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From the coJJecdon 

of the 

2 n 




San Francisco, California 





Vol. I No. I 

444 Madison Ave.. N. Y. C. 

July, 1945 


NBC's Recording Division Is Carrying Big Load 
For Many Government Services And Civilians 

The Engineering Department of NBC's Radio Recording Division 
teems with activity. A super-trained staff, including recording engineers, 
studio engineers and clerks work with some of the finest, most delicate 

hiijh fidelity recording equipment in the 

world today. An apprentice in the en 
Uineering room is not even allowed to 
touch a recording machine until he has 
been trained to handle it. 

Research Is Continuous 

Improved record quality is the con- 
stant aim at NBC. Research and devel- 
opment is continuous and the results are 
evident in the latest recordings. The 
tull benefit of this experimental work 
will be felt after the war when more 
improved equipment becomes available. 

Big expansion of studio, technical, and 
manufacturing facilities is planned, for 
post-war, according to Recording Super- 
visor, George E. Stewert. Right now, 
the recording division is one of the most 
fascinating places in New York City, and 
the stream of visitors who ga;e through 
the huge plate glass windows into the 
engineering room never ends. 
(Continued on page 3) 

Schirmer's Has Doubled 
Its Recording Business 

Audiodiscs Used Exclusively 

"Anything can happen — and does — in 
a recording studio," says engineer. Bob 
Hyndman, recording chief for the famed 
house of G. Schirmer, Inc., in New York. 
Known the world over as a leader in 
the Sheet music field, Schirmer has ad- 
ded to that an enviable reputation in 
recording. Many stellar lights from the 
theater, movies and radio record their 
personalities. As a result Schirmer's are 
scheduling twice as many appointments 
this year. The main reason for the big 
increase is the desire of "just plain folks"' 
to make recordings. 

"But," went on Mr. Hyndman, "we 
(Continued on page 2 J 

Audio Headquarters Now 
Your N. Y. Listening Post 

The art of making fine quality disc 
recordings is one of constant change 
and improvement, one where the cor- 
rect technique must be combined with a 
best quality recording blank if true fi- 
delity is to be achieved. With the idea 
of increasing your enjoyment or profit. 
Audio Devices is going to send you this 
digest on recording — approximately 

National Chains Interviewed 

To get the most out of your recording 
blanks, you should know what the ex- 
perts are doing. For that reason your 
Audio Record reporter is busily inter- 
viewing radio stations, networks, and 
recording companies. We will show 
pictures of various plants, pass along 
advice and "tips of the trade" that you 
will find interesting and helpful. 

Many News Sources 
Many surprising sources have stories 
that will point out new uses for record- 
ings and new and better methods of 
using them. 

For instance, the Office of War In- 
formation his a wealth of stories per- 
taining to ciilciLdiiimeiit, education, and 
morale building in our armed forces that 
we will pass along to you. There are 
schools and colleges with articles of how 
recordings are aiding education and wi'.h 
post-war, we will have lots to tell you 
about family heirloom recordings, family 
parties and home sound movies. 

All Users Considered 

We plan to print articles by engineers 
giving you information on the use and 
handling of records. Colleges and school 
educators will give you reports of uses 
they have made of recording blanks. 
The dealer angle is also important and 
will be more so, once priorities are lifted 
for civilian and private home use. Per- 
haps you've had an experience others 
will find helpful — if so, send it along 
with pictures that will help explain it. 


July, 1945 

AMPHIBIOUS OPERATION?— Seaman Gerard Grandmont of the Navy and T/5 
Maurice Hogan of the Army make a free recording at "99 Park," headquarters of the New 
Vork City Defense Recreation Committee, Inc. The booth is sponsored by Gem Razor Com- 
pany. The hostess mails the record home, morale is upped, and another future civdian 
knows how to make recordings. 

Office of War Information Now Using Recordings 
To Counteract Totalitarian Propaganda Effects 

The task of de-Nasi-ing the many 
years of German propaganda imposed on 
French people is beginning to reach its 
stride in the OWI's Voice of America 
radio broadcasts. The half-hour radio 
dramatizations in French of American 
movies and the 15 -minute news stories 
of American institutions and day-by-day 
American life arc already two outstand- 
ing successes. The latter programs are 
broadcast by short-wave, recorded in 
Paris and re-broadcast nightly at 11:00 
PM Paris time over the French national 
network (RadiodifFusion Francaise) . 
They are also broadcast directly from 
OWI's transmitters in New York and 
London and beamed at France. Both 
sources are used because the French net- 
work was left so crippled by the Ger- 
mans that it alone is unable to reach 
many parts of France. 

French Cooperation 
In exchange for the French network 
broadcasting OWTs informational pro- 
grams, the OWI is broadcasting over its 
own transmitters in New York, London 
and Europe, a 15-minute French pro- 
gram to these same inaccessible areas. 
This is the "Ce Soir en France" (This 

Evening in Paris) show which reports 
on French political and editorial trends. 
Both countries are pleased with the re- 
sults of such an arrangement. 

Portugal — Italy 

Another program of a similar nature 
began March 25th to Portugal, called 
"Answering the Portuguese People," and 
is sent weekly. This was started because 
of the interest and curiosity about the 
United States prevailing in Portugal. 
Leading educators and writers partici- 
pate, and recordings are made of the 
discussions. The subjects discussed range 
from such queries as to whether Ameri- 
can women have the same opportunities 
as men, to how much information is 
available on prefabricated houses. 

The success of this Portuguese pro- 
gram augurs well because of the "Fan- 
mail" received from Italy and Spain, two 
other countries receiving such programs, 
is mounting steadily. 

The OWI Italian show has been so 
popular that is was recently requested 
for re-broadcast over the Italian national 

Schirmer's Business Doubled 

(Continued from page 1) 
manage to get a lot of laughs too. Like 
the quiet little man who had arranged 
lor an appointment two weeks in ad- 
vance. When all was set, the platter 
spinning and the signal given, he said 
not a word but just sat gazing into the 
mike. Half-a-minute, a full minute — the 
engineers were going mad, but the little 
fellow just smiled. After a disc was cut 
he waved his hand and the same perfor- 
mance was repeated. Three records were 
cut to this vast silence. Then he asked 
for a play-back and the entire staff 
gathered in growing mystification. The 
little man nodded and moved toward the 
desk. He paid his fee and smiled hap- 
pily. Tm recording my thoughts,' he 

A Junior Genius 
"Recently, a woman came in with a 
reluctant looking seven year old boy in 
firm tow. In demanding tones she asked 
to try the piano and was seated at the 
Baldwin in Studio A where she rippled 
over the keyboard. 'No tone,' she de- 
clared coldly. She was patiently led to 
Studio B where she tried the Steinway. 
'No soul,' declared milady. "Finally," 
said Mr. Hyndman, "I took her into our 
large studio to another Steinway. Here 
let me say that Walter Damroch, Ernest 
Hutchinson, the concert pianist, and 
Harold Bauer, head of Julliard Music 
School, all think our pianos are pretty 
good. Anyway, I was relieved when our 
customer announced that the third piano 
would do. After all, an artist is an artist. 
'Come Junior,' she ordered. Junior came 
and plunked down at the Steinway 
grand. He's going to play 'Anchors 
Away,' the lady condescended to explain. 
And tinkle it out he did!" 

An Audio Booster! 
Mr. Hyndman was enthusiastic about 
the qualities of Audiodiscs. "You'll be 
glad to know," he said, "We use Audi- 
disc exclusively at Schirmer. This after 
having tried every disc on the market. 
We have sound business reasons tor 
this choice. Frankly, we have fewer com- 
plaints, cleaner grooves, and clearer 
sound with Audiodisc. And we find, 
after keeping careful check, that Audi- 
discs have a longer life." 

The 'World on Records 
"We do a lot of the colleges. Yale's 
'Wiffenpoof's. The Harvard Show. Vas- 
sar. Smith, Hunter. About thirty-five of 
the independent recording companies. 
As for languages and folk music, you 
couldn't name one we haven't caught 
for posterity, from three of the leading 
Russian groups, down through Arabian, 
Serbian and many others. 

July, 1945 


me t\£ayulut 

Handling Recording Discs 

By E. Franck, Research Engineer 

The problem of handling and storing 
recording disks is easily answered. Don't 
touch the surface and leave fingermarks, 
cither before or after recording. See 
picture at right. Recording discs must 
he handled with respect. But don't be 
like some people who seem afraid to 
touch one. Easy does it! Pick up the 
disc carefully with both hands and hold 
firmly. You can turn and twist it to any 
angle that way, and I've yet to see one 
dropped when held right. That's the 
method our own inspectors follow and 
they handle thousands daily. 

While the storage of recording discs 
is simple some recordists take fancy 
precautions which are not necessary and 
sometimes even harmful. 

Store new blanks convenient to the 
recording room. For a moderate stock, 
a single tier of strong shelves along an 
inside wall is satisfactory. For larger 
stocks, double tiers with access from 
both sides is best. Select a spot with 
even temperature. Avoid sunny win- 
dows or windows where rain could blow 
in. It is a good plan when taking a box of 
blanks from stock to the recording room 
to open the box in the storage room. 
This keeps box dust or dirt out of the 
recording room. 

Recorded discs are best stored on 
edge in individual paper envelopes. A 
filing number should appear on both 
disc and envelope. A metal cabinet is 
the best container but not essential. And 
don't crowd the shelves. There should 
be room enough to take discs out with- 
out bending or scratching. Avoid put- 
ting more than one record in an en- 
velope — the grooves of one may impress 
marks on the other, if under pressure. 

In fact, there are only three rules to 
follow. Keep away from dust, don't 
crowd, and store in a place of average 
temperature and humidity. We definitely 
do not recommend any type of coating 
or special cellophane envelopes. 

The method of storage we have sug- 
gested is based on our own experience 
for a number of years and that of some 
of our customers, who find that Audio- 
discs produced and recorded in our first 
year of manufacture still give perfect 

Close-up of NBC engineer operating re- 
cording machine. Abo illustrates correct 
method of handling record. 

NBC's Recording Division 

(Continued from page 1) 

Among the many programs originating 
from NBC is the oflicial program of the 
U. S. Army Recruiting Publicity Bureau, 
"The Voice of the Army," now being 
broadcast on more than 800 stations and 
in its sixth year. 


Under the auspices of the Special 
Services Division of the U. S. Army 
250,000 records of the latest songs and 
arrangements by top bands, orchestras 
and singers go overseas every month. 
NBC Radio-Recording Division and 
RCA Victor Division are proud of their 
contribution to this. tremendous morale- 
building program. Lt. Col. Howard C. 
Bronson and Capt. Robert Vincent are 
in charge of V-disc production for the 
Army. The U. S. Navy also uses V-discs 
on board ships and at Naval stations. 
Many Government Departments Served 

In addition to V-discs, NBC notes in- 
creasing recording activity for the U. S. 
Navy, Naval Air Stations, the Radio 
Section of the Bureau of Public Rela- 
tions, U. S. Marine Corps, Office of War 
Information, Coordinator o f Inter- 
American Affairs, U. S. Treasury Dept., 
War Loan Drives, U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, U. S. Dept. of Interior and U. S. 
Public Health Service. 

Recordings For Independents 

National independent organizations 
using NBC recorded programs include 
the American Red Cross, National Tu- 
berculosis Association, National Founda- 
tion for Infantile Paralysis, "The March 
of Dimes," and the YMCA, and the 
NBC Thesaurus service. 


To be sure you ahv:eys receive a free 
copy of Audio Record, fill out the en- 
closed card— no cost—no obligation and 
mail it to AUDIO RECORD, 444 Madi- 
scn Ave., New York 22. N. Y. 

This Is Your Publication 

You Are invited To Use 1+ 

And Shape It To Your Needs 

We want this paper to bring you 
news and information. We also want it 
to be a friendly little sheet where you 
will see articles and pictures of yourself 
— your friends — your customers — and 
men who are in the same type of busi- 
ness as yourself. 

You Are Invited To Help 

The sources and interest of any publi- 
cation depend largely upon the infor- 
mation sent in from its readers. You 
can help give it the "Personal Touch" 
we want. Have you had an interesting 
experience in recording? Have you dis- 
covered a new use for recording blanks? 
A new technique? Have you had an in- 
teresting sales experience, or do you 
know the story of a friend or customer 
who has? If so, send it in — pictures too. 
Mail your letters or photos to: 
Audio Record Editor, 444 Madison Ave 
nuc. New York 22, N. Y. 

"Who-Dun-lts" Use Recordings 

The mystery was solved by a record- 
ing machine! Two of the recent Charlie 
Chan pictures, "The Jade Mask" and 
"The Scarlet Clue," produced by Mono- 
gram, featured recordings and recording 
machines. Photo is scene from "The 
Scarlet Clue" showing Sidney Toler as 
"Charlie Chan" with Robert Homans. 


July, 1945 



letter recori 

And thejr are better! 
Radio experts can- 
not be sure wbetber 
thej' are listening 
to a 'Mive" show or 
an cuicUoclIsc trans- 
cription. For high 
fidelit)'^ minimum 
surface noise, low 
distortion and max- 
imum frequency 
range^ there is 
nothing finer than 
an Audiodisc. 

Madiaon Ave., New York 



Vol. I No. 2 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

August, 1945 

Library of Congress 
Brings Folldore l\Ausic 
To American Public 

10,000 Recordings Available 

For the first time the folk music of 
America, a true expression of American 
life from romantic cowboy to negro 
spiritual, is now available to all. For 
many years the Music Division of the 
Library of Congress has been collecting 
American folk music. Mr. John Lomax, 
Honorary Curator of the Library, 
through a grant from the Carnegie Cor- 
poration, has travelled all over the 
country with portable machinery and 
has accumulated a collection of more 
than 10,000 songs on discs. This collec- 
tion, one of the largest of its kind in 
the world, was for a time available only 
to students who were free to come to 
the library, or to people who could 
afford expensive copies. Now, with a 
complete sound laboratory for duplicat- 
ing phonographic recordings and for 
making master recordings which can be 
pressed and distributed, the National 
Library is able to bring directly to 
schools, colleges and the pubHc its 
wealth of cultural materials. 

Field Recordings Excellent 

These recordings, made in the field 
amongst such varied groups as mountain 
ballad singers, negro prisoners, cowboys, 
work gangs as they lay the railroad 
tracks, and sailors as they chant their 
ballads of the seas and canals, are as 
acoustically good as the commercial re- 
cordings of classical music and drama 
now available to the public. 

Portable Recorders Provided 

Six portable field recorders provided 
in the Carnegie grant will be loaned to 
quahfied students of folklore who wish 
to record and study the music of their 
own regions. 

Naval Veterans Learning Radio Production 
While Convalescing at St. Albans Hospital 

Out on Long Island, the staff of St. Albans Hospital for wounded 
naval personnel is doing an inspiring job of morale building. In addition 
to being provided with excellent medical care, men are, in many cases, 
■ regaining lost confidence and are being 

New York University 
Pioneers in Recording 

Audiodiscs Aid Speech Class 

Audiodiscs are used extensively in the 
speech department of New York Uni- 
versity's Washington Square College. 
Prof. Arleigh Williamson, head of the 
speech department, has been using re- 
cordings as an integral part of his pro- 
gram for over thirteen years and is en- 
thusiastic and keenly interested in its 
further development in teaching tech- 

Permits Careful Analysis 

His department was, Prof. Williamson 
believes, the first to make use of record- 
ing and also the first to use its facilities 
in ways differing from the more stereo- 
typed. For example, instead of the usual 
private session in which a student makes 
a recording to chart improvement in 
speech, the student actually talks to the 
class while recording. This gives both 
instructor and student a chance to ana- 
lyze the psychological eifect of an audi- 
ence on the speaker's breath control, 
enunciation, voice timbre, tone, etc. 

(Continued on Page 4) 

fitted for post-war jobs in fields they 
never could have entered but for the 
opportunities offered while they were 

Becoming Professionals 

One of the most successful programs 
was organized five months ago when the 
Educational Services Dept. started its 
first "Radio — Dramatic" class under the 
very able direction of Wave Lt. Mari- 
anne Heaney, USNR. Attendance to 
this class is entirely voluntary and is or- 
ganized on the basis of a workshop. 
Anyone who wishes to learn or to 
contribute is welcomed. Among its 
members are boys with or without ex- 
perience, but all are interested in the 
radio aspects of writing, announcing, di- 
recting, acting or producing. 

Jobs Being Offered 

Much of the knowledge the class is 
gaining is through its more experienced 
members. For among these "profes- 
sionals" which the class has been lucky 
in having at different times — are experi- 
enced producers, singers, and recordists. 
Tremendous advances have been made 
during the four months the "workshop" 

(Continued on Page 4) 


August, 1945 

Two American Broadcasting ace newscasters at their mikes . 
,H. R. Baukhage (left). 

George Hicks (riglit) and 

American Broadcasting Co. Finds Recordings 
Essential Aid To Foreign News Service 

The American Broadcasting Company 
relies heavily on the use of records in 
transmitting its overseas pick-ups to the 
network. An important reason for this 
is the fact that atmospheric conditions 
change sharply without warning — even 
during a fifteen minute program. An 
important news story, coming from over- 
seas, can be completely lost to American 
listeners due to a change in atmospherics 
at the time of reception. 

Saves Circuit Time 

Another vital factor is the time ele- 
ment which can by no means be ignored 
in these days when other networks, the 
Army, Navy and Allied Military govern- 
ments need the overseas circuit. By 
using recordings, transcribed here in 
New York at Musak, the American Net- 
work can pick up its overseas corres- 
pondents on the circuit at a time when 
the demand is not too heavy. Thus, 
during the early morning hours, or late 
at night, American correspondents can 
broadcast direct to the New York news- 
room with a minimum of delay and 
difficulty. The recordings of these pick- 
ups arc quickly made and can be played 
over the air while the news is still fresh. 

Full Public Acceptance 

The management of the American 
Broadcasting Company's newsroom does 
not feel that a "transcription" in any 
way lessens the effect or the importance 
to the listening public. The average 
listener does not snap the radio dial 
button or twist it to another station if 
he is told that the broadcasting coming 
up from abroad is a transcription. Fur- 

ther, American officials hold that by 
judicious use of recordings they can 
comb out the unnewsworthy reports and 
keep the broadcasts more interesting. 

Whole Nation Heard Hicks 

Even those networks who have firm 
rulings against the use of recordings 
have been known in many cases to em- 
ploy news transcriptions. For e.xample, 
the memorable D-Day broadcast from 
the Normandy beachhead by American 
correspondent, George Hicks, was used 
as a "pool" broadcast by all networks 
and though the broadcast was not "live," 
the news certainly was. 

Special Broadcasts Repeated 

Equally important in the operation of 
the American newsroom are the record- 
ings made of the "special feature" type 
of broadcast, as distinguished from 
regular news broadcasts. A classic ex- 
ample of special feature or special event 
broadcasting came during the few days 
following the death of the late President 
Roosevelt. Recordings were made of all 
tributes and special programs in honor 
of our departed leader. Some of these 
tributes were worthy of repeating, and, 
in the case of H. R. Baukhage's famed 
broadcast of Roosevelt's funeral, the 
record was repeated four times that 

The American Broadcasting Company 
has placed an increasing reliance on the 
use of recordings of its overseas news 
shows. New York and San Francisco 
newsroom edition and the correspond- 
ents in the field all feel that by careful 
use of recordings, news dissemination by 
the American Network can be kept at its 
high level. 

me t\mfidut 

Controlling the Thread 

By E. Franck, Research Engineer 

When a person first sees a recording blank 
cut, he is usually fascinated by the thread re- 
moved by the stylus. In fact, his interest is 
often entirely centered on the purple thread 
spinning from the disc. But for the recordist, 
whether amateur or professional, ths thread 
action is much more than a matter of curiosity. 
A recording machine in steady use for one 
hour will produce more than a mile of thread 
and the way this thread behaves is of real im- 

Thread Action Indicates Quality 

In a good recording blank, the thread has 
a tendency to "kick" strongly toward the cen- 
ter, thus minimizing the chance of it tangling 
against the stylus. Equally, in a good blank, 
the thread, is relatively free of static electricity 
and thus can be easily controlled. 

When cutting from the inside out, insuffi- 
cient thread throw is not so noticeable. If 
there is static charge in the thread, however, 
there is danger that a loop will jump to the 
recording head and cause a disastrous snarl. 

When the record is started from the outside, 
good thread behavior is much more important. 
If the thread throws in from the stylus evenly, 
then the cutter, as it reaches the piled up circle 
of thread, will urge it gently inward and only 
occasional attention is required to brush the 
accumulated pile toward the center of the disc. 
If the throw is uneven, the stylus may hit the 
corner of the pile closest to the grooves and 
cause a snarl. 

Thread Controls Not Foolproof 

There are a number of thread control de- 
vices which help free the recordist of thread 
removal worries. But all of these, including 
the vacuum system used in most professional 
installations, need good thread action for best 
results. For example, in the vacuum system, 
static charge in the thread can cause sticking 
either at the nozzle or inside the suction hose. 
If more air is applied to overcome this diffi- 
culty, an annoyrng noise results which prevents 
good monitoring close to the recording table. 
The flow of too much air past the stylus into 
the suction nozzle will also modulate the 
grooves and result in a high background noise 

In the early days of lacquer discs, proper 
thread action was difficult to obtain. Now, the 
art of recording lacquer formulation has greatly 
improved and the right thread behavior can 
be built into the recording blank. 

August, 1945 


Recording Hobby Wins 
Friends and Business 

New York Executive 

Points Out Many Uses 

Anyone who considers himself busy 
should meet Jack Schaflein. president of 
Stone Wright Studios. Inc. His is one 
of the biggest art concerns in the United 
States, where dozens of artists and 
photographers turn out hundreds of 
catalog pages for such firms as Spiegels. 
Montgomery Ward and Chicago Mail 

Man of Many Hobbies 

In addition to running a business, 
where working until ten o'clock at night 
is not unusual, Mr. Schaflein finds time 
to develop new designs and materials in 
ceramics. In his home and office are 
paintings of his own creation that have 
won many awards, including that of the 
Royal Academy of Canada. Another 
hobby is his piano, but while he wasn't 
asked to admit it, it is evident that the 
hobby he devotes most time to is re- 

Service Men Head List 

Stone Wright has many employees in 
the armed forces, and to them Mr. 
Schaflein is constantly sending records. 
He calls in their friends and cuts records 
that serve as group messages. When any 
of the boys are back on furlough, he 
lets them make recordings to send home. 

Office Use 

Mr. Schaflein finds that most visiting 
clients enjoy making recordings more 
than other forms of entertainment. 
When friends or clients have birthdays 
or are away on vacation, he will fre- 
quently surprise them by sending his 
greetings in the form of a record. 

Home Entertainment 

During quiet business seasons at the 
office, Mr. Schaflein's portable recorder 
and playback machine makes many trips 
to his suburban home, where he has 
amassed a library of personal recordings. 
In this library is a complete record of 
the voice development of his four little 
daughters. Records of neighbors' chil- 
dren have added to the collection, as 
have those of parties and special occa- 
sions among neighbors and friends. 
Most interesting is Mr. Schaflein's nature 
study recordings of wild birds that in- 
clude the thrush, bobolink and robin. 

Mosquitoes Lured to 
Death With Recordings 

High Fidelity Discs Disclose 
Secrets of Insect World 

Scientists have long sought an effec- 
tive means of eradicating disease-carry- 
ing mosquitoes. At last Dr. Morton C. 
Kahn, Associate professor of public 
health and preventive medicine at Cor- 
nell University College, has found a 
revolutionary method of ridding us of 
these pests. Dr. Kahn has made use of 
the age-old lure of the "mate-call" in 
enticing these insects to their death. 

He has successfully recorded mos- 
quito sounds, some of which were com- 
pletely inaudible, others only faintly 
audible to the human ear, and is able to 
transmit these sounds in order to call 
specific varieties of mosquitoes to a 
destroying mechanism. The electrical 
apparatus which was used in these ex- 
periments was I 1) a microphone, (2) an 
amplifier of considerably more than usual 
power, (3) suitable band pass filters and 
(4) a conventional high quality disc- 

Males Are Sopranos! 

The variety of these sounds seem to 
indicate they may be mating calls or 
calls warning of danger or anger. The 
tones of each species, however, are so 
individual that it is possible to distin- 
guish the difi^crent species, and the male 
and female of the same specie. The 
sounds recorded to date are in the fre- 
quency range of human hearing but far 
below the energy level required for that 
purpose. Male "voices" so far recorded 
are higher pitched than the females. 

Only One Voice Needed 

The most astonishing observation of 
this experiment is that the noise of only 
a single female will cause the males of 
the same species to burst into an answer- 
ing chorus. As far as can be determined 
these sounds are produced in three ways 
— (1) noises made when the mosquitoes 
are in flight, (2) the rubbing of the 
Tarsi against the wing and also certain 
pure bird-like sounds, the origin of 
which has not yet been determined. To 
make these experiments, colonies of the 
insects are kept in the laboratory and 
when the recordings are made, the mos- 
quitoes are placed in a soundproof test 
chamber under conditions of proper 
temperature and humidity in order to 
obtain sensitive recordings under a 
natural environment. 

Additional Possibilities 

Dr. Kahn hopes that this method may 
prove useful in the destruction of other 
insects as well as rats and rodents con- 
cerned in disease transmission. A great 
scientific step forward has been achieved 
together with new potential uses for the 
recording disc. 

A group of Mr. Schaflein's friends enjoying an "Oklafioma 
Party." Making recordings was the highlight of the party. 


August, 1945 

New York University 

(Continued from Page 1) 

In the speech correction classes, re- 
cordings are frequently made of student 
and teacher speaking together, or two or 
more students in natural conversation. 
This encourages self-confidence and al- 
lows for a study in comparison. 

Aids Radio Training 

In the radio course at Washington 
Square College, which leads to the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts, recordings are 
also of great value to both student and 
instructor. Professor H. M. Partridge 
makes full use of recording methods in 
his course in technical problems in 
broadcasting. Voice recordings for self- 
criticism are used in the production 

Shortens Apprenticeships 

Students at New York University 
have the advantage of the greatest city 
in the world as their "campus." At 
Radio City Music Hall, the "Met," and 
in the legitimate theaters they find un- 
ending productions to spur them on to 
further studies in the fields they hope to 
enter. Happily the faculty who channel 
the ability of these young people arc 
awake to the vast potentialities of re- 
cordings as a means of acquiring confi- 
dence, poise and balanced personalities, 
qualities which pay big dividends in the 
highly competitive world of today. 

This Is Your Publication 

You Are Invited To Use It 
And Shape It To Your Needs 

We want this paper to bring you 
news and information. We also want it 
to be a friendly little sheet where you 
will see articles and pictures of yourself 
— your friends — your customers — and 
men who are in the same type of busi- 
ness as yourself. 

You Are Invited To Help 

The sources and interest of any publi- 
cation depend largely upon the infor- 
mation sent in from its readers. You 
can help give it the "Personal Touch" 
we want. Have you had an interesting 


To be sure you alwa)ys receive a free 
copy of Audio Record, fill out the en- 
closed card — no cost — no obligation and 
inail it to AUDIO RECORD. 44i Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 

Navy Veterans 

(Continued from Page 1) 

has been operating. Already some of 
these boys show real ability, and one of 
them has been promised an announcer's 
job with a major network. 

Helping Red Cross 

Recordings are playing a leading role 
in giving the boys "mike" experience 
and in helping with speech correction. 
The first big project of this group was a 
Red Cross show completely put on by 
the patients, recorded at the hospital and 
broadcast over WQXR in New York 

Active on War Loans 

Much of the fine writing of these boys 
has come out of relating their actual war 
experiences. They were active in work' 
ing on a contest for the best script for 
the last war loan appeal. And they have 
the huge satisfaction of knowing that 
even though wounded they can still con- 
tribute to the war effort. It augurs well 
for the fields of recording and radio that 
after the war there will be so many in- 
terested and capable young men avail- 
able for them. 

expenence in recording? Have you dis- 
covered a new use for recording blanks? 
A new technique? Have you had an in- 
teresting sales experience, or do you 
know the story of a friend or customer 
who has? If so, send it in — pictures too. 
Mail your letters or photos to: 
Audio Record Editor, 444 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York 22, N. Y. 

There are no finer recordings than those transcribed on 


^^e^^A^a/^^ /iemdeA^ed CLUCLUJCLUCS 




Vol. I No. 4 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

November, 1945 

The show is recorded as it "goes on the air" at Hunter College. Student assistants are responsible 
for timing and giving "cues" to cast. (Dr. Callahan, instructress, at recorder.) 

Hunter College Students Prepare for Radio Careers 

Popular Courses Given 

In Modern Radio Technique 

Radio Broadcasting is receiving major 
attention these days at Hunter College of 
the City of New York. This famous 
woman's college, located in the swank- 
iest section of New York's swank Park 
Avenue, is looking ahead, and according 
to the head of the Speech and Dramat- 
ics Department, Professor Marguerite E. 
Jones, students are eagerly exploring 
every department of radio, from en- 
ineering to acting. 

Audiodiscs play an important role in 
this educational program; original scripts 
are recorded; classes in radio dramatics 
record their plays; and the records arc 
then played back for class criticism. 
Students in the technical courses handle 
the production of all transcriptions and 
thus a dual purpose is served. 

A complete broadcasting studio is lo- 
cated in the college building, and the 
control room is a model of efficiency with 
(Continued on Page 4) 

It Was Cool in Chicago! 

The mellow, soothing baritone 
voice of Harry Cool had been heard 
over several network shows, and had 
been recorded on audition transcrip- 
tions for submission to several pros- 
pective sponsors. Finally a well known 
manufacturer of a certain famous 
brand of cigarettes was interested. 
Seated around a certain advertising 
agency's loud speaker while the discs 
were being played, representatives of 
the agency, the network and execu- 
tives of the cigarette company were 
enjoying themselves — until the presi' 
dent of the sponsoring firm asked the 
name of the singer. 

"Cool. Harry Cool," said the 
agency man, smugly. 

"What!" The president yelled, 
"have a fellow named Cool on our 
show? Why we'd sell more cigarettes 
for Kool than we would for our- 

The lad must be good! 

NBC Doubles Staff 
of Recording Division 

Plans Promotional Program on 

Lateral Recording Superiority 

Throughout the war the Radio-Record- 
ing Division of the National Broadcasting 
Company worked unceasingly with the 
War, Navy and Treasury Departments, 
the Red Cross, the OWI, OIAA and 
other Government agencies in the pro- 
duction of thousands of records for re- 
broadcast both on the home front and all 
over the world. It was expected that 
when the war was over, the staff replace- 
ments for those called into military serv- 
ice would surrender their jobs when the 
boys came back — however, activity on 
the seventh floor of NBC in New York 
has been stepped up to such an extent 
that in addition to more than doubUng 
its wartime engineering facilities, the re- 
cording division next month will have 
increased its sajes staff by more than 

While operations are being increased 
in all branch offices the greatest activity 
is taking place in New York where all 
productions emanate. The most im- 
portant technical improvement the divi- 
sion will have achieved will be having its 
own processing department, hitherto 
taken care of by RCA's Camden, N. J., 
production department. 

The syndicated programs now total 2 1 
and the NBC Thesaurus recording li- 
brary numbers 5,000 selections; the 
department is presently programming 
several new syndicated shows. 

Many Radio Recording Division en- 
gineers are currently calling on station 
engineers throughout the country, prov- 
ing by actual tests the superiority of 
lateral recording over the vertical; they 
are demonstrating that the lateral system 
is less prone to produce distortion, claim- 
ing a range up to 15,000 cycles. The 
Columbia Broadcasting System, Standard 
Radio and other producers of transcrip- 
tions are joining NBC in this extensive 
educational program, and it is felt that 
the change to lateral recording will 
greatly improve the quality of transmis- 
sion, particularly over Frequency Modu- 
lation transmitters. 


November, 1945 

Sumner Welles to 
Record New Program 

Much interest is currently being dis- 
played across the country in the forth- 
coming series of transcribed weekly talks 
by the former Undersecretary of State 
Sumner Welles. Welles has long been 
known as a stormy petrel, and his dis- 
missal from his post by then Secretary 
Cordell Hull, is attributed to his pen- 
chant for speaking his mind. By record- 
ing his weekly talk, Welles hopes to 
avoid the censorship which he believes 
his talks may be subject to if delivered 
in person. 

According to the William Morris 
agency, which made the deal, Welles will 
transcribe his comments on current af- 
fairs from wherever he may be each 
week, and the recordings will immedi- 
ately be airmailed to subscribing stations. 

Welles has had several previous offers 
to be heard on the air but has refused 
them heretofore as he felt that his com- 
ments might necessarily be such as to 
inspire censorship, and for this reason he 
would not be able to express himself. 
It was felt that transcriptions offered the 
best way of avoiding that possibility. 

ttie r^coldlU 

Measuring Wear in 

Recording Blanks 
By E. Franck, Research Engineer 

Wear in recording blanks, like inebria- 
tion, is largely a matter of definition and 
both subjects are controversial. 

Wear means different things to dif- 
ferent people. A professional recordist 
will consider a recording worn beyond 
use as soon as he can notice an increase 
in noise level, a loss of high frequency 
response, or any form of distortion audi- 
ble to his trained car. A non-critical 
home recordist, with his less exacting 
equipment, would not be conscious of 
wear that would make a recording worth- 
less professionally. 

Test Equipment Available 

High frequency loss with repeated 
playing is perhaps the easiest way to at- 
tack the wear problem. A high frequency 
of substantial level is cut, preferably at 
the smallest groove diameter to be used. 
This groove is played back repeatedly 
and the level watched on a meter, the 
number of playings required for a given 
decrease being an index of wear. This 
method is good for comparative measure- 
ments but cannot be used over a long 
period unless the cutting and the play- 
back stylii are standardized. One advan- 
tage of this method is that the equipment 
required is usually available anywhere 
that blanks are cut. 

Measure Noise Level 

Increase of noise level on repeated 
playings is another method of measure- 
ment. This requires a set-up capable of 
measuring noise level as described in our 
■ column last month. Unmodulated grooves 
are cut, the noise level is measured, and 
the grooves played repeatedly until the 
noise level increases an arbitrary amount. 
6 db is a convenient increase. The num- 
ber of playings required is reduced by 
weighting the pickup and we find that 
with 2V4-02. weight at the playback point 
from 100 to 200 playings are required 
to "wear" a good lacquer. When many 
measurements must be made, it is a time 

saver to position the pickup so there is 
no side pull, at the testing diameter so 
that when the end of a groove is reached, 
the pickup will slip back into the adjacent 
groove and repeat over and over in the 
last groove. A slight tilt to the turntable 
may be needed. Of course, when the 
pickup climbs over the wall there will be 
a terrific noise produced and the output 
meter needs to be protected at this in- 
stant. A telegraph key short circuiting 
the meter is a convenient way of doing 
this and with a little practice the noise 
can be measured over almost a complete 
revolution day after day with only an 
occasional accident to the meter. 

Another Method 

One logical objection to the above 
method is the use of unmodulated 
grooves, although any rise in noise level 
is first detected where there is no modu- 
lation. A different method of measuring 
wear employs modulated grooves. A full 
level tone of from 70 to 90 cycles is cut, 
and played back through a high pass 
filter. The filter, if it is a very good one, 
will take out the fundamental and all the 
various harmonies, leaving the noise 
which can be measured. Wear is again 
taken as the number of playings which 
produces a 6 db increase. Tests made 
this way usually give readings from 60' 
to 80% of the unmodulated readings. 

Temperature is a big factor in wear 
measurements, wear going down or up 
with temperature, except in the high fre- 
quency loss method where the loss may 
be faster at higher temperature. 

Most lacquers have a good progressive 
wear characteristic but some will be 
found where the grooves become sud- 
denly useless, as though they were break- 
ing down completely instead of wearing 

Our general experience has been that 
whatever method is used, the results are 
about the same. Five different lacquers 
measured by any of the three methods 
would keep their same relative positions. 


ATC Vet Returns 

To Audio Devices 

The manufacturers of AUDIODISCS, 
Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York, proudly announce the 
return of Captain C. C. Pell, Jr., to their 
organization as national sales manager. 

Captain Pell, during four years of ser- 
vice as an Army Transport Command 
pilot, completed fifty-five Atlantic and 
four Pacific crossings. Other flights car- 
ried him to South America, Africa, India, 
and the Middle East. 

An outstanding athlete. Pell gained 
national fame by teaming with Bobby 
Grant to win the U. S. Amateur Rac- 
quets Doubles Championship in 1936. 
The pair retained the title through 1941. 
No tournaments have been held during 
the war years. 

Mr. Pell's duties with Audio Devices 
.^fill also include flying. Using his own 
Diane, he will contact representatives and 
distributors in over 200 cities throughout 
;he United States and Canada. Cus- 
;omers, such as radio stations, motion 
picture studios, professional recording 
studios, phonograph record manufac- 
;urers, schools and colleges, also, will be 
ncluded in these cross-country jaunts. 

Zero Audition 

Gets Warm Greeting 

Audiodisc Lacquer Saves Day 

It gets hot down there in New Orleans 
— it gets cold up there in Chicago; but 
neither heat nor cold can destroy the 
efficiency of Audiodiscs according to a 
story told by J. D, Bloom, who is chief 
engineer of New Orleans' popular 

Last winter the station's commercial 
manager, Larry Baird, developed a local 
program which he believed would be 
successful for a certain product he had 
in mind. Since the product was repre- 
sented by a Chicago advertising agency, 
an audition recording of the show was 
made on a glass-base Auriodisc. Un- 
willing to trust the transcription to the 
mails or to the express company, Mr. 
Raird tucked his record under his arm 
,ind off he went to Chicago to deliver 
It personally. 


It happened however that Chicago 
was enjoying one of the bitterest cold 
waves of the winter, so on his way to 
keep his audition appointment, Mr. Baird 
rode in a heated cab; but when he 
reached his destination, stepped out into 
the zero temperature and paid his fare, 
he was horrified to hear an ominous 
cracking sound in the box he had nursed 
so carefully under his arm, a sound that 
could mean only one thing. 

The Show Goes On 

Nevertheless the appointment must be 
kept and entering the agency he rue- 
fully informed them that his trip was in 
vain; the sudden change in temperature 
between the heated cab and the side- 
walk had caused the record to crack. 
After some discussion of the program, 
they decided to attempt to play the 
record anyway, and to everyone's sur- 
prise the reproduction was unharmed! 
The lacquer coating on the record had 
remained undamaged even though the 
glass-base had broken, 

Mr. Bloom reports that WWL has 
been using Audiodiscs exclusively for 
about four years. 

P. S. Mr. Baird sold his program! 

Editor's Note: Yes, glass-base discs 
can crack and sometimes the story does 
not have the good ending Mr. Baird 
experienced. Yet, glass has proven a 
marvelous substitute for aluminum dur- 
ing the war. Now, many recording en- 
gineers tell us they prefer the glass-base 
to aluminum. We should be glad tc 
hear from others on this subject. What 
type of base do you want, and why? 

Name Stars Record 
Educational Dramas 

Stations and Schools 

Welcome Program 

The tenth series of broadcasts to be 
offered by the Institute for Democratic 
Education is now being made available 
to independent broadcasting stations 
throughout the United States, Alaska, 
Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The institute, 
which is a non-profit organization dedi- 
cated to the promotion of racial and re- 
hgious unity, loans the transcribed series 
free to stations for broadcasting on a 
public service basis. 

Thirteen programs have been recorded 
in this series, entitled "Lest We Forget 
These Great Americans," and based 
upon the success of the nine series which 
preceded it, this should be accorded an 
overwhelming reception. Featured on 
the series are Melvyn Douglas, Wendy 
Barrie, Myron McCormick, Sam Jaffe, 
and others. Personages whose lives are 
dramatized for the series include Frank- 
lin D. Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, 
Wendell WiUkie, Alfred E. Smith, Jane 
Addams, and the late Justices Brandies 
and Holmes. 

Under the direction of Dr. Howard 
M. Lesourd, Dean of the Boston Uni- 
versity Graduate School, the Institute for 
Democratic Education has done much 
toward developing a higher appreciation 
of the democratic heritage and a whole- 
hearted support of free institutions. 
Working steadily and tirelessly for the 
past seven years, and realizing that radio 
is primarily an entertainment medium, it 
has presented its series of educational 
transcriptions in dramatized forms, fea- 
turing many of the most prominent stars 
of radio, stage, and screen. Each series 
of thirteen programs has been entitled 
"LEST WE FORGET," and more than 
four hundred stations throughout the 
country and its possessions have already 
broadcast the shows. 

Schools throughout the nation have 
been quick to see the advantages of these 
programs, and at the present time over 
1500 schools and school systems are us- 
ing them in history and current events 
classes. They find that the dramatizi' 
tions give added reality and meaning to 
historical episodes and periods, arousing 
interest and stimulating discussion among 
pupils. An eight page booklet "Portfolio 
of Freedom" is distributed without cost 
to schools for classroom distribution. 
Records and booklets are supplied with- 
out .cost, to schools owning public ad- 
dress systems or playback machines. 

Financial support for the institute is 
obtained through private contributions 
from liberal educational and civic or- 


Novembar, 1945 

(Continued from Page 1) 

RCA equipment throughout. Classes in 
radio dramatics are held under the in' 
structorship of Mrs. Harvey, Mrs. Cal- 
lahan, and Mrs. Landeck, all of whom 
have had practical experience in radio 
in addition to a thorough grounding in 
educational theory. 

Kids Get Big Chance 

One of the most ambitious courses 
which will be included in the Spring 
curriculum is Radio for Children, a 
course designed for students interested 
in children's radio programs; it includes 
the adaptation of scripts for children; 
the casting, directing and producing of 
programs with child actors. Students in 
this course will also be given instruction 
in control room technique and the syn- 

During preliminary 
practice, this young 
actor, taking his pan 
very seriously, studies 
the new personality. 

chronizing of sound effects. Children 
from Hunter College Elementary School 
will comprise the repertory group of 
child actors. 

Grads Make Good 

Graduates of the existing courses have 
been singularly successful since leaving 
school. Advertising agencies, radio sta- 
tions, recording studios and other schools 
and colleges have been quick to recognize 
their talents. 

Professor Jones is especially pleased 
with the use of transcriptions in many 
other ways in the College — in speech 
correction classes; in public speaking and 
oral interpretation courses; in voice and 
phonetics exercises; in the music depart- 

Speech Handicaps Aided 

Stammerers, and others with speech 
impediments are given corrective exer- 
cises with the use of both the "voice 
mirror" and recordings and a more rapid 
advancement has been noted when stu- 
dents are able to follow their own prog- 
ress. The same is true of the other 
courses in the Speech department. In the 
music department of the College, under 
the direction of Dr. Walter Heifer, ex- 
tensive use is made of the recording 
machines. The radio studio is also used 
by the Music Department for a course 
in broadcasting for singers. 

Professor Jones predicts that an even 
broader use will be made of transcribing 
facilities at Hunter College in the very 
near future not only by the Speech 
and the Music Department, but by the 
many other departments that have 
already discovered its value. 

Reporters Wanted 

You Can Qualify For 

This Exciting Position 

The current issue of AUDIO REC- 
ORD is Volume I, Number 4 — we hope 
it has brought you a measure of enter- 
tainment, that some of the information 
we have been able to bring you has been 
interesting and useful to you. We want 
this paper to be of even greater use, and 
this can be made possible through your 
own cooperation. 

An exchange of information can be 
of mutual assistance in these times of 
rapidly changing techniques in all lines 
of endeavour, and this is particularly true 

of the recording field. AUDIO REC- 
ORD can be a medium of such exchange 
and we will be only too happy to keep 
our columns open to our readers. The 
daily life of a recording engineer is filled 
with many incidents, some of them amus- 
ing — such incidents often make interest- 
ing reading. Perhaps you have a success 
story to tell which may be an inspiration 
to others. 

In other words, AUDIO RECORD 
needs reporters; it can continue to be in- 
teresting only if you wish it to be. Send 
your letters to: THE EDITOR. AUDIO 
NEW YORK 22, N. Y. If you have in- 
teresting photographs, send them along, 
too! We'll print "em! 

So<ut More Audiodiscs For Schools 

Yellow Label and Blue Label Audiodiscs, 6I/2", 8", 10" and 12" diameters, 
are made of exactly the same materials used in the manufacture of pro- 
fessional Audiodiscs for radio broadcasting. 

Soon, with our increased production facilities, more of these superior 
blanks will be available. 

If there is any question as to what recording blank will give you the best 
results, why not consult the recording engineer in your local radio station? 
He knows Audiodiscs. 


/Aen^^frA ^p^ /nent^e^^ed CLLLCLlOCLlSCX 




ol. I No. 5 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

December, 1945 


Da+e With A Disc 

ifOR Recording Studios— Second to None 

New York's Mutual Outlet Handling Tremendous Recording Load 

Taking their place as one of the major 
rganizations in the business, the WOR 
ecording Studios are now doing a large 
jreent of all commercial recording in 
le New York area. Located on the 
3th floor of 1440 Broadway, the WOR 
ecording Studios facilities are used by 
QSiness concerns from as far west as 
hicago. Over 50 percent of the studios' 
ork is handling commercial transcrip- 
ons for most all of the major advertis- 
ig agencies in New York City. 

Program Popularity Checked 

The WOR Recording Studios also 
aintain a reference recording room 
)r the. purpose of making air checks for 
Ivertising agencies. One third of the 
ork of the reference recording room 
insists of making discs for rebroad- 
ist — for WOR as well as for other 
ations in New York City. 

"The Sealed Book," syndicated radio 
rogram series produced by WOR's 
ommercial Program Sales division, is 
xorded at the 1440 Broadway studios 
)r transcription use all over the United 

St.ites as well as in Canada and Hawaii, 
Package shows, information and in- 
dustrial series, propaganda messages and 
programs for governments in exile dur- 
ing the war, commercial transcriptions, 
special sound effects records — all have 
been recorded in the WOR studios. 

Best Equipment Available 

The WOR Recording Studios, which 
were opened in June. 1942, represent 
the latest word in recording facilities. 
The studios are modern in design and 
offer the latest in acoustical properties, 
lighting installations and recording 
equipment. The entire division is air- 
conditioned providing favorable working 
conditions regardless of outside tem- 
perature, and assuring uniformity of 
recording equipment operation. 

The studios were designed under the 
supervision of sound control experts. 
The walls are built with obtuse angles 
which control reverberation and help 
eliminate sound reflections without the 
loss of desirable brilliance so necessary 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Packs 'Em I 


"Date With A Disc, the new and 
different audience ' participation show, 
now appearing at the Loew's State The- 
.itre in Nev.^ York, will uncover the 
Crosby, Sinatra, Shore and McDonald 
of tomorrow," says genial, music master 
Enoch Light, creator of the disc show 
that promises to keep Broadway "record- 
ing conscious" for many months to 
come. "Not only does Date With A 
Disc tickle your funny bone but it offers 
a real opportunity for the young fellow 
or girl with talent," Enoch relates. 

Hit From The Start 

Date With A Disc was first intro- 
duced to the public in the Bowman 
Room of New York's fashionable Bilt- 
more in December 1944. It was received 
with such great enthusiasm that maestro 
Light decided to take it along with the 
band to test its appeal in Philadelphia, 
Providence and other eastern cities. It 
vv'as the same, everywhere. Date With 
.1 Disc was a hit! And today, one year 
later. Date With A Disc is "in solid" 
with the Light musical aggregation. As 
the boys in the band put it: "Let there 
be Light and there is Date With A 

Mutual May Air Show 

Soon it is hoped that Date With A 
Disc will be aired for the first time over 
WOR, New York's Mutual outlet. If 
it is, radio listeners are in for a real 
listening treat and will no doubt make 
Date With A Disc a "must" on their 
radio schedule. 

As explained by Mr. Light, Date With 
A Disc is not a quiz show, but, it pre- 
sents the same all-out appeal as the 
toughest sixty-four dollar question. The 
old familiar "no coaching from the 
audience, please," "isn't heard. Prin- 
cipally, because it isn't needed. In this 
game you're strictly on your own! 

Contestants Drawn From Audience 

The contestants for Date With A 
Disc are chosen from applications pre- 
viously filled-out by the individual upon 
entering the theatre. The application 
(Continued on Page 3 J 


December, 1945] 


WOR Recording Studio 

(Continued from Page 1) 

to the production of high fidchty record- 

The control rooms have specially de- 
signed Holophane lighting installations 
providing the ultimate in visual aid; the 
vision panels are set at angles which re- 
duce glare, and each control room i" 
equipped with a three-way talk-back 

The recording machines themselves 
are the finest available — Scully Record- 
ing Lathes. Two of these are located in 
each of the two recording rooms; im- 
mediately adjacent to the control rooms 
of the studios. They are so arranged 
that a vision panel enables the recording 
engineer to look directly into the studio. 

Eighteen Channels 

The studios have eighteen channels 
available at all times; twelve of these 
are located in the reference recording 
room. These channels are chiefly used 
for recording programs "off the line" or 
"off the air." All eighteen channels arc 
quickly interchangeable. 

Re-Recording Equipment Set Apart 

The re-recording equipment is in- 
stalled in a specially designed and 
acoustically treated room which is iso- 
lated from the rest of the studios. The 
equipment consists of four dual speed, 
constant velocity, turntables and repro- 
duction is achieved through the use of 
four high fidelity lateral-vertical repro- 

For master re-recording a special 
(Continued on Page 4) 

What!! 1:30 A. M. 

The Scene: The offices of the recording 
studios of PHOTO &' SOUND, 
INC., San Francisco, Calif. John 
Wolfe, manager of the recording 
division, is at his desk. 
The Time: Around 6:30 in the evening 
a day or so after Pearl Harbor. 
The telephone rings, and a voice says, 
"This is the COL We'd like to make a 
recording at 1 :30 A. M. Can you handle 
it?" Wolfe, at first a little annoyed at 
what appears to be a practical joke, ex- 
plodes, "What!! 1:30 A. M.! Who"s 
trying to kid who? Whoever heard of 
making a recording at 1:30 in the morn- 
ing! Our technicians have all gone 
home!" The reply comes quickly, "I 
assure you, nobody's kidding anybody. 
I am speaking for the Coordinator of 
Information, and it is absolutely es- 
sential that we make a highly confi- 
dential recording tonight. Can you do 

And so, in the dead of night, with the 
representative of a government agency 
so new few people had heard of it, with 
a school teacher, and two Japanese stu- 
dents from the University of California 
as talent, and with the manager of the 
recording division at the cutting lathe, 
PHOTO 6? SOUND, INC., made the 
first transcription to be used in our 
short-wave propaganda battle with the 
Japanese Empire. This was the first of 
a long line of transcriptions prepared 
for use by the COI, later to become the 
Office of War Information. During the 
ensuing year, the OWI utilized Photo 
& Sound's recording studios to the hilt. 
Twenty to 24-hour days were nothing 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Hearing Is Believing 

Discs Aid Voice Coach 

"To point out the shortcomings of a 
singer is one thing, but to convince him 
of those shortcomings is another," says 
Kenneth Hieber, New York voice coach 
and accompanist. "To tell a student that 
his diction is weak or that there are 
"wobbles" in his voice isn't easy, be- 
cause the average student must have his 
voice recorded and played back to him 
before he fully realizes the importance 
and seriousness of his mistakes. One 
play-back does the work of many hap- 
.less hours of lecture," Mr. Hiebcr re- 

Juilliard Graduate 

At present, Mr. Hieber, who attendei 
the Longy School of Music and has bee: 
graduated from the Juilliard Institute ot 
Musical Art, occupies a modest little 
studio in Greenwich Village where he 
tutors fourteen anxious and hopeful 

Busy Week 

Aside from hi? 
studio work, Mr 
Hieber spends 
two days of every 
week with his 
students at the 
world renown 
Juilliard School, 
serving as piano 
accompanist to 
faculty member 
Evan Evans, well- 
known Gotham 
voice teacher; and 
one evening. Monday, with one of his 
proteges in the forty-third street record' 
ing studios of G. Schrimer. 

Errors Isolated In Play-Back 

During these Monday evening ap' 
pointments, for which the student has 
prepared several selections that will, 
most cases, be presented in a forthcomj 
ing examination or public appearance 
four to six sides are cut and played bact 
The student is counseled after each pla) 
back and the merits of the recording 
are discussed in length before the next 
disc is cut. In this way. the student 
may concentrate on weaknesses in die 
tion. individual vocal problems (wob' 
hies, lack of line, lack of sufficient color), 
or lack of rhythmic flexibility. Also, Mr. 
Hieber uses the pupil's recorded per- 
formance as a measuring guide for their 
progress over a period of time. 

After the discs have served their pur- 
pose to the individual, they are usu.illy 
given to proud parents or admiring^ 
friends as souvenirs. And, confides Mr. 
Hieber, "they're AUDIODISCS." 

Mr. Hiebcr prepares 
Mary Agnes Davis for 
her March 2i Town 
Hall concert. 

December, 1945 


Date With A Disc 

(Continued from Page 1) 

form merely asks for the contestant's 
name .ind whether he or she will sing, 
yodel or give an oratory piece if called 
to the stage by program M. C, Enoch 
Light. Three applications are drawn 
from a ballot box and the lucky se- 
lectees are brought to the stage. They 
are first introduced to the audience and 
briefly interviewed by Light, then, pro- 
gram engineer Fitz Herbert signals that 
his equipment is ready to record the ap- 
plicant's efforts. If the contestant is a 
singer (most of them are), the orchestra 
begins the introduction and the vocalist 
is on his own. After all three contest- 
ants have finished their performance, 
engineer Herbert sets up his equipment 
for the play-back, and the lun starts. 
One by one each hopeful listens intently 
as the disc starts on its merry way. 
With each revtilutiim it is clear to see 
that the anxious 
fellow is think- 
ing: "that ain"'- 
me." Ater the 
p 1 a y - b a c k is 
completed, the 
audience, by ap- 
plause (recorded 
In There Pitching — on the applause 

Elderly contestant gives meter), selects 
forth with his Sunday 

Best." the winner. 

Everyone Wins 

Unlike quiz; shows, all contestants win 
prizes. For example; the second and 
third place performers receive either a 
bottle of perfume or a handsome leather 
billfold. The winner: a fifth of Man- 
hattan's best champagne. In addition, 
the recorded discs are given to the "'also- 
rans" as souvenirs of their Date WitJi 
A Disc. The winning contestant's disc 
is retained by a board of four judges 
along with those of other show winners. 

As Date With A Disc is now being 
presented five times daily, to capacity 
audiences, each day brings five new 
winners to the fore. At the end of a 
week's engagement, thirty-five indi- 
vidual show winners have entered the 
"choice company" class and their discs 
are again replayed by the hoard of 
judges, headed by the well known radio 
personality, Martin Block, to determine 
'"the best of the lot." This selection 
results in the winner receiving an ele- 
gant gold wrist watch. But, that isn't all! 
His or her disc will be retained for a 
period of three months, at the end of 
which the board selects the best disc 
recording made during that time. The 
(Continued on Page 4) 

In Braille and Talking Book Library of New York Institute For The Education Of The Blind, 
Robert Lovejoy. 12-year old student, is shown operating the Talking Book machine and listen- 
ing through the privacy of his own ear-phones to a recorded copy of the Readers" Digest, while 
Jenny Lamanna, right, rea.ds from her Braille copy, and Marie Gasperino, left, is being read to 
by the librarian. Miss Marjorie Schweitzer, from the regular ink-print copy. 

Talking-Book Long S+ep Toward 

Brighter Future For Blind 

"The 'talking book' (educational text 
recorded on 16" discs) and recordings 
in general bring a new approach and 
new methods of teaching through 
sound," says Dr. Merle E. Frampton, 
Principal of the 114 year old New York 
Institute For The Education of the 
Blind, The Bronx, New York. 

"With the advent of the Talking 
Book has come a broadening of the 
educational and entertainment oppor- 
tunities for the blind. Although, still in 
its infancy with many possibilities for 
its perfection and use yet to be explored 
and developed, the Talking Book has 
already become a potent force in the 
schools and homes of the blind across 
the country. Second only to radio as a 
medium of enlightenment and recrea- 
tion, the Talking Book marks a golden 
mile-stone on the road to greater free- 
dom from dependence upon others; for, 
with a flick of a switch, its magical turn- 
table will spin a story drawn from the 
literary masterpieces of history or from 
the current best seller now on the 
shelves of the corner book-store. Add- 
ing to the enjoyment of the Talking 
Book is its voice, a professional story- 
teller, often the author himself — an ex- 
perience denied the ordinary reader. 

"Recordings which have captured the 
sounds of wild life in their natural 
habitats contribute a realism to courses 
in nature study and other kindred sub- 
jects heightening their interest and 
efi^ectiveness. Through the recording, the 
listener can be a witness to great mo- 
ments of history and science and can 
learn first-hand of the audible attributes 

of the natural wonders of the world. 
The wide range of possibilities for the 
educational and classroom use of record- 
ings is challenging to the imagination 
and a stimulating subject for study and 

"The ever-lengthening Talking Book 
shelves in libraries for the blind guar- 
antee new sources of knowledge and 
entertainment to light and lighten the 
lives of the blind everywhere." 

With the help of congressional ap- 
propriations, the Talking Book is re- 
corded for the New York institute by 
the American Foundation For the Blind 
in New York City. 

As Old As Methusela Maybe? 

Recording of sound is not as recent 
a phenomenon as most people believe. 
Just how old recording actually is, prob- 
ably, will never be determined. How- 
ever, Plato, 500 years B. C, in his 
"Republic" mentioned having heard re- 
corded sound. Also, the memoirs of 
Luigi La Blache (1794-1858), greatest 
basso of all time, hinted that he had 
heard his own voice through recordings 
made many years before. 

Rock-A-Bye Baby 

Working late in Columbia's forth- 
coming "Gilda," Rita Hayworth, glam- 
orous screen star, hasn't had time to 
sing to her baby, so she's recorded 
lullabies for her nurse to play at the 
child's bed-time. 


December, 1945 

Engineer Jack Hawkins monitors a program 
in the main studio of Photo & Sound, pioneer 
San Francisco recording studio. 

What!! 1:30 A. M.!! 

(Continued from Page 2) 

out of the ordinary, and for a time. 
120 sides a day were being turned out. 
Nearly all of this was prepared for 
short-wave transmission to the Orient— 
in dozens of languages and for hundreds 
of different purposes. 

When the Office of War Information 
found it feasible to go into recording 
for itself, its program at Photo fe? Sound 
was curtailed, but other recording, asso- 
ciated with the war effort, continued to 
consume much of the available studio 
time — transcriptions for the Army, for 
the Navy, and for the training films be- 
ing produced by the Film Production 
Division of the company. As the war 
effort has tapered off, more and more 
time has been available for peacetime 
effort — agency transcriptions for broad- 
cast purposes, personal recordings, and 
commercial recordings for public release. 
Now that the war is over, Mr. Wolfe 
looks forward to a greatly expanded 
program along these lines. 

The recording division takes a justifi- 
able pride in its record of past accom 
plishments, and looks forward to a 
bright future. With a staff of topnotch 
technicians, and the latest in modern re- 
cording equipment plus the unfailing 
quality of AUDIODISCS, which are 
used exclusively, it is in position to 
handle everything from, "Hello, mama, 
this is Joey. I'll be home for Christ- 
mas" to symphony recordings or the 
many-sided problems of sound effects, 
narration and dialogue arising in motion 
picture productions. 

WOR Recording Studio 

(Continued from Page 2) 

studio has been built containing two 
Scully recording lathes. The studio in- 
cludes an audio control console with 
vertical and lateral reproducing chan- 
nels with associated equalizing systems. 
One of the most important factors in 
present day recording practice is the 
blank disc itself. In WOR'S studios 
these discs are kept in specially con- 
structed cabinets until required for use. 
The temperature is kept constant, thus 
insuring a uniform cutting medium at 
all times. Henry B. Lockwood manages 
the WOR Recording Studios. 

Date With A Disc 

(Continued from Page 3) 

winner is awarded a contract with Guild 
Records. Results of the pressing may 
mean the start of a brilliant career for 
the lucky boy or girl. Only recently, 
Miss Dorothy Malone of Collingswood, 
New Jersey, was adjudged the best per- 
former heard during the previous three 
month period and was given a contract 
as featured vocalist with Mr. Light's 

AUDIODISCS are used exclusively 
in the presentation of Date With A 
Disc, and Mr. Light advises, "they never 
let us down." 

AUDIODISCS have all of the feolurei essential to high fidelity recording. 
A superior lacquer is applied by a unique process that gives a flawless 
surface. In cutting, the thread throws well and there is no static. In play- 
bock, whether ot once or in the future, there is low surface noise. Their 
playback life is unequolled. There are six types of AUDIODISCS: 

iED lABEL topt alt accepted quality itottdortj 
lor prof.iiiattal aie Doubl.-iided it, 6">", 8' 
10". H" and 16" dlatt..t.r. 

cute, filing and reference recaril 
tided in 10". 1}" and It" diame 

ing> Double. 

BENT SHANK NO 154. for heev. 

lITpplc""."'!, ""?.'.'"„'„'. "d". *ir"°." 

MASTERS far choice copie. (pr 
electroplating Double or tingle 
13'," and 17'." diametert. 

eiiingt] offer 
foce in 1}". 

131. lor l.ghr p.ckup. 

Audio's reshorpening ond 

VEUOW lABEL. Daoble.tld.d blank, a) un 
form qwaltty and ■wide latitude " EKtro-fii, 
ad|u>t,..«nt. unn.c.tta.y S,i.. at Red Label 

All AUDIODISCS o.e mnnulaitured an 
la, the 6">" and Blue label type. 

BlUE lABEl bett, at lo,« co 
num bate, tome recording locq 
lionol AUDIODISCS tW. 8" o 

aluminum boie-ond glait bote too. 

t Ihin olumi- 
er at prole- 
id 10': 

repolishing services give 
real economy in The use of 
34 ond 113. Consult your 
locot dealer. 


/neu yd^eiiA ^^ /AetHdeA/ed CLUCLLcJCIIsCX 




Vol. 2 No. I 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

January, 1946 

"G.I. Journal" cast — Left to right — Mel Blanc (Pvt. Sad Sack), Rita Hayworth, Charlie 
McCarthy and Edgar Bergsn. 

Armed Forces Radio Service Expands Networks 
Info Areas of Occupation for '46 Operation 

The Armed Forces Radio Service will continue as a military operation of the 
War and Navy Departments into 1946. Thus, armed forces overseas are assured a 
continuous supply of APRS programs via shortwave beams originating from San 
Franc'sco and New York City, Armed Forces 

Radio Stations located in the immediate 
cinity of troops, and via AFRS transcriptions 
for playback aboard ship and over landbased 
sound systems. 

Webs on Peacetime Standard 

The global broadcast outlets of the AFRS 
are still in daily operation overseas meeting 
the increased needs of soldiers, sailors, and 
marines for information and entertainment 
through radio. GI networks have been con- 
verted into peacetime status by expansion into 
areas of occupation. The "Far Eastern Net- 
work," under General MacArthur, extends 
from New Guinea through the Philippines 
into Japan. The "American Forces Network" 
formerly servicing troops in the British Isles 
and France has expanded its outlets into 
Austria, Germany, and Italy, Down in the 
South Pacific the "Mosquito Network" still 
has stations in operation from Guadalcanal to 
Samoa. Other AFRS Stations continue to 
function in the Middle East, the Aleutians, 
Panama, South America, Iceland, Greenland, 
India, Burma, and China. 

L. A. Headquarters Maintains Pace 

To meet the needs of such AFRS outlets, 
the Armed Forces Radio Service plans to con- 
tinue its production of broadcast material at 
(Continued on Page 3J 

Church Women Plead 
For Enduring Peace 

Recordings Heard by Thousands 

The first Friday in November was observed 
nationally as World Community Day by the 
United Council of Church Women, an or- 
ganization representing 10,000,000 Protestant 
women of all denominations. Their theme 
which they went at in earnest was "The Price 
of An Enduring Peace." 

Program materials for the day went into 
11,000 communities in the United States. 
Local groups in these communities put in 
weeks of study and preparation. These women 
knew they had to begin building world peace 
by getting understanding and tolerance for all 
peoples in their own communities. 

National Leader SFPC Representative 

To penetrate hearts and homes with the 
respon.sibilir/ upon every ind vidual for mak- 
ing the United Nations Charter live in a real 
United Nations Organization these women 
went on the air. Mrs. Harper Sibley, their 
national president, had been one of their rep- 
resentatives at the San Francisco Conference. 
(Continued on Page 4) 

World's Future Dependent 
Upon Modern Education 

Students Point Way to 

Better, Easier Learning 

Today, scientists tell us, we're living in the 
"atomic age." We're living at a time when 
the future of the world depends on sincere, 
successful thinking, and modern foresight by 
leaders of all nations. Modern foresight re- 
quires men with modern ideas. And, modern 
ideas, in turn, are the result of modern edu- 

As the reputation of the United States has 
long been without peer in the field of educa- 
tion, it is not difficult to understand why 
modern educators are tirelessly planning new 
ways of educating the American boy and girl. 
No doubt, your Mary or my Bill, will learn 
their ABC's as you and I, but, chances are, 
the alphabet will be presented to them in a 
new, streamlined way, a modern way. In 
other words, the youngsters of tomorrow will 
find school far more interesting and less ardu- 
ous than was the case when we attended the 
little red school house on the hill. He or she 
might even find school to be "fun." At least 
that's the hope of the modern educator. 
Better Citizenship Training Mapped 

An example of what is now being done to 
make "going to school" a pleasure, is told in 
a report received from Mr. W. Howard Bate- 
son, instructor in American Citizenship and 
in charge of Visual and Audio aids at Jefferson 
Junior High School in Dubuque, Iowa. Mr. 
Bateson, associated with audio-visual education 
in schools and commercial theaters for over 
twenty years, believes audio-visual equipment 
to be one of the prime factors in education's 
progress. "I am firmly convinced that this 
country is now to go forward into a new and 
greater field," Mr. Bateson exclaims. "This 
field, it seems to me, will be directly related 
to the school, the church and the local thea- 
tre. These institutions will provide the means 
for integrating all of the resources of the 
community for better citizenship training. 

"Recently," the professor continues, "the 
students of my classes exchanged scrapbooks 
with the pupils of a junior high school in 
Georgia. In acknowledging receipt of the 
Georgia school's scrapbook, our students de- 
cided to send a recorded 'thank you' note. In 
the recording, they further explained many 
of the things in the Iowa scrapbook in order 
to give the Georgia pupils a better under- 
standing of the history and resources of our 
city and state. 

Streamlined Education 

"Not only did this single recorded disc bring 
more information, pleasure and enjoyment to 
the Georgia group but it served to introduce 
them personally to the boys and girls who had 
prepared the Iowa scrapbook and whose photo- 
graphs appeared in its pages. 

"I know of no better way to teach history, 

geography and human relations than through 

a well planned recorded disc exchange project, 

supplemented by sixteen millimeter motion 

(Continued on Page 4) 


January, 1946 

"Hi, Dad De!" — William Hillyer McDonald, with Mom, send greeting to Capt. McDonald, 


USO Recording Service Proven Morale Builder 

War Record Unparalleled 

Popularity of "live letters" made on voice 
records at USO clubs is attested by the fact 
that USO Central Purchasing Department has 
sent out 301,059 discs for records in the last 
two years, and that this figure is exclusive of 
those purchased locally or through other chan- 

All discs purchased by USO are donated to 
service men and ma'led out by individual 
clubs. Some 350 USO clubs in large cities 
are equipped with voice-recorders, and men en 
route overseas during the war years or return- 
ing today have used these machines to send 
messages to the r families. 

But sheer statistics do not tell the human 
story behind this USO service. 

Nation-wide reports indicate some of the 
companionship and warmth behind the making 
of these recordings. 

Many Languages Recorded 

A USO club director in Tacoma, Washing- 
ton, wrote during the height of the war: 

"Made recordings tonight for men of five 
nations. A choir boy from Russia chanted a 
message to relatives in New York City. A 
soldier from Free France who'd escaped to 
the United States and joined up here made a 
recording for his uncle in California. A 
Christian Arab sent one to his aunt in San 
Francisco — a Jewish boy from Palestine ever 
so shyly said a few lines to his sister in El 
Paso, Texas. An Irish lad from County Cork, 
Ireland, sang an Irish ditty to his grandfather 
in Wisconsin — and a chap from Corsica did 
one with an Italian flavor." 

The voice records are usually made in a 
large room, so that there is always an inter- 

ested crowd of kibitzers around. But any man 
wanting privacy for a special message may 
take the machine into the club director's office 
and make it without having a crowd listening 
to him. 

Dan Cupid Given Hand 

This is especially important in such in- 
stances, for example, as the time when a man 
proposed to his girl by voice record. In fact, 
sweethearts and wives receive a fair share of 
all these messages. Somet mes a man will 
sing a love song to his girl. And in a USO 
club in Ozark, Alabama, a red-haired Texan 
stopped in to say that his girl had turned him 
down. He made a voice record, singing 
"You've gone and left me all alone," and 
sent it to her fam'ly. Evidently his appeal was 
moving, for he became engaged to the girl 
soon after that. 

Mom Not Forgotten 

Thousands of men have made USO vorce 
records "to Mom." Use of the recording- 
machines was especially in demand when men 
were leaving for combat zones overseas. For 
security reasons they could not say that they 
were "shipping out," but they usually man- 
aged by innuendo to put so much appeal in 
a letter that no one could fail to understand 
their meaning. Today, men returning and un- 
able to go home immediately — and particu- 
larly the convalescent wounded who visit USO 
clubs — send "live letters" of greetings to their 

From a USO club in the South came the 

story of a man who made a special record for 

his family. His mother wrote back that when 

Iris pet dog heard the boy's voice he sent up 

071 Page 4) 

me t\myidUt 

Record Industry Depends 

on Master Recording Discs 

By E. Franck, Research Engineer 

Disc recordings played a vital part in the 
war, spreading information, propaganda and 
entertainment. They were also used in train- 
ing and in morale bulding. 

Great Demand On Industry 

Some recordings were considered so im- 
portant that air priorities were given to over- 
'^eas shipments of vinylite pressings. To meet 
the greatly increased demand for pressings, 
the industry was expanded and production 
multiplied many fold. (Note the article in 
this same issue on the record'ng work of the 
."Krmed Forces Radio Service.) 

For the most part, the production of all 
these pressings depends on Master size lacquer 
discs for the original recording. Discs for this 
type serv'ce must meet many requirements in 
addition to good cutting and playback quali- 

Uniformity in Quality Needed 

We can understand these additional require- 
ments best by following the Master disc 
through the steps of process'ng. First, the re- 
corded surface must be rendered conductive 
to electricity so it can be electroplated. This 
is usually done either by a silvering process or 
by a gold sputtering method. The silvering 
process consists of deposif'ng silver from a 
chemical solution, and requires all the care 
and control of mirror manufacture. If every- 
thing is not right, such as solution strengths, 
purity, work-room temperature and condition 
of the recorded surface, the deposit may be 
weak or splotchy and the results very erratic. 
In general, the technique of silvering needs to 
be adjusted to the particular recording disc 
used. Of course, once the technique has been 
adjusted to give good results, the recording 
discs must be uniform in quality in order to 
g-'ve consistent results. In the sputtering pro- 
cess, the Master disc is subjected to worse 
tortures. It is placed in a vacuum chamber 
and positioned next to a sheet of gold. The 
gold sheet is made a cathode of an electrical 
gaseous discharge and some of the gold is 
"splashed" off onto the disc. 

Masters Copper Plated 

After being coated with silver or gold, the 
lacquer Master d'sc is plated with copper to 
give a strong metal plate, and then stripped 
away from the disc. This gives a metal plate 
with ridges in place cf the grooves in the 
recording and is used to press out "pressings" 
or records. 

Lacquer Must Be Good 
If the record'ng lacquer of the Master disc 
is net good, the silver or gold may adhere too 
strongly to the lacquer coating and make the 
stripping troublesome or impossible. With a 
good lacquer Master disc, on the other hand, 
the stripping process is easy and the disc may 
be put either through the silvering or the gold 
sputtering process more than once if required. 
Processing Often Delayed 
Frequently, there may be a delay between 
the time of recording and processing. This 
places an additional requiiement on the Master 
disc, that is, that the recorded grooves shall 
not change shape during this period and that 
there shall be no increase in noise level. 

January, 1946 


APRS to Stay In '46 

(Continued from Page 1) 

its headquarters in Los Angeles at a pace equal 
to that established during war time. This 
means APRS headquarters will continue to 
produce 151 separate radio programs weekly, 
the equivalent of 60 transcribed hours of en- 
tertainment. Weekly air shipments will con 
tinue to key distribut on points of clusters ot 
APRS outlets with each shipment offering .i 
fresh issue of 120 plastic transcriptions, 5' ; 
hours of script material, new selections for 
basic mus'c libraries, and special educational 
and informational programs. 

In addition, APRS will maintain its short- 
wave operation offices in New York City and 
San Prancisco. One thousand five hundred 
hours of APRS programs a week are now be- 
ing beamed overseas from 19 powerful short- 
wave transmrtters ranging from 20,000 to 
100,000 watts in power. 

New Recording Tricks Saved Day 

Approximately one and one-half million 
APRS transcriptions have been shipped over- 
seas since World War II began and ended. 
It is the general consensus of APRS head- 
quarters that the enormous task of bringing 
radio entertainment programs of the highest 
techn-'cal quality and talent performance from 
T.os Angeles to American Forces throughout 
the world would have been greatly impaired 
without the development of new transcription 
techniques given impetus by war time require- 

Col. Thorn. H. A. 
Lewis, former 
APRS Comman- 
dant, receives mil- 
lionth plastic trans- 
cription from Jo- 
seph Cousins, Los 
Angeles pressing 
plant employe. 

The demands Armed Forces Radio Service 
made on the transcription industry were un- 
precedented. In many instances APRS reached 
out into overseas theaters and brought back 
recording experts who had been drafted from 
pressing plants earlier in the war. Pressing 
processes were streamlined. And plant per- 
sonnel worked on a 24 hour basis. In some 
cases pressing plants increased their transcrip- 
tion output thirteen hundred per cent to meet 
demands of the APRS for more and more 

New Year Plans Outlined 

Today the transcription industry as a whole 
is turning out over 100,000 pressings per 
month for Armed Forces Radio Service. Sixty 
per cent of all APRS transcriptions are ship- 
ped to overseas broadcast outlets and to ships 
of the U. S. fleet. Forty per cent are ds- 
tributed to hospital sound systems operated by 
the APRS in this country for wounded war 

The outline of special APRS shows for 
1946 follows the same pattern of programs 
carried throughout the war. Included on the 
1946 production list are its four major pro- 
ductions: "Command Performance," "Ivlail 
Call," "0. I. Journal." and "Jubilee." In- 
cluded among other original APRS shows 
slated for "46 are "Hymns From Home," 
"Concert Hall," "Downbeat," "G.I. Jive," 
and "Jill's Juke Box." 

Producer-Director Robt. Lewis Shayon, Act- 
ress Wendy Barrie and Actor Victor Jory 
discuss "CRISIS IN OUR TOWN" script. 

Nation Brought Closer 
to Human Problems 

Work of Community 

Chests Aired to Public 

A better understanding of human beings, 
their problems and the tangles they get out 
of, with the help of social agencies, is result- 
ing from the widespread use cf an annual 
series of recorded dramatizations being dis- 
tributed by the non-profit organization. Com- 
munity Chests and Councils, Inc. 

These open-end recordings of fifteen-minute 
dramatizations are superbly produced and di- 
rected, and enacted by leading artists of stage, 
screen, radio and music. 

The organization already has a third of its 
new series of scripts ready for 1946 production 
and distribution throughout the country for 
broadcast over leading stations. 

Given Best Air Hours 

With the exception of New York City, 
Commun'ty Chests exist in every city of more 
than 25,000 population, and distribution is 
made through the local Community Chests 
which are thereby made responsible for audi- 
ence building and promotion. Use of open- 
end recordings permits complete identification 
of the program with the local Chest and work 
of the agencies it supports. During the last 
two years, the choice broadcasting hours al- 
located by local stations to these public service 
programs is a barometer of their excellence, 
and, according to a recent poll, the welcome 
mat is out for the new series when it comes 
along, thanks to the care with which scripts. 
production, casting and music are handled. 
Rh Factor Discussed 
Timely and provocative, the series each year 
includes some highly scientific material, such 
as the Rh factor, newest discovery in blood 
chemistry, which was dramatized in the 1945 
series. The story, "MARVELOUS UN- 
KNOWN," was written to dramatize some of 
the work done in hospitals supported by Com- 
munity Chests. But its popularity with Dr. 
Alexander S. Wiener, a co-discoverer of the 
Rh factor, has been so great that he now uses 
the recording to highlight and illustrate his 
lectures on the subject to doctors and scien- 

Scripts are under the direction of Eloise 
Walton of Community Chests and Councils. 
Inc., and production and direction are in the 
capable hands of Robert Lewis Shayon, of the 
Columbia Broadcasting System. 

Special music was written and directed by 
Jon Cart, and some of the talented stars en- 
acting these stories arc Victor Jory, narrator 
for the 1945 series, "CRISIS IN OUR 
TOWN," Mady Christians, Celeste Holm, 
and Ralph Bellamy. 

Top Stars Featured 

In NTA Series 

Hu Chain to Direct 

New Year Productions 

A series of 1 3 radio dramatizations, playing 
up varous aspects of tuberculosis control, has 
been produced by the National Tuberculosis 
Association under the title of "The Constant 
Invader." The transcriptions are for use by 
the National Association's aflihated associa- 
tions throughout the country, which have 
ordered 270 sets. 

The shows were wr'tten and directed by 
Hu Chain, with Dr. A. J. Cronin, well known 
author, as the narrator, and professional actors 
as the cast. Original music by Ben Ludlow 
was used. Another series of 13 will be pro- 
duced by the Association in 1946. 

In connection with the annual Christmas 
Seal Sale, the Association, as usual; produced 
three radio transcriptions which were placed 
by affiliated associations on local stations 
throughout the country. 

One was a fifteen-minute dramatic show 
commemorating the 50th anniversary of the 
discovery of the X-ray and starred Walter 
Huston. It was called "The Light That Saves 

A musical show, also fifteen minutes and 
entitled "Christmas Seal — • Christmas Music," 
featured Richard Crooks, the tenor, and How- 
ard Barlow and his orchestra from the "Voice 
of Firestone" program. Milton Cross was 
master of ceremonies. The third was a series 
of spot announcements made by such persons 
as Roland Young, Herbert Marshall, Victor 
Moore, Lou Costello, Ray Milland, Capt. 
Eddie Rickenbacker and Edward Everett 
Horton. Orders were placed for 425 of each 
transcription in the set. Hu Chain was 

Most Beautiful Harpist? 

21 -year-old blond Elaine Vito, harpist with 
fhe Music of Manhattan orchestra currently 
being heard on many stations throughout the 
country on transcriptions. Norman Cloutier, 
director of the orchestra which comprises some 
of America's best known musicians, is con- 
vinced that Elaine is the world's most beau- 
tiful harpist. 


January, 1946 

JJHS students broadcas: round-table discussion 
over school sound system. (Presentation was 
recorded for future play-back and reference.) 

World's Future Dependent 

On Modern Education 

(Continued from Page 1) 
pictures and snapshots taken by pupils to go 
with the recordings they make. These pictures 
can be shown on a screen by using an opaque 
projector, or made up into slide films and 
synchronized with the recordings. But, if this 
equipment is not available, then a scrapbook 
of recordings and snapshots is excellent. A 
well organized use of audio-visual aids will 
save from thirty-five to fifty percent of the 
time usually required to teach a given lesson. 
But more important than this is the fact that 
students have a wonderful opportunity for the 
mutual exchange of ideas, that to them are 
real and full of meaning. 

Children Correct Voice Problems 

"Recording discs, alone, serve many useful 
purposes. They can be integrated as a part 
of a round-table discussion and broadcast over 
the local school sound system or aired over a 
local radio station. For example; last year wc 
made recordings of a series of eleven seasonal 
programs for our music department in eleven 
elementary schools, to be broadcast over two 
local radio stations. The children enjoyed 
hearing themselves before they went on the 
air and their teachers were given the oppor- 
tunity to make necessary corrections in their 
style and delivery. 

"With this type of procedure, ch'ldren will 
find their citizenship training a functional, 
practical, aid in understanding many com- 
munity and national problems." 

Church Women Plead 

For Enduring Peace 

(Continued from. Page 1) 

Mrs. Sibley recorded her forceful message and 

one hundred cities across the nation bought 

and used the 100 recordings made. 

Golden Rule Emphasized 

By means of this recorded appeal thousands 
of homes in nearly every state in our union 
heard the earnest voice of Mrs. Harper Sib- 
ley, American Mother of 1945, saying: 

"We must accept the Price of Enduring 
Peace — we who have paid so dearly in lives 
and blood for this war. And the price of 
Enduring peace is based on willingness to take 
seriously the Golden Rule — wherever we may 
happen to live, hour by hour and day by day 
' — -"to do unto others as wc would they should 
do unto us." It demands that we cast aside 
prejudice and old concepts of human relation- 
ships and recognize our kinship, as children 
of the one God, with peoples of all races, all 
creeds, all nationalities, everywhere on earth, 
but beginning in our own home town. If we 
want peace for ourselves, we must be prepared 
to share it with the other members of the 
world family; for peace today, like war is in- 

USO Recording Service 

(Continued from Page 2) 

great bays of delight. So the soldier went 
back to the USO club and made a whole re- 
cording just for his dog Fido. 

Even a Will Recorded 

The stories behind these recordings are end- 
less. A composer made a record of piano music 
at the USO club in Hempstead, L. I., N. Y. 
One man once made his will, and its legality 
would be an interest ng question. Again a tall 
soldier visited a Long Island USO and recited 
to a record a poem he had written for a shut- 
in invalid boy. 

The system, however, works two ways. Fre- 
quently USO junior hostesses have made voice 
records for men who had visited the clubs 
and who had been transferred to other camps. 

And often mothers have come into the clubs 
to make records for their sons. Many are the 
instances ol young wives who have held a 
child up to a microphone so that "daddy" far 
away could hear for the first time his baby's 

Many men welcome this method of greet- 
ing, and at holiday-time send their thoughts 
winging homeward on those little round discs. 

Attention Readers 

Audio Record is published monthly in 
the interest of better disc recording. If 
YOUR name is not on the Audio Record 
mailing list, drop a penny post card to — 
The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madison 
Avenue. New York 22, N. Y. 

^^j,^^MEASMf Of 

f^rfii REcoRomG v^'h 

By putting a ruler to a recording disc, you can, in one sense, "measure" 

recording quality — since the disc must reflect a true imag^e. But there must 

be many other in-built qualities in addition to a flat, smooth, mirror-like 

For recording and playback the disc must have split hair accuracy in thick- 
ness of coating, easy cutting characteristics, positive ihread-throw, brilliant 
high frequency response, no audible background scratch, no increase in 

from time of 
t not change— 1 
I deterioration 

irding to playba 
lust last 
-ith the y 


by any yardstick 

Just look for the name AUDIODISC — because it assures you all the qualitit 
named above — a combination you will not find in any other recording dis 

AUDIODISCS— manufactured by a patented, 
lacquer from a special foimula. arc consister 
from raw materials to finished disc. No mat 
AUDIODISC is, and will remain, the meas 

precision machine process with 
tly dependable. Fully controlled 
ter what the purpose, the name 
ire of a better recording disc. 


M^^^trA ^i. ^4,emde^/ed CLUCLlOCIIsCS 




Vol. 2 No. 2 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

February, 1946 

ABS Sets Sights 

As Major Web 

Recording "Saves Day" For Newscaster 

A strcimlincd, miijor market network 
reaching twenty-five of the country's 
leadini; distributing centers thumbnails 
the framework 
of the Associ- 
ated Broadcast- 
ing System, the 
nation's newest 
radio chain 

Off To Good 

ABS, boast- 
ing a metropol- 
itan coverage 
of forty million 

potential cus- 
lohn B. Hughes ' , i 

■" tomers, launch- 

ed its sixteen-hour daily, coast to coast 
schedule last September. In the web's 
inaugural ceremonies, FCC Chairman 
Paul Porter, principal speaker, hailed the 
birth of Associated as a "symbol of the 
American determination to face the post- 
war period, not timidly, but with the 
courage to push on to new goals of 

Net's Family Grows 

With nineteen affiliates and four sta- 
tions who cooperate in the clearance of 
time, ABS offers its listeners a variety 
of progr.ims. It takes particular pride in 
the number of outstanding news pro- 
grams currently being aired. 

Travel Limitations Ignored 

The imp(.)rtance of instantaneous re- 
cordings in the new network's makeup 
is told in a report received from Mr. 
Tom Dunn, ABS Publicity Director. 
"Recently," Mr. Dunn relates, "John B. 
Hughes, one of our chain's leading news- 
casters, went on a lecture tour. Due to 
uncertain travel conditions which might 
have prevented him from reaching a net- 
work station, his program was trans- 
cribed and shipped to the nearest or- 
iginating affiliate for a playback. This 
arrangement, I'm happy to say, proved 
highly successful." 

Leonard Versluis, himself owner of a 
Grand Rapids, Mich., radio station, 
WLAV, and for many years identified 
with the phonograph business in Michi- 
gan, is president of ABS. 

Student director, engineer and turnt.ible operator learn their duties at WNYE studios in 
Brooklyn Technical High School. 

WNYE Trains N. Y. Higli Scliool Engineers, Recordists 

Radio Courses Offered by Board of Education 

New York City high school students are currently being given in- 
tensive training in all phases of radio production at the Board of Education 

FM Station 'WNYE, located in the 

Brooklyn Technical High School build- 

"On the Ball" 

Only ten minutes after the conclu- 
sion of ex-Prime Minister Churchill's 
press interview with reporters and 
newsrecl men upon his arrival a few 
weeks ago on the Queen Elizabeth, 
WOR (New York's Mutual Outlet) 
was on the air with a 15-minute 
transcribed broadcast of the occasion. 

Dave Driscoll, News and Special 
Features director, during the 30 min- 
ute press interview, repeated reporters' 
questions into a portable mike and 
Churchill's replies were recorded. 
Simultaneously, the entire proceed- 
ings were being recorded on Audio- 
discs at the WOR studios and thci 
edited for broadcast. 

Tele Instruction Also Given 

In conjunction with helping to operate 
FM Station and producing 20 broadcasts 
a week for classroom listening, students 
study theory of radio, broadcast station 
operation, sound recording, script writ- 
ing, radio acting and production. They 
even study the rudiments of television 
production by appearing at CBS Station 
'WCB'W on "There Ought To Be a 

Many Get First Class Licenses 

While the courses in script writing, 
radio acting, and radio production are 
open to students from all of New York's 
eighty high schools, engineering courses 
are open only to boys from Brooklyn 
Technical High School because of the 
very intensive and thorough pre-requi- 
site training which is required for ad- 
mission to these advanced classes. The 
(Continued on Page 4) 


February, 1946 

Raymond Mnssey and Canada Lee during a 
recording of "Two Men On a Raft." 

Recorded Skits Popular 
"Y" Feature 

Pressings Gain Favor 
Over "Live" Shows 

The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, largest user of electrical transcrip- 
tions in the field of Youth-serving agen- 
cies, also was first to utilize them on 
large scale. 

Only Quality Programs Given 

According to Henriette K. Harrison, 
National Radio Director for the Y. M. 
C. A., a number of 'Y's' have weekly 
live programs, but the majority of them 
prefer the transcriptions because of a 
large acceptance by radio stations who 
by now are accustomed to the high 
standard of recording, performance and 
writing set by the organization. Ap- 
proximately 359 'Y's' now feature re- 
corded radio programs, locally. 

Casts and Writers "Tops" 

The best writers are used at .ill times 
as well as the finest professional actors 
and musicians available. Such personali- 
ties as Raymond Massey, Frederick 
March, Canada Lee, Paul Robson, Con- 
stance Collier and Edmund Gwcnn have 
appeared in dramatic roles. 

Recordings Aid Public Forums 

Miss Harrison also states that while 
'Y' recorded programs always interpret 
the aims of the organization, it is rec- 
ognized that entertainment is a prime 
requisite. Many of these recorded pro- 
grams are used on playbacks and made 
the basis for discussion and forums in 
Y.M.C.A.'s having Public Affairs pro- 

Miss Harrison says further that the 
Y.M.C.A. is now planning a new series 
of thirteen transcriptions for early re- 

"DerBingle" Disc Booster 

Recorded Shows Would 
Permit "Time Off" 

The recent court action of the Kraft 
Food Co. against Bing Crosby for his 
failure to appear on the Kraft Music 
Hall radio program was highlighted by 
the crooner's statement that he preferred 
to do future programs by means of trans- 
cription, making three or four in advance 
so that he "can get away a htde bit." 

APRS' Record Sighted 

Bing contended that the Armed Forces 
Radio Service with its thousands of 
transcribed programs, more than proved 
that discs are the coming thing, chiefly 
because with them it is possible to edit, 
change or revise a program before it hits 
the air. 

KFAB Farm Service Editor Bill MacDonald 
in Chicago's Stevens Hotel "Studio." 

Audiodiscs Aid KFAB 

Scoop Neb. -Iowa Press 

Highlights of 4-H Club 
Congress Recorded 

Audiodiscs brought the top stories 
and "voices in the news" hack to the 
midwest listeners of KFAB (Omaha- 
Lincoln) when Farm Service Editor, Bill 
MacDonald. covered the recent National 
4-H Club Congress in Chicago. 

Winners in the various classes and 
the delegates were interviewed in the 
"studio" set up in the Stevens Hotel, 
center of activities for the 4-H Club 


All stories covered at the Congress 
were put on Audiodiscs and expressed 
to the Lincoln studios for "airing" each 
morning on the regular farm hour and 
play backs during the day. Thus, with 
Audiodiscs and air express, KFAB beat 
the daily presses in Nebraska-Iowa rural 
area by several hours. 

w ^ecoldUt 

Tests Used in Recording 
Lacquer Research 

By E. Franck, Rtse.nrch Engineer 

A good recording lacquer is one that has 
been developed expressly for that purpose and 
none other. Experimental development work 
on this product includes a continuous process 
of testing each production run and, more im- 
portant, a thorough study of other types of 
materials. This work requires careful tests of 
many different factors. 

Some requirements are quite obvious. A 
smooth mirror-hke surface, strong color and 
lack of unpleasant odor are basic essentials. 
There must also be good permanent adherence 
to the flat base material — usually aluminum or 

Cutting qualities are next tested. The coat- 
ing materia! should offer low resistance to the 
cutting action of the stylus. At the same time, 
the material must be tough enough to repro 
duce the full range of audible sound frequen- 
cies throughout many playings. As the grooves 
are cut, there must also be a consistent, posi- 
tive thread throw and the thread must be free 
from any annoying static charge. The grooves 
cut must be shiny and the material should not 
cause undue wear of the stylus. 

Playback tests are next in order. Good track- 
ing, lov; noise level (background scratch) and 
high frequency response, after many playings, 
should be evident. While tests for noise level 
and high frequency response can be made, to 
seme extent, simply by listening, adequate re- 
sults can only be obtained by precise measur- 
ing equipment. 

Another major item to be considered is that 
the lacquer should "behave well" when pro- 
cessed for making pressings — either by the 
silver deposit or gold sputtering method. 

For some apphcations of recording discs, 
one of the slowest tests is of major importance. 
That is the aging behavior of the grooves with 
regard to noise level and distortion. No "short- 
cuts" can be employed here. Careful, me- 
thodical, routine testing over a long period of 
time is required to see that initial noise level 
and distortion do not climb with age. 

Other factors are also considered such as 
behavior with an advance ball, true groove 
contours and grease resistance. 

Finally a good recording lacquer must stand 
up under varying degrees of temperature and 
humidity. The importance of such qualities 
was particularly emphasized during the war 
when discs were subjected to sub-zero shipping 
conditions and were used in the heat and 
humidity of tropical areas. 

February, 1946 


Rickenbacker Records 
"Air History" Series 

Famed Avia+or Contributes Salary 
to AAF Aid Society 

A significant new trend toward trans- 
cribed radio presentations featuring out- 
standing name personalities is seen in the 
new Longines' "World's Most Honored 
Flights" series with Capt. Eddie Ricken- 
backer as host and commentator. 

The business 
commi t m e n t s 
against Capt. 
time were such 
that it would be 
impossible for 
him to appear 
on a live show 
at a certain hour 
on a certain day 
every week for 
several months. 
He could how- 
ever adjust him- 
self to the more 
iblc schedule of dramatized record- 

Eddie Rickenbacker 

America's Number One Voice of Avi- 
ation will be heard weekly starting Feb- 
ruary 2nd on a series of 13 coast-to-coast 
half-hour programs. The plays are rich 
in brand new dramatic personal-history 
material about American air pioneers. 

AAF Needy To Benefit 

The sponsor, at the request of Captain 
Rickenbacker, pays the fees he would 
ordinarily get to the AAF Aid Societ>' 
ti > swell the fund for needy AAF widows 
,ind orphans as well as AAF men an- 
women disabled in line of duty. 

All recordings for the new series were 
made by the Columbia Recording Corp 

Martin Block's "Record Shop" 
Gains Large Audience 

Martin Block, creator of Radio's fa- 
mous "Make Believe Ballroom" is hitting 
the air "jack pot" again with his new 
CBS transcribed program, "Martin 
Block's Record Shop." 

Block interviews the artists whose re- 
cordings he plays on the program, and 
each v.'eek gives back-stage information 
about the leading figures in the world of 
popular music. 

Recordings for Insomnia Victinns 

Recordings for helping people who 
cannot sleep or who are under a nervous 
strain were aired in New York recently 
on WNEW's "Music Hall" program. 
The recordings were from hypnotist 
Ralph Slater's new DeLuxe Album. 

A group of Wing Scouts visit a recording studii 

Glossary of Disc-Recording 

(Editor's Note — We wish to thank the pub- 
hfhers of "The Proceedings of the I. R. E." 
for their cooperation in allowing us to re-print 
"Glossary of Disc-Recordint; Terms" (pre- 
pared by Recording and Reproducing Stand- 
ards Committee of the National Association of 
Broadcasters) in this, and subsequent issues of 
Audio Record.) 

Abrasive: The grinding material some- 
times incorporated in record stock for 
the purpose of shaping the needle 
point to fit the groove properly. 

Acetate disc: Various acetate compounds 
used for solid and laminated (which 
see) discs. The term is often errone- 
ously used to describe cellulose-nitrate 
discs (which see). 

Advance ball: A rounded support (often 
sapphire) attached to the recording 
head which rides on the discs to main- 
tain a uniform mean depth of cut by 
correcting for small variations in the 
plane of the disc surface. 

Angle of Groove: The angle from wall 
to wall of an unmodulated groove in 
a radial plane perpendicular to the 
surface of the disc. 

Backed stampers: A thin, metal matrix 
(which see) which is attached to a 
backing material, generally a metal 
sheet i/s irich to % inch thick. 

Binder: A resinous material which causes 
the various materials of a record com- 
pound to adhere to one another. 

Biscuit: A small slab of the stock ma- 
terial, from which records are pressed, 
as it is prepared for use in the presses. 

Blank groove: A groove upon which no 
modulation is inscribed. 

Burnishing surface (of cutting stylus): 
The portion of the cutting stylus di- 

fContinued on Page ij 

Girl Scouts li/lap 
'46 Recording Plans 

New Series To Be Cut Soon 

The Girl Scout national organization, 
which has used radio-recordings success- 
fully in the past, has two other trans- 
cription series on the books for 1946, 
according to Mrs. Inez Kimball, radio 
director. Cutting on both series will 
start at an early date. 

Radio and Screen Represented 

One series — "The Girl Scouts Pre- 
sent" — will consist of six Sy^'minute 
"acts" by name stars of radio and screen, 
three on each side of a 16-inch disc. 
Each act will be strictly "entertaining," 
and will not be merely an appeal for 
support of Girl Scouting by the artists. 

All Troops To Receive Pressings 

Vinylite pressings will be used and the 
records distributed to local Girl Scout 
councils throughout the country. The 
scries is designed to give local radio 
chairmen a better approach to their radio 
stations, and to help improve local Girl 
Scout radio shows. 

Spots Flexible 

Each one of the jVz'minute spots can 
be used in many different ways — either 
in a five-minute spot, with the local an- 
nouncer giving the opening and closing, 
with an advance build-up of the star be- 
ing presented, or as a part of a 15-minute 
program, featuring local Girl Scout ac- 

The other series will consist of a set 
of four ten-minute recordings, produced 
especially for educational radio stations. 
These four will feature Girl Scout na- 
tional leaders and Girl Scout promotional 

(Continued on Page 4) 


February, 1946 

Glossary of Disc Recording 

^Continued from Page 3) 

rectly behind the cutting edge which 
smoothes the groove. 

Burnishing tool: The stylus sometimes 
used to smooth the groove of a re- 

Cake Wax: A thick disc of wax (which 
sec) upon which an original recording 
is inscribed. 

Capacitor pickup: A phonograph pick- 
up which depends for its operation 
upon the variation of its capacitance. 

Carbon-contact pickup: A phonograph 
pickup which depends for its opera- 
tion upon the variation in the resist- 
ance of carbon contacts. 

Cellulose-nitrate Discs: See Lacquer 

Center hold: The hole in the center of 
the record, which fits the center pin 
of the turntable. 

Center pin: The shaft protruding from 
the center of the turntable used for 
centering the record. 

Chip: The material removed from the 
disc by the recording stylus in cutting 
the groove. 

Christmas-tree pattern: A term some- 
times used in referring to the optical 
pattern (which see). 

Condenser Pickup: See Capacitor pickup. 

(Glossary of Disc-Recording Terms will be 
continued in the March issue of Audio Record.) 

WNYE Trains Engineers, 

(Continued from Page 1) 

boys take the FCC License for Radio 
Telephone Operator, First Class, at the 
conclusion of the term's work, and so 
far an average of 90% of them qualify. 
All of them secure the Second Class Li- 
cense with apparent case. 

Only Professional Work Accepted 

Students in the class in sound record- 
ing are trained to record every program 
as it goes on the air, and these profes- 
sional recordings are used for re-broad- 
casts at a later date. The boys use a 
Scully Recorder with an RCA cutting- 
head and Audiodiscs. Their work must 
be of professional quality since it is to 
be used in actual broadcast. In addition 
the recordings serve a valuable purpose 
in the analysis of their own work by 
student actors and writers, as well as in 
providing models for study by elemen- 
tary classes in radio techniques. 

Equipment Maintenance Emphasized 

The recording laboratory is conducted 
by Mr. Lester Levy, of the Brooklyn 
Technical High School faculty and the 

WNYE staff, who insists upon holdmg 
the boys to the highest possible level of 
performance. Mr. Levy stresses that 
they must not necessarily be able to op- 
erate the equipment but must be a:ble to 
maintain and repair it, conduct tests, 
understand the theory and possibly con- 
duct the measurements of the apparatus. 
Recording Instruction Necessary 
J. F. Macandrcw, Radio Coordinator 
for the Board of Education, states that 
recording is an indispensable part of the 
operatitjn of an educational radio station. 

Girl Scouts Map 
'46 Recording Plans 

(Continued from Page 3) 

Radio Education Stressed 

The Girl Scouts also recorded a Girl 
Scout NBC program featuring Helen 
Hayes, "Continued Story," and made 
the records available for local Girl Scout 
councils. Radio activities are stressed in 
all Girl Scout age levels — from the 7- 
year-old Brownies to the IS-year-old 


However excellent a recording disc may he, the quaUty of sound obtainahle from it can be no 
hetter than the points used in its cutting and playing. Thus, AUDIOPOINTS together with 
AUDIODISCS combine to make truly fine sound recording possible. 

Made by skilled crafhmen, AUDIOPOINTS are available 
i)i three types of cutting styli and three types of playback points. 

^ecoiciina &^€€ni^ 


SAPPHIRE -Produces the best possible recordinK. Each po 
Low recording cost, since the point may be resharpentd lim 
STEILITE— A favorite with many professional and non-profe 
initial cost and may be repeatedly resharpencd. 
STEEL— A diamond -lapped stylus particularly adapted for usi 
shin>, ciuiet groove and gives from 1 3 to 30 minutes actual r 

nt disc-tested oi 
and time again, 
sional recordist 

a recording machine. 
Also disc-tested. Low 
professional recordists. Cuts a 

&^/ayif6(tcA; &^chtli 

.vli, the- 

■iais, workn 

inship and desixn make 
pickups. 100% shadow- 

SAPPHIRE -Perficll; m.itchccj lo Aud 

this pl.i> h.ick point the %fry ilnt.■^t obt.iin.ibI(;. 

SliEL-.Straishl-Sh.tnk for weicht pickups— Btnt-Siiank for h 

graphed, i hcic .iru the nio>t playback points for general use. 

Coinuh your ilealcr or write 
AUDIO DEVICES, INC., 444 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N. Y. 

^^AiAetiA ^D^ lAeftUe^^ed CUICUOCUSCS 




Vol. 2 No. 4 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

April, 1946 

Technical Men Meet at 
Frank L. Capps & Co. 

Isabel Capps, Speaker L. Capps 6? Co., Inc., 244 W. 
49th St., New York City, recently played 
host to a distinguished group of engin- 
eers in the first of what will probably 
become a series of meetings to consider 
the lacquer cutting stylus in relation to 
groove shape and to playback iit. 

Miss Isabel Capps had arranged an 
interesting exhibit to demonstrate the 
incredibly small portion of the sapphire 
actually employed in cutting a record and 
the effect upon the groove of different 
treatment in the manufacture of thc 

Sapphire Portion Made of Lucite 

The first exhibit consisted of 25 to 1 
scale models which were passed among 
the audience. These models really looked 
like the familiar lacquer stylus, since the 
sapphire portion was made of lucite in- 
serted into an aluminum shank. The 
effect upon the audience was nothing 
short of sensational because they revealed 
with such a dramatic highlight the actual 
priiportion of cutting area to the whole 
stylus. On each model the effective por- 
tion of stylus used in cutting 100 lines 
to the inch at a 60/40 ratio had been 
inked over. The included angles con- 
tinued above this inked out area for 
inches while the shank itself was over 
a foot long. The usual assumption in 
examining a stylus under a 2 OX glass is 
that practically all of the angle thus 
magnified is involved in the cut. These 
models very effectively demonstrated 
how small the tip portion of the sap- 
phire is that must be controlled in manu- 

Image Enlarged Many Times 

Miss Capps went on then to show 
cross sections of grooves cut with styli 
of varied specification. These were 
shown in shadowgraphs which enlarged 
the image 500 times. With the aid of 
scale charts she demonstrated how very 
small the actual difference of 5 degrees 
makes in the resultant groove and that 
because of the microscopic amount of 
the sapphire actually used in cutting, the 
slightest deviation in shape immediately 
above the radius gives a false picture of 
the true included angle unless the cut is 

(Continued on Page 4) 

Audio Device's Press Luncheon field last month at New York's Hotel Lexington. INSET — 

Dr. O. H. Caldwell, Editor, Electronics Industries and Mr. Wm. C. Speed, Audio President 

(luncheon's principal speaker) discuss recording's history. 

Audio Devices' President Sees Recording Boom; 
Education — Entertainment — Business to Benefit 

Recently, speaking at a press luncheon in the Florentine Room of 
New York's Hotel Lexington, Mr. William C Speed, President of Audio 
Devices, Inc., predicted a great expansion period for disc recording in the 

entertainment and educational fields. 

Speaking of the educational possibili' 
ties of recording, Mr. Speed said, "Less 
than 1% of all primary and secondary 
educational institutions have recording 
equipment, yet trends point to recorded 
educational features in which the student 
participates as a prime factor in child and 
adult education. In addition, there is 
promise of immense increase in the use 
of recordings in our national school sys' 
tem. Thirty- two states are now laying 
plans for state-wide educational radio 
networks in which recording will play an 
important part. 

"Dramatized education is still in its in- 
fancy. Through the use of sound and 
motion films, together with records and 
transcriptions somewhat along the lines 
followed in recorded speech instruction 
courses, we shall be able to accelerate 
greatly the education of our children and 
add vastly to their store of knowledge." 
f Continued on Page 2) 

Multi-Cellular Speaker 

Sound Reproduction Methods 

The audio recording and reproducing 
system like a chain "is no stronger than 
it's weakest link." The fidelity of the 
sound at the output, can be limited by 
any one of the components in the system. 
Thus, if a major improvement is made in 
the cutter head or recording blank per- 
formance, this improvement can not be 
delivered to the ear unless every unit in 
the series recording or reproducing 
system is like-capable. Many of the 
handicaps limiting the fidelity of sound 
reproduction result from the six pri- 
marily mechanical devices in the re- 
(Continued on Page 3) 


April, 1946 

Iowa State College radio students ''on the air" in Workshop Studios of WOI — Ames, Iowa. 

Iowa State College Radio Trainees Record For 
Local Station — Gain Professional Experience 

Student training in radio at Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa, is 
carried out through course work and workshop activities. The courses, 
set up in the English and Speech Department and the Department of 
Technical Journalism and Vocational 

Education, call for the use of numerous 

The Radio Workshop, headed by Ed 
Wegener, Production Manager of WOI 
— Ames, has produced many outstand' 
ing transcribed shows. 

Kids Laved Them 

During the winter and sprmg of the 
1944'45 school year, it presented a new 
series of children's programs. Beginning 
with eighteen episodes of "Tom Sawyer" 
the series was followed by twenty-one 
episodes of "Alice in Wonderland." 
These two popular programs were pre- 
sented three times a week but the re- 
sponse from Iowa children was so en- 
with eighteen episodes of "Tom Sawyer" 
series ended the program director of 
WOr, Dick Hull, requested that the ne.\t 
series "The Wizard of Oz" he presented 
five days a week for forty-seven episodes. 
In the presentation of these stories the 
Iowa State WOI Workshop used only 
tried and proven radio dramatic tech- 
niques. All means of holding an old 
audience and bringing in a new were 
used. For example, "The Wizard of Oz" 
brought in seven hundred requests (with- 
out a box top in the lot) for maps of 
the wonderful land of Oz. 

Two-Fold Piirpt>se 

As a result of these programs, WOI 
increased its public service to the peo- 
ple of Iowa and the Iowa State students 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Recording Boom Predicted 

(Continued jroni Page Ij 

In discussing the status of present-day 
recording methods, Mr. Speed, who pre- 
sented historical high-lights of various 
stages of progress in recording history 
from 1890 to the present, demonstrated 
that disc recording has now reached a 
state of perfection undreamed of when 
Thomas A. Edison recorded his own 
voice in a recitation of "Mary Had a 
Little Lamb." "Because of the fact that 
the disc method now permits recording 
and reproduction of almost the complete 
tonal range audible to the human ear," 
Mr. Speed continued, "it now surpasses 
any other form of recording. 

Wire Lacks Fidelity of Disc 

"The millions of phonographs now in 
America's homes," he added, "will never 
be made obsolete by wire or tape re- 
cording. Wire and tape recording lack 
the tonal fidelity and dynamic range 
necessary for accurate recording and re- 
production of musical selections. 

"Undoubtedly," Mr. Speed concluded. 
"each form of recording will find its own 
place in radio, educational, business and 
social fields." 

me r<^ecoldUt 

By E. Franck, Research Engineer 

Improvement In 
Lacquer Cutting Styll 

At a gathering of Recording Engineers 
iin March 7th, reported on page 1 of 
this issue. Miss Isabelle Capps outlined 
the results of research she has been do- 
ing concerning lacquer cutting styli. 

