, 182. 

LA CROIX et SBRE, Hiitoire de VOrfir- 

n rif-Jnailta'ie, 282. 
LABARTE, HanJttoak qf the Ait* of Vtc 

Mid'Ue Apt*, 243. 
Labd, 117, 165, 187, 414, 687, 692, 734; 
Figs. 80-89, p. 421. 
„ a Royal mark of cadency, 420. 
,, inference 6y the addition of a, 413. 
,, fur eldest son, 444. 
,, Varieties of, 189. 
Ixic* d'mnmir, 628, 645. 
LADBROOKE, amu, 186. 
Ladder, PI. XXXI L, fig. 9, p. 358. 

,, Kaling, 692. 
IavUIi-i'*, 8(V4. 
LADISLAS VL, wo/, 46S. 
LA HER, Barons von, ami*, 93. 
LAHR, VON, «»-»*«, 66. 
LAINCEL, CounU, 348. 
LAIN^, M., 12. 

LAING, Dr, Hutorienl De*cription <\f iht 
Altarjnece at Jiolyroott, 334. 
„ H., Scotti*h Seat*, 49, 50, ol, 177, 
178. 179, 298, 322, 830, 335, 867, 96S, 
869, 378, 401, 429. 445, 454, 455, 459, 
4(K), 466, 475, 512, 514, 515, 519, 520, 
521, 522, 566, 614, 628, 630, 632. 
LAITBRBERG, amu, 365. 

( 8i2 ) 

LALAIN, arnw, 411. 

LALANDE, arm*, 18S. 

Lamb, Pauehal, 236, 602 ; PI. XXIV., flg. 

4, p. 236. 
LAMB, artM, 236. 

LAMBART, Barl of GAVAN, arms, 323. 
Lambtau, 414. 
LauiM, 187, 687, 692, 734. 
LAMBERO, art}ut, 493. 


Baron of, 498. 
„ Princes of, arm*, 493. 

LAMBERT, arm*, 235. 
„ creMt, 295. 

LAMBRECHT, ai-m*, 235. 
LauUn-etjuin, 599, 611, 612, 692, 694, 734. 
lainb*, 235. 
LAMBTON, Earl of DURHAM, artfu, 

LA)II, ann*, 296. 

LAMINOTON, Lord, *upporter», 647. 
LA MM EN 8, ami*, 235, 236. 
LAMOIGNON, President, arm*, 165. 
LAMONT, antt*, 213. 
LAMORAL, Count EGMOND, arm*, 98, 

LaMpa**i, 692, 734. 
LAMPLOWE, arm*, 158 ; PI. XIV., flg. 

9, p. 140. 
LAMPLUGU, arm*, 158. 
LAMPOIN8, ttniw, 236. 
LAMPSON, arm*, 686. 
LAXARIO, a-.wMi, 317. 
LANCASTER and YORK, oombined rote 
of, 596. 
armorial slab of HENRY of , 

arm*, 531. 

,, and eolourit, 556. 
6ac/{;re of Royal House of, 

324, 587, 588, 589. 
BLANCHE, daughter of 

HENRY, Duke of, 588. 
Duchy, *tal* of, 598. 663. 
Duke of, arttu and label, 
„ badfff, 591, 593. 
Earl of, monument, 114. 

BACK, Lord of, tomb, 
HENRY of, ai-nu, 428; 
seal, PI. XXXV., flg. 4, 
p. 415. 
JOHN, Duke of, 438, 555. 

588, 590, 598, 597. 
PHILIPPA, daughter of 

Duke of, 578. 
Bose* of, dS'2. 

»(al of HENRY, 1st Duke 
of, 687, 598. 
„ Silver greyhound of, 595. 

„ THOMA8, Earl of, ai-ww, 


„ DON JORGE DE, 578. 

Lance head, 848. 
LanctA, 347. 
LANCY, arms, 142. 
Land tenure, 3. 
LAN DALE, aniM, 175. 
LANDAU, Counts von, arm*, 95. 
LANDE, LA, anu*, 724. 







LANDEL, a}*m«, 175. 
LAN DELL of that Ilk, 522. 
LANDELL8, artns, 176. 
LANDESCRON, arm*, 380. 
LAND8GHADEN, erest, 612. 
LANE of Bentley, JOHN, arm* and aug- 
mentation, M'l. 
LAN ESBO ROUGH, Earls of, ann», 381. 
LANFRANCHI, arm*. 79. 
LANG VON LANGENAU, arm*, 668 ; PI. 

LV., fig. 1, p. 669. 
Langele, 591. 
Langtiun, 591. 
LANG EN, ar^ns, 82. 

LANGLEY, artM, 293 ; PI. XXVIL, flg. 
9, p. 28X. 
EDMUND of, 588, 591. 
LANGL0I8, antu, 870. 
Langu^, 735. 
Lan<fve*i, 211, 227, 692. 
LANNE8, Har^chal, Duo de MONTE- 

BELI.O, arm*, 346. 
LANNOY, arm*, 450. 

BALDWIN DE, artns, 450, 451. 

CHARLE8 DE, antut, 410,451. 

„ Viceroy of 

Naples, q,rm», 451. 

GILBERT DE, ar^tu, 450, 

HORACE DE, arm*, 451. 
HUGH DE, arm*, 450. 

„ 8eigneur de MIN- 

GO VAL, 451. 
PHILIP DE, anm, 450. 

,, Prince of 8UL. 

MONB, a^niis, 451. 
PIERRE DE, arm*, 451. 
,, bordure, 489. 

LANSDOWNE, Lord, crest, 610. 

„ M8., 657, 654. 

LANSER, arms, 870. 
LANVAON, anA*, 93. 
LAPLACE, ai-m*, 309. 
LAPOUKHIN, IMnces, arm*, 288. 
LARDIER, arms, 187. 
Larmt*, 693, 733, 735. 
LASCARIS, arms, 251. 
LA8CELLE8, arms, 157, 336; PI. XXX., 

fig. 9, p. 332. 
LASSO, ORLANDO DI, arms, 887. 
LATHOM, Lord, swpjw^trs, 647. 
LATIMER, arm*, 153, 157. 
„ Loni, badge, 586. 

aniu and labels, 418. 
Laiina'o**, 152. 
LATRI, arms, 100. 
lattif^, 693. 

LATTRB, ROLAND DB, anns, 387. 
LAUDEL, JOHN, seal, 648. 
LAUDERDALE, arms, 516, 519. 

,, Lonlship of, 516. 

I^UENBURG, arms, 510, Q^\»S, 
LAUNAY, DE, ar^ns, 715. 

„ DU VAL AY, anas, 844. 

LAURENCE, artus, PI. XIV., flg. 2, 

p. 140. 
LAURES, an}i*, 317. 
LAURfE, arms, 381. 
LAURI8T0N, 433. 






( 8i3 ) 



• I 

LAUTERBACH, arnu, 813 ; PI. XXVIII., 

fig. 11, p. 308. 
LAUTBKBURG, amw, 480. 
LAUTRBC, ama, Idl, 214. 
I^UTZ, antu, 883. 
LAUZOX, arm*, 274. 

ANNE, beireM of GUI, Gomte 

de, 505. 

MEN, »ml, 460, 4t». 
arum, 68, 258. 
GUY, Coiute de. 258. 
LAVARDIN, MArqaiaee de, oiimj, 57, 

LAVAULX-VR6CX)URT, Connta, armn, 

LAWE«, arm*, 687. 
LAW LEY, artM, 154 ; Pi. XIV., flg. 5, 

p. 140. 
LAWRENCE, ar,>i», 142. 

,, SIR JAMES, NobUUy qf 

Briti*fi Onttrv, 4. 
LAYFORTH, arnoi, 133. 
Le H^raut d'Armei, 7. 
Lt hiboii-duc, 726. 
Lea/hB a badge, 5S3. 
LEAKE, Oaritr King »f Arm*, 384. 
U%»h, 693. 
Ua*htd, 608. 
Ltavrd, 603. 
ZcorM, Atpen, 320. 

CU/OMM, liiM^, PI. XXIX., flg. 0, 

p. 318. 
Fig, 320. 
^om/, 319; PI. XXIX., flg. 7, 




p. 818. 
Holly, 310. 



Laurel, 310; PI. XXIX., fig. 8, 

p. 318. 
Litulen, 320. 
Ntnuphar, 321. 
Oak, 820. 
of plant*, 819. 
AtK, 321. 
LECH ERA I NE, arm*, 727. 
LECK, Lordfthip of, ann*, 580. 

„ WILLIAM and LOUIS, Seignenn 
of, arm*, 580. 

LBDEBUR, Barons, ann*, 136. 
Lterhf*, 270. 

LEEFDAEL, Slra de, arwM, 165, 427. 
LEKFVELT, VAN, antu, 68. 
LEESON, Earl of MILTOWX, arm*, 811. 
Leg, FJ. XX., flg. 8, p. 108. 
,, o/ an eagle, 603, 
LEGAT, ann», 152. 
Ligende, 735. 
Z^^fA Ihuttiludialr*, 41. 
LEGGE, Earl of DARTMOUTH, aniu, 

Legged, 608. 
LEGH, GERALD, Aecutence ((f Amuny, 

2, 10, 21, 100, 524. 
L<g*, PI. XX., fig. 0, p. 198. 

„ Hainan, 206. 
LEICESTER, Earl of, arm*, 218, 210, 322, 

323, 850; PI. XXL, 
fig. 0, p. 212. 
„ badge, 758. 



LEICHNAM, anwi, 2M. 

LEIGH, armjt, 866. 


LEININGEN, Coantii of, arm*, 424, 447. 

label, 424. 
label, 424. 
LEIN8TBR, 884. 

„ Duke of, arm*, 143. 

„ „ tapporUr, 240. 

„ King of, arms, 842. 

LEITOBNS, arm*, 127. 
Lfnum*, 840. 

LENFANT-DIEU, arm*, 105. 
LENNOX, aniM, 144, 482; PL XXX., 
fig. 3, p. 332. 
„ CHARLES, ann*, 559. 

„ Barl of, ariJM, 825, 521 ; Pi. 

XLIL, fig. 1, p. 
„ „ bordure, 441. 

„ ISABELLA, Countess of, 

»«al, PI. XXXVII., fig. 7, 
p. 447. 
„ MALCOLM, Earl of, teal, 643. 

„ MARGARET, Countess of, 

numutnent, 476. 
„ MATTHEW, son of JOHN, 

Earl of, label, 410. 
LENONCOURT, Caniinal de, arm*, 

LENOX, arm*, 466. 
LENTILHAC, arm*, 120. 
LEO, arm*, 178. 

„ XIII., Pope, aniu, 810. 
LEON, artn*, 62, 104, 168, 212, 258, 806, 
890, 4ie, 441, 457, 470, 488, 405, 
601, 506, 507, 547, 576, 677, 5-8, 
„ bordure of, 507. 
„ FERDINAND IIL, King of, 478. 
„ PONCE DE, Duke of ARCOS, 

arm*, 506. 
„ Princes de, arm*, 185. 
,, BANC HA of, 470. 
LEONBBRG, Counts, ann*, 752. 
Leopard, 200, 210, 225, 60S. 

HeraU, 209. 
Liopard, 735. 

„ lumnjt, 200, 210, 211, 698, 701. 

„ Itte de, 735. 
Leopard'* face, 603 ; PI. XXIL, fig. 12, p. 
„ „ and Plenr-de-li*, 838. 

„ head, 225, 608. 
LEOPOLD, Archduke, 2S2. 

„ Emperor, Patent of arms 

granted bj, 601. 
LERM A, Dukes of, arm*, 809. 
LERNOUT, arm*, 148 ; PI. XVL, fig. 9, 

p. 146. 
Le* CofUutueM Oh*irale* de troi* BaUUa^f 

de Lorraine, 550. 
LESLIE, anM, 867, 377, 622, 681; PI. 
XXXIII., fig. 2, p. 876. 
Lord LINDORES, arm$, Fl. 
XLIL, fig. 4, p. 513. 
„ of Balquhain, arm*, 482. 
LESSEPS, Count de, arm*, 844. 
LESTRANGE, arm*, 216, 407. 


LESVAL, amu, SSO. 
LESZCZYC, ami*, 868. 

Connto, arm*, StfS. 
Ltttei'g of the Alphabet as charges, 894. 
Lettuce, 344. 
LEUBERSTORF, aruu, 669; PI. LV., 

fig. 12, p. 609. 

LEUGHTBNBERO, Dnkes and Land- 
graves of, ann*, 123, 478. 
LEUTENBERG, Lords of, 490. 
LEUZE, Barons de, ami*, 338. 
lere, 685, 735. 
LEVEX, Earl of, amu, 885 ; PI. XXX., 

fi^'. 8, p. 832. 
Lertr. &iS. 

LEVERSA6E, ami*, 866. 
LEVESON, anil*, 319. 
LEVIS, Dncs de MIREPOIX, and de 

VENTADOUR, an/w, 140. 
Lerritr, 735. 
levmn, 735. 

LEWASCHEPP, auffiiwntation, 542. 
LEWEX, ROBERT, Sheriff of XewcasUe, 

arm A, 366. 
LBXIXGTOX, Lord, ami*, 165. 
LEYBURXE, ami*, 224. 
LEYDEX, Biirg-graTate of, ami*, 807. 
LEYEX, Counts and Princes of, ami*, 


bri*ure, 452. 
LEZERGUE, ai-niii, 156. 
LIA^OS, ami*, 508. 
LIBOTTOX, ar»M, 156. 
LICHFIELD, See of, ami*, 166, 700 ; PL 

XIV., fig. 7, p. 140. 
LICHXOWSKI, Princes, ami*, 819, 889. 
LICHTEXSTEIX, Princes of, ami*, 491. 
Licomr, 735. 
LIDDESDALE, ami*, 519. 

„ Lordship of, 566. 

Li4, 385, 677, 786. 
LIEVEX, Princes and Connts, ami* and 

aut/iiitnteUion, 642. 
Liphteif, 693. 

LIGHTFORD, ami*, 121. 
Lightning, 310. 

of, 492. 

„ PrinoipHlity of, ami*, 129. 
LIGXEY, Gonnt de, ami* and Inbtl, 416. 
LIGXIERES, ariMJ, 160. 
LIHOXS, ami*, 334. 
LILLIE, amu, 384. 
Lilif, The, 333. 
LIMA, ami*, 91. 
Liiiuicon, 7.^5. 
LIMBURG, ann«, 484, 573, 574. 

„ Duchy of, ann*, 484. 

Lime Ot-aneh, PI. XXIX., fig. 0, p. 818. 
„ Itave* ado**t*, PI. XXIX., fig. 9, 

p. 318. 
LIMESAY, DE, arwi, 61, 256. 
LIMOJON, avw*, 840. 
LIMOS, amu, 340. 
LIMPURG, ConnUof, ami*, 626. 
LIXAQE, CounU de. amu, 138. 

„ *ee ROZIER. 

of, amu, 160. 
MkieUl Qt Earl of, 406. 




LIXDAU, VOX, amu, 412. 

LIXDEGK, amu, 670; PI. LVL, fig. 9, 

p. 671. 
LIXDEX, VAX DER, antu, 477; PI. 

XLL, fig. 1, p. 509. 
LIXDEXBERG, ar>tu, 299. 
LIXDEXPALM, arin*, 189. 
LIXDEXS, VAX DER, amu, 393. 
LIXDORES Abbey, 516. 

„ Lord, amu, 522 ; Pi. XLIL, 

fig. 4, p. 513. 
„ Lordship of, a)*»M, 868, 522. 

LIXD8AY, amu, 868, 622. 
IL, H8., 84. 

DAVID, Duke of MOXT- 

ROSE, amu, 522. 


creU, 605. 

Earl of CRAWFORD, ann», 

JAXBT, daughter and heire»s 

of Sir ALEXANDER, 469. 
MARGARET, Countess of 

DOUGLAS, 617. 
8IM0X, *eal and artM of, 61. 
Sir DAVID, 480, 666. 

antu on eagle, 

Lord of CRAW- 
FORD, «fa/ and 
ariM of, 51. 
„ Ljon King of 

Arms, H*g'uter 
of, 628. 
„ (the eiderX Lyon 

King of Arms, 
Bteord of, 613. 
„ (the younger ), 

Lynn King of Amis, A mio- 
rial MS. of, iUitminate*l, 
84, 149, 171, 402, 476, 612, 
DOUX and CRAWFORD, teal of, 51. 
LIXDSAY8, Lire* of the, 51. 
LIXDSEY, Eari of, tu'}M, 862. 
LIXDT, DE, amu, 188. 
Lined, 693. 

Line* of Partition, 693. 
LIXGUET, ana*, 203. 

LIXLITHGOW, Burl of, amu, 622. 

,, Earldom of, ariMS, 522. 

LIXTRE, Sire de, anu*, 332. 
Lion, 208, 735. 

amu on a, 631. 
as a badge, 754. 
as a »uj>portfr, 683, 683. 
bicorporate, 219. 
eonUmme*, 220. 
couchant, 217. 
tie S. Marc, 735. 
Dani; 220. 
„ nai*»ant, 231. 
„ i**uant, 221. 
d(ffa\Md, 219. 
disiiwuiUitd, 217 ; PI. XXL, fig. 8, 

p. 212. 
donwmt, 217. 
erire 219. 

teopat^e,'209, 211, 698, 785. 
marine, 703. 
niornf, 218. 







• I 






Ombre df, 735. 

Palatinate, aa a nyst, 607. 

ParCa of, 222. 

poMant, 216. 

„ aa a crent, :>P0, 608. 

<ivenefourchit, 218 ; PI. XXL 
p. 212. 

. flg- «. 

rampant, 212; PI. XXL, 
p. 212. 

flg. 1, 

„ aa a badgt, 596. 

„ aa a itupjMrter, 640 


„ ffardant, 215; PI. 
fig. 2, p. 212. 


„ lYffnrfiant, 210 ; PI. 
flg. 8, p. 212. 


mlUnt, 217 ; PL XXL, fig. 7, 

p. 212. 

»fjant, 217. 

,, uffronte, 217. 

,, aa a tiqiporttr^ 642. 

„ p<nilant, 217, 641. 

,, mmiHint, 217. 

„ $tiUant, 217. 

„ „ aa a crent, OOO, 608. 

„ ,, ffardant, 217. 

„ ,, ,, aa a crest, 608. 

,, The Sea-, 299. 

„ Trieoiporatf, 219 ; PL XXL, fig. 10, 

p. 212. 
„ Ttcoheaded, 219. 
„ Winged, 219 ; PI. XXL, fig. 11, p. 

„ with helm aa ttupporter, 681. 
Lioneel, 698. 

lionceU, 219 ; PL XXL, fig. 12, p. 212. 
Lioness, 222. 
Lions adttor*ed, 220. 
„ aa SKiiportrm, 634, ^.S6. 
„ cowOntant, 220; PI. XXIL, fig. 1, 

p. 222. 
,, coiirhant, and helmed and crested, oa 

sujYporttrn, 635. 
„ cottntrt'-pojwan/, 220. 
,, •rampant, 220. 

,, demi; as stipjioi-trrit, 638. 

, , |>a««an<, PI. X X I . , flg. 4, p. 21 2. 


ffai-dant, PI. XXL, flg. 5, 
p. 212. 
„ „ -regardant, PL XXL, fig. 6, 

p. 212. 
,, ramjiant aa supporter*, 683. 
,, ,, 'ffardant aa supporters, 685. 

,, ne^'ant aa supporter*, 634. 
,, ,, helratd and crested aa «up- 

porttrs, 685. 
Lion's gamtM, PI. XXIL, flg. 7, p. 222. 
,, A«a<2 ana badat, 754. 
„ /«at/*, 222; PL XXIL, flg. 6, p. 
„ rtrersed and jfiiirant de lis, 
PL XXIL, flg. 11, p. 222. 
„ pares, PL XXIL, fig. 8, p. 222. 
,, tails, PI. XXIL, flg. 9, p. 222. 
LIPPE, arms, 208. 

„ Barona VON DER, arms, 188. 
„ Princea of, arms, S2L 
Lips, The, 203. 
LIRONI, arms, 883. 
^tii-</f-iorfim, 786. 
LI8BURNE, Earl of, anns, 883. 
Lis^ri, 678, 688, 735. 
LISLE, Viacount, anns, 557. 
„ „ badge, 5S7. 

I.I8LES, DE, mpportri; 239. 



Listd, 785. 

LITHUAKLA, arms, 199, 255, 487. 

LADISLAS v., Duke of, 
sral, 468. 
LITTA, Cr/ebri famiglie Jtalinne, 281, 682. 
LITTLETON, Viacount COBHAM, arms, 

Lirrrvi Collars, 597. 

LIVINGSTONE, ar»M, 622. 


arms, 522. 
MARY, 436. 
Viacount TEVIOT, anna, 

ar^ns, 887. 
LIVONIA, Alexander of, ual, 468. 
Lizards, 274, 277. . 

BiMhop of, arms, 217. 

arms, 224. 
LLOYD, arms, 218; PL XX., flg. 4, p. 
„ Lord MOSTYN, arms, 200. 

of, artas, 274. 
Loaven aw cliargea, 891. 
LOBENSTEIN, Barona, arw*, 128. 

,, ,, von, arms, *up- 

poHers, and compartment, 642. 
LOBKOWITZ, Princea of, arms, 256. 

,, Syatem of linea repreaent- 

ing colour, 64. 
LOBLEY, arms, 240. 
Lobsters, 273. 
LoehafMr-axe, 698. 

LOCHNOW, arms, 469. 
Locket aa a ba'/pe, 584. 
LOCKHART'S Spanish Ballads, 202. 
LODBROKE, arms, ISrt. 
LODES, Comte de, betul, 429. 
Lodged, 232, 589, 693. 
LODOMIRIA, ar)ns, 504. 
LODZIA, arms, 737. 
,, Counta, 870. 
,, herba of, an/u, 870. 