Her study of the actual shape of 
grooves cut by styli of different forms 
will result in a distinct technical improve- 
ment in lacquer recording throughout the 

Better Top Corners 

One of the types of groove distortion 
Miss Capps described, particularly inter- 
esting to us from a lacquer viewpoint, 
concerned the top corners. She found 
that the burnishing surface must be very 
small at a point corresponding to the top 
of the groove, if clean corners are de- 
sired, and has been able to get top cor- 
ners that are almost perfectly clean 
through control of the burnishing sur- 
face. As far as actual groove shapes are 
concerned, this corner distortion prob- 
ably accounts for most of the difference 
between wax and lacquer grooves. 

Lacquer Formulation Also A Factor 

In our own lacquer development work, 
we have been conscious of this corner 
effect and have found that lacquers them- 
selves can vary in the amount of dis- 
tortion produced even when cut with the 
identical stylus. In general, the effect 
is greater with a softer lacquer than a 
hard one, although the controlling fac- 
tors seem to be more than mere hardness. 
No doubt, there is a tendency toward 
instantaneous cold flow, which is greater 
or less, depending on the particular lac- 
quer formulation. We have always be- 
lieved that a lacquer which has cold flow 
and produces this type of deformation 
is apt to flow back slowly after the 
grooves are cut, thereby giving rise to 
an ageing distortion. We find it heart- 
ening that this particular trouble can be 
attacked and progress made from two 
different directions — stylus shape and 
lacquer formulation. 

April, 1946 


Altec Lansing's Multi- 
Cellular Two-Way 

Mu+li-Cellular Speaker Introduced 
(Continued from Page 1) 

cording and reproducing system, name- 
ly the recording disc, cutter head, sty- 
lus, pick-up, turntable, and loudspeaker. 
Engineering development are constantly 
overcoming these mechanical bottlenecks. 

The Duplex loudspeaker recently 
brought out by Altec Lansing Corpora- 
tion, 250 W. 57th St., New York City, 
removes the bottleneck from this par- 
ticular mechanical device. Faithful con- 
version of electrical to acoustic power is 
obtained with the Duplex because it is a 
two-way loudspeaker incorporating a 
separate lightweight aluminum dia- 
phragm for reproduction of the frequen- 
cies above 2000 
cycles and a sep- 
arate 1?" molded 
cone diaphragm 
for reproducing 
those below 2000 
cycles. Also in- 
corporated in this 
loudspeaker, is a 
m u 1 1 i - cellular 
horn V.' h i c h 
spreads the sound 
from the high 
frequency portion 
of the speaker 
providing uniform quality distribution 
over a horizontal angle of 60° and a 
verticle angle of 40°. 

No Cone Type Limitations 

The design of the Duplex Loudspeaker 
overcomes the several serious limitations 
which conventional single unit cone type 
loudspeakers have as follows: 

(a) Inefficient reproduction of high 
frequencies which require the use 
of small diaphragms of extremely 
small mass. 

(b) The speed of propagation of 
sound in ordinary paper cone does 
not permit efficient radiation of 
high frequencies. 

(c) Non-uniform radiation of energy 
due to the fact that the angle of 
distribution decreases as the fre- 
quency increases which limits the 
size of the diaphragm. 

(d) Distortion due to intermodulation 
of low and high frequencies al- 
ways present in single diaphragm 
type of speakers. 

More Atnpere Turns In Gap 

The use of edgewise wound ribbon in 
the voice coils of both the low and high 
frequency diaphragms in the Duplex 
loudspeaker provides 27% more ampere 
turns in the gap, which almost alone ac- 
counts for 22% increase in acoustic effi- 
ciency. The compliance of the high fre- 

In spite of the admitted flexibility of the wire recorder for "on the .spot" recording, it is 
significant to note that Omaha's KFAB relies on their portable disc recorder for all such 
occasions. Pictured above, KFAB's Lincoln Supervisor, "Wink" Wight is seated in the station's 
Mobil Unit which houses a battery operated self-contained independent power plant. A real 
of make cable is so constructed with commutator that it enables cable to be reeled out or in 
while recording. The Mobil Unit is augmented with broadcast relay equipment mounted in 
two wheeled trailer which can be attached for direct broadcasts. 

quency daphragm is provided by a tan- 
gential corrugation which allows three 
times the excursion for the same stress 
as is allowed by the ordinary annular 
corrugation. The new Alnico No. 5 per- 
manent magnets used in both the low 
and high frequency units is also a very 
important factor in the increased effi- 
ciency of this speaker. 

Recording Industry Enthusiastic 

The Duplex loudspeaker which repre- 
sents Altec Lansing's offering in the 
non-theatrical field has been received 
with enthusiasm by the radio and record- 
ing industry. As mounted in several 
models of ported cabinets it is rated to 
give uniform reproduction thruout the 
entire F. M. range of 50 to 15,000 cycles. 
While this high frequency response is 
far above the best of present disc re- 
cordings, it is an engineering fact that 
a sound reproducing system should be 
capable of reproducing up to an octave 
higher than that which it is actually 
called upon to do. 

In the recording field the Duplex loud- 
speaker is ideally adaptable for monitor- 
ing and for detecting high frequency 
distortion and intermodulation which 
may develop in the recording system. It 
is also offered for use in client's and 
audition rooms where it is imperative 
that the best presentation be made. 

I. U. Public Speaking Classes 
Graduate Outstanding Orators 

Recording Routine Proven Success 

Indiana University is another one of 
the many mid-western schools who de- 
pend heavily on recording in their de- 
partment of speech. 

In the public speaking classes at the 
Hoosier school, each student is required 
to make a recording of his voice delivery 
at the beginning of the semester. This 
disc is analyzed by both the student and 
the instructor, for the purpose of de- 
termining defects which should be cor- 
rected during the progress of the course. 
Near the end of the semester, the stu- 
dent again makes a recording to gauge 
the degree of his improvement. 

Such a recording routine has proven 
very successful at Indiana and has given 
the school many outstanding orators. 

Quaker City Station Records 
Interviews With Phils, A's 

From the Florida baseball training 
camps of the Philadelphia Phillies and 
Athletics, WFIL — Philadelphia is bring- 
ing its listeners recorded interviews with 
players, managers and coaches of the two 
big league clubs. 

These transcribed interviews are rush- 
ed from the Southland for rebroadcast 
on Tom Moorehead's WFIL's sport show 
at 6:30 P. M. daily. 


April, 1946 

Major Martin H. Work and Mr. V. T. Rupp. 

Ninety Thousandth Audiodisc 
Presented to APRS Commandant 

Last month in Los Angeles, Mr. V. T. 
Rupp, Audio Devices' Southern CaH- 
fornia representative, presented the 90,' 
000th Audiodisc produced for the Armed 
Forces Radio Service, to Major Martin 
H. Works. APRS Commandant. 

Ahhough hostilities ceased eight 
months ago and millions of victorious 
servicemen have returned to civilian pur- 
suits, the Armed Forces Radio Service 
continues to present some 800 radio pro- 
grams monthly to troops still overseas. 

APRS uses Audiodiscs 24 hours a day 
in transcribing continuously the top pro- 
grams off the four major networks in this 
country. Past Air Transport Command 
planes carry these recordings to GI radio 
outlets overseas. 

Of the 90,000 Audiodiscs supplied 
since the start of the war, over one third 
have been Master discs used in the pro- 
duction of a large part of the more than 
1,500,000 vinylitc pressings made and 
distributed by the APRS. 

Technical Men Meet 

(Continued from Page 1) 

All the record strips used to reveal 
these fractional effects were cut with 
master styli personally developed by 
Miss Capps and on which the included 
.ingle and burnishing facet were con- 
trolled. She demonstrated in connection 
with the controlling of the burnishing 
facet that this facet must be very small 
,it a point corresponding to the top of 
the groove if clean corners are 'to be 

She also showed record strips cut with 
regular styli to show the normal error 
in shape that must be present in styli 
made on a mass production basis. 

Finally, Miss Capps pointed out that 
if the portion of the Sapphire involved 
in cutting is incredibly small, the portion 
of the playback sapphire reproducing the 
cut is even smaller since it is expected 
in most cases not to ride the bottom but 
the side walls of the groove. 

Orange Bowl Recordings 
Given to Miami U. Prexy 

Handsomely bound in a leather album, 
.1 complete set of recordings of the 1946 
Miami-Holy Cross Orange Bowl football 
>j;amc. broadcast last New Years Day by 
Ted Husing over CBS through WQAM 
— Miami has been presented by the 
Gator Station to Dr. Bowman Ash, Presi- 
dent of Miami Universiay. 

Highlights from the two-hour and 45 
minute album will be featured once a 
year hereafter at Miami's Midnight Vic- 
tory Pep Rally held on the campus the 
eve of the "Hurricanes" most important 

College Radio Trainees Record 

(Continued from Page 2) 
who worked on the programs (all of the 
work except direction was done by stu- 
dents) learned more about radio than 
they would in many classes or from in- 
numerable lectures. 

Iowa State College is but one of the 
many schools, boasting outstanding radio 
courses, who believes that there is no 
better teaching device in speech than the 
recording which allows one to hear their 
own voice as it sounds to others. 

Glossary of Disc Recording Terms Will 
Be Continued in the May Issue of Audio 




Vol. 2 No. 5 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

May, 1946 

Report: Audiodiscs Excell 
At Colo.SpeechConference 

Wabash College Recording Me+hods 
Outlined by Speech Professor 

Recently, at the Rocky Mount, im 
Speech Conference in Denver, Colorado, 
Dr. W. Norwood Brigance, Professor of 
Speech at Wabash College, Crawfords- 
ville, Indiana, had an occasion to make 
several recordings on different types of 
recording discs. 

Just how well Audiodiscs fared in com- 
petition with other discs is told in a letter 
received from Dr. Brigance. He writes 
in part: "I must confess, my opinions 
were again confirmed. Audio recording 
discs are the best made." 

In his letter, Dr. Brigance further ex- 
plained his school's particular application 
of Audiodiscs: "Sometimes we have our 
students give a radio speech from the 
broadcasting studio and we make a re- 
cording in the classroom while they arc 
talking. At other times we have the 
student speaking in the classroom with a 
microphone five or six feet away, so the 
audience situation is such that the micro- 
phone is not the dominant feature. Then 
from the recording room, one section of 
the student's speech is recorded. Thus, 
we catch a section of the speech while 
the student is actually in action in front 
of a live audience to enable him to hear 
himself as he sounds to other people. 

"This same procedure is followed in 
panel discussions, where the panel mem- 
bers are seated around a table in the 
studio "broadcasting" their panel discus- 
sion to the classroom. In the classroom 
we record either all or part of this dis- 
cussion so that students taking part in 
the panel may, at their leisure, hear them- 
selves as others heard them. 

"Finally, in group or individual drills, 
where a student has a speech inadequacy, 
I will let him read a passage, I will read 
it, then he will read it again, and, once 
more, I will read it. This technique per- 
mits the student to hear both recordings, 
his own and the instructors', and develop 
an ear for noting the difference in speech 

"Our methods here at Wabash Col- 
lege," Dr. Brigance continues, "have 
been thoroughly tested and our success 
in using them lies largely in efficiency of 

Major Robert Vincent, chief sound engineer at United Nations meeting, seated at control 
panel. Inset — A section view of the U. N. O. recording room, Hunter College, Bronx, New York. 

"Twenty-Five Hundred Recording Discs Will Be 
Used Before U. N. Sessions Close" — Vincent 

The man with the responsibility of seeing that the proceedings of 
the United Nations Security Council, now in session at Hunter College 
in the Bronx — New York, are relayed to the outside world is Major 
"^ Robert Vincent, chief of U. N.'s record- 
ing section. 

Major Vincent, temporarily detached 
from the Army Signal Corps for the 
purpose of wiring U. N. O. for sound, 
admits the present installation is more 
complex than the sound equipment he 
used at the San Francisco Conference, 
but far simpler to assemble and employ. 

Eleven Miles of Wire 

The system, comprising in part an in- 
tricate network of eleven miles of wire 
and 15,000 solder connections, makes 
possible the simultaneous feeding of pro- 
grams from the Security Council Cham- 
ber to forty-eight radio, recording and 
other outlets, and the distribution to 
these points of sound from any one or 
all of the twenty-four microphones. 

Seventeen of these "mikes" are on the 
Council table and four are at the in- 
terpreters' table, with three in reserve. 
Voices picked up by the microphones 
(Continued on Page if) 

Vet Uses Recordings In 
Novei Promotional Stunt 

Advertiser Tells 'Em He's Back 

In Washington, D. C, a few weeks 
ago, some 500 top business executives 
received through the mail, at their homes 
and offices, an innocent looking package 
bearing the legend, "A record that speaks 
for itself!" Inside, they found a 6y2'inch 
recording with nothing to identify the 
sender or to give an inkling of its mes- 
sage save a phone number, and the in- 
itials I. T. C. Their curiosity piqued by 
the oddity of the situation, many of the 
business men who received the package 
at their office went to the nearest radio 
or music store and played the record. 
Those who received them at home sat 
down at their own fireside with their 
families and listened. 

(Continued on Page 3) 


May, 1946 

Speaking for the first time on the same radio program are these five top commissioners of The 
Salvation Army in the U. S. (left to right) — Donald McMillan, Ernest I. Pugmire, William C. 
Arnold, John J. Allan and William H. Barrett. The broadcast was recorded. 

Recording To Play Major Role In Publicizing 
Salvation Arnny's Program of Aid To Mankind 

Radio recordings by more than 30 of the nation's leading stars of 
stage, screen, radio, music, and the literary world will play a major part 
in publicizing the Salvation Army's expanded program of aid to mankind, 

"Marching Forward to a Better World," 

the organization recently disclosed to 
Audio Record. Most of the recordings 
also are produced on phonograph records 
as well as for radio. 

Big Name Stars Record 

The recordings will be in lengths from 
15 minutes down to one-minute spots. 
Among the more unusual uses will be 
two and three minute recordings dc' 
signed to be used by radio stations as 
supplements to local talks by Salvation 
Army or community leaders. The list of 
celebrities includes among others: Jack 
Benny, Edgar Bergen, Bob Burns, Burns 
and Allen, Eddie Cantor, Jane Cowl, 
Bing Crosby, Clifton Fadiman, Cary 
Grant, Fannie Hurst, Kay Kyser, Frances 
Langford, Raymond Massey, Fibber Mc- 
Gce and Molly, and John Charles 

The Salvation Army also is planning 
to have prominent individuals from the 
business world and the Army and Navy 
to help tell the story of its program 
through 1946 and into 1947. 

Vet Aid Stressed 

Fifteen-minute recordings have been 
made on the West Coast dramatizing 
specific objectives of the organization's 
program, such as aid for veterans and 
the extension of its work into smaller 
communities. This work is done by set- 
ting up committees or prominent indi- 
viduals in such communities. 

In addition to these recordings for the 
Marching forward program. The Salva- 
tion Army in conjunction with the USO, 
of which it is a member, has prepared 
four 15-minute recordings dramatizing its 
work for service men and women during 
the war and at the present time. 

One of the most unusual features of 
its extensive work was the transcribing 
of a discussion on current problems fac- 
ing America which was given by the five 
Salvation Army leaders in the United 
States over the Mutual Network on Jan- 
uary 31st. 

Recordings Available on Request 

These recordings may be obtained 
upon request from Salvation Army offi- 
cers in more than 1,000 cities and towns 
throughout the United States. 

The WOR recording studios in New 
York handled the recording work in the 
East and the supplying of platters to 
Salvation Army people throughout the 
nation who do the placing with radio sta- 
tions, service clubs, schools and colleges, 
and community groups in their areas. 

Our Apologies 



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Glossary of Disc-Recording 

Reprinted by permission of the Institute of 
Radio Engineers 

(Continued from Page 4 of the March issue 
of Audio Record) 

Dynamic pickup: A phonograph pickup 
in which the electrical output results 
from the motion of a conductor in a 
magnetic field. 

Eccentric circle: A blank, locked groove 
(which see) whose center is other 
than that of the record (generally used 
in connection with mechanical control 
of phonographs) . 

Eccentricity: The eccentricity of the re- 
cording spiral with respect to the rec- 
(ird center hole. 

Fast spiral: A blank, spiral groove hav- 
ing a pitch that is much greater than 
that of the recorded grooves. 

Feedback cutter: A cutter provided with 
a feedback circuit (separate from the 
driving circuit) in which a voltage, 
for inverse feedback to the driving 
amplifier, is induced by the movement 
of the cutting stylus. 

Filler: The bulk material of a record 
compound as distinguished from the 
binder (which see). 

Flowed-wax platter: Disk base (usu- 
ally metal) upon which wax is flowed. 

Flutter: Frequency modulation caused by 
spurious variations in groove velocity. 
t Continued on Page 3) 

Mr. Disc-Jockey 

One of radio's most original and energetic 
personalities in the Disc-Jockey hemisphere is 
Robert Q. Lewis, popular platter-chatter an- 
nouncer of WHN — New York. As his sched- 
ule will attest. Lewis is just about the busiest 
man in radio. From 5:00 to 6:00 P. M., Mon- 
day through Saturday and from 9:00 to 10:00 
P. M., Monday through Friday, his recorded 
programs, featuring a wide selection of musical 
recordings are heard by WHN listeners. And, 
unlike most ether artists, the Sabbath does not 
mean a day of rest to Lewis for he is back 
again on the airways with his 2:00 to 4:00 
P. M. Sunday Disc-Digest. 

May, !946 


Electronic Equipment and Parts 
Show In Chicago This Month 

Large Attendance Forecast 

The 1946 R,tdio Parts and Electron;, 
Equipment Conference and Show will be 
held May 13 through May 16 at the 
Stevens Hotel in Chicago. 

The first day of the Conference will 
feature committee and organization meet- 
ings and a special keynote dinner in the 
Grand Ballroom. There are no meetings 
scheduled for the remaining three show- 
days and the Exhibition Hall will be open 
from 10 A. M. to 6 P. M. each day. 

An unusually large attendance is cer- 
tain as this is the first post-war get-to- 
gether of manufacturers and distributors. 
No displays were permitted during the 
war years. 

Audio Devices will display it's prod- 
ucts in Booth Ninety-six. 

Vet Uses Recordings 

(Continued from Page 1) 

What they heard was the voice of 
Russ Hodges, nationally known sports- 
caster, announcing what was probably 
the first spoken commercial ever written 
by an advertising agency about itself. 


Only two months out of the Army, 
I. T. C. who only a year ago had been 
fighting with the 87th Infantry Division 
in the Belgian Bulge, laid his plans per- 
fectly, told them only to the few actually 
involved in production of the recording. 
When the bombshell struck, virtually 
every business man in Washington knew 
that the I. T. Cohen Advertising Agency, 
after an army-enforced absence from the 
field for 3'/2 years, was in business. 

Some People Will Forget 

Thus did I. T. Cohen, almost forgotten 
by the business firm he had served for 
some ten years before the war, answer 
for himself the question of many return- 
ing servicemen: How can I reestablish 
myself in business after my competitors 
have virtually monopolized the scene 
through the war years? 

And so today, every business firm in 
Washington that uses radio or newspaper 
advertising knows the story of I. T. C. 
It is a story that Washington advertising 
circles will remember for a long time to 

Attention Readers 

Audio Recurd is published monthly in 
the interest of better disc recording. If 
YOUR name is not on the Audio Record 
maihng list, drop a penny post card to — 
The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madison 
Avenue, New York 22, ,N. Y. 

John Bubbers. engineering supervisor of Radio Station 'WO\' — New York. e.\amincs yellow 
label .Audiodisc in control room of Replica Transcriptions. Inset — Bubbers and Ted Rossi 
(seated) owner of Replica hear playback of recent program in the studio they themselves built. 

Small — Hand Made Recording Studio a Success; 
Many Shortages — Other Headaches Overcome 

Building a recording studio in these days of material shortages is a 
mean assignment. At least, John Bubbers, engineering supervisor of Radio 
Station WOV— New York and designer of the new Replica Transcrip- 
tion Studios, 29 West 57th St., New • 

York City, found it so. 

Last June, Mr. Bubbers and Ted Rossi, 
young energetic owner of Replica, de- 
cided to wait no longer and immediately 
set out to find equipment and office space 
for their proposed studio. This was only 
the beginning of a venture that promptly 
provided the two recording enthusiasts 
with many headaches and sleepless 

Equipment Hard To Find 

First, they surveyed the recording field, 
in the hope of finding usable equipment. 
After a lengthy search, two used record- 
ing tables were found. They were 
quickly reconditioned and readied for 
operation. Their cutting heads had to be 
entirely rebuilt. New or used commercial 
amplifiers were not to be had at any 
price, so. without alternative, Messrs. 
Bubbers and Rossi proceeded to build 
their own. All other studio essentials 
were likewise procured from used stock 
sources or made by hand from spare 
parts. When new commercial units are 
again available, they will, of course, re- 
place these home built equivalents. 

There Was Always Something 

Centrally located office space was fi- 
nally found in October, but the two 
enterprising recordists" troubles were just 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Glossary of Disc-Recording Terms 

^Continued from Page 2) 

Frequency record: A record upon which 
have been recorded various frequen- 
cies throughout the desired frequency 

Groove: The track cut in the record by 
the stylus. 

Groove contour: The shape of the 
groove in a radial plane perpendicular 
to the surface of the record. 

Groove speed: See groove velocity. 

Groove velocity: The linear velocity of 
the groo\e with respect to the stylus. 

Grouping: Nonuniform spacing between 

Guard circle: An inner concentric groove 
inscribed on a record to prevent re- 
producer from being damaged by be- 
ing thrown to the center of the record. 

Hill-and-dale recording: See vertical re- 

Hot plate: A heated table used for (a) 
softening the biscuits of record ma- 
terial prior to placing them in the press 
or (b) making flowed waxes. 

Hill-and-dale recording: See vertical re- 

(Glossary of Disc-Recording Terms will be 
continued in the June issue of Audio Record.) 


May, 1946 

Roosevelt Record 
Album Released 

"Rendezvous with Destiny," a two- 
volume record album of significant ex- 
cerpts from the speeches of the late 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was recently 
released by the National Broadcasting 

The album, compiled by Cesar Search- 
inger, noted author, historian, lecturer 
and news analyst, provides a permanent 
word picture of the years preceding and 
during the Second World War, high- 
lighted by memorable utterances of 
America's Chief Executive, broadcast by 
NBC and recorded at the time. 

Highlighting the significant events 
leading up to and during World War II, 
"Rendezvous with Destiny" is a complete 
two hour production. It constitutes a 
dramatic re-cap of current history and is 
the first in a scries of NBC Documentary 
Recordings, designed especially for edu- 
cational use. 

Hand Made Studio A Success 

(Continued from Page 3) 

beginning. Footsteps, singing and various 
other noises from the floor above were 
readily transmitted through the ceiling. 
The only possible solution to this prob- 
lem was to hang a second ceiling on the 
walls below the original ceiling and the 
space between the two filled with insula- 
tion material. The walls were then sound 
treated with one of the new war-found 
materials. The doors were made airtight 
and a modern control room was con- 

In December, the installation was com- 
pleted except for the decorating. This, 
of course, proved to be a spiritual uplift- 
ing task. Colorful drapes and streamlined 
furniture soon provided the necessary 
encouragement for the pair to finish their 
commendable job. 

Justly proud of their efforts, Mr. Bub- 
bers and Rossi opened Replica Transcrip- 
tions around the first of the year and 
judging from the few months of opera- 
tion, the project is a financial success and 
plans are now being made for expansion. 

Recording At U. N. O. 

(Continued from Page 1) 

enter a control booth, where an engineer 
at a mixer panel monitors them. The 
sound IS then piped to the public-address 
system; to ten control rooms used by 
American and Canadian networks and 
radio stations; to another control room, 
operated jointly by several international 
agencies which are beaming short-wave 
broadcasts of the meetings overseas; to 
television and movie booths; to inter- 
preters' earphones; and, by six sepa- 
rate channels, to the recording room. 
Here, the proceedings of the Council are 
recorded on high-fidelity Audiodiscs and 
other recording blanks for reference and 
documentary purposes. More than 2,500 
such discs are expected to be used during 
the current session. 

More Time This Time 
Happy over the fact that he was given 
two whole weeks to get things in shape 
for the peace meet. Major Vincent re- 
called that at San Francisco the entire 
installation had to be set up and ready 
for action in two days. 

(i) ~^ 



?."".; sii'iTs"" 












1 Speech 1 




1 M„.„ 1 




Group inss 

The educational possibilities of recording has attracted the attention of educational leaders everywhere, and today, its presence in the Speech, 
Language and Music Departments of colleges and universities is practically a necessity. Not restricted to the higher institutions of learning, 
the recording machine and the recording disc are coming into common use in secondary and elementary schools. Some of their numerous 
and diversified applications are suggested in the chart above which was prepared by the Sound Equipment Division of the Fairchild Aviation 
Corporation, Jamaica, New York. It is with their permission that we re-print it here. 




Vol. 2 No. 6 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

June, 1946 

Audio's French Associates 
Recent Arrivals In U. S. 

Ravel and St. Hilaire Here; 

Old Acquainfances Renewed 

Monsieur Lucicn Ravel, managing di- 
rector of "La Societe des Vernis Pyro- 
lac," Audio Devices' associate in France, 

Wm C. Speed greets Lucien Ravel upon his 
arrival from Paris. 

and his partner, production manager and 
engineer. Monsieur Albert St. Hilaire 
arrived a few weeks ago in the United 
States from Paris. 

Present at La Guardia Field to meet 
their French contemporaries were Wil- 
liam C. Speed, Audio Devices' president, 
and other Audio representatives as well 
as members of the press. 

Monsieur Ravel, who, during the lat- 
ter part of the European war, sheltered 
eighteen American airmen in the woods 
on his estate in the little town of Por- 
cheux, outside Paris, until they were lib- 
erated by advanc- 
ing Allied forces, S. /™»k 
and Monsieur St ■ ' 
Hilaire, own con- 
trolling interest in 
La Societe des 
Vernis Pyrolac. .i 
large paint 
varnish company , 
located at 51, rue 
de L'Echat, Cre- 
teil (Seine), a su- 
burb of Paris. 

Their connection with the recording 
industry dates back to 1929 when they 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Albert St. Hilaire in the 
New York offices of 
Audio Devices. 

Milton Berle, famous comic of stage, screen and radio recording another Cue-In broadcast. 
(Note earphones worn by Berle.) 

Cue-In — Press Assn's New Recording Technique 
Localizes, Personalizes Transcribed Progranns 

After four years of experimental production, Press Association, Inc. 
radio subsidiary of the Associated Press, 50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 
City, has introduced to radio a new recording technique that localizes and 
' personalizes the transcribed broadcast. 

Appropriately called "Cue-In", the 
new technique brings "big names" right 
into the smallest towns in America to 
talk with the communities' most popular 

Only Replies Recorded 
"Cue-In" works this way: In one of 
the four major recording studios used 
by the Press Assn. in New York, a 
famous personality in the news is inter- 
viewed by a Gotham announcer. The 
interviewed party stands alone in the 
studio before a microphone, with a 
pair of earphones draped over his or her 
ears, while in an adjoining glass enclosed 
control room, the announcer proceeds 
with his interview, which is heard by 
the noted guest through the earphones. 
The star answers each question and this 
reply is recorded. As only the replies 
are recorded, the disc naturally has a few 
skips or blank spots. These blanks, of 
course, represent the questions which, 
(Continued on Fage 4) 

Incorrect Handling Fails to 

Alter Fidelity of "41 Discs 

Upon his discharge from the Navy, 
after four years of service as a pho- 
tographer's mate, Leo Kraus, record- 
ing enthusiast of New York City, 
learned that several of his prise 
Audiodisc recordings, that a friend 
had stored in a Manhattan warehouse, 
had been incorrectly and roughly 
stowed during his absence. He held 
little hope that such treatment did not 
materially damage the discs. How- 
ever, to his amazement, when he 
played them back, they were as good 
as ever — the quality was indistinguish- 
able from that of 1941, despite the 
fact that they had been stowed flat, 
under heavy weight, for more than 
four years. 


June, 1946 

WHOM Staff announcer Tom Murray assists Dolores Craeg during the recording of her daily 
broadcast "Highlight Special." Geo. Ellis, supervising engineer, is at the controls while Harold 
McCambridge, recording engineer, attentively watches his recording apparatus. Inset — Steve 
Hollis announces actual recorded broadcast of "Highlight Special." 

WHOM-New York-Jersey City Finds Recording 
A Necessity For Successful Station Operation 

Like other independent radio operators, Atlantic Broadcasting CxDm- 
pany finds considerable and varied use for disc recording. In addition to 
the well-known commercial electrical transcription, Station WHOM — 

New York and Jersey City uses record- 

U. of Neb. Radio Division 
Operates Recording Lab 

Facilities Available To All Depfs. 

ing on a sustaining basis, employing the 
Standard Transcription Library to round 
out the musical portion of its shows, 
notably on the WHOM Caravan, daily 
from 2 p. m. to 6 p. m. and "Sunday 
Midnight Moods." 

From a public service angle, recording 
serves a just purpose for relaying the 
currently urgent messages of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross, United States Treasury 
Department, U. S. Army, March of 
Dimes and similar national agencies. 
War Bride Interviews Recorded 

With facilities in the studios at 
WHOM, recordings are made of special 
events on the scene and rebroadcast 
from the studios at a later time without 
interfering with the regular schedule. A 
case in point is a series of recordings 
made aboard the bridal ship "Argentina" 
when it arrived in New York. Inter- 
views were conducted right on the ship 
on lines direct from the studios with 
brides of service men from the areas 
served by other Cowles Radio Stations, 
including WOL~Washington, WCOP 
— Boston, WNAX — Yanktown and 
KRNT Des Moines, as well as the New 
York and New Jersey areas served by 
(Continued on Page 4) 

"The Recording Laboratory operated 
by the University of Nebraska Radio 
Division of the Department of Speech 
and Dramatic Art records the voices and 
instruments of university students, and 
faculty, and operates on a non-profit 
basis," writes Paul L. Bogen, Director of 
Radio at the university. 

"Upon entering speech courses at the 
University," Mr. Bogen explains, "each 
student pays a fee for a disc to be used 
in his speech work. During the first six 
weeks of his course, in the middle and at 
the end of the semester, his voice is re- 
corded. The student then has a perma- 
nent record of his speech improvement. 

"Our Recording Laboratory is also 
used by other departments of the school 
which desire its services. Recordings are 
made for School of Music students to 
evaluate progress made in vocal or in- 
strumental lessons. The Extension Divi- 
( Continued on Page 4) 

^t^ ■^eco'idlU 

By E. Franck, Research Engineer 

FM and Recording 

The prospective increase in number of FM 
stations, with their goal of 15 kc channel 
width, invites us to consider the technical prob- 
lem involved in getting a signal of this wide 
range into the listener's homes. 

Every element of the broadcast system will 
have to be considered, starting with the acous- 
tical treatment at the studio and following 
through the microphone, amplifier equipment, 
telephone lines, transmitters, receivers and loud 

When this improved range is realized, re- 
cording equipment will be called on to do as 
well or better. Let's take a brief stock of 
present day disc recording equipment and con- 
sider what needs to be done to extend the 
range to 15 kc. 

Cutting heads which can handle 12 kc or 
higher are available and we have no doubt 
that this range can be extended easily. Loud 
speakers going this high are already available. 
Telephone lines can be made to handle it, but 
we think distortion will need to be reduced 
more. Receivers capable of this range, we are 
sure, will soon be available. 

This leaves for discussion the cutting and 
playback styli, the lacquer disc and the pickup. 
Present day cutting styli are already doing a 
good job at 10,000 cycles and there should be 
no particular trouble in going higher, although 
some reduction in tip dimension may be re- 
quired. Several experimenters have reported 
to us no trouble in putting 15 kc on a lacquer 
disc, as determined by optical pattern but none 
is too happy about what he has been able to 
take off. 

Pickups almost get to 1 5 kc and there have 
been recent improvements, particularly in the 
direction of greater stylus freedom. More can 
be made, we are certain. 

There will be some temptation to go to 
higher pitch, particularly if the styli's tip di- 
mensions are reduced. By putting the grooves 
closer together, the inside diameter could be 
increased. An increase in the inner diameter 
from 7" to 9" at 33-1/3 r.p.m. would mean 
going from 1,000 wave lengths per groove inch 
at 12,000 cycles to 775 wave length per groove 
inch at 9" diameter. The unfavorable feature 
of increasing the pitch to get larger minimum 
diameter is the greater danger of tracking 
failures and some slight increase in noise level. 

On the whole, the problem is not very diffi- 
cult and our own belief is that in a relatively 
short time disc recording of 15 kc quality will 
become commonplace. 

June, 1946 


Recording "Vital" To Success 
of Foreign Language Students 

Red Label Audiodiscs Used by 
Vermont French School 

"One of the greatest difficulties ni 
teaching the correct pronunciation and 
intonation of a foreign language to 
American Students, lies in the fact that 
they do not hear themselves speak," says 
Mr. Stephen A. Freeman, Yice President 
of Middlehury College, Middlehury, 
Vermont. Mr. Freeman, who has 
just recently returned to the Middlehury 
French School after 8 months service in 
the U. S. Army in France, as Chief of 
the Liberal Arts section of Biarritz- 
American University, advises the best 
way to help students make rapid prog- 
ress is to let them hear recordings of 
their own speech in the foreign language 

Middlehury Recording Procedure 

"For several years," Mr. Freeman re- 
lates, "we at Middlehury have employed 
the following procedure with excellent 
results: The student studies an assigned 
paragraph of French aided by the sug- 
gestions and advice of his teacher. He 
also listens to that same paragraph 
spoken by a native French person and 
recorded either commercially or at the 
school. The student listens to this re- 
cording over and over again, imitating it 
as closely as possible. When he feels 
that his imitation is perfect, he goes to 
the recording machine and makes a disc 
of his own rendition of this paragraph. 
(Continued on Page 4) 

A section view of the new Audio Devices research laboratory in Stamford, Conn. 

New Research Laboratory In Stamford Conn., 
Equipped To Solve Many Recording Problenns 

Opening of a new research laboratory, believed to be the only one 
in the world devoted exclusively to sound recording and research in which 
product developments may be placed immediately in pilot production, 

then within a matter of a few hours sub- 

One of the war's most carefully guarded sec- 
rets, a night-sight device that made it possible 
for U. S. Infantrymen and Marines to find and 
kill the enemy in total darkness by means of 
infra-red radiation was released from the 
Army's secret list recently and demonstrated 
at the 17th Regiment Armory in New York 
City. Present with portable equipment to ob- 
tain an Audiodisc-recorded report and inter- 
view for their Saturday afternoon radio pro- 
gram, "Around the Town," were John Cooper 
(second from left), reporter and commentator 
and Harold F. Schneider, recording engineer 
pf NBC's Special Events Department. 

Glossary of Disc-Recording 

Reprinted by permission of the Institute of 
Radio Engineers 

I Continued from Page 3 of the May issue 
of Audio Record) 

Hot plate: A heated table used for (a) 
softening the biscuits of record ma- 
terial prior to placing them in the 
press or (b) making flowed waxes. 

Instantaneous recording: A recording 
which may be used without further 

Label: The identiiication markings on 
paper or similar material, at the center 
of the record. 

Lacquer discs: Discs, usually of metal, 
glass, or paper, which are coated with 
a lacquer compound (often containing 
cellulose nitrate) and used either for 
"instantaneous" recordings or lacquer 

Lacquer master: A term improperly ap- 
plied to a "lacquer original" (which 

Lacquer original: An original recording 
on a lacquer disc which is intended to 
be used for the making of a metal 

(Continued on Page 4) 

jectcd to rigorous performance tests, was 
recently announced by William C. 
Speed, Audio Devices" president. 

Most Modern Equipment Available 

The new laboratory, located at Stam- 
ford, Conn,, is equipped with every 
known modern piece of electrical, elec- 
tronic and other scientific apparatus as 
well as numerous specially designed in- 
struments for the study of recording. It 
will permit measurements of tone distor- 
tion, record surface noise, wearing quali- 
ties and other features with a precision 
never before even attempted. 

Exhaustive Tests Scheduled 

Available facilities include provisions 
for exhaustive tests of discs and record- 
ings under varying temperatures and hu- 
midity, as well as conditions of usage 
with various cutting and playback equip- 

"In the company's continuing studies 
of untried lacquers and other composi- 
tion materials," Mr. Speed explained, 
"the laboratory is expected to develop 
findings which will further improve re- 
cording fidelity and broaden the field of 
sound reproduction." 


June, 1946 

AMA Transcribes New Series 

A new recorded series of thirteen 
fifteen-minute programs, entitled "The 
Melody of Life," are being cut for the 
American Medical Association by the 
NBC Chicago radio recording division, 
it has been announced by Frank Chiz- 
zini, manager of the division. The series, 
produced under the direction of Harriet 
Hester, will feature Dr. W. W. Bauer 
and Dr. William Boulton of the AMA 
as narrators on various medical subjects. 

"Cue-In" New Recording Technique 

(Continued from Page 1) 

when the show arrives at its destination, 
will be supplied by the station's local 
announcer. Following the interview, a 
recorded dramatisation featuring high' 
lights in the star's life is presented. 
Then, the disc is packed, along with the 
program continuity, and sent to any of 
the many radio stations throughout the 

Four Shows Now Available 

"Cuc'ln" is not limited to interviews 
only. It may be used in dramatic skits 
with two or more persons, representing 
local talent, participating. At present, 
Press Assn. has made available to radio 
stations four "Cue-In" shows — STAR 
shows may be obtained either indi- 
vidually or as a package of four. 

The "Cue-In" idea was created by 
Paul Girard, former program director of 
WBAL — Baltimore. The shows are 
under the direction of Ale.xander Left- 
wich, Jr. and are written by such well 
known scripters as Louis Hayward, Mar- 
garet Miller, Rafael Hayes, and James 

Recording "Vital" To Success 
of Foreign Language Students 

(Continued from Page 3) 

The professor examines the recording, 
makes further corrections and comments, 
and then the student goes back to the 
listening booth where he listens to the 
original record and his own recording, 
alternately, to study the difference be- 
tween the two. In this way he holds up 
a mirror to his own pronunciation and 
he is able, objectively, to eliminate his 
mistakes which, otherwise, he would 
never know he made." 

Mr. Freeman further related that Mid- 
dlebury College uses Audio Red Label 
Discs exclusively. 

W. S. Morgan, Director of Radio (now on 
leave of absence) in the U. of Neb. record- 
ing lab. 

Neb. Has Recording Lab 

(Continued from Page 2) 
sion of the University finds this service 
most valuable in sending discs to stu- 
dents and teachers for work in their 

"Recordings made by radio students 
at Nebraska," Mr. Bogen continues, 
"have proved to be of great value as a 
teaching aid. Various types of radio 
scripts and radio techniques are recorded 
for demonstration purposes. Students 
record the best newscasts and dramatic 
show of the semester and these are used 
for demonstration in radio classes the 
following year. 

"In the Speech Improvement Clinic, 
recordings are made at the beginning of 
corrective lessons so comparison may be 
made of the progress in overcoming or 
correcting speech difficulties. The Clinic 
serves not only our students, but also 
people from the entire state and coop- 
erates with the public schools of Ne- 
braska in any speech correction work." 

French Associates Arrive 

(Continued from Page 1) 
were approached by a customer who 
asked whether they could put a lacquer 
coating on a flat disc and thereby make 
a recording blank. Being keenly in- 
terested in various types of varnish 
and lacquer, they were immediately in- 
trigued by such a project and in a short 
time, Mr. St. Hilaire developed a preci- 
sion-machine method of coating which 
greatly accelerated quality production 
and Mr. Chadapaux, partner and chem- 
ist, developed special lacquer formulas. 
This method was later patented and 
in 1938 Audio Devices made a contract 
with the French firm by which they 
were given exclusive rights to manufac- 
ture recording discs under the Pyrolac 
patent. And, so today, Audiodiscs are 
still manufactured under these same 

Glossary of Disc-Recording Terms 

(Continued from Page 3) 

Laminated record: A disc composed of 
several layers of material. Normally 
used with one thin facer on each side 
of a core. 

Land: The record surface between two 

Lateral compliance: The ability of a re- 
producing stylus to move laterally 
with respect to the record groove 
while in the reproducing position in a 

Lateral recording: A recording in which 
the groove modulation is in the plane 
of the record and along a radius. 

Lead screw: The threaded rod which 
leads the cutter or reproducer across 
the surface of the disc. 

Lead-in spiral: A blank, spiral groove at 
the beginning of a record, generally 
having a pitch that is much greater 
than that of the recorded grooves. 

Locked groove: A concentric, blank 
groove at the end of modulated 
grooves whose function is to prevent 
further travel of the reproducer. 

Magnetic pickup: A reproducer employ- 
ing an armature placed in a magnetic 
field and coupled mechanically to the 
reproducing stylus. An electric po- 
tential is generated in a coil placed in 
this field when the stylus is actuated 
by the modulated groove of a record. 

Mother: A positive produced directly 
from the metal master or negative. 
(Glossary of Disc-Recording Terms will be 

continued in the July issue of Audio Record.) 

WHOM — Recording a Necessity 

(Continued from Page 2) 

WHOM. Immediately upon completion, 
the discs were air expressed to the radio 
stations in those other cities, bringing 
their listeners first-hand conversational 
information about the people they know 
and want to hear about. 

As WHOM is a foreign language sta- 
tion, it is sometimes necessary to make 
recordings for spot-checking certain for- 
eign language programs where there 
might be some doubt as to the content 
of the actual broadcast. Here again disc 
recording comes into it own and gives 
a true reproduction of what actually 
took place. 

Recordings, whether supplied by a 
transcription company or cut in the 
studios, form an integral part of the 
broadcasting conducted by an indepen- 
dent station, and especially is that true 
of WHOM, broadcasting in Polish, Ital- 
ian, Jewish, Russian and Greek as well 
as in English and thus reaching a more 
diversified audience of listeners than an 
all-English radio station. 




Vol. 2 No. 7 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

July, 1946 

Scenes from Audio Devices' movie "Audiodiscs — They Speak For Themselves." Above: Engineer 
examining hygro-thermograph. Left Inset: Inspector testing aluminum bases for flatness with 
mirrorgraph. Right Inset: Engineer operating machine which tests wearing qualities of discs. 

Audio Devices' 16 m.m. Full-Color Sound Movie 
"They Speak For Themselves" Recently Released 

of Audio Devices' new, full color, sound movie which depicts important 
phases in the production of Audiodiscs as well as detailed information on the 
proper method of handling and using 
Audiodiscs and Audiopoints. 

Many Educational Scenes 

The movie, 17 minutes in length, was 
produced by Pathescope Productions, New 
York-Hollywood in Audio Devices' plant 
and laboratories. 

Among some of the interesting scenes in 
the movie are : the automatic washer which 
washes the aluminum blanks one by one to 
remove every trace of dirt and grease; the 
subsequent inspection of each base to in- 
sure that it is perfectly flat ; the formulation 
and mixing of recording lacquers: the well 
equipped Audio laboratory where latest 
scientific devices tell just how every Audio- 
disc will behave today, tomorrow and every 
day thereafter; the noise level check — done 
by cutting a groove in the Audiodisc with 
the cutter terminals open; the wear test — 
where unmodulated grooves are cut and 
(Continued on Page 4) 

It's A Good Thing, Brother! 

Some day I'm going to murder the bugler 
Some day they're going to find him dead 
That long- felt ambition of every 
G.I. took a setback recently when it 
was announced that the acute short- 
age of experienced buglers in the 
American occupation zone in Ger- 
many had necessitated a rush order to 
Army officials in the United States 
for 5 50 sets of recorded bugle calls. 
Seems that this distressing state of 
affairs came to light when the Special 
Service Section in Frankfurt became 
swamped with requests from organi- 
zations, minus buglers, who were 
having trouble routing sleepy G.I.'s 
from their warm bunks. The canned 
calls will be distributed throughout 
the European theatre as part of a new 
campaign to emphasize military dis- 

Great Value of Recording 
Stressed By Speech Head 

Lectures on Theory Not Sufficient; 

Students Must Hear Their Errors 

The Speech Department at Northern 
Illinois State Teachers College, De Kalb, 
Illinois, has found that the use of the re- 
cording machine is one of the most forceful 
ways of teaching good speech. 

"We realize," writes Mr. W. V. O'Con- 
ncll. Chairman of the Department of 
Speech, "after long experience, that lectur- 
ing on theory is not sufficient. The student 
seems to have a propensity for forgetting 
rules on theory which is accompanied by a 
comforting belief that his speech is not de- 
fective in either quality or pronunciation. 
His complacency is usually shaken when he 
hears his first recording." 

At Northern Illinois State Teachers Col- 
lege where the beginning course in speech 
is required of all students, a recording of 
the speech of each is made at the beginning 
and at the end of each quarter. After the 
initial recording, each student has a private 
conference with the speech clinician who 
discusses his errors and makes suggestions 
for improvement. This has proved to be one 
of the most successful teaching devices, 
since the student cannot hear himself as 
others hear him until he has recorded his 
speech and heard it played back. At the end 
of the quarter the student makes another 
recording. A comparison of the two record- 
ings is made to check improvement. 

Not only in the fundamentals class is the 
recording machine used. The radio classes 
record programs which are analyzed and 
discussed by the instructor. Students in In- 
terpretation and Dramatic Production also 
make recordings. 

"One of the most valuable uses of the re- 
cording machine," Mr. O'Connell remarks, 
"is the help which is gained by the students 
playing a role in the college productions. At 
this time a student is strongly motivated to 
improve his speech and often spends a great 
deal of time working on speech improve- 

(Continued on Page 2) 


July, 1946 




1 ^H 












Wm. C. Speed, Audio Devices' president bids 

good luck to Clarence C. Pell, Jr., company's 

national sales manager, prior to initial hop 

of air-borne service unit. 

Air-Borne Service Unit 

NaHonal Sales Manager EsHmates 
Unit Will Cover 50,000 mi. This Year 

Audio Devices' new air-borne service 
unit, designed to implement a program of 
accelerated customer contact and technical 
educational service, was commissioned a 
few weeks ago at La Guardia Field in New 
York by the company's national sales mana- 
ger, Clarence C. Pell, Jr. 

The unit consists of a specially- 
equipped, single-engined Waco cabin plane, 
a technician when needed, and such sales 
or service material as the occasion may war- 
rant and will permit brief or extended 
trips on short notice to all parts of the 
country. " We plan," Mr. Pell said, "to 
cover more than 50.000 miles this year 
on service calls alone. Also, if necessary, 
the unit may be pressed into service as 
an emergency delivery device in the 
event of sudden curtailment in freight 

Solving the disc problems encountered by 
broadcasting stations; helping new FM 
stations establish proper recording setups; 
demonstrating techniques of sound record- 
ing in audio-visual training at schools and 
teachers' conventions and educating radio 
parts distributors and radio service men in 
recording technique are but a few of the 
many applications to which the new air- 
borne unit will be put. 

"A service innovation in the recording 
industry, the unit," Mr. Pell said, "will per- 
mit Audio Devices to give many more times 
the service than could be rendered through 
use of other transportation methods." 

New Technical Series 

The first in a new scries of technical 
articles, based on timely recording 
subjects and written by men promi- 
nent in the recording industry, ap- 
pears in this issue of Audio Record. 
('See Page 2, Col. 1) 

Army Features "Duckworth Chant" 
in Current Recruiting Drive 

The U. S. Army Second Service Com- 
mand, in an effort to stimulate recruiting 
in the peacetime Army, recently for- 
warded to all radio stations in New 
York, New Jersey and Delaware a rC' 
corded transcription of three versions of 
the Army's famous Duckworth Chant, 
one of the most infectious and interest' 
ing drill chants developed in World 
War II. 

Requesting that these stations coop- 
erate in the current recruiting drive by 
using these transcriptions (2 min — 1 min 
— and 50 sec spots) in whatever free time 
they had available in the course of daily 
broadcasting, the Army pointed out that 
it was their belief that the Duckworth 
Chant was a more entertaining way of 
aiding the drive than the usual one and 
two minute spot announcements of 
straight dialogue. 

The Chant was recorded in the NBC 
Recording Studios in New York. 

The Man With the Story 

Mercer McLeod, world traveler, actor, writer 
and master storyteller, brings his best talents to 
the fore in the brilliant new NBC Recorded 
WITH THE STORY. Recognized as one of 
Canada's greatest actors, McLeod enacts the 
parts of all male characters in his stories with 
astounding voice changes and differences of 
pacing. The strange, improbable but not im- 
possible eerie tales are currently being heard 
over radio stations throughout the United 
Slates and Canada. Recorded in cooperation 
with RCA Victor, Ltd. in Toronto, Canada, 
THE STORY is produced under the super- 
vision of the NBC Radio-Recording Division. 

Great Value of Recording 

Stressed By Speech Head 

(Continued from Page 1) 

In addition to the above work, the de- 
partment also has an audiometer which 
is not only used by the Speech Depart- 
ment but also by the Health Clinic and the 
Training School in order to ascertain pos- 
sible hearing defects of students. The de- 
partment likewise has a mirrorphonc 
which is used extensively for drill pur- 
poses and is considered a most valuable 
aid to students. 

^^tke ■^£coldUt 

By E. Franck, Research Engineer 

Overmodulation and Overload 

The correction of some faults in recording 
technique tends to be automatic, because the 
bad result is obvious and the method of correc- 
tion is simple. An example of this is overmodula- 
tion. When too loud a signal is recorded, the 
cutting stylus vibrates so far that the grooves 
cut into one another. When the record is played 
back, this is detected immediately by distortion 
at the loud parts of the record, or advanced 
echos or cross talk caused when a groove is cut 
into or deformed by the ne.xt following groove. 
In extreme cases, as in the diagram, there may 
even be tracking failure. All these results are 
easily recognized and the correction is a simple 
matter of recording at a lower volume. 

Overmodulation (use of too much volume) 
results in one groove cutting into the next. 
Occ.ision.ll absence of "land" permits the play- 
ing needle, impelled by curving wave forms, to 
follow such a course as is indicated by the 
dotted line while normally it should follow the 
broken line. 

Another fault usually found in records cut on 
portable machines is not so easily detected and 
we see signs of it repeatedly in discs cut by con- 
scientious recording fans who make otherwise 
excellent records. We are referring to overload. 

As a general practice, it is good to record close 
to maximum possible loudness for loud pas- 
sages of music. This results in the greatest 
signal to noise ratio and minimizes scratch 
noise. However, many people using portable 
machines do not realize that their equipment 
cannot record to full volume without con- 
siderable distortion. This distortion is due 
either to overload in the amplifier because it 
cannot handle the necessary power or in the 
cutting head. It can be in both places. The remedy 
is the same as before, merely record at a lower 
level even though the modulation never reaches 
maximum at the loudest parts. The scratch level 
with good cutting styli and blanks is low enough 
to permit quiet records even though not recorded 
to top level. 

The best check for this kind of overload is to 
record some music at top level and then again at 
6 to 10 db lower. Both sets of grooves are then 
played hack adjusting the volume control so that 
they are equally loud. If there is overload present, 
the portion recorded at a lower level will sound 
better. On some machines it is astonishing how 
much improvement there is when the recording 
level is kept below the overload region. 

July, 1946 


Tips for Handling Discs 
for Processing 

By K. R. Smith, Vice-Pres. 
MUZAK CORP., New-York-Chicago 

(T/iis IS the first i-n a series of articles bv leading 
figures m the recording field.) 

A metal negative from your master disc 
cannot be better than the master recording 
supplied to Muzak. We are just as inter- 
ested in helping our clients to supply ,i 
better product as they are themselves. 

A fine original product means a perfect 
_____^ transcription, which 

results in increased 
sales for you and 
more work for us. 
We have a few tips 

^^^y^flW y*^"^ ^ better tran- 

^^^^^^k .W scription. 

H^^^^^^l^^^ Cleanliness — 

most impor- 
K. R. Smith tant — assum- 

ing of course, your actual recording 
is good. Avoid dust, lint, finger marks 
especially. We can remove most of 
the free particles of dirt but iingcr 
marks etch into the coating and in- 
variably cause noise. 

2. Package your discs correctly. Where 
practical, use a glassine envelope. 
Don't pack so tightly that corrugated 
marks will be pressed into the surface 
of the recording. Results are noise 
and latticed appearance of finished 

3. Don't be, "penny wise and pound 
foolish," about changing the stylus. 
If there is the slightest doubt about 
it being dull or chipped, replace it. 
Generally speaking, a bright reflective 
cut is an indication of a good stylus. 
As a precaution, every so often play 
back your test cut and listen for noise 
— don't forget a slight noise in your 
original is greatly increased on the 
vinylite pressing. 

4. Proper cut depth is important — 60% 
for groove and 40% for wall — too 
deep may cause you to lay down less 
amplitude of modulation, too light — 
poor tracking. 

5. Lay down, with proper depth cut, 
full modulation. This can be approxi- 
mated by feeding your cutter with a 
200 cycle frequency. Note VU meter 
for reading at full modulation of cut. 
You can see when this is attained by 
means of your microscope. Ride gain 
so that voice and middle low fre- 
quencies do not drive your VU be- 
yond this point. 

The Madison College orchestra; Clifford T. Marshall, directing. (All orchestra programs are 
recorded on Red Label Audiodiscs) 

Recorded Discs Play Major Role In Obtaining 
Jobs For Talented Madison College Students 

"Our recording equipment is the greatest aid I could hope for in orches' 
tral training," says Mr. CHfford T. Marshall, director of instrumental music 
at Madison College, Harrisonburg, Virginia. 

"Also," Mr. Marshall relates, "it is used 

Glossary of Disc-Recording 

Reprinted by permission of the Institute of 
Radio Engineers 

(Continued from Page 4 of the June 
issue of Audio Record) 

Needle: (reproducing needle): A replaceable 
reproducing stylus (which see). 

Needle drag: Same as stylus drag (which see). 
Needle pressure: Same as stylus pressure (which 

Optical pattern: The pattern which is observed 

when the surface of a record is illuminated 

by a beam of parallel light. 

Orange peel: Mottled surface of a defective 
disc having an appearance similar to the skin 
of an orange. 

Original reccrding: See lacquer original and 
wax original. 

Overcutting: Excessive level in recording to 
an extent that one groove cuts through into 
an adjacent one. 

Pickup: A mechanicoelcctrical transducer 
which is actuated by the undulations of the 
record groove and transforms this mechani- 
cal energy into electrical energy. 

Pinch effect: A pinching, or in some cases a 
hfting of the reproducing stylus, twice each 
cycle in the reproduction of lateral record- 
ings, caused by the recording stylus cutting 
a narrower groove when moving across the 
record while swinging from a negative to a 
positive peak. 

Playback: An expression used to denote the 
immediate reproduction of a recording. 

Poid: The curve that the center of a sphere 
traces when the surface of the sphere is 
rolling along a sine wave. 

(Continued on Page 4) 

for a great many purposes other than for 
music. For example, the English department 
uses it in connection with the Speech de- 
partment. And here, like at many other 
colleges throughout the country, students 
record on one side of a disc at the beginning 
of the fall term and the other side the fol- 
lowing spring. As the same script is used 
for both sides, progress is easily gauged by 
the teacher who does not have to rely on 
memory in estimating the student's grades. 
For this work, only 10" Yellow Label Au- 
diodiscs are used." 

Discs — Employment Aids 
Madison College has also found that a 
recorded disc can play an important role in 
obtaining a job for a talented student when 
the distance does not permit a personal in- 
terview with the prospective employer. 
"For a matter of record." Mr. Marshall 
says, "on all but one occasion our stu- 
dent secured the position she applied for. 
Audicxliscs for Speech and Music 

"At Madison, we are very anxious to 
attain the highest fidelity that it is possible 
to obtain and we stress the faithful repro- 
duction of the high frequencies. Our re- 
cording equipment is tailor made and in- 
cludes the best components available. After 
trying every type and make of disc, we set- 
tled on Yellow Label Audiodiscs for speech 
recording and Red Label Audiodiscs for 


July, 1946 

Chas. Baltin, WHOM program director, con- 
ducting "Pulse of the People" interviews. Show 
is recorded and rebroadcast at a later time. 

New Transcribed Forum 
Heard Over WHOM 

Current Topics Discussed 

A new type of recorded forum program 
in which the man-on-the-street is given an 
opportunity to voice his opinion on current 
topics was launched recently on WHOM- 
New York — Jersey City, when '"Pulse of 
the People" made its debut. 

Charles Baltin, WHOM Program Direc- 
tor, discusses briefly the pros and cons of the 
subject and then proceeds to interview men 
and women on the street, seeking their 
opinions. After a representative group of 
passers-by have been interviewed, Baltin 
analyzes and summarises the opinions ex- 

The show is recorded at noon on Thurs- 
day and broadcast the following Sunday 
evening from 5:05 to 5:30. 

Audio Sound Movie Released 

(Continued from Page 1) 

subjected to several hundred playings as a 
device measures increase in noise level ; the 
controlled weather room where every kind 
of climatic condition can easily be regulated 
for rigid tests; the misuses of Audiodiscs — 
scratching and scoring the recording sur- 
face with the drive pin — finger marking 
the disc — dropping the cutting head hap- 
hazardly on the disc; the proper method 
of inserting an Audiopoint — the correct 
angle and depth of cut . . . and many 
other educational scenes that will interest 
every recordist. 

Film Available For Local Showing 

Audio Devices plans to show this educa- 
tional film throughout the country to dis- 
tributors, engineers of radio stations, motion 
picture and commercial recording studios, 
colleges and home recordists. 

For information on when AUDIODISCS 
can be shown in your city, write to Audio 
Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Ave., New 

Glossary of Disc-Recording Terms 

(Continued from Page 3) 

Postemphasis: The complement in reproduc- 
tion of pre-emphasis (which see). 

Pre-emphasis: A method of recording whereby 
the relative recorded level of some frequen- 
cies is increased with respect to other fre- 

Pressing: A record produced in a record- 
molding machine from a matrix or stamper. 

Processing: Making the master, mother, and 
matrix (which sec). 

Recording head: Same as cutter (which see). 

Re-recording: A recording made from the re- 
production of a recording. (See also dub- 

Reference recording: Recording of a program 
or other material made for the purpose of 
checking same. 

Reproducing stylus: The "needle" or jewel 
which follows the undulations in the record 
groove and transmits the mechanical motion 
thus derived to the pickup mechanism. 

Rumble: Low-frequency vibration mechanically 
transmitted to the recording or reproducing 
turntable and superimposed on the repro- 

Safety: A second recording, made simultane- 
ously with the original, to be used for dupli- 
cation should the original be damaged. 

Shaving: Process of removing material from a 
wax disc of recording material to obtain a 
plane surface. 

Shell or shell stamper: A thin metal matrix 
(generally 0.015 to 0.020 inch thick). 

Spew: The excess record material which is 
ejected from the record press in the manu- 
facture of pressed records. 

Spread groove: A groove, with greater than 
normal pitch, cut between recordings of 
short-time duration, thus separating the re- 
corded material into bands while still en- 
abling the reproducing stylus to travel from 
one band to the next. 

Sputtering: A process sometimes used in the 
production of the metal master, wherein the 
wax or lacquer original is coated with an 
electrical conducting layer by means of an 
electrical discharge in a vacuum. Sometimes 
called cathode sputtering. 

Stamper: A negative (generally made of metal) 
produced from the mother (which see) and 
from which the finished pressings arc mold- 
ed. (See also matrix.) 

Stylus drag: The expression used to denote 
the eifea of the friction between the record 
surface and the reproducing stylus. 

Stylus force: Effective weight of reproducer 
or force in vertical direction on stylus when 
it is in operating position. 

Stylus pressure: Term sometimes erroneously 
used to denote effective weight of reproducer 
or stylus force (which see). 

Stylus weight: Actually stylus force (which 
sec ). 

Surface noise: The noise reproduced in play- 
ing a record due to rough particles in the 
record material and/or irregularities in the 
walls of the groove left by the cutting stylus. 

Throw-out spiral: A blank spiral groove at 
the end of a recording, generally at a pitch 
that is much greater than that of the re- 
corded grooves. 

Throw-out tail: End of throw-out spiral (which 

Tracing distortion: A harmonic distortion in- 
troduced in the reproduction of records 
because of the fact that the curve traced by 
the center of the tip of the reproducing 
stylus is not an exact replica of the modu- 
lated groove. For example, in the case of 
a sine-wave modulation in vertical record- 
ing, the curve traced by the center of the 
tip of a stylus is a "poid" (which see). 

Tracking error: The angle (in a lateral re- 
cording) between the vertical plane contain- 
ing the vibration axis of the mechanical 
system of the reproducer and a vertical 
plane containing the tangent to the record 
Transition frequency: The frequency at which 
the change-over from constant-amplitude re- 
cording to constant-velocity recording takes 

Translation loss: The loss in high-frequency 
reproduction which occurs as the groove 
velocity decreases. 

Turnover frequency: Same as transition fre- 
quency (which see). 

Vertical compliance: The ability of a repro- 
ducing stylus to move in a vertical direction 
while in the reproducing position on a 

Vertical recording (hill-and-dale recording): 
A recording wherein the groove modulation 
is in a plane tangent to the groove and 
normal to the surface of the record. 

Vertical stylus force: See stylus force. 

Wax: A blend of waxes with metallic soaps 
(also see cake wax). 

Wax master: A term improperly applied to a 
"wax original" (which see). 

Wax master: A term improperly applied to a 
"wax original" (which see), 

William (or willy): A negative produced from 
a mother to produce still another mother. 

Wow: A low-frequency flutter (which see). 

Parts Show Huge Success 

The 1946 Radio Parts & Electronic 
Equipment Conference ii Show, held a few 
weeks ago in Chicago, was the most out- 
standing event in the history of the radio 
industry, according to figures released by 
Kenneth C. Prince, General Manager of 
the Show. More than 7,500 individuals 
registered for admission, and of these almost 
2,500 were affiliated with distributing firms. 
The largest previous attendance at any trade 
show in this industry was 4,400, exclusive 
of radio servicemen and amateurs. 169 man- 
ufacturing lines and 14 publications occu- 
pied booths. Audio Devices" booth at the 
show is pictured above. This had four dis- 
play cases showing steps in the manufacture 
of Aud'odiscs, production of phonograph 
records from master discs by the gold sput- 
tering process, the various types of Audio- 
discs and the complete line of Audiopoints 
for recording and playback. 




Vol. 2, No. 8 

444 Madison Ave.. N. Y. C. 

August, 1946 


Atom Test Preparations 
Recorded by Coast Outlet 

Land, Sea and Air Recordings Made; 
Many Technical Problems Encountered 

One of the most interesting technic- 
ally, and exciting of all radio broadcast 
station operations is the special events 
division. Fire, floods, wrecks, parades, 
sports — all jam into this classification. 
But the one to end them all probably 
was the recently-completed 15,000 mile 
trip by the special events department of 
KSFO and the Universal Broadcasting 
Company of San Francisco to the Mar- 
shall Islands, some 5,000 miles out in the 
Pacific, for a program giving a preview 
to the atom-bomb tests. 

To provide not only a glimpse of the 
preliminary work being done for the 
atom-bomb tests, but also word pictures 
of the site of the test and other neigh- 
boring Marshall Islands, the natives, their 
customs and activities, and their reactions 
to the preparations being made, it was 
decided to make on-the-spot recordings. 

With this in mind, our special events 
department received permission from 
Joint Task Force One to proceed to the 
Bikini area to make recordings of these 
preliminaries attendant to the atom-bomb 
tests. The crew of three was made up of : 
Ray V. Hamilton, e.xecutive vice presi- 
dent; Austin Fenger, West Coast radio 
reporter; and the writer. 

It was the intent of the operation to 
t.ike this basic program material recorded 
on locale, and then fly them back to our 
main studios in San Francisco. These 
recordings were to be assembled, some 
voicing added where necessary for sta- 
tion and commercial tie-ins, timed, and 
duplicate recordings cut from the master 
assemblage. They were then shipped via 
air to nearly 100 stations scattered all 
over the United States, who were sub- 
scribers to a series of 15 programs. While 
such a system has been applied before 
this was probably the largest and longest 
of its type. 

It was expected that all kinds of en- 
gineering problems would be encount- 
(Continued on Page 3) 

A-Bomb Ccirespondents aboard the destroyer TOFFEY off Bikini. (Top Row L to R) Lt. 
Wyman Riley, public relations; Fred Opper, ABC: Elton Fay, AP; Frsnk Allen, INS; Ralph 
H. Peterson, NBC; Don Bell, Mutual; Jos. Myler, UP; Don Mozley. CBS; (Lower Row L to 
R) V. Adm. W. H. P. Blandy, Comdr. Joint Task Force; Capt. C. H. Lyman, operations offi- 
cer; Capt. W.C.Winn, Asst. operations officer; and unidentified navy chiel quartermaster; 
Comdr. O. D. Waters, skipper of the TOFFEY. Photo courtesy Broadcasting 

Complete Radio Coverage of Bikini Atom Tests 
Made Possible With Recording — Networks Say 

The value of recording to radio in presenting the greatest "special 
event" in its history, the dropping of the world's fourth atomic bomb off 
Bikini Atoll, Sunday, June 30, was divulged recently to Audio Record by 

representatives of all four major net- 


As one network chieftain put it: "Re- 
cording was virtually a 'must" to radio 
because the various time changes and 
schedule arrangements often made it im- 
possible to bring in 'live' our correspon- 
dents in the Pacific." Another chain offi- 
cial was in agreement saying: "The prob- 
lem of atmospherics had to be considered 
carefully, making it far safer to pick up 
our men at Bikini whenever these atmo- 
spherics permitted the most suitable re- 
ception." "And then to," pointed out a 
third web representative, "recording 
made it possible for us to present our 
correspondent's views at a time most 
convenient to our thousands of listeners." 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Disc Tragedy 

After selling a big show to a spon- 
sor, one of the networks, believing 
that they could improve upon the 
audition disc, decided to alter the 
program here and there . . . 

Later, at a gala celebration party 
at the Waldorf, a recording of the 
show was put on to entertain the 
sponsor. As the disc began and the 
revised edition of his purchase met 
his ears, the angered sponsor rose to 
his feet and shouted: "Did I buy that 
show? Cancel the deal right away!" 


August, 1946 

Tom Slater presented with Hcadlincr's Award 
for 1946 by Warren B. Francis, Prcs. Elect of 
Natl. Press Club of Washington, D. C. Pres- 
entation was made recently at Atlantic City. 

Special Award to Slater 
ForRadar-Moon Broadcast 

Audiodrsc Recorded Feature Voted Best 
"Special Events Broadcast" of Year 

The 1946 National Headliners' Club 
Award "for the best special events broad- 
cast of the year" has been won by Tom 
Slater, director of special events for Mu- 
tual, in connection with the Mutual net- 
work broadcast of the Army expcrmients 
m which radar contact was established 
with the moon. 

The citation to Slater was one of the 
20 prized Headliner Awards, plus a 
special citation, which were announced 
recently at national headquarters. The 
awards, given annually in the field of 
press, radio and photography, were pres- 
ented at a dinner in Atlantic City, on 
Saturday, June 22. 

The MBS broadcast of radar contact 
with our lunar satellite originated m the 
Army laboratories at Belmar, N. J., and 
included the actual sound of the radar 
impluses as they were sped on their way 
to the target, some 240,000 miles distant, 
and the sound of the return echo ap- 
proximately two-and-one-half seconds 
later. The broadcast also included inter- 
views with Col. Victor A. Conrad, com- 
manding officer of the Signal Corps En- 
gineering Laboratories at Bradley Beach, 
and Lt. Col. John H. DeWitt, Jr., the 
officer under whose guidance the ex- 
periments were conducted. 

The program was presented over Mu- 
tual on Sunday, Jan. 27, and was emceed 
by Mr. Slater. Through his efforts, a 
master recording (if the broadcast is be- 
ing presented by Audio Devices, Inc., to 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Audlodiscs Serve KDTH 
In Reporting Holocaust 

Iowa Station Commended by Nation; 
Recorded Coverage of Fire Excellent 

Station KDTH — Dubuque, Iowa, now 
places more emphasis than ever before 
on its recording department, especially 
since the news "beat" which was scored 
when Dubuque's Hotel Canfield burned 
to the ground last June 9th, killing 
twenty of the one hundred twenty-nine 
guests. (It was the second major hotel 
disaster in a week following the Chicago 
Hotel La Salle fire.) 

After being alerted within a short time 
after the alarm was turned in, George 
Freund, KDTH News Editor and Bob 
Gribben, studio recording engineer, ar- 
rived on the scene with the station's 
portable recording unit and a supply of 
Audiodiscs ready to go to work. An on- 
the-spot, factual description of the fire 
was recorded and rushed to the trans- 
mitter which went back on the air at 2:40 
A.M. to begin coverage of the hotel 

The station's 1000 watt transmitter 
gave across-country coverage through the 
use of the Audiodisc recording and sup- 
plied service equal to network coverage 
without the aid of a network. 

Letters congratulating the station for 
putting its transmitter back on the air 
with the early and factual news report 
have poured into KDTH from distant 
cities throughout the entire country. 

ed program, features 52 half-hour dramatiza- 
tions of original mystery stories written by 
radio's leading writers. The cast includes such 
prominent stars of radio, stage .ind screen as 
Berry Kroeger, Betty Furness, Frank Lovejoy, 
Ncill O'Mailey (right above), Michael Fitz- 
maurice (left above), and many other equally 
well-known personalities. THE HAUNTING 
HOUR satisfy 's every listener's taste for mys- 
tery. It takes a panoramic view of the entire 
mystery field, and during the series every type 
of "creeper" is included . . . detective stories, 
psychological studies, tales of excitement and 
intrigue, stories of the supernatural and all 
other categories of mystery. Heard on stations 
throughout the United States and Canada, THE 
HAUNTING HOUR is produced by the NBC 
Radio-Recording Division, 

Ernest W. Franck 

^^^tfie t^ecoldUt 

By Ernest W. Franck, Research Engineer 

Enlarged View of Recording 

The small dimensions of grooves and 
recording and playback points are al- 
ways a handicap when one tries to visual- 
ize the exact me- 
_ -- chanics of disc re- 

^^^^*^ cording. It is thus 

m %\ helpful to imagine 

M "^ mm. ^ dimensions in- 

creased to the size 
,,n^ of something famil- 

^^^ ""t^^ iar in every day life. 

^^H^ ?" Let's take a rcpro- 

^^^^^^ sl^k ducing stylus and 

^H^^BiKo^^ imagine the tip en- 

larged to the size of 
a pencil eraser. The 
eraser end of a pencil is a good choice 
since its tip will be roughly sperical just 
as the end of a playback stylus. The pen- 
cil eraser is about fifty times the size of 
a playback point. 

Now we can imagine a reproducing 
point the size of a pencil eraser being 
guided along a groove. We have a close 
approximation to actual conditions if we 
further imagine that this groove was 
made with a recording point slightly 
smaller than a pencil eraser, so that tan- 
gential contact of the playback point is 
made at the sides and slides along with- 
out touching the bottom of the groove at 
all. Even with this great enlargement, 
the depth of the groove would be only 
flightly more than one-tenth of an inch. 
Now for the speed — and here is where 
our enlargement is helpful. The grooves 
of a typical transcription run about 100 
feet per minute (12" diameter at 33-1/3 
R.P.M.). Multiply this by our factor of 
50 and we find our eraser size point 
travelling along the grooves at a rate of 
,i,000 feet or nearly a mile a minute. 

When we get used to this speed, we 
can modulate the groove and we find 
how busy a life the playback stylus leads. 
A groove fully modulated at 400 cycles 
per second is twisting back and forth 
five times every foot. The total amount 
of this weaving approximates the full 
width of the groove. The forward visi- 
bility from the tip of the stylus is about 
I'^/i inches. Imagine travelling along at 
a mile a minute and not being able to 
see 3 inches ahead! At higher frequencies 
the turns will be sharper but will swing 
less. A 4,000 cycle groove will bend 
twice in '/i inches, even at this fifty 
times enlargement. 

August, 1946 


Selecting and Training 

by John E. Holmes 
Supervisor of Recording, NBC — New York 

(This is the second in a series of articles 
by leading figures in the recording 


The training of personnel in the engineerini; 
department of the Radio-Recording Division 
of the National Broadcasting Co., Inc., niiin he 
divided into several catagories. 

In New York the engineering department 
of the Radio Recording Division has its own 
group of studio engineers who "ride gain" 
only on shows and musical productions for 
recording. There is a 
field group that do re- 
cordings with portable 
units. There is a group 
that is responsible for 
the electrical and me- 
chanical maintenance 
of the complete record- 
ing plant. The final 
^^^ group, and that group 
^^^ whose training we will 
John E. Holmes discuss is the recording 

operating group, the people who arc respon- 
sible for the finished product. 

The recording art in all of its detail is very 
highly specialized. Consequently there are few 
engineers available with an adequate back- 
ground in this art. During the recent war there 
were no engineers available for the expanding 
recording department at N.B.C. It was during 
this period that women were iirst employed. 
It was the experience of the National Broad- 
casting Co. that the women thus employed in 
the recording department did a very satisfac- 
tory job. 

The problem that first has to be met is to 
choose the proper type of person from among 
all people interviewed. It was found that it 
is best to find people whose background is 
somehow related and whose aptitudes can be 
adapted to the recording work. A real in- 
terest in recording is a prime requisite — for 
through experience we have learned that a 
person with the type of mind that can segre- 
gate and actively think of several jobs at once 
is particularly valuable. 

The first step is to introduce the new em- 
ployee to every type of recording un't and to 
acquaint him with the standardized methods 
of handling each. The second step is the 
familiarization with recording stylus and its 
particular function. Of course every possible 
fault of the stylus is taught and the instant 
recognition of these faults and their cure is 
very important. The next step is the basic 
electro-mechanical function of the recording 
head. The limitations and variations of the 
recording head is taught in easy stages as 
there are many specialized cases involved. The 
choosing and inspection of the recording 
blanks in all of its possible combinations is 
the next step. 

(Continued on Page if) 

More than one 1"' , .M.i-tir Audiodiscs being rushed from La Guardia Airport to 
Los Angeles for the Armed Forces R,idio Service. Millions of radio listeners in this country 
know about the work of APRS through the now familiar announcement: "This program is 
being broadcast to our armed forces overseas through the world wide facilities of the Armed 
Forces Radio Service." 

Recording Invaluable to 
Carnegie Drama Class 

Speech Professor Praises Audiodiscs; 
Terms Them "Accurate Mirrors of Sound" 

Each student in the Drama Depart- 
ment's Voice and Speech classes at Car- 
negie Institute of Technology, Pittsburg, 
Pa., makes an Audiodisc recording of his 
or her voice at the very beginning of the 
Freshman year. "And, after the indivi- 
dual's errors in this recording have been 
analyzed by his instructor," writes Miss 
Edith Warman Skinner, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Speech, "corrective procedures 
are immediately prescribed." 

Two Carnegie Tech. drama students check a 
recent Audiodisc recording. 

"At the conclusion of the first year of 
study," continues Miss Skinner, "the 
student makes another recording — per- 
mitting his improvement to be conve- 
niently and accurately gauged. This pro- 
cedure is followed in the Sophmore year. 
The Junior year recording, however, is 
made of the ten or more dialects studied. 

"Perhaps you would be interested in 
knowing," Miss Skinner relates, "that 
William Eythe, the M.G.M. movie star 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Atom Test Preparations 
Recorded by Coast Outlet 

(Continued from Page 1) 

ercd on a trip of this nature and they 

Much experience had been accumu- 
lated on a recent, similar-style trip to 
Hilo, Hawaii to cover the disastrous tidal 
wave which struck there. Thus we had a 
working knowledge of the type of equip- 
ment that might be needed. Applying 
this information we decided to take along 
three 6- volt storage batteries, a 350-watt 
rotary converter with adjustable speed 
control, a portable disc recorder (112- 
line feed), standard dynamic micro- 
phones, special audio amplifiers, filters, 
recording discs, etc. Total weight was 
approximately 500 pounds. 

Among the problems we encountered 
were those caused by climatic conditions 
,ind excessive vibration in planes. Be- 
cause of high temperature, recording 
levels had to be decreased by approxi- 
mately 12 to 16 vu due to the recording 
head damping, thinning, and softening of 
the disc materials. Equipment had to be 
continually wiped and oiled, microphones 
protected from the moisture by Protep- 
Sorb bags, equipment cases kept dry by 
burning light globes in them, microphone 
cable plugs enclosed in sacks made of 
parachute silk, the recorder slung in a 
cradle of rubber exerciser cord to over- 
come plane vibration, high-pass filters 
used to reduce motor roar, and an ad- 
vance ball used to keep the recorder head 
from skipping due to excessive vibration. 
The crew isn't joking when they say, 
"The equipment will be lighter, next 

(From a paper prepared by Allan Kees, 
Chief of Audio Facilities, Station KSFO 
and Universal Broadcasting System — 
San Francisco for the July, 19^6 issue 


August, 1946 

Recording Helps In Atonn 

(Continued from Page 1) 

During the week preceding the actual 
dropping of the bomb on the seventy- 
three ships jampacked in the Bikini la- 
goon, three of the principal chains aired 
many special broadcasts from the "Opera- 
tion Crossroads" area. ABC, CBS and 
Mutual brought in their correspondents 
at regular intervals with the latest de- 
velopments in the preparation for the 
"big show". All of these programs as 
well as special news bulletins from the 
Bikini area were recorded. 

"This Week Around the World", a 
program devoted exclusively to the atom 
test, was presented by American Broad- 
casting Company on Sundays, June 23 
and 30th. "Headline Edition", another 
atomic bomb feature with Pacific pick-ups 
was aired by the same net on Friday pre- 
ceding the test. Mutual presented a 
special pool show entitled "Eve of the 
Atom Test" on Saturday, June 29 from 
11:30 to 12:00 PMEDST featuring Sec- 
retaries Patterson and Forrestal, Generals 
Eisenhower and Spaatz. Vice Admiral 
Blandy and Admiral Nimitz. This pro- 
gram was recorded from the NBC Con- 
trol Room in New York earlier in the 

On Sunday, June 30, Able-day at 
Bikini, American carried a special pro- 
gram at 12:30 PMEDST on which all 
ABC correspondents were heard. At 
3:10, the same net aired the actual take- 
off of "Dave's Dream" for the target area. 
Later, on its National Hour, NBC pres- 
ented Admiral Blandy from the Pacific 
from 4:00 to 4:30 PMEDST. The pool 
broadcast which was presented "live" 
over all networks, with Bill Downs, ace 
CBS correspondent on the scene, at 6:00 
PMEDST, was rebroadcast by ABC at 
11:15 Sunday evening. NBC's San Fran- 
cisco outlet, KPO, also carried a rebroad- 
cast of the event for its west cost audi- 

When the stage is set for the dropping 
of the second bomb, net chiefs agree that 
they will again rely heavily on recording 
for radio's coverage of this history- 
making experiment. 

Selecting-Training Recordists 

(Continued from Page 3) 

The normal training period is three 
months. During this time the new operator 
works with experienced personnel on the 
normal day-time shift. The supervisor in 
charge works with him or assign him to 
work with an "old" hand. At the end of the 
three month period the operator is allowed to 
do a little more of the actual work each day 
until such a time that complete confidence is 
gained. Usually a man is able to stand watch 
hy the end of the sixth month and from there 
he learns that there is still much to learn 
about the art. 

Recording Invaluable To 

Carnegie Drama Class 

(Continued from Page 3) 

and a former graduate of our Drama 
Department, told me some months ago 
that he played the first discs used in his 
speech classes and checked them with a 
recording of one of his recent movies. 
He said he had many laughs over his 
'first talking pictures'. 

"Our students." the professor con- 
cludes, "are fully aware of the invalu- 
able aid of the Audiodisc in the study of 
Voice and Speech. It is possibly the 
actor's most important tool in the theatre 
for it makes a true and accurate mirror 
of sound." 

Special Award To Slater 
For Radar-Moon Broadcast 

(Continued from Page 2) 

the Script and Transcription Exchange 
and by midsummer pressings will be 
available for free loan distribution. It is 
interesting to note that the Hayden Plan- 
etarium, New York City, earlier this year 
announced that a recording of the pro- 
gram would be played at regular inter- 
vals in their auditorium for a period of 
one month. Actually the time had to be 
extended a second month to meet popular 
demands. (Audio Record readers will re- 
call that a full account of this historic 
event which was recorded on an Audio- 
disc appeared in our March Issue.) 


These bo(tl 
which have 
represents a part of 
research— responsible for ; 
the quality of Audiodiscs. 

but a small portion of the 4,632 

d through our laboratory. Each 

eries of chemical 

and maintaining 

For the leadership of Audiodiscs is the result of 
exhaustive experimental work, plus the most exact- 
ing quality controls known to the recording industry. 

* * • 

Recently, to add still further to our research facili- 
ties, we greatly expanded our laboratory. Today, 
our research engineers are constantly exploring new 
materials and methods, in order to further improve 
recording fidelity and broaden the field of sound 

Audiodiscs are maiiufMlmed in I he U.S.A. iiiidir Excliis 


dts I'trnii Pyrolac— Prance. 

[AUDIO DEVICES, INC., 444 Madison Ave., New York 22, N.Y. ) 

ff llff^lfy 



Vol 2 No. 10 

444 Madiscn Ave., N. Y. C. 

November, 1946 

J. Allen Brown 

bond campaign. 


By J. Allen Brown 

Assistant Director, Broadcast Advertising 


The radio industry did itself proud 
through its many contributions in behalf 
nf the national war effort. All trans- 
mitters in the country (some 900 sta- 
tions) broadcast dramatic war stories of 
American heroes. 
The civilian's role in 
the war was told, and 
every member of the 
family was encour- 
aged to buy War 
Bonds to the tune of 
hundreds of millions 

ItJKl^^ '^•' °^ dollars. 

I^|PP^^H| The Treasury De- 

1 dm^ ^^^B partment's trans- 

' Sb .^^^H cribed programs 
proved of inestim- 
able assistance in the 
In fact, the success of 
this gigantic program hinged in large 
measure on the medium of recordmg. 
The Treasury programs were of superb 
quality; indeed, the best the industry had 
to offer in direction, talent and reproduc- 
tion. And they were heard not only on 
the nation's most powerful stations but 
also — owing to the fact that they were 
tw^sftibed — on the hundreds of small 
outlets which are so important in then- 
respective areas. 

In the field of special events and new.'? 
coverage, recording facilities have made 
it possible for all stations to broadcast 
the most imaginative and colorful work 
of the world's greatest radio reporters. 

The networks have recorded some of 
their memorable broadcasts so that affili- 
ates might present them again, and in 
order that they might be made available 
to local clubs and institutions. 

During the war, Edward R. Murrow, 
then chief of CBS World News Bureau 
in London, did an eye-witness report of 
a bombing mission over enemy territory. 
This spectacular broadcast was recorded 
from the network by CBS and shipped 
to affiliates. Under the title "Unorches- 
trated Hell", it was given repeat per- 
formances on many stations. In addition, 
(Continued on Page 2) 

The Hindenberg Disaster. At Lakehurst, New Jersey, 
May 6, 1937, the giant German dirigible Hinden- 
berg exploded killing thirty-six persons. On the spot, describing the most tragic accident in 
commercial aviation's history, was a horror-stricken, half-crying radio announcer, sent from a 
Chicago station to record the landing of the huge ship. These recordings, broadcast later, 
shocked a spell-bound nation. 

Veterans Adnninistration's Recorded Series 
Features Outstanding Network Performers 

Almost six hundred radio stations throughout the United States 
have booked the Veterans Administration's top-flight network talent 
transcribed series "Here's to Veterans." 

Thirteen of the major web shows co- 
operated in the production of the series, 
making special recordings featuring in- 
formation of vital concern to the nation's 
e.x-servicemen and women. 

Programs in the series are: Hit Parade, 
Waltz Time, KoUege of Musical Know- 
ledge, Stairway to the Stars, Hildegarde, 
Supper Club, Great Moments in Music, 
Kate Smith, Highways in Melody, Danny 
Kaye, Saturday Night Serenade, Frank 
Sinatra and Fred Waring. 

The Veterans Administration, pro- 
ducers of the series, worked in coopera- 
tion with the Advertising Council. The 
series was made under the direction of 
Jos. L. Brechner, radio service direc- 
tor for the VA, and Chas. E. Dillon, 
who supervised the national coordination 
of the series preparation. 

Don Weiss, VA radio chief in New 
(Continued on Page If) 

Just A Dud 

One day during the late president's 
administration, a large mysterious 
package arrived at the White House. 
X-rays by government agents disclosed 
a solid black mass interwoven with 
wires. Baffled by this mystery parcel, 
the agents took their problem bundle 
to an isolated spot in the country — dug 
themselves a protective foxhole — tied 
a rope around the package — suspended 
it from the branch of a tree and 
cautiously pulled the other end of the 
rope. Nothing happened. Only a 
deep "thud". The package, it was 
found, contained nothing more than 
10 or 12 recorded discs — speeches of 
Winston Churchill. The Prime Min- 
ister had sent them as a gift to F.D.R. 

•7 Guard F. D. Br^Sat. Evening Post 


November, 1946 

"VR-torious Living" — outstanding religious tduc.itional projji.ini. Ii itiiiing the dramatic nar- 
ration of the Rev. E. Jerry Walker (at microphone), being recorded in the Chicago studios 
of the World Broadcasting System. Howard Petersen lends effective background music at 
the organ. 

ICRE Transcribed Program 
Heard Over 164 Stations 

FCC Praises Educational Recordings 

The International Council of Religious 
Education and its forty constituent 
Protestant denominations have found 
the electrical transcription the answer to 
a long-vexing problem. Realising that 
"a pulpit, a minister and a microphone'' 
do not constitute effective religious 
broadcasting, the ICRE sought ways and 
means to serve individual communities 
with professional-quality religious pro- 
grams on a minimum budget. The 
answer was lounJ in a Lransv.ribea scries 
"Victorious Living" now nearing com- 
pletion of its second year on the air with 
164 outlets. 

The series features the dramatic nar- 
ration of the Rev. E. Jerry Walker, 
trained commercial radio man, the ef- 
fective organ ba^ckground of Howard 
Petersen, occasional additional talent and 
sound effects. The series is produced by 
Bev Dean, Manager of International 
Radio Productions, in fhe studios of 
World Broadcasting System of Chicago. 

The program content revolves around 
true life stories in which rehgion is seen 
at work. The series was cited to Con- 
gress with praise by the FCC and was 
given an award by the Ohio State In- 
stitute for Education by Radio. 

Realizing that the average local in- 
terdenominational group is unable to af- 
(Continued on Page if) 

Tom Harmon Spurns "Live" 
Offers for Recorded Show 

Football-Movie Committments Practic- 
ability of Discs Decides Issue 

Tom Harmon, former Michigan foot- 
ball great and winner of every important 
pigskin award including the Heiscman 
and Robert W. Maxwell Trophies, is 
currently being heard over many sta- 
tions on a new recorded footb.iU series 
titled "Here Comes Harmon''. 

Tom Harmon. ex-Michigan footb.ill star and 
Vick Knight well known radio producer. Har- 
mon's recorded football forecasts are heard 
weekly over many stations throughout the 

Produced and transcribed by Vick 
Knight, outstanding producer of many 
"live" and recorded radio shows, and 
Criterion Radio Features, Chicago, the 
"Here Comes Harmon" stanza features 
the ex-Wolverine star's gridiron pre- 
dictions of all important games in the 
country each Saturday. During the 1945 
season, Harmon scored 87.5% correctly 
in his prognostications. His Bowl game 
(Continued on Page if) 

Transcribed for Broadcasting 

(Continued from Page 1) 

a digest was published in booklet form. 
George Hicks, ABC war correspon- 
dent, covered another of the war's most 
exciting stories by means of recording. 
Stationed on an Allied warship, his re- 
corded description of enemy planes at- 
tacking the ship in the EngHsh Channel 
during the Normandy invasion was an 
outstanding news story, and was made a 
"pool" broadcast for all networks, and 
recorded for public sale throughout the 

During the early part of the war, the 
Mutual Broadcasting System gave spot 
news every ,iO minutes in which record- 
ing facilities played a major part for 
broadcasting and re-broadcasting big 
news events. 

A decade ago, one of the biggest news 
stories of its day was the explosion of 
the German Zeppelin Hindenburg as it 
approached its New Jersey mooring sta- 
tion after an Atlantic crossing. The pas- 
sengers were caught like insects on burn- 
ing fly paper. Many of them somehow 
extricated themselves and jumped to 
serious injury or death on the ground 
below. All this was described by the 
horror-stricken, half-crying radio an- 
nouncer, as recording machines caught 
every sound and reverberation. These 
recordings, broadcast later, shocked a 
spell-hound nation. 

Transcribing for delayed broadcasts is 
routine programming in radio. It is 
especially heavy during the summer 
months when time conflicts develop be- 
cause of daylight savings time. The 
American and Mutual networks present 
a large number of delayed broadcasts in 
keeping with the various time zones. 

Many stations make a regular practice 
of recording a network show which 
comes down the line at the time occupied 
by a permanent local program. The de- 
l.iyed show is presented later in the day, 
or perhaps the next day. Facilities for 
recording in the studio offer a wide range 
for more effective programming. 

The finest talent in the world from 
-•^uch entertainment centers as New York 
and Hollywood are being made available 
to every station in the nation today by 
syndicated transcription companies. Top 
skills in producing, directing, acting and 
music, go into the creation of shows es- 
pecially transcribed for broadcasting. 

Perhaps the largest commercial tran- 
scription network of its time was the 
General Motors advertising campaign in 
behalf of Chevrolet some ten years ago. 
Over 400 large and small stations 
throughout the nation broadcast this 
series. Reports had it that no other com- 
mercial program in broadcasting history 
up to that time had been heard over as 
(Continued on Page 3) 

November, 1946 


.!•,« m^% 

Requirements For Good 
Phonograph Recording 

By Albert Pulley 

Chief Recording Engineer 


(This is the fourth in a series of articles 
by leading fiigures in the recording 

If I were asked to name the most im' 
portant requirements for good phono- 
graph recording in the order of their 
importance I would Hst them as follows: 
1. Fidelity and performance of the 
electrical equipment used in the 
recording channel. 

2. Perfection of 
mechanical equip- 
ment with respect 
to accuracy and 
constancy of speed, 
groove dimensions, 

3. Studio acous- 
tical properties and 
microphone place- 

^^ 4. Ability of 

'* ^^" the recording en- 
Albert Pulley gij^ggj. to ^Jj^3t the 

equipment to give the proper "balance" 
and other conditions necessary to ac- 
complish a good recording. 

These are the factors which are given 
the most consideration before a recording 
session takes place at the RCA Victor 
Recording Studios. 

They are not the only element that go 
into the making of a technically good 
master phonograph record, but they arc 
the basic considerations. If any of these 
factors is sub-standard, it follows that the 
finished product will be below par. 

There is an honest difference of 
opinion among engineers, musicans, and 
music lovers as to exactly what consti- 
tutes the "perfect" recording and what 
bearing it has on the above requirements. 
This is particularly true with respect to 
the third requirement — studio acoustical 
properties and microphone placement, as 
they determine the "quality" of the 
finished record. It has long since been 
established that what is required by one 
or more acoustical engineers as a tech- 
nically perfect studio may not always 
provide a record performance satisfac- 
tory to the greatest number of listeners. 
Music critics have their own ideas about 
what music should sound like. We can't 
please everyone so we think in terms of 
pleasing the greatest majority of people 
who listen to records in their homes. 

To do that, we have to decide what 
problems must be overcome before the 
artist reaches the studio. We must select 
the proper microphones for the type of 
instrumental or vocal recording being 

Broadcasting exercises and dances is nothing new for a radio station but to broadcast into 
thirty-two different physical education classes in Tacoma. Wash., public schools took some in- 
genuity on the part of KTBI-Tacoma. When classes in the old-time Western square dances 
grew so large that Bob Hagar, physical education director, could make it around to only a 
tenth of the schools a semester, KTBI devised a system where a '*prize" dance class is selected 
each month and the dances to be used on the regular Wednesday morning broadcast are re- 
corded ahead of time. Now, over 5,000 school children dance to the broadcast every week in 
what officials call one of the most successful school broadcast ideas ever developed. 

made. We decide upon the proper 
microphone placement, as determined by 
the composition of the group making the 
recording. The correct choice of micro- 
phones and their proper ratio or "bal- 
ance" between the several voices of the 
orchestra that is essential to the perfect 

Aside from attending to purely tech- 
nical considerations, such as fidelity of 
the electrical components of the record- 
ing system and the perfection of the 
mechanical devices used, which permit 
of a true relation between vvhat is heard 
on the monitor speaker system and the 
finished record, the recording engineer 
must be constantly alert to detect ex- 
traneous noises that will mar the quality 
of the finished recording. 

The fourth requirement listed — "the 
ability of the recording engineer to ad- 
just the equipment to give the proper 
musical balance and other conditions 
necessary to accomplish a good record- 
ing" is a vital one. In addition to adjust- 
ing the microphone pick-up for the 
proper "balance", the engineer must 
make sure that the volume range result- 
ing amplitude of cut is within prescribed 
limits during the recording, in order that 
the record may be played on all phono- 
graphs with maximum fidelity. 

If these requirement are satisfied, what 
is generally considered as a "perfect" re- 
cording should be obtained. 

Transcribed for Broadcasting 

I Continued from Page 2) 

many stations for a single sponsor. This 
was possible only through the medium 
of recording. 

In the national spot field, the tran- 
scribed announcement not only conveyed 
its messages and sold products, but set 
the nation to singing the "Pepsi-Cola 
song", the "Chiquita Banana song" and 
others. In recent months millions have 
been educated by Chiquita not to put 
bananas in the refrigerator. This ingra- 
tiating one-minute singing commercial 
told the banana story, assisted in the 
"food for famine" campaign, and has 
now become a contender for a bright 
spot on the Hit Parade. Dance bands 
over the networks, on platter shows and 
in juke boxes, have the nation doing the 
rhumba to its rhythm and singing its 
catchy phrases. 

The memorable fireside chats and 
dramatic network speeches of the late 
President Franklin D. Roosevelt were 
recorded by the National Broadcasting 
Company and made available in albums 
to the government, to museums, and to 
various historical and educational insti- 

Radio has progressed to the position 
of "number one public servant", thanks 
in part to those events and ideas which 


November, 1946 

A few hours after being elected as the sixth 
general of The Salvation Army in charge of 
v/ork in 97 couniri^^s all ovei the globe, Gen. 
Albert Orsborn (pictured above while broad- 
casting over the BBC chain), was broadcasting 
a message to the people of America over the 
Columbia network. His talk was recorded and 
is now being sent out by the Salvation Army 
to its officers in the field as an addition to its 
series stressing the Army's expanded program 
of aid, "Marching Forward To A Better 
World," N.B.C. and Mutual previously had 
aided the organization in its recording work. 

Top Stars In VA's Series 

(Continued from Page 1) 
York, and Lou Marks of the VA's Wash- 
ing staff handled the production of ten 
in the series — these shows originating 
in New York. Dean McNcaly handled 
the production and transcription of 
other shows originating in Hollywood. 

The series was recorded by NBC Re- 
cording. Initial arrangements with agen- 
cies and sponsors were made by Drew 
Dudley of the Office of Mobilisation and 
Reconversion, and George Ludlum of the 
Advertising Council in New York. 

Complete press brochures were sent 
to all stations in the country, providing 
press releases, promotional material and 
full information on the series. Stations 
then filled out an enclosed card, mailing 
it to the VA's Central Office in "^Vash- 
ington. Within a few days the set of 
thirteen programs was in the hands of 
the stations requesting the series. 

Each of the programs in the transcrib- 
ed series is a "capsule" edition of the 
big network show making the transcrip- 
tion. The stars themselves, or the regular 
program announcers, read the helpful 
informational spots (two on each pro- 
gram) which took the place of the nor- 
mal commercials. Each of the 14:30 
shows end with a one-minute theme tag 
over which the local station announcer 
reads a brief message giving the address, 
telephone number and location of the 
nearest Veterans Administration office. 

Production has already begun on a 
second series of 13 programs. 

ICRE Transcribed Programs 

(Continued from Page 2) 

ford big-time radio production and that 
network broadcasts could not afford the 
advantage of effective local tie-ins, the 
International Council of Religious Educa- 
tion turned to the transcription as the 
answer. Local ministerial groups, coun- 
cils of churches and religious education 
are enabled to tie in their own local mes- 
sages with the ET's, rented from the 
ICRE. The production budget is under- 
written by the 40 denominations and 
their publishing houses. Thus through 
the medium of transcription, a six-a-week 
broadcast is possible under local spon- 
sorship at minimum cost to the partici- 
pating groups. 

Harmon Spurns "Live" Show 

(Continued from Page 2) 

predictions were 100% correct. 

Before signing his present recording 
contract, Harmon, employed by WJR- 
Detroit before his entrance into the serv- 
ice, turned down "live" network offers 
to do another sports feature, in favor of 
transcriptions, in the expectation of 
getting greater station representation and 
more time for his many other activities. 

Harmon, a member of the champion 
Los Angeles Rams and husband of 
movie actress, Elyse Knox, will soon 
be seen in the forthcoming Monogram 
musical "Sweetheart of Sigma Chi". It 
will be his third movie appearance. 

With These Three Outstanding Features 




Professional recording engineers knov 
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recording styli. Made by skilled craftsmen to 
tions and individually tested in our laborati 
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Agood recording stylus requires a perfectly matched playback 
t. The Sapphire Audiopoint for playback fills tliis need com- 
:ly. In materials, workmanship and design, it is the finest playback 
point obtainable. (Should not be used on shellac pre 
These Audiopoints are protectively packaged ir 
phane covered cards-cards that are ideally suited for rel 
to be resharpened. 

OTHER POPULAR AUDIOPOINTS. that complete a full 
ing and playback styli, are: Stellite Recording Audiopo 
With many professional and non-professional recordis 
Lapped Steel Audi.>point. a recording stylus particularly adapted for 
nonprofessional recordists; Playback Steel Audiopoints (Straight 
Shank and Bent Shank), thq most practical playback points for 
general use. One hundred per cent shadowgraphed. 

For further informnlioti, lee your Audiodiics 
and Audiopoints distributor, or write 

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Vol. 2, No. I I 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

December, 1946 


Importance of Recordings 
To Norwegians During the 
Dark Days of War Told . . 

American Radio Urged to Remember 

"Ordinary People" of Other Lands 

By Ghdys Pctch, Radio Consultant 


New York City 

It's somewhat out of date nowadays to 
talk about an enterprise born during the 
war, and yet if this artiele is to be writ- 
ten, one must start in 1941, for it was 
then that the Royal Norwegian Infor- 
mation Service, an agency of the Royal 
Norwegian Government, started record- 
ing the programs "The Spirit of the 
Vikings" and "Norway Fights On." 
Since 1929 the writer had been in the 
habit of broadcasting from leading radio 
stations from coast to coast, about "Nor- 
way," its culture, its music, its people, 
rnd its beauty. Then came the war, and 
travelling having become almost an im- 
possibility for civilians, the idea of re- 
cording these programs was conceived. 

Starting with one station in the middle 
west, gradually the number of stations 
was increased until in 1942 three hun- 
dred and fifty stations throughout the 
U. S. and Canada were carrying the 
Norwegian programs weekly. Records 
Tvere atso serrt to Australia., New Zea- 
land, and Alaska. And so the story of 
Norway's gallant fight against the Ger- 
man invaders was told around the globe. 

The programs were always quite sim- 
ple, Norwegian airmen, sailors from the 
Norwegian Merchant Marine, and mem- 
bers of the Norwegian underground told 
thrilling stories of their actual experi- 
ences, told the facts as they had lived 
through them, without any embellish- 
ments, and it seems that these plain facts, 
reached right into the hearts of listeners. 

Many of these brave men have since 
made the supreme sacrifice, for the ideals 
for which they fought, but thanks to 
the art of recording, their voices and 
stories will live on, testimonies to the 
brave men who gave their all. 

Through our recorded programs it was 
possible during the long war years to 
(Continued on Page 3 J 

Frank M. Folsoni, Vice President RCA Victor receives the Billionth Record from J. W. Murray, 
Vice President in Charge of RCA Victor Record Activities at the RCA Victor Camden, N. J. 
factory. NBC broadcast the presentation of the famous disc. 

Milestone Reached In Company-Record History; 
Record's Original Sound Made On An Audiodisc 

A few weeks ago in Camden, N. J., where forty-eight years before 
the Victor Talking Machine Company was founded, the one bilHonth 
RCA Victor record was manufactured . . . thus marking a milestone in 
the history of the company as well as 
the record industry itself. 

The original sound of the billionth 
record — a performance of two Johii 
Philip Sousa marches by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra under the direction 
of Serge Koussevitzky — was cut on a 
standard Red Label Audiodisc. 

The historic disc, after being gold- 
plated, was given to Major General A. 
H. Turnage, Assistant Commandant of 
the United States Marine Corps, who 
accepted it in the name of the Corps, 
for inclusion in the Marine Corps ar- 
chives. The choice of the Marine Corps 
as the recipient of the billionth record 
has a historical significance which is di- 
rectly related to the two compositions 
performed by the Boston Symphony — 
"Semper Fidelis" and "Stars and Stripes 

(Continued on Page 2) 

Come West, Young Men 
at our expense 

In promoting a recent fashion show 
in Hollywood, Foote, Cone fe? Belding, 
on behalf of their client Cole of Cali- 
fornia, nationally known fashion de- 
signers, sent recorded invitations (8" 
discs) to leading fashion experts and 
dealers throughout the country. 

The novel invitations, when received 
by the prospective guests, were be- 
lieved to be a gag, but after rushing 
ofiF to the nearest play-back machine 
and hearing the voice of Fred Cole 
inviting them to a special showing of 
his latest creations (at his expense), 
the lucky designers dropped their 
scissors and hustled out their suitcases 
for a few peaceful days in sunny 


December, 1946 

Pictured above with announcer William Cullen 
(at left) are three featured players in the new 
ABA recorded series now being offered to 
banks throughout the country for local broad- 
cast use. Left to Right — Abby Lewis, Scott 
Tennyson and Walter Vaughn. 

American Bankers Ass'n. 
Offers New ETs To Banks 

Recorded Dramatizations To Be Used 
As "Core" of 15 Minute Program 

As part of a new radio service for 
banks, the American Bankers Associa- 
tion recently announced a new series of 
recorded dramatisations for local broad' 
cast use. These recordings, all on bank 
loan services, are about 4^/2 minutes in 
length. They are intended for use as 
the "core" of 15 minute programs, the 
balance of each show being supplied by 
the local station from its musical library. 
According to John Mack, Deputy Man- 
ager of the A. B. A. in charge of its ad- 
vertising department: "This is the first 
step in a new radio service. If these pro- 
grams are well received, we will prepare 
plenty more. As a second step, we hope 
to progress to complete 15 -minute pro- 
grams. Another angle we will pursue is 
the gathering and disseminating of radio 
data to banks to help them use radio 
more effectively." 

There are 30 programs in the new 
series. Each presents a modern day loan 
problem, such as a small business fi- 
nancing situation, or a veteran home- 
purchase transaction, and works out a 
sensible solution, usually with the help 
of credit. Thus the series is largely edu- 
cational and has little if any commercial 
flavor. Local tie-in is obtained by the 
bank's own announcement, spoken by 
the local announcer at beginning and end 
of each show. 

The transcriptions were written by 
Frank Kane, supervised by the A, B. A. 
and recorded by the National Broadcast- 
ing Company in New York. 

Announcements have been mailed to 
all banks and free sample recordings have 
either been supplied or offered to every 
radio station in the United States ac- 
cepting commercial programs. Banks 
have been urged to contact their local 
radio stations and arrange auditions. 

RCA Produces Billionth Disc 

(Continued from Page 1) 

From 1880 to 1892 John Philip Sousa 
was leader of the Marine Corps band. 
In 1888 he composed "Semper Fidelis," 
which is the motto of the Corps. In 
February, 1902, several years after he 
had resigned from the Corps to form 
his own band, he recorded the stirring 
march tune for the Victor Talking Ma- 
chine Company, which was then in its 
infancy as a manufacturer of records and 
phonographs. "Semper Fidelis" was so 
successful that it was recorded again and 
again by Sousa and his band, as well as 
other bands that made records for the 
Victor Company. 

In the spring of 1946. when it became 
apparent that the RCA Victor Record 
Dept. was certain to manufacture its bil- 
lionth record before the end of the year, 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra — which 
was the first full-sized symphony or- 
chestra to record for Victor — was asked 
to record some single records. Dr. Serge 
Kousscvitzky chose the two marches by 
John Philip Sousa as among the compo- 
sitions he would like to record. Some 
months later it was agreed that to this 
particular recording would go the honor 
of becoming the company's billionth disc. 
Because "Semper Fidelis" is so closely 
identified with the Marine Corps it was 
quickly decided that the most logical re- 
cipient of the milestone record would be 
the Corps. 

Aside from the historical aspects of 
the record itself, the manufacture of the 
billionth disc in 1946 is of particular sig- 
nificance as a symbol of the revival of 
an industry which several times in its 
history had seemed to be giving way to 
(Continued on Page If) 

one of NBC's newest recorded musical pro- 
grams, features Artie Dunn at the Hammond, 
Al Nevins' electric guitar and Morty Nevins' 
accordion. Added to this are the song stylings 
of Nan Wynn, Irene Dayc and Dorothy Claire 
(pictured above during program rehearsal), 
three top vocalists of the day making this show 
a real musical treat. A 15-minute program, it's 
packed full of rhythm-bright melodies with 
completely different improvizations by THE 
THREE SUNS. An NBC Syndicated show of 
network caliber, THREE SUNS AND A 
STARLET is sold to stations throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

me i^eayidut 

By Ernest W. Franck, Research Engineer 

Magnetic Tape Recording 

In recent years there has been considerable 
activity in recording on magnetic wires or thin 
metallic tapes. The recording process, which 
is merely passing a 
wire almost as fine 
as a hair through a 
varying magnetic field, 
IS not disturbed by vi- 
bration or movement 
and, therefore, found 
extensive military ap- 
plication during the 
war, such as recording 
i n a moving tank. 
Furthermore, the wire 
can be wiped off and 
a new recording made 
at will. 

Ernest W. Franck t> l 1 

During the war the 

Germans used a form 
of magnetic recording wherein metallic wire 
was replaced by a plastic tape with a very thin 
coating of magnetic iron oxide. This was 
used extensively in portable field models of 
the "Tonschreiber". Considerable develop- 
ment was also done of a high quality "Mag- 
netophone" for radio broadcasting use, gen- 
erally referred to as the studio model. Army 
and Signal Corps men coming back from 
Europe were loud in praise of the studio 
model and their reports of its performance 
placed it above any magnetic recording avail- 
able here and actually in a class with lacquer 

It was only recently that a studio model 
"Magnetophone" was brought into this 
country and, through the efforts of Mr. E. Y. 
Webb, Department of Commerce, Communica- 
tions Division (see page 3), a public demon- 
stration was made. 

The performance is nothing short of start- 
ling. The volume range is great and under 
ideal conditions may reach 60 db. The fre- 
quency response is Uat to 10,000 cycles when 
equalised. The motion is perfectly steady 
with piano music, comparing favorably with 
a high quality 35 mm. sound on motion pic- 
ture film. 