LOEN, arw«, 228. 
LOFFREDO, arms, 71. 
LOGAN, anrt*, 147. 
LOG IE, MARGARET, seal, 455. 

Sir JOHN, anns, 455. 
LOUEAG, an/w, 71. 

„ DE TREVOASBC, arms, IS4. 

LOIR, JEAN, 13. 
LOKB, anns, 337. 
LOMBARDI, arms, 256. 

arms, 502. 
LOMBARDY, Jron CroKn of, 602, 617. 

of, 617. 
LOMELLtNI, arms, 79. 
London, Visitation of, 868. 
LONDON, Art Library at South Ken- 
sington, 622. 
City of, arms, 346. 

„ supporters, 291. 
Lord Mayor of, collar, 593. 
Record Office of, 455. 
See of, anus, 346, 371. 
St. Dunatan'a Chnixh, 594. 


( 8i6 ) 

LONDON, Vane of Royal Ezchango of, 

Long CroMf 152. 

LONOASTRE, Marquis de, an/ut, IS3. 

ELY, amut, 90. 
longe, 698, 735. 
Lonffi, 693, 735. 

SALISBURY, anus, 219, 224, 417; 
PI. XXL, fig. 12, p. 212. 
LONGS HARE, anas, 274. 

aldry of the Fercies, 
461, 4S2, 584. 
TATE and, The Pedi- 
grees and early Heraldry of the Lords 
ofAhucickt 482. 

arms, 95. 
LONGUEVILLE, amis, 168. 

„ Ck)mte de, 515, 580. 

,, Dnkee de, arms, 572. 

„ FRANCIS, Comte de, 

seaJ, 530. 
„ LOUIS, Dnke of, anns, 

LOOS-CORSWAREN, Princes of, anas, 

LOPPIN, anus, 228. 
LORAIN E, anagram of the name, 258. 
Lord Chancellor of ENGLAND, mark of 

oflSce, 644. 
LOREDAN, anns, 213. 
LORENZ, Barons, anns, 126. 
Lorenzo, Chnrch of San, in Florence, 192. 

ure, 451. 
LORETTE, anns, 195. 
LOREYN, anns, 138 ; PL XIL, fig. 11, p. 

LORN, anns, 868, 447, 466 ; PL XXXII., 
fig. 11, p. 358. 
ff alley of, 368. 
JOHN, Lord, 447. 
Ist Lord of, 520. 



,, Lord of, seal, 520. 

„ Lords of, 808. 


Lordship of, 520. 
LORNE, Princess Louise, Marchioness of, 

label, 423. 
Lorraine, Cross of, 152 ; Fig. 52, p. 164. 

„ Les Contumes Qineralts de, 550. 
LORRAINE, anns, 258, 449, 471, 495, 505, 
508, 545, 664. 
badge of Dukes of, 153. 
CHARLES III., Dnke of, 

Duchy, arm*, 501. 
Duke of, nw.ntling annoye, 

MATfllEU DE, bruure, 

Ordonnance of CHARLES 

III., Duke of, 748. 
suppoNBed anns of AD EL- 
BERT of, 46. 
RITE DE, anns, 449. 
Lorre, 687, 735. 
Losange, 693, 785. 
Losange, 100, 694, 735. 
en bande, 735. 
„ barre, 785. 





LOSS, omw, 279. 
LOTEREL, aniu, 408. 

„ Sir GEOFFREY, anns, 408. 

LOTHAIR, Emperor, 40, 41. 
LOTHIAN, Earl of, 414. 

„ Marquessate of, anns, 805. 

LOUBGASSEN, anns, 440. 
LOUDOUN, Earls of, antis, 85. 

brisure, 452. 
LOUIS II., the German, 39. 

„ IV., Emperor HOLY ROMAN 
EMPIRE, 57, 58, 247, 680 r 
aug7nentations granted by, 
536 ; coins of, 251 ; croien of, 
621 ; Oi-eat Seal of, 247. 
„ v., King of FRANCE, seal of, 354. 
„ VI., King of FRANCE, coins of, 
327 ; erotrn and sceptre of, 
VII., King of FRANCE, 329; 
badge, 583 ; called FLORUS, 
327 ; signet of, 828. 
VIII., King of FRANCE, seal of, 
329 ; supporters, 636. 
„ IX., (ST.), King of FRANCE, 830, 
571 ; seal of, 329 ; supporters, 
X., King of FRANCE, seal, 456. 
XL, King of FRANCE, 12, 192, 
574, 659 ; Qrtat Seal, 61b ; 
supporters, 636. 
„ XIL, King of FRANCE, seal of, 
829, 834 ; PL XXXVII., fig. 1, 
p. 447 ; supporter's, 636. 
„ XIII., King of FRANCE, 327; 

supporters, 636. 
„ XrV'., King of FRANCE, 13, 14, 
240, 275, 282, 297, 854, 571, 624 ; 
anns, 636, 710; aug^iientation 
granted by, 539; supporters, 
„ XVI., King of FRANCE, 539, 660. 
„ XVIIL, King of FRANCE, 14; 
aufrtnentation granted by, 539. 
„ or LOIS, or LOYS, 827. 
„ the same as CLOVIS, 327. 
LOUISE, Princess, Marchioness of 

LORNE, label, 423 ; Fig. 88, p. 421. 
Loup, 735. 

,, -cervitr, 735. 
LOUVAIN, anns, 214, 215, 481 ; PI. XXL, 
fig. 1, p. 212. 

„ Seven patrician families of, 

LOUVILLE, anns, 93. 
LOUVOIS, Marquis de, antu, 277. 
LOVARI, anns, 237. 

LOVBL of Ballurobie, supposed arms, 
„ Sir JOHAN, anns, 558. 
,. Sir WILLIAM, anas, 417. 
LOVELL, anns, 215, 240. 
LpVENlCH, amis, 127. 
LOVENSCHILD, arww, 218. 
LOW COUNTRIES, ewonet of Baron in 

the, 625. 
Introduction of 
Hereditary arms 
into, 51. 
Use of canton in the. 






(8i7 ) 

LOWB, antut, 2*8. 

LOWEL, annn, 80 ; PI. V., flg. 6, p. 80. 
LOWENSTEIN, arww, 447, W9 ; PI. LVL, 

fig. 4, p. 671. 
„ CoiiDta of, a)*»iui, 126. 

LOWER, M. A., CuriosUieHOfHercUdiy, 20, 

22, 23, 25, 81, »8, 117, .SPT, 634. 
LOWTHER, amut, PI. XIX., fig. 8, p. 

Lozetiffe, 165, 182, 698; Fig., 45, p. 116; 

PI. XVIII., flg. 7, p. 190. 
Loztngeg eor\foined, PI. XVIII., fig. 9, p. 

LoKHffp, 100, 185, 693 ; PI. VII., fig. 9, p. 
„ couped, PL VIII., flg. 1, p. 

„ tit bendf 100. 
LUC A, Grufen Saai, 404. 
LUCA8, arm*, 684. 
LUCCA, anm of city, 894. 
Luce, The, 268. 

LUCHTBXBURG, VAN, arnu, 128. 
LUCIANO, annii, 82. 
LUCINQB, PrinoM de, arnu, 91, 122. 
Lucv, 271, 694. 

LUCY, AMAURI DB, antui, 408. 
„ amut, 268, 806, 481, 482, 641. 
„ ELIZABETH, 557. 
„ GEOFFREY DE, 408. 
LUDERITZ, Barons von, ana*, 370. 
LUETTB, artiu, 882. 
Xumi, 65. 
LUNA, arnu, 807. 
LUNDIN, JOHN, of that ILK, bordure, 

Luitf, 785. 
LUNEBURO, Duobj of, anns, 113, 472, 

Lnnel*. 786. 
LUNBLS, anM, 807. 
LUPARELLA, aniw, 228. 
LUPIA, aruut, 161. 
Lure, 694. 

„ Cnnjoined in, 260. 
LUSATIA, LOWER, Markgravate, ann», 
„ UPPER, HarkgraTate, arnu, 
LU8IGNAN, anns, 94, 409. 

„ ert*t and iii<r>}}or{e>'«, 80S. 

„ HUGH DB, Count de la 

MARCHB, 803. 
Lute aa a charge, 882. 
LUTTBREL (m« LOTBREL), aniu, 408. 

„ tmpporUrg, 638. 

LUTWYCHB, anus, 224; PL XXIL, 

flg. 10, p. 222. 
Lt'TZOW, Barona Ton, antu, 365. 


449, (k$7. 
of, King of BOHEMIA, 591. 

labfl, 415. 
„ JEAN DB, antu and 

laM, 415. 
„ PIERRE DE, Count de 

8T. PAUL, 415. 
LUYTENBURG, VAN, arms, 128. 
LUZYAN8KI, arms, 272. 
Lymphad, 367, 694. 



LympXad undtr sail, PI. XXX IL, fig. 12, 

S. 858. 
Jtrt, PL XXX IL, fig. 11, 
p. 858. 
LYNDE, DE LA, arms, 142. 
L!fnx, The, 226. 

Lyon Oflice, Heraldic MS8. in, 476, 518. 
„ „ Official RtfrisUr of Arms, 

Bntries in, 400, 563, 610. 
„ Regieter, Institution of, 445. 
LYON, artat, 178, 288. 

„ EarlofSTRATHMORE,ar»M,215. 
,, „ crtst, 605. 

KING OF ARMS, 179, 523, 669, 

„ ,, arms, 526. 

„ „ duties, 401. 

LYONNAIS BT FORBZ, Counts of, arms, 

Lyrt as a charge, 383. 

MABILLON, 47, 287. 
MABU8B the painter, 334. 
M'ADAM, ar^ns, 850. 
M'ALISTER, ALLAN, arnu, 512. 

of OLAN RANALD, aniui, 512. 

M'DONELL of GLENGARRY, anvu, 512 ; 

PL XLIIL, fig. 8, p. 521. 
M'DOUGALL, arms, 218. 
M'GRBGOR, antu, 317; PL XXIX., fig. 

2 u 318 
M'KINNON," anns, 518. 
M'LAREN, anm, 139. 
M'LAURIN, arms, 871. 
M'LBOD, aniiH, 207, 858; PL XXVIII., 
fig. 10, p. 308. 
„ of LEWIS, arm*, 314. 
M'MAHON, PL XXI., flg. 6, p. 212. 

arms, 342. 
M'NEILL, ar^tu, 218, 513. 
MACDONALD, antu, 212. 

„ Lord, antu, 512, 518 ; PI. 

XLIIL. fig. 6, p. 52L 
,, Marshal, anns, 513. 

,, of Slate, anns, 512. 

MACFARLANE, anns, 144, 825. 
,, brisnre, 432. 

,, compartmtrU, 642. 

MACHIAVELLI, arms, 713. 
„ family, 16. 

MACIAS, an.u, 887. 
MACINTOSH, anns, 212. 
MACKENZIE, amu, 283; PI. XXIIL, 

fig. 11, p. 228. 
„ anns in Lyon Office Rt- 

gister, 400. 
Sir GEORGE, Science qf 
Ha-aldrtf, etc., 2, .349, 446, 486. 
MACKINTOSH, antu, 513. 
MACKONEIL, of Dunnivegeand Glennee, 
antu, 612 ; PL XLIIL, fig. 4, pu 521. 
MACLEAN, attM, 518 ; PL XLIIL, fig. 6, 

p. 521. 
Mdct€, 694, 785. 
MMe, 694, 735. 
MACMAHON, arnu, 216. 268. 

„ Le Mareehal MARIE 

GENTA, anns, 216. 

(8i8 ) 

HAGMAHON, MarqniMS of, arm*, 216. 

MA^OX. ai-mx, 285. 

Ma^nne, 694, 786. 

MA DAN, aniu, 262. 

MADDEN, ami», 262. 

MADOBT8, arms, 184. 

MADRID, City of, arms, 818. 

MAES, arnm, 184. 


brisutt, 452. 
MAGALHAENS, amis, 09. 
MAGALOTTI, a^-ms, 894. 
MAGDEBURG, Duchy of, anns, 79. 
MAGENTA, Due de, anus, 216. 
MAGNALL, amis, 865. 

of ESSEX, 
»f M ff Karl 

of ESSEX, supposed effigy of, 45. 
MAGNE, 204. 

MAGNENEY, Mecwil des Armts, 64. 

cownUr-seaX of, 628. 
MAGUIRE, arnis, 199 ; PL XX., fig. S, p. 

MAGUSAC, Comte de, supposed artixs of, 

MAHLBERG, LoitU of, anns, 212. 
MAHREN, Markgravate of, amis, 256. 
Maiden's head as a badqt, 754. 
MAIBNTHAL, anm, 66. 
MAIGRET or MEGRET, amis, 66. 
MAILLANE, Marquises de, amis, 227. 
MAILLART, amis, 128. 
MAILLEN D'OIIEY, Marquises, amis, 

McUUet, 786. 
MAILLY, amis, 898. 

„ GILLES DE, anns, 404. 
J#ain-6^Msant<r, 736. 
„ d'aigU, 693, 736. 

,, anas, 96. 
Maintenumc^, dtp of, 694. 
MA IN WARING of'Ci-oxton, amis, 560. 
MAIR, an>ut, 200. 
MAISTRE, Counts de, amis, 838. 

,, XAVIER DE, 838. 

MAITLAND, anus, 179, 217; PI. XXL, 

fig. 8, p. 212. 
Maize, 344. 
MAJOR, anns, 864. 
Mal-gironni, 85, 786. 
„ -ordonni, 150, 786. 
„ -ttUUi, 786. 
MALAGAMBAS, amis, 207. 
anns, 112, 881. 
„ see HBRVILLY. 

MALASPINA, anns, 58^. 

„ CONRAD, anns and aiiff' 

fiientation, 536. 
MALATESTA, amis, 201. 

amis, 880. 

of. 54. 
MALEMORT, amis, 98. 
MALGOL, aniu, 138. 
MALUERBE, anns, 320. 
MALLERBY, anns, 320. 
Mallets as charges, 393. 

MALMAYNS, an)u, 204. 

MALMESBURY, Earl of, augmentation, 

MALMONT, anns, 186. 

MALOLACU, DE, aniw, 130. 

M ALP AS, Barons of, amis, 157. 

MALTA, Knights of, see HOSPITAL- 

Maltese Cross, 155 ; Fig. 55, p. 164. 

MALTRAVERS, oi-ms, 96, 181. 


Man, PI. XX., fig. 1, p. 198. 
„ -at-anns M supporter, 640. 
„ 'tiger, 694. 

MAN, ISLE OF, arms, 206, 446; PI. XX., 
fig. 9, p. 198. 

Manacles as a badffef 584. 

Manche, 694. 

„ mal tailUe, 694, 736. 

MANCHESTER, Dukes of, arms, 562. 

,, ,, supporters, 

287, 283. 
„ Lords of, and City of, 

anns, 182. 

MANCICOURT, arms, 140. 

MANDBLSLOH, Counts of, anns, SS5. 

MANDERSCHEID, Counts of, amis and 
label, 424. 

MANDEVILLE, Earls of ESSEX, 589. 









MamloUne as a charge, 388. 

Maned. 694. 


MANPREDI, anns, 81, 162 ; PI. XIV., fig. 

12, p. 140. 
MANIAGO, Count, amis, 92. 
Manipule, 736. 
MANNERS, anns, 563. 

Lord ROOS, 17. 

„ WILLIAM, 563. 
of Belvoir, Sir GEORGE, 

„ Grantham, JOHN, anns, 

Sir JOHN, Earl of RUT- 
LAND, aufnnentation, 580. 
„ Sir WILLIAM, 568. 

MANNY, Sir WALTER DE, anns, 140. 
Man's head loith om's ears as a crest, 606. 
MANSE L, amis, 876. 
MANSFELD, Counts of, amis, 488. 
MANSOURAH, BatUe of, 881. 
Mantel, Tiared in, 694. 
ManteU, 88, 694, 736. 
MANTELLI, anns, 218. 
MANTEUFFEL, Counts Ton, anns, 128. 
Mantieora, 694. 
Mantle, 694. 
Mantled, 88. 

Mantles or Mantlings, 615, 694. 
MANTUA, Dukes of, anns, 94, 250, 259, 
502, 536. 
„ 1st Marquis of, augmentation, 

MANUEL, amis, 450, 607, 786. 
King, 288. 
„ MARIE, 450. 

MAR, anns, 163, 455, 514, 567. 

Countess of, seal, 455, 459. 

\\ Earls of, anns, 120, 178, 666. 

,. suppariers, zjhj. 
GRATNEY, Earl of, 445. 


• I 

MAR, MARGARET, Counten of, mo/, 469. 

„ Sir DONALD of, briture, 446. 
MARAXS, (imu, li(9. 
MatxoMin, 039, 73ti, 74S. 
MARCELS, anM, 163. 
MARCH, Earl of, 414. 

„ arms, 108, 171, 405, 446. 
„ bordwe^ 442. 
„ crest, 606. 
LioiM of, 634. 

Silrer lioru of, 657, 688, 662. 

ariM, 96 ; PI. LV., flg. 6, p. 669. 
MARCH AND, amut, 66. 
MARCHE, Count de la, 808. 

„ OLIVIER DE LA, 615, 663. 

(we LECOY). 
MARCHMONT, Earl of, aruu, 623. 
M ARCH YD D AP CYNAN, anus, 199. 
MARCK, Count* de la, amu, 135 Cut 

,, ,, crtttf ttOS. 

MARCONNE, Counts de, atiiM, 314. 
Mar^chaiix de Franoe, mark of office, 645. 
$ecretwa of, 247. 
dtr. of PHILIP in. of 
France, »eal, 464. 
„ Queen of EDWARD L 

of ENGLAND, 11 ; $eal, 464. 
MARGENS, arniM, 69. 
MARGUERIB, Marqniaes de, ariM, 336. 
MARGUERIT, arnu, 336. 
Marguerite, The, 836. 
MARIA THERESA, amis, 104 ; PI. XL., 

p. 495. 
EniproM, ann», 494. 
Oratid Cordon of the 
ORDER of, 665. 

dtr. of HENRY III., Duke of 
BRABANT, ar,M, 454. 
MARIE NRODE, Counts of, anM, 380. 
Marigold, 338. 
Marinf, 736. 

MARIONI, JULIO, augnieiUation, 636. 
MARISCHAL, Earls, arms, 122. 
MARK, County of, arm*, 125, 472, 4S5, 

MARKHAM, ar)M, 221 ; Pi. XXIL, flg. 

3 D. 222. 
MARKINGTON, aniw, 80. 
Mark* of Caiknry, 397. 
MARLBOROUGH, Duke of, arm*, 418. 

,, ,, augttientalion, 

„ ,, »wpporter», 



arms, 660. 
MARMION, aniu, 345, 532. 

PHILIP, Baron of SCRI- 
VELSBY, 345. 
Marmite, 736. 

MARMOUTIERS, Abbey of, 657. 
MARMYON, anns, 345. 
MARNEY, arms, 216. 
Martjue, 704, 736. 
Marquess's coronet, 624. 
Marqueti, 736. 



Marquis's standard. Length of, 664. 
Mars, 65, 694. 

„ Sjftabolfor, 809. 
MARSCHALCK, arms, 669. 
MARSEILLES, Figure from Abbey of 

ST. VICTOR, PI. IL, flg. 4, p. 44. 
MARSHALL, artns, 90. 
„ badge, 366. 

„ Earl of PEMBROKE, amu, 

ManhaUing, 458 ; PL XXXVIII., p. 463 : 
PL XXXIX., p. 481 ; PI. 
XLL.p. 509; PI. XLIL, 
p.613; PLXLIIL.P.62L 
„ in Britain, Modem, 523. 

„ Modes of, 459. 

Marshals, French, mark of office, 045. 
MARSI, Counts, de, ann*, 124. 
MARSTON, anns, 235. 
MART DORP, arms, 222. 

WILLIAM, anas, 898. 

Martin, The, 206. 
MARTIN, arms, 126. 
Martinet, 736. 

,, aniu, 185. 
MARTINI, Capa or Capsa 8a)iieti, 657. 
Martlet for fourth son, 444. 
MartUts, 2t56, 694 ; PI. XXVI., flg. 4, p. 

MARY I., Qneen of ENGLAND, anm, 
PI. LI., fig. 4. p. 661 ; badge, 
696; Ureai Seal of, 664 ; 
motto of, 664. 
IL, Queen of BRITAIN, 113 ; arms, 
PI. LIL, fig. 6, p. 663 ; Tnatto 
of, 664. 
Princess, label, 422; Fig. 88, p. 

Qneen of SCOTLAND, 476 ; deeice 
of, 298 ; Great Seal of, 464 ; seal of, 
330, 335, 476 ; supporters of, 635, 
Maseallif, 185. 

MA8CARENHAS, anns, 127. 
Mascle, 117, 182, 184, 694; PL XVIIL, fig. 

8, p. 190. 
Masetes conjoined, PI. XATII., flg. 10, p. 

Masculy, 694. 
Masonetl, 694. 
Masqu^, 786. 

MASSA, Principality of, 537. 
Massacre, 284, 679, 736. 
Masses d'Armes, 786. 
MASSON, anns, 187. 

„ LB, anns, 319. 

MA8S0W, Barons, anas, 126. 
MASSY, anns, 284. 
MASTON, anns, 130. 
MasKri, 736. 

Matchlock as a charge, 366. 
MATELlEFd, anns, 336. 
MATHEWS, arms, 212. 
MATH IAS, arms, 387. 
MATILDA, Queen of WILLIAM of Nor- 
mandy, 29. 
MATOS, anns, 817. 
MATTHEWS, anns, 268. 
MAU BLANC, arms, 68. 
MAUD, Empress, 29. 