Without question, this machine, which is 
the first of its kind to approach lacquer discs 
in performance, will find many applications, 
hut it must first get over many hurdles. The 
drive mechanism must continue to give steady 
motion after long daily use, as in broadcast 
work. Some means must be found to keep 
playing time constant in spite of changes in 
length due to tape stretching and slipping. 
The tape may be too thin for sprocket holes, 
hut many electronic means have been sug- 
gested, and one may be feasible. 

Besides a good machine, a good tape is 
nceidcd and American manufacturers must 
develop the equipment and technique of coat- 
ing magnetic recording tape. This activity 
would quite naturally devolve upon people 
already in the field of making a sound record- 
ing medium by a coating process, such for 
example as Audio Devices. Actually this 
work was undertaken jn this company some 
time ago in anticipation of probable develop- 
ments in this field. 

December, 1946 


OTS Making Available 
To American Industry 
Many Wartime Secrets 

Edwin Webb Gives Demonstration of 
Magnetophone Before IRE Gathering 

One of the Government activities which is 
most interesting to American business firms, 
engineers, educational and research institu- 
tions, is the Office of Technical Services, De- 
partment of Commerce. The OTS, Mr. John 

^^ C. Green, Director, 

■V ^^^^^*^HIHI ^''^ assumed the 
H| .^^^^^K^^^HhI functions perform- 
H| ^^^KKK^^^P^ f^d ^y the Office of 
^E I^^P^^^^B '''<^ Publication 

V ^VT ^H B'lard. It also in- 

W ^jf' „ ^J^f J I ides the Techni- 

^ .1 1 Industrial In- 
trlli|:;ence Branch, 
tlic National Inven- 
tor, Council and 
•ho Production and 
I Vvelopment Divi- 

The OTS gath- 
ers on-the-spot 
technical informa- 
tion in enemy 
countries and pre- 
pares reports based 
o n comprehensive 
studies of enemy 
industries. It solic- 
its and evaluates 
ideas and inven- 

Edwin Y. Wpbb, Chief, 

Communications Unit, 


tions of value to industry, provide 
advice on patents and inventions and serves 
as a general information bureau on technical 
data in the possession of the Government. 

The OTS also sponsors industrial research 
projects and negotiates and supervises the 
execution of contracts with private non-profit 
research laboratories for the development of 
such projects. It acquires, abstracts and in- 
dexes scientific and technical documents, both 
American and foreign, and publishes the 
Bibliography of Scientific and Industrial Re- 

Readers of Audio Record will be particu- 
larly interested in the Communications Unit 
of the OTS under the direction of Mr. Edwin 
Y. Webb. This Unit has investigated and 
prepared reports on hundreds of machines, 
equipments, components and materials con- 
nected with the communications industry. It 
has also arranged showings of these products 
both in Washington and throughout the 
country. Earlier in the year models of the 
"Tonschreiber", the German field model 
machine for recording sound on tape, were 
received and shown to thousands of interested 
engineers. More recently the studio model 
"Magnetophone" was received and a demon- 
stration given on November 5th at the 
Department of Commerce Building, Washing- 
ton, D. C, before the local chapter of the 
Institute of Radio Engineers. This meeting 
was also attended by Mr. William C. Speed, 
President of Audio Devices, and Mr. E. W. 
Franck, Research Engineer. (Note page 2 for 
Mr. Franck's comments.) 

Author Bob Hope meets the critics on WQXR — New York's ■'.Author Meets the Critics" 
program when Hope's "So This Is Peace" came up for discussion. Shown above left to right 
are Russell Maloney, contributor to The New Yorker; Bennett Cerf, author and editor; Hope, 
and John K. M. McCaffery, moderator of the program. 

Whether Presented Live or Recorded .. WQXR's 
"Author Meets the Critics" . . Good Listening 

Some of the liveliest wit and most informative debate to be oifered 
the soap opera ridden radio public today is heard on "The Author Meets 
the Critics" literary free-for-all, broadcast twice weekly (once live; repeat 
broadcast recorded) by WQXR, The 
New York Times radio station, and once 
a week by the Mutual Broadcasting 

This half-hour program puts showman- 
ship into book reviewing by pitting the 
author of a currently popular book 
against two well-known critics in a free- 
swinging discussion appealing not only 
to book lovers and to those who relish 
argument over current problems but also 
to the non-literary who enjoy seeing in- 
tellectual celebrities humanized by sharp- 
witted remarks by their peers. 

During the first fifteen minutes of the 
program, which is broadcast from the 
Barbizon Plaza Radio Theater from 9:30 
to 10 P. M. on Thursdays (live) and 
rebroadcast (via transcription) on Sun- 
days at 2:30 P. M., the two critics attack 
or praise the book of the day, with few 
holds barred. The second fifteen min- 
utes are devoted to the author's fre- 
quently indignant or irate response. A 
moderator, John K. M. McCaffery, asso- 
ciate editor of American Magazine, often 
mentioned by radio reviewers as a likely 
candidate for the diplomatic service, 
urges the three to "disharmony" and at 
the same time strives to keep them to 
the point and to prevent the strong- 
minded, violently opinionated celebrities 
from mayhem. The reaction of those 
(Continued on Page Jf) 

Importance of Discs Told 

(Continued from Page 1) 
bring home to American listeners, in 
fact to listeners in the whole free Eng- 
lish-speaking world, the story of Nor- 
way's fight against Nazi oppression at 
home and the story of Norway's war 
efforts. The story of a small country 
which refused to give up her democratic 
way of life no matter the cost. 

There were other ways in which these 
recorded programs were of value too. 
There are approximately 2-3 million 
Americans of Norwegian descent in the 
U. S. A.; people with loved ones in 
Norway, people who had no means of 
communication with their mother coun- 
try for five long years. To these, these 
programs were probably a vital source 
of information — in fact we have many 
letters in our files confirming this. Here 
for example is a quotation from one such 
letter. This woman writes: "Your re- 
corded programs are the strongest link 
we have with Norway in these dreadful 
days. Keep up the good work and thank 

Another interesting point was that 
Norwegian communities were discovered 
in states which are not usually associated 
with Norwegian-Americans, as for ex- 
ample Arizona. From stations in Arizona 
(Continued on Page k) 


December, 1946 

Dr. Kershner 

Recorded Talks of Noted 
Relief Administrator Now 
Available To Radio Stas. 

A Child's Life In Northern Europe 
Today Explained in Transcriptions 

"Children of Northern Europe," an 
authentic, interest-catching recorded ser- 
ies, recently released by SAVE THE 
City tells of the dramatic struggle of 
these nations back 
to peace-time living 
. . . and the effect 
of that struggle on 
Scandinavian boys 
and girls. 

Four transcribed 
l.'i-minue programs, 
on two double-faced 
16-inch discs, carry 
eye-witness reports 
of Dr. Howard E. 
Kershner, noted 
relief administrator, 
during his current tour of Europe. Dr. 
Kershncr's colorful talks were recorded 
while scenes were vivid in his mind, in 
modern radio studios in Helsinki, Fin- 
land; Stockholm. Sweden, and Oslo, 
Norway. Clear and sharp, free of usual 
trans-Atlantic static and fading, the talks 
were air-expressed to New York where 
they were re-recorded with music and 
explanatory announcements. 

The four transcriptions (the first three 
of which must be carried as a series; the 
fourth is optional) titled "The Struggle 
in Finland," "Child Refugees in Swe- 
den," "Norway Recovers" and "Meeting 
Child Needs in Northern Europe (a 
round-table discussion in New York City 
by outstanding relief administrators) 
are being forwarded to radio stations 
throughout the country for sustaining 
broadcast use. There is no rental charge 
for the recordings. Stations may order 
the series for auditioning purposes by 
addressing a post-card to SAVE THE 
son Avenue, New York City. 

TION is the U. S. member of the In- 
ternational Save The Children Union, 
which has headquarters in Geneva, Swit- 
zerland, and member organizations in 
J4 countries. 

RCA Produces Billionfh Disc 

(Continued from Page 2) 

other forms of musical entertainment. 
Today, record manufacturers estimate in 
excess of 300,000,000 discs will be manu- 
factured this year, the largest production 
ever attained and from three to four 
times the prewar output. 

Importance of Discs Told 

(Continued from Page 3) 

many interesting letters from Norwegian 
Americans were received. Norway de- 
serves much credit for developing this 
work, and there are 100 stations in the 
U. S. and Canada who still regularly 
carry Norwegian programs. Other coun- 
tries have now followed Norway's lead, 
and in closing this brief article, the 
writer, a broadcaster of many years ex- 
perience in Europe and the U. S. A., 
would like to make a suggestion. Now 
when the United Nations needs the sup- 
port of every citizen of every nationality, 
could not every radio station of the 
United States devote a certain length of 
time to recorded programs of other 
countries with whom we must get along 
if we are to exist at all! 

Not only should. there be broadcasts 
of the proceedings of the U. N. Council 
which are of course of vital interest, but 
there should also be broadcasts about 
the things ordinary men and women of 
the world want to know about each 
other, their problems, their home life, 
their customs and opinions, for funda- 
mentally human beings are the same the 
world over, with the same fears, hopes 
and ambitions. 

What a chance American radio has 
to correct this, and at no loss to them- 
selves, for the voice of America would 
become the voice of the ordinary people 
of the world whose earnest desire is to be 
understood, and to "keep the peace." 

New York State Radio Bureau 
Plans Extensive Use of ET's 

In furthering their effort toward 
stamping out juvenile delinquency in the 
state of New York, the N. Y. State Radio 
Bureau has prepared for the Dept. of 
Correction and the Commission Against 
Discrimination a series of recorded 
dramatizations and pane! discussions for 
broadcast use by the commercial stations 
throughout the state. 

The recorded dramatizations are cut 
in the WOR — New York Recording 
Studios; the discussion series in Albany, 
the state capital. 

According to Miles Hehercr, Director 
of the N. Y. State Radio Bureau, present 
plans call for the use of transcriptions 
throughout the winter. Many of these 
programs are now underway and others 
will be developed in a few weeks. 

Author Meets The Critics 

(Continued from Page 3) 

authors who dare submit to this ordeal 
is as varied as the subject-matter covered 
in a program of this scope. 

Martin Stone, owner and producer of 
"The Author Meets the Critics," and 
an Albany, N. Y. newspaperman, Rich- 
ard Lewis, conceived the idea for the 
program in 1940. It was originally pro- 
duced at Union College, Schenectady, 
N. Y. and was broadcast locally in 
Schenectady and Albany until it moved 
to New York during the war. 






r-»'5 • 

^^^E^nn* (i^ 






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HS''___,.--^ ^^^^^^^1 


"Ted Husing's Bandst.ind," featuring the dean of the nation's sportscasters in a new role as a 
disc jockey, is currently being heard Monday through Saturday from 10:00 A. M. to 12:00 noon 
and from 5:00 P. M. to 6:30 P. M. over WHN— New York. (It was at WHN that Husing 
first entered the "big time" as a sports announcer some 20 years ago.) Ted's individuality 
and fluency at the microphone blends the "Bandstand" show into something out of the ordinary. 
The man who has consistently picked the top sports figures through the years keeps right on 
picking winners in the field of popular music. 




Vol. 3 No. I 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

January, 1947 


Birmingham, Ala. Salutes 
Birmingham, England 

W API — Birmingham — BBC E.xchange 
Discs; Contrasts in Life There-Here Told 

"Birmingham, Alabama Calling Birm 
ingham, England!" What, something 
new in lend-lease? Well no, not exactly. 

A few weeks ago, WAPI— Birming- 
ham, Alabama broadcast a special salute 
from the people of its fair city to the 
residents of Birmingham, England. And, 
one week later, the English city retaliated 
by airing a special program to then- 
American neighbor of the same name. 

The two broadcasts, both recorded, 
tc;ld the story of the highlights in the 
everyday life of the people of both 
countries. For instance, in the Alabam.i 
city, WAPI recording crews interviewed 
a typical Birmingham resident while he 
worked at his job in a local steel mill, 
asking him many personal questions, 
such as: how he liked his job; how much 
money he made; how he spent it; what 
he liked best in the way of entertain- 
ment and many more such questions. 

Knowing too, that the women of 
Birmingham, England would want to 
know the inside slants on how American 
women raised their- children, the WAPI 

A group of Chicago elementary 

chool pupils listen to an educatic 

recording in thcjr 

roving reporter interviewed a houscwile 
with such inquiries as: how her children 
were fed; what they were fed; what en- 
tertainment she most enjoyed; how she 
enjoyed cooking; her favorite dish, and 
what was her recipe for cooking southern 
fried chicken. 

Ambling into the corner drugstore, 
WAPFs inquiring microphone caves- 
dropped on three typical Alabama youths 
(two girls and a boy) while they were 
passing along to each other the latest 
American slang. The reporter ended his 
stay by giving his British listeners a com- 
plete description of an average American 
drugstore, complete from toothpicks to 
electric heaters, chocolate sundaes to 
castor oil. And so it went on, one inter- 
view after the other, until WAPI knew 
more about Birmingham, Alabama, its 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Transcriptions — Recorders Supplement Other 
Modern Teaching Aids In Today's Classroonns 

By George Jennings, Director, 
Radio Council— WBEZ Chicago Public Schools 

There is hardly a teacher or school administrator today who does 
not recogni2;e the value of radio in the classroom . . . but, many teachers 
and administrators are not aware of the vast amount of teaching material 

which is now available on transcriptions. 


Recently, Urban Johnson, head of 
the WBBM — Chicago sound depart- 
ment, decided to make a recording 
which would explain some of the diffi- 
cult assignments radio sound techni- 
cians often encounter in providing 
realistic background for dramatic 
shows. "Urb" asked Mort Hall of the 
continuity department to write a trial 
script, something full of drama, pathos 
and intrigue. The result was a story 
of a jealous husband, a nagging wife 
and — the strangest sound on record— - 
the sound of a man in a vinegar vat 
being slowly pickled to death! 

Radio Daily 

This material has all the attributes of 
nidio . . . the inherent dramatic quality, 
the immediacy, the vitality . . . plus 
many important attributes of its own. 

These attributes are not so much in the 
content of the transcribed programs as 
they are in the medium of presentation 
. . . namely, the recording itself. While 
the techniques of using the transcription 
are in many ways similar to those of 
using the radio broadcast, the disc has 
the great advantage of permanency and 
of frequent re-usability. Also, the ma- 
chine may be stopped at any time during 
the course of the transcription, the head 
lifted, put back and any part of the disc 

One of the greatest diiEculties of 
scheduling radio broadcasts for schools 
15 the seeming inflexibihty of school 
(Continued on Page k) 





cuulla )i^ record 

VOL. 3, NO. 1 

JANUARY, 1947 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with' 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

Use of Top-Flight Talent 
Key to I. D. E. Success 

Outstanding Public Service Recorded 
Programs Praised by Radio Industry 

la its seven-year history the Institute 
for Democfafic Education, a unique rion- 
profit organisation has produced and dis- 
tributed an impressive body of tran- 
scribed radio shows which has earned it 
top rank with radio stations and ether 
critics. Devoted to the advancement of 
American ideals, the Institute has utilised 
the best professional talent — writers, ac 
tors, musicians, directors — to turn out 
transcriptions that have pioneered a 
proud path in the realm of public service 
programs. Each of its LEST WE FOR- 
GET series of 13 or 26 recordings, all 
genuine Americana, has been made avail- 
able free to radio stations, bringing pow- 
er-packed educational entertainment to 
millions of Americans. 


Harold Franklin, IDE program director and 
Sam Levene, Hollywood motion picture star, 
discuss merits of "Hey, Cabbie!" script, one 
of the programs in the new IDE series — LEST 

IDE's tenth series LEST WE FOR- 
achieved unprecedented airing, afforded 
more than $250,000 worth of free time. 
Using big names to recreate dramatically 
the big people of our nation, the series 
features among others John Carradine as 
Woodrow Wilson, Ralph Morgan as Jo- 
seph Pulitzer, Quentin Reynolds as Wen- 
dell Willkie and Melvyn Douglas in the 
program on Franklin D. Roosevelt. This 
latter show was played by 710 stations as 

part of the regular series broadcast and 
as a memorial tribute on the first anni- 
versary of FDR's death. The entire ser- 
ies has been given 1,700 hours on the 
air by 622 stations. In 1946 there were 
7,000 individual broadcasts with many 
stations playing particular programs four 
or five times for special occasions. IDE 
shows were given 52% class "A" time 
and among the stations using them were 
100 of 5,000w and 10 of 50,000w 

After radio broadcasts have been com- 
pleted, the Institute makes recordings 
available to schools through 25 distribu- 
tion centers centrally spotted over the 
country and previous series are being cir- 
culated among 1,900 schools. During the 
war, the Army and OWI used the pro- 
grams which also reached an internation- 
al audience via short-wave. 

IDE was among the first to apply suc- 
cessful advertising techniques to public 
service programs, using dramatic spot an- 
nouncement to carry its democratic mes- 

Two new projects in the working stage 
at the Institute promise good listening 
and learning. One series, LEST WE 
DREAM, dramatically probes the prob- 
lems of prejudice and inter-group rela- 
(Continued on Page Jf) 

Recordings "Publicity Tool" 
In Negro College Fund Appeal 

Electrical transcriptions v.'crc used for 
the first time in the short existence of 
the United Negro College Fund during 
the recent annual appeal for funds to 
meet current expenses of thirty-three 
Negro private colleges. 

Under the direction of Bob Masse m, 
who handled all radio activity for UNCF 
lour five-minute transcriptions were 
made, two on a side, each using the 
volunteer services of an outstanding 
Negro entertainer. They were: Kenneth 
Spencer, currently featured baritone in 
"Showboat"; Josh White, cafe-society 
entertainer; Ella Fitzgerald, the "Tisket- 
a-Tasket" girl; and the Mills Brothers. 
Each recording included a short "pitch" 
for the Fund. 

One hundred sixty discs were made 
and distributed to an equal number of 
radio stations in fifty-four major cam- 
paign cities. A final check has not as 
yet been made as to the extent to which 
these recordings were used, however, 
preliminary reports indicate the United 
Negro College Fund met with a reason- 
able degree of success in having the 
transcriptions played. A representative 
of the Fund remarked that he felt UNCF 
would continue to use recordings as a 
regular part of their publicity program 
in connection with their annual appeals. 

Alabama Station Salutes 

English Outlet In Disc Swap 

(Continued from Page 1) 

likes and its dislikes, than it had ever 
hoped to know. 

Each portion of the Alabama city's 
salute was woven together with a musical 
bridge and a narrator to tell the story 
of Birmingham, and to weave the con- 
tinuity around each interview. All in- 
terviews were later redubbed onto regular 
16" discs for air-shipment to England. 

The Birmingham, England salute to 
the people of Birmingham, Ala. told the 
British side of the story and pointed out 
the contrasts between life in England 
and life in the United States. 

Yes, this is something new in Icnd- 


ORALEXICON is the name given to a new 
series of record albums, produced by NBC's 
Radio Recording Division in New York, seek- 
ing to standardize the pronunciation of diflfj- 
cult words and foreign names that are so often 
mispronounced on the air and in daily life. 
(The first edition is devoted entirely to classi- 
cal music nomenclature and terminology.) 
As radio's oldest and most popular announcer j 
and corrimentator of classical and operatic 
music, Milton Cross was chosen to set up a 
standard of pronunciation that could be fol- 
lowed successfully by English speaking an- 
noimcers and music lovers everywhere. Milton 
Cross is, therefore, the world's first ORA- 
the first Recorded Pronouncing Dictionary for 
Classical Music. 

The School of Radio Technique, situated in 
Radio City and America's oldest school de- 
voted exclusively to radio broadcasting, de- 
signed the ORALEXICON specifically for an- 
nouncers, commentators and students who have 
long felt the need of a pronunciation standard 
that could be learned easily by ear and fol- 
lowed with confidence. 

In addition to the names of the world's most 
famous composers of cla.ssical and operatic 
music, ORALEXICON gives Milton Cross' 
pronunciation of: Popular Grand Operas, Con- 
temporary Orchestral Conductors, Samples of 
radio continuity for 0|>eratic .and Symphonic 
Programs, and finally oft-used Musical Terms 
with e.v.ict definitions. The album consists of 
4-12 inch Vinylite records (8 sides), a 20 
page Manual of Instructions and mimeo- 
graphed copies of the continuity used. 

January, 1947 


Material Shortages and 
Recording Under Adverse 
Conditions Big Headache 

By John Bubbers 

Studio Engineering Supervisor 

WOV— New York 

(This is the fifth in a series of articles 
by leading figures in the recording 

During the war . . . and it's shortages, 
many strange situations arose that often 
called for quick action. More often, 
"haywire" repairs had to be devised to 
make things function in a "normal" sort 
of way. Even the simplest of parts were 
at various times impossible to get and 
stocks were in some 
instances nearly de' 

/J^'ft^^ pm?a— Wfsre^he 

A ^W'^/jBfcjk replacements came 

* ^^P through, 

i V The tube situa- 

■^- JHh'^^^''^ t-ion became critical 

during the latter 
' 2. P^rt of '"^3 and after 

taking careful study 
of the demand, it 
was found that a 
certain type would 
last only eight 
weeks under operat' 
Close analysis of the 
problem showed cathode leaks in all of 
the failures. This was attributed to in- 
sufficient removal of heat from the area 
surrounding the tubes. A few feet of 
duct work connecting to our fresh air 
supply from the air conditioning ap' 
paratus reduced our losses to ten percent 
of the original. 

Problems of misaligned cutting heads 
proved to be a severe headache since 
time lost in their repair also had to be 
■minimized and spacers and jigs were de- 
vised to permit their alignment by un- 
skilled personnel. A rather strange thing 
occurred one hot afternoon when we 
were transporting an old portable cutting 
unit by car to a very isolated location. 
Upon arriving, we found that the damp- 
ening mechanism had lost its original 
resiliency and would not function prop- 
erly. This was rectified by locating the 
nearest refrigerator and cooling it down. 
The cutter then functioned normally. 

Other precautions of supply were at 
first unpredictable, but as we soon learn- 
ed .. . our rule was "expect the worst." 
The quality of recording discs, fortun- 
ately, was maintained, even though the 
supply at times was rather limited. 

Looking back, our problems of the war 
years have taught us ingenuity and fore- 
sight and their memory is cherished only 
because these problems are in the past. 

John Bubbers 

ing conditions. 

A section view of the Kasper-Gordon recording studio with acoustical-correction diffuscrs 
arranged in random oattcrn on one wall. 

Fay Photo, Boston 

Acoustical Properties of Recording Studio 
Improved By Use of Semi-Spherical Diffusers 

(From an 

prepared by Forrest L. Bishop. Chief Engineer, Kasper-Gordon, Inc., 

With high-fidelity reproduction a must characteristic of all types of 
recording today, the studio has become a major fideUty factor. For it is 
in the studio that many basic problems can originate. It has thus become 

necessary to develop or redesign studios 

that have a minimum of acoustical faults. 

In our Boston studios we were faced 
with a problem of boominess resulting 
from phase distortion and reverberation. 
Our early analysis of the acoustical prop- 
erties of the studios indicated two major 
factors contributed to the defect: the 
small room dimensions and the construc- 
tion of two walls, a long wall on the con- 
trol-room side and a short wall meeting 
the long one at right angles, both of 
which were surfaced with painted wall- 

A series of test recordings were made 
and measurements were taken at various 
positions in the room with a sound level 
meter at frequencies from 30 to 10,000 
cycles. In all measurements, high peaks 
appeared in varying degrees within the 
range of 100 to 150 cycles together with 
long hangovers of reverberation. 

Since absorption had proved a failure, 
we believed that diffusion might bring 
about the desired effect. The conven- 
tional treatment would have been poly- 
cylindrical, but we decided to use semi- 
spherical diffusers. We believed that we 
w'ould have greater control over the 
amount and quality of diffusion by the 
addition, subtraction and placement of 

the diffusing semi-spheres. 

The spheres were made from a cement 
and cellulose mixture, easily molded to 
the desired size and shape. The semi- 
spherical sections ranged in size from 12 
to 36 inches across. When permanently 
attached, they were bolted to the walls 
by special steel brackets. In determining 
the position of- the diffusers, they jwere 
arranged in random pattern, more dif- 
fusers being used at the end of the stu- 
dio where less life was desired. To carry 
out the principle of diffusion still further, 
a convex pane of plexiglass was installed 
in the control-room window. 

The resulting acoustical improvement 
was evident immediately. Those familiar 
with the studio recognized it by ear 
alone. The series of test recordings and 
measurements which followed proved 
that all boominess had been eliminated. 
Both speech and music were recorded 
with high-fidelity quality. Piano record- 
ings, which formerly were made with 
great difficulty, could be cut with fidelity 
at all instrumental ampHtudes. A chorus 
of 60 recorded in our small studio, a pro- 
cedure that would have been impossible 
in the old studio. And the disc repro- 
duction was excellent. 


January, 1947 

Beauteous movie queen Betty Giable and young 
daughter Vicki amble through some of daddy's 
(band leader Harry James) latest recordings 
in their Hollywood home. 

Photo bij Kornmun as appeared in Photoptaij 

Recording In Today's Classrooms 

(Continued from Page 1) 
schedules, particularly on the secondary 
level . . . another difficulty is the course 
ot study. Most teachers in high school 
keep all their classes reasonably close to- 
gether in their work. If one class listens 
to a broadcast chances are it is the only 
class so-doing, and no matter how much 
the radio program may add to that class 
it i; put behind the others whose sched- 
ule did not fit the broadcast time. There's 
no such difficulty with the transcriptions. 
Every class in every course of study has 
the opportunity to hear the same ma- 
terial. All classes are kept on an equal 
basis. Schools equipped with recorders 
may, of course, record any "live" pro- 
gram and re-broadcast it later over their 
own p. a. systems at a time most conveni- 
ent for classroom presentation. 

The material that is now available on 
discs astounds most educators when they 
first become acquainted with it. The 
great industrial companies, such as West- 
inghouse. General Electric and others; 
the airlines; the tiaue asoociatious — au 
have material available, generally with- 
out cost to the school. Frequently ma- 
terial (which usually carries no other ad- 
vertising material than that the disc i.s 
presented by "the blank research labora- 
tory") on discs becomes the permanent 
property of the school. 

In this connection, many schools have 
contacted their local radio stations for 
transcriptions which are no longer usable 
on the airwaves but are extremely valu- 
able in the classroom. 

The United States Office of Education 
publishes an extensive catalog of record- 
ings and transcriptions which are avail- 
able to schools on either a loan or a per- 
manent basis. Many professional maga- 
zines, such as the Journal of the Asso- 
ciation for Education by Radio, present 
reviews of current recorded material and 
frequently list availabilities. 

There is still another use of transcrip- 
tiL'ns in the school that is equipped with 
recording machines as well as playbacks. 
The easiest way to learn a foreign lan- 
guage is to listen to it; the easiest way 
for a speech student to correct his mi.<- 
takes is to listen to a recording of him- 
self. Speech correction classes, public 
speaking classes, dramatic groups all may 
benefit by hearing playbacks of their ac- 

The progressive educator will not de- 
pend upon discs and transcriptions to the 
exclusion of all other teaching aids. He 
will use them along with radio, motion 
pictures, maps and charts, models, and in 
some schools even television, as a further 
means of making his teaching dynamic, 
meaningful and vital to his students. 

Fine Talent- Key To IDE Success 

(Continued from Page ,2) 

tions in terms of plain people — ordinary 
Americans whose backgrounds make 
them vivid story material. Employing a 
striking new technique of listener identi- 
fication, the programs achieve a maxi- 
mum of personal projection of the hearer 
into the situations of the average people 
who are the heroes of the programs. 

IDE IS run by men who know the job 
of radio and democracy. Its Board of 
Governors, headed by the Dean of Bos- 
ton University, Howard M. LeSourd, in- 
cludes such names as Norman Corwin, 
Paul La;arsfeld, Lyman Bryson and Phil- 
lips Carlin. .Harold Franklin is the In- 
stitute's program director. 

Onoj^at^zl IR.ccenduu^ ^<xt 

ago. the 

Recently in Camden. N.J.. where the Victo 
Machine Company was founded some 48 year 
biUionth RCA Victor Record was produt 
marking a milestone in the history of the company, 
well as the record industry. 

For this history-making record, the Victor Di^ 
of the Radio Corporation of America chose two of John 
Philip Sousa's stirring marches, "Semper Fidelis" and 
"The Stars and Stnpes Forever," played by the Boston 

Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Serge 
Kousscvitsky. And for the discs, on which the original 
sound recording was made, they chose Audiodiscs. 
For the original sound recording in the phonograph 
record and electrical transcription industries — for 
master discs used in processing — for sound recording 
and reproduction in radio broadcasting and motion 
picture studios — Audiodiscs hold a place of eminent 

AUDIO DEVICES, INC., 444 Madison Avenue. New York 22. N.Y. 

Export Department : Rocke International Corp.. 13 E. 40th Street. New York 16, N.Y. 
Audiodiscs manufactured in the U. S. A. under exclusive license front PYRAL, Paris. 

^Aeu jiAeeiA /^ ^nem^^elt/€d CLUCLlOCLiSCS 



Vol. 3, No. 2 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

February, 1947 

ABC Network Follows Byrd 
Expedition By Recordings 

Lee Van Atta, INS Writer, Reports 
For Web From Antarctic Task Force 

By plentiful use and reliance on re- 
cording, the American Broadcasting 
Company has been able to air a series 
of several interestintj and newsworthy 
broadcasts direct from the Byrd Antarctic 
Expedition on ^t? 
news programs 
throughout the last 
month. Differences 
m time plus uncer- 
tainties of atmos- 
pheric conditions 
have made it neces- 
• -y^ sary that the net- 

mL — r~y work protect itself 

^^^^^^ / against program 
^^^^^■taf ^^ f.iilure by use 
^^^^^^^^ cordings on these 

Lee Van Atta spots. 

Since the Byrd 
Expedition sailed from Norfolk, Va., 
early in December, there have been eight 
pick-ups broadcast over ABC. with Lee 
Van Atta, International News Service 
correspondent, representing the network. 
Several of these broadcasts were in the 
nature of regular newsc.ists, while others 
might be classed as having definite enter- 
tainment value. On Christmas Day, for 
example, the American web played a 
recording of a broadcast from Van Att.i 
in which the Navy Choir was heard in 
a program of carols and a benediction 
by the Chaplain on board the U.S.S. 
Mount Olympus, flagship of the Byrd 
fleet, was also heard. These broadcasts, 
picked up early in the morning of Christ- 
mas Day, were played back to the na- 
tionwide radio audience several hours 
later, thus enabling the network to fit 
this timely into a round-the- 
world Christmas Day celebration show. 
Van Atta's broadcasts have described 
the departure from Norfolk, interviews 
with Admiral Cruzen, an excellent word 
picture of the arrival at Balboa, an inter- , 
view with Dr. Siple, former Eagle Scout 
who accomp.inied Byrd on his iirst Ex- 
pedition into Antartica, and other infor- 
mative interviews with various experts 
and crew members attached to the pres' 
ent expedition. 

A singularly colorful broadcast by the 
(Continued on Page 2) 


Ever heard of a sponsor who can- 
celled his air time because his an- 
nouncer had done such a good selling 
lob that he couldn't satisfy the de- 
mands of anxious customers? Well it 
happened. Here's how: Maurice Hart, 
KFWB's ultra smooth disc jockey, on 
his "Start the Day Right" show, 
played several recorded tunes, unan- 
nounced. Those listeners who guessed 
the correct title were to be awarded 
a free portrait by the sponsor, Amos 
Carr Photo Studios of Hollywood. 
Within 24 hours over 500 letters had 
poured into the station. At the end 
of the week, the rather awesome 
amount of 3,638 had piled up in the 
KFWB mail room. Mr. Carr had had 
enough. Expecting at the most a few 
hundred leads, he was forced to can- 
cel his 1 minute spot and his offer. 

Here, NBC's new system of auditioning talent, a plan which makes extensive use of recordma, 
is shown in ODeration. A group of the network's directors hear and make notes of a disc on 
which a "staged" program had been cut. Called Actor's Audition Showcase, the new system 
means a better opportunity for aspiring radio actors. 

NBC Introduces New Auditioning Procedure; 
Discs, Index To Talents of Radio Hopefuls 

A file of recordings likely to determine the future of many a young 
radio actor is being built up m the Radio City studios of the National 
Broadcasting Company in New York— an ever-expanding index to the 

talents of actors and singers who aspire 
to fame on the air. 

The file is the result of NBC's newly- 
maugurated Actor's Audition Showcase, 
m which auditioning actors are given 
scripts, extensive direction and coaching 
and finally — backed up by sound effects 
and organ music for bridges in the script 
— a record is cut as if the show were on 
the air. 

These sessions arc held each Tuesday 
evening, and on Thursday afternoons 
NBC's national production manager, 
Robert K. Adams, calls the 25 directors 
on his staff together to hear the produc- 
tion of the week. The 30 minute record 
is played, and when the final cue has 
been given, the directors hold a round 
table discussion of the actors on the 
show. Some applicants are considered 
good enough for parts on forthcoming 
productions, and others are ruled out as 
not yet ready for the air. The record is 
(Continued on Page If) 





CLudla^ record 

VOL. 3, NO. 2 


Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

Use of Classroom -Radio 
Taught Capitol Teachers 

Educational Importance of Recording 
One of the Key Subjects in Course 

Recently, through the cooperation of 
WTOP — Washington. CBS and the 
Washington, D. C, Public School Sys- 
tem, a new course of study for teachers 
in the use of radio in the classroom was 
opened at Wilson Teachers College in 
the capitol city. 

Under the direc- 
tum of Miss Hazel 
Kenyon Markel. Di- 
rector of Commu- 
nity Service for 
WTOP. the course, 
open to teachers 
and others interest- 
ed in making use of 
radio in education, 
will give college 
credit for the week- 
ly two-hour lectures. 
In a special letter 
to Audio Record, 
Miss Markel advised that since the ob- 
jective of her classes was to train teach- 
ers in the effective use of radio in the 
classroom, recording will be taken up as 
a closely allied aid in this field. "The 
problem of transcription uses," Miss 
Markel said, "will be treated from the 
loliowing standpoints: 

a. Brief history of the recording field. 

b. Advantages of recordings for the 

c. Limitations in the use of recordings. 

d. Available sources of information on 
recordings for classroom use. 

e. Methods of effective utilization in 
the classroom. 

f. Important developments in the re- 
cording and transcription field." 

"Under 'b' (advantages)", Miss Mar- 
kel continued, "will be considered the 
possible flexibility in use and lasting 
quality of recordings, the ability to pre- 
audit the program and therefore prepare 
effectively for its use, the ability to re- 
peat a program if desirable or to inter- 
rupt it for discussion by the class, and the 
ability to retain the program for use 
from time to time. 

Hazel Kenyon Markel 

Harris & Ewing Photo 

"Under 'c" (limitations) will be noted 
lack of adequate equipment in schools, 
the cost of such equipment, and the 
limited life of recordings. 

"Under "e' (methods) for effective use 
will be suggested good equipment, cur- 
rent and good quality recordings, careful 
selection of the program and effective 
preparation for its use, close correlation 
with classroom work and with students" 
previous experiences, immediate and care- 
fully planned follow-up procedures. The 
specific techniques, of course, depend on 
the type of program and the teacher's 
motives in its use, but good methods for 
the use of classroom aids in general apply 
to the use of recordings. 

"Under 'f" (trends) we will consider 
late types of recording equipment, wire 
.md film recordings, possibility of schools 
buying equipment with both transcrip- 
tion and playback facilities, teachers be- 
ing trained in the use of both audio and 
\'isual aids and the possibility of trans- 
cription services for education programs." 

In announcing the special course. Dr. 
Clyde M. Ruber, Wilson College Reg- 
istrar, and also Chairman of the Radio 
Committee for the public schools of the 
District of Columbia, stated that it is the 
first direct effort to acquaint teachers of 
the Washington schools with the tech- 
niques of utilizing radio as an educational 

Dr. Hobart M. Corning, Washington's 
Superintendent of Schools, also urged 
teachers to take advantage of this op- 
portunity for intensive study of a me- 
dium from which children get a large 
part of their education. "Teachers should 
know how to use radio programs in their 
classrooms, just as they are familiar with 
the techniques of using visual aids such 
as charts and motion pictures," Dr. 
Corning emphasized. "Through hearing 
good programs in school, experiments 
have shown that children's out of school 
listening habits can be greatly improved." 

ABC Network Follows Byrd 
Expeditions By Recordings 

I Continued from Pik/c 1) 

ace INS writer told the story of the cross- 
ing of the Equator, with the customary 
hazing of the "neophytes" by the vet- 
eran "mossbacks" — those who have made 
the crossing before. This broadcast was 
even more colorful and remarkable in 
that it contained an exclusive interview 
with King Neptune himself, possibly the 
first time that the omnipotent "Monarch" 
has ever been heard by .in American 
radio audience. 

Throughout the course of the Expe- 
dition, ABC will continue to record Van 
Atta's stories, interviews and newscasts, 
.md will replay them for radio listeners 
on many of their news programs. 


By Ernest W. Franck, Research Engineer 

Tips On Increasing Disc Life 

Lacquer discs are often used to record ma- 
terial of sentimental or historical value, par- 
ticularly personal or home recordings. It :s 
usually desirable to plav these from time to 
time without fear that too frequent use will 
wear them out. With reasonable handling 
lacquer discs can be 
played hundreds of 
times without any 
marked wearing, but 
with careless handling 
or poor playback 
equipment they may 
■ffl^ be badly worn in a 

^^^^'■j^^r do:en playings. 

^^^^^/^% To get the greatest 

^^^^^^ fl^^ ''^^'^ from lacquer rec- 

^^^^^^k 1^^^^ ords, them after 

^^^^^^^•^^^^ recording as if they 

Ernest W. Franck we.est.ll new blanks, 

rlandle them by the 
edges to avoid making finger marks, and keep 
them in envelopes or album. Remember, only 
one to an envelope. This prevents scratching 
one disc with another, and makes it easier 
to find the one you want. Store them stand- 
ing on edge in racks or on a shelf and be sure 
no dust can get to them. Shelves close to the 
floor are bad for dust unless they are en- 
closed. Don't store records near a radiator. 

If your turntable is velvet covered, brush 
out the accumulated dust with a good clothes 
brush or vacuum cleaner from time to time. 
Make it a habit to keep the lid on the ma- 
chine closed when not in use. This keeps dust 
off the turntable. If there is no lid use a 
cloth cover. 

See that the pick-up arm moves freely. If 
your pick-up is heavy, don't worry too much; 
you can still get hundreds of good playings 
from your records if you use a good playback 
point. With lighter pick-ups the record life 
will be even longer. If your pick-up does not 
have a permanent point, always use a new 
shadowgraphed needle when you play the first 
lacquer disc. After that, as long as you arc 
playing lacquer discs, the steel needle will be 
good for about 30 mins. playing time, but 
if you play even one pressing, then change to 
a new needle before playing another lacquer 

Many people like to use sapphire playback 
points. They give good results and save the 
worry about needle changing. However, if 
you use a sapphire playback, and play a lot 
of pressings, keep in mind that in time press- 
ings will wear away the sapphire, sometimes 
leaving sharp edges which could damage the 
lacquer grooves. Be on guard for a graying 
of the grooves or an accumulation of powder 
on the tip of the needle. Careful broadcast 
engineers who use pick-ups with permanent 
sapphire points never play lacquers with the 
same pick-up they use for pressings. This is 
because the pressings are likely to damage the 
sapphire stylus and the damaged stylus would 
not fit the grooves properly. 

When finger marks, dust, heavy needle pres- 
sures and damaged styli are avoided, it is 
amasing how a lacquer disc will stand up 
after many repeated playings. A little atten- 
tion to these points will pay dividends — you 
can enjoy your records and have them too. 

February, 1947 





By Harold J. McCanibridge 

Supervisor of Audio Maintenance 8i 

Construction, WHOM — New York 

/This is the sixth in a series of articles 
by leading figures in the recording 
field J 

Every rccordint; engineer m <in aeti\e 
hro.ideast or rceording studio daily faee~ 
the problem of making "dubbed" or re 
recorded dises that sound "as good as, or 
better than" the original. This is a task 
that requires all the 
techniques of mak- 
ing an original re 
eording (with the 
exception oi micro 
phone handling), 
plus a number of 
new ones that 
spring up when the 
playback system is 
brought into the re- 
cording line. 

Dubbing is now 
Harold McCambridgc uscd SO extensively 
in the production of 
commercial records that it can be con- 
sidered a regular part of the production 
process in most of the industry. In a 
broadcast studio its principal uses are as 
follows : 

1 . Preparation of transcribed pro- 
gram material; using recorded music 
from various sources for background or 
primary material. 

2. Assembly of interview-type ma- 
terial from spot recordings made at the 
convenience of the participants. 

3. Furnishing to clients and artists of 
permanent records of program material 
by production of copies from the original 

. program transcriptioii. 

Obviously it is necessary to have good 
recording equipment in order to make a 
good dubbing. What is often overlooked 
is that dubbing imposes very strict re- 
quirements on the playback system. From 
the point of view of the broadcast en- 
gineer, the most essential characteristics 
of a playback system for dubbing are 
the following: 

1. Harmonic distortion and. espec- 
ially, intermodulation distortion, must be 
at extremely low levels in every part of 
the playback system, including the pick- 
up, equalizer, and pre'amplifier. A dis- 
tortion level that may be tolerable in the 
reproduction of records can be quite 
unallowable in a playback system used 
for dubbing. The final product suffers 
from the distortion of three main sources 
added together: the original record, the 
playback system, and the recording sys- 
( Continued on Page J/) 

"The smallest of the small." That's how many people have sized up Mr. J. T. Martin's 
Hollywood Recording Studio in Los Angeles. And, from the picture above, most of us will 
agree with that description. 

"Space Isn't Everything In Recording" Proves 
Proprietor of California's Snnallest Studio 

What IS probably one ot the smallest recording studios in the world, 
if not the smallest, is located at 350 North Main Street in downtown 
Los Angeles. Owned and operated by Mr. J. T. Martin, this smallest 

of small studios, known as the Hollywood 

Recording Studio, is the home of the 
Hollywood Recording and Music Pub- 

Measuring 9' x 9' overall, Mr. Martin's 
workshop, strange as it may seem, is di- 
vided into individual rooms; the control 
room and business office, occupying a 
6' ,x 9' portion of the precious space, and 
the actual recording room, operating in 
an area only 3' x 9' . . . hardly room 
for half "n elbow. 

Although small in structure, it has 
never been said, that the Hollywood Re- 
cording Studio is a small time proposi- 
tion. No siree, for all the latest, up-to- 
the-minute recording devices are in the 
9' x 9' square. 

Let's look inside Mr. Martin's haven 
and see what all he has packed into this 
king - sine Corona - Corona receptacle. 
First of all. the recording room is equip- 
ped with 2 crystal microphones and a 
studio type bi-directional mike. There is 
also a loud speaker in this room allow- 
ing for a private playback of a finished 
recording. Sometimes the loud speaker 
is used to carry (recorded) music from 
the control room to the microphones. 
This music is used for background for 
certain types of musical recordings. In 
the control room, we see 2 Radiotoncs, 

1 Federal. 1 Wilcox Gay; two of these 
being 16" turntables. Three loud speak- 
ers are in use. Over in one corner is a 
small assorted file of commercial records 
and a business desk. Somewhere (only 
heaven knows . . . just where) Mr. 
Martin finds space for the stock of blank 
discs. Where do the customers stand or 
sit? Well, if the number of patrons ex- 
ceed the space, Mr. Martin ushers them 
outside and they transact their business 
through the structure's large windows. 
Hollywood Recording Studio is the 
third stage in Mr. Martin's rapidly grow- 
ing business. Only three years ago he 
entered the recording field with only one 
12 " turntable recorder and a booth hardly 
big enough to hold him, the machines, 
a microphone and one customer. What's 
more, two months later he bought an- 
other machine and moved everything, 
lock-stock-and-barrel, into more spacious 
quarters; this time a 5' x 8' emporium. 
And, then, after 6 months, as is always 
the case, there comes a time when a 
fellow just needs more room. So, Mr. 
Martin, realizing the necessity for addi- 
tional space, and a great believer in the 
theory that good things come in small 
packages, shifted his belongings to his 
present site. 


February, 1947 

Andre B.iruch. noted announcer and his 
singer-wife Bea Wain utilize original record- 
ing techniques which give their "Mr. St Mrs. 
Music" show (top recordings, pre-releases 
and interviews with disc stars), an up-to-the- 
minute live qualitv. The program is heard 
daily over WMCA-New York. 

Playback "Systems For DuHbmg 

(Continued from Page 3) 

tem. The playback distortion, therefore, 
does not stand alone as m the reproduC' 
tion of records but has a cumulative effect 
with that of the other elements in the 
dubbing system. Unless the playback 
system distortion is rigidly controlled the 
I'csult will be a transcription with high 
intermodulation distortion. This is a vital 
matter to a broadcast engineer since an 
increase in intermodulation distortion is 
soon reflected in loss of "ear accept- 
ability" and listener approval. 

2. The pickup used must cause negli- 
gible record wear, since it is often neces- 
sary to play "acetate" records many times 
in preparing transcribed material. An 
increase in surface noise or a loss of 
definition between the first and last play- 
mgs of an original acetate are highly in- 
convenient, to say the least. Low record 
v;ear means, in general, that the pickup 
used must have high mechanical com- 
pliance, both horizontal and vertical, with 
the accompanying low stylus pressure. 
One incidental advantage of using a 
pickup of highly refined moving system 
is that it makes possible "spot cueing" 
on records used for program material or 
dubbing, without ruining the records. 
A heavier pickup, "spotted" on a still 
record which is put in motion at the 
proper cue, will produce a minute de- 
pression in the record surface which is 
heard as a "tick" the next time the rec- 
ord is played. Records which have been 
spot-cued a number of times develop so 
many ticks that they are unplayable. A 
truly low-wear pickup does not produce 
an audible depression in the record 

3. The adjustable equalizer system, 
necessary in every modern broadcast 
studio playback system, must introduce 
no distortion, as mentioned above, and 
in addition, must be stable in its char- 
acteristics and accurately calibrated. To 

achieve such an equalizer set-up, begin- 
ning with a pickup which itself must be 
equalized to produce a flat "starting" 
characteristic, is difficult if not impos- 
sible. By the time two or more of the 
commoner varieties of equalizer have 
been piled on top of each other, cali- 
bration is easily lost, and more important, 
a high level of distortion has been added 
to the system. These difficulties can be 
.ivoided by starting with a pickup which 
is inherently flat, and adding an equalizer 
system which has been carefully designed 
as a single unit, to operate with the par- 
ticular pickup chosen. A pickup with a 
basic flat characteristic is highly desirable, 
of course, for other reasons: it produces 
less surface noise, and is free of the 
distortion characteristic of transducers 
which have serious peaks within the op- 
erating range, a distortion which is not 
removed by electrical equalization of the 

A satisf.ictory solution of the pickup 
problem at WHOM was finally reached 
after \vc had tested several commercial 
pickups. It was found that the Pickering 
Pickup and Equalizer for lateral play- 
back, and the Western Electric Pickup 
and Equalizer for vertical playback, gave 
us all of the necessary dubbing char- 

Other dubbing problems could be dis- 
cussed but it is believed that the ones 
outlined are those that need the most 
emphasis from the point of view of the 
broadcast engineer. 

New NBC Auditioning Procedure 
Fresh Hope For Radio Aspirants 

(Continued from Page 1) 

filed, and directors seeking a certain type 
of voice or character for some later pro- 
duction can run through a card file, get 
the disc for a re-play, and choose the 
p.u-ticul,ir type his show needs. 

Before actors and actresses finally go 
before the mike for their recording of 
a program, they are interviewed and 
"screened" by Edward King, NBC's di- 
rector of dramatic auditions. King talks 
to his callers, reviews their previous ex- 
perience in radio, Broadw'ay shows, sum- 
mer stock or college dramatics. 

Each is told that only the best talent 
will go on the air, yet every help is 
given youngsters who hope to make radio 
their career. 

After the screening, they are told to 
stand by for calls, and when a director 
t.ikes his turn for the week's production, 
he studies the card files and five-minute 
records made of applicants' voices on 
"mad, sad and glad" readings. A cast is 
drawn to fit the script, calls are made, 
and the show is on its way to the disc. 

"These records are among our most 
valuable files, and as the Actor's Audi- 
tion Showcase goes on, they will become 
increasingly important in our casting," 
Mr. Adams said. 

Bob Hille, quizmaster of KXOK — St. Louis" recorded progr.un "Food Store Quiz." 
interviews a group of shoppers in one of the Missouri city's busy food centers. Hille conducts 
the novel feature on Thursday and Ftiday of each week from three food stores in the St. Louis 
,-irea. As the programs are not broadcast until Monday. Wednesday and Friday of the follow- 
ing week, quiz participants are able to hear themselves. Sponsored by a local coffee inanu- 
facturer, "Food Store Quiz" gives a cash award to shoppers who answer questions correctly; 
to those who fail, a pound of coffee. Questions for the quiz arc contributed by the radio 
audience; special prizes going to contributors of questions used. 

O LUCit ff 



Vol. 3 No. 4 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

April, 1947 

William C. Speed 

Audio Devices' President 
In Europe; To Confer Witli 
Top Pliono-Radio Heads 

"1946 Record Sales Only Beginning; 
Foreign Disc Demands Up Too" — Speed 

William C. Speed, President of Audio 
Devices, Inc., sailed recently on the 
where he is scheduled to meet with lead- 
ing recording and broadcasting officials 
in England and France on market con- 
ditions and techni- 
cal advancements in 
sound recording. 

Prior to his de- 
parture, Mr. Speed 
related that, al- 
though 1946 wit- 
nessed the manufac- 
ture of more than 
300,000,000 phono- 
graph records, plus 
countless thousands 
of other types of 
transcribed recordings, the year 1947 
promises even greater record production. 
"We in the recording industry," Mr. 
Speed emphasized, "definitely believe 
that the popularity phonograph records 
and recorded radio programs enjoyed 
during the past year is only the begin- 
ning of a trend that will soon see more 
and more people enjoying recorded en- 
tertainment in their homes. 

"Phonograph record production and 
sales alone last year," Mr. Speed pointed 
out, "were three times as great as be- 
fore the war. This has occurred," he said, 
"in spite of the fact that comparatively 
few new phonograph machines have yet 
been produced. And, this large increase," 
Mr. Speed continued, "is not only seen 
in this country, but abroad as well. Ex- 
ports of recording discs have increased 
rapidly and now amount to more than 
10% of domestic sales. The production 
of electrical transcriptions, the more ex- 
pensive and better quality record, pri- 
marily used for transcribed radio pro- 
grams, was also far greater than in pre- 
vious years," Mr. Speed explained. Prior 
to 1941, this type of record was used 
almost entirely for musical programs. 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Occupying an attractive corner in Li.ry Ruddell s living room (Larry is ABC s disc chief) 
is this amplifier rack, which contains 6 channels of recording equipment and the master 
control board. Other units in the room, piaured clockwise: New Garrard RC-60 record 
changer atop a 16 record file cabinet; Match ply-wood cabinets housing test equipment and 
recording lathes; Incompleted power supply and tuner rack; Inside view of recording tables, 
which includes equalizers, transfer ke ys, VI meters, etc. 

"Recording Is My Avocation and Vocation Too" 
Says American Broadcasting's Recording Chief 

By Larry A. Ruddell 

Recording Supervisor 


Ever since the day my father brought home our first "gramaphone" 
many years ago and said you can make music if you turn the crank 
and push the switch, I have been interested in making music played by 

other people sound good. 

Since those days many changes have 
taken place not only in the art of re- 
cording but also in reproducing, and 
during this interim I have tried many 
ways and have had many disappoint- 
ments in my quest for perfect recording 
and playback. Actually the nearer I have 
thought I was to this goal the further 
away I have been from it. Recently, iii 
my attempts to learn why, I have become 
surrounded in my every day life by what 
is actually a laboratory, consisting of the 
latest equipment developed in the in- 

The accompanying pictures will show- 
in part the equipment I have, and I will 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Oh, Yes He Was! 

A contestant on Mutual's "Double 
or Nothing" a few Sunday nights 
ago was asked: "Was Enrico Caruso 
one of the greatest voices ever to be 
heard over the radio?" Promptly came 
the answer: "Yes." Todd Russell, pro- 
gram arbiter, just as promptly said: 
"No." Unabashed the guest retorted: 
"But I heard him over the air only 
two weeks ago!" The contestant ex- 
plained it was a recording. Russell 
paid off! 


April. 1947 

cLudla^ record 

VOL. 3, NO. 4 

APRIL, 1947 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

Audio President In Europe 

{Continued from Page 1) 
Since that time, however, the use of 
completely transcribed shows has in- 
creased each year until today recorded 
programs are being presented approxi- 
mately half of the total time radio sta- 
tions are on the air. 

In addition to foreseeing an unpre- 
cedented output in phonograph records 
and electrical transcriptions, the Audio 
official also explained that the demand 
for the instantaneous disc is now more 
than four-fold pre-war and with the con- 
struction of many new radio stations, 
coupled with the stepped-up manufacture 
of recording machines, the 1947 demand 
will reach even greater proportions. 

When questioned on the practicability 
of other types of recording devices, such 
as wire and tape, and the '47 production 
outlook for them, Mr. Speed answered 
by saying: "It is our feeling in the re- 
cording industry that in the not too 
distant future delayed broadcasts, or- 
iginal motion picture recording, and 
conference recording will surely take ad- 
vantage of some of the features offered 
by these other devices, particularly iron 
oxide coated vinyl tape. This method of 
recording, which was brought to a high 
degree of perfection by the Germans 
during the war, is now well along the 
road to mass production here. In fact, 
our own company has done considerable 
research on vinyl tape during the past 
year and production is now under way. 
However, he concluded, "any effort to 
indicate that discs and oxide tape, for 
instance, are competitive seems rather 
futile at this time. Discs are still high 
on the wave of popularity with every 
indication of staying there if simplicity, 
quality and price are to remain as gov- 
erning factors." 

Mr. Speed will remain in Europe for 
approximately one month. 


A splendid guide for those selecting and 
utilizing sound equipment. School Sound 
Systems, a comprehensive 31-page sum- 
mary of basic standards for school sound 
systems, is being offered (single copies 
free) to educators and others working in 
the field of Audio education by the Radio 
Manufacturers Association, Washington, 
D. C. 

ABC Disc Chief Home Recordist 

(Continued from Page 1) 

try and describe to the reader what my 
"home recording unit" consists of. 

The first thing I had to do was to sell 
my wife on the necessity of having it 
and to reconcile the investment that was 
necessary for the installation. Since this 
was to be a "proving ground" for my 
ideas it was essential that I have the tools 
with which to work, so I proceeded by 
"trial and error" to obtain the finest 
speakers, amplifiers, cutters and other 
components necessary for the construc- 
tion of a recording and sound system. 

I utilize practically every controversial 
component that is discussed in the trade 
today; triode and pentode amplifiers, 
commercial, custom built and equipment 
of my own design. Communication re- 
ceivers, TRF and Superhet tuners, Jen- 
sen and Altec speakers, special recording 
equalizers, etc. 

We all know that before we can hope 
to cut a good "platter" we have to be 
sure we have a good recording table, 
cutter and blank on which to record. If 
we haven't these basic requisites, regard- 
less of what else we have, we cannot 
hope to obtain the desired result. 

For recording I use Allied tables. I 
have mounted these on twenty-four inch 
base panels and together with a few other 
"tricks" the records arc free from any 
visible pattern and there is no discern- 
ible "rumble" on playback. For appear- 
ance sake, the overheads have been 
chrome-plated and the base plates are 
stainless steel. The control panels are 
mounted on bakelite and chrome trim- 
med. The tables are lighted with over- 
head lumaline fixtures. 

I have tried all cutters that are inter- 
changeable with my overheads including 
RCA, Fairchild, Presto and others but 
of all these I prefer the new Presto ID. 

Due to lack of space, the rack consists 
of 60 R-T-S jacks and the main cable 
from the recording table to the rack con- 
tains 50 pair of shielded leads and 10 
additional pair run up from the auxiliary 
block in the power supply cabinet. It 
also contains 6 channels of equipment. 
Two of the amplifiers use 6B4's, one 
807's, one 6L6's and two 6V6"s in the 
output. I use the new Super-Pro 400X 
for communication work, the Hallicrafter 
S36 for UHF work from 27..S to 143 
megacycle and for comparative FM tests, 
a Miller TRF tuner, the new AM-FM 
Browning and last but not least the new 
deluxe Fisher. 

Also in the rack there are two four- 
channel Pre-amps that are interchange- 
able with any of the above equipment 
(Continued on Page If) 

^tfie ^sayidUt 

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 


In the midst of the current widespread 
interest in improved recording fidelity, 
one factor has received little notice, the 
question of stability of speed, or wow. 
This is the more curious because the 
public is quite conscious of such a fault. 

Eve r y o n e , of 
course, appreciates 
the need for watch- 
ing the condition of 
the drive mechan- 
ism of a recording 
machine and play- 
back table. On the 
other hand, few 
seem to remember 
the role of excessive 
clearance between 
C. J. LeBel center pin and disc 

hole. The result can be serious, regard- 
less of the quality of the machine. In 
fact, a very fine pre-war machine can 
be the most erratic offender, due to pin 
wear from the many discs recorded or 

The Problem 

To simphfy this discussion, we disre- 
gard the spiral nature of the groove and 
consider the needle running at a fixed 
distance from the center of the disc. 
We ignore also whether we are record- 
ing or reproducing — a disc miscentered 
in recording and played back centered 
will exhibit the same wow as a trans- 
cription disc perfectly centered in record- 
ing, and miscentered in playback. We 
likewise neglect the distortion products 
resulting from the frequency modulation 
process (which wow is), and take only 
the maximum range of pitch change. 
This figure has been the one generally 
discussed, being most easily measured. 


If a disc with a hole larger than the 
center pin is placed with one edge of 
the hole against the pin (as usually hap- 
pens in a busy recording room), the disc 
center is offset from the center of rota- 
tion by half the difference of hole and 
pin diameters, which we may call d . 


This means that the distance from the 
groove to the center will change, during 

April. 1947 


one revolution of the disc, from 
R — d 

R + d 
where R is the distance from the center 
of rotation to the groove spot which is 
being played. 

Obviously, the proportional change in 
groove velocity as a result of the change 
in radius will be 

R + d 

_ 1 

In terms 


R — d 
jf diameter (D = 2R) this 

D + d 

— 1 

D — d 

In the range of variation wc arc con- 
sidering, where d is very small compared 
to D, this expression may be very ac- 
curately simplified to change in groove 
velocity = 2d 


This may easily be read in the follow- 
ing figure: 
















u- a 





* 1 







002" nav aw COS' aae txtf 008' .009" oio" 


Of course, if this wow occurs in re- 
cording, and if the reproducing pin is 
the same size, the wow by fortuitous 
placement on the pin may be doubled, 
unchanged, or reduced to zero in repro- 

Some Practical Observations 

Obviously, some variation in disc hole 
size must be allowed, to allow for a rea- 
sonable amount of wear of punch and 
die. Also, some variation of pin size is 
necessary. On the other hand, the num- 
ber of professional machines is limited, 
whereas the discs are made by the mil- 
lion. Hence, it is most economical to 
allow a larger share of the permissible 
variation for the disc hole. 

In March 1942, the National Associa- 
tion of Broadcasters set the following 
dimensions as standard: 

Disc hole .285 to .287" diameter 

Pin hole .283 to .284" diameter 

(Continued on Page Jf) 

U. S. Savings Bond radio promotion for 1947 gets underway as Kenny Delmar (radio's Sena- 
tor Claghorn) and Gladys Swarthout, lovely singing, present one of the first discs of the 
new "Guest Star" series to Wm. A. Kielmann, Vice President of the New York State Bankers 

Over Eleven Hundred Stations Sign-Up To Air 
Treasury Departnnent's "Guest Star" Records 

With America's radio stations leading the way in promotion, the 
U. S. Treasury Department chalked up a grand total of well over eight 
billion dollars' worth of Savings Bonds sales during 1946. And, trans' 

criptions were the most important and 
widely-used medium of Savings Bonds 
radio promotion. When the "Treasury 
Salute" (fifteen minutes, twice each 
week) transcribed series completed its 
run the latter part of December, it was 
being broadcast by one thousand and 
four stations — probably the greatest num- 
ber of stations in radio history ever to 
carry a program for an extended period. 
In addition to "Treasury Salute," the 
Radio Section of the Savings Bonds Di- 
vision produced during 1946 thirty-six 
five-minute transcriptions featuring fa- 
mous athletes and prominent women. 
These discs were done with an interview 
format, but only the interviewee's voice 
was cut on the record. Carefully timed 
pauses were spaced between answers, so 
that local station sportscasters and women 
commentators could ask the questions 
from scripts which Vv-erc provided with 
the transcriptions. This production twist 
added a novel, local flavor to the pro- 
grams and garnered for them wide and 
enthusiastic acceptance. Approximately 
seven hundred stations presented these 
five-minute interview transcriptions. 

Savings Bonds transcription production 

for 1947 is well under way with this 
year's fifteen-minute feature being "Guest 
Star," a variety program starring many 
of today's outstanding radio artists. 

In addition to one or two top-name 
guests, each "Guest Star" program fea- 
tures as "host." Kenny Delmar. plus 
music by the Savings Bonds Orchestra 
and Singers under the direction of Denes 
Agay. All of the shows feature original 
material prepared especially for the 
Treasury by writers Carroll Moore. Jr., 
Mort Freedman and Milt Surrey. 

Eleven hundred and twelve stations 
have placed written requests with the 
Savings Bonds Division for the "Guest 
Star" transcriptions. Program number 
one was released for broadcast March 
30th. The entire series will be accom- 
panied by high-level promotion to build 
the largest possible listening audience. 

Not only during the war, but even 
more so during the first peacetime year 
of Savings Bonds activity, has trans- 
cribed radio proved its value, so it's 
only logical that the Treasury will con- 
tinue to base its Savings Bonds radio 
operation on transcriptions and the indi- 
vidual radio stations during 1947. 


April, 1947 

"The transcribed announcement sched- 
uled for this period will not be heard.'' 

ABC Disc Chief Home Recordist 

I Continued from Page 2) 

and which permit me to do all kinds of 
mixing; each one consists of two low' 
level and two high-level inputs. 

I use the Western Electric 9A and 9B 
pickups for playback of hill-and-dale and 
lateral reproduction respectively. Each 
pickup has its own booster and pre-amp 
in its circuit. 

There is a cutter-transfer key that 
makes it possible to cross-over from one 
cutter to the other through the same 
recording channel but by the use of 
cutter keys it is possible to record two 
different fifteen minute programs simul- 

As level indicators I use the Weston 
VU Meter on the control panel of the 
recording table and on the amplifier con- 
trol rack I have a DB Meter calibrated 
with the one on the recording table for 
the presetting of recording levels. All of 
the recording amplifiers are flat from ap- 
proximately 20 to 20,000 within plus or 
minus 2DB with about one-half of one 
percent distortion. 

For the playback of commercial shellac 
records I use the new Garrard RC60 
record changer with the new GE, MPLI 
crystal and the Garrard magnetic pickups 
that are all interchangeable. For record- 
ing I use discs from all of the "Big 
Four" manufacturers but for overall de- 
pendability and consistency it is the 
Audio Red-Label two to one. 

My test equipment consists of a Hew- 
lett-Packard Oscillator, RCA Oscilla- 
scope, Daven Gainset, Hewlett-Packard 
distortion meters, RCA Volt-Ohmyst 
tube tester, continuity meters and mis- 
cellaneous check records. It is possible 
by "throwing" a patch-eord in the rack 
to feed tone to any channel, to "meter" 
the output as well as put it on the scope 

by the same simple procedure. I have 
striven for simplicity of operation and 
design and interchangeability of all com- 
ponents of the system. All input and 
output impedances are 5000hms which 
greatly increases flexibility. 

Always remember you cannot take out 
of a system more than you put in and 
if it is not Clean going in it will not be 
Clean coming out. The human ear is 
final criterion by which all reproduction 
is judged and if it is not pleasant listen- 
ing your efforts for perfect reproduction 
have been in vain. 


(Continued from Page 3) 

From the chart, these dimensions will 
permit a fluctuation range, at 7" diam- 
eter, of 

Average .07% 

Maximum .11% 

Minimum .03% 
These are not normally noticeable. 
On the other hand, we have often en- 
countered badly worn pins on otherwise 
good machines, a typical case being .280" 

With a .287" hole, this would produce 
a range of .2%, which may be noticeable 
when added to the natural wow of the 

Actually, the NAB limit of range of 
variation of recording machine speed is 
■2% (_+ .1%), so it is reasonable to keep 
other variations small by comparison. 


Wow being such a variable, and so 
hard to track down, it is the better part 
of wisdom to minimize misfit as a cause. 
Many machines now in use have pins as 
small as .278". It would be wise to meas- 
ure your own machines at intervals, and 
if the size is beyond official limits, con- 
sult the manufacturer. Do not use an 
oversize pin — a hole of lower limit size 
may fail to fit on. With many tables in 
use for nine or ten years, this matter 
deserves real attention. 

Attention Readers 

If YOUR name is not on the Audio Re- 
cord mailing list, drop a penny post card 
to — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York 22, N. Y. 

The 1947 National Convention and Show of the Institute of Radio Engineers, held March 
3-6 in New York's Grand Central Palace and Hotel Commodore, saw the registration of 12,500 
persons and was unquestionably the most successful event in the Institute's history, IRE officials 
advise. During the four day meeting, 120 technical papers were presented, several of which 
concerned latest developments in the recording field, and 170 e.xhibitors from every state in 
the union and from every province of Canada displayed their products. The Audio Devices 
display (above) showed the various types of discs, their applications, and each step necessary 
in their production, from raw material to finished blank. Also, the process involved in making 
phonograph records from Master discs. On the booth's sidcwalls, transcription labels, repre- 
senting hundreds of radio stations and recording studios throughout the United States, Canada, 
Alaska, Porto Rico and Hawaii using Audiodiscs, were displayed. 




Vol. 3, No. 5 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

May, 1947 

Many Recorded Programs 
Being Aired By Europe's 
Few Commercial Stations 

Discs Cut Here For Foreign Playback 

European commercial radio com- 
pletely inoperative during the War with 
the exception of some forty lowpowered 
stations in Spain and a high'powered 
(60,000 watt) privately owned station in 
the tiny republic of Andorra, perched 
high atop the Pyrenees, has now re- 
turned to normal peacetime operations. 
"Radio Andorra" operated commercially 
throutjhout the entire War. 

The *'Speakerina," Europe's famous ciisc 

jockey of Radio Andorra, who broadcasts 

continuous music from twelve noon until 

1 A. M. each day. 

After the cessation of hostilities, sta- 
tions which operated commercially be- 
fore the war in France were not re- 
issued their permits to operate com- 
mercially. These stations were confis- 
cated by the Germans at the time of the 
Occupation and after the Liberation were 
taken over by the French Provisional 
Government. The Government still con- 
trols them and has shown no indication 
that they will return them to their former 
owners to be operated commercially. 

Today, the only radio stations operat- 
ing commercially in Europe are the 
twenty-six stations of the Italian Net- 
work; the forty outlets in Spain; the 
aforementioned Radio Andorra; Radio 
Monte Carlo in Monaco and Radio Lux- 
embourg. And, as is true with most 
stations in America today, all are mak- 
ing considerable use of transcribed pro- 
grams in their daily schedules. The 
Italian network, for instance, has recently 
acquired an NBC Thesaurus library 
to supplement other recorded programs 
being aired to affiliates. And then too, 
CETRA, a subsidiary of the Broadcast- 
( Continued on Page 2) 

Paul J. Miller, assistant managing director of \X \\ A .\ \X hcclint;, W. Va. Interviews two 
members of the crew of the LST 753 on the transcribed broadcast of the "Incentive Inspection" 
of the ship by employees of the Blaw-Kno,ic Company of Martins Ferry, Ohio. Edwin L. Keim, 
WWVA's chief engineer, is shown at the controls of the recording equipment. 

Cutting Discs Aboard Navy LST While Underway 
Unusual Experience of WWVA Recording Staff 

(Recentii/, the editors of Audio Record asked the fitudio engineers of several 
50,000 watt stations to write a brief account of the circumstances surrounding 
"the 'most interesting recording" they had ever made. Many replies were received, 
hut it is believed that the experiences (related below) of Edwin L. Keim, Chief 
Engineer, WWVA-Wheeling, W. Va. and his staff were among the most interesting 
and most unusual.) 

It was during the summer of 1945 that the recording staif of 
WWVA was given possibly its most interesting and unusual assignment. 
After months of planning, obtaining authorizations from the Secretary 

of the Navy on down, plus countless 
miles of other red tape, the Blaw-Knox 
Company of Martins Ferry, Ohio (war- 
time manufacturers of 40mm anti-air- 
craft gun mounts) succeeded in arrang- 
ing a stop-over of a few hours for one of 
the Navy's LST's (landing ship-tanks), 
enroute down the Ohio River to New 
Orleans, for an "Incentive Inspection." 
The plan was to permit Blaw-Knox em- 
ployees to board the vessel and inspect 
the gun mounts of the famous "fightin' 
forties" that they themselves were build- 
ing. Object, of course, was to increase 
their interest in production. In connec- 
(Continued on Page 2) 

In The Flesh — No Less 

A few Sunday nights ago on the 
Jack Benny stanza, four of radio's top- 
flight warblers occupied the guest slot 
— Dick Haymes, Andy Russell, Den- 
nis Day and the incomparable Crosby. 
While the others were building up a 
dramatic entrance, Bing sidled in, and, 
seeing that Benny's expression regis- 
tered surprise, and being a fellow who 
can grasp such a situation, der Binglc 
said a la Fred Allen's Mrs. Nussbaum: 
"You are expecting a transcription, 


May, 1947 

CLudla^ record 

VOL. 3, NO. 5 MAY, 1947 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

Transcribed Shows 

Or Participation? 

By Charles J. Basch, Jr., President 

New York, N. Y. 

"I'm - using a woman's participating 
program," an account executive said to 
me a few years back, "and I'm getting 
fair results. For the same amount of 
money, what else is there that will do 
a better selling job?" "Something that 
will give your client 
'sponsor identifica- 
tion', which he isn't 
getting on the par- 
ticipating program," 
was my reply. 

The reasoning be- 
hind purchasing a 
spot on a participat- 
ing program is that 
a woman commen- 
tator or other artist 
enjoys a certain fol- 
lowing and a 'rating'. The hope is to 
try to hook in on this 'rating'. We be- 
lieve this reasoning to be erroneous, and 
it has been proven dozens of times. You 
don't necessarily 'hook in' on a rating. 
You merely get a spot announcement on 
a program. There is no 'sponsor identifi- 
cation' attached to that. A case in point: 

Better Proof Than Hoped For 

An agency man told me that he had 
just bought a spot on a well-known New 
York participation show for one of his 
clients because it had a good rating, was 
musical, and as the women in his home 
did not like soap operas, they listened to 
this program continually. 

The women turned out to be his wife, 
a nurse, and a maid. I told him that 1 
thought they listened to the program and 
recognized it as the show featuring 'Joe 
Doakes', but that I did not believe they 
knew too much about the spot announce- 
ments or participations the program con- 
tained. He disagreed. So, we called the 
station and found that there were ten 
participating sponsors on the show. In- 
quiry disclosed that the women were able 
(Continued on Page 6) 

Chas. J. Basch, Jr. 

European Stations Air Disc Shows 

(Continued from Page 1) 
ing Company SIPRA, has made some 
excellent recordings of the best Italian 
opera singers. An album of Ferruccio 
Tagliavini made by this company is now 
on sale in New York City. 

Radio Andorra, because of its geo- 
graphic location, has practically no live 
talent and therefore makes constant use 
of recordings of every kind. As a mat- 
ter of fact, this station carries on a con- 
tinuous disc jockey show from twelve 
noon to 1 a. m., the disc jockey being a 
very pretty girl called "The Speakerina". 
Her trade mark, "Aqui Radio Andorra", 
is known from Gibraltar to the English 
Channel. This is the only station in 
Europe providing a continuous program 
of light popular music. 

With a desire to sell their products in 
the European market, American sponsors 
are making recordings of their commer- 
cial programs here in America for use on 
the Italian network. A recent example of 
this was the series of singing commercials 
made by Elsa Miranda, the "Chicquita 
Banana" girl, for Royal Baking Powder, 
a product of Standard Brands, Inc. 

The Government radio of all European 
countries carried on extensive experi- 
ments with recording during the war 
and today commercial radio is now pick- 
ing up where Government radio left off. 
Thus, continuous and increasing use of 
recordings over the commercial radio sta- 
tions of Europe is a certainty. 

ABC Net Places Daylight 
Saving Plan In Operation 

On April 27, the American Broadcast- 
ing Company placed in effect its Day- 
light Saving Time plan of operations ini- 
tiated last year and which, through use 
of special lines and recordings, main- 
tains all its programs in all time zones at 
the same time the year around. 

Operating only during the 22 weeks of 
Daylight Saving Time, the plan this year 
will encompass ABC's entire program 

Basic mechanics of this operation de- 
veloped by ABC involves special broad- 
cast lines and recordings. Through the 
use of these special lines, programs will 
be broadcast live to ABC stations oper- 
ating on Daylight Saving Time and re- 
corded in Chicago and Hollywood for 
rebroadcast one hour later for stations 
operating on Standard Time. 

A similar system used on most of 
ABC's program schedule and on most of 
the stations last year during Daylight 
Saving Time was found to be mechani- 
cally perfect when 1,848 hours of con- 
tinuous recording in Chicago alone re- 
sulted in the loss of only five minutes — 
and that through a power failure. 

Parts Show To Be Held 

In Chicago This Month 

The 1947 Radio Parts and Electron- 
ic Equipment Conference and Show 
is scheduled for May 12th through 
May 16th at the Stevens Hotel in 
Chicago. Audio Devices will display 
its products in Booth 148. 

WWVA Crew Records Aboard LST 

(Continued from Page 1) 
tion with the occasion, arrangements 
were made for a few officials of Blaw- 
Knox and press and radio representa- 
tives to board the ship at Steubenville, 
Ohio and travel with it to the point 
where the special dock for the Incentive 
Inspection had been built, near Martins 

WWVA attempted to arrange a broad- 
cast of description and interviews to 
completely cover the proceedings. Naval 
authorities in charge turned "thumbs 
down" on a plan to use the station's 
Mobile Relay Unit aboard the ship. Per- 
mission to use the vessel's radio trans- 
mitters was also refused. However, it 
was finally suggested that a portable re- 
corder be used so that naval personnel 
could check material before released. 
This plan was followed and the record- 
ing equipment was taken aboard at 
Steubenville where the LST had to be 
locked through one of the numerous 
control locks on the Ohio River. 

Almost immediately after boarding the 
ship, it was discovered that the only 
"AC" available was an auxiliary supply 
unit used on the gun turrets. The ship's 
electrician advised that the frequency 
might be unstable. So then, the recorder 
was set-up on an ammunition box just 
ahead of the pilot house. Some trouble 
was experienced with vibration from the 
diesels when the ship was underway but 
this was controlled by putting a couple 
of Navy blankets under the recorder, 
which later proved a good idea because 
the discs cut were acceptable for broad- 
cast purposes. 

Prior to the ship's arrival at the Blaw- 
Knox dock where the WWVA "shore" 
crew took over with their Mobile Relay 
Unit, several interviews with various of- 
ficials and ship's personnel were record- 
ed. The MRU piped the balance of the 
broadcast to the master control room in 
Wheeling where it was routed to re- 
cording. A couple of hours later, after 
considerable editing, the show was on 
the air. The officers and crew of the 
LST, by this time several miles south of 
Wheeling on their journey to the coast, 
heard the program aboard ship. 

This incident is of particular interest 
since it is believed that it was the first 
broadcast ever attempted from a naval 
vessel in war time, while underway, 
hundreds of miles from any ocean. 

May, 1947 


^^mtke T^ew'tdUt 

By C. I. LeBel, Vice President 


Lacquer forms the coating for all mod- 
ern instantaneous recording discs, and 
since the groove is cut directly in it, the 
character of the coating is the character 
of the blank. This article answers many 
questions which have come to us from 
time to time, and so 
may give the pro- 
fessional recordist 
a better under- 
standing of the ma- 
terial which he 
handles. Needless 
to say, a recording 
lacquer does not 
consist of a highly 
filtered mixture of 
ordinary commer- 
C. J. LeBcl cial black automo- 

bile lacquer with two drops of decibel 
juice added to each gallon. 

Virtually any lacquer made includes 
most, if not all, of the following classes 
of constituents: 

Film Former 

The film forming material around 
which the entire formula revolves may 
he any one of the following: nitro-cel- 
lulose, ethyl-cellulose, acetyl-cellulose, or 
vinyl chloride. All of these are available 
in many types and "viscosities." Com- 
plete tests leave no doubt that nitro- 
cellulose is by far the best as regards 
all professional recording qualities. Of 
the others, ethyl-cellulose has been util- 
ized in some amateur home recording 
discs, but the results are certainly not 
professionally usable. 


The film forming material as received 
from Its manufacturer is quite unfitted 
for direct coating; in fact, cannot even 
be applied as a film without being dis- 
solved in a solvent, of which we have 
our choice of three different groups 
(classified by boiling point). 

Low boiling solvents will evaporate 
very rapidly even at room temperature 
Representative materials in this class 
are: acetone, ethyl-acetate, methyi- 
acetate, alcohol, methyl-ethyl-ketone, 
and scores of others. 

Medium boilers evaporate rather slow- 

ly at room temperature, but evaporate 
rapidly at a slightly elevated tempera- 

Finally, we have high boilers which 
evaporate very slowly indeed at an ele- 
vated temperature. In fact, it may be 
rather desirable to heat for twenty to 
one hundred hours to drive them out 

It is very difficult to make a satisfac- 
tory lacquer using only one of these sol- 
vents, so the chemist prefers to use two 
and often all three groups. Correct se- 
lection of solvents will greatly help pro- 
duction reliability. 


Occasionally, a chemist will wish to 
add a resin or other similar material to 
give the coating some body. This will 
give the coating more strength, but the 
desirability of its use is perhaps ques- 
tionable. For the chemist who insists 
on using such a material, there are a 
very large number of resins, such as the 
copal, dammar, mastic, shellac, and the 
phenolic and alkyd groups. 


To dissolve the resin or to change the 
evaporating properties of the solvent 
mixture, a diluent is very often added. 
Diluents do not absorb moisture and, 
therefore, are very well behaved in sum- 
mertime, whereas some solvents previ- 
ously mentioned may absorb some mois- 
ture, and this has to be driven out in 
the processing. On the other hand, a 
diluent by itself will not dissolve the 
film forming material, and only a limited 
amount of it may be used, for the lim- 
ited compatibility of diluents with sol- 
vents sets a definite maximum. Repre- 
sentative diluents are: benzol, toluol, 
and naphtha. 


We come now to the most important 
materials of all, the plasticizers. Lacking 
them, we would find a coating which 
was extremely hard, extremely brittle, 
extremely noisy, and violently inflam- 
mable when it had dried. To prevent 
this, materials are added which should 
remain in the coating throughout life. 
Properly chosen, they soften the coat- 
ing, make it easy to cut and quiet in 
playback*. Two types of plasticizers are 
available: the solvent type and the non- 
solvent type. Solvent plasticizers actu- 
ally are solvents of extraordinarily high 
boiling point, so high that they very 
often will decompose before they will 
boil at atmospheric pressure. Represen- 
tative materials of this sort are: dibutyl 
phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, triacatin, 
dibutyl sebacate. 

Non-solvent plasticizers will not dis- 
solve the base material, but are com- 

patible with it. They have many excel- 
lent properties, and the only thing that 
limits their use is the fact that an ex- 
cess will tend to sweat out under adverse 
conditions. It is, therefore, necessary to 
use a mixture of solvent and non-sol- 
vent plasticizers. Castor oil is one of the 
most common non-solvent plasticizers. 


A black dye is usually added to a lac- 
quer in order to improve its appearance 
and make it easier for the recordist to 
judge depth and smoothness of grooves. 
There are only two very simple require- 
ments for the dye. It must be extremely 
dark in color, and it must be readily 
soluble in the solvent. There are a very 
large number of dyes available, all an- 
swering this description, and dye selec- 
tion is perhaps the easiest problem of 

the entire formulation. 

The Formulating Problem 

Because Audio Devices has its own 
lacquer plant, the composition of the 
material is entirely under our own con- 

An ordinary industrial finishing lac- 
quer may contain six or seven consti- 
tuents; adequate formulae may be found 
in many reference books and the chief 
limit is the cost of materials. Half of the 
job of an industrial lacquer chemist is 
the developing of the use of extenders 
to cheapen the material without injur- 
ing Its properties, and most of the other 
half of this job is that of improving the 
quality without significantly increasing 
the material cost. 

Recording lacquer is quite another af- 
fair. It will contain approximately thirty 
constituents, some of which are present 
to the extent only of .05% and the 
formulae are entirely secret. We have 
never seen a single recording lacquer 
formula published, and the most impor- 
tant plasticizcr constituents could not be 
detected with accuracy by the best an- 
alyst. The magnitude of the formulat- 
ing problem may be best appreciated 
when we realize that it is an art as much 
as a science and that it is basically exepri- 
mental in nature. The chemist must try 
a large number of proportions of each 
material with a large number of alternate 
proportions of each other material. We 
may appreciate this problem the better 
when we realize that fifteen materials 
each tested in ten different proportions 
will mean 15^" tests to be made. This 
obviously completely impossible regard- 
less of how many men are brought to 
bear on the problem. We rely very 
heavily then on the genius of our formu- 
lators and, as they feel their way along in 
the developments, they are able to elimi- 
nate a large number of the tests as ob- 
viously unnecessary. 


May, 1947 

Plasticizer Choice 

As was mentioned previously, plastic' 
izers are extraordinarily non'volatile 
materials which are used to stabilize the 
coating and give easy cutting, long play' 
back life, and low flammability. There 
have been two schools for formulation 
thought. American formulation in the 
American beginning period 1934-1938 
used very little plastici?er; the coating 
was made soft by leaving a considerable 
amount of residual solvent. The discs 
were stored in a solvent tight can to re- 
tain this residual solvent. When the 
disc was removed from its can and left 
in the air, the solvent would evaporate 
and the coating would slowly harden. 
Typical playback life for such a coating 
was ten to twenty playings; the noise 
level was high and the stability of the 
coating was extremely poor. Nitro'cel- 
lulose with inadequate plasticizer is not 
a remarkably stable material, so the 
groove would warp appreciably with 
time, and the distortion increase would 
be very great. We have observed a har- 
monic distortion increase as great as 
10% to 20% within a period as short 
as two weeks in testing discs of this sort. 

The second school of thought began 
with La Societe des Vernis Pyrolac of 
Paris in the period from 1929 to 193 5. 
In 1938 Audio Devices entered into a 
contract with Pyrolac whereby AUDIO- 
DISCS are manufactured in the U.S.A. 
under an exclusive license agreement. 
This contract also gave all the lacquer 
formulation "know-how" developed by 
Pyrolac since 1929. Our company is 
thus the only American company whose 
experience goes back so far. 

Audio Devices' success with this type 
of recording lacquer from 1938 on 
forced a change in American practice, 
virtually completed by 1941. Pyrolac 
had found that a very quiet and durable 
coating could be made by using adequate 
plasticizers of the correct proportions, 
and the object of their formulator was 
to create a coating which would have 
no change in character throughout life. 
Properly done, such a coating will have 
a playback life ranging from several 
hundred to several thousand times, 20 db 
lower noise level, and negligible distor- 
tion throughout life. 

Plasticizers may evaporate, oxidize, or 
polymerize, but because recording lac- 
quer coatings are so sensitive, good re- 
cord platsicizers will not exhibit any 
such changes. Ordinary industrial-lac- 
quer data are wholly inadequate to the 
record-lacquer formulator's needs, for 
industrial lacquers can lose 50% of their 
plasticizing with little visible effect. 2% 
in recording disc plasticizing would be 
extremely bad. Audio Devices, Inc., is 

thus very fortunate in that its Hcense 
agreement with La Societe des Vernis 
Pyrolac gives it access to recording lac- 
quer tests begun as far back as 1929 and 
to their experience in manufacturing 
discs going back as far as 1932. Thanks 
to this extensive library of test data, our 
chemists have found the long life stipu- 
lation imposes no restriction whatever 
on the formulator's results. They were 
able to get quite as good performance in 
the long hfe disc as they could get if they 
were willing to take short cuts and use 
impermanent materials. It should also 
be pointed out that proper plasticizers 
exert a very profound stabilizing effect 
on nitro-cellulose and that such a coat- 
ing is, therefore, of longer life than we 
can now estimate. Pieces of plasticized 
nitro-cellulose made in 1866 are still in 
existence. Research goes on continually 
with noticeable results and high promise 
for improvements in the near future. 


Every experienced recordist will 
testify that a given lacquer formula has 
a very definite personality. Some of 
them are treacherous, ill-mannered and 
prone to cause trouble, while others 
are always reliable. Personality is per- 
haps the sum total of twelve factors. 
These may be listed as follows: 

a. Easy cutting. 

b. Static and thread throw. 

c. Noise (as measured immediately 
after cutting). 

d. High frequency response. 

e. Playback life. 

f. Aging of the uncut disc, loss of 
cutting qualities. 

g. Aging of the cut disc, develop- 
ment of noise and inter-modulation dis- 

h. Adherence to aluminum under all 
climatic conditions. 

i. Processing characteristics, good be- 
havior in both the silvering and gold 
sputtering methods. 

j. Stability of recording properties 
under a wide range of temperature and 

k. Advance ball behavior. 

1. Grease resistance. 

Coating Process 

Audio Devices introduced machine 
coating into this country and demon- 
strated that no other method equalled 
the single layer, homogeneous, automatic 
application of lacquer to an aluminum 
disc. When the film has dried, the disc 
is put through a controlled temperature 
cycle. This improves the coating con- 
siderably; the noise level decreases and 
the high frequency response improves 

greatly. Besides improving the coating, 
the temperature cycle has the important 
function of driving out the last remnants 
of the high boiling solvents. If left in, 
these would evaporate gradually over a 
period of weeks or months, and the 
hardness of the disc would be continu- 
ally changing. When the controlled 
temperature cycle has been finished, the 
disc is punched with the standard 4-hole 
center, inspected and packed. 

The Coating Machine 

Eight years of experience have indi- 
cated that this automatic coating ma- 
chine does not impose any restriction on 
the formulation; in short, any coating 
which makes a good record can be 
handled by this machine. Coatings made 
by other methods will be several db 
noiser than the same material appHed 
by machine. 

Quality Control 

Of course, it is one thing to devise a 
good formulation, and it is another thing 
to manufacture it successfully. This 
problem has become more complex year 
by year and, with the present deteriora- 
tion of raw material, it has even become 
necessary to re-purify a large number of 
chemicals. The impurities removed 
would have no significant effect on an 
ordinary industrial lacquer, and it is per- 
haps no reflection on the chemical manu- 
facturers to say that re-purification is 
necessary. It has merely been found 
that microscopic percentages of certain 
impurities tend to effect considerable 
changes in the lacquer performance. 
Quality control is not a new phrase with 
us, as we were using advanced quality 
control procedures years before the war. 
Production control in the disc plant is 
a large subject in itself; it is chemical 
engineering par excelsis. 

*. High Frequency and Noise Level 
Characteristics of an Instantaneous Re- 
cording Disc — C. J. LeBel. ATE 
Journal, Vol. 8, No. i, p. 6, January 

Reprints of This Article 
Available on Request 

The Audio Record has been en- 
larged from four to six pages this 
month in order that we might bring 
our readers Mr. LeBel's complete ar- 
ticle. Reprints are available to all who 
request them. Write — The Editor, 
Audio Record, 444 Madison Avenue, 
New York Citv, 

May, 1947 


Will Baltin 

Television Transcription 

By Will Baltin 


Television Broadcasters Association, Inc. 

Although network facilities for tele- 
vision broadcasting are now being ex- 
panded across the nation, the television 
broadcaster will have to rely on "record- 
ed" programs to a marked degree if he 
is to fulfill the requirements of the Fed- 
e r a 1 Communica- 
tions Commission, 
which initially call- 
ed for a minimum 
28 -hours- per- week 
of telecasting be- 
ginning April 1. 

Networks can 
provide the televi- 
sion broadcaster in 
outlying regions 
with a certain 
amount of high 
quality programs, 
but for "local" 
shows, where sufficient talent is unavail- 
able, he will have to fall back on tran- 
scribed or "recorded" material, much as 
the radio broadcaster does today. 
The Disc Does The Work 
Of course, in television there is a 
marked difference as to what constitutes 
a recorded show. In radio the disc jock- 
ey merely chortles his introductions — 
and the commercial — and then permits 
the disc to provide the entertainment. 

Film is to television what the acetate 
disc is to radio. Quantitavely speaking, 
good film for television is scarce today. 
One can understand the reticence of the 
major film producer to supply television 
broadcasters with the product he makes 
available to theatres. A great hope for 
the telecaster lies in the independent 
film producer who is presently "packag- 
ing" film shorts, ranging from one to 30- 
minutes in duration. 

New Film For Recording Tele 
Intriguing projects are also understood 
to he under way in the laboratories of 
du Pont and Eastman Kodak where 
special film is being developed for record- 
ing television programs directly off the 
face of a cathode ray tube. With the 
picture quality on the fluorescence of the 
kinescope constantly improving, and with 
the brilliance of the image easily con- 
trolled, it is quite possible to film an en- 
tire studio-produced television program 
off the face of the video receiving tube 
and thereby provide a method of not 
only retaining a permanent record of the 
production, but making possible distribu- 
tion of the film for use on other stations. 
(Continued on Page 6) 

Grouped around a recorder as they listen to the playback of a disc arc students in Elissa Landi's 
"Speech for Radio and Television" class at New York's City College. From left to right — 
Henry Dasaro, Miss Landi, Rose Kaufman, Mildred Cuscione and Sgt. W. P. Berkeley. 

New York's City College Offers Speech Course 
To Radio-Tele Aspirants; Many Discs Employed 

Because the use of recordings has proved to be one of the most 
valuable assets in attaining the goal of perfection in speech for radio and 
television, they are used extensively by Miss Elissa Landi, star of stage, 

and radio, in her classes 


"Speech for Radio and Television," of- 
fered by the Evening and Extension Di- 
vision, City College School of Business, 
New York City. 

Records Aid In Speech Correction 
Recordings used in the class are made 
from scripts read by all the students in- 
dividually and in dramatic form. Later 
these records are played back to the stu- 
dent in individual conferences and in 
class. The defects in speech, inflection 
and diction are then discussed, in an ef- 
fort to help the student overcome his 
speech faults and attain perfection. Miss 
Landi thus provides assistance for those 
who have imperfections in their speech 
which mar their speaking personality. 
Special attention is given to individual 
problems, both in class and in interviews 
between student and instructor. 

Miss Landi's classes are held on Tues- 
day evenings in the studios of radio sta- 
tion WOR-New York. They are but a 
part of the many classes which comprise 
the radio and television offerings of the 
Evening and Extension Division of the 
City College School of Business. All the 
classes make tours of broadcasting sta- 
tions and television centers as a part of 
the class work and recordings are a part 
of the scheduled instruction in many of 

the courses, according to Earl Ryan, Su- 
pervisor of Radio and Television. 

Courses and instructors include "Sur- 
vey of Radio and Station Practice," 
taught by Jo Ranson, Public Relations 
Director, Station WHN — New York; 
"Practical Radio Announcing," by Carl 
Mark, Radio Director of the Al Paul 
Lefton Advertising Agency, New York 
City; "Radio Scriptwriting for Produc- 
tion," by Ted Cott, Program Director 
of WNEW— New York and Jeff Selden, 
head of the continuity writing staff for 
Station WNEW; "Television Studio 
Operation and Program Production," by 
Raymond E. Nelson, President of the 
Raymond E. Nelson Advertising Agen- 
cy, New York City; "Documentary Ra- 
dio," by Seymour N. Siegel, Director of 
Programs at the Municipal Broadcasting 
System, Station WNYC; "Radio Broad- 
cast Advertising," by Hershel Deutsch, 
Radio Director of the Gray Advertising 
Agency, New York City; and "Radio 
Audience Research," by Oscar Katz, As- 
sociate Director of Research in the Co- 
lumbia Broadcasting System. 

Workshops offered include: "Televi- 
sion Laboratory Workshop," "Radio 
Dramatics Workshop," "Advanced Ra' 
dio Dramatics Workshop," and "Work- 
shop in Television Commercials." 


May, 1947 

Record Shows or Participation? 

(Continued from Page 2) 
to remember five of the ten sponsors be- 
tween them, or an average of 1 2/3 
each. This was better proof than I had 
hoped for, but it brought out the point 
that the show was definitely identified 
by the artist on it, and that various 
clients got Httle sponsor identification. 

Greater Product Identification 

Now, we don't say that participating 
programs do not do a successful job. 
Some have done it and are still doing it. 
We do say that your own transcribed 
program, properly tied-in to your own 
commercial message, will supply greater 
'identification' and, therefore, stimulate 
sales. That, after all, is what a client 
desires. It has been computed that a 
five minute show (time and talent) in 
most markets costs about the same as a 
participation. Tests comparing participa- 
tions and transcriptions in cities of com- 
parable size on stations of comparable 
wattage at approximately the same cost 
have been made. These tests invariably 
proved the five minute shows a better 
sales medium. 

You may ask, "Will a listener tune in 
for a five minute show, or do they get it 
quite 'by accident' as the carry-over from 
a previous broadcast?" Our answer is 
that a good five minute show will create 
its own listening audience, and that 
listeners will tune in for it. This is Fact 
— not Fantasy! To prove the point . . . 
when Vick Chemical Company used "IT 
TAKES A WOMAN" (one of our re- 
corded programs, incidently) in Canada, 
the ratings in various cities varied from 
5.1 to 13.1, due to local conditions. 
CFRB-Toronto reported a record rating 
of 9.8 the highest daytime rating of any 
program of any length on that station. 
The show was on from 12:55 to 1:00 
P, M.. cnioyint; more listeners than the 
fifteen minute show which followed, and 
the ten minute show which preceded it. 
This proves conclusively that listeners 
tuned in specifically to hear "IT TAKES 
A WOMAN." a five minute show, which 
gave the client both rating and 'sponsor 

Who Pays The Bills? 
This sponsor identification business is 
just simple arithmetic. If you have a 
20 rating and 50% sponsor identification, 
10% of the people know who is paying 
the bills for your show. If you've got 
a 15 rating and 90% sponsor identifica- 
tion, then 13V2% know who is paying 
the bills. 

It's a proven fact, if an advertiser 
wants to get the most out of his ad- 
vertising dollar he will select a good 
transcribed 5 minute show in preference 
to the participation every time. 

N. Y. Outlet Features Special 
Recorded Program From London 

Mobile Recorder Used For Interviews 

"Pleasure Parade," a new series of 
fifteen minute recorded programs heard 
over WNEW-New York on Sunday 
evenings is designed to acquaint Mr. and 
Mrs. America with England's theatrical 
headliners. The transmission via BBC 
covers the entire entertainment world 
in London and is also carrying items and 
interviews with well-known Americans 
visiting England. Producers of the 13- 
week transcribed series use a mobile re- 
corder for on-the-spot broadcasts from 
sporting events and other places of en- 

The Television Transcription 

(Continued from Page 5) 
Paramount Pictures, Inc., is employing 
a similar method in its experiments for 
theatre television, and it has already been 
revealed that Paramount is able to re- 
ceive a television program ofi^ the air, 
film the sight and sound, develop and 
print the subject in from one to three 
minutes. This so-called "delayed" tele- 
vision makes it possible to provide many 
theatres with a television service for im- 
mediate use when the subject is received 
or for exhibition whenever desired. 

One thing is quite clear: There is a 
definite place for the "transcribed" pro- 
gram in television and this will be borne 
out to an ever-increasing extent as more 
video stations reach the air this year. 


These bottles are but a sinall portion of the 4.r.}2 
t which have passed through our laboratory. Kach 
represents a part of a continuous scries of chemical 
research— responsible for attaining and maintaining 
the quality of Audiodiscs. 

* • • 

Kor the leadership of Audiodiscs is the result of 
exhaustive experimental work, plus the most exact- 
ing quality controls known to the recording industry. 

Recently, to add still furthi 
lies, we greatly expanded 
our research engineers 

and methods, in order 

our research facili. 

laboratory. Today, 
tly exploring new 
3 further improve 

recording fidelity and broadei 

the field of : 



ufocliirifd ill Ihc U.S.A. iimlir L.xclusire Liuii', j> 

Pyru/ui— Trance. 

AUDIO DEVICES, INC., 444 Madison Ave., New York 22, N.Y. 




Vol. 3 No. 6 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

June, 1947 


Five progmms aired over the Keystone Broadcasting System via transcriptions. Above: Bobby 
Gregory and His Cactus Cowboys on ^'Western Serenade." Pictured clockwise; Lum 'n Abner. 
Spike Featherstone and his Orchestra on "Tune Tabloid," Rita Carroll, also on ''Tune Tab- 
loid" and Jimmy Atkins and Ma\ Kanners' Band of the "Flit-Frolics" show. 

Airing of Corwfn's "One World Flight" Series 
Good Testimonial to Unlimited Value of Discs 

I Last October, NoDiian Corwin, CBS writer-producer-director, and his assistant, 
Lee Bland of CBS' Documentary Unit, returned to the U. S. after a ^2,000 mile air 
trip a round-the-world; Mr. Corwin's prize us ivinner of the first "One World 
Aivard." During Mr. Corwin's journey he recorded his conversations with hundreds 
of people i7i many foreign lands. Upon his return, and after nearly three months of 
boiling this material down, Columbia broadcast a series of 13 programs. In the 
accompanying article, Mr. Bland tells of some of the complex recording problems 
encountered while the series was being prepared for the air.) 

Turntable operators can best appreciate the comple.\ recording 
problems of Norman Corwin's recent CBS series, "One World Flight." 

For the 13 broadcasts we used discs as insurance against mechanical 
failure and also to facilitate cueing. On 

each broadcast, our two turntable en- 
ijincers alternated in playing the recorded 
excerpts. Each man had a complete set 
of all recorded material, generally con- 
sisting of about 30 separate cuts on 
double-faced 16" 33V3 rpm platters. 

One of our main problems was to 
preserve the highest possible quality for 
the air shows. Since the engineers a! 
tcrnated cuts, it was therefore possible 
to save each man's untouched record- 
nigs for the dress rehearsal and broadcast 
by the simple expedient of switching 
(Continued on Page 2) 

That's Not Me! 

Leo, MGM's famous lion, certainly 
was embarrassed when he learned how 
he sounded to the sound effects crew 
of WHN-New York. Seems that a 
lion's roar was needed to authenticate 
the broadcast of the opening of Met- 
ro's new recording plant in Bloom- 
field, N. J. So, the voice of an orang- 
utan, slowed to JoVs rpm, was used. 
A real lion's roar when recorded, ac- 
cording to the engineers, "sounded 
like belches after a Hungarian meal."" 



B)' Michael M. Sillcrman, President 



Wc at Keystone have been given a 
variety of names. Since we are the 
only transcription network in existence, 
the uniqueness of our set'up has ap- 
parently invited many novel appellations. 
In the press we are often referred to w; 
the wax web, or the wire-less network, 
and c\'er so often the "rubber network." 
This n.ime has intrigued me because in 
many ways it describes our operation 
very well. Wc do have a flexibility and 
a resilience that resembles the character- 
istics of rubber. This elasticity has 
shown itself in the transition from the 
]irc-war period to war times and back into post war. Our tr.uiscription 
mode of broadcasting has the necessary 
stretch in following the country's eco- 
nomic course. Also the need to follow 
the contortions of the advertiser's dis- 
tribution and peculiar conditions call 
for a certain amount of stretching and 
snapping to meet the situation. 

Two Hundred Sixty Affiliates 

The Keystone Network, stretching 
from coast to coast .md now consisting 
of 260 affiliated stations, concentrates 
solely on the small urban and rural 
areas. This is what we call BEYOND- 
METROPOLITAN America, now often 
referred to as "BMA." 

This emphasis on the small tov.'n is 
timely in view of the country's chang- 
ing economy. Leading economists today 
state that two-thirds of the nation's retail 
sales are made in the small towns. 

In the light of the facts and figures 
showing this emphasis on the small town 
market, the leading advertising agencies 
have learned that the Keystone Network 
has, for the first time in many decades, 
made it economically possible for the 
advertiser to buy these increasingly im- 
portant markets as a unit, something 
they could not do before. 

And the leading advertisers of the 
country have learned that the Keystone 
plan of operation makes it possible for 
them to promote their products via radio 
in these small markets on a comparable 
cost basis with their promotions in the 
large metropolitan markets. 

These achievements have been ac- 
( Continued on Page JfJ 


June, 1947 

CLudla )i reccrrcL 

VOL. 3, NO. 6 JUNE, 1947 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

The writer (left) and iNorman Corwin pictured 
as they wave goodbye to well-wishers who saw 
them off, a year ago this month, on their 42,- 
000 mile, globe-circling trip. 

CorwIn .Series Tribute to Discs 

/Continued from Page 11 
sets of recordings after the preliminary 

Our discs were produced at Columbia 
Records, from magnetic-type recordings 
made during the world flight. The 
original field recordings suffered fre- 
quently from faulty batteries picked up 
en route. Speed variations and quality 
differentials were corrected during the 
discing process, but only after hours of 
patient experimentation. 

One of the most tedious aspects of 
the entire procedure was the job of 
splicing significant extracts, in the in- 
terests of time. This was accomplished 
manually by dexterous engineers who ac- 
cepted the challenge to do the impos- 
sible and proved that the possibilities 
in re-recording are almost limitless. 

Considering that all original field re- 
cordings were once dubbed before being 
piped for discing, that — in the splicing 
operation — we dubbed again as often as 
necessary, and that the ultimate blends 
were copied to prepare the broadcast 
discs, there was surprisingly little loss of 
quality and intelligibility. To me, this 
is not only a testimonial to engineering 
"know-how" and equipment but it gives 
aid and comfort to producers and direc- 
tors who wish to experiment with re- 
corded documentaries. 

Record Collecting Habit 

By Jim Walsh, Day News Editor 
WSLS-Roanoke, Va. 

Playing old records on my "Jim 
Walsh's Wax Works" program over this 
station comes naturally to me. Why 
shouldn't it? I became fascinated by the 
miracle of recorded music before I was 
three years old and can still remember 
the first record I ever heard. It was a 
comic skit called "A Night Trip to Buf- 
falo" and it was played on an old-time 
talking machine with a large external 
morning-glory horn. 

Within a few years, there was a 
phonograph in my home and before I 
was old enough to go to school I had 
begun making the rounds of the dealers 
in my little town, begging the latest 
monthly supplement describing the new 
records. (I had taught myself to read.) 
From that time I have never stopped 
collecting records — mostly by looking for 
them in Salvation Army depots. Good 
Will outlets, second-hand furniture 
stores and junk shops — until now I have 
more than 10,000 discs and cylinders, 
some made as long ago as 189? and 
others issued only a week or so back. 
Have Studied Old-Tiniers 

In addition, I have made a life-long 
study of the careers of men and women, 
such as Ada Jones, Billy Murray, Henry 
Burr, Len Spencer and many others, who 
were the first recording artists, and now 
have a nation-wide reputation as an 
authority on old records. For a consider- 
able time I have been collecting material 

Whoa— There Rich! 

Ever wonder what would happen 
it on one of our recorded "whodun- 
its", the fellow manipulating the discs 
would inadvertently spin the Wednes- 
day installment before the Tuesdays? 
Some fun, eh? Well, the people in 
England aren't wondering any more, 
and to the ardent followers of BBC's 
ace dective Dick Barton, it wasn't 
funny either. A few Tuesday nights 
ago, sly Richard got himself out of 
a horrible predicament that none of 
his faithful knew he was in. No this 
sleuth is not that fast on the trigger. 
Some not-too-alert studio hand had 
given Barton's Wednesday night 
platter to Tuesday night's listeners. 

tor a book to be called "Record Makers," 
which will give the life stories of these 
old timers. 

During the past five years, my monthly 
department, "Favorite Pioneer Recording 
Artists," has appeared in Hobbies Maga- 
zine, and I have also written extensively 
about record collecting for magazines 
such as the American Record Guide, 
This Week, Leisure, Magazine Digest 
and the Gramophone of London. Just 
before Worid War II, a Jap asked per- 
mission to translate some of my articles 
into Japanese for the benefit of the re- 
cord collectors there. I don't know 
whether he ever got around to it! 

Many of the surviving old-time re- 
cording artists, such as Billy Murray, 
who has been my particular hero since 
I was seven years old, have been my 
good friends of late years. 
(Continued on Page If) 

i^FHf "*^r7 

WOR-New York's "Johnny on the Spot" 

This streamlined studio on wheels will speed WOR newsmen and engineers to the scene of 
important newsbreaks and speci.d events throughout the New York Metropolitan area. One 
of the largest mobile broadcasting studios in the country, the new unit is 27 feet long and 
houses a complete broadcastint^ studio, equipment room and driver's compartment. The 
8' ,x 10' studio accommodates eight persons and is equipped with a full-size desk, chairs, and 
radio telephone to keep the unique broadcasting unit in touch with master control or the 
station's transmitters at Carteret, N. J. Four different short wave transmitters, as well as two 
fixed-studio-type recording units, two wire recorders and one spring-wound recorder .are con- 
tained in the equipment room. An observation post and roof platform for news reporters, 
announcers and photographers will also facilitate televised special features. 

Juno, 1947 


fe^ t^eayulUt 

By C. I. LeBel, Vice President 


In view of the widespread current 
discussion^ of the subject of quality 
control, it is felt that a few sidelights 
on this problem would be of interest 
to the recordist. Although American 
industry as a whole first fully realized 
the value of such 
programs during 
the war, quality 
control has been 
active at Audio 
Devices since the 
company's start. 
Space will permit 
us to touch only 
on cutting stylus 
control in this 
article, so disc 
C. J. LeBel quality control 

will be discussed 
in a later issue of Audio Record. 

Stylus Properties 

Two main performance characteristics 
of a cutting stylus are noise level and 
high frequency response. The inter- 
relation of these has already been dis- 
cussed in detail by the writer^, so it is 
enough to say here that a quieter groove 
may be cut, iirst, by increasing the length 
of the burnishing facet and, second,, by 
improving the quality of the cutting of 
burnishing edges. Requirements for high 
frequency response set a definite upper 
limit to the length of burnishing facet 
which may be employed in a professional 
stylus. We arc left, then, only one way 
to keep the noise level down; that is, to 
control the cutting edge and burnishing 
surface. In doing this we are controll- 
ing an invisible detail, for the small 
irregularities which cause differences in 
noise level are so minute that they are 
invisible under the most powerful micro- 
scope that can be brought to bear. 