( 820 ) 

MAUOIRON, arnu, 85; PL VT., flg. 8, 

p. 84. 
MAULS, ttm«, 617 ; PI. XVII., flg. 2, p. 
„ Earl* of PANMURB, amu, 171. 
„ Lords PANMURE, and Bark of 
DALHOUSIE, ann*, 128, 
„ . Sir DAVID, amu, 171. 
MAULEOX, aniw, 214. 
MAULEVEBER, badge, 758. 
MAULEVRIER, arnu, 241. 

„ ComtM de, anus, 164. 

„ Haxqulaes, de, arm$f 275. 

Mauneh, Mauncke^ or Maiieht. 694 ; PI. 

XXX in., 

flg. 1, p. 
„ „ „ M a badift, 

„ „ „ asaoharge, 

MAUPEOU, MarquisM de, anuj, 280. 
MAURICE, BUuon de* ArmoirieM de Unu 
lei Chevalinv de VOvdrt de la ToUon 
drOr, 89, 181, 848, 402, 410, 415, 425, 
441, 449, 472, 485, 502, 574. 
MAUVOISIN, ar.,w, 127. 
MAWLET, anm, 180. 
MAXIMILIAN II., Emperor, 887. 

„ „ „ auffoientation 

granted by, 537. 
„ Archdnlte, »uftportn\ 638. 

„ King of the Romans, 

counter-»ecU of, 258. 
MAXWELL, an)M, 148. 

„ ROBERT, eetU and bordwr, 

MAXWELLS in aouth Scotland, 400. 
MAYA, anne, 865. 
MAYER'S, 0. VON, Heralduche* A b e- 

2h«<rA, 888. 
MAYNARD, ar^n*, PI. XX., flg. 7, p. 
„ ST. MICHEL, ConntB, arm*^ 

,, liords, aniM, 204. 

MAYNIER, Barons d'OPPEDE, arwu, 

MAZINOEN, ar\M, 848. 
MAZINGHEM, aniu, 86. 
MEARES, arvM, 369. 
MBAUX, le Vioomte de, 11. 

„ Vioomtes de, arvM^ 387. 
MECHLIN, amtj, 576. 

,, Seignenr de, amu, 405. 

MECKLENBURO, amu, 159, 288, 718. 
„ DnchT of, onfM, 492. 

HENRY the LION of, 
„ Prinoes and Grand 

Dukes of, ar»M, 79, 206, 492. 
MEDCALFE, antu, 285. 
MEDICI, ariM and auffmey^taXifm^ 588. 

Grand Dukes of TUSCANY, 
armM, 192. 
MEDICO DAL SALE, ariM, 804. 
ormM, 576. 
„ -SIDONIA, Dukes of, amu, 890. 
MiduMe, THe de, 786. 
MEER, VAN DER, ann*, 822. 



MEERMAN, Barons, 803. 
MEGENZER, ariiu, PI. VIII., flg. 4, p. 
,, VON, arm», 87. 

MEGHEM, Barons de, arm*, 860. 
MEGRET or MAIGRET, mnu, 06. 
MEHRENBERG, ariM, 168. 
MEJUS8UAUME, Vioomtes de, artm, 

MEIRANS, amu, 721. 
MELDRUM, amu, 288 ; PI. XXIV., fig. 8, 

GUEIL, Comte de, amu, 118. 
MELIORATI, amu, 810. 
Melon*, 341. 
MEL UN, amu, 840. 

HUOUES DE, amu, 411. 
le Vicomte de, 11. 
le Hre de, amu, 411. 
Vioomtes de, amu, 849. 
MelvMne, 308, 786. 
MetMbered, 694. 

„ as applied to birds, 257. 
Manbri, 257, 698, 694, 786. 
Metnbre d'Aiffle, 736. 

,, de lion, 688, 786. 
MBHMI. amu, 840. 
MEMMINGEN, amu, 469. 
Men on lUnu as ewpporte r e, 685. 
MENDEL, ami», 87. 
MENDEZ, amu, 219. 
MENDOSA, amu, PL XXXIIL, flg. 12, 

p. 876. 
MENDOZA, amu, 858, 440, 473, 506. 

„ Counts de PRIEGO, amu*, 

473. _^ 
„ „ of CORUmA, amu, 



ann*, 895, 506. 
MENCIA, 440. 
MENESEZ, amu, 66, 858, 578. 

TINEZ DE, 578. 

MiUkodiqru de* 
Principe* Hh- 
aldiffue*, 2, 24, 
44, 51, 61, 858, 
888, 446, 552, 
653, 579, 001. 
658, 676. 
„ ,, CArlduBlaton 

Juiti/U, 154. 
„ „ la Nonvtlle 

Mitkode du 
BUuon, 109. 
„ „ LaPratiiinedea 

Armoiriet, 8. 
„ „ Miikode du 

Bl€Uon, 148, 
154, 181, 742. 
„ „ on origin of 

eagle, 250. 
>i II on origin 

of tuppcrter*, 
„ ,1 Beekerchet du 

Bloion, 896, 427, 551, 662. 

(821 ) 



Armoirie* et du 

Blamniy 24, 48, 

52, 108, 276, 


„ TraatiM of, 


„ „ Utofft de$ Ar- 

uunriu, 628, 
,, „ ViritabU Art 

IfENSCHIKOFP, PriDOM, arms asd 

auanuHtaiion, M2. 

MENTEITH, amu, 180. 

„ £«rl of, amu on Eagle, 080. 

,, „ Uibelf 419. 

MENTZ, ArohbMhopof, 282. 
Menu-vair^ 69, 786. 
Jtetiurair^f 786. 
MENZIES, amu, 118. 
3f EPPEN, mtH», 90. 
Mer offiU, 706. 

MERAVIGLIA, Counts of, amu. 189. 
Mercantile Marine, ,flag of BritiaD, 657. 
MBRGKEL8BAGH, amu, 162. 
MERCKEUR, amu, 128. 
Mereury, 65, 694. 
MEREDITH, amu, 218. 
MERGBTH AP CYNAN, amu, 199. 
MERKMAN, amu, 752. 
MerUtU, 266, 694, 786. 
Merli<m, 094. 
MerUnu, 685, 095, 724. 
MemuLid, 800 ; PI. XXVII., flg. 12, p. 288. 

„ as a badge, 754. 
MtmiaidM as Mupportera, 684. 
Memmn, The, 802. 
MER8EMAN, amu, 184. 
MERTON, amu, 348. 
MERTZ, crest, 612. 
ME8LAY, ConitM 4?, aniui, 280. 
MBSTICH, amu, 290. 
Jtfetoi CH Metal, etc, 102. 
Jlf(;fa/«, 695. 

represented hj dots, etc, 64. 

„ „ planets and preclons 
stones, 66. 
„ tued in Heraldry, 00. 
MHaux, 780. 
METCALFE, amu, 285. 
METHVEN, Lord of, amu, 521 ; PL 
XLIL, fig. 8, p. 518. 
,, Lordship of, amu, 522. 

METSCH, amu, 186. 
METTERNICH, Connts of, antu, 491. 
MBTTLER, auffnuntation, 546. 
Mevblet, 787. 

MEULAN, $eal aUd aruM of JEAN DE 


DE, 49. 
MEULLENT, Counts of, amu, 214. 
MEUX, JOHN DE, amu, 289. 
MEX BOROUGH, Earl of, amu, ISO. 
MEXICO, City of, 547. 

„ „ as a charge, 368. 

MEYNELL, amu, 71. 


Jfooa, 787. 

MEZERAY, VAbrigi Chronoloffttiue de 

VHittoire di France, 88. 
Jf {.parti, 787. 
MICHAEL, eoUu qf, 250. 
MrCHELI, arms, 98, 889. 

Doge DOMENICO, amu, 

MICHBLL, arms, 185. 
MICHEL'B IM Bco$$ai9 en France, 446. 
Midas, Head (tf, 201, 606, 787. 
„ TiU de, 201, 606, 787. 
MIER0SZEW8KY, in Silesia, arms, 61. 
MIGNIANELLI, arms, 7a 71. 
MILAN, Dachy of, amu, 274, 275, 496, 
Duke of, augnuntaiion, 588. 
ttandivrd of, 655. 
Military ekarge$, 845. 
Mill-pick, 695. 
„ -rind, 695. 
„ -sail as a badge, 754. 
„ -sai^ as charges, 898. 
MILLAR, erest, 204. 
MILLESIMO, Counts, amu, 95. 

„ Maiquises DE 8AYONA, 

amu, 641. 
MILLY, amu, 887. 
MILON, 12. 

MILTOWN, Earl of, arms, 811. 
MINGOVAt, Seigneur de, 451. 
MINIBERTI, arms, 847. 
Miniver, 695, 786. 
MIN8HULL, amu, 807. 
MINTO, Earl of, arm*, 20a 
MINUTOLI, amu, 228. 
MIOLANS. arms, 95. 
MiraUU, 704, 787. 
MIRAMOMELIN, Commander of the 

Moors, 358. 
MIRANDA, CounU of, arms, 506. 
MIRANDOLA, Dukes of, amu, 509. 

„ „ augmentation, 

„ maiUling, 616. 

MIREPOIX, Due de, arms, 140. 
MIRON, 12. 
Mirror* as charges, 891. 
Mit einer Uneken »t^fe, 87 ; PI. VIII., flg. 
8, p. 100. 
„ reehten stu^e, 87. 
MITCHELL, amu, 185. 
MITFORD, arms, PL XXIV., flg. 11, 
p. 286. 
„ Lord REDE8DALE, orma, 

Mitre, 695. 

„ as a eJutrge, 871. 
„ as a crest, 608. 
Miiretl figure as a crest, 808. 
MITTROWSKI, arms, 121. 
MIZOU, amu, 93. 
MOCENIGO, arms, 321 
MODENA, Dukes of, 266. 

„ „ arms, 602, 506. 

„ „ augmentatitm, 687, 

MOER, Barons VAN DE, supporfa*, 640. 
MOFFAT, arms, 144, 145. 

arnM, 200. 
MOHUN, arms, 142, 205. 

JOHN DE, arms, 468. 
WILLIAM DE, arms, 876. 


( 8" ) 

MOIONB, Sir WILLIAM, arm$ tnuis- 

ferred to, 
M M aniugruited 

to, 86. 
MOLAY. DE, annt, 129. 
MOLDAVIA, ariM, 667. 
MoU, 230 ; PI. XXIV., flg. 11, p. 286. 
MOLEMBAIS, amu. 128. 450. 

,, BALDWIN DE, amu, 45a 

MOLEN, Marquis DE 8T. PONCY, arms, 

MOLESWORTH, ViMoante, tupjwrters, 

MoltUel SOS, 787. 
M0LEYN8, DE, 17. 
MOLINA, Sir NICOLO DE, arm* and 

a^ffminiaiioH, 636. 
lUoline, Cro$$, 158, 605. 
M0L1NEUX, omu, 159. 
MOLL, amw, 289 ; PI. XIII., fig. 4, p. 186. 

,, VON, arm*, 187. 
MOLLE, arm*, 289. 
MOLSBAGH, VON, arm*, 718. 
MOLSEN, Battle of, 248. 
MOLYNEUX, arm*, PI. XV., fig. 1, p. 144. 
„ Earls of 8EPT0N, arm*, 

MOLTKE, arm*, 266. 

„ Count VON, arm* and augmen- 
tation, 5U. 
MONAOO, Princes of, arm*, 100, 668. 
MONGADA, arm*, 891. 
MONCHY, DE, arm*, 898. 
Monde, 695, 696, 787. 
M0NE8TAY, arm*, 128. 
Money as a charge, 889. 
MONFRAIN, arm*, 187. 
Monk, de7ni-, as a ere*t, 605. 
MONMOUTH, Dnke of, artn*, 146, 659. 
MONNET, Sires de, arm*, 889. 
MONRO of Fonlis, arm*, 269. 
Jf(im«ter*, 286. 
Monttranee as a charge, 372. 
Mon*trueux, 787. 

MONTAGUTE, on»u, 188, 257, 287, 662; 
PI. XVin.,flg.9,p.l90. 
badpe, 754. 
Earls of SALISBURY, 

Lord, badift, 758. 
SIMON, 662. 

„ DE, arm*, 287. 
MONTAGU, 648,657,686. 

and Earls of SAND- 
WICH, arm*, 662. 
Earls of SALISBURY, 

arm*, 188. 
Family, 439. 
Ouide to the Study f^ HetxU- 

dry, 26, 548, 666. 
Marquess of, Oarter Plate, 

of Lndsdowne, JAMES, 

„ Sir EDWARD DE, ann*, 

MONTALEMBERT, arm*, PI. XV., fig. 2, 

p. 144. 
„ Marquises de, ann*, 








MONTALT, amu, 218. 
MONTANOON, ann*, 86. 
Moniant, 806, 695, 724, 787. 
MONTAUBAN, ann*, 112, 187. 

„ Princes de, ann*, 185. 

MONTAUSIER, Duos de, antu, 124. 
MONTBAR, DE, ann*, 88. 
MONTBAZON, ann*, 214. 

„ Duos de, arm*, 186, 605. 

MONTBEILLARD, GonntB of, ann*,' 270 *, 

PL XLIV., fig. 8, p. 687. 

Count of, 47 (SM MUMPELGARD). 
MONTCHAL, amu, 198. 
MONTCHENSY, ann*, 160. 
MONTCLAR, arm*, 186. 
MONTCONI8. ariM, 127. 
MONTE-APERTO, BatUe of, 666. 
MONTEBELLO. Due de, arm*, 846. 

GRIGNAN, amu, 182. 
Jfobiliarehia Poriuguexa, 881, 426, 
MONTENEGRO, arm*, 668. 
MONTBPULCIANO, arm*, 288. 
M0NTE8QUI0U, DE, ann*, 106. 

„ . Marquis de FEZEN- 
SAG, amu, 101. 
MONTFAUCON, U* Monumen* de la 

Monarekie Fran^aue, 31, 282, 828. 
MONTFERRAT, Duchy of, ann*, 118. 

„ Marquesses of, arm*, 250. 

MONTFORD, Barons, arm*, 82. 
MONTFORT, ann*, 96, 162, 742, 743 ; PI. 
XV., fig, 6, p. 144. 
arm* of Counts of, 873, 499. 
Seigneurs de, 10. 
„ SIMON DE, Earl of LEI- 

CESTER, arm*, 218 ; PL XXL, fig. 9, 
p. 212 ; banner <ff, 466. 
MONTGOMERY, ann*, 60, 219, 881. 
Earl of, arm*, 224. 
JOHN, badge, 683. 
Sir THOMAS, badge, 

MONTOOMMERY, arm*. 219. 
MONTHERMER, arm*, PL XXV., fig. 1, 

p. 260. 
„ RALPH DE, Earl of 

GLOUCESTER, arm*, 267. 
MONTI, amu, 72, 73 ; PL VIII., fig. 6, p. 

MONTJEAN, arm*, 96. 
MONTJOY, arm*, 112. 
MONTL^RT, arm*, 191. 
MONTLEON, ann*, 214. 
MONTMORENCY, DE, ann*, 268, 451, 

„ badge, 586. 
„ briture*, 461. 
„ kills HENRY n. 

of France, 40. 
„ MATHIEU, ban- 
ner, 661. 
,, l.,»eal 
of, 48. 
„ IL, *eal 
of 87, 48. 
cre*ted helm, 699. 
„ -LAVAL, ann*, 268, 









(823 ) 




anuMf 46S. 
Lord of, 11. 

,, tee BOUCHARD. 

MONTPELlIER, Saignenn d«, 10. 
M0NTPEN8IER, Dno» de, Unul, 429. 
MONTRAVBL, Comte de, aniui, SI 7. 
MONTREVEL, Comtea de, arum, 81 ; 

hrimrt, 434. 
MONTROSE, Bnrgh of, ariHK, 824, 522. 
„ Duke of, anu$, 278. 

„ , *ra/, 622. 

MONTS, «< RIVIERE, 729. 
Monuiiienta ZolleraneL, 45ft. 
Monuiuente, Armorial braring* on, 48. 
MoQvninek reliqiuiry, 657. 
MONYPENNY, anw/i, 270. 

„ THOMAS, of Kinkell, 

chevron. 481. 
jtfbnza, BMilica of, 617. 
Jtfoon, The, 806. 
Moor-fofrl, 207. 

Moor's Heatl 200: PI. XX., fig. C, p. 198. 
MooK'deer, The, 232. 
MoraHlt$, 678. 718, 787. 
MORAVIA, arMM, 496, 500, 665. 

„ Markgntvate of, ariiM, 256. 

MORAY, eutikions of, 518. 

,, Earl of, anns, 177, 878, 435, 516, 
ELIZABETH, Connten of, 5()7. 
Rment, arvMy 567. 
THOMAS, Earl of, a^iH», 878. 
MORDWINOFF, auffiMutalion, 542. 
MOREA, PHILIP, Prince of the, 579. 

,, avMMy 241. 

MORBUIL, aniw, 221. 
MORGAN, anm, 218, 288. 

„ 8YLVANU8, Bphtre of Gentrjf 

and Armilofria, 28, 60, 644. 

DE, Mture, 452. 
MORICE, Mhiunre* pour servir de Preuves 
a I'Hittoire BeeUsia^iipie tt Civile de 
Bretagne, 46, 413, 460, 461, 463, 684. 
MORIEN, artiu, 188. 
Morion, 695. 
Morions aa charigea, 892. 
MORISON, amis, PI. XX., ilg. 5, p. 198. 

,, of Dairsie, an/u, 200. 

MORLEY, arms, 226. 

,, Earla of, arms, 186. 
„ Lord, badge, 753. 
MORNAY, DE, aritui, 218. 
Momi or Mortni, 218, 683, 695, 737. 
MORNY, Due de, amis, 266, 572. 
M0R08INI, arms, 129. 
MORRA, Dnkesof BBLFORTE, ariHShnd 
augmentatUm, 541. 
„ Princes of MORRA, etc., anna 
and aufft}ientation, 541. 
MORRISON, amis, 732. 
MORSAN, Marquiaee de, anus, 872. 
Morse, 695. 

MORSKI, Connta, arms, 848. 
MORSLBDE, VAN, anus, 182. 
Mart, 695. 

MORTAGNE, Princes de, amis, 94. 
Mortaisf line, 77, 678, 684, 737. 



Mnriar, 695. 
MORTE, anM, 208. 
MORTEM AR, Duos de, amu, 98. 
MORTEMER, amw, 448. 
Mortier. 625, 787. 

MORTIMER, anus, 112, 881. 448, 470, 557 ; 
PI. XVIIL, fig. 5, p. 190. 
badge, 764. 
Earl of MARCH, arms, IfS, 

BDMUND, seal of, 168, 448 ; 
PL XXXVIL, flg. 2, 
_p. 447 ; supporters, 684. 
GEOFPRBY DB, antu, 44S. 
HENRY DE, arms, 448. 
JOAN DE, arms, 448. 
RAF DE, arms, 448. 
ROGER, 591. 

„ arms, 448. 
WILLIAM DE, arms, 448. 
Mortn^, 695. 
MORTON, Earl of, arms, 179. 

„ „ mantling annoyt, 616. 

MORVILLE, anns, 474. 
MOSCOSO, arms, 507. 

„ OSORIOS DB, arms, 507. 

MOSCOW, ami*, 642, 665. 

„ arms of Grand Dnke IVAN 

BASILOWITZ of, 250. 
„ Kremlin at, 622. 

MOST, arm*, 89. 
M08TYN, Lord, anns, 200. 
MOTTE-FOUQU^, Barons de la, a»M^ 
„ JEANNE, Comteese de la, and 
her sister MARIANNE, anus, 
,, LA, arrMJi, 170. 
Motto, 696. 
Mottoes, Royal, 664. 
MOUCHARD, Comte de CHABAN, arms, 

MtmcheU, 704, 787. 
MowheturesJi^b, 787. 
MOUCHY. Dugs de, anns, 129. 
MOULB, THOMAS, The Heraldry qf Fith, 
268, 271, 299, 800, 801, 802, 614, 615, 
MOULINS. oifjw 91. 
MOULTON of Frankton, Lord, arms, 

,, „ Gillesland, Lord, arms, 

, , THOMAS, Baron of EGR E- 

MONT, anM, 404. 
Mound, 695. 

Mount, A, 811, 695 ; PI. XXVIII, fig. S, 
p. 808. 
„ Burning, 814; PI. XXVIIL, fig. 
10, p. 308. 
MOUNT-TEMPLE, Lord, swppvrtrr, 298. 
Mounted, 695. 
MOUNTENEY, anns, 408. 
MOUNTFORD, anns, 96, 214. 
Mounting, 695. 
Mourne, 695. 
Mouser, A, 97. 
MOUSKES, PHILIPPE, rhyming chro- 

nide of France, 245, 668. 
M0US8AYE, LA, Vioomte de ST. 

DENOUAL, anM, 9& 
Mouton, 708. 787. 
„ d pUoter, 737. 

( 824) 


Nouvant, 787. 
MOWBRAY, arm$, 218. 
badffe, 754. 

GEOFFREY DE, labtl, 410. 
Lord, aupporUTf 300. 
TUOMA», Dnke of NOR- 
FOLK, antu, 474. 
,, „ Duke of NOR- 

FOLK, au^tufUcUUm, 628. 
HOYLE, anM«, 287. 
MOYNE, LE, family, 605. 
IIOZZI, anna, 10 1 ; Fl. XV., fig. 7, 

p. 144. 
MUCHAMPS. aruu, 280. 
MUDER3BAGH, arm*, 86. 
M^HL, Barons, anm, 818. 
MOHLINGEN, Conutj of, amu, 266. 
MULA, CountH DA, gupporUrtj 640. 
Mulbfrry as a bOAiget 754. 
If tt/<. The, 237. 
MULBRT, artM, 140. 
MCLLBR, Baron, anus. 889. 
JfttZ^et, Tbe, 808, 605 ; PI. XXVIII., fig. 7, 
p. 806. 
,, for third son, 444. 