Quality Control at Audio Devices 

Here at Audio Devices each sapphire 
is tested for noise level in a professional 
recording machine. Grooves are cut in 
lacquer discs then played back by a 
pickup feeding into a high gain ampli- 
fier and a standard VU meter. An 800 
cycle high pass filter is used to remove 
the effect of turntable rumble, which 
because of its low frequency is virtually 
inaudible even though strong in meter 
























\, - 






-54 -52 -50 -48 


Noise Characteristics — Typical Styli 

reading. We are then measuring only 
the voltage produced by the record 
scratch. A stylus with noise level above 
the rejection point is sent back to the 
lapidary's shop for reprocessing. 

We are occassionally asked why a 
100% test is necessary; why not use 
sampling methods? This can best be 
answered by a glance at test results, 
most conveniently shown as a number 
of distribution curves. 

Distribution Curves 

Figure 1 shows the distribution of 
noise levels in a batch of 501 points. 
The decibel values are meter readings, 
based on an arbitrary reference level. 

It is interesting to note the heavily 
skewed shape of the curve, as well as 
the double peak; the statistician would 
correctly say that this is not statistically 
"normal" data. This is a typical batch 
of styli, for rejects are only a small 

An exceedingly good batch of 511 
points is shown in Figure 2. While the 
rejection percentage is about the same 
as in the previous case, the secondary 
peak at -59 db is smaller in area, and the 
area under the main curve at -68 is 

What happens when the lapidary's 
laps are not in quite as good condition 
is typified in Figure 3, for a batch of 
500. Note that the rejectionable per- 
centage is several times as great and that 
the secondary peak has broadened con- 
siderably on the noisy side. 

These styli were made by the best 




















































-68 •(. 

6 -6 

4 -62 -6 

-59 -5 

4 -5 

2 -50 -48 4 

* 4 



Noise Characteristics 


■Fair Quality 

lapidary in the country at a time when 
processing was running very smoothly. 
Figure 4 is taken from earlier data on 
605 points, and shows the result when 
the laps are temperamental. It is also 
similar to the results of an inexperienced 
lapidary, in that the major peak is ten 
to fifteen db noiser, and the rejects many 
more. Note that the skewness is much 
reduced, and the standard deviation is 
visibly much greater. 


It is evident from this that 100% 
inspection is necessary. The recordist 
rightfully expects all his cutting styli to 
be usable. Sampling inspection would 
guarantee that the consumer would 
usually have to return not over several 
per cent but could not assure his find- 
ing all usable. According to the laws 
of chance, and since rejects run in 
clusters, a recordist might conceivably 
get three bad points in a single group 
of ten (i.e. 30% bad) these three being 
perhaps a quarter of the bad units from 
a batch of 500. So we must inspect all. 
Sampling is primarily useful where a 
defect will be caught at later stages of 
manufacture, or where so few rejects 
exist that it is cheaper to find one oc- 
casionally than to test all. A good ex- 
ample of the latter case may be found 
in small composition resistors. It was 
found that genuinely bad units would oc- 
cur once in a hundred thousand units. 
It was cheaper to troubleshoot every 
twenty thousandth assembly for a bad 

Noise Characteristics — Especially 
Good Batch 
























/ ' 





O -h 

f> -h 

^ -6 

7 -6 

8 -5 

4 -5 

2 5 


fl -4 

4 -42 


Noise Characteristics — Poor Batch 
(Continued on Page 6 J 


June, 1947 


Rubber Network 

(Continued from Page 1) 
complishcd by a simple but basic tech- 
nique which finds much of its answer 
in the electrical transcription. The Key- 
stone story is a success story of the 
transcription embellished with small sta- 
tion cooperation, seasoned with a firm 
belief in the selling power of the 
and garnished with a realization of a 
tremendous aggregate market potential. 
These factors all crystalized into an 
integrated unit, are responsible for the 
realization of a national coast-to-coast 
transcription network. It is radio's adap- 
tation of the old adage of the small 
strands woven together into a strong 
rope. Bound together into the transcrip- 
tion network, the small stations are a 
potent selling force. 

KBS Operation Explained 

Many of the country's leading adver- 
tisers and agencies know from first hand 
experience about the modus operandi of 
KBS. But some people outside the orbit 
of Keystone ask, how does it work. The 
answer is quite simple. KBS is organized 
and operates on a network basis. How- 
ever the stations are linked together by 
transcription instead of leased telephone 
wires. Keystone distributes its sustain- 
ing and commercial programs on a tran- 
scribed basis. This gives the affiliates, 
as well as the advertiser and agency, 
flexibility and freedom of movement that 
is essential to good programming. 
Through its unique method of network 
operation utilizing the transcription, the 
commercial shows on the four major 
wired networks are potentially avail- 
able through Keystone to the KBS af- 
filiates. At the same time wired net- 
work advertisers can reach the BE- 
by broadcasting their same wired network 
programs on a transcribed basis on KBS 
stations. Burns and Allen, and Lum 'n 
Abner, are typical of such commercial 
programs. The local stations benefit by 
such programming and the advertisers 
gain a tremendous audience in the Key- 
stone areas. Some advertisers on the 
other hand, have developed their own 
such programs for the Keystone markets 
exclusively. Others find the KBS sus- 
taining features valuable commercial pro- 
grams. Grove Laboratories for example, 
sponsored a KBS sustainer titled "West- 
ern Serenade", featuring cowboy and 
hillbilly talent. 
Advertiser — Small Market Radio Benefit 

While Keystone has evolved the tran- 
scription and its network into a bull's 
eye for the last frontier of American 
domestic commerce, it serves the adver- 
tiser and at the same time helps small 

Sam Hayes, Ace Spor+scaster 

SAM HAYES, well known sports authority, 
is an NBC recorded program which appeals 
to all sports lovers. In this quarter-hour show, 
Hayes, recounts thrilling moments in sports 
history and famous figures in the sports world. 
Memorable sports events are also dramatized. 
being heard over NBC and independent sta- 
tions from coast to coast. 

market radio. Throughout its history 
KBS has led the fight for recognition of 
the transcription and the small market 
station. In the field of local sales every 
KBS transcribed sustaining program is in 
effect a cooperative show, since the af- 
filiates are encouraged to sell it locally. 
In all industry matters such as music 
copyright affairs, NAB, BMB, and gen- 
eral commercial program trends. Key- 
stone is in the forefront watching all 
factors that have any bearing on the 
small market stations. The elasticity 
of the so-called rubber network which 
Keystone operates is typified by the 
view of the radio director of the adver- 
tising agency which leads the nation in 
radio billing, who states: 

"KBS, through its unique 
method of transcription net- 
work operation makes it pos- 
sible for the advertiser to buy 
the small markets as a unit, and 
at a cost that compares favor- 
ably with competitive media. 
Therefore Keystone has placed 
the national advertiser within 
the reach of the small market 
station on a nation-wide unit 
basis. This to my mind is the 
real achievement of the net- 
And on the other side of the fence, 
the manner in which the KBS rubber 
network lends its stretch in support of 
the affiliated station is typified by the 

following statement of a KBS affiliate 
"Through KBS I have been 
able to get such programs as 
Lum 'n Abner, Burns and 
Allen, Philo Vance and others 
(in transcription. I have been 
able to get such national ac- 
counts on my station as Sterling 
Drug, Miles Laboratories, Gen- 
eral Foods, Lever Brothers, 
Emerson Drug, Lucky Strike, 
and others. The national ad- 
vertiser, I feel, has found a 
way — through KBS and its 
transcription technique — to put 
shows on the small stations. 

"I am affiliated with KBS 
because I think they have done 
one helluva job in selling the 
national advertisers on small 
market radio. Instead of 'doing 
it with mirrors', or wires, "they 
do it with transcriptions. They 
perform a function that no 
other group or network does in 
radio — they sell the small 
markets exclusively." 


Record Collecting Habit 

(Co)iiinucd from Page .i ) 

My collection contains more than 400 
brands of records — most of them long 
since obsolete — from all parts of the 
world. There are many classical discs 
by dead or retired opera stars, but I have 
found for radio use it is best to restrict 
myself chiefly to playing old popular 
songs and humorous sketches. The 
"Wax Works", which began at WJHL 
in Johnson City, Tenn., in 1939 and was 
also given for four years at WDBJ- 
Roaiioke, before moving to WSLS, 
where I am now day news editor, has 
been generally popular with all classes 
of listeners, but its appeal seems to in- 
crease for every decade the listener has 
lived. Many fans have thanked me for 
the relief it gives them from swing and 

One of the outstanding items of the 
collection is a record of "Shine On, 
Harvest Moon," sung especially for me 
by Jack Norworth, who collaborated 
with the late Nora Bayes back in 1908 
in writing the song. Jack said he had 
been so annoyed by persons who insisted 
that they had Bayes and Norworth re- 
cords of "Shine On. Harvest Moon," 
despite the fact that they never recorded 
it, that he appreciated more than he 
could say my making no such claim. In 
fact, he appreciated it so much that he 
made the record and sent it to me for 
a Christmas present, so I could truth- 
fully say, I was the only person in the 
world with a record of "Shine On, Har 
vest Moon," sung by the composer! 

June, 1947 


Recording's Advancement 

By J. R. Poppele, V. P., Chief Engineer 

As C. J. LcBcl, Vice-President of 
Audio Devices so aptly put it: "A de- 
vice (or technique) may be radically 
improved either hy re-design, or by 
merely improving every part (or pro- 
cedure) by as little as ten per cent." 

At the WOR Re- 

^^^|fc^ cording Studios, Mr. 

F^ ^^ LeBel's statement 

I concerning improvc- 

'• \*\ ment and re-design 

-li has been put into 

_^^^^'^^^' practice with grati- 

^^^^k^r^^jjj^ tying results. 

^^^^^^A^^^H^ New amplifiers 

^^^^^^^■■||H| have been installed. 

^^^^^^B^^PS '"^'^^"^'^'J technique 

having been put in- 

J. R. Poppele to practice. Record- 

ing distortion h,is been reduced to a 
minimum, and the over-all technical 
improvement m all types of recording 
has been marked. New type recording 
heads are now in use. These heads are 
more sensitive and include temperature 
control. All of which produces greatly 
improved recordings, and this improve- 
ment has been well received by broad- 
cast stations throughout the country, 
who have found an ever-increasing and 
wider use of transcriptions and records. 

Making further advances in the art 
of recording, we have found that the 
use of improved cutting styli contour 
appreciably increased the signal to noise 
ratio in the recordings. New reproduc- 
ing turntables of the latest type with 
direct drive and improved construction 
have assured rumble free, constant speed 

Uniform quality has been the aim of 
WOR Recording Studios, and has en- 
abled the manufacturers of re- 
cords to offer to the public records of 
uniform quality and greatly improved 

Although the recording industry has 
not seen any particularly spectacular 
ch.inges during the war years, there is, 
during the present transitional period, a 
continuous effort to improve here and 
there, and we believe we have advanced 
our technique • tremendously by taking 
advantage of new equipment as it be- 
comes available, and by continuously 
striving to function as efficiently as we 

One of the greatest advancements on 
an industry-wide basis was the adoption 
of the N.A.B. recording standards which, 
when considered in the light of the 
many other technical achievements dur- 
ing the past years, puts the recording 
(Continued on Page 6) 

Prof. A. W. Bleckschmidt stands by to offer advice to Converse College School of Music 
students Loris Dean Burnettc, Sarah Fant Jones, Louis White and A. J. Smith as they prepare 
to cut a recording. 

Converse College's Courses In Radio, Music, 
Speech Find Many Applications for Recordings 

Making recordings and mastering recording techniques are two 
important functions in the Radio and Recording Workshop Course 
conducted each year at Converse College, Spartanburg, S. C. In ad- 
dition, making recordings is a supple- 

mentary part of the plan for music, 
speech, and physical education courses at 
the South Carolina school. 

Radio-Recording Class Airs Weekly 
Show Over WORD-Spartanburg, S. C. 

The Radio and Recording Class, under 
the direction of Prof. A. W. Bleck- 
schmidt, is responsible for the weekly 
production of a half-hour broadcast over 
Station WORD-Spartanburg. Programs 
usually originate in an accoustically 
treated radio studio on the campus, but 
occasional broadcasts, open to the public, 
are given from the stage of the college 
auditorium. Both the studio and the 
auditorium are wired for radio pick-up. 

Recording and broadcasting skills arc 
acquired simultaneously — recordings be- 
ing prepared for test purposes before 
each program is aired. Scripts are re- 
corded, studied further, and re-recorded, 
as many as three times. On each oc- 
casion, the discs are played back and 
carefully studied for possible improve- 

Music Students Record Twice Yearly 

With a similar interest in performance 
improvement, many members of Con- 
verse's music faculty request their stu- 
dents to make recordings twice a year. 

by which progress or lack of progress 
may be readily measured. Senior recitals 
are recorded in their entirety, and the 
facilities of the recording equipment 
owned by the college are available at any 
time to students who wish to record ad- 
ditional discs. 

Many Disc Uses Found 

A number of other campus uses for 
recording at Converse College have been 
discovered, too. Student and faculty 
compositions have been prepared for use 
in dance classes and dramatic produc- 
tions, and duplicates of such records have 
been made when desirable. Speech and 
drama classes have taken advantage of 
the tool for corrective speech study pro- 
vided by individual recordings. Finally, 
through the medium of recordings, origi- 
nal music by Converse School of Music 
students is submitted to publisher, and 
singers and instrumentalists bring their 
work to the attention of teachers and 

Audio Publication Standard Text 

Basis for recording technique as taught 
at Converse College School of Music is 
Audio Devices' text book "How To 
Make Good Recordings". Audiodiscs, 
too, are used exclusively for all record- 
ings made at the college. 


June, 1947 

"King o-f Jazz" Joins Disc 
Jockey Fold 

Paul Whiteman, ABC's director of music, 
officially becomes a "disc jockey" June 30, 
when his "Paul Whiteman Club" begins its 
tenure over the Ameiican web. The dean of 
modern American music's new program will 
be a full-hour, afternoon, show and presented 
daily Monday through Friday over the entire 
ABC network. Whiteman is shown above, 
enjoying a hearty chuckle with another platter 
spinner, KXOK-St. Louis' Rush Hughes, dur- 
ing an interview in the Mound City's Kiel 
Auditoiium where he was presenting an all- 
Gershwin concert. 

Disc Data 

(Continued from Pni/c ■! ) 
resistor, than to test ,ill the lumdred 
thousand resistors individu.illy. 
Quality Engineering 
A running count of rejection percent- 
a.s^cs provides a valuable index to process 
quality and is sometimes the start of 
an engineering project. For example, 
see Figure 5, showing the percentage of 
rejects in 50 successive batches. Where- 
as rejections normally ran several per 
cent, they could run as great as KK'r 
in irregular fashion. It was evident that, 
as the quality control engineer would 
say. the process was not under (statis 
tical) control. We started an investiga- 
tion and found that rejects in such noisy 
batches would often whistle, whereas 
whistlers were almost unheard of among 
the rejects of "normal" batches. After 
designing and building a special micm- 




O 10 20 30 40 50 


Vi(ii((lii)ii Si/iiiijt<)iii((lic of Litck (if 




.• . 



1 • * 


' • • 


scope and making hitherto dillicult 
measilrements on .^00 points at a time, 
some correlation studies became possible. 

It was soon found that two funda- 
mental dimensions were not under sta- 
tistically adequate control. Bringing 
them under control and computing the 
optimum relation, the number of out- 
of-control batches dropped profoundly. 
Thread action became more reliable, the 
average quality improved 10 db, and re- 
mained better. We had coordinated 
stylus dcs'^n with lacquer coating charac- 

After several months ol good results, 
trouble reoccurred. A brief study 
showed that tool wear was causing a 
return to lack of control. This was easily 
remedied permanently and the trouble 
has not reoccurred since. 

This is a good example of how the 

qu.ility engineer can simultaneously im 
l^ruve product quality ,ind reduce prt)d 
uct cost. 


Cf. excellent monthly scries (.'. 
Trans. A.I.E.E. 

Properties of the Dulled Lacquci 
Cutting Stylus — C. J. LeBel, JASA 
vol. 13, No. S, pp. 265-273, Jan. 19J,; 


Recording's Advancement 

(Continued from Page 5) 
industry on more solid footing th.ii 
ever before. This advancement am.; 
these improvements have been reflected 
in the increased use of transcriptions and 
records by the broadcast industry, and 
it will be interesting to follow the im 
provement in the art of recording, as 
AM, FM and television stations increase 
in numbers. 

y<n 15ec4ffuUHf ZucuUttf^ 

EVERYWHERE . . . . it'^ CLUdlocLisCS 

IN imi.,.rt.,iil Al DIODISCS 
nhng blonks. mmtymeil- 
i by recording englni 

Evcr,wl,crc >,ncn. 
preferred over all oth' 

motion pictures, commercial recording studios, an 
production of phonograph records, is the natural 
the consistent high quality of these fine recording discs. 

For AUDIODISCS are manufactured by a patented pre 
cision-machmc process which assures uniform results, anc 
AUDIODISC recording lacquer is produced m our own plan 

I a formula developed by our research engineers. The 
ufacturing process is thus fully controlled from raw 
rrials to the finished disc. 

in the Praise of AUDIODISCS comes from everywhere, not only 

ult of from all fields of recording, but from every type of climate. 

s. In arctic cold or the heat and humidity of the tropics, AUDIO- 

i pre- DISCS are consistently dependable. 

i. and There is an AUDIODISC designed for every recording 

need. See your local distributer or write : 


^A^ ^Ae€€A ^^ M^mdeA^ CLUCLlOCUsCS 




Vol. 3 No. 7 

444 Madison Ave.. N. Y. C. 

July, 1947 

Avalanches— Tiger Growls 
Exciting Listening ... But 
Tough Work for Soundmen 

WBBM-Chicago Sound Crew Finds Some 
Shows Require A Barrel of Gadgets 

A man runs up slunc steps to a house! 

He is being pursued by another man ' 

First man slams and locks door! 

Pursuer smashes door! 

Two shots fired!!! 

Body falls!!! 


These sounds make exciting radio 
listening but for WBBM-Chicago tech- 
nicians they are merely routine. It hap 
pens everyday! Someone is always get 
ting killed, doors are continually beini.' 
smashed in and bodies fall all around 
the microphones. The equipment re- 
quired isn't very complicated, either; 
all a sound-man needs is a marble block 
to "run" on, a door complete with lock, 
a couple of strawberry boxes to crush 
in simulation of a smashed-down door, 
two pistols firing blanks (on cue) and an 
assistant to fall to the floor — and, of 
course, recording equipment. 

When a sound-man's life really gets 
tough and he starts breaking out with 
a series of headaches, is when a script 
calls for such devices as an avalanche or 
the sound of a pen writing under water. 
Such assignments require some expert 
improvising and a storehouse of assorted 
gadgets packed high to the ceiling and 
including nearly everything from a razor 
strop to a dish of Mexican jumping 

But such assignments as: "Get mc the 
sound of a man washing his car — make it 
a sedan" or 'T gotta have the sound of 
a v/ild buffalo calling his mate" never 
send WBBM's Chief Technician Urban 
Johnson or his assistants running for 
cover. Nothing has stumped them yet 
and recently the strangest sound in all 
of radio: the sound of a man who had 
fallen in a vinegar vat being pickled to 
death produced editorial comment 
throughout radiodom. 

(Continued on Page 2) 

Urban Johnson, WBBM — Chicago's Chief Technician, (background) and assistant Edward 
Wojtal, shown at a busy moment during a dramatic WBBM program full of sound and fury 
. . . and signifying something! 

Many U. S. Stations Air French Recordings; 
Progranns Cut In Paris — Pressings Made Here 

Less than a month afer the hberation of France, the French Broad' 
casting System (Radiodiffusion Francaise) resumed its broadcasts to 
foreign countries, even though the war had reduced their facilities to 

seven per cent of pre-war standards. 

The shortwave broadcasts in English 
to North America began in December 
1944. They received immediate and most 
encouraging response. Hundreds of lis- 
teners, who hadn't heard the voice of 
Paris since 1940, wrote letters from all 
over the U. S. to express their good 
wishes and encouragement. So, during 
the summer of 1945, after Robert Lange, 
who had worked in New York on the 
Voice of America shortwave broadcasts 
to France during the war, was appointed 
Head of the North American Service of 
the French Broadcasting System, a relay 
service to America was inaugurated. 

Many interesting programs, prepared 
in Paris, were relayed by U. S. stations 
east and west of the Mississippi. 
(Continued on Page Jf) 

But Natch! unofficial reports from New 
York claim that the quality of the 
transcribed Bing Crosby program 
showed considerable improvement 
during recent weeks when the show 
was recorded in Gotham instead of 
Hollywood. Larry Ruddell, ABC Re- 
cording Chief, whose net handles the 
program, says he is unable to account 
for any such improvement. "We have 
been experimenting with various other 
methods of recording, including tape 
and film," Mr. Ruddell said, "but so 
far we have not found anything that 
could supplant the discs" 


July, 1947 

CLudla^ record 

VOL. 3. NO. 7 

JULY, 1947 

Published monthly by Audio Devices. Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

Amateur Reporter Records 
Horror of LaGuardIa Crash 

Man's Vivid Description of Tragedy 
Broadcast Same Day by WOR-New York 

The first radio reporter on the scene 
of the tragic plane crash at LaGuardia 
Field a few weeks ago was an amateur. 
He was Marino Jeantet, 32, a sound 
service man of Corona, L. I. Jeantet 
was driving his 
truck along Grand 
Central Parkway 
as the giant air- 
liner roared across 
the parkway and 
crashed a few 
hundred feet 
away. Rushing to 
the scene of the 
disaster, Jeantet 
not only gave first 
aid, but set up his 
semi - professional 
recording equip- 
ment, which he was carrying along in 
his trunk, and reported the tragedy for 
radio station WOR-New York. Work- 
ing in the rain for two hours, Jeantet 
vividly described the wreckage and the 
rescue work, as well as putting on a 
clergyman who offered a brief prayer. 
"I couldn't devote my entire time to 
making the records," Jeantet said, "be- 
cause I was frequently called away to 
help carry a charred body to the im- 
provised morgue in the cafeteria of the 
Academy of Aeronautics." 

(Continued on Page If) 

Marino Jeantet 

Soundmen Need Barrel of Gadgets 

iCovtinucd from Page 1) 

A m.iii has to have an inventive mind 
to work as a sound technician, and Urb 
Johnson is just such a man. Among 
his souvenirs he counts his rain-making 
machine as one of his most ingenious 
devices. At first sight it looks like a 
washing machine on rollers with a huge 
porcelain tub and three overhanging 
shower bath sprays along with a faucet. 
The merit of this contraption is that it 
can be wheeled all over the station and 
no water connection is required. After 
a long search, Urb finally found a silent 
electric motor and pump which rotates 

the water through the tub and back 
into the pipes so that a mere half-gallon 
of water can produce the effect of an 
all-night rain storm in the tropics or the 
faucet can force a jet of water onto a tin 
can to produce the sound of a man wash- 
ing a car — even a sedan! For light rain — 
garden party variety — water is allowed 
to fall gently on a piece of soft cloth 
placed on the bottom of the tub. 

Many times Urb and his assistants, 
Louis Woehr and Edward Wojtal, have 
been called on to produce a sound with- 
out a moment's notice. Urb recalls the 
time a few years ago when he arrived 
at Great Lakes, Illinois, where Kate 
Smith, CBS singing star, was doing a 
benefit broadcast for the Navy personnel 
stationed there. When Urb arrived he 
learned at the last minute that the script 
required the sound of horses' hoofs — 
and not a nag was in sight! Quick-think- 
Johnson stepped to the microphone, 
bared his chest, cupped his hands and 
beat on his upper ribs in rhythmic 
fashion which sounded like a whole 
posse of western riders on the romp. 

Johnson has many other tricks up 
his sleeve, too — more than the aver- 
age, and his latest assignment 
for WBBM-CBS' "Adventurers' Club" 
called for the sound of a rumbling 
avalanche crashing down on a road. For 
this effect, Urb placed a ten-inch record 
over a 12-inch one and around the rim 
of the larger record he cut a ragged 
groove with a file. Rotated at different 
speeds on the turntable, this clever in- 
vention produced such a rumbling sound 
that a CBS page girl passing the sound 
department during the experiment, was 
sure Chicago had been hit by an earth- 
quake and ran for cover. 

Not only does a sound technician have 
to be an idea-man, a mechanic and an 
athlete (falling all over the place with- 
out getting hurt requires almost as much 
training as a prize-fighter) but he has 
to be a vocal actor as well. One of 
Urb's special accomplishments is the 
sound of a barking dog — any mood, any 
degree of anger — which he can produce 
and for which there is a special pay rate. 

Looking around the WBBM sound de- 
partment, a visitor has no doubt that if 
the technicians on the staff are ever 
required to reproduce the sound of Jack 
climbing a beanstalk or an atom bomb 
sent to the moon — they can do it! From 
the floor to the ceiling there are more 
gadgets than you'll find in the average 
attic or hall closet: compressed air tanks, 
buggy whips, clocks, pans, flower pots, 
gongs, coffee grinders, straw hats, dishes, 
toy trains, hat boxes, balls, plates of glass, 
bottles, roulette wheels, punching bags, 
rubber plungers, auto horns that date 
back to 1904 — anything — you name it! 

C. J. LeBel 

^^t^ ^m'ldUt 

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 


It is obvious that finding the finest 
recording lacquer is not, in itself, the 
only necessary guarantee of a good disc. 
In the May issue we discussed the prob- 
lems underlying the development of a 
lacquer formula. Now we shall see what 
precautions are 
necessary in its 

A manufactur- 
ing system without 
a definite organi- 
zation to supervise 
quality maint e n ' 
ance is one with- 
o u t guidance, s o 
we were fortunate 
that our 1938 con- 
tract with La Soci- 
ete des Vernis Py- 
r o 1 a c started us 
off with all the disc quality control 
know-how they had developed since 
1929. This system has been enlarged in 
accordance with our own experience in 
the nine years since then, and as we 
make our own lacquer, control of pro- 
duct characteristics is all under one roof. 
Mistakes would be expensive, so a good 
quality control system keeps costs down 
at the same time that it improves quality. 

Incoming Materials 

General tests are applied to all incom- 
ing raw materials, as follows: 

1. Solvents and diluents are checked 
for acid number, distillation range, non- 
volatile residue, specific gravity, and 
water content. Some manufacturers' 
products must be checked drum by drum; 
other organizations have not had a re- 
jectable shipment in eight years, and a 
spot check suflices. 

2. Film forming material is tested for 
solid content, viscosity, water content, 
and clarity. 

3. Plasticizers are checked for speci- 
fic gravity, viscosity, and color. 

4. Aluminum shipments may be spot 
checked for flatness, surface smoothness, 
and surface cleanliness. This is seldom 
necessary as the circles have to be in- 
dividually inspected as they go on the 
production line, anyhow. 

July, 1947 


In addition to the general tests, speeial 
proecdures are applied to certain mater- 
ials. These special tests are for contam 
inants which would not be shown up h\- 
the simple methods previously men- 
tioned, yet which would be harmful in 
even small proportion. The test is re- 
peated after purification, if the latter 
proves necessary. Drums of chemicals 
are tagged when approved. 


The individual mi.x; is made and hit 
ered by the Lacquer Department, usuii; 
tagged drums of chemicals. 
mixes are used because continuous mix 
ing (apart from the difficulty of hand 
ling so large a number of ingredients) 
would not permit of testing before pas- 
sage of lacquer into the main system. 

The filtering calls for the finest work 
of the chemical engineer due to the 
high solid content and hence the high 
viscosity of the lacquer. The high solid 
content is essential to single layer, homo- 
geneous automatic machine application; 
and the high viscosity results therefrom 
by the inherent law of nature. Many 
filtering methods and media are avail- 
able: single, multiple filtering; plate- 
and-frame filters and centrifuges; paper, 
cloth, and other filter media; various 
filter aids. It is most important that fil- 
tration be done properly, for no com- 
bination of methods is such that it can 
be used without e.\tremely careful super- 
vision, hence individual mixes arc tested 
not only for viscosity and solid content, 
but also for filtration quality. 

The Engineering Department then 
coats some test discs, and makes a record- 
ing. If this is satisfactory, a sample of the 
solution is retained in glass, and the 
mix is released to production. This mix 
is then blended with previous mixes in 
tanks and aged before use. Hence lac- 
quer in the tanks and system at any 
given time is a blend of several mixes. 
This blend is refiltered just before pass- 
ing to the coating machines. 

The sample in glass is retained for 
several months, and is available in case 
of doubt as to absence of impurities, or 
question as to stability. It is always 
large enough to coat an adequate num- 
ber of test discs, as well as provide 
material for analysis. 

Disc Factory Control 

The Engineering Department quality 
control personnel make a regular check 
of factory process conditions. It is in- 
teresting to note that to check function- 
ing of automatic controls they have to 
read 118 thermometers. They must also 
check many air flow indicators, machine 
speeds, air filtering, and air conditioning 
(Continued on Page !t) 

More than 400 radio stations are currently cooperating in the U. S. Coast Guard's recruiting 
program by airing "Jive Patrol." a unique series of 15-minute transcribed programs designed 
to aid recruiting and to stimulate public interest generally in the humane work of the Coast 
Guard. Above, Bea Wain and her husband Andre Baruch (right) were among the top disc 
jockeys in radio who helped to promote the series. Jim Lehner (holding disc) of NewelJ- 
Emmett Company, New York, is author of the programs. Featuring the Coast Guard Academy 
band and its swing unit, the Coast Guard Cutters, the shows, which were offered to stations 
nationally as public service features, are slanted to appeal to young veterans and recent high 
school grads. Recorded station-break spots ranging from 10 to 60 seconds, and a 15-minute 
platter-chatter script series for disc jockeys have also been backing the six-month recruiting 
program. Newell-Emmett is now producing a 15-minute documentary disc for the Coast Guard 
as a tribute to the service's 157th anniversary, which will be observed on August 4th. 

Extensive Use of Recordings at Stanford Univ. 
Explained by Head of Speech-Drama Dept. 

From Mr. Hubert Heffner, Executive Head of the Department of 
Speech and Drama at Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, Calif., comes another 
account of the many uses of recording in audio'visual education today. 

"In our basic courses, 'Training the 

we use recordings extensively. Through- 
out the term a number oi the regular 
classroom discussions are recorded and 
played back to the students for further 
analysis and discussion." 

The California school, also, uses many 
discs in recording various campus radio 
shows. Student announcers, too, use 
discs regularly as a check-up on their 

"In addition to the classroom use of 
recording," Mr. Heffner concludes, "the 
Speech and Drama Department also em- 
ploys a larger number of records for in- 
struction purposes. For instance, in our 
record library, we have discs of various 
types of American dialects, examples of 
outstanding readings of literature, re- 
cords of actor interpretations of great 
speeches from Shakespeare, and other 
classic drama, and recordings of certain 
major debates and discussion. These re- 
cords are used in our public speaking, 
oral interpretation and acting courses. 

Speaking Voice', and 'Public Speaking', 
wc make voice recordings of each stu- 
dent in each section at the beginning of 
the term," explains Mr. Heffner. "This 
disc is then used in conferences with 
the student as a basis of analysis of his 
voice and speaking problems. And, as 
he develops through the term, additional 
recordings are made so that at the end 
of the semester the student has a com- 
plete record of his development attained 
during the course. This same method is 
employed in our course in 'Fundamentals 
of Oral Reading'. 

"We also use recordings," Mr. Heff- 
ner relates, "in connection with certain 
of our drama courses, although these are 
not on a regularly scheduled basis as 
they are in the speech courses. These 
records are used only when it is desirable 
to assist a student with a problem of 
interpretation of a role. On the other 
hand, in connection with our debate, 
discussion and public speaking courses. 


July, 1947 

Disc Data 

(Continued from Page 3) 

settings. A most important test is that 
of lacquer thickness, done by weighing 
a disc before and after coating. 

Discs which have passed factory in- 
spection are sampled regularly through- 
out the day, and checked by engineering 
personnel for the following: 

1 . Noise 

2. Thread action 

3. Static 

4. Groove gloss 

5. Wear 

6. Coating thickness 

7. Perfection of filtration 

On the basis of these tests production 
discs arc released for packing and ship- 
ping. It should be pointed out that the 
control number on the disc is on a chro- 
nological basis. The blending mentioned 
above and the quantities of raw materials 
arc so great that it has been quite im- 
possible to change the control number 
every time we use another drum of any 
given chemical. 

Production discs sampled as mentioned 
heretofore are retested periodically to 
check for: 

1. Noise level increase — a groove cut 
today should not be noiser when played 
back next week, ne.xt month, or next year 
(if dust is excluded). A groove cut next 
month, or next year should be no noisier 
than the one cut today, in the same disc. 

2. Delayed wear — A groove cut to- 
day should last for just as many playings, 
whether it is played right after cutting, 
a month, a year, or a decade later. 

Discs are inspected 100 per cent by 
the factory staff at each of the following 
points in the process: aluminum circles 
before coating, discs leaving the coating 
machine, discs leaving the drying con- 
veyor, and when completed. 

Note that every disc manufactured is 
inspected, but not all discs manufactured 
need be test cut. Successive discs are 
chemically identical, and a test on one 
is a test of the next thousand. Scientific 
sampling procedure is the basis of good 
quality control in this case. 

A Few Sidelights 

Experience has indicated the value of 
a number of precautions. Perhaps our 
readers will find them of interest: 

1. Lint- free smocks for operators 

2. Periodical washing of floors and 

3. Special ventilation systems with 
low air velocity 

4. Extremely large filters, each 
now as large as and rather 
heavier than an automobile 

5. Minimum number of personnel 
in certain critical areas of the 


On the afternoon of Feb. 3, 1935, Martin 
Block, whose name is a synonym for disc- 
jockey, "sold" the station manager of a New 
York station on the idea of presenting a record 
program. And, without a turntable, the crea- 
tor of radio's famous "Make Believe Ball- 
room," conducted his first half-hour disc show 
with a tiny portable phonograph. Next day, 
as a result of a telephone barrage from curious 
listeners, the station gave the likeable Mr. 
Block a solid hour to spin his records . . . 
and he's been spinning 'em ever since. His 
new program "The Martin Block Show" over 
the coast-to-coast Mutual network is being pre- 
sented direct from a special newly constructed 
studio, equipped with the latest recording 
equipment, in his home in Encino, Calif. 
KFWB-Hollywood. which also carries the pro- 
gram, feeds the show to the Mutual web. 

6. Lint-free packaging — s p e c i a 1 
wrapping for all discs; lacquer 
impregnated spacing rings to 
separate masters 
Nevertheless, just as good filtration 
will not cure a bad formulation, every 
step in the process is a vital link in the 
chain. Break one link and the chain is 
broken. This intricate chain that is the 
disc making process is maintained by our 
personnel. Good personnel are as im- 
portant as good equipment, so we are 
exceedingly fortunate in that over half 
of our key production personnel started 
with us in the early days of automatic- 
m.ichine disc-coating. 

Horror of Plane Crash Recorded 

(Continued from Page 2) 
In his WOR broadcast, which was 
heard on Fred VanDevcnter's IIP. M. 
news broadcast on the evening of the 
tragedy, Jeantet said: "There is no panic 
here among the personnel. Nurses and 
doctors are going about efficiently, not 
saying a word in their grim duty. The 
police are restraining crowds as the 
clergy, such as the minister you heard a 
moment ago, comfort some of the hyster- 
ical people viewing the scene." 

Working without assistance, in the 
driving rain, Jeantet gave a dramatic 
and moving account of the disaster, 
which, until less than 24 hours later, 
had the horrible distinction of being the 
worst air tragedy in the history of 
American commercial aviation. 

U. S. Stations Air French Discs 

(Continued from Page 1) 

The next step in Franco- American 
i.idio relations followed naturally: a plan 
I or interchange of radio programs be- 
tween France and the United States, to 
bring the peoples of the two countries 
closer together. An American Advisory 
Board was set up under the chairmanship 
(if John S. Hayes, Station Manager of 
WQXR — New York, to help put this 
plan into operation. And, on April 7, 
1947, the New York office of the North 
American Service sent out the first discs 
in a scries of 12 different programs, 5- 
and 15-minute transcriptions in English, 
to 165 American stations. 

Offered to all U. S. stations without 
cost for use as sustaining features, the 
French programs are recorded in Paris 
on the Champs Elysces and airmailed to 
New York where the pressings are made. 

Six of the principal programs offered 
a weekly chronicle of amusing and inter- 
esting happenings in France, and more 
especially in the French capital, and in- 
terviews with famous celebrities; REN- 
DEZVOUS IN PARIS— a weekly tour 
of Paris' nightclubs and cafes, with the 
well-known stage and movie actor, 
Claude Dauphin, as Master of Cere- 
FRANCE — a musical journey through 
France. Every week the Narrator, a folk 
ballad hunter, brings his latest discoveries 
in the field of French folk music; FIVE 
twice every month, the symphony or- 
chestras of France present the classical 
and modern music of their country; 
UNIVERSITY SERIES — a series of 
sketches of student life in Paris with 
visits to schools, museums, libraries and 
historic monuments; YOUTH SHOW— 
how teen-agers in Paris live at the pres- 
ent time, their family life, their schools, 
their amusements, their ideas. 

Thus far the reaction to the series, 
which are not educational programs, but 
very informal on-the-spot reports of 
everyday life in France and of the cus- 
toms and ways of its people, has been 
extremely gratifying. In less than two 
months of operation, the number of sta- 
tions transmitting the discs has gone up 
from 165 to over 200 stations in 46 states 
of the United States, in Canada, in 
Alaska and in the Philippines. 

As a counterpart to these shipments 
from France, American stations are pre- 
paring similar programs in French to be 
sent to France. Already NBC and the 
Voice of America broadcasts in French 
are being relayed by the French net- 
works. Thus radio, with the aid of 
transcriptions, is playing a new and great 
part as a medium of peace and better 
understanding between nations. 


Vol. 3, No. 8 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

September, 1947 


Many Cash Prizes To The 
Writers of Best Scripts 

Competition Open to All Senior High 
School Students — Teachers of Win- 
ning Entrants Also to Receive Awards 

Scholastic Magazines, New York, 
sponsors of the yearly "Scholastic 
Awards" for high school students, has 
welcomed Audio Devices, Inc., as co- 
sponsor of the 1948 Scholastic Writing 
Awards in the Radio Script Classifica- 
tions. (Contest Rules and Awards listed 
on Page 4). 

The Scholastic Writing Awards, one 
of the five programs in the annual 
"Scholastic Awards," has been in oper- 
ation for almost 25 years. During that 
time thousands of students have sent in 
their work to be judged by nationally 
known writers. And, too, thousands of 
teachers have used the Writing Awards 
as an incentive to more and better writ- 
ing in their classrooms. Many prize win- 
ners in the early years of the competi- 
tion arc now recognized writers. Among 
them are Gladys Schmitt, author of 
"David, the King," and Maureen Daly, 
associate editor of the Ladies Home 

Radio script writing, the classification 
in which Audio Devices is the sponsor, 
is a good example of how a particular 
classification can grow in the annual 
contest. Originally, all radio scripts, to- 
gether with one-act plays, were in a sin- 
gle classification. However, in the 1947 
Awards, the competition recently com- 
pleted, the scripts were separated from 
the plays and divided into two sections — 
drama and non-drama scripts. This 
change recognized the increasing impor- 
tance of radio in the school. Following 
this innovation, the Association for Edu- 
cation by Radio offered its co-operation 
to the Scholastic Awards, in order to en- 
courage radio writing by high school 

Now this year sees another step for- 
ward. With Audio Devices coming into 
the picture. Radio Script Writing has 
been divided into three classifications — 
Original Radio Drama, Radio Drama 
Adaptation and Non-Drama Script. 
(Continued on Page If) 

Tulane University Band in a recording session in iVlcAIister Auditoruim on the Tulane Campus. 
Inset — George Boileau (rear) and Roy Grubb record the proceedings in the control room. 

Recording Unit at Tulane University Credited 
With Innproving Quality of Band's Perfornnance 

The portable recording and playback machine, which was in- 
stalled a few months ago at Tulane University in New Orleans, has 
done one thing in particular for the Louisiana school — ^it has improved 


the performance of their band. Such 
ii the opinion of Professor John J. Mor- 
rissey, head of the music department in 
the college of arts and sciences. 

"Yes," says Professor Morrissey, "the 
unit, which I call my department's me- 
chanical assistant conductor and teacher, 
has saved considerable rehearsal time 
and is a real professional error dector. 
Home Work 

"Last spring," continues the professor, 
"while our band was preparing for the 
annual concert, the recording eqtiip- 
ment saved us many valuable hours. As 
an illustration, after the unit had re- 
corded the band part of a vocal number, 
our vocalist would take the disc home 
and play it back on here phonograph 
while she sang the lyrics. Not only, in 
this way, was she able to practice the 
song over and over again until she got 
it just the way she wanted it, but we 

also eliminated the need of the singer 
and band appearing together for re- 
hearsal at any one given time." 

Professional Records Help Too 

The unit according to Professor Mor- 
rissey, also proved its value in other 
ways, too. For instance, when he 
wanted to get something special into a 
specific number, the Tulane director, 
would put on a recording of the identical 
song as done by a professional orchestra, 
while the band listened. Then, it was 
their turn to try and duplicate the per- 
formance of the "pros." If the boys 
would trip over a few notes they'd 
know it soon enough when the disc was 
played back. After a second recording 
of the song, the record would again be 
played back while the boys listened for 
the improvement or the same mistakes. 
(Continued on Page 2) 


September, 1947 

CLudla # record 

VOL. 3, NO. 8 


Published monthly by AucJjo Ucviccs, liu , 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in tlit 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocation:i] 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

A Dog, A Guy, and A Disc 

liy Allnii Dale, Musical Diicitor 

Radio Station KRIO 

McAllcn, Tcxab 

{A shurL lime ago, Allan Dale, rccanl 
spinner of Station KP II -Wichita, Icil 
his position with the Kansas outlet to 
take on the musical director chores of 
Station KKIO-McAllen, Texas. And 
along with Allan went his assistant 
"Cheeta", Radio's only Canine Disc 
Jockey. We wrote and asked Allan to 
give us the story behind Chccla's un- 
usual career and here it is.) 

How do you go about writing a story 
concerning a dog that is not just a dog 
. . . that is, not a dog in the true sense 
of the word? I you: Do you have to 
spell words in the presence of dogs to 
keeji them from knowing your plans? 
Well, I have to do just that around 
Cheeta. Like most women, she is very 

"Chccta" Canine Jockey 

nosey. Born on a transport plane 500 
miles out of New York City en route 
from Ireland, Cheeta is quite a cosmo' 
polite. No, she's not a Sky Terrier but 
the party who gave her to me says she 
is a Norwich Terrier, so that's close 
enough, eh? The plane was bound for 
Bergatrom Field in Austin, Texas and 
that's where yours truly entered the 

Cheeta and I have been together 
ever since . . . almost six years now. I 
was a bachelor during most of this time 
and, of course, she spent the day with 
me at the radio station, or should I say 
stations. We've worked together in 
Austin, Texas, New York Cily, Miami, 

Blind sMin hirlli, Alonzo G. .Squin s ( i|. nc li li ) is the r.ip.nblc m.c. of one of the most disc pro^yams in the South. Ills c.iriy morning show "Hrcakf.TSt with Squires" is 
heard daily from 5:00 !o 8:00 A.M. over WAYS-Charlotte, N. C. Squires, a Rraduate of the 
University of Noith Carolina, whore he received a law degree, cnlercd radio as a result of a 
guest appearance on the Tred Allen show back in November, 1941. The manager of a 
Washington, D. C, station engaged him for a telephone show where he stayed until he 
answered the call to return to his first love the South. Translating his commercial copy into 
braille and memorizing his continuity and the musical portion of his program. Squires breetes 
through the three hour stanza without any trouble at all. He never misses a station break 
nor a time signal. His head set is rigged up so that one earphone monitors the music and 
the other allows the control operator to cue him. The early morning show features folk 
music, old and popular tunes, and a gondly portion of Squires' humor, which has almost become 
a legend in these parts, and his homespun philosophy. In his three years over WAYS, he 
has become so popular and beloved that his name has become a household word. 

Fla., Wichita, KansMS, and now she is 
down here deep, deep in the heart of 
Texas in the beautiful Rio Grande Val' 
ky. We are lending our combined ef- 
f(,rts m helping to run KRIO, a brand 
new .ind coming radio statinn. 

Duties Confined To Old Platters 

Now Cheeta, strange as it may seem, 
\c a very fine assistant disc jockey. She 
carries out the old transcriptions and if 
I show her where to put them she will 
do her job without anything being said 
to her. Just give her the disc and that 
is all that's necessary. As yet, I haven't 
trusted the new transcriptions or re- 
cords with her, but as she gets older and 
Icses her teeth, I'll let her take care of 
these too. 

Checta's talents do not stop at trans- 
porting discs, though. She can bark, 
or speak, on cue. Fine for dog food 
sponsors. She's a ham from the word 
"go" too. Give her a live audience and 
she is at her best. As a matter of fact, 
she's pulled me out of many a hole. 

And another thing, she has learned 
to recognize my sign-offs and the minute 
the mike is cut, she is sitting up on her 
hind legs trying to tell me that she is 
ready to go. Frankly though, she thinks 
I'm terrible . . . she looks bored with 
every show I do. 

Now that I'm not a bachelor anymore, 
(married the cute singer, Peggy Jones, 

one of the "Fabulous Dorsey" gals) my 
two singing females have me sitting up 
and speaking (to myself). But, I love it. 

Disc Unit Improves Tulane Band 
(Conlinued from Page 1) 
In this way, their progress was gauged 

"And then to," the professor added, 
"with our equipment the individual 
performer has an excellent opportunity 
t(' correct his errors and improve his 
playing immeasurably. If he is con- 
cerned with his inability to reach certain 
notes, all he does is cart the platter 
home — play it back on the radio-phono- 
grajih — and concentrate on his short- 
comings until they are corrected to his 
and his leader's satisfaction. 

Programming Time Cut 

"In addition," Professor Morrissey 
concluded, "recording helps considcir- 
ably in making up a program -timing 
each individual number and, of course, 
the entire program." 

The Tulane unit is composed of two 
large turntables, which operate by a 
dual motor (fast and slow), a recording 
amplifier, a dynamic speaker, a coaxial 
speaker, and two microphones, one for 
soloists and the other attached perma- 
nently to the ceiling of the University's 
McAlister Auditorium, located on the 
Tulane campus. 

September, 1947 


w t\€ayulUt 

by C I. LcBcl, Vice President 


A wide stLidy of disc recording stand- 
ards will begin this fall, as the industry 
i-esumcs a standardization program in- 
terrupted hy the war. Probably the most 
violent discussion will take place over 
the problem of groove and stylus con- 
tour, one of the 
oldest and most 
pressing and yet 
the least stand- 
ardized of all lat- 
er.d recording as- 
pect;*, C'liroovC' 
contour a n d re- 
prnd ucing-stylus 
tip bear a lock 
and key interrela- 
tion in this era 
ol permanent- 
point styli, and 
ilu- lack of gen- 
;igrccment on dimensions has been 

I he curve rides on the straight side ol 
the groove. If this is overdone, the tip 
will ride on the top corners of the 
groove, which makes for noisy reproduc- 
tion and complete tracking failure at 
high volume passages. This imposes no 
mininuim limit on the groove radius. 

Improved fidelity requirements in 
current recording practice make it highly 
desirable that the new standards be set 
so as to minimise di.uneter effect. Con- 


C. J. Lellel 

/''?</. i I'Umd.arncntiil Stylus 'rip 

very objectionable. In the olden days 
a steel reproducing stylus would grind 
itself to a fit — now that fit must be pre- 
determined. In this and subsequent is- 
sues of the Audio Record we plan to 
discuss the matter in some detail. 

It is generally agreed that the most 
irliable tracking occurs when the radius 
ol the reproducing stylus tip is slightly 
greater than that of the groove, so that 

Fifj. 3 Effctt uf Decreased Dine Ditim- 
ctcr. m Reducing Reproducer Output 

sider what happens when we attemi^t 
to trace a sine wave groove with a point 
whose effective diameter is equal to the 
wavelength of the groove. It can be seen 
that two factors affect tracking. Pinch 
effect (narrowing of the groove at 
higher velocities) distortion cancels out 
if the stylus is free to lift slightly when 
necessary. In the particular illustration 
given it will be found that, even when 
lifted, the stylus tip still cannot follow 

Fig. If Tracking Problem 
the extremely small radius of the pejiKS 
ol' the wave. The point stylus is too 
huge to track correctly at that frequency 
and velocity, a fault which occurs chiefly 
at the smaller diameters. 

While practical factors make a drastic 
decrease in point radius questionable, 
clearly even a small change would be 
of help. To help visualize the dimen- 
sions involved we have drawn Figure 5. 

The discussion will be continued in 
the next issue. 


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y \/\/XV 




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/ y.o/o/ 

Fig. 2 SI iilns 'h-Doi'c Krlation for 
Proper Trucking 


> <o 'V *?> *^ ^ 

Groove Wavelength at 3S\i<% R.P.M. 


September, 1947 

Audio To Sponsor Script Awards 

(Continued from Page 1) 

All entries in the 1948 competition, 
to be judged by famous professional 
radio writers, must be in on or before 
March 5, 1948. (Where regional Writ- 
ing Awards are held, work must be sub- 
mitted to meet their earlier deadlines.) 
Winners in the three classifications will 
be announced in May, 1948. Shortly 
before this announcement, however, 
school principals will receive notifica- 
tions, as well as the cash awards for 
presentation to their winning students. 

Rules and regulations governing the 
contests and a list of the awards follow: 

1. All students in grades 10, 11 and 
12 in any public, private, or parochial 
high school in the U. S., its possessions, 
and Canada are eligible. 

2. No radio script will be considered 
for the Awards if it has been entered in 
any other national competition. 

3. Each script must contain a separate 
full-page sheet on the front; on this 
sheet should be written the following in- 

(a) Entrant's name, home address 
(street number, city, state). 

(b) Entrant's school and its ad- 

(c) Name of entrant's teacher. 

(d) Name of entrant's principal. 

(e) Age of entrant on March 5, 

(f) Entrant's grade. 

(g) Classification of entry (Orig- 
inal Radio Drama — Radio Drama 
Adaptation — Non-drama Script). 

(h) Entrant's signature. 

(i) Signature of entrant's teacher. 

4. All scripts must follow standard 
radio script form. Maximum length: 
3,500 words. Shorter scripts preferred. 

5. Scripts in any one of the three 
classifications must be written in accord- 
ance with the following: 

(a) Original Radio Drama — Must 
be an original treatment. 

(b) Radio Drama Adaptation — 
Scripts based on published material; 
fiction, biographies, history. Ac- 
company script with source facts; 
title, author, publisher. Where pos- 
sible, use non-copyright sources. 

(c) Non-Drama Scripts — May be 
interviews, dialogues, news, sports, 
variety programs, continuity for 
music, etc. Any form except drama. 

6. Although students are free to enter 
the Competition individually, it is rec- 
ommended that work be included in the 
group sent by a teacher after preliminary 
eliminations in the school. 

7. Scripts should be typed or written 
legibly in ink, on one side only of paper 
S^^'xll". Pages should be numbered. 

S. Entries may be sent at any time 
during the school year up to the closing 
date, March 5, 1948. Mail direct to 
Scholastic Writing Awards, 220 East 
42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. 

9. Scripts MUST be mailed flat (not 
folded or rolled) at the first class post- 
age rate of 3c an ounce. 

10. The decisions of the judges and of 
the editors of Scholastic Magazines are 
final. The right is reserved to withhold 
prizes if the quality of the entries does 
not warrant an award. 

1 1 . All scripts receiving awards be- 
come the property of Scholastic Corpo- 
ration, and no other use of them may be 
made without written permission. 

12. No scripts will be returned. (Stu- 

dents should keep carbon copies of their 


1st Prize (in each classification) $25.00 

2nd Prize (in each classification)__$15.00 

3rd Prize (in each classification) $10.00 


Teachers of students winning first 
place in each classification — 25 Audio- 
discs, 3 Sapphire Recording Audiopoints, 
3 Sapphire Playback Audiopoints. 
Supplementary Award 

For each script submitted found suitable 

for publication in booklet form $10.00 

(Short scripts of skits 200-900 words — 
maximum playing time 6 mins. — that 
other school groups can produce are 
especially welcome.) 

/4( ^eut... 


AND oudionoinis ...FOR SCHOOLS! 

• Yes, at last, adequate quan 
tities of the world's leading 
professional recording discs and 
the finest quality recording and 
playback points are available for 
school use. 

Since Audiodiscs were first man- 
ufactured . . . the demand for the 
smaller size blanks . . . suitable for 
educational work . . . has exceeded 
possible supply. But today, with 
increased production facilities and 
available raw materials . . . these 
fine discs are obtainable throughout 
the nation. 

Leading educators are agreed that no 
other teaching aid equals high fidel- 
ity recording in the speech, drama, 
language and music departments. 

more readily determined 
or more effectively demonstrated. 

Audiodiscs and Audiopoints assure 
the very best in life-like reproduction. 
Your Audiodisc recordings 
can be played back hun- 
dreds of times and don't 
deteriorate with age. 
For further informa- 
tion, see your Audio- 
disc and Audio- 
point distributor 
... or write us. 

Audio Record, our monthly publication, is mailed with- 
out cost to schools and colleges throughout the country. 
Each issue contains articles of particular interest to 
school recordists. If your name is not on the Audio 
Record mailing list, drop a penny post card to . . , 


NEW YORK 23, N.Y. 



Vol. 3, No. 9 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

October, 1947 

Who said ... a Recording 
Engineer's Life is Dull? 

By Gordon Sherman, Recording Engincir 
KMOX-St. Louis 

KMOX has made approximately 30,' 

000 records during the past eleven years. 
Many of these recordings were made un- 
der unusual circumstances in the field. 

Today at KMOX 
we have four per- 
manent recording 
channels and four 
field units. These 
field units consist 
of every type of 
recording equip- 
m e n t , including 
^ disc, wire and tape. 

Wk\ \ Since 1936, how- 

g^^ \. ever, practically all 

^^^L \ J field records have 

I^hK-. been made with 

our disc equip- 
Gordon Sherman ment. 

These field assignments have taken 
me into 25 states, Mexico and out on the 
high seas. It would be diflicult to pick 
out any one assignment as the most in- 
teresting, as practically all involved dif- 
ferent subjects and different technical 

In the summer of 1937, KMOX in- 
augurated a society page of the air and 
the field department was assigned to 
cover summer resorts frequented by 
prominent St. Louis citizens. Marvin 
Miller, former KMOX announcer, and 

1 visited a number of exclusive Michigan 
beaches. At each location we set up our 
equipment on the beach. Miller, attired 
in a bathing suit and with a mike in 
hand, waded into Lake Michigan to in- 
terview St. Louisans at play. 

The same year, Dan Donaldson, also 
a former KMOX announcer, and I were 
assigned to cover the erection of the 
Alton (Illinois) Dam, reporting various 
phases of construction and interviewing 
the workers on the job. At one time, my 
recorder and I located on a ledge no 
more than four feet wide and about 500 
feet in the air. Danny, suspended in a 
basket by cable and swinging in mid-air, 
shouted to workmen nearby and received 
their shouted replies to his queries. 
(Continued on Page 3) 

WBKY-Univcrsity of Kentucky "FM" station records a University Round Table discussion. 
Pictured left to right are Dr. Arnold Anderson, Dr. Ainry Vanderbosh, Glenn P. Morrow 
and Dr. Howard Beers. Inset — Gloria Hedges and Rudolph Landin handle the recording 
equipment in the control room. 

WBKY, University of Kentucky's "FM" Station 
Uses Recordings In Three-Fold Capacities 

By Elmer G. Siilzer, Radio Director 


Lexington, Ky. 

The plaintive strains of Barbara Allen, sung by the Kentucky 
mountain girl, and accompanied on a home'made dulcimer, will not be 
lost to posterity, because of an activity which has been carried on for 

a number of years now by WBKY, the 
University of Kentucky's Frequency 
Modulation station. As often as op- 
portunity permits, well-known perform- 
ers of Southern Appalachian Balladry 
are brought to the University's studios 
and their entire repetoires recorded. 
Usually three copies of each record are 
made — the original which reposes un- 
disturbed in the station files; a copy of 
which is used on programs; and another 
copy which is usually dubbed at 78 
RPM and given to the performer. 

As a result of this policy, the Uni' 
versity of Kentucky's FM station is ac- 
cumulating a definitive set of American 
folk records that some day will be price- 
less. Among the performers brought 
into the studios are John Jacob Niles 
(Continued on Page U) 

Top Dailies to Conduct 
Regional Script Awards 

Interest High in Writing Competition 

Many leading newspapers will con- 
duct preliminary contests in the 1947-48 
"Scholastic Writing Awards," Mr. Wil- 
liam D. Boutwell of Scholastic Maga- 
-ines, sponsors of the yearly writing 
competition for high school students, 
announced recently. "Among some of 
the papers who have agreed to offer 
their services in promoting our writing 
awards," Mr. Boutwell said, "are: the 
Birmingham Post, Knickerbocker News 
(Albany, N. Y.), Dayton Daily News, 
Detroit News, Hartford Courant, New- 
(Continued on Page 2) 


October, 1947 

CLudla ^ record 

VOL. 3. NO. 9 

OCTOBER, 1947 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and (Canada. 

jQ.ecota.ina ana. 

The Small Market Station 

By John Alexander, General Manager 
KODY-North Platte, Neb. 

Every small market station in the 
United States, interested in covering the 
special events of its own territory, will 
find their recorders of inestimable value. 
Truly, they are worth their weight in 

At KODY we 
have five record- 
ers. All of them 
are put to good 
useage practically 
every day. Our 
equipment con- 
sists of two por- 
- J|4 j) table transcrip- 
^ t i o n recorders, 
*' two tape record- 

ers and one wire 

John Alexander If Other small 

market stations 
arc similar in operation to KODY, they 
do not have large program budgets. 
Money for direct lines and loops 
throughout our territory simply is not 
available. Consequently, our recorders 
are on the job night and day. At KODY, 
we have a policy of covering every 
special event that has significance in our 
area. Eighty per cent of these coverages 
are accomplished with discs, wire or tape. 
At KODY, we carry a heavy schedule 
of commercial network. Consequently, 
recordings must he utilized so the vari- 
ous special event programs can be de- 
layed to periods of time that are avail- 
able. E.xample: In the winter, we can- 
not carry the Basketball Games at the 
time they are actually played due to 
commercial network commitments. We 
transcribe each game in its entirety and 
replay later the same evening. 

Like many other stations today, we 
find the wire and tape recorders of tre- 
mendous value in obtaining up-to-the- 
minute news. Practically all our locally- 
originated newscasts carry one or more 
recorded statements from local official.-;, 
celebrities visiting our city, or people 
who are in the news. 

At KODY, we look upon our record- 
ers as a great asset to our Program De- 

partment. We promote them and pub- 
licize the things we are able to accom- 
plish with their help. We have dis- 
played and demonstrated our wire and 
tape recorders before innumerable civic 
clubs and organizations in KODY-land. 
It has been a profitable move on our 
part to invest in good recording equip- 
ment and the finest in discs, wire and 

Papers to Promote Script Awards 

t Continued from Paae J) 
ark News, Newport News Daily Press, 
Arizona Republic (Phoenix), St. Louis 
Star Times, Pittsburgh Press, Bingham- 
ton, N. Y. Press, and the Washington, 
D. C. Star. (These papers will offer 
special awards for winning entrants in 
their respective regions.) 

"In addition to the great interest 
shown by the press this year in the 
"Writing Awards," Mr. Boutwell added, 
"student and teacher enthusiasm is great- 
er than ever before. This may be due 
in part to the fact that we have several 
new classifications for students to choose 
from. Among them, of course, is Radio 
Script Writing (the classification which 
is sponsored by Audio Devices). With 
so many students interested in entering 
the radio field, it is almost a certainty 
that we will receive thousands of entries 
in this classification alone. 

"And speaking of the radio script 
classification," Mr. Boutwell remarked, 
"teachers of students who plan to sub- 
mit entries in this classification arc re- 
minded to advise their pupils that scripts 
which can be readily used by other 
schools in class plays or that can be 
adapted for use on Thanksgiving, Christ- 
mas or other holiday programs are espe- 
cially welcome. And then, too," Mr. 
Boutwell went on, "scripts need not all 
be serious in structure. Although many 
fine scripts of this type will be received, 
those of a humorous nature will cer- 
tainly be welcome also." (Teachers also 
are reminded that Audio Devices v,'ill 
award special prizes to those scripts 
found suitable for publication.) 

More complete detailed information 
on the Radio Script Writing Classifica- 
tion in this year's "Scholastic Writing 
Awards" (rules and awards) may be ob- 
tained by writing Scholastic Magazines, 
220 East 42d Street, New York 17, N. Y. 


The Editors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
will be read with interest by recordists, tan 
be used. Photographs, drawings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 

Me i^ejco^dut 

By C. J. LeBel. Vice President 


Last month v.'c began a study of con- 
ditions for good reproduction from lat- 
eral cut discs: the conditions under 
which the reproducing stylus will faith- 
lully track the groove contour. In its 
most simple form, we discovered that 
when the effective 
radius of the sty- 
lus tip was large 
compared to the 
wavelength of the 
groove, poor 
tracking would re- 
sult. This is an 
of the problem, 
and we now take 
the matter up in 
more detail. 

There are three 
f actors which 
govern tnicking: 

1. Reproducing stylus tip must be 
positively coupled to the groove walls. 
Such positive coupling can he achieved 
by having the spherical portion of the 
stylus tip ride on the straight side walls 
of the groove. This is easily achieved, 
when desired, by using a slightly larger 
radius for the reproducing stylus tip than 
was used for the cutting stylus tip. In- 
cidentally, this mismatch increases the 
unit area ]-)ressure on the area in contact. 

Fkj. 1 Stylus-Groove Relation for 
Proper Trackmff 

To be sure that our recording lacquer 
will withstand this pressure increase, 
Audiodisc wear tests for years have been 
run with such a radius difference. Posi- 
tive coupling is no longer a problem. 

2. Pinch effect — When the groove 
lateral velocity is high, the width of the 
groove diminishes. Pierce and Hunt' 
showed that this effect produced a sec- 
ond harmonic distortion in the vertical 

October, 1947 


Fif/. 2 Groove Width Decreasing at 
High Grove Velocity 

direction, which would cancel out in 
lateral reproduction only, it the reproduc- 
ing styius could lift freely without giv- 
ing electrical output. This lift is an ex- 
tremely minute amount; in phonograph 
record reproduction with an ordinary 
steel needle the needle can often flex 
enough to produce the lift without rec- 
ord damage. When reproducing from 
Vinylite this is not enough, and verticil 
compliance must be engineered into the 
design. All modern transcription pickups 
are so designed, and at least two high 
fidelity home phonograph pickups have 
this feature. I'n short, pinch effect is no 
longer a problem. 

3. Needle radius and groove radius 
— This portion of the problem is more 
mathematical in nature, but it may be 
appreciated by considering the effect ol 
trying to follow minute groove convolu- 
tions of small radius with a stylus tip ot 
larger effective radius. This is an over- 
simplification (if a problem which is pro- 

Fki. S Reprorlucing Stylus of Large 

Radius Failing to Follow Small 

Groovc-Kudius-of -Curvature 

foundly mathematical in nature, but it 
is nevertheless an apt illustration. A 
complete treatment has been given by 
Pierce and Hunt' and Lewis and Hunt-. 

Brief consideration will show that it 
we are to faithfully reproduce high fre- 
quency tones at high velocity — which 
combination occurs when using NAB 
pre-equalization — we require a very 
small stylus tip. Unfortunately we can- 
not reduce the tip radius ad finitem, for 
a number of problems arise: 

A. There is a lower limit to the 
radius which the lapidary can produce 
(Continued on Page If) 

Much Recording Activi+y At 
Syracuse U's Radio Center 

Discs — Tape — Wire Used 
Equipped with both a wire recorder 
and two large recording tables for cut- 
ting discs, Syracuse University's Radio 
Center is kept busy transferring sound 
to groove and wire. 

The uses to which recordings are put 
at the New York School are in general 
two-fold; for broadcast and for instruc- 
tion. Regular program series are tran- 
scribed in the Radio Center studios and 
pressings made of the discs which are 
sent throughout New York state. "For- 
estry Journal" is one of such programs, 
which is cut every two weeks and used 
on 17 stations. The program is done by 
the College of Forestry and is aimed at 
education in conservation and better 

Thomas Keiser (left) and Robert Pierce 
shown cutting half-hour program on two 
Syracuse University Radio Center recorders. 

Among its recording functions, the 
Syracuse Radio Center cuts commercial 
discs for advertising agencies, records 
its own shows for playback on AM sta- 
tions, WFBL and WSYR, when time 
is not available for live pick-up, and 
makes recordings for comm.unity groups 
for use by them. 

Students also find recordings to be ex- 
tremely helpful in performance courses. 
In Radio Announcing extensive use is 
made of recordings. Students in Radio 
Production cut entire dramas, music 
shows, etc., for playback to the class 
and criticism. 

The equipment is used in making disc 
recordings synchronised to motion pic- 
tures for later transferral of sound to 
combined print of sound on film. 

Another important function is the 
documentation of special events and 
University activities. Among the work 
done in this line were the recording ot 
the entire day's ceremonies at the in- 
stallation of Dr. Paul H. Appleby as 
Dean of the Maxwell School of Citizen- 
ship and the day-long celebration of 
Spring Weekend, both of which have 
been "retained as historical university 

Who said ... a Recording 
Engineer's Life is Dull? 

(Continued from Page 1) 

On several occasionSj the recording 
department was requested to furnish 
unusual, authentic sound effects. 

On one occasion, I had to set up my 
equipment in the bottom of a lead mine 
shaft and run a mike and cable several 
hundred feet to a portion of a shaft 
that was being dynamited. Dressed 
as a miner, I had to do some crawling 
in a low, dark section of the mine — the 
only light coming from the miners' lamp 
on my cap — to get to the spot where 
the mike had to be installed. 

The mike was placed in a small cavity 
of the shaft to protect it from flying 
debris. When the dynamite went off, 
the recorder, even though quite a dis- 
tance away, lifted a full inch off the 
bench it was on. By careful dubbing 
back at the studio, we produced an au- 
thentic record of a dynamite blast, with 
all of the accompanying reverberations 
heard in a mine. The record is still in 
the sound effects file, carefully guarded. 

One of the oldest and best programs 
on KMOX is the "Land We Live In." 
A great deal of work and expense are 
put into this show to keep it the best 
St. Louis production. For an episode on 
the story of Bagnall Dam, a complete 
musical score was written and special 
musical effects simulating the turbines 
and generators was to be used. The field 
department was asked to bring back all 
of the authentic sounds heard in the 
various sections of the dam and the 
generating rooms. 

We recorded every large separate 
piece of mechanical equipment and even 
had the operators of the dam open the 
water locks so that we could record the 
water rushing over the locks. From these 
sound effects, three musical arrangers 
designed a musical score that was indeed 
unusual and authentic. 

In the summer of 1945, our news 
editor and I set out for Camp Kilmer, 
New Jersey. We were assigned to cover 
the return of the 86th (Blackhawk Divi- 
sion) from Europe. At Camp Kilmer, 
we set our equipment up on a Coast 
Guard cutter and put out to sea. Sev- 
eral hours out, we met the transports. 
While our cutter crossed the wake of 
these ships, we recorded at close range 
the return of the boys to U. S. ports. 

We stayed with the G. I.'s and re- 
turned with them on a troop train to 
Jefferson Barracks in St. Louis, Missouri. 
Whenever the troop train stopped for 
water we would jump out, find an a.c. 
outlet and start recording interviews with 
the boys. 

In Pittsburgh, the train started pull- 
ing out in the middle of a recording. 


October, 1947 

The recording continued until our cable 
slack gave out, and then, with the train 
picking up speed and • with the aid of 
several helping hands, the cable was 
reeled back into the coach. 

Yeh, who said a recording engineer's 
life is dull? 

WBKY. U. of Kentucky "FM" 

Station Uses Recordings in 

3-Folcl Capacities 

(Continued from Page 1) 

and Tom Scott, both nationally known 
collectors and performers of American 
folk music; the famous Ritchie sisters of 
Viper, Kentucky, and numerous moun- 
tain individuals and ensembles whose 
fame may be only lacal, but whose 
musical interpretations have great value 
for the student. 

Not only balladry is recorded by 
WBKY. The final commencement ad- 
dress of a retiring University president, 
the 'round-the-world broadcasts on the 
"V" days, and many similar occasions 
have been recorded for possible pro- 
grams in the future. 

But it is not only for the preservation 
of material that recording services are 
valuable. A potential radio performer 
can realise more of his defects by listen- 
ing to an audition recording, than by 
hearing hours of verbal criticism. There- 
fore, we record all doubtful portions of 
proposed programs so the performers 
can hear and study the dubious parts. 

Of direct training value is the use of 
recordings in our classes. We have three 
courses in radio speech at the University 
of Kentucky — Radio Announcing, Ad- 
vanced Radio Announcing, and Radio 
Dirama, respectively. In all ,of these 
courses at the first of the quarter, each 
student must record certain 'material. 
At the end of the quarter, he does an 
additional recording, and a careful com- 
parison between the two recordings 
forms a factor in the grade he gets. 

Our third use of recordings is in the 
transcription of programs to be used 
by other stations, for in addition to the 
operation of WBKY, the University of 
Kentucky radio studios provides in- 
numerable programs for Kentucky's 
commercial stations. At various times 
during the year, a single recording, such 
as Founders' Day Program, may be 
dubbed and sent to fifteen or more sta- 
tions. The University broadcasts eight 
live programs a week over WHAS — 
Louisville, but recorded stand-by pro- 
grams are kept at WHAS to be used in 
emergencies caused by line failures or 
other causes. Even on its own station, 
WBKY, transcriptions of its talent may 
be used when the time the talent can 
perform doesn't coincide with the time 
available on the air. 

Disc Data 

/Continued from Page 3) 

whilst still retaining other tip dimensions 
at their correct values. 

B. The unit pressure on the repro- 
ducing tip rises to an excessive value, 
producing rapid stylus and record wear, 
unless the total stylus force is also re- 
duced. The smallest total stylus force 
so far commercially available, 15 grams, 
is about half the minimum available be- 
fore the war. 

C. Processing problems may arise. 
Nevertheless some consideration will 

undoubtedly be given to all these factors 
by the various subcommittees just 
formed by the NAB. 


1. J. A. Pierce and F. V. Hunt, Distortion 
in Sound Reproduction from Phonograpli 
Records, J.SMPE, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 157- 
186, Aug., 1938. 

2. W. D. Lewis and F. 'V. Hunt, Theorv 
of Tracing Distortion in Sound ReproductKi:i 
from Phonograph Records, J.ASA, vol. 12, 
no. 3, pp. 348—365, Jan., 1941. 

BSRA Welconnes New Members 

Applications for membership in the 
British Sound Recording Association 
are now being accepted from interest- 
ed persons in this country. Further 
information concerning the BSRA 
and its aims can be obtained by writ- 
ing W. W. Lindgren, 309 Longfellow 
St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 





Radio Script-Writing Contest 

sponsored by 

Audio Devices, 
ducer of profess 
discs— for radio sta 
schools and colleges 

. the world's largest pro- 
1 recording discs — Audio- 
recording studios. 


special award for each script 
found suitable for publication. 

Famous Radio Writers 
to Judge Entries! 

See YOUR teacher 
immediately for 
full particulars! 



Follow the progrefis of this Competition by having your name 
placed on the "Audio Record" mailing list today. "Audio 
Record", published monthly in the interest of better sound 
recording will contain up-to-the-minute information on this 
Contest. Simply send us your name and title A pennv postcard 
will do. 


NEW YORK 22, N.Y. 


Vol. 3, No. 10 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

November, 1947 

Radio Workshop Project 

By Jessie M. Troupe 

Haggerstown, Maryland 

Because children begin to listen to radio 
before they are able to read and continue 
to listen through their high school careers, 
the schools must assume the same respon' 
sibility for building radio taste as they have 
for the development of better appreciation 
for motion pictures and reading. Radio 
workshops for training students in studio 
and radio techniques can be set up in any 
school — from the largest urban senior high 
school with expensive equipment to the one- 
room rural "studio" using a tin can as a 

An alert Workshop has just completed 
its second year in the Haggerstown High 
School, Haggerstown, Maryland, under the 
capable direction of Mrs. Marjorie Hoach- 
lauder. Haggerstown High School has a 
student body of approximately 1200 mem- 
bers. The town, with a population of 40,000 
boasts two radio stations: WJEJ affiliated 
with Mutual, and WARK with ABC. 

In 1945 when this Workshop was organ- 
ized, the enrollment was limited to 25 stu- 
dents because the work was to be only ex- 
perimental in nature. Each prospective 
member was asked to fill in a card giving 
not only vital statistics of age, grade, etc., 
but also preference in radio activity : acting, 
announcing, script writing, production, re- 
cording operator, etc. No one with a grade 
below C on any major subject was selected 
from entrees who filled cards. Auditions 
were held before the public address system, 
the instructor noting on the back of the 
card such traits as good speech, speech de- 
fects, lack of self confidence, etc. These 
cards were used as basis for selection of 
the 25 students who would be admitted to 
the class. All the cards were filed for future 

After the first meeting the class was 
divided into divisions, each student being 
placed according to his interest and ability. 
A chief for each division was elected by 
the members. Girls from the commercial 
department were responsible for typing 
and mimeographing scripts. 

Several meetings were given over to 
reading scripts to familiarize members with 
format and techniques of radio script writ- 
ing. One meeting was spent in discussing 
signs, language, sounds and engineering. 
Thus the ground work was laid. 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Pictured above Allen Funt ( seated ), "the man with the hidden mike," and his staff of "Candid 
Microphone" assistants. Left to right: Nina Heberer, Phil Pollard, Sonny Fox, Herb Exner, and Al 
Slep. Inset: Left — Funt conducts another "CM" interview (note mike on shirt front). Right — 
Funt baits a microphone trap for his next victim. 

"Candid Microphone" ABC's New Tape Recorded 
Show Radio's Most Novel and Amusing Progrann 

The trademark of radio 
absent when producer Allen Fu 
and most novel experiment in 

A Word to the 

Was Sufficient 

Ron Cochran, acting program mana- 
ger of WCOP-Boston, couldn't get to 
sleep a few nights ago because his next 
door neighbors were having a party and 
had his station's midnight disc show 
blaring in all directions. Thoughtfully, 
Cochran called Bob Brenner, the pro- 
gram's M. C. and asked him to suggest 
that folks listening remember that some 
of their neighbors might be sleeping and 
tune their radios accordingly. Sure 
enough, the Brenner fans next door took 
the suggestion to heart, turned down the 
volume, and let the weary Cochran have 
his shut-eye. 

the microphone — is conspicuously 
nt gathers material for the newest 
radio, "Candid Microphone," the 

Thursday evening ABC network feature 
which presents real life conversations of 
persons unaware that their words are des- 
tined for broadcast. 

Seeking to capture the spontaneous reac- 
tions of persons in all walks of life to situa- 
tions both common and uncommon, Funt 
brought a new twist to the interview type 
of radio program early this Summer by 
working with "mikes" concealed in dozens 
of different ways, depending upon the sit- 
uations with which he dealt. The program, 
airing about six recorded vignettes each 
week, brings ABC listeners the frank, un- 
rehearsed conversations of Funt's subjects 
in a manner that affords amusement as well 
as an insight into human nature. 

With his portable recording equipment 
close at hand but hidden from view, Funt 
approaches his carefully conceived "human 
{Continued on Page 2) 


November, 1947 

oudla )^ record 

VOL. 3, NO. 10 


Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

ABC's "Candid Microphone" Most 
Novel-Amusing Progrann in Radio 

(Continued from Page 1 ) 

interest" situations with a tiny microphone 
hidden under his scarf or coat lapel, in an 
arm sling, or as a hearing aid. In an office, 
store or home, it might be concealed in a 
flower vase, under a book or in a cigarette 

All Victims Aren't Amused 

Once, when Funt collusively posed as a 
barber and frightened the light of day out 
of an unsuspecting customer by bragging, in 
a trembling voice which betrayed nervous- 
ness, that "this is the first time Fve shaved 
anybody" — and adding "do you bleed 
much" — the microphone was concealed in 
a sun lamp near the chair in the barber 
shop where the connivance occurred. 

The under-the-lapel technique was used 
when Funt visited a bewildered garment 
maker on another occasion to negotiate a 
tailor-made zoot suit for a boxing kangaroo. 
A vase was used when the whimsy-loving 
producer and the banquet manager of a 
swank New York hotel arranged an eight- 
course dinner, with caterers, for six cats 
who, Funt, with tongue in cheek, told 
the maitre de hotel, had "won blue rib- 
bons in a feline beauty contest." 

Not all of Funt's 
ventures arc primar- 
ily comical, however. 
Human interest vies 
with laughs in some 
situations, and in 
others, serious 
thoughts are pro- 
voked as the "Can- 
did Microphone" 
makes its rounds. 

Discs Used, Too 

Since a tape re- 
corder is used, exten- 
sive editing is pos- 
sible to avoid repetitious dialogue, before 
the show goes on the air. In order to obtain 
an entertaining sequence, often as many as 
100 splices are made on a single program. 
Finally, the entire program is re-recorded 
on discs for the actual broadcast. 

"Candid Microphone" goes on the air 
with the only audible censor in radio. 
Instead of a blue pencil assault on a pre- 
pared script, the audible censor blots out 
words unusable on the air when an inter- 

Funt, with scissors in 
hand, edits his next 

^^t^ ^coldUt 

Don Wike, announcer; Don Keith, producer; 
and Byron Towery, engineer, record another 
KUJ tabloid sportscast of local high school 
football game. 

KUJ's Capsule Coverage 
Of Local Football Games 
Proven To Be A Success 

Tabloid Sportscast Tape Recorded 

Network committments make it impos- 
sible for Radio Station KUJ-Walla Walla, 
Washington to air play-by-play broadcasts 
of the local high school's football games, but 
thanks to Don Keith, public relations man, 
and tape recording, the station has found 
a solution to the problem. Here's how. 

Every Play Recorded on Tape 

On the day of the games, KUJ assigns 
its regular sportscasting crew, along with a 
recording engineer and a tape recorder, to 
cover the contest. Every play of the game, 
as in a conventional broadcast, is described 
by the announcer and recorded on tape for 
presentation at a later time. However, when 
the game is finally aired, usually the follow- 
ing evening, only the big thrills or scoring 
plays are heard. But, in addition to the 
game's action, members of the two compet- 
ing teams are interviewed and their inter- 
esting remarks are made a part of the trans- 

Thus, KUJ is able to present not only the 
game's highlights, but also the story behind 
each important play. And, according to 
KUJ stafi^ members, the quarter-hour re- 
corded tabloid sportscast packs much of 
the same wallop as the full-game broadcast. 

vicwee occasionally bristles at Funt's al- 
ways deliberate affrontery. 

Naturally, nothing objectionable to the 
parties concerned is aired, and no names 
are used. After a sequence is recorded, 
Funt's subject — or sometimes, victim — 
is told that their conversation was recorded 
and his or her permission is obtained to 
use it on the air, with anonimity assured. 
And Funt seldom encounters a refusal. 

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 


Now is an especially fitting time to dis- 
cuss the subject, for this article is being 
written just as the 1947 Conference of the 
Association for Education by Radio comes 
to a close. Many broadcast and recording 
organizations have 
been called on to 
advise their local 
educational institu- 
tions on recording 
problems and facili- 
ties, — as our corre- 
spondence shows. 
Hence the discussion 
is addressed to both 
commercial broad- 
caster and educa- 
C. J. LeBel tional recordist. 


It has been interesting to watch the 
growth of American educational record- 
ing. Attention to educational applications 
began shortly after Edison's original inven- 
tion, but for many years the complexities 
of wax recording restricted its use to com- 
mercial recording companies, and to pro- 
duction of regular catalog items. In the 
early thirties the process of embossing 
grooves in aluminum was perfected. Its 
quality being too poor for general profes- 
sional use, some attempt was made to sell 
it to the educators. This was not very suc- 
cessful. Shortly thereafter recording on 
lacquer (coated on aluminum) was devel- 
oped and came into limited professional 
use. Being a cut groove, the sound quality 
was definitely better, and some educational 
applications were found. The same factors 
that hindered professional use were objec- 
tionable to the educator, viz., the blank 
discs hardened rapidly, the cut disc devel- 
oped high distortion and noise in a short 
time on the shelf, the record could only he 
played a few times before being completely 
worn out, and the thread was explosively 
inflammable. Lacquer thickness was often 

These defects were due to use of incor- 
rect plasticizers in the coating, in insuffi- 
cient amount, and poorly developed coat- 
ing methods. The introduction of the first 
Audiodiscs changed this: the plasticizer 
formula was much more complex, the plas- 
ticizer was utilized in much higher propor- 
tion, and machine application of lacquer 

November, 1947 


was used. The eorrect plastici2,ers gave the 
lacquer high stabiHty, changes with time 
were no longer a problem, and thread in- 
flammability was reduced to a reasonable 
value. Machine application gave complete 
uniformity of thickness. 

Lacquer Makes Educational Recording 
A Success 

These improvements made recording on 
lacquer a professional success, but they also 
made educational recording universally 
available, and fostered its rapid growth. 
While some attempt was made to sell low 
cost home recorders and home recording 
discs for educational use, it was soon found 
that professional standards of clarity and 
durability were necessary. 

While the first educational applications 
were for speech correction work, broader 
vistas soon opened. Educational broadcast- 
ing was growing. Whereas a single micro- 
phone and recording machine were ample 
for speech correction, broadcasting posed 
new problems. The student was accustomed 
to professional broadcast standards, and to 
hold his interest production methods and 
mechanics had to be equally well handled. 
It was found that better sound quality was 
essential, for fifteen to thirty minutes of 
listening to unclear sound was very fati- 
guing. The student became restless, his at- 
tention wandered, and without formalizing 
the matter, it became generally recognized 
that sound quality would have to conform 
to professional standards. The "fatigue fac- 
tors" in sound reproduction would have to 
be kept at an absolute minimum. If we may 
presume to coin a new phrase, the follow- 
ing psycho-acoustic equation was devel- 
Sustained Student Interest ^ Interesting 

Subject Matter + Aural Presentation 

in a Non-Fatiguing Manner. 

All of this experience has had consider- 
able effect on the educational recordist's 
requirements in the way of facilities. The 
dramatic recording facilities suggested may 
appear over-elaborate to some, but this is 
incorrect. While work can be done with 
less complete equipment, it will be smaller 
in scope, or poorer in production quality, 
or will be produced at an excessive cost in 
time and material (due to need for test 
cuts or retakes). A glance at current edu- 
cational practice indicates that these facili- 
ties are gradually becoming the standard 
for a complete educational recording setup. 


The facilities required will vary with 
the work to be done, of course, but some 
form of each of the following must be pro- 
vided : 

A. Studio 

B. Speech input system — input con- 

trols, amplifiers 
C Recording machine 

D. Recording raw material 

E. Reproducing facilities 

Speech Correction 

Speech correction recording has generally 
been done right in the classroom, and with 
one student performing at a time. Since 
acoustical conditions are seldom good, this 
indicates that the single microphone used 
should be of a directional form. The re- 
cording machine is generally of simple 
form, often a single-speed type cutting only 
up to 12" diameter. While inside-to-out 
recording is more convenient, it has been 
found preferable to use outside-to-in cut 
for records so made can be played on the 
home phonograph, which the student usu- 
ally wishes to do. Cut in the reverse direc- 
tion, they cannot be played on a turntable 
fitted with the usual automatic stop or 

Since faithful reproduction, "presence", 
is highly desirable, it becomes necessary to 
use a professional cutting stylus — stellite 
has been preferred because of greater rug- 
gedness — and a professional quality disc. 
As before and after comparisons are desir- 
able, it is necessary to use a disc with un- 
questioned permanence — one which will 
be as quiet and undistortcd a year after as 
on the day of recording. 

For making a quick survey of a class at 
the beginning of a term, it has been found 
very economical to cut a 16" disc at 33^ 
rpm. It is possible to place fifteen to twenty 
voices on each side of the disc, separated 
one from the other by short spirals. 

Radio Dramatics and Broadcast 

Whether played over the school public 
address system or over an educational 
broadcast station, the dramatic recording 
must stand comparison with professional 
broadcasting, to which the student daily 
listens. The mechanics of the production 
must be well executed, the sound quality 
good. This imposes definite equipment re- 

The studio must be adequate in sound 
isolation, reverberation characteristics, and 
size. Inadequate isolation means that many 
records will be spoiled by extraneous 
sounds, and inadequate acoustical treat- 
ment implies serious problems in setting up 
to record. It is apt to mean a "tricky" studio, 
full of bad spots, and most difficult to use. 
In practice this is apt to make recording 
quality rather uneven, for available time 
is limited, and likely to be used in rehears- 
ing the cast, rather than in rehearsal for 
sound. The studio should be large enough 
to accommodate the largest group. There is 
nothing so futile as trying to put a school 
orchestra of fifty in a small speech studio. 
Fortunately, the trend in school design 
shows a growing appreciation of the fact 
that broadcast dramatics has become as im- 
portant as stage dramatics, and a studio is 
often provided for use with the public ad- 
dress system. Recording from the same 
studio is easily accomplished. 

The speech input system must provide 
adequate flexibility. Facilities for simul- 

taneous use of three microphones are the 
minimum necessary, and four mixer posi- 
tions are more convenient. Two turntables 
for music are also necessary. Means of in- 
serting a sound efl^ects filter to control at 
least one microphone circuit are highly de- 
sirable. It goes without saying that the 
amplifiers must have both good perform- 
ance and reliability. Unlike a broadcast 
station, most schools have no maintenance 
man, and an amplifier breakdown is a seri- 
ous matter. 

The recording machine should be com- 
plete in its facilities. Both speeds should be 
available, and provision should be made for 
change of pitch. A spiralling device should 
be provided. Outside-to-in cutting should 
be used, and this will make a suction device 
for removing the thread highly desirable. 

The recording disc must provide pro- 
fessional recording quality, of course, but 
more is required. Complete uniformity is 
necessary and long life. Educational discs 
form part of a library, which must be re- 
produced next year, the year after, and the 
year after that. They must be durable, as 
regards repeated playing, but lack of de- 
terioration with time is equally essential. 
Chemicals used in the formulation must be 
time tested for proven permanence. A disc 
which becomes noisy or distorted in two 
or three years is not satisfactory. 

Reproducing Equipment 

Playback machines of professional qual- 
ity arc available for use in playing an edu- 
cational transcription to a class. If any 
criticism may be made of them, it is that 
the portable loudspeakers are generally too 
small and too inadequately baffled for satis- 
factory reproduction of anything but 

The educational broadcaster needs espe- 
cially a definite setup for re-recording. One 
concomitant of the production of success- 
ful program series is the process of exchang- 
ing copies with other groups. Very seldom 
do the quantities warrant processing, so 
the amount of re-recording to be done is 
very considerable — a serious burden unless 
a regular setup is made for that purpose. 


It has been very interesting to watch the 
development of educational recording from 
an idea to a rapidly growing movement of 
well documented value. We salute those 
who have made recording an essential part 
of the modern educational process. 


The Editors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
will be read with interest by recordists, can 
be used. Photographs, drawings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 


November, 1947 


At the American Dental Association 
Convention, held a few weeks ago in Bos- 
ton, Harold I. Primus, Manager of the 
Diamond Crown Division of Audio De- 
vices, which produces diamond abrasive 
dental instruments, recorded interviews 
with visitors to the show on 10" Audiodiscs 
and gave them the recordings to take home 
as souvenirs. (Above photo shows Diamond 
Crown booth with microphone on table in 
foreground — recording equipment was 
located in rear of booth). Interviews with 
many leading foreign dental representa- 
tives, speaking in their native tongues, high- 
lighted the recording sessions. 

A Radio Workshop Project 

(Continued from Page 1 ) 

At the start the equipment was poor — 
books, blackboard and an elementary pub- 
lic address set-up composed of a junior 
velocity microphone and a 15 watt ampli- 
fier. New crystal microphones with full 
length adjustable stands and additional 
shorter desk stands were purchased. By 
January of 1946 an adjoining room had 
been arranged to provide a "studio" 
creating the broadcasting illusion so neces- 
sary to the success of any radio laboratory. 
To this were added a recording machine 
and a play-back unit (two speeds, 33^ and 
78 RPM), the former for recording stu- 
dents' voices, the latter for playing back 
sound effects during rehearsal. 

During the first year sixteen actual broad- 
casts were made over WJEJ. The initial 
broadcast during American education week 
in November emphasized the relation of 
school, home, and community. At Christ- 
mas O'Hcnry's "Gift of the Magi" and 
Moore's "A visit from St. Nicholas" were 
dramatized. Thirteen vocational guidance 
programs written and produced by the 
Workshop were presented over a period of 
thirteen weeks. This "Looking Ahead" 
series dealt with the problems of school 
and after-life adju.stments. Another step in 
advancement was chalked up when these 
broadcasts were listened to in schools all 
over the country. 

In May the class and instructor chartered 
a bus to New York City for the purpose 

of visiting NBC and CBS studios. They 
enjoyed Nila Mack's "Let's Pretend" in its 
pre-broadcast rehearsal and the famed Ci- 
ties Service show, "Highways of Melody". 

With the approach of a second year it 
was possible to organize two sections of 25 
students each. Only seniors were eligible 
because of a limited teaching staff in the 
English department. 

A new location was arranged with a 
small control room, a rectangular studio 
and an adjoining classroom of regulation 
size. A cut-in microphone system was in- 
stalled to facilitate giving directions dur- 
ing rehearsals, and a simple decibel meter 
control box was added. Then it was possible 
to produce scripts which contained sound 
effects, background music, and special 
effects. It was also possible for the teacher 
to work with a cast in the studio while the 
remainder of the group worked at other 

Reprinted by special permission of the 
Saturday Evening Post. Copyright 1945 
by The Curtis l*ublishing Company. 

projects in the class room. 

More advanced programs were worked 
out. Students participated in a Student 
Forum of the Air broadcasted over WBAL. 
A panel discussion was presented by four 
social studies students presenting affirma- 
tive and negative arguments in answer to 
the question: "Is a democratic form of 
government similar to that in the United 
States practicable in all other countries of 
the world?" This was followed by questions 
from the floor directed to the panel. Audi- 
ence participation came from the entire 
student body in applause. 

In the spring different groups undertook 
two six-week series, "Sing and Listen," a 
music appreciation project, and "130 Story 
Book Street," a dramatization of fairy tales. 
This last series was directed toward the 
elementary school audience. 

Again the course was concluded with a 
New York trip, the students seeing James 
Melton's "Harvest of Stars," Armstrong's 
"Theater of the Air," "The Mighty 
Casey," N. B. C. Symphony and "Let's 

At the close of the second year the in- 
structor was able to list certain gains made 
by students in her three sections. 

1. Learning to work with groups. 

2. Acquiring habits of accuracy and a 
sense of proper timing. 

3. Overcoming self -consciousness. 

4. Experience in script writing. 

5. Developing good voice and speech 

6. Handling sound techniques. 

7. Developing hidden talent. 

8. Developing the appreciation of the 
art of radio broadcasting. 

9. Awakening a realization of the 
power of modern radio as a medium 
of propaganda. 

10. Assisting in administration of school 

The workshop will he expanded in the 
1947-1948 school term to include more stu- 
dents interested in radio. The instructor, 
however, feels that additional changes must 
be made if the program is to mature. 

1. Release of the radio instructor from 
the responsibility of teaching classes 
other than radio. 

2. Establishment of a central office lo- 
cated conveniently for the coordina- 
tion of high school, junior high school 
and elementary programs. 

3. Appointment of a Director of Radio 
Education to plan, supervise, and 
carry out the radio program activities 
on a county-wide basis. 

4. More contributions and participation 
from other departments in the school. 

5. Installation of machinery for re- 
broadcasting to meet each class pe- 
riod need. 

6. More consciousness on part of pub- 
lic and school officials to the role 
schools must play in the national 
radio scene. 

Radio workshops are not ends in them- 
selves, but they definitely have their place 
in the future of the radio as a medium for 
educational purposes. 

As We Go to Press 

Audio Devices, currently co-sponsor 
of the 1 948 Scholastic Writing Awards 
in the Radio Script Writing Classifica- 
tion, will also co-sponsor the NA- 
TEST for college students. 

Under the auspices of the Association 
for Education by Radio, the National 
Radio Script Contest, will ofi^er prizes 
for best written scripts to students en- 
rolled in recognized colleges and univer- 
sities in the United States. Complete de- 
tails along with rules and regulations 
and list of awards will appear in our 
December issue. 



Vol. 3, No. i I 

444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

December, 1947 


Valuable Cash Prizes to 
Writers of Best Scripts 

Competition Open to All Students of 
Recognized Colleges in the U. S. A. 

Audio Devices, co sponsor of SCHOL 
ASTIC MAGAZINES' 1948 "Scholastic 
Writing Awards" (Radio Script Writing 
Classification), for high school students, 
will also co-sponsor the 1948 National 
Radio Script Contest. 

Under the auspices of the Association 
for Education by Radio, the National 
Radio Script Contest will offer prizes for 
best written scripts to students enrolled in 
recognized colleges and universities in the 
United States. (Contest Rules and Awards 
listed on Page 4.) 

The following educational organizations 
and publications will act as co'sponsors for 
the contest : National Council of Teachers 
of English, National Educational Theater 
Assn., Player's Magazine, Scholastic Maga- 
zines and Writer's Magazine. 

The National sponsors who, with Audio 
Devices, have contributed cash awards for 
winners, and have underwritten the ex- 
pense of the contest, include: Alpha Epsi 
Ion Rho (Honorary Radio Fraternity), 
General Electric Company and the Na- 
tional Association of Broadcasters. Also, 
Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc. will award a 
complete set of the Encyclopedia Brittanica 
to best scripts in each of the four regular 

Regional sponsors who will make special 
awards in their particular regions, thus 
far include: the Newark News and Radio 
Station WNJR-Newark, N. J., and the 
Oklahoman (i Times and Radio Station 
WKY-Oklahoma City, Okla. Many more 
regional sponsors are expected to partici 
pate in the contest before it closes. 

The National Radio Script Contest will 
divide scripts into regular classifications 
and one special classification. These classes 
follow : 

Class 1. Original Dramatic Script. 14 
min. 30 sec. in length. 

Class 2. Dramatic Adaptation. 29 min. 
30 sec. in length. 

Class 3. Non-dramatic scripts for one 
voice (talks, news, sports, 
women's programs, etc.). 14 
min. 30 sec. in length. 

(Continued on Page 4) 

The Adelphi College Radio Workshop, under the direction of Mrs. Mary Lou Plugge (back to 
camera,) Chairman of the Long Island School's Speech and Dramatic Arts Department, are 
shown recording their adaptation of Ernest Hemingway's "The SnoWs of Kilmajaro" which 
was broadcast later over Station WGGB-Freeport, Long Island. 

Adelphi College U+ilizes Recording Equipmen+ 
In Speech Training, Drome and Radio Courses 

There was a time when educators had to literally "push" students 
into speech training courses. However, such is not the case today. At 
least not at Adelphi College, Garden City. Long Island. 

For Adelphi students, according to 
Mrs. Mary Lou Plugge, Chairman of the 
Long Island school's Speech and Dramatic 
Arts Department, welcome the opportu- 
nity of improving their speech in Adelphi's 
'Fundamentals of Speech' course. "They 
feel," Mrs. Plugge related, "that our 
speech course is an objective rather than a 
subjective analysis of their vocal qualities. 
Consequently, we rarely encounter a stu- 
dent who takes the attitude that he is 
being persecuted when we attempt to cor- 
rect his speech defects. 

"The success of our speech training pro- 
gram," Mrs. Plugge said, "is largely due 
to our recording equipment. Time and time 
again hours of instruction have been saved 
by simply allowing a student to hear his 
own voice played back to him. And the 

(Continued on Page 4) 

Natl. Boy Scout Council 
Launches Recorded Series 

Thirteen Transcriptions Dramatize All 
Phases of Scouting Activities 

A series of thirteen quarter-hour elec- 
trical transcriptions for the use of the Boy 
Scouts of America will be released this 
month by their National Council head- 
quarters in New York City. 

These are being made available in re- 
sponse to many requests from all parts of 
the nation. They are. to be used on a 
sustaining basis by local radio stations 
in cooperation with the local Boy Scout 
Councils. Provision for a one-minute local 
"tie-in" announcement has been made so 
(Continued on Page 4) 


December, 1947 

CLudla ^ record 

VOL. 3, NO. 11 


Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better recording. Mailed without cost 
to radio stations, recording studios, motion pic- 
ture studios, colleges, vocational schools and 
recording enthusiasts throughout the United 
States and Canada. 

Frank Sinatra 

And a Singer's Success 

By Frank Sinatra 



It is the very rare exception when a 
musical artist, particularly a singer, achieves 
any amount of success without substantial 
assistance from records. This is clearly evi- 
denced when one analyzes the success for- 
mula for any number of the top singers 
enjoying popularity today. Frankie Laine 
is a perfect illustration of this point. 

For years Frankie knocked around wait- 
ing for his "big break". It finally came in 
the form of a disc with "That's My Desire" 
printed on it. Now he's a big star. 

There is no doubt that live radio shows 
play a tremendous part in the growth of an 
artists' reputation, but stop and consider 
a moment the important part being played 
by approximately two-thousand "disc- 
jockeys" all over the country, not to men- 
tion the hundreds of thousands of juke 
boxes that reach an audience that very 
rarely see live talent. The average inde- 
pendent station devotes a very large part of 
its schedule to the playing of records. In 
short, all other mediums combined cannot 
equal the vast audience being reached daily 
by these platter spinners. 

Up to this point we have concentrated 
mainly upon the promotional effect of 
records — and have completely ignored an 
equally important phase of this question • — 
money. A record contract almost guaran- 

tees a singer some sort of steady income — 
depending of course on the singer's talent 
and reputation. A couple of hit records 
not only can insure the success of an artist, 
but can provide more than ample financial 
support, until he gets a radio show or a 
movie contract — and from there it con- 
tinues to be a reliable and often sizable 
source of income. 

And then too, thanks to the improve- 
ments made in recording equipment and 
techniques, during the last few years, the 
singer is able to reach his unseen audience 
with a more truly life-like reproduction of 
his voice. 

What the result of the approaching 
"recording ban" will be I certainly cannot 
predict, but I sincerely hope that the parties 
involved come to some sort of agreement 
before many months have passed. 

29 Stations Show Interest 
In Script Writing Awards 

Outlets Invited to Serve As Regional 

ZINES, sponsors of the yearly "Scholastic 
Writing Awards" for high school stu- 
dents, wrote radio stations throughout the 
country explaining the expanded Radio 
Script Writing Classification (sponsored 
by Audio Devices) in the 1947-48 Awards. 
The stations were also asked if they would 
like to cooperate with SCHOLASTIC 
MAGAZINES in stimulating interest in 
script writing in the schools. 

Thus far, twenty-nine stations in eight- 
een states have responded and expressed 
enthusiasm in the idea. Many of these sta- 
tions have already contacted the schools 
in their communities and requested the 
teachers to encourage their students to en- 
ter the Script Writing Competition. 

Because of the enthusiasm shown, 
fered these stations an opportunity to 
actually participate in the program by 
sponsoring regional contests in their re- 
spective areas. Radio scripts would be 
submitted to the stations themselves for 
local judging before being forwarded to 
tional consideration. 

Stations interested in taking part in the 
Radio Script Writing Awards are urged 
to write William D. Boutwell, SCHOL- 
ASTIC MAGAZINES, 220 East 42nd 
Street, New York City, for full particulars. 


The Editors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
will be read with interest by recordists, can 
be used. Photographs, drawings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 

me f^eco'idUt 

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 


As our standards of fidelity improve, 
new materials and methods become neces- 
sary. In disc reproduction this change 
started first in the professional field, but 
now even the seri 
ous music-lover is an- 
xiously installing the 
newest in postwar 
pickups, amplifiers, 
and loudspeakers. 
This has prompted 
the introduction of 
a new Audiopoint, 
a sapphire for home 
reproduction. Per- 
haps our readers will 
be interested in some 
C. J. LeBel of fhe factors we 

considered while investigating the problem. 


Sapphire Audiopoints for the profes- 
sional have been steady sellers for a num- 
ber of years. The factors which have made 
them popular are of interest also to the 
serious home listener: 

A. Tracking distortion is at a mini- 
mum because the tip radius can be ac- 
curately controlled. The extreme hardness 
of sapphire (9 on the Moh scale) makes it 
feasible to lap the radius, with high pre- 
cision, to a value which will ensure its 
riding on the straight sides of the groove. 
As was pointed out by Pierce and Hunt' 
in 1938, this condition is essential to ac- 
curate reproduction of the groove contour. 

B. The surface noise is reduced by at 
least several db because of the extremely 
high polish of the tip. The extreme hard- 
ness of sapphire makes it easy to lap the 
surface to such perfection that a surface 
character indicator will give no roughness 
indication at all. While such perfect lap- 
ping could be applied to steel, the surface 
would wear rough again within the first 
second of use on ordinary phonograph 

User Requirements 

There are two classes of users who 
would be interested in "permanent" re- 
producing styli. One group is interested 
in its ultimate durability, regardless of how 
badly it may sound toward the end of life. 
Another group wish to know how long 
the point may be used before the sound 
quality is adversely affected, and before 
the point causes excessive record wear. 

December, 1947 


Ulrimate Durability 

When a sapphire stylus is used to repro- 
duce Audiodiscs. no detectable wear re- 
sults, and the stylus life can be considered 
indefinitely long. The same is true of pure 
Vinyl pressings. With ordinary phono- 
graph records, and a pickup operating at 
about two ounces load, wear is much more 
rapid, hence the ultimate hfe is of the 
order of several thousand playings. 

Quality Life 

If we measure the sound quality, we 
find that it begins to deteriorate long be- 
fore the ultimate life has been reached. 
While it is true that sapphire is the second 
hardest material (softer only than dia- 
mond), it is certain also that the phono- 
graph record is quite abrasive. Under the 
pressure of many thousands of pounds to 
the square inch existing at the tip, the wear 
is slow but sure, and flats are worn on the 
end and sides. Long before the time has 
been reached when the needle v>^ill no 
longer stay in the groove, three things will 
bother the serious listener: 

L The tip will be worn so flat that 
poor tracking will result at high frequen- 
cies. Sound will be "fuzzy". 

2. Scratch will be much worse. 

3. Record-wear will be excessive. 
Engineering judgment is that fuzzy 

sound becomes pronounced before the 
other two factors have deteriorated much. 
With a typical pickup of today we find 
that this situation is reached at about 250 
to 350 playings. A light weight pickup 
(1% ounce force) would about double the 
"quality life". 

While it can be shown mathematically- 
that a worn stylus will create distortion, 
experiment shows that the critical listener* 
will be annoyed long before the harmonic 
distortion meter readings look serious. In- 
termodulation readings provide a more 
sensitive indication, but they merely serve 
to confirm the ear's judgment.* 

Incidentally, in choosing the tip radius 
it is essential to have the size such that the 
point will track part way up the straight 
side of the groove. The bottom of the 
groove generally is considerably distorted 
by polishing of the stamper, and it is wise 
to be well clear of it.^ Of course, if the 
point is too large, it will create excessive 
tracking distortion, and may even refuse to 
stay in the groove. A compromise value is 
therefore desirable. 

All of this discussion, of course, presup- 
poses that the pickup is not dropped hard 
on the disc, nor on the metal turntable-rim. 
A hard drop is likely to chip the tip, for 
all hard materials are somewhat brittle. 
Chipping leaves razor-sharp broken edges, 
and the point is valueless. 

A New Answer 

It is evident that the critical listener will 
find the cost of buying a new stylus, so 
often, quite appreciable. We have found 

Interviews With Famous Air Travelers Recorded 

Jose Ferrer (right), distinguished stage and screen actor is interviewed by Durward Kirby on 
the "Wings Over New York" transcribed program over WHN-New York. The program, fea- 
turing recorded interviews with leaders in all fields of endeavor who arrive and depart from 
LaGuardia Field, is presented Monday through Friday from 7:00 to 7:15 P.M. by the New 
York station. The interviews, which are also heard by transcription over stations in Chicago 
and Hollywood, are not limited to famous travelers, but include celebrities on hand to bid adieu 
or welcome to friends and family. The young lady in the center of the picture, who divides her 
time among the four great runways at the world's busiest airport, arranges the interviews and 
serves as production aide. Her name: Eileen O'Connell. 

an answer to this, an answer which the 
professional has found very satisfactory for 
many years: resharpening. By using a 
slightly longer piece of sapphire at the tip, 
at a very small increase of cost, we leave 
enough gem exposed so that several re- 
sharpenings become possible. A resharp- 
ened point of course is as good as new, and 
will wear as long as the original. Resharp- 
ening being much lower in cost than a 
whole new stylus, the saving in overall 
operating cost is quite worth while. 

Since quality deterioration is gradual, it 
is easy to overlook the onset of poor sound 
quality. Hence it is wise to keep a rough 
count of the number of discs played, and 
change styli by disc count. In case of doubt 
another point can be tried, of course. 

How About the Diamond? 

A possible alternate material would be 
the diamond, so we will forestall the obvi- 
ous question. Diamond is the hardest 
known material, with a hardness of 10 on 
Moh's scale. Unfortunately, cost goes up 
faster than durability, so that the cost per 
disc played is more with diamond than 
with sapphire. This may easily be under- 
stood when we recall that sapphire can be 
ground and polished with diamond dust — 
but we have only diamond dust to grind 
diamond! Accordingly, diamond working 
goes very slowly, and at high cost. 


In introducing the idea of resharpenable 
sapphire reproducing styli for home use 
we believe that we have an idea which is 
well grounded in both engineering and 


1. ]. A. Pierce & F. V. Hunt, Distortion 
171 Sound Reproduction from PhonO' 
graph Records, /.S.M.P.E.. Vol. 31. 
No. 2, pp 157- J 86, Aug. 1938. 

2. B. B. Bauer, 7s[otes on Distortion in 
Phonograph Reproduction Caused by 
Heedk Wear, J.A.S.A., Vol 16. Ho. 4, 
pp. 246'25i. April 1945. 

3. H. E. Roys, Intermodidation Distortion 
Analysis as AppUed to Disc Recording 
and Reproducing Equipment, Proc. 
IRE.. Vol. is, Ho. 10, pp 1149- 
1152, Oct. 1947. 

Editor's Note: The reproducing sapphire to which Mr. 
LeBel refers is the new "Red Circle" Sapphire AUDIO- 
POINT, now beine marketed through AUDIODISC 
Distributors. This AUDIOPOINT is being produced in 
both the straight and bent shank types. The straight 
shank point, itl03, is ideal for original recordings and 
vinyl pressings as well rs regular phonograph records — 
though for phonograph records most users prefer the 
bent shank. #303. 


IF YOUR name is not on the Audio Record 
mailing list, drop a penny post card to — 
The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madison 
Avenue. New York 22, N. Y. 


December, 1947 


■ ''i^t"'"'^' 





An Adelphi student records her voice in a 
"Fundamentals of Speech" class as classmates 
critically listen. 