MULTON, anMjr, 127, 474, 641. 
MUMPELGARD, Connts of, anM«, 27a 
,, ,, crtttf 607. 

HUN, Maranises de, arwui, 381. 
MUNDEGUMBRI, of Eagleshanie, JOHN 

DE, »eal and anus of, 50. 
MUNGO, ST., 271. 

MUNOm, GUI DE, Monk of St. Germain 
TAuxerrois, teal of, 672 : PI. 
XXXVIL, fig. 8, p. 447. 
MUl^OZ, arwM, 858. 

MUNRO, ttmw, PI. XXV., flg. 4, p. 260. 
MUNSTER, 884. 

„ Earl of, amUf 660. 

MUNSTERBERG, Dukes of, an/M, 284. 
MUNTZENBERG, Counto of, arMt«, 70. 
MUNZENBERG, aruta, 488. 
Mur, 787. 
3iural-€rownf 605. 
XURAT, 20tf. 
MURRAY, arm*, 806. 

„ anns in Ljfcn Office Register, 

of Bothwell, at-MM, 614, 615, 
„ THOMAS, 514. 
„ Gttlbin, arjMS, 406. 
„ Tonohadam, aniu, 170. 
„ Tnllibaitline, amu, 170. 
Sir ANDREW, bordw-e, 442. 
THOMAS, Bishop of CAITH- 
NESS, teal ot, 860. 
WILLIAM of Gask, chevron, 

„ „ son of Sir MAL- 

CX)LM, label, 410. 
Murrep, 005. 

MUSOHAMP, arm», 128, 281. 
J/iMcAetours, 605. 
Muahroom, 844. 

Mruical in«(rtt»ienU as ohargas, 882. 
Jlfiwt*M<m, 696. 
Mnaian, 07, 226, 006. 
MUSY, arm*, 218. 
Muuled, 696. 
MYNTBR, annt, 864. 
MYPONT, arm*, 186. 




NACHTIGAL, auffmentationt 646. 

HageajU, 696, 787. 

i^aiaiU, 268, 606. 


NAIMER, arm*, 874. 

iyoiMon«, 221, 606, 784, 787 ; PL XXIL, 

flg. 5, p. 222. 
NAMANS, Barons, aniu, 126. 
NAMUR, Counts of, ami*, 420 ; PI. XLIV., 


flg. 2, p. 687. 


LOUIS DE, cre*t, 502. 
ROBERT DE, beml, 420. 
„ „ cre«<, 502. 

NAN I, arui*. 78, 80. 
arm*, 144, 825. 
of Calcrench, bt'Uiure, 436. 
,, Merohiston, In-Uure, 482. 
PATRICK, Lord, arm*, 170. 
NAPIER'S PartiftOH q/'tA« Lennox, 180. 
NAPLES, Conquest of, 620. 

FREDERICK, King of, 505. 
„ Kingdom, arm*, 502. 

NAPOLEON I. , Emperor of the FRENCH, 

800, 518 ; mantling, 616. 

„ III., Emperor of the 

FRENCH, 800; aug- 

inentation granted by, 


„ crottn ot, 621. 

„ never conferred title of 

Marqness, 626. 
„ substitutes toque* for coro- 

neU, 626. 
NAPOLEON'S golden bee*, 281, 282. 
NARBONNE, Battle of, 658. 

„ Dues de, anMi, 66. 

lfarci»*u*, 606. 
NARISCHKIN, antu, 746. 
NASH, ann*, 219. 

NASHE, ana*, PI. XXL, flg. 10, p. 212. 
NASSAU, anuA, 168, 212, 215, 256, 885, 
404, 466, 487, 580, 581, 662 ; 
PI. VII L, flg. 11, p. loa 
„ cotiu of A DO LF of, 246. 

ENGELBBRT, Comte de, 
tereath, 614. 
„ motto, 604. 

RICK, Prince of, 
„ Marks of illegiti- 

macy in, 580. 
MAURICE, Prince 
of, 580. 

Count of, 580. 
Princes of ORANGE, arm*, 

„ RICHARDE DB, ann*, 409. 

NATHELBY, arm*, 274 ; PI. XXVIL, flg. 

1, p. 288. 
National antu, 604. 
„ Jlag*, 655. 
Naturel, An, 788. 
NaTal Reserve, Jlag of, 657. 
Ifaral crown, 696. 

NAVARRE, anM, 66, 235, 868, 864, 464, 
465, 470, 505, 636, 686, 710 ; 
PI. XXXL. flg. 10, p. 846. 
BLANCHE D^ *eal, 461. 
chain* of, 354, 456. 
JOAN DB, »eal, 404. 







( 8«S ) 



• I 

NAVARRE, King of, crett coronH, 61ft. 

„ PHILIP, King of, 464. 

Navirt, 688, 788, 746. 
V^^y/jHoff of Royid, 656. 
Nawortb Cartle, 641. 
NAYE. DE LA, aruu, 74. 
NEATH, Lordahip of, 886. 
NebuU, «M, 738. 

., / Jne, 76 ; Fig. 22, p. 76. 
Ntbuly or NtbuUe, 696. 
Ifeedte-ffun mm m cbiarge, 866. 
NEILaON, ann*. lOV. 
NELSON, Lord Viaooant, arm» and ati^- 

jMtntationf 584, 610. 
NEMAU8U8, medat of, 277. 
NEMI, Dukw oC arau, 811. 
ifeHKpAar ttttf, 321, 788. 

„ Ftvillt* di, 788. 

NEPTUNE M a ohaim, 196. 
NERFORD, ALICE DE, arm, 554. 

., ariAj, 426. 

Ntrvt, 696, 788. 
i\r«-m/, 696. 

NESLE, Marqnia de, arvMt 202. 
NES8BLR0DE, Counto ron, arvu, 124. 
NETHERLANDS, AdminUs of, mark of 

offloo, 626. 
annj, 667. 

evronet of a Count in 

the, 625. 

„ a Viaooiint 

in, 625. 
„ HarquiMs 

in, 624. 
woito, 667. 

Bajftd 9upporter9f 667. 
„ Um of supportera in 

the, 689. 
NETTANCOURT, Marania of, amw, 187. 
mtUt, The, 820. 
NEU, Barons, mpporter, 640. 
NEUENHOF, Baiona Ton, amw, 855. 
NBUFGHATEL, aruM, 415. 

„ CLAUDE DE, anH4 and 

label, 415. 
HENRY DE, 415. 
THIEBAUT, Seignenr 
de, 415. 
NEUFVILLE, arm*, 96. 

,, Baron de, amM, 881. 

,, iee MALAPERT. 

NEUHOFF, Barons ron, amM, 855. 
NEUMAYER, arm*, 874. 
NEVERS, a)-))M, 458, 681. 

JOHN, Count de, 462. 
LOUIS, Connt of, teal, 462. 
„ DE, Connt of FLAN- 
DERS, 457. 
„ PHILIPPE, bdtai-d de, arm*, 

„ „ Oomte de, 576. 

„ Y'OLANTE, Comtene de, 
briture, 489. 
NEVILE, arm*, 218. 
NEVILLE, badge, 758, 754. 

„ Earl of WARWICK, badge, 

„ „ etc., arm*, 

of Rabv, arm*, 410. 
„ Sir JOHN, Maiqaeaaof MON- 
TAGU, Oarter Plate, 486. 
NEWCASTLE, Diike of, arm*, 168. 

„ Dnke of, ntppwter*, 605. 





NEWDEGATE, arm*, 222; Pi. XXII. 

flf . 7, p. 222. 
NEWMArf, Colonel, arm* and auffmenta- 

(ion, 682. 
NEWPORT, Earl of, arm*, 561. 
NEYDECK, Barons von, arm*, 187. 
NICEY, tupporter*, 198. 
NICHOUB, J. OOUQH, Herald and Oenea- 

logitt, 46, 110. 
Ill, 688. 
„ „ RyiU* i^ Blaxon, 

NICOLAS, Sir HARRIS, on the badge of 

Ostrich Feathen, 592. 
NICOLAY, Counts, amM, 241. 
NICOLBON, amM, 262. 
NIEDER LAUSITZ, MargraTate of, arm*, 

NIEMPT8CHER, DIB, amM, 297. 
NIESIECKI, Korona PoUka, 859. 
NIGHTINGALE, a^iiM, 824. 
N ME8, City of, amw, 277. 
NISBBT, Soottish Herald, An B*$af on 
tkt Ancient and Modern Ut 
of Armmy, 2. 
Mark* tif Cbdenev, 401. 
on origin of double'headed eagle, 

„ Sjfttem of Heraldry, 2, 28, 88, 
84, 157, 158, 159, 227, 248, 401, 447, 
479, 529, 648, 652, 557, 609, 576, 
606, 615, 684. 
IfoeJi'* Ark MM n obaige, 871. 

„ „ MOUCHY, amu, 

„ Prince de FOIX, amM, 129. 

NOBeLAER, amM, 262. 
NobUiarckia Portugueta, 881, 425, 678. 
NobilitT, Definitions of, 87. 
Noble, use of term, 6. 
Nobles, coronet of, 626. 

„ helm of, 601. 
NOCERA, JOVIUS, Bishop of, 62. 
NOfi, LA, amM, 218. 
NOEL, arm*, PI. XVIII., fig. 1, p. 190. 
„ Earls of GAINSBOROUGH, arm*, 

NOGARET, arm*, 318. 

NOLTHENIUS. amM, 196. 


bri*ure, 451. 
Nombril, 696, 78S. 
NOMPAR, amM, 87. 

„ Duos de la FORCE, 12. 
NOORDEN, VAN, aniM, 218. 
NOORT, VAN, amM, 288. 
NOOTEN, VAN, aniM, 887. 
NORFOLK, Dnke of, amM, 408, 474. 

„ „ augmentation, 628, 


„ „ c»ics«, 607. 

„ Dukes of, amM, 99, 213. 

,, THOMAS, Duke of, 568. 

NORIB, amM, 175. 
NORMAN ./(o^t, 649. 

„ kings, aniM of, 661 ; PI. LI., 
fig. 1, p. 661. 

„ *kield, 54. 
JOHN, Dnke of, 662. 

( 826 ) 

NORMANDY, Dnohy of, amu, 468 ; 654. 
„ fnn oommon in artMny of, 





ual and arma of JOHN, 
Dnke of, 629. 
,, WILLIAM, Doke of, 29, 80. 

N0R0NHA8, amu, 577, 578. 
NORROY, King of Anus, arma, 526. 
NORTH, RaronaM, mpporien, 292. 
NORTHALLERTON, Battle of, 055. 
NORTHBROOK, Barl of, amu, 280. 
NORTHGOTE, amu, 182; PI. IX., fig. 
10, p. 108. 

amUf 108. 
NORTHUMBERLAND, Duke of, antu, 

488, 559. 
Dakm and Earls 
of, antUf 
184, 214, 
Earl of, 482, 641. 
,, atandcard 
of, 064. 
NORTON, arnu, 147. 
NORWAY, 879. 

and SWEDEN, perMnal amu 

of King of, 667. 
camu, 208, 681, 667. 
Marks of illegitimacy In, 581. 
„ Royal House of, 581. 

Btohop of, 6ruitfv, 487. 
Nota and Queriea, 62, 184, 167, 885, 580, 

N<mi, 606, 788. 
Jfoutux, 692, 788. 
N0U8T,«mM, 288. 
NOVGOROD, amu, 665. 
NOVION, Seigneur de, 12. 
JToared, 274, 606. 
NOYCE, ormt. 887. 

NOYON, PIERRE, Bishop of, anna, 670. 
NOZIER, artna, 818. 
Nwtgi, 606, 788. 
,. line, 76. 
Nuka, 788. 
NUGENT, Marquises of WESTMBATH, 

amu, 126. 
NttREMBERG, or Nl^RNBERG, amu, 

440, 469, 494. 
Baig-gmve of, 255, 454. 

„ treat, PL 

XLIX., flg. 8, p. 607. 
Bnig>grafin of, amu, 471. 
City of, mnna, 296. 
ZOLLBRN, Burg-grave of, 255. 
NUBBBRO, amu, 579. 580. 
NU88BBRO, amu, 580. 
NUT8HALL, amu, 240. 
NUVOLONI, amu, 72. 
NYDBGGEN, Marquesses of, amu, 214. 

Oait,The, 815, 816. 

OBBR-LAUSITZ, Markgravate of, amu, 

OBBRNBURG, amu, 670 ; PI. LVL, fig. 

7, p. 671. 
OBERRBIDBRN, amu, 870.. 
O'CALLAGHAN, Visoonnts, anna, 816. 
00HSEN8TBIN, Baron von, amu, 126. 
OCHTBRLONY, amu, 560. 



O'CONOR-DON, amu, 817. 
OUBNKIRCHBN, amu, 98. 
ODET, amu, 847. 
ODO, Bishop of BAYEUX, 29. 

„ JUiua KAMBARDI, la 
ODOR8KI, amu, 289. 
O ELP BR, amu, 229. 
OETTER, WappendeliuiiffUHff, 244. 
OFFER, amu, 370. 
Official amu. 525. 
OFFORD, D' amu, 142. 
OGILVJB, JOHN, SheriiTdepttte of 

Inverness, btnd, 480. 
OGILVY, Earl of AIRLY, amu, 216. 

„ of Inverquharity, aupportera and 

eompeurtnutU, 642. 
OGLANDBR, at-vu, 263; PI. XXV., flg. 

11, p. 260. 
OGLE, badfft, 758. 
Ofrreaa, 190, 696. 

OHA DB ROCOURT, amu, 188. 
O'HARA, amta, PI. X., fig. 8, p. 118. 

„ Lords, TTRAWLEY, amu, 121. 
OiaeaU'd%e, 697. 
OISI, Conites d', arms, 221. 
OKB, artna, 841. 
OKBDEN, amu, 841. 
O'KBLLY, arnu, 861. 
OKULICZ, amu, 848. 
OLDBNBURG, Princes of, amu, 127, 487, 

510, 666. 
OLDHAM, Bishop, arms, 264. 
OLDMIXON, amu, 848. 
OLIPHANT, amu, 807; PL XXVIIL, fig- 
2, p. 808. 
of Bsobilton, chevron, 481. 
of Condie, amu, 172; PL 

XVII., flg. 5, p. 172. 
of Kelly, bordure, 441. 
„ of Priniis, chevron, 481. 

OLIVAREZ, *' Omde-Puque," 624. 
OLIVER, amu. 817. 

briaure, 452. 


JEANNE, amu, 468. 
OTJVIBKA, amu, 817. 
0LIVIBR8, arms, 317. 
OLUJA, amu, 141. 
(hnbelle, 738. 
OtttM, 696, 706, 788. 
Ombre de lion, 788. 

., „ aoUU, 805, 684, 738. 
OMODBI, amu, 81. 
OMPHAL, D', aruu, 146. 
Ondi, 76, 706. 
Ond^ or Ondy, 696. 
Ondoyant, 272, 689, 788. 

„ in pal, 275. 
Ondojfanta en pal, 274. 
Ondw, 096, 788. 
O'NEILL, difTermee, 569. 

,, Earl of TYRONE, amu, 204. 
O'NBYLANS, arttu, 292. 
OngU, 282, 707, 788. 
ONSLOW, arma, 264; PL XX VL, flg. 1, 

p. 266. 
OOSrFDIJK, amu, 148. 
OOSTENWOLDE, VAN, amu, 187. 
Oiiinicua, 696. 
OPPBDB, Barons d', amu, 189. 



( 827 ) 




Or or Gold, 00, 05, 690, 788 ; PI. III., fig. 

1, p. 00. 
„ pUin d\ 60. 
(grange, 788. 

„ branekt 8SS. 
„ or Tennpf 00, 66. 
ORANOB, arm*, 401. 


daaghten of WILLIAM, 

Goant of, arm*. 460. 

CHARLOTTB, daii^htor of 

WILLIAM, Prinoe of, S&8. 

DB LA FBILL^B, D', ottm, 

PriuoM of, amUf 118, 120, 146, 

„ WILLIAM of, 580. 

Orani^u, 100, 840. 
Orb, 606. 

„ o/' Sovereignty as a ohargv, 880. 
Ordinariea, 78, 102, 116, 696. 
Honourable, 116. 
Origin of, 117. 
SubordinaU, 116, 165, 696. 
Ordinarjff I>^ertnu by addUion of an, 428. 
„ „ ekanffing the boun- 

dary line of an, 482. 
Ordonnance of CHARLES III., Dnke of 

Otrionnanee*, regulating uae of de, 12, 18. 
OreilU, 788. 
OrtUler*, 878, 607, 788. 
Oreille*. 278. 

^yan-ptpe* as oljarges, 886. 
„ -rMt, 697. 
„ •re*i* as ohaiges, 886. 
OrifiamiM, at FRANCE, 657, 658. 
Origen de la* dignidade* teglatx* de CaMilla 

y Leon, 890. 
ORIOO, arm*, 86. 
ORIOL,amu, 715. 

ORKNEY, Earldom of, 511 ; anus, 868, 
869, 611. 51J, 667. 
,, teal of Bar! of, 869. 

ORKNETS, Norae Jarls of the, 511. 
OrU, 697, 789. 
OrU, JSn, 789. 
In 097. 
II (^iHarilet*, PI. XVII., flg. 9, p. 172. 
„ The, 116, 166, 1T4, rtU", 738; PL 
Xyit., flg. 8, p. 172. 
ORIJlAKS, Dukes of, annt, 680, 571, 
House of, label, 424, 425. 
JEAN, bdtard (T, arm*, 571. 
le bdtard d', ai-m*, 671. 
LOUIS, Due d', unM, 529. 
PHILIPPE, Due d", 571. 
ORLOFF, Counts and Princes, augmenta- 
tion, 542. 
ORMOND, Earl of, 516. 

,, knot, 585. 
ORMONDE, JAMES, Duke of, 570. 

„ BUTLERS of, artn*, 381. 

Ornament*, Sxtemal, 599, 617, 627. 
ORSBECK, arm*, 498. 
OR8ENIGHI, arm*, 894. 
0R8INI, arm*, 120 ; PL X., flg. 6, p. 118. 
ORTELART, antu, 98. 
ORTENBURG, CounU Ton, arm*, 260. 
ORTINS, arm*, 178. 


ORTLIBB, arm*, 820, 821 ; PL XXIX., 

flg. 9, p. 818. 
ORY, ann*, 277. 
OUZON, arm*, 609; PL LVL, flg. I, 

p. 671. 
CSHBA, arm*, 847, 
OSMOND. 12. 
OSORIO, arm*, 507. 

„ Count of ALTAMIRA, ann*, 



ana*, 507. 

„ „ „ VILLAL0B08, 

arm*, 507. 

„ DE MOSCOSO, arm*, 507. 

„ Dukes of AQUIAR, etc, arm*, 


OSSUNA, Duke of, arm*, 167, 168, 441 ; 

PL XLI., flg. 2, p. .MW. 
OSTFRIESLAND, Princes of, arm*, 295. 
OSTENSACKEN, augmentation, 542. 
OSTERBECH, anM, 295. 
OSTERHAMMER, aj-m*, 236. 
OSTERHAUSEN, arm*, 230. 
OSTBRRIBTH, arm*, 2S6. 
OSTBRTAO, arm*, 280. 
OdTICHE, Barons d', arm*, 122. 
OSTREVANT, Gomte d', 589, aeal, tup- 
porter, and eompartmeni, 
„ County of, 592. 

„ seed of Count of, 251. 

„ WILLIAM, Count of, amu 

on eag]e, 090. 
Ottrieh as a badge, 754. 
„ feather*, 208. 
„ „ as a badge, 591, 598. 

„ The, 263. 
OSTROWSKI, arnu, 289, 871. 
OSWALD, ar%M, 198. 
OtdU, 154. 
OtelU*, 739. 

OTHEG RAVEN, arm*, 102. 

by, 240. 
OTTAVIO, Duke, 509. 
OtUr, PL XXIV., flg. 8, p. 286. 
Otter* and Vtttr'* head*, 288. 
OTTO IV., Emperor, roin* of, 244, 245. 
OUDENHAGEN, VAN, arm*, 428. 
OULTRE, arm*, 143. 
OUPEY, arm*, 112, 381. 
OUTRAM, eupporter*, 224. 
Ouvert, 080, 697, 789. 
Overall, 607. 
Overt, 097. 

OVID, Metamorphoee*, 800. 
Oicl, The, 202, 097; PL XXV., flg. 9, 

J). 260. 
0WSTIN8, artn*, 187. 
Oxen, 284. 

OXFORD, CitT of, ann*, 812. 

„ Earl of, 488. 

„ „ arm*, 182, 410. 

>• „ badgt, 758. 

OYLY, D', amwr, 132. 
OYRY, artiu, 182. 

PABST, ann*, 872. 
Pacta *ucce**ioni*, 488. 

( 828 ) 


brintref 462. 
PADILLA8, annt, 890. 
PADUA, City of, anns, 141. 
PASRNON, ann*, 66. 
PABUW, DB, artM, 267. 
PAHLEN^, CuiinU von dei-, aufftnentationf 

PAIN BT VIN, annsy 891. 
PairUt m, 789. 

„ The, lit), 160, 789. 
Pau$arU, 789. 
Pal, 120, 789. 
„ en, 789. 
Palace, 868. 
PALACIO, ann«» 199. 

teal of DEMETRIUS, 
PALATINATB, amu, 680. 

,, /tofi ra»fpan< of the, 626. 

„ Elector, anii«, 626. 

PALAU, aniu, 868. 
PaU, eotiatd, Pi. X., fig. 11, p. 118. 
„ indented^ Per, Plate V., fig. 2, p. 80. 
„ Parted per, 78 ; Fig. 28, p. 77 ; PI. 

v., Aff. 1, p. 80. 
„ rajfonni, Pi. X., fig. 8, p. 118. 
„ retrait, 121. 
„ The, 78, 120, 697 ; Fig. 37, p. IIC ; 

PI. X., fig. 7, p. 118. 
„ Varieties of, 121. 
Pulif 789. 

„ eontre, 789. 
PALBOLOQUS, SOPHIA, daughter of 

THOMAS, 260. 
PALEBTRINA, Princes of, arma, 868. 
PaUwaya, 108. 

PALIANO, Dnkes of, amu, 363. 
Paluado erown, 697. 
Palini, 789. 

„ line, 77. 
PaU, The, 116, 160, 697 ; PI. XVI., fig. 10, 
p. 146 ; PI. XVI., fig. 11, !>. 146. 
„ as a charge, 874. 
PALLANDT» amu, 98. 
PalU, 192. 

PalUU, 122, 697 ; PI. X., fig. 9, p. 118 ; 
PI. X., fig. 10, p. 118. 
„ hwHtMttg and JilcM, PI. X., fig. 
12, p. lis. 
PALLI6T. French Armorist, 76. 
FALLISSR, Mrs, HUtarie Devicet, 

Badge; and War Cries, 192, 686. 
Palliwu, as a charge, 160, 871, B74. 
PALM, arms, 817. 
Paltne, 789. 
PALMER, amu, 876. 
Palmer's siaj;, 697. 
Palmier, 788. 
FALMIBRI, arms, 819. 
Pals rziraiU, 188. 
FALVBRT, arms, 91. 
Paly, 90, 697, 789 ; PI. VII., fig. 1, p. 90. 
„ -bendy, 100, 697 ; PI. VII., fig. IS, p. 

„ perbtnd,9l2, 
„ per/ess, 92. 
„ teary,9l, 
Pami, 209. 

Pdmi, 789. 

Pampri. 698, 789. 

Pana4:hi, 789. 

Paji-de-Mur, 789. 

PanelUs, 790, 

PANHUYS. arms, 184. 

PANMURB, Earls uf, arms, 171. 

„ Lords, arms, 147. 

Pannes, 789. 
Panneton, 789. 
Pan's pipe as a charge, 886. 
PANSEY, Baron de, urms, 278. 
Pansy, The, 887. 
PanUter, Ikmi-, 226. 
„ The, 22e, 697. 
„ „ Heraldic, 226. 

Panthire au naturel, 78f . 

„ hiixUdique, 697, 789. 
PANT0JA8, artiis, 16S. 
Paon, 739. 

„ roaant, 698. 
PAPACODA, artM, 223. 
PAPAL augitieniations, 641. 

„ tiara as a charge, 872. 
Pajteffay, or Papegai, 700, 739. 
Papelonni, 71, 72, 78, 74, 726, 740; PI. 

VIII., fig. 6. p. 100. 
PAPENBROEK, arms, 146. 
Papilonni, 697, v. PaptUmnL 

anus, 280. 
Paptngoes, 266; PL XXVI., fig. 2, p. 

PAPPENHEIM, Counts von, auffiuenUi- 

lion, 688. 
Paradise, Bird itf, 267. 
PARAVICINI, ConntM, 262. 
PARCHWITZ, Barons vou, wrmA, 297. 
PARDAILLAN, anm, 128. 
Pitri, 740. 

PARIS, arm», 288. 

„ Bibliotb^ue Rojrale at, 282. 
„ Uouigeoisie of, 601. 
Citj of, arms, 369. 

„ colours, 669. 
Count of, 11. 
„ MATTHEW, 40. 
„ „ MS. of, 261. 

„ sieal of ChAtelet of, 388. 
„ „ Ndtre Dame at, 889. 

„ University of, anjw, 206. 
PAitlZOT, ai-iM, 266. 
PARKER, Earls of MORLEY, arm», 186. 

„ Glossary qf UtraUiry, 809. 

PARMA, ALEXANDER, Duke of, 609. 
„ Dukes of, arms, 288, 608, 608. 
„ „ att^}it«fUeUion, 641. 

„ Margaret of, anM, 677. 
PARR, a)>})it, 688. 

„ Qneen CATHARINE, axmjs and*!MaJLion, 682. 
Parrot, The, 268. 
Parted eoaU, 74. 

per bend, 80. 
„ „ sinister, 80. 
,, chevron, 81. 
„ /ess, 79. 


„ oo/e, 78. 
EiBNi " 

PARTHENAY, arms, 680. 

I, FRANCIS, Seigneur de, 

seal, 630. 
Parti, 78, 74a 

( 8»9 ) 



Parti et e<tntrt4>a7uUf 96. 

„ per ekevroHf 73& 
PartieU, The Ordonnanee rwpeotlng the 

Menmptloii of, 748. 
PartieuU Jfobiliaire, Origin of, 8, 9. 
PartUunij amw showiog Modes qf, PI. V., 
p. 80; P). LV., p. 069; PL 
LVL, p. 071. 

„ line*, 74, 75, 697. 

,, Mode <jr, 74, 77. 
PartUimUf 60S. 

„ Curioiu, And reiiMrkable ooets, 

661. . 
Pmrtf, 697. 
PASCAL, arnu, S86; PL XXIV., flg. 4, 

%l Lamb, 286, 697. 
PASGHAL-COLOHBIBR, arm*, 240, 710. 
PABQUIKR, le Dae, 15. 
Pataant, 216, 698, 740. 

eontre-pataant, 098. 
eounUr-pauant, 699. 
gardant, 698. 
regardant, 698. 
,. repoMant, 698. 
Pa*ae (en Croix, en Sautoir) 740. 
PauUm Crom, 698; Fig. 47, p. 164. 
,t If of (he, 1. 
„ i%aiU, 147, 698. 
Pattoral'tlaff a» a charge, 871. 
PA8TURBAU, arm*, 286. 
PaUe, 1&8. 
„ ,teA^«,155. 
„ ^BTtnee, crott, 153. 
„ or Pattjf, 698, 740. 
Pathidlre (oroix), 740. 
PATBRSON of Seafleld, brimre, 486, 487. 
PaUmee, 698. 

„ CVoM, 157 ; Fig. 56, p. 164. 
Patrianhal, Cro**, 152, 698; Fig. 50, p. 

Patte, 698. 

PATTBR80N, aniM, 264. 
Patty, 608. 

„ croM, 158 ; Fig. 58, p. 164. 
„ filch jf, cro**, 155 ; Fig. 54, p. 164. 
„ tkixtuffhout, 698. 
PATYN8, ann*, 892. 
PAUL v., Pope, arjM, 292. 

arm*, 847. 
PAULHAC, PARADIS DE, arm*, 267. 
PAUL!, VON, ann*, 195. 
PAULSDORF, arm*, 29a 

„ VON, anM, 82. 

PA VIA, Certooa at, 274. 
Pavilion*, 615, 698, 740. 
Paw, 222, 698. 
PAWNE, arm*, 267. 
Pax qucerUur belUt, 664. 
Peacock, 266, 698. 

„ m tM pride, 698. 
PBACOGK, arm*, 267. 
Peaeoelf* head aa a rre«<, 600. 
Pean, 68, 698 ; PL IV., flg. 5, p. 62. 
PeaW, 65, 698. 
Pearled, 698. 
Pear*, 840. 
Pea*, 844. 
Peoutj-^, 740. 

PBCGI, Conpts, aniM, 810. 
PEGHA, arm*, 288. 
Pee/, 608. 
PEEL, Sir ROBERT, ann*, 288. 

Peexv, helm of, 60S. 

Pmomw, The, 298, 696. 

FEQRIZ, ariM, 887. 

PBILLENBTEIN, Une of, amw, 443. 

PELETS, arm*, 208. 

Pefetto, 190. 

PELHAM, arm*, 264, 877. 

augmentation, 528. 
frcu/pe, 76S» 

badge, 877. 
Sir JOHN, 528. 
,, „ ,, DE, emu, 877. 

Pe/ieaii,<264, 608 ; PL XXV., flg. 12, p. 260. 
„ as a badge, 754. 
„ in Aer piety, 699. 
Pellet, 190, 099. 
PELLEZAY, arm*, 66. 
Pttlorns, Cape, 800. 
PEMBRIDGB, arm*, 93. 
PEMBROKE, badge, 758, 754. 
Earl of, 415. 

„ arm*, 215, 224, 376, 

409, 501. 
, , enamelled *hield of, 
WILLIAM, first Earl oi. 






Penache, 684. 
Peiuuhe* as crett*, 607. 
PKNAFIBL, Maninis of, arm*, 167. 
Penehi, 601, 678, 786, 740. 
Pencil or PenonotUe, 699. 
PenciU, 654. 
Pendent, 699. 

PENDBRELL, arm*, 816, 533. 
PKNERANDAS, arm*, 861. 
PENICUIK, arm*, 385. 
PenneCon, 789. 
Pennon or Penan, 699, 740. 
PennoncetZe of PERCY, PL XXXI V., flg. 8, 

p. 888. 
Pennoneelle*, 654, 699. 
PENNYCOOK, aniw, 885. 
Pennjf-yard'penny, 600. 
Pemm, 699, 740. 

PENTHIEVRB, Comtes de, arm*, 842. 
PfiPDIE, arm*, 265, 522 ; PL XXVI., fig. 
2, p. 266. 
MARY, 522. 
PEPIN, aruu, 150 ; PL XVI., flg. 10, p. 

PEPPENBERO, arm*, 181. 
Pepper-pod*, 841. 

, , -theaf as a badge, 754. 
Per, 699. 

PERALTA, arm*, 288, 858. 
Perei, 699, 740. 
PERCEVAL, Dr, 70. 
Perchi, 740. 
PERCHE, ConnU de, ar%n*, 189. 

„ 9eal and arm* of OEOFFROI, 

Count of, 49. 
teal of ROTROU, IIL, Count 

uf, 49. 
PERCI, HENRY DE, arm*, 481. 
„ ROBERT DE, arm*, 481. 
„ WALTER DE, arm*, 481. 
Perelo*e, 699. 

,, arm*, 215, 481, 482. 641; PI. 

XVIII., flg. 12, p. 190; PL XXXIX., 

flg. 3, p. 481. 

( 830) 




• I 



PBBCT, badffu. 584, 654. 


camu, 184, 488. 
arm»f 214. 
HENRY 5th Earl, badge, 584. 

ALGERNON, tfth Earl, 

6adpe, 584. 
Baron of TOPCLIFFB, 

arau, 482. 
Earl of NORTHUM- 
BERLAND, ttandard 
of, 054; Fig. 100, p. 
Earl, tupporter, 6S2. 
mo/, 641. 
PmmmcelU of, PL XXXIV., Ag, 

S, p. 388. 
PIERS, arms, 481. 
„ Sir HENRY, teal, 653. 
PBREIRA, amu, 158 ; PL XIV., fig. 10, p. 

PEREZ, arm*, 358. 
Pffforate, 699. 
Ftrgola, 150. 
PergtUoy 150. 
PM en bande, 740. 
„ y barre, 740. 
PERRIER, ALAIN DU, mpprnters, 634. 
PemnU, Croix, 740. 
PERROTT, amw, 340. 
PERSIGNY, Due de, arm* and augmen- 
tation, 541. 
PERTH, City arm» and «uppa}-fer, 179, 
„ Earl of, ecmpartment and nurfto, 

PBRWEYS, arms, 427. 
PBRY, arms, 185. 
PESO. ai«m«, 894. 
PBSHALL, anus, 155. 

ermcn, 622. 
PETIT, arms, 236. 
PBTHORE, aniu, 112. 

„ „ SjBtem of lines repre- 

Mnting colonr, 64. 
„ ,, Tesseixe GeiUUitia, 64. 

PETRARCH, Mnae of, 537. 
Pttroiul, 699. 

PEVEREL, badge and arms, 585. 

,, CATHARINE, 685. 

PEVBRBLL, an)M, 842. 
„ badge, 754. 

PFIRDT or PFIRT, Counta of, arms, 

271, 684 ; PL XLV., fig. 1, p. 539. 
PFUHLINGEN, aniw, 86. 
PFULL, Baron, arms, 810. 
PHARAMOND (T), arms, 278. 
PheasanU, 267. 

Phem, 850, 609 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 7, p. 340. 
Phhn, 740. 

PHILIP L, King of FRANCE, 11 ; eroven 
and sceptre of, 828, 608. 
„ of FLANDERS, seal of, 26, 

III., King of FRANCE, 454; 

supporters, 686. 
IV., (U Bel), Kingot FRANCE, 
40, 282; JEANNE, wife 
of, 854. 
„ King of SPAIN, 624. 


PHILIP v.. King of FRANCS, 40, 457t 
462; seal of, 854, 456; 
supporters, 686. 
„ VI., King of FRANCS, ntp- 
porter, 086. 
(AUGUSTUS), King of 
FRANCE, 269; anns, 583; 
seal of, 828 ; supporters. 686. 
(AUGUSTUS) IL, King of 

FRANCE, 570. 
EMPIRE, erovn, 621. 
,, son of LOUIS VII., King of 
FRANCE, 329. 

EDWARD III., ai-ms, 247, 257. 
FRANCE, coins of, 44. 
fe Aon, Duke of BURGUNDY, 
Pkcenix, 267, 298, 699, 740. 

,, as a badge, 596. 
PHOUSKARNAKI, arms, 195. 
PIACENZA, Duchy, arms, 502. 
PICCOLOMINI, Princes, arms, 807. 
PICHON, arms, 70. 
Pickaxes as charges, 893. 
PICKFORD, arms, 684. 
PICO, arms, 509. 
Piices hh^diques, 102, 740. 
PIEDBFER, arms, 213. 
PIENNE, Marquises de, supporters, 298. 
Pierced, 322, 699. 

PIERRE, DE, Seigneurs de GANGES, 10. 
PIERRBPEU, arms, 160. 
PIERRBFORT, arms, 68. 
PIERREPONT, arms, 362. 
PUti, 740. 

PietVj Pelican in her, 264. 
PIFBRRER, Nobiliario de los Reinos y 
Seiiorios de BspaiUi, 207, 285, 284, 887, 
890, 395, 476. 
Pig, The domestic, 227. 

FIGNATELLI, Princes, arms, 881. 
PignaUs, 740. 

„ as chaiges, 882. 
Pignon, 740. 
Pignonnf, 740. 
Pike head, 348. 

The 268 271. 
PI'lAWa', arms, 670; PI. LVL, fig. 8, 

p. 671. 
Pile, 146, 699, 740; Figs. 48, p. 116; PI. 

XVI., fig. ^lP- 1*®- 
„ reversed, PI. XVI., fig. 7, p. 146. 
„ Varieties of, 146. 
Piles frotn sinUter, PI. XVI., fig. 5, p. 146. 
„ „ base, PI. XVI., fiig. 6, p. 

„ in chi^, Fl. XVL, fig. 4, p. 146. 
„ in point, PI. XVL, fig. 3, p. 146. 
., Three, PI. XVI., fig. 2, p. 146. 
PILGRIM, arms, 375. 
Pilgrim's snip, 699. 

„ scrips as chaxges, 875. 
„ staves, 699. 
„ „ as ehaiges, 375. 

PILKINGTON, arms, 157; PI. XIV., fig. 

8, p. 140. 
Pillars. 868. 
PILLERA, arms, 850. 

( 831 ) 

PIHENTALS, arm*, 507. 

PIN, LA TOUR DU, ami*, 269. 

Pine Applet, 841. 

PinkM, 887. 

FINOS, onM, 841. 

PINS, HarquiMB de, antu, 841. 

FIOSABCO, antUf »upporter$, and niolto, 

PIOT, orwM, 870. 
PIPER, arm», 887. 
PIRCH, ar»ur, 197. 
PISA, atandairl of, 655. 
PITSLIGO, Lord, artn*, 446. 
PITTI. OHH*, 121. 
PIUS ll., Pope, anna, 807. 
„ III., Pope, atiH*, 807. 
,, VI., Pope, anna, 811. 
PIZARRO, arm*, 80S. 
PLAGIDIA, avion of the Empreit, 

Plain e'hUld*, 65. 
P;<un<, 718, 740. 

PLANCH^, Mr, Lanea*ter Herald, 80S. 
„ Purtuirant p/ Ann*, 25, 47, 

117, 170, 207, 209, 210, 225, 
258, 287, 827, 888, 855, 876, 
878, 886, 894, 406, 414, 458, 
459, 461, 548, 549, 550, 558, 
555, 587, 589, 598, 599, 
,, Roll qfAnu*, 104, 357, 409. 

PlaneU, 809. 

PLANQUB, DE LA, ann*, 404. 
Ptanta gtniata m a badge, 586. 

ARTHUR, ViMwant 
LISLE, ann», bbl \ 
badge*, 557, 586, 587. 
champltc^. eiixanul of 
flg. 8, p. 44. 
EDMOND, 421. 

„ Earl of 

*eal, 465. 
,, of LANGE- 
LEY, 588. 
BACK, Earl of 
artn* and label, 
219, 416; ioMb 
of, 587. 
), Duke of 

YORK. 416. 
,. of WOOD- 
STOCK, 589. 
EDWARD, Earl of 
RUTLAND, ann* 
and label, 416; teal 
of, 869. 
GEOFFREY, Dnke of 
DRITTANY, death 
of, 40 ; thield of, 45. 
D'ANJOU, U>nd> of, 
HENRY, Duke of LAN- 
CASTER, ann* and 
label, 416. 
JOAN, 488. 

Earl of CORNWALL, britnit, 488. 









• I 



PLANTAUBNET kinn, ann* of, 661 ; PI- 
LL, fig. 2, p. 661. 
label*, 416. 

LIONEL, Dnke of 
and label, 416. 
RICHARD, badge, 59L 
„ Duke of. 

TER, ktltn, 
„ of CON- 

IN68BURGH, 588. 
„ Duke of GLOU- 
CESTER, <€«i/, 
fig. 1, p. 415. 
„ „ of WOOD- 

STOCK, bri*ure, 438. 
PLANTAGBNETS, livery colours of the, 

PLASNES, JEANNE, t>ame de, arm*, 57. 


9Upporter*, 629. 

Plata, 190. 
Plate, 189, 699. 
PlaUe or Platp, 699. 
PLATT, ann*, 97. 
Platy, 699. 
Playing table*, 699. 

„ top* as charges, 888. 
PLAYTER, ann*, 95 ; PI. VII., fig. 4, p. 

PL^DI^AN, Vioomte de, ann*, IS.*). 
PLtiHED&L, Vioomtes de, ann*, 846. 
PUin, 740. 

PLBSSBN, Barons, ann*, 284. 
CY DU, bri*iire. 451. 
RICHELIEU, DU, ann*, 140. 
ate ANGERS. 

PIU, 740. 

,, en }*on<l, 741. 
Plotnb. d, 74L 

Plougkthare* as charges, 393. ^ 

Ploter*y 267. 

PLOWDEN, arm*, 124 ; PI. XL, fig. 8, p. 
„ EDMUND, 124. 

Ployi, 88, 187, 699, 741. 
P/K)Mat7, 008. 
Plume* as creat, 607. 
PlwMtt, 71, 72, 741 ; PI. VIIL, fig. 7, i>. 

PLUNKETT, b&rdure, 570. 
PLUTARCH, Description of devicoi on 

shields, 29. 
PLUVINEL, Marquises de, briture, 484. 
PLYMOUTH, Earl of, ann*, 79, 559. 
POBOG, ann*, 856. 


ann*, 128. 
., ,, SIX, arm*, 128. 

PODLACHIA, arm*, 469. 
POER, LB, arm*, 118. 
POGORSKI, ann*, 299. 
P0ICTIBR8, BatUe of, 528, 591. 
POICTOU and CORNWALL, teal of 
RICHARD, Earl of, 245. 
„ Counts of, ann*, 215. 


('832 ) 

POIGNET, anjif, 204. 
Point iTJumneur le, 59, 741. 
„ du cA^/; 741. 
,, Bonovrf 59. 
„ In, 699. 
„ Nombril, 59. 
PoinU, 148, 741. 

„ erU^, PI. XVI., fig. 9, p. 146. 
„ le canton dexlre de la, 59. 
„ ,, »ine»tre de la, 59. 

POINTS, DE LA, Cheralurs dt VOrdrt du 

St. B»pHt, 297, 299, 808, 854. 
Pointed, 699. 
Point*, 699. 

„ iquipolUi, 741. 
,, o/the CKucheon, 699. 
POIBIER, amis, 240. 
POISIKU, DB, arms, 120, 726, 744. 
P0I8S0NIBR, arm», 802. 
POITIBRS, Bfittle of, 877. 

,, LOUIS, Bishop of, antu, 

,, Chnrch of St. HUaire at, 

„ DIANE DB, 164. 

POLAND, IHmidiation in 468. 
„ Dnke of, seal, 468. 

„ Furs nnknown in Armory of, 

JOHN TIL, King of, anns, 486. 
Kingdom of, anns, 199, 254, 
255, 487, 665. 
„ KingB of, using escueheon en 

turtout, 486. 
„ Title of Marqams anknown in, 

„ White eagles of, as supporters, 

POLANEN, arms, 870. 
POLANI, arms, 86. 
POLASTRON, arms, 218. 
POLE, Dnke of SUFFOLK, arms, 225 ; 

PI. XXII., fig. 12, p. 222. 
POLIGNAC, Princes of, arww, 93. 
POLISH aufmentatians, 540. 
POLLIA, arms, 298. 
POLLNITZ, Barons von, arms, 186. 
POLMAN, arms, 669; PI. LV., fig. 6, 

p. 669. 
POLWARTH, Lord, supporter, 808. 
P0LTCRATE8, tale of, related by 

Pomtffranate, 389; PL XXX. fig. 10, p. 

Pomeis, 190, 699. 
PonulUd, 699. 
POMERANIA, anns, 288. 
POHEREU, Marquis de RICEYS, amw, 

Pomeys, 190. 
Pommdly, 700. 

„ cross, 160. 
Pomtnes^de-pin, 741. 
Pomiuettf, 160, 700, 741. 
Pommetty, 717. 