Adelphi College Uses Discs in 
Speech-Drama-Raclio Courses 

(Continued from Page I ) 
student is able to detect his errors iiuicli 
more readily than would otherwise he pos 

When a student enrolls in the 'Funda- 
mentals of Speech Course', he cuts a record 
of his voice at the very beginning. This 
four-minute recording contains the stu- 
dent's efforts in conversational speech - - 
reading aloud and public speaking. The 
disc is played back again and again until 
the instructor knows just exactly what 
must be done to improve the speech of that 
individual student. Then, at the end of the 
course, the student cuts another disc which 
permits both he and his teacher to thor- 
oughly gauge his progress. "Without ques- 
tion," Mrs. Plugge emphasized, "instruc- 
tion time is cut in half by the use of re- 
cording equipment." 

In addition to the "Fundament, ils of 
Speech' course, Adelphi College also uses 
recording equipment in their Public Speak- 
ing, Drama and Radio courses. For in- 
stance, in the Radio Department, record- 
ings are made of every live show rehearsal. 
So naturally any shortcomings on the part 
of the actors and actresses are corrected 
before the show is actually broadcast. 

The Adelphi Radio Workshop recently 
recorded their adaptation of Ernest Hem- 
ingway's "The Snows of Kilmajaro", 
which was broadcast over Radio Station 
WGGB-Freeport, Long Island. Many 
other recorded student productions are 
aired over that station, too. 

From time to time many well known 
recording artists have appeared before the 
Adelphi radio classes and have given the 
students valuable tips on building them- 
selves a career in radio. 

"Considering the relatively low cost," 
Mrs. Plugge said, "I would not hesitate to 
say that all schools, whether they be ele- 
mentary, high schools, colleges or univer- 
sities, could profit handsomely in time saved 
by installing recording equipment in their 
speech, r.idin iml drama departments." 

Audio in AER Script Contest 

(Contnuied from Page I) 

Class 4. Non-dramatic scripts fur more 
than one voice (interviews, dis- 
cussion programs, etc.). H^t 
min., or 29'/2 rnin. in length. 

Special Class. Scripts suitable for home 
or school recording. Lengths 
optional, but should be timed 
in terms of specific record sizes. 
(2, 31/2 and 5'/) min. playing 
time preferred.) 


1. Any student regularly enrolled in any 
recognized college or university in the 
United States is eligible to participate. 

2. Scripts must be typed in radio style 
(double spaced) and submitted to: 
AER Radio Script Contest, c 'o Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla- 

.1. Each script must have a face sheet on 
which must appear the folkuving: 

a. The title of the script. 

b. The name of the author. 

c. The author's address. 

d. The classification of the script, i.e.. 
1, 2, 3, 4 or Special. 

e. A statement, signed, that the manu 
script is the student's own work; in 
the case of adaptations, the author 
and source of the original story 
must be given. Entries for Special 
class should also give the name of 
their teacher. Number each page, 
THE MANUSCRIPT. Judges will 
not know the names of the authors. 

4. All entries, submitted to the above ad- 
address, must be postmarked not later 
than midnight. March .U, 1948. 

.>. Regional winners will be notified in 
April, 1948. National Announcement 
of National winners will be made in 
May. 1948. 

6. Each entrant retains ownership of his 
scripts, except for entries in the Special 
Classification. Contestants are, how- 
ever, expected to give permission for 
publication (only) in an issue of one 
of the educational journals of the edu- 
cational co-sponsoring organizations of 
this contest. Copyright on all entries in 
Special Class become the property of 
Audio Devices, Inc., New York. 

7. Any qualified student writer may en- 
ter any or all of the script classifica- 
tions. However, DO NOT submit more 
than one script each for Classes 1, 2, 
3 and 4. 

8. Winning scripts will, where possible, 
be published in educational journals. 
Every effort will be made to bring the 
most promising scripts to the attention 
of open market buyers. Scripts will be 
returned to writers only if accom- 
panied by return postage. 

AWARDS: National* 

1st Prize (m classes 1, 2, 3 and 4)..$ 50.00 
2nd Prize (in classes 1, 2, 3 and 4).$ 25.00 
(Also for best script of four 
regular classes $50.00 plus one 
set of Encyclopedia Brittanica) 

1st Prize (in Special Class) $100.00 

2nd Prize (in Special Class) $ 60.00 

3rd Prize (m Special Class) $ 40.00 

(Also for each script suitable for 
publication in a collection of 
scripts $25.00) 
To Teachers of first, second and third place 
winners (in Special Class). One box of 
25 Audiodiscs, 3 Recording and 3 Play- 
back Sapphire Audiopoints. 

AWARDS: Regional* 

Eastern Sponsor: Newark News and Radio 

Station WNJR-Newark, N. J. 
Best Script (in classes 1,2,3 and 4) $25.00 
Southwestern Sponsor: Oklahoman 
and Times Radio Station WKY- 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Best Script (in classes 1, 2, 3 and 4) $25.00 
Midwestern Sponsor: (not yet named) 
Best Script (in classes 1, 2, 3 and 4) $25.00 
All Regional winners will be entered for 
National awards. Scripts from regions 
without regional sponsor will be entered 
for National Awards only. 
*Additional and/or larger awards na- 
tionally, and additional regional au'drds 
may he added be/o)-e the contest closes. 
Further information on the N.R.S.C. may 
be obtained by writing: Dr. Sherman P. 
Lawton, AER Script Contest Chairman, 
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Scouts Launch Recorded Series 

(Co7Ui?ined from Page I) 
that Scout Executives may feature local 
activities, leadership training courses, com 
munity service and other such items. 

The talent for the recordings was re- 
cruited through AFRA. The organist was 
Emil Velazco and sound effects were han- 
dled by Vic Rubei of CBS. The production 
was directed by Stephen J. Manookian, for- 
merly Director of PubHcity and Special 
Events at WORL — Boston. 

The series covers all phases of Scouting y 
activities and consists of thirteen dramati- ' 
zations. The first program features the 
"Good Turn" of the unknown British Boy 
Scout to an American businessman in Lon- 
don, which resulted in the establishment 
of the Boy Scouts of America. Other rec- 
ords dramatize actual cases of Boy Scout j 
heroism, Sea Scout rescues, Cub Scout « 
picnics. Air Scout and Explorer Scout 

These Boy Scout Transcriptions are a 
project of the National Public Relations 
Service of which Leslie C. Stratton is 
Director. Technical supervision was di- 
rected by Irvine H. Millgate, Director of 
the Visual Education Service of the Boy 
Scouts of America. Plans for the second 
series in 1948 are now underway. 




Vol. 4, No. I 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

January, 1948 

William C. Speed 

Audiotape Development 

By William C. Speed, President 

A little over a year ago, Audio Devices, 
along with several other companies, was 
invited to Washington hy the Dept. of 
Commerce to examine various pieces of 
captured German electronic equipment. 
We were much impressed with the Tone 
schriber and 
^fjt^tdJKjj^ rolls of German 
bF' ^fl^^^ plastic base magnetic 
I ^a^B tape. 

I ^^y Several weeks 

•f #^ '^'•W'TwHi later, we returned to 
hear a demonstra- 
tion by Col. Ranger 
of the Magneto- 
phone. Samples of 
tape were made 
available to us by 
Mr. E. Webb of the 
Commerce Dept. Reports from Germany 
by ear witnesses were so impressive. Audio 
Devices decided to duplicate and if pos- 
sible improve on the Magnetophone tape. 
Our research laboratory, under the direc- 
tion of Ernest Franck, was instructed to 
put this study high on its priority list. 

Research and development went hand 
in hand. First, a suitable magnetic oxide 
had to be produced. Then, a tough, non- 
tearing, moisture resistant base on which 
to coat the oxide. Finally, we had to design 
and build a high quality recorder and re- 
producer in order to test the results of our 

Exhaustive experimentation on magnetic 
iron oxide included tests on many hun- 
dred samples from our own laboratories 
as well as from others, tests which included 
signal to noise checks, distortion measure- 
ments and relative frequency response, 
finally convinced us we had surpassed the 
Germans in the oxide part of our work. 

At present, we are using a vinyl film as 
the base or support for the oxide disper- 
sion. We chose this material because of its 
free flowing character; a limp highly flex- 
ible tape is essential for proper contact 
with the magnetic heads. Vinyl is also 
dimensionally stable in spite of changes in 
humidity, a state unachieved by paper or 
acetate. Stretch or shrinkage of as little as 
Yi of 1% would be ruinous in a half hour 
of broadcasting. Finally, we chose a film 
which is highly tear resistant, a property 
of great importance both for amateur or 
professional. However any base is at best 
a compromise and we feel sure that in due 
{Continued on Pdge 3) 

In the control room of Fordham University's FM radio station, WFUV, the cast of a school 
production listen while a student engineer plays back a recording of the program. William A. 
Coleman (second from left), Chairman of Fordham's Radio Division, is possibly the most 
ardent listener. 

Radio Students at Fordham University Seeking 
Professional Careers Rely Heavily on Records 

Students who hope to make the grade as announcers, actors or 
producers on Fordham University's FM broadcasting station, WFUV, 
must come up to professional standards; and the best method of per- 
fecting their talT.t is a maximum use of 

recording facilities, according to William 
A. Coleman, Chairman of the Radio Divi- 
sion, Dept. of Communication Arts. 

Common practice in classes such as Voice 
and Diction at the New York school is to 
record each student at the beginning of the 
course and again at the end of the course, 
at which time the correction of defects and 
general improvement should be obvious. 

Tom O'Brien, NBC staff announcer who 
teaches Microphone Technique on the 
Bronx campus, makes continuous use of 
tape-recording equipment to permit stu- 
dents to hear themselves as they read com- 
mercials, attempt tie-in announcements, and 
render dramatic narrations. When a stu- 
dent is considered of professional calibre 
and wishes to apply to a commercial station 
for work after graduation, he is assisted in 
cutting an audition disc for submission to 
his prospective employer. Similarly in the 
course in Acting for Radio, taught by Clay- 

ton "Bud" Collyer ("Superman" of the air 
waves) , a particularly good actor or actress 
will be encouraged to put on a record the 
characters in which he or she excels. 

Ernest Ricca, well-known free-lance Di' 
rector ("Helen Trent", "Evelyn Winters", 
etc.), whom Mr. Coleman has teaching the 
course in Radio Direction and Production 
at Fordham, is emphatic about the necessity 
of students hearing their directorial at' 
tempts played back. "Until they are pro- 
ficient enough for air work", he says, "stU' 
dents must work hard at improving. This 
means a constant process of directing, 
listening, and learning." 

High fidelity RCA recording equipment 
in the studios of WFUV is augmented by 
several portable tape recorders and "Edu- 
cator" type record cutters, the latter re- 
stricted principally to classroom use. 

Many Fordham programs which would 
otherwise be impossible are arranged by 
(Coyitinued on Page 4) 


January, 1948 

cuLdla^ record 

VOL. 4, NO. 1 JANUARY, 1948 

Published monthly by Audio Devices. Inc.. 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better recording. Mailed without 
cost to radio stations, recording studios, mo- 
tion picture studios, colleges, vocational schools 
and recording enthusiasts throughout the United 
States and Canada. 

Writing for Radio 

By Jerrold Sandler, Student 


New York, N. Y. 

There are countless high school and 
college students who are interested in radio 
writing. In some schools the student's work 
has a chance to travel beyond the class- 
room: unfortunately, this is not the case 
in many instances. 

For the past few years, high school stu- 
dents have had the opportunity to compete 
for prizes in an annual radio script con- 
test conducted by SCHOLASTIC MAGA- 
ZINES. (Audio Devices is acting as co- 
sponsor of the contest this year). Cash 
prizes are given for the three best scripts, 
and commendations given to promising 
writers. This competition gives the student 
an outlet for his talents, and a chance to 
be commended for his efforts. 

However, until the present time, the 
college student has not had the opportunity 
to partake in similar activities. Now, at 
last, they are being given their chance. 
Under the auspices of the Association for 
Education by Radio, college students in 
the United States can compete in a national 
radio script contest. As in the high school 
contest, several co-sponsors, one of which 
is Audio Devices, will award cash prizes to 
the three best written scripts. In addition, 
a collection of those scripts best adaptable 
for home and school use, will be put in 
booklet form, and the writers will be amply 
rewarded. Speaking as a college student 
of radio broadcasting, and one who has 
done some work with educational and pro- 
fessional groups, I believe this contest will 
be welcomed by the college students. 

In writing a radio script, choosing a sub- 
ject is perhaps one of the most difficult 
problems. So I will outline here a few 
suggestions which may prove helpful al- 
though these suggestions are in no way to 
be construed as official. 

1. Original dramas. In this classification, 
an endless amount of imagination can 
be utilized. The world of fantasy, if 
presented in an intelligent manner, 
always makes for good radio. On the 
other hand, the writer can get original 
ideas from newspapers, magazines, the 
people he meets, the places he sees, etc. 

2. Adaptations. Short stories, novels, 
biographies and plays can be adapted 
for radio, and can make excellent 

scripts. Wherever possible, use only 
those stories or books "in the public 
domain", i.e. those pieces of literature 
not under any copyright. (If an adap- 
tation from a copyrighted story is done, 
and it is reprinted, royalty fees must 
be paid.) 

3. Programs of local or national interest. 
These may include programs to com- 
memorate the birthday of a great 
American, famous holidays such as 
Halloween, Thanksgiving, etc., the 
anniversary of a famous event, or some 
sports event. The Documentary and 
"Public Service" dramas are popular 
forms of presenting the above ideas. 
These programs of local or national 
interest could be tied in with the stu- 
dent's work in the classroom e.g. for 
Washington's Birthday, the student 
might write a script instead of a com- 

4. Since many of these dramas will be 
used by schools and home groups, per 
haps a short script concerning family 
life (approximately five minutes long) 
would make an interesting radio play. 
Many amusing yarns are ideally suited 
to script adaptation. 

These are some general ideas for pros- 
pective radio scripts. There are a few 
things to guard against. Light scripts have 
an important place in the contest, since 
the best scripts will he used by schools, 
community groups and in homes all over 
the country. However, that does not mean 
a serious minded script or well done adap- 
tation or documentary does not also have 
its place. 

In regard to the school presentation of 
good student scripts, here is some news. 
In New York City, there is a high school 
group called "The All-City Radio Work- 
shop" consisting of students interested in 
radio acting, announcing, writing and pro- 
duction. This group is under the ver>- able 
guidance of James F. Macandrew and an 
excellent staff. I was fortunate enough to 
have worked at their station, WNYE, 
(The N. Y. Board of Education Station) 
for about a year and a half. Now, many 
of the alumni of the Workshop are at- 
tending colleges in and around New York. 
The alumni decided to get together and 
produce a series on some local non-com- 
mercial station. Plans are now being laid 
for the presentation of last year's prize- 
winning scripts of the Scholastic competi- 

Perhaps in the future the students of 
this country will help make radio broad- 
casting a regular part of their education. 
This can be accomplished only if the stu- 
dents take part in projects such as these 
radio script contests. Writing radio scripts 
will not do the job by itseff, but it cer- 
tainly plays a major role in Education by 

^ T^ecdldlU 

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 



At the risk of losing half our readers, we 
are changing from the usual dry technical 
discussion to the even drearier field of 
philosophy. The time seems ripe for some 
philosophizing, albeit only in subminiature 

Mediaeval Crafts 

In the Middle Ages 
most technical knowl- 
cdge was used by 
craftsmen engaged in 
the various trades. 
Organized in tightly 
closed guilds, these 
"mysteries" were dis- 
closed only to fellow 
members and their 
apprentices. Since 
craftsmen could not 
read, transmission of 
C. J. LeBel knowledge was ver- 

bal. Since guilds were only city wide in 
scope, general diffusion of knowledge was 
citywide only. Journeymen traveled from 
city to city, providing a limited verbal 
method of further spreading information. 

The few engineers then existent could 
write and draw, of course, but their knowl- 
edge was generally acquired verbally, or by 
personal experiment. Leonardo Da Vinci, a 
leading military engineer of the next later 
period (early Renaissance), developed his 
science by thousands of experiments. There 
being little incentive for exchange of 
knowledge, his results were written in 
private notebooks, fated to be lost in ob- 
scurity for hundreds of years. 

Mysteries Become Rational Knowledge 

With the growth of printing this was 
all changed. Learned societies became in- 
terested in "natural philosophy". Books 
were written and circulated widely. Secrecy 
disappeared with the decay of the guilds. 
With free exchange of knowledge, science 
and engineering developed rapidly. We 
had the Industrial Revolution, and thence 
the Industrial Age of today. 

Disc Recording — A Mediaeval Craft 

Like other parts t)f the audio field, disc- 
recording engineering today bears a curi 
ous resemblance to a mediaeval craft. It has 
to be learned verbally, or by personal ex- 
(Contniiied on Page 4) 

January, 1948 


Audiotape Development 

{Contimied from Page I ) 

course of time a still better film can he 
developed which will have all the proper- 
ties of the best German tape without the 
disadvantage which apparently they were 
unable to overcome, i.e., loss of dimensional 
stability when subject to heat. 

Audiotape (trade marked) was chosen 
as the name for our product and is in our 
opinion a very proud and suitable com- 
panion for Audiodisc. (See cut.) 

Audiotape virtually has no surface noise. 
Under ideal conditions, the signal to noise 
ratio is something more than 60 db. Equally 
important is the phenomenally low noise 
behind signal, probably equal to or supe- 
rior to the best German efforts. 

Frequency response depends on the par- 
ticular machine used and of course the 
linear speed of the tape. This is simply to 
say the "tape" itself has no frequency 
response. The measurements are relative 
only, depending upon various factors. 

Audiotape, when run at 71/2" per 
second, is substantially flat to 7000 cy. 
When run at 18" per second, that is at 
the speed of motion picture film, it is flat 
to above 9000 cy., and when run at Mag- 
netophone speed of 150 ft. per minute, is 
flat to above 15,000 cy. which is required 
for F. M. Broadcasting. These measure- 
ments are all about 2000 cycles better than 
other tape now available. 


Distortion measurements are still more 
difficult to make because every type of tape 
has a critical bias. Intermodulation tests 
indicate extraordinary satisfactory results, 
however more work is still to be done be- 
fore final figures can be obtained. None- 
the-less measurements for harmonic distor- 
tion indicate a figure not above 1/2 of ^%- 

Audiotape is being made available in 
limited quantities for test purposes. How- 
ever, within a few weeks we expect to be 
in full production and as in the case of 
Audiodiscs, distribution will be carried on 
by our present distributors. 

Audiotape is wound in 1275 ft. lengths 
on lightweight 8" diameter aluminum reels, 
made especially for Audio Devices, and on 
4700 tt. aluminum flanges, 13%" diameter, 

By Aaron S. Bloom 

Treasurer, Director, Commercial Dept. 


Boston, Mass. 

The old adage that "you can't teach an 
old dog new tricks" has been blasted as 
thoroughly and as effectively as were two 
Japanese cities by the A-bomb. Many long' 
time advertisers have discovered the prac- 
ticability of the transcribed radio program, 
both custom-built transcription series built 
specifically for their own use, as well as 
the open-end syndicated transcribed pro- 
gram series. 

The "discovery" was made the hard way, 
insofar as transcription producers are con- 
cerned, for transcription companies found 
it difficult to educate advertisers on the 
many advantages the transcription pro- 
gram had and has over the network and 
regional program — advantages with which 
no network or regional show could pos- 
sibly compete. But the radio advertiser 
knows now, and legion indeed are the 
number who now use the e. t. program. 

For example: can't clear time on a net- 
work? So what? Put the show on discs and 
select the best available time in the markets 
you wish to cover. What's that? You can't 
buy a split network? You must buy time 
in some cities you don't want, or where 
you have no distribution as yet? Don't let 
that bother you. Just put the show on discs 
and select the markets you wish. Then 
again, must you be saddled with a par- 
ticular station your dealers just don't feel 
partial to, but which you must use because 
it is part of the network? Don't pull your 
hair out by the roots. Disc the show and 
buy time on the stations you want. 

But then — suppose you don't want to 
build an expensive custom-tailored show to 
test a product in a certain market, or group 
of markets. In that case, there are many 
good open-end transcribed syndicated shows 
to use — programs which cost a lot of 
money to produce, but which the indivi- 
dual sponsor in any market may purchase 
(lease) to make the test — shows which 
range from gospel songs to musical variety, 
from sports programs to mystery drama. 

adaptable to either Magnetophone or the 
several variations now coming on the 

In conclusion. Audiotape will do many 
things impossible to realize with discs. For 
editing, assembling, etc., tape has no peer, 
on the other hand, one must bear in mind 
the skill, training and ability of the opera- 
tor is of first importance if the complete 
benefits of tape work are to be enjoyed. In 
our opinion, Audiodiscs and Audiotape 
are natural complements, each will aug' 
ment and assist the other in bringing fine 
recording to the home and studio. 

from adventure to juvenile fairy stories. 
There are shows with well-known names 
which cost the advertiser only a fraction 
of the expense of a custom-built program — 
even shows without the so-called "big 
names", but which have a proven record 
of success in the building and holding at- 
tention of listeners, and in selling mer- 
chandise. Actually, many such shows with- 
out those "big names" have pulled greater 
results per dollar of expenditure for time 
and program, than have some of the more 
costly "big time" shows with the so-called 
"stars". The payoff isn't always in the "big 
name", or even in the ratings. It's in the 
jingle of the sponsor's cash register. And 
currently, sponsors are looking more cri- 
tically at those "ratings". They are finding 
that the "cost per point" for expensive 
shows is two, three or even four times as 
much as for more moderate productions. 

Yes — the transcribed show is here to 
stay — and nothing more need be said to 
justify the recorded program than to point 
to the hundreds of sponsors of national 
importance, and the thousands of regional 
and local advertisers, who now use tran- 
scriptions on radio stations throughout the 
U. S., Canada, and all foreign countries 
where commercial programs are accepted. 

In many instances, the syndicated tran- 
scribed show is an even better "bet" for 
sponsors to use, than some locally pro- 
duced "live" talent programs, especially 
insofar as smaller markets and stations are 
concerned. Aside from the fact that the 
syndicated transcribed show costs less, 
there is usually less worry about the talent 
available in local markets, production of 
the show, and certainly no concern about 
script, rehearsals and timing of the tran- 
scribed program. It's all completed! The 
sponsor knows in advance how the 15 th 
or 50th program in a series will sound, be- 
cause it's all there on disc for him to hear. 

Too, reputable syndicated program pro- 
ducers are as careful of the production 
that goes into their various packages (as a 
rule) as are network producers. They have 
to be. It's their money they are gambling. 
And they depend upon the success of a 
series for a sponsor, so that they can sign 
the same client up for a continuation of 
the series, its use in other markets, or for 
another show — whether syndicated or 

The use of the word "reputable" is not 
meant to include the "producer" who 
records two programs as samples, sets out 
on a selling expedition in the hope of sign- 
ing enough business to warrant investment 
in a series of 26, 52, 78 or even 130 or 260 
programs in the series. The reputable pro- 
ducer finishes his series before off^ering it, 
or has earmarked enough money to com- 
plete the number of shows offered, whether 
one sponsor or 100 signs. The "2-sample 
producer" who doesn't sign enough in- 
dividual markets to finance production of 
the entire series, and therefore never com- 


January, 1948 

plctcs all the programs and therefore never 
delivers them, ircnerally exits quickly from 
the syndicated field. But while he is in it, 
he does it little good. As the oldest syn- 
dicated transcribed program producer m 
the United States (more than 16 years) 
we have seen them come and go with 
monotonous regularity. 

There's a lot more to this business of 
syndicated transcriptions than merely pro- 
ducing a series of transcriptions and offer- 
ing them for sale. The producer must be 
prepared to make a huge investment, and 
then take his chances on getting it back. 
He must know every market in the United 
States (as well as foreign countries where 
his programs are adaptable) and how much 
to expect per program for each market, 
considering the population, power and 
rates of radio stations, and cost of pro- 
duction of the program series. 

The producer must assist the sponsor in 
working out promotional campaigns, be 
ready to supply publicity material, small 
space ad mats, teaser spots, merchandising 
and exploitation suggestions. And lots of 
other things of which there is no space to 
mention herein. 

Be that as it may, the advantages of the 
transcribed programs — both custom-built 
and open-end syndicated shows — are 
making themselves felt more and more. 
The results as far as the producers and 
pioneers are concerned may not be as sen- 
sational and as sudden as was the atomic 
bomb. By that I mean that the producer 
doesn't see his sales and business skyrocket, 
with wealth rolling in for his efforts over- 
night. But who wants to break down sales 
resistance and destroy the customer at the 
same time? The transcription business has 
been built step by step — and it's always 
better to have a solid foundation for any- 

Fordham Station Disc-Minded 

(Continued from Page 1 ) 

having them recorded at a time convenient 
to the persons scheduled to broadcast. Thus, 
Faculty members who might have a conflict 
between the program, "The Faculty 
Speaks" and a regular class are permitted to 
be heard by both audiences simultaneously. 
In the case of Godfrey Schmidt, "The Story 
Teller", a busy Industrial lawyer is able to 
double as a broadcaster of delightful fairy- 
tales, by the simple expedient of having him 
record five stories for the week during a 
single Saturday cutting session. The success 
of this program was such that WNBC-New 
York now airs the Attorney-turned -Story 
Teller each Thursday evening. 

Finally, by means of recordings, Fordham 
University's WFUV is taking steps to bet- 
ter international understanding. Under the 
Rev. Richard F. Grady, S. J., Manager of 
the station, a series featuring American folk 
songs with appropriate language commen- 
tary is being recorded for distribution to 


Alan H. Bodge, for a year and a half 
a member of Audio Devices' New York 
Sales Department, has been appointed 
manager of the company's new west coast 
office at 844 Seward Street, Hollywood, 
Calif. Prior to joining Audio in the spring 
of 1946, Bodge, a Dartmouth graduate, 
spent fifty-three months in the radar divi- 
sion of the Army Signal Corp. 

Radio Eire, the French State Radio, and the 
broadcasting networks of other countries. 

"Radio may be only a year old at Ford- 
ham," Mr. Coleman says, "but both in class- 
room and on the air, New York's first Edu- 
cational FM station is doing a bang-up job 
... on the record." 

Disc Data 

(Continued from Page 2) 

perimcnt, for there is a tremendous gap 
between written material and actual prac- 
tice. We have a vast background of acous- 
tic, electroacoustic, and electronic science, 
but it is not organized into a form usable 
for audio engineering purposes. Even our 
colleges pay little attention to the funda- 
mentals of the subject. Much that has been 
written is either inaccurate or obsolete. 

When disc recording began, there was 
reason for such a situation, for the com- 
petent recordists could be counted on the 
fingers of one hand. It was then an occult 
art, but that time has long since passed. 
Now we have more to gain by converting 
an art into engineering, than by not. 

In visiting various recording rooms we 
see signs of the logical result of present 
practices. The simplest problem will have 
scores of solutions — a different one in 
every recording room. Endless time is spent 
solving and re-solving the same problems. 
We need the force of many cooperative 
minds applied to finding the best solution 
of our common problems. 

Converting an Art Into a Profession 

A number of steps will be necessary be- 
fore we have a full fledged profession: 

A. We will have to develop the habit 
of free discussion of common problems. 

B. We will have to develop an organi- 
zation for cooperative attack on common 

C. We will all have to realize that 
there is no single magic "secret" which 
makes recordings marvelously superior. 
Good recording is the result of the sum- 
mation of many factors, of taking infinite 
pains. The magic secret perhaps existed 
back in the old acoustic recording days, 
when the art was much more simple, but 
it is certainly non-existent today. 

D. To execute these steps we will have 
to develop a tradition of general publica- 
tion. The doctors have made such exten- 
sive progress in a much more complex sub- 
ject only because every new idea is quickly 
published and studied. The individual con- 
tributes only his own single idea, but he 
gets back in return everyone else's ideas — 
a yield of a thousand for one. 

In the past, general audio publication 
was badly hindered by lack of a suitable 
medium. We have had a suitable journal 
available for several months, and other 
audio engineers are beginning to write 
more freely. Disc recordists need to follow 
the example so set. 

E. Still missing is a suitable profes- 
sional organization to sponsor regular 
audio engineering meetings, but steps are 
under way to remedy this. 

F. It will also help greatly if publica- 
tion carries more prestige. Progress in the 
radio-frequency field has been greatly 
helped by the fact that publication carries 
with it improved professional standing. In 
the more progressive organizations in the 
audio field this is also true, but in too many 
places publication is regarded as a laborious 
chore rather than as an opportunity to 
make friends in print. It is very pleasant to 
arrive in a strange city and find that you 
are not a stranger — for your writings 
have already made you known. 

Editor's 'hlote: Mr. LeBel will be pleased 
to have recording engineers' comments on 
the aboxx ideas. V\/hat do you thin\^ 


Student Radio Writers 

Audio Devices is co-sponsoring the 1948 
"Scholastic Writing Awards" (Radio Script 
Writing Classification), for high school stu- 
dents and also the 1948 AER National 
Radio Script Contest for college students. 
Valuable cash prizes are to be awarded 
writers of best scripts, and supplementary 
awards will be made to those writers submit- 
ting scripts suitable for publication in book- 
let form. For complete details write: {for 
high school students) William D. Boutwell, 
42nd Street, N. Y. C. (for college students) 
Dr. S. P. Lawton, AER Script Contest 
Chairman, U. of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 



Vol. 4, No. 2 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

February, 1948 

On-The-Spot Recordings 
Integral Part off Regular 
News Broadcasts at WOR 

Listeners Given Quicker Eye-Witness 
Coverage of Special News Happenings 

Equipped with a transcription library 
valued at half a million dollars and a crack 
staff of on-the-spot reporters, WOR-New 
York has perfected the use of transcrip- 
tions in news broadcasts to what probably 
is its most mature development. This de- 
velopment, increased since the war, results 
in more authentic broadcasts and gives 
listeners quicker eye-witness coverage of 
news events. 

Larry Pickard, WOR writer, selects a disc from 
the station's huge file of on-the-spot recordings. 

When a news story breaks, such as the 
search for the missing recluse, Langley 
CoUyer, WOR reporters are sent to the 
scene wherever practicable to record de- 
scriptions of the event which are in turn 
inserted into regular news broadcasts. 
Reporter John Wingate, for example, was 
on hand when Collyer's body was discov- 
ered, described the event and raced his 
recordings back to the station so that 
WOR listeners might hear a complete story 
before the newspapers had hit the streets. 
During recent investigations of the House 
Committee on unAmerican Affairs WOR 
newscasts were supplemented with record- 
ings of actual testimony given during the 

The wedding of Princess Elizabeth fur- 
nishes another example of the way record- 
(Contmued on Page 2) 

Don Plunkett, Chief Engineer of Mary Howard Recordings, adjusts one of the mikes in the 
spacious New York studio while an artist sits at the piano waiting patiently for Mary Howard's 
cue to begin. Inset: Recording's own, Mary Howard. Photos by Murniy Laden and Kdward O'zera 

The War Gave Mary Howard Her Big Chance to 
Make Good in Recording; She Did — And How! 

Before the War, many jobs in American industry were con- 
sidered "man-sized" positions and therefore . . . for men only. But 
the War and its tremendous drain on manpower soon gave the female 

a chance to "strut her scuff." And one such 
lady, who took full advantage of this op- 
portunity to prove that it wasn't strictly a 
man's world after all, was Miss Mary 
Howard, daughter of a well-to-do New 
England family. 

Mary Howard had a flair for good music 
and records particularly intrigued her. To 
satisfy her curiosity, she bought a record- 
ing machine and started on her own trial- 
and-error course in record cutting. Miss 
Howard's interest in recording steadily 
grew — and so did her recording equip- 
ment. And then . . . 

Mary Howard came to New York in 
1940 and immediately applied for an engi- 
neer's job at NBC. As girls weren't being 
hired for that sort of an assignment, Mary 
Howard had to be content with a secre- 
tary's position in the engineering depart- 
ment. Then, her big break came. NBC, los- 
ing man after man to the armed forces, 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Student Radio Writers 

Yes, time is flying! Only a few more weeks 
for you high school and college radio writers 
to enter one of the two big radio script 
writing contests. Entries for SCHOLASTIC 
MAGAZINES' Script Writing Competi- 
tion (co-sponsored by Audio Devices) for 
high school students positively must be re- 
ceived before midnight, March 5, 1948. The 
1948 National Script Contest, also co- 
sponsored by Audio Devices and conducted 
by the Association for Education by Radio, 
closes March 30. So you haven't much time 
to win one of the many valuable cash prizes. 
Act now! For complete contest details write: 
(for high school students) William D. Bout- 
East 42nd Street, N. Y. C. (for college stu- 
dents) Dr. S. P. Lawton, AER Script Con- 
test Chairman, U. of Oklahoma, Norman, 


February, 1948 

cLudla li record 

VOL. 4, NO. 2 


Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

Film actor Pat O'Brien, star of "The Damon 
Runyon Theatre," and the program's producer- 
director, Herbert H. Wood, take time out dur- 
ing a rehearsal of the new transcribed NBC 
Radio-Recording Division feature. 

Damon Runyon's Famous Tales 
To Be Dramatized by NBC In 
Series of 52 Recorded Shows 

Pat O'Brien Star in Runyon Plays 

Damon Runyon's internationally famous 
tales of Broadway will be dramatized in a 
series of 52 half -hour recorded programs as 
the result of an exclusive contract between 
the National Broadcasting Company's 
Radio-Recording Division and the Runyon 
Estate, according to C. Lloyd Egner, vice- 
president of the NBC Radio-Recording 

Film actor Pat O'Brien will be the star 
of the radio plays based on Runyon's sto- 
ries. O'Brien, who v^ill narrate each play as 
well as enact the role of "Broadway", will 
be supported in each program by a radio, 
stage or screen star. 

Commenting on the plan, Egner stated, 
'"We of NBC are proud to be associated 
with Pat O'Brien and the Damon Runyon 
Estate in the production of this series of 
half-hour dramatic programs 'The Damon 
Runyon'. We consider this a significant 
step forward in the development of syn- 
dicated recorded programming, and our 
decision to introduce this new dramatic 
feature culminates months of study and ex- 
perimentation to produce something com- 
pletely unique and entertaining in the 
recorded program field." 

The scries, which Egner described as the 
biggest and most expensive syndicated re- 
corded program undertaken by the NBC 
Radio-Recording Division, will be oifcred 
on a syndicated basis for spot advertisers 
over local stations. 

Scripts are being written by Tom Langan, 
veteran radio author and a Radio-Record- 
ing Division staff writer, under direction of 
Gordon Webber, Radio-Recording con- 
tinuity chief. H. H. Wood, manager of the 
division's program department, is produc- 
ing and directing the series. Special music 
IS composed for "The Damon Runyon 
Theatre" by John Gart. Ed Heriihy will 

On - The - Spot Recordings Integral 

Part of Regular News 

Broadcasts at WOR 

(Contmued from Page 1) 
ings are used to give listeners better pro 
grams. Highlights of the event, which took 
place too early in the morning for most 
American audiences, were transcribed, 
edited and re-broadcast at times more suit- 
able for listeners. Such news coverage has 
the authenticity of newsreels plus the 
added advantage of speedy presentation. 

Transcriptions also provide a backlog of 
events and personalities of the past, and 
the WOR transcription library has on file 
voices and opinions of almost every na- 
tional and international leader of the past 
two decades. When major issues of the 
past, such as elections or international con- 
ferences recur, WOR can summon at a 
moment's notice, presidents, dictators, gen- 
erals and a host of others to give their views 
on the same or similar problems. 

Casual interviews with the unpublicized 
average citizen, as well as with the great 
and the famed, form a valuable index to 
public opinion. The reaction of the ordi- 
nary voter to national problems is natural- 
ly a consistent augury on political trends. 

Few places are inaccessible to the radio 
reporter since the advent of the recorder 
and WOR has endeavored to make every- 
day folk the source as well as the con- 
sumer of news. 

The use of the transcription in news 
broadcasting gives the Hstener better news 
service in spot coverage, a permanent 
reference of personalities and trends, and 
on authentic eye-witness account of events 
presented in a dramatic manner at a con- 
venient time. 


The Editors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
will be read with interest by recordists, can 
be used. Photographs, drawings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 

Wie T<^a)%dlU 

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 




With the rapid growth of FM radio, 
and its heavy dependence on records and 
transcriptions, it is time to reappraise our 
standards of recording quality. As has been 
found many times in many parts of the 
audio field, every time the frequency range 
of a system is in- 
creased, other ele- 
ments in the per- 
formance of the 
system must be im- 
proved also. A wide 
range system will 
show up excessive 
noise and unsuspect- 
ed distortion in most 
amazing fashion. 

Whereas tran- 
scriptions were gen- 
C. J. LeBel erally listened to (on 

the ordinary AM radio receiver) with an 
upper frequency limit of 4000 to 5000 
cycles, on an FM receiver the usual upper 
frequency limit has been raised to 7000 to 
10,000 cycles. Even a few minutes of listen- 
ing under such conditions will show that 
pressings are often not as uniform in qual- 
ity as their makers believe, for distortion 
varies from one to the next. 

Kinds of Distortion 

We will disregard the most easily reme- 
died form of distortion — undesired varia- 
tion of response with frequency. It is so 
easy to correct with electrical networks that 
a recordist with an incorrect response curve 
has only himself to blame. 

Harmonic distortion, of course, is the 
type which the recordist first thinks of 
when the word "distortion" is mentioned. 
It has been a much discussed fault, and cer- 
tainly should be reduced to a minimum 
before we worry about more elusive forms. 
The unit to measure the "minimum" by is 
not easy to define, however. The rss distor- 
tion is a widely used index number, but a 
poor guide to how objectionable the ear will 
find the sound. Second harmonic distortion 
is much less annoying than third, and higher 
orders are almost intolerable in exceedingly 
small proportion. This anyone can establish 
for himself in a few experiments. 

Many of us have found numerous cases 
where harmonic distortion figures provided 
no guide to the annoyance value. One ex' 
ample the writer recalls was an experimen- 
tal recording on wax, which bloomed one 

February, 1948 


humid summer while awaiting processing. 
Another example was the distortion mea- 
surement being made on an early experi- 
mental lacquer formula. The sound was not 
quite right, so the pickup pressure was in- 
creased slightly. The 1000 cycle tone cleared 
up immediately — the improvement was 
rather great — but the distortion meter 
reading dropped only imperceptibly. As 
still another example, Roys has shown' that 
the audible distortion created by overpol- 
ishing a stamper is not reflected in har- 
monic readings made on the pressings pro- 
duced by it. 

Nevertheless it is quite certain that if 
the harmonic content is high, we need look 
no further to explain why listeners are dis- 

If the harmonics are low in value, we 
may still dislike the sound. In that case the 
next step would be a measurement of the 
intermodulation distortion. Whereas har- 
monic measurement is made with a single 
input tone, intermodulation testing is a 
measurement of combination tones pro- 
duced by injecting a pair of frequencies. 
This method was first made standard in the 
film recording field. 

We have deliberately omitted any dis- 
cussion of transient distortion for lack of 
space. It is a fault not to be ignored, but 
certainly the industry needs to go further 
in minimizing better known defects before 
It worries too much about transient effects. 
Intermodulation Tests 

Intermodulation distortion provides a 
good explanation of why some recording 
systems are clean sounding with a single 
instrument, but fuzz up hopelessly with a 
full orchestra. Each tone acquires such a 
multiplicity of sidebands that definition is 

The usual test method is to introduce 
a low frequency tone and a medium or high 
frequency. Amplitude of the two may be 
equal, or they may be in a 4 : 1 ratio. A com- 
mercial unit uses 40, 60 or 100 cycles, and 
2000, 7000 or 12,000 cycles. Another com- 
mercial unit uses these or other tones. Roys" 
principal work has been done with 400 and 
4000 cycles. 

Intermodulation Results 

There has been little published work on 
intermodulation results. Hilliard--^ has very 
briefly suggested amplifier reproportioning. 

On discs themselves, Roys' work' on the 
effect of overpolishing stampers is of great 
importance. No other data on disc system 
or processing characteristics has been pub- 
lished, but unpublished data on a number 
of the best systems presently in operation 
show low intermodulation as measured on 
the lacquer. This is not necessarily true of 
,ill systems, nor of all lacquers. 

Unpublished measurements by a number 
of organizations on the effect of processing 
seem to indicate it as the worst source of 
trouble. If we are to turn out transcriptions 
of consistent top quality, some species of 
control should be adopted. Overpolishing 

In the speech training class at Concordia Seminary (Lutheran Church), St. Louis, Mo., a future 
minister speaks from a make-beheve rostrum while a second student records the voice. Such 
recordings are made at the beginning and again at the end of each academic year in order that 
instructors might accurately gauge the student's speech improvement. 

St. Louis Seminary Uses 
Recording Equipment To 
Better Student's Speech 

Discs Aid Future Ministers in Over- 
coming Various Speech Difficulties 

The chief objectives in speech training at 
Concordia Seminary (Lutheran Church) 
in St. Louis, Mo., are to free the students 
from self-consciousness and performance- 
reflexes, to equip them for direct speech 
from rostrum and microphone, and to over- 
come bilingual patterns incurred through 
previous environment. Such was the recent 
explanation of R. R. Caemmerer, Director 
of Speech at the Missouri seminary. 

When asked to explain just how record- 
ing equipment is used at Concordia, Mr. 
Caemmerer replied: "Each student makes 
a recording of selected readings, from three 
to five minutes in length, near the begin- 

ning of each academic year. After an in- 
structor has analyzed this recording pri- 
vately with the student, pointing out special 
problems to be overcome, the student begins 
a series of clinical practice periods. 

"In this speech clinic," Mr. Caemmerer 
said, "the student endeavors to remedy 
problems classified under bilingualism, vocal 
quality, reflection and interpretation, rate 
and phrasing. (The therapy is carried out 
largely by means of the wire recorder.) 

"Then toward the end of each year the 
students make a recording, in pairs, of an 
extemporaneous conversation. This record- 
ing," Mr. Caemmerer added, "is analyzed 
with the students to point out gains 
achieved through the therapy or through 
a less self-conscious situation." 

The speech director also explained that 
full length recordings are made of projects 
in radio evangelism and radio dramatics by 
the seminary's own radio station. KFLIO, 
located on the St. Louis campus. 

has been condemned for at least a genera- 
tion, but it still continues. 


It has already been proposed that every 
master contain a few intermodulation test 
grooves. These could be used to check every 
pressing, and thereby the stamper wear. 
This proposal would certainly eliminate the 
accidental use of worn out stampers. It 
would not be a perfect check for overpol- 
ishing. as the processor would simply be 
more careful in the vicinity of the test 

As a supplementary means, it has been 
suggested that a test pressing from each 
stamper be sectioned, polished, and meas- 

ured under the microscope. There is a cer- 
tain amount of change of groove radius due 
to compression of the metal of the stamper, 
but any excess amount would immediately 
indicate overpolishing. Certainly, some 
such means will have to be adopted to nar- 
row the quality difference between the lac- 
quer original and the pressing. 


1. H. E. ROYS. Inlermodulalion Dinortitm Analyst. 

as Applied to Disc Recording and Reproducing 
Equipment. Proc. I.R.E.. vol. 35. no. 10, 
1149-1132. October 1947. 

2. J. K. MILLIARD. Intermodulation Tests for Com 

parison of Beam and Triode Tubes Used to Drivt 
Loudspeakers. Communications, vol. 26, ni 
pp. 1317. 34. February 1946. 

3. J. K. MILLIARD. Distortion Tests by the Inter- 

modulation Method. Proc. J.R.E., vol. 29. no 
pp. 614-620. December 1941. 


February, 1948 

War Gave Mary Howard Chance to 
Make Good in Recording; She Did 

(Continued from Page 1 ) 

decided the comely secretary deserved a 
chance to cut a disc and be paid for doing 
it. Mary was a big leaguer from thi" start 
and in no time at all, the trade looi J on 
her as a master recording engineer. 

Her work at NBC gave Mary Hc-vard 
ideas — big ideas of opening her jwn 
recording studio. And just to prove shc 
wasn't day dreaming, Mary Hov^ard in- 
vites you to visit her studio (Mary Howard 
Recordings) at 37 East 49th Street in New 
York any day you wish. 

Since Miss Howard set up her own 
"shop", a little over two years ago, many 
of the biggest names in radio have used her 
facilities. Such outstanding personalities as 
Alex Templeton, Eddie Duchin, Ethel 
Waters, Fred 'waring, and many others, 
have come to Mary Howard Recordings be- 
cause they knew that this Howard woman, 
when it came to making recordings, was 
"perfection on parade." 

Mary Howard Recordings functions 
primarily as a recording service and its 
operations, besides cutting instantaneous 
masters, includes line and air checks of all 
descriptions, studio recording and slidefilm 
work. In the last year Mary Howard 
Recordings released their own commercial 
records. The Herman Chittison Trio, Ethel 
Waters, Lucille Turner and Dale Belmont 
are a few of the artists who made recordings 
under the MHR label. And, like the thou- 
sands of other recording companies, Mary 
Howard Recordings is waiting patiently 
for the Petrillo ban to be lifted so they can 
'get going' again. 

Cutting equipment in Mary Howard 
Recordings, according to Chief Engineer 
Don Plunkett, Mary Howard's able assis- 
tant, consists of: 'Van Eps and Allied Cut- 
ting Lathes, Presto 1-D Heads driven by 
Langevin 101 -A Amplifiers. "Our mixing 
equipm.ent," Mr. Plunkett explained, "is 
interchangeable by means of patching. Our 
Preamps and Our Program Amps arc 
Langevin. Re-recording equipment at 
MHR," Mr. Plunkett said, "consists of 
Allied Transcription Tables and Picker- 
ing Reproducing Equipment, which have 
served us most efficiently of all pickups we 
have tried. This combination — Allied TT's 
and Pickering Pickups — we find the most 
flexible for composite recording." 

Audio Record asked both Miss Howard 
and Mr. Plunkett what their particular 
techniques were — what they did to insure 
good recordings. To this query. Miss 
Howard replied: "We are of the opinion 
that a compact, consolidated recording and 
control room, combined adjacent to and 
visible to the studio is the best method of 
recording. With this setup a recording tech- 
nician can actually 'ride gain' but what 
is more important can see what actual level 
is imposed on the disc. We feel," Miss 

Pictured above is the official label of 
the 1948 'hlational Convention and 
Show of the Institute of Radio Engi- 
neers which will be held m 7\[et(,' York s 
Grand Central Palace ayid Hotel Com- 
modore, March 22 through March 25. 
Audio Devices will display its products 
m Booth #2.1.1. 

Howard continued, "that the term 'riding 
gain' is a poor description of the operation 
involved. The more dynamics achieved in 
a fidelity recording, even if the frequency 
response is limited, the more the sound 
originating in the studio will be approxi- 
mated. We feel that too much emphasis 
can be put on the word 'fidelity' and that 
some of the pre-emphasized and over em- 
phasized high frequencies often result in a 
sound unpleasant to the ear, which after 
all is the final judge." 

"Dynamic fidelity of course," Mr. Plun- 

kett h sti^ned to add, "is closely allied with 
surface noise and care must be taken with 
selection of styli and discs so that low level 
prssag «■ v.'ill not 'ce marred by surface 

"And then too," the chief engineer went 
on, "recording quality must be checked 
constantly and the best check is immediate 
playback. This is, unfortunately, quite 
often ignored by many studios, or discour- 
aged by companies as a waste of time." 

"Yes, and," Miss Howard, eager to get 
back into the discussion added, "recording 
information about cutting characteristics, 
recording head designs, styli and quality of 
response equipment is easily obtained. 
These all enter into the final results. Un- 
fortunately, the interest and ingenuity of 
the recordist has often been overlooked. 
Recording," she continued, "is not a dull 
craft at all if engaged in all its technical 
phases. There seems to be a prevalence in 
large organizations for specialization — 
cutting technicians, studio technicians, 
maintenance, etc. — which often results in 
poor recording because of lack of interest 
or information in all phases of the record- 
ing operation. If interest and enthusiasm 
were carried all the way through the re- 
cording organization, and management, 
perhaps time might be found to raise the 
general recording standards in America. 

"We have tried," she concluded, "to 
incorporate these methods (?) in our opera- 
tion and have had success ... or some such 

From what Audio Record has been able 
to learn, that 'some such thing,' Miss 
Howard refers to, spells success all right 
. . . and with a capital 'S'. 

''Thefollotving program teas transcribed from art earlier broadcast 
in order that you might hear it at this more convenient time" 

Copyright. 1948. by K.squire. Inc.. Esuuire Bide.. Chicago. 111. (Esquire. February. 1918: 

flt tf j l ff 


Vol. 4, No. 3 


444 Madicjn Avence, N. Y. C. 

Audio's Research Department 
Vital To Company's Success 

Research Director Franck Introduces 
Staff to Audio Record Readers 

It wasn't long after the first Audiodiscs 
were made, hack in the late thirties, that 
Audio Devices realized the importance of, 
and the need for, a fully-equipped and 
fully -staffed Research Department. "T^ 
progress, one must explore" was the philos 
ophy of William Speed, Audio's president, 
and soon the young company was laying 
plans for what is now, possibly, the most 
modern, up-to-the-minute research depart 
ment in the recording disc field. 

One of the very first steps in creating 
such a department in any company, of 
course, is the hiring of an outstanding man 
who not only possesses the ability to delve 
deep into the unknown qualities of your 
product and its competitors, but a man who 
can mold together a fine staff of capable and 
creative assistants who will work as a 
"team" to further the progress of your 
organization. The Research Director that 
Audio Devices engaged to set up their Re- 
search Department had all of these qualifi- 
cations . . . and more. 

Ernest W. Franck was Audio's man. 
And Ernest W. Franck has justified his 
company's choice time and time again. 
Ernie Franck has been a well-known figure 
in the sound recording field since almost its 
infancy. Considered an authority on the 
art, he is not only a demon for work but an 
inspiration to others working with him. 
Ernie Franck is not a desk executive, not 
by any means. He is "right in there" with 
the boys on every project, on every problem. 

Besides his vast knowledge of discs, their 
components, etc.. Audio's Research Direc- 
tor, it is safe to say, knows as much, or 
more, about magnetic recording tape as any 
man in the country. Actively engaged at 
the present time in furthering Audio's de- 
velopment work with Audiotape, Mr. 
Franck spends countless hours exploring 
into the possibilities of this new sound 
recording medium. 

In assembling his staff of chemists, tech- 
nicians and so on, Mr. Franck has taken 
time to "be sure" in his selections. Each 
time an addition was made, the "Franck 
Stamp of Approval" usually guaranteed a 
sound and profitable investment to Audio 
Devices. Believing in the theory that only 
"interested" workers make good research- 
ers, Ernest Franck is justly proud of his 

(Continued on Page 4) 

March, 1948 


Above 1. Harold J. (Andy) Southcomb. Pressings Expert; 2. Ernest W. Franck. Research Director; 3. George M. 
Sutheim, Chief Chetnist; 4. Stephen Schcttmi. Department's "Gcdgeteer"; 5. Frank Radocy. Production Analysis; 
6. David S. Gibson, Lacquer Specialist; 7. Allison B. Randolph, Radio Technician. 

Tape and Disc Recorder Prize Assets in Saint 
Frances College's Speech Training Departnnent 

Speech has been a required course at Saint Frances College, Brook- 
lyn. New York since 1 920. As William T. Howie, Professor of Speech 
at the New York school puts it: "Speech is a tradition at Saint Frances". 
When asked what part recording equip- 

Big Radio Script Writing 
Contests End This Month 

Scholastic Script Writing Awards — 
National Script Contest Close Soon 

Writing Competition (co-sponsored by 
Audio Devices) for high school students 
and the 1948 National Script Contest (also 
co-sponsored by Audio Devices), conducted 
by the Association for Education by Radio 
for college students, close this month. 

Widespread interest in these national 
contests is evidenced in the tremendous 
volume of mail arriving at both SCHOL- 
ASTIC and AER Contest Headquarters. 
Script after script are pouring in from all 
parts of the United States. 

According to William D. Boutwell of 

(Continued on Page 3) 

ment played in Saint Frances' speech train- 
ing program. Professor Howie replied: 
"We use both disc and tape recording 
equipment and to say that they haven't 
been priceless assets to the Speech Depart- 
ment would he like saying that this coun- 
try had nothing to do with winning the 
war. We are sold on the recording medium 
and believe it deserves much of the credit 
in improving and perfecting speech." 

The Catholic college offers five speech 
courses — Voice and Diction, Extemporane- 
ous Speaking, Oral Interpretation, Discus- 
sion and Debate and Pedagogical Speech. 
(The first two courses are required study 
for graduation.) In the required courses 
the student makes a disc recording of his 
voice at the beginning and again at the 
end of the school term for comparison and 
study. For everyday classroom recording 
a magnetic tape recorder is used. 

(Continued on Page 3) 


March, 1948 

cuidla )l^ recGrrd 

VOL. 4, No. 3 

MARCH, 1948 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue. New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

I.R.E. Show Opens March 22; 
10,000 Engineers To Attend 

Record Number of Radio Engineering 
Exhibits; 183 Firms to Participate 

Tremendous interest in "Radio-Elec- 
tronic Frontiers", which is the timely 
theme of the 1948 I.R.E. National Con- 
vention, is proven hy the vigorous increases 
in both numbers of exhibitors in the Radio 
Engineering Show, and the space taken in 
throe floors of Grand Central Palace's 
huge exhibition area. The Show opens 
Monday, March 22 nd, and runs four days 
through March 25th. 

One hundred eighty-three of the head- 
line firms of radio and electronics are par- 
ticipating in the Show with displays rang- 
ing from single booths to areas large 
enough to duplicate an entire transmitting 
studio. The latest developments in instru- 
ments, components and complete transmit- 

"Whodunit" on Record 

In Michael Curtiz's latest mystery 
thriller, "The Unsuspected", Claude Rains, 
the unsuspected villain in the Warner 
Bros, release, employs the services of 16" 
recording discs to blackmail fellow actors 
and to divert suspicion that he himself 
might be guilty of committing the photo- 
plays' murders. The "perfect crimes" fail 
when Rains' recording activities arc dis- 

ters will be shown. Every phase of elec- 
tronics and communication equipment, and 
some of the latest methods of aircraft guid- 
ance will be presented to the 10,000 radio 
engineers coming to the convention from 
every part of North America. For the first 
time, 22 exhibits will be placed on the third 
floor, adjacent to session halls for tech- 
nical papers. Exhibit space is 30% ahead 
of 1947. 

More than 120 technical papers, skill- 
fully organized in 28 related sessions will 
comprise the lecture program of the con- 
vention. Three social events, a cocktail 
party, Monday; the popular President's 
Luncheon on Tuesday, and the Annual 
I.R.E. Banquet on Wednesday Evenings 
add color to what has grown to be one of 
the world's greatest assembly of engineers. 

Audio Devices will display its products 
in Booth #233. 

Covering Four Special Events 
In Two Hours Time No Problem 
To Alert California Station 

Thanks to the ingenuity of staff mem- 
bers, plus recording equipment, the task of 
covering four community-interest special 
events from four difi^erent spots all within 
a little more than two hours time was per- 
formed recently by KBLF-Red Bluff, Cali- 

KBLF's problem was to cover (1) cere- 
monies at the Business and Professional 
Women's meeting, celebrating the centen- 
nial of the discovery of gold in California; 
(2) a basketball game; (3) a presentation 
of medals to veterans of World War II; 
and (4) a March of Dimes Skating Party. 
Here's how the California station did it: 

KBLF's station manager. Bill Murphy, 
emceed the Women's broadcast, and after 
introducing the main speaker of the eve- 
ning, Murphy left the banquet room to go 
to the next broadcast — a basketball game. 
When he arrived at the gym, the broadcast 
was already on the air with the station's 
play-by-play announcer at the mike. 
Murphy did the "color" between the quar- 
ters giving his cohort time to wipe his 

In the meantime, KBLF's commercial 
manager, Wayne Thorton, Jr., was at the 
city's Veteran's Memorial Hall, recording 
the presentation of Victory and American 
Defense Medals to World War II vets. 
Thorton, recorded speeches by various dig- 
nataries as well as interviews with the reci- 
pients of the medals. This program was 
aired the following evening. 

And twenty miles away, announcer 
Sherman Guill, with a recorder, covered 
the March of Dimes Skating Party in Los 
Molinos. The program mainly musical, plus 
interviews with the March of Dimes offi- 
cials, was broadcast the next afternoon. 

The box score for the night: four com- 
munity service special events. The time: 
two hours and twenty minutes. 

me t^scoldut 

By C. J. LcBcI, Vice President 


Recent correspondence has made it ap- 
parent that many of our readers are not 
in touch with phonograph record manu- 
facturing methods of today, but would like 
to know more about the subject. We will 
sketch a typical procedure, without at- 
tempting to cover 
every possible varia- 
tion. It will be found 
that the durability 
and permanence of 
lacquer recordings 
have permitted many 
changes from meth- 
iids of the old wax 
days. The NAB 
standard terminol- 
ogy^ will be used 
C. J. LcBel where it fits in. 

Lacquer Original 

The selection is recorded by usual 
methods on a lacquer disc. This is often 
done on a 16" blank so that several takes 
may be recorded on a single disc. 

Fig I C7 0ss-iecti07x o\ lacquer original 
Lacquer Mother 

The best take is selected for processing. 
This take is re-recorded by conventional 
methods on to the correct size master disc 
for the pressing to be made: 12" for a 10" 
pressing, 13%" for a 12" pressing. The 
eccentric circle common to most phono- 
graph records must also be cut. The final 
result is known as a lacq *' 

Fig. 2 Cross-secti^, 



The lacquer surface is coated with a 
conductive film of metal by either chemical 
deposition of silver (silvering) or by elec- 
trical discharge deposition of gold in 
vacuum (gold sputtering). Avery difficult 
problem which we had to solve in formu- 
lating our lacquer was to make it take 
silvering and sputtering with consistently 

March, 1948 


good quality. A heavy layer of copper is 
plated on top of the conductive layer by 
conventional electroplating procedure. The 
result, stripped off the mother hy mechan 
ical means, is known as a sheU stamper, and 
if attached to a heavy sheet of backini:; 
material becomes a backed stamper. 

Fig. 3 Cross-section of stamper 

The stamper center hole is bored out 
concentric with the grooves, the rim is 
trimmed to size (removing the oversize 
portion, often marked by plating clamps), 
and it is then ready to be used. In many 
cases it may be given a flash layer of chro 
mium to enable it to better withstand the 
wear and tear of use. 

A lacquer mother may be coated, electro- 
plated, and stripped several times, pro- 
ducing an equal number of stampers. 

One operation can seriously injure qual- 
ity : polishing. It has been claimed that the 
dirt adhering to a stamper may be removed 
by a high pressure jet of clean air, but it 
has been customary to use more drastic 
means. Emory Cook has shown that even 
a heavy rub with a rag is enough to polish 
off all traces of 25 kc. H. E. Roys has 
shown- that ovcrpolishing can introduce 
serious intermodulation distortion. In any 
case, there has been steady disagreement 
between recording room and processing 
department on the tendency to overpolish, 
for many years. 


The stamper is then fastened to a record 
die on one platen of a molding press, and 
another platen is fastened to a record 
die on the other platen. Labels are placed 
at the centers. Steam is passed through the 
record dies, a hot biscuit of pressing stock 
is placed on the lower stamper, and the 
platens are closed under pressure. Shortly 
thereafter the flow of steam is cut off and 
cold water is circulated thru the dies. 
When the disc is cool and hard, the press 
is opened and the pressing is removed. The 
edge is trimmed and the record is then 
ready for shipment. 

During a classroom recording session in one of Saint Frances College's speech courses, a student 
spealcs into a microphone while a magnetic tape recorder records his voice. Fellow classmates at 
the Brooklyn, New York school listen eagerly with their instructor for possible flaws in delivery. 

Fig. 4 Pressing action of stampers 

Tape-Disc Recorder Aids College 

(Conti7iued from Page J ) 
Saint Frances is the only Catholic college 
offering the Pedagogical Speech course in 
the New York Metropolitan area. This 
intensive course for future teachers is de- 
signed to qualify students to meet the re- 
quirements of the highest standards. Special 
emphasis is given to the requirements of the 
New York City Board of Education. 

Aside from the compulsory speech 
courses at Saint Frances every student who 
enters the Brooklyn school must take a 
speech screening test to determine if he 
has any speech defects. (This is an oral 
examination and does not involve the use 
of recording equipment.) If it is found 
that the student does have speech diffi- 
culties he is assigned to what is known at 
Saint Frances as the 'speech clinic'. 

Under the direction of Ray H. Abel, 
the speech clinic, modeled after the clinic 
at the New York Post Graduate Medical 
School and Hospital, helps the student to 
overcome his speech weaknesses by having 
him rec ord his voice time and time again 


The interesting thing to note is that the 
process of going from the original record- 
ing to the mother is done electronically 
rather than electrochemically. The saving 
in time, if enough mothers are needed, may 
amount to several days. 


Record: Feb.. March. May. June. July 1946. 
2. H. E. ROrS. Imernwdalation Analysis as Applied to 

Disc Recording and Reproducing Equipment. Proc. 

I.R.E.. I'ol. 55. no. 10, pp. 1149-lli2. October 

SO that he can hear and have analyzed his 
own errors. The tape recorder is employed 
for this recording operation. Professor 
Howie humorously refers to the speech 
clinic as a "remedial course for Brooklyn 

A further use of recording equipment 
at Saint Frances is by the school debating 
team. A member of the New York State 
Debate Conference, Saint Frances records 
all of their debates on standard 16" discs. 

Script Writing Contests Close 

(Continued from Page 1) 
have also been received from regional win- 
ners in such major centers of school radio 
activity as Detroit, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, 
Hartford and Birmingham. (According to 
contest rules regional winners are also 
eligible for prizes in national competition.) 

Mr. Boutwell also confides that 1948 
will far outshadow last year in total entries. 
He believes that this is due to two factors; 
wider publicity for the competition (we 
hope Audio Record helped) and the rapid 
growth of high school radio workshops. 
"Every day," he says, "brings news of an 
additional high school radio workshop. 

Dr. Sherman P. Lawton, AER Script 
Contest Chairman, also reports that stu- 
dent interest in the National Script Con- 
test is far greater than anything he had 
expected. And, although this is the first 
year such a contest has been conducted for 
college students. Dr. Lawton advises that 
he is more than satisfied with the results. 

Contest winners in both the SCHOL- 
ASTIC and AER competition will be 
announced in the May Audio Record. 


March. 1948 

George M. Sutheim, Chief Chemist, at work in 
Audio Devices' Research Laboratory. 

Research at Audio Devices 

(Continued from Page 1 ) 

six-ni,in staff. Ernie would like Audio 
Record readers to know these men, so we 
take pleasure in introducing them here. . . . 

George M. Sutheim (#3 in photos — 
Pg. 1). Mr. Sutheim is Chief Chemist at 
Audio. A graduate (Chemical Engineer- 
ing) of the Institute of Technology in 
Vienna, he is a chemist of long standing in 
the field of varnishes, lacquers and emul- 
sions. From a chemical standpoint, Mr. 
Sutheim rigidly controls the components 
that go into each and every Audiodisc. 
Improved formulation of Audiodisc coat- 
ing is always on his agenda. Authored "The 
Introduction of Emulsions" and contributed 
to Dr. J. J. Mattiello's "Protective and 
Decorative Coating". Also author of many 
articles on coatings and film, etc. in both 
French and English periodicals. 

Harold ]. (Andy) Soiithcomh (#1 in 
photos). Andy (as he is affectionately 
known to his co-workers) Southcomb's 
contribution to Audio Research is his 
wealth of knowledge of phonograph 
records, materials, techniques, etc. Formerly 
with RCA Victor and Decca Records, Mr. 
Southcomb is currently working on special 
products at Audio, including magnetic 
tape, etc. His experience in the field of 
paper, plastics and adhesives makes him a 
particularly valuable man in this develop- 
ment work. 

Stephen Schettim (#4). Steve Schettini, 
it can be said, v/ould be lost without the 
Research Department gang, but not half as 
lest as they would be without him. For 
Steve carries a mighty big load for Ernest 
Franck and Company. You might, and you 
should, call him an experimental machinist 
and technician. Mr. Schettini is responsible 
for the construction of special equipment 
u.sed in the department's experimental 
work. Steve has the ability to interpret 
someone's idea and put it into a physical 
reality. For example, if the Research Direc- 

tor wants to test a particular material and 
needs a special device to accomplish this 
end, Steve retires to his special workshop 
and designs and builds the contraption. 
Also, Mr. Schettini has been involved with 
the magnetic tape development. 

Fran}{ Radocy (#5). Former Captain 
in the Army Air Corp., Frank Radocy is m 
charge of the department's production acti- 
vities. Responsible for lacquer formulation 
on production basis. Frank makes up special 
formulation cards on a batch-by-batch basis. 
Also, he is doing magnetic tape production, 
being responsible for individual cards on 
each tape lacquer batch and the mechanical 
operations necessary for them. 

Daind S. Gibson (#6). Thirty one year 
old Dave Gibson is a recording lacquer 
specialist. His work in the department, be- 
sides lacquer experimental formulation and 

quality control, includes styli and groove 
shape studies as well as special development 
work. In the recording lacquer end, Dave in 
addition to testing the lacquer coated discs 
on a turntable, also makes humidity tests to 
determine how well the lacquer holds up 
under varying temperatures and humidity. 
In these recording tests both styli and 
grooves sections are examined with a special 
projection microscope which magnifies five 
hundred times. Additional playing tests are 
also made for surface noise and wear. 

Allison B. Randolph (#7) . A radio tech- 
nician, Mr. Randolph has had a number of 
years experience in the technical end of 
radio. He is the maintenance man on all 
electronic equipment in the laboratory. 

That's it. That's Ernest Franck's Re- 
search Department line-up. And a qualified 
crew it is, too. 

^y^i^<^^^&V(:Ut/o * • 

9 * o 


rial part of these 

The Voice of America gives to other nations a full news 
and fair picture of American life, aims and policies. inforn 
plus factual news of the world and the United States. and cr 

Broadcast in twenty-three languages, these pro- A \ 

grams blanket Europe. Latin America and the Far record 
East, with a potential radio audience of more than rransci 
1 50.000.000 persons. 

Of the thirty-two hours of daily broadcasting, 
approximately one-fourth of the time is devoted to 

Aiidiodiscs are manuiactured in the VS. A. under 
N^>g^^ exclusiie license from PYRAL. S.A.R.L.. Paris. 

>ne-half to additional 
programs, and the rema 

inder to music 

ly programs is 
quality of these 
transcript ions, such recorded portions cannot be 
distinguished from the /tie transmissions. 

Today, as from the beginning, the recorded parts 
of these world-wide broadcasts are on Audiodiscs. 


NEW YORK 22, N. Y. 

f itiftl ff 



Vol. 4, No. 4 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

April, 1948 

l^ecoAAUu^ . . . and 

How They Help The Red Cross 

By Ray Richmond 

Pancake flour and pancake make-up, 
Ronald Colman, horoscopes, the California 
Chamber of Commerce, and cough drops 
bestow their largest of entertainment and 
education on the American public by tran- 
scription every day. What better way to 
reach the people? None. Then why not 
instruct concerning humanitarianism in the 
same tried and true way? Red Cross does. 
And who but Red Cross has its finger closer 
to the pulse of the populace? No other; not 
even the Gallop Poll. 

Always needed, always there, the Na- 
tional Red Cross is asking for 15 million 
dollars more this year than last. Remember 
the Te.xas City disaster; the floods in the 
Midwestern States; and the forest fires in 
New England? Not counting the hundreds 
of smaller calamities that never hit the 
front pages. Millions of victims were cared 
for, and this kind of Brotherhood costs 
money. Hard working, honestly devoted 
volunteers are only biped. They can reach 
but a small group of us. Radio reaches 
more people more easily. 

To appeal to this large audience for the 
Red Cross 1948 Fund, six 15-minute cap- 
sule versions of top network radio shows 
were prepared on discs in the format of their 
regular weekly features. These shows star 
Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Dick Haymes, 
Frank Sinatra, Jack Benny and Kay Kyser, 
but they include "Red Cross Commercials'" 
as inserts instead of the usual sponsor plugs. 
During March, the traditional Red Cross 
Month, these recordings were played on 
more than 1,000 stations in the United 

Also, four-and-a-half minute dramatized 
spots featuring screen stars Ella Raines, 
Robert Montgomery and William Bcndix 
will be heard during the 1948 Fund Drive 
with eight 4.vsecond straight announce- 
ments by Hollywood "name" announcers 
on the reverse side of these two-sided tran- 

There is still another use for Red Cross 
recordings. Mutual Broadcasting System 
used a portable recorder to record the in- 
augural Manhattan campaign luncheon at 
the Waldorf-Astoria in New York on 
February 13, at which Bop Hope was one 
of the principle speakers. To the listening 
audience that night, the network played 
back a part of the Hope speech on its 
Radio Newsreel program. 

(ContiTmed on Page 4) 

Irv Kaufman (back to camera), one of Nola Studios two chief engineers, is pictured at the controls 
during a recording session in the New York firm's spacious Broadway studios. Such outstanding 
"name" bands as Bob Crosby, Art Mooney, Xavicr Cugat and Benny Goodman have used Nola's 
recording and rehearsal facilities. Inset: Owner and founder of Nola Studios, Vincent Nola. 

Vincent Nola's 20,000 Sq. Ft. Studio Largest 
In U. S.; Top "Name" Bands Use Its Facilities 

Several months ago. Audio Record ran a story on the operations 
of, what its owner claimed to be, "the smallest recording studio in the 
United States" (after viewing a photograph of the establishment it 

was impossible to dispute this gentleman's 
word). So now, we believe it only fitting, 
that we feature an article on the largest 
recording studio (under one roof) in this 

This distinction belongs to Nola Studios, 
located at 1657 Broadway in New York 
City, where some forty orchestras have been 
known to rehearse and record during a 
twenty four hour period. The fourteen in- 
dividual studios that comprises Nola Stu- 
dios covers an area of 20,000 square feet. 

Nola Studios is owned and operated by 
one of the true pioneers in the recording 
field, Vincent Nola. Vincent Nola was born 
in Sicily in 1895 and 10 years later, with his 
family, moved to the United States and to 
a home in Buffalo, New York. It was in 
Buffalo that Vincent got his start in the 
musical world. With pennies saved from a 

{Contmued on Page 4) 

ABC's Daylight Saving Time 
Plan To Start On April 25 

Net To Use Tape Recorder For DST 

Operations; Lower Costs — Improved 

Program Fidelity Is Anticipated 

A noticeable improvement in quality of 
rebroadcast programs and a substantial re- 
duction in costs to Its affiliated stations is 
anticipated when the American Broadcast- 
ing Company sets in motion its vast plan for 
Daylight Saving Time Operations on Sun- 
day, April 25. 

Operating only during the 22 weeks of 
Daylight Saving Time, the plan which 
ABC initiated in 1946 and expanded last 
year to the network's full program sched- 

(CoTitmtied on Page 2) 


April, 1948 

n nct i a ^ recorct 

VOL. 4, No. 4 

APRIL, 1948 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

ABC's Daylight Saving Time Plan to 
Start on April 25 

(Continued from Page 1 ) 
ule, through the use of special broadcast 
h'nes and recordings maintains all ABC 
programs in all tmie zones at the same 
time the year round. 

Improved program quality and lower 
costs to ABC affiliates stem from the fact 
that the web this year plans to use Ampex 
Electric Corporation's tape recording ma- 
chines to record its entire program schedule 
for playback directly from the tape. The 
machines are based on designs and speci- 
fications prepared by ABC engineers. The 
machines also are expected to be used year- 
round for all regional repeat broadcasts by 
the American network. 

This will mark the first time in radio 
history that a network program has been 
rebroadcast directly from a recording tape. 
Heretofor, programs that have been re- 
corded on tape were transferred to record- 
ing discs and then broadcast. ABC, during 
the past two years that it has been using its 
special plan of Daylight Saving Time op- 
erations, has utilized disc recordings to play 
broadcasts back at their accustomed time to 
local audiences. 

Based on engineering tests conducted 
earlier this year, which indicate a notice- 

able improvement in program quality and 
tone fidelity through use of the Ampex 
tape recorders, ABC has placed an initial 
order for 12 of the machines and delivery 
is expected shortly. 

Savings anticipated by ABC from lower 
operating costs through use of tape record- 
ers and the direct play-back of programs 
from these machines will be passed along to 
the networks affiliated stations which share 
in the cost of the Daylight Saving Time 

Basic mechanics of ABC's Daylight Sav- 
ing Time plan of operations, developed by 
the network through the cooperation of its 
clients and affiliated stations involves the 
acquisition of special broadcast lines by 
ABC. Through the use of these special 
broadcast lines, programs are broadcast 
live to ABC stations operating on Daylight 
Saving Time and recorded in Chicago and 
Hollywood for rebroadcast one hour later 
for stations operating on Standard Time. 

The recorded plan is used only on ABC's 
regularly scheduled programs. Special 
events, such as a Presidential speech, a 
major prize fight or the coverage of con- 
ventions, etc., will be heard at the time they 
take place. 


ZINE's Script Writing Competition (spon 
sored by Audio Devices) for high schoo 
students and the 1948 National Scrip 
Contest (co-sponsored by Audio Devices) 
conducted by the Association for Education 
by Radio, for college students, will be an 
nounced in the May issue of Audio Record 

The four national winners of the recently concluded "Voice of Democracy" contest, sponsored 
by the U. S. Junior Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Broadcasters, and the 
Radio Manufacturers Association, are congratulated by Attorney General Tom C. Clark in his 
Washington office. In the capilol city for a four-day tour and entertainment, which, in addition 
to ^500 scholarship awards, was part of their prize, the four high school girls are: left to right — 
Rose Allen Mudd, Missoula, Mont.; Janet Geister, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio; Laura Shatto, Hagers- 
town, Md.; and Alice Wade Tyree, Lawton, Okla. The contest the girls won with their broadcast 
on "I Speak for Democracy" was entered by more than 20,000 students in 39 states and Alaska. 
Before the national winners were decided each individual state selected their own champion by 
having the outstanding contestants record their addresses on discs and from these recordings a 
state winner was determined. Then, recording discs came into play again when the national winners 
were judged in Washington. All in all some 500 discs were used nationally in the contest. 

me ^sayidUt 

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 


We have had a large number of inquiries 
on the comparative merits of disc and 
magnetic recording for professional use, 
and, since we make media for both meth- 
ods, a preliminary survey has seemed de- 
sirable. Unfortunately, at the present stage 
of the art the answer seems to be more in 
terms of the associated equipment's limita- 
tions than that of the medium itself. 

Physical Differences 

Tape is easy to edit with scissors and a 
roll of adhesive tape. This is one of the 
reasons why it has replaced wire for pro- 
fessional magnetic 
recording, for wire 
splicing is neither 
convenient nor dur- 
able. For example, 
for shortening the 
record of a political 
convention from 
eight hours down to 
thirty minutes there 
IS nothing as good as 

T a p e c a n b e 
C. J. LeBel j i 4 

erased and reused, 

and for the programs incident to daylight 
saving time adjustments, programs mainly 
of transitory value, this is a real feature. 
Programs can be "assembled" on tape. 

Recording on tape requires less mechan- 
ical skill than does disc, for there are no 
styli to wear out and replace. Editing re- 
ejuires very great i\\\\. On the other hand, 
magnetic recording heads wear and lose 
quality — so that head wear-tests and re- 
placements become necessary. 

In reproducing, the mechanical skill for 
disc IS negligible, but tape requires care and 
attention for correct threading in many 
machines. Tape may break in starting, and 
splices may pull apart in reproducing or 
rewinding. Such a failure may create a 
veritable "bird's nest", and if during re- 
production can ruin a program. This may 
be one reason why the BBC for years has 
rerecorded from tape onto disc for pro- 
gram use. 

The factors governing the durability of 
lacquer discs are well understood. Lacquer 
will be comfortable under any condition 
where a man will be normally comfortable. 
However, little is known about tape, par- 
ticularly under exacting professional stand- 
ards ot performance. Severe dropping. 

April, 1948 


heavy vibration, or exposure to strong 
magnetic fields can cause erasure, noise and 
distortion increase. Magnetic fields are in- 
visible, and not noticed unless strong 
enough to affect a watch. All magnets lose 
magnetization strength with time, and so 
we would expect tape recordings to change 
with time. Whether they will simply grow 
weaker, or whether the strongly magnet- 
ized portion will fade faster than the 
weakly magnetized (producing distortion) 
is something that no one can presently 
answer with certainty. It must also be re- 
membered that scratching of the tape will 
deform the coating, and hence create dis- 
tortion. Conditions affecting the base ma- 
terial are not too perfectly understood, 
either. Shrinkage due to age or atmos- 
pheric conditions can spoil accurate timing, 
and change the musical pitch quite detect- 
ably. Excessive reproducing machine ten- 
sion can stretch the tape, with equally bad 
results. We can be reasonably certain of 
the sustained strength of a plastic base, but 
not of a paper base. Paper used today is 
generally made from wood pulp, whereas 
older paper was generally made from rag 
stock. We have only to look at newspapers 
a few years old to realize that the life of a 
wood pulp paper is not too long. 

At professional tape speeds, programs 
can he filed away more compactly on disc 
than on tape, for a half hour on disc re- 
quires 10 cubic inches, while a half hour 
on tape at 30" per second requires about 
35 cubic inches. Also, a disc can be re- 
played immediately after, or even during 
recording, while tape requires an appre- 
ciable time to rewind or spot. 

Finally, facilities for playing tape are by 
no means as plentiful as those for disc. Nor 
do we yet have standardization on the all 
important matter of tape speed. In com- 
mon use today we have the following: lYj, 
15, 18, and 30 inches per second. This has 
special significance to the educator, for 
speech correction and dramatic work have 
been helped greatly by the motivation af- 
forded by a chance to take a disc home. 
The educator will wish to use a tape speed 
of at least 15 inches per second to get 
fidelity adequate for educational purposes 
— but such few machines as his students 
may have at home will undoubtedly be 
limited to 71/2 inches per second. The pro- 
fessional will be bothered by this situation 
as soon as he begins to ship tape recordings 
to various parts of the country. 

Electrical Performance Characteristics 

Tilt' frequency response of a recording 
medium is a hard thing to evaluate, for it 
depends so heavily on conditions of opera- 
tion and on associated equipment, that in 
the case of lacquer no upper frequency 
limit for the material itself has yet been 
found. Up to a short time ago, the cutting 
head constituted the chief limitation on 
frequency response, but the advent of units 
using the head as part of a negative feed- 
back loop — "feedback cutters" — has re- 
moved this obstacle, and recording in the 

supersonic region has been so made. Smaller 
radius recording and reproducing styli are, 
of course, desirable to reduce tracking loss 
at very high frequencies when working at 
normal rotational speed, but test has indi- 
cated that our lacquer is strong enough to 
be entirely satisfactory at such higher 
needle pressures. It may also be desirable 
to reduce the length of the burnishing facet 
of the cutting styli. 

The frequency response of tape is limi- 
ted, basically, by the tape speed and by the 
minimum attainable slit width in the re- 
cording and reproducing heads. The latter 
presently stands at about % mil, physical 
width, but the effective magnetic width, 
considering fringing, is not the same. The 
slit width limitation can be overcome by 
running the tape at higher speed, but this 
raises the cost and operating problems. 

Distortion is also a hard problem to eval- 
uate. In disc recording the chief bottleneck 
used to be the cutting head, but the newest 


By Ed Reed 

"Shyness compels Mr. WInterbottom to deliver his speech 
from a home recording." 

The Register and Tribune Syndicuti 

cutting heads are so good in this respect 
that the present distortion limit is set by 
approximately equal contributions from 
the recording and reproducing amplifiers, 
the cutting head and the pickup. We have 
not yet produced systems so free from dis- 
tortion that lacquer distortion, if any, be- 
comes a factor. 

On tape we also have recording and 
reproducing heads, recording and repro- 
ducing amplifiers, but the recording medi- 
um Itself definitely is a factor. Since the 
bias for minimum distortion depends on 
frequency and on level, optimum bias is a 
compromise. It is not easy to pick a distor- 
tion value which everyone would agree on 
as representative. A comparison of disc 
and tape is further complicated by the fact 
that dis(^ system distortion drops rapidly 
as levels are reduced below maximum, 
while tape distortion (depending on the 
bias chosen) may even increase. We have 
to accept intermodulation distortion fig- 

ures cited as representative by those en- 
gaged in these fields, on which basis disc is 
somewhat better than tape. Whether it will 
remain so is a question, of course. We are 
inclined to feel that it will, for this reason : 
The electromagnetic part of a system oper- 
ating at high level is likely to be the part 
creating the worst distortion. In a disc sys- 
tem, this would be the cutting head, but 
we have already succeeded in reducing 
cutting head distortion by including the 
head in a negative feedback loop. On the 
other hand, we can see no present way of 
including the tape itself within an effective 
feedback loop! It would appear, therefore, 
that there should be an inherent difference 
between the two systems, though possibly 
a small one. 

We have not touched on tracking dis- 
tortion in disc reproduction. This, the fail- 
ure of the reproducing stylus to follow the 
groove faithfully, exists only at peak levels 
at high frequencies, and can be reduced to 
insignificance by using sufficiently small 
radii on recording and reproducing styli. 
In short, with intelligent engineering such 
distortion occurs only at overload — exactly 
as tape can be overloaded with ensuing 
complete distortion. 

Signal to noise ratio, judging by ear, is 
fairly similar for both media, though both 
depend heavily on equipment perfection 
for best results. Some of the early postwar 
figures out of Germany suggested fantastic- 
ally good ratios for tape, but it was soon 
found that these were weighted figures. 
American practice is to use unweighted 
noise data, whence the initial misunder- 
standing. If we compare practical equip- 
ment under practical conditions, we find 
that the ratios, on a weighted basis, are not 
greatly different. 

Tape has a curious defect which does not 
show up in ordinary methods of measure- 
ment, yet which is rather important. This 
is undersignal noise, which can be best 
described as noise cyclically modulated in 
intensity by the signal. It has had only a 
limited amount of attention because pres- 
ent methods of determination are very 
laborious, yet the figures so far presented 
are not to be ignored. The ear does not 
hear such undersignal noise as noise, rather 
does it consider it as a kind of fuzz on the 
tone. In short, the ear is as annoyed by it 
as by intermodulation, and it exists at all 
signal levels. The analogous (but not iden- 
tical) defect on disc can occur only at the 
extremely high pea\ levels used in some 
phonograph recording. Cook, who first dis- 
covered this effect on disc, has shown that 
by the proper design of cutting stylus the 
effect may be reduced to insignificance 
even at phonograph recording peak levels. 
In any case, it is not existent at transcrip- 
tion recording levels, or at average phono- 
graph levels. 


Tape is an instantaneous recording me- 
dium, just as is lacquer. Hence we have to 
(Continued on Page 4) 


April, 1948 


The 1948 National Convention and Show of the Institute of Radio Engineers, held March 
22-25 in New York's Grand Central Palace and Hotel Commodore, was the most successful 
venture in the Institute's history, IRE officials advise. During the four day meeting, approxi- 
mately 15,000 persons registered and viewed the show's 190 exhibits — one of which was the 
Audio Devices' booth (above) displaying the various types of Audiodiscs, their applications, 
and each step necessary in their production from raw material to finished blank; and the 
process involved in inaking phonograph records from Master discs. In addition, engineers 
stopping at the Audio booth got a glimpse of the company's latest contribution to the sound 
recording field, magnetic-oxide Audiotape. But perhaps the most interesting part of the Audio 
exhibit were the history-making recordings lined on the booth's sidewalls. Cut on Audiodiscs 
during the last ten years (Audio celebrates their 10th anniversary this year) these recordings 
featured, among others, the following important nation-wide broadcasts: Attack on Pearl Harbor, 
President Roosevelt's speech in French on North Africa landing, D-Day, Radar to the Moon, 
Secretary Marshall's "Voice of America" address, and President Truman's recent message to 
Congress. (This exhibit will also be seen at the Radio Parts Show in Chicago May 11-14 in 
Booth #83). 

Vincent Nolo StucJios 

(Contmued from Page I ) 
paper route, he studied voice under the 
tutelage of well-known Buffalo and, later, 
New York teachers. 

Young Nola's first professional singing job 
was in Niagara Falls (he doesn't remember 
just where in Niagara Falls or just what he 
did besides sing) at the age of 16. Later, in 
between professional engagements, Nola 
taught voice in New York City. Then, Vin- 
cent Nola got an idea. 

Vincent Nola's idea was to open a large 
rehearsal studio in New York for bands and 
other large musical groups. Up to this time, 
a studio of this type was unheard of. In 
1930, Nola put his idea to work when he 
rented several large rooms in Steinway 
Hall. Within eight months he had eight 
studios in this famous old building and 
many of the top talent of the day were 
using his facilities. Then Nola got another 
idea. Why not equip some of these studios 
with recording equipment so the "big 
names" could put their renditions on 

Nola, at this time, knew nothing at all 
about the engineering aspect of sound 
recording. But he decided to learn. Nola 
studied hard, day and night, for three 
months acquainting himself with the art 
under the guidance of one of CBS's most 
talented engineers. Then, after he felt he 

knew something about the recording busi- 
ness he opened two recording studios in the 
same Steinway Hall. This was in 1934. 

The operation was a success from the 
start and in the years that followed the 
Nola Studios became a "by-word" with 
famous popular and classical music artists, 
"name" bands and other musical aggrega- 
tions. Both as a rehearsal studio and as a 
recording studio Nola's became more popu- 
lar as the years went by. In fact, too popu- 
lar, with the big bands. For in 1940, the 
management of Steinway Hall decided that 
Nola's clients, the fifty and sixty piece va- 
riety, were making too much noise for the 
conservative residents of 57th Street. Nola 
would have to move. 

But Vincent Nola solved the problem by 
opening the present Broadway studios for 
his "noise makers" and keeping his .S7th 
Street location open for his less disturbing 
or "long hair" clientele (opera singers, 
concert pianists, etc.). This arrangement 
proved a good move and even today the 
bands still use the Broadway studios. 

Then, as now, seventy-five percent of 
Nola Studios recording work is done for 
music publishers for "song plugging" pur- 
poses. But in addition such outstanding 
orchestras as Bob Crosby, Art Mooney, 
the Dorsey Brothers, Xavier Cugat, Benny 
Goodman, Frankie Carle, Raymond Scott 
and Charlie Barnett have used the Nola 

Studios for their rehearsal and recording 

The secret of Vincent Nola's success in 
the recording field probably lies in the fact 
that all six of his recording engineers pos- 
sess a musical background. As a matter of 
fact, Nola himself has taught each of these 
engineers his particular techniques so that 
they record from the 'musician's' not the 
'professional recordists' ' point-of-view. As 
Vincent Nola explains it: "the average 
listener wants to hear something pleasing 
to the ear from a musical standpoint. He is 
not remotely interested in the technical 
[ihases involved." All told, Nola employs 
•sixteen people in his two studios. 

Naturally, Vincent Nola is as interested 
in the outcome of the present recording 
l\in edict as everyone else in the business. 
When asked what his thoughts were on 
the matter, Mr. Nola smiled and said: 
"well, I hope a solution will soon be found 
that will make us all happy. Yes, I mean 
Mr. Petrillo, too". 

Disc Data 

(Co)itmued jrom Ptige .i) 
compare them on that basis; i.e., both have 
to be individually recorded. Likewise, 
either could be rerecorded onto a processing 
size lacquer blank, and duplicated as press- 
ings. In so doing, of course, distortion and 
signal-to-noise-ratio would suffer. Some 
comparisons have been made between tape 
and pressings. This is not valid, because an 
instantaneous material like tape has to be 
duplicated by rcrecording, a high cost 

We are sorry to have to say "it all de- 
pends" so often, but both disc and tape arc 
going through a quality revolution, and it 
will be hard to issue any publishable figures 
until affairs stabilize. In the meantime, we 
would be disposed to view much of the 
material published on tape as too super- 
ficial. A great many more studies will be 
necessary before we fully understand the 
vagaries ot the medium. To uiicritically as- 
sume that a new medium can have no 
faults is to treat the matter as a layman 
rather than as an engineer. 

Recordings . . . antd the Red Cross 

(Conti.7iiiecf jrom Page I) 

An additional project to be initiated by 
the Red Cross this year will be the collec- 
tion and processing of 3,700,000 pints of 
blood for the 65 9f of the hospitals in the 
country who are in no position to supply 
blood plasma needed in emergencies. This, 
too, will cost money. John Public must 
underwrite his own future. 

If the past experience of the Red Cross 
is any indication, however, the American 
people will again generously respond to the 
call of these potent platters, for funds and 
for volunteers for its many services. Yes, 
Red Cross knows the true value of the 
recorded appeal. 




Vol. 4, No. 5 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

May, 1948 


Scholastic Magazines'— AER 
Name Winning Entrants In 
Student Script Competitions 

Top Scripts By High School -College 

Writers "Truly Outstanding", Says 

Contests' Judges And Educators 

ZINES' 194S R.idio Script WntniiT Com 
petition (for hii»h school students) and 
TION BY RADIO'S National Radio 
Script Contest (for college students) were 
recently announced by the two organiza- 

Co-sponsored by Audio Devices, Inc., 
the two contests, both of which started 
last fall, uncovered many young talented 
writers who are almost certain to find suc- 
cessful careers in 
the radio industry. 
According to re- 
ports from the con- 
tests' judges, some 
of whom were pro- 
fessional radio wri- 
ters, a number of 
the winning scripts 
in the various classi- 
fication s were 
"truly outstand- 
ing" and definitely 
on a professional 

In the high school 
competition some 
250 scripts by student writers in every state 
in the Union were submitted to SCHOLAS- 
TIC MAGAZINES' contest headquarters. 
This represented, according to William D. 
Boutwell of the New York publishing firm, 
an increase of about 150 percent over last 
year. Counting the scripts that were en- 
tered in the 12 regional preliminaries across 
the country, the total for the contest would 
reach nearly 400 scripts. Mr. Boutwell also 
remarked that the quality of scripts sub- 
mitted was better than in any previous 
year. The SCHOLASTIC spokesman at- 
tributed this marked improvement to two 
things: 1. the high school radio workshop. 
2. the experienced and talented instructors 
who set up and run these workshops. 

In discussing the type of scripts received, 
Mr. Boutwell explained that this year they 
received more scripts on racial and religious 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Pictured above are six of the winners in SCHOLASTIC MAGAZINES'-AER's Radio Script 
Writing Contests. The high school first place winners in the top row are (I. to r.): Sandra Wright, 
Endicott, N. Y.; Marcia Lebcdinsky, Miami Beach, Fla. and June Livingston, New York City. 
In the bottom row are the winners in the Special Classification of the AER contest. They are 
(I. to r.): Warren B. Kuhn, first place. New York City; Elaine R. Navy, second place, New 
York City; and Martin P. Miller, third place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

KDKA-Pit+sburgh Promotes Net Programs With 
Tape Recorder-Specially Rigged Switchboard 

KDKA-Pittsburgh. America's first radio station, came up with 
another first a few weeks ago — this time with a novel promotional 
stunt to hypo listener interest in network (NBC) programs. This 

newest of all radio sjimmicks was the brain 

child of the Pittsburgh outlet's promotion 
department, David Lewis. 

Last fall. Lewis conceived the idea of 
having some of the biggest names on the 
National web make a special recording for 
his station. The plan was for the recording 
to be played whenever the KDKA switch- 
board operator answered incoming calls. 
For example, instead of the operator 
answering the call by saying: "KDKA, 
good morning", Lewis would have a voice 
announce: "KDKA . . . This is Archie 
(Duffy's Tavern) the manager speaking. Be 
sure to hear me program tonight at 9. Now. 
just a minute please. . . ." Immediately the 
business-like voice of the regular telephone 
operator was to come on and say : "KDKA, 

may I help you"? 

Lewis proceeded with his idea and had 
such well known NBC luminaries as Perry 
Como, Amos 'n Andy, Jimmy Durante. 
Bill Stern. Al Jolson, Red Skelton, ChaHie 
McCarthy and several other top stars make 
individual recordings similar to the conver- 
sation described above. 

After the recordings were made, 
KDKA's chief Engineer T. C. Kenney, 
and Station Manager J. E. Baudino, a top- 
notch engineer himself, began their work 
on Lewis" project. Each record was trans- 
ferred to an individual strip of magnetic 
tape. A tape recorder was set beside the 
switchboard, and the engineers devised a 
(Continued on Page 4) 


May, 1948 

cuidla^ reccrrd 

VOL. 4, NO. 5 

MAY, 1948 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio .stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

Scholastic Magazines' — AER Name 
Script Contest Winners 

(Continued from Page 1 ) 

relations than on any other subject. How- 
ever, he added, scripts dealing with atomic 
energy, rocket flights, and other modern, 
scientific marvels and their probable effect 
on humanity were quite in evidence too. 
Many scripts on juvenile delinquency and 
vvho-will-take-who to the Junior Prom were 
also received. 

The college student competition, which 
was the first contest of this type ever con- 
ducted for the undergraduate, was also a 
huge success from the standpoint of entries 
received. According to Dr. Sherman P. 
Lawton of the U. of Oklahoma, who was 
chairman of the contest, the enthusiasm 
shown exceeded even his most optimistic 
hopes. A total of 250 entries was received 
in the five classifications (70 in Audio De- 
vices' Special Classification) . 

The college student's script covered 
many subjects. And like the high school 
student, the college entrant showed a vivid 
imagination of things to come. 

An unusual aspect of the AER contest 
was the fact that the first, second and third 
place winners in the Special Classification 
were all students in 
the same school 
(New York Uni- 
versity) and in- 
structed by the 
same professor 
(George D. Grif 
fin). Mr. Griffin ex 
plained in a letter 
to Audio Devices 
that his three prize - 
winning students 
are members of 

NYU'S advanced George D. GrilKn 

. . , Tutored all three 

script writing class spec. CUss. winners 

which is composed 

of only eleven students, all of whom have 
done outstanding work in the past and are 
believed most likely to succeed as profes- 
sional radio writers. This class, according 
to Mr. Griffin, was given the assignment to 
write scripts for the AER Special Classifi- 
cation because to him it posed a neat prob- 
lem in writing a short script for a definite 

National winners in the AER competi- 
tion were announced on May 1 at a special 
luncheon held at the Deshler Wallick Hotel 
in Columbus, Ohio. The luncheon was at- 

Louis ror^dJl. 
Judged enlrici i 

tended by more than 200 persons most of 
whom were in Co- 
lumbus for Ohio 
State University's 
lER (Institute for 
Education by 
Radio) meeting 
which was held 
April 30 through 
May 3. 

Audio Devices at 
the Ohio luncheon, 
and to present his 
firm's awards to 
winners in the Spe- 
cial Classification, was Mr. N. K. Hoskins, 
a director and representative of Audio 
Devices in the Midwest. Mr. Hoskins pre- 
sented the prizes for the Audio winners to 
Professor Griflin who came to Columbus 
to accept the awards in behalf of his stu- 

Below are a list of national winners in 
both contests — the title of their script — 
their address (or school) — the name of 
the winning entrant's instructor — and the 
awards they received. 


Radio Script Writing Contest 

(High School Students) 

Judges — Mr. Irve Tunick, Mr. Morton 
Wishengrad and the editors of SCHO- 

Award Winners . . . 

Original Radio Drama 

FIRST PRIZE, $25: Sandra 'Wright. 17, 
Union-Endicott High School, Endicott, 
N. Y. "Twinkles". Teacher: *Mrs. Edna 

SECOND PRIZE, $15: Jo Anne Kelly, 
17, DeVilbiss High School, Toledo, 
Ohio. "Heavenly Days". Teacher: OHve 

THIRD PRIZE, $10: Robert Morgan, 
Summit (N. J.) High School. "The Sun 
Has Set". Teacher: Ida Herrmann. 

Radio Drama Adaptation 

FIRST PRIZE, $25: June Livingston, 17, 

High School of Music and Art, N. Y. C. 

"Sam Small's Better Half". Teacher: 

*Edward StashefF. 
SECOND PRIZE, $15 : Enid F. Karetnick, 

Wecquahic High School, Newark, N. J. 

"Anything Can Happen". Te.icher: 

Marie O'Connor. 
THIRD PRIZE, $10: Leonard Reiser. 16, 

Boys High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. "A 

Case of Circumstances". Teacher: Helen 


7S(on-Drania Scnpt.s 

FIRST PRIZE, $25: Marcia Lebedinsky, 

15, The Lear School, Miami Beach, Fla. 

"A Letter to My Son". Teacher: *Adele 

SECOND PRIZE. $15: Edward George 

Tarkinson, 16, Brockton (Mass.) High 

School. "Radio Interview with Isam 
Khiery". Teacher: Ruth T. Cosgrove. 
THIRD PRIZE, $10: Jean Mahoney, 
Rahway (N. J.) High School. "Dodger 
Doings". Teacher: Anne M. O'Connell. 

' Received 25 Audiodiscs, 3 Sapphire Recording Audio- 
points and 3 Sapphire Playback Audiopoints for school 
recording purposes for having taught first place winners. 


National Radio Script Contest 

(College Students) 

judges — Paul Hood, Oklahoman &? Times, 
Oklahoma City, Okla.; Robt. Stephan, 
Cleveland Plain Dealer, Cleveland, 
Ohio; Thos. D. Kenney, Prom. Mgr., 
Newark Evening News, Newark, N. J.; 
Delmar J. Brent, Writer's Talent Scout, 
Hollywood, Calif.; and Mr. Louis Fors- 
dale. Instructor in Communication 
Skills, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, N. Y. C. 

Class 1. Original Dramatic Script (141/2 
mm. in length). 

FIRST PRIZE, $50: Sylvan Karchmcr, 
Univ. of Texas. 

SECOND PRIZE, $25: William Bender, 
Univ. of Colorado. 

Class 2. Dramatic Adaptation (29'/2 """ 
m length). 

FIRST PRIZE, $50: William Arndt, 
Univ. of California. 

SECOND PRIZE, $25: Bob Kampf, 
Newark, N. J. 

Class 3. J^on-dramatic Scripts for One 
Voice (141/2 wiin. in length). 

FIRST PRIZE, $50: Theodore Master, 
Ohio State University. 

SECOND PRIZE, $25: Betty Czarlinski, 
Univ. of Oklahoma. 

Class 4. yion-dramatic Scripts for More 
Than One Voice (1 41/2 mm. or 291/2 
mm. m length). 

FIRST PRIZE, $50: Charles Hutton, 
Univ. of Oklahoma. 

SECOND PRIZE, $25: Jenan Walthour, 
Ohio State University. 

Special Class. Scripts Suitable for Home 
or School Recording (optional length). 

FIRST PRIZE, $100: Warren B. Kuhn, 
New York, N. Y. Instructor: *George 
Griffin. "Eagle From Richmond". 

SECOND PRIZE. $60: Elaine Ruth 
Navy, New York, N. Y. Instructor: 
George Griffin. "Two Hops and a Skip". 

THIRD PRIZE, $40: Martin Powell Mil- 
ler. Brooklyn, N. Y. Instructor: George 
Griffin. "Mr. Jefferson Makes a Pur- 

* Received same awards as teachers in high school contest. 

Audio Devices will publish a collection 
of prize-winning scripts from both the 
Scholastic and AER contests, which should 
be ready for distribution by the opening of 
the new school year in September. Students 
whose work is selected for this purpose 
will receive special awards. 

May, 1948 


me T^eayidUt 

C. J. LcBcl 

By C. J. LcBel, Vice President 


In response to a considerable number of 
inquiries on specifications for our AUDIO- 
POINTS, we are presenting for the first 
time complete dimensional data. Quality 
control of cutting points was discussed in 
a previous issue. ^ 


Unique amont; 
presently available 
recording styli, our 
# 14 is made with a 
biased front sur- 
face. It will be re- 
called that the old 
wax recording sty- 
lus was cemented 
in place, and the 
recordist would ro- 
tate it slightly in its 
mounting to get the 
thread to clear the 
groove reliably. There was a knack to it. 
Another way of achieving the same end 
was to move the cutting head (in its cradle) 
forward of the center line, which nearly 
has the same effect (though at the expense 
of distortion increase which does not occur 
if the point, rather than point and head, 
IS biased). 

When we started supplying AUDIO- 
POINTS wc traced occasional thread 
snarls to the cutting point standards of the 
day. The sapphire's front face was nomin- 
ally exactly parallel to the flat on the dural 
shank (i.e., a bias of 0°), but a variation 
of ± 1 ° was possible. ± 1 ° styli (i.e., in 
a direction to throw inward) would throw 
the thread toward the center very nicely, 
but in a — 1 ° stylus the natural thread 
action inward would be opposed by the 
point tendency to throw outward. The re- 
sult would be very erratic, with no cer- 
tainty of thread action, and an excellent 
chance for a tangle. We built a special 
measuring microscope, which many visitors 
to our laboratories have seen, and definitely 
established the correlation between bias 
and thread action. By designing for 3°, a 
manufacturing variation of ± 1 ° can 
never reduce the bias to the point where 
thread action becomes erratic. 

Some recordists used to use round shank 
sapphires to allow the same possibility of 
adjustment that the wax recordist had with 
his cemented-in point. This practice became 
obsolete the moment biased points became 
available. Other recordists used to shim 

out one side of their cutting heads to 
attempt to produce the same effect. A 
moment's reflection will show that we have 
biased recording head as well as point edge. 
The plane of cutting motion is then no 

longer straight across the groove, in fact 
a forward and back component is intro- 
duced. This is distortion, and cannot be 
permitted. The biased point is hence defi- 
nitely superior to the biased recording head. 

Sapphire Cutting Styli 







Material Length 






14 Short 87° 

Dural .531" 






14 Long 87° 

Dural .656" 






14 Short 70° 

Dural .531" 






14 Long 70° 

Dural .656" 






202 Short 87° 

Brass .531" 






202 Long 87° 

Brass .656" 





Inspecting this data, we find that the 
No. 202 is a lower cost unit, and that the 
sapphire length is shorter than in the No. 
14. It should also be pointed out that the 
No. 14, being made to professional stand- 
ards, is held to closer tolerances than is the 
No. 202. Incidentally, 70° styli are now 
virtually obsolete. 

The difference in shank material is neces- 
sary to mark these differences in character- 
istics for the shop and the dealer. 

The burnishing facet is all important. 
Since it is the final manufacturing process, 
it must affect the final contour of the func- 
tional part of the stylus. The resultant 
dimensions will therefore vary from those 
listed above, within practical limits. 





Under .0015" 


Under .0015" 


Stellite Cutting Styli 

Shank Overall Included 

Description Material Length Length Angle 

No. 34 Short Brass .531" .600" 87° 

No. 34 Long Brass .656" .725" 87° 

Being still lower in cost, the radius is not playback stylus will track on the straight 
held to as close tolerance, but is maintained sides of the groove (insuring good track- 
at a value low enough to insure that the ing) . 

Steel Cutting Stylus 

Description Overall Length Included Angle Tip Radius Burnish Length 

No. 50 .615" 85° Sharp .0003" 

This is a diamond lapped point; it should ground but not lapped, and hence are much 
not be confused with points which are noisier. 

Description Use 

No. 113 Professional 

No. 103 Home, straight shank 

No. 303 Home, bent shank 

Sapphire Reprod 

ucing Styl 


of Gem 

Length of 








lank .750" 





k .650" 





The significant differences are the change 
in length of sapphire, and the tip radius. 
The included angle and shank length 
changes are only to mark the difference in 
unmistakable fashion for the shop. 

The professional No. 1 13 has a sapphire 
length several times as great as that of the 
lower cost No. 103 and 303. 

The professional tip has a radius of 
.0023", well adapted to transcription 
grooves. On the other hand, for home 
phonograph records the larger radius of 
.0025" is preferable. While there has been 
considerable advocacy of .003" tips for 
home reproduction, we do not agree. A 
.003" tip is initially very slightly quieter, 
but the noise quickly exceeds that of the 
smaller radius, and coincidentally the dis- 
tortion and record wear increase. The dif- 
ferences can be credited to the better track- 
ing of the smaller radius. A point which 
follows the groove faithfully will cause less 
wear than one which cannot trace the finer 

convolutions. Hence we have chosen the 
.0025" radius. 

It should be pointed out that all of these 
styli can be resharpened when worn out 
playing pressings. This is a real economy, 
for resharpening is much lower in cost than 
a completely new needle. This has been 
made possible by using a longer gem (than 
is customary for home points) in the 103 
and 303. 

New Standards 

When the NAB and RMA committees 
now working adopt standards, these specifi- 
cations will be changed to conform if neces- 
sary. It is believed that present points will 
work satisfactorily with proposed stand- 
ards, and in many cases will require no 
change at all to conform. In any case they 
can be modified to conform when sent in 
for resharpening. 


I. Sapphire Quality Control— C. /. LeBel, Audio Record, 
June I94-. 


May. 1948 

Speech Students At Alabama 
College Benefit Greatly By 
"Before-After" Recordings 

Alabama College, the state college for 
women at Montevallo, Alabama, is another 
of the many schools across the country who 
insist that recording equipment is their 
most valuable ally in speech training. 

According to a recent letter received 
from Miss Ellen-Haven Gould, Head of 
the Speech Department at Alabama Col- 
lege, speech courses require the use of the 
recording machine as early as it can pos 
sibly be scheduled. The purpose, of course. 
Miss Gould relates, is to record the status 
of the students' speech for a record of 
"before and after." 

"This first recording," says Miss Gould, 
"we iind is of great value to our siudents. 
They discover what they sound like, m 
voice quality, to others, as well as hearing 
their mannerisms in pattern, and careless- 
ness in pronunciation and enunciation. 
Then, each student is given an individual 
hearing and critical analysis with a course 
of procedure to follow in drill. 

"Here the mirrophone or voice mirror is 
their valuable aid. Time is scheduled in the 
clinic for use of this machine where the 
student can drill and check on her own 
progress, or get an immediate picture of 
deficiencies. Near the close of the course, a 
new disc is cut and compared to the first." 

Another value of recording at Alabama 
College is the file of southern speech 
records; and since there are many varia- 
tions and peculiarities in different areas of 
the State and Souih. these recordings have 
proved to be of interest to graduate stu- 
dents of Philology and Phonetics as well 
as professional research sources of study. 

New Maintenance Manual Sent 
NBC Thesaurus Subscribers 

Managers of more than 400 radio sta- 
tions subscribing to the NBC Thesaurus, 
musical program service to the NBC Radio- 
Recording Division, are currently receiv- 
ing a newly produced booklet, "Mainte- 
nance Procedure for the Broadcast Tran- 
scription Reproducing System." 

Consisting of 16 pages of recommenda- 
tions and six pages of illustrative diagrams, 
the manual was prepared by research engi- 
neers of the NBC Radio-Recording Divi- 
sion. In addition to maintenance procedures 
for the reproducer itself, a section of the 
manual is devoted to suggestions for tiie 
care of transcriptions. 

In an enclosure letter to Thes.iurus sub- 
scribers, Robert W. Friedheim, director of 
the division, states: "The satisfactory re- 
production of transcriptions is so much a 
matter of the proper maintenance of the 
reproducing system that we have long felt 
a need for a detailed discussion of recom- 
mended procedures." . . . 

Edith Hinglcy, KDKA-Pittsburgh switchboard operator listens while T. C. Kenney, Chief Engineer, 
and J. E. Baudino, General Manager, explain the technical phases of the station's telephone 
answering gimmick. A magnetic tape recorder specially rigged to the outlet's switchboard played 
back recorded "hcllos" of network stars to incoming callers — KDKA's way of hypoing listener 
interest in web shows. 

KDKA - Pittsburgh Promotes Net 
Programs with Tope Recorder- 
Special Rigged Switchboard 

(Co7iti?Tiied from Page 1 ) 

means whereby the tape would feed 
through automatically and continuously. 
The machine was then connected with the 
switchboard. When the board buzzed, the 
operator merely had to press a button and 
wait for the NBC star to speak his piece. 

So, with the stage all set, KDKA decided 
it was the time to put the "stunt" in use. 
The result was terrific. 

As one caller after anotlier was greeted 
by the familiar voice of a famous radio 
name, the station was soon swamped with 
more telephone calls than they could 
handle. It seemed everybody in Pittsburgh 
wanted to talk with his favorite radio per- 

Audio Record asked the KDKA engi- 
neering staff to explain the technical phases 
of the telephone answering gadget and they 
forwarded on this bit of information: 

"The main piece of equipment was (as 
explained above) a magnetic tape recorder. 
Each announcement was recorded on an 
endless piece of tape, the total length of 
which was ten inches longer than the exact 
amount needed for the recording. A sys- 
tem of free-running pulleys was devised 
and mounted on a piece of micarta on a 
plane parallel to the surface of the record- 
ing machine. One pulley was mounted in a 
slot so as to vary its position to take care 
of the varying lengths of tape. The output 

of the playback amplifier in the tape re- 
corder was connected to a voice-operated 
relay, the time constant of which was set 
at approximately two seconds. The relay 
itself was connected up in such a manner 
that two seconds after the modulation 
from the tape was ended the driving motor 
would stop. The motors were started man- 
ually by the telephone operator pushing a 
button and would continue to run until 
modulation stopped. A pressure pulley was 
added to the capstan drive to prevent slip- 
page of the tape. 

"The output of the playback amplifier 
could be connected cither indictivcl" to 
the PBX operator's headset or a small loud- 
speaker could be located close to the PBX 
operator's mouthpiece. However, the first 
method of coupling is in violation of the 
telephone company's tariffs". 

If Mr. David Lewis comes up with any 
more of these "ideas" we're sure there'll 
be fewer young ladies aspiring to a career 
that entails manipulating a switchboard — 
especially the KDKA variety. 


The Editors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
will be read with interest by recordists, can 
be used. Photographs, drawings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 






4, No. 


444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 



Have Been Done With Discs 

By Frederick W. Ziv, President 


Cincinnati, Ohio 

{JLvir'^one even remotely connected with 
the recording industry Xnows of the last- 
minute rush made by record companies and 
transcription firms last December to record 
as many of their hit tunes and musical pro- 
grams as possible before the Petrillo record- 
ing ban became law. In the following ar- 
ticle, written expressly for Audio Record, 
Mr. Ziv, head of one of the nation's top- 
flight syndicated transcription companies, 
tells in his own words how his firm bro/^e 
all stamina records in cutting a series of 
Guy Lombardo musical programs before 
the recording deadline.) 

It could only have been done with discs. 

The ink on the eontract between our eom- 
]iany and Guy Lombardo was hardly dry 
last fall when James C. Petrillo announced 
the ban on music transcriptions. The news 
came with startling suddenness and filled 
the air with frustrated hopes. Here were 
we, embarking on a very costly venture, 
bringing Guy Lombardo and his legendary 
aggregation to the "syndicated circuit" for 
the first time — and there was Mr. Petrillo, 
saying: "that's all, brother." 

But the AFM ukase had one compelling 
virtue which traveled by the name of "fore- 
warned is forearmed." The ban was not 
to go into effect until the last day of the 
year, December 31, 1947. True, it allowed 
only a couple of months to prepare our- 
selves for the coming void, but this was no 
time to cry in one's beard; this was the time 
for a drowning man to reach for that straw. 
The straw was a simple thing — recording. 

We began a frantic race against time. 
"Beat the deadline!" You see, it is vital to 
our interests to be in a position to offer not 
merely half a dozen programs in a contin- 
uing series but as many as a year or two 
of one-a-week shows, in short, a minimum 
of between 52 and 104 weekly packages. 

Guy Lombardo and his crew sweated it 
out with us. We had them over at a New 
York recording studio virtually day and 
night. Occasionally we v^/ould take half an 
hour off to eat at a nearby restaurant, but 
mostly we had food brought in. Sofas and 
chairs served for cat-naps. On one day 
alone we started and finished four — count 
'em — half -hour shows, and even David 
Ross, our Lombardo Show narrator, who 
(Continued on Page 3) 

■ Yale I niii-rs!t\ New^ ISurrau" 
In addition to collecting liisiunc rLcordings (see article below), Yale University makes good use 
of recording equipment, loo. Here, Miss Constance Welch, Associate Professor of Play Production, 
points out to Eileen Crawley, a student actress, the reasons why she might be cast for a certain 
role. Most students at Yale make recordings of their own voices for self-study and comparison. 

Recorded Voices of Many Famous Persons Filed 
In Yale University's National Voice Library 

Heart stopping moments in history, such as the charge of the 
bugler at Balaclava or President Roosevelt's address to Congress the 
day after Pearl Harbor, along with speeches, recitations and comments 

by many famous and historic personages 
are contained in the beginnings of what 
will some day be a vast voice library at 
Yale University in New Haven, Conn. 

Robert Vincent of New York City, who 
has made a hobby of collecting and record- 
ing voices since he was a boy donated the 
first discs of his "national voice library" to 
Yale in 1942, added to the collection last 
year and plans to add much more to it in 
the future. 

For two hours recently an Audio Record 
reporter listened to recordings picked at 
random from the collection — the voices of 
Presidents Taft, Wilson, Coolidge and 
both Roosevelts, Florence Nightingale and 
a host of other famous people. 

Possibly the most curious disc of the lot 
was made in London 57 years ago by Ken- 
neth Landfrey. His name has been for- 
gotten, but he was the bugler for the Light 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Boston Station Airs Views 
Of Average Citizen On New 
Show 'People's Microphone' 

Reversing the usual procedure of quizz- 
ing celebrities on current affairs, station 
WCOP-Boston has inaugurated a new re- 
corded feature titled "People's Micro- 
phone", which airs the opinions of John Q. 
Public. Following the logic that the aver- 
age man-in-the-street is the one that is 
affected by passage of new laws, etc., 
WCOP has taken the "People's Micro- 
phone" to markets, districts, stores, in 
short, anywhere that people congregate. 

Questions asked range from local pol- 
itics to international developments and the 
discs containing these opinions, running 
(Continued on Page 2) 


June-July, 1948 

cuLdla )§ record 

VOL. 4, NO. 6 

JUNE-JULY, 1948 

Published monthly by Audio Devices. Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better recording. Mailed without 
cost to radio stations, recording studios, motion 
picture studios, colleges, vocational schools and 
recording enthusiasts throughout the United 
States and Canada. 

WCOP's "People's Microphone" 

(Continued froiji Page 1) 
from fifteen to forty-five seconds in length, 
are broadcast in conjunction with latest 
news developments of the particular sub 
ject in question. On controversial issues, 
both points of view are broadcast on the 
same newscast. In an effort to present a 
true cross section, people in any and every 
walk of life are quizzed. 

A recent example of the operation of 
"People's Microphone", occurred during 
the height of the controversy over the aban- 
donment of service on the "Old Colony" 
railroad to commuters from Boston's South 
Shore. Walter Kidder, of the WCOP Spe- 
cial Events Dept., took the "People's Mi- 
crophone" on a regular run of the train, 
and gathered comments on how the pro- 
posed abandonment of service would affect 
the lives of these people. 

The operations of the "People's Micro- 
phone" call for a portable microphone and 
portable recorder. In most instances, the 
recordings are transferred to discs for air 
presentation. This allows for editing of out- 
side noises, and proper cueing. 

;o » o Lrx^<=Cv 

This 16 X 22 cardboard display, in five colors, 
is being used to promote the sales of Audio- 
discs and Audiopoints for home and cchool 
recording. The folders, prepared especially for 
non-professional recordists, give complete de- 
tails on the group of discs and styli particularly 
suitable for these users. 

This is ^ut^ JiiU 

How Many Discs Does He Weigh ? 

Iowa Station Sponsored Unique Contest 
To Find Answer for This Query 

This is the Tiny Hill Story (three times 
bigger than the Jolson Story) and how one 
of the most unique contests of all time 
came into being. 

Tiny Hill, it might be well to explain, is 
an orchestra leader. And a mighty big one, 
too (no pun intended). Tiny was ]ust fin- 
ishing a record breaking engagement at the 
Paramount Theatre in Waterloo, Iowa. 

Well, Tiny's popularity gave KAYX- 
Watcrloo an idea. Why not sponsor a 
"Tiny Hill Contest" and have the station's 
listeners guess "how many phonograph 
records would equal Mr. Hill's weight". 
The winner would receive a radio-phono- 
graph combination. 2.5 passes to the Para- 
mount Theatre and an album of Tiny's 
records personally autographed by him. 

Everyone agreed the contest was a good 
idea. So, the Iov»'a station's two popular 
disc jockeys, Ray Starr and Erling Jorgen- 
scn, got the contest off to a fast start by 
interviewing Tiny Hill via portable re- 
corder in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Starr and 
Jorgenscn explained the rules and the con 
test, w'hich was to last for one week, was on. 

The results were terrific. Over 2,000 
letters and cards poured into the Iowa sta- 
tion with guesses as to Tiny's weight in 
discs. And on the last night of Tiny's ap- 
pearance at the Paramount, he was 
weighed on the stage. How much? Exactly 
the equivalent of 787'/2 phonograph 
records. The contest winner: Mr. C. A. 
Moore, 617 Hope Ave., Waterloo. 


The Editors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
wi!l be read with interest by recordists, can 
be used. Photographs, draxvings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 

me t^ecoldlU 

By C. J. LcBcl, Vice President 


In the May issue we presented for the 
first time complete dimensional data on our 
cutting styli and on sapphire reproducing 
styli. We intentionally omitted data on steel 
reproducing points, for lack of space for 
the necessary explanation. 

The method of 
producing the tip 
curvature of a steel 
needle is entirely 
different from that 
employed with sap- 
phire. It is possible 
to grind and lap the 
gem tip to radius 
with diamond dust, 
with e.xact prede- 
termination of the 
dimension and 
shape. The surface 
is exceedingly smooth 
working on an extremely hard material can 
make a very fine finish. 

Because of the low cost of a steel needle, 
this individual lapping is not possible. In- 
stead, mass production methods are used, of 
such nature that most but definitely not all 
of the product is satisfactory. Needles of 
correct dimension and shape of tip are se- 
lected by individual measurement in a high 
power projection microscope (a "shadow- 
graph") . The projection screen carries a 
precision template on which are drawn 
limit curves. 

C. J. LeBel 

for a diamond lap 

Fig. I — W'/ien steel p\ayhac\ pomts have 
been shadowgraphed, the complete uni- 
formity of the styh is assured. 

The following procedure is used. High car- 
bon steel wire is fed into a special machine, 
in which the tip is ground to a sharp point, 
and the shank is cut to length. A batch 
of several million of the needles is then 
heat treated for maximum usable hard- 
ness, producing a hard, rough blank. This 
IS then tumbled with abrasive in a barrel 
or a leather bag. As the tumbling proceeds, 
the surface acquires a high polish and the 

June-July, 1948 


sharp tip begins to round ofF. Periodically, 
a handful are removed from the barrel and 
shadowgraphcd. When the average tip 
radius of the handful has reached the 
proper value, the entire batch is removed 
from the tumbling barrel and cleaned. If 
these were ordinary needles, they would 
then be packaged and shipped. They might 
even be marked "shadowgraphcd" because 
of the test of a handful out of a million. 

This process is not infallible. A consider- 
able number of needles are made, with tip 
defects which would lead to distorted re- 
production or to damaged grooves. 

There is only one way that 100% good 
points can be shipped: by shadowgraphing 
lOO^f of the product. It is very important 
that the envelope be marked "100%' Shad- 
owgraphcd". On the average, one needle in 
eight is rejected in shadowgraphing. Statis- 
tical experience indicates that in such a 
case the number of bad points which would 
be found in an envelope of uninspected 
needles, while averaging one in eight, might 
reach as high as one in three in any given 
package. Shadowgraphing then is valuable 
not for the good needles you receive, but 
for the bad needles you do not receive! 

Fig. 2 — Typical points rejected in shadow- 
graphing. The jirst two points are hoo\ed, 
the second two are hro\en off at the tip and 
the third two have spht points. 

In the shadowgraphing process a needle 
may be rejected for any one of the follow- 
ing reasons: 

1. Oversize point — Would cause poor 
tracking and distorted reproduction. 

2. Under size pomt — Would cause poor 
tracking and distorted reproduction. In 
many cases would damage a lacquer groove. 

3. Flat e?id — In most cases would da- 
mage both a lacquer groove and a high 
quality phonograph record. 

4. Split points — Would damage any 
record they played. 

5. Bro\en points — Would ruin any 
record they played, lacquer or pressing. 

6. Hooded points — Very likely to ruin 
any record they played, also very likely to 
cause poor tracking and distorted repro- 

A few typical rejects are shown in Fig. 2. 
It is evident that the owner of a good record 
library must be as careful with his needle as 
is the user of lacquer discs. 

Incidentally, in a properly designed 
shadowgraph the point rolls as it goes 
through the machine, so that the tip is in- 
spected from every angle. Otherwise, a 
diagonal flat might not be detected, for it is 
{Continued on Page 4) 

Dr. Walter H. Juniper (above), assistant dean and Professor of Latin at Baylor University, Waco, 
Texas, is one disc jockey who believes in recording his recordings. Confused? Well, we'll unconfuse 
you by explaining that Dr. Juniper, whose 'Jukebox of Yesteryear' a 15 minute program featuring 
old recordings cut during the 'roaring twenties', heard every Thursday evening throughout most 
of the school year over the campus radio Station, KIYS, records his entire program before it is 
broadcast in order that he might 'knock out the kinks' and edit the show until it is letter perfect. 
"Naturally," Dr. Juniper explrins, "my program is presented 'live" but the pre-broadcast 
recording makes it a far better presentation." The Baylor professor further advises that he 
uses his own portable recorder to record other nightly radio features for next day playback in 
order that his 6 year old daughter, Mrrgaret, who goes to bed a little too early, may hear (hem. 

Audio's "Chip -Chaser" Boon To 
Recordists With Thread Worries 

Probably one ot the most ingenious de- 
vices ever produced in the recording in- 
dustry was developed by Audio Devices, 
Inc. Next to the correct choice of recording 
disc and styli, this one gadget can do more 
to prevent a bad recording than any other 
single instrument. That gadget is the Au- 
diodisc Chip-Chaser. 

The Chip-Chaser does exactly what its 
name implies — it chases the thread cut 
from the record away from the cutting 
head and winds it around the turntable's 
center post, thus preventing thread tangles 
under the recording stylus. 

Another outstanding characteristic of 
this device is that it will not scratch or in 
any way impair the recording. 

The Chip-Chas;r, which is actually an 
aluminum-backed strip of felt, is attached 
to and supported by a cast-iron base placed 
at the side of the turntable. It conveniently 
tips up and out of the way when not in use 
and can be adjusted to fit any size turn- 
table. No screws or bolts are needed. 

For further information on the Audio- 
disc Chip-Chaser, sec your local distributor 
or write Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 

Only With Discs 

(Contini^ed from Page I) 

is nothing if not calm, burst out with a 
wild yelfthat spelled out B-R-A-V-O! 

Make no mistake about it, this was not 
merely a battle for the almighty dollar. 
This was a challenge to American genius, 
the American type of espirit-de-corps. The 
idea of a race against a little day on the 
cilcndar whetted our collective appetites; 
,is in the late war, it's the blueprints that 
win the battles. Our blueprints worked, 
and we won the battle. 

We produced enough in the series to 
give us a respectable backlog and an assur- 
ance that our sales force could go out and 
sell Lombardo to the hilt, which they did. 

Although production was stepped up 
almost beyond human endurance, one 
wouldn't know it on hearing the programs. 

Our producers, writers and directors 
worked night and day. Worked with Lom- 
bardo vocalists Don Rodney and Kcnnv 
Gardner . . . with music publishers on ad- 
vance hit tunes, with Lombardo arrangers 
on tunes not to be released until late in "48. 
The results: a series of radio programs that 
sets a new high in quality. 

But Lombardo and Ziv notwithstanding, 
it coiiJd only have been done with discs. 


June-July, 1948 

David H. Clift, Associate Librarian at Yale, 
listens to an original recording of the voice of 
the late William Lyon Phelps. The collection 
of discs shown are only a small part of the Yale 
National Voice Library which is being as- 
sembled by its curator, Robert Vincent of New 
York City. ■ v^ii.- rniuism N.-«s Hni-aii" 

Voices of Many Famous Persons In 
Yale Library 

(Continued from Page 1) 
Brigade who sounded the call for the 
charge at Balaclava in Octoher, 1854, and 
became one of the survivors of the im- 
mortal "600". 

In 1890 Landfrey recorded "the charge" 
on a wax cylinder, using the same bugle he 
carried into the "valley of death" and 
which had been carried by another bugler 
at Waterloo. The wax cylinder cracked be- 
fore the re-recording (which is now part of 
the Yale library) was made, but the charge 
rings out clearly, nevertheless. 

Another interesting recording our re- 
porter listened to was William Jennings 
Bryan's historic declaration at the 1896 
Democratic national convention — "You 
shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of 
gold, etc." — This recording was poor, how- 
ever, and did not reflect Bryan's true or- 
atorical ability. 

Unfortunately, space limitations 6o not 
allow us to mention, or list here, all the 
historical discs, with the voices of history's 
famous sons and daughters, which are 
filed in the Yale library, but among some 
of the more interesting recordings are: 
Calvin Coolidge making his "declaration of 
principles" in the 1924 campaign; Wood- 
row Wilson speaking in a conversational 
tone to an audience of farmers in the cam- 
paign 12 years before; Theodore Roosevelt 
giving his "covenant with the public" 
speech the same year and William Howard 
Taft voicing his views on capital and labor 
on an occasion in 1906. Then, there is a 
disc featuring the voice of A. Conan Doyle 
explaining how he came to write the Sher- 
lock Holmes stories. And, George Bernard 
Shaw in a dissertation called "Spoken 
English and Broken English" in which he 
blurts out: "You think you are hearing my 
voice, but unless you know how to use 
your gramaphone what you hear may be 
something grotesquely unlike any sound 

that comes from my lips." (Shaw maintains 
that the speed at which a phonograph plays 
has to be regulated for each individual 
speaker.) Another record was the voice 
of James Whitcomb Riley reciting some of 
his poetry. This disc proved that Riley was 
a much better writer than talker. 

Of all the discs filed at Yale, perhaps 
the recording made by Thomas A. Edison, 
which he made to be played at an electrical 
show in New York's Madison Square Gar- 
den in 190S, is the oldest. Although it has 
been preserved quite well, it is still pretty 
poor by modern standards. 

As mentioned before, Robert Vincent, 
the main contributor to the Yale voice li- 
brary, has been a recording enthusiast all 
his life. As a matter of fact, this hobby led 
to his appointment as chief of the United 
Nations sound and recording section. In a 
letter to the university in 1942 Vincent 
told a little bit about his recording work 
and his hopes for the voice library. 

In his letter, he predicted that the 
United States citizen of 2042 "will often 
make a trip to Yale and listen to the think- 
ers, the scientists, the artists of our time." 

He wouldn't hear much, though, if all 
thinkers, scientists and artists responded 
like an unnamed Harvard professor about 
whom Vincent told. When asked to say 
something so that his voice could be pre- 
served for posterity, the professor spoke just 
two words. They were "Hello, posterity." 

Special Recorded Broadcast 

To Italy Pictures Life In An 

American High School 

A typical day in an American high 
school was recorded and beamed to Italy a 
few weeks ago by the State Department's 
radio channel, "Voice of America". Italian 
government stations rebroadcast the pro- 
gram in Italy. 

The unrehearsed question-and-answer- 
hroadcast, direct from the classroom of a 
fourth-year Italian class in New Utrecht 
High School in Brooklyn, N. Y., was the 
second in a series of international educa- 
tional programs sponsored jointly by the 
State Department and the New York City 
Board of Education. 

Four New York City high school stud- 
ents of the Italian language and one recent 
arrival from Genoa, Italy took part in the 
recorded program which was conducted 
entirely in Italian. Each student was inter- 
viewed concerning the differences between 
American and Italian secondary schools by 
Fred Chambers, head of NBC's Italian di- 

The American student's greater freedom 
in choice of subject and greater individual 
responsibility in building the kind of sec- 
ondary education which will be most useful 
to him in later life were typical comments 
of the students. 

Disc Data 

(Continued from Page 3) 
generally visible from one direction and in- 
visible from another. 

Inspected and approved needles then go 
through a machine which sprays red and 
yellow lacquer on the shanks. They are 
then packaged and shipped. 

The standard dimensions of type No. 
151 shadowgraph steel needle are as fol- 

Overall length ^z^"; length of shank 'V ; 
diameter of shank .067"; tip radius .0025"; 
tip includedangle IS"^: material high car- 
bon steel. 

The New Hoskins Label 

After receiving numerous requests from 
its readers for information on where to 
obtain quality, but inexpensive, transcrip- 
tion labels. Audio Record is pleased to pass 
along the information that Hoskins Labels, 
210 South Franklin Street, Chagrin Falls, 
Ohio is now producing new, high quality 
gummed labels at relatively low cost. Avail- 
able in convenient quantities of 500 up, 
these labels are 3yg" in diameter with a 
5/16" concentric center hole and are ideally 
suited for radio station, or studio use on 
16", 12" and 10" discs 

Each Hoskins label has a "split back" 
for ease in stripping and is made ready to 
apply by the simple process of removing 
the glassine backing in the same manner as 
with a Band-Aid. No moistering or other 
treatment is required. The latex base ad- 
heres to the record base perfectly. 

The Ohio firm will imprint these labels 
to suit the individual needs of any radio 
station, commercial studio, school or other 
recording user. Imprints (station's call let- 
ters or concern's name) may be had in red, 
blue, green, brown or black on black and 
white background. 

The prices of the new Hoskins' labels, 
which incidentally have been enthusiastic- 
ally received by the trade, are as follows: 

Quantities of 500 $16.50 

Quantities of 1000 29.50 

Samples may be obtained by addressing 
a penny post card to Hoskins Labels or to 
SREPCO, 135 East Second St., Dayton, 



Vol. 4, No. 7 


444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

October, 1948 


This Year's Success Prompts 
Decision To Back '49 Contest 

All Senior High School Students In 

U. S.*-Canada Eligible To Win Many 

Cash Prizes in Writing Competition 

For the second straight year. Audio 
Devices, Inc. will sponsor the Radio Script 
Classification in SCHOLASTIC MAG- 
AZINES' 1949 ••Scholastic Writing 
Awards", (See Page 4 for Contest Rules 
and List of Awards) . 

Formal announcement of Audio Devices' 
continued sponsorship will be made at the 
School Broadcasting Conference in Chi- 
cago early this month. 

One of the outstanding attractions of 
the school term for the past twenty-six 
years, the "Scholastic Writing Awards" is 
one of five programs in the annual "Schol- 
astic Awards", conducted by the New 
York publishing firm. The "Awards" arc 
open to all students regularly enrolled in 
U. S. (*its possessions) and Canadian 
senior high schools. 

Radio Script Writing, the classification 
in which Audio Devices took part for the 
first time in the 1948 Competition, is one 
of the newest classifications in the "Schol- 
astic Writing Awards", and, judging from 
entries received in the contest just ended, 
one of the most successful. All told some 
500 scripts by student writers from forty- 
eight states, many of whom plan to make 
script writing their careers, v^jcre submitted 
test headquarters. 

Many of the '48 prize winning scripts 
were broadcast in various sections of the 
country and a number of them are benig 
pubhshed by Audio Devices in a booklet 
called "Audioscripts-1948". This booklet is 
now available for both school and general 
use. Price is$l .00 list — 60^' to schools. Copies 
may be obtained bv u'riting Audio Devices. 
Inc., 444 Madison Ave., Klew Tor\ 22, 7^. T. 

As in the 1948 Contest, Radio Script 
Writing will be divided into three classi- 
fications — Original Radio Drama, Radio 
Drama Adaptation and General Radio 
Script. The AER (Association for Edu- 
cation by Radio) will again closely coop- 
erate in the running of these and all con- 
tests in the radio script division. 

Regional contests will also again be 
{Continued on Page 4) 

Brunell Harvey (left). Manager of the Baylor University campus radio station KIYS, and Chief 
Announcer Dick Lewis check a recently recorded disc in the Texas school's studios. 

Acting -Announcing -Writing -Management, etc. 
All Included in Baylor U.'s Radio Itinerary 

By Edgar G. Will, Jr., Radio Department 


Waco, Texas 

The Radio Department at Baylor University, while comparatively 
young, has grown tremendously in size and prestige during the past 
four years of its existence. Under the skillful guidance of Professor 

John W. Bachman, the department not 

only produces programs for stations 
throughout Texas, but also has established 
a campus "wired-wireless" station which 
is operated by the students on the Baylor 

At the request of the Baylor Hospital 
in Dallas, the department is preparing pro- 
motion scripts to be aired, and is consider- 
ing making film strips for use in teaching. 
Recently, the offer came to produce a 
series of programs in Spanish for use over 
the National Network of Mexico, in an 
effort to strengthen the cultural under- 
standing between Texas and Mexico. In all 
of this work recordings play an important 

The Radio Department has approxim- 
(Continiied on Page 2) 

Outstanding Feature 
Article on Columbia's 
Long-Playing Record 

In the November issue of Audio Record, 
we will feature an outstanding article by 
one of Columbia Record's top engineers on 
their new long-playing micro-groove disc. 
You won't want to miss this account of one 
of the most revolutionary developments in 
the history of sound recording. All the facts 
surrounding the advent of the new 33 1/3 
rpm recording system which cuts up to 300 
grooves per inch. Be sure and watch for it! 


October, 1948 

cLuxUa ^ record 

VOL. 4, NO. 7 

OCTOBER, 1948 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed without 
cost to radio stations, recording studios, motion 
picture studios, colleges, vocational schools and 
recording enthusiasts throughout the United 
States and Canada. 

Hold-the-Line Price Policy 
Announced by Audio Devices 

According to a statement recently re- 
leased by William C. Speed, President of 
Audio Devices, the increased cost of alumi- 
num, which went into effect on September 
1st, will not result in higher prices for 

"We shall make every effort," Mr. Speed 
related, "to absorb this new aluminum price 
raise, and thus continue our prices at the 
present level. Our calculations indicate that 
with some improved efficiency, now under 
way, and continued large volume produc- 
tion, we shall be successful in this hold-the- 
price effort." 

In their ten year history. Audio Devices 
found it necessary to raise prices only once 
and that was in January, 1947 when, after 
years of increasing labor and material costs, 
the price of aluminum shot up 50%. But 
even then their average increase in disc 
prices was only 32%. 

Radio at Baylor University 

(Continued from Page 1) 
ately 275 students taking courses at this 
time — courses in radio Acting, Announc- 
ing, radio Writing, Production, and Man- 

In the Announcing classes — recordings 
are made at the beginning and end of the 
quarter, and wire recordings are used 
throughout the term to aid the students in 
developing a professional quality in their 
work. Discs are used for auditions if these 
arc desired by the students tor professional 
use, and for this work 12" Audiodiscs 
are used. 

In radio Acting — audition discs are cut 
only at the end of the course, although 
portions of dramatic productions are re- 
corded both on disc and wire throughout 
the term. The students grasp the finer 
points of radio acting by actually hearing 
themselves and others in a program. Also, 
the great dramas of the networks are re- 
corded off the air and used as illustrations 
throughout the course. For this work the 
16" Audiodisc is employed, at 33 1/3 rpm. 
(The quality and fineness of Audiodiscs 
make them ideal for this work. These pro- 
fessional programs are also played to 
Survey classes as representative of the 
types of programs on the air today) . 

In radio Production — recordings are 
used to bring out and point up the fine 
art of producing a smooth, logically con- 
nected program, and both student and pro- 

fessional programs arc recorded for illus- 

While the Radio and Speech Depart 
ments are separate at Baylor, there is close 
cooperation and the students in beginning 
speech courses cut records at the beginning 
and end of the term, as well as those 
students who are in the higher interpre- 
tative classes. These discs are helpful in 
judging the progress made by the indi- 
vidual students during the term. We also 
record special discs for speech correction 
work carried on by the Speech department. 
At the present time the Department of 
Drama is not using instantaneous record- 
ings extensively. 

Outside of study and interpretation, the 
largest and most important use of discs is 
for program presentation. Baylor Uni- 
versity does one of the series of the Texas 
Adult School of the Air known as "Have 
You Heard." These programs (musical in 
nature) are recorded in our studios and 
sent to the Texas State Network for broad- 
cast throughout the State. Each week the 
School of Music cooperates with the Radio 
Department in presenting the finest talent 
for these programs. 

Frequently we are asked to record special 
programs for the School of Music or other 
groups on campus. Many of the finest 
symphonies, musical artists, and choral 
groups have been reproduced on Audio- 
discs at Baylor. Each Christmas the Radio 
Department records Handel's "Messiah" 
performed by the Baylor Symphony, All- 
University Chorus and organ, which pro- 
gram is broadcast and re-broadcast by "ET" 
throughout the state. Recently, when the 
same orchestra and chorus presented the 
first Southwest performance of the "Cor- 
onation Te Deum" by Vaughn Williams, 
written for the coronation of George the 
6th, of England, a recording was made at 
both 78 rpm and 33 1/3 rpm in order that 
copies could be made for regular phono- 
graphs. These two last recordings were 
used in our regional broadcasting, inas- 
much as stations in Corpus Christi, Dallas, 
and Waco all used them. 

At Baylor University the National 
Radio Honorary Fraternity Alpha Epsilon 
Rho has a chapter which presents a half 
hour drama weekly over the campus radio 
station KIYS. These dramas are recorded 
and exchanged with other student stations 
in distant universities. 

A third type of use for recordings at 
Baylor is the purely "reference recording" 
— a famous speech (as in the case of 
President Truman speaking at Baylor a 
year ago in April) or the President of 
Harvard speaking on Atomic Power, or 
perhaps the Chapel presentation of the 
Poet-Laureate of Texas. For these occasions 
and many others, recordings by disc are 
invaluable. Due to the high percentage of 
music recordings, the quality of discs must 
be of the finest, and we have for some time 
used Audiodiscs for this work. 

Me f^ecoldWt 


By C. J. LeBel, Vice President 


One of the most serious problems faced 
by the recording disc industry, since the 
first lacquer coated disc was produced, is 
well summed up in the trite old saying — 
"It isn't the heat, it's the humidity." 

For humid condi- 
tions in the factor- 
ies have frequently 
held up production 
during the summer 
months. It is also 
true that a disc 
which has absorbed 
too much moisture 
would make a poor 
recording . The noise 
level would increase 
progressively while 
recording and the 
cut would get greyer and greyer. In fact, 
noise level increase of as much as 30 db has 
been observed — solely due to excessively 
humid conditions. If the cutting stylus were 
lifted and cleaned and the cut restarted, it 
would begin as quiet as originally, then 
grey up again. This problem, in varying 
degrees, has affected the entire lacquer disc 

Air conditioning disc factories would 
naturally seem the answer. But this does not 
help during transportation and storage 
under adverse conditions. It is not usually 
realized that water vapor v/ill even pass 
through most "waterproof" materials. Mois- 
ture absorbed during the summer can pro- 
duce bad effects months later, for it is re- 
leased much more slowly than it is absorbed. 
At the same time, it should be remembered 
that a "summer formula" of less good quali- 
ties is valueless, for discs bought in summer 
may be used in fall or winter, when no 
excuses for poor performance would be ac- 

In view of all this, the most logical solu- 
tion was to formulate a recording lacquer 
which was basically the same as before, but 
in which the effect of moisture was mini- 
mized. It was necessary to avoid the use of 
materials of unknown history and doubtful 

In doing this, our chemical formulator 
had a number of tools available. He had a 
large weather room in which discs could be 
stored and recorded. The humidity and 
temperature controls of this room could be 
set to maintain 90°F., 90% relative hu- 

Dctober, 1948 


nidity — holdintj the worst summer condi- 
ions 24 hours a day. 

He had data on the previous perform- 
ince in the field. As we have used serial 
lumbers since the start of production in 
1939, this made available an immense stoek- 
Dile of information. In fact, we are now. 
nore than ever, convinced that it is impos- 
sible to run a good system of quality control 
without such serial numbering. 

The first step was the substitution of 
materials in the same family as the mate- 
rial being replaced. Some changes were sug- 
gested on chemical grounds: replacement 
of short chain by long, for example. Each 
change involved several tests, for sometimes 
the proportion had to be changed at the 
same time. There was also some study of 
purer grades of material. This is an ex- 
ceedingly complex subject, because tests 
for organic impurities are specific in nature, 
and you need to know what you are looking 
for before you start. Ordinary measure- 
ments of physical properties, such as speci- 
fic gravity, refractive index, etc., are not 
apt to be very informative when the im- 
purity is present to the extent of only . 1 % . 
Spectrophotometric methods are useful only 
under certain limited conditions. 

The next step was the substitution of 
material taken from other groups listed in 
our previous studies as having good stability. 
Our biggest improvement, the one which 
finally brought success to the research, came 
from one such change. 

It was found necessary to test each pro- 
posed ingredient as a part of the complete 
formula — no short cuts were possible. This 
complicated the testing procedure, for when 
say 15 out of 20 ingredients have varying 
degrees of moisture sensitivity, a change in 
one will effect an improvement which is 
hard to detect. When we had narrowed the 
work down to 3 sensitive ingredients, the 
work proceeded very rapidly, so that as the 
spring of 1948 approached we knew we had 
a lacquer of superior reliability. 

Countless tests in our "weather room" 
show that the improved AUDIODISC is 
remarkably resistant to moisture absorption. 
Discs subjected to a temperature of 90° at 
80 to 90% humidity for many weeks show 
no increase in noise level while recording. 
Ordinary discs, under the same conditions, 
show a noise level increase of from l.i to 
25 db. 

Perhaps the best proof of the value of this 
long research program has come in the sum- 
mer just concluded — one of the most 
humid on record. For the first time in 
many years our factory and customers were 
able to run with no interruptions from the 
weather, with a product which recorded as 
well on the hottest and dampest day as it 
would have on a crisp fall or winter day. 

A typical studio sccnp during 
series "It Can Happen to Y( 

A ricording session of the American Cancer Society's edui. 
ii". The place: ABC's recording studios in New York. 

ACS's Use of Recordings in 
Fighting Dread Disease Totd 

Society's Radio Head Praises Discs 

The American Cancer Society's use of 
transcriptions in furthering the fight 
against one of the world's most dread 
diseases is divided into two categories: 1. 
Educational — a year-round activity and 2. 
Fund Raising — during the month of April 
which is their campaign month. 

The Society's first educational project 
in 1948 was the "It Can Happen To You" 
series. This series of recordings, which re- 
ceived a special award at the Ohio State 
University's Institute for Education by 
Radio, was presented on approximately five 
hundred stations across the country. 

The ACS's second educational series of 
half-hour programs "That These May 
Live" was released in May and indications 
are that these programs too have been and 
are being presented on many, many sta- 
tions throughout the nation. 

In July 1947 and again this past June 
the Society released for direct distribution 
to all radio stations in the U. S. a platter 
on which there were twelve one-minute 
announcements and six fifteen-second and 
six twenty-second station break announce- 
ments plugging one of their free booklets 
on cancer. As to the effectiveness of these 
recorded messages, ACS reports show that 
they averaged 20,000 requests per month 
on the first disc with literally a nation- 
wide pick-up. 

During the Society's campaign month, 
four double-face recordings were distrib- 
uted to every AM and FM station in the 
country. These discs included the recorded 
appeals of famous movie and radio per- 

sonalities, three five-minute musical pro- 
grams by top name bands, two dramatic 
htteen-minute programs explaining the 
status of cancer research as well as an ex- 
planation of the Society's educational work 
and an interview type program featuring 
Hollywood stars Joseph Cotton and Irene 
Dunne. This last disc was produced in such 
a manner that local announcers could in- 
terview the Hollywood star, bringing "na- 
tional glamor" right down to the local 
level. More than 1200 stations used some 
or all of the four discs during the campaign. 

When asked how important a role re- 
cordings played in his organization's work, 
Walter King, Director of Radio in the So- 
ciety's Publicity Department, commented: 
"I feel that they not only maintain a uni- 
formity of production levels but perhaps 
more important, they make it possible for 
us to service radio stations with cancer 
broadcast material in a manner which 
makes it usable with the least effort and 
assures availabHty for repeat use." 

All American Cancer Society recordings 
were recorded by the American Broadcast- 
ing Company, Recording Division, in New 

Audiodisc Chip-Chaser Well Received 

In the June-July issue of the "Audio 
Record", Audio Devices announced that 
simple device for thread removal, was again 
on the market. This announcement was well 
received by recordists, not only from the 
large number of orders received, but from 
the favorable comments on the part of some 
of the users. As the head of one recording 
studio wrote us: "We have one of your 
CHIP-CHASERS. It works like a charm and 
allows the operator much more freedom 
from nervous strain. I no longer fear 


October, 1948 

ck C. Packard 

Professor Frederick C. P.ick.ird, associ- 
ate professor of public speaking at Harvard 
University, is an avid recording enthusiast 
but, unlike most of his fellow recordists, 
his specialty is, of all things, poetr>'. 

Yes, Professor Packard began his un- 
usual hobby of collecting, for posterity, the 
voices of contemporary poets, reading their 
own verse, some 1 5 years ago. The noted 
British-American poet, T. S. Eliot, reading 
"Gerontion" and "The Hollow Men" got 
Frederick Packard started on his way and 
he has been going strong ever since. 

Throughout the years. Professor Pack- 
ard's hobby grew, and under the name of 
the Harvard Vocarium — a place where 
voices are kept and listened to — was set 
up as a library collection of poetry for 
student use. Today it is the largest single 
source of records of poets reading their own 
poetry in the world. 

And now, probably as a memento of his 
15th anniversary of recording outstanding 
poets. Professor Packard has once again 
recorded some of the works of T. S. Eliot. 
The new discs, which will include among 
others "Journey of the^Magi," "A Song 
for Simeon" and "Fragment of an Agon," 
will even be available to the public in lim- 
ited quantity. 

Packard's collection, which was estab- 
lished, because, as he puts it, "poetry 
should be listened to", includes poets such 
as W. H. Auden, Stephen Spender and 
many famed Harvard names, including 
Charles Townsand Copland, better known 
as "Copey" reading from the Bible; Bliss 
Perry, noted Emerson and Thackaray au- 
thority, and Robert HiUyer. 

The Harvard professor believes that the 
collection, which also contains many famed 
prose writers, has a great future in the 
educational world, particularly in the field 
of English. (Editor's Note: — Professor 
Packard advises that Audiodiscs have been 
used exclusively ever since the Harvard 
Vocarium has been in existence.) 

Audio To Again Sponsor Scholastic 
Script Contest 

(Continued jroin Page 1) 

staged throughout the country, and as we 
go to press many leading radio stations and 
newspapers have already volunteered to 
sponsor local contests m their areas. 

All entries in the 1949 National com- 
petition, to be judged by famous profes- 
sional radio writers, must be in on or before 
midnight March 4, 1949. (Where regional 
Writing Awards are held, work must be 
submitted to meet their earlier deadlines) 
Winners in the three classifications out 
lined above will he announced in May 
1949. Shortly before this announcement 
however, school principals will receive no 
tification, as well as the cash awards for 
presentation to their winning students. 

Rules and regulations governine the 
contests and a list of awards follow : 

Rules and Instructions 

1. All students in grades 10, 11 and 12 
in any public, private, or parochial high 
school in the U. S., its possessions, and 
Canada are eligible. They may enter any 
or all three of the classifications. 

2. No radio script will be considered for 
the Awards if it has been entered in any 
other national competition. 

3. Each script must contain a separate 
full-page sheet on the front; on this sheet 
should be written the following informa- 
tion : 

(a) Entrant's name, home address 
(street number, city, state). 

(b) Entrant's school and its address. 

(c) Name of entrant's teacher. 

(d) Name of entrant's principal. 

(e) Ageof entrant on March 4, 1949. 

(f) Entrant's grade. 

(g) Classification of entry (Original 
Radio Drama — Radio Drama 
Adaptation — General Radio 

(h) Entrant's signature. 

(i) Signature of entrant's teacher. 

4. All scripts must follow standard radio 
script form. Maximum length : J, 500 words. 
Shorter scripts preferred. 

5. Scripts in any one of the three classi- 
fications must be written in accordance with 
the following: 

(a) Originai Radio Drama — Must 
be an original treatment. 

(b) Radio Drama Adaptation — 
Scripts based on published mate- 
rial; fiction, biographies, history. 
Accompany script with source 
facts; title, author, publisher. 
Where possible, use non-copy- 
right sources. 

(c) General Radw Script — May be 
interviews, dialogues, news, 
sports, variety programs, continu- 
ity for music, etc. Any form ex 
cept drama. 

6. Although students are free to enter 

the Competition individually, it is recom- 
mended that work be included in the group 
sent by a teacher after preliminary elimina- 
tions at the school. 

7. Scripts should be typed or written 
legibly in ink, on one side only of paper 
8^2" X 11". Pages should be numbered. 

8. Entries may be sent at any time during 
the school year up to the closing date, March 
4, 1949. Mail direct to Scholastic Writing 
Awards, 7 East 12th Street, New York. 
N. Y. 

9. Scripts MUST be mailed flat (not 
folded or rolled) at the first class postage 
rate of 3^2 ^n ounce. 

10. The decisions of the judges and of 
the editors of Scholastic Magazines are 

1 1 . All scripts receiving national awards 
become the property of Scholastic Corpo- 
ration, and no other use of them may be 
made wit'nout written permission. 

12. No scripts will be returned. (Stu- 
dents should keep carbon copies of their 


1st. Prize (in each classification) — $25.00 
2nd. Prize (in each classification) — $15.00 
3rd. Prize (in each classification) — $10.00 
4th. Prize (in each classification) — $ 5.00 

(There wdl be five 4th Prizes m each 

Teachers of students winning first place 
in each classification — 25 Audiodiscs, 3 
Sapphire Recording Audiopoints. 3 Sap- 
phire Playback Audiopoints. 
Supplementary Award 

Fijr each script submitted found suitable 
for publication in booklet form — $10.00. 
(Short scripts of skits 200-900 words — 
maximum playing time 6 mins. — that 
other school groups can produce are espe- 
cially welcome.) 

Sounds (Recorded) In The Night 
Just to make positively sure thst all sounds 
corded show are authentic, producer James 
Allen (throwing hand cue in background) of 
Soundscript Productions, Hollywood, takes his 
cast right out into the street for a busy street 
sequence on one of the programs. The sound 
man though on this show must be quick with 
the records for jet-propelled planes, atomic 
bombs and many other scientific gadgets are all 
integral parts of the popular recorded juvenile 

fl ^llft^lfy 


Vol. 4, No. 9 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

December, 1948 

N.Y. Philharmonic Symphony Program Offers High 
School Students Special "Week End With Music" 

Voice Recordings Help Judges Make 

Final Selection of Musically Talented 


Tlic New York Philharmonic Symphony 
program, broadcast every Sunday after- 
noon over CBS stations, offers an unusual 
musical opportunity for talented high 
school students all over the country. 

Every week, three students arc given a 
two day trip to New York City, including 
the "rounds" of the finest operas, ballets, 
musical theatres, and concert halls — as 
guests of the Standard Oil Company (New 
Jersey), sponsor of the Philharmonic 
broadcasts. These fortunate and talented 
students are given an opportunity to meet 
some of the most celebrated artists of our 
time, and their week-end of exciting be 
hind-the-scenes adventures in Nev»- York's 
musical life is climaxed by an "on the air" 
interview with Mr. Deems Taylor, noted 
composer and commentator. This interview 
is a 10-minute feature of the New York 
Philharmonic Symphony broadcasts, giving 
America's most talented musical students 
an opportunity to tell the vast CBS radio 
audience about the high points in their 
"Week End With Music," and about their 
own musical experiences and accomplish 

The "Week End With Music" National 
Advisory Board has adopted the following 
plan for the nomination and selection of 
the student participants in the program. 
Any student, 16 years of age or over, en- 
rolled in the 10th, 11th, or 12th grades of 
any U. S. public, private, or parochial high 
school is eligible. Each high school in the 
United States is invited to nominate the 
student or students who are best qualified 
to appear on this program. After reviewing 
the official Nomination Forms sent in by 
the school principals, the Board selects a 
group of candidates — with the advice and 
assistance of the experienced Scholastic 
Awards staff of "Scholastic Magazine." 

The chosen candidates are then requested 
to visit their nearest CBS or other local 
radio station for a voice recording. These 

(Cdiitniiied on page }, Col. 1) 

Above: Deems Taylor (right) conducts Phil- 
harmonic broadcast discussion with guest 
students — left to right, Ervin Fennel, DuBois. 
Pa.; Carolyn Stanford, Chester, South Carohna; 
and Dorothy Jones, Shreveport, La. 

At Right: Lauritz Melchoir (left) of Metropol- 
itan Opera, radio and screen, entertains 
Philharmonic's guest students — left to right, 
Thora Vervoren, West Green Bay, Wise; Joyce 
Ristine, Maple Falls, Washington; and Dorothy 
Ruddell, Parkcrsburg, West Va. 


by William C. Speed, President 
Audio Devices, Inc. 

W. C. Speed 

As competition 
begins to stiffen 
between broad- 
casters, managers 
naturally turn a 
watchful eye on 
unnecessary ex- 
penditures. Yet. at the same time, it is in 
their own interests, as well as the inter- 
est of their sponsors, to maintain or 
increase their listening audience. The ob- 
vious conflict between these two factors — 
maximum operating economy and audience 
appeal — is probably the basic cause of 

radio's No. 1 problem. For when "econ 
omy" IS earned to the point where it affects 
the listening pleasure of a program — it 
ceases to be economical. Worse yet, it not 
only cuts down the listening audience — it 
may reflect unfavorably on the broadcast- 
ing industry as a whole. 

Any normally critical listener today 
knows that the general trend of program 
quality (as far as fidelity and easy listen 
ing are concerned) is definitely not upward. 
In fact many specific instances could be 
cited where transcribed program material 
(Continued on page 2, Col. 1) 


December, 1948 

CLudlali^ reccrrcL reproduction quality gets "psychoanalyzed" 


VOL. 4, NO. 9 


Published monthly hy Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed without 
cost to radio stations, recording studios, motion 
picture studios, colleges, vocational .schools and 
recording enthusia.sts throughout the United 
States and Canada. 

Radio's No. I Problem 

{Contimied from page 1 ) 

in particular is far from satisfactory. This 
situation is doubly unfortunate — and 
doubly questionable — when we consider 
these facts. A broadcast stations transmit 
ting equipment represents an investment 
of several hundred thousand dollars and is 
fully capable of sending out fine, distor 
tion-free programs. The sponsor invests 
perhaps hundreds of thousands of dollars in 
obtaining the finest talent and program 
material. But somewhere along the line, the 
quality of the entire program has been 
sacrificed in the name of economy. 

This, of course, is no news to the station 
engineers. They know where the trouble 
lies, but are not in a position to do anything 
about it — for they do not hold the purse 
strings. No engineer, for example, likes to 
use worn out music recordings — to see 
appropriations for transcription pickup 
heads and good points become tighter and 
tighter — or to have to use the same so-called 
permanent point pickup day after day in- 
terchangeably on shellac pressings, lacquer 
and vinyls. Yet it too often has to be done. 
Nor does the engineer like to use cheap 
wire recorders to delay a top quality pro- 
gram which cost a small fortune to produce. 
Because a good tape machine, costing 
around $3,000, can do an unusually fine 
job, it is too often the custom to use any 
tape on any machine with any bias, ignor- 
ing the end result — listening discomfort! 

Economy-minded studio executives may 
say — "After all, what difference does it 
make. The vast majority of radio sets arc 
miniatures and you can't tell the difference 
anyway." The fallacy of such thinking is 
obvious to the engineer. In the first place, 
it simply isn't true. Distortion added to 
distortion spells listener discontent even if 
he doesn't know just why. Moreover, it's 
the big set owners who often represent the 
highest purchasing power in a community 
— and they will unconsciously dial over to a 
"more agreeable" station. No broadcaster 
can afford to economize on his recordings 
if it means with fidelity. It's 
not fair to the artists, the spon.sors, the 
engineers, or to the public. 

All broadcasters know that recording is 
a most important link in program presen- 
tation. They also know that high quality 
recording equipment is available — equip- 
ment that represents but a small percentage 
of the total station investment. But do they 

C. J. LeBel, Vice President of 


Paper on "Psycho-Acoustics" 

The topic of high quality reproduction 
was attacked from a new viewpoint at 
the RMA Rochester Fall Meeting on No- 
vember 10 in Rochester, New York. This 
forum where radio set designers discuss 
their problems included a symposium on 
"What Constitutes High Fidelity," with 
the following speakers: Messrs. Harvey 
Fletcher of Bell Telephone Laboratories. 
John K. Hilliard of Altec-Lansing Corp., 
and C. J. LeBel of Audio Devices. All 
three speakers stayed well away from that 
badly abused term "high fidelity," concen- 
trating instead on the more significant 
problem of practical home reproduction. 

The subject of Mr. LeBel's talk, "Psycho- 
Acoustic Aspects of Higher Quality Re- 
production," was admittedly a challenging 
one. For it is a subject which seems to have 
been avoided, intentionally or otherwise, 
by all too many of the country's radio set 

In his talk, Mr. LeBel applied scientific 
principles in a frank appraisal of the ever- 
present but seldom recognized problem of 
listening fatigue — what causes it, how to 
measure it, and what can be done to min- 
imize it. 

The quality of sound reproduction which 
is considered as "acceptable" to the aver- 
age radio listener is a far cry from the 
sound quality that assures easy listening. 
And in designing to such minimum stand- 
ards, radio and phonograph manufacturer? 
are inadvertently limiting the use of their 
product. For when the listener gets tired, 
he simply turns off the set — without reahz- 
ing why he has ceased to enjoy the program. 
The cause is not immediately apparent for 
the reason that listening fatigue does not 
occur in the ear itself, but in the under- 
standing centers of the brain. 

According to Mr. LeBel, experienced 

realize how seriously a pooc i/iui!itv record- 
ing can affect their listening audience? If 
they don't, the problem is simply one of 
education. If they do — and still insist on 
"cutting corners" to cut costs, — they must 
recognize that they will eventually be cut 
ting down their own income. There's no 
future in that. 

To some of you, this may seem like an 
unfounded complaint. It's not. Here's a 
typical example. Not long ago, while travel 
ing through the midwest, I called on the 
chief engineer of a station just recently on 
the air. I was shown a beautiful new lokw 
transmitter — a splendidly treated studio- - 
excellent and expensive audio input equip 

C. J. LeBel 

merchandisers believe that the reproduction 
quality of a radio, phonograph, or hearing 
aid has a definite effect on product sales, as 
well as on the extent of their use. Certain 
particularly successful manufacturers have 
had designs which consistently have been 
less fatiguing than competitive designs in a 
comparable price class. The inexperienced 
listener, who never heard of "psycho- 
acoustics," expresses his appreciation for 
sound quality of reduced fatigue factor by 
such expressions as: "It sounds very 
natural," "The announcer seems right here 
in the room," and "This is very easy to 
listen to." 

In the hearing aid field, it has ixx-n 
demonstrated that a drastic reduction in 
fatigue effect, with no visible change in the 
instrument, doubled sales within a period 
of months. The listener response to a hear- 
ing aid, however, is more positive than to 
a radio set, since the former must be used 
twelve to sixteen hours a day — and it 
cannot always be turned off when the 
listener becomes fatigued. 

There are many factors that contribute 
to listening fatigue. Mr. LeBel listed ex- 
traneous "noise" as the worst offender, 
followed by harmonic and intermodulation 
distortion, artificially peaked loudspeaker 
response, and inadequate frequency re- 
sponse. As to the practice of slightly attenu- 
ating high frequencies, he stated that this 
was an effective interim way of rendering 
slightly distorted wide band reproduction 
(Continued on page 3, Col. 1) 

ment. By this time. I expected to see equalK- 
modern and excellent recording apparatus. 
But no — here was economy. Two wire 
recorders costing less than $150 each! Later, 
I checked with many of the local listeners. 
The general opinion was that a lot of this 
station's programs "didn't sound so good." 
We are all in this radio broadcast busi 
ness together. Set sales mean more listeners, 
improved transcribed shows mean more 
listeners, distortion free recordings mean 
more listeners. Radio's economic health 
depends on more listeners. These all ini 
portant listeners cannot be held with ]^ihn- 
programs whether poor in material or 
ruined with poor fidelity. 

December, !948 



{Continued from page 2) 

more palatable. He estimates that while 
only 50% of the listeners would be satis- 
fied to have available an upper eutofF 
frequeney of 5 Ke, 90% would be satisfied 
with 8 Kc, and 99% with 10 Kc. This, of 
eourse. assumes a system relatively free 
from fatigue factors — and without distor- 
tion or attenuation in the upper frequen- 
eies. It also recognizes that unwanted high 
frequencies could be removed by a tone 
control, whereas insufficient high frequen- 
cies to begin with, could not be later 
increased in bandwidth. 

With reference to the recording aspects 
of the problem, Mr. LeBel stated that 
lacquer disc recording quality has, for the 
past 10 years, been more than adequate to 
meet the demands of the most critical ear 
with minimum listener fatigue. Much im- 
provement, however, is still called for in 
improved consistency of manufacturing 
quality of higher quality pressings, and the 
improvement of amplifier circuits and 
speaker designs of reproducing equipment 
in the medium price radio field. 

Mr. LeBel summarized his remarks by 
saying that "the typical set engineer is very 
wrong in thinking that the auditory system 
is easy to deceive, and that perpetrating an 
acoustic fraud upon it will have no reper- 
cussions. The auditory system is inarticu- 
late, not uncritical. Whereas the eye 
rebels very fast at unsatisfactory conditions, 
the ear is slow to anger. Even when very 
angry, it does not directly reveal the cause 
of its rage. Yet, in the end, it enforces its 
desires surprisingly well. Every time a 
listener yawns and turns off his set his ear 
has won a victory." 

Week End With Music 

(Ci'ntinued from page 1) 

recordings are submitted to the National 
Advisory Board to help in determining the 
final selection of the students. This phase 
of the selection helps the judges to decide 
on those students whose "voice person- 
ality" will assure maximum interests in the 
broadcasts. As it is obviously impractical 
for the judges to hold personal interviews 
with each candidate, the voice recordings 
provide a very effective substitute. 

Any high school principals who are not 
already familiar with this "Week End 
With Music" program, can obtain nomina- 
tion forms and complete details by writing 
to the National Advisory Board, "Week 
End With Music," 48.S Madison Avenue. 
New Y.irk 2 2. N. Y. 


Top-Flight Artists and Authors 


Outstanding Audience Appeal 

The Institute for Democratic Educ.ition 
has recently completed thirteen new l.v 
minute recordings, in a series entitled 
"Stories to Remember." This is the 12th 
presentation of I.D.E.'s famous "Lest We 
Forget" series, which has been aired by 
leading independent and network stations 
from coast to coast. 

"Stories to Remember" feature such 
outstanding artists as Raymond M.issey. 
Geraldine Fitzgerald. Melvyn Douglas, 
Vera Zorina, Alan Ba.xter, Ralph Bellamy, 
Bambi Lynn, and Jay Jostyn, in radio 
adaptations of stirring, down-to-earth stor- 
ies by such well-known authors as B. J. 
Chute, MacKinlay Kantor, Dorothy Can- 
field Fisher, Irwin Shaw and Carl Click. 
These widely read works have been adapted 
for r.idio by ace script writers Sigmund 
Miller, Milton Wayne, Jack Bentkover. 
and Harold Franklin. All programs were 
produced by Harold Franklin, program di- 
rector of the Institute, under the skillful 
direction of Earle McGill. 

Recordings were made at Columbia 
Records, Inc., in New York, on 17l^ inch 
master AUDIODISCS. at 3 3 '/J rpm. The 
initial production includes 600 16-inch 
Vinylite pressings of each of the 1 3 pro- 
grams. Additional pressings will be made 
as required, to keep pace with the demand 

This new series is offered free of charge 
to the nation's radio stations and networks 
as a public service, to help remind all 
Americans that prejudice and discrimina- 
tion have no place in our truly American 
way of life. 

Mr. Franklin states that, as in the past, 
the new "Stories to Remember" recordings 
will be made available to schools and col- 
leges as soon as the radio broadcasts have 
been completed. I.D.E.'s previous series, 
rently being prepared for special release to 
.schools and colleges as an audio-education 
aid. For this purpose, it is planned to fol- 
low the procedure used so successfully by 
many radio stations in broadcasting these 
programs. The 13-minute transcriptions 
were followed by a 1 .vminute live panel dis- 

cussion, in which prominent local citizens 
expressed their opinions, with particular 
reference to local problems and conditions. 
These panel discussions were recorded by 
the radio stations, and it is planned to in- 
clude them on the reverse side of each of 
the "AMERICAN DREAM" pressings. 

Since the Institute is a non-profit organ- 
ization, devoted to the improvement of 
human relations, these discs are being of- 
fered for school use at cost. The thirteen 
recordings in previous series, together with 
a teachers' handbook, can be obtained com- 
plete for $l.T.OO, by writing direct to the 
Institute for Democratic Education, 41.") 
Lexington Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. 

The use of top-flight talent — artists, 
authors, scripters, and directors — has al- 
ways characterized the I.D.E. productions, 
and has contributed largely to their out- 
standing success and audience appeal. Last 
year's series, for example, won a special 
award in Variety's annual Showmanage- 
ment competition — received another first 
award at Ohio State University's 18th 
Institute for Education by Radio — and was 
honored by a Citation of Distinguished 
Merit from the National Conference of 
Christians and Jews. 

Director Earle McGill, actress Geraldine Fitz- 
gerald, and Harold Franklin, Program Director 
of I.D.E., prepare to record "The Lesson," by 
Mary Leslie Harrison — one of the thirteen 
transcribed dramas in the Institute's new series, 
"Stories to Remember." 


The Editors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
will be read with interest by recordists, can 

be used. Photographs, drawings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 


December, 1948 



(Ed. Note: This 


«hich Pro- 


qualified to speak, for 
lie tutored all ttiree 
Special Class Winners 
in the l?48 AER No- 
tional Script Writing 

George D. Griffin 

In the course of reading some three 
thousand radio scripts written by students 
;it New York University, I have discovered 
;i fact which should have been obvious but 
was, for a time, obscured by the routine of 
trying to give personal attention to the 
problems of many individual writers — that 
my students do their best work when con- 
fronted with obstacles. 

Beset with an eager group of young 
talents enchanted with the medium of radio 
and completely fascinated with the idea of 
being writers for that medium, I have found 
that my goals for them are reached most 
quickly, with less wear and tear on me as 
an individual and writer, if I see to it that 
they have little opportunity to indulge 

For instance, told to write a commercial, 
they flounder about in their freedom and 
wind up with something entirely too rem- 
iniscent of a well-known advertisement. 
Assigned a public service announcement, 
they tend to write about matters which are 
obviously of little interest and importance 
even to them. And given the assignment 
of writing a thirty-minute dramatic script 
on subject matter of their own choice, they 
go off on the familiar tangent of the visitor 
to or from Heaven, they get on a soap bo.x 
and philosophize (in very poor radio) 
about the faults of mankind, or they throw 
themselves with great relish into the psy- 
chological abyss and wallow about with 
various kinds of demented souls — usually 
the variety seen on the local movie screen 
last week. 

Worse yet, they repeatedly make every 
error in the radio writing tradition: lack 
of self-identification, long sentences and 
speeches, multi-directional plots, ineffective 
characterizations, weak tag lines, overload- 
ing of sound cues, and so on ad infinitum. 
In short, they waste both their time and 

But — forewarned that the budget for a 
.show necessitates restricting the cast to 
tour or five characters, they produce a tight 
.•script with clear-cut conflict and character- 
izations. Assigned a script about a country 
doctor to be played by Jean Hersholt, they 
iinalyze the program in great detail ;ind arc 
rca.sonably effective even if they hiive a 
healthy disgust for such personalities. Sup- 
posedly transported to a community whose 

To Get the Best Out of Student Scripters 

by Prof. George D. Griffin 
N. Y. University 

radio programs are produced by amateurs 
with no sound effect records, they quit 
asking for the sound of a whipporwill heard 
above the roar of an airplane engine. The 
result: the development of real feeling for 
the special char:ieteristies of the radio 

One of the most successful assignments I 
hiive given has been a script for the contest 
conducted by the Association for Education 
by R.idio, and in particular that classifica- 
tion sponsored by AUDIO DEVICES. 
INC. Writing an interesting five-minute 

dramatization designed for production in 
the home or school is a real challenge, re- 
quiring, ;is it does, great economy and 
clarity of expression, simplicity of produc 
tion demands, and single direction of plot. 
It makes almost impossible the most com 
mon faults of the student writer. And I 
cannot recommend it too highly to other 
teachers whose students have talent but arc 
prone to ignore the fundamentals of prac- 
tical radio writing in their enthusi:ism tn 
ape Oboler and Corwin. 


Testing-1, 2, 3 

Testing-l, 2, 3 

Testing-1, 2, 3 

Here's how coiithwal testing 
assures consistent, uniform, 
and lasting quality in 
every flllfllOQISC 

All incoming lacquer mate- 
rials are tested for: 

1. Chemical purity 

J. Uniformity 

3. Physical properties 

Each lacquer mix is tested he- 
fore going into production: 

1. For solids 

2. For viscosity 

3. A test coating is made 
and checked for fre- 
quency response, sur- 
face noise, wear, and 
thread throw 

Coating process checks 
oughout the day hy plaul 

1. Temperature contr(d 

2. Humidity control 

3. Evaporation rate and fi- 
nal cure 

/<uA„Asr< .ii-f munuliiclurtJ ,n lit,' 

Final inspection of finished 


1. Visual grading by trained 

2. Spot checking by chief 

3. Production discs tested 
for surface noise, wear 
ami thread behavior at 
regular intervals 

In addition, sample discs of 
each day's production are filed 
by serial number, with the com- 
plete history of actual record- 
ing behavior under controlled 
conditions. This practice, which 
has been followed for the past 
10 years, has helped us make 
many refinements and im- 
provements in lacquer formu- 
lation and control. 

IF you want to be SURE 
of matchless recording qual- 
ity—ask your dealer for 

■J.S.A. under exclusive license jrom 

Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

York 16, N. Y. 


£n^y^y)AeaX. £^ £neffi.)e/i/e^ 




Vol. 4, No. 9 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

December, 1948 

N.Y. Philharmonic Symphony Program Offers High 
School Students Special "Week End With Music" 

Voice Recordings Help Judges Make 

Final Selection of Musically Talented 


The New York Philharmonic Symphony 
program, broadcast every Sunday after- 
noon over CBS stations, offers an unusual 
musical opportunity for talented high 
school students all over the country. 

Every week, three students are given a 
two day trip to New York City, including 
the "rounds" of the finest operas, ballets, 
musical theatres, and concert halls — aj 
guests of the Standard Oil Company (New 
Jersey), sponsor of the Philharmomc 
broadcasts. These fortunate and talented 
students are given an opportunity to meet 
some of the most celebrated artists of our 
time, and their week-end of exciting be- 
hind-the-scenes adventures in New York's 
musical life is climaxed by an "on the air" 
interview with Mr. Deems Taylor, noted 
composer and commentator. This interview 
is a 10-minute feature of the New York 
Philharmonic Symphony broadcasts, giving 
America's most talented musical students 
an opportunity to tell the vast CBS radio 
audience about the high points in their 
"Week End With Music," and about their 
own musical experiences and accomplish 

The "Week End With Music" National 
Advisory Board has adopted the following 
pl.ui for the nomination and selection of 
the student participants in the program. 
Any student. 16 years of age or over, en- 
rolled in the Kitli, 11th, or 12th grades of 
any U. S. public, private, or parochial high 
school is eligible. Each high school in the 
United States is invited to nominate the 
student or students who are best qualified 
to appear on this program. After reviewing 
tiie official Nomination Forms sent in by 
the school principals, the Board selects a 
group of candidates — with the advice and 
assistance of the experienced Scholastic 
Awards staff of "Scholastic Magazine." 

The chosen candidates are then requested 
to visit their nearest CBS or other local 
radio station for a voice recording. These 

(Cmitniued on pa^e }, Col. 1) 

Above: Deems Taylor (right) conducts Phil- 
harmonic broadcast discussion with guest 
students — left to right, Ervin Fennel, DuBois. 
Pa.; Carolyn Stanford, Chester, South Carolina; 
and Dorothy Jones, Shreveport, La. 

Al Right: Lauritz Mclchoir (left) of Metropol- 
itan Opera, radio and screen, entertains 
Philharmonic's guest students — left to righ*. 
Thora Vervoren, West Green Bay, Wise; Joyce 
Ristinc, Maple Falls, Washington; and Dorothy 
Ruddell, Parkersburg, West Va. 


by William C. Speed, President 
Audio Devices, Inc. 

W. C. Speed 

As competition 
begins to stiffen 
between broad- 
casters, managers 
naturally turn a 
watchful eye on 
unnecessary ex- 
penditures. Yet, at the same time, it is in 
their own interests, as well as the inter- 
est of their sponsors, to maintain or 
\ncrease their listening audience. The ob- 
vious conflict between these two factors — 
maximum operating economy and audience 
appeal — is probably the basic cause of 

radio's No. 1 problem. For when "econ- 
omy" is carried to the point where it affects 
the listening pleasure of a program — it 
ceases to be economical. Worse yet, it not 
only cuts down the listening audience — it 
may reflect unfavorably on the broadcast- 
ing industry as a whole. 

Any normally critical listener today 
knows that the general trend of program 
quality (as far as fidelity and easy listen 
ing are concerned) is definitely not upward. 
In fact many specific instances could be 
cited where transcribed program material 
(Continued on page 2, CoJ. 1) 


December, 1948 



VOL. 4, NO. 9 


Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed without 
cost to radio .stations, recording studios, motion 
picture studios, colleges, vocational schools and 
recording enthusiasts throughout the United 
States and Canada. 

Radio's No. I Problem 

(Cmitiruted from I'dof 1) 

in i.s far I'mm satisfactory. Thi.s 
.situation is doubly unfortunate — and 
doubly questionable — when we consider 
these facts. A broadcast station's transmit 
ting equipment represents an investment 
of several hundred thousand dollars and is 
fully capable of sendini; out fine, distor 
tion-trce proi;rams. The sponsor invest.^ 
perhaps hundreds of thousands of dollars in 
obtaining the finest talent and program 
material. But somewhere along the line, the 
quality of the entire program has been 
.sacrificed in the name of economy. 

This, of course, is no news to the station 
engineers. They know where the trouble 
lies, but are not in a position to do anything 
about it- for they do not hold the purse 
strings. No engineer, for example, likes to worn out music recordings — to see 
appropriations for transcription pickup 
heads and gtxid points become tighter and 
tighter — or to have to the same .so-called 
permanent point pickup day after day in- 
terchangeably on shellac pressings, lacquer 
and vinyls. Yet it too often has to be done. 
Nor does the engineer like to use cheap 
wire recorders to delay a top quality pro- 
gram which cost a small fortune to produce. 
Because a good tape machine, costing 
around $.^,000, can do an unusually fine 
job, it IS too often the custom to use any 
tape on any machine with any bias, ignor- 
ing the end result — li.stening di.scomfort! 

Economy-minded studio executives may 
say--"After all, what difference does it 
make. The vast majority of radio sets are 
miniatures and you can't tell the difl^crence 
anyway." The fallacy of such thinking is 
obvious to the engineer. In the first place, 
it simply isn't true. Distortion added to 
di.stortion spells listener discontent even if 
he doesn't know just why. Moreover, it's 
the big set owners who often represent the 
highest purchasing power in a community 
--and they will unconsciously dial over to a 
"more agreeable" station. No broadcaster 
can afford to economize on his recordings 
if it means compromise with fidelity. It's 
not fair to the artists, the spon.sors, thc 
engineers, or to the public. 

All broadcasters know that recording is 
a most important link in program pre.scn 
tation. They also know that high >.|uality 
recording equipment is available equip 
ment that represents but a small percentage 
of the total station investment. But do they 

C. J. LeBel, Vice President of 


Paper on "Psycho-Acoustics" 

The topic of high qu.ility reproduction 
was attacked from a new viewpoint at 
the RMA Rochester Fall Meeting on No- 
vember 10 in Rochester, New York. This 
forum where radio set designers discuss 
their problems included a symposium on 
"What Constitutes High Fidelity," with 
the following speakers: Messrs. Harvey 
Fletcher of Bell Telephone Laboratories, 
John K. Hilliard of Altec-Lansing Corp.. 
and C. J. LeBel of Audio Devices. All 
three speakers stayed well away from that 
badly abused term "high fidelity," concen- 
trating instead on the more significant 
problem of practical home reproduction. 

The subject of Mr. LeBel's talk. "P.sycho- 
Acoustic Aspects of Higher Quality Re- 
production," was admittedly a challenging 
one. For it is a subject which seems to have 
been avoided, intentionally or otherwise, 
by all too many of the country's radio set 

In his talk, Mr. LcBel applied scientific 
principles in a frank appraisal of the ever- 
present but seldom recognized problem of 
li.stenmg fatigue— what causes it, how to 
measure it, and what can be done to min- 
imize it. 

The quality of sound reproduction which 
is considered as "acceptable" to the aver- 
age radio listener is a far cry from the 
sound quality that assures listening. 
And in designing to such minimum stand- 
ards, radio and phonograph manufacturers 
are inadvertently limiting the use of their 
product. For when the listener gets tired, 
he simply turns ofi" the set — without realiz- 
ing why he has ceased to enjoy the program. 
The cause is not immediately apparent for 
the reason that li.stening fatigue does not 
occur in the ear itself, but in the under- 
standing centers of the brain. 

According to Mr. LcBcl, experienced 

realize how seriously a poor quality record- 
ing e.ui affect their listening audience? If 
they don't, the problem is simply one of 
education. If they do — and still on 
"cutting corners" to cut costs, they must 
recognize they will eventually be cut 
ting down their own income. There's no 
future in that. 

To some ot you. this may seem like an 
unfounded complaint. It's not. Here's a 
typical example. Not long ago, while travel- 
ing through the midwest, I called on the 
chief engineer of a station just recently on 
the air. I shown a beautiful new lukw 
transmitter- a splendidly treated studio 
excellent and expensive audio input equip 

C. J. LeBel 

merchandisers believe that the reproduction 
quality ot a radio, phonograph, or hearing 
aid has a definite effect on product sales, as 
well as on the extent of their use. Certain 
particularly successful manufacturers have 
had designs which ct)nsistently have been 
less fatiguing than competitive designs in .i 
comparable price class. The inexperienced 
listener, who never heard of "p.syeho- 
aeoustics," expresses his appreciation for 
.sound quality of reduced fatigue factor by 
such expressions as: "It sounds very 
natural," "The announcer seems right here 
in the room," and "This is very easy to 
listen to." 

In the hearing aid field, it has been 
demonstrated a dr.istic reduction in 
fatigue effect, with no visible change in the 
instrimient. doubled sales within a period 
ol months. The listener response to a hear 
ing aid, however, is more positive th.ui to 
a radio set, since the former must be used 
twelve to sixteen hours a day — and it 
cannot always be turned off when the 
listener becomes fatigued. 

There are many factors contribute 
to listening fatigue. Mr. LeBel listed ex 
traneous "noise" as the worst offender, 
followed by harmonic and intermodulation 
distortion, artificially peaked loudspc.ikcr 
response, and inadequate frequency re 
sponse. As to the practice of slightly :ittenu 
ating high frequencies, he stated that this 
was an effective interim way of rendering 
slightly distorted wide band reproduction 
(ContiHiied i))i fidge .i. Col. 1) 

ment. By this time, I expected to see equ.ilK' 
modern and excellent recording apparatus. 
But no — here was economy. Two wire 
recorders costing less than $1.^0 each! Later. 
I checked with many of the local listeners. 
The opinion was that a lot of tlii< 
.station's programs "didn't sound so good." 
We are all in this radio broadcast busi together. Set sales mean more listeners. 
improved transcribed shows more 
listeners, distortion free recordings me.iii 
more listeners. Radio's economic lie:ilth 
depends on more listeners. These all im 
portant listeners cannot be held with poor 
programs whether poor in or 
ruined with poor fidelity. 

December, 1948 



(Continued from /^tifje 2) 

more p.ihitahlc. He cstim;itcs wliilo 
only 30'; of the listeners would he satis 
tied to have available an upper cutoff 
frequency of 5 Kc, 9t)''/( would he satisfied 
with S Kc, and W^r with 10 Kc. This, of 
course, assumes a system relatively tree 
from fatigue factors — and without distor- 
tion or attenuation in the upper frequen- 
cies. It also recognizes that unwanted high 
frequencies could he removed by a tone 
control, whereas insufficient high frequen- 
cies to begin with, coukl not be Liter 
increased in bandwidth. 

With reference to the recording aspects 
of the problem, Mr. LcBcl stated that 
lacquer disc recording qu.dity has, for the 
past 10 years, been more than adequate to 
meet the demands of the most critical ear 
with muiimum listener fatigue. Much im 
provemeiit, however, is still called tor in 
improved consistency of manufacturing 
quality of higher quality pressings, and the 
improvement of amplifier circuits and 
speaker designs of reproducing equipment 
in the medium price radio field. 

Mr. LcBcl summarized his remarks by 
saying that "the typical set engineer is very 
wrong in thinking that the auditory system 
is easy to deceive, and that perpetrating an 
acoustic fraud upon it will have no reper- 
cussions. The auditory system is inarticu- 
late, not uncritical. Whereas the eye 
rebels very fast at unsatisfactory conditions, 
the ear is slow to anger. Even when very 
angry, it does not directly reveal the cause 
of its rage. Yet, in the end, it enforces its 
desires surprisingly well. Every time a 
listener yawns and turns off his set his ear 
has won a victory." 

Week End With Music 

(Ccntniiiecl jrtnn l>a;j,c 1) 

recordings are submitted to the N.itional 
Advisory Board to help in determining the 
final selection of the students. This phase 
of the selection helps the judges to decide 
on those students whose "voice person- 
.ility" will assure maximum interests in the 
broadcasts. As it is obviously impractical 
for the judges to hold personal interviews 
with each candidate, the voice recordings 
|irovide a very effective substitute. 

Any high school principals who are not 
already familiar with this "Week End 
With Music"" program, can obtain nomina- 
tion forms and complete details by writing 
to the N.itional Advisory Board, "Week 
End With Music," 4S.S Madison Avenue. 
New Y.irk 2 2, N. Y. 


Top-Flight Artists and Authors 


Outstanding Audience Appeal 

The Institute for Deniocr.itic Educ.itioii 
has recently completed thirteen new l.'i- 
minute recordings, in . a series entitled 
"Stories to Remember." This is the 12th 
presentation of I.D.E.'s famous "Lest We 
Forget"" series, which has been aired by 
le.iding independent and network stations 
from coast to coast. 

".Stories to Remember"" feature such 
outst.mding .u'tists as Raymond Massey. 
CJeraidine Fitzgerald, Melvyn Douglas, 
Vera Zorina, Alan Baxter, Ralph Bellamy. 
Bambi Lynn, and Jay Jostyn, in radio 
adaptations of stirring, down-to-earth stor 
ies by such well-known authors as B. J. 
C21uite, MacKinlay Kantor, Dorothy Can- 
field Fisher, Irwin Shaw and Carl Click. 
These widely read works have been adapted 
for radio by ace script writers Sigmund 
Miller. Milton Wayne. Jack Bentkover. 
,ind Harold Fnmklin. All programs were 
produced by Harold Fr.mklin, program di- 
rector of the Institute, under the skillful 
direction of Earle McCill. 

Recordings were made at (2olumbi,i 
Records, Inc., in New York, on IV',/, inch 
master AUDIODISCS. at 3.V.', rpm The 
initial production includes 600 Id inch 
Vinylite pressings of each of the \y pro 
grams. Additional pressings will be made 
as required, to keep pace with the demand. 
This new series is offered free of charge 
to the nation's radio stations and networks 
.is a public service, to help remind all 
Americans that prejudice ,ind discrimina 
tion have no place in our truly Ami'rican 
way of life. 

Mr. Franklin states that, as in the, 
the new "Stories to Remember"" recordings 
will be made available to schools and col- 
leges as soon as the radio broadcasts have 
been completed. I.D,E,"s previous series, 
rently being prepared for special release to 
,schools and colleges as an audio-education 
aid. For this purpose, it is planned to fol- 
low the procedure used so successfully by 
many radio stations in bro.idcasting these 
programs. The l.S-minute transcriptions 
were followed by a 1 .Vminute live panel dis- 

cu.ssion, in which prominent local citizens 
expressed their opinions, with particular 
reference to local problems and conditions. 
These p.iiiel discus-sions were recorded by 
the radio stations, and it is planned to in- 
clude them on the side of each of 
the "AMERICAN DREAM"" pressings. 

Since the Institute is a non-profit organ- 
ization, devoted to the improvement of 
human relations, these discs are being of- 
fered tor school use at cost. The thirteen 
recordings in previous series, together with 
a teachers" handbook, can be obtained com- 
plete for $l.=i.OO, by writing direct to the 
Institute for Democratic Education, 41.'^ 
Lexington Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. 

The of top-tlighl talent — artists, 
.lulhors, scripters, .md directors- has al- 
ways characterized the IDE. productions, 
and has contributed largely to their out- 
standing success and audience appeal. Last 
year's series, for example, won a special 
•iw.ird in Variety's annual Showmanage- 
ment competition -- received another first 
award at Ohio State University's ISth 
Institute for Education by Radio — and was 
honored by a Citation of Distinguished 
Merit from the National Conference of 
Christians and Jews. 

Director K.irlc McGill, actress Geraldinc Fitz- 
gerald, and Harold Franklin, Program Director 
of I.D.E., prepare to record "The Lesson," by 
Mary Leslie Harrison — one of the thirteen 
transcribed dramas in the Institute's new series, 
"Stories to Remember." 


Ihe Lditors of Audio Record welcome 
contributions from its readers. Any news 
concerning your recorded programs or 
other recording activities, that you believe 
will be read with interest by recordists, can 

be used. Photographs, dr.iwings, or graphs 
needed to illustrate your material will be 
appreciated also. Address all contributions 
to: — The Editor, Audio Record, 444 Madi- 
son Ave., New York 22, N. Y. 


Decamber, 1948 

How To Get the Best Out of Student Scrlpters 

by Prof. George D. Griffin 

(Ed. Note: This Is a 
subject on which Pro- 
fessor GriHin is well 
qualified to speak, for 
he tutored all three 
Special Class Winners 
in the 1946 AER Na- 
tional Script Writing 

George D. Griffin 

In the course of reading some three 
thousand radio scripts written by students 
at New York University, I have discovered 
a fact which should have been obvious but 
was, for a time, obscured by the routine of 
trying to give personal attention to the 
problems of many individual writers — that 
my students do their best work when con- 
fronted with obstacles. 

Beset with an eager group of young 
talents enchanted with the medium of radio 
and completely fascinated with the idea of 
being writers for that medium. I have found 
that my goals for them are reached most 
quickly, with less wear and tear on me as 
an individual and writer, if I see to it that 
they have little opportunity to indulge 

For instance, told to write a commercial, 
they flounder about in their freedom and 
wind up with something entirely too rem- 
iniscent of a well-known advertisement. 
Assigned a public service announcement, 
they tend to write about matters which are 
obviously of little interest and importance 
even to them. And given the assignment 
of writing a thirty-minute dramatic script 
on subject matter of their own choice, they 
go off on the familiar tangent of the visitor 
to or from Heaven, they get on a soap box 
and philosophize (in very poor radio) 
about the faults of mankind, or they throw 
themselves with great relish into the psy- 
chological abyss and wallow about with 
various kinds of demented souls — usually 
the variety seen on the local movie screen 
last week. 

Worse yet, they repeatedly make every 
error in the radio writing tradition: lack 
of self-identification, long sentences and 
speeches, multi-directional plots, ineffective 
characterizations, weak tag lines, overload- 
ing of sound cues, and so on ad infinitum. 
In short, they waste both their time and 

But — forewiirned that the budget for a 
show necessitates restricting the cast to 
lour or five characters, they produce :i tight 
script wMth clear-cut conflict and ch;iracter- 
iziitions. Assigned a script about a country 
doctor to be played by Jean Hersholt, they 
analyze the program in great detail and arc 
reasonably effective even if they have it 
licidthy disgust for such personalities. Sup- 
po.sedly tnmsported to a community whose 

N. Y. University 

radio programs are produced by amateurs 
with no sound effect records, they quit 
.isking h)r the sound of a whipporwill heard 
above the roar of an airplane engine. The 
result: the development of real feeling for 
the special characteristics of the radio 

One of the most successful assignments I 
have given has been a script for the contest 
conducted by the Association for Education 
by Radio, and in particular that classifica- 
tion sponsored by AUDIO DEVICES. 
INC. Writing an interesting five-minute 

dramatization designed for [production in 
the home or school is a rc:il challenge, re- 
quiring, as it does, great economy and 
clarity of expression, simplicity of produc 
tion demands, and single direction of plot. 
It makes almost impossible the most com- 
mon faults of the student writer. And I 
cannot recommend it too highly to other 
teachers whose students have talent but are 
prone to ignore the fundamentals of pr;ic- 
tic;il radio writing in their enthusi;ism to 
ape Oboler and Corwin. 



Testing-1, 2, 3 

Testing-1, 2, 3 

Testing-1, 2, 3 

Here's how continual testing 
assures consistent, uniform, 
and lasting quality in 
every Cl Il cl lOcllSC 

All incoming lacquer mate- 
rials are tested for: 

1. Chemical purity 

2. Uniformity 

3. Physical properties 

Each lacquer mix is teslcil Ite- 
fore going into produi liun: 

1. For solids 

2. For viscosity 

3. A test coaling is nia<lr 
and checked for fre- 
quency response, sur- 
face noise, wear, and 
thread throw 

Coating process clucks 
throughout ihe day hy plant 

1. Temperature conlml 

2. Humidity control 

3. Evaporation rate and fi- 

nal cure 

Final inspection of finished 

1. Visual grading by trained 

2. Spot checking by chief 

3. Production discs tested 
for surface noise, wear 
and thread behavior at 
regular intervals 

111 addition, sample discs of 
each day's production are filed 
hy serial number, with the com- 
plete history of actual record- 
ing behavior under controlled 
Condi lions.This practice, which 
has been followed for the past 
10 years, has helped us make 
many refinements and im- 
provements in lacquer formu- 
lation and control. 

IF you want to be SURli 
of matchless recording qual- 
ity—ask your dealer for 

<cluied In llie U.S..4. undr, 
PYRAL, S.A.R.L., Pans. 

Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. 

Ni» Ygrk 16. N. Y. 


tAeyM,/iAeaA £c^ Cnefn^ie^c 




Vol. 5, No. 2 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

February, 1949 

WPIC Transcribes Complete Series of Dickens Novels 

Distincrive program feature sets a new 
high in enduring literary value 

by Evelyn Keller, Publicity Director, 
Radio Station WPIC, Sharon, Penna. 

More than three years of writing and 
research preceded the inauguration, over 
Radio Station WPIC, Sharon, Pennsyl- 
vania, on September 26, 1948, of a new 
series of weekly half-hour radio plays based 
on the works of the English novelist, 
Charles Dickens. 

From the beginning, it was obvious that 
the huge cast? involved largely composed 
as they were of non-professional talent, 
would make it impossible ... or at least, in- 
advisable ... to attempt to maintain a 
weekly schedule of live broadcasts. (In 
"Nicholas Nickelby," for example, there 
are thirty-four different characters. Fortu- 
nately, they do not all appear in any single 
episode!) All the programs, have, there- 
fore, been produced in WPIC's studios and 
transcribed on 16-inch Audiodiscs. 

The aim of the series is to present, in 
half -hour episodes, the complete series of 
novels by Charles Dickens, numbering 
fourteen in all, if one includes the unfin- 
ished mystery, "Edwin Drood." The intent 
of the series is to give the radio audience 
dramatic programs of greater literary value 
and more lasting interest than soap operas. 
While individual Dickens works have been 
produced over the air, this series, so far as 
is known, marks the first time the entire 
fourteen novels have been adapted for 
broadcast use. Much care has been taken 
to present each work in a form that will 
be easy for the listener to follow, while yet 

(Continued on Page 2, Col. 1) 


' consisting of students, amo- 
>rding for a future broadcast 

The partial cast of "Great Expectati. 
teurs, ond ex-professionals, mal(es a 
over Stations WPIC and WPIC-FM. 

("Estella") t. Bonnie tvlassy (Control 

|.,p. ,,| Operator-Studio Engineer) 

7. Raymond Daly ("Maqwitch") 

1. Phyllis Williams 

2. David MacArthu 

3. Harold Smith 



I Hickn 

4. Mary McCullough 

("Bentley Drummie") 
(fur'ntable operator) 1- William Pound ("Joggers") 

5. Evelyn Keller (Director) 10. Edv,in Good 

II. Helen Sloss ("Miss Havisham") 


Tense Moments of History Brought to Life on 

were quietly at work, engraving a perman- 
ent record of the drama that unfolded day 
by day. 

The vast library of historical reference 
recordings and transcriptions filed away in 
the archives of the country's leading broad- 
cast stations can tell one of the most dra- 
matic stories of all time. They can bring to 
vivid life events long gone by — they can 
speak to us with voices of those no longer 

These priceless historical recordings, 
however, have not previously been avail- 
able to the public. But Columbia's recently 
released album entitled "I Can Hear It 
Now" brings a collection of dramatic his- 
torical selections to all who want to hear 
and remember. It is available in an album 
of five 12-inch discs and also on a single LP 
Microgroove record. This collection was 
(Contmued on Page 2, Col. 2) 

New Columbia Discs 

Priceless Historical Recordings, from 

1933 to 1945, Dramatize One of the 

Most Eventful Eras of All Time 

The past decade holds many unforget- 
table memories for all of us. Memories of 
world shaking events and screaming front- 
page headlines. But, perhaps more clearly 
than anything else, we remember the radio. 
How we used to listen tensely, eagerly, 
anxiously to the news broadcasts — to the 
voices of commentators, correspondents, 
and men who were making history both at 
home and abroad. 

Few of the general public, however, re- 
alized that at the same time these memor- 
able voices were coming to us over the air, 
the recording turntables back at the station 


cuuUa ^ recorrd 

February, 1 949 

VOL. 5, NO. 2 


Tense Moments of History 

(Continued from Page 1) 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed without 
cost to radio stations, recording studios, motion 
picture studios, colleges, vocational schools and 
recording enthusiasts throughout the United 
States and Canada. 

Transcribes DIcltens Novels 

(Continued from Page 1) 
retaining tlae majority of tlie myriad char- 
acters and the thread of the many plots 
and sub-plots. Each hook is allowed to run 
its natural course, so that while "Barnaby 
Rudge" was presented in only four half- 
hour episodes, "Nicholas Nickelhy" will 
require ten. 

The transcribed programs arc broadcast 
at 2:30 P.M. each Sunday afternoon over 
WPIC and re-broadcast at 8:30 P.M. each 
Monday evening over its Frequency Modu- 
lation affiliate, WPIC-FM. Much interest 
has been evoked among schools and colleges 
in the area, and many requests have already 
been received for permission to use the 
scripts or the transcribed shows in class- 
room work. In several speech courses the 
Sunday shows are required listening, and 
each episode is discussed in class the fol- 
lowing day. 

The current schedule, which began in 
September, 1948, and will run through 
May, 1949, includes si.x books: "Bleak 
House," "Barnaby Rudge," "David Cop- 
perfield," "Hard Times," "The Old Curi- 
osity Shop" and "Dombey and Son." The 
series will go off the air for the summer 
months, and resume in the fall of 1949 
with "Great Expectations." 

To date, "David Copperfield" has met 
with the most enthusiastic public response, 
and small wonder: It was Dickens' best 
work and lent itself to the most fluent radio 
adaptation. But it is hoped that the lesser 
known works will make a lasting impres- 
sion on listeners, too, if only to lead them 
to the D section of the public library. There 
are low spots in Dickens, as there must be 
in all such prolific authors. "Little Dorrit" is 
one of these "lows," but it will be pro- 
duced, for what it is worth, in seven 

No attempt has been made to include 
the much overworked "Christmas Carol" 
in the series, though it is planned to use one 
of Dickens' other Christmas books . . . 
probably "Cricket on the Hearth" ... at 
Christmas-time, 1949. 

Casts are recruited from among the 
speech students of Youngstown and West- 
minster Colleges (including one professor 
from the Drama Department of Westmin- 
ster), from the members of the Youngs- 
town (Ohio) Playhouse, and local amateurs 
and ex -professionals. One of the mainstays, 
for example, a man who has appeared in 
some role in every Dickens book to date. 

prepared by Edward R. Murrow, radio 
news reporter, and Fred W. Friendly, 
radio producer and script writer. The com- 
pilation of this material was, in itself, a 
monumental task. Over a period of more 
than 2 years Mr. Murrow and Mr. 
Friendly played back a total of more than 
500 hours of old broadcasts. Over 100 
hours of this material were recorded from 
the lacquer to magnetic tape. This pro- 
vided a flexible medium from which the 
final selections were made, and re-recorded 
on disc form, with narration by Mr. Mur- 
row. His commentary unifies and explains 
the historical selections, leading the listener 
effortlessly through the highlights of a 13 
year period, from 1933 to 1945. The events 
recorded are not necessarily included in 
their precise chronological order, but rather 
are arranged to give the maximum dramatic 
effect to the entire presentation. 

The first famous voice to be heard is 
that of Will Rogers, from a recording made 
in 1932. This is followed by the very 
familiar voice of Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 
his message of encouragement to the nation 
on March 4, 1933. His voice is heard again 
and again — the last time in his report to 

Congress on the Yalta meeting. Then comes 
Huey Long — the Duke of Windsor in his 
abdication address — Fiorello H. La Guar- 
dia — Alf Landon — and John L. Lewis. 
You hear a dramatic on-the-spot account 
of the Hindenburg disaster — the voice of 
Neville Chamberlain telling a falsely re- 
lieved world that, after the acquisition of 
Sudetenland, Hitler will make no further 
territorial claims . . . and then the fanatical 
voice of Hitler himself, in an address to 
Edward Benes. 

Other voices tell of the invasion of Po- 
land — Italy's entry into the war — the 
fall of France. And later the tense mo- 
ments of December 7, 1941 are brought 
startlingly to life, with John Daly inter- 
rupting a regular musical broadcast, in- 
forming a shocked and horrified narion of 
the Pearl Harbor attack. Then there is the 
U. S. declaration of war — the tremendous 
impact of D-Day — the Nazi invasion of 
Russia — and finally Hiroshima and the 
Japanese Surrender. 

This is but a suggestion of the full his- 
toric contents of "I Can Hear It Now." 
Not only does it bring back memories more 
dramatically than could possibly be done 
by the written word — it points out the 
as yet untouched possibilities that actual 
historical recordings can play in the educa- 
tional field. It is to be hoped that this 
Columbia Album is but the first of many 
similar record collections which will be 
ofi^ered to the public. For there is certainly 
a wealth of this interesting and instructive 
material available — both in the extensive 
files of the recording and broadcast com- 
panies, and in the hundreds of thousands of 
disc recordings made by government agen- 
cies such as the OWI and the Library of 

Mr. Edward R. Murrow, noted reporter-analyst, 
is largely responsible for the compilation of 
Columbia Records new album of historical 
recordings. Mr. Murrow, an eye witness to many 
of the events covered in the album, is the nar- 
rator for this collection of actual recorded 
voices of the outstanding personalities who 
made history during the crucial period from 
1933 to 1935. 

is an old-time stage actor who is now the 
manager of a local liquor store! 

Direcrion and production work is 
handled by the writer, assisted by a studio 
engineer, a cutting engineer, a turntable 
operator for sound effects and music, and 
a staff announcer. Each half-hour episode 
is rehearsed and transcribed in one eve- 
ning's work. 

For the writer, this has been an exciting 
and fruitful experience. The end is not 
yet in sight, and the whole project may 
well consume five or six years. They will 
have been well spent. As a free-lance (for 
such shows as "Suspense" and the Kate 
Smith hour, in radio, and for other media) , 

the writer cannot help but be tremendously 
influenced by so intimate an acquaintance 
with an author who could devote an entire 
page to the description of the buttons on 
a man's vest, making each button an object 
of interest and a source of humor. 

The success of this series leads one to 
wonder whether there are not other authors 
of Dickens' caliber and prolificness to 
whose well radio might not regularly and 
profitably carry its bucket. When "Edwin 
Drood," the fourteenth and final Dickens 
book, is completed, we mean to go further 
afield. Conrad? Hawthorne? W'ilkie Col- 
lins? Stevenson? Perhaps, some day, even 

February, 1949 


^^^tfie T^eayulUt 


Part 2, Equipment Requirements 

by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 


In our last issue 
we discussed the 
three steps in the 
transition from 
standard to micro- 
groove recording, 
steps which may he 
taken by any re- 
cording organiza- 

In taking these 
steps it is necessary 
to make certain 
changes in equip- 
ment. The most important is provision for 
cutting at micro pitch — in the range of 
224 to 260 hnes per inch. Probably 224 to 
240 lines is the most desirable range for 
most applications. 

Some equipment already made has pro- 
vision for this without change — that 
originally designed to provide continuous 
variation of feed pitch. In other apparatus 
some change is necessary. An overhead feed 
mechanism relies on a change of leadscrew 
for change of pitch. To make the shift, 
then, it is only necessary to purchase and 
insert a new leadscrew. 

The swinging arm type of feed mechan- 
ism requires a little more effort. The feed 
action is produced by the operation of a 
worm and gear sector. The manufacturer 
of the machine can remove the worm and 

C. J. LeBel 

substitute another of different character- 
istics. He also has a removable worm ar- 
rangement so that the machine can be 
changed hack and forth between micro and 
standard groove. The change is not as easy 
as desired, for the chassis has to be lifted 
up in the case. However, such a change is 
not one to be made often, and the arrange- 
ment is satisfactory. 

Some recording machines have too much 
vertical vibration to be used for micro- 
groove, unless an advance ball is used. The 
machine manufacturer can advise on this 
point, and can supply an advance ball rig 
if necessary. Inexpensive semi-professional 
swinging arm feed type machines are most 
likely to need this attachment. 

The electrical characteristics are even 
simpler to achieve. When recording regu- 
lar 16" transcriptions with standard groove 
spacing and microgroove radius, we would 
use normal transcription recording charac- 
teristics. This would be either the NAB 
standard 16 db boost at 10,000 cycles) or 
the 10 db boost which many studios have 
found to be their usable limit. Columbia 
microgroove characteristic is the same as 
NAB, except that the response is slightly 
higher below 100 cycles. A simple equal- 
izer will take care of this. For a great deal 
of work the difference is negligible, and 
standard transcription equalization can be 

We have carefully refrained from com- 
menting on the 33 'i vs. 45 rpm situation. 
At the start, the average studio will have 
only 33J/^ rpm equipment, so there will be 
no question of choice. Only time and ex- 
periment will indicate whether 4.S rpm 
will become a serious factor in the average 

It is evident that the transition to micro- 
groove is an easy one from the equipment 
point of view. 

The subject will be discussed further in 
our next issue. 











10 - 









■ -10 



-^ ^' 







1 1 1 1 1 MM 














Wendt's "Wax Works" 

The Story of a Record-Making Musical Family 

Bill Wendt, a 16 year old student at 
Thomas Jefferson High School, Richmond, 
Virginia, was one of the three talented 
students selected to appear on the Philhar- 
monic Symphony's CBS program "Week 
End With Music," on October 17, 1948. 
That's how we first heard about Bill, who is 
not only an accomplished musician on the 
violin, piano, cello, string bass, and bells, 
but is also an up-and-coming recordist. As 
this is a rather unusual combination of 
talents, we felt that our readers would be 
interested in hearing about his recording 
activities. So here's the story in his own 
words, as quoted from his letter to the 
editor of Audio Record : 

"I have been doing my own recording 
work for approximately ten months, hav- 
ing been introduced into this field by my 
oldest brother, Frank, who first became 
interested in audio work about seven years 
ago. When he entered the service he passed 
on to me his information on recording. 
While he was away my interest in this 
field grew considerably with the cutting 
of numerous discs, but as yet I have not 
had time to become well acquainted with 
the more technical side. All of the equip- 
ment was built by my brother with the 
exception of the recorder itself which is a 
Rec-O-Kut 16 inch recording table with 
the same make overhead feed; a combina- 
tion that has served quite well considering 
the relatively low price. The cutter is a 
Presto 1-D which is driven by an amplifier 
using a pair of 6B4's and a UTC out-put 
transformer ^LS-5.t. Fifteen watts, how- 
ever, is not sufficient for recording piano 
with its ever-present peaks, and I am now 
helping Frank build a 60 watt amp. You 
see, this recording hobby is a sort of mutual 

(Continued on Page 4, Col. 3) 

Bill Wendt prepares to record 
orchestral programs in his home : 
ment Ave., Richmond, Virginia. 





Report on "Madame X," 
RCA Victor's New 45 RPM Record 

We have received a number of requests 
for information on the new RCA Victor 
45 rpm record, "Madame X." No technical 
information has yet been released, but we 
have collected the available data on the 
subject. Here it is in brief. 

X is a thin 7" pressing of pure vinyl. The 
center hole is large — about 11/2 inches in 
diameter. Maximum playing time is 5^2 
minutes. Fine grooves are employed, and 
the playback stylus radius is 1 mil. Price is 
slightly under that of an ordinary shellac 
pressing of the same playing time. So far 
as we can tell, the recording characteristic 
is the same as that used on standard Victor 

The large center hole permits the use of 
a special record changer of very interesting 
properties. The record stack is carried on 
the large size center spindle; there are no 
outside supports. As a result the changer 
is extremely compact and extremely rapid. 
Several observers have timed the change 
cycle at II/2 seconds. To simplify the mech- 
anism, all discs are of the same diameter, 
regardless of playing time. Record changer 





^ MARCH 7 to 10 ^ 



WDIO DEVICES wM be there. 
ourse — wUh an up-to-the-minute proc 
uct exhibit in Booth AJo. 2i3. 



We know of a company that is inter- 
ested in contacting recordist who can 
give part time work to recording in their 
localities. The recording would be on 
tape and arrangements can be made 
with this group to obtain the proper 
type tape machine for this work. Those 
interested should write the Editor, 
AUDIO RECORD, giving information 
as to their qualifications. 

manufacturers are getting ready for pro- 
duction, and it is rumored that the sim- 
plicity of the mechanism will permit a net 
price of $5. 

The point which has aroused the widest 
controversy is the speed: 45 rpm. It is 
rumored that 33;^ rpm was tried and dis- 
carded because of difficulty in securing 
reliable processing in mass production, 
when using the slower speed. A moment's 
consideration will show that for a given 
diameter, 45 rpm will give 35% higher 
linear groove velocity than will 33 'j rpm. 
It would be possible to get the same linear 
groove velocity at 33J/j rpm by increasing 
the outside diameter to 9'/2 inches, which 
would increase the vinyl cost 82% over 
the 7 inch size. In short, the higher speed 
is a means of exchanging playing time for 
wider frequency range and reduced track- 
ing distortion (with a fixed outer di- 
ameter) . 

Our readers will be interested to know 
that RCA Victors engineers have prom 
ised us an article on "Madame X" for our 
March issue. 

Two More Questions 

and Answers on 

LP Records 

In the November issue of the "Audio 
Record" we asked if there was anything 
else our readers would like to know about 
LP microgroove records. Here are two of 
the questions received which we believe 
are of general interest and are not covered 
in the questions and answers previously 


1. Question: Is more volume required in 
playing the new LP microgroove records 
on duo-speed record players because of 
the decrease of amplitude in the grooves? 

Answer: One needs about 3 db more 

2. Question: In what ratio is sound to 
surface noise compared to both LP and 
standard pressings? 

Answer: LP is about 15 db better than 
standard pressings. In other words, the 
sound to surface noise ratio being about 
40 in standard pressings is 55 for LP. 

Wend+'s "Wax Works" 

(Continued from Page 3) 

affair between us; I learn from my brother 
by helping him. 

The mixer unit shown employs three 
channels with 200 ohm T pads as mixers 
and has D.C. applied to the filaments. The 
W.E. 63 3 A dynamic mike, G.E. variable 
reluctance cartridge, and a Jensen JAP-60 
woofer-tweeter combination all add up to 
fine recording and listening. Other equip- 
ment includes several more amps of ten 
and forty watts, an audio oscillator, and a 
5" scope, all built by my brother. 

Our recordings from the radio are com- 
posed mostly of programs presented by the 
New York Philharmonic, N.B.C., Phila- 
delphia and Detroit Symphonies. I prefer 
to record works that have never been issued 
by record companies; consequently, most 
of our recordings are unavailable elsewhere. 
I might add that our most prized recording 
is the first made on the present equipment. 
It IS the "Symphony in A" by John Powell 
played by the Detroit Symphony. Mr. 
Powell has used this recording to make 
corrections on the copy of his score as well 
as for criticism. We were hoping to have 
the Philadelphia perform this work some- 
time this year, but evidently it could not 
be worked into their program. 

I have made recordings of my own 
voice for speech practice, but Frank has 
made most of the recordings of our family. 
We are all musical, all six of us, which 
offers a lot of material for recording. Sev- 
eral months ago my other brother, Don, 
startled his friends by recording himself 
playing the flute, violin, clarinet, oboe, 
bassoon, and bass all at the same time. 
It sounded like a full orchestra. 

Our record library consists of about 100 
hours of classical music at 33',! on 16" J 
discs, twenty or thirty albums of commer- I 
cial records, and ten Columbia LP records * 
which are very fine. My one big trouble is 
finding time to listen. 

As yet I am not certain, but I will 
probably major in music on the string bass 
and try for a symphony position or go 
into radio production. Frank has definitely 
decided to make music and the audio field 
of electronics his profession, and I might J 
add that he is now engaged in recording I 
Virginia's foremost pianist and composer, 
John Powell, at the piano. Some ef these 
recordings have already been pressed and 
released to the public. I am proud to say 
that they have been rated by critics as equal 
to any commercial piano recording released 
by the large companies. 

Well — that just about covers the high 
spots. I hope it will be of interest to you 
and your readers. 

P.S. I have yet to find a better disc than 
the red label Audiodisc, and I'm very glad 
that you have licked the humidity problem. 
That gave me problems, also." 




Vol. 5, No. 3 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

March, 1949 

The How and Why of RCA Victor's New Record and Player 

By D. D. Cole 

Chief Engineer 

RCA Victor Home Instrument 


In the fifty years sinee the birth of the 
record and phonograph industry, many 
types of records and phonographs — of 
various sizes, revolving speeds, and design 
— have been developed. But for the first 
time in the history of recorded music, there 
has now been evolved a record with a 
matching player, a player with a matching 
record. RCA Victor's new music repro- 
ducing system for the home consists of the 
first record and player designed as comple- 
mentary units — a combination which pro- 
vides unprecedented quality, service and 

Our introduction of the new system was 
carefully considered. As the only manu- 
facturer of both phonographs and records, 
we had a great deal at stake. We based 
our decision on our confidence that this 
system is the best we have ever put on the 
market, and our sincere belief that it is the 
best that anyone has ever put on the mar- 

We east our future on a new recording 
and reproducing system that requires a new 
player and a different type record, but pro- 
vides in return a record-changing mecha- 
nism that is free from the conventional 
troubles, and a record that provides a new 
high in reproductive quality, low cost, and 
a convenient size. 

We began, fifty years ago, with a simple 
record player — a single-play, manually op- 
erated player. Through the years, we have 
called upon the player to perform more and 
more difficult operations and services. The 
consumer wanted the player to handle 
large numbers of records, to change them 
automatically, and to be adjustable for 
records of various sizes. 

While the industry was able to meet 
these requirements, it found that in meet- 
ing them it was running into new prob- 
lems. Automatic changers were developed, 
improved, and simplified, but many diffi- 
culties persisted — perhaps chief among 
them the problem of damage to records 
during changer operations. 

More than 10 years ago, RCA Victor 
began in its laboratories a program of study 
and development by which it hoped to 
solve, once and for all, the problems which 
had piled up on the industry since the be- 



Tx^^q 1 11 

Ji=«' ' 


/- — ^.i-POWER 





— first in the history of the industry to be designed specifically 
to complement each other. Operation at 45 rpm provides up to 
5 minutes and 15 seconds of playing time on each side of the 
small, vinyl plastic records, or up to 42 minutes when eight rec- 
ords are stacked on the automatic record-player, which contains 
the fastest record-changing mechanism ever devised. 

ginning of recorded music. We were will- 
ing to stake our future on a system that 
would solve the problems still encountered 
with all conventional record changers and 
provide optimum reproduction quality, 
economy, and convenience. 

Initially, we sought to do these things: 

1. Provide a means of automatic record 
changing without damage to records. 

2. Eliminate the need for adjusting a rec- 
ord changer for records of different 

3. Reduce the time required for record 
changing and make the operation silent. 

4. Eliminate from the overall player as 
many as possible of the conventional 
moving parts. 

.r Reduce the overall size of the player 

and record, which we considered larger 
than necessary, and which required 
large phonograph cabinets and exces- 
sive record storage space. 
We tackled the record changing prob- 
lems. In most conventional systems, the 
drop mechanism operates from one or two 
posts located along the outer rim of the 
turntable. This calls for a large changer, 
since the post or posts, to handle 12-inch 
records, must be about 7 inches from the 
center of the turntable. It also calls for 
indexing mechanism so that the post can 
be adjusted to handle 10-inch, as well as 
12 -inch records. Changer blades in most 
conventional systems also present record 
chipping problems, since the design re- 
(Continued on page 2, Col. 1) 


March, 1949 

OLudla )ii. reccrrcL 

VOL. 5, NO. 3 

MARCH, 1949 

Published monthly by Audio Devices^ Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better disc recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout 
the United States and Canada. 

The How and Why (Cont./roni p. ], Co!.3) 

Ljuires them to force themselves l^etween 
the stacked records. 

The solution soon became clear to us. 
We could not solve the overall changer 
and record problems by designing a new 
record to fit conventional changers, or by 
designing a new changer to handle con- 
ventional records. We had to design hotli 
a new record and a new changer, com- 
plementary units that together would eli- 
minate the basic problems of record chang- 

It was found that problems of size and 
inde.xing could be solved with a changer 
mechanism operated from the center of the 
record. By eliminating outside record posts, 
it was possible to reduce the dimensions 
of the player's motorboard from 15 to 11 
inches to 10 by 7 inches. 

Accordingly, we developed a changer 
with a drop mechanism which could be 
housed in a I'/j i'l^^h center spindle. 