„ cross, 160. 
„ or Potnmelly, 700. 

POMPADOUR, Marquise de, 861. 
Pompcy, 190. 

P0NAN6E, Marquises de ST., anns, 275. 
PONCE DE LEON, arms, 507. 

„ „ Duke of ARCOS, 

arms, 506. 
PONDORFFER, VON, arms, 122. 

PONIATOWSKI, Princes, amw, 284. 
PONIN-PONINSKI, Princes, 870. 
PONNAT, arms, 267. 

amu, 891. 
PONT DB VAUX, Duos de, arms, 186. 

,, DU, arms, 187. 
PONTAUT, arms, 862. 
PONTBRIANT, arm*, 862. 
PONTCHASTEAU, EON DE, seal of, 46. 
PONTE, Counts da, arms, 862. 
PONTECORVO, arms, 667. 
PONTECROIX, Marquis de, arms, 185. 
PONTEIL, Counts GUIOT DE, arms, 

265. _^ 
PONTBVES, Marquises of, arms, 862. 
PONTEVEZ, Dues de SABRAN, arms, 

PONTHIEU, Count of, 80. 

„ JOANNA of, seal, 478. 

P0NT0I8E, siege of, 541. 
PONTON, amis, 96. 
PONT'S MS., 145, 175, 198, 849, 881. 
POPE, Earl of DOWNB, antu, 290. 
POPBL, arms, 79. 
Popinjay, 266, 700. 
POPOLBSCHI, anm, 141. 
POROBLLETS, DBS, Marquises de 

MAULLANB, arms, 227. 
Porcupine, The, 289. 
Porcupines as supporters, 686. 

arms, 840. 
Portal, 868. 
Portcullis, 700. 

„ as a badge, 595. 

,, as a charge, 865. 
PORTE, LA, arms, 186, 863. 
PORTER, arms, 874. 
PORTIA, Princes of, arms, 832. 
PortilU, 741. 

PORTLAND, Dukes of, arms, 169. 
PORTMAN, ai-ms, 831. 
PORTOOARRBRO, arms, 100 ; PI. VII., 

fig. 7, p. 90. 
PORTSMOUTH, Duchess of, 659. 
PORTUGAL, arms, 100, 168, 172, 440, 509, 
547, 577. 578, 667; PI. 
XVIL, fig. 7, p. 172, 
BEATRICE of, seal, 475. 
Constable of, label, 426. 
crests in, 604. 

EMMANUEL, King of, 475. 
ISABELLE of, seal, 475. 
Marks of illegitimacj in, 

MARY, dtr. of EDWARD, 

Constable of, 509. 
Queen LEONORA of, 
crovsn, 620. 
„ of, 690. 
"Quinas"of. 288. 
supporters, 667. 
Use of bordure in, 440. 
Portuguese Regulations as to the bearing 

on Differences of arms, 749. 
Posi, 217, 700, 704, 716, 741, 748. 
„ en pal, 109. 
„ en sautoir, 109. 
PotBMB, charge. 889. 
„ -hook as a cnarge, 800. 
POT, 12. 
POTEMKIN, Princes, arms, 205. 








PoUnee, 741. 
PoUnd^ 741. 

tf line^ 77, 156. 
PoUnejf or PotmU^ 700. 
PoCfiU, 70, 71, 700; Fl. IV., flf. 11, p. 68. 
counter, 70, 71. 

„ jMXeiU, 70, 700. 
mm, 156, 700; Fig. 51, p. 164. 
Jltehjfy cro$$f 156. 
PoienU line, 77, 700 ; Fig. 25, i». 75. 
FOTIER, amu tLUdnipporten, 894. 
Duo da O^VRBS, 11. 
MaxquU de ORIONOK, 18. 
Seignmir de NOVION, 12. 
PoU M ohaicw, 881. 
POTTWKIN, arfiu, 493. 

POULAIN, artfu, 837. 
POUR LE MERITS, CxtM of the Older, 

Pourprt, 741. 
Poiodered, 700. 
FOWBLL, amu, 833. 
POWER, 17. 

POWI8, Earl of, mpporter, 881. 

amu, 847. 
POWYB, oniu, 417. 

,, PrinoM of, 318. 
POYLE, arm*, 857. 

POYNINQS, Barony of, badge, 534, 654. 
POYNTZ, artM, 94. 
POZZO DI BORGO, Prinoe, amut, 860. 


amu, 298. 
FRAfiT, JEAN, Seigneur de, amu, 578 ; 
PL XLVIIL, flg. 4, p. 677. 

de, 572, 578. 
PRAGUE, amu, 359. 
PRASLIN, Dnos de, amu, 434. 
PRAUN, br MICHAEL, Von dem Ade- 

lichen Buropa^ und denen Heersekilden 

da TtVLUchin Adelt, 41. 
Prawm, 278. 
PREEDE, amu, 279. 
PREIS8AC, amu, 818. 
Premier Baron Chrititn, 11. 
PRESCOTT, amu, 262 ; PI. XXV., flg. 9, 

p. 260. 
PRESSIGNY, amu, 168. 

„ RENAUD DE, Marshal 

de FRANOE, amu, 108. 
PRESTON, amu, 296, 446; PI. XXVIL, 

fig. 10, p. 888. 
PRE3TWIGK, at-nu, 801; PI. XXVIL, 

fig. 12, p. 288. 
Pretence, e»cueheon qf, 700. 
PREUDHOMME, amu, 427. 

PREYSING, VON, artH$, 79. 
PRICE, amu, 200, 261, 848; PL XXV., 

fig. 7, p. 260. 
Pride, In, 700. 

„ Peacock in its, 267. 
PRIDEAUX, amu, 136. 
PRIEGO, Counts de, amu, 473, 506. 

„ Marquises of, amu, 478. 

PRIGNANI, amu, 2M. 
PRIME, amu, 206 ; PL XX., fig. 8, p. 






PRIMROSE, amu, 887. 

ARCHIBALD, Viaoonnt, 

amu. 180. 
of Dahnenie, Sir ARCHI- 
BALD, artM, 181. 
Sir ARCHIBALD, 480. 
Primmeef, 887. 
PRINCE CONSORT, amu, 181, 428, 484. 

„ OF WALES, amu, 131. 
Prinoea-Oranda-Digniuirae of Franoe, 
ornu. 2S8. 
„ helm of, 601. 
Prinoeaa Royal, Empresa of GERMANY, 

label, 4W; Fig. 85, p. 42L 
PRINOLE, amu, 137, 878, 488 ; PL XIII., 
fig. 3, p. 186. 
„ of Smaiihome, briture, 488. 

ProboKide», 606, 741. 
PROKBSCH D'OSTBN, Gonnta, amu, 

Promptorium PamUorutn, 591. 
Proper, 212, 700. 

„ or natural colour, 68. 
PROVENCE, ELEANOR of, 828, 687. 
„ „ amu, 182. 

,, HoH of, 88. 

PRUNBL]^, 12. 
PRUNIER, ornu, 786w 
PRUSS IL, herba ot, amu, 851. 
PRUSSIA, amunrialt of, 541. 

amu, 185, 140, 159, 212, 265, 
288, 881, 844, 494, 543, 544, 
545, 600. 
5aton qf Field Martkal of, 544. 
Black eagle qf, 544, 545. 
aufrmentcUunu granted by, 
„ great etCKcheon of Royal 

House, 493. 
„ pavilion of King of, 616. 
„ Royal eroien, 140, 25 1, 622. 

PRUSSIAN aummnUUiont, 542. 
PRYSE, aniu, PL XXL, fig. 3, p. 812. 

„ of Ooggerdan, aniw, 216. 
PRZBROWA, ann», 858. 
PRZICHOWITZ, Counta, aniu, 863. 
PUCCI, amu. 800. 

PUCBLLE, Brothers of LA, amu, 881. 

fig. 3, u. 308. 

amu, 154. 
PUGET, Maiqaises de BARBENTANE, 

amu, 284. 
Puggree, 618. 

PtUekmrn pro palria pati, 664. 
PULLICI, amu, 885. 
PUNCHYON, amu, 193 ; PL XIX., flg. 4, 

p. 192. 
Punning arms, 672. 
PUN8H0N, ere*t, 568. 
PttNTZINGER, amu, 580. 
PUPBLLIN, amu, 67. 

aiTiu, 206. 
Purfled, 700. 

Purple or Purpure, 60, 62, 65. 
Purpure or Purple, 60, 62, 65, 700; PI. 
II L, flg. 7, p. 00. 
„ shield plain, 67. 
PUTBUS, Prince, arou, etc., of, Flg. 08, 

p. 627. 
PUTTKAMMER, Barons von, arm*, 290. 


PUT, DU, amu, 212. 

,, -PAULIN, DE, amu, 60. 
PUTOIROy, Maxqaifl da, amu, 807. 
i>o(, 700. 
PTPE, arm$, 886. 
PYRMONT, County of, 488. 

„ arm*, 490. 
Prince of, at*nw, 488. 



QwulraU, 700. 

QUABDBAGH, arms, 8S1. 

<)UARANTA, ariM, 804. 

QUARBBBB, amUt 893. 

QuarreU, 850. 

Quarle/euUU, 741. 

Quarter^ The, 116, 165, 167, 700. 

„ -pUnedt 701. 
Quartered, 700. 
Quarter/oily 822, 701, 741. 
QMarfmnfir, 459, 478. 

„ ' British naage in regard to, 

„ Difftrtnet by, 446. 

„ Foreign nsftge in regard to, 

„ ptr aaltire, 482. 

QuarUringa, 700. 

„ Modem English Heralds 

a^sinst grand, 482. 
QuarUHy, 81, 700 ; Fig. 80, p. 77 ; PI. V., 
fig. 9, p. 80. 
„ enlqwrre, 82; PI. V., fig. 11, 
p. 80. 
of four coats, 479. 
of more than fonr coats, 480. 
of three coats, 479. 
„ perfug indentetl, Pi. Y., fig. 10, 

p. 80. 
„ per aalHtt, 82. 
Qvarter$ or Quartering*, 700. 
Quartier*, 741. 

QUATERMAINE, amu, 206. 
Quatr^oU, Double, for ninth son, 444. 

The, 822, 701 ; PI. XXIX., flg. 
12, p. 818. 
QUEEN, Marria«e of tlie, 428. 

VICTORIA, Life of the Pnnce 
Contort, 424. 

Qqeens-Consort, ftupportere of, 664. 
QUEEN8BERRY, Marqness of, annt, 

QU£LEN, Barons de, arnte, 185. 

arm*, 819. 
QUERNFURTH, Barons of, nmu, 214. 

of PORTSMOUTH, 559. 
QUESADA, arm*, 122. 

Queue, 214, 701. 

„ fourcMe, 218, 701, 741. 
QueuJ^. 705. 

QUEXADA, amu, 208. 
QUIJADA, arm*, 208. 
QUINGI, DE, arms, PI. XVIII., flg. 10, p. 


arm*, 184. 
QUINSON, amu, 68. 
QUINTANA, amu, 887. 

QuinitfeuUle, 680, 741. 
QuUe, d la, 701. 

RAAPHOR8T, arms, 08. 

Rabat*, 741, 742. 

Rabbit, The, 288. 

RABEN8TEIN, Counts of, amu, 17a 

RABEN8TEINER, amu, 207. 

Raeeourci, 741, 742. 

RACONIS, LOUIS, Seignear de, amu, 

RADA, arm*, 158. 
RADCLYFFE, arm*, 181. 

„ of Foxdenton, label, 415. 

„ „ Winmarleigh, arnu, 

Radiant, 701. 

RADZIWILL, Princes, amu, 886. 
RAB, amu, PI. XXIII., fig. 9, p. 228. 

„ of Pitsindie, arm*, 282. 
RAEPSABT, arm*, 848. 
RAET, Barons de, arm*, 802. 
RAGNINA, amu, 281. 
RaifuU, 701, 281. 
RajfuUd, 701. 
Rc^pUy, 727. 

„ line, 76 ; Fig. 24, p. 75. 
„ or Raffuled,iOl. 
RAGUSA, Duchy, amu, 895, 508. 
RAIMBERT, arm*, 180. 
Rainbow, 810, 701 ; PI. XIX., flg. 7, p. 

RAINIER, arm*, 122. 
Rau, 741. 

„ cCeeearbunele*, 679. 
Rake* as charges, 898. 
Ram, Battering, 852. 
RanU, 282, 677, 741. 
RAMEFORT, DE, arm*, 189. 
RAMENSPERO, amu, 286. 
RAMBRA, arm*, 889. 
Rampant, 212, 701, 702, 788, 741. 
„ -gardant, 215, 701 . 
„ -regardajU, 216, 701. 
„ '*^fa*U, 701. 
Rain*, 235. 
RAMSAY, arm*, 258, 585. 

„ of Dunoon, bend, 480. 

„ „ Wyliedeugh, Sir JOHN, 

augmentation, 534, 535. 
„ WILLIAM, Eari of FIFE, 

RAMSEY, arm*, 286. 
Ramure, 677. 
Ranehier, 742. 

RANDOLPH, amu, PL XXXIII., fig. 9, 
p. 876. 
„ Earls of MORAY, ann*, 

,, THOMAS, Eari of 

MORAY, arm*, 177. 
RANFURLY, Earl of, arm*, 175. 
Rangi, 742. 

„ en ehtf, 742. 
„ „ crour, 742. 
Rangi* en pal, 109. 

„ „ »autoir, 109. 
Rangier, 742. 
RANGONI, Marquises, antu, 119. 

(835 ) 

RANKEN. anttf, 848. 

RANTZAU, Gonnto, aniu. 78. 

RANULP, EnrU of MORAY, antu, 378. 
,, Mol, 878. 

omu, IM. 

RAPACCIOLI, arms, 84S. 

RAPE, arma, 848. 

RAPPACH, nnn*, 134. 

RAPPOLSTEIN, Coanty of, ariM, 170, 

RA8CIA, artM, 501. 

RA8PE, armjt, 343. 

RattrfUo, 470. 

Rat, The, 240. 

RATISBON, Sepalohnd Ifonoment at, 
nriM on, 24. 

RATTRAT, artoM, 163 ; PI. XV., flg. 6, p. 
„ ALEXANDER, ehtvrtm. 481 . 

,, JOHN, Bailie of ABER- 

DEEN, ffM, 430. 

RATZEBURG, PrindpRlitj of, annt, 159, 

RAUGH, aniur, 1.S4. 

Eauten Kranz, 181; PI. XII., fig. 0, p. 

RAVANI, aiT«M, 848. 
Mnven m a badae, 754. 

,, The, 264. 
RAVEN, ar?»«, 264. 
RAVENSBERG, Coant of, anta^ 140. 
RA\'ENTHORPE, anwii, 264. 
RAVB80HO0T, an.M, 264. 
BavikKina, 228. 
AatTMiMinf, 228, 702, 728, 742. 
RAWSON, m-mn, 858. 

TION, et de MELGUEIL, amw, 

RAYNOR, orwui, 292. 
Eaytmnnnt, 308, 702, 742. 
Jlayonmt, 692, 701, 702. 
Ray», 702. 
RdMted, 702. 
Jte6«U<em<7iti, 90, 742. 
RtbroMi, 706, 741, 742. 
ReeerceU. 679, 702, 703, 742. 
RtetretlUt, ctobb^ 160. 
REOHTERBN, Conntaof, an/w, 141. 
REGHTHALER, aniM, 87. 
RECRHEIM, ariiM, 212. 

„ Goanty of, ariiu, 492, 498. 

A«0O«7N», 742. 
Red or (7ii{n, 60, 62, 65. 
„ Mkield, tpeoial uee of, 67. 
RED EAGLE, Croat of the Order of the, 

REDESDALE, Lord, arauty 289. 
REDINGHURST, arms, 82. 
REDMAIN, arms, 879. 
Red&rU, 742. 
REEDB, Gonnte, ariMy 127. 


arm*, 127. 
REES, oniM, 848. 
REEVES, Dr, quoted, 657. 
Rrfmte, 742. 
Reflected, 702. 
R^IUxtd or ReAecinl, 702. 
REFUGE, DU, ai^ui, 275. 
iZe^Tardmne, 702, 742. 
RE0EN8TEIN, Connty of, mtM, 234. 

RtgifUr oftkeOrfat Seal, 180, 517. 
Rtftiatrum de Panmurtt 171, 517. 
REGROLTZWILE, oi-nu, 820. 
REIGHBROO, nrw, 391. 
REICHENSTEIN, Connto ron, omu, 84.<;. 
Reich* StalhHeUterf amw of the office of, 

REID and BROOK, DeMviptlon of 

Soottiah Regalia, 619. 
REIDER, aitHM, 195. 
REIGSDORP, antu, 296. 
REILLE, ConntB, arm$, 299. 
REINAGH, ConntB, arou, 223. 
Reindeer. The, 232, 702. 
REINECK, Barona von, anjw, 280. 

„ Countc of, amu, 94. 

REINFELDEN, arm*, 93. 
Rempli, 742. 
Rmai-d^ 742. 
REKARD, ariNii, 230. 
RENAUD I., of BAR, $eal of, 270. 

„ ann*, 230. 

it«n«Ai<r, 742. 
it^iwontiY, Un, 234, 742. 
RENNEBURG, aniu, 189. 
RENNER, ama, 237. 
RENNES, Gitv of, ann*, 91. 
RENTY, arm*, 348, 449, 726. 

„ ISABELLE, heiren of, 449. 
RenvertS, 30S, 742, 74fti 
Repotend, 742. 
Reptile*, 273. 
Jt«7V-»u>tue, 702. 
Re*areeU, 742. 
ie««<, 702. 

JtMe« aa chatgea, 386. 
RBTHEL, (in>ui, 631. 

„ Count of, 46S. 

Ret&rted, 702. 
Retrait, 742. 
i^tmncA^, 702, 742. 
RetraneMe, cro**, 162. 
J{«(r(Mp«r<ire Review, 656. 
J{«>(iY>uM^, 743. 
REVALDOS, arm*, 289. 
REVELATION, Book of, 194, 203. 
REVENTLOW, GountA, amw, 862. 
RBVERONI. arm*, 279. 
REVEST. DE, artm, 92. 
REY, M., Hi*toire du Drapeau, dr* 

Oouleur*, et de* liuigne* de la 

Manarckie PranptUte, 279, 282, 826, 

327, 828, 332, 838, 659. 
REYNELL, arim, 862. 
REYNOLDS, arm*, 865. 
REYNOLDSWYLE, arm*, 820. 

RHEINAU, aniM, 173. 

the, arm* on Eagle, 680. 
„ Count PALATINE of 
the, »eal, 261, 472. 

, , Goitnto PALATINE of the, arm*, 

the, *eal, 456. 
PALATINATE of the, arm*, 

456, 472. 

„ „ „ Eleetond 

bndi/e, 380. 
RHODES, aiege of, 454. 
RHODIUS, ar7M, 202. 

(836 ) 





SOUTH WALBS, anas, 594. 
Rib bont*^ Uuvian, 206. 
Riband, The, 131, ISS, 702. 
RIBAUMONT, DE, oniwt, 165. 
RIBEAUPIERRE, Counte de, artiUf 170. 
RIBERA, ami*, 507. 
RIBERAC, MarnaiMS de, amt«, 288. 
RICEY8, Marqniv de, arm*, 840. 
RICH, badffe, 758. 

,, crciit, 563. 
of ENGLAND, amu, 
PI. LI., fig. 1, p. 661 ; 
badge, 587 ; crt*t^ helm, 
509 ; Ortat Seal of, 587 ; 
»eal of, 32, 87, 54, 208, 
210, 801, 588; thUUl of, 
IL, King of ENGLAND, 824, 
888, 408, 489, 475, 555; 
artn$, 474, 528, 661; PL 
LI., fig. 8, p. 661 ; bwlfte, 
587, 589, 590, 591, 682; 
Roll of, 410, 426; sup- 
jMrtera of, 602. 
IIL, King of ENGLAND, 595 ; 
arnu, PI. LI., fig. 4, p. 
661 ; badge, 594 ; erotcn, 
618 ; supporters of, 662 ; 
vhite boar of, 597. 
Earl of CORNWALL and King 
of the ROMANS, arms, 178, 
245 ; seal of, 245. 
„ fizle rey, natural ton of King 
JOHN, antis, 554. 
RICHARDOT, arttu. 819. 
RIGHEBOURG, Beignear de, arms and 

label, 415. 
„ „ „ &«nd, 429. 

RICHELET, Dieiionnairt, 14. 
RICHELIEU, Cardinal Dncde, artns, 140. 
arms, 558. 
arms, 128. 

badge of the honour of, 824. 
Duke of, supporter, 297. 
Earla of, arms, 170, 425, 

u JOHN, Eari of, 438. 

RICHTERSWYL, arms, 120. 
RIDDELL, arms, 341 ; PI. XXX., fig. 11, 
p. 832. 
„ Mr, 179. 

„ of Ardnamurchan, crest-eo^'o- 

rut, 615. 
„ of that Ilk, 483. 

Scoitisk Peerage and Cmtsis- 

torial l4iw, 455. 
WALTER, brisure, 488. 
Additional Remarks on the 
Lennox Repi-esentation, 180. 

artns, 167. 

LANI), amu, 296. 
RIETSTAP, Armorial Oeniral, 88, 101, 

169, 205, 502, 589, 624, 625, 643, 746. 
RIETTER, DIE, anns, 302. 
RIEUWE, VAN. arms, 428. 
RIGEL, VON, amu, 148 ; Pi. XVI., fig. 8, 

p. 146. 
Rigged, 702. 

3 I 








RIGSTRUP, amu, 296. 
RILEY, arms, 155. 
RINACH, anus, 228. 
RINALDI, arms, 94. 
RIPERDA, arms, 716. 
RIPON, Marqneiia of, erest-coi'onet, 615. 
Ri*in</, 259, 702. 
RITTBERG, amis, 295, 491. 
RIVARI, amis, 289. 