By designing our record with a raised 
shoulder between the playing area and the 
rim of the center hole, we were able to 
produce a wafer-thin disc that had the 
necessary rigidity, and provided air spaces 
between the center rims of the stacked rec- 
ords for the operation of the changer blades. 
The shoulder also provided air cushions 
between the playing surfaces, eliminating 
scratching of recorded grooves. 

The blades of the new changer never 
touch the recorded grooves of the record. 
On the center spindle are two supports or 
shelves, which form the support for the 
record stack. When records are changed, 
the two shelves recede into the spindle, and 
simultaneously two changer blades move 
out through slots in the spindle and into 
tiie air space to form a shelf for all the 
records stacked above the bottom record. 
As the bottom record drops gently to play- 
ing position, the shelves emerge again to 
take over the holding job from the blades, 
which then disappear into the spindle. 

Since the shelves are latch-type projec- 

tions, records cannot be forced down over 
them, but records being removed from the 
turntable automatically depress the shelves 
as they are brought up over the spindle. 

Through novel design, we developed not 
only a simple record-changing mechanism 
but the fastest one in the industry. On the 
underside of the turntable we designed a 
cam track that swings the arm up and out 
from the records, drops a new record, and 
brings the arm back to playing position in 
about two seconds. 

The large center spindle and the design 
of the trouble-free drop mechanism called 
for the designing of a new type of record 
to fit our new player. 

With our changer and player plans for- 
mulated, we turned our attention to the 
record. Our plans called for a record as 
unique in its characteristics as the player. 

Again, let us look to the past. Here, the 
record, too, has undergone a steady evolu- 
tion of progress and advancement. 

As we advanced from acoustic to elec- 
tric recording, and from acoustic to electric 
pickups, recorded music became finer and 
truer. But, as we cut down some covering 
noise, such as motor rumble and needle 
chatter, record surface noise became audi- 

Conventional records also posed other 
problems which we insisted on solving. 
Here are the objectives we sought: 

1 . Elimination of discernible surface noise 
and distortion, even at wider frequency 
ranges which may be used as better and 
better instruments are developed. 

2. Reduction of the size and weight of 
records, making for lower cost, easier 
handling, more convenient storage, and 
faster and quieter action of the changer 

Distortion is caused by the inability of 
the stylus to track properly in the record 
groove. On standard records, this becomes 
more apparent as the stylus moves from the 
outside groove of the record toward the 

Whether we use the standard 78 rpm, 
the conventional transcription speed of 
3?- 1/3 rpm, or the new 45 rpm, the stylus 
will cover a greater distance in any given 
interval in the outside groove, and less and 
less as it moves toward center. Although 
the turntable revolves at a constant rpm 
rate, the stylus will track the groove at an 
increasingly slower linear speed as it ap- 
proaches center. Beyond a certain point, 
the modulations are crowded so close to- 
gether that the stylus has difficulty in track- 
ing, and distortion results. The area up to 
that point in the record is called the quality 
zone, where there is no discernible distor- 
tion. Beyond that critical point on any rec- 
ord, of any size or revolving speed, distor- 
tion is set up and becomes more and more 
apparent, the closer the stylus moves to- 
ward center. We determined, then, that 
our new records would not be recorded 

past the critical point — the music would 
be recorded entirely within the quality 
zone of the record. 

While we desire to reduce the size of 
the record, we also wanted to maintain 
the playing time associated with standard 
12 -inch discs — up to five and one-third 
minutes — and we wanted to put the en- 
tire five and one-third minutes within the 
quality zone of the record. We also wanted 
to eliminate the need for records of more 
than one size. We sought a one-size rec- 
ord that could handle all classifications of 
music — popular, classical, hillbilly, and 

Having established the size of our center 
spindle, we knew we required a record 
with a center hole IV2 inches in diameter. 
We had to allow space for the raised shoul 
der and the label, and additional space for 
the lead-out groove which carries the tone 
arm to the tripping point for operation of 
the changer mechanism. 

The new step was to determine the min 
imum overall size required to offer five and 
one-third minutes of "quality-zone" music. 

By scientific and listening test, we estab- 
lished the critical point beyond which we 
could not record without discernible dis- 
tortion. With that point established, v.'e 
began to buildout — to provide the small- 
est record providing the desired playing 
time. The tests indicated that our new rec- 
ord, to meet all of our goals, should be 6yg 
inches in diameter, and operate at 45 rpm. 

We made our records of non-breakable 
vinyl plastic for minimum surface noise, 
and developed a tone arm that exerts only 
five grams of pressure on the record. The 
stylus has a .001 -inch tip r.idius. The com- 
bination of fine-point stylus and light pres- 
sure makes for less record wear and a 
more sensitive pickup. RCA Victor's fam- 
ous Silent Sapphire permanent-point pick- 
up is employed in the new tone arm, though 
it is only approximately one-third the size 
of the standard Silent Sapphire cartridge. 

We have been asked by those who are 
not familiar with record engineering why 
we did not design our new system for op- 
eration at the familiar home phonograph 
speed of 78 rpm or the conventional tran- 
scription speed of .33-1/3 rpm. The simple 
answer is that at either speed we would 
have been required to make a larger rec- 
ord — thicker and without the raised 
shoulder feature, at 78, or larger in diam- 
eter, if we were to maintain the same 
quality level, at 33-1/3. Nothing would be 
(Continued on page 3, Col. 1) 

March, 1949 


Questions and Answers on the New RCA Victor Record Playing System 

(Prepared for Audio Record by RCA Victor) 

Q. Why was the new RCA Victor Rec- 
ord Playing System developed? 
A. With the advent of the automatic 
changer, mechanical difficulties were en- 
countered because of the lack of standard- 
ization of records. The cost of repairing 
changer units, plus the inconvenience to 
the consumer, prompted RCA Victor to 
commission its engineers to develop a new 
system based on the following objectives: 

1. To develop a trouble-free automatic 
mechanism for changing records. 

2. To design a record with the folUm-- 
ing features: 

a. Distortion-free reproduction 

b. Minimum surface noise 

c. Maximum quality and tone 

d. Smallest practical size 

?. To disregard all limitations or re- 
strictions formerly placed on the de- 
signer of both players and records. 
Q. Why 43 Revolutions per minute? 
A. For the size record selected, and the 
extremely high quality standards adopted, 
it was determined mathematically that 43 
rpm was the slowest speed that would ac- 
complish the desired results. 
Q. How does it work? 
A. Contrary to present methods, the new 
system is based on the principle of a 7- 
inch record with the size of the grooves 
reduced, revolving at 45 rpm on a specially 
designed player, and reproduced by a light- 
weight jewel-point pickup. All of these 

factors contribute to greatly improved 
quality of reproduction. 
Q. Why a 7-inch record? 
A. The 7 -inch record has many advan- 
tages: easy handling . . . small, efficient, at- 
tractive ... no storage problems . . . stur- 
dier product with less wear . . . same 
amount of music as recorded on a 10 or 
12-inch record ... the entire recorded sur- 
face limited to the quality zone. 
Q. Is this a long-play record? 
A. No, the new record has a playing time 
of up to five minutes twenty seconds with- 
in its "Quality Zone". . . undistorted re- 
production . . . approximately the same 
playing time as standard records. However, 
with the development of the new RCA 
Victor rapid changer, the lapse between 
records has been greatly reduced. 
Q. How does the new Rapid Record 
Changer work? 

A. The changer operates entirely from the 
center hole of the record. The spindle of 
this changer, which is II/2 inches in diam- 
eter, houses the trigger action mechanism 
which drops the records swiftly and silently 
to the turntable below. The entire opera- 
tion takes only two secondsl This is the 
world's fastest record changer — and also 
the simplest mechanically. 
Q. Can I use this system w-ith my present 

A. Yes, you may purchase an attachment 
which will play through your present radio 
or phonograph, regardless of make. 

The How and Why (Cont. /romp. 2, Col. 3) 

gained by such a compromise, since use of 
the unique and vastly improved record 
changer would require a record of com- 
plementary design, regardless of operating 
speed. Since the advantages of the new 
system could only be made available to the 
consumer through the combination of a 
new record and a new player, there was 
no advantage in clinging to an old stand- 
ard. This left us free to make the system 
in every respect the best ever developed 
at low cost. 

As previously stated, RCA Victor will 
continue to serve the standard market by 
making all selections recorded for the 43 
rpm system also available on 78 rpm rec- 
ords. To insure a smooth transition, we 
will also make Victrola radio-phonographs 
with playing facilities for both types of 
records, as well as instruments incorporat- 
ing only the new system. 

Summing up, then, we have in our new 
disc a record that provides up to five min- 
utes and 20 seconds of music that is free 
from discernible distortion and surf.icc 
noise, with every note recorded in the es 
tablishcd quality zone of the record. 

Having a standard size disc that will 
take both the popular and classical cate- 
gories of music, we have eliminated the 
confusion of indexing changers and have 
gone a long way toward solving the record 
storage problem in the home, the ware- 
house, and the dealer's shop. The small 
record and changer will also permit an 
overall reduction in the size of console in- 
struments and give the stylist unprece- 
dented latitude and flexibility in cabinet 

The changer itself has solved many of 
the problems encountered with conven- 
tional changers. From the consumer stand- 
point, this changer assures a gentle han- 
dling of precious records, and the blades 
cannot scratch, chip, or break the records. 
It also provides silent operation and the 
fastest changing action of any mechanism 
yet devised. 

Our complete faith in the quality, serv- 
ice and merit of this new system is implied 
in the simple fact that we are planning 
around it our future in the record and 
phonograph business, in which we have 
the largest stake of any organization in the 

Q. What types of instrument will be 

available with this new system? 
A. The new RCA Victor system will be 
available not only in the attachment which 
you can use with your present radio, but 
also in complete table model phonographs, 
table model radio-phonographs, console 
radio-phonographs, and console combina- 
tions with television, radio and phono- 
graph. These instruments all have the 
famous "Golden Throat" tone system. 
Q. How many records will the Changer 
hold at one time? 

A. The changer accommodates 10 records, 
which change automatically without atten- 
tion, providing up to 30 minutes of listen- 
ing pleasure at one sitting. 
Q. What type of Needle is used with this 
new player? 

A. There is no needle. This system uses 
an improved "silent sapphire" permanent 
point pickup. 

Q. How heavy is the tone Arm? 
A. The tone arm exerts a pressure of only 
five grams on the record. Obviously this 
reduces record wear. 
Q. Is it expensive? 

A. No. the new RCA Victor system was 
developed with low cost in mind — both for 
the record playing equipment and the rec- 
ords themselves. As a matter of fact, the 
savings in record purchases will pay for 
the player in an amazingly short period of 

Q. How much cheaper are the records? 
A. Up to 33% in albums, and 24% in 
single records, depending on the type of 
entertainment you want. 
Q. Will the fine grooves present a prob- 

A. No. The records are so designed, with 
a center shoulder providing air space be- 
tween each record, that the playing sur- 
faces do not touch while the records are 
on the changer or in storage. Further, the 
large center hole and the size of the rec- 
ord itself permits easy and careful han- 
dling; fingers never need touch the playing 
surface of the record. 
Q. Are all the records 7-inch? 
A. Yes. all seven inch, a complete stand- 
ardization of records, but there is a color 
code for each type of entertainment. 
Q. What do you mean by a color code? 
A. Each musical category will be recorded 
on a different color record. For example: 
Red Seal music — red record — Popular 
music — black record — Country and West- 
ern music — green record — Children's 
Entertainment — yellow record — Blues 
and Rhythm music — cerise record — In- 
ternational music — sky blue record — 
Popular classics — midnight blue record. 


March. 1949 

W£ T^eayudU 

C. J. LeBel 


by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 

Wc are contin- 
uing our discussion 
of the problems of 
microgroove re- 
cording with a 
study of the most 
difficult problem, 
that of the cutting 
stylus. It will be re- 
called that a record- 
ing stylus has a 
burnishing facet 
which "breaks" the 
cutting edge. This 

polishes the groove walls, removing some 
of the scratches of cutting, and making a 
quieter groove. The effect is just like that 
of the dulled edge (on a lathe tool) used 
to produce a shiny cut in turning metal. In 
1942 the writer published a studyf of the 
effect of the length of this burnishing facet 
on the high frequency response. The longer 
the facet, in terms of groove wavelength, 
the more the attenuation. A facet length 
of less than .15 wavelength produces no 
attenuation. While the original study in- 
volved transcription size grooves, undoubt- 
edly the results are not far off when applied 
to microgroove, as we will do. 

Questions and Answers 

(Cont'd, ^rom page 3, Col. 3) 

Q. How many selections are recorded on 
one side of the new records? 
A. The records are recorded just as you 
are accustomed to hearing them on 78 
rpm records, side for side. 
Q. Will only RCA Victor make this new 
type record? 

A. Other manufacturers, in addition to 
RCA Victor are planning to make this 
new type record. Others are planning to 
make the new player. 
Q. Are you still going to make the con- 
ventional record? 

A. Yes, all selections recorded for the 45 
rpm system will also be available on 78 rpm 

Q. How long did it take RCA Victor to 
develop this new system? 
A. Research and experimentation began 
in 19.^9. By 1942 the first model was per- 
fected. Then followed years of testing and 
refinement from which finally emerged the 
new RCA Victor record playing system. 

The data presented covers only the di- 
ameter effect produced by the facet — that 
is, the recording loss only. Reproduction 
by a stylus of finite size produces a repro- 
duction diameter effect, which adds to the 
recording loss. Reproduction or tracing loss 
is fixed by the groove velocity and stylus 
size, and we can do little about it, so that 
recording loss is all that we can minimize. 

The data is presented in terms of the 
relative loss, that is, the difference in diam- 
eter loss between 1,000 cycles and the fre- 
quency under discussion. There is a small 
loss at 1,000 cycles, too, but this can be 
compensated for so easily that it is not 
AJorth considering. 

In modern transcription work, cutting 
at 136 pitch for a maximum of 15 minutes, 
we come in to a minimum diameter of 8 
inches. We then observe the following: 

Frequency, kc 

8 8 

Burnish length, 'i 
.4 ,5 

.■\ttenuation, db 
l!/2 3 


For ordinary transcription work, if wc 
are willing to accept a loss of 3 db at 8 kc 
or 41/2 db at 10 kc, at 8 inch diameter, then 
a facet length of ,5 mil is the largest we 
can use. For those who wish to make tran- 
scriptions with a fine-bottom groove, for 
reproduction with either standard or micro 
stylus, we have available a stylus with small 
tip radius and restricted facet length, our 
type # 1 4 SM (standard microgroove) . 
This dural shank recording sapphire sells 
at the same price as our present #14 and 
can be resharpened at the same price. 

fReferei-ce : Properties of the Dulled Lacquer Cutting 
Stylus, C. J. LeBel, Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer.. Vol. 13, 
No. 3. pc 265-273. lanuary 1942. 

Which ingredient is the secret 
of cuuLlocUsc' leadership? 



^. OIL 

5. DYE 



The first six of these ingredients pre to he lound m any lacquer 
for professional discs. Tlie seventh is an exclusive AUDIODISC 
development that provides permanent resistance to humidity. 
Thi-'^. however, is a fairly recent improvement, and therefore does 
not account for the consistent uniform quality that has made 
AuDiODiscs the first choice of discriminating recordists for the 
past 10 years. 

The "secret" lies not i 

ingredient, but in the correct 

selection, exact proportioning, and precise chemical control of 
all of ihem. In the ultra filtration, quality control, uncompromising 
inspection, and patented precision coating process. All of these 

factors, backed by continual research and ( 

■ matchless 



shaustive production 
every AuDiODISC. 

Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Ave., N.Y. C. 

lUrii .St.. .Ntvs Yukk 16. N.Y. 

Cnet^ ^AeiiA ^^ lnstn4e/fed 




Vol. 5, No. 4 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

April, 1949 

Tips on Teaching 
the Teachers 

by Evelyn Oelen 

Director of Public Relations 

State Teachers College 

Montclair, New Jersey 

I was very interested in George D. Gnt- 
fin's article, "How to get the best out of Stu- 
dent Scripters," in the December AUDIO 
RECORD, and I was glad to see his view 
point in print. Teaching radio writing and 
directing in a teachers college from a com- 
mercial standard, I too have used the 
h'mitcd outlook as an incentive to better 
student production. 

Our college was asked to use NO sound 
effects when we first requested commercial 
station time to air our own scripts. That 
meant the station wouldn't operate any for 
us. not even recorded ones or music, be- 
cause of their own personnel limitations. 
It was easy to make well-written transitions 
the price of going on the air. Later, when 
(Continued on Page 2, Col. 2) 









John Yaege 

. iludi 


to the script 

writing clas 

s for the le 

m, take 


sound cue in 

the script v 

ith M 

s. l)e 

en. who 


to be on the 

writer's side. 

The cc 


tnakes s 



broadcast tra 

iscriptions o 



Tiuslc prograr 


with th<e equipment shown 


— Charles F 


is do 




keep him fro 

m booming c 

n mik( 

by Instructor 



as she sets u 

p a test cut 

for sc 





waiting to mt 

erpret one o 

f her o 

wn ch 



Three students at the Franklin School, and Miss Anna May Langi 
to a recording made by Mary Anne Begalka, left. The greatest proble 
solve is speech deficiency. Elgin schools are helping their students o 
the aid of modem sound recording and reproducing equipment. 

aring instructor, listen 
e hard-of-hearing must 
>me this difficulty with 

by Anna May Lange 

Hearing Room 

Franklin School 

Elgin, Illinois 

"Hor-ree'-bul, perfectly hor-ree'-bul." 
Mary was working on the speech for a play 
we had written. We stopped and tried to 
correct her pronunciation of 'horrible." 
Mary is hard-of-hearing. Her hearing loss 
is so severe that even with her hearing aid. 
she cannot hear speech as one with normal 
hearing does. She reproduces the sounds 
she hears. Unfortunately she does not hear 
the same sounds in the same way that we 
who hear do. One of the greatest problems 
for those working with the deaf and hard 
of -hearing is to get normal speech from the 
auricularly-handicapped persons. The disc 
recorder is a great help. By recording 
Mary's voice on an Audiodisc and then 
letting her hear the recording amplified we 
began correcting her "hor-ree'-bul." Recog- 
nition of the problem was the first step. 
The second step was recognition of the cor- 

(ConUnued OJi Page 4. Col. 3) 


April. 1949 

cLudla lit^ record 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 

interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 5, NO. 4 APRIL, 1949 

Teaching the Teachers 

{Continued from Page I, Col. 1) 

we had proved ourselves, the station sug- 
gested we might like some of the effects in 
their library. But we never had to unlearn 
the art of writing footsteps! 

Actual broadcasting also clarified an- 
other limitation — that is, to represent our 
institution in somewhat the manner the 
public would expect. Griffin's point about 
"demented souls" and the imitation of the 
local movie screen by new script writers 
gave me a satisfied laugh because students 
don't like to emphasize demented souls 
about the campus, so they write about use- 
ful, earnest, believable humans whom they 
know. Two and a half years ago when I 
first offered script writing here, our first 
commercial show was based on the visit of 
a l^ew Tor\ Herald Tribune reporter to 
the campus to investigate our building 
needs. The next term we broadcast "A 
Campus United" dealing with good inter- 
group unity at Montclair. For this we got 
fanmail lauding us, as a state institution, 
tor giving attention to this subject. At 
present we are waiting a 19 station schedule 
on this term's first show, written and pro- 
duced in the class. It tells about the making 
lege, a 16 mm. state conservation movie 
with the same title. Along with second year 
college and extension students in the class 
we used ninth grade demonstration high 
school students, who had helped make the 
movie, as actors. This is not only good radio 
experience for the teacher-in-training but 
good educational experience as well. 

In my classes I am not training profes- 
sional radio workers. I am trying to develop 
the teacher-to-be in sensitivity to material 
at hand — principally the school environ- 
ment — and in understanding how far 
average individuals can go in dramatizing 
situations which can be worked over into 
good scripts. In radio writing the student 
handles no equipment; student engineers 
are assigned to each class period and work 
with me. In radio directing students handle 
microphones, sound effects and tape record- 
ers but not the cutting equipment. 

We use recording constantly after the 
first few meetings in script writing to begin 
to work out central scenes from script ideas 
which have been brought in by individuals. 

As soon as we feel one or two of these are 
going to be good college broadcast material, 
the individual completes his writing and we 
commit ourselves to an actual station broad- 
cast time. Usually the show goes on with 
little rehearsal, for we have built it to- 
gether, and we understand thoroughly 
what we are trying to say to our audience. 
The best measure of our success is that we 
receive many invitations to be on the air, 
and that the college has provided us with 
more and more equipment until from one 
microphone in the faculty lunchroom for 
a studio, we now own half a dozen good 
ones, a Fairchild cutting head and table, 
AM-FM tuner, amplification units, and 
two Soundmirrors. A large classroom with 
director's booth and a smaller anteroom is 
now our exclusive studio space. 

Occasionally we cut our own transcrip- 
tions for broadcast, although I prefer that 
the group works in various commercial sta- 
tions where they learn a lot more as partici- 
pants than they would if I just took them 
on observation trips. I buy 16-inch audio- 
discs for all my work so that even in the 
early stages of working out scenes, different 
voice teams are on one record or different 
methods for solving scene problems are 
recorded close together for study. The large 
discs take our full fifteen minute shows 
when we are ready to produce a completed 
script. Each student is helped, as he feels 
he needs it, by voicing and discussion in 
class; he does his own casting and direction 
on interpretation for these trial records. He 
also does all his own writing. 

Radio directing is taught alternate terms 
with script writing from the same point of 
view: that the teacher needs professional 
know-how to get and keep time for his stu- 
dents on the air. Auditioning, timing, cut- 
ting script, microphone perspective and 
sound effects, including music, arc taught 
within the range of our equipment. Here 
recording is essential. I am surprised at 
the skill with which these student "direc- 
tors" handle shows. They bring in their 
own effects, increasing our studio resources, 
and their own casts from outside the class. 

if they wish, and even from off'campus. In 
the near future I hope to offer local outlets 
not only student-written and student-acted 
shows, but also transcriptions that are 
student-directed. The student is asked to 
solve his own problems after the script 
choice has been passed on. He uses the 
studio extensively out of class time to pre- 
pare his dry run and cutting session which 
must be presented to the class as his course 

It would be unfair to leave the impres- 
sion that the radio classes, which are rela- 
tively small, are the cause of all the expan- 
sion in equipment which Montclair State 
Teachers College has had during my two 
and a half years teaching radio. The speech 
department uses 8-inch audiodiscs for be- 
ginning and end of term analysis for each 
student in foundations of speech, tape re- 
cording for reading for oral interpretation 
and in clinical work. 

Mr. Howard Fox, drama instructor, 
heads the staff of student engineers who 
operate the studio. This group records 
many shows off the air and recently taped 
an hour mock trial at a teaching aids con- 
ference at the college. This is now being 
sold on audiodiscs. Mr. Fox and myself co- 
operated in transcribing four fifteen minute 
shows with commentary using our orches- 
tra, trio, band and a cappella choir. We did 
this work over several hundred feet of wire 
with no amplifying unit, monitored over a 
field telephone connecting the library (used 
as studio) with the recording equipment in 
the basement. A major local station played 
these transcriptions last summer as a series 
and we are now offering them to smaller 
stations throughout the State. Thanks to 
making a public spectacle of ourselves on 
this job more people here understand the 
complexities of working with sounds. Dur 
ing the summer our music department 
moved from the main building to a tem- 
porary building about onc-tcnth mile from 
the recording studio. We are now tape 
testing the large bandroom in the new 
building and looking into wire prices to 
solve a new problem. 


It's all over now but the judging! The 
two nation-wide radio script contests, both 
sponsored by Audio Devices, have now 
passed their official closing dates, and the 
fate of the winners is in the capable hands 
of the contest judges. 

The Scholastic Magazines" 1949 Radio 
Script Writing Competition, for high 
school students, closed on March 4th, and 
the Association for Education by Radio's 
National Script Contest, for college stu- 
dents, closed on March ?lst. 

Mr. William D. Boutwell of Scholastic 
Magazines, and Dr. Sherman P. Lawton, 

AER Contest Chairman, both report that 
the number of entries received has been 
most gratifying — that scripts from all parts 
of the United States continued to pour into 
their offices right up to the deadline. This 
tremendous response is indicative of the 
rapid growth of school radio workshops, 
and reflects the increasing student interest 
in the script-writing phase of radio work. 
It is planned to announce the winners 
of both contests at the Institute for Educa- 
tion by Radio meeting which will be held 
in Columbus, Ohio, on May 5th, 6th and 

April, 1949 


me T<^sayulUt 

C. J. LeBel 

by C. J. LeBcl, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


A new field for 
the recordist has 
broadened aston- 
ishingly in the last 
year. This is the 
practice of making 
recordings in the 
field on tape, then 
re -recording the 
material onto discs 
in the studio. 

Using the light 
weight and im- 
proved quality of 

the latest tape recorders, and the erasable 
feature of tape, a considerable number of 
studios have made a very successful career 
out of recording professional and amateur 
orchestras, church choirs, and the like. 
Generally, a single recording will lead to 
the sale of twenty-five or fifty discs. 

The erasable feature of tape is particu- 
larly helpful with groups which are not 
used to recording procedure. Errors can 
be edited out with a pair of scissors, or the 
tape simply re-recorded. 

Fidelity Requirements 

In re-rccording the high frequency at- 
tention and distortion effects are additive, 
so that both tape and disc recorders must 
be better in quality than if either were used 

Home type machines appear very attrac- 
tive for this work due to their light weight, 
but caution should be exercised. The older 
machines had excessive distortion and lim- 
ited range. Some of the newer machines 
have excellent distortion characteristics, but 
the frequency response is uniform only to 
.S,000 cycles. Rebuilding such a machine, 
modifying the equalization to extend the 
frequency range, would appear attractive. 
Extending the frequency range probably 
will call for raising the bias frequency. This 
should be done carefully, to maintain the 
same bias current as nearly as possible. 
System Adjustment 
If the tape recorder is fitted with tone 
controls, these should be adjusted for the 
most uniform overall response. In most 
cases this means turning the high frequency 
control up all the way. The disc system 
should then be adjusted for most uniform 
response, plus preemphasis if used. 

It occasionally may be desirable to vary 

the overall response, but this should be 
done with great caution. It is better to do 
such modification in recording, rather than 
in the original tape. A serious mistake, 
then, cannot ruin the original recording. 
Modification of response characteristics 
should be done very rarely, only if abso- 
lutely necessary. 

Tape Recorder Improvements 

While we believe it desirable to spend at 
least $400 for the tape recorder, there are 
many studios with limited budgets which 
will want to buy a lower priced machine 
and rebuild it themselves. 

First, a 500 ohm output impedance is 
highly desirable. A simple change in out 
put transformer will take care of this. 

Secondly, fit a volume indicator motor 
if the recorder is normally supplied only 
with a newon lamp for level indication. 
In this connection, remember that VU 
meters are available in small size on spe- 
cial order, and that they are much better 
than the old style general-purpose volume 
indicator which is more readily available 
in the smaller case. 

Next; reduce the amplifier distortion by 
change of tubes or addition of negative 
feedback if necessary. Certain older home 
recorders need such improvement if they 
are to be used at all. 

Finally, be sure to use a microphone of 
professional quality. The microphone gen- 
erally supplied with a home recorder has 
limited frequency range and a strong peak. 
This change may require the addition of a 
pre-amplifier stage if the professional 

microphone has as low sensitivity as many 

Tape Recording Level 

Commercial tape recorders do not have 
as great signal to noise ratio as their lab- 
oratory prototypes, and lower cost home 
machines are, of course, poorer than pro- 
fessional units. Some home machines can 
be improved by rewiring, proper shielding, 
and correct position of ground connections, 
and time so spent is well invested. 

Nevertheless, there is a great tendency 
to record at too high a level for the sake 
of achieving as high signal to noise as pos- 
sible. The cure is worse than the disease. 
Tape recorded at excessive level seems to 
have a veil over the higher frequencies, and 
the effect is most objectionable. A home 
type tape recorder will have a usable-sig- 
nal to noise ratio of the order of J 5 db, 
and a professional machine but little over 
50 db if at all. Use the range available and 
be content. Do not tr>' to stretch it at the 
expense of poor sound. The fault is no 
more excusable because it is so common. 
Pay no attention to the siren call of adver- 
tising literature with its ever louder claim 
of lower and lower noise levels. We have 
heard demonstrations in which the tape 
level was so high that heavy volume com- 
pression was taking place. Nothing will so 
quickly destroy the character of a record- 
ing as to have 10 db of the peaks removed 
by the compression action of overloaded 
tape. Summarizing, set your recording level 
by ear and meter tests, and not by catalog 

THF \A/IKIMPR^« shown here, with President Truman at the white House, are 

I ri C VYIININtlXO. ,j,g (jjyf talented winners of the "Voice of Democracy" con- 

test. These winning student contestants, whose spoken essays were chosen from a total of approxi- 
mately 250,000 high school entries, are, left to right — George Morgan, Jr.. Hutchison, Kansas; 
Kerron Johnson, St. Paul, Minn.; Charles Kuralt, Charlotte, N. C; and Richard Caves, Everett, 
Ohio. During a memorable week in historic Washington, these four boys each received a $500 
scholarship and certificate, presented by Attorney General Tom C. Clark. 

The job of picking the winners was not an easy one — for voice and oral delivery were important 
factors in the selection. Preliminary eliminations in individual schools were started last November 

after which came the community competitions. Later, the State winners were selected on the 

basis of transcriptions made by local broadcast stations. The final winners were selected from the 
winners of the State contests. 

The "Voice of Democracy" contest was sponsored by NAB, RMA, and U. S. Junior Chamber 
of Commerce, with the support and cooperation of the U. S. Office of Education. 


April, 1949 

The 1949 National Convention and 
Show ot the Institute of Radio Engineers, 
held March 7-10 in New York's Grand 
Central Palace and Hotel Commodore, 
chalked up a record-breaking attendance of 
over 16,000 persons. Prominent among the 
show's 225 exhibits, was The Audio De- 
vices booth, shown above. Featured m the 
center panel are three gold-sputtered Mas- 
ter Audiodiscs of recordings made at 78 
rpm (96 grooves per inch, 45 rpm (264 
grooves per inch) and 33-1/3 rpm (224 

grooves per inch), each accompanied by an 
actual shadowgraph magnifying a'section 
of the recorded surface 250 times. Also dis- 
played were the various steps in the manu- 
facture of Audiodiscs — and the complete 
line of Audiopoints. At this booth, more 
than 2500 copies of Audio Records were 
distributed, and approximately 800 new 
"subscribers" were signed up. 

(This Audio Devices exhibit will also 
be on display at The Radio Parts Show in 
Chicago, May 17-20, in Booth No. 24.) 

Something New Under the Sun . . . and Stars! 

The uses of Audiodiscs are manifold 
and multiform — some of them undreamt 
of in our philosophy. Here, for example 
is a most unusual application — quoted 
from a letter written to our editor by 
Philip W. Rhys, of Rhys fe? Walsh, Astro- 
logical Recordings, 330 East 32nd St 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

"For the first time, Astrology has been 
combined with recordings. To some this 
may strike an odd tone. The general opin- 
ion of Astrology, born out of distorted 
knowledge (or none, at all) of its princi- 
ples, is that it is a sort of fortune-telling 
or witchery, about which everything is sort 
of vague. 

When I was twelve years of age, I began 
my studies in Astrology. "Does one have to 
study it?" you may ask. Yes, indeed, for 
many years. Although this was an unusual 
age to begin, I idvanced rapidly. I became 
more and more aware, through the years, 
that there was .i higher type of Astrology, 
which is called Astrosophy. As I became 
convinced, as a matter of experience, ob- 
servation and study, that Astrosophy was 
an art of a very high moral and educational 
nature, I also became awakened to the nec- 

essity of letting others know that Astro- 
sophy existed. And surely there are few 
who know. 

I had to find some way of impressing 
people with the difference between the rub- 
bish handed out under the title Astrology, 
and the true material. I had to find a way 
of impressing upon people a respect for 
the true type of Astrology — Astrosophy. 

I thought of the idea of making the char- 
acter analyses and forecasts that the pub- 
lic was accustomed to, but a higher type of 
reading that is not charlatanry or fortune- 
telling. These I have made on recordings 
because the recording is able to do one thing 
that a book or picture cannot — it can 
carry the human voice with all its expres- 
sions and meanings to the ears of the lis- 
tener. My partner and I started out with 
next to no knowledge about recording and 
have been continually delighted with the 
clarity and noiselessness of Audiodiscs. And 
so it is that recordings — Audiodiscs - - 
have entered the century-long conflict of 
Astrosophy with its worst enemies — char- 
latans, and those who condemn without 
knowledge of what they condemn." 

Hearing Helps (Cont'd from Page I ) 

rcct sound. From then on the work was 
merely routine drill. 

■'I sopped at the sore." Jim was alibiing 
for being late. Unbeknown to him, the 
Recordio was turned on, as it often is to 
catch natural speech of the youngsters. On 
being reminded that there was a 't' in both 
'stopped' and 'store,' Jim insisted he had 
put the sound in these words. This was just 
.mother one of the many cases in which our 
problem is to show the student where his 
mistakes are. Once he recognizes his diffi- 
culties and is anxious to correct his faults, 
half the battle is over. 

"Do you think I'll ever be able to talk 
right?" It's one of those gloomy days when 
one feels as though he has done nothin'j;. 
Peggy is worried about her speech. We get 
out old recordings. We listen to recordings 
of her voice made last fall. She recognizes 
faults she has since cleared up. We play 
parts of recordings she has made through- 
out the year. "It doesn't seem possible I 
talked like that!" Peggy exclaims. If there 
were no recordings to prove it, Peggy 
would not realize she has made progress 
and that she can expect to continue to im- 
prove her speech. 

Mary, Peggy and Jim are among the deaf 
and hard of-hearing children who attend 
the public schools of Elgin, Illinois. In the 
old days, they would have been put in spe- 
cial classes. Now the handicapped attend 
school with their out-of -school friends. 
They are equipped with hearing aids and 
are in classes with teachers who understand 
their problems and work hard to help in 
their adjustments. They go to the Hearing 
Room once a day for individual assistance. 
Here they receive help in Speech and 
Speech Reading and are given Auricular 
Training and remedial help in any subject 
matter which is bothering them in their 

The Hearing Room is sound-proofed and 
very v,/el! equipped. Recording with Audio 
discs is frequent, as can be noted by the 
percentage of the time the sign Recording 
hangs from the door. The children like to 
record and we feel the benefit resulting is 
well worth the small cost. At Hallow'en 
the older children made a clever radio skit 
that we recorded and then played for the 
classes in which they were. At Christmas 
time each child made a record for his 
parents. Many parents told us that the 
recordings were the nicest gifts they re 
ceived. The children had practiced to have 
perfect speech and the records showed the 
parents what we can expect of their chil- 

It's been a long time since education for 
the deaf in the United States was begun. 
It's been 135 years. Tremendous progress 
has been made during these years. Amplifi 
cation of sound and recording of voice have 
played a great part in this progress. 

q ^Htlffy 


Vol. 5, No. 5 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

May. 1949 


Price — Original Radio First Pri~e — General Radm Script. First Pri;e Radio Drama Adap- 

tation. Margery Schneider. Forest 

Hills, N. Y. 

Elena Joan Svagzdv,, Broikto. 


Scholastic Magazine and AER 

Nanae Winners in Nation-wide 

Contests for High-School and 

College Students 

The two big student competitions in 
radio script writing — Scholastic Magazines" 
1949 Radio Script Writing Competition 
for high school students, and the Associa- 
tion for Education by Radio's National 
Radio Script Contest for college students 
— announced their respective winners at 
the annual luncheon of the AER, in Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, on May 7th. 

Both of these contests, which were co- 
sponsored by Audio Devices for the second 
consecutive year, drew an all-time record 
of entries. And, according to reports from 
the contest judges, entries were definitely 
up in quality as well as quantity. 

Mr. William D. Boutwell, of Scholastic 
Magazines, reports that high school stu 
dents entered a total ot 440 radio scripts winners of classification 5 in aer contest 

,^ , ri ^ /-> 7 ■ \ First Prize — Fred A. Brewer, Second Prize — Herbert Rube, Third Prize — Carl C. Naumann. 

(Continued on fage 2, (^01. 1) Bloon-.inston, Indian:. Yonkers, New York. Passaic. New Jersey. 

m 10 MM m Cllll After 2'/2 years of research and de- 

Audiotape Now Available! :^:'^pi>^::z^!:^^: 

■ netic recording tape 

simple product. The article by Mr. LeBel, 
on pages 3 and 4, however, will give some 
idea of the complexity and magnitude of 
the task. 

To meet the most rigid requirements, 
and to assure premium performance in a 
variety of different recording and repro- 
ducing machines, it soon became evident 
that two different types of tape would be 
needed. For the frequency response, output 
level, and signal-to-noise ratio bear a defin- 
ite relation both to the bias current used 
in a particular machine, and to the coer- 
cive force of the magnetic oxide coating 
of the tape. Many non-professional-type 
recorders on the market do not have a bias 
adjustment, and as the bias varies in dif- 
ferent machines, a tape which would give 
optimum results with one machine would 
not give such good performance on a dif- 
ferent, fixed-bias machine. Two difi^erent 
types of Audiotape were therefore devel- 
(Continued on Page 4, Col. 2) 

Audiotape has the unique distinction of 
being both the newest and the oldest mag- 
netic recording tape in this country. For 
Audio Devices first started work on the 
development of Audiotape more than 2i/; 
years ago, at the time when samples of 
German tape recording equipment were 
first brought to this country for study and 
improvement. A plastic-base Audiotape 
which proved far superior to even the best 
German magnetic tape was produced well 
over two years ago. This tape would have 
been placed on the market immediately — 
except for one thing. 

The product was good — but was it good 
enough to bear the "Audio-" trademark? 
Audio devices' engineers, acting as their 
own severest critics, felt that there was 
still some room for improvement, and that 
Audiotape should not be released until 
they were thoroughly convinced that it 
had achieved the highest possible degree 
of perfection in every respect. So additional 

months of research and experimentation 
followed — to devise a still better, more 
uniform coating that would assure the 
finest, noise-free recording in a wide 
variety of machines, from low-cost am- 
ateur equipment to the most costly pro- 
fessional tape recorders. The problems in- 
volved in the perfection of Audiotape were 
more numerous and perplexing than the 
layman might expect with such a seemingly 


May, 1949 

cmdlq i^ reccrrd 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 5, NO. 5 

MAY, 1949 

Contest Winners 

(Continued from Page 1) 

in the national contest alone — not count- 
ing the hundreds of scripts that were sub- 
mitted for the 15 regional preliminaries 
throughout the country. This is by far 
the largest number of entries ever received 
for these Scholastic Writing Awards. Mr. 
Boutwell, who made the announcement of 
the Scholastic Award winners at the Chi 
cago meeting, stated that there was a very 
marked increase in both the number and 
quality of scripts entered in Classification 
No. 3, General Radio Scripts — including 
many excellent examples of interviews, con- 
tinuity, music, sports, and related subjects. 
The AER Contest also chalked up sub- 
stantial gains over last year's competition 
— with a greater number of entries, many 
of them of really professional quality. It 
is reported that the selection of the win- 
ners was a difficult one in both contests. 
And the judges report that most of the 
contestants show great promise of attain- 
ing successful careers in the radio writing 

An unusual aspect of the AER contest 
was the fact that the second and third 
prizes in Classification No. 5 (Scripts for 
Home Recording — sponsored by Audio 
Devices) were both awarded to students in 
the same school — New York University. 
Still more significant, they were both in- 
structed by the same professor — George 
D. Griffin, who also instructed the first, 
second, and third place winners of the 
same classification in last year's contest! 

Following is a list of the national win- 
ners of the Classifications sponsored by 
Audio Devices in both the Scholastic 
Magazines' and AER Contests. 

Prof. George 

D. G 


of New York 


tutored sccon< 



place winners 

in Cla 

ss 5 

of 1949 AER Conte 


and first, se 



third place v 



Special Class 





Radio Script Writing Contest 
(High School Students) 

Judges: Mrs. Gertrude Broderick, Director 
of Script and Transcription Exchange, 
Office of Education, Washington, D. C. 
Miss Judith Waller, Director of Pubhc 
Service, N.B.C., Midwest. Robert P. 
Heller, Executive Producer, C.B.S. 

Award Winners: 

Origmal Radio Drama 

First Prize — $25; Richard Jackson, Jr., 

17, St. Gertrude School, St. Clair Shores, 

"Sometime Tomorrow" 
Teacher — Sr. M. Bcrnita, S.S.J.* 

Second Prize — $15; Neil Jackson, 17. 
Redford High School, Detroit, Mich. 
"The Dream" 
Teacher — Marjorie Stevens 

Third Prize — $10; Juanita Pennell, 15, 
North Sr. High School, Binghamton, 
N. Y. "The Janitor's Tale" 
Teacher — R. D. Merchant 

Fourth Prizes — $5 

Louis A. Freizer II, 17, Stuyvesant 

High School, New York, N. Y. 

Teacher — Mrs. Dobkin 

Winthrop Griffith, 17, Burlingamc 

(Cal.) High School. 

Teacher — Fern Harvey 

Doris Kummer, 17, Lutheran High 

School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Teacher — Mrs. Constable 

Richard McMahon. 17, Johnson City 

(N. Y.) High School 

Teacher — Mrs. Sullivan 

Marian E. Tyrrell, 17. Owego (N Y ) 

Free Academy. Teacher — Mrs. Turner 

General Radio Scripts 

First Prize — $?5: Elena Joan Svagzdys, 

18, Brockton (Mass.) High School 
"An Imaginary Interview with G. B. 
Shaw". Teacher — Ruth T. Cosgrove* 

Second Prize — $15; Mary Carol Massi. 

16, Union-Endicott High School, 
Endicott, N. Y. 
"High School Psychology" 
Teacher — A. Alderson 

Third Prize— $10; Richard Wallace, 14. 
Evanston (111.) Twp. High School 
"The Story Behind the Label" 
Teacher — Pierce Ommanney 

Fourth Prizes — $5 

Nancy Banks Bakke, 17, Montgomery 

Blair High School, Silver Springs, Md, 

Teacher — Mary Wood 

Jim Erickson, 15, Roosevelt High 

School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Teacher — Mrs. Doherty 

David Kiplinger, 15, Redford High 

School, Detroit, Mich. 

Teacher — Marjorie E. Stevens 

Mary Jane Mills, 17, Union-Endicott 
High School, Endicott, N. Y. 
Teacher — Mrs. Edna A. Finch 
Joel Rankin, 17, Bnickton (Mass.) 
High School 

Teacher — Ruth T. Cosgrove 
Radio Drama Adaptation 
First Prize — $25; Margery Schneider, 
17, Forest Hills (N. Y.) High School 
"Footfalls" by Wilbur Daniel Steels 
Teacher — Mrs. Adele B. Tunick* 
Second Prize — $15; Barbara Kingsbury, 
Battin High School, Elizabeth, N. J. 
"Downfall of the Dalton Gang" 
Teacher — Albert Komishane 
Third Prize — $10; Christine Dolores 
Dolsen, 17, Cooley High School, 
Detroit, Mich. 

"The Open Window" by Charles Dobie 
Teacher — Leslie G. Carter 
Fourth Prizes — $5 

Mary Catherine Franklin, 18, Ancilla 
Domini High School, Donaldson, Ind. 
Teacher — Sr. M. Lorenza 
Myra Lou Hart, 1 6, Mackenzie High 
School, Detroit, Mich. 
Teacher — Glendora Forshee 
Ann Ivester, 16. Wyandotte High 
School, Kansas City, Kans. 
Teacher — Mr. H. A. Billingsley 
Enid F. Karetnick, Weequahic High 
School, Newark, N. J. 
Teacher — Mr. I. Gt)ldbcrg 
Mary Ann Wershing, Academy of 
the Holy Angels, Fort Lee, N. J. 
Teacher — Sr. M. Ellen 
National Radio Script Contest 
(College Students) 
Judge: Henry Lee Ewbank, Professor of 

Speech, University of Wisconsin 
Classification 7\[o. 5. Scripts for Home and 
School Recording 

First Prize— $100; Fred A. Brewer, De- 
partment of Radio, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Ind. 
"How the Roc\ing Chair Got Its 

Teacher — Dr. Henry J. Skornia* 
Second Prize — $60: Herbert Rube, New 
York University, New York, N. Y. 

Teacher — Prof. George D. Griffin 
Third Prize — $40; Carl C. Naumann, 
New York University, New York, N. Y. 
"Vallum Hadriani' 
Teacher — Prof. George D. Griffin 

♦Received 2^ Audiodiscs, 3 Sapphire Recording Audio- 
points and 3 Sapphire Playback Audiopoints. 

Audio Devices will again publish a 
collection of the prize-winning scripts from 
both the Scholastic and AER contests, 
which should be ready for distribution 
.shortly after the opening of the new school 
year in September. Students whose work 
is selected for this purpose will receive 
special awards. 

May, 1949 



ttie t\€ayidut 

C. J. LeBcl 

by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


This paper dis- 
cusses the problems 
faced by our Re- 
search Department 
in the course of our 
tape development 
program. The solu- 
tion in some cases 
is visible in the 
statement of the 
problem. In the re- 
maining cases a dis- 
cussion of the an- 
swers would take many pages, and we will 
have to defer studying them until sub- 
sequent issues of the Audio Record. 

Our Original Tape 

About two years ago we brought out 
our Type A tape. This consisted of an 
oxide with a coercive force of about 120 
oersteds and a remanence of about 500 
gausses, coated on vinyl copolymer with a 
vinly acetate binder. The design was based 
on German developments brought over by 
the U. S. Department of Commerce, and 
was designed for 30 inch per second speed. 
It was decidedly better than the German 
tape as regards frequency range and signal 
to noise ratio. 

Marketing experience with this tape 
showed that there were only about a half 
dozen professional machines (operating at 
30 inches per second) in the whole country, 
but that there were many thousand ama- 
teur type machines, operating at 7V2 inches 
per second, and requiring different bias 
characteristics. It was also evident that 
American recording machine design was 
developing differently than European, and 
that entirely different tape characteristics 
would be necessary in the future. 

The American Trend 

From the experience of those users who 
were rebuilding home machines into semi- 
professional jobs, it was possible to make 
an accurate estimate of the probable trend 
of design and operating practice. 

It was evident that slower tape speed 
would be required. Thirty inches per sec- 
ond uses up tape very fast, and we guessed 
correctly that the professional standard 
would be in the fifteen to eighteen inch per 
second range. Late 1948 saw an NAB com- 
mittee settle on fifteen inches. 

At the same time we could see that 

wider frequency range would be necessary : 
to 7500 cycles at l^/i inches per second, 
and to 15000 cycles at 15 inches per sec- 
ond. A combination of the change in speed 
and the change in frequency range made 
the tape requirement three times as rigor- 
ous as European demands. 

We could also see that equipment would 
have to run with less attention to head 
cleaning and the like. 

The Basic Problems 

With the basic assumptions made, it 
was possible to outline the basic problems 
for the laboratory. These could be allocated 
to the fields of: base, oxide, binder, dis- 
persion and application. 

A plastic base would have to be found, 
with greater strength than the old vinyl, 
and which could be made in long lengths 
without splices. It would have to be per- 
fectly smooth, and the thickness would 
have to be extremely uniform. It would 
have to be available in a thickness of 

Paper Strength 

We felt that :f a very high grade paper 
base could be made it would be possible to 
use paper instead of plastic for many more 
applications, at a substantial saving to the 
customer. So the development of a special 
paper was put on the agenda. 

Tape paper must have extremely good 
smoothness, for this improves frequency 
response and reduces noise and distortion. 
This smoothness must be inherent — in the 
type of paper machine and processing. It 
is easy to make a rough, porous paper, then 
fill the pores with white pigment. This 
makes a poor base, however. The white 
pigment tends to rule off onto the capstan, 
producing slippage. It is possible to bond 
the pigment to the paper by adding a 
plastic resin to the paper pulp in the beater. 
This tends to stiffen the paper. If too much 
resin is used, the paper is stiffened so much 
that it fails to contact the heads properlv 
and high freauency response is impaired. 
It will also fail to wind compactly and the 
reel will be overfilled. If too little resin is 
used, the pigment will tend to rub off. The 
balance between chalking off and excessive 
stiffness is hard to maintain, and there 
really is no optimum compromise. 

Knowing this, we decided to do it right 
— the hard wav — and work with a paper- 
maker on an unfilled paper of great smooth- 
ness. This would insure best freauency re- 
sponse, lowest noise and lowest distortion. 
We were correct in judging that this would 
be a long job — it was. Part of the problem 
lav in getting adequate breaking strength 
— five pounds — while still retaining all 
other desirable characteristics. 

As everyone knows, recording tape con- 
sists of a non-magnetic base coated with 
iron oxide. A wide variety of oxide chem- 

ical compositions and lattice structures are 
possible. Correspondingly, a wide range of 
magnetic properties are possible — a coer- 
cive force may be anywhere between say 
90 and a maximum of 400 oersteds. 

As was said before, wide frequency 
range was recognized as absolutely essen- 
tial. It was also evident that low noise 
level would be required, to permit of as 
wide volume range as possible. 

We guessed, correctly, that a wide var- 
iety of bias values would be in use, and that 
it would not be possible to get optimum per- 
formance at all conceivable biases with 
only one oxide. One oxide suited to high 
bias operation and another optimized for 
medium bias would be necessary. This 
raised another problem. Previous attempts 
at a high bias oxide had not been of pro- 
fessional grade due to excessive noise and 
modulation noise. The latter sounds like 
fuzziness to the ear and is highly objection- 
able. An improved high bias oxide was 

One of the first handicaps in this work 
was the misleading nature of published 
studies on the relation of magnetic prop- 
erties to recording characteristics. As ap- 
plied to successive batches of a given oxide, 
coercive force and remanence have signi- 
ficance, but in comparing two entirely dif- 
ferent materials the magnetic properties 
have but little more than a second order 
effect. Other factors may outweigh the 
magnetic properties in significance by 
twenty or thirty db. The need to actually 
coat and record on every experimental 
oxide was very time consuming, but in the 
end it proved worth while. 

The iron oxide is held on the base by a 
binder. This binder must withstand high 
temperature without softening, if the tape 
is to be used on some of the earliest home 
type machines used by broadcasters. It 
must not have a tendency to rule off and 
foul the heads. Finally, it must not have 
a high coefficient of friction, or its motion 
over the heads will not be smooth. This 
coefficient of friction must not increase 
with time or use. 

The friction must be reduced by proper 
formulation and not by roughening the 
coating. The slightest shade of roughness 
will reduce friction (a curious phenom- 
enon), but it will impair output and high 
frequency response also. Do not confuse 
smoothness with gloss — a tape which is full 
of little bumps may still be very glossy. 

An oxide works best if the individual 
particles are separated from one another 
by binder, just as the particles in a mag- 
netic dust core are so separated. If the 
particles agglomerate together in clumps, 
the modulation noise increases. It was ne- 
cessary to study the problem of dispersing 
(Continued, on Page 4, Col. 1) 


May, 1949 

One-Man Organization Turns Out Top Transcriptions 

Radio- Video Associates, 322 East 55th 
St., a New York package agency actively 
engaged in the production of transcrip- 
tions for various non-profit organizations 
throughout the country has an office staff 
of one, in the person of 26-year-old Jack 
Lloyd, one of radio's busiest young actors. 
When not behind the mike. Jack spends 
most of his time carrying out his duties 
as R.V.A.'s producer, director, script edi- 
tor, talent buyer and public relations man. 
By working as a one-man organization and 
hiring writers, artists, etc. for each indi- 
vidual project, he is in a position to produce 
his shows on a budget well within the 
reach of his clients. E.xcept for a few spot 
announcements and talks, most of the 
shows which R.V.A. distributes to hun- 
dreds of stations are 15 -minute transcribed 

Research Problems of Tape 

(Continued from Page 3) 
oxide in binder very carefully. Unlike the 
paint and abrasive industries, the problem 
of dispersion was one of perfection, not 
of speed. 

The importance of the dispersion prob- 
lem may be realized when we find that a 
poor dispersion will have 10 db more mod- 
ulation noise. 

The viscosity of the coating solution 
must be carefully controlled, lest it fail to 
apply properly in the coating machine. 
Every coating machine, of any type, re- 
quires exact solution viscosity for the most 
perfect results. 


This brings us to the problem of apply- 
ing the coating. Recording tape coating is 
a precision job, entirely unlike that of coat- 
ing sandpaper or adhesive tape. The toler- 
ances are much smaller, for .0001" change 
in thickness will give over a db change in 

We found, after checking test runs made 
on standard commercial coating machines, 
that none would give us the uniformity 
we felt was necessary. So we went back 
to the new type machine we had developed 
for our first tape, and concentrated on 
improving it still further. One of the prob- 
lems, curiously, was that of measuring the 
tape thickness. When you start worrying 
about fractions of one ten-thousandth, you 
begin to have trouble with commercial 
measuring devices used in the shop. Regu- 
lar measurements of a standard are neces- 
sary to check any drift in the gauge setting. 

This has been a survey article, designed 
to show our friends why it took so long to 
develop the new tapes. We believe the 
time was fairly well spent, and expect to 
put a lot more time on still further per- 
fecting the new medium. 

Madeleine Carroll, Peter Lawford and 
dramas. Since Jack firmly believes in the 
power of a "name" to put across a 
message, he works hard to engage a Broad- 
way or Hollywood star for his shows. 
Among the stars who most recently con- 
tributed their talents on shows for such 
worthwhile organizations as the Save the 
Children Federation, The Foster Parents 

Plan for War Children and The National 
Conference of Christians and Jews, are 
Margaret O'Brien. 

Recordings are usually made at the NBC 
Recording Studios, and are processed by 
RCA Victor. These transcriptions are be- 
ing broadcast by approximately 600 radio 
stations, which donate their time as a pub- 
lic service. 

Producer-director Jack Lloyd discusses last minute details with film star Madeleine 
Carroll and announcer Len Sterling, before transcribing a drama for the benefit 
of the Foster Parents Plan for War Children. 

Audiotape (Continued from Page 1) 
high-coercive, black give best results with all of the various 

oped — one with 

oxide coating, and the other v.-ith 

cive, red oxide coating. 

Now — after 21/2 years of research, ex- 
perimentation, and continual improvement 
— Audiotape is ready for the market. 
Audio Devices' engineers are confident that 
it is the finest product of its type available 
— a product that will, in every way, live 
up to the exacting standards of quality and 
uniformity which have characterized Au- 
diodiscs for more than a decade. 

Paper-base Audiotape, in both the 
high-coercive and medium-coercive types, 
is now in quantity production — in stand- 
ard 1250-foot, all-aluminum reels designed 
to fit all makes of machines. Audiotape 
will be available through Audio Devices' 
more than 300 distributors, conveniently 
located from coast to coast. Through these 
distributors, it will also be available to 
retail dealers, who can obtain large or 
small quantities for profitable re-sale to their 
own customers. Distributors and dealers 
will be provided with complete instructions 
on the use of Audiotape — including recom- 
mendations on the type of tape which will 

commercial tape recorders now available. 

Audio Devices is now working on a new 
line of plastic-base Audiotape, which will 
offer certain advantages for professional 
use. The new tape will be announced 

Audiotape is now a full-fledged, tried 
and proven product. Its development was 
a "natural" for Audio Devices — a com- 
pany with more than 10 years of experi- 
ence in the manufacture and distribution 
of recording discs. For the production of 
recording tape has much in common with 
the production of recording discs. Both 
involve a precision coating process — 
wherein the sound-sensitive material must 
be applied to a suitable base in a perfectly 
smooth and uniform coating. Also, both 
involve the same basic principles of audio 
engineering, and call for the same high 
standards of quality control and continual 
factory testing to assure the most perfect 
sound recording medium available. 

Like Audiodiscs, Audiotape "speaks 
for itself." 



Vol. 5, No. 6 


444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

June-July, 1949 


Discs and tape play important role in keeping 
the Voice on the air 24 hours a day 

To news-hungry Russians, the Voice of 
America broadcasts, and those of the BBC, 
have long constituted the sole Hnk with 
the world beyond the Iron Curtain. In an 
effort to weaken this link, Soviet trans- 
mitters started jamming the Russian- 
language broadcasts in February of last 
year. Up until about two months ago, how- 
ever, these efforts were only partially suc- 
cessful. But now the Soviet stations are 
engaged in an all-out offensive to strangle 
the Voice of America before it can reach 
any Russian ears. And since the Voice 
refuses to be silenced, we are in what 
amounts to an international struggle for 
supremacy of the air. 

The Russian jamming efforts take sev- 
eral forms — broadcasting assorted loud 
noises on the same wave length; broadcast- 
ing on a slightly different wave length, to 
produce a loud squealing "beat" of audio 
frequency; and broadcasting on a varying 
frequency which straddles the undesired 
wave length, resulting in a loud, pulsating 
whistle. The noises superimposed on the 
jamming waves include bagpipe squeals, 
ducks' quacking, and, more recently, a 
multi-tone signal of 8 musical notes at high 

This full-scale program presented some 
real problems in the way of planning and 
executing effective counter-measures — a 
job which is in the capable hands of George 
Q. Herrick, chief engineer of the Voice 
of America programs. According to Mr. 
Herrick, our counter-offensive has so far 
employed five methods of attack. 

First — keeping the Voice on the air 
continuously, 24 hours a day. 

Second — using additional transmitters. 

ft is timely to remember: 

humidity resistant! 

(Patent Pending) 

and broadcasting on so many different 
frequencies that it is difficult to jam all of 
them.. The voice nov.' employs a maximum 
of 36 stations, and the BBC, 2.^. 

Third — changing frequencies suddenly 
and often, at irregular intervals — keeping 
the "enemy" on the jump to catch dodging 

Fourth — using a new "de-cmph,isizing 
(Continued on Pdge 2, Co!. 1) 


ike of A 
70 pe 

's recording room ■">**• 
'f the original progr, 
i and later broadcast 

"Ranger Bill" Rides Again 

Station WNYE Transcribes Second Series 
of U. S. Forest Service Programs 

Many of the students in the New York 
Ctty Schools have never seen a real forest. 
Yet chances are, they know more about 
forestry than many of their country-bred 
brothers and sisters. For, thanks to the 
medium of educational radio, the .students- 
in 750 New York Schools have thrilled to 
the fascinating and instructive adventures 
of "Bill Scott — Forest Ranger" I- i', 

series of transcribed radio programs. Bill 
Scott, his young niece June Cameron, and 
two teen-agers, Joe McGuire and Sam 
Freeman, bring the tense drama and un- 
forgettable lessons on forestry and forest 
conservation right into the classrooms. 

The second series of "Bill Scott" pro- 
grams, consisting of si.x fifteen-minute re- 
(Co)itinned on Page 2, Col. 2) 

of WNVE, Broadcasting Station 


June-July, 1949 

cuulla ii record 

"Ranger Bill" Rides Again {Continued from Page 1, Col. 3) 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture >tudios, colleges, vocational 
.■schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 5, NO. 6 

JUNE-JULY, 1949 

Voice of America 

(Continued from Page 1, Col. 2) 

and pre-emphasizing clipper," developed 
by Mr. Herrick and his assistants. Although 
this distorts voices somewhat, it makes the 
speech much more intelligible and harder to 
drown out with interference. 

Fifth — Altering the program material 
to eliminate musical features, talks and 
documentaries, and transmit only news, 
news headlines, brief commentaries, press 
reviews and economic round-ups. In this 
way, if only parts of a program get through, 
they are sure to be vital and mtormative 

It is in the first of these counter-measures 
— the round-the-clock operation — that 
recordings play a vital role, both in the 
original programing and in repeat broad- 
casts. Present Voice broadcasts to the 
Moscow area are sent out from American 
.stations on the following schedule — 10: 15- 
10:45 A.M., 2-3 P.M., 5-5:30 P.M. 
and 11:15-11:45 P.M. This represents a 
greatly increased schedule as compared to 
the pre-jamming days. But by the increased 
use of disc recordings, it has been possible 
to handle this added work load with ex- 
isting personnel. Mr. Herrick states that 
about 70 per cent of the program material 
is aired from transcriptions, which are 

cordings, is the result ot the outstanding 
success of a similar series originally pro 
duced in 1946 — a series which received a 
special citation (highest award) at the 
Tenth School Broadcast Conference in 
Chicago, on October 28, 1947. The contest 
judges commended the programs for their 
effective combination of "exciting" forest 
drama with practical conservation messages. 
The "Bill Scott, Forest Ranger" pro- 
grams are written by Bill Bergoffen of the 
U. S. Forest Service, and are produced by 
student actors in New York City's School 
Radio Workshop, under the skillful super- 
vision of Van Rensselaer Brokhahne, pro- 
duction manager for Station WNYE. New 
York City offers an excellent opportunity 
for putting such an educational effort into 
effect. For the New York Board of Educa 
tion operates its own broadcasting station. 
WNYE, and with receiving sets in 750 of 
the schools, it has an air channel to every 
classroom. And to help the students get the 
most out of these IJ. S. Forest Service pro- 
grams, 1500 teachers were provided with 
appropriate instruction material to supple- 
ment their own information in this field. 

Also, more than 6000 students were given 
special Bill Scott notebooks — collections 
of short and interestingly written articles 
on the various phases of forestry, forest 
conservation, fire prevention, reforesta- 
tion, etc. 

The use of the "Bill Scott" programs, 
however, is by no means limited to the 
New York City Schools. Hundreds of 
transcriptions have been distributed to 
radio stations, forestry groups, schools and 
colleges throughout the entire United 
States. They have been broadcast to homes 
and schools, and reproduced directly in 
classrooms and at summer camps. The 
scripts have also been widely used for local 
dramatization by student bodies. 

Production of the second series of pro 
grams was begun early this year, and al 
ready, requests for transcriptions have 
been received from 23 states and Wash- 
ington, D. C. Readers of Audio Record 
who would like to obtain transcriptions and 
complete sets of the scripts of "Bill Scott, 
Forest Ranger" programs for their own use, 
are requested to get in touch with Mr. 
C. W. Mattison, Forest Service, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

chief of the Engineering 

made whenever personnel and facilities arc 
available, and put together later for broad- 
casting at the scheduled time. 

Safeties of all programs are cut and 
filed for 24 hours. This gives back-up pro 
tection, so that if any of the European 
relay stations should fail temporarily and 
notify us of such failure, the remainder 
of the program could be broadcast from 
the safeties, direct from the Voice's Amer- 
ican stations. 

The four programs originating here arc 
recorded by the American Relay Base at 
Munich, and rebroadcast from as many as 
4 European relay stations during the per 
iods that the American stations are not on 
the air. The programs are recorded at 
Munich on both disc and tape. As soon as 
the American broadcast is completed, the 
program is repeated locally by transcrip 
tion. The disc recording is used first, as thi.-; 
is instantly available, without having to 
wait for revi'inding, as in the case of the 
tape recordings. Subsequent repeats are 
made from tape. Duplicate tape recordings 
are used, so that one can be rewound and 
made ready for immediate airing as soon 
as the other has finished playing. 

According to the present repeat broad- 
cast schedule, the one-hour program is aired 
three times, once direct from America and 
twice by local rebroadcast — two of the 
half-hour programs arc not repeated— -and 
the remaining half-hour program is re 
peated for a total of 20 hours! 

As to the effectiveness of our counter- 
measures in this battle of the air waves. 

Mr. Herrick states that results are difficult 
to measure accurately. One thing is cer- 
tain, however. Our Voice programs are 
forcing the Soviets to tie up a large part 
of their transmitter facilities for jamming 
operations. On May 25 th, for example. 
BBC monitors actually located a total of 
205 jamming stations on the air, and there 
were probably many more local jamming 
stations that could not be detected. At the 
same time, BBC reported that the Soviet 
Home Service programs were being aired 
over only 13 transmitters instead of the 
usual 25. Although it must be admitted 
that the Russian jamming operations are 
pretty effective in limiting the amount of 
Voice programs that actually break 
through, it is at best a Phyrric victory — 
extremely costly in both rubels and fa- 

Psychologicallv, it probably has just the 
opposite nf the desired effect on potential 
Russian listeners — serving to arouse their 
curiosity and make them more anxious 
than ever to do a little surreptitious listen- 
ing. Plavine un this aspect of the situation, 
all of the Voice's Russian-language pro- 
grams carry this punch line: "Obviously 
.somebody considers it dangerous to let the 
Soviet people listen to truthful information 
from a free radio." 

This war of the kilocycles isn't over yet 
— for Mr. Herrick hasn't exhausted his 
bag of tricks by any means. And even aow. 
the Russians must realize that they are 
pitting their engineering skill against a 
worthy adversary. 

June-July, 1949 


w i^eco'idUt 

C. J. LeBel 

by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


In keeping a tape 
recorder in top 
notch operating 
condition, and in 
adjusting a record 
ing room full of 
machines so that all 
perform alike, it is 
very helpful to be 
I able to measure the 
intensity of the su- 
personic bias at the 
itape. It IS not 
enough to measure the bias current 
j through the recording head, for successive 
I heads from the same maker may differ 507f 
j in the effect of a given current. One must 
measure the effective bias right in the tape 

This problem of measuring effective bias 
first came to our laboratory in the form 
of a need for data on the bias of various 
commercial machines. The difficulty was 
enhanced by the fact that various manu- 
facturers use different core shapes and 
differing numbers of turns on the cores, in 
building their heads. 

The first method tried was the old one 
of measuring the erasing effect of bias flux 
on a tape recorded to saturation. This 
proved to be somewhat indefinite, because 
a saturated signal is not as exact as one 
would think. A 99% saturated signal is 
markedly easier to erase than one which is 
99.9% saturated, yet the difference in out- 
put between the two is less than one tenth 
of a db at the start. Other difficulties make 
the method still less reliable. 

At this point in the research, the labor- 
atory came up with an idea which has 
proven entirely successful. They spliced a 
few feet of tape (coated with red oxide) 
to a few feet coated with black oxide, and 
used the difference in output between the 
two (which varies with bias) as an index. 
If we record on tapes coated with en 
tircly different oxides, we get a result like 
figure 1. In making these measurements a 
mid-range frequency such as 400 cycles 
may be used, at fixed (normal) recording 
level. Bias current is varied and the tape 
output measured. 

It can be seen that for bias currents 
under 7 ma, through this particular record- 
ing head, tape A has higher output than 

AUDIOPOINTS "Speak For Themselves" Too 

The following letter was received from 
.Station WWL in New Orleans by one of 
our distributors, Charles A. Levie, Radio 
Parts, Inc. 

14, magnified 4 tit 

irding Sapphire Audiopoint 

"Dear Charlie; — 

The attached needle recorded its swan song 
in a burst of glory. It has been resharpened 
for the last time but the final resharpening 
recorded 104 sides of 16 inch records at 
33 1/3 revolutions per minute. This 
amounts to 26 hours of continuous record- 
ing before breaking down. We think this 
is something of a record. 
This IS an Audiopoint and was used on 
Audiodiscs exclusively. 

Yours very truly, 
J. D. Bloom, Jr. 
Chief Engineer" 

tape B. At higher biases, the situation re- 
verses and tape B has higher output. 

If we measure the difference between 
the two curves, we get a result like figure 2. 
This curve is taken from data on another 
pair of test tapes. 

In order to determine the bias of any 
tape machine, it is only necessary to run 
the pair of tapes, measure the difference 
in output (both magnitude and sign), and 
refer to the calibration curve. The bias 
current of these curves is given in milli 
amperes through our laboratory head, but 
similar data can be secured on any record 
ing machine equipped with adjustable bias, 
.uid ,1 meter for reading bias current. 

We have applied a test tape of this sort 
to a considerable number of recording 
machines, with results that will interest 
our readers: 



lit'jlent ^\ai 

A (warm) 


A (cold) 








E No. 1 


E No. 2 


E No. 3 


F No. 1 


F No. 2 


Machines A, B, C, D are very light, non- 
adjustable bias home style machines that 
have been widely used by broadcasters for 
portable work. An oxide that has adequate 
sensitivity on machine A (bias of 3 to 4) 
Vv-ill lose high frequency response if run 
on machine D (bias of 10). An oxide that 


M« A 


t / /taps a 






Current Versus Output for Diffe 

has good frequency response at a bias of 
10 will distort badly when run at a bias 
of only 4. It is apparent that optimum re- 
sults can be achieved by operating a ma- 
chine with the correct tape for its bias 

Machine E is a professional type with 
non-adiustable bias, and the variation be- 
tween machines is excessive. The designer's 
intention was to achieve a bias of 5 or 6, 
but the target has been missed in two out 
of these three trials. We strongly advocate 
the use of a test tape on all the machines in 
the recording room once a week to catch 
such variations as this. Machine F has 
adjustable bias, and the tests were run with 
the manufacturer's own bias settings. Evi- 
dently his machines are uniform. 

Just one precaution in using one of these 
test tapes: be sure to use the same fre- 
quency for your test as was used for the 
original calibration of the tapes. A shift 
from 400 to 1,000 cycles, for example, will 
shift the current at which both tapes have 
equal response from seven ma to six ma. 

It is possible to make up a test tape pair 
from any two dissimilar oxides, but op- 
timum results arc secured if the two curves 
are as different in slope as possible. Tapes 
we have used in our bias research program 
have therefore been prepared by the lab- 
oratory rather than the factory. If there is 
enough demand to warrant it, we may 
make test tapes and individual calibration 
curves available. 

Acknowledgment is due Mr. E. W. 
Franck, Research Director of our Com- 
pany, who devised this method of test and 
who has prepared the tapes used. 






» 1 4 « 9 1 



June-July, 1949 


Sun Radio's push-button sales room gives 

instant comparison between ordinary and 

High-Fidelity reproduction 

"Self-Service Sound," an unusual con- 
cept in sound demonstration, is featured 
in the new, 1000 sq. ft. Sound and Tele- 
vision Demonstration Studio of the Sun 
Radio & Electronics Co., Inc., 122-124 
Duane Street, New York 7, N. Y. 

By merely pushing a button, the shopper 
himself may select from 2600 possible com- 
binations of audio components, including 
radio tuners, amplifiers, microphones, 
record changers, and speakers. This gives 
instant comparison between ordinary sound 
reproduction and full-color, High-Fidelity 

Behind this effective approach to the 
demonstration of sound equipment lies 
Sun Radio's "Sound Demonstration Con- 
trol Panel," a master switching system de- 
signed by Irving Greene, I.R.E., Manager 
of Sun Radio's Sound fe? Television De- 

From both the practical and merchandis- 
ing points of view, it was necessary to 
design a sound demonstration studio which 
avoided the usual plug-pulling, wire-ravel- 
ing ceremonies which would otherwise be 
required in the demonstration of sound 

High-Fidelity, in which Sun's new studio 
specializes, can best be demonstrated by 
instant comparison with ordinary repro- 
duction. The new Demonstration Panel 
accomplishes this, at the same time making 
it easy and pleasant for the shopper, 
whether he be layman or engineer, to 
select the desired components. Leading 
equipment in all price ranges is displayed. 

The speakers and record changers each 
have their own illuminating device to in- 
dicate which one is in operation. These 
lights work automatically as the equipment 
is switched on. 

The studio has been deliberately de- 
signed to be neither acoustically perfect 
nor sound-proof. It is "sound-conditioned," 
that is, there is no attempt to demonstrate 
sound under such ideal conditions that 
the customer is disappointed at what he 
hears in his own home. Wall and ceiling 
have been constructed to keep external 
noise out, and to prevent studio noise from 
disturbing the rest of the organization. 


Tuners, amplifiers, changers, and speakers are arranged for easy visibility and identification in Sun Radio's 
Sound-TV Studio. All can be demonstrated from the push-button control panel which can be seen in the photo. 
Not visible in this picture are the Recording and Television Sections. 




whe7i you 


d on audladlscs 

DON'T BE BASHFUL! If you have any recording 

stories that you think would be of interest to our 

readers, send them in. Audio Record is now distributed. 

by request, to 1480 radio stations, 3950 schools and 

colleges. 3J00 recording studios and recordists, and 

950 distributors and dealers. Address contributions to: 

Editor. Audio Record. 444 Madison Ave., New York 

22, N. Y. 


J.S. (>«, Of. 

To the recordist, the hot. summer months have gen- 
erally meant plenty of trouble — not because of the 
heal, but due to the accompanying high humidity. 
For moisture which is absorbed by the lacquer of a 
recording disc has a serious effect on the cutting 
characteristics. The noise level increases progres- 
sively while recording, and the cut gets greyer and 
greyer. This problem has affected the entire lacquer 
disc industry. But, with Audiodiscs, it is a problem 
no longer. You can now record as well on the hottest 
and dampest day as you could on a crisp day in fall 
or winter. 

This freedom from humidity troubles is the result 
of an exclusive Audiodisc improvement perfected in 
1947. It is an improvement wliich goes far beyond the 
control of atmospheric conditions during manufac- 
ture—for that alone doesn't prevent moisture absorp- 


lion later on. The moisture problem has been solved 
at its most vulnerable point — in the lacquer itself! 

By the addition of a special moisture resisting 
agent — without any change in the basic formulation 
— Audiodisc lacquer has been made permanently 
resistant to humidity. Its outstanding "all weather" 
performance has been proved by countless tests in 
our "weather room", under the most severe condi- 
tions of temperature and humidity. But the most 
conclusive proof of all has come from the field. For, 
during the summer of 1948, one of the most humid 
on record, none of our customers have reported any 
difiicullies in recording or reproduction due to mois- 
ture conditions. 

See for yourself what a big difference this improve- 
ment can make in your summer recordings. Ask your 
dealer for Audiodiscs! 


Export Dept.: Rocke International, 13 East 4Uth St., New York 




Vol. 5, No. 9 



444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

November, 1949 

Prize-Winning Script of '49 A.E.R. Contest 
Broadcast Over 13 Stations 

Tape Recording of "How The Rocking 

Chair Got Its Squeak" is Aired 

on Indiana University's 

"School of the Sky" 

"How the Rocking Chair Got Its 
Squeak", the prize winning script in the 
1949 Association for Education hy Radio 
script contest, division five which was 
sponsored by Audio Devices, Inc., was 
broadcast this Autumn throughout In- 
diana, IlHnois and Ohio on the Indiana 
University "School of the Sky" program. 

The script, written by Fred Brewer, a 
graduate assistant at Indiana University, 
is one of many programs heard each week- 
day by school children in the area covered 
by thirteen radio stations which air the 

"The School of the Sky" is now in its 
(Continued on Page 2, Col. 1) 

Student Recordists Get Early Start in Westfieid Scitoois 

Audiodiscs used in all phases 
of primary training 

By William M. Mohoney, Principal 
Moseley School, Westfieid, Moss. 

The Moseley School m Westfieid, Mass 
achusetts is well aware of the potentialities 
of disc recording in the elementary grades. 

Much has been written concerning the 
virtues of using the recorded voice in the 
high school — for language study, speech, 
English, dramatic, and similar classes, 
sometimes to the point of minimizing the 
effectiveness of the device in the elementary 
school. However, the function of the disc 
recorder as an aid in early speech correc- 
tion, oral reading, music, social studies, 
and as an excellent motivator in all phases 
of the elementary school curriculum is 
gaining added impetus throughout the 
country as the emphasis on the unit-activity 
method of instruction continues to be 

t Moseley School record Fire Departn 

Yellow Label Audiodis 

Stressed. There is hardly a unit of work 
being taught in most courses of study for 
the first six grades, where the recorder can- 
not be used to great advantage. 

The accompanying picture shows Teach- 
ing Aids Director LaDoyt K. Teubner and 

Miss Anna Lillis, second grade teacher of 
the Moseley School making use of the 
recording session as a culminating activity 
on a unit of work about the fire department. 
Several days of teaching, planning, and 
(Continued on Page 2, Col. 2) 


November, 1949 

cLudIa ^ record 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 5, No. 9 NOVEMBER, 1949 

Prize-Winning Script 

{Continued from Page 1, Col. 1) 

third consecutive year. Its programs, de- 
signed for in-school listening, cover history, 
news, science, books and guidance. 

George C. Johnson is the general super- 
visor of the series, and Fred L. Gerbcr 
directs and produces all the programs 
which total 126 during a school year. Harry 
J. Skornia, chairman of the I. U. Depart- 
ment of Radio, originated the educational 
series which is now considered by edu- 
cators as one of the finest programs offered 
to children. 

The programs go not only to Indiana 
stations, but are broadcast in Chicago and 
Louisville; and the Minnesota Department 
of Education is distributing last year's 
series throughout Minnesota schools by 
electrical transcriptions. 

This year "The School of the Sky" is 
making extensive use of magnetic tape re- 
cordings for the first time, and with much 
success. Tapes are sent to the radio stations 
one week in advance of the broadcast date. 

The series uses only student talent. 

Mr. Brewer, who wrote the "Rocking 
Chair" script, also writes the news program, 
and contributes scripts to the history and 
science series. Writing is an old business to 
him — a newspaper sports editor before the 
war, contributor to magazines, and the 
winner of several scholarships and prizes 
for his script writing, he plans making the 
writing of educational radio and television 
scripts his life's work. 

Westfield Schools 

{Continued from Page 1, Col. 3) 

learning preceded the actual job of record- 
ing. Members of the fire department were 
invited to the class and demonstrated how 
a fire alarm is sounded. Many questions 
were asked and, from the answers, stories 
were written and the best ones chosen by 
the class. Then a similar process was under- 
taken to appoint readers for each story. 
Finally, the class, as a music activity, com- 
posed a song about the fire department and 
it was sung by the entire group for the 

What do we have now that the record- 
ing is made? Just another notebook or 
some bulletin board material to file away 
until next year? Certainly not! We have 
an addition to our library of activities for 
that room that is alive and real and which 
the children can and do play over and over 
for group and self criticism, for compar- 
ison, and for personal enjoyment. We also 
have another source of research informa- 
tion that other classes can use from time 
to time when they are studying similar 

These recordings, besides being good 
stimuli to the children, make excellent pub- 
lic relations material at PTA, Woman's 
Club, Kiwanis, and other meetings. The 
playing of the recording mentioned above, 
to a PTA group resulted in the purchase 
of a new transcription player for us. 

To be sure, we, in the elementary school 
are not going to be push-button teachers 
and either make or play records as our 
only diversion from traditional teaching, 
but we most certainly can and should use 
this excellent type of teaching aid to com- 
plement a well-rounded school program. 

Send for your FREE SAMPLES 

of The New Au 


A rcquesl on your busines 
bring you a 200-foot sample 
plastic-base Audiotape — c 
sample reels of paper base 
with red oxide and the other 
coaling. Write to Dept. T-1 
Inc., 444 Madison Ave., Nc« 

s letterhead will 
reel of the new 

r two, 200-foot 
Audiotape, one 

with black oxide 
Audio Devices, 
York 22, N. y. 

Which Twin Has the Tonsils? 

Although we hear our own voices every 
day, few people know what they really 
sound like — until they make a recording. 
The result is usually quite a surprise. Here's 
a typical case in point, submitted by Mr. 
William S. Tacey, Assistant Professor of 
Speech at the University of Pittsburgh. 

"Recently I was recording the voices of 
the students in a class in Public Speaking. 
After several people had spoken, we started 
the playback. The first voice was that of a 

girl. As she heard her own words coming 
back she turned to me with a quizzical look 
and said, 'Why, that's my twin's voice! 
When did you record her voice?' I asked 
her if she was sure. She replied, 'Yes, I'm 
very sure. We are identical twins but our 
voices are much different.' It required a 
second recording to convince her that her 
twin's voice was not the one that she was 
hearing over the machine." 

by C. J. LcBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


C. J. LeBel 

While the rest of the country has been 
occupied with a mere political election, we 
have been checking into another type of 
preference — for tape. We have been busily 
checking the recommendations of tape re- 
corder manufacturers, and so this issue 
presents the first published table of record- 
ing machine tape requirements — direction 
of wind, type of oxide and base material. 

It is interesting to examine these re- 
commendations in the light of possible 
industry trends. We note that of 23 man- 
ufacturers, 18 use the oxide-in style of 
wind. This surely registers an overwhelm- 
ing preference — 78% — and we can only 
hope that the remaining 22%' will fall in 
line in future models. In the meantime, the 
manufacturer and dealer have to stock 
every variety of tape in both styles of wind. 

When we come to the question of oxide, 
the matter becomes one of engineering 
choice, rather than random draftsman's 
whim. Seventeen have preferred red oxide, 
4 take black and 2 have compromised with 

For base material 16 take plastic, 4 take 
paper and 3 have compromised. 

Without having conducted any exten- 
sive survey, we strongly suspect that many 
of the designers who picked red oxide did 
so mainly because they had to take it if 
they wished a plastic base. Now it is pos- 
sible to get plastic base, paper base, black 
oxide and red oxide in any combination. 
This opens up certain possibilities not 
hitherto feasible, and should induce the 
engineer to do a little experimenting. 

A little listening has convinced us that 
on the highest grade professional machines 
the difference in sound between plastic and 


November, 1949 

paper base is not as great as results from 
the less perfect bias waveform of poorer 
machines. We would suggest, therefore, 
that the large radio station reduce its cap- 
it,d investment in tape by using red oxide 
paper base tape for legal record recording. 
There is no reason why a tape of a quiz 
show, destined for filing for three months 
before final erasure, should be temporarily 
stored on the same high quality material 

as is used to preserve a world-famous artist's 
performance for posterity. Since the same 
oxide IS used on both bases, the machine 
bias will not require readjustment. In 
many ways this parallels the disc record- 
ist's practice of using a Red Label blank 
for important work, and a Yellow Label or 
Reference disc for less significant record- 

Another possibility opened up by our 

complete Ime is of help to the owner of a 
home machine designed to use black oxide. 
For his most important recordings he can 
use Audiotape No. 1240 or 1241 which are 
combinations of plastic base and the black 
oxide he needs. 

So, by making a complete line of tape 
available, we make it possible for the en- 
gineer to use whatever type best fills his 
needs for the job in hand. 






Wound with 


Ampex Electric Corp., 11 55 Howard Avenue, San 
Carlos, California 


Red Oxide 


Audiograph Co., 1434 El Camino Real, San Carlos, 


Red Oxide 


Bell Sound Systems, Inc., 1183 Essex Avenue, Colum- 
bus 3, Ohio 


Red Oxide 


Brush Development Co., 3405 Perkins Avenue, Cleve- 
land 14, Ohio 


Black Oxide 


Eicor, Inc., 1500 W. Congress, Chicago 7, Illinois 


Black Oxide 


Fairchild Recording Equipment Corp., 154th St. S" 7th 
Ave., Whitestone, N. Y. 


Red Oxide 


Lekas Mfg. Co., Ann Arbor, Michigan 


Red Oxide 


Magnccord, Inc., 360 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago 1, 


Red Oxide 


Mark Simpson Manufacturing Co., Inc., 3 2-28 49th St., 
L. I. C. 3, N. Y. 


Red Oxide 





Pelco Industries, 629 Second Avenue, New York, N. Y. 


Red Oxide 
Black Oxide 


Presto Recording Corp., P. O. Box 500, Hackensack, 


Red Oxide 


Radio Corp. of America, RCA Victor Div., Front y 
Cooper Sts., Camden 2, N. J. 


Red O.xide 


Rangertone, Inc., 73 Winthrop Street, Newark 4, N. J. 


Red Oxide 


Revere Camera Corp., 320 E. 21st St., Chicago 16, 

Plastic or 

Red Oxide 

Rack Mounted Recorder, 

Stancil-HolTman Corp., 1016 N. Highland Ave., Holly- 
wood 38, Calif. 


Red Oxide 


Tapetone Maufacturing Corp., 1650 Broadway, New 
York 19. N. Y. 


Red Oxide 
Black Oxide 


Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wisconsin 


Black Oxide 


Wilcox-Gay Corp., Charlotte, Michigan 


Black Oxide 


Amplifier Corp. of America. 398 Broadway, New York 
13, N. Y. 


Red or 
Black Oxide 


Audio Industries, Michigan City, Indiana 


Red Oxide 


Crestwood Recorder Corp., 218 S. Wabash, Chicago 
4, 111. 


Red Oxide 





Operadio Manufacturing Co., St. Charles, 111. 


Red Oxide 


Pentron Corp., 611 W. Division Street, Chicago 10, 


Red Oxide 



November, 1949 

Tape Recordings Invade Literary Field 

Tape-Recorded Interviews Used as Editorial 
Feature in "Journal of Metals" 

When Mr. T. W. Lippert, Editor of the 
Journal of Metals, and Manager of Pub- 
lications for the A.I.M.E., called on Henry 
Kaiser for an editorial interview, the usual 
note pad and pencil were conspicuously 
lacking. Instead, Mr. Lippert carried a 
Crestwood portable tape recorder — set it 
up on Mr. Kaiser's desk — plugged it into a 
power outlet — and started shooting ques- 
tions at the famed industrialist. These 
questions, and the answers, in Mr. Kaiser's 
exact words, appeared as an editorial fea- 
ture in the September issue of the Journal 
of Metals, under the heading — "Henry 
Kaiser Says ... (a tape recorded inter- 

Mr. Lippert has long been a proponent 
of the direct interview technique of edi- 
torial reporting. And he has tackled the job 
from every angle. Trying to jot down a 
person's words in abbreviated longhand 
was too slow — and not accurate enough. 
He has tried taking a stenographer along 
to record the conversation in shorthand. 
But the presence of a third party was not 
always desirable, and inhibited a free and 
natural flow of conversation. Also, this 
method of transcribing was not 100 per 
cent accurate either — especially when the 
dialogue was rapid, as is apt to he the case 
when a man really warms up to his subject. 
The tape recorder, on the other hand, has 
proved the ideal solution to the problem. 
Easily portable (weighing considerably less 
than the average stenographer), it assures 
an accurate word-for-word picture of the 
entire conversation — recorded in no more 
time than it takes to tell it. 

To simplify transcribing interviews from 
tape to typewriter, Mr. Lippert has had 
his recorder equipped with a special foot 
switch attachment which plugs into the 
machine, and controls the tape drive. Dur- 
ing transcription, the playback circuit is 
kept energized and the typist uses the foot 
switch to start and stop the tape as de- 
sired. It has been found entirely satisfac- 
tory to use the loudspeaker included in the 
equipment for transcription, without the 
need for a headphone attachment. 

These tape recorded interviews have 
been adopted as a regular feature of the 
monthly Journal of Metals, at present ap- 
pearing in every other issue. For the No- 
vember issue, Mr. Lippert and his tape 
recorder have recently completed a tour 
through the Youngstown, Cleveland, and 
Pittsburgh areas, where he interviewed 
about twenty strikers picketing steel plants 
— getting their first-hand reactions not 
only on the strike, but on associated prob- 

lems as well. As his recorder had to be 
connected to a power source which was not 
available on the picket lines, Mr. Lippert 
set up his equipment in a nearby barber 
shop or garage, then engaged the pickets 
in conversation and withdrew them one at 
a time from the picket line to his temporary 
"field headquarters". He states that the 
novelty of the tape recorder, and the in- 
stant playback feature, were a big asset in 
eliciting the cooperation of the strikers. 
They got quite a "kick" out of listening 
to the playback, and hearing their own 
voices probably for the first time in their 
lives. They were also fascinated by the fact 
that their interviews were being recorded 
on the same reel of tape which contained 
the interview with Henry Kaiser — parts of 
which were played back to them before 

they went "on the tape". 

Mr. Lippert states that he selected tape 
instead of wire for this recording project, 
in order to obtain higher fidelity, more 
natural voice quality for easier transcrip- 
tion, and greater strength, with freedom 
from danger of breaking and snarling of 
the recording medium either during re- 
cording or playback. The Crestwood re- 
corder which he uses is a dual-channel unit 
with a recording speed of 7^2 inches per 
second, providing up to one full hour of 
recording on a 7-inch reel of tape. This is 
more than adequate for any interviews 
which he expects to make. 

Just as "the pen is mightier than the 
sword" — so tape recording has proved 
itself mightier than the pen, at least for 
this type of article. 

Quick Facts on Two More New Tape Recorders 

(Additional information con be obtained by writing to the manufacturer) 


Model 15 


629 Second Ave., New York 16, N. Y. 

Model 44 

Portable, dual-channel recorder with lYi" per 
second tape .speed, giving 1 hour of continuou.s 
recording on a 7" reel. Replaces original Eicor 
Model 1000, with addition of more simplified 
controls, time markings, faster re-wind, and 
jacks for professional recording and reproduc- 
tion. Weight, 27 Ih. 

Price to 


Around $85.00 

Around $150.00 

Portable, single-channel recorder with tape speed 
of iYj," per second. One hour continuous play- 
ing. Frequency response (3 db), 80-5000 cycles. 
Percentage of WOW, 0.2%. Rewind time, 3 min. 
61 2" PM Speaker. Neon lamp recording indi- 
cator. By adding tone arm, machine can be used 
as 78 rpm phonograph. Weight. 38 lb. 





Vol. 5, No. 10 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

December, 1949 

SOUNDS -he brings 'em back alive! 

A good reporter is said to have a nose for 
news. But Thomas J. Valentino, not being 
a reporter, can afford to be different. He 
has a nose for noises! In fact he has spent 
the past fifteen years collecting them — 
not merely as a hobby, but as a fascinating 
and profitable vocation. Proof of this is 
the fact that the sound effects catalog of 
Thomas J. Valentino, Inc., New York 
City, lists disc recordings of over five 
hundred different noises — "From a cat's 
meow to a lion's roar — a pistol shot to 
a world war." 

That quotation, incidentally, is Mr. 
Valentino's trade slogan — one that gives 
a pretty good idea of the scope of his 
collection. There are soft, peaceful, pas- 
toral sounds — like the chirping of crick- 
ets and croaking of frogs in the dead of 
night. Busy, active, crowded sounds — like 
the din of heavy traffic in New York's 
Times Square. Quick, urgent sounds — 
like the fast, rhythmic clack-clack of a 
battery of teletype machines in a busy 
news room. Exciting, dangerous sounds — 
like the stacatto barking of a machine gun 
and the whine of ricochetting bullets. 

Name just about any kind of sound you 
can think of, and chances are you'll find 
Mr. Valentino already has a recording 
of it. Take bells, for example. He can give 
you ambulance bells, burglar alarm bells, 
church bells, dinner bells, door bells, fire 
alarm bells, locomotive bells, telephone 
bells, ship's bells, and even the melan- 
choly clang of a bell buoy. Or, suppose 
you want airplane noises. Take your choice 
of these: Air-cooled motor, fast; airplane 
crash; dive bombers diving for attack, 
zooming; Navy bi-plane; PB-40, zooming; 
twin-motor transport; fast bomber; flight; 
landing; propellers winding; squadron 
takes off; squadron passing; start motor; 
starts, takes off, flies; stunting; take-off, 
tri motor; twin-engine bomber; twin en- 
gine bomber, one engine missing. And of 
course there are all the associated sounds, 
too — like air raid sirens, falling bombs, 
crashing buildings, ack-ack, etc. 

Mr. Valentino explains that his sound 
effects recordings sound so real because 
they are real — recorded from life on 
sound film, then re-recorded on Audiodiscs 
in the studio, 

(Continued on Page 2, Col. 1) 

Two Audio-Sponsored Script Contests 
Seek New Talent in Student Writers 

For the third ci)nsecutive year. Audio 
Devices is sponsoring both the Scholastic 
Magazines' and AER radio script writing 
contests for 19.=i(). 

These two nation-wide competitions — 
Scholastic Magazines' Radio Script 'W^rit- 
ing Ci)ntest. for high school students, and 
the AER National Radio Script Contest 
for college students — offer all aspiring 
(and perspiring) scripters an excellent op- 
portunity to win valuable cash awards, 
and still more I'alnabJe recognition for 
their creative talent. 

As the trend, for the past two years, 
has been steadily upward — in both qual- 
ity and quantity of scripts submitted — it 
looks as though the 1950 contests will pass 
all previous records in both respects. 

So come on, students — sharpen your 
pencils and your wits, and start now to 
lay a foundation for your future career as 

a radio script writer, by entering the 
Scholastic Magazines' or AER contest. 

Complete rules and instructions for the 
high school students' contest have already 
been published in Scholastic Magazines, so 
they will not be repeated here. But don't 
forget that the closing date for the Na- 
tional Contest is March 1, 1950. And if 
you're entering one of the many Regional 
Contests, scripts must be submitted by 
around February 15th — which can sneak 
up on you mighty fast. 

The National AER Contest, in which 
Audio Devices is again sponsoring the 
Special Classification of Scripts suitable 
for home recording, will close on March 
30, 1950. For complete rules and instruc- 
tions for preparation of scripts, write to 
Dr. Sherman P. Lawton, AER Script Con- 
test Chairman, University of Oklahoma, 
Norman, Oklahoma. 


December, 1949 


Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 5, No. 10 


SOUNDS: {Continued froyn Page I, Col. 1) 

On Record No. SOMA, for example, 
you hear the sound of subway turnstiles, 
the rumble and roar of an approaching 
subway train, the click of the wheels on 
the rails, the hissing of air brakes, the open- 
ing of the doors, the surging shuffling foot- 
steps and grunts of the passengers getting 
off and squeezing on. the closing doors, 
the train starting up and rumbling away 
into the tunnel again. This recording was 
made in the Lexington Avenue subway 
station at 116th Street. Mr. Valentino's 
recording equipment was parked in a sta- 
tion wagon near the entrance, and he 
carried the microphone on a long line 
right down to the platform. This is real- 
ism — for nothing sounds quite as much 
like a subway train as a subway train! 

It's not always an easy matter to get 
exactly the sound effects he wants. In 
making recordings for the Broadway 
show, "Casey Jones", for example, he was 
asked to reproduce the sound of a loco- 
motive hurtling along at 90 miles an hour, 
Valentino finally got the New York 
Central Railroad to "loan" him a loco- 
motive and a mile of straight track at 
Harmon, New York. But even that didn't 
solve the problem, for the engineer said 
the best speed he could possibly develop in 
that distance would be a scant 60 miles an 
hour (provided the engine would hold the 
rails). Not to be daunted by such a tech- 
nicality, he had the rails coated with 
grease. Then the locomotive rolled along 
at 40 miles an hour, with the wheels 
spinning madly at 90 miles an hour or 
better! This was one of Mr. Valentino's 
favorite assignments — one, incidentally, 
on which he was accompanied by Mr. 
William C. Speed, president of Audio 

Once, when selecting sound effects 
records for the Broadway production 
"The Farmer Takes a Wife", playwright 
Marc Connelly wasn't exactly satisfied 
with the numerous "baby crying" records. 
"I want something like this", he explained 
— and proceeded to demonstrate by emit- 
ting a most realistic infantile wail. Where- 
upon Valentino grabbed a mike, asked for 
a repeat performance, and recorded it on 
(Continued on Page 3, Co!. 2) 

First Audio Fair 
Outstanding Success 

C. J. LeBel, retiring president, 
honored for contributions to 
Audio Engineering Society 

Tiie Audio Engineering Society's Audio 
Fair and first Annual Convention was 
held in New York City on October 27. 
28 and 29. This, the first convention and 
exhibition devoted entirely to audio equip- 
ment, occupied the entire 6th floor of the 
Hotel New Yorker. The 56 exhibitors each 
had private rooms in which were dis 
played their latest equipment. 

One of the high spots of the convention 
proceedings was the presentation of the 
Audio Engineering Society Award to C. 
J. LeBcl, vice president of Audio Devices, 
in recognition of his many contributions 
as one of the founders of the organization 
and its first president. Mr. LeBel was suc- 

ceeded by Theodore Lindcnberg, of the 
Fairchild Recording Equipment Company. 

The Audio Fair chalked up a total 
registration of 3,022 — more than four 
times the membership of the sponsoring 
organization. Attendance at the technical 
sessions averaged 250. Exhibitors, visitors, 
and members of the Society all evinced 
great enthusiasm — which augurs well for 
an even bigger and better Audio Fair in 

The Audio Devices exhibit featured the 
new plastic-base Audiotape which at that 
time had just been released to the trade. 
Demonstrations of recorded music on both 
plastic and paper base Audiotape gave 
eloquent proof of the fidelity, brilliant 
high-frequency response, uniformity, and 
freedom from background noise and dis- 
tortion which are made possible by this 
new and perfected recording medium. 

Tomorrow's Hucksters Taught with Tape 

— m new 

radio advertising 

course at 



Sterling Soderlind, M. 

tape of his 13 rad: 

and Larry Wilkinson, (right) anothe 

After the tape has been played, they 

in a critical analysis of the recording 

State University jo 

Prof. O. J. Bue (left! 
of the class, prepare to listen, 
class members will participate 

A course in radio advertising is being 
taugiit for the first time this fall at the 
Montana State University Journalism 
School, Missoula, Montana. Prof. O. J. 
Bue is in charge of the course — "Radio 

Students in the class learn the theories 
of radio selling and get considerable prac- 
tice in the preparation of commercial copy. 
They each prepare and make tape record- 
ings of a series of 13 commercials for each 
of 12 different products. The copy will be 
submitted to local stations for criticism 
and suggestions. 

An extensive collection of recorded 
commercials als« is used for classroom 

analysis. In another phase of the course the 
young writers study the report on radio 
advertising recently prepared by Joske's 
of Texas. Audience studies and analyses 
of listening habits also come in for con- 
sideration by the students. All the students 
have completed a course in principles of 

Professor Bue, veteran journalist, is one 
of the first journalism teachers in the 
United States to be selected for a summer 
radio internship. He served at Station 
KVOO in Tulsa, Okla., in 1945. He has 
taught the radio journalism courses at 
MSU — newscasting, radio editing, and 
special events — since their inception. 

December, 1949 


by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


T.ipc rccdrdiii',; 
is .ifflictcd with a 
species of noise 
vvliichisof no prac- 
tical significance in 
disc recording. 
Sometimes it mas- 
querades as distor- 
tion, sometimes as 
ordinary ground 
noise, hut in any 
case modulation 
noise must he 

We may distinguish hetween ordinary 
ground noise and modulation noise when 
we recall that the former is constant in 
intensity, whereas the latter varies with 
the signal and is modulated hy it. In Fig. 1 
wc have exaggerated the effect for greater 
clarity. The ear interprets this as distor- 
tion, for the result has heen the creation 
of innumerahle intermodulation products 
which make the tone fuzzy. 

C. J. LeBel 

Modulation noise is a function of the 
character of the o.xide and of the uni- 
formity of coating. Many of the natural 
oxides seem to he very had in this respect. 
Since they also seem to he rather poor 
recording media, this additional fault 
poses no special prohlem. Synthetic oxides 
with good recording characteristics seem 
satisfactory as regards modulation noise, 
and indeed certain procedures that lead 
to best results in one respect also are 
heneficial in the other. 

Variation in coating thickness will also 
introduce modulation noise. Perfection of 
the coating surface in contact with the hase 

material is determined, of course, by the 
smoothness of the base, and a plastic-base 
tape, therefore, has about 15 db less 
modulation noise than the smoothest paper 
hase material. A poor paper-one that has 
not heen supercalendared will have 5 to 
1 .S db more noise than the best paper. We 
have exaggerated the effect in fig. 2 so that 
it can more easily he seen. 

The professional user will naturally use 
A plastic hase tape for all critical work, 
hut he will not thereby assure the lowest 
possible modulation noise. It is possible 
to have a rather uneven coating top-sur- 
face, and, therefore, much noise. Some 
plastic tape presently marketed has con- 
siderable modulation noise in the 40 to 
60 cps range due to coating machine im- 
perfection. However, our engineers, with 
more than ten years experience in the 
construction and use of disc coating ma- 
chines, were able to design and build 
coating equipment that makes the tape 
free from such low frequency components. 

If the recording machine's bias wave- 
form is even slightly assymetrical, the re- 
sulting dc component will create modula- 
tion noise. Since this will be as steady as 
the bias current, it will masquerade as 
ground noise. Most machines on the mar- 
ket suffer from this defect, in varying 
degree. If there is a 40 to 60 cps com- 
ponent in the modulation noise, it will 
show up as a hoarsely raspy hum m the 
background, when run on such a machine. 

SOUNDS: {Cor\tinxi.ed.\yom?age 2, Co!. 1) 

the spot. And when the show opened, the 
audience never suspected that what they 
actually heard was the voice of Marc 
Connelly, crying like a baby — literally, 
that IS. 

Up until fairly recently, all of Mr. 
Valentino's original recordings were made 
on film before being transferred to Audio- 
discs. But, now that high fidelity portable 
tape recorders are available, many of his 
original recordings are made on Audiotape, 
and then re-recorded in permanent form 
on Audiodiscs. 

Readers of this article who would like 
a copy of Mr. Valentino's latest sound 
effects catalog can obtain a copy from 
their local sound equipment dealer, or by 
writing to Thomas J. Valentino, Inc., 150 
West 46th Street, New York 19, N. Y. 


From Choosing a Mate, fo Raising a 
Family, You'll Find the Answer on Discsl 

Raising a family presents plenty of 
problems these days, aside from financial 
ones. Solving many of these growing 
problems, from the cradle to the altar, is 
the objective of a series of 24 recordings, 
entitled "The Family Grows Up" — pro- 
duced hy the Department of Extension 
Teaching and Information (N. Y. State 
Colleges of Agriculture and Home EcO' 
nomics, Cornell University), in coopera- 
tion with the Department of Child De- 
velopment and Family Relationships. 

This record loan library was started as 
a means of filling the many requests from 
Child Study Clubs in the state for help 
from the college. But the records are also 
available to other organizations, schools, 
PTA's, etc., which are interested in using 
them as a basis for discussion. Topics 
cover all phases of family life. Each record 
runs about 10 minutes in length, and when 
it is sent out to a group, a copy of the 
script, suggested questions for discussion, 
references for further reading, and direc- 
tions for playing the recording are in- 
cluded in the packet. 

The programs are under the supervision 
of Dr. Russell Smart, Associate Professor, 
Department of Child Development and 
Family Relationships. Each program con- 
sists of an interview hetween Nita Albers, 
Radio Editorial Assistant, and either Dr. 
Smart or Mr. Edward Pope, Assistant 
Professor in the same department. Some 
of the records have been dramatized to a 
certain extent. For example, the first half 
of several of the programs consists of a 
skit, and the second half is a discussion of 
the problems brought out in the skit. It is 
suggested that the first half be played, 
then followed by a discussion period by 
the group, and the last half played as a 

The recordings of these programs are 
made at 78 r.p.m. Rental fee is $1.00; 
purchase price is $3.50 each. A complete 
list of the available programs can be 
obtained hy writing to Film Service, Mail- 
ing Room. Roberts Hall. Ithaca. N. Y. 

Ted Richards, editorial a 
drops the cutting stylu 
cording another program 

int and recording engineer, 
1 a fresh Audiodtsc. re- 
"The Family Grows Up". 


Recording of ''Columns Write" 
Makes Double Discussion-Time 
For Eds 

When Radio Station WPAT's (Pater- 
son, N. J.) "Columns Write" goes on the 
air every Sunday morning at 10:00, its 
participants are to he found anywhere 
else hut at the station's studios. 

Most Hkcly, at that precise moment they 
will be surrounded hy a group of their 
community's intellectuals, vociferously go- 
ing over every point with the editor no 
sooner than he has made it over the air. 

This seeming impossibility of a man 
being in two places at once and engaging 
in a discussion with two groups simultane 
ously, is easily explained. Here's how. 

"Columns Write" is the oldest pane 
discussion program on WPAT and prob- 
ably the oldest newspapermen's program 
on the air today in continuous broadcasts 
(five years). Each week, it features from 
two to four different editors of leading 
New Jersey newspapers in a discussion ot 
state, national and international problems 
as viewed through their own editorial 
policies and opinions of their readers. 

Reflecting varied and individual thoughts 
by men who have no hesitation about voic- 
ing them emphatically, the program has 
always been a lively one — and possesses 
one of the finest adult listening audiences 
for its time in the metropolitan area. 

But the newspaper editor — a busy indi- 
vidual, and jealous of his Sundays off — 
began to demur, after the program had 
been on the air for a couple of years. 

He liked the program, the station, the 
fine job the program was doing, but he 
definitely did not like this travelling from 
every part of the state to Paterson on his 
one sacred day to make the broadcast. 
What could WPAT do about it? 

The answer was simple. Let's record the 
program on a day and time most con- 
venient to you gentlemen and broadcast 
it Sundays as usual. The editors said okay; 
and for the last three years this procedure 
has been followed. 

But, to everybody's satisfaction? Why, 
no. While the station is eminently satis- 
fied with the arrangement, v^jhat's hap- 
pened to the editors? 

Well, the editors still do not have their 
Sunday's free. Should they not be present 
where their townspeople can be with them 
at the time WPAT's "Columns Write" 
goes on the air to see if their opinions 
were correctly presented by the editor on 
the program, and to take exception to any 
opinion he may give on the show with 
which they disagree, he hears from them 
for the rest of the week. 


on plastic or paper base 
with red or black oxide 

Audio Devices now offers you a 
complete line of professional quality 
magnetic recording tape — designed 
for matched performance 
in any tape recorder. 

• You would have read this announce- 
ment two years ago — except for one 
thing. Our engineers were not content 
to oiTtr you a recording tape that was 
merely "good" by existing standards of ; 
comparison. They wouldn't put their 
seal of approval on Audiotape until it 
had been so perfected in every detail 
that it would match the quality and uni- 
formity which have characterized Audio- 
discs for the past decade. 

Paper base Audiotape reached that 
goal last May, after more than 2% years 
(if research and development. And now 
plastic base Audiotape has also grad- 
uated from the laboratory — with a de- 
gree of engineering excellence which is 
an unqualified recommendation to all pro- 
fessional recordists. 


ion Ave., N. Y. 22, N. Y 

SEND FOR YOUR FREE SAMPLES and let Audiotape speak for itself. We will be glad lo send you a 200-foot 
sample reel of plastic or paper base Audiotape. Write to Dep't. T-l. 




Vol. 6. No. I 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

January, 1950 


An Example of Cooperation 

in In+er-denonninational 
Recording and Broadcasting 

There recently opened in Dec.itur, 
Georgia, a part of greater Atlanta, a 
unique radio and audio visual production 
center which is attracting national notice. 
It is known as the Protestant Radio Center. 
It is not a radio station, but it has the 
finest equipped studios for broadcasting, 
recording, and producing programs for 
radio and for audio visual aids. It is unique 
in that it is the only inter-denominationally 
owned and controlled institution of its 
kind in America. 

The Center is a venture in Protestant 
cooperation, and the one word which sums 
up its purpose is just that — cooperation. 

Cooperation among the denominations. 
Four years ago four denominations inter- 
ested in producing religious radio programs 
formed the Southern Religious Radio Con- 
ference. They have produced one or more 
programs every week ever since January 1, 

Cooperation with the radio stations. The 
Conference started with 26 stations which 
accepted the programs on a sustaining 
basis. There are 97 stations now affiliated 
with the Conference. This is one of the big- 
gest networks for a sustained religious 
radio program in the nation today. The 
stations at present extend from Washing- 
ton, D. C. to Amarillo, Texas and Gallup, 
N. M.; from Kearney, Nebraska to Miami, 
Fla. Most of the fifty thousand watt sta- 
tions in this territory accept these programs. 