River, A, 813 ; PL XXVIII., fig. 11, p. 808. 
RIVERS, EarU of DEVON, arms. 214. 
anus, 729. 
„ HENRY DE, anns, 405. 

RIZZOLBTTI, amis, 172. 
RJEVSKI, amis, 267. 
ROANNAIS, Due de la, arms, 159. 
ROBALOS, arms, 289. 
LAND, 83, 84, 177, 178, 666, 
IL, King of SCOTLAND, 178, 
441, 445, 459, 520, 566, 605 ; 
capeline, 611. 
lU. King of SCOTLAND, 178, 
419, 566. 
ROBERTOUN, arms, 849. 
ROBERTSON, anns, PL XXIII., fig. 8, 

p. 228. 
of Strowan or Struan, arms, 

„ „ ef Mined 

sava^ of, 648. 
Origin of name, 10. 

CHIER, tomb of, 658. 
Roe, 388, 682, 743. 
„ d'Mw/uier, 887, 680, 743. 
ROCA, amis, 888. 
ROCABERTI, amu, 888. 
ROCABRUNA, arms, 888. 
ROCCHI, arms, 888. 
ROCELINE, anns, 377. 
ROCHAS, amu, 717. 
ROCHAUSEN, amu, 86. 
ROCHE, ANTOINB, Corote de la, amu, 
574; PL XLVII., fig. 8, p. 

anns, 188. 
„ MATHIEU, Baron de la, amu, 
PAIEN DE LA, seal, 463. 
Seigneur de la, 11. 
BUR YON, Princes de la, bend, 

MAR, anns, 98. 
ROCHEFORT, amu, 71. 

„ JEAN, Sr. de, anns, 571 ; 

PL XLVIIL, fig. 2, p. 
„ Pairie of, 615. 


XIIL, fig. 9, p. 
186, 188. 
,, LeDucdela, 11. 

ROCHESTER, Biehop of, 142, 152. 
,, Earl ox, arms, 106. 

of, anns, 152. 
„ Viscount, anns and aug- 

mentation, 532. 
ROCHFORT, amu, 681. 



( 837 ) 

ROCHOW, «)•»«, 229. 
ROCKKNHAUH, Counti, aruu, 78. 
ROCV^UENGUIEN, anii«, 181. 
RODE, LA, miM, 120. 
RO DEM AC HER, anus, 98. 
RODENBERO, anM, 230. 

aruif, 137. 
RODES, ar,M, 725. 
RODOLPH, Emperor, 246. 
Hofbwlr, 232. 
ROEGK, DE, raii»ui, 264. 
IkutMchen Kaitier, 248, 244, 247, 248, 
262, 253, 828, 621. 
ROGERS, anus, 220. 

,, aniiM, 123. 

ROHAN, ariM, 185, 505,710. 

„ -CHABOT, Dakea of, artns, 505. 
,, Dukes de, arm$, 505. 
„ JOHN, Vicotuto de, 505. 
ROHRMANN, ann«, 888. 
ROISIX, MarquisM de, ar»t«, 95. 
R0JA8, antu, 309. 
ROKEWOOD, anHJ, 888. 
ROLA, hfrba of, nntu, 351. 

„ -WOLSKI, Coiinto, anu«, 851. 
MoiU of Anus (Set VINCENT, CALAIS, 

etc.), 3(5, 69, 96, 268, 
355, 401, 671. 
„ „ Uth CftUnrv, 177, 252, 357, 

398, 403, 407, 426. 
,, ,, ,, and 14tA C'tnturittf 

Roiiuni vanior aa a nvpporter, 640. 
ROMANE.S, ariM, 835. 
ROMAN0FF8KI, Prinoee of, artn*, 478. 
ROMANS, RICHARD, King of the, 245, 

„ „ „ arms 

on eagle, 630. 
„ WILLIAM, King of the, 468. 

COLN, shitfd of, 406. 
ROMBERG, Barons, ariM, 822. 
ROME, amui of City, 395. 
ROMIEU, aiiM, 875. 
ROM ILLY, Lord, tuppwien, 648. 
Jinmpv, 139, 702, 743. 
R().MREE, Counts of, supporter, 231. 
ROMUL, an/w, 228. 
ROXCHAUX, ai^HS, 710. 
RONCHIVECCHI, arms, 184. 
ROXQUEROLLES, arms, 73. 
Rook (chens) aa a charge, 387. 
ROON, Count von, auffinentation, 545. 
ROORDA, arni«, 188. 
ROOS, DE, arms, 356 ; badge, 758. 

„ „ Barony, 17, 18. 
ROQUE D'BSTUER, DE LA, anns, 888. 
DE LA, amis, 388. 

Traiti tie VOriffine des 

Noms, 408. 
Traiti singulier du 
Blason, 827, 686. 
„ „ Treatiaee of, 402. 
„ LE, Ti-aiU de Noblesse, 5. 
RO<jUELAURE, Dues de, aniu, 888. 
ROQUEMAUREL, anm, 888. 
ROQUES, arms, 888. 



If I* 

>l >• 

Roqwt, 888. 

ROQUETTB, arms, 388. 
RORDORF, arms, 182. 
R08, DE, arms, 855 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 12, 
p. 346. 
„ ,, Barony of, 17, 18 {see ROOS). 
„ EVERARD DE, 855. 
„ Lady DE, of KENDAL, seal, 454. 
ROSAMOND, Fair, 824. 
ROSDORFF, VON, anns, 89, 668; PL 

LV., fig. 2, p. 609. 
Jiose, 323, 702. 
,, aa a badge, 587. 
„ erotmed, as a badge, 596. 
,, for seventh son, 444. 
,, Red and vhite, as a badge, 595. 
ROSE, arms, 355. 

„ of Kilravock, anns, 855. 

arms, 180. 
„ BarU of, atnns, 387. 

ROSENBERG, Priuoes of, anas, 92, 323, 

ROSENBORG, Castle of, 620. 
ROSEN BCK, artM, 325. 
Roses, PI. XXX., fig. 3, p. 882. 
„ slippetl, PI. XXX., fig. 4, p. 832. 
„ Wars of the, 824, 898. 
ROSMADEC, Marquises of, aniu, 91. 
R08NY, arms, 127. 

ROSOY, seal and arms of JULIENNE, 
Dame de, 49. 
„ seal and amis of ROGER DE, 
ROSS, ALEXANDER, Earl of, arms on 
Bagle, (VM. 
amu, 532, 631. 
Bishop of, 437. 
Earldom of, artiu, 367, 868. 

„ Countess of, artnt 

on Eagle, 631. 
„ HUGHTEarl of, 442. 
,, Lords, aniu, 355. 
„ of Raricbies, HUGH, bcrdure, 

„ seal^ot ALEXANDER, Earl of 

„ „ JOHN, Earl of, 867. 

„ water-bowgets of, 454. 
R08SEL, anns, 278. 
R0S8ELYN, arms, 877. 
ROSSI, anus, 66, 213. 

„ Princes of CERAMI, anns, 310. 
ROSSLER, anns, 237. 
ROSSLYN, Earl of, anns, 142. 
ROST, CounU von, arms, 78. 
ROSTAING, arms, 214. 
ROSTOCK, lordship of, arms, 288, 492. 
ROSTOPCHIN, augmentation, 542. 
ROSVERN, arms, 277. 
ROTELEN, County of, ai-ms, 221, 491. 
ROTENBURG, Counts von, amu, 120. 
ROTHALL, Counts von, arms, 161. 
ROTHE, JOHANNES, of Biaenjusfa, 

treatise by, 19. 
ROTHSCHILD, anns, 851. 

Rouant, 691, 700, 789, 748. 
ROUCK, DE, System of lines repreaenting 
oolour, 84. 
„ Den Nederlandtschen Herauld, 551. 
ROUCY, arms, 212. 


( 838) 

Row de St. Catherine, 748. 
ROUILLON, OLIVBR, iuppm-tert, 638. 
KOUMANIA, arms, 667. 
Rounded f 702. 

Roundles, 165, 189, 702; Fl. XIX., fig. 4, 
p. 192. 

„ Naniw of, on Continent, 191. 

RoMantf 702. 
ROUSE, ana*, 127. 
ROUSSELET, atin*, 68. 
ROUSSET, ai-vu, 161, 162. 

of, 269. I 

„ LOUIS, Comte de, arms, , 

ROUVILLB, DE, arms, 270. 
ROUX, antut, 68. 

,, Seigneur de, amis, 450. 

amu, 818. 
Royal arms and supporters, 661. 
„ Family, labels, 428. 
„ „ naiog eseucluon en surtout, 

ROZ, Barons de, amu, 151. 
ROZEN, DU, amis, 187. 

fig. 10, p. 186. 
RUBBI, amu, 66. 
Ruby, 65, 702. 
BUCHSTBIN, VON, a^-ms, 90; PL VL, fig. 

12, p. 84. 
RttDBERG, anns, 98. 
Riulder as a badge, 754. 
RUDICKHBIM, arms, 181. 
Rt)'DIGER, Counts, arms and augmenta- 
tion, 542. 
RUDOLPHUS, Neraldica Curiosa, 8, 42. 
RUELLE, DE LA, arms, 279. 
RUESDORP, arms, PI. LVL, fig. 8, p. 

RUFFBLAERT, arms, 98. 
RUKOFF, anus, 281. 
Rules €^ Blown, 101, 105, 110. 
RUMLINGEN DE BERG, Barons, arms, 


EMPIRB, crown, 621. 
Rt^PPBLIN, Barons von, ai-ms, 150. 
RUSE, 12. 

RUSKIN'S Modem Painters, 211. 
RUSPOLI, Princes, oj-mw, 819. 
RUSSELL, arms, 278; PI. IX., fig. 8, p. 
,, Dukeof BEDFORD, an}M,107. 
RUSSIA, ArmoriaU of, 541. 

arms, 250, 665 ; PL LIIL, fig. 2, 

p. 665. 
crest as auffm^ntalicn, 608. 
eagles of, 542. 

„ Imperial erovm of, 621. 
Rustian Bmpire, The Antiquities of the, 

RUSSIAN augmentations, 542. 
Ruste, 185, 702, 748. 
RuHre, The, 117, 182, 185, 702, 743. 
RUTHERFORD of Faimington, brisure, 

RUTHVBN, Master of, 419. 

,, WILLIAM, ProTOst of 

PERTH, label, 419. 




RUTLAND, Duke of, supporter, 297. 
Dnkes of, arms, 580. 
Earl of, arms and label, 416. 
„ auffitientation, 530. 
„ seal, 869. 
„ „ sail with amu 
from, PL XXXIV., fig. 4, p. 

„ EDWARD, Earl of, amu, 

RCXNER'S rA« ^itcA, 41. 
RUYSBROEK, Counts de, amu, 122. 
RUYTER, Admiral de, artns, 127. 

,, ^nonument of, 626. 
RYCKEVORSEL, VAN, amu, 279. 
Aye, PL XXX., fig. 11, p. 832. 

„ Bars of, 341. 
RYE, amu, 257, 341. 
RYMER, quoted, 590. 
RYTS, VAN DER, amu, 139. 
amu, 356. 

SAANECK, Baron von, 405. 
SAAREBRUCK, concession of a crest by 

JOHN, Comte de, 751. 
8AARWERDEN, Counts of, amu, 256. 
SAB BEN, amu, 188. 
8ABBINGEN, VAN, antu, 128. 
SABCOTT, amu, 351. 
Sable, 702, 748. 
„ or Black, 60, 65 ; PL III., fig. 5, p. 

,, plein, de, 67. 
,, shield, plain, 67. 
SABL:^, Marquises de, amu, 275. 
SABLONNlftRE, DE LA, anas, 204. 
SABRAN, amis, 214. 

„ Dues de, amu, 213. 
BACHEVERELL, amu, 563. 

„ GEORGE, aiTns, 563. 

„ of Morley, FRANCES, 

daughter of HENRY, 
„ VALENCE, daughter 

of HENRY, 568. 
8ACQUEVILLE, amu, 260. 
SACQUINVILLE, antu, 200. 
SADE, ELZEAS DE, amu Knd augnunta- 
tion, 587. 
„ LAURA, wife of UGO DB, 537. 
Sajfre, 743. 

SAFFRBS, arnu, 259. 
Sage, 844. 
Sagittartf, 702. 
Saillant, 743. 
SAILLY, arms, 96. 
SAINCY, see MARCHAL, 866. 
Saint Denis, Enseigne de, 658. 
SAINT PRIEST, arnu, 99. 

„ VR AIN, ISABELLA DE, arms, 68. 
SAINTONGE, Pairie of, 515. 
SaUuuander as a badge, 686. 

The, 294. 
Salamanders as supporters, 086. 
8ALAM0NI, amu, 100. 
SALAZAR Y CASTRO, Ca$a de Lara, 488. 
SaliaiU, 217, 702. 
SALIGNON, aniM, 186, 787. 
SALINS, DB, amu, 129. 

„ Vioomtes de, amu, 889. 
SALIS, Counts de, arms, 818. 



SALISBURY, Earl of, amu, 188, 219, 
244, 257 : PL XXL, fig. 
12, p. 212. 
„ Earls of, .^62. 

Marqaea of, eraeentf 446. 
Sea of, arm*, 195. 
THOMAS, Earl of, 662. 
SALM, Counts and Princes of, amUf 271, 

Saluion kauriant, PL XXVL, fig. 6, p. 266. 

,, The, 268, 271. 
SALMON, arum, 2«W. 
SALON ISI. artM, 95. 

ariM, 165. 
Saitire, 702 ; Fig. 42, p. 116, 142 ; PL XV., 
fig. 8, p. 144; PL XV., fig. U. 
p. 144. 
„ anare, PL XV., fig. 11, p. 144. 
„ and ehuif, PL XV., tig. 10, p. 144. 
,, ChavQes on, 144. 

couped, PL XV., fig. 12, p. 144. 

„ and^fory, 145. 
eehianehrf, 145. 
Parted pfr^ Fig. SS, p. 77. 


II Per, PL v., flg: 12, p. 80. 

„ pomnutty, 145. 


Quarterlif per, 82. 
Varieties of, 145. 
Saitirtvatft, 702. 
SalloreU, 702. 

SALUGES, Marqnesaate of, arm*, US. 
SALVERT, Marqnises de, aruK, 150. 
SALVIAC, arnit, 358. 
SALZBURG, Dnchy, anus, 499, 665. 
SAMSON, anm, 106. 

„ in Heraldry, 196. 
SAMUEIii^ON, anM, 298. 
SAN SBVERINO, antu, 505. 

„ „ Dncs de, antut, 124. 

SANCHEZ, amu, 131; PL XIL, fig. 5, 
p. 130. 
SANCHO, tJu Stronff, of NAVARRE, 35S. 
SANCOURT, ai-MM, 9«}. 
SANDBERG, «n,w, 752. 
8ANDFORD, or«ui, 82, 98 ; PL V., fig. 10, 

p. 80. 
SANDI LANDS, antu, 519. 

axifnnentation, 585. 
,, Sire de, latubitquin, 611. 

SANDON, annn, 82. 
SANDOVAL, on/w, 180. 
SANDWICH, Earl of, «up7)or(^r, 802. 

,, EarU of, amut, 562. 

SANDWYK, VAN, anns, 218. 
SANDYS, anii», 142, 163. 

„ badye, 758. 

SannU, 748. 
Sanfflier, 227, 689, 743. 
Sariffuine vr Blood colour, 60, 65, 703; 

PL III., fig. 9, p. 60. 
SANGUINETTO, Count of, aruu and 

awffmenlation, 536. 
San»-nofiiihrf, 702. 
SANTAPAU. Princes de BUTERA, artm, 

8ANTEUIL, annM, 201, 714. 
8ANTHEUVEL, VAN DEX, amu>, 288. 
SANTIAGO, Cross of, 644. 

HENRY, Grand Master of 
the Order of, 577. 
8APC0TE, annx, 868. 

Sapphire, 65, 708. 
Saraoen banner, 655. 

Saraeen'i Htad, 199, 703 ; PL XX., fig. 4, 

p. 198. 
„ „ as a 6a(/^e, 754. 

SareelU, 708. 
SarcfUjf, Crott, 160. 

SARDINIA, aniM, 200 ; PL XX., fig. 6, p. 
„ King of, supporter of, 244. 

Sanlonyx, 65, 708. 
SARRANTE, ari/M, 6& 
SART, Counts de, arm*, 186. 
SARTIGES, ariM, 189. 

„ QUILLAUME DE, arm*. 51. 


Artni* et Ineigni*, 19. 
8ATTELB0GEN, arm*, 87. 
Saturn, 65. 

8ATURNINI, arm*, 299. 
Satffr, 708. 
SAULX, anu*, 213. 

SAUSENBERG, Lordship of, arms, 491. 
Sautoir, 142, 702, 748. 

„ Sn, 743. 

„ Pa**e» tn, 748. 
Saurage, 708. 

SAUVAGEOT collection, 882. 
SAY A, Barons, arm*, 172. 
Savafft, PL XX., fig. 2, p. 198. 

or Wild Man in Heraldry, 198. 
Saraffe'M head, 199. 
SAVALLETTE, arm*, 295. 
Save River, 498. 
SAVELLI, Dncade, arm*, 645. 
SAVEUSB, Marquises de, anu*, 186. 
8AVILE, arm*, PL XIL, fig. 4, p. 180. 

Earl of MEXBO 


ig. 4, p. u 



8AV0IB, see SAVOY. 
SAVONA, Marquises DE, arm*, 641. 
SAVORY, ann*, 687. 
SAVOY, AMADEUS VL of. teal, 629. 
„ „ of, King of SPAIN, 

arm*, 488. 
„ the Oreal, Count of, 

454, 579. 
arm*, 57, 458, 467, 488, 579, 629. 
A YMON of, arm* and tupportert, 

579, 629. 
Count PETER of, 458. 
Counts of, arm*, 244. 
ere*t, f29. 

Dnke PHILIP, *an* terre, 579. 
Dukes of, arm*, 141. 
HUMBERT, 6dtoix2 de, amu, 

arm*, 579. 
„ Duke of, 467, 579. 
Marks of illegitimacy in, 570. 
original arm*, 579. 
REN]^, bdlard de, ann*, 579. 
seal of AMADEUS, V. Count of, 
EDWARD, Count of. 









SAXE, Chevalier de, arm*, 525. 

, , COBOURG, Prince LEOPOLD of, 

arm*, 424. 
„ -OOBURG, Duke of, 622. 

( 840 ) 

SAXE • GObURG - OOTHA, ci^oien of 

Prinoe AUiERT of, 622. 
SAXON Duchiea, arms, 67, 205, S21, 862. 

„ JlaffM^ 650. 
SAXONY, amu, 181, 469, 488, 401, 525, 
724 ; Fl. XII., fig. 6, p. 180. 
„ crest, 607. 

,, Diikes of, arms, 456. 

„ Elector of, arm*, 526. 

„ Kings of, antu, 846. 

„ Palatinate of, aruu, 256, 
„ Prince FRANCIS XAVIBR of, 

„ supporttn, 667. 

SAY, Lords, aniu, 81. 
8AYN, Counts of, amu, 358. 
„ Princes of, arms, 216. 
augmentation, 586. 
„ anns, 864, 408 ; PI. XXXII., fig. 

0, p. 858. 
,, CAN DELLA, augiMntation, 

„ JOHANNA, daughter and 
heiress of JOHN DELLA, 
ariM, 403. 
„ Princes, 864. 
,, „ DELLA, arm*, 364. 

Scaletl, 708. 

„ ftadgt, 758. 
SCALE;}, Lord, 574. 

„ ROBERT DB, ami*, 278. 
SCALI, arm*, 864. 
8CALIGER, arm*, 864. 408. 

„ JOHANNA, daughter and 

heireas of JOHN, arm*, 403. 
Scallop, 706. 

„ *kell, 272. 
SCALTENIGHI, onjw, 72. 
SCANDINAVIA, creMed helm* in, 604. 

„ Title of Marquess un- 

known in, 626. 
Searpe, 703. 
SCARRON, arm*, 130. 
8efj)tre* as charges, 880. 
SCHAD, ar}H*, 260. 
HCHAEP, arm*, 235. 
BCHAOEN family, 576. 
SCHATZ, artM, 166. 
8CHAUMANN, arm*, 388. 
SCHAW, arm*, PI. XXXIII., fig. 7, p. 
„ of Sauohie, ann*, 881 (*ee 
8CHAWENBUR0, Barons Ton, arm*, 

SCHEFFER, de AnliQui* veri»f/ue Regni 

Sueeic: Insignittu*, 370, 628. 
SCHELDORFER, VON, arm*, PI. V., fig. 

5, p. 80. 
SCHELKLINOEN, Counts von, arm*, 05. 

scheltenberg, marquard de, 

'»eal of, 606. 
SCHEPER8, gupjxn-ter*, 643. 
SCHESNAYE, ariM, 185. 

aupmentati(M, 580. 

8CHEURLER, arm*, 74. 
SCHIECK, arm*, 836. 
SCHILLER, Wallenjttrin, 470. 
SCHILLING, CounU von, arm*, 380. 

8CHINDEL, DIE, arm*, 186. 
SCHIO, Counts DA, 802. 
8CHIPST0W, arm*, 864. 
SCHIVES, arm*, 226. 
SCHLEGEL, arm*, 04. 
SCHLEICH, ami*, PL VL, fig. 0, p. 84. 

,, VON, arm*, 88. 

SCHLEIDEN, ann*, 68. 
8CHLESW1G, arm*, 581, 666. 