Cooperation in production. These de- 
nominations, with this large number of 
stations, felt the need of a production 
center, jointly owned and controlled by the 
members. Consequently an application for 
a non-profit charter was drawn up and 
filed by the late Allen W. Clapp, one of 
the outstanding Atlanta attorneys. The 
charter was granted by the state of 
Georgia, and the corporation has been 
recognized by the Federal Government as 
a tax-exempt corporation, gifts to which 

(Co?itniued on Page 2, Col. 1) 

Protestant Radit 


By Llewelyn Lieber — Director of Audio-Visual Education 

"Oh, how I wish my students could have 
heard that!" is no longer a familiar cry in 
the St. Louis public schools. For now tape 
and disc recordings bring treasured audi- 
tory experiences right into the classroom. 
The Division of Audio-Visual Education 
maintains a recordings library which in- 
corporates all the regular uses of record- 
ings and a few which may be unique. For 
instance, at an Open House two exchange 
students from Bangkok were guests. They 
were escorted into a room and a recorder 
took down their impressions of education 
in the United States and their answers to 
questions concerning the Siamese system. 
And when the Freedom Train visited St. 
Louis, it called forth the presentation of 
two radio programs on the Revolutionary 
Era. The Division of Audio- Visual Educa- 

tion made recordings of these broadcasts 
so that they might be used for future his- 
tory classes; for demonstrations on recorder 
techniques; and for the personal benefit of 
the participating students. 

The in-service teacher training program 
has benefited from the synchronizing of 
Kodachrome slides with magnetic record- 
ings. This device has been used to show 
student-teachers how a St. Louis teacher 
in .special education, developed a Christ- 
mas program — how deaf children are 
taught in Gallaudet School. These sound- 
picture projects have been used in talks to 
parent groups, members of the Board of 
Education, and to other civic groups. 

Radio programs originating from the 
Division of Audio-Visual Education have 
{Continued on Page 2, Col. 2) 


January, 1950 

cutdia il^ record 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 6, No. 1 

JANUARY, 1950 

Protestant Radio Center 

(ConUnued from Page 1, Col. 1) 

may be deducted m estimating federal in- 
come tax. 

The basis of the corporation was ex' 
tended to church affiliated educational in- 
stitutions and inter-church agencies. The 
charter authorizes radio production, re- 
cording, audio-visual aids, laboratory re- 
search and teaching. 

The founders of the corporation were 
Emory University, Candler School of 
Theology, Agnes Scott College, Columbia 
Theological Seminary, the Southeastern 
Inter-Council Office, and the radio commit- 
tees of the Methodists, Presbyterians, Epis- 
copalians and Lutherans (United). Aided 
by an anonymous grant, the Center starts 
off with assets of $2.\000 cash and equip- 

The Center is installed in the music 
building of Agnes Scott College, one of the 
finest of its kind in the land. The equip- 
ment is of the latest model. The Center has 
a portable tape recording unit for remote 
use. It is equipped to cut recordings for 
radio use; 16 inch at 33 1/3 rpm. It can 
also cut phonograph recordings at the con- 
ventional 78 rpm and also the long playing 
microgroove type. 

Cooperation on the national level. The 
Protestant Radio Center is the official re- 
gional outlet for the programs of the newly 
organized national Protestant Radio Com- 
mission of New York. In addition to that 
the Center produces programs for the na- 
tion-wide networks. This fall it produced a 
program for the Mutual net. A program 
for the Columbia Church of the Air orig- 
inated here. For four months during the 
summer of 1950 the NBC National Radio 
Pulpit will originate at the Center. 

Dean H. B. Trimble of the Candler 
School of Theology is the President. Dr. 
John M. Alexander, secretary of the Radio 
Division of the Presbyterian Church US, 
is the Executive Vice President. Dr. John R. 
Brokhoff, pastor of the United Lutheran 
Church of the Redeemer, is secretary, and 
Mr. George H. Mew, of Emory University, 
is the Treasurer. Mr. Warde Adams, Jr., 
is the Production Manager, and Mr. M. F. 
Adams, Jr., is consulting engineer. 

Recordings in St. Louis Schools 

(ConUnued from Page 1, Col. 3) 

profited from the use of tape and disc re- 
cordings, for it is a most effective way to 
develop new series. For example, Dr. John 
Whitney, Consultant in Science at Harris 
Teachers College, inaugurated a new series 
of programs designed to guide elementary 
children with scientific experiments in the 
classroom. Before going on the air, tape 
recordings were made and taken into class- 
rooms where the teachers and pupils list- 
ened critically for flaws in technique. These 
were corrected and a new recording tried 
out on other groups until pace, content, 
and voice quality were satisfactory. Finally, 
a disc was made and tried out with a regu- 
lar elementary classroom on their school 
stage following the recorded directions 
while an audience of teachers and prin- 
cipals observed the entire procedure from 
the auditorium. Acceptance was unanimous 
so the series was put on the air. 

All radio programs sponsored by the 
Division of Audio- Visual Education arc 
recorded on discs, and these are auditioned 
by a committee of ten St. Louis Public 
School teachers who make a written evalu 
ation of each program. At the conclusion 
of the series a tally of the recommenda- 
tions is made and if the teachers believe 
the programs merit inclusion in the record- 
ing library, dubs are made and placed in 
service for issue to the schools whenever 
teachers request them. 

To celebrate "Writer's Day," Blewett 
High School invited Miss Clarisa Start, 
feature writer for the St. Louis Post-Dis- 
patch, Robert Hereford, author of "Old 
Man River" and feature writer for the 
Globe-Democrat, and Mrs. Fannie Cook, 
author of "Mrs. Palmer's Honey" and 
other novels, to speak to the student body. 
The speakers told the techniques employed 
when writing for a newspaper and when 
writing a book. Now future English classes 
can benefit from these authorities for the 
Division of Audio- Visual Education made 
a recording of the entire program. 

When eighth grade pupils of Cupples 
School visited Missouri's capital in Jeffer- 
son City, the Division of Audio- Visual Ed- 
ucation made a recording of their impres- 
sions of the trip after they returned. Sev- 
enth grade pupils of the same school in- 
terrogated the children who had made the 
excursion and this resulted in a clarifica- 
tion of benefits derived from the trip, a 
review of facts learned and a permanent 
record for future reference. 

Celebrities visiting the Division of 
Audio-Visual Education arc usually inter- 
viewed with a recorder so that a library of 
talks by outstanding authorities on various 
subjects is gradually being assembled. This 
is available for use in public relations work, 
teacher training, courses and 

special subject classes, and will be valuable 
to posterity as a means of hearing famous 
people express themselves. 

The Division of Audio- Visual Educa- 
tion follows the routine procedure of using 
recorders for perfecting speeches to be 
made by staff members; for correcting er- 
rors in children's classwork in English, 
dramatics and reading; and for recording 
radio programs for school use which come 
over the air after school hours or at in- 
convenient times during school hours. Yes, 
the schools have really "gone on record" 
here in St. Louis. 


A collection of 

16 Prize-Winning 

Scripts from the 

AER and Scholastic 



Audio Devices has prepared, in con- 
venient booklet form, a collection of 16 
complete prize-winning radio scripts, se- 
lected from the 1949 Scholastic Magazines' 
Script Writing Contest (for high school 
students) and AER National Radio Script 

These outstanding scripts are the cre- 
ative work of the best student writers in 
the country — many of whom may well be 
among the ace scripters of tomorrow. Their 
work will be of great interest to all teach- 
ers and students, as well as to anyone con- 
cerned with the preparation of scripts for 
radio or other recording applications. They 
will, of course, be of particular value to 
high school and college teachers whose 
students are entering the 1950 contests. 
School and home recordists will find this 
collection very worth-while for still another 
reason, too. For practically all of these 
scripts — particularly the original radio 
dramas — make excellent material for re- 
cording in the classroom or at home. This 
booklet. 81/2 by 1 1 inches in size, is being 
offered at actual cost, as a service to edu- 
cators and others interested in script writ- 
ing. It sells for $2.00 List per copy. Readers 
of Audio Record, however, can obtain 
copies at $1.00 each. Send check or money 
order to Audio Devices, Inc.. 444 Madi- 
son Ave. New York 2 2, N. Y. (Dep't S- 1 ) . 

January. 1950 


by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


With the advent 
of magnetic record- 
ing, many engi- 
neers have sudden- 
ly developed a new 
interest in magnet- 
ic fundamentals, a 
subject carefully 
forgotten since col- 
lege days. To ap- 
pease them we will 
proceed to discuss 
some basic mag- 
netics, using indus- 
try practice in terminology rather than the 
official AIEE standard. Finally, we will 
give magnetic data on both red and black 

In Fig. 1 we show a typical relation 
between the magnetizing force applied to 
a material and the resulting magnetic in- 
duction (magnetization). This curve show's 
what happens when you start with a com- 
pletely de-magnetized material, and in- 
crease the magnetizing force progressively. 
Note that the curve levels off at the upper 
end as saturation is approached (point 
A). If we now Aeciease the magnetiz- 
ing force from its peak value A back 
down to zero, the magnetic induction will 
fail to retrace the curve previously fol- 
lowed. Instead, it will decrease much more 
slowly, following the dotted line AB shown 
in Fig. 2. Even when the magnetizing force 
has dropi^ed to zero, a certain amount of 
residual magnetization remains (point B) . 
To remove this, it is necessary to apply a 

C. J. LeBel 


Fig. 2 Development of typical hystt 
ally varying magnetic 6eld. 

magnetizing force of opposite polarity. The 
curve will then be as shown by the dotted 
line BC in Fig. 2. Then, if this negative 
magnetizing force is progressively in- 
creased, the curve will continue along 
dotted line CD, approaching negative 
saturation and returning along dotted line 
DEFA as the magnetizing force is reduced 
to zero and then increased positively again. 
This failure of the curve to retrace its orig- 
inal path is called hysteresis, and the dotted 
curve shown in Fig. 2 is a hysteresis loop, 
the magnetization curve which results 
when we increase and decrease the mag- 
netizing force cyclically. 

Actually, we have oversimplified the 
matter in Fig. 2, because we do not ordi- 
narily get back exactly to the starting point 
(A) the first time around the loop. After 
thirty or forty cyclic variations the loop 
retraces itself exactly, and it is this which 
is ordinarily shown, rather than the first 
loop traced after the initial magnetization 
curve (line OA). 

In Fig. 3, we show typical hysteresis 
loops for plastic and paper base AUDIO- 
TAPE. In these illustrations we have, for 
the first time, introduced units. Magnetiz- 
ing or magnetic force (usual symbol H) is 
measured in oersteds, one oersted being the 
value which would produce a magnetic in- 
duction of one flux line per square centi- 



meter in air. Magnetic induction is meas- 
ured here in maxwells (usual symbol B), 
the maxwell being a unit indicating the 
total induction. Another unit of magnetic 
induction is the gauss, a measure of flux 
density. One gauss is equivalent to one 
maxwell per square centimeter. 

A great deal of magnetic testing equip- 
ment is calibrated in gausses, because it was 
originally built for testing wire. Since a 
curve tracer fundamentally reads total in- 
duction, the gauss scale is produced by as- 
suming an area of 160 circular mils, a 
standard wire area. On tape the total coat- 
ing cross-section will vary, but the cus- 
tomer really buys and uses the total induc- 
tion, so all of our test data are given in 

It is easier to classify materials if their 
characteristics can be summarized in a few 
numbers, rather than by the infinite num- 
ber of values given by curves. In the case 
of magnetic oxides it has become customary 
to use two index values : the retentivity and 
the coercive force. 

Retentivity is the magnetic induction at 
which the rnagnetizmg ^orce is zero, in a 
symmetrical cyclically varying magnetic 
field. It is marked Br in Fig. 3. The other 
number is coercive force, which is the mag- 
netizing force at which the rrwgnetic in- 
duction 15 reduced to zero in a cyclically 
varying magnetic field. It is marked He in 
Fig. 3. Coercive force and retentivity well 
define the characteristics of most magnetic 
materials at 60 cycles, but they are some- 
what indefinite as a guide to recording 
properties, as will be discussed later. As a 
matter of actual practice, the retentivity is 
generally determined by application of a 
60 cycle field with a peak value of 1,000 
oersteds, which is well beyond saturation. 

The following are the magnetics of 
plastic base AUDIOTAPE: 





270 oersteds 
..i — .58 maxwell 
300 — 340 oersteds 
.5 — .58 maxwell 
Paper base AUDIOTAPE will have the 
same coercive force. Retentivity will nor- 
mally be in the same range, but it is subject 
(Continued on Page 4, Col. 2) 

8 m MAxyruu 


Fig. 1 Magnetizing fo 
for a lypical magnetic n 

and initial magnetic induction 

loops for typical AUDIOTAPES. 


January, 1950 


"It's Your Life" lifts the lid 

on hitherto taboo subjects, 

in its continuing battle for 

better health 

Chicago's tape-recorded, award winning 
documentar>' radio program, "It's Your 
Life", has blazed many important trails in 
the broadcasting field. Noteworthy among 
these has been the fearless and straight- 
forward manner in which they have tackled 
the delicate problem of sex education. This 
subject, which has so long been discussed 
only in whispers or behind closed doors, 
was given the full treatment in a unique 
two-part program which pulled no punches 
and did not obscure its important message 
with mincing references to the birds and 

The first program featured Chicago 
children discussing se.x education with a 
prominent physician. Segregated groups 
of 12 year olds told their problems, de- 
scribed physical changes, and explained 
their feelings on the subject. And the doc- 
tor answered all their questions in an 
equally frank manner. In recording such 
a discussion, one may readily appreciate 
the advantages of using tape — -with its easy 
editing (and easy censoring) qualities. 

The second program in the series high- 
lighted the lives of two girls — one who 
suffered tragic consequences as a result of 
improper sex education, and another who 
had the benefit of intelligent guidance. The 
contrast in the lives of these two girls ef- 
fectively dramatized the importance of sex 
knowledge in helping adolescents to adjust 
themselves normally to the physical and 
mental changes coincident with "growing 

These two programs achieved a two- fold 
purpose. One, to give helpful suggestions 
to parents and point out the value of in- 
telligent sex education in the lives of their 
children; and two, to instruct the boys and 
girls themselves who were listening at their 

Produced by Ben Park, who has an out- 
standing record in the Mid-West as a pro- 
ducer of award winning documentary 
radio programs, "It's Your Life" is designed 
to show how better health means better 
community living. Since its inception little 
more than a year ago, the program has won 
five awards for excellence as the "most 
outstanding program of the year" and 
gained nation-wide attention in the health 
education field. 

In collecting material for "It's Your Life", 
interviewer Don Herbert and his tape re- 
corder visit homes, hospitals, nurseries, wel- 
fare agencies — wherever in Chicago people 
live and fight battles for better health. For 
the first time in radio history, listeners have 
been taken behind the scenes of such real- 
life dramas as the delicate blue baby opera- 
tion performed in a Chicago hospital; the 
birth of a baby in a Chicago home; the 
treatment for such ills as alcoholism, men- 
tal illness, tuberculosis and venereal dis- 

"It's Your Life" is produced for the 
Chicago Industrial Health Association — a 
non-profit agency made up of 39 member 
agencies for the good of Chicagoans — and 
sponsored by Johnson ^ Johnson, makers 
of surgical dressings. All programs are re- 
viewed by a medical advisory board for 
authenticity before being presented over 
the air. These programs are broadcast at 
.V?0 P.M., Sundays, over Station WMAQ. 
the NBC outlet. 

Producer Ben Park (left* and inlerviewer Don Herbert 
time "It's Your Life" with a ruler instead of a slop 
watch. An average half-hour broadcast requires hours. 
and sometimes days, of actual recording. The completed 
reels are edited down to comprise th-e finished program. 

Remarks on Magnetics 

(Continued from Pd<>e J. Col. 1) 

to variation over a rather wider range due 
to variation in paper thickness. 

A number of writers have expounded 
the theory that the high frequency re- 
sponse of a magnetic recording medium 
correlates directly with its coercive force. 
This may be termed a cornerstone of the 
classical theory. Unfortunately, the class- 
ical theory is badly oversimplified, and the 
gap between theory and practice is too wide 
to be overlooked. The correlation between 
coercive force and high frequency response 
exists only when comparing successive 
batches of nominally identical oxides. It is 
a fairly satisfactory production control 
tool, but very dangerous if applied to re- 
search results. For example, in comparing a 
red with a black oxide, it becomes entirely 

Classical theory also indicates that re- 
tentivity correlates directly with low fre- 
quency response. Again, this is a very 
oversimplified picture, for the relation 
works well as a production tool on nom- 
inally identical oxides, but fails hopelessly 
when comparing hundreds of oxides in re- 
search. The error may then be as much as 
20 or 30 db. 

It is possible to derive another magnetic 
characteristic by producing a series of hy- 
steresis loops with diff^erent values for Hm, 
the maximum magnetizing force. We get 
a series of values for He and Br corres- 

ponding to various values of Hm. The more 
useful relation is the one between Hm and 
Br, which we have shown in Fig. 4. 

A useful index point which can be de- 
rived from this curve is the saturation 
magnetic force, which is marked on Fig. 4. 
This is of interest because a tape has to be 
saturated, at least momentarily, to erase it. 
The higher the saturation force, the harder 
to erase. For the particular oxides shown 
in Fig. 4, the values are 810 oersteds for the 
black and 710 oersteds for the red. 

Seeing that magnetic characteristics are 
so far from linear, we can only marvel at 
the effect of AC bias in linearizing the 
transfer characteristics. 




Vol. 6, No. 2 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

February, 1950 

Irs. Marjorie Taylor uses n. w s\^i,in in District 14 Country School near /imnit-rni 
I singing, with a recording of top quality chorus of voices. (Photo, courtesy of The 

nn. — leading her 
apolis Star). 


Mail-Order Tape Service 

opens vast nev/ field for 

use of educational recordings 

It all began last spring — at the Spring 
English Conference held at the University 
of Minnesota. Here, teachers made a strong 
plea for a lower cost source of recorded 
material for classroom use. Particular men- 
tion was made of the many radio programs 
on the air which would be of great edu- 
cational value if they could he brought 
into the classroom at times when their 
message or content would be most appro- 

Since this Conference left no doubt as to 
the need for good recorded material — at a 
price within the range of even the smallest 
schools — the Minnesota Department of 
Education decided to do something about 
it. So, with the help and cooperation of 
the University of Minnesota and a private 
business concern, a radically new system 
of making and distributing recordings has 
been established. This program, organized 
on an experimental basis, is now in full 
swing — offering a unique, low-cost record- 
ing service to all of Minnesota's 7000 

Final details of the program were worked 
out largely by Richard C. Brower, audio- 
visual-radio director for the Minnesota De- 
partment of Education, and Betty T 
Girling and other staff members of the 
University of Minnesota Radio Station 
KUOM. Here's how the program works. 

The state education department is 
building up an extensive library of master 
tape recordings — covering the complete 
range of subjects appropriate for classroom 
use. These recordings are being secured 
from Station KUOM, from the networks, 
and through the U. S. Office of Education 
in Washington, D. C. A catalog of the 
available recordings, with monthly supple- 
ments to keep it up to date, is distributed 
to all interested schools. 

In order to participate, the only invest- 
ment required by the individual schools is 
the purchase of suitable tape recorders and 
reels of recording tape. A teacher desiring 

(Continued on Page 2, Col. 1) 

What Do Users Think 
About Audiotape? 

They "speak for themselves" — in 

these comments on the performance 

of the free samples we sent out 

A Rddio Station: "Superior in ever)- way 
to any tape we have used so far." 

A College; "Found your tape a very ex- 
cellent product, and plan to stock it ex- 
clusively. Lower hum level most noticeable 

A Vocation School: "Of several brands of 
tape tried 'Audiotape' has the lowest con- 
sistent noise level. Response is exceptionally 
constant for all parts of each reel." 

A Radio Station: "Have tried the plastic 
tape — find it equal or better than other 
makes. We are now regularly using it for 
all tape recording work." 

An Industrial Firm: "Thanks for the 
sample of plastic base Audiotape. I find 

that It excels all other makes now on the 
market in quietness, range, and easy hand- 
ling. Have disposed of all other makes and 
am using only Audiotape." 

A High School: "Have tested the samples 
of Audiotape and we are much pleased 
with it. For our machines your red oxide 
paper is as satisfactory as the plastic tape 
we had been using. Our school system is 
now using this red oxide paper tape as an 
economy measure over the other plastic." 

A Church: "Your tape is excellent and we 
will buy it from now on. Also thanks for 
the 'Audio Record' with articles on tape 

A University: "After trying samples of 
your paper tapes, ordered 20 rolls. I be- 
lieve they are the best buy in paper tapes 
now available." 

(Continued ui)i Page 2, Col. 1) 


February, 1950 

CLudla^reccrrcL Cleveland jobbers new quarters 


Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 6, No. 2 


Minnesota Schools 

{Continued from Page 1, Col. 1) 

any of the listed subjects simply fills out 
an order form specifying the programs 
wanted, the type of machine on which they 
will be reproduced, and the desired record- 
ing speed in feet per second. This form is 
then sent in to the Department of Educa- 
tion, together with the required number 
of reels of "blank" tape. The desired selec- 
tions are then recorded from the master 
tape onto the "blank" reels, which arc 
promptly returned to the teacher. 

The recordings thus made can be used by 
the school as desired — cither played back 
and then erased, kept on file for future 
reference, or transcribed onto discs for per- 
manent record. Thus, the actual cost for 
obtaining these educational recordings is 
only the required postage and the tape 

As a result of this program, the world's 
outstanding authorities are now doing im- 
portant teaching jobs in the Minnesota 
schools — via low-cost, high-fidelity tape 

The Radio 5? Electronic Parts Corp., 
Cleveland. Ohio, has recently moved to a 
completely new building which has been 
specially designed throughout to give better 
"Service to the Customer." 

One of the first things that Repco patrons 
are impressed with is the large parking lot 
planned for their convenience — a distinct 
contrast to the Company's previous quar- 
ters in the heavily congested, trafiic-choked 
downtown area. And, once inside the 
building, it is evident that this same spa- 
ciousness and convenience has been fol- 
lowed through in every detail of planning. 
The main salesroom (where you can buy 
anything from an Audiodisc to an Audio- 
point — and a few million other things) 
has large, roomy aisles, a variety of self- 
service island displays, and 60 feet of 
counter space. 

Repco's sound department is of particu- 
lar interest. Located on a mezzanine ex- 
tending the full length of the building, it 
is based on the idea that the best way to 
give the customer exactly what he wants 
is to demonstrate it in actual operation. 
Here, the prospective purchaser can sec and 
hear practically any conceivable combina- 
tion of audio and video components. An- 
tennas, tuners, amplifiers, microphones, 
speakers and recorders can be quickly 
hooked up as desired and demonstrated on 
the spot. The arrangement provides for 
instantaneous switch-over from one com- 

part?, Repco president (righl) explains 
oom setup to Al Kahn (lejl), president 
-Voice, Inc., and William J. Doyle 
ales manager of the Astatic Corp. 

bination to another, giving an accurate 
comparison of the relative merits of the 
different components. Take TV antennas 
for example. There are eight different an- 
tenna installations on the roof of the build- 
ing, and the salesman can show a customer 
the differences in the various models as a 
function of the image on the television 

Radio and Electronic Parts Corp. has 
been a distributor of Audio Devices prod- 
ucts for the past ten years. They now 
handle the full line of Audiotape, Audio- 
discs and Audiopoints. 

Comments on Audiotape 

(Contnmed from Page 1, Col. 3) 

A Radio Station: "It is the best tape on 
the market to date — less noise and under 
a microscope it is the cleanest tape I have 
seen. It is the tape we will use here you 
can be sure of that." 

A Broadcasting School. "Thank you for the 
Audiotape samples. They are the best we 
have tried to date. Same high quality as 
your Audiodiscs. Will order more locally." 

A College: "The plastic base tape I re- 
quested was completely satisfactory. There 
was a distinct reduction in amplitude mod- 
ulation of high frequencies over a similar 
competitive tape." 

A Film and Sound Service: "Received 
sample tape; our findings show after being 
put through the 'acid test' that Audiotape 
is far superior to anything we have used 
yet and we have pretty well covered the 
field. Prefer the black oxide for excellent 
bass frequency response." 

A High School: "Excellent — I use record- 
ings in my English classes and find your 
tape of unusual fidelity." 

A Radio Station: "Like your plastic tape. 
It does a much better job than any other 
tape that we've used. Audiotape gets our 

A Sound Studio: "It was immediately ap- 
parent after initial comparisons that paper 
Audiotape is of a far superior quality. 
Have been using it exclusively where a 
paper base tape was indicated. Reels are 
not subject to scraping or damaging of 
tape as often the case with other brands." 

A Radio Station: "Very well satisfied with 
your tape, particularly the plastic. Have 
the assurance of our chief engineer that 
we will be in a position to use your plastic 
tape exclusively when our tape recording 
operations get into full swing. Our tests 
indicate that plastic Audiotape is superior 
in every way to any other." 

A College: "We are using your plastic 
base Audiotape exclusively for the original 
recording of our radio programs. We find 
that there is practically no loss from dub 
bing from tape to disc." 

A Radio-Ham: "Have used the plastic base 
tape with surprisingly excellent results. 

Recordings made of organ music on Audio- 
tape were transferred to discs with no dis- 
cernible loss of fidelity. Your product is 
what the trade calls 'a fine article', and 
in the words of one radio-ham friend who 
sees a good thing, 'I'll buy some of that!' 
Thanks again." 

A Research Lab: "Have found your record- 
ing tape to be the best for my recorder. 
Very low noise level and very uniform 
characteristics are its outstanding qualities. 
The price is also attractive." 
A Radio Station: "We have found that the 
samples of Audiotape meet all the claims 
you have made for it. We are using some 
of your plastic tape, which we purchased 
on the strength of your name and adver- 
tisements alone, and have found this tape 
superior to any we have ever used at this 

To date we have received many hundreds 
of these cards commenting favorably and 
enthusiastically on the performance of 
Audiotape. The remarks quoted above are 
typical. We wish to thank all of these 
users for the overwhelming vote of 


by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


Tape m a c h i n c 
noise IS a highly 
variable factor — 
it seems to increase 
under these many 
changes in condi- 
tion: from the fac- 
tory test floor to the 
recording room, 
during recording 
room use, and from 
one make of ma- 
chine to another. 
Since these increas- 
es range from 5 to 
be ignored. 

Some increases reflect changing amounts 
of hum, but much results from an increase 
in tape hiss. We propose to examine the 
reasons why a given tape may be so much 
quieter on one machine than on another; 
or so much quieter in one recording room 
than in another, on the same type machine. 

Most of the increases referred to result 
from a change in the character of the ef- 
fective bias on the tape. Particularly, we 
believe that they reflect an increase of 
modulation noise' caused by a dc com- 
ponent of bias flux; or by its equivalent, 
assymetrical distortion of the bias flux. An 
actual dc component can origmate in dc 
leakage through one of the head coils, or in 
permanent magnetization of the core of a 
head; assymetrical distortion arises in the 
bias oscillator or its amplifier, particularly 
when not push pull. 




In order to determine the effect of dc 
leakage, we set up the circuit of figure 1. 
An adjustable amount of dc could be passed 
through the recording head simultaneously 
with any desired value of bias, and the 
currents could be measured separately. 
















■ Effect of dc component o 

1.9 MA 
30 % 





















FIG. i — Effe 

The bias used was ,S ma at 74 kc, which 
was a representative bias for this type of 
head.- The tape used was our red oxide 
on plastic base. Results are shown in fig- 
ure 2. 

If we study this figure we note that noise 
increases 5db with the passage of only .2 
milliampere, which with a JOO volt dc sup- 
ply would correspond to a leakage resist- 
ance of I..S megohms. Since a number of 
home units have used a blocking condenser 
whose insulation resistance could easily fall 
to \.^ megohms after a spell of humid 
weather, it appears that some attention to 
leakage conditions might be in order. 

We felt that it would be interesting to 
compare our dc results with J. W. Gratian'^ 
work on erase assymetry,-' so have changed 
his data to a db basis and replotted it in 
figure 3 He states that his results are appli- 
cable to bias fault as well as to erase. Both 
curves seem to have essentially the same 
shape, but Gratian's work seems to reflect 
much greater sensitivity. We are not sure 
whether this stems from the greater effect 
of assymetry, or whether the use of an en- 
tirely different oxide is the cause. 

In any case, we agree with Gratian's ob- 
servation that bias assymetry may be neu- 

tralized in effect by the addition of proper 
amount of dc of correct polarity. Perhaps 
some broadcasters using home machines for 
remote pickups might use this idea to im- 
prove their signal to noise ratio. 

While noise may be created by poor 
erase waveform as Gratiain shows, we find 
that much of this noise is erased by the bias 

Another source of noise is permanent 
magnetization of the recording head as 
a result of transients in the signal. A ma- 
chine may start the day with a signal to 
noise ratio of 61 db. and be down to 54 db 
by night, due to this efi'ect. Hence, profes- 
sional machine manufacturers recommend 
frequent demagnetization of the recording 
head. Usually they can supply equipment 
for doing this, and some machines have 
built-in demagnetization means. If you 
cannot secure a demagnetizer from the 
manufacturer, you may wish to have one 
built, like figure 4. Most of the dimensions 
are not critical, but the radius on the tips 
of the poles must be a good fit to the curva- 
ture of the recording head. The coil may be 
either random wound, or layer wound with 
.0015" glassine between layers. 

To use, plug into 115 volt AC, and 
apply pole tips to recording head. Slide 
sideways and gradually remove from the 
head. Do not connect to the power line for 
over 10 seconds at a time, for the coil 
overheats with great rapidity. 

(ContmuiA 0)1 Pdge 4, Col. 1) 

400 TURNS *»22 


FIG. 4 — Head demagnetizer. 


February, 1950 

Unique Centralized Recording Studio 
Serves U. of I. School of Music 










-«■ '.« 


- K 





i 1 


Wolfgang Kuhn. Assisiant 
in the new recordtnf 

Located high at the back of a large re- 
cital hall, in a remodeled projection room, is 
one of the most compact — and one of the 
busiest recording rooms in this country. 
It's the new, centralized recording installa- 
tion of the University of Illinois School of 

Here, transcriptions are made from the 
stage of the Recital Hall - - or from any 
class room or rehearsal room in the entire 
school. And facilities permit instant play- 
back of any recording to whatever room it 
originated from. In addition, recorded 
music as well as live radio programs can 
be channeled directly from "headquarters" 
to any of the class rooms, as an aid in 
teaching and learning the performance of 

This installation also serves as a remote 
control room for the University Radio Serv- 
ice, WILL, which carries weekly programs 
performed by the faculty and the students. 
and by the various choral and instrumental 
organizations of the School of Music. 

The University of Illinois School of 
Music is collecting a permanent file of past 


(Continued from Page 3, Col. 3) 
Recording heads should be demagne- 
tized at least once a day for good results, 
and twice a day if the best signal to noise 
ratio is desired. 


J. C. J. LcBel, Moiliilalion Nui.u; Audio Re,,i,d, Di-crmher 

1. C. I. LcBcl, Ketv Method u/ Mraturing Bia,. .iud,u 
Record. June-July, 1949. 

3. J. If. Gratian. None in Magnetic Recording System, as 
Influenced by the Characteristics of Bias and Erase Sig- 
nals, Jl. Acoust. Sue. Amer. ml. 21, no. 2, pp 74-81. 
March 1949. 

programs for reference, class-room use and 
future broadcast. Works already on file 
comprise one of the largest and most repre- 
sentative collections of contemporary' music 
— as performed, during the annual Con- 
temporary Arts Festival, by the U. of I. 
Sinfonetta and Orchestra, conducted by 
John M. Kuypers, director of the School of 
Music, the Walden String Quartet, and 
other ensembles, choral groups and famous 
guest artists. 

The recording studio was installed last 
March, and has been under the able direc- 
tion of Wolfgang Kuhn, Assistant Profes- 
sor of Music. Since then, the demands for 
service from this department have increased 
so rapidly that now, besides Mr. Kuhn, 
two engineers spend most of their time at 
the controls. 

course — with an up-to-the-minute product ex- 
hibit in Booth No. 231. YouMI see the complete 
new line of Audiotape, Audiodiscs and Audio- 




1949 is a collection 
of 16 complete 
radio scripts — ■ 
written by high 
school and college 
students and se- 
lected from prize- 
winning entries in 
the 1949 Scholas- 
tic Magazines and 

AER contests. These scripts are essential 
reading for all budding script writers, and 
their teachers. Moreover, they make excel 
lent material for dramatizing and recording; 
in the classroom or at home. All sound 
cues and sound effects instructions are in 
eluded. The contents are listed below: 


(High School Students) 

Original Radio Drama 

First Prize — Sometime Tomorrow, By Richard 

Jackson, Jr. 
Second Prize — The Dream, By Neil Jackson. 
Third Prize — The Janitor's Tale, By Juanita 

Fourth Prizes — The Laying Place, By Richard 

Alone, By Louis Freiier. 
Chubby the Carrot, By Marian E. Tyrrell, 
Pier 51, By Winthrop Griffith. 
General Radio Scripts 

First Prize — An Imaginary Interview with 
George Bernard Shaw, By Elena 
Joan Svagzdys. 

Mary Carol Massi. 
T/iird Prize — The Story Behind the Label. 

By Richard Wallace. 
Fourth Prir,es--DECISI0N, By David Kiplinger, 

In Session, By Jim Erickson. 
Radio Drama Adaptation 
Fourth Prize — A Prudent Woman. Adapted 
from the Bible, by Mary Catherine 


(College Students) 

Classification No. 5 — Scripts for 
Home and School Recording 

First Prize — How the Rockim; Chair Got 

It.s Squeak, By Fred A. Brewer. 

Second Prize — Rendezvous, By Herbert Rube. 

Third Prize -^Vallum Hadriani, By Carl C, 


This collection is offered at cost — $1.00 
net each. Send check or money order to 
Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Ave., 
New York 44, N. Y. 


Vol. 6. No. 3 


444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

March 1950 


— The story of a modern 
high-fidelity recording room 

By M. W. Jeffers 

WFAA Recording, 

Dallas, Texas 

In 1946, Station WFAA, Dallas, de- 
cided to improve their recording room 
set-up — to provide the Southwest with 
the last w'ord in modern high-fidelity sound 
recording facilities. Plans were drawn and 
redrawn — ideas exchanged — innumer- 
able conferences held. Here is the cumula- 
tive result of more than two years of plan- 
ning and construction — a room 19' by 13', 
filled to capacity with the most modern 
recording equipment, including 6 racks, 4 
recording machines, 2 dubbing and play- 
back tables and record -storage space. 

While the equipment is fairly conven- 
tional in itself, the finished layout is of 
particular interest from the standpoint of 
appearance, performance and operational 

The entire system was designed for high 
quality and high fidelity from beginning 

■ of WFAA's recording 

to end. Each piece of equipment was 
thoroughly inspected and tested. Distor- 
tion, frequency response, gain, etc., were 
measured before installation, resulting in 
overall performance that leaves little to be 

Fig. 1 shows a partial view of the equip- 

ment from the entrance — ■ including three 
of the six racks and two of the four disc 
recorders. The other two recorders are on 
the opposite side of the room, and the dub- 
bing and playback tables (shown in Fig. 2) 

(Continued on Page 2, Col. 1) 

Audiotape Now Available in 2500-foot Rolls 

. . . with five important advantages 
to all professional recordists 

Plastic-base, red oxide Audiotape is now 
available in professional-size, 2500 foot 
rolls — wound either on standard NAB 
aluminum hubs, or on complete aluminum 
reels. This latest addition to the Audio- 
tape "family"" offers these five significant 

1. Exceptionally Low Cost. Audiotape 
Type 25.S1H (on hub only) has a list 
price of $10.00. Audiotape Type 
2.'i51R (on completed reel) has a list 
price of $12.85. These prices, of course, 
are subject to the usual discounts to 
dealers, radio stations, recording stu- 
dios, schools, and industrial firms. Note 
that the additional price for the alu- 
minum reel is only $2.85 list. 

(ConUnued on Page 4, Col. 1) 


March 1950 

audla il recard 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 

444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 6, No. 3 

MARCH, 1950 

Inside WFAA 

{Continued from Page 1, Col. 3) 

are located at the left, adjacent to the en- 
trance. A combination record storage and 
desk is located at the right of the entrance. 
The racks are installed over "wells" across 
the rear of the room, with three feet of 
space between wall and racks to allow 
ample room for maintenance work. 

The recording room receives its programs 
from poly-cylindrical studios via a 12-feed, 
6-channel master control room. 

— Dubbing and playback tables, 
rubber cups and cork sheeting 

Four program circuits are normalled to 
the selective switch system located on each 
recording table. One other program and 
two phone circuits are available to be 
patched at will. 

Since all recording channels are identical, 
only -one will be described in detail. Across 
each input is a preset master-relay-operated 
switch system. This feeds a 50,000 ohm-to- 
linc bridgmg coil — then to the limiting 
amplifier (only 3 db or less of compression 
is used) . The high bridging-coil impedance 
is used so that all four recording channels 
can be placed across one 500-ohm program 
source without any impedance upsets. The 
limiter feeds a volume control with a V U 
meter across the output, located on the re- 
cording table for convenience. Next, a relay 
operated by a cutter switch, also on the con- 
trol panel, allows program tone to be inter- 
rupted to each individual head without 
affecting any other, should more than one 
channel be across a single source. The NAB 
recording filter and head equalizers follow, 
and feed the 40-watt Altec recording am- 
plifier which feeds the temperature-con- 
trolled RCA MI-U850C recording head. 

A monitor amplifier and speaker are con- 
nected across each recording head, to 
permit checking circuit continuity, noise, 
distortion, etc., at the last possible point 
before it goes on the disc. The frequency 
response of this amplifier has been modified 
to complement the recording pre-emphasis. 
NAB recording standards are used and 
closely maintained. 

Racks 2, 3, 4, and 5 are all identical — 
like the two left-hand racks shown in Fig. 1 . 
Equipment consists of (top to bottom) : 
recording amplifier, jack strips, band-pass 
filter, limiting amplifier, bridging coil, re- 
cording equalizer, monitor amplifier and 
relays. Rack 6, at right in Fig. 1, contains 
(top to bottom) meter for tube checks, 
utility circuit, pre-amplifiers, tra,nsmJssion 
measuring set, jack strips, audio oscillator, 
program amplifiers and power supply for 
preamps and roving monitor amplifier. This 
amplifier, together with a 15" Altec 604 
high-fidelity speaker, can be switched across 
any program circuit in the recording room. 

Fig. 3 shows a close-up of one of the four 

Scully recording machines. On table at 
front (left to right) are the motor start 
switch, control panel and recording-head 
heater switch and pilot light. On the post 
behind the carriage is the channel V U 
meter and attenuator. The large box on the 
wall behind the machine houses a metal 
sack made of #80 mesh brass hardware 
cloth, to catch the removed cutting thread. 
Each machine has its own separate thread 

A Spencer central suction plant housed 
in another part of the building furnishes 
suction for all four machines. A valve lo- 
cated beneath each thread collector controls 
the suction at the individual machine. 

The dubbing channel equipment illus- 
trated in Fig. 2, is interesting in that the 
turntables are mounted on Neoprene rub- 
ber cups set on a 6" platform mounted on 
1" cork. This is done to eliminate building 
vibration. The entire assembly is so con- 
structed that the turntables are waist high, 
for convenience in operating from a stand- 
ing position. The dubbing channel circuit. 




500 n 


BA 3A 

diagram of dubbing channel circuit. 

I ^OW^ 

500a tee pad 


Fig. 3 — Equalizer circuit, with low-frequency porti< 

left and high-frequency portion at right. 

March, 1950 


shown in Fig. 4, consists of two pre-ampli- 
ficrs feeding a two-position mixer and a 
high -pass filter to further eliminate any 
possible effect of building vibration on the 
discs being dubbed. The program amplifier 
supplies the same signal (+ 8 V U) output 
as the master control, allowing any or all 
recording channels to be bridged across it. 
The heads were selected after exhaustive 
tests on all leading high-quality pickups on 
the market. These heads, with a modified 
arm and an equalizer of our own design, 
provide reproduction of the NAB record- 
ings within ± 1 db from 30 to 10,000 cycles. 
The excellent low-frequency response of 
the pickups led to the extreme steps neces- 
sary to eliminate the effects of building 

Amazing even to us, was the fact that 
the pick-up that gave the best results was 
a relatively low-priced, high'impedance 

However, after equalizing and matching 
to low-iinpedance, the output was still 
within limits as to output (- 63 db) . 

The equalizer circuit, shown in Fig. 5, 
excels anything tried, which included every 
one we had ever seen or heard of — even 
equalized amplifiers. 

After installation was complete and cir- 
cuit continuity was established, frequency 
and distortion runs (with pre-emphasis) 
were made on the complete channels. The 
overall response is ±2 db, 30-16,000 cycles; 
and ± I db, 20-20,000 cycles, without the 
limiting amplifier. The distortion is less 
than '/t of 1 % over the frequency range. 
Next, the heads were connected and ex- 
haustive runs were made by actually cut- 
ting the frequency runs and checking the 
resulting cuts by the light pattern method. 
Equalizers were installed and adjusted 
until less than ±1 db variation resulted 
between 800 and 10,000 cycles. The pre- 
cmphasis equalizers were then inserted and 
frequency runs repeated until the recorded 
results were well within NAB limits. A 
frequency run from a resistance capacity 
oscillator through the recording channel, 
played back through the dubbing channel 
and measured on a distortion meter showed 
a maximum of 1% distortion for all the 
equipment involved. 

Periodic frequency runs and distortion 
measurements are made, and each needle 
and disc is noise tested by actually playing 
and measuring the test cuts on the dubbing 

A routine check of the overall system 
noise level revealed the following: After 
recording continuously for 9 hours on each 
of the four recorders, one was picked at 
random and the playback noise from a test 
cut, as measured on a G. R. Noise Meter, 
showed a ~50 db noise under normal pro- 
gram level of 6 cm. stylus velocity. Needles 
used were Audio's Microgroove No. SM 
14, and the disc, of course, was a Red 
Label Audiodisc. 

by C. J. LeBcI, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


As every experi- 
enced engineer has 
found, it is not pos- 
sible to make a 
product which is 
the ultimate in 
every single respect, 
because many prop- 
erties are achieved 
only at the expense 
of others. In short, 
a good design is one 
in which conflicts 
have been resolved 

to yield the best overall performance. The 
cellulose acetate we use for a tape base 
material is no exception to this rule. 

It will be recalled that two years ago wc 
discarded vinyl copolymer base, and 
adopted cellulose acetate, because the de- 
sirable properties of the vinyl were at- 
tained at the expense of too many faults. 
Cellulose acetate seemed to have a better 
balance of characteristics, and time has 
verified this judgment. 

There are a number of grades of cellulose 
acetate, differing in the degree of plasticiz- 
ing. The minimum amount of plasticizer 
produces a hard, brittle material. Increased 
amounts increase the flexibility, until finally 
a very soft, rubbery characteristic is 

In choosing our base material it was 
necessary to conform to NAB standards, 
and this indirectly fixed the thickness of 

the base at .0015 inches. Adequate strength 
had to be provided, in this thickness. Nor- 
mal recording machine tension would have 
to produce as little permanent stretch as 
possible, otherwise the program would take 
longer to reproduce than it should. At the 
same time, the material would have to 
withstand the shock of rapid machine re- 
versal, so that impact strength was also 

These stringent requirements ruled out 
the heavily plasticized acetate, leaving only 
the light and medium plasticizing to be 
compared. Recording-wise, the medium 
grade was preferable, for its improved flex- 
ibility allowed the tape to maintain better 
contact with the head, a guaranty of better 
high frequency response and smoother mo- 
tion through the machine. The question 
was, would the strength prove adequate? 

Upon measuring the permanent stretch 
with various loads, we were surprised to get 
the result shown in figure 1 . Both minimum 
and medium degrees of plasticizing produce 
the same permanent stretch at all loads up 
to 2.5 lbs., and the curves diverge only 
above that value. At higher loads the greater 
resilience of the medium plasticizing allows 
more stretch. We can better evaluate these 
results if we recall that normal recorder 
tape tension is of the order of % to 54 lbs. 
The peak tension during reversal, machine 
manufacturers tell us, is never over IV4 
lbs. In the normal working range, then, 
the two acetates stretch identically. At 
heavy peak loads the medium material can 
give resiliently, where the light would 
prove too brittle. 

Since the breaking strength for both ma- 
terials was in the 41/2 to 5 lb. range, we 
standardized on the medium plasticizer 

It is interesting to note that the break- 
ing strength of tape is seven to twenty 
times the normal working stress. This is a 
factor of safety worthy of the bridge 
builder, and certainly very conservative. 



FIG. 1 — Relation bctwc 
corresponding timing erro 

en tape tension and permanent stretch after tens 
r if continued for 30 minutes. 


Audiotape Now Available 
in 2500-foot Rolls 

(Continued from Page 1, Col. 3) 

2. The full measure of 2500 feet gives 
4% more tape than the usual 2400-foot 

3. There are absolutely no spliees in the 
entire 2500-foot roll. It's guaranteed 
to be all one piece. 

4. Audio Devices also guarantees that 
volume deviation within a 2500-foot 
reel, at 1,000 cps, is not more than ±% 
db — and not more than ±V2 ^^ from 
reel to reel. These are outside limits — 
not averages! 

5. A unique, specially-designed package 
(patent pending) makes handling and 
storage of the tape much easier and 
safer than ever before — especially 
when used or stored on the hub alone. 

The new Audiotape package is illus 
trated in detail in Figures A, B, and C. Tiie 
outside section of the container is made 
of stiff, durable cardboard, while the 
folded-over inner section which holds the 
tape is of rigid corrugated board to provide 
extra stiffness for easy handling. One side 
of the inner section has a wide slot, as 
shown in Fig. B, while the other side, shown 
raised up in Fig. C, contains a wooden 
core which fits snugly into the aluminum 
hub. To transfer a roll of tape on the hub 
from the box to the horizontal turntable of 
a professional recorder, it is only necessary 
to hold the inner container and tape in 
the position shown in Fig. C — place it 
over the turntable hub, and then slide the 
container out from under the tape. In this 
way the tape itself is firmly supported at 
all times, and there is no danger of its 
slipping from the hub or becoming un- 
wound. After use, the roll of tape on the 
hub can be easily returned to the con- 
tainer by reversing the above operation. 
Simply slip the slotted side of the con- 
tainer under the tape, then fold over the 
other side until the wooden core engages 
with the hub, and it's all ready to pick up 
and slide back into the box. 

Conversion from hub to reel is also 
greatly facilitated by this unique container. 
Side flanges can be screwed onto the hub 
while it is still in the container, as shown 
in Fig. D and E. With the slotted portion 
down, simply place the flange over the 
hub and drop the bottom halves of the 
three sleeve screws into place as in Fig. D. 
Then fold the solid portion of the container 
down onto the reel. This will hold the 
sleeve screws in place and the container 
can be turned over so that the flange is on 
the bottom of the roll. Then lift up the 
slotted portion, place the top flange over 
the hub, and insert the other halves of the 

FIG. B. — Inner se 

ction of Audiotape box, with slotted 

FIG. C— Inner section of be 

X tu 

med over, with 

portion raised, show 

ing 2500-foot roll on hub. engaged 

of Audiotape on hub resting 


slotted portion - 

with wooden hub-co 

re on bottom portion. 

position for placing tape on 

Hzontal tumtabl 

sleeve screws, as in Fig. E. There's no 
danger of dropping the screws, or letting 
the tape slip from the hub. The side flanges 
from a complete reel can also be easily 
removed from the hub while the tape is still 
in the container. 

When the tape is stored on the hub in 
the container, it hangs from the fixed hub- 
core so that the tape does not rest on itself. 
Thus, there is no danger of flattening the 

bottom of the roll or damaging the edges 
of the tape. And since reel flanges can be 
attached to the hub so quickly and easily, 
it saves the expense of storing tape on the 
reel, even when complete reels are required 
for use on a particular machine. 

The new Type 2551 Audiotape is packed 
5 boxes to a carton, and is now available 
through local Audiotape and Audiodisc 
suppliers all over the country. 



•ol. 6, No. 4 


444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

April 1950 


Veteran recordist, C. Art 
Foy gets all set to record 
a church weddii '. — un- 
known to the I . ide and 
groom. The microphone 
is skillfully concealed in 
a basket of flowers, as 
shown by the arrow in the 
insert above. 

A New Idea In Tape Recording 

That Has Been Made Into 

a Flourishing Business 

A little more than two generations ago 
a bride posed rigidly with her new husband 
to the tune of "Hold it — Hold it" while 
a camera took endless minutes to record 
her new state for posterity. 

Today there is a new wrinkle in such 
portrait taking. A young army veteran has 
set up shop under the name of Magnetic 
Recording Company and is making a lively 
business of taking what he calls "Portraits 
in Sound". 

No fly-by-night, Art Foy, who spent 
nearly four years as a technical adviser in 
the Army Airways Communications Sys- 
tem, is fast becoming a respected young 
businessman in his community. 

His friends call him a recording demon. 
No matter what he has to work on and no 
matter how adverse the circumstances — 
which usually refers to acoustics — he man- 
ages to iron out the difficulties and come 

{Continued on Page 2, Col. 1) 

Music Goes Round the World 

— Via International Music Program 
of American Junior Red Cross 

The use of recordings to promote inter 
national friendship has found a new vehicle 
in the American Junior Red Cross Inter- 
national Music Program. Five hundred 
albums of American school music have been 
sent to Red Cross societies in fourteen 
foreign countries to be played in schools. 
The object of the program is to let children 
in other countries hear for themselves the 
songs American children love to sing and 
play, providing another bond of interest 
and affection among world youth. 

Each album contains six records of school 
orchestras, bands, choruses, and instru- 
mental ensembles from all over the United 
States. The twelve selections were chosen 
from 1 74 recordings which were submitted 
for consideration from 51 school music 
groups. Some of the original recordings 
were made on tape, but most of them were 
(Continued on Page 4, Co!. 2) 

Swing Choir at Hillsboro, Oregon recording "Com 
Thru The Rye" for Jr. Red Cross Record Albu 


April 1950 

cuixLla #. record 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 6, No. 4 

APRIL, 1950 

Portraits of Sound 

(Continued from Page 1, Co!. 3) 

through with a high class professional re- 
cording. Like the time he boarded the New 
Columbian of the B & O Railroad and re- 
corded its initial run along with the com- 
plete ceremony, or recording in a huge 
cathedral where echoes are everywhere. 
Thus the phrase of "Magnetically Re- 
corded by Foy" has come to be used. 

Although unmarried, he seems to be par- 
ticularly fond of recording weddings, and 
he likes best to take his wedding "Portraits 
in Sound" when the couple is unaware that 
they are being recorded. "I always get a 
kick out of their exclamations of surprise 
when they find out that Mom and Dad had 
the foresight to have the whole thing re- 
corded. They always want to know where 
on earth I had the microphones!" 

Art and his staff take pride in the places 
they manage to conceal their microphones. 
"We choose our spots well, and sometimes 
we are like a bunch of kids hiding Easter 
eggs." Art has been using egg-size micro- 
phones but now that he has found one the 
size of six dimes stacked up, he is in re- 
corder's seventh heaven. 

Whether he is recording a wedding, a 
college concert, a speech or an operetta, he 
makes it a point to be on hand an hour or 
so before the event and have his equip- 
ment completely set up and out of sight 
with his tiny microphones hidden in plants, 
chandeliers, behind vases or what have you, 
and even though the performers know he is 
on the spot, they are completely unaware 
of his presence. One chance remark over- 
heard while leaving a church following a 
wedding still has Art patting his back. One 
lady said to another "I couldn't hear the 
bride and groom at all", with the reply of 
"Oh, well, we'll hear them when we hear 
the recording". 

Art, who fell in love with radios at the 
age of eight and was operating his own 
hand-made ham station fully equipped 
with an FCC radio license at the age of 
fourteen, and was one of the first amateur 
radio operators on the air in the U. S. 
occupied zone of Germany, now has his 
own radio shows over Evanston's AM and 
FM stations. On WEAW, called "On-thc- 
Spot", many of his recordings arc aired 
and also on WNMP called "Your Church 

Choir" plus special feature shows where on 
the spot recording is necessary. He also 
works with WOAK (FM) in Oak ark and 
has weekly transcriptions aired on WCFL 
in Chicago. 

Art likes to point out that his business 
is possible only because of the great ad- 
vancements that have been made in the 
high-fidelity recording field. "Just think", 
he says, "Out in Des Moines right now a 
radio station may be playing a record of a 
church choir that was tape recorded in a 
Columbus, Ohio church and then sent to 
me to be made into a disc recording. That 
sort of thing makes a guy in the recording 
business feel that he is well, you might 
say," he finished ruefully, "helping to knit 
the people of the United States closer to- 
gether." Sitting in his place of business at 
1465 Sherman Avenue, Art surprisingly 
declared, "My studio is portable." He ex- 
plained that instead of having people such 
as singers, speakers, musical instrumental- 
ists, or choral groups, come to him to make 
their records, he preferred to go to them on 
their home ground where they can feel per- 
fectly natural and at ease. As he facetious- 
ly pointed out, "You know if it's their 
piano that shows up with an out of tune 
note on the recording, they can't blame 
me." His customers are particularly pleased 
to find out that tape recordings can be 
played back right away; the sour spots 
found and erased. Thus, they may repeat 
their performance over and over until they 
are completely satisfied and then have the 
final approved recording transferred to a 
10 inch or 12 inch record to be preserved. 

When Art recorded the almost two hour 
long Sonja Hcnie Ice Show he learned a 
new trick. Any show he records for later 
airing he edits very carefully, selecting the 
highlights and cutting out mistakes to make 
a jam-packed thirty minute show. He 
found that to splice tape is wasteful since 
it can be erased and re-used; so he hit on 
the idea of working the Sonja Henie show 

where any time. Here. Mr. Foy sets up his 

by recording the parts desired on another 
tape — the result, no tape wasted. 

Art and his recording equipment are a 
familiar sight at school and college musical 
and dramatic productions. But he gets the 
biggest thrill from recording younger chil- 
dren in their recitals and activities. They 
are tremendously interested in his equip- 
ment to begin with and then, as he says, 
there is no greater fun than standing back 
and observing their expressions when they 
hear how they sound on record. Art ex- 
plained. It's this way — "Here is Little 
Janie who plays the violin and at home she 
really doesn't sound so very good, but mom 
keeps her practicing. Yet, when she gets to 
school with all the others in the band or 
orchestra they begin to sound really good. 
Well, when Janie takes home a profes- 
sional record of her playing she has a defin- 
ite pride of accomplishment and the record 
has invoked in Mom and Dad at home an 
interest far deeper than before. Janie prac- 
tices harder, too. That sort of thing makes 
me feel like I'm helping build our com- 
munity in a small way. Guess I just like chil- 
dren anyway," he said. Mothers who have 
discovered that their wax recordings of 
Junior's lispings to Santa or the Easter 
Bunny made by department stores can be 
put on a permanent 10 inch record are 
losing no time in bringing their cardboard 
discs to Art. 

Tight spots are no novelty to Art. At 
one large concert, he could not find a place 
for an overhead microphone which was 
needed to pick up the orchestra and choir. 
Not at all stumped he quickly canvassed 
the neighborhood and found a house wife 
who was willing to lend him her much be- 
knotted clothesline. He hurried back to the 
church and before the guests arrived he 
had the clothesline nestled cable-fashion 
among the rafters out of sight with two 
microphones pinned on it. We learn as we 
go along, he said, and now a clothesline is 
a permanent part of his equipment. 

April 1950 


Art laughingly recalls one of the first 
weddings he worked on. He recorded the 
ceremony and submitted the tape recording 
for approval before making the twelve inch 
idiscs. "I knew this was one time I had 
wasted a lot of effort ; no one would buy a 
recording as full of extracurricular noises 
as this one. Imagine my surprise! They 
smiled at the airplane roaring into the 
middle of the prayer; they chuckled when 
the dog barked as the soloist sang, and they 
laughed outright when the fire engine broke 
into their vows, as it clanged by the church 
windows." They wanted the recordings 
just as they were. He has found that such 
noises practically sell the recording. One 
young bride laughed and laughed when 
she identified the clunking sound, as her 
father stumbling against the pew as he 
stepped back to his place after giving her 

The son of a Methodist minister. Art 
has no trouble finding his way about in 
churches. Ministers and Priests often chat 
with him. They all seem to like the idea of 
couples having the opportunity to hear 
their vows at leisure and without the strain 
of the wedding day. As one minister said, 
"There might be a much less chance of 
couples separating if they had the record- 
ing of their vows to listen to at times of 
marital strife." 

Art recorded his first wedding in 1935 as 
a stunt to surprise the bride and groom. 
The married couple's pleasure gave him an 
idea as to just how successful recording 
weddings could be. And today he is cer- 
tainly proving it. "After all," he says, 
"recordings aren't any more expensive than 
a set of wedding pictures and listening to 
yourself is just as much fun as looking at 

Improved Lacquer Formulation 
Gives Audiodiscs Lowest Surface 
Noise at all Diameters 

The problem of surface noise has long 
been a "headache" to professional as well 
as amateur recordists — particularly the 
progressive increase in noise as the cut 
approaches the center of the disc. 

Audio Devices' chief chemist, George M. 
Sutheim, has now found a practical solu- 
tion to this problem — by perfecting an 
improved lacquer formulation that gives 
lowest surface noise at all diameters. And 
the variation in noise level is only about 
2 db from 3 " to II " recording diameters. 
Other discs normally have a variation of 
about 10 db between these same limits. 

This important development, now in full 
production on all Audiodiscs, will be dis- 
cussed in detail in the next issue of Audio 

by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


C. J. LcBel 

Our subject for this month is somewhat 
of a departure from the usual technical 
aspects of recording. It is a very important 
one, however, and we believe it will be of 
interest not only to educational recordists, 
but also to others who are concerned with 
the problem of making good recordings 
under unfavorable conditions. 

The writer recently had an opportunity 
to speak to a group of high school teachers; 
this was followed by a short research pro- 
ject with Prof. William J. Temple of 
Brooklyn College, reported on at the re- 
cent Eastern Public Speaking Conference. 
The contrast between these two activities 
was so great that an article seemed desir- 

After watching the high school teacher 
at work, looking over his equipment, and 
hearing the acoustical performance of his 
studio (the classroom), only one conclusion 
is possible: he is trying to do a man's job 
with, almost literally, boys' tools. 

The work with Prof. Temple indicated 
that a recorder which is to be useful in all 
speech applications must have surprisingly 
wide frequency range. In general, an edu- 
cational recorder is not used to show the 
well trained teacher the student's faults! It 
must reproduce the student's mistakes of 
diction, etc., clearly enough so that the 
student himseJf can hear them clearly. The 
outcome is a need for uniform response to 
at least 7.5 kc. This is one aspect of the 
faithful vs. pleasing reproduction debate 
that has gone on for years. Very clearly, 
the teacher needs photographic realism. 

complete faithfulness, in his recording 

Such a degree of faithfulness cannot be 
achieved by using an ordinary home re- 
corder bought from the most persuasive 
salesman — it calls for a professional ma- 
chine and professional accessories. 

The average classroom is so reverberant 
that its use for recording can be condoned 
only by custom. If you have such a room, 
heavy (fireproofed) drapes, spaced several 
inches from the wall, can reduce the fault 
if not eliminate it. The only fundamental 
solution is to have an acoustical contractor 
treat the room. 

If the classroom is too reverberant, it is 
almost mandatory to use a unidirectional 
microphone of the cardioid or super car- 
dioid type. This will at least minimize the 
pickup of reverberation. To use the ordin- 
ary inexpensive omnidirectional micro- 
phone often supplied with the recorder is 
merely to compound the original acoustical 
error. If the microphone has a high im- 
pedance output, it can even be used to feed 
the most inexpensive home recorder di- 
rectly. If the microphone has only a low 
impedance output, matching transformers 
are obtainable that can be fastened directly 
to the microphone cable. 

When making a dramatic-class record- 
ing, it is heart breaking to try to get proper 
balance of cast and effects with a single 
microphone, and lost time or a poor per- 
formance surely will be the outcome. Two 
microphones and a two-position mixer 
would save a lot of time and trouble. If 
standard professional technique is to be 
used, a third microphone and mixer posi- 
tion for the announcer would be desirable. 
Ail of this makes it desirable to provide a 
control room where the program balance 
can be set properly. Monitoring through 
headphones is not a good way to maintain 
the balance of a complex production. 

We conclude with a pair of sharp re- 
marks. The first is a paraphrase of a bit of 
Prof. Temple's recent article in "Audio En- 
gineering" magazine. You cannot convince 
a student that he lisps if the recording ma- 
chine itself suffers from a permanent lisp. 
Secondly, we seem to be going through a 
cycle very similar to that pursued during 
the early days of educational disc record- 
ing. At first, the educators bought the 
cheapest home type machines. Finding re- 
sults disappointing, they changed to better 
and better professional machines. Today, 
the average educational disc recorder is of 
thoroughly professional quality. In the 
magnetic recorder field, the colleges have 
already begun to change to the $500-$800 
class of professional machine, and it is only 
a question of time before the high schools 
do the same. History seems to repeat itself 
with annoying regularity. 


April 1950 

The Telephone That Answers Itself 

. . . with magnetic recording tape 

The Swiss have a name for it. They call 
it the Ipsophone. We call it one of the 
most ingenious applications of tape record- 
ing that we have seen so far. In fact it 
"thinks" — "remembers" — and has the au- 
dacity to talk back, too! 

Briefly, the Ipsophone — a Swiss inven- 
tion — is an automatic telephone answer- 
ing device that records messages on mag- 
netic tape and plays them back later, v,?hen 
called for. No "operator" is required any- 
where along the line, where dial systems 
are in use. Here's how it works. 

You have an urgent call to make to your 
friend, Mr. Jones. You dial his number. If 
he doesn't answer after the first three rings, 
Ipsophone swings into action and a re- 
corded voice says, "Hello, hello. This is the 
residence of Mr. Jones. Your message is 
being recorded automatically. Ready! 
Please speak now." And if you're not too 
surprised to remember what you wanted to 
say, you go right ahead and give your 
whole message, just as if Mr. Jones were 
there himself. 

Then, when Jones gets home, he calls the 
Ipsophone number. As before, the tape re- 
corded voice answers, saying "Hello, hello. 
This is the residence of Mr. Jones. Your 
message is being recorded automatically. 
Ready!" Right there (before it says "Please 
speak now") Jones breaks in, saying 
"Hello, hello." That makes the Ipsophone 
change its mind, and instead of recording a 
message, it automatically plays back the 
part of the tape that you recorded, giving 
your message, in your own words, exactly 
as you said it. 

The operation described so far is a fairly 
simple one. Where it gets really compli- 
cated — and quite ingenious — is in the 
system which enables one master Ipsophone 
to handle many different subscribers, yet 
keep messages strictly confidential, to be 
played back only to the individual for 
whom they are intended. If you want the 
confidenual service, your telephone is pro- 
vided with a code key, on which you set a 
secret combination of code numbers known 
only to yourself. Then, when you call Ipso- 
phone for a message, it automatically reads 
off a series of numbers, beginning with zero 
— stopping for 4 seconds after each num- 
ber. You simply say the magic words, "hello, 
hello", after each of the code numbers you 
selected. Your message is then transcribed 
back to you from the tape, as before. How- 
ever, if anyone tries to "break" your code, 
and misses a single number, he either gets a 
busy signal or is disconnected. You can 
change your code numbers as often as you 
want, so there's practically no possibility of 

anyone "breaking" your code. 

The Ipsophone recording mechanism is a 
compact and complicated assembly of tele- 
phone relays, timing devices, sequence 
switches and other sensitive electronic 
equipment — arranged for proper control 
of the multiple tape recorders. 

Although a newcomer to this country, 
the Ipsophone has already found extensive 
use abroad. Department stores use them for 
recording after-hours orders. Banks use 
them to take important massages after clos- 
ing time. The Geneva Journal uses them 
to record messages from foreign corre- 
spondents all over the world — as also does 
Reuters, the British news agency. In fact 
the Ipsophone is being widely applied for 
most of the applications where we, in this 
country, have been using a personal tele- 
phone answering service. Ipsophone, how- 
ever, has the added advantage of absolute 
privacy — plus the infallible accuracy of a 
tape recording. 

We may see — and hear — a lot more 
about this telephone recorder. For an 
American corporation is making arrange- 
ments with the Swiss company to mass- 
produce thousands of them over here. So 

Ipsophone mechanism with casing removed multiple 
tape recorders and associated control equipment for 
fully automatic operation. {Photos and data, LOU)tesy of 
Mcchanix Illustrated.) 

don't be too surprised if your next tele- 
phone message is automatically recorded 
on tape. 

Music Goes Round the World 

(Continued from Page 1, Col 1) 

put on discs. Nearly all were made in radio 
studios or recording studios. The final re- 
cordings were made of unbreakable viny- 
lite in a bright blue color. The album has 
a colorful patriotic jacket. 

Screening of the 174 offerings submitted 
was done by a national committee made up 
of members of the American Junior Red 
Cross staff and members of the Music 
Educators National Conference, co-spons- 
ors of the program. After listening for 
three days to Negro spirituals, love songs, 
folk music, classics and light opera, they 
chose a concert band, three full concert or- 
chestras, three mixed choruses, two boys' 
choruses, three a cappella choirs, two vocal 
ensembles, a wood-wind ensemble, and two 
informal numbers. The committee selec- 
tions were made upon quality of perform- 
ance, quality of recording, and securing a 
good program balance in the six-disc album 
which would also represent all parts of the 

The albums have been made available to 
all countries through the League of Red 
Cross Societies in Geneva, Switzerland. 
Thus far, the following countries have re- 
quested, and have been sent, an average of 
30 albums each : Austria, Belgium, Czecho- 

slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Iran, 
Japan, Norway, Sweden, Sv;itzerland, 
Yugoslavia, Puerto Rico, and Australia. 

The future of this novel experiment in 
international understanding is uncertain. 
There has not yet been time to receive an 
evaluation of the foreign reception of these 
albums. No plans are being made to go 
ahead until this has been done. If the re- 
sponse is favorable, streamlined methods of 
handling the technical details must be de- 
veloped before the program can be offered 
to a larger number of schools enrolled in 
Junior Red Cross. 

It is hoped, however, that like the Junior 
Red Cross school correspondence and the 
international school art program, the ex 
perimental music program will develop an 
understanding among the youth of many 
nations, providing one more "get ac- 
quainted" avenue to world peace. 

DON'T BE BASHFUL! If you have any record 
ing stories that you think would be of interesi 
to our readers, send tlrem in. Audio Record i: 
now distributed, by request, to 1480 radio sta 
tions, 3950 schools and colleges. 3300 recordins 
studios and recordists, and 950 distributors anc 
dealers. Address contributions to: Editor, Audit 
Record, 444 Madison Ave., New York 22, N. Y 



Vol. 6, No. 5 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

May. 1950 

WINNERS ANNOUNCED in Radio Script Contests 

Scholastic Magazines and AER 

Name Prize Winners in Nation-wide 

Contests for High School and 

College Students 

The two big student competitions in 
radio script writing — Scholastic Mag- 
azines' 1950 Radio Script Writing Com- 
petition for high school students, and the 
Association for Education by Radio's 
National Radio Scnpt Contest for college 
students — have announced their respective 
winners. The awards have been presented, 
and the talented young writers have 
achieved national recognition for outstand- 
ing ability in the radio field. To the win- 
ners — and to the hundreds of other con- 
testants who submitted such excellent 
scripts — we extend our sincere congratu- 

Both of these contests, which were co- 
sponsored by Audio Devices for the third 
consecutive year, drew an all-time record 
of entries — making the job of final selec- 
tion a more difficult one than ever before. 
(Continued on Page 2, Coi. 1) 


Finl Prize General Radio Scripl. 

Bernard H. Mcrcms, Ncu York, 
N. V. 


How Sound Engineering Helped "Showboat" 
Win Grand Prize 

By Ernest C. Knight 
Diacoustic Laboratory 
Pasadena, California 

The 1950 Pasadena Tournament of 
Roses theme, "Our American Heritage", 
was a well chosen one and opened the way 
for great beauty and imagination in float 
design. But, in the float that took Grand 
Prize, this beauty was more than skin deep 
It could be heard as well as seen. 

The Southern California Edison Com 
pany's Grand Prize winner, the "Show 
boat", portrayed life down along the Mis 
sissippi and was the largest float to be 
entered in any Rose Parade. As this rose 
studded replica of an old-fashioned Missis 
sippi side-wheeler rolled down the parade 
(Continued on Page 3, Col. 1) 

••— Soulhem Califon 

Life like !>ound elT< 
ol this beautiful exbibit. 


May, 1950 

cmdlq ^reccnxt 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with- 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 6, NO. 5 MAY, 1950 

Winners Announced 

(Continued from Page 1, Col, 1) 
Mr. William D. Boutwell, of Scholastic 
Magazines, reports that high-school stu- 
dents from all over the country entered a 
total of 569 scripts in the national contest 
alone — not counting the hundreds of 
scripts that were submitted for the many 
regional preliminaries throughout the 

In the AER contest, too, the trend was 
upward — indicating greatly increased in- 
terest in radio work among the students of 
the nation's colleges and universities. 

Following is a list of the national win- 
ners of the Classiitcations sponsored by 
Audio Devices in both the Scholastic Mag- 
azines and AER Contests. 

Radio Script Writing Contest 
(High School Students) 
Judges: Leon Levine, Columbia Broadcast- 
ing System; Olive McHugh, Chairman 
of AER Committee on Script Writing; 
Gertrude Broderick, U. S. Office of Edu- 
cation Script Exchange; Wade Arnold, 
National Broadcasting Company; Lu- 
cile Fletcher, radio writer; and Eric Bar- 
nouw, instructor in radio and television 
at Columbia University. 

Aivard Winners; 
Original Radio Drama 

First Prize ^ $25.00; Richard O. Justa 

Orange High School, Orange, N. J. 

"Of Sand and Stars'" 

Teachers — Muriel E. Pons* and Florence 

J, Leonard 
Second Prize — $15.00; Ann Keller 

Edwin Denby High School, 

Detroit, Mich. 

"Your Loving Sister Madeline" 

Teacher — Mrs. Ethel Tincher 
Third Prize — $10.00; Pattie Ann Lewis 

lohnson City High School, 

Johnson City, N^Y. 

"It Happens Every Day" 

Teacher — Mrs. Rose Sullivan 
Fourth Prizes — $5.00; 

Roger Lee Paulson 

Elkhart Senior High School. 

Elkhart, Indiana 

"Escape From Libby" 

Teacher — Galen L. Wenger 

Ronald Wolfe 

St. Wendelin High School, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

"The Best Things in Life" 

Teacher — Sister Mary Bernarda 

Joy Longworth 

Buchanan High School, 

Buchanan, Mich. 

"The Fallen Angel" 

Teacher — Mrs. Velma E. Dunbar 

Robert McGowan 

Walla Walla High School, 

Walla Walla, \Vash. 

"The Perfect Likeness" 

Teacher — Marshall Alexander 

Karl Allen Lamb 

Centennial High School, 

Pueblo, Colorado 

"Greater Love Has No Man" 

Teacher — Miss G. C. Knoop 
Radio Drama Adaptation 
First Prize — $25.00; Richard Green 

Oak Park and River Forest High School, 

Oak Park, 111. 

"Station Q-E-D" 

Teacher — Mildred Linden* 
Second Prize — $15.00; 

Enid F. Karetnick 

Weequahic High School, Newark, N. J. 

"Especially Father" 

Teacher — Marie E. O'Connor 
Third Prize — $10.00; Bill Rollins 

Richard J. Reynolds High School, 

Winston Salem, N. C. 

"Lucius and the Child of Bethlehem" 

Teacher — Mrs. Elizabeth Ritter 
Fourth Prizes — $5.00; 

Monica F. Kelly 

St. Vincent Academy, Newark, N. J. 

"The Long Exile" 

Teacher — Sister Josephine Marie 

Clare Marie Murphy 

CoUingwood High School, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

"Mammon and the Archer" 

Teacher — Mrs. Finley 

Sharon Kyle 

Edwin Denby High School. 

Detroit, Mich. 

"Cupid on the Loose" 

Teacher — Mrs. Ethel Tincher 

Stanley Phillips 

South High School, Denver, Colorado 

"Almos' A Man" 

Teacher — Harold Keables 

Karl Allen Lamb 

Centennial High School, 

Pueblo, Colorado 

"A Municipal Report" 

Teacher — Miss G. C. Knoop 
General Radio Scripts Prize — $25.00; 

Bernard H. Merems 

Stuwesant High School, 

New York, N.Y. 

"Atomic Era One" 

Teacher — Irving Robbins* 

Second Prize — $15.00; 
Janice Anne Chaskes 

Brockton High School, Brockton, Mass. 

"Raising of the Dead" 

Teacher — Ruth T. Cosgrove 
Third Prize — $10.00; Morton Hytner 

Scott High School, Toledo, Ohio 

"The Voice of Tomorrow" 

Teacher — Roberta B. Shine 
Fourth Prizes — $5.00; 

Barbara Halladay 

Cheyenne High School 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 

"Exploring the Mayas" 

Teacher — Mildred U. Beck 

Barbara Ann Black 

Brockton High School, Brockton, Mass. 

"An Interview v,'ith Hopalong Cassidy's 


Teacher — Ruth T. Cosgrove 

Ellen Van Dusen 

Union-Endicott High School, 

Endicott, N. Y. 

"The Teen-Age Bookshelf" 

Teacher — Mrs. Edna A. Finch 

William T. Reedy, Jr. 

Reading Senior High School, 

Reading, Pa. 

"Red and Black on the Air" 

Teacher — Joseph G. Plank, Jr. 

Gene L. Walker 

Edwin Denby High School, 

Detroit, Mich. 

"Roving Reporter" 

Teacher — Mrs. Ethel C. Tincher 


National Radio Script Contest 
(College Students) 

Judges: Virginia Edwards, St. Louis Public 
Schools; Helen Kinsella, Chicago Public 
Schools; Martha Boyer, Lindenwood 
College; Jesse Burkett, Oklahoma School 
of Air. 

Classification No. 5. Scripts for Home and 
School Recording 

First Prize — $100.00; 

John Suchy 

Montana State University, 

Missoula, Montana 

"Runaway Christmas Bus" 

Teacher — Ansel Resler* 
Second Prize — $60.00; 

Miss Janaan Noonan 

Clarke College, Dubuque, Iowa 

"Life of WiHiam Blake" 

Teacher — Sister Mary Aquin 
Third Prize — $40.00; 

Robert Lee 

New York University, New York, N. Y. 

"My Last Duchess" 

Teacher — Dr. Robert S. Emerson 

*Rcceived 25 Audiodiscs, ? Sapphire Recording 
Audiopoints and 3 Sapphire Playback Audio- 

May, 1950 


Showboat (Cotitnmed /I'OJii Page 1) 

line, the multitude of speetators was en- 
thralled to hear the nostalgic strains of a 
steam calliope playing such familiar favor- 
ites as. "Here Comes the Showboat", 
"Waiting for the Robert E. Lee" and 
"Cruising Down the River" — punctuated 
by the deep-throated note of a river-boat 

Actually, there was no steam calliope on 
the float, and no boat whistle either. De- 
spite the startling realism, it was all done 
with recorded sound — on Audiodiscs and 

How best to make this music sound alive 
had a great deal to do with the construction 
of the float. The total dimensions of the 
structure were 50 feet long, 20 feet wide 
and 17 feet high. It had three decks and, 
when completed, weighed 12^/2 tons, so the 
added weight of any live band, or of a 
real steam calliope, was out of the question. 

Mr. Lee Stratton in charge of float build- 
ing for the Walter Garbctt Company, con- 
sulted with us here at the Diacoustic Lab- 
oratory in Pasadena, to determine the most 
effective way to handle the sound and music 
on the float. Since we have for years been 
well acquainted with sound recording in 
both radio and the motion picture fields, 
our suggested solution to the problem was 
to record all music and necessary sound 
effects on Audiodiscs and then to edit the 
music and sound on Audiotape. 

A great deal of technical checking and 
rechecking had to be done as the calliope 
music, sound effects and the whistle of the 
river-boats had to sound as real and live 
as possible with full level recording and no 
distortion. The music was first recorded on 
12" Red Label Audiodiscs, for approval by 
the Edison Company Float Committee. 
After the most suitable music and sound 
effects had been selected, these were then 
transposed onto Red 0.\ide, Plastic Base 
Audiotape, making a half hour reel at V'/, 
inches per second. This then was the parade 
reel and was played almost continuously 
over the entire 7 mile parade route. 

Then for the Post Parade! After the big 
parade, all the floats (this year there were 
67) were assembled in the post parade 
area. This gave the visiting public a chance 
to view the floats at close range and to see 
how magnificent they really were. The 
"Showboat" contained over 1,200,000 

For this post parade even a special reel 
of Stephen Foster's melodies was made on 
Red Oxide, Plastic Base Audiotape. This 
reel played continuously for thirteen hours, 
except for one minute rewind every half 
hour. No break occurred in the tape either 
during the parade or post parade playing 
of the reels and no loss of level or quality 
was noticed. 

All tape recordings were made and 
played back on a Magnecorder No. PT6R 

University of Tennessee's WUOT 
Uses Tape and Discs Extensively 

From a two year program of ground- 
work in which disc recordings played a 
major role, the University of Tennessee 
began FM broadcasting on October 27, 
1949, with WUOT, 3000 watt outlet. A 
series of eight weekly programs, most of 
them disced with Rek-O-Cut heads on 
Audiodiscs, was started in the fall of 1947 
when Kenneth D. Wright came to the 
University from ten years in commercial 
radio. Wright organized a student Radio 
Workshop and produced the eight shows 
weekly on various subjects of adult infor- 
mation. Usually the programs were re- 
corded and mailed to out of town stations 
in Tennessee. In 1948 the series was ex- 
panded to ten programs weekly, one of 
which was awarded an honorable mention 
in the Ohio State Exhibition of Educational 
Radio Programs. This show, "Songs of the 
People," was recorded on Audiodiscs and 
broadcast on WBIR in Knoxville, Ten- 

With the heightened interest in radio 
and the growth of the Radio Workshop, 
the LJniversity constructed WUOT this 
year. Operating five and a half hours daily, 
Monday through Friday, the station offers 
fine music, drama, news, discussions, docu- 
mentaries, and popular music. One of the 
major principles behind the station is to 
experiment with in-school listening pro- 
grams for elementary' and high schools of 
East Tennessee with a vievv- to expanding 
this phase later. The station is operated 
with student personnel, directed by two 

WUOT now has two Brush Sound- 
mirror tape recorders, used primarily for 
student training and occasional remote 
spots, two Rek-O-Cut cutting heads, M-5, 
used for auditions and rehearsals, and a 
Fairchild Unit 5.i9-G for discs to be used 
on WUOT and commercial stations. 

All of the informational programs on 
commercial stations in the state, now num- 

SHOP students transcribing "Make Believe Party" for 
broadcast on WUOT Fridays. 6:30 P.M. 

VOICE, uses Fairchild Recorder for many shows each 

bering seventeen periods weekly, are 
grouped under the general title of the 
University of Tennessee "Campus of the 
Air." With the four-fold purpose of AM 
extension programs, operating WUOT, 
student training, and experimentation in 
classroom listening, the Radio Department 
of the General Extension Division has un- 
dertaken a full program of bringing more 
mature radio from the campus of the state 

Rack job, driven by Audio Pacific Com- 
pany's Model No. 3 Amplifiers and repro- 
duced by four multi-speaker units; a total 
of sixty-eight speakers which were mounted 
inside the float. The volume and tone of 
both the music and sound effects were con- 
trolled from duplicate sets of Magnecord- 
ers — operated by myself and my tech- 
nician, Mr. Hubert P. Starke of Hollywood. 
A smoke-making machine provided the 
smoke for the stacks of the "Showboat" 
and a 5 kw electric generating plant, op- 

erated by its own gasoline engine, provided 
power for the sound equipment and the 
motors which turned over the paddle 
wheels. There was even an engineer for the 
main power plant which drove the float, 
and a driver, located thirty feet forward, 
to steer the massive structure along its way. 
Despite the great artistic beauty of the 
"Showboat", it is safe to say that the real- 
istic atmosphere created by the extremely 
life-like recording was a big factor in 
awarding the coveted Grand Prize. 


May. 1950 

C. J. LcBel 

by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


Shortly after the ^ 
end of the war, a 
number of our best 
customers began 
clamoring for a bet- 
ter lacquer-formu 
lation especially de- 
signed for use as a 
master. This would 
have noise level at 
the inside diameters 
as low as at the out- 
side, but the wear 
resistance could be slight. 

Work on this project began in 1946 and 
was carried on intensively. By 1948 pre- 
war microgroove development had been 
revived, and the pressure for something be- 
came still more intense. A considerable 
number of master formulae were developed 
and tested, but they all had one fault or 
another. Perhaps the worst was a tendency 
for the cut groove to become noisy in time. 
The more miraculous the groove quietness, 
the worse this effect became. 

Emphasis finally shifted to a repropor- 
tioning of our standard formula as our 
faith in the magic of any one new ingredi- 
ent dropped to zero. As is well known, a 
recording lacquer contains many ingredi- 
ents, and the optimum proportions are 
found by experiment rather than by theory. 
Hundreds of tests were made, and in the 
summer of last year the reproportioning 
led to an interesting master formula. It was 
as quiet at the inside as at the outside, and 
it had none of the bad habits which the 
radically new developments had been 
cursed with. Particularly, there was no 
tendency for the cut groove to become 
noisier with time. The groove would with- 
stand only three playings, but this was no 
fault in a master. 

When we began to think of production 
we ran into an obstacle: It is not easy to 
change lacquers in our coating system, for 
the pipes have to be emptied of lacquer, 
then cleaned thoroughly. Since the demand 
for masters is small, this would have in- 
volved shutting one lacquer system down 
for a day to permit a day's run on masters, 
or else installing an additional fabulously 
expensive stainless steel pipe system to be 
used a small part of the time. Either meth- 

od would have led to very high costs. 

At that point it occurred to us that most 
of the improvement might be incorporated 
in our regular formulation. Tests were 
made, and it appeared that most of the 
master quietness could be incorporated in 
a general purpose lacquer without sacrific- 
ing wear resistance or any of the other 
good properties. Pilot runs were made and 
the results tested successfully by a number 
of leading recording organizations, so in 
the late fall we started to modify the pro- 
duction formulation slightly in the direc- 
tion indicated. As everyone seemed pleased, 
and the complaints were nil, more and 
more modification was used, with a field 
test of each change before it was put into 
production. By mid-January we had gone 
over completely to the new version. 

The present formulation has been used 
continuously since then, and any discs in 
your stock will be of the latest type, or 
within 900; of It. 

Fit;ure 1 shows the noise characteristic 
(if the modified lacquer, for a standard 
transcription groove. Since it is very easy 
to keep a groove quiet at diameters of 12 
to 16 inches, we have started our graph at 
1 1 inches. For comparison, data on two 
other makes of disc is included, with all 
three tests run with the same stylus. 

Figure 2 shows the result of a test under 
microgroove conditions, using a micogroove 
stylus instead of the standard model used 
in figure 1. 

In both graphs the reference velocity is 
S cm per second, and the speed of rotation 
33.3 rpm. Standard NAB test conditions 
were observed, except that the reproducing 
stylus radius was in accord with the type 

of groove to be reproduced. 

The tests show that a standard transcrip- 
tion groove in AUDIODISC is practically 
as quiet at 7" diameter as at the outside. 
Other makes have not done as well. In 
microgroove the problem is more difficult, 
but here, also we have succeeded in greatly 
reducing the increase. So, the signal to 
noise ratio is better than 30 db from 5 inch 
diameter out, and better than 55 db from 
6I/2 inches out. As the curves show, this 
is a significant improvement. In other re- 
spects — long wear, good thread-throw, 
stability of noise level with time, foolproof 
processing, and humidity proofing, the 
characteristics are unchanged. 

While touching on the subject of micro- 
groove noise, it might be well to mention 
something noticed on many discs sent in 
for criticism : The average newcomer to 
microgroove work cuts much too fine a 
groove. Whereas 70:30 groove: land ratio 
is considered necessary, these brave souls 
are cutting 40:60 groove: land. Apart from 
the serious increase in noise which results, 
such a groove will not be tracked reliably 
in many home reproducers. So, avoid an 
excessively fine groove. The added recording 
level which it would permit only causes 
excessive tracing distortion, which is re- 
sponsible for the fuzzy sound (on peaks) 
of so many microgroove discs. 

If we may be permitted to moralize, it is 
interesting to note that the result was ob 
tained by using Buckner Speed's old 
"method of the 10%" — by pyramiding 
many small improvements — after the trial 
of "miracle ingredients" and radically new 
materials had wasted much time with no 


-48 -^ 

. All cuts made 
ime stylus. Ref- 
velocity, 8 cm 


/Disc A 



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level vs 

diameter, for 


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5" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 11" 



Vol. 6, No. 6 


444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 

June-July, 1950 

Muzak Transcription 
Division Makes 
Recording an 
Artistic Science 

Here, In one of Manhattan's 
leading studios, musically 
talented technicians turn out 
top quality recordings for 
discriminating clients 

To most people, the word "Muzak" 
brings to mind soft lights and sweet music 
from the strains of Brahms or Beethoven 
to the latest hits from Broadway shows, 
accompanied by the clink of cocktail 
glasses. And a menu that says "Music by 

Actually, the Muzak Franchise Service 
— the wired music so familiar to patrons 
of finer hotels and restaurants throughout 
this country, Canada, Mexico, Hawaii, and 
Puerto Rico; and to employees in many 

(Co)itimied on Page 2, Col, 1) 

S Making Records with the Personal Touch" 

Mrs. Neta Kaye Stolcely's 
Personalized Discs Delight 
Youngsters from Coast to Coast 

It all began with an idea. The idea that 
children's story-records could be made 
much more interesting if they were given 
the "personal touch." And putting this 
idea into practice has enabled Neta Kaye 
Stokely (Mrs. Roy Stokely), of Oklahoma 
City, Oklahoma, to develop a unique and 
profiable recording business that she con- 
ducts in her own home, in her "spare 

Now — instead of just listening to or- 
dinary recorded stories about mythical 
fairy-tale characters — youngsters can hear 
about themselves, their pets, their play- 
mates, and interesting events in their own 

At the start, Mrs. Stokely decided to try 
out the idea with her own two children, 
Craig and Jean. So, calling upon her own 
extensive background of radio broadcast- 
ing experience, she wrote a couple of short 
fairy tales, with Craig and Jean as the 
principal characters. These were recorded 
on tape and transcribed onto 10" discs. 
The records made a big hit with the 
youngsters. They would listen by the hour. 
They brought their friends in to listen, too 
— and their friends brought their friends. 
It wasn't long before the news was all over 
town — and Mrs, Stokely found herself 
with a flood of orders on her hands. Other 
parents wanted records about their "kids", 
too. They supplied the information — 
names of the children, their pets, their 
playmates, and their habits (both good and 
had). These Mrs. Stokely skillfully wove 
(Continued on Page 3, Coi. 3) 


June-July, 1950 

CLudLta )i reccrrd 

Published monthly by Audio Devices. Inc.. 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

VOL. 6, NO. 6 

JUNE-JULY, 1950 

Muzak Transcription Division 

{Continued froyn Page 1, Col. 1) 

industrial plants and business offices — 
is hut one of Muzak's diversified recording 

Another, very familiar to the radio field 
but not too widely known by the general 
public, is Muzak's Associated Program 
Service. This up-to-the-minute "Basic 
Library" of scripts, sales aids, and recorded 
music is a vital and continuing source of 
high quality musical program material for 
broadcasting stations from coast to coast. 
More than five thousand recorded selec- 
tions are available in this library — and 
new ones are continually being added and 
distributed to subscribing stations on ,i 
"lend-lease" basis. 

Keeping these two transcription services 
supplied with top-quality recordings is a 
man-sized job of itself. Yet it is but a part 
of the work handled by the Muzak Tran 
scription Division. Their recording studios, 
located at 151 West 46th Street, just off 
Times Square, make no claim to fame a.s 
the largest of their kind. But they are one 
of the oldest and newest in existence — old 
in years of service to the recording art and 
experience of their personnel; new in ideas 
and equipment for the modern recording 

In addition to turning out all recordings 
for Muzak Franchise Service and Associ- 
ated Program Service, the Transcription 
Division handles a wide variety of special 
work for broadcasters, industrial firms, 
government agencies, music societies, edu- 
cational institutions, program producers, 
and advertising agencies. They also re- 
corded and processed and pressed all Sil- 
vertone Records — distributed nationally 
by Sears and Roebuck in addition to many 
nationally known independent labels. 

The main recording studio, conveniently 
located on the ground floor, is big enough 
for a concert orchestra, and contains a 
full complement of percussion equipment 
— from a Hammond organ to chimes and 
kettle drums. The walls of the room are 
provided with a combination of fixed and 
adjustable baffles which enable the en- 
gineers to obtain any desired acoustical 
effects for any recording applications, from 
full orchestra to one or two voices. At one 
end of this studio is the control room — 
considerably more spacious than most, and 


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With all controls at the fingertips of the 
recording engineer. 

Immediately behind this is the studio re- 
cording room, containing the disc recorders 
for cutting the original studio masters. All 
of these masters are cut in duplicate, using 
vertical rather than lateral recording. The 
inherent advantages of the vertical record- 
ing provides a studio master of as life-like 
quality as it is possible to obtain. Although 
all pressings for the Franchise Division and 
Associated Program Service are vertical, 
the original masters for the other types of 
discs are recorded vertically, and then 
dubbed from vertical to lateral on Audio- 
discs for manufacturing and distribution 
purposes. In so doing, it is felt that the 
final recording is of superior quality. 

The central control room — virtually 

the nerve center of the entire department 
— is located on the floor above. Here a 
large master control panel, designed by 
their own engineers, measures the pulse of 
every operation going on in any of the 
various recording rooms. A unique fea- 
ture of this panel is the fact that all circuit 
elements are in duplicate, with provision 
for automatic and instantaneous change- 
over in case of failure of any unit. Also 
located in this room is another bank of disc 
recorders for dubbing and cutting master 
Audiodiscs from tapes and other recorded 

As far as the actual recording equipment 
goes, the Muzak studios are not greatly 
different from those of other major re- 
cording firms. Muzak, however, takes 
(Continued on Page 4, Col. 2) 

June-July, 1950 


C. J. LcBel 

by C. J. LeBel, Vice President, 
Audio Devices, Inc. 


Three years ago 
the writer scribbled 
an indignant article 
for the "Audio 
Record", bewailing 
the old tradition of 
secrecy in disc re- 
cording (and other 
branches of audio 
engineering), a tra- 
dition which was 
keeping it in the 
class of an ancient 
craft. It was felt that the time had come to 
turn a craft into a profession. 

Well, three years have passed, and much 
has happened. We now have a professional 
society devoted entirely to the audio en 
gineering field, and its local sections meet 
monthly to discuss audio engineering mat 
ters. We have had the first Audio Fair, the 
first audio convention ever held. Neverthe- 
less, a great deal more remains to be done. 

With the encouragement of the Audio 
Engineering Society, we have seen free 
verbal discussion of audio problems become 
generally accepted. It is not hard to get 
speakers on an audio subject. Everyone 
seems willing to share his ideas with his 
immediate neighbors, and this is a vast step 
of improvement over several years ago. But 
how about sharing them with the whole 
country? Ah, that is where the battle starts. 
After a year or two of prodding, poking, 
and pushing, it may be possible to extract 
an article for publication, or again it may 

Audio engineering will not become a 
full fledged profession until free publica- 
tion becomes as well established as free 
discussion. We will have to make publica- 
tion as automatic in our field as in the older 
field of radio engineering. One of the ear- 
marks of the medieval craft was it willing- 
ness to exchange ideas within the town, 
and Its complete lack of interest in sharing 
ideas with other towns. By this token, re- 
cording is still a craft. 

Now that our readers have been thus 
prodded, we hope to see more contributed 
papers on recording problems in the 

"Audio Record" and elsewhere. 

Here are a few subjects that need more 
attention than they have received in print 
in the past: 

1 . Tape recording bias — there is too wide 
a gap between theoretical explanations of 
rf bias operation, and the actual rules of 
thumb used in the field. These rules are 
simple, but they lead to irreconcilable re- 
sults if applied to nominally identical 
oxides whose bias-output curves differ even 

2 . Tape recorder maintenance — how 
nften should heads be demagnetized or 
cleaned, or clutches adjusted? How about 
noise reduction compensating voltages? 

,>. Tape recorder operation — how about 
a more extended discussion of editing time 

4. Disc recording styli — there is toi; 
much disparity between published data on 
improved stylus characteristics, and ex- 
perimental results. More experimental re- 
sults should be published. 

.i. Hot stylus process — What experi- 
ences have you had with this new method 
of cutting? What average and maximum 
stylus life is achieved? 

6. Recording room layouts — In my 
travels a lot of nice ideas are encountered, 
but nobody is energetic enough to write 
about his improvements. 

7. Speech input system improvements — 
these also need more attention. 

8. Finally, how about circuit ideas and 
convenient gadgets? 

The "Audio Record" would welcome 
articles in its field. If you have some more 
fundamental thoughts, the Audio En- 
gineering Society would welcome a chance 
to consider them for publication. Such 
manuscripts should be sent to the Audio 
Engineering Society. Box F, Oceanside, 

We are looking forward to hearing from 

Making Records with the Personal Touch 

(Continued /)on! 'Page I. Co/. 3) 

into the same basic story patterns she had 
first developed — one about "The Gallop- 
ing Butterfly" and the other about "The 
Absent Minded Cricket." 

From this simple beginning, Mrs. 
Stokely has expanded to a profitable mail- 
order business, with customers in practi- 
cally every state in the country. The extent 
to which her fame has spread is indicated 
by the fact that she was recently featured 
in the "Interesting People" section of The 
American Magazine. Purchasers fill out a 
"MY OWN STORY" questionnaire order 
form, giving the pertinent information 
about the child for whom the record is 
intended. Mrs. Stokely does all the rest 
— "personalizing" the story, making the 
original tape recording, and having it tran- 
scribed onto an unbreakable ten-inch disc. 
Normal delivery is about two weeks — the 
cost, $3.50 per record. Readers who are 
interested in this unique recording service 
can obtain complete details and question- 
naire order forms by writing to Neta Kaye 
Stokely, 1620 Northwest 44th St., Okla- 
homa City, Oklahoma. 

Mrs. Stokely makes all of her original 
recordings on Audiotape, right in her own 
home, using a portable tape recorder. She 
has found that she can record about five 
stories an hour. The tape is then sent to a 
local sound studio, which transcribes it into 
disc form so that it can be played back on 
any home phonograph. 

The convenience of magnetic recording 
tape — its ease of editing and erasure — 
have done much to help make this venture 
so successful. Mrs. Stokely says: "I'm so 
thankful there are such things as tape re- 
corders, or my little project would be much 
more difiicult to execute. Three cheers for 

How to Apply Paper Labels 
to Audiodiscs 

We have received a number of inquiries 
as to the best method of applying paper 
labels to Audiodiscs. In all such cases we 
recommend the method used at our factory, 
for it has been successfully tested on several 
million Audiodiscs. Also, it is a method 
that can easily be used in any recording 
studio or at home, without any special 

First, lightly soak the label in a small 
quantity of solvent, such as acetone, which 
can be purchased in any drug store. Even 
nail polish remover can be used if desired. 
After soaking, the excess solvent should be 
removed by drying the label between the 

folds of a handkerchief. When all free 
liquid has been absorbed but while the 
paper is still moist, carefully apply the 
label to the disc surface. 

When dry, the label becomes perma- 
nently affixed to the disc, as the lacquer 
itself serves as the "adhesive". 

It should be noted that lacquer solvents, 
such as acetone, must be handlcA with 
caution, as they are highly inflammable. 
Also, it must be remembered that if any 
solvent is dropped on the surface of a disc 
it will damage the surface and make it 
unsuitable for recording at that point. We 
therefore suggest that this procedure be 
practiced on a few old discs that have no 
further value, before using it to label new 
recordings. Once the technique has been 
mastered, it will be found extremely simple 
and effective. 


June-July, 1950 

Talking Displays Offer Newest Selling Aid 

"Advox" Magnetic Tape Unit 
Enables Merchandise to Give 
Its Own Sales Talk 

Tomorrow's shopper is in for a surprise 
or two. For the age of mechanization has 
now been extended to the age-old art of 

Suppose you're shopping around for a 
new car. You go into a sales roorn and start 
looking around at the various models on 
display. Maybe you're a little relieved to 
find that no fast-talking salesman has but- 
tonholed you. Emboldened by your free- 
dom, you open the door of one of the cars 
to get a better look inside. Suddenly a soft, 
pleasant voice from out of "nowhere" in- 
vites you to step inside — to sit behind the 
wheel. As you do so, the voice continues 
to point out the many desirable features of 
the car. If you're particularly observant, 
you'll notice that the quiet, conversational 
voice — speaking to you alone — is com - 
ing from the loudspeaker of the car radio. 
It's just as if the car itself were speaking to 
you. A little surprised and considerably 
impressed, you listen to the end of the one 
or two minute sales message. It's told you 
a lot of the things you wanted to know 
about the car — except where it got its 
voice. You'd find the answer to that in the 
trunk compartment — a compact, mag- 
netic tape reproducing unit, connected to 
the car radio and operated by a concealed 
switch on the car door. It's the new Advox 
unit — developed by Audio Displays, Inc., 
241 West 17th Street, New York City. 

The possible applications of Advox in 
the merchandising field are limited only by 
the imagination and ingenuity of the user. 
A typical example is the talking refriger- 
ator, which gives its message when the 
shopper opens the door. The speaker is in- 
side, while the reproducing unit is con- 
cealed behind the machine, or in some other 
out-of-the-way place. Or the talking wash- 
ing machine, that starts to speak as soon as 
the lid is lifted. In one installation, the 
Advox unit is concealed in a food bin at a 
large supermarket. It is operated by a hose 
switch under a rubber mat in front of the 
exhibit. Whenever a shopper strolls by 
with her "pushcart", Advox automatically 
tells its story through an external loud- 
speaker. And, taking advantage of the fact 
that the shopper always looks around for 
the source of the voice, this unit is wired 
up to turn on a lighted transparency over 
the bin. 

Through the modern medium of tape re- 
cording, Advox makes sure that the pros- 
pective purchaser always gets the desired 

sales message — whether a clerk is around 
or not. And, still more important, it makes 
sure that the message is always given ex- 
actly as the producer of the merchandise 
wants to have it told. It never forgets a 
point — never stutters. And the very nov- 
elty of it goes far to impress the listener. 

The sales message, up to two minutes in 
length, is recorded on an endless roll of 
magnetic tape. Messages can be changed 
as often as desired, by substituting new 
tapes, which are contained in a special easy- 
loading cartridge. The tripping arrange- 
ment that sets the unit in operation can be 
of any desired type — from a simple door 
switch to an electric eye. 

The Advox reproducer unit, developed 
especially for talking-display service, is un- 
usually compact — measuring only 8%" 
high by 10'/2" wide x T^/i deep, and 
weighing only 15 pounds. The tape speed 
is 3.75" per second, and frequency range, 
100 to 6000 cycles. It operates from any 
1 10'115 volt, 60-cycle power supply. 

Muzak Transcription Division 

(Contnnied \rom Page 2, Col. }■) 

ticular pride in the experience and back- 
ground of their personnel. 

The type of work handled covers the 
complete range of the recording art — 
turning out everything from 16" studio 
transcriptions to special 3" records for a 
novelty item — from conventional to 
microgroove recordings — from tape to 
special wire recordings for mobile equip- 

The Muzak Transcription Division 
makes all of its own virgin vinylite 
pressings from exclusive formulations de- 
veloped and manufactured in their plant, 
and they have recently opened a new and 

ultra-modern processing and pressing 
plant in Kentucky. The processing masters 
are shipped to the plant in specially de- 
signed containers which assure safe arrival 
at their destination. 

The Muzak philosophy, if you could 
call it that, could probably be summed up 
as follows: 

Recording is both a precise science 
and an art. As such it requires the finest 
precision equipment, and the artistic 
skill of recordists who know both their 
subject and their medium. Having these 
things. It is no great problem to main-j 
tain the highest standards of recording 
quality with minimum lost motion — 
and with minimum wear and tear on 
the client. 

Behind the Scenes (and Sounds) at WMGM 

q^Hflt ff 



/ol. 6, No. 7 

444 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C, 

August-September, 1950 

Picture-Story of Recording 
Activities at one of America's 
Leading Producers of ET Shows 

1 In less than a year, Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer Radio Attractions has developed 
into one of the country's leading tran- 
scribed show-makers, with more than 200 
stations in the United States, Canada, 
Hawaii and Alaska carrying its award- 
winning features. 

Working on both coasts, M-G-M Radio 
Attractions turns out a roster of eight 
first-rate open-end ET shows which was 
awarded Variety's 1949-50 "New Pro- 
gram Development Award." The half- 
hour programs are based on familiar Metro 
screen properties like "The Hardy Family," 
"The Story of Dr. Kildare," "The Adven- 
tures of Maisie," and "Crime Does Not 
Pay." The quarter-hour commentary and 
interview shows feature top film personali- 
ties Lionel Barrymore, George Murphy, 
and Paula Stone. 

Singled out by Variety as "particularly 
outstanding" was the "M-G-M Theater of 
the Air" hour-long version of popular films 
with star casts including such notables as 
Frederic March and Florence Eldridge 
(above) , Marlene Dietrich, Maurice Evans, 

Charles Laughton, Raymond Massey and 
Pat O'Brien. It is a series that, both 
Variety and The New York Times agree, 
"stood up favorably in comparison with 
'Lux Radio Theater.' " 

(Continued on Page 2, Col. 2) 


by James F. Nickerson, Director, 

Psychology of Music Laboratory, 

University of Kansas 

Stereophonic sound is not new but how 
to demonstrate its function in normal hear- 
ing has been difficult and expensive. The 
effect of two-eared orientation to a complex 
sound field and especially to music is of 
much concern to the staff of the Psychol- 
ogy of Music Laboratory at the University 
of Kansas. The task of affording classroom 
demonstration of stereophonic effects has 
been simplified by the prerecording of 
various types of sound and the presenta- 
tion of these materials both monaurally 
and binaurally. Of particular interest is the 
contribution of stereophonic principles to 
recording and transmission of music. Or- 
chestral music so recorded seems to possess 
a vitality and brilliance far beyond that of 
our finest high fidelity single channel re- 
cordings. Even with limited fidelity of 
equipment the two-channel system affords 
a subjective realism and vitality to the 
recorded sound not experienced in present 

Slereophonic recording equipment in use at Psychology 
of Music Laboratory, University of Kansas. Set-up shown 
includes two Pcntron recorders in tandem, matched right 
and left 6cld speakers, and binaural headset. 

radio broadcast and recording techniques. 

By means of two Pentron Astra-Sonic 
(T-3) tape recorders the Music Laboratory 
has been able to record conveniently musi- 
cal events on the campus, and set up class- 
room demonstrations of the phenomenon 
of stereophonic listening. 

Essentially the phenomenon is produced 
by the slight differences to be found in 
the sound wave patterns at either ear. 
These slight differences in time, intensity 

and quality are sufficient to afford the 
mind additional means of organization and 
orientation to the sound field not available 
in our single channel recording processes. 
The slight and subtle differences to be 
found between the two patterns are cru- 
cial not only to right-median-left orienta- 
tion to sound but to some extent to all 
directional orientation. This directional 
orientation afforded by the mind's reaction 
to the contrast in stimuli at each ear is re- 
sponsible for the marked gain in "fidelity" 
and reality of recorded sound, particularly 

To achieve a simple means of two-channel 
recording in order to preserve these subtle 
differences in recording, the recording shoes 
of one of the tape recorders (T-3 Pentron 
Astra-Sonic) were removed and re-in- 
serted with the brass magnetic insulation to 
the top. On the standard Pentron recorder 
the brass strips are on lower half of shoe 
thus making the recording on the upper 
half of the tape as it passes the recording 
shoe. Linking the two recorders in tandem 
(Continued on Page 2, Col. 1) 


August-September, 1950 

CLudla ^ reccrrd 

Published monthly by Audio Devices, Inc., 
444 Madison Avenue, New York City, in the 
interests of better sound recording. Mailed with 
out cost to radio stations, recording studios, 
motion picture studios, colleges, vocational 
schools and recording enthusiasts throughout the 
United States and Canada. 

Behind the Scenes at WMGM 

(Continued from Page 1, Col. 3) 

VOL. 6, NO. 7 

AUG.-SEPT., 1950 

Stereophonic Recording 

{Continued from Page 1, Col. 3) 

by passing the tape from left to right as 
indicated in the diagram below, one chan- 
nel was recorded on the lower half of the 
tape and the second channel on the upper 
half. In case of any marked discrepancy 
in drive shaft speed between the two 
machines, the rubber pressure wheel can 
be removed from the machine to the right. 


As long as the positions of the two record- 
ers remained unchanged the time relation- 
ship between the two channels was main- 
tamed. Any alteration of position of either 
recorder would result in gross distortion. 

For demonstration purposes each chan- 
nel can be carried to the same speaker but 
the stereophonic phenomenon does not 
emerge. Using a single microphone for 
pickup, identical signals can be placed on 
each channel. Even though the two signals 
are carried to separate right and left speak- 
ers the stereophonic effect does not emerge. 
Slight shift in the position of the two 
recorders can simulate the stereophonic 
effect or produce echo effect when chan- 
neled through the same speaker. The opti- 
mum in producing the stereophonic effect 
seems to be achieved by spacing the two 
microphones about fifteen inches apart and 
facing outward at an angle of 45° from a 
line drawn from sound source to a point 
midway between the two microphones. 
The field speakers should be spaced well 
apart and turned inward slightly toward 
the center of the room. 

A simple check on the amount of error 
introduced by the possible differences in 
capstan speeds of the two recorders was 
achieved by use of Lissajous figures on an 
oscilloscope. Fluctuations observed when 

(Continued on Page 10, Col. 1) 

2 But sharing equal billing with scripts 
and casts was the first-rate quality of the 
platters. When M-G-M Radio Attractions 
entered the program transcription busi- 
ness, the company built what knowledge- 
able recording engineers consider one of 
the finest recording set ups in the United 
States. It involved an investment of more 
than $100,000 in precision equipment to 
meet all professional standards of perform- 
ance. Shows produced on the East Coast 
originate in the modern studios at 711 
Fifth Avenue where they are under per- 
sonal supervision of Production Chief 
Raymond Katz and Director Marx B. Loeb 
(seated). The special RCA 10-position 
console has facilities for filters and feeding 
to echo and reverberation chambers. 

4 Tape goes to editing room for editing 
and timing by Edgar Small (right), assist- 
ant to Production Chief Katz. Following 
the script. Small eliminates fluffs, coughs 
and other extraneous noises, tightens cues. 
In addition to "M-G M Theater of the 
Air" and "Crime Does Not Pay," both of 
which are transcribed in New York, shows 
taped on the West Coast are flown East 
for editing and mastering. 

5 Actual cutting, inserting and splicing 
of tape is done by a staff of four recording 
engineers under the direction of Paul C. 
Baldwin (right), chief recording engineer. 

3 Shows are piped from control room 
mixing consoles to one of the recording 
rooms (above) where a master and a safety 
are recorded simultaneously on Ampex 
tape recording machines. Compact record- 
ing rooms also contain Scully Lathes, Cook 
Cutters and Amplifiers, Fairchild playback 
machines, Fairchild cutting mac