„ -HOLSTEIN, Princess 

HELENA of, label, 423. 
SCHLIEBEN, Cooites, augmentation, 548. 
SCHLOTHEIM, Barons, and CounU von, 

arm*, 580. 
SCHMID, arm*, 101. 
SCHMIDBURG, Baron von, arm*, 877. 
SCHMIDT, Barons, aitftmentaXion, 546. 
„ JHe WappentUUrFursttnuml 

Staaien, 73. 
SehneckentceUe, PI. VIII., fig. 4, p. 100. 
SCHONAICH, Barony of, orwwr, 837. 
SCHONBORN, CounU von, arm*, 842. 
SCHONBURG, Princes of, aruu, 04. 
SCHONEN, anm, 256. 
SCHONFELD, ConnU von, arm*, 818. 
SCHONSTEIN, arm*, 121. 

,, VAN, ami*, 203, 405. 

8CH00NVELT, VAN, ami*, 127. 
BCHOREL, VAN, arm*, 106. 
SCHORISSE, VAN, an»M, 181. 
8CHRECK, arm*, 276. 
SCHROT, arui*, 660; PI. LV., fig. 8, 

p. 660. 
Schrdterhiii'ner, 821. 
8CHROTT, VON, ami*, 80. 
SCHWABEGG, arm*, 460. 
SCHWALENBERG, ConnU of, arm*, 

„ WITEKIND, Count 

of, 404. 
SCHWARTZBURG, Princes of, aug- 

uuntation, 587. 
8CHWARZBURG, ami*, 480. 

,, Princes of, arm*, 480. 

,, Meal of the Emperor 

SGHWARZENBERG, Princes of, arm*, 

SCHWEIDNITZ, CounU von, arm*, 817. 
SCHWEREN, arm*, 80. 
SCHWERIN, amut, PI. VL, fig. 11, p. 84. 
,, County of, a»*MMi, 70, 182, 

2U5, 402. 
„ Principality of, ann*, 492. 

Seintillant, 703. 
iki**or» as charges, 892. 
SCLAVONIA, arm*, 874. 
Sclavonic families, mantling, 616. 
SCLEROS, ami*, 284. 
SCOPULl, arm*, 390. 
SCORPIONE, arm*, 277. ^ 
ScoiTyion*, 274, 277. 
SCOT, JOHN, of Thirlstane, amu, 179. 

„ of Harden, tupporter*, 302. 
SCOTLAND, ami*, 330, 441, 448, 446, 455, 
464, 475, 476, 470, 505, 
521, 520, 566, 567, 662, 
, , arm*, daring Commonwealth, 

attgmtnlation in, 534. 


( 84' ) 

• I 






SCOTLAND, bfulfff, 696, 697. 

Change of niiaie in, 009. 

eooiA of, SUA. 

cifMt of, 644. 

Differencing in, 397. 

Earl MarBhaJ, mark of 

office, 644. 
ftmun of Princes of, 20S. 
Family baJfff* in, 69S. 
Feudalism in, S99. 
Great Master of the House- 
holil, mark of office, 644. 
Great Stain of, 69S. 
Hemldio marks of illegitl- 

macT in, 665. 
ISABELI^. dtr. of King 
JAME8 I. of, 605. 
„ JAMES, King of, 615. 

„ Justice General, mark of 

office, 644. 
LioiM of, OS Kupporttm, 636. 
Ix>i*d High Chamberlain, 

maric of office, 644. 
Marshalling in, 512. 
Mode of differencing, 406. 
Names in southern counties 

of, 400. 
National etabhmotf 934. 
Princess MARGARET of, 

Queen MARY of, 476. 
Aoyal crrni of, 217. 

,, eroim of, 619. 
Regalia of, 019. 
iia/(t)ie in, 143. 
Small number of names in, 

nipporters in, 296, 632, 635, 

The double tntnure in, 146, 

yinicom of, (H53. 
Use of boi'dun in, 441. 
„ chtni'OH in, 431. 
„ label in, 419. 
scots, ACHAIUS, Mythical King of 

the Dalrladic, 176. 
SCOTT, artM, 162; PI. XXII., fig. 6, 
p. 222. 
amm in Lyon Office Register, 400. 
of Balweary, annx, 222. 
,, Buocleucb, arui*, 659. 
,, Gorren berry, bordure, 443. 
Sir WALTER, Quentin Durwardt 
„ supporter, 303. 

„ WILLIAM, brisurt, 435. 
Scottish marks of illegitimacy, 669. 
SCOTTS in south Scotland, 400. 
Seourgen as charges, 374. 
Scrip, 703. 

SCRIVELSRY, Baron of, 346. 
Scroll, 708. 

SCROPB, anta. 111, 129, 341, 427; PI. 
XIL, flg 1,1). 180. 
„ and G ROS VENOR ControTersy, 
841, 439. 
Senittlt, 703. 
SCRYMGEOUR, anM, 140. 

„ Earl of DUNDEE, 149. 

,, MARGARET, 149. 

SCUDAMORE, anrnt, 155, 357; PI. 
XXXIL, fig. 2, p. 35S. 
Viscounts, anas, 357. 








8CYLITZE8, amu, 241. 
Scythen and Scythe bUutes, 950. 
Sea-dog, The, 800, 703. 
.. -griffin, 290. 

'Itorm, The, 299, 703; PI. XXVI L, 

fig. 11, p. 2S8. 
-lion. The, 299, 703. 
■stag. The, 299. 
'Unieoi-n, 297. 
SEAFIELD, Earl of, anns, 360. 
Seai, Earliest instance of armorial, 26. 
Stals, 65, 56, 23S; PI. XXXV., p. 415; PI. 
XXXVIL, p. 447. 
„ Amuarial Bearings on, 44. 
„ Device* on Burgh, 313. 
,, Various, 36, 37. 
8ECCANO, anus, 256. 
SECKENDORF, anas, PI. XXIX., fig. 0, 

1). 318. 
SBCKENDORFF, Connte von, arms, 318. 
Sfcoml Nobility Boll, 71, 867, 431. 
SEDAN, Princes of, arms, 360. 
SEE BACH, anas, 298. 
Serfhd 325, 703. 
8EEVE8, anas, 226. 
SEFTON, Earls of, anns, 159. 
SEGA LAS, aruis, 285. 
SEGOING, Artitorial Oniversel, S60. 
,, Lt Tresor H^raldique, 2. 

,, Mrrcure Anwirial, 2. 

SEGORBIA, Dukes of, anns, 677. 
SEORAVB, anus, 214, 342, 428. 
„ JOHN, mtl, 628. 

„ NICHOLAS DE, label of, 414. 

Sir JOHN DE, artM, 414. 
Sepreant, 287, 703. 

„ Library of, 611. 
S^GUR, an,is, 228. 
SEIGNELAY, Marquis de, oruM, 276. 
SEIN8HEIM, anus, 200. 
S^nt, 217, 703. 

■addorsed, 703. 
-a^ifronte, 217. 
-gartlant, 217. 
-rampant, 217. 
Seui^, 112, 677, 702, 708, 743; PI. VIII., 
flg. 10, p. 100. 
de France, 748. 

of hearts, PI. VIII., flg. 9, p. 100. 
o/Jleurs-de-lis, PI. VIII., fig. 8, p. 100. 
Semper eailetu, 664. 
SEMPILL, anus, 486 ; PI. XIIL, flg. 2, p. 
,, Lords, anns, 12)7. 

,1 of Beltraes, brisure, 486. 

SENECHAL, LB, arms, 186. 
Semstir, 743. 
Senestrf, 711, 748. 
Senestroch^fr, 205, 726, 743. 
Srngi'i-tn, 703. 

SENS, LB, Marquises de MORSAN, 

arms, 872. 
Sepulchral Monument, anus on, at 

SERAING, ai-ms, 427. 
Seraph, 703. 
Seraph in, 703. 
SERBY, NICOLAS, Uopard Herald, S09. 




( 84» ) 




• I 

SERENELLI, arm*, 808. ^ 


SERLE, amu, 78. 
Serpent, Shield encircled by a, 639. 

„ vorarU, PL XXVII., fig. 4, p. 238. 
,, with a female bead, 640. 
Serpent*, 273. 
Serptnt'K head*, 276. 
Serra, 299. 

SERVATI, amu, 126. 
SERVIA and BOSNIA, Czar of, 251. 

,, ann*, 501, 668. 
SESA, Dukes of, ann*, 473. 
SETON, ALEXANDER, bend, 429. 
arnu, .S07, 521, 584. 
G., The Law aiui Practice of 
Heraldry in Scotland, 44, 84, 
548, 552, 553, 568, 632, 647. 
of Touch, c)'e*t, 605. 
Sir ALEXANDER, ann*, 178. 
,, ,, Governor of 

Berwick, awnnmlatum, 534. 

DE, label, 419. 

„ Star of, 643. 

SETTIMO, Princes de FILIOLA, ann*, 

8EUSENEGG, Barons von, ann*, 188. 
SEVA, Connto, ann*, 722. 
SEVASTQS, ann», 833. 
SEVIGNE, Letters of, Mme. De, 182. 

„ Marquises de, ann*, 82. 

8EWELL, ann*, 288. 
SEYMOUR, antu, 581; PI. XXV., fig. 
5, p. 260; PI. XXXIX., 
fig. 2, p. 481. 
„ Duke of SOMERSET, annt, 

II If II crett, 

,, JANE, Queen, auffinentation, 

SEZE, ann», 589. 

„ Count de, att(pnenUUion, 539. 
SFORZA, ann*, 218. 
Shaei-bolt, 703. 
Slutfto/, 703. 

SHAFIESBURY, Earls of, anm, 234. 
Shake-jork, 151,708; PI. XVI., fig. 12, p. 


ann*, PI. XXXI., fig. 

2, p. 846. 
Henry VI., 584. 
Richard IIL, 591. 
Shambrogue or Brogue, 679. 
&iantbrogue* as charges, .^92. 
Shanibi-ough*, 703. 
SJiamroci', The, 320. 
SHARP of Kincarroch, arm*, 569. 
Shaam* as charges, 883. 
SHAWS of Sauchie, oiiia, 381. 
Sheave*, 350. 
iS^ep, 235, 708. 
SHEFFIELD, arnu, 562. 


arm*, 848. 
arm*, 562. 
Shell,ii*h, 272. 
£A€pAe/-U'« pijie as a charge, 887. 








SHERBURN, arm*, PI. XXL, fig. 2, p. 212. 

SHERBURNE of Stonjhnrst, anti*, 216. 

Shield, nth Century, PI. I., fig. e, p. 54. 

, , between the attires of a stag's nead , 

„ Different forms of. Figs. 7, 8, 9, 

10, 11, 12, l:}, 14, p. 58. 
, , English and French, Point* of, Figs. 

15, 16, p. 59. 
„ Form of, in BRITAIN, 56. 
„ FRANCE, 56. 
„ ITALY, 56. 
„ ,, SPAIN, 55, 56. 

lozenge shape, supposed derivation 
of, 58, 59. 
„ Rod, special use of, 67. 
,, Square, 57. 

„ used by unmarried lady or widow, 
SkUld*, 851. 

12th century chessmen, PI. I., 

figs. 8, 9, 10, p. 54. 
Different forms of, 53, 56, 57. 
from Bayeux Tapestry, PI. I., 

figs. I, 2, 3, p. 54. 
of a single metal, tincture, or 
fur, 66. 

„ on cross or star of an Order, 644. 
„ Oval and Circular, 56, 57. 
„ suspended at Tournaments, 55. 
Ship, as a bailge, 754. 
,, as a charge, 869. 

descendants, 899. 
ShAp* as charges, 367. 
Ship'* buoy as a badpe, 754. 
SHIRLEY, Earl FERRERS, ann*, 165. 
S/iivertd, 703. 
Sliod, 88. 
Shoe, Hor*e, 855. 
Shoe* as charges, 892. 
Shovel* as charges, 393. 
SHREWSBURY, baifffe, 754. 

„ Earl of, ann*, 174. 

Shrimp*, 278. 
SI BELL, ann», 225. 
SIBERIA, ann*, 665. 
„ ei-otcn, 622. 
SICHTERMANN, ann*, 240. 
SICILE, R£N^, Roi de, Tourney Rflgnhi- 

tions, 749. 
SICILY, ai-m*, 258, 471, 482, 495, 501, 504, 

„ FREDERICK, King of, 505. 

„ «ea; of CHARLES, King of, 829. 
SICKINOEN, artm, 440. 
Sickle as a badge, 585, 754. 
SIDON, Prince of, ann*, 118. 
SlBBENBt'RGEN, anu*, 495, 408. 
SIEBMACHER, H'appenbuch, 64, 66, 73, 

90, 92, 95, 98, 114, 134, 161, 166, 182, 

191, 268, 289, 290, 21>7, 336, 873, 402, 

411, 412, 440, 477, 579, 582, 601, 614, 

040, 752. 
SIENA, Catheilral of, 656. 
SIERADZ, Dudiy of, ann*, 468. 
Sure as a brnlge, 596. 
SIGINOLFI, arm*, 92. 
SIGISMUND, arm* of Emperor, 249. 
Emperor, 251, 252, 255. 
, ,< nifU ion gran- 
ted by, 536, 5a7. 
„ King of POLAND, auginerii- 

tation granted by, 540. 


( 843 ) 






6IGNIA, Family of, anM of, 256. 
8ILE8IA, Duchy of, arnu, 255, 491, 496. 

,, Principality, ann*, 500, 6(i5. 
Silk-KomUf 280. 
SWriT or argtntf 60, 65. 
,, Shield, plain, M. 
SIMIANS, <ir;/ui, Fl. VIII., flg. 10, p. lOO. 
OUIRAND DB, iteal of, 47. 
,, MarqniMfl de, amui, 113. 

SIMON, rArmariaf Genh-al de i£mpirt 

Franraut, 259, 2S3, 626. 
SINCLAIR, nntu, 868, 869, 406, 511, 512. 
Baron», artH*, 511 ; Fl. XLIIl., 

fig. 2, p. 521. 
brisurr, 434. 
,, Cf09if 511. 

„ Earl of CAITHNESS, ann*, 

PI. XLIIL, flk'. 1, p. 521. 
Earl of ROSSLYN, atiM, 142. 
«a/, 369. 
„ Loni, 8o9. 
Lord, antui, 511. 
of UERDMANdTON, ann*, 

of HBRDMAN8T0UN, anut, 

of ROSLIN, arnu, 84. 
borxlure, 443. 
SinUteTt 703. 

„ side of ahifUl^ 59. 
SinapU, 704, 707, 744. 
„ PUin-iU-t 67. 
SIRADIA, Duchy of, anM, 468; PI. 
XXXVIIL, fig. 1, p. 468. 
„ Palatinate of, an/t«, 468. 
Siren, 704. 
Sit-tne, 800, 744. 
SIS8INK, antit, 804. 
BIX, arHut, 128. 
SIXTUS IV., Pope, amiSt 818. 
Skatti as charges, 392. 
SktUton, The, 208. 
SKENE, 704. 

„ OAtie Seotlatnf, 871. 

arniJi, 120. 
Skull, The, 203. 
Stashttl, 704. 

SLAW ATA, Counts of, aruu, 93. 
SUrtt, Hanging, as a charge, 876. 
SLEICH, arms, 166. 
SLESVIO, arnu, 581, 666. 
S/i»ty, The, aa a charge, 865. 
Sli2^pttl, 820, 825, 704. 
SlipjHr$ as charges, 392. 
SMITH, cr(»tg, 610. 

„ GORDON, dttt, 610. 
„ Sir SIDNEY, arm», 584. 
Smithfield, Jousts held at, 680. 
SnaiU, 2&0. 

Snale enttrinetl, PI. XXVI I., flg. 8, p. 288. 
Sna/«, 274 ; PI. XX VI I., flg. 2, p. 288. 
SNEEVOET, antiM, 207. 
SO, arrtw, 130. 
SOBIESKI, artng. 351. 

JOHN, King of POLAND, 
arms, 486. 
Soc lie. charrue, 744. 

SODERINI, arms and aujorrnentotton, 541. 
SOISSONS, arms, 214. 



SOISSONS, ISth oentuiy Maire de, PI. I., 
flg. 1, p. 44. 
„ Mol of CONON. Count of, 48. 

Sol, 65. 

SOL AGES, artM, 805. 
SOLDANIERI, arm*, 71. 
SOLD ATI, ariM, 847. 
SOLDONIERI, ariM, 72. 
SoUil, 744. 

,, Otiibn tU, 744. 
SOLIGNAC, arm*, 118. 
SOLMS, Counts and Prince* of, arm*, SI 4, 

825, 404, 488. 
SOLVI, anM, 158. 
SOMBEKB, arwi, 140. 

arms, 575. 

flg. 8, p. 228. 
SO.MERS, Earl, anM, 284. 
arms, 559. 
„ badge of, 588. 

„ CHARLES, Earl of WOR- 

CESTER, 556. 
Duke of, 656. 

„ crttt, 298. 
,, tup-pm-ter, 297. 
Dukes of, arm*, 260, 531. 
Garter Plate of Duke of, 594. 
JOHN, Earl of, 475. 
,, Marquis of, tirtM, 555. 

SOMERVILLS, anM, 128. 

„ Lord, aupporttr*, 279. 

SOMERY, a7-7M, 131. 
Somm^, 677, 726, 744. 
SOMMERAU-BECK, Barons Ton, anw, 

SON, VAN, anus, 306, 806. 
SONDERNDORFF, Barons von, anus, 

SONNBERG, Counts de, anM, 805. 
SONNEBERG, Count von, aruis, 306. 
SONNEMAER, anM, 806. 

1, p. 308. 
,, County, anM, 499. 

SONNEWALDE, anM, 488. 
SOPHIA, Princess, label, 422; Fig. 89, 

p. 421. 
80RIA, Duke of, anM, 449. 

GUI LLAUM E, Duke of, 450. 
SORIN, a^-vu, 265. 
SOTO, anM, 853. 
SOUBISB, Princes de, annt, 185. 
SOUEFF, anM, 280. 
SOU LIS, anM, 519. 
SOULT, ariM, PI. X., fig. 8, p. 118. 
SOUSA, arms, 57S. 

,, sisteiH, 578. 
Soutmu, 704, 744. 


arms, 559. 
„ Earls of, arms, 100. 

SOUTHESK, Earls of, ortM, 258. 
Sonthwark Church, 597. 
SouUem, C27. 

Sovereign, helm of, 601, 602. 
Sovereigns, Priry Sealt of our, 598. 

( 844 ) 



SPADA, ami*, 846, 847. 
SPAIN, amia, 667. 

„ auffiiuntationt in, 547. 

coronet of Onmdees of the first 
elaas in, 624. 
,, cretU in, 604. 
„ J)e in, 16. 
„ Uoket in, 624. 
„ Form of shield in, 55, 56. 
„ /ur$ common in Annoinf of, 74. 
„ Introduction of Hereditary arms 

into, 62. 
„ ISABELLA, Infanta of, teal, 

„ Ring AMADBUS of, artnty 488. 
„ Marks of illegitimacy in, 576. 
„ „ oflice in, 645. 

,, marthalling in, 506. 
„ PHILIP n.. King of, 478. 

„ King of, antis, 488. 
Royal €irmtj 488. 
eealM of ALFONZO of, 58. 
supporter*, 667. 
Use of bordure in, 440. 
,, ,, supporters in, 686, 639. 

SPALDING, anns, 168, 845. 
Spancelled, t587, 704. 
SPAN U SIM, Countoof, aryns, 405. 
8PAXOFF8KY DB LISSAU, anus, 120. 
SPAR, n^nns, 869, 511. 
SPARNBCK, VON, aruis, 98. 
8PARRE, 672. 

„ artrn, 186. 

Barons de CRONBNBURO, 
anus, 187. 
Spear, Pi. XX XL, flg. 2, p. 846. 
„ head, 848. 
„ ,, as a badge, 754. 
Sjiears, 847. 

SPEKE, ariAS, 254, 750; PL XXV., fig. 2, 
p. 260. 
„ Captain JOHN HANNEN, 750. 
„ crett and suppoHer of, 277. 
,, Grant of av^nuntatitm to WIL- 
LIA.U, 760. 
BPSLMAN'S, Sir HENRY, deflniUon of 

BMpiire, 7 ; AspUogia, 210. 
SPENCER, Earl, arms, 418. 

„ HENRY, anns, 418. 
SPENER, Opus Heraldicum, 8, 247, 821, 
402, 405, 411, 424, 440, 441, 447, 448, 
452, 466, 469, 472, 489, 502, 506, 507, 
538, 554, 655, 571, 576, 679, 604. 
Spkiiur, 744. 

„ The, 295, 704. 
Sputers, 281. 
SPIEGEL, aitns, 391. 

„ BARONS, anus, 127. 

ariAs, 891. 
SPITZ EN BERG, Gounto Ton, anns, 92. 
Splendour, In, 805, 704. 
8P0LET0, Dnkes of, anm, 170. 
SPOLVERINI, Marquises, anns, 132. 
Spottetf, 704. 

8PRINGH0SE, anns, 188. 
SpriufliHg, 232, 704. 
SPROTTIE, anns, 271. 
SPRCNER, anns, 886. 
Spur, Winged, as a crest, 605. 
Bpnra, Battle of the, 529. " "^ 

8QUARCIAFICHI, anns, 670; PI. LVL, 

fig. 6, p. 671. 
SQUIRE, anns, 289, 240. 




Squirrel, The, 289. 
ST. ALBAN'S, Duke of, anns, 559. 
„ Earl of, anM, 807. 

AMAND, anns, 127. 

„ TRISTAN DE, TraUi du 
Lis, 282. 
AMOUR, Counts de, anns, 129. 
ANDREW, anns, 195. 

bailge of ORDER of, 665. 
banner of, 656. 
„ collar of ORDER of, 665. 

ANDREW'S cross, 143, 664 ; PI. XV., 
flg. 8, p. 144. 
„ JOH N, Archbishop of, 568. 
ANTHONY, Order of, anns, 161. 
Anthony's Jlre, 868. 
AUBERT, GERARD DE, anns, 48. 

brisure, 452. 
BELIN, anns, 710. 
BERNARD, 287. 
BRIGB, antis, 91. 
COLUMBA, Relics of, 657